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Full text of "A satistical account of Australia and New Zealand"

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THE SEVEN COLONIES OF AUSTRALASIA. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



TO ■; a ' (UTiONS. 



tA, 



[THE NEW YORK 

Ipdbliclbrary 







■' V .'* r>« f 



STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 



OP TUB 



EVEN COLONIES OF AUSTRALASIA, 



1895-6, 



V r^ 



.o'- . y 



T. At COGHLAN. 



SIXTH ISSUE<,. 


"■■■A.'- 


- '-i 


.. : V ... 




■■:i I.--.; 




.. :. , , 


^BintB: 




CHARLES POTTER, GOVKRNMKNT PBINTKR. , 


'V^ 





PREFACE. 



The followlug {Mtfca aim at f{i>'iug some idat of ihe {irugren ami |>reaent 

oooditiDn of Uhi mivvn c<>loni» of AuntrabuiiA, auch a* iniij: Ixt gnUirriHl 

fnnu an acootiul of which titnlisticis arv thct Ihinh. Although in soinc 

I'iDBt&tUMa tlie iufonoatioii given extends bock to the v«ry be^inuinf; uf 

Mrctltnnaut, thu ymr l^Gl Iiub beeo cLoiieu as tla- btiir ting-point of iuohI 

oE the <;oinpariBoas that horve to illuKlmU- thi- tcxU Diat yonr lius 

I IwD luliiptvd for two rusoiia— lirat, bccauoe it may be taken as cou- 

Ivuuently intiriduciag tlio jmuiciil ftynttttn of A utiLru Ionian colonixalion, 

'which begau U> take tliApo afti.T the :<.iihKidcnc(i of tliu oxcitcmout 

tuUuwing on the gr<-at gold disoovei-ied of thi- lifti«8 ; luid, necoud, 

bKanxe it waa the tint cciibus yvnr after ibtf autiuisitioR of nwijonidble 

I goTcmment bj all thv colonicH cxct^it Wtwtt-m Auntralia. 

At llie dos« of the year 1861, tlii.- pdjiulatiou of Australasia, ex- 
sliiditig the ui:' ivilisMl nutive rauea, uuinlwriHl 1,265,898, which is Usd 
llfaan that <jt Nnw fkioth Walw nt the pnwcot time, and bnt little 
I greater than that of Viclorin. 'Ilie incrcaer of population from 18C1 to 
[lS9£i had l>oen at the rat« of about 3'G'2 ])er cetitv [>ei' luiiiuui. During 
ithugivuter [lart of thiii perioil tJie •.'uuntry lar);i;ty giiiniHl )iy iinmigintion; 
Ibdrwl, thir Atrciam of jtopiilatinn vtm fnirly well maiDtained until the 
ltlo«e of ll$91, wlwti it alniOHt ceased. It is a, iiott'Wurthy fact that lim 
I fcan of the gi«ateHt pronpcrity of Australasin Imw alau beeu those when 
country received tlie largevt accnjtion of populntioii from abroad ; 
lad though it cannot bo mid that t\w influx of population brouj;ht 
lpMi>i>rily, it may fairly bo assusied tliat' the Btreatu of innnigrntioD 
|*]uch wiH induced by thv pro«pcrity of thn colonici; tended to keep alive 



n 

and BtiiiiuUt« the conditions without which national progr^sE would huw 
been itupObBiliU-. The following is a stntement of the jMipulation at the 
uluw! of the yarn statetj ; — 

I8S1 l,36.l,S<ja 

1971 i l.flTO.ttll! 

1881 - 2,823,150 

1881 3,S90,036 

1888 4.238,361) 

The conrlitioriM of life nrc more favunivihl'' in Auittnvliwiu than in iinyl 
uUiur couutry. The exceax of births over deatlis i» somewhat more than 
'20 piT thousund iiiliabitaiits. For tho Vnit«<l Kiugdom, it is * Uttl 
ovur 12 per thousAiid, while the avomgt^ Europoan rati- hardly rtnichc 
10 per thousand. 

The tonnngn of shipping o-ntierMl from and cWred for Grval Britaial 
and other ports outside of Australasia lias very largely increased : — 

1861 .- l,0T6,8W 

1871 ; 1,279.416 

1881 .— 3,1£S.087 

U81 G,45I,U50 

1880 fl,85B.fi36 

Kfjually rapid has been lUo increase in Uic intercolonial shi| 
entered and cleared : — 

1881 ~ l.JSI.MS 

1871 _ ■2,850,188 

1881 5.7!»0,45H 

1881 ll,0'22,t8S 

18BS ll,aoa,4Ql 

Tbu value of exportii uud imports h fg-reatly reliud upon by atatislioL 

an giving a muo-Huri.- of a couutry'H progrtvia. Tlii! external trade 

Auolralasin — that is, the value of iinporta and exports t«ken to^tbe 

waa:— 

£ 

1881 aS.061.3iU 

1871 S'J.TSU.UtU 

1881 (H,0M,(S76 

1881 8*,65l,l«8 

1885 _ 67,6De,&23 



vu 



Tht (ail ahown beiweeu 1891 aui] 1S95 is iIue' to a doclino in vsiam, 
■od not to n ducnuioR in Ui<; i]uiintitiuacif giKKls L-xvliuiigL-d. Th«<lci:luio, 
however, hu been over the whole period, iw will bo »i*ji below. The 
figuivs roproBcot the value of a like quantity of oxporti in varioiu 
tJto pricrv of 18da being Uktta u e()iuilliug 1,000 : — 

ISSI 2,279 

IS71 „.„ 1.8B8 

lasi I.6« 

1801 „ i.sei 

1896 1,000 

II will hm 9oea tbal what would have brought 45h. 7d. in 1861, 3da. 5d. 
in 1871, Sin. lOd. in 1881, and 25ii. 3<L in 1891, brought only 20ik in 
1895. 

Tbi' intde bctwMin the colonies Mulfttrud aIhi from tlic! fall in valuM, 
bat the volamo was well roaintnim-d. Tht; iniportK and exports, taken 
togetlier, were>— 

£ 

1861 l7,I6e,WS 

1871 .*...- ■-'9,745.068 

ISSi 37,in«,280 

I8»l 60.ll*,797 

ISas 47,231,380 

Vnm tliv ivtrtiest days wool has boon the great Etaple of AuHtralaaia, 
The wool clip is nearly oil exported, and the total for eavli pvnml wtw:— 

lb. 

1861 _ 8i.fi3«,800 

1871 ai6,3ttl,365 

1891 „ ., 378,738,600 

18B1 ...„ 707,25;t.fi8n 

1805 710,637.792 

Aiu>lral»iia is eminenttjr a pastoral country. It contains nearly one- 
ioarlh of the i^«ep of thii world, im well ua more cattle iiiid humes in 
proportion to the poptilatJOD tJinn nny othnr country, while the numberx 
of its lloclfa are atill increafiing : — 

1961 Sf.Tll.TW! 

1871 *G,7:3.5M!l 

1881 78.083.42U 

I>»1. 1M,(H7.937 

I3M....„..,. lll,fi26,ST4 



Cktti*. 


BanHk 


SirinB. 


1.039.830 


^58.970 


362.417 


4.;i3.S20 


782.558 


7:(7,477 


s.Tou.aas 


l,'i49.7Wi 


003,271 


II.HII 1,330 


l,78n,S35 


1,154,553 


13.802.435 


1.01T.221 


1,144,638 



iiUi^ 



viH 



The tot«l valu« of pMlonl property, )?xcludiiij$ land diivol^d to grazing 
ia X240,lll],000, wtiile rbi.- value of stock kloiie, iiKludin;: awine, 
£1 1 1,700,000. AuntntlaMU hu long niAintauinl with Eitrqwn triuliriii 
prwioriTd tncntji, but the mom important indiutiy of Hiillod or frozoi 
moat was initiated in 1863. The vaJaeofiuoatprotluctti exported weis:- 



iaifl»nna>¥Ba,ha*ti*n*,ii 



1881. 

I8»l.. 

1885 

Tbo description of the export wu : — 

ChlllMl gr rnnon. 



£ 
2.e73..'MS 



Bett 

QWt 

1981 

1891 15i>,eie 

I89S lfX,-2S9 



Uumui mill [iwub. 

cwt. 

0.660 

1.150,730 

l,oS7,044 



PmuvudMHlK 

lb. 

IS.M 7.200 

16,416.821 

o2,SB 1.375 



Dairying f<ii' I'xport in nlao un industry of rtHHint oiltabliithnic-nt, 
01)0 wjiich has the promise of a. great future. Tlie (^OwtJi of itiu tndq 
may U: ^'lugod from tin" following tigtiius, aliowriig the i-xport of hutt 
to the Uiiilud Kingdom : — 

1881 SIB,»4I 

18B1 7,4*0,1177 

18M M.S97.6a7 

1898 SO.iSS.OK! 

The area dovotiMl to tlic plough hw iiicnwanl Kixfold HincQ 1861 ; — 

Am undn crgp. 

l»l „ 1,368,076 

1871 .„ J.'„ ^osa,Eis 

1881 ,'>,Rlil,6I.l 

1801 ...; e,790,*«2 

1806-9... „ 7.700.823 

If U> Iho lanti midur crop bo iu)d«cl that laid dnwii undur inrmimuntl 
nrtificially-Kt>wii grnwMa, the artm would Ije more than duuhlLxl. ThoJ 
gnbff lands sown during the muae y&u-a covered the following areas :— J 

1881 173,1*4 

I8II D19,*97 

1881 - *,3*g.7«2 

1801 ..„ S,I12,485 

1888^ .: „ „ 9.U21,70.t 



IX 

^rincipAl cultirntjon in whfnt, wtiich covun moro thtui half tho 
UD(t«r crofi. The following figure^ which include jwriiuuient 
TOlaUitoI»95-6:— 

Acr«B. 

VfinAX forgniii S,780,7M 

0»U „ ,. 69S.ISI 

M«iM ., I39,«S8 

OtW Oraia Cnf I48,6» 

Fotetow _ .... IS9/»1S 

Vinw B9.fflO 

Hty I.Mil,38« 

Other Cropt 99T.S09 

Fcnniuicnt Gnnw 9,021.703 

T«W l7.e22.32C 

exporting in &n averafi« season not uioit than 13 million 
Eef wheut, AuHtmluaiii ranks itixtti aiuoii^ thu uv|Hit't couutries 
i tko world. 

T1i«l>roeent«niiual jicldof tho mines may ho set down at £13,600,000, 
mA llu) itveraae fur Qie. !il<>| forty yi^urs hw boon miiiu-wltat ovtir I'li'vi^ii 
nUlluiM »t1^rl■nj( a ynar. From 185'J to 11J95 tliorc ho* bvcn a total 
mductioD of £i89,34G,S20 thus mado up :— 

«*ld 370.381,880 

SiU-ernndSilrer-Iwd a3,2i)4.!133 

Coppnt a7,23l.^l7 

Tin 17,360.332 

Coal 38.510.Tlft 

OUi«T Minvnl* 3,057,761 

I production nt viuioux poriodK wu:— 

1S71 » )l,e4S,0(» 

I8SI , 11,018,000 

im „ la.iw.iioo 

1896 13.aM.iMl 

value of tho jtrodiiov of Uig mini-s, tields, farms, foreste, and 
for IS95 averit^cd £35 4a. id. per hoiul of U)tu.] |x>]tuln.tioa 
irioDS yL-aM (Lis Ggur» lias hewn gn-Atly cxcuimIikI. Thi.- foUowiog 
I the total vnlui« <>f production for the years named : — 

1871 .. fi8,-l39,000 

I8SI '„.., N7,I>0(),«U0 

im lIT.IUU.tKW 

IfH-C ..„ lO.I.STS.OOO 




The fall from 1891 U> 18tlt-5 is due to a fall in prioee, u the 

iictual qtinntitic* producixl tiavc Urgcly incrivuied. Distributing the 

rutum for 1H94-5 under tho gi>ni'rally rocoguiaed brniichcB of piodao 

tion, the value attdgutMo to eocb wu : — 

C 

Asriaultuns „ lS,tl7&.U(K) 

Puturftl liiduBtriM 34,304,000 

IMiryintt, Ae 11,895,000 

Minora] Vrodiictioii 13,476,000 

Foruti and Fiihcrlc* 3.915,000 

Othct IndmlriM as,307.000 

Total £103.6?i.OOO 

Oompareil with tho ]>opuIatioii, the production of AuHtnilosiu is nob 
exceeded, or oven clottety upproodjcd, by any other country ; and in 
regard to total valuit i« NurpMNi.tl (>n1y by thu United Kin^loin, Frauuo J 
Gi>miniiy, Austria, Ituiwia, Italy, and ttfirua in Europe, and by 
Umt«d Stat«a of America. 

The revenue of the governments of thr H«ven colonies faHn littlflj 
below X30,000,000, wliioh i» about oue-third that of Ureal UritaicJ 
and Irrlnnd, although tJic population of the colonies is hardly mora tliani 
oao-t«Dth. Ill Australasia, however, practic»IIy all tile railways Iwlong] 
to thv Statu, mid the ntvwiue fi-om this Houroe ia over £9, 1)00,000. J 
The total public rorvauc wm : — 

£ 

ISei £,186,440 

1971 9.289.766 

L881 - i».51iJ,233 

18U „.... 2fl.ilil,Il»l 

l9tM 2S,M0,239 

The princip&l Bourcva of r(;vi>nue oiay be aummaiiaed as foUowB . — 

£ 
Taxation— CusUmis and BxdM ... 7,970.876 

Other 3,;Ml.iVM 

Railways itnil Tnunway* ^2M,6(U 

Porta and Tdcgniph* 2,228,312 

l^iblj« UmU 3.702,420 

OUwir KvVL-nuu S,l£t,l!fi 

TotJ jn!8.U9,8N 



» 




Hie public debt uf the culoniea bi vn-^v hettvy, uvi-ni^ng £Ty2 Ik. 'Id. 
per iahalHluul ; Imvrtivor, Uie grcAlor part of it wut in<:uiTc(l U>t the 
jiuqwttc of providing funds toi thu ranslTUctioD of railwajs and Othsr 
nn-enii«-yieldU)g works. Tbe Mlowiii^ ohowa the use to whidi tlie 
borrowed voKHMiy ww put : — 

ItMlway. I28.IW.TOB 

Wat«r Supply and Soworoiii: 10,959.3X1 

T«l<^r»(>liH 3,;i»(,;(l 

Boadi. BridBDi), and Hsrbonr 

Woflw 18,6*0.617 

Oihat Set vicM « 30,!U>0,903 

Total 206.378.380 

annual int«r«-«[ and charges apon thu public d«bt amount to 

l,76o,000, wbUe the net rov«nue obtAined from work^ constructed 

from loan (uuda a about £4,022,000, Iwiving a. net Uiibility of X4,743,00O 

per otrntiiD. The iiiorauM; of AuKtrnlnsiiui indebtctbinw inny hv traced 

m tbe following figures : — 

£ 

laet ii,899,9&i 

IS7I S9,040,»l 

I8S1 Dfi,M5..'S82 

18S1 193.962.887 

ISK „ 222,795,805 

Tbe depouU in ordinary banks and aavingH institutions now reach a 
total of XI 30, 246,19.'), which, howdvor, ik aomewlmt xiiiuUer than in 
1S91, owing to losoes nnd withdrowaU coDNeqiirnt im the finnnuial puiia 
ci May, 1893. The total depogiia in all banks were : — 

£ 

ISet .._ I6,067.5W 

I8TI 28,833,761 

l«t ..„.™^ „. 7-.i,a)3,7% 

1801 I38.<tti.730 

ia95-« 130.246.495 

Tlie incrcvwc over thf whol« period liiis been luurvtilluuH, and the 
cuuiubttton of £31 |>er heioil is not equalled in any othor country. 

I Aurtrohuia now booiita roilwtiyii open to the ext«Qt of 13,814 miles, 

riy all of whj^ arc tho property of the State. The length of line 

"jnot mentioned b equal to 1 mile to every 333 square miles of territory, 



Xll 



and u> cwry 310 inhabitAnte. Compcu-iE^l with population, Au^tralasiaJ 
is better served than ercn the United Stat«8, and equally wjrved witfc 
thu Dotuiuioii of Canada. The iniluttge open wiu : — 

ISei 243 

Wl .._ I,W 

1881 „ MSB 

1801 12.40S 

ISM 13,SU 

Eiiuftllr rnpid hns been tlie progress of telegraphic construction, butj 
the following lij*ur<!ii muitl Im koceptod ak approxiinutu only : — 

IWl 4,100 

1871 ia,800 

1881 29..I2S 

1891 44,455 

1850 47,618 

The nunilKT of iiK«Htt^'o» n-ceived atid JL-B(iat«lied in 1805 wats iai 
round iiumljcri, (4,500,000, i>r two \kv inluibiUtnt. In the United] 
Kiiigiloiu thonvunigOLE I'K. No other cotintiy Rpprouchea thetiG ligure*. 

The fncilitiea allbrdt.'d by the Port Otfitt^ nrv very largely aviiilod of.; 
Nearly 2O0,O00,0UU letters and jtost-cards, 104,000,000 Diwspapers. and' 
37,000,000 packets are annually e.arritid— ligureH wliich, wlit-u takeii> 
together and couiparcHl with tliu pupulntioti, ai-u largely in kx&mh oE 
tlioce of any other country ; but in tbc matter uf letters alona-j 
AnKtralnsia is surpatued by the United Kingdom. 

Iti ntgard to social catidition, thcr<! lian l>ceii u very niatt'riol inipr 
miint in tbo population of these colonics. From ltj6] to ll^^'i popular^ 
tion isorensed between three and four-fold, vibile serioun criiue, as | 
evidenced by coitvivtionn in the Sujierior Courts, hoa oidy iiicreasml { 
onv-fourth-kTbo spread of r^lncatioii bus liwjn very iimrkrd. 0\il. oti 
every 10,000 children between 5 and 15 years, therK uould rend andj 
write in : — 

I8«l ....„ „ 4.687 

1871 « 8.911 

1851 : 7.068 

< 18B1 « 7,C66 



XIII 



If ih& mwriage nsfpsten be turnexl to, still inoro convtndog testimony 
totbif spread Dfedncsuon will Iw found. OMot 10,000 perwrnsnutrried, 
ihe illitcmtm wrro : — 

1B0I „....».... 2.400 

tftti „,. sa» 

1801 220 

I8W ....; _ IW 

vd evra of tbp prewnt Binall rMiduum of illitorHtM, the litrgor numlmr 
were not iKtm in Aiulmbuiia. 

The foregoing figtirM illustrate some of tlie phased of Auatrak-iinii 

pragrcKH de»lt vritb iit thin Ixiuk. Tbr gi-ncrnl plan udoptnl in prev-iouR 

editiODS liM been followed in clic prMent ia«ue^ Th^ reader's attention 

il dinctad to the appendix, wliicli ooiuprises » strl <,t talili-s correspond- 

iog with th(^ viuvnu nih^divi.tionK i>f tlirt work, nnil forming a synoptical 

vifiw of the progrem of ea«h colony Mnco 18GI. In some oamn thmit 

taUca contain later jmrtiouIarK than it wa« found powibk to embody in 

tfaotcxt 

T. A. C. 



L^^ 



CONTENTS. 



Jiticat Divisions ... 

Arca.t und Boundarien 

Climate 

Parltomcnis 

Defence 

Popolalion 

Religion 

Edncalion 

Social Condition 

Food Sapply and Cost ot Liring ... 

Sbippinjt 

Commerce 

Kailwajv 

Posts and Telegraphs 

Mineral Resources 

Agiicoltarc: 

httoral Resources and Thtiry Industry 

£mplo>-nicnl and Production 

Priv»le Finance 

Pnbltc Finance 

LocsU GOT-emmcnt 

Land and Selllcincnt 

Australasian Siaiistics — Appendix ... 



Map of Austmlasin ... 



t 

5 

9 

•5 

»3 

}' 
58 
66 

lOJ 

lis 

130 
'S7 

'79 
'9+ 
it6 

«74 

196 

36. 
4 "4 

47' 



Facing title page. 



POLITICAL DIVISIONS. 






TIIR RnX wttkntent id New South WsIm, tJie oldest of tho seven 
colonies of AuatndaaM, was effect«d bv an expedition aiider the 
oOBUBaod of Captain Afthar Phillip, who landed at ikitany Baj on the 
\9\h J&atury, 179S^ and Coi-mallir took poaeeariou of ihe whole coutitienl. 
Botany B*y being found unHuilublc, the lle«t woa brouKht roniul to Fort 
Jackaon, aixl tlie citv of Sydney foumlwl on tlio 26tit January of thn 
Man yt*r. Nrw South ^Vnl<'j; wax pmctnimcil n oniony on tbc Tth 
of tho following month, and ito lioundarits wcw d«fin«l aa oxt^indtng 
from Capo York, the nortlifm extremity of tfuecQalajid, 10' 37' south 
latitude, to ^oalh Eoat Cape, the moat southerly point of Tasmania, 
43* 39' south latitude, and from the 135th degree of east longitude to 
the east coast, iiichidiiig the adjacent islatida. Tlie boundaries thus 
defined incJodc thn whole of thn tcrritorinK now known nx Nnw Sonth 
Walca, (^ircnulnnd, Victoria, and Tasmania, ami ni)niit half of tho araa 
of South AtMtralia. Though the colony wtu^ originally a penal sottle- 
in«nt. th«re was an influx of frM immigrants from the lirst. and after the 
Rbotititm of transportation in 1840 all tr.u.-eM of the penal eJevnent w«re 
aptdly lost, file CotuiiicuUon Act of NewSoutii Wilea vras aaaented to 
on the 16th ■Tuly, 185.), and prodaimed on Ui« '2iiii Norenber of the 
■KBiA yrar ; and the linrt repreaentativo Parliament woa opened on tho 
32n>l May, I8'>6. The lioun<laricjiaf tho oniony at tlic datn of proclamation 
brludcd that portion of tho oontin^mt now known as CJuconsland, bat did 
not tako in Victoria, which hnA been mado a separate colony in 1«5I. 

Tasnrnnia, formerly known as Van Diemon'a Land, was colonised from 
New iktath Wales, and was intended to serve the purpose of a subsidiary 
penal settlement Lieuteuant Bowen, in cimrge of nn expedition des- 
patohi'd from Sydney, took poiwesaion of thn island on thl^ 1 2th September, 
1S03, and fotmed a twttlement on the <-aM hank of tho Dt-rwejit River, at 
Biadon ; bat the actual oommrncrmcnc of coUiniantion dRt<s from Feb- 
ruary, IK04, when Limi tr'nant-Oolonf'l Collins ofttabliahrid hinunlf at SulU- 
Tmn's (^vo, and Uid the foundations of tho present city of Hobart. Tba 
gcranuBent was tulminintered from Sydney until the year 1 ifiiH, wh«n, ia 
th« month of December. Van IHemen'a Land wtui duly constituted an indo- 
poMlent proriniM In >Iay, 1803, it was offidally anQOunc«l that traiw- 
poftaCioo bad oeaaed, and in tint followinn year the name of the colony wm 
Canoed tnm Van Diunicn'* Ijind to Tasmania. The Royal asnent to the 
Bxiattng Conatittition Act waa proclaimed on thn 'i Ith October, 1855, and 
theltrctnpnwntatiii-e I'arliament was opened on th« 2nd DccciDber, L8&6. 



POLITICAL DIVISIONS. 



The foundation of lh« colony of U'<!8t«m Austmlia dat«s fi-otn 
year 182G, whon Major Lockyor landefl at Albany in chai'g^ of an px 
dition from Sytluey, consiatlii!* of a lietachment of tbe 39ih Ho^ime 
ATid a number of prisooera. In 1827 Captain Sdiling amviMl in H.l 
Sutco.ix, uuil fxplorod Hiv Swaii Kiver, with a view to tstaliliahingJ 

fiermitiKml srLtli'mcnt on it« liiinlcK: in June, 1829, Captain FrpnuuUt 
untied n<iar its month; and in tlic Muno yrar tlic tnwn «f IVrtb was 
founded. The Swiui Hivcr Sotttpmrnt, an it was IcnoNrn originally, 
was msdo a spparnt© colony, iindrr thft nnmo of Western Australia, on 
the 1st Juno, Ii^29, Captain Stirling biding apjiiointod tliellrst Uov^nior; 
and it remained a Crown colony under the direct control of the Brituli 
Oovernment until the 20ch October, 1S90. Tlie preaent CouatitutioD 
Act waa aHaeiiled to on tlie 15lU AuKuat, 1890 ; it waa procluimwl on 
the 2 l»t October ; and the first represBtitative Purlinineut van opt-ned on 
thi- 3l)th Dpcpinliur in the stitav yrar. 

Thn tiriit attempt to xiittic Victoria wan mndo in tSOii. On Che 7th 
OotobiT of that year l.icHtciinnt-t'oioncI ('nllinx arrivfwl from Kngland 
with tJie intention of fruinding in Port Phillip n cnnviH scttleiuent 
similar to that which had been established at Sydney. The expeditJOO 
landed on the aliores of Port Phillip, near Sorrento, and aeveral explon* 
tionii of thn country were made, Ijiit ili the course of n fi?w uioittlis tile 
attempt at coloniMtion wa.i abandoned, aa the place traa believed to be 
nnsuitahlr; for Mcltlcnicnt. For twenty yerirs thereafter the District of 
Port Phillip continued to be neglected. In IH'H Hum*! and Ilovell 
imd«rtook an exploration of the territory to the south and west of tlte 
land then known to tlie settlers, rcaehing, it is believed, the %'cal«ra 
arm of Port Phillip, not far from the present town of (teelong. In 
182fi another expedition, under Captain Wright, was sent from Sydnej- 
to tona a aettleueiit at Western Porl> but it!tunied by order of Gov.^rnor 
Durlint; after one year'* trial, although the reptirta of Homo and HnvcU 
and of the oHi(^ci'> of th« military wrta tav»urnble to n <:'iiitinmiti4>n of 
the occupation. The lirxt pcmmncnt xettiimient was mnilii in 1^34, at 
Portland Bay, hy EdwanJ Hnnty. In May, l.S3."i, John Kalnian arrived 
at Port Phillip from liiunceaton, Tasmania, and obtained from Uu | 
aboriginea tracts of land cOTerinj; an area of GOO.UOO acivs uu the slioRi ' 
of Port Phillip and the banks of the VaiTa, but thcne ^iranta weri'ufler 
ward.i dinallowed by tlie Imperial Government. In Aujcunt of the WOH , 
year another party, under tlx^ leadenhip of J. F. Fawkner, alw> bum ' 
Lnunoeston, arrivi>d in the Ynrta, and formed u itettlemont on the sJM 
now occupied by the city of MelVmurne. In 1836 Captain Lons<lale, 
who bore the title of Kesidont Magistrate of the District oC Port 
Phillip, and was accompanied by a party of soldiers as well aa the 
seceeaaiy civil otfiuials. was despatched from Sydney by Sir Kidianl 
Bourke, Guvenior of New South Wales, for the purpose i)( cnuibhshit^ 
nigular government. In lt*37 the Governor him-wlf nrriv&,l from 
Sydney, and gave the name of Melliouriw to the new settlement. Porti 



COLONISATIOK OP SOUTH AUSTEAUA, 



Pbill^ was scpanUKl from tho mother colony on tlw Ut July, \8&l, 
and became mt indopcndsnl pronnce undvr lb« iiam« of Viclorift. Ttie 
Ooostitation Act wm proclaimod on tb« SSrd Kovequber, IS55, and tlw 
fifM npivaeDtalive Parliament wrua opened on the 21at November, 18J6. 

South AtutraJia yraa coloiiixed in the year 1836, by immiKnuitti who 
had arri^'ed from Enj^Uiid uudtr tlie auapiuuH of thi? South AiistraUnn 
ColoniKation Company, and until a site fur tlin ncttlt^ment iriu) chosoD 
thaj ranained at Knngnrocj I.ilnn<l. Colonel Light, who wu* sent out 
Id waet a suitAhli! Kjiot for thr first npirntions of th" settlers, arrived 
is Auguflt, IK3S, and afk«r i^xnmining NVpoan Day, I'ort Lincoln, uud 
Biieount«r Bay, deddod upon <«tnbli»tiing the capital where Adi^laitla 
now ataods. Captain Itindmarsh, the first Governor, arrived at Ihe 
dew of the HUne year, and proclaimed thecolony outho 28tli Deceunljcr, 
At thai date tha northern boundary was tlxed at tlie 'J6t]i pantllbl of 
MQth latitude, which reualm-d tho limit of tho colony until July, ISGli, 
when th«i iMandaiy was extttiidud northward to the neabounL Tho A<:t 
iranting ItMpon«bl« Goremrornt yrait proclaimed on tint '2-\t]i October, 
1856, and tbo fin* Parliament wna opened on tho :i2nd April, 1B57. 

In 1631 a sottloincnt was established by the Imperial Govomment 
■t Port EssingtoD, under Sir Gordon Jtremcr. Jt was principally 
v(d sa a military poet and as a harbour of r(<rug« for distreaavd vnuuli, 
hat after an occnpalioD of nineteen yeurs it was abandoned. In IBtji^ 
John JI'Doaall 8t«art, a South AuRtrulian explorer, tucccjiiled in 
croning the continent from AdcUidi! to Adam Bay on Uio north const. 
He repreaented tho country m guitahle for Hcttlenient, and application 
*aa accordingly made to the Imperial Uovemmpnt for perniis^iou to 
Hmex the whole of the territoiy lying between the 36* of south latitude 
tad the seaboard, and the lueridiana of 129" itn<l 138' eaat longitudti. 
Hiw tract of territory was formally granted to South Austialiji in July, 
1863, nnd is non- known aa the Nortliern Tcirilory of South Aualrnlia. 
In IKG* the first oolonining expedition to the Northern IVrritory wn» 
dapatcJted from Adelaide ; a xettlnment waa establialicd at Hxcnpii ClifTii, 
Adam Bay, but the locality tieing found unxuilahle, the colonixtH, in liilO, 
removed to Port JJarwin, which has gince retnnineii the official centre. 
ne territory ia represented in the South Aiintralian Parliament, aud 
it admin LatOTed by a OoTornmenl Kesident, who is directly responsibla 
to the auUioriticaat Adelaide. 

the lint att4>tupt at ootoniaation in New /Zealand was made tn 1833, 
by an expwlition undor the eoinmand of (..'aptain Hertl, who houj;ht 
twoialandK in the Haumkt Gulf and a ntrtp of land at Hokianga, but the 
attempt failnl, owing to the wivago cliiiract<T of the iiiitivi-s. Sub«o- 
quenllv, a s^llcmcnt having grown up at what i^ now called Ruk^cII, 
in the Bay of Islands, in conscqnenoe of the frequent visits of whaling- 
nwii 1 1^ Mr. Bufiby, in 1833, was appointed British Ucsident there. 
Id 1839 the New Zealand Land Company, which had been promoted 
tn En^hind, despatched a preliminary expedition to New Zealand for 



POLITICAL DinSIOKS. 



Uie purpose of troatine u-ith the nativeg for tho porcfaaeo of laniL 
aieiitl>er8 of this expeattioc arrirei] in September of tho saitic yoar, 
Mtahlialiol themselves at Port Kickolaon; and on the '2Uc Jaui 
1840, the first body of iiuini;;!-uits arrivod. Eifi:lit d^ya lat«r, C«pt 
HolitMiii, ILX., arriTed at tbo Bay of Lilanda, ftud on ibv foUutvm^ i 
tlw islandu wi^nt jilaoed uoder Britisli rule, and beouue a du])«idm4:j i 
Now Smith Walttft. On tha 21st Mny of the E*me y«ar tbo wholo 
the islands were it^clair-d to ho undor the sovEreignty of (trmc Hrit 
and on tho 3rd Mny, IMl, Xew Zonland was ntahliKhrd a k[i 
colony. Five immigrant'^faipB urived in 1840, and settloraeDts 
made at WoUingtou and Audtland. By the treaty of Waittuigi, wb 
VM dgned tm tim SUi February, 1840. the native chiefa ceded 
aorereignty of Uie ialauda to the Britioh Crowii. DititurbiuMet, 
«ver, MOon ovourrw) 1>elweeu tbo IrfaoriB and tho wliiUi aettlera, aud 
about a qiiartM' of n cinittiry mattErs wre in a more nr leeui ni . . 
states 'Hio chtrf i^rontx may l>e thus mmmarixn] : — ^T)i« Wairau : 
aacrm occurred in June, l^i'-i; ming lionded by lloni Hrki in Jt 
1844; rebellion of Wiromu Kingi in March. 1860; gpiicml war 
the Maoris commenced in 1863 ; xerious British roTerses, including 
Gate Pah disaster, in 1S64 : oiitbreitk of die Uauhaa heresr in 
186S; dntth of tlie diicf, William Thomjison, ivhidi pnwticolly cL. 
the war, in 1^67 ; ii-bulUon under Te Kobti in KoremWr, IfGK, wfc 
was not finally quelled until July, 1870; gubmimon of tho Maori 
totlie Untifih Oo^-cmniont in February, 1875. Con8titution.it Uc 
BMDt Iras conferred on Now Zealand in 1853, and a system by 
the local goreruitig power was vested in Provincial Councils, 
over by elective superintendents, continued until November. 18"6, ' 
it irtut aholiNbed by an Act of the General Aasenibly, and Purlioraa 
took over the itdioiniHt ration of all affitint oth^r than tboui of a I 
charaotor. Ttie Constitution provides for two Honscs of L<^gislntnrev I 
in tlto otlior AuntraUKinn coloniM;. Thn limt Mamon of ihc (.icne 
Astamblr wwt oponed on the *i7th May, l'<54, but the mrtnhera of i 
Executive were not reifionsible to Parliament, The first Ministers I 
a system of Besponaible Government were appointed on the IStli Ae 
1896. In Febnutn-, 1865, Wellington wui entabttslied an the HMti 
goveminent, and bus remained no eror ntncei. 

Qneenxland, like Victoria, i» an ofiiihoot of New South Walesa 
lf43.3 tho tirst convict eittabtiKliRient nnx fonncd at Fjigln Farm, in 
Moroton Bay district. The penal sottlement cnmo to an end in 
year 1843, and tJio district was iirodtumed open to free oettle 
From that date to December, l>^d9. the territory was under the < 
of the New South Wales Oovenuneut, the local admiui^raliun 
entrasted to a Government Resident. Its separation fri>]ii New Sonti 
Wales took pWe in 1859, and its Oonslitntion wim proclititni^d on 
10th December of that year. The first T«|>re(nntntive Parliament 
opened on tho 2Sth May, 18«0: 



AREAS AND BOUNDARIES. 



THE AostnliUSM) colonies ctnnpruH! the continent of Anrtntlift, 
the wljacent [sliwd nf Tiuunanin, nnd thi> islftnils of Now Zrnland. 
Tie group in politically snUiivUled into a^-en coloniw, which, wiUi the 
. of each, tun ns follow : — 



(Wav- 


AiMlatoM. 


Ant 
ID »|iHrfi raUf*. 


Row South W*1m „._ 


lW,»i8,O0O 
6«.St5.7flO 

S78,»61,600 
«H,5S8,SO0 


310.700 

87.8S4 

&l>$ ig7 




W)3,I)S»0 
B7Q,!HI> 


Kew 2caUad _ 


1.885,382.240 

16,778.000 
Ge,S01,440 


2,!Me.(I9l 

W.2i5 

104.471 




i,9es^i,fiao 


3,0, 1,377 



The Brilish Kiopire, excluuire of territories under proU^toratcs and 
(pfatei of itifliu^nue, extiriidH ovirr aii area of !>,0!t3,8G5 squaiw milej, no 
that mom tliivn one-tiiird of itn area lies nithin the limits of thi! 
tertai oolnniut. AiUEtralasia is more than twenty-six timex ns Inrgit 
it thr. I'niCtMl Kingdom ; more tlinn fiftorn tiniest ns large na Franco ; 
man than liiUf oh largo ngnin a« Itiissia in Europe; and almost oqual in 
extent to the continent of Europe or to the United States of America. 

Tbe< mainl&Dd of Aiwtralia lies between 10' 39' and 39° lU' aouth 
Itthnde^ aod the meridians of 113' 5' and 153" IG' east luugitude. 
Ita KraU«at leugth is 3,400 inileH from east to west, and its ;;i«atest 
breadth, 1,971 milea from north to souUi. It« area may he a]>;>rox- 
iaulelj gtatril at i!,946,fi91 stpiarr milra, and its t^oast-tincat S,8^0iuUett, 
Miial to 1 Riila to each -^S-H snuaiT> miles <if land — tlie Kmallrrt pr(i|H>rlion 
M ooMt shown by »ay o( tlii? contincntn. Tasmania, tn thi^ xnuth of 
the nkaiidaDd, ii aeparated from VictoriA by Dhssb Strait, about IfiO 
Wilrn wide. New Ze«land b opposite the south-eastern conft of 
^natndia, the width of ooeou iutcrviuiing, known as tho Tasmaii ISca, 
hAtg aAtoat 1,100 miJe«. 



AREAS AND BOUNDAUIES 



Ne*" South Walea lies principally betwf-Mi tJi« 29th uid 8fl 
parallels of south latitude, and l>etween the 14Ut and 153rtl moric 
of voAi \uugiiudv. Tit* leii^tli of the colony, from Point Danger on 
north to Oapo Howu on tliu soutli, k 680 milea. From ea^t to wc 
along the 29th jmralto), tli« breadth ia 760 miles ; while dia^ooaU 
from the «oiith-wcjrt com«r — where the Murray ]itutBt!;j into 
AuHttalia — to Point Diuigcr, thn Icngtli n-nchrs '^Hi) miles. The seab 
oxtcntU over TOO miles, Tiif^ro arc no inlands of imj)ortanc« on ' 
coast of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island, samn 100 miles nor 
east of Sydney, forms a portion of the colony. Korfolk Isl.^ml 
not yet belan;; to New South Walt-s, although the luipirrial Ooverumfl 
proposes tu bind il ovei- 1^ the colony for administration. 

Victoria is situated bL'i»'i?w» tlie 34th and 39tli iiarallels of son 
latitudi-, and the 141st and 150th lucriiliaiis of vast longitude. 
dividing lino hotwctin Victorin and South Auatralia was tixixl aa 
141st mrrndian of Mt«t longitude, but through an error in Murvoy 
prcsMit* rfcojrnisi'd boundary falls about li miles west of thti 141 
ntrridiiin. Tlie miatake t^lls ag&inst South Australici, and the rtuthorit 
of that colony have been demanding for many years a re-adjustmenti 
territory, but there seems little prospect of the present arrange 
being diiturlxKl. 'I'hc cxtr^mo hmgth of Vifturi:i from oa-st to iratt \ 
430 mile:*, and the hrcjidth 250 miles. Tho coast-line is about 
mileii. 

Qurnnflland extends from the 11th to the S9th imrallcl of son 
Intitudr-, niid from the 13Sth to tho 153rd meridian of oftst longit 
The iioumiary line separating the eolouy from South Australia oxt 
northwnrdB alorn; tho I41«t meridian of east longitude as f or aa 
SCtli parallel of south latitudo, and thence along tlie 13Sth mi^ridiati-j 
east longitude to the NMiboanl. Tlii.i line also require-i re-adjuiitn» 
the present n^putt-d boundary being in all probability too fur castv 
The greatiu^ length from tiortli to south is 1,300 mihn, and the g 
breailth i* KOO miles, Tho coastdino is about 3,5S0 mileji. The 
of QucMiiJand in some parts ia studded with islands. The largest i 
Stradbrolce and Moreton on the Houth-east coast ; while Thursda" 
Islimd. on the far north coast, ia an important place of call, and \iasi 
been stron;.;ly fortiljed as one of the lines of defence for the colouios of 
the eastern seaboard. 

The island of Now fluinea lies clow to the northern cxtn-mity of 
Queensland, being st^parnted from the mainland by Torres' Str.tits. It 
is ocoupimt by [hitch, English, and (!*nnan colonists, The British 
colony of New Guinea embraces all that group of inlands lying witliiit 
the Mist and IS.'ith meridians of east longitude, and tho &th and 
12th parallels of suutli latitude. The government ia Tested in an. 
Administrator and an Executive Council ; ami towards tho expiticca of 
goveniraent the three coloninx on the ejwtcrn seaboanl of Australia 
contribute ejich £5,000 annually, lly an Act passed in 1SS7 Queens- 



V- 

I . 

fir- 
V,- 



OP THE COLONIES. 7 

br-' - -■ _-~fl for tMJ yarn to hotd itself pnnianl.v rcKpoiiiiWe (or ibo 
< MDt nf ttiis subudy. The tir«a of Britidi New (hitiira in 

rm^ic^f.'-i ui be yO.UUO squfeK miles, ftnd tli« mtive popalatioD 3.')0,000. 
JjnatL AuMnliu exWKlH from the 1 Itli to llie 3fitb pomllel of south 
htiuJt, Bnd from tJi« r2S)th to tlia 141st roeridiikn of etud longituda. 
Tka [H-iiino- of .Si'Uth AustiutU, properly no oaUbd, li» between tlie 
lU > -" ]miullcl« of ^.iiith Ucituiln. nnd thn UUt iind 129th 
Mn£.< i-i lo&gitiul<i : the N'nrthern IVrritory i* boundirO by llie 

3ftk otxi Mill p*ntll«U of KOutb Utitndp, nnA tho l:;9tban(I 138th 
■r^li-.r ■ if o.-uit)on^tiKlc The £r«al«st teiigth of the colony from north 
' i ,M0 miles, aud the greatest vidtli ia G50 milefi, with a scit' 

I' ; L.'.0O0 ttiile«, of whioU about SOO miles »re waiJied by the 

l^Ii^i IX-ran, th(9 Araiura S«*, uiil tbo wat«ni of tbo Gulf of Car 
MnUii& Tbo mocit important iilandn beloiigitig to the colony am 
KanyKRia IhIadi] on tbu wiuth ooikst, ^S milin Iimg and 30 brond ; 
"'■ '-'-I, off Port Darwin, oii tho nortlitm const; IlnUiurst 
Ifrnm tliflliut-mrtittoncd by ApiOry Straits ; and Uroote 
:. ii Tf.. liulf of Onrpnntjuia. A.stockaiIe w«8 erected by C«[>taiii 

- ..I. M. ivill^ Uland ill 1834, but it was ftUndoned in 1829. 
-Mrn Autitralia consiua of the oo«ntr>" between the Uth and 
:4niUels of aouth Ulitude, kihI the UStii and 129th ueridiaus of 

' ' 'kUu Tliir griiitcit length north and itouth is 1,400 milr^nnd 
: 't width from cast to wwt i* 1^50 mili?«. The coast^liito is 
•km 3,O0U mile*. 

Twmatiia ia an island Bitaat«d about 150 milos south of Victoria, 
fan «htib it » separated by Bon's Strait. It lies between 40' 33' 
Ml 1' t'i' .ouib latitude, and the meridians of 141' 30' and 148^ 23' 
n i>Ie. Its iBiraateat lenf^b from ncrlli to huuIJi is 210 milua, 

jo^. ;:- ... jtntt htvodtb from oust to wcjit iic 200 mik-K. Tlu^rc aro 
■««al uiiall inlunds which belong to tbn colony. Plindent' Inland, in 
^— ■ Strait, has on ar«a of 513,000 *crc«, and King's Inland, tlm chief 
r.'Tib-wrstgroap, contain* 272,000 acres. Including the adjacent 
■. iho area of Tasmania is 20,216 square milm. 

- JCntU&ad lies to the east of Australia, its ufsrest point to the 

'■'iogOape Maria van Di«nieii, which ia about 1,100 miles 

' loai Fwiit, in New South Wal** Xew Zealand and its 

"K tie between Uie 33i-<l and r>3rd pnralleU of south latitude, 

II 166* 30' «ast louifitmln and 173° went longitude-. The 

in nit the Tasmon fk« wporate tho colony from the con- 

^'iiinilia. 

'.h Island, or New Ulnt^r, has n len^b of about 5]T> inilrx, 

I <^f almut 250 miles. Ilsi area is estimated at 44, 40T square 

It* coast-line at 2,200 niiles. Wellington, tlie seat of Oovom- 

ilte southern extremity of thiji iKlaiid. The South or, as it 

(sllod. iJie Middle lalaitd or New ^lunster, hos a lengtli 

.1 ., .... .'J'l miles by a bmdth of about 1£0 miles. Its area is 



8 



AREAS KSV BOTnTDABIES. 



58,A25 w]unr« milnt, and it« court-line Dimnnmt L',000 mitoL 8t«\ 
Isloiul, or New hetanUr, lien off tho Boath«m sxcmnity of i^out 
iBlond, ftod hiM lui aron of 665 aqaaro milM ; ita grMtest lengtli is 
miles )>y a br^itdth of 25 mtles, 

III 1887 & ]>rocl!UitBtiou waamftdedeolftHti;; Ike Keriua>decl»lauds,l)-ii 
lietweeii the 29tli wid 33iid parallels of wiutl) laljludi*, and tliu 1771 
aiwl I80tl» muriJians of went loii«iiudc, part of the colony of N« 
Z«ttUiiiL A pri)t(!i:toratc is rx«reiKcii I>y llu- Iiu{H^nnl <Jovcnini(tiit ot« 
thciCook lakmUoi- ]Irrvry<imii[>. Tho ilritisli Itinidcnt i» appoint 
on till' riNjommmdntion (rf tii« Sfw Zealand OommmeDt, which 
clefroVH the ooflt of ndminiiitratioD. 

Including the Cliatbam Inlands, the Auckland lalauds, Uie Cauitiliell 
laUnda, tb« Bounty lalanda, and many olhera which are depeodiMit, tho 
total ARB of tlin colony of New Zo&land is ntliuatcd nl 104,171 iKiuarc 
tnitea. 



CLIMATE. 



THE Tropic ot Capricorn divides Austrfttia int<> two imrtx. Of tlino, 
the northwn ut inter tropical portion cnntninK 1,14.1,000 sqtinrw 
milM, cotnprixiiis liulf of Qiwpiistftnit, tim Norlhrni TciTitory of Saiith 
Anstrnlia, ami tn« nortliwrartn-n diviuions of WcwtMTi Austrnliiu The 
wbolc of Xpw South Walf'^ Victoria, New Zealand, Tasmania, and 
South AusCnkH* j>T0p4)r, half of Queensland, and more than half of 
WeBt«m Aoslralia, coiuprititii;,' 1,932,000 square mtlea, «re without tlie 
UopicB. In a rc-^'ton so ext«nHlvi< \i:ry ;{rt^l. viiriPtioi u( climate nrf 
utunUty to I* eijieuled, but it may he .itat<'d as a gi-iH-ni] lair Hint 
ihe disKk* of AuHlnilaKia in milder tlian that of corrmpoiiding laiulii 
fa the Nortliera Hrniixphprr'. I>uring July, which ih the coldrxt month 
b MDtbrm httittidrai, onp-half of A>nitnil«ia has a mean t^-mpi-nituro 
""Piig fnxa 40* to 64', und tho other half from 64* to W. Tho 
fulloviiig are the areas subject to tho various average t^oiperatures 
^unnj; tbo month referred to : — 

TEs>t''nlun. Fihr. Ana In m. nllH. 

S5' ~ w „ _ aw 

4ff — 45* 3»,T00 

45; - Of „, »8.0(» 

M' — «r „. „ esi.soo 

tV — «S* SM.400 

er — 7c flis,ooo 

70* — 7S* „ „ 275.900 

75" — 80" 24,500 

Tbe ti>inpemturv tliiriDgDcfiembwrsngM from 50' to above S&'^I-'alir., 
kaJf of Austmlia liaving a meaa t«mp«ratura b«low 83". dividing the 
land into sones of avmig« summer teiuperatiu^ thfl foUowing are the 
srew which would fall to eadi : — 

TMnoMort, ttht. Aria In aq. idIIh 

«r — M*. „ lino 

H* — eo*. enjoo 

w — «r 1II.S0O 

6S- - TC- 74,300 

TO" — Tq ,.- •.■••■•.■•••.■..•b..*.*«>**i<*h .'- ncii^fx) 

75* — 90* „ 43n.200 

«0" — 85* T33.800 

as* — 90* _„ 870,600 

W — «5' _ 884,100 

STandoTW. 133,4<K) 

JmlAi]^ from th4! figiira just givra, it must be ooucC(J«k1 that a con- 
■UwmowaroAof the- continent is not adapted for colonisation by Euro}icati 
IBSW The region with a taeon summer t«iu])erature in excess of tir>' 



to 



CUHATE 



Fair, ia the ititorior of ilie Nortliei-n Territory of South Australia north of 
llif 20ili |utrall«l; iiiid tht? wliule of the country, eKceptiiig Uie seahOMTd, 
lyin^ bftwtwii the meriiliaiu of 1'20' and 140^ luid iioitti of the 2Stlt 
pumlkl, haK a DMian tcmprmturc in rxccvN of 90' Fnlir. 

I'linifttically. u well as gcographicaiiy. New fioutli Walea u dividedj 
into thrco marked (livigionis. Tliocoo^ta! region, which lies iH^twwtn th« 
pnmlk'lB of 28~ &iid 31' Eouth latitude, hns an avemgc Kinnmer t«i 
peraturp ranj;iiij; from 78" in llie north to C"' in the south, with n winter 
temp^-jiturt! of from 59' to 52°. Taking the district goDeroIIy, the 
differeiiot! between the mean sunmier and inesn winter temperature may 
bo Bet down on averaging not more tlmu 20*, a raii^ Htii&ller 
found in moct other partti of the world. Tlie fumed resurta 
M (nil terra n«ri,n tcalnanl bear no comparioon with the Fucilie kIo' 
NrB- Smith Wnlcs, either for nntiiml salubrity or for this compuintivo 
mildnrM of the summer and winter. 

Sydney, situated as it is midway between tho extremo points of tho 
colony, iu latitude 33' SI' S,, has a mean temperature of G2'U*, cor- 
responding with that of Barcelona, the ^roat maritime dty of Spain, wad 
of Toulon, in France ; the former hi-iii'[ in latitude 41* 22' K., and the 
latter in 43* 7' N. At Sydney the niirnn nuninicr leinperaturo is 71*, 
nud that of wintar 54', 'riie range is thus 17" l-'ahr. At Nttplw, whcro 
the mean temperature for the year is about the same a!< at Sydney, the 
summer li^mpeiature reaches a mean of 74*4', and the uiie-.in of winter is 
47■0^ with a ranj-e of 27'. Tliiiu llie summer is warmer, and the winter 
much colder, than at Sydney. Tho liighest temper.iture in tho shade 
esperienoed in Sydney until llie yeivr 189G was lOd-'J', and the loweat 
winter tempi-rature wiis 3fl'9°, pvin); a range of 71'. At NapltM tli« 
range lins hecn as great a» Kl*, the winter minimum falling xometimca 
below the freezing- point. The mean li-mperature of Sydney for a long 
Kcrieitof years wait — spring S'J", Minimrr 71', autumn tl4', and winter 54'. 

Fawing fiom the const to the tableland, a distinct climatic region is 
entered. Cooma, with a mean summer temperature of C5'4'' and a mean 
winter temjierature of 41'4*, may be taken as illustrative of the climate 
of the soulliPin tubleland, and Ariaidale of the northern. The GnU 
niiineO town stiinda in the cimtre of ihi- Monaro phibis, at an elevatioD 
of 2,6^7 fiH't above »ua-levet, and cnjoyH a numnier oi mild hk either 
Loniign or PoriK, wliilo its winti-rs are far less sevcri-. On the Xew 
England tnb1i<land, the elimntc of Armidale nnd othnr towns may bs 
connidered as nearly perfect as can be found. The yearly average Um- 
perature is scai-cely 56'5', while ibe summer only reaches G7'7', and tlta 
winter falls to 44*4'. a ran^e of temperature approximating closely to 
that of the famous health-reborls in the south of France. 

The cliinutic conditions of tho western diHtricta of the colony ore 
entirely diflerent from tho«e of tho other two region.-i, and have often 
been cited a* diNAgrneablc Compared with the ctiuable ti^nperature 
of the coMtal district or of the tableland, there may appear somfr 



ledfl 

im-sV 



OF KEW SOUTH WALES AND VICTOBIA, 



II 



for Each » raptitAtion. l>iit only by compariaon. The oluoaUi 

I'lniiiB, in epito of tii« LpaC of \An of Uiu Buminer, is vwy 

: I <« II of Bourk» maj hi taken aa an Hxatnpl«. SraUxl in 

thi IT. <; K^^At pUin of ttie iDterior, it illuHtmt«« pcculiitrly well 

lk» MnriM u wi-U lui lltt' excdlenms ot tiie climate of tho wbi>l« region. 

Bwfcn liMM rxiLCtly tbi^ naiae latiUul« an Cairi>, yi>l its moan 8iiinin«r 

IHfMvature i« 1 '!)* tmo, and ibi nicjtn annunt tMujicnttun} 4" 1«bs than 

4li of Lke Egyptian city. New OrlrAns olno lies on tiic «udo parallel, 

W tlui Atuoricon city U 4' l»ott«r in Kummor. Aa regards winter t«m- 

fualnrv, Bourke l«avn littte to bo dnirod. Tho tneon winter reading 

C like li>«niionieter is 54'T*, and acoom|Mnied as Uiia is tjy clear akica 

mi on atnonoe of snow, tlie season is both reii-e^hiug and eiijoj-able:. 

Tb" roinbU of New South Walcn raiij^s from an luiiiual average 

' ' iadm at tJie TnurMl Headi, mi the norllifrn cotist, to \v«k tbnn 

ii-'Jwa in lli« Traiut'l>arliiig couutry. The coii^tjil iIuitrictA nvoj-ngn 

lobes ot rain por annum ; on the tublrland tlin moan minfoJl 

K-fara, but ill tbo wpntoTii intrrior it in as low as 17 int-hoa. 

'-fM^'o miR^l of Sydnoy for tbo tiiiny-livo years piecediag 1894 

f)»l4 inches «bil« tn UH only SS-i'h iucWs fell. 

irtte of Victoria does not difTor greatly from tluit of Xew 
>. -liw; ibu beat, however, ia ([eiuirally Wat int«nMi in xummiT 
•ad thr cold grmt«r in winti^r. ^I<!lboiirii<-, which stniiit!! id tatitudo 
IT '.:r S.. lion a mran lctnf.cn>tun- of ST'S', and therefore corrcs|>onds 
. ittiBnit ill Now South Wains, Wniihiiigton in tb« Umbod States, 
l.~. J, IJalmn, luid Meuina. 'Dio dilTerimoc between summer and 
*iui^ is, iionever, Inaa at M«lbourne than at any of the placea 
■rst«ot>«t. Tli« mean tempeniure is 6" k^ thnn tlist of Sydney 
tod 7 ' 1<sa iliAn that <d Addaide— the result of a loiii* serieii of observo- 
lieiubnng: — ii|>riag,[i7*; summer, CS-3°; autumn, 087'; winter, 49'^*. 
n« hi^wt rtoorilei] temperature iii tlie aliadc at Melbourno waa 
110 :■. and the lowetl, 27*. 

UilUrvt, tlin SL-oond city of Victoria, about 100 milea west from 
MidUiamo, and Nisatod at a hnigbt of about 1,400 feet above sea- 
ItNl, hnji a niinimnm temperatuni of 29', and ti maximum of 101-5", 
Ik %rwr»g» yearly mtan b<ring I'll'!*. Botidi^o, which is about 100 
I nurth of Melbourne, and 700 feet abov« the level of the sea, has a 
IMlBr hit;)ier arenige temperature, ranging from a minimum of 3I'3° 
ta a naauiiiim of lOfi-4', the avemge yearly mean bciuK &9-l^ At 
VilMtt'a Pmnioatory, the moitt soatberly point of Australia, the 
^ttioiuai beat ia 3fi'6', antl the maximum 96*4% the avnrage yearly 
HuUdn^SfJ'?*. 

Durini: th<^ year 1894 th« rainfall at Melbourne amounted to S3-61 
ia^m. uul for a long acrint of ycara it averaged S5'58 inches, with an 
rrj 131 days during the year on which rain fell. At bondigo, 
.. 1S94, 2381 inches fell, and 34-04 at Portland. At Wilson's 
ttmicmtory Uto minfalt was 4<>-<i5 inches. 



12 



cxnuTE 



Aj sboal one-haif of tbn oolon}' of QumisLuul Itu* within the- tropics, 
it is but natvml to oxpoct that the cliinato Hhoulil bo vt^rj- wann. 
Th« tempcTfttura, bowcvrr. hax k Ioh daily ruigc Uijui that of otho? 
coiiDtri«a under tlie Baono iKOtfaerm&l iinea. Thin circumstance is due 
to the sea-breezes, which blow with gnat regularity and t«iiiper what 
wDulJ othiyru-i»e be au exoesdre beat. The Lot wiuUa which pivvnil 
during; lIr- auiniuer )» acoae oi the ctlier colooiea we uiiknowti ia 
Qaeeiuibind. Of taam; in a ttrrritory of such larse extent tlicri- urn 
maoy Tarintim of dimnti-. iiuil tb<? bi-at is ^iri-ater alaatK thr coiixt than 
on tiip cU-vntral landx of the interior. In thn nortliom pnrt.i of tJio 
coku)- tho high tempcntiini is vmy ttyiog to ponous oi European j 
deeecot. 

TIi« mean tenipMiitare at Brishftne, during; Deoemh^r, January, audi 
Felirunrr, is about 76', while during the months of Juno, July, and 
August it at-<^n^es about 60". Bridhkne, hovrevor, is situated near tli« 
lixtmniB nfitithMTi end of the colony, and il« average itmjiemtutf t* 
cvnxidpnibly Icm tJian that of many of the towns farther north. Thm 
thn wint/T to Rockhampton a v erage a nearly 65", while the summer hmt 
rivK alitiDHt to S(>*: ftnd at Townaville and Nnrmanton thn nveraf|B 
tsmperatiire is still higher. 

Th« arorago rainfall of Queensland is liigti, esppclully along the 
northern cnaxt, where it ranges from GO to TO inches per nmmni. At 
Brisbane SO'ilf' inches is tlie avnragp of thtrty-thrfe years, and cTen on 
UlO plains of the inlirior fn>m 20 to 30 inchfs usually fntt every year. 
During 1(^91, 44019 inches of rain fell in Brishnne, the niimher of wet 
days being 143. 

South AuBtralia, extending as it does over about 2(i degrees of latitude, 
naturally j>i«>ieuts ooiiaiderablt) variatioiui of cliinaU-. The southtnt 
portJuiu huve a climate greatly reeenibliiig that of ttio coast of It«]y, 
Th(! coldi-sl months are June, July, and August, during which tb« 
tcRipi-nitiiri! ix very agreeable, averaging for as^eH of yenrs .IS'*!', iil-7", 
and i>4' for those months respi-ctively. On the plains jilight frosts 
occasionally occur, and ice is sometimes seen en the highlands. The 
summex is the only really disagreeable portion of tlie year. The sun at 
that season has great power, and the temperature Crequoutly reaebee 
100' in the shade, with hot winds hlowing from the intejior. The 
weather ou the whole is reuuu'kal>lT dry. At Adelaide there are on an 
avnuMge 120 rainy dnys prr annum; during Uic litnt lifty-six y<'ar!> tho 
mettn rninlall has been 21'08 indie-s pc'raimuui, while farthi-r north the 
([uantity mcorded WM considerably Icsa. The country is naturally veiy 
Itenlthful. and in evidence of this it may be mentioneil that no great 
(Tpidemic baa ever visited the colony. 

Tlie elimate of tlie NorUiem Territory of South AuMfaUa ia extremely 
hot, except on the elevated t«blelanilii. Altogether, the temperature of 
this part of the colony is very idmilar Ui tlint of Northern i^ecnslaod, 



OP WESTBES AUSTaiJ.LI. AND TASMAXIA. 



n 




dkula U eqaally naJftvourable to BuRi[xwaiL It b a fncti 

' of notioe thttt llie mftlariAl foveRi wliUJi btd ho troublcgHiniQ to] 

1imfUM9cn of tlie nortiicm [wrtH of A mttiuUa ttlmort, and in Nome cases I 
aatiraJy. duappckr Kftcr thi; luid hiu imm ncttlad aiuI ooiuiolicUt«d by ' 
stock. TIm niB&dl in th« cxtrnnui north, t^iiporimlly in Jatattry and] 
Peliruary, Ncoeedingljr boavy. ThoaTora^j-carly minfiill in tbeoassb] 
diitticls is ftboiut <>3 indiea. 

Wettt«m AuMralia haa pnctiom; only two Bcasons — Uie winter, op ] 
mt rauuoa, wki«li coiuuteDC«a in Ajnil and enda in October ; and tbo , 
■mrr, or dry aeoMMi, wbicb compHan th« remaiuder of the year. 
rixig tile wnt —inn fraqaeut aud h<Avy nuiui £uU, luid thuiidi-niloniiK 
isharp shownn occur in tho aununcr. The ('xlrtini^H of drought and 
PX[>rri<'nc<'d in tlu: othftr i:«loiuai are almogit imkuown in \V<«t4^m 
[is, bat <lunRg ihe snii)u«r montha the north-iTBat coaat in aom«- 
: visted by hurricanes of great viol«nca^ Inlhpsautbemandearly- 
■ttled paRd of tbe colony tiw ni«m temperature is about di', but ta 
the more norlbem portions the iieat in cxufsuve, tUouj^b the drynetut uf 
(lie atnMHi>b<rrt.- looketi it preCetablv Co most tropioal climatea. At P«rtli, 
in ISltl, tbe inmn l<Miipuiutui« w«a 65', iho maximtuu being 107° and 
tlw BuniiBam ^' ; uitd tits rainfall for tbo aaaw yetx wm 23-72 iachm. 
Althoogfa tho heat is \tiry great during thrco montlu of ili«i ycnr, the 
nigbta and mornings nrs aImo«t always cool, and tliorc bring so little 
inoiature in the air no danger arises from camping out. 

Tsanianiav protected as it ia by its g«ographicaI poubion and by thtt 
tempcriux tntlueooe ol tli« surruundinj; ocean from extremes of bent of 
Dold, (-nJuvH an tutcecdinfclv genial climate. Tbe^^ater [Wrl of tlie island 
in tho o^kd re^oiu is chur»L-t«riKiHl by a mild niid F(|uable tmipcmtunr, 
tanging bK<rmt tbc extremes of 20'^ to H° in vrinUrr and 7t<' to 9S' in 
sanuubr. Spring and autumn are lh<: innat ptinunt Araaons of the year, 
Mpedally the latt«r, wlion the mean rctuling of tho tbcrmoOM'tor is about 
S7*. The mean t«tiipeiaturc of Uobart for tlic la.'st iif ty years has been 56'. 
Tlte richoiisa of iu ^ora ta an eridence of the genial nature of the climate 
of TiuimtaiiL, while the jiurily of ila atmoaphere is proved by the amall 
proportion of (yinott*.* dtaeaaus recorded lit the billx uf mortulity. The 
hot winds of the continent »f Atrntnilia ore felt in the nortJicrn piirtN i>f 
Taxntaina only, and ermi there Ibry are grr«tly reduced in tr>in[>i?nitiir(! liy 
thdr panagv ncroaa Bams Stntit- (Icnprally speaking, all through thn 
summer montha thera are altcmat*: land and nra 1>rcvics wbicb tf-nd to 
oool tlie atmofiphero eren in the hottest days. Tho climato ia frmh (Ln<l 
ikTi;>orxtiog, and is much recommended as a rostorntivn for those whcso 
BDBlitutioua have been enfc«>blied by residence in hotter climes. Largo 
Bmb(-r« of tourista in search of b««Jtb visit the island every summer. 
' minfiall, (-xcejit in tJie mountain diBtricta, is moderate and regular, 
hr avfMgi? downfall at Hciburt for s Iouk series of years was 2293 
inches, with H',i wot daya per ounum. In 1894 the rsiufuU waa 27'39 
inefaea, on 151 rainy days. 




M 



CLIMATE. 



Tho «limat« of New Zeitland is in acme rejects ramilar to that ot: 
Tasmania, but tli« chants of weather an<l teiuiiemture are often veiy 
suddea As Uie oolony exteniJit ovit more tlmu 10 lie-rrfea o£ latitti(I«^ 
its flinmte i» very vnripi!. That (if thi-> North lnla.Ti<l in soiiiewhiit similai 
to Ibt' i-limatt! of Ronit-, Mfiutprllicr, and Milan; wlii!« the Middle or| 
Southern Inland mnrr ri-Minibh'-s .lerwy, in the (.'lianntd I.ilandii. Tl 
mean annual tpiupitratiim of tho North Island is •''7'', and of thr Middle' 
Inland 53', whilo the ywrly averagi- of llie whole colony for oadi «nnsoa 
is as follows ;— Spring, 55' ; sunira^r. 63' ; autumn, 57' ; and winter, 4S', 
The mean tcmjinature of New Zealand Is lower than that of simil 
latitudes in Eurogie, thon^'h hi;{her than is experienced in America 
corresponding paraJlala. 'Die lueau temperature of the Souili or Middle 
Island is IvtM by about 5* than that of the North Inland. Snow very 
eeldom lieK on the ground at llip Ben-level in the North Island, and only 
ui'ciuiunally in thn Smith Inland. The sumniits of Ruapfhu, th« higl: 
mountain in the North laland, and of the great mountain chain in thi 
South lulnnd, arc covorod with |>prpHuaI »now from an aititndn 
".TiOO feet above the lerel of the sea. Ice is occasionallv seen in wint«i 
time in all parts of New Zealand. The whole colony Is fcuhjoct to st 
brecEM, which frei:|uently culminate in jtales. The rainfall duriug 1S9 
taried vnry much at thi- scvrral ohsprving stations. At Auckland it 
amounted to 41'II0 inchrH, while at Wellington it r«ach«d as hi^di as 
5I'00(! inches. At Liicolii. on the east coast of the Middlf Island, 
near (Jhristohurch, only 'i9->^ii inches fell; at Ihinedin, on tlie same 
coaat, but more to ihe south, there was a fall of 39-436 iitchea ; and 
Mokitika, on tho west coast of the South Island, a rainfall of no lens th. 
IIS-9'JO inches was recorded. Periods of lasting drought are aim' 
unknown iu the colony : indeed, il ia <rery seldom that the records 
any station show the lapseof a whole month without rain. Tho num' 
of dayn in the ytiar on which rain fell varind from 181 ut Hokitik. 
to 117 at Lincoln. 

The followini' table illustrates tho ndn&ll of Australasia : — 




RaiiifklL 




HilntkU urat 


In Kiiura loUaK 


AUMnIi*. 


Tuiiuiak. 


Ncu' Z-iuid. 


AUrtKlUlL 


Uail^ 10 lachna .,, 


1,519,900 
Ki3.I00 

3B9.900 

2i5.T00 

110.300 

47,900 

Ui, iuo 

I4,1CI0 






l,21!»,0Ol) 


10 I'. -M 

20 lo 30 „ 

30 I.) 40 

10 lo 50 

AU to SO ,, 


0,440 

8.380 
8.^80 


17.410 
17.410 


4e9,lH)0 

251.490 

166,090 

47,000 


60 lo 70 






M.10(I 
14,100 


Abin'e70 „ 












S,M0,7O0 


3fl,200 


ioi.4;o 


3.077.370 



15 



PARLIAMENTS. 



FBOil thv iiKtnrb uul ooaipmiition of tim populnlion at AnxtnltA at 
uhI (or komn tiinr after its first »cltlcn)«Dt, th« government Mid 
4inction of airaini nstumlly rested in tha liands of tJi« Goremor nlono, 
mi k wu noL nutil the ymr 1834, during the time of Sir 'Jliomaa 
BdalNii% Ibftt anv altcuipt was inadfl to provide tbo Uo^'emor with 
tWogabed wlviaeTs. In tbat year tlie first LecislaUre Council wu 
jannuKed, conuatbi; of nix gcutlciMtD, of whom bvn held the principal 
MKJkl pMitiofta in ihn ciAciny, the idxtJi boioK Mr. Jolin ^lAcnnliiir, din 
budcf uf tbr Auttniliiin wtiol induiitiy. 'fhe lint Act of IWlinment 
«m |mmmJ in AuRtralin vu n measuro dealing with tlio currency , in 
USl. Four toon mmoben vrrv added to the Council in the folloTJng 
jwr, bf UoveTDor Darling, and f)irtfa«T additions were made from tini« 
U tisMi On tlie Ctli June, 1838, the public were firat admitted to 
bar tWr dfibatM, for np to tJiat tLme eren llie reporters of tJie Ptmui 
kad t*^ cxcludttd. Thenceforth, howover, the proceedings wi-ra mar« 
(^l~ !''!v roportcd. 

-t3 Ihn iBonibcrB of the Legislative Council were nil nomi- 
•_. ... '-iitT Ooremor, hut in that year the principle of election was 
crii.^' 1. in conjunction with lliat of nomination. The nominated 
wtBitera were twelve in number, nix being offldal and six tion-«ifficiaL 
3k alMtml tDetnbent couipriKed a number of men wlioiie nameft have 
hnnw blutodc, such aa W. C. Wentworth, 'William filand, William 
I^waoa, Clukrl« Cowprr, Tcn;noe Aubnry Murray, W. II. Kuttor, 
■Ikiad* Lord, Ricbnixl \\'ind(»cr, Alexander Mnclcay, Itoger Thnrry, 
'Qarim NicIioIkmi, aii<l John Dunmorn I^ne, die two luit mentioned 
hing aisMig tbo repreoentativeq of the E'ort Phillip district, now known 
■ Victoria. Mr. Alexander Macl««y was the firat Speaker of this 
t«^, aac«eeded by Sir Cb&rlM Nicholson in 181G. 

rutiaJ repreaentation in the LefidHUture did not altORuther sutitify 
tt* oabintMa, for a* far bock aa the .v««u- 1845 the ({ueKtiim of R4«pan- 
fl&le OovomnieDt wm publicly disouwiML Hie ujiitution onco awakened 
*m u«T«r allowed t« Mutnbcr, but aisled liy a vigorouH and ontcpoksD 
PiVK as wrJI aa by the talentod oratory of Home of the patriotic mcoaben 
«< tk'. Ln^slalure, it continually becsme more active until in tJi« year 
JUS iiu> Imjierisl Parliament psaed a moasnre to sanction the new 
CMatHutiiio Lliat the oolouists souf-ht. On the 22nd 3tay, 1856, the 
InA Auitraliaa Parliament under Respunsibte Government was o|ieoed 
% Kr WiIliaiD Denison in Sydney. It uonHistcd of a nontiiiab.'d Upper 
Hmwb^ obIImI the Legislative Council, the number of nicmben of wlucb 



l6 



PARLIAUENTS. 



WM not (lefinituly fixed ; and ft LegiBluLive Axavmbly^, couaiBtmg of fiftjwj 
four flecUnl loi^iulMsrs, of whom Sir Daniel Coojier was tlioaen Uie firsB 
SpMilcnr. Tho first Ministry consisted of Sir Stuart Alnxauder DoEiAlil* 
"Oil as Colonial Sccrc^tniy and I'reiniur ; Mr. Thnnias ilolt, Colo 
'LVeasiiror ; Sir Wiiliam Manning, Attorney-General ; Mr. -J. B. !>■ 
Solicitor-Genei-al ; Mr. CI. K. Nichols, Audit or- Ocnernl ; und Mr. 
C. Mayue aa Bepreaentativo of the Govenknieot in tho Ijcgislntive J 
Couuoil. From tUat period the principled upon wfait^ tlie )>oTenun«Dt| 
of New SouUi Wulta ia baHed have iiL-ver altered, tliou^li thorn faftvel 
l)Rini Kome chiui]B:n in tbo dctoiltti VnnouK nniendiueiita of the Eleot<xnl j 
Act liAve tiikcii ptocR fnno timft to time, hy wliich th« number oti 
rB p nwontotivnt to the Ijt^HUtivn Axwrnbly hiui bivn Inrjfcly incretused, j 
and nltenktionn hkvo tAk^m pbco in the direction of i)ia retno%-al 
restrictiona, and the extcDsion of the liborties of thr ppople. Tfat 
Legislative Council now numbers aixty-six memberB, njid tho toniuvl 
of m seat in that body is for life. The only qualification required oCl 
njewbem is lli.it ibey »hall be 21 years of age, and uaturalbom orf 
iiatiimli-Hed iiubje:iti. Tlie ifaiiliticutioTt for a mcin)>er of the AteiedtUj 
ix tlui hokiing of an ttloctor'n riKht. Mitnibcm nf thu Jyivrer Homit'^ 
rrccivc a remuneration of .£300 a year, li«t mcinbera of tho CouDcQj 
ai-o unpaid. Fte« peases by mi! ami tram are rooeired by mombeni 
uf l)otJi Houaea. 

A now Electoral Act, luweiited to on llie 13tli June, 1893, Teniod<iled| 
thu wliolo clecUiml aynli-m of New South Wale*. The nuniljer of me 
of the A.-uM-mbly i* liied at 12,'), and tiut colony ta dividml into 125 
(electoral distriiTtt. Ko elector can have mora than one vote, or, in ^ 
othw wordfi, tho "'one man one vote "' principle is enforcod. 
perw>n entitled to vote must mo that bis name is iniK-nbed ou 
electoral roll, and must provide himwif with a docummit called 
" elector's ri(;ht." without the production of wbicli he cannot demand 
ballot'])a|>er. The aulTruL^e is manhood, the only coiulitioiia being tweh 
nioiiths' rcaidi^iiee in tlie colony in tine case of an immigrant, ami fhr 
Tiinnth.i' mideniM! in Uie electoral diatrict in wliich tin- right t,o vot« : 
dftimefl. Tho duration of Parliamnit is limitnrl to thrnp yrars. 
havn Imnn Boveiilf^U Pariiameiitu in New South Wide*, the a» 
exintence of which has been two yeais thr^i months and fourteen 

The example of New South Walea was not without elFrct on th9^ 
other Australasian coloniea. Victoria, after ila separation fn)m New 
So*ith Wales, was lepp»lal«d for by a Connei], aome of the inMnbem of 
which were nominated and (ftlien elected ; Init on tJw Slut Novrimhor, 
lf<Ji<!, thn tinit Parliament under thn- new t^nstitiition of the colony- 
wn« opminl. Thin Constitution difln-od from that of the parent colonyl 
in that tlie Le^lative C'-oundl as well as the Asaenibly was elective ; 
it consisted of thirty members, while ther« vn« fifty-ei};ht in 
Lower House. Mr. W. C. Hainea waa tie first Premier. Tliere 
now forty-eight m«Bibers in tbo CouneiJ, and ninety-five in tbo AsseniUyJ 




OONSnTDTIOS OF TASVLAyiA. 



17 



Ifentan of tfa«i Cppt-r Kouso must be of the full iLge of 30 yi*T%, nrifl 
tor one year previous to lh« el(«tiou must h»\v poMWMMl n fnwholil 
taM« lo the Tslne of XlOO )M.'r iiiiuum, fn-u of t-riciini1inini:i?. Tho 
tenure of oSiee ts sis yearti, aud Utaxv is no rrniiu:icrnti»ti nttnclied to 
Um punitioD. Elwton utuKt potums a Xll) rrrcliold or n IcnsE'liotd of 
X'J9, or br mortgu^rii i» posKesMon of |>ro[N!rty rntod at not less than 
£10 fvr yvnr. tir«dnut«s of lirittiih or ('Qloninl Universities, legal and ' 
taedMl pmctitioncni, cU-rgym^n, oortiliod Rchool-mnstere, military and 
MTal offi«eni, and mntriculntcd students of tbc Mclbovimv UnivcrMltjr 
an eotitUrd to tbo franchiiw. Morabors of the Assembly munt be 21 
fcara of age, natural'bom oi' Daturalisod subjecls. atid bavu been 
rniwlmil in th« oolonjr for two years. The reiniburHemeut ia X'240 [wr 
—*■■"", with a free railway pass. Three yeun is Uie limit of the 
dnratiou of a I^tiament. The itiiflragi-- is iirHcttcall.r uuuiIkkkI, with 
midonoL' in the 4X)]ouy of twelve months' ilurution. Tliti't! buv« beun 
mxtwn Purliiinients in Victoria und^r the present Coiuttittitioii, tlio 
avenge <lunition of nuch beinff two years six months nnil .ii-vcn dayx. 

Tii0ii>ania,onit«sopBrationfromAcwSotith Wales atthci^ndof I82i>, 
v-as provided with a nominntM) Li^^ative Coiindl, under which it was 
fEOvemed for some thirty yc'Ars. Following tho lead of thpir ncighlmurs, 
the eokxiitU of ibis island also agitated for a Constitutian, which was 
cvrntnalljr giknti^ to tliem, and i^ame into foruu ou the 3nU December, 
m&S, TMmania now jiosBosnes a Legislative Council and a Legislative 
JiMBoMj, both of which arc elective. Thn Council coiisiBtK of cight(«n 
momben, who hold ilii'ir scntx for aix years, thrtM^ membi^rs, or one-sixth 
o( the whol« number, retiring every your. In th"; r«s<^ of ml interim 
deotlwis Uie inoooniiK member holds his sent only ns long as his pre- 
deoewMir would have held it. Members must bo 30 ycara of age, and 
natnnl-bont or naturalised subjects. Judges of the Supreme Court, 
plaoenen (exoepb Miniatera of the Crown), and Oovernment contractors 
are dtscinuified from littins in either Upjier or Lower UouHe. Members 
of bothnouaeareMTireareiinburHeuientof expennea, which was oi'igiiially 
fixed at jCIOO per annum, but hoK ainue been reduceil to £i>0. Klectora 
lor the Council must pa>»eKN a property (|unHticiition of £'iO per miiiuiii 
freehohlorXtiO l<ati>ehold,bcetdo which there nnt profeseioiml and educa- 
tfanal qualifications, coupled with a condition of residence. There are 
tUrtf-eeven members of the House of Assembly, who must lie 21 yearn 
of af(e and natural'born or naturalised subjocts. Tiio tluraiion of the 
AxMimUy is now limited to three years. Adult males are qualilied to be 
electors if their uamware on the aasesamenl roll of the district as owners 
or occopiemof any property ; or if they are ia recsdpt of income, salary, 
or wags at tbo t%U'. of XCO p<;r animiii, and have resided in the district 
lor twdve montJiM, rationn and bousi' allowance bein^j included in com- 
puting wages. Tbo eleventh Parliament will expire by effluxion of time 
to December, 189€. The actual term of exixtcnce of Tasuiauiau Parlia- 
meau has averaged three years eight months and tea days. 




i8 



PARLIAMENTS. 



I or J 



SoutJi AustTAlia, like tuOBt of tJie other Austrftlion colonieii, was at fii 
■abject to Ui« notnuieo Bjstcvn of a|i|)otnt«i«nt to th» LeguUtive Comn 
but in 18(11 it olrtAJned the boon of adding deoted loeiaben to 
nominatML (Jfm.-ttitutional Goveminvnt wiw grvnted to the cobxu' 
18&6, And tlie lititt rorliammt undtir Uin new oiilcr of thing* UMnnl 
on the 32nd April in tli<^ fnllon-iiiD; ymr. The South AuitLniliiLn I. 
lature consists of n LcginUtivc Council of iwMity-four niombcm 
House of Asseniblf of fifty -four. Uoth f iousoR arc eleictod by the p<«pli 
Eight inembetra of tlia Council retire ev^ry three years, but areeligible 
r»«leotioii. Memben are not required to have a property qualifioai ' 
but th«y inuMt ht.vf> rewded iu the province for three years, and be 
Im« tbnn ^0 yean of u;^. Ad «kftor niu«t h&ve a freeliold of £bO 
IcBHobold of £'20 Aiuiuid valui', or lie nil nccupicr of u dwi?lltDg of 
ol«ar annual valu«of £'2!>; itnd ln-munt bnvi! bncn rc^Ktcrml nix rai 
prior to tho deotion. Thn pniiinpi<- of "om- mitn mtr: votn" hut 
been in «xi«tMiO» in South AiiHtrnlin, and foi- f^oni'i timn thnrr haa 
in tore* a promion by wliich Mea-faring persons aiKl others tcm 
absent frou) the colony can nevertheless reoord their votes at n geni 
election. Meinbera of the Assembly, na well as elect«ni, are qnjtl 
bj being 21 yean of 8g«, and liaviu}; been enrolled for ux 
bitfore the election. Femalo mfiiwgo wa* granted in IHiiri, and 
vot«d for the Grct time at tJi« general diction hold on the 2i)Lh 
ISM. Uembcrfl of each House receive £300 per annutn. Th« dunv 
of « I'Brliftmeut is liioitntl to three yeara. Thero have been foo: 
I^irliaments, with nn nvemi^ dumtion of tvo years and nine moai 

Queensland, which forotod part of Now South Wales until the end 
tbeyear 1&59, was never onder the nominee system as a aejiarate colon; 
bub coHiuieiiued willi Respontible Government, umier which itd 
Phriiamemt was opened ou the S9th Maj, 1S60. Its If giaUtivo Oa 
eonaisttt of membnra noDiinnttid by thi- llovwmor. Thi'W nro Uiirtyn^i; 
at prmnnt, Init no limit in fixiMJ to i.ho numhiT. 'l*hc tf^ium U 
life^ ITio qualiticBtion for mcmlH-rs is tJiat th*iy mniit he SI yi 
«f ag«>, (Ui4l jiAUirni-hom or imlurnlieed subjects. ITiey receive 
remuneration. The Lesislative Amembly, of which there are seventy, 
two members, is elect^nl by the peofile. Blectors are eurulli-d under whitt 
is practically maiiliouj bu irrupt', tlii> only oonditioD bcin^' kik nionthii' 
reside nci^'. PenonH who jMMiiM-m fn^dtold property of tlin vulue of £1 
or boune propor^ of an annual valur of £10, or who hold property 
hMwe at nn annual rent of .£10, or a pnxtornl Inwc or lioenso from t 
Crown, ari^ ciitith-H to votfi in oviry Hiitrict within which Kuch {>roi 
may he. Any person on the eWtoml roll is qualified to be n member 
tba Amembly. The duration of ParJianient is limited to three years, a. 
Tnembers of the Assembly receive jCISO a year, with a tree railway paaa^ 
nnd travelling expenses in the case of those niembers who are uot in 
iveeipl of official anlary. Then- hav« been eleven ParlimuenlH, 
arerage duration of whivb fawt been three y«Mn and three niontli^ 




CONSTITUaTON OP NBW ZEALAND. 



19 



Ib S»w ZmlaoA, am m the otbuf culantnii, tbi' forni of ^ivn-miiieBC 
■> tfe avlf 4^ ■«« of » luixMl iliMcnjition, but in the nmr lti'>2 an 
i0mm fMMMl iff tku Itnpoi&l Puliomimt confiTring apon Out ooloov 
« OiM*iiuli»u, Now Zirnhnd wm iltviitrd into hix prorinccx, wliicfa 
nn MlmiaBBtly miTtrwayl tA niDis vncli gorcrned by a 9uperiiat«adMit 
mi • hnvuidiiii Cowncit dectod on » fivicbiMi wluch vraa practicallv 
^■ntat to b— hold mlha^. The provioeial irBtem, however, did 
am fim MriAirtimi, aad wu aboUsfaMl iu I81C, when a sy>t«m ot 
■" " ataxy UavenuuMit (or the wlwte of the «olony cnint* into 
nte I^i^iahitttre now oonnabi ot two bnuwhett. Ttierv la s 
I ConiMiil of lurtytuur iiombiMH. Prior la l«dl the iii«inb(!ni 
dwtr ■aati tar life, but in th*t year An Act wui [iMBOd nadK* 
all new jMO ui tient* to tho Ooiuicil m-o tiuwle for •evro jrans 
, th mn rii BiMnbdni ore eliinbit' for r*«p{)ointuumt Tbo boiMNnrinm 
)M> fi>-r mmvm, witli n liprtatTtton of i^l 5s. per sitting in cam of 
•^iKsg five littinga in ona aMtdon, except fn>ui illucss Of 
itnAvoidttUe causK Tlie qnoli Heat ion for luMiiberaliip i» thai 
'iiuat W 21 jrvwM of &j!^, and li natonkMxnv or natunliaed 

. h-t^t. Una-flaurth of Uic toUl uuroberot memben is requinid 

■» Wh a tfttoruai. The Houm! of RnprmM-Dtatives consisM of Bevedty- 
hmwmatitnrtt, of whoai lour aro Sfaoris, o4actml to reprment thi> nativaa. 
Th ^mMHi atiiiii for nanbarahip ia aunply regtstratiou as an elector. 
ChBWB of MtbAr aeot who are not leaa tluut 31 y ears of a^ am entitled 
ft aela, provided tfwy have reaided in the uolooy for one year, an<l in 
Ika ^Jaeund dialrict for Ihrro months prior to r^iatmtion, or bold 
Hifcl mttm ol the ralue of £'2j. utxl liave hdd aueh for lix months. 
I arw ofttitled to be plaeed on Uie Eiinipcan roll if duty poaaaw 
UnaMoatfan ; if net, tbity am cntitlnd tn vote in uno of tbtt 
laiivo deoComtts, providrvl they «ra of age and mode tbarain. 
raoiphi of "one tnnn nno vote" has liocn in existence in the 
> Car a nanthrr of yearn. The bonomriiini of a incint>cir of the 

I )4 RepnawnUtivea ia £340 per annum, with travelling expenaea 
tmui Wellington ; and a deduction of £'2 |)er silting is Riado 

II alivtacM irucu the Uoaae exceeding five daya per session, 
I dui' to Bafauna or other unavuidolile oauaa. Hie dutatioa of a 
ciMiit ia Utree yearn. Twenty memben are required to fonu 0. 

TIh-ri liave been M;vejt Parliamfittii iiniliir tlie prewent Cou- 
Cintion, th* BTrm^ duralion of oarch being nearly two ytmn leu 
Mlhaaiul t.w.'ult liiur (lavs. 

V>aMra Auotraiia, wldcfa was proclaimed a Dritiah colony on the lat 
■M, IMS9, waa tbf> laat of the group to enjoy tlio privilege of Keaporaalilo 
L'ttavauvml. At an early stage of its oxiaten<:e the colony poaaoMCd a 
live ('/>uncil, oonsiatiiig exc1u«vely of otficials nominated by tha 
ar. flobasqiMNttly, elected incnben were ad<ted, r e prwentjng tbo 
.■1 dliBlata of the colony, umI this state of things oontunied 
[ mS the ni of 1^90, whan tho n«w Conatitutton ouue into exbtenoa. 



20 



PARLIAMEXTS. 



TTn<Ior it two llougc<B of Legislature were c«tabli»hed, tbo Upper Boa 
consisting of fifteen nominated uembers, aud the Lower HouFtc of tlil 
iiiernVjers, repreiieiitin;; iJm thirty ek-etoraWs rnto wliieb the t-olony 
divided. An aumuded Cinutitution Acl, liowevur,oaiuR into ftiroe iu 18' 
when tJie total population of Uk? ciiloiiy wa* found to exooiil G0,000 
sonit. IJndi-'rthL' ni-w Actthi- LrgislAtix-eCounRilconKiKtH of twejity^ 
(ikutMl nit^mlx-rs, nnd tho Ijogixliilivn Assembly of thirty-tlin^n mcoi 
A niftntipr of Hthoi- House moat possess freehold eiitftto to tlie value 
£250, free of Micumbi'ance. An el^witor for the Upper llouse ni' 
have resided in the colony for twelve months, and for that time hv 
held a freehold eetAte of tjie value of .£100, of have been a houaeholdi 
oc'cupyiii;; & duelling; of the annual value of £25 for the same |)eriod 
or lie muat occupy « leaaehold esi.-it« of the aunuul value of £i'', wii 
(d;{ht«eitmoiit)iHof tliH teiise torun,orliave lieldaMmilnrlt^asehotd fur 
post ciKliti-cn iniiiitlis tir a Crown lease of nn unnuiil vnlue of not I 
thiin £10; »r he must be on the cteetoral roll of a Municipality or \- 
Board district in respect wf priipcrty of not less than i!2.T iinnuiil 
To tjunlify a person as an elector for tbo Assembly, he must ha' 
resided in the colony for six months, and for that period have held a 
freehold eAtiite of not less than £50, or a house of nn annutd vklue of 
not less lIiAii £10, or a IcrLsehuld eetate u( siuiilur value, or u pastoral 
or running leAsa of not hiss than £5 per annum, or be inKcribed on 
the roll (if a Municipal or Itoads Board district within the electorate. 
Mcinlxtm nf thn Lcgialnture are not paid for their aervices, hut they 
tnivet free over the railway lines of tlw colnny. The lirst Premier 
was the Hon. Sir John I'orrast, K.O.M.G. 

The foilowini; tAble shows the number of members of each of tlie 
Houses of Parliament in the various colonies, with the remunetxtiom 
whicli they receive in coii^iUeratiou of their services : — - 



^ 



Ootonjr. 



LcghlBUire OounoU. 



Ko.at 
anta1>tt% 



Bunnnomtloii. 



Ijn^iUUve AiKitibty. 



Ko.sf 

mcmbtn. 



£300 per Mi^^ 



lT«w South Walei 

TIetorift 

QuMDilanil 

Soiitli Aii»t.nkliit..., 
W««t«rri Australia 

Ttktmaiiia 

!i'«w Ztahnd 



OS 

38 
H 
31 

ia 

4( 





12S 

un 
72 
M 
33 
36 
7* 






£200 per um. 


£30 per aim. 
£150 t<crann. 



£S00r«r 
£2*0 .. 
£150 „ 

None. 

£50 per >DD. 

£-24(1 .. 



FcDKItATIOX. 

The question of fetlcration having been no prominr^nlly brought beifo 
the publie of Austmlasia during nvciit ytmrs, this chapter would be 
iu<:utiipletc without a brief record of what has been dooe i» the matter. 



TUe F£D£BAL HOVEUEKT. 



21 



Tlw H)t)aeC did not ewotpe the Attmtion of tliom wlio drrw up tbc out- 
Bantf Um GtM frw Connlitmion for Australia, kikI vho intiml sketched 
«■! * taiiiy aomprebenidvv fodantioD schemo. Unfortunalely, Iiowev«r. 
Ik pfVfiontian wiu mixed up with others that were unpopular, a»d 
«• kllowrt) to MDk out of sight with titeiu. Still, from liuiu to time tlii- 
•nl trf watiL >ir union kiiiooi^ the Antnllan coloiiim wui iiimI*.' furciUy 
1, and the iilt« of fed>-ralion ba^ gmdaally buoome moru nail more 
litH-tuBiuDB of the Hulijtfct toolc jAiux: in tiiv AuMtntlian |>rMt!>, 
(ocfrii'no'B weif lit^Id, theiettult of which wam thiit the qiirittioii ciiinc 
tkif Iroivrinl Fiirliiitn«Dt, whi«h pniMxl ft iiirn»uro permittiiije llio 
fenucian c"f a Ftik-ml Council, to u.hi«h any colonv tliat felt indinni 
■ iL Mt cnalit iKad ilrlvjcatM. Tho first iDc«ting uf the Federal Council 
^ hi'M 3L HnlMTt in januart-, ISSS, tli« colonies of Victoria, C'ueens- 
mi. TuuuMXUA, Western Aiutntia. and Fjji being ie^>mt«ted. Mew- 
Jbath Walr«, HootJi Australia, and New Zealand d«olu»ed to Join, but 
tmik AsrtnJia Rent delegate* to a Hulwequent nii!etin]t. Tim Council 
!■ heU six ii»«tiiif,>n, at whidi rarioua matt^rx of inlorcolontnl iut>n-«t 
kn bma dbcUMwd. It U, liowe^'cr, n purely drlilicmtivu body, oiul 
IMoMMa neitkar funds nor powen to put it.i Ivgitliition into forci*- 
A Bmrf iii>[n>rtant iU-it tow«nl« tlio federation of tho Anntnilasian 
wajt ilikiii in Ft'tiruary, IHOO, when a Oonfcnmcc, conaistin}; tif 
friMD rach of the Mven coloniee, wan held at lli« Parliatm-iit 
Xvltxiume. The meialKtra hdd seven meetiiiKN the fcbuU l>eing 
Ike aib|)tiua of an Addreaa to the Qut«D, aubmitting ocrtaiit n^>l(itii>ii.n 
wUA sfflrmed the ilesirablcnetiti of an uarly union nndrr the Crawn of 
(ka AiwtrKliati oolonii'Ji on prinriplm ju»t to att ; auggRstvd that tho 
r AiMiialaaian oolonioi aliould be entitli-d to admisnon to tbn 
upon terau to hr. afterwards agrrrd upon ; and recommendm] 
abonld be taken toward the appointment of delegates to a 
Aastr*laaUn ConvRntion, to conuder and report upon an 
KilMnie for a Federal Constitution. 
anunlaooe widi tbem resolutions, delegate! were appointed bj the 
Aualralasian ParliaOMnta, and on the 2nd March, 1891, the 
Anatialaaian Convention oomtnenced ita siUingi in the Legis- 
Aasenbljr Chainbers, ftlaoquarie^rnot, Sydni!}-. Tlxre were- 
>• BMfBlicn of the Convention altogether, nach colony Mmiling 
vHh the nccv|ition of New ZmlnncI, wlucli had only thm reprv- 
ivw. Sir Henry Parki's was nnaninioiuly cliom-n as I'raaldent, and 
ftanurl GriHitb »a Vice-Prtsidr-nt, Keaoliitions were adopted 
tbe following principlM : — 

If powmn and righta of existing colonies to t«iunin intact, 
fitn-pt an regards audi powers as it may be nececaary to hand 
nrpr to Om Federal OovemmenL 
No alteration to be nude iu State boundariea vritbout the 
oinaMit of t)ie Lecidaturea of audi Stntea, u« well an of the 
Feileral Pariiaiuent. 



22 



PABLIAMEXTS. 



3. Trade between the federated roloDiee lo be absolutely free. 

4. Power Ui iinpcae CusbomH and £xciae Duties to reat in tin 

Federat GuvcrntiKint and PhrliamenL 

5. Miltbiry and Xaval T>nf«nc« Forosi to he uudt^r arm ooidbmuicL 

6. Tht! Fodural Coiutitution tn aiakc {iroviHion t« mablo «aeh State 

to mako onwnclmQata id its constdtution if neoeaary for tlw 
parposw of Fedaration. 

Farther resolutions approved of the frnming of a FodOTnl Constitution 
vhicb ebould establish a Senate and a Uonee of Keprescntatives — tbe 
latter to poaseas the sole pover of origtnatJDK money bills : also a Federal 
Supwine Court of Appeal, and wi Eiecutive conMBling of a Gov«mor- 
ti«n<^ml mid Kuvh pontons ns might be appointed ilb Iiik adviHun. A 
draft Cunstitutiou Bill vras adoptwl by the- Convi^ittion, but no Ktepa 
wen; tokiMi bj' any of tho colonics towards the adoption or rejection of 

the Dchr'tlic. 

A HPhomp which proiniKiw a more Bpwdy rcaliRntion of the hopes of 
fodcratiouista was fonnnlated at n Confontnce of the Premiers of (he 
Australasian colonies, excepting New Zealand, held at Hobart in the 
opening months of 1896. It uas decided to ask the Farllament of 
eaefa colony to pniu an Rnnhling Bill ijemiittiug the election of ten 
poiaons to rqirrsi'nt tlin colony on a Pi.-dcmt Oonndl. The ctutins of 
^■N Council, it wiix dctnrminr'il, xhonld he the framing of a Ko 
Conxtitntion, to bn Kubniittorl to thr rlrctoiii of the vnriniiii cotontca ; 
their aj^irornl hy means of tlin rrfnrendum. So for pxcrllont 
hav» followtxl thom- proposals, the i'arliamimt:) of Nen- Sooth 
Victoria, South Anstraliii, aocl TaHaania hann^ passed Enabling 
while it is expected that th« Queensland Legislature will do like« 
at an oarly date. 



»3 



DEFENCE. 



13? aD tlip colonics n smiill penusnent military force, coouBtinK for 
the moBC part of artiUeiy and mbmarine miners, ia mamtniutnl. 
ne colouists of Aufitnlasia have alwavs manifested an objeciiou to 
tlw maintt^naoce of a standing luiay, anil a iliHpotdtiou to relj nininly 
Qpon tbe jnitriotisin and valour of tlui dtixeiiK for tbdr own di-fcncc ; 
bat «*eli colony ptuateiwH a more or Ion complete nj^irtcni of fni-tilica- 
tions^ ariDpd with expensive ordnsncc which requires a more i-e^iilur 
luul eooMant attendance than could well be bmloved by chose who 
devote only a portion of their time to military affairs; hence it hux 
been fountl adviaaUe to instttut«' the ninall pemiauent fon«a allu<lc<l to, 
vhoM diief duty it is to man tliii furtiGcutiuiiK luul kif-}) the valunble 
umaBieBla tbuvin in a ntato of efiUiient^y, no iik to hn miuly for rtny 
«nergvney. At thf sanm time;, it w i^xpivtt^i thnt they will pi-ovf the 
nnclcua for an elfuctivn dnfcnco force if nver himtiiiticw khnuM unfortu- 
Mtfieijr occur. The grwit*r ]>ortion of the Anntralinn forces, however. 
MOMstB of Tolnnt«era enrolled ander a system of partial paymenl> which 
aftuds an e^cdve defence fotce without the disadvantages and expense 
«l ft staudiDR army. The m«n receive pnyment according to tlie namber 
iii pand«s owl lURht driUa thc>' attend, in order to compensate diem for 
In* of wages durui); the timti they are awny frmn their Rniployment for 
thic |rtirp(*D of n^'iriving military instmction. Tlif ccmnnemtion MiriiN* 
■a thu (liffcri<nt cotntiies tho X(tw Si.ut.h Wiiics scale being Us. for eUfh 
whole-" i*y panwh'-, 4s. for a hnlf-jiny pimulp, nnd L's. for a ntftht drill. 
There has bcwi a marked tendnncy in most of the colonies to dincourajte 
the services of thoee who aro purely voiuntonrs, as the systfin was 
found to work unsatisfactorily, especially in the country ittstrii'ts. In 
New Zealand and WeMeni Australia alone is the volunteer system tho 
mahmay of defence. 

Hm foilonrinj Uhlc ithowt tlic HtrenKtli of the military forcM main- 
tained by eodi colony. Th.« ligurcM refer lo tbe end of Uie year 1894, 




DKFBNCE. 



witli the exception of those for the colony of Victoria, which r»for to 
the Ut July, 1S95:— 



OTonjr 


Md. 


FkrtliUI* 
FWd. 


Unpiilil 




New SouUi Wales. 


63A 

8U 

I» 

«2 

88 

14 

315 


4,0H!I 
2,817 

l,8D<l 
1. 187 

"«8 


840 

\,rm 

SS4 
740 
069 

4.173 


0.604 
ti.imi 






776 






1,411 
4,387 










1.38S 


10,407 


12.710 


94,512 , 





850 

3.:m 

721 



Tlie figons relntiug lu Xew South Wales, Victoriu, Que e rial ftiicl, anil 
Tixsmania include the uieiubcrs of the ciiiliuti rifle chilis, numWrii^ 
about 4,500 men. These men are all trained to the use of thn riflo 
anil nri! not unnccustoniccl to drill, an<l in time at uif-sX will he nvnilable 
to (ill the ranks of the regular fnroeji. The niembem "f the rifle clubs 
of New South Wnlee, tiuiuberiug 650 men, were enrolled as n volunt 
reserve force in 1895. 

The reluliie strength of the ^-arious anna la the colonicH tnny 
sunimarim^ lui follows : — 

Hlntl. »iid at! Krm* not (fuuinuiat«iil ,.,...., »., 

Artillery , _„.u,.., .'., 

Kogine*™ ............ 

Cavulry , 

Mounted Riflo« 2.707 

lufuitry ]S,S55 

making a total xtrcngth, m nhown abore, of S4,>'>12 men. 

In addition to the military forces enumerated, all tlie colonies, 
the excejttion of Tasmania and Western Australia, have small corpi' 
of Naval Volunteier Artillery, or a partially- paid force of a iiitiiilnr 
uhitract(-r, capable of being employed eiclier aa a light artillery luiid fnrc 
or on botird tlie local war vetutelB. In Vidorin there wiis, on the It 
July, 1*!96, a permaneut naval force of 181 men. The strength of 
nmrinc forces nf tin- culcjniex is as follows: — 

Now Soutb WoIm 544 

V'ictorU , 3S3 

^(Hirmlui'l , „ 339 

South Aii«lntUa 143 

New Zvoland _ 1,371 

Auatmluiii - 3,SI8 

Thui on their present footing tho comliincil foreeii of all the Austral 
lattian colonicJi arft 27,130 strong, and of thrse nearly It*. 000 could be 
mobiluwd in any one of the colonies of (^eenstand, New South Wales, 



THE IlfPEKUL FLEET. 



25 



or South Atnrtnlia. Most of the eolonim hftve al» outot 
■i^ ceiuiisting of youllis mtteiHling tbc Public Schools, wlio ivre 
I the iw of ftmiH hi aa to lit tWtu, uti reacliiii^ tiiMiliood, for taking 

■triuicilMTP in the defvticv of tlieir a>uiitry it inted lio. The codeta 

' nut Wn oitiiiienitMl in tii« figarw f^ixnii. 



I Imuularirs of iho Australian I^aval Station liavo been dofitMsi u 
-Fnia »5' K. long, by the pai'allel of 10' S. lat. to Hid' K. 
tfcenoe north to IT N. lat.. and alooR thai i^ntUel to ICO' W. 
bmuMled OD tli« aoutk by thf Antarctic Circle ; and including tlie 
I groups of islaniU situMed within tli« limits specified. 

! of Xitie AaMrelasiun coiut ih i^ntruited to the Britiali iihips 
LustnUian Station and the Anstralnnian Auxiliary S(|iuidroa. 
tlio biiul qiiartt'ni of tlw llcrt, mnka u m tiratclM* navnl 
, anil exUnuivn n-jniriiig yardi and BtortkhouaM hava lieon pro- 
ttiT thi> acGomnodation of the shipa of war. Thts resnels of the 
fltH^ Are detailed Iwlow. The Peiiguin, Daii, and Watcnrildi 
in Rirrcying serrioe : — 



\i 



^1 



i 



AniiuMiiL 



(him. 



ffi>dunU0« 



|i 



ii! 

fit 



6jm 



iHB^L,«10 



lot. IK 



.tx 






,1.19a 



TU 





In. 



I.SN 



(J« 



II 81MW 



L 



nniit oin 



teo At II IBS o« 



t n»M4B.n-t«nRL.L, 
IS «-ln. l-lon B-L.B., 
M O P. llotchLlH. * 

( EHMrtcaa &->b. S^»L 

KUn..11U..ll.H. 
CfTWo e.ln. «-IMi I1.I.K.. 

iO bin. WcnC RL.B., 

«)!-. IL. 
ChVo IV^ln. t-UHi ILL.IL, 

to b-ln. IMwt. B.L.IL. 

4M.. IL. 
Ilhli tin. »««. ILUa. 

tlL 



tf aiai»M «Mi i-tn, »4W.. B.t.a. 

m.r. BOMbklM.t». 



bnoto. 



( tti tin. «.<w(. aLR., 
Ilj.r, llDlchkli^SN 

rm M.|«. U.. 1 u. s 

I II. 

) IL 



U1 

m 

IIW 



lout. 

««a 



itt 
Itt 

70 



knaw. 

Tjaoi> 



ASM 
1S» 



U cwf. ; n.Llt., Hnwiriadlnir rtflol nini. 



26 



DEFENCE. 



Tlie hull of tho Orlknilo in of sUsel, iioi] those of the other 
nrc oE cotnpouts Drntnuls. Tha Orlando hu a lO-indi amiuurcd 
at w»tor>-))iu^ with S-inch wmomwd deck, nnd l^inob catmiiu; tower;] 
RDc) in (uldition to the armaaient moationod in Uia tobk, tdw 
two torpedo tubes. 

Afl opporluiiity offers, tlie Admiral tif the l-'lcct is wnpowcrcri to grant 
oommisfiious, for periods not exoeediug six months, to otfincm of thq 
naval forcvH of the colonies, iu orilei- lluit thej' tuny gsin some cxpcricoc 
of tlie L'ouditians under which modern naval wiirfai« is practised. Four| 
awJetAliiju one) tliroe engineer Ktuilenttibipx in tlie lm]>erial Navy : 
given untiunllv to Auatritlian boys, who luuiit not be less thaii 13 
more than 1 4i\ yeara of age. 

An undertaking has been entered into by all the colonies for 

Sftjroent of a pm rata HutKiidy towards the m^tenance of an auxil' 
ect. The total Rnbvcntioii to be paid amounts to £126,000 per annul 
the contribution of each colony l>eing determined on tlio baais 
population. Tbo distribution qf tho subsidy in 1895, according to 
population, was as follows : — 

£ 

New South Walt* -..~ s;.961 

Victoria „ — — 35,767 

QnoeDtbad _ 13.603 

South Auitialin _.„..„ „ .„ 10,690 

WMtcm Auitriiliii „ 2,4<X) 

Tmhuhus ^_._ ^. „..._.» „. 4,TTft 

KewZuaUud 20.813 

Autralaaia. £126.000 

The fleet woaista of fire faat ervisera aad two toi-pedo ^ntioats nf 
Archer (improved type) and Rattlesnake c!a.<'sc3 of the Britisli Nnvy.j 
Hitim cruisent and one gunboat luv oontintiou.ily kept in coramimic 
and tho remainder arc held in rrwrvc in Austmlasinn ports, rosdy fo 
oocoBiis«on wbon«vcr circumstances may rcquir" their ubb. 
ngrvement is for a [loriod of ten years, and is then or at tliu end of an) 
subsequent year termioable, ])rovided two yMn* notice has been fp\ 
"Ubio vessels have been built by the British Government, but , 
Aaatrala«&n colonieH pay the inUireat on their prime co.it to the i 
of £3$,000, as well a» the aciiukl cout of maintenuice, which in not' 
exceed .£91,000, itud:hift tJi« total xum of £126,000 which in dixtrihuK'.d 
above. On the tennination of tha agreement the vr^spiE will mmaiD 
the property of tbo Impnrtal Government. The strength of thn Itritish 
fleet in Australian waters before the agrooment was entered into is 
BMintatned independently of titc prcscnon of tho AustrnlniiiAn vessels. 
The aqnadron is commanded by tho Admiral on tlio Australian Station, 
whoce head-quarters are in Sydney, where a residence is provided (or^ 
him by the colony of New Soatb Walea. The squadron, wliidi arrive ~ 



THE AVSTRALASUUS EQVADBON. 27 

IbBsM /•dcson on the Sth Sejitember, 1891, consiatB of the ft^loving 



TTanKb 



if ... . 



lOM. 



n 



N.IB. 



1,M6 ^ l.tm M 

Ts ' 4,«i»i|ie 



AnuuiwaL 



Oin& 



s 



ftlB. 


[Lin. 


mo 


41 
tl 
11 

tl fr 

tl D 


•MO 

noo 


ST 

■a 1) 



J oncl-i'r. ll.L.&.iniD 
RmmI whI (U1UI). font 
4-«.VIn. ft hunl Sot- 

( T*" 1 1 1". Q. r.iruiu. 



kiHta. 

l«t 
IB'E 
Wl 
10*6 

■IS 76 
lB7n 



tfnduniHV, 



1-1 

IF 



3^9 



■>B«.|lBrali. 
MO a.ooo 

30d 0,UUU 
Ml 
a» 
300 






■i,nao 

0.000 

a.ooo 

S,tM 



'Thknixd <iMilnl«iiiiii unill. iKHlRtamnnlilcMMidlUan^fai* ii)iort|»riai].tinuiiBUiii 
dn kDOtooobtoMtinrtL %F.— <}ulelMliini: smni t IB nHTFF, 

The Bootnening latd KArrakntta nre claasod as torpedo gun-bo«t«; 
all tlifi other vestieia are ttiird-class screw cruisers. The huU of each ve&iel 
U of Kt4.'«L Tlie deck armour over nwcliiiier}' K|Hic« U 2-iu. aoil 1-iii., 
Bnd t]i« conning' to wen ara protected tiy 3-iiich armour, except iti tiie 
ouc of thr gun)ioftt», tha towiirx t^f which hav<! 1-in. amiour. 

Tlie tyn\y war r«8S(^ whidi tbo coIodv of New South Wales posw«seK 
ore two uDoU torpi-do Iwats, tlio Acheron uiiU the Avemua, which am 
www— I t(jr the Naval Artillvrj Volunteers. 

Victoria baa the following v-eaaels tvvailable for harbour defence >— 



Simf. 


ClMK 


men*. 


AmuMOb 




ttwlo (RVH). 

Woadn trtEiU ■■ 

riiil 1 !■■ (tial Wfiado 
hM*. 

do iio ,. 

be**. 

do do .. 
WMdn Uipala hoW 

ai»nJ a— mil (ute 

WdBdn Mouiv laooch.. . . 

■to ila 


Tana, 

3.W0 

tio 
in 

11 

t: 
u 

MT 
4» 
30 


rsDr 1040. II.L.1L, lour 1.111. Kudn- 

Iridic 4 Ijamla: tnnty-fow Q.I'. 

n», siw ni-^.. wid OD* M^te 

B.L. Kun. 
tvoMa, M.La,tourt*Hi «-pdn., two 

oulirn 
mir«r li-in. numc ton^c^loci. Ami two 

Tblve Ift-lu. anil thrnc-' 14-tn. I^iimq Uc- 

(WM. 

Fbarl4'in. K^uum tiirpniufsi. 


Cw«na <> Maf 

MB. 




do do 
Pom H-in, Fiumu turynlc-M, UiTM I- 


tTliwH 

CMooaX*, I.... 


OU«-lll.ICU.t.,twl> I'ln. KotdodcldU, 
ttWRlI. 

Mtnir ten— loM. *n4 'Inp^ng |e«c (« 
tni> iJ-iu. R I. I^tpxliw. 
do do do 



mm 



9S 



DEFENCE. 



In lul^ition to the Teasels meuiioned, Victom in 1 895 on-ned two 8t« 
gnnboutd, the Victoria aiid tlie Alljort, which il hiul boeii df lided U>8eU] 
conMMjtiiMicu »f the proniulgutitm of na opinion by Ui« Coluiniil T>vtaa 
Comniittff; that whcire there «r« oonijilptt fixed dL'fiTnt'i's floatin 
defences do not nihl tii thi- strength of n jiWi^, but in trioxt ca-im ev 
l«nd to weaken it> hy interfering witli iind limiting the nrcs of tiro i 
tlio battery guni). I'or this rvniwn thp colony ulso dccidwl lo give 
F the use of tlic Mclbourm- UnrlKiiir Trust's hopper bnrgcs, the liatmai 
tUid the l''awkiier. In 1S96 the Oovpnunent of Westpni Austral' 
I purchusn} the j^unbont Victoria, with the intention of employing it 
'nu-rayiDg service. 

Queenskiid hw ino gutiboaUi, one of which, the Pnhiuia, ia usu 
employed on survey nervice on the oonat of Queeutibnd at tlie joL 
expenso of the Qutieualftnd and British authoritii^s, but tlie veiuiel lia 
been lent temporarily Co the Imperial Government, and is now in i 
mixaion as tender to tlie Oriandu. The other gunlioitt, the (jnyund 
was paid off and plnttsl in ifNt-rve i>n thn 30th SepteniliiT, 1893 
Particulars of the vewcis available for the defence of (jueenslnnd por 
aro given below : — 



Slat. 


Cltn 


nienl. 


AmiunonL 




do 

do 
do 


toa*. 

WO 

sea 

ISO 

4K 

4X 


OMS>la. B.L. /rmnmnif, one t)-ln. B,L 
ArmnifpiiM, ii.;^.'i-r"!'- i/F,. a « 

OuSJn. M.U ATrnxtrong, our H.ln, B.b 
Arnutronc.onD 3 nir, Ij.F'., SU. 

Onn (U-)<i>unilcr. M.I..R. 






On* |:un. 
Omcaa. 
Ong (on. 








On* tun. 

T«n nuuhlu* run*. 


S^zzz 


HmMo 


acMtld-«ll^it«I toipnlo 
■nut. 



South Australia maintains one twin-acrew aleel cruiser, the ProteetorJ 
ot 920 tona The annaiuont of thi* ve!<ai?l couaiKtH of one li-in. 1 1 1-tn 
B.L., aevej) 6-in, -i-tou RL., four ."(.pdr. Q.F., and live Ontling ranchir 
gum. Tamnnnia owiia one torjictlo lioat : and Western Australia on 
•diooncT, the Mi-dn, of ISO toim, employed on survey senice at the joint 
«xppnjw of the Im]ieriiil and t'olonial Govcmnients. Western Australia 
has also purclinsed from the ^'icto^i«n flovemmeiit the steel gunlic 
Victoria, for employment in surveying service. New Zealand potuteKites 
four Thomeycroft torpeilo boats and four Hteani laundien fitted ftwj 
torpedo work. 




KXPENDITUEE FOR DEFENCE PUEP05J£S. 



Cost of r>t:ritscii 



29 



of tlie L-oIoniee luve 8|i«»l tiotiKidrrablv siims in workn of 
ice. fuid tlie jinnd|)al ports are well protrcUid by cxtcnuivG fortiSca- 
, e»ct«d l>y Um various {JovrriinK^ntK nt gront cost. 
The total expenditure from thi; CoiisolidAtcd llevenufl for defefiOO 
forpown daring IKd-t-dr* wiu ili follows j — 



CctsoT. 



Anituint. 



rwtmd. 



New SMth W*ka 

Victoria „ 

QDi<(<ii«i>ttd 

South AiutnlU 

Wt«t«ra AuBtralia «..•.»•... 

TMoumis ,.., 

Ticw ^^jjand 



AlUtnUait . 



£ 
272,8fiS 
l!M,(tt!0 
03,O6S 
34,236 
16. lis 

7S.119 



0711,354 



n i, 
4 S 

3 » 
8 10 
1 It 
3 11 
1 7 
3 4 



3 3 



[in all thi'OoJonieH, with llie exue|ition of Weatecu Atintrnlin, a cn-tain 
ant of Money hnx bci-n upcnt out of loans on worka of defellt■»^ 
how«vnr, for Bnvi^rnl years ha» discontinued the expenditum 
t Icao moneys for thissprvica The amounts thua Bj]«ntduriug 18D'U9-> 
WW* >a follow : — 

£ 

New South Walw > •iS.t.m 

Quoeiuknd 2,(HSI 

South Auattalia „ „ 151 

Twaiunla , .., Cns 

lf««r ZMluid :.. 9,4M 

Aa«lnU«U £54,181 

■ tncliulis dt liXi.^D(i (i<r iu.nl ilatLDn, Port JiKkMn. 

The total debt incurred by each colony for defeuiw puqioses to tho 
1 of 1894-93 was as follows ;— 



OsloDjr. 



Amount, 



rvrhcad. 



N«w So«Btil W«l« , 

Vioturin 

QnMoaluiil .., 

South Aiutrojia .... 

TaunuuB- 

New JCcvlood 



Anttralnida 2,727.3S« 



£ 
•1,1(17,306 
98.2U0 
UW,124 
236,412 
121.301 
ST7.9-H 



10 
1 



2 
S 



8 » 



13 

IS 
25 



13 1 



• tneliulvc ol tSM.m lor unl staUon, tort JuliiaD. 



30 



DEFESCB. 



This does not represeot tiie whole cost of tbe fortifioatioiis, as 
wuhm have from tiiiii> to lime been exjier.ded from Che general rev 
of tbe colonics iu th« oonatmction ot vrurka of ilefeBoe ; the amoc 
Kidt [luyRifliibi, however, it is now iia[)OHiiible to <Jet«rniiiie. 

lit IKOU a militnrr conmiiiurioii wax *])putnt(^ bj the Imperii 
th« ilil!i.<nnit Ati^tmlian (ioviimnMnits to t«k(! itvidRtice and repc 
the i^iifi'tioii of fortit'jing King ttnorgc'a Sound, I[»bnrt,ThundiiT Ii 
and Fort Darwin at the joint expotuo of tho colootM. Tho 
mission visited the points mentioned during 1891, and as a tim 
the evidence t«k«u fortitications have been erected at King G« 
tSouiid and Thursday Itduod, and it is probable that edmilar worki 
bebe;(uii at Hobarl anil Port Darwin in tlie near future Tliegai 
o( tliL- balteriet in Kinjt Oeorf.'o'ii Sound U supplied by Wt^Bteni 
Lrali:^ und that colony bon.' onv-fourth of the cont <>t oumitTuc'lioi 
<M]ui[iment, tbe other prorinci'M contributing thi! roniaindcr iju » 
iation bauBt. Thti ctnt nf thn ditfmoi™ nt 1'hunday Idand wan k 
by tho different coUmiw in proportion to tbn numlwr of their inhatril 
'nifi forts ore maintained under n like nrrangoment. 



31 



POPULATION, 



OS the 26th January, 1788, Captain Phillip arrived in Sidney 
Harbonr, bringing with him an estafaliabmenb of about 1,030 
pn^ all told. Settlement soon spread from the parent colon;, lir^ to 
TMwnia in 1803, aad afterwards to other parts of the continent 
Md to K«w Zealand. At the end of 1695 the population of Auslral- 
Mia haA grown to 4,238,369 persons, thus distributed : — 



ColaDj. 


HllH. 


PMnlM. 


ToUL 


Kew South Wales 


885,160 
605,176 
259,160 
185,631 
69,727 
85,064 
S69,726 


592.710 
676,693 
201,390 

171,874 
31,508 
75,780 

328,981 


1,277,870 

1,181,769 
460,650 




«;«,th lilitntlK 


357,405 
101,235 






160,834 




698,706 








2,259,533 


1,978,836 


4,238,369 





If to these nam bers, which principally comprise the people of European 
^(•CBit, there be added an estimated population of 200,000 Australian 
shngiiies in an nudTilised state in Western Australia, South Australia, 
»nd Qaeensland, and of 41,993 Uaoris ia New Zealand, the total popu- 
)u»i) of AnstraJasia at the end of 1895 would be nearly 4,500,000. 

The growth of the population of Australasia from the date of the 
Sm settlement is shown in the following table. An official enumeration 
rf the people was made in most of the years quoted : — 



Tat 


PopolaliDti af 


Anoml Incr— 


Yen. 


PiqiuUUon at 


Annual ]Tim:^a 




AuMnlulL 


pnctnt. 


AiuCnluiii. 


per cfiril. 


IT&S 


1,030 




1871" 


1.934,770 


4 39 


IWl 


6.608 


15 13 


1831* 


2,742,550 


3-60 


ISIl 


11,525 


ll'M 


1891* 


3,809,896 


3-34 


I%1 


35,610 


5'SS 


1892 


3.985,273 


2-60 


1631 


79,306 


8-34 


1893 


4,068,318 


2-03 


IS41 


211,095 


10-28 


1894 


4,153,766 


210 


)&M 


430,696 


7-36 


1695 


4,238,369 


204 


1S61* 


1,252,994 


11-30 









* Odhm popaUttoo. 



32 



POPULATION. 



It i.t ri!iuioiubI« to expect that Ui« rat« of gruvrth would decline u 
the populdtitm iiicreused, ami auah ban bitt^i tli<! utse tiuiue ]8fil. The 
high i-atc i>( inm^asii of 11-3 jicr cent, from 18S1 to 1861 in of ooiiwe 
dito to the gold discovery, which [iroviMl a strong ini-cntive to «ml([n- 
tion to thmo cnlonits. Thr high rmnunl inri'ea.'^ U^twi-vn 1831 ftnd 
1841 is owing to the policy of BtAt«-<i)dr<d immigration wliich was tJwn 
in voguet. Prior to tliii; period the bigh average arose from the mioll 
nuiober of peuple operated on. 

The following tjihle shows the aimiial rate of increasfl of population IS 
GOuntricN which am luidergoiag extcnsivR settlement ; — 



CDtmUy. 



Ftriod. 



Aiiniul nCe ut 
j Idg 



AiB*i>tIne Rcpulilic 

Cftp« Colony O^uropran or whita noM' 
Bruil , 

f^Tlft^ft ■ , .1 

rhiii , 



I8a»-87 

187S-HI 

1872-88 
1881-01 
1880-Bl 



4-62 

ins 

217 

i-ia 
rs3 



The popiilulion of Aiietrnlasia, as shown liy tile census of 1 891, ba 
iiicreasiHl tJireefoId since 1S6I, and neiiHy twofold since 1X71, while '■ 
annunl rate of incrcaso fnr the whole thirty yoars was 3-78 per eenU 
Taking the colonif-s individualty, the rate of increase for Queensland wan 
the highest — a circiimstnnce partly to he attributed to the hirge uitiul»nt 
tntixxluccd under tho syBtem of IState-aided iiumigralioii w^hich ha* 
vailed in that colony for many years ; but the largeut numerical inc 
was lliat of New South Wales. The population of each colony (oxclv 
8:ve of abori^^nes. a few in New South Wales and Victoria mcc 
at till! last four census (leriods, ia shown below : — 



Cotoi}. 


USUI, 


1871. 


IHl. 


IfOI. 


AniKiAl 


Ifav South WalM 
Tictork 


MO,:t?j 

ao,o.'.B 

12(i,N;iO 
15,6111 
90.311 
99,021 


»»,98l 

12n,l04 
lJ*5,62li 
25.3S3 
101,785 
256.393 


731,408 1,132,2.14 
Mi2,:i4(> 1 l^i> ^'i 


3D8 
2-.'>2 


QUAonnUnil 

^outliAitttralin.. 
Woit'ni Austniliu 

X«w Zeoluid 


213.525 
279, »«j 
29,703 
115,705 
489.033 


3U3,7I8 
320.431 

4».7ea 

146,667 
026,658 


895 
313 
3-92 
1-83 
6-34 


AaitralBsia... 


I,2d2,!l»4 


1,924,770 


2,7t-i,55Q '3,80»,80e 


3-78 



Tho following table givm the toUl incroaM of each colony far 
thirty-five yean^ ]861-'jr>, distinguiahing tlte natural increase ar 



SOCnCSS OP mCKEASE. 



35 



At mm of birthi ovtr dm.Oa from tlio inerMM orasod by tli« 
' anifkU over departurat : — 



tUtKf. 



f 

■ nrtorU 

™ QMouluid , 

I SocUi Aiulnli*..... 

Wotcm Aiutalik. 
I Tuiuaiiu. 

Xn Ztt«Uo4 



AMtnUrf*. 



tauamii^ TMiiiiKWMt 



DmOu. 






IBT.flSl 

»,4« 

Xt3,I.V( 



3&1,U0 
S3.M7 

2a«.6» 
40il»I 

1,790 
275.837 



l,MSb«l , 1.001.141 



929,33* 
M3,022 
433. IM 
233.293 
95.73.1 
T!l.C09 
filH.HX, 



3.0ltl,M;Z 



^k iafMiuation oao<nytd hy th» ahore figure* is important, m illus- 
Miw tKi« otil^ tL« nioveiapiit of po^Utjon Itut also th« effect upon 
JMipatiuti of I'lcal iuflnenceB, such an tU- iitti-iicUau of liberal land 
fertility <4 tli» nil, clwi {x-niuuM'iicin of emplojnuent, mmI tlie 
— ialiel mitaign^tUin. Hut a bsro stntmuont of tlui grow 
Midi colouy froR) immigration is apt to lio luialikding, idnco 
iloultj' of population itiUGl b« de«m«(l a fnctor nffrcting 
. at ttumierAlioii, Th« followiag &gun^ ahow tlie density of 
lit each i-olony at nurious dalM eomaponding with llioae 
I pmceditig lolile :— 



CM««. 


un. 


ML 


UBL 


■ML 


Xaa SooUi Waba ..^^^ 


t-13 
«-l5 
0-O4 
0-H 

o« 


I -Be 
o-t« 

2^ 


2-42 
il-81 
0-32 
0-31 
0-03 
4-41 
4-69 


12-W 




0-50 


imik A—awKa.. 


0-3S 
0-06 




s-sa 

6-00 








<M1 


Ol» 


0-m 


1-24 



Mlh» demf of tb» ymat 189fi tli« populatioQ of AiMtndMin, inclndini: 
Mli«« rotes, only noched ft deoaity of 1-46 pcn«oiut per vjuam 
nte wlikh bihr beloir tbM of aay otl)«r civilised countrj ; and 
C AiMirolian atiorininM and Uiuiria, (he density waa not mora 
ttti 1-34 ptr Nqtum lailc. 

A oraaputeo rif tlm- d^naitT of population in AiutralAaia witit thai 
■■Iddr Monttln <rf the worild ia of little imcticnl one, beyond aflbrdinjl 



34 



POPULATION. 



Bome indication of the fotur^ of tliea« eolontes wliea their populatioo 
aliall liave reuched the proportioti.i ti> Iw found la thi? old world. The 
lalwt amiioritjvtive statcuifints giv* tlio (ipiiaity of the poimlatious of the 
gn-ut diriiiocis of the w<irld iis follows : — 



OinUncjiL 



lAro In Kfom UIIh. 



popuIiUm. 



PiMMMpM, 

*|UinaiUa.l 



Europe 

AiU , 

Atriok 

America 

Auatnluis sad PneiGo., 

Fokr Rcgioni „, , 

Th, World 



3.S5S,000 
14.710,000 
I1.SU,000 
13.-JS3.000 

S.34>0,000 
4,SS!J,000 



61.201,000 



382.590,000 
873,850,000 
139,100,000 
122,820,000 

4,940.000 
300,000 



1, 4tl3, 400,000 



101-90 

SO'41 

11-22 

9-23 

1-50 

0-06 



29-14 



' From the csrliest yeara of settlement thwe vox a st<;ady i( not 
powerful stitiim of Inimigratioa into thexo colonies, but in IHSl, 
inciuorable for the Rndiii;; of gold, the current wiis swollen by thouxaDcl 
of uiL-n ill tli^ prime of life who wero atti-auted to tiin Hborrs of Austrftlia 
by the Lo[ie of speedily a«iviiriiiif wealth. By far the grtwitfli- nuniber oH 
tliese ui?w (irriv«)a Mttletl lu the new colony of Victoria, which ha " 
Just been HPpaml(-d fnHu New Soulli Waliw. mid for «onie years after-1 
wardji Victorin had an unpnwd<mt<'d increiiae to ita population. Hia] 
vast changes which took plaon will bn rvidi-nt ivhcn it is Mtated tb&t il 
1850, Jtiot prior to thn gold ruxh, the |K>puiation of the iiorth«m 
southern portions of New South Wale* was : — 

Port Phillip l»flcpw«rd« Vxoioria) .._ 76,l(i3 

Rcnvalning portion of tliu Catonj „ 189,311 

While five years afterwards the populatidn of the two colonirM \na :- 

Victoria ,.™.™,,„™ 301,324 

N«w Soutli WalM ■-'77,079 

Victoria enjoyed the advantage in population and increased its lead 
yearly until 1871, when its inhubilnntacxi-itedi^ in number those of New 
South Wnlr* by no lojw than -JlJ.S.-J.IO. But fnnii that tiniH almost evury 
year showed a noaro^r approach in the nuniUm of inlinbitunta of 
the two colonies, until at the eonsus of If^iH Victoria hml only a lad 
of 8,171, while at the end of that yoar New South Walrs had tho 
greater population by about 7,500. By t^e end of ISdJ tbo ptirent 
colony, it la eatiiuated, had increased ita lead to nearly 100,000. 



TNCREASB BY lUUIG RATION. 



3S 



Qmntiuid imA Now ZmUiuI at«o ow« much of their remarkAble 

mpiB to tha diaooveiy of gold. In N«w Zealand the gold fever 

mbmt in ISftl, when the jwpnlntlon numbeivil unljr 39,021, ami the 

' 'I ita Bclivjiy extend«d over many jean. At the ceiuiua taken 

tlw [KifiuUliou )uul n^Achnl 626,608 soutii, exduHive of Uaoii*, 

. times thnt of 18C\. Tn Quecnidiuul t\u: attractive forou of 

in ynu Rxerted kt a tat«r djiti', and it mny otill he conndtrtd 

1)11' dui fiurtnr in Klimii luting thi' growth of population in thiit colony. 

JIaiij iif the incrwisi; <>f populfttioii. especially in the colonic* ■>£ New 

ftaUi \Va]r«, i^neenslitiiil, and Navr ZcatiMid, w«a duo to th« 8tat« policy 

rfiKileil i III migration. The following tabic shows the nuin1)er of nil 

kniiniita introiluoeil into the ooloui«a eitlier wholly or partly at the 

I of the SUte to th« end of 1894 >— 



IMtav- 


rrivUUBi. 


ian(»UM. 


TOM. 




J77,534 
140,103 

88.0M 

880 

18.M5 

•100,090 


34.63S 


211.600 




140^102 

101,038 

05,348 




100,537 

7.e08 

G.3S8 

2,734 

14.658 






e,S77 
21,000 






•115,578 






57S.5S1I 


174.250 


733,wa 





■KiBlMraal WDubtt prtorla UOO^ol nbirhtxinunleaii btfennd. 

following tablft vbow* tbo tncnnwi! of population by «xcM8 of 
ovM* ftoiigration for the four deci^nnial periodii ended 
^ud for the period of lire years 1891 to 1895 :— 



1MM7. 


mirm 


NH-TO. 


i*n-«i. 


imi-9). 


im\-^s. 


rHMtb WaW. 

■1 AMtnIk 


iaoo7 

MS.753 

t 

6.8;n 

0.7S7 
44.743 


45,539 
»4,1)35 
6^.191 
17,9411 
5.»I0 
•3,2-2« 
118.(1.17 


]00..'M1 

•13.072 

7a.S49 

.14,669 

•339 

•1.427 

I3i,37(> 


164.305 

112,0(1:1 

101,330 

•17.000 

10,170 

5,572 

D.451 


X\2iS 

•.'»,;79 

2i.ao3 
n 1.13 


■mm Aualnlia...... 


DO.\:Ki 
C73 




14.773 




613.353 


sai^s 


336,201 


386^021 


77,481 







• 0— t ii « fmm tf nnl0*a.U. I tududnl In Xew South wiIm ninm. 

JBjf iIm lut 6fteea y«aT<, it will he noun from tlie next table 
no colony nxhibita unifonnity in Llie immi^mtion retunU| 



36 



POPULATION. 



in sorenU yeuv mnie at the pmiincra even dutwing an exi 
dejwrtarea: — 



of 



Tmk 



ii 



* 



^1 






1681 
1883 
1883 
ISM 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
ISBI 
1803 
1803 
18IH 
I89S 



18.673 


■*.97fl 


16,034 


0.583 


27.27S 


6.5«7 


23,M4 


H.£2S 


24.82U 


n,Q27 


1(1,073 


ir>,43(i 


7,a>'i 


15.44,'. 


cess 


25,7.'i7 


8,2*1 


8.70* 


is,2es 


8.973 


20.2es 


4.53S 


e,7i9 


12,28S' 


1,400 


13.411* 


4,2»S 


13.731* 


s;Ge» 


10,390* 



4.O09* 
17.043 
34,371 
18.fi-2U 

7,0*1 

7.«n3 
u,sa7 

G,I3SI 
4,340 
704- 
7.820 
. 1.3.10 
2,30» 
4.177 
6,873 



12,055 
3.878' 

4.266 
27* 
9,280* 
8,S1SI' 
3,008' 
5.325» 
2,34S* 
1,861 

HIS* 
4,107 
4,02.1 
9.W' 

i.6or 



401 
94 

436 

871 

l.i;28 

3,73S 

2,019 

i.iue- 

578 
1,571 
6,078 
4.472 
.1.223 
lu,90() 
18,394 



1.180 
587 
680 
816 
38S- 
302" 
1,707 
383' 
1,172 
418 
4.582 
2,371* 
I,865»l 

lis 

300 



1,970 
2..375 
8,fl5r 
7.724 
2,767 
Ifl9* 
211 
10,548* 
701' 
2.79S* 
3.743* 
4,0S8 
10.41S 
2,25ii! 
8il5 



33.S3S 
39,017 
8S,2H 
«>.77S 
3M» 
3S.GSZ 
35,233 
17.589 
81.078 
23.M2 

1' 

12.162 
10^929 



m 



• IMiiflta oiHoi of ijciiwtiiret. 



AoEs OF THK People. 

At tifl census of 1891 the averftK^ ase of Ui« populatioii of AurtmL 
waa 24'4 years; tlio average aifi' of tlie multu was 'ITvXt ycurs. nnd that] 
of the feiual«ii 23-3 years. Taking tli<! colonics sejuirati'Jy, it irill bel 
BKCii from Uic foUowbiK tablii that tli« nlilmt population was lh*t 
Virtaritt, with on avi-riigp of '25-0 yc*ni ; and the youngest that 
QunntiiiUnil, with an avisrago of ^23-7 ycArs. The male population 
Wsstoni AuHtralia bad lh« highest ago average, namely, :ii-G year 
owing to the large influx of adult uialea moiqo few veom 
attracted thitlier hy the discoveriea of ^old at KiriiLcrlcy and ditrwhe 
The youngest male populatiooa weret in N«tw South Walw and Soi 
Australia, which averajjcil 251 unci 21-7 yraira rp-iiMxtively, 
youaf^t f«iiu]a pO]iulation waa found in Quncnsliuid. where 
avRragt' w«« 21-3 ytami ; whilo the oldtwt was in Victoria, av« 
24"6 yi-am : — 

Xcw South Wilta S5-1 2S-5 23-9 

Victoria „. sa-S «-8 S3-6 

QuovnuUii.t „ Sa-a 21-5 237 

ti.)Utli Aiuti^ia 24-7 28-8 '24-3 

WcBtcru Auatmlift. 27 -S 21!S) 3S-3 

Taamania aS'8 237 24-7 

KcwZrakiul _ „ 2S-S 234 241 

Auitnlana tCf SS'fl 24-* 



^1 


^H 




■ 


r 


1^1 


^^^B^H^I 


^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^M 


H AGE-coNsTmrnox of popclation. 37 

havnitRrin^ tbeae GfturMt it mum be nnetnbeTed Uiat Uie aame 
wail* najr b« dno to oppoailc oaaiiMi ; for iiiBbini.-u, a Urge mJdtUe-afre 
■■ditiDa vritb » unal proponton of diildn-n niul otd ])«c])li-, tu in 
^anliBd, givM ttrach tna Hine nrnlt aa » Ui]gv populiktiim nt thn 
d>ptsil>3it a|oa uhI a bii)*1I proportioti of Uiom >l the Kapporting agn^ 
m B T^MUiia. Th* followii^ tabte «bowa Ittrt nnmbvr of tnaJn at dm 
tenJoil agM b«n icifaDCf to 15 yean ; at the mpporting o^^ from 
tlto U ; aad in the old age group, froui 65 yean upwKrdii : — 


b 


Dc*Hid*nl Ant op , Ihippnnlnc A(W^ 




■"- 


lhBb*r. 


Dllfak 


KnobH, 


■■mmoIiv* 


Konbcr. ol 3UU ■ 


«— t^. 


n7.wi 
iw.ew 

74.180 

S4,O0t 

8,615 

£0,CiCS 
19(t,&31 


as-m 

38-97 

as-u 

S8-3S 
37-30 
39-01 


i 
374,871 ■tS'«* 


10. 6M 
Z3,SIS 
3,630 
i,t(H 
I.OOI 
4,301 
8.307 


S74 

a'»3 

3-XI 
3CT 
5-35 

2-51 


iawi AwltaJla ... 

tMMb 
X«ZidMd. 


143.000 

0T.») 
90.146 

44.2U 
107,t7B 


00 -M 
&8-t3 

CT-eo 

57-00 
»-4B 




710.871 


3S'34 


l.Slii3.aB3 


0I-86 


63,100 


3-10 ^H 


^Hl wtll li««« baan nolioed in tli« tabic on th» preceding pafitt tbot during 
^^biti 7«>n, notftbiy 1885 to 1891, their wns nn pxodns of population 
^^b New ZeAUnd, South Aiwtnlia, nnd TaitmaniA, tli* porwrni «ho 
^^^bnut mainly alile-bcdied raeu in search of omplovment. It is only 
^^^pHUa, thurefore, tliat tbe Diunbcr of niali-H of the aupportinK agea ik 
^^BcaloniH sbonld be below the a*enf{w. TIjo mv^rtte ia the case bi 
^^■■•a AnattKlin. wliere tLi^ proimrltuu of dcjienilrtit mnles in smiiller 
^^kia any olbAr mlony, while tbi- projmrtiou of mcii of the supporlins 
^Hb-ii graatnr. 'Ilicna facta are to lir accountixl fur Iiy thc^ immigraticu 
^Hto Weabitn Attntrktia of large numbem of ndult nialu*, inntiy of wlioai 
HKlaUy oBioa fmta oap of tbo threo ooloniea tir^t muiktiniietl. Tln^ liigli 
l«Hb^ate of Nr«r South Walna aocovufa for the lar^r proportion of 
ft|Bma rf demndcu agra as compared with Victoria, hut at Um; imp- ^^H 
r Mahig aya Mare it vary little differein-e between the two colonics. With ^^H 
1 qud to 1^ old age group, the itroportiou in Queenaland, 1-6^ pcr<«ut., ^^H 
kjl madmitmBj loiw. TaaBiania, with C'5& pat cent., lias the Urgest ^^H 
^biyxtim tt a^ed inbabitaut» ; Victoria oomee next with 3-93 per ^^H 



^^^^^^^^H^=~r 


■ 




M 


1 




■ 


■ 


^^^^^^^H ^^B 


^■B^^l 




^^^^1 


^^I^^^^H^^ 


^^1 


^^Hl^H 




^^^^1 


38 


POPCLATION. 1 


111 

cent : wliUc tlie [iroiiortioii of iiihabitouU of C5 years and over in New 


Soiilli Wales b only 2'74 per cent., or ond'lialf of llie proiwrtioD showa^ 


liy Tasniiuiin. ^H 


The foHo wins tahlfl BKovrs, in qiiimjumnia] periods, the ages of thvH 


]ifOpl<! in each of the Australnsinn colonies: — H 


A*«- 


No* 
Kniith 
Wtia. 


VicU>tiK. 


lund. 


Siiuih 


Wert cm 


TvniAnU, 


N** 


UlLH. 














'1 




8:i.sia 


n.laa 


»l),4[ia 


Sl.dlfi 


SMS 


lO.BM 


tl.tM 




TS.SII 


«.41H 


23,«2n 


ai.sa? 


e,TMI 


1>,H78 


a.tm 




ei.sw 


M.ilM 


IS.Ml 


10,101 


1,3S1 


S.lSt 


M.nD 


uuiio _ 


t3.Ml 1 67. iU 


1H.»U 


1,'>,«>,1 


S.KJl 


r.on 


M,iM 




V/MB Cl.tU 


1J4.1W 


lAiSslll 


ii.Ml 


7,IU 


IS.I4fi 


vnom „ 


e».ns . m.DM 


ai.:s3 


It.VW 


S,DM 


T.Ml 


u.ns 


MloM 


tt.DOX K,set 


Sl.SM 


1S,«0 


£,OU0 


e.uss 


«.!« 




tu.iM 11 .n( 


19,UI3 


iu,:m 


I.WU 


4,MT 


lO.iM 




Si.UT 


tt.nu 


12.11 ; 


S,ll» 


1,IM 


»,SIB 


IT^tM 


M toM „ 


to,8e& 


M.Ill 


10,SXS 


B.Kn 


1,137 


E,fi7T 


ir^r 




!N,H« 


».»>l 


it.lW 


Mul 


l.lal 


it,aiH 


IWM 




ia,Mt 


«.{»< 


htw 


l.caH 


l.orii 


i.vm 


loju 1 




U.MM 


w.nn 


3,M« 


s,tn 


8M 


i.eui 


T.na 




«,M& 


lUM 


i.m 


(.178 


ut 


i,twt 


iina 


:oiaia 


«,»aT :.jto 


l.DTV 


1,T« 


ST» 


i.tw 


a.ii» 


rim* 


S.ttT 


s,wo 


(06 


6tO 


1« 


TOT 


i.t» 


Total UiJm .... 

FIKUOL 


l,W 


!,Cr£6 


MI 


ttt 


«e 


oil 


"• J 


ova,«» 


IW.1NS 


M8.'ro 


1W,S01 


W>,«r7 


n.Mo 


nuraiH 














^ 




SI,iU4 


n.*u 


SW.BTl 


!S,SIM 


a,3»ii 


ia,i)» 


4a,«H 


StoM 


TO.lffI 


SL««I 


iin/jTS 


Sl.WT 


!1,M7 


B^n 


M>M 


lOtoU 


«a,E07 I-T,«TK 


10.MS 


1«.IMI 2.37a 


Bjra 


40,«>K 


»«o«l 


M.UD l>;.SSB 


IT.lSl 


1S.01I !,<I71 


s.sui 


9MW 




fla,i>t ai,(»A 


IK.; IS 


K.IMH 


9.INI 


O.SM 


».SM 




to.OTj M.aw 


1S,tlM 


i<.8a; 


1,8M 


n.oM 


tt,4I0 




sa.tM se.uo 


i:t,ioi 


io,gao 


Lua 


«,«» 


IT.fla 


S'ltnlO .1 


si.nu w.NB 


KIM 


«.»» 


OTD 


!I,M.1 


IS.ISI 


<(J [04S 


XAorei 


■il.lSO 


ihm 


«.»« 


TT« 


1,7*3 


U,41* 


WSoKl , 


i&.toi 


in.Tit 


nioa 


^HT 


MS 


1,1M 


II.K4 


.'/»l"M „ 


u.tm 


la.vu 


4.ttH 


t.en 


nu 


f,i4a 


O.NO 


MloOU 


iii.;w 


KkZHl 


ijuo 


ii,i«i 


M4 


l.TM 


Mffl 




T.CTI liOlS 


1,WI 


S,5M 


IS1 


i.isa 


*.I7S 


OJtoM _ 


4,HS 


;.tn 


I.IM 


!.iaa 


ISl 


MO 


^^^^^11 




Sites 


4.Ma 


7S7 


i,aM 


lUl 


7W 


^^^^^^H 




i.Bia 


iMsr 


Wl 


mn 


B« 


401 


^^^^^^H 


I^Mal ftRuln .... 


l.STJ 


1,M1 


IM 


Ml 


M 


!IM 


VH 


»s,<»t 


Mi.ni 


inn.nM 


ux.esn 


IB.WTB 


W,lfff 


■ 


Thu ppritiil from 20 to ^0 years ia consiJereO the " ici>Mier'ri age," 0^1 


mt-n of Minh nfitia wouUI be the liret to Ite calli^d upon fi>r thn ili^fnncV fl^| 


tho (iiitiiiiy ill ra«C! of wur. .^.t thi- census of IH91 Aiintmlosia had ^H 


forcp of nearly 700,000 men to draw upon for this (mrpose, of wlioiRn| 


New Sf>uth Wales would have contributpd 209.r.89, Victoria 206,181, 


Queensland 8C,7G6, South Australia 63,964, Western Australia 13,109, 


Tufinania i>5,135, and New Zealand, <J4,942. J 


Tht* ftioule population of Auatrajasia mity he conveniently Rronpedjl 


int^i thn-e divinioiiB, namely, dependent h^h, from infancy to li years j^| 



AGE-OOSSTITUTION OP POPCLATION. 



39 



iT« mita, from 1!> to 15 ; and tboae ovtr 45 vcnam of ng«v Th« 
I <if cmdi dux in thn snvtrml provinces u« Eho«-n below: — 



ofav- 



iWalM. 

tAutnJu .. 
I Aintnlta 
nl> ...„.,.. 
'Zokwl 

AwriliBia 



Dlyniiluit *cc^ 



It wna uulai »■ 



■ndvicr. 



P 



__ 



s 



Kl 



siaiw 
iss^is 

73.-W7 

«3,I74 

8,364 

SS.327 



703,664 



41-3S 
3G«S 
4241 
40 H? 
41-82 
WW 
12-17 



SS»,S03 

363,513 

79,391 

68.796 

il,3I3 

3(1.198 

131.451 



311 NU ((21,364 



46 '43 
4S'4ti 

44-78 
4R-63 
4t-2H 

44-:* 



4«fi7 



63,360 
83,9S4 
18.141 
23,600 
2,308 
10,1(12 
38,441 



238.JKM 



mo 

1540 
10-67 
14-75 
11-56 
U'73 
13«9 



13-54 



' (dtutle population, it will bf mm, in distributoH ftmong th« vftriAtiS 
■bnia tn uadi morv cvnn pn^nioiis tlinn tlio lualo populdtioo. 
TtOMu ii»M Uie Mmalltet ratio of ileiM^'nileut f^umtefl, tbo gntttMt pro- 
fUbra lit Ummw of reproductive: AKfii, ami tli« hi)tbi-nt ivlativo number 
idiamint ovn- tbf! reprotluctivu age. Tbi- mU-s for tbl^ olIi«r provincGK 
Vt fvTiMrk«lilv m-rn, Sew South Wiilts, Qut^cnsliini], and WViitcn) 
nliA lutvin;i( tliaott An iilcntical |>roport4o» of r[<]>roclucliTp foinalc:^ 
hilr s..utJi AustnUta, Tuauuiia, nnd >ev Zoolftnt) are aeu-lj' (Hjual at 
'~ " Ay lower rate. 

BiSTBB. 

' lotaJ number of birtlu in eacli colonjr and tlio int« per lliouiend 
{■opntatioD during ttie j-car 1895 am idiown in tlio following 



CWav. 


BliDiii. 


eurth-nu. 


lUo. 


ttenatM. 


ToUL 




I»,ST8 
17,361 
7,604 
5,423 
1,1113 
S.433 
0.403 


18,897 
1G,344 
T.S70 
A. 144 
1.181 
S,3M 
0,0li3 


38,775 
33.705 
11.871 
10.867 

2.s;» 

4.700 
IH.&46 


80^ 




as-ss 

20^9 


Ift^tmn Anatnlia 


2S'80 
30-10 


STrXraknd 


26-78 






Aarinluti 


63,383 


60,347 


133,630 


29-14 



49 



POPULATION. 



The nniubor of birtlia in rach colony utd in tbe whoU of Auatrala 
iu quinquennul periods b«m 1861 to 16&fi^ was as follows :— 



(Moor- 


iau-«t. 


i8M-ro. 


wn-n. 


urfrWL 


IBSl-SS. 


]a»S-M. IGM-tB.] 


Nor Sooth Hiloi .. 
VicMIl 


ua.su ' iu,n»i 


VJIi.lM 
1M,M3 

4,au 
li.ais 

W.Wl 


iS7,(.:i 

1JI.MT 
37,b3& 
4(1,91 () 

4, ail 
17, le* 


ir.a,n«-i 

H0.2A8 
tn.liTII 

M,(11S 

&.440 

I1.4°S 

tK1.4!>S 


i88,Ma 
ira.so; 

To.lW 
s:i,ino 

T.OlM 

ss.jio 

W.OTl 


ui.nr 
7s.sa 


Anak AnKnlliL 

WwntnAuWMJk .... 


S.»I 


S.7M 
14.010 


M.OM 
ll}.9tf 
V4.»t 
»1.4J0 




SBitfll 


«),nD 


Aualnlub 


VO.BBI 


M«,SET 


lS7,StO 


4B8,Ttt 


ns.iTg 


ewMt 


«BM 



Tlie average birtb-nt«s of cttcli colony for the same periods wore 
follow:— 



Culonjr, 


uai-«k 


isaa-'o. 


ISTl-TS. 


UTO-SO. 


isai-is. 


UK-m. 


l«t*j 


thmacnOhWiim .... 


4S-S 
«I-M 

M-IS 

SO'tS 


40«T 

M-SI 
Jt-W 
IBM 
4)-» 


tfi'Tt 
4(1 -VO 
BT1W 
Sl'» 
5»'7!! 


tuts 
M'7:i 

HI '91 

4111 


ST'M 

M^n 

M'47 
8707 
M-M 

II •9A 


rte 

MHO 

S1 10 


J 




ar? 


SDolh Aiuinlli 

WatoniAuHnllK.-.. 


mi* 






41 'SI 


X)'(M 


n-M 


34 -W 


V-ID 


n-ai 



Dfiathb, 

Tb« following tabl« sbowx tba total nutntMT of deaths and the r&& 
per tliousand of mean population during the year 1895 : — 







UmUw. 






Cdonr- 


Uds. 


PiBilln. 


Tam^ 


Detfb-ntc. 


Kew SoDtb WalM 


S.871 
8,8B1 
3.S3T 
2.103 
1^ 
IM7 
3,960 


e.243 
e.738 
I.01S 
1.780 
403 
704 
2,857 


14.914 
lS,64i1 
5,IG3 
3,903 
1,004 
l.BIl 
8,805 


11 '79 

la-jfi 




11-38 

iri" 




17'BO 




U'38 




9-91 




3B,S]6 


20,710 


t&.«S0 


11-90 








BEATnS AND DEATH-BATES. 



4' 



The nnmber of deaths in e«cb colony and iu thei vbole of Amtraliuta, 
in uniiiijui'itaiul jMrriods from 1S61 lo 1S95, is aliown in thie following 



OoMqjr. 


1Mt<n 


me-™. 


an-Ts. 


in«.«o. 


IhSI-W. 


isse-eo. 


18M-M. 


XnKoathWda .... 

TMorik 

»iiilinrl „..„.... 

aMMAurtnll* 

■alanAnbdl*... 


n.tsi 

II).HO 
lOMI 


x.ta) 
a.ni 

11,001 

LTll 
CMS 
IMS 


W.TW 
HMD 


01,1111 

nhow 

t.ODS 
■JH 


00.10) 

SWII 

n.n« 

Ki.ori 


nMt 

IBjMO 
SI.TM 


8i.oeo 


Xntated 


AaiWMa 


utjar 


m,sR 


[»,«« 


1».«1S 


m,«s< 


«tMJ>» 


lU.ilOft 



The average death-rat* of each colony for the periods shonn in tfin 
above wbte is given below ; bnt the atalement Jiwh not afford a just 
compariaon between the colonicis, as nu iwcount in takni of the agw of 
tliep«oplc>— 



covwr. 


un-m. 


u*«-Ta 


isn-TB. 


isra-«a. 


issi-«eL 


ia9»-m I L§ai46. 


Xnenna wd« .... 


1«7» 
IT'X 
MM 

lots 


WOT 

la-ss 

U-Il 
1411 


UTT 
IT-M 

loTB 

it-m 


]B1» 
lE'Su 

ir-M 
u-ui 

11-33 
11 'BU 


u-sa 

18'S8 

11 -&i 

1710 
10 «> 


Utlt 
Ifl'DH 
1611 

leia 

l&IT 


IJTO 
1«-OT 
1!'4T 

IS 'IB 

leii 
u-ie 
i«-ts 




—" - - — 

WMn Aaanlh .. .. 


^— »— 1— J 


JbatnlMlK 


iB-r: 1 isn 


IS-Ol 


H'TU 


1«TT 


ISM 


UT! 



Oompared with Europmn coaiitrirs thu AurtraliiBian colonies occupy 
a ■my aroarable pontion in rtspect to Iwth birth ntul dtuitli rut«B. Tbo 
Autnianati birth-rate is high, and id Kuropt^n countries where it ia 
higher it will bo aora on rrferenw. to tlio snlijoiiuHi table tliat the 
dcaUi-ratA is so oonaiderablj in excess that the i)if{eivnL'i> bulweeu 
1^ two, Tepreseiitin^ the gain to each country liy natural iiicreaiie, 
ii hirgvly lu favour o! Austcalania. In the case of Fnince, Austriii, 
Bn^uj, and Sveduu thtt figures given cover Lhe period of nine years 



42 



POPULATION. 



from ISSfl to 1894 ; for all other countries they refer to the t«n 
1S85-94 :— 



Coontr)'. 


RlrthlUlg. 


D«ll> BaM. 


tliTinlitUjIU. 


New Smith Wales 
Vkcori*. 


36-13 
32-13 
36-27 

:i4-C2 

:mxi 

34-01 

3020 


13-StS 
15-23 
14-(n 
12-:.7 
16-13 
14-62 
1006 


21-47 
16-!)0 
31-06 




21 ^S 




18-87 




19-39 




20-12 








33^46 


13-64 


IS -82 






Biiglaiid wnd W«let 


31-24 
31-30 
22-91 


18-S6 
18-93 
17-33 


12 -38 
12-37 




5-53 


United Ktngdoin 


30-18 


18-78 


11-40 




3301 
38 48 
20-32 
33-47 
37 «1 
43-06 
27-84 
37-24 
31-31 
30-47 
Slt-46 


2214 
24-23 

20-30 
20-20 
28-68 
32-30 
211 -4-1 
2H-fi2 
18-75 
16-93 
1679 


0« 




12 25 




9-12 




1313 




8-93 




10-76 




7-39 


Italy 


I0-62 

13-46 




13-51 




u-e7 







N[>t>ctt«rt«'stui)ooy to the salubrity of tlieclimato of AiifltralasiK i 
bo obtAined than is afibrded by theao G^reti. Tlit-i-e are, of 
various circiiiustauceti other tliati cliuiatic wliiili would tend to toakj 
the mortality lighter iu tlicjse than in oIder<settlud countries, but wlwn i 
possible allowanccM are made for such circumstances a compariioM 
betvreen these colonics a>id the countries of Europe is still Eignitiouitlyi 
(a^'ounible to Australasia. 



Index op Mortality. 

Bo far consideration ha« ()n!y btien pvi-n Ui the actual d(-nth-ral4a 
they nri) ubtjiinryl by taking thi? proportion which tin- nnnilicr of deatlia 
bi-ars til th(^ nunilier of inhaliitnnts. It is well known, liowevel", that 
the deatb-ratp of a country is affected by more than the salubrity of it«j 
cHmntf, the <legreo of perfection to which the sanitary condition of i 
cities and towns and villages has been bronr^'bt. and the unlure of 
indtistrial puranits of its people. Actuarial science haw demon 



INPLrENCK OF AGE-CONSTITCTIOS ON MORTALITY. 43 

the fact tli«t when a male child k lioru in the colony of New South 
Wales it may exjiect to Vtvo uiiiU it is -19-60 jrars old ; if it HurriTca 
until it is 2 yean uf a^, tt may exjjeol to live 56-37 jwn ; while tw it 
gruwK older tbe ex]ie<;Uttiuii uf life ^i^adually cliininiBbn until ttt 90 years 
qf age tbe man may count upon but -.'-■'i'l years of life. It is plain, 
thcT^orr, ttiat n country which has a InrgR proportion of young people 
will, othrr thingn being cijnal, bnvo a bwor death-rato than another 
wlii^ tuu a com [torn tivcly large pro|H>rtion of old persona, tt is tbia 
bet tltat statistical science now seeks to take into accuunt in estabU&hiiifj; 
the r*t«8 of mortality of tlie various countries of tlie world. It h not 
practicable to base a rate on any table showing the Qxpeotitt4oa of lifo 
at tueoeasiTe ages ; but it In j)iueticable Ui st^luct a country, dividi? itii 
populatioa into certain age-groups, and aaifrluin tkti niortiility of nil 
coaotriea on the n»uniptJon that the agt'S of th<i population of each hold 
the sanM; propartionn to the total inhnbitnntx lu ito thow of the; !crliH-t<!d 
country. Thl* i« the courM which ha* bren (niggvst'Nl by thi- Intrmn- 
tion&l Statistical Institute, in itn ISS5 se-tfion, held iit IWii(\ It has 
adopted the population of Sweden, fis ascertAined at the ccnRiis of 1890, 
as tbe standard, and divided it into the tive age-groups of under 1 year, 
1 yew and under SO years, 20 years and under 40 years, 40 years and 
ander60, and 60yearaand upwards, obtAtning the percentagea of 256, 
39-a), 26-96, 19-23, and 11-16 re»jK«tivi-ly. Applying these age pro- 
portioiu to the population of (inch of tbi: AuHtralasian colonies aa 
ucertainvd at the census of 1S91, the " indci of mortality," na dig- 
ttltgui&bed from the actual " death-rate," is found as given beJow for 
eadi of tiie last five years. How greatly the ages of the i)eople of n 
oouDtry aSect its mortality will be evident from the fact that whereas 
in 1894 the duath-ratea of the colonien ranged from 9-91 in New ZeaJund 
to l7-.'iO in Wiwt«rn Australia, or 7-.59 pi-r tliousand, the range of thu 
indexes of nttn-lality was only 2-21 pur Ihousaud, nuniply, from 14-4-1 in 
New Zralnnd to 16-6ri in WeMt^m Austrulia. In comparing the indexes 
of various rears it must not be forgotten that the composition of the 
pOfniUlion of some of the colonies, notably of Western Australia, has 
dnnged since the last census was taken ; — 



iMver. 


leso. 


IIBI- 


188): 


UM 


im. 


Xaw Smith WalM ... 


IG-Sl 
18-71 
17-29 
lfi-33 
15-II 

12-87 


18-68 
lit-4S 
IG'SS 
)(J7G 
lil'&4 
lS-01 
13-95 


Iflfia 
16 34 

15-82 
!4'07 
IS -84 
1.''.'04 
13 'SO 


16-71 

ia-«6 

lli-lO 
IRfM 
1.T43 
13-M 


18-32 
15-99 


Weitacn Anatralla ... 
New Zealand 


lB'2a 
14 -SI 
lit -05 
14-74 
14-44 


AnrtnUaia 


16-G8 


17-83 


IS -47 


16-18 


is-es 



<4 



POPTLATTOX. 



The nvtmbflr of mftirimgcs and the mnrrngp^nite ppr thousMid of ; 
population for Mi:^ colony daring the year 1895 «n thown below ; 



OlOR)'- 


MUtllgM 


Uarrla^r Bute. 




8,030 
7,076 
2,821 
%0(B 

ess 

H7 
4.110 


•MV' 


Sniitb AuRtnklik _ 

Taaniuiik ,..„.^...... 

Now Zealand 


6-M 

5-78 
S-3S 




2&,67D 


6-OB 







The number of marmK«a iii eacJi colony Mid in llie wlioli- of AustnJ- 
in qiuuquemuHl periotla froiu 18G1 to 1895, was as follows :— 



OUaar- 


»■-«£. 


mK-7(v 


JSTl-TS. 


1IT9.W). 


im-s£. 


aoa-M. itnm] 


lt«wsaatt«Uw .... 


MM 


«,4» 
X,l«i 


fl.nii 

:.4!» 

3.nn 

lEMO 


on 

WIS! 


3B.7JT 
I.HS 


4^ ^* T1 1* I 




10.3M 
t.TM 

utwr 




WMMmAiMRMI*.... 


nmmlHh .... 


«bU7 


«kUl 


nxa 


■a,Tsa 


I1TM« 


UUM 


"^ 



Th* avnage itinrringivmt^s for each colony darliw the same pe 

aro giTvn bourn-. Tlic tabic &liows the ratio uf mamagtB to popi]latiini| 
to ascertain the ratio of persons married it is nL-wssary t« double " 
figures:— 



Colonjr. 


ia>I-«3. IWO-TO. 
1 


ish-Ml wKfla. 


un<s». 


IMMOl 


mi.M. 


N«w SmM ValM .... 


U-M 
SKS 

101» 


aw 
aw 

0-1 1 
S-M 


fl'M 

a-3s 


T-SS 
T-«l 


9-« 

I-S8 

S-ll 

a-ie 
aw 


8-lt 

«-n 
ris 

?■« 
•■no 


t^ 






WMtBpAlMlKli*.... 








...J— I— t. ..,, 


icn 


■« 


T-M 


Tli 


T-M 1 la 


e-ii 



During the laat &ve yean titf innrriogn-ratc haii fallen cousiderabiy, 
in all the oolonioH. With the Kxcuption of New Zealand it was lowe 



COMPARISON OP 3CAftBIA.GE-RATiS. 



45 



in tntrv colony during IS9I-(I5 Uuui dnnnf; the preceding (lubqutrnnUl 
period, mad lownr avorywhora tbau durum ">» tive yu*w ISBUS'i. 
Thn ia anotlier proof of tlie trutli of tlw att-nqieatiid aatr.amnt that 
comiDerci*] depteaaioa always exdrU uii ulvenc iiiHucnor on tho 

A compuiaoa of Ui« nuuriaKc-riit^! of Aosbnalatu with that o{ other 
oountncB, when Uic wodal coiKiitionK ara aaaentlally dtfibrent, ie not of 
tnucli value, uid thi^rsfore ix not givon here. 

PhrticnUn rulativo to dirorco in the AusU-oIouan ooloiues will be 
fomKl in the chapter hewliKl " Bocial Condition." 



Nativb Racksl 

At tliH oouus of 1S91 only 3S,879 aborigine* witro <;iitiiii(imt^, of 
'whom »,280 wi-re in New Soutli Wales, 565 in Victoria, S»,7f'8 in South 
Antrolift, bikI 6,24r> in Western Aiuiraiia. Tho £gum relating to 
Sew South Wolc* aod Victoria includod all aborifjnes living in those 
proTiDOo^ hat tho rotums from the otlier i-oloiiies wen very imperfect. 
The abori^nes of ToamaDia aro i*xtiucl, but the Tum&niaii tMiaun at 
1891 eaumerat«d 139 half-cuslL-n, who were iooluded In the ^'oneral 
pc^lmtioa. tt hu been awertod Uutt tbero aro Komo TO.dUU almri- 
^na* in (jucmslanii, but this is a rory crude CEtimatei and may he for 
wide of tho truth. In iho mao of South Australia, a Urge number of 
&B aboriginm in tbo Northern Territory are eutii«ly outside tine bounds 
of spttlem«nt, and it seema probable tliat tliivy aro aa numerous iii that 
colouy oa in Queenalaiid. The otriiHUR of Wealerii Austruliii inuludud 
mlj tboae aboriginala in the [unpluyintuL of the colonists, oikI as lurgif 
portionB of thiit, the Kreatettt in urea of oil the Austrahisiiiii colonicH, 
m on yet unexplon-d, it muy ho ]>rn»unied that the number of nboriginea 
■uun«»ted WM very far sliort of tbn total in the colony. Altogether, 
tbo sborigioBl population of tho continent may bo set down at souiething 
lik* 200,000. 

The original inhalntantB of ^ew Zcidand, or Mxoriit, aa they are 
called, arc quit« a dilTerent race from the aborigine* of Austmli«. 
TbfK are ^fted with a ooimidenblu tunomit of tnLelligejice, are ijuick 
at unitatioD, aikI hnrn even to riishiioES. Acuonliog to the cenxuH 
of 1861 tbey nunibured 44,097, but like the Austniltan iiborigiiiea 
they a|qic*r to tm decixiOKing in number, for the census of lfit<6 
<B(inKr»t«d only 41,432. and that of 11^91, 41,993 (^2,S61 males wid 
19,I.1'i fnnal<!!i). In the ItJ'Jl figures arc included 2,681 half-cftstes 
(1,46^ nwlex and 1,21'^ femalea), and 40 >Iiu>ri« at Chatham lalnnds 
(26 molae and 14 females), It is said that when the colonists first 
landed in Now Z«alaQd Die uuruber of Iklaoris whs fully 120,000, but 
thin, like all other caLiinoten (if aliiiriginal population, is founded on very 
Imperfect iofortuatioa. At the cenxus of 1890 the Maori population of 
Sevr Zealand Dnmber«d 39,854, %-ix., 21,673 males ujid 18,1^1 females. 



46 



POPULATION. 



At the cGDHUH of 1801 t)i<' Cliincj^n tLiitt Iinlf-co-ite Chiiiese tn thevbols 
group of cnlonics numWrcil 42,-')21, diAtriliutml as follows :— 

N«w South Wal-M 14.156 

ViotorU _.... i).3TT 

(Juoenaluid ,. S,R'4 

South Au«tnli» ..,„ S.Wi 

Wnt«ni AurtnlU _ » 917 

Tunuuiia l.OfiS 

New Zealand _ : 4J44 

AuktralMJil „ i^,yii 

Bince 1^80 it Iias beon dc«med expedient br tbe Uovcmmeuts of 
colonies to enact probibjtjve lava against tlie immigration of Cliinra^] 
and their migration from one ooloiiy la ftiiother. For several yeAn i 
poU-tAX of £10 was iinpoaed, but now, in acfonlaiice with Ihu 
recent legislation on the Bubject, masters of vessels ure forhicWpu uru 
u lieiivy [lynuhy to bring moi« thiin oni- Cfiiiiesu to every 300 tonii, uid' 
a poll-tax of .£100 is chnrgpil on landing, f)ice|>t in Western AiiKtrati*,, 
whnro the tux is £10, and in South Ansti-aliii. where no poll-tax Hi 
impoiied, but masters of veasels may only bring one Chineae to «vety 
BOO ton* buiilpn. Th«ie iitriiig«Mit regulations lm»'e liaJ the (tffeet of 
bringing nbotit the almost cjitirR ci^Bsation of this class of iniinigmtion. 

Tho otdy othci' alien mce present in large nuu)>era in niiy of th« colo- 
nics are the Polynciiiiin* in Quefnulnnd, where they numbered 9,4S4 1 
the census of ltt91. 



N ATU R ALia ATI ox . 

Hie number of persons naluraliited in Australasia during 1894 
1,121 ; of tliese, over on^fuurth took out papers uf niitumlisAtioiij] 
in Queenitland and Victoria reepuutivety, and ovur oiie-liftli in 'Hei 
Zealand anil New South Wales. The figures for South Australia)^ 
Western Austrnliii, and Tasmania are small. Tbe following are tbs i 
ratume for each colony :-— 



Qaleaf. 


Ovmun- 


Snn- 
iIlMriuu. 


ChlnoK 


Otben. 


n«l 


V«ir South Woha ... 
TMorift 


1» 

188 

17 

S 

i 

57 


79 

90 

61 

4 

3 

3 


9 

17 


67 
129 

28 
« 
3 
3 

5(> 


981 




996 
U 
11 

27 


&oatIi Australia 

Wa>t«ni AiMtndia ... 




5t 06 


2S7 




Auntrohuia ... 


sns 


234 1 122 


207 


1,191 



AGOSBOATIOK OP POPULATIOS IN CITIES. 



47 



Cities asd Towns. 

Tbe progrem of the chief cifiw of AufitmtMia has been no lea niranrlc- 
mbie than tlint of the colonicK thamtrlrct, nnd has no parallel among the 
citiw of tho old world. Kvcn in America the rise of the great cities has 
b««n aooooapatudd hy a corresponding increase in the rural jinpulation, hut 
in these eolonks, perhaps for the Hrat time in hihtory, in pi-csmtpil the 
spectacle of magnifioeut cilie« growing with marveUoun rapidity, and 
embracing within ihi'ir limils ont--thiixl of the itopnUtiun at thi- c-olonies 
of vhioh they arc the seat of governrneut. Tlie almormnl njtgrpgation 
of the population into their capital cities is a most tinforhinntc element 
in the program of t]i<i colonies, nnri nni- which seems to become every 
ytar mom marked. 

The increase in the population of the chief cities of Austrahuia and 
tiie eatimated numbers of their inhabitants at the various censua periods 
an riiown in the following table, which illustmtea the remarkable pro- 
I pefenrw! lo : — 



Otf. 


tut. 


un. 


ISO. Iftl. 


au 


tw. 


Srdnejr „... 

Stttboonic 


28kff7S 
4.470 

•8a9 

tMW 


53;D34 

33,143 

2,&43 

JM^7 


K.;S9 
139.010 


137,776 

200,780 

10,029 


224.030 

282,947 

31.100 

1U3.H(M 

S.S'.'S 
21,113 
30,303 


383,283 

490,S1MJ 

93,607 


Adclude ............. 

Pcrtfc „ 


18,303 
10,44* 


42,744 

5.244 
19,002 


13S.252 

8,44T 

33.490 

33,224 




7.908 





' In 1M& 1 1n WW. t In ltS«L 



Tlwaggpagation of population is nioet marked in the caseof Melljourne, 
bnt Addaido and Sydney are also couapicuout The propoitiou of popu- 
lation in each capital compured with ilial of the whole colony ia tdiown 
balow for the thre« yenm 1871, 1881 and 1891 :— 



aiy. 


tan. 


lau. 


IWI. 




per coat. 

•i--3i 

98-27 
1251 
23-03 
20-68 
]a'7S 
3-08 


per cent. 
29-93 
32-81 

14-57 
37-11 
19-60 
lS-25 
4-20 


per ceat. 
33-80 




43 OS 




2S79 




41 '59 


Perth 


ia-07 

22'SI 




5-30 



The percentage of New Zealand population resiclent in Wellington 
M mtall, bvt though it is the capital of ths colony that city i> exceeded 



48 



POPCtATION. 



ill population 1>y AuekUiitl, an well as t>y Dunedin and Cliriatcburch. 
Still, L'ven in the InrgMt <^ thxise. cities — Auoktnnd — tlic population ia 
not inure than ^'18 pt-r crnt of that uf the wbolo ixHony. 

Tbo followinic i« a liiit of thn cities and tou-n* of Austntlniia witli 
a population «ixceeding 5,000 at ttio cenitus of 1891 ; id ail cases tUe 
SQburlw are incladflil ; — 




Cll>4r TomL 



PapniuioiL 



Citjr at TiHTD. 



Ktw South WalM— 

Hvclniijr 

AowcmUc 

Brokou Hill 

Parr.unatta 

(joullium 

^bitUiul ......... 

B«tbllT*t 

Alburjr ........ 

Urania 

Violorift— 

Molboartic 

BklUist „., 

Baudigs 

Gteloug , 

WarnMunbool .., 

OHtUmaiiw 

Rtnwoll 

QuecDiluid— 

Brubiuie 

Rockhamiiton ... 

Mar7boroii|{li ... 

Townvrillu 



383.363 
50,705 
19.760 
11,677 
10,916 
laSH 
9,182 
S,447 

&.oe4 

16,033 
37.1MM 

34,283 
6,5S2 

9,183 

B3.6.?7 
13,38t) 

a. TOO 

8. DM 



QaMBalanil— «onCiRncrf — 

UympLa 

Ipiwich .......... 

Tuowoomba 

Sooth Anrtialia— 

Adelaide 

Part Ad«Uide 

Wiuitfrn Ao&lntlia — 

FBrth 

KivmKiitla 

Tnamaniii— 

Hoban 

lAtmcoiton 

Hww /eiilkrid — 

Aiicklaod 

ChriitffbuTCli 

Dunudin 

Wellington 

Inverougill 

Xauier 

Kclirrn , 

O&iiiiuru ,,.,. 

Waiigviui 



as.uo 

1T.20S 



Titt cutiniatiH] population nt the cupiUilH of t]i« AuHtr«la«ian < 
on the Slat boccnibur, lUlDS, was na followa : — 

oj UtlBjr f « t ■ ai>* •«*»■ a*!^*' • >■ i «•■ ■»• *••• i ••< ••■ » •» ■ «*■ >•■ ■••■•■ i »» ■ » ^lO-^nKT 

Multtounn _ „ Wl.Xa 

Brnban« SG.OOO 

Adelaide „ IU.39S 

IVrlh _ .; 19,333 

Itotiut _.,. _._, _ -...,.. 36.e90 

WeUiogton „ _._ „ 39,364 



BlRTB?LACEa. 

Onr of Um- suliji-ct* of iiii|uiry at tlir crnKUK of 1P91, as at previon 
en u literal ii>nK, wmn thn birth|>Iacrx of thit population. Tlie rvsult uf the 
tabulation shown that while tlicm aro dilTerrncr'K in tlm t^itiDponeiit 
of tJi« population in the several colonicsi, tli«w difTrrrncca am alight, . 
tlie great m^orily of tlie peopk — to the extent, indeed, of fulljr W 




BIRTHPLACES OF TEE PEOPLE. 



49 



eeot.— Are of British origiiL Probably the po|iolaUoii of AiiMtrajMia u 
more hoinogeneoDs than tbat of moat Etiropout coiuitriM^ for oven in 
Quperi&l&D(l, wlt«re people of forctgn <leii«iDt mre proportJonatoly man 
numeriRia tJiaii in ttiiy of the oCbigr coloniea, thr^ (to not uinount to more 
llian 1<J pifT oent- of tbi? tote] populktion. Tlwt subjoined table sfaovs 
ia m conaeaiHid f»nii thi-' rcKalts of the tal>ulAtion of the birthplaces of 
the pofinlRtion of «ftdi colony, tlie iigiims Iwing vxcliuive of aborigineB, 
aad inclnsiri^ in tli« awe of European countries, of their colonics and 
pCManioiu : — 



nrtbiMMM. 




WcMoB 

AB*- 

inllL 


nut- 

dunlL 


Kdw 

luid. 


Ai» 
tnUdh 


fcnHiml^Wala 

tlali AuKwIli 


IT.IM 

Ml 

IlBU 

MS 


19,776 

7U 

M,MT 


iT.oa 
r.*n 

ITiUi;! 
I.WI 

01 

).m 

IJIT 


1,1 M 

«-,■» 
KM 

M7 


l.OM 

IJUX 

1.101 

lOS 
IM 


i.in 
4,an 

303 
•74 

rei 

lOT.Mil 


<a 

*e 

70 

t.M9 

WS.TM 


7«.U.'i 

Tn,oe 

IU.1> 

aft,OM 

ASM 
131,012 

swt.tw 








MMOI 


TW.OTO 


»t,IW 


SIS.IT1 


31,0IB 


1U.1M 


)R.<H» 


I.>C1,S« 


bihaduilWriht .... 


TS,<U 




77.187 


Misi 
1<W 


s.sis 

1.211 


17,441 
M4» 
fi.M7 


ns.»4 
ti.su 

4T.MI 


sm,ta 
itt,»« 

S<k68S 






CWMKlnrte-i .... 


mn.im 


»B.<«t 


ut.aa 


TIOM 


14. M3 


at.ifft 


nx.nM 


i,iw>,ono 


aaut rMMMteM- 


l.OI 

WD 


in 

1.M0 
lit 


71 

I.W 

MO 

Olt 

i; 


■M 

set 

S( 


to 

lOB 

I 


14 

OS 
IBO 
10 


111 

i.i«a 

310 

i.<»n 

IK 


83» 




T,70S 
5.708 




iBlwcta 

iaroi>>Mt> 


004 




<.«» 


i.v(« 


a,MM 


1,3% 


;atl 


uer 


S.411U 


13,«&4 




CHI 

»l 

I.ISH 

t.XIO 

l.tTT 

at 

su 

]j7a 

us 

».»T 

UM 

S.>I» 

1U<? 


1.S07 

1,717 

*u 

l«s 

t,m 

BI 

a,!it 
:,ii7 
um 
MA 


M7 

IS 

J,0T1 

111 

U.UM 

ijn 
07 
41 

Rl 

83 

l,»M 

tnu 

MS 


18i 
It 

WO 
400 

ISO 
M 
17 

IW 

SI 

I.IM 

un 
>w 

3,WT 


a» 

4 
II 
M 

SIX) 
mi 
i» 

lU 
71 

sa 

104 
IS 

in« 

014 


30 

la 
m 

77 

eig 

SH 

11 

17 
3a 
17 

194 
IH 

V!l 


lis 

"11 

4,003 

uw 

143 

410 

70 

I.70I 

B«3 

l.tWt 

4.410 


1,S1I> 




tl,4IW 




A,34S 




40,038 
4,SHH 


TIihS^ 


3.373 


■wiliB'aiiaitorwg'-'' 

IMuililll 

tiMllMUiClAmak* 


DO) 
1t,S» 

0,071 
4U.UIX 








jr.»« 


www 


n.Mt 


thSM 


1,M!I 


1,870 


13, M3 


111,101 




i.«n 


UK» 


8M 


m 


ill 


i:o 


1,29(, 


I1.M6 






4aMk»i>l>WTKMM 


I.UB 


10,071. II.MC 


i.ws 


i.nnt 


UUO 


1,3W 


tl,«H 


TbmI 


■l,t«>.»M 


l,lx^Ml>,:Kn,:ls 


331.431 


40,783 


iie.o«7 


030,063 


>.«01,BW 



A gUnM at this table will show that nativM of thp Australawan 
ccdmiea formed fully two-thirds of the (lopulaliou, and that the great 

l> 




POPULATIOX. 



iDSljority of the Autitralmiian-born poputntion were natives of l!i« par- 
ticular dotony in wliidi thuy wci-i- nnniitcmtod. Tlin peroftntJijt*' ot the 
people bora iti tlit- colony in wliich thoy vvrv ri-xUlvat Kt tlit? tiiun of 
ths oenauH, <>t tlitmr Imm in tlif othiT nix AliBtraliutinn colonii-ii, and uE 
the toul AuntniloAJnin-born populutioii to the total populjition of cacb 
colouy, are shown b«low : — 





pvceniMi' lo ToU] t<0]iulktlan ol— 


<Moar. 


Ntllin 

o( Cuiiiii)' of 






U-31 
63-5a 
44 -US 

fit -on 

S5-8t) 
7S-57 
68 «2 


T-47 
6-75 
7-14 

a-Mt 
4 97 
S-54 


71-B8 




oeai 




52-09 




71*0 
03-42 
78 -iM 




01 -OS 




6)^ 


51)6 


07 '40 







Thiiet) figiiroa show that proportion nteJy the largest Aiistralaninn-bor 
population is to be founil in TasuiaTiia, where more thun 73 out lA over 
100 of the in habitants were honi in the colony, and over 71* ppr cent 
were AustrniiuianH. In Queeuslaiiil, on the contraiy, very nearly halt 
tlie population woro natives of countries outniile AuBtral!wia. iin<I only 
45 per cent, were Queeudlandem by birth. The low j)i'0|<orlioD 
nativ«-bom in the colony iu question is no dimlit aciountwl for by 
comparatively recent aellleuiont of much of itn territory, and tiie enooaij 
raf^emeut given lo iinmigrantH from the United Kingilom and tlie Cont 
nem of Eun)p(!. It will be notieed thiit New South Wab'S h'ls pi-ore^l 
the niOHt attractive nf nil the [irovincrt) to those born in other partn ofl 
AiiHtrnluiiiii, while New Zi'iiland, from its isolated position and grrvt^rr 
di*itunoe, hiut drawn to itself the smallest ]>roportion of Au»tralasi*a 
nativeH, The following ligures set forth still more clearly tlio extent 
to which each colony is indebted for population to its neighboim ; — 



COlODf. 



Naw Sguth W>Im.. 

Viotoria 

Qa««n(luid 

South Atutnlia... . 
Wwum Aastndia. 

Tununik 

NcwZoland 



I Kumbor oJ I Jfunibr' <ti 

-ii C'llniiira 1 aUd In otliH 
crjurJjvmLnL. I dK COjODleL 



Otiu 



toOkxr 



BS.9S7 

0^1 IS 

ll,0«« 

3,9SO 

;.»t 

13,MS 



43,.V20 
09,0:!l 
14,300 
47.30S 
2,013 
20,711 
23.870 



40.407 

7,'J75 

13,012 

"i','23; 



3a,«? 

7.827 



BIRTHPLACES OP TflE PEOPLE. 



51 



In New Sonth Wal«!t, it will bo nevn, tliwe were 83,987 natives of the 
otfao' colonics, whiSit only 43,.'i'2(> nntives of New Soutli Wales bad 
maifa Uioir bam«s in other parts of Australoata, llie renult beinj; a net 
gtiu of 40,467 psrsons — ■ ve^ conaideruble proportioii, fret-lu); that 
several of tie other provinoes were originally foloniued irom New South 
Wak«. Ou the other hand, South Australia sliowed a loen of 3G,24T 
from intercolonial movements of popuUtion ; Tasinanialtad loet 19,417 ; 
and New Zealand, 7,927. Tlie natives of other partji of Australasia 
RiMlent iu Tiotoria very utnrly liulanced the nuiulHn' of Victorians rami- 
dott in other provinces, the exccas in favour of the colony in <iuestion 
being nnd«!r 8,000. Quetmsland gnint^d 13,912 from the other colonie* ; 
and Wntcm Australia, l,-'37 persons. 

Next to the Au«iralacian-boru population, nativw of the United King- 
dom were by far the moat nunit.-i'ou» claim iii each colony. 11)0 following 
Wils Bfaows tbe percentages of natives of England and Wales, Scotland, 
nd IreJand to the total popuktion of each colony : — 





Nslheiot— 


Oshar. 


EnfflAiiil 

and ViJm. 


SdoUiuhI, 


IreUiid. 


Vnllol 


K«w Soalb WalM 


13-71 

U-29 
19-60 
15'2i 
19-71 

11-89 


3-S8 
4-45 
S'09 

a-77 

3-13 

2-fi2 
8-2a 


9-08 
7-48 
10-93 

4-48 
7-03 
3 -88 
7 (SO 


23 67 

sa-SQ 




S6-22 
22-4Q 


W«at«ra Aoatralik ... 


2917 

1 8 '.19 




S4'|l-J 




U-ftl 


4'li2 


TS3 


27-30 



It was to bo expected that the per<-'entage of nativrii of th« United 
liingdom would bo highest in those colonies which hnvi^ introduce<;I a 
lirge nninber of assint^^ immigrnnts during the last twenty yeare, namely, 
in Queensland and New Zealand, in which colonics the percentage of the 
native-born population ia comparatively low. If tbe couipoaition of the 
uupulation of the United Kiugdoin lie taken into cotiAideration, it will 
be Men that Scotch and Iriah coloiiisla are propoi-tionately much more 
nnmi-roaa than thoae of En/^liHh birth. Tlie dtHtritiution of natives of 
th« thrco kingilomn ia very unciiual in the different culoiuea. Whil« 
natives of Kn^n-il am proportionutely tnom ninneruus than natiidK of 
Sootland and Ireland in 8011th Australia, Western Australia, and Tai;- 
Muiia ; Scotsmen aro moat numeroas in New Zealand, and Irishmen in 
Qoeciidand. 



50 



POPULATION. 



m^ority of Uie AuKlnlMinn-bom population wcro natiwa of the par 
tioulur colony ill whicli thirty vtrv eiiunierstwi. I'hn porcviitu^f of t)i 
people bom in Uwi colony in which ihey were rpsiclcnt at th>- timi? 
theoeiMuii, of thoKc horn in tlio other ux Auslralnsi&n colonicjc, nml iid 
the total Aurtniliwian-born populitliou to the total population of i^n 
ootonjr, aro sboini below ; — 





P«n»nl»«« M TuWl Popul»tlon of - 


Colaa>'. 


KMIvn 
OtOohieTiit 
KDiUMntlon. 


NativDi of 
othit UaloDlc*. 


INipulttlHTI- 




04 31 

os-sd 

44-!» 
fi8«2 


7-47 
fl-75 
7 14 
S-45 
U'HS 
*■« 
3-M 


71-93 




tio-ai 




52-09 
71 « 
fi'2-4S 




TS'54 




lil-OC 




flI-M 


5-96 


o;--(o 







TliMe GgurM show that proportionately the largest Australasian-L 
population is to be found in Tiuiuiania, where moro thioi 73 out of o« 
100 of the inhabitania wi-re boni in the colony, and ov«- 7S per cc>n^ 
were AuntrKlasiaiifi. Iii Queensland, on the contrary, very nearly halC 
the population were nativiii of countries ouljude AustralsJiia, iind onlj 
45 per oe:H. were Quvoiuliindcn by birlb. The low proiioftion 
nativ»-bi>ni in tli<! colony in i]uimtion is :io duubt occounteil for by thfl 
oompamtivHy rewnt ncttlctncnt of much of it* tiiritory, aud the eiicou- 
rasL-iiicnt giv<rn lo iiiiiiii^nintJ« frnin thn ITiiit^'d Kin)(dom and tlie CoiitiJ 
n«it of Ruropr. Jt will I* noticed that Knw South Wal<« Icim pi-ove 
th« most attractivn of all th* provinces to thojie born in othi-r |mrts alt 
Australasia, while New Zealand, from \t» isolated position nnd gn-atcf T 
distance, hat drawn to itself the smalleiit proportion of Auntralasian 
natives. The following llj^ures Ket forth MiU more clearly tlio vxtoat 
to which each colony is Ind<^bt«l for [lopulation to its neighbours : — 



Odonr- 


S'umbcr Hi 

•ll Colwla* 
VBORMnted. 


XuailKr ol 

•Md lo Mtua 
MkOMobMk 


Oklll LOH 

tuCuloiv. i tciCidoaj. J 




8S,W7 

76.9»e 
S8,II8 
ll,IH3 

a,uo 


«I,.V20 
6B,Wil 
I4,«W 
47,292 
2.013 
96.711 
23,S7i> 


4I),4CT 1 






South AiutT&Ii& 


13,1112 1 




1,837 1 






N«w ZMland 









BIBTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE. 



S< 



In New South Wahw, it will hn sorn, tlirxe werp 83.9^7 natives of the 
other ooloDJn, whilit only 43,3^0 natives of Sew South Wales Latl 
owde th«ir homes in other parts of Australasia, the result being a net 
gain of 40,467 peraoos — a very considerabte proportion, seeiaj; that 
aeveral of the other provin«eB w>;re orii,'iually oolonised from Kew South 
Witles. On the other haud. South Australia s)iow«l a loaa of 3G,24T 
bun int«rcoloiual movements of po]>uliitioii ; Tusiiiaiiia tiaJ lust 19,417 ; 
uwl Now Ze«laii(l, 7,927. Ttic Datin-H of other pArts of Australasin 
Rcident in Tletorift very iit«rl}' halanccil the numbar of Yictoriaits rcNi- 
dent in other pravincnt, the excpss in favour of tho colony in <{u<!stiou 
being under 8,000. Queensland G;nini?d 13,91*2 from the other colonies ; 
«0(t Western AiHtivlift, 1,237 pcnwiis. 

Next to the AtntrmlftnaD-born population, natives of the ITnitod King- 
Am were by far the most nunieruus class in each eolony. The following 
•tthle sbowa the peroentases of natives of England and Wales, Scollandj 
ud Ireland to the total |>opuktion of each colony :— 





Sbt!>aiif_ 


CmbT- 


BniUuid 
and Vmh. 


Scotlinrl, 


Inltnd. 


United 
Kiiijrfom. 




13-71 

le-eo 

15-24 
19-71 

11-89 
lEI'M 


8-S8 
4-4S 

s-eg 

3-77 
2-43 

2-(i2 
8-2S 


6-68 
7-48 
10-03 
4-4$ 
7-03 
3'S$ 
7(50 


23 -67 
26'2-J 




30-22 


WcsUnt Austmlu ... 


■^■1- 




34-1)3 




16-W 


4-02 


J. 23 


87 -33 



It waa to bo exp<rcted that the percentage of nativps of the United 
Kingdom woul<l l>>> highest in thoxc colonies nhicli hnve introduced a. 
hrge number of as«iHt«d immigrtuits during the last twenty yeai-s. namely, 
in (Queensland and New ZeaUuid, in which colonics the porceulage of the 
utivD'boni population ia comparatively low. If the composition of the 
popiihition of tlie United Kingdom l>e taken into cotisid emtio n, it w-ill 
M wen that Scotch and Irish colonists are proportionately much more 
ntUBenNW than those of Eiiglinh birth. The distribution of natives of 
Ute tlirctt kingdoiDH In very uno<|uuI in thu diflWrent culunies. While 
Utires of Kngland are proportionntely mora nuineruus lliun natives of 
Sootlaod and Irrlond in south Austrnltii, Wcxtcni Australia, and Tns- 
uonia ; Scotsmen are moat numcToas in New Zealand, and irishmen in 
Qawnaiainl. 



54 



POPrLATION. 



'le to| 



of inniTtflge had been granted in New i^outb Walen, it in rcnsonnl: 
oanimft Ui*t tLc Sgur« qnotod for thtit calonj underiitato the truth, no 
ilotibt owing to tlie reluctance on the part of inatiy jjeopk- wliose marriage 
bonds hnd been severed to return theumelvea aa " divorvi!d " in tki 
census sctiedulea, and the aanii* remark applies to tliv other uolonies, 

The following tahlt? allows tlie iiuiiiber of unnmrried, ii!arri«l, aui 
widowed jieople in i-atli t-olony, those wliose conjugal condition w: 
lUiBpecilied on the m-hMiules having been proportionately distributed :• 



Conjtigal CcufllLoii. 


Haw 
tumth 
WbIw, 


Vietorto- 


luid. 


South 
Aiuflm- 

110. 


Woleni, 1,^^ 
Aurtr*- '^. 


Enbnl. 


.■: 

Austnl« 
mU. 


Hun- 
Mudrd 


4S4,4IM 


i;n,«S4 


w.tws 

4,M8 


II4,(inn 


Il,«« 
7.W1 


a.tsi 

!.(4t 


tM.Slfi 

M.TS4 


i.tia.iOT 

MM.BQ] 
M MS 








(»,IM> 


eM.SN 


SM.TTB 


lOfl.goi 


11\Hl7 


:T,6flO 


SS!.877 


S.UM.RK 




FDtLU— 


]Ut4,M4 
IW.H8 


in.n» 

It.VM 


IW,E3!t 
M.tfin 
0,W7 


un.Wi 
4K,1W 


la.TM 


4S,TM 
X1,40S 

s.Ha 


190.7M 
11,104 


lilOt Ml 


UuTtKl 

V.lllDWttl 


M4,01l 
»I>,T8 




tlfi,«U 


M1.7U 


lll9,Ne 


1SS,0WI 


19,SII 


M.IDT 


>S3.J«I 


I.TU.iai 




UlUl A*D PUULM— 


0,111* 


Sd.TOS 
fil.4TS 


IM.HO 

ii6.[.'a 


sio.oti- 


M,.V4 

u,a40 
i.ng 


(W,IW.'i 
43,iiM 


4u,(i;s 

ISl.UVS 


I.BStt.St) 
1 i^u nni 




ii.wej ii.Mi 


IH.ll>'i!| U&iTOS 






MnjtM 


l.t»,MO 


sa.Tls nn.ui 


ig.TS! 


lt<.W7 


«w,efis 


adOl ODQ 











Proin Iho foregoing l^gureit it will be seen that unmarried m&^ : 
largely in excess of unmarried feiimii-a iii each colony. Tlie nuinhei 
for cjioli rolony and tbn pi-rctnt-age of umnHrricd females to unmarrie'dj 
luftlcs are shown in the fallowing tiiblo :— 



1 EicCMal 
CdIJOJ. U01««t,«IMiI<, 


VdidmtM FBDuIca 

lo 
Uaunlad Hato. 




Wt,9fl0 
73.4il8 

55,676 

17.173 

S.943 

S.676 

4fi67 


7flW 




65-48 
84 -M 




SS'OO 




83- U 
81-41 








307,003 


78lt9 







The percentage is particularly low in those colonies which liav 
fttlr^t«il niucb population from the other provinoes, tut New Southj 



CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE. 



55 



Wales, QuM-ntilauil, ami WetrtiTu Austmlk ; whilp it is nmr tlio 
averse in Victoriu and Nitw vit:9liui(), wbic^h hnvo nnith<>r gaiiicil nor 
lost popakteon to •nv (tn="t p*t*'nt ; and it i* wnsidorably above the 
KWfomp^ in South Auxtmliit oiul Tuimnniit, wlicnre n gr««t auiount of 
Mnigration to the oUht rolonicK hu tAlcrn {ilacc. This f.ii^'t favourti tlie 
anpposition that tho tnorpmcnt of population chiefly coniiistod ot youug 
Wtmiarricd males attracted to the other colonies by the hopte of btrlt^riug 
th«r coiiditian. 

The numbers of married nt&lea and femtOes hto fairly ct^fxal in all 
the colonieii, the uialea i>repouder%tinK everywhere except in Victoriii 
and Hcw Zealand ; there muHt, therefore, have been an «mignitioti tit' 
■narried malw from thenc tno piiiviiiocw. 

Amongst tke widoved, femalcK Urgnly oiitnuinber male*, ax wok to be 
expected from tli« higher ilcnthrnli! and th'- proportionfttoly larger 
aBtnber of Rial<« n-Binrri*d. \V'i-*l(rrn Austniiin, however, Bhow^ a 
di^t cxcoM of widowers over widows. TLo followin); (Able shows for 
«adi colony tbo proportion of iinmfu-ried, married, and widownl tnnles 
to total male*; of unmarned, married, an<l uiilowed females to total 
fnuUes; and of unmArriMl, married, and widowed pereoua to total 
fapolatioa:— 



irtmulafct- 







H 



Haub- 
CmmrM .... 

Mwbd 

WIdomd 

WtnAim— 
tiiiHBnlcd .... 

JfanM 

WUownl 

Fmmn 

DdsutM .... 
■UnM 



tofa 

e-ti 



■El'MI 

nil 



WW 



BH-Sl 



BVSB 



30-U 
4« 



711)8 

ai-ao 



as-Ill 

S.1-SM 
3-M 









«7«l flS-M 

18'U WU 

IW I'M 






1-16 



tl-M 



1041 



Oil 

so-w 

ill 






TO-ffll 



M-Wt 

t-u 



an 



3I-B7 
fit 



07-83 t6U 
BI'M :^'70 



SlCKKKKH AXD iNFiaMITV. 

InqtiiriM were ntade in the census schedules respecting the number of 
nentonK!iufieringfromnckiie8sandiufirmity,but there is reason to believe 
that in mmoo of ibe colonies at leaxt the way in which the column woa 
AJIm] in wna onsatiiifavtory. Tlie fif^urea for New .Soutli Wales, Virtoi-ia, 
asd Bouth AuxtmliA may bi: compared throu^'hout, as the clasai&catioii 
adopted WM practically the iiuiiii% mid to u certain extent thin also 
lM>ld8 good of the W(fsti:ni Anitralian and Tuxiiiauiati (i),'ures. The 
rettirna for QuMnslatid am mode in n iiami-whttt indeliuite way ; and in 
Nev Zealand half tho number of [>en<onH iHumed an nick and inlirm 



S6 



POPULATIOK. 



tnducltu all ixg«s, while Uie other hnit only includM the tW|iu1aliott'] 
of 15 yt«ra Mid orer. The following table shows the n»ulU uf tbfl 
tabuUtion for cadi of the colonim : — 



Mr'Ktmtoa Ivtlnailj. 



Rnuth 






1*Bd. 



tnlh. 



tnlhL 



Tat- 



Saw 



SukncM — 

PkMljvdi _ , 

Epi]o|«y „,., 

Leprotir 

Olliur and iiu dsfinwt . 



Total...™..™.., 

Acddonta » 

DcoE and dumb .. _.- 

Dam b only ._ 

DcaI only 

Bllndlicai 

LnnAcy.., 

Idiocy ,.„ 

Cnt<|il«l 

Lout K limb 

Loot sight (if an eye 



sei 

JCM17 



U,S23 

i,4n 

383 

9 

1,34^ 

741 
8,iar 

28S 
1,115 

e33 
1.1B4 



Tol«l _ 22,201 24,C8.1 






14.«4; 

1.666 
36« 

62: 

mi 

3,770 

:i46 

1.137 



300 

3 

3.620 



18 

167 



L960 



4,061 
1st S34 



190 



101 
247 
S.U 
84 
180 
S&l 



606 

B2 
tl 



54 

13» 

7 

« 

3S 
70 



37 

* 

2.670 



.■i,2os G.:>n \ SHS 



!X6ie 

l.'>2 
H 



383 
46 



3,416 



■M,^ 



J^lOi 



a,3 



jHjfiuktlr^n oivr 13 ^■iiri afilj, whUt tttyettotv 



t Of tbii munbcr, 1.1J* [imoin rctcr tu 
I rcdvr lo Ihn wbolv gwpulntion. I I'l 



'opo-l 



HLUIITATIOXS. 

At t&e coisiis ol 1891 inquiry was made mi thu bouM^holtlont'^ 
Kuhfdulm respecting tli<! dw^llitigM uf Uir p()]>ijlatioD. Thn iiiftiriimtion j 
H»u^ht wnN ill rtspnct to wlit-Uiur a ImilJiiig won otXTiipioit, unoccupied, , 
or in coursft of cnnstnictidn ; Dm niati-i-inl of whic}i it ws« built, wid thai 
ntiii))>crof rooms which it caittnincil. Tiie tiiUiilntion was not made witlij 
the saiuci degree of eompktcnn;>i in nil tUf colonics ; but as far ait coiu-J 
parative fibres Oin bo gtvon they are nhown helow : — 



ClMaoIDviIllBI^ 



I floDlh VIetoti* 
IwalH. 



Qostiii 






ocnnitot 

UnoccuiiM 

B«tn(liuni 

moFvt. <iinD4«. uhI pubrifi Inillilllif*.. 

InlMlilUd buu uM dmUlnci n»ta 

caatHtnul* „ 



U.JM 
I.W 
MM 

Km 



UtBW 

i.aoB 
)» 

s,ni 



u 



Tnul 3«t.Bn Ht.(«i so^wf eun MMo 3t.soi isa,im 






iD.ai 
m 
3 



iw 
Mi 

l.lflS 



iie.TO* 1 

4» 



i.i>is 



• iBfllmltd undtr nan (^uuta) hMdlng. 




1 



DWBLLXKGS Of TRB PEOPLE. 



57 



Thv mftterialii of which llie dwdliogs in ea«h colony were eoDitmcted 
arvalioim in Uis following tobl^aa bras thepftrtieulanftre&TmiUbki: — 



■•UrtaL 


Snth 
Wtlm. 


Itrtorb. 


Ontm*- 

liuid. 


StniU) 
Au>- 

Inllh 




5mr 




KKUt 
IKtM 

* 

UJM 


4,841 

Ma 




ILUB 

• 

889 

■ 


an 

1.HC 

a 

IM 


t,ua 
mtn 

no 

m 


Wtt 


WinJ. twin, arliih Ml phiMr 




aiiT amrrHH 






«UM 


«IMO 


»m 


fl&jsn 


10.630 


».iol 


ISI^IM 







■ li»rui)cd In imvloua llnh 

1^13 DUBiberot rooms iagiren below tor M houseti, wbetfaer occupied or 
■wocofMCd) exG«|>t in tfae auo ot Nuw Kotith Wiiln mid Nvw ^uuImuI, 
whan tim figvm givim nfar only to occupied dwoUin^ :— 



D««IINO, <ni>>- 



warn. 



Tlowiix 



Will. 



SMth 
tnlto. 



WntanJ 
(nlu 



tuula. 



XMr 

ZaMmM 




3M» 

ia.in 
ai,t!E 

T.RI 
l.BIt 

1.M7 



!IS,Mil 



H,9U 

t.tna 
i.ae 



Ml.iTO 



1.H* 

n.tu 

4,BU 
Ml 



tasB 

Uta 

na 
« 

2S) 



*.im 
iijm 

MM 



UJtt 

«,M8 



mtfot a^sas 



uluu tt^toi 



lU.SSl 



Ja QumiuUnd the hKbitntionB were nnuiniMnted ander Uie Quinqam- 
tml Census Act, whirh does not iirovidi; for n statement eitlior o( the 
amterials ot wliicb houses aro coiwtructod or of the number vf roouia 
iriiicfa Ihey oiDUkin. Front tho forcing fignrrs it will be twiea timt in 
Anstniliuuji there ue nearly i^ penons to ovoiy occupied bouse. 




5» 



RELIGION. 



THE pro^rest of all iautt<>rs mlatuig to di^tiomiiiAtional RRligic 
Kincir tlu' ptirly ymirs of Austrixlasian w'ttleiiu-iit has Wfti rU-j 
mill rcmiarkhklr. For thi; limt fiTtecii yeara niter the fouii<lii.tifin of 
colony of Now South \Valc« only n single denonii nation was rrcognise 
by (Jovermnent or poswssed cither miiti«t<'i' or organ iKfttion—tho Estalj 
lished Gliurch of IvnglAnd. In those days the whole of Austrtilai»ia wa 
ecclesiastjcally within tUe dioceeo of the UiHhop of Calcutta, of which 
formed ui Arvlideacotiry : this continued until 183C, when the bi^iop] 
of Autitrali&wosconatitiit^d. and tV-Eev. WiUiauiOrantBroufihton.lJ.Dj 
(formerly Archdeacon), was conBecrat«?d tie first Bisliop. In 1S4 1 th 
biiih»]>ric of Ni-w Ziuilund wim i-atablitJied, und in ]M'2 Ihiit of Tb 
mania. ConMidcraWc changes Uxtk plaw in 1847, wln-n tlnr dioccws i 
Holboumei, Adelaide (including South AuHtnilia and Westorn Aua 
tralia), and Newcastle (including the northern portion of what is noi 
New Houtli Wales, and the whole of Queensland) weiip esliil'lished, iuid 
tlie BiHliu|) of Austi'alia was styled Bishop of Sydney and Metropolitaal 
oi AuHtraliii and Tasmania. Id 1857 the diocese of Perth was furuied 
out of that of Adelaide, and in 1859 the dioce.ie of Brisbane out of that, 
of Newcaxtle ; in 1863 the bishopric of Goulburii w^s st-paniUtd fron 
Syitney : iti 1S67 th« bisluipric of (iraflon <ind Arinidalc was ftinii<: 
out <jf part of ttir diocesf of Newaistlc; in 1869 Buthiirst was Ki-pai-nt 
from Bydncy ; in IHiri Victoriu was divided into thi^ two dioceses oC 
Molboumc and Bnthirat. ; in 1K7S the bishopric of Northarn Que^inslanfl 
■was e«t«blished, with Townsviltp ax neat of its Bishop; in 1884 th« 
diOMM of Uiveri.na was formed out< of jiart« of the dioceses 
Bathurst and (loulbuni : and in 1892 parts of the bishopiica 
Brisbane and Noilhem Queensland were formed into the ucw dit>cu.-N 
of Rockbaniptoii. 

Eadi colony prenenes its autonomy in church raatten, bat th4 
Bisliop of Sydni'v in nominal heiid or Primat« williin tli<! bounds 
nf Aiutrtdia and Tasniunia. In 1872 tlie tiea between tho churchc 
in tbe roHous colonios umler the jiirikdictiun of the Primacy wer 
strsngthfiUfKl by the adoption of one common conKtittition. A gener 
synod of representntiveii of <«ch of th««o oolomos meets in Sydne 
overy five yeara to discusH chuivh sflHira in gen«rn]. New Zealand 
excluded from this amalgamation, and jioBseasea a Primacy of iU own^ 
Aa already HUted, a Biiiliop of New Zealand was appointed in 1S41. 
After various clian{[ea the coustitutioii of tlte churdi In New Zejiland^ 



THE EOMAS CATHOLIC CHUBCH. 



59 



was finaJtjr soUIm) in l>^7-\, when thir wholi^ <x>lony was divided into Urn 
lAx dioceses of Auckland, WiiUpii (Nnpicr), Wplliiif^toti. Xelaun, Christ- 
<Audl, and I>ati«lin. Mu-t the <l(TpArtHro of BihIio]) ^r'lwytt, wholuul 
Iwen tbe only Bishop of »w Zcalnnil, the Priinucy wua trun!<f(Trc<l to 
tfcOBOeofChristehurch, where it remained until 1»*95. Fit thnt yrar thvt 
Bitlnnp of Aucklatkd was elected Pruiiat« of New &alaiuj. Thitmimon- 
■ty BbdHip of Melsneaia, wliose head(|U»rt«rH ure nt Norfolk Inland, is 
aadttr the jurisditiliuD of the New Kealaud pruuacy. At prciirnt, there- 
fore, tbcrn ore twraity-oue biHliopa In tbe oolonien, including thp llishop 
«( Meluxaiiik, Iwt excludiug wwiutitnt bbUopH. The Synodii-Al syBtem of 
Omrch (lovnmmi'nt, by means of a legislative body, conKiotiiig of the 
dergy ami rnpmn-nUilireB of tbe laity, prt^vails throughout AuHtralasw, 
wbetfaer as indiviihutl coIonic-S or collfctivciy lui a group. 

InlSOSagnidgingrrcoKiutionwmextttDdod to Itonifui Catholics, one 
tt whoM cbaplaiDs vas then piaoed on the (lovemmeiit establishment; 
bat it was not uuul 1820 tlutt any rogular provision was loade for an 
adrquat« (ttaffof cl»rgy. Until 1934 the Itoiuan Catholics of Auatralia 
and TuBunia wer« under the jurisdiction of the Biahop of Jfuuritius 
(tlia Rev. I>r. CUatbomt^ Ijein^ Vicur-Ot-ueral from 1830 tu 1831), but 
n that year Sydney was couBtituteJ a se*, and tli« Rtiv. John Bcde 
Folding. D.D., wao consecrated Bishop, with jurisdiction oviu- thn whole 
of tbe Continent and 'rasniania. In 1842 Hohuit wnn establiwhtd as a 
Mparate diocese, ami 8yrfney iH-came an nrchicpiscopal see. The dioceiw 
ofAdelaHle dat«s from 1843, thnt of Perth from 184S, and those of 
Uelbonmi!, Maitland, Itathitntt, Auckland, and Wellington from 1848. 
During tlua year a second diocese wns eiitablished in Wextt-i'ri Australia, 
vfaieh Mince t888 has been de§i};Dated tbe diocese uf Port Victoria and 
Pahncmton. Hie bidioprio of Briabane wok foundc-d in 18.5i), an<l 
that of Ooulbum in 1861. In 18l)T tbi* Ablx^y-nulHus of New Norcia 
(WeMem Auntralia) wan iwtabliKliiNl. Tlie dioce.ses of Armidalo and 
Auckland dati- fmm IKfifi, and Umxe of Bullarut an<l Snnii hurst from 
1874. In 1)^76 Mdboumr bc<-iim<^ an archdiocese, and Cooktown was 
fonned inb> a Vi<«riat(v Apostolic. Otht^r changes took place in Queens- 
land in 1882, when the dioccso of llockhampton was founded, and in 
llS84, when tbe Vicariate-ApO»tolic of British New Ouinen. (with 
raddiiicv at Tbuntday Island) was establitihed. In 1885 tbe Archbishop 
of Sydm-y *as creuU^ a cardinal, and piiwed at tbe head of the Roman 
Catholic Church tliraugbout AuHtraloaia. Following u^ion this appoiut- 
nwnt great altemttom took place in the arrungoinent uf dioceses in 
1SS7, when the new dioceaui of Grafton, Wilcaiuiio, Hale, Port Augusta, 
and Christcbiirch, nnd tlu? Vicariitt«i- Apostolic of Kimberley and Queena- 
Und (the latter with junKliction ovrr all tlio aborigines of the coluny) 
vere eAtaUisbed, and Adcljud>s BriHliane, and Wellington became arch- 
dtoceaes. In I88S ifobart was also mado an arcbiepisojial en-. There 
an at the present time six archbishops, tiftoi^n hishops, three viciirn- 
ajKirt^ic, and one abbot-nullius, or in all twenty-five heads of the 



6o 



RELIGIOlf. 



^ 



cbnrcJi vitbcpincopftljnrindiciion, trm;pcctiv(:of tjin VicoriAtR-Apcwtalio 
of Bntiah Now Ggins* and of snrpnii auxilinrj nod cinuljutor-binliop-i, 

Amoogrt ^« «u-Ii«iA fne rolonistewho setlW in tho llnwkmbuiy 
district of New South Wales was *Binatl (Mirtyof Prcsbyteriftna, »ii<l on9 
oj tli« tirtilplac<« of worsbip erected in tlie colony was put up in L-'SlO ttt 
fbitlBiid flead by their voluntary «i(>rtiuua. Sen ioea w«re conducted 
tlwTa tarymnhvtoTe any onlaiDiHluiiiuBt«ri>f tlie dmoiutuatioa reodn 
Hew Sou^ Wida ; indt-^l, it vim not until ! H23 tliHt the Rt-v. Dr. 
ttnd the Rnr. Anjiilwld Mncarthiir, thn firat Pnvibytcriun ininiiit«raui Ai 
tmlann, arrivnd in Hydnny And Hnliart ir-Bptictivdly. Thci fti( *l i yt crii 
Churetina of New South Walcx, Victorin {with which thn Pnwb; 
Chnivh of Wwtcvrn Anxtralirt is connected), Quem^tand, Houdi Au>t«sli 
nnd I'Asoiania, nnd thp Free Church of Scotland in Ttisniania, Aro unitwiri 
in s Federal Assembly irhich meeta every year in rotation in tbo cnpit*! 
^tiee of tlie colonies mentioned. New Zetdatid is not included in this 
{ederation, and tlie Preabvlerian Chuirh in that i-olony ia divided into 
the Prmbyt«ritiii Churuk of New Zcatiuid and tlio Prvabyli^iiuuChurvtioE 
OUiito and Soiitbhind. Biutidus tlie ohnrcbca iiiontiimcd, tiiwe are HLA'enl 
ubiaU hiKiics of Pimliytimiinn imconnncted witli thu htr^ci' diut'chaa, 
such fts the PnwbyUrian Church ofEnstom Auitrali.i in Nrw Snutii 
Wales, an<l Uie Frae Ohnrch in VictoriiL The church in each cnlony, 
hovrerer, acte iudependentJy as regards loniil ecclesiastical administration, 
and preMo-ves ita autoraony in reapeel to funds nnd property. 

The firal Wesleymn minister oame to Now South Walea in 1815, bu* 
it was not until 1821 that a Wenleyan place of nomhip was erected in 
Sydney, and it wan evem latur Ix-fom tho dmiiiminiitjon wtia allowed lO 
nhan) in tht« Govi>mjncnt provinion for rrligion. The finit Weideywi- 
Churcfa in Httburt wna <stabliiihc(i in IS?0. Fmm IKIfi to 185fi tin 
Weidoynn Church in th« cnloniew was regnrdnd ns a nuKcion of tiM 
Britinh W«Bl«yjiin Church, and from 1H55 to 1873 it was alKlist«it« 
Uritbh Wceloyan Conference ; but in the latter year ii whk constim 
iRtoa8epamt«nnd independent conferonoe as the Australasian Wc«leyiin 
ChurelL At preaent the churcb is divided into live conferences, na.. 
New Soutli WaUvi, Victoria atid Tasiiianiu. Qoeendaud, South AuttraliA 
and W««em AuatmUa, and New ZeaJund. Theae oonfi-i-enoea meei 
annually, while a g«naittl wnfemnce is bald at tneiiniid purioda in ewsk 
uf Uw capital citiM in rotation. 

A ConjiracataonaJ minister nrrivi-d in tiydiirty as early ax 1 798 ; and iit 
Hohort the OongregAtional Clntrrh vnii (-.sUblJNhrd in IM30. At preaent 
there exists n wiparatn Congregational Miwiion in each of thn wven 
colonies. Fixloral meeting have beon held, notably in ISAI, but winca 
that year little appears to have been done in the matter of the fedetntioa 
of tiie ehnrali in Australasia. 

The Baptist Church is tine colonies dates from a much later period, 
the eatabtiahinenl of tlie fine tnnr Baptbt C'hairlies buinK as follows ;— 
Sydney, 1834; I^unoMton, 1839; Attelaidx^ 1840; and Mi^botirne, 1841. 



I 



BBLIQIODB XQCAXTTT. 



«X 



IdMriDg out of ooDskletration somfl churches with but a ftmall numlirr 

■dbereiiU, the Salvation Awiay laaj be aaul u> bn IhH yomijetMit at tho 

liiuttions ID Australasia. It coinineaioed openiUoiiH in Hinith 

ralim touanU the duae ol the jrear 1880, and iii 1882 oilioniii were 

from Ad«bu(le to Tiotoriu, Kvw 8«iuth Wulcs, nnil t'oxiiiftiiia, 

the [MtrpMe of ocnnising cotjm in ttuMu colonics. New Zealand 

was iQvnd^ in 1^83, Quncnsliind in l&HS, nnd Wrxtcrn AiMtralift iu 

1. l'1i« hicnil-qtiart«n of the Artay arc in Moihournp, nud its heiul 

AuBtnlMU ranks as a Oomininioiier. He is directly ro8ponsibl« to 

ral Booth, nod controls the officers commtuiding in each of the 

cotouteii, who bear tJne rank of colonel or brt£)ulier. Kncli colony 

dirided into districts, which are plai^ in the charge of superior 

officrni ; luwJ each of the«e diBCricts is subdivided into local roqis 

■odcr «ib«ilt«rn ulficera, aatusted by Beoretariei^ etc Th«ae auludbirn 

officers ar« reajKinatble to the oJBoms oommaudiuj; their divuiidti, and 

the latter to tbe oolunal or brigadiariu<diKrgeo( tlieAnny of thuwholn 

ooiotty. 

In the eyes of thir Htnto alt religioaii am equal in AustralasiiL Htnttf 
aid to all denominationH hiis formatiyyaani lMsen|inictiuidly nhoIish«d in 
all the colonics excopt Wmtprn Austnilia. South Austrnlio, in 1651, 
was the Srst colony to withdraw such aid. aft<>r it had been in foroecniy 
Ifarwyeain; and Quwiiiland, in 1860, slionly after theaaseniUiufj of the 
fint Parliamimt, abuUsbed the sy.iteni iulierit«d ^d) thi- luuther 
eobiny, and limited futuru payineiiU to tlie clergy then actually in 
receipt of St«to aid. Only onn of tlicM? now tmrvivca, and hn in in rcciript 
of £100 per anavn. New South Wnltst nat«cd n tiieiUr Act in 1^62, 
and tht) expenditure on this account, which in that ynnr was over 
^3,000, had fallen in 1894 to £7,611. The other colonics of the group, 
with the exception pTOTiouciy mentioned, subsequently abolished Stale 
aid, Vicbma bcioj^ the last to withdraw dcnominAtional graiita, nuuiuly, 
in IkTS. 

Till? only dotiuutuiatiooB which ever received State aid were tho 
Cbnrrh of England, H(>maR CotlioUos, PreBltylerinus, and Wealoyans ; 
Otber denominntioDi to whiuli it was tii^ideml rcfu^ng U> aoci^ it. 
Hie greater portion of the inhubitants lit'longoj to lliRse four per- 
■■niinnH aad tbo enormrius inc-ri^wH! of pojtuiation <luring the last forty- 
five yeare has not in any couKidi^mlrle <\rgn:v altorod thi.s mndition of 
lUngii, though in some colonies dift'erent liodies of ChriHttaiis havr 
mrcHUnted a Uus^r proportion of the people dian in othrrA. Thus, in 
^^Hew South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria the proportion of Roman 
^^■ttholiot has b«eu, and Htill is, larger than in the? other colonics, while in 
^^«w Zealand it in inudi mualler. Presbyterians bear a greater proportion 
to the population in New ^Mlujid thaw in any other colony, while 
Wesleyans and I^tbi^niiut am mom imnitTroua in South Au>itralia tlian 
ebe«faer& The ndhm-nts of the Churcli of England predomiimle 
■utmericaDy iu oU the cotaoM 




BGLIGIOK. 

The following tables show tlie nuuiber of adberenU to the principal 
deDaminationa in eacb oolony «t till- ciTiisus enuuienttionB of 1871, 1881, j 
Hiid 1891 :— 






Yw. 



H 



8 



r 



II 



J 



CbDTchM 



RoRuui OMhoUa. • 



PlMhjiBtefl* 



....[ 



oUUTUeltadUUl 



IpiUuniilM*. 



^^4 



Bi>|<lliU 



Lultiervi* 



BalvaUon Aanf.. 



1871 

IMt 

ISIt 
IJUl 
U»l 

MTl 

IKl 

laoi 

is:i 
liwl 
iwi 

18T1 
IWil 

iwi 



[ ISTI 

.■ imi 

( im 

mi 
IMI 

IHtl 



llgbran . 



liTlrfrtUJlto, 
Ctllifucliuil, 



m,ltt. I 



All qthiir f 

BdiRtoiu. 1 



OblHtloaUu 
lUnilinuil 



Uii^*HB*d 



■J 



Tout. 



issi 
loui 

U71 
uai 

1MI 

int 

UTt 
l»I 
Ml 



1 371 
UMl 
L891 



MX.IIS) 
I«,StT 

(iOJ.HUU 

m.lt! 
7:i.M(i 
1W.W3 

110.110 

9.ita 
■Jt.iiu 

«,1M 
13, IM 

T.,.. 

4,WK 
I, MO 



t.... 
lO.Slt 

t.«tt 

S,3M 
6,4It4 

7,«&b 

io,»a 

B.SJ,1 

11, Hn 

E.Mn 
it.cns 



7M,tai 

l.ltS,«M 



Stl.BlS 

t01.!T& 

iTo.no 

ttg,HI& 

1I1,IIU 
191W1 
IM.Dll 

18.101 
lU.MK 

n,iiw 

iH.aii 
«n,l7l 

27,878 

t.... 
II, 1U 
l»,£3f- 



t.... 
U.MO 

B,[I71 
1,130 

n.t&u 
iT,n6 

11,tUt 
li,B"T 

XII, 14» 

iMas 
i,-..o:.r. 

ZS,IIU 



U.IM 
1«S,M& 
31.N» 

n.iw 

7.*« 
90,MS 

2,nti 

4,)M 

»,n;i 

in,stv 
t.... 

II).M0 
13,183 



t.... 
4,0£l 

tei 

tS7 

wni 
s.te8 

10,K7I 
17,434 

10,!I5 
1t,;14T 
lt,w» 

!,Tlll 
1,S.W 
4,SI1 



7e,Kt! 

80.171 

42.nai 

47.170 

II, mo 
iT.fli; 

IB.tW 

U,OOB 
62.7Si 

0.571 
ii.ttos 

II, Ml 

0,963 

IXW" 
17,M7 

t.... 
IB,<II7 



Wl 

7«a 

MU 

1.747 
4.IM 
4.tUI 

31.049 

la.odi 

«.7M 
14,0MI 



u.ou 
la.wa 
i4.7W 

0.4 l!l 
11,911 

Ml 

1,0IH 
1,007 

I.40A 

i,im 

4.M» 
l,!flt 

1.17:1 
u 



Il« 



t.... 



in 

1.... 
tm 

t.— 
us 

l,tlH 

IK 

1,111 

t-.. 

US 



WtiMtt 
lilHJHO 



I to, 104 

tlA,tU 
««,71H 



las.ase 
3n.4» 



tE,SS3 

tfl.TM 



M,tM 

n,im 

2.1 .QM 
1»,«I0 

ii.aK 

U,J6« 

J,JI7I 
10, MS 
17. IM 

4.091 

(.una 

4,U)1 

*» 
i.ue 



4tL 



t.... 
I.EIS 

t..- 

M 

4 

t.... 

toai 

o.Wft 

1.11:1 

t,... 
t,.., 

t.17t 



I07.S1I 

■tia.ua 

U.M« 
(W.UX4 
S7.273 

lU.tOH 

U1,*7- 

:u,n>4 
t.ist 
«.Ma 

1.MI 

COtt 
1,73! 

)),4;a 

It.RU 

t.-. 
t.TTI 

i.tm 
i.rae 

I.4tt3 

1.B11 
1.030 
3,U« 

6.87T 
1S.4W 

ai.n« 

0.4« 
IS.,™? 
10.030 



I01.TM 
11S,70( 
I4<l.0a7 



IM.3S3 

tso.au 

BEa.aH 




<8.Mll 



I0,3U 



M.«n 

OT.StC 
1II1.U& I 

1S,1IT 

l»,01t 
7K,BM 



l»,01t 
7K,BM 

i.nt.T» ■ 

1.74UWS 
S.I01.VW ■ 



mt htr* tHn rttlmaMd, t Inrludtd la "All ulher 



the fltri'tfi Kivcn for 1 
ItitLJEtnfiB." 



STRENGTH OF PRISCIPAL DEKOUINATIONS. 



63 



"Bte %ure<t for 1891 are oxcliisivo of sborigiiiesi, whil^ in 1871 and 
1881 s iew civiiixLil »iioripno» were iiicluilL>J in ilit- naurns for New 
Booth WhIc* unil Victoria. 

Thi> following t«Iilu shows tlift proportiona h«ld hy Ui« principnl 
denominations to th« Uital pt>[iuUtiou oi tttch colour M the onanii^rntions 
fl(187!, 18JJI,iuull891:— 



GUo&r. 



rKvwSMrtb Wilm. 

Tietoria 

iQaoanalud 

IS;i I Sodtk Aiwtnlk .. 
I Wo*t«m Atutnlift 

llfawZ«>lMi4 

AnatnJMiA .. 



.■3 

II 
•s 



Vault. 
45-& 

a 4 

S6-S 
S7I 
59-0 

4rs 



3»1 



VxM. 
2B-3 
23-3 
OS'S 
15-2 
28 -T 
22 "3 
13'!) 



23-1 



»OMlt. 

15'S 

13-6 

6-4 

21 

ei 

34'8 



13-0 



Vnnt 

7'9 

12-3 

e-0 

la's 
5-e 

7-2 
8 '6 



I 



10-5 



Vcml. 
1'8 
2o 
0-3 

3-5 
36 

4i:j 

1'5 



2-4 



1 



Vcmt, 
08 
2-2 
8 4 
5-0 
02 
09 
IK 



2-0 



VeM. 
Bit 
0-8 
13 '6 
23 ■» 
0-S 
3-0 
7-5 



9-3 



U81 



N<* South \V»lM.. 

Virtoria .,. 

t^iccaiJand 

Sonth Auatralu ... 
W«atara Auatmlik 

ThdmbU 

iKswZMbwd 



Auttrklnna 



4^6 
34-7 
34-0 
271 
fl4-7 
rjl-7 
41'I> 



39-1 



27-(I 
23-8 
25-5 
15-2 
28-3 
19-9 
14-1 



lS-4 

10-6 

6-4 
34 

7-fl 
231 



23-2 lS-4 



S'6 


1-B 


128 


2-3 


a -7 


2 2 


18-9 


3 ■5 ■ 


7-0 


4-3 1 


9 5 


:i-5 


0-4 


1-4] 


lO'S 


32 



1-0 
2-4 
2-6 
50 

i-8 
2-3 



2-2 



5-7 

9-0 

17-B 

a-» 

2'3 
G-9 
8-2 



lO* 



fKewSoatli WbIm.. 
Vietotfi* 



UH 



QmcaaLuid 

Mouth AiuttsHa .. 
W«»l«ni AuitntliA 

Nbw ZmUdiI 



n*»*»«>*' 



Anatnluia 



44-8 
39-S 
S6-2 
27-9 
49-7 
499 
40-0 

89-1 



8G-5 
SI -8 
S3-8 
14-7 
25 -3 
17-6 
13-9 



97 
14-7 
11-8 

5-7 

4-0 

6-8 

226 



21-1 18-0 



11-8 

13-0 
7-8 

19-0 
9'2 

11-7 
9-9 

11-4 



2-1 
ID 

a-7 
3-3 
3-i 
1-1 

2-1 



1'2 
25 
2-fl 
C'5 
0-8 
3'2 
2'4 



B'9 
10-9 
16 
23-5 
8-0 
S'9 
10-1 

Il-O 



64 



BEXJGIOX. 



From the forvgoinj^ tftblw it will bo scon thnt whilo Ui«re have 
fiuctuations in individoAl colonim, tbo relative streDgth of the princfpal 
cleoominatiouB in ttif< whole of Australasia lias underKona but littlA 
alt«ntiou duriuK the l&nt twant; yean. The Cliuroli of Kn^livnil at md 
oenma enibntoKt 39-1 per eeut. ol the pojiuluituii, wliili- i\w Ilomaa' 
Oatholii! Cliurch roceded from 23-1 per cent, in 1871 to 2'2'J jwrcent, ia' 
1881, and Ktill farther to 211 per cent, in IS91. Tim Pn^sbyteri 
Cliurch also tw^rittHl from 13-G per wmt. in IH71 to Vi-i por oont. 
1881 and 13-0 inlHfll ; while the vnrioiis Mnthodirt bwlies, which haw 
been classed topitbo-, inrrcnuwi from lO'' per cent, in 1871 to 10-9 jmi 
cent, in 18S1 ami I1'4 per cent, in 1!^'.M. CoDgregationaliats and BuptmU 
taken together vereoqtial at the three pou mo rations, but the former slio 
a kligbt decreace during the twenty veam, while the Utter show 
correa^nding inorease. The column headed " All otherv" alio ithows an 
incruuie from 9-3 ner ceut. to 110 percent, during tlitr [M-Tiod. This 
column oonbunH all l)ie minor detiominationn, <if which none are a& 
alt numcrouK oxci-jit liUtlierans in Quocmtland and 8outh Australia ; 
those whoKu dftnomimttiun ooiild hurtlljr be cIomikI aa a religion ; and 
all tboTC who, from oonaci^ntiouH scnipl^ts, tixik aiKantage of 
claoaesof the<(.'«nims Acts by which the tilling in of the column "Beligioi 
I>cnominntiun " won left optaoiial. 

In 1S7 1 the ruUtive strength of the Church of Engliind wax greai 
in thfi cnlotiies in the following erdor : — Wcatcra Autralia, Tasmania^ 
N<^w Sniith Wules, ^ew Ztuand, Queonataiid, Victoria, and South' 
Aiu^rnlia; but iu ISOl tlie ordto- had chanjtad to TMinania, Weatem 
AurtrnUa, Ntiw South WbIl-h, Nfw Zealand, Queensland, Victoria, luul 
Snuth Auntmiin. Tli<! Roman Oitholic ChuI^:Jl in 1871 was rdntivel 
Btrengcst iu Nnw South WalcK ; in 1881, in Western Australia; am 
in 1891, again in Nrw South Wales, »-ith Western AontmliA tuid 
Queensland following closely, and South Austialia and Kow Zealani 
iMt OiU tlie list The Presbyterian Chureli 1ms alwaya b««n 
Buniurous in New Zealand and Victoria, wtd wunlcmt in Wi 
Australia, South Australia, and Taunania. Thr. various Method: 
donomituitioiui were at eauti enumemticn Htrongtixt in South AiiHtralia,, 
where thi^y numbered cloxc ujion omsfifth of the total populatiou. Th<!T| 
w«n> also conaidornbly al)o<« thi- averago strength in Victoria, whilo 
tiie only colony in which they fell much btioir the avenge wu Qun:ii»- 
land. Congrogationalisu and Bnptists wen also ralativt^ly most 
powerful in tbo southern colonies. The pcreentagea nhnwn iu tha 
column " AH othera" arc unduly swollen in the ciuw of QimcnRlaml and 
Soutli Australia by tlie iuclusion of LutheraiiH ; wem ttie«e omitted 
tJie figurUH for 1891 would be faiily equiU for nil the colonies. 

In lIh! table thowing the actual nuuibcr of ndhfrrnts of each of i. 
principal dcnotninuUoiia for 18',>1, the Holvation Army is a new elemi-i 
Any adbcirvmts to tliia penuaKion who may have existed in 1881 w< 
grouped with " All other Koligiotu," 




STRENGTH Of P&INCIPAI. ]>E>IOMINA.TIONS. 



65 



Thk Dexouixatioks IX 1895. 

It is Mtiinttt«d titat at the end <^ l$95 tlie number of adherents to 
each (lenomiiuUiou wan ltd follows ;- — 



Kdlgbn 

rmiAiiii 



■d 
I 

I 






OMbafBHtutd 
KmnCMhoKc*.. 
talVlMtua 



IM.WS 



IMtadiNL 

r«Mi^iiiiiiwii»ii ,, 



17.4 1 ( 

< tun 
OttNn 



MaUaa Amy 



mm 

ITSjOtl 
91.9U4 

10,1 1« 

It.OlS 



TsW 



«Mni si,ost 



utn,BiD 



ijn,TO 



M«,TM 

»,8M 

ID.CM 

ll.tM 

tJJM 

I.TN 

ftM 

».sn 



MBlUO 



i3,au 
11, tn 

mntn 



3.1H 

B 



laAM 
(.MS 

i.iin 



j.KS I n.gii 



WT.iu I loi.rai itn.HH nB«.;wi | i.xw.tes 



T.*M 
IB.BISi 

ID, 1112 
1,B»1 

(.wo 

•T.Stf 



I.aK.TIT 
M3.MT 

80.IW 

x,9n 

(7,100 

a)(,(i» 



66 



EDUCATION. 



IT would, iitdas£, Ian t)«en Htrwige if communitie&H pna^pr'J'ous i 
till- AtiHtmlaMMt colonic* lutd ucgkotod tho imporUnt mnttor 
(tdiKwtion, antJ in rvpry proTincf of ih<i grou|> it will lie fountl tliat 
St>at« )iu UtlieR tha sulijcct in hand — lo nn ^xteut, in Home instauc 
far beyond vliat lias been done in most of liie countrii'S of the oM world 
In o&cli colony provi^on is istade for primarj- cdui.'atioii, aiid in ut! 
Ui*re are graiomar imd liiffh schools, by means of wliidi tlioso wl; 
havn l)i« do«irtt mny qualify Uietiuulveit for tbe hi};her studicK of tlig 
TJiiivvniity. So bountiful Iius hut-n the pruviitioii lauAo by thcStaUi tba 
in most cosea the coat of education i» inertly nominal. aii<l the jKiverty i 
tho parents ce^MS to be an excuse for the ignorance of the cliiidrec 
No <loubt in the very early days of colonisation there wa* but 
atteutiuo paid lo education ; but aa xoon as tlie sharp strug^k- {■.ir bar 
exixtoiioe waa over attempts were mode to provide in some dejjrL-t! 
means of iiiEdnictioii for the r'tumn !{i-iieratiuii, and the foutidatiuiiH wcr 
laid of VI oilucational systt-tii tliat is in thi! Iiighcat ilegreo cri'ilitabln 
tiKsv young comiQunitiitH. The dc-numi nations werci naturally tho firs 
to build Hi^hoolit and provide tcnchrni; but thein was always a Inr_ 
proportion of imrsonB who objected to dcnoininationalism, cspeciall| 
tbosi! who bclon^l lo dvnoniinationJi not subsidised by Uie State, i 
hence there arose a National or non'Sectarian system which has in 
course of lime almost monopolised the educatiouat field. 

In all Uiu Australasian c^jloni.-s the Statu sysli.'m of ediicatioik 
aecuhir. Western Anatmlia in 18i)5 beiiij; the last colony to abulLvh suV 
aidies to diMiominational si.'1iO'>Ib. Tim Education Actn of (^ach colons 
contain conipuUory clnuwi^ but the enforcement of thpHC in not r' 
wbcro eijually strict. In Victoria, for inatanci;, <^[>nipiilw)ry ailendanc 
at school ha« been insist^ upon with great rigour, while in Queensland 
the principle of compulsion has bcfrn allowed lo remain almost 
abeyance, and in the other colonies it haa been enforced 'ntth varying 
degrees of strictness. In Victoria. QuL-eii>,1anrl, New Zeahuiil, luio 
South Australia the educatioti providtnl by tbe State is entirvly fri-c i 
ehars" to the parenta ; wlitle in New South Walea, We(it«m AuMtralin 
aud Toamania sinidl he* arc charged, but are not enforced n-hcrc i 
pamits can reaaocably plead po%'«rty. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM OP NEW SOtTTH WAXES. 67 



The Matatory ttokooJ-ttgo of each colaity U hh follows ;— 

Kow Soutfa WttlsD over 6 aad undor 14 yoM*. 

VictorU - _ „ li „ 13 „ 

9~«~I'»^ ; 8 .. 13 ,. 

awth AoittaUk „ 7 IS .. 

WmUtm Au«traU> „ fl lA „ 

TMOMiA „ ,. 7 .. IS .. 

New Zwknil „ 7 ., 13 „ 

la Se»- South W«l« Uifro wa« for many ytM,m » dtuJ nrctcm in 
exiirtenot.-. Tlie four StAt^aidivl ilciiumitiaittotui— the Church of EngUnd, 
ft*™)"" Cktholic, Pnathrtcriiui, And Wi-alej'aa hodin: — luui NchnolK sup- 
portad by annual voU-Ji from Parliament, adniiaistored undttr the control 
«i tiiiB \muA of onch denomination for the tiia* beia^ Tfaon wwa also 
SilicHial schools, oqiwUr supported \ty tlio Stat«, but undtr iJw control 
of a Board appoint*^ by the UoTomnient. Thia plan was found to be 
eoelly and wasteful in th« extTeme, for ia mauy o£ tU« uountry townv 
(ian wi-re Mvenl amall and inefficii-ut com|>«tiuf{ schools where tiio 
Mtal number of children was nut muro than Huffiaieiit for one w^U- 
caoilnctod cstablialunenl. So otronK'lj' wan thia evil fvit tlmt chotij^ in 
tbo Iaw mlating to odncatjon w«m iiutdo from timu to time, until at 
laagtli tim ikoominatioital sj-stcin was aboluibrd altogvtlicr, and onu 
gODCxai and comprehensive plan of Public Instruction adopted in ita 
plMCL Tbia wa« not brou^-ht about without luucL tigit&tion, lastiuj; 
over a coaaidenblo period. A teaguo was formed with the object <a 
Menring the eaUUiaboieDt uf neuular, oompukory, and five eduuation,aiid 
in IhAd, ondiur tbo niw|HC«s of Sir Hiitiry Purktm, tlio mumniri! [■ntablixliing 
tfae prcconi HysUm Imcamit law. Educiition in the public Hchoolx is now 
Beo-BMtorian. though facilitirx ant afforded tocler^moen to giv«raligioiu 
taMmction wiiliin specified Hchool-boura to tboRO chitdron who«f> parents 
itam iL It is compulsory, and free to alt who cannot afibrd to pay, 
wUle a merely nomiiuU fee ia diarged to those who are in a position to 
Qontnbntw towaitln ihu caA of the leachini^ of their cbildi-en. For 
•Nondaiy edacation there are a number of superior and high aclioob 
mtirely auMXjrtoil by tlin Stat*!, bi'iidiis numerous callegt^, giramumr 
Khoola, Mtd dmtomi national iichooU which obtain no a«istiince from tha 
QovartiDMnt, except in the ch-'w of the Bjrdinjy Grammar School, which 
ncelwa a stAtatory endovrment of £1,500. Hdiolai-iiJiipa and bursarint 
karr been founded ta oonmection with many of these ecbocls. The 
--lily of Sydney, whidi ia liberally endowed by private individuak 
I ! OH (hi; Slate. Infanta degrees which rank with those 01 Oxford and 
CwntiridK^^-. Rduuitionai afiolra in tlie colony are under the diivclion 
of the MiiiiM<!r for Public Instruction. 

In Victoria, under an Act jiamvt in 1872, a system of free, compul- 
nty, and srcular primary education is in fonjo, under u Minister of 
PabUc Instruction, who is reqtoncibls to Parliami^nL Tlie compulsory 
dHue ia very strictly enforced, Mpacially in the large bawns, and 
Mhtodion is entirely free as rejiwds tlie ordinary subjects of jnimary 



68 



KJUUCATION. 



1 



inBtruction. while the tnocbera are ftllowed to impart iulditioii»l nubjccic, 
for wliicli n small fee Las to tie paJiL Reli^on U sbrictly forbiddm to 
be (Aiiglit duriii;; acliool<bourti, aud not at aav tiuM: iiinnt a Stutr tca^ur 
pvu instruction tlifruin. St^'uiidnrv I'ducation is principally in tL« 
linntls of privnti' or di:'iioini national i-jitubliHhmRDts. Tho liiglier cUuca^ 
tion id supplied by tho llnivpr»ity, with its afHliatwl colleges. ■ 

The &liicat)oi) Department in t^ieennland ia admiiii8t«red by ibU 
Secivtnry for Public Instruction- Tii^ Act now in force was paaaud iai 
1875, and is of a tolerably liberal character, primary (^duciilioii Iwiofl 
■mcular uiid fre«. The compulsory clause baa not been put into opcfJ 
tion, M it would be a very JiSiL-ult thiu^ tu t-nforuu itx provisions ^| 
th« scattered and nparKrly'populi*ti.>d districts u[ the interior. Thn pubaB 
schools am dividfil into two vliuscs, tinned Stntc and Proviuonn 
schools. A Stjiti! Kcliool niUKt have lui nvrtmgii dnily att^n^lanoe of tJuraB 
childrfii. and the local diKtrict iniul cnntributo one-fifth of the ooet <9 
Diaintainm>;r. ropuiring. and making additions to the buildin;;. In tw| 
oaae of the establishment of a Provisional school, tlie MiniNttT msfl 
gnml » aulnidy lowanls the cost of erection of the uecFMHar\- buildind 
pnividi'd the proposals of the prouiotere are snbmitU'd to him lwfo^| 
they are caiTiud out. TowAnU llii' costl of adtniniKtration and tnailfl 
tenance of thiH claxs of Hchoal the linvernment makes a capitatjoj 
grant. e<|ual to the average cost per head of children in State schoolfl 
Seoondary education is ])rovided for by means of grammar Kchoolfl 
which are liberally assisted by tho State. Although bIi'jsi ar« nofl 
Iieing taken to seuur« the ostabUshmeot of such an institution, Quocdh 
Iknd has no Unireniity of iu own, but nendii a fair projxirtioQ <■ 
■tndentH to t)ie Universitiui of Sydney and StHlinurnf. fl 

Thr South Aiiitroliuu syKliiu of primary education, which was intl^| 
duccd in it* priwrnt form in IKtf*, is vory similar to thofie ulrea^jl 
d«8Cribod. It is prc«idc>l over by a responsible Minister, with a3 
Inapcctor-Gencral and other olKciid^ Education is compulsory, ML-culaijI 
ftnd free. To the end of ISdl a small weekly fee hud to bn paid by oIU 
iMuente able to do so, but at the beginning of 1892 jiriiiiarj' inKtnic^tioal 
btwMoe (tnlirt'ly fre*. Children who have atlaimil a certain standard ofl 
nducutjon are ex«iti]>t from compulHory atLt'tidaiire, FUtligious in^trcufl 
tion is :i»t alluwiil to bo given except out of ordin<iry schooldiourd 
Secondary 4^1ucation in in the hands of privatn nnd denomiuatiotilB 
tstablisliments, and th<- University of Atklaide, thotigh small, is elBcienM 

Under the Kl<mentary Kducation Act of ltS71 primary education 
ill Western Aiistrnlia is impart^ in Uovemraeut schoulx, which anl 
entirely supported by the Stale. An Amendment Act pitHnnd in IS9Jl 
placed MlucMtJonal aifairs in the colony under the control of a rejiponsiblH 
Mininlcr, and oRurded facilities for special reli^ioun teaching beian 
given in the mIukiIs. Another Amendment Act which ranic into forofl 
in 1^01 ali»Iijih»d payment by rrwults, and gave pnwem for the onforOM 
meat of onoipubiory at tendance. Until lt$95, |>nvat« schools were aJtM 



BDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OP TASMANIA. 



69 



M8Ml«d from the public iturac, on t.'ondition of siibmilUng to Oovcmment 
inapeetiun in seouUr jttibjttdH ; but towards th« Mid of that year an Act 
wu ptUEXMl nbolishing tlio KyitU'tn of making annual ^ant8 to dononiina- 
tiuml ■cJiooIk, Anil pro\-i(ling that dnring the jeitr 1896 llip Stat« should 
hand over tut compttnoation for the aliolilion of tliese ttuliHidie!! th^ autu of 
£20,000, to l>c divid«d i>ctu'>:«ii tbei ftchools iu lik« pro]>ortioiin to ihoMi 
«hkh governed tl\e dintrihiutioii uf the annual vol« in 189A. Thrre is a, 
higfi school at rorcii, aiid a ■,;ra]nmar ttctiool at FrrrDuintItT, uiid further 
encouTagement ia (•iveti to Bi.>condary innlnictioii by tin' i]iKlitutii>ii (if 
sdkoUrshipft whivh are open (o oom petit ion. 

In Tasinatua tti« CluRf Sccivtjiry holcU Ih? portfolio nf Education, and 
liai iwjKM-iul clmrgv of mnllrrs n^Utiiig to primary instruction. Thci« arn 
public nchfioLi in rror}- countir town throughout the colony, and Mvcira) 
in Holttrt and Launocston. Tlie principle of cou]>ulsion is nominally in 
Corcv ; and Hpcdal religious iimtiniotion in given by the Church of 
btglAiwI dergy out of scliool-houni. Secondary education ia en- 
eoiU^;ed by means of superior hcIiuoIs and a system of HoboUi-xliipa 1 
md annual examinations are lurid nt which siicc<!S»ful candidates may 
^n tlie d*Kree of Aiisiiciiiti-' of Arts. Th^ Univi^naty of Tasmania was 
Ottablinhed in I8l)0, utid at tii'Kt ytiut nicccly an cxuniining Imdy, but in 
thr beginning of the year l>>93 a building was acquired and («nching 
pronde'l foi* lli« purpo§o of enabling aludenU to graduate in Ari«, 
Sciiencos, and Lava. The fii-ai degree, oui> of B.A., wae lAkeQ in 1894. 
The Ooveruinenl grauto thn institution a sum of X;),000 annually. 

Sew Zealand baa on ediiattional syatt-m which is entirely Kecular aiid 
twe. There is a Ki^jiarati? ilrpartmcnt of nthication, prcAidi-d »iv«r by ohh 
«f tlie ratpanHiblo MinistnrH of tht; Crown, ns in thr othi-r ociloniitK. Tlie 
viiola etdony hax Ui'ti dividend into itchool districts, ench ]>n>Hi(lrd ovi<r 
Inr ft lock) Board, and a capitation grant of £S ISs. per h«ail i* paid by 
tm Stato for every eliild in average attendance, and, in addition, 1 n. (id. 

K child for the support of scbol.-irahipa, witli other gi'ants for Hchool- 
dings, training of teacbera, etc In distriola wh*i-e there are few 
or no Europeans native (whotJs are muintauied for tlie Maori children. 
H^h Hcboola, ootl«K*^ i^'id grrtumiur hcIiooIk provide tlie means for 
ao^uiring aecondnry cdutiition ; .ind the UniviM-xity uf Itew Zealand, 
tike those of the other colnnicx, is empowered to confer the same degrees 
aa tho UnivenitieH of Oxford ami Cambi-idgc, except us reg,iid)t 
Dirinity. It is, however, only an examining body, tho un<lcrg(iicluulcn 
kwping (heir terms nt the affiliated cotloges — the University of Ot;igo, 
the Canterbury' College, and the Auekland University College. 



Statk Schools, 

In the whole of .\u«tralasiji at tho end of 1891 there were 7.542 
9Me Sehoola, including what arc tenned ProviHiomU Hchuulsin QueeuH- 
lud, but excluding 65 schools maintained by the llo%-«mDi<-nl of Mew 



70 



EBCCATION. 



ZmlnBd for the Uaori children io districto whore thore «i« fnir or 
Duropeana. £xoluiuv« of 778 kewiuj^-mistrMsm, of vibma 71 wore in 
K«w South Wales, 427 iii Victuria, 104 iii ^outh Australin, and 17&in^ 
New ZvMlaatl, the tcuuhitig aUff MuuilieriHl 16.068; and the av 
«tt«udaiicy! of wcholnrs during the yeikr vas 462,744, ^iviui; au ave 
nDmber of 6 1 ppr scliool and !I I p(-r tt^adutr. Mid forui lug 1 1 '3 per i 
of thn mean {wpulittion of Anstralasut. Tlu; figuren for the itidtvidi 
coloatfs will be found nppondMl : — 



Cotng^ 



S«haoU. 


TiBCtKn. 


%GOS 


4,383 


i.osa 


4,303 


flW 


l.4!ffl 


flW 


1,111) 


lie 


173 


9C7 


46« 


1,410 


3.300 


tfiia 


U>.06S 



Acbolut tn avvnfc MlT«iidjuKi\ 



TO-I- 1*2^, 




New Sooth WilIm 

Tictoria 

QaeeDtUnd 

Boiilh Auvtmlia „„.. 

W«i«in Au«Cnlia _. 

TMnuuiia 

KowZuJaml 

Auatnlaiila 



130,089 

13Z.083 

46.060 

3T,8»6 

2.S92 

IO.flH 

103,490 



M2,;44 



It abuuld be not«<l Uiat iii thoae ooloiiies where Mcaaiairy uhool* < 
wholly luaiiitaiiinl by tho State no ftttempl has beeu lauile to 
tliein fruin primary xchoola, and Uie figtim ipvvu tlicmfurc; rcfiM' to 
(jovcninuint ntluciitiunnl inittitutions, with thn exudption tif iiidaatr 
mid technical kcJiooIx. A» n rulo, »ocoiulMrv nducation in tho colon 
is pmvidrd by private establi&hmpnts, whicliare more or IcMsubeidis 
by ihe Huite. In New South Wales, however, tLere are a number 
Govonuuent high schoolB where itiu«h i;ood work U donr. Thu 
0«nea)(e of tlie popnlation of Kow ZeaUiid— 1.'>-2 — iJiouii us Ui avu 
atteuiliuici! at thn Stale ochouls, it itiust u\su he rt^tnurkpil, is rut 
higher tliun it nhould he, on account of u number <>f Mauri i-hildT 
alt«tidin^ tht! oi-iHiiary roIidoIn in districts wtiL>rL- tlirin! am numt ^ntatl 
Intluid for thc^ " iiatiTcx," while the hiuin <m which thr. prnjinrtion 
linnti calculntcd is the popuUtiou exclusive of aborigini^H. 
" Native " schools in New ZenlAnd, of which the number liaa 
bc«'U ^ven as 65, had a teacliiiig-atafT of 126 in H94, with an enrol 
of 2,424 and an averujje attendauc-e of 1,775 schuluj^ and the 
diture on tlie achoclH during the year auiounted to £15,3d0. Of' 
otiildrEii who nvL-ivi^ iiuitrurtion at the inntitutionH, 73j prtr ci 
were pure Maori, 10 per cent, wnri-- half-ciuitc, and 164 p«r ctMit. wcr 
Enrapoan or. In the words of the Minister of Education, " inclining 
the Europtnut " nwe^ 




ENROLMENT AT STATE SCUOOLS. 



The lima enrolment of pupils Ht the St«t4t seboob of Aostniliuua 
dlinnf; 1694 wm 7di,7L'8, whilo the net VDrolmnnt, or Utn number al 
tSatiBcX. «liiJdr«n, csmo to 661,095, forming 166 per ornt. of the mea-n 
popolfttioD. In most, of the driooios tb« net «nToliD<?nt in obtniiiMl in n. 
nuMwluit enipirioil manner — by dedacting » cvirtMin p«rcenugc from 
iii« f,T'i«H figures : but in one or two — noMbly in VirtoriA — lh« .ictn&l 
tigunr^ arc (uuiKt by tlie Edumtiuu Department. Tbe following table 
|ivec thf. groat and n«t (-nrolmait of «acl) oolony : — 





Qnm 

BoMtneBL 


XftXDNbMRt. 


<MMr. 


TdU. 


of Populfellmi. 




334,a03 

231,331 

7lt.03B 

«4,0(S 

R,0S7 

I9,W7 


206.26.1 

fi7,?Je 

«7.9M 

4,GS3 

1 4.47a 

157.300 


]fi7 




17-3 




Ui4 




10-6 

a-4 

0-3 


Ntnr ^mIait'I 


187 


Atutraluia 


797.723 1 681.635 


IG-ti 



It will be seen that tbe lar^st peirentage of tbe population t^nroUcd 
«t 8tat« *choolN won to be found iu New Zedjtnd, and tli« lowest in 
West«Tti Anittraliit. Suub a ouuipHriinin, howevL>r, is of very little value, 
be>C]iaf« thf' pmportion which the cbitdn'n of schnol age beiar to the 
total popiiUtion vnrit^it cainKid<TaI>ty in tbe dilTorcnt colonies, being on 
higb aa 27 per cent, in New jfiralnnd, m compared with 24 per cent, in 
Kew South W»los nn<l 21 per cent, in Victoria, while in Weatom 
Aiutraiia. which a vtiU nt its pioneer stng(^. ttiero must of neuemity bc! 
K macb unaller percentage of <iependent oliildV^u tlian in the moro 
-widely nettletl oulonie& Farlbor on in this ctiaptir will Im found »i 
conpariKon of tbi- ebildmi of school a^, taken for thi.-i purpono us 
between 5 and l!i vmnj in iiU tht- colonii-n, witti the niinib<;r mroUed at 
■II instittitionK, Ixith Blato and private. Thi* will give a better view 
nf Ibe relative Ntrictnmii or laxity with whieh the nlt«ndi>nco of chiidreu 
at «cIm»1 i* crfor>-nt! in the diffrmnt provinces. 

Tba department'sl reports of the various colonies show that during 
ibo year 1^1 the cost of tLdmiuislrittion and maintenanve of the Stata 
•diooLi of Auatralaaia was i:i, 980.387. while the ryveiiue from (eew, 
rmW of land iledicated to school purposes in New v^mland and South 
Autmlia, and salea of booka aiuouuted to £127,757, leanng a net 
CMt to the Stale of £1,832,630, excluding a sum of £153,7S8 expended 
on acbool pntntMCK. Ajntixtancn t4> private Bchools where primary or 
■Mondary Mucfttjon i* given i* not includiid in thei>e liguri:s. In New 
Zealand and Qapen>tniid nKsintancc to such secondary M;hools is of a 
Bberal charaeter — tho Uovemiaeut of the Northern colony subsidising 



72 



EDrCATION. 



it« graniDar scbools at the rate of £1,000 pach ftiinuftlly. In Nr 
Stmth Wftles thn only ]>rivate scfaool subBidiscd is the Sydney (Iranima 
School, which ia endowed by statute ta the «xtent of i^l,fiOO. Formerl; 
the annual grant to this iiiatitutloii was much larger, but iii U 
Parliaueut withdrew ha ad<litioiml allowimcf. The expeuditura ou 
State achoolii in each of tlie colonics will lie found l>elow. The Bgur 
for New South Wales aiitt sumo of the other pnivinowt do not give th 
whole exjiensu to the State, ns tiiimt of the principal tcnchcnt enjc 
residences for whidi no rpni, chargie is niado : — 



Mwj. 


AdmlEuilAtkiii lEvrcipU from 


Nat 

0«t ta HtMt. 
I'muiHH. 


Eiiwiiileil aa 
Sihcmt 

PrvuiUe*, 


Kew Itoutli WttloB 


£ 

587.2li3 
62<).!lht) 
181.I!<I 
I30,54» 
17.362 
33,632 
400,401 


£ 
70.60.1 
1.<J02 


£ 
516.570 
610.087 
181,101 
110.368 
in. 701 
K.734 
370.050 


73,TDS 




6,691 




5.ess 




14,181 

I.QOI 

908 

38.472 


8.S4t 




10.BM 




3,664 


K«w Xulanil 


■N.SSS 








1,080,387 


127,757 


1,SQ2.630 


133.763 







highe 



* Tfu ondlng Wtb Janp. OK. 

Affuiniit the sum of .£5,925 expended on Nchaol preiniiK-K iti QueeE 
land must be nnt local cnntribiitionn of XI, 405 towards the euxt 
buildings ; and in the ciusc of Tnsniiinitt the revenue <if X90H iiiclmi 
contributions from the school fees to the amount of £(iOti, the lejwl 
retl^ining X'J,052 of the foee received dunjig the year. Excluding 
oost of school pietuisee, the amount expended oa each child in avew 
al!«ndauce at tlie ijtate sebools of AuKlralitsU was X4 Oa Id. Uat 
the year 1888 Uia averngu exjienditure in New South Wales was 
timn in any of the oth«r volonies ; but in 1894 it wan lowtrr than 
of ViiTtorin, WrJitrm Auotrnlia, and (Queensland, For thii inili\it)u 
colonivK the net eort to tlw Slato of cvciy ejiild in avcrngc attindanc 
excluding expenditure on buildings, was as follows : — 

Pitt covl \Mt ditliT. 
ColDnjr- 
Snr South WaloB .. 
Victoria , 

QuMDllMld 

Saath Auitnlia 

WcMarn Auatralla., 

T^umiuua 

Now Zcalnod 



£ B. 


d. 


3 19 


G 


4 Vi 





4 2 


a 


3 14 


4 


4 N 


!) 


3 1 





3 11 


8 



Auattalaua 



4 1 



ATTEN-DANCB OF CHILDEEN AT SCHOOL. 



ParTATE Schools. 



Vvtinn U» yunre 1 895 and 1894 no statisticK were collected of th» 
prit-atu Mobooln in South Aiotralia. Tuking the 1X92 figures for tliU tolonv, 
then? wi-ro 2,flar> j.rivnt*. echools hi Austmluaia nt tlie end of 1894, with 
an <!nroIm<>nt of UI,1"8 aclioUn. The toaobing staff, iuctusive of timt 
o( Tnamanis, for wliicli colony, in the nliwnc* of official returns, n 
•BtiDMt« has l)e«n made, numbi:ml 7,558. Uereuuder will be foun.l tli 
ntam for each of the seven colonies ; — 



1 



Ooionr. 




Enrolment. 



T(afh»r>. 



Total. 



Pcrotnttxjfff 

dI 
l^ul4tlon. 



NawSnuth Wales... 

Viclori* 

Qasco^Mid 

Sootb Aottiali* 

Wtstern AaMfalta 

l^Hnaaia 

MvvZoland 

AottralMoa .. 



Be4 


2.(IS« 


SI.3PS 


4-S 


872 


2,131 


44.03» 


37 


lUii 


501 


Il.OJt 


2-B 


SH 


oiir- 


11,047 


3-3 


21 


73 


2.381 


31 


IH 


•*w 


6.049 


30 


302 


TS2 


14.627 


nwf 


2;e3s 


7.B53 


H1,17S 


3* 



' Cstlmuol. 

8tatb axd Parv.vTE ScaooLi*. 

A* almost the whole tit the children enrolletl iit thi- H<!hiK>l« ol 
Aastntliui* are nver r> and uiider 15 years of ngn, thut pcriotl niuy Ii>d 
tikwi as the mJi'miI nge a( the colonios ; and iiKsuniing that the prupor- 
tion which th« childmi of xuch ages hear to the total population is the 
taiii« DOW aa it wan when the liuit census was taken iu 1891, there were 
961.240 children of school age in Auoti-aliuia in 1894. while 938,006 
[npihi weM enrolled in the Stute and private nclioola. The esttinated 
aamber of children at kkIuxA itgt! and the n<?t i-iirolnii-nt of Kchulai's iu 
aadi pjovince will he tuund Iwl'iw. It shouhl ntit hv forgotten, however, 
tkat tbo c(inipn:(itinn of thi- populiition <if Hiune of the colonieii liaa 
OOttndorably cjunged dunng thn post few yeare. It ix iiuila obviouH, 
for iniltl>T>'^ that the j^frrci'ii logc of children niii^t h<> very nnich Ii-sm 
now in Wteteni Austrjiliii. than il was in IBfll, while the pi-oporlion in 
otbar ooloniea must bo higher, on account of (hn dcpnrtiirc of many 
U>ad-wiiin«i« in search of employ men t. But these are dianges which 



74 



EDUCATION. 



arc not. Accurately cI«l«rmiii&l>lo at the present tini», nltliough ikaj 
should be k«pl in view wben considering the following ti^nircs : — 



(Mcny. 



Vhiidnn nt 



Saw BoHth WilM ....... 

Vloterift „.. 

l^DVaiMluid 

Bomtli AnalnUik 

WMtoiB Aartprii* 

Ihnwaift 

SmrZc^ond 

AuittralMia 



9eO,7M 

S1.782 
96,W1 

U.081 

SS,OG0 

1B1,S1S 



961,340 



Scbalua. 



SSI.4Q3 

T7.B32 

69,527 

B.520 

19.497 

136,417 



801,060 



There ta, {( will be Keen, great room for improvement ill all 
colonie* in tb« atUstiditnoi: nl kcIwoI uf oliildren of ag«s nt which th 
miglit very well be receiving instruction. Of ciiurse, many nucli cbiltlr 
are exempt by \aw from xchool nttendjuice, tlie ninximuin school nge . 
Qnaetuknd, for instance, being 12 years. 

Hie ftVBraj||[e daily att«ndanoe at tlie State schools of all the colonie 
during- 1894 wa» iCtJ.iU, or 58 [ler cent, of the j-hsss eiiruhuent Ca 
ciliated on thf.- Kniiiu perceiilogp, tlie average atl*ndaiio«; at tbc variou 
private schiKihi would amount to Kl,8fl3, and thnt of all Echiiolit 
544,627. Coiiiparf'd with thn total population of cauh colony, tb 
pruportiiin of children enrolled wm as followa : — 



OsloaF. 


fiurotinont p«r eeaX. at Fopulfttlon. 


OM*. 


Xat. 




S3'l 

3a-4 
la-s 

21-6 
lci-1 
16-7 
96-7 


S04 
204 




17-7 

loo 




8-9 




1S-6 




20 '4 




SS-8 


IS'S 







Tbhi ithowa a gross school enrolment in Australasia of tJiree to ev 
thirte<^ inhabitants, and a net enrolraeot of one in every tivn inhali 
itant* — a proporiion ma favourable as that of any European country. 

Thft numbi-r of cbtlilren attending mjiool luu incn-aKt-d nt a fi 
grenMr rat« than the populatioii, Mt will be neon by the follow 



HIGHER INSTRUCTION. 



75 



table. aliowiDf; Uwt tbs advontaguii of tNlucation have been of kiia yean 
iMm vitbin dm iweh of tba comm* Uian tbrmerly ; — 

1861 130.M0 

tl871 312,13a 

I6B1 - _™ 670,7;8 

laei _ 803.BOO 

ISW 80I,0« 



Population from 1661 to I89J mon tfau trebled itself, but tho 
imber of school childrea in 1894 vm nearly six and a fifth Umea aa 
~Sreai as in 1861. 



UltlVKBSinn AXD COLLSOU- 

The Advance of edocation is hardly more dearly indicated by tlw> 
instituttoa and auuceea of CoUeK^ and Uolvenities thuD iit the progress 
of ni-alth or tliu attaiiimout of Lvisure. In Aiulrulin the uirliest 
attempts to provide fur what may be tomitid tho luxurica of oduca- 
tioQ yvtp- node in Now South Wales in 1S52, and in Victotia in 
1855, whwi tho Vnivendties of Sydney and Melliounw respectively 
were eetablisbod. No other colony of Australasia was at that time 
sufficiently advanoed in wealth and population to follow the examplo 
tlius set; but New Zealand in 1^70, Huulh Australiu iu ISTJ, and 
Jkemania in 1890, eoob fuuudt^d a University. In all ca.iL>H tiin 
'Dnivcndtii.'n are in part suppurti^d by grants from tliii |iiiblic funds, and 
m mrt by private nudowm<itit« and tliii fnrs paid by students. 

lli« Uoremmcnt cndoa-munt, Ittcturo foes, and income from other 
■oarMS, racaivod by tho Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide UoiveiuUea 
Id l&9i, were as follow : — 



Wbeanie" 
Adelaide... 



OOIWD- 

Hwot EndowmoiL 


IiH«imFC<a. 


Oltur Solum. 


Tutol. 


£13.200 

i:t.7."io 

3,901 


£7.700 

10,Gl!l 
3,1^ 


£12.n00 
«,371l 
5,233 


£a%,t9Q 
30,7*7 
l::.iUH 



In addition to tbo aborc annual cndowninnt, thi- Adelaide TJnivcmity 
bas received a pwrpeioal cndowmrnt of riO.OOO acres of land from tho 
Government of South Australia. The University of Sow Zcjilanil haa 
a statutory grant of X3,000 a year from UoverDment, and an ndditionnl 
ineomo of about £3,000 from degree and examination feen. Of tlio 
iffliatcd colliyei^ Ancielajid VnireTsity CoUej^ is in receipt of a statutory 
pant of iH,(KK> a year from Oovetiimenl. The Tasmanian Uuiv&rsity 
aim nxvircs an annual grant from the State, tlie amount in 1891 being 
£3,000. 

The nnrober of stadcnta atttmiling lectures in 1894 is Hfaowm below. 
In New Zcabuid tha students kc^p their terraii priTici pally at the 
Univenity of Otogo, the Canberbnry Colkgo, and thtt Auclcland 
Univeiaity College. In addition to the 64 unmatriculatcd students wlio 



76 



EDt'CATION. 



attended cIohub at the University of Sydney in 1894, tbere wci* 93 

persons who aiihsmhpii to the cxtiensioii lectures deli %-ered in diSerentj 
parts of New Soiitli Wnies and Queensland durinj; tbe year : — 



VtitnMtj. 


MixltM* Utsndlng LevturM. 


UitMcuHial 


Net 

lUllfcuUMd. 


TdUI. 




C£8 

am 

9S 
437 

20 


54 

30 

187 

303 

S 


092 




GM 




280 




730 




38 






Total 


1.632 


592 


2.22* 




Attached to th* TTniveraity of Sydiiny there arc tlireo deuomi'l 
iinticiiiiil colleges for idaIp stinlents, and a fourth, iindcnoruiii&titina) in 
ita uharautor, for femaJo studt'iils. In Melboiinie tbere ur» thrtic 
nffiUiitcd dano mi national colleges, one of whith eoiitains a bull 
the accomnindatiaii oC female Btudenln. In Adi^laidci and Hohart the 
are no alfilintpd collfgrs nttaclx^ to the Unirowity ; niid in Ne* 
Zealand the University itsrlf is an nxnmining and not a teaching \todyJ^ 
the students keeping tJieir t^^rniH nt thron uiidononiinational colleges i 
Duiiediii, Chrixtchiirch, and Auckland, besides several sinaller institu> ' 
tiouM which have supplied a few gi-aduatea. 

Tlic Australasian Universities are eniiiowered to gnint tlie nuat 
(tc^trfes an t!ii- British UniversilieB, with the exueption of degrws in 
Dirinity. In all tlit' Universities woni<!n have now been mlmittod 
to thv i^orpciratf! privileges uxlondiHi to male stuilents ; and at the i 
8ydi>ey, Molliouriut, and Adelaide Universities this includes qualifyiof fl 
for degrees in mcdicini'. ^ 

Tlie number o£ di>grcfH cnnfcrrcd by the five Univei'sities. including 
those bestoived on graduates admitted ad eitndem gradum, is an fulluwa: 

Sydney... „„ 1.340 

Mnlbciarao 1.652 

Adeblde 3fi» 

N*w Zealand 63S 

Tnimnnin 7 

and tbero are over 1.600 ntudcntA ({uaUfring for degrees at the pCMMBt 
timn 

TkCUKICAL EOUCATIOS. 

Technical instruction ia given in nearly all the capital dtlea of the 
Aiulralaaian colonies, aa well as in many othi-r parts of the country, and 
thfrw is evtrry probability that instruction in audi matlLTH will before 
long be still further exlcndcd. The >Slate expenditure on this impartant 




7AC1LIT1£S rOB TKCE^ICAI. INSTEUCTION. 77 



brftDcli of edocatiAn in fiva out of t1i« .lix colonitn wWro technical 
imtmction in gircn will Ih' found b«)low ; KimiUr informatioD for South 
Aa«tnilia is not n^ititabl)! : — 

£ 

}(tw^<mth\V*iM» S5.0S3 

Vkrtoru „ n,8R0 

QiMciMtaiid _ I,3a£ 

TuBMaia 1,S09 

Xcw Zealand GOO 

In New Sooth Wa1c«, during tho yonr 187K, » aum of i;2,000 vras 
gnnteU hy Fartiameint toirarda the organisation of a Technical Colttgi;, 
and tor five years tho work of the iustitiitiou waa carried on 111 conncc- 
tion with the Sydney Scliool of Arts. Ill 1883, however, a boanl wa« 
upointMl by Uie Gi>v«n»netit to take uv«r it^ muDUj^ineiit, and tho 
"nchnical (College bevaide ifaenwfortli a State itiHtitutiun. Towards the 
end of I8ii9 thn Board was dimolvvd, and th<' in.tlitutinn canK* under 
the dimct control of tho Miniirtor of Public Instruction. Tho OoIIege, 
which, with (he Ti-dinol(^cai Museum, k housed in a tine building at 
Ultimo, Sy<li)cy, i* oprn to both ninlo and female students, niid of 
the latter th^^ attendance in some terms has been as high as 400. In 
1894 the ennilineiil of both sejtea was 2,956, 

Branch Technical Sdiooln have boon catablinhcd in tho suburliK, ond in 
the norlhom, nouthem, and wortern district* of tlin (Jolony. In 18dt 
tbme suhurhan and country cln«scs hod a total of 3,O0K students 
enrolled. Teciinical classes are also held in connection with a number 
of ]>ublie BekooI& The total enrolment in these classes during 1894 
wasATD. 

In 1891 Uk! expenditure of the Government on Toohiiicul Education, 
including tim Technological MuHeuiu, amounted to £'25,01^.1. of which 
£3,735 was paid on account of tliu (tn.-ction of Technical Colleges and 
Uufoaioa at Kachunl and Newciuttl«. During the ypar fc^es to tho 
■BHMint of £3,;i( J< were rcceircd fcom the atuik'nta and retained by tho 
teacliers. 

Technical Eilucation in Victoria has extended rapidly, but while the 
(•oTemmtrnt of New South WaJea has wholly borne the cost of this branch 
u( iofltruotion. tJial of Victoria has received s"'"t aaniataiiLe from [irivat« 
inuniticnnoc, llie Hon. F. Ormoiid. M.L.C, having k'*'"" £15,500 to 
wnist in thi? catabliiOiment of a Working Hta's College. At the end 
of I tt94 thi'rc wi-rir 23 Schools of Mines and Technical Schools receiving 
sid front tho Stat^, jiaynutntx being matin by th« (iovcritment on account 
of 2,970 siudcnls who had attended the requi&ile numU-r of mcetinga 
'■ev>>n) during the last quarter. Tbe total State expenditure during 
the y«M-wa».ei 1,980. 

Technical Education liaa well advanced in South Anstraliii. The 
School of Painting and Deugn in Adelaide during 1894 had 26$ 
rtodcots on the roll, atkd branch achooU. with an enruluieut of 74 students 



78 



BDUCJITIOK. 



during 1894. Iiavi> been eiii&b!UJied At Port AiI»Ui<le ruid 0«wler. Tha 
Sa^ioul of Miiim uiul Iiidiuitrita, finindud in 18i^9, aiul worked to some 
fxtiTitt ill vuimi.-(.-ti<>ii with tlio Hirhnot (if Pointing and Desifp^ haA un 
cnn>Ini<!ttt of GHH iitiidnnU in 181)4. Thcri' in nliio a Hchool of Mines 
at MoonUi. In QuccnKUnd Technical Education in mrtivo ; tha clnssf^ 
HI* worked in conjunction with the Metropolitan School of Artu, snd 
with tho Schools of Art at Ipswich, Toowoomba, Of mpie, Maryborough, 
Bandaberg, Kocktiampton, Mackay, Cli&rtvrs Towers, and Townsville. 
In Tasmania tlie fouudaUoiiB of new 'IVctmi<At Sclioola we're laid ia 
18d9 in Uobart, and there ia n braiiuli school in Luuiiutshni. Tks 
aohodn u« audvr tliu dinvtion of louul BtMiiU of Advice, the membeM 
of which ool din.-ollj' undi'r lliu Mini»ti:r in <Jinrge of iniucntion. Tha 
luinitwr of distinct studoiitc in ]M<}4 wok ')4'J, luid tlin Cioviirumimt 

W«if>rnAnKtridiaisonlynow(lilt9ti) ox tending its oducAtional opfira- 
twosm Mitovinbnoe Technical Kducalioii; butinSew Zcalam:! there are 
To^nicftl Schools under Education BoamU at Wellin^on and Wan^anul, 
while technical iuittruotion is also given at l)i« llilu>u District High Suhool 
and uuder the mwjmom of blw DuiiMlin Toclmical CIuuqh Aanuciution. 
Tlie State awitanoa to UtOM iiutibutionii during lUSi uuounled to £60U. 
In Jund, 1S99, a Technical School wa^ also opvoed in Auckland. 



Gembkal Educatiox. 



Striking midenoe of tin- mpid |>ra){mii made hy tlieaa Adonltt to 
ng^ard Ui educ^alion ia atFurdi^d b_v a oompnriaon of tha iidueatioiial llatuM 
of the pnopJe as disclosed by tin- four cnnsua nnunn^rationn nf 1R61, 
1871, l«8l,nnd 1H91. In thoso years the numbers who could nad 
and wriU", rend only, and who were unable to read were as follow : — 



i 




DccrM b( Kdocatian. 



■4 
I 

& 






Si 



A 

B 



Badanlr 

OuBMrwd ... 

»7L 

RwlaadirritB. 

HMdnnlr 

OunolR*! ... 

Wat ud wtlt* . 

KMd«nlT 

Omul n*>l ... 

im. 

RMdntr 



UUU 



(MM 

unfit* 
m,im 

aaum 



MMt 

lai.iti 

VMfn 
xtjat 



U.IM 
Tt.NO 



is.ott 

itfiitt 

IIMM 

Sl.ltS 

49, m 



f,Ha' ts,ffii 

i,&ial is.ijT 

!,BI«' U.M( 

t.RM ' «].«U 



130,; 18 °OD.OfiT 

£M,U1 iX^lt 
l«,«l« ' IMTl 
101,n» TMM 



1»,B0T 

K.tn 






si.ira 
•.an 



s.eii 

tn,4U 
i«,tio 

SIA.SK 

4M.tU 
IIT.MS 



TW.OOl 



ADVANCE OF EDfCATIOS. 



79 



r 
■ 



The ^urM in the preoeduig l*bki mfcr to the total population, uid 
tho itnnbcr of illiutnitoa in thonifer* unduly swoUmi by ohildreii under 
achooJ-gmng age. If the iMputation oror 5 ye&n of age be oonsulerad 
ia eovifMoaoo with the toUl population, the rcnnlts f«- tlw yrhoitf of 
AwtnitMia will be aa CoUov: — 





VrktoPOpublMa. 


PovaMlaa OTv b j«n ol «•, 


tML tioL laa. 


un. 


un. 


\tn. iHL un. 




m«M|JtTM(i I.BW,301 
IUMH UMDt Ul.wi 

Kt,tra M».!ui •m.M; 


ill,;!/; 
rai.ooi 


Tw.sw i,im.i(& i,Ma.iu Wmu 

u3.u(B iwt.sti ini.so m,H6 

l<».9S) ^M.VHI) SM.Wn. Ml.Ut 






s.wi.sif ),ou.i?a i,iiuii,D?« i.nofeaai.'m.m 




1 



33m Edlowing table aflbrde a comparison of tbe number of each class 
io «v*ry 10,000 of the population for th« same periods ;— 



m»f «<w— t JM. 



Rududmu 
■«d«Bl]r ... 
OwnMnad ., 

hM 





ivhnls Pnpmuim. 


rD|niUl]rM ertr D T*UV of W. 


uu. 


un. 


uu. 


UK. 


un. 


vm. 


un. 


tm. 


i.ato 




T.oiin 

«I0 

tasu 


T,S73 
!.U76 


T.OOl 
1,380 


7.0W 
I.IW 
1.77U 


8,SI0 

tS80 

I.Otl 


e,sM 

an 

KOI 


UMO 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,1)00 



It will be tKCR, tiMirafoiv., tbnt wbili^ in 1:^61 thoTr wn only 7,001 
persons who could n»d antl wrilc out of livery 10,000 people over 5 
yearaofage^ the number iu 1891 iiad iucrea^ed to t^.^Ot, wlitto IhoM! 
who were totally illtt«ruU' had in the tiaiuu period duo rcasiHi fnmi \fil3 
to»03. 

Looking at tiae mattif Ktill more cloitely with refiMvnoe to aice, it 
will ho men tliat titc ini|>rot-<-in(:nt in education is inait miirkv<l in tho 
case of the riung KoncMntion. Tbo followinff tsble shows the degree o£ 
(dncatioo of all children tiotwcon the ugosof 5 and 15 yeara in 1861, 
1871, 1881, and It^iJl, numerically and per 10,000:— 



ll^na «t BdueatlQo. 


lOUl hetmMi i w>d IC ran. 


IVlO.MOohUdraD. 


mi. 


an. 


IBSL 


1301. 


18U. 


ISTl. 


1881. 


isn. 




ih.usIbs,u« 

«b,cea 1 ]oi3i« 


WLTIO 
IlKBM 


«M.01t 

ao.MO 

ItT.lW 


1.7W 


S,B11 
1,000 
l.WO 


T.OM 
1,9M 


T,IW 


Erii-:;:;;:::::::::: 


MS 
1,M3 








iU.Viit IST-UB 


«n,M7 


aoo.ou 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 











A 



J 



So 



KDUCATIOX. 




The proportion of ttioan iilil« to rwul mul write liiu tbcrrforn grow: 
from 4,G37 to 7,6Ci> in every 10,000 cliiWrijn during thi- 30 ycurs which 
th(i lahk- covers, while the number of thoiic aiiin to rond only in 1891 
wax not mucU orer one-fourth of «h&t it wiut in ISOl, and the wholly 
illitcmte had dtwrensed by more than one-third during the i«riod. 

Tlie Mnrringo R^giiitef iillurda further proof of the advance of 
(idiicntion, and it ban the furtlicr advantage of giving aimmd data, 
while the cphkus tigurps urn only available for deoennial periodn. 
The numbrrs of those wlio signed the Marriage Register by marks wi-re 
OM Appended. Where a. blank is shown the inforinutinn is not availnbl 



Colon}'. 



NfirttaulhWalw.. 

Vi.*«1» 

<Jili'i^]iituiil 

Srmtli Aijalrklm .- 
W»t«rr\ ATiitnUlA. 

T1I«IE1IU1JB --.---. 

>tfw Xfalviil , , ,, 
Autfnluli 



U9I. 



XuVt 



M. 



l.ttS 

l.lfB 

14B 

n? 

S7S 



ia,»7H 



ue 



SM 



U71. 



uvm. 



U. F. 



s,su 

4.0KI 

1» 

AIM 
l,SS4 



I3.4S) 



179, TM 

MI aw 



un. 



Uirlu. 



u. 



s,»< 

S.SM 
1,708 

l« 

SH 
3,2TB 



WfiSS 



1(K 



p. 



ISKL 



Muki. 



M. P. 



•-■.UM 

Z.M!. 

113 

I, son 



IT.MS 



X3 
110 183 



IK) 



UM. 



UUkL 



H. ». 



7,023 

IH7 
t,17« 



ujm 



«a 



Tlie percentages for thoae colonies for whii-h the neccHS&ry inforuiatic 
is avulable ia worked out In the followinjj table : — 

Tw. MiJm. r«iiulM, TaUL 

1861 18-SO 30-69 M-60 

1871 _ lO-SS 18*) la-u 

I8S1 4-U i-tl A-M 

18B1 „ 3-12 S-S7 frSO 

18M l-«7 1-81 1-7* 

The percentage in 1894 was therefore less than one-fourteenth of tha 
in li^Cl, and there ia every i-esBon to expect tliat in thccuurm-of unotht 
few years it will Iw still further diminiKlied. 

The wonderful increase which hos taken plnc« in the quantity 
oorreapoudenoe poaaing through the Port Oflico points indirpctly to tfa€ 
ttjiread of edui^nlion. The following table nhows that while in li!51 onl/l 
2,16">,000 hitti-rB an<l 2,l-'i0,000 nnwRpnjiprg panspd through the Au^l 
tralonan I'oKt-oflices, these numbers bod in ltJ94 increased to 190,9 ld,200| 
and 9tJ,O44,SO0 respectively :— 

I.MUrK )>cv>piipcr*. 

1351 _ 2,163,000 il.VliOOO 

ISOl 14,001.000 I0.1»4I,400 

1871 „. 3i),4;«,:i00 17.'2517O0 

18SI m),T!ll,700 43.802,000 

1801 . „,...„ 1IU,(!!I4.900 85,879,760 

1891 190,919,300 06,044,800 



GKOffTH OP COttRESPONDESCE. 



8i 



The following ore Uie ntunben of letters and nowspapore per heftd 
of pc^jnlntion in neb of thn nx years mentioaed : — 

l.«ti(n per X«*i|»wn pit 

iDtiktltuiL IiihftUuat. 

18il 4-7 47 

ISel „ II-8 8-» 

1871 „.„ 157 8-9 

1681 „ S9-I IVS 

1B»1 4T« »■» 

In 1894 tbe nuiii1>«r of 1ott«n per inhnliitunt was thon^torc nmrly 
tan timei^ uul that of oevrwapurK liru and n lioJf ttmnf. larger thou in 

utei. 

PDBUC LlBR.t.IUE8. 

In all tbo coloiu<» public litmiries hnvr. IxMin ojitabliKhnd, thflao in 
tb« cofntol citie* gmcratly going lij^ thv nftmo of " llii' Public Tjibnuy," 
while tiwM in thn cotintr>- towns are known as t!>choolH of Art, 
■eofaonics' Ins(itat«K, Ac 'ITic Frco Public Libraries in Melbourne 
md Sj^dney are splendid institutions, the former comp&nn^' favourably 
vith mmuy of tbe librarim in EurOfMsui c&jiitalx. Thi? fdllowinj; table 
riwwx tbn nnmber of librnriRi urhicli fumixbnl i-v^tiimH, and llif number 
tt bootn bnlonging to thRni, fur tiif. lat«Ht yew for which information 
is available : — 

*"™'' LlbnrlM. liooVt, 

New South W«l« 243 400.000 

Victoria „.._.„„.._ 4aS l,U(K).34tl 

QaMnoloBil TB 130.031 

South Australia-.., .„,„ I4Q 1TS.I76 

TiHniailia _. __„„... SO SS.OTS 

Kcw Zealand „ 298 330.770 

Total at nx cdkmiu t.239 2,111,401 

Id WMtem Ansavlia Mechanics' lnstitnt«a are to be found in moat 
yheai of aoy itaportaoiKv but no inforinalion reji^arding them is avail- 
die. The Vieloim Public Library iit Peitb, a Guv«ruuteitt iiistitutiou, 
; 6,300 volumeiL 



62 



SOCIAL CONDITION. 



' 



FKOM very wirly days the AuslmlaKian oolnnics Iiavo Iic*m) rcg 
somewhnt in tli« light of a ivorkiii^'-nifiii*^ paraJiw?, tbc lugli ntt 
ot viAgen which linve gvinerally prevailed and thi? choapueas of food 
luitliEi^ Uie enjoyment of a great deg^rec of comfoi-t, if nut of luxury, 
« olaas whidt dsewhere knous little of the one and nothing; of tte 
otiinr ; and wen in tlu-ne timeii of trade dcpremiun and riilut.ird wKgrt 
it tuny nufi^ty bi- xuid thut tlii! |H>sition of thu veagi- ininic-r in AnitrKliJ 
in ('(luul to that «ccii|iic:d by him in otli<-r parti ni thu wortil. Althoaf 
a high Ktandni-d of linnj; ix not condurivn to thrift, mving hnn gone < 
with groat rapidity, notwithAtandiiig the chrclcs which it Ims rocoiTe 
from titno to time {1*0111 ndverae conditions of the laijour market. 
id«a of the rate and extent of this accumulation of wealtii may 
obtained from the titbles iihowing the growth of dejKjsitR witli hni 
The hiiiiking riilurnK, hciwi^vcr, nlfonl in iheiiisidvi^ii but iin itiomipt 
v'ww of tlir ptctiiro ; it should nl^o be rtgardtHl from the iitnndpoint < 
the expenditure of the pvoplr. Ifoth of thene luihjcctti are dealt with if 
th«ir propel' pJaccK in this \'olume, and chi'se evidences of the 
condition of the people need not, therefore, be further considered here. 



NKwiti-Ai-KUS AXD Lbttehs 

Peur tiling xhow more ])liiialy the social superiority of n civilu 
people tluui A heavy corrrsjiondcnce and a largn (jihtribiitinn of ne 
papers. In tliesi- iiispccts all the rolonips of Aiistraliwia have for man] 
yeara been reutarkable. In ])ro]K>rtion to population it in doubtfv 
whether any country tti the world can hoiint of & lar^^ei- nuuiberori 
better elaiui of ncwijiaiiiTu than they publish. Grout advant'OH hnv 
been aiudn in this itsih-cI sinco ijl71, oud the rate of progress, both it 
number and in cxci'lk-nciT nf pnxluction, lias been i^vt^n more rapid 
bctwiM^n 1S31 and the pi-esent time. Therfi arc no :n(uns of corn-ctlj 
Mtimating the nuuibcr of newnpaprrs nctaitlly printc^d and ilistrihiit 
in the colomea, becauae the Post^iffice carries but a sniall proportion 
the ciivulatiou. For purposes of comparison with <itber countrie 
however, it may be staled that during the year 11^94 no leiis tha 
96,044,800 newBtinpi'rs paaai^d thi-ongh the Post-offices of thi- vario 
colonii-.i, K'^iiK thir hu'gi' proportion of 23 per head of popuUtiun. 

In thn Kamc year th*- iiinidirr iif tpttera and pllst-^.■anl» ciirricil wfl 
llK),!}l!),'iOO, being 46 for every man, woniuii, and child in Au.^tmlaHa 
An examination of the statisiit* ot other eountric* sliown that the peojJc 
of these colonies stand second among th(^ world's populations iu Uii 



ABSENCE OF UERBDITAET PAUPER CLASS. 



83 



mfttL The inhAl>il4UitH of (iront Dritjiin bav« a larger corrwpondeuce 
perbMd. bat llto people of no oilier natioD can approa«b tbe Au^tmlasiun 

Parks, Muhciimj^ ani> Aht Uallkries. 

All tbfi Austeabwitin copitals nro lihcrally supplic^d with parkfl Kiid 
recreKtion'gTOUDds. In Sydney nnd suburbs tlioro are pai-ks, w{uarc!i, 
andpablic gardens comprising anar^of 3,053 acres, including 53UniTc!i 
wbioi torn the Centennial Park. Then there is the pictiireaijue Notionnl 
Fkrk, of 36,320 uct^a. xiluitted about 16 miles from Uie centre of thp 
metrupotin ; and, in nddition to this, an urva of 3.'>,300 ucnrs, in thr 
^■allcy of the Hawkt-sbury, has been recently rrattrviil for public reeroa- 
tion iindrr tJii^ naini' of Ku-nTig-gni ObaKc. Thuit Sydnny hnx twn 
extensive and pictnrriiqur donminK for tho pnjnyni«^t of the propla at 
■Imoet etjual distAnccs north nnc) Kouth from the city, and botii acressible 
by nilway. MeIbonm« has no less than 5,?29 ^crvn of r»:reation- 
inundis of which 1,730 acres are within the city boundaries, 2,817 
screti in llie suljurbun iniinicipalitjea, and 7S2 acres outside those municj- 
pftlitjoi. Adelaide la »urroiuided by a broad bell of park lands, and alao 
ooataiDS * number of iHiuareH witbin thi- city luiuiidarieH, covem;{ alto- 
griber DM am of '2,300 ucri'tt, TiriHbiini', llobttrl, Pi-rtb, and the chief 
dliw of New }!onUnd am also well providf^d for in this rrspcrl. In nil 
tin ooloniefe Urge nre.is of land have i>een dedicated iii; ptiblic parka. 
Hmto are tine Botanic Gardens in Sydney. Melbourne, Brisbane, 
Addude, ftiid Hobart, wliich are tncludeil in the areas above referred to. 
Eacli of tbettu garilons hiu a apeciat utlractiou of its own. They are 
■11 well kept, and rdtcut grual credit upon th<! coinmunilieti to which 
tb«j belong 

The varioas capilalx of the colonlca, and aluo Rorao of tlio prominent 
inland town*, arc provided with musfrimis for tho piirpoaes of instruction 
■a well as recreation : and in Sydney, Mrlbonrne, Adelaide, and Ilobart 
Aere arv art f^lleriea i.-oDtatninn; excellent collections of paintings and 
atatoar}-. All these inBlltutions are open to the piibUu free of charge. 



Pt'BMC OlIAUtTrEK. 

One of the most satisfactory featurea of the social condition of the 
AnatrvliAU oonimunitie«i is the wide distribution of wealth, and thu 
mow^uenlly noiJitl ['roportion of people who are brought within tbu 
nM«h of want. In the I'nitfd Kinxdotn, the riL-hest country of Europe. 
only ninr out of every hundred of the ptipiiUtion possess properly of 
Aevaluoof £100, wliilo in Austrnlasia th^ nnmlirr is not less ihiin 
thirteen, and the violent contrast between the rich and the poor which 
Uoi« the civiliiation of tho old world is not observable in tlipso younf; 
rtalea. It is, unfortunately, only too plain that a certain amount of 
poverty does exist in the colonies ; but there is a complete absence of 
an hereditary pnu)ier class, and no one ia bom into tlie hopeless con 



84 



SOCIAL COKDITION. 



liitintiH whicfa dMmct«n«! tlic livnc of ko imtny miltioiM in Knrnpr, »iid\ 
from wluoli there is Absolutely no pKMsiliility of esc»p«i. No [mxw 
in ]i'\wA in Aiistralnsia, tho nssistniic.' granted by tho State bciiic; nsvaUyJ 
U-mk-i'i.'il lo iible-bodied iii«a who tuicl thtrooolvea out of eiuployiueiit inj 
tiuKw of iliiprL-tt-iiuti, aud taking ihe form of paymeut, ui tuuaey or ig 
raLJonii, fur work dime by llieni. 

Tbn L'hii^f itflbrta of tlio «.uthuriti«ii, ax regiinU cliarity, ttri^ ditxicudi 
towards tbc i'i»ru<; of tho young from cnminal coinpiuiionRbip 
t«mptatJoii to crimo, thu rapiiort of the iigf.<l luid infirm, tho wire of tfat^ 
iubecilft or insane, and tho valisidising of priviito institutions for iWl 
cure of tli« sick and injurerl and tho tuupliorntioc of want. Even wfaerAl 
the Stule grants aid for jihilajithropic purposes the uiaiui^euienl of dwl 
iiiKtitutioDH auporvitiiiig tlie eipeuditure ix iu private handn, and in 
addition to Btat«-aide(l iuHtilutiooH thert slip nuiuerouu eiiaritiun wholly 
miiiutiiiiH'd by priv:iti> subKciijiliuiia, wbDim (.■(Torta for thf rt^licf of tho 
whnni pnnuQ', Hickiion, or niinfortuiic Iihb afllicti-il uro beyond idl pr 

'Hut remap of th« young from criuiR ik nttcinjitnd in two ways 
by means of Orphanages, InduEtrial Schools, and IteforniatoririS, whic 
take care of children who havo been aliandonod by their oat 
]U;uanlisnK, or who am likely, from tlie poverty or iucajmLuty of 
paiTrnijt, to bi: Ko negUioled as to ritiider tlt«m liabk- to la]iiiL- into crini<!; 
second, by HmjucstAring cliildn^n who liave already conimittcd criimj 
or whoM parcnta or guardiuns lind tlieoisrilves unabln to control tham. 

Although a century ban elapsed sini^e aettlf.mc-nt coninicnced 
Austtulasia, its rraourves arc by no means developed, find very laa 
men ara at work far away from the bonie comforts of everyday Ufe, i 
from liome attendance in case of siekneua or injury. Hospitala 
therefore abeolutelj easeatial under the coDditiana of tifu in the mr 
diHtricta of the coloniee, and tliey are accordingly fcnind in era 
iln]>ortftnt country town. Below will bi- found the nomliiT of hoi^t 
in each colonv, with the number of indcMtr patirnts treated dl 
m^t-b, and tho total eiptmilituie for the same jear. Tuforlunat 
the South Australian and Wesirm Australian returns are defective, i 
will be «eeii by the notes appended to the table : — 



O^ 


B«M^ 




Ex|«nd!tiii«:. 




Ho, 
UD 
41 
U 
IS 
H 
ID 
« 


No. 

19.i(IS 
13,479 

WTS 
2,301 
I0,1S7 


t 

112,793 




S&,749 




u.dis 


WMtwn AnaUaUa....... ; 


l'i.i)S8 
14.0»1 

Bi.iea 






S8T 


7!i,«5 


t28,M3 







• aamm boqcm osir. 



t f MUfit> tMM>d ti n mspiuii. 



CHAOJITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



H 



All the cotonio immmw iniititationx for Ifao cuf of tin iimuic whtc^ 
art! andfir <im'<'mmmt oimtroL Tlw trratntvnt uictcd ont to tlie inmates 
if that diotalt^ by tlir grMtteM humanity, and tlie fao8|>itiJtt are fitted 
with ftil the conv<'ni«i>cea &nd ^>pli&ucei which BKNlem Bouooe poinls 
oat u most calcul»l«d to mitigate or removs the afliction from which 
these nnfortuDate people mlTer. 

71m (ollowii^ tftbl« ahowB the numtitr of inBann patieiitH reiDainiiig 
in the aajrlums u( cauh ctAony on tin- 31st Dih-'otuIkt, 1894, muI thn 
ncpeudituiv on )iO!ipttal» for tlin in*an(! during the yenT. Tliv <)UMtiiiii 
of innanitv' ta ttratnt farthnr ou in thin chnptnr : — 



CHOBT. 


iDBUe IWlsM*. 


BiptadMHn. 




Ilo. 
:i.i!87 

4,1 m 

I,S40 

ens 

148 

887 

2.168 


t 




«»,G7t 


Tf ostwn dwitndia ..._.«._.....». 


31,8GS 
S3,0M 
4,888 
I1.IT8 
4?.3I 








13,6)» 


:^9,93i 







Hm amounts «xi><md«d OD DiMtitutcAsylumsAnd Benovolent SonivtiiM 
•aDDot be Heparat«d from other itoms of expenditure in some of the 
<oloiiic& Aa far lis they can bo ascertained they an< given in the 
hilluwing table, to^tlier with the number of inmates of the variotui 
nylmoti at the end of 1891, except ii» the case of Vict«ritt, for which 
miiniy tbit rvlumn are wade out to th« 30tli June of that year : — 



0*nr- 


Imatm. 


KaptniUtun. 


Xcw South Waka 


7.eoB 

4.tS2 
1.837 
1.433 

408 

1.1)01 


£ 

176.235 

93.202 

16.443 


lioNth ABMnha „ -... 


.w.39a 

111,700 
14,721 




96.55S 






Aiutnlana „ „ 


i7.3afi 


iS$,36& 



A Ubofsl amoimt of ont^Ioor relief in given in all thn AitKlrulasian 
«^4<Mi-P, the expendituiv on wliich i* included in i\iK aniountit given for 
rhililiilii AfirlnniM and llenerolent !Soci«tiGa. Thi»ex)H'mlitui-(; of tlir 
SerarniBmts of the Austnlaaian coloniea in oonorction with all forms 
«f reli*^ and in aid of hcapitalo and other charitablo institiilions so 
lu- an is sJinwn by the inpetCeoi returns, amounted in 11^94 to about 
£600.000 : adding to thia the amount of private gubacriptioiiiL, the 




85 



80CIAI, CONDITION. 



poor and Uio unfortunntR liitvn bpni'litct] iJuriiijt llie year to tl)< 
of ovpr .£1,000,000. Thin sum, thongti not cxi-vmivA in praportioD 
thcpopiilntioii, niny yrt nppcnr Inrgr in rii-w of llio gMicml m^itlUi of 
th« colonies, which should pmclmit? the npcowity of so miiny seckiog 
Asrastniice : and theiv is tho risk that the charilBble institutions may 
eocoura;^ tlie ^rovrtJi of the pauper eleinent> for while free quarters and 
free food iin- no accenaibU those who are disiucliued to work are teupi 
to liTi> nl tlio public txpL-ntu;. 



CltlMR. 



1 



In nil the colonies proceedings ngniiist n. person nccuiied of mi offeoi 
may be uiitiated either by the arrc«t of the ctilprit or by eunUDouing 
him to ap[)eiir Itefore a, magistrate. Seriout otfeiicefl, of course, ar« 
rarely diuill witli by proceiH of suiuuioiig ; but. on the other biind, it is 
not uiiLtunnion fur ii piTsoii to be aj)]ji«lie[ide(i on a very trivial charge, 
iinil thi.i inrciim stance sbouhl not bv furgottcii in dealing with arreats 
by the polii:c, whicli are unusually numerous in some nf tlll^ colimicn. 
Unfortunnloly, it is not ejLsy to say hciw far the police of ono colony 
«W disposed to li-ent offentferH with such coiimdemtiiin as to proc««d 
A^inBt them by aummons, and how far tliose of another colony are 
contfrnt 111 iidnpt situihir action : for in most of the provinces the records 
do not draw n distinction lll^tween tho two classes of cases ; and iji the 
tabic givrn Wlow, Khowiug the numlier i>f persons charjfwl befoco 
mogUtratc'-i in pitcb colony during the y tar I !^94, otlendt^rs who wen 
mmmODcd to np[M'ar arc includtMi with tho.vn nriT'Sti^d. Tt i;t likvwiitc 
ditlicult to iiinkr a true compariwHi lietwecn the various colonics in the 
Duttter of the prevalence of crime, for there are a nrnnher of circtini- 
stsDcea which must considci'ably a Sect the criminal returns Mtd 
modify their Dieaniuf>;. The llrst of these, of course, in the qaestjon 
of the Kti-eri;,'ib of the police force aiid its ability to I'ope with 
tAwle«snes«, which must lie decided chielly by the pnnMirtioii of 
iind«tORted crime which Uiki-* place in the colonies, and for such a 
coiDparison no data an- ptilili.ilird ex<T<-pt by Victoria. Tlic policy 
■tlopted by the chief of policn in retritrd to trivial brrachcsi of th« public 
p«aci> and other minor Olfenei-M aitain^t pood order must alxo Iw tnkea 
into consideration ; and then thei* are considerable differences betwMn 
tb« criminal voilen of the colonies, and in the nundicr of locnl enact- 
inentA, breaebes of which form a large proportion of the minor oHencett 
taken before the Ctiurta. Also, when the returns of the lower Courta 
arc laid aside and thn convictions in superior Court* taken up, the com- 
parison is alTiMTted by the juriadiclion oi the iiiagiatrates who c<>inmittai) 
thp prisonfo^. In New South Waleit, fiir example, tho Juriwliction of 
the lower Courts is limit'^l tA imprisonment for nix monthx, except in 
riigard i<» caws brought under one or two Acts of Parliament, such as 
the Chinewe Restriction Act, prosecutioni) under which are very few ; 
while i» Victt>ria a l&rge number of persons are every year soiiteuced tn 



JUBI8DICTI0N OF MAGIBTBATES. 



87 



UudMnleti' Caartu U> iiu{>n>K)tiiii«iic fur trrni.'' lunging from nix moullis 
to tone yi»r*. It it appurvtil. tlif-rcfori', tiuit in any comparison drawn 
brCvt^i till! niiinb«^r of ooiivictiunn in thv utipi^rior Courts of Ntiw 
SoRti) Walra mill of Vict*>rin, th<! forimrr colony must appear Ui gntitt 
cUsadraDUge. 

An investigation into lh« dilToroncca betwMm the law of Xew South 
Vain aiwl ^ Victoria in rpspect to the jurisdietUni of nitigixtmt«n 
dlwloM« HiHue iniportuil reaalt«. Under the Victorian Crime* Act of 
1890, 51 Victoria No. 1.079, it ia provided hy Betlion 67 thut Jualiccs 
mkv try [M^nons iin()<<r sixteen years of age for tlie oAi-'noe of Biinpl^i 
Inminy <tT f»r any udinioe puniiiliiiblv as simple lurcuiy iici ranttir H-hat 
llie valun lit the [>ro|)nrty in i^umtion nay be, and pt'moiis DVvr ^ixtceD 
years of ngn wticrn tin: pro]M!rty Mii<l I<> have bn-n Ktolim in not of 
greater ii"aJuo than £2 ; «n<l it i« further pniridril by tlin snmo section 
tint if upon the hearing of such a chnnje tlio .liiNtict^s shall be of opinion 
that tliere are circum stances in the case which render it inex{>p<lient to 
inflict any puniahmeut. tliey shall have power to disinlsa the chni'K') 
without pro(.'en]tii>; to a L-ouviction. Thin provision, it in nwdlrut to 
iay, IS tikrly t<) materially rwlucp tht- iiumbur of conviclionit fiir larceny 
in Victoriiu In 'Svvr South Wah«, on the olla-r lianiL, the law iloim 
not givs JusliccH any such jwwur. In cvciy case whcirn tli<! oftcntw is 
proved they must convict tlie accused p«r»r>D, although in the casi? of 
•dBnuien under the age of sixteen years they may disdiargo the con- 
vkted pnnun en bis tnakini; ■■eatitulioii, or in other cases deal with him 
muler the Fintt Offeiideni' Act and Huspend the w-ntence; hut in all 
McJi cwf* tlu! conviction Ik jilaoed on recoid and is accounted for in th« 
oi&kinal xtatititicH of thtt i^olony. Rttction Gi) of tho saniv Tiotorian Act 
pTcs Juslices power to di-nl with any cmc of simple Inrci-ny, or of larceny 
M a clerk or servant, or of stealing from the ppraon, when thp accused 
ptMiIa <>'uilty, the panislinient being imprisonment for any term not 
excenlint; twelve mootha; while in New South Wales the taw does not 
gireJutttceatlM! power to deal with such cases when the property allegeil 
to have Ixs-n iloliMi exceeds the value of £20. This sectiuii niUHt tJiere- 
loff" t*nil to ntaterially reduce the number mf caw-'B committed for trial 
ia Victoria for thi! oflcncrs nicnti<ined, although in all sudi eases the 
JoniCM may commit the accu.'icd pi^Mtn if thi'v think lit to do mi. 
Fitrth«ra>ore, it is provided by Dcctinn .170 of iIk- tViines Act of 1890 
diat ■DMpected persons who have been convicted of capital or traimport. 
>Ur felony elsewhere and are found in Victoria may he arrested and 
■ntencrd to ituprisonuient for three years in the case of a male, and for 
m» y**? in the wuw of a fetn&la Sucha protective provision is jn foinn 
in iN>ni<; of th« oilier provinc*« im well nu in Victoria, and its absence 
n New Soath Wales has inmli! that colony the choHcn refuge of 
nianv of ttte crisninals of the other colonim ; for there they may lay 
ibeir plots in peaoe and eiyoy immunity from nrreKt until the police 
dtMOver some proof of their complicity in fresh crime or can ohar(;e them 




88 



with beins in pomewdon of property which mny nia«Mwl>iy be regarded 
ax li«viii(,' Im>l*u a1«lHD. It in not, hovevrr, only in respect U> si^rioos 
nlVhiii-'T'H l)i&t rhv Inw of Viuturiit OitTera froiu that of New iSogtli Wal», 
foruniiurtheVU^Iurian Police Ofrfiic(>sA<;L<rf 1890 dronkwtneBH in JtMit 
is no crimir, nml muit Ixr iillieii nUh diFiurilrriy conduct before the ponon 
vamy bo punUlifi). Thrxo litAteiiionts nU go to tJiow in wbnt itnpotinnt 
rwp ttc t M th« crimiiuil iitsitixtica of the colonieH must ditfrr from i-scfa 
Other. To mtikc a tliorotigh invrartigntion into the provjsioiiH of ihu Uvra 
in e«di of tbo provincM, with the oljoct of plncin^ the etati^ticR on 4I 
fuirlj com)i«rabl« baaU, is n task inw^ving much tn^iir, und an opf 
tuiiitj- for uiiiiertalciog it hna not yet presented itself, although it 
hon«d tliat the work n>*y aoou 1m tAen in htuid. 

During tbo year 1894, mi far aa owi ba f^tliereil, 154,237 
wore churgod lirrfom mitin-HtnitKi in Auxtralnnin, 1 1 l,S73 btdng sunimiui^ ] 
oonvictcd nnd 3K,R-'t6 (lis(!hargnd, whili! 3,708 wirm cmucniltm]. Tli&i 
returns of 4>w;h of thnnr^vcn colonirK will bn found lirlow. ItidiouUt] 
be eoti^aineii that in the coHe of Nnw Zcnlnnd rnch cli»rgis ix c»unOfid 1 
a. separate person — a proceeding which, of course, t«llK ag»ii)flt 
colony ; in the enie of Taani&nia person" chafed as being of uii80UDd>] 
mind are (ixcludnd ftoni thf ivtui-us ; while the lig«rae for Victori* an 
miuln up ni '24,K4I> prriumH iippreliended by tlic polii-v, and 11,123 
distinct offences for which (K'nionii irerv suiumoiu^l, luid it i.i ponnbis 
that the iictu^ number of people snmmonml to npjtrar bcfbnj thr coo 
was soimewliat leas tluin this latter figure : — 





Pmmv 
chuxvL 


'■ > 

Smunaril)' ilii^l iriUi. 


OoDUuiUnl. 


Colojiy. 


Plwh»l»»rl. 


CravletHl. 


TUoM 


81.M0 
1S.S4S 

7,6sn 

7.1a 
4.SH 

17.3S1 


M.2S7 

11,4BA 
3,053 
1.438 
2.800 
1,117 
4.130 


48,210 

27.118 

11.808 

li,!>77 

4.40S 

3,744 


l.(U 




494 




221 


Wn*t«ra AuitniUa ... 

TMniani> ,..,.„. 

New ZnUnd...^ 


119 
613 


Auitntliuin 


154,227 »S.S50 


111.873 


3,708 



Taking th« wholn of Auntralniriiv, nearly thirty-right poTsoiU out ofri 
cvpry tlionmnd wrrr olini^fpd befoT*' magi'-trali"* iliiring l.ln" year ISM. 
Only twp coloniei) — Western Austmliit and New South Wales — exceed 
the arurage amount of diaorder and rrinie as disclosed liy the tx^ce 
court returiia. The very larRe proportion of adult malea to tlw popuUtioD 
of the foruinr coluny. and iti> prennit liuluHtrial coDditionH, place it, of 
<M>nra«, in ^uil« an ttxaeptional poKitiou : whiLi! in New Snuth W>lr« 
there ia a much gnater flouting {nipalatiou, £roni tbo mnkx of which a 



PERSONS CHANGED nF.FOHK WAGISrBATES. 



89 



brfle perc«ntag« offiffendoro in dmwn, than in any of the uUier L-olniiiiM 
vliidi ha*e a I»tt«r reeard. The pi-ovince witli Um Ivtutt iliHordnr 
and cnnii< in South Austmlin, vliere the pervutis iuiNWL-riti>; b> uburgnt 
m. t^t lowor CuurlB utily form 21'84 per thouiumd of ttu! jmpulntion, 
ind this piiation 1.1 louiiitAined iiy dm ixAony when tiu^ ({uoBtinn in 
vpftrmched from Urn Mnndpoint of convlcliunii fir>r sn-ioiiR otTmces. 
Koxt comn Kcv Zvabuui witli 2^'i'i ppr thouiuind ; TAsmnnin, vtith 
31-76 ; Vio1«ri>. vith 3S-3ti ; nnd l^ummUnd, witJi »3-34 ; while, as 
bedore staled. New t^outh WaJcH and WMt«ni Australia h«vie the 
bigbnt pruportiaiiK nameiy, liOO't and 97-23 per thousand ruHpectivi^ly. 
Ib tbtt CMC of New Zesland, it iDnst iie pointed out that the Miutri 
tttndBwu, of wJxnn tliera were 4.52 (3^1 of whom wera convicted. 101 
diacliarKifl, and 30 ouutmittsd), have not ljf«n included in tJie fi(;uiv» for 
Ibttit cniony. Tbn CullowiuK Uihle sbowH thir propurtion of penHnw 
diHged b<;fni-n nuigiiitrot4» in tuudi colony during thi' yew : mud tha 
peraantaigss of the poiWHi* dixdiargvd, convicted, and committed ti> tJin 
vriule Biunber chat^^ : — 



OdMV. 


durnd 
IWrUiiftet 


Prr»ati4fn ot total i«n<»itf rjiu^rd. 




Ctmncttd. 


3-;°52i:io>--i«->- 


XnrSqath WalM 


OO-OS 
33Sd 
■JliM 
31 -H 
WM 
31-78 
3S« 


22-97 

22 91 
16-S3 

36 -»e 

22-S5 
23-78 


r*-62 

nm 

78-27 
61-56 
75-57 
72'fi9 


n-so 

96 DS 
87-10 
97 -M 
9S-I2 

80-47 


1-67 

3-04 
S-90 
2'OS 
1-SS 




3-S3 








3; -52 


•2506 


72 'Sa 


OT-jO "-4.1 









' 



It will bo Keen frtmi the above tabic that out of every hnndreil peraons 
dnig«d bcforv magiKtmtcs in AuHiraltuuu in 1894, 9T'Q9 wore stun* 
■wrily dealt with, 'ilrOG iMting discharged atul 7'2'-i3 convict4^d, wIuIh 
oulr '2-11 were committed to bighnr rourbi. Tlic culimy with tho biffhiwt 
percmilaf^ of c*bc« ]iqinni*rily diaposcd of and the smallest proportion 
of comndttaU waa Victoria, when?, a«t hag nln-iidy been pointnl out, 
Mwivtrstiai liave a much wider juriMliclion than in New tSnuth Waltvt 
■ad Bom« of th« oUier colonies. The t-xtent to which the compnriuin is 
idbcted by thi» fiutt is partly sliown Ity the pnutahments iiitlictj'd by tbn 
VieUrian nuij^HtraL-y UurinK ISOi, H persons huiiif; sentencrd to three 
jtar% imprison mm t, '27 pcvfioiw Ui two yeam, 297 lo periodx beiwoea 
0^ yoar and two vrarK, and 3'2I> to ti-mw of six motitha and under one 
Mar. Mnuv of tlieae parsomt, hnd th'ry hva trial in New Souili Walea. 
wmM luav« been oonv^icted in liighxr courts. Another important 
pqint to be not«d la that, next Go Westora Auatndia, Victoria hua 



90 



SOCIAL CONDITION. 



tlis luixcHt proportion of diaeharjjes, and if the theory be diBuiUaed] 
HH uiituialilc lliAt ttie jKiliL-o ill lliia tolony a» more prone W char 
prrsonx iin inxutlicicnt groitmlH l)i»ii in thv ulber cwlanieB, it munitl 
Ih: cnnchiiliHl (lint thn nii^p.itratcn of Viclorin <lva,l iuurt'. Icniiiit.If I 
with iu;cii».'d pcrKoiifi than is the ciiHC i-l.-u'wiicrr ; indi^rd, it hs*] 
iilimdv hf?*n uhown thnt the CriniPH Act iif liiDO pi-ovidos for thai 
dischnrge without conviction of peraoim found guilty of cortaial 
otfcficcs, Tlii' iowiwt proportion of dischar^irs is to be found iai 
tjuuth AuHtralia, which aJno hiui tlie lij^he^it pei-cc-uta^-e of Hiiiiiuia.rJ 
com'it'tiijnB. In South Australia, howevur, ua well a« in Tiiamauiii, tht-r 
nn> no inti?rn»'diiit<? courts inch wi exist iji New South '\\''ulcii und son 
of thr i)thpr proviiiai'K. Thi-y xliculd. therefore, show ix hiRh pi?roent 
of Nunimnry convictions, and thin will hi; founi) to bn tlio cukt. 

Of the l-'iJ.JS? piTsoiis brought hcfont magistrntcii during the year 
1S9* only 1^-4 por cent were charged with offences which can fairly 
he claseed as criminal, the overwhelming majority being accused ct 
drunkenness and other offences agsinat good order, lunacy, \'a;truu.'y, 
and breaobeei of Acts of Parlianienty which have a tendency to multiply | 
Ut a jfrett fxtent. For present purpontts the in-L-uneJ [ier»ona niuy lieJ 
divided mi in the tiilile ;;iven below, i>(tV:natw n^-uiiiHt the person andl 
:ig»inst property being regarded nx serinUB crinii'. I If course, anion){Ht 
the other i.ift(.'nders arc t^) bo found a few eliargcti with grave iiiin 
ileoieanoui-^, but a^fainst tlie>ic may be put trivial assaults, which 
included with criiUHS agauist< the person : — 





Alt 
Offmdm. 


Sdrioui Offeaden. 


■ 

Uiliur 

OfTiniiicnw 


Cdtony. 


tha iVrvon. 


rropony. 


TdUL 




ei.aao 

3S,S6e 

7,636 
7.182 
4,9M 
11.361 


S,311 

a.su 

■j,1!k: 

17-2 
1,*W 


CSIO 
s.775 
2,(190 
l,tKi2 
OM 

sss 


Hi, 121 
Ii,(ll3 
4,2S3 
l,2M 
I.CIS 
1.276 
3.&I3 


»).M 




33,SSI 
11.601 






fl.'HB' 




6.91* 

3,«7» 
13,43S 










1S4,S37 


10,31D 


IS. 06.1 


SS,3tl2 


125, S3S 





This exaintnalion into the iintiim of tlic oWencPH explains in 
nicjutiire the comparaliTely unfavourable position of New .South Wali 
as ^howii by the previous tables. Ot the 6l.9.iOaecuf^e<l persons in tJiad 
colony, the laiiior offenders numbered 51,809, or S3-' per cent, eifuul I 
tlie proportion of South Australia, and mucli higher than that of anj 
Other colony except Victoria, The luKher proportion of arrests in Nc 
Houth Wal«« is probably accounted for by th<! greater strictm-iu of polic 



SBRIOVS OFFEXBERS. 



91 



' ailminiittration. Victoria ftctu*lly diovra iH -7 f»t cent, of minor offoiulfn, 
hut in ctinim|ue»oe of a diflfareuct! in tbn Inliuktion of the< reiumx tW 
ponlion in iwrt wnrly so fiivourablu u it nppovs to be on the iturf«(v. 
In Npw SoucJi Wule*, iind, il )■ to Iw piysiimed, in mort (»f tJw otht^r 
fiolonioii, n jirrvin uxumnI of two or mon- ot)«nce>4 is enlomi a.* chni^ed 
'With the iniKd strioii* in tlw; ryt* "f the law. wliile in Victoria he is 
MiMnd as ch&rgcid with the lirst offence conimitt«d, &ii_v (ithtni, however 
serious. Arising out of his capture, being left out of ix)UHi<terution. For 
«xuDp1e. i(« peraoD is Arrested for dranlcenaeas, uuil h<- iulviuIU his 
eaptun while on the way to tio station, he is ent«re(l in tlip returns of 
Sew South Wales, as they are here presented, on cliarjinl with an 
ttSenv- a^iist llio ))6rson, and tbervby helps to Hwell thi^ ninnunt of 
Ntrimis crime ; tmt in Victorift be in entered an diujp.'d witti dnink'-nness 
■od diKorili-fly conduct, iuid tht- dinr^ of wMjiult, on whiiih lie niny be 
convicted nnd trnti-ncni to a trrm of iniprinoniniiit, ih not fliwloaod. 
tlis fnct niuNt then-font bo taken into Kccoant in comparing tho 
preftortione of the vnrious cluaes of ofienders per tlioimnd of population, 
" I •!« appended : — 




tMoiv. 



VvT tlioiuuMi at fnpvMloa. 



All 
OHtmiert. 



Strlou* OOondvuh 



Anlni'l 



A»ln>t 



Ihe PpMon, Pro|i*rtj'. 



TMal. 



Kiuor 
OflHuUn. 



\ew Swilh W»l«« 

Virtoria . 

Qinniiliwil 

8MthAnMi»Iik 

Waters Aattralia ..._.... 

TMsnttni^ , --.,.,.... 

XcwZMbDd .... 

Aubakiia 



60 iW 
3338 
36 34 

31 '7G 



2 'OS 
IBI 
500 
0'49 
794 
2-49 
210 



S-Ql 



nso 


8-|g 


41-87 


.1-31 


S-12 


28-2d 


4 -re 


9-78 


2«u8 


301 


3-.W 


IH-31 


12-97 


201)1 


7631 


.".■fin 


S-18 


S3 :5s 


300 


fl78 


19-79 



4-40 



8«1 



30-61 



It will be seen that, relatively to pf^ulnlion. the colony with the 
luyp^t number of serious oRendcrs wns Western Auatridiu, wliidt 
had a jmiportjon of 20-91 |«r thousund of ]iopulaiion. -Queensland 
fallowed u-ilh m protjorlion of 9'7C, while Tasuumiu jind Ni-w Snutli 
WbIps nccapii-d tliird nnd fourth (MiBitlona with 8-lS i:tu<h, the fiirninr 
hkrin); the iHritL-nt proportion of ofTeuocs itgitinst pro]H'rty, nn<l the 
Utter af^inxt th« perwin. Tlie rate of New Zmliind was ^'76 per 
diousand. while that of Victoria is set down at .0-12, and Kouth 
Anotntlia dosM the list witA 3-&3. It would be interesting to compare 
the crinte o( the principal colonies on the basis of the numhcr of caales 
at tach ixffit M coutfihute to tiie ranks of nUenders ; but this earuiut 
wcorately be done at the present time, in conseqaence of the ohaugea 



92 



SOCIAL COSBITIOH. 



which bare ittkeu jiIimw ui the cumposiuon ol the people since tiie laak 
i^ctuuB. Tine 4.-x<)(lus fruin siiaio of' thi? «aftt«rii oolouieti bits l»'OUf^fe 
ubntit « ilmnMjH! in criiiii-, lint tlwir ipthi lia« t)w?u WeaU'tu AuotniUa'i* 
<l<'tritni>nt, 

Alinut oiu^^thint of l^c minor offendent of Austnituaiii are charged 
-with clriinl(«iin<-«K, Krom thr tiii>l<! Ki^'<'i< I>olow it will Im.- xrcn tliat in 
all tii« culonif4 44.7('l caxon nf dniiikcnni'iui wnrai heard durinfC tlu- y«Mr 
1S94, couvictiom lioing rflcurded in 3>?,660 cmsos, or S6;i per wnt. of 
thti Uiliil iiuitiix'r. I'he colony with the highest number of own 
I'eUtivpiy tu pupuliktioii w»a Wcittom Australia, the rate of which waB' 
24'2 per thouaiiiid peraoim, followed by Kew South Wales with 15'8, 
VioUtriu with 0-6, aiid QaeeDHhuui wiUi 8-9, whU« TaHinimia wjis last 
with n rati! of otily 3'l> per lliotuuuid. Tbi! fiKuren for Victoria, howt-ver, 
only mCrr to Bppn^binisionii, infurmiiLiun renpocting pcmoiin ouiumonMi 
to nni«wrr n dinrgf of dninknnni-M not liring UTiuiublp, while, n» 
already pointed ixit, dninkcunftm in itkclf in not n urimo in thnt culony, 
but mant 1» nggnivsted by disorderly conduct. Whm thn numlwrr of 
coiiviciiniin is considered it will be noticrfl thnt the m»giKtr(it.ps of 
Western Auatrsdifi and A'ii'toria take a soniewhnt leiiifnl view of thi 
offpaoi!, and only recunl vuiiviotions in about 6^ and Gi per cent, of th»r 
CMcai raipoctirrly, whiln in tht^ other ciiliHiius the ]>eix;(-ntii^ rtui; 
from 94-3 to 99-4 :— 



<MoBT. 



CbtqpBot 
PnuftonnaK 



CuBrleUwu. 



p« l.OOO pcnoni. 



TofL 






CliucM- Cunviii 



Knr South Wato* 

ViolOTW 

QuMnaland 

(South Aiirttalis 

M'catcru AuBtinlia 

Tutniftiila 

NowZMUnd 

AoatnliM .1 



30,145 
11.357 
3,903 
2.870 
l.TTfl 
MO 
4,888 



44.701 



18,997 
7,XS 
3.878 
2;283 
1.1 1: 
539 
4,4!)3 



W3 
64-7 
M-4 

ea-s 

115-4 
98-0 



38.601) 



sd'S 



ie-8 

8-9 

es 

24-2 
67 



109 



»-i 



Bat n ratom Khowing only the nuinb<»' of csaea of dnuikeRBCM ia : 
a xafe index of tlio aboee of aloohoHi- liijiiorit, for n f^'eat dml di^xiiuLti 
on th« Ktati- of thi> law and tbn manner in which it in adminixterrd, luul 
it ia evident thnt the ninintrniuier- of thf Inw intendini to preoen-i* public 
dMeney will alw^ya be less i^trid in s|iarse)y-settled cotiiitry dixtrictH 
tiian ill lar^r centres of population where the police are ixitn|Mir&tiv«ly 
more iiuiiieraus, if not in proportion to the pupulatiuu, at leant ia |tto- 
portioii Ui (lie area Itiey have uiidi^ their supert'iuiou- The quautily of 
intoxicnnts coniuni«d per h<«d ii perhnpa a mifer Index of the hnJutta o€] 
aommnnitio living under like oonditionx : but compnrisonn mo bieii I 



STKKNGTH OP POUCE PORCBS. 



93 



should tM)t bo punhed to vxUvinoi, for, nn has oCtan been pointed out, 
tlu9 innj,iii part tit thn ■iI(H>hot wliioh (latcra into conituinptian is chat 
O Qo w twd hj Uin population wbo nra not dnink&r<i&. Tlie avcmfiB 
itv nf mtoxicontfl Dwd in eitoh colony during 1894 ia f[ivi<ii bciovr, 
I nnd boi>r b«ing rKluccd to thi^ir C(|utvalejit of proof s|>irit. Tlw 
iniption of ibe rarioas kinds of iotoxiomta vi)l bn found in the 
eron "Food Supply wid Cost of living":— 

PraedOailoBXit 
AlmMinahtadot 



O9IM7. 
Nnr Sovtli WilcB 

Vkrtoria 

^eenaloiul „, 

Soatli AuiUslia 

Wmtara AaUaiiA 

THDiMnla 

NawZMUnJ 



a-n 
t-v 
s-u 

2-00 
S-07 
l-» 
1>5B 



AiutrjlB**.. 



2-09 



ThvM- tignm bIhiw tli<; inipnrtiinci; which muxt l>c iittnchod t«> policn 
adminiKtrMion whrrn ^adjing the queotion iif drunkvnnosn. TIm: KtrengtJi 
of tbc police force in each of the colonies a.t the end of 1094 is givirn 
below^— 



Ogtony. 



Pollm. 



Halnpollten. Count)}'. I TMiL 



InluU- 
OIBpct. 



AhbI* 



IbCbdhIit 



Smr South Wkka ..... 

Tk»ofi» 

QnanMlaaid > 

tmih AwtnJtft 

WvUm AtulnUa „.. 



KawZMknd. 



No. 


Ko. 


No. 


No. 


731 


1,088 


1,819 


[iHX 


740 


672 


1,412 


ssa 


I9C 


722 


ffl8 


486 


»7 


isa 


see 


993 


IS 


2L1 


283 


890 


61 


313 


277 


588 


« 


432 


4SI 


1,4Z6 



So, mlln. 
2S1 
130 
VS» 
3,682* 
4,02$ 
141 
242 



^^^■^ * InrliidbiE Konhvrn Tinitoi;, 

^^FUM neerd of cues heard before n Court of Uagistratss cannot be 
^Hmp»M as altogether a truKtworthy indicntion of Ui« social progrr.sH 
of AmlnUiMia, bccansc, as has boen pointed nut, it include mniiy kiniU 
of ofienem vfaich cannot fairly be clasmd as criminal, and the number of 
Ifceps has a tendency lo iiicrtmse with the increase of local (•mtutments. 
Hw oonunittals for tnul. taken in conjunction with the vonvietions for 
oiuti- in tbtf Superior Courta, may bo rc;pirdeil as much more couduaive 
on Ihn i|iiaitio» of llie proi^reK* of Rodety t>v tiir rfverse. In Home reufwctK 
flvoB tbt« mdencc b »tiHl«uling, for, n-t iiln-iuly whown, in tlic liss popu- 
looa provinoM thore am no Courts intiirini-dtary brtwpcn the Magistrntrs' 
and tlic Sgpmae Courts^ so that many oBencos -which in Now i^uth 



94 



$OCT\L coNDmoy. 



Wnlw, for «XMD|)I«, ftr« tried bjr a jury atb in novan of tho othor pravincM 
dealt with by msgistrtttes, and fvea in Victoria, vh«rc tlicri; we 
Coorts of Oeiieral 8«asions, iuagUti'at«8 have a much wider juriHdtcCion 
tbaTk in Keir 8outh Wales. But for the purpom? of showing the decreaatJ 
in serloua eniii<^ tii AuntrulanEii elm u wIioK- the |)n>|K>rtion of comniitt 
aud of convictions in Su[H.-ric>r CourlH iiiny fuiriy Im tuken, and this infor 
tnation i« given bulow. It will bu sixm thnt duiing tlm thirty thrti- }'«vt| 
fniin |S)>1 t(i 1H94 tlic riitn of corninittnlK )>er tliniiiuiiiil of ]H)putiwti()(ll 
hiu dropped from 2'2 to O'U, nnil of conviHions from \''A to 0-^> : — 





Tnc. 


Pu 1,WD of pDinilntlDn. 




CrmtmHta^B. 


rnnrlrtbRin In 
Superior OoorM. 


IHl ™ 


211 
1-* 
1-3 

ri 

OB 


1-3 


IMt ...... 




OS 
0'7 




0*6 




4-5 







In noting thtae facts and comparing the resultn with thusn obtninod inl 
Ureat itritAin during the same period, it must not lie forgotten thai] 
aouie of the provinces of Australasia have been compelled graduallyl 
to reforiu a ])ortion of their original population, and that iu the cuci 
of colouies such as Victoria nnU Queensland, not originally peopltid itt| 
uiiy degree by convicts, the attractioTis of the gold'fteldx have drawn 
within their borders a population by no means free from i-rimiDal 
inntinctH and aiiieceileiitn. Viewed in this light, the stuiitly progr»88 
mad" cnniiut but be regarded a« exceedingly Batisfactory, and the 
oxpi-ctation may not unreiuionuLly he entoi-taincd that the same im- 
provement will be coiitintied until th« ratio of crimn to jKipulatioaJ 
will compare ^ivourably with tlmt of any jiart of thr worhl. 

Below will bo found the numltor (if convictionji in the Sujierior Cour 
of each colony, at doccnnial [Kriods from 1S5\ to 1&91, as well aa ' 
the year 1S94 :— 



Volanf. 


IWI. 


im- 


1S«1, 


itn. 


lOM. ' 


New South WalM 


437 
MS 

24 

08 

as 

m 

100 


£11 
91 
91 

us 

7* 

162 


1.066 

:m 

92 

213 

61 

21 

270 


964 

73) 

!K) 

U 

H3 

276 


4x; 






2» 
131 




M 




42 ' 




80O 






1.6S1 


1,622 


2,0« 


2,39S 


%1I0 





CONVICnOKS IN SUPEBIOB COUETS. 



95 



Tliei following tabic givra ft claffiitioAtion of tlic? ofTf^ncr* for which tlio 
(U<:useil IwreuUB were cou>ict«d clunnf{ 1894; uIho llut mtc of convicUous 
Mul uf coaiuituUii ))6r 1,000 of popiilAtioii. It will bo soeit that the 
rate of convicUoiu in ihe Sujicrior CourU of Virtoria ia 0'37 per 
tbonMiHi ; but if th« [wrwm.i wlio rpcrii«i M-iiti-niM^ of overaix nionthB' 
imprixonineiit at thr liniids of iui>^istnit4» he takon into account, tlio 
{iroportiou would Ih- almiit c»iunl to tint of Sew South Wal*9. Th<! 
oolonies of Tasmania and ^iouth Aus^trnlin have, with Viutodii, th<! 
nuaUnt proportjoits of convictions in ^Qptrior Oauiis, hut llterc, as 
tUreadf pointed out. no iiit^imicdintc Courts exist : — 



I 



Cslsajr. 



CODviatlMV Ln Auparlor Cmait. 



Clii«ill(allan nl OBioam. 



AfllnM 

PtlWlL 



P*^"rS-. O*"- 



All 



Per 1,000 

oi 
Populitinn, 



Canimittalt 
Poinilniioii, 



Xn- Soatb Walta 

nrtoria 

QMCuland 

SMlh ABRtnlia 

Vr<M«m Auatrilk 

IWnania 

Ke«Z(«land 

AiutralMia 



139 


WS 


OS 




98 


324 


IS 




61 


142 


23 




27 


ion 


I ' 


m 


at 


I 


U 


23 


ij ' 


W 


190 


65 1 


400 


1.G10 


200 





S02 
4!tG 
220 
131 
8* 
42 

:ioo 



0-72 
0'3T 

0-37 
1-14 
0-27 
0-44 



2,110 



0-Gl 



1-21 
0-CO 
110 
0-63 
203 
0'60 
0-90 



0-90 



TTiero is no doubt that Xpw Houth Wnl^.i would apiicnr to much 
jrmter lulrantage in a compsrison of crime stntiittics if there existed 
in that ooloiiy any law preventing the entrance of criminals, such as in 
rigid Ijr enforced in most of the other provinces. In the alwence of 
nicb a protective measure, the mother colcny has l>ecouie a hnppy hunt- 
ing-ground for tlift despt-radoes of Auatrak^Ja. That tlieit- ia ground 
for thi8aNM.'rt,ion 'v* iJiiiwr by the fnct that whereas in New South Wulen 
«Anden) lorn in the colony only formed 37 per cent, of the tul«I apprc- 
bcOBlona in 1694, in Victoriu i'-i per cent, of arre;jtc(l jH>rx<mN wen? <if 
loerU birth: while at the census of IK9I the clement of thr^ population 
«( toad birtli was larger in the former than in the latter colony. 
■ Thn puiiinliinvul of death in very wHom resort«d to fizc«pt in caws 
of mardcr, though formerly such was not the case. Thus the number 
of PxecutionM lian steadUy fallen from 151 during the decade 1841-50 
to Gti during th« ten yean 1881 -90. In South Australia the extreme 
penalty haa burn mont npartngly inflicted, tli«re having been only 
9 executions in tb« twenty-four years which closed with 1894. The 
Mlowing table shows the number of executions in each province during 
(ach doeade of tJie 30 years ended 1890, also those which look pUce in 



96 




SOCIAL COXDITIOS. 



1891-B.1 nnd 1H94. QawmidMid wob ituxirpont^d with N«ir Bnnth 
WalfiB nntil thf^niKl of 18rj9, thaugh Victorin Imeanu! n )«!)Mmt« cahmr 
in \85l. It will bti iiotii:c<I that th« rnttirDs arc drfpcttvu so for m 
Wentom Austnilift is concerned : — 



Coloitf. 


IHI-an. 


itti-oa. 


UOl-TD 


im-to. 


tmi-m. 


ig«i'«a. 


OtL 


Kew South Wn1<a... 


[ SB 
B3 


as 

47 
7 

32 


34 
14 
41 
K 

U 


27 
18 

a 

3 
12 


23 
IS 
IS 

s 

5 


9 
6 
9 

1 
6 
I 






i 


WesMni AuHtrulU.. 






... 


Total 


ISl 


134 


IIU 


S5 


«6 


33 111 









"nK^ n'tuniH nrluting to tJie prisons oi the colonies aiv in some 
veiy iiicompletn. The |iriBoni'ra in confinement at any specified 
may Iw divided int^ tboxe who have been trml and seiil«aced, thOM ' 
ar« awaiting tbcir triul, and debtors. The rt-'turus of four uf th^ colonte 
allov of this distiDction being made. The number and classiiiuation at 
prisoners in coofinomeat on the Slat December, 1894, were aa follow ; 



OoloiV. 


rthttat 


SkU. 


DtMen. 


TomL 


TSirwSmfbVt'tim. 


S.M9 
499 
205* 
483 


133 
47 
10 
70 


S 


2,610 

ass 






2 


fiiW 






Total 


3.:06 


260 


10 


3,STe 



Tk<! r(!tuniH of Victoria and TiiHniniiia give Hm total number 
priMHIcn in con[itM-tn<rnt on the :ilxt, Drcembpr, 1894, &n 1.463 and 173 
rMpcctivclr, while Weift*in Australia records a daily a>eragi> of iWfi, 
Taxing tl;« figure just mentioned to be uorrect (or the end of thi; yviw, 
tfa»r» WB* « pribon population in AuHtralttniu of 6,001, or about 1 -5 in 
vnrj thonnuul of tbe population. 



INCB£ASE IN SUICIDES. 



97 



SuicidMi wonl<l unfortnnatiJy «[ip«ir to be iitcroanng in proportiou to 
pnptUaiioR, aa wdlu tn BCtitnl nimibor, since 1S7I. It is bdie^'ed that 
tfatactojil number of siiid<U'HiH even larf;eT tliAti is^own in the tables 
(^MCtally dunng recent yottrs. Tbere ie a, f^wing diapodliou on tlut 
fKii of corooer'a Junes to attribute to uccident what ia really tlia resnlt 
of kn impulse of Belf-dwtnictioii. Tlie following liible indicftm » jiortion 
oS [lie ittst hifitory and praanat positiou of the colonin in tbis respect >— 



tkkmr* 


un. 


1(71. 


I«E1. 


im. 


ISH. 


Annn 

lOfftn. 




64 

• 

IS 
1 

7 

• 


80 

90 

S 

11 

« 

4 

• 


83 
103 

30 

U 
4 
ft 

42 


tl!» 
73 
31 

e 

8 

se 


KM 
Ilf> 

70 
31 

17 
14 
73 


115 

1S3 
63 




30 




8 
10 


^t*7Mbni! 


ss 








180 


143 
8-4 


301 

10-9 


413 
10-6 


438 
10-7 


4K 




Ui) 







■ lAfDmHliuia ncit a^Ublv^ 



Oompvrpil with tbo totnl nniuWr of ikatlut guid the mfaii papulntion, 
■DcidtB in lh« AoHtnUttsian colonies during tlie last ten j&trs (iS8&-94) 
Amt the following proportions per 100,000: — 



ColOBT- 




Pcrioa.mo 

iDlWblUaM. 




773 
744 

I.IOS 
748 

1,M4 
473 
92S 


ID'S 




11-3 




16*1 




9-4 




18-7 




fl'9 




9-4 








610 


110 







98 



SOCIAL CONDITION. 



TmroaniiL, tbuivforo, HtandK in a moro {avouni.lil» nOHilion than anj 
of tho otiinr (^loniiiii, ami in Um only colony in wliicii thn nXo is 1« 
than in ICnglnnd, whcro dpaths hy suiciilc nvpragu only S per lOO.OOOj 
of popnlatioi). Compared with the rates of some KuropeKn countriti 
liowov<>r, that of Austral&sia in small, for during the period ]f!87^91 thai 
average number of suicides per 100,000 of population wbb, in Denmark,) 
25-3 ; ill France, 21-8 ; iii Swilierland, 21-6 ; PniSMa, 19-7 ; Auslria,] 
15-9; Belgium, 12-2; Sw«k-ii, 11-9; Eavann, 11-8; England. 8-0j| 
Norway, 66 ; Holland, 5-8 ; Suotlund, SG ; Italy. 5-2 ; and Ireland, 2-1 
It is tbu ^nerul expi;riunce tlint suicide in increasing. 



IhLeamxKCY. 

The following figures allow the nuinliei- of births of illogitimab 
cliiidreu and the total birtlis for the years ISTl, 1881, 1891, and I!$9'l 





un. 


un. 


IBBl. 


IBM. j 


iMonr> 


HKdU- Total 

UUktrm. Bllthi. 

1 


j 

lUtfltl' Totel 
uulti. SJnlia. 




Tnua 

Blrihi. 


iiwla. 1 BirltM. 

■ 


Vew South Wnles. . . 


78S 
747 
ISfi 

* 

m 
■ 


20,1M 
27.382 
5,205 
7.083 
760 
3,0S3 
10^602 


1,263 

1,382 

• 
« 

634 


23,003 

27, 1« 
S,220 

10.708 
1.005 
3.014 

18,732 


2,11.^ 
2.0«4 

• 

638 


39,4SS 

3s,no.'> 

14.715 
10,737 
1.788 
4.971 
18.273 


2,437 

I.IWIi 
632 
330 
09 
247 
704 


3S.0d 
M,23| 
13.07 
i0,4a 
2.123 
4S3a 


South Auitrftlia 

WMt«mAv»tr»lU,.. 




is.ini 






i.ess 


74,217 


3,G24 


98,721 


6,001 


128,445 


6,325 


123,18 


For c«at. o( btrths... 


310 




tiu 


...... 


4-74 




a-10 





■ InlimiBtlan not tralUblti 



niegitiniacy is increasing in Austratiuio, a> is shown by the table just 
(jven, and thi- rnt^o to tho t<it«l hirthii is now higher tlian in England, 
wbero tlui pciventAgo of ilii^giiimatv births baa ateadily declined during 
the Uat fifty y«ara. Tho following are the averaga atmual percentages ^ 



DiTOBCE m NEn- sorra waibs. 



99 



iUcgjtimAte binlu to total birtba, colculnteil owr » Hcries of f earn, for 
(be Autnlaauui ootoiiioi and the Unitml Kjngdom : — 

uiwUiouu BiniM 

MI cant. 

New Sontli W»lo« 5-74 

Viotaru —...,., _ 50* 

QoMMluid „ 4 -SO 

South AoatrallA ,„ 7.,. 2-31 

Wcatwn AaMnlia „ » „ l-Zft 

"I^HiMflia , u „,. 4-tft 

N«w 2(aJMi<l ^..„ „ .,..„.„ 3-24 

AtutFalauk.. 4-81 

Rngknd „ ^ 4-33 

Irokoa „ „ S'K 

»i«.lUni! « _ 7-56 

UttitMl KiaxOom ^ „..: 4-53 



I>nfOECE. 

Tfae qucntion of divorce » ano of much jnt^rmt to AuRtraluia, the 
■on so brcauw for somo ypnrn p««t sonin of thf rolonics liavc ofTei-ed 
gnat £>cilities for the diiisolution of tlie niamaqe boiiil. The geiiiintl 
npiiuon ban l)*en thul nucii facilitii-H were cjilcuIateU to iiicrtwM! divom! 
toaa ext«ul thai would )>ruro bui-tful to ]uil>lic morals, oiid ko far ax 
tfcs exMrience of New 8[>uth W'ali'H gO(», thr fiuir does not srmm to hv. 
grenDdinM, iilthoiigh in ^'ictorin, nhcm n nomowlmt nimilnr law prevails, 
tban hiu not boon the nlnrming incrrnsc in divorcrit which has placed 
ISeiw Soatb Wales at tito head of all the tlrittsh Colonics in this respect. 
Id New Son! h Wales, nnder the Matrimooial Causes Act of 1873, tlit.- 
diiet (frounds on wliicU diroroe was £rantc«1 were adult«r>' after uiarriaj^r 
OB the part of the wife, and adultArj with cruelly on ihi- part of tin* 
koalnnd. A innuiun', howpvcr, was puNHrd thrtiu^'li l)i>tli ll(iutU'K of tbo 
Ijegialatum in IK9'2, and cum<' into forci: in Aiijciul of tlint yi^ir, which 
in tlie m.iin na«imilitt«d tlii! law tn that of Victoria. UikIit thin Act and 
ao Ainrixling Act ixusc^l in I ^93 jirtitioiiK for divort^^ can lie granted for 
tlw foUowiog cauMa, in addition to those ali'euly nicntioncd: — Ihi^tand 
fit W\fs, — Deaettion for not Jesit tlian throe years ; habituiU dninkenoeu 
lor a similar period ; bein^ imprisoned under a sentence for three yeiirs 
or upwartb ; attempt to umrder or inflict grievous bodily barm, or 
Meatitd BMaolt oh tlw hiubaud williiii a year preceding; tlie date of the 
filing of the petition. Wij'n v. ilu*baniL Adultt-i^y, provided that at 
dte tJDM! of the inntitution of ttio suit thi- JiuHbnnd in domiciled in 
Kcw South Walt* ; dvwrtion for not lew than ihm; your* ; habitual 
draokennvn for a aimilar period ; boing impri>u>nrd for three yeurx <n- 
■[■iranls, or having within five yearg undorgono varioua «rnt<'nci:a 
UDOUntiuB in all to not le^ than three years ; attempt tn murder or 
aatnlt witli intent to ijillict KcievouB bodily liArm. or rq)eat«d a«fnult 
within one year previously. To cittilli; cither paity to se«k relief on 



tri2nW 




lOO 



SOCIAL CONSITTOy. 



m 



nay i>f tbetie (panels he or she mast ha\-s beoa domiciled in tho ooixmtf 
for thriK yenrs ur upwards at tba dnie of institutiug tbo suit, and mart 
not hnvi! rntorUKl tc> Uiecoloiiy for tbu purvow of baWug tbe mamftgb 
(lixNDlvod. In tbo coloni™ of Qui'i-iwJund, SovUi Auslralia, Western 
AuHtmlia, TsHtnAiiin, and Ni-w Zntlotid, (livoTLiMi are xranted ]>rincipaUy 
for lulullcry on thr pivrt nS thr wifi-, imd Bdultirry aoa])led with doKertion 
for ovei" two years on the part d the hiiHliaml. 

The followiiig table shows tlio mmilier of drcrm;* of dinolution of 
mama^ And judicial separatioa granted in each colony, in (^ninquciuiial 
j)«riodH unee 1367, aa far iwi it is poj^xible to procure the information. 
Divwi-n: wan lesnliiuxj in New South Wales in 187:1, and in (jueendand 
in 1870, « that lui tigtin's fur tituse wloiiiea »p|)ear in the first quin- 
ijiienninl jiftrjod. The totJils for all except ihw laat two perioda ate 
exclUNivc of (Iccrpfa grunted in New Zealand ; — 



nuon]-. 



IMI-TO. Irtl-TB. IMfl-80. IMl-Kv IfeS-SO, ISSl-M. 



s '15 
a -f 



H«w SoafliWalM 

Vit-torin 

<juc«iiiiUicid ...... ».^.... 

8onth Atntralia 

Watcrn Aiutnlia 

l^itmoiin 

K«v Zbaland 

Anitratbola #.•«. 



21 

n 

4 
S2 



4fii la I SB 



ID 



«7 
41 
U 
35 

1 
« 



187 



112 

74 

S 

31 

S 

9 



238 



8 310 

8 ISi 

2 I 2li 

10 S3 

... 8 

... ) IB 

'.. 1110 



2fi 516 



isImi 

9 !358 



33 



1351 



4S 

10 

a 
s 

"i 
» 



•m 



' JnfamiAUon ncit iiai]al>l4\ 



Suffident data nre not to liiiml to lulmit of a comparison of divoreM 
and marriagra, eiccpt on tint htmti of the numliiT of (tbcIi in any year. 
TaHng the Eigur«s in the foregoing tnbic, the following shown the nambor 
of dJTOrem per 10,000 marriages in each prorinco :~ 



<Mh7. 


I»it7-Jn. 


wrn-». 


I87a«0- 


1HI-M. 


U«« 


un-M. 




20-9 

16-fi 
117-8 

7-8 

■ 


+^■5 
18-0 

33'C 

... 

27-4 

* 


le-o 
iJi'" 

34-6 
20-5 
22-0 

* 


ni-3 

•J»-4 



331 

44-8 
IH'O 

* 


.^i-i 
iv-o 

■24-3 

SS'o 
.T5'4 
63-5 


3*3-7 

ll«-i 

90-4 




a-s 


Tumonia _.....,....,.. 


41-2 
46-8 

Sl-t 



• EofotiMtUa Dot •ntuua. t l»l iMt un miy. 




INCKZjLSE in niTORCES. 



In tJi« snbjoinod tiiblo vill b* Coond the fixuruM fur cnch of Uie y«ar> 
1888-!M, from vhich it will be men tb»t, taking the colonics ns * whole, 
direne u <l«ci<ledly increuing : — 



UK. 



mo. 



cetm. 



I H 



,-a a 



li f IS f If 



SnteMbWitn . 



bAHMllft 

ViMftnluMnlto.,.. 



Aatlnimn 
ToUk 

M um— » 



I1& 
lU 

Vfioa 
an 




110 




an 11 



The proportion of divorces to 10,000 nuurmgea in AnstnLlavia ik Mtry 
mvA higliitr tluui in other oountri««, exee[>i Decunurk, tho Ij'nitcd 
8tetM, am) Switwrliiiiil, aa will bo Hreii by Uu: following stfttcmont, 
whicli inclodra judicinl tmjuuiiUuna, us wdU um divarcva :— ~ 



Osudlty. 






OmDtr;^. 



IHvorcM 

p*F 1U.V«) 



iKUad - 

Anstna 

CMMdft 

Vol lot Klniirfom 

EngUnil 

Rtuaia 

ltd; 

Scotluiil 

Norwftf 

Pnhnd 



S 

10 
IS 
IS 
ID 

» 

30 
30 
S5 



Hqi^Hj 

Balgium 

Sweden 

Holland 

RoumaniA...... 

Franco 

Oomiuiy 

bamnHk 

L'nitt'd States 
SwitzerUnd .,, 



U 

fl9 

T8 

St 

IM 

1S8 

«W 
444 

4«8 




I02 



SOCIAL CONDITION. 



ISSASITV. 

The numWr of inmno persons under official co^iznncc in Auntr 
Iftsift on tho 31§t Dewmlwr, 1834, waa 12,619. This reprpsents 3H 
per tbousaiul of the popuUlion. Tlie rates iti the Uiiil^d Kin^^oni 
tiie last rwx.nliMl |>«rioil wtre — Euglttni), 2'SI; Scotland, 2-6 ; and Ireland,! 
3-2. nie iiuioant of iuuaiiity in Australasia is, tlerefoie, higher tJit 
ill EnK'""*! or in .Soiitlaiid. The following tJihlr shows tlip pro[jortion 
luiiiivv in oitch of the olonits at the end of \S9-\, fi'om which it wil 
KJipfur thitt thu gixvitfHt in'oportioii is t<i ho found in N'ivtorio, and thi 
HtnutlvRC in Wvstern Australin, i'Mmaoin, and ISonth Australia ;— 

jLLHUii^ ^wniona iwr 1,000 
ol pcipiilatfoIL 

Now Routh Walsi „....„ „„„.„„. S* 

Victoria , .', ,, S"!! 

Qucoiialand ..,■•■<, .,■ S'O 

Mioiitli Auatnlia , ^ ..,.., 9-S 

W(BWrii Auatralia 1* 

Tasinauia 24 

Sew Zcaluid S-S 

Auatr&lnsja ,. Ht 

The folIow-iuK figures are given by Mulhall for a series of y^tmt, il 
most oastw from 18^ to 188ft; they show tlio number of insane 
1,000 iiibnhituiitx in various forei^ countries : — 



Oountij. 



Slumber 

ot tnnnc. 



Ctnmby- 



•>t Imuh. 



United StAU» 
Soaiidinaria . 
Pmnne .....,., 

llorniiwy 

Aii'tria ....... 

Canada ... ... 



S-3 
21) 

2*4 

1-8 



Italjr 

Ttslgiain nnil Holland 

Riisfia „.„, 

.Swititrlnud 

8piim and Portugal.,.. 



17 
1-2 

M 
11 

(17 



I03 



FOOD SUPPLY AND COST OF LIVING. 



CONSIDERING llxc conipomdvc'Jy high rate of wages wliidi prevailx, 
food of alt kiiMliu fiiirlycbcop in AustmtiiAia, and articltta of <li«t 
wlikb in other coaiitric* uxt almofit within thp category of luxurieii am 
Uc][el7 usoci Kvnn hy lh« poorer clas8ci!. The average quantities of 
ik) principal Articles of oommon <li«t aniiiially cooautned in the varioaa 
coloous are giren below : — 



ARkI*. 



!i 



3 
> 
5 



H 



WhMt... 

Rk« 



SngK 

T« 

ClBfto 

ChMM..._ 

Batter 

(kit 

[tMi „ 

Matton 

l\ak and bacon. 



lb. 

seo-o 

11-2 

8-7 

S04S 

91-3 

8-3 

0-« 

6-9 

n-9 

iS-0 

l!Mi'3 

IOH'4 

181 



lb. 

338-2 

7-7 

7-S 

301 -S 

91 -5 

7-4 

0-9 

a-2 

12 fl 
lfl^( 

n3'3 

WJl 
U-0 



lb. 

SW'l 

ISO 

4H 

189-9 

IH'O 

M-3 

O-S 

37 

10-3 

00-3 

280-0 
90-0 



t1>, 

3S0-0 

11-8 

4-5 

172-1 

94-1 

T7 

1-1 



10-8 



III. 

380O 

SO -8 

6-4 
13S-B 

117-3 

10-2 
1-3 



lS-9 



11). 
303-3 

8-2 

5471 

U-d 

04 



18-7 

IfiS-.l 
107-3 



lb, 
45S-3 
8-7 

< 4:^-1 

83-0 

6-$ 

0-5 

4-6 

18-fi 

33-1 

ma 
no-o 



lb. 
378-3 

10-6 

7-2 

«7C7 

7-7 
0-7 
4-8 

i»-a 
30 ■» 

145-3 
87 ■» 
12-7 



It will be aeea that tho consumption of wlicut rangm from 33d'3 lb> in 
Vicliiria to 455-5 lU in Nl-w Zpnlund, tliu average consumption being 
37h*.'> Ik p*r hearf. Kico variM greatly in the qtwvntily usod, only 7-7 
lb. boing thii! consumpUon in Victoria ns iigninMt 20-.S [b. in Weet«m 
Aaslralia. Tlie consumption of oatnipal k Ini-ger in New 8outh Wales 
i l; «T ) in the other colonies. The lute of tea is universal in Australia, ttiA 
CDMOBiption being lar^t in Weat^rn AuHlralia, with 10-2 lb. per head, 
«4iife Nen Sooth WalM and Queenslaud coine next with 83 llx pwr 
bead in «acb colony. Sugar also enters largely into coniiumptiori, thu 
aTtfage in the tvn principal cohmics being 91-3 lb. pt^r bead in New 
Sonth Wales and 94-5 lb. in Victoria. Cultt-o is not a univerMil bc\-eragtt 



104 



FOOD SUPPLY AN» COST OF Ln'IXO. 



in Austrataua, the consumptiou being only one^lev^Dtb Uial of Uft. 
It is HBt-d most largely In Westtni AuBiralia amt SouUi AuKtraluk, 
witere lii« ituiiual deniftiid oitiouiiUi to l-'2 lb. tuid I'l lb. ytr li«ad 
respectively. 

In soQK^ of the colonies the cotutumpliuii of jwUitncs per lituvd itf popa*l 
latioQ » poMibly Ioim tlian tit xhnwn in thi? tabic ll i* pralmblr tJint' 
th« high ftTerago cotiHumption of r)47'" lb. in Tiuininnia nnd 4^31 Ih. in , 
New ZeAlnD<l is causwl by the fniloro of the New South WrIps andJ 
oUier conliiieutal markets in some yenrg to absorl) the production oCj 
potatoes in exoMS of local rei^niifuenis iu those colonies, with ibsl 
r<«ult tbdt a qusntlt^ liaa lo ha f-ivt-ii to live slock and poiUtrj'.J 
T'ndor tiifie pin.-unutan<!es, it is iinprj^ihlt.- 1<> det^miiiw! with <<HctiLud«'l 
the ijunntity entering into the food ooimuinptiow of tlii; |xipuluLitiii. 

Thn conHumptioR of nmnt hoi been lumTrttiinnd with cxuctnt-rn fori 
only fivo colonies, but these may Ixt taken n« fivirly ntprracnt.ing thoj 
whole group. The avAr^ie quantity of beef ronMimed in the y«ttr| 
amounts to 14&-3 IK per head: of mutton, to 97'? lb.: and of pork,] 
ll^-7 lb. : iu all, 25A'9 Ih. It would thus appear that each inhabitant oE 
tlieae colonies ivijuirA duly about three quartern of a pound of uitAt,! 
and that duritig the yi»r two nbcep art- killed for *ach uu'mbiT ctf the] 
eommiintty, and ono hullock to evci^- tiv« pnrnons. It is obviou 
therefoT\\ that much meat must be wwit'vl. 

The quantity of m«Rt used by the AuAtralnsian pi?opIe, as shown by tin 
above figures, ia the moiit remarkable fMiture of tlieii' diet. The con-l 
suiuptiou per irUiabitant in Gemiauj is 64 lb,, while iu Ausli-ulia it ilS 
four tiiu«a that cjuantity. la the Umt«d Stales, a lueut i'.\|iortiii_ 
country, tJie coDnumption t* littli* mote than half that of AuHtmliuun. ' 
The following tabic iihows the meat ooOBUniptioii per head fur 
jiriiicipttl countries of tile world : — 



OatMqr. 


InlMMlvit. 


COBDtlT'. 


InlnMiant 




Ih. 

100 
77 
64 
SI 
«l 
S8 
71 
OS 




Ik. 


Franoo ...... >..».,...-> 


6£ 


Oenncay 

Itn^s 




78 






68 




1 Uniliid .StatM 

AuUtalMia ..„,„ 


go 

SOS 



Ju^ed by the idandard of the food conannied, the lot of the 
lation of AuHlmla-iia appears to be fat' more tol«rabl« than that of 
poofiJo of ino«t other couiitneN. This will be aeen most elearly from tb 
toUowiDg taUo, tbc particularH given in which, with the cxct^ptiun 




CONSUMPTIOK OP F00». 



<05 



Ike fignres referriRg to Austnhsia, )iav« keen iakva from MalhnU's 




Lk. |Mt iBtaUtuit. 



QmiiIi|. 



13 



» 



Vr 



I 



Ii«nn*Dy 

Rnais .-... 

Anrtrin «... 

luly 

Sp^ 

Vinuffi 

SmdM 

Norway 

DdUDArfc 

BoDMd 

Balgtoni 

Switwrlantl 

8«rri» 

tWudSuta .. 

Ckiuul> 

AutmlMw ..... 



378 
MO 

sso 

G35 
400 

tea 

500 



p 



55 

s 






sou 

440 
SCO 

soo 

690 
440 
400 
400 
370 



109 


7a 


77 


20 


ftl 


IS 


51 


11 


at 


18 


26 


S 


" 


U 


49 


IS 


62 


22 


» 


13 


ftt 


SS 


ffj 


sa 


OS 


27 


02 


20 


8S 


4 


84 


4 


ISO 


a 


Wl 


1 '^ 


sso 


"1 



19 
S 
8 
S 

4 

3 

II 
14 
22 
U 
U 
11 

9 


20 
22 



380 
D70 
1,020 
180 
000 

oo 

20 

40 

ftlO 

JiOO 

410 

820 

1,050 

140 

80 

SO 

170 

SCO 

376 



40 


01 




20 


ae 




!7 


78 




l» 


e 




14 


38 




IS 


ao 




17 


>! 


17 


1 


28 


Its ' 


40 


144 


2S 


140 


20 


sto 




142 


... 


no 






8 






S 




89 


I«2 




40 


72 




31 


1» 





3.739 
3.90S 
4,708 
3,832 
3,502 
2,132 
S,S»7 
2.059 
4.012 
3,aS7 
4.071 
4,03.-> 

47S9 
2.4U 
2,422 
3,419 
4,013 
4, MS 



lUctng Uie artwlea in tlie foregoing; list, with Uie exoeptioti of tea. and 
iafi«a,ani]mdiMtu)^themU>aoomiiK>ulittsiiiof comparifiou, it willbefonnd 
tkat ti»o uMmnt (4 tlu-rtno-djnBnie power i:ii]iahle uf beinj; (j^neraU^ 
bf the food <»iuniincd in AuntraUuttn it oiilj cxoeoded by ihul eatm in 
Oenaany, Uollaikl, uml Ik-lginro. i'or thl^ pinpcMC of cuntpurimni tbe 



I06 FOOD SUPPLY AND COST OF LIVING. 

Hgvres of Dr. Edward Suiitli, F.R.S., in his weil known work on Foo^ 
linvo Ixen uacd, luid thi- heal devel<i|>ed hxs been reduce<l to tkn n<|tiiv»- 
lent w^i^lit ]i(li.'d ! foot hi^li. Iq eKtiiiintiiig tbi- iheroicKlyiinniic cSocb 
of food, --raiii liii« brcn rcdutt^l In iU cijuivtiloiit in flour, mid regard hu 
l*eu |itti'I to the jn-otriihli' naturo ui tho riiwit coimuiufd. Tlic figures for 
jjouitui-s ure givpii as tlicy appwvr in th" Oirlioiinry nf Statutita; but il 
is ti pnilinlili; i^uppniiition th:it )iut n nmall (irojinrtion (>f the quantity 
ov<tr 400 lb, 8ot iiown for any country in rnijuiml for htimun i-ufisuni])- 
tion, and the figures relfttini; to some of the countries — notably tlic 
throo just mentioned— are therefoi* excessivo. Tbu subntunccs specified 
nbov« are largely aup|ileuicnted hy other foods, both in ATnericR tind in 
I^iirripe, bnt not tuurc va tbun in th«M colonies, and tlie figures in tti« 
table may be tuken ili uHtirdin^ un aeourale view of tbe coniparativo 
'{uautity and food vnliir of the articles of consuniiitiou in the countries 
mentioned. To innlce such n comparison perfi-rtly ju-^t, howei'er, llio 
avenif^ amount of work which each individual in tlie cumniunity U 
cnlh^l upon to porform should be taken imo consiilerntiun. In Auk- 
traJiuin the proportion of women and children i-ngagpd in liiborioux 
oocupntious is far snniiler than in Kuroiie and Amerien. ami the houra 
of labour of hI! persons are also It-nsi, »o that the amount of food-energf 
reijuireil is reduced in proportion. 

Jn his Dii-iiiiniirii •'/ St.iiitiics, under the hdulinn: of "Diet," Mtilhall 
j(iv<!S a nic;isure of the apgregat*' niiiount nf work performed by jiersmui 
doing physical and nient.il labour, and il would appear that when burnt in 
the body the food of an average man should be eiinnl to at Iwwt 3,300 
foot toDs of work daily ; of a woman, 2.200 ;. and of a child, 1,100 foot 
tonn. for Australasia tbe average of all persons would bo about 3,125 
foot Ions, whereas from tbe table jui<t giv^eu it would appear that the 
amount of work to which the daily tooil connuiniHl Ly each individual id 
the colonies in etiuivalont in not less than 1,142 foot touH. 

It miHt he admitted, hi>w«ver, that the mnthod of comimrisoii ntlopted 
in the t»b1(! is not ontirely aatisfactory, as the different funiTtionx of 
variiins kinds of food have not been considered. Experiments and 
obiorvationK made in Kuiope show that a standard may be aet up by which 
the amount of nutn'enta requireil to maintain different' ctflLSses of people 
may lie nie-asuiisd. Pi'ofesaor Voit, of Munich, whose aulhorityis accepted 
by I'iurope^iLi spccialiHtn, hiu aaceriaint'd tJiut to niiHtain a luhourin^ 
man engaj^d in niodemtely bard mnnctilar work tliere are re<|uired 
1 18 grunis of protein and <[niintitii.-» of otrbo-hydrutPK and fata Kufhcit'nt 
with tbe protiTin to yield .'I.OSO calorienof energy. There are -151 gnunii 
in a pound avoirdupoiH, and the calorio istho amount of htuit that would 
ruiiie the tompeniture of 4 lb. of wator 1* VaJirenheit. Applying tbe 
Hucertjiincd values of the i-ariouA foods, the consumption of which has 
just lieen g^ven, it will be found that the daily couNumptioD per 
inliabitftat is equivalent to 114 ^ams of protuin and 3,472 caloriea, 
ftbout the ijuaQlity FrufeOHor Voit declares lu be sul^cient for a labouriDj 



CONSUMPnON OP TOBACCO AND INTOXICASTS. IO7 

num. If iUI<iu-noai be mttcla for the iat^t tbnt only 40 pttr ccmt. of 
the po|<atiicinn am ftdult males, 33 per ttxtit. wouipn, nnd a" per cent 
chiMffj], tlic ()iiHntit]r of food coDsani«d ui AiietrnluxiA would npfwar t» 
bo f>r in cscc^tof t be Actual re<|UU-6raeatB of ibn piipuUtion, ami though 
tlw fiXMM majr be looketl ii|)Oii bh waste, it is none the Ittu evidence of 
the weftltb of the people wlio.ie circumstances permit them to iudulge 
in it. 

The foUowins tnblo givrfl the annual consuniption of tobacco in 
AiMtnduiii Mid thr principal countries of the world. Tlie uao of 
telHccu oppnon to bo more prevalent iu Westrru Australia and Xew 
Sooth Wnlrai thnn in anjr of the otbor oolonien, wliile tbi! ntiiallettt con- 
(■mptiim is in Tiuinnnia and Seiitli AuHtraJiit. Compuri^d wttli othor 
parbi of UiP world, die average consumjition of Amitnilii.'uji will not 
tfftmr axoBsdve : — 



Oouatiy. 


tb. 


Onoatay. 


lb. 


AnatraUtia— 


3-38 
3-01 
2-S,1 

H)4 
3 '82 

2'OB 
1-11 
2-05 
300 
1-23 




3-77 
1-34 






1-70 






8il2 


fioath Aiutnlia 

W««t«Tn Aii»tr«li»... 


3-in 

31» 
I81 






3-70 




Turkty 


4-37 


VtsBce !. 


Pnit"'! *tfyti>i 


4-40 






■JIl 


Rniwia 




4-87 









Taking Australasia ax * wbol«^ it comparM vory favourablji- with most 
Evropmn oonntrica in the average quantity of intoxicantA consumed, 
as the following statement shows. The figures, which are reduced to 
((dloiis of proof spirit from data given in Mulhall's Du:tiijiianj nj 
Slatittifx, would appear even more favuiirablo to Aii«lralaiiia weru the 
£Mt of tiie lai^i^ prepouderan<.'e of lualeti over females iti tbcsc ooloiiieci 
tnade a lenture of tlio i;t>m]>at'ison : — 



OotMXJ, 


Proof 

goUan*. 


OniMiy. 


Proof 




3-57 
S-10 

3-oa 
a-02 
2-ao 

3-40 

s-tto 




3-00 




Unlfpum » 


-l'(HI 




■I 00 
5 00 
4'3G 


ItaJv 




3'65 






2-09 









L 




FOOB Sri'PLY AND COBT OP LIVING. 



Thd following tulile sliowx the vnitaumption {ar»11 the coloniett duHng 
the y<»r I(*9I. In thr cnsv <if tinutti AuRtrntia nnil We.itfru Auatraliii, 
whence no rotuniH rrJntitig tn brwi'niui am i>btainnbli% tlin can.iuiiijitian 
of bwr has l»een (wsumcri tn itp thn nmnigs of the othra- liro cnlonim : — 



ODtav. 



ti^rlUL 



TcUL 



1^ 

J-' 



innc. 



ToUL ^J 



N«v SottUi W«iN. 

Vietoria 

Quociwbiid 

Snuth Aattntlut ... 
Woitcrn Aucttkli*. 

Tiuinuuiiii 

New Zmland 

Auntraia^ 



«S,I70 
733^10 
3W.4S3 
141.803 
107,631 
87.484 
4S7.0n3 



2.828,(139 



0-68 



fflV 


g.U.. 


i>-77 


»H.S,(I4r. 


0-es 


1.28S,101 


0-»l 


U2,708 


o-ai 


482.513 


1-46 


104.188 


0-37 


12,fi78 


tt-fll 


Sl,SKi 



&oe8,tw 



galb. 
O'TO 
1-09 

0'33 
1'.12 
1-12 
0-08 
0-U 



Bm. Ac. 



TqI«I. 



0-74 



11, 101, Sir. 

IS,00S.83» 

4.026.574 
S,209.fi77 
07.'i..'?S4 
l,tlSB.T1.5 
6,i;iJ(,S»K 



S8,12e,!T8 




The largest oonmiDptioi) of ^irita per iiihal'ilaiit ix iii Wc 
AiuitnilM, Quoeualaud being aeoond. Vi'iae in uiu.*J most {ni-\y 
WcHtcni Auntniliu, South AuKtntUu, and Victnriii. imil liccr in 
colony of Victoria. Thc< nri>mge coifnimjitiaii of nlcoliul in nil tbs'^ 
coloninx amotuitn to 2'00 pdlonN nf [iroof Kpirit pnr inhnbittint, ranging 
from 307 gullnnK in ^VlMb:nl AiuitritJiA to TSO gnllonii Lii TasmnHia. 
Ihore ha* boon a grcnt diminution in th« quantity of alcohol gousuidikI 
ill Australasia during (ho Inst fow years. In Ui^'J the average 
vonatuDption waa '2'62 gallons of proof alcoliol ; in 1890 it was 'l-yO 
gallouH; in 1891. 293 ^lona; in 1892, 2-62gatloua; in 1693, 2-30 
gallons ; an<l in 1894, 309 ^^alloma. 

It is pdpularly su[ipoo*d that Austrnlinn winei and bii>n« arc 
hcnrily chnrgul with spirit an compared with Iho im|iort«l iirt;iol<i>i, 
this belief is prmncmiR. Srvtral ili'sc;riptions nf .Auitralinn wines hav 
a natnral strength of 30 i>cr ri-nt. of proof spirit, while fivim aunly 
which have hoen made it wouhi appear that the slreiiglh of tliette 
offered for sale varies from 'ii to 37 per cent, of spirit. On Uil- nan 
authority it wan statod some years ago that imported Imtxa ninfpxl fr 
13-88 )>er cent to 15-13 per vent, in the oaae of English, and froni 9-.'}8 
per ccnL to 11-76 per cent, of proof npirit in Ijigcr, while the 
manubotun' rarieil iiOL-urdin;t to the taaku from 11*31 to ld'12, tlu 
nvcragf! being 13-75 per cent. It is ^nmnlly nndorstood, howevnyl 
that Hinco Ui« imposition of rxcisr dutira on coloniid beer in Hei 
South Wale* in 18S7, Uie strength of the article has been aoinewl 
reduced in this colony, and does not now average more tlian 13 
cent, of proof q)irit. 



CLASaaHCATIOS OP expensituke. 



109 



CoFT or Livtiia. 

data are not anilftbto to eiubl« s calculation to be mado ot 

of living ill all tlw eoloiUM, but with Ike raatvriaU to band an 

can be airired at for New Soiitli Wnlcji. In tbo yvar 1892 an 

wiu amde of tin- yearly i-xpciiditiiro of the jxipuUtion of Uiat 

1(1 it was fiinnd that it aniouutod to £5S,445,00<k Hiuce that 

over, th«n> haH born a ■hrinkage in incomea tind a btltiog-off in 

ption of articlM of luxury, «« that n mvUion of the figuraa 

out a considorably lower total. In l^^dj the expendituK^ 

nnder the principal heads, was as follows : — 

TnUl Pir 

IKvWm M KipouUCun. Expcndliure^ lahfcblmiL. 



holklwvn^iu 

I aplritvoua Uqiun .,., 



kiMldnparjr 



£ 
1B.-J3:>.100 

1.3)7,(100 

C.507,200 

477.200 

alnc of bntlding* nicd m dwcUinp* 5.U61.*JOa 

Mt „ „„. 1,[1«1.11HI 

IJRht I..s.-.S,2(KI 

Mm>d*UM, MTvidt, kih) lodging 1,'I40,T(H) 

Muubnac^ modictne, and numnK l,i31.S0O 

charitia*, cdnoation (not indading Slate 

ifiton) 

onuMnwnt ^ _.»_..»._ 

wipapw<fc nCt ..vi,^.«v....i.k. •..«««>■...«». ,.-... 
wa, pcotage, Mwana, «ao<MMiaa duM ... 

I WLUwiaw not incwiihd riimwhwu 

I||««P*«— 

tod: 



9»t,S00 

7ss.2cn 

O7\7O0 
1,940.900 
1.199,300 



£ 

13 
3 


s 


4 
t 
1 
1 
1 





<l 
1 





<1. 


6 

t 
9 
« 
10 



9 11 

3 2 



IS 

IS 
12 
O 
II 
IS 



Total £*e.655.flOO 37 U 1 

Utoro for tho year, via., £37 14a. Id. por head, wii» at 
28. 0}d. per day. The diuly expenditurK may bo thus 



M i lil a u d K^pmdituiR. 



blUflg and drapery 



■diin (iDcladinf Intoxieaato) . 



I oE life and tlie Htaudard of living are much the aamo 
^^l^fn^^ff. bvt it woold undoabtedly be incorrect to oaanme 




PmUy. 



I'rciporliun 



d. 

8-6 

3-5 

3-0 

0-3 

9-4 



at-s 



por cent. 
31 -S 
14-1 
121 
1-2 
ST-* 



100-0 



no 



FOOD arPPLT AND COST OF LIVISO. 



i 



that the averag*" »-xpwitliturH throughout Australasia is cfjuftl to tliat 
of Sew Soutli Wules. ituktiig aii urbitrary reduction on th« New 
South \Vai(« rates of 10 pi-r ceni, for tJi« other ooloniea, the expendiWrw 
for Austmluaia would ho as follows: — 

Tuut 

£ 

Fooiluid Don-alcoholic bovonijcc* S0,lH0.3(i0 

FcnnoDtcd and aplrituooa llijDori _.„.„. 12,140.600 

Tobacco 3.T3l.50tl 

aothins ]Ui.J(lrap«ry , „,,., 20,203, KK) 

Fumltur* „ l.ilt.mi 

Rvrit or iidue of buililiogs luwl u dwelliora 17,41).^. 400 

T^Oinotion ,. 4.!144, lOO 

FuoliUKl light a,72«,3i» 

Prnional attfmdiuicr, isrvicc, and Indging 4.479,700 

Mtiiicnl iitlmdnncc. nieilicinc, fttui nuisiiig 4,424,400 

Itoliglcui, vharitiiw, vilauttion (not iiiuluilLng State 

cxpcndituro) 2,.t!2!l.4O0 

Art ud smu*can*nt 3,0»4,1«JII 

Booki, n*w«jMp«n, tte 4S4'2,700 

Stato Mrvictw, pusUge, tdeErnniB, micoBBaioa dne* ... 1,7SS,300 

HoDMiholil «xpcnKa not included cUcwbeiv. 6,024, SHH) 

MisoHtiiuieaUB cxpcnaci 3,705,0IW 

ToUl £144.169,000 

Acoortling to Miillmll, thf rip<?ndit.ufp pi-r inhitbilant in the le 
countries of Europe and in tho Unitcil Slates is as follows : — 



CtaunLry. 



1 Inhftbluml. 



Count)]:. 



Unitvd Kingdom 

Fnmce 

Germany 

RumU „ 

AuilHa 

It 



tngal. 
8«r»den . 



£ a. 


d. 




2!t 14 







2» 1» 


4 




SW 3 


4 




10 I 


II 




U * 


e 




n U 







IS 12 


li 




11 ft 


6 




SO 9 


4 





Norway , 

Denmark , 

Holland 

Botgiiim 

Switxvrlniid ... 
Uoitud Stutra 
Canikda 



Auitroloaia 




Th« t»h1e just giv(-n itllbixLt but n ]iu.rt!iJ view of the question of ifc 
cost of living', for if tho tntnl I'arnings of t)ie cuuntriM Hbovi> enuniA-] 
rated be conKidRre<l ns an ckmcnt of compartson, it will Iil' foitncl tb 
fpw iMuntriw agipronch AuslraUsia in tli« small proportion of incoino' 
ubwirU^d in providing food for ihf people, Tho following tabic, givrn 
on the name authority as tbi- preoeiling, Bhows that while the actus 
cost of food and drink la £\i Ills. 3d. in AutitralaaiA aa against £14 4b. 1 
in UretLt liritain, the eaniiiiga re luired to pay for tlua food are 
larger proportionulety than in th« countriL-a which dhow wont fitvunntbl 



RELATIVB COST OF LIVING, 



III 



the tablr. The number of working flays in tho }'par ia unmed (o 
be SOOl idloving fur thirtrnn dnys' sicknpsg anil fifty-two Sondftjl ; 



t'onRlI;. 



tJtiit«il KiagdoiD 

Praikoc 

Ocmuuiy , 

Bm«i» 

AMtri* „..„ 

Italy 

l%rta 
Svcdib 

Normy 

Dannuuk ,. 

HolUnd .....; 

Bvlginm 

8irtUsrUnd ... 
Uoitnl Statw. 
Cuia^la 

Amtrkiimft .... 



rat ttt iottd bid 



Kudo o( ™«t of 
r4»d Id eunlnEtt- 



cqiul to Bnniial 
t»at of load. 



< ■. d. 


U 4 « 


13 4 5 


10 \i 5 


n 19 7 


7 17 4 


4 10 


S » 


7 a 


IS 11 


9 lo 


11 14 


10 8 U 


I'i S I 


8 117 


9 17 7 


8 


as 3 a 



per cent. 
42-J 
441) 
491 
5i0 
60 '8 
Gl-2 
SI -2 
591 
4,1 -2 
47-6 
36 '0 
4S'0 
43 '4 
45-2 
253 
32-5 

341 



da VII, 
127 
14:2 
148 
IM 
IC8 

isa 
ist 

177 
138 
143 
10» 

ia» 

130 

iss 

78 
97 

102 



Fkice LevivLs. 

The following tabl«« liave \tem compili^l with tlii- object of showing 
to whnl vxtont the coloniiiK hnvn Im-rii aflected by tlic gun^nil fall in the 
prict-s of oommoditMss during thi; past thirty-six yrara, 'i'ht figures 
ref*-r to Now South Walos alone, but they may be «cc_iptcil M aIbo indi- 
cating in s foiriy accurate ik^roe the position in wliicb the other 
pTv>viBC«A of Australasia atand in regard to thi)t matter. The total 
inUue ol th« exports of each of the coloaiea ia gieatiy nfft'cted by llie 
pricrs obtained for certain Icradiux '""" "f raw produce, of wliich, in the 
cue o( New f oulh Wal«», wool, silvtr, and coal xru the most importJiut. 
Id tfa« Mibjoined tJ»l)I(? thi? pricivlcvi-l of domojitic nxporta of llmt cuiony 
W pvwn for tlin thirty-nix ynjirs brginning with IJfflO. In onic-r to 
uoertain the pricr-lcvpl, all thfi princijial articicM of domestic produri! 
exported bavo bwn taken, tho pricos of ISSr) have boon applied to tho 
quantities of each of the other years, nnd the result has be«^ii compared 
»ilh the actual total of such year, the level of the year being found by 
diridtug the actual value into tlie value which would have been obtained 
ludthc nric«of 1S95 prevailed. The overage for 1895 ia assumed to bo 
1,000, tli« pricu* levcLi or index numbers of the other years being as 
down in the talik-. In ordpr to further facilitate compari«on of diirei'- 
mt jreftTB, tlie nvcrngo of the five yc-nrs li^70-T4 hB!> iK^nn iLtnuined to 
fce 1,000, mkI the pricM of other years have bicn itdjuated to thnt basis. 
Ia compiling tie prioe-level for exports, only articles of inHignUictiiit 



112 



FOOD SUPPLY AND COST OP irVTSfl. 



TftltU! hmve bevn oinilt«<I from i^ciusiii^raLiou, aiul in no jetur i]oe« Ui* 
valiM! of iirUcliM inclnileci form lewi thut 6& jHrr ci-nU cf tli« tola] 
cxportii, while in itome ytuav tbo proportion riMw tm liigli iih Q/) prr w^t., 
the avorn^ of ntt v'^nix tx^ng abtivo fiO per cvnt. It is canMdcivd tbw 
iLiR sjBtoiii ciialilrs u trarr rxttin&to of thio rclativo prices to be obteined 
tliaii that of selecting the jirices of wrtain articles wilhout giTinf> due 
ytvight to the quantities of euch articles exported :— 





Prt«-I«vc] of Eiport*. 


Tcu. 


PriM-Wiel ol K>|>»U. 


ttu. 


— UOOO. 


ATerap! or 

1370-TtpriaM 

-UOOOL 


— 1.000. 


IKO-ItulGCS 

-1.1110. 


1860 


S,2l>i 


1.24" 


IS7S 


1,624 


887 


1S6I 


£,27!l 


I.-J44 


IBTSi 


1,680 


921 


1862 


2,339 


1.310 


1880 


1.654 


903 


1863 


2.l8f 


1.191 


1981 


1.0«2 


887 


iset 


2.111 


1,316 


1883 


I.B95 


038 


IW 


2,207 


l,SOfl 


1S83 


i.ee.1 


090 


ISOB 


2.287 


I.Z49 


las* 


I,6SI 


SIS 


1807 


2.113 


I,1S4 


1880 


1,470 


800 


1808 


3,11G 


1,158 


1888 


1,419 


776 


iseo 


I.WO 


1.083 


IBS7 


1.168 


TOT 


ISTO 


i.eos 


879 


1588 


1.415 


773 


1871 


1,060 


1.075 


1889 


1,«7 


78a 


ia;2 


1.793 


S7S 


1S80 


l,38S 


758 


1873 


1,900 


1,037 


1801 


1,261 


680 


10:4 


1.883 


1.028 


1892 


l.IM 


ess. 


)8TS 


1,878 


1,027 


1893 


1.080 


Q90 


I87n 


1.778 


072 


18M 


974 


£32 


1877 


I.<t31 


891 


189S 


1,000 


SM 



These figures sbov that there has beoo a great fall in the pHcflc 1 
colonial produce exported since 1860, or still ;{reater »unce 1804, 
from the index uuaiber 1,31G Ut 646, or over QS per oi-nt. Marli 
UuctiniionM, riu)guij( to about 10 per cent., occurred bctwr«it It^O : 
186C, whou the index numbur wiu about tin: same ax in tlwi Snt-n 
ycnr. Frum 186K ti> 1870 tlieri- wan a drop from l,*J49 to V7il,ori 
30 {Kir ci-nt. A riiu' foHowtuI in IK'I to 1,07'', or abogt 32 pen 
stfu-T which for four years prices coatinueil fairly steadj, uiitii 
was a fvul.faer decline in IS7^ to SIS7. In 1679 the level rom; to 
aucl for the next foDr years prices continued without luucii chiuigg^^ 
but fnxo 18S4 to 188S iJiew was a fail fi-oui 919 to 806. This wag 
sui:ci--«dvd by a fairly even range until 1 889, when the litvel Ktood ac 785, 
From 1889 tbei'O wnn a !it«vp deoUne to 533 in 1891, a fall of :i2perG«Bti. 
for tlu: live ycKTH, but in t8<j5 prices recorcred a little.und tl>e level laes 
to 546, an advance <>f '2-6 iirr n^nt It will bo w>ea that the pur 
pow«r of money ban uteadily iiicrenscd unc« 1864, if the Cusluma valv 
of thit exports Curly represent the prices ruling in the {general 




nmi^, wbvdier in tlio colony or elsewhere, and that 20h. in 1895 
ronld porclinM! the wvme nrticlea of dome&tio export which in 1864 
roatd liAve cKt more ifiui iS». 

It luast not be suppoaed that Anstralia has bi>cn altogntlior a loser by 
tio tall in tlio prioes o( its oxportv, bticauwr ttii! powf r of th<Ke pxpi>rts U> 
nrebMe intporta mtmt also bi; takt^ into coosideratioc. It will, thcrc- 
m, bo DdceBHary to consiilcr a\ta the price-level oi import*. As then* 
ust no reliabUi dataon which price-levels for imports can Im; bnnnd prior 

~ ftO, Lha t«)fle comtnences with that year : — 




1S» 


1,401 


see 


»S3 


1,315 


660 


1871 


1,467 


U70 


18S4 


i,.ioi 


SOS 


IS73 


I.S34 


1,0U 


1385 


1,195 


790 


1673 


l.US 


I.OSO 


ISM! 


1,171 


I7« 


18Ti 


1^13 


I,()'.Ml 


ISM 


1,1S5 


763 


1973 


1,4:0 


i)&i 


ISS)S 


1.170 


77(P 


lS7fi 


i.iiH 


oil 


INSiJ 


!.?.'» 


SIS 


1877 


l.SN 


908 


ISIIO 


1.-210 


M04 


1B78 


1,363 


SOU 


ISlJl 


I.IBO 


7«7 


ins 


1,304 


UVi 


IKU 


1,113 


736 


isao 


l.3l>1 


ma 


I8!l» 


I.ti7l 


T09 


ISA) 


1,300 


SM 


I8'J4 


i.oia 


671 


1S9S 


i.a»2 


85S 


1S95 


1,CK)0 


eiii 



It nay b« aaid gnwrally that tho fall in pricM was aomcwlint in 
kvoar of the exports up to the year 1S80. Since then the exporti; have 
Uico away on (Ji« averMf,'» values at a much more rapid rate than the 
npofta. A clearer view of the operation of the fall in prices will ho 
tMinod from the t;ib!e which is given Iwlow, showing the price-levels 
i importa of merobimiliie for home consumption and exports of domestic 
Mdtice, tor perioda of livf^ years, with the relative fall per cent. : — 





Imi-ifli, 


Kiliorta. 


rrrkd. 

■ 


A*eni£pof 

Itt >wi. ISIQ-I. 

■■rina — l,OI», 


In Ovr fmn. 


AvDrwa of 

avo ycaii, I870-*. 

prloH — 1,000. 


DKline !n prlcti 
ptr ecni. 


IS70-T4 
187&-79 
1«8D~B4 

ita-M 

188» 


1,0(M> 

m3 

7SS 
737 
6G1 




i.oai 
no 

!)U 

787 
646 
546 




8-5 
S-9 
8^ 
6-5 
'10-3 


6-0 
2-9 
13-8 

is-0 

•15-3 



* £>BC±JDfl 1n>ni Aven^ pruei ul lOVU-l to thoH of Ittffi. 



114 



roOD SDPPIiT AND COST OF LIVING. 



It will be seen tliat, assuming the index number of the &ve yttm 
lfiiO-J4 to be 1,000, tJie (all in the succeediuj; live yeoni was S.') pci 
cent, for the imporU, as compared with 6 p^r L-enl, for Uie rxportk 
The average vxdw- of the imjiorU for the lin; yiiirs ending with IdlH 
was 59 per cent less than in the preceding quinquennial period, whcTOM 
the diOiorvnco in the vnlue of the exports wtu 2S pcrcr>nt. During tfa« 
DBxt tive yean the aveinge va,]uo of the imports declined 8'& per cenL| 
while the fall in the value of the exporte was do leas than l3'Sper cMit.| 
so that the index number fur 1886-^9 for both imports and esporti 
w»» practically the name figure. As already nienliuneJ, ihv fall for tht 
period 181)0-94 wiw much more heavy in regard to thi- exporta tliau the 
imports; in 1^95, however, the imports fell still further, while the 
vxporbi reoovRre<l ulightljr. 

Now South Wiil«s, in common with theotbor AostrntaKian colonies, ii 
chiefly affected by the fail in pHcoH because it is a debtor country. In 
the chapter on " Private Kin&ncc " will be found certain calculalioiu 
8l)C>wiu;; that the annual charge payable by the St«te and niuiiicipaliliM 
on their iivdebtU'Jne.s* to British creiUt<int ia £2,025,000 while the earning 
(if itivi'Htmentx made in tlii! colony iiy private {jersonii, or driiwn Ijy 
ttbscntees, amount to £2.9:^4,000 per Annum. At the whole of tin 
interest on Government and municipal loans has to he paid hy exjmrt^ 
irrespective of the fall in prices, and as a large portion slso of the intereat 
paytthle to private iuveKtois ia in the same category, the {all ia a mfttter 
of rery aerious importance to these oolouies, viewed aa debtor St«tcK 
Fortunately the increase of production, as compured wiUi Urn popul»tioB, 
bu.1 hoen so sre»t in NtMv South Wales as to couutfritct the fall in priooij 
but it i.i bnrilly possible to believe that tlie prohablo increiue of pro- 
duction wilt enmpenaate the colony for a continued fall at the alarming 
rate of the past five years. 




SHIPPING. 



TB^ «arli(«t (brfo for «-hich there is reliable information in rej^rj 
bo the uliipping of AualTalaida is tlie yt^ar IS22. Siuce tliut tiiue 
Uie «x|nnaioo of the Cmde of these coiunit-s Iius buea marveJloiu^ and 
■hlicm^ populattoa has iiici'eaBetl at t)ic high rate uf 7 |)»r cant. pRr 
ftnnum, the grtiirlh o( !ihii)fiing has liccn pt|ti«ll_v rnpid. In ihu tahlo 
^vcn bdow the increase in the nuinbi^i- niid tonnngt: of v<!X»rIb may bo 
tnced. [t in iMoenary to point out that tho figitm includti thn iiitor- 
ffflflWrnt traffic, and&re cher«fora of little value iu a comparison bctireei) 
Ika Bhi|>piDg trade of Australasia atid tliat of olher couutiies, aa the 
tuwili plyiux between die various coluiiieti reprt'.ieiit merely conning 
tmle wbm Auitraliuia is oonsid«rKd iw a whole, TIuk diatinution ia 
leapt in view throughout thui cli^iter, aa well as in Hiv auctecdiug ono 
dMliog with commerce : — 



Tmt. 


StrtHvd uut ClHnd. 


Tw. 


EnlcKd ind Clnnd. 










TmA; 


Toonie*. 




VtmtlL 


ToMu^e. 


itas 


268 


147.800 


1871 


13.274 4,!29,90« 


1841 


%S7» 


552.347 


18S1 


IS. 035 


8.94.?.S45 


IIEI 


MM 


1,088,108 


1891 


18,468 


17,479,fi36 


ISBI 


10.316 


2,82S,484 


1894 


17.691 


17.SGe,4]S 



Id tb« TMr 1823 all the aettlementa on the mainland were oompriwd 
ia the densiuitiou of New South Wales, and as late as 1859 Queens- 
land formed put of the mother coiutiy. Thus an exact distribution 
cf ahippinjc amongst tho seven c{>lont(!a an they an) no<r Icnovn can only 
be mad« for the period subsequent to tlte ymr hut ntnied. Such a 



ii6 



SUIFFING. 



division of the total toniutge eniurud anil cloarml is made in the followinfi 
t&Ua for the ceniu* Tears L87I, 1B81, and 1$91, m well u for th« r« 
1S94 :- 





KnMnd tnd Ctmni. % 


CtHmj. 


uri. 


I8SI. 


tm. 


- i 




VohIi 


Toniugni 


1 

YeBWliTonugo. 


Vweli 


Toniwfcc 


VmmW 


T««Ji 


VtKSaMhXftln 


i.ua 


1.600,*TU 
l,3&&,tllli 

137,717 

•le.iiio 


1,867 i'.!,78B.aO0 0,151 
1 SOS 1 aalLlCrl ^ i7ii 


1.71 1. IW 
1197,118 

5,73ll,»llt 

i.mt.tm 

l7,17R,t3£ 


B.US 

1.17B 

7W 


J.^ 




(TlTilTfli 






1.6T8 


« M« A'9 


W«i(cni AusUalla 










i3.nn.sai.voi 


ia.»s ».M3,u;i 


18,108 


ujm 


iTJW*i« 



For lli« year 1S91 the hiimago of Anstriilisia wna the highest on 
record, lioiai{ over Vi par ceiit^ mor« than thut of the previous year. 
This iM-ault wiiajiartlydue tuthofttctthul, iuciinM-tim-iicoof themaritiioe 
iitrik% » titrj^e <|Ui>iitity of goods rttiiiMiind unxhippvd ut Llic ctme of 
1^90, and heliJfd to sw'hH Lliv returns for 1891. iW tannagoof 1^4, 
although Elij^htly lt:si llian thiit of 1891, was grf^ntp-r than tho quantity 
of 1S90 hv nunrly J:i pi^r ocnt,, of 1892 by 0-8 per cent., ftnd of 1895 
hy ni'ft--ly 9 prr wiiL Of the individuni colonics, New tjouth Walos, 
ijouth A UKtralin, and Woatoiu Australia bnd their largecit atnouuc ol 
uliippiiig in 1894 ; Tasmania anil New itealand, in 1892 ; Queeoiiland, 
in 1:^81 ; and Victoiin, in 1891. 

Below will bu found the proportiim which tin- li>nnuK« of ««oh oolonj 
linre to tli« tots) Hhigijiitig of AnfttraliuJu ul each of tlut three period^ 
leSI, 1601, Olid 1694 :— 



Galea; 


PnceDUce ol loul ol AiulnlHla 


im. 


vmu 


UBk 




31 1 
S7-0 
9-9 
lfl-2 
3-S 
4-3 
B'3 


32 
27-0 
6-7 
IR'6 
0-0 
SO 
Tl 


33-0 
24*7 




£■3 




16*8 


Wostivni Aoitralia ........ 


1-7 




7-3 








100-0 


1000 


lOO'D 







INCREASE IN TONNAGE. 



117 



ll will be jit*n from thn oIkivh figinrs liiat tlit |iuxitionx (if^ld by most of 
the coloaieic in IHKI nrc much ihe fame nkltvtly an ihosi* occu]ii«d by 
tfaptn tixlay, New Smith Wales more than raauitainingitK leading poaition 
unoiiKSt thp group during the thirteen ytnn. Thn notnble vxoeptionK 
an Wwtflrn Aiuimlia and Queeiidand, this foimcr colowy having 
■pfutrcntly so far advanced front u coinmurcinl point of view that il now 
ti&Rsacts th« fourth largest proportion of tho Kbippiitg tradu of Aun 
tralaaia inateiul of thei xmullest, while Du: lattctr has receded from fourth 
to >ixth poMlion. Tht^He changes, however, have not heeu nltogi-thcr 
doe to an espaiuuon of trade in dilfen-Dt degrees, but to cuunta which 
do not quit« lii! upon tho surfncrx A clearer view of the projjfpw niado 
bj Mch colony, according to the official returna, during the jwricd from 
ISiJl to 1894, atay l)n obtained from the ioHowing lijiures: — 




New South WalM 

VietMSa 

Queensland 

Saath Aiutnlia 

Wcstom Atutralia 

TunMiii* ,„. 

NewZcaluid , 

Aoitralaaift 



106 

78 

B 

114 

366 

IH 

£1 



94 



It is po«ibl« thM t]i« increase in the tonnage of Queensland was 
greater than the 5 per cent, shown above. Prior to the yejir \SS^ the 
■tupping returns of itiAt colony recorded the arrival and departure of 
viosela at every part of tall inateud of at the terminal port only— a 
practice which utill prevails in the publication of the statiBlita of indi- 
vidoal porln. The fij^rcn showing llie wliipjiing i-nttrrcrd and cleared in 
1S7 1 ami ] 86 1 have thi:rcf<im bci-it rcducisd in order (i> placi! tlit^in on the 
tame bor^is as those of the other cnlonies, nnd the estitimte in the Utter 
jroat may bo aomewhat high. At the same time, the great advance made 
If the eutwn oolooies during the post thirteen years has been largely 
Aw to the mail steamers, which do not go round lo Itrisbsne. Tn the cn««) 
of Western Australia the fi;{ure«en'on the side of being too high, for the 



11$ 



SHIPPING. 



jibnonual developiuenl uhowii in jiat a]tof^Ui«r due to f^rowtb of trade, 
but iu & lari;e lueonure to the fuct that Albiuijr lia-t beeo mado a port *it 
full by aome tit tlif^ mMl-ateaincrs no tlicir vuyn^ betw«eD Kurope 
Jiiid Uie uiiattni colonies, Uuring tho Inxt fpw ycnni, hownvrr, Ul» 
(lev(.'lo]>in<!nt ot' the gold-fields in W<*trrn Aiiutnilia hns liitd t4ic offirct 
lit grently incTenHiiig the Jcgitimato tonimgc of ttiot colony, the total 
shipputg in iS94 beiii£ fully 27 per cent, higher than in 1^91. 



Of ttie tutnl sJiipping of AiutmlosiA, which ha.3 been dealt witii 
tht pn-cecling Miction, a proportion of over 62 per cent, is represent 
by trjul« between llio various colonies. In the following tnblo wiU_ 
fcmiiil tho number and tonnage of vessels entered dt the ports of 
colony from the other provinces. As a rule, the expansion of the ( 
of A colony wilU ita ntiglibouia hua kept |J!iob with the gruwlh of ital 
commerce with outsido oountrion. To this gi^nenil stateuient Net 
Zealand fonuH ui exception, on account of tliu di^vi-lopuicnt of lb 
resourcM to such a point that it hss been enabled to rnt'T into dir 
commitrcinl roUtions with the United Kingdom, instead of trading bj 
w»y of the porta of New South Wales and Victoria: — 





EDMred trotn oVaa CstMilH. ■ 


Ojfcojr. 


iBii. 


ISRl. 


ISM. 1 




VukJii. 


Tonnagv. 


Vcnels. 


TODIU^. 


Vtneli. 


T^nifs. 


Now South WnlM 


1,730 
1,TS3 
S63 
837 
05 
OH 
4ff7 


839.I3S 
;80,G33 
208,693 
412,493 
74,020 
17S,439 
227,2*4 


2,378 
2,007 

4oe 

T78 
155 
724 
475 


1,847,435 
1,542,309 
277,0eS 
e»,4S8 
242.001 
400,147 
351,827 


2,537 

1,727 
421 

soo 

■>>3 

642 
3S0 


I,640,e7» 

1,47B.07I> 

309,659 






813, IST 




386,863 
34.'i,60& 




32»,£»S 






AiutnlulA 


6,100 


2,877.620 


G,979 


5,350,723 


8,732 


5,3I4,S8» 
1 



CLBAUANCE8 FOB OTHBK COLONIES. 



"9 



It will tw seen Uint Ndw South Wftlcs headit Uie lial with ncM-ljr onis 
tbird of th« tihipping imttnwl frnm Qthcr colonieH, a poaition which ia n 
inrg» iR(Hunr9 is doabtl^ss dno to tho fact that innnj- v«Mel§ which di»- 
dwrgQ in other colonies proceed to New Skiutli Wnlca to load for foreign 
ports. Vtotoria staoils second to N«w t>i>ut)i Walnn in ref;&rd to tho 
q«anlity of tomoaKe ent«i«d, but it ranks fiist in the amount of ton- 
nage desred, as may be ae«n from t)i« following Sgures : — 





Cleuvd tec «tbvi ODilMiba^ 


Oslav. 


UM. 


Uil. 


IfH. 




VmcIi. 


Toon^r. 


"Trntl*. 


Tooiuf<L 


VomU 


TmawiOi 




W07 
1,S89 
679 
S7I 
U» 
•61 
4W 


766,800 
BM,629 
331,439 
467.507 
71,83« 
180.eu 
199.517 


2,146 

2,263 
423 
8BI 
1G9 
769 
447 


1 

1,574,841 
1.84'J,1S3 
3!6.808 
«73,6M 
Se9,W3 
4S9.3S0 
287,332 


2.424 
1.703 
448 
SSS 
302 
722 
373 


1,5S£,S60 




1,573,311) 
320,388 
SSfi.iSO 






W«M«rB Auatniia .,..„., 


371.613 
4a6,40a 
296,373- 


JTawZMUnd 




«,»] 


2.SI2.838 


7,099 


6,662,760 


6.820 


d,502;UI 





Aa com{«Ti-tl with New South Walea, titr position oonipied by 
Tictori* in the &hovo tftbln is jicculiiir, nnd pArtJy arists from tlit! 
Decentjr of many vrawils which enter its ports with cargo beuig oom- 
•tJled to clear in ballast and sock otitward freights in New South 
Wal<<% chiedly at the port of Newcastle. Many of these vqsscIi load 
Mai for (oieign ports ; and while tbey are clenred at blulboiimit tut 
engafti^ in <^ iiiterooloniitl inde, on their out^vurd voyugu from N'ew- 
eutle tliey are, of courxt!, r^okoned aitiongst the i-xtirnat shipping. 
Another point which shtnihl bo reuiembcrvd when onnsidt^ring the 
dripping of Victoria, and, indoed, of South Auxtrnlia uid Western 
Anttnlia aln, ia tlw fact that nt thr porU nf thnt cnlnny the great 
nmmi liiinin are n^oned twico over in overy trip from l^urope — onee 
DQ their way to Sydney, and once on tlieir return from the tenniital 
fon ; and this causes au undue intiatiou of the intercolonial returns. 



120 



SHXPI'IKG. 



- The combined tODnnge cntCTCid snd cleared during 1^1, )@91, anil 
1894, with (be perceaUj^ for each colony, will he found l«low : — 



fXiocgr. 



Euieral wid aond. 



TduI ToDni««. 



latL 



IMI. 



ISM. 



PweCDiBBt ol ToUL 



ItM. 1501. 



ItH. 



Now South WiJn 

VlctoruL 

Quqeiulftnd 

Soutli Auttrolia .. 
Weatern Aiiatnlik 

TumanU 

NowZcoUad 

AustntliuU .. 



1,706.054 

ooo.o,« 
sso.aeo 

350,08.1 
426,801 



6,790.458 



3.421!,a-6 
3,3^4,552 
BOS.SfiS 
1.5B3.U2 
511,36 
H9S.4'J7 
631il,5.'j9 



11.022.493 



3,193, 
3.053, 

636, 
l.TSS, 

T(!S. 

772. 

(i25. 



244 

.180 
047 

■CUT 
,475 
,017 
,960 



29'5 

3S-9 

10-.I 

15-2 

■1-i 

6-2 

7-3 



10.816.730 100-0 



31 
30>7 
5-5 
14-3 
4-6 
8-2 
5-8 



lon-o 



1<»«I 



ExTEHyAL Srippiho. 

It baa been expUinwl thnt in any compurison between tic shippinf! 
of Australasia and that of othrr couDtrip§ tho intercolanial trade voutd 
have to l>o ((xcluded ; but even then the tonnage woukl be too hi^ 
bec«us« of tbr. incluaiou ui imiil-atfamet-s mid other vessels in the retums 
of sevei'ftl of tbi? colonies. However, it is scarcely possible to .inten4M 
the retiirnit to nx to !«;curc^ blici rejection of the tonnage which is rrckoned ^ 
twice over; wid in considering the folloning statement, showing the 
shipping trade of these colonics with countries beyond Austritlasia, tlus 
point should be borne in mind : — 



Dtnilaa. 


1S71. 


liu. 


1»L 


IftH. 


Venelb 


Tonnnre. 


VuhI*! Toniiii:*. 


VoMll 


lanoiBB 


VOHllj ToiUBBk 


UDdM KIntitnm— 


Mi 


IM.Ul 


TSS 
4111 


»«,403 
»1,8M 




1,434.7411 


TTO 

ran 


t.v».ta 
i.ea,«a. 






ewt 


r*o,7M 


i.tw 


l.ea1,39S 


l.TM 


S,31S,«)0 


i.ssfl 


i.m.M 




Biltlih l-wtilora— 




lU.lIT 


eta 

6WS 


S7*,7M 


Ell 

m 


4ea.4U 


00! 
44J 


MMM 




snjm 






es7 


!0«L4TT 


i.«a 


;o7,«r 


87t 


I.MO.SSI 


1,04 B 


i.oujtii 






fMalia Ogonuiw-- 






ai9 

«3S 




7U 

HI 


nStOQS 

1.KU.HT 


Tin 

(OS 


1,01S.StV 

i.i7a.n»; 








I/IM 


4K.1iid 


t.W 


TJWRi 


1,(90 <.1«,»W 


I.H» 


2.100^4 






AUExUnulTwl*- 

EliUml 


i.uri 




i.iiin 

1,TU 


I.IST^S 


S,2J1 


3,1IT.MS 


«,IW7 


a.m,98t 


ToUl , 


tMi 


i4n,us 


s.(si 


B,lf3,aST 


i.mo 


«.4H,e.vi 


«.i» 


a,Ma,Ea 

_ — .—J 



■^^^B 




^^^^^ DIVISION OP EXTERNAL TONNAGE. 121 

The cx(«mal skipping of Anstralasia during 1891 waa thfl lii}[1it«t in 
the buiory of tlie cjumry, being fully 2 gierveiit muro than tlic tonnngti 
entered and cleariMi in 1891, when trade Him intiated by thu .tliipmmt 
4^ goods Ivft nri>r frmn the previous y<utr on uccount of tho mnritime 
strike. A distribution of tho Im^ic nmongiit the tratding divJHons of 
tbe Britith Empirp «n<l tlie prinoipul foreign coimtriM with whom the 
colooies liave cmnmci'cial relations will be found below : — 


^^^H Omttlrr. 


Enlcnl bom and eliucd lor CountrtM twrond AiumlMti. ^| 


tsn. 


IHL 


UM. H 


Voaelt. 


Tonnfe^. 


Teoels. 


Tanoftgn. 


V«i»rl» 


TonnLgc, 


Britiali Eiapira— 


1,259 
167 
244 
133 
153 
6S2 


1.0BI.22S 

272,108 

257.011 

54,!I49 

43,255 

140,573 


1,720 

142 

237 

72 

153 

3MU 


3,348,409 

2S6,31'J 

324,830 

66,211 

1-27, ISO 
201, 7a3 


l,G26 

103 
207 
152 
160 

■123 


3.332,800 
20G,OS2 
2&5.803 
1S3.S90 
111,02( 
2:40.139 






Othtr Britnh PiMNwIoM 

hniflii Ccwntriet— 
FruM «iid X«w Cala- 


2,478 


2,41S,215 


2.6(M 


4,354.741 


2,^71 


4,349,143 


294 

27 

67 

3 

9H 
31 

40S 


113,915 

15.788 

33.719 

1,SS2 

301.246 

s3,ees 

212,353 


275 

208 
51 
27 

484 
34 

617 


417,064 

383.001 
74.8*3 
41,007 

507,210 
33,135 

545,149 


256 

170 
63 
2fi 

204 
11 

770 


513,642 

363.574 
C3.3S6 
56.192 

3!iil,742 
11.948 

749,061 




NetbccUniU ftiid Java... 






Othor Foreign Conatrim 


1.157 


733,872 


1,096 


2.102,309 


i.ses 


3.190.54S 


All ExtcroBl ToDoagc 


3.035 


3.153.087 


4.3M 


0,457,050 


4,139 


6,539.888 


J 









3 


1 




1 


1 


■ 




■■ 








■ SQTPPISG. ^^M 

^B Of the total amount of «xt«rniU shipping Nrw ciouth WaIm takm no f 
^H l«M » proportion than 389 per cent, or monr thnn doulitn the (juintitT- 
^H of Vktonn, which ranke next in importance to the mothtrr colony. In 
^H the following tftble the dtvlsioa of taniuige between the serea colonies 
^H is >IiOwn ; but the li>;iiri~i in th« t'hapler on commerce give a better idea 
^H of the rolativo iTaportante of the provinces in exteniiJ iriuie, iis the 
^H tonnage of tho mail -stt^mavrs entered and ek-urfd at Albany and Port 
^H Adelitidt! ie out of all proportion to the goods lutidird and ship[>ed there: — 


^H Colenr. 




ijiUnd and CIsuvL 


Dt OU^ OOMBT ■ 

•oloUl. ■ 




lai. 


itn. 


IBM. 


rnwcli 


TDnn4A«r 


fmeli 


Tboniied. 


V«hI) TucniiHc. 


IBSl. 


IBUl. 


I»4. 


^H NswSouIli WkiM .... 


BIS 
Ml 
»1 
171 
B8 
MS 


liOSO.tM 
«IM,BK 


1,000 

EM 
SO 


i.271,9M 
l,380,(iST 
SM,W5 
l,ITS,«T 
S1S,H9 
IM,II» 
nn.'i.Tns 


i.eo: 

GliS 

«w 
fa 

4T0 


i.am.uTs 

U1.K8 
I.IM.MTS 

MD.IWS 
IM.SM 

em.nio 


21 '4 
8* 

18-2 
4 '4 
»■» 

■ » 


U-3 

Hit 
O'l 
1»-* 

i-s 

0-< 


«'S 
1« 




^H We«lf ra AiulnJlB 




ii.sas 


s.iss.on 


i.:soa 


u,ii;.Daa 


<,m |a,MB,c83 ' tMo 


louo 


ioo-» 


^H A compariaoQ between the aluppiag of tbe pmicii>al countries of dhA^ 
^M world and the external tozmage of Auatr&laaia is appended : — M 


^^H Coaatry. 


Tonnaoe 
Enlond ud Clownl. 


Cnntrr- 


Toonuv H 
EotendudClMnd. 1 

1 


Tout. 


hud. 


ToUJ. 


Kimge 

V 

hmO. 


^H Unitei) Kingdam . . . 
^H RuMift in Kuropo ■ 


. 80,536,359 
, l2,7Ji2,46ti 
. 5,700,170 
. I1,705,4U 
. 7,952.11* 
. 2S.M9,1»4 
. 1^3U9,*S5 
. 11,941,470 


1-6 
2-9 
2-4 
3-7 
0-5 
12-7 
20 


VmiM 
8[MUn . 
IlAly . 

United 


.•-™ 


88,022,320 
«,022,72G 
U,73S,859 
33,50t.S7I 
13.S3S,S10 


07 ■ 
14 1 

OS M 

OS f 
2 '8 
9S 
S-S ■ 

i-a ^ 




fnM.Um 




Argnnt Bfl Itdnuhlifi 




CanacU 
CapeC 




11,2S0,53S 


^H nnlliii-1 


nlonv 




3.43e.33« 
a,530.GSS 




AnstraUxiA 









PROPORTION OF VESSELS IK BAUUST. 



123 



■On Ihd baais of populntion, thn^^for?. the colonies of AuBtralaain 
1 the gr«M countries of tio United States, France, Ceruwuij-, Italy, 
S{Mun in the aniioiint of shipping trade. 

Toyhacb III Sali^st. 

A peculiar feature of the eliipping trade of these culonies ia the small 
Uiough varyiug proportion of tonnage in ballast arriving from and 
departiu;; for plac^ beyond AuslralaaiiL Thus in the year 1B81 thin 
dtMriplion of tonnaKe )UDOuat«l to 4-3 percent., audio 1S91 to 3-5 
per cent, of tliu tolui external sliippmg of the colonies ; while in 1894, 
it 9"^ par cent., tlio pn>porti»n wan unusually high. Thin inercwHi waa 
chiefly dno to tlx: larger number of vt^.i-suls which came to Now Uouth 
Wai«s in <iucst of freights, Iho prcporttou of shipping in liallnst for that 
eolauj approxinuiting cloeelj to thitt for the United Kingdnm. Tho 
total ext«mal tonno^ OD(«red and cleared in ballast during the years 
1881, 1891, and ISM vaa as follows :— 



Cblonr- 


Taniuc* 

Ent«ml t,n'\ CI curd 

m BuJIiHt. 


In DitllHt U 




un. 


un. 


UM. 


liU. 


IWL 


tm. 


SMr&mthWalea 


3S.S78 
13.MI 
33.a7S 

!ai,fiao 

19,309 
4.GG3 

S0,622 


74.978 
27.417 
2S,SS8 
40.907 
14,030 
IMIH 
30.61<0 


444,080 
53.92S 

1S.020 
e4.»93 

3,091 
30,334 


2-1 

1-7 
6-0 
GO 
7-5 
10-1 
7-5 


3'S 
3 1 
fi-6 
3-5 
2a 
81 
5-1 


17-4 
4-4 




6-2 




fi-ii 




4-6 
S-4 




4'S 






AitvtnlAiia 


134.750 


205.064 


638,378 


4-3 


ss 


9-8 







The reason why no small a pro|>ortion of Atiatralaiiun tiiiippiug clears in 
ballaxt ia principally lu bo found in the ;;reat and viu-ied roiiourceti of tlie 
eoontr^ ; for whm thu staph- produce — woo! — is not ava:1»ble, cargoes of 
wbcist. coal, and other <xnnni(iditi<T3 may gnnerally lie ubtaincil. lii-sidi-s, 
owing to the groat distance of the port.s of these colonien from t!ii> 
eonniercia] centresof the old world, vcsKeUare nob usually wnt out with- 
out al leaat some prospect of a rvtum cargo being srvuiwl. As a rule, 
it doea not pay to send vessels to Auslr.tlasia R<?eking freights, as is 
aonmnmly done with renaril to Eufi>|>ean and American ports. It n 
rtrong traitinwiny, then-fort-, of the value of the trade of New South 
Wal«« to "hipownirra to linil cntureil at the [lorta of thai colony direct 
frooi outsido oountrim the cmnparativrly large quantity uf 419.631 tons 
of shipping in ballast, 180,000 tonsof which cam« from ^outh American 
JMCU, and 93,000 from tho Caps Colony. 



124 



SHIPPING. 



■ 



The proportion of tonnage in ballast to tho total shipping of some of 
the principal countriea of the world is subjoined : — 



CmpHit. 


at Sh\o]Ani 
IntiaJlut. 


Cuuntrj- 


of 8htppiiix 




)6-9 
35 ■» 
28-2 
38-8 
20-4 
33-0 




S3-1 




21-2 

SB-7 




SO -4 






IS-I 


Hollanif 


9-S 









Natiosjilitt op Vesszls. 

The (hipping trncle of Austnilnsia is nlmost Dntimly in Rritixh hnii' 
vtH will bf! si-rn from the subjoined t.iblf, which dt'iils with tho total 
tonnage of the cnlonicH, hoth intproiiloniji! and cxtcrmil. Altliough 
direct communic&tion \vitb continental Ijiuxipe liat been cstabliHhed 
within recent yttirfi, and several liiips of magnificent Htoimipm hava 
entered into the trotlR lii-twiH.'ii Aualrftlia and forui.ijn jHirUi, the projxir- 
tion of shipping belonging to Great Britain and her ddpi'iidcnnipji boa 
only fftllpn from 92'9 to flO'l per cent, during the period extending 
1881 to 1894 :— 





Tntal Shipinnic Entered ami ChvinL 


1 


SMaotiiij. 


l^L 


1391. 


IWL 


suh SUIoiulltj. 




VmelL 


ToaUBJfB. 


ThbeIi 


TChDO^F. 


ToscU. 


Tonnlpe. 


lasi. 18B1. 

1 


UM. 




109 

US 

77 


t.iii.ssa 

«7,71S 
1*>.070 

avH-iio 

17,1! 1 


Hi 
aae 

123 


is.aoK.fli'j 

M1*,H77 

in.aw 


16,(101 

II : 

Its 
laj 

136 

8" 


i5.n:M,nn 
tieu.cu 

117, IIM 

ifii.sw 
si.Wi 

lT,»0.tlB 


W9 

1 5 
0-7 
1-7 

or 

1«P0 


• ■a 

17 

s-s 

08 


90-1 


Oibsr duIdiibIIUa 


■ a 

o-s 




I&.Kl 


)i.au,MG 


Id.tiM 


i7.m,s3Si n.mi 


iwo 


iwa 



The retiirnH published by the various colonics are not in snch a form 
as to admit of thn purely local tonnage being ErpaniU'd fixim the other { 
shipping of the Kinpire, iind vessels owned in Australasia are clasHed ihj 
the above tabic an "Britixh." Tlin number and tonnage of the steam and] 
sailing veisets registered in «!ticli of the colonics are given on pagn 139. 
Few of tite large vamdg nmployod in the intercolonial trade hare been 
built in AnatralMia, and it is possible that tlie rcgiatrntioaa do not 
represent the vhoie of the tonnage engaged in local wat«n. 



UiCKEASK IN STBAM VESSELS. 



"5 



Snun Axa Sailino Ye£9!ei& 

The tendency to substitute steamers for aailiiig T«nola, which ia 
graeral thn>ui;bout tli« world, is v^ry tuurkLsl in the Auntrnlasian trade. 
Dufortonatdy ibo records o£ Qu^^iisJuiiO mul of ihc Norllifm Territory 
do not ftdmil of tli« sepanktiuii of tita tvra clui»» of vck»<^I», and this was 
the cMi- a]Hi Willi regud to tho colonies of ^oiith Aii^tmlia and New 
Zt«lbiid nnlil Inti! years. It is not j>n)iiibti', th^oforc', to show the 
incnttM of iitPDin toniiagc for th'^ whole of Australasia, but appended 
vill be found the ligriires for tlie various colonies so far as they can be 
pren;— 



Cakiaj. 


Toul Hmwu Tuuntg« tiileml uiii eland. 




]ieL 


UM. 


UM. 


U8t. 


USl. I8H. 


SewSoatliWnlu-.. 
: A»>ln]in*,.. 


1.787,801 

1 

310,601 
26S.S33 

t 


4,3!»,;ai 

4.0!>I.U:.7 

S,00;.775 

a:8.s«8 
ssa,os6 


4.407.^22 
3,^92.422 
S.2U-,373 
1,S47,4S6 

6se,6eo 

9B2,0S1 


eai 

74 1 

73 SI 
69-3 

t- 


75« 
SO -8 
73 3 
03 -fi 

lira 
mi 


76 -S 

90'7 
S3 
'.>3-9 
115 3 




7S'8 


fi!_^^ 





• KicIuiJiiiK Nnnliitn TsrTilor^. t KM ofaUlniblt. 

The im|>rovi^ini-iit in UiIh roijiect in the vessels en(;aged in the shipping 
trade «£ bohh- of the principil c<>untrie« of the world may he seen in the 
(uUowin^ l.thlr'. Tbo prrcentiigi^ for Australasia is calculated uii the 
Imaix of tbv iihipping of the colonies cxclustve of that of (jurcnsUnd and 
of th« Nortlieni Territory of South Auatmlia : — 



CmBtT7. 



PrrcfnUgr ol Btntm to Total 

TonijAflT. 




Uttlt^I Kittgitom 

Kiimiii in Kurops 

■ Xonrajr 

iSweika 

nDtfinMrL 

GcmuDv 

HolUncf , 

jBelltiani ,. 

it«iy ...'!!;.'*""!;*!:. 

UoitcdSMltu 

ArgmtiDB Hcpablio 
Austmluift 



* PcnenUg* for |iM ISM. 



126 



SHIPPINO. 



A comprebenuve view of the cban^'^a ipluch hsve tfiken place during 
thn last tliirty-tlivee years iu lli« <.'1h.i.i u£ i'^b^i^I vugagetl iii the inters 
coloniftl and the exl«ni&l shippiu^ traje of AusLralwiia may lie obtained 
from the following figured :— 



Tw. 



YNKk. 



Tvdiace. 



Cl*«*. 



per vfovL 



ptrl 



Interuulon'ml Shipping. 



1861 


fl,3M 


i.Tiiueaa 


122,280 


210 


>« i 


ISTI 


10.930 


2.»50.fSS 


168, 0:» 


270 


17 1 


im} 


13,300 


5.7»0,4M 


324.S5I 


471 


IS ' 


1S91 


u.o:8 


II.0i!2,tS5 


443.424 


783 


25 


ISM 


13,552 


10,818.730 


448,280 


TBS 


25 



fixtcmnl Shipping. 



ISfll 


1,061 


1.070.850 


«2,440 


fi40 


SI 


1S71 


2,3*4 


1.279,416 


59,330 


546 


ai 


1S81 


3.G35 


3,153,087 


120,826 


867 


24 


1801 


4,300 


6.437,000 


231,878 


1.471 


3S 


ISQ4 


4,139 


6,539,68S 


233.564 


1,5S0 


& 



All Aujiti-Alimiait Shipping. 



1381 


10.316 


2,923, *M 


174.720 


274 


~ — ■• 


18T1 


13.274 


*.iS».mM 


■2-il.ViO 


a\i> 


19 


ISSI 


I5,!>35 


8,flt3,M5 


4o4,777 


aci 


so 


laai 


IS, 468 


i7,47y.rai 


f;7S,31K> 


H4!i 


ss 


:s>i 


17,091 


17.3i)6,41S 


07IS(«;4 


071 


S6 



In view of tli« many magiiilicent stessien now carrying the niuila 
between Europe and Australia, it in Aomewhsi reuiurkable Ui find l)i«t 
the veasela engugcd in tl>e iii(«ri't)!Mii»l trade have moro tluui k«pt pact 
in tncreuse of tonna){(! with tliufte trading Ix-twevn these calonicei mni 
othl^r fount rip*. Of couriii', tlifi tncreaxn in tho nviTagi- tonnage of 
int^'pcoloiiial rrmHit i* n;prrjii'nt<-it lut gnnt«r than it nctuiilly iian hpca, 
owing to the mail sli-anwrs on their way to Sydney being clcMvd at 
Albany, Adelaide, and M^lhoumo for the coloniea further oast; but, 
when allowance has been made on tliia scare, the improv'ement in 
class of vessel trading in local waters will he found most noteworlhf.^ 
It ia well kiiuvu, howuver, tliut tlie steamerii running on U)« AustnlU 
coast favuiir»bly coiiipnru with tliotto engaged in the coajiLing trade < 
the Unilwl Kingdom. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hi^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


^H TONNAGE OF PRINCIPAL I'ORTS. I27 ^| 

^^H RtiatrTK Im-onrAXCE of Ports. ^H 

HWRktive itnpiirtanee of the various parU of AuxtnlMin nay be ^H 
^Mmm*! bj ui irufieotJon of the tal>te ;nven li<-n:iiii<lcc Molboame ^^| 
^bEnt pl*ce in the amount of loniiAgc; but the (Sfciiixv ura iiillat««l ^H 
■fceoouDiia^of llie great om-jui .lU'niiicn an t«'ion filtering nnd twioo ^H 
^kaf at I'orl Phillijj. This rvtnnrk npplirei njiinll}- to Port Ade)fli(l« ^H 
KAJkMijr. If alJowaaoo bo taadv on this score, it w-jll be found Uimt ^| 
Bff bu > l*rg«r <iiwntit]r of stiipping Uuui auy othe<r Austmtaaiui ^| 
■L Asd tltst it ia followed b; Melboume, Newcastle, and Port ^H 
Bbde in the order aained. In referent to the fl^ureA aivtn for ^m 
Hnrfaad pans, it b aeeeamry U> poiut out Uiat vtasels ar« entered ^ 
HrfpHMi »t all poirU wfaiek tlwy viait, nnd noi at lli« first and last i 
^■MikU unly. Mid tlio i^unntity of toniutff«^ sJiown is tJientfore in ^H 
^^^^i greater tbnn it ought to \tv represented : — ^H 


H ran 


TunnMii cDlcn! wiiI clwnL ^^M 


U8L 


tWL IIM. ^H 


H SnSMihWa1«.- 


l,SI0,Gi>2 
1,13T,23!1 

2,144,S4g 


3,S>1.18e 
1,M4,842 

4.3fi« 13S 


3.571,614 ^H 


H if— :_.i. 




H Tittoria— 


^ KiMbaM 


IB,W: 1SO,03'2 
406,032 855,093 


176,070 ^^^H 
704,085 ^H 




Sf».830 514.470 


S0e.06S ^H 




2(r;.T0G 

217,144 

1,0I8.»!0 
S3.a£5 

«a,ioo 

31D.fl03 
43,618 

SM.oa7 
13N.(UT 

S3S,St)il 

91 .SOS 
167.151 
114,637 


4:i.S37 

4aa,577 

I,990,9aS 
32I,THI 
1T0,64» 

931,S02 
0,066 

•46,0SS 
ae3,63T 

3«.lfi3 
aiS,4.-l 
I'.Hl,i4U 
1«I,3S7 

«T,*oa 


427,703 ^H 




332.827 ^H 


■ 8o«tt AnKnlla— 


S.235,;i» H 
244.21& ^H 
1411,373 ^H 


H Vatn ABMralia— 


1,139,407 ^1 
1S9,S89 ^B 

111 ^^^1 


H IVMMbtk -... 




^^^H 


■ Xw£MluMi— 

H ABtkbaiJ ..,„■■ 


4T3,43-J H 




l.'ll.OU ^1 




117,502 ^m 
M.6a3 ^H 






ki I 



128 



suippma. 



A better idea of the rtilutive importance o£ the principal ports of tbfti 

coloiiit^s IN obtainable from the triule liguri^s, wjiicli «rc giriiu below : 
the v«xr 1894 : — 



PorL 




Port. 


T(tUl Tnulu, 


A^'LTLff« 

pvrlon of 


Nbw South Wdoi— 


£ 

27.3M.<r5l 

l,*83.175 

K,772,8i» 

1.740,711 

7,007,013 


i: 

7-7 
0-8 

67 
6-2 
3-1 


Wertcni Amtralia — 


f 

2,133.811 
■2Si),!ll>3 

1.064,988 
1.103,570 

3.li)4.133 
2,T37.3a* 


£ 
IG-S 






0'2 


Victoria^ 


Tumimift — 


I '8 


QaecoBland— 




3'5 


Now Zt'Blond — 
Auckland 




South Anatnlift— 
fnrt Adelaide 


9-7 
S'8 

■ . 



The comparative importance of tli« ports of Austrnlosin may bo «mb1 
by viewing them in connection witli the shipping nmt Irnde of tho chief 
[wrw of the United Kingtiom, the 1S94 tigurra for which iiiv nppoiided. 
it will Ih* geea that in aggregnto tonnage Melbourne is exceeded only , 
by I/inilon, Liverpool, Curdifl^ and Newcastle. Hull comes next on tlia i 
list, having n slight toad ovi-r Sydney, which in turn vxceods Glfl^govj 
and all other British ports. Tn value of tnulo Sydney is exceeded only 
by Loudon, Livnrpool, and Hull. If Au»tralaeia he rfgnrdcd ns one 
coiuiti-y, however, tbo cnmjiariKort in Nomcwhnt misleading, oa the inMisI 
tiolunid trade U included in tho returns : — 



Port. 



HhijiplnK. 



ToulTndc. 



Fort. 



ToteJ 
SblpplriK- 



ToUITnda. 



Eiijjlund — 

honAaa 

Liverponl 

C«niiif 

Xo'coatla... . 

JIilll 

Nowport .... 

Soiitliamjitoo 
SMtUnil — 



Lutb... 



(ImogMiiouth 
KirkoaUy ,. 



tona. 


i." 




I4.4.13,BS() 


■217,i>S7.96l 




10.4.S'),07S 


lS3,S:i7,.i43 




1U.4"N,31»I 


O.fi1S,720 




4,a4fi,ll3 


lO.DTO.EIOIi 




3.933.123 


4ri,'J-2l,4II3 


2,383.6il 


^.4liU.'.^ 1 


2.323.S16 


ll!,l(i2,60S ! 


2,7(in,274 


■2;{,'JN(),!l,'.:, ' 


i,r>7i,4{iN 


i4,Mo,:.Hi 




I.07I.4j'>4 


3,775.9S1 




8S»,052 


C7S.047 





Ireland — tons. 

Bclfnat I 403,420 

Dublin 30!),0r.(! 

AuBtraliuiin — 

Mflliournc ... 4,035.502 

Sydney 3.571.C14 

Adtl-iidc ■J,23.i,7lifi 

Itniluvnc 7(i4,(iM,'< 

Kntmaiitk ... tai.aS',! 

Holwrt.. ... 534.152 

AuckliMiJ 473,432 



The yearly niovrtmcnt of tunnago nt Mnlbonrnc and ^dney tnri 
MCcecdi that nf tlin ports of any other Hritinh posseuion. Himg KoDgl 
excepted. Two other cxci'piions might bo mentioned — Oibraitar and.f 
Itlalti, but aji those are chiotly ])ort« of call, and the trade ia very] 
limited coiu!)urt.>d with the tonnage, they can scarcely be placed ia tli 
sajuu catetjory. 



■\'E8SBLS OWNED IK THE COLONIES. 



129 



nit>;l«TllATIOX or Vl»i«EL8. 

Hie number and tminage of §team and ^ling vessels on Uie re^teni 
of «Mb of tbe seren colonies at the end of 1J>94 are jpveii Moxr : — 



IMOIT. 


euun. 


SttUlW- 


IWUL 


T^bIk Tonn^c. 


V^mO*. 


Tnmiga. 


V«*b. 


TniiUEV. 


!(«>■ Soalh \V«tM 


478 
US 
88 
M 

.? 
179 


S.3,768 
47.011 
12,007 
1B,1«! 
737 
12,(173 
61.131 


400 
368 
1-2S 
212 
143 
107 
296 


Gfi,60a 
43.886 
30.9&4 
22.SS0 
4,<t39 
6.211 
83,407 


908 
430 
214 
306 
1A2 
218 
47fl 


109.372 

90.Sfl7 


l>MDriMd „.... 


23,01 1 
3!),U^ 


VtUtn Aiutnlia .„„.». 


MTB 
18,234 


KnrZMhod 


99.586 




1^1 


305,971 


1.702 


17MB3 


SL763 


3tlS,fiU 



Sbippimg is 1895, 

In 1896 the ubipfiing of Aiutrnluia wu tlie greatent in thn hiatoiy 
of the oountry. Wh«n this phnpt*r was cojiiiiiletl ilntAiled figures werti 
not AVoilaMu for uty of thv coionien other tlian Neir South Wales, but 
the following tabic ahowt the tonn&ge entered and cleared at each pro- 
Tiaco daring the jnar ; — 



OoiMr. 


Tmumco Tannic* 
tourta. dwrao. 


T«MI 

Tonixa*. 




S,9»,7C8 
S,I81.fiS9 
U9.710 
1,J16«.015 
814,366 
46S.07B 
«73,SSI 


2.930, !i80 
2; 167, 147 
502.195 
).S8I.7I8 
761. 1S5 
473.M6 
64S,M0 


5,860.038 




4.348.096 

9:1.905 

3,150.733 


QneeufatBd ^..^ 




1,578.558 




S37.525 


K*w ZvAlAiia ..'...«•■■«*■<*•■• 


I,32l,Mtt: 




9,101.320 


9.068,017 


18,169,337 



130 



COMMERCE. 



ITisroisonalili.' to expend, that the trade of thes«i colonics sliouM incrMSS 
as quicbly tui the [H>|)ulali(>n, but &a a, matter of fact its growth for 
many ywira vfjia niutli moro rBpid, atui at the present time the total com- 
merce of AiiHtvalaaiii pi-r heud of populiilioii is exceeded by that of n* 
country except Belgium, half of whose tnide consists of goods juooumot 
tr&nsit to and from tht* north- west itii ^ind centrnl [lurta of Uie coutloent 
of Europe. Eirlow will Ixi found a stntement of the trade of AUHtraUuiift 
for varioUM periods since the year 1825, prior to which date :io iiiforina> 
tion is ftvaiUble : — 



Ymt. 


Tmic of Aiumlulk. 


ToU! VoJue. 


VaIug per bcvl. 


1826 

1841 _ 

IMt 


£ 

511.098 

S,573.000 

H,Q5T,6I0 

R2,223,207 

69.4T4.0S4 

101.710.967 

144.;d6.SS9 

111.610.436 


£ «, A. 

10 la 11 

22 4 
18 10 7 




41 IS 10 
35 18 4 




30 12 7 




37 U 7 
37 3 









It will be Rcen that th« avMago valuo of trade per inliabitantj 
incrwwfd by XI Un. 3d. during the twenty ycftrs extending from 187l| 
to 1891. of which tlie period from 1881 U> 189! a^cuunted for no law] 
thaii £1 1*, 7(1. This, however, doe.i not hIihw the full extent of 
B;rowtli in triide, for the prices «( produce — enpiicinlly of wool, whic 
hiui been tlie staple product of thise colonies tiinco very cJirly yeara- 
liavit fallen lii^uvily. To this cause must the great dcclino in the vaIh 
of the triido since 1S91, which hits placed tile average amount per I 
of population in lW9:i ui IK9* lielow that of any other year since 
gold discorery, be partly attributed, and partly to the wave of depnnio 
which Awept over AuBtrataun, and from t)ie effeota of whidi *' 
country is only now recovering. 





OEOWTH OF ESTEENAL TOADE. 



EXTBftltAL TftADB. 



131 



TIm previous Uble Khtm the total tnde of tlie seven coIorimi, hut 
U AostnlHw be rrgardcd « & whole, and the le^timati! tnuln whicii 
the proWncw oMxy on with fmch other, (is well an the va!m> i.f the goods 
which pftRS throogh one colonj' on iheir way to aimthi-r, he eliminated, 
the totnl and average ainount« will uf cuurse he gn-iitly mhiced. Thin 
«limiiiation has been made in the fullowiiig luble, which shows Ui« 
growth sinc« 1861 of what may be called the fxternal triwie, that is, 
trade tran&actnl with all i.'otiiitrir; outside at Australnsin ;— 



Vtiu. 


Bitaml Tnda. 


TMkl Value. | V*lu> per head. 




;i5,Olil,2S2 


£ 1. d. 
2S 3 in 




rill.TSl.OlH 20 10 10 
C1..154,i>:s 23 8 3 
SJ.6S1.4S8 22 8 


MfKfM 4|»lt«Aait4|*t|Al<t«| 


19H - 


6S,332,W)0 IS 17 10 



By fiir th* prwiter part ot the extvmal trade of Austra1ania is 
carried on with th« United Kingdom ; and of the rfinainHer the larger 
proportion la (raniincterl with foreign countries, principally France, 
Gennany, Iiet|;iuu), ftn<l the United States, while the trado with British 
KMMUons has of late years considerably declined. The subjoined table 
Aom the dixtributiuu of the exlernal trade between Uie tlir«e divinions 
Damed: — 



Jr^^wUh— 


isa. 


1871. 


1861. 


an. 


ISM. 




£ 
IJ.SQ'.SM 


£ 

ii.nos.tiD 


£ 


£ 
30,823,1:1 
»2.«K,8L1 


U.m8.l)CT 

so.sM.eiis 


( TuUI ... 


3j.ii7i.saa 


sn.os.isi 


m.mt.eui 


e3,ie^,3li 1 SO..Mt.W!» 




1.707.3111 


2,M!.1(» 


s.m^.ins 

4.S57.9M 


».<IM,tl7 


i.esT.Mii 


( To««l. . . . 


b.tH.IK 1 3.1<e.«IO 


7.330,156 


S.SOT.QM 


.1.0111,017 


/ iBiporti . . 


S.SIB.ISS 


2,UMU 1 t.WB.SSI) 
J,MS,1>70 1 s.elo.i^ 




t.ISS.241 


I TS1*I- ... 


3.91a ,Es 


e.ois.flM 1 T,iia.Di& 


16,803,1414 


in.Mi.Ka 


f Inp«rU , , 
T»l J"^""" ■ 


W.OiW.TsS 




si.no.fiTS 


U.1M.I73 


an,i^,Mn 

3t1.ITt.?<M 


i ToMI.... 


ai,aei,jgj 


W,T»,0IO 


M.BH.On 


M,Wl.W» 


U.iuiiiiw 



132 



COHHEBCB. 



mrtafeM 



Prioi' to tho year li^SS the Kuropiriin trnilc of Australasia was almost 
exclusively carried on with the l.initctl Kingdom, but since tliat time 
direct comiuprcial relntions luive lnnm oatabliahed with the loading 
Continental couiitri^a. Notwithstoiidiii^, however, tlie lat;ge aLipiueute 
of wool to llie Cout)ii«Dt and the return tniJis lhe^^^f^0Iu, iht- Britiab 
tntdv invreiised duriiif,' th« ten yoora endfd 1891 hy £13,167,708, trquol 
tci nmrly 27 jier Dent. ; wliile tlie tutdv with foreign coiijitrii;s increut^ 
(iuriug thi-' Jttaic period by £8,649,233, or majrly 120 po.r <vnt. From 
lK!)l to It^SU, from causes which have iilrniuly itni^n oxpUinral, trade 
with flm Unitt-d Kingdom docrcasod by Xli;,917,65j, and tltat with 
foreign countries by £ri,03S,235. The tirade with BrittHh posaeasioiis 
haa never beon of much value, and b now les; than foi-iiiorly, hxviii;; 
faUen from £7,336,156 in 1881 to £5,326,025 in 1891 and £3,903,017 
in 1894. Afl compared with 1891, the year 1894 showH a decre«M! in 
tnule with tli« United Kingdom of 20-3S per ceiiL ; witli foreign 
countries, ot 31'76 per ueut; and with liritiidi poasessionx, of 25'59 per 
ctint. 

The following tabic shows tie value of tiie goods imported direct 
from each of tl^ prindp&i countnea during the years 1881, 1891, and 
1894 :— 



Impohd ffoiii— 


Uttl. 


IMl. 


ItM. 1 


BrlUABBllt^ 


e 

MMta 
u»,4n 

Mt.MM 
i,M» 


MS 

SS!.JT« 

MdpTU 


< 
lll.Wll^j 




i,u7)i,aio 




11T.SW 
t.MT 


nf .3 


SIMM , 
4tLTM 






•2,103 


Itolil 


*.iw,3m 


S3,8t7.S>l 


nfmflM 1 




ronlEU ConirirlM— 


UM10 

KTU 
1U.1M 

«M,Ma 

lU.WT 

O.Mft 


l,77a,»77 

an ,011 

«M.«I4 
U4,W0 


1 

191 .SOS 




sur,«uT 




na.TTS 




MaMB 




iiv.seo 




ijkTB.tns 




ais.Ma 




iiLsaa 

t74.U» 








*,IIK3» 


;j«0.(£4 


4,l3e,Sll 






aa.Miios 


u.wa^it 


K,l»S,3tU 




OMAdi4iD Dvmliilvn 
OvaOBioay 



gwglMin 

Sn3u*Sdniniii" 



ItaU 



hid«BnacuSs— 



■Dd W—ttlriBah.. 

Ccraur - 

Jul* 

■Mcliim 

$ii*4ai (od Konnjr 

I'aiMiSMa 

CiMbcrbBib »ad J*» 

»i«J> 9M likad* 

ChliM 

otw OauBtria ^ ^ ^ I i X ! I ! " 



Total 

Total EittfiHl KipnW 



*4,M3.(22 






in.9T7 



e 
ttMlMl 

40 

1T1.*1J 

1111,151 
4M.T71 
1H.Hg 
14S.TM 



sa,aA3n 



M,tm,Ma 



«M,ttt 

70,01 

tn.M« 
ioe,ar 

M.US 

uo,»a 

n,M> 

s.t>n 

sn.ui 



gj i n o.fw 



Sl.llO.BTl 



US.STO 
3D,T40 

<no,TM 



S,r!(.W« 



c 

SO,SW,I« 

MB.IM 

U.SI 

ai.iM 

U9,HB 

mja 
si.iat 



11.WWTS 



l,M>i.T07 

i.s;ot4 

0*0 

SIMM 



a,(isii,a9i 



43,213,173 



3a.i;i,Mn 



The taIut^ of the coroliinet! imports and exports were u given 



Tnd«»i»- 



USL 



CnlMt KInidon 

hdta*alc*rvia , 

fiMijuii rt iiiiiiiiw 

Sr**^."'::::'::::::::; 

ammioat 

Manctonf 

Sn*iu Sinlcmnrt* 

otbs FcMMiUia 

TiMlIlrtlMl .,... 

££ 

CiriMau*M _... 

X^OMtlMdtuid/MK 

«a>akaaUn* 

CtaUw 

mCt CMokto'.'.'".' ".'.~" ! 
Total FMalCB ,...t.: 
Tool Eitanul TMfa 



Ki,(»t,«vr 

s,Ma.Tra 

iDO.tn 

SI .10) 
1.4W,BDt 

i,«n.«t 

)4I,l»t 



n.MOtnu 



100.798 

»T.UO 
SHI,IM 

9M.74t 

l,AOg,Nl 

>0,1» 



T,iLa,n£ 



«4,eH.flT8 



im. 



UN. 



e 
t,tca.««s 

lAl.TIR 

ITl.TM 
4W,1«S 

].UD,EM 
339,814 

ivr.-%\ 



<«jB»,Ma 



«l.4» 

I.SW.TM 

t».41t 

■.UMN 

itT.ao» 

Tt»,»t± 
■!TJM 
tttMt 



iKS^AV 



H,aDl.U8 



e 

M,M4,0IU 
l.tia,034 

J2I.J48 
Bt.fllS 

831 .ICO 

100,214 
117.M1 



u,»m,tnr 



S.IM8.604 

!i.(M«.l>U 

«I.K8 

1W,MB 

t.iao.Tn 
«T,4ai 



uo,iKr 



lO.HM.MO 



«(,33t,«IKI 



134 



COHHEHCE. 



Trade with xriK Unitkd KixaDou. 

The value of the tr&d« of Austi-&lMiit to the Unit«d Kingdom is 
luaiiifeHC from au exauiinaliou of the British tmda reluma. From tliA 
followjji}; table it will be seen that vhilu in 1881 the produce of tbcM 
(.■cilon:»-3 fonneil '29-5 [ler cent, of t\>v luijiorta of llie UuJted Kiii;;<loiii 
fr»iii hi-r fHisseasions, in 1891 the prupordon -was 31-4 per cent., anil ia 
1894 asliigh as 33-9 ]ier<:ent:~ 





An ntumod bj Brltliih Oiislouuu 


rmpnrticin ot Imporu 


T«ar. 




IflipDrtA from AtutrmluUh. 


froiD Aiutnloti M laUl 
horn BritUh PomsrinK 




. 


£ 


per cent. 


1S61 


fil,S.19,(JU0 


SB, 975.381 


29-5 


lagi 


«J.-HM,7IH 


31,S(]1,S<S6 


3t'4 


ISM 


93,913,106 


31,832,030 


33-0 



Althoii;;h it is very little more than a centuty since the comiiienoMntnl 
of Aii»trHla»iaii settteinenC, the trade of thedc colonies with tlm United 
Kingdom Is nuw only exceeded by that of India, while it is conHidentUT 
more than donbln that of Caiiiida, and in a larger degreo nxoeeda tlM 
trade of any other British pusspssioii. The following tnhln, vhicJi is 
compiled from the n-turns of the Board of Trade, shows tho total ijnAr. 
of the United Kingdom, exclusive of specie, for thn three years If^I, 
1891, and 1 Btii, with the most important cotonieB and posseatdoiM : — 



CMniiy. 



18£L 



net. 



ISM. 



I 



India 

Brlllih Xonh Anitrlo 

C^w Oolonjr Hill X4M1 .... 

SInttt aMUftiieDlB 

ttongtntt 

Auitnlulk 



t 

ia,«(M.i» 

U.IOC.IM 

e,U!,tn 



x,9(x.3a 

II.8DJ.M6 

f.BW.UJ 



fi7.nB,8I)0 

«,««S,TOS 

!,(IIl,Hft 

4I>,T«,»4 



ptrMntiMrouil 






issi. 



MM. IM. 



T1 
I- 



at 

10 « 
n 

4-1 

»-o 



ptrcmC 

ai 

14 





BISTKIBUTION OP BRITISH TRADE. 



135 



is, agftia, A oompariaou be aiail« o( tbn totnl tntile tranaacted by t)ie 
XTiiicMl Eiu);i}om with al! L-oiintric« (hiring the year 1894, it wUI be 
fouiitl tliat Itic liuili' witJi Au5trnInjnA, amounting to £49,TC1,7G-1 tm 

urn kbiivr-, wa* only i-xn^ibni by that carried on with fuur countrim, 
nrly. thn Unitnl Ktntrs. wilh n total of £120.383,858; France, witb 

i.'I,2tH.i:tii ; HritiHh India, with £57.76.3,800; iincl Otrmnny, with 
£^€,091,7*J8. 'rh« amounM txken by otlit-r countries will bi- found 
bdow, and it most be noted tbat the values given do not include apme : — 



OlMUU}* 



OtHMBJ - 

HaKad 

Sn*4 9MM '"/" 

OiW 

llmlMfc 



I»L 



1W1. 






c 
Ta.Mp.ua 

((WJ7,I« 
U.04T.8U 

io.TK.ins 

t.OM.DW 
MII.MB 
ia,>M,TSS 
L(tt,HI 

M.atT.T» 



e*.ii4,i» 

90,ut.m 
4t,»a,Mn 

to,nv.s» 

T.M ;,!!£« 
CD.UU.SIS 



UM. 



PrntHfrttnii In Trjtal TnHt 
I or UDlMd KiasdML 



isn. 



I8»t, 



ISM. 



t 


pertwnt 


per cvnt ] 


nxii,iKi 


Ifl'l 


a-3 


Mwi.ns 


10 


T7 


xum.MM 


sa 


t t 


•t.4«s,iia 


B-S 


n7 


ii.aM.jw 


!■! 


a-J 


B,sia.i°o 


Ifl 


IS 


iw.aa&iiM 


ain 


IR-S 


10,M1.SM 


O'O 


1-0 


8,101,076 


O'll 


0-8 


D.TW.D^ 


in 


1-J 


i,;b3.r§z 


O'J 


01 


<«i;si.;m 


T-J 


ID 



per nnt 
fl'S 
8-S 
It 

1)1 
!■! 

n« 

ID 
OK 

1-: 

0-!l 



TkADE with FOBEIGX CoUKTRlES. 

Every year ^loaniers of greater tonnage and higlier speed are visitiiiK 
ihe colonies from Enrope, and a eoiiaiderable expuiuiiuii oF oomujeruu 
of neceuity lake place, owiiig^ to the new outlets for trade which 
bnn opened up thereby. The value of Austi^lusian imports from 
the princtpul foreign vouittriea may be traced below from the year 
ie61:— 



OeuBUy. 



IWt. 



nwse ud .f** OHedoaU 

rpuwiiy .. 

MiKrta* *>1 J*<«. 

U* 

■pi4m «ad Katnjr 



Afui 

awthSMWo*.. 

tWce^suM* , 

OadrColdw .. 

T«Ul 



laa.iu 

lOt.lTt 

u«,a>M 



*9,CMt 
WM1 



w,so[> 
LOQO.tfra 

SMkSK 



3.nil,TM 



IMl. 



leat. 



c 



in,>M 

vn.n» 

"lOBJJa 

"liu.Ha 

IM.tM 



« 

M.TIS 

»40.:w 

M(I.<U 

r.87« 

l,<30,W3 
IW,M7 
tOt.MI 



IMI. 



e 
asi,«B 

i.jis.aj; 

OU.flW 

UI,4M 
4.Mt,IH 

ei.2se 

!»,»* 

!,SS),lli 

9.'p.700 



t,»£,l» t.OOSwSM •.IMI.iSI 



UM. 



t 
HI7.W7 

ua.TTft 

11H.H0 
S74.IW 

lIt,«H 



4.ia6,tti 



136 



COMMERCE. 



The exports from AastraksiiL to Uie coontriea meetioned in the pre- 
ooding tabic nrv Appended : — 



CmmtTT' 


un. 


lan. 


ua. 


tS«L 


UM. 




c 

KIM 
>,MT 

U(,1«D 

l.S« 
MUD 

t£im 


< 
isi.vc 

D.lTi) 

u;i,(>cj 

S,IU,IU 


100.4X1 

TQ.tn 
i's.m 

O.STS 


JNM,ill« 

tT.sm 
aoa.7K 




Itjili 


U.IM 

37,(nt 






US.OKI 




8U.(M 








IMI.4K) 


\»a,vn 


2,aia,Mi 


B,j;s.TC* 


•.«),«■ 





Thn commvn^i: wHb foreign c«u»trirs from the cominencpraunt of the 
period under mvicw nxhihiLs vniy mtiafoctniy progress; the import! 
have incrcawd 2855 per cent,, wliilo tlie export* have grown to nearly 
ninp tiineii their original value, the incnuuio in the total trade htinff 
173'1'i par cuiiU Tua expaimion is uUiefly due to the development of 
the Ruro|>oan coiiliiientnl trade, ounseijuc-iit on tlit> div<n:aion of part of 
th« wool buKiniMH from London, whicli weis Inrgclj brought tibout by the 
display of Incnl rc«oarccs at tbo Sydney and Mi-tbountn Internnttoiisl 
Exhibitions of 1678 and 1880. Tho nnnunl incrnuc' jmr cont. of lh« 
trade of tho Austrnlanan colonics with the four principal foreign countries 
with which tlioy hnve commercial relations is ehown below, the period 
coTered being die thirteen years extending from 1881 to 1894 : — 



I 



Cmhtrj. 



Import*, 



Kepocia 



SlWTMAi. 



Belgium 

TnacD and Now CakdoaJB 

Germany 

United StatM 



pWMnt. 
It) 01 
•4-53 
11-23 
•009 



percent. 
23B9 
U-«7 
26-10 
'3-M 



pvroent 

17-36 

'1-47 



The trade with ndginia exhibits the ^preatrst progms, but Antwerp, 
the port front which a grctil portion of Gnrman and French maDufnctaree 
iH slitpiied, is nXiia the distributing centre for thtt greater part of the wool 
duKttnf^d for the Continent, and large quantities of this product landed 
then! uHiiiiatoly find tJieir way to Oennany, France, and other couutrieft. 
Tho French, <aaiy in 18S3, were the first to i^stablJAli direct oommendal 
relation* irtth these colonies, the steamers of the AlessagericB HaritimM^ 




n 



TRADE -mTll POEEIGK COUNTJftlES. 



«37 



mssWducd line^ making thdr appearance for th« firatliuieia Auntmlisin 
w«t«n in tiie VMT nai»«<d. Jn t'-^i thu vemek oi Uit? Xonldiiitm-hOT 
Lloyd Conifany, of Branaa, coiiimMioetl tnuliuj^- wiUi AuatmlMuii ; and 
iuUielatt«>rpartof l8SSalin« of Ut^rmaii car^boaU opcnnd upfartfaer 
tomnmaiotiim Wtwi'di the ^^rmt wool- ox port! ux cities of Ky<lni]>y, Mol- 
faoome, and Addiuile and the [tortit tit Antw«T]>, Hunburg, unci Diinkii-k. 
Bcl^uni hM bImo estAbhuhrd m litm of KtcfttnshipK, and in wUlition to 
Ikeai- fomi^ contpanics soruc Brittih linm run th«tr wsmIs direct to 
Otmcin^nt«l port*. 

Tho rvsuit of these eSbrta to ^tslablish commercial relations is crid^nt 
(roBu the increase of trade which tii« fore^^iii;;; tAblo diaclcMOa, aud from 
die (lireraioD, non- rapidly betng effiMed. in tlie choitufj by whicli th« 
wool requin-d (or Eurt)|)e ivaohe« the m«rk<^l. TKl- exaiiipl^ of thi- Soutli 
AnKTiCiui Rt'pubHcn, the bulk of wh<i!iL» protluce now fiiulu n, market at 
the porta of Antwerp, Hamburg, Havre, nnd Dunkirk without [in.i.siiig 
thnrnefa London, wiu not loot on (^ontinimtAt bnjrcr*. Il vrut ninnifrxt 
that £rcc!t nhipnMnts of wool to Kuropo coutd na mdily be rando from 
SytbMiy or Molbonnie as from Burnos Ayros or Monto Vidpo, hcncs 
the presence in the local markets, in increa»ng numbers, of buyers 
npRKuting Coutinenlal firms. 

Anstndasia hu for many yc*rK mamt.niniH] iniportnnt conimt-rciul 
nlations with tba ITniled StaU* of yVmcrica, and in lS9-t Amerka'M 
diare of the Inule of Australasia witli foreign countries was about S2 
per cent. The -greater part of this trade was carried on with the (x>Ionie8 
«t New South Walea, Victoria, and New Zealand The main exporta 
to (he United States are a]i«cie, wool^ coal, kauri gnta, and New 
TamtmnA giu — ohicflj the two lirst uieulioDnd— Ko that, thuu^h lanie in 
t(a noBainitl anioant, the trade ik lest YaJuabk than wuulil at lirst Might 
appear. Tb" export of wool, which )ind formi^rly been unimportant, 
aoiountMl in 11^91 to £iiH,551, an incrcMe of £325,314 over the total 
of the previous year, hot sinoo that year them hna been a gradonl fall, 
the value in 1894 be:ing only £22«,04O. 

Under preeenit conditions no extension of commercial relations with 
the UoiiL-d StaleK can be looked forwarrl to, but tfude with tho East 
gives j;ood promise for thii future, eApec-iully with India, China, Japan, 
and the Eolit Indian Archipi-tnco, where markutN fur Austrulaxiitn wool 
•rilt pomibly in time be found — little in that direction having been 
wcomplishod up to the prrwnit time. Japan in about to estnbliKh a 
ntional line of steamers to foster the trade bctwonn that cnuntry and 
Aoatralaaia, and with the abolition of the duty on wool nnd the benefits 
lobs derived from wearing woollen clothine imprfwtril upnn tlii) jmopli-, 
thmtj ought to be a K^od opeoiuf; in that country for thr Ktnph; product 
of tliMe colonieii. A lartce aniouut of business in already trnnsact'd 
vith India and Ceylon, and thi.i tntde Iwds fair to increase, particularly 
■ the t«a of chose ptnona, which now strongly oompetea with th« 



138 



COMUIiRCE. 



Chinese le&t in public estimation. The value of tli« direct import of 
Indian Iww inoreaaed ttom £280.780 in 1S90 to £344,078 in 1891 
and £367,345 in 1894, whilo the imjHsrts »( ihts article from Cfainft 
decreust^d rrum £788,943 in 18'J0 to £764,428 in 1891 uiid £348,978 
in 1894. 

Thi? AtistrnlnMan i-xportM to C^liina nru but Kraall oompiirt'd with the 
ini]>orts, anii evinpi^ n cnuMdc^mlilc fnl]iii^<n)f mtioi' l>4(il. The ('u^tonis 
returns, however, do not rcpmii-nt thp whole nrnoiiiit of the trade vith 
Ohinn, US n const dcrahlo portion of the commiTcc with iiongkong ia. 
in reality trnnttacted with the Chinese Empire — Hongkong being to 
large extent a dislrihutlng centi-e for the Empire. In view of tbia 
the following table, showjiii; the trade with the Chinese Empire 
Hongkong, has lit«n compiled :— 



CMifitir. 


Impoitt. 


E>porta. J 


MO. 


liSI. 


ISH. 


isao. 


im. 


■» 


Phinenc Rin])iri; 

IIONUltDng 


£ 
701!, 131 
753,8m 


£ 

«48,7Sfl 


£ 
274,599 
4*',7M 


£ 

M.2(W 
4S1.450 


£ 

8C.749 

481,771 


. 1 

14.009 

789.864 




l,iS9,m* 


l.347,t)2S 


607,343 


507.725 


522.520 


813.963 



Trade with the South Pacific Islands, wliich on the whole may he mi 
to be iucrenaitig, consists mostly of the importation of rnw articles in ^ 
exchauge fur Australasian jiroduce The bulk of thf ti»de is done witbi 
Fiji and New Oalcilonift, the French colony denliiig principally withl 
New South Wales, as Sydney is the terminal port for the mail-steianieTS 
of thn Meswigeriea line. Hut owing to the enforcemenl of the new 
French Cu*lonin tariiT, which is highly protective in its oharact*?r in the 
colonies of that country as well as in France itaetf, the Xew Caledonian 
trade bids fair to be lost to Sydney ; for while the exjiorts fnmi >'cw 
South Wales lo New Caledonia 'in 1892 amounted toXl84,128, they had 
fallen in 18S4 to £72,732, orhy men? than 60 per cent The trade with 
New Uuintvt is at prencnt but nmall, though when the resources of that 
prolific ialaini coun- to be devi-lcijHil « liirgc incrense may be expected. 
Bi'xides the eouiitrieii nicntionccj, AuHtralasia maintains a not incon*. 
siderahlc trade with Java and Scandinavia, but it coiisista nialuly 
iro ports. 

The figuroK relating to tlie trade of each colony with countries outdda] 
AuRtralaxin would be cxtrotnely interesting if ihey could be given wit 
exactness. Unfortunntely this is impossible, as the destination of : 
exported overland cainiot be traced beyond tlie colony to which tb^ a 
in the first instance despalclved — all that can be given is tbe tnioe 1 



EXTERNAL TKAIJE OT BACH COLOVV. 



139 



»9, which thf following series of tBbi«s shows, 
roiuitnn oatsido Anstraiuia ucrc aa ioUo«- : — 



The iin|iorta from 



CUmt. 




«>UV|]DIL 


V4)iu p«r InhtMUM. 


im. 1 im. 


UM. 


18S1. 


ISPl. 


IM. 




c 

11,3«7.0M 

>,UW,SI7 

tas.iti 


£ 

lS,04fi.4Itt 
1I,1K<,1»U 
l,DM,7ISI 

3,180,300 


c 

S,0U7,77J 

a,u:,u; 

«.«41J17U 

a.7:r.,w« 
;40.U3 

!I,(X'.WA 


£ i-il. 
It U V 
1! I 
<I 14 S 

W 17 7 
7 1 G 
J IS S 

11 X 4 


X a d, 
U 8 ( 
II 7 1> 

I la 

It 10 I 
It H 11 

4 I] ID 

5 14 4 


i 4. d. . 
■1 V a 
» l& lu 
A 11 a 
T u 10 


■•MomAiutnlk 


10 1 3 
t 1 u 

7 « a 




n.S43.rat 


«l,4M,Sl» 


M.IRSW 


U OIU 


mu 7 


a T 8 



Hie exports to countries outside Austroliisia were as follow : — 



COaar. 



StwSaalhVlkim 
TMMte 

AortnlU 
Aaainlla 



TuUl Vklu*. 



]««]. 



Uftl. 



C 

9,)u,s«a 

11,M»,M1 

I,»1.»00 
»,1II,W1) 

ar.7.7os 

»U,t«3 

s,«3,(i;7 



t),UO,«l 



c 
it.MtLsa) 

ii.«i7,iua 

ft.HM.Ml 
.VH.OTfl 
382, SSI 

7.Ma,li30 



tt,I4i,171 



»H. 



VkIiw |ar InliftbltouL 



IWl. 



un. UM. 



13.33:1,719 

io,s;ft,mB 
a.i8i.t§« 

l.WB.tSO 

*aa.oo7 
a?3.7sn 

8.910,641 



3S,17i.«M 



c 

II! 6 

U 4 

6 17 

II 



1. iL 
4 
8 
1 



la 

10 i lu 



s 1 

7 10 



11 £ ( 



£ <. d. 

1! 10 10 

« 13 8 

S « 3 

IT 8 

11 7 

Z II 4 

1! 9 T 



11 H I 



• 18 4 

8 18 ■ 
TBI 

n IS I 

i u u 

I I 8 

IE 2 



V ID T 



Tbu totftl exieru&l trade was therefore as follows ; — 



L Otkiar^ 


Total ValiiB. 


Vftlus fwr Inhabltuit. 


1 


isn. lam. { ie>4. 


iBSi. 1 un. 


MM. 


«*c* 

VMbd AwUdk 


«,<SS.t« 

1.7B^70& 
a.7W.S37 

H8.UA 


ia,«)7,o<» 

», 148,140 

S,Mn,l»5 
8.068.321 
l.*5V,48( 

i.iei.Mt 

13,MI,I»8 


e 

01.341.483 

n.3B«.6ia 

S,fl'3,3nt 

LlOLtU 

»e,M!o 
ia,4n7,TiB 


£ (. d, 

27 4 1 

ib 1! ! 

w n t 

It n » 

IB 8 • 
H 4 1 
M 7 S 


C t d. 

» » 

ti 1 e 

Id ft u 

IB IS 1 
«( It 
7 6! 
tl 3 11 


e •. d, 

10 8 8 
14 18 T 
lU 10 t 
IBIS 
1(8 
3 II 8 


IwHitak 


w,ej7.86s 


18 14 10 


M,3M.n8 


8«,0GI,4S8 


u,3Si,e(W 


13 3 


n 


18 17 la 






It will bo Men tliat the gruwtb of the import and cotport trade of 
^ nrioRS coloaiiM hkx not been uniform. The imports of Kew South 



I40 



COMMERCE. 



I 



Walea in 1891 exceeded Uioseio 1881 bj nearly 3 milliona BtM-Unjt, 
while in 1894 they vera uesrlyS^ milUoim l«a than llit-y w«re in It^t^l. 
Thu (ixiiorU ot 1801 exeeeded tlioae of 1881 by over ^ miUianit, but in 
lii'Ji uuiy vrcm but 3 millions wore limn in tlie latUtr yenr. The 
VicUirinji imjiortn iiicrtuuKvl fniin 1881 to 1891 in abotit the kiudp rntio, 
but in 189* thoy ware 4 tnillions less tlimi in 1881 ; whilr. Ui* cxpons, 
botb in 11^91 njid 1894, wrn; Irax ihun in 181^1. The TasmiuiinD inii>oTl 
trade in 1894 was only thrpo-fourths that of 18S1, while the ex|>orU 
in 1694 exhibit n falling-off of over SO pier c«nt. as compared with 
those, of 1881. The South Auatralian importa were £800.000 U™ iu 
1894 Uuin they were in 1881 ; while Uie uxporU. which iu 1891 nearly 
doubled those of 1881, shrunk by ubout £1,515,000 during tJic nrxt 
throe yean. Tlie value of tli» Krw Zr-nliind importH in 1A94 wag 
about half-o-iDillion lr-<]i thnn in 1881, hut thn rx]KirtK incrriuird daring 
thp ppriod byovrr fit pm- cnnt. Thn Qiiccn^tnnd imports more diui 
doubled from 1681 to 11^91, but from the latter ye*r they had shrank 
by about £750,000 in 1894 ; the oxporte, however, ioernaed steadily, 
iM'i iTi 1894 were nearly two and a half times as lar}^ as in 1881. 
The iinp«trl« ot West«ru Australia increased both from 1881 to 1891 
and from 1891 tn 1894, while the exports decreasfd (rx>ni 1891 U> 1894, 
nearly all the W<«tem Aiirtralisin gold U-ing exported by way of the 
other colonies. No rigid deductionn, Imwpvcr, can be druwn front the 
faots just fjiven ; for, as ia well known, some of tlie provuicoe — notably 
Queeuatand and Tatiiuauia — are not yet in a positioti to uiMutaiu & direct 
foreign trade, and in a foned comparison with tlie rest of Austnlaau 
are apt to niOer. 

If the total tnidfl of 1894 be oonwdervd. New South Wales 
the liKt with a commerca valued at £30,341,192; Victoria, wit 
£17,388,r>49, being second ; white X«w Zralnnd rankx third, with 
tradfi of £13,407,703. Taking all thp Colonics tognthor, the «xt 
imports and exports combined equal a trade of £15 17a lOd. |Kv| 
iidmbttaut — a &iUing-off of £G Ss, lOd as compared with 1891, and of 
£7 8«. &d. as compared with 1S81. 

IXTEItCOLOXtAL TrADB. 

The iatttreotoninl trade of Australasia increased in a slightly higher 
ratio than the popubtion to 1891, but nince the year named it has 
decTMsed in an equal ratio with the external trade. The following fi^uree 
rcpreaent the total value of this important branch of the i:;en«ral tiad^ 
aa well aa the value per inhabitant. It in obvioun that the total inter- 
colonial tmdi^ which in shown by the table rcprr-itenta in reality twioe 
the Actual value of goods poioiing from ot>« rolony to another, the simft 
tiHtrr blind iM figuring in one plac« oa exports, and in another as imports. 
The raino of goods pamag through a colony on their way to foreig 
countriM^ as well n of goods impivted from abroad and re-exported, 



GRO^TTH OF ISTBRCOLONIAL TRADE. 



HI 



of cotme, also included in the liKures. The actual tuovciii«nt ia therefore 
IcM tliui half of tiM vwlatt giv«D Ixtlow : — 



■tmr. 1 TattL 


T*l<w pet InhablluL 




£ 
17,l9«.ffS 

S9^745.0fl.S 
37,156,360 
80,114.797 
4fl^Z77,S36 


£ >. d. 

13 1$ 




IS 7 6 




13 H 4 


1881 

18M 


IS 13 11 
11 5 2 







Thfl figure* giren in tfao following table represent the total inter- 
eabakl irado ol cncb colony in I SSI, 1691, and 1891, and although 
tbmy aro nSected hy the circiunstancea jast mentioned, th«y afford 
nitMMliag evideuoQ of tlie way in which the prosperity of one prorince 
k bound op with that of ili« otheni :~ 



CMmt. 


UU. UDL 


IWl. 


um. 


IWI. 


131M. 


1 

S«vSovfh WalM.. 

SwlkAnatnlb ... 
W«len AnMnli^ 

SfvZMluid 


13.311.372 
10,fi86,l73 
4.S10,286 
3.069,466 
341,156 
3,087.781 
S.990.056 


£ 

32.730.34S 

13,.')7.V.M.'i 

G,H'22.3(;6 

II,0S4.ai'> 

822.125 

2.111.428 

3.719,110 


.e 

ie,03S.123 
it,l08,5!l(l 
7,.tO!I,,™4 
IJ.S(M,792 
y,303,47" 
1,911,897 
2.611,365 


u«r(wnt 

35 8 

28-8 

13D 

8 3 

oa 

0-5 
8-0 


p«rcmt 
37 S 
22B 
113 

IK'4 
1-4 
4-0 
4-5 


Mr cant 
34-7 
19-7 
16-2 
U-il 

4-8 

41 

6-fl 


Awtrilinlan 1 
Iiport« & I npo(t« J 


37,156,289 


60,114,797 


*G^7,83G 


100-0 


100 -0 


100-0 



All AirsTiu],.isiA!i Tkaj>l 

Tba growth of the total trade of Australasia has already been shown 

attluibef^niiiiiKof tliia cliftpt«r, but tlie followiiii- figun-ti will enable the 

progrcm of each colony to be traced. For the tlinra years 1S81, 1891, 

uid 1864 tbe total external and intorcolouiAl imports were as follow : — 



(MoBT- 


ToWValaaotlmtKirla. 


Tdtu per lobabtBuiI. 


WL 


IM. 


UM. 


L8S1. 


ISM. 


UM, 


ttateb 


£ 
lT,UT.Dlt 

i.4njt« 


< 
ii.rii.WB 

S.OTB.MX 
lO.OM.IU 
l.MO.OW 


£ 

is.wii.wi 


t t. i. 

19 1 3 


*S S 11 

IS IS 1 

IJ IS 11 

SI :{ 1 
at X K 

IS 15 6 


tt.ll. 
IS IS 6 
to 11 




t.xn.va It » a 

a.2t«.l« IB t s 
t.11Mlt 13 It S 


DiT a 




IT » S 




£S l« 111 

e s 




«.n«,030 1 IS t T 1 lu fl B 


a 10 la 


1, AMtnlMh 


ia,MajTi 


7Viei.<m I «.ijj0.m » i t 


ISU 1 


1117 * 





1 






■ 




H 










^M 142 COUHERCE. I 
^H The %'»Iues of «xt«mal and intercoJoniftl exports were ns giren bi-low ; — 1 


^^^^^^B Colour. 


Total Vmluff ol £i|>or1«- 


Value per Infaihltont. J 


1SSL 


im. 1 UM. 


WL 


irni. 1 UH. V 




£ 
10.MT.80t 
ja.Ul.103 

s.Mo.ses 

I.SU.fiTH 

MOa.MO 


< 

CS.Mt.OKI 

u.ooe.'ts 

tuii».tu; 
ia,iHt,tia 

l,440.SUI 


£ 
50,.'iTr,IiT» 

a.7US.Milt 

i.ui.tog 
i.isa.Mt 
u,a.ii,M' 


ai R 
IS 13 n 
U IS « 
10 n T 
17 s 

■ SOX 

It n II 


£ k a. 

St I) » 

11 1« 

au It 

3) lU 

in IX 
s 11 » 
i» 1 10 


10 It 1^1 


^H VIrliiiln 


11 u t^l 


^^^1 Ouoonftluiil .--..--....,.- 


ID U^l 




n t^M 




" " "^1 


^H !..._■. J. 






u,n».uo 


U7M,UT 


UtSsa.iM 1 u u 


IS Lb S 


" * ^1 






^^L Tbe total tnde was as follovs :_- | 


^^H CBbMf, 


Vdiuof Total Tnili. 


Valnaperlnbabllttiil. H 


IMU 


in. 


IM. 


IWL 


laoi. 


~i 




e 

3^»l,IIIT 
XI,0TO,(IU 

;.eD3,«»i 

u.nD,i(ii 

wi.aol 

%tet.m> 

U,UT,«1 


e 

.M,UT.41T 
St.ns.KI 
JS,3S1.W1 

• Ml fUlll Ktn 


c 

M,irJ,«I4 

m.iar.KS 
ig,iai,»M 
ix;t:.ii< 


e a, d. 

H U t 

*;i7 > 

M « ! 
U U III 

m It It 

IS II S 

V7 s e 


< ft. d.' C IL dX 

44 IT M N M O.^l 




M l( T tt 10 b ^ 

31 « t ai IS s ^ 




lu 1 4 ai C 4 




ia,0Tu.9w lA.oiP/wr 


tu Id X u li 




s s ti la It s 




U 10 4 tS 11 ft 


^^H 




ioi,no.wr 


iM.Tog,^ m,oio,iM 


3t 11 T 


f7 U 7 1 > J 


^^^^ 


_ I n 


^H The point mnst notable in thin snics of t«hlcs is the very innrkod ' 
^H itn[>ctua which tlio trade of South Australin ivcoivixl duiiiig the jionod j 
^H t8Fil-91 — n trtidci of £6i lit. id. per iiihabit^nl, iho vnkie trni)8act«dfl 
^H hy thnt colony dutiiiif 1891, Wing &lnioHt uithuut parallel in any im^| 
^H ]K>rtAnt country. This huge irada -wna. however, not tlra>*i~n altogetJiriH 
^H from its owii turritory, for in 18'JI more tlmn X5,731,000, or iilionim 
■ £17 15s. [HT inhabitant, and in 1^9%, X»,.540,000, or XIO ^h. Cd. per ' 
^H iiili!il)itiint, WHS iluc to Chu niirricr Dutrict of New South 'Walmi, o£^ 
^H which Bdiith Auntrnlift is tho iintumi outlet And it must nlno b^H 
^H ristiiumbci-i-d that considerabli? quantities of goodn on their way tol 
^H Broken Hill arc entered as imports in South Australia wh^n th^y arrivaB 
^H in thnt colony, and as exports to New South Wales when they cross thafl 
^1 border. Of the total sliriiikaxe of £-li l^n. Od. [i^r iR-ad from 1891 ufl 
^1 1894, £7 Ija. fid. mutt be attributed to the f»llitig-oR' m the Barriefl 

^1 ThetradeofKciwSouthWftlcsinlfiDl stood at .£ri1, 327,417, which wul 
^H the hi|;h(^.-it amount ever recorded, l>iit in 1K'J4 it hadfnllon to£3fi,:i79,614,9 
^H an Amount exceeded during each of tho twelve preceding years, while 
^^1 thn value per inhshitant in 1^94 was the lowest recorded during hi 



^^^^^■^H 


TRADE OP PRINCIPAL C0DNTilXE8. I43 ^| 

A tatttv period. All tlu! colonUut mIwdc^ their toUt trade from ^| 
1 1* r$9l, aod til, rxc«pt Victoria nnil Tu.<.iuuQia, thnr cxporU. ^| 
IM ooljr Quoanaland, Soutli Austraiiit, and W«sU-m AunlmliA ^| 
nd krgvr iinporU tban in l^^Sl ; while both i>xportii wii( UiIaI ^| 
> iui tuerManl iii every colony excejit Victoria nnd TiLtmania. ^| 
e«p»d with 1891, WmMfd Auatnlia and Ni^w ZniUnd on^ (h« ^M 
alootn iKat show ui bicreoae iu imp»n« ; (JiiRPuiiUnd, \Vc«t<-ra ^| 
(•faa, aim! TasniftnlB, in exports ; uid the two iMt-niMiivd colonies ^H 
\ti tnA-K ^M 
m iatePMtin^ to coniiHirft tlii* volume of thi< •xtern&l tnu1« of ^^^ 
■Im^ wttli th« Idti^t rrturiis of other cnuntrics. ThJR is nlfonl«d ^^M 
pfcUowi&g tabl«, in which the tigarea refer «ith«r to the v«ar ^H 
•r 1894 :— ^ 




1«MTnd^ 


Inbcbllut. ^^M 


Omar. 


XanaudlK. 


uid BUJlton- 


Tttel. 


Fii«»^ 

twT^ 

1^ 


£ 

Sa2,l30.6r7 

371.1 IU.0(K1 

379,<I3U,00U 

00,196.000 

1)7.SU.OOO 

S7.9ST.(KI0 

17.a!3.eil 

4s.3in,9n 


£ 

W.MO.000 

S1.M!>.000 

15,IU0.O0O 

5, 488. (NX) 

n.S80,000 

l.290.O()0 

7,a7»,."i»7 

i,aiH.()i4 


£ 

7S1 .1170.077 

40e.OSS,000 

3D3.12IJLIXIQ 

S5,e»l,O0O 

120.21M.OOO 

ai0t217.00O 

2Si.400.l.^S 


£ ^1 

10 7 S __^M 
in 11 ^^^H 

1!) 1 ^^^M 

21 5 ^^^M 

14 IS 10 ^^^M 
12 !1 2 ^^^H 

11 ^^^H 

15 10 ^^^1 


aji 


3^7,007.000 
69.813.StSt 


I,34?.(i00 ' 33.(Wa,0l» 
40,37S.UO» 3e7,40B.IX» 

1 

5.fil».a58 C5.333,eOO 


1 inde ot AnfltralMia ])er head of popuIntJon exceeds that of ftn]^^^^| 
7 wpeuing in the list, tliu United Kingdom nnU Itolgiuin ex- ^^M 
L la the case of Belgium it in but propur to remark lliat ahout ^| 
ilf of the Inule crvlited to it comnrim itoodA in tmiiut, while the ^^ 
d Kinfiduin itMvlf ii atwo a g,rfnl dint rib utinx Lvuti'F'. ^H 

> ru*«« in Iht! value of importu ov«r cxporti was for many years a ^H 
iant ftatarc of tho trade of Auntmlasitk taken as a whole, nltJioaRh ^H 
w oDhinin tli« reveiw) was the nuie. The lurphis of iinjiortii wan ^H 

> lao nuwii : (1) the iini>ort«tion, by the UoTerninents and local ^H 
t of thr vvioiu colonies, of money to covot the coxt of cnnatmc- ^H 
{ politic worka ; and (2) the private capital sent to AuHtrahuia for ^| 
UwaL Talcing tho (x>loniea im a whole, these two items combined ^H 
Ird ilip paypicnts miule for inCirre-it ou |>a«l loans, both public and ^M 
U, and tlMS nuniii drawn from the country by absentees Uut as ^H 
' alt Dm colontcn Un\e oc««cd to borrow, or the amount of their ^H 



144 




COHHERCE. 



borrowing luui Enllen btttow Uuiir fiMrly patjrmciiU for interest, the 
whole of Au-Htmloirin now idiowx an nxcnw of nsporu, tbv only ooloi^ 
tiaviii^'oii uxcrw of imports in 189ilicingWi»t«m Austrnlia. AppwKkd 
will hv found t.hrv balance of trnde of each colonj and of AustralioiB 
for tbi! (tight yoars l^l^7'94, aad the amount of public loan mon^ 
i-xpundml aariog the f&tac peoiod. The^e figxirea, however, do not Cotct 
thi; wholo qaefttioii, aa the ainouat of privutu oapiul ttont to the ook»iM 
for mrMtmeot niut \x tnkeu into account : — 



Cologj. 


Eaetm al ImfotU. 


Public L-MU. 




£ 

•10,250.360 

46,22a,3;S 

•2i.02O.lOT 

•5.4M.64I 

3.021.718 

l.*Sl,.>i2 

•iii,aji,i94 


£ 

18,832,917 




17,131,574 




10.IBfl.078 


Wottcni Au*tralia _._ 


1.820.204 
4.193,801 
C,!II4.<>03 




•fi,813.«8 


04.250,847 







•KiianKKtpottti. 

The abovo tigurva hiive a very important Iwamng on tlie futtiro con- 
ditjon of AustraiMia, but com me nt on this subject will come moro proprly 
in the chapters dealing with Public and Private finance, and wUl be 
found there. 

EsFORTB OF DoHKartc Fboddoe. 

Tho valups of the I'xports of Australasia utnl of itn Tariora pro rin cw 
lunro been given in tlie previous pn^-ivs without ri'jtpoct to iil» OOBIltriH 
wliL-re the nrticlcs were produci^d. It is important to 6nd to what 
extent tliQ exports havo been the pro«luce of ejich of the oolotiiett whenoo 
they wero iihipped. The following table sliowa the valae of the usport* 
of domestic produce of each colony an returned by the Cuxtonm for the 
years 18Kt, ISSl, and 1894, and tiie value thereof per inhabitant - — 





TttUlViam. 


Vtlni pot KhabiluiL 


odanr- 


ua. 


vai 


ISM. 


U81. 


UN. ma 


VloMite 


t 
io,Tw.nr 

ll.4«lMT 

x.aa;aa 

S.TM,ni 

mat* 
1.M1 lie 


i 

tl,l]K,TU 

wm.m 

t,mo,»u 

1 SB? tin 


£ 

ii.U3,aiT 

8.B«I.SW 
X,5nr,l>9U 

i.zia.dt? 

U.I61.14S 


£ k <L 
It 1 II 

14 e 10 

16 I! 11 

i:i 11 .1 

10 IT 10 
U £ 

11 11 B 


£ t. d. 
U « 9 
It T 

lu n « 
t< ir in 
w » 7 

B 3 a 

14 IB 


C ad.] 
It 11 l| 
B IS ft r 


inth AiMMUk .... 
WBUn AiumJI* .. 


IB 11 9 

10 t 
10 )1 i 
OKA 




t,nt.zio 1 ii.xxi.oM 


UTS 


AuMntala.... 


Es,s(e.Mi 


!i»Aif,eit 


et.ui.oii 


18 IE tl 


U t « 


UBS 



COMPARISON OF S03IESTIC EXPOE're. 



U5 



Me figures, however, inual be i-ejpiniej us uierely a|)proxiinaU', 
for il » (lilHcull (o kscenaia witli exs«ittu(l« Uie dnmistic cxgiorta of 
aome of tlw coIodii-k. TbiH In espeL-Utly t)i« i-iun witli Vitrtorin, and in 
a Icflter dogrt-'i- witli Xew Suutli Wales iind Houtli Austnilia. Fn the 
firsUmt^ntinni-d colony liirgf tjmintitio.i of wi>ol, thr; prixliici; of the othei* 
prorinccw, eliii^By of Ni^w tSoiitli Wiil^s "■'rr i^xportJHl im doin<»itic pro- 
dOM, the value of the staple dealt with in tliix wny in IS!)4 l>eing no 
I«n th&n £1,741,049. There is .-kluo nn export< by South Austi-nlia, as 
loc»l )irodtuie, of wool ^rown iu New South W&les. but tlie ^'llluc tbei«of 
is by DO nieouia kn^. Wool, chiefly fruni Queenulaud, bus in Miin» 
jears bi^-n cxpurted un donietilic produce by New South Wnk-s, but in 
1894 no Kuch nvcntatmaeiil ttKiV pbice. A1hi>, iv> rt-jiiinls Now 8(>uth 
Wklot;, tin >nil copprr ore, the former chiefly from Queen n'lind luid 
TMBwniik wid the Utter fmm South AuHtraliu, wbiv^h are imported for 
lite purpose of lieing refine<l, nre exportoiJ as domestic produce. Like- 
wise, ^u«en8land cattle, &fter being fattened on New 8outli Wales 
pastures, are exported as local producs : but in all these cases a material 
«luu>Ke is wi-ouKht in the inijiort^, which is not the caNe with wool. 
An utti-inpt Itu been mad« to rt-move tbeae elements of error from the 
felarnK ns they «rn prrsi-nti-d by thci Cnstnmx, mid the djiiounts xhown 
in the following table may bo norepWni nK tbc true vniuc-s of domestic 
frodoct) exported by each colony during 18!)4 : — 



CqVhi)'. 



IMmnllp EipoK*. 



Toul VaIiic 



K«w South Wnlea „ 

Victoria 

4jll0ni)iliui>l 

SobUi AustTktia 

W«t«m Aiulralia 

Tocnuuii*-,,- „ 

New ZcnUud 

AnstraUiia 



ie,893,GI.t 

8,6«).Sn8 
3,443.701 
1.219.047 

l,4(ifl.ltlU 
9,Uti4,n,M 



PFonocUon 



Vklut 



uut per 
UoiiJ. 



49,434,068 



per cent. 
32(1 

n-3 

7-0 
3-0 



lOO'O 



£ 8. d. 

12 15 II 
S 6 10 



19 

9 17 
ID II 

9 8 
13 ; 



18 



Placing; the ratues of the external exports of duTuestte prodnctUHi o£ 
AnMtBlasia hide by Hide wilb those of some of the more !ln)>ortaSt 
oountries of the worbi, ii uwrful comparison ia atforded, mid from what' 
«er utandpoint the nintter We viewed tliesc colonies uppirar in a »'ery 
tiTOUmblo light. The following table slinns the value uf the domentic 
ipoTta, cxclusivo of coin and bullion, of some of the principal countrits 
of the wOfW, tlie tigurea referring either to the year l(*9.'l or IS94. The 
flptras for Aastrahuia only represent the external exports of doraentic 



14^ 



COUHBECE. 



produce ; in tbo juvoedlnf; table the vslu«s include tliedonwBtic pradu 
ut v*eh colony cunauniccl in tint othur pravtnees : — 



Ctnintry. 



I>DuiiaUc PmliKii 

<*xc]iuti4 at 
CoUi Hid DDlllan]. 



Vai lotiktiXint. 



Unita} Kingdom 

PmniM) ...., 

0«nnftiiy 

Auattiik-HnngMT 

lUJjF 

Belgium „ 

Cuwdk 

ArcmitiDB RcpubUo „ 

UiubtdStaMi j 

AutnlnU ..„ 



£ 
21.1. %M, 33a 

I2U,4.il!,lX)(l 
l.j4,ii,VJ,(KXl 
97, 1'-^iOIW 
98,dS8^0OI> 
M.233.000 
21. 317.307 
18.SI\000 
I73.l3l,l)tM) 

3;,um},it37 



£ a. <L 

6 11 S 

3 7 6 

S X 7 

1 K g 

! 5 1 

8 18 9 

4 » 3 
* 3 I 
:! in 4 



a i; s 



Tbfl extent to wbicA tho geogmphical position of « odooj^t 
it to benefit l>y Uie production of its nei^!il>our8 is iHuatratodl 
pr<i|>orlic)it whicli tlie iion-ilomeslii; bear to lliu I'rtal nxportx. 
lijlIiiwinR ta^lile xhowx tlutviiluo of Uii? rc-exptirt trudt? iind thi)[ 
wliicli it hriu's to tlii! total nxpiirt trade i>f novh colony in lt'94 ; ttnd it 
would appi'iu- tJmt .Soutli AUKtmlin, Vintorib, nnd N<iw South \Vitli:«, in 
the order iiuniod, Iwnetit largely hy tlioir position, thp reexport trade ot 
the othor colonies being insignificant : — 



CUonj. 



tU-EipaiH. 



N<iw 8oiitli Walo) 

V'iuturiti 

QueoiudBad 

Soatli Auntralia ... 
Woitcm Australia 

Tauiiiuiii\ 

N<iw Z<iatiuiil ...„, 

AuatnUii* ••• 



£ 

4,;5t.ieo 

4.'ilS.B7H 

'ii5,2;i 

4.01S.22S 

X!,3S9 

10.077 

146,00.1 



l>R«ijniiin to 
TotdKxp«nL 



t3,39e,116 



pCTceltt. 

asi 

30-0 
2-4 

1-a 



=!■» 



TltiK r(!-i>xport trade uc r<Ty Bv«nly diatributcd bctwrrn sxtenwl am] 
intercolonial tnulc, i:7,I-ti,729 of thr totiil luiiount Lieing cxtarast , and 
£5^975,387 iotorcolonial 

Tdb Woot Trade. 
Tfan n^d growth of thi: Continental wool t.mdn dunnj; th« 
from 18»1 tolSOl anil inm 1H91 to 1H94 is iilustmt^id bytiefolloi 
t«bl«, which sJiows the valiio of the staple exported direct ta 




GROWrn OF WOOL TRADE, 



»+7 



priMi^ ooantrioi, mi tli« pnponion of tli9 total anioimt takeo hy 
«Mfa:— 



Cbnnr. 


r*lM. 


rnqufUaB. 


MM. 


un. 


UM, j 1»L 


UU. UM. 


^itid Kingdoan -,- 


e 

I5.;T7.32T 
KI,MlII 


£ £ 

:3.8flI.-JtS H.!I7».3TS 

l.453.:fiS 1 l.5-i3,-iiS 

T>»2,(>7it 1.3a2,tt07 

I,38a,7es 1,518,493 


hcrctoC 

on 

0-3 

(1-9 


mrcanl 
82-7 
St) 
3-3 
S-8 
2-1 
0-1 


7fl-l 




e-9 
?■" 


UnltMtSUM* 

OAvCMwtriw - 


i32.a»)i 

48,725 


au.sfii sss,oto 0-3 

3t.23B 1 72..^e.5 1 0-3 


1-2 
0-4 


Xotd 


10,136,092 24,0(i3,2-JT 


lil.fiM.5U3 


tOO-0 


100-0 


100 -0 



I1»c r«]u« of Htu voo! sliippvd fn)ii) AustmlosU has Uius incrcmod by 
ovtr thrpc and > lulE nuUions starling, or almost 2i pnv criit., diii-ing 
ibe last tbirtem yrara. It will be obsOTved lliat the wool exported to 
the tTniwd Kingdom ba« deoroafted iii velIui- U> tlii! exU''nl of £800,000, 
nr btim 97-6 to 76-1 {wr cent, wliilt; tho oxjiort to foreign couiitriuH 
turn tncnituHHl both itUintutRljr nod rdiitivclv'. 

b is nctwiinrj' to [loiiit out h«Tu that all the figures ill the preiwnt 
cfat|i(er dealing with the nxport of wool nra based on iko Oustoiu§ 
renrvB of the diflvront coIodiob, and ropre§eut tbo values placed ou the 
wool by tli« oxportera. The flgores relating to tlie value of tlie wool 
clip wfaidt are giren in tlie ohapter on the pastoral industiy are Ivss than 
tbMe just gjveu, tlie diflbf«ncii being nituie up of tlie cast o£ carriage and 
other diargca from tku iitimpTunK to Ibc Rbi;i'!i !ii<lc. 

Hw following table shows tho total and proportioiiute value of the 
woo) «hipp<Nl direct to oountriea outride Australasin by each colony : — 



CUamr. 


Vnlut. 


PrttxirtiDn. 












1»L 


uot. 


ISIH. 


laau im. 


LWt, 




£ 


£ 


£ 


parc«nt 


poructit 


porot-nt 


StvSmUi WalM.. 


4.*8S,i!aS 


7,917.887 


7,092.548 


27-8 


32-9 


38-0 


lolorm. ^,„... 


8^337.031 


7.07O.I!61 


4.7(12,987 


330 


30-4 


33-0 




909,047 


2.438,321 


1.671.377 


62 


lOl 


S-3 


Anth AoXmlia ... 


1,747,600 


I.HSS, 107 


[.■W1,0S7 


100 


7-8 


7-5 


treM«ni Aoitnlia. 


Uie,6«H> 


311 .1)23 


• S.t-t ^y>^ 


10 


1-3 


11 




41M72 


3l3.4-2a 


Ii-,(>17 


2-0 


1-3 


0-7 


SnZniMmi 


2,000,840 


4,123.a)4 


4,3»S,]til 


]»'U 


17-2 


22-3 


AMtnhda ... 


18.138,082 


24,003,227 


19,084,593 


100-0 


100 -0 


100 -0 



148 



COMU£RCE. 



It will lie s(*n from' the tablo j««t given thftt Victoria w»s crefliM 
ill 1S81 with exporting wool to it conHidentble value iii excess of that 
of Xew Soutli Wales. In 1891 and 1894, however, the poiiitionii wer 
rercnwl, not with 8 landing the fact that \ar^ quaiilttieH of wool fr 
Xow South WaW are Btili sent to Melbourne for expurl. In I8S] 
wool produwd iit otlier culonita, chirlly Nkw South Wuha, hut cri-dit 
to Victoria, wus valued at X2,T«O,600 ; in 1891, X'J,767,000, and 
1894, ;£1, 711,000; whih^ Uw woo! iiiiport«l from other c«loiiimi An^ 
credited to New South Wnlex for the ycur Lsai wax vClOfl.OOO, n,ii<l ii 
1894 there was no siich over-ntnl^mciit. South AustrnJia ulso iijceive 
& large quantity of New South Wales wool for &kipmen(, though no 
ncnrly to ao great au ext«ut as Victoria. 

In connection with thin nubject, a statement of the vnluu of wool 
of its own [iroductinn which «'ach colony cxportii diretrt and liy wnv ' 
of the othftr colouii'H niny not bo without iiiterevt. The ligurcH, whick 
ai*e given below, relate to the year 1894 : — 




OoiDDy. 



DomeMlc W«ol EkpoiUd. 



DtlMt. 



By fny of tba 



TM&I. 



Sew South Wolt» 6,633,183 



Victotia. 

iiuKKOainuil 

Sijiilli Aiiatrftlia , 

V\'nt<'rii Aiittralia ... 

Tumaiiik 

Ii'ow Zealand 

AuatrolMia 



3,1S5,630 
l,66(i.r.6S 

4.a87.6?2 



X 
a*O7,0O7 

39,45.-> 
1,291.1)04 

■J2H.(H»« 

II.SHO 

13T,S05 

S.2U 



0. 



1, 



4,. 



£ 
[10,200 
225,tlS5 
Sns,.'i72 
2IfS,!)L'7 
232,201 
263,42:2 
39;>.88e 



IS.200,092 4.0S2.371 I 20,3S3,2t>3 



In tho tabic given on the jirecfMline pngn the value of the dinob 
sxportcf wool is qnotwl at £19,f)S4,.^a3. The apiwirent <liserepcune]r,] 
hdwevcr, ifl of no moment when it in n?iiienil>ered !hat about one-lifth 01 
the dip of Australasia is subject to vnluatioii lirxl at the lx>riler of thftj 
colony ID which it is proilucL-i], and ajjain nt the {Hirt from which it isj 
linally hhippt'd to Eurojw or Animaa. In the amount of X20,2!*2,293 
shown nlMjvo is, btaidrs, itii-Uidrd the value of nuch wool ax was «x]>ort< 
during ISll'l to one of tlitr odjaci-nt colonies, and there held ov«r for 
snlcK in .liinuary of t.hci following year. 

The following (i^juri'M nerve to illustrutii the dctelopmcnt of the locall 
wool sah^ in tho<ic colonics wlKirc sudi sales are held, viz., in New South 
Wain, Vict<iria, South Australia, and New Zealand, for the Heftaoiis 
1S8I-:J, l8il2-3. 1803-*, !8i'4-6, and I895-C. The seasons ar« taVen. 



BXPOKTS OF PASTORAX I'RODL'CE. 



149 



exl«niltiig from thu 1st Afarch to the 28tli February. TJie aointer 
bales Rold during rmeh pttrioil Elioum was ns follows: — 



1 0*^. 


isn-«. 


isw-3. 


1883-1. 


UM-& 


i3Da.j), 




283.338 
SgQ,flH 


»IU.82t) 


Aoo.nm 

3(I.".,71.'t 
G2.S71 


4I'.'.0H7 
32H,ln» 

HSfii 

74.SS1 


l'iil«*. 

42S,Sfl5 

310G4S 




80. lift 
81 IfH 











The iti)|ior(aac« of the paatoral induHtry to Australauia will kr> made 
clear in another [Ktrt of thi.t volume. Its value tn nndi colony vnrim 
«in9ii(lfnihly, ax tliu stntcnicnt )icrcuti<l<^r allows. In 110 colony, howcviir, 
docK tlir proportion of rxport* of this cla^s fall lioinw 'JO pl^^ cnnt. of tluf 
Iota) valuo of domcslic proriuw exported. In thp caso of New South 
Wales it nach^ nbout 72 per cent., while in New Zpoknd it is C9 per 
tent, and in Veensland 57 per cent. : — 



ojimj. 


otixr 

Wool Pukirikl 


TOW. 


Pnportian ot 
Kipon* ot I'lnonl 

I'Todotn to Tout 

EipOTt at DcninUs 

ItodiMlap 


}t«w Sooth Wnie* 


£ 
«,040,°OI1 

2,22,'i,lW5 
2,!tlh,r.:2 


£ 

2.39«i.072 

1 ,04,1,2117 

1 .ll7:f,72« 

:i(ii.n2i 


£ 

11.136,272 

3,27l),3.'i2 

1 .o77,HlH 
248,S0« 
34L',!m 

6.281.58* 


per wmt. 
72-S 


VkWria 


33 -a 
ftJ-0 

43-8 




232.ajl IC,(l«5 

283.422 711.489 

4,30S,S8e ).S&>.S»8 


20-4 




23 -S 




68-9 






AtMtrkLuia — 


2ri,2fl2.2ra 7.T:n.280 


2S,()29,BT3 SO-7 










Kxtomal Domestic 


I«,a0«,tl22 


G.ei4,0C3 


31.823,975 , fiS*; 






It will Ir oh«i.T\'Ml (Jtat the G^rei given in this taUe arc not tbo^e 
fumiahrd by thn vnri<iusCu»l<niis'ricpHi-tiuentsL they have been corrected 
in ibo iDiinnir alnswly fxplajiied in oi-der to allow fur the incorrect 

omistP"') furiiihJKK) by Hliippt-r'n in rc-j^ard tu tht- colony of origin. 



MovBJiENTS or Gold. 

Siitce th« discovers- of gold 111 the year 1851 laigc quantiticH of tin- 

m^il iQ tbe form of voin ii.t well tu of bullion— have bci'n cxportnj 

tmn the Attatrolanan coloniin rvcry yeur. In the Hgnres gi^-pn below, 
■koiripg tlte exceas of cKporti) of gold of <?ach uulony, no attempt has 
BUhJo to exclude the iutercolonial trade The lurjjeat exportei-K, It 



I50 



OOUMEKCE. 



will tie found, ww »lao the lug^sl ]>rodacpr% Datndy, Victoria, New 
Z«iiland, ftnd QumubIkikL Th« other colooieti, except Wostern Aastralia, 
now produce 'very litilu more tliau wlitLt euflice^ lo meet thi^ir reqnire- 
tiii-iits. Thi? rrtiirns <)f Ui« gold iniporU mid e.vpoit* for New South 
'W'nlr'js atK KViolh-.n by lur^i- (junntitim of QuuciiHluid Kuld neiit lu Bvdney 
to ho mintod And thru cxjKirt4K! in tlic shupe of coiii, but only thv ex&ai* 
of exporU appears in tho following tal>li! : — 



Colony. 


iai-«l. UU-TD. 


ii7i-«a. 


isai-to. 


1BU-«L 


- — ■ 


New Kuuth WalM 


a^T.0«7 

Mt,m 

«8,Ml 


I3.BM,«N 
Ot.«DD,Mt 

1,708,676 

lU.UU 

«i.1M,aK 


£ 

n.tn.an 

■1,100.300 
Ilk'i.lHU 

i4,iin,i(3 


e 

m.vn 
st.io«,sn 

)I.MO,tt» 

•<lTS,*iS 

Ni.sso 
T,<aT,Hi 


1,088.1 10 


MMIM 


WaMun Aiatmllk ,. 




New Xttima 


44.gE«um 








V!,tn,im lor.ms.TXT 


ivvn,'i,n.i7 


*I,T1B,II« 


IT.SOMM 


iaa,uajm 


ATtnc* ptr uamn .... 


0,74T,«7 


o,ri>i,w» 


u,eu,3at 


t.^l,(fi» 


4.ua,<v 


■sjlAjm 



• Kid — of Impcttfc 



CutnouK Kkvknvk. 

The net nsvejiuu derived from the taxation of goods iiuporC^iI into 
AnKtralnsin during 1894 lunountt'd to X7 ,686,552, which is f<iual to 
.£1 lis. fid. prr inhnbitant. It will Ix! found, froio a caniudi:Tutian ot a 
!<ul>Nn|u<!nt tnlilp, that th«i ratC' per mhahilAiit vnri<w very jireatly, not 
only iM a comparison of the varions colonicjf, hut for the same rolony in 
ilifTcHint yeais. This variation ari6«« from divcrsp caiiw* First, tlie 
influence of good or bad tiui«iB on the purchtuiing power of the poodle 
naturatly r^uvta on the Oustoma oolloctiona, althou);h the rise or fall of 
tho r»t« per inhabitant is not aWavs a Ka(« uuiication of nuch influenou. 
Certain culunim, notn-biy Nawc Houth Wn.li.ii and Qu(*iiidand, alill grow 
iuautUcient agriL'ulturnl pnulun' for their own rr<iuirenientx, and n gixxl 
seatHin, aincc it cnnblcM thcw cotonieii to depood to a greatitr <-xuait on 
their own n-sourcps, has meant a dcerwuw in the n^vrmue dnri ved fmm tb« 
importation of agricultural produce, althouf^h under thi" new tnriS'thia 
will not in future be the ease in New Soufh Walfw. Similar <'3e.<'W have 
aUo been felt in ref;ard to the revenue derived from live stock and other 
foiiua of produce. Then it must aluo be r(.-ni«mb«red that for many yeont 
the cohitiien liavo beim syat^-rnatio lurrowcni in tho London market, and 
they have iilso lietn tlie reeipipnta of much monuy »ent for invrartronnt 
by privat4! p«r«onii. Ak loans of all descriptions n-ach titu borrowing 
country in the form of goods, and sa a considonMc proportion of tlw^ 
importations into all tho colonies it tlio anbjoct of taxation, yMin 
laviiJi Itorrowing are naturally years of large revenue collectiona, and 
coincident with the ccasation of the flow of foreign capital thet« 



i 



nd^ 




DECLtXE IK CUSTOMS UEVENUE. 



I5« 



k • decrease in Customs rsvenuc. Furthermore, tknre havB bwn 
exl«(iidvF ftlienitiotia in the t»TiBs aflectuiK tbt- ivvpnuu during tho 
jCKi wbidi tlie fuUowiu); uLIm >.-o\'rT. In Ni?w ^outli Wales in 
189] and in 8uut!t Atintraliu iu 1867 txdicrul tarilVcliiui^s w«ro msde, 
ud in (itlirr yiion minar «lt«rati<Mia tatik plnci! in tuuriy nl] the otiier 
MloairK T<> UiM« cfanngtw in diiclty itttTibiitnblr uiiy Kharp rise in the 
ntn of re%'<>nup per inhnliitant. At tJir Kimc tinir, it niust be allowed 
Ihattarifl changes faavi- been iniulc wbicli have affected the collectioiiH to 
a reij alight exWnt. 

Spcttkitig gcnnmUv, it dibv \ie Mid that tliu Catttomn rrrrcnnp, is 

■leclinmg, anil is liknly to drcliiu^ Apart from tbo npnciflc causBS 

mraiionnl above, otbrr vBiK^ivi; if Ipsb obtrusiv*' influcncoK arc nt work. 

Y«ar by ynar tli« iadiistrics of tJi« eolonic-t ari' being dcv«loji«d, and the 

local producer is acquiring a fimi hold npon tho douit'^tic ntarkets. In 

wvfml of the provinces little if any revenue is now i-eeeiyed from dutit-s 

m usriciillural prodtice, on audi prodtice in not imported ; dtid niuny den- 

enptif.im of nianufacttiied jpods bare likewJKe eeiuied to be iiitrodutej, 

tho locally-iQudn ariiulo being ])roduced in HutEoiont (|iuuiliti«ii to uuwt 

th« domamL Then' con be no rcamnabli^ doubt but that tbia londoncy 

will be still morn miu-kpd in the futnn' ; utid it la Uierefbra not mipri.iing 

tbat AitstralBsifui Treasumi) havr of Into y«ar8 found it tiec«siHuy to 

look to otlter aoarree tliati tiie Cusloiii« for the revenue necessary to 

cany an the buidneas of (he couuCry. 

80 far aa the duties payable may be taken m a botiia of olamilicatioD, 
the iiu|>url<i may be divided into two classes— one comprising in toxicante 
anil narcutiLti, upon whidi dutiee equal to an avoragc of about 147 
fir cmt. ad valorem are levied, aiid the oUier eonaglmR of imports 
iwltitiiii for taxation at ajitwilk' or ad vaiorem rates. Thi> value of 
intosicontii aiid nurcoticn im]>oi'led by the oolonieB during 16fi4 for 
itome oonsiini{)Uon wai; i^:i,210,O4K, wliilo the dutint collc-cted thorcoii 
*er« not len ihau £'i,2v4,295, the amount* erciiitod to iwch colony 
Imag aa follow : — 



Oo\aDf, 



ban.? u>D>utDptio». I 0"t,«™lJ«W. 



X«« Sonth WalM .. 

-.-U«orfa 

gniwilOTii 

Soath Austnlia .„,. 
VTatani AwOnUia .. 

l^MnMaia .... 

NewZoalasd „ 

Awtoalaiia 



£ 

4I8,!)U 
S22,Q20 
131.149 

1*4,877 
13,f.8U 



£ 

nuii.os.'s 

715,0*0 

4.-!S.7*6 

lTA.3(ia 
iffi.:.71 



2.^10,048 



3,25* «0S 



152 



COMMEUCE. 



Thi-flu collections rejiroaent about 4'2-3 per cent, of tbe total Cnatoms 
rovMiui.' niimil, tlii- rcmamiug jiortion being ilistrlbuted iiuiun); the 
vnriou.i citlimies ns shown liplow. The totnl vulm- of iin[)ortti for bonM 
coimu nipt ion -t—exclusivf;, of countL-, of tha vaUic of intoxicuntH, nurcoticK, 
coin, mill bullion — is niso givi^ii. A column lina \tom ndiliil rrpmitciilinj 
the coUoctioiis as nn ftVcmge ad valorem duty on the totnl iniiwrts for 
home cijiiHiiiiiptioti :— 



1 Cnliin^ 


IlDIKirb lAT 

Iloulb c»TMi]ni|i1Von 

aJvi lllll^lnn, uiui 


Annunt at f uport 
puUca colleoMd 

(l« iluly iwUl on 
IhtoxIiAiitii knd 


Arancf 
I>iitjr. 


New South ■VVftlM... 


£ 
B,4«0,e32 
8,307.575 
3,810,857 
3,!eu,43l) 
1,I»7,3:S 

883,663 
8,489.072 


£ 

i.nii.Mi,'! 

l,CKil>.l)37 

311,815 
2U.S2« 
1M.3M 
923.333 


t^MAt. 
10-8 
1-2 S 


Wmbrrn Aiutrolia... 


18-.'> 
15-1 
13-8 
21-1 




iG-a 


3I,UE),406 


4.432,a7 


li'ft 



Tbe coiapnrivu aflbrded by the last i-olumn. Iiownvrr, has no i^mqbI 
value, itrcing that a largo pi-oportioii of the iniportittions otlier than 
intoxicants and nnrcotics, probably from 45 to fiO per cent., is nilmittwl 
free of duly, all the colonies except Western Australia having au 
extensive free list. ReckoiiinK <)nly gootla subject to duty, tlie average 
rato of duties levied is eijual to mtlier more than 25 pei- cent <irf raformn. 

Thp imjiort ilutiea aoU«'tc>d in thi- various colonies during each of tlie 
Inst BIX ypiin iim f,ct forth in the t'olluuing triblt-, dnwbrMikB unil 
nrfunrlH t'l'ing dcdiiet^id from the gross colloctionB of tlioso oolonieit 
which such infomiiitioii am he cbtainod :— 



COlOD>. 


IMl 


imi. 


itni. 


inn. 


UK. 


IWt. 




< 
I.>U.tt] 

t.!u,:w 
va.tn 


c 
i.BM.nst 

t.CO.MT 

tao.vn 

1,IM.IM» 


l.»I.S»l> 
IS^77T 

i^iis.sa 


I.ITOiOM 

m.tm 


e 
t.ot*.xca 

I.TJII,MT 

i,M3,iai 

!.n,faa 
mt.va 

tSS,&M 


j.MSjiin 




i.i(c,i« 




«<0i8W 














>,ua,m 


a,ua,ew 


&,m,iaa 


it.eiM,iM 


7.044^)11 


T,aM.Ut 





!ii 




C0MPARI80X OF IMPORT nmSS. 



The reTCDue from import dutim pirr timid of populttion oiTera prolinljly 
more fuoi) for r«fl««lioii tima tJie ligiires in the table jutil j^iven. New 
Soutti \Vnles misMl the smalliMt rovemie compared with pupulntiou of 
Any i>f llin mlnnim of Uin group until 1801, a aircuoiatniioe due to tl]« 
oompnntiroly low nte of tho tAi-ifl': in 1892 its oall««tiui)H wen.- itbuut 
dw AWflrngft for Australasia, but iiiiitB that vMir llwj- have itgnin falJHii 
%)lfiw th« average. The variations in tlic cutcs from ycitr to yi-ar aw 
interesting as illuHtraling ILl- force of the i-cmnrka madH a few jingi'S 
baek in iiitroiludiig the »u)ij<:ct of Customs dntir>s :^ 



OltMV. 



am. 



UM. 



Xf^SmnhWii 



SwmHiifl 

Xmoi AiBtaltB.. 



I^ZHlud. 



I 



AiMokib.. 



1 liU 

tioia 

3 11 4 

1 IS 1 

tU D 

t 4 S 

i « I 



t B a 



I IK T 

10 1 

S 4 

■ ) 1 

IIS 

too 

i a 1 



! 4 ic 



IBDL 



inc. 



1803. 



UM. 



1 1. 4. 
I IT S 
t 1 • 
I ID II 

I a 11 

4 10 7 

i lu 11 
: D 4 



9 4 R 



! 8 T 

1 IB 10 
V I» 10 

,1 teu 

4 10 11 

2 18 

5 11 



1 4 t 



« 1. 


d. 


1 14 


1 


1 e 


7 


t aid 


1 » 





4 !l 


ID 


1 IT 





S 10 


4 


1 18 


D 



« a d. 

I 11 S 

1 10 a 

! 10 8 

1 10 1 

E II A 

1 18 1 

2 a 4 



1 IT ( 



A ((TnLiTil slulnment of the Ciistoina duties Ipvied In ciicli colony 
would l(c of vnlup, hut thore is ho littlr ajjri'emi'iit in the tarlti's iif thn 
colonic* th*t it is not possiUp to arrange the diitie* under general hrnds 
SO as to convey a distinct impression of the ttcope of CRch. Indeed, it ix 
more tJuui probable that the keenest analysin would fail to detect any 
sdentitic principle underlying the rates of duty elm rgetl. Hpeciticdutii* 
on lari^e iteiaii vf geurriLl conauinpliou were the liiwl nources of revcnuo ; 
iiieite bare lic*u incri-jiM-d from time to liim?, hut have raridy been 
dimiiuslied when oiico imjiosed. The neci-twitius of the Treiiaury or other 
causni lubM^iucntly led to the imposition of nd valmTm dulii'a. Thn 
only canon of tnxation which sfems to huve weighed with the framers 
of the tariffs was that raw material required for local mnnufactui-es 
ahonld reioain untaxed, and even this obvious rule has not infrei|uent]y 
bam departed from. There setma, however, to be a gi'uernl tendency 
lu reduoe import dutien. The latest Victorian CuHtom^ TiirilT has 
nuwle important alHrrntions in tliis directidu: and the tarifl' which came 
into fore- in Xtrw Situth Wnies at the iM-gmuing of 189C ha» abtdished 
■II aii tatorrm and a iiumlH?r of npecilied duties, while greatly reducinR 
oUum. When in force in its entirety the only import duties collected 
in New Sooth Wal«s will be those on intoxicants and naruotics. 



n* 



COMMERCE. 



ISTnoOLOKljU. Fsse-TBAtiE. 

A Ittborinaft nnalyms has bMU mad* nf the OuKtonui tluUes eo 
by Mch colony in 1894 on gomU wjiicli were prii(lu™<l "r iniwiufuft 
Id the nei^tiliounng provmcea, with the olijoct of showing tht- nmouitt 
which would be IokC to the revenun of each of tli« coloni*s by tlii- lulojv 
tiou of a Federal diiiiititittioa uiid tlie eauiblishment of ft KyHteni oi 
intercalouial frwt-triMie. NwooticN and atinmUiiU are shown apart 
from othi^r goods, as it i% uitlikitly tlint niiy brni of iuttwcoloiii&l rcxu- 
protity would imnctiM) fron tnulc in mch urtiiil^ut : — 



Imparlinjc Colony. 



Cetuny oT OritlD. 



New 
Soulh 
Wkln. 



VlctorU 



Ou«ni 
lull. 



Sinrth 
AuiLnlln 



AuMnlla' muiiik 



Zaatond.! 



I 



Coiimta 



Imnicun «xii KiKCOTn, 





4.eM 

l.DTH 
9 

lot 


i)',fHT 

i.ixa 

Iii.lKil 


t 

i.sts 
Kll. 


£ 

i.ncR 
s.ott 

u.ian 


£ 
NiJ. 
ML 
Kll. 

JOL 

xa.' 

Ml. 


c 
ifl 

SD 

Ml. 

.MI. 
SIL 

'?iiV. 


ITS 

Nil. 

Nil. 
43 


< 


Vuulh AtBtnlla 




WhUhi AuMr^ta 






suu 


Lntcd on Ihr rmlniw 
ofacliBDlnnx 


13,M» 


M.IOI 


19M> 


la^w 


mu 


a 


m 


TMOr 



Obhe Ut-niDui OoKia. 



KtwSoalhWalM..., 
Vlrtoriu ,,- 

SiniUi AuUnlb 

WnMrn AuiMlbk... 
Tvmuta . .,..■..„ 
Kcv Zfolinil 



6S,S» 

S,lf7 
I.fWT 
U.IiS 

*.7mi 



n,8M 

M,42G 
1.^,811 
U,8tS 



Atewhoolooy : 100.373 soi.iui 



U.74il 

s.a)! 

1,117 



41 .4U 

&,fiai 
tLwa 

ao'.m 

4no 



u 

Ml. 

xii' 

XII, 



n),MT n.at 



n 



Sl.lM 

;4i 

7W 

V.aw 



(C.IW4 



U.MS IBCTU 
1.077 IS.IM 



K^>X) 



ALbfiinUHJI OtMIIl. 





ii.tm 
fi.isn 

ic.tu 
it, ion 


SQ.IUl 

tfi.Ml 
6,tiM 

et.iti 
se,nio 


SB.iMf 

4, DM 
1,141 

a,4t)4 


4:,t«i 

T,01S 
lO.CWU 

34^393 

C,G.11 


M 

Nil. 

XII, 

jra.' 

KIL 


1 

1 I1.S2T 

1 m 

1 TM 
1 (ill. 

4,0U 


noTfl 

14.4(1 
S.1BW 
IJJTT 
Wt4 
»1 


WT.IW 
MMH 




Ts,ns 


ftmUiAinmUa 

WHUnAnlnUh 




Lrtlcd Ati the pmduA 
of CAfh colnif 


ll«,«l 1 S»»,J5S 


»M()a 


100,797 


(1 


«,■«« 





ANALTSIS (MP CTSITOIS RHVENTB. 



133 



It will be w«n Ibat of the total <IutiM Mtllnctnl on Auslrabaian 
produce dunnj; tJie year 1894, New Siiatli Waks took il40r,021, or 
ovirr 47 jwr oeut, of tli* vfhole, whilu on tlic pitiiluce of ihat, mjIodv unly 
£1 13,421, or nbuut IS per cent., v,-bb cdllprtMl ill the other fix cniiinics. 
Thr lorgp rrvMiUR of New South W.ilcs wag. 01 oourse, uininlv duo to 
tl)« liMivy ttnporU of Mii^r from (jaecnslaud. Excq>t Ncw'jir«laDtt 
and Wi>stern AustrtUia all the othor colonies pnid away monr in taxation 
tbsn tbin' rcroivMi. The followiii|> table fpvea a division of tJiit total 
i^venue niavd by eawJi colony during 1891 on ull ^oils imported : — 



Imiiontag 



Hul llaaulniclurw. 



IM>L 



other OoBd*. 



f * 






IKher 
Ouuli. 



Total. 



AU DalkUa Qeok. 



.£■8= OlhM 



TMd. 



SnSoaUiWkb* 
rjottlit... 



%. AMnlta . , 
W. ABMnlto 

TiMinl* .... 
SnZalHii 



I'.ISt 

UTS 
il»7 



UanlHlB ..[73.(07 tIW.lUpT.8U 






c 

IU.I31 

nm 
n.ui 

IT.Sll 



nnttH 

1SI.0M 
M.UT 

et4jiii 



Il2f.»l 



it 

31o,;m 
J4I.TM 
.IM.9M 



e 

7ta,«o 
4M,7ia 

llhMO 

M.iU 

Uft.lEU 



),isi,7tg ,3.M;.>3a c.^uvm; \i.m.w& i.ui.u? 



1.0II.S4S 

i.om.m: 

IH.MC 



t 

1,791 .OSS 

i.im.iio 

tSI.»4 



TiUDE IX 1895. 

Below will bo found a stntoment showing the trade of each of tho 
■TOO colonics during the y«ar 1895 : — 



(MMf. 


TqUI Trvlt. 


Imporu. 


Itxpotti. 


IknnnUD 
Kl|M«t. 


* 


£ 
37,9£7,300 

27.OaO.07fl 

14,331.607 

13,033,622 

8.107,505 

2.467.63) 

14.M0.353 


£ 
16.01>a.415 

Il>.4r2,344 

5,319,007 
0,OS«,S80 
3."74,!351 
1,094.457 
6,10(1.129 


£ 

■21,!);i4.:s,'i 

14.047,732 
8,982,600 
7,3M.742 
l,.'«2,.5M 
l,373,W3 
8,500.234 


£ 

16,438,^10 




11.IJ15,1II3 
8,Siy>,93S 
a,71i439 
1,27.^639 




l,3t)5,lG0 


x-Y- ^tmIiuiiI 


8,390, U3 








1U,837,8S3 


30,7M,1S3 


64,073,700 '81.599.031 









156 COMMERCE. 

Thp volno per head of populntion was as follows : — 



I 

m 



Oolon.v. 


ToUITnd*. 


Impon*. 


Kipom. 


DatataUc 
ExpoctL 




£ s. a. 
^ m II) 
•ja 17 10 
31 13 11 

S6 14 6 


£ ■. •1. 
1^ 1-2 11 
ID 11 4 

II le 3 

III n ■> 


£ «. d. 
17 11 
13 e 6 

IS 16 8 


£ a. d. 
I-J Ifl II 
« 16 10 J 
in 1) 7 1 




30 u 4 ' m e 3 
u 10 II 13 i; II 1 




S3 14 S 41 3 9 


T»«m«nia 

Now ZQaitnA 


15 10 1 II 17 « 
21 11 10 ' 4 10 


» 12 T 
12 7 


K 4 
1-2 'J 4 




27 7 4 12 2 n 


15 C 4 


12 5 11 











'57 



RAILWAYS. 



To thv proper (l«vi>loptiient of a country like Austiulasia, ill-supplied 
witli UAviipiblc riveiH, rttilway cuiiBtructioii is absolutely i«w-iitittl. 
lliif \m» Imniii mcogDUKHl from an early period, irntl for tlii^ loNt forty 
JoUK tbo GuTi^mnirntA of tli(; principal culuiiies hiive IxMin fully nlive to 
tbt importnncc of Ciiriying on tlm work. Fi.i' h. long time, however, 
ibtTwei-e linmpcrod in their cffortJi by thrr difficulty of borrowing niont-y 
in jyjiuiuii at a i«a«uuablc rat« of intoroet ; but siiico the year It^Tl cuti- 
sdtnbk pirii-i-psa had tieeii made in the work of conat ruction ; iiidc>i>d, 
If br tlip gr«it*r portion of tliti public debt of Auatrivlai^ Ims iici-n con- 
Ineted for ruilway purpO!H!«. An thi- Jireii of tlie seven colonics nhnost 
Vfmht that of Ruropi! or tlio ITnittnl States of Aiuericu, while tlif popU' 
ittioB numtirrK Ic-m thiin four and u i^uarter millions, it is almost iieod- 
lo say tlint ninny of tlwi linrs run through districts vrry tpitrsoly 
pled. This is particularly the cshp in the colonies of Queensland, 
Dl^ Australia, and Western Australia, where tliere are vast ti'acts 
ttMritvry in wbich little in tli9 nature of permanent settli-metit lias 
: been aci:oiii|>li>ili«l, «U(3 iu none of tlie coloiuea uui it be said tlutt 
I railway liii«s Lravenft tliiolcly-HettJed areaa. Indued, if u fuuH muy 
I fouDi] with the Govern iui'hIbI poliey pureuinl in sonu- tif the provinces, 
ll '» ttl»t ill "orne oaw:!! exi»-n.iivc linns hnve liecii Iniil down in rinpty 
montry thci n^]tiir«ment« of which could hnvp been elTcctiULlly met for 
utkiiy years to come by light tind cliejip tineis, and thiit in cciiim!i|U(-nce 
tlio railway administiatoi^s lind themselves heiivily burdcniHl with a 
OBinlier <4 oaprofitable lines which, as the less of two evilH, tlu-y niuNt 
contitiav t<> work at a loss. Notwithstaiuling these diawbnckti, how- 
t\cr, tbn milway.t of AuHtmlasia collectively yield a net return equal to 
2-08 per cent, on the ou»t of constructiun. 



158 



HAILWAYS. 




HiHTOBT or Railway CosHTRCcnoir. 

An i^tatioti for tho introduction of tlin rnilway into the colony 
Now 8outli Wales wh in oxiitrnco as far back n» 11^46, and lit Auga 
of tbat yexr it was decided al n (lultlic meeting held in iSydney tosurti 
& liitH to connect the capitnl with (.>oul)]uni. But no decided step 
tak«n towards llie construction of the railway until September, 18< 
when tlif Sydney Railroad and Tnimwiiy Comjiany was formed for I 
purpiiKC! of laying down n liiu! between Syilntiy and pArnuiiattA a 
Liverpool, to bo nftiirwords extended tu Bathunil and to Houlbu: 
The first soil wns tumnd by the Hon. Mrs. Keith St«WRrt, <liinj;ht«r 
Sir Clinrlfls Fituroy, tho (iovmior of tho colony, on the .Hrd Jnly, 183 
Altliiiii:.'Ii ^(iitriil during a period nf tiiido depression, whi-n thcns 
mi ;ilii il.i:ii I'l'i'ly of Inbonr, tlic scheme was only well under wci 
wbun IliH (ii!ii.'Oi ery of gold caused a. stampede from the city, and tW 
cuiDpaiiy was left wJlLout workmen to carry un the und' 
Uiidcl*rrBd, however, by tho difheuUiea into whith the chancing 
ditionn of the country had jilunfp^d the Sydiier lluilruad and Ti 
Compnny, priviit-? rntfrjjriKH in IH'i'i iMKiiyt-d lh« further 
constructing a linii he-fween Ncwpiwtic and SlnitUml ; but tlifs 
proved no more succesiiful than the othpr. and in the following }'eAr I 
liovernnient van forced to step in and carry out tlie schetnes for wlii 
thu two cornpaiiieu liad been promotod From that lime the work 
«on*lru<jttcin won vi;^rouBly preMed fbrward, and oit the 36th Septemll 
1895, th(i linR ftxim Sydney U> Farnunatta, 14 mili-H in len([dl, 1 
opennd to traffic ; and or tho llth April, ISOT, Nnwc«»lle wa.i connco 
with Eiutt Miutland. Tho oxtrmnmi tn <i<nil1>um of thi; Sydnny I 
was completed on the S7th May, I><6H. 

While the Sydney Rnilrond and Tramway Comi>any w«rc trying' 
sunnount the obstacles that had arisen in their path, the work of rail'M 
eonstruotian was be^n in the tiei^-hbouring colony of Victoria, no fev 
than threo private cimipaiiiw beins promoted in 1853 for that pur|>a 
HntvrinI uDiiiitanci! in the altapD of land urantn ami ^uiiniiitve i>f intci 
wnK nil'onli'd by thii (lavernment : wid on thu 13th Sifptember, 18 
Uln tirst complr^lrd milwny in AuxCndiuia, n lino extending fi 
Flin'lera-stretrt, Mclhourni-, to Port, Melbourne, wa* nponcl to tra 
It Iwd been begun nearly three yean after the lino to connsct Sjrdi 
with Parrarnatta, but waa only 2i miles long. No further milM^ 1 
brought into operation until May 13, I8S7, when the Metboume a 
HoInHm'n Bay Railway Company, who had coustnicteJ the first li 
effectml connniinicatiwn with J*t. Kilds ; and on the 17th June «( I 
same y<«r n linn from Williimistown to ('}«tlong, 39 niilta in Imij 
whidl had hoen built by another company, wb.i ilnelaml opiMi. M« 
while ths Gov-emmont of the colony haf 1 not rem/iined inactive. Bcsi 
UMiting private en t«n-prise with liberal concessions, it hod takl^M| 
in 1865 an uutiuisJied line started by the third of the compaaMs H^^l 




PROGRESS OV CONSTRUCTION. 



to, ttml w«8 amyiDg oa tfa« work uE coniitnictJOR on its oiro aomunt. 
Sytbeji»T 1863 it hiul at-tjuireil uU t!i<! lines in the vol«iiy witli tlm 
ctCTption of thcHip owned by thn Mi!llHnim« iu\d Uobion'a Baj- Cotnpnny, 
which w«r« not parchiuwd until tbir y«Br 1878. 

Althoogli a lioR from Uoolw.i to Port Klliot. G miles in l<!n^;th, over 
wfaich the locomotive now jMueea, was opeuud ua Hm I81I1 Mny, l'^r)4, 
it waa at that tiiii« merely a hone tramwuy ; ami tin- first r.iiltvny in 
Sontli AlUlnilis waaa line coiutecting the city with Port Adoliudo. 7 J 
milo* loiiK, which was thrown u[H.'n to traffic on tfao 21st April, 1856. 
The following ye»r n»w the railway nxtendRtl as fnr north as Gawler. 
Nrv Zmdand was tbi? iicKt of tin: Aiistmlosian oolnnii-x to maJte the 
inirmlncLioti. Ax thi: riuitlt of an iigitntign on tht: pnrt of the settlifTV 
of CantcThury, a railway waa Ix-giin during tlic yew lf>l!3 for the purpose 
of ciinuecciiig tho city of Ohrislchurch with t ho port of Lylt«ltxiii. iind 
the first portion was brought into uae oa the 1st DecE<inT>er. 1 863. Tlii! 
nocthem colony of Queon>ilaiitI had eujoyecl the pn%'i1eg<> of si'lf-^^ivi-rii- 
ment fur sevaal years wh^a, early ia 18C4, a line to connect Ipswich 
with Gmiuicbeeter waa cominenct^, and on thi? Slut July of the sum<< 
year it was openi-d. Aliliuug^h the Tnaniaiiimi Rtrlimni<iit granti^l n 
miB <rf X.'i.OWt in 1S63 for the imrvey of n line t-o conni-ct Hobait with 
L*tiuceatOD, the first railway iji tho i^wid was ona between I..iuini'e>itoiL 
Hiul Delo^ainl6^ io mileo iii length, which waa <^ned oti the 10th 
>Vliruary, 1871, havin;^ bam coitiiuenoed thi-ee yeunt Wfore. It wax 
inilt bv 1% private company, to wbo^u Liipititl. however, thi* (iuvrmnirnt 
kad aabBcjritMH] eixhtnintliB uf tliK tolul aoiuunt of X4A0,0flO, nn (rondi- 
tigoi tlwt tha intiirvnt sbimlil bi' a. first (.-juuxo on th« nr^ iT«pipts, nnd 
a the 3nl Angiixt, 11^72, th» lini: paiutMl i-ntiruly into tli« owncrHllip 
l£ tJi« St*t«. Comnmnication botwiii-n tloliart and Launceston wan 
iflwlol in 1876 by tlic conipiption of n line, oonnecting the soutliei-ii tity 
*ith Evandale Junction, which was constructed by an En^linh L-ompany. 
Tka last of tfao seven oolonies to introdnee the milwuy vhh Vt'i-'nifvix 
AmtniUa, where a line fraui the port of Geraldtoti to Nurtbumptun wilm 
besiin doriiiK lSi4 and opuned in 187S ; whik' un tho 1st Octuljor, 
US9, a lino fnun Palniemttm to Pine Ci-ii-k, in the Nortln?rn Ttrrritiiry, 
vUch had been built by th<! l-iouth AiutriLlian (iiivurninciit, wan opened, 
Ifa* tcDgth bttii^ 14.'>^ miles. 

The prngrvKS of Tailwny construction, «xRopt, pnrhapK, in thn colony 
<f VicMCiAt waa anything but r.tpid during the earlier yrnrs. Thi.x wan 
i* a ffrot measare owing to the sporseness of the pnpulntinn iliu! tha 
natuml bar that tiie return would not justify the expenditure which 
wuald httve to be liii-urrMl in makiui; wide extensions of the Vmrx. It 
waa aim doi-, lut pravionnly jHiinted out, to the low estimation in which 
ABatralanaa xwaritHut weta hi-ld in London, and the consecinont high 
ma of intanqit aC which mniK-y for riiitway ootiatruction had to be 
tmrTWWMi ; bat since the year 1H71 all thc^ colcmips have mmle sntiofac' 
tmy prograst In the following t^ihlo will be found tlin lunfjth of line 



i6o 



KAILWAY8. 



opened ilariag each yaa, oiui the tubil inilen^ at the elo«e ot the 
wurkiiih' year : — ■ 





Win npcnnl. 


Ytu. 


HUoopt 
TUML 


tfi. ^ 


r<uv. 






uu 


Si 


2i 


1876 


%I44 


444 


I»S 


16i 


14 


1876 


2.67B 


sa& 


ISS6 


32i 


la 


1877 


3.447 


76S 


1SA7 


117 


811 


1878 


3.B76 


seo 


IHM 


»S 


15 


1S7S 


4.303 


417 


)MU 


171 


30 


1880 


4.033 


&40 


lltGO 


215 


44 


1881 


n,fi3li 


ma 


1661 


243 


Bi 


1HS3 


6. 1(19 


us 


186!! 


37S 


130 


1883 


fl,C87 


419 


1663 


400 


K 


1884 


7.423 


83S 


1864 


474 


74 


1885 


7,881 


4SS 


186S 


4«5 


31 


18S8 


s.etio 


788 


186H 


fi24 ' SO 


1887 


9,498 


820 


18H7 


718 


104 


1888 


1II.2M 


732 


l!«6)i 


7SH 


71 


1880 


11.074 


K44 


160» 


{lis 


12!) 


IKUO 


11,713 


n;«t 


1870 


l.MO 


122 


1891 


13.174 


461 


1671 


1.135 1 95 


1892 


12.403 


2.^1 


1872 


l.a73 1»8 


1»93 


12.779 


374 


1873 


).*!»( 1 2-.>6 


1804 


13.125 


:i4(i 


1914 


1,7W) 1 iiis 


18!ln 


13,773 


B48 



I 

i 



It will be seen fium the above table that the litxts opeued In Auttt: 
iwia aveniK*^ 30 uiiIm in length during oaeh year from 18R4 to 18fil 
from 1862 to 1871 the annual aveiafje wiu< 89 niikii; fnun 187:2 
18X1, 439 miles; and (rem 1882 to 1895, 82."i inilrs. It i» now th 
(WtAblinhcd {Milicy of racli colony to kucp thi? mitwn^N tindrr Stai 
cantml, nnd only in i-xri>]>tii>iial circ-timiitnncFK in that policy ditpartci 
from. ICicludiiig colli imd otln^r line.'* which arp not open to ^^iieral' 
traffic, there are in jVuslnilasin only 91)7 mile* of private, lineK, *)r bu 
6'6 per cent, of the tiital mileage open. In Victoria aiid QiiecnHlnn' 
the railways are riitiroly in the hands of the (Juverninf'iit ; uhilc in 
Weotwni Australia tlit-re ars ^72 miles of jirivut*- linen, or cxaclly 
BO per cent, of lim loiul miU-age of tlin wdony ; in N^w Zealand, 1 7 ~ 
miles; in New t^outh WkIcm, ti.'i inilnB; in TRxniiiniu, 5.'i miles, ol 
which 7 (tho Dund(u>-Z<-clian line) nro wrirkt^l by the State ; and iu' 
South Aiistrnlin, 20 miloM. The divnrgonce of the policv of Western 
AuKtrnlia from that pnrtiicd by the other colonies was caused by lli« 
inability of the Uovernment to construct lines when the extODxi' 
of the railway was urj>L-iit1y required in the int4>TeHtH of strttlcnK-nt.' 
Private! enter{)[-ine was therefore enL-ou ratted by Ulxrral gnMitK of lani 
to undi_-rlake llie wurk ot ooiihI ruction ; but Uip changing conditions 
Ibe colony must modify thl^ HtAt« jiolify, nnd thcrc! cannot bo mncll 
(louht tluit in tliu near futurti th« Government will make some effort 



"1 



PEn'ATB LINES. 



l6l 



acquire the two Iranlc linen at pirwMit in pri^-ate hands. Thcw &rc t>i<! 
Midhad and Oimt Southern Itnilw«}-8, 1!77 miles luid 243 Diilos in Icngtli 
reKfMctirdy. Thu ijtato concession to the promoters of these lim« 
consut«(l <■{ 1 2,000 acres of U&d tor every mile ot nulway laid down, 
nr, Kcconling to the miteoffe, near!}' C^ niiJlion iteres of land. Tho 
following statement shows the gcmge and Icagtli of the private railways 
of Aosiralacuc — 



Une. 



Oli««. 



Unstt. 



Kew .S(«th WalM- 

Dtuikqum'Mowim 

Cackbnm-Brokni Hill „. „..,. 

CMafU-ahia „ 

W'itwicU Fsim 

SiMtti AtutnttU— 

(ilcnvls Knilu'iiy Co.'* Udm ■ 

HiHrTlul Bay 

Vktonin Si|UarB „.. 

Sidingn. loop*, ic ...., 

WMteni AiutnJia— 

Midbiid : MiiUaod JiiDctiati-WKlkiiwny 

Juntrlion 

(iT«at Southrni : B«vcrl«f- Albany 

IMrling lUngc-Cuildford 

Do -Rocktnghun,., ,. ,,. 

Albanr-Tarbay 

TMrnanfa— 

EiBU Bay-Wuratali 

Dacdui.ZeBliaji 

Xcw ZsaloDtl — 

WtJliogton-MaDavatu 

Kaita&Mtn-SticliDg 

Utdluid Bailway „.„,.,. 



ft. in. 


i » 

3 e 

13 


« 9 


a s 
s s 

3 « 
S S 

8 e 


3 e 
3 a 


3 a 

3 <} 
3 « 



milts. 

4S 

38 

X 
I 



277 

MS 

SO 

20 

13 

48 
7 

84 

« 
87 



A pTOviaa hna been itiaert«d in tlio charters of tlie companieK owning 
lir* private lines in New South Wales, vrhen-liy after a, tertaiii dale tJie 
'JovffTiiiiMrnt can, if dinjinAr^d, acquire the lines at a valuation. Similar 
randitinnK an- fuund in most nf thcclinrtprs gi-nnted hy tho other colonies 
^■nnitting thi? con.itruotion of jirivato lincB. 

In tl>e cinatruction of railways during the laet working year the 
(••luiiy of Wutem Austi-alia displayed inoHt activity, in ccinso(|tionoD 
oi lite urti'SDt neml of laying down lines to tlie guldlicld^ of Yilgarn, 
CMilg>nli«, and Murchisuii. Of the 64S mileii llnviwn open to traSic 
in Aintralasia durtu^ the twelve luontbH, 402 mileB were opened in 
WcHU-m Anatraliii, 2.')4 b<;ing built by t]i<: Goveruiueiit and 148 by 
frivate coinp*ni<9L Tho muKt inijmi-tant ndditicm U> the HyHtem of tho 
colony w«a the line from Noithmn Ui Soutlivnt Crgui, 170 miles in 



l62 



RAILWATS. 



^ 



leitpcth. which wms c^Hinod on th« Ist July, 18M. An ext«nNion of Ui* 
HAino nilir&y to Coolganlie. a. fucttier distance of 115 iniles, wa&opeued 
ictth KTMit ceremony on tli« 33rd March, 1B9G : and ii is propoaMi to 
t*tca tb« liiiP <ra to Kiil^[oorlie, 25 mileo l)i\vimd t'-ix>lx"rdiy. AiuiUicr 
impnrt«nt luldiUcin to the (lururniur-nt ruilwayx duiiii^t tlitr vnrking 
ypar mrind Jiini-, 16d&, wan tbi? vxtnnxiun ol' tbo lino fr»ia Mullnn** to 
Cuev il) tlic centre! of thn MurrliiKun g«iId-lirl<]K, a <lixtMic4: of .>7 niiJa 
The 148 ntilw of private lino bi'ougljt. into oprrntinn witp th« mnaiti 
of llie Midland Kailtrny, ovpiiod by » lyonden cwrponition, thn mropti 
line meiuturiiij; 27T miles in Icngtli, and costing in itA eonstruclioD all 
oiu^ million iit«rliug, tlie GuvemniL'ut coucpsaion tielng over 3J uittL 
iicrtui of land along the route. Tlit- extt--nsiou of and odditioiui to i 
V'idtiiriaii liiiPM arai>uut«l to 100 unli-H, wliiuh wei* virry cliciiply ■ 
structixl on tlot l>ulty-;rftng system, fuiicing, gatitK, and caltl(!-[iit>c bciii 
(U.ypmiUMt witli whi-ri'vcr pusiiiblp. Tlic follnwing btblo nhows 
extension of the i-nilway in oach colony since IB61 : — 



Cehu/. 



IMI. 



itm. 



ISTI. IKKL 



UU. 



UHl 



iwi-ai. 



Np«' South WalM 

Vittorift 

Qoccnilond 

South AustnliB ... 
Wctlcm Anatntlift.. 

Tfiumiiiiiii , 

Nuw Zvul:u)d 



73 
114 

* 



U3 

no 

50 






3.W' 
278 
218 
133 

■ I 

« 
lOG' 



S54 
718 
208 

38 

45 

718 



1. 040 

soo 

MS 

SS 

l«<t 

1,334 



AoMnlwuB. 



£13 



fi34 1.1S5 



3,070 



£i4d4 



1,M1 
1.7M 
1,433 
1,226 
302 
303 
1,$10 



s,aeB 

5,903 
3.320 
1,()£8 



8k0S» 



13.4(8 13.773 




• RnUwtjB not In clMinMh 

In It^GS ft junction was effected botw««n tbft New SouAWl 
"Victorian lines at tlio rJvei- Murray ; tljree yWMB later dimot < 
cation was efttablialiud belwceii Victoi-iu and South AuBlralia ; and 
1SS8 lilt! luHt niile of line coiiiHH^Liiig Sydney wilb llie uortliern col 
of QuL-ctisliind won coniphrtfJ, thus jihicing tlie fuur I'upiiuls, Brinbani^l 
Sydniiy, Mirlliournc. and Adplaiilc. in direct communitiation with mcb 
othiT. A few yenre ago proposals were made to the fiov-ernment of 
Western Anstralia to construct a railway upon the land-gmnt syEtemi 
connecting the enstorn districts of the colony with South Australia. It 
was proposed to ext«nd the lines to Kucia, close to the Houth Austndiaa 
Border, and when tlmt colony had extended itH railways to the 
point, Perth would he lonneoted with all tlie tajiitftiB ot the Aint 
cotoniwi. Thl^!«! proiiiisals, lininTver, f<'ll thniugh. hut whwi «uch ftl 
achcrin- shall hiive liccn enrrird out, as it will possitily Itft at no he 
distant dnt*, althongh prol>»l>ly not hy a private eompany, the Kuropeunl 
miiils will, in nil likelihood, l)c landed at !-'reniantle, and sent ovcr1aiidtft| 
nil parts ol the continent. 



EXTESSIOS OP LINES. 163 

Tli« fiiUowiDg tmUn iihow8 tho length of Gcn'enuuont railvayK imdn- 
«oaslnietiini on the 30th Jun^ 149fi : — 

UMk XOm. 

N*w Sooth Wales 63 N«ir Zetiimd 137 

Victoria 28 

OaMHHUnd 7 TMaJ 338 

WatutnAuatrall*..... U:> 

Kotwitiutuidinj; the eneritctic cxiiansion of the raUwny ■vwtpms 

throo|;liotit Aaiitnilasiit since 1871, ihi-ro is titill room (or considcmblfi 

extemiott. In tlu' colony of South Aodtralia coriKtruftitm in rtjtirirly 

confined to thi*sr(iutli-enirterti form-rutitl to the exU-nsion of thn Sorthsm 

Line, which hu ibi prcjmiit t^nninun nt Ooilnndnti^ 6H6 mi)i!« from 

AdoUudr. It is proptwrtl to f\-fiituiiUy txtcml tliis line as fnr nortli as 

Kne Crwk, the soothcm terminus of the Port Bamin lino. "When this 

niiwaj ia compl«t«(t direct ovprland coniinaT)icfi.tion will be ratablinhed 

between the niMhem and sonthem portions of the continent. The l«n^i 

<A the gap between the tenuinus at Oodnadatta and that at Plui^ CViS'k 

ia 1,1 iO iniKtt on the teK-grajJi route, Au En^'liflii svndicale offi-rod tci 

cotnplvti' thin nulwuy oil the liuid-Kraiit Kysti'iii, bill tht' pruptKUil hns 

not bran Bcci-pti-d. In Ni:w South WnW the railwa}' rxtcimiaDii will 

be chiefly ron/incd to pcrfocling the vnrinu.s nynU-ni.s nirrndy conntructed. 

At the present tiuie several lirips of what is iprmrd tlip "pioneer'" clasa 

•re in course of coiiatruotion tu lerel pastorfil country. These are of k 

l^t tind dteap kind, on which the jirodace of tlie settlers uiay he con- 

»cji.-il to the pan-lit Hiiea at a reasonable spt'ed and at a cheaper mte 

tlnn cBrrin^ liy roiul. In Qui^enHland, with itn vast exjNLtuw- of [mrlly- 

tritird t/rrritory mid cxti'nsii-« nfiotifaird, ihu milwavs are Ix-liig con- 

ttnjcto4 in BRpffliTiin nvKlcmM. The lines comniMJci! from iwch of the 

principal ports and run inland, but them ia no doubt thnt not many 

jmn will eUpse befow these systwns will bn^onir branches of a main 

trank-linfi whic^i in sll likelihood will Iw tho Itrislwni?-Obarievj||«< line 

tttcndcd aa far aa NoriiianUm at the Uulf of Caqientana. A motion 

hu bcRD tarried in the Queei.iiliuid Pai-liaineiit alErniiiig the deaii ability 

rf allowing priwit« ontCTtwiw' to eonatruct in the Southern, Centi-nl, and 

Sorthcm IKvisions of llw- colony eleven railway lines under the pro- 

«nioaa of tiip Railway ('onutruction Land Subsidy Aot. In Victoria, 

DumMlia, and NfW Zf-atand tin? railways art? wt!l dcivi-Joptnl c*)oi|ian-'d 

irtUi BKe of territory, and any futun- f-xtcnsirnia in thcsp ciloniea will 

hudlv b« on as iu^« a scale as those of i.lir other rnlnnim. I n ^^'twtem , 

Amtralia gT«at activity now prevails in cxt^^^nding tli" lincH t<> the ' 

i:nU\ lipids, and also in the Miutfa-west«m portion of thn colony in the 

intcmt* <it permanent aettlement. 

Cdktxol or Stats Raii.wayn. 

The colonies of Victoria, South Australia, Nrw South Wales, and 

IJneensland bav« found it cx]>e<llcnt to plocn tin- miinagniiit-nt an<t 

maintonancs of railways under tlie control of Coraini>nion(u« Victoria, 



1 64 



RAILWAYS. 



in 1^83, waa Uie Gral colony to ftdopt this sjrstem ; four years lal 
Bouth Australia made Ui« cLongi'. while New South Wales and Queet 
IiukI followed iti 11*88, Each of ili(«e colonies «p|X)inli--il ilii-ee oQIcu 
as Coiniiiissioiicrs, mid oonffrri'd ujion them hy law liirRi* expcufi 
povrnn, Bnioiiiiting to atinont indi'iiendent control, the cbjuctaimedi 
being to obtain rirnnomic iiinnagfrnent free fn>in political iiitf^'fiTntH 
Quepiislnnd, VictoiiA. iind fiooth Auiitralin, hnwever, havn now redua 
Ihonunibevftf OciiiimiKsioncrntoone. In New South Wales thcadinin 
tration by the Commission cm has been inoet succemful, and no chang 
have been iiiude. The control of the Ifew Zealand railways waa aM 
tiaudt^d uver to a body of three ConimJMiioneni in 1887; but on I 
1st January, 1805, the Goveniiuenl I'esuineil eharfre of the lines. 

In New South Wales and Victoria an additional wifeguard in railwi 
construction [)revuili(. All pixipoEed new lines before bein^' sanction 
■re niljinittr'd to a cominitli-'e scleett'il from Wenibers of l>otli Hi>ukpii 
Parlinmi-nt, Tlir-*c ciunrniltcts tal;r evidp.nce ni to the suitability vi I 
route proposed, the jirobablc coat of onnstni(;tion, lh« prospoct of i 
line jittying, and the grades to Im :i-'loj)teiJ. Upon th« ovidei 
Inkeii they draw up reports for or against tiie sclienios propoai 
This direful aupeniaion of railway development haa already he 
attt^odi'd with success, and it is a niatt«r of rvfpwt tliat m 
corernitlres w<Te not earlier constituted, ns ]irDbttb!y the colonit-N wo» 
have been saved much UHel<'£H railway construetion and unnoci 
expense. 



DiVBBStTT «r Oaimb. 



occmu 



Unfoitimntely for inK^rootonial railway commiinicfttion, no agreeoM 
was carried out between tiio colonic* as to the adoption of a uuifoi 
f{aii!^. As far back ns 1846 the 4-ft. 8^-in, gauge waa reixiuinuind 
by Mr. Gladstone for nny railwaya that uiiglil be coualnicttil in Ni 
South Wales, iind this reeomiueudatiou waa continued two yearn ntt 
wiirdit by the English Railway Coiiimiasiom^rK. But in 16rj0 tho8ydil 
Kailroud and Triiinwiiy (Vmipany decidccl ii]iiin iido|>ting the A-ft. $• 
gnufft!, iiuil ill I8.'>2 an Act wch piuoed which providi'd that th« gMI 
of ail milwaya in the colony ahould bcO ft. Sin. In IS^!l, however, t 
Sydney llailmiul and Tiamway Company, lia»-ingchaiispd their enginu 
altered their views witJi regard to the iiue^tion of ^uge : tliey »[)pli 
to have the 4-ft. 8 Jin, gauge aubstituled for the 5-ft. 3-in., and sucoecil 
ill i-epealiu^ their Act and in pasHin;; anotlier wbich made the iinrrow 
gauge inijM-rutive. This Htep was taken without the concurrence of t 
other ctiloiiioa, and feeling ran vi-ry high in Virtoria in eoniir<|ueiice^ 
two of the niilway coinjianies in that colony hai) already given 
ordecni for rolling. stock on the B-ft 3-in. gnugr. Until the lines of 
two colonies met on the liounilary no discomfort wa*, of couroe, ex 
caood ; but since then the break of gauge, with the consetjuent cba^ 




DIl-EIISirr OF GAfGE. 



Imina, baa been a bouire of irnt*tion niid hi convenience. The South 
AnxUxliitn GovL-nittt<-rt( luloptcd nt the outset the b-{t. 3-in. gauge of 
Victoria : bnl Knding tlint t}i<'canKtruction of lines of this f^ugo iuvDlved 
a Imvirr rjqu^nnc thnn they wot« preparcii to face, llie nior^ rw:eiil lines 
wn* built on a gaogn of '^ ft. 6 in. In that colony there arc 513 niiirs 
Ittid to the .^-ft. '.i-ln. gaugf, nnd 1,229 to that at 3-ft. 6.iii.. which ii 
aJDo the gauge of lh« 115 mile« of rmlway in the Xorlhoni Ti-rrit4irj'. 
Tho line joining Adtlaide with the Victorian bonier, as well ok several 
of the otlwr ti'uiik litii^B, luta been poiistruc;ied on the wide jmngp, no 
th&t the line from .Mi'lboumo to AdH«ido is untform. The priintK linft 
wfatcb prcloiipi til" Suulh Aiiitrnlian syiitMn into Npw South Wntrs rui 
tar mx Broken Hill i* on thf 3-tt IVin. ptu^p. All tho CjiimiisliLnd tincH 
an built on thi- piugc of S ft G in., to that transhipment is nocoKs*rj' on 
the bonnilnrj- bpt«,«n that colony and New South Wales. Tlie dirticiilty 
auMl by thiiq <liv<Tsity of gauge is aln.'ady louod to be troublesome. 
It is adtnitt«vi on all lianda that unifonnity of gauge is dcMi'ahle, 
smI everT ,V^ar in which action h delayed makes tho estaUiAhinent of 
ll«t ufiifonpity more costiy. ToMiianiii, Westrni Australia, aiul New 
ZtBLaod havu adopted tlie 3-ft. fiin. sP"g^ Tim tirrt line laid down 
inTWsinania waa on the 5- ft. .3 -in. gauge, but it. wa.s xooti altL-R'd to 
3 ft. C in. The total length of lino in AuitralasiA laid down to a 
giu-^ of r> ft. 3 in. \» 3,CC1 niileHi there are 3,635 miles on thi; t-ft. 
Sinn. ijAuije, and 7.57" miles on the 3-ft, 6Iu. s^^tige. 
'\n far back as May, 1S89, the Cliief CumuiiH^ioiier for New South 
falcH railways brnui^bt tlin ilcsinibility of trtkinK «otion with the object 
" M^urinir a unifurm jrnujtt- for tlin colunic* und«r the notice of the 
Gnisti-r iif Ibo day, nml ([uit« rt't^rntly the Connnissioni-m have afjiiin 
Httcnticm to the urgency of ilenlingwith thin important queMticm 
I the C(>li>ni«x incur greater exprtiditure in railway ronstrurtioiu 
/•Bggeat that the settlement of the diffiailt question of the adoption 
ta ftandijrd gauge rliould Im) appro^ohecl from the standpoint of which 
two gaugieo. 4 ft. S.'t in, and 5 f L 3 in., can be adopted at the 
at and with the soiatlext anioimt of inconvenience to tlic country ; 
m the wbole of the r^iilways fit New South \Valea and Victoria, 
vith that part of Uie Suuth AuHtroliiiii lines laid lo the S fi.3-in. );nugc, 
w wpII h the tine to Cuckburn, nnd all the lines in QueenBliuid nouth 
of Brisbano lending tti New South Wales, hKhII Iip alten-d to the slandaii!, 
Urn vast of altering the nulwaynnnd the rolling stock ni-C('«inn,' to work 
till to bo a national chargo. 



CoMPARiROX or Railway Facii.itir!I. 

yBi/a pofHiUtton nod tns. of territory per mile of line open vary 
naderaUy iu the different colonies. As regards population }>i-r milu 
line o))«o, Western AuHtmlia, South Australia, and yiicennltiiul^ 
the neat extemdre colonies— show most favourably ; but in prnportiun 



l66 



R.\n,WAtS. 



(D the uiBU vt uirritvry, Victim, Now Zi-ji\and, and ToHnmua Cake lite 
l«aul- T\u! annexed tabic ohowx the relation at thn railway nileaf^ 
lo jiuniiliitioin and to tlio area of eacli colony for ttie year 1S94-05 : — 



CaJonj. 


P«r oille at Hni opan. 


Popnlitloii. 


Arm 




No. 
*sri 

381 
ISI 
187 
78 
332 
817 


Bq. mil™. 

no 

281 
479 
8SS 


N«w ZvaUiiii 


56 
4S 




305 


223 



* IsdmliPK Nortbcrn Tarrilorji. 

In flie following table are nhoivn the populntion and nron of turrit 
[ler uiilf t)f linr iijmtii in other ooiint.rics. Of pouriw a cnnipnrinoti i 
'>nly he miule fnirly hi^twccn Australiwia and other young countri«S is' 

jirofi's'* of iJevplopnipnt : — 



CauiitrtiK 



United KinfdoiD „. 

Fniioo , 

Anvtria^Hungwy — «..«ai-«»....**u*i 

Bclnum » ....^i 

Xatberlaiidi „ 

SiritiOTland 

SwKlon and Norvajr..^ _ 

i^IMdIl 

»t^- - 

mjia ,...,<• ■ft**ii«»*i«i*»k*. ■•■■■■■ 

Canada. 



Capo Colony 

BtSu C 

ChUi 

Hcxioo.... 

Unitnt Stataa of AmRrioa 

AuttniJuia ».. 



j^jjj— jj Per mic ol Uiw Oprn 

o( ■ 

Eallwsr. 



Pnpiilttinn. 



Ana. 



inile*. 

»,gos 

21,099 

tt,6W 

ST.fiTS 

3^1 

1,887 

£106 

a.4U 

6,070 
7,063 
I8,7»2 
IS.7S8 
1^441 
8,353 
7.027 
1.735 
7.113 

in,44-i 

13,773 





CAPITAL COST Of LINES. 



COKT or CoNSTBUCrUKC 

Betow will lie foaad the cost of conatruutioii and equipment of tlw 
SUkttr nulvAj/n at AuBtruliuus. It will liu im^-ii tlmt tlu- lines wltich 
•vc Lnm coiiBtructvd niixit clie«pl,v are thiiMi »f W<!Kt«ni AuHtr&lia, 
Irbrr tfan Bwm^ (lont piT mile has only Ixn^n £?,!404, iw compAred 
rilh an nvvragti «f .£9,7fti; for the wholp «f AustraJiwia. In that colony 
there hav« bmn few nngincrring ditticiilticH to contend with, and the 
tiim laid down hitvp been of auch a light kind that within the Inst few 
yva il has been found necessary to relay the Hastem ItalKny witli 
Iu«vi«r railfi and ecjuip it with more powerful loconiutivoB, ha tbd 
hauU)^- power WiU) foari<l to be initutlicient for i*uaonttbly heavy traioH. 
In tlwi culonieji of Sew South WilIib and Viciorin the cobI of con- 
■tmctian biM been j^rattest^ avt-ruj^init; £l't,'ir)l nnd £I:J,2'21 per niila 
rafpecdvety : — 



OOlMV. 




(MDKk, 


Tritol vM of 
■ml RqulpmnDt, 


p«r ulltf. 


Xaw South WaW ... 


inilM. 
3.1(13 


ft. in. 
4 H4 
s » 


£ 
38.«11.36n 
S7.«S,ftl7 
]fl,G!S,393 

IS.520.378 

1,140.567 
S.092,372 
3,SIMtl9 

is,3£:,ei3 


£ 
I-l,4fJ1 




S.STO S ■ 


e,!»45 


Sovtb AuitnlU 

KofftbcTD Territory.. 
WcBtcm Anrtnlia ... 


1.7SS 

145} 
UO 
4101 
1.003 


'is! 

3 B 

a e 

a s 

3 s 


7.271 

7.873 
3.804 
H.383 
7,7CP3 










1S;M91 




m.08S,391 


9,7SS 



For all the AnHtmJiui eulonii'H the tigur«H ^vcn nro Ihom for tbd 
vorfcing yrnr r.ndifl IlOlh June, lridi>. In New- /caltind and Tosnuuiiik 
ibc acMiuntt art" clo*itl iit iliirnrrnt diit«'H, jiiid tln^ figvinrs refer to the 
Inelve inontlu otulMl 3]Ht Muvh, \x'ih, nnd ^Ixt December, 1894, 
iMpecCively. It ihoald aim be noto'l that in the caae of Wesbera 
Autfnlia the mileage ipven i» theaTer^')> leni^thof liueH worked durini^, 
'h- r»ir, and the ooat of construction the niiin »])eiil on tlie average 
_-•• worki^d and not on the Uital mileage open un the 30th Juue, 
i.-:j.'., which wua S13. 

It would linrdly be fair to inxtituto a mropariHOn uetwei'n the ouA of 
Mnnrucnon ppr mile in Aii«tmla*iA and in the d^tmu-lr-pooulatod 
eonatnes of Kurope. for while in Kutoih- the miumjition cf 7=!tiable 
pound ia pctrhaps the heavie&t espeuse in connection with the building 



1 68 



lUILWAVS. 



of nilTaya, in Ui« colonies this item of expenditure ia not of 
importance. The cost per mile tn c«rtsia a{Mr«elj--arttled ouunt 
lu fbUowB : — 

Canivd* £Il,Ta2 

Dt|>a Colony „, 9,009 

Viiited SuiM II.M3 

Argcatmn ....._ 0,702 

UcxUo _._. „ ».4IT 

BtkoI 8,101 

wbili! for Atmtraluiik it h X9,786, 



KeVEKVH AXD WoRKIXO ESPEJfSES. 

E>'ery colony nhows » eiirjilua of revenue orer worldn;:; expeuditur 
notwithstanding that tlie avowed object of railway foiistructioa ia 
AuKtraliuiii b{U( been to |in)iiiot(! Hettleini'nt, npiirt frriiii considcTAtionsof 
profitnbly working tin' Hik^x. At ttxt snmc tinii' t)>r< |Frinn[>)i^ has been 
kopt in %'icw th.it in i.iic mnin the miiwtiys should be aeli-gnpportinjfi 
and some of the colonics hnvr, with more or less success, banded (lie 
lines over to t'ommissioners to be worked accoixtlnK lo coniioer 
principles, free fi-oiti political interference. 

Tlie ^roas and net revenue for the year !89i-5, with the w«i 
exptuuuM, wei-e as follow : — 



Ollon]-. 



Oroa 



WBrklng 



K«w South W4dM . 
Vict4iri» .,.......,.■. 

Qiict'tieliinrt .1 

Soutli AuBtralSa.... 
Northeni Territory 
WMt«ni AoKrali*. 

Tunianm 

It«w ZcaJuul 

Auttraln*!* . 



£ 

2.878,30* 

3,.'MI,G9I 

l.(ri5,S13 

960.153 

1-1.722 

306.000 

144.487 

i.isas&i 



9,051 .r,'*: 



£ 

1,507,589 

l,54.t.:m 

SB 1.973 

503,073 

11,477 

1S3.04I! 

122, AVI 

7.t2,lCO 



0,310,461 



3.741,061 



Daring the jrear 1894-fl the frrosa earninfiiB of tb* State railways 
AaRtralaaia inereased b}' £74,7^, and the working cx|)anwui 
rcdud^I by £71, 098, no tliut tliu mtt rvvenuM nhowcit nn addition i 
XL46,T^, which vins an iuiproveuient on the results obtained during 




KfrVENUE AND WORKING EXPENSES. 



UiB prerioos twelw luontlui oven whnti allowance U madp for tliu fact 

tbat the mpitnl invcntn] in open lino* wn.s increased )iy £2, 5^5,935 in 

tfi« owirsd of tim workiiif; yiiar. 'I'lin coionii>» wliicii jiiatld tli« ^riHiInt 

pngrrm were New Soutli Wales, (jiteeiitiUtKl, tLtiil Wtwtwn Austmlin, 

vbero the gross ctirnings iiicrenced by £iii.GG3, £GS,71>!>. and Xir>r>,l.'id 

reBpectirelj*. Id the lint two colontea Uieitr wan a lurj^ mluction ill 

tbe vrorkin^ oxpeuwa aa well an itiorrafli-iJ t-aniiuKs, t\u: mldition to tho 

net rev«nue derived fi'om tlie working of the lun:a Iwing X(*f*,yi6 in 

Hew South W«]Mi\Dd £S6.19o in Qur«nHlutid. In Wi^Rtcrn Australia, 

on the other huml, theru wu-i, tw cmid only i»' rxj>ncti-d in face of the 

lu]^ ftddition to the mitcftgi' open for tmlHi;, nn iiirroasr. in working 

eipenditurp, lpii\-ing tiic rxtva ntt narniiipi at i)77,3C3, While the 

inxiiiigciDent of tbe New South Wak-s i-ailways lias been mopl satis- 

factory »ince tli« Coinniin«ion«rs took oflice, nn'l steady progress has 

been made towardo malting the Itiiea self-supporting, tlie developiueul 

ol the goldtields in Western AuBtralia hax jwliii'ved even l>eiler results for 

tbenulwayB of thai lolouy, for whiht working expeiiKes lurtually i-xwi-ded 

tlw {[mni <»rmnK!i by X6,i"J2" in thi- ycnr l(*'jy, in 1894-.1 Wc-itcni 

AnMndin wiu the only {.-olony whoso railway.-: gav« a «iir|>ius ufti;r 

4tfraying intrri-nt on llio invested capitAl. In Tasmaoin thrrir was alto 

ta •ddilion to the net revenue^ but this residtwss attained t>y a reduotion 

a ihc working expenditure to the extent of £13,618 in face of a 

dininiition of X7,S96 In the amount of groK.i earnings. In all tbe otlier 

eeloni«* — Victoria, New Z'«laii<l,and South Aiistnilia, both in the colony 

proper and in thi? Northern Tcrritury — a hnclcwiu'il niovi-mnnt was 

CTincod. Tlte position nccupiisl by Victorin in the most rriniirknlile, the 

MmingB from tho |>ww(tngrr tnilfii; liftving dropped ','5 per cent, during 

tW last four yean, and tiio earnings froni tbu cnrriagi> of goods 1 7 per 

ctet. During the lost working year the fnllingod'in the gross i-evenoe 

•KM QiQ lena than X144,QC8, but a redaction of X93,02S in tbe working 

eqwDstx left the decrease at £52,bi2. In New Zealand and South 

Aniitratia a mvuig waa aUo elTected in the expenditure, and the decline 

in tfcc nn mvennt! Witt XI S, 7-13 and XSS,933niH]i(s;tiv<'iy. The declwon 

of Pariiamcnt tbnt whiti! labour only should In: (■mploycd ou tbe 

lUBMnton'rinc Cronk lino in tho Northern Tcrritoi-y nomewhat 

iMreKsed the working exprnsen, and, with diinininhcd osirnings, cnusnl 

% rednctioD of £l,rti!) in ihc amount nvailnlile to meet intirrovt chiirjipa. 

^le following liible shows the proportion of working cxpcnw^s to 

Blow nivcnue for «acll colony in 1894-5. In two colonies— New South 

Wales and QuMiulsiul — the proportion of working expeusea t« groiu 

rrvenoc waa below the average for AustralaKiu. Victoria and South 

Aiwtralia were a trifle over the iivernge ; Weatsm Australia and New 

7iealand wer« high ; and Tnxnionin ami the Northern Territory of South 

Aasindia were largely in cseew of thn averagp. Tlie iw-'st position for 

the year was occupied by New South Wak-s, where 4J'51 of the total 

UkingH reruUDOd to the good after the working es[>en!i(?ii were paid ; 



tTO 



BAILWAYS. 



n 



wfail« in Ta»imnin over £1*5 out of every ^100 received wMit to tlvfnty 
thfl oust of working the linea. In the coloiiies ol New tiouth WhIc^ 
VicUiria, (jttPpnslAnd, and Western AuHtmLia th^ {iropurtJou of m:«ipts 
abHorlKt) ill working; ex(it-iiiie« Iwh Ikcr iibMilUy r»liicFil dtiriu^' tW lasti 
Itvi? /nam ; in New Zeiiliuid tlic j)L-rciiitttgn wiw kij|:li«r in IS94-5 tluw j 
luunjflf th« previous four yitirs; while in TnsnwnikUKl SouUi Auntn" 
tho figures Lavr Huc-tuatml grf-ntly, the proportion in the fonac!r cole 
in Ii$94 \iemii li^.is thun in IK'JS, l>i9'>, «nd 11*91. but macli higbinr thu] 
in i«90. ittui in Uih latter colony lower in 1894-5 than in 1892- 
but higlier lliiin in 1H93-4 and other ye&rs. 



CblMv. 






New South Wtim „ 

QuwcnHLuttl _. _ 

8oiitb Au*tr^U „ 

NorthwD Ti>rritory... „.,„ 

Wtotero Auatnlift _.........»._. 

TuTiiaDin _._.._ 

Kew Zcnland ... 



Auotralania 



54 -M 

»■;& 

»-74 

»■» 
77 -98 
61 -SO 
8S-02 
63-82 



5S-e7 



IrsTsitmT RETuKXKD ox Capital. 

Th« a,v«rage interest payftbls on tlia capital es|)eiided on raili 
(.-oiiatructioii by tlie Gui eriuneikti^ of the Anstralastaw culoniM ia S'SMJ' 
[wr cmt., and the return yielJed liy tliu Iini"« is 2'9S prr cent., showing 
a inxH in workiiiv; of 0'92 prr cent., c-ijuiTiilcint to .£l,lS'l,ljOO, It will 
Ik; 5i'r:ii from ch(^ table givun birlow that thii only colony which has a 
surplus afirrr pnying int«m* on the inip-rat"! cnpitxl is Western Aus- 
tralia, although in N«w Sonth Wales tho !os8 if but slight, aiul in 
gradnatly diminishing. In the case of Western Aiutratia. kowevor, it 
innst be pointed out that tho tiovemment bar» ntised the larid'on the 
lin«a leading to the fi^ld-tields with Uie avowed object of making tliR 
additional cliai^^ jiay for th<^ ooat of ounBtructiuu by tite time th« gold 
<lcpnai1a are wurkud out, and it may rea.sonalily Im claimnl that lliCM 
ffxtra rnrningn should )»■ placnd t^t n wiparatc account. If this «rem 
don*!, it would pr«>bab!y bn found that tho net earnings during the year 
lKSt4-i) did not ijuito mnch 4 per cent, on the capital ex)<eti<Iilure, so 
that there ivafi a idight deficit instead of an actTia? gain. Thi- railwajni 
in New Zealand, on the other hand, are not credi.^ with the ooat of 
eome i;itat« iiert'ives which are estimated at £38,500 fur the ' 



INTEREST REALISED OS CAPITAL COST. 



171 



tlmt biclvBive of this traffic the lines of that colou/ rettinied 3'99 
i wlB u l ot 3'73 per aeal. on the eost oi cooMructiun. 



j tUkay. 


IntUHt relnrnol 
soQiiillaL 




Al'CtVlpt l^Htf. 


New Sontli Watei 


percent. 

s-w 

2-T4 
2-68 
3-12 
l)-2H 
5-+* 

2-ra 


per cvat. 

3'fl2 
3 -ill 
4-01 

;fin 

4-09 
3*12 

I'M 


per cent, 
li-lfl 
I'lH 


QDCcmLini) ^. 

&iutli j\iiiitraU»_.„„ 
NMTtfaara Torritery ... 


i-2:( 

3 '60 

•1-S6 

3-31 

1-27 






AastTalaci* 


9-98 


3-M 


0'92 



^le into of nrCnm on CAjiital which is shown in the ^^rt-gning tnble 
nprasenta the iiit«rost on the gross cost of the lines. In annn^ cjwes tlie 
■Matnal uiiiouut ot outatAnding debenlurea is lees than the actuul 
expMKLitun: on uowitnictioa and ei|uipmi.4it, owing to the fact that huiui} 
Imbs li»Vf l)f*n redd-med ; but as tlip redeaipttun has been eOected by 
Batns of fnsh loans cliarged to general nervicos, or hy pajrments from 
the geoerat rvviinuo, and not out of railway uamitigs, no allowaoco on 
lim aoouBnt can rvoNonably he modn. 

The anhjoin^ tabic show* tho rate per cimt. roAlised on capital 
expcmditura during the Ust five yean in ul tho colonics. The linea ot 
Nr-B' Sonlh Walos, \'ic(oria, Queensland, and South Auatralia are under 
the control of Coiniuisaionen : whilo those belonging to N«w Zvulund 
Vire nmilvly administered fur jiractically the whol« period dvail with, 
^though th(7 bav« again beeu brought difectly under Qov«mm<tnt 
Mntrol: — 



CM«7. 



1«I»->1. 



1801-Pl. 



laes-oa. 



ISDMM. 



lax-oB, 



r Sonlh Wal«a . 

Tlntorln 

OatwitoiiJ 

Sanlli AitilmlU .... 
Kcrtiieni Trrntory 
WwMni Auati«Ua ■ 

l^Mali* 

3r««ZalMid 



percent. 
3-S9 
2-72 
1-74 

612 

tODR 

o«s 

2-9G 



per cent. 
3'6'J 
S-58 
2-57 

i-:s 

0-31 
4-70 



percent. 
3-48 

2'87 
2-37 
3 '07 

o-st 

:0'79 
U-43 

3-oa 



percent. 
3-46 
2-89 

2'18 
3'51 
0-12 
3-13 

0-44 
2'Sii 



percent. 

3 '60 
2 '74 
2'6S 
3-12 
0-28 
S'44 
U-Sl 
2-78 



■ FOt rara IWu U lUL | OttinOar i«is liai ud lata. 

I Six nuintln tfidcd Wtb June. im. 



172 



BAHWAYS. 



In 1881 tlw? New South "Wales railways yirldrd S-Sl per oent- 
higlii'V mU- rif iiitcrfstl on thi' (Uijiitnl «i«i tlinn wiw cvrr iwwhcil befo 
or nincp. In tint nami? ywir Lli« Virt«viai\ line* yielded n return of 4-04 
|)cr criit., whirli is thr liight'st on rpcord in that colony. uitU tlie exot-p. 
lion of l-]S in tlipycar ISKK, Tbo decline in ibci net piutiUi is lurKuly 
duo to tho eKtension of tlie lines in sparsely -populated dUtricla, Thi-ro 1 
is no doubt that, with more liitiit^d «-xt«iiHi(>iix vf tlm cIiisk, tlif coIonirM 
will tjefore Ions eijiialise tlie difl'erf-nce btrtwpwi net rnvimuc rgid tlioj 
iat«r«Ht on cajutal coat. 

Eahmxcs and Expknbbb per Mile. 

Tlie gross eaniings, expenditure, luid ni*t i-arninfpt per «venige niil«| 
upi-u (luring llie last two years were an follow :^ 



ColoBT. 


flrnu Ramin|t& 


ExprndltuTE. 


XMBunlncL 




l«D8-4. 


ISM-fi. 


iass-4. 


ISM^K. 


l^M-t. 


UM-O. 


K«ir Smith WaIm.. 


£ 
1,16S 

ei4 

403 
ROl 
III 
43S 
3GG 
61S 


£ 
1,141 

837 

431 

0S$ 

101 
IKtS 

.-m 

CSC 


£ 

056 

fits 
SAS 
343 
78 
324 
319 
384 


£ 

£01 
245 
3S1 
79 
331 
S8S 
372 


£ 
603 

366 

l.W 

a» 

33 

114 

SJ 

238 


£ 
S30 


QucciiEl>nd 

8ontl> Auitralia ... 
Konh«m Torritory 
Wcttem Auitnlu. 


tS6 

22 

207 

SO 




213 


Aiutralui»... 


732 


708 


430 


415 


SB3 


fiB3 



• 1803 «nd lUl. 

Yot Ute whole of Australastn the gross earnings per uvenijie milvl 
op«-ii durinK 1894-5 w«re X24 less than in the previous ynnr, hut thai 
working PXjM-nsfs wi>rR reduced to iv Kiiuiliir fxtwit, leiit'iiig the net ] 
eBmingo iit £'293 fur lioth ymm. Below will lie found n talJf giving 
tho rf^tiirnH prr tmin mile In X<!W Routli Wales, QucmslAnd. Western 
AitMrnlin, nnd New Zcalnnd therv wiui an increiiM in the train milMge 
run during 1894-5 ; in the other colonies there vfita a decreu^e. Thn i 



BBCSIPl'S PER TILVIX UlLE. 



173 



ndnotioii in VictorU wiui 57",8al inilisi, clue to a fAllbig-od in ihn 
pusenger inilUc siul to iioiidti inkni hy tho DiaDagemeut in tJie interests 
o( ocoDOfuy : — 



CMMf. 


Uma KAmtngm 


Kipgndltum 


Vtl Ewiiliit<L 




UOM. 


UOi^ 


lBlit-«. 


lUH-G. 


l«W-^ 


UH-fc 


K««8uiith W«]«a.. 


d. 

iH-i 
9i-S 
M-2 
W'l 
1251 
32-lt 
4S-a 
QO-4 


d. 

91-0 
94-8 
OSS 

87 -B 
IIOl 

71 -i 

45 -S 
S57 


.1 

83-3 

387 

HS-l 
38 
409 

fie 7 


49-8 
387 

3.V7 
40 '3 
897 
43-8 
39-0 
54 '2 


d. 

40-9 

SS'S 

S4-1 

207 

37-0 

137 

47 
337 


d. 

4W 

SS-1 




97-1 


Sooth Aiwtralia ... 
Kartlicni Territory 
WcEitcm Alutr&UA. 


277 

25-4 

27-4 

R-8 


NtwZMlud 


31 -a 


AwtraUBUt .. 


71 4 


73-7 


44 -e 


43-2 


29-8 


30-5 



In sonw of Uie «oIoDie8 tli« railways paaa tlirou^h huitvy an<l mouii- 
tMnoas mnntiy, involving &tee|> gmilient:*. Tlita is particularly tliti 
case in New i^uth Wales, when; the lines are most (•xci^ptional in their 
chancier, having linen cnnatrucUid with an unusual proportion of uteop 
gnt'livots, the woret being on the tnink-linns, tini\ so sitiiat/^ that tho 
whole of the traffic htm to pass over thtm. In the Southern 8y8tCTn 
^H>r lini^ at Cooma rcacliee an altitude of 2,GS9 feet above the sea-ievol ; 
^^B the; Wentcni, at the C'lnr<Mice bt^tion, Blue Mountaius. a height of 
^Kfir>>4 f^Tt is attained ; wbile on the Nortlirrii liim tho highest point, 
B^47t fcrt, 'a i-iiochi^ at Bi-n Lomond. In no other oolony of the -froup 
ilo th« lines attain Huch an altitticlp. In Qi:]e;:itstutid tlii; inuxtmuin 
Iwight is 3,00tt fort ; in Victoria, •.',153 feet ; in South Aiiitralio, 1,970 
tert ; and in New inland. I,!!52 font. In tlio eolonie.s where heavy 
);nwli«i]t8 prevail tho working expenditure muNt necessarily he heavier 
tlwn in the ootonioti where the surface contiguration is more level. 

FiN.tXCIAL RlUUtTM Oli' PoitKlOX RaILWAVB. 

I interest on capital cost, the proportion of wc)rking expenses to thw 

leaue, anil the returns |>er train mile for tho railwayti i)f sonio 

■ t!ie jmuoipal eauntfies of the world are given below. Tlie tigurva for 




174 



RArtWATS. 



tli(! oountri«]( other than Anetralnaiii refer cither to the tmt 1893 or 
1894;— 



Vaaatti: 



CttfilUlOM. 



TdUL 






woridiir 

t\aa 
tfi arom 

lUll'UtlUB. 



hrtMuKII*^ 



Oraa Werkiiic I X«i 
Bcvciniwr. ExiwniiHkJ lUnnD*. 



tmiMd KlngdMn 

FMaoi 

Ofnnanjr 

Aiinrli BaoBkiy 
Stlrtoti , 

OhiikI* ..., 

OtiK Cvilomy 

AiHtAlaflft ,. ., 



WI'.IH'U.DIIU 
M!.f.<'l,niKi 
»G.U3.{i3ft 

u,4ra.au 



e 

*T,130 
W,.17(> 



u, iwni. 
S'77 

4 '.Ml 

*'S» 

i-m 

E'7» 

s-a* 



POT mill. 

wo 
w-o 

71 -1 
04-8 



d. 

TS-T 



d. 
»■« 

tMt 

SI 7 

40-1 
K^ 



4. 
XT'* 
Kt 

IT* 

tl-8 



Till- %iir(!S givi-n abuvu for tin" Cupi- Colauy me for State Uiies only,^ 
utiile the cnst of ciniJEtruct.icm jut iiiili! sliowu on pajjt- 1 58 is tlif nvfirngQl 
of biith Onvcmmpnt, iiml prii'atr riiilwuyn. Fur tlio T'liitiil StuLc;* thai 
capiial co§l includes the cvipita) paiil up (in thi; fIeviitr/1 riiilroads, butj 
the other fibres do not take into account the working of tLese iiites. 



OoAciiiNii Aifi> (icons Tiurna 

The number of paa!imig<>i-n carri^i] ontbo Victorian lints is piMtly 
oviirsliited, in conaequenoo of the operation <A a, system of enuraerBtion 
under wbtoh every patseiiger passiui- o^er several micLiouH in the coum 
(if iliiT sumv jouruey is counted oiicu for e«wb Motion. It will Ix: mmh 
fn>ni the t«lil(i ffiveti bdow UiAt liut'ing the taut tew ydir.i the nninbcr 
of fipctioiinl jounifys on the Vict'jrian lim-ti hiis [nll«n off ^'tiormously, 
but nc-iriy all the colonic hiive ex|iBrienced theefleola of tlie diniiaished 
spending power at the poopln : — 



OAonr- 


fiaaKDfiiTt nrried. 


iBSl. 


ifoi-et. 


OM-ai, 




&90T.312 

18,973,070 

247.2*4 

SLfttiVU 

Ko line* 

07,144 

102.495 

a,W 1,477 


ie.gi8.ei6 

B9,SiS,921 

2.270.219 

5,T4».0l» 

4,u4l 

208.SO4 

725.;w 

8.«Ki.7M 


19.725,418 

40,210,77s 

2,0r»l.4)e 

2,950 

1,022.348 

SI4.401 

3,905,STS 






KorChcra Tuiritory ...„..., 
Vt'mtcni Auiitrmlu^.„.„„. 
TiKmniiiK .,...,» 



■ bdoatrg dl ]iiuni«]n of tmon Uckil-holdcn. 




COACHING AND GOODS RECEIi'TS. 



>7S 



•■uwnt of f;oo<\s tonnage is ufaown in Ui« snliioinr^d tattk'. In 
thf! {icnod from ISSl to 1891 tliery vrjia ui iitcrraiK! of iiimut ITiS pi?r 
onnL, Tnriring from 71 per c*nt, in rtouth Aiisitniliii to S77 prv rrnt. 
in <Jatnci«lKiHL Since thn lutttir yi-or, howt-vrr, Uic t<iiiiin'^''< han 
dedhkad in somn of tho colcxiits, noUtl>ly in Victoria- Tlir (iguret nre 



Otav 


nn. 


uei'ta. 


IMUL 




tau. 

2,O33,S50 
l.S4(l,l>4e 

lei.ooQ 

(SWI.625 
No Una. 
S7.fi l« 
44,»n6 

fi33,0IW 


tOlia, 

4.296.713 

3.431,578 

768.527 

l,IOfi,8,-il) 

2,ina 

!M,470 
11.1. 141 

'2.iya,ii»7 


tons. 

3.907,844 

2,43r..83: 

9uri..ifti 




l,0OCi.4ftS 

2.0B3 






£VlN3» 




I74.4S7 




2.0l*l,3ai 




4.eS5,»44 


11,9S4,S»4 


10,725.420 







Hw peraenUge of receipta from conching traffic to tlM' total receipti 
•i aoinewliat less in the Austt&lasiiwi i^olonics tlmn in tlie United 
.Liagduni, where for the y«&r 1891 the coaching rMvipts fomtod 47 per 
teat, of llif total ubiiiiiii'il iioin goods iind paaseiiger traffic. The ti^-urea 
fiw each coUrtiy lire givtm bolow ; — 



^^B <Mout. 


Cau'liing Tmnit. 


ti'otl" TraJUf. ^M 


^B^ ''t-t-r'" 


i]»r enut. 
35-5 

48-8 

ao'O 

23-3 
27 -fl 

3S-!1 
43 -7 

37 -a 


iwr I'unt, H 
64-5 ■ 
51-2 ■ 


^^^^VVwihvni TarrilOTT ~.... 


70-0 * 
tii-i ^^M 


3S-4 


61-6 ^^H 


^^^^P KoLLiKu Stock. ■ 

Tbi- foDou'in); («Ue gives thn difTi^rrnt cUsst's of rolling stock in tho 1 
]p«M«sioo of tbu ncveral AuBti'al&siAu Govcmmpnts at the end of tho H 



176 



ItAlLWAYS. 



year 1S94-5, and ooositjerable as are the auniben of each chuH, thc-y 
VDuld witli advantage be larfidy increawtd in uiosl of tlie cokmio : — 



CdODjr. 



LocdtuciIIth. 






Ovoill 



NcwSoutli W«lu... 

Victoria „> 

Quccnilaod 

Souili Austrtiia 

Korthern Territory 
\VA«tcrD Aiutralift.,. 

Taniiuuiia 

K«w ZtMilnod 

AiuitriilMiA 



6SX 
S» 

son 



es 

flB9 



S,006 



l.OU 
1.006 

MS 

7 

Tfl 

122 

498 



1^607 
0.OTI 
3,827 
0,130 
IM 
1,450 
1.088 
8^168 



3,934 



40.TM 



■Jowl 



and] 



During the Iwtt working ymr many locoinotivt's were lying idle inl 
Victoria in conw^mnipn of tin- reduction in tho numliw of trainsj 
running. Il is ftdmitted Ihat the olrtrr carriago stock is somewi 
tHrhini) the requi laments of tho present day. but wiint of funds and 
unKctil<!it HtAtu of the trnflic prevented any additions from Imn^ miwic^l 
Of tho 'J76 lotoaiotives belonging to tlie QutMjnBlitnd lini-s, id arc of 1 
power, iind not suitablu for gcnl^ral use. Thiii polnny biui n larn 
iLUinl)er of rolling stock under order, as have alxo New /i<aliin<l 
■Wftstem AiiBtrnlia. In the Inst. men tioiu'd province tho rolling stock) 
hiib never beon sufficient for tho tniHic, which hnn been macti iiicon 
tnoded thereby. 

Raii-wav Accidexts, 

Tba persons meeting witli accidenta on railway linee may be ^roni 
undrr three heads — passengers, servantH of llie railways, and ircnpamera: 
(inil thf iifcideula tlieinaehes niigbt be clasaifii-d into those aritHng ;" 
oftiiMPs hi'vond the cbnlrol of the person injured, and those dne 
misconduct or want of ciiution. Tlir following table shows tW nunibef 
of persons killed and injun-d on the (lovt^rninent railwnys during 1894-99 
ill those colonics for wliicli retui'n* nre available :■ — 



Coloiij. 


nvdiftK 


K*11iru' 

Eni|iior<*- 


TnnpuKn. &i. Tsfl. 

1 


Kflbd,! ItUured. 


KUInL 


lajurcil. 


KlUtd. 


lajBicd. 


KilM. 


Itiint, 




10 

"i 


77 

101 

s 

9 


17 
13 

"i 


70 

133 

ID 

ISl 




S7 
7 

"i 


IS 

4B 

7 

32 


4S 

7 


IH 


VSctori* .. , 

MvwZtalAnd 


"lie 
J 




■ 


■Xi 


ytnota 


elifedoi 


Injuitd, 








i 



ACCIDEKTS TO PASSKNGEBS. 



177 



Tbe ntilwaya of Austmluut hare been as free from McUtDta of ft 
•erioiu cluncUr as Ui» lines of most othor uountricx. In order to 
obfaua ■ iMUUSMia buis of ooaiparison it ia ustial to tinil thn proportiuii 
whtcfa Uio number of p«r«ons killed ur iujuretl beam Ui tlin Cot*l paawDf^an 
CUTiod. Tiicre in, bovrevtr, no oeucKsuy conneotion hutween Ui« two, 
fur it is obvioaa thmt moadtaU mny occur im IJnM chiefly devoted to 
gDoda tndfic, Mid & more reawonjiblu ban* woub) bo Uie nccidiMilti to 
pnwneers only oMnparvd with tlm iiumbor of i»tMng«'rB <:&rrie(l. Thn 
data from whicb such a comjiansoD could bo mad* are wauting fur Moms 
oonntrieti. As far as lh« &gurrs can bo given they are shown in tbo 
{olknriii;; table, which exhibit* the number of paseengers lullvd and 
tniiinNl per niilUou paaaeDgora carried. The lig^es an oalealat*d oror 
aim« of yoara and bnni^t down to tiie latest availaUa datea ; — 



CaaaUf. 


Smnbcr 


?iunibwci< 


I^UHOgm. 






KOIW. 


InJumL 


KUl«i. 


Iii]ur«d. 




6 
* 
6 
5 
<I 
S 
4 
8 
6 
6 
3 
6 

a 
4 

10 


309 
4S 

62 

7 

321 


903 

*35 

S75 

11 

1.7*7 

*93 

ti 

39 
416 

- sal 

2,389 
B6 

477 

■let 

522 
1,282 


O'l 

o-i 

0-1 
01 
(J-2 
0-3 
00 
0-1 
07 
07 
01 
0-4 
0-9 
O'it 

0-* 
01 


0-4 


Anotrla-Hinqaty. 
Belgium 


i-2 
1-3 
0-2 




1-3 




■2-0 


Sorway ^-'. •«*>'-■ 


0-0 


13 

13T 

in 

323 

a 

113 

SO 

37 


0'4 


Unitwl Kiagdom. 


21 
21 
1-3 
41 


New Sooth WalM 
Vlcxoria 


3» 

(i-Sl 
2-8 

2-7 



Nkw Socrn Wales Railways, 1895-6, 

Prindpallj on acoonnt of the ilmught wbiuh prevailed in the colony, 
ami the strtka of ooal-minen at NvwcttstU-, the revenue derived from 
t^ Now Hootli Wales ivilways d«clinod from £-2,»lt*,-'Ui iii lH'Ji-S to 
JS,890,4IT during ttie year «nded 30th June, lS<l(i. The workiuK 
cqiensea. howctcr, ware diminiahed by £15,701,3" that tbu net receipta 
tbowed a fall of £^i'2,0&&, tlic totui amount available to moot interest 
rtaifttii being £,l,'2iiii,!iiii, yiddiug 3-ii per cent. OD tlie capital exjwn- 



178 



RAILWAYS, 



Trauwavh. 

Id all the AuRlTnlnsiiin colniiicji tminwap; an in oprratinn, but it it 
rhii'fly in Bfdnc; Aiul Mrtbnurnc, the inhnhitnnts of wMcli mnubprpdJ 
at thr lftw«t diitc 40S,r>UO nii.l 4+7,461 rpspnclively, that the di^neit^j 
of si-ttlemeot hax ri^cessitAted tlie general ndoption of this mode Ml 
tlunsiL In New South Wales 8leaiii<ii>oMr8 are mostly usvd, thoagh 
thora &re lA miles of cable tram and 2 miles of electrlo trani at Xortk 
Sydney, anS another cable-line. 2J miles iu lenglli, frurii Kins^treerl, 
Sydney, to Ooean-stieet, in the iiuburb of Woollalira. The lenglb oSi 
Govemment tmra-lincK opi-n on the 30tli June, 1895, waa CI mitfw, , 
wliicli Imi! cost for ouu.it ruction the Hiim of £l,428,51f'. Thci iwfciptsil 
for ibe year pmlitd on thf same ilntc wnn; £28'i,31ti, nnd the working i 
rxjicndcji £'J3Q,ii)^, li-ai'ing ii profit of £&I,3^:t, or 3-iiy jw^r cent. i>n tboj 
investi^I capital. 

In Victoiin the cable syntom ia in operation in the metropolitan areo,^ 
tlip lines having been constructed by a municipal trust at a cost of 
£l,TOiii,794. Tlie tramways are leaded to a company, and tlie receipts 
for the year ended 31al December. 1S95. were X344,7S3. Tlic nomber 
of passengers carried during the year wiu 33,41 7, 6S9. In ailitilion to 
these lines, tliere are 48 niili-s of cable, 4 miles of electric, and abotit 91 
miles of horee tmm»-ay in Victoria. 

In (Jupensland there is a system of horse trams, controlled by n private 
company. The liabilities on the 30th September, 1894, were £104.253, 
and the af<:ret« X144,61-'i ; the receipts for the year ended at the Mtmel 
date were £25,717, and the eTpeuses £31,696. The numl>er of bur 
owned by tho company was 3(S0. and of cars 51. 

In South Australia tbere are no Goveranierit tramways, but hona^ 
trams are run in the [irlncipnl streets of Adelaide by privat<! conipaneoi, J 
Mo ]>ai'ttviiIurB have bettn collected r<»]>euting tint lengtli of thiean lin« 
nor u[ the returns then^from. 

The Wi»t«^rii AuKtralinii troveiiimeiit owns a lino of horse trMUWKjl 
on a :i-ft. gauge between Koebiimo and Co^^sack, a length of 8A tnilet^ 
coniitructed lit n cost of £20,440. For the ye*r endwl 30tli Juoc^ 
1895, tho grass earnings were £3,2ul, and the working expeoMS^ 
£l,S9i>. leaving the net receipts at £356, equal to 1-75 per cent, on thafl 
capital co!>t. ^1 

In Tasmania there is an electric tramway, about 9 tnile« in jiMij(th, 
ownetlbyaprivattfcumpany. Thecoituf cunsbructionnndei)uipmontwaK 
£90,000; ilie average nuinberof Iiands employed is 75; anil the company 
possesses '20 cnni, of which the average number in tiiw tM 12. For the 
year endeil 31hC Decemlier, 1894, the receipt), amountMl to £14,112, 
and the working expenxos, excluding directors' fee«, to £tO,K26, Tbe 
pBMwngcm carried during the twelve months numbered 1,466,322. 

Theiv ut (dso tramways in existence in New Zealand under private 
manaj>«ment,but no particulai-a in rejpml to tlium are at present available. 



179 



POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 



I'HE fitvt AoBtralBsiftn po&t-Affioo wok mtablisbod hy Gov«ruor >Iac- 

^Ukrivtu tha j«nr 1810. Mr. I«Mtc Nichols boitig appoiotei] Fott- 

TliR offica WM in High-ctroet {noir known as Uoorge-etreet), 

r, Bt th* rMudoam of 3[r. KicboU, who waa, " tu cooaiilc-ntJon of 

■blft and expanM attenilant upon this duty." Kllowed to vliarge on 

to tli« luktrenee Sd. for evra^ Engliali or (oreiga letter of 

^r weigbt, Mut for ever}' parcel vreiglung not more thait SO lb., 

I*Dd exoe«din(t tJiat »'i-g;ht, 3k. Tlia charge on Colonial lvtti«rH 

., tmsptctirc of wfiglit : and xoldicrft' loUcrs, or those addressed 

nr wivM, wen; cliargtHi Id. Vvrr litllo improTom«ut in Kjgard to 

I titatipn took place for tionia yeariL Id 1825 an Act was passed 

[Sfcr TlioHiiut llris)>aite, with tlie advice of the CoonoU, "(o regulate 

of lett«ra in New Soutli Walea," giving povrer for tlin 

of poei-ofllceH, aud to &x tbt- mtea of ixwIagiL 

I not. liovrercT, until IS2S tlut tliu ]}i-ovi<iion>i of thn Act wero 
Liob) full foroK. Tbo mt«« of |K«lago njipcar to have (l<<|>cn<:led upon 
I an>l th« difficulty of tnitiMnimion. Tlio lowcKt «iiiglp inland 
l«aa 3d, and tba higfacnt I'id., tbp pottago on n letter incTca«iug 
; to ila w«i^lit, which wan tixod for a itingln Icittor at ^-oudcp, 
ii«!iwe«ii Sew 8outli Walt« and Van Dieincii's T^and were 
3d. encU («liip nW), and newipapors Id, Other diip letters 
' 4d. KtDglu rate, and fid. for any weight in excess. The 
I of trmulciiig was allowed to the Coventor aud a number of the 
: officialu, and luttcm to and from oouvicta paawd free tuuler 
livgulatlona. 

lUt a twopenny jiost wajt mtaliluhcd in Sydnejr; and in 183>'>, 

rStr Richard Bourkn, the Art of l.'^'J.j was mpealed and another 

raa mjbwI, liiing the charge on a singlo lutti-r ut id. for 1I> niilo*, 

I fcr 30 Biilm, 6<1. for 30 miles, and m on tip to ] k. for .100 milps. 

I m? a po«i«ffice was establiohed in Mcltiounip, aiiit a fortnightly 

*■» roUl-lialied between that city and Sydnoy. ijtamp* W4-ri> 

Jocnd m the aaioe year in the shape of stamped coven or envelopes, 

at« believed to have been the first postage^tamps ever istiuiHl. 

!";w tbare wwe 40 poet-odices in the colony of New South WaU-ii 



i8o 



POSTS AND TELEGKAPH8. 



which at thai time, of course, included the territory which is now known 
ox Violori* ii«d Queeiislaud ; and in tlio Sydney office about 15 persooB 
were employed, Tlie revenue of iJie Department for the year yfu» 
£8,390, urnl tlie t-xpendituro £10,347 : while paymenta were inrtde by 
the Xow Routh Wnlrs GoTununeut to Uie pont uflice at KonuilcA, in 
Nnw Zr*iAi\<\, n'hich wtm not created a *«pan)t« colony until 11^41. In 
1S47 ftn ovprLond mail Imtwi^-n Sydney and Adclnidft wuh ontabliBhod. 
Stttmps in their pn-»ciit formwicre issued in lK49,ftnd tliu poMtngn rates 
were fixwl »t Id. pw i 02. tor town and 'id. for country lottirra, at whiclt 
they remnin in most of thp colonics to-day. 

Ri'gular Hteom tnail eommunicaliou with Great Britain vtan first es- 
tablishnl in 1853. Until that time tlio Australiun calooira had to 
d^)«nd u|)on tliu imKuIar urrlvol luid duapatch of aailtug vcsaula for tin 
camago of njaittt, but in the ymr mcntiont^d tlie steainsliipx AuKtntlJa, 
Ohiuta, and tirvat Britain warn dospatchod from Englnnd, making th» 
voyage in 60 dayii, and causiag a strong d«siro in the inindB of the 
colonists for a njore frc<]u«ut and 8tea<ly tytMm of atcam communication 
with the Old World. Tlie outbreak of the Crimean War in 1^4 
himleriH] for a wbilo the accomplish meut of tbia object : but in 1S56 
a lino of Rt«*mcrs wah again laid on, aud the ncrv'iou wait carried on 
by the Peninmlor and Oriontnl Oonipiuiy and the Royal Mail Comyaaj 
for aome yean, but without giving ho niudi .mtisfaction to tho public, 
as might base boon cxjiccttrd. 

Ah far back as 1854 a pro]>osal fraa inado for the establishment of a 
lino of uiadl packets vwi Panama, and ncf^otiations on the subject were 
carried on for several years between ihe British Goveniuicait and tie 
Qovcrnmcnta of Now SouUi Waloa and New Ztftland. The result woic 
that ill 1^66 tho scrvica waa started, and continuod in opt^nition until 
tbo end of 1868, when it was t«»7uinat4.'d through thii fadum of thff 
oonqway by which it lisd bnvn orripd out. In the following year 
New SouUi Wales, in conjunction witli New iti^atand, inaugurated a 
loail servioe via San Francisco, which, with a few interruptions and 
under various conditions, has been continued up to the present time. 

Tlie enlnbllafament of a mail route via Apierica had tho effect of 
stimultttiii^ tlie steamship-ovraers who were engaged in the service vts 
Sacz, and from that lime there was a marked improvement in the 
Mteameni employed, as wvU an in the punctuality and vpeed witli which 
ttie mails wore delivered. Tbe Peninsular and Oriental Company have 
ouried mnils for tbo eoloniaa almost from the inception of the oceaa 
steam sornoc^ vrith very few intorruptions. Towards the end of 1678 
tlie Orient Company coinmenoed carrying mails between Australia and 
tlie Unit«d Kingdom, aud has continued to do so ever since. In tbe 
year 1SS3 tho tine st«am«ra of the Messageriee Maritimea of Franee 
entered the service, followed in 1887 by tbo North Geniinn l.tciyd'st, 
B9 tbat tbere a» now Bometimes two 01 even three mail* roooived. 



I 
I 



I 




rABLISHMENT OP STEAM OOMMITNICATION. 

deepatdied svety week, and a 'v<tyago to Europe vihleh wan 
ly a fonuidnble undertakiD^, involvinie gmat lain of time and much 
diaooaifOrt, ia regarded as a mere [tieasure triji la fill iip a holidnj-. 

In tike year 1^93 another mail Rrvioe w«h MlablUhtMl, hy » line of 
■traiNCnt runiiiue (nira Sydiiuy to Vancouver Island, in Itritiitli Ooluiubia. 
Thin line m^nis lik«ly Ui open uji ■ valuable trade between the Au«tm- 
liaD colonic* and tliOM* »i TtritLih North America. There ia alaa a 
tine of neamen, aubcidised by tho Queensland Government, running; 
befcw«ea Bmbano and London, but tho other colonies make little tue o( 
thsM vessel*- 

Growth of Podtai. BtrjiiNitss. 

The KTOwth of postal huaiueas in each of the i^olonies dnririK Uia 
^y-thn.-* ycaw from 1861 to 1894 ik Hhomn hulow. It will bf stun 
Hm nninber of letters for all AuBtralaxin in 1S6I was Ima than is 
tran>wct»l by any individual colony, Taxmaniii and Wivtvrn 
Aastmliik GxnrptcxL Tho trui; lotid fnr AuntralaKia is, of courk^ not to be 
found by adding the figxire-s of the several colonies togrthw, iw inter* 
c^oaial letters are conntcd both in tho colony from which thry arc 
deRpatchod and iu that in which they are received fordeliven,-. A seoond 
total ia therefom given from which this cxcoiei has bean excluded : — 




L Ciimr. 


L> ■ — LnEten mnd rott- 




FMkM*. 


w ■ 


tm. 


in«. 


UDL 


int. 


IWl. 


ISM. 


isn. 


UM 


v«>eoaiair*iOT.... 

VMort* 

OIIWUIII 

SiMbAuRnlk .... 
VoMn Aaaualk .. 


It 

MO 
WO 


i.iii) 

MS 
MS 

we 


Ciai.»s> 

i.&io.tn 
lai.aiT 

«U,I71 


w, 103,000 

M.IM.IHK) 
]7,TW,1oo 
10,*t.-.,0Q0 
6,'yiT,(i<iO 
6,V..-.l,BDIl 

BJ.mi.ooo 


l,!{;7.l7tf 

l.OSB.iM 
13T.*Ta 

i.t3f.,sn 


(I.OOT.SOO 
W.JW.IOO 

in.ww.iwn 

S.010.100 

K.uru.ooo 
(.tir.om 

O.TOSt.OWO 


*9,95£ 


is,(Md«)a 
(,3«7.im 

l,U0.70O 
l.Ml.OOO 
I.MJ.MO 


KfvEMteMi 


S,U»,<00 






T,1*l 


u.sai.aKi lti>(t;iH>,a>n 


ii.i™,8'a) |ii«,in!.oyi .. .. 


9i.(K4,oa(i 








it.on.MO 


itn.»i3.ton 


io,»it.toa 


eo,M4.a» 




20,771.100 



Sines 1690 tho Po«b.oHicR autlioritim in Victoria have not made an 
«8timat«i of the oonaspondonon doalt with in that colony, and Uie fiRUTW 
tor IMS'! given abovvan) basod on thv average increase in th<; number of 
lettars, newB|>a]wr», and packets piiJiNini:,' thniiiph the i>rticT?« of thi^other 
aix eolonies, taken in conjunction with tlie r«lativi> incrcaK'* in po[iulution. 
Il Mhovkl also foe noted that the otticial iigurea for WcJitem Anxtralia 
bav« beeu f^nrntiy redoced, an in thut colony correspondence \» counted 
at every i>o*t-oSiae through which it paasea A corresponding table to 



1 82 



POSTS AND TELECKAPU8. 



1 



Uiftt nlrViody givni, shoving Ui« niim[>er of letters, iiewspapcrK, luiij 
packets per hpnd of popnlntion, is ajipendccl : — 



_ Onlany. 


Ullen Hul PmI- 


KewflMpMib 


■ ■ 


1 


isai. 


UM. 


1«1. 


ISM. 


ISO). 


UM. 




13 

11 
17 
13 
12 
9 
14 


66 
55 
41 
47 
60 
37 
40 


10 

J 
9 
9 
10 
16 


at 

IS 
26 

« 
m 

38 
14 


1 
1 


11 

s 

10 

4 
SO 

s 

13 






WesUm AuitraJm 


K(T^- i^pAland 






11 


40 





S3 




9 



* InMrcoIanlot aicew eidudnl. 

Tho colonies of Western Austrnlin (inil Kew SouUi Wales take tho 
lead in lellere auJ newspapers, but Now Zealand comes befum New 
&ititli WbIks in the traiisaiiasion of packetB. A compurison of the 
■vnrii^ niirnbffr of Ittti-re and |>09t-cards per head of popolntion in 
AustmliiKi.i with siiiiilai- fiEurcs for thu principal countries of the world 
in atToriiixl by the lixblf given below. It will be seen tlint on a popula- 
tion bwi* th« correspondence of AuHtiulosiu c-xceedR that of any of iba 
coiintriw nam«d, with the exception of the United Kingdom : — 



Oovmtir- 


Ltttvn and 


per liHd, 


CiuMRbgdosi 


G3 
40 
40 
37 

27 




25 
U 






21 


Italy 


!»• 














• Lsllon only. 

Thfl inland letter postnge is Id. per A 07. on town and 2d. on country 
lettors in all tho colonies rxcopt Victoria and Sonth Australia, where 
the charge is 3d. per ox. and \ oe. respectively on all lett^'ra pouted for 
delivery williin the colony, in Vietoria the minimum oliar^ was ia 
1890 reduced to Itl. ; but the loss was loo Rreat, and in lS9a tho rale 
wu mixed to 2i). until thu 30th June, 1894, the )ieriod bning afterwards 
ext«ndi>d until tho 30th June, 1 897. Tho intercolonial rntQ is nniformly 
2d. per | ox. in AtistrnlitxiA. Thn most liberal inland newspaper rate^i are 
to be found in New tjouth Wales, West«m Australia, and Tiuiniania, 



KEGISTEBED lETl'KRS. 



m 



^Bmmw newspapers printed nilhin tho colony are traoitmiltcil fire if 
^P|to«ted within one week of publiciition. tiltliou^h in Xr-w ^outh Wtilea 
the inaiiaiaii) weight wbioh eic»p«8 pcwtage is 10 or.. It in, therefore, 
ooly DKtuml that Uicse oolonieo, u abuwn in tlie tAblo (pvcn on pago 183, 
diould cxorcci their ni^ijcbbourn in tlie average numlxr of newspapers 
ranicd per hnul of papulntion. In ^'ictoria. South Anstrslin. anti New 
'/.cahnii tho cJuu^ is A<i- c-ucli, nnd in Queensland Ad. ]>or 10 ox. Tlie 
iDtcTvolonial poetAgo on n^^wspapers is Jd. cnch in Victoria, South 
^■AiUtr&lJA, and Tasmania ; id. per 10 oe. in New South Wales, Quceni^] 
^Huid, and Western Auitr&Iia ; and Id. each in New Zealand. 
^B The number of re^iAtered letters and packets piiasin;,' tlirouffh tho 
^']iQM'Office« of the Australa^ait colonies lisa largely increased of liit« 
r Jt^n, nnd iu New South Wales the number whicli po^ed through tho 
I Ge(i«rftl Pout OfEce atone in 1802 wus no leHu thiui l,07o,241, an 
I iscreajn of 203 jwr cent, in seven years. Tliis larj,'*? iticn-itsc was not, 
bownver, a. natunil growtli, but arose cliieily from i;i>rreKpond(ince 
rrl.iting to »o-<*ll«l "cniiBultjitions," or lottery sweeps cgnnectfd with 
honv-mcing, whirh ^'ere rstAblished in Sydnpy, and to support which 
Inj^ sums of monpy wpre sent to that city from all pnrtN of Australasia, 
u well as iiQm other countries. Probably not less than 600,000 of the 
toUl for New South Wales in 1892 were associated with these lotlpiies. 
Tbt! Govemunrnt of iJiat colony dealt witli the oil in an Mm-nding 
Pb*tiil Bill in 1S93, and Una illicit bniiic^h of the p^istnl tradii; vina 
nnaovMl to Qaor-nnland, the nundier of registration-'^ ikivlt with at all 
[>09t-ofli«cs in New Soutli Wales in 1.^94 bpjng 93f,34(i— n reduction of 
J 74.362 lettere at the tienerol Post Office alone during tlie year — while 
in the northern colony the registered letters in IS94 numbered 430,148, 
an increase of ir>8.i;(>'; on the figures for the previous twelve months. 
In the be|{iimiu{; of IS9G, however, the Parliament of Queensland {>ass('d 
sa Act mAkinc these lotteries illegal, and the evil was transferred to 
TunuuiLs. fn Western Australia and New Zealand tlie po^tothco 
effieuds rcjwrt tli*t 196,791 and 279,177 registered leiters were ri-ji- 
p«ctirely <lciilt with during 1894 ; but these tiguri^s are too high, ok 
they reprcfwnt the totid registered eorrcapondenco ii» obtnined by 
counting thr Intter* nt every post-oHicr through which they pnwi. ]''or 
Viciori*, l^outh Australia, and Ta-sniaiua no particularB of registrations 
■hatever are arai table. 

Excepting Western Australia, where there was no inland service, 
there were inland, intercoloniAl, and intomfitional parcels posts in opera- 
tioD in 1894 : but statislica of the services on a uniform basis are not 
obiaiiuble. During tlie year there uere passed through the po8tH>ffic4 
(i New SoutJi Wales 367,S90 parcels, weighing i. 124.786 lb., and 
hiring K Tftlue of £99,651, the pusli^* collected amounting to £21,729; 
in Victoria 233,326 [mrcels, yielding u revenue of £10,937, were dealt 
villi : in Quocntland the number of parcels which passed through tho 
poM^ffioo wu 81,531, Mid the rcv<'nue derived from the nervice 




1 84 




l>0!n% A»D TELEGRAPHS. 



(UBOUDtml to £4,7^*2 ; in W««tcm AuNtnlm 8,026 pororU, the 
▼ftliM of which wmjEIS, 174, worn tiiaJt with ; in TMmania 2,669 inland' 
paroela wore poKtod during die ye»T, while 10.130 porkcts wid paroels, 
vaium] at £T,Mi(, were roccived from the United Kiugdoin And Hit 
othei- colonies ; and in N«w Zealand the inland paroeta numlmMl 
149,1&0. No particulars are available of the SouUi AuBttalian Htrrioe. i 

In al! tb» colunies there an moaey ordur and postal note systeiua in | 
opctratiiin, and in all tlio oolaiiiu «xcB|it ^uUt AniitniUa poal-office j 
•AvingK b«nlcM. Partioulare of thn working of thoc torviccti will be J 
found ill tlu' ohapt«r dealing with Priratc Finanrax 

Th« following table ahows the number df inbabitantx and the 
in square mile* to each post-oflicr for the fear 1891. It will be Man] 
that the Dioet «pnrMly jK)pulat«d colonies haTo the greatest nnmt 
post-oSloM in comparison with theii- population, but in ord«r lo 
of the relative extenaon of postal faciliti«H tli« area of couiilr>' lo i 
office muat also be taken into aooouiit : — 



(Motij^ 


lalalilliuita Id (uta 
FmtOnM 


NunlMi of Bnut 

Mik* rjt TtrrlMiT to 

mk4>0<II». 




053 

am 

449 

5W 
357 
477 
502 


IGt 




51 




«73 




1.305 
SO 






77 








R7fl 


las 



OcKAx SI AIL Ssitncce. 

The FedenJ Ocean Mail Servict-, whiub in carried on by the 
and Peuiiuulitr imd OriLiituI Str»m Navignlimi Ccimpanios, iseabeid 
by the Unitini Kin;rl<»n and all thi^ AuKtmliiaiaD ootonies, with ihe 
moeption of Nitw Zi-aUnd. Tbo total nmuunt of the subaidy Is 
^170,000, of which il'Ti.OUO in [myjiblc by thi^ Imperial auUtonties atid 
£70,000 l>y Lh(^ rolonics in proportion to their population. On the 
3lnt January, \Bil'>, tbc contract with the stomusbip oompaulM uxpircd, 
and the colotii«8 proposed its ext«j)sion for one you : but on the sag- 
gestion of the Poet-ofbce autJioritien of tlie I'nited Kingdom, the 
coDlracl WUJ3 oxlended till Ui« 3Iiit January, 189S, the oompimiiea 
agreeing to include tiie pareda pacta in their contract and to make 
Oolorobii an iiiTariablc! port of catL Hip following tabl« shown tlie 
amount of l\». HHbiiidy paid by each of the colonies dnrinfi: 1894, with 
the nH Ioki to Now South Walc». Victoria, and (jueeuBland, after 




COST OP ODEAK MAIL SERVICES. 

: the vaXac of po«t*go nnoi<red uid retained by tbom colonies. 
Uir alfaei- colonii-K, Um! net expenditure ou th« wnrier in unfor- 
taiiatolj uot nlilainnlilc Npw ZeaJiiod, sltliough not n oontrncting 
p>r^, yvt KTiLiLv itself of tbe F«denit Sun-ice fiir tlm otrrngc of uimi 
asctcr, aad ita n«t loss daring like ytnr Mnminted to XI, 644 : — 




ttnUad Kingikiiii „.„... 

AuArklulA— 

Now S.>iitli WaJm £S6,S92 II 8 

Vkloriii SS.flGI 5 l> 

Qa wnu land 0,5t4 IS 4 

BonthAiutnUa 7.8S6 I) 8 

Westcm AtMtnlift .. 1.4:^; lA 

Taunwia 8,414 » 4 



SubaUjr, UM. Ntt lim. UM. 

. £09,000 . 



£12.8:7 
9,071 



£75,000 



Tat*l 



.„....»._ <I70.000 



Um nvail serrice lias lieeu perfonued with grckt rctgulurity and 
cspedition. The tivera^t! liine ucvujiiiMl l>y lIki outward niid bomcwiint 
tervicea in 189-1 wan ua follows : — 

Orient. P. jml (X 

Limdan to Kydnoy 34-/((lB7t. S4 tisyi. 

flydnv to Loudon 33^ „ 3*A .. 

On two ocouiotiH during the year the luaJIs from London wens 
dafiwed in SydnryinSl dAyn. The stc^mera which caniL-d tbcm wore 
tbe Attstrftlin and tbe Oconaa, both of the Peninsular &nd Oriental 
Oompany. 

In attdition to the Fcdeml Ocean JAaM Service via Hmcz, Hew Soutli 
Vain and New Zealand unlU Novemljer, 18S0, aubddiitc^d Uie TJiiiiiii 
Bt«sindiip Company, tii conjunction witli tbe Paciiic Stiumf.lii]) Coni' 
)»ny, for » four-wcrkly .■lervit'e via Sun Francisco, to the nnmunt tjf 
£37,000, of wLicb New Soutli Wale* pnicl £'15,7^0, luid New Kcalund 
X11,'J50. Under tki- new contract vthicli wn-s entered into, nnd which 
cxpiiTMl in NovrniWr, IS9t, tho nniount of the subsidy was lar^y 
rtdnced, thn contriiiution of New SouUi Walog being fixed nt JE4,000, 
while New KenUnd puid according to the weight of the mail nixttor. 
A further extension of the contract has been made by New Zealand 
until Novemtier, 1697, but the payment of New .Sout!i Walea i& suhject 
to annual Appropriation by Parliament. During the year 1894 tho 
net cost of blie service to New fteuland was X7,964 ; to New South 
"Walea, Xl,892 ; U> Victorias -£100 ; and to Qu<-<-i.»laiid, £2;7. Tho 
aTcTiige timu occupinl in carrying the inailn by tho Ban Francisco route 
during the (Amc jenr was as foUowg : — 

Txiiidiiii ti> Syilrivy ,...,... ..».....» ».... 37'^ lUjs. 

Sjrdavy to I/mdon 3S|>l ,, 

I>aring IR9S « talimiUr monUdy service between Sydney and Van- 
Mover was establivhvti by t)ie Canadian- Australian Royal Mail Line, 



1 86 



POSTS AKD TELEGBAFHS. 



■i 



tbo colonjr of New South Wnlcs gmntingan Annual tmbsitljof XIO.OOO, 
and the Onnadian Dominion ono of £'2T>,000- Thin nctiou wus (Akcn 
more in th(> interegts of trntlo between tl«^ groit Britiidi roliiKirK in 
Aiistntlasia and AmeriCK than in those of the poslnl M^^ic : and to 
cordially d(> the Oovemment of New Zenl&nd approve of thU polity 
tliat, wbtl« refuunK «ii offiT of llie Vuion SUamsliip Company to send 
their sttuiinrrs on tram Sun Fruiidsco to VanoouTer for s fiuni of 
£10,000 jM-r annum, llifv arc prtrpared, proviiled the approval 
Parlinmrab can bo KiM^urivI, to grunt tlie Caniulian-AuElndiaii Line 
yearly mibiiidy of £20,000 in conxidrrntion of ita Bt«aniont calling 
one of the port* of that colony. Although, however, tin! Intirciolonial 
Postal Oonferenco has «ndor«cd the proposal, no ngrrcnicnt hnn yet i>om 
conie to in the matter: hut the company has offered to niako Ilrisbano 
a port of call, and to place another sti?nnier on tlie service, in considera- 
tion of the Queensland Uoveruiuent -(raJiliiig an annual subsidy of 
^6,000. Sucoueuiful eflbrtH have been iii«*k' by the Canadian Goveni- 
ment to induce the Iniperiul authuritii's to uubiiidii^t! a line uf al^umera 
to carry the nmiU on the Atlantic side, and the mtrvice will probably lie 
oammenocd in IK^d. During IS'J4 the ni-t cent of the Vancouver 
Burvicc to Now South Wales was £i,S4G : to Victoria, ii'J98 ; aiul to 
Queensland, XI 27. The uvcrag« time occupied by the mails in 
from Sydney to London was iOft days, 

The British India Steam ICavigatiou Company, tiailiii;; from Bri^MM: 
via TorrcH Straits, carry niailH under contract witli the QueentUnd 
Government, This route is from four to ten days longw than thoiu 
previouiJy mentioned, ninils occujiyitig al>uut forty-four days in tnuudL 
Queirniilruid, under the former eoiitmct, paid the comjiany an annual 
Nubitidy of Xr>rf,000. This arrangement ceased in ilanuary, 1690, and 
under a new contract the colony agrooil to pay the company an annual 
■ttbudy of X19.800 for a four-weekly, or X':il'.500 for a' fortnightly 
Kervtce. The latter service whs eoinnienced on 1st July, 1890, the 
monthly Mervioe havuig lasted nearly wi moutlia; hut in November, 
lt^91,tlieeontntctoni, on account of tlie heavy loaaea under the forlnishtly 
ayaleni, were allowt-d to revert to tlie four-weekly service, the suhttidy 
bein^ rcduci^l to the smaller amoiinl mentioned above, vix., X19,80O. 
Notice bait now heen given that IhiH service will W. discontinued, and 
an agreement lins lieen drafted with the Briiisii India AMOciatnl 
Stcnmens, Limiteil, for the institution of a nervier for purely coRimerciAl 
purpoM«, no that the subsidy wilt not in future be charged to the Tost 
Office, although the st^ameta will be utilised for the carriage of maila 
Tlie amount of mail matter despatched by the Torres Straits route fixitn 
the other colouiee is very small, the coat to Victoria during 1894 being 
stated at X16. Tlie net coat of the service to QuoenxUnd was X21,'t'l^^ 
including a due proportion of the coat of the coastal branch services. ^| 

Besidea tliote mnntiontrd, tlie other Gteamship companies trading with^^ 
the A UKtroIaaian colonic carry mails, notably the Measa{^nes Maritime* 




POSTAGE TO BKITED KINGDOU. 



187 



ay and tlu) Kortli Q«nDBa Lion's, Mulfng boa Sydney, and the 
TfiiAvillc, nnd Albion Compftnjr, Mulingftpm Iftteiton, gia MagelW 
StrMts. Thi? compnnicH arn paid by thei colonies in pra{K>rt!on to the 
ir«i](ht of mail iiintMr cflrrioi, but the JMrasageries MarltuueK Company 
anil the Sorlli German Lloyd's aie ia n-ceipt of Urge subsidies from 
tbe French and tivnu&ii Goveraineiita respectively, 

Tho pcsta^ to th« T'nit<«l KiiiKdum wus reduoed in January, IS91, 
from 6(L pM* t oun<w i-in Italy and -Id. vin thi; long urn route to the 
Dttifom) mUt of 2AiI. In lt*ai tho colonii^x wure n!p[^scnt«d at tbe 
CoDgTMs of the linivx^rml PonUl Union tield in Viriino, and on July 4 
• oonretition was Hijen<>d on their tjclialf, l>y wliich tliey joined tbe 
ViUDii from tho Ittt <>ctobcrof tliat ye-nr. From that, date the rati? of 
poatage to all llntish colonies and poHxciwioiis and foreign countri<?s 
bcSiuImI in th« Union was reduced to 2Jd. An was to be trx.iiected, tho 
iMinMliat« result of Uie stcerution was a reihiction in rvveiiue, but it in 
«cmfid('ntly «iitidpat«d thai so far as thesis colouiea are -■onocnicHl tliB 
tine t* n<)t far distjull wlioii the rovenue fruni ihia branch of postal 
•HTicn will rtncli itit ori^nal volume. 

A common scale of postage on m-w^impiris to tin: United Kingdom 
u>d foreign countries hais bei-n adopt<'d liy tho Am^traUsiiLn colonies, 
tbe rate Ikidk Id. (or the first 4 ounces, and Ad. for every additi<'nal 
2oancn. The only variation is founj in Wi-steni AustnUia, where 
the charge for oxlrn vt'ifiht is Ut. for every 4 ouiiues. 



TBLEOBAPBa. 

Tho electric t«l<^raph wu introduced into iliissc colonics almost at the 
time of the porlipst rwlway construction. The first telegraph messajifea 
were sent in New South Vralcs in 1851. In Victoria tho telegiaph line 
from Melbourne to Willianislowii was opened in 1654. The tlrfit line 
in Soutli AuslraJia, from Adelaide to Port Adeltude, was opened iu 
ISA6 : and the first Taamanian line was completed in 1857. In New 
Zeolftiid tlie Gnt leteRnpU office was opened in IS62 ; and the line from 
Brisbtuu) to Rockhnmpton, the first in Queeniilanil, wan opt^ned in 18t)4. 
T<)rgra|>hic communication was established between Sydney, MellHiumt?, 
ud Adelaide in IS.tS. The first telegraph in Wpstetn Australia won 
opMed in l^tf, niid com muni cat ion biitween tliat colony and all tho 
Otkra of tlie groop was completed in It^t 7. 

All the colonies show very rapid progrms in regard to telegraphic 
II lutters during the period from 1871 to 1881, In the case of Queens- 
I bod tliiti increase was largely due to the construction of tlie line to the 
J Gtdf of Oarpeutarua ; and in the case of ^outh Australia, to the con- 
II ttmction of the lines to Port Darwin uiid to Eucla, on the boundary of 
I WertBTD AttatfuliA. The following tabic shown thtt leiiKlh of t«l^raphic 



t«8 



POSTS AND TPXBGRAPHS. 



Hn«8 in osdi oolong at the last four census periods, as well ns for tbc 
year 18M, aa br as tie returns arp available : — 



Otlsny. 1 Uei. 


IKiL 


asi. 


IWL 


littl. 


H«w South WalM ... 


1,616 

eo7 


•4,674 

2,S2S 
1.1S3 
"7G0 
•391 
ZOU 


e,si5 

3,SGU 
0.'J80 
4.MS 
1.585 
938 
a,«34 


ll,6fl7 
7,IW 
9,»W 
5,040 
2,021 
X,0S3 
5.U0 


12.201 
7,141 




9,1)60 


WcBtcm Australia ... 


6.560 
4.40S 
1 780 




6,82s 


Auttmluia ... 




13,733 


30,428 


44,8SS 


40.023 



•InlS7S. 



The next table gives similar particulars, onl^ the figures roproMUt 
miloi of vrire instead of miles of line : — 



O&Iqi.)"- 


1S8I. 


isn. 1 iSBi. 


imi. tmi. 


Sosth AiutnliiL 

Wotcm Auitrnlin ... 


1,981 

IflO 
eifi 


&,67» 
3.472 
2,014 
1.718 
•760 
241 
3,287 


14,278 
6.GSS 
8.685 
7.328 
I,a&a 
l,ln7 
5.663 


34.780 
13,969 
17.846 
12,707 
iMti 
3,178 
13,235 


28.066 
14,480 
17,801 
18,171 

£.010 
$.004 




14,647 










I7,GG1 


40,120 


SS.08I 


06.138 



■InlKS. 
Id 1894 tbero wlto 5TG niiJM of cable from New Zoal&iul Ui STdney 
aod from Tasmania to Melboum?, in additioa to th« iLiigih Kho«-n 
above. Tbo numboi' of telegrams passing aJonR the iriruK of eacb 
colony and the revenue received by the Tele([mpli Uepartmmits during 
the year ISS-1 were as nppeiultid. tu the total for Australnaia a correc- 
tion has bc^en ninile fur intercolonial telegrams recordod in botb 
drapat«lting and the receiving colony ; — 



CUoo}-. 



Numbor of 



»***BM 



Kew Soutli Wkl« 

Victoria 

QucciuUDd 

' Muth Anatnlia ... 
W«t«m Aiutnlia 

TMmania 

K«irZf«!and ...» 



AnstnUasia 

AmbalMia (lotcrtwlonial BxceneX' 
eluded.) 



3,404,074 
2,549.935 

D<s,goe 

•885,919 

440,780 

212.720 

2,1IS,4M 



9.361.077 
8,453.002 



£146.080 
9S.096 
87,461 
89.172 
S$.»6 
30,135 
88,459 



£581,607 



• IndudiBs ItoBlb. Aadnltan nUrttniM only. 




TELEGRAPHIC OOJOOnaCATIOX. 



In the whole of AuBtralnsia there Rro 3,197 ti<l«ffrnpb ntstionft, of 
which 813 are in New South Wales, 793 in VioWria, 362 m Qiionnsland. 
348 in South AiuUuUa, 73 in Western Auatnllo, 217 in Tuniitnia, a&d 
<i91 in N«w Zealuid. 

In no oountrr in tite world baa tlie development of tclpgniptiic com- 
.catioa b«tcn ko rapid us in AuHlriibuiia, and in none has it been 
advantage of tij- tho public to Anything likn tlio same exteut. 
lUing Anrtruasi* u a wholo. thnr^ arc only four countniw in the world 
Ifakt ponen a gnuttw extent of tctcgrnph \iac9, and only iteveu in whicb 
k Wger number of messages iLre actuiUly gent. In no other couutjy, 
however, except the Ifnited Kingdom, doc« the number of maaaages hcAr 
utfthing approaching the satn« ratio to the population. The following 
lal)l« fllust»tes these remarks : — 



Owaur- 



Ub«Ui 
of TalisnfA 

Unm. 



Uaittd Kiugdom -. 

Praace , 

Mpvm' 

K«Awbiidi* 

(kraany —.... 

DtwnuL ».. 

Swvdm 

Sontay , 

HimU 

Autttiii'UiuiAafy .. 

SwttMclawl 

Ilal* 



CnitJ^UtM... 

CWbuU.. .„ 

CkfMCokoir ... 

AsttnUna 



miloi. 

Hi,-2S8 

£9,693 

3,914 

3,U0 

T6,JT7 

2.00D 

5.2S9 

4.M1 

7S,367 

*2,i60 

4,515 

».777 

18.248 

3.B85 

180,936 

31,9(1 

«,44S 

46,923 



Xttm&i. 



H—tmnprr 
htftil of popu- 

I l*Uoa. 



No. 

7l,SS9,(m 

3>>,4tNj,0UU 

fl, 277,083 

1,391,005 

35,334.617 

l,;a6,1U4 

l,Se3.1M 

1,728.557 

RS,0'27,398 

1II,«)».8!<1 

3,700,339 

8,540,451 

4,8»fl.735 

1.354. »«7 

ai>,adl.35» 

4,DI4.<U4 

1,538,72s 

8,453,052 



1-8 
0-9 
09 
0-9 
0-7 
OS 
0-4 
0-9 
07 
0'4 
1-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
1-0 
1-0 
0-9 

21) 



* OoiwnDHot Itua only. 

From the above table it appeara that in AuAtralaaia duriuti the year 
t*o OMaa^m were nent orer the telegraph fiiruooli itdiabltunl. In the 
United Singdotn the number wis one and four-liflhti Uj euch inliabitaut ; 
(od in tfae Unicnd States of America about otio mvsaoge to erery 
i^bitonL The return for the United 8t(tti», bDWi^ver, incJadea only 
tie linis of the Weetem Union Company, who n«n the priitcijml part of 
the tdr^aph systetu of that country. In Franco, Uelgium, Holland, 
ffid Norway about uu« inesaa^-e waa aant for every person: in tierttuiny, 
two measagrn for Bvi-iy Hint! persona ; and in Austria- Hungary, Italy, 
Spain, and PortuKal about one meeaa^e for erery thre<- persons. In 
Ouftda one in<^siw^ and in the Cape Colony rather lees than oao 
waa sent for tnty inhabitant during the year. 



igo 



POSTS AND TELEGEAPHS. 



Oablk Sbrvioks. 

Anati-alaata ia in tolegrapliic commutiicatioD with £nropO pmA tlw 
rent of lh(* world by luvixns of thrne cablu conuectiug with the various 
Asiatic oontiiu-nta! tines. The lirst of UieiB culilea, wliich were all UicJ 
hy thti EtLitrrn Kxteasion Telogrnph Co:n[)iiiij', LimiieU, waa op«ii«tl in 
Octwbnr, IrT^, joining Port l>nnviw to ]iiinji>wmi}.'i<.v in Java, wlieaee 
comniunicntion ir- provided with P.uropp by way of Balaviu, Siiigkjwn, 
Mndnw, nnd Ifomlmy. In l8iS n duplicate ciibli; was laid down, the 
colonies of Now So\ith Wales, Victoria, South Australin, A\'«at*!ro Aot- 
tralia, and Tasmania agreeing to pay the company n sub«i<ly ft X-^l!,400 
p«r annum for a period of 20yeai-s, tbe amount to bo apportioned between 
the colonies on the basis of pupulaliun. At Port Darwin the ctiAw 
cauiiect with au ovwlauJ wire, which extendei to Adelaide, a distance 
of 1,971 inileti, uid U> fonstruct which coMt the South Auatruliaii Covern- 
lueiit itbout liulf a million Htcrling. Th« total IfUju^th of line beiween 
Adelaide uud London i.s 12,570 miW, of which d.^S inileH aru io1>- 
niarinf! cabht, nnii '.\,A'2i miles ovrrlniid win\ Tlic third cable wa« 
laid in IBS8 from JJroomc, in Itocbuck Bny, Western Australia, to 
Banjowang^e. The length of line by this route from Perth to Iiondoti 
is 12,396 miles, 10,811 beiuR cabk-'uud 1,485 land wii-e. The eaatem 
t'ulunies are i-unnected with Broomt- by ii liiiL- running from AdeUide, 
fin Port Augusta, Buula, aiiil Albany, to Forth. 

The cabli^ joining Taxmanin to tlio continent of AuKtralin, wm laid in 
1869, thn length Ix^ing about 170 mile*. It ntartKfi-om the townubipof 
FiindcTn, niinr Capo Schaiiek, in Victoria, and t^i-minntc* at I^w Head, 
at the mouth of iho I'aniar, in Tasmania. This line is subKidi»>xl to the 
rxlftiit of X4,200 yearly by the colonies of 2vew .South Wales, Victoria, 
Kouth Aufltroliti, Western Australia, and THauiania, the contributiooa 
being based on the population figures. New Zealand was joined to the 
continent by a cable laid in 1S76, tlie length being about 1,191 mili-H. The 
line has its Australian terminus within sight of the spot wheru Captain 
Cook laudi-d on the shores of Itotany Uav, and within n xtuno'it throw 
uf the inunuiuitnt of Ln Perouse. The Npw ZiMlanil terniinuii of the 
cable i.s ut Wnknpiiaka, near ^elxon, on the Middle or 8oiith Island, 
wheiicd another cable, 109 miles in length, is laid to Wanganui, in the 
North Island, with an alternate line from Whito's Bay acrods Ojok Straii 
to Wellington. ]''or the first ten years after opening the New 2ei 
cable was subsidised by the Governments of New South Wales and X«' 
Jieoland, their annual contributions being £2,500 and X7,oOO res^ 
tiTely, but no subsidy has been payable since 1 88ti. A cAble connoting 
New Caledonia with Queensland at Bundaberg wns upi'nnd in t>i;tober, 
1893. It WAS ccinntructud by a Fretidi company, and it guaraiit«ed by 
the Fri'iicb Government to the extent of .£)<,000, and hy thfl colonies <J[ 
Kun South Wales and Queonslaud to the amount of £2,000 each aau 






CABLB RATES TO EUKOPE. 

' a pcriiKl of thirty years, ■» r<!luni for which thr.tc two Austnklian 
tiovsnuncnU nn- cntitletl to tuu tlic cnlitc fnr th<? trnnxiuissioD of ofUciuI 
menagM up to cbr nriK'unt »f tint giiamiit''^. 

DarinfC the ycur 1890 th" colonips opened negotiationa with th« 
Eut«nk Extension Tclcgrnph (.'-onipaiiy for n reduction iii the cable nitiM 
to Europe, which at that time wen- 'Ja. 4(1. [kt wont for ordiimrr 
mf mn Knd 2b. 8d. per worJ for press iiiewui»es sent from Novr Simth 
WtUet ; and al a conference uf tlie poistal and tek-gruplitc authoritirK 
• pnipnsal to reduce the tarilT to in, pei' word for oriliiiary iiicfHOgra and 
li, l(Vl ptT word for pn-ss nmsBiiges was agroMl to, the colonics ciin- 
tribating to thu nu)»ic!_v iiiidcrtalcini; to niiike gootl half the Iosk which 
the company woultl nu.stnin by thijc reduction, in the Bchodule of char^-s, 
ud New Sontii Wnles, Victorin, Western Australia, Tasmania, and 
Sum Zf*la(wi at the «am« time agreeing to pay to Honth Australia a 
irapOrtioD of thft loss to the revenue of that colony which ihe lower 
Aaxges would cause in the working of the overJand wire* The 
nBeaded tariiTcame into force in May, 1801, and the amount to be 
);aatwit«cd t« the compauy for the portion of the year duriUK which 
ibe oontfoct was iii exiat«nc<i was Xir)8,4dl. The sum eurned by the 
coaipany for th<! mtnn period wax £ 1 '20, HI, »o that the deficiency on the 
tight monthis' biiaiiMwt was £38,350, ontvlialf of which wa* made good 
by the oontributinf; colonics according to population. Itut this snm, 
combined with the airoimt of the 6ui)sidy. was more than the colonies 
wei« prepared to bear, and on the iHt January, 1^93, the rates were 
ai^n slif;htly raifte<l. and atand now at 4s. Od. per word from 8yduey 
to London for ordiiKiry messages. Even at these cluiTges tliero wan a 
alij^t loan to be borne, hut this graduatly diinininhed until for the year 
coding April, Mi'J'i, them was nothing tu jiay under the guarantcie. 
Daring ISdS tlie cable rates to New Zealand were reduced from (is. to 
2k. 6d. fur 10 wonls, ordinary messages, the company undertaking to 
t«ar onr-cbird of the loss in revenue. New Zealand one-tliird, and ^e 
other colonies, with the exception of Queensland, one^third. 

Hie following table shows tlie amount paid by each colony towards 
cable subsidies and guarantees during the year ended April, 1895. 
The proportions are based on the census pojiulatioua :— 



SuUdy. 


Tuminiin 
ilutHlilj'. 


South 
Auslmliiui 


Haw 

Xotlsnd 

Guuuil«b 


T«M1. 


XnrBMlhWdM 


C a •! 
IS.IM ti 10 
l3,Ui U 11 

S,7!l' 14 "'« 

I.70S to 


£ a d. 
l.TM 11 S 

i,n- S 


lad, 

ars 11 u 

STH .-. s 

loeit 7 
» s d 

M 7 10 
WH 11 3 


£ a d. 

E.tlO i 10 

a,*i7 1) 7 


iT.dSO s I 

17 7Hn 13 10 


Mklnlnlis 

IwMaU... 




lie 1 

71 lu 1 

nn 14 B 


IMT IB 

100 17 

JU IG 11 

(.PSO IB i 


i.WT 1( t 

no Hio 

IfgT 10 B 
B.IM T * 


liBtnli*.... 


xt,4aa 


i.ann a o 


i,ias a 


M.OIT 


IS,7<ffi 



192 



POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 



I 



Tbe <lo8U«bility of constructing a Pacific oMf, wfaich nhall tnucb 
only Uritish territory on it« wny from AastndU ba Amcrio, is 
ack now lodged by the UoveromeDts of all (jio AiutralaiiiiUi coloniae u 
well us by tliusn of the United Kingdom ajid Conadii, and it is proposed 
to sf>poiiit a OouunutMon, to oonsisb of two reprMentative§ of tiresk 
ftritiun, tvru of Ciiiiiulii, imd two of AuHtralasia, to daoide apon tlw 
\mst rriute tu Ih^ lAkrii, tint probablft cost ot couHtruetioii vd the Uno, and 
tbe hkiuii ujioii which the thm oouiitriRt iihitll cMitributf. In riH)XHLtK 
to A (nil for UindiMH liy tJi« ('olontal (Jonferenon, which mt in Ottaviv 
in IK!t4, A compniiy i>t)*i!TiHl to Iny tk<i ittbtp nnd mAinttiti it for tin 
8pacB of tbroo y«ani for tho stun of 1 i millions sterling. 'I'hr complMioD 
of sQch a. work would bav« the effect of largely rod tidng the cable rates 
to America and Europe, besidea beong of immense Bervico in (lie event 
of an outbreak of war. 

Titi.sriiOHK& 

In conneotioQ with tbe t«l«fp«pb (lepartments of the various oolonio^ 
l^'lrphone exdiaiijpi bavy tiuring n-uput ycani hL-*ii establislied in tho 
capit^ils and other impnrtant ccntrns of populiition. The rctiims rcUtiag 
to telephones are, howpvor, difijcult to nepamtn from those rclaung to 
I«]«^raph3, particularly with regard to the distinct wires in use. Infor- 
luuliou rc'garding telephones in tbe difTerent colonies during 1S94, as tsr 
na win be asoertainod, will be found in the following table : — 



Colon]-. 


Bubuin*. 


lUcptiaiiM. 


Ltrt£t1i of 


H<nHiua> 


New South Waits 

_ 


Ko. 
16 
IS 

le 
a 
s 

3 

u 


Ko. 

3.38S 

2,3BS 

727 
SiS 
319 
607 
4,479 


• 
9.676 

* 

* 

43S 
4,471 


e 

S0,308 
38,677 




*,V!9 


Suuth Aurtnlia.. 
Wutcru Aiutralia 


13,017 
3,104 


Haw ZMland 


21.1»3 




B4 


IZ,7fi7 




ll»;460 



■ Kot tonlabtd. 



COST OP SEHVICES. 



193 



Postal axd Teleoiupuic Fisasces. 

TIm! folloning table shows tlie revenue iinil exjienilituiw of tbe Postal 
and Tclugra]>lt Dcpartmonts of the cnlonifji during 1894 : — 





ILmuuL 




ObImv> 


r«u. 


Talainptii. Tttapbonn. 


TeuL 


KtpwdlBoi*. 


K«w South Wftlw 

XiBtatiA 


< 
598,982 
395,000 
143,4£2 
118.702 
V2.im 
4S.3H1 
047,438 


i4S.ee» 

fi3,fi55 
67,481 
80,172 

'J.5,«.16 
SO, 133 


£ 

Sa296 

36.677 

4.679 

13,817 
2.r,S3 
.1,101 

21,063 


£ 
760.8S9 
SiU^332 
216,615 

221.491 
61,068 
71.620 

367,460 


£ 
884,8M 
675,8eB 
2DS,3$I 


WmUki Anttnlift..... 

NewZwaMid 


1B9.1M 
77.439 
70,360 

209,971 




1,579,467 


031,607 


102,461 


8,213.466 


2>402,BGS 







Tbe teveaiw aei down for Victoria is but »□ nppiMximiitioti, lut tbc 
ncriptM for posba^ &re iiier^etl with tliose for stamp duty under the 
cmeral fawulij)^ of fees. la other coloiues poHtu^e stamps we also lUed 
tar tike parpoM of t<taoip>ng flckDOwtedgments for tlui n^eipt of monef. 
Daring 1894 the New South Wnlcs Post Office nude iin ulluwikiicu of 
Xi4,000 ou this account, aud this sum is not inclnded in tliu nvenuc 
of tlwl colouy as given above. 



194 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



, A LMOST all the jjrindpal inetala of economic value *re found 
■^^ Amtrulnsia, and iiiuny are comiuoit to Bevtral colonios. 
doaling with thi- occiirn-ncu mid valuu of tninerat di-fioKita, th« cla 
tion into noble metals, mRtollic minernla, cnrbnn mini-mLi, solnblo BAdl| 
inaoluMc salte, and i]iamonds and other gem stones htta been adoptod. 



Nob LB McTALS. 

Gold, tbi< moat valuable of noble metaU, ia found throughoiit 
A.iutrdaMii, and the present prosperity of the nolonieft is largely da 
to disoaveriL-M of this niotjil, the development of other industrieii bun^ 
in a oountrj- of vuried rc^oiirceK, a natural st-iiuenco to thr acixuiatioaj 
of minoraJ treasure. 

Seltlemuut in Australia vex sUIl young when n)ftny-MDf(Ued rninout^ 
spuko of the existence of gold, but it w^aa not ui>til the IClli Febnuur, 
1823, that the Covernmont was oflieially apprised of n diicovriy 
d™tin(?d to bo Iho prefirraor of a prosperity s(?ldoni siiqwsw.fi in tbi? 
hinlory of imtiijna. On tin; date mentioned Mr. Assistant .Survey or 
M'ltricn rcportt^il tliut at a .ipot on the Fish Uiver, about 15 milM 
Roat of iliithur«t, he had diNeoverpd gold. Mention is made in tbe 
oarly records of »w Sonth Wains nf sr.verai other tinda, but it 
remaiiii^d for Count Stnleeki and the Itov. W. B. Clarke to demon&tmtc 
the existence of the precious metal in payable (quantities, and to 
assert their belief in its abundance, an opinion strongly suppurt«-d in 
England by sevenvl (.■minent autborilies, and substiiuLiated hy Har- 
Xruvi-s' discovery in the year 1S.")1. The gold-fields of Lewis Ponds and 
Summer Hill Creek h.id hanlly been opened u]i wlii'n on tho day that 
witnuitaed thes^veranccotthe Port Phillip district from the mother colony 
of New South Wales, ^Ir. .1. M. Esmond di.scnvereii gold in Victorili^ J 
Hhortly afterward:) a. rush set in for Hallnral, and the gold fever tookH 
pos&<>ssion of Auittralia. The following year (18t>2) saw gold found iaV 
South Australia and Tsamania : the rush to Canoona, jn what ia now 
Queeiialund, took place iii 1858 ; and gold waa also diseovervd in NnWj 
Zealand in thn anmu year, though it was not until ISGI that » Ii 
population wiui, by the p^o.1pl^ct of rapidly obtaining wtialth, attracted ' 
thn loKt-mentioneil colony. 

In We«torn Australia gold wa< Grst found in ISfi!^, although it yn^ 
not unlil l^ii? that any digging* of importance woro discovered. The 



PRODUCTION OF GOLD. 



>95 



««r6 siUiated at Yilgsrn, about 200 miles east of Pisrtli, uiic! nt Southern 
Cran, »iiUt» furllier Huulk In 1893 u ai«Hsiiiio:ial discovcrjr of gold 
wu Ditda at Cuolgardiu, 1 iH mtivs eiut of Southc^m ('ross ; niiil in 1^93 
annther ^td-li«I<I wajt found in thu J>undiki Hillii, l.'iO mileit soutli of 
Cix>]gnrdii-, on Umi traclc to K»t>iM«nce Bay. Ilnring the past thnw 
jmn tl)«»o fidds hkvo uttractnl a large number of minors from tlm 
Mstem colonics, nnd the rash to Ooolgar'iic at one time almost rea6iubl«] 
tiie rushes of the early gold-digging days. Until quite recently Western 
Australia was considered to bo destitute of mineral depoaita of usiy value, 
bat now it is known ttukt a rick belt of mineral country extends from 
nortb to soati). 

Tbr foUuwi:i{^ tabli' gives tLo value of gold ruittcd from tbi^ comm«ncrr- 
mmt of mining in the various colonies to the close of tbe year 18^1, 
with the proportion due to eacli province : — 





Pralurtion ol GolJ. 


Otlonr 


Valiu. 


Propottion ruisHl in 




£ 

ii:J7,T«4,oiM 

34,744,291 
1,l>!)4,lM<l 

2.1133.017 
60,18S.838 


per cent. 
11-1 




C4 2 




9-4 




0-4 




0-9 




0-8 
13-5 




370.511,016 


100 



It will be readily umlcrstood from the foregoing ligures how Victorin, 
kItbiMgh in nrra thn Hmulh'st of the group, with thi; rxcpptlon of 
IWfn&nia, achieved the foi-emost position amongst the colonics, and 
retained llutt place so long as the powerful nttinctiiin of gold continued. 
But although the discovery of such estrsordinary de[)nsits as those of 
Uoant Slori^t, iu Quec'iisl&ud, may astonish the world and give 
prinoely dividrnds to nhareholders, the thirst for gold — so powerful in 
ike part — cannot now entioe any considerahle proportion of the popula- 
licn from other ptintuits, »nd this notwithatanding that only a snutll 
[nrtion of the aurifnroua area of the continent hun been exj)lored, and 
*aill snsaller portion fully developed. 

The production of gold, which hod been declining steadily for many 
jmn, reached the lowest point in 18S6. Since then there has been a 
Bulced reviral, owing chiefly to the increased productign of Quci-ns- 
Itod. It will be seen from the following figures, showing the quantity 
itid valtw of gold obtained during the yejir 1894, thnt the annual 
ftodoction of Queensland is now almost equal in value to tliat of 



196 



lONEBAL KESOrSOM. 



Yioloria. Tb<i retnniit tnm Santfa Aiutralk iiMilade 31^44 0Ct| 
ptttdtiction of Uas Kortlutni TuTitofy : — 



o«*v. 



M^UtfOgM. 



AOortd. 



TMd. 



Kw Soatb WalM ...... 

Viotorift 

Quocnalatiil 

IteaUi Awtnlia 

WMtara Aaitnli^.... 

THTMiiia 

N^wZmIaoiI „, u, 



ADBtnluia ..._,.., 



fla,74S 

SM,aOB 

SS,«38 



7.003 
40.173 



ati.ots 

419.3T1 
003,373 



SOtSH 
1BI,«4S 



aS4.78T 

073,060 

ino,(ni 

4l\4«S 

an.ui 

SC^OOt 
BI,«IS 



£ 
l.lfi«,717 

t.im,-m 

14£,7«> 
7«I,<M 

MT.8SD 



%9»w33l 



S,2T3.«U 



''i 



ua 



In 18I>5, u -will l>o seen below, the prodnctiou of gold in Autnll 
vas 2,393,811 oi:., or ftn tacreaso of 1-1^680 os. on Iho quntitit; ni 
in the rreviouii year. It iiiu.it be [Kittitnl out, however, Ih&l id 1 
Tictonn ikl»iidoiind tka method of relying nlel^ on the rrtum d 
Mining Hon'tnini for tbo wAJ^it of gold prodnoMl during the} 
and lulojitrd BK n Imuuh for forming ftii ostimate than retunutdlf 
oot^iinclign with tho trumctionB of the Melboarn« Hint. Thbdifii 
in the MyBtam of tistimUion isaeoouiiUble fur 46,8W oe. of tbe 
by whii^ tlui production of Uat colony in 1896 ext-ecW the 
1894. It i< pOMible that the figure* for aoina of tJi« preoc 
will be afterwards M^osted to tlie now \iBtm, mad at preoont 
be taken with this aualifiaatton : — 



OdOT. Wdclil, 


luonOM 

on pMrtou* 

rau. 


focrtoA* 
ytm. 


Kow Sonth Wtita _.. 


OK. 
180. IK 


8S,S78 
00,350 


ot. 








47.343 

SSt.MS 

64 .set 

2»3,4B1 


C3,^12 




e.sor. 

34,S83 










3,0» 


NltrZMbBil 


71,870 








2,3S3,81I 


146,t)«0 









The avcragn v&luo of gold won by mob uineor la givm below, 1m 
the ooaditions under which mining ia carried on are by no laeaiM 



FBODTTCnOK OF GOLD. 



197 



I iS-araiy eoloojr, Um figw««, whieli vnry coniutlerftbly, nay he tntaiy- 
wbrt- MJwIiHi'iiiig In IboNa proriDcc* whcm a revival of mining lins 
itlAjr been expdnotcnl it in natnml vo *:x^eel a fall in th^ average yield 
out minrrr, for tnini&g ns now carried out is ngt an intluntry from whidi 
inaMdiato imartw can be expected. It in probable that tlie Doinber of 
goM-niiicrs id Now South Walea is larRtly overalated. otlierwiw Uw 
indKBtvy must bo carried ou at a gnat Iohl Mont liki^lj muiij of thu 
nwn employ tfaenuelrea in raining for only u portion uf Uieir tiuiti, 
knd devoid tbu rent to nioru nitDuniTmLtrc purauiti. Ittit whi^ti full 
■Ilowanoe in liiiid<! on tliix acor« it will be rvidiiiit thnt in Homn ccil»ni(ti4 
at least tba ttmreli for gold w not a {irotitahl^ oceupntion. 'i'hn follnwing 
table aliaiws the numlirr of mtiMra at work in IS94, with titn ijuantity 
and rttiiut of gold won p^r man, in thoso colonice for wliicli xuch 
infomintioa it available : — 



o«kar. 


Hlun 




QuaHQ. 1 XiloA. 


Kaw Sontli WalM 


No. 
17,307 
27.68B 
11.428 

1.301 
n.'IlZ 


OK. 

23-32 

60-4S 
44-97 
19*2 


£ 1. A. 
67 4 It 




B3 ii 7 




174 13 2 




n 18 w 



AltetnpU haTe been made U> aButrtain Ui« avemge yield from cjtinrtx, 
but tlu! Buralter u( ti--uts miulti itnd the i]unntity of xtoiiR trcntj^'l aro 
ineopiiidprabtff ; furtliurraorr, it liiui not hei^u found po»»ib!e to obtain 
Ktnntu from all tlie principal raining centres. The rraultJt olitaincd for 
tlie KCTcn yean anUitl 1891 wcmas given below. The bigh average yield 
tor QuMinlaad in due to the Mount Morgan niinee, which for Home 
yean yielded oDO-third of the total gold production of that colony, 
TIm average yieJd of New Zeolaud crualunga for the year 1894 U fivea 
as 1 OB, 1 dwt. 6 gr : — 



^- 


Wkiia. 


VlsUrW 


■juHiuktid. 


nkonoofeL 


UBS 

laio 

IMI 
U8S 
1888 
1«S4 


Ot. dwt. or. 
1 18 
1 2 
15 S 
18 13 
19 19 
IS 11 
14 a 


oc dwt er. 
9 Is 
9 19 
9 4 
9 4 
a 23 
S 
OSS 


OT. dwt gr. 
I 14 11 
1 IT 30 
1 7 15 
1 3 21 
1 6 20 
1 6 8 
1 4 e 


01. dwt. cr. 
1 5 2 
17 l« 

18 12 

1 23 
14 lit 

13 22 

1 I 10 



I 

i 



mm 



198 UtNERAL KE80URCES. 

It Is not pretended thnt these Ggures have ao; gna,t stntiDtiesil 
vilue, but npverlhclejw thpy may be accepted as Ktviu^ &n approii' 
luatB idc* of the average yield of ijiiftrty-rL-efs. AUuvial dqionita are 
^eitirrnily riclier thun tliose in reefs ; Imt tli« pr«>ciou> loutiil is ao 
uncvr^iily disUibuled tliat any attempt to obtain ft reliftblv aTcngo irouU 
be fntile. 

The greatest d»v*lopnient of qnarti-reefing is found in Victoria, some 
of the Uiiii(-'n b«ing of a irrcat ile]>lb. The twelve deepest min*8 at the 
close of 189-1 wnrc ns follow : — 

ImI. 

LniixcHH ISO Mine, Bmiillen 3.133 

Now Cliiiiii C-oii*nlitlat«it ( iiiiiiiiiny, Bvndlgo 8,909 

Knw Clium and Virtorin C'-ii>);aiiy, Kuuiligo 2, 800 

)>uanit C'onipui)'. Btndigu «,'<.»>i ^7l^ 

Nvw Chum Kaitwny Company, Bencli^o ■•••,.■.. %66S 

Ijhcnaiidoah Company. Bcticligo „•„,•■ S,C39 

Carliilc Cumpuiy, Hendigo -., 2,002 

Victoria anil Paudnra CcimpaDV. Bendigo S,500 

Kow Chum United Comnuiy, Qcndigo 3,i89 

Great KxUiid«d HoRtlar s (iompany, Iteudif o 2,420 

Gai-ibaldl Company, Bendigo 2,416 

Magdala Company, Stan-clI „ !!,4(H) 

Die \-alue uf uiachiiiory on tlie gold-fields of those colonies trom whicb 
rPturtiB were ohlainable iu appended. For Queeuttland, Tasnuinia^ and 
New Zealand tin- tigurMi refer to the year 1894 : for Victoria tlie latc«t 
infot-mation svailublo h for 1802 ; white ilia New South Walen figurt* 
are for 1895 : — 



Calony. 


ralua. 




S10,W7 




i,oeo,7oo 

396.0SS 








395,986 







A notice of grild^miniui* would be incomplete without some refi 
to tJte remarkably large tindii luiule at variotis times. Infomiation on 
this point is meagr« and not altogether reliable, as doubtlow jnai 
nuf^ta were unearthed of whidi rinrticiilnrs wm* novcr publj. 
Victoria's record is tha best, and includes the following nuggvta: — 

lb. 01. dwt. 

*'TliaWo1oi)n)e8tnnger,"foimd !>tli Ptbrua^-, 1809 190 

"The WelDom*." toond 9tli June, 1858 „ IM 9 Ifi 

Ona found at Canadian UuUy, 3Ut Januuy, 1853 134 11 

And others of the following weights : — 98 lb. I ox. 17 dwt, 93 IK 1 ox. 
11 <twl., 84 tb. » or., la dwt, 69 lb. 6 ox., 52 lb. 1 ca., 30 lb. 11 oc 
8 dwt, and :iO lb. 1 1 w. :f dwt. 





PROSVCnOK OF GOU>. 



Hev Sonth Wal«s can hoMt of having prodiic«i] some splendid 
SpecnneiiK In 1651 a maas of gold was found on iLe Turon, wejgbing 
lOfi iK; anodier. from fiiuTODdong, uear Orange-, produced when inelted 
at th* Sydney Mint 1,182 ox. 6 dwt. of jiure gold i and a tliird, the 
"Brennan," wiw sold iu Sydnej in 1851 for Xl,15G. DuriiiK 1880-82 
acreral nug^ls were dixcuvercd at Teniora, weighing froui ti'3 »x. to 
1,393 od!.: and otluini, of 357 oz., .147 «/. (thi- "Jubilen"), :'00 ra., 47 ox., 
aad 33 ox. rMpoctivcly, were found during the year 1687 in rariouN 
parts of iho colony. Veins of gold of extraordinary riclini-wi havi; 
been worked in Now South Wales. In January, 1873, at Jicycrs and 
Hollermaii's claim, at Iliil End, 1 03 cwt. of gold was obtained from 10 
totia of (juarli, and a mass of ore, weighing 630 lb. and estimated to 
oonUuu £2,000 wortli of gold, was tshibiwtd. The Mint returns for this 
tniap duriiiK tba year 1873 were 16,27963 ox, valued at £63.234 13s., 
obtained fn>ni 4 15 tons of stone. From Rroliinaii's chum, at Hill Endi 
■old to th« ralu«of £9.1,616 1 Itt. 9d. wiis ohtniiied during the same your. 
lira foregoing figures, however, are insignificunt when compared with 
the pDortuous yidd of the Mount Jlorgan Mine, in Cjurensland, which, 
in the middle of 1894, had paid in dividends £.1,. 100. 000. This mine. 
wluch Dtay be desii^iated one of the wonders cif the world, i» a huge 
Btoand of ore, highly ferruginous, and contains gold to the extent of 
aevcnd cnnoiTii to the toil, the [leculiar formation, in the opinion of 
tbit GovnmmcRt Otologist of ijutHinsland, being due to the action of 
dioinal Hprings. 

For the ten yvKn ended 1893, the world's prnduction of gold in 
estimated by the Director of the United States Mint as follows ; — 



r«r. 


T»lut 


Yw, 


V»Iuc 




£ 




£ 


1SS4 


20,340.000 


1S89 


24.699.000 


IWUi 


21 .BSO.OOO 


INiK) 


2;t, 71*0.000 


1880 


a),120,(M]() 


IHiTI 


2li.i;!U,000 


i$s; 


a),iK'.,iKio 


1S92 


2!t.2iiO,000 


1»SS 


33.139,000 


1893 


31,110,000 



Owinft chiefly to the tnoreii^ifd production of the South African gold 
Buiu«, tiie total value of gold produeiJ in 1894 will prolwibly Ije found 
to hare rrachisl £38,000,000. Of tliis amount the Austmlaaiiut coloniea 
Jnoed alMut 21*6 per cent. 
Pialirtum and iri<fo*mine, though not Gpecinlly sought for by miniTK, 
kve been found in New Soutli Wales and New Zealand, hut few 
(dbrta ixave been made to ascertain whether either mineral can be 
ntracted with satisfactory eommerciaJ result". The same remarkii 
■|)f»ly to tfao noble m<!tal Ulbirium, which is found in New Zealand, 
MMKdated with gold and aitver (ptttite) and with silver only (hegsiU). 



aoo 



MISER AI. BESOUaCBS. 



SUtur hns benn diccorarod in all th« coloniM, «itfaiv nlone or in tkil 
&Mrm of salphidcs, antunonial nnil BRunii<al amt, chloride-, bromid 
todid«^ an<l cbloro-bramufe of Kilv«r, sod urgnOihToa* Uuul oi->4, 
laigwt depoaiM of the m«tiU b^g found in tke last-mentionod foi-m. 

!nie IwUng tiijver mines str in New Soath Wales, the retoma from 
tbe oA«r otdonias being companttiv^r inngaificiuit^ Up to the vmt 
1S82 the quantity of dilvcr mined in H«if Soath Waiea vaa verj aoudl, 
bat in tliat and tltu following jenm cxtcnnivi; diacon'ruw of tbo Metal, 
awwiciutMl principtdlr with leiid and enpprr on;, vera inadu in nuiou 
part* of thn ociUmjr, notably nt Boorook, in the Nnw England diatrict, 
Mill Ut«r on nt Sunny Onx^r, noor Botbarat. and at ^ilrerton nod 
Broken Hill on tJio Bniriet- Jtnnges in the Wort on district The Muaitjr 
Corner Hilvor minra in 1>!KS paid liandsome dividrads, and produced 
XIGO.OOO 'worth of nlver, bat aince tiuvt period thu yiejd liaa largely 
fallen off. ^ 

The 6eld« o! the Western dUtrict of New South Waleu Iiave pm*ed. f 
to be of immenat) taIuc. Tlio jtuld of nllvtrr in tbit Broken Htll aai 
Silverton dtstric-ttt during 1801 woa £'2,2l9.rjl^ ; whilo tlin ma/duaaej 
L-mpIoyni wns valued at XTI>'2,&1t). 'I'bo aggre^tn output of tbonuaas 
in trhi? Barrier countrv to tbe mrl of the year nntnod wns valued at 
£17,790.587. This rich silver lluld, whidi waa dLscovi>red iik 1883 
by Cbarl« Raajs a boundary riiler cm Mount Gippa Run, extends 
over 2,900 txtuiirv mile» of country, and Iiks dovelopiid into oue of tlie 
principal inimiig oeiitrc^s of t\u: world. It i.i situiilod bcryoad tlm river 
DnrUng, and dace to the boundary lii;twfi'n Nttw ^uth Walnit and 
South Au^tmlin. In tiiv Barrier Itangm district tin; lad«a occnr in. j 
Silurian nu)Ciunor]>hi<; micocfioiiti scbifets, intruded by granite, poiphyry, 
and dioriti', and traversed by nuineroUH ({Uarl^ rcofa, somo of wbidi i 
are gold bearii^g. The Broken H'l| lode ia the largest aa yet diDcorcred. j 
ft varies in width from 10 feet to 200 feet, and may bo traced for^ 
several uile^ iha country bavin;; been takeu up all along the line 6ti 
the lode, and HubdividMl into nuineroun leM c e, held by luiniof; comi»uiie*f 
aiiil Hyndii^atcH. 

Tbi! Brukun Hill Pitiprirtnry fompany hold l!iu pn-mior position. 
Thi^y bnvo Rrr^cted on thpir lease n, c<]mpl<-tR Kinnlting jilAnt on tilt! latest 
ind most iq>provod principles, nnd have nnliotrd tile senice)! of compe- 
t«nt numagn* whoso experience lias been gained in cIm ooMmtted 
Hilver-niining centres of the L'nit^nl States From the GoauD«noemeDt 
of mininj; opemtiona in 1S85 to tlie bef;iiiiiLnK of Oooamber, 1S94, ifaa 
company treated 2.l44,02ti tons uf ulvi^r and silverlead ores, producioK 
65,383,472 oi. of ail\'er, and 2&8.&3« tana uf ItNul. '.-alaol in tbe Luitdon 
market at X13^7,04I. Tbuy bare paid dividends to tliu aoiount of 
£5,234,000, Mtd bonni«>a amonnting to £l> 16,000, bf^ndea tlu; nominal 
value n( diana from the aworai " Blocks " k^ to other compiuiio*^ 
aanouDting to niMut £I,7U,000, or a total rettini ftna tbe miaa ef 
£7 ,5$4,0<KI. The Euni spent in the ereclioa and oDUtniBtion of plant 



nuxDucnox of atLVEB. 



20S 



tRMB the opeoiiijit d the property b £6 til.OOG. Tke number of men 
«BipJiij«il darinK ISi^'t was 3,3f>2, uj itLwu lJ9d wure wurkiox uniler* 
grMTOil ai>d i^^ on the nartaen ; &i7 were DBfjogad in iiiuirytng, etc, 
oimI 736 ia xmriting ; while 511 vmri; nmplojred in mMwllftncotw occapa- 
liimii Th* nat pTODt for tlui year ItiU-l wan ^ilO^ftfi. Tbc tiDtiiiiutl 
^u of thi» niD9 W1 darUned to Xll.SOtJ.OOO in Vobrtwry, lt:<9G, m 
^(Biittt £6,500.000 al the end of 1S90. 

TIm qtuntily luiil value of sdlver auJ silver-lead <Mn» «xport«<l to the 
: of ISQ!> from New South Waleii is showu in tlio foUoiring tMa : — 





tail. 


SltnMMd. 




y«H. 


QdMlUr- 


TaUuL 


QoulUtr. 


Vklul. 


TMlI 
VahiK 




I 










On. Ictal. 






Up to 


ca. 


£ 


tOOB cwt. 


tons cwt. 


£ 


r 


1SS£ 


7M.3OT 


ISTJM 


203 12 




5.3R5 


ISIltSU 


1883 


TTiMS 


1«.<S4 

lil.^SO 


lOS 17 




I.lt2» 


1S.1!3 
M3.JU 


IBM 


U,MO 


4,tURt 1 




123474 


1885 


7M.i;* 


ISil,l»7 


■2,WK, It, 


190 S 


im.litU 


SSS,813 


ISM 


I,C'1S,«M 


107,044 


i,W2 •! 




■JM,4S0 


403,029 


ISS7 


I17.»8 


32.J.'.8 


12.530 .1 




511,952 


571.410 


1S88 


3n.0M 


ee.e«8 


11.739 7 


18.102 5 


1.075.737 


1.142.4(15 


MM 


«i«,«as 


72.<Xil 


itjitib 9 


S-\,im 17 


1.899. W 


I.<i7l,l9ft 


18W 


4aG,Mi 


U3.410 


89.719 15 


41,:1I9 IS 


2.6lt7.144 


2.7(l-iM4 


1»1 


T£a,.'wo 


i:u,sno 


92.3Sa U 


5.7,:i!Ht 3 


.t,4Hi,7.'in 


:!,Ui :■,:>!:«!) 


ISR 


3s(na6i 


n;.im 


S7.:.l>4 15 


4.'!,H.'M) 4 


2,4'2i).flW 


•J,477,53a 


tew 


Hi.vra 


79. IS! 


lh:.,!<l9 1 


BH,401 :\ 


e.i)ss,j»> 


3,0Sl.:2O 


IdM 


&M.S29 


(|*.1M 


137,H13 H 


Vl^on 2 


S. 195.3^9 


2.2IS9.489 


1MB 


ao.i*s 


6I,S58 


l'.KI,li>2 l» 


S».0S7 


1..560,S13 


i.sfc.'.e7i 


Totol 


7,220,737 


1,292,838 


S3G,3S3 IS 


328.0W 


19.331,7?; 


2l),624,5»3 



TioA Binount wna Approximate] v mnile up of 99,C41,TO0 ouitced uf 
lilTer. valaod ax, Xie.ltiD.ltiO, imA of 3Ji;,-100 tontt of lewd. vaJuinl ul 
X4,439.115. It will bo accn thut th« production of xilver in Now South 
Vrftlci rajudly incrMwed until 1 1^9 1 , when it rxccmlctl in volw: the Inrgcst 
Mnuol producticm of gold, even in th« polniic^t dnys of the diggingn, 
flinoa that year, bow«ver, labour disputes and a honvj inll in the prico 
of tlM metal have oonndenibly reduced the value of tlie output. 1'ha 
Bujiiber ol miners eogafed in nilver aud lead mines iu 1S94 was j.20S, 
•ltd the nTeroMo vnlua of inineraj won i^ each niiner en^taged amounted 
toje544 la 7d.,a»oomp«red witb£S43 16s. 3d. in 1893, £4ii0 ISfi. 2d. 
ia \m% and £473 Sa. 2d. in 1S91. 

Although indicationn of silver abound in oil the other colonies no 
laUa e( great importaDco bavo y<:t been <liicaveri!d. The value of the 
jiaU at Ajutralaaia to tlie and of 1894, oxciiuiva of that of New South 
Wal««. was only £2,303,103. 



302 



lONERAL IlESOritCES. 



n 



Tho I«iding 8ilver-mm«s of (Jiicenitland an Kouth-yrfjit of Ckinu, 
the ]f crberton district, aod it is from Ibesc fields thnt the largest pro- 
portion of the total production of that colony vns rcLisnl, 

In Nl-w Zealand Kilvfer in found in various loo&lities. principtUly on 
the Te Ai-oha, TlmmfM, and (torouiandel fields, but tlie metal is generally 
sought in conjunction witJi jpild-ininiiig. The production of the ct^ouy 
during tbii ypar 1S94 wns 54,177 ounces, valued at XS,GH7. 

The Kilvcr-niining industry in Tasmania is sU-iidily developing, priiKa< 
pally in the !MouDt Zer^han and Uundna districts, from which aloKist tfai 
whole quantity produced in the colony is ohtaim-d. In tlin first-named 
district argentiferous lead ore has been found over 30 square milca of 
country, and the Mount Uuudas field, almost adjoining, rxtciid« north 
as far as the Pieman River 

There are no ^Iver-inines iu Victoria or Weet«m Australia, tko small 
amount of silwr produced by tht* former colony being found aj.3uciat«d 
with gold. Th« quantity of silver extracted from gold during 1804 at 
tlie Melbourne Itranch of the Royal >Iint was 50,909 ounces. 

The production of silver in South Australia is very limited, and it 
rcm.^rlcahlo that the argentifTOUs lead-ore lieldit of Broken Hill and 
8ilverton. which are almost on the border of the two coloniea, aro 
exchisivi-ly confined within the boundaries of New South Wales, 

Up to the end of IHd'l New South Wales had produced over 89 pep; 
cent, lit the total value of silver raised iu AtiHlralasia ; Victoria 
caiue Bocond, with 3'H per cent. ; and the remaining siimll proportion 
was distributed over the other colonies, Tasmania claiming Uie largest 
uliare. The total production of silver in Australasia in 1894, and up to 
the end of that year, was as follows : — 



'4 





DnrlDglSM. 


To and ot ytmr UM. 


Colonj. 


Value. 


I'rorKtrtlnn 


Value. 


r»putlon 

i^HdiniMb 

Colony. 


NlwScmth Wal«a... 


£ 

8.3S3 
22.077 

393,043 
9,097 


per cent. 
87-5 
0-2 
O'S 


c 

18.981,924 
8IS.22S 

fi99..'>U 
101,727 

eS8,80H 
160.684 


parcMlt. 
89 '3 




2-8 


South Australia 


0-5 


Wcatera Anitralla ,.. 




0-0 




ii-2 

0-3 


3'0 




()-7 




2,617,559 


1000 


21.286.027 


100 -0 



While the <]uantity of silver produced has iocreaaed largely daring 
the last few years, tlie value of the production shows a decrtMio, owing 
to the conllnued fall in the price of the metal. 




LEAD AND MBRCUBY. 

He world's prododion of silver dnriuK tLe ten j'Mrs etwtine vith 
baa bc«D esUoiated bj- the I>irector of the United St«t«e Hint to 
be as follow* :~ 



TcM. 


IfUDCM. 


Y(U. 


oonoM. 


18S7 
ISSS 


hi.m:,ooo 
!ra,!:ii,(iO(i 

9«,IM.0O0 
108.827,000 


18W 
1891 
1892 
1803 


)SO,2H,000 

]»>,oe5,iKia 

137,171,000 
1S2,M0.000 
163,102,000 



Th« annual iMitput of tho colony of New South Wains ttlone ia 
tiienfon about one-t«nth of the total productiun of nlvor. 

Metallia 3Ji\kkals. 

Xom' ia found in r*ch of tho Austmlnsian colonies, but is vorked only 
aoeociftted wilh biIvit, In Western Australia the lead occurs in 
hna of Bulphiiles and carbonates of great ridinees, but th« ijuiintity 
of silver mixed with it is very amalL The lodes are most fmoucntly of 
gn»t sise, containing htige mosses of galnno, and contitin so little ^angue 
that the ore rjin l>r vury (easily dretsc^d ti> 83 or 1^4^ per cent, The 
Government having oftprpd XIO.OOO for the first 10,000 tons of lead 
aradtetl tn the colony, works were erected for this purpose, hut the 

3ieratiuos of tJie company were not suceessf^l, and the workx wore 
oMd. Since 1845 Western Australia has exported 34,155 tons of Icrwl 
ore, Talned at about £169,400. Tho chief mining centres for this 
Mineral are in the Northampton district, between Gornldton and 
Murdiison. 

Mereurtf, in tho form of sulphides or cinnabar, \s found in !New South 
Tales, Qneonstand, and Nc:w Zenlnnd. Few attempts, however, have 
keen niade to ascertain whether the deposits are of KufEcient value to 
varroDt t)i« expenditure of cnpitivl in tliis direction. 

CoffpfT is known to exist in all the colonies, but it has been mined 
(or most extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, and Queens- 
land. TTn! discovery of copper had a marked effect ujion the fortuiioa 
(f South Australia at a time when tJie young and struggling eglony was 
ntrnnindcd by difGmltirs. The Kapiinda mine, opencl up in 1^42, was 
die oMwt copper-mine in South Australia. It is estimated thnt at onn 
tinw 2,000 tons went produced annually, but the mine wa« cIomkI ia 
1879. In 1*^5 tho celebrated Iturra Burra mine was discovered. T 
nine proved to be very rich, and paid nearly £800,000 in dividends to 
Um original owners. For a number of years, however, the mine has been 
vujiored to mnaiu uiiworkeil, partly in consecjuence of the low price of 
copper, but principally buuaune the deposits originally worked were 
fonnd to be depleted. For many years the average yield was from 



»♦ 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



10,000 to 13,000 torn of orr-, yielding from 22 to 23 p«r oesL of copperj 
During th« twenty-Dine tuid a h^lf yuars »vcr which the miiM vru ' 
tIiL> oul[iiit of ore amountod to S^1,G4.S tons, rquat to &1,633 tona 
copper, mlneii iit i4.741>,2'24. The Wallaroo and .Moontn niia«« wots 
ditc-uvifrecl ill 1^60 and ISSl. The latter at one tLmo employed ujiwardu 
of l.tJOO h»n<K and in 189! fully 1,100 men : but diorlly aftrr that 
datt! tim iodustrial operations wuri" dialurbed by l&bour Hud other 
difficiiitics, which were only teriiiinatt.-d ilurio)^ Uie oix-ninff month of 
ltf92. in Deocuber, m91, thi-rc wvra !,d04 men (imiiloTL'd in the 
various mines noar Wallaroo and Moonta. Thu output during that 
year was aa foUowa : — Moonta. 1 3,989 tons of copper ore, yielding 2,^31 
tons of fine copper ; and Wallaroo, 13,457 ton* of coppor oi^ yielding 
1,773 toua of fin« eopper. 

The principal mimes in New South Wales are thorn of Cobar aaij 
Xyinaxee, aituatvd in the centre of the colony, and witliin 80 mil«a of 
each otJier. TIi« fomier at one time employed over 5O0 men and boya ; 
tlw doepnt ahnft in iJfiS fcot, and the width uf liiK lode from 2 to 50 f««!t. 
Fnint th« dat« of U>e commitneeinrnt »f upLTationa in 1876 to 1893 
tliecotapuiy traat«d213,lti:! tonn of on.% Kivinjrn return Hjual to 2;ii,611 
toiM of refined metal — an a.rtTiigc production ut' 1 1 -07 per cirBC of copfwc 
pu ton of ore ; while th« aum of X154.ti00 was paid in dividends Lo tka 
Hhareholders. After lying idle for Houie lime, the mine ta nuw being 
worked on tribnti^ tha production in ISM Iwinit 13,460 tons of ora, 
uquivalL'nt to fitio tonii of coppiir. The number of men employed ia 
230. My mogeo innployed during 1894 a complement of 120 pnraODL 
The or«s at tbta mine contain an aTemjce proportion of copper oqual b» 
U-42 ppr c«nL its yield in Ifi-Ji was 9,3fi5 Ijmm of Kidphide OM^ 
which when melted produced 901 tons of copper, valued at X45,00(l. 
Tbo pnxluction for 1892 was returned as l>,2^S tons of ore, valued at 
£3l,3fiO. The mine waa dosod during 1693, but was reopened ia^ 
1S94, and produced 1,&SS tons of ore^ yialdinf; 149 tona of eo| 
The rL-linod NymajiCB copper ia aupuriot to tliaC of Cobar, and 
miindn a highr^r price in tlui market. A. depth at 734 ft-et baa I 
reached in sinking through the lodf, which varies from 8 to 20 fhnC 
The Now Mount Hope and tlic. (ircai t,'nntral copper-minrai ara aUo 
said to ho rich in payable orca I'ba first-mentioned innploycd 35 mtm 
in 11^94. and produced crtppar to the valuo of £4,0^4. Tho Soath 
Mount Hope Mine produced copper valued at £4,000. The llurragft 
iiiaa duriuK 1^9 yielded 476 tona of copper, valued at £3I>,625 : and . 
dnriBg 1S90, 420 t'oaaL worth £24,150. Owtng to the low 
eopper thiamine waactoml during ltj9l,alth«nmli thefurnaiTi>>( were J 
at work upcn 2,000 torn of ore at graitn. Tbu deqieat aliaft ia : 
and tiia lod« is aaid to be 15 f«t widtt The output for 189^ was onlp' 
800 tons of or«. The mioa lay idle until Novnmber, I8S3, when w«ak 
^••a agnui oonaicsked with IDO men, and copper of tlw ralae of 4^1,600 
pvodiioad (ft tiiB end of the year. Ib 1S94, 622 toos of eopper wera 



lieu at 
ed ia^ 





I>£F0SZT8 OF COPPER. 

. mducd «t X'2'1,680. The prodnetioa of otlMr«opp«iWDiaeB in 
K««r Sooth Wslrs traN small ; liut it itmy bo luonlioDsd here tli*t the 
ik o hwi Hill i'ropnatuy Cotupany aaved 714 totui ctf copper iii tlwir 
mnlliBg opcfHtiona. 

Capnferous depomU Abound Iii Queenaliuu], and at one time thtrt 
waji cooaiderable speouUtiou ui oopptir-atiiUDK stock of UikI colony. 
Ptttk Dowiuanil Mount Pi-rryaetiuJrMl^reKtatihlirit}- in the Au?tTiiliiL» 
*"■'■'"}: niarket, but kitcrvrBnin suffiBred Tt»eitJaaa,Ty dvprMnoti, nnd wen: 
(ilti>Diit<d]r abftDdoneil — the n-iiult, in nlnrgn mmxun', of overHtpvcuIitigri. 
In NnrtlWn Qnfvnsiuii] eoppnr ix fnitnd thmnghmtt tiw Clmicurrjr 
district, in tJi« uppor bnsin of thi: Star Eivrr. and the Hcrlxirton district. 
The retarrw froiu the coppor-ficlds in thv colony arc at pTv<«ent sm&li, owing 
to the lack of suitablo fuel for snKtltiitg purpo»ra, vrhich renders the 
eoomnnic trMtment of the on difficult ; and tho develt^noent of the 
■liDeR is greatly reUnled by Uie want of tuuiy aud cheuwr eommuiu- 
catim with the coast : hut it is «xpL-eted thiil these diuibilitim will )>« 
OTcivoiu« at no diiilAuL (lati', uuii a rnrival of the indtiatrf it hopes] for, 
atwoauiot Uic almntlcHi'^il fiL-Ids contain rt-ry ivxtiMuiivL' depoRts of copper- 
ort. The total production »f coppnr in Qucatudand darii^ 1694 wa* 
Talnod nt £9,5«2. 

la Wem«m Australia copper dopoiritH have been worked for eomQ 
yean. Very rich lodes of the metal have been found in the Korth- 
aupton, Murchiaou, and Chiuiiptou Bay dititricts, and aha iu the 
oointtiy to the aouth of theau districlji on the Irwin Bivi^r. The oop]>er 
iinfantry, bowerer, in at a vtundntill at jiretcnt, on account of the low 
price of thn mntal and the buary «x|>ense of carta^, but it ii nnticipntcd 
tbU the ooat of cairiago will bo rnducod, and thou sereral of the wines 
mtf ba worinwl at a profit Tfaa total export of copper ore from 1645 
t* tlie doM of 1894 was %l3fi tons, valued at X153.T64. 

CofifKr-iaining baa not attained any great propurtions in Victoria, 
■hluiai{h d^osita bare been found in several parts of the colony, par- 
linilariy in tJM Beediworth <Uittricl, where they hu^v been traced over 
*a area uf MDM 60 square tniltm. Tbu production during 1S94 vaa 48& 
tana of oov^ valued at X14,T62, ami to the (md nf 1891, 1T,43B toru, 
nfawd at j£206,|K5. Theo^pcr dnpasits at Srif Zealand and ToKinania 
hutt been worked to a ami) extent only. 

Cofiper >■ aometaMi taaaA in tim AiwtnlMJia mioM in a rii^ 
Male, and baantihil yi^mmi* of th« pTire metal have been exhibited at 
diftrefit tiiDM, but it occurs g«imaUy in the form cj oxidised copper oral, 
nriiaamtca, culphMea, phoaphatm, and silicates of copper. The muMunu 
e( South Autlralia, Victoria, and New South Walts contain strild^ 
■iBpIn of amritu and malachite, maKnifioent blocka of which have 
ban shown from time to time at iixhihitioni, not only in the cotoniej, 
bnt aiao in £aro(M and America. Copper xntphidea and arvenidva of 
copper are generaily found in deap aukingM. The metal liaa also been 
loBiid aanoated with tin in the fona of statmiru. 



206 



MINKEAL RESOURCES. 



The number of mon cmployt^d m cop<p«T-inining in Nvw South Wales 
during 1891 wM4f!I; diinng lh'92, 500 i during 1893, 3«5 ; aud durinj 
1894, G45 : whikt only a few haDds were employed in Clia otb^r colonira 
cxcf^pl Hoviili Auatt&Ua, where the Qoinbermust have amounted to fuUj 
2,000 in 1894. 

The totnl vatuRof uoppi-r produced in Australana during and np to tbn 
end of 1K1J4, and the propnrtiort fuminhi-J by each colony, nr■^ given 
hplow. The VKlue of coppur produuvd in Nrir South WnU« daring 
1895 wa» jei36,a69 :— 



0^4117, 


DuritiK Um. 


T« end it jtar ISH. 


V«luu. 


nindin 


Valup- 


Praninloii 
ninlta 




£ 

03,817 

14.;63 

0,583 

210^002 

6,000 


p«r cent. 

SO'9 
4'0 
3-2 

|}9'4 


£ 

3,733,380 

206,135 

1.973,977 

20,587.fi69 

153, ;m 

1»6,890 
17.306 


peroont. 
13-9 




OS 




T-3 

:c-7 

O'O 




1-6 


o-« 




0« 






"^M 




303,51;:) 


lOO'O 


28,829.737 


100-0 







In June, 1872, copper realiseil as much aa £112 per ton, whilst So 
Dccnniber, I8SIJ,' the lowest prio») on wrord until Uiat time was IoucImk^ ^ 
and only j£t4 could be obtained for South Auntrulinn oopjii-r. At tba ■ 
vnd of 1887 the prico hiul rixen to ^70 per ton, dnd in Si-ptenibcr, 1^8, ™ 
toXU:}. In January, 189S, thn quotation had fallen to X46 j)*r ton, and 
in June nnd July, 1894, to il41 IOh, In Doenmbpr, 1K94, pri>c«« had 
reooTercd a little, and the metal was ijuot^d at £43 lOs. 

Tin was known to esiiit in Australasia almost from the lirst years of a 
colouiaallon, ibe earheat mention of ihn mineml appeariug in a n^port f 
of a didcovpry by Surgeon Baas on Um north cuaul of Tasmania. In 
tho form of eaii»iUrU« (oxidu of tin) it oivum in all thi! cotoiiiui, but 
the riuhext depouts linvc been found in TiiMuania — the Mount Biachoff 
being the most ce!>!hrnt(>d tin-ininc in Auntrnliuiia. The wtmlth of 
Qnwnalond and tho Northern Territory of tSouth .\vi!^tmlm in thisfl 
mineral, according to the reporto of Mr. Jack, the (lovemment Ueo-V 
iogiHt (j the former colony, and the late Ilev, Tonison Woods, appears 
lo 1k! very great. 

In N<;w Soutli Walea tin occurs principally in the gnuiit« and 
basaltic country in tlic extremi; north of the colony, iiMir Tmtoriuild 
and Vegetable Cmok {now called Emmaville), 'Hnghn, nnd in other 
districta of Now Kngland. It hna niso bi?en dixcovitrrd in the Barrier 
Bangcs, at Poolamacca : near Bombala in the Monaro district, aod in 



i 




DEPOSITS OF TIN. 



207 



'■ Valley of Uie Lachlun, but none; of these depoeiU hnv* ns yet, been 
utilwcd ti> any extent. The ij^posits occur in tlie nhapo of strenm and 
lod« tin, nnd nre workM by ICiiropran and Cbincse miners. Althou;-h 
tlic min«nd wns <liscov«red bj tbo Rev. W. B. Clarke as far back a.a 
tli« year 1853, the opening of the tiii-fielda of New South Wali^a only 
look place in the yejir 1872, but- aince itiat dat« th« output frcMu tlio 
minea haa been couiiidi-nible. Thi.' chiff tininiuiiijt ci-iitr™ arc; iit Kmmn- 
ville adJ Ttit^ha, in tlw nortliern portion of tlic colony. Until Utcly the 
prodnction of ilwm- fii'ld.i hiu brrn from nlluvinl iIqio«itJt, which aro 
now said to b«i priicti cully nxhnustcd. 

In TnKinaniit, .ts in N<tw South Wales, most of the tin liithpi-to pro- 
duced hns been from alluvial deposits, while the lo<les in the vicinity of 
flaunt lloemakirk, Stouut Bincholf, and Ben Lomond liave been com* 
[aratively neglected. ConaidiTablo ai-eas of alluvi;il tin ground in the 
«aateni and norlli-ea^tern divitiiona ore not now yielding tlieir formi-r 

rutity of ore, and the inincr.i an obliged to turn tlieir ittt«ntion to tho 
dopDMint of the otl)c:r branch of tin^mining. A thorough test with 
efficient afmluuicoji will iihortly lie inai)(> in the Bine Tier district, witcro 
t&em arp ocposits conlnining a payable percentage of tin. The JSIount 
BiacboffAfiaonnd the liiugarooma mines in the north -enxtcrn and north- 
wtttem divisions respectively yield more than ihree^fourtlis of the 
aaniwl tin production of Tunnianift. 

The miMt important tin-ndncii in Queensland are in the Herberton 
di'lrict, Konth-wmt of (."ninis ; at CoolctowTi, on the Annan and Bioom- 
lirld Itivern ; and at SUmthorpc, on the borders of New South \\'alrs. 
^wUefberloD is the chief tin- mi iiing cenlre of (Jueenxland, and the oat- 
pat for 1894 was valued nt £07 ,3o6. The tiu in thix district is chiefly 
obtaineil from lode^. Herbertuii and Stanthorpe have produced more 
than three-fourtlis of tliu total production of Queenalaud to the etid of 

leu. 

"Bte yiold of tin in Tictoria is very Kmall, and until lately no tielda of 
iBiwrtAuce had been digcovcrnli hut towardu tin: Utter end of 1890 
atcRsiv'' deposit* were reported to exist in the Gijipsland dintrict at 
Oneo and Tanvin. The total yield during 1(^94 whs <10 tonii, valued 
tt £2,3tt&, and principally obtained at Eldorado and Koetong, where 
is toinere were employed. 

In South Australia AudWeKturnAualndia tin-mining ia unimportant, 
tk« yields up la date being slight, while in K«w Zealand no production 
ii ofEkially rucorded. During 1.H90 some small tieUb were reported to 
iare bc«n found in Stewart l^lnnd, but there is no record that they 
lave bwn worked since then. During iJ^Si, Sli tons of tin ore, valued 
n£l,35t, wore exported from I'ort Darwin. 

Tbe tiu-miuing industry liaa been subject to frei]uent fluctuations, 
t^wcially of late years. The value of the metal in the Hurojiean market 
waaX159 per ton in 1872, £52 in 1878, £114 in 16»l)and 1882, and 
£72 in 1884. A gradual rwrarcry then took place, until in 1888 the 



208 

price rcnched £ 
£&5 ftnd £6S : 
mini mam price . 
The i-»!«io of t 
of that Tear, in 
^687,937 'ns pit: 


LJr 




^H 


^H 


hQ 






UINEOjU. ItnSOUBCES. ^^H 

121 ; from that period until 1893 it fluctuated betwaml 
whilo in ISM thtt umxiniuni price snia £71 and ^^ 
E6T. 1 
he produc^on of tin during 1&94, and up to tin «ad 1 
IS as given bolov. During 1895 tin to the vahMdf J 
tdnced iu Kew Soutli Wales : — ^1 


Oiaaj. 


DurimUM. 


Tocodel jcMUM. ^H 


V.1UB. 




ViOw 


livporttda ^H 




£ 

B£.se4 

2.286 
10^277 

1^1 

18,274 

IS9,8GS 


per ont. 
I3S 

S8-S 
04 
4-2 

4S-S 


£ 

S.OI0kO39 

s»i.ooe 

4.337.0M 

jn.iiii7 

S6,IS1 
6.060, 7U3 


per oenL H 
4-0 


Stmtk AaiCtalM 

Wcatom AnttrmHa— „ 


S4-9 
0-1 
09 

asH 1 


S83.2I7 


100-0 17.1!a.868 


1MM J 






tit* nmnber of ponniis engngnd in tiiKotDnig in 1894 was aal 
foUowa: — Id Kow South Wnlen, 1,S42 ; Taanuuim, 1,411; Qneeusknifl 
998 ; and VicMiia, 2?. jH 

TiUminm, of the varieties known »s octahedrite aitd broutcitc^ ci fomflH 
in alluvia] deposits in N«w Soatii Walfs, in oonjiuieLJan wiUi diasMinds. 

n'ot/ram (tungatate of Iran and maoKiuiKaH) occurii in Kcimc of tbo 
oolonies, notably in Nowr South Walfa, Victoria, Qumrnnlftntt, and JCe* 
Zealand. Qu««naU»d in 1894 jiroduccd 6K timH, valued at £1,314. 
Scboclibe, another rariety »f tungsten, 15 alftn found in the laat- 
nmntionnd colony. Mo)ybi!rnum, in the form of molybdenite (salnhiclB 
of inoiyhdcnuRi), is found in N«w South Wales and VictMia, tuitocutod 
in th(- former ootony with tin or Ifieniutli in quartz-reeftL Nune of tlNH^| 
Tniiierak^titauiura, tung^^ii, aitd uiolybdeuuiQ — lias bc«n ejirtcinatiad(^H 
miiu-d for. ^^B 

Zitii: orea, in tlie sereral variatitiB of curlianates, nlicntra, orMfcJB 
Hulpbido, and sulphato of xinc, have been found in acvcral of (Iw ' 
AiMtiulaKian oolonuaL bat have attract«>d little nttonlion. 

Iran in dintribntod throu^out AiigtraliKia. bnt for want of coital 
in developing the fields this industry lias not progreesed. In New ■ 
South Wales tiien we, together widi coal and liuicstuiie iu unltmite^^l 
supply, iniporloirt deposits of rich iraii-or«H suitablr for Kmelting pai^l 
potten; aud for the maiiufacttire of (ile«<lof onrlain deacriptionii abondanevS 
ot manRaneW', chrome, and tnn^tcn on-M arc aroilablc. The mos^H 
extfrnnivp fietdii are in the Mitl«gong, Walleirnwang, and Rytstona dil^| 
trictA, which arc rou^yvetimatad tooontwn in tli« aggregate 12,944,O0(^| 
tons of ore, oantaimng 6,8{»3t000 tons of metallic iron. ^1 



[ 
i 



IBON DEPOSITS, 



209 



L- 



Tin only works for the lutinnfaeture of iroa frou Uie Dm nra luttutcd 
at Eifciitutk, nenr LUligow, where llif tutrtal trciilud is red «ilt«nnix ore, 
srnrwing '2'2 jier cntt., tatd )>rown li<'iiiB.tit<-^ jicililing fiO per evat. 
iMttUie iron. Abandsnco ufcoul hikI HnirHtonr^ am found in the ncigh- 
bouriiood. 'I'll!* i5itAl>liKhini!iit., Ijowpvpr, hB* for aome^ time abandoned 
Am mutufRclniT' of pig-iron, for wiiich it wns origiDoJly built. The 
principal work now cnrriod on is tbcre^rollingor old iraibi,and the niauu- 
fuTiure of iron Imu^ rods, and u&iU, uu'l of ordiiiury lauitiuga. During 
lStl3 the pArluineot of New South Walta aj[re«d lo a tewdution for 
Uie BiKnuJaoture of 30,000 toua of iiuii jtipoN iu the oolouv, oud itorUou* 
cf tbu work liaTe aiiioe then Ihwu let by tender, im opportunilv otTtirctl. 
Tmden Unvc n^tntlv bucii called by the (iovmitm-iit for the tnipjily of 
130,000 tons of Kt«cl ruli, with the tioc»aary ijuontitirs »f SKh-plut^^M, 
fidi-bolts, *nd iipikcs, U> Im: ninnufjictiircil in New Houth Wnlns out o£ 
■rod ore and ochcr nanvMnry minrrals produced in the colony. The 
tenders will close aa tlie 30th l>cc(-R)b(?T. ll^9G. and the specil^cation 
imividca for Uw ddivery of 15,000 toua per amiuDj. in equ&l monthly 
9«>tilili««; the first delivery to takti pliioe not l«t«r than eighteen 
Buntlm after t)>« be}-iiiiiiiig of the contract. 

MagKielite, or ni»!^ii<*tic iron, the richest of all iron ores, is found In 
■bvodano! near Wallttrawaii^ in New South WaKvi. The proximity of 
ooaLbnla now In-inK worked ahonld aceL-lenlll^ the devi>lo|>nieait ol the 
ban dtfwntn, which contain 4 1 pLT crnt. of nirlal. Ma[[nulile oouurti in 
p<iM abundiincft in Wentern .Viwtrittin, tognthrr witli hiitiintito, wliick 
woold be of enormouH raluo if cheap labour woro abundant. 

WarkH (or tlio trw»tiii«it of local titanic iron ore were erected eome 
jwn tkga at Tai^uaki, on the we^t coast of New itenlaud, hut il was 
fanad that tlie ooM of timeitiu^ left no margin for [irotit, and tlie works 
vtfc cDHM^ucntlr ahiutJuatrd. 

GorMir, Umonile, and hematUe are fonnd in New South Wales, at 
tie junction o( tJw Hawk««buty Bandslotie formation and the Wiana- 
Mitta Khnlc, uear Nattai, and are (mbaimtd in valuf! by theiir proximity 
tocoaJ-bnU- Near Litbgow sxbeniivft d^jiOHita of liinonitc or cUy-hand 
m are intcr'aMldrd with «oaL Sidvrilit or gpnthic iron (cnrlioiiMt*! of 
Iran) and vit-uimtf (phosphate of iron) arc found in New Zi«land. 
Il« klter also oocura ia New South Wales, intermingled with copper 
«td tin ores. 

Sidpliuretted iron orcn (fnfrittt) aixi of littlo intrinsic ^-nlue, bnt are 
{nqaenllr of considerable worth on account of thn ottuT minprnla with 
«UgIi tli«y are ataociated, oommon jiyrites bciing nftm auriferous. 
iHtjmcl^ diflfen bvm ttther pyritea inasmuch a« it containn aincnic^ and 
mMtJBucK gold and sOrer, and is frequently associated with tin and 
<Bpptr orwt ; but the eslmclion of p>ld is rendered difficult on aocount 
tf tbc prcaonoe oS this ancnic Thcne lainemls (pyrites) an common 
tvall tlMCobaiaa. 



UIN'EB&L BESOCBCES. 




Niehfl, An abundant in tbe Ulaiid of IStir Cnlodonia, lufl up to tiie 
pmiuiit heva found in nonn i>f tlin AuHtrikln-iiun colonictt »xce]it QneenB- 
Iiknd and Tiumnni> ; but frw ntti-nipti havi- Ih.-i;» mftde