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Springfield and Clark County, 


An Authentic Narrative of the Past, with Particular Attention 

to the Modern Era in the Commercial, Industrial, 

Educational, Civic and Social Development 

Prepared Under the Editorial Supervision of 


President Clark County Historical Society 








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In the prospectus announcing the proposed publication: A Stand- 
ard History of Springfield and Clark County, Dr. Benjamin F. Prince, 
"The Grand Old Man of Wittenberg," and for many years president of 
the Clark County Historical Society, says: "As editor, my task will be 
to direct the collection of all historical material that should have a perma- 
nent place in the records of the city and country," and in order that the 
local editorship may be of the most representative character, Gen. J. 
Warren Keifer, Judge Francis M. Hagan, and W. H. Rayner of Spring- 
field; Edward W. Williams, New Carlisle; Edward P. Flynn, South 
Charleston, and T. A. Busby of South Vienna, were invited to act as 
advisory editors. 

When the publisher's representative, Rolland Lewis Whitson, came 
into the community, he found excellent response from them all, and 
Doctor Prince alert to every inquiry. When in the course of human 
events, it becomes the privilege of a community to tabulate its record, 
the matter of co-operation is a prime necessity. At the beginning a 
caddy en route to the country club said : "Springfield is the best town of 
60,000 population in the United States of America," and that spirit char- 
acterized all from whom inquiry was made while tarrying in the com- 
munity. In the bibliography of the county is much stored-up information, 
_ and something has been absorbed from all of it. Where data has been 
-^- taken bodily, credit is given for it, and clippings preserved at* the rooms 
V- of the Clark County Historical Society have been available, as well as the 
~" files of local newspapers. 
A Some excellent reminiscent articles have been found in newspapers, 

written by men and women who have passed from earth, and it is due 
them that credit should be given them for their contributions to the 
j future of their community; such names appear in connection with the 
*T information gleaned from the articles. Some one says: "It is through 
<\1 art, music and literature that the past lives' again ; the artist, the musician 
and the writer make the great tapestry in the loom of history," and the 
scheme has been to draw something from all of them. 

It has been fittingly said : "The state that is not proud of its history 
<ZV ^^ soon ^ ave no history t0 b e proud of," but Clark County has an unus- 
ed ual background in local history. "For ye have not passed this way here- 
tofore," says Joshua, in sacred history and it is true of the settlers who 
came into the Mad River wilderness 120 years ago. Those Kentuckians 
cast their nets on the other side of the ship, and their "catch" is a goodly 
heritage; the fascination of exploration fastened its grip on them, and 
because of their activities Clark County is now able to review its past 

Springfield and Clark County have registered progress at almost every 
turn of the wheel of fortune, and after the lapse of 120 years — 1801 to 
1921, the community is taking stock again ; it has been as long in prepara- 
tion for this summary as Noah was in building the Ark, which weathered 
the worst storm ever recorded on the pages of history. While the gleaner 



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has had access to all publications assembled by the Clark County Histori- 
cal Society and the Warder Free Library, he has found the waysides 
flanked with much first hand information, and feels indebted to Miss 
Alice Burrowes of the library; W. E. Lucas of the City Hall; E. W. 
Hawkins of the Farm Bureau, and Howard Johnson of the Sunday 
School Association for special assistance rendered, beside many who are 
mentioned in connection with data secured from them. 

While the Bible injunction: "Sanctify yourselves for tomorrow," 
looks into the future one who links today with yesterday must live in 
retrospect, and facts have been obtained from so many sources that to 
credit every whit of tabulated information would be an utter impossibility. 
Mr. Lucas, Mr. Hawkins and Mr. Johnson offered favors in the way of 
personally conducted excursions, and since "Seeing is believing," they 
rendered most helpful service. 

Like the statistician, an historian does not need to possess an imag- 
ination; while a great deal of fiction may be written around one single 
fact, he must deal with the facts as he finds them. While folklore may 
not be accepted as history, those who know local conditions unconsciously 
reflect local history. While some who have aided are not yet old, they 
have had a comprehensive understanding of things, and in most instances 
facts have been verified with little difficulty. 

A forecast of the future depends upon a knowledge of the past, and 
it is said that when an aged man with an unimpaired memory dies, it is 
like burning a book from the library : 

"Yes, it is a trait of Aged Men 
To talk about Away Back When," 

and while many unwritten chapters in Clark County history are already 
consigned to oblivion — buried with the pioneers who developed the coun- 
try, one is often surprised by the fund of stored-up information possessed 
by succeeding generations ; folklore — word of mouth from father to son, 
mother to daughter; traditions of the family are a reliable source of 

There is always some one who knows or who has laid aside a news- 
paper, and the gleaner in quest of information seems unerringly guided. 
"In the multitude of counsellors there is safety," and one need not dwell 
in the long ago in order to write about the past in any community. 
While stopping in Springfield, the publisher's representative mailed local 
post cards inscribed : "Bryan, Lima and Springfield, these three abide, 
but the greatest of these is Springfield," and this zigzag journey across 
Ohio has been pleasant pastime ; it has meant personal contact with some 
wideawake citizens. 

Thomas Bailey Aldrich says: 

"My mind lets go a thousand things 
Like dates of wars and deaths of kings, 
And yet recalls the very hour — " 

and that is true of aged persons interviewed in Springfield and Clark 
County ; the difficulty is to marshal one's mental battalions in such preci- 

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sion that they may bear at once on all quarters of the field, but since 
"Fools rush in where angels fear to tread/' there are venturesome spirits 
who undertake such tasks. 

While fiction may be a rivulet of text leading from the noisy haunts 
of the world, winding along through pleasant old literary gardens redo- 
lent with the choicest of intellectual blossoms, history may at least be the 
log across the stream that catches some of the drift of the ages; it has 
been the province of all concerned to dislodge some of the accumulated 
debris, and send it adrift again down the river — the River of Time. — 

The American Historical Society. 

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"In the Beginning." The Highway to Springfield, Clark 
County 1 

The Adam of Clark County: John Paul. 6 

Simon Kenton a Citizen 13 

When Clark Became an Organized County 18 

In the Wake of the Moundbuilders 29 

Exit Shawnee — Advance Civilization 36 

Springfield : Its Past and Present 47 

Geology — Its Relation to Clark County 64 

The Streams of Clark County 75 

Agriculture : The World's Oldest Occupation 79 

The Progress of Clark County Agriculture 87 

Diversified Products of Agriculture 95 


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Clark County Vital Rural Problems 100 

Forward Movements in Agriculture 107 

The House of the Lord in Clark County. 126 

In 1921 — Status of Religious Development 135 

Catholics in Clark County 147 

The Sunday School in Clark County 152 

Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations 157 

Salvation Army in Springfield 164 

Clark County Public Schools— J. M. Collins, Superintendent. .165 

The Springfield Public Schools : High Schools 175 

Wittenberg — The College and Seminary 189 

The Newspaper in Clark County , . .204 

Clark County Highways : The National Road 212 

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Clark County Good Roads Council 223 

Transportation — Its Relation to Industry 228 

Springfield: Its Varied Industries 239 

The Open Door — The Tavern, the Hotel 253 

Clark County Official Roster — Its Court 260 

Postal Service — Clark County Postoffices 278 

Finance — The Wealth of Clark County 287 

Clark County in the Wars 297 

The Second War with England — Later Wars 313 

Civil War: War of the States 324 

The Clark County Bench and Bar 342 

Materia Medica in Clark County. 351 

Springfield — Its Form of Government 362 

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Public Utilities in Clark County 377 

The Water Supply of Springfield 383 

The Organized Fire Department 387 

Lighting Systems in Springfield 395 

Out-of-Door Pleasure in Springfield Parks 399 

Real Estate — Some Homes in Clark County 406 

Mad River — Clark County Historical Societies 416 

Foreign Born Citizens in Clark County 421 

The Hospitals in Clark County 425 

The Stage — Moving Pictures 432 

Temperance and Prohibition in Clark County 437 

Music in Springfield and Clark County 448 

Secret Orders in Clark County 458 

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Organized Labor in Clark County 461 

Welfare Work in Clark County 466 

Springfield Chamber of Commerce 484 

Libraries in Clark County 486 

Clark County Books and Writers 495 

Intellectual and Civic Life — Springfield and Clark County. .507 

Intellectual and Civic Life — Continued 515 

Supervised Sports in Clark County 523 

Yarnfest in Springfield Chamber of Commerce 527 

Leftover Stories— The Omnibus Chapter 537 

Yesterday and Today in Clark County 542 

God's Acre — Clark County Cemeteries 552 

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Adams, Charles F., II, 127 
Adams, George W„ II, 313 
Adams, James, I, 426 
Adams, S. E., I, 427 
Ade, George, I, 99 

African Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, I, 160 
Agle, George C, II, 175 
Agricultural education, I, 93 
Agricultural machinery (1920), I, 103 
Agriculture, I, 79-86; progress in Clark 

County, 87-94, 100-125; diversified 

products of, 95-99 
Akron school law, I, 176 
Alexander, Warren D., II, 44 
Allen, E. L., I, 103 
Along the National Road in the Long 

Ago (illustration), I, 217 
Alsheimer, Charles J., II, 97 
Altick, Arthur R., I, 29; II, 22 
Altick collection of antiquities, I, 29 
Ambrose, James R., I, 369 
American Red Cross, Clark County 

Chapter, I, 337, 338 
American Seeding Machine Company 

(illustration), I, 246 
American Trust and Savings Bank, 

Springfield, I, 290 
Anderson, Harry, I, 91 
Anderson, Harry R., II, 379 
Anderson, J. Fred, II, 400 
Anlo, I, 21 

Anthony, Charles, I, 332, 347 
Anti-Tuberculosis campaign, I, 429 
Appleseed, Johnny, I, 121, 122 
Arbogast Family, II, 179 
Architecture in Clark County, I, 407-415 
Armstrong, Cyrus, I, 554 
Arnett, Harry, II, 155 
Ashburner, Charles A., I, 365 
Associated Charity, Springfield, I, 513 
Athe-ne-sepe (see Mad River) 

Bacon, Charles H., II, 35 

Bacon, Jane D., II, 36 

Baker, Arthur H., II, 309 

Baker, Benson A., II, 80 

Baker, G. W., I, 237 

Baker, Harvey A., II, 94 

Baker, Jessie F.. II, 250 

Baker, Jonathan, I, 130 

Baker, Jonathan D., I, 535 

Baker, Moses, 1, 130 

Baker, Scipio E., II, 249 

Baldwin, Henry, I, 429 

Baldwin, John W., II, 339 

Baldwin, Jonah, I, 56 

Ballard, Charles E., II, 408 

Ballinger, Homer W., II, 295 

Bancroft, Phraortes E., I, 59; II, 236 

Bancroft, Robert G. II, 237 

Banks (see Finance) 

Banks in Springfield, I, 289-293 

Baptists in Springfield, I, 141 

Bartholomew, Ella R., II, 402 

Bartholomew, Oscar N., II, 402 

Barton, Clara, I, 425 

Baseball, I, 523 

Basketball, I, 525 

Bassett, A. H., I, 416 

Bateman, Henry E., II, 369 

Bauer, Charles, II, 237 

Bauer, Charles L., I, 223, 448, 452 

Bauer, Vinnie, II, 239 

Bauer, Walter B., II, 343 

Baumgardner, Clifford H., II, 374 

Bauslin, D. H., I, 53, 126, 197 

Baxter, Edward W., II, 230 

Bayley, William, II, 103 

Baylor, Alvin L., II, 258 

Bean, Mrs. H. H., I, 337 

Beattytown, I, 27 

Beaupain, August L., I, 365 

Bechtle Mound, I, 31 

Bell, Read L., II, 196 

Bell, Virgil A., II, 375 

Bell Telephone Company, I, 380 

Bench and Bar (see also County Judi- 
ciary), I, 342-350 

Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks, in Springfield, I, 460 

Berding, C. M., I, 149 

Berry, James B., I, 367 

Bethel Township, I, 20, 22 

Bevitt, Bessie F., I, 456 

Bibliography (see Books of Clark 

Billow, George W., I. 404 

Billy Sunday tabernacle (1911), I, 127 

Binnig, Fred W., II, 89 

Birch, T. B., I, 53 

Bird, Wallace G., II, 161 

Birthplace of Gen. Frederick Funston, 
New Carlisle (illustration) I, 332 

Bishop, Spalding W., II, 406 

Bitner, William H., II, 410 

Black, Andrew C, I, 433 

Black, Robert S„ I, 369 

Black's Opera House. I, 433 

Boehme, Raymond G., II, 357 

Boggs, William K., I, 318 

Boggess, Carey, I, 177 

Books of Clark County, I, 494 

Bookwalter, Francis M., II, 140 

Bookwalter, John W., I, 433, 500 

Booth, Evangeline, I, 164 

Bowlus, Charles J., I, 363 

Bowlusville, I, 22 

Bowman, Samuel A., I, 343, 346, 515 


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Boy Scouts of America, Springfield, 

I, 160 
Bradley, Horatio S., II, 172 
Brain, Belle M., I, 501 
Brain, Robert D., I, 501 
Brain, Robert, Jr., I, 456 
Braun, Frank J., II, 234 
Braun, Leo, II, 235 
Breckenridge, Mrs. S. R, I, 155 
Bretney, Charles V. H., II, 269 
Bretney, Harry V., II, 270 
Bretney, Henry, II, 269 
Brewster, Rebecca, I, 162 
Bricklaying Class, Night High School 

(illustration), I, 183 
Brighton, I, 25 

Buchwalter, Edward L., II, 9 
Buchwalter, Luther L., II, 10 
Buchwalter, Mrs. E. L., I, 512 
Brosey, Harry M., II, 148 
Brosey, Minnie H., II, 149 
Buck Creek (Lagonda), I, 76 
Buckeye Incubator Company, II, 302 
Buckley, Daniel A., I, 148 
Buena Vista, I, 25 

Buena Vista Tavern (illustration), I, 254 
Buffenbarger, Warren K., II, 74 
Burbank, Prof., I, 452 
Burleigh, Brown, II, 283 
Burk, John W., II, 194 
Burnett, Jacob R., I, 45 
Burnett, William R., I, 363; II, 94 
Burnette, A. G., I, 363 
Burnham, Martin T., II, 231 
Burrowes, Alice, I, 491, 499 
Burt, Nathaniel C, I, 500 
Busbey, Hamilton, I, 53 
Busbey, T. Addison, II, 18 
Bushnell, Asa S., I, 236, 251, 267, 290, 

397, 419, 479; II, 12 
Bushnell (A. S.) home, I, 411 
Bushnell, Mrs. Asa S., I, 141, 420; II, 14 
Bushnell, John L., I, 290; II, 14 
Bushnell (J. L.) home, I, 411 
Bushnell Building (illustration), I, 292 
Butler, Simon (See Simon Kenton) 
Byrer, Charles E., I, 298 

Cad Band, Springfield, I, 455 
Calvert, Thomas L., I, 267, 268; II, 16 
Campbell, Alexander, I, 144 
Campbell, David H., II, 218 
Campus scene, Wittenberg College (illus- 
tration), I, 190 
Carlisle, Mrs. E. A., I, 517 
Carmony, Elmus J., II, 319 
Carnegie Science Hall, I, 199 
Carr, A. E., I, 365 
Carr, John L., II, 333 
Cartmell, Joseph B., I, 337, 338; II, 316 
Cartmell, P. M., I, 458 
Cary, Waitstel, Springfield hatter, I, 539 
Caspar, T. J., I, 417 
Cassilly, Michael P., I. 147 
Catholic Cemeteries, I, 560 

Catholic priest, first to visit Springfield, 
I, 147 

Catholic welfare work, I, 478 

Catholics in Clark County, I, 147-156 

Cemeteries outside of Springfield, I, 561 

Central Engine House, Fire Department 
(illustration), I, 388 

Centralized schools, I, 168-170 

Century of women's activties in Spring- 
field, I, 514 

Champion City (Springfield), I, 50 

Chapman, John, I, 121 

Charleston, I, 25 

Chase, Clarence A., II, 404 

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Cir- 
cle, Springfield, I, 512 

Cheney, Milton, II, 69 

Chicken thieves, I, 540 

Chief of Police, Springfield, I, 368-371 

Children's Pageant at Ridgewood (illus- 
tration), I, 185 

Chills and fevers, I, 359 

Chinese residents in Springfield, I, 423 

Cholera at New Carlisle (1832-33), I, 

Christ Church, Episcopalian, Springfield, 
I, 141 

Christadelphian Society, Springfield, I, 

Christian, L. H., I, 177 

Christian Science practitioners, I, 361 

Churches (see Religion) 

Church of the Brethren Sunday School, 
Donnels Creek, I, 156 

Church of the Heavenly Rest, Spring- 
field, I, 141 

Churchill, B. P., I, 318 

Cincinnati bank failure, I, 244 

Cincinnati, Sandusky and Cleveland Rail- 
road, I, 233 

City Building (illustration), I. 364 

City Federation of Women's Clubs, 
Springfield, I, 511, 512 

City of Roses (Springfield), I, 50 

Civil War, I, 324-341; officers from 
* Clark County, 329 

Dark, Alexander, I, 501 

Clark, Charlotte S., I, 473 

Clark, George Rogers, I, 3; (sketch of). 
5; (illustration), 4; on Knob Prairie 
Mound, 30; his battle at Piqua Shaw- 
nee village, 299 

Clark County, Ludlow line across, I, 4; 
John Paul, its pioneer, 6, 7; organiza- 
tion of, 18; townships, 20-28; travel- 
ers in, 133; in the wars, 297-312; con- 
tributions to World's War, 336; his- 
tories of, 495-504; cemeteries, 553-562 

Clark County Bar Association, I, 342 

Clark County Boys' Corn Club, I, 114; 
(1921) (illustration), I, 104 

Clark County Centennial (1880), I, 308, 

Clark County Children's Home, I, 469- 
471; (illustration), 470 

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Clark County church budget (1921), I, 

Clark County Court of Appeals, I, 269 

Clark County Detention Home, I, 474, 

Clark County Dry Federation, I, 442 

Clark County Fair (1921), I, 109 

Clark County Fair Association, I, 107 

Clark County Fair Grounds, I, 402 

Clark County Historical Society, I, 44, 
417, 421 

Clark County Home, I, 439, 466-468 

Clark County Horticultural Society, I, 
121, 122 

Clark County Infirmary (illustration), I, 

Clark County Interchurch World Sur- 
vey, I, 135 

Gark County Juvenile Court, I, 474 

Clark County Medical Society, I, 351- 

Dark County Memorial Hall, I, 276 

Clark County Memorial Home (illustra- 
tion), I, 472 

Clark County Public Health League, I, 

Clark County Sunday School Associa- 
tion, I, 152 

Clark County Temperance Society, I, 

Clark County Veteran Memorial Asso- 
ciation, I, 416 

Clark-Tecumseh monument, I, 418, 437 

Clarke, Ada, II, 102 

Clarke, Oliver, I, 289; (illustration), 290 

Clarke, Oliver C, II, 119 

Clarke, Oliver T., II, 399 

Clarke, Willis B., II, 102 

Clary, Osman C, II, 229 

Class scene, Wittenberg (illustration), 
I, 193 

Clerks of the County Court, I, 271 

Cliff Park, I, 402, 404 

Clifton, I, 24 

Coberly, Mrs. Elizabeth, veteran Sun- 
day School teacher, I, 154 

Coffin, E. G., I, 363 

Cogswell, George O., II, 49 

Cold Springs, I, 23 

Cole, Arthur E., II, 349 

Cole, John M., II, 191 

Cole, Milton, I, 363; II, 190 

Collins, Joseph M., I, 167; II, 271 

Columbia Street Cemetery, I, 554 

Commonwealth Power, Railway and 
Light Company, I, 398 

Concord, I, 24 

Congregationalism in Springfield, I, 143 

Congressional districts, I, 268 
•Constantine, Barbara, II, 84 

Constantine, Charles W., I, 363; II, 84 

Cooper, Edna, II, 240 

Cooper, Josiah K, II, 239 

Cooperative Reaper Factory, I, 245 

Corcoran, William J., II, 216 

Corn crop in Clark County, I, 95 

Cornwell, Mary, II, 278 

Cornwell, Owen L., II, 277 

Corry, Homer C, I, 102, 484; II, 398 

Corry, Lee B., II, 241 

Cortsville, I, 24 

Cotter, George S., I, 383, 385 

Country Life Commission, I, 105 

County Auditors, I, 272 

County Building (illustration), I, 366 

County-City normal school, I, 173 

County Commissioners, I, 274 

County Coroners, I, 273 

County fairs, I, 107 

County Health Commissioner, I, 276 

County jails, I, 262-264 

County judiciary, I, 269-271, 342 

County official roster, I, 269-275 

County organization (1818), I, 261 

County Probate Court (Constitution 

1851), I, 349 
County Recorders, I, 273 
County School Superintendents, I, 274 
County seat fixed, I, 261 
County Surveyors, I, 273 
County Treasurers, I, 272 
Courlas, Jerome P., II, 296 
Courthouse, Springfield (illustration), I, 

Courthouses, I, 260-265 
Crabill, John, II, 160 
Cradlebaugh, Henry S., II, 382 
Croft farm, I, 439 
Cromwell, John C, II, 81 
Crossland, Albert K., II, 146 
Crossland, Emma M., II, 147 
Cross roads rural school (illustration), 

I, 169 
Crowell, J. S., I, 502 
Crowell (J. S.) home, I, 411 
Crowell, Mrs. J. S., I, 492 
Crowell, Silas, I, 417 
Crowell Publishing Company, I, 252, 

464, 502, 504; (illustration), 503 
Cumming, E. H., I, 347, 507 
Cushman, James, I, 369 
Cutler, Menassah, I, 2 

Dairy industry, I, 91 

Daugherty, John, I, 441 

Davies, Mrs. F. L., I, 162 

Davis, Cary S., II, 324 

Davis, Emory F., II, 397 

Davis, Golden C, II, 44 

Davis, Harry L., I, 251 

Davis, John H„ II, 87 

Davy, Clare S., II, 79 

Davy, Jesse O., II, 78 

Day Nursery. Once the City Prison 

(illustration), I, 476 
Dayton and Belle fontaine military road, 

I, 314, 315 
Deam, John W., II, 61 
Deaton, Edwin P., I, 469; II, 219 
Deaton, Nathan E., II, 387 
Debienville, Celoron, ascends Big Miami 

River (1749), I, 494 

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Decline of markets, I, 296 

Deitrick, Joseph E., II, 72 

Delinquent tax sales, I, 409 

Demint, James, I, 9, 10, 54, 55, 362, 383, 
438, 441, 553 

Demint, Mrs. James, I, 12, 15 

Demint family, I, 9-12 

Devht, William F., I, 344 

Dial, E. G., I, 177 

Dial, George S., II, 185 

Dialton, I, 27 

Dick, John, I, 559 

Dickey, John L., II, 384 

Diehl, Warren W., I, 339: II, 38 

Dillahunt, Peter A., II, 251 

Dinkelacker, E. D., I, 164 

Disciples of Christ, Springfield, I, 144 

Distilleries, along Mad River, I, 439 

District Common Pleas Court (Constitu- 
tion 1851), I, 349 

Dolly Varden, I, 26 

Domer, A. J., II, 257 

Donnel, Jonathan, I, 21, 561 

Donnelsville, I, 21, 22 

Doom, Lemuel N., II, 221 

Dorst, John L., I, 159; II, 309 

Doty, E. M., I, 157 

Doyle, John A., II, 143 

Drake, Daniel, I, 356 

Drake, J. Elmer, I, 95 

Drake, Sarah A., II, 144 

Drake, Theodore T., II, 390 

Drake, William M., II, 144 

Drayer, A. H., I, 469 

Dresher, E. E., H, 254 

Drum, Simon H., I, 316 

Duffey, A. L., II, 254 

Dunlap, Albert, sketch of, I, 355 

Durbin, I, 27 

Durst, J. R., I, 107 

Dyer, Albert W., II, 168 

Eagle City, I, 22 

Eakins, Irvin, II, 321 

Eakins, Mary E., II, 321 

Eddy, Mary Baker, I. 361 

Education; recognized by Ordinance of 
1787, I, 2; Catholic high and grade 
schools of Springfield, 149; public, in 
Clark County, 165-188; typical pioneer 
school, 166 ; public supervision of rural 
schools (1914), 167; centralized and 
rural schools, 168-173; remedy for il- 
literacy, 172; Springfield public 
schools, 175-188 

Edwards, Jonathan, I, 177 

Egg stories, I, 537 

Eglinger, Albert, II, 244 

Eichelberger, James T., II, 211 

Eighteenth Amendment, becomes effec- 
tive, I, 442 

Elder, Robert, II, 334 

Electric lighting company, first in 

.Springfield (1883), I, 397 

Elliott, John C, I. 318 

Elliott, John S., II, 392 

Elliott, Nora W., II, 392 

Ellsworth, W. J., I, 177 

Elwell, Wilbur E., II, 154 

El wood Meyers Factory (illustration), 

I, 243 
Enon, I, 23 

Epizootic (1872), I, 359 
Ervin, L. M., II, 222 
Esplanade, Springfield (illustration), I, 

57 230 
Evans, C. HL, I, 182 
Evans, Charles W., II, 375 
Exchange Club, Springfield, I, 519 

Fagan, Sibyl S., I, 456 

Fahien, Herman J., II, 48 

Fairbanks, Charles W., I, 245 

Fairbanks Theater, I, 434 

Fall, Chancey, I, 316 

Famous guests at Springfield hotels, I, 

Farm Bureau of Clark County, I, 112, 
113, 114 

Farmer, The, I, 204, 205 

Farmers, income of (1920), I, 91 

Farmers Institute, I, 103 

Farmers National Bank, I, 295 

Farming vs. citying, I, 98 

Farrar, William M., I, 86 

Fassler, Jerome, I, 243 

Fay, Edgar A., I, 143; II, 281 

Ferncliff Avenue (illustration), I, 400 

Ferncliff Cemetery, I, 557-560; (illustra- 
tion), 557 

Ferncliff Cemetery Entrance (illustra- 
tion), I, 558 

Ferncliff Hall, Dormitory for Young 
Women (illustration), I, 195 

Fidler, Harry B., II, 209 

Finances of county, I, 287-296 ; expenses * 
of Springfield city government, 367 

Finley, James B., I, 132 

Finfrock, Arthur W., II, 288 

Fire departments, State laws regulating, 
I, 393 

Fire Prevention Society, Springfield, I, 

Firey, M. J., I, 442 

First bank in Ohio, 1, 289 

First Catholic school in Springfield, I, 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, Spring- 
field, I, 145 

First circuses, I, 538 

First county school act passed (1821), 
I, 166 

First disastrous fire in Springfield 
(1840), I, 387 

First electric lighting company, Spring- 
field (1883), I, 397 

First labor union in Springfield, I, 463 

First National Bank, Springfield, I, 290 

First silo in Clark County, I, 92 

First Springfield directory (1852), I, 491 

First Sunday School in Springfield, I, 

Digitized by 





First Women's Christian Temperance 
Unions in Ohio (Springfield), I, 446 

Fisher Maddux, I, 12, 56, 58, 262, 264, 

Fisk, M., I, 141 

Fleming, James, I, 363 

Flint, A. E., I, 159 

Foley, James, I, 109 

Foos, Griffith, I, 10, 12, 14, 51, 80. 406 

Foos, William, I, 242 

Foos Engine Company (illustration), I, 

Football, I, 523 

Foreign born citizens of Clark County, 
I, 421-424 

Forgy, I, 21 

Fort Tecumseh, I, 291; site of Piqua 
(Pawnee) Village, 307, 400 

Fortnightly Club, Springfield, I, 512 

Foster, Clarence J., II, 301 

Foster, Fred, II, 350 

Foster, Joseph W., II, 302 

Foster, William, II, 301 

Fountain Square, I, 62 

Fox drives (1921-22), I, 120 

Francis, William, II, 205 

Frankenberg, Mrs. George, I, 438 

Frankenstein, Godfrey N., I, 522 

Frankenstein's Niagara Falls, I, 432 

Fraser, Fannie, II, 383 

Fraser, George W., II, 383 

Fraternal homes of Ohio, I, 479-484 

Fraternal homes, Springfield, I, 458, 459 

Free and Accepted Masons in Clark 
County, I, 458 

Freeman, Henry E., II, 304 

Frey, George H., I, 247, 405; II, 33 

Frey, George H., Sr., I, 378 

Frey, I. Ward, I, 236, 404; II, 32 

Frock. J. D., I, 365 

Fry, Clara A., I, 179 

Fry, E. R, I, 472 

Full dress costumes, I, 542, 543 

Funderburg, Frank E., II, 150 

Funk, Isaac H., I, 502 

Funs ton, Frederick, native of New Car- 
lisle, I, 330; death of, 333 

Furry, John E., I, 363; II, 226 

Gallagher, Katherine E., II, 368 

Gallagher, Michael, II, 368 

Galloway, James, I, 121 

Galloway, Rebecca, I, 40 

Garver, Helen B., I, 179 

Garver, John N., II, 120 

Gaynor, Thomas L., II, 326 

Geddes, James L., II, 307 

Geology in Clark County, I, 64-74 

Gerhardt, Paul T., II, 123 

German, John, II, 176 

German Lutherans in Springfield, I, 143 

German musical societies, I, 453-457 

German township, I, 23 

Gilbert, Charles F., II, 223 

Gleason, John, I, 95 

Golden Arch, I, 224 

Golden bridal couples, at Springfield 

Yarnfest (1921), I, 531 
Golf, I, 523 

Good, Frank E., II, 179 
Good, John M., II, 418 
Good Family, II, 178 
Good Roads Council, I, 223 
Goode, James S., I, 363 
Goode, John M.. I, 363 
Goodfellow, Milton B., II, 243 
Goodfellow, Moore, II, 243 
Goodfellow, Roy A., II, 242 
Goodfellow, Samuel, II, 243 
Goodfellow, W. E., dancing master, I, 

Goodrich Rubber Company, I, 224 
Goodwin, J. P., I, 363 
Gordon, William, II, 224 
Gotwald, Luther A., II, 358 
Gotwald, Robert C, II, 359 
Gowdy, John H., II, 65 
Gram, Ed, II, 346 
Grand Army of the Republic Art Loan 

and Midwinter Fair, I, 417 
Grand Army of the Republic Burial Plot, 

Ferncliff Cemetery (illustration), I, 

552, 559 
Grand Army of the Republic, Mitchell 

Post, I, 460 
Grand Opera House, Springfield, I, 433 
Grant, A. W., I, 247 
Grant, George D., II, 364 
Great Miami, ancient river bed of, I, 67 
Great Miami Valley, first crop of corn 

in, I, 96 
Greeks in Springfield, I, 424 
Greenawalt, Samuel E., I, 472; II, 25 
Greene township, I, 24 
Greeneville Treaty, I, 8, 20, 45 
Greenmount Cemetery, I, 554, 555 
Griggs, Edward H., I, 514 
Groeber, John, II, 131 
Groeber, John, Jr., II, 132 
tGrube, Adam, II, 186 
IGrube, George P., II, 187 
JGrube, Perry A., II, 201 

Hagan, Francis M., I, 345, 348, 362, 419; 

II, 431 
Hagan, Mrs. F. M., I, 514 
Halsey, James S., I, 486 
Hamma, Charles B., II, 248 
Hamma, M. W., I, 197 
Hamma Divinity School (illustration), 

I, 196, 197 
Hanna, T. J., I, 363 
"Hard cider" campaign (1840), I, 266 
Hard surface roads, I, 213-215 
Hardick, Prof., I, 452 
Harford, Edward, II, 280 
Harmony, I, 25 
Harmony township, I, 25 
Harper, E. L., I, 244 
Harris, James H., II, 52 
Harrison, Charles F., II, 197 
Harshman, Jonathan, Jr., II, 264 

Digitized by 




Harshman, Laura H., II, 264 

Hartley, Frank A., II, 402 

Hartzler, Daniel, I, 291 

Hartzler (Daniel) farm (now Fort 

Tecumseh), I, 308 
Hatfield, Charles S., II, 209 
Hawk, O. E., I, 408 
Hawke, O. T., I, 168 
Hawken, Henry G, I, 456 
Hawkins, Emin W., II, 34 
Haynes, R. A. f I, 444 
Hays, Charles O., II, 227 
Hayward, Harry B., II, 61 
Hayward, James A., II, 60 
Hayward, R. F., I, 267 
Heaurae, John S., II, 46 
Hebrank, Harry E., II, 317 
Heckert, Charles G., I., 53, 199 
Heindel, Albert D., II, 86 
Heisey, Paul H., I, 202 
Hellenic Union Club, I, 424 
Helwig, John B., I, 194 
Hendershott, Isaac, I, 352 
Henkle, Saul, I, 139, 153, 441, 468, 486, 

507, 554 
Hennessey, I, 23 
Henry Family, II, 179 
Henry- Arbogast Families, II, 179 
Henry L. Schaefer Jr. High School (il- 
lustration), I, 181 
Henthorn, Ellis, II, 101 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, I, 133 
Herron, J. W., I, 177 
Hertzinger, J. K., I. 168 
High School, Springfield (illustration), 

I, 178 
High Street M. E. Church, I, 414 
Highways of Clark County, I, 212 
Hildreth, S. P., I, 86 
Hill, Arthur R., II, 304 
Hill, H. M., I, 365 
Hill, W. D., I, 363 
Hinkle John R., II, 156 
Hinkle, Margaret, II, 225 
Hinkle, Michael Way, II, 225 
Hiser, Charles H., II, 25 
Hiser, Daniel B., II, 24 
Historical and biographical volumes, I, 

497, 498 
Historical Atlas of Clark County (1875), 

Historical societies of Clark County, I, 

Hockdoerfer, Richard, I, 53 
Hodge, Asa W., II, 193 
Hodge, Bertha, II, 193 
Hodge, Thomas D.. II, 370 
Holden, L. E., I, 53 
Holman, Edward P., II, 79 
Home Telephone Company, I, 381 
Homes in Springfield, I, 407 
Honey Creek, I, 77 
Hoppes, John J., II, 136 
Horr, Calvin A., II, 263 
Horse thieves, I, 538 
Horses, I, 110 

Hospitals in Clark County, I, 425-431 

Hosterman Publishing Company, I, 464 

Hotels and taverns, I, 253-259 

Houck, Edwin L., II, 286 

Houck, Edwin S., I, 365; II, 287 

Houck, George, II, 286 

Household matters of the olden times, 
I, 544 

Houston Bank of South Charleston, 
failure of, I, 291 

Howard, Maurice, I, 150 

Howard, Solomon, I, 177 

Howe, Henry, I, 299, 300, 496 

Howe, H. H., I, 495, 496 

Humberger, Gaylord R., II, 310 

Humphreys, John, I, 9, 14, 51, 406 

Hunt, John, I, 173; oldest college grad- 
uate in the United States, 530 

Hunt, J. M., I, 363 

Hunt, Richard A., first Springfield 
physician, I, 355 

Hunter, Charles N., II, 381 

Hunter, Laura E., II, 382 

Hunter, Samuel F., I, 52, 249; II, 125 

Hurt, F. W., I, 176 

Husted, I, 23 

Hutchings, Stanley R., II, 40 

Hutchins, Thomas, I, 39 

Hyslop, W. W., I, 107, 109 

Igou, Lureatha, II, 203 

Igou, Peter F., II, 203 

Inauguration of President Dr. Recs E. 
Tulloss (illustrations), I, 200 

Income taxes, I, 293 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
Home (illustration), I, 480 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 
Clark County, I, 458 

Indian trails, I, 212 

Industries, early, I, 55, 56, 82, 239, 525, 

Innes fallen Greenhouse, I, 124, 125 

Intellectual and civic life, I, 507-522 

Interchurch Survey, I, 421 

International Fat Stock Show, I, 111 

International Harvester Company (illus- 
tration), I, 241 

Interurban electric service, I, 236-238 

Ireland, George E., II, 262 

Iron Moulders' Union No. 72, I, 463 

Italians in Springfield, I, 423 

Jackson, Charles F., II, 294 

Jackson, J. A., I, 177 

Jackson, May H., II, 181 

Jarboe, Elizabeth J., I, 15, 17 

Jewish Congregations in Springfield, I, 

Jews in Springfield, I, 421 
Johnson, Anna B., I, 511 
Johnson, Floyd A., I, 223, 227 
Johnson, Frank C, II, 139 
Johnson, Howard, I, 152, 155 
Johnson, James G, I, 343, 349 

Digitized by 




Johnson, James G., I, 267 

Johnson, James, Jr., I, 363 

Johnson, Richard M., I, 315 

Johnson, Robert, II, 138 

Johnston, Floyd A., II, 27 

Jones, Clement L., II, 422 

Jones, Elmer, I, 107 

Judd, Delbert S., II, 166 

Juergens, Arthur R., I, 452, 453, 455 

Juergens, Charles A., I, 454 

Junker, Henry D., I, 147 

Jurists, distinguished, I, 343 

Jurors, women as, I, 344 

Juvenile Court, I, 270 

Kain, George I., I, 135 

Kauffman, Benjamin F., II, 264 

Kauffman, Michael, I, 421 

Kay, Charles S., I, 507; II, 414 

Kay, Clarence H., II, 117 

Kay, Isaac, I, 139, 182, 504; II, 413 

Kearney, James, I, 147, 148 

Keifer, Benjamin W., II, 409 

Keifer, Horace C, I, 332 

Keifer, J. Warren, I, 11, 53, 81, 247, 268, 
300, 325, 331, 332, 343. 494, 500; II, 3 

Keifer, W. W., I, 36, 44, 307, 477 

Keifer Camp No. 3, Spanish War Vet- 
erans, I, 332 

Keller, Augusta E, II, 201 

Keller, Charles M. F., II, 200 

Keller, Ezra, I, 142, 189, 191, 192; (death 
of), 193, 557 

Keller, Katherine M., II, 201 

Kelley, Oliver H., I, 112 

Kelly, Edwin S., II, 8 

Kelly (E. S.) home, I, 411 

Kelly, Oliver S., I, 243, 363 t 432; II, 6 

Kelly, Oliver W., II, 7 

Kelly Family, II, 5 

Kelly Fountain, L 58 

Kelly Lake, in Ferncliff (illustration), 
I, 560 

Kelly-Springfield Motor Truck Com- 
pany, II, 307 

Kelly-Springfield Tire Company (illus- 
tration), I, 248 

Kent, A. Richard, I, 352; II, 314 

Kenton, Elizabeth J., I, 15, 17 

Kenton, Simon, I, 9, 13-17, 132 

Keyser, Leander S., I, 53, 502 

Kindle, Louis, I, 559 

King, David, II, 300 

King, Robert L., II, 194 

King, Robert Q., II, 192 

Kinney, Mrs. M. E, I, 446 

Kirkpatrick, Donald. I. 152; II, 305 

Kirkpatrick, T. J., I, 363 

Kissell, Harry S., II, 31 

Kitchen, Stephen, II, 361 

Kiwanis Gub, Springfield, I, 518 

Kizer, Thomas, I, 88 

Knight, George H., I, 234 

Knights of Columbus, Springfield, I, 150 

Knights of Labor (Mad River) Assem- 
bly, I, 464 

Knob Prairie Christian Church, I, 128- 

Knob Prairie Mound, I, 29 

Knob Prairie Mound at Enon (illustra- 
tion), I, 30 

Knott, Peter, II, 51 

Kobetanz, John H., II, 88 

Kohl, Jacob L., II, 131 

Kramer, John F., I, 444 

Krapp, George P., I, 500 

Kunkle, Albert H., I, 343; II, 16 

Kyle, Agnes, I, 170 

Labor Temple, I, 461 

Lagonda, I, 27 

Lagonda Avenue Congregational Church. 

Springfield, I, 143 
Lagonda Chapter D. A. R., Springfield, 

I, 313, 515, 517 
Lagonda Club (illustration), I, 516 
Lagonda Club Building, I, 517 
Lagonda Creek (see Buck Creek) 
Lagonda United Brethren Church, I, 143 
Lambert, LeRoy, II, 377 
Large Skull Penetrated by Tree Root 

(illustration), I, 34 
Law Library, Springfield, I, 493 
Lawrenceville, I, 24 
Laybourn, Lewis J., II, 378 
Laybourne, Clarence E, II, 218 
Learn, Herbert A., II, 164 
LeBolt, Gus, II, 347 
Leffel, George M., II, 129 
Leffel, James, first Springfield inventor, 

I, 242-243 
LeFeyre, R. M., I, 483 
Lehman, John, I, 141 
Leonard, A. B., I, 442 
Liberty Loans, I, 288 
Libraries of Clark County, I, 486-493 
Limestone, I, 69 
Limestone City, I, 23 
Limestone Cliffs, I, 67 
Lincoln, Abraham, I, 324-326-331 
Lind, Jenny, I, 448 
Link, A. J., I, 356 
Link, Constantine, II, 308 
Link, Joseph, II, 308 
Lions Club, Springfield, I, 519 
Lisbon, I, 25 

Little Miami Railroad (1846), I, 231-232 
Littleton, John C, II, 55 
Littleton, J. Howard, I, 155; II, 259 
Live Stock (1921), I, 109 
Lloyd, John U., I, 353, 354, 355, 494 
Local Rain Fall, I, 384 
Locke, Mrs. D. R., I, 479 
Logan, Olive, I, 508 
Lohnes, Edwin, Mad River Township 

(illustration), I, 115 
Loney, J. M., I, 149 
Long, Edgar H., II, 214 
Long, T. T., I, 159 
Lorenz, Adolph, visit of, to Springfield, 

I, 356 
Lowry, David, I, 51, 87, 228, 406 

Digitized by 




Lowry, J. Edwin, II, 144 

Lucas, Richard S., II, 417 

Lucas, William £., II, 246 

Ludlow, Abraham R., I, 442; II, 106 

Ludlow, Cooper, II, 107 

Ludlow, Jason S., II, 109 

Ludlow, John, I, 239; (illustration) 240; 

290, 416, 497; II, 108 
Ludlow Family, II, 107 
Ludlow Papers of 1871, I, 497 
Lupfer, Edgar N., II, 72 
Lutheran Church in Springfield, I, 141 
Lutherans Outside of Springfield, I, 142 

M. & M. Building (illustration), I, 413 

Mad River, I, 75, 76 

Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad 

(1832), I, 231, 232, 233 
Mad River Baptist Church, I, 131 
Mad River City (Springfield), I, 50 
Mad River Township, I, 23 
Mad River Township Sunday School 

Convention, I. 156 
Mad River Valley Bank, I, 289 
Mad River Valley Dental Society, I, 361 
Mad River Valley Pioneer and Historical 

Association, I, 416 
Madison Township, I, 25 
Mann, Horace, I, 130, 133 
Maps (early) of Springfield and Clark 

County, I, 496, 497 
Market house, Springfield, I, 62 
Markets and labor for farmers, I, 114- 

Marshall, T. R., I, 49 
Martin, John H., II, 54 
Martin, Oscar T., I, 346; II, 171 
Martin, Paul C, I, 537; II, 171 
Mason, Samson, I, 12, 268, 347 
Masonic Home, I, 479 
Mast, P. P., I, 363, 504 
Mast (P. P.) home, I, 410 
Materia Medica in Clark County, I, 351- 

Martinson, Thomas, II, 336 
Mattinson, Thomas E., II, 379 
Mayor, duties of, I, 365 
McBride, Richard, first Springfield post- 
master, I, 281 
McConnell, John B., II, 96 
McCord, George E., I, 177; II, 318 
McCoy, W. E., I, 113 
McCultoch, Hugh R., II, 355 
McCulloch, William, II, 354 
McCulloch, William P., II, 355 
McCullough, E. J., II, 159 
McDonald, Frank L., I, 481 ; II, 268 
McGarry, J. R., I, 363 
McGilvray, Charles F., I, 363; II, 415 
McGraw, Thomas F., I, 416 
McGregor, Margaret H., I, 456 
McGregor, Thomas R., II, 98 
McGrew, Elizabeth E., II, 341 
McGrew, John B., II, 342 
McGrew, Samuel F., II, 340 
Mclntire, A. K., I, 402 

Mclntire, Benjamin B., II, 198 

Mclntire, William D., II, 293 

Mcintosh, W. H., I, 497 

McKee, Elza F., I, 342, 484, 493; II, 401 

McKenna, John, I, 369 

McKinley, W. B., I, 236 

McKinnon, Daniel, I, 19 

Medway, I, 21 

Meenach, Joseph J., II, 386 

Mellen (George H.) Company, I, 124 

Mellinger, Harry, II, 207 

Mellinger, Harry S., I, 225 

Memorial Arch, entrance to Snyder 

Park (illustration), I, 302 
Memorial Hall (illustration), I, 275, 276, 

Men's Literary Club, Springfield, I, 515 
Merritt, Alice, II, 228 
Metal industries, I, 243 
Meteoric shower, I, 72 
Methodism in Springfield, I, 137 
Methodists, organize in Springfield, I, 

Mexican war, I, 316 
Miami Indians, I, 37 t 38 
Military square, I. 262 
Mill Run, I, 77 t 78 
Millegan, M. L., I, 53 
Miller, Earl N., II, 115 
Miller, Elwood, I, 429 
Miller, H. T., I, 157 
Miller, John, II, 287 
Miller, John C, I, 363, 505 
Miller, John E., II, 114 
Miller, Joseph, II, 329 
Miller, Joseph J., I, 363 
Miller, Mary, II, 287 
Miller, Orion P., II, 132 
Miller, Reuben, I, 561 
Miller, S. S., I, 72, 73, 8<H 122, 142, 239 
Miller, Samuel, I, 504 
Miller, Mrs. Willis H., I, 501 
Milligan, Melvin L.. I, 363; II, 135 
Milling in Springfield district, I, 249 
Mills, Wilham, II, 29 
Mills, William, Sr., II, 29 
Mills, William C, II, 30 
Mitch, Lemuel, II, 208 
Mitchell, Ross, I, 154, 317, 407, 425 
Mitchell and Thomas Hospital, I, 425 
Mitchell Post G. A. R., I, 328 
Modern newspaper, I, 209-211 
Montanus, Philip E., II, 106 
Moorefield, I, 23 
Moorefield Township, I, 22 
Moores, William H., II, 147 
Moores Lime Company, The, II, 147 
Morean, Gilman J., II, 240 
Morgan, Ion A. P., II, 348 
Morgan, John, I, 256 
Moses, Marion C, II, 152 
"Moss-Covered Bucket," I, 441 
Mother Stewart (see Eliza D. Stewart) 
Mother Thompson (see Mrs. E. J. 

Moundbuilders in Clark County, I. 29-35 

Digitized by 




Movies (see Stage) 

Moyer, Aaron J., II, 122 

Moyer, Rebecca, II, 122 

Mulliken, E. W., I, 157 

Munchel, John, II, 253 

Municipal golf links, I, 525 

Municipal swimming pools, I, 525 

Murphy, Mrs. J. W., I, 512 

Music in Clark County, I, 448 

Muster day in Springfield, I, 315, 314 

Myers, Harvey E., II, 71 

Myers, James A., II, 20 

Myers, John E., II, 389 

Myers, Wilbur J., I, 107; II, 21 

Myers, William, II, 396 

Myers Hall, Wittenberg (illustration), 

Nagley, Vernie, II, 75 

National Hotel, I, 258 

National Road, I, 216-223, 253, 255, 256 

Natural gas, I, 395, 396 

Nave, Jacob P., II, 50 

Nave, Mrs. John G., II, 91 

Nave, T. T., II, 91 

Nave, Margaret E., II, 91 

Needle Work Build, Springfield, I, 513 

Neer, Dorothy, I, 426, 427 

Neer, Luther, II, 67 

Negro as a citizen, I, 375 

Negro riots in Springfield, I, 371-376 

Netts, George W., II, 41 

Neve, Juergens, I, 53 

New Carlisle, I, 21; postoffice, 282; 
cholera at (1832-33), 360; its public 
water system, 386; fire department of, 

New Carlisle Progress Club, I, 520 

New Carlisle Sun, I, 205 

New Champion factories, I, 245 

New Light Christians, I, 130; in Spring- 
field, 139, 140 

New Moorefield, I, 22 

Newlove, Henry O., II. 366 

Newspapers in Clark County, I, 204-211 

Nichols, Clifton M., I, 500 

Nicklin, John S., II, 82 

Nightingale, Florence, her natal cente- 
nary, I, 351, 425 

Ninety-nine year leases, I, 409 

Nolte, Augustus B., II, 278 

North Hampton, I, 27 

Northern Heights School, Springfield, 

Northwest Territory, I, 3 

O'Brien, John, II, 299 
O'Brien, Patrick E., II, 299 
O'Brien, Richard E., I, 369, 370: II, 245 
Octogenarians at Yarnfest (1921), I, 530 
Odd Fellows Home of Ohio, Springfield, 

Oesterlin, Amelia, I, 471 
Oesterlin Orphans' Home, I, 471-473 
Oglevee, John F., I, 267 
OUarra, Stanford L., II, 351 

Ohev Zedukah congregation, I, 422 

Ohio, population of, 1910, 1920, I, 28 

Ohio Building Association League, I, 407 

Ohio Fuel Supply Company, I, 396 

Ohio Gazetteer, I, 494 

Ohio Knights of Pythias Home (illus- 
tration), I, 482 

Ohio Masonic Home (illustration), I, 
459, 479 

Ohio Pythian Children's Home, Spring- 
field, I, 483 

O. K., origin of word, I, 256 

Old Courthouse, erected 1819-22 (illus- 
tration), I, 263 

Old folks in Chamber of Commerce (il- 
lustration), I, 528 

Old homestead (illustration), I, 543 

Old Mill, New Carlisle (illustration), 

Old Orpheum Theater, I, 436 

Old-time rural homes, I, 408 

Oldest silver service in Clark County, 
I 538 

Olinger, Jasper W» II, 213 

Olive Branch, I, 21 

CKMealy, J. J., I, 148 

O'Mealy, Patrick, I, 148 

Ordinance of 1787, I, 1, 2 

O'Reilly and Morse telegraph offices con- 
solidated (1849), L 378 

Organized labor m dark County, I, 461- 

Ort, Granville L., II, 90 

Ort, Samuel A., I, 194 

Otstot, Sarah, II, 157 

Owen, E. D., I, 141 

Packham, Frank R., II, 265 

Packham, Maxmilla, II, 266 

Paist, Charles, I, 25, 26 

Paist, Isaac, I, 432 

Parker, Adam B. f II, 363 

Parrott, Joseph, farm, I, 468 

Parsons, Edgar E., I, 175, 365, 366; II, 

Parsons, George W. f II, 279 
Parsons, Israel, II, 279 
Parsons, John C, I, 474; II, 280 
Parsons, Robert S., II, 221 
Paschall, Alma, I, 500 
Patrick, William I, 438 
Patton, Richard D., II, 195 
Paul, John, pioneer of Clark County, 

I, 6-8, 20, 36 . 
Paul, John, Jr., 1,8, 96 
Paul Family, I, 7, 8 
Peat, Joseph S., I, 26 
Pennsylvania House, I, 255, 427 
Peoples Light and Power Company, I, 

Perrott, Stanford J., II, 276 
Peters, Nathaniel F., II, 421 
Peters, Theodore, II, 422 
Petticrew, Charles E., II, 232 
Petticrew, Charles L., II, 42 
Pfeifer, John, II, 412 

Digitized by 




Pierce, Charles H., II, 305 

Pierce, Jonathan, I, 407 

Pierce, Roscoe, II, 306 

Pigeon Express, I, 378 

Pike Township, I, 27 

Pinkered, Nathaniel, I, 165 

Pinkered School, pioneer of county's 
public system, I, 166 

Pioneer doctor, I, 357, 358 

Pioneer mothers as physicians, I, 357 

Pioneer suggestions (illustration), I, 55 

Pioneer times in Clark County, I, 54 

Piqua, I, 8, 39; destruction of, 45; Clark- 
Shawnee battlefield, 299-306; second 
Shawnee town, 301 

Pitchin, I, 24 

Plattsburg^ I, 25 

Pleasant Township, I, 24 

Plummer, John L., II, 30 

Polite surgical operations, I, 356 

Pomona Grange, I, 111 

Pork packing industry, I, 229 

Poss, Joseph A., II, 342 

Post, J. D., I, 268 

Postal employes retired, I, 286 

Postal savings, I, 284 

Postal Telegraph and Cable Company, 

Postoffices, in Clark County, I, 279-286 

Presbyterianism in Springfield, I, 139 

Presbyterians (1808), I, 131 

Presidential campaign (1920), I, 266, 267 

Press (see Newspapers) 

Price, Evan C, II, 166 

Prince, Benjamin F., I, 31, 154, 189, 417, 
316, 419, 498, 499. 500; II, 433 

Prince, Grace, I, 197 

Printz, Daniel, I, 73 

Probate judges, I, 270 

Prohibition (see Temperance) 

Prout, George R., II, 292 

Prophet, The, I, 300 

Prosecuting Attorneys, I, 270 

Public Square, Springfield, I, 54 

Public utilities in Clark County, I, 377' 

Quaker communities, I, 26 
Quinn, Edward J., I, 148 
Quinn, William B., II, 362 

Race Track, Clark County Fairgrounds 

(illustration), I, 108 
Raikes, Robert, I, 153 
Railroad stations (illustrations), I, 233 
Railway mail service (1846), I, 280 
Raup, Fannie M., II, 329 
Raup, George S., II, 256 
Raup, Gustavus P., II, 327 
Raup, Mitchell W., II, 267 
Rawlins, Albert M., II, 48 
Rawlins, Isaac B., II, 47 
Ray, W. C, II, 214 
Rayner, William H., I, 29, 31, 42, 418, 

499, 505; 11,429 
Rea, John R., I, 369 

Real Estate in Clark County, I, 406-415 

Realtors' Convention (1921), I, 408 

Recitation Hall, Wittenberg College (il- 
lustration), I, 192 

Reeder, Albert, I, 26, 226 

Reeser, Charles A., I, 124 

Reeves, William H., I, 144 

Regent Theater, I, 434 

Rehe, Joseph M., II, 47 

Reichard, Cora A., II, 381 

Reichard, George W., II, 380 

Reid School, I, 173 

Religion in Clark County, I, 126-164 

Rescue pise of 1857, I, 316-323 

Revolutionary soldiers buried in county, 
I, 313 ; memorial to, in Femcliff Ceme- 
tery, 517 

Reynard, J. F„ I, 384 

Reynolds, Rosetta, I, 163 

Richison, Rush R., I, 429, 477; II, 234 

Ricker Memorial Hospital, I, 429 

Ridgely, Charles T., II, 167 

Ridgely Trimmer Company, The, II, 166 

Ridge wood School, Winter Scene, (illus- 
tration), I, 187 

Ridgewood Select School, I, 188 

Rinehart, Joseph H., II, 422 

Rinehart, Levi, I. 289 

Robbins, Rev. Chandler, I, 176; II, 117 

Robbins, Chandler, II, 118 

Robbins, Douglas, II, 119 

Robbins, William H., II, 119 

Robbins Family, II, 117 

Roberts, Charles A., II, 57 

Roberts, J. William, II, 77 

Roberts, James W., II, 69 

Robinson. Chandler, I, 177 

Rockel, W. M., I, 502 

Rockway, I, 27 

Rockway School, rural (illustration), I, 

Rockwell, William M., I, 498 
Rodgers, Charles K, II, 105 
Rodgers, James L., I, 177 
Rodgers, John H., I, 159 
Rodgers, Richard H., II, 104 
Rodgers, Robert, I, 355 ; II, 104 
Rodgers, Robert S., II, 104 
Rodgers, William, II, 104 
Rogers, William A., I, 500 
Root, Harley G., II, 282 
Rose City Radio Association, I, 520 
Roses, Springfield center of production, 

I, 122 
Ross, Elmore P., II, 298 
Ross, Elmore W., II, 298 
Ross, Mrs. E. P., I, 338 
Royal, I, 25 

Runyan, Mrs. George, I, 501 
Runyan, William M., II, 407 
Rural Free Delivery, I, 284 
Russell, Glenn, II, 276 
Ruthrauff, J. Mosheim, I, 197 
Ryan, F. S., I, 168 

Digitized by 




Salt famine (1825), I, 229 
Salvation Army in Springfield, I, 164 
Sanderson, Edwin J., II, 360 
Sanitation in Springfield public schools, 

I, 186 
Saunders, Frank D., II, 63 
Savings Deposits, I, 293 • 
Savior, H. M., II, 343 
Scarff, W. N., I, 97, 112, 121 
Scarff (W. N.). home, I, 411 
Schaefer, Carl A., II, 395 
Schaefer, Henry L., II, 394 
Schaefer, Leonard, II, 393 
Schindler, Peter A., I, 154, 155 
Schools (see Education) 
Schuckman, Fred, I, 369 
Schumacher, Christopher, I, 438 
Searlott, George, I, 25 
Second District Tubercular Hospital, I, 

Second Lutheran Church, Springfield, I, 

Seever, Isaac N., I, 88 
Sellers, Maurice M., II, 196 
Selma, I, 26 
Sentinel, The, I, 205 
Seth, I, 27 
Seventh Day Adventists in Springfield, 

I, 144 
Shaffer, Elmina, I, 473 
Shatzer, C G., I, 196 
Shaw, Cyrus, II, 56 
Shaw, Findlev W., II, 170 
Shawnee Indians, I, 36-46 
Sheaff, James M., II, 391 
Shellabarger, Samuel, I, 268, 345, 490 
Shepard, Anna, I, 429 
Shepherd, Caroline, I, 446 
Sheridan, George V. N., II, 356 
Sheriffs, I, 271 
Sherlo, Garrett, II, 165 
Sherrin, Paul, I, 96 
Shipman, James, I, 315 
Shouvlin, Patrick J., II, 139 
Showers, H. S., I, 363 
Shuey, Edwin L., Jr., II, 174 
Shuirr, Walter A., II, 255 
Shuirr, Warren R., II, 93 
Shumaker, John T., II, 59 
Sieverling, William H., II, 260 
Silos in Clark County, I, 92 
Simpson, Edward W., II, 110 
Singer, Reinhold, I, 455 
Skibo Castle, I, 419 
Slager, Albert L., I, 442 
Slager, Arthur L., I, 137 
Slough, William H., II, 288 
Smallwood, Mrs. Walter, I, 137 
Smith, Edward H., II, 229 
Smith, Henry E., I, 143 
Smith, James, I, 9 
Smith, James G. f II, 256 
Smith, John A., I, 177 
Smith, Peter, I, 131, 133, 353, 354; first 

Clark County author (1816), I, 494 
Smith, Riley, II, 36 

Smith, Samuel, I, 175 

Snyder, David F., I, 91 

Snyder, David L., I, 400 

Snyder, John, I, 400, 426 

Snyder, J. J., I, 363 

Snyder distillery, I, 116, 440 

Snyder farm property, I, 88 

Snyder Park, I, 400; (illustration) I, 
401; 404 

Snyderville, I, 23 

Soap making, I, 85, 86 

Social Service Bureau, Springfield, I, 

Social standards in Springfield, I, 509 

Society of Friends, Springfield, I, 144 

SoUs, I, 68, 69 

Soldiers' Aid Society, Springfield, I, 513 

Soldiers Monument and some Springfield 
homes (illustration), I, 140 

Sorghum industry, I, 84, 85 

South Charleston, I, 26; postomce, 282; 
fire department of, 394; history of, 
498; clubs, 521 

South Vienna, I, 25 

Southern Apartment Building, Spring- 
field, I, 412 

Sowers, John W., II, 322 

Spanish- American war, I, 331-333 

Spanish influenza (1918), I, 358 

Spencer, Malcolm E., II, 403 

Spining, Arthur M., II, 376 

Spinning, Mary, I, 457 

Spinning, Pierson T., II, 21 

Spinning Wheel (illustration), I, 52 

Sports in Clark County, I, 523-526 

Sprecher, Samuel, I, 193 

Springfield, James Demint founder of, 
I, 10-12; original plat of, 12; popula- 
tion of, 27 ; Shawnees in, 41 ; chart of, 
48; past and present, 47-63; first pub- 
lished account of (1816), 50; incorpo- 
rated, 53; early streets, 58; the mar- 
ket, 59-62; in 1870 (illustration), 60; 
city of roses, 124 ; first school in, 165 ; 
private and public schools, 175-188; 
city charter granted (1850), 176; high 
schools, 177-184; industries (1919), 
251 ; hotels, 256-259; postoffice in, 279- 
280; postmasters, 281-282; mail deliv- 
ery in, 282; banks, 289-293; its cen- 
tennial, 362; city charter adopted 
(1850), and mayors, 363; city man- 
ager system, 365, 366, 367 ; expenses of 
city government, 367; police depart- 
ment, 368-370; its water supply, 383- 
386; full paid fire department estab- 
lished (1904), 387; the "volunteers," 
387-391; full organization, 391, 392; 
lighting systems in, 395-398; parks, 
399-405; cemeteries, 402; fraternities, 
458,460; historical works, 498; clubs, 
512-514; artists, 522 

Springfield and Clark County War Serv- 
ice (War Chest), I, 336, 337 

Springfield Bar and Library Association, 
I, 342 

Digitized by 




Springfield Building and Loan Associa- 
tion, I, 409 

Springfield Buildings (illustrations), I, 

Springfield Centennial, I, 362, 418, 420 

Springfield Chamber of Commerce, 1, 

Springfield City Hall, I, 414 

Springfield City Hospital, I, 426, 427 

Springfield Coke Company, I, 395 

Springfield Country Club, I, 520; (illus- 
tration), 524 

Springfield Day Nursery, I, 475 

Springfield Free City Hospital (illustra- 
tion), I, 428 

Springfield Gas Company, I, 397 

Springfield Gas, Light and Coke Com- 
pany, I, 396 

Springfield High School, I, 415 

Springfield Kiwanis Club,. I, 518 

Springfield Library Association, I, 488- 

Springfield Light, Heat and Power Com- 
pany (1909), I, 398 

Springfield Lions Club, I, 519 

Springfield Lyceum, I, 486 
•Springfield Maennerchor, I, 454 
•Springfield Manufacturers' Association, 

Springfield News, I, 206 
•Springfield Orpheum, I, 454 
•Springfield Osteopathic Society, I, 361 
•Springfield Planing Mill and Lumber 
Company, The, II, 253 

Springfield Postoffice (illustration), I, 
278; volume of business in (1899- 
1921), 283 

Springfield RoLary Club, I, 518 

Springfield Street Railway, I, 236 

Springfield Sun, I, 204; illustration, 207 

Springfield Telephone Exchange, I, 380 

Springfield Township, I, 27 

Springfield Trades and Labor Assembly, 

Springfield Traffic Association, I, 237 

Springfield Tribune, I, 461 

Springfield Y. M. C A. Building (illus- 
tration), I, 158 

Springs, I, 70 

Sproat, Ebcnezer, I, 86 

St. Charles Borromeo Church, South 
Charleston, I, 150 

St. Raphael Catholic Parish, I, 148, 149 

Stackhouse, W. H., I, 102; II, 172 

Stage, The, I, 432 

Staley, P. H., I, 474 

Staley, Paul A., II, 419 

Stallsmith, Emma, II, 364 

Stallsmith, Isaac, II, 364 

Stanage, C. W., I, 452 

Starrett, Henry R, II, 320 

Starrett, Levenia R., II, "321 

State banks, I, 289 

State Fair in Springfield, I, 110 

State recognition, I, 267 

State Representatives, I, 268 

State Senators, I, 268 

Steele, Archibald, I, 132 

Steele, John, I, 140 

Sterrett, W. H., I, 214 

Stewart, Charles R, II, 273 

Stewart, David W., II, 53 

Stewart, Eliza D. (Mother), I, 437, 445, 

Stewart, E. W., II, 188 

Stewart, Fred G., II, 189 

Stewart, Perry M., II, 416 

Stewart, W. A., first chief of police, 

Springfield, I, 368, 369 
Stiles, Clara C, II, 366 
Stiles, Solomon B., II, 365 
Stokes Township, I, 25 
Stoll, Omar W., II, 226 
Stoner Adam, II, 82 
Storms, Henry, I, 25 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, I, 327 
Streams of Clark County, I, 75-78 
Stuart, Dora R, II, 428 
Stuart, William J., II, 428 
Sturdevant, Charles, I, 177 
Suabian Saengerchor, I, 455 
Sugar Grove Hill, I, 27 
Sugar Grove Hotel, I, 256 
Sugar making, I, 82-84 
Sullivan, Dennis, II, 204 
Summers, Augustus N., I, 267, 343; II, 

Summers, John W., II, 323 
Sun, Gus, I, 434, 435, 436 
Sun Publishing Company, II, 356 
Sun Theater, I, 434 
Sunday School in Clark County, I, 152- 

Sunset Gvic League, I, 520 

Taft, Eleanor, I, 163 

Tax payers, I, 287, 288 

Taxable property, I, 287, 288 

Taylor, A. E., I, 177 

Tecumseh, the Shawnee warrior (illus- 
tration), I, 37, 39, 42, 300, 314, 315 

Tecumseh Hill, I, 307 

Tehan, Edward A., II, 39 

Tehan, George W., I, 147; II, 372 

Tehan, John, II, 372 

Tehan, Maurice R, II, 373 

Telegraph service in Clark County, I, 

Telephone system, I, 379-382 

Temperance and Prohibition in Clark 
County, I, 437-447 

Temperance developments, I, 441-444 

Temple Chessel Shad Ames, I, 422 

Thacker, James, I, 26 

Thomas, Abraham, I, 305, 306 

Thomas, Edgar S., I, 469-471 

Thomas, John H., I, 425 ; II, 352 

Thomas, William S., II, 353 

Thompson, Mrs. R J. (Mother), I, 445 

Thompson, John, I, 137 

Thompson, W. O., I, 103 

Thome, Isaac H., II, 338 

Digitized by 




Thornton, E. P., I, 12 

Thorpe, I, 25 

Thorpe, William R., II, 215 

Tiffany, Earl W., II, 58 

Tillable land (1900, 1910, 1920), I, 90 

Tindall Robert A., II, 76 

Tittle, Harvey M., I, 280; II, 24 

Tittle, Walter, I, 53, 522 

Titus, Morton S., II, 158 

Todd, Arthur J., II, 134 

Todd, James, II, 133 

Todd, Tames, II, II, 134 

Todd, James M., I, 363 

Todd, John H., II, 134 

Todd Family, II, 133 

Toledo war (1835), I, 315 

Torbert, James L., I, 363 

Toronto Reaper and Mower Company, 

Townships, organization of, I, 20-28 

Trade and Labor Assembly, Springfield, 
I, 464, 465 

Transportation, I, 228-238 

Transportation for the farmer, I, 102 

Travelers' Club, Springfield, I, 512 

Tremont City, I, 24 

Tressler, Victor G. A., I, 53, 427; II, 

Trimmer, David W., II, 66 

Trostel, George W., II, 153 

Trout, Albert, 11,337. 

Trout, John, II, 336 

Troxell, Paul E., II, 369 

Troxell, William, II, 362 

Trumbo, Joseph B„ II, 112 

Trumbo, Silas, II, 112 

Trumbo, William C, II, 111 

Trust, Harry, I, 135, 143, 162; II, 177 

Tuberculosis Hospital (illustration), I, 

Tullis, Van C, I, 107 

Tulloss, Rees E., inauguration of (illus- 
tration), I, 200, 201; II, 11 

Turner, F. B„ I, 481 

Turtle, Albert, II, 255 

Twentieth Century Literary Club, Ca- 
tawba, I, 520 

Twine Binder, I, 244 

Typesetting and typecasting machines in- 
troduced, I, 464 

Typical Springfield greenhouse (illustra- 
tion), I, 123 

Typographical Union No. 117, I, 464 

United Presbyterians in Springfield, I, 

United States Military Reservation 

(Fort Tecumseh), I, 307 
Universalist Church in Springfield, I, 141 
Urquhart, Hector, II, 252 


Ustler, Clarence A., II, 330 

Van Tassel, W. H., I, 369 

Villa, I, 22 

Village marshals, I, 367, 368 

Virginia Military Land Grants, I, 20 

Vorhees, John H., I, 490 

Waddle, William T., II, 212 

Walker, Arthur H., II, 215 

Walker, James C, I, 329, 369; II, 274 

Wallace, Edward S., I, 363 

Wallace, W. C, II, 149 

Walsh, Leo M., I, 148 

Walters, Isaac N., I, 133 

War of 1812, I, 314, 315 

Ward, Isaac, I, 404 

Warder, Benjamin F., sketch of, I, 491 

Warder, Benjamin H., I, 249, 290, 407, 
486; (illustration), I, 487 

Warder (B. H.) home, I, 410 

Warder, William. I, 555 

Warder Free Public Library, I, 426; il- 
lustration, 490; 491 

Watkins, Fannie P., I, 162 

Watson, Pauline, I, 456 

Watts, Elmer A., II, 315 

Weaver, Chauncey I., II, 128 

Weaver, John S., I, 177 

Weaver, W. L., I, 268 

Webb, Grace C, I, 196 

Webb, James S., II, 28 

Webb, Joseph, II, 424 

Weekly, John W., I, 177 

Welfare Work in Clark County, I, 466- 

Welsh, James L., I, 444; II, 113 
Werden, William, Springfield's best 

known landlord, I, 258 
West, Eli, II, 355 

West County Ofl&ce Building, I, 414 
Westcott, Burton J., I, 363, 365; II, 15 
Western Union Telegraph Service, I, 378 
Wetherbee, Ralph H., II, 247 
Wetmore, Ralph, I, 456 
Wheat, Benjamin B., I, 143 
White, Addison, I, 317, 318, 321, 323 
White, W. T., I, 177 
White, William, I, 343, 345 
White, William N., I, 267 
Whitely, Amos, I, 243 
Whitely, William N., I, 242, 245, 247, 395 
Whitely Reaper Company, I, 245 
Whiting, Junius F., II, 331 
Whittridge, Worthington, I, 522 
Wier, W. H., I, 177 
Wiggins, Lida K., I, 501, 505, 511 
Wiggins, Robert, II, 99 
Wigwam, Springfield, I, 433 
Wild game in Clark County, I, 117-121 
Wild lands, I, 80 
Wild pigeons, migration of, I, 118 
Wildcat banking, I, 289 
Wildman, Alvin E., II, 332 
Wildman, G. W., I, 110 
Wildy, Thomas, I, 458 
Willard, Frances R, I, 438 
Williams, Clarence S., I, 53 
Williams, Edward W., II, 345 
Williams, Hiram W., I, 233 
Williams, J. C, I, 6, 7 

Digitized by 




Williams, Jerry K., II, 167 

Williams, Milo G., I, 177 

Williams, Victor, I, 452 

Willis, Fred W., II, 64 

Wilson, Gilbert L., I, 500 

Wilson, Lavinia, II, 426 

Wilson, Timothy, II, 217 

Winger, Amaziah, I, 513 

Winger, George W., I, 456; II, 290 

Winwood, Mrs. George, I, 513 

Wireless telegraphy, I, 379 

Wise, Charles R, II. 92 

Witmeyer, Webb W., I, 518; II, 337 

Wittenberg College, I, 134, 142. 189; 
sports at, 525 

Wittenberg College, Entrance and Cam- 
pus (illustrations), I, 403 

Wittenberg Football Team (illustration), 
I, 193 

Wittenberg, one Commencement Day 
(illustration), I, 202 

Wolff, Jacob, I, 421 

Wolfson, Israel, I, 421 

Women's Benevolent Society, Springfield, 

Woman's Crusade, I, 444 

Women as jurors, I, 344 

Women's Christian Temperance Union, 
first in Ohio (Springfield), I, 438, 446 

Women's Relief Corps, I, 508 

Woodward, Robert C, I, 51, 88, 491, 496 

World's war, I, 333-341 

Wormwood, Albert, I, 483 
Worthington, Ruth A., I. 512 
Worthington Chautauqua, Springfield, I, 

Wright, Leonard S., II, 75 
Writers of Clark County, I, 494 

Yake, Milton, II, 405 

Yarnfest in Springfield Chamber of 

Commerce (1921), I, 527-536 
Young, Charles A., II, 244 
Young, Edson K., II, 324 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

Springfield, I, 157-160 
Young Men's Literary Association, I, 

Young Men's Literary Club, I, 518 
Y. W. C A. Building (illustration), I, 

Young Women's Christian Association, 

Springfield, I, 162, 513 

Zimmerman, Carrie M., II, 286 
Zimmerman, Isaac, II, 284 
Zimmerman, John 1^, I, 155, 197, 491, 

492; II, 424 
Zimmerman, Joseph C, I, 197 
Zimmerman, Samuel, II, 372 
Zi m mer m an Library, Wittenberg College, 

I, 197; illustration, I, 492 
Zirkle, Ralph, I, 456 

Digitized by 


History of Springfield and 
Clark County 




Swift as a weaver's shuttle time hastens into eternity. Father Time 
turns the hourglass once again, and the world looks backward over the 
pages of history. 

In the procession of events marking the history of the world, it is 
apparent that some know the story of the Garden of Eden better than 
they know the beginning of local history. To those who follow the 
developments of human affairs, what happened to Christopher Columbus 
at the court of Spain is a well known story, and every school boy is 
familiar with Capt. John Smith of the Jamestown Colony and how he 
was rescued by the dusky Pocahontas. 

In 1920, the whole world followed the unfolding of the Tercentenary ; 
the landing of the Pilgrims had paved the way for the future in the New 
World. The thirteen little republics by the sea encountered the difficulties 
of the Revolutionary period, and President Grover Cleveland's epigram: 
"It is a condition and not a theory we are facing," has applied to many 
situations in community development before Clark County was on the 
map of the world. 

It was Confucius who said: "Every day cannot be a festival of 
lights," and this great Chinese philosopher carefully planned the future. 
He took time to save time, and his autobiography reads : "At fifteen I 
entered on a life of study; at thirty I took my stand as a scholar; at 
forty my opinions were fixed; at fifty I could judge and select; at sixty 
I never relapsed into a known fault ; at seventy I could follow my heart's 
desires without going wrong," and thirteen centuries later another Chi- 
nese writer said : "The Universe is but a tenement of all things visible : 
darkness and day, the passing guests of Time." and what more is 

"There was a tumult in the city, in the quaint old Quaker town," and 
the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1776, presaged local 
possibilities that had not entered into the thoughts of the American Revo- 
lutionary soldiers. The Ordinance of 1787 opened up hitherto undreamed 
of opportunities ; the Northwest Territory was an acquisition presenting 
unlimited advantages. It excited comment from contemporary states- 
men, Daniel Webster saying: "We are accustomed to praise the law- 
givers of antiquity ; we hope to perpetuate the fame of Solon and Lycur- 
gus, but I doubt whether one single law of any law-giver, ancient or 
modern, has produced effects of more distinctly marked and lasting char- 
acter than the Ordinance of 1787. We see its consequences at this 
moment, and shall never cease to see them perhaps while the Ohio shall 

Digitized by 



It was the Rev. Menassah Cutler, a Congregational minister of Con- 
necticut who went to Philadelphia on horseback from his home when it 
seemed that the passage of the ordinance would fail, and urged upon 
Congress the wisdom of the measure. In the British Parliament Lord 
Chatham said: "For solidity of reason, force; of sagacity and wisdom 
of conclusion under a complication of difficulties, no nation or body of 
men stand in preference to the General Congress," and since that time 
the ordinance has been likened to a second Constitution of the United 
States, guaranteeing many things to the Old Northwest. It was in reality 
the first new territory added to the Union, the people of the thirteen 
original states being emigrants themselves, and the areas hitherto added 
being contiguous territory already dominated by them. 

Under the provisions of the Ordinance of 1787, the territory north 
of the Ohio was to be formed into three or five states, and while the 
older states had English names, American names were given to them. 
The area in question extended from the Ohio and Mississippi rivers 
northward, and embraced 265,878 square miles which was subsequently 
divided into five states : Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and 
a small tract lying east of the Mississippi in Minnesota. The area of 
Ohio is 39,964 square miles with only Indiana being smaller, and in the 
Old Northwest are some of the most important cities : Chicago, Cleve- 
land, Detroit, Cincinnati, Columbus, Toledo, Milwaukee, St. Paul, Min- 
neapolis, Indianapolis, Dayton and Springfield. 

The Old Northwest has furnished both the opportunities and the men ; 
the seven presidents from the area are: William Henry Harrison, 
Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin 
Harrison, William McKinley and Warren G. Harding. While the area 
is foremost in its agriculture, it is varied in its industries; and manufac- 
turing has claimed much attention. Some of the greatest manufacturing 
and commercial interests in the whole country are within this area of the 
United States, and for many years it has had the center of population. 
Several times it was in Ohio, and it has been as long crossing Indiana as 
the Children of Israel were wandering in the wilderness; it may never 
cross the Mississippi, and thus the consumers in the United States mar- 
kets are easily reached from Springfield. 

The Ordinance of 1787 recognized the necessity of schools, and of 
education and with human slavery excluded, the better class of emigrants 
was immediately attracted to the territory. Bancroft credits Thomas 
Jefferson with great activity against slavery, while a later writer asserts 
that if the slaveholder had realized the full consequences of this prohibi- 
tion of slavery clause in the ordinance, his opposition would have been 
more strenuously directed against it. He did not realize what great power 
was being given the Northwest — this guarantee of property and personal 
rights. Hitherto the advance in civilization had been along the Atlantic 
Coast southward, and now the institution of slavery was an obstacle 
encountered in that direction. While only a few Quakers ever penetrated 
into the wilds of Clark County, they led in the exodus from the Caro- 
linas to the Northwest Territory. They settled in numbers a tittle far- 
ther south, and the stronghold of the Quakers within the United States 
is in the Old Northwest. 

By way of resume, the Ordiance of 1787 opened up the frozen North- 
west; what was^then spoken of as the Northwest Territory, has since 
been designated as the Old Northwest in contradistinction of the newer 

Digitized by 



states and the Canadian Northwest, and this area occupies an unique 
place in American history. While the Jesuit and French explorers were 
active in parts of it, Ohio was peopled by emigrants from the older 
states, the cosmopolitan population thus explained : The spirit of adven- 
ture, and a stern determination to make the most of the broad and fertile 
lands lying west and north of the Ohio stimulating alike the sturdy Vir- 
ginian, the liberty-lovjng Jerseyman, the tolerant Pennsylvanian, the 
thrifty New Englander, and the aggressive Englishman to quit their old 
homes and seek others in the wide expanse of wilderness west of the 
Allegheny Mountains. 

The historian, E. O. Randall, says: "The Northwest Territory was 
the great back ground of the Revolution, and the soil of Ohio was the 
scene of the struggle for existence," and it is understood that local his- 
tory had its inception August 8, 1780, when Gen. George Rogers Clark 
invaded the hunting grounds of the Shawnees adjacent to Mad River 
and destroyed their villages, driving them out of their strongholds now 
within the bounds of Clark County. While he was busy on the frontier, 
there was as yet no designated Northwest Territory, and while Governor 
Arthur St. Clair played a losing game with the Indians in the wilderness 
days of Ohio history, there was a second Washington in the West who 
regained much of the lost territory. 

Great Britain and France both wanted a foothold in the new country, 
and both incited the savages of the West, while Gen. George Washington 
was in command of the Revolution along the Atlantic Coast. As a pre- 
cautionary measure, General Washington detailed General Clark to look 
after the frontier, and at Piqua Village along Mad River he regained 
much valuable territory. No man in American history gave greater 
promise than Clark, but after investing his own fortune he became 
desperate and listened to the importunities of the enemies overseas. As 
far as local history is concerned, he was the right man in the right place, 
since with his "rough riders" he was able to break the backbone of the 
British intrenchments, and thus the Northwest was secured and pre- 
served to the United States, and in due process of time Clark County was 
placed on the map of the world. 

Through the efforts of General Clark the area now known as the 
Old Northwest was recognized in the treaty of 1783, closing the War Of 
the Revolution, although there was continual friction between the United 
States, and the mother country, until after the War of 1812 — the second 
war with England. While Patrick Henry as governor of Virginia, acted 
as an advisory friend to both, he counselled General Washington not to 
relinquish any soldiers from the Colonial Army, and thus General Clark 
was reduced to the necessity of raising his own volunteer troops, begin- 
ning his western expedition with 200 Virginia and Pennsylvania back- 
woodsmen. His conduct encouraged General Washington who was com- 
batting British forces along the seaboard, and needed all of his men. 

It is said that few citizens of Clark County today realize the full 
importance of the battle against the Shawnees, as fought by General 
Clark, although it had more to do with giving to the United States its 
territorial character than any other military engagement ; had it not been 
for this battle, it is suggested that the Northwest Territory would have 
been British. A treaty was under consideration fixing Ohio as the bound- 
ary of the British possessions, but the overthrow of the Shawnees enabled 
the United States to claim the territory. Through its patriotic governor, 

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Virginia claimed much of the territory secured by General Clark, and 
thus the Virginia military land grants enter into local history. The Ohio 
Gazetteer describes them as a body of land lying between the Scioto and 
Little Miami rivers, and much of it has become valuable in the course 
of time. 

Because of indefinite terms in its original charter of lands from a 
former King of England, the State of Virginia claimed all the American 

George Rogers Clark 

continent west of the Ohio, but finally among several other compromises 
and conflicting claims which were made subsequent to the attainment of 
American Independence, she agreed to relinquish all her claims to lands 
northwest of the Ohio in favor of the general Government, upon condi- 
tion that the land now described as guaranteed to her. Virginia then 
appropriated the above described lands from which the state undertook to 
satisfy the claims of her troops employed during the Revolutionary war. 
The Ludlow line across the map of Clark County defines the western 

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boundary of the Virginia land grants, there being later reference to 
Ludlow and Symmes as local surveyors. 

The life of Gen. George Rogers Clark is bounded by the year 1752 
and 1818, his birthplace being Virginia. In 1775 he became a Kentucky 
backwoodsman, being associated with the scouts Simon Kenton and 
Daniel Boone, and while in 1780 he effected the overthrow of the Shaw- 
nee Confederacy on Mad River his various activities spread over Indi- 
ana and Illinois as well as western Ohio. In 1905 a monument was 
unveiled for him at Vincennes, Indiana, just 100 years after the first 
settlement by the French. While he lingered a year after the formal 
organization of Clark County in 1817, he may not have known that it 
was named in his honor. 

In 1783 the Virginia Legislature granted to General Clark a tract 
of 8,049 acres, and to his officers and men 140,000 acres in Indiana, and 
later when Virginia conferred upon him a sword, he replied: "When 
Virginia needed a sword I gave her one! she now sends me this toy. 
I want bread/' It is reported that he spent his last days in poverty at 
Clarksville, Indiana, on part of the land granted him by the Virginia 
Legislature. Although once engaged to a young Spanish woman, General 
Clark never married; when he knew more of her father, he declined, 
saying: "I will never be the father of a race of cowards." 

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The best an historian can do is to approach accuracy ; while there are 
sins of commission, they cannot be worse than the sins of omission in 
writing history. 

History is well defined as the record of transactions between different 
peoples at different periods of time, and some one has said that not to 
know what happened before one was born is to remain always a child. 
It is the mission of the true historian in Springfield and Clark County 
as well as in the rest of the world, to delve into the great past in an effort 
to unravel the tangled threads in the history of all the yesterdays. 

It is said : "The roots of the present lie deep in the past, and the past 
is not dead to him who would know how the present comes to be what 
it is," and most people of today are interested in the firelight stories of 
other days; they enjoyed the stories heard at mother's knee — the tradi- 
tions handed down from father to son. and time was when word of 
mouth had greater significance — Clark County and elsewhere, than it 
has today. It is well understood that Gen. George Rogers Clark and 
his army of Pennsylvanians and Virginians, with recruits from Kentucky 
were the first white men on the banks of Mad Riven and it is little 
wonder that a few years later the settlers should locate in that vicinity. 

"When a community finds that it has an historic background, it has 
taken a long step on the pathway of progress. To those who have real- 
ized this, and have called upon art, music and poetry to make the past 
live again, much gratitude is due; the artist, the musician and the poet 
make the great tapestry of history loom large and colorful behind us — 
our lives are enriched, and we strive to play our parts more worthily. 
When not only great national achievements, but all the varied and char- 
acteristic life that has been lived on the shores and mountainsides, in the 
river valleys, and on the frontiers of this broad land shall become the 
favorite themes of our artists and poets, then there will be established 
in the heart of the American youth a love of home and country that has 
a sure foundation." 

The Mad River Valley west from Springfield is rich in historical 
interest, and there is no spot in Clark or surrounding counties with bet- 
ter background in military history. Mad River has the honor of being 
first is many things, and great human interest attaches to the use of that 
numeral; who is not thrilled at the first cry of the new-born babe; the 
first tottering steps of the child ; the first short trousers on the boy ; the 
first long skirts on the girl (the present day length of the skirt is not the 
standard); the first day at school; the first consciousness of strength; 
the first blush of beauty; the dawn of love; the first earnings of labor; 
the accumulation of capital ; the first sermon, client or patient ; the first 
battle; the first sorrow — in short, the opening incidents in every life 
produce thrills distinctively their own, and it is the story of human inter- 
est, the battle for recognition in the world, although possibly out of pro- 
portion to that belonging to a thousand greater things. 

The Story of John Paul 

There is an authentic story to be found in the files of The New 
Carlisle Sun, January 16, 1908, and written by J. C. Williams, that John 


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Paul was among the Kentucky squirrel hunters who accompanied Gen- 
eral Clark into the area now known as Clark County, and while in the 
vicinity he visited the forks of Honey Creek, and was greatly impressed 
with its fertility. The Ordinance of 1787 seemed to open up possibilities 
before him, and within a few years he began the long wagon journey in 
search of the beautiful valley that had been rescued from the Shawnees 
by General Clark. From Fort Washington, which later became known 
as Cincinnati, the family began its journey to the north with much 

The journey was fraught with hardships, but this doughty Kentuckian 
had formed a liking for the place where under the leadership of General 
Clark, he had skirmished with the Indians in company with squirrel 
hunters, which group of wilderness fighters corresponded to the famous 
Rainbow Division in the World war. This wilderness adventurer fol- 
lowed the course of the Miami from Cincinnati to Dayton, when unerring 
instinct led him to go up the stream that had been the scene of battle — 
he was ascending Mad River. It was a hazardous journey, and at night 
the Indians prowled around his wagon. While John Paul was sleeping 
others of the party were on guard to prevent ambush ; they did not wish 
to lose their lives by a night attack from the treacherous redskins, and 
alertness was their only hope. 

After many harrowing experiences en route, the Paul family arrived 
at the spot with which paterfamilia had been impressed while a soldier 
in the army of conquest under General Clark ; while Honey Creek is not 
tributary to Mad River, it was along this stream that John Paul built his 
cabin — the first domicile occupied by a white family in what is now 
Clark County. While it is a little bit hazy, the story goes that this immi- 
grant family located on Honey Creek in 1790 — ten years after General 
Clark had visited Mad River, with John Paul among his soldiers. Feel- 
ing the need of protection for his family, the cabin was hastily constructed 
on a slight knoll, and a stockade was built around it. 

Mr. Williams who rescued the story from oblivion, heard it from the 
lips of Benjamin Suddoth whose death occurred in 1906, and who had 
lived for thirty years with the Paul family in Clark County. It seems 
that the Pauls left Kentucky in 1787, and that in 1790, when they were 
living peacefully on Honey Creek suddenly a war whoop was heard, and 
while the entire family was outside the stockade clearing and planting 
some ground, the Indians surprised them. They hurried toward the 
stockade for defense, but were intercepted and in quick succession the 
father and mother and three of their children fell to the ground mortally 
wounded, while a son and daughter made their escape and reached the 
cabin in safety. The story goes that the son, John Paul, Jr., undertook 
to assist his father who had fallen, but the dying man gasped: "Save 
yourself, I am dying; you cannot do anything for me," and strange as it 
seems, he escaped without injury from the Indians. 

Under the excitement of the moment, and in their anxiety to secure 
the scalps and get back to cover,* the Indians did not notice the son and 
daughter who made their escape to the cabin. From a port hole in the 
cabin, the redoubtable son John with his trusty musket began firing, and 
an Indian engaged in scalping his relatives fell writhing by their bodies ; 
another flash, a whiff of smoke and the second Indian was dying with 
their victims. This so terrified the attacking party that they gathered up 
their dead and retreated to the cover of the timber, leaving the five mem- 

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bers of the Paul family minus their scalps and dying outside the stock- 
ade, where the son and daughter were afraid to try to rescue them. For 
two days the brother and sister stood guard, watching from the port 
holes inside the cabin. 

When the Indians did not appear again, they ventured forth and 
buried their dead on the spot where they had fallen — a family God's Acre 
on Honey Creek, before there were other white settlers within the area 
now known as Clark County. John Paul, the Revolutionary soldier, who 
had invaded the wilderness with General Clark died in the defense of 
his family and his cabin; while it required heroic courage, the brother 
and sister continued to live there, and while Indians were often seen 
skulking along the creek, they were never again molested although Sud- 
doth relates that the young man often approached the door of his cabin 
with an Indian thrown crosswise on his saddle, and pierced by a ball from 
the same trusty musket with which he had defended himself when the rest 
of the family met death outside the stockade surrounding the cabin, the 
first primitive American dwelling within the area now known as Clark 

It is related that John Paul, Jr., continued to live at the family home- 
stead until 1851, when he died at the age of ninety-one years, and Benja- 
min Suddoth who lived there with him died in 1906 in New Carlisle. 
Mr. Paul lies buried in the New Carlisle Cemetery where a marble slab 
marks' his last resting place. In verifying his story as related to Mr. 
Williams, Suddoth accompanied him to the site of the original Paul cabin, 
and the place of the first massacre by the Indians, Mr. Williams desig- 
nates the place as one mile northwest from New Carlisle, and later owned 
by Fissel Brothers and operated as a nursery. A brick house marks the 
site, and there is spring water near it — something that always influenced 
settlers in locating their homes when coming into new country. 

It is said that many Indian arrows were found in the locality, show- 
ing that the spot was not unknown to the Shawnees who skulked along 
the stream hunting and fishing, and here John Paul, Jr., became an active 
man in the community. His father had cleared and planted a small plot, 
and he increased it and with his labor and his gun he provided for his 
needs — thus keeping the wolf from the door, and identifying himself 
with forward movements. He was one of the founders of the first church 
on Honey Creek — Honey Creek Prairie, and while his domicile was in 
Greene County and later in Champaign, there is no question but that he 
was the first bonafide settler who survived the ravages of the frontier in 
Clark County. Mr. Williams relates that Suddoth was a responsible 
character, and the story thus perpetuated is a connecting link between 
the present and the past in Clark County. 

The Greenville Treaty 

While General Clark had destroyed the Shawnee Village known as 
Piqua, August 8, 1780, and John Paul who was with him seems to have 
become the first settler ten years later, it was not until after the Green- 
ville treaty between Gen. Anthony Wayne and the Indians that many set- 
tlers ventured into the new country. The Greenville treaty was effected 
in 1795, and in 1796 there is record that Kreb and Brown were on Mad 
River. They planted corn and cultivated it for other settlers who seem 
to be simultaneous, David Lowry coming from Pennsylvania while the 

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others were Kentuckians. Lowry joined a surveying company of which 
Israel Ludlow was the chief engineer, and when he met Jonathan Donnel 
they looked over the country together. They reached Mad River together 
on a Saturday evening, and spent Sunday wandering along the stream. 
The country was wild, and camping in it caused them to think of settling 
there. They met Patten Short of Cincinnati who had acquired the land, 
and who was in need of help in surveying it. 

Cincinnati was then headquarters for everything, and when the sur- 
vey was completed the young engineers selected their land, and when 
Short followed the Miami back to Cincinnati, they remained on Mad 
River. An ax and an auger constituted their tools, but they remained 
to end their days in Clark County. They were many years ahead of 
Horace Greeley, who exclaimed: "Go west, young man, and grow up 
with the country." Within four years after the Greenville treaty, there 
were fourteen Kentucky families along Mad River; they built a block- 
house as a refuge from the Indians, and among them were John Hum- 
phreys and Simon Kenton. It seems that Humphreys and Kenton 
advanced a little farther up the stream, and simultaneously with them 
came James Demint who settled on the site of Springfield. While the 
settlements were not separated by distance, Demint knew nothing about 
the settlers on Mad River. He was the first settler on Lagonda or Buck 
Creek, and because Springfield was developed on his land, he was the 
first man to go on record in the community. 

There are conflicting stories about Capt. James Smith being con- 
ducted as a captive through the Mad River Valley as early as 1760, 
another account saying 1772, when he was being taken to Fort Duquesne 
by the Indians. Thomas Williams was another prisoner taken as captive 
through the locality, and when in 1796 he related the story on his return 
from Fort' Duquesne, not much credence was attached to it. He was 
regarded as a western Arab who owned no land and spent his time in 
the forest. He visited the different settlements to dispose of furs, and to 
obtain a supply of ammunition. The historian finds so little data on 
which to base conclusions, that he is reminded of the ancient story of 
when the nations of the earth were given their religions; they inscribed 
their sacred creeds on metal, parchment or stone save the Gypsy who is 
reputed to have written his upon cabbage leaves when the donkeys were 
browsing in that direction, so meager is the record left behind them. 
Thomas A. Edison had not yet perfected his method of perpetuating the 
human voice, and the world will never hear the conversation carried on 
between Adam and Eve in the Garden, when they were learning to dis- 
tinguish between right and wrong — the dawn of conscience in human 

The Demint Family Story 

It was in his inaugural address, March 4, 1801, that President Thomas 
Jefferson first used the phrase, "Entangling alliances," that has since 
become so hackneyed, and it was at that time that civilization began its 
encroachments upon James Demint. In 1799, he had built a cabin on the 
site of the Northern school in the City of Springfield, and for two years 
he was unmolested save by chance visitors. To all intents and purposes, 
he was an Adam in the Garden of Eden, since he had no knowledge of 
the settlers on Mad River. There was little "squatter" sentiment among 
the pioneers, as they seem to have come into the community as permanent 

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citizens. There is less hunter and trapper tradition than is common to 
the frontier in any locality. 

The community spirit was awakened when Griffith Foos happened 
along at the Demint cabin while prospecting for a location. He, too, 
was a Kentuckian and as a guest of the Demints, he found "Col." John 
Daugherty temporarily lodging there. It was by accident that he dis- 
covered the lonely habitation, on his return journey from a visit among 
the settlers on Mad River. Mr. Foos in coming from Kentucky had 
followed the Scioto River to the vicinity of Franklinton, now Columbus, 
but had not been suited with conditions; there was malaria, and leaving 
his family he explored the Mad River locality. He had passed within a 
short distance of the Demint cabin without discovering it, and on his 
return journey he spent some time there. When he learned that Demint 
was thinking about laying out a town, he became interested in it. There 
was cheap land in prospect, and he wanted to aid in developing a com- 

While living in Kentucky, James Demint was employed as a team- 
ster with a surveying party, and he had some knowledge of the require- 
ments. He is described as a rough, fearless, warm-hearted frontiersman, 
an essential characteristic among settlers. In entertaining strangers, he 
entertained a community builder unawares, and on St. Patrick's day the 
three Kentuckians, Demint, Daugherty and Foos began the survey of 
Springfield. In writing this review, it is well to quote, "In the begin- 
ning," because of contemporary settlements, and yet nothing had become 
a matter of record until Springfield was on the map of the world. 

Since James Demint began developing Springfield in 1801, to A. D. 
1921, many "boosting" programs have followed each other in quick 
succession; in the time that Noah spent in building the Ark, Springfield 
is ready for a comprehensive history. On a fly leaf in the first Spring- 
field directory issued in 1852, Henry L. Schaeffer penciled the following 
definite information: "At a meeting of the Clark County Historical 
Society December 2, 1913, John W. Parsons, who claimed to be the 
second oldest native of Springfield then living, related that he distinctly 
remembered the James Demint log cabin, and that it stood on the hill 
where the female seminary later stood, and where the Northern school 
now stands, and not at the foot of the hill as is generally supposed; he 
further stated that it was a double log cabin, or rather two cabins con- 
nected by a roof extending from one to the other." 
The whole situation is summed up in the lines: 

"Cling to thy home! If there the meanest shed 
Yield thee a hearth and shelter for thy head, 
And some poor plot, with vegetables stored, 
Be all that heaven allots thee for thy board, 
Unsavory bread, and herbs that scattered grow 
Wild on the river brink or mountain brow, 
Yet e'en this cheerful mansion shall provide 
More heart's repose than all the world beside!" 

None will gainsay the statement that in the development of civiliza- 
tion, the home has been a strong factor. While none would detract from 
the glory of James Demint as the founder of Springfield, the names of 
some of his contemporaries have been perpetuated, while he has no 

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descendants in the community. While for a time he knew the full mean- 
ing of personal liberty, it was not long until the community of interests 
changed conditions about him. When groups are thrown together, com- 
munity problems arise; when others arrived on the scene of action, it 
became necessary to establish "metes and bounds," and the original 
plot of Springfield was the solution of the difficulty entailed by the 
advance of civilization. William Cowper says, "God made the country," 
while it develops that three men were concerned in making Springfield. 

It is said that all history had its beginning in the country, and local 
investigation bears out the assertion. Demint was isolated with a chance 
guest in his cabin when Foos arrived, and then it was a community. 
"Rights and privileges" are settled by law, and Demint was no longer 
"monarch of all he surveyed," although he maintained his residence north 
of the stream — Lagonda or Buck Creek, while Foos located on the oppo- 
site bank, where in June he opened the first tavern and continued to main- 
tain an open door in the community until May 10, 1814, when he aban- 
doned it for other occupation. He recognized the necessity of affording 
shelter for others, if the community was to increase its population. This 
log cabin hostelry was on Main at Spring Street, and two years later 
Archibald Lowry was offering public entertainment in Springfield. 

The Bible says : "The sins of the fathers shall be visited upon their 
children," and the question arises as to what generation now holds forth 
in Clark County. According to Bible usage, there are about three gen- 
erations in a century, and the names Lowry, Donnel, Humphreys and 
Foos are still heard in the community. The pioneers were given to early 
marriages, and perhaps there are five generations to the century in local 
history. It is known that Mary Heckawelder, born April 16, 1781, was 
the first white child born in Ohio, and that Jesse Chapman was the first 
white child born in Clark County. There is a Chapman Creek in com- 
memoration of the Chapmans, and some have connected the story of 
"Johnny Appleseed" with this Chapman family. His name was Chapman. 

There were many settlers round about when, in 1801, James Demint 
conceived the idea of locating a town, planning to have the business cen- 
ter along Lagonda Creek, but he anticipated wrong since the town went 
south from the stream. In commenting on the situation, Gen. J. Warren 
Keif er remarked : "It was not much of a survey — just a few streets on 
either side of Buck Creek." In making this survey, it is understood 
that Demint was advised and assisted by Daugherty and Foos, and "My 
Old Kentucky Home" is apropos, although they never heard the melody. 
They all became identified with the community. Daugherty is described 
as tall and slender; he had a large head, thickly covered with black, 
bristly hair ; he had black eyes with long lashes, and heavy eyebrows. 
He chewed tobacco to excess, and there was a copious flow of saliva, but 
nothing is said about poor Mrs. Demint who entertained him in her 
cabin ; it does not require vivid imagination to see the sputter on the green 
fire logs, as he sat about the hearthstone. 

It is said that Colonel Daugherty could make a good off-hand speech, 
that his style was easy and his words appropriate, and there is frequent 
mention of him in later community development. In 1820, he moved from 
Springfield to a farm south of town, and in 1832 he died; he was a 
kaleidoscopic character — a typical Kentucky gentleman. He died full 
of honors, having served as Springfield postmaster, and having built the 
first really pretentious house in the town. He achieved political honors, 

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having represented the district in the State Legislature, defeating some 
of the most prominent citizens — Maddox Fisher and Gen. Samson Mason, 
both losing the race against him. While some are inclined to credit Mrs. 
James Demint with the honor of naming Springfield, another woman 
lays claim to that distinction, and nothing is known of her more than 
that she died within a few years, and that she was buried in the Demint 
Cemetery on Columbia Street. 

While the original plat of Springfield became a matter of record in 
Greene County, local abstracters of titles have copies of all conveyances 
made while the area was in Greene and Champaign counties, as well as 
in Clark County, and the name of Mrs. Demint does not appear in the 
transfers. The plat was withheld from the records for a time, and she 
may have died without leaving her signature. The advent of Griffith 
Foos was clothed in adventure ; it is said that he came from Franklinton 
on horseback, and that while prospecting along Mad River toward Urbana 
had discovered Pretty Prairie which is now divided by the line separting 
Clark and Champaign counties, and here he changed his course and 
came across the Demint cabin on his return. It was three months before 
he resumed his journey. Meantime he had prepared a shelter, and estab- 
lished his home in Springfield. 

When Mr. Foos returned to Franklinton, it was to bring his family 
to Springfield, and thus he made the first wagon tracks into the new 
town from that direction. He had troubles en route as the Big Darby 
was swollen, and in crossing it the party rode the horses, and a rope was 
attached to the wagon while a man swam beside it to keep it from turning 
bottom-side upward in mid stream. There was not a vestige of a road 
or the suggestion of a bridge, and it required four and one-half days for 
the party to cover the distance of forty miles, but Mr. Foos was a man 
of emergencies, and Springfield benefited from his activities. On Novem- 
ber 25, 1921, E. P. Thornton, who knew him, said: "My father lived on 
East High Street where the Episcopal stone church now stands (Christ 
Episcopal Church), and Griffith Foos lived in the next house east from 
us. I saw him often; he sawed his own wood, and I tried to help him. 
He said he and I were the only industrious boys in town; he was tall, 
and very old ; he had long, gray hair, and he told me about buffaloes and 
deer roaming along Buck Creek." 

The original plat of Springfield was bounded by North, East, West 
and South streets, and there were eighty-two lots. Mr. Foos who was a 
patron in advance secured twenty of the lots, and he was always a booster 
for Springfield. In the beginning Columbia was Main Street, and Main 
was South Street, but when the national road was built Columbia was 
low, and Main Street was shifted one square south in order to conform 
to it — this great artery of travel going through the town. There were the 
good old names of intersecting streets, Main and Market, and time has 
worked other changes in the map of Springfield. Spring and High streets 
were given suggestive names, and Limestone was not named because of 
the underlying building stone, but because it was part of the trail along 
which many settlers came from Limestone, now Maysville, Kentucky. 
The casual observer attribues the name to local natural formation. 

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While the cyclopedias in the Warder public library credit Simon 
Kenton to Kentucky, it is known that he ended his days in Ohio, and 
that he was once a resident of the area now known as Clark County. 
Because he was a frontiersman and a recognized scout, like his con- 
temporary, Daniel Boone, he is regarded in the light of a world char- 
acter. He was born April 3, 1755, in Fauquier .County, Virginia, of 
Scotch-Irish parentage. A monument of light gray sand stone standing 
eleven feet high in Oakdale cemetery at Urbana, is sacred to the memory 
of Gen. Simon Kenton. 

In life, Simon Kenton was a roving character, and in death his body 
was not allowed to rest in one grave. It was in 1820 that he removed 
from Clark County to an eighty-acre farm in Logan County, and at the 
time of his death in 1836, he was drawing a pension of $20 a month, per- 
haps because of his service in the Second war with England. Simon Ken- 
ton was buried in a lonely spot near his cabin, and on a stone were carved 
these words : "This is the cornerstone of Simon Kenton ; do not remove 
it." A Bellefontaine editor of the period, William Hubbard, paid him 
the following tribute: 

"Tread lightly! This is hallowed ground! Tread reverently here! 
Beneath this sod in silence sleeps the brave old pioneer 
Who never quailed in darkest hour, whose heart ne'er felt a fear. 
Tread lightly then, and here bestow the tribute of a tear!" 

There are several stanzas of the poem to be found in an earlier Clark 
County history. 

In 1865, almost three decades from the time of his death, the body 
of Simon Kenton, or what remained of it, was exhumed at the instiga- 
tion of friends, and that explains the presence of the Kenton monument 
in the Urbana cemetery. The isolation of the grave in Logan County 
is given as the reason for the removal of the body to Urbana, the Ken- 
ton home in Clark County having been in Moorefield Township when it 
was part of Champaign County. While Simon Kenton died in Logan 
County, his home was still along Mad River. He was buried on a grassy 
knoll and around the grave was placed a rude picket fence. A rough 
stone slab at the grave bore the following inscription: "In memory of 
Gen. Simon Kenton, who was born April 13, 1755, in Culpeper County, 
Virginia, and died April 29, 1836, aged eighty-one years and sixteen 
days. His fellow citizens will long remember him as the skillful pioneer 
of early times, the brave soldier and the honest man." 

It was nineteen years after the removal of the body of Simon Ken- 
ton from Logan to Champaign County until, in 1884, the State of Ohio 
erected the monument at his grave. It bears the dates 1775 and 1836, 
the boundary years of his life, and the decorations on the four sides — 
the heads of an Indian, wolf, bear and panther — suggest the aggressive 
character of the man thus tardily honored by the Commonwealth of Ohio. 
While the slab at his grave said Simon Kenton was born in Culpeper 


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County, the account in Howe's History gives it Fauquier County, Vir- 
ginia, but the two accounts are agreed as to the date of his births- 
just another instance about which there is conflicting information. 

On April 24, 1910, the Springfield Sunday News carried an inter- 
esting communication from Mrs. Emancipation Proclamation Busbey 
of South Vienna, who quoted from The Cincinnati Mirror of 1836, deal- 
ing with the death of Simon Kenton, and she had clippings from The 
Cincinnati Commercial and Cincinnati Gazette, and from The Ohio State 
Journal in reference to the removal of the body in 1865, establishing the 
date as December 1, when the body was reinterred at Urbana. When 
the body was exhumed, the skeleton was in a good state of preservation ; 
the different parts were carefully collected and placed in a small box 
which was later placed in a walnut coffin. There was a silver plate bear- 
ing the inscription, Gen. Simon Kenton. Except a fragment which was 
preserved as a memento, the old coffin was left in the grave in Logan 

As part of the removal ceremony a public service was held in the 
First Presbyterian Church of Bellefontaine, and after the religious fea- 
ture conducted by Reverends Wood, Fee and Varlo, there was a memo- 
rial service in which the speakers were: Judge M. C. Matthews of 
Piqua, chairman of the commission appointed by the General Assembly ; 
J. B. Turtle and Governor Charles Anderson. In a reminiscent way, Gov- 
ernor Anderson said that in 1819 Simon Kenton had visited his father's 
home, and that as a small boy he had placed his hand into the lottery 
urn and had drawn for Kenton his share in the public lands. Col. James 
Godman was another speaker, followed by W. T. Coggeshall, the father 
of Mrs. Busbey, and editor of The Ohio State Journal, in which he 
sketched the life history of the man thus honored so many years after 
his demise. In brief manner she reviewed the whole story of the life 
of Simon Kenton as written by her father. 

Because of an untoward incident in his early life, Simon Kenton 
became Simon Butler. He had a rival in an affair of the heart, and 
challenged the young man to fight — to settle the matter according to 
frontier custom, and he lost in the conflict ; two years later he repeated 
the challenge with similar results and again he suffered the taunts of his 
rival who, because of superior strength, remained the favored suitor. 
While it all happened in Virginia, this detail is repeated because it throws 
light on the character of Simon Kenton. Love was his ruling passion 
and a third time the rivals met in mortal combat, Kenton resorting to 
strategy in subduing his hated rival. After entangling his long hair in 
some nearby bushes, he was able to punish him severely, and fearing 
that he might die, young Kenton become a refugee — a wanderer on the 
face of the earth — and that explains his removal from Virginia, his 
sojourn in Kentucky and later residence in Ohio. In his extremity, 
he joined an expedition on the Monongahela and descended the Ohio, and 
away from the scenes of his troubles he became Simon Kenton again. 

While Simon Kenton "loved and lost" in Virginia, that is said to 
be better than not to have loved at all, but he loved again. It is related 
that he came into the Mad River country in 1799 with John Humphreys, 
and that when Griffith Foos visited the Kentucky colony while pros- 
pecting in the vicinity, he was directed to their habitation further 
up the stream and missed it, thereby locating the Demint cabin, and 
a year later the Jarboe family in which there was a young woman named 

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Elizabeth arrived whom Kenton had known in Kentucky. However, 
it was not until December 11, 1818, that she became Mrs. Simon Kenton. 

While some writers have credited Mrs. James Demint as being the 
woman who suggested the name of Springfield — a field surrounded by 
springs, Mrs. Elizabeth Jarboe Kenton claimed the honor while engaged 
in conversation with R. C. Woodward, who in 1832, was a fellow 
passenger by stage with the Kentons from Springfield to Urbana, when 
they were returning from a visit in Kentucky to their home in Logan 
County. Judge G. W. Tehan had filed away a magazine article in 
the Delineator for August, 1904, by Landon Knight, entitled : "Elizabeth 
Kenton/' in a series: "Great Women of Pioneer Times," which throws 
light on the identity of the woman thus claiming the honor of naming 
the settlement now the City of Springfield. The Jarboes lived on Mad 
River about four miles from the town, and there is not much evidence 
in support of the theory that Elizabeth suggested the name of Springfield. 
It was in existence seventeen years before her marriage to Simon 
Kenton, who was then a man of forty-six, and sixty-three years old 
when she married him. Not many young girls of that period were 
sufficiently romantic to officiate in christening a community. 

It is known that Simon Kenton lived on Mad River, and that he 
lived for a time in Lagonda where he operated a rude mill, but he 
was not suited to the crowd and as the settlers gathered about him, 
he went to the frontier again. While he wandered about and attained 
to the ripe age of four-score and one years, John Humphreys, who 
accompanied him from Kentucky, attained ninety-four years in the 
vicinity of Springfield. Because he was an Indian fighter, Kenton was 
a picturesque character, and the revised cyclopedias should connect him 
with the history of Ohio, although part of his life was spent in Ken- 
tucky. When there was no warfare to engage him, he would try farming 
again, but nature had not designed him for that occupation. When he 
came into the Mad River country he had the reputation of b«ing the 
greatest Indian hunter and fighter of the period, which secured for 
him due recognition. While in Kentucky he was overshadowed as a 
frontiersman, by Daniel Boone, but in Ohio he soon became the most 
popular hero of the country. 

While Kenton had known the Jarboe family in Kentucky, when he 
knew them again it was on Mad River, and the Virginia experience 
was repeated — Elizabeth had another suitor. While Kenton was grow- 
ing old, Elizabeth was a much younger woman, and his calls were under 
the guise of inquiry about her father who had returned from Kentucky 
to Maryland before Elizabeth and her mother had joined a brother 
on Mad River. In the meantime Reuben Clark had established a 
friendship with the fair Elizabeth. While he had never scalped an 
Indian, smiles and blushes welcomed him. While the hero of Indian 
wars swore that he cared nothing about the girl, he said : "She is lots 
too good for Rube Clark/' With him, anything was fair in war, 
and in love he applied the same tactics. He realized that he must win 
the girl or move again. 

Kenton was in command of the local militia, and -Reuben Clark 
was subject to his orders. Therefore, that ambitious youth found 
himself promoted, and assigned for duty in a distant part of the country. 
If he did not lose his scalp, it was among the probabilities that he 
would never return to Mad River. Having thus tactfully disposed of his 

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rival, the experienced warrior began a siege of a different nature. The 
absence of Clark weakened the resistance on the part of the girl, who 
did not fully understand the situation with the aspiring young officer 
who had thus been removed from her. In time there was a wedding 
in the Jarboe home, and when the fiddlers began the music the hale 
old warrior with the blushing Elizabeth led the dance — an early festivity 
in the history of Clark County. 

While the future seemed to hold for the Kentons only the promise 
of happiness and prosperity, the honeymoon had not ended when clouds 
appeared that darkened the rest of their lives. In his younger days 
General Kenton had located rich lands in Kentucky, and while that 
country remained a wilderness there was no question about the validity 
of his title. However, when the tide of emigration set in and thousands 
of settlers arrived, those human gadflies whom Sergeant Prentice desig- 
nated as "peripatetic lawyers," began an examination of records, thus 
scenting profit for themselves and ruin for others. Kenton was ignorant 
concerning legal formalities, it was his intention to claim the property, 
but the title to one tract after another was declared void until he found 
that he had nothing. Believing himself rich he had sold some of the 
land for a trifle, and now judgments in excess of what he had received 
were piled up against him. 

The claims against Kenton were the basis of much persecution, 
and like a common criminal he was pursued from pillar to post, being 
compelled to do time in prison because of his generosity toward others. 
In those years of sorrow and disaster, Elizabeth was faithful to her 
obligation. While the squalid poverty she was compelled to endure was 
enough to have crushed this sensitive, high-spirited woman, it was as 
nothing compared to the mortification of seeing her husband branded 
as a criminal, and to make ends meet she became a teacher by day 
and late at night she sat at the spinning wheel; she did weaving and 
sewing for the pittance allowed her by others, and many were the deli- 
cacies she carried to the incarcerated warrior. The old hero said that 
only for her consolation and sympathy, he never would have survived 
the long agony of humiliation. 

While it is difficult to visualize the foregoing as belonging to Clark 
County history, the magazine referred to says: "At last, when human 
malice could no longer prevent it, General Kenton's prison doors were 
opened and he was restored to his family a free man, and we may 
imagine the joy that reigned in that bare little log cabin on the out- 
skirts of Springfield." While they were poor, the Kentons divided 
the little they had with a horde of old hunters, nondescript wanderers 
and even with Indians who did not hesitate to seek their hospitality, 
notwithstanding the fact that the general had made war against them. 
Indeed, he deeply resented some of his treament at the hands of the 
Indians. Finally, Elizabeth prevailed upon the General to go to Ken- 
tucky and ask the state to restore to them some land that had been 
forfeited for taxes, hoping thereby to replenish the family exchequer. 
Whether or not she suggested the name of Springfield, she was an 
heroic frontier woman. 

Simon Kenton went on foot to Kentucky, and when he reached 
Frankfort the old man who had made that capital a possibility wandered 
unknown, and an object of idle curiosity. When General Fletcher 
finally recognized him, the news spread that Simon Kenton was in 

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town. Arrayed in a new suit of clothes, the next day he occupied the 
speaker's chair in the General Assembly, and listened to much oratory 
about himself. While there were eulogies and high-sounding resolutions, 
the Legislature did nothing but restore to him the worthless land, and 
yet it was a proud day when he came riding back to Springfield on the 
fine horse presented to him by General Fletcher. The pension he received 
was later secured for him by friends, from the general government. 
While it was small, in the hands of the prudent Elizabeth it served to 
keep the wolf from the door, and the story has already been told of 
the residence of the family in Logan County. 

History is .replete with stories in the life of Simon Kenton, but 
because his career neither began nor ended in Clark County, only those 
of local significance have been chosen in this narrative of his adventures. 
It is known that Elizabeth Jarboe lived on Mad River from 1800 until 
the time of her marriage eighteen years later, and since they left Clark 
County in 1820, sufficient tribute has been paid them. When Simon 
Kenton was growing old, she nursed him with a tenderness that a 
mother bestows upon a child; she was holding his hands and whisper- 
ing words of comfort when the shadows descended, and the soul of 
Simon Kenton passed — but the future is conjecture. That long ago, 
Clark County had few native sons and daughters who distinguished 
themselves, and the story of Elizabeth Jarboe Kenton is an inspiration; 
she never recovered from the effects of the Wow — the loss of her 
distinguished husband. 

VoL 1—2 

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As long ago as 1790, all of Southwestern Ohio was in Hamilton 
County, and Fort Washington was the logical center of the community. 
Cincinnati sustained that relation many years later, until internal improve- 
ments changed conditions in the country. 

By proclamation of Governor Arthur St. Clair, August 20, 1798, 
Ross County was organized with Chillicothe as its administrative center, 
and the area now in Clark County was transferred with it. On April 30, 
1803, Franklin County was set off from Ross, and May 1 or one day 
later, Greene County was placed on the map drawing territory from 
both Hamilton and Ross, and until March 1 two years later this area 
was in Greene County. It remains for the student of local geography 
to locate Springfield, when its outline was established March 17, two 
years before the organization of Greene County. It is readily under- 
stood why Demint's plat of Springfield was withheld from the records 
for a time. Since Mrs. James Demint died within a year, her signature 
was unnecessary in establishing the purchaser's right to property. 

While the first Constitution of Ohio remained on the statutes, there 
were many changes in county boundaries, and since any area comprising 
400 square miles of territory could effect county organization, there 
were as many changes on the map of Ohio as the World war rendered 
possible on the map of Europe. On March 1, 1805, Champaign County 
came into existence, embracing the territory lying north from Greene 
County, and since the area extended north forty-two miles over a 
scope of territory twenty-five miles wide, it provided for trouble in 
the future, the area embracing 1,050 square miles of territory, while 
400 square miles was the requirement. 

When Champaign County came into existence, Springfield became 
the seat of government, and the first court was held in the home of 
George Fithian. However, county buildings were not erected because 
Urbana laid claim to the court privileges, and the citizens of that town 
were active in the removal of the seat of government. The Ohio 
Gazetteer of 1816, which contains the mention of Champaign County, 
says the name is descriptive — that it was applied because of the gen- 
erally level and "champaign" face of the country, and since at that time 
Clark was included, some of the "champaign" faces may still be in the 
community. That was before the wet and dry issue in the country. 

The Gazetteer says of original Champaign County, that part of the 
land is rather elevated and rolling, and later it lost ten townships to 
Clark, the new county coming into existence December 25, 1817, after 
twelve years as part of Champaign County. While the Ohio Assembly 
granted the request on Christmas day, the government of the new 
county was established January 1, 1818, with 2,097 voters concerned 
in Settling the question. Champaign County had numbered 10,485 inhab- 
itants — too many people for one county, but since then there is a 
changed conception of density. The tax duplicate of the whole county 
had reached $2,445,557, and as yet no transcript is available of the 
amount of taxable property transferred to Clark County. In the office 


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of the county auditor is a bundle of papers yellow with age, but no 
one has busied himself to determine the original Clark County tax 
duplicate ; it would involve some computation, and the papers are fragile 

New counties were continually being placed on the map of Ohio 
until a second constitution was written, doing away with the custom, 
and Clark finally obtained its "place in the sun/' with twelve square 
miles surplus territory after securing territory from Champaign, Madison 
and Greene counties. While the final e was dropped in the name, it is 
understood that the new county was named in honor of General George 
Rogers Clark, who wrested the area from the Shawnees. The Ohio 
Assembly was inclined to honor Revolutionary patriots, recognizing the 
fifteen counties to the northwest which constitute the military group on 
the same day a few years later, and giving to them names of soldiers: 
Williams, Paulding and Van Wert, commemorating the captors of Major 
Andre, and a dozen other counties named for well-known soldiers. 
The fifteen counties were named, February 12, 1820, three years after 
the Ohio Assembly had honored the Revolutionary patriot with the 
name of Clark County. 

Senator Daniel McKinnon 

Much credit is due Senator Daniel McKinnon of Champaign County 
who was instrumental in securing recognition of Clark County, and he 
became one of the first associate judges; as a reward for his effort, 
Joseph Tatman, who was then a representative in the Ohio Legislature, 
also became an associate judge, the system prevailing early of awarding 
honors to those who perform service. While the Clark County ship of 
state has weathered many gales, some of the most prominent men in 
the Commonwealth of Ohio were interested in launching it. Moses and 
Ichabod Corwin, who were members of the local bar, were active in 
promoting the organization, and it is said that Governors Kirker, Looker, 
Worthington, Morrow, McArthur, Lucas and Vance were all friendly 
to the enterprise. The discussion had been before the Assembly before, 
and when the new county was recognized the members disbanded to 
enjoy their Christmas dinners. Christmas has a double significance in 
Clark County. 

Broadly speaking, Clark County is in the Miami Valley since the 
Big Miami is to the west, and the Little Miami crosses one corner of 
the county, and with their tributary streams drainage does not present 
any complications at all. It is an irregular oblong with its greatest 
length along the Clark-Champaign border, and there is not a straight 
line on its boundary; it has four varying widths, and the jogs are 
explained by some because land owners were allowed their choice of 
remaining in other counties. While it is surrounded by five counties, 
owing to the irregularities of outline, Clark is bounded north by Cham- 
paign, east by Madison, south by Madison and Greene, and west by 
Greene, Montgomery and Miami counties. A study of the Symmes and 
Ludlow surveys explains some of the boundary irregularities, and the 
Ludlow line across Clark County occasions many survey difficulties. 
"Some one walked crooked while carrying a chain," was the off-hand 
statement of a Clark County civil engineer, and then he told of John 
Cleves Symmes and Israel Ludlow; the Ludlow brothers were Israel 

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and Mansfield, and both had to do with local surveys in early history. 
The Virginia Military Land Grants lie east from the Ludlow line 
and extend to the Scioto River, including part of Clark, Madison and 
Franklin counties, while the Symmes survey extends to the Big Miami, 
and Clark Countv engineers have two standards of measurements in the 
same county. There is much irregularity connected with the military 
survey, soldiers locating where the land suited them and the surveyors 
working around them. When General Clark asked for some of this 
land, the State of Virginia offered him a sword. When the Government 
census was taken in 1820, there were but ninety-four houses in Clark 
County, and the towns were Springfield, South Charleston, Monroe 
(New Carlisle), Lisbon and New Boston. There had been twenty 
townships in Champaign County, but Clark was organized with ten: 
Pleasant, Harmony, Madison, Greene, Springfield, Moorefield, German, 
Mad River, Bethel and Pike, and owing to the Virginia land grants the 
same irregularities are apparent in the boundaries, as are mentioned on 
the boundary of the county. 

A Study of the Townships 

In the United States many of the counties are divided into townships 
five, six, seven or perhaps ten miles square, and the inhabitants are 
vested with certain powers of regulating their own affairs, such as the 
care of the poor or repairing the roads; the township is subordinate 
to the county. While the townships and towns will receive due attention, 
in this survey everything is written in terms of Clark County. "I am 
the vine and ye are the branches," is the relation sustained between the 
county and its integral parts, the air and the water being the same in 
the different communities. 

The trees, the streams and the wild life of the forest know nothing 
of boundaries, and yet in a general way everything is given its locality. 
There is so much repetition in the description of the different townships 
in detail that space is otherwise used, and community movements are 
county wide in their significance. In Clark County there is evidence 
of the Moundbuilders as well as the American Indians, and while Indians 
once came to the doors of the settlers, there are few who relate such 
stories today. While the Shawnees and other tribes will always be 
regarded with some degree of admiration by the student of United 
States history, their story now belongs wholly to the past in Clark 


Since the Shawnee Village of Piqua was in the area now designated 
as Bethel Township, its history begins with August 8, 1780, and it is the 
oldest bailiwick, John Paul having located there ten years later, and 
there being a number of settlers along Mad River before the end of 
the eighteenth century. 

When the Greenville treaty was signed in 1795, there was imme- 
diate purchase of land, Patten Short of Cincinnati being early to invest, 
and Israel Ludlow also recognizing the opportunity. While Kreb and 
Brown were squatters, David Lowry and Jonathan Donnel were among 
the first permanent citizens; their names are household words in Clark 
County history. When they had located their claims, Lowry named z 

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stream watering the land for his friend, and thus Donnelscreek and 
later Donnelsville became identified with Bethel Township. 

While Donnel and Lowry came into the community together as 
members of a surveyor's crew, Jonathan Donnel was several years older 
than David Lowry. While Lowry gave attention to other things, Donnel 
was a farmer, maintaining his farm in a high state of cultivation by his 
own labor; he raised grapes and made them into wine long before the 
Catawba grape was on the market, or others had learned the wealth of 
the soil along Mad River. 

In 1812 Jonathan Donnel committed suicide, and although a marker 
was procured it was never placed at his grave. Ill health and partial 
insanity explain his act, and the circumstances surrounding his death 
cast a gloom over the whole community. He hung himself in the spring 
house, and for eighty years the marker for his grave lay in the spring 
house loft, finally being transferred to the rooms of the Clark County 
Historical Society in Springfield. 

After an unsuccessful venture shipping pork by water to Cincinnati 
and Southern markets, Mr. Lowry spent the remainder of his life on the 
farm, where he lived in ease and comfort, his habits and manners free 
from the vices so prevalent, such as drunkenness and profanity. The 
Lowry home was known for its hospitality, and friends of the family 
made frequent visits there. Mr. Lowry used the by-word, "By Grimany," 
so often that it became his nick-name, and at the age of ninety-two 
he died a much loved man by the community. 

In the chapter on transportation is a detailed description of 
Mr. Lowry's attempt to market a boat load of venison hams, soon after 
he located on Mad River, and of John Jackson leaving the country by 
boat in 1825 with his wife Nellie Lowry. While the Lowry farm carried 
the identity of its original owner through many years, the Donnel farm 
soon became known as the Keifer homestead, and a contemporary was 
William Taylor who came from Pennsylvania. While Kentuckians pre- 
dominated in early history, Lowry and Taylor were from the Keystone 
state, and both left their mark on the community. The Taylors had 
eleven children — five sons and six daughters, and Mr. Taylor secured 
enough land to give a farm to each of them. 

Other residents of Bethel who came early were: Hughel, Husted, 
Minnick, Croft, Brandenburg, McKinney, Confer, Lamme, Leffel, Smith, 
Funderburg, Miller, Moorehouse, Wood, Steele, Hersey, Rayburn, Cram, 
Phillips, Muzzy, Robbins, Ramsey, Littlejohn, Layton and Keifer. 
While the late directory would not show all these names, within a few 
years there were many others who are still represented in the com- 
munity. ' 

The community centers in Bethel are : New Carlisle, Medway, Don- 
nelsville, Anlo and Forgy or Olive Branch. In the beginning New 
Carlisle had the name of Monroe, but when in 1810 William Rayburn 
of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, acquired the unplatted property, he changed 
the name of the town. It is an old town, having within its borders three 
centenary churches and a Masonic lodge organized in 1831, which ninety 
years later was building its future home. 

New Carlisle is a good residence community, its citizens being close 
to Springfield, Troy and Dayton, but its industrial possibilities have not 
been developed; the town does not afford labor opportunities, although 
the Shellabarger tannery one time received raw hides in exchange for 

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leather, and buggies were once manufactured in New Carlisle. It goes 
without saying that the community need is taken care of in a business 
and professional, as well as religious and educational way, and it is the 
home of many who are retired from business activities. 

Medway and Donnelsville have their business and social activities 
like the "cities of the plains." New Boston was once a thriving center at 
the head of navigation on Mad River; it rivaled Springfield, and for a 
time was touted as a possible seat of government in Clark County. The 
story goes that it came within one vote, but Springfield had the advantage 
of geographical location; it was nearer the center. Today a cemetery 
enclosed with an iron fence and with two or three good gravestones in it, 
remind the passerby of the town. 

The 1920 census report for "Bethel Township including Donnelsville 
and New Carlisle villages" indicates a population numbering 3,171, which 
shows a decrease of ninety-four persons in ten years. In 1840 the popu- 

The Old Mill, New Carlisle 

lation was 2,033, and in forty years covering the period of the Civil 
war and the reconstruction, it increased by 1,198, showing a population 
of 3,131 in 1880, which was within forty persons of the number shown 
by the last census. Since Bethel Township has no manufacturing center, 
there is not much change in its numerical development. 


Since Mad River borders Moorefield Township, and some of the 
early settlers located there in 1799, half a dozen Kentucky familes were 
in that locality, and among those who came early were. Humphreys, 
Ward, Kenton, Richards, Jarboe, Moore, Robinson, Bishop, Cornell, 
Crabill, Baner, Foley, McBeth, McDaniels, Shultz, Lemon, Smith, Wood, 
Craig, Miller, Cantrel, Reese and Fall. 

While in Champaign County, Moorefield was regarded as an aggres- 
sive community; there are Congress lands in the west part. The com- 
munity centers are : New Moorefield, Eagle City, Bowlusville and Villa. 

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It is within easy market distance from Springfield, although it borders 
Champaign County. 

In 1840 Moorefield had 1,073 people, and in forty years its gain was 
272, showing a population of 1,345 in 1880, while the 1920 census shows 
a population numbering 1,296, and indicating a loss of forty-nine in forty 
years against the gain as shown in the last century. In 1920 there were 
two more persons in the township than at the last count. Moorefield is 
wholly dependent upon its agriculture, and it is not a fluctuating 

Mad River 

The township takes its name from the river separating it from Bethel, 
and because of water power advantages Mad River had mills and dis- 
tilleries early ; as early as 1800, James Galloway, who was the first black- 
smith, brought his anvil on a "lizard," and he soon acquired 1,000 acres 
of land. Most of the settlers claimed an entire section, and why not? — 
there were none to gainsay their claims. 

Among the early arrivals were: Galloway, Layton, Williams, 
McKinney, Woods, Blieu and Campbell, and a little later came Shreve, 
Miller, Crawford, Palmer, Baker, Bracken, Cory, Rose, Hoyt, Huff, 
Haines, Ludley, Rogers, Broadis, Gillen, Monfort, Daily, Kile, Level, 
Shank, and since the river industries are abandoned, Mad River is 
devoted to agriculture. 

The community centers are: Enon, Husted, Limestone City, Cold 
Springs, Snyderville and Hennessey. No town in the county has more 
substantial, old-fashioned houses and they stand flush with the street, 
than Enon. While it has railroad communication with the outside world, 
the station is removed some distance from the town. The unusual 
attraction at Enon is the mound which is the largest in Clark County. 
The other towns are more accessible than Enon. 

In 1840 Mad River had 1,339 residents within its borders, and forty 
years later it had gained 473, making a population in 1880 of 1,812, 
while the last census shows a population of 2,370, the increase amount- 
ing to ninety-three in ten years. There is no decline indicated in the 
population of Mad River. 


Mad River also had part of the early development of German 
Township, settlers locating there in 1802, when the Congress lands were 
on the market. It was cheap land, and by paying down 50 cents an 
acre, the settler was unlimited in acreage. While the name would 
indicate German lineage, it is said the settlers were from Kentucky 
and lafer from Virginia. 

In the stress of wdr time patriotism when the word German was 
eliminated from so many communities, there was talk of changing the 
name, but wiser judgment prevailed and the traditions remain. Among 
the pioneers were: Rector, McKinley, Storms, Adams, Cowshick, 
Thompson, Ross, Chapman, Weaver, Oliver, Nicholson, Simms, Peck, 
Pence, Over, Bechtel, Munsey, Haller, Keplinger, Knisely, Kirer, 
Richards, and Neff. It is said that Mrs. Sarah Rector who was a widow 
with ten children was among the early arrivals. 

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The community centers are: Lawrenceville and Tremont City, the 
latter originally called Clarksville from the inclination to use the name 
of the county in the name of the town. 

In 1840 there were 1,667 people in German, and 433 additional persons 
gave it a population numbering 2,100 in 1880, while in 1920 it had 
dropped back to 1,827, which was a loss of seventy-eight persons in ten 
years. Agriculture is the occupation. 


While Pleasant Township is removed from Mad River and from 
the earliest settlement in the county, in 1803, there was a nucleus of a 
community. When Joseph Coffey and sons, Tatom and Joseph, Jr., 
arrived from Pennsylvania, they camped out for three months finally 
buildjng a cabin ; a short time later a cousin, Isaac Egmond and family 
joined them, and then came McConkey,. Neer, Hedrick, Lafferty, Daw- 
son, Runyan, Baugmardner, Abrogast, Gilmore, Hunter, Cartmell, Saylor 
and Bimyard. 

The greatest elevation of Clark County is found in Pleasant Town- 
ship, and with the knolls and the military land grants, there are many 
irregularities in local surveys, and yet good farms are found there. 

The one business center is Catawba, and because of its distance 
from other towns, it has its quota of business and professional citizens. 
It is said the main street in Catawba is an Indian trail, and while isolated 
all business and social advantages are found there. 

In 1840, there were 1,092 people in Pleasant and in forty years the 
gain was 489, giving it a total of 1,581 persons in 1880, while in 1920 
the number had dropped to 1,268 which showed an increase of fifteen 
in the last ten years. The twentieth century does not show much growth 
in Pleasant, and the source of income is agriculture. 


When this township was part of Greene County it was called Bath, 
but when Clark became an organized county the name was changed in 
order to perpetuate its past history. Its first settler, Jacob Garlaugh, 
came in 1807, buying Congress land and finding a squatter, Cady Toll, 
living on it. While he had cleared an acre of ground and planted it in 
turnips, there was no house between the site and Springfield. It was a 
wilderness of prairie and forest. Garlaugh was a year in advance of his 
family, although he became a permanent citizen. 

Other settlers were: Patten, Steele, Cowan and Smith, the latter 
coming from Tennessee when he was seventy-seven, and finding two 
squatters on the land he had purchased ; they were Fullom and Runyan, 
and they had cleared five acres- and built a cabin. In dispossessing 
them, it is said that Smith paid them for their improvements. Since 
he came in 1811 he was never a citizen of Greene County. Other 
settlers contemporary were: Elder, Hempleman, Steepleton, Galloway, 
Stewart, James, Samuels, John, Luse, Forbus, Brooks, Bates, Lewis, 
Davis, Stowbridge, Wilson and Hansbraugh. 

The community centers are : Pitchin, once known as Concord, Corts- 
ville and Clifton which is on the Clark-Greene boundary. Because of 

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the elective boundary line, certain families clinging to old affiliations, 
the business interests of Clifton are in Greene County. 

In 1840 there were 1,059 people in Greene Township, and the gain 
was 465 when in 1880 the population was 1,524, and including part of 
Clifton the count in 1920 reached 1,347, showing a decline of 177 
between 1880 and 1920, with a gain of six persons in ten years. 


While there were squatters prior to 1807, Henry Storms was the 
first settler in Harmony Township, and there is a saying that many of 
the early settlers there were from New England. Three big investors 
in the military lands were McCarthy, Galloway and Wallace, and while 
McCarthy did his own surveying, Matthew Bonner did the work for 
Wallace ; where there were squatters, it is said the lines were run around 
them, and that explains some of the irregularities. 

Among the bonafide settlers were : Storms, Troxell, Hawk, Walling- 
ford, Foley, Cox, Juda, Goodf ellow, Kennedy, Morris, Eaton, Whiteley, 
Rathburn, McMullen, Mayne, Hay, Burke, Pattock, Chenowith, Merri- 
duff, Foreman, Weeks, Henkle, James, Golden, Barrett, Chamberlain, 
Sprague, Bonner, Ropley, Bordwell, Dynes, Newlove, Osborne, Judy, 
Taylor, Lingle, Busbey, Clark, Lloyd, Lutman and Marsh. 

Community centers: South Vienna, Harmony, Brighton, Platts- 
burg, Lisbon, Thorpe and Royal. Since the township is crossed by the 
national road, there are tavern landmarks outside the towns as Buena 
Vista. While John Reeder was carrying the chain for Surveyor John 
Stewart in establishing Lisbon, he overheard the remark : "Springfield 
would probably become a large town if it were not so close to Lisbon/' 

When John Nicholson came to Harmony, he brought along a yoke 
of oxen, some cows and thirty head of sheep with sufficient grain to 
tide him over until he produced a crop ; he planted fifteen acres the first 
year, and Harmony has always been a foremost township in agriculture. 
The flock of sheep attracted wolves, and Nicholson had his difficulties 
in guarding them. 

In 1840 the population had attained to 1,645, and in the forty years 
elapsing till the census in 1880, when 1,846 were reported, it had gained 
201, but forty years later when the census was taken in 1920, showing 
a population of 1,802, there was a loss of forty-four although in the 
previous decade the township had gained six persons. 


While Madison was once known as Stokes Township, and in Madison 
County, its first development was the plat of Charleston, November 1, 
1815, it becoming a matter of record February 5, 1816, in London. 
September 19, 1818, was the time of the first election in Clark County. 
It was held in the home of George Searlott, the hamlet having been in 
existence three years. It was named for Charles Paist who was its 
first merchant. Because of mail difficulties it was later designated as 
South Charleston. 

Among the settlers in Stokes, now Madison: Critz, Kelso, Light- 
foot, Hedrick, Surlot, Vance, Halsted, Adams, Hogue, Peirce, Reed, 
Gatch, Williams, Davison, Molar, DeLong, Hay, Clark, Houston, Hen- 

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dricks, Bingam, McCollom, Elsworth, Sterritt, Trader, Sutton, Cutler, 
Woolsy, Rowan, Hempleman, Lott, Wilson and Ludlow. 

Community centers: South Charleston is an acquisition, and is 
older than the township. Because of its location on the stage route 
between Columbus and Cincinnati, it was a busy center in its early 
history. Some of the most celebrated taverns were in that vicinity, and 
distinguished travelers were entertained in South Charleston. Ii\ 1849 
it became an incorporated town. Its "palmy days" were in the time of 
the stage coach, and it still has its quota of aged persons who remember 
all about it. 

One comment was, "South Charleston is a town of strong early 
associations," and another was, "Conservative South Charleston." It 
is a place of wide, well shaded streets, and commodious homes, although 
the townspeople were discussing a recent business reverse, and hoping 
the community would speedily recover from it. 

It is related that when Charles Paist had the principal business house 
in South Charleston an amusing incident occurred, involving a negro, 
a plug hat, a roll of butter, a hot stove — and Mr. Paist, who was 
chief interlocutor. The negro went into the back room, stole a roll of 
butter and concealed it in his hat; because Paist suspected the theft, 
he detained the negro by the side of the hot stove much against his 
apparent inclination, and soon the evidence was against him. The 
stream of melted butter told the story of the theft, and when the negro 
finally left the store, the merchant had his confession — no need of other 
witness than the melted butter. 

A booklet written by Albert Reeder is the source of much infor- 
mation about South Charleston. He relates that Fred Stowe, a son of 
the writer of Uncle Tom's Cabin, was once in the community with a 
governess, and that they played together, fishing and turtle hunting, 
and he refers to a rail fence separating the town from an adjoining 
woods pasture. In it was a pond on which the boys played shinny in 
winter, and the hunters would shoot wild duck from it in summer — 
a true story that requires a vivid imagination to comprehend it today. 

In the days of grist mills, saw mills and blacksmith shops, there was 
a blacksmith in South Charleston whose specialty was mules and oxen, 
and in support of the story there was a yoke of oxen drawing a wagon 
and a second vehicle drawn by a single ox in shafts passed through 
Springfield, November 3, 1921, that attracted much attention. 

The first mayor in South Charleston was Joseph S. Peat, and the 
marshal was James Thacker; when the boys were noisy on the streets, 
he would drive them home — no need of a curfew, and an old account 
says, "It is surrounded by a fine grazing and tillable country." There 
are attractive suburban homes, and it is the trading center for a large 
community. There is a village manager and a commission to take care 
of the future, and one measure recently adopted restrains school children 
from tying their sleds to automobiles, the fate of three Wittenberg 
college girls who were injured in that vicinity prompting it. By practic- 
ing economy, notwithstanding the business reverses, the South Charles- 
ton village manager and commission is able to function without borrow- 
ing money. 

Other centers in Madison — Selma and Dolly Varden. Selma has 
the distinction of having been peopled by Quakers, there being two 
Quaker communities in Madison Township; the Orthodox Friends are 

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in Selma, while the Hicksite Quakers or Friends are between Selma and 
South Charleston. 

The population of Madison . Township in 1840 was 1,115 while 
forty years later it was 2,396, showing a gain of 1,281 persons in that 
period; in 1920 the census report gives to the area 2,370, showing a 
gain of ninety-three in ten years, and there never has been a decline 
shown in the number of citizens. 


While one account says there were twenty townships in Champaign 
County, and that ten of them were transferred to Clark County, another 
statement is that when there were two townships in Clark County one 
was Springfield; it is conceded that the township is named for the 
town, and the story of James Demint need not be repeated, although 
outside the town among the early settlers were: Smith, Tuttle, Ward, 
Beesly, Ricketts, Ritt, Warder, Murray, Hunt, Mulholland, McLaughlin, 
Crabill, Shuey and Needham. 

Lagonda, which is now within the corporate limits, was on the map 
almost as early as Springfield. While Simon Kenton first lived on 
Mad River, he later lived in Lagonda. He once operated a mill there, 
but avoiding the complexities of civilization, when it became a com- 
munity, he went to the frontier again. 

The City of Springfield is a story within itself, and other centers are : 
Sugar Grove Hill, Rockway, Durbin and Beattytown, sometimes called 
Emery Chapel, and all are suburban to Springfield. The city sustains 
the relation to the township that New York does to Queens County, or 
Chicago to Cook County — the balance of power is in the city. 

In 1840 the population of town and township was 4,443, and in 
forty years the gain was 20,012, bringing the number to 24,455 in 1880, 
although after 1850, when Springfield was incorporated as a city, it had 
a separate report from the township, the 1920 report attributing 3,698 
people to the township outside the city, which was a gain of 619 in ten 
years. In 1920 the city showed a population numbering 60,840, and 
since in 1910, it was 46,921, it had gained 13,919 in ten years. In the 
century year 1900 the population of Springfield was 38,253, indicating 
a continual growth since the beginning of the twentieth century. 


It was homes rather than society desired by the settlers in Pike 
Township, and until January 30, 1829, there was no effort made toward 
an organization. While it is remote from Springfield, it has its own com- 
munity centers, and is equally distant from trading points in Miami and 
Champaign counties. Andrew and Samuel Black were early residents, 
and the occupation is agriculture. 

The community centers are North Hampton, Dialton and Seth, 
the latter not shown on the map. While North Hampton once had elec- 
tric current from the Springfield, Troy & Piqua Traction Company, 
when that was no longer available, it installed its own electric plant and 
direct current is furnished consumers for business houses, residences 
and the streets, lights furnished from sundown till 9:30 each evening, 
the village council hoping to make the plant pay for itself. While other 

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towns have lights, North Hampton is remote from them and must pro- 
duce its own electricity, expending $600 in its plant. 

In 1840 Pike Township had a population numbering 1,437, and the 
increase in forty years covering the period till 1880 was 321, but in 
1920 the area had lost 261, showing a population of 1,497, it having 
lost 133 in the last ten years. 

While each township and town has its problems, under present man- 
agement many individual interests have become community concerns, 
and they are treated in collective manner; while the little red school 
house had its place, consolidation has changed the panorama, and educa- 
tional development is described in a separate chapter. While every com- 
munity had its first school teacher, he served his day and generation 
and the world holds him in grateful remembrance, but community condi- 
tions aje different and he would not meet the requirements today. 

When asking or conferring favors, men and women do not recog- 
nize township, county or state boundaries, although loyalty still actuates 
them. In 1900 there were 58,939 citizens accredited to Clark County; 
in 1910 there were 66,435, and when the census was computed again in 
1920 there were 80,728 people within the borders of the county. 

On February 9, 1803, Ohio was admitted as the seventeenth state 
into the Union, and according to the 1920 census its population of 
5,759,394 represented an increase of 992,273, or 20.8 per cent over 
the 1910 showing, and during that decade the entire population of the 
United States increased 14.9 per cent, showing the increase in Ohio to 
be 5.9 per cent greater than in the country at large, and the 14,293 gain 
in Clark County is a fraction greater than the gain in the entire com- 
monwealth of Ohio. Forty-nine counties show an increase from the 
1910 to the 1920 census, while thirty-nine counties show a decrease in 
the number of inhabitants; no boundaries have been changed, and local 
conditions account for the fluctuations in the state as well as within 
the bounds of Clark County. 

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While in the bibliography of Ohio Earthworks mention is made of 
the mounds and embankments in Clark County, this feature in the 
history is adapted from an exhaustive study made by Arthur R. Altick, 
who is a collector of Indian specimens and antiquities. 

The Altick collection is extensive and embraces all the varieties of 
Indian relics seen in the best museums; while some of it was pur- 
chased, most of it is a result of personal research in Clark and Miami 
counties. Indeed, Mr. Altick has some rare specimens, and among them 
are many curios that he secured from the mounds in Clark County. 
While scientists recommend that such research should be conducted under 
the direction of experienced persons representing state or local organiza- 
tions, Mr. Altick has followed his own initiative, always restoring the 
mounds to the condition in which he found them. W. H. Rayner has 
also made a study of the mounds in Clark County. 

Mr. Altick writes : "In the remote ages of the past, the region com- 
prising Clark County was the home of a race known as the Mound- 
builders. The only records of this once numerous although now extinct 
people are the mounds they left, and the articles found within them. 
They attained to a higher degree of culture than their successors, the 
American Indians, whom the white men found on this continent; this 
assertion is corroborated by the fact that pottery executed with con- 
siderable artistic skill has been found in the mounds as well as remnants 
of coarse cloth, which indicates that the Moundbuilders knew something 
about the art of weaving. Copper and stone tablets with hieroglyphic 
"drawings; mica and shell ornaments; copper axes and tomahawks, the 
metal of which appears to have been subjected to an annealing process 
to make it harder; stone pipes executed in the designs of birds, reptiles 
and animals, the eyes set with pearls, all have been found upon opening 
of these ancient earthworks. 

Clark County seems to have been a favored region by the Mound- 
builders, doubtless due to its topography, the virgin forests offering 
unrestricted hunting grounds, and the numerous springs affording an 
unlimited supply of drinking water; it seems that Mad River afforded 
fish in abundance at the time that ancient race inhabited the country. 
There are about forty mounds located within the county, the largest 
of which is near Enon and is known as Knob Prairie Mound. It is on 
the 300-acre farm in Mad River Township owned by Frank Werden, 
and it is surrounded by a race track; the surrounding country is prac- 
tically level, and it is land adapted to agriculture; the sub-soil imme- 
diately about it is of a comparatively shallow depth, the material for its 
construction evidently having been taken from the surface around it. 

Knob Prairie Mound is 200 feet in circumference, 50 feet high and 
conical in shape; it covers an area of approximately one acre. A 
hedge fence encircles its base, and fruit trees grow on its sides. A hack- 
berry graces the top, and in season lilacs blossom there; the mound is 
well set in blue grass, with spiral paths leading to the summit and many 
visitors climb to the top of it. Knob Prairie Mound marked the Hum- 
phrey farm before Werden acquired it, and sight-seers are not regarded 


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as trespassers who come and go without disturbing anything. The 
trees and shrubbery found there bear no direct relation to the Mound- 
builders; they are an afterthought of the owners who care to beautify 
the site, rendering it more attractive to visitors. 

Some years ago Knob Prairie Mound was opened, and the investi- 
gator says : "We found top soil all the way down for thirty feet when 
we came to a cave of curious construction; it was in the shape of a 
bake oven, and high enough for a man to stand upright in the center; 
it tapered down on the sides. On one side there was a door that evi- 
dently had led from a ground entrance into the cave. In the middle 
was a pile of dirt and stone resembling an altar ; on it were bones, char- 
coal and some pieces of decayed wood. There was one piece of partly 
charred wood in a good state of preservation. The wood was preserved, 
but the bones would not stand removal ; the investigators then cut their 
names and the date on the altar, filled up the excavation and left." 

Knob Prairie Mound at Enon 

It is said that when Gen. George Rogers Clark was in the vicinity, 
at the time of the Shawnee Village of Piqua battle, August 8, 1780, he 
ascended Knob Prairie Mound to reconnoiter; he was accompanied by 
some of his officers, the mound being in direct line with his march; 
from its apex it offered a wide panoramic view of the country. In 
1888, in connection with a presidential campaign, a flag staff was reared 
at the summit, and charred wood was found by those excavating for it. 
The pole was seventy feet high, but alas! one morning there was no 
flagstaff. An auger made less noise than a saw, and it was "bored" 
out of its commanding position on Knob Prairie Mound. No one ever 
confessed his part in the removal of the flagstaff. As well as being a 
sepulchral mound, everything points to the fact that Knob Prairie was 
a signal or observation point used by the Moundbuilders, as well as 
later inhabitants of the country. 

Another mound was located two rods east from the intersection of 
Spring and Washington streets, within the present limits of the City of 
Springfield. It was conical, and 150 feet in diameter at the base, but 

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in 1847, when the Dayton & Sandusky Railroad was being built it was 
removed, the material being used in ballasting the track; the construc- 
tion men found a quantity of human bones in the center of the mound, 
as well as what appeared to be the lower maxillary of some wild animal 
that had a large crooked tooth in it. The maxillary or jaw bone looked 
as if it had been ground away, in an endeavor to make it easily grasped 
by the hand; from its shape, it. doubtless served as a war club; when 
exposed to the air it crumbled to pieces. An early account of this 
mound says : "In 1818, two white oak trees, some bushes and a number 
of large stumps covered it." 

In the Automobile Blue Book of Ohio is the statement that the 
G. A. R. burial plot in Ferncliff Cemetery was the work of the Mound- 
builders. While it has been shaped up and rendered more symmetrical, 
the fact of its origin is unquestioned. It was a distinctive mound, and 
bones were found in it. Within a year about sixty bodies were dis- 
covered while workmen were grading Sylvan Hill in Ferncliff, and S. J. 
Perrott, superintendent of the cemetery, called Dr. B. F. Prince, of 
Wittenberg College, who declared the bones to be those of Indians or 
Moundbuilders ; they were badly decomposed, and crumbled when exposed 
to the air; the bodies had been buried in groups of five or six covering 
a small area around the crest of the hill ; the skulls resembled those of 
the Indians, although it is known that the Moundbuilders were active 
in that vicinity. They were of medium height, erect, with long well- 
developed arms, and they were equally at home in the trees or on the 
ground; it is said the high cheek bone of the Indian is lacking in the 
facial development of the Moundbuilders. All these bones were col- 
lected by Mr. Perrott, and buried in one grave in another part of 

Although no trinkets were discovered with the bones found in Sylvan 
Hill, it was the consensus of opinion that they were of Indian origin, 
because the manner of their burial was in accord with the Indian cus- 
tom. In October, 1921, W. H. Rayner dug into an Indian grave in 
Harmony Township, finding a conch shell drinking cup, bearing out 
the theory that the Shawnees who inhabited the country came from the 
Gulf region of the United States. For two weeks workmen grading 
Sylvan Hill were uncovering bones and making a collection, showing to 
the present generation that nothing is known about the final disposition 
of their bodies — born but not dead, and the future is veiled in uncertainty. 

According to an engineering record made in 1863, the mound in 
Ferncliff was five and one-half feet high, conical in shape and thirty- 
two feet in diameter; many years ago it was opened by investigators, 
a shaft being sunk in the center. About five feet from the apex, a 
hard ceiling of baked clay was encountered; the excavators continued 
their shaft through this ceiling, finding it a vault or cave ten feet high 
and shaped like a bake oven, similar to the one in Knob Prairie Mound. 
In this chamber were bones, charcoal and a wooden chain seven inches 
long with six links, and made from black locust. 

Mr. Altick recently visited Bechtle Mound located about one mile 
from Ferncliff, and almost due southwest from it. Bechtle Mound is 
750 feet from the south side of Buck Creek, and seventy feet above the 
water level of the stream; this mound occupies the east end of a ridge 
composed of clay and gravel, and it raises to an elevation of twelve feet 
above the surface. It is about 100 feet west from Bechtle Avenue, and 

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300 feet south of the viaduct across the drive in Snyder Park ; the north 
and south diameter is approximately seventy feet at the base, while the 
east and west measurement is nearly sixty-four feet, the base circum- 
ference measuring 210 feet. While it has a rectangular base, it 
approaches the cone in shape and the apex is somewhat sunken, most 
likely caused by the interior chamber giving away; its summit affords 
an excellent observation* point. An unobstructed view may be had of 
the Mad River Valley; three oak trees grow on its western slope. 

While there is no authentic record as to the exact age of these 
mounds, the latest reports from scientists indicate that some of them 
are more than 800 years old, their computations based on the erosion 
of the elements. The fact that Ferncliff, Bechtle, the cut back of the 
Masonic Home and Knob Prairie mounds are in a direct line, indicates 
that the builders had some definite object in so placing them ; they could 
signal from their summits by fire and smoke, thus establishing a long 
line of communication with one another. The trend of this chain of 
mounds is northeast and southwest, following the course of Mad River 
through Clark County. 

Mr. Altick also visited, a mound on the R. W. Newlove farm in 
Harmony Township which consists of two elliptical shaped ridges of 
earth, resembling a gigantic "wish bone." The area of the two ridges 
is practically the same, covering about one acre, the one on the north 
being more shallow than the other; the ridge on the south has a ditch 
twenty-five feet wide, and from five to seven feet deep; it encircles the 
inside of the ridge, and is thrown up on the outside of it. The distance 
from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the ridge varies from nine to 
thirteen feet, and the height of the ridge varies from four to six feet, 
as measured from the land surrounding it. The width at the base is 
from twenty to twenty-five feet, and the outlet at the ends of the ditches 
is from thirty to forty feet in width, while the two ridges are separated 
by twenty-five to thirty feet, the diameter of one being 325 feet, while 
the other is 434 feet, indicating considerable activity on the part of 
the Moundbuilders in that locality. 

The circumference of these two ridges measures 1,025 feet, and the 
western half of the north ridge is under cultivation, the remainder of 
the area being covered by forest trees and a dense growth of underbrush. 
Inside the inclosure of the southern ellipse at the western end, there is 
a small mound ; a few years ago a shaft was sunk into it to the depth 
of four feet, and the material removed was fine gravel with nothing 
unusual in it. It is the only excavation ever made in the ridges, and 
the adjacent valley is about three-quarters of a mile in length, with 
boggy land extending to Beaver Creek; on the north and west, the 
valley is walled by a range of hills. To the casual observer, this seems 
inadequate as a means of defense, and the whole valley would be a death 
trap for an invading force. About half a mile from this point, the 
national road was cut through a similar mound; at the present time it 
stands about twenty-five feet high from the surface, and an oak tree is 
on its apex; its diameter is nearly 250 feet — a milestone of the ages. 

On the eastern slope of this mound Mr. Altick secured three hammer 
stones, and one broken spear head that was covered with patina; the 
flake marks on it were worn smooth. A square block of white flint 
with one corner broken off was also found ; it was covered with patina 
and appeared to be of great age; a flint knife and the head of a flint 

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knife found there were also covered with patina, this being the color or 
incrustation which age gives to works of art. About 300 feet southwest 
is another mound nearly three feet high, and thirty feet in diameter. 
The apex is sunken about eight inches, most likely caused by the interior 
chamber giving away, although there is no indication that the mound 
has ever been opened; it is at the western edge of a woods, and part 
of it is under cultivation. A large black flint of unusual luster was 
secured at this mound. 

Accompanied by J. Heber Cusick, Mr. Altick visited another mound 
having an elevation of 100 feet above the semi-rolling surrounding 
country and covering approximately two acres; to the aborigines it 
afforded an excellent observation point; the surface is covered with 
wild shrubs and trees, with here and there an open space matted with 
wild morning glories and poke plants. On the top is a small level place 
which was used as a burial plot by the Indians, or some other race that 
roamed over this region in the dim ages of the past. The composition 
is almost pure gravel and sand, and the fact that it was used as a place 
of burial was discovered as follows: Hedgehogs had burrowed into the 
top of the mound, and in throwing out the sand they pulled out human 
bones which were found by squirrel hunters; they were in the refuse 
thrown out by the hedgehogs, Mr. Cusick having seen them himself. 
With further excavations, the two men are agreed that important paleon- 
tologic specimens may be found in this mound. 

Mr. Altick and Mr. Cusick began excavations at the summit of the 
mound, where a perpendicular shaft was sunk eight feet square, and 
one foot from the surface in the black leaf mold they found a complete 
skeleton lying face downward, in horizontal position ; however, the bones 
crumbled when they were lifted from the earth. They excavated another 
six inches, carefully removing the sand and gravel in order not to 
injure any deposit they might find; the material removed was screened 
so that small objects would not escape their notice, and here they came 
across another skeleton lying face upward, with only six inches separat- 
ing them. It lay in a sandy mixture, and was in better state of preserva- 
tion tlian the first skeleton, and while due precaution was taken in 
removing it, the bones crumbled as they handled them. 

The shaft was then sunk eighteen inches deeper when three more 
skeletons were unearthed; they were in excellent condition, the bones 
being firm and hard, due to the greater depth at which they found 
them. One was the skeleton of a female, one was a child and the other 
was a male of gigantic stature. As a matter of comparison, Altick held 
up the femur of the male skeleton by Cusick's leg, and it extended eight 
inches below his knee ; he is six feet in height. The ribs of this skeleton 
had petrified to a grayish slate color, but none would withstand the 
contact with the air. 

When the shaft on this mound was three feet deep, the two amateur 
antiquarians enlarged it by sending out a lateral to the north, and they 
found a skull through which an elm root had penetrated ; it was an inch 
in diameter, and its fine roots were matted and twisted within this bony 
enclosure. The high cheek bones and low receding forehead were very 
pronounced ; the skeleton was in standing posture, while the others were 
all in horizontal positions. In all the skeletons exhumed, the most per- 
fectly preserved portions were the teeth; it was a peculiarity of the 
aborigines that their teeth were worn almost to the maxillary bones, and 

VoL I— 8 

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yet the remarkable thing about them was their excellent condition. No 
cavities were found, and yet they were teeth of old persons as indi- 
cated by their worn condition. 

Other skeletons found in this lateral were those of little children, as 
indicated by the size of the bones and the thickness of the skulls; some 
of the bones were from persons of larger stature; at this point the 
interment ranged in depth from one foot and a quarter to four feet. 
The aborigine usually buried his dead with the implements of war or 
the chase near the body. In the great Madisonville cemetery there have 
been instances where nothing was found buried with the skeleton, but 
had these investigators enlarged their excavations they might have dis- 
covered some unusual things. Five years later they visited the mound 
. again, finding the shaft well overgrown with shrubs, red pokeberry plants 
and morning glory vines; clearing away the accumulation they began 
digging again. 

Shows the Large Skull Penetrated by the Tree Root 

The lateral running north was extended, and two flints were found; 
one was a magnificent black, oval flint, seven and one-half inches long; 
it was two inches wide at the widest point, and one-quarter of an inch 
thick. It was too long and too large for an arrow or spear head, and was 
probably used as a knife. The workmanship on it is of superior type, 
the flaking being smooth and true ; the other specimen was chipped from 
gray colored flint rock, three and three-quarter inches in length, and one 
and three-quarter inches in width at the widest point; it was three- 
quarters of an inch thick, with a barbed head and blunt point. Its size 
and shape indicate that it had been used as a spear head. These two 
specimens were found in screenings taken from the earth twelve inches 
below the surface, where the outline of a skeleton was plainly dis- 
cerned, but there were no bones in condition for removal. 

At a depth of two feet in this same lateral a stone ax and a banded 
slate gorget were unearthed. The ax is six inches long and three inches 
wide, with a one and one-half inch groove at the top which is five- 
sixteenths of an inch deep, made from a hard grained, grayish colored 

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rock; there is also a groove running lengthwise on the top edge of the 
ax, three and three-quarters of an inch long with a depth of one- 
sixteenth of an inch. It is a beautiful specimen, highly polished, and 
shows very excellent workmanship. The banded slate gorget is a piece 
of armor defending the upper part of the breast, and this one was four 
inches long, and two and one-quarter inches in width, being one and 
one-half inches at the narrowest portion; it was three-eighths of an inch 
thick, with two holes three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter piercing 
approximately the center, and the mounds in Clark County are an 
unending source for scientific research. 

In 1840, says an old account, William Parker found the tusk of an 
elephant or some similar animal along Buck Creek near the Foos mill; 
while it was partly decayed, it was prehistoric and raises the question 
about the earlier wild life of the forest. It is recommended that archaeolo- 
gists should note on charts the positions of skeletons, and the imple- 
ments found with them, and that the mode of burial should be recorded 
— whether side by side, or the limbs drawn or distended, such details 
aiding in determining the period and the conditions under which the 
subjects had lived in the world. 

Present day knowledge of the Moundbuilders is meager, and limited 
to the articles of culture found in their ancient earthworks; by careful 
analyses, the archaeologist arrives at a degree of accuracy in his con- 
clusions, and thus the world has its knowledge of prehistoric races. 
Skeletons in half-charred condition crumble readily, and it seems that 
burning their dead was a custom among the Moundbuilders. While 
the Indians often burned their prisoners at the stake, there is no record 
that they ever burned their own dead, and the conclusion is easily reached 
that the, bones found in these Clark County mounds are from the 
skeletons of the Indians. This conclusion is further supported by the 
fact that the bones were found near the surface and not at the base, as 
was the custom among the Moundbuilders. 

The Indian was a lazy fellow, but that charge is not laid at the 
door of his predecessor, the Moundbuilder. The State of Ohio is dotted 
with about 400 mounds, monuments to the enterprise and industry of an 
extinct people; the Indians have utilized these mounds as a burial 
place for their dead, and investigation develops the fact in almost every 
instance that the skeletons lie near the surface. A great deal is still 
to be learned about the earliest inhabitants of the country; nothing is 
known of their language, their laws, their religion, nor by what names 
they were known while living on the earth. 

Some hitherto unopened mound may yet reveal a "Rosetta Stone," or 
some other means of deciphering the unsolved mysteries of a long extinct 
race — the key to the situation may yet be found in Clark County, and 
the world will be ready to receive the story. 

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It used to be said that travelers gained their impressions of the towns 
through which they were passing from the tin can dumps to be seen 
from the car windows, and tourists following the National road from 
the east gain certain information about Springfield before they reach it 
from the United States Tire Company sign — a huge book a few miles 
out of town. This advance history reads: "Springfield was once the 
hunting ground of the Shawnee whose great chieftain was Tecumseh, 
who flourished his sword at Fort Miami, and stopped the massacre of 
defenseless prisoners." Those sign writers owe it to a community to be 
well informed on local history. 

A Smithsonian Institute estimate of the Shawnee Indians reads: 
"The Shawnees were the Beduoins, and I may almost say Ishmaelites 
of the North American tribes; as wanderers they were without rivals 
among their race, and as fomentors of discord and war between them- 
selves and their neighbors, their genius was marked ; their original home 
is not known with any measure of certainty," and thus the primitive 
race as found along Mad River in the Revolutionary period is veiled in 
obscurity. Since then almost one and one-half centuries have cycled by, 
and time does not shed more light on the Shawnees. 

In a review of the local situation in the light of history, before a 
meeting of the Clark County Historical Society, December 6, 1921, 
W. W. Keifer said the white race was the third nationality to people 
the hills and dales adjacent to Mad River. He reviewed the story of 
Capt. John Smith being carried through as a prisoner by the Indians 
in 1772, of John Paul coming into the community in 1790, and the 
awful fate that awaited him, and of the subsequent settlers, saying that 
when General Clark came in 1780 he only tarried long enough to rout 
the Indians. It was not until after the Greenville treaty in 1790 that 
many settlers ventured into the community. Chillicothe and Piqua 
villages were the strongholds of the Shawnees, and when General Clark 
and his army approached Chillicothe they fled to Piqua, where they 
made their final defense, witnessing the overthrow of the Shawnee 

An early writer says: "The territory of Ohio furnished an ideal 
home for the Indian. The climate was excellent, the streams abounded 
with fish and the forests with game; the red deer was abundant, and 
the buffalo and elk were found in considerable numbers in certain por- 
tions of the state. These and other large animals furnished food for 
the Indians; their hides furnished the covering for their lodges, and 
clothing for their bodies. The waters of the state at certain seasons of 
the year were alive with myriads of wild fowl, of which we can now 
have no conception as to numbers. These added greatly to the suste- 
nance of the Indians. No portion of the country was more favorable 
for forest life," and narrowed down to Clark County the above is in 
harmony with the Keifer assertion : "Ohio and Clark County are highly 
favored as to climatic conditions. While the Moundbuilders and the 


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Indians had their turn, the people of today are satisfied with existing 
circumstances, and we have every advantage." 

As a short resume of Indian history, the Miamis occupied all the 
western portion of Ohio, all of Indiana and a large portion of Illinois; 
they were once the most numerous and powerful of all the tribes in 
the Northwest. They had no tradition of ever having lived in any 
other portion of the country and it is evident they occupied their ter- 
ritory through many generations. Their principal villages in Ohio were 
along the headwaters of the two Miamis, and the Miami of the Lake 
(The Maumee) and along the waters of the Wabash in Indiana as 

Tecumseh, the Shawnee Warrior 

far south as Vincennes. While at the time of the Greenville treaty in 
1795 they had been reduced in numbers and power, they were the 
oldest occupants of the Ohio territory. Quite different is the history 
of the Shawnees, who were wanderers on the face of the earth. 

The Shawnee and Mingo Indians had many villages on Mad River; 
their villages extended a distance of about three miles and their hab- 
itations were only a few rods from each other. Chillicothe village 
was in the present limits of Greene County, and the Shawnees there 
mingled much with their neighbors along Mad River. In the Shawnee 
tongue, Piqua meant "A man formed out of ashes," and the whole 
series of Shawnee villages had the same name, and when the Con- 

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federacy was overthrown and the remnant of the tribe removed to 
the Big Miami, they retained the name, and thus the City of Piqua — the 
Border City in Miami County. 

It is said that all of the Indian tribes in Ohio had practically the 
same government or tribal organization, but the Shawnees were non- 
conformists and in many details they were unlike other Indians. In 
some of the tribes there was complete separation of the military and 
social government, and the sachem or tribal chieftain represented them 
in council ; and in their grand councils the heads of the different tribes 
had part, and they were conducted with great ceremony. The sachem 
explained the object of the assembly, and each Indian present was at 
liberty to express his opinion. When the majority agreed, the sachem 
only announced the decision, having no voice in it. When a man once 
expressed his opinion it was dishonorable to reverse it. In some of 
the tribes the squaw had her separate property, which consisted of 
everything in the lodge or wigwam except the implements of war and 
the chase which belonged to the warriors. Each tribe had the right 
to demand service from all of its male members in avenging wrongs 
in time of war. The military council included all able bodied men. 

While the Shawnees of Piqua Village were attacked by the expe- 
dition commanded by General Clark, it was a law of the tribes that 
when they determined upon a war expedition they observed the war 
dance, and then started for their objective point. They did not move 
in compact bodies as comprehended by present-day military tactics, but 
broke up into small parties, each of which took its different way to a 
common point of assembly. This was a necessity as they must subsist 
upon the game found on the way, and it was impossible to secure quan- 
tities sufficient to sustain a large number of warriors on any one line 
of travel. They understood and met conditions in their own way ; they 
traveled light and fast, and they were dangerous enemies. They would 
strike when unexpected, and disappear as suddenly; in this way they 
were able to subsist en route and to elude pursuit. 

While one writer says: "The Miamis claimed the right of posses- 
sion in the territory between the Scioto and the Miamis, and they were 
at one time in possession of and entitled to the same, in time the 
Wyandots seemed to have been accorded the right thereto," local his- 
tory is silent save about the Shawnees. The Delawares and the Iroquois 
were established in nearby sections of Ohio, but one informant says: 
"The Shawnees held the valley of the Scioto; in fact, they held most 
of the territory included in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of a later 

In the beginning of history the Miamis occupied the valleys of the 
two rivers upon which they impressed their names; the Ottawas the 
valleys of the Maumee and Sandusky, and the Chippewas the south 
shores of Lake Erie. However, all the tribes frequented lands out- 
side their own prescribed territory, and at different periods from the 
time of the first definite knowledge concerning them, down to the era 
of the white settlement, they occupied different locations. Not long 
after Gist's visit in 1751 the Shawnees left the mouth of the Scioto and 
established themselves higher up the river and on the waters of the 
Miami, building such towns as Old and New Chillicothe. The Shaw- 
nees were steadfast friends of the English until Dunmore's War in 
1774, after which they became the most inveterate and formidable 

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Indian enemy of the British. They- were the last to be subdued by the 

The Shawnees of the Scioto and the Delawares of the Muskingum 
were always hostile, and during and after the Revolutionary war vari- 
ous American expeditions were sent against the warlike Shawnees. The 
scenes of these forays and conflicts were in the Upper Valley of the 
Scioto. The Bible says: "To the making of many books there is no 
end," and there are conflicting accounts of the Shawnees. One writer 
says: "In 1779 Colonel Bowman headed an expedition against them 
and their Village of Chillicothe was burned; but the Shawnee warriors 
showed an undaunted front, and the whites were forced to retreat. In 
the summer of the following year General Clark led a body of Ken- 
tuckians against the Shawnees; on this approach the Indians burned 
Chillicothe themselves and retreated to their town of Piqua, six miles 
below the* present site of Springfield. There they gave battle and were 
defeated. In September, 1782, this officer led a second expedition 
against them and destroyed their towns of Upper and Lower Piqua in 
what is now Miami County. Other expeditions from Kentucky were 
directed against the stubborn Shawnees of the Upper Scioto Valley 
and along the Miami rivers farther west," 1786-8 given as the time 
of these conflicts.. 

The battle with the Shawnees at Piqua Village has been men- 
tioned before and will be mentioned again in the military relation of 
Clark County to the rest of the world. Thomas Hutchins, who after- 
ward became a geographer of the United States, drew a map showing 
some of the early activities against the Shawnees along the Scioto and 
Miami rivers, and this map was published in London in the time of 
the Revolution. Until then the French had made the only maps in 
existence. This map locates two Shawnee villages near the head-waters 
of .the Scioto, and it records lead mines in that vicinity. Still another 
writer relates that while the Shawnees were the dominant tribe along 
Mad River, there were Sacs and Foxes, and adds: "The old Indian 
town of Piqua, the ancient Piqua of the Shawnees and the birthplace 
of Tecumseh, was situated on the north side of Mad River, and occupied 
a site on which a town called New Boston was later built," and its 
story has already been given in an earlier chapter. 

While Tecumseh has not hitherto been mentioned, his name will 
always be associated with the history of Clark County. He was born 
in the Shawnee Village in 1768, and was only twelve years old when 
General Clark and his army invaded the country. It is said that Piqua 
Village was a well planned and executed battle, and that the youthful 
Tecumseh was carried by the remnant of the tribe to another Piqua on 
the Big Miami and after he reached maturity he devoted himself to an 
effort to reunite the tribes, and regain the hunting grounds along Mad 
River. While he was unlettered and ignorant, he was a statesman 
with the same conception of government as is embodied in the Con- 
stitution of the United States — in Union there is strength. But he was 
doomed to disappointment, never realizing his ambition. 

Because of his activities, Tecumseh was designated as the Flying 
Panther and as a Meteor, and while he only attained to forty-five 
years, his name has gone down in history as the foremost Indian of his 
day and generation. While most historians speak of the Prophet as 
half brother to Tecumseh, the story is told in Springfield that triplets 

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were born along Mad River and that one died in infancy while the 
real name of the Prophet was Elksinatawa or Tenskinatewa — both ver- 
sions in one of the local histories. While Tecumseh is the outstanding 
character, the Prophet distinguished himself as a soothsayer among 
the Shawnees. While the untutored mind of Tecumseh evolved the 
brilliant idea of uniting the tribes, and regaining lost territory, jealousy 
of his leadership on the part of other Indians weakened his cause; it 
was a wonderful conception for an ignorant savage, and while he had 
the ability to reason he could not control the cogitations of others. 
While he could neither read or write, he originated the idea of banding 
all of the tribes together; while it would have been an autonomy, it 
would have been a powerful Indian Confederacy. 

Tecumseh is described as a man of excellent qualities, impressive 
manners and natural eloquence, and while he was married several times, 
he sometimes failed in such conquest; when a wife no longer pleased 
him he gave her property and set her adrift. Tecumseh once proposed 
to a white woman named Rebecca Galloway, saying: "I big chief; 
you make great squaw," but his eloquence failed to win her. She 
did not want an Indian husband. The chieftain discarded one wife 
because she served turkey to guests without carefully removing the 
feathers, but he lived five years with the last one — something unusual 
for Tecumseh. Whatever the social standard required of warriors, for 
the first offense of adultery the squaw had her hair cropped and for 
repeated offenses her left ear was removed and so on until she was 
sadly maimed for life. 

When a warrior became an outlaw and was repeatedly convicted 
it became lawful for anyone to kill him; their captives in war and in 
their forays were sometimes shot, sometimes burned, and sometimes 
adopted and converted into Indians. As a rule the white captives some- 
times acquired the woodcraft and habits of their captors. Some of 
them became inveterate foes to the white man. While Simon Kenton 
was once a captive, it did not influence him that way, although Simon 
Girty is mentioned in that class. He was sometimes called the "White 
Indian." He once rescued Simon Kenton, although celebrated for his 
cunning and craftiness. 4 While no Indian surpassed Girty in these 
qualities, and he is cited as an example of extreme cruelty, it is said 
that he saved many captives from death. It is probable that injustice 
has been done him by inaccurate and prejudiced writers. His home 
was farther north, in the military group of Ohio counties, but he vis- 
ited Kenton in Clark County. 

It was so long ago that the Shawnees were exterminated along Mad 
River that few stories are handed down from one generation to another 
about them, like happens in newer counties, where linger some of the 
early settlers. It is likely that the Shawnees went single file about the 
country, and yet they were not contemporary with Clark County set- 
tlers — they had been driven out of the country. It is related that the 
final catastrophe in the lives of the Shawnees who once inhabited the 
country along Mad River was enacted in 1846, when about seventy of 
them including the women and children were brought from a temporary 
reservation in Indiana to Cincinnati and embarked on a steamboat for 
St. Louis and the Far West. The story is told that when they were 
being deported some marched through Springfield, and all the boys in 
town who saw them were Big Chiefs afterward. The Indians are the 

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romance race, and the child of today stands ready to wear the feathers 
and the beaded costumes, little thinking what deportation meant to the 

It was so long ago that it is not now part of the consciousness of 
the citizens of Clark County. In World war days platform speakers 
decried deportation as the crime of the European war countries. It 
does not require any undue stretch of the imagination to gain some con- 
ception of the injustice thus perpetrated upon the American Indians. 
The migration of the Shawnees from Mad River is ancient history 
and yet they were endowed with a love for their country. In some 
breasts there is still sympathy for the American Indian. The reserva- 
tions were described to the Shawnees as consisting of 100,000 acres of 
unbroken forest, with wild animals unmolested. They could feast on 
buffalo, elk, deer and other game, and thus they were buoyed up for 
what awaited them — the loss of their possessions in different parts of 
Ohio and the Old Northwest. While the system was winked at by 
the United States Government, it was a hardship for the unsuspecting 

The Shawnees in Springfield 

While Tecumseh is about the only Shawnee whose name is known 
in Clark County today, his history is known to the world. While there 
is confusion about the word Piqua as the name of the Shawnee village, 
the outside citizen thinking only of the present-day city bearing the 
name, no one can rob Clark County of the honor of having been the 
birthplace of Tecumseh within its classic bounds — Clark and Tecumseh 
both being names to conjure with when establishing local prestige because 
of them. 

The story goes that in the autumn of 1807 a white man named Myers 
a few miles west of where the Town of Urbana now stands, while 
Clark was still part of Champaign County, was murdered. The tragedy 
was attributed to straggling Indians, and this murder taken with the 
assemblage of th$ Indians under the leadership of Tecumseh and the 
Prophet, created great alarm among the settlers on the frontier. It 
was the cause of many returning to Kentucky. The settlers demanded 
from Tecumseh and the Prophet the Indians who committed the murder ; 
the brothers denied that the crime was committed by their party or with 
their knowledge — they did not even know the murderers. The alarm 
spread and the militia was called for the protection of the community. 
It was finally agreed that a council should be held in Springfield. 

Something had to be done to quiet the settlers who were in constant 
fear of the Indians. When the time came General Whiteman, Major 
Moore, Captain Ward and some others acted as commissioners repre- 
senting the white people in the community. Two groups of Indians 
attended the council, one from the tribes in Ohio led by McPherson, 
and the other brought by Tecumseh from the vicinity of Fort Wayne. 
About seventy Indians accompanied Tecumseh. Roundhead, Blackfish 
and other chiefs came to the council. It was a strange assemblage in 
Springfield, which has since prided itself as a convention city. There 
was an unfriendly feeling between the two groups, and each was willing 
that the guilt for the murder should be fixed upon the other. 

While in compliance with the wishes of the commissioners McPher- 
son and his group left their arms a few miles out of Springfield, 

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Tecumseh and his followers refused to attend the council unless per- 
mitted to retain their arms. After the conference was. under way in 
a maple grove in Springfield, fearing some violence on the part of the 
Indians present, the commissioners again asked Tecumseh to lay aside 
his weapons. The wily chieftain refused, saying his tomahawk was 
at the same time his pipe and he might wish to smoke it before the 
business of the council was finished, and he made an animated speech 
clearly showing that the Myers murder was not chargeable to him or 
his party. 

When Tecumseh said that his tomahawk was also his pipe, a young 
doctor named Brown who had recently located in Springfield, described 
by one writer as a tall, lank-sided Pennsylvanian who was among the 
spectators, and who evidently had no love for the shining tomahawk 
of the self-willed chief, cautiously approached and handed Tecumseh 
an old, long-stemmed, dirty-looking earthen pipe, intimating that if he 
would relinquish the tomahawk he might smoke it. Taking the pipe 
between his thumb and finger, Tecumseh held it up and looked at 
it for a moment and then at the owner, who was receding from the 
point of danger, and with an indignant sneer he threw it over his head 
into the bushes. Nothing more was said about "disarmament," and 
the council proceeded with its business, knowing that Tecumseh was 
in no mood for levity. A good many things had happened that had 
been charged to the Shawnees. Facts were not to be juggled with and 
the council must not imagine vain things. 

Beside the murder of Myers, a Mrs. Elliott had been shot at while 
working about her house on Mad River. She was wearing a sunbon- 
net and the bullet had pierced it. Feeling ran high as the council pro- 
ceeded with the business brought before it. There had been frequent 
alarms, and although false reports were circulated, the people would 
assemble and the Foos Hotel was used as a fort, the people gathering 
there for protection. Other houses were utilized as places of refuge 
and while Tecumseh declared the innocence of himself and party, the 
people were not inclined to take chances with him. However, after 
full inquiry into the facts, it appeared that the murder of Myers was 
the act of an individual and neither group assumed the responsibility. 
Thus ended an unusual court of inquiry in Springfield. 

While the judges were the commissioners indicated, the principal 
speaker at the bar was Tecumseh, whose delivery was fluent and rapid, 
and he made a lasting impression upon all who heard him. He explained 
the views of himself and the Prophet, saying they had called around 
them a band of Indians, disavowing all hostile intentions toward the 
United States, and denying that he or those associated with him had 
committed any aggressions against the whites. In the course of the 
council the two hostile parties became reconciled and quiet was restored 
on the frontier. The delegates — the Indians — remained in Springfield 
three days, and they frequently amused themselves and others by 
engaging in various games and athletic exercises, in which Tecumseh 
was usually the victor. His strength and muscular power were remark- 
able, and in the opinion of all who attended the council, his physique 
corresponded to the high order of his moral and intellectual character. 

In the Stone Age 

In almost poetic measure has W. H. Rayner written about the 
Shawnee, in a paper read before the Clark County Historical Society 

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April 10, 1910, and notwithstanding "twice told tales," in using it, 
the paper is herewith reproduced. Long before the advent of the white 
man in western Ohio, the beautiful wooded hills on the north bank of 
Mad River were the favorite resort of successive tribes of Indians. 
Here was the Indian Village of Piqua, the birthplace of the renowned 
Tecumseh. To the southwest were rudely tilled fields of maize, 
which supplied these children of the forest with the only products 
for their domestic use not directly provided by the hand of nature. 

In this crude attempt at agriculture is seen the first struggle toward 
a primitive civilization that would in time have lifted these strange 
people out of the depths of barbarism in which they were submerged; 
the natural beauty of the locality, together with the unusual resources 
that abound, marked this place as one of long continued residence of 
the aborigines. Here, centuries ago, lived and thrived the people of 
the Stone Age. The varied scenery — the vine-clad bluffs, the wooded 
hills, the rippling brook, the undulating pasture land blended into a 
picture dear to those children of nature. 

In the river were choicest fish awaiting the bone fishhook and 
sinew line. Birds of varied hue and sweetest song flitted from branch 
to branch, enhanced this very paradise of which they were part. The 
forest on the north abounded in game where implements of the chase 
were brought into play, when warrior and youth were wont to execute 
feats of valor and courage that marked their standing in the tribe, and 
christened each anew in memory of every grand achievement. From 
out these hills flowed purest streams of crystal water; beneath these 
trees roamed dusky maid and lover. On moonlit summer nights were 
s.een graceful forms of many dancers, decked with shells and bright 
feathers as they moved in stately pace to the trum of the tomtom 
or the screeching tone of the reed whistle, while they offered their 
chanted praise to the Great Spirit who had showered their lives with 
blessings, and permitted them to defend the graves of their fathers. 

The domestic scenes enacted on these hills baffle imagination. Here 
the squaw in hut, tepee or rock shelter, assisted by her children, gath- 
ered the acorns as they fell from the overhanging boughs, dressed and 
prepared the game the father and older sons had provided, and shelled 
and leached the maize that hominy might not be wanting in the home 
over which she presided. At the running brook she tanned the skins 
and on the winter days she shaped them into blankets, moccasins and 
robes that furnished all the necessary raiment. Among her tasks was 
one that seemed the choicest of them all — to grind the nuts and corn, 
would take her to the village mill. There with others of her kind, each 
one provided with a stone, they ground their common grist and talked 
of all the gossip of the tribe — why Turtle Face had turned his back 
on the maid Silver Sides. 

How strange it was that Running Deer should fail to see how much 
in love with him was Weeping Eyes, and more anon until the task 
was done, and each one turned homeward with the ashen cake she 
had prepared. A glimpse at a central promontory reveals the arrow 
maker's shop; here, cross-legged day by day he sat and shaped the 
flint, obsidian and quartz and made the shapely, spears and arrow points ; 
some he designed for war, others for the chase, and some, no doubt 
the choicest of them all, were made for gifts as tokens given in love 
and esteem; they were made too fragile for baser use. 

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Here, too, by lucky chance a flake unusual in size with edges sharp 
as a razor escapes the crushing of the horn-tipped tool, and is eagerly 
grasped and safely treasured, wrapped in softest fur. It is the sur- 
geon's knife, and oft must come in play in story times of battle, which 
must be waged should outer foes attempt to drive them from these 
hills that have been theirs since the memory of their oldest man. The 
river gravel gave their tools well shaped to the hand, but many of the 
best were pecked and rubbed, and show even now the purpose for which 
they were designed. The battle ax with groove and pole and edge is 
no mean weapon when it is hung with shaft entwined and grown by 
nature to its firm embrace; it makes one think of warriors of a 
stature grand, who swung such axes to defend their race. 

The pestle, conical in shape, was broad of base and fitted to the 
hand, was used to crush and grind their meal, to crack their nuts and 
problems more complex; to pound the sinews of the legs of deer, thus 
furnishing thread for the bone needles they used, and there were celts 
or skinners — shapely stones with edge and pole, but made without the 
groove and used by hand, they entered into many daily tasks. But 
rare and seldom found are stones of slate, fashioned into fantastic shapes, 
and drilled with holes which were used on staffs in ceremonial state, 
or work as breastplates to indicate the rank of those who bore them, 
and some were niched with marks to tell the moons that had gone by 
since the wearer became the leader of his tribe. 

Under the gravel tops of nearby hills are graves of many hundreds 
of these braves. Many were called home in ripened years, but some 
were crushed in battle as is shown by their mutilated bones — a legion 
of them, so that the spade may not pierce the earth without disturbing 
these grim relics of the past, and with these bones are found the per- 
forated shells, the legal tender of these olden times. Somtimes the 
spade upturns a hollowed stone — the paint box of some coquette of 
either sex, for such ornaments were the property of all. 

No doubt these people wrought with implements of wood, but if 
so they have vanished with the race. Baskets made of bark and lined 
with clay were burned with fire, and so was made the pottery of old. 
So frail was this that naught remain but broken fragments that tell a 
tale of struggling light that the Divine Father had given them, on 
which to build a greater destiny. Much has been lost, but enough 
remains of these relics of a by-gone race that he who cares to fit his 
hand where once theirs lay, to work the pestle as they ground the 
grain, to helve the ax that for centuries has been free, to flake the 
flint with that prime arrow-maker of old, may cover again those still 
beautiful hills and valleys with that strangely natural people who lived 
so close to nature that one almqst believes they could not have been far 
from Nature's God. 

The Clark County Historical Society is to be congratulated upon 
the fact that it owns a plot of ground in the very center of that his- 
torical locality deeded to the society by the late Leander Baker. (While 
Mr. Rayner had the impression that Mr. Baker had given an acre to 
the historical society for the site of the proposed Clark-Tecumseh mon- 
ument, it was but one-quarter of an acre, and W. W. Keifer, who later 
acquired the farm, recognized as the military center, proposes to add 
to the plot sufficient ground whenever the monument is a reality, to 
allow an approach to it without crossing private property, and to allow 

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of some landscape work adjoining it.) Mr. Keifer has now deeded 
enough ground to make the plot nearly an acre. This is a beautiful 
promontory and affords a view of Mad River and the surrounding • 

The time will no doubt soon come when public interest will be so 
fully aroused in regard to this old battle ground that a suitable monument 
will be erected to not only commemorate the battle between the whites 
and the Indians in western Ohio, but also to mark the peaceful abode 
of a race who have gone never to return to the land of their fathers. 
(Mr. Rayner has studied both the Moundbuilders and the Indians, and 
as custodian of the Clark County Historical Society museum he has 
imparted much information to others.) 

The Greenville Treaty 

Because of its direct relation to the early settlement of Clark 
County, the Indians agreeing to cease their depredations against the 
whites, although the intrepid Tecumseh was not party to it, some men- 
tion is made of it. Because Gen. George Rogers Clark had acquired 
much local territory, and it had been lost again to the Indians through 
the inefficiency of Gen. Arthur St. Clair as territorial governor, President 
George Washington, detailed Gen. Anthony Wayne to go to Fort Wash- 
ington (Cincinnati) and bring order out of chaos. With his army Gen- 
eral Wayne marched northward, stopping and constructing a fort at Green- 
ville, and from that point he dealt with the Indian question. 

While there were 1,130 Indians assembled, only 143 Shawnees had 
part in the proceedings, and Tecumseh who had become a recognized 
leader, was not present. Most of the chieftains had been approached 
by British agents as had Tecumseh, but their people were so reduced 
that they agreed to a permanent peace with the "Thirteen Fires," as 
they denominated the original states, and, notwithstanding Tecumseh, 
the settlements were soon located on Mad River. Within a year corn 
was again growing where the Shawnees had cultivated the bottom 
lands before they were driven out of the country. 

Judge Jacob R. Burnett, who knew many of the chieftains who 
signed the Greenville Treaty, August 3, 1795, and who later helped to 
frame the first Constitution of Ohio, and who often stopped in their 
villages while traveling his judicial circuit, wrote: "At the time our 
settlers were coming northwest of the Ohio, that hardy race were the 
acknowledged owners and sovereigns of the land they possessed. The 
government claimed no right, either of occupancy or soil, but as it was 
obtained by purchase," but subsequent developments do not correspond 
to that interpretation. While Piqua Village was destroyed in 1780, 
Peter Smith, who located on Mad River in 1804, relates: "The smoke 
from the wigwams of the Indians mingled with the smoke from the 
cabins of the whites; in the cold winter nights, while the early settlers 
watched the blazing logs in the fireplaces, they also watched the door 
lest a stalwart might surprise them. In the summer evenings, while 
they sat in the doorways enjoying the odors from the forest, they 
would peer into the darkness, not quite sure but redskins were stalking 
around," and in the creek a few yards from the Smith cabin was a 
favorite place for the squaws to harden their papooses by bathing them 
in running water. Mr. Smith, who relates the story, is elsewhere men- 

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tioned as the first author of Materia Medica in the Miami country. 
Besides being a medical practitioner, he was also a Gospel minister. 
Prominent citizens in Springeld trace their lineage through Dr. Peter 
Smith today. 

Indian Characteristics 

In defense of the Indian, someone writes that he did not care to 
construct a canoe because it would be stolen from him; he did not 
secure more game than his family would consume because it would 
be carried away by others. When the missionaries came among them 
and they learned integrity, the Indians began constructing canoes which 
was the beginning of merchant marine in this country. When they 
began to preserve game, it was the forerunner of the packing industry, 
and thus it is claimed that business enterprise and civilization itself 
are the by-products of missionary effort, although nothing is known 
of missionaries among the Shawnees on Mad River. 

It was in the summer season that the Indians congregated in their 
villages; that was also the season when they went to war, or on their 
forays against the white settlers. In the winter season the villages were 
practically deserted. It was their custom to separate into smaller par- 
ties usually made up of relatives or members of one household, including 
the old men, women and children. They would go into different local- 
ities and select a spot along a stream of water or by the side of a 
lake or spring where in the autumn they would erect a lodgment, 
where they might sojourn through the winter. The hunters would 
then separate and go in different directions. They would select a camp 
where they might hunt or trap without impinging upon each other. 

These hunters always kept in touch with the main camp or lodge 
to which they supplied meat for subsistence, and thus welfare work 
was instilled into the savage long before he accepted civilization. The 
Indians changed their camps according to their pleasures or necessities, 
but at the end of the season they gathered the results of their efforts 
and returned to their villages. They had an understanding of eco- 
nomics, since it was their custom to collect the fat of the beaver, rac- 
coon and bear in the entrails of animals which the squaws had made 
ready, and thus it was transported from the chase to their villages for 
domestic use in future. 

In the spring of the year when the sap began to run the Indians 
put it into the entrails of animals for transportation and preservation, 
and thus they utilized materials about them. When they made sugar 
they mixed it with the fat of the animals, and they cooked it with 
green corn and vegetables, making what they considered a most savory 
food. While in a measure they were provident, they often died from 
exposure and hunger. They had no means of securing large stores and 
never acquired the art of husbandry. When the Indians had plenty 
they were extravagant, but they were capable of enduring great hunger 
and fatigue. They were often distressed for want of food when there 
was a crust on the snow and the noise of walking frightened the game 
before them. They often saved themselves from starvation by digging 
walnuts and other nuts from under the snow, but poor Lo never wel- 
comed the advances of civilization. 

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It was George Washington who said: "Citizens, by birth or choice 
of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affec- 
tion," and perhaps that accounts for the Springfield slogan: The best 
60,000 city in America. 

The Shawnees only used the area occupied by Springfield for a hunt- 
ing ground, and there is no record of the city in their language. To them 
the universe centered in Piqua Village. While James Demint knew 
nothing of the settlers on Mad River, the country is older than the town 
in Clark County as well as the rest of the world; history begins in the 
country. While the honors are uncertain, the community was "tipped 
off" with a significant name — Springfield. "It was alive with springs — 
hundreds and hundreds of them," but it seems that sewers and other 
improvements have ruined many of them. 

While a recent Springfield visitor remarked: "The town is running 
in low gear," one of the most distinguished American citizens, the late 
Theodore Roosevelt, would have phrased it: "Strenuous life," and 
every effort seems to be put forth in the community. While some of 
the vanguards of society sound the alarm, and say the world is going 
too rapidly, there are psychologists in the community teaching the citi- 
zens how to discover their hidden mentality and physical force, how to 
find themselves. There is a tendency abroad to get the most out of 
everything— commerce, manufacturing, agriculture, and whether in low 
gear or in high tension, the wheels are turning and Springfield is abreast 
of other communities. 

"Where two or three are gathered together in my name," and since 
March 17, 1801, there has been no backward movement. While society 
follows the crowd, and some with high ideals become lost in the shuffle, 
there has always been high moral purpose in Springfield. In the days 
of the grandfathers when strict frugality was practiced in the homes, 
there was no congestion of fuel bills and incidentals — when milk and 
water bills were unknown, then was the simple life. The profiteer had 
not invaded the sacred precinct — but changed conditions followed in 
the wake of civilization. 

When Springfield had been on the map 120 years, and the civiliza- 
tion of the past was tabulated and a matter of record, it was a stormy 
morning — the dawn of a newer world civilization, superinduced by con- 
ditions of unrest and misinterpretation, and the hopeful ones were look- 
ing forward to a noonday splendor of greater achievement. Reconstruc- 
tion follows war, and the sanguine individual foresees that the social 
upheaval will adjust itself — that the world will not slip backward in its 
forward march toward higher civilization. Henry Watterson counselled : 
"At this point of peril and trial in our country, there should be no other 
thought than of the unstained honor of the heritage of its glory which 
we hold in trust, because that lost, nothing else is worth preserving," and 
Springfield shares the attitude of others. The spirit of loyalty is not a 
minus quantity. 


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An English settlement expressed in 1770: "Let every kindred, every 
tribe," is well understood in Springfield. All the world sends its surplus 
population to the United States, "The Land of the Free," and President 
Benjamin Harrison said: "The gates of Castle Garden never swing out- 
ward." There are Springfield residents who had their difficulties on 
Ellis Island, although time was when only the English tongue was heard 
in the community. Students of the future needs in this country still 
recommend that English should be the language of all who live in the 
country. When T. R. Marshall, former vice president of the United 
States, and one time governor of Indiana, was in Springfield in October, 
1921, he paid tribute to foreigners who came into this country to become 
part of it, acquiring the language and discarding their own vehicle of 
speech as foreigners. 

A Lutheran Church periodical recently said: "Many of the Luther- 
ans coming from the eastern states were already using the English instead 
of the German language, while others scattering themselves among the 
English-speaking inhabitants of Ohio soon became familiar with the 
English tongue, and they preferred it to the German in public worship." 
From another source are these words: "In the new civilization — the 
new order of things that must follow in the wake of the World war, we 
may all wish that the whole world spoke English ; we are all enthusiastic 
about the mother tongue, and we are assured we will speak the language 
of love — the universal heart emotion." Most people respond to environ- 
ment, while some live on a plane above it; the settlers thrown together 
in the melting pot of the wilderness were usually men and women equal 
to the requirements. 

However, in order to show that not all the foreigners live in Spring- 
field, Mr. Marshall related that when he visited an Indianapolis voting 
booth, A. D., 1920, there were "instructions to voters" in five languages 
posted on the walls. There were four languages he could not read, allow- 
ing him to turn a joke about the defeat of his — the democratic party. 
While in Washington, he had entertained distinguished foreigners, and 
while an interpreter made smooth translations he would have had more 
confidence, had the conversation been carried on in English. The for- 
eign-born business men in Springfield speak English to customers, but 
use their native tongue when discussing questions among themselves, 
leaving the aforesaid customer in uncertainty while still under their 

In Prospect 

When the taps sounded in the year 1921, which is recognized as the 
boundary in this research covering the period of 120 years, an enter- 
prising advertising firm sent out the following greeting : "In accordance 
with our long accustomed privilege, we are sending you in behalf of 
Father Time, his bond numbered 1922, for the delivery of one complete 
New Year," but this study is in retrospect. A recent cartoon : "Youth 
and Age," showing Father Time limping off the scene with the year 1921 
under his arm, and lamenting, "It can't be done," is counteracted by 
the youth bearing the New Year, 1922, and flying the more hopeful 
suggestion, "It can be done," with the slogan, "Whatever you will," 
and that recalls the recent slogan suggested by F. E. Folger, "Share 
Springfield's Success." 

Vol. 1—4 

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While the name Springfield is enduring, in turn it has been designated : 
"Mad River City," "Champion City/' "City of Roses/' and "Home 
City," and when its future rests on such enthusiasm as was displayed by 
a caddy en route to the golf links, who exclaimed : "The best town of 
60,000 population in the United States of America. It's the city of 
roses," it seems destined to be a "Continuing City." There are four 
Springfields of local significance, Springfield, Massachusetts, having a 
population A. D. 1920, of 129,563, while Springfield, Ohio, stand sec- 
ond, having slightly outgrown its "slogan" population, and Springfield, 
the capital city of Illinois, had 59,183, and Springfield, Missouri, ranks 
fourth with 39,620 inhabitants, and yet on first blush very few Clark 
County people accord their own Springfield second place in the com- 
parison, nor do they think of it as less than half the population of 
any other Springfield. A number of persons were asked the relative 

While starting the year 1922 right in the First Congregational Church, 
the Rev. Harry Trust quoted from Joshua: "For we have not passed 
this way heretofore," and that had special significance to James Demint 
and his wilderness contemporaries along Mad River. While taking 
stock, and placing a milestone along the highway of time — the history, 
Springfield and Clark County, it develops that Springfield has had its def- 
inite existence longer than the county — that for two years its location 
was uncertain, and that it has been in Greene and Champaign counties 
before the organization of Clark County — that like vinegar, Springfield 
is older than its mother. 

In his New Year sermon, the aforesaid minister said that the fascina- 
tion of exploration fastens its grip upon the individual, and when those 
Kentuckians ventured in separate groups to cross the Ohio soon after 
the Greenville treaty was heralded abroad, they established a goodly 
heritage. Be it remembered that when the original survey of Springfield 
was made, all were Kentuckians who were interested in it. While Demint 
and Daugherty were on the ground first, in the light of later develop- 
ments Griffith Foos was the man of vision among them. He was the 
man who opened the door of Springfield to the wilderness world, and 
who is best known to posterity. 

While there are times of inertia, a standstill condition is not in accord 
with the laws of nature. While the key-npte of the New Year sermon 
was, "Sanctify yourselves for tomorrow," there is quite as much sanc- 
tity in retrospect. It becomes a sacred duty to establish the connecting 
links between yesterday and today in local history. 

The first published account of Springfield extant is found in the Ohio 
Gazetteer of 1816, which says : "It is a flourishing post town contain- 
ing eight mercantile stores, and the mechanical shops usual in such towns, 
besides an extensive woolen cloth factory," while the latest directory says : 
"Springfield is without natural boundaries and, therefore, has numer- 
ous manufacturing sites with proper railroad sidings that can be procured 
at a reasonable cost," and beside suitable sites the city offers transporta- 
tion, stable labor market and power, with satisfactory living conditions. 
Its proximity to the sources of raw material, and the markets for the 
finished products; its commission-manager form of government; its fair 
distribution of taxes; its healthy climate; its hospitals; its schools; its 
play grounds; its churches, musical advantages, parks, boulevards, mar- 

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kets, streets, banking conditions — an attractive convention city, local 
boosters ever enthusiastic about the City of Springfield. 

When R. C. Woodward was writing Springfield Sketches, published 
in 1852, he said: "There are three old men now living in the com- 
munity — John Humphreys, David Lowry and Griffith Foos ; they are all 
men of respectability," and from them he gleaned many facts used 
promiscuously in this review of the community. All were early and all 
were permanent citizens ; two of them represented agriculture, while one 
was a citizen of Springfield. The squatter is defined as the link between 
the Indian and the white settler, and he was encountered in some locali- 
ties; wherever his hat was off he was at home, and he cared little for 
progress. He camped on the border line between savagery and civiliza- 
tion, and he knew little of the laws regulating society. His occupation 
was hunting and trafficking in furs, and when civilization crowded him 
he moved to the frontier again. These three venerable citizens had 
encountered the squatter in the early days of Clark County history. 

The pioneers were compelling forces, and they did not rest on their 
oars; they were their own ancestors, and the "sons of their fathers" 
sometimes do not accomplish more with all their superior advantages. 
However, men and women still start at the bottom and climb to the top 
of the ladder of personal achievement; they do it unaided by tailor or 
druggist — they are self-made in the fullest meaning, and it is because of 
them that Springfield forges ahead today. Among them some still linger 
who knew the spirit of the pioneer community builders, and the differ- 
ence between yesterday and today — the changed environment has wrought 
a changed civilization. It is said that indifference stops the clock in any 
community, and while Springfield has its problems, the men of today are 
maintaining the high standards of civilization established by the fathers. 

Some versifier writes: 

"The biographer strives, in recording the lives 
Of America's forefathers, to hand 
His particular dad all the virtues that's had, 
And with faint praise the rest of them brand. 

"Now I take it that they, in a sort of a way 
Worked together this nation to found; 
They put over the deed, and there's surely no need 
To carp and cavil and scoff. 
Their collective endeavor was sound, 
And there's glory enough to go round." 

While the pioneers were unequalled for honesty and hospitality, some 
who followed in their wake have been noted for their morality and their 
intelligence. The chief object of the settler was the care of his immedi- 
ate family, and when there was a surplus product he supplied others, and 
thus agriculture has supported commerce and manufacturing, and Spring- 
field is the most noted city in the world in its manufacture of the imple- 
ments of agriculture. A recent platform speaker viewed with alarm 
the modern tendency toward the use of machinery, calling it a shadow 
on civilization and saying that it "takes the creative joy out of life," and 
yet who would want to "backward, turn backward," to the days of the 
stage coach and the spinning wheel in local industry ? 

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No less distinguished personage than Lord Northcliffe, who was Eng- 
land's and perhaps the world's most traveled citizen, said that the 
United States has been transformed within the last generation — thirty 
years a generation in the above estimate — and Springfield has advanced 
with the rest of the world. Lord Northcliffe said : "The United States 
is now almost another country, although the basic element of American 
character is the same; while I go to the United States often, and have 
watched the gradual changes, other countries and especially those which 
have only lately been affected by the newspaper, the moving picture, the 
professional propagandist and the automobile have changed much more 
suddenly. While many of the changes are superficial, and the superficial 
is what meets the eye everywhere, there are certain vast world movements 
beginning to show themselves." 

The Spinning Wheel — Grandmother's Piano 

While it is alleged that the Mother Shipton prophesy appeared in 
pamphlet form in 1641, and has been reprinted frequently, its every detail 
except that couched in the last two lines: 

"And this world to an end shall come 
In eighteen-hundred-eighty-one," 

has all been verified, and the street activity is like the country woman 
who seldom quit her home, said of the bustle and rush: Springfield is 
just like meeting broke all of the time. In his 1921 annual report, Fire 
Chief Samuel F. Hunter says under the heading of recommendations: 
"The first and foremost thought that we should always keep before us 
is the fast and constant growth of our city, such as the industrial plants 
that are expanding with larger buildings, and the finished and unfinished 
products therein that must be protected; then our mercantile establi9h- 

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ments are getting larger and more numerous, with larger stocks to be 
protected ; there are more school buildings being built to take care of the 
increased number of children; our hospital is being built larger to take 
care of the increased demands ; there are new additions and others being 
laid out for residences; these dwellings are being built principally of 
wood construction, and there are demands for more houses to take care 
of the industrial development. 

"There are 20,000 buildings of all kinds, principally of wood con- 
struction; there are valuable contents, and all are combustible; the city 
is growing and new buildings are being erected, thus increasing the fire 
hazards," and few men keep closer in touch with city developments than 
the chief of the fire department, who stands ready at all times to "give 
an account of his stewardship." While in many ways Springfield is a 
modern city, there is still something of the old aristocracy — pride in 
ancestry. Among the older residents is a degree of familiarity — they 
know each other by their Christian names, and they still say John and 
Mary. While society is letter perfect in many things, Springfield is past 
its transition period, and is recognized as a city. 

Outstanding Dates 

It was on St. Patrick's day, 1801, that Springfield first claimed "its 
place in the sun," but not until January 23, 1827, did the State Legisla- 
ture recognize the "incorporated town of Springfield," and not until May 
14, 1850, was Springfield incorporated as a city. While it has had city- 
manager-commission form of government since January 1, 1914, under 
the original form of government James L. Torbet was mayor. It is said 
that the coterie who developed the community made enough money to 
serve their needs — that they were able to say : "Here it is," rather than 
"Where is it?" and yet they did not manifest any ambition for great 

Local Celebrities 

There was a time when there was as much social prestige in the rural 
as in the city homes in Clark County ; before the Civil war, New Carlisle 
and South Charleston shared social honors with Springfield, and the 
farm fireside was a voice in the community, and while the contact is dif- 
ferent — they all have their influence today. The reconstruction period 
changed conditions, and since 1870 Springfield has been the business 
and social magnet, but the world is undergoing reconstruction again. 
Clark County names in the hall of fame are : Tecumseh, Mother Stewart 
and Gen. Frederick Funston, and many who know them as national 
characters, do not associate them with Springfield and Clark County. 

In the 1921 edition of "Who's Who" are the following Clark County 
names : L. E. Holden of New York, who also maintains a South Charles- 
ton residence; Hamilton Busbey of South Vienna; Dr. D. H. Bauslin, 
T. B. Birch, C. G. Heckert, Richard Hockdoerfer, Gen. J. Warren 
Keifer, L. S. Keyser, M. L. Millegan, Juergens Neve, Walter Tittle, 
V. G. A. Tressler, and Clarence S. Williams. This is recognition not 
purchased with money, but since the publication two names — Doctors 
Heckert and Bauslin, have been stricken from it by fate — the destiny 
that rules the world. In the past as well as in the present, many Clark 

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County citizens have been known beyond its borders, but the list appear- 
ing in "Who's Who" is corrected every year. 

Social Recognition 

An old account says that in 1820 there were three leap-year bride- 
grooms in Springfield : John Bacon, Ira Paige and Charles Anthony, and 
all became active in local business affairs ; they all had children, and were 
active community builders. In 1836 Mr. Anthony is listed again as an 
attorney, contemporary with James L. Torbet and Samson Mason; the 
doctors of that period were Robert Rodgers, Berkley Gillett, Isaac Hender- 
shott and Benjamin Winwood ; the ministers were John S. Galloway, 
Michael Morley and William N. Raper; John Ludlow was the druggist; 
John Wallace and Wolcott Spencer were the merchants, and William 
Werden was the hotel man of the town. Robert Lucas was governor of 
Ohio. Many people were then locating within the state, and Clark 
County was attracting its share of settlers. It was about the end of the 
Andrew Jackson presidential administration, and the country was rapidly 
adjusting itself. 

R. C. Woodward, who wrote "Springfield Sketches" anonymously, 
acknowledges having gained much information from Mrs. Walter Small- 
wood, who was the most active woman in the community. In 1804 there 
were eleven houses in the vicinity of Main and Market streets. Two 
Frenchmen, LeRoy and DeGrab, are mentioned as the first dry goods 
merchants. Foos and Lowry had taverns, and there was a brewery. 
Three of the houses, the Daugherty home, the Charles Stowe store, and 
the Lowry Inn, had ornamental stone chimneys, while stick-and-clay 
described the others; sometimes the settlers said "stick-and-cat" in 
describing the cabin-clay chimneys. The home of Colonel Daugherty 
was spoken of as a mansion. It was the finest house in Springfield. 
While the Demint cabin was across Buck creek, the Griffith Foos hostelry 
was the first house built within the incorporated town of Springfield. 

The Public Square 

While the stranger in Springfield thinks of the Esplanade as the 
public square today, it was the plan of James Demint that the business 
should center about the county buildings nearer Buck Creek, and George 
Fithian, in whose home the temporary Clark County Court was held in 
1805 and who had become interested in Springfield real estate, had the 
same idea about it. The four corners at Limestone and Columbia streets, 
occupied by the court house, county building, Clark County Historical 
Society and the soldier's monument, were designed to remain vacant, with 
the business interests centering around them; it was to be a military 
square similar to the plan of surrounding towns, but other additions were 
laid out and business did not center in that locality. There was a rever- 
sionary clause, and to save the property from going back to the Demint 
ownership, the county buildings were located there. It is said the first 
Demint plat did not become a matter of record for some years, and the 
second one not until after his death, and when Sprigman and Lowry 
opened an addition they planned a market house, and business went in 
that direction. It was on higher ground, and offered better advantages 
to the community. 

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It is out of the question to correlate all of the facts, and give the 
exact chronology of early Springfield. There was a time when grain 
was carried on horseback to Lebanon, and thus the settlers had flour. 
Within a year or two, James Demint constructed a mill at the mouth of 
Mill Run that had the capacity of five bushels of grain every twenty-four 
hours, and then people had the home product — white bread when they 
wanted it, but the capacity was not long equal to the requirement. When 
Simon Kenton had a mill in Lagonda, the settlers talked about going to 
Kenton's mill, but his education was not sufficient to manage the milling 

Pioneer Suggestions 

business ; he said he was wronged by patrons, and he did not remain long 
in the community. However, mill sites are numerous in the vicinity of 
Springfield. For many years flour mills were operated by water power, 
there being mill dams of both log and stone, and the tolls amounted to 

In 1807 Robert Rennix built a flouring mill on Buck Creek which was 
"considered quite an addition to the comfort and convenience of the citi- 
zens," and in April, 1841, S. and J. Barnett built a fire-proof mill with 
iron gearing operating five burrs, and the product was 100 barrels of flour 
in twenty-four hours. What would James Demint do with such an indus- 

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try? The Barnetts were their own millwrights, and they furnished 
power to other industries ; their mill gave an impetus to trade conditions 
in Springfield. It was a real asset to the community. While the Barnett 
mill was on Buck Creek, Mill Run furnished water power to many indus- 
tries, a dozen mills in operation at one time. The Demint mill was the 
rift in the clouds — the settlers could have meal and flour without such 
long journeys. Water power is still available in Springfield's largest 
flour mill — Limestone Street and Buck Creek. 

As early as 1805 Cooper Ludlow operated a tannery and asheries 
were known to all pioneers ; the Ludlow Tannery was on Mad River until 

1812 when it was moved to Springfield. In 1809 there was a powder 
mill built by John Lingle and Jacob Cook, but they did not have to con- 
tend with the disarmament sentiment broadcast in the world today. A 
number of pioneer tanneries were scattered about, some on Mad River 
and one at New Carlisle, and the sale of oak bark was a source of income 
to many settlers. Oak bark was tan-bark, and skins of animals were 
tanned and made into clothing. Thomas Williams specialized on deer 
tanned and made into clothing. Thomas Baldwin was an early Springfield 
merchant — Stowe and Baldwin, and they had the first two-story frame 
business house in town. The first two-story log house was the hotel 
property owned by Archibald Lowry. 

Jonah Baldwin had part in the council with the Indians in 1807, when 
Tecumseh came to town for an adjustment, and for more than half a 
century he was a man of influence in Springfield. In 1812, Pierson Spin- 
ning came from Dayton, with a stock of goods that had been caught in a 
storm between Cincinnati and Dayton, by wagon, and because they would 
not sell well in the older community the damaged stock was brought to 
the Village of Springfield. It proved such a profitable venture that he 
continued the business till 1834, and at one time he was regarded as the 
richest man in Clark County. He made frequent horseback trips to east- 
ern markets to buy goods, and because of a physical handicap — a perma- 
nent lameness, he used a side-saddle for the long journey. He would 
visit both Philadelphia and New York, and spend six weeks making the 
trip that is now accomplished in twenty-four hours. 

In Pierson Spinning's day the merchandise was brought over the 
mountains to Pittsburgh in wagons and it was shipped by the Ohio to 
Cincinnati and transported again by wagon to Springfield. The cost of 
transportation was about $6 per hundred, when wheat was worth 27 l / 2 
cents on the local market. Because of the canal, grain was worth more 
on the Dayton market than in Springfield. Mr. Spinning was a con- 
noisseur, and while buying merchandise he supplied his own household 
with many costly treasures — the Spinning of Springfield today having 
many of them. The family had the first cookstove and the first piano 
brought into Springfield. 

Maddux Fisher was a community builder, coming from Kentucky in 

1813 with capital amounting to $20,000; he was a man of unusual busi- 
ness ability, acquiring twenty-five lots at $25 each from Demint, and 
becoming a booster for the organization of a new county. Recognizing 
the possibilities of Springfield, Fisher went to the State Assembly in 
Chillicothe and urged that a new county be erected from Champaign, 
Madison and Greene counties ; his measure was opposed by Joseph Vanoe 
who represented him in the assembly, but the agitation was continued at 
his own expense; he lobbied in the interest of Springfield until Clark 

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County became a reality, and then he met and overcame the rivalry set 
up by New Boston, now only a memory west from Springfield. When 
the news of his success reached Springfield there was a jollification; tar 
barrels were burned in the street, and apple toddy was passed to all. 
While quick communication had not yet been established, within a week 
from that Christmas day, 1817, local government was established in 
Springfield. It had been almost twelve years in Champaign County. 

When Maddux Fisher was a Springfield business man the first pave- 
ment was in front of his store. Fisher's Corner was a landmark for 
many years. To the victors belong the spoils, and that long ago a "pull" 
was an advantage. He was postmaster himself, and he named personal 
friends for offices in the new county. Because of their activities, men 
are still rewarded with official positions — Maddux Fisher establishing 
the precedent in Clark County. While it has been recited that Spring- 
field business went south from the original center because of the loca- 
tion of a market house near the Esplanade, one account says there was 
a time when it was along Main Street, with only scattered groups of 
houses on Columbia and North streets, between Spring Street and Lowry 
Avenue, the latter know as Mechanic Street while Wittenberg was then 
Factory Street, and the change of name from Market Street to Fountain 
Avenue is within the memory of men and women not yet grown old in 
the community. 

Main was once South, and Columbia was Main, but that change was 
made in order that Main Street might be the continuation of the National 
Road through Springfield. Main and Market are intersecting streets 
in many towns — time honored names in many communities, and the sign 
Market Street may still be seen in Springfield. While the street corner 
signs in the pavements are permanent, strangers continue asking for 
information without seeing them. The name Fountain Avenue is seen 
in the pavement, while the name Market Street is still seen on some of 
the walls of buildings. Market Street became Fountain Avenue under 
conditions that no longer exist, Dr. T. J. Casper using his influence to 
effect the change because of the fountain erected by O. S. Kelly on the 
Esplanade. It was while Mr. Kelly was mayor of Springfield. 

While the intent of the fountain was excellent, its construction was 
not well planned, the lower basin not being large enough to catch the 
water when enough force was used to display the cascade or spray, and 
it was always wet about it. When the Kelly Fountain was installed the 
city beautified the Esplanade by planting trees — shade in the center of 
Springfield. Lawn seats were scattered about, and they were an invita- 
tion to idlers to while away their time in the beauty spot of the town. 
The mistake of the plan was apparent, and when the fountain needed 
repair it was torn down, and the seats were* removed to Snyder Park. 
Instead of pointing with pride to the fountain Springfield citizens were 
disgusted with the loafers always assembled there, and it was not an 
attraction for visitors. 

The Kelly Fountain had a series of water basins, and in the sun- 
shine the cascades were beautiful, but coupled with the fact that the 
pressure splashed the water beyond the basins, and the people attracted 
to the seats reflected discredit on the community, the fountain is now a 
memory ; the name of the street requires constant explanation, and some 
would gladly return to the time honored designation — Market Street. 
The names were not suggestive of the development along them, and 

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Factory became Wittenberg because of the college, and Mechanic became 
Lowry to perpetuate the name of a settler. The industrial sections are 
fringed around the business center, the mechanics and factories still 
being component factors, although the early map-makers did not accu- 
rately forecast their locations. 

In 1839 some one said to P. E. Bancroft, who was the original Spring- 
field furrier : "You can do no good out in the country/' notwithstanding 
the later trend of business west on Main Street. However, business was 
checked in its westward trend owing to the class of citizens encountered ; 
the first murder in Springfield was in a cellar under a saloon in that 
direction, and the account continues : "The town gradually grew around, 
until it enclosed the Bancroft business in the heart of the city." As 
Springfield increased in population and business interests, many sub- 
stantial improvements were made in the town; as the years passed by, 
the citizens were ready to expand their facilities to meet the growing 
demands of society. 

While there was a time when the people met regularly on Saturday 
afternoons to run their horses, and similar orgies — when moral welfare 
was not so much of a study as it is today; when drunken sprees wound 
up in fights ; when black eyes and bloody noses were the regular accom- 
paniments of sports; when the Sabbath was spent in hunting, but there 
was always a moral leaven — among all the viciousness and depravity there 
were upright men who exerted an influence to stem the tide in the rapid 
progress of iniquity, and out of it all came the church and the school — 
such necessary adjuncts to the moral and intellectual development of 
any community. The same conditions that prevailed in the hamlet exist 
in the enlarged community, but more counteracting agencies; more wel- 
fare movements offset the seeming vices today. 

It is said of the pioneer that his manner was agreeable in his relation 
with his family and his neighbor, but that he was stern and unyielding 
in discipline — when he said no he meant it. Notwithstanding the Bible 
injunction : "Be ye transformed by the renewing of your minds," there 
are men and women who do not read ; who do not contemplate the busy 
world programs at all. While men and women are marvelously con- 
structed — fearfully and wonderfully made, they do sometimes get into 
ruts ; they do not live up to the growing intelligence ; they are influenced 
from without rather than from their own initiative, and they are a men- 
ace; know thyself and thy limitations does not describe them at all. 

President Warren G. Harding says: "Ours is a people with vision 
high but with their feet on the earth, with belief in themselves and faith 
in God," and the Rev. Hough Houston of Central M. E. Church declares: 
"A lack of vision is a waste of life. * * * There are not many great 
men compared with the mass. * * * Men of ability are few; abil- 
ities are wasted by lack of vision. Riotous living brings individuals to 
grief, and causes the waste. * * * Right living enables a community 
or nation to live in perfect harmony with other communities and other 
nations." Civilization is based on the proposition that the good of the 
community is more important than the good of any individual in that 

The Springfield Market 

It seems that the public market is a time-tried institution; in the 
late '30s Clark County farmers attended the Springfield Market, where 

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■ * 



v— \ fci!l iff \ 

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they received 5 cents a dozen for eggs ; ; they received a "fip-and-a-bit" 
for butter in pound prints, and 6% cents for a peck of apples. Not 
many vegetables sold as there were backyard gardens; tin cups were 
used in measuring smearcase, and there were no small market measures. 
The modern way of putting up fruit and vegetables in tin cans, glass 
jars and paper boxes increases the cost to the consumer, but the advan- 
tage is in handling and preservation; the bread sold on the market was 
baked in Dutch ovens on the hearth, and the cooking was done in pots 
hanging from cranes. The market was in a shed located east from the 
Esplanade adjoining the site of the Arcade; it was supported by posts 
and open on three sides ; to the south was a swamp, and to the east was 
Mill Run. 

Think of that market in contrast with the market of today, when the 
rental of stalls enters into the question — the price of the commodities. 
Butchers had stalls in the shed, and an old account says: "It would 
make the mouth of the modern buyer water to see the nice cuts of pork, 
beef or mutton which Leuty, Grant and Wragg spread out on their 
counters at the prices then in vogue," and the same writer says : "Another 
cause of high prices is an increased daintiness of appetite ; nothing satis- 
fies but the best the world affords. We send to Tar Cathay* for tea; to 
Java for coffee ; to Ceylon for spices, and to Italy for almonds and sweet 
oil. The best oranges and grapes come from the isles of the sea," and 
all he enumerates may be seen on any market day in Springfield. 

The market house today abounds with eating places, while the writer 
quoted continues: "When through selling, the marketers would refresh 
themselves at Granny Icenbarger's who made and sold ginger cakes and 
spruce beer in a two-story shack where the Fairbanks Building now 
stands. This woman is said to have been the first baker in Springfield. 
She was an industrious woman, and enjoyed a wide acquaintance both in 
town and in the country. Her cakes and beer were sold wherever the 
people gathered — camp meeting or military group, and everybody stood 
ready to befriend Granny Icenbarger. She came into the community in 
1812, and in 1839 she died in Springfield. 

Granny Icenbarger had a drunken husband content to be known as 
the husband of such a remarkable woman ; she was diligent, and a woman 
of unblemished character; her name was familiar to all. She was kind 
to all, and many a hungry man replenished at her board ; they all stood 
ready to patronize and befriend Granny Icenbarger. The husband was 
a small, thin man with crooked legs, and when under the influence of 
liquor he was very noisy and demonstrative. While he was so bow- 
legged he could not head a hog in an alley, he hopped around in the wild- 
est manner, and he was the source of a great deal of trouble to this 
woman. She was used to seeing him drunk, but when he died and 
friends came in, she exclaimed: "La, me, the old man is dead, what a 
pity !" and when the candles were lighted, she talked about what it would 
cost her to bury him. It is said that making one's own living develops 
character, and this woman had supported herself and husband. 

In 1848,' a better market house was completed in Springfield costing 
$7,800, including the bell and the necessary grading around the building ; 
a town clock was purchased by the council, and the drift of business con- 
tinued in that direction. Martin Cary, who was the first child born in 
Springfield, was the market master; by ringing the bell he opened and 
closed the market. Springfield citizens came to market to secure sup- 

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plies for breakfast, and there were few idlers in the community. However, 
Samuel S. Miller, whose reminiscences have been drawn from, relates: 
"One night, while we slept, one of that kind reached under the cover and 
took father's stovepipe-Sunday hat away with apples in it, and he had to 
get another from Hubbel, the Main Street hatter." 

The City Building 

While Fountain Square is but a memory, the Esplanade is a reality, 
and the city building facing it was completed in 1890, at a cost of $250,- 
000 to the tax-payers of Springfield. It extends from the Esplanade to 
Center Street, and is considered one of the finest office buildings in Ohio. 
It shelters the city market, affords office rooms for the city officials, and 
there is a commodious auditorium once used for many public meetings. 
The city manager and all the departments are on the Esplanade side, 
while the police department is in the Center Street side of the building. 
While the market has always been open three days in the week — two 
forenoons and all day Saturday, there has been an effort to increase the 
revenue by instituting a six-days' market, which it is argued would stop 
the country people from coming, and make of it a market for hucksters 
who get their supplies from the commission houses. While the increased 
rental would give the city more revenue, it would add to the cost of food 
sold on the market. 

Those who produce their own fruit and vegetables are opposed to the 
six-day market; they need some of the time for production. With the 
original market in an open shed, and a market house built in 1848, and 
the present building erected in 1890, it is evident that Springfield always 
has patronized the public market. The market house built in 1848 had a 
hall for public meetings, but it was so close to the machine shops on the 
site of the Arcade, that if an orator attempted a speech his voice was 
drowned by the sound of hammers in the factory. Sessions held at 
night were not thus disturbed, and among the speakers were eminent 
men, Stephen A. Douglas and Fred Douglass, the noted colored orator, 
both having spoken from that platform. 

There was a wood and hay market to the west of the building, and 
for years more wood than coal was used in Springfield. In war times 
wood was supplied at $6 and $7 a cord, and afterward $3 was the price 
of the best beech and sugar four-foot wood in this market. While soldier- 
blue overcoats were still worn, many loads of wood were sold in Spring- 
field. There were hay scales, and lunch and hot coffee were supplied by 
the weigh-master. The creek — the Mill Run of the past, fed by the 
springs southeast of town — furnished water in abundance at this market 
house. There was a wooden bridge across it, and a quagmire prevented 
any streets being extended south of it. In the '50s there was a walk 
constructed to the site of the Pennsylvania station, and it was keep on 
the walk or mire in the swamp. In Civil war times the effigy of Clemency 
L. Vallandingham was submerged in that swamp, but such a feat could 
not be accomplished there today. 

When the country people would come into that market house, because 
the market master rang his bell at 4 o'clock in the morning, they had to be 
in readiness the night before; after fixing their horses, and tightening 
their wagon covers, they would lie on bedding brought from their homes ; 
they would not sleep long until they were wakened by the clatter of the 

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butchers placing their quarters of beef, pork and mutton ready for the 
block when market opened, while visitors might inspect the market, sell- 
ing did not begin until 4 o'clock when the bell released everything. There 
were Conestogas in Clark County then, and the farmers would come to 
market with a bushel of potatoes and a few pounds of butter ; they would 
bring apples, cherries and currants or gooseberries; they packed their 
eggs in chaff because the roads were rough, and there were no springs 
to their wagons. The farmers who attend market today bring their 
products in automobiles, and there is constant demand for produce fresh 
from the country. 

When an aged man with unimpaired memory dies, it is like removing 
a book from the library ; many stories of Clark County development have 
been buried with the settlers because no record was made of them. S. S. 
Miller had written something of early Springfield market conditions that 
has been incorporated into the story. In giving a reason for the increased 
cost of living, he took into consideration the increased number of con- 
sumers, saying the population of the city has out-stripped the growth of 
the rural community; the manufacturing industries deplete the number 
of soil workers, and lessen the production of foodstuffs ; they think shop 
work is less slavish than farm labor, and leave the country. 

The community always will have its economic problems; it has been 

"Big fleas have lesser fleas, upon their backs to bite 'em, 
And lesser fleas have lesser fleas, ad infinitum," 

and why should Springfield constitute an exception? The outstanding 
feature in Springfield development is its tablets; while shrines abound 
in some localities, the tablets erected about the city are the silent testi- 
monials. The tablet at the entrance to the Warder Library tells the 
necessary story ; the tablet at the city hospital pays tribute to the found- 
ers; there are tablets in the churches, and in Wittenberg College, seem- 
ingly an universal method of commemoration in the community. 

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The data used in the study of geology, and its relation to the history 
of Clark County, is adapted from a paper written by W. H. Rayner, 
from the Ohio Experiment Station Bulletin, and from an interview 
with Dean C. G. Shatzer of Wittenberg College, who has made personal 
investigation. Dean Shatzer defines geology as an effort to determine 
the history of the earth and the origin of its present surface features. 
The out-cropping limestone indicates that this region was once an arm 
of the sea. It was probably disconnected from the Gulf region. Such 
changes have occurred in the topography of the country. 

The surface of Clark County is a combination of two things — the 
breaking of bedrock from the action of the weather and the rising 
streams. This action gives rise to the residual soil. Existing con- 
ditions are the result of material carried down by glaciers. Attention 
is called to the terraces which everywhere mark the streams flowing 
south from the glaciated area, and that is the general direction of the 
stream in Clark County. Almost without exception the streams flowing 
southward from this area show marks of former floods from 50 to 
100 feet higher than those of recent occurrence. Gravel deposits from 
SO to 100 feet higher than the present flood-plain line the valleys of 
such streams within the glaciated region, and. through much of their 
course after they have emerged from it. 

In the subjoined list of Ohio streams are mentioned the Big and 
Little Miamis and Mad River, and there are many terraces within 
Clark County. It is in terraces of this description that so-called palae- 
olithic implements have been found, which includes the earlier half of 
the Stone Age, the remains belonging to extinct animals and to human 
beings. There is no question but this class of terraces was formed by 
the floods which mark the closing portion of the glacial period; the 
occurrence of human implements in their undisturbed strata connects 
the early history of man with the closing scenes of the glacial period. 
In the light of the above information any well-directed study of the 
glacial period is important as shedding light upon the condition under 
which man began his career and upon the time which has elapsed since 
the beginning of things. 

Scientific investigation reveals the fact that once upon a time this 
whole region was under a crust of ice ; it extended from the cold north 
across Ohio and Clark County to the Ohio River. When the glaciers 
melted the molten. mass mixed with local materials and the result was 
the soil formation. It is an interesting study — molten ice mixed with 
clay and gravel, and the results are different in different places and 
under different conditions. Anything is soil that supports vegetation 
and that quality exists in water. The average tiller of the soil does 
not understand its chemical composition; he only knows that the alter- 
nate freezing and thawing puts it into productive condition. 

The relief of Clark County is largely due to moraine deposits; the 
knobs about Wittenberg campus cropping out again about Catawba 
in the northeastern part of Clark County are the results of terminal 


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moraines. The market house in Springfield is at an elevation of 979 
feet, while the greatest elevation within the county is found in Pleasant 
Township, where it ranges from 1,240 to 1,280 feet above the sea. 
The wayfaring man leaving the heights east from New Moorefield and 
facing the setting sun may overlook the whole of Clark County. As 
far as eye can see there is nothing to obstruct the view, and it is a 
glimpse not duplicated often in any part of the country, the whole con- 
tour sloping in one direction. While Recitation Hall in Wittenberg is 
at an altitude of 1,000 feet, and there are higher points on the cam- 
pus, the aforesaid traveler looks above it all. 

While the United States Survey conforms to base and range line estab- 
lished by the government, since the glacial period the erosive action 
of the water in the streams and of the weather have combined to shape 
the hills and have given them their present surface conditions. While 
man may defeat the action of the elements, nature's handiwork is more 
or less perfect, conservancy finally correcting its errors. The Ohio 
Experiment Station analysis describes the Clinton and Niagara forma- 
tions, saying Clark County is covered with glacial drift derived chiefly 
from limestone. In the broad valleys of its streams this drift has 
been replaced by alluvium and deposits of gravel, the predominating 
soils being silty and gravelly clay loams of the Miami and Bellefontaine 
series with considerable areas of alluvium, including both black and 
first bottoms of Wabash series. They are both first and second bottoms 
along Mad River. 

The gravelly Bellefontaine soils covering the moraines are generally 
naturally drained with the underlying gravel, as are also some of the 
terrace and bottom lands, but the intermediate Miami soils are gen- 
erally in need of more or less artificial drainage ; the limestone derivation 
of all Clark County land has assured the soil of permanent fertility 
when properly handled, although farmers are now studying the chem- 
istry of the soils and applying the necessary elements. The limestone 
cliffs so much in evidence promise the material when the soil requires 
such an application. Mr. Rayner writes that the geological formations 
underlying any locality have an influence not only upon the animal and 
vegetable life on its surface, but may contribute to the comfort, growth 
and development of the humanity inhabiting th^t section of the country. 

This is specially true where ores, coal or minerals occur in the 
underlying strata. But these influences will be found to exist in some 
degree where only ordinary geological conditions are found. In the 
past people have judged the productiveness of the soil by the prepon- 
derance of growth of certain kinds of trees and other vegetation. The 
soil of a beech ridge is readily distinguishable from that of a sugar 
grove or a section of swamp ash. Many people designate the quality 
of the soil by the kind of trees that are found growing out of it. In 
turn, vegetation influences and makes possible the animal life; the 
soil and underlying geological formations have an influence upon the 
pursuits, development and ultimate condition of the human race. It 

holds true in Clark County as well as the rest of the world. 


Latitude and Longitude 

The fortieth parallel and the eighty-fourth meridian intersect about 
four miles from the northwest corner of Clark County and the average 
VoL I— 5 

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elevation is about 1,000 feet above the sea. While the surface is undu- 
lating and there is some swamp land, there is but little that will not 
ultimately be brought under cultivation. The surface formations are 
attributable to the drift period, while the underlying formations are 
classed within the upper and lower silurian periods. Beginning with 
the unstratified Guelph limestone which crops out with the Niagara at 
various places, and extending downward through the Niagara shales or 
Dayton limestone, the Clinton series and Medina shales of the upper silur- 
ian period, through the Hudson River series, Utica shales and Trenton 
limestone of the lower silurian period, all are found at points in south- 
western Ohio and seem to be in evidence in Clark County. 

The Niagara series which predominates in this locality takes its 
name from the outcrop at the Niagara River, where it was first care- 
fully studied. It also extends under the Great Lakes and outcrops 
again in Wisconsin. It forms the principal underlying strata of the 
North Central States. It is rich in the following fossils: Pentamerus 
Oblongus, Pentamerous Ovatis, Crinoids, Trilobites and Orthoceras, the 
* last frequently of enormous size. There are two methods of determin- 
ing the underlying formation of a given locality. The usual method is 
to follow the outcrop of the various formations from some remote 
point where the lowest anticipated formation is exposed, and noting 
the depth and extent of each division. In this way there is reasonable 
certainty in determining the underlying geological formations. This 
method is not difficult as southwestern Ohio is like an open book to 
the trained geologist. Beginning at Point Pleasant and journeying 
northward along the Little Miami where the Trenton limestone is the 
surface rock, any one who is familiar with the fossils and other indica- 
tions of the various series in the ascending scale will be able not only 
to determine the series, but to form a good estimate of the thickness 
of each general formation. 

The other method is by analyzing the drillings of the deep gas and 
oil wells. This method has only become available since the develop- 
ments in the '80s, but it has served to confirm the conclusions earlier 
formed by the older method. In 1885 a well was drilled west of Plum 
Street on the south bank of Buck Creek in Springfield, with record 
of the following formations: The surface soil and the Guelph rock 
had been removed in the process of quarrying, and from the floor of 
the quarry was found blue limestone, IS feet; white clay, 3 feet; 
Niagara shale, 40 feet; Clinton limestone, 42 feet; Medina red slate, 
12 feet; shale rock, 226 feet; gray shale, 37 feet; gray shale, 305 feet; 
light shale, 130 feet; dark shale, 230 feet; red sandstone, 76 feet, and 
black shale, 24 feet. 

It is difficult to understand the conditions that existed in glacial 
period. Today the best examples are found in Alaska, Greenland and 
the Alps, but they pale into insignificance when compared with the great 
ice cap that forced its way from the north, overspreading this region. 
The moraines deposited by it, marking the line of its southward approach, 
may be traced from Long Island to the mountains in Idaho. It was a 
wall of ice thousands of miles long and hundreds of feet deep, its face 
melted into fantastic shapes, grottoed and pinnacled, disgorging untold 
volumes of water, as the rays of the southern sun held back and 
checked this frost king of the north. It has left in its retreat, not the 
disintegrated silt of the local rock formation that might or might not 

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be available for plant growth, but the assimilation of the distintegrated 
granite of the North and the limestone beds of the Great Lakes ii) a 
reduced and prepared state, containing every essential element for the 
development of the highest standard of agriculture. 

After penetrating the various formations as above indicated, the 
drill struck Trenton limestone at a depth of 1,140 feet, or about 190 
feet above the level of the sea. A year later another well was drilled 
to a depth of 2,400 feet, passing through the Trenton limestone into 
the St. Peters sandstone, below which was found a light colored mag- 
nesian limestone, but as yet no drill in this locality has reached the 
igneous rock which underlies the constructive geological series. The 
accepted theory is that it is a sedimentary deposit laid down on the bed 
of the ocean at a time when the Gulf of Mexico extended to and 
included the Great Lakes. It is evident that an uplift came to this 
locality about the time of the completion of the Niagara series and 
from that time the region has been barren rock or dry ground. A topo- 
graphical survey would have represented a level plain, later eroded and 
scored by the advancing waters of an approaching glacier of the drift 

The rock-walled channel of the Great Miami extends to the western 
part of Clark County and at St. Paris, which is the highest point 
between the Great Miami and Mad rivers, this ancient river bed was 
shown by the drill to have been 530 feet below the present surface and 
of an extreme width. While the exact width has not been determined, 
it was wider than the valley now enclosed by the hills on either side 
of the Ohio. Imagine such a river, with almost perpendicular banks 
interspersed at intervals with islands which were monuments of lime- 
stone so firm as to withstand the eroding effect of the mighty current 
with its many caverns and whirlpools. It was a river vast in the still- 
ness of creative times upon which the eyes of man have never looked, 
but which fulfilled its mission and ceased to be. However, one of its 
islands remains today, the top of which has long been operated as a 
quarry a few miles south of St. Paris. 

Limestone Cliffs 

The gorge of Niagara represents that type of river and the rocky 
gorge of Mad River west from Springfield was a feeder for this great 
river, just as today it flows into the Big Miami. In the fullness of 
time came the glacial period with its moraines that planed, crushed and 
ground the limestone, filling the rocky crevices with debris, and as the 
glacier receded leaving its surface covered with boulders from some 
foreign locality. They filled its rock-hewn river valleys and opened 
new water courses for the discharge of the melting floods. Thus over 
the limestone plains are scattered beds of sand, gravel and disintegrated 
stone that form the clays, layer upon layer, bed upon bed sometimes 
with exact regularity, and sometimes in most heterogeneous masses. As 
proof of these assertions every boulder-strewn field is a witness. The 
identical ledges from which these boulders were detached may be 
found in the Canadian quarries today. 

In 1893 Mr. Rayner examined the Canadian Geological exhibits at 
the World's Fair in Chicago, confirming the theory that Clark County 
boulders are but the detached fragments of quarry stone, "rounded and 

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worn by the torrents of the receding glacier. Every gravel bank shows 
that each grain of sand was laid in its place by the icy current that 
deposited it. Many of the boulders and some of the pebbles are 
ground smooth and polished by their long journey, and some of the 
surface rock in Clark County is planed and grooved by the ice-clasped 
granite of the glacier. Some years ago when workmen were uncov- 
ering the surface rock preparatory to blasting for a waterworks trench 
in North Isabella Street, very distinct and definite markings were 
found, but they could not be preserved, as they were crushed by the 

When the glacier receded vegetation fastened itself upon the hith. 
erto barren land, and it is believed by geologists that this section of 
the country was inhabited immediately. Evidence has been cited con- 
firming the belief, and that animal life was represented; the bones and 
teeth of the mastodon are encountered, and one complete skeleton found 
in Clark County is being exhibited at Ohio State University, Columbus. 
Others have been located that could not be excavated without destroy- 
ing them, as related in the chapter on Moundbuilders. The musk-ox was 
a companion of the mastodon and a skull and horns were once found 
in the swamp in the Mad River Valley, however, in Champaign County. 
These skeletons were preserved because the animals mired in the 
swamps, and the water level remained above them. No doubt many 
others existed in the post glacial period, but skeletons left on the dry 
ground soon disintegrated and passed out of existence. 

' Humus in the Soil 

The summer rain and the frost of winter mellowed and disintegrated 
the virgin soil. The rank growth of grassy vegetation in the lowlands 
and the hardy pines and cedars in the uplands mingled their fallen 
trunks with the sands and clays of the moraines, as evidenced by the 
fragments of these woods that are often found in excavating and in 
digging wells. They added vegetable mold in ever-increasing propor- 
tions, producing a soil of variety and richness seldom excelled in the 
most favored localities. However, it does not follow that all the soil 
is good in Clark County. While some of it holds an excess of certain 
elements they are lacking in other parts, but the knowledge of soil 
chemistry relieves the difficulty. Frequently the remedy is at hand 
and an analysis of soil constituents determines its needs. The geo- 
logical resources are known and it remains for man to utilize this 

There are farms in Clark County having valley land so rich with 
vegetable mold that ordinary crops do not fully develop. They fire 
and die, while on the same farms are clay hills that would afford to 
this soil just the elements needed to make it productive and in turn 
the hills need the humus that is excessive in the valleys. The owners 
will benefit when they exchange part of the soil of each with the other. 
(In another part of the country an onion specialist had ah understand- 
ing with his sons that whenever they hauled a load of clay and dis- 
tributed it as they would manure on the muck, he would pay them 
for it.) Great changes have occurred in the soil and the contour 
of Clark County since the uplift in the latter part of the upper silurian 
period. Nature is the great assayer and assimilator. 

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Action of the Elements 

In some measure the northern half of the United States owes the 
continued and sustained productiveness of its soil to disintegration from 
freezing. Every particle of sand or soil that is susceptible .to penetra- 
tion by water is frozen each winter and is thereby disintegrated and 
rendered suitable for plant food. In the South, where frost is infre- 
quent or non-existent, the change is readily discernible. Chemical 
action is constantly adding to the productiveness of the soil, but humus 
is the most active agent in soil nutrition. Not only does decayed vege- 
tation return to the soil those elements received by its growth, but it 
takes from the air other elements which cannot be secured and com- 
bined in the soil by any other method. The roots of the plants pene- 
trate the soil and some of them to great depth. As they decay they 
leave open avenues through which moisture may penetrate, where it 
is stored again against the drought. In a measure animal life also 
contributes to soil fertility. 

The crawfish and burrowing animals add their part to the changes 
and usually to the improved condition of the soil. At the present time 
the bodies of fish and domestic animals constitute part of the commer- 
cial fertilizers. It is said that every particle of lime in the world has 
at some time or other formed the Done or shell of some living organism. 
Secondly only to the glacial activity, erosion changes the contour of 
Clark County more than any other agency, and at the present time the 
process is more destructive than for a long period in past history. 
The denuding of the land of the forest growth, the drainage of swamps 
and lakes, and the cultivation of the soil have aided the washouts on 
the hillsides and the formation of gulleys until land that was culti- 
vated a generation ago is pasture land again. 

This washout agency will continue its devastating work unless con- 
trolled by man. In many parts of the South hill lands are being ter- 
raced under the direction of engineers. Notwithstanding all the efforts 
of nature, it is a fair prediction that with sufficient man-and-horsepower 
— the tractor supplanting the horse, it is possible that the products of 
Clark County farms may be doubled and still leave the land enriched 
beyond its present condition, and without bringing a pound of com- 
mercial fertilizer into it. While limestone has been used from the time 
of the earliest settler, the future demands will be greater upon this 
recognized necessity. Lime has long been a production of Clark County. 
Stone crushers are busy today putting it into shape for fertilizing the 
soil of the locality. 

Analysis of Limestone 

The Guelph rock of Clark County is, analyzed as follows: Carbonate 
of lime, 54.13; carbonate of magnesia, 44.37; allumina and oxide of 
iron, .56; and silicious matter, .65, showing a 99.71 composition lime- 
stone, perfectly adapted to fertilizer requirements. This limestone lacks 
only one element necessary to the production of cement. The lower 
beds of limestone are stratified and have been used extensively for 
building stone. It represents the Niagara series. It is unsuited for 
street building purposes, being so soft that it soon grinds into dust, and 
is hauled off the streets in the form of slush and at an additional 
expense. Springfield has experimented with it, spending thousands of 

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dollars building macadam streets of it. Mr. Rayner one time entered 
into correspondence with the department of agriculture in Washington 
relative to the advisability of using this stone in street building and 
was informed that it would be better to pay freight on suitable stone 
than to use it. 

While there is an increasing demand for limestone as land plaster, 
it may be used as a flux in smelting. The Mad River Valley offers 
ideal conditions for an iron furnace. It is midway between the coal 
fields and the lake ore, and in the center of an iron-consuming territory 
— the valley west from Springfield. The Clinton limestone found in 
the southwestern part of Clark County is also lime producing, and 
better material for macadam roads than the cap rock and upper series 
tried out in Springfield. It marks the lowest series in the upper Silu- 
rian period except the Medina shales, found in the extreme southwest- 
ern part of the county. The lime deposits are of hitherto unknown 
value because they have not been utilized in the past as they will be 
in the future. The use of lime as a fertilizer is a recent discovery and 
it offers commercial possibilities. 

The Use of Sand 

In the drift deposit Clark County is provided with valuable sand 
and gravel easily available for use. Sand of many kinds is found in 
abundance. While it is used in mortar and cement, there are good 
grades of molding sand in large quantities within a few miles of Spring- 
field. While one of these banks is open, it is practically inoperative 
as it costs more to load it into wagons and haul it to town than to 
load the sand at the banks farther north where steam shovels are 
installed, and ship it to Springfield. Clark County gravel is used in 
concrete construction and makes excellent sidewalks. It is unexcelled 
for road building and there is local demand for it. 

The Clark County clays are a sedimentary deposit of the glacial 
period. They constitute a large percentage of the underlying soil and 
crop out on many of the hills. A species of kaolin or white clay under- 
lies the bogs and small lakes, causing them to retain the water. Doubt- 
less some of these clays are suitable for manufacturing the cheaper 
grades of porcelain, but it is not known whether or not they exist in 
commercial quantities. Clay flower pots are manufactured within the 
county and brick and tile making are an important industry. No doubt 
terra cotta and clay conduits can be made to advantage. 

Because of its geological formation, Clark County is well supplied 
with springs of good water. They have aided in the development of 
agriculture and the stock raising interests. These springs and spring- 
fed streams may yet be utilized in supplying water for irrigation, when 
the vegetable gardens need it. There are many ponds and dry holes 
ranging in size from 50 to 200 feet in diameter, and from 2 to 20 feet 
in depth. These depressions were probably formed by the sinking of 
the surface, due to the melting of large bodies of ice which had been 
buried in the debris of the drift period. Where the ice was covered 
with clay the depression formed a lake, and where it was covered with 
gravel there was drainage and it became a dry cavity. 

Sometimes the clay bed of a lake overlies a gravel formation, and 
by drilling through the stratum of gravel the lake may be drained and 

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the land reclaimed for tillage. In 1886, when wells were being drilled 
for gas, one was sunk to the depth of 1,800 feet by the Champion 
Machine Company, when a vein of salt water was encountered and 
cased off, and the drill continued to 2,400 feet, the work prosecuted 
under difficulties because of the presence of salt water. What about 
drilling again and utilizing the water rich in salt? It stood at the level 
of the water in the soil and may be refined for its deposit of salt. No 
one recognized its commercial possibilities while drilling for natural 
gas or oil. 

Boulders an Asset 

There remains one geological product that has been regarded in the 
light of a detriment rather than an asset. It is the drift boulders so gen- 
erally distributed, especially in the western part of Clark County. The 
smaller boulders were used by the pioneers in walling their wells, in 
building their chimneys and in foundations. In some localities they are 
utilized in ornamental construction — walls and chimneys and porches. 
Millwrights sometimes used them, but few such millstones are in exis- 
tence. One said to have been used by Simon Kenton in his mill at 
Lagonda has been builded into a dedicatory monument in Snyder Park. 
The Clark County boulder is a long way from its home, and yet many 
who have encountered it thought it was a native. 

Today the best roads in Clark County are being constructed from 
the crushed fragments of these granite boulders. The road builders 
have had transported over land and water and left at their doors the 
best possible material for building thoroughfares. The boulder also 
brought with it some of the semi-precious stones that otherwise would 
be unknown in Clark County. Two stones have been found near Spring- 
field in which there were numbers of garnets. In many of them jasper 
is found, and in the drift gravel agates, porphyry and petrified wood 
is encountered frequently. They add to the interest in the study of 
Clark County's geological resources, and it remains for the generations 
to come to gather from the rocks, the sand and the soil those elements 
which nature has bestowed, and which by intelligent use may yet con- 
tribute to the comfort and prosperity of man. 

Wind and Weather 

'Mark Twain discredits the man who talks about the weather with- 
out doing anything for it, and John Kendrick Bangs sings : 

"The sun and stars move on their way, 
In endless courses orderly; 
They mark the passage of each day, 
In undisturbed serenity." 

A local paragrapher commented: "The year 1921 was one of the 
warmest on record. It was about three degrees warmer every day than 
normal, and the New Year started out like it. The first thirteen days 
were ten degrees warmer than normal, and there was little zero weather. 
A window card in a Springfield business house reads: The climate is 
erratic. Do you know that all fur-bearing animals — domestic and wild 
— have unusually long coats of fur. indicating a hard winter? 

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An old account says that on May 6, 1806, a disastrous storm took 
the upper story off of the first frame house built in Springfield. It 
was the property of Samuel Simonton and when he repaired the wreck 
he would not risk a second story. A number of log houses were dam- 
aged and much fence was destroyed. While the line of the storm was 
only about thirty yards wide, it singled out the one two-story house. 

Springfield people were wrought up over Indian troubles as well as 
the storm, but after the conference with Tecumseh and others in 1807, 
the town moved along in the "even tenor of its way" until a freshet in 
1809 disturbed conditions again. Buck Creek overflowed its banks 
and the inhabitants became alarmed, and some thinking it a judgment 
sent from heaven left the community. 

In 1832 Clark County was visited by heavy rains again, and on 
February 11, that year: "Buck Creek dashed by proud of its haughty 
condition, and Mad River was full half a mile wide; indeed, all the 
streams were higher than they had been since 1814," and who knows 
about that flood? The flood ninetyf-nine years later, 1913, is well 
remembered in Clark County and the Miami Valley, although the dam- 
age wrought at Springfield was as nothing compared with the flood at 

While there is mention of a meteoric shower November 12, 1799, 
there is nothing to connect it with the area now covered by Clark 
County, and it must be an error in print since the meteoric shower of 
1833 occurred the same month and day, November 12, when the "stars 
fell." One account says: "They seemed to drop from all points 
straight down like rain when there is a perfect quiet." William A. 
Barnett, who came from Butler County to Springfield, describes this 
meteoric shower as witnessed there, saying: "We were early risers. 
Time was set at 4 o'clock, winter or summer. I was up and saw the 
wonderful shower of meteors or shooting stars. We were getting ready 
for an early start at corn husking," and since the meteoric display was 
widespread it was most likely witnessed in Clark County. 

Old settlers in Ohio and Indiana discussed the time when the stars 
fell and all were agreed about it. Mr. Barnett was later a miller in 
Springfield, originating the famous Golden Fleece brand of flour, and 
his story may be regarded as authentic. On April 11, 1833, a tornado 
passed near Springfield sweeping off the roofs of houses and laying 
waste the forest about the width of a quarter of a mile in its onward 
march. In March, two years later, there were three weeks of sled- 
ding, which is mentioned as unusual weather conditions. Good snows 
for sledding were frequent. Farmers kept two sleds, one for drags to 
the woodpile and logs to the saw mill, and the other having thinner 
runners with higher knees and cross pieces and standards, was used in 
hauling the limbs for firewood, and by adding a bed of loose boards it 
was used for general purposes. With straw in the bottom and with 
heated brick under the covers, people went everywhere in such sleds. 

The above is taken from the reminiscences of S. S. Miller and 
he corroborated its accuracy by an interview with William N. Whitely, 
who had been caught in the storm riding home from Urbana. As yet 
there were no banks in Springfield and Mr. Whitely had gone to 
Urbana to procure the money with which to pay for some cattle. 
Samuel Lefler was one of a party who went to Logan County to bring 
a drove of colts to be distributed among Clark County farmers and 

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on the return trip they were caught in the storm. It was a deep snow 
and they had difficulty bringing the colts to Springfield. The weather 
turned cold and remained* so, and it was an unusual thing for March. 
In 1855-6 there was another snow that lay on an unusual length 
of time. Many weeks of sleighing were enjoyed, but the carpenters 
and blacksmiths had learned the art of making better sleds and sleighs 
and there was more pleasure connected with it. People went on long 
journeys without fear of the snow leaving, and the vast expanse of 
white that covered field* and forest gave promise of something more 
useful when spring came again. The water from a well on Limestone 
between High and Main streets was frozen. into a mountain of ice, 
reaching the spout of the pump and remaining until warmer weather. 
When the fire department was called to Wittenberg College the men 
suffered from frost-bitten hands, feet and noses, but the coldest time 
was in 1864 — New Year's day — the temperature being twenty-one 
degrees below zero in the morning, seventeen at noon and nineteen 
at night, but notwithstanding the severity, spring came early and many 
of the 100-day volunteer soldiers planted corn before going to Camp 
Denison in April. 

Frost In Clark County 

It was the night of June 4 and the morning of June 5, 1859, accord- 
ing to S. S. Miller, that "the most disastrous late frost during the 
lifetime of the present generation" visited the community. William M. 
Cartmell submits the diary dated June 21, 1858, as kept by Charles 
Lofland of Catawba, saying: "We have had bad weather for a long 
time. It began to snow and rain about the middle of October last, and 
since then I have scarcely seen the sun, moon or seven stars. People 
are backward with their crops, and some have just finished planting 
their corn. The freshets have done a great deal of damage along the 
water courses by overflowing the bottoms and carrying off fences, but 
there is the finest prospect of small grain and grass that ever was seen 
in the country." 

Daniel Printz said it was June, 1858, that this country had the dis- 
astrous frost that destroyed the corn. He was born that year and his 
mother told him it was the year the frost ruined the corn, but Mr. Miller 
is very definite in his recollection, saying: "Our folks had a guest 
that night. Just as I was making a fire he came down stairs and asked 
if there was frost. I told him to look out — that everything was white 
and stiff and there was ice that required an ax to break it. When the 
sun had thawed out things the disaster was apparent. The corn in the 
Donnels Creek bottom that was from twelve to eighteen inches high 
fell flat, and the forest leaves turned black. The full-sized pawpaw 
leaves dropped off like they do in October. 

"Next day was Sunday. Nature wore a pall of grief and the farm- 
ers were the mourners. While some used sheepshears to trim off the 
frozen plants, in other instances nature did its own surgery and there- 
was no dearth of corn at husking time. Those who furrowed between 
the rows and planted again had too thick a stand of corn and it did 
not ear well. The best corn that year was planted late and was not 
through the ground at the time of the frost. Potatoes sprouted up 
again, but wheat in the bottoms was ruined, there being a light yield 

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on the high ground. While there were few thermometers then, there 
never has been such cold weather in June. 

"The winter of 1881-2 was notable, snow falling on the night of 
November 15 and remaining throughout the winter. The oldest resi- 
dents did not remember a winter of such steady low temperature. The 
snow did not melt at noon in the sunshine, and a Springfield milkman 
delivered his product from a sleigh for eighty consecutive days. There 
have been years without summers and years without winters, but there 
always has been seed time and harvest. While the last winter was the 
warmest on record, January 12, 1918, is admitted to have been the 
coldest day known in Clark County. There was snow, snow, snow, 
and traffic was suspended because of it. There were drifts, drifts, 
drifts, and the roads were impassable. Livestock walked from field to 
field unconscious of the wire fences separating them, and fences were 
opened that travelers might go around the drifts, all of which is within 
the memory of those who read about it. 

"The heat of summer and the cold of winter, the cold, damp days 
are forerunners of the springtime. The old couplet reads : 

"March winds and April showers, 
Bring the t pretty May flowers." 

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The Ohio Gazetteer of 1816 says : "No country in the world is bet- 
ter watered with limpid streams and navigable rivers than the United 
States of America, and no people better deserve these advantages, or are 
better calculated to make a proper use of them than her industrious and 
adventurous citizens." The United States Geological Survey shows that 
forty per cent of the developed water power in the world is in this 

While Springfield inventors turned their attention to water wheels at 
the time water was thus utilized for power, the water wheels in the 
United States have a combined capacity of 9,243,000 horsepower, and 
the countries of Europe where waterways and water power have been 
utilized extensively, cannot boast of more extensive development. The 
turbine water wheel did much to develop the manufacturing interests of 
Springfield when Mill Run furnished the motive power. The overcast 
and undercast wheels were known to the settlers, and from the time James 
Demint built the first mill in 1803, until steam supplanted water power, 
water wheels were essential to industry. 

Murat Halstead once said: "The French were truthful as well as 
tasteful when they named the Ohio the Beautiful River," and while in 
the wilderness days game crossed the stream at the fords in the absence 
of floods, all that deals with the Ohio of the long ago ; even the buffaloes 
knew the width of the stream that divided and united the valley when 
the water was high or low, and the same conditions existed along the 
smaller streams. Since the Big Miami as fed by the Little Miami and 
other Clark County streams contributes to the Ohio, Clark County is 
within the Miami Valley. Beside the Miamis, its principal streams are: 
Mad River, Buck or Lagonda Creek, and Beaver Creek which, with their 
tributaries, "furnish water power for about twenty-five grist mills, 
upwards of thirty saw mills, two paper mills, two oil mills, and seven or 
eight carding and fulling mills, all of which are in operation within the 

Still another account says: "Mad River is unequalled for fine mill 
sites. Its current is rapid, and the water is never so low in the driest 
season as to interfere in the slightest degree with the mills that are now 
upon it. * * * Within a range of three miles of Springfield are 
upwards of twenty good mill seats, occupied and unoccupied. The value 
of this immense water power is enhanced by the fact that on the east 
and southeast is a tract of country forty miles wide which is entirely 
dependent upon this stream and mills," but the student of economic condi- 
tions would hardly accept that version today. 

In the palmy days of New Boston which is now marked by an aban- 
doned cemetery adjoining Fort Tecumseh, west from Springfield, it was 
said to be at the head of navigation on Mad River. "In those days Mad 
River spread all over creation," but the removal of the timber and drain- 
age have changed the situation ; while the water used to be carried away, 
now it percolates into the porous soil, and yet Mad River carries more 
water into the Big Miami than any other tributary. In his study of the 


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streams of Clark County, Dean C. G. Shatzer has discovered 105 sites 
once occupied by mills, and while the ruins of some remain others are 
known to have existed. There were saw mills, grist mills, wagon shops, 
blacksmith shops and distilleries at frequent intervals along Mad River. 

The Shawnees were governed in naming Mad River by the character 
of its water — turbulent stream, Mad River, and it flowed with such veloc- 
ity that it afforded unexcelled water power; the fall in the stream as 
it crosses Clark County is from 8 to 10 feet every mile, and the power to 
turn the machinery was available at many points, the term mill site now 
almost obsolete in the study of economic problems. The Shawnees built 
their wigwams along Mad River, because they liked its turbulent flow; 
it suggested to them the anger of the Great Spirit, and being a warrior 
tribe its malevolent attitude suited them. The settlers had the same idea ; 
they spoke of the Mad River countryside as a synonym of the heart's 
desire, and Mad River and Bethel townships which are separated by it 
are the earliest settled portions of Clark County. 

While Mad River is an interpretation of the Shawnee word Athe-ne- 
sepe, the soft Indian language may have its distinct mission; while one 
interpretation is "flat or smooth stone," the velocity of the stream would 
have that effect. In one of the Clark County books, an Ode to Mad 
River reads: 

"The rivers how they run 
Through woods, and meads and shade and sun, 
Sometimes swift, sometimes slow, 
Wave succeeding wave they go, 
A various journey to the deep, 
Like human life in endless sleep." 

Buck or Lagonda Creek joins Mad River west from Springfield, 
having absorbed Beaver Creek on the other side of the city; it is said 
the Shawnees used the word Lagonda, and while the meaning may not 
be different is more euphonious, and has been combined with ether 
names, as Lagonda Chapter D. A. R., Lagonda Club, Lagonda Bank and 
Lagonda Hotel. At least twenty mill sites have been located on this 
stream. It is a swift running stream, and when strangers are shown 
Buck Creek they inquire about Lagonda. 

There was beautiful scenery along Lagonda in its wild state, and the 
unbroken limestone cliffs on either side were covered with cedars, ferns, 
mosses, flowers and trailing vines. The grape vine hung from the stately 
trees on the margin of the stream, and dipped its tendrils in its placid 
waters; the sycamore bent its protecting boughs over its banks, while 
the sugar maple and hackberry towered above the dogwood, red bud, 
pawpaw, spicewood and other small growth lining the stream. "Back- 
ward, turn backward, O Time in your flight," and make Lagonda beau- 
tiful again. 

While Mad River and the Little Miami drain different sections of 
Clark County, the general trend of the water courses is to the south and 
southwest, the lowest point in the county being found in Mad River 
Township, where it is only 325 feet above the low water mark on the 
Ohio at Cincinnati. It is said there is fishing in the Little Miami when- 
ever the water is not frozen, and while it leaves the county and comes 
back again at Clifton, through a gorge there the current is so swift that 

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promoters have considered utilizing it in the manufacture of power; it 
would be accessible to different cities, but the volume of water is the 
question. The scenery is beautiful, and power created there would be 
and advantage to Clifton. 

While the waters of Honey Creek leave Clark County on the west, 
tributary to Mad River are: Muddy Run, Mud Creek, Donnels Creek, 
Jackson Creek, Miller Creek, Mill Creek, and Buck Creek which through 
its principal tributary Beaver Creek receives the water from Sinking 
Creek and smaller streams, and nothing is said about a water shed in 
Clark County. There is a Rocky Run, Dry Run and Chapman's Creek, 
and drainage is not the perplexing problem— rfall may be had, and parts 
of the county do not require artificial drainage at all. 

Until the late '30s there were few bridges across the streams in Clark 
County, those of primitive style not remaining long, but in 1837 there 
was a bridge over Mad River west of Springfield, and in 1838 there was 
a bridge at Donnelsville. Some of the early type of covered bridges are 
s^ill seen both east and west from Springfield, and the Golden Arch 
seems to be a permanent thing over Rocky Run. When there were no 
bridges, people forded the streams or crossed in ferries, and drownings 
were reported frequently. 

The settlers knew all about the grappling hooks that were left in 
houses along the streams, and narrow escapes from drowning were the 
startling stories told by the pioneers. Swollen streams did not deter trav- 
elers, and adventure was part of the plan in developing the country. 

An old account says: "Directly through Springfield runs another 
stream, small, but swift and unfailing," and while Mill Run is now only 
a sewer, someone said: "The beautiful little rivulet, Mill Run, glided 
smoothly through the town, dividing it into two sections, the east from 
the west ; there was a small valley through which the stream flowed, and 
on the west side were two brick, seven frame and many log houses. The 
west bank of the run for several rods back was an exceedingly muddy and 
miry place. In crossing Mill Run into the east part of Springfield, it 
was necessary to wade mud and mire, cross the stream on a foot log and 
climb the steep bank on the east side. There were more houses on the 
east side, but as on the west they were principally built of logs." 

The pedestrian on Main Street would have difficulty locating Mill 
Run, although it was once an uncontrolled stream and a terror to the 
community. In 1819 two Irishmen named Andrew and Frederick John- 
son took the contract from the owners of the swampy land abutting Mill 
Run to ditch and drain it. They rendered this portion of the town passa- 
ble for man and beast. It was no uncommon occurrence for the stream 
to overflow and flood Market Square, and small boats would ply the 
street in the vicinity of the Esplanade. Sometimes people were driven 
from their homes by Mill Run floods, and they were often water bound 
in them. 

Because it was a constant menace to property and human safety, in 
1877, the Springfield City Council arched Mill Run from the site of the 
Arcade, then the Whitely, Fassler and Kelly plant, through the business 
center, and the stranger who notes the flow into Buck Creek by an abba- 
toir between Fountain and Wittenberg avenues must be told of Mill Run 
to know of its existence. This arch is eighteen feet wide and nine feet 
high, and was constructed at a cost of $19,669.90, the city paying $582.44, 
and the property owners benefited by it paying the remainder. It 

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improved conditions in the neighborhood marked by Main, Jefferson, 
Market and Center streets. 

While its light is now "under a bushel," Mill Run once furnished the 
power for machine shops and factories; it had the necessary fall, and 
as many as a dozen industries had their motive power from its swift 
flowing current. Mill Run reached Buck Creek through projecting rocks 
covered with hanging vines, reaching down and forming a curtain to the 
chasm. It was taller than a man's head, and under one side of the cas- 
cade was a stream flowing from an aperture. It was a strong current of 
remarkably cold water with the flavor of the water at Yellow Springs, 
and it deposited a similar sediment, but the progressive age destroyed 
the surrounding beauty. From blasting of the rocks the spring water dis- 
appeared, and while Cliff Park is an attraction, the wild beauty of that 
locality is gone forever. 

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The fact remains unquestioned that the civilization of any country 
does not advance more rapidly than does its agriculture. The pioneers 
found that the chemical analysis of Clark County soil required a mixture 
of elbow grease and industry — a startling fact, yet nevertheless true, if 
they were to dig their living from it. The woodman with his ax, and 
the Irishman with his spade, entered into the wilderness question of 

In discussing the early citizens, one writer says: "They left their 
homes in Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky and settled in the wilder- 
ness of the Northwest Territory, where they built their humble cabin 
homes and cleared the forests, under conditions that required heroic 
courage and great physical endurance." Another writer adds : "Scarcely 
had the State of Ohio been formed and received into the Union, when a 
crowd of adventurers flocked into its bounds, and located themselves in 
places that seemed attractive to them ;" while another writes : "It is the 
poor and hard-working element that seeks a home in a new country. 
We find the pioneer generally poor but robust, with an energy which 
labor increases, and with an endurance that seems to baffle all opposing 

Some more optimistic writer says : "There is a fascination in recall- 
ing the times, scenes and actors in life's drama of the pioneer period. The 
greater part of the goods transported from the eastern settlements were 
brought over the Allegheny Mountains on pack horses. The first year's 
subsistence had to be carried that way, and salt was packed hundreds 
of miles to meet the wants of the settlers. It was sold to them from 
$6 to $10 a bushel. Some of them brought their horses, cows and hogs, 
and seeds for planting. Sometimes they carried vegetables and shrub- 
bery, and they soon created the atmosphere of home about them. No 
roads were laid out west of Pittsburgh, and but few wagons could find 
their way over the mountains, and through the unbroken wilderness. 
However, the very early settlers in Clark County came from Kentucky. 
With only a few exceptions the Mad River Colony were all Kentuckians." 

An early writer says: "Roads were soon made, and rough log 
bridges spanned the smaller streams; the rivers had their ferries, and 
country or general stores began to put in an appearance. They kept a 
little of everything, but it was always articles of necessity, as hats, caps, 
boots, shoes, chains, wedges, pots and kettles, and all that is duplicated 
in Clark County history. While the Ordinance of 1787 made local his- 
tory a possibility, and it has been described by one writer as a pillar of 
cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night, and impressed upon the soil 
while it bore nothing but the American forest, space does not allow of 
further study outside the bounds of Springfield and Clark County. In 
the public and in many private libraries are copies of Howe's "History of 
Ohio" in two volumes ; Whitelaw Reid in two volumes, and Randall and 
Ryan in five volumes, and some of the older single volume histories, and 
the general history of Ohio is found in them. 


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The Wild Lands 

From 1801 to 1809 the settlers represent Clark County as a beautiful 
country. In the area north of Springfield for fourteen miles upon land 
that was later covered with thick timber, there were not enough poles to 
have made hoops for a meat cart. In 1810, Griffith Foos at his hostelry 
in Springfield, entertained James Smith who had been in the vicinity 
may years earlier with the Indians, and he described the country to the 
north and east as prairies, saying he had started up buffalo and elk there. 
There is mention of Smith as a visitor among the settlers on Mad River. 
Mr. Foos described the same land as almost destitute of timber — an undu- 
lating plain covered with grass and a variety of wild flowers ; there was 
a species of wild peas with fragrant blossoms. 

In this tract pasture was abundant, and the cattle fed on it. The 
time came when this same area consisted of a forest of large trees with 
no undergrowth, and it was a well sodded country. Beyond Mad River 
was an unbroken forest with trees in great variety, and where not choked 
with undergrowth, it was a well sodded country. Prof. Edward Orton 
describes the hard wood forests, listing oak, maple, white hickory and 
burr oak, saying there were once 200,000 acres of timber in Clark 
County. Query : What became of it ? An old account says Springfield 
was a poor timber market, and the settlers "wagoned" to Dayton with it. 
At the time Mad River was lined with milling and distilling establish- 
ments, and Springfield had not yet asserted itself as a city. 

There were very large poplar trees west from Mad River, and pump 
makers liked poplar for well stocks; it did not discolor or embitter the 
water. S. S. Miller tells of a mammoth poplar that fell across the road, 
saying that a twelve-foot section had to be sawed off to allow of travel, 
and by eye-measure it was six feet in diameter. In the old days of down 
timber, how to get rid of it was the settler's problem. Since there was 
no market for it, there were log rollings and thousands of trees were 
burned in order that the ground might be cleared and turned to some 
profit. When Springfield began to expand and utilize such material, it 
was only a memory along Mad River. Oak, walnut, ash and poplar were 
utilized in building, and there is much valuable walnut in the inside finish 
of the older houses today. 

The great forests were a standing menace to progress in agriculture; 
they must be destroyed and give place to the cultivated fields, and in some 
instances the land was worn otjt before the stumps had all disappeared 
from it. The settler did not use dynamite in removing stumps but plowed 
around them. The farm boy knew what it meant to be struck on the 
shins with a root cut off by the plow. It required skill to manipulate a 
plow and team, and usually the father had to break the new ground 
himself. There was an era of leasing and clearing and making farms, 
and log rollings and the whisky jug were part of the transformation. 
The dinner was cooked before the fire on the hearth, and prior to 1850 
there were few cookstoves in the rural homes; the grandmothers pre- 
pared delicacies unknown today. 

While the settler cut off the forest as cumbering the ground, the 
careful husbandman of today resorts to tree surgery and reforestation, 
processes unknown to the generation that went into the forest with the 
ax. Tree surgery is recognized as the lasting way to preserve rare trees, 
and the trees demolished by storm are restored. A man-made menace is 

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an improperly trimmed tree, and that is an art unknown to those who 
came into the primitive forest. It is worse than the nature-made danger 
in the shape of a tall forest which catches all of the winds; the trees 
untrimmed have more resistance. 

With reference to the advance of civilization in Clark County some 
.one writes : "Unfold the canvas and look upon the changing panoramic 
scene. One sees a wild of fine timber and a swift flowing stream. 
The Indian settles; the nobler game flees away, and yet deer and wolf 
abound; then the settler comes and raises his log cabin, the fields are 
cleared and tilled. Look again and you note the growth of a beautiful 
and thriving city, and such is Springfield. When nature and human skill 
combine they produce the mid-day glories of the later civilization." 

While native timber was once used in building, with the passing of 
the years changes are noted. When the primitive supply was exhausted, 
there was demand for white pine and hemlock and the forests of Michi- 
gan furnished the supply, but dealers must range farther and wider for 
lumber today ; yellow and white pine from California are now being used 
by local builders. While walnut was once used so extensively, it has 
vanished with the passing years. Beside timber from the western coast, 
the Springfield market handles lumber from Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida, 
Alabama and Mississippi. What once went up in smoke on the Clark 
County clearings would amount to a snug fortune today. 

Charcoal a Local Product 

In the reminiscences of S. S. Miller is the story of how a charcoal pit 
was filled and burned, and otherwise it is a forgotten industry. He says 
the logs were placed on dry brush, and covered with green limbs to pre- 
vent the earth from falling between them ; a hole was left at one end for 
firing and dry wood was used there. The settler had a shed near the coal 
pit with straw for his bed, and one would sleep while another watched 
the fire which had to be kept at uniform heat in order to properly char 
the logs. Sometimes spits of fire would come through the dirt covering 
the pit, and it was necessary to smother it with more dirt; there was 
busy work at times for the man who burned a pit of charcoal. There 
came a time when there was not such prodigal waste of timber in burn- 
ing charcoal, and four-foot wood was stood on end with tapering courses 
above the bottom round, and the pile was covered with dirt, smoldering 
the blaze in order to char it. The coal pit described by Mr. Miller was 
burned in 1837 on land later owned by the Keifers and once the home of 
Gen. J. Warren Keif er on Mad River. It was then a virgin forest except 
one-half acre that was occupied by a cabin. 

This cabin had been occupied by a shoemaker named Fair, and a 
leather latch string hung out of his door. When civilization was approach- 
ing too near him, and he became tired of such cramped quarters — a coal 
pit so near him, he went west — that word then meaning to Indiana. He 
had several grownup sons and wanted to better conditions for himself 
and family. When his household goods were packed into the wagon 
drawn by tw6 small horses, the dog tied underneath the wagon and the 
cow to the hind axle, Mr. Fair was unable to fasten an arm chair to the 
end of the load with a bed cord, so that it would ride over the feed trough, 
and when a drizzling rain began a neighbor offered him a Spanish dollar 

Vol. 1-6 

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for it. It was used by Mr. Miller's grandfather until he died in 1844, 
and was later treasured as a relic by relatives. 

When the Fairs left this cabin by the coal pit the Widow Icenbarger, 
who sold homemade ginger bread and beer in Springfield, sent some of 
her children there — six of whom were boys, and they secured work 
among the farmers. They chopped off much of the timber, and in corn 
planting, husking and harvest they were useful in the community. In 
time the cabin was too small for them, and they went to Stillwater 
in Miami County. As civilization advanced, there has ever been those 
who, like Simon Kenton, went into the new country again. While clear- 
ing was part of the process, deadening was an earlier stage. A deaden- 
ing was a woeful scene. By girdling the trees with an ax in the fall, the 
leaves would not come again, and much of it was done to lessen the labor 
of clearing the land. It was urged by some that deadening the timber 
conserved soil fertility. 

There were saw mills along Mad River, and some of the smaller 
streams, and poplar was cut into weather-boarding, ash into flooring, and 
walnut was used for inside finish and making cupboards. There were 
three-cornered walnut cupboards in many pioneer homes. Walnut was 
also used by carpenters in making coffins. Then, as now, all ages and 
conditions were represented in the passing throng to that bourne from 
which there are no returned travelers. Walnut was used for the inside 
finish of the Clark County Court House, and it was much admired. For 
many years its high price as well as scarcity has been prohibitive of its 
use by carpenters. Sugar maple was used by cabinetmakers for the 
posts and rails of bedsteads, beech was used for sheathing on buildings. 
While the large elms remained the longest^ they were the best for char- 
coal. The hickories and walnuts afforded nuts, and there was some 
reward for roaming in the forest. When the leaves were on the sky 
was hidden, and the varieties of the trees is one of the mysteries. 

The Sugar-Making Industry 

In an ordinary season the settlers began tapping sugar trees in Feb- 
ruary. It required cold nights, followed by sunshiny days to bring the 
sap into the trees. Elder stalks were procured from the fence corners 
and cleared spots and brought into the house where they were sawed into 
the length for sugar spiles — usually about ten inches. One side was 
whittled away and the pith removed from the elders. About two inches 
at one end was left circular, and the pith was pushed out of it. A three- 
quarter inch auger was used in boring holes into the trees, and the end 
of the elder was whittled so as to fit into this hole, and through it the 
sap flowed into a receptacle for it. 

Unless broken while inserting or removing them from the trees, these 
spiles were used one year after another, and it saved the trouble of mak- 
ing them so often. Sugar troughs were made from butternut trees, or 
poplar cut into three-foot lengths, and split and dug out with an ax. 
These troughs were smoothed with a foot adz, and were sometimes used 
as cradles. Some of the most prominent families used sugar troughs 
in which to cradle their children ; being half round they did not require 
the addition of rockers. In different camps there were different methods 
of handling the sugar water. The iron kettles used in heating the water 
for scalding hogs on butchering day, for heating the milk in which ren- 

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net was used for coagulation in making cheese, in which lye was boiled 
in making soap, or in which water was heated on wash day — those iron 
kettles served the purpose again in the sugar camp. Settlers were accom- 
modating, and sometimes the soap-making kettle was loaned to others in 
sugar-making time. Who has not heard the riddle : 

"Black upon black, and black upon brown, 
Three legs up and six legs down?" 

It was a negro astride a brown horse, bringing home the neighbor's iron 
kettle on his head in sugar-making time. 

A furnace was built in the sugar camp with a shelter over it, and 
usually it was necessary to overhaul it at sugar-making time. It was 
daubed with clay, and more mud must be mixed and added to it. Dry 
wood was sometimes stored under this shelter to be in readiness for 
boiling the sap another season. A series of kettles was placed on the 
furnace, and as the sugar water thickened from boiling it was dipped 
from one kettle to another, and fresh sap started in the end kettle. 
Usually the kettles graded smaller as the sap neared the consistency of 
molasses; it must be boiled longer before it is sugar.^ Those who date 
back to sugar-making days in Clark County also remember the wax-pull- 
ing parties in connection with it. Unless care was used, sugar water boiled 
over easily, and not only wasted the water and the labor, but put out the 
fire used in the process. Sometimes the careful housewife went to the 
sugar camp herself, thus averting such misfortune. 

Men and boys knew long hours of service in sugar-making. A sled 
was used in drawing the sap from the trees to the furnace, and unless 
a spigot had been put into the barrel, there was heavy lifting in emptying 
the sugar water. It required a well-trained horse in drawing the sled, 
or there was waste in transit, the sap splashing from the barrels. A cir- 
cular lid inside the barrel did much to save the water. Unless there was 
a spigot, buckets were used in emptying the barrels at the furnace, and 
fresh kettles were started frequently. Sometimes a barrel or immense 
hogshead was used for storage when the water was collected faster than 
it could be boiled in the kettles. Sap would run for a few hours, and 
then there would be no more sap until after a hard frost. There were no 
sugar camps east of Mad River in Clark County. 

Sometimes the sugar-making process was finished in the camp, and 
sometimes the thickened sap was taken to the house and the boiling 
continued there, the kettle suspended from a crane in the fireplace. 
The housewife tested the finished product when molasses was desired 
by the way a spoonful poured into a cup of water would crackle, and 
when it was wanted for sugar it was cooked a little longer to insure 
granulation; the pioneer depended upon homemade sugar. According 
to the S. S. Miller reminiscence, it was necessary to conceal the loca- 
tion of the sugar. In his own home the sugar was stored in a barrel in 
the attic. In those days the use of tea and coffee was limited to Sunday 
or when there were visitors, and then sugar was placed on the table. 
Although it was dark, homemade sugar sweetened the dip made from 
milk or cream, and poured over the apple dumplings so common among 
the settlers. 

When there was a surplus of maple sugar it went on the market at 
from 4 to 8 cents a pound, and the syrup sold from 35 to 50 cents a 

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gallon. One Springfield grocer laid in a supply of the syrup, being 
told that it would keep till harvest; the syrup fermented and the dealer 
"soured," the investment being a loss to him. Sometimes a maple tree 
standing alone where it was exposed to the sun, afforded the first flow 
of sap and the family had homemade molasses in advance of opening 
the sugar camp; the time came when supplies for operating the camp 
could be had in the stores, and then came the time when there were few 
sugar camps in Clark County. When dug-outs were used in which to 
catch the sap conveyed through elder spiles, it was necessary to balance 
the troughs to save the water; later metal spiles were on the market, 
and sugar buckets were stored from one year to another, and there were 
tricks in flavoring the homemade syrup. Maple molasses has been made 
with hickory bark flavor, and the epicure was unable to detect it. 

It is said the sugar-making process was known to the Indians; they 
used the stone hatchet to make the opening into the trees, and conducted 
the sap through bark spouts to the bark troughs, where they dropped 
the heated stones in boiling the sap. While the crude methods of the 
Indians were improved upon by the settlers, the process was unchanged, 
and only a few years ago Ohio produced a million dollars worth annually 
of maple molasses and maple sugar ; the 1910 report showed that $5,000,- 
000 worth of maple products were produced in the United States. In 
modern sugar camps the sap is boiled in evaporating pans and passes 
automatically along — sap running in at one end and the finished molasses 
running out at the other, but the flavor and fragrant odor have not 
been improved since sugar camps were the order of the day west of 
Mad River in Clark County. The expert Clark County sugar maker 
stirred the syrup until it granulated — sampling it frequently, and finally 
it found its way into barrels, only small quantities removed at a time, 
in the Delftware bowls of other years — but the swiftly passing years 
have changed the whole economic process and few today remember the 
sugar camps and the old fashioned wax pulling parties. Backward, 
turn backward, oh time in your flight. 

The Sorghum Industry 

As the country expanded a change came over the sugar-making 
industry, the cane juice of warmer climates being substituted for the 
maple sap, and John Foos and others cast their fortunes with the 
Louisiana cane growing industry ; they had the capital and the machinery 
to crush and refine it, making a light brown sugar shipped out in barrels 
to dealers, but because it dried out rapidly grocers had difficulty with 
the weighing and lost money handling it. When the Louisiana sugar 
was shipped to Springfield, the barrels were left standing on the side- 
walks, and the bees were attracted to it. 

Sorghum was once extensively raised by the farmers in German 
Township, and the molasses was on the Springfield market at 75 cents 
a gallon. The seeds of the cane made good chicken feed, and the blades 
were used as foddef; in the middle '60s there was a Leflfel sorghum 
mill, and one year when sorghum molasses retailed at $1 a gallon in 
Springfield, Joseph Leffel realized $200 from two acres of cane; he 
used horse power for crushing, and it is said there would be more cane 
grown if there were more mills for grinding it, and furnaces for boiling 
the juice; while sorghum has been used for sweetening, it is not a sub- 

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stitute for sugar. The Leffel sorghum mill was south from Springfield 
near a spring, and since then John L. Zimmerman acquired the land and 
erected an ornamental summer house at the spring. Contemporary with 
the Leffel cane mill, the Rev. Abraham Myers who married into the 
Leffel family, operated a sorghum mill near Donnelsville, utilizing the 
water in Mad River for power ; he was a graduate of Wittenberg College. 
Later the Leffels became interested in turbine water wheels, and turned 
their attention to bigger things than the sorghum making industry. 

While some of the early day sugar camps west of Mad River had as 
many as 500 trees, and the camps were opened every year, there is little 
sugar making in Clark County today. It is said that when timber of one 
variety has been removed, and the ground is left idle, it will become 
covered with other varieties ; the birds transport seeds, and in one way 
or another nature always clothes its nakedness. While sugar trees were 
numerous west from Mad River, east from the stream were the different 
kinds of oak and hickory — varieties suitable for buggy spokes, and 
other articles requiring tough wood, but aye, the woodman and his ax 
have rendered those ancient • conditions as a story that is told in the 
annals of Clark County today. 

Another By-Product of the Forest 

Just as in the spring the young man's fancy turns to love, the pioneer 
woman made the soap to be used in her household for the succeeding 
twelvemonth, and it was demonstrated again that "beauty draws smoke." 
While ash-hoppers were of various patterns, one was made from barrel 
staves or clapboards slanted from a dug-out or sugar trough used to 
catch the lye as it was leached through wood ashes; this hopper was 
square at the top, the staves being three or four feet in length, and at 
the end of the trough an iron kettle was usually partly sunk into the 
ground to catch the lye as it treacled through the ashes; in order to 
secure their full strength, the ashes were dampened several days before 
enough water was poured into the hopper to produce the flow of lye. 
The pioneer home soap-maker tested the strength of the lye by dropping 
a fresh egg into the kettle; if it floated, the lye was of the proper 
strength to cut the grease, and soap-making began in earnest. 

The same iron kettle used on butchering day was again utilized, the 
soap being made at the same place near the wood pile where the house- 
wife could find chips to add to the blaze, when she wanted the soap to 
boil a little stronger; the wind was always changing and blowing the 
smoke in her face — thus the saying, beauty draws smoke. The refuse 
from butchering, and the meat rinds saved from the kitchen, constituted 
the soap grease, and when the lye was strong it did not require long 
cooking to make soap ; a little salt added to the soap caused it to harden, 
and then it was fancy to be used on Sunday; usually it was soft soap, 
made for the home laundry. If the Indians knew the art of soap making, 
history is silent about it. They did not wear much clothing, and their 
ablutions were in the streams. 

S. S. Miller writes: "Springfield once had a soap factory located 
below the rocks on the south side of Buck Creek, a few rods west of 
where Mill Run, the town's storm water stream poured over the rocks ; 
it was operated by Mark Smith. As wood ashes were easily procured, 
and grease from the nearby slaughter houses, he did a thriving business ; 

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he made two kinds of soap, and the common soap was packed in boxes 
containing 100 bars which was wholesaled to grocers, and retailed at 
5 cents a bar." Smith also made a scented soap used for the hands and 
face, and while he made a success, Springfield has no soap factory 
today. While soap is mentioned in the Bible, it is only in the Old 
Testament. When wood ashes were no longer possible, soap making 
became a lost art in Clark County. However, careful housewives have 
methods of using up soap grease, although out-of-door soap making and 
ash-hoppers went the way of the world along with the grandmothers 
who understood such things. 

Ohio the Buckeye State 

Why is Ohio called the Buckeye State? William M. Farrar says: 
"The usual and most commonly accepted solution is that it originates 
from the buckeye tree," but it is found in Kenutcky, Indiana and in 
West Virginia, and perhaps elsewhere; its natural locality appears to 
be in Ohio, and its native soil in the rich valleys of the Muskingum, 
Scioto and Miami rivers; in the early settlement of the state it was 
found in abundance, and because of the luxuriance of its foliage, the 
richly colored dyes of its fruit, and its ready adaptation to the wants 
and the conveniences of the pioneers, it was highly prized by them for 
many useful purposes. It was also well known to and much prized by 
the Indians, from whose rude language comes its name, Hetuck, mean- 
ing the eye of the buck because of the striking resemblance in color and 
shape between the brown nut and the eye of that animal, the peculiar 
spot upon the one corresponding to the iris in the other." Mr. Farrar 
adds: "In its application, however, we have reversed the term and 
called the person or thing to which it is applied a buckeye." 

It seems that the all-inclusive word Buckeye means all things to 
everybody, and in his "Memoirs of the Early Pioneer Settlers of .Ohio," 
published in 1884, Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of Marietta, says: "Colonel 
Ebenezer Sproat who had been appointed sheriff, opened the first 
court ever held in Ohio, September 2, 1788, marching with his drawn 
sword and wand of office at the head of the judges, governors and secre- 
tary, made an imposing and august spectacle. Mr. Sproat was a large 
and dignified looking gentleman, and he was at once christened by the 
large crowd of Indian spectators as 'Hetuck/ or 'Big Buckeye.' From 
this, no doubt, originated the name of 'Buckeye/ now applied to the 
natives of Ohio, as the phrase was familiar to all the early settlers of 
Marietta." While the buckeye tree is not limited to Ohio soil, residents 
of other states have their own local designations, and Clark County 
residents, may so designate themselves with equal propriety as the 
inhabitants of any other Ohio county. Webster says: "A cant name 
for a native of Ohio." 

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While all industries are essential to civilization, in the countries where 
the methods of agriculture are crude there is not much progress along 
any line of development ; the stranger who rides along the well improved 
highways of Clark County today in the modern touring car, is hardly 
cognizant of the fact that only yesterday very diffefent conditions 
existed in this country. 

In writing about some waste land several centuries ago, the "Shepherd 
of the Hills" rather accurately describes the territory ceded by the 
American Indians to the United States Government, through the direct 
instrumentality of Gen. Anthony Wayne; in a dissertation on wilder- 
ness conditions, barrenness and standing water, the Psalmist David 
caught the vision of the Old Northwest, when he penned the words: 
*'He turneth the wilderness into standing water. * * * And there 
He maketh the hungry to dwell that they may prepare a city for habita- 
tion; and sow the fields and plant vineyards which may yield fruit. 
* * * He blessed them also that they are multiplied greatly." 

If there was a time when the Northwest Territory was submerged, 
as scientists assert, and huge blocks of ice traveled slowly down from 
the north, nature later shaking off the chill and allowing the heart of 
the earth to grow warm when the loosened ice ridges broke away, and 
the smitten waters flashed — well, Mad River seems to be the explanation. 

The Old Routine 

While the theory of crop rotation is being studied today, the old idea 
of agriculture was to raise more corn and hogs in order to buy more 
land on which to raise more corn and hogs; it was an endless chain 
theory that caused some men to become land poor before methods of 
intensive farming had claimed attention. Progress and improvement 
are more rapid now than at any time in the history of the world, and 
it is undeniable that agriculture is keeping pace with other industries. 
It is the fundamental occupation and all others are dependent upon it. 
An old account says: "One of the peculiarities of the earlier times 
was the varied development, and the marked individuality among men; 
every little community had its distinguished men/' and that still holds 
good in Clark County agriculture. 

Of the settlers along Mad River it seems that David Lowry who 
came into the community as a member of a surveying party, and 
secured a choice bit of land there, lingered longest; the Lowry farm 
is known to posterity. When Lowry came in 1796, the area now covered 
by Springfield was a plum tree and hazel brush thicket ; while there was 
a thick undergrowth, the woods were full of bears, deer, wild turkeys 
and other wild game valued by the Indians as well as the settlers, who 
were hunters from necessity. In one year Mr. Lowry and Jonathan 
Donnel, who were associated in wilderness history, killed seventeen 
bears and 1,000 deer, and their venture in shipping venison hams is 
elsewhere related. It is said that Mr. Lowry once shot a bear and two 


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cubs in the space of three minutes. The above story is given to posterity 
by R. C. Woodward, who admits that many similar stories were told 
to him by Lowry and others. 

Had Mr. Woodward, who published "Springfield Sketches" in 1852, 
written down more of those adventures — hunting excursions and swim- 
ming swollen streams, he would have done in a particular way for 
Clark County what Henry Howe did in a general way for the whole 
State of Ohio. While Mr. Lowry was not a squatter ahead of the 
survey, he secured what he wanted, and was among the first to leave 
his mark in the wilderness. The brawny settler had activities before 
him, and when he had forty acres of cleared land he had made great 
progress. In the '20s and '30s, now a full century ago, there were many 
improvements and still Clark County farmers "wagoned" to Cincinnati; 
they had a little home market, and there was a city of 15,000 inhabitants 
who must be fed. When the families lived two, three and four miles 
apart, there was little social intercourse — borrowed fire in extremities, 
and gradually they "grew up with the country." * 

In explaining boundaries and farms, it is said the settlers secured 
what they wanted and in the shape they wanted it, and later the sur- 
veyors allowed them to maintain their possessions, surveying around 
them and officials find the original surveys confusing. Isaac Newton 
Seever who since 1876 has been a surveyor in Clark County, relates 
that the compass used by Symmes and later by Ludlow was finally 
owned by Thomas Kizer. The 1881 History says : "Col. Thomas Kizer, 
the veteran surveyor, has in his possession a compass made by Dean of 
Philadelphia; this instrument was owned and used by his father, David 
Kizer, who obtained it from Col. John Daugherty about 1813. Daugherty 
got it from Jonathan Donnel ; this relic is marked : I. Ludlow, 1791 ; 
Henry Donnel, 1794; J. Donnel, 1796, and John Daugherty, 1799. These 
marks are rudely scratched upon the cover of the instrument, and bear 
every evidence of being genuine. There is no doubt but this old compass 
was used in making the first surveys in this county, or that it is the 
identical instrument used by John Daugherty in laying off Demint's 
plat of Springfield, and by Jonathan Donnel on the survey of New 

Cornerstone and witness trees are part of early history, and Mr. 
Seever is familiar with them through doing private as well as public 
surveying through many years. When asked about Devils Lanes, he 
only remembered one, and it was in Mad River Township; it did not 
exist many years. Two men did not agree, and each constructed his 
own line fence between them; they would not join each other in build- 
ing it. At existing prices of fence building materials, most men would 
settle their differences rather than build separate fences. This lane 
was in the locality known as Kill-digging, although Mr. Seever did not 
know the origin of the term ; it was well timbered country and the timber 
in Kill-digging once almost skirted Springfield. 

At Preemption Prices 

The bulk of the Snyder farm property which has benefited Spring- 
field and Clark County in so many ways, was acquired in 1827 when 
land was rated at $1.25 an acre; the heirs to the property held it until 
Springfield advanced, and land values advanced with it, and those who 

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"came early and got plenty," became the wealthy citizens. "While they 
endured the privations with which they were encompassed with heroic 
fortitudes, and a patience which exalted them, those old time heroes 
and heroines could get the necessaries of life at a good deal less cost 
than their favored children and grandchildren, and there was any quan- 
tity of land available at government price, $1.25 an acre, and excellent 
swamp land all but the swamp at 25 cents an acre with twelve months' 
time and county warrants at par," but time has worked changes — not 
much swamp land in Clark County. 

While a recent Springfield advertisement reads: A country home 
plus cows, pigs, poultry, fruits and vegetables equals solid contentment 
and an assured good living, regardless of employment conditions in the 
city, there are Clark County farmers who feel differently about it. 
The ad says: Many former Springfield residents are now living in 
the country and enjoying the use of fresh milk, cream, eggs, poultry, 
pork, lard, vegetables, fruits, etc. Some of them work in the city when 
employment is to be had, while others devote their time to producing a 
surplus to sell; reports from all over America signify a 1'back to the 
farm" movement. Why not join the crowd, and be in the country when 
the joyous spring invites the flowers and the buds for your entertainment? 

It is a pretty sentiment : 

"Under the snowdrifts the blossoms are sleeping, 
Dreaming their dreams of sunshine and June." 

but farm folk know there is more connected with rural activities than 
just awaiting the developing processes of nature. Statistics show that 
of the 2,487 farms in Clark County, 1,534 of them are operated by 
families who own and live on them, leaving a balance of 953 farms to 
be operated by tenants, although an increase in the percentage of rented 
farms in Ohio within the twentieth century is noted by the census reports. 
In 1900, tenants occupied 27.4 per cent of the farm lands in the state, 
while in 1920 it was 29.5, showing an increase of 2.1 per cent of tenant 
farmers in twenty years, but the percentage would be greater in Clark 
County; when the man operating the farm owns it, he is interested in 
its development, as well as in the roads and schools surrounding it. 

Some of the wealthiest farmers in Clark County began on rented land, 
when they were unable to buy it ; some who bought land since the era of 
inflated values are not so fortunate as those who invested before the 
World war, and had the advance in the value of farm products in paying 
for it. As their flocks increased and their herds multiplied, they met 
their payments, while those who paid the higher prices have had to meet 
their land payments with declining markets. Corn, beef and pork were 
^profitable products, and Clark County farmers had their part in feeding 
the world. Diversified farming is recognized as a necessity, and there 
is income from different sources and at different times. It is said that 
on some farms the mistake has been made of too much expenditure in 
elegant homes, and when the farm goes to a tenant he seldom requires 
so much shelter. 

It is said to be a Pennsylvania idea that a good barn helps to build 
the necessary house, while an expensive house built first does not help 
build the barn; care of livestock and the grain produced is possible 
when barn room is provided, and the revenue is from the farm products. 

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The time to buy land is on the decline of the market, but the time to 
sell farm products is on the rising market, and the barn enables the 
farmer to take advantage of conditions. While a number of Clark 
County farms have been acquired through the succession of heritage, 
current expenses must be met and there are some local examples where 
the fortune has not been exhausted in the third generation. It is said 
there are only two generations between shirt sleeves, but there is no 
inherent reason why the third generation should let go of the fortune. 
While some Clark County land may only have changed ownership by 
inheritance, the future will tell the story. 

While the acreage in Clark County is rated at 260,480, something 
is to be counted out for the towns and the waste land, and the 1920 
census report places the tillable land at 241,540 acres; since the 1910 
census estimate the tillable land at 241,631 acres, there is a loss of 
ninety-one acres; what is the explanation? In 1900 the acreage under 
cultivation was 240,903, but that allows for clearing and bringing more 
land under cultivation. Sometimes the fence rows offer the explanation, 
the farmer, losing ground to the unrestrained growth of briers and 
bushes, but that would hardly creep into the United States Census 
report. The value of farm property in 1920 was $42,962,095, which 
was an advance of $15,758,015 in ten years, and since the 1900 census 
quoted Clark County farm values at $16,930,454, the advance in twenty 
years of $26,031,641, throws some light on the economic problem — 
the high cost of living, which is usually attributed to the World war. 

Beside operating their own land, 115 Clark County land owners 
rent other farm land, and sixty-one farms were operated by managers, 
and in some instances the owner lives in town and hires the labor on 
the farm, managing it himself. Someone remarked: "Now that 
every acre is utilized in pasture or cultivated crops, it is hard to reconcile 
the fact that only a generation ago some of it was outside pasture; 
now somebody utilizes every foot of it." A recent newspaper squib 
reads: "If Ohio keeps on in the way she is now going — and has been 
going for the last twenty years — it will not be long until we begin to 
read about 'abandoned Buckeye farms,' just as we have long been 
hearing of 'deserted New England farms/ " 

"There is less improved farm land in Ohio today than there was a 
score of years ago ; and there is getting to be less every year. In 1900, 
according to the census report, there were 19,244,472 acres of improved 
land under cultivation, used for pasture and covered by farm buildings; 
in 1910 the acreage had decreased to 19,227,969, showing a shrinkage 
of 16,506 acres, while in 1920 it had shrunk to 18,542,353 acres, showing 
that in twenty years more than 700,000 acres already wrested from the 
forests of Ohio has been allowed to revert to brier-grown waste. In 
Clark County the conditions are different, in twenty years there being 
639 acres additional although a decline of ninety-one acres was shown 
in the last ten years. In 1900 it was estimated that Ohio had 4.6 acres 
of cleared land to support each inhabitant, while the last census shows 
3.2 acres, another potent explanation of the advance in the price of 

The Dairy Farmer 

The law of supply and demand still controls the situation, and with 
more consumers and fewer productive acres, there is but one possible 

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result — the higher cost of everything. The 1920 census shows the income 
of Clark County farmers as follows: from dairy products, $1,011,766, 
while the total value of dairy cattle is placed at $1,082,942, and beef 
cattle valued at $516,376. The receipts from hogs were $1,085,375, 
and from sheep $194,000, showing the bulk of the income to be from 
the cattle industry. At the 1922 annual meeting of the Springfield 
Milk Producers' Association with more than 100 members present, 
all were united in demanding better prices from the milk dealers; it 
was decided to change from semi-annual to monthly meetings in order 
that the producers may better take care of their common interests; 
they had been selling milk at a loss, and some were ready to abandon 
the business. At this meeting Harry Anderson was elected to succeed 
David F. Snyder as president. Five delegates were elected to meet with 
the Miami Valley Milk Producers' Association, and W. N. Scarff 
reported a conference with authorities at Ohio State University with 
reference to the milk producing situation in Clark County. 

Mr. Scarff was advised at the University that Clark County milk 
producers should establish a distributing station in order to take care 
of the surplus product and Mr. Snyder told of his own activities in 
urging legislation in favor of the milk producers; through the efforts 
of Ohio dairymen, favorable action was promised, and the Springfield 
association will continue its demands. Since farmers are balancing 
accounts and studying the cost of production, they are planning to 
be on the safe side — hence this agitation of the milk market question. 
Beside Mr. Anderson as president, the roster of the Springfield Milk 
Producers' Association is: C. W. Lawrence, vice president; George 
Winwood, secretary, and Clark Crabill, treasurer. Since 1905 the 
association has functioned in Clark County. 

It was planned at the meeting to put on a membership campaign 
in an effort to enroll every milk producer in Clark County; while there 
are 150 members, there are about 500 producers. President Anderson 
said: "It is our aim to secure 100 per cent membership in the asso- 
ciation; it Will be a formidable one if every producer joins with us." 
The association values the service of W. H. Stackhouse, who was among 
148 men summoned from all parts of the country by Secretary Wallace 
of the Department of Agriculture, to a conference on agriculture. While 
Mr. Stackhouse is not a farmer, he is a manufacturer of agricultural 
implements, and a former president of the National Association of Farm 
Equipment Manufacturers. Mr. Stackhouse had always favored farmers 
and the recognition given him at Washington reflects honor on Clark 

The milk producers are in favor of dairy inspection by public health 
officials, and they will use their own bottles, the dealers saying the aver- 
age life of a bottle is about nine trips to a customer. Under a state 
law the use of bottles copyrighted by one firm by another is an infringe- 
ment, on the same basis as the violation of laws protecting trade marks. 
Inspected dairies must show 70 per cent standard requirements, and 
score cards indicate the condition of the herds, barns and general sanita- 
tion. There is also a movement toward establishing a testing organiza- 
tion, to be known as the Clark County Cow Testing Association. Dean 
Ivan McKellip of Ohio State University explained the advantages, 
saying tests are made twice each month, and thus farmers may deter- 
mine which are the valuable animals in their herds; records are filed 

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at the university, and with the National Breeders' Association. The 
charter members of the Clark County Cow Testing Association are: 
Judge A. H. Kunkle, D. H. Olds, W. W. Garrison, Charles Hatfield, 
O. E. Lohnes, Frank Snypp, Floyd Carter, Caleb Jones, Elias Driscoll, 
T. L. Calvert, William Nelson and Harry Croutwater. 

Some of the members of the organization have been testing cows for 
several months, and the new members began immediately. L. E. Valley 
of Ohio State University has been making tests an4 within a short 
time an association may be formed for daily tests. While bacteriology 
is not in all vocabularies, the mastery of bacteria is important to the 
health of the community. The Springfield milk distributors have official 
bacteriologists whose is to detect and eliminate bacteria before 
the milk is delivered to consumers; as an article of food, milk is most 
susceptible to the existence of disease germs. The study of bacteria in 
milk reveals some startling conditions. 

Demands Upon the Individual Cow 

It is estimated by the Ohio Farm Bureau Association that each cow 
supplies milk, butter, cheese and other products for five human beings, 
beside nourishing her own offspring, and numerous pigs, chickens, cats 
and dogs; even motherless lambs sometimes share her largess. Each 
cow has her dry period which varies from one to two months, and the 
careful dairyman as well as the average husbandman avoids having the 
cows all dry at one time. The pioneer mothers who knew nothing of 
the commercial butter colors, planned to have the cow turned into clover 
early; they liked to deliver yellow butter in Springfield. However, 
some of them lived to see the day when the whole milk was sold, and 
their supply of butter came from town. 

While the milking machine is not in general use in Clark County, 
most dairymen have installed it; the expense of installation and the 
upkeep are taken into consideration. There is no longer any question 
about the use of separators, incubators and manure spreaders, and 
wherever milk is produced the silo has demonstrated its usefulness. 
In 1896 W. W. Hyslop of German Township installed the first silo in 
Clark County; he used it sixteen years, and because it was not standing 
where he wanted it in changing his feeding plans, he used the lumber 
from it as flooring in the barn ; since then he has installed three other 
silos. While many were prejudiced against the silo until after it demon- 
strated its usefulness — among them W. N. ScarflF, the day came when 
there were fifteen silos installed at White Oaks, and in a paper advocat- 
ing the use of ensilage, Max M. Scarflf relates that in 1882, according 
to a survey made by the Department of Agriculture, there were only 
ninety-two silos in use in the United States. 

Within forty years from that survey, there were 700,000 silos in 
use in the United States. When Clark County farmers first began 
discussing organization thirty years ago, they were beginning to hear 
of the wonderful feed, and now silos are scattered to the remote corners 
of the world. At White Oaks much forage other than corn is utilized 
in the silos, wild grass and weeds serving the purpose, cattle eating it 
with avidity. The paper as read before a meeting of the Horticultural 
society ends : "Let me impress again the fact that the silo is a necessity 
on the American farm today, and that the progressiveness of a man can 

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be told by the number and size of his silos.'* While Mr. Hyslop had 
the first silo in Clark County, he was also the first man in Ohio to use 
silage for beef production; fie finds it an economy since all the corn is 
utilized, the composition different from the silage fed to dairy cows. 

It is said that Clark County farmers have a progressive attitude 
toward improvements; the old methods were all right in their day, but 
advantages are being taken of invention; expenses have advanced, and 
intensive methods are necessary. Under the old method of feeding and 
handling the dairy products, dairying would be unprofitable. Farmers 
never fed livestock on such fluctuating markets as since the World war, 
and the experiment stations are feeling the difficulty as well as the 
farmers. Clark County farmers are advised to study Pittsburgh rather 
than Chicago markets, the prize winners at the International Fat Stock 
Show being prepared specially for that market. The by-products and 
soil fertility are two arguments in favor of livestock production on the 
farms of Clark County. Good cattle feeders are like artists and poets — 
they are born and not made — and a liking for it assures success. A well 
fed steer is a bulletin indicating the balanced ration, and the margin 
between the cost and the selling price — that is the essential thing. 

Give livestock what they want and when they want it, and there is 
little danger of over feeding; the expert judges an animal by the condi- 
tion of its hair, and plenty of water is — well, profitable, if the buyer is 
due and the. scales are in working order. A lick of salt creates the 
demand for water, and some farmers manage to secure good prices for 
aqua pura. A stockman came unexpectedly to the farm and had the 
coveted opportunity of seeing the steers on pasture. He would buy 
them from the field, but the astute farmer knowing the location of the 
water trough, engaged the attention of the buyer momentarily with his 
car. When he finally rounded up the steers the water had been lowered 
several inches, and he footed the bill for it. 

The Educated Farmer 

While pasture was plentiful and livestock found its own living in 
the forest not much attention was paid to it. In the evolution process, 
the time came when the land was considered too valuable for pasture, 
and "corn and hogs" was the solution of the difficulty ; the wheel turned 
again, and dairy farming was recognized as the profitable thing. While 
the women had quietly supported the family with the cows and the 
poultry, the "corn and hog" farmers requiring all their money with 
which to buy more land on which to raise more corn and hogs, and the 
pendulum swung again. 

Students from Ohio State University won first place in the collegiate 
livestock judging contest at the 1921 International Livestock Exposition, 
Chicago, the Ohio team scoring 4,178 out of a possible 5,000 points, 
winning first honors in placing sheep and horses, and showing knowledge 
of all domestic animals. Educators and agricultural experts lament 
the fact that the farm is unable to compete with the city in its allurements, 
but when farmer boys and girls have opportunities with livestock they 
enjoy it. There are schools of animal husbandry and household arts, 
and the young people are being educated back to the farm ; business men, 
bankers and farm leaders realize that helping farm boys and girls to 
solve their new and puzzling problems in agriculture is one of the most 

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effective means of building and strengthening a more dependable system 
of economics in America. 

A pioneer description of life reads: "We walked on dirt floors 
for carpets ; we sat on stools or benches for chairs ; we ate on puncheon 
tables, and we had forked sticks and pocket or butcher knives for 
knives and forks; we slept on bear, deer or buffalo skins before the 
fire, or sometimes on the ground in the open air for beds; we had our 
saddles or saddle bags for pillows instead of pillows of feathers; we 
had one suit of clothes of homespun which was ample for a year; 
we crossed creeks and rivers without bridges or ferryboats; often we 
swam them on horseback, or crossed on trees that had fallen over the 
streams; the above course of training is the college in which the settler 
graduated," and in contradistinction to the universities and colleges 
available to the rural families of today. 

No longer can the boy of the Clark County farm expect to succeed 
by driving his wagon in the rut made by his father, and an education 
that enables him to cope with changed conditions awaits him; properly 
educating 11,000,000 boys and girls in order to render rural life more 
inviting is the task set before the extension workers of agricultural 
colleges, and the United States Department of Agriculture. 

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From time "immemorial," the "tiller of the soil" has been advised 
against having "all his eggs in one basket," and the dairy farmer knows 
the economy of having a few hogs following the cattle on pasture. While 
it requires different fencing, "hog tight, horse high and bull strong" 
is the kind of fence needed on any fafm where livestock is featured, 
and the last census shows that Clark County farmers receive an average 
revenue of $1,085,375 from swine, with many pure bred herds; in 
an ode to the pig, some one writes : 

"I love thee! roast or boiled, 

Or deep in pie embedded, 
Or in the portly sausage, plump and big; 

But best of all to sage and onions wedded, 
Oh— you Pig!" 

In order that the pig may thrive the corn crop is a necessity. The 
1920 census shows that Clark County produced 2,582,453 bushels of 
corn, and 720,000 bushels of wheat, with small grains and fruits to 
supply the demand. As early as 1839 the Ohio Gazetteer and Travelers' 
Guide said of Clark County: "Taking its size and secluded position 
into consideration, it is one of the most productive counties in the state ; 
as yet it has no outlet to market save the country roads, but such is the 
fertility of its soil, and the beautiful face of the country interspread 
with durable streams, and well watered by springs, that a very large 
portion is under a high state of cultivation." 

Corn is the most valuable crop raised in the United States, and much 
of it is converted into beef or pork before it reaches the market; the 
four leading crops: corn, hay, cotton and wheat, represent an annual 
value of more than $10,000,000,000, which is 70 per cent of everything 
harvested in the whole country. The Ohio Experiment Station Bulletin 
shows a steady increase in corn production, with a slight drop in acreage 
in the '80s, followed by an increased acreage since that time. Since 
more attention has been given to corn again the yield per acre has been 
increased, and there is talk about 100 bushels — and actual measurement 
confirms it, but in limited acreage under special culture conditions, the 
corn clubs showing the highest yield per acre. "Corn is king," and there 
are veritable corn kings in the country. 

The 1921 corn kings of Ohio as "crowned" by the Ohio State 
University Agricultural College were John Gleason of Clinton County, 
who produced 113.1 bushels, and J. Elmer Drake of Clark County, who 
showed a production of 105.8 bushels of air-dried, shelled corn on ten- 
acre plots. Eight Ohio farmers are now listed as producing more than 
100 bushels, and this is the second time Mr. Drake has won the honor, 
having produced 101.25 bushels the previous year. There was a time 
when forty bushels was regarded as a big yield of corn in Clark County. 
In more favorable corn years, more farmers attain to the 100-bushel 
standard, one Madison County farmer having shown a production of 


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125.64 bushels of corn on a ten-acre tract, and a Muskingum County 
farmer attaining to 128.81 bushels, the highest production noted at the 
Ohio State University Agricultural College. The different townships 
in Clark County have held corn shows, and Paul Sherrin of. Madison 
Township who produced 118.5 bushels to the acre is proclaimed the 
1921 champion boy corn grower of the county. 

Leads the Miami Valley 

When Warren County was preparing for its centennial celebration 
some years ago, prizes were offered for authentic information as to who 
had produced the first crop of corn in the Great Miami Valley, and 
Clark County won supplying the information that John Paul, Jr., had 
grown corn on Honey Creek in 1792, the area then in Greene, but now 
in Bethel Township, Clark County. It has been related that the Paul 
family massacre in 1790, occurred while its members were outside the 
palisade preparing the soil for planting, the father and mother and 
three of the children falling victims to the tomahawk, while a son and 
daughter reached the cabin, and according to accounts, this son pro- 
duced a corn crop two years later. 

While some of the accounts credit Kreb and Brown with growing 
the first corn along Mad River in 1796, the John Paul, Jr., narrative 
won out in the Miami Valley investigation. The Paul family endured 
unusual hardships, and just recognition should not be withheld from 
this wilderness agriculturist. When Clark becomes a front line Ohio 
county in corn production, it should commemorate this frontier corn 
grower who won the laurels for Clark before it had established a name 
for itself among Ohio counties. It is related that when Kreb and Brown 
were growing their first crop on Mad River in 1796, David Lowry, who 
had just come into the community, supplied their table with fish and 
game and lived with them. He raised a crop the next year for himself, 
and also accompanied the surveyors who laid out the first road from 
Dayton to Springfield — that a few years before there was a Springfield. 

It is said those pioneers who "consecrated the rich soil of Clark to 
the ennobling art of agriculture/' had their camps near the present rail- 
road crossing on Mad River, and that it was the most primitive method 
of agriculture — the forked sticks and brush, and since Springfield has 
become a world center in the manufacture of improved implements of 
agriculture, it seems a far cry to stick-and-brush methods along Mad 
River. The Indians had grown corn there, the accounts saying that 
Gen. George Rogers Clark and his army destroyed several hundred 
acres of it in 1780, and mention is made of their green corn festival which 
was an annual occurrence. 

"For this festival the hunters supplied the game from the forests 
and the women the green corn and vegetables from the fields; on this 
occasion they not only feasted themselves with plenty, but made offer- 
ings and did homage to the Great Spirit for his blessings. (They may 
have borrowed the New England Thanksgiving idea instituted by the 
Pilgrim fathers.) At this festival each year the council of women of 
the tribe selected the names of the children born during the previous 
year, and the chiefs proclaimed the names at the festival; these names 
could not be changed, but additional names might be acquired by acts of 
bravery or circumstances which might reflect honors upon the persons." 

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While "the crops grown by the Indians consisted mostly of corn, they 
cultivated beans and peas, and they had a kind of potato that captives 
among them said "when peeled and dipped in coon's fat or bear's fat, 
tasted like our own sweet potatoes." 

While W. N. Scarff of White Oaks in Bethel Township paid $100 
for ten ears of premium seed corn grown in Johnson County, Indiana, . 
by Klore the "corn king" of the United States until someone else 
wrested the title, because of his seed and nursery business, he could 
afford to do it for the advertising, and yet under the decline of market 
prices it was announced that corn belt farmers in 1921 received less 
than 5 cents an hour for their labor, and the labor of their wives and 
children — statement made by a speaker at an agricultural conference, 
but with the eight-hour day — eight hours in the morning and eight hours 
again in the afternoon — that allowed of some revenue from corn 

In studying economics, farmers are advised to think in terms of com- 
modities instead of fluctuating dollars, and they wonder why they must 
pay 400 bushels of corn for a wagon they used to buy for 150 bushels; 
they pay 350 bushels for a gang plow they used to buy with 125 bushels, 
and the corn farmers hit the hardest by the depression have discovered 
that the dollar is the common measure of values, and it is what they can 
get with their money after all. But after all the housewife who exclaims : 

"But as I wield the rolling pin, 

Or light and frothy eggs I beat, 
I long to watch some hungry him, 
Just eat — and eat — and eat." 

has discovered the real secret of happiness — the way to reach the heart 
of a man, is to tickle his palate with things edible— delicacies, whether 
in or out of season. 

Some dreamer exclaims: "The farmer has the privilege of going 
out in the morning sun, and taking off his hat to the beauties of the 
world. God is the great artist who with sunshine, rain and soil and 
shower, can combine colors and produce a burst of glory ; the mansions 
in the skies are not more delectable than the landscapes, and some of the 
habitations of earth. 'The earth is the Lord's/ and yet the hand of man 
has rendered some beauty possibilities an offense against the landscape 
— nothing cheerful, and all shade and shrubbery a minus quantity." 
Too many farm homes fail to combine the artistic sense with the utility 
idea, and the environment is unattractive; it was Alexander Pope who 
exclaimed : 

"Happy the man whose wish and care a few paternal acres bound — 
Content to breathe his native air, in his own hallowed ground," 

and in Clark County are such exemplifications — some homesteads that 
measure up to the requirements. 


It is said an agriculturist must have more money than a mere farmer 
— that once upon a time, a farmer was equal to the emergencies, but 

VoL 1—7 

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now that he must know the botanical names of vegetables, and the 
scientific names of the bugs that destroy them, as well as the chemical 
formula of the stuff that destroys the bugs, he is more than a farmer; 
he is an agriculturist. It is a twentieth century conception that the town 
man who owns land is an agriculturist — that the real farmer lives in 
the country. When a Springfield capitalist designated himself as a 
farmer because of land ownership, an acquaintance had his sense of 
nicety offended, and inquired why the opprobrium. It is said of some 
country folk that they are "city-minded, and of city folk that they are 
country-minded," and it is unfortunate that they cannot "change places 
with themselves." 

While the farmer may not labor as in the past, although seed time 
and harvest still impress him, he must know how to manipulate levers, 
switches and buttons, and mechanical knowledge is his only salvation. 
It is a fast age in which mind is more than matter, and the master mind 
solves the problems of progress. Some one writes : "Gradually is all of 
the romance going out of country life; we almost shed tears to read 
the old home paper, and find that folks who used to go 'visiting* over 
Sunday now spend 'week-ends,' " and that social animadversion illustrates 
the change from man power to machinery in doing everything. The 
man who knows the farm and leaves it, is unable to manipulate the 
machinery when he comes back again. 

Farming vs. Citying 

The oldest good story is about the boy who left the farm and got a 
job in the city; he wrote a letter to his brother who remained on the 
farm, saying: "Thursday we autoed out to the country club where we 
golfed until dark ; then we motored to the beach for the week-end," and 
the brother on the farm replied: "Yesterday we buggied to town, and 
baseballed all afternoon. Today we muled out to the cornfield, and 
gee-hawed until sundown; then we suppered and piped for a while 
before we staircased to our room where we bedsteaded until the clock 
fived again," and those who know the routine of "feeding sheep and 
feeding sheep" understand all about it. 

In the People's Forum of a Springfield newspaper was a discussion 
of daylight saving, one of the writers saying it was a misnomer — that 
it was not in the interest of farmers, but of golf players. Men who 
play golf find the hours of daylight insufficient, and since the farmer 
works all day and half the night, he uses the lantern for overtime. 
Those who breathe the morning air before the sun has warmed it, do 
not care to save it, and a wag penned the lines : 

"Walk on the street, look at a clock — 
Then look at the one in the very next block; 
One says five and the other says six — 

How shall we straighten this awful mix? 

* * * * * 

Don't ask me the time — let me alone, 
Friends, I'm keeping a time of my own. 

♦ * * * * 

When it is dark I go to bed — 

Get up when the sun's well overhead; 

Eat when I'm hungry — don't ride on the cars; 

Always go home when they hang out the stars." 

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It was Thoreau who said : "Thank fortune we are not rooted to the 
soil, and here is not all the world." In one unbroken sentence, Old 
Timer raises the question: "How many of us cherish childhood memo- 
ries of this new and sparsely settled country, when the only minister 
we had was the circuit-rider, and mother spun all our clothes and knit 
our socks, and the schoolmaster boarded round with his pupils, and corn 
pone and molasses were on the table for each meal, and we had oil cloth 
table covers, and we went to the spring for water, and drank out of the 
long handled gourd?" What a flood of memories, and with what light- 
ning speed they correlate themselves. No place for the voice to fall 
when reading that reminiscent inquiry. Better not read it aloud. Old 
Timer omitted a cross-cut saw, and the other fellow riding the saw; 
no need of a gymnasium under such environment. 

In the March issue, 1922, of the American Magazine published in 
Springfield, the Hoosier jokesmith — George Ade, says: "Nowadays 
we haven't any out-in-the-country. The telephone, the rural free 
delivery, and the motor car have co-operated to eliminate distance, until 
every villager lives just across the street from the city fellow, and 
every farmer next door to the villager. If you were to take an average 
working girl of Boston, a girl of corresponding social importance from 
any small city in Ohio, and the daughter of a well-to-do farmer in the 
corn belt and stand them in a row, attired in their most circus regalias, 
each of them short-skirted and high-heeled and hair dressed according 
to her own specifications, you couldn't tell which was which, unless the 
country girl should betray herself by putting on too much face powder," 
and not long ago in a discussion of city versus country life, the city girl 
objected to the country because she wears silk stockings. "Where 
ignorance is bliss," but until the city girl visits the country, she cannot be 
"wise" about it. 




One Clark County rural enthusiast said there is a progressive spirit 
among local agriculturists ; they are given to experiment, and apply the 
acid test to everything. Another declared they are conservative, and 
inclined to cling to time-tried methods of agriculture. Since livestock 
or animal husbandry go hand in hand with agriculture, some farm 
like the patriarchs, and the "cattle on a thousand hills" in this "neck o' 
the woods" belong to the hustling up-to-the-minute farmers; they seek 
to maintain land fertility and the standard of productiveness, and the 
theory of crop rotation has been reduced to practice throughout Clark 

While Arbor day is observed there is also some inclination toward 
reforestation ; black locust and catalpa groves are not unusual, and living 
fence posts are seen here and there about the country. A staked-and- 
ridered fence is a rarity today, and where, or where, is the rail-splitter 
of yesterday? While there are regulation fences in Clark County they 
are built of wire, and what does the youngster of today know about 
fence worms? What does he know of the requisite skill in building a 
straight, rail fence, the eye of the master-builder the only plumb bob 
or spirit level used in doing it? Who said anything about laying the 
fence worm in the light of the moon, or was it laid in the dark of the 
moon to keep the timber from sinking into the earth? 

The wire fence does not shelter the birds or the beasts in time of a 
storm, and lightning sometimes strikes them when they are near it; 
the farmers of today would make slow progress with the implements 
of yesterday; the reap hook, the scythe and the cradle had their day 
in the harvest fields of Clark County as well as the rest of the world. 
The arm strong mower — Old Father Time — is always caricatured with the 
mowing scythe, but the Clark County farmer has all the advantages of 
labor-saving machinery; when in need, Springfield inventors and manu- 
facturers take care of the situation for them. The modern hay loader — 
W. W. Hyslop using it first — combines so many of the old time operations 
that Maud Muller is dismissed from the meadow, although: 

"Beneath her torn hat glowed the wealth, 
Of simple beauty and rustic health," 

which may still be acquired from raking hay. 

While "Early to bed and early to rise," takes care of the daylight 
saving question admirably, someone writes: 

"The murmuring grass and the waving trees — 
Their leafy harps sound unto the breeze — 
And water-tones and tinkle near, 
Blend their sweet music to my ear ; 
And by the changing shades alone, 
The passage of the hour is known," 

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the most acceptable way of marking time in the world. The practical 
minded settler had a formula for a short winter — borrow money in the 
fall that comes due in the spring, in harmony with the Benjamin Frank- 
lin philosophy: 

"Whistle and hoe, sing as you go, 
Shorten your row by the songs you know," 

while many have adopted the Sunshine Philosophy of James Whitcomb 
Riley : 

"Whatever the weather may be, whatever the weather — 
It's the song ye sing and the smile ye wear, 
That's a makin' the sunshine everywhere." 

Reconstruction Problems 

The importance of agriculture in its relation to the problems of 
reconstruction, and as the principal foundation of real prosperity, is 
more fully recognized today by the nation as a whole, than since the 
middle of the last century. While the vanguards are crying: "Beware! 
Watch your step/' because every appliance is being utilized to supply 
the oil in toil, the country is far from making full use of machinery. 
While "Watch your step" may be timely admonition, the agricultural 
problem is deeper than is indicated by current discussions which treat 
it as an emergency; when Secretary Wallace of the Department of 
Agriculture said that legislation in the interest of farmers is not class 
or group legislation, he was taking into consideration that agriculture 
is the industry that supports all other phases of development. Legisla- 
tion in the interest of the farmer benefits the whole industrial group, and 
that describes the situation in Springfield most accurately, where the 
factories supply the needs of advanced agriculture. 

This understanding of legislative needs renders possible the solution 
of some of the farmers' problems, which hitherto have been understood 
only by those engaged in farming ; the trouble is not with the argument, 
but with the application of it by politicians looking out for the farmer 
support. What the farmer needs is: adjusted freight rates, unrestricted 
markets, credits easily obtained and freedom to organize for marketing 
his products to the best advantage. While Secretary Wallace recognizes 
progress, he maintains that conditions are "out of balance," and recom- 
mends closer co-operation between individuals and groups in agricul- 
ture as well as in other industries. While there was rejoicing when the 
prices of farm products began to decline, the farmer continued paying 
the higher prices for his necessities, and thus the burden of reconstruc- 
tion was shifted to agriculture. 

While the farmer had the alternative of buying less, when he with- 
holds his patronage other lines of business and industry suffer from it. 
With the use of improved farming machinery, the acreage under culti- 
vation steadily increased for many years, but with the decrease so 
noticeable under decline of prices, the question of food supply is being 
studied; there must be some method of providing a reserve of food- 

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stuffs, and under such system the farmer need not sell under the pressure 
of low prices; there is need of a better system of marketing. In some 
of the older countries grain crops are not rushed to market, but are 
stacked or put under cover, and are threshed and marketed as there is 
demand for them. 

The Item of Transportation 

In 1921 farmers' purchases were below normal but prices are grad- 
ually coming to their standard except the rates of transportation; this 
increased transportation cost decreases the price of what the farmer 
sells, as well as increasing the cost of what he must buy on the open 
market; it catches him both ways, and while he has met the situation 
by buying less, he cannot escape the burden of fixed charges when he 
must realize on his own products. A dispatch from Columbus says: 
"A statewide agitation is being made by farmers to bring about freight 
rate reduction, and the movement has reached every county. One farmer 
sets forth his position and that of others who are dependent upon the 
soil by saying, 'It is difficult, under present conditions, to make the 
receipts from a farm meet the expenses ; with the prices that prevail for 
farm commodities, it is a matter requiring most careful financiering, 
and one of the agencies contributing to this condition is the excessive 
freight rates, affecting both the things we buy and the things we sell. 
It is the farmer who pays the freight, because with high rates he is 
obliged to accept lower prices in order to reach the consumer at all/" 

President Homer L. Corry of the Springfield Chamber of Commerce 
had a request from the National Council Chamber of Commerce to send 
representatives to a conference held in Washington in February, 1922, 
and W. H. Stackhouse was asked to represent Clark County. There 
are two sides to the question, the railroads maintaining that they will be 
unable to continue the carrier business at a reduction of rates. Sec- 
retary Wallace cites world wide conditions as an inevitable result of the 
World war as at the bottom of the difficulty. He stresses the high freight 
rates, and the want of foreign markets, saying it would require some 
miraculous transformation for a period of adversity to be turned into an 
era of prosperity over night; big crops produced at high cost, with unem- 
ployment in other industries which lessens the buying of foodstuffs, are 
the immediate causes for present conditions in the world of agriculture. 

It is an indictment of modern civilization when, with the unmar- 
keted surplus in the United States because of prohibitive shipping rates, 
millions of people overseas are suffering for necessities, and others are 
starving. There is need of adjustment when the foodstuff production 
of 13,000,000 farmers is withheld because of transportation conditions, 
thus paralyzing conditions at home and abroad, and business men with 
leaders in agriculture are "putting their shoulders to the wheel to lift 
the farmer's wagon of state out of the economic mudhole," and thus 
restore rural prosperity. One economist said: "The plain facts are 
that the farmers in America are up against it. When they have asked 
for bread they have been given stones." 

There is a difference between promises and performances and the 
agencies that must work for the improving of conditions are those in 
the hands of the farmers themselves. In periods of depression they 

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have greater need of organization, and in the present hour of Amer- 
ican agriculture's severest trial the farm organizations have an unlim- 
ited opportunity for service. The price the farmer receives for his 
commodities has little relation to that paid by the consumer, and more 
attention is being given to methods of distribution. When business 
manifests bad symptoms, the manager does not wait until it collapses 
to apply a remedy and students of the question recognize the need of 
the farmer for better organization for the purpose of marketing his 
product. He is too much at the beck and call of those who profit at 
his expense, and the chances of the middleman will be slim in future. 

The Farmers Institute 

A news item from Columbus reads: "Aiming toward a concentra- 
tion of effort on the weak points of different communities, 352 farmers' 
institutes will be held throughout Ohio during the winter months, 
according to E. L. Allen, state leader of institutes." Farmers have 
shown greater interest, and perhaps because of adverse conditions con- 
fronting them. Applications were received by the department for 672 
institutes, while only 352 were secured, although about 200 independent 
institutes were held, and Clark County had a number of institutes in 
different localities. The institute movement started in the '80s and 
this year (1922) Ohio has thirty-eight men and fifteen women going 
about as institute instructors. Ninety-one percent of these "preachers 
of scientific agriculture" are from farms and return to them when 
they finish the course as instructors. 

The attendance of Clark County farmers at the Farmers' Week 
meeting at Ohio State University indicates their interest, the enroll- 
ment from the entire state reaching more than 6.000 in the tenth annual 
session. In welcoming the visitors, President W. O. Thompson of the 
university said : "The hope of today lies in the fact that the American 
farmer is more intelligent than ever before," and the fact develops that 
Ohio's rural population has made more progress with its problems of 
illiteracy in the last decade than have the cities and towns. Beside the 
program of lectures, visitors to the university saw exhibits of livestock, 
grain and other farm products, beside witnessing the demonstration 
of farm implements. While Ohio farmers are using more implements 
and machinery than they did ten years ago when the Farmer Week 
was instituted, the country is far from making full use of available 
machinery. The 1920 valuation of implements and machinery was 
$146,575,269, which was an advance of 186.2 per cent in ten years. 

In 1921, on the farms of the United States there were 134,169 
trucks in use; there were 246,139 tractors, and still there were 17,000,- 
000 horses, showing that "horseless" does not yet describe the age. 
However, it is predicted that in time the horse will be as unusual in 
farming as the bow and arrow in hunting. When farmers realize the 
possibilities of machinery the horse will vanish from the fields. Why, 
at the Farmer Week a mechanical cow was shown eating silage from 
a bin, and giving milk in a continuous stream, and it attracted much 
attention. Mechanical mannikins proclaimed the food value of milk 
and in the future little will be required of the farmer himself only 
to foot the bills. 

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Country Life Commission 

It was President Theodore Roosevelt who established the Country 
Life Commission of which Secretary of Agriculture Wallace was named 
as a member, and its inquiries sent a wave of amusement broadcast, 
and the fourth annual conference of the American Country Life Asso- 
ciation held in New Orleans in November took up similar questions. 
It discussed the age-old rivalry between town and country which has 
long ago been consigned to oblivion in Clark County. What town gent 
remarks about the country jake on the streets' of Springfield, or what 
gutter-snipe offers to whip the boy from the farm who shows himself 
in town? Why are all the doctors located in towns? Do juvenile courts 
and other child welfare agencies handle country problems on a par with 
those in town? Such imaginary differences do not exist in Clark 

A student of the farm problem says: "Let us not deceive our- 
selves into thinking that our agricultural problem will be solved if the 
farmer is restored to the relative position he occupied before the war. 
The farmer cannot hope through future years to obtain in the enhanced 
value of farm lands the reward for his heavy toil," and the future 
control of the market seems to be the solution. It is reported that 
American farmers are leaving the United States for countries where 
land is cheaper, just as there was a time when settlers were attracted 
to Mad River. The government land at pre-emption prices has all 
been taken up, and with the advantages known today few would want 
to overcome wilderness conditions in Clark County again. The stories 
of John Paul, David Lowry, Jonathan Donnel, Simon Kenton — why read 
fiction when such real life stories are a possibility? 

The Changing World 

While there used to be corn shocks standing in some of the fields 
until corn planting time again, where there are twin-cribs and silos that 
rule no longer holds in Clark County. In February, A. D. 1922, there 
were corn shocks but silos were minus, and it does seem like double 
trouble at planting time to have to remove the last crop from the field. 
A recent writer declares that the novelist is sure of the reader's tears 
when he describes the farm hand who pitches hay all day long under 
the hot sun, or the woman who is compelled to mend her children's 
clothes, wash the dishes and make the beds — nothing to do but work — 
but the fact remains that the happiest folk in the world are those who 
work, and the twentieth century gentry who breakfast in bed and work 
only when they feel like it, are designated by "trouble shooters" as 
the bane of society. 

The Clark County pioneers were busy folk — busy all day long — 
and while there may be advantages in poverty and deceit fulness 
in riches, most men and women of today make some effort to accu- 
mulate property, and it is said that whenever a man is born into the 
world there is a job awaiting him. The owner always has a job on the 
farm — is never out of employment, but with the decline in price of 
farm products the wages paid for farm labor declined with it. While 
there are apprentices in factories, the story of the "bound boy" belongs 

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to the past, and the man who receives $10 a month with "board and 
washing" and worked for his board in winter — what did become of 

When the United States went into the world war it seemed to mean 
ruin for the farms. The boys and girls rushed to the cities, attracted 
by the alluring wages, many of them commanding more than wages, 
designating it as salaries. They liked the city with its diversions and 
comradeships. They were lifted out of the atmosphere of the farm, 
the humdrum of milking cows, planting seeds and doing chores. The 
farm house was supplanted by the boarding house. But when the 
armistice ended the war and labor was not in demand, when jobs were 
at a premium, it changed the picture. When the swivel chair jobs 
vanished from the earth, the migration was toward the country again. 

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While the first man in the world was placed in a garden, there was 
no hoe awaiting him on the fence, and there is no account extant that he 
labored until after he had eaten an apple at the hand of the woman God 
had given to him. When knowledge between good and evil was thus 
imparted to them, Adam and Eve began hustling for their own livelihood, 
and it seems that they turned their attention to agriculture. From that 
time on until within the memory of men and women still living, there 
was little connected with agriculture beyond the mere humdrum existence. 
The log rollings and the raisings were all that brought people into social 
intercourse at all. 

While the premium list of the Clark County Fair of 1921 designates 
it as the sixty-ninth annual event, there is mention of a fair held in South 
Charleston in 1850, which seems to have been the first rural display in 
Clark County. At that time Jonathan Peirce specialized in raising mules 
and Shorthorn cattle, and he was the only exhibitor of thoroughbred 
livestock. The stalls for livestock were the fence corners, and that was 
two years before there was a fair in Springfield. 

Another account says that at the first fair held in South Charleston 
in 1852, Mr. Foos of Springfield exhibited trained hogs in a side show. 
The local fair secretary, Elmer Jones, has no record further than the 
annual catalogue, and if the fair began in 1852, and did not miss any 
years, 1921 would be its sixty-ninth annual session. When the first fair 
was held in Springfield, a platform was erected and prominent men 
entertained the visitors. At this meeting Judge Harrold advocated 
better farm improvements, better livestock, and more grain, saying 
that Clark should be one of the greatest Ohio counties. Threescore and 
ten years later the same ideas are being promulgated before the farmers 
of Clark County. 

When the 1921 annual report was read it showed revenues amount- 
ing to $24,599.37 and passed the board with expenses aggregating $24,- 
410.70, leaving a balance of $188.67, showing that, as president for the 
last four years, Wilbur J. Myers of Moorefield Township had kept the 
finances on the right side of the account — a surplfts rather than a deficit. 
At the reorganization meeting W. W. Hyslop of German Township was 
elected president; vice president, Van C. Tullis of Pleasant Township; 
treasurer, J. R. Durst of Mad River Township, and secretary, Elmer 
Jones of Springfield Township. The reorganization meeting was held 
the last day of December. All departments of the fair were to be placed 
under the management of competent men at a later meeting. 

The Clark County Fair Association owns a forty-nine acre tract that 
blocks city residence improvements along Yellow Springs Street. It was 
acquired many years ago and has advanced in value. It is looked upon as 
an excellent building site, but while the association maintains the grounds 
in such excellent order it serves as a park for the residents of that com- 
munity. There are good buildings, a good race track and a cinder path 
for use when racing stock must be kept off the speed track. There is 
enough shade, and there are shelter facilities so that many horses are 


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wintered there. The stake events attract good horses. In 1921 there 
were six stake races and seven class events, but a reduction of speed 
events was under consideration by the new board. 

The Clark County Fair rivals the Ohio State Fair in its stock exhibits 
and race events. In 1921 there were 105 exhibitors of Duroc Jersey 
hogs, and 122 exhibitors of Hampshire hogs, with other branches of live- 
stock equally well represented. In seasonable years there are fine exhibits 
of fruits and grains and vegetables. Both agriculturists and horticultur- 
ists contribute to the display. The Farmers' Institute, the Grange, Farm 
Bureau and Horticultural Society all promote the success of the Clark 
County Fair. The livestock breeders' associations contribute,and again 
the fair contributes to them. There are feeders and breeders, and when 
one fair is over they begin planning for another. There are organizations 
among thoroughbred livestock men except Shorthorn cattle. Only a few 
Clark County men specialize with this beef cattle type, and W. W. Hyslop 
who introduced the use of ensilage as a feed for beef cattle, belongs to 
a Shorthorn association in Greene County. 

Clark County farmers have thoroughbred animals of the dairy type, 
and wherever there is a dairy there is a silo. While the hog raising 
industry seems to be overshadowed by the dairy interests in Clark County, 
local farmers sold 61,723 hogs through the Springfield Stock Yards in 
1921, and that means more than $1,000,000 revenue from swine. A 
newspaper squib says : "The farmer needs more dollars for his hog, the 
consumer wants more hog for his dollar, and the real hog is the in-between 
— the middle-man." There is a story told that in the '40s — and that means 
early history — when Paist & Company packed pork at South Charles- 
ton, they only paid $2 to $2.50 a hundred for "hogs on foot." and John 
Hedrick who was inclined to speculation bought a quantity of packed 
pork, and "wagoned" to Columbus with it, losing money in the_ venture. 
His profit did not pay the expense of it. 

Another speculator of that period, Seth Smith, brought sixty head 
of cattle from Highland County to Greene Township, but he was unable 
to get more than $7 and $8 for good milch cows, and lost money. It has 
not been a losing venture at all, as Clark is rated as a foremost livestock 
county. A number of local farmers are studying the comparative econ- 
omy in the different methods of feeding, and some are bringing feeders 
from the Chicago Stock Yards. Those cooperating through the extension 
service of Ohio State University in the study of feeds are : C. A. Steele, 
A. E. Wildman, M. J. Baird, Lewis McDorman, C. R. Crabill, John Ger- 
man, E. E. Clark & Comapny, and William Roberts. It is said that 120 
Ohio farmers are feeding under Ohio State University supervision, and 
results will be reported from the experiment. 

Clark County Livestock Legislation 

It is of interest to know that in 1832, when James Foley of Moorefield 
Township represented Clark County in the Ohio Legislature, he intro- 
duced a measure to "prevent unsound cattle from running at large." Mr. 
Foley lived many years in Moorefield Township, and honor is due him 
because of his public spirit in protecting the owners of livestock; that 
long ago cattle run in the woods outside, and cow bells were a necessity. 
A shortage in the number of young men enrolling as students in the 
veterinary colleges is reported, and an alarming shortage of veterinaries 

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is prophesied. A veterinary always does a good business in Springfield. 
There are about 10,000 veterinarians engaged in practice in the United 
States and Canada, and fewer students enroll than die of old age. It is 
said that when normal conditions prevail again, more young men will be 
attracted to the study of veterinary science. While motors and tractors 
are supplanting horses, livestock is not yet eliminated from Clark County. 
There are breeders of Percheron and Belgian horses, and all kinds 
of track horses are bred within Clark County. While track horses are 
seldom seen on the roads they are produced for the races, and now and 
then a carriage team is seen in Springfield. Pedestrians turn and look 
after a team of carriage horses now as they used to turn and look after 
automobiles. There are still a number of hitching posts in front of mod- 
ern homes in Springfield. In 1921 W. L. Snyder sold a horse for $20,000 
that was shipped to Italy. It was Mohawk, Jr., bred by James Clark of 
Moorefield Township, the farm known as Mohawk because of the sire 
that was kept there many years. Binland, with a trotting record of 2.38, 
was the fastest horse ever bred in Clark County. In 1918 he won the 
Transylvania classic at Lexington. He was once owned by Mr. Snyder, 
but before the record was established. Mabrina Gift, owned by John 
Monohan, was the first stallion to trot a mile in 2.20, after being sold to 
Buffalo parties. There are horses in constant training at the local fair 
grounds, and horsemen are urging fair managers to offer better induce- 
ments for speed. 

State Fair in Springfield 

Before the Ohio State Board of Agriculture had acquired a perma- 
nent fair grounds at Columbus, the state fair was held in different coun- 
ties, always holding the second session in order to induce local boards to 
make necessary improvements, and in the 70s it was held in Springfield. 
While W. W. Hyslop said it was in 1869 the first session was held in 
Clark County, others say it was 1870, but the concensus of opinion 
favored 1871-2 as the years. Clark County had to provide additional 
ground to accommodate the fair, and after the two years in Springfield 
it was held in Dayton. By that time the permanent grounds were acquired 
in Columbus, and the state fair was no longer held in different counties. 

Clark is one of the exhibiting counties in the state fair at Columbus, 
and it is announced from the Department of Agriculture that it ranks 
ninth in the number and value of premiums won in 1921. While Ohio 
has eighty-eight counties, only seventy-five of them made any exhibit. 
There were sixteen exhibitors from Clark County, and they were awarded 
a total of $1,995.23 in premiums classed as follows: Sheep, $213; dairy, 
$73 ; poultry, $486.50; farm products, $591 ; horticulture, $25.50; women's 
work, $61 ; horses, $120 ; swine, $399, and cattle, $26.63, showing that 
all kinds of livestock were shown from Clark County. G. W. Wildman 
was the largest individual premium winner, and second place was taken 
by Wilson Brothers. Other Clark County winners at Columbus were: 
Howard Gerlaugh, Chandler Raup, Laura Larkin, Springfield Dairy 
Products Company, Forest M. Baker, Charles F. Hauck, William Fox, 
George Grube, Charles Mauneng, Mrs. R. C. Hensel, Howard Scarff, Mrs. 
A. A. Gray, M. E. Roberts, S. C. Bell, Chinchinna Stock Farm. Peter 
Knott and W. W. Hyslop. 

It is estimated that approximately 3,000,000 people attended the dif- 
ferent fairs in Ohio in 1921, and since the fair is primarily an educational 

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institution, it is deemed advisable to eliminate some of the questionable 
concessions. It is said that the judging teams sent out from Ohio State 
University College of Agriculture to attend fairs made an excellent rec- 
ord, winning first honors at the International Livestock Show and the 
National Dairy Show, and second at the National Swine Show. The 
dairy products team won four out of five cups offered, including sweep- 
stakes, and it was placed first, second and third in individual ratings for 
judging butter, milk and cheese, thereby winning eight out of thirteen 
medals offered, and Clark County is usually well represented in the stu- 
dent body there. 

International Stock Show 

Clark County is well represented both in exhibits and attendance at 
the International Fat Stock Show in Chicago, the 1921 visitors reported 
being: Clarence Laybourne, Howard Smith, Merritt Roberts, C. R. 
Crabill and Howard Gerlaugh. Some years there are Clark County corn 
exhibits in Chicago. The international competitive spirit was apparent 
in the intercollegiate livestock judging contest where students from Can- 
ada and the United States were rivals in the arena. It was a close race 
between representatives of the two countries, Ohio's team of five stu- 
dent judges winning 4,178 out of a possible 5,000 points, the Ontarian 
Agricultural College with 4,164 points taking second place in the contest. 
It was in the horse and sheep classes that Ohio made the best showing 
with 1,075 tallies on horses, and 1,164 on sheep. The distance to Colum- 
bus renders it an easy matter for Clark County citizens to attend the 
state fair, and they are thus familiar with events there. With Farmers' 
Week at the University and a week at the fair, in addition to the Clark 
County Fair, Clark County farmers are abreast of the times in the world 
of agriculture. 

Pomona Grange 

At the annual meeting of the Clark County Pomona Grange, the offi- 
cers chosen were: C. E. Jones, master; C. E. Roller, overseer; Mrs. 
Catherine Koontz, lecturer ; Elmer Sigler, steward ; Mrs. Agnes Swallow, 
secretary-treasurer; Mrs. Rathburn, chaplain; Russel Ream, assistant 
steward; Mrs. C. A. Phares, Ceres; Mrs. Roberts, Pomona, and Mrs. 
Weaver, Flora. The Clark County Pomona Grange dates back to the 
'70s, and the first organization was at Donnelsville. Among the leaders 
in the Grange movement were Samuel Deitrich, J. B. Trumbo, J. B. Pat- 
ton, J. B. Crane, R. L. Holman and Rei Rathburn. Cooperative buying 
was the underlying principle in the beginning, but gradually the plan 
drifted away from business to social features, and the Clark County 
Granges at Fremont, Beech Grove, Pitchin, Rockway, South Vienna, 
Olive Branch and Lawrenceville are now all community centers of social 

The Grange as organized in the 70s was simultaneous in many Ohio 
counties — a farmer's business organization, and as such it was conducted 
for years, building halls and thus owning its own property, and there are 
a number of Grange halls in Clark County. Since the consolidation of 
schools providing better auditoriums in the different townships, the 
Granges are inclined to use them as their meeting places, thereby allow- 
ing the school property to serve the whole community. When the Grange 
became a social center more people were attracted to it. It is understood 

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that the idea of creating an organization limited to those engaged in the 
pursuits of agriculture originated with Oliver Hudson Kelley of Massa- 
chusetts. In the early '50s Mr. Kelley entered a farm near Itasca, Min- 
nesota, but in 1864 he was appointed to a clerkship in the Department 
of Agriculture at Washington. In 1866 he was constituted agent of the 
department to investigate farming conditions in the southern states just 
beginning reconstruction after the Civil war, and he reported: "I find 
there is great lack of interest on the part of farmers," and being brought 
face to face with the conditions he resolved to institute something to 
change them. 

Mr. Kelley said: "Where we find one who reads agricultural books 
and papers, there are ten who consider 'book farming* as nonsense. After 
making a general investigation, I found the circulation of purely agricul- 
tural papers was but one to every 230 inhabitants. Their system of 
farming was the same as that handed down by the generations gone by ; 
of the science of agriculture, the natural laws that govern the growth of 
plants, there were ninety per cent who were totally ignorant. There is 
nothing now that binds the farmers together, and I think such an order 
(The Grange) would act with the most cheerful results." The Hon. John 
W. Stokes, acting commissioner of agriculture, very heartily endorsed 
Mr. Kelley's plan, and in 1868, backed by a few prominent farmers he 
commenced the organization in the different states of subordinate lodges 
of the Patrons of Husbandry, now known as the Grange. 

In January, 1873, the National Grange was organized in 'Georgetown, 
District of Columbia, with Dudley W. Adams of Iowa as master, and 
from that time forth the Grange has been a factor in all the efforts 
launched to better the condition of the agriculturist. "Father Kelley" 
died in 1913, after the success of his labors were a demonstrated cer- 
tainty. He saw accomplished by the Grange many things of untold value 
to the people, the recognition of the equality of women in all walks of 
life — they were admitted to the Grange on the same basis as men. The 
enactment of laws for the creation of farming experiment stations which 
now dot every state in the Union is an outgrowth of the Grange. The 
rural free delivery of mail service, the teaching of agriculture in the pub- 
lic schools, and the encouragement of the system of farmers' institutes — 
in short, many advances in rural life are due directly to the efforts of the 
National Grange. The Grange is non-partisan, non-sectarian, and open 
to all rural families. It is the rural community center. The members 
meet and discuss issues, formulate petitions and when necessary ask for 
favors. When farmers band themselves together and ask for a measure, 
it means more than individual effort. The Clark County Pomona Grange 
has accomplished much through cooperation. While there are but seven 
active Grange organizations in Clark County, there are 878 subordinate 
Granges in Ohio, with 102,159 members. 

Clark County Farm Bureau 

The Farm Bureau office is a clearing house for all Clark County 
farm problems. It is a community center for a great many citizens. The 
American Farm Bureau Federation grew out of the war time necessity 
of speeding production, and in 1916, the bureau was organized in Clark 
County. When the United States Government laid its hand on Clark 
County, and asked for greater production, W. N. Scarff and others 

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became interested in the Smith-Hughes Vocational Law recognizing the 
county agent plan, and cooperating with the Council of Defense in an 
effort to place town boys on farms, the initial steps were taken, the state 
would give $1,500 toward such an organization. 

From the beginning Mr. Scarff had been president. At the recent 
election C. A. Steele became vice president, succeeding Howard Smith; 
Albert Hayes succeeded Stanley Laybourne as secretary, and Asa Hodge 
succeeded himself as treasurer. The first farm agent was W. E. McCoy 
who remained until February 1, 1920, being succeeded by E. W. Hawkins. 
On December 31, 1921, there were 952 members with the number increas- 
ing rapidly. While each township is organized the membership in some 
is greater than in others, ranging from sixty-three in Pleasant to 132 in 
Bethel. These two townships represent the extremes both in geographical 
and agricultural conditions. Dean C. G. Shatzer of Wittenberg College 
defines geography as including everything connected with the lives and 
occupations of men. While Pleasant is in the hill country, Bethel is in 
the valley of Mad River. 

While the farm bureau membership fee was $1, there were 450 mem- 
bers. In 1920 the fee was changed to $10 and the membership has more 
than doubled itself. Each township has its local organization, that coop- 
erates with the county board, as the county organization is amenable to 
the state bureau. The state farm bureau is controlled from the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of Ohio State University, and the farm agent is an 
extension member of the university faculty. It is the comment universal 
that one engaged in doing research work in local history would cultivate 
the acquaintance of the pioneers in order to gain the necessary informa- 
tion. There is a saying, "Reading makes a ready man while writing 
makes an exact man," and Mr. Hawkins comes into personal contact with 
many, and since he keeps an accurate record of his transactions, he is an 
authority. He has an unfailing fund of historical information. 

The future of agriculture is well taken care of through the Farm 
Bureau, Mr. Hawkins coming into personal relation with the boys and 
girls through the corn and pig clubs. When he visits a farmstead it 
is usually for a conference with the boy, and proprietary interest is 
thus fostered in the farmer of the future — he has his corn plot and his 
brood sow, and someone is taking note of his operations. A number 
of Clark County boys have won special honors both in the county and 
state, Charles Cauliflower and Amy Nicklin representing the boys and 
girls' pig and food clubs, enjoying a week at the university at the 
expense of the Clark County Agricultural Society. John Prosser, Jr., 
won first place in a corn show recently held in Columbus, and Paul 
Sherrin has been proclaimed the boy champion corn grower of Clark 
County, with a yield of 118.5 bushels, while his brother Cleon Sherrin 
produced 113 bushels of corn to the acre. 

The Springfield banks financed both the corn and pig clubs, Paul 
Sherrin receiving $25 and his brother $15, and first and second prizes 
were awarded in each township additional to the county winners. In 
1921 there were 134 boys and girls enrolled in the various competitive 
clubs in Clark County and it is recognized as the outstanding corn club 
county in Ohio, said Guy Dowdy of the Boys' and Girls' Club Depart- 
ment of the University. The winners were given a banquet by the 
bankers' group who pledged the $400 given in prize money, the spread 
l>eing laid at the Chamber of Commerce banquet rooms. The speaker, 

Vol. 1—8 

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Mr. Dowdy, said : "If you are going to build the right sort of boy for 
farming he must have a good foundation, and it is best made by carry- 
ing out some scientific methods of agriculture. That is what corn club 
work does for him. Farming requires the best brain and brawn," and 
statement was made that the Clark County Boys' Corn Club average 
production was eighty-six bushels, which is twice the average yield in 
the state. 

Speaking for the bankers who provided the banquet, George W. 
Winger commended the boys, assuring those who did not win prizes 
that their efforts had not been in vain, and Gen. J. Warren Keifer gave 
a reminiscent story of his own farming experiences, saying his knowl- 
edge of agriculture had been to his advantage. Paul Sherrin and Jack 
Drake, representing the boys of the club, told how they raised their 
corn and spoke of the benefits a boy receives who engages in the com- 
petitive work, and they thanked the bankers and the Farm Bureau for 
their efforts. Each year brings forth new winners, and in 1920 Edwin 
Lohnes of Mad River Township, who produced a fraction more than 
118 bushels to an acre, was state champion, that honor going to Mont- 
gomery County in 1921, with a yield of 126 bushels. 

The picture of Edwin Lohnes, whose success stimulated a number of 
Clark County boys to enter the 1921 contest, is shown. Each boy does 
all the work himself in producing his plat of corn. The corn show 
has become an annual feature in some of the townships, and it is said 
visitors frequently remark about better corn at home, but it is only the 
exhibitor who wins. A careful selection of the prize-winning ears is 
urged, as sometimes the carefully selected sample wins over a better 
field of corn. There are domestic and household exhibits, and boys 
and girls are in an atmosphere of advancement in everything. 

While the Clark County Farm Bureau uses the basement of the 
Mad River Bank, when the court house is rebuilt it will be sheltered 
there again. The eighty-eight counties of Ohio are divided into twenty- 
two four-county groups, and Clark is in group fourteen, associated 
with Miami, Champaign and Darke counties, and meetings are held in 
the different centers, these counties co-operating in movements in which 
they have mutual interests. The State of Ohio appropriates $800,000 
for the Farm Bureau extension, and the returns are from improved 
methods and better citizenship. On Washington's birthday, 1922, the 
Clark County Farm Bureau invited the farmers of the county to wit- 
ness moving pictures, two films, "Spring Valley" and "Homestead" 
being shown, throwing light on some of the problems of country life, 
the entertainment given them in the Fairbanks Theater. The attend- 
ance indicated that the effort of the bureau was appreciated and the 
social side of rural life is considered in Farm Bureau activities. The 
census report shows 11,000,000 boys and girls on farms in the United 
States, and the Farm Bureau aids in the club work now being carried 
on by the federal department of agriculture and by the colleges of 

Review of the Markets 

While an optimistic tone is noted in recent business surveys, Clark 
County farmers know all about fluctuating markets. Along in the '30s, 
when a farmer was coming to Springfield or going to Dayton or Cin- 
cinnati, he would tramp out sufficient oats to fill all the linen bags he 

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Edwin Lohnes, Mad River Township 

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had and he would collect the vegetables and apples and what butter 
his wife had ready, and all was in readiness. It required several days 
when the trip was extended to Cincinnati. Before there were rail- 
roads drovers went to Cincinnati with livestock, even driving turkeys 
from the vicinity of Springfield. When night came on, the turkeys 
roosted in the trees, but they were on the ground early in the morning. 
David Lowry's experience shipping venison hams by water via Mad 
River and the Miami did not prove a success, and livestock was driven 
to market. 

In that period cows sold for $5 and $10 payable in trade, and $40 
was a good price for a horse; trained oxen were from $25 to $30 a 
yoke, and dressed hogs brought from $1.25 to $1.50 in Cincinnati. 
A veal brought 75 cents, and wheat from the granary brought 35 and 
40 cents. The hams of deer brought 25 cents each and the settler gen- 
erally sold the hide in Cincinnati. Deer hides were used for patches 
in the days when buckskin breeches admitted men to the best society. 
When a man cut a bee tree in the woods he was sure of 25 cents a 
gallon for the honey. Shelled corn brought 50 cents a barrel, and 
when men went out among farmers they received from 25 to 50 cents 
a day and their board. The clearing and the harvest field afforded 
labor and the sons often went out among their neighbors, and the scale 
of wages in war times makes it seem an incredible story. When farm- 
ers wagoned to Cincinnati they planned to haul something both ways, 
and when the Indians were intimidating the settlers the story is told 
that Andrew McBeth and Jeremiah Reese brought a four-horse load 
of powder from Cincinnati for Moorefield Township farmers. Although 
the Indians did not use guns, they respected them, and Moorefield 
Township settlers were taking time by the forelock — in time of peace 
they made ready for war. 

In the early days the distilleries along Mad River gave the Clark 
County farmers a market for their corn. While other mills and dis- 
tilleries changed hands often, the Snyder distillery was in operation 
through many years. It is described as a hip roof frame with cog 
wheels on the roof, and for many years it was the workshop of James 
Leffel, who invented the famous turbine water wheel and who is 
credited by S. S. Miller as having coined the expression "It is better 
to wear out than to rust out," heard so frequently. In the days of 
the Snyder distillery, there was a Snyder cooper shop, where many 
"old timers" used hoop poles and staves in making barrels. How could 
the "wet goods" be marketed only in barrels? There were by-products 
then as now, and the slops were used by farmers who furnished cheap 
pork on the market. 

When the Snyder distillery was in operation, whisky was on the 
market at 15 cents a gallon. When capitalists began investing more 
money in breweries, rye was used in the manufacture of whisky and f 

the price was higher, whatever the quality. When the mast was ripe 
in the forests the settlers would round up their hogs and mark them, 
each settler having his separate identification and then it was "root hog 
or die" until butchering time, and they would round up the stock again, 
each settler taking any animal bearing his private mark. They would 
pen the hogs and cornfeed them to improve the quality of the lard, and 
that casts some light on the low prices. The pork was on the market 
without much expense, hogs selling by the head without the trouble 

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of weighing them. Live chickens were sold at $2 and $3 a dozen and 
turkeys at 30 to 50 cents apieces ; ducks at 25 cents and geese at from 
25 to 50 cents. Butter was 7 and 8 cents, and beefsteak was 6 and 
7 cents, but who has benefited from it ? 

The best paid labor was 50 cents except in harvest, when it reached 
75 cents. There was a gradual increase until the breaking out of the 
Civil war, when there was an advance because of the withdrawal of 
large numbers of able-bodied men from productive industries, and who 
will say that history did not repeat itself in that respect when the 
United States entered the World war? Between 1840-50 farm labor 
reached $16 ft month without board and $12 with board, but in 1862 
it had advanced to $18 and $14, or 90 cents a day without and 75 
cents a day with board, and by '65 the scale was $26 and $20. with 
transient labor in harvest at $1.50 without and $1.25 with board, and 
some fabulous prices were recently paid, many farmers unable to secure 
labor. One of the diaries consulted says that when 50 cents was the 
maximum daily wage men worked from sunrise till sunset, but when 
wages advanced to $1.50 ten hours constituted the day. 

The hours of labor are shorter in the towns and that explains the 
exodus. When a factory man engages to work on a farm he still wants 
to regulate his hours by the whistle at the factory. Springfield and 
Clark County folk encountered the profiteer while the United States 
was at war and they are assured that pre-war prices will never pre- 
vail again. While eggs were 3 cents a dozen in reconstruction follow- 
ing the Civil war, eggs and butter are two commodities that still com- 
mand war-time prices. People have hqard of the difference between 
the high cost of living and the cost of high living and that it is the 
consumer who pays the freight — the high cost of everything. While 
it is said there was an agricultural society organized in Clark County 
in 1840, it did not accomplish as much in the way of controlling the 
markets as is accomplished by the farm organizations of today. The 
society of that period accommodated both Clark and Madison counties, 
but there is little known about it. The Institute, Grange and Farm 
Bureau have all advanced the interests of agriculture in Clark County. 

Game — Wild Life in Clark County Forests 

On January 23, 1910, the Springfield News carried a feature story, 
"Trapping in Clark County an Established Industry," and "once upon 
a time" the Fountain Avenue and Main Street crossing was designated 
at Trappers' Corner because of the number of skins handled by 
Springfield merchants. The newspaper article begins: "If some of the 
conquerors of the air now making such spectacular flights would fly 
above the fields of Clark County just at daybreak some morning, rather 
an unusual sight would greet their downward gaze. They would see 
the frozen and snow-covered areas dotted here and there with trappers 
as they made the early morning rounds of their traps. Few except 
those who do the trapping realize the scale on which the fur business 
is carried on, nor do they realize the amount of trapping done, hun- 
dreds of men and boys making good livelihoods by trapping skunk, 
mink, muskrat and raccoon. One man in Harmony Township has 
realized over $100 every month this winter." 

On November 15, 1844, Walter Small wood killed a deer along Buck 

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Creek, which was the last one seen in Springfield. George Bennett 
had deer hunting dogs that would catch a deer and hold it until he 
could "stick it." Once when he had shot a deer and was ready to cut 
its throat, it attacked him. One time Ephraim Vance of South Charles- 
ton, who was a celebrated hunter, was in the woods at night when a 
pack of wolves were howling on his trail. He knew they would tear 
him to shreds and started to run for a tree in an open field. Seeing a 
haystack, he climbed it, not having time to reach the tree. Driven by 
hunger, the wolves were desperate. They surrounded the haystack 
growling and fighting through the night, but when daylight came they 
sneaked away to their dens in the forest. It was a cold night and 
Mr. Vance was almost frozen when he slid off of the stack and went 
home for breakfast. 

When game was plentiful about South Charleston, the settlers would 
send rabbit hams to Cincinnati by Nat Moss, who drove the stage. They 
would salt the rabbit hams and pack them in barrels, and Moss, who 
was a mulatto, would market them in Cincinnati or Columbus. One 
night he was burned to death in Columbus. Albert Reeder relates that 
one time when the squirrels were migrating across Lisbon Creek, the 
settlers caught them on the water gate. They stood there with clubs 
and killed all they could carry home. A squirrel is a timid creature 
and it is an unusual story. When wild turkeys were plentiful, men and 
dogs would round them up over the open fields. The dogs were trained 
to stay under them and keep them on the wing until they were exhausted 
and when they would drop the settlers rescued them from the dogs 
without apparent injury. 

Migration of Wild Pigeons 

While the Smithsonian Institute now offers a premium for wild 
pigeons, there was a time when they flew across Clark County in such 
numbers as to darken the sky. They would form figures and fly in 
military precision. A flock of wild pigeons in transit made more noise 
than a flock of aeroplanes today. Because of the encroachments of 
civilization they have no place to rear their young and they are almost 
extinct. There is no rendezvous — the wire fence does not afford a 
friendly shelter. While pigeons are domesticated and squabs are on 
the market, there was a time when wild pigeons were numerous where 
livestock was fed for the market. Even the wild geese and ducks do 
not migrate in such numbers as when there were friendly shelters en 
route. There used to be cranes along Mad River and the smaller 

When R. Q. King, who was an out-of-door man, lived, he wanted to 
have a farm with nothing but cranes on it and there used to be both 
white and blue cranes in the forest now Snyder Park. There was a 
time when all kinds of wild animals were found along Lagonda Creek 
at the mouth of Mill Run. There was a thick growth of trees and 
underbrush and the holes in the rocks forming the cliffs afforded hiding 
places and everything known to the forest was found within the area 
now covered by Springfield. It was always the hunting grounds of 
the Shawnees. Who would not like to return to the halcyon days of 
nature in Clark County? Even the stork does not make many visits 
in some households. 

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An old account says : "Turkeys were seldom shot, as the ammunition 
was too valuable to waste upon them. They were generally caught 
in traps or pens, with the lower part or one side left open. Corn was 
strewn around and inside the pen and they became easy prisoners. 
If the turkey was young it was skinned and roasted on a spit, the 
grease being caught in a dripping pan. Stoves were unknown and all 
cooking was done on the hearth or over fires kindled out of doors. 
In the scarcity of other game, opossums were used for food — the dish 
in special favor among the negroes. The skins were prepared for use 
by the hunters, and a mark of the cabin was the hides stretched to dry 
outside of it. How about the traveler who asked if there were any 
Lutherans in the community, and the woman of the cabin said there 
were all kinds of skins on the mill — they might be Lutherans. 

Deer skins were tanned by Clark County settlers. The hair was 
first removed by ashes and water and the skins were then rubbed with 
soft soap, lye and the brains of the deer, all these substances containing 
alkali. After lying a few days in a steeping vat or trough, the deer skins 
were stretched over a smooth, round log from which the bark was 
removed and scraped with a graining knife. Such dressing rendered 
them soft and pliable, and many of the settlers were skillful curriers. 
Bear skins were dressed with the hair on, and they were used for robes, 
carpets or bed clothing. While wolves were numerous and panther 
screams occasionally pierced the forest, domestic animals were seldom 
destroyed by them. Fish were plentiful and were caught in different 
ways — hook and line and sometimes with a gig. This is a game for 
the boys in boats. Quails came later — seemed to follow civilization. 

The department of fish and game reports that deer are still at large 
in portions of Ohio, and the biological survey under the United States 
Department of Agriculture reports that following two recent mild win- 
ters there are thousands of coveys of bob white, Ohio listed among 
the states where they have multiplied rapidly, and it is said that Ohio 
is soon to have a forest reserve game sanctuary and public hunting 
grounds comprising 10,000 acres along the Scioto. The State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has been instructed to acquire it. It is an unpro* 
ductive area and hunters and fishermen are promoting the scheme and 
doing much to perpetuate nature conditions. Within the last year 
140,000,000 fish were produced in hatcheries and distributed in the 
rivers and lakes of Ohio. The game conservation and propogation 
system established several years ago is yielding returns already, as 
indicated in the survey made by the United States Department of 

On November 15, 1921, a news item in Springfield papers read: 
"Hundreds of Clark County hunters will journey to the field today in 
search of rabbits. The season closes January 1," and 2,410 hunting 
licenses had been issued to date, hunters having prepared in advance 
for the opening of the season, and for six weeks all farms that are not 
posted against them will be the mecca of hunters. In a desultory arti- 
cle published January 8, 1922, Dr. J. W. Gunn of Springfield says that 
Nimrod has sold his shooting irons, and invested the whole proceeds 
in golf stocks, and he quotes: "Behold the fowls of the air, for they 
sow not, neither do they reap nor gather into barns, yet your Heavenly 
Father feedeth them," but, like the parable of the sower, that Bible 
assertion was made under different conditions in the world. 

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The Recent Fox Drives 

The first and second annual fox drives in many localities were 
announced in the winter of 1921-22, and while Reynards galore would 
be rounded up they usually escaped except one or two unfortunates, 
the people in automobiles watching the drives not rendering effective 
service when the foxes wanted to go through the lines. The fox 
drives were social affairs, the women serving sandwich lunches and 
the proceeds being used in community work. There were two sides 
to the question, some commending and others condemning it. When 
the fox was auctioned off, the churches received the proceeds, $nd peo- 
ple thus patronized the fox drives who would not sanction the bull fight. 
Along this line of defense one comment was that Clark County was 
overrun with ravenous foxes raiding hen roosts and carrying off chil- 
dren. The menace does not seem to warrant such defense. The fox 
drive was supplemented in some communities by raids on rodents, and 
this seems warranted, since in Clark County alone thousands of dollars 
worth of grain is destroyed every year by rats. The settlers some- 
times took the puncheon floors out of their cabins in breaking up the 
rendezvous of rodents. When driven by hunger they would attack 
the sleeping family. 

While trapping seems to belong to the pioneer period in the history 
of Clark County, it is said that the knobs bounded by South Vienna, 
Catawba and New Moorefield — the highest portion of the whole county 
— still afford good trapping, and hundreds of traps may be seen along 
Sinking and Beaver creeks and in the fields of that locality. It is 
nothing unusual for one man to look after fifty traps covering an area 
of 500 acres. If along the streams alone that number of traps would 
cover the distance of two miles, four hours will be spent in visiting 
them. The genuine trapper may be seen trudging through the snow 
with his gun and the traps thrown over his shoulder. He goes alone 
long before the sun rises, and if he meets with success he has a busy 
day skinning the animals and stretching the pelts to dry so that he 
can dispose of them in Springfield. 

It is reported that "Bully" Harrington and David Cuddy of the 
Knobs secured eleven skunks from one hole, receiving $30 for the 
pelts. Muskrats are found along the stream while mink are found in 
hollow trees. Both traps and dogs are used in catching the mink and 
raccoons are caught at night with "hound dogs." When a dog strikes 
the scent of the raccoon, he soon "trees" it, and many trees have fallen 
because of wild animals sheltered in them. Men would chop down 
trees for the "coons," who would not do it for the firewood in them. 
Opossums are found in hollow logs and are trapped or hunted with 
dogs. High water is welcomed by trappers as it drives the animals 
out of their hiding places, and when there is snow on the ground any 
kind of an animal may be caught more readily. Trapping is good while 
snow lasts, the mink being the first animal in and the last out, in the 
trapper's parlance with reference to the condition of the fur. When 
the snow leaves it loses its gloss, and the pelts are not worth the 
trouble of catching the animals. The skunk ranks second and both 
are best in the months of January and February. 

While boys used to be given guns and told to kill the birds, a 
different idea now influences the farmer. A recent bulletin says the 

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breakfasts, luncheons and dinners of Ohio's feathered folk consists of 
about 3,000,000 pounds of weed seeds and other things, and the farmers 
of the state will be saved $3,000,000 because of their appetites. The 
bulletin is issued by the United States Department of Agriculture. It 
is estimated that twenty pounds of weed seed will cover an acre, and 
with the seeds and worms consumed by the birds they are an advan- 
tage rather than a menace to agriculture. With four quails on each 
square mile in Ohio, 600 tons of weed seeds are consumed in the win- 
ter months, and the reports of the biological survey indicate that quails 
consume 130 different kinds of weed seeds, but, like sin, weeds are not 
eradicated without continual watchfulness on the part of the husband- 
man and farmer. 

Clark County Horticultural Society 

The last word is not written about agriculture until horticulture 
is given its relative place in farm economics. The Clark County Hor- 
ticultural Society was organized February 15, 1896, for the promotion 
of horticulture and relative industries. It meets the first Wednesday 
of each month, and a basket dinner is a feature of each meeting. 
W. N. Scarff of White Oaks farm and nursery has been its president 
from the beginning and the present roster is : Vice president, Dr. P. E. 
Cromer, with Mrs. Cromer as secretary-treasurer. N. E. Deaton and 
Mrs. Scarff are in charge of the musical features. The fruit growers 
of Ohio are well organized and the Clark County horticulturists rank 
foremost among them. 

America has given to the world its principal food plants and long 
before the white man came the Indians were engaged in intensive agri- 
culture. They made use of nuts and berries, particularly the hickory 
nut, walnut and black haw and the cranberry was also used by them. 
While the Indians used these things in their wild state, the white man 
has cultivated and improved the varieties. The man who plants a fruit 
tree is a benefactor, doing something for those who come after him, 
and in 1800 James Galloway planted an orchard on Mad River, being 
contemporary with Johnny Appleseed, whom tradition says, once vis- 
ited Clark County. There is a Chapman Creek and his name was 
John Chapman. He was born in 1775 at Boston and died in 1847 
at Fort Wayne. 

An article in The Survey says: "The tale of John Chapman or 
Johnny Appleseed is already taking its # place among the folklore stories 
of the continent. For fifty years he went barefoot through the wilder- 
ness, clothed only in an old coffee sack with holes for his head and 
arms. He sowed orchards. To the Indians he was a great medicine 
man. He made his medicine with the first west-flying bees and the 
first of the west-blowing wheat." Vachel Lindsay, who affects some- 
thing of the Johnny Appleseed character, writes : 

"J. Appleseed swept on 
Every shackle gone 
Loving every slashy brake 
Loving every skunk and snake, 
Loving every little weed, 
J. Appleseed — J. Appleseed." 

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The story goes that Johnny Appleseed visited cider mills in Penn- 
sylvania and collected the seeds which he distributed throughout Ohio 
and Indiana. When he entered a home he would lie on the floor and 
ask if the family wanted a blessing from heaven, and sometimes he 
planted the seeds in alluvial soil, returning years later and asking remu- 
neration when someone had located there. He was spoken of as a 
Christian going to heaven through the Northwest Territory. Were 
he going through today a lunacy commission would investigate him. 

In the reminiscent notes of S. S. Miller is found the statement that 
the berry or small fruit industry in Clark County began at Husted, 
which draws from Mad River and Greene townships. Berries thrived 
in that locality, many growing raspberries, blackberries and strawberries 
as a source of revenue finding a market for them in Springfield. They 
were not cultivated at all by the pioneers. The tomato is another deli- 
cacy not used for food among the settlers. Clark County farmers who 
study the adaptability of the soil, find that undulating land allows of 
both agriculture and horticulture, and it is said that the Scarff nursery 
has put New Carlisle on the map of the world. While there are other 
nurseries, the one at White Oaks is the oldest in Clark County. 

Ohio ranks sixteenth as an apple-producing state and plans are 
under way among orchardists to perfect an organization for marketing 
apples. "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is the slogan of the 
Apple Growers League, and The Ohio Farmer suggests the slogan, 
"Sell Ohio Apples in Ohio." In past years good apples have decayed 
in the orchards because dealers were considering quantity instead of 
quality. When there were more Clark County forests there was better 
protection for the orchards, and half a century ago apples were plen- 
tiful and there were many cider mills in operation. The apple-cutting 
afforded the social opportunity, the young people of the community 
meeting to peel and core apples, and apple butter was made as regu- 
larly in the same kettle that was used for soap-making or butchering. 
Sometimes there was a brass kettle used in "stirring off" apple butter. 

In "them days" a barrel of cider would be supplied to the town 
family who wanted it for $1.25 a barrel, and they would be furnished 
home-grown apples for their own apple butter. The children on the 
farms knew what it meant to pick up apples for making cider. The 
load of apples and the cider barrel were taken to the mill and the farm- 
ers ground their own apples fcnd squeezed them into pumice in the 
press, coming home at night with sweet cider in barrels. It is related 
that Frederick Funston, whose grandson became the famous Gen. Fred- 
erick Funston, was killed in an accident at a Donnelsville cider press. 
The Clark County Horticultural Society makes a study of pruning, 
spraying and all that is connected with fruit culture. What has hap- 
pened to all the old-time rambo, pippin, winesap and russet apple trees? 
Those names were household words years ago. 

Millions of Roses 

Springfield is known as the greatest plant-growing center in the 
world. It is the greatest producing center for roses and small shrub- 
bery that may be sent by mail or shipped by express. While there are 

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Clark County nurseries that ship their products to all parts of the 
world. Millions of roses are shipped from Springfield. The Innes- 
fallen Greenhouse established by Charles A. Reeser in 1877 and since 
operated by the George H. Mellen Company was the first mail order 
house in the world to ship rooted plants, although catalogue houses are 
numerous now in Springfield. Mr. Reeser learned the florist business 
with Peter Henderson, who deals in seeds, and urged him to propogate 
roses and ship the rooted plants. Mr. Reeser later came to Springfield 
and demonstrated the possibilities, conducting the business for several 
years and making a success of it. 

While there are now half a dozen big mail order houses shipping 
rooted roses to all parts of the world, using catalogues to secure the 
patronage, there are about thirty smaller growers who wholesale their 
product to the mail order houses — and thus millions of roses are grown 
in Springfield. In the mail order greenhouses very little comes to 
maturity; it is the stock they produce, leaving their customers to pro- 
duce the roses. At the Innesf alien greenhouses there are 110,000 
square feet under glass, and many people are employed in conducting 
the ever-expanding business. Some of the other greenhouses are as 
large as the Innesfallen, which happens to be the oldest in the world 
specializing on rooted roses. Sphagnum moss is used in wrapping the 
roots. It is a Wisconsin product that holds moisture, and much care 
is exercised in preparing stock for shipment. Roses and ferns are 
rooted and shipped in quantities from Springfield. 

While much of the rose culture is under roof, hardy varieties are 
propagated and they are also grown in the open field. Roses and 
ferns predominate in the rooted mail order plants, and the American 
Rose Company originated the Teddy Roosevelt, which is a spore from 
the Roosevelt fern. While ferns grow wild, the Boston fern is the 
first improved variety. Hybridizing is a science in both rose and fern 
culture, and thus new varieties are placed on the market. There are 
, "infinitessimal nothings" to watch in the life of the florist, and that is 
one job in which "eternal vigilance is the price of success." 

Springfield is the city of roses — the best 60,000 population city in 
the world. The sale of rooted roses has given the city its appellation 
and few exhibition roses are shown in local greenhouses that cater to 
the mail order patronage. The growers do not allow their stock to 
bloom, but hold it back to vigorous growth, leaving the customer the 
pleasure of having the roses. While they are grown under glass, 
many roses are produced without artificial heat and they do not suffer 
from being transplanted to the lawns and gardens. Each mail order 
house has its list of customers, but at the Innesfallen greenhouses 
when customers do not respond for two years their names are omitted. 
The list of names remains in fireproof vaults only when in use, trucks 
being provided so that heavy books are pushed in and out with the 
minimum of labor, women being employed in the mailing department. 

The florist is authority on the chemistry of soils and compost is 
always in process. While rotation does not solve the problem, a change 
of earth is necessary. When greenhouse dirt goes back to the garden 
and undergoes the freezing and thawing process, it may be used again. 
Commerial fertilizers and insect destroyers are all familiar topics to 

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the florist. While the grain products rob the soil unless fed to live- 
stock on the farm, the soil for growing roses must be changed and 
while out-of-door conditions are maintained under glass in some of 
the departments, the fuel bill enters into the cost of production. The 
Innesf alien greenhouses use 1,000 tons of coal a season, and some 
war-time coal — high price and poor quality — was being used along with 
a better grade. The installation and upkeep are figured in and while 
some of the timber was used in construction forty years ago, building 
material must be provided frequently. There are repairs necessary 
every day, and Springfield florists are abreast of the. times. Because 
of them Springfield is known to the world as the center of rose pro- 

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In the Bible is this personal experience related, "I was glad when 
they said unto me, let us go into the House of the Lord." 

The Zealots may supply the missing word in the parody : "For now 
abideth these three, the church, the school and the press, but the greatest 

of these is the ." This educational triumvirate is within the reach 

of all. The report is current that Springfield has sixty-two churches 
with thirty different denominations, and it is understood there are no 
denominations in Clark County not represented in Springfield. In the 
beginning there were only about half a dozen denominations. While only 
about seventy ministers are enrolled in the Clark County Ministerial 
Association, it is understood there are more than 100 ministers eligible to 
membership in it. 

The church announcements for Sunday, October 16, 1921, as carried 
in the daily newspapers, including both Springfield and outside churches, 
shows the following: Lutheran, Christian Science, Brethren, Church of 
Christ, Universalist, Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, Presbyterian, 
Christian, United Presbyterian, Reformed, United Brethren, International 
Bible Students Association, Episcopalian, Christian (Summerbell Memo- 
rial), Mennonite Brethren, Evangelical, and some are duplicated among 
the colored people in Springfield. Catholics and Spiritualists hold regu- 
lar services, and there is frequent news mention of denominations who 
do not use space ip the regular church calendar in the newspapers. In 
some of the denominations there are many churches, and there are many 
missions that seem to be of community nature — undenominational in 

It is said the majority of people belong to a particular church for 
convenience, and because of environment — not because of the polity at all 
— they had certain training and never give further thought to the matter. 
They do not read church literature, and are very narrow in their con- 
ception of theology, many cannot define Christianity. They know noth- 
ing of Mohammedism or Buddhism, and are Christians because they live 
in a Christian community. They are amateurs in theology, and intolerant 
in many things. The foregoing is an old criticism; churchmen are not 
quite such sticklers today. There was a time when predestination was a 
war cry, but seldom the word is heard today. 

There is a note of evangelism in theology, and in orthodox circles little 
is said about total depravity. Once upon a time even the ignorant who 
never had studied theology were inspired to discourse, and then much 
difference of opinion prevailed, however, when the unpardonable sin and 
sanctification were the threadbare topics in the pulpit, the people used to 
gather in throngs to hear those sermons of great orthodoxy, and there 
were wonderful conversions among them. The theology of Springfield 
and Clark County of the present day seems to have been influenced by 
contact with the late Dr. D. H. Bauslin, dean of Hamma Divinity School 
in Wittenberg College. The Ministerial Association credited him with 
being a thinker, and took many suggestions from him. 


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Doctor Bauslin said from the pulpit that when God's house is cared 
for other houses are not neglected, and while students under him will 
remember his admonitions to the wives of ministers— dust their clothes 
and remind them of the missionary announcements, and then provide 
good dinners for them — they felt that he had the grasp on truth. He 
interpreted the prayers of the righteous as including body, soul and 
mind or spirit, and while his life went out suddenly his influence will be 
of long duration. When he discussed the second coming of Christ before 
the Ministerial Association none took exception. While it is said that 
ministers are called of God, Wittenberg College recently sponsored the 
greatest movement known in the history of Clark County — that of stim- 
ulating a desire on the part of young men to enter the ministry. 

Planting the Church 

Wherever the emigrant pitched his tent or opened his temporary 
camp, traveling preachers were soon on his trail. There is an old saying : 

"Where the Lord erects a house of prayer, 
The devil always has his chapel there," 

and those unfamiliar with frontier life have little conception of the hard- 
ships of the settlers. It is known that both James B. Finley and Lorenzo 
Dow, who were wilderness spell-binders, visited Clark County early. 
They were both at New Carlisle, and when Lorenzo Dow was in Spring- 
field, some of the citizens climbed into the trees to hear and see him. 
The question always will be raised as to whether religion is taught or 
caught, and as long as actions speak louder than words people will arrive 
at their own conclusions. Like Zaccheus of old, the citizens in the trees 
were invited to come down, and the name of that eccentric traveling 
evangelist will be emblazoned on the pages of history throughout futurity. 

When a community survives a visit from Billy Sunday and his organ- 
ized body of Christian workers there is hope for it. In 1911 his taber- 
nacle was constructed on South Limestone Street on the site now occu- 
pied by the Southern Apartments. The Sunday campaign attracted many 
visitors to Springfield. While many indorsed his methods, others were 
more conservative and said that ulterior motives influenced him. While 
some came long distances, and at considerable sacrifice to hear him, others 
remained indifferent to him. There have been many community efforts, 
but the Sunday visit is remembered by all. 

In every community have been settlers who donated land for churches 
and schools and the Clark County church budget for 1921 is said to have 
reached more than $250,0)30, and still there are unchurched as well as 
over-churched communities. It was said of one pioneer minister that 
he began well, but "petered out — did not leave a squirrel track," and 
such may be said of many movements. However, one of the psycholo- 
gists who visited Springfield offering suggestions to its citizens said from 
a pulpit that the reason prayers are not answered is because of lack of 
faith and concentration, too many pray with their lips while their minds 
are busy with other problems. 

In a message to the churches in November, 1921, President Warren 
G. Harding said: "The world never before was in such need of right 

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morals, right ideals, right relations among men and nations, right spirit 
for meeting unparalleled conditions, and sound religion in personal, social 
and public life ; the churches must not fail. Whoever halts the churches 
must march forward more swiftly than they have done," and the forward 
swing is evident in Clark County. Some of the local ministers attended a 
religious convention in Columbus, and the appeal was for a modern inter- 
pretation, a modification of ideals and methods. This generation of reli- 
gious teachers cannot go along in the old-fashioned methods. There are 
developments in the scientific, intellectual and moral world, and Witten- 
berg College has recently added the department of religious education. 

A newspaper comments says: "We may not reasonably expect to 
avail overselves of the telegraph, the telephone, the automobile and the 
flying machine in the material progress of the race, and yet think to be 
septuagenarians and semi-centenarians in religion and education. The 
world outlook is immeasurably broader than it was to our grandparents. 
* * * It is certain that the appeals of earlier periods fail to impress 
the majority of the thinking young persons of today. What was true in 
the old ideas will remain; it cannot be destroyed, but the young person 
looks through new eyes at new facts brought forth and impressed by 
study, observation and experience. 

"Particularly pertinent was the proposition advanced by many of the 
speakers at the conference in Columbus, that the rising generation will 
have and must have its own conception of truth and conduct-^-in a word 
it will not and cannot be made to live entirely on the social and religious 
conceptions of previous generations. It will have to blaze its own way 
through the great forest of human life. * * * Even in what is usu- 
ally called the field of religious evangelism the rising generation will be 
compelled to evolve methods and appeals of its own, which will not always 
exactly coincide with those of the passing generation. * * * The 
people simply lived in a different atmosphere, in a different age, and in a 
different period of human ideals ; it is a great problem before the church 
to direct and minister to its people. In some particulars the old methods 
fall flat, and do not seem to reach the hearts of a new and different gen- 

The metropolitan papers carried the following story apropos the religi- 
ous situation : "People seem to go to church these days to gossip about 
their neighbors, and to discuss the newest dances, the latest styles and the 
best movies or the most sensational novels rather than to discuss religion 
and worship God," but it is an individual matter and some will not 
accept the criticism. However, "once in grace always in grace," does 
not hold in the theology of today. It is admitted that religion flourishes 
more in strenuous times, "whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth," and 
likewise the population increases more rapidly under such conditions. 

Knob Prairie Christian Church 

"The groves were God's first temples," and the missionary and cir- 
cuit rider had their day. There is a tradition that the mound in Mad 
River Township was one of the many altars erected by that mysterious 
race known as the Moundbuilders who were sun worshippers, and while 
the American Indians had an awe of the Great Spirit — their idea of the 
hereafter being the Happy Hunting Grounds, a vague form of religion, 
it seems unique that the white settlers should organize the first church in 

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the vicinity of this altar — Knob Prairie Christian Church, now located 
in Enon. It was organized in the log cabin home of Jonathan Baker in 
1806, by Barton W. Stone and William Kinkade of Kentucky. They 
had been through revival meetings at Cambridge and Concord, where there 
were uiiusual spiritual manifestations — jerking and falling down, the con- 
verts having New Light hitherto unknown to them. They called themselves 
Christians, and were designated as New Lights. Some one said of the 
church, "Its lack of distinctive name operates against it," but because of 
the "new light" it drew from all denominations. 

In the reminiscent notes of S. S. Miller is this information : "Before 
me is a church book yellow with age," and after some further description, 
he copied, "Done -at Mad River in the County of Greene,. and State of 
Ohio, on the third day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and six (1806), to which were signed the names of four 
Cozads, one Taylor, two Jennings and three Smiths, perhaps the first 
church record in what is now Clark County. While the copy said 
Greene, the county records show that the area was then in Champaign 
County. Another account mentions Jonathan Baker and wife; Griffith 
Foos and wife ; Daniel Miller and wife, and Judge Layton and his wife as 
charter members. The meetings were held in private homes until a log 
church was built on land given by Judge Layton near the mound, and 
thus Knob Prairie is suggestive — Knob Prairie Christian Church. 

In 1807 there were twenty-six members, seven of them from the 
Rev. Peter Smith's family. He was an early Clark County itinerant who 
had lived in many localities, and who used a pack horse in transporting 
his family and household effects. The story goes that he brought twins 
into the community, carrying them on either side of the horse — the one 
balancing the other. The family increased until there were twelve chil- 
dren. Peter Smith was a doctor as well as a minister. His name will 
go down to posterity in connection with a work of Materia Medica, the 
first publication by any Miami Valley writer. While Stone and Kinkade, 
as visiting ministers, organized Knob Prairie Christian Church, Francis 
Monfort was the first resident minister. Reuben Daily and Thomas 
Kyle were early ministers, and when camp meetings were held, people 
came from forty miles away to attend them. 

Local Ministers 

M. D. Baker and J. G. Reeder were local citizens who became New 
Light Christian ministers, and numbered among the members were many 
early families : Reeders, Arthurs, Ahteys, Millers, Bakers, Shellabargers, 
Hagans, Lowrys, Minnichs, Wilsons, Crains, Keifers and Huffmans. 
David Lowry, who was among the first settlers on Mad River and who 
attained to old age in the community, was deaf and he sat with the 
preacher in the pulpit so he could hear, and John and Newton Miller, 
who led the singing, stood together in front of the pulpit. The seats, pul- 
pit and door in this original Clark County "meeting house" were of 
puncheons, as was the floor, and there were greased paper windows — 
very primitive in its construction. While it was a rural church, families 
from Springfield attended it, among them the first landlord — Griffith 

The location of Knob Prairie Christian Chruch was explained by 
J. D. Baker. The rough, stony site was in proximity to a spring, and it 

Vol. i-o 

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was along the old Indian trail crossing Mad River at the Broad Ford — 
a crossing much used before there were bridges across the stream. This 
sect was given to religious enthusiasm, and near-by ytas a grove for the 
camp meetings. The church was described by Joel Ebersole who first 
saw it in 1831, as an old looking house. The logs had rough baric, and 
those at the bottom were large, grading smaller toward the top of the 
walls; some of the logs used in the building were the size of telegraph 
poles. The chimney of stone and mud was built seven feet high, and 
there was no sawed timber used in the construction. The puncheon doors 
were about three inches thick, and the clapboards were rived about the 
same thickness. It was built to protect the worshippers from the Indians. 
It would be an odd structure alongside the church bearing that time- 
honored name today. 

Succession of Deacons 

Unique in the history of the Baker family is the fact that Jonathan 
Baker was elected a deacon at the time Knob Prairie Christian Church 
was organized, and he served until 1840, when a son, Moses Baker, was 
chosen. He did not miss a communion service until 1878, when he was 
succeeded by a son, Jonathan D. Baker, who is still incumbent, the office 
of deacon having been in the Baker family through three generations, and 
extending over a period of 116 years. When Knob Prairie celebrated 
its centennial in 1906 it had an unparalleled record — three generations 
having served as deacon from the beginning, and that was sixteen years 
ago. Knob Prairie Christian Church has Antioch College to draw from, 
and it is seldom without a minister. Horace Mann, who was the first 
president of ^Antioch College, used to sometimes fill the pulpit in Knob 
Prairie Christian Church, and whenever the pulpit is vacant a supply 
minister comes from the college. 

Church in Springfield 

"Where two or three are gathered together" constitutes a religious 
service, and in 1803, the first religious service in Springfield was held in 
the Foos log tavern, and since Griffith Foos and his wife became charter 
members at Knob Prairie three years later, it may have been a Christian 
Church gathering, the New Light faction having sprung up in 1801 in 
Kentucky. Almost simultaneously, the Methodists began worshipping 
in the Pinkered School, and in 1808 the Baptists held service there. It 
is said that Reverend Thomas, who conducted the first service in the 
Foos tavern, was a Baptist, but denominationalism was not emphasized 
at this meeting. Saile and Cobler were other ministers who conducted 
service in the Foos tavern. 

It is conceded that the Methodists had the first organization within 
Springfield proper, and that they continued to use the Pinkered log school 
house until 1810, when the New Light Christians built a church on the 
bank of Mill Run. It was a log structure, and since they were tolerant — 
a creedless church, it was open to all denominations. It was built by 
popular subscriptions, and while one man gave the ground it is known 
that Griffith Foos gave a young horse valued at $10, towards hewing the 
logs and preparing the shingles. It was a community center, and the day 
of the raising forty men were there before breakfast. They had come a 
distance of from seven to ten miles. While they did not have silver and 

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gold, they had an abiding faith, and they realized what such a center 
would mean in the community. 

The Presbyterians were among those who entered the mission field 
early, and in 1808 they were holding services at intervals in Springfield, 
It is said that in reconciling some truths, it is better to leave arithmetic 
out of the question, and since the first shall be last, the thing that con- 
cerns Springfield and Clark Couny churches today is the vineyard. Who 
can formulate an almanac or stipulate the church of the future when 
the world is in such chaotic condition? The architecture of the modern 
church is changed, and while spires still point heavenward on many 
Springfield churches, the pipe organ has become the characteristic — the 
newer churches minus the spires but furnished with the organs. The 
enriched church service renders the organ a necessity. 

While the members once had turns in caring for the church, the 
janitor is now as much in the routine as the minister himself. Once the 
members had turns snuffing the candles, carrying the wood, sweeping and 
building the fires, and then the janitor came along and relieved them of 
such duties. Since the days of "Daddy" Fitch as janitor of a Catawba 
Church, the membership has know better than to come late to a service. 
The faithful had held a prayer service, and late arrivals were told as the 
janitor locked the church, "Why bless you, meeting is out and the Lord 
is gone," and they had no alternative — they went home again. The jani- 
tor is less inclined to tolerate late comers than the minister. The Knob 
Prairie Christian Church had puncheon benches, but tradition has it 
that worshipers once sat on three-legged stools. Pews were introduced 
for the use of Norman nobles, but the idea was copied and many families 
now rent their pews regularly, although free pews prevail in Springfield. 

Vision of Peter Smith 

While Peter Smith is mentioned as a member of Knob Prairie Chris- 
tian Church, he was later a Baptist. In 1809 while .preaching in Mad 
River Baptist Church he had a vision. He heard a voice and the light 
shone on his face brighter than the noonday sun. While delivering his 
usual sermon, the voice exclaimed : "Go tell the world around ye, what the 
Lord has done for thee," the words being repeated three times, and in 
1810 he was called to the pastorate of Mad River Baptist Church. While 
Baptist services had been held in Springfield two years earlier, the activ- 
ities were continued on Mad River, and while no church was built, in 
1826 the Mad River Baptist Church had 140 members. They were scat- 
tered and the meetings were held in the homes, often in the home of 
Samuel Smith, a son of Peter Smith where, after his death in 1816, his 
widow continued her residence. 

In 1811, Peter Smith, who had come to Mad River in 1804, went on 
a missionary journey into Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey. 
It was an extensive journey for that day, and he was perhaps the first 
to go out on such a mission. It is said the song of the circuit rider in 
Clark County was : 

"No house or land do I possess, 
No cottage in the wilderness, 
A poor way-faring man am I," 

but mention has been made of Peter Smith in his cabin while Indians 
still lurked in the forest. While the Mad River Baptist Church was 

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in existence, dissensions arose — there were diverse views on free will 
and predestination. There were frequent church trials for other causes 
than doctrinal heresy, which brought on disintegration and final dissolu- 
tion. While the church record closed October 10, 1829, the free will 
faction continued to meet and hold regular services in the early '30s, 
under the ministerial leadership of Reverends Judson, Wallingford and 
Dunlap. In a few years they abandoned the field, and the Springfield 
Baptist Church is another story. 

Simon Kenton and the Missionary 


It was in 1788 that Simon Kenton, the wilderness scout, first met 
James B. Finley, the wilderness missionary, and thirty years later they 
met again at the camp meeting on Mad River — it must have been at 
Knob Prairie. It seems that Mr. Kenton attended the Sunday service, 
and on Monday morning he asked Mr. Finley to retire with him to the 
woods. Having gone beyond the sound of the worshipers, Kenton 
said: "Mr. Finley, I am going to communicate to you some things 
which I want you to promise me you will never divulge," and the cautious 
evangelist replied: "If it will affect none but ourselves, then I promise 
to keep it forever." 

Sitting on a log by the side of the missionary, the general commenced 
to tell the story of his heart and to 'disclose its wretchedness, what a 
great sinner he had been, and how merciful God had been in preserving 
him, amid all the conflicts and dangers of the wilderness. While he thus 
unburdened his heart, and told of the anguish of his sin-stricken spirit, 
his lips quivered and tears of repentance fell from his eyes. They both 
fell on the earth, and cried aloud to God for mercy and salvation. The 
penitent was pointed to Jesus by Mr. Finley as the Almighty Savior, and 
after a long and agonized struggle he entered the gate of eternal life — 
so much for a wilderness conversion along Mad River. It has been 
duplicated in many communities. 

The account says that Simon Kenton sprang to his feet, and made the 
forest ring with shouts of praise to God, in the gladness of his soul 
He outran Mr. Finley to the encampment, and his appearance startled the 
whole company. By the time the evangelist reached the encampment, an 
immense crowd had gathered around General Kenton, who was declar- 
ing the goodness of God and his power to save. It was no longer a 
secret. When Mr. Finley said: "General, I thought we were to keep 
this matter a secret." Kenton replied: "O, it is too glorious for that. 
If I had all the people of the world here I would tell of the goodness 
and mercy of God." The life and death of General Kenton are else- 
where detailed in this history. 

His Business Method 

A new item dated April 21, 1819, states that the subscriptions for 
the ministerial labors of Rev. Archibald Steele for the years 1817 and 
1818 are left with him for collection. He can be paid in merchandise, 
but the item fails to disclose the particular church he served, although it 
was very early — the beginning of organized history in Clark County. 
While it antedates the pound party, twentieth century ministers still press 
the matter of payment. Rev. Archibald Steele simply established a prece- 

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dent, and succeeding generations have all been in touch with the financial 

As late as 1839 the Ohio Gazetteer and Travelers' Guide says of 
Springfield: One Presbyterian Church, one large Methodist meeting 
house, one Methodist Reform meeting house, and one Seceder meeting 
house, all of which are well attended," showing that some of the earlier 
denominations were not then active, and contemporary accounts show 
about as much church activity in New Carlisle and South Charleston as 
in Springfield. Rhodes, Gatch and Williams were early ministers at 
South Charleston, and in 1847 Nat Moss, who "wagoned" to Cincinnati, 
unloaded the first church bell there — presumably the first in Clark County, 
and for many years it pealed forth its messages of joy and sorrow, its 
tones closely associated with the lives of South Charleston citizens. Time 
was when church bells were tolled, and hand bills with lines indicating 
mourning were distributed, both half-forgotten customs. The bell indi- 
cated the number of years, and the bills — obituary notices — left at all 
the homes, were funeral invitations. 

Qlark County Travelers 

While Rev. Peter Smith was the first missionary to leave Clark 
County in the spread of the Gospel, going on an eastern journey in 1811, 
he died December 31, 1816, and lies buried at Donnelsville. It was in 
1825 that Isaac Newton Walters was converted in camp meeting at South 
Charleston, and in 1826 he held meetings in Springfield and at Knob 
Prairie, and while there are globe trotters galore nowadays, he became 
the greatest traveler in the early history of Clark County. When Rever- 
end Walters was fifty years old he had crossed the Alleghanies five 
times, and had traveled enough miles to girdle the earth five time. He 
knew nothing about sleeping car accommodations, but went on horseback 
about the country. In the way of statistical information, Reverend 
Walters registered 3,396 conversions to his credit, and he performed 
1,052 marriages, saying nothing of funerals. 

Rev. I. N. Waters was a New Light Christian, and in 1840 he began 
publishing The Herald of Gospel Liberty in New Carlisle. It was soon 
recognized as the denominational organ, and is still published in Dayton. 
Reverend Walters possessed a remarkable ability for speaking out-of- 
doors, and large audiences heard him. In 1853, he officiated at the 
inauguration of Dr. Horace Mann as president of Antioch College. On 
July 1, 1856, Reverend Walters left Springfield on a missionary journey 
to New York and Boston. Stopping a few days in Columbus, he was 
stricken with hemorrhage and died there. While Springfield churches 
now maintain missionaries in foreign countries, Peter Smith and Isaac 
Newton Walters were the pioneer missionaries from Clark County. How- 
ever, Peter Smith died while it was still Champaign County. 

Innovations in Worship 

While Peter Smith and Isaac Newton Walters thought of Christian- 
ity as a world religion, and bent their efforts toward extending it, the 
wireless telephone sermon direct from the pulpit to the home was many 
years in the future; the simple life confronted them, and they need not 
discuss it. Their audiences were in front of them, and they had no diffi- 

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culties taking up the collections. They had no thought of the church- 
man of the future sitting at home in his lounging robe and slippers, and 
having the radio service installed so as to hear the sermon. While the 
need of invalids was the instigation, the radio service allows others to 
enjoy the service without the formality of attending it. 

The. center of gravity in religious education has shifted, and psy- 
chology now enters into it. The pioneer looked upon the child as a minia- 
ture adult, and "feed my lambs" meant just the same as "feed my sheep," 
but today special attention is given to the religious education. Facts of 
interest to the gray haired theologian do not have an appeal to the child, 
and it is no longer expected to accept predigested mental stimuli without 
thinking about it. The child did not need to understand a doctrine; its 
business was to commit the fact, leaving the thinking process to others. 
The teaching was from without, while in modern religious education the 
growth is from within the child. It grows like a flower by assimilation 
rather than like a building — one brick of knowledge upon another. Devel- 
opment rather than instruction is the modern idea of religious education. 

Demand for Ministers 

The press has taken up the slogan, "More men for the ministry," and 
Wittenberg College has become aggressive in arousing such interest. For 
some years there has been a decline in the number of candidates, and 
financial reasons enter into it. The church has not encouraged the min- 
istry by offering financial inducements, and those with heart inclinations 
toward it have entered other lines of human activity. Soul-winning has 
not been regarded as a money-making proposition, and the salaries of 
ordinary men do not attract geniuses to the ranks — so say those who 
study the question. "The Lord will provide," but the sagacious young 
man understands his own requirements. Securing, paying and keeping 
ministers — three elements enter into it, and the business world is in com- 
petition with the church when it comes to offering unlimited opportunities. 

The Sabbath day and its proper observance still concerns Clark 
County and the rest of the Christian world. While not all the churches 
observe the Lenten period by donning sackcloth and ashes, there is a 
wholesome regard for the Sabbath. The diversions are of modified 
character through Lent, and society folk subscribe to some functions not 
practiced by church adherents. Wittenberg officials along with many 
churches that do not abstain from social activities, are inclined to 
observe holy week, beginning with Palm Sunday and ending with the 
Easter service. "Remember the Sabbath" is still in the Clark County 
code — the Ten Commandments unchanged, and "Go to church Sunday," 
"Children's Day," and "Mother's Day" all emphasize the teaching of 
the Easter religious observance. 

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In the Union Thanksgiving service conducted in the Covenant 
Presbyterian Church in Springfield, the Rev. Harry Trust of the First 
Congregational Church, who was the latest acquisition to the Clark 
County Ministerial Association and automatically became the speaker, 
asserted that America was climbing to spiritual heights by leading the 
world in the disarmament conference — that America was being lifted 
up in the spirit of sacrifice and was not wholly governed by materialistic 
ideas. While Kaiser Wilhelm had imperialistic dreams of world 
empire, America was steering clear of that rock of stumbling. While 
America for Americans is the national spirit, America aids other nations 
— is the big brother in the world. 

As a Christian nation, America wants not the guidance of the poli- 
tician but the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and the comradeship of 
all the earth. It was the tercentenary of the first Thanksgiving when 
a little band of Pilgrim fathers bowed their heads in humble gratitude 
for their little harvest, and if Thanksgiving means anything it is a day 
of recollection for the people of the whole United States. The presi- 
dent and the different state governors imitate the action of Governor 
Bradford of Plymouth by calling upon the people of the nation and 
the commonwealths to join in reverent manner, in thanking an all-wise 
and an all-seeing God for the manifestations of His favor. With Gov- 
ernor Bradford the perils of the land had been greater than the perils 
of the sea. Crops had failed, sickness abounded and death had been 
in their midst, but the custom established has now become a recog- 
nized holiday of rejoicing and home-coming in the whole country. 

There were different Thanksgiving groups of religious service, the 
Lutherans observing the day in their own churches and special masses 
were observed in the Catholic churches. Hundreds of unfortunates 
were remembered with well-filled baskets from the churches, Sunday 
schools, public schools and the Salvation Army, the Social Service 
Bureau furnishing the names of worthy families to the individuals and 
the organizations engaged in spreading Thanksgiving cheer, the spirit 
of giving being almost as pronounced as at Christmastide. 

Interchurch World Survey 

The Clark County Interchurch World Survey was conducted by the 
Rev. George I. Kain who, in 1920, was a citizen of Catawba. While 
county boundaries are established by law, they are not necessarily 
community boundaries, and neighborhoods shape themselves regardless 
of political surveys. Parish boundaries are governed by affinities and 
do not conform to any other arrangement. They overlap- and come 
into economic conflict and the purpose of the Interchurch World 
Movement was to correct such evils. However, prejudices are not 
easily removed and many communities that would support one church 
without difficulty still contribute to a number of churches. It is said 
that denominationalism may keep some out of heaven, and thus over- 


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churched and under-churched communities still exist, the great eco- 
nomic movement failing in its purpose. The map made by the Rev- 
erend Kain shows that many families travel long distances to church, 
while churches near them languish for need of their support, and the 
same thing holds in town as in the country. 

While the report of the local survey is not available, since the 
majority of Clark County farmers own the land, the decadence of the 
rural church is not so apparent, although here and there are abandoned ' 
churches. It is said of Ohio in general that the clap-boarded, weather- 
scarred rural church has joined the one-room rural school, and is rele- 
gated to past history. Before there were automobiles and smooth 
roads, there was better rural church attendance. The lack of leadership 
is the difficulty in some communities. The survey made by the Ohio 
Federation of Churches indicates the passing of the rural church, and 
attributes it to the changing economic and social conditions — better 
roads and ownership of automobiles. The town church is adjured to 

take its rural members into consideration. 


While Clark is not a representative county from the standpoint of 
abandoned churches, the secretary of the Ohio Federation reports that 
in fifty counties the average is twelve abandoned churches. "The future 
should see Ohio dotted with strong, active churches at community 
centers, reaching out as far as necessary into surrounding rural ter- 
ritory, to fill the place once occupied by country churches ministering 
to comparatively small neighborhood groups." Every township has 
its religious centers, delegates coming from them to local conventions: 
An item recently published says : "The Mill Creek School will be sold 
at auction in the near future by the Springfield township school board 
and those in charge of the community sale hope to raise sufficient funds 
with which to bid in the building. It will then be used as a church and 
public meeting place for persons residing in that vicinity. Many farmers 
have agreed to put up certain articles and animals for sale, and will 
donate a certain percent of the sale price to the fund," and that is just 
one of many instances, community centers being formed without denom- 
inational control or leadership. 

While it is a "sign of the times" that the rural church is to be 
abandoned, a squib reads: "But our grandfathers and grandmothers 
and for some of us our fathers and mothers still remember the time- 
honored building with the bell in the tower that used to ring out of a 
Sabbath morning, calling the countryside to worship. Old Dobbin used 
to draw the phaeton with the whole family tucked away inside of it. 
Today the automobile has become so much a part of the community 
life that the whole family attends church in town with more ease than 
it used to reach the rural center, and headway along one line means 
backward movement along others. The automobile explains the decline 
of the village and rural ministry" and the "circuit-rider" presents a dif- 
ferent picture today. The parson's wife one time gave away their 
secret : 

"Where the pot boils the strongest 
Is where we always stay the longest," 

but that was in the time when the minister's horse knew all the best 
corn cribs in Clark County. 

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Methodism in Springfield 

What Arthur L. Slager writes about one particular denomination 
seems applicable to others: "In the search for reliable data as to the 
genesis of Methodism in Springfield, it was found that the records 
of the early societies of the church, if any had existed, were lost," but 
to Mrs. Walter Smallwood is accorded the honor of being the first 
active Methodist woman in Springfield. Her husband was a black- 
smith who located in the town in 1804 and while he was not active in 
church affairs, she was a woman of superior intelligence. She was 
the mother of six children and she "brought the mountain to Mohamet" 
by instituting religious service in her home. One writer speaks of 
Mrs. Smallwood as a morning star in the opening of the religious day. 
She was a woman singularly gifted in prayer and for a time her home 
was the religious center of Springfield. 

The Ohio Conference, including southern Michigan and northern 
Kentucky, had no stationed ministers, although as early as 1805 the 
Rev. John Thompson was in charge in Springfield. While the groves 
were the temples, and the songsters were the birds of the air, the voice 
of the minister was seldom heard, but after a time there was preaching 
every three or four weeks by ministers of the Miami M. E. Circuit 
established in 1800 and reaching from Cincinnati "as far back as there 
were inhabitants," and thus Springfield was taken care of, and in 
the fall of 1806 a church was organized with "twelve to eighteen mem- 
bers." Prior to the time of organization, the Methodists had frequently 
held services in the Pinkered School and not until 1814 did they build 
a church — just ten years from the coming of Mrs. Smallwood. 

Succeeding the Rev. John Thompson in 1807 was the Rev. A. 
McGuire, who served through 1808, and then the list of names is not 
given, but when the church was built on Market and North streets 
the town lots were not enclosed, and people did not follow the streets. 
The ground was covered with scrub oak, hazel and plum bushes, and 
since there were foot paths people went across lots with torches when- 
ever there were services in the evening, the paths leading from all 
directions to the church. It was the second house of worship built in 
Springfield. At a later period, when "Father Harrison" was the incum- 
bent minister, it is related that he talked so loud and thumped the 
Bible so vigorously that, hero-worshiper boys were uncertain whether 
they wanted to become Gospel ministers or stage drivers. 

In the church announcements October 15, 1921, were listed High 
Street M. E., St. Paul M. E., Grace M. E., Central M. E., Clifton 
Avenue M. E., Story-Hypes Memorial M. E., of Springfield, besides 
Fletcher Chapel and Brighton, and there are Methodist churches in 
South Charleston, New Carlisle, South Vienna and Catawba, and in 
writing of the church in New Carlisle, W. H. Sterrett says the first 
meeting house was built in 1820, although a class had been organized 
three years earlier. The poverty of the members is assigned for the 
reason of delay in building. "So little money was in circulation that 
payment for labor was made without passing the coin" and the descrip- 
tion of this church will serve for others. 

It was frame twenty by thirty, and the roof was of clapboards held 
in place by trunks of trees six or eight inches in diameter, and reaching 
the whole length of the building; they were weight poles. There were 

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eave-bearer logs which supported the clapboard roof and no nails were 
used in it. What few nails were used at all were made by the local 
blacksmith out of scraps of iron furnished by the members. The house 
was weather-boarded up and down with poplar boards about 16 inches 
wide and strips were nailed over the cracks. It was all unseasoned 
timber and warped in the course of time. There was a batten door 
hung with strap hinges and opened with a thumb latch, both hinges and 
latch hammered out by the blacksmith. There were two windows on 
each side, with four panes of glass 8 by 10 inches, and the shutters 
were of solid boards. 

Mr. Sterritt was uncertain how this church was heated, but sug- 
gested the fireplace, while some conjectured that warming pans filial 
with charcoal served thje purpose. It was lighted by tallow candles 
held by sheet iron holders hung against the wall. When the tallow 
melted and the candlewick bent over, the caretaker snuffed the candles. 
The candle snuffers, made of iron with short prongs with a box to hold 
the burnt accumulation, were indispensable articles. Boards were used 
for seats with pins for legs that elevated them two feet from the floor. 
The child was uncomfortable because it had to swing its feet, and when 
a man and his wife entered they parted company at the door. There 
were no family pews in the churches of that period. When young men 
accompanied young women they separated at the door and lined up out- 
side after the service. Had they sat together there would have been 
no asking for the pleasure of company on the outside. The seats had 
no backs except those in the "Amen corner," designed for the members 

The pulpit, which .was a box with doors, was built on a platform, 
and when the preacher entered he closed the doors. They were hung 
on strap hinges. There was a small bench and when the minister was 
seated only his head was visible. Both Finley and Dow occupied this 
pulpit. One time a minister had overlooked bringing his spectacles to 
the service, and when he explained 

"Mine eyes are dim, I cannot see, 
I've left my specks at home," 

the congregation sang the words. Because of the lack of hymn books 
they were used to the minister lining the hymns, and they sang, perhaps, 
"without the spirit and understanding," and while the New Carlisle 
booklet says the minister changed the order by offering prayer, the 
stock story relates that he next said: 

"I did not mean it for a hymn, 
I only said mine eyes are dim," 

and again the congregation sang the words. Because he was without 
his spectacles, the New Carlisle minister announced his text "Endure 
as a good soldier," assuring the congregation that it was to be found 
"somewhere between the lids of the Bible." In 1834 the congregation 
had a new church and seats with backs, and it was heated with stoves, 
some of the older members objecting to the method of heating, but 
"when the wind blows it implants the roots of faith that much deeper," 
and the story is parallel to the one about the deacon who objected to 
a chandelier, saying no one could play on it. 

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In a review of Methodism Dr. Isaac Kay included the name of 
Rev. Saul Henkle in a list with the Revs. T. Milligan, J. Davidson, 
W. Mitchell, Hezekiah Shaw and William Young, although other 
accounts identify him with different denominations. He was an unusual 
character. He walked when coming into the community, his wife 
with a two-months' old child riding the horse. Dr. Kay writes: "Rev. 
Saul Henkle was the first settled minister of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Springfield. He lived in the Archibald Lowry log tavern 
until 1825, and he was most active in community affairs." His min- 
isterial life covered a period of twenty-eight years, during which time 
he preached almost constantly and was present at almost every marriage 
and funeral. In 1827 he edited and published a religious paper called 
"The Gospel Trumpet," performing the labor himself at his residence. 
One account says that when the itinerant Methodist preacher started 
on his rounds, it took him four weeks to fill all his appointments. His 
mode of travel was horseback and his dress and equipment most prim- 
itive. In his saddle bags he carried a change of raiment, Bible, hymn 
book and discipline, his mission being to preach and organize new 
classes, but Henkle did not conform to such a list of requirements. He 
was a fixture in ^Springfield. 

A news item says : "There are about 425,000 members in the 2,500 
Methodist Episcopal churches of Ohio, served by 1,160 pastors. Ohio 
has more Methodists and contributed more money to Methodist funds 
than any other equal territory in the world," the Centenary meeting held 
in Columbus in 1919 emphasizing that fact. Like other denominations, 
the Springfield and Clark County Methodists are adapting themselves 
to the changed methods, giving church night dinners and attracting peo- 
ple to the services. Since cornerstones are milestones, Central M. E. 
Church seems to represent the original church, its cornerstone bearing 
four dates— 1805, 1834, 1862 and 1912— although the first building 
was erected in 1814 and is not enumerated in this chronology. Central 
and High' Street churches are of modern architecture and each com- 
munity has excellent church property. In some instances community 
houses are provided in addition to the church property. 

New Light Christians 

While this denomination had the first house of worship in Clark 
County at Knob Prairie, and it had the first church building in Spring- 
field in 1810, it only functioned about fifteen years, being abandoned 
in 1825 and out of existence till 1881, when a series of meetings was 
held in Black's Opera House, and some of the foremost ministers of 
the denomination have filled its pulpit. It is known as Summerbell 
Memorial Church and is creedless in contradistinction to other churches 
bearing the name Christian. Knob Prairie and Summerbell Memorial 
# are in line with the theology of Antioch College. 

Presbyterianism in Springfield 

In 1856, when a settler en route to Clark County was following the 
National Road through Columbus, some one asked what church he 
affiliated with, and he said he was a Presbyterian. The Columbus man 
then assured him: "You are all right; they are alf Presbyterians in 

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Springfield." One account says the Presbyterian Church was organ- 
ized in 1808 and that in 1860 "it swarmed" and from that time there 
were First and Second Presbyterian churches, and in 1920 they com- 
bined again, abandoning the numerical names and becoming known as 
the Covenant Presbyterian Church, some of the members of Second 
going to Oakland, Northminster and to the mission now sustained by 
Covenant Presbyterian Church, and with the building epoch now confront- 
ing Covenant Church, landmarks of Presbyterianism will be changed in 
Springfield. One account says: "The First Presbyterian Church of 
Springfield was organized July 17, 1819, with a membership of twenty- 
seven," and it seems that the building to be razed on West Main Street 
has stood there since 1848, when it was erected at a cost of $12,000, 
and some of the foremost ministers of the country served the con- 

While it was an unprecedented thing, in 1848, the Springfield town 
council purchased a clock and installed it in the spire of this church. 
In the beginning, Revs. Archibald Steele and Andrew W. Poage were 
ministers who came once a month, but on June 11, 1827, Rev. Frank- 
lin Putnam was ordained as the regular minister. It seems that Rev. 
Saul Henkle sometimes preached for Springfield Presbyterians, and 
being an editor of a religious publication, he was interested in the 
religious and moral advancement. A pen picture of Reverend Henkle 
shows him to be stoop-shouldered, slender and of ordinary height. 
He had a pleasant face, his manner denoting his pious calling. While 
he was slow of delivery he was an extempore speaker, using choice 
words and being both entertaining and instructive without being tedious. 
He died in 1837, aged fifty-five years, and coupled with his ability were 
as many eccentricities as are often found in one minister. Some of 
the Springfield ministers of today do not betray their calling in dress 
or manner — would pass muster in almost any line of activities. 

United Presbyterians 

The Associate Reform Presbyterian Church, now designated as 
United Presbyterian, began local activities in 1817, and for nineteen 
years it was a branch of the Xenia church, the first minister, Rev. 
John Steele, coming from Kentucky and serving both the Xenia and 
Springfield churches, drawing the princely salary of $500 for the com- 
bined service. When he preached in Springfield he would come on 
horseback from Xenia, stopping at a farm house six miles out for 
breakfast. He would deliver two sermons and return to Xenia lor the 
night. In nineteen years he only failed twice to conduct the service — 
once his own sickness and once because of the illness of his wife. A 
half dozen ministers intervened before the coming of the Rev. R. H. 
Hume, who, since June 1, 1882, has been the incumbent minister. 
Mr. Hume has served this church as long as the Children of Israel wan- 
dered in the wilderness, and he holds the record for length of service 
in Clark County. In the early history, this church held forth in a dis- 
tillery, but it is said the spirits above did not mingle with those below, 
the church occupying an upper hall, but in 1819 it had its own prop- 
erty. It built again in 1839, and its edifice was erected in 1886 that 
still shelters this congregation on South Limestone Street. 

The Presbyterians are represented in other towns, and, like other 
evangelistic churches, they utilize the modern methods, employing the 

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mission as an instructive means, and saying little about some of the 
things once emphasized. It affiliates fully with other Protestant 

Christ Church, Episcopalian 

Until 1842 Christ Church was known as All Souls* Parish, having 
been organized as a Protestant Episcopal Church in 1834 with seventy 
members. A year later a building lot was purchased at the corner of 
High and Limestone streets, where a church was built in 1844, that 
served the congregation thirty years, when on May 5, 1874, its pres- 
ent edifice was consecrated as a place of worship. The organ in Christ 
Church was given to the congregation by Mrs. Asa S. Bushnell, who 
was a life communicant in it. 

The Church of the Heavenly Rest is the second Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in Springfield, and it stands as a monument to William 
Foss and his wife, who donated the lot and furnished the money for 
the building, and contributed much toward furnishing the church. It 
was dedicated December 2, 1888, and serves the membership in another 
part of the City of Springfield. 

Baptists in Springfield 

While there were Baptist services held in Springfield early, and a 
church flourished for many years on Mad River, it was not until Janu- 
ary 29, 1836, that an organization was effected in Springfield. On 
May 7, that year, a Sabbath school was organized in connection with 
it, and on July 12 a call was extended to Rev. E. D. Owen, who became 
its pastor, and on August 23 it was admitted into the Mad River Bap- 
tist Association. Three Baptist churches are represented in the 
announcement column, aside from a Baptist church for colored people, 
new churches being organized in communities remote from the original 
church, and the denomination belongs to the early history. 

Universalist Church 

In 1833 the doctrine of Universalism was preached in Springfield 
by Rev. M. Fisk, and there was occasional preaching in school houses 
and in homes until 1837, when organization was effected and a building 
campaign was launched, a lot being donated on West Washington 
Street. Rev. George Messenger was chosen pastor, and preached the 
dedicatory sermon and the services are regularly held in Springfield. 

The Lutheran Church 

While it ranks foremost numerically with a dozen churches in 
Springfield and half that many rural churches in Clark County, not 
until May 1, 1841, was there a Lutheran church in Springfield. It 
was organized by Rev. John Lehman with about forty members, but 
when he left the community it became inoperative until 1845, when 
Dr. Ezra Keller came to Springfield. He was a Lutheran missionary 
and called a meeting in the home of Jacob Schuman, and the first com- 
munion was observed January 11, 1846, the service being held in the 
Clark County courthouse. A lot had been secured on West High 

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Street, and June 14, 1845, the cornerstone was laid for what is still 
Lutheran property — the First Lutheran Church — Dr. Keller being the 
speaker. In 1869, it was remodeled and still serves the community. 
A Sabbath school was organized in November, 1845, and has been in 
continual existence. As this church "waxed strong," branches were 
established until it serves all parts of the city and county — twelve 
Springfield churches, and rural churches at Donnelsville, Bethel and 
Sugar Grove, and all are missionary churches contributing of their 
numbers and wealth when others come into existence. 

The Second Lutheran Church was organized January 13, 1884, 
almost forty years after the first communion in First Church, but since 
then the missionary spirit has become more active, Second Church con- 
tributing to others as it had drawn forty-five charter members from 
First Lutheran Church, among them some of the most active Lutherans 
in Springfield. Since December 15, 1893, Rev. E. H. Dornblaser has 
Served the Second Lutheran Church, he being the senior Lutheran min- 
ister in Springfield. He also holds the record in Wittenberg synod for 
a continuous pastorate, and Second Lutheran is a missionary church, 
having furnished forty-four ministers, wives of ministers and mission- 
aries, four of its members now in the foreign field. The Third and 
Fourth Lutheran churches were both established in the same year — 
1887 — and the Fifth in 1891, but since that time the numerical idea has 
not prevailed and St. Luke's and Cavalry were departures. 

Coming of the Lutherans 

An old account says that among the early settlers of Clark County 
came Lutherans from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and North 
Carolina, and scarcely had their labors amid the forest scenes begun 
when the faithful ministers arrived to hunt up the scattered people 
and remind them that the claims of religion were as strong and neces- 
sary in their new surroundings as they had been back in the homes 
they had left. As early in 1805 there were Lutherans in Ohio, and in 
the '40s they were in Clark County with the church and Wittenberg 
College. In an early date Croft's Lutheran Chuch was established in 
Bethel Township and enrolled as members were the families, Croft, 
Snyder, Fross, Shuman, Wildason and Layton. 

In reminiscent way S. S. Miller wrote: "Croft's Church was built 
in the corner of a field. It had a vestibule ornamented by two large 
columns. It had a modern platform, pulpit and pews and there was 
a belfry. The ringing of the bell was quite a novelty to us country 
boys, who after hitching our horses to the rail fence, waited outside 
until the second ringing that would bring the minister and the Croft 
family from the mansion," the aforesaid mansion now being utilized 
as the Clark County Home and sheltering those who are unable to 
take care of themselves. After Wittenberg College was established 
it furnished student ministers for Croft's church and Mr. Miller pays 
tribute to Dr. Ezra Keller, who founded Wittenberg College. He 
started it with little means and but a small church in Springfield to 
support it. Sometimes Dr. Keller filled this rural pulpit himself, and 
it was a privilege enjoyed by all to hear a man with scholarship suffi- 
cient to found a college deliver a sermon. However, he did not live 
many years. 

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United Brethren 

It was in March, 1843, that the Rev. Benjamin B. Wheat organized 
the Lagonda United Brethren Church with a membership numbering 
seventy, at Newcomer Chapel. In 1870 the church erected a building 
in Lagonda, Bishop J. J. Glossbrenner preaching the dedication sermon 
and while other United Brethren churches have not been organized, a 
number of ministers have been sent out from this church. The City of 
Dayton is an Ohio center for this denomination. 


While the Congregational Church in America traces its direct lineage 
to the passengers in the Mayflower, who landed at Plymouth Rock, 
December 21, 1620, this denomination had its beginning in Springfield 
when some interested persons began meeting together in 1849, effecting 
the local organization April 28, 1850, at a meeting in the City Hall. On 
February 28, 1850, a group of people met in the home of Henry E. Smith 
and resolved to effect an organization naming it the First Orthodox Con- 
gregational Church of Springfield. They secured the services of Rev. 
J. C. White, and on April 27, an ecclesiastical council was called and 
they formally organized the church the following day, Reverend White 
remaining until October, 1854, as the minister. 

A building lot was given the newly organized church by W. M. Spen- 
cer, and a church was dedicated there April 28, 1853, the sermon by 
Rev. Nathaniel Boynton of Cincinnati, who was later National Moder- 
ator. It has had some of the most eminent men in its pulpit, E. A. 
Steiner being known as a writer as well as platform speaker. In 1883, 
a mission Sunday School was organized and Lagonda Avenue Congre- 
gational Church resulted from it. In 1886, the first Young Peoples' 
Society Christian Endeavor in Ohio was organized in the Springfield 
Congregational Church with E. A. Fay as president, and the Pilgrim 
Club annually invites him to preside at an anniversary meeting, other 
societies being their guests. The First Congregational Church recently 
instituted the monthly dinner in connection with the church night service 
and it swelled the attendance. While a nominal price is charged, it is 
only to pay the expense, and other churches soon adopted the same cus- 
tom, looking after the physical as well as the spiritual need, thereby 
increasing attendance. This church established a record in connection 
with the Near East Relief appeal of Rev. Harry Trust at Thanksgiving, 
1921, when it gave $1,209.90, the response a surprise, the money given 
under the impulse of the moment when the minister so graphically 
described the need in Armenia. 

German Lutherans 

In the coterie of early churches was the German Lutheran now repre- 
sented by St. John's German Evangelical Lutheran and Zion's Lutheran 
churches, the organization effected in 1845 with seventy-five members. 
For a time meetings were held in the court house, and in private homes. 
When they assumed the name St. John's Lutheran Church, they retained 
Reverend Schladerm as minister. The property was sold to the Salva- 
tion Army when the present splendid edifice was built. In 1867, Zion's 

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Lutheran Church went out from St. John's with twenty-three families, 
and both have served their respective communities through many years. 

Jewish Worship 

Since November 25, 1865, when Ohev Zedukah was organized, 
Springfield Jews have maintained regular worship, and Temple Ohev 
Zedukah, built in 1917, is strictly modern. It was built by the Reform 
Jews. While they conform to the "spirit of the law," the Orthodox 
Jews observe the letter, worshiping in Temple Chessel Shad Ames. 
While Paul, the Apostle, was a Hebrew of the Hebrews, he did not stand 
on forms and ceremonies, but rather observed the spirit of the law, and 
the Reformed Jews have him as their pattern. Friday evening is their 
regular time of worship, and they observe all Jewish feast days. Both 
congregations maintain rabbis, and with 125 Jewish families they split 
fifty-fifty in their church allegiance. 

Seventh Day Adventists 

In August, 1878, this sect had it beginning in Springfield when a 
series of tent meetings were held, and a number of persons formed a 
society to continue regular meetings. 


This society was organized in 1868 in Springfield with a membership 
numbering thirty. They still meet in private homes, although at times 
they have used public halls. For many years Dr. William H. Reeves 
was their leader. They do not engage ministers, but all are free to have 
part in the service. 

Disciples of Christ 

On September 5, 1886, the Disciples' Church of Christ was organ- 
ized in Springfield, under the leadership of Rev. Alexander Campbell of 
Cincinnati. While the congregation was a long time completing its 
house of worship, the church was dedicated in 1894, Governor Ira B. 
Chase of Indiana preaching the sermon. 

Society of Friends 

While both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends are located in Clark 
County, their churches are at Selma. The Orthodox Friend or Quaker 
Church is in Selma, while the Hicksite Church is between Selma and 
South Charleston. There were many Quakers attracted to the North- 
west Territory because slavery was excluded, and Wilmington Yearly 
Meeting of Friends is their religious center in western Ohio, there being 
another Yearly Meeting in Columbiana County. While Quakers are no 
longer distinguished by their language or garb, they are a peace-loving 
people, and in the days of Under Ground Railroad activities, Selma was 
a station. Because of the Quakers there have been many negroes in the 
southern part of Clark County. Refugee slave stories are still repeated 
about Selma and South Charleston. 

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Christian Science 

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, was organized in Springfield 
in 1890, although a charter was not obtained until 1900, when forty 
persons became charter members. For a time meetings were held in 
the homes of members, and later Union Hall became the center. While 
the church numbers eighty members, about 120 persons attend the service. 
The Scientist Church maintains a reading room where literature is avail- 
able. A lot has been purchased on East High Street, and a church will 
be built. A second group of Scientists meeting in Hotel Shawnee has 
acquired the Black homestead, and it will be remodeled as a church 
building. This group numbers about eighty persons in its service. 

The Church of the Living God, Church of the Brethren, Mennonites 
and Apostolic Faith — many denominations of later period, and the Clark 
County Ministerial Association is a religious clearing house — a common 
ground for all Christians. Meetings are held every two weeks in the 
Springfield Y. M. C. A., and while doctrinal questions are sometimes 
discussed, the Ministerial Association avoids friction. While the pioneer 
type of preacher did not concede many things in order that the "Breth- 
ren might dwell together in unity," there is some common ground, and 
the Ministerial Association has regard for all. 

The spiritual arithmetic — one can put 1,000 to flight, and two can 
move 10,000 — shows the value of united effort, is a plea for organization, 
and there is a spirit of liberty in the meetings. While ministers "have 
no continuing city," some have remained many years in Springfield. The 
annual membership fee is 50 cents payable in October, and there is suffi- 
cient variety about the programs to attract friends outside the ministry. 

The Stranger in the Church 

Mention is elsewhere made of the tablets erected in Springfield 
churches, and the bulletins issued weekly give out the necessary informa- 
tion. When Laura Smith reported her experiences in many churches 
several years ago in The Ladies' Home Journal a wave of protest swept 
the country, and were she to attend church in Springfield she would 
modify her assertions. The church bulletin with the line: "A friendly 
church invites you," or "This is the church that always invites you to 
come again," would disarm her, and with the minister in the vestibule, 
she would have to leave through the window if she escaped attention. 
Some of the laity second the efforts of the minister, and the stranger 
does not feel himself neglected in Springfield. 

It is said that sermons like women's dresses should cover the subject, 
and the topics announced October 15, 1921, were as follows: Rev. J. 
Bradley Markward, "The Coming of the Kingdom"; Reverend Dorn- 
blaser, "Sin" ; Rev. F. E. Learner, "Wanted, Men of Vision" ; Rev. L. H. 
Larimer, "Ways to Have a Happy and a Prosperous Church Home"; 
Rev. Eli Miller, "Walking in Love"; Rev. J. C. Inman, "The Church of 
the Brethren — Past, Present and Future" ; Rev. Elmo B. Higham, "Con- 
trasts in Christianity and Life" ; Rev. I. W. McLaughlin, "Reception of 
Members"; Rev. George W. Osmun, "Has the Church a Creed of Hap- 
piness?"; Rev. C. H. LaRue, "A Working Man's Religion"; Rev. Hough 
Houston, "The Double Abiding"; Rev. Harry Trust, "We Need Opti- 
mists—Are You One?"; Rev. Robert Bruce Smith, "The Christian 

Vol. I— 10 

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Conception of the Holy Spirit"; Rev. Ryan Adams, "First Things 
First"; Dr. Bruce Birch, "Relation of Young People to the Church"; 
Rev. R. H. Hume, "The Power of the Invisible" ; Rev. Edgar Puntenney 
Smith, "Secret Prayer the Royal Road to Spiritual Power" ; Rev. W. C. 
Nisonger, 'The Christian"; and while there were other announcements, 
subjects were withheld except First Church of Christ, Scientist, whose 
leader read the "Doctrine of Atonement." 

The subjects under consideration show a wide range of study in 
Springfield pulpits; in another Ohio city an invalid who never attended 
church read the announced sermon topics in bewilderment, wondering 
about the drift in theology. In a local newspaper forum appeared the 
inquiry as to whether "the modern cults as founded by Martin Luther, 
Simon Menno, John Calvin, John Knox, John Wesley, John Alexander 
Dowie, Pastor Russell or Mary Baker Eddy equal or surpass the religion 
founded by Jesus Christ 2000 years ago," showing that the laity is 
inclined to delve into some of the knotty questions. In an address 
recently on "The Humorous Side of the Ministry," a Springfield preacher 
emphasized the fact that ministers of the Gospel are human, and that 
they possess the sense of humor. One source of amusement to the min- 
ister is the laity who assume piety in his presence, a thing that seldom 
escapes his attention. 

One Springfield minister regretted the fact that ministers as a rule 
do not remain long enough in one community to build their own home 
or to become enrolled among the citizens in the county history, and 
under the spell of the moment he wrote his name on an order — and 
here's hoping he may sometime build the house for himself. While 
tithing is the Bible plan of giving, and the idea still prevails that when 
thieves rob the missionary box, the money goes to the heathen, it is 
urged that church members of today give but little more than their 
grandfathers gave toward the advancement of the interests of church, 
despite the fact that the aggregate wealth is much greater than in 
generations past. "A man still may be a respectable member of a 
fashionable city church, ride in an $8,000 automobile, and pay 25 cents 
a week for his religion; the Christian people of America have been 
treating their Creator with less consideration than that which they accord 
the waiter in a restaurant." 

The churches in Springfield and Clark County have adopted the 
budget system, and the finance is arranged at the annual meetings the 
every member canvass divides the responsibility, and drives — there are 
drives for everything. Church members are used to giving, and com- 
munity efforts always rest on the shoulders of those trained in church 
financing; the church has recognition from all sources, although not 
all who live in the community ally themselves with it. The Grand Old 
Man of England, William E. Gladstone, once said: "I go to church 
on the Sabbath day not because I believe in religion, but because I love 
England," and others have found it difficult to establish the line of 
demarcation between religion and patriotism, the love of God not always 
predominating the love of country. 

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The data used in this chapter was assembled by Judge G. W. Tehan, 
who says no authentic record of the first Catholics to settle in Clark 
County is available; no parish record was kept until August, 1849, the 
time of the creation of St. Raphael Parish. The first pastor was 
Rev. Father James Kearney; ground had been purchased in 1848, and 
the first church of St. Raphael was erected largely through the generosity 
of Michael P. Cassilly. Prior to this time the Catholics in and about 
Springfield were ministered to by missionary priests. 

The early Catholics were always forerunners of transportation, and 
about 1835 and during the succeeding ten years a number of Catholic 
families located in and about Springfield. Those who came early were 
mostly Irish, among them Patrick Rockett, Timothy Riordan, William 
Griblenhoff, Nicholas Spanenberger, Wendelin Pappert, L. Cuymus, 
Joseph Bauer, John and Francis Creighton, John Doyle, M. Barneat, 
Michael Kelly, Adam Hyle, Patrick and John Tehan, Henry Quinn, 
John Schutte, David Clancy, Francis Shrimp, John Connors, Joseph 
Lebold, Michael O'Brien, Michael Kennedy, and a few others whose 
names are unknown. 

From 1845 to 1850 there was a great influx of Catholics into Clark 
County, among them Patrick and James Hennessy, Peter and Thomas 
Lynch, Francis McConnell, Simon Quill, Matthew Green, Michael Con- 
dron, Matthew Bolan, Sylvester Digan, Anthony Cavanaugh, James 
Quinn, Patrick Clark, William Burns, Hugh Farney, Patrick Casey, 
Patrick Meehan, Jeremiah Foley, Bartholomew Doyle, James O'Brien, 
Mrs. Bridget Henry, Patrick McDonald, Patrick and Daniel Doyle, 
James Owen, Thomas O'Brien, Patrick and Charles Biggins, Henry and 
Martin Gibbons, John Flanagan, Matthew and Patrick Carlos, Peter, 
Luke, Patrick and John Cox, John Douglas, Andrew Meehan, Patrick 
Shinners, Thomas McLane, Lawrence Hays, Michael Murphy, John 
Bellow, Thomas Carroll, Michael Dillon, John Sullivan, Hugh Sweeney, 
John Kenney, Michael Ging, Dennis and John Shea, Dennis Clancey, 
Patrick Dillon, Eugene McCune, Thomas Conway and Michael Hart. 

A little later came Anthony Hines, Thomas O'Brien, B. Enright, 
Thomas, Andrew and Michael Gallagher, John Maddigan, Peter Seward, 
M. Werngartner, James Fitzgerald, M. Monaghan, Patrick O'Brien, 
Michael, Patrick and John Bolan, William Regan, Richard Burns, Dennis 
Hagan, Owen Gallagher, Michael Condron, Michael Rule, John McGarr, 
Francis Daugherty, James Burke, Jeremiah Vronin, Hugh Hart, Peter 
and Michael Madden, Christopher Kelly, Joseph Gunder, Andrew Haas, 
John Carr, John Milan, Patrick and James North, Michael Dargen, 
John and Michael Hughes, Martin Quaid, Daniel Tehan, Thomas Shaw, 
William Ford, Richard Walsh, Anthony Ray, and others. 

As far as can be ascertained, the first priest to visit Springfield was 
Rev. Henry Damien Junker of Dayton, who celebrated Mass in the 
residence of William Griblenhoff er ; from 1844 to 1857 he was pastor 
of Emmanuel Church in Dayton. The exact dates of his Springfield 
visits are unknown; it was a separate mission until 1849, and it is 


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assumed that he had charge from 1844 till that time, when the parish 
was created. Father Junker was born in 1809 in France; in early 
manhood he came to America and finished his ecclesiastical studies in 
the old Seminary in Cincinnati; he was ordained on Passion Sunday in 
1834, being the first to receive ordination at the hands of Cincinnati's 
first archbishop. His first charge was in Cincinnati, becoming pastor 
of Holy Trinity Church, in 1837 he went to Canton, thence to Chillicothe, 
attending as missions Circleville, Piketown, Delaware, Columbus and 
Portsmouth. In 1844 he was transferred to Dayton; from this center 
he attended Bellefontaine, West Liberty, Xenia, Lebanon, and Spring- 
field. On April 26, 1857, Reverend Junker was consecrated Bishop of 
Alton, Illinois, and October 2, 1868, he died there. 

Beside Bishop Junker there were two other priests who attended 
Springfield up to 1849; they were brothers — Revs. J. J. O'Mealy and 
Patrick O'Mealy. Rev. J. J. O'Mealy was born in Limerick, Ireland, in 
1809; he made his studies in Rome, France and Cincinnati. Soon after 
ordination he was made Rector of the Diocesan Seminary, then situated 
in Brown County; he died in Springfield, October 20, 1856, and was 
buried in Dayton. 

St. Raphael, 1849 

From the year 1849 St. Raphael Parish may date its history as a 
distinct congregation, attended by its own pastor. This position was 
first filled by Rev. James Kearney; in August, 1849, he began the first 
parish register. In 1850 Reverend Kearney was succeeded by Rev. 
Maurice Howard, who presided over the destinies of the parish until 
1863, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. D. Cogan; he only had the 
parish a few months, and in January, 1864, Rev. J. N. Thisse became 

In 1865-66 St. Raphael was remodeled by adding to its length, and 
otherwise beautifying its appointments; in 1867 it wias dedicated by 
Bishop Rosencrans. Until 1865 the pastoral residence was in the rear 
of the church ; at this time Father Thisse purchased a separate residence. • 

Catholic School 

The first Catholic school was taught in the basement of the church 
in the pastorate of Father Howard; afterward a small frame building 
was purchased by Father Thisse. It stood on the site of the present 
grammar school building, and served its purpose well for several years. 
Up to the year 1868, one priest was able to take care of the people of 
St. Raphael and the missions, South Charleston and Yellow Springs; 
in that year the numbers had increased to such an extent that it was 
necessary to have an assistant pastor. There are now four congregations 
in Springfield, and one at South Charleston, making five parishes in 
Clark County. 

St. Raphael parish is presided over by Monseigneur Daniel A. Buckley 
and Rev. Fathers Edward J. Quinn and Leo M. Walsh. St. Joseph 
congregation is in charge of Rev. M. J. Loney, assisted by Rev. Charles 
E. Spence; at St. Bernard Catholic Church, Rev. J. H. Metzdorf is 
pastor, and Rev. Urban Koehl, assistant pastor. St. Mary's Catholic 
Church is a new congregation just recently established in the western 
part of Springfield, its pastor is Rev. John McGlinchy. 

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After the death of Father Thisse in May, 1873, he was succeeded 
by Rev. Father William H. Sidley, whose stately and dignified demeanor 
and patriotic, civic and charitable activities endeared him to all classes 
and creeds; he is affectionately remembered by large numbers of the 
citizens of Springfield. He died in 1903, and was succeeded by the 
present pastor, Monseigneur Buckley. 

St. Raphael Parish has made great strides under the very able leader- 
ship of Monseigneur Buckley ; the church erected under the pastorate of 
Father Sidley has been greatly improved in the way of plumbing, heat- 
ing and lighting; it has marble altars, railings and wainscoting and tile 
floors. Today it is the finest church edifice in Springfield. Aside from 
his religious zeal, Monseigneur Buckley has shown great constructive 
and business ability; he has added materially to the real estate holdings 
of the congregation, until it now owns the entire frontage on the south 
side of East High Street from Spring to Gallagher, except the Miller 

High School Property 

A strictly modern and commodious high school building has been 
erected on the corner of High and .Gallagher streets, and just recently 
a large addition has been added to same, so that now the high school 
building is complete in every detail, with study rooms, recitation rooms 
and lecture halls, chemics and physics laboratory, gymnasium and 
everything that is found in any first class high school building; at the 
time of its dedication, a very handsome American flag was presented 
to the school by the Hon. Judson Harmon, then Governor of Ohio. 
The G. A. R. State Convention was being held in Springfield, and 
it was a most inspiring and patriotic sight when Governor Harmon 
surrounded by his military staff, and the State Grand Army officials 
assembled on the platform erected in front of the school for the flag 
presentation ceremonies. 

All of the Catholic schools in the city are taught by the Sisters of 
Charity; all stand high in the matter of educational requirements. In 
1861 the German members of St. Raphael anxious to hear the word of 
God in their own language, organized a separate congregation known 
as St. Bernard ; this congregation has grown and prospered, and today it 
has a new school and high school building, and is erecting a new resi- 
dence for its pastor on Lagonda Avenue, adjoining the church. 

Beginning with the year 1877, Springfield grew rapidly in population 
and business interests; as the population increased the Catholic portion 
kept pace with it, and as the two churches and schools became too small, 
it was evident that a new church and school were necessary. On 
account of the erection of the East Street shops, this increase was 
apparent in the southeastern part of Springfield. 

In 1881 three lots were purchased on the corner of Kenton Street 
and Central Avenue; in 1882 the erection of a large three-story school 
house was begun, the first story providing a commodious room suitable 
for church service. In October, 1883, the school was opened and 
services were regularly held in the church ; it was called St. Joseph, and 
Rev. C. M. Berding was the first pastor, while the Rev. J. M. Loney is 
the present pastor; he has made numerous additions and improvements, 
notably the erection of a commodious personage on the corner opposite 
the church. 

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St. Mary's Parish has purchased a tract of ground on West High 
Street for school and church purposes; they have erected a temporary 
building pending the erection of permanent property. 

South Charleston Church 

The notes concerning St. Charles Borromeo Church in South Charles- 
ton were submitted by Rev. William A Casey, pastor, and relayed by 
Judge Tehan. The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was first offered there 
by Rev. Maurice Howard in 1850, who was then pastor of St. Raphael 
in Springfield. At that time there were only three Catholic families 
in South Charleston, with some others in the country. In 1849 these 
Catholic families came from Connecticut. 

As the number of Catholics increased, Father James Blake of Xenia 
came to hojd services, saying Mass in private homes and in the section 
house of the Little Miami Railroad; in 1854 the congregation rented 
Paulding's Hall, and in 1855 they purchased the Presbyterian Church 
where for nine months they held forth, but because of defective title 
the contract was broken off, and until 1865 they used Paulding Hall 
again. In that year a lot was purchased, and a building was completed 
one year later, being dedicated by Archbishop Purcell. Rev. John 
Conway was minister until 1868, coming from London ; he was succeeded 
by Rev. J. A. Marcney who continued it as a mission until 1872, when he 
became its regular pastor. He completed the church, adding a gallery 
and an organ, pews and altar of Romanesque type. 

The records of Borromeo Church begin with the coming of Father 
Marcney; they had been kept in Xenia and London. In 1873 came 
Rev. John J. Kennedy who continued his residence in London, remain- 
ing only from June till November. In February, 1873, Rev. H. Sidley 
assumed charge, followed by Rev. James Aloysius Burns, both holding 
mission services, but in October, 1874, Rev. William Grennan took 
charge of the parish, building a house which was the home of the pastors 
of the parish until 1908, when a new one was built on the site of the 
original Catholic Church. 

In 1877 Father Grennan left, being succeeded by Rev. F. H. Rem- 
hawk; then came Rev. C. W. Berding who paid all debts contracted by 
the parish, leaving in October, 1881, followed by Rev. Martin L. Murphy; 
followed by Rev. M. B. Brown; then came Rev. A. N. Bourion, suc- 
ceeded by Rev. I. M. Sullivan; Rev. Joseph Hyland; Rev. James W. 
Kelly, who came in 1905, built the new Gothic church costing $15,000 
and a residence costing $8,000, and in 1910 came Rev. Alfred D. Dexter, 
who died while the resident pastor. Since then Reverend Casey has been 
pastor in South Charleston. 

Knights of Columbus 

A news item says 340 members of Springfield Council Knights of 
Columbus took part in the celebration, January 3, of the twentieth anni- 
versary of the founding of the council, held in the Knights of Columbus 
building, the theme under consideration, "The Man in the Street," 
dealing with moral obligations of the members, and a plea for better 
education. The council started with fifty-four members, but Grand 
Knight John C. Cashman who was toastmaster reported 667 members, 

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the living charter members all present ; a memorial was held for deceased 
members. The council was organized December 22, 1901, in the City 
Hall. Rev. Father William H. Sidley and John OToole who had been 
members before coming to Springfield, co-operating with John Coffee 
of Springfield and Daniel Nevins of Dayton, effected the organization. 
The Knights of Columbus played an important part in the care of soldiers 
in this ^country and overseas in the World war. Many social affairs 
are staged by the Springfield Council Knights of Columbus. In the 
Dominican Order the mission is the life work of the priests, and missions 
are held in all local Catholic Churches. Honoring the memory of Pope 
Benedict XV, solemn requiem mass was observed in Springfield. 

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The fifty-sixth annual convention of the Clark County Sunday 
School Association was held in South Charleston, May 24 and 25, 1921, 
Donald Kirkpatrick, president; C. D. Shelton, vice president; Frank S. 
Nichols, recording secretary; E. J. Carmony, treasurer; James L. Welsh, 
adult superintendent; Carl Mattes, young people's superintendent; Mrs. 
Agnes Swallow, associate young people's superintendent; Margaret M. 
Weeter, children's superintendent, and Mrs. A. Y. Edwards, associate 
children's superintendent. Since June 21, 1920, Howard Johnson has 
been .general secretary of the Clark County Sunday School Association. 
The conventions are attended by delegates from the children, young 
people, adult and administrative departments, and as many visitors as 
are interested to be in attendance. 

Until the general secretary was installed who gives his full time to 
Sunday school association interests, nothing in definite records were 
kept, but the office now has an accurate list of the Sunday schools in 
Clark County ; their officers, and an accurate* status of each school. The 
association maintains a circulating library where books on up-to-date 
methods and teachings may be found; pamphlets may be secured on 
every phase of work in the Sunday school, and maps showing the loca- 
tion of every Sunday school in the county. The general secretary has 
been consulted on graded work; Sunday school architecture, Sunday 
school equipment, music and programs for special occasions; when the 
secretary has conflicting engagements, speakers are furnished when com- 
munities ask for them. 

The office of the general secretary is a clearing house for all Sunday 
school questions, and within one year he made 200 addresses, and paid 
400 visits to Sunday school workers relative to different community activ- 
ities; a conservative estimate is that with an increase of 30 per cent 
expenditure, the work has been increased 100 per cent in efficiency, 
through the purchase of an automobile and the aid of a stenographer. 
With transportation at his command, the secretary has no difficulty 
securing additional speakers. Beginning with January, 1921, he held 
monthly meetings with superintendents; they exchange ideas and receive 
much benefit. Rallies are held in all the townships, and the Daily Vaca- 
tion Bible School project was tried in 1921, the experiment carried on 
at Covenant Presbyterian, First Baptist, Pleasant Street Chapel and 
Grace Methodist Episcopal churches. This experiment was conducted 
by the Clark County Sunday School Association; thirty-three different 
Sunday schools co-operated with an attendance of almost 2,000, the 
sessions being held from July 5 to August 12, the association securing 
twelve public school buildings in addition to the four churches. In each 
vacation school was one paid instructor and two volunteer teachers. 

The children attend the vacation schools in the forenoon five days, 
and one boy who attended Bible school in the morning and went to the 
public play ground in the afternoon, said that if he must give up one 
pleasure it would be the play grounds; the vacation teachers receive 
preparatory training at an institute conducted by Wittenberg College, 


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and a community training school is held under the auspices of the Clark 
County Sunday School Association. Meetings are held in some central 
location — lecture room of the First Congregational Church in the begin- 
ning, with Wittenberg College faculty and Springfield ministers pre- 
senting the lessons. When the community training school was inaugu- 
rated only five Sunday schools maintained training classes, and forty 
schools affiliated in the community effort. 

Since the Clark County Sunday School Association placed an auto- 
mobile at the service of its general secretary, Mr. Johnson refers to 
himself as "One Man on Four Wheels," and it enables him to keep up 
with the times. Through the co-operation of Springfield business men, 
and a few others, it became a possibility. "The power of God and the 
response of men," enabled Mr. Johnson to become familiar with 105 
Sunday schools, with a constituency of about 18,000, and to meet many 
Clark County ministers and 500 special Sunday school workers. 
Mr. Johnson is the first general secretary employed in Clark County. 
Like the Farm Bureau agent, writing makes him an exact man, and 
although a recent acquisition to Clark County, he has been the source 
of much local information. 

June 25, 1827 

The man who gave the Sunday school to the world was Robert 
Raikes of Gloucester, England. He was interested in the welfare of 
the poor, and in 1781 he gathered the children together and employed 
teachers for them ; he taught Sabbath observance, and others soon caught 
the spirit of it. Within five years there were 250,000 children under 
Sunday school influence, and today the Sunday school is considered the 
most efficient branch of modern church extension service. While the 
first church was built in Springfield in 1810, it was not until June 25, 
1827, that there was a local Sunday school. In his history of Central 
Methodist Episcopal Church, A. L. Slager accords the honor of insti- 
tuting the first Sunday school to Rev. Saul Henkle, and presumably 
undenominational, and it seems the same man was instrumental in 
organizing a Bible society, August 6, 1822 — and thus was he interested 
in the community. 

While the date, June 25, 1827, seems to be authentic for the begin- 
ning of the Sunday school in Springfield, Mr. Henkle who was con- 
nected with church publishing business wrote in 1829, saying: "A Bible 
society formed in September, 1822, for a while promised to be strong 
and healthy, but having been dieted for several years chiefly on annual 
reports grew very sickly ; of late, however, it has gained a little strength, 
and may possibly live to years of maturity ; though efforts are now mak- 
ing to effect its death by poisoning." Mr. Henkle does not state the 
time of meeting, and it does not seem to have been regarded as a Sunday 
school. Another account credits the original Sunday school to the 
Presbyterians, saying they met at the school house in Springfield, and 
organized the first Sunday school in town ; it was continued in the scfiool 
house until they moved into their own church, and thus its beginning is 
shrouded in uncertainty. 

Sunday School Army 

It is estimated that in the United States there are 60,000 adult Bible 
study classes and that 26,000,000 are enrolled in Sunday schools; there 

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are 5,000 adult Sunday school classes in Ohio and 1,552,000 are enrolled 
in Sunday school, showing that attendance ranks high, more than one- 
twenty-fifth part of that from the forty-eight states. While Sunday 
school may be intended for children, many men and women continue 
their attendance. California has the largest men's Bible class in the 
world; it numbers 2,000, and Springfield has a number of big adult 
classes of both men and women. 

While 105 Sunday schools are listed, there are about 2,000 Sunday 
school teachers in Clark County; from the point of seniority, the honor 
goes to Mrs. Elizabeth Coberly of South Vienna who teaches the men's 
Bible class ; she was born August 29, 1825, and when the birthday offer- 
ing was taken in 1921, she dropped nine dimes, one nickel and one penny 
into the collection; she taught a class that day. 

Including the Jewish and Catholic Sunday schools who do not affiliate 
with the Clark County Sunday School Association, it is estimated that 
20,000 out of the population of 80,000 are in Sunday school, and that 
is a big percentage. While all denominations co-operate in the work of 
the organized Sunday school, the Lutherans have been leaders in the 
work of extension. For thirty years Dr. B. F. Prince was engaged in 
Clark County Sunday School Association work; he made many tours 
of the county as president, and as a speaker when Ross Mitchell was 
president. It was before the association owned an automobile, but 
Mr. Mitchell had a two-horse carriage, and thus speakers reached the 
place of meeting. 

Before the graded lesson system was in use the workers advocated 
Bible study and morality; they did not do evangelistic work^ but char- 
acter building was the course pursued ; the Sunday school is the college 
of the church, and through his relation to Wittenberg College Dr. Prince 
was enabled to secure speakers among the professors, and among stu- 
dents of ability to accompany him. While denominationalism is not 
emphasized in county Sunday school campaigning, the fact remains that 
Lutherans have been more aggressive than other churches. Recently 
other denominations have become interested, and the county secretary 
happens to be a Baptist. 

While the official roster usually changes more frequently, for nine- 
teen consecutive years Peter A. Schindler was superintendent of the 
Sunday school in the First English Lutheran Church in Springfield. 
He had unusual qualities as an organizer ; when he assumed the duty the 
attendance averaged 175, and in ten years it reached more than 1,000, 
that number often being present ; as early as 1865, he conducted weekly 
meetings for Sunday school teachers; he was in advance of the teacher 
training concerted effort today. Mr. Schindler was a natural leader, 
being chorister as well as teacher; he could influence an audience and 
many Wittenberg College students w£re led into the ministry by him. 

Mr. Schindler had the missionary spirit, and he was active in both 
city and county Sunday school work ; his tactics appealed to both teachers 
and preachers. When the Second Lutheran Church went out from First 
Church, he went into it and for ten years was its Sunday school super- 
intendent; few men serve twenty-nine years in that capacity. Ross 
Mitchell who did so much for county work was among those transferred 
from First to Second Lutheran Church. Mr. Schindler always exer- 
cised fatherly oversight of boys from the Sunday school, and when two 
of them went fishing he investigated; they made a full confession, and 

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when he smelled the fish they were frying he yielded to their dinner invi- 
tation. "Nothing succeeds like success," and they had "bait" for him. 
They were fishermen, and was a "fisher of men." 

Another Schindler Story 

One time while Mr. Schindler was engaged in county Sunday school 
work, he was driving a State Sunday school speaker to a township con- 
vention, along the way he said, "Brother, excuse me, I will just have 
to have a chew of tobacco," but since the State speaker also wanted a 
chew, there was no difficulty about it. Each had been afraid of the 
other; why had not Peter mentioned it sooner? The man relating the 
story said : "Peter Schindler was a great character ; he was a fine man, 
and had a 'world of friends/ " When there was but one Lutheran 
Church, he encountered all the Wittenberg College students. When he 
transferred to Second Lutheran, G. W. Billow succeeded him and served 
as Sunday school superintendent until he transferred to Fourth Lutheran. 
Doctor Prince who was the first Lutheran to engage in county Sunday 
school activities remained in First till Fourth was organized, when he 
transferred to it, and thus the leaders were Lutherans for many years. 

The record of Peter A. Schindler was later duplicated by J. H. Little- 
ton, who served nineteen years as superintendent of the First Lutheran 
Sunday School, and he said this of Mr. Schindler: "He was a wonder- 
ful singer, and had a wonderful personality ; he attracted others." John L. 
Zimmerman has taught the men's Bible class for thirty years, but Mrs. 
S. F. Breckenridge who died in service spent forty-five years as superin- 
tendent of the primary department there. While other Sunday schools 
do effective work in the community, no other reported such long terms 
of service for officers or teacher. 

Politicians in Sunday School 

While Howard Johnson, as general secretary, is the first paid Sunday 
school worker in Clark County, some of the foremost citizens are identi- 
fied with Sunday school activities in the different denominations. Two 
members of the present board of Clark County Commissioners: J. L. 
Welsh and Frank Funderburg, are active Sunday school workers, and 
Donald Kirkpatrick, prosecuting attorney, is identified with church and 
Sunday school activities. While it was once said to be necessary to lock 
the doors to hold the convention until after the collection, a budget system 
now takes care of finances, and the county secretary checks up on the 
different Sunday schools. Before the day of the educated ministry, 
there was not much need of the budget system — no salaries and no 

The threadbare story of the little girl who explained her disobedience 
by saying: "You cannot serve God and Mamma," has been supplanted 
by another: "Susie Adams forgets Susie Adams," and W. H. Schaus 
will explain the "enthusiasm" of it. When athletics was injected into 
the Sunday school, it was said they would have to rob the cradle to 
fill some of the positions, but the youngsters became enthusiastic; when 
watching a game, a six-year-old exclaimed: "Treat 'em rough," show- 
ing that the infantile mind grasps it all. While in one of the township 
conventions an expert worker was defined as an "ordinary man away 

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from home," the fact remains that the Sunday school is the great volun- 
teer institution which attracts many unselfish workers. 

Sunday School Motto 

In some of the Sunday schools is this placard: "In time, on time, 
every time, and all the time except when ahead of time, and that's a 
little better time," and regular attendance is sought by all Sunday schools. 
The unique and unusual is resorted to, and December 9, 1921, a Bible 
Oratorical Contest was staged at Selma Friends Church by eight young 
ladies of the Sunday school, the orations selected from the Bible. 

The Church of the Brethren Sunday School at Donnels Creek won 
in a Bible reading contest in 1921 against thirty-four other churches of 
the denomination in Southwestern Ohio. The average attendance at 
Donnels Creek was eighty-eight, and as a whole the Sunday school read 
84,672 chapters; eighteen adults had read the Bible through within the 
year, and one woman read it five times. A Negro woman who listened 
to a sermon, said it "went in at one ear and out at the other," but it 
made her better ; when she washed, "the water went through the clothes 
and made them whiter," and thus contest reading may be better than 
not to read the Bible at all. 

The Model Prayer 

When Secretary Johnson was conducting the Mad River Township 
Sunday School Convention, February, 1922, the Rev. S. Q. Halfenstein, 
a Dayton publisher who was filling the Knob Prairie Christian Church 
pulpit that day, when leading in prayer asked the audience to join him 
in repeating the Lord's Prayer, using the word "debt" rather than 
"trespass," saying too many congregations depart from the text when 
repeating the model prayer. Since it is the duty of the Sunday school 
teacher to instill the habit of Bible study, it was an opportune time for 
the visiting minister to teach the correct use of the model prayer — the 
Lord's Prayer. 

In urging the support of the Sunday school, J. M. Alexander of the 
National Sunday School Association said before a Springfield audience 
that, "all the great problems are decided between the ages of twelve and 
twenty; it is the formative period when the great pull of life comes, 
either upward or downward, which determines his future; under the 
stress and strain of modern life the home, in a religious sense, is dis- 
appearing. Family prayers are a relic of a bygone age, and the last 
bulwark in the effort to maintain religion as a vital factor in the daily 
life of the nation is the Sunday school," but "One Man on Four Wheels," 
is the precaution taken by the Clark County Sunday School Association 
as a safeguard to the future. 

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Springfield was early in its Young Men's Christian Association activi- 
ties, effecting an organization in August, 1854, with E. M. Doty as 
president; its object was the moral and religious betterment of young 
men. Many citizens supported the movement, and there were some dis- 
tinguished speakers before the association. A reading room was estab- 
lished, and there was the nucleus of a library. While the reading room 
was for the use of members, others enjoyed it. 

There were eighty members of the original Springfield Young Men's 
Christian Association representing the different evangelical churches, 
and it did the welfare work of the community. In effect, it was the first 
organized charity; it distributed necessities among the destitute, and 
much suffering and want were relieved by it. While the records do not 
indicate the time it lapsed, the Civil war claimed attention, and those 
constituting the membership were eligible as soldiers. Many antebellum 
institutions lapsed because their leaders enlisted in the Civil war. 

Rallied Again 

It was in the winter of 1867-68 that the Young Men's Christian 
Association was organized a second time. H. T. Miller, a blind man 
from Cincinnati, assisted to organize and install the association again. 
E. W. Mulliken became its president, and associated with him were 
Dr. Daniel Phillips, Dr. A. S. Dunlap, Nichols and Hastings, editors 
of the Republic; J. W. Gunn, G. W. Winger, E. C. Middleton, B. F. 
Prince, and many of the Springfield ministers. Through the efforts of 
Mrs. Samson Mason and others the new organization had charge of 
the books in the first circulating library attempted in Springfield.- In 
1868 Doctor Dunlap represented the Springfield association in an Inter- 
national convention held in Detroit; in 1870 Mr. Middleton represented 
the association in convention in Indianapolis. 

The Young Men's Christian Association maintained the public lecture 
course of the community, and among the noted speakers were : John B. 
Gough, Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, Theodore Tilton, General 
Woodford, Captain Hall, the Arctic explorer, and Paul B. DuChaillu, 
the African explorer. The course was financed by the sale of $5 season 
tickets ; each ticket admitted two persons. Tickets were sold in advance, 
thus securing money for the entire course. The lectures were delivered 
in Black's Music Hall, the religious people then opposed to the designa- 
tion as theater. When illness prevented the appearance of Wendell 
Phillips, the association hurriedly secured George Kennan who was a 
Russian explorer, attracting large crowds in Cincinnati. He later became 
popular in Springfield. Mr. Winger had the foregoing data from Doctor 
Dunlap of Chattanooga. 

In 1887 Organized Again 

In its present organization the local Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation dates back to 1887, having started and suspended twice, but the 


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■ / 

r EH 

Springfield Y. M. C. A. 

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charm seems to have been attained in the third effort. It requires 
finances to keep any organization intact, and W. J. Fraser, who is still 
a Springfield citizen, was the first paid general secretary who devoted his 
full time to it. The organization was effected in 1887, in the Clark 
County courthouse, and it was sheltered there until it began activities 
by increasing its membership, and sought other quarters. From the 
beginning, including Mr. Fraser, the Springfield Young Men's Christian 
Association has had four general secretaries, Mr. Fraser remaining till 
1903; T. T. Long till 1904; A. E. Flint till 1911, and the present incum- 
bent John L. Dorst coming at that time. 

When the Young Men's Christian Association left the courthouse 
it occupied a hall on Market Street (Fountain Avenue), and in 1900 
the corner stone was laid for the building; it was completed in 1901, 
and there was an entire week of dedicatory service. It was fittingly 
launched into its field of usefulness, among the speakers being the world 
famous evangelist, Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, Gov. James A. Weaver 
of Pennsylvania, Capt. Richmond P. Hobson, Dr. Henry Barrows of 
Oberlin College, and Pres. W. O. Thompson of Ohio State Univer- 
sity. Mr. Fraser was secretary through the building period, and Hon. 
Asa S. Bushnell was the honorary presiding officer through the dedi- 
catory service. Mr. Bushnell and Edwin S. Kelly had each given $5,000 
toward the enterprise. 

Building for the Future 

While the cost of the Young Men's Christian Association building 
approximated $70,000, and Dr. John H. Rodgers who was association 
president throughout the building period, as well as other citizens of 
Springfield, thought the community had built for the future, twenty 
years later building plans are under consideration again. The associa- 
tion has outgrown its building and a site had been acquired at the south- 
west corner of Center and High streets ; its building project was delayed 
by war-time activities, its members again being called to arms as in the 
'60s when the first association functioned, the whole community expend- 
ing its energy and its money in other channels. 

Notwithstanding the delay a drive was made for funds resulting 
in a $200,000 subscription toward a new building and plans have been 
approved for an edifice costing $500,000 to become a reality in the near 
future. With $200,000 as a nucleus, and with the building now in use 
to be converted into collateral, there will not be tedious delay in begin- 
ning the new structure. When a drive was made in March, 1922, for 
$30,000, it went u over the top," amounting to $30,559, the whole com- 
munity responding to it. In its latest organization, George W. Winger, 
who was identified with association work in its first and second efforts, 
is its president; he was elected president for the fifth consecutive year, 
and being a pioneer Y. M. C. A. man, he will be a valuable member of 
the board through its building era again. 

The first and second vice presidents of the association are: C. L. 
Bauer and Dr. R. E. Tulloss; the corresponding secretary is C. H. 
Rhodes; the treasurer is George S. Raup, and the general secretary 
Mr. Dorst. The local association entertained the state association in 
its annual convention recently, and Mr. Bauer was honored by being 
elected its president. In 1892 the Springfield association instituted voca- 

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tional education work in advance of the public schools or other educa- 
tional institutions ; the first teacher was a skilled mechanic, D. F. Graham, 
and the classes were conducted in a room in a factory. It was the 
beginning of night school in Springfield. Men and boys enrolled in 
numbers, and since then the association has maintained gymnasiums for 
both men and boys. 

The Springfield Young Men's Christian Association numbers 1,400 
active members and 2,000 contributing members ; for want of accom- 
modations it does not push the industrial features, but Bible classes 
are maintained with special attention given the Sunday afternoon reli- 
gious meetings. Good speakers are furnished, and these meetings are 
growing in popularity; they are maintained only through the winter 
months. There are only twenty-eight dormitory rooms, but the new 
building will house many non-resident members who become residents 
of Springfield. The gymnasium sometimes becomes a banquet room, 
and the Young Men's Christian Association is the recognized social 
center for the young men of Springfield. 

Springfield Convention Center 

Four times has the Ohio Young Men's Christian Association held its 
annual meetings in Springfield, and when the new building is completed 
it will become ambitious again. The association met in Springfield in 
1891, 1897, 1912, and again in 1921, and the homes of the city were 
thrown open to delegates. The Hi Y is an accomplishment of the 
Springfield association, there being ninety-eight such clubs with a mem- 
bership numbering 2,000 in Ohio. A Hi Y speaker before the conven- 
tion, said: "Real religion is a manly thing," and there is demand for 
Hi Y secretaries. When the Older Boys' conference was held in Dayton, 
a torch was brought from Columbus and a relay of Springfield boys 
carried it to Dayton, the torch having been carried between many cities 
by members of the Older Boys' conference, as an effective method of 
advertising the convention ; the boys were distributed a mile apart, and 
each boy ran one mile with the torch, giving it to the boy in waiting; 
except running one mile, the boys were carried to Dayton in automobiles. 

African Young Men's Christian Association 

The Negroes of Springfield support the Center Street Branch of the 
Young Men's Christian Association and are active in all departments. 
They maintain a Dunbar and Washington debating society, and a Hi Y 
club. Their reports are separate from the Springfield association. The 
Ohio Young Men's Christian Association is raising $150,000 for the 
foreign work of the organization and $4,000 has been asked of the 
Springfield association. A summer camp for boys is planned by the 
association and special attention is given Y work in Wittenberg College. 
If a church has collateral significance — and all real estate dealers point 
out the churches and schools to prospective citizens, then the Young 
Men's Christian Association is an investment, and attracts people to 
the community. 

The Boy Scouts 

The organization, Boy Scouts of America, was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 8, 1910, and it was granted a Federal charter by Congress June 15, 
1916, and Warren G. Harding is the honorary president with William H. 

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Taft and Woodrow Wilson as vice presidents. Rev. Harry Trust, presi- 
dent of the Springfield Boy Scout Association is unable to supply the 
data concerning its local organization, but there is considerable activity 
among Springfield Boy Scouts. The Exchange Club is financing the 
organization, and the local troops observe National Boy Scout week with 
enthusiasm. Rallies are held and programs are arranged and there is 
an increased interest since the Exchange Club has fostered the Scout 
organization. Hikes are enjoyed, and a Scout camp is an assured thing; 
the appeal is made through the churches, and eight troops are under 
process. In Springfield there are 3,600 boys of Scout age, and other 
boys are invited to ally themselves with Springfield Scout organizations. 
William Smack is chief scoutmaster and instructor. 

In a surprisingly short time Boy Scouts become Junior Y's, and 
the Scout oath and Scout law put the boys into the highway toward 
good citizenship. "Teachers in the Boy Scout movement must build 
Americans who will stand for a united humanity; one of the great 
forces for good in the movement is the democratic spirit which per- 
meates it. * * * Boy Scout activities kills the influence of the 
'gang* spirit, and teaches boys they can be redblooded — that they can be 
regular he-men, and still be pure and virtuous." A Scout keeps clean 
in body and in thought; he stands for clean speech, clean sport, clean 
habits, and travels with a clean crowd. Now that the Exchange Club 
is big brother to 'the Boy Scouts, some record will be kept of the 

Young Women's Christian Association 

The Young Women's Christian Association, including administration 
building, residence and cafeteria, is located at 250 East High Street, 
Springfield. It is the outgrowth of work done by the Woman's Chris- 
tian Association organized November 6, 1896; it has served the com- 
munity in different locations, but since 1913 in its High Street property 
that was once occupied by a private educational institution. While the 
organization was known as the Woman's Christian Association, Mrs. 
Fannie P. Watkins was its secretary for thirteen years, and its mission 
was to aid indigent but worthy women. It promoted the moral, social 
and physical welfare of women and girls; it cared for children whose 
mothers worked, and dispensed the most practical charity. Its first 
president was Mrs. Rebecca Brewster, and the leading women of Spring- 
field supported it. 

Mrs. F. L. Davies reviews the history of the Woman's Christian 
Association, saying it was started as a home for girls and later the aid of 
the churches was asked by the women supporting the effort; the furni- 
ture was secured from the Deaconess Home, and the real organization 
was effected in the home of Mrs. Sarah Willis, and a home was opened 
on the site of the I. C. & E. Traction station. A group of women 
assumed the expense, and every week they went out and solicited the 
necessary money. As their needs increased they moved into more com- 
modious quarters, and finally enough younger women became members 
that the organization was changed and today it is the Young Women's 
Christian Association. In the beginning the young women met for 
pastime, but they began sewing for the Association and a real spirit of 
helpfulness was soon awakened in them. For a time they called them- 

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selves "Brownies," and then assumed the name: Charitable After- 
noon Club. 

Mrs. Watkins has been mentioned as secretary of the original organ* 
ization, and when it merged with the Y in 1909, Miss Eleanor Taft 
served for two years as secretary, and after a lapse of a short time Miss 
Rosetta Reynolds was secured, and she remained two years. After 
another interim without a secretary, Miss Marjorie Williams assumed 
the duties in 1915, and there has been constant growth at the Central Y, 
and in its branch departments. The Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion has the supervision of the Clark Memorial Home, Lagonda Center 
and Clark Street Branch, and many people frequent the different centers. 
The community has pride in the organization and when f unds are needed 
drives are made and it is given the necessary financial support. It main- 
tains a cafeteria, and a great many patronize it. The annual meetings 
are open to the public, one having been held in Memorial Hall, when a 
program was given that attracted many visitors. It was in the nature 
of a jubilee, the organization having been effected twenty-five years ago. 

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While the Salvation Army has been in Springfield since the *90s, 
Adjutant E. D. Dinkelacker and wife who have teen at the local post 
since July 1, 1921, have no definite record of its beginning; it has a 
fluctuating membership, there being twenty-nine enrolled at the time 
of the inquiry. The Salvation Army owns its own home at Columbia 
and Fisher streets, it having once been the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
property. It is centrally located, and there is a standing offer of $16,000 
for it ; in time it will be sold and something better suited to the require- 
ments will be secured. The Army holds regular street meetings on 
the esplanade, and meetings are held in its auditorium. 

While the organization in Springfield has never lapsed, it has been 
at low ebb and up again; its welfare work is extensive, although it 
co-operates with other Springfield agencies — the social service depart- 
ment correlating all charities. For a number of years the local Army 
has used the unique boiling pot as its symbol, and the citizens assist in 
keeping the fires burning by dropping money in it. "It takes a hardened 
individual to pass one of those tripods with the pot suspended, and the 
woman or man in attendance half frozen under the chill blasts of winter ; 
it is the penny or nickel the passerby drops into the pot that swells the 
Christmas dinner for those unable to provide it themselves. At Thanks- 
giving and Christmas the Salvation Army provides for those who would 
pass the day without the holiday cheer. 

Commander Evangeline Booth says the story of the Salvation Army 
is like the wildest of dreams come true ; the beggar has been raised from 
the dust and set among princes. The Salvation Army band is the poor 
man's organ ; to the dying outcast it is the heavenly music of the angelic 
choir. It maintains 26,181 bandsmen, 750 day schools and 41 naval and 
military schools scattered all over the world. The Salvation Army 
endeared itself to the soldiers in the World war by its untiring efforts 
as a relief agency. 


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There was an educational provision in the famous ordinance of 1787, 
under which the Northwest Territory was organized, and thus Ohio and 
the other states carved out of the Old Northwest attracted the best class 
of settlers; in Clark County, as in other counties, one section of land 
in each township consisting of thirty-six sections is set apart for the 
support of the common school; this was written into the first Ohio 
Constitution in 1802, and it is still embodied in it although it has been 
revised twice — in 1851, and again in 1912; it is decreed that section No. 16 
in each Congressional township shall be the school land, and one who 
has distinctive remembrance of the three R's as the entire educational 
curriculum, is inclined to take some note of the panorama — the evolution 
of the educational system in Clark County. 

An investment in the mind and heart of the child, is laying up treasure 
where moth and rust do not corrupt; the school should develop in the 
youth a sense of responsibility for the welfare of the community. In 
the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin there is an 
income from the land alone amounting to $5,000,000, and from the begin- 
ning these states have led the world in educational progress. In Athens ' 
County, Ohio University occupies one of those school sections, and 
since it is the oldest university west of the Alleghany Mountains the 
fact is significant. One writer says : "From select to free ; from school- 
master to teacher; from academy to high school, education has been no 
laggard in the march of progress," and since in the beginning there was 
little taxable property there were select schools. 

The First School 

In 1806 Nathaniel Pinkered opened the first school in Springfield; 
it was in a log- school house on the northeast corner of Main and Market 
streets, and since this building was used for religious meetings, it was 
the community center of Springfield. It is referred to as Pinkered's 
school, leaving the impression that it was private property. Without 
question it was a subscription school. William Bloxum who was an 
early teacher received $1.50 tuition for sixty days for each scholar; it 
was customary in such schools to admit younger children as half- 
scholars, although no mention is made of it. Some of the burly young 
men were inclined to rowdyism, and when they defied Mr. Bloxum he 
said he "would have order if he stood in blood to his eye brows; he 
gave the ring leader a severe whipping, and there was no more trouble." 
It seems that the "Master" had more need of muscle than of mental 
attainment, carrying out the saying: "Lickin* and larnin' are inseparable." 

The earlier Clark County histories do not carry much information 
about the pioneer schools, but there were enterprising teachers who com- 
bined training the young idea with other occupations; it was necessary 
to "make both ends meet," and an Englishman named Samuel Smith 
served as a justice of the peace while teaching school in Springfield. 


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He was a hustling, square-shouldered man of "no ordinary talents," and 
"Treat 'em rough," was his method ; he regarded "flogging" as an indis- 
pensable part of discipline, and full grown young men and women were 
often compelled to stand and receive the savage strokes of his ferrule. 
In the language of a popular cartoonist : "Them days is gone forever." 
Justice of the Peace Pedagogue Smith had nicknames for boys: 
Lucius, Mark Anthony, Julius Caesar, Pompey, etc., and while he was a 
man of truth and veracity as far as business was concerned, he had a 
passion for telling marvelous stories; had there been such publications 
in his day, he would have been a fiction writer. Stories of doubtful 
origin were always attributed to Smith; for ten years his school was 
regarded as the highest seat of learning in Springfield. Smith's wife, a 
tall, sharp-nosed Yankee woman, assisted him in teaching the smaller 
children ; the school was in their cabin. One Christmas when Smith was 
locked out to compel him to treat, he visited Granny Icenbarger's cabin, 
and the youngsters had visions of cakes and apples, but they "reckoned 
without their host," for when he came back he climbed to the roof and 
dropped brimstone on the fire, laying a board on the chimney. They 
soon tumbled out of the windows, and they never locked that justice-of- 
the-peace out again. 

January 1, 1818 

While local government was established in Clark County, January 1, 
1818, within a week from its organization, there was no common school 
legislation until January 22, 1821, three years later, when an act to pro- 
vide for the regulation and support of the common schools was passed, 
and in February, 1825, an act to provide for the support and better regu- 
lation of the common schools, and finally January 30, 1827, an act was 
passed establishing a fund for the support of the common schools, and 
until money was appropriated there was little progress. When Nathaniel 
Pinkered opened his school, Springfield was in Champaign County, but 
under state law the conditions must have been similar in different 

At all events the Pinkered school was the beginning of a splendid 
educational system in Springfield and Clark County; the people were 
not inclined to live in ignorance. The intellectual and moral conditions 
are similar in different frontier communities; settlers are deprived of 
many privileges when they come into the wilderness. The church and 
the school are regarded as collateral in any community, and as it advances 
morally and intellectually, crime and pauperism decrease; in the begin- 
ning the school term was usually thirteen weeks, the teacher agreeing 
to "keep school," and the parents obligating themselves to send their 
children and pay for it. Each school was a separate business enterprise, 
and one who mastered the three R's — readin', 'ritin and 'rithmetic, had a 
liberal education. 

There were no blackboard, maps or other school house fixtures 
because there were no school houses; there are few and perhaps none 
lingering in 'Clark County today who tell of the dirt floors, greased paper 
windows and smoky rooms; what if the school houses did not have 
modern advantages? There were no unpleasant comparisons when their 
homes were like them. It is a far cry from the style of rural school 
building as described by Judge William A. Rockel : "A log was omitted 

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for the light, and in this space single window panes were used end to 
end, and the windows were so high that the little fellows could only 
see the sky; below the windows were broad boards for desks, and the 
larger pupils sat there facing the light," contrary to the conditions exist- 
ing under the Smith-Hughes law in Clark County at present. 

1914 Begins a New Era 

While not much is on record about those who "taught the young 
idea the use of fire arms," years ago, when he was a young man of nine- 
teen, the Hon. Whitelaw Reid was a teacher in Sduth Charleston; he 
wore his hair long and was of distinctive type. In an early day teaching 
was a stepping stone to the professions, and aged men in Springfield 
wielded the birch while acquiring further education. Under existing 
conditions, with teaching itself a profession, not so many qualify as 

Rockway School — Rural 

teachers unless they continue in the vocation ; too many technicalities are 
required for young men to use it today as a means of attaining to some 
other line of activity. When the writing desks were against the walls 
and the children sat on puncheon benches, there were fewer swindles 
in the sale of school accessories than at present. "Sufficient unto the day 
is the evil thereof," and as civilization advances educational methods 
advance with it ; the school is among the greatest agencies of advancement. 
It is only since 1914 that there has been public supervision of rural 
schools in Clark County, the changed Ohio Constitution in 1912 allowing 
the State Legislature to provide for it. Prof. J. M. Collins as county 
superintendent of schools, has supervision of all schools in Clark County 
outside of the City of Springfield ; he is the first and only superintendent 
since the enactment of the law establishing the office; he received his 
appointment from the county board of education, which is composed of 
five members and under its last organization they are: E. H. Florence, 
Grant Neer, C. D. Shellabarger, Ezra King and Harry Mellinger. The 

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board holds monthly meetings and has the oversight of educational affairs ; 
it is the plan to keep education out of politics, and professional interest, 
experience and competency enter into the consideration when selecting a 
school superintendent. 

The three assistants to the county school superintendent are: Prof. 
O. T. Hawke, who has fifty-one teachers; Prof. F. S. Ryan, forty-one 
teachers ; and Prof. J. K. Hertzinger with thirty-five teachers ; the three 
districts are east, middle and west, and the South Charleston, Selma 
and New Carlisle schools all have local superintendents ; there are super- 
visors of music in each subdivision, and Professor Collins as county 
superintendent has supervision of all. Under existing conditions, at 
little or no expense to himself, a man may educate a family; while there 
are free schools it is through taxation, and in establishing the free educa- 
tional system, the government was carrying out the injunction of the 
father of his country, George Washington, who said: "Promote then 
as an object of primary importance institutions for the general diffusion 
of knowledge; in proportion as the structure of a government gives 
force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be 
enlightened," and the public school is the hope of the future. 

Advantages of an Education 

None will gainsay the statement that a liberal education increases the 
opportunities for success ; it paves the way for usefulness and influence 
in the community. In the way of professional interest, public school 
teachers are required to have thirty-six weeks of Normal training beside 
a high school education; the scholarship certificate is not issued until 
the teacher has the necessary professional training. When professional 
interest and moral conduct warrant it, teachers are exempt from recur- 
rent examinations. Their certificates are renewed from time to time as 
per requirements. While a good many traditions cling about the one- 
room school — the "little red school house," and it has been the theme of 
song and story, it is soon to become a thing of the past in Clark County. 
There are already many abandoned school houses, the consolidated school 
serving the purpose today. 

There has been little opposition to the consolidated or centralized 
school in Clark County. The first centralized school in Ohio was in 
Ashtabula County in 1892, and the system has found favor in many 
localities. When the new school code came into action in 1914, many 
county superintendents immediately began centralization projects. The 
Clark County citizens recognized the advantages to be derived under 
the Smith-Hughes law — manual training and domestic science teachers 
being partly paid by the state a possibility, and the only way the question 
was ever before the voters was for appropriations ; they understood the 
issue and supported the measure. Centralization brings high school 
advantages within the reach of all. 

It is remembered that Governor J. M. Cox called the Ohio Assembly 
into extraordinary session, in order to enact the new school code in 
Ohio; it has been said: "Governor Cox was keenly conscious of the 
great importance of the movement to organize rural life, and he realized 
that a high school system commensurate in efficiency with the importance 
of rural life and its industries was necessary and fundamental to the 
progress of such a movement, and that the country boys and girls were 

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not getting a square deal because the so-called system then in use was 
inadequate to their needs and interests and failed to reveal to them the 
possibilities of rural life and rural activities." The governor vigilantly 
guarded the new law against reactionary influences and measures, and 
its wisdom has since been vindicated in the minds of Ohio educators. 
In writing of centralization, a leading educator says : "It has proved 
beyond the anticipation of its most ardent advocates its worth in meeting 
the rural conditions. When fully and properly administered, it is a 
corrective agency for the readjustment of the affairs of rural life; 
fortunate are the children whose heritage it is to have the opportunities 
made possible by its provisions, and only the coming years can reveal 
the full measure of its benefits. ,, The first effort toward consolidation 
in Clark County was made at Selma, where four wagons are in use, 
although in the county fifty-one trucks are utilized in transporting chil- 
dren to centralized schools. 

Cross Roads Rural School 

South Charleston is now the centr^bVed school of Madison Township, 
the school corporation havinsr been abolished and the school is operated 
by the township: the countv board of education created a new district 
by combining the town and township. New Carlisle still operates its 
separate school, althoueh there are some transfers from the townships 
near it. It draws from North Bethel and Pike, althoueh Bethel has 
another centralized school at Olive Branch or Forgy; the town is Forgy 
and the school is Olive Branch. The forty-four schools in Clark County 
outside of Springfield accommodate approximately 4,000 pupils, the 
monthly statement for December, 1921, showing an enrollment of 4,271 
with an average attendance of 3,968, which is 95.12 per cent perfect — 
regarded by the superintendent as a good showing; in the whole month 
only 174 were late. Those coming in trucks are never late, and thus 
centralization eliminates tardiness; in the month of December 3,853 
were neither absent nor tardy. 

State Superintendent Vernon S. Reigel reports that Clark is the 
only Ohio county that never voted on the question of centralization, 
although its people voted on bond issues which involved consolidation. 

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In a sense all high schools are centralized automatically, and Decem- 
ber 31, 1921, there were only five one-room schools with the prospect 
that Fairview in German Township will be the last. It is not situated 
to combine well with another school, there being a number of two and 
three-room schools which will be continued indefinitely. Aside from 
Selma, practically all the centralization has developed under the leader- 
ship of Superintendent Collins. Eighth grade graduates receive diplo- 
mas and they are encouraged to enter high school and finally go to col- 
lege. Wittenberg College is the objective point of many Clark County 

County Health Supervision 

Miss Agnes Kyle, who visits the rural schools and advises with 
teachers and pupils relative to sanitary and health conditions, is not 
a teacher; she is employed by the Clark County Health Board and 
conservation of health is the object. She emphasizes the need of clean- 
liness and suggests to parents the proper diet when under-nourished 
children are discovered. There are many of them and in homes of 
plenty, but their food is not selected with regard to their particular 
needs. The health supervisor is not paid from the school fund, although 
she does much to increase regular attendance. Slates and slate rags 
and sponges are eliminated ; the coat sleeves that were once used to clean 
the slates — just allow the imagination full play — and think how much 
better it is for the child to use pencils and tablets, with waste paper bas- 
kets for the accumulation when it has served its purpose. Aye, some 
of the old-time teachers would become bewildered in the school rooms of 
today. They would say "Backward, turn backward," but they cer- 
tainly served their day and generation acceptably. 

There is a rural welfare doctor as well as a rural advisory nurse, 
and in case of epidemic it becomes his duty to explain that children 
are safe in school because those exposed to disease are in quarantine. 
Both Clark County and the City of Springfield had much difficulty 
with epidemics in 1921, many being quarantined with scarlet fever and 
with smallpox. It is said there are 11,000,000 children in the United 
States attending rural schools, and in Ohio sanitary and health con- 
ditions — thanks to the magnificent program launched a number of years 
ago— are far above the average. 

In Retrospect 

Along in the early 70s — the reconstruction period following the Civil 
war— the country schoolhouses were the community centers. There were 
few neighborhood churches and it frequently fell to the lot of the 
rural pedagogue to clean a school house on Monday morning that had 
served as a Sunday center. If a pupil was backward in his studies 
it became the teacher's duty to learn his difficulty; there was no visit- 
ing nurse to offer suggestions. When there were subscription schools — 
scholars and half-scholars — that was a system of grading, and while 
advance has been noted there was some good in the old-fashioned 
pedagogical methods. When Clark County teachers boarded around 
there was little said about the scale of wages. The high cost of liv- 
ing did not disturb them. It was the simple life. While some cling 

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to sentiment with regard to the institutions of the past, others accept 
the utility side, and a recent versifier exclaimed: 

"The little red schoolhouse stands 
Just like it always had done — 
But I can't grow reminiscent — 
I never went to one," 

and while some of the adherents assert that children of the past knew 
more at twelve than they know now when they graduate, they do not 
take into the account the fact that many studies are being pursued that 
were unknown to the children of a generation ago. 

If the "pupils in our common schools were much better spellers" 
it is because more emphasis was placed on spelling than on any other 
accomplishment except "figgers." The teachers of the past were better 
writers, much of the handwriting of half a century ago being as 
plain as script of today. There were good spellers and good writers 
developed in the one-room school houses. There used to be writing 
school and the teacher was an adept in ornamental penmanship — could 
make a zebra or spread eagle, but where is the man or woman today 
who attempts even a slight flourish in his signature? In the old church 
records and in some of the family Bibles are excellent specimens of 
penmanship. The fellow still exists who can "read readin' readin', 
but who cannot read riten readin'." The backwoods school teachers 
were welcomed into the homes of Clark County but who would board 
the school teacher today? The centralization plan also takes care of 
the living necessities of the school teacher. 

The Unruly Schoolboy 

What has become of the unruly schoolboy who used to terrorize 
the school teacher? When brawn rather than brain was the qualifica- 
tion of the teacher; when muscular development rather than mental 
achievement secured recognition, the boys remained in the rural schools 
longer than today, when they are graduated before they are old 
enough to intimidate the twentieth century female teacher. While still 
in the adolescent period, the boy of that type is now pursuing higher 
studies in other schools and change of environment has changed the 
"nature of the brute." Disagreeable personality does not assert itself 
when the boy finds himself in different environment. A boy who is 
a terror at home is subdued by change of scenery. In the centralized 
school he may be shifted from pne teacher to another and he loses 
confidence in himself. 

In the days of better chirography and orthography, the children in 
rural schools memorized much of the New Testament, and on Friday 
afternoons and in Sunday school they recited it. There were "whisper-^ 
ing schools" and unless they studied aloud — their lips moved — the 
teacher was uncertain about their application. Watch the man on the 
car whose lips move while he reads the newspaper; he went to whis- 
pering school. He is unable to grasp the thought unless his lips move 
in unison with his mentality. Time was when passing the water was 
the reward for careful study. Now there are sanitary drinking foun- 
tains and individual cup service, perhaps not enforced in all rural 

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communities. When the water bucket was filled at a neighboring farm 
house there were boys who wanted to bring the water in order to escape 
the humdrum of study. 

While spelling schools are reckoned with the habits and customs 
of the long ago, one of the rural schools at Rockway held a spelling 
school within the year. They used to go many miles to a spelling school, 
when district would be pitted against district, and it was wonderful 
how they would back their champion spellers. They lighted the way 
to spelling schools with torches and later with lanterns. While Web- 
ster's Elementary Speller is an heirloom today, it was once a vital part 
of the school community. The McGuffy readers had their day, and 
there never was any uniformity in mathematics until Ray's Practical 
Arithmetic became the standard. Many adults in Clark County learned 
what they know of the science of mathematics from Ray's Part III 
Arithmetic. It was thumbmarked as far as common fractions. It had 
the multiplication tables in it until they were worn by the pupils in 
an effort to master them. There were always young people with the 
commendable ambition to secure a liberal education. Among the older 
men and women are a few college graduates. 

Illiteracy; Its Remedy 

While it is a vaunted educational system, when the World war 
developed the amount of illiteracy in the country, educators began 
studying the system. Something was radically wrong when twenty per 
cent of the young men entering the army were unable to read and 
write, and the 1920 census reports confirmed the war-time discovery, 
a Columbus headline reading: "Although in Clark County and in all 
of the counties adjoining, illiteracy has decreased during the last decade, 
the state educational survey shows that the campaign against ignorance 
is not progressing very well. In the decade ending December 31, 1920, 
illiteracy among the native-born whites in Clark County was reduced 
from .8 to .7, giving it one of the lowest percentages of illiteracy among 
the larger communities in Ohio." 

The census indicates that both foreign born and colored people 
show an increased percentage of illiteracy, while native-born whites 
show a decline, and still there is a field for educators. The census 
shows 1,009 persons ten years of age and older who are unable to write, 
most of them in Springfield, and 509 of them being negroes. Between 
the ages of sixteen and twenty only .3 of one per cent are illiterate. 
A recent writer says: "Our future leaders who come from agricultural 
districts will have had access to the centralized school buildings which 
have become community centers, affording the student body practically 
every opportunity which the city schools offer to boys and girls. The 
centralized school law was at once the most practical and progressive 
measure ever written into the Ohio statutes. One may shed a tear as 
the little red school house passes into history. It served its generation 
well but it did not keep up with the spirit of the times." 

Commissioner of Education Tigert announces that the cities average 
$40.59 for the education of each child, while the rural child is educated 
at an average annual expense of $23.91, the country child having 142 
days in school, while the city child averages 182 days, and he points 
out this difference as a factor in the movement away from the farms. 

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The foregoing is a state condition that does not seem to hold good in 
Clark County, where the majority of the farmers are owners of the 
land, and it points to centralization as a solution of the difficulty. Good 
roads and centralized schools are two big factors in modern rural edu- 
cation. Centralization means co-operation, whiie the one-room school 
house means divided effort, and Clark is almost fully consolidated and 
the question solved itself ; it has not been forced in any community. A 
new building is ready for dedication in Mad River, and the schools at 
Pitchin, Oak Grove and Moorefield are being recognized as first class 
and everything is prosperous in the rural schools of Clark County. 
Superintendent Collins keeps in touch with drivers of the wagons and 
trucks, looking to the safety of children in transit, and the speed of 
the truck does not require children to leave home so early. 

On Armistice Day, 1921, the Reid School was dedicated, the occa- 
sion attracting many former students and visitors. Superintendent Col- 
lins reviewed the history of the public school system, showing its rela- 
tion to the Ordinance of 1787, providing for educational advantages. 
Wallace Bird and Miss Laura Maxwell reviewed the community his- 
tory, and a piano was given the school by Amos Whitely, who was a 
guest ; he had been a schoolboy there. The Reid School was a com- 
munity center visited by prominent men, President William McKinley 
one time delivering a political address there. There is sentiment about 
every rural school, and in prose verse some one writes: "How dear to 
our hearts are the things of our childhood, when fond recollection pre- 
sents them to view! The old district schoolhouse, the pail and the 
dipper, the same cud of gum which in turn we would chew! No fear 
of a microbe would ever beset us, no state board of health interfered 
then at all. We bathed dirty faces in one common basin and turned 
to the towel that hung on the wall. The old roller towel, the stiff roller 
towel, the germ-laden towel that hung on the wall." 

There is a joint county-city normal school which is growing in 
popularity. It is a training school for teachers, the state contributing 
$1,500 toward the salary of the first teacher and $1,000 toward the sec- 
ond teacher, thus relieving the county-city schools of a considerable 
share of the burden of maintaining a training school for teachers. Miss 
Maggie Hinkle as director has had twenty-five students fitting them- 
selves for teaching, and applications have been received from many 
others. If printing "is the art preservative, then teaching is the pro- 
fession preservative," and it is said: "The future of our country, the 
Americanization of our newcomers, and the proper direction of our 
civilization are largely in the hands of the public school teachers." 

In one of the booklets is mention of Samuel Harvey as a surveyor 
and school teacher, who was also author of an arithmetic. His activities 
were in the vicinity of South Charleston. Rev. John Hunt, in the clos- 
ing days of 1921, a resident of the I. O. O. F. Home in Springfield, 
was credited with being the oldest living college graduate from any 
American college. In 1842 he graduated from Brown University. 
Clark County has had recognition in the fifty-second annual session 
of the Central Ohio Teachers' Association, of which Superintendent 
Collins is president, and O. T. Hawke of the county schools and E. W. 
Tiffany of the Springfield schools hold committee appointments. Clark 
County schools were well represented at the meeting held in Dayton. 
Dr. T. Bruce Birch of Wittenberg College was one of the speakers before 

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the association. W. H. Wilson of Springfield was chairman of the indus- 
trial arts section. 

With the co-operation between the public school and the farm bureau, 
liberal education is being given in the study of agriculture. There are 
evening classes in some of the centralized schools to which farmers 
are invited, and soil fertility is a subject under consideration. There 
is demand for a practical education, and educators are alert for best 
methods. The primary duty of the public school is to prepare the pupil 
for self-support, with a knowledge of the origin and use of good Eng- 
lish, the essential facts in history, the fundamentals of mathematics, 
some familiarity with natural science, the evolution of popular gov- 
ernment, civic duties and responsibilities, and in an address given in 
Springfield, Judge Frank W. Geiger declared himself in favor of read- 
justing the present school system so that children be graded by men- 
tality and not by age, saying that 70,000,000 people in the United 
States are below the average fifteen-year-old child in mentality. 

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A statistical report issued by City Manager Edgar E. Parsons con- 
veys the information that 12,987 students are enrolled in Springfield — 
10,312 in public schools, 1,796 in parochial schools, 125 in business col- 
lege and 636 in Wittenberg College (now 1,220), besides 4,000 pupils 
enrolled in Clark County outside of Springfield. In round numbers 
there are 17,000 students, beside the great army of adults who keep 
up the habits of study. Before the Civil war there was an inclination 
toward the private school among the well-to-do families — regarded pub- 
lic schools as a form of charity — although when Nathaniel Pinkered 
opened school in Springfield there had been no tax levy for that purpose. 

Samuel Smith's school was among the early select schools in Spring- 
field, that first church erected in 1810 serving as a schoolhouse as well 
as a house of worship. At one time Reuben Miller, who was an unusual 
character, and James L. Torbert had private schools under the same roof 
that were independent of each other. Both taught only advanced pupils, 
Torbert advertising special instruction in English grammar. Only a 
hallway separated their school rooms, and there is no record of how 
they adjusted playground difficulties. Mrs. Ann Warder, a pioneer 
Springfield woman, brought an instructor from Pennsylvania to teach 
her own children, and some of her friends were privileged to send their 
children, and later Mrs. Warder engaged in teaching more advanced 
pupils, having as her assistants Mr. Lewis and Miss Armstrong. Miss 
Eunice Strong was another who had private school in Springfield. Miss 
Parsons was associated with Miss Strong as a teacher. 

A Mr. and Miss Elliott and Reverend Presbury had their day and 
later came Allen Armstrong and Miss Mary Harrison. Miss Hannah 
Haas taught for many years and a sister, Miss Catharine Haas, and 
among the primary teachers were Mrs. Lowndes, Miss Lavinia Baird, 
Misses Laura and Virginia Miller. Miss Baird taught in her own home, 
accepting children who were unable to pay tuition. She was prompted 
by the need of doing good in the community. The missionary spirit does 
not act so strongly in all teachers. Other private teachers were: Miss 
Vicory, Miss Peet, Miss Emma Way, Orin Stinson, Mrs. Anna Foos, 
Mr. Cadwallader, Mr. Buchanan, Miss Minerva Aldrich, Miss Gunning, 
Miss Smith, Mrs. Woodward, Mrs. Donohue, Miss Finley, Rev. Pingree, 
William Wilson, Miss Ebersole, Miss Doolittle, Isaac Lancey, James 
Wilson — they all conducted "pay schools." 

Some of the pay schools, especially those taught by ministers who 
sought this method of increasing their exchequer, incorporated the Bible 
in their course of study. Others who had private schools were Miss 
Matilda Stout, Mr. McWilliams, William Reid, Jane Reid, Rev. Wil- 
liam McGookin, Rev. John Rowe. Miss Anna B. Johnson continued 
that line of educational work in Springfield until the Seminary property 
on East High Street was acquired by the Springfield Young Woman's 
Christian Association. The names of J. Allison Smith, Rev. J. F. Saw- 
yer and Enoch C. Dial are found in the list of private educators. While 


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teaching in a seminary, Mr. Dial was a member of the Springfield Board 
of Education. 

Some of the private schools were personal enterprise without much 
thought of the future, but along in the '40s there was more effort 
toward organization. There were boarding schools for both sexes. In 
1844 Rev. Moore opened a boarding school for girls that was noted 
for its examinations and for its literary programs. In 1848 Rev. 
Chandler Robbins opened Greenway Institute, which was a boys' board- 
ing school, a counterpart of the female seminary. The number of 
pupils was limited, and it was a requirement that they board at the 
school. The plan was adopted by the professor in order to counteract 
what he deemed a serious error in the ordinary modes of education. 
Mental discipline was too often attained at the expense of health and 
morality. Human happiness depends not so much upon mental acquisi- 
tions as upon physical health and moral character. Mr. Robbins later 
became identified with Springfield public schools, and Greenway Insti- 
tute was later utilized as the first public hospital in Springfield. 

Memorable Year, 1850 

While Cincinnati had graded schools in 1836 and Akron in 1847, 
it was not until 1850 that such plan was undertaken in Springfield. An 
act known as the Akron law was extended in 1848 to incorporated towns 
and cities, and in 1849 it was further embodied in a general law allow- 
ing any town of 200 inhabitants to organize and conduct graded schools. 
The city records show that in 1850, two Springfield citizens were 
appointed as managers of the public schools. While they had been pri- 
vate enterprises supported in part by subscription, there was also an 
apportionment of public funds, but disbursed without much supervision. 
Almost anyone could qualify as a teacher. There is more red tape con- 
nected with it now than at the middle of the nineteenth century. 

The private schools must have been conducted in private property 
as are other business enterprises today, since in March, 1851, it was 
decided by vote to "build two schoolhouses for the purposes of com- 
mon schools," and by February, 1853, two lots were purchased and in 
January, 1854, contracts were let for the buildings. In April, 1855, 
the first board of education was named, as follows : Chandler Robbins, 
Joseph Brown and C. H. Williams. Because of the German popula- 
tion instruction in German was arranged, although the time came when, 
because of propagandi, it was not so popular. Provision was also made 
at the beginning for the education of negroes in Springfield. 

School Superintendent 

The first superintendent of common schools was F. W. Hurt. The 
principals were John Fulton and Daniel Berger, with R. W. Morris 
and Samuel Wheeler as assistants. In the course of a few years 
Chandler Robbins, who had conducted Greenway Institute, became 
superintendent. From that time on the office was discontinued and 
members, of the school board performed the duties in connection with 
the different principals. It is a noteworthy fact that Springfield was 
granted a city charter in 1850, and that an educational awakening began 
at that time. Although the office of school superintendent was aban- 

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doned, it was not long until one was employed for part time teaching 
and the rest of his time given to supervision. In this class were : Charles 
B. Ruggles, Allen Armstrong, John F. Reinmund and Charles H. Evans. 

When J. A. Jackson became superintendent of Springfield schools 
his entire time was given to it. Since 1875 the office has been filled 
by W. J. White, A. E. Taylor, W. H. Wier, Carey Boggess, John S. 
Weaver, Mr. Boggess a second time, and since 1917 Superintendent 
George E. McCord, who had been teacher in high school for some years. 
The board acquired property in 1869 that had been transferred in 1841 
to the Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. It was 
controlled by the church body as long as a school of high grade was 
maintained there, finally reverting back to Springfield. It was in the 
Y. W. C. A. building which was erected by popular subscription on 
land belonging to the public schools system. The original school on this 
site was organized in 1835 by Milo G. Williams, who remained" at its 
head till 1841, when the control passed to Chandler Robinson. It passed 
from Robinson to the Ohio Conference March 7, 1842, when a denom- 
inational high school was incorporated and Mr. Robbins was succeeded 
by Rev. Solomon Howard, representing the conference. 

While the Ohio conference managed the school, its superintendents 
were: Reverend Howard, Rev. John W. Weekly, E. G. Dial, Esq., 
Rev. W. J. Ellsworth and Rev. J. W. Herron. In succession these super- 
intendents managed the affairs of the school until 1869, when the prop- 
erty was leased to the Springfield Board of Education for public school 
purposes. The building was used for two years by the high school when 
it again passed into private control, schools for advanced grades being 
conducted there in succession by Mrs. Ruth A. Worthington, Misses 
Longwell and Talcott and Miss Johnson, already mentioned as occupying 
it when the property was acquired by the Young Woman's Christian 
Association. In 1849, Rev. Jonathan Edwards founded a select school 
for young women that prospered, and in 1852 a charter was secured for 
it. For a time it was housed in the First Presbyterian Church, later 
acquiring property on the site of- the Northern School, which, in turn, 
had been the site of the original cabin home in Springfield. 

This school received the moral support of the Presbyterians of Ohio, 
and had a season of great popularity. While it was founded by Jonathan 
Edwards, when it was installed in its own property it was managed by 
John A. Smith as a denominational school for girls. In 1854, the con- 
trol was assumed by Rev. L. H. Christian, who two years later was 
followed by Rev. Charles Sturdevant, who assumed the indebtedness 
of the institution and operated it alone. In 1857, Rev. James L. Rodgers 
purchased a half interest in the school, and five years later he 
owned it all. In 1871, it was acquired by the Board of Education, and 
thus the Springfield Female Seminary became Northern School. Wit- 
tenberg College, which came into existence in the period of so many 
private schools, is still in the educational field. 

Modern High School 

While Springfield school history goes back to the log school house 
with puncheon floors, slab benches without backs, and windows glazed 
with oil paper, since 1911 the high school has been housed in a splendid 
new building on South Limestone Street that is patterned after the Con- 

Vol. 1—12 

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gressional Library in Washington. The Junior High School on West 
High Street occupies the building that for many year served as the 
home of the high school in Springfield. It is still a community center for 
the schools outside of Springfield, and the public school clinics are con- 
ducted there. When the new high school was in process of building, 
Superintendent McCord was then a science teacher, and he was com- 
missioned by the Board of Education to inspect the building, and see 
that nothing of inferior material was used in it. Since 1917, his responsi- 
bility has been to know that the right kind of training is given in it. 
The young idea is taught to shoot under his supervision — the firearms 
being of the most approved workmanship. There is every facility, and 
since Superintendent McCord witnessed the installation of the equipment, 
he is capable of directing the use of it. 

It is a far cry from the days of the quill pen to the room equipped 
with modern typewriters in the business department ; from the utter lack 
of charts and maps to the present day equipment, and Superintendent 
Wier once said : "The ethics of the school room and play ground were 
taught by the lecture system. It was often illustrated by wood cuts exe- 
cuted by a species of free hand movement, that sometimes developed 
into an etching in white and blue bordering on black, knd applied epi- 
demically. For the proper development of the subject, a secluded 
corner of the basement served as the dark room for bringing out the 
details effectively," and according to published accounts, the doctrine 
of "laying on of hands" is still recognized; within one year there were 
ninety-seven cases of corporal punishment. However, the urchin who 
gets himself "paddled" now has a champion on the Board of Education 
in the person of Mrs. Clara A. Fry. 

In the November election, 1921, Mrs. Fry and Mrs. Helen B. Garver 
were elected members of the Springfield Board of Education. In 1897, 
Mrs. Henrietta G. Moore was a member, and Springfield club women 
feel that the franchise is worth while in the recognition thus secured for 
women. They sit on juries as well as on the school board. When Mrs. 
Fry and Mrs. Garver met with the board, Mrs. Fry remarked: "I 
noticed in the annual report that there were ninety-seven cases of corporal 
punishment in the high school last year. I do not think it is necessary. 
I am not in favor of it." Superintendent McCord replied: "I am not 
in favor of it, either, but sometimes nothing else will do; some of them 
need it." The women members of the board have been active in its busi- 
ness affairs, requiring some business formalities not always observed, and 
they do not hesitate in casting dissenting votes. The meetings are held 
in the office rooms of the building, and with women on the board com- 
petitive bidding is the plan when patronage is given out by the Springfield 
Board of Education, a news-writer saying: "The ladies are trying to 
save the town a little money." It was in the purchase of typewriters that 
the women first "locked horns" with the male members of the board. 
While Mrs. Fry went on record as opposed to corporal punishment, Mrs. 
Garver established the competitive bidding precedent. A Springfield 
club woman remarked: "The women members are to be reckoned with 
on the Board of Education." 

While the Springfield school board thought it was building for the 
future when planning its splendid high school building, within ten years 
the crying need was more room. While the contract price for the build- 
ing was $270,000, an additional appropriation of $70,000 was made, and 

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the investment reached $340,000 without furnishings, and in the office 
of Superintendent McCord is some of the furniture from the old build- 
ing. With an auditorium seating 1,160 persons, and modern equipment 
in all of the departments, considerable money was spent for furniture. 
Under Smith-Hughes conditions much equipment is manufactured by 
students in the manual training department. When Superintendent 
McCord submits a design, the furniture is manufactured in the building. 
An old account says: "These were the days of quill pens with the 
teacher as maker and mender. While making his rounds of inspection 
and correction, the teacher was wont to fix the damaged quills passed up 
to him. A good pen knife with proper edge and temper was, therefore, 
an essential in the equipment of the master. His skill and speed in the 
art of pen-cutting counted for much in his qualifications. He would 
thrust quills into his hair till some one wanted them. He would make 
quills and write copy," but Superintendent McCord delegates all those 
minor details to others. 

Children are coming and going, and by shifting the hours of attend- 
ance, they are accommodated. There are 292 teachers, forty-eight in 
high school and 244 in the grades. High school teachers must be college 
graduates, and they must have experience elsewhere. Preference is given 
to outside teachers because they sometimes bring new methods. The 
high school teacher must have the A. B. degree two years' experience, 
although the experience may be gained as a grade teacher. Grade teach- 
ers of ability are advanced to high school positions when they have the 
requisite qualifications. Junior High School teachers must have college 
degrees, and hold state certificates, thus high school teachers may be 
employed anywhere in Ohio. All grade teachers in Springfield must be 
graduates of an approved high school, and must have two years normal 
training. Many local graduates teach in the grades. 

Names of Schools 

While the Springfield High School is without further designation, 
the grade schools are: Bushnell, with eight rooms; Elmwood, with 
eleven rooms ; Emerson, with sixteen rooms ; Fulton, with twelve rooms ; 
Garfield, with eight rooms; Gray, with thirteen rooms; Jefferson, with 
eleven rooms; Henry L. Schaefer Junior High, thirteen rooms; High- 
lands, twelve rooms ; I. Ward Frey, thirteen rooms ; Central Junior High, 
twenty-four rooms (old high school); Lagonda, eight rooms; Lincoln, 
eleven rooms ; McKinley, eight rooms ; Melrose, one room ; Northern, 
nineteen rooms (old Springfield Female Seminary) ; Northern Heights, 
twelve rooms (old county infirmary) ; Snyder Park Junior High, four- 
teen rooms; Southern, eight rooms; Warder Park, thirteen rooms; Wash- 
ington, fourteen rooms; Western, ten rooms. While a few names sug- 
gest locality, others commemorate individuals both of local and national 
repute. Sometimes special favors are thus acknowledged, grateful 
recognition being small recompense. The Board of Education, superin- 
tendent of schools, business manager, clerk and truant officer have offices 
on the ground floor of the high school building on South Limestone 

While there is street car service, the Board of Education has provided 
Superintendent McCord with an automobile in which he visits the differ- 
ent schools. In 1921, the high school enrollment reached 1,360. with an 

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average daily attendance of 1,212. With an enrollment of 697 in junior 
high schools, and with 7,608 pupils in the grades, the superintendent has 
10,000 pupils under his direction, and the automobile serves an excellent 
purpose. The superintendent is working under twentieth century condi- 
tions. The Junior High School receives pupils in the seventh and eighth 
grades, and it has been demonstrated that pupils having advance high 
school training are apt to remain fmd complete the high school training. 
The old idea that high school education was a luxury enjoyed by but 
few is thus overcome, and its privileges are shared by some who would 
otherwise leave school when completing the eighth grade. A noticeable 
feature — there are as many men as women employed in the Springfield 
High School. 

While the classical schools were the fore-runners of the present effec- 
tive high school system in Springfield, and courses of study were sus- 
tained in moral philosophy, chemistry, and ancient languages — rhetoric, 
criticism, mathematics, elocution, piano, melodeon, French and German, 
the teachers of that period would be nonplussed by the outlines of study 
pursued in public schools in Springfield. Bible was a text book in the 
classical schools, and Superintendent McCord retains it, notwithstanding 
the agitation against it. The teachers read from it at pleasure in the 
daily routine of service. .While there were substantial educators, there 
was not much sentiment for a high school course of instruction until 
1873, when C. H. Evans was at the helm. When high school was 
inaugurated, sessions were held in the office of Dr. Isaac Kay and in 
the Congregational Church ; today an immense army attends the high 
school sessions in Springfield. 

The course of study contemplates twelve years in public school, and 
including junior high one-half the period is spent in high school, if the 
pupil is able to make the grade as planned by the Board of Education. 
There are two attendance officers — one a vocational officer, and attend- 
ance is compulsory until eighteen years of age; the officer must know 
why a child is absent, and the industrial situation does not offer much 
difficulty. Manufacturers understand the situation, and child labor is not 
used in competition with educational opportunities. The war labor short- 
age made some difference, children wanting to work when fabulous 
wages were paid in the factories. Sometimes there is work for children, 
when men do not have employment. Women find employment when 
men are idle, and in some homes men get children ready for school while 
women work in factories; the vocational officer knows about it. 

In high school all teachers do departmental work, and there are 
supervisors in the different departments. Teachers specialize in language, 
mathematics, science — and the pupils come to their rooms. Their study 
periods are passed in the auditorium assembly room, where a supervisor 
of study is in attendance. The industrial features claim much attention 
in the Springfield public schools; much expense is saved to the Board 
of Education by having work done by pupils, and the selfsame pupils are 
mastering a craft while doing it. Nothing is done competitively, and 
while the Typographical Unions are not favorable to school printing, 
the students are not apprentices. A master printer is- in charge of the 
department. Modern shops of all kinds are installed in the basement, 
and teachers are practical men from the factories. When a good work- 
man with teaching ability is discovered, he is offered a position in the 
industrial department of the public schools. 

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The high school molders and iron workers make their own equip- 
ment, each student spending one and one-half hours in manual training. 
This industrial feature holds many boys in school who would enter 
factories without completing their high school studies. When the 
pioneers needed some article of equipment they made it themselves; the 
boys in manual training do the same thing. The Smith-Hughes law 
provides for the education of the hand as well as of the head, and the 
boy with manual training opportunities becomes independent — does things 
for himself. The pioneer necessity was followed by an era of buying 
everything, but the pendulum has swung back again ; the boy makes what 
he wants instead of buying it. 

The study of economic conditions reveals the fact that the boys who 
enter manual training come from the homes of working men rather than 
professional people. Business and professional people live in certain 
localities, and children from such homes take the classical instruction, 
while boys from the homes of laboring men consider industrial advan- 
tages. The different homes furnish children of different inclinations, 
although sometimes the professional man comes out of the industrial 
environment; the mechanic springs from the professional or business 
atmosphere. It is the duty of educators to supply the necessary technical 
training whatever the home influence ; the boys learn theory, and practice 
is acquired later. The industrial experiment in Springfield was installed 
in 1917, and has proven satisfactory. Girls are given similar advantages 
in domestic science and needle work, but the race question enters into it 
and some girls are deterred because Negro girls are inclined toward the 
household arts. It is an elective course, and girls learn millinery as well 
as cookery. 

A spinning wheel standi in one of the sewing rooms, and the girls 
are thus brought face to face with the changed conditions surrounding 
the lives of their mothers and grandmothers. Fruits are canned, and 
while the girls are learning how they are also learning why — and that 
constitutes domestic science. While mothers know how, they do not 
always know why, and thus the next generation will be superior as home- 
makers and housekeepers. The arts are taught, and basketry has its 
appeal to most young girls. The school cafeteria has demonstrated its 
economic usefulness, and with a man and his wife in charge there are no 
flirtations. While nearby children go home for their dinners, those 
remaining are served in three sections so there is no rush in the dining 
rootn, and food is supplied at cost. In order to encourage the use of 
soups at the noon-day luncheons, the price was reduced from 5 to 2 
cents, thereby encouraging them to have something warm rather than 
the cold dishes available. In some cities the" question of validity has 
been raised where high schools serve lunches ; a suit has been brought in 
Cleveland to test it. 

In some of the Springfield schools because of unusual living condi- 
tions, lunches of milk and wafers have been served free, the number 
availing themselves of the privilege surprising the board. One criticism 
has been offered that too little attention has been given to what should 
constitute the child's diet, and adults have no knowledge of comparative 
food values. The pioneer mother who understood balanced rations had 
very little illness in her family, while other families had sickness all of 
the time. Domestic science is overcoming that difficulty. When women 
plan their menus intelligently digestion is better, and correctives are 

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unnecessary. Along with the better English agitation should come a 
better understanding of dietetics. 

As early as 1906, the Springfield public schools engaged in the sale of 
Christmas seals in the warfare against tuberculosis, and precaution is 
taken against contagion of whatever the nature. When children enter 
school at six years of age, boys average a pound heavier than girls, and 
they are half an inch taller. Statistics show that girls make better aver- 
ages in their studies than boys. It was under the direction of Superin- 
tendent Boggess that clinics was installed, and pupils are advised in 
medicine and dentistry ; special attention is given the eye, ear, nose and 
throat at the free clinics. While the clinic was instituted for the benefit 
of those who are unable to pay for professional service, the children of 
well-to-do families avail themselves of the privilege. There is always a 
waiting list with clinics every morning and one afternoon; two doctors 
and one dentist give part-time service, and two nurses give full time to 
the work of the health department. The nurses visit the different schools, 
and when necessary they investigate home conditions. In most instances 
parents show a willingness to cooperate with them. 

The modern schools have rest rooms provided, and health questions 
are considered. While there is some opposition to vaccination, the doc- 
tors perform that service at the clinics. A typical monthly report filed 
for January, 1922, shows 366 clinic cases attended to, with 297 carried 
over from December; eighty-seven new cases with twenty-four cases 
discharged, and 332 cases left over for February. Nurses and doctors 
visited 166 class rooms within the month, giving seven talks and making 
many examinations. The doctors examined 805 students, and the nurses 
111, and they discovered 670 defectives. There were eleven dental clinics 
with an average of ten pupils receiving attention. Forty-one children 
remained out of school from want of clothing, and 257 cases were inves- 
tigated by the attendance officers ; some had passed the age requirement, 
and others returned to school under compulsion. 

Through the business office of the public school an immense volume 
of business is transacted — a million dollars in receipts and disbursements 
every year, and an auditing committee goes through all the details. The 
public school is a vast industrial center, and business methods are neces- 
sary in operating it. Superintendent McCord has surrounded himself 
with supervisors, teachers and executives, and organization is every- 
where apparent. Athletics are duly recognized as elsewhere mentioned, 
and when teachers have given a lifetime to service they are placed on a 
pension list, the system becoming uniform in Springfield September 1, 
1920. While a number of teachers receive pensions, some have taken 
employment elsewhere and thus receive both salary and pension. When 
a teacher has served thirty-six years, the pension relieves him of further 
teaching service. It is known as the State Teachers' Retirement System, 
and those planning to take advantage of it contribute four percent of 
their annual salaries toward it, thus establishing a savings account for 

Every question that comes up for consideration anywhere is sure to 
come up in Springfield, and with parent-teacher cooperation it seems that 
all are amicably settled. While not all finish high school, many who do 
attend college, and with Wittenberg available they obtain a liberal edu- 
cation without quitting Clark County. With day and night school a 
liberal education is a possibility, and with Wittenberg and numerous 

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other colleges at hand, Clark County young people are availing them- 
selves of the splendid opportunity. Ohio leads the country with forty- 
one young men having availed themselves of the Cecil Rhodes scholar- 
ship, and Springfield and Clark County rank high in the number of high 
school and college graduates. 

Ridgewood School 

The Ridgewood Select School was established in 1919, to fill a need 
recognized by many parents in Springfield. While it only serves a lim- 
ited number of children, it admits of individual attention. It is not a 
commercial enterprise, and profits above expenses are applied on build- 
ing and equipment. The principal is Miss Marthena Winger. She is 
assisted by teachers who specialize in Kindergarten, French, music and 
physical culture. The limit is sixty-five pupils and a sufficient number of 
teachers are employed to insure personal attention to each child, which 
is impossible under average conditions in a crowded school room. 

The Ridgewood School is located on North Fountain Boulevard, and 
is the result of the plans and efforts of those interested in the project. 
It admits both boys and girls from kindergarten to the fourth grade, 
inclusive, the course of study being planned to meet preparatory require- 
ments. Nature study is related to the seasons, and the school gardens 
are cared for by the children under the personal direction of a teacher. 
Physical training is given daily, and chapel exercise is of a nature adapted 
to the understanding of the children. Children from different parts of 
Springfield attend the Ridgewood School, and the experiment is satis- 
factory to those promoting it. 

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The epigram: "A bigger and better Springfield through a greater 
Wittenberg/' is reversible ; it reflects the attitude of the city toward the 
college, and of the college toward the city. There is no apparent lack of 

There is college sentiment afield, and Wittenberg day is observed in 
many communities. The annual report of the Synod of Ohio says of 
Wittenberg : "The outstanding institution on the territory of our Synod," 
and the dean of another institution of learning exclaims: "Of all the 
colleges of the state, not one has a better balanced faculty than Witten- 
berg ; it stands out strongly among the faculties of Ohio colleges." This 
sketch of Wittenberg is adapted from an earlier one written by Dr. B. F. 
Prince, who as president of the Clark County Historical Society, is 
supervising editor of this history: Springfield and Clark County. In 
1865, he graduated from the college, and one year later he became identi- 
field with its faculty. Since he is the senior member, and has spent more 
than half a century in its service. Dr. Prince is sometimes designated: 
"The Grand Old Man of Wittenberg." 

As early as 1830, there was a sentiment for a Lutheran institution of 
learning in the West — then Ohio and Indiana. The Evangelical Luther- 
ans realized that if they were to maintain a permanent footing, they must 
meet the educational need ; while the church advocated the education of 
the masses, the immediate need was the training of ministers. They 
wanted a centrally located institution. While the first effort was in the 
interest of Germans, they soon recognized the many who were relinquish- 
ing the German and learning the English language. While their first 
thought was instruction in theology, they soon included the laity who 
sought scientific knowledge; they wanted an education fitting them for 
the channels of business and trade. 

When the Evangelical Lutherans were planning a college. Wooster, 
Canton, Xenia and Springfield were under consideration. Rev. Ezra 
Keller, D. D., who was representing the Pennsylvania Ministerium as a 
missionary and visiting churches in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, 
was a young man of zeal and ability. He was recognized as a theologian 
and as a practical preacher. The country was filling up rapidly, and as a 
man of vision Doctor Keller recognized the importance of training young 
men for the ministry in the territory where their activities were needed. 
There was need of leaders both in church and state, and the church must 
educate them ; it must educate both the ministry and the laity. 

Located at Wooster 

When the Lutherans were considering a college, it was the prevalent 
feeling that Doctor Keller should become its president ; he was active 
in church and community affairs. When the Wittenberg fund amounted 
to $10,000, a school was opened at Wooster in 1844, although Doctor 
Keller, who then served the Lutheran Church organized in 1841 in 
Springfield, thought of it as the logical site of such institution. It was 


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farther south and west, and nearer those who would be attracted to it. 
While the Lutherans had little money, they had hope and great expecta- 
tions. On March 11, 1845, Wittenberg College was chartered by the 
State Legislature and located at Springfield. While Doctor Keller 
accepted a call to the faculty, it was not as president of the college. 

When the college opened at Wooster, there were seventeen students 
enrolled in the classical, and four in the theological department; it was 
not then co-educational. Two of the divinity students, David Earhart 
and Isaac Culler, were licensed by the English Synod, and they entered 
the ministry with one year's training; the others, David Harbaugh and 
Adam Helwig, transferred to Springfield. After the college had received 
its charter and a campus secured, some preliminary work was necessary ; 
while "the groves were God's first temples," Wittenberg campus needed 
some improvements. It was always a beauty spot — the handiwork of 
Mother Nature, yet- Father Time must accomplish something before 
school was opened there, and building began on the campus the second 
year Wittenberg was in Springfield. 

In the Lutheran Church 

While the First Lutheran Church of Springfield was unfinished, it 
was utilized by the college. When school opened November 3, 1845, 
there were five students present the first hour with four more enrolling 
later in the day. There were seventy students the first year Wittenberg 
was in Springfield; there are now more than fifteen times that number 
of young men and women in the college. While it is strictly a denomina- 
tional school, not all who study in Wittenberg are Lutherans. A recent 
survey shows the following denominations matriculated : Adventist, Bap- 
tist, Catholic, Christian, Church of Christ, Christian Science, Congrega- 
tionalism Episcopalian, Evangelical, Friends, Greek Orthodox, Jewish, 
Lutheran, Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, Moravian, Pres- 
byterian, Reformed, United Brethern, United Presbyterian, and sixteen 
students who have no church affiliation. While the Lutherans are in the 
majority, Wittenberg is a community educational center. 

When Wittenberg firfct opened its doors in Springfield, domitory priv- 
ileges were furnished in the unfinished church and in private homes; 
some of the students furnished their own rooms according to their own 
ability. They used heating stoves for cooking, and sperm, corn oil and 
lard were used for lighting the rooms. The Simon family undertook 
boarding students at the rate of 873^ cents a week, but they soon raised 
the price to $1.25 — now the price of a single meal in Springfield. The 
simple life then prevailed in Clark County and the rest of the territory 
served by Wittenberg College. 

Wittenberg College campus includes about fifty acres — hills and dales, 
and climbing the hills of .the campus and the hills of difficulty are alike 
invigorating, and Doctor Keller was indefatigable; lack of funds did not 
deter him. The people in the Great Miami Valley were prosperous in 
material things, and the Pennsylvania Ministerium was gratified with 
results; it has supplied the missionaries who awakened the religious 
interest, and one of them had aroused an educational interest. While 
others organized churches, it had remained for Doctor Keller to organize 
Wittenberg College. Within a few months he secured the necessary 
cooperation in Springfield and Clark County, and all along friends have 

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taken care of the finance ; men and women leave their money to Witten- 
berg. It has always had the confidence and support of Lutherans, and 
they give their farms toward its endowment. Its charter provides for 
theological and scientific education ; the classes and the masses are edu- 
cated at Wittenberg College. 

A Man of Vision 

While Doctor Keller had the necessary vision, he did not possess the 
necessary physique; his strength was not equal to the manifold duties 
required of him. While he had offered his service as professor of theol- 

Recitation Hall, Wittenberg College 

ogy, because of the pressure of financial and administrative duties, 
the Board of Directors soon imposed upon him the duties of presi- 
dent. The college was already established, and housing it was the next 
problem confronting the board. Building started on Wittenberg campus 
in 1846, and for the first forty years in college history, what is now 
Myers Hall was Wittenberg ; the name Myers has been attached in honor 
of those who refitted it, making of it a dormitory accommodating more 
than 100 students. While it requires climbing to reach it, a happy group 
of students finds economic shelter there. 

In the spring of 1847, Doctor Keller assumed full financial responsi- 
bility ; the builders must proceed with the construction, and they must be 

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paid; he would trust to the future. He was the minister in the local 
Lutheran Church, and he was now president of Wittenberg College. 
The duties were too exacting and numerous for this frail man; the 
responsibility reduced his strength, and he fell an easy prey to disease. 
In December, 1848, Doctor Keller contracted typhoid fever, and in his 
weakened condition his system offered little resistance. On December 
29 he died and a grave was made for him in the northwest corner of 
Wittenberg campus. The spot was dear 'to him in life, and on New 
Year's Day, 1849, he was laid to rest there until the opening of Ferncliff 
Cemetery when his dust was transferred; his mortal remains still over- 
shadowed by Wittenberg College. They said of Doctor Keller that he 
was a Saint in the House of Israel. He had endeared himself to all 
who knew him, and in the midst of his usefulness he had been stricken 
from them. 

Dr. Samuel Sprecher 

While Doctor Keller's death produced profound sorrow in the com- 
munity, the work he began in Wittenberg College was not allowed to 


». J> tfllf^li^.M - «* 

Class Scene. Wittenberg 

Wittenberg Football Team 

stop; he would not have wished it. In June, the Rev. Samuel Sprecher 
of Pennsylvania responded to the call of the board and assumed the 
duties as president of Wittenberg. He proved himself the right man, 
having both executive ability and being an excellent teacher. Doctor 
Keller had been popular, and the work of his successor was more closely 
scrutinized because of it, but he soon demonstrated his capability both 
in the college and the seminary ; the board had made no mistake in choos- 
ing him to administer the affairs of the institution. An admiring writer 
exclaims of Doctor Sprecher: "His was the master mind that lived in 
regions of broad expanse of thought and Christian philosophy, and which 
he opened to delight those who sat at his feet as learners." 

When Doctor Sprecher came to Wittenberg there was unfinished 
work. There was an unfinished building and there was money needed 
to complete it. While it seemed an impossible task, within two years 
he had accomplished it, and in 1851 the first class graduated from the 
college. It numbered eight members, four of them ministers, two law- 
yers, one physician and one entered upon a business career. While half 
the original class entered the ministry, at the present time with 1,500 
vacant pulpits in the United States, and with one in eight Lutheran pul- 
pits vacant, effort is now being concentrated toward securing students 
for Hamma Divinity School. The college is making a drive to induce 

Vol. 1—13 

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more young men to enter the ministry. Father and son banquets are 
being held throughout Wittenberg territory, with gratifying results. 
Hundreds of men and boys attend the banquets, and Wittenberg films 
are used by field secretaries, the films showing campus activities and 
arousing much interest in the college. 

For many years Wittenberg College struggled for its existence ; while 
it had slender means at hand, endowments came later, and its history 
shows how much may be accomplished in awakening ambition without 
lavish expenditure of money. Finance has always been a pressing ques- 
tion, and when needed most of it has always been forthcoming. While 
cheap scholarships were offered as an inducement, they proved a disap- 
pointment to the board. When Doctor Sprecher went into the field to 
secure the necessary funds, he also interested Lutherans in the endow- 
ment plan; he was building for the future. Coming to the presidency 
of Wittenberg College in 1849, and remaining at the helm through the 
strenuous days of the Civil war, Doctor Sprecher fully demonstrated his 
efficiency; the people then used the word ability. There were not so 
many psychologists floating around discussing efficiency. 

When the Civil war came . on it reduced the attendance and the 
resources of the college. Wittenberg students went to war in such 
numbers as to call forth the commendation of the United States Govern- 
ment; twice since then has it contributed the flower of its student body 
to the call of their country. While the Spanish-American war did not 
attract so many, Wittenberg rallied to the call when soldiers were needed 
in the World war. The college was founded while the Mexican war was 
in progress, and three wars have drawn recruits from it. Doctor Sprecher 
remained as president twenty-five years, and a high grade scholarship 
was established and maintained by him. He was the embodiment of high 
thinking, and he was an inspiration to others. 

Dr. J. B. Helwig 

When Doctor Sprecher resigned as president in 1874, Rev. John B. 
Helwig, D. D., served in that relation for eight years. He was an earnest 
worker and built up the institution. While he was president, Wittenberg 
became co-educational and young women were admitted to the college 
as students, rendering a more extensive and flexible curriculum neces- 
sary. The school was iii better financial condition, and when buildings 
were needed they were provided ; a building era ensued. The necessary 
labor connected with the administrative duties weighed heavily upon 
President Helwig. In 1882 he resigned, not wishing to assume the strain 
of building responsibilities. Some men have capacity for one thing, and 
Dr. Helwig knew his human limitations ; he was not a builder. 

Dr. S. A. Ort 

The vacancy in the president's office was filled by the promotion of 
Rev. Samuel A. Ort, who, for two years, had filled the chair of theol- 
ogy. He assumed his duties immediately, and soon secured the neces- 
sary building funds. By April the following year construction was 
under way; however, the building designated as Recitation Hall was not 
ready for occupancy until September, 1886, there being delays from vari- 
ous causes. When finally completed, this building meant much to the 

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faculty as well as the whole student body. It has an auditorium and 
affords better class room facilities. The money for building it was 
raised mostly in Springfield and Clark County. It is a community cen- 
ter used for many things. The chapel meetings and lectures are held in 
this auditorium, and to many college visitors it is Wittenberg. 

In the meantime the field of instruction was broadened; in science, 
the opportunities became more practical and extensive, there were new 
methods of study, and students themselves became investigators. They 
were inclined to find out scientific truths — were learning to think things 
out for themselves. "Think for thyself one good idea, yet known to be 
thine own," and Wittenberg students were learning that, "It is better 
far than fields by others sown," and thus education was serving its high- 
est purpose. Better working facilities were followed by better results, 
and Wittenberg had become a prosperous school. After the women were 
admitted the attendance increased, more non-resident students being 
attracted to the college, and the housing problem became acute. When 

Hamma Divinity School 

children quit their homes for an education, the parents want to know 
that they are comfortable and in the right environment. 

Ferncliff Hall 

In June, 1887, the board decided to construct a suitable building for 
the co-eds; it was necessary to provide for the young women within a 
reasonable distance from the college. Mothers want to know the influ- 
ences surrounding their daughters, and Ferncliff Hall, just outside the 
campus, was ready for occupancy in 1888; it was opened in September 
of that year. Since then applications are made in advance, and many 
young women must find other accommodations; the fraternities and 
sororities help to solve the housing problem in the neighborhood of the 
college. Social life is under college supervision, Miss Grace Clark Webb 
coming as the first dean of women. She has charge of disciplinary work, 
having assumed her duties in March, 1922. She shares responsibility 
with Dean C. G. Shatzer, who has been disciplinarian of the college. 

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However, it is said that morality standards are higher among college stu- 
dents than in any other group of corresponding numbers. It has been 
said, "American colleges are the best expressions of democracy that we 
have in this country," and the question concerning the faculty is : "What 
kind of men and women will be produced under these conditions?" 

Hamma Divinity School 

It was in 1889 that the cornerstone was laid for Hamma Divinity 
Hall on the Wittenberg campus. In 1890 it was opened, and "supplied 
a long felt want," as it enabled young men to pursue special studies in 
preparation for the ministry. The teaching force was enlarged, and the 
building offered many advantages. It was named in honor of Rev. 
M. W. Hamma, D. D., who endowed it. but in December, 1900. it was 
destroyed by fire. The college had attained to a point where it could 
survive losses better, and in 1901, Hamma Divinity Hall was built again. 
Seminary features have been incorporated, and the course of study 
appeals to would-be ministers. The legacy left to the seminary by Rev. 
Charles Stroud enables it to offer the best possible course of instruction 
in theology, and while it has an excellent faculty, it suffered an irre- 
parable loss in the death of Dean D. H. Bauslin recently. For years he 
had been at the head of Hamma Divinity School, the seminary branch of 
Wittenberg. Death came to him in Bucyrus where he had gone to con- 
duct the funeral services of an old friend. 

The Zimmerman Library 

While it is elsewhere mentioned, there is an excellent working library 
accessible to Wittenberg College students. It is housed in a stone build- 
ing occupying one of the most commanding sites on the campus, and is a 
gift from John L. Zimmerman commemorating his brother, Rev. Joseph 
Clark Zimmerman. The library affords a restful nook, and a glimpse of 
the sunset rewards the tourist for visiting the spot at eventide. It is a 
quiet place to commune with master minds, and became a reality there 
in 1891-2, with Miss Grace Prince as librarian. Until it had its own 
building, the books constituting the library had different custodians, no 
one giving full time to the care of them. 

Dr. J. M. Ruthrauff 

After eighteen years as president of Wittenberg, Doctor Ort severed 
that connection with the college; in 1900 he offered his resignation. 
Doctor Ort was promoted from the faculty of the seminary to the presi- 
dency, and returned to it, occupying^ the chair of theology in the semi- 
nary and of philosophy in the college* While he was president the insti- 
tution was prosperous, but he desired to be relieved of so much responsi- 
bility. When Doctor Ruthrauff was installed as president in 1900, he 
was relieved of the duty of teaching; the previous presidents all had 
given much time to pedagogics, but as business manager he immediately 
began advancing the finances of the college. The growing needs of the 
school required an executive to give all of his time to financing the insti- 
tution. The Rev. J. Mosheim Ruthrauff displayed commendable zeal, 
but his labors were destined to short duration. With suddenness that 

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falls to few men, death summoned him and again there was a vacancy 
in the presidency of Wittenberg. 

Dr. Charles G. Heckert 

It was one year from the time of the death of Doctor Ruthrauff until 
Wittenberg named his successor ; in the meantime Doctor Ort was acting 
president. In the spring of 1903, Dr. Charles G. Heckert, D. D., who 
occupied the chair of English and logic in the college, was elected to the 
vacancy. He accepted the honor under condition that he continue teach- 
ing until the annual commencement time, and his wish was granted by the 
board. For fourteen years Doctor Heckert had been an instructor, and 
he knew the Requirements of the presidency. While he entered upon the 
duties without needing a period of tutelage, he wanted to remain with 
the class until it left the college. When Doctor Heckert entered upon 
the duties of the presidency, he displayed the same loyalty to the entire 
college that he had shown to his classes. 

It was at a time of great material prosperity, and under the Heckert 
regime Wittenberg advanced in many ways. Through his earnest efforts 
the Carnegie Science Hall was secured, and it was fitted up with the 
most approved equipment. The building stands as a monument to 
Andrew Carnegie, and to Doctor Heckert. He died December 7, 1920, 
and after having given many years as professor and as president, he 
planned to give his accumulated fortune to the college. Under the terms 
of the will his widow was to hold the property her lifetime, and then 
it would revert to Wittenberg. She is a business woman, and realizing 
that property was then at a very high rating, she relinquished her claim, 
accepting an annuity, and thus more money was added to the Wittenberg 
endowment fund. While Doctor Heckert was president, he was always 
alert and about the last thing that actuated him was a financial drive 
that secured $2,000,000, and $500,000 of the amount came from Lutheran 

The Synod report says : "Hamma Divinity School is having the best 
year of its history, and is the seminary for the young men of Ohio who 
enter the Christian ministry. We are under obligations to support it." 
Since Doctor Heckert graduated from Wittenberg in 1886, and from 
Hamma Divinity School in 1889, and had since been connected with the 
faculty until he became its president, it seems fitting that he should 
endow it with the money that had come to him from it. As the sixth 
president of Wittenberg College, Doctor Heckert left the indelible 
impression of a strong, wise and effective executive, the Synod report 
saying further, that under his applied energy and business management 
he prepared Wittenberg College for the progressive movement that has 
awakened our churches to the value, power, possibility and achievement 
that properly belongs to our beloved Wittenberg. 

And this further tribute from the Synod report: President Heckert 
was more than a scholastic executive or institutional administrator; he 
was a living citizen. He recognized his obligation to the Community; 
he paid the same with an energetic, sacrificial devotion of himself to his 
civilian duty. He won the admiration and confidence of those who 
formed the bone and sinew of Springfield's public and community life. 
In his duplex position — collegian and civilian, he rapidly expended the 
forces of his physical vitality, and hastened the termination of his life. 

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His monument was what he achieved: A stronger and better Witten- 
berg for God and man was his life objective. 

Dr. Rees Edgar Tulloss 

The seventh president of Wittenberg College is Dr. Rees Edgar Tul- 
loss. In 1921 he succeeded Doctor Heckert. He ^graduated from the 
college in 1906, and entered upon a business career in Cadiz. He is the 
inventor of a system of shorthand — the Tulloss System — which has been 
on the market since 1901, being a copyrighted correspondence course, and 
he was invited to become president because of his well known executive 
ability. Doctor Tulloss does not sustain a teaching relation to the col- 
lege, but he does have the confidence and support of the community. 
While he is in the full strength of his manhood, before him is the exam- 
ple of six college presidents who gave their all to Wittenberg. In their 
zeal for the college, they did not husband their own strength. While one 
or two resigned, it was after physical exhaustion had come to them. 
The maxim holds : "Better wear out that rust out," but men of today 
have learned to "know themselves." 

Not so much is required of the executive; earlier Wittenberg presi- 
dents were teachers while looking after all other details, and they rested 
on Sunday by delivering regular sermons. Dr. Samuel Sprecher served 
the college through the most strenuous period, and when Myers Hall then 
known as Wittenberg was placed on the campus, the students were called 
upon to help elevate the timbers for the cupola. When he had grown 
old one of them penned the line: "After this exercise we were treated 
to a liberal quantity of Cronk's beer, a mild effervescent then in vogue, 
put up in quart stone jugs." That was the first building on the campus, 
and it was given the most commanding position; the board had not 
investigated the subject of landscape.. Whenever a new building was 
to be erected, a committee walked over the campus and located the site 
for it without regard to other features. 

Until recent years none of the American colleges had given any atten- 
tion to the problem of campus planning; the system of locating drives 
and placing additional buildings was hit-or-miss, but in view of the 
unusual possibilities of the Wittenberg campus, definite landscape plans 
have been developed. A number of noted architects and campus-plan- 
ning experts have offered suggestions and future development will be 
with relation to natural advantages as well as in conformity to the build- 
ings already fixtures of the campus. A topographical survey has been 
made showing the campus with all walks, buildings, roads, etc., and by 
the aid of the maps the advisory board has been able to agree upon 
plans for the future development. Buildings in prospect are already 
located, and toward the western end of the plaza is to stand a bronze 
statue of Martin Luther. President Tulloss says: "This plan repre- 
sents the Wittenberg College of the future." 

Since that first commencement day in 1851, Wittenberg has dis- 
tributed ministers and missionaries over four continents. These grad- 
uates have been useful citizens, and some have been community builders ; 
they have made themselves known in state and nation. Among them 
are manufacturers, business men, lawyers and preachers, and while many 
graduated with honors others only spent a year or two and were better 
equipped for service. Many have become an honor to themselves and to 

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their Alma Mater. The college has meant something to the under-grad- 
uates ; it has given them vision and to them it has been a benediction. 

When women were admitted other departments were inaugurated, and 
from the beginning Wittenberg has maintained an academy. It fits stu- 
dents for college, and recently the department of religious education has 
been added with Rev. Paul H. Heisey as its first instructor. There are 
three literary societies: Excelsior, Philosophian and Euterpean and 
weekly meetings are held by all. College students show talent in writing 
plays, and the Wittenberg Dramatic Society stages some of them. Stu- 
dents with low grades are dismissed from school, and application is the 
one method of advancement. The Saturday School attracts manv 

One Commencement Day, Wittenberg 

teachers outside of Springfield who desire credits and to make up back 
work. They are allowed to pursue three studies for which they receive 
three semester hours credit. The college maintains a Y. M. C A. and a 
Y. W. C. A., and it offers social as well as educational advantages. 

While some members of the faculty are Wittenberg graduates, many 
of them have taken post-graduate work in other institutions. The pro- 
fessors from the beginning have been a high type of scholarship and 
manhood, and they have been given to independent thinking and thorough 
investigation; that spirit still prevails in Wittenberg. While Doctor 
Keller and Doctor Sprecher wrought under adverse conditions, they 
imparted inspiration as well as information. It is the spirit an instructor 
awakens that counts for most, and while those pioneers wrought under 

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disadvantages, their work was not in vain. Improved equipment is the 
legacy of the years, and the success desired by Doctor Keller when he 
fell on his knees on the campus and prayed for direction from Almighty 
God has already been vouchsafed to Wittenberg College. 

The Wittenberg Scenario emphasizes the beauty of the campus, and 
it is shown to multitudes who gain their first definite knowledge of the 
college from it. The films were, prepared under faculty supervision, and 
they show every phase of college activity from the opening of school in 
the fall to the great Alma Mater festival, and the commencement day 
ceremonies. It is an effective method of advertising Wittenberg among 
the Lutherans of the surrounding country. 

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The question has been raised as to which is the greatest community 
influence: church, school or press, and in the May American Magazine 
a minister says he stepped out of the pulpit and into the newspapers 
because he wanted all of the world, and the only place to find it was 
reading the newspapers. Through the syndicated service he is reaching 
the readers of many newspapers, and no questions are asked of any; 
there, and there alone, are college professors, elevator boys, hired girls 
and millionaires. In the newspaper world there is no exclusiveness, no 
respectability — nothing but just folks. 

A local writer says: "In newspapers, Springfield has always had its 
full share. They have been devoted to politics, to agriculture, to tem- 
perance and to religion. They have been agencies in helping to fight the 
great civic and moral battles which are incident to the life and develop- 
ment of a growing and prosperous city. Their influence has not been 
confined to mere local bounds, but it has gone out to the broader fields 
of human life, and has been favorable to the best statesmanship, the 
best religious development, and to the highest type of everyday life. 
Our newspapers have, therefore, been useful, progressive and helpful," 
and what Clifton M. Nichols said of the Springfield papers in the 
Centennial History of Springfield, describes the New Carlisle and South 
Charleston publications in their respective communities. 

The Farmer 

The old newspaper on file in the rooms of the Clark County His- 
torical Society is a copy of The Farmer, bearing date: April 21, 1819, 
the subscription price being $2 when paid within four weeks, or $3 when 
paid in six months. There were fifty-two issues in the year, and when 
delivered in Springfield produce was taken on subscriptions. A penciled 
note says : "The date of issue of the first newspaper is clouded, but The 
Springfield News, the logical successor of The Farmer, states that it had 
its beginning in 1817," making it as old as Clark County itself. 

"Printing is the art preservative," and one account says: "The year 
1820 marked an important point in the history of Springfield ; the print- 
ing press was established then. It is the greatest instrument in spread- 
ing light and knowledge, when wielded by proper hands. The first press 
was owned by George Smith, and the first publication was The Farmer." 
Through the process of evolution, a century later it is the Springfield 
Daily News. In reviewing its own history, The News says it absorbed 
the following papers: Pioneer, Farmer, Nonpareil, News, Penny Tele- 
gram, Advertiser, Citizen, Expositor, Times, Democrat, Republic, Globe, 
Globe-Republic, showing that at one time or another there have been 
many publishing adventures in Springfield. 

The Springfield Sun in an advertisement says: "September 11, 1894, 
saw the birth of The Sun. It was located on East Main Street. In 1907 
we removed to our present location, 21 North Limestone Street. It 
seems to have had an honored ancestry, coming out of the various 


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combinations: The Gazette, Republic, Commercial Gazette. Evening 
Telegram, American Ruralist, Daily Times, Daily Advertiser, Press- 
Republic, Champion City Times, and then appeared The Sun, a writer 
saying: "The paper is now with us, demonstrating its strong qualifies 
daily." While The Sun is issued. every morning, The News is an evening 
paper except for its Sunday morning edition. 

The Tribune, official organ of the Springfield Trades and Labor 
Assembly, is published every Friday. It is devoted to the interests of 
wage earners, and has been published the last twelve years. 

The Wittenberg Torch is a newspaper devoted to the college; its 
slogan is: "Having light we pass it on to others." 

A copy of The Bud, issued September 14, 1901, is on file at the His- 
torical Society, Volume 1, No. 8, and it is described as the smallest 
newspaper issued locally ; it was 50 cents a year. 

The Sentinel, published in South Charleston, is in Volume XLIII, 
and since it was owned by the Houston Estate, it has been under litiga- 
tion, and was sold to Albert W. Dyer. One report said the paper had 
been in existence eighty-two years, and that it has been The Banner, and 
The Clark County Republican. At one time Whitelaw Reid and C. F. 
Browne, who was known by the pseudonym of Artemus Ward, had The 
Sentinel and failed to make it a success. The population of South 
Charleston was only 300, and the youthful editors left nothing but debts 
behind them. Years later both had better success, and they took care of 
their indebtedness. They were unable to pay their board in the South 
Charleston Hotel, but when happier days came they settled with Mrs. 
Gilbert Peirce, who had accommodated them. 

The New Carlisle Sun is issued every Thursday; it uses the slogan: 
"Let the Sun shine in your home." and it is in Volume XXII, and 
owned and published by Edward W. Williams. His father was once 
connected with the paper. A Springfield editorial writer says: "We 
venture to say that few counties in the state have any better village 
newspapers than has Clark County; the South Charleston Sentinel and 
the New Carlisle Sun are conducted by conscientious, competent men 
who serve their special constituents constantly and well. The influence 
of the country newspaper goes far beyond the community in which it is 
printed; it carries to its readers the joys and sorrows of their friends 
and neighbors, and keeps the hearts of the people beating in unison." 

In a resume of local newspapers in 1901, C. M. Nichols says the 
first newspaper was called The Farmer, as were others of the period, 
because none but farmers lived in the community. While it was small, 
and did not carry much news, its appearance was the event of each 
week. "Its news from across the water, and from remote portions of 
this country, if only six weeks old was considered quite fresh. European 
kingdoms might tumble down and be reconstructed while the special 
advices were coming on the sailing vessels to our shores. The printer 
was the proprietor, publisher and editor. The paper was a one-man 
power, and the Ben Franklin wooden press worked by the editor had 
the ink applied by the office boy. Now we have our news in as many 
mimjtes, as our journalistic forefathers had theirs in weeks; indeed, we 
have our London reports of foreign events nominally four hours ahead 
of their occurrence," and in connection with the Springfield Centennial 
Mr. Nichols mentioned all the papers that have been absorbed by the 
two dailies — The News and The Sun. 

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While printing was discovered in China, and was first used in Europe 
in spreading the teachings of the Bible, it has found its way into all parts 
of the world. While the first paper in Springfield was published in 
a log house, newspapers now occupy commodious buildings designed 
for the publishing business. For twenty years — 1870-90, Springfield 
supported a German newspaper, but most Germans read English, and 
in a panic it suspended publication. When the Springfield News 
dedicated its new home, April 11, 1915, it issued a special edition, having 
collated much data in refiew, and the public was invited to witness the 
starting of the press: Ex-Governor J. M. Cox of Dayton who owns 
the paper had arranged with President Woodrow Wilson to press the 
button in Washington, and set the press into motion in Springfield. 

Visitors who consulted their watches knew the President was on 
time in starting the special edition, and as the flag mounted the staff a 
band played "Star Spangled Banner"; it was an electrifying spectacle; 
that spark over the Western Union Telegraph wire was a memorable 
thing in Springfield history; many publishers were present, and seldom 
is a newspaper located in new quarters with so much ceremony. Many 
copies of the edition of the Springfield News were laid away as sou- 
venirs ; they had been given fresh from the press into the hands of the 
visitors. For many years the only local news carried by Springfield 
papers was gleaned from advertisements and marriage or death notices; 
nothing less thrilling than murder or suicide was ever mentioned in the 
news columns. While advertisements are still read with interest, the news 
column creates the demand for the paper. Sometimes an old paper is 
exhibited, and the changed makeup is noticeable to the most casual 
reader. The Springfield Republic of August 10, 1880, begins the story: 
Clark County's Centennial, on an inside page and ends it on the first 
page of the paper — an arrangement not seen today. 

In April, 1847, J. P. Brace, an enterprising newsdealer, introduced 
Cincinnati daily papers in Springfield; train service was established in 
1846, and The Cincinnati Gazette was sold in Springfield at ten cents a 
week; it had twenty-six daily subscribers. Mr. Brace sold the business 
to John D. Nichols who increased it. While Springfield people continue 
to read Cincinnati papers, The Gazette no longer reaches them. Since 
1849, Springfield newspapers have had telegraph news service, and local 
papers cover the commercial centers, leaving little incentive for reading 
outside papers. Local readers knew as much about the League of Nations 
or the Disarmament Conference as was carried in the metropolitan 
sheets. The News and Sun have the same telegraph service enjoyed by 
larger cities. When a riot happens in Springfield, it is breakfast table 
talk all around the world in less than twenty-four hours ; the annihilation 
of distance shrinks the world, and news goes round it and back again as 
quickly as it is known fifty miles, from where it happened ; the capitals 
of the world know when an unusual thing happens in Springfield as soon 
as it is known in Columbus. 

Newspaper Editorials 

While the hurried newspaper reader never gets beyond the first page 
headlines, conservative readers like to know the policy of the sheet which 
is reflected in its editorials ; with the passing of Henry Watterson of The 
Louisville Courier- Journal, the editorial writers who gained recognition 

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in the formative period of the newspaper business were numbered with 
the past — Watterson, Dana, Greeley. Today the newspaper is the forum, 
but the editorials do not reflect the personality of the editors; they are 
too often the expression of the business office, or are syndicated 
features. Scissors and paste, and not always a wide knowledge of con- 
ditions, reflect modern editorials. It is the news rather than the policy 
that interests most readers. 

Why are there so few platform orators? The newspapers have 
robbed them of their orations. When a man delivers a keynote address, 
through the syndicated news service the whole country reads it, and he 
cannot reach a point where the people want to hear it again. When a 
speech has been flashed to every daily paper in Christendom, and the 
people have read it they have no. further interest in it. The newspaper 
reader scans the printed page, and does not accept all that is before him ; 
he is inclined to think for himself, and the "spell-binder" of the past no 
longer sways immense audiences the second time with an address. How- 
ever, "It is the province of the editorial page to crystallize and reflect 
public opinion." 

While Springfield papers are metropolitan, and carry the general 
news, the papers from other Ohio cities and from New York and Chicago, 
are found in local reading rooms: among the factors of civilization — 
the forces that make for righteousness, none is more potent than the 
great American daily newspaper. The press controls the destiny of the 
republic; it makes presidents, senators, representatives, judges; it 
inaugurates national policies and solves problems of international law. 
Indeed, it was fortunate for one Ohio printer that his birthday was the 
first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1920, because the 
whole United States honored him with its highest gift — the presidency. 
He was an Ohio publisher — Warren G. Harding, and the "also ran," 
Gov. James M. Cox, was a Springfield publisher, and thus the newspaper 
is a force in the political world. 

Half a century ago many publishers were politicians; they would 
acquire the ownership of a paper, and when they had accomplished their 
purpose with it they would dispose of it. When a newspaper becomes 
trading stock, its readers shut their eyes and long for changed conditions. 
When a campaign is ended the paper is on the market again. However, 
The Marion Star is said to be the one Harding possession that is not on 
the market. The dean of recent American publishers, the late Henry 
Watterson, phrased it thus: "The daily newspaper is a necessity which 
isn't necessary, unless you are intelligent enough to know that it is a 
necessity." It is one side of the triangle — the press, the church and the 
school, and when some persons have read a statement in a newspaper, it 
settles the question. 

The prime purpose of the newspaper is the collection and dissemina- 
tion of news; there is responsibility connected with it, and competent 
performance has been the study of specialists for many years. The 
dissemination of news is one of the most important functions to civilized 
society ; it is one of the principal factors in human progress. Advertising 
is regarded as more than news ; it is salesmanship as well, and the market 
reports — why, "There are gentlemen who wear spats and who never saw 
a farm in their lives, but who read the news from the corn belt more 
eagerly than the farmers themselves; a cent a bushel one way or the 

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other may mean five or ten thousand dollars to them." While discrim- 
inating readers follow the editorials, Springfield and Clark County buyers 
are interested in knowing about bargains, and thus Springfield dealers 
utilize the local papers. 

The Prime Object 

While special local and syndicated articles supply a wide range of 
general information, the first and last purpose of the publisher is to supply 
the n-e-w-s from the four corners — from the north, east, west and south, 
anything that happens is news. Talk about old-fashioned sociability 
and friendly visiting — with the newspaper available, why visit a neighbor 
to learn the news ? There was a time when men and women went among 
their friends to learn what was going on in the community. While some 
people think they were more sociable than their posterity, it was because 
they wanted the news of the world. They would have settled down to 
a newspaper and remained at home. 

In a paper read before the Springfield Newspaper Women's Club, 
Miss May Ferrenz mentioned other inventions, but described the lino- 
type which has revolutionized the printing industry. "Type-setting by 
machinery has done more to advance the cause of universal education 
than any other one factor since the art of printing was invented; 
mechanical composition has reduced the cost of printing books, newspapers 
and magazines, and thus placed within the reach of the masses the means 
of education. The brains of many skillful inventors, and vast fortunes 
have been employed in the work of developing an acceptable substitute 
for hand composition." Miss Ferrenz states that in the '80s came the 
best results from the Mergenthaler type-setting machine, and that 
improvements are frequently made in the use of it. 

Although the daily newspaper represents the best value for the money 
of any commodity delivered in the home, the average individual knows 
less about its production than anything else so essential to his existence. 
Who knows how the white stock is obtained on which the news is 
printed? Who realizes the expense connected with it? The working 
organization of a newspaper naturally separates itself as follows : The 
business office closely allied with which is the department of advertising ; 
the editorial department reflecting policy ; the news-gathering department 
which renders the business office a possibility ; the press room where the 
paper is printed and folded, and the circulation department — none of 
the other departments effective, unless the paper reaches its readers. 
In the matter of departments, useless each without the other. While 
smaller papers are not so complicated, and an all-round man may be of 
service in any department, on a metropolitan paper one man remains in 
one department. At The News and The Sun each man fills his particular 
assignment, and leaves other departments alone. 

The public is familiar with the business office and with the circula- 
tion department, but it is the editorial department that is the "eternal 
mystery." Its function is to gather and tabulate the news ; the reporter 
gets the facts — "the story," as it is universally known in newspaper 
parlance, and he writes it. The editor, who is responsible for what 
appears in the paper, censors all "stories," the success of the sheet hing- 
ing upon the ability and fidelity of its reporters. While a man may 
become an editor through training, the reporter must have a "nose for 

Vol. 1—14 

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news," must be able to "scent" a story, and have the courage to encounter 
difficulties in obtaining it. He must be trustworthy and conscientious in 
using facts; he must have a liberal comprehension and a sane under- 
standing. As a final reqyisite, in this day and age of newspaper making, 
the efficient reporter must be able to use a typewriter at the rate of fifty 
words a minute— otherwise he does not measure up to the requirements. 

The editor usually serves an apprenticeship as a reporter; he must 
know the community. He must be inventive — have executive ability, and 
know what to do in emergencies. The man is lost who hesitates — the 
atmosphere of a newspaper office is heavy with emergencies, and the editor 
must be equal to them. He must be able, intuitively, to detect the truth 
and separate it from non-essential details. Unless it is a commercialized 
sheet, and ruled from the business office, the editor directs the trend 
of thought in the community. A good newspaper man is sometimes 
unpopular; in estimating legitimate news he treads on somebody's toes, 
and he dare not have intimate friends ; he may be called upon to publish 
a story reflecting upon them. 

"To err is human/' and sometimes the doings of humanity do not 
read to their credit when written in the newspaper; while fights, thefts, 
divorces — innumerable transactions embarrass one's friends, "news is 
news," and they suffer the consequences. Few men possess the peculiar 
temperament that fits them for effective reportorial work and, therefore, 
reporters are — long live the competent, conscientious newswriter. A 
daily newspaper is different from the average manufactured product, 
since it is made outright in virtually eight hours ; were the time extended 
to more than twenty-four hours, it would not be issued daily. Every 
department works at high tension, "hurry" being the middle name of 
each employe, and when copy leaves the typewriter it reaches the lino- 
type — human in its capabilities. 

The casual visitor at a newspaper plant is well repaid for his time, 
and he goes away with a wholesome respect for it. When he sees a 
modern press in operation, and sees the papers printed from one con- 
tinuous roll of white stock; when he sees the completed papers, folded, 
counted and ready for delivery — well, they usually give him one, and 
he lays it away as a souvenir. The modern newspaper is the history of 
today and yesterday ; discerning publishers study the features that attract 
most readers, and they cater to the wants of the majority ; thus its readers 
are responsible for its attitude on all questions. 

The newspaper is a great institution — swift winged, and everywhere 
present, flying over the fence from the hand of some belated newsboy, 
tossed into the counting room or store, shoved under the door of the 
surburban home, laid on the work bench in the busy shop, delivered by 
carrier to rural patrons, and read wherever it is sold — the newspaper adds 
character and luster — shapes the family history. It is such an integral 
factor in community life, and people have become so dependent upon 
it that a delayed paper demoralizes the whole household, and every 
family knows the feeling of impatience while awaiting the coming of 
the paper. If you would understand the strong hold the press has on 
the community, just answer a few of the inquiries by telephone when 
subscribers have been overlooked, or the paper is later than usual ; when 
they have looked on the porch roof and behind all the shrubbery, they 
begin a systematic inquiry; they want the paper. 

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Sometimes a mail pouch is carried by; simply an oversight on the 
part of the railway- mail clerk, but it is a real misfortune to those who 
miss the paper; after all, human life is but a book with the passing 
years for its chapters; the gliding months are its paragraphs; the days 
are the sentences, but the punctuation and the proof — usually, others 
attend to such details. One's doubts are the interrogation; imitation of 
others are the quotation marks, and any attempt at display is a dash — 
the final period being death, and from the cradle to the grave the greatest 
influence is the printed page. 

The newspaper is the most potent agency of education — the advance 
guard of civilization. "We the people" are shaping its policy — we are 
responsible for it, even though silent about it. It has been said : "Keep 
young by associating with young things ; the newspapers are the youngest 
— born every day." 

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"It's a Poor Driver Who Can't Hit a Stump" 

It would require careful watching to see a stump in a highway today, 
but there was a time when the caption: "It's a poor driver who can't 
hit a stump," had its place in Clark County road history. The boast 
has been made there are more turnpikes in Clark than any other Ohio 
County, although corduroy may still be found under Limestone Street 
in Springfield. 

Some one defines roads as the arteries through which pulse the agri- 
culture and social waif are of the people ; in Clark County frequent inspec- 
tion trips are made, and it seems that road building is being reduced to 
a science; there is a Good Roads Council composed of Clark County 
road builders. In 1801, Griffith Foos made the first wagon tracks into 
Springfield from the east, and in 1803, David Lowry and others surveyed 
a wagon road between Springfield and Dayton; simultaneously a road 
was surveyed east to Franklinton, now Columbus, thus giving to Spring- 
field a direct highway east and west, and bringing many settlers into the 

In 1804, when the National Road was under consideration in the 
United States Congress, President Thomas Jefferson foresaw calamity; 
he said it would disorganize the economic measures of the country. The 
Thirteenth American Good Roads Congress held in Chicago in 1921, regis- 
tered an attendance of 21,000 delegates, and the average daily sales of 
road building machinery was more than $2,000,000, showing that Presi- 
dent Jefferson was unable to forecast the future. Although Demint's 
second plat of Springfield made in 1804 did not become a matter of record 
until 1815, it shows that in passing through Springfield this artery of 
travel connecting the east and the west was surveyed to connect with 
South Street, because it required less grading and in order to conform 
to it street names were changed, Main Street once having been South 
Street — all the streets shifted far enough south to allow the road con- 
necting Springfield with the outside world on Main Street. 

The Indian Trails 

In the Ohio Archaeological and Historical publications is much data 
about the beginning of the highways. It is possible to believe that in the 
earliest times the Indians traveled only on rivers and lakes; when they 
turned inland they found, ready made and deeply worn, the very routes 
of travel which have since borne their name. The beginning of the 
history of road making in the central west dates back to the time when 
the buffalo, urged by the need of change of climate, newer feeding 
grounds and fresher salt licks, first found his way through the forests. 

Even if the first thoroughfares were made by the mastodon and the 
Moundbuilders, they first came to the white man's knowledge as buffalo 
traces, later being known as Indian trails. In Kentucky, from whence 
came so many Clark County settlers, the Indians use the word trace 


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instead of trail, the term used exclusively north of the Ohio. It is said 
the routes of the plunging buffalo, weighing 1,000 pounds and capable 
of covering 200 miles a day, were well suited to the needs of the Indians. 
Another story is told that the wild animal, the dog and th$ hunter 
established the trail, the animal pursued by -the dog and the hunter 
following the dog, and another version is that the highest points of 
land were the routes of travel. One who has any conception of the west 
of the long ago, who can see the valleys filled with the plunder of the 
floods, can realize that there was but one practicable passageway across 
the land, for either man or beast — the summit of the hills. 

The argument is summed up in these words: Here on the hilltops 
mounting on the longest ascending ridges, lay the tawny paths of the 
buffalo and Indian; they were not only highways, but they were the 
highest ways, and chosen for the best reasons : The hilltops offered the 
driest courses; from them water was shed most quickly, and least dam- 
age was caused by erosion. The hilltops were windswept; the snow of 
winter and the leaves of summer were alike driven away, leaving little 
or nothing to block or obscure the pathway. The hilltops were coigns 
of vantage for outlook and signalling. However, an Ohio legislator and 
champion of good roads takes exception to the theory that the first 
clearings and farms were along the old highways on the hilltops; the 
question refers to clearings and not to settlements and towns. 

A number of writers speak of early clearings on the hilltops, and it 
seems that the first farms were on the hills. In 1900, Archer Butler 
Hulbert wrote with reference to the geological and topographical maps, 
saying it is not difficult to determine the course of the old highways; 
among the several guiding principles he mentions one, saying that the 
trails kept to the summit of the water-sheds; even the valley trails as 
distinct from cross-country trails, kept well away from the river courses, 
often a mile or more back on the highlands, and the idea obtains that 
roads have been coming down hill ever since statehood in Ohio; the 
first towns as well as the first roads were on the hilltops, and like the 
roads the towns have come down into the valleys. The need of power 
furnished by the streams led to the building of mills in the valleys, and 
about the mills sprang up the villages ; the shrill whistle of the locomotive 
finally sounded the knell of the old thoroughfares on the hills. Harking 
back to the stories of the moraines, time has worked many changes. 

Hard Surface Roads 

Wheeled traffic developed with the Roman empire; the Appian way 
in Italy led 300 miles from Rome, and it was as durable as time itself. 
However, when the first such road was built is unknown; it was long 
before the beginning of authentic history. From prehistoric days when 
man and mammal trod the paths to the ancient watering places, petrified 
bones were found which have gradually risen to the civilized scale, and 
as man's wants increased the path no longer served his requirements; 
roads became a necessity. Not only the Romans, but the Egyptians and 
Carthagenians employed similar material to that in use today; they used 
a mineral cement. The Appian Way reflects the National road, con- 
. necting the east and west and penetrating many of the best inland cities. 
"The decay of civilization is apparent in the decline of its roads," but 
that condition does not prevail in Clark County. 

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Students of local conditions maintain that Clark County is crossed 
by the principal trails between the salt springs on the Scioto and the 
Miami Indian towns in western Ohio, the trails later developed into 
traveled highways ; portions of the early trails are still visible along some 
of the bridle paths in the county. These trails were the main traveled 
highways between the salt springs along the Scioto to the Shawnee head- 
quarters on Mad River; however, the occupancy of Clark County by the 
white settlers and their descendants for more than a century has wrought 
such decided changes, that there is now little trace of the trails. The 
Indians walked single file and made the paths sooner than if they had 
walked two abreast, but at a point in Harmony Township twenty-three 
and twenty-nine there is an unimpaired portion of an Indian trail. 
W. H. Raynor who studied the question relates that there is a marked 
depression, and that the surface had become packed so solid that shrubs 
growing wild have failed to take root in this ancient pathway. 

The footfall of the ages is as lasting as time itself ; these few faint 
traces of the Miami trails indicate a once busy highway among the 
aborigines; it does not require much stretch of the imagination to think 
of the Shawnees crossing the country from village to village, and later 
they traveled in reduced numbers and finally they were extinct. Mr. 
Rayner exclaims : "What tragedies have been enacted ; what achievements 
have been gained by those who have traveled over this gateway to the 
Northwest, may never be written in history, but their footprints have 
left the mark that has outlived a century." 

In early road building it was no uncommon thing to find human bones 
or stone implements in gravel pits in Clark County, supporting the theory 
that the Moundbuilders had been ahead of the Indians in the country. 
An old account says of the roads about South Charleston, that they 
were made solely as avenues of travel, and that they mark no boundaries 
of farms or sections ; along the Little Miami the land is undulating, and 
the water course intersections of the roads present a scene of confusion. 
"Through the wilds of the then new state of Ohio," is descriptive 
language applied to 1813, when a settler was prospecting for a home 
in the wilderness — that early, an "emigrant family struck a blazed trail 
near South Charleston," and the proximity of the Little Miami supports 
the theory that streams and springs always attracted settlers. 

When the settler found thin ice on a stream he would break it, allow- 
ing the pieces to gorge and he would duck them under to strengthen the 
ice, thus forming a bridge on which to cross it. When the ice gorge 
rested on gravel, a team would be driven across it, and Albert Reeder 
says that is the way the first family reached South Charleston. The 
Dayton and Bellefontaine road was opened through New Carlisle in 
1810, really connecting Fort Washington (Cincinnati), and Fort Meigs 
(Toledo), and in the War of 1812, it was a much traveled thoroughfare. 
It is conjectured that Hull marched his army, numbering 1300 Ken- 
tuckians, over this wilderness thoroughfare, and that in the bush-whacking 
days connected with the second war with England, he camped on the 
site of New Carlisle. 

"O bless you," said W. H. Sterrett, an aged citizen of New Carlisle, 
"bless you, yes, the Dayton and Bellefontaine road is older than the 
National road — bless you, yes, it was built before the National road was 
thought of, and there was heavy traffic between Cincinnati and Toledo." 
Strange to say, even Henry Howe fails to tell about it. When the United 

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States Government established this military road connecting Fort Wash- 
ington and Fort Meigs, and General Hull traversed it — that put New 
Carlisle on the map of the world. This was all Greene County then, 
and it was though New Carlisle would become the county seat, and when 
the town was incorporated in 1830, it was still ambitious about its future. 
When this road was built in 1810. it was the short line between two 
important military posts; while it went round the swamps and followed 
the high ground, as farms were developed the owners put the road on 
the section lines, but stretches of it still follow the original survey; they 
cut down the big trees and filled the swamps alortg the road, and some- 
times timber is still dug up along this — the first improved road in Clark 
County. Sometimes it has been called the Dayton and Mad River Valley 
turnpike, and when Bayard Taylor who in his day was the United 
States' greatest traveler and raconteur was traveling over it, he said 
the beauty of the Mad River Valley was unsurpassed in American 

Along in the period when it required seven days to "wagon" from 
Springfield to Cincinnati and return, the farmer who hauled ten barrels 
of flour with four horses, had to carry along his feed or come back in 
debt to himself, and that presages that there were not always hard 
surface roads connecting the Champion City and the Queen City. The 
descriptive term "belly deep to a horse" is now as meaningless as that 
about hitting stumps. A frontier poet once penned the lines: 

"The roads are impassable, 
Not even jackass-able, 
And those who would travel 'em, 
Must turn out and gravel 'em," 

and that is what happened in Clark County. Near South Charleston on 
the Cincinnati-Columbus road, there was a corduroy road through a 
maple swamp over 100 yards in length that was made by poles and logs ; 
by felling trees into the swamp, that "would have broken the heart of 
the modern auto tourist — it would have eliminated the necessity of any 
speed legislation," but the "pioneers in jolt-wagons knew nothing about 
shock-absorbers, now a necessity on automobiles." 

Before much had been done in the way of grading and improving 
the roadways, the settlers had their mede of adventure. It is related 
that when Mrs. Pierson Spinning was a Springfield bride, that after 
the birth of her first child in 1813, she mounted a horse with her six- 
weeks' old babe and went on a visit to her people near Cincinnati. She 
had an irresistible desire to see her parents, and crossing swollen streams 
was no terror to her. When the Jarboes came from Kentucky, a dozen 
years earlier, Elizabeth Jarboe and her mother coming alone with their 
few necessities in a wagon, they had sufficient adventure. Philip Jarboe 
had located in Ohio, and the fair Elizabeth despairing of the return of 
her father, who had gone back to Maryland, came with the few household 
treasures to Mad River ; they made the journey unattended only as they 
encountered hunters and trappers, and since their nearest neighbor was 
five miles away, they knew how to depend upon themselves in emergen- 
cies. When Griffith Foos was bringing his family from Franklinton, 
the high waters caused him trouble; the Big Darby was crossed by -a 
man swimming at the side of the wagon. 

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Road Building Era 

While the National Road was begun early in the nineteenth century, 
the development was only along its eastern end; in 1832, a charter was 
granted the turnpike road between Springfield and Dayton, the develop- 
ment from the Dayton end and in 1833 it was completed to Springfield. 
It was about this time that the approach to Mill Run alone Main Street 
in Springfield received attention. At that time the hope of the future 
was the turnpike, and in 1839 the survey was completed from Colum- 
bus to South Charleston and Xenia en route to Cincinnati. Samuel 
Harvey and Robert Houston of South Charleston had much to do with 
promoting this road. In 1842 they completed it. In the years when 
travel and traffic was all by wagon and stage, South Charleston had 
its share, being on the way between Columbus and Cincinnati. When 
the sound of the driver's horn was heard excitement commenced, and a 
trip of fifty miles was a big undertaking. However, many Clark County 
merchants made the longer trips to the eastern markets on horseback, 
being gone from a month to six weeks at a time. The traveling salesman 
was unknown, but the improved methods of travel brought him to the 
towns in Clark County. 

The Ohio Gazetteer of 1839 says : "The National Road runs through 
the center of the county east and west, and is in such a state of forward- 
ness that a year or two will probably complete it," and in 1841 from 
the same source is gleaned the prophesy : "When these two great works 
of internal improvement (National Road and Mad River and Lake Erie 
Railroad) shall have been completed, Clark County will possess advan- 
tages equal to any other inland county of Ohio, and for the extent of 
her territory will probably be the richest," and in dealing with develop- 
ments "Watch your step" seems a timely admonition. 

On December 22, 1911, The Springfield News carried a reminiscent 
article written by Mary Bertha Thompson, saying: "Few of the hun- 
dreds who enjoy the many beautiful drives about Springfield, or who 
pass swiftly through the country on the way to Urbana by the method 
of travel in use today, have any knowledge of the historic significance 
of the locality or bestow a thought upon the old stage that a few short 
years ago rocked and creaked its way over the rugged corduroy roads, 
bearing its load of passengers. Heavy and cumbersome of construction, 
swung on straps instead of springs, this vanished conveyance presented 
a picturesque sight, winding through the virgin forest and along the 
banks of streams. Following the line of Indian trails, selecting high 
ground and dry ground, through passageways cleared of obstructions, 
these old roads were, as a matter of course, irregular. If there was a 
bog or marshy place, timber was cut and dragged to the mud hole and 
placed in it, crosswise: hence the name corduroy; none too smooth to 
ride over even with careful driving, which was not one of the stage 
driver's accomplishments, perched upon his seat high above his horses' 
backs, twirling the long lash to flick the ears of his leaders." 

The National Road 

Local students of pioneer conditions say it was the National Road 
that brought the cosmopolitan population into Clark County so early; 
it was built by the United States Government under the supervision of 

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the War Department, and was under control of commissioners appointed 
by the President of the United States, the state legislators or governors. 
The project conceived in the brain of Albert Gallatin had its inception 
in 1806, although work on the eastern end had been started two years 
earlier; it was Gallatin's idea to extend the road from the Potomac to 
the Mississippi, through Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio. Indiana and 
Illinois, and commissioners to report on the undertaking were appointed 
by President Jefferson. While the road had been built to Cumberland, 
in 1811 a contract was let for building the road ten miles further, and 
thus it came slowly toward the Mississippi. 

The National road entered Ohio across the river from Wheeling, 
West Virginia, and its course is through the following counties : Belmont, 
Guernsey, Muskingum, Licking, Franklin, Madison, Clark, Montgomery 
and Preble, and since it is maintained in excellent condition a Lutheran 
minister removing from Wheeling to Springfield, A. D. 1922, was only 
out of his own home twenty- four hours; his household goods came in 
a truck, an experience quite different from that of the pioneer minister 
who came through the mud to Clark County. In its early history, many 
families reached Clark County over this highway from Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and New York and from the New England states, and while 
for a time there were distinguishing characteristics, in the lapse of more 
than a century amalgamation has obliterated them ; the sons have departed 
from the traditions of the fathers — have adopted local methods, and 
the passerby is no longer able to say from the style of improvements 
that one man is from Pennsylvania and another from Virginia ; the stamp 
of Clark County is everywhere apparent, the third, fourth and even the 
fifth generation controlling the situation today. 

The story of some wasted fortunes in Springfield is in support of 
the statement that this great American highway — the National Road, 
was never a self-supporting institution. The annual expense of repair 
through Ohio was $100,000, and the greatest amount of tolls collected 
in its most prosperous year, which was 1839, amounted to only $62,496.10, 
and investigation revealed similiar conditions in other states; as early 
as 1832, the governor of Ohio was authorized to borrow money for 
repairs, and the auditor's reports show that all earnings were thus 
expended. Pierson Spinning, who was a Springfield merchant making 
annual trips to eastern cities on horseback, welcomed the improvement 
and was one of the guarantors. When he became involved, financially, 
his Puritanical conscience dictated his own ruin by turning all of his 
accumulated property to his creditors, but his wife did not share his 
conviction, and since she did not join him in the transfers, she had an 
income from her dowery that made her comfortable in her old age. 
While Mr. Spinning was thinking of his creditors, his wife was thinking 
of herself and her family, and self-preservation is said to be human. 

The first coaches run on the National Road were long, awkward 
affairs; they were without braces or springs, and the seats were placed 
crosswise in them. The door was in front, and passengers had to climb 
over the seats ; they were made at Little Crossing, Pennsylvania, as the 
Conestoga wagon was made at Conestoga. An old account says: "To 
know what the old coaches really were, one should see and ride in them ; 
it is doubtful if a single one now remains. Here and there inquiry will 
raise the rumor of an old coach still standing on wheels, but if the rumor 
is traced to its source it will be found that the chariot was sold to a 

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circus, or has been utterly destroyed ; the demand for old stage coaches 
has been quite lively on the part of wild west shows. 

"These old coaches were handsome affairs in their day, painted and 
decorated profusely and lined with soft white plush ; there were ordinarily 
three seats inside, each capable of holding three passengers, and upon . 
the driver's high outer seat was room for one more passenger, a fortunate 
position in good weather. The best stage coaches like their counterparts 
on railways of today were named; they had names of states, warriors, 
statesmen, generals, nations and cities, besides fanciful names : "Jewess," 
"Ivanhoe," "Sultana," and "Loch Lomond," sentiment being the same 
among stage coach passengers as among those who control the trans- 
continental transportation lines today, some very euphonious names being 
seen on passenger trains. There were stage coach time tables and the 
fare between Springfield and Columbus was $2, while it was $3 to Cin- 

While there were relays of horses, through passengers had long rides 
in the same coach; the stages through Springfield were as elaborate as 
along any part of the road, some of them going the entire distance ; their 
cost was between $400 and $600, and the harness used on the road was 
of mammoth proportions, the backhands fifteen and the hipbands ten 
•inches wide; the trace chains were heavy with short, thick links. An 
act of the Legislature of Ohio required that every stage coach used for 
the conveyance of passengers in the night should have two good lamps 
affixed in the usual manner, subjecting the owner to a fine of fi:om $10 
to $30 for every forty-eight hours the coach was not so provided; 
drivers of coaches who should drive in the night when the track could 
not be distinctly seen without having the lamps lighted, were subject 
to a forfeiture of from $5 to $10 for each offense, and there were 
restrictions about intoxication, and about drivers leaving their horses 
without fastening them. 

When a passenger purchased a ticket at the office of the stage 
company, a way bill was made out by the agent and given to the driver ; 
he delivered this to the landlord upon the arrival of the coach; it con- 
tained the names and destinations of the passengers, and the money 
paid, there being blank squares in which the landlord registered the time 
of arrival and departure of the stage. There were no telegraph or 
telephone stations, and these reports were the only information on which 
to base a schedule. Toll-gate keepers were part of the show along the 
National Road, but persons making long trips could pay for their entire 
distance, receiving certificates guaranteeing them the privilege of the 
road without paying again. The toll-gates were at frequent intervals, 
the man a mile from town being unable to escape paying toll. 

In the early days, the toll-gate keeper was appointed by the governor 
of the state or by the commissioners of the county, and in 1836, $200,000 
was paid toll-gate keepers in Ohio, their salaries being deducted from 
their collections; they made their reports on the first Monday in each 
month. Those exempted from toll were persons going to or returning 
from public worship, muster, common place of business, or farm or 
woodland, funeral, mill, place of election or commonplace of trading 
or marketing within the county. No toll was charged for clergymen or 
school children, or for the passage of the stage and horses carrying 
U. S. mail, or any wagon or carriage laden with United States property, 

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or cavalry, troops, arms or military stores, or for persons on duty in 
the military service of the United States, or the militia of any state. 

Many curious attempts were made to .evade paying toll, and laws 
were passed inflicting heavy fines for it ; in Ohio, toll-gate keepers were 
empowered to arrest those guilty of such attempts, and when fines were 
collected they were added to the road fund. Passengers were counted 
and the company operating the stage was charged per capita, and at the 
end of each month the stage companies settled with the authorities. 
Conditions along the National Road were very different from those on 
shorter roads and controlled by local authorities. The building of the 
road was hailed with delight by hundreds of contractors and thousands 
of laborers. Old papers and letters speak of the enthusiasm awakened 
among the laboring classes by the building of the great road, and of 
the lively scenes witnessed in those busy years ; contractors followed the 
road taking up one contract after another as opportunity offered, and 
when not busy in their fields farmers engaged in the work with their 
teams, and laws were passed for the preservation of the road ; there were 
penalties for breaking or defacing the milestones, culverts, parapet walls 
and bridges. 

The patent lock on the stage has become known as a brake on an 
ordinary wagon, the handle of the lock being managed by the driver; 
there was dignity about the stage coach, and its great length and weight 
with six horses attached, made it as unwieldly to turn or steer as a steam 
boat ; the driver used a single line fastened to the bridle rein of the near 
lead horse, while the near wheel horse carried a saddle; he could ride 
or walk in driving the team, but he always flourished a blacksnake 
whip; the teams were usually owned by their drivers who took care of 
them themselves, and since they passed frequently every farm boy in the 
field knew them. When the roads were heavy, they never made more than 
fifteen or twenty miles, the drivers stopping in time to groom their horses 
while they had daylight for it. They were turned around to feed boxes on 
the wagon, and stood out of doors all night. 

There were great wagon yards around the wayside taverns, and 
sometimes half a dozen "ships of travel" were over night at the same 
place, just as today tourist camps accommodate travelers along the Na- 
tional Road either side of Springfield. While the National Road through 
Springfield is Main Street, there was rivalry between the north and 
south ends in Columbus as to what street would be traversed by it; the 
matter was compromised by allowing it to come in on Friend now East 
Main Street, and traversing High Street a few blocks, it quits the city 
through West Broad Street, but Dayton is not penetrated by the great 
highway ; it crosses Montgomery County north of the city. Bridges were 
the most formidable item of expense in road construction, and for many 
years a ferry boat was used in crossing the Ohio at Wheeling, and the 
bridges were not built until 1837 across Buck Creek and Mad River; 
while there were two forks of the road west from Springfield, New 
Carlisle was missed although the road was an advantage. 

While the National Road did not go to already established towns some 
of the towns came to it, there being a number of villages either way 
from Springfield that grew up along it. There is a stretch of 300 miles 
of the National Road in Ohio. The only restriction as to the course of 
the road was that it should go west on the straightest possible line 
through the capital of each state, and in July, 1830, work began west 

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from Columbus. In 1826, the preliminary survey was completed as far 
as Indianapolis, the road passing through Richmond, Indiana, along 
Main Street and through Indianapolis on Washington Street; however, 
it was not completed under Government contract. The eight miles of 
road immediately west of Springfield was advertised, the work to be 
completed on or before January 1, 1838, the specifications requiring that 
the trees and growth be entirely cleared away to the distance of forty 
feet on each side of the central axis of the road, and all trees impending 
over the space to be cut down ; all stumps and roots were to be carefully 
grubbed out to the distance of twenty feet on each side of the axis. 

All the timber, brush, stumps and roots were to be entirely removed 
from the space eighty feet in width, and the earth excavated in grubbing 
was to be thrown back into the hollows formed by removing the stumps 
and roots. The proposals will state the price per lineal rod or mile, and 
the offers of competent or responsible individuals only will be accepted. 
Notice is hereby given to the proprietors of the land on that part of the 
line of the National Road lying between Springfield and the Miami River, 
to remove all fences and other barriers now across the line, a reasonable 
time being allowed them to secure that portion of their present crops 
which may lie upon the location of the road. The communication was 
signed by G. Dutton. August 2, 1837. and issued by him as Lieutenant 
U. S. Engineers, Superintendent of the National Road office in Spring- 

When the National Road was completed through Ohio its momentum 
had been spent ; it did not mean so much to the Government because canals 
and railroads were its rivals, and no further appropriations were made 
for it. In 1850, when the road entered Indiana, the Wayne County 
Turnpike Company financed it through Richmond, and grading and the 
building of bridges as far as Vandalia, then the capital of Illinois, was all 
the assistance Indiana and Illinois had from the Government toward 
financing it. When the National Road reached the Ohio it improved 
the river traffic, but by the time it had crossed the state a number of 
internal improvement bills had authorized rival institutions — canals and 
railways — a railroad from Madison bringing river traffic from the Ohio 
to Indianapolis cheaper than completing the National Road. Instead of 
crossing Ohio passengers went down the river to Madison and then by 
rail to Indianapolis. It was an unforeseen complication, and a hard- 
ship to the road builders. 

While the public highway was in the background for a time because 
of rival transportation methods, the automobile has restored it to its 
prestige in the days of the stage coach. A new bridge across the Scioto 
in Columbus rendered necessary by the 1913 flood, has been completed 
and the stretch of road west from Springfield has had attention, making 
the National Road the great cross-country route that it was when it 
was first placed on the map of the world. While it allows egress for 
Springfield and Clark County people, many pilgrims follow this ancient 
route of travel and it will always retain its identity — the National Road 
connecting the Potomac and the Mississippi. From Donnelsville west 
the road has been widened, and the covered bridges over Jackson Creek 
and Mud Run have been replaced by concrete arches, and farmers along 
the way are planning to beautify the boulevard connecting Springfield 
and Dayton. It is said that Gen. U. S. Grant, whose centenary has just 

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been passed, was employed as an army engineer on the National Road 
west from Springfield at the time of its construction. 

While President Thomas Jefferson was opposed to the construction 
of the National Road, the man who would "rather be right than be 
President/' Henry Clay of Kentucky, was unremitting in his efforts 
toward building it. The asphalted road toward Columbus has been made 
too narrow to suit motorists, there being only a narrow space between 
passing cars, and speeders are a menace to more careful drivers. While 
there was a lapse of a good many years between the stage coach and 
the automobile, the public highways seemingly abandoned upon the advent 
of the railway passenger service, is again used by the automobiles, and 
the era of road building since 1900 would alarm Thomas Jefferson. 

A twentieth century writer says: 

"The easy roads are crowded, and the level roads are jammed 
The pleasant little rivers with drifting folks are crammed/* 

and the sentiment seems to be apropos of the beginning of the National 
Road, an old account saying : "lna moment's time an army of emigrants 
and pioneers were en route to the West over the great highway, regiment 
foltowing regiment as the years advanced ; squalid cabins where the hunter 
had lived beside the primeval thoroughfare were pressed into service as 
taverns. Indian fords, where the water had often run red with blood 
in border days, were spanned with solid bridges; ancient towns, compara- 
tively unknown, becames cities of consequence in the world. As the 
century ran into its second and third decades, the National Road carried 
along an increasingly heterogeneous population/' and that aids in under- 
standing the variety that came early to Clark County. 

"Wagons of all descriptions, from the smallest to the great 'mountain 
ships 1 which creaked down the mountain sides, and groaned off into the 
setting sun, formed a marvelous frieze upon it ; fast expresses, too rea~ 
listicatly perhaps called 'shakeguts,' tore along through valley and over 
hill with important messages. Here the broad highway was blocked 
with herds of cattle trudging eastward to the markets, or westward to 
the meadow lands beyond the mountains. Gay coaches of four and six 
horses, whose worthy drivers were known by name, even to the states- 
men who were often their passengers, rolled on to the hospitable taverns 
where the company reveled. At night, along the roadway, Gypsy fires 
nickered in the darkness, where wandering minstrels and jugglers crept 
to show their art, while in the background crowded traders, hucksters, 
peddlers, soldiery, showmen and beggars- — all picturesque pilgrims on the 
Nation's great highway," and those who have passed the "dead line" of 
threescore and ten years fully understand about it. 

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The Clark County Good Roads Council is one of the departments of 
the Springfield Chamber of Commerce activities. It has had special 
recognition from the State Good Roads Department because of its effec- 
tiveness ; it includes all road building organizations in the county. Each 
township has three trustees, making thirty members, and being affiliated 
with the Ohio Good Roads Federation, it has knowledge of state and 
national highway matters. An effort was recently made by the Ohio 
Good Roads Federation, the Ohio State Grange and the Ohio Farm 
Bureau to launch a cooperative movement in behalf of better roads, the 
longest durability with the least possible cost of construction entering 
into the consideration, and the Clark County Council was active in the 

Charles L. Bauer, who was the first president of the Clark County 
Good Roads Council, is a member of the State Central Committee Ohio 
Good Roads Council, and chairman of District No. 7 which includes 
eight counties: Clark, Darke, Preble, Montgomery, Miami, Champaign, 
Greene and Fayette. Arthur R. Altick, secretary of the local organiza- 
tion, has been invited to assist in the organization of Good Roads Coun- 
cils in other counties. The meetings of the Seventh District Council are 
frequently held in Springfield, and minutes of local meetings are asked 
for as guides in other counties; thus Clark County is recognized as a 
foremost road building county. As a stimulant to effort, the Clark County 
Good Roads Council offers a loving cup to the township making the 
best showing and it went first to Mad River. The township winning the 
cup three times consecutively holds it permanently. Since the Springfield 
Chamber of Commerce made the Good Roads Council a branch of its 
activities, other cities have adopted the plan, and thus town and country 
cooperate in a vital question. 

The current organization — Floyd A. Johnson, president; B. F. Kauf- 
man, vice president, and A. R. Altick, secretary — controls 878 miles of 
public road, there being 264 miles of turnpike, 573 miles of township 
road only drawing local money, and forty-one miles of inter-county 
highway. The Good Roads Council holds monthly meetings, and it has 
the confidence and cooperation of all road builders. It favors the pur- 
chase of sufficient machinery for the care and upkeep of the roads, and 
recommends the opening of gravel pits near them to avoid long hauls. 
An editorial in The Sun says : "There is one organization which in quiet 
and systematic manner is doing a considerable amount of good for the 
people of this community, and it isn't costing them a penny; the Clark 
County Good Roads Council — a creation of the Chamber of Commerce 
— is a common sense organization. It includes the members of the 
Board of County Commissioners and the surveyor, the trustees from 
each of the townships, the country road supervisors, and representatives 
of various local organizations. They do not ride hobbies; they talk 

"Each township reports on the road improvement progress of the 
past month ; the county officials are quizzed on the progress of the county 
and state building projects ; crossings and curves which are dangerous are 
reported. There is a general interchange of ideas, and they are getting 


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results from the drainage of hillside springs ; they discuss the quality of 
gravel, and the time for scraping the roads." The Good Roads Council 
has caused the removal of objectionable signs and billboards obstructing 
highways; some local advertisers have thought of personal rather than 
public welfare in placing signs that cut off the view, and the Chamber 
of Commerce, through the Good Roads Council, has instituted a warfare 
against it. There are information signs for the benefit of travelers, and 
drivers see them without pausing ; it is the signs of local advertisers that 
obstruct the highway at times. The Young Men's Business Club of 
Springfield is agitating the question of fruit trees planted along the 
highways, in the interest of both beauty and fruit production, and 
memorial shade trees are being planted in some parts of the country. 

On the National Road west of Springfield is the Golden Arch span- 
ning Rock Run that has an unusual history. An old account says : The 
deep cuts and great fill over Rock Creek where Col. Peter Sintz afterward 
made his residence were expensive, but of immense value. The rocky 
ravine was mean to pass through with an empty wagon, and when 
repairs were made recently the cost was estimated at $85,000, but through 
the efforts of the Good Roads Council the bill was reduced to $59,000, 
a direct saving to the taxpayers of Clark County. While the passerby 
crosses the Golden Arch without seeing it, the problem of draining Aber- 
felda and contiguous territory is solved by an arch allowing Rock Run 
to carry its waters undisturbed, although at enormous expense. 

While there are several main roads leading into Springfield, there 
are many short roads that necessitate back-driving because they do not 
lead to town. There is no checkerboard regularity about the roads in 
Clark County. Judge Golden C. Davis of Springfield says: "People 
who drive horses expect those who use automobiles to obey the traffic 
laws," in assessing costs against a man who had left a horse unhitched in 
the street, thereby causing a congestion of traffic. A Springfield man 
said: "If you want to know how many automobiles are on the road 
just try blocking traffic ; just have tire trouble in a narrow place, and you 
will find that everybody is out that day/' and when there is a block they 
all find themselves in a hurry. 

The Goodrich Rubber Company of Akron made a survey showing 
that the total traffic had increased forty-five per cent with good roads, 
and the truck business had increased 171 per cent in a specified time. 
The passenger automobile traffic had increased twenty-seven per cent, 
and when 2,891 vehicles had passed a given point there were only forty- 
six horse-drawn vehicles among them. On a December day in 1921, it 
was reported that 1,128 automobiles passed a given point on the National 
Road west from Springfield, and not all the automobiles in town that 
day were counted. Many families have two or more cars, and 7,000 
license plates are issued in Clark County, the tags distributed through the 
Springfield Automobile Club. One report estimates 7,500 passenger auto- 
mobiles while another says 10,000 automobilies in Clark County, some 
of the tags being obtained from the State Department. It is estimated 
that there are 1,200 trucks in the county. 

The automobile club is effective advertising for Springfield, visiting 
motorists thus knowing about the community. With its office in Hotel 
Shawnee it serves the traveling public, many stopping in town because of 
it. While license numbers must be secured each year, the same number 
may be retained by asking in advance for it, L. E. Bauer having had No. 
5 continuously, and James M. Cox, whose automobiles are seen in Spring- 

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field frequently, retains the two numbers 99,998 and 99,999, by asking in 
time for them. The license tax helps to maintain the roads in good con- 
dition. While there are many accidents, approximately 9,000 persons 
having been killed in 1921, it is said that reckless joy-riding is a thing of 
the past, and while it has been said: "Lock up every motor car in the 
country and we will have good times," not all the community accept the 
assertion. Every family that owns a car would object to locking it up, 
modern society demanding its service. 

While farmers used to object to walking half way to town in leading 
their horses past automobiles, the horses are educated now and pass 
them without difficulty, the farmers themselves owning cars. They 
were prejudiced against them, but ownership makes the greatest differ- 
ence in the world. It is said that a greater percentage of farmers use 
telephones and automobiles than any other class. While the improved 
roads lead up to more highway robberies, road building goes along unin- 
terrupted; the highway constabulary installed in many parts of the 
country was unknown in the days of daring stage robberies. While 
thieves once stole horses and escaped with them, they now steal automo- 
biles and are sometimes overtaken by the "strong arm of the law." The 
rural constabulary is a mighty force in curbing automobile thefts. When 
thieves used to content themselves with stealing horses, farmers were 
often sore perplexed in crop times, but the loss of an automobile may be 
communicated about the country through the use of the telephone, and 
stolen cars are sometimes located by their owners; however, changed 
license numbers render them difficult of identification. 

Years ago automobile clubs did much to encourage road building all 
over the country, but the National Road through Clark County always 
has been an incentive. It brought the emigrants, and it still brings the 
tourists, and camping places, along with bungalow trailers, indicate future 
activities. The National Road has long been an asset to Clark County. 
The Good Roads Council regulates the weight and speed of trucks. The 
roads are disintegrated under the burdens they are forced to bear, and 
the manufacturers of trucks encourage a better foundation in road- 
building. "The intolerable automobile ruins the roads," but when speed- 
ing is regulated, and the law against over-loading is enforced, the roads 
will be more durable. The Ohio Motorist, June, 1920, carried an article : 
"Automobiles Help Drained Road," with a sub-title: "System of Drain- 
age Well Worked Out Has Proved Successful in Clark County." It is 
called the Mellinger Plan, and the article was written by the Clark 
County Good Roads Council secretary, A. R. Altick. 

The drift of the article is that what drainage will do for highways 
has been demonstrated by Clark County Commissioner Harry S. Mel- 
linger, a local exponent of highway drainage, the experiment tried out 
on the Yellow Spring pike; by the use of side ditches the water level 
is below the frost line; when the improvement started, the water stood 
in chuck holes and the roads were almost impassable, and the Mellinger 
idea of drainage has been widely copied. After completing the drain, 
Mr. Mellinger used ninety yards of gravel to the half mile of road 
surface, and it was ready for traffic. He drags the road frequently, 
maintaining an eight-inch crown, and thus the water escapes at the 
sides, the ditches serving two purposes — draining both the road and the 
fields along it. When the traffic is heavy, Mr. Mellinger maintains the 
grade by adding a light coat of coarse sand with plenty of grit, using 
about one yard to fifty running feet, and he finds the automobiles an 

Vol. 1—15 

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advantage to the road; the pneumatic tires iron out and compress the 
surface into a resisting mass, and one machine following another soon 
spreads it. 

While automobile traffic has a tendency to wear down the crown, 
and scatter the material to the side of the road, a well constructed berm 
prevents loss, and the material is scraped to the center again. It acts 
as a cement in binding and uniting all road materials, this worn gravel 
mixing well with macadam or crushed stone. The state and county 
share the expense, and the fifty per cent borne by the county is sub- 
divided, twenty-five per cent to the county at large, fifteen per cent to 
the township through which the road passes, and ten percent to the 
abutting property owners, the road costing the land owners approxi- 
mately $3,000 a mile, the entire cost being $30,000, while under the 
Mellinger plan roads may be built to cost from $400 to $1,000 per 
mile, the drainage being the economy. The Fairchild road is another 
example of the Mellinger plan, the surface becoming better every year. 
Before gravel was used extensively, farmers used to work the roads by 
scraping from the edge to the middle, and the advantage was the drainage 
offered at the side by the removal of the dirt, although nothing was 
said about it. 

People who have lived fifty years and longer, remember the covered 
wagons going over the National road with movers from eastern points 
to Indiana, Illinois and Iowa. In the 70s there were few buggies or 
carriages in use in Clark County; when the Cincinnati buggy was on 
the market it enlarged the neighborhood for many families, and it was 
enlarged again by the automobile. When the wagon was the only vehicle 
of travel, the trips were to town and home again, and when carriages 
were first introduced they were heavy, cumbersome affairs; the family 
with a two-horse carriage attracted unlimited attention. Those who 
speed through the country in high geared automobiles go faster, but 
they cannot enjoy themselves better than did the families who were 
first to have buggies and carriages. 

In the Albert Reeder booklet dealing with South Charleston, he 
tells of the fat cattle driven over the Cincinnati-Columbus road and 
over the mountains to eastern markets, and he says the meat market 
of those days was on wheels — Armour's in miniature, before the days 
of the meat trust and refrigerator cars. While every community had 
its meat peddler with a one-horse wagon, Mr. Reeder says: "Uncle 
Obie Davisson enjoyed a monopoly on this trade ; he drove Old Jack, a 
little brown string-halt horse, and many was the pound of meat they 
delivered. I remember Old Jack distinctly, his color and other pecul- 
iarities," but the children of today have no conception of such a thing; 
the meat peddler travels faster, and they use ice when necessary. The 
flies used to follow the one-horse wagon meat markets about the country. 

While there is a road building schedule, and the Good Roads Council 
looks after extensions, it is the policy of the county commissioners who 
furnish the funds that roads bearing the heaviest traffic will be appor- 
tioned the most money for repairs; the funds are distributed according 
to the amount of traffic. Each supervisor is allotted certain roads, and 
he is responsible to the commissioners. In order to secure the money 
from the state, County Surveyor W. H. Sieverling, and County Auditor 
William Mills accompanied the board of commissioners to Columbus, 
to present the Clark County needs to the state highway commissioner. 
When a county fails to claim its road money within a prescribed time 

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limit, it reverts to other counties. The county commissioners make an 
annual tour of road inspection, and when mistakes are discovered they 
plan to remedy them; sometimes they tour other parts of the country 
for road building suggestions. 

Floyd Johnson, chairman of the Good Roads Council, after seeing 
results in other places, agrees with the Mellinger plan — the important 
thing in road building is drainage; good roads can be built and main- 
tained economically from gravel and right materials when properly 
drained. When the crown of a road is too high the traffic is at the 
edge, and there is a sentiment against the high center; it was reported 
that 865 miles of roads were paved in Ohio in 1921, and the state is 
lifting itself out of the mud in such well planned, practical fashion, 
that within a few years all sections will be reached by graded, hard- 
surfaced highways. While foot and horseback travel were the only 
known methods once upon a time, the wheel age came along and im- 
proved roads rendered it a possibility, and the sentiment is: "Let the 
good work continue until every community is tied to every other com- 
munity by a road which defies all of the elements." 

While there were taverns all along the National Road when it was 
the only line of transportation, the Werden Hotel was the recognized 
headquarters in Springfield. The arrival and departure of the stage was 
the event of the day, and there were admiring crowds of spectators. 
The stage-drivers were a "swaggering" set of fellows dressed in fetch- 
ing clothes, and they swore like pirates ; they would drive up to the 
hotel in full speed, crack long-lashed whips and yell at the horses; 
sometimes there was a bugler on the box with the driver, and all of the 
boys in Springfield wanted to be stage drivers. They were ready to 
expatiate upon the points of interest along the way, filling the intervals 
with a flow of general information, but "Them days is gone forever," 
because the daily newspaper now supplies the need; however, as the 
driver discoursed to those gathered about him, he shifted his quid 
of tobacco and spat to punctuate his remarks. 

The National Road was not the only stage coach line into Springfield, 
the one to Urbana passing down Limestone Street to the ford across 
Buck Creek, and up the hill past the one-story tavern with its low roof 
line outlined against the sky; its one chimney rising above the center, 
and its quaint door-way inviting the imaginative passerby, and R. C. 
Woodward tells about going over this line in 1832, when Simon Kenton 
and his wife were passengers as far as Urbana, the road to New Moore- 
field marking the same route of travel. In 1844, the old road to Urbana 
was straightened and made into a turnpike, twenty-five cents toll being 
charged from Springfield to the county line; the toll gate was near 
McCright Avenue and T. R. May was the keeper ; he was a man with 
a cheery word for all travelers, typical of other toll collectors of the 
period. Had they kept dairies, they were in position to know the history 
of development; they saw the world go by: 

"Jolting through the valley, 
Winding up the hill, 
Splashing through the 'branches/ 

Rumbling by the mill, 
Life's a rugged journey, 
Taken in a stage." 

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If there are two community interests that depend upon each other, 
they are the carrier system and the factory ; useless each without the other. 
Why invest capital in manufacturing enterprises, unless there is a market 
for the finished product? The common carrier gives the producer an 
outlet to the markets of the world. ' Through its Chamber of Commerce 
every inducement to manufacturers is offered, and since "Springfield 
is without national boundaries, it has numerous manufacturing sites; 
its railroads enter the city from all directions," and thus transportation 
facilities are the boast of the community. 

In the beginning the natural highways for travel were the Ohio 
River on the south, and Lake Erie on the north, but through Mad 
River and the Great Miami the first settlers in Clark County had 
egress to the Ohio. David Lowry, who located on Mad ftiver in 
1796, built the first scow or flat boat "that ever navigated the Great 
Miami from Dayton down," it being understood that it was built in 
1800 along Mad River. While it seems like a fairy tale, a scow built 
in Clark County finally reached New Orleans by water. Mr. Lowry 
was assisted in the enterprise by William Ross. 

Mr. Lowry and his neighbor who came with him to Mad River, 
Jonathan Donnel, were deer hunters and when Mr. Lowry had accu- 
mulated 500 venison hams, he wanted to reach a market; he had come 
direct to Mad River with a surveying party from Cincinnati, and he 
did not shrink from adventure. While the boat was constructed, and 
the venison hams secured along Mad River — the first shipment of pro- 
vision from the vicinity of Springfield to the outside world, it was 
before Springfield had come into existence, and the scow was worked 
down stream to Dayton where barrels for pickled pork and bacon were 
waiting them. 

While the barrels were made in Dayton, owing to the difficulty of 
navigation on the Miami where there was driftwood, the hogs were 
driven to Cincinnati; there they were butchered, and the fresh pork 
was packed in barrels for shipping to New Orleans. Meat is shipped 
in refrigerator cars today, and it is easily understood that the consign- 
ment of fresh pork was slightly damaged when it reached the southern 
market. However, Mr. Lowry received $12 a hundred, which was less 
than he expected in New Orleans. While he lived to be an old man, 
he did not try water-way shipping again. Since he was the first local 
man to reach the outside world with a local product, the venison hams — 
a tablet should perpetuate the story. In 1825, John Jackson, whose 
wife was Nellie Lowry, covered part of the distance by water, removing 
from Clark County to Tennessee. 

While no artificial water-way has ever penetrated Clark County 
when Governor DeWitt of New York, who was the great water-way 
man of the age, was en route to Hamilton, Ohio, to throw out the 
first shovelful of dirt from the Erie canal, a delegation of Springfield 
business men met him at the Little Miami and escorted him the remainder 
of the distance. The Ohio Gazetteer of 1841 says : "As yet Clark County 


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has no outlet to market save the common roads of the country," but 
at that time the National Road was bringing everything to Springfield. 
The efforts in Congress in the late '30s to substitute a railway for this 
great highway were a failure ; at that time the cost of a complete train- 
way exceeded the required appropriations to complete it. 

In 1825, there was a salt famine widespread in the country, and 
settlers who "wagoned" to Cincinnati hauled down twelve barrels of 
flour for which they received $12, and they paid $10 for a barrel of salt 
to haul back to Springfield. They had $2 for other expenses, but the 
"back haul of merchandise for Dayton or Springfield helped them to 
make a profit from the trip." Cincinnati was the great business center, 
but in 1829, the Miami Canal was finished to Dayton, and the long hauls 
to Cincinnati were no longer ' necessary ; the settlers had always gone 
in groups so that when their wheels would not turn in the mud, they 
could assist each other. While Dayton grew rapidly after the canal 
was finished connecting the Great Lakes and the Ohio, and was soon 
a rival of Cincinnati, Springfield had the National Road and even now 
only Cincinnati and Dayton are larger markets in southwestern Ohio. 

While goods from the eastern markets were hauled over the moun- 
tains to the Ohio, Cincinnati and Dayton both had shipping facilities 
while Springfield only had the National Road; however, passenger 
traffic sustained the same relation to the freight business then as it 
did later on the steam railway lines; from the standpoint of revenue, it 
was a small item. It remained for the heavy wagons to distribute 
throughout the West the product of mill and factory, and the rich 
harvests of the fields. This great freight traffic along the National 
Road created a race of its own; men strong and daring and the fact 
that the teamsters of these "mountain ships" had taverns or "wagon 
houses" of their own where they stopped, tended to separate them into 
a class by themselves. The automobile with its "bungalow trailer" 
simply patterns after the moving vans of the long ago. 

While some of the National Road description distinctively belongs 
farther east, many of those mountain ships that at night were converted 
into wagon houses, came as far as Springfield ; they went to Dayton and 
to Cincinnati. There were many deflecting lines of the stage, and 
travel was as much diversion as it has been in later years. In the 
'40s the droves of fat steers weht through Clark County toward the 
eastern markets. "They 'hoofed' it, and we boys never failed to ask 
how many; the drovers would say 150 to 300," and the next day the 
same thing happened again; however, in the '40s the National Road 
had a rival in Springfield. In that decade two railroads penetrated 
into Clark County. The different generations have the same human 
instinct, and a local writer tells about when Paist and Company packed 
pork in South Charleston. 

The pork packing industry ceased in 1850, but prior to that time 
Nat Moss with his big wagon drawn by six horses hauled between 
Cincinnati and Columbus, and South Charleston merchants depended 
on him for everything. He would take away pork and bring back 
merchandise. He had great pride in his outfit, and everything was 
kept in spick and span condition. The horses were equipped with 
bells over the hames, and they gave a cheerful warning that Nat Moss 
was approaching the town. The boys flocked to the street to see the 
handsome team and the big wagon; to them the hubs in the wheels 

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>— i 




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were as big as flour barrels, and the items of merchandise : New Orleans 
molasses, brown sugar, with staple groceries and dry goods, but human 
nature is unchanged; let a medicine vender with an ox team, or a 
bungalow trailer of a different pattern appear, and every man and boy 
in Springfield sees the novelty. 

In the old coaching days the passenger and mail coaches were operated 
very much like the railways of today; a vast network covered the 
land and competition extended into every phase ; fast horses, comfortable 
coaches — every appeal for patronage. Some of the stage lines were 
operated in sections, the different sections having different proprietors, 
and they were all inclined to speculation. Neil, Moore & Company of 
Columbus operated hundreds of stages, the Neil fortune coming from 
that source; there were trusts in the "good old days" of stage coaches, 
and graft still manifests itself in utility operations. About 1850, portions 
of the National Road were leased, and in 1854 the stage line from 
Springfield to the Ohio River was leased for a term of ten years, $6,105 
being the annual rental, but the competition of the railroads was being 
felt, and a new order of things was apparent. 

Clark County is not far from the center of population in the United 
States, and today Ohio is traversed by all of the transcontinental rail- 
ways ; the trunk lines go through the state, and where people intermingle 
trade results from it. Transportation is fundamental in community 
building; it was necessary to the settler, and the evolution of the trail — 
the path through the wilderness; the corduroy bridge over a swamp, 
to the hard surface road and the railroad — it all reflects the spirit of trans- 
portation and the National Road is only an incident along the highway of 
progress. Today the busy man in Springfield has an important engage- 
ment in some other city; he inquires when a train leaves, and in all 
human probability he arrives on time at his destination ; he is guaranteed 
exact regularity of performance, but such efficiency of service is not 
an over night development. One time transportation depended on the 
weather, the wind and the tide — antiquity remote, and then no passenger 
trains stopped in Springfield. 

Changed Condition 

But the dawning of a new era in transportation had already been 
heralded in the national hall of legislation ; in 1832, the House Committee 
on Railroads and Canals had discussed in their report the question of 
the relative cost of various means of intercommunication, including rail- 
ways. Each report of the committee for the next five years mentioned 
the same subject, until in 1836, the matter of substituting a railway for 
the National Road between Columbus and the Mississippi was very 
seriously considered. In 1836, the first railroad west of New York 
State — the Erie and Kalamazoo, operated with horsepower — was opened 
between Toledo and Adrian, Michigan, and in July, 1837, a locomotive 
was installed upon it. The next railroad in Ohio was the Mad River 
and Lake Erie; it was incorporated in 1832, with a prospective route 
from Dayton via Springfield to Sandusky, but the Little Miami was 
ahead of it in Clark County, entering Springfield in 1846, while the 
Mad River and Lake Erie road was two years later. 

In 1846, the Little Miami built a warehouse and an enginehouse 
in Springfield preparatory to completing the line, and on August 6, the 

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locomotive Ohio arrived, drawing two flat cars from Xenia. When 
the train stopped west of Center Street that summer afternoon, the 
engineer blew the whistle and everybody came out to see it. When the 
engineer blew the whistle again, there was a stampede among the spec- 
tators; they were afraid of an explosion. It was five days after the 
locomotive arrived and Springfield people heard the first whistle until 
on August 11 the first train came from Cincinnati to Springfield. When 
the first locomotive drawing two flat cars was leaving, Springfield boys 
followed it along Factory now Wittenberg Avenue through the deep cut, 
warning each other of the danger of suction; it was backing out on 
a badly ballasted track, and there was not enough speed to create aerial 
commotion. No one was swallowed up by it, and finally boys were less 
cautious; they ride out of town on freights without thought of danger. 

Finally, when the first passenger train arrived it was met by visitors 
from every direction; there was great gusto. Talk about frontier 
hospitality; the citizens of Springfield gave a dinner in the warehouse, 
and the guests were welcomed by Gen. Charles Anthony, one of the 
most distinguished townsmen of his day. It was the 'beginning of the 
end of the stage coach, although for a few years there were both stage 
and railway time tables posted in Springfield. The first agent of the 
company was Zimmerman and the second was Wright, but not much 
data has been left by any of them. The first locomotive on the Little 
Miami to reach South Charleston was called the Brooks; they were all 
wood burners, and farmers hauled wood to the railroad while clearing 
their land ; free rides were given stockholders, and some of them almost 
froze on the first trip over the Little Miami to Xenia. 

While construction was begun on the Mad River and Lake Erie 
in 1835, it was not until 1848 that it reached Springfield. The Ohio 
Gazetteer of 1841, says: "The Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, 
the speedy completion of which there is now no doubt, will enter Clark 
County on the north about midway from east to west, and thence pursue 
a southerly course to Springfield, thence taking a southwest direction 
will follow the general course of Mad River to Dayton," and speaking 
further of the National Road and the railroads — "When these great works 
or internal improvement shall have been completed, Clark County will 
possess advantages equal to any other inland county of the state, and 
for the extent of her territory, will probably be the richest; its exports 
embody every variety of agricultural products: cattle, horses, hogs and 
sheep," and while water power was being utilized and factory wheels 
were turning, no mention was made of manufactured articles for export 
As yet there was no outlet only the common roads, but much of the land 
was under a high state of cultivation. 

The Mad River and Lake Erie — the father of Western railways, 
reached Springfield September 2, 1848; the first engineer was Peter 
Thomas and Seneca was the name of the engine ; it was from the Great 
Lakes, and it was another glad day in Springfield; the lakes and the 
Ohio were connected, and it gave an impetus to the growth of the town. 
The first local agent was A. Cheesebrough, and he was followed by J. B. 
Norris. In 1848, Springfield had two railroad trains and two stage 
coaches daily, but the stage coach is a thing of the past, although "the 
chariot of fire" arrives whenever one out of every fourteen citizens is 
returning to town. In connection with the arrival of the Mad River and 
Lake Erie, the Springfield Tri-Weekly Republic carried the headline: 

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"Arrival Extraordinary. Mad River Railroad Finished," with the infor- 
mation: "This morning at half past ten an engine with several cars 
attached came into town, and was received with shouts of joy by large 
crowds of citizens. We could scarcely believe our ears when we heard 
the strange sound of the whistle in the northwest, nor our eyes when 
we saw the engine coming ; yet it is a reality. The Mad River Railroad 
is completed to Springfield, and the river and the lakes have shaken 
hands," and a few days later the same paper announced a letter from 
officials of the road, saying that the line between Springfield and Dayton 
will be put under contract without delay, eastern stockholders having 
concurred in the necessary arrangements. When there were but two 
roads they used the same station, but since then there has been no 
Union Railway Station in Springfield. 

Hiram W. Williams of Springfield who since March, 1921, has been 
pensioned by the Big Four Railway Company, has investigated things 
for himself and he reports that the Mad River and Lake Erie became 



Pie ■ ! *■ 

m ..i in 
in ■ g | v 


Group of Railroad Stations 

known as Cincinnati, Sandusky and Cleveland line before it was finally 
absorbed by the Big Four; for fifty-one years Mr. Williams was a 
locomotive engineer, and for forty-six years he ran trains out of Spring- 
field. Theodore Good is another pensioned engineer, and John C. Penders 
is pensioned by the Pennsylvania line as a baggage master, having held 
different positions in his term of service. In describing the development 
of the Mad River and Lake Erie line, Mr. Williams has the idea that 
construction was begun at Dayton, and met the improvement from the 
other way at Bowlusville near the north line of Clark County. Captain 
Bowlus had a store at the point of intersection, and that was the begin- 
ning of Bowlusville. 

The junction was along Mad River in excellent farming country, 
and for a time Bowlusville was an important business center; both the 
soil and the railroad attracted settlers, and when the iron bands came 
together the settlers planned a barbecue; the governors of Ohio and 
Indiana were there, and notables from many points along the way. The 

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ends came together in Clark County, and from that on it made rapid 
progress; the Erie Canal carried much freight to Dayton, and this rail- 
way opened up an eastern market. The country was now connected 
with the outside world in each direction. In 1852 an emigrant train 
brought the cholera to Springfield. 

Mr. Williams says that the stretch of Big Four Railroad from 
Springfield to London was built by popular subscription, Clark County 
taking the initiative in the '50s; it wanted a direct line to Columbus. 
At London it connected with the Miami now the Pennsylvania, con- 
tinuing to the capital city ; however, the road was a failure and did not 
pay the taxes till 1872, when it was sold to the company controlling the 
Sandusky road, the purchase price of $1 making it within the law. When 
the line was finally extended to Columbus it proved an excellent invest- 
ment. It was operated in connection with the Sandusky road until both 
were absorbed by the Big Four. 

George H. Knight who has known the railroad situation in Spring- 
field since 1876, and who in 1882 became local agent of the Big Four — 
the C. C. C. & I., known as the Bee Line, was with the road when it 
absorbed some other local lines, first being the Cincinnati, Sandusky & 
Cleveland, then the Bee Line and finally the I. B. & W., all accomplished 
within three years and merged into the Big Four. Mr. Knight regrets 
that he did not make written note of much that happened then, now 
only available in the files of local newspapers. What used to be regarded 
as three separate roads are now under one management, and it is 
proving an economical arrangement. While the Big Four and I. B. 
& W. roads used the Arcade as an office, the Cincinnati, Sandusky & 
Cleveland line used the old station until after the consolidation, and 
after the fire in the Arcade in 1893, the office was removed to the old 
station across the track where it remained until the present passenger 
station was built at the foot of Spring Street. When the roads were 
merged, Mr. Knight was fortunate in being with the road taking over 
the others; he continued his job, while many lost their positions. 

While the Cincinnati, Sandusky and Cleveland road was secured 
through a tax voted in the '40s, Clark County subscribing $20,000 toward 
it, many counties sold out at a sacrifice, thereby losing their stock, but 
Clark County was more fortunate; it finally realized on the investment 
made by its pioneer citizens who had a vision of the future. While 
the Big Four is the only through train service east and west, a spur 
line connects Springfield with the Pennsylvania at Xenia, and a lateral 
line also connects with the Pennsylvania at Urbana, and thus a passenger 
may go to bed in Springfield aboard a sleeper and waken in Chicago 
or New York. It was expensive building railroads through the lime- 
stone bluffs about Springfield, and early construction entailed a great 
deal of engineering to enter Springfield without the expense of tunneling^ 
In 1855, when the Erie came along it missed the town to avoid the 
limestone hills. It was known as the Great Western, and while its 
objective point was Cincinnati, it anticipated that Springfield would 
build in that direction; the station is Durbin, and it is reached from 
Springfield by interurban cars. 

When the D. T. & I. road was built by the Whitelys in the '80s, 
it was a narrow gauge and used as a coal route from Ironton; when 
in the '90s it became standard gauge, passenger service was installed and 
now that it is the property of Henry Ford, it is a good freight and 

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passenger line. While there is no belt road, the Erie uses the D. T. & I. 
tracks in reaching local shippers. Springfield never expanded greatly 
in the direction of the Erie station at Durbin. Through its system of 
spurs and siding, Springfield shippers easily reach the markets of the 
world. "Springfield is without natural boundaries," and through its 
steam and electric roads and its "chariots of fire," when an order is 
secured the shipping is a matter of choice with manufacturers. It 
is said that the automobile with its counterpart of truck has given to 
the individual an advantage equivalent to owning a private railroad 
with a train ready to start in any direction at any time. 

A local writer says: "With the establishment of motor truck lines, 
and their increasing use as common carriers, we shall see a revival 
of traffic on our public highways which will result in a virtual revolu- 
tion in transportation ih a short time. Indeed, there are many students 
of the transportation problem who think that is the way out of our 
perplexity ; the entire highway proposition is a rising one in this country ; 
the person who allies himself with the good roads idea is in harmony 
with the progress of events, and is in the vanguard of modern civiliza- 
tion." Since the days of war time freight shortage automobiles are 
again shipped by railroad; for several months they were driven from 
the factories, even women driving new cars when labor was the problem 
in the days of the war. Convoys of new automobiles were frequently 
seen along the National road and through Springfield. 

See America First 

In this age of steam, electricity, gasoline and air transportation, the 
sons and grandsons have enlarged neighborhood limitations; the third, 
fourth, fifth and sixth generations in Clark County are living under 
changed conditions. They frequently whirl through space in adjacent 
counties, aye, through neighboring states and spend the evening at home 
again, while the generations before them seldom left the bounds of 
the county. While it is said the railroads speeded up the nineteenth 
century and the automobile has done the same for the twentieth century, 
the airplane in the infancy of its development surpasses both of them, 
and as the telegraph service is allied with manufacturing and trans- 
portation, along comes the wireless system with possibilities unlimited 
and unquestioned. The community owes everything to steam, electricity, 
the automobile, the airplane and to wireless; they have revolutionized 
conditions since the days of the pioneers. 

With the methods of travel now in vogue, the world is becoming 
so small that isolation which was the bugbear of the pioneer is wholly 
eliminated ; the Creator isolated the United States of America by placing 
it between two oceans, and away from the haunts of man, but now he 
flies over it and sails through it, and while the word isolation is still 
in the dictionary, it no longer describes conditions in Clark County. 
The Springfield Engineering Club is on record as favoring a budget from 
the U. S. Congress for the extension of aviation, the newest form of 
transportation. It is a step in advance of conditions reported in 1838, 
at Lancaster, Ohio, when a board of education refused the use of the 
school house to a group of young men who wished to discuss the feasi- 
bility of the railroad and telegraph. 

A clipping from a newspaper including the refusal of the board of 
education reads: "You are welcome to the use of the school house to 

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debate all proper questions in, but such things as railroads and telegraphs 
are impossibilities and rank infidelity. There is no work of God about 
them; if God had designed that his intelligent creatures should travel 
at the frightful speed of fifteen miles an hour by steam, He would 
clearly have foretold it through His holy prophets; it is a device of 
Satan to lead immortal souls down to hell." The flying machine would 
have distressed the board of education so many years ago. 

Springfield Facts 

In the booklet. Springfield Facts, is the information that the Big 
Four has the following divisions: Cincinnati, Peoria, Sanduskv and 
Delaware ; the Pennsylvania lines ; Erie Railway and the Detroit, Toledo 
and Ironton. There are ten steam roads leading into Springfield, with 
thirty-two passenger trains in and out every day ; there are 985 freight 
cars in and 1,016 freight cars out of Springfield, showing the immense 
amount of shipping, thirty-one freights being loaded and added to the 
passing trains, the booklet issued before the recent slump in industrial 
conditions. There is no gainsaying the statement that modern life with 
its manifold social and industrial activities is dependent upon the effi- 
ciency of its transportation. 

Springfield Street Railway 

It was in the '80s, that P. P. Mast and George Spence installed the 
first mule cars in Springfield; they operated on High Street west from 
Limestone and past the splendid Mast residence now owned by the 
Knights of Pythias, but the electric age was approaching and mule 
power was not used many years. In the course of time, Warder, Bush- 
nell and Mitchell acquired the Mast-Spence holdings, and the system 
was extended to other streets in Springfield. They sold it to W. B. 
McKinley — later Senator McKinley, of Champaign, Illinois, who operated 
the system for a time, finally disposing of it to the American Railways 
Company of Philadelphia. In 1892, Asa S. Bushnell and I. Ward Frey 
built the first electric railway operated in Springfield; it was a cross 
town line using Center instead of Limestone on the south but making 
the same Wittenberg* loop, and in time it was acquired by the American 
Railways Company. 

In the modern city street cars are the roads; without them it would 
not be a city ; it would be a small town. As the city grows its transporta- 
tion increases, and with increased distance comes increased rate of 
speed; today Springfield would not be satisfied with the horse or mule 
drawn car; the people want to reach the center in a hurry. With the 
electric service reaching all sections, downtown Springfield will always 
have the advantage over neighborhood business centers. The public 
transfer corner at Limestone and High streets presents a busy scene 
at the hours of heaviest traffic, and while there is no station, passengers 
never wait long for a car in any direction. The system operates over 
about forty miles of track, with about forty cars in the service. 

Interurban Electric Service 

The electric lines operating between Springfield and other cities are: 
Ohio Electric Railway Company, connecting with Dayton, Lima and 

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Columbus ; the Springfield and Xenia line, and in the past the Springfield, 
Troy and Piqua and the Springfield and South Charleston roads. New 
Carlisle is connected by a spur with the Dayton line, although its citizens 
must go a mile from town to obtain the service; the cars once ran into 
New Carlisle, but when the trestle bridge across Honey Creek was 
condemned in 1912, the cars stopped at the New Carlisle cemetery. 
Some of these lines have been operated at a loss, and the companies 
seek to discontinue the service. They are operated by receivers, and 
deficit rather than surplus indicates the loss in operation, even the Spring- 
field Railway Company filing such report with the city manager. 

The Springfield, Troy and Piqua line has been inactive with $85,000 
preferred .claims and receiver's bills against it, and the South Charleston 
line operating one car threatens to discontinue the service. It is owned 
by the heirs of G. W. Baker who bought it as a receiver's sale in 1906, 
and when he died in 1914 it was operated by the widow; it has fifteen 
miles of track, and while there are two cars only one has been in opera- 
tion making five round trips with a two-hour service. The D. T. & 
I. road runs one train between Springfield and South Charleston, and 
with the traction service discontinued South Charleston and Pitchin are 
practically isolated from Springfield. The traction line carries freight 
from Springfield to both towns. While the property is listed on the 
tax duplicate at $60,000, for several years it has been operated at a loss. 
"It will be scrapped unless it can be sold, or some other means devised 
of operating it." The Chamber of Commerce had become interested 
in the situation, although no action had been taken. 

There are about 125 electric cars arrive and leave Springfield every 
twenty-four hours, and about twenty freights are operated over the 
lines; with the steam and electric freight lines, and the trucks carrying 
a great deal of traffic, Springfield has shipping facilities. With the 
loss of interurban service, Springfield loses much valuable territory 
that divides its patronage among other towns; taxes and street assess- 
ments are paid by the railway companies, and the jitney bus is sharing 
the patronage. While the busses offer cheap transportation, it is because 
of competition; eventually their routes and fares will be regulated, and 
they will be held to same accounting as the street railway. The bus 
operators are asking for zones, and they will secure license and estab- 
lish schedules. Even the elevator is a route of travel, and no one wants 
to see Springfield return to the level of two-story business buildings; 
it would be a waste of time, material, power and wealth, and many 
elevators are operated in Springfield. 

The Springfield Traffic Association has inaugurated a campaign for 
better packing of articles for shipping, "perfect package month," result- 
ing in awakening such an interest ; it is hoped to decrease losses by having 
better wrapped packages, and all freight in less than car-load lots is 
inspected; packages regarded as unsafe are turned back to the shippers 
for better wrapping; the railroad and express companies take this 
method of scalping claims for damages against them. For many years 
Springfield has been a center for the manufacture of products entering 
into the construction and maintenance of railways: special track work 
consisting of crossings, frogs, switches, stands, signals, curves and intri- 
cate layouts by which means the rolling stock of steam and electric rail- 
ways and tramways is directed across intersecting tracks, deflected into 
passing sidings and around curves or other desired routes, without the 

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aid, action or effort of the operator in charge of the motive power, in 
which the rolling stock of steam operated lines differs from all other 
propelled vehicles of transportation. 

Locomotives and cars moving at the highest rate of speed are held 
to the track by wheel flanges averaging only one inch in deptn, and 
special construction made up from rails either automatically or other- 
wise guide and direct the wheels by these same flanges in deflected 
movements, and with as much security as when moving along the straignt 
track; the designing and manufacture of special track work embodies 
die highest type of civil and mechanical engineering, and the use 01 
special heavy and powerful machinery. The Indianapolis Switch and 
Frog Company specializes in designs of track specials and tools reducing 
the maintenance cost, which is one of the principal items of railway 
operations. Without these devices many railroads would have Deen 
unable to withstand the period of depression following the World war, 
and Springfield is the logical location for this industry. 

While the settlers had the long, wearisome journeys to Cincinnati 
and to the eastern markets they were highly favored as a community 
by being along the National Road, and having many advantages. Trans- 
portation contributes much to civilization, and with hard surtace roads, 
railroads and interurban lines and with elevators in the high buildings 
and with no obstructions in the air, Clark County seems to nave about 
all that is vouchsafed to the children of men in any community. While 
there are no water ways, and the underground railway service has 
long been a matter of history. When discussing speed, some one said : 
,f We do not travel today — we merely arrive," but "Safety first," "Stop, 
look, and listen," and almost before the passerby is aware he is in — well, 
*• Springfield is only over night from any place at all." 

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Half a century ago, Dr. John Ludlow, who was a Springfield business 
man through its formative and reconstruction after-the-Civil-war period, 
uttered these words: "While generations follow generations like the 
waves of the sea follow each other the great business of life still goes 
on, and the age in which we are now living is truly a progressive one; 
it seems that the Lord is leading us as His chosen people. Refinement 
and civilization are rapidly advancing, and the comforts of life are 
multiplying; it now seems that the genius of the American people has 
reached its consummation." 

It was in 1871 that the above sentiment was expressed, and what 
would be the feeling of the writer were he living today; since oil has 
been poured into toil and ease has been supplied in disease, and every 
appliance is now utilized to make the machinery run smoothly, who is 
to dip his pen into colors lurid enough to write about it ? In reminiscent 
vein the pioneer Springfield man wrote: "We see the toilsome sickle 
and the scythe laid aside, and the harvest being gathered like pastime; 
the toil and fatigue we used to endure have been turned into the business 
of recreation and pleasure. We fly in gilded palaces in every direction 
over our broad land with the swiftness of light; we are reclining and 
sleeping on cushioned seats and spring beds; steam propels our ships 
on the ocean; it has brought the distant nations of the earth to cnir 

"The heathen are learning to imitate the progress of our civilization ; 
we have added the use of the wonderful telegraph, and time and space 
have been annihilated ; we talk with people beyond the seas with tongues 
of lightning, and with the same ease as we speak face to face," and 
what would Doctor Ludlow have said about the disarmament conference 
now in session in Washington, and many other questions that concern 
the world today? Fifty years ago he said: "It now seems that the 
genius of the American people has reached its consummation." Twenty 
years from the time of which he wrote, Springfield was manufacturing 
products that revolutioned the farming industry. 

S. S. Miller, another reminiscent writer, says : "About September 10, 
the farmer threw the grain sack across his shoulder and went forth to 
sow; with sturdy steps he strode across the field, scattering the grain 
with his strong right hand and arm, so aptly portrayed by the great 
painters and immortalized by the Parable of the Sower," but the drills 
have long since obliterated that picture ; it only hangs on memory's walls, 
and many citizens do not remember it at all. Mr. Miller says: "Of 
the old time flouring mills that of Rock Point located on Mad River 
half a mile east of Durbin Station was noted for not having any dis- 
tillery attachment; it was built by Peter Sintz, Sr., and was operated 
by George Grisso who had the reputation for honesty in taking toll, and 
made excellent flour. It was a wonder to see the wooden cog wheels 
spinning round, and it was a dizzy sight looking out from the attic 
window to the race, and see the water rushing into the wheel pit at 
the bottom," and mention has already been made of the relation of 


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Mill Run through its water power to the early industries of Springfield. 
Some men today talk about the overcast water wheels, when water 
turned the wheels of industry. 

In the formative days of Springfield history, fortunes were seldom 
measured by six figures, but business men were looking into the future. 
Like the sturdy pioneers on the Clark County farms, there were frugal, 
calculating business men in Springfield. An old account says: "One 
of the peculiarities of the earlier times was the varied development and 
marked individuality notable among men; every little community had 
its distinguished citizens ; some higher and some lower in interest ; some 
came from poverty and obscurity and worked themselves up to positions 

Dr. John Ludlow 

of competence, wealth and distinction; they overcame stubborn opposi- 
tion," and men on the street mention the names: Warder, Bushnell, 
Fassler, Whitely, Kelly, Snyder, Foos, Ludlow, Bretney, Bowman, 
Shellabarger, Humphreys, Mitchell, Thomas, Johnson, Mast, Crowell, 
Kay, Pringle, Houston, Forgy, Williams, Busbey, Hamma, Miller, Fair- 
banks, Gotwald, Bancroft, Anthony, Mason, and they had just begun 
mentioning those identified with the development of Springfield. 

Newspaper Clipping 

"Many persons hereabouts can remember when nearly everybody 
was talking about patents — patents on reapers, patents on water wheels, 
patents on grain drills, and a thousand other things; now we seldom 

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Vol. I— 10 

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hear about these inventions on the patent side. In the older days attor- 
neys made fortunes on patent litigation — now we seldom hear of a patent 
being instituted; it is alleged that the U. S. patent office is the most 
backward and antiquated of all the government departments, the salaries 
paid to experts being so small that they cannot be retained in the service. 
"Manufacturers now depend upon improved facilities, labor saving 
devices, perfection of organizations, and advertising for progress and 
protection in their business; some inventors of processes even refuse 
to patent their ideas, preferring to keep the principles and the processes 
secret, and to rely on that secrecy for success * * * Inventive 
genius is fickle and uncertain ; success is often sudden and unexpected — 
sometimes it never is realized ; the inventive faculty and business ability 
seldom exist in the same person," and mention is made of the fact that 
Thomas A. Edison swamped $5,000,000 before he attained success; 
that others had failed on automobiles before Henry Ford succeeded; 
that Mark Twain expended $200,000 and went bankrupt trying to invent 
a type-setting machine, and that Cash Register Patterson encountered 
many difficulties before Dayton and cash register became synonymous 
terms in the business world. 

Springfield's First Inventor 

James Leffel, inventor of the water turbine, operated a sawmill out- 
side of Springfield, the power being furnished by the overflow of water 
from the Snyder race along Mad River; while the turbine demonstrated 
its superiority over the under and over shot water wheels, Mr. Leffel 
was not spared to reap the financial returns accruing from his invention ; 
it seems that William Foos backed the enterprise, financially, and that 
John Bookwalter succeeded to the Leffel business opportunities. Mr. 
Leffel displayed genius in other lines, specializing on fine breeds of 
poultry, and winning premiums at the county fair. 

Mentioned as local inventors are: James Leffel, William N. Whitely, 
John J. Hoppes, Willam Blackeney, Doctor Kindelberger, Clark Sintz, 
A. W. Grant and Fuller Trump, and because of the activities of William 
Needham Whitely, and a desire to portray his relation to the community 
accurately, the following resume is utilized: "About the time Spring- 
field was in process of transition from the formless hamlet to the 
organized town with its more complex functions, there appeared its 
first recognized inventor, and the founder of its metal industries, James 
Leffel, whose invention of the 'Leffel Double Turbine Wheel' marked 
an important step in the development of water power, and whose foundry 
and factory were really the beginning of Springfield's industrial impor- 
tance. In the '40s several shops sprang up, among them the Railway 
Car Shop of Hatch and Whitely, and the Plow Factory of William 
Whitely, brother of Abner Whitely who was one of the partners in the 
firm of Hatch and Whitely. 

William Needham Whitely 

"William Needham Whitely, nephew of William and Abner Whitely, 
and son of Andrew Whitely, was born on a farm in 1835. three miles 
east of Springfield. He had natural proclivities toward the use of metal 
tools, and the contrivance of mechanical devices. He easily gravitated to 
the then incipient factory town of Springfield. In 1853 he was well on 

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his way toward becoming a highly trained mechanician, as well as pro- 
ficient pattern-maker and draftsman. Skill in these handicrafts, com- 
bined with the powers of an imaginative and active brain, under the 
inspiration of the career of James Leffel, whose achievements had made 
such a powerful impression on the youth's mind at a time when impres- 
sions were of most effect, led to the invention in 1856, of his Combined 
Self-Raking Reaper and Mower, a machine adapted to either grain or 
grass harvesting, and which was given the name Champion. 

"In the same year, Mr. Whitely prevailed upon Jerome Fassler, a 
Swiss of sound mechanical ability and having the painstaking love of 
detail and accuracy native to the Swiss character, to join him in the 
manufacture of his newly invented reaper. In the next year there came 
into the firm two strong and able men, Oliver S. Kelly and Amos 
Whitely, and thus was established the Springfield Agricultural Works, 
or Whitely, Fassler and Kelly, as the name appeared and later became 
famous in the business world. The Civil war greatly promoted the use 
of farm machinery, . and the Champion firm grew and prospered, and 

Elwood Meyers Factory 

Springfield became known to the nation as 'The Champion City/ In 
1867 the territory was divided among Whitely, Fassler and Kelly, the 
Champion Machine Company organized by Amos Whitely, Robert John- 
son and Daniel P. Jeffries, and Warder, Mitchell and Company, com- 
posed of Benjamin H. Warder, Ross Mitchell and Asa S. Bushnell. 

"Springfield, in the early 70s, had now been definitely committed to 
the metal industries with agricultural implements forming by far the 
larger part of her output. Refinements and developments of the Com- 
bined Reaper and Mower to keep the three Champion Reaper factories 
busy, occupied a large part of Whitely's time and energy. The idea of 
tapping the coal and iron fields of southern Ohio by means of the Spring- 
field, Jackson and Pomeroy Railway, which project had been attempted 
with but little success in the middle 70s, thus bringing coal and iron 
directly to Springfield by a short haul, now made such a strong appeal 
to Whitely that he immediately threw himself into the construction and 
completion of this railway with characteristic energy and determination. 
The road was opened in the later 70s, and for a time seemed ^to justify 
its cost. 

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"In the middle 70s Whitely established a branch factory in Toronto, 
Canada, being one of the earliest American manufacturers to extend his 
operations outside the national boundaries. The Canadian branch was 
known as the Toronto Reaper and Mower Company, and it was a suc- 
cessful enterprise until sold, in 1879, to the firm of Massy, Harris and 
Company. In fact, the acquisition of the Toronto Reaper Company was 
a decisive factor in causing the Massy, Harris Company to locate in 
Toronto, and thus it influenced favorably the growth of Toronto, and 
gave impetus to the expansion of the Massy Company which is today the 
leading Canadian-British implement company. 

1884 — The Twine Binder 

"In the early '80s improved and modernized factories and mass pro- 
duction became increasingly important, and about 1884 the type of self- 
binder known as the 'Twine Binder' was well settled and adapted to 
production on a 'one design' basis. It now became vitally important to 
meet the tremendous manufacturing competition centered around Chi- 
cago, the West now having rail transportation was open, and vast wheat 
production beginning, raw materials flowed freely into Chicago factories, 
and their finished product was closer to the wheat growing states. 

"Whitely's business associates could not agree to embark in the plan 
of expansion which he had in mind, to equalize the advantages Chicago 
possessed and to meet the changing conditions in the trade; so in the 
first years of the '80s, he undertook single-handed, not only the design 
of machines for the three Champion factories, but also the building, 
equipping and organizing his vast new plant known as the East Street 
shops. In 1886 Mr. Fassler and Mr. Kelly retired from the business. 
The East Street plant was famous not only for it size and equipment, 
but for its inclusion of malleable iron foundries and steel works in the 
factory group as well, thus forming the most complete production cycle 
from raw material to finished product, of any factory of the time. 

"A period of transition from wood to steel reaper construction fol- 
lowed the establishment of so modern a plant, which could thus produce 
steel machines as easily as competitors could wood-type reapers. Whitely 
was far in advance of his day in pre-visioning the coming of all steel 
machinery. The period of change from wood to steel was the time also 
to make many innovations in the general makeup of the mower and 
binder. In 1886 he hftd just completed two machines of markedly 
advanced design which were to be known as the Whitely Ail-Steel Binder 
and Mower, when the Knights of Labor organization threatened the 
unionization of his works. Cooperative defense on the part of manu- 
facturers was an unknown thing at that t'me, and the threat was met 
with single-handed defiance. 

Cincinnati Bank Failure 

"In Cincinnati at this time there was a banker by the name of E. L. 
Harper who was the son-in-law of Swift of the Newport (Kentucky) 
Roller Mills. Whitely had been for many years a patron of the Swifts 
and of Harper, and in common with many business men in southern 
Ohio, he had great confidence in Harper's ability. About two years 
previously, Harper had founded the Fidelity National Bank of Cincin- 

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nati. Secretly he was working to engineer a corner in the Chicago 
wheat pit, and was without their knowledge furtively diverting the 
resources of the bank and its patrons to the furtherance of his schemes. 
He was within striking distance of his goal when suddenly the market 
broke, and he was unable to cover his losses. 

"Whitely was thus confronted with such varied and apparently insu- 
perable difficulties that he was forced to ask for a receiver, and he was 
himself appointed. In the campaign of 1884, he had made great efforts 
to help elect Blaine, realizing that the time had come when the fate of 
American industries was out of the hands of their creators, and in the 
keeping of politicians or statesmen. In the campaign of 1888, the strug- 
gle over the tariff was renewed, but without decisive results, although 
the republicans won. Reaper prices were still going down, and were to 
reach their lowest ebb within three or four years. Tlie affairs of the 
Whitely Reaper Company (the Champion interests having been disposed 
of in 1887 to the Warder, Bushnell and Glessner Company) were wound 
up in 1891, and the great East Street plant was sold to Charles W. Fair- 
banks of Indianapolis, who, in 1894, converted it into a leased-space 
plant housing various industries. In 1901 the major portion burned down 
and was never rebuilt. 

"Whitely's subsequent activities led him into the natural gas fields of 
Indiana — a lure that attracted many eastern manufacturers in the early 
*90s, and in 1892 he built a factory in Muncie, Indiana. These shops 
burned in 1894, and in 1897 Whitely returned to Springfield. He was 
instrumental in bringing about a revival of operations in what was 
known as the 'New Champion* group of factories, which is now divided 
among the American Seeding Machine Company, the Foos Gas Engine 
Company and the Champion Chemical Company. 

"In 1904 Whitely built a plant in the west end of Springfield which 
was instituted as a Cooperative Reaper Factory, financed largely by 
farmer assistance. William N. Whitely was a man of large affairs, 
dominant and decisive, resourceful and able, at all time generous, kindly 
and sympathetic, largely living a Spartan existence, frugal and simple 
in his tastes. He was not in the least given to self-indulgence or personal 
extravagance. In body and mind massive and impulsive, he was always a 
tremendous worker. He was almost without a peer in industry, and 
indefatigable application to the activities that absorbed him to the ulti- 
mate benefit of the community and country he loved with a pure and 
fervent patriotism. 

"Mr. Whitely had those imaginative qualities of mind, that power of 
personality and magnetic fascination which combined with gentleness 
and modesty in personal intercourse, always makes a strong appeal to 
American hearts ; vigorous and virile, facing forward ready for the next 
best thing. Indomitable, tenacious and unembittered, in 1911 he passed 
out not having reliquished that fortitude of character that is the guerdon 
of the invincible." 

In the home of the son, W. N. Whitely, Jr., are many scrap books 
filled with clippings from newspapers, and in the hearts of Springfield 
friends are many kindly reminiscences; stories are told reflecting the 
character of this unique citizen. They say a man born on the Charleston 
Road put Springfield on the map of the world. Like other having initia- 
tive, Mr. Whitely was not influenced by friends; he did not allow an 
idea time enough to develop and accumulate until some improvement was 

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added, and the cost of production was ahead of the revenue from the 
invention itself. He was working 2,000 men when labor troubles arose, 
and people still discuss a $4,000,000 business failure in 1887, and its 
lasting effect on the community. Gen. J. Warren Keifer assumed to 
straighten out the entanglements, and later George H. Frey was in con- 
trol when the holdings were disposed of to C. W. Fairbanks. 

The original Whitely, Fassler and Kelly manufacturing plant was on 
the site of the Arcade, and the dissolution there saved valuable property 
to the partners withdrawing from the enterprise. ' It is said that when 
the panic of 1893 swept the country, Springfield had not yet recovered 
from a panic of its own, but with its varied industries it has many 
wheels turning, and when prosperity abounds local industries share in it, 
"Springfield is without natural boundaries and, therefore, has numerous 
manufacturing sites with proper sidings that can be procured at a rea- 
sonable cost. Our railroads enter the city from all directions, which 
makes it possible to secure satisfactory locations in all sections." What 
if it is a "low gear" community? The conservative business men do not 
wish to breast another local panic. While Mr. Whitely had an ambition 
— wanted the biggest shop in the world, he did not wait the time and 
season, and in the face of local labor difficulties he imported men from 
Baltimore. It was winter when he built the East Street shops, and 
salamanders were used to prevent the walls from freezing. He did not 
figure the expense, and they say of him that he lived in the future. 

Many who are active in Springfield industry today only know of 
W. N. Whitely as a story that is told, although he was the most aggres- 
sive manufacturer ever in the community. He made the profitable wheat 
crop a possibility, and revolutionized conditions in agriculture. Many 
who knew and understood the man are gone the way of the world, and 
those in active life today do not fully appreciate the mentality of one 
who continually grappled with problems that may bring their monetary 
reward in future. Mr. Whitely's tomorrow may be in the dim distance, 
but ideas originated by him are still earning money for others. When 
the town planned to erect a monument to the man, his son said the sound 
of machinery would suit his memory better, and while some of those 
associated with him live there will be discussion of the activities of Wil- 
liam Needham Whitely. 

While it is said of Mr. Whitely that he "made and broke Springfield," 
the price of wheat following the Civil war awakened within him a desire 
to help farmers to help themselves, and thus Springfield became an 
agricultural manufacturing center; until the manufacture of farm imple- 
ments gave the town an impetus, the rural population balanced the city. 
While agriculture has not receded, manufacturing made great strides in 
advancement, and Springfield has been dominant, the fact recurring that 
it was in existence before the organization of Clark County. 

While Springfield is the city of roses, it is the Kelly Springfield tires 
that advertise the community today. When A. W. Grant invented the 
solid rubber tire for vehicles, he had little thought of rubber being util- 
ized in the famous Kelly Springfield tire, and of the fortune wrapped up 
in it. While Springfield has its reverses, it has its seasons of prosperity. 
It is said : "They leave Springfield to hunt jobs, and they come to Spring- 
field to hunt jobs." While the last census report shows a population of 
60,840, if none left the town it would be 100,000, but it is "give and 
take," and a shifting population affects all other towns. Springfield did 

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not engage in the manufacture of the munitions of war, and the labor 
attracted to other cities has not yet returned to Springfield. The "plow- 
share industry did not lend itself to the manufacture of swords^ and 
pruning hooks are not readily converted into spears— the Bible 
prophesy against the war time industry. Springfield's appeal is to agri- 
culture—not to warfare, and there have been no war time profiteers 
among its manufacturers. 

While Mad River furnished water power to innumerable distilleries 
and flouring mills, and Mill Run accommodated the "power" needs of 
Spnngfield settlers, the chronology of local manufacturing really begins 
with the foundry built by the James Leffel Company, and put into opera- 
tion January 1, 1840. In 1845, they had the second foundry, and since 
then manufacturing has been the keynote in Springfield history. The 
Barnetts had a flouring mill on Buck Creek where they had utilized the 
water to more purpose, and in 1846 they supplied power to Leffel and 
Richards who. built a cotton mill in Springfield. When they extended 
their power service to others, it was dominated a "fast age," and steam 
and electricity were still in the future. While many men had seen steam 
lift the tea kettle lid, they did not stop to think of the power thus gen- 
erated; did not utilize the idea, and while industry started on a small 
scale, there has been constant development in Springfield. Forty per 
cent of the world's output of manufactured goods is produced in the 
United States, and a little observation shows that Springfield has its 

In his 1921 annual report, Fire Chief Samuel F. Hunter says: 
"Under the heading of recommendations is the first and foremost 
thought— the fast and constant growth of our city, such as the indus- 
trial plants that are expanding with larger buildings, and the finished 
and unfinished products therein that must be protected," and this sum- 
mary includes the Bretney tannery which has been owned and operated 
through three generations: Henry, Charles, and now it is Harry V. 
Bretney, which is spoken of as the oldest industry in Springfield, oper- 
ated without change of .name or location. In 1850, the form of govern- 
ment was changed and Springfield obtained a city charter. It is said 
that 1851 was an era of prosperity — the citizens of that time were 
boosters, pointing out the advantages in point of location and health 
conditions, and in 1921 men were saying it had more points in its favor; 
a better group of business and professional men, and there is no hindrance 
to its development. 

As late as 1856 milling was still the principal industry, there being 
seventeen flouring mills in and around Springfield, and distilling was 
still a profitable industry, but there came a revolution in industrial condi- 
tions. When local inventive genius busied itself, manufacturers turned 
their attention to improvements for planting, cultivating and harvesting 
with the result that the fame of Springfield as a manufacturing center 
spread to world markets, and some of the strongest firms in the country 
were organized in Springfield. Benjamin H. Warder was a man with 
vision who surrounded himself with other men of ability, creating for 
them the necessary opportunities ; it was Warder and Mitchell, and later 
Warder, Bushnell and Glessner, and all accumulated fortunes. Mr. 
Warder was a financial wizard, and all associated with him accumulated 

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Mr. Warder found Ross Mitchell as bookkeeper in a distillery on Mad 
River, and offered him a responsible position, advising him to take out 
life insurance and borrow money on the policy, thereby securing property. 
The Greenawalt and Schuey factory buildings resulted from the Mitchell 
investments, and when Asa S. Bushnell became interested in the firm 
Warder, Bushnell and Glessner, he developed the same business ability. 
No man associated with the upbuilding of Springfield touched more lives 
in helpful way than Benjamin H. Warder. It was the Springfield of the 
past upon which the Springfield of today is built, and some who have 
been prominent are still leaders in the community ; it is customary to wait 
until a man is dead before hanging garlands about his memory; some 
are active today whose names have not been long in the directory. 

The 1920 census report based on 1919 figures, gives Springfield 206 
manufacturing plants with 15,459 persons employed as compared with 
1914, when war was started by the German nation, when there were 253 
industries, although only 9,946 persons were employed in local factories. 
In 1919 local factories paid out $17,679,000 in wages and salaries, and 
put $67,759,000 worth of goods on the market. Since then the output 
has been reduced; war conditions disorganized both manufacturing and 
* agriculture, and now that people are studying the cost of production a 
conservative period is in prospect ; a slump in agriculture means a general 
depression since Springfield industries produce implements of agriculture. 
Economic students say : "Readjustments and reconstruction are not com- 
plete ; difficulties embarrass and industrial disturbances threaten ; there is 
urgent need for work, economy and saving," but in his Thanksgiving 
proclamation, Governor Harry L. Davis says : "We are passing through 
a period while coupled with hardships, bids fair to mark the beginning 
of an era of lasting prosperity." 

A directory of those engaged in manufacturing is as impractical as a 
list of those engaged in mercantile pursuits, but many articles are manu- 
factured in Springfield; the building trade is more active, showing an 
increase of 30 per cent over 1920, and while some factories are increas- 
ing their output, the old law of supply and demand seems to function. 
While a degree of optimism prevails, most local manufacturers agree that 
increased activity will be slow for a few years. Women have entered the 
field of industry ; the publishing industry offers them special opportunity. 
When the typewriter entered the business world, the woman accompanied 
it ; stenography and typewriting are relegated to her in many offices, and 
some women are successful as managers, and hard work seems to sum up 
the situation whether with men or women. 

The Springfield Manufacturers' Association holds frequent meetings; 
they discuss subjects of mutual interest, and they understand ethical 
requirements; it is unethical to interfere with the organization of other 
manufacturers. While workmen may leave of their own accord, it is 
unethical for one manufacturer to offer special inducements to secure an 
employe of another factory. When a man is efficient he is given advan- 
tages, and floaters are not sought at all. The Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion of Springfield does not hold open meetings, and in its effort to 
stabilize labor it has been interpreted wrong sometimes; each man sees 
the business from a different angle, and the meetings are for mutual 
benefit just as the Springfield Purchasing Agents or any similar organ- 
ization meets in council. The Manufacturers' Association has its legal 
advisor who sits in the meetings. The consensus of opinion is : "Spring- 

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field is in the front rank of cities ; business and industry are on a sound 
basis, and are gaining every month." 

Most Springfield industries have been operated by local capital — "born 
and raised" in Springfield — showing that the greatest development has 
been from within, which is of permanent nature. "With this agricultural 
implement interest as a basis, there have developed here many other 
important industries," and the labor question partially solves itself when 
similar industries assemble in a community. When a man leaves one 
factory, there are others that afford similar employment. The same thing 
holds true in the printing industry ; by assembling many publications, the 
Crowell Publishing Company is able to hold skilled labor in Springfield. 
One local enthusiast says: "I believe Springfield is more universally 
known than any other American town." There has always been coopera- 
tion; every traveling salesman sent out by one factory has been told to 
put in a word of recommendation for the goods made by other factories ; 
every dealer who came to town was taken round to the other shops. 
Springfield is the best 60,000 city in the United States. 

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An old account says: "Speaking of taverns on the old National 
Road west of Zanesville, but one tavern was opened in the first decade 
ot this century. Griffith Foos' tavern at Springfield, which was doing 
business in 1801, prospered until 1814," and the fact develops that when 
Mr. Foos happened along in March that year, he found a guest in the 
James Demint cabin. Mr. Demint was a host rather than a landlord, his 
guest being Col. John Daugherty of Kentucky. He was a Kentuckian 
and Mr. Foos was a Kentuckian. The three Kentuckians were sheltered 
there till June when Mr. Foos had a cabin ready to open as a hostelry, 
going back to Franklinton along the Scioto for his family. He was the 
first landlord in Springfield. 

In 1803, Archibald Lowry opened a two-story, hewed log hostelry in 
Springfield, dividing the patronage with Mr. Foos. While James Demint 
did not entertain as a means of subsistence, his was an open door in the 
community and it is said of the tavern keepers of that period, that they 
were not in business for profit so much as they were community builders. 
They maintained an open door for prospective settlers, and when the days 
of the stage coach along th6 National Road were numbered, the landlord 
of the past thought he saw an end to the public hostelry. He did not 
realize that the railroad traffic would greatly increase his opportunities. 
Every home was an open door in pioneer days, and S. S. Miller tells of 
a dinner guest who said : "Tank ee, ma'am, my dinner," to his mother 
when he was leaving, and the children repeated the courtesy among them- 
selves many times. 

The life along the National Road was very different from that in 
other counties, there being a continuous stream of people migrating along 
it; some of the old taverns are intact, as Buena Vista east from Spring- 
field. In Springfield and in some of the other towns are some of those 
old wayside places, and only a few years ago others were razed in mak- 
ing way for modern improvements. These taverns were scattered along 
the way only a few miles apart, and many travelers stopped within the 
wagon yards who slept in their own shelter, sometimes in the open air 
along with their weary horses. In winter time the men slept on the 
floors of the wagon houses; in summer they carried their own cooking 
utensils, and in the suburbs of the towns along the road, they would pull 
their teams out into the roadside and pitch camp, sending into the villages 
to replenish their stores. 

Almost every mile of the road's length those wagon houses offered 
hospitality, and there is mention of a number within the borders of Clark 
County. Hundreds of people were engaged in freight traffic along the 
National Road, and in these houses were fireplaces before which they 
could lay their blankets on winter nights ; there was less of privacy than 
is demanded by travelers today. Travelers liked the taverns at the out- 
skirts of the larger towns because the rates were lower, and the surround- 
ings were more congenial, especially to the covered wagon type of movers 
seeking the frontier. These houses were unpretentious frame buildings 
with watering troughs and barns for the horses ; a hundred tired horses 


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have been heard munching their corn in a single wagon house yard at the 
end of a long day t A century later the horse is almost unknown along 
the National Road 

The bar and the fireplace were fixtures, and one account says many 
of the fireplaces were seven feet in length and nearly as high, with capac- 
ity for a wagon load of wood; with a great fireplace at the end of the 
room lighting up its darkest corners as no candle could, the taverns along 
the National Road where the stages stopped for the night saw merrier 
scenes than any of their modern counterparts witness; and over all their 
merry gatherings the flames of the great fires threw a softened light, in 
which those who remember them best seem to bask as they tell about it, 
and farther east there was much gayety among the city folk who went 
for a social evening to those wayside taverns, 

The Type of Landlord 

The old Revolutionary soldiers who so frequently became landlords 
in New England, did not keep tavern in the West ; only one Revolu- 

Buena Vista Tavern. Still a Landmark 

tionary veteran was landlord along the National Road. It bred and 
brought up its own landlords who were fit to rule in the early taverns, 
securing from forest and stream much of the food served to those pio- 
neer travelers over the rough highway : it was many years before the 
road bed was what it is today. It was this type of landlord that objected 
to improving the National Road, fearing that an accelerated means of 
locomotion would cheat them out of their business, and in time the land- 
lords along the improved roadway had the same general apathy relative to 
railway transportation — it would deprive them of their means of liveli- 
hood. Taverns were always meeting places for the public, and this was 
particularly true in the West ; the public house was the only place avail- 
able that would accommodate a meeting. 

While the Eastern landlord was frequently busy with official duties, 
the Western landlord engaged in collateral professions which rendered 


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him valuable in the community; the jovial host at the National Road 
tavern often worked the farm on which his tavern stood; some of the 
landlords farther East owned slaves which carried on the work at both 
the tavern and the farm; the Western tavern keeper often operated a 
country store in which he had a bar, selling "strong waters to relieve 
the inhabitants." Whisky — two drinks for a "fippenny bit," was the 
"strong water." In this way the National Road bred its own landlords, 
young men whose lives began simultaneously with that of the road 
worked upon it in their teens; in middle life they became teamsters and 
contractors, and they spent the autumn of their lives as landlords of 
its taverns, which they purchased with the money earned in working 
upon it; several well known landlords were prominent contractors, own- 
ing their share of the great six and eight-horse teams which hauled 
freight to the Western rivers. S. S. Miller tells of a meeting in the 
town hall of New Carlisle in 1848, when a man who owned a farm 
east of Forgy was seeking an appropriation to complete the road, but 
by that time the railroad was changing conditions in Clark County; the 
grading stopped at the west line of Springfield Township, and recent 
complaints have been made about that stretch in the National highway. 
When Clark County local government was established, January 1, 
1818, there were three hotels in Springfield: Ludlow, Ross and Norton, 
and like all other tavern keepers they catered to movers ; they had big 
sheds and barns and were prepared to care for wagons and teams, 
many families enroute spending the night in wagons as a matter of 
economy. As tavern keepers along the National Road outside of Spring- 
field are mentioned the following: Gabriel Cox, John Rudy, Emanuel 
Mayne and Isaac Chamberlin. In 1835 the Buckeye House was opened 
in Springfield with a man named Hadley as landlord; it was built by 
Pierson Spinning, who was one of the guarantors of the National Road, 
as an investment, and in 1837, after losing his fortune, Mr. 'Spinning 
operated the tavern himself. 

The Pennsylvania House 

Among the best known taverns along the National Road was the 
Pennsylvania House which stood about one mile west from the center 
of Springfield; it was among the early hostelries. The westward emi- 
gration from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia drifted 
to the Pennsylvania House; all who traveled by turnpike heard of 
it, and in time stopped in it. The name of the wayside inn was well 
chosen; when Pennsylvania emigrants saw the friendly sign it was 
irresistible to them. It warmed their hearts, and one of them exclaimed : 
"The word Pennsylvania is music to our ears; it is a fresh reminder of 
'Home, Sweet Home/ " and it was for the entertainment of man and 
beast. It was surrounded by large trees with only enough cut away 
to allow the immense architectural structure to rear itself; there was 
ample yard for the accommodation of wagons and teams. The sign, 
"Pennsylvania House," was hung on an oak with the top cut off. and 
when the tree decayed the sign was placed on the house. 

There was a long porch in front of the Pennsylvania House, and 
David Snively was the landlord ; near it was the Traveler' Rest, kept by 
Samuel Shurhan, and Sugar Grove, kept by Daniel Leffel. There were 
hazel thickets interspersing spots of cleared land, and there was a field 

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used for muster and it had a race track in it. While there were taverns 
on either side of Springfield, William Werden who operated the National 
in the down town district was said to be the most popular landlord in 
Ohio. When emigrants were passing along the National Road the Penn- 
sylvania House with its barnyard filled with white canvas-covered wagons, 
laden with all kinds of household goods : washboilers, copper kettles and 
feed troughs on behind, always attracted them. 

The wagon trains and the sign, "Pike's Peak or Bust," would in- 
terest and amuse the young people of today; the human part of the 
caravansary consisted of grandfathers and grandmothers ; men and women 
of middle age, and children of all ages — babes at the breast, and not- 
withstanding the chilly nights they slept in the wagons; they were used 
to it. In every company were some who sat by the warm fires in the 
taverns, and told stories of the old homes, and of their hopes and fears 
for the future. When an emigrant said he had left a good neighborhood 
farther east, but his growing family needed more elbow room, the land- 
lord assured him he would find good people where he was going; when 
he told of leaving a community because of the neighbors, the landlord 
said he would find just as bad people in the new country. "He who is 
a good neighbor has a good neighbor," and thus it was an ever-shifting 
panorama unfolded before the eyes of the tavern keeper of the long ago. 

In one company of emigrants seeking shelter at the Pennsylvania 
House was John Morgan of Franklin County, Pennsylvania; he was 
100 years old, and his wife was ninety-five ; their friends carried rocking 
chairs along and made them comfortable in the wagon. They liked it 
better than the uncertain tavern accommodations; they went to Center- 
ville, Indiana, where both died four years later. Because of their age, 
Landlord Snively offered them rooms at the Pennsylvania House. The 
well loaded six-horse schooner shaped wagons with jingling bells on the 
harness were frequently sheltered in this wagon yard. When Daniel 
Leflfel had the Sugar Grove hostelry in the vicinity of the Masonic Home 
at the west edge of Springfield, it is said that he sold whisky and made 
the traveling public welcome. 

While Sugar Grove had its place in National Road history, along 
in the time of whig party activities, Mr. Leflfel changed the name of his 
hostelry. When whig political meetings were common a delegation wagon 
was fitted up in a neighboring county, an eccentric, whig not versed in the 
rules of orthography inscribing a banner OH Korrekt, and it attracted 
so much attention that Mr. Leflfel recognized his opportunity. While 
"OH Korrekt" was on every tongue, he utilized the initials O. K. on a 
sign, changing the name of his hostelry. The traveling public soon knew 
the story, and since then O. K. is unlimited, business receiving an official 
O. K. without relation to Springfield history. Gen. J. Warren Keifer 
who related the story said that when the O. K. sign would grow dim, 
Landlord Leflfel would touch it up with fresh paint, the hostelry remain- 
ing open until after the railroads came to Springfield. It*was torn down 
some years ago. 

Springfield Hotels 

While thirteen hostelries in Springfield today receive transient guests, 
the official hotel Red Book only lists five : Arcade, Bancroft, Bookwalter, 
Heaume and Shawneee as first class, and only the Bancroft, "Heaume and 
Shawnee are absolutely fireproof — a consideration in first class hotels. Only 

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the Arcade bears the name by which it has always been known in the 
community. Hotel Imperial occupied the site of the Shawnee, and 
before it was the Willis House. The St. James Hotel followed the Im- 
perial, and it was razed to give space to the Shawnee. In the name of 
this hostelry the Indians once so numerous along Mad River are com- 
memorated. The Lagonda House occupied by the Champion Hotel Com- 
pany is now the Bookwalter. The Palace Hotel is now the Esplanade. The 
Buckeye is in the vicinity of the old Pennsylvania House, and still car- 
ries that designation by some of the older people of Springfield. 

While the landlord and landlady may yet enter into the social life of 
Springfield, personality does not seem to count for so much in this 
economic age — service the single requirement. Sometimes the landlord's 
wife is housekeeper, and looks after the comfort of guests ; sometimes she 
superintends the kitchen and dining room service. The woman who has 
trouble with a single servant in a private home, would find little pleasure 
in managing the hotel retinue; as to the guests, and making them feel 
at home — make them comfortable, and leave them alone. The way a 
guest may find out who is "boss" is to "start something," and he soon 
learns all about it; the landlord and hotel clerks have sufficient oppor- 
tunity to study human nature. 

While there is cafeteria competition, the Bancroft and Shawnee hotels 
maintain dining rooms, while the European plan obtains in other Spring- 
field hostelries. In many communities table dTiote days are relegated 
to the past, the self-service tea rooms and cafeterias having supplanted the 
time honored dining rooms; the waiter and the accompanying tip are 
thus eliminated, and a homelike atmosphere pervades everything. One 
need not be accompanied by an escort, and one may talk with others 
without the formality of an introduction. One may choose his own menu, 
and no one is to blame but himself. In communities smaller than Spring- 
field, where cafeterias are impractical, one may have table d'hote serv- 
ice and leave as much change for the waiters as his better nature dic- 
tates — or he may demand food instead of so much service. There are 
men and women who remember the tavern *bell, whether or not the 
landlord may operate his dining room at a profit. 

The old hotels had barrooms, and they still talk about the "pitcher 
and bowl belt," while Springfield's modern hostelries have all sanitary 
advantages. The war time cost of living struck the hotels, and one who 
desires shelter had just as well not argue the question. The average 
landlord knows the traveling public better than he knows the immediate 
community; it is to his advantage to be able to speak the names of 
guests who come again. When they are among strangers all of the 
time they like to feel that they have met a friend. Springfield is really 
a Sunday town with commercial travelers; in 1892, the city entertained 
the Ohio 'State Democratic Convention and it had ample hotel capacity ; 
since then it has been rated as a convention city. It has entertained many 
state meetings without over-taxing its capacity. The hotel is for the 
man away from home, and hotel guests of today, would hardly compre- 
hend the situation when the National Road brought all of the travelers 
to Springfield. 

Some one writing of that period, says: "The wagoners ate at the 
table with other guests — travelers, ladies, gentlemen, whatnot, for they 
were just as good as anybody else, but it was unusual for them to 
occupy either bed or room in the tavern ; they carried their own beds in 
the form of mattresses, containing all the clothes necessary for warmth 

Vol. 1—17 

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and, being rolled together and strapped, the roll was placed in 
front of the wagon, the cover being tightly drawn over it. These 
rolls of bedding were brought into the tavern in the early eve- 
ning, but stacked in the corner of the barroom until bedtime, when 
they were unrolled and straightened out on the floor, the places being 
chosen by pre-emption, "first come first served," and from supper till 
bedtime, these barrooms were the scenes of frolics. 

At least the manifestations are different if the pleasures are unchanged, 
and today hotel managers are again considering the question of how 
to reach more of the travelers over the National Road; while railway 
transportation took them off of it for a good many years, the automobile 
has brought them back to it. While a hotel's best advertisement is the 
service rendered its guests, Springfield hotels resort to signs along the 
highways ; so many pass through en route across the country, and the 
name along the highway is their first knowledge of the open door await- 
ing them. How to reach the automobile travel is a matter of concern 
to landlords everywhere, and automobile tourist camps are being estab- 
lished in many parts of the country. There is one on either side of 
Springfield, and while the average stay in camp is one night, sometimes 
people linger a few days enjoying the trips into Springfield. 

Dr. and Mrs. H. F. Beer opened the camp east from Springfield, and 
it is provided with water and lighted with electricity; it is a convenient 
camp for cross-country travelers. There is a store on the site where 
travelers obtain supplies, and the profits take care of the expense ; campers 
do not pay for the privilege only through their patronage of the store. 
Sometimes in the summer the camp is not large enough to accommodate 
the tourists, their automobiles being lined up outside along the road. 
There are camp guests from every state in the Union, and it is a fine 
advertisement for Springfield. The camp guests sometimes attend Spring- 
field theaters, returning there for the night; some of them have bunga- 
low trailers, while others accommodate themselves to the close quarters 
of the automobile. The National Road has come into its own again, 
as an artery of cross-country transportation. 

The Outstanding Landlord 

It was in 1819 that William Werden who became Springfield's best 
known landlord came into the community ; in his day he welcomed many 
strangers. Mr. Werden was a native of Delaware. While he had two 
or three stands before he was permanently located, his sign in front of 
the National was a stage coach and horses in full speed, and travelers 
never missed it. It was suspended from a post at the outer edge of the 
walk, and passersby could not fail to see it. People who remember Mr. 
Werden also remember his unique sign — his appeal to National Road 
travelers, and here is the suggestion — Springfield landlords desiring to 
attract automobile tourists, should utilize the automobile as he did the 
stage coach and horses. However, nothing is more picturesque than the 
horse painted on a sign. 

The office and the barroom in the National Hotel was about twenty 
feet square, and here travelers mingled ; the entire hostelry was not larger 
than a house required today by an ordinary family. Some one said: 
"Werden's tavern was the stopping place for a line of stages, and it was 
the favorite hotel in all this region of country. When a weary traveler 
stopped at his door, Mr. Werden was the first to meet him and conduct 

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him into the house; his muddy leggings and boots were removed by a 
servant, and clean slippers were supplied him. Cleanliness was observed 
and there was no doubt of the welcome." The frequent attentions of 
the polite host, and the warm glow of the fire caused the stranger to 
feel at home. Bountiful meals were prepared under the direction of 
Mrs. Werden; there were clean beds and a good night's rest, and why 
would not travelers come again? While serving the public as a stage 
coach landlord. Mr. Werden accumulated sufficient funds to live in 
retirement, although under President Andrew Jackson he was postmaster 
in Springfield. 

In his South Charleston booklet, Albert Reeder says that the old 
Willis tavern sheltered Tom Corwin and Henry Clay when they were 
en route to Columbus to lobby before the Ohio legislature; it was buik 
of rough logs, and in it was one room prepared for lodging prisoners. 
This room was a veritable jail inasmuch as the doors were bolted and 
the windows were barred, and many culprits were confined there when 
being taken to Columbus ; when the roads were muddy these taverns were 
welcome landmarks to the wayfarer. There was much ado about dis- 
tinguished visitors in the days of the primitive tavern keepers ; as long ago 
as July 24, 1830, the man who "would rather be right than be president/' 
Henry Clay, was dinner guest at Hotel Hunt in Springfield; it was 
on a Saturday, and a delegation of Springfield citizens met him six 
miles out on the Yellow Springs road and escorted him into town. 

The reception committees in charge of events today may receive an 
inspiration from that first Springfield delegation doing the honors for 
Mr. Clay. There were citizens on horseback, and there is no mention 
of his mode of travel. However, when he had finished his dinner he 
made a speech, leaving soon after by stage for Columbus ; it seems that 
he usually went by South Charleston. On June 12, 1833, Daniel Web- 
ster had dinner in Springfield, en route by stage to Cincinnati, and on 
November 6, 1843, John Quincy Adams, covering the same route, was 
a dinner guest in Springfield. He was three years in advance of the 
first railroad train, when distinguished citizens more frequently traveled 
about the country. In 1852, Louis Kossuth, the great Hungarian patriot, 
was a guest at the Buckeye House, and he made a speech from the porch 
to the crowd flocking about to see him. In 1852, Gen. Winfield Scott 
who was the whig candidate for the United States presidency stopped 
in Springfield, the guest of Mrs. Drum, widow of a captain who was 
killed while the Americans were taking the City of Monterey, Mexico. 
His remains lie buried in Greenmount; it was a military funeral, and 
attracted many visitors to Springfield. 

When Tom Thumb (Charles Stratton) visited South Charleston, the 
tavern keeper carried him on his hand from the stage. South Charleston 
had many distinguished visitors, since it was on the stage line direct 
between Columbus and Cincinnati; for years Dan Johnson had a black 
bear chained in front of his tavern, and while it was regarded as a 
pet, the guests were never intimate with it. Smith's tavern, Armstrong's 
tavern, Shockley's tavern, Miami House were open doors, and the Funston 
Tavern in New Carlisle — the birthplace of Gen. Frederick Funston is 
still a landmark there. American or European plan, the traveler is still 
accommodated who sojourns temporarily in Clark County: "Springfield 
has no natural boundary limitations," and railway trains and automobiles 
bring the world to Springfield. 

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(Now being: rebuilt after a disastrous fire) 

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It has been said that civilization is a product of government; it is 
the result of man's success in raising himself above the level of the beast ; 
an increased knowledge of the general plan, and of the details of the 
system under which Ohio is governed, cannot fail to develop in its 
citizenry a wholesome respect for its government. 

The history of Clark County is the history of a manhood and woman- 
hood that, from the days of the first log cabins along Mad River and 
Buck Creek, have had no superiors; it is a group of most accommodat- 
ing officials that is found in the county building, and in Memorial Hall 
used temporarily for the sessions of the court while the Clark County 
courthouse is in the hands, of the building cpmmittee. Since February 
26, 1918, the temple of justice had been in ruins until the closing days 
of 1921, when workmen were restoring the edifice to usefulness. The 
high price of building material explains why it was a wreck so long. The 
existence of the Clark County Memorial hall enabled the county board 
of commissioners to delay their rebuilding program, although it did not 
prevent inquiry and criticism. 

The military square elsewhere explained as planned by James Demint 
for the county buildings has thus been occupied; the Clark County 
soldiers' monument graces one of the corners, while the Historical Soci- 
ety occupies the building opposite the present county building, leaving 
the other corner to the courthouse and the jail adjoining. The building 
had been in ruins three years when reconstruction was begun, and a 
news item reads : "The ruins were appropriated by large flocks of 
pigeons; now that workmen are moving about the building, they have 
measureably disappeared," and it seems that the public is not taken 
into the confidence of the contractors doing the work of repair, one 
comment being: *'At the rate at which the new courthouse construction 
is progressing, it will take a half century to complete it," and that is 
another instance of history repeating itself. The first Clark County 
courthouse was a long time in process before the county had the use 
of it. 

When Champaign County was set off from Green County in 1805, 
Springfield was temporarily the county seat and the following year a 
session of court was held ; it is understood that it assembled in the home 
of George Fythian who lived on the square designed for county use, and 
Robert Renick was tried for killing an Indian; he borrowed the gun 
from the Indian and took advantage of him ; the community was divided 
in its sympathy, but jurists still recognize that state of affairs. It was 
a treacherous Indian, and Renick outwitted him ; he had lived among the 
Indians and knew their methods of warfare. The settlers had suffered 
extreme cruelties at the hands of the Indians, and there was prejudice 
against them. Renick was associated in business with James Demint. 

The next session of court was in Urbana, and none was held in 
Springfield again until after the organization of Clark County; while 
the Ohio Assembly recognized Clark County, December 25, 1817, and 
local government was established January 1, 1818, for the first four 


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years court was held in the John Hunt tavern. On March 2, 1819, the 
Clark County commissioners met and gave public notice that on March 
22 they would receive proposals and establish the site of the court- 
house; however, no action was taken until April 12, when a written 
proposition was filed by Maddux Fisher and others, requesting them 
to build a courthouse on this military square in the Demint plat; they 
pledged themselves to pay $2,215 toward it. Mr. Fisher had already 
devoted much time in lobbying before the Ohio Assembly in the interests 
of Clark County; the sessions were then held in Chillicothe. 

This military square as seen in Springfield and neighboring towns was 
designed for palisade purposes, when the Indians were still a menace, 
and while in other towns it remains an open square, Clark County utilized 
it by locating the county buildings on it. Col. John Daugherty, who assisted 
James Demint in the original survey of Springfield, was authorized to 
locate the point of intersection at the corner of Limestone and Columbia 
streets, and measuring from the. center he located the courthouse on 
the northwest quarter-square; it has since been supplemented by office 
buildings on two of the other corners, one corner utilized by the loca- 
tion of the soldiers' monument — the tribute planted there by Clark County. 

While a number of Clark County citizens subscribed to the fund for 
building the first courthouse, Maddux Fisher paid $300 toward it, and 
the commissioners adopted the plans submitted by him. He was employed 
as building superintendent with John Ambler acting with him ; he expected 
this courthouse to last always ; the brick were furnished by Jesse Temple 
whose kiln was in the east part of the town, and the walls were grouted 
with liquid mortar; when the walls and roof were completed, there 
were no more funds and the building stood for two years. When an 
appropriation of $3,972 was made finally, some thought it bankrupted the 
county. In the early history of Springfield this public square and vicinity 
was designated as Sleepy Hollow, because the trend of business was away 
from it. 

While Maddux Fisher was a Springfield business man, and there is 
a Fisher Street commemorating him, he may be justly designated as 
the father of Clark County; he secured its organization and donated 
toward its improvement; he gave his time and his money. He was 
interested in the Sleepy Hollow community, and in 1825 he built a 
residence property on North Limestone Street; it had high ceilings, and 
was the most pretentious mansion in Springfield. Mr. Fisher was a 
Methodist, and his home was open to the itinerant preacher; he was 
generous in his hospitality. While he was of medium height he was not 
corpulent; he had dark skin, dark eyes and dark, glossy hair, and he 
dressed in the straight-breasted black broadcloth worn by men of affairs 
in his day ; after the strictest sect he was a Methodist. 

Mr. Fisher's polished silver headed cane was his constant companion ; 
he carried a silver snuff box in his vest pocket, and used it frequently; 
while he had a Southern accent, he was a good conversationalist. Mr. 
Fisher was born in Delaware, but lived in Kentucky before coming to 
Springfield. The man who really placed Clark County on the map of 
Ohio died October 26, 1836, aged sixty-five years. The name of Maddux 
Fisher is inseparable from the history of Springfield and Clark County. 
He was a man with initiative and backed his efforts with his money. 

While Sleepy Hollow had the promise of the courthouse, it would 
mean little to Clark County without a jail; why sentence a man to 

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Old Courthouse, Erected 1819-22 

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imprisonment with no place to incarcerate him, and Old Virginny — the 
part of Springfield west from Mill Run, guaranteed the expense of .build- 
ing it in order to secure it, and it was located between Main and Colum- 
bia on Fisher Street. It was sixteen feet square, built of logs and the 
people west of Mill Run paid for it. The jail was in advance of the 
courthouse, being finished in 1818 while court was held in the Hunt 
cavern; the first jailer was Abraham B. Mereness, and he chained a 
black bear near by to intimidate the lawless people in Springfield. When 
a Negro named Jackson was imprisoned, he tore the door off of this 
jail and cast it into Mill Rim, now an enclosed stream in that vicinity. 
He did not manifest much respect for the bastile in Old Virginny. The 
black bear did not influence him in the first jail delivery. 

The second, jail was built on the quarter-square now occupied by 
the soldiers' monument; it was made of oak timbers hewed square, and 
the logs were bolted; it was all wooden and there were several thick- 
nesses of the floor, the ceilings not quite so thick ; it was two-story and 
enclosed in brick veneer with an extension later to accommodate county 
offices, and it was used until 1869, when the spot was dedicated to the 
purpose of a soldiers' monument. In 1850, the third jail was begun 
on the site of the Federal Building on Spring and High streets ; it was 
of stone and brick, the labor performed by the day with the county com- 
missioners watching the progress as building inspectors; it was com- 
pleted in 1852, and was pulled down in 1880, the material being used again 
in the present jail structure adjoining the courthouse on the northwest 
quarter-square of the Demint military square designed for the use of 
Clark County. Like the people confined in it, the jail has been migratory. 

As a resume of jail history: the first log structure was finished in 
July, 1818, and in March, 1819, an order on the Clark County treasurer 
was issued by the county commissioners in favor of Walter Smallwood, 
James Norton, Henry Rogers and Waitsel Cary for the sum of $80 
which they had expended in building the Clark County jail. There is 
no record that Maddux Fisher and others were reimbursed when they 
advanced money in building the courthouse. When the second jail 
was built, the old one was sold at auction, bringing $24, but there is 
no record of the use that was made of it further than the statement that 
it was sold to William Wilson. With the door on Mill Run, it was 
in need of repair. Deliveries have been part of jail history, an attempt 
being thwarted A. D. 1921, when saws were found in the possession of 

While work on the first Clark County courthouse was begun in 
1819, with Maddux Fisher who had its success at heart in charge of 
the building program, it was not completed for several years; from 
1818 to 1822, court was held in the John Hunt tavern, and while Jesse 
Temple furnished the brick, it is related that a fifteen-year-old boy who 
lived with Griffith Foos hauled the sand. On April 17, 1821, the com- 
missioners met to consider plans for completing the courthouse; the 
walls and the roof were in readiness. A contract was let to John Dallis 
to lay the floors and make the windows, and with other inside work the 
money secured amounted to $1,498; for some unknown reason he "dilly- 
dallied," and the building was not completed until 1827, but it is a differ- 
ent generation that has figured time against the repair contractors A. D. 
1921, a news item reading: "Rumblings of discontent are being heard 
over the slow progress being made by the Prescott Construction Company 

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in the rebuilding of the Clark County courthouse." However, January 
1, 1923, is the time limit of the contract, and all the commissioners can 
do is to protect the county against further expense. 

The Clark County court history seems to be one expense after another, 
the amount of $4.50 having been paid Nathan Adamson in 1827, for 
drawing the plans for a cupola ; it was a piecemeal affair, Charles Stew- 
art building it and receiving $480 for it; when workmen were razing 
the present structure, they unearthed part of a metal eagle now in the 
rooms of the Historical Society which may have adorned this first 
cupola. When the courthouse was finally enclosed in 1827, through 
John Ambler the Clark County commissioners granted the privilege to 
the Presbyterian Society, and other religious organizations, of using the 
structure, reserving the right to plaster it at any time; there was still 
another expense in prospect. A lock was provided, and the key was 
given to Mr. Ambler as custodian. 

In 1828, a bell was purchased for the Clark County courthouse, 
and on Saturday, October 25, it was rung for the first time; it was the 
first bell in Springfield. The jailer rang it every morning at 5 o'clock, 
and again at 9 o'clock in the evening. While curfew is a later story, 
this courthouse bell was the signal by which many arose and began 
their daytime activities ; the citizens appreciated it. When the * first 
courthouse was finally completed, it had cost Clark County taxpayers 
$7,500, and The Western Pioneer, a Springfield newspaper, said: "We 
have a courthouse which in point of neatness and convenience, will 
not suffer in comparison with any other courthouse in Ohio." 

In 1868, the Clark County commissioners erected the east county 
building supplemental to the courthouse, and the county offices were 
there until 1904, when they were removed to the west county building; 
the Clark County courthouse was never large enough, the second one 
which is now being remodeled being of the assembly type and not planned 
for utility purposes ; when it is open again, the interior arrangement will 
be different. The departments now housed in Memorial Hall, and the 
Farm Bureau housed in the basement of the Mad River Bank will be 
restored to the courthouse for shelter. At the time of the fire, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1918, the improvements on the four quarter-square corners 
represented an expenditure of $200,000, and at the high cost of build- 
ing material the repair alone was awarded to the Prescott Construction 
Company at $214,421.50, .the amount being in excess of the original 
investment. The "burned courthouse had become a specter, and the com- 
munity was on tiptoe awaiting developments. 

It is remarked that the old saying : "When in Rome do as the Romans," 
should be controverted — should read, when in Washington do like George, 
and thus integrity would be preserved, but there is a superfluity of 
"nuts," in otherwise perfectly good political machinery. While some 
officers of the law would go through fire in the discharge of their duties, 
still they are criticised for laxity ; they are condemned when they should 
be commended, and such treatment hardens thepi. When the old time 
town meeting gave way to the march of population, the machinery of 
democratic government lost something; group antagonism is one of the 
problems of civilization, and talking things over face to face is a method 
of preventing discontent; more often than is realized, history turns 
on the friendly debate of the question. 

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Prior to the 1920 Clark County election when women voted for 
the first time, the "hard cider" campaign of 1840, stands out in history. 
Maddux Fisher had something to do with naming the first county offi- 
cials, and Clark County voters always have exercised their prerogative; 
they have conducted some exciting campaigns, but on Thursday, June 
18, 1840, the citizens of Springfield and Clark County built a log cabin 
on Main Street, in honor of "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too." Meetings had 
been held and speeches had been made, and since Gen. William Henry 
Harrison was expected in Springfield that day, between 15,000 and 
20,000 people were out to hear him. It was a fine day except for a short 
rain storm, and "Everywhere and especially on Main Street, 500 flags 
and banners flapped in the morning breeze; all was excitement, and the 
whole scene was greatly enlivened by the inrush of coaches, wagons 
and horsemen with flying banners from all points of the compass." 

It was a big day in Springfield; there were long processions march- 
ing, and a table was spread 1,000 feet in length; food was furnished 
for all, and at 1 P. M. the crowd journeyed east on the National Road 
to meet the distinguished visitor. When the general who was candidate 
for president reached Springfield he heard of the death of his son and 
injury to a grandson, and immediately began his homeward journey, 
others supplying his place on the program that afternoon; in 1921, 
Gen. J. Warren Keifer formally returned the visit of General Harrison 
by going to North Bend to address an audience assembled to honor 
him by unveiling a monument sacred to his memory. At the time General 
Harrison visited Springfield, a pole was raised in South Charleston, and 
a keg marked "hard cider" was mounted on top of it ; there was a sign 
beneath the keg: "To Kinterhook, 500 miles." Martin Van Buren lived 
in Kinterhook, New York. Springfield has been the storm center in 
a number of campaigns, but when "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too," was 
the watch-word, music entered into the campaign plans extensively. 

Both the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Amendments to the United 
States Constitution figured extensively in the 1920 presidental campaign, 
and Article X in the League of Nations was analyzed in every political 
gathering ; for the first time the women aroused themselves to the duties 
and privileges of citizenship; they were face to face with ballots say- 
ing nothing of bullets, and they had their political headquarters with 
campaign literature adapted to their requirements, their campaign of 
education was carried on so extensively that there was no way of deter- 
mining who had cast the discarded ballots. The women demonstrated 
their efficiency at the polls, even though they left umbrellas and pow- 
der puffs in the voting booths. On the threshold of their new life, 
Clark County women were alert to their opportunity. While handling the 
ballot had hitherto been regarded as a man's job, and "Votes of Women" 
placards had always inspired mirth, to the women of Clark County as 
well as others it was a pleasant reality. 

Tariff vs. Free Trade was not the campaign issue; there were free 
silver republicans and gold standard democrats ; the wets and drys were 
not limited to any one political party, and why should those 1920 first 
voters commit themselves? The League of Nations was the political 
bone of contention, and like their husbands the women were divided 
on the question; all of the winds were blowing — pitiless publicity was 
promised, and in the face of the franchise for women platform orators 
were at a loss, they had no precedent, and did not know just where 

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to place the votes cast by the women. In addressing voters and voteresses, 
citizens and citizenesses, the spell-binders all stumbled over I, thou, 
he, she, it, we and they in an effort to befog the issues, and sometimes 
the "pettyfoggers" succeeded in doing it. 

It was urged by the femininist that she did not wish to think only 
along sex lines, and when women entered politics they demanded from 
"mere men" the same degree of welcome they had been accorded in 
their research clubs; the average woman desires true equality; she is 
inclined to investigate, and to vote with an understanding; she wishes 
to mingle with men — not on a sex basis, but a basis of mentality. The 
illiteracy reports from the World war aroused the womanhood of 
the country, and they said they would foster education as well as pro- 
mote reform legislation. While compulsory education may result from 
their franchise, the womanly women will retain their womanly graces 
while exercising the prerogatives of citizenship. 

Equal suffrage disclosed the fact that in many instances from time 
out of mind, women had influenced the family vote; in Clark County 
some houses were divided, and in some precincts it was simply more 
ballots without changed results. There had been no precedent, and 
all was uncertainty; the ward-heelers did not know where to fortify; 
they did not know how many republicans had democratic wives, and 
one man attending a democratic meeting alone, saying it was not his 
wife's day, was seldom an isolated example ; while there were few parades 
in the 1920 campaign, there were many political meetings. Older voters 
remember the delegation wagons when flag poles and torch light pro- 
cessions made everything spectacular. In 1844 the whigs, who supported 
Clay and Frelinghuysen, reared a flagstaff 120 feet long at High and 
Market streets, and in 1888, a similar staff was raised on the Mound 
at Enon, which was "bored" down the following night because an auger 
made less noise than a saw ; the women themselves were the "spectacular" 
feature, and through some influence the use of intoxicating liquor was 
eliminated, and prohibition may be credited to the American women. 

There are two sides to every question; the name of Vallandingham 
was once heard in Clark County; there were Knights of the Golden 
Circle, and there were abolitionists before there were prohibitionists ; law 
and order has always been in the ascendancy. It is urged by some that 
government begins in the home ; that it expands to the state and nation, 
and that finally the church is the controlling influence; however, in a 
community where not all of the citizens are identified with the church, 
there is some question about it. The government of the family, school, 
state and nation must be vested in some recognized authority, and here 
is where politics enters into consideration. 

State Recognition 

Clark County has furnished one governor for the State of Ohio, 
Gov. Asa S. Bushnell having been elected in 1896, and served four 
years; it has furnished the state three supreme judges; William N. 
White serving from 1864 to 1881, a period of seventeen years; Augustus 
N. Summers from 1904 to 1911, a period of seven years, and since 1911, 
the incumbent is James G. Johnson. John F. Oglevee was state auditor 
from 1881 to 1887; R. F. Hayward has been sergeant-at-arms in the 
State Senate, and Thomas L. Calvert has been secretary of the State 

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Board of Agriculture; in 1921, T. L. Calvert was elected state assembly- 

In the whirligig of time, and through the Gerrymander system, 
Clark County has been in the Tenth, Fourth, Eighth, Seventh, Eighth 
again ; repeated in the Fourth ; a third time in the Eighth Congressional 
districts, finally remaining in the Eighth District through several differ- 
ent county combinations; in 1890, the county was in the Tenth again 
remaining only two years when it was thrown again into the Seventh, and 
since 1892, Clark County has been in the Seventh District, grouped 
with Madison, Fayette, Logan, Champaign, Union, Greene, Warren and 
Clinton — there being nine counties associated in one Congressional Dis- 
trict, maintaining a representative has been in the United States Congress ; 
sometimes the Representative has been a Clark County citizen. It has 
secured its quota whatever the combination ; in 1835, Samson Mason ; in 
1861, Samuel Shellabarger ; in 1877, Gen. J. Warren Keifer; in 1897, 
W. L. Weaver; in 1905, General Keifer again; in 1911, J. D. Post, and 
through the Gerrymander it has both gained and lost in the passage of the 
years. General Keifer reflected honor upon his constituency by being 
speaker of the House of Representatives when he was in the United 
States Congress. 

State Senators 

While Clark has had to share senatorial honors with other counties, 
it has sent the following to the Ohio Assembly in Chillicothe and later 
in Columbus; in 1818, George Fithian; in 1822, James Cooley; in 1826, 
John Daugherty; in 1829, Samson Mason; in 1831, Abraham R. Col- 
well; in 1833, Charles Anthony; in 1835, John H. James; in 1841, 
Alexander Waddel ; in 1848, Harvey Vinal ; in 1852, John D. Burnett ; 
in 1858, Saul Henkle; in 1862, S. S. Henkle; in 1868, Gen. J. Warren 
Keifer; in 1874, Alexander Waddel; in 1880, Thomas J. Pringle; in 
1886, T. J. Pringle ; in 1892, D. W. Rawlings, in 1898, John L. Plummer 
and in 1904, Orrin F. Hypes. 

State Representatives 

The Clark County representatives in the Ohio Assembly have been: 
in 1817, Reuben Wallace; in 1820, John Daugherty; in 1823, Samson 
Mason; in 1825, James Foley; in 1826, J. A. Alexander; in 1829. 
Charles Anthony; in 1831, Ira Paige; in 1833, W. V. H. Cushing; in 
1838,. Alexander Waddel; in 1840, Aquilla Toland and S. M. Wheeler; 
in 1842, John M. Gallagher and Isaac Houseman; in 1846, Samuel 
B. Williams ; in 1848, Jesse C. Phillips and Henry W. Smith ; in 1849, 
John D. Burnett; in 1850, James Rayburn; in 1852, Samuel Shella- 
barger; in 1854, William Goodfellow; in 1856, John H. Littler; in 
1858, Andrew D. Rogers; in 1860, John Howell; in 1862, R. D. Har- 
rison; in 1866, Henry C. Houston; in 1868, Perry Stewart; in 1870, 
J. K. Mower; in 1872, Benjamin Neff; in 1876, J. F. Oglevee; in 
1880, N. M. McConkey and E. G. Dial; in 1882, John H. Littler; 
in 1886, George C. Rawlins; in 1890, John F. McGrew and D. W. 
Rawlins; in 1894, George Elder; in 1896, Chase Stewart; in 1898, 
W. B. Rankin; in 1902, CX F. Hypes; in 1904, Earle Stewart; in 1906, 
James Hatfield; in 1917, T. A. Busbey and in 1921, Charles S. Kay. 

While some of the sons of Clark County have served their con- 
stituency in the halls of state and nation, others have been content 

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with local honors; while the literary world is rife with published 
books calling themselves "Mirrors" and "Looking Glasses." purport- 
ing to be revelations in political and society circles, both in Europe and 
America, the great danger confronting Clark County is the fact that 
so many good citizens seem indifferent about voting; while a Law 
Enforcement League has been organized, it is more important that law- 
abiding citizens have their part in selecting the officials. While the 
majority of people read something of the national and international 
news, when it comes to vital questions at home some are ignorant; 
they do not know the legal requirements at the hands of those whom 
they elect to positions of trust and responsibility. 

However, when it comes to expressing a personal preference at 
the ballot box, the United States leads the world; the 1920 census 
indicates a population of 60,886,520 persons who have attained to their 
majority — are voters; of these, 31,403,370 are males and 29,483,150 
are females, and the lethargy of voters is about the same in different 
localities. In 1884, when James G. Blaine was a candidate for presi- 
dent, the people of Clark County rallied to an unusual degree, the 
plug hat brigade marking the campaign, and again in 1896, when voters 
were journeying to the front porch on Canton, and in 1920 many went 
to the "front porch" or to "Trail's End" again. Harking back to 1840 
again, S. S. Miller tells of the enthusiasm injected into the campaign 
by residents of New Carlisle who used the slogan: "Keep the ball 
rolling." It was a wooden ball ten or twelve feet in diameter — a won- 
derful specimen of the cooper's art. and it attracted much attention 
when rolled through the streets. In every campaign there is some out- 
standing feature, and the effort is to arouse all the voters — and voteresses. 

County Official Roster 

It is understood that the judge and the prosecuting attorney are 
the terror of evil-doers in any community; however, the judgeship is 
regarded as the honorary elective position in county history; in 1818, 
when court was held in the Hunt tavern, there were three judges — 
one chief and two associates; it is said the grand and petit judges 
were inherited from English custom, and in the early days the Clark 
County Circuit Court was served by non-resident Common Pleas judges : 
Orin Parish, Joseph H. Crane, George W. Holt, Joseph R. Swain, 
Baldwin Harlan, James M. Smith and Moses Barlow. The Clark County 
Common Pleas judges in their turn are: in 1845, James L. Torbert; 
in 1852, William A. Rogers ; in 1856, William White ; in 1875, James 
S. Good; in 1885, Charles R. White; in 1890, F. M. Hagen; in 1891, 
John C. Miller; in 1901, J. K. Mower; in 1906, Albert H. Kunkle; 
in 1912, F. M. Hagan and in 1914, Frank W. Geiger. 

Court of Appeals 

The Clark County Court of Appeals has only been in existence 
since the 1912 change in the Ohio constitution; it was organized in 
1913, and is one in a group of eleven counties: Franklin. Fayette, 
Madison, Greene, Clark, Champaign, Miami, Montgomery, Shelby, Darke 
and Preble, this group of counties being known as the Second Ohio 
Appellate District, and court is held twice each year in each county. 

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All Courts of Appeal are composed of three judges who sit together; 
they serve six years, one retiring each second year, and senior honors 
are accorded always to the judge whose term expires soonest. Nat- 
urally the more populous counties have more business, but the busi- 
ness of each county is transacted within its own borders. The Court 
of Appeals is really a continuation of the old Circuit Court except its 
change of name, and its increased or enlarged jurisdiction. The judges 
in the Second Ohio Appellate District are : Albert H. Kunkle of Spring- 
field ; H. L. Ferdening- of Dayton and James I. Allread of Columbus. 

Probate Judges 

Under the first Constitution of Ohio, 1802, the associate judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas in each county had jurisdiction in matters of 
probate, according to Section 5, Article 3, of the Constitution, and only 
since the adoption of the second constitution have there been Probate 
judges. Under the Constitution of 1851, a Probate Court was established 
in each county, according to Section 7, Article 4. and the Clark County 
incumbents are : in 1852, James S. Halsey ; in 1857, James L. Torbert ; in 
1859, John H. Littler; in 1870, Enoch G. Dial; in 1876, John C. Miller; 
in 1891, William M. Rockel; in 1897, J. P. Goodwin; in 1903, F. W. 
Geiger; in 1914, George W. Tehan and in 1921, Harry G. Gram. 

Juvenile Court 

The law provides that the affairs of the Juvenile Court may be ad- 
ministered by the Probate judge, Common Pleas judge or an insolvency 
judge ; because the Clark County Juvenile Court was instituted by Judge 
F. W. Geiger while he was Probate judge, when he was elected Com- 
mon Pleas judge he transferred it from Probate to Common Pleas 
jurisdiction ; with him it is a missionary service. Judge Geiger is the 
Ben B. Lindsay of Springfield, and criminal offenders under eighteen 
years of age are dealt with in separate court, therefore not becoming 
hardened from association with adult criminals. The Detention Home 
opened in June, 1908, is operated in connection with the Juvenile Court. 
Miss Carrie B. Hershey is probation officer, and she deals with youthful 
Clark County delinquents. 

The Juvenile Court operates in conjunction with the State Board 
of Charities, and juvenile records are frequently suppressed in the inter- 
ests of the future of the offenders. Boys and young men are sentenced 
to the Boys' Industrial School at Lancaster, and the Mansfield Refor- 
matory. Girls are sent to the Industrial School at Delaware and the 
Woman's Reform School at Marysville. There is an Ohio Council of 
Child Welfare, and there are many local charities promoting it. The 
Juvenile Court is a safeguard for youthful offenders. All who are con- 
nected with the Detention Home come under civil service regulations. 

Prosecuting Attorney 

While the construction placed upon the statutes seems to be a matter 
of personal opinion of some particular officer of the law, taken as a 
whole the Clark County official roster is made up from good, honest 
citizens. Sometimes the fault is in the law itself, and yet efficiency 

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prevails in the administration of local affairs. While the manner of 
transacting business is Jiot specified in the constitution, some things 
of an administrative character are implied; men elected to official posi- 
tion have little difficulty in construing the law governing the conduct 
of their particular offices; the Board of Clark County Commissioners 
is the real governing body, always assuming authority in emergencies. 

Intimately associated with the judge of the court is the prosecuting 
attorney ; in order that the judge may hold court he is a necessity. Until 
1835, prosecuting attorneys in Ohio were appointed by the state; since 
then they are elected by the people, and those who have served in Clark 
County are: Hiram Bacon, Zepheniah Piatt, George W. Jewett, Samson 
Mason, Charles Anthony and James L. Torbert, all of whom are men- 
tioned in older histories without time limit; in 1848, William White; 
in 1854, John S. Hauke; in 1858, James S. Goode; in 1862, John C. 
Miller; in 1864, Dixon A. Harrison; in 1868, Thomas J. Ptingle; in 
1875, Walter L. Weaver; in 1877, George C. Rawlins; in 1881, Walter 
L. Weaver; in 1889, Chase Stewart; in 1895. H. W. Stafford; in -1901, 
John B. McGraw; in 1907, Lawrence Layborn; in 1913, Charles E. 
Ballard; in 1917, Thomas E. Hudson and in 1921, Donald Kirkpatrick. 

Clerk of the Court 

The clerk of the Clark County court is required to keep the docket, 
and all proceedings in books provided for such purposes; in their order 
of succession, they are: in 1818, John Layton, although the first court 
records are signed by D. Higgins as deputy, and without chronology 
are mentioned Thomas Armstrong, Saul S. Henkle and James Halsey; 
it seems that when a man had served the county in one capacity, he was 
always willing to serve it again; some of the names in the official roster 
seem stereotyped, recurring in several different relations. When once 
a man allows himself placed in the "hands of his friends," the habit 
grows upon him; he is still willing to serve them. In 1851, Harvey 
Vinal was elected clerk, and Absalom Mattox served time before 1873, 
when the clerk was Edward P. Torbert; in 1881, James H. Rabbitts; 
in 1891, D. H. Cushing; in 1900, J. B. Clingerman; in 1906, Fred Snyder 
and in 1917, Mont C. Hambright. In an effort to supply some missing 
data, Mr. Hambright looked over the old records without results. While 
he found the signature of D. Higgins, he was unable to find that of 

County Sheriff 

The sheriff is the chief executor and peace officer of Clark County; 
he is provided with a domicile in connection with the bastile; his resi- 
dence and the county jail occupy the lot adjoining the courthouse; it 
is his duty to preserve the peace; to prevent riots, lynching and all vio- 
lent disorders; the incumbents of the office are: in 1818, Cyrus Ward; 
in 1819, Thomas Fisher; in 1822, Thomas Armstrong; in 1824, John Alex- 
ander; in 1826, William Sailor; in 1830, William Berry; in 1842, Absalom 
Mattox; in 1846, Daniel Raffensverger ; in 1848, Henry Hallenback; in 
1852, Joseph Mclntire ; in 1856, John E. Layton ; in 1860, James Fleming ; 
in 1864, Cyrus Albin; in 1868, E. G. Coffin; in 1872, Cornelius Baker; 
in 1876, E. G. Coffin; in 1880, James Foley; in 1884, William B. Baker; 
in 1888, A. J. Baker; in 1892, T. E. Lott; in 1896, Thomas Shocknessy; 

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in 1900, Floyd Routzahn; in 1904, William Almony; in 1908, D. D. 
Lawrence; in 1912, Stephen Funderburg; in 1916, James L. Welsh 
and in 1920, David T. Jones. 

The migratory history of the county jail has been detailed, but it 
appears that James Foley who was a county commissioner and later 
a sheriff was instrumental in locating the jail near the courthouse, 
and while new jails have been built several times, accommodates thirty- 
eight prisoners; it has two cells for women. While the prisoners are 
allowed the freedom of the corridors in daytime, they are locked in 
separate cells at night ; one prisoner hanged himself with his suspenders 
rather than face earthly justice. For fourteen years John Showers, a 
Negro, has been turnkey at the jail and custodian of all prisoners. In 
that time Mrs. Showers has been cook for the sheriff's family and for 
the prisoners. While the family has a private dining room, the meals 
are served the prisoners on a sliding table which is pushed through the 
wall, and when the victuals are removed the table is pushed back again. 
Some improvements are asked at the jail, but with the courthouse repair 
moving so slowly, there is sentiment against it. The prisoners are 
utilized in necessary work about the jail. 

Much of the material used in building the jail was taken from the 
old prison on the site of the Federal building, which was torn down in 
1880, and in 1881. when the courthouse was built, it was used again. 
Prisoners sometimes dig through the walls, and every precaution is 
taken to prevent communication with outside friends who supply them 
with tools. It has been suggested that while the courthouse is being 
remodeled a prison should be placed on top of it, so that jail deliveries 
would not be such an easy matter. Improvements are promised, and a 
shower bath will supplant the bath tub, as a sanitary measure. When 
a prisoner is admitted a bath is the first thing. When he comes from 
a home of refinement he does not exactly relish a bath in the tub used 
by all the others, and the shower would be more satisfactory. 

County Auditor 

The Clark County auditor keeps all of the accounts of the county 
commissioners; the auditor is the Clark County bookkeeper, and a 
warrant or order from him is necessary before the county treasurer 
pays out any funds at all. The auditor prepares the annual tax dupli- 
cate from the transfer books. In their turn the Clark County auditors are : 
in 1818, John Daugherty; in 1819, David Higgins; in 1821, William 
Wilson; in 1826, James S. Halsey; in 1836, S. M. Wheeler; in 1838, 
Reuben Miller; in 1856, John Newlove; in 1871, John Oglevee; in 
1875, Quincy A. Petts; in 1881, O. F. Serviss; in 1891. E. T. Thomas; 
in 1893, L. F. Young; in 1899, A. K. Hahn; in 1905, James A. Linn; in 
1909, Albert K. Hahn; in 1915, M. J. Peirce; in 1919, R. W. McKinney, 
who resigned in favor of William C. Mills. 

County Treasurer 

The Clark County treasurer receives all taxes paid for the support 
of the state, county and township; he is held to a strict account for 
the safety and proper application of such funds. The incumbents are : 
in 1818, John Ambler; in 1828, Cyrus Armstrong; in 1846, William 

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Berry; in 1847, S. B. Williams; in 1855, William C. Frye; in 1859, 
Theodore A. Wick; in 1863, Thomas R. Norton; in 1867, T. A. Wick; 
in 1871, Richard Montjoy; in 1872, William S. Field; in 1873, William 
C Frye; in 1875, John W. Parsons; in 1879, W. S. Wilson; in 1883, 
J. W. Parsons; in 1887, George W. Collette; in 1891, J. J. Goodf el- 
low; in 1895. J. M. Todd; in 1899. P. M. Stewart; in 1905. C. W. Arbo- 
gast; in 1909, Ralph B. Miller; in 1913, Frank A. Crothers; in 1917, 
W. C. Trumbo and in 1921, R. A. Goodfellow. 

County Recorder 

The Clark County recorder is charged with the safekeeping of all 
records, deeds, mortgages and other instruments affecting the title to 
lands; the incumbents of the office are: in 1818, David Kizer; in 1825, 
Saul Henkle ; in 1835, Isaac Hendershott ; in 1842, Isaac Lancy ; in 1847, 
Saul Henkle; in 1848, Robert Beach; in 1853, John H. Thomas; in 
1856, Isaac Hendershott; in 1862, H. S. Showers; in 1863, W. S. 
Miranda; in 1864, Ashley Bradford; in 1883, S. A. Todd; in 1891, 
M. M. McConkey; in 1897, Joseph W. Allen; in 1903, Frank Mills;- 
in 1909, Rooney W. Jones and J. W. Allen; in 1911, GroverW. Flem- 
ing and in 1913, Fred G. King. 

County Surveyor 

The surveyor of Clark County establishes all lines and boundaries; 
because of the irregularities of the original surveys, it is a complicated 
requirement; he marks corners and records the surveys. The incum- 
bents of the office are : in 1818, William Wilson ; in 1830, Reuben Miller ; 
in 1836, William A. Rogers; in 1837, Samuel Harvey (Mr. Harvey 
was the author of an arithmetic); in 1838. John R. Gunn; in 1842, 
Thomas Kizer; in 1860, J. Douglas Moler; in 1863, Thomas Kizer; in 
1866, William Brown; in 1870, J. Douglas Moler; in 1872, Thomas 
Kizer; in 1878, Chandler Robbins; in 1880, Frank P. Stone; in 1882, 
William Sharon; in 1897, S. Van Bird; in 1911, R. J. Netts; in 1913, 
S. Van Bird and in 1917. W. H. Sieverling. 

County Coroner 

The coroner of Clark County is a conservator of the peace; while 
the office is usually filled by medical doctors, it is one political preferment 
that seeks the man. Sometimes coroners are elected who do not qualify, 
and court bailiffs or other available persons are sworn in temporarily 
to perform urgent duties. The powers and duties of the coroner are 
identical with those of the sheriff, when it is necessary to arrest offenders 
or suppress riots; under certain conditions the coroner may take charge 
of the county jail, and arrest and imprison the sheriff himself. How- 
ever, the prime requisite of the coroner is to hold inquests where deaths 
result from unnatural causes, or where the cause of death is unknown; 
the coroner takes charge of all valuables or money found on' the body 
of such person, disposing of them according to law. The incumbents 
are: 1818, John Hunt; in 1828, William Needham; in 1834, Harvey 

VoL 1—18 

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Humphreys ; in 1838, John Hunt ; in 1854, Morton Cary ; in 1863, Cyrus 
Albin; in 1864, Isaac Kay; in 1865, James Fleming; in 1866, Reuben 
Miller; in 1868. W. B. Hoffman; in 1870. Oscar F. Bancroft; in 1872, 
Biddle Boggs; in 1874, E. G. Coffin; in 1876, James Finney; in 1878, 
J. L. Coleman; in 1885, J. M. Bennett; in 1889, J. G. Webb; in 1891, 
J. M. Austin ; in 1895, Henry L. Schaeffer ; in 1899, J. M. Bennett, in 
1905, J. D. Thomas; in 1909. H. H. Austin and in 1921, A. H. Potter. 

County Commissioners 

While the board of Clark County commissioners is the real govern- 
ing body, its duties are varied and of much importance to taxpayers; 
the board has control of all public property ; it may even sell the court- 
house. While all other county officials have their duties outlined by 
statute, the county commissioners have latitude. They use their own 
discretion, usually having legal advice when uncertain about things; 
the county auditor is ex-officio member of the board, and he keeps 
a record of its proceedings; the sheriff preserves order. The original 
board of Clark County commissioners: John Black, James Foley and 
Enoch B. Smith assumed the duties in 1818, and upon them devolved 
the public improvements necessary. 

While John Heaton became a member of the board of Clark County 
commissioners in 1820, the records do not indicate the retiring member: 
in 1826, John Layton and Pierson Spinning; in 1827, John Whitely; in 
1830, William Werden; in 1831, Elnathan Cory; in 1833, Oliver Arm- 
strong; in 1834, William Holloway ; in 1840, Melyn Baker; in 1841, Adam 
Shuey; in 1842, Robert Turner; in 1847, William Whitely; in 1849, 
William Black and Adam Baker; in 1851, Ezra D. Baker; in 1852, 
James F. Whiteman; in 1856, Samuel S. Sterrett; in 1857. Daniel O. 
Hieskell; in 1858, D. L. Snyder; in 1861, L. B. Sprague; in 1863, 
David Hayward; in 1864, E. B. Cassilly; in 1865, Perry Stewart; in 
1867, William O. Lamme and Jacob Seitz; in 1868, William D. John- 
son; in 1870, N. M. McConkey; in 1872, H. C. Miller; in 1874, J. H. 
Blose; in 1875, George H. Frey; in 1876, Edward Merritt; in 1877, 
Mark Spence and John Scarff; in 1879, Leon H. Houston; in 1880, 
Jonathan S. Kitchen; in 1881, D. C. Cory; in 1882, D. W. Rawlings; 
in 1884, W. H. Sterrett; in 1886, C. E. Gillen; in 1889, R. N. Elder; 
in 1890, J. H. Dale; in 1891, J. B. Trumbo; in 1895, Milton Cheney; 
in 1896, Aaron Spangler; in 1897, Jacob Hinckle and J. B. Crain; in 
1901, S. S. Twitchell; in 1903, J. H. Collins; in 1905, J. E. Lowry and 
Henry Wright; in 1906, N. M. CartmeU; in 1907, J. E. Lowry; in 1911, 
Frederick Hertzinger, C. E. Grube and F. H. Mills ; in 1913, J. Quincy 
Smith, Charles O. Neer and C. F. Stewart; in 1917, H. S. Mellinger; 
in 1921, James L. Welsh and Frank E. Funderburg. (Commissioners 
who died in office: Mark Spence, Aaron Spangler and J. H. Collins.) 

County School Superintendent 

The office of county school superintendent was created by Act of 
the Ohio Assembly in revising the school code, and August 1, 1914, 
it became effective; the requirements are that the superintendent act as 
clerk of the board of education; have charge of the public schools; 

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formulate the course of study; 'conduct teachers' institutes, etc. The 
county superintendent of schools is elected by the presidents of the 
different village and rural districts boards of education ; from the begin- 
ning the Clark County school superintendent had been Prof. J. M. Col- 

County Health Commissioner 

The latest acquisition to the official roster of Clark County is the 
health commissioner, his jurisdiction including the area outside of Spring- 
field; however, the county and city' health commissioner happens to be 
one and the same. Dr. R. R. Richison. This office was created in 1920, 
and Dr. Richison is its only incumbent. While other county offices are 
in the county buildings, and temporarily in Memorial Hall, this office 
is combined with the city health office in the city building. 

There has been a demand for an increase in the salaries of public 
officials along with increased expenses of living, and a general increase 
in wages under war time conditions ; with taxes already high, the public 
does not favor any increase in salaries. When officials apply themselves, 
instead of paying their income to others to do the work for them, it 
is urged that they are sufficiently remunerated; men are frequently 
re-elected, and some have held the same office several consecutive terms ; 
while there are some chronic jurymen and office holders, the Clark 
County voters are inclined to "check up" on them. Isaac Hedrick of 
South Charleston, who was a constable for more than forty years, holds 
the banner for length of time in office even though it was unremunera- 
tive.; it is said that he was fearless in the discharge of his duties, and 
that is the need in the department of law enforcement. 

Memorial Hall 

There was need of an auditorium in Springfield that would accommo- 
date large audiences, and it was decided that the way to secure a hall 
large enough to accommodate the people of Clark County was through 
taxation, allowing the entire county to pay for it. This had been the 
method of procedure in other counties, notably Hamilton. The Clark 
County Memorial Hall in Springfield commemorates the soldiers, sailors 
and marines, also the pioneers of Clark County, and it was built in 1915, 
by the tax payers of the county ; the agitation of the question was begun 
in 1912, and in 1914 the bonds were sold and a site was selected; a 
strife developed among different localities in Springfield similar to that 
engendered in early history about the location of the jail and courthouse. 

When Frank L. Plackard. a Columbus architect, submitted plans 
and specifications, Gov. Judson Harmon appointed as members of the 
building committee : Gen. J. Warren Keifer, David F. Snyder, Silas Printz, 
Harlan Titus and George W. Netts. On July 20, 1914, Miss Leona 
Yeazell was appointed secretary to the building commission, with an 
office in the Bushnell Building; on the following day the commission 
advertised for bids, and September 5, the contract was let to James 
Bentley & Company of Toledo; the cornerstone was laid March 1, 
1915, and it required two years to complete the construction work; 
it was completed June 1, 1916, and since then it is a community center 
used by Clark County citizens. While bonds amounting to $250,000 

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were sold the final cost of the building was $12,000 in excess of that 
amount — war-time prices accounting for it, in the advance of materials. 
The Clark County Auditorium seats 2,700 people; it has a good stage, 
and the acoustics are satisfactory; the smaller rooms are used by 
the G. A. R., the D. A. R., Spanish War Veterans, Clark County 
Grange, Farmers' Institutes and citizens' meetings of all kinds. In 
the emergency of a courthouse fire, February 26, 1918, Memorial Hall 
housed the Clark County court and some of the county offices, saving 
the county $12,000 a year in rentals. When Memorial Hall was built, 
the county commissioners were: Smith, Neer and Mills, and to them 
the building was turned over by the building commission, the commis- 
sioners retaining Miss Yeazell as manager. 

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In the Bible Job exclaims: "My days are swifter than a post." The 
postal service is known to have been used as early as the thirteenth 
century in some countries. When the Constitution was written in 1783, 
it provides for the postal system in the United States, although at that 
time it was considered as an adjunct to the United States Treasury. 

People used to regard letters as present day citizens think of tele- 
grams, although their friends were often dead and buried before the 
letters reached them; now that practically every family in Clark County 
receives daily mail, some of the stories of the long ago are "stranger 
than fiction" to the present generation. No news was always good news, 
and a letter sometimes disturbed the peaceful tranquility of the whole 

While most Clark County residents have postage stamps in their 
homes in readiness for the letters when they write them, time was 
when they paid postage on receipt of letters; today if a letter is minus 
the postage, it is returned to the sender. The story is told of the 
man who pawned his hat to "lift a letter." It had been a long time 
since tidings had reached from the home folk, and he would make 
any sacrifice to have the message. There was no such thing as a postage 
stamp, and "Collect twelve cents" was written where the stamp now 
marks one corner of the letter. Wafers and sealing wax were used 
before postage stamps were on the market. 

The system of collecting postage at the time of delivery worked 
hardship on many settlers; the law did not remain long on the statutes. 
While the settlers were always anxious for tidings, the contents of some 
letters meant nothing to them. Now those who write the letters pay 
the postage; there was a time when the letter was so folded that the 
superscription became the face of the letter; for many years there were 
no envelopes, and some ingenuity was required to fold the letter. Neces- 
sity always has been the mother of invention ; in time the envelope saved 
the necessity of so carefully folding the letter, with one blank side for 

Now that some parts of the United States have the air mail service, 
it seems like a far cry from the day when mail was carried on horse 
back by personal messenger, and by stage — and once a week was as 
often as any one heard from the outside world. Now that the whole 
community reads the daily news and expects them as a matter of course 
— news from the four corners of the world, who pays any attention 
to the minor details connected with the U. S. mail service? The Star 
Route U. S. mail system was introduced in 1882, and like all other 
advance measures, it was later installed in Clark County; it served the 
community until the coming of rural free delivery. Who knows any- 
thing about the rural carriers and their difficulties? Who ever left a 
dressed chicken in the mail box for a Christmas gift to the rural carrier? 
Whatever the weather he brings you the news of the world. While the 
U. S. Mail Department is so organized that it looks after itself, some 
people would be greatlv handicapped were the carrier indifferent to 


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their interests. A tablet has been unveiled in the custom house in 
Cleveland in memory of Joseph William Briggs, author of the city mail 
delivery and collection system. Mr. Briggs conceived the idea while 
working as a clerk in the Cleveland postoffice, and he was the first Amer- 
ican letter carrier. To Perry S. Heath is due the credit of the rural 
mail delivery system. It is a twentieth century product, and the experi- 
ment was made at Muncie, Indiana. 

Springfield and Clark County 

When Assistant Postmaster Harvey M. Tittle began assembling the 
following data, he thought it would only amount to a pleasant pastime — 
a "little before breakfast job," but going into it thoroughly, he changed 
his mind about it. Mr. Tittle has been honored by being named first vice 
president of the Supervisory Postoffice Employees' Association held in 
Washington, D. C, in 1921, after having served the association four years 
as its treasurer. He has been connected with the Springfield office since 
1899, and when Civil Service was installed December 1, 1910, he was 
the first local employee to be advanced from a clerkship to deputy post- 
master. He became deputy January 6, 1911, one month and five days 
after the installation of civil service. Although a republican, Mr. Tittle 
served in this capacity through the two terms of the Wilson democratic 
administration, and Postmaster Charles P. Dunn commended him for 
faithful service. 

Mr. Tittle was contemplating a comprehensive history of the Spring- 
field Postoffice, because he felt that some record of it should be in exist- 
ence, and he was asked to make it a county-wide survey adapted for use 
in the History of Springfield and Clark County. He takes the position 
that no single institution reflects the growth and prosperity of a com- 
munity with greater accuracy than does the United States Postoffice, and 
a newspaper clipping, October, 1921, gives Springfield fourth place among 
seven of the largest offices in Ohio, $140,459.79 being the gross postal 
receipts. The offices showing more volume of business are: Cleveland, 
Cincinnati and Columbus. In 1820, when the first Clark County census 
was made, in this summary of Springfield's advantages, is the line : "And 
a postoffice at which mails are received in elegant four-horse coaches," 
and another item from the later stage coach period says: "Springfield, 
in a word, is the great crossing place of all the existing mail routes, and 
of the principal rail and turnpike roads." 

Mr. Tittle writes: In 1804 the first postoffice was established in 
Springfield — at that time it was in Greene County — the mail was received 
by messenger who carried it on horseback from Cincinnati to a number 
of points in this section of the state. This messenger was scheduled to 
pass through Springfield once each week. It was a fourteen-year-old boy, 
James R. Wallace, who performed this early service. He came from 
Kentucky, and later he located in Springfield. He was associated in 
business with Pierson Spinning under the name Spinning and Wallace. 

In 1820 stage coach mail service was established and it continued until 
the coming of the railway mail service in 1846, the second road being 
built two years later. In the '30s and '40s. when the mail stage system 
over the National Road and convergent lines reached its highest perfec- 
tion, the mail and passenger service was separated, special stages being 
constructed for hauling the mails. As early as 1837 the Postoffice Depart- 

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merit decreed that the mails which had been a secondary consideration 
compared with the passenger service, should be carried by specially 
arranged vehicles, into which the postmaster should put them under lock 
and key, not to be opened until the next postoffice was reached, and the 
owners of stage coaches took advantages of their mail contracts in an 
effort to evade taxation. They demanded other privileges because they 
were carrying the United States mails, and the department had to regulate 
the service. 

These stages were of two kinds designed to be operated on routes 
where the mails ordinarily comprised, respectively, a half and nearly a 
whole load ; in the former, room was left for six passengers, and in the 
latter for three. Including newspapers with the regular mail, the later 
stages which ran westward over the National Road rarely carried pas- 
sengers. Indeed, there was little room for the guards who traveled with 
the driver to protect the Government property; such factor in the mail 
stage business did the newspapers become that many contractors refused 
to carry them by express mail, consigning them to the ordinary mails, 
thereby bringing down upon themselves the frequent savage maledictions 
of a host of local editors. 

Nevertheless newspapers were carried by express mail stages as far 
west as Ohio in 1837, as is proven by a newspaper account of a robbery 
committed on the National Road, the robbers holding up an express mail 
stage, and finding nothing in it but newspapers. The mails on the 
National Road were always in danger of being assailed by robbers ; espe- 
cially at night on the mountainous portions, though by dint of lash and 
ready revolver the doughty drivers usually came off safely. It is prob- 
ably not realized what rapid time was made by the old time stage and 
express mails over the National Road to the Central West; even com- 
pared with the fast trains of today, the express mails of sixty years ago, 
when conditions were favorable, made marvelous time. 

In 1837, the Postoffice Department required in the contracts for 
carrying the Great Western Express mail from Washington over the 
National Road to Columbus and St. Louis, that the following schedule 
be made: To Wheeling, thirty hours; to Columbus, 45J4 hours; to 
Indianapolis, 65}4 hours, to Vandalia, 85J4 hours, and to St. Louis, 
ninety- four hours. Even in the early days speed was considered by the 
department as an important factor in the rendering of satisfactory mail 

Richard McBride is said to have been the first man to handle the 
mails in Springfield. He was immediately succeeded by Robert Rennick, 
who was commissioned postmaster on November 9, 1804 and who, in 
1806, was brought to trial in the Fythian Court in Springfield for killing 
an Indian. He continued in office until April 1, 1824, on which date he 
was succeeded by Maddux Fisher; since then no postmaster has served 
for twenty consecutive years. In turn, the Springfield postmasters are: 
In 1804, Robert Rennick; in 1824, Maddux Fisher; in 1835, Peter Sprig- 
man; in 1839, William Werden; in 1841, John A. Crane; in 1845, Cyrus 
D. McLaughlin; in 1850, Isaac Hendershott; in 1853 (second appoint- 
ment), Cyrus D. McLaughlin; in 1855, William C. Boggs; in 1861, Robert 
Rodgers ; in 1866, James Johnson, Sr., was commissioned but he was not 
confirmed by the United States Senate ; in 1867, Ellen Sanderson ; in 1877, 
Tohn A. Shipman; in 1884, Tames Johnson, Sr. ; in 1887, Francis M. 
Hagan; in 1890, Perley M. Cartmell; in 1894, Thomas D. Wallace; in 

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1898, James H. Rabbitts; in 1910, William F. Bevitt, and in 1914, Charles 
P. Dunn. 

New Carlisle and South Charleston postoffices have been in existence 
almost as long as the office in Springfield ; however, the remuneration of 
the postmaster depends upon the population and the volume of business, 
there being first, second, third and fourth class offices. The first post- 
office in Springfield was opened in a small log cabin on the north side of 
Main Street and east of Fountain Avenue; it was here the mails were 
handled by Richard McBride. 

Upon assuming the duties of postmaster, Robert Rennick removed 
the office to what was known as Rennick's Mills. The next change 
appears to have been in 1839, when Postmaster William Werden removed 
the office to the Werden House, Trappers Corner, corner Main Street 
and Fountain Avenue ; in 1847 Postmaster C. D. McLaughlin removed it 
to East Main near Spring Street. In 1855 William Boggs removed the 
office to the Union Block, and in 1861 Robert Rodgers removed it to the 
corner of Main and Limestone streets. Within the tenure of office of 
Mrs. Ellen Sanderson, the office was migratory, she holding forth at the 
South East Corner, Lagonda House and Black's Opera House, respec- 
tively. John A. Shipman removed the office from the Opera House to 
the Arcade where it remained until it was housed in the Federal building. 

In the early day, when the office was small, postmasters were permit- 
ted to suit their convenience by removing it. They were required to 
furnish quarters in which to conduct the postal business, and the office 
may have been located at other points ; however, there is record of those 
mentioned. Springfield was recognized as a first-class postoffice January 
1, 1880, after having grown step by step from the lower classifications. 
In that year $39,291.29 was the gross receipts, and in forty years the 
amount has increased greatly, the office now ranking among the most 
important in Ohio. 

Springfield Mail Delivery 

In September, 1879, city delivery of mail was established in Spring- 
field, with six regular carriers; there was one substitute carrier. The 
carriers were: T. B. Flago, James Bryant, E. T. Ridenour, Cal Reid, 
Edward Conway and John Arnett; the substitute was George Zollinger. 
Others connected with the office were: John A. Shipman, postmaster; 
Charles Showalter, assistant postmaster and money order clerk ; Orin 
L. Petticrew, superintendent of carriers ; Theodore H. Brown, mailing 
clerk; Walter Limbocker, general delivery clerk; William Rice, stamp 
and registry clerk ; Edward Wright, paper distributor ; Hilliard Robison, 
janitor. Of these employees, when the character of the office was changed, 
the last to remain in service were Theodore Brown and Orin L. Petti- 
crew; Mr. Brown retiring August 31, 1920, and Mr. Petticrew's death 
occurring January 4, 1921, both being long service men. Mr. Brown 
had been in the office fifty-two years, while Mr. Petticrew had forty-four 
years of service to his credit. 

Since the Springfield Postoffice was established in 1884, it has shown 
a steady increase in business; except in panic years the gross receipts 
have shown material gain each year. However, the greatest strides have 
been made within the last twenty years; since it was designated as a 
first-class postoffice in 1879, its growth is indicated as follows, the fig- 
ures representing the gross receipts every fifth year: In 1879, $36,629.14; 

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in 1884, $53,688.65; in 1889, $70,666.27; in 1894, $99,851.70; in 1899, 
$117,696.83; in 1904, $158,594.02; in 1909, $265,186.74; in 1914, $418,- 
588.81; in 1919, $1,008,403.04; and two years later— 1921, the receipts 
have increased to $1,390,356. 63, showing an advance of $382,953.59 in 
the volume of business, and in time of business depression throughout 
the country. 

The Springfield Postoffice is one of the largest dispatchers of second 
class mail matter in the United States; millions of pounds of magazines 
are dispatched monthly to all parts of the country. While the volume 
has increased from year to year the exact figures are not available, how- 
ever, the following figures will show the increase in the volume of this 
class of matter handled within the last twenty-two years: In 1899, 
3,061,639 pounds; in 1904, 4,859,462 pounds; in 1909, 9,427,499 pounds; 
in 1914, 15,640,234 pounds, and in 1921, 30,204,102 pounds. For many 
years the postage rate on second class matter was 1 cent a pound to all 
parts of the country. 

On July 1, 1918, the postage rate was changed to a zone basis, the 
whole country being divided into eight zones. Under the present system 
the advertising portion of periodical matter and newspapers is charged 
on a sliding scale, according to the zone to which it is addressed for 
delivery, while the editorial or reading matter is charged with postage at 
the rate of \ l / 2 cents a pound to all zones. While the publishers submit 
their own estimates, no periodical passes the postoffice without accurate 
measurement of its advertising and its news columns, and a calculation of 
the mailing expense; they check their measurements together, and thus 
each is anxious to be accurate. 

When the postoffice was removed from the Arcade to the Federal 
building in 1890, it was believed that the new quarters would be ample 
for many years; however, it soon became apparent that the facilities 
were inadequate to handle the ever-increasing volume of business, 
and in September, 1898, an auxiliary station was established in the 
plant of The Crowell Publishing Company; this facilitated the handling 
of their own publications, and is still in operation; while copies are 
. measured in the postoffice, the bulk of the publications does not reach 
it. Several months later the work room in the Federal building was 
enlarged by appropriating a portion of the public lobby, and in 1909, 
an addition twenty-eight by eighty- four feet was built at the north side 
of the main building ; this afforded relief for a short time, but it soon 
became necessary to transfer the eleven rural carriers to the basement, 
in order to provide additional space for an increased city force. 

The continued increase in the business of the Springfield postoffice 
again made it necessary to provide additional floor space, and in 1914 
the basement of the extension was converted into postoffice work room 
with an entrance on Spring Street for the loading and unloading of mail 
matter; a mail chute leading from the work room on the main floor to 
the work room in the basement was also installed, and while this again 
relieved the congestion to some degree, it afforded only temporary relief. 
In 1920, the second floor of the main building was remodeled, and con- 
verted into an additional work room, an elevator being installed con- 
necting the work rooms on the three floors; however, the congestion is 
again almost as great as ever, and the problem of providing adequate 
quarters can be solved only by the erection of a new postoffice building 
in Springfield. 

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Rural Free Delivery 

On August 1, 1899, rural free delivery of mail service was established 
in Springfield ; the first rural carrier was Alden A. Cook ; his salary was 
$400 a year, and he furnished his own equipment — a vehicle drawn by 
two horses. There are now eleven rural routes from Springfield, an$ . 
twenty- four in Clark County, distributed as follows: five at New Carlisle; 
two at South Charleston; two at South Vienna; one at Selma; one at 
Plattsburg; one at North Hampton and one at Tremont City. The 
development of the rural free delivery service not only caused the 
discontinuance of practically all of the star routes that operated in the 
county, but it also caused the following named postoffices to be discon- 
tinued: Anlo, Beatty, Bowlesvilje, Cold Springs, Dialton, Donnelsville, 
Eagle City, Hustead, Lawrenceville, Mad River, Orchard, Pitchin, Sny- 
derville, Villa and Wiseman. 

The star routes formerly supplied mail to postoffices not located on 
railway lines, the patrons calling at the offices ; under the rural free deliv- 
ery system, the mail is delivered at their doors or in a mail box along the 
mail route nearest their homes; sometimes they go a long distance to 
the mail box. The rural carriers sell stamps, issue money orders, register 
letters and the small postoffices are no longer necessary for the con- 
venience of patrons. The eleven routes from Springfield cover approxi- 
mately 285 miles, and. all the routes in the county will average more than 
twenty-five miles in length; the eleven Springfield routes serve 2,489 
families, an average of more than 225 families, and that average will 
hold on the other routes, approximately 22,000 persons being served by 
rural delivery. Besides daily papers, most rural families receive weekly 
and monthly publications ; a pro rata number of letters is written in the 
country. Correspondence pertaining to business is heavier in the towns. 

Contract postal stations have been established for the convenience 
of patrons of the Springfield office; these stations sell stamps, issue and 
pay money orders, register letters, accept parcel post packages for 
mailing, etc., making it unnecessary that patrons call at the postoffice 
for this class of service; the first station was established July 1, 1899, 
at the southeast corner of Main Street and Fountain Avenue, and 
at 307 West Main Street, those in charge being Theodore Troupe and 
Edward Coblentz. There are now eleven postal stations in Spring- 
field; most of them are located in the residential districts. 

Postal Savings 

The first postal savings depository in Clark County was established 
October 21, 1911, at the Springfield office, by Postmaster General Frank 
H. Hitchcock, but owing to the low rate of interest paid on deposits, 
and to the stability of local banks which paid a higher rate of interest, 
this depository has not expanded with the same degree of rapidity as 
has been the case in some other cities where there have been bank 
failures. On July 1, 1917, the Springfield office was made a central 
accounting office having under its jurisdiction all other offices in Clark 
County, consisting at the time of Bowlusville, Catawba, Donnelsville, 
Enon, Forgy, Medway, New Carlisle, New Moorefield, North Hampton, 
Plattsburg, Selma, South Charleston, South Vienna and Tremont City. 
On March 15, 1920, the county system of central accounting was dis- 

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continued ; the state was divided, Cleveland becoming the central account- 
ing office north and Cincinnati south; the larger offices throughout 
the state are designated as direct accounting offices, and they report 
to the department at Washington. 

While some difficulties were encountered along the National Road 
-in an early day, Clark County has been exceptionally fortunate in the 
matter of mail depredations; covering a period of almost one and one- 
quarter centuries during which the postal service has been in operation 
only four arrests of postal employees have been made, three of them 
regular and one temporary employee; in 1900, an attempt was made to 
rob the vault then located in the Springfield postmaster's office; in it 
was stored the greater portion of the stamp stock, but the attempt was 
unsuccessful. The robbers were frightened away after they had drilled 
a hole near the combination and through the door of the vault. 

While the business of the Springfield office has been increasing, in 
a measure the same is true of other offices except for the periodicals 
piiblished in Springfield. The salaries of local employees, and the 
conditions under which they work are also improved; in the old days a 
clerk or carrier entered the postal service at from $400 to $500 per 
annum, with no assurance of promotion; neither were they protected 
by civil service laws, the force being changed with each new political 
administration. On January 16, 1883, "An Act to Regulate and Improve 
the Civil Service of the United States" was passed by Congress, and 
through the establishment of a Civil Service Commission and the pro- 
mulgation of Civil Service rules, employees were encouraged to make 
the postal service their life work. 

In 1907, Congress enacted a law making $600 per annum the entrance 
salary for both clerks and carriers, and providing an annual increase 
of $100, until the annual salary reached $1,100, and an additional $100 
increase was provided for exceptionally efficient employees, approxi- 
mately seventy-five per cent attaining to this standard; these salaries 
have been increased from time to time until July 1, 1920, when the 
present salary scale was adopted and made effective. The entrance sal- 
ary is $1,400, with maximum grade for ordinary clerks and carriers of 
$1,800 per annum; in addition, there are two grades of special clerks 
with salaries at the rate of $1,900 and $2,000 per annum. 

There is also improvement in the hours of service; under the old 
system, postoffice clerks were required to work as many hours as were 
necessary to handle the mail, although carriers have had an eight hour 
law for some years. Under the present system all employees except 
supervisory officials are scheduled to work eight hours a day; said time 
to be divided into tours that will cover a period not to exceed ten con- 
secutive hours. These changes have brought about conditions that ren- 
der postoffice positions more desirable; they have made it possible to 
secure a class of employees that are efficient and reliable. In addition 
to the changes affecting the welfare of employees, Congress has enacted 
laws providing compensation for employees injured while in discharge 
of their official duties, and for their retirement on annuity after reach- 
ing a designated age, and having performed a specified number of years 
of service. 

The following list shows the names and length of service of the 
employees of the Springfield office who were the first to benefit under 
the retirement law, having reached the age limit, and been retired August 

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20, 1920: Theodore H. Brown, clerk, fifty-two years service; Charles 
D. Swaynem, clerk, thirty-six years service; Theodore H. Gugenheim, 
clerk, sixteen years service; Isaac Scholes, city carrier, thirty years 
service; J. Marion Garst, rural carrier, twenty years service. On Decem- 
ber 20, 1921, John N. Bauer, city carrier, was retired on account of 
age after twenty-nine years service; for seven years his route had been 
in Lagonda. Early in 1922, Daniel E. Brunner, city carrier, and Robert 
M. Robison, rural carrier, were retired because of physical debility. Mr. 
Brunner had been a carrier thirty-one years, and Mr. Robison has the 
same length of time to his credit. 

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An important function of the bank in any community is to aid 
legitimate business to earn a profit commensurate with the value and 
importance of its service; to deny reasonable earnings to industry 
is to deny its usefulness; profit is the wage of service. It is to the 
advantage of society that business shall be profitable. There have been 
radical changes in the economic as well as the social life of .Clark 
County. While emphasis is still placed on agriculture, it has a multi- 
plicity of other interests. 

In 1921, a Springfield bank displayed a window sign saying that 
sixty-five per cent of the people die penniless, and it has been said: 
"The greatest blessing a young man can have is poverty." While not 
all accept the truthfulness of the statement, some die in full possession 
of the "blessing." A paragrapher remarks: "This country has reached 
the stage where men use the word 'only' in front of ten million dol- 
lars," and in Clark County there are those who require six figures in 
"setting down" the amount of their riches, saying nothing about the 
sequestered fortunes as yet unknown to the income collectors. 

The Salvation Army long ago defined its mission as in the interest 
of the submerged tenth, but with so many penniless persons there 
is more welfare work than can be handled by one organization; this 
window sign said that twenty-five per cent of the people have bank 
accounts of $1,300, and that nine per cent have a financial rating of 
$5,000, and one is left to conjecture the rating of the other one per cent. 
A million plus is the highest commercial rating, and there may be as 
many billionaires as millionaires in Clark County. Credit is a safe- 
guard to business, and some are able to "corner the money." 

While Ohio was governed by the Northwest Territory, its residents 
paid poll tax ; since its organization as a state, its first and second consti- 
tutions levied such taxes for road purposes. While the third constitution 
forbade the Ohio Legislature from levying poll tax, an amendment may 
change it and the people have been considering the question again. Under 
the Ordinance of 1787, which governed Ohio in the interim before its 
organization as a state, a law was passed December 8, 1800, providing 
that all able-bodied males above twenty-one years old, should pay an 
annual tax of 50 cents ; all bachelors not possessed of property valued at 
more than $200 paid $2.50 a year, but the Ohio constitution virtually 
repealed the law ; the citizens of Ohio never paid poll tax. 

The Ohio Gazetteer of 1816 says the tax duplicate in Champaign 
County, which then included most of the area now constituting Clark 
County, was $2,097,557, and in the office of the county auditor is a 
bundle of papers yellow with age — the aggregate of the duplicate of 
the ten townships constituting Clark County not having been ascer- 
tained from it. While there were not many tax payers when the 
area was a part of Greene County, after 1805 until 1818 taxes were pay- 
able in Champaign County ; while one session of court was held in Spring- 
field in 1806, the machinery of local government was not all in operation, 
and taxes were paid in Urbana. The 1920 Clark County tax dupli- 


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cate shows a total valuation of $151,066,820, and one year later it was 
reported as $143,496,260, indicating a depreciation of $7,500,000 in twelve 
months. Clark County, outside of Springfield, is rated at about $55,500,- 
000, agriculture representing the principal industry. While in 1801 
there was little taxable property in Springfield, 120 years later the tax 
duplicate indicated $95,546,460 in collateral in the city. While Spring- 
field has about three-fourths of the population, it has less than two- 
thirds of the taxable property. 

Liberty Loans 

The liberal response to the different war loans indicated the fact 
that Clark County people believed in letting their dollars work for 
them, the agents being the different banking houses, as : American Trust 
and Savings ; Citizens National ; Farmers National ; First National ; Indus- 
trial; Lagonda National; Mad River National; Springfield Morris 
Plan; Springfield National; Springfield Savings' Society in Spring- 
field and the Bank of South Charleston, South Vienna Farmers' Deposit 
Bank and New Carlisle Bank and National bank; other financial bul- 
warks in Springfield are: Springfield Building and Loan Association; 
Merchants and Mechanics Loan Association; Clark County Collateral 
Loan Company; Springfield Collateral Loan Company and Springfield 
Loan Company, and after the above list was supplied by William A. 
Luibel, the Security Savings and Loan Company was incorporated, bank- 
ing by mail being a feature. 

The banks outside of Springfield all cooperated in the different Lib- 
erty Loans, and in fact the bankers floated the First Liberty and the 
Victory loans; while the general public responded on the second, third 
and fourth loans, the masses had to be educated to the necessity; the 
farmers were slowest to respond, and they stayed in the game until after 
the armistice, leaving the bankers to float the Victory Loan as they had 
floated the first one. ,In the First Liberty Loan $1,162,350 were taken by 
2,868 subscribers ; the second loan amounted to $2,682,800 taken by 5,819 
subscribers ; the third loan of $3,829,250 was taken by 5,691 subscribers, 
and in the fourth loan many more realized the necessity — 
the amount of $16,674,000 being taken by 11,314 subscribers. In the 
Victory Loan the Clark County quota was $2,540,050, and while the 
Figuregram was not quite clear, \t is known that the county went "over 
the top" again. 

The second, third and fourth loans were popular subscription as a 
result of better organization, and 25,692 persons had part in them, some 
paying in each loan and some being plus subscribers in the Victory Loan. 
While Springfield was the loan center, the response was from all parts 
of Clark County. It is estimated that those who subscribed- to the Vic- 
tory Loan had helped float all the others, and counting them again it 
is conceded that 28,694 citizens of Clark County had part in supplying 
Uncle Sam with the necessary funds to prosecute the war. There is 
a tablet in Memorial Hall inscribed: "In recognition of the patriotism 
of the people of Clark County who over-subscribed their war-savings 
quota in 1918, this tablet is gratefully erected by the Ohio War Sav- 
ings Commission," and the county achieved credit in all of the war 

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Early Banking in Springfield 

In the archives of the Clark County Historical Society is a paper 
written by George W. Winger which contains much valuable data, 
and some excerpts are taken from it. The first bank in Ohio was the 
Miami Exporting Company of Cincinnati, incorporated April 15, 1803, 
with $500,000 capital, and then followed banks in Marietta, Chillicothe, 
Steubenville and Zanesville; the first general banking act was passed in 
1816, the charters of all banks expiring in 1843, under provision of this 
act In 1845, the banking business in Ohio was in a deplorable condi- 
tion; wildcat banking was the rule, and bank swindles were frequent. 
In the panic of 1837, the Zanesville bank was the only one that did not 
repudiate its obligations, and there was a time when conservative men did 
not accept bank paper without first investigating the standing of the 
bank issuing the money, 

As early as 1810, a man named Merryduff who kept a general store 
in Lisbon tried writing his own money, and his currency was accepta- 
ble to his customers. The people were honest or they would have 
imitated his writing, and thereby have caused him to redeem bills 
not issued by him. Since that far-off day some Springfield banks have 
issued their own currency, emulating the Merryduff enterprise. In 1845, 
an act passed the Ohio Assembly which ended wildcat banking in Ohio. 
Springfield suffered the inconvenience of the wildcat banking system 
until the establishment of state banks in 1845, and more or less up to 
the creation of national banks in 1863, that were operated under Federal 
authority. Ohio was flooded with worthless currency, but when the 
state banks were opened people soon began depositing in them. 

The state banks almost eliminated private banks ; they were the banks 
of issue, and the corporation banks had their difficulties. In 1847, Spring- 
field business men felt the need of a bank and January 25, the Mad 
River Valley Bank opened its doors with Levi Rinehart as its presi- 
dent, and associated with him in official capacity were: John Bacon, 
James T. Claypool, T. R. Nolan, Charles M. Clarke, William Werden 
and William Berry. The first depositor was Absalom Mattox, clerk 
of the court who deposited $457.75 of Clark County money. The first 
loan was $500 secured by a farmer — Adam Baker. While the origin 
of banking is lost in antiquity, although it is generally agreed that it 
was instituted in the twelfth century in Venice, it is known who made 
the first deposit and who availed himself of the borrowing privilege 
first 'in Clark County, and "nothing ventured nothing gained," seems 
to encourage the habit, although speculation has ruined some enterpris- 
ing citizens. 

On May 15, 1851, the second bank was organized in Springfield, and 
since that time as business has demanded it other financial institutions 
have been welcomed in the community. Oliver Clarke who owned much 
land now occupied by the city was its president, and in 1860 came the 
third bank owned by three brothers — the Foos Brothers; in '1863, the 
national banking law was enacted with the dual purpose of providing 
currency for business, and to finance the Civil war. On the same day,' 
December 3, 1863, the Springfield Bank and the Foos Brothers Bank 
begun an effort to secure a national charter; the Foos application was 
forwarded by mail, while the Springfield Bank sent its request by express, 
reaching the comptroller's office first, and thus February 1, 1864, the 

Vol. 1—19 

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Springfield Bank having acquired the title of First National Bank, was 
opened with Dr. John Ludlow as president, and while others have 
served the present president, John Ludlow Bushnell, is descended from the 
first president, his father Asa S. Bushnell and his grandfather, Dr. Lud- 
low having filled the position — an unique situation, three generations in 
one family holding the same position. 

In 1865, the Mad River Bank applied for a charter as a national 
bank and as Springfield increased in enterprise and population, the 
banks multiplied and they have always met the financial needs; while 
deposits were small in the beginning, the discount rate was liberal and 
banking always has been profitable in Springfield. January 1, 1870, when 
the first public statement was issued the deposits amounted to $646,- 

Oliver Clauke, an Early Financier 

024.61 in local banks, while fifty years later — 1920 — the bank clearings 
in Springfield alone amounted to $91,059,064.28, although a later state- 
ment shows a loss in 1921, of $19,321,457.45, the industries of Springfield 
running much lighter because of business depression. In times past some 
of the captains of industry have been bank presidents : Benjamin H, 
Warder and Asa S- Bushnell holding such positions till the end of 
their livesf and today manufacturers hold such positions. 

Years ago there were men who specialized in the settlement of estates, 
but finally the trust companies were organized to handle that line of 
business, the American Trust and Savings Bank being first in that partic- 
ular field in 1907, and estates are carried through to final settlement by 
corporations rather than individuals. The greatest financial test encount- 
ered in Springfield came in 1887, when some of its leading industries 

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failed, but through careful financiering the banks in Springfield are 
still regarded as places where people go to exchange cash for credit, 
credit for cash and credit for credit. Money is a symbol of values, 
and accounts are collected in different commodities. The Latins called 
a herd of cattle pecus, and wealth expressed in cattle was pecunia, and 
thus commodities come to have pecuniary value in business transactions. 

In the vein of light philosophy, some one remarks: "What we want 
to know is what's become of the 'gink' who used to say, 'I do not care 
about the money ; it's the principle of the thing,' " and it was Dean D. H. 
Bauslin of Hamma Divinity School who remarked: "As long as men 
bow down to money they will have no other God." While banks some- 
times lose in speculative or wildcat propositions, a bank is known by 
the depositors who patronize it, and among Springfield banks are some 
who have dealings with the fathers and grandfathers of their present 
day depositors. Safety first applies in banking, and while safety deposit 
boxes are furnished by all banks, the personnel of the organization enters 
into the consideration; while there are tax-dodging investments, the 
banks of Springfield have the confidence of investors. 

In the World war crisis — a time to try men's souls — the Spring- 
field banks have withstood adverse conditions. They have passed safely 
through a, period of anxiety, uncertainty and perplexity and only the 
Houston Bank of South Charleston succumbed to the unusual financial 
strain and it has now paid in full the $500,000 in deposits from local 
clients. The failure contemplated $1,750,000 in all, and while it is 
said that a fortune runs out in the third generation, in this case the man 
directing the enterprise was a brother to those who accumulated the 
fortune; while it was an inheritance, the fortune ran out in the same 
generation. This failure is regarded as one of the worst bank calami- 
ties that ever happened in Ohio, and citizens as well as corporations 
have suffered because of the scarcity of funds occasioned by it. The 
affairs of the bank were interwoven with other Houston interests, and 
meanwhile depositors grow impatient waiting for their money. 

It took a long time for the banks to build up the necessary confi- 
dence in the minds of depositors, and the Houston failure was a blow 
to it, and among the settlers the practice of hiding money in unsuspected 
places obtained ; auger holes were filled with money and plugged again. 
A Madison township family sold a hogshead of grain after the death 
of the father — John Reeder. The buyer found $200 in silver buried in 
it; while there may still be honest folk — there was no question about 
the ownership of that money, and it was returned to the Reeder family. 
Daniel Hartzler who had quarry interests along Mad River, and who 
built the mansion on the W. W. Keifer farm now designated as Fort 
Tecumseh, was murdered there in 1867, because it was rumored that he 
kept money there. 

While the bandits who murdered Mr. Hartzler did not obtain much 
money, they made their escape with a horse and buggy from the farm, 
and the county had a long drawn murder trial as a result ; in these days 
of improved highways, holdups are frequently staged in the country, 
and people appreciate their banking opportunities; they do not keep 
their money. The bandits were in hiding about the barn, and when 
Mr. Hartzler entered the house they followed him. While he defended 
himself, he was unarmed and unprepared, and when they shot him in the 
leg his wife fled to a neighbor's house, and while alone he bled to death ; 

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first aid administered at once might have saved him. The bandits had 
reckoned without their host, as Hartzler put up a strong defense; he 
confused them, and relatives were involved in the difficulty. Circum- 
stantial evidence was strong against them as one had his hat when he 
was arrested, and the Hartzler episode is still used as an argument in 
favor of depositing money "where thieves do not break through and 

Income Taxes 

While an income is not an objectionable feature, the income tax has 
been the source of considerable study. The local internal revenue and 
income tax office is in the Federal Building, and while there is always 
someone in charge it is directed from Cincinnati ; there are four revenue 
and income tax collecting districts in Ohio, and Springfield and Clark 
County are in the group of thirteen counties of the First Ohio Revenue 
District. In 1920 the income tax returns from the First Ohio District 
were $100,000, and since Cincinnati and Dayton are larger centers than 
Springfield, it is haphazard to estimate the amount returned from Clark 
County. It ranges from a few cents to vast amounts, and so many con- 
siderations enter into it that many require advice in estimating it. The 
corporations paying income tax have their own expert accountants, and at 
the last minute they leave the report in the Springfield office or mail it 
to Cincinnati. 

Savings Deposits 

It is said that the economic .barometers in the form of savings deposits 
are increasing, and when a bank account is once established it has a 
tendency to check reckless expenses; \yhile some lay something by for 
the proverbial rainy day, there is another contingent that does not look 
to the future. The provident man is able to say : "Here it is, boys," when 
guests arrive while his less frugal neighbor inquires: "Where is- it?" 
when they must be fed. It is the province of the bank to teach frugal- 
ity. The descendants of those who came early and applied themselves, 
now sit in easy chairs ; they live on Easy Street, and wear horn rimmed 
spectacles while those who accumulated the fortune received payment 
for their labor in commodities other than money. When money was 
scarce they received salt pork and cornmeal in return for their service. 

While the pioneers were not stinted in the way of sassafras tea, or in 
reading the works of Josephus, there are residents in every community 
who have inherited more funds than their ancestry ever gave in to the 
assessor. An estate in New York valued at $350,000 in 1867, was allowed 
to accumulate — to "grow rich on itself," until it attained to $1,928,700 
and without expense to anybody, and thus property advances in value. 
However, statisticians are agreed that heirs who come into possession 
of money they do not earn acquire accelerated habits in spending it, 
and chattel mortgages sometimes follow in the wake of inheritances. The 
man who wore the double shawl in winter while accumulating the for- 
tune, had as much pleasure as the younger man wearing the modern 
overcoat has in spending it; those who have been economical cannot 
enjoy reckless expenditures. 

When Ross Mitchell who accumulated considerable property began 
his business career in Springfield, Benjamin H. Warder advised him 
tto take out life insurance and borrow money on the policy to invest in 

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real estate, and it proved to be a good policy; when he died he owned 
a good many farms, and a good many business properties in Spring- 
field ; since the heirs did not wish a division of property in court, apprais- 
ers were chosen who divided it into three groups, and the three daughters 
cast lots for it; each had agreed to accept her portion, and all have 
been satisfied about it. 

While gold is the monetary standard, there was a time when silver 
would buy more than the Urbana shinplasters, as some of the settlers 
designated paper money ; while values were fluctuating in the reconstruc- 
tion period following the Civil war, there has been no question about 
the dollar in the wake of the World war. While the war forced the 
enlargement of business, and readjustment has been the difficulty, the 
dollar has not depreciated ; the wage scale and the prices asked for com- 
modities have soared above precedent, but the dollar has had about the 
same purchasing power; the profiteer has taken advantage of the sit- 
uation in Springfield and Clark County; the area is within the United 
States, and it is a widespread condition. 

S. T. Russel, of Springfield, has broadcasted a folder; Scientific 
Money, which he designates as a system that fixes the value of the 
circulating medium so it cannot change, and makes it perfectly elastic 
under all conditions. In the booklet he says the World war has ended, 
and the business of all countries is struggling to resume normal con- 
ditions. The war has taught the people many things, but they were so 
accustomed to extravagant customs that they easily lapse back into them. 
School children bought thrift stamps, and many of them continue their 
savings, and while the Christmas Savings are usually drawn out at the 
end of the year, the banks have found some who prefer establishing per- 
manent savings accounts. More than half a million dollars was distrib- 
uted among Springfield depositors at the 1921 Christmastide, which the 
bankers rfegard as a flattering showing, proving that citizens recognize 
the value of thrift; unless they became permanent depositors they are 
not of much advantage to the bank, but the saving habit is encouraged ; 
it was estimated that 5,000,000 Americans had Christmas deposits in 
4,000 banks, aggregating $150,000,000, and if some became regular 
depositors the system has served an excellent purpose. 

A statement appeared in print recently that it costs the National 
banks an average of $59 a year to handle $1,000 of deposits, and $1 more 
would bring it up to six percent, and that explains why banks pay a low 
rate of interest. When a wealthy woman acquired a spendthrift husband, 
her friends learned that she "kept up the interest" by not allowing him 
to spend the principal. While many small investors in Liberty Bonds 
have sold them, it is said they are all retained in Springfield, and the 
coupons are now being clipped from them. When people quit saving 
money, banking wilf become a lost art, and since the modest depositor 
today is sometimes the influential . business man tomorrow — the banks 
show uniform courtesy to all depositors. The "Blue Sky" Bureau at 
Columbus estimates that citizens of Clark County have lost $684,000 in 
the last three years through investments in worthless stocks, when Lib- 
erty Bonds would have served their purpose better, and that leads to the 
suggestion that the ordinary citizen should consult his banker for finan- 
cial information, as he goes to his lawyer for legal advice, or to the fam- 
ily doctor — and in the bank this technical service is rendered without 
cost or obligation. 

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The jokesmith's version of Auld Lang Syne is : 

"The man to whom you loan a buck, 
You'll very often find — 
Wants old acquaint — quite forgot, 
And never brought to mind," 

but that viewpoint does not reflect the sentiment of a number of Spring- 
field citizens who are now and then victims of swindlers; it is safe to 
investigate before cashing checks for strangers. It becomes expensive 
to make change for strangers who raise their $2 bills to $20, and when 
one is unable to establish his identity, a check is of little consequence 
unless he can locate an "easy mark." "Honor thy father and thy mother/' 
but not a stranger's check — that's the rule in Springfield. 

The Farmers National Bank reports unclaimed deposits accumulating 
through some years amounting to $299.76, the deposits ranging as high 
as $40.31, thist report a requirement every seven years. Since there are 
fourteen banks in Clark County, there must be quite a sum of unclaimed 
money. After the lapse of eight years a bank is required to pay such 
deposits to the county treasurer, and then the depositor may have it when 
rendering satisfactory identification. The Farmers National Bank sent 
$50 worth of molten silver taken from a cash register that passed through 
a fire in a Catawba store to the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, in an 
effort to realize something from it. Mrs. G. L. Wingate has a souvenir 
of an earlier fire on the same site in Catawba — several pieces of silver 
melted and run together. Mutilated paper money is redeemed by the 
U. S. Treasurer, but this was an experiment with silver. 

While it required careful financeering for the banks to float the dif- 
ferent loans, and accommodate the requirements of the business world, 
Clark County banks, with one exception, were equal to the situation. 
There are 7b6 state banks in Ohio, and the end-of-the-year report, 1921, 
showed a sound condition. The building and loan associations of the 
state report that, in 1921, 205,759 families were assisted toward owner- 
ship of homes, and the Springfield institutions had their share in this 
constructive program. While the rich and poor frequently change places, 
some purse-proud families disappear into oblivion and are never heard 
from again. The first human inquiry transmitted by electric agency, 
"What hath God wrought?" is answered in the life history of the pio- 
neers; in their poverty they planned for the future, while the average 
citizen still says, "If life and money hold out," in forecasting it. No 
human equation is more uncertain. 

Death and taxes — as yet no wizard of finance has devised any means 
of escape from them. While the Clark County settler borrowed money 
in overcoming wilderness conditions, because of his sagacity and fore- 
sight, succeeding generations have loaned it, and some one exclaims: 
"If honorable posterity ever meets honorable present ancestry, I fear 
unpleasant criminations. I seem to hear thoughtful descendants saying, 
bitterly, 'You are far too reckless with other people's property. Who 
gave you the right to place mortgage on earth we are to inherit?' This 
haunting by posterity paralyzes lovemaking," and there is some property 
that has not changed ownership only through succession, but after the 
cycle of a century there is none claimed today by the original owner. 
Sometimes mortgages have been kept off through two and three genera- 

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tions, notwithstanding the edict: "It is only three generations from 
shirt sleeves to shirt sleeves." 

Decline of Markets 

A newspaper paragraph bearing a Columbus headline, December 1, 
1920, says: "Farmers are again becoming borrowers at their country 
banks for the first time in five years; the season of ready money with 
them is at an end, and pinching of coins will again become common if 
present conditions continue. At this time they are borrowing money to 
pay taxes. * * * And farm barns and granaries are bursting with 
things ready to be sold, if a market for them could be found." There was 
a market, but they wanted more money for their commodities. When 
readjustment began in the wake of the World war, they were so inured to 
inflated market conditions that they borrowed money for taxes rather 
than accept the decline of the market. 

While war time prices prevailed, Clark County farmers became lib- 
eral buyers of automobiles, talking machines, lighting plants and water 
systems. They indulged in some of the luxuries their city cousins 
regarded as necessities. In their vexation, farmers became students ; they 
investigated conditions that when times were better had not concerned 
them, and the explanations offered have not always been satisfactory. 
However, agriculture, the world's oldest occupation, was the first to 
feel the pressure under the reconstruction process. One domestic econo- 
mist exclaimed : "The World war taught us to save everything but 
money." It is the easiest thing in the world to figure out how other 
people can save money ; when everybody was poor, their very necessities 
bound them together, and thus the world hears about old fashioned 
neighborliness and hospitality. 

The almighty dollar has always been the incentive, but minus the ele- 
ment of competition the pioneers were not forced to struggle for a liveli- 
hood; however, the new name for hard times is the period of readjust- 
ment — a rose by any other name would smell the same — and the present 
generation now understands it. Those who did not participate in the 
development of Clark County have their duties of citizenship in preserv- 
ing it; the Clark County as they see it is a legacy from the past genera- 
tions in local history. 

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"in time of peace prepare for war" 

Are not the wars of the past sufficient blot on American civilization? 
War is the oldest sin of the nations; it has been styled international 

Many persons accept the trite definition of war given by Gen. William 
Tecumseh Sherman: "War is hell." At times civilization seems to 
hang in the balance, and the Disarmament Conference staged in Wash- 
ington, in the closing days of 1921, was the greatest forward movement 
in the history of the world. An English writer, H. G. Wells, said it 
summed up the whole future of America in two words : Adventure or 
degeneration, and Clark County comes under the dictum: "Humanity 
with all its fears, with all the hopes of future years, is hanging breath- 
less on thy fate!" 

When the time came, at the instance of President Warren G. Harding, 
to decide whether international relations should be adjusted by constitu- 
tion or conversation, Washington became the capital of the world. Hun- 
dreds of millions were watching results, and the great conference was 
discussed in every civilized country on earth. While the people were met 
to hammer their swords into plowshares, there were axes to be sharpened, 
although President Harding said: "The conclusions of this body will 
have a signal influence on all human progress, and the fortunes of the 
world. This meeting is an earnest testimonial of the awakened con- 
science of the twentieth century civilization." 

One review of the conference reads: "Diplomacy has always had 
her vested interests ; they have seemed permanent. What makes Novem- 
ber 12, 1921, so portentous in its invasion of those vested interests; take 
the first and most important one — secrecy. Diplomacy has always 
wrapped herself in it, but when Secretary Charles Evans Hughes fol- 
lowed the opening speech of welcome and of idealism, made by President 
Harding, with the boldest and most detailed program of what the United 
States had in mind, diplomacy's most sacred interest was for the moment 
overthrown," and some have regarded his drastic action as a master 
stroke of diplomacy. 

While it is true that war makes heroes, it is not necessarily true that 
peace makes has-beens, although it has been intimated that war-time 
i-deals have suffered the loss of their i's, and have become the worst sort of 
deals — that profiteers recognized their golden opportunity. "War is an 
economic problem ; if we do not destroy war, it will destroy us," and after 
every great war crime waves sweep the country. Now that the World 
war has become a matter of history, profiteers are still reaping their 
golden harvest; the problem of the honest business man has been to 
adjust himself to economic conditions. It was Gen. U. S. Grant who 
said: "Man proposes, but God disposes," and succeeding generations 
have recognized it as a truth. The world has become used to war, and 
the people are uncertain whether they are in the early laps of a new dne 


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or a relapse of an old one, and the "freedom of the seas/' does not guar- 
antee the freedom of the world. 

While the United States flag never has trailed in defeat, it has been 
carried into battle of defense for the whole world. The University of 
Chicago has been given $60,000 by a philanthropist to be used in the 
excavation of the site of Armageddon, the first battle known to history. 
In connection with Armistice Day observance Springfield ministers dis- 
cussed such topics as : "The Law of the Jungle," "The rule of Brother- 
hood/' "Christianity and Armament Limitation," and "The Vision of a 
Warless World," and everywhere men discussed a war to end war. In 
future wars it is urged that the safe places will be in the trenches ; the war 
of the future will be waged in ways unknown, and some one says the 
dickering diplomats and the ambitious politicians will enforce peace among 
the nations. While President Harding says the military standard must 
not fall below the "line of safety," Gen. John J. Pershing places this line 
of safety at 150,000 soldiers with 14,000 of them officers — thus in time 
of peace, being prepared for war. 

In connection with the 1921 Armistice Day service in Springfield, the 
Rev. Charles E. Byrer said it was time for nations and races to think, 
work and build together and to believe in each other, and it is conceded 
that war does not determine the merit of any question ; instead of solving, 
it opens up other problems. Clark County had its christening in a war 
of extermination — the Shawnees relinquishing the area, and the soil has 
been redeemed not only by the veterans of the Revolutionary period ; by 
the soldiers in the War of 1812 ; by the boys in blue in the Civil war — 
the war of the states — but again civilization was in the- death grapple 
when Clark County boys went overseas in the war of the nations. 

Following all of the wars have come the reconstruction periods, when 
the best brains and an unlimited amount of money have been necessary; 
when cost and selling prices are adjusting themselves after such upheavals, 
it requires soldiers of fortune to stand the test of courage and conviction ; 
when the wars are over, come the intricate questions of. the aftermath. 
It is one thing to inflict a wound, and quite another thing to recover 
from it. "In time of peace prepare for war," is not in harmony with 
the policy of arbitration. Notwithstanding the recommendation of the 
prophet Isaiah with regard to swords and spears, Clark County has had 
part in many mortal conflicts. When discussing the problems of recon- 
struction, soldiers of the different wars talk about "after our war," and 
after every war there is an increased interest in ancestors and family 

It is said that America is already a forest of family trees ; when the 
World war soldiers returned from overseas, they were interested in 
Mother Country and Fatherland connecting links, in the chains of their 
own personal relations — Who's Who in America. Secretary of State 
William Jennings Bryan attempted to federate all the nations of the 
earth in a peace pact universal, and many had signified their acceptance 
of the conditions. War vessels were to be converted into merchant 
marine; arbitration was to solve the problems of the nations, and bel- 
ligerent powers was to become an obsolete expression among the nations 
of the world. The Peace Tribunal at The Hague was to be the solution 
of the whole thing. It seemed that the saber had rusted in its sheath, and 
that the cannon's lips had grown cold ; that plowshares and pruning hooks 

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had played their part in advance civilization, and the "bloody shirt" was 
eliminated from local politics. 

It is said that with present day munitions of war, a pitched battle 
would not last longer than a June frost ; it would be wholesale destruc- 
tion, and none would remain to bury the dead. It was thought civiliza- 
tion had advanced too far for warfare ever again to sway the country. 
When one contemplates the horrors of war, nation arrayed against nation, 
one wonders that so many centuries cycled by before the world awakened 
to arbitration; the public mind had changed, and in future the battles 
of the world would be fought with ballots rather than with bullets. The 
average citizen had no conception of a world war — its far-reaching 
effects. "Vanity of vanities, saith the preacher, vanity of vanities ; all is 
vanity." Ecclesiastes. Until the World war there had been eat in meat 
and wheat and with the rest of the world, Clark County was resting in 
comfort and security; the wars of the past had seemingly vouchsafed 
such conditions. 

The spirit of the colonies was transmitted, and E Pluribus Unum was 
the result. When one stops to enumerate the wars through which one's 
ancestry and one's contemporaries have passed, one realizes that time is 
passing and one wonders when one listened last to the reading of the 
Declaration of Independence on a festal day. When the Declaration of 
American Independence used to be read as part of every Fourth of July 
celebration, there were orations dripping with patriotism following it, 
and everybody seemed to enjoy it; when read in the spirit in which it 
was written, it is a masterpiece in literature. While it is the document 
of the ages, humdrum reading kills it. Those who study the signs of the 
times unite in saying that the correct history of the American Revolution 
has not as yet been written, and that when it is the Old Northwest — the 
Northwest Territory — will be credited with many things ; the great Indian 
uprisings were in the Northwest ; the Indians in Ohio were regarded as 
a menace, when Governor Arthur St. Clair was unable to deal with them, 
and Gen. Anthony Wayne was sent out to quell them. 

On the Western Front 

In the East where Gen. George Washington was in command, the 
War of the Revolution was fought with civilized soldiery, while in the 
West Gen. George Rogers Clark had to deal with infuriated savages ; the 
Indian would not yield his hunting ground, nor would he vacate his wig- 
wam. The American Army naturally regarded the British as the emis- 
saries inciting the Indians to ambush and treachery, and it became neces- 
sary to overthrow the Shawnee Confederacy centering in Piqua Village 
along Mad River in what is now Clark County. 

Piqua Village: the Shawnees 

In 1848, when Henry Howe was at the site of the battle between the 
Shawnees and General Clark in command of his wilderness army on 
Mad River, he wrote : "I was desirous of making a sketch of the birth- 
place of Tecumseh, and of the place when Gen. George Rogers Clark 
fought and defeated the Shawnees. It was in the winter; the ground 
was covered with snow, and with benumbed fingers I took a hasty sketch. 
A bright, intelligent boy ten years old stood by my side; he h^d been 

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sent by his father, a farmer near by, to point out to me the various objects 
of interest, and among them the hill called Tecumseh. Not until on my 
second tour of Ohio, and in his own office in Springfield, did I again 
meet my once little guide to the birthplace and battlefield. It was Gen. 
J. Warren Keifer who since has attained international renown," and 
singularly enough, a son of General Keifer — W. W. Keifer of Springfield 
— accompanied the peripatetic over the same route January 9, 1922, 
explaining in similar way the landmarks designated as the battlefield. 
It was three-quarters of a century after the visit of that first historian. 

A modern version of the Revolutionary situation is: "Text books 
in both England and America should be rewritten; American histories 
should not begin all things with the Revolution, and English histories 
should remember that the American Revolution is a part of England's 
own history," and coming from an English woman visiting in America, 
who classifies the foregoing sentiment as propaganda? In an address, 
August 7, 1901, in connection with the Springfield Centennial program, 
General Keifer reviewed the military history of Clark County — a people 
springing from all nationalities and tongues, with varied race character- 
istics but finally so amalgamated in blood and character as to boast that 
the blood of all nationalities runs in the veins of its citizens. At the time 
of the summary, the history of Clark County was almost wholly limited 
to the nineteenth century, and the speaker had been active in two wars — 
Civil and Spanish American — holding official relation to them. He says 
the people responded to all calls of danger and duty, going forth to 
uphold constitutional liberty and the national rights of man. 

General Keifer says the sons of Clark County fought and died on 
every important campaign, and in every great battle in the last 100 years 
in which the country was engaged ; the blood of her sons has crimsoned 
the soil, and their bones have bleached on the great battlefields of the 
Republic. They have heroically borne on high the starry flag of Wash- 
ington, the purest and proudest emblem of human liberty, both on land 
and sea. Wherever glory in the cause of humanity has been won through 
deeds of valor and by bloody sacrifice, Clark County's soldiers and sailors 
must justly be awarded a share; this nation stands in first place among 
the great powers of the world. 

The early inhabitants of this area were soldiers in the defense of 
their homes ; the region round about was, on account of its perennial 
springs, rich pastures, quantities of fish in the pure waters, wild fruits, 
berries and nuts, deer, bear, turkeys and other wild game necessary to 
sustain man in a savage state, much coveted by the Indian tribes, and they 
fought for it with a desperation seldom witnessed in other parts. At the 
Piqua Shawnee Indian Village Tecumseh and the Prophet were born, 
and they became the most famous of all Indian war chieftains; they 
waged war on the frontier settlers longer than any others of the wild 
tribes. While Henry Howe describes the overthrow of the Shawnee 
Confederacy at Piqua Village on Mad River, many libraries contain the 
volumes, and another version — Bradford's Notes on Kentucky — is drawn 
from for the battle, General Clark's returning to Kentucky. General 
Keifer says this battle gave more land to the United States Government 
than any other engagement in the Revolutionary war, and because the 
battlefield is now within Clark County full detail is given, beginning: 
"The principal part of Piaua Village stood upon a plain, rising fifteen or 
twenty feet above Mad River. 

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"On the south, between the village and the river, there was an exten- 
sive prairie ; on the northeast some gold cliffs terminating near the river ; 
on the west and northwest, level timbered land, while on the opposite 
side of the stream another prairie of varying width stretched back to 
the high grounds. The river sweeping by in graceful bend, the precipitous 
rocky cliffs, the undulating hills with their towering trees, the prairies 
garnished with tall grass and brilliant flowers, combined to render the 
situation of Piqua both beautiful and picturesque. At the period of its 
destruction Piqua was quite populous; there was a rude log hut within 
its limits surrounded by pickets. It was, however, sacked and burned, 
August 8, 1780, by an army of 1,000 men from Kentucky, after a severe 
and well conducted battle with the Indians who inhabited it. All the 
improvements of the Indians, including more than 200 acres of corn and 
other vegetables then growing in their fields, were laid waste and 
destroyed ; the town was never rebuilt by the Shawnees. 

"The inhabitants of Piqua Village removed to the Great Miami River 
and erected another town which they called Piqua, after the one that had 
been destroyed, and in defense of which they had fought with the skill 
and valor characteristic of their nation." Since Tecumseh was born in 
the Shawnee Village in 1768, he was only twelve and had not yet become 
the renowned fighter, but the fate of Piqua Village spurred him to action 
later, when the battle was spoken of as the Great Miami Slaughter, Mad 
River being considered part of the Miami waterway. It is said that 
Piqua Village was built after the French pattern, the houses at intervals 
for three miles along Mad River, most of the town on the plain above 
the stream. The Shawnees. though war-like, were industrious and pros- 
perous, but the beginning of the end is thus described : "On August 2, 
1780, General Clark took up the line of march from where Cincinnati now 
stands (Fort Washington) for the Indian towns." 

Plan of Attack 

The line of march was as follows: The first division, commanded 
by General Clark, took the front position; the center was occupied by 
artillery, military stores and baggage ; the second, commanded by Colonel 
Logan, was placed in the rear. The men were ordered to march in four 
lines, at about forty yards distance from each other, and a line of flankers 
on each side at about the same distance from the right and left line. 
There was also a front and a rear guard, who only kept in sight of the 
main army, in order to prevent confusion in case of an attack by the 
enemy. On the march of the army a general order was issued that in the 
event of an attack in front, the front was to stand fast, and the two right 
lines to wheel to the right, and the two left lines to the left and form a 
complete line, while the artillery was to advance forward to the center 
of the line. 

In case of an attack on either of the flanks or side lines, they were to 
stand fast, and likewise the artillery, while the opposite lines wheeled and 
formed on the two extremes of those lines ; in the event of an attack being 
made on the rear, similar order was to be observed as in an attack in 
front. In this manner the army moved on without encountering anything 
worthy of notice until it arrived at Chillicothe (situated on the Little 
Miami River in Greene County), about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, on 
the 6th of August. The army found the town not only abandoned but 

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burned or burning, most of the houses having been set on fire that morn- 
ing. It encamped on the ground that night, and on the following day 
cut down several hundred acres of corn ; and about 4 o'clock in the eve- 
ning it took up its line of march for the Piqua towns, which were about 
twelve miles from Chillicothe. The army had not marched more than a 
mile when there came up a heavy rain with thunder and lightning, accom- 
panied by considerable wind. 

The marching army was without tents or any other shelter from the 
rain, which fell in torrents; the men were as wet as if they had been 
plunged into the river ; nor had they it in their power to keep their guns 
dry. It was nearly dark when the rain ceased and they were ordered to 
encamp in a hollow square with baggage and horses in the center, and as 
soon as fire could be made to dry their clothes. They were instructed 
to examine their guns and be sure they were in good order; they were 
to discharge them in the following manner : one company was to fire and 
time was given to reload, when a company in the most remote part of 
the camp was to discharge their artillery, and so on alternately until all 
the guns were fired and known to be in condition. 

On the morning of the 8th the army marched by sunrise; having a 
level, open way it arrived about 2 o'clock in the afternoon in sight of 
Piqua; the Indian road which the army followed from Chillicothe to 
Piqua crossed Mad River about a quarter of a mile below the town ; as 
soon as the advance guard crossed the river, it was attacked by the 
Indians, who had concealed themselves in the high weeds. The ground 
on which the attack was made, as well as the manner in which it was 
done, left no doubt but that a general engagement was intended by the 
Shawnees. Colonel Logan with about 400 men was ordered to file off 
to the right, and march up the river on the east side, and to continue to 
the upper end of the town so as to prevent the Indians from escaping in 
that direction, while the remainder of the men under Colonels Lynn, 
Floyd and Harrod were ordered to cross the river and encompass the 
town on the west, while General Clark and the troops under Colonel 
Slaughter, and such as were attached to the artillery, marched directly 
toward the town. 

The prairie in which the Indians were concealed in the weeds was 
only about 200 yards across to the timbered land, and the division of the 
army destined to encompass the town on the west side found it necessary 
to cross this prairie where the Indians commenced the attack, to avoid 
the fire of the concealed enemy. The Indians evinced great military skill 
and judgment, and to prevent the western division from executing the 
duties assigned them, they made a powerful effort to turn their left wing; 
this was discovered by Floyd and Lynn, and to prevent being outflanked 
they extended the line of battle west more than a mile from the town; 
the battle continued warmly contested on both sides until about 5 o'clock, 
when the Indians disappeared everywhere unperceived except a few in 
the town. The fieldpiece which had been entirely useless before was now 
brought to bear upon the houses, when a few shots dislodged the Indians 
which were in them. . 

An Unfortunate Affair 

A nephew of General Clark's who for many years had been a pris- 
oner among the Indians, and who attempted to come to the whites just 
before the close of the action, was supposed to be an Indian and received 

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a mortal wound ; but he lived several hours after he arrived among them. 
The morning after the battle a Frenchman who had been taken by the 
Indians on the Wabash a short time before, was found in the loft of 
one of the cabins. He gave the information that the Indians did not 
expect the Kentuckians to reach their town that day and it was their 
intention to have attacked them in the night in their camp with the toma- 
hawk and knife, and not to fire a gun. 

The Shawnees intended to have made an attack the night before, but 
they were prevented by the rain, and also the vigilance evinced by the 
Kentuckians in firing off their guns and reloading them, the reasons for 
which they comprehended when they heard the firing ; they knew the wet 
guns would become rusted. Another circumstance showed that the Indians 
were disappointed in the time of the Kentuckians arriving; they had not 
dined. When the men got into town they found a considerable quantity 
of provisions ready cooked, in large kettles and other vessels, almost 
untouched. The loss on each side was equal, about twenty killed. The 
French style of village extending along the margin of Mad River scat- 
tered the military forces; in many places the houses were twenty poles 
apart. In order to surround the town on the east as was his orders, Col- 
onel Logan marched fully three miles, while the Indians turned their 
whole force against those on the opposite side of the town. 

Colonel Logan's party never saw an Indian during the whole action, 
which was so severe that a short time before the close Simon Girty, a 
white man who had joined the Indians and who was made a chief among 
the Mingoes, drew off 300 of his men, declaring it was folly in the 
extreme to continue the action against men who acted so much like mad- 
men as General Clark's men, for they rushed in the extreme of danger 
with a seeming disregard of the consequences ; this opinion of Girty, and 
the withdrawal of 300 Mingoes, so disconcerted the rest that the whole 
body soon after dispersed; it is a maxim among the Indians never to 
encounter a fool or a mad man (in which they included a desperate man) ; 
they say with a man who has not sense enough to take a prudent care of 
his own life, the life of his antagonist is in much greater danger than 
with a prudent man. 

Destruction of Crops 

It was estimated that at the two Indian towns, Chillicothe and Piqua, 
more than 500 acres of corn were destroyed, as well as other species of 
eatable vegetables; in consequence of this, the Indians were obliged for 
the support of their women and children to employ their whole time in 
hunting, which gave quiet to Kentucky for considerable time. The day 
after the battle, August 9, was occupied in cutting down the growing 
corn, destroying the cabins and fort and collecting horses. On August 10, 
the army began its march homeward, and encamped that night in Chilli- 
cothe. On the 11th it cut a field of corn that had been left for the benefit 
of the men and horses on their return. At the mouth of the Licking the 
army dispersed, each individual making his best way home. Thus ended 
a campaign in which most of the men had no other provisions for twenty- 
five days than six quarts of Indian corn each, except the green corn and 
vegetables found at the Indian towns, and one gill of salt ; and yet not a 
single complaint was heard to escape the lips of a solitary individual. 

All appeared to be impressed with the belief that if this army should 
be defeated, that few would be able to escape, and that the Indians then 

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would fall on the defenseless women and children in Kentucky and destroy 
them. From this view of the subject every man was determined to con- 
quer or die. Abraham Thomas, of Miami County, was in this campaign 
against Piqua. His reminiscences published in 1839 in The Troy Times 
detail some interesting facts omitted in the preceding account. While 
it differs it is probably more accurate. In the summer of 1780, General 
Clark was getting up an expedition with the object of destroying some 
Indian villages on Mad River. One division, under Colonel Logan, was 
to approach the Ohio by way of Licking River. The other, to which I 
was attached, ascended the Ohio from the falls in boats with provisions 
and six-pound cannon. The plan of the expedition was for the two 
divisions to meet in the Indian country opposite the mouth of the Licking, 
and thence march in a body to the interior. 

In descending the Ohio, Daniel Boone and myself acted as spies on 
the Kentucky side of the river, and a large party on the Indian side was 
on the same duty; the latter were surprised by the Indians, and several 
were killed and wounded. It was then a toilsome task to get the boats 
up the river under constant expectation of attacks from the savages, and 
we were much rejoiced in making our destination. Before the boats 
crossed over to the Indian side, Boone and myself were taken into the 
foremost boat and landed above a small cut in the bank opposite the 
mouth of Licking. We were desired to spy through the woods for Indian 
signs. I was much younger than Boone and ran up the bank in great 
glee §nd cut into a beech tree with my tomahawk, which I verily believe 
was the first tree cut into by a white man on the present site of Cin- 

We were soon joined by other rangers, and hunted over the other 
bottom; the forest everywhere was thick set with heavy beech and scat- 
tering underbrush of spicewood and pawpaw. We started several deer, 
but seeing no signs of Indians we returned to the landing. By this time 
the men had landed and were busy in cutting timber for stockades and 
cabins; the division under Colonel Logan shortly crossed over from the 
mouth of Licking, and after erecting a stockade and cabin for .a small 
garrison and stores, the army started for Mad River. Our way lay over 
the uplands of an untracked, primitive forest through which with great 
labor we cut and bridged a road for the accommodation of our pack horses 
and cannon. My duty in the march was to spy some two miles in advance 
of the main body; our progress was slow, but the weather was pleasant, 
and the country abounded in game. We saw no Indians that I recollect 
until we approached the waters of Mad River. 

In the campaigns of those days none but the officers thought of 
tents; each man had to provide for his own comfort. Our meat was 
cooked upon sticks set up before the fire ; our beds were sought upon the 
ground, and he was the most fortunate man who could gather small 
branches, leaves and bark to shield him from the ground in moist places. 
After the lapse of so many years it is difficult to recollect the details of 
so many dates, so as to make the precise time of duration of our move- 
ments, but in gaining the open country of Mad River we came in sight 
of the Indian villages. We had been kept all the night before on the 
march and pushed rapidly toward the points of attack ; we surprised 300 
Indian warriors gathered in the town with the view of surprising and 
attacking us the next morning. At this place a stockade fort had been 

Vol. 1—20 

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reared near the village, on the side we were approaching it, but the Indians 
feared to enter it, and took post in their houses. 

The village was situated on a low prairie bottom of Mad River 
between the second bank and a bushy swamp piece of ground on the 
margin of the river. It could be approached only from three points: 
the one our troops occupied, and from up and down the river. General 
Clark detached two divisions to secure the last named points, from which 
he extended his line to cover the first. By this arrangement the whole 
body of Indians would have been surrounded and captured, but Colonel 
Logan, who had charge of the lower division, became entangled in the 
swamp and did not reach his assigned position before the attack com- 
menced. The party I had joined was about entering the town with great 
impetuosity, when General Clark sent orders for us to stop as the Indians 
were making port holes in their cabins and we should be in great danger, 
but added that he would soon make port holes for us both; on that he 
brought his six-pounder to bear on the village, and a discharge of grape 
shot scattered the materials of their frail dwellings in every direction. 

The Indians poured out of their cabins in great consternation while 
our party, and those on the bank, rushed into the village, took possession 
of all the squaws and pappooses and killed a great many warriors, but 
most of them at the lower part of the bottom. In this skirmish a nephew 
of General Clark who had some time before run away from the Monon- 
gahela settlements and joined the Indians, was severely wounded ; he was 
a great reprobate, and was said to have led the Indians in the morning's 
attack. Before he expired, he asked forgiveness of his uncle and country- 
men. During the day the village was burned and the growing corn cut 
down, and the next morning we took up the line of march for the Ohio. 
This was a bloodless victory to our expedition, and the return march was 
attended by no unpleasant occurrences save a great scarcity of provision. 
On reaching the fort on the Ohio, a party of us immediately crossed the 
river for our homes, for which we felt an extreme anxiety. 

We depended chiefly on our rifles for sustenance, but game not being 
within reach without giving to it more time than our anxiety and rapid 
progress permitted, we tried every expedient to hasten our journey, even 
to boiling green plums and nettles. These at first, under sharp appetites, 
were quite palatable, but they soon became bitter and offensive. At 
last, in traversing the head waters of Licking, we espied several buffaloes 
directly in our track; we killed one, which supplied us bountifully with 
meat until we reached our homes. (While the Thomas account says the 
battle of Piqua Village was without bloodshed, the Baradford notes place 
the loss at twenty on either side — Kentuckians and Shawnees.) Mention 
has elsewhere been made of the advanced conditions of agriculture among 
the Shawnees along Mad River, but destruction is one of the elements of 
warfare. While it has been chronicled in the annals of the Great Miami 
that John Paul produceed corn on Honey Creek in 1792, white men 
destroyed corn twelve years earlier along Mad River. 

It has been detailed that the early settlement was in Bethel Township, 
and it has been the privilege of many Clark County citizens to visit the 
200-acre farm which is recognized as the site of the great conflict, with a 
sign posted at the corner: United States Military Reservation, and it 
has been christened Fort Tecumseh. While the writer had known the 
story of Tecumseh, it was an unexpected privilege to visit the place of 
his birth and to walk in the footsteps of Gen. George Rogers Clark, the 

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wilderness patriot of the Revolutionary period — the Washington of the 
West It is hill slopes and valleys, and an early writer thus describes it: 
The sight was beautiful to the eye ; the river swept by in graceful bend ; 
the rocky bluffs stood up like battlements; the rolling hills were crowned 
with lofty forest trees; the prairies wore a summer robe of luxurious 
grasses and beauteous flowers ; the main part of Piqua Village was on a 
plain above the stream ; to the south extended broad prairies ; bold cliffs 
arose on the northeast, and level timber lands lay to the west and north- 
west ; across Mad River was a prairie tract of varying breadth, reaching 
back to the rising ground, and the twentieth century visitor will appre- 
ciate the foregoing bit of topography. 

The Kentuckians were used to attacks from the Shawnees in Ohio, 
and after their pilgrimage to the Mad River country when they subdued 
the Indians, they enjoyed a time of freedom. They were no longer afraid 
their women and children would be taken into captivity. The Indian 
meaning of the word Piqua — a man formed out of ashes — was no longer 
a terror to them because Piqua as well as Chillicothe had been reduced 
to ashes. The Piqua on the Great Miami was soon peopled by the whites 
and the name lost its significance. The story of the proposed Clark- 
Tecumseh monument belongs to the Clark County Historical Society 
Chapter, but in time this shrine of patriotism will be designated in a way 
that the chance visitor will learn the story. 

While Abraham Thomas later lived in Miami County the tragedy 
connected with the attempt of settlement by the Paul family is the only 
record of attempted citizenship in Clark County by a soldier who came 
to Mad River in General Clark's army. Simon Girty was at Piqua Vil- 
lage but lined up with the Shawnees. and there is mention of the activi- 
ties of General Simon Kenton in Clark County. Since John Paul, Sr., 
was killed by the Indians, and he was in the Squirrel Hunter regiment 
of Kentuckians who visited Mad River with General Clark, his name 
should head the list of Revolutionary patriots buried in Clark County. 
Burial was given him by his son and daughter who escaped on the day 
of the Paul family massacre. (See Chapter II, The Adam of Clark 
County: John Paul.) The story of the death and burial of General 
Kenton is also elsewhere told, but he is not buried in Clark County. 

The 200-acre farm now occupied as a United States Military Reserva- 
tion and designated as Fort Tecumseh, was leased by W. W. Keifer, 
April 1, 1921, to the state of Ohio as a training place for three machine 
gun squads of the Ohio National Guard located in Springfield. The 
equipment is stored at Fort Tecumseh and used for rifle practice, and the 
maneuvers among the hills sacred to the memory of Gen. George Rogers 
Clark are enjoyed by the members of the O. N. G. in Springfield. The 
rifle pits supposed to have been used by General Clark while maneuvering 
against the Indians are still in evidence. They are on the highest point 
of land east from the house, and are twenty-four in number. A few 
years ago Mr. Keifer caused two of the pits to be cleaned in a search for 
relics, but he obtained nothing of consequence. 

A survey of Tecumseh Hill indicates that the Indians established their 
village a little above these rifle pits. There are hollowed out stones that 
were used for mortars in grinding corn, and when the Clark-Tecumseh 
monument becomes a reality Mr. Keifer will cause those stones to be 
removed from the woods to the knoll dedicated for monument purposes. 
These stones have been bursted by the action of the elements, but they 

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may be placed together again, thus forming perfect caldrons. While 
they did not heat the mortars, some of the stones were evidently used for 
cooking. Older citizens of Clark County remember Fort Tecumseh as 
the Daniel Hartzler farm. He was a wealthy farmer who was murdered 
in the house now occupied by the O. N. G., by arrangement with Mr. 
Keifer. While part of the farm is cleared, much of it seems never to 
have been turned by the plow. While there were mills and distilleries, 
and traditions early and late cluster about those hills and dales, the State 
of Ohio farms the land after the fashion of Abraham. Isaac and Jacob. 
It is excellent pasture land although dedicated to military maneuvers, and 
it is the center of historic interest in Clark County. 

In 1880 — Clark County Centennial 

When the love o'f home and country is firmly established in the hearts 
of the youth of America, it is on a sure foundation. Pageants and anni- 
versaries centering about civic and national traditions are educators ; they 
are community builders. The first American centennial celebrated in this 
country was the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1876— 
the centennial staged in Philadelphia — and it was a gala day in Spring- 
field. The town was profusely decorated with American flags, bells were 
rung and cannons were fired; the banners and pendants everywhere 
betokened patriotic sentiment in the hearts of the citizens. 

Ulysses Simpson Grant was United States president. At his suggestion 
the people assembled in churches for early morning worship, Springfield 
people meeting at 8:30 in Union prayer meetings in the Methodist and 
Presbyterian churches. There was a big industrial procession in the streets 
later in the day. It was a complete representation of the triumphs of a 
century; everything was in retrospect. All the arts were represented in 
the street parade ; it was educational and patriotic. The city government, 
the secret societies, the choral unions and the citizens forming a line sev- 
eral miles in length, and when the procession halted the Rev. H. H. Moore 
read the Declaration of Independence — perhaps the last time it has been 
read in public in Springfield — and the oration by Thomas F. McGrew 
whetted up the interest in such anniversaries, and four years later Clark 
County staged a centennial celebration at the battlefield — Fort Tecumseh. 

While common usage has eliminated the final "e" in the name of Clark 
County, there is little doubt that the Ohio Assembly meant to honor Gen. 
George Rogers Clark on Christmas day in 18J7, when formal recognition 
was given the new county. The Revolutionary sentiment still prevailed 
when on February 12, 1820, the patriotic Ohio governing body recog- 
nized the military group of fifteen counties lying northwest from Clark — 
Allen, Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Henry, Marion, Mercer, Paulding, 
Putnam, Sandusky, Seneca, Union, Van Wert, Williams and Wood, was 
outlined and all were named for Revolutionary soldiers — the spirit caught 
from that Christmas day christening of Clark County three years earlier. 
They all had their beginning in a splendid setting of patriotism, and their 
happy denouement has been in a burst of glory. 

In Williams County the warrants issued from the office of the auditor 
bear the picture: "The Capture of Major Andre," a copy of the painting 
by A. B. Durand, showing David Williams, John Paulding and Isaac 
Van Wert dealing with the spy sent out by Benedict Arnold, three of the 
military group of counties being named for those captors — all Revolu- 

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tionary patriots. The picture of General Clark has been widely published, 
although not as yet commercialized on county warrants. The word cen- 
tennial had not come into general usage until 1876, when many Clark 
County citizens went to Philadelphia. Four years later it was used in 
connection with another anniversary in Clark County. The word pageant 
had not beeen used extensively in 1901, when Springfield celebrated its 
centennial, nor a year later when the centennial of Statehood was being 
celebrated in Ohio. Many celebrations in 1902, although Admission Day 
was in the following February. 

The 1880 Clark County Centennial celebration at Fort Tecumseh 
attracted 20,000 people, so many going out from Springfield that the rail- 
road company constructed a temporary bridge across Mad River. The 
twentieth century youngster who thinks in terms of trolley cars and elec- 
tricity will think again and understand that more than forty years have 
cycled by since the Clark County centennial— the anniversary of the over- 
throw of the Shawnee Confederacy by General Clark. There was a sham 
battle staged, and they used fence rails on end in building the stockade ; 
there were wigwams everywhere, and Mad River was the Shawnee strong- 
hold again. The Springfield militia represented General Clark's army, 
and there were plenty of volunteers for the part of the romance race — 
never any trouble to secure Indians for pageantry. Well known citizens 
painted themselves like warriors, and it was a great sham battle. When 
it was all over, all wanted to catch the same train back to Springfield. 

While it seemed that the streams were fed from unfailing springs, 
when the crowd assembled there was a shortage of the water supply, so 
many came on horseback and they were sent to Mad River for water. 
The horse-drawn vehicles were scattered all about (they did not say 
"parked" that long ago), and the visitors were not limited to Clark 
County. While there was continuous train service, hundreds walked to 
the battlefield. All who had been there a century earlier had walked a 
much greater distance. It is related that a bare-footed Negro got into a 
"bumble bee's" nest, and "hot-footed" it to safety. Because August 8, 
1880, was Sunday the centennial program was enacted the following Mon- 
day, and a Miami County visitor present — David Jones, of West Milton — 
who wrote the Annals of Newberry pertaining to Carolina history, jotted 
down the following lines: 

"Last August 8, one hundred years ago, 
Near where Mad River's rapid waters flow, 
An Indian Village in Clark County stood 
Upon a hill surrounded by a wood ; 
A splendid scene of upland, glade and glen, 
The home of forest women— children, men; 
That August morn these forest people rose 
As was their wont, from undisturbed repose, 
But ere had passed that August morning fair 
A thousand guns resounded on the air — 
George Rogers Clark, a warrior of renown, 
Had with a thousand men assailed the town ; 
To its defense the savage warriors flew, 
And fierce and awful soon the battle grew." 

While the stanzas were published in Miami County at the time of the 
anniversary, the clipping had become misplaced and the writer had gone 

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the way of the world. The son, Davis W. Jones, who remembered the 
foregoing lines, could not recall the finish, and supplied the following: 

"With maddening shouts the slumbering air was stirred, 
And musket's roar and rifle's crack were heard ; 
But led by one whose prowess ne'er had failed 
The steady courage of the whites prevailed; 
In wild confusion soon the Red Men fled 
And left the forest — still unknown the dead." 

Newspaper Summary 

A copy of the Springfield Republic, Tuesday, August 10, 1880, carries 
a complete story of the Clark County centennial program, estimating the 
crowd at from 20,000 to 25,000, mentioning music, addresses, sham battle, 
dinner, and burning of the Shawnee village of Piqua. Everything was 
quiet, orderly and pleasant, and Major W. J. White, Captain of the 
Memorial Association, was chairman of the day and introduced the 
speakers. In his prayer, the chaplain, Rev. J. T. Harris, asked God's 
blessing upon the exercises and those taking part in them. One hundred 
years earlier the savage hordes had been overcome by men of strong arms 
and courageous hearts, and the land had been given over to freedom and 

The address of welcome was given by Gen. J. Warren Keifer, who was 
born near the battlefield and who was familiar with every detail that had 
been published about it, the response being by Governor Charles Foster, 
who said it was the same old story — Clark the best county and Springfield 
the best city — and he congratulated the county assembled on its splendid 
civilization, its agricultural and manufacturing interests. Capt. D. C. 
Balentine reported many letters from friends unavoidably detained, some 
of them reviewing the history of Boston which once flourished in that 
vicinity. The skull of Black Hoof, who was the friend of Tecumseh, was 
shown by a Wapokeneta citizen. The principal thoroughfare of that 
town is Blackhoof. 

While one historian characterizes the Piqua Village battle as a "blood- 
less" victory, it was the consensus of opinion at the anniversary that Gen- 
eral Clark lost about twenty men and that the Shawnees lost the same 
number. The speakers quoted Henry Howe and said that he had drawn 
from Drake's Memoirs of Tecumseh for much information. A folder 
sent out broadcast at the time of the anniversary read : "One hundred 
years ago the now fertile farms, productive valleys, lofty ledges, and 
sparkling springs of Clark County were the homes, the haunts and the 
hunting grounds of the Shawnees," and one comment reads: "This is 
true, and may I be allowed to add that what is now the great state of 
Ohio was then to all intents and purposes a howling wilderness. One 
hundred years ago there was not in this vast extent of territory bounded 
on the north by the Great Lakes, on the east and south by the Ohio, and 
on the west by the Mississippi, a single permanent American settlement. 

"Beyond the Ohio looking north and west was everywhere an Indian 
country, and at that time all the tribes but one throughout the whole 
region were openly at war with the United States. That one was the 
Delawares, and the next year they took up the hatchet in favor of the 
British. The settlements west of the Alleghenies and those dotting the 

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wilds of Kentucky were suffering the horrors of the Western Border 
War of the American Revolution, a war characterized by rapacity and 
blood-tfiirstiness. There had been two expeditions against these warring 
Indians, one from Fort Pitt (Pittsburg) in 1778, and the other from 
Kentucky in 1779, led by Col. John Bowman against Chillicothe, a Shaw- 
nee town in Greene County, and then in 1780 came the Clark campaign 
into the same territory — the Mad River country^— and the anniversary 
speakers all used the expression : "One hundred years ago." 

The Shawnees and Mingoes were described as "horrible hell-hounds 
of savage war," and they murdered indiscriminately — the young and the 
old, helpless women and children, every age and either sex — and to pre- 
vent continual depredations of this character upon the inhabitants of 
Kentucky, for as yet no white people had located in what is now Clark 
County, the expedition was organized by General Clark, who was per- 
sonally known and trusted by General Washington. While the immunity 
from the Indians in Kentucky was of short duration, whites did not begin 
settling along Mad River for several years. However, there was never 
again a battle waged in Clark County. Simon Girty was the Mingo 
leader, although he was not an Indian. He was born on an island in the 
Susquehanna and he was a renegade from the beginning and was always 
a conspicuous character where there were Indian difficulties, although it 
is said that he once saved the life of Simon Kenton. Girty was never a 
citizen of Clark County — he was just a visitor on Mad River. 

There were letters of regret from President Rutherford B. Hayes, 
Senator Allen H. Thurman, Senator George H. Pendleton, and many 
others, one letter reading : "The battle of Piqua was only the commence- 
ment of a long line of conflicts with the savages in various parts of the 
Great Northwest Territory ; it awakened the echoes in other places." But 
that is departure from Clark County history. It is known that David 
Lowry, who located on Mad River in 1796, came directly from Cincinnati 
(Fort Washington), where the previous year he had helped pack pro- 
visions for the U. S. army in preparation for the expedition under Gen. 
Anthony Wayne directed against the Indians in western Ohio, his march 
being from Cincinnati to Greenville. When the treaty was effected David 
Lowry lost no time in coming to Mad River. While the Indians ceded 
much valuable territory in Ohio, Indiana and all of Michigan to the U. S. 
Government, Tecumseh, who was then a fearless warrior twenty-seven 
years old, did not approve of the treaty and he began his active campaign 
of organization among the Indians, pursuing the same tactics still resorted 
to by great religious or political leaders. 

No Definite Records 

It seems that the Soldiers' Memorial Committee in charge of arrange- 
ments connected with the centennial program made an effort to gain exact 
information from the War Department, but the records had nothing con- 
cerning the engagement. It was rumored that an official report was on 
file in Virginia, but Thomas F. McGrew was unable to locate it. It is 
known that as a military officer General Clark was educated according 
to the standards of the time — that he had some experience in war and a 
reputation as an Indian fighter. His "backwoodsmen" army was of a 
type that has passed from earth, but they had qualities of personal endur- 
ance and patriotism. The Shawnees were the most war-like tribes, and 

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they were led by Indians of the highest type of strategic prowess. The 
battle of Piqua Village convinced the Indians that separate and inde- 
pendent tribes could not hold out against the advance of civilization. The 
Shawnees and Mingoes combined had lost the stronghold on Mad River, 
and from that time forward the Indians realized the need of foreign aid 
and confederation. 

When the day was ended in commemoration of the Piqua Village 
engagement that had cost the Shawnees their wigwams and given to the 
United States much valuable territory, in behalf of the Memorial Associ- 
ation Major White thanked all who had contributed to the success of 
the event, and the Rev. W. B. DePoy of Springfield spoke the bene- 
diction. While good people were assembled the "light-fingered gentry" 
were also in attendance, and reports say that thieves and pickpockets 
reaped a harvest. The bridge across Mad. River to the trains, which were 
operated until 8 o'clock in the evening, was the scene of many robberies. 
There was such confusion in boarding the cars that women had their hats 
torn from their heads, and babies were handed into the cars through the 
windows. Cars were crowded and people "hung on by the little finger 
and one toe" to the platform in coming back to town. While fifteen rob- 
beries were reported and some arrests were made, it was unknown how 
much loot was taken by the thieves operating on the train. 

While a century milestone had been erected at Philadelphia in the 
shape of a centennial exposition, not many such events had been heralded 
to the world before the Clark County Memorial Association planned this 
anniversary program — the commemoration of the first 100 years since the 
overthrow of the Shawnee Confederacy — the exit of the Shawnee and 
the inevitable advance of civilization. While Clark County had no soldiers 
in the Revolution — because there was no Clark County — a number of 
Revolutionary soldiers found their final rest on the bosom of Clark 
County in later years, and there is a shrine in Ferncliff Cemetery sacred 
to them. 

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While Gen. George Rogers Clark, the "Washington of the West," 
saved the day in what is now Clark County in the Revolutionary period, 
his body was not consigned to earth in this community. He lies buried 
at Clarksville, Indiana. 

In a summary of the past, Gen. J. Warren Keif er said : "There came 
to what is now Clark County, as to other parts of the West, some Revo- 
lutionary soldiers, bringing with them their patriotism and generally their 
poverty. Their love of liberty was put into practice and by example 
these veteran soldiers did much to build up peaceful communities. In 
1912, Lagonda Chapter D. A. R. erected a tablet in Ferncliff Cemetery 
in memory of the men buried in Clark County who fought in the Revo- 
lution, and the names Lieut. John Bancroft, William Mclntire, Samuel 
Lippincott, Sr., Cornelius Toland, Lieut. Jesse Christy, Elijah Beardsley, 
Merryfield Vicory, Capt. Richard Bacon, Stephen Harriman, Lieut. Henry 
Dawson, John Craig, George Lane, Jacob Ellsworth, Frederick Brown, 

{ames Kelly, Isaac Davisson, Benjamin Bridge, John Kellar, George 
IcCleace^, Jacob Ebersole Farnum, James Galloway and Melyn Baker are 
inscribed upon it. General Keifer adds the names of William Baird, 
Andrew Pinneo, Abraham Rust and William Holmes as having been 
local citizens. 

While these wilderness patriots had their rendezvous with death in 
different communities and they lie buried in different cemeteries, the 
Daughters of the American Revolution were fulfilling their filial obliga- 
tion when they collated the names. The enduring monument — a shrine 
for all time — is located on a southern hillslope in a secluded spot. Not 
a drum was heard nor a funeral note, and while all that was mortal had 
long ago moldered back to earth in other cemeteries, some of them on 
Columbia Street and in Greenmont, and in sequestered vales among Clark 
County hills, it was a gracious thing that Lagonda Chapter D. A. R. 
should muster them all "in one red burial blent," where posterity hiay 
receive inspiration from this silent testimonial to the ages, gallantry in 
the wilderness — the men who helped to make the nation. 

It is known that some who were with Gen. Anthony Wayne (Mad 
Anthony) in his campaign to the Maumee, who were in the Battle of 
Fallen Timbers and at the Treaty of Greenville and in other Indian expe- 
ditions, settled and died in Clark County. In territorial days, and long 
after Ohio was admitted as a state, it was a requirement that all able- 
bodied men should muster at least once a year, thus becoming familiar 
with firearms and military discipline. In 1792, quite early in the history 
of the republic, the United States Congress established militias in the 
different states. 

Muster Day In Springfield 

All able-bodied white men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five 
were required to report for service. Later the word white was stricken 
out and all male citizens were required to report for military instructions. 
The system was continued until after the Mexican war, and every county 


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was thus the home of a regiment. The boy must put on a military cap 
and submit to discipline; the incorrigible submitted the same as the 
patriotic — it was a universal requirement. When the first plat of Spring- 
field was made in 1801 it showed the military or muster square that is 
now occupied by the court house, a soldiers' monument and the county 
buildings. It was so planned that a palisade constructed there would 
afford protection for all the citizens. While the annual muster was a 
state requirement, very little equipment was furnished and Clark County 
men and boys improvised arms for the occasion. They sometimes used 
cornstalks when learning the manual of arms, and the poems "The Charge 
of the Light Brigade/' and "Sheridan's Ride" did much to keep alive 
the military spirit. Since the Civil war the Ohio National Guard has 
supplanted Muster day ceremonies. 

While for a time musters were gala days, the training in manual with- 
out the use of firearms meant little to the men, and finally they were dis- 
continued and later abolished by law. Some distinguished Springfield 
citizens of that period — Samson Mason and Charles Anthony — ranked as 
brigadier generals in muster ceremonies, and sons of these men later 
served in the United States army in war time. The annals of the young 
Republic, said General Keifer, are surpassingly bloody. From Lexington 
to Appomatox (1775-1865) almost one year out of five, not enumerating 
the constant Indian wars, was a year of war. The worthy pioneers acted 
constantly in the capacity of soldiers. They were on guard, whether in 
field, at home or -at church — they were always alert against attacks by the 
Indians. It is known that when the citizens of Moorefield wanted better 
protection against the Indians they contributed to a fund and sent Andrew 
McBeth and Jeremiah Reese with the McBeth four-horse team to Cin- 
cinnati for arms and ammunition ; that long ago the maxim "Trust in the 
Lord and keep your powder dry," prevailed in Clark County. 

While in times of peace the settlers did not need firearms, it was 
known that the Indians had respect for ammunition. Tecumseh had 
grown into manhood and he was commissioned a brigadier general in 
the Second war with England — the War of 1812, which he incited. He 
was the only commander who had power to control his fighters. Tecumseh 
was the only commander in charge of American forces who was able to 
compel his soldiers to forego the use of stimulants. While he could 
neither read nor write, he did not allow the use of whisky when danger 
was in prospect. He was a leader in the British army trying to regain 
lost territory. 

The Northwest Territory was the principal theater of the War of 
1812, and while Tecumseh hailed from Clark County he did not represent 
local sentiment. The Ohio Gazetteer of 1841, one o{ the earliest records 
on the subject, said : "In every vicissitude of this contest the conduct of 
Ohio was eminently patriotic and honorable. When the battle necessities 
of the national government compelled Congress to resort to a direct tax, 
Ohio for successive years cheerfully assumed and promptly paid her 
quota out of her state treasury; her sons volunteered with alacrity their 
service in the field; no troops more patiently endured hardships or per- 
formed better service. Hardly a battle was fought in the Northwest in 
which some of these brave citizen soldiers did not seal their devotion to 
their country with their life blood." 

The Dayton and Bellefontaine road running by New Carlisle that 
was opened in 1810, really connected Fort Washington (Cincinnati) and 

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Fort Meigs (Toledo), and it was much traveled in prosecuting this war. 
It is a military road established by the United States Government, and 
General Hull with an army of 1,300 Kentuckians camped at New Carlisle 
while en route from Cincinnati to Toledo. It was a wilderness thorough- 
fare crossed by a "bush-whacking" army, and in 1813 when Gen. William 
Henry Harrison at Fort Meigs was calling for volunteers, as many as 
500 men enlisted from Clark County. The first to offer his services was 
James Shipman, a Springfield tailor. It takes nine tailors to make a 
man, but Shipman went alone. When others were ready their courage 
failed, and on the way to the rendezvous at Uf bana Shipman met Thomas 
McCartney at the half-way point, and joining Captain McCord's cavalry 
at Urbana, they went to Fort Meigs together. While some of the Clark 
County contingent enlisted at Urbana — then all in Champaign County — 
other Springfield soldiers went to Troy and Piqua for their assignments 
in the service. A number of these soldiers returned and spent the 
remainder of their lives in the community. 

In the course of the War of 1812 many United States troops passed 
through Clark County, Ball's Squadron among them, and there were Brit- 
ish and Indians in the community, although they found little local sym- 
pathy. Tecumseh, who was known as The Flying Panther — The Meteor, 
because of his war activities, had a confederate in his brother, The Prophet, 
who attracted some attention to himself because of his inclination to fore- 
cast events. He was known as Elkswatawa, or Tenskwatawa, and while 
some of the books say he was a half brother to Tecumseh, the tradition 
prevails in Springfield that triplets were born, that one died, and that 
Tecumseh and The Prophet completed the trio. 

No one equalled Tecumseh in war-time strategy. Jealousy among the 
Indians because of his leadership weakened their forces, and while he 
played an important part in the engagement at Fort Meigs beside inciting 
the Indians everywhere to action, on October 5, 1813, Tecumsesh met 
his death at the battle of the Thames. 

The report is current that the man who shot Tecumseh was Richard 
M. Johnson, later associated with the administration of Martin Van 
Buren as vice president of the United States. An Indian who, witnessed 
the affair said: "Tecumseh fell dead and they all ran," and with their 
invincible leader removed there was no further trouble with the Indians. 
Thus heroically passed the majestic soul of Tecumseh. The final hopes 
of the Red Men were interred with his bones. Tecumseh gave his life 
for the rights of his race; his requiem was the clash of arms and the 
din of battle. It is said that his grief-stricken warriors stealthily removed 
his body during the night as it lay under the fitful light of the victor's 
campfires, and one biographer says of Tecumseh: "He was the finest 
flower of the American aboriginal race." Since the Battle of the Thames 
was across the Canadian border, the bones of Tecumseh are not guarded 
by the American flag. He died an officer in the British army. 

The Toledo war in 1835 had to do with the Ohio-Michigan boundary 
difficulty, both states assembling their troops on the boundary, but the 
records are silent about Clark County representation. Before the opening 
of hostilities peace commissioners arrived from both states, and there 
was no bloodshed. There were concessions from both sides, and while 
Ohio gained the portage at Toledo, it relinquished all claim to the mineral 
counties in Northern Michigan. What Ohio wanted was the frontage on 
Lake Michigan, and in 1836 Congress decided in its favor. Otherwise 

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Toledo would be in Michigan. The Fulton and Harris boundaries were 
the questions in dispute, and a row of townships across the northern 
part of Ohio were once in Michigan. Stone markers have been placed 
at the southern line of the disputed territory — on one side the word Ohio, 
and on the other Michigan. Travelers appreciate them. They are two 
miles apart from Toledo west to the Indiana line, and thus Lucas, Fulton 
and Williams counties are separated from Michigan counties although 
once part of them. It was Governor Willis of Ohio who shook hands 
with Governor Ferris of Michigan when they had marked the boundary. 
There is some mention of a Reservoir war in Mercer which involved 
some other Ohio counties. 

The Mexican War 

Ask the average Clark County citizen about the Mexican war; when 
it began and when it ended, and he will say it has been continuous, think- 
ing of the border warfare going on there for several years. However, 
in the '40s, the United States was involved in a war with Mexico, which 
General Keifer characterizes as a war in which to acquire territory to 
devote to slavery. There were but few volunteer soldiers, but Capt. 
Simon H. Drum, who was a graduate of West Point Military Academy, 
receiving his appointment from Springfield, was killed while a member 
of the Fourth Artillery United States Army, September 13, 1847, in the 
final assault and capture of the City of Mexico. Mention is elsewhere 
made of a visit from Gen. Winfield Scott to the family of Captain Drum 
in Springfield. Captain Drum's body lies buried in Ferncliff. The first 
railroad connecting Springfield with Cincinnati had just been completed 
in 1846, when the Mexican soldiers were carried that far on their jour- 
ney. Mexico lies south of the Rio Grande, and Texas was the dis- 
puted territory. Since it was slave territory, it strengthened the South 
when the United States was again at war. 

In 1844, when Chancey Fall of Moorefield was called a whig, he was 
also thought to be an abolitionist. It required as much moral courage 
then to be an abolitionist as it does now to be a prohibitionist. Mr. Fall 
harbored runaway slaves, and because his neighbors were intolerant, he 
was tarred and feathered ; they rode him on a rail for it It is said that 
a Springfield merchant one time took advantage of an opportunity. A 
Madison County settler gave to him the power of attorney to free some 
slaves he had left in Delaware; the merchant was not so conscientious 
and he sold them, using the money to increase his stock of merchandise. 
Slavery was the question dividing the country, and the Rescue Case of 
1857, illustrates it. 

Rescue Case of 1857 

Some years ago Dr. B. F. Prince, a trustee of the Ohio State 
Archaeological and Historical Society, president of the Clark County 
Historical Society, and professor of History and Political Science in 
Wittenberg College, wrote the history of the Rescue Case of 1857, which, 
was published in pamphlet form and deals with the fugitive slave ques- 
tion, saying : "The years between 1830 and 1860 brought great strain to 
the people of the United States; the long border line between the slave 
and free states, stretching from the Atlantic on the east to a great dis- 
tance beyond the Mississippi River, was crossed by a great many bonds- 

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men seeking liberty for themselves and for their families. Lines of com- 
munication between points were established in all directions in the free 
states, where were located friends of the runaway slaves, and when once 
the slave had reached a station on the underground railroad, he was 
secretly conducted from station to station until he found some place of 
fancied security. 

"The slaves most timid and fearful of being carried back by their 
pursuing masters, did not stop in their flight until they had crossed into 
Canada, where they were free from any danger of recapture. ,, The 
refugees had a chant: 

"I'm on my way to Canada, that cold and dreary land — 
The dire effects of slavery, I can no longer stand, 
I served my master all my days, without a dime's reward — 
But now I'm forced to run away, to flee the lash abhorred," 

there being several stanzas, the last one beginning: "I'm landed safe 
in Canada, both soul and body free," and there is no gainsaying the fact 
that the songs the people sing influence them in their methods. 

In communities settled by Quakers there were many fugitive slaves 
in hiding through the day, who were carried along under cover of dark- 
ness to the next underground station, and the Clark County Quakers in 
the vicinity of Selma know about John Cooper whom they sheltered. 
He had a dream that he was being pursued, and that day a posse was 
after him; they were Kentucky planters and among them was Cooper's 
master, but he reached Canada in safety. When the war was over he 
came back to South Charleston, and lived with his family in the same 
cabin he had left so hastily. At another time a slave was captured, but 
the enraged populace arose en masse and shots were exchanged, and 
those engaged in the melee were brought to trial in Asbury Houston's 
court. The room was packed and the slave escaped, the incident remem- 
bered as the riot in South Charleston. 

It is related that once when Ross Mitchell was employed as book- 
keeper in a distillery along Mad River, some refugees were in hiding 
when the* planters arrived in search for them. It was only a thin board 
wall that separated them from their pursuers, and as the owners inquired 
about their property, the slaves stood in fear and trembling, their eyes 
shining through the cracks when Mitchell, recognizing the situation, 
picked up a newspaper and stood glancing over it, holding it so the 
Kentuckians could not see the frightened slaves, and under the cover 
of darkness they went on again toward Canada, that cold and dreary land, 
but anywhere was better to them than bondage. 

It seems that Champaign, Clark and Greene counties are alike con- 
cerned with the Rescue Case of 1857, when Addison White, a Kentucky 
fugitive, was employed by Udney H. Hyde of Mechanicsburg. In 1856 
he had escaped from his master. While the compromise of 1850 was 
intended as a check to the fugitive slaves, its harsh conditions intensified 
the friends of the renegades engaged in assisting them to freedom. The 
compromise provided for officers of the law following slaves to call upon 
citizens for assistance in apprehending them, those refusing being liable 
to arrest, and as a result of this measure more slaves escaped to freedom 
in the decade between 1850 and 1860 than had escaped in all the years 
of previous history. In was in 1856 that Addison White fled from 
servitude in Kentucky. 

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White was a man of great physical strength ; he could have disposed 
of any number of officers pursuing him in single combat. He was over 
six feet high, and weighed more than 200 pounds ; he was muscular and 
disposed to defend himself. Mr. Hyde, who employed White, was con- 
nected with the underground railroad, and at the time White came along 
he had assisted more than 500 slaves en route to freedom, directing, 
feeding and transporting them. While living in Mechanicsburg, Hyde 
was under suspicion, and in the spring of 1857. he removed fronl the 
village to a farm. White's wife was a free woman still living in Ken- 
tucky, and his place of hiding became known through letters passing 
between them, mailed at the postoffice in Springfield. He wished his 
wife to join him at the Hyde farm in Champaign County. 

William K. Boggs, Springfield postmaster, discovered these communi- 
cations, and gave the information to the United States marshal at Cin- 
cinnati. It was discovered that Charles Taylor of Mechanicsburg wrote 
the letters for White, and when they were intercepted the officers had a 
clew to the whereabouts of the slave. A man named Edward Lindsay 
sought employment at the Hyde farm, and while he had little to say he 
was an observing person; when he disappeared the officers came, and 
thus it developed that he was a spy. On May 21. 1857. B. P. Churchill 
and John C. Elliott, deputy United States marshals, accompanied by 
Capt. John Poffenbarger, also a deputy for Champaign County, and 
accompanied by five Kentuckians arrived before sunrise at the Hyde 
home in search of White. 

The first to note the approach of the officers was the fugitive him- 
self, and White determined not to surrender without a struggle. The 
Hyde family lived in a double log house with a loft, the opening to it 
large enough to admit one man at a time, and here White secreted him- 
self. He was an adept in the use of firearms, and was armed with a 
revolver. When the officers discovered the loose boards of the loft which 
made the floor, one of them fired through a crack while Elliott mounted 
the ladder with a double-barrel shot gun in readiness. When he put his 
head through the aperture, the fugitive fired at him striking the gun bar- 
rel, the ball glancing and marking his cheek and nipping his ear. At the 
time Mr. Hyde was in bed suffering from a broken ankle, but he soon 
assumed responsibility, sending a daughter for assistance. 

While one of the sons in the Hyde family had been seized, and was 
being held by the intruders the daughter soon aroused another son who 
lived near and he communicated with friends in Mechanicsburg. He 
secured a horse from a neighbor's barn, and in a short time a crowd was 
hurrying toward the Hyde farm. When the young girl was leaving to 
call her brother, the officers of the law called to her, threatening to 
shackle her, but she was fleet of foot and won in the race with one of 
them. The Mechanicsburg relief was armed with all kinds of weapons 
— guns, pistols, pitchforks and clubs — all of them in sympathy with the 
anti-slavery sentiment. When they assembled in the Hyde dooryard, 
the officers were nonplussed, until a citizen drew forth his watch and 
gave them five minutes in which to quit the homestead. They withdrew 
without securing the fugitive, and the friends of White conducted him 
to a place of safety. He was removed from place to place, and guarded 
with the utmost secrecy. 

Mr. Hyde realized that charges would be filed against him for har- 
boring a runaway slave, and for several months he secreted himself in 

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Ohio and Indiana, notwithstanding the pain he suffered. When he ven- 
tured back, spies gave notice of his return ; the authorities were anxious 
to arrest such a noted violater of the laws, but he eluded them again. 
On May 27, when Churchill and Elliott with a posse appeared again, 
Charles and Edward Taylor, Hiram Gutridge and Russell Hyde, the son 
who was in charge of affairs at the Hyde farm followed them, and a 
controversy ensued. The four men were arrested for obstructing United 
States officers in the discharge of their duties, and for harboring Addison 
White, the human chattel. They were taken without warrant, a fact 
that played an important part in subsequent events, however, they were 
allowed to change their clothes in preparation for the journey. 

At Mechanicsburg, the four prisoners were given to understand that 
if they did not care to proceed further they would be released by the 
citizens. They decided to let the law take its course since the officers 
said they would be taken to Urbana for a preliminary examination. The 
prisoners and their friends alike accepted the statement, but some of the 
citizens trailed them. In a short time the officers turned their course 
away from Urbana, and there was an altercation along the highway. 
One of the pursuing party went to Urbana, and a writ of habeas corpus 
threw the matter into the courts of Champaign County. The United 
States marshals making the arrest had purposely avoided Urbana, know- 
ing the citizens were hostile toward the institution of human slavery, and 
against the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law. When the officers 
realized they might be pursued from Urbana, they bound their prisoners 
and guarded them closely; they were looking for trouble, and Churchill 
remarked that no process of any court should stop him ; it would only be 
fighters superior to himself. 

Armed with the writ of habeas corpus from the Champaign County 
Probate Court, Sheriff Clark, accompanied by the town marshal of 
Urbana and others, started in pursuit. The entire population in the 
vicinity of Urbana and Mechanicsburg was aroused, and every horse 
and vehicle available were used in overtaking the officers and their 
prisoners. They passed through the eastern part of Clark County, plan- 
ning to take a train at South Charleston; they would reach Cincinnati 
over the Little Miami, but the writ issued in Champaign County had 
been placed in the hands of Sheriff John E. Layton of Clark County. 
It was delivered to the Clark County sheriff by State Senator Brand 
and Pierce Morris of Urbana, who accompanied him, and Deputy Sheriff 
William Compton to South Charleston. 

When the news spread in Springfield others joined in the race to 
apprehend the officers crossing the county with Champaign County 
prisoners. When Sheriff Layton and party intercepted the fleeing offi- 
cials, seizing their horses and stopping them, Churchill was not in humor 
to be interrupted, knocking down the Clark County sheriff with a Colt 
revolver, beating him so badly that he suffered from it the remainder of 
his life. Shots were fired, and Elliott later acknowledged in court that 
he shot three times at Compton who had snapped a revolver at him. By 
this time many Champaign County people were on the scene, among 
them Ichabod Corwin, a noted lawyer of Urbana, and other prominent 
citizens. In the face of such a gathering, Churchill deemed it wise to 
depart without waiting railway transportation. His horses were jaded, 
and the prisoners already worn out with the excitement of the journey. 

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The pursuers did not follow immediately as their horses were 
exhausted in driving from Urbana, Mechanicsburg and Springfield. 
Fresh horses were secured in the surrounding country, and at 9:30 
o'clock in the evening every available conveyance left South Charleston 
in pursuit of the fleeing officers of the law and their prisoners. Because 
of the injury to Sheriff Layton, a warrant was issued by Justice of the 
Peace J. A. Houston for the arrest of Churchill and his party. It was 
placed in the hands of Constable E. G. Coffin, and the race began. 
When the party crossed the line into Greene County, the writ of habeas 
corpus was transferred to the hands of Sheriff Mclntire, who joined in 
the pursuit. All night long they pressed forward, overtaking Churchill 
and party at sunrise in Clinton County. 

At the Village of Lumberton, when the officers realized they would 
be overtaken, they broke and ran in every direction, even entering houses 
while the people were yet asleep in their beds. While some of the abduct- 
ing party escaped, ten of them with the four prisoners fell into the hands 
of those in pursuit, and all returned to South Charleston. The United 
States marshals were arraigned before Justice Houston on a charge of 
assault and battery ; they were found guilty, and were bound over to the 
Clark County Common Pleas Court, and in the evening of May 28, 
Constable Coffin committed them to jail in Springfield. Next morning 
they were brought before Probate Judge James L. Torbert, who admitted 
them to bail in the sum of $150 each, when they furnished the necessary 
sureties, those admitted to bail being Churchill, Elliott and eight others, 
the bond being furnished by Dr. Cornelius Smith, David Shaffer, William 
Reid, William Anderson, John F. Chorpenning, William Berger and 
John Dillahunt. 

When Churchill and Elliott were released, they were again arrested 
on a warrant issued by Justice James S. Christie when, by their attorney, 
J. M. Hunt, they moved to quash the proceedings, the motion continued 
until the following day and on May 30, they appeared An court again, 
Mr. Hunt defending them and J. S. Hauke representing the state. They 
pleaded guilty and waived further trial, Justice Christie binding them 
over in the sum of $1,500 each for their appearance in common pleas 
court. When they were unable to furnish bond, Constable E. Crossland 
committed them into the custody of the jailer. On complaint of William 
H. Compton, deputy sheriff, the eight persons associated with them: 
Evan B. Carty, Jared M. Trader, Thomas Meara, Samuel B. Garvey, 
James Darrell, Theodore D. Bentley, William H. Keifer and John Puffen- 
barger were again arrested, charged with aiding and abetting Churchill 
and Elliott in their assault upon Sheriff John E. Layton. They were 
brought before Justice Christie in the evening, and they passed the night 
at the Akens Hotel in the custody of the constable and his assistants. 

At the instigation of Compton, a second warrant was issued for the 
arrest of Churchill and Elliott, charging them with maliciously shooting 
at him with intent to wound him; when brought before the justice they 
again pleaded guilty, waiving trial, their bond was fixed at $1,000 each and 
in default, they were transferred to the county jail where they languished* 
many hours before they were removed to Cincinnati. When they were 
taken before Judge Humphrey H. Leavitt of the United States District 
Court for Southern Ohio, there was delay over the question as to whether 
the State of Ohio or the United States had precedence, Judge Leavitt' 

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deciding that at the time of their arrest Churchill and Elliott were in 
the rightful and proper discharge of their duties, and thus were not 
amenable to state laws. They could not be arrested and detained for 
trial in state courts, and they were released, this move causing trouble 
in Clark County again. Numerous arrests were made of those aiding 
and abetting Sheriff John E. Layton. 

"It was a time that tried men's souls," those taken from Clark County 
to stand trial in Cincinnati being: Sheriff Layton and Deputies Comp- 
ton and Fleming, Prosecutor John S. Hauke, Justice Christie, Attorney 
John C. Miller, Constables Temple, Crossland and Brown of Springfield ; 
Dr. M. L. Houston and Constable Coffin of South Charleston, and from 
Champaign County: Senator Brand, Sheriff Clark and David Rutan. 
The general charge against these citizens was resisting the United States 
officers in the discharge of their duties ; the cause of action against Doctor 
Houston was aiding Sheriff Layton. They were all held to bail in the 
sum of $1,500 each, their bondsmen being: James F. Whiteman, A. D. 
Rodgers, A. D. Coombs, Rodney Mason and David Compton, and their 
trial was set for the following October. 

When the Churchill-Elliott party was overtaken at Lumberton, the 
pursuing party had two classes of writs : Habeas Corpus for the prison- 
ers, and warrants for the United States marshals, the latter being dis- 
posed of at South Charleston while it was necessary to return the Cham- 
paign County prisoners to Urbana, and the docket of Probate Judge 
Baldwin shows that Sheriff Clark conformed to the requirements, pre- 
senting Edward and Charles Taylor, Russell Hyde and Hiram Gutridge 
in court, and when the name of Churchill had been called solemnly three 
times, he failed to appear against them and they were set at liberty. 
The writ of Judge Baldwin also bears the indorsement of Daniel Lewis 
of Greene County, who placed the four prisoners into the custody of 
Sheriff Clark. In the following July, the four were arrested on warrant 
of the United States Court and taken to Cincinnati for examination. 
While Hyde and Gutridge were dismissed, the Taylors were held under 
bond for their appearance in October. 

The planter named White from Fleming, Kentucky, who owned the 
slave Addison White, was present and testified, saying that intercepted 
letters had enabled him to trace his chattel to Springfield, and thence to 
Mechanicsburg. Sheriff Clark and Senator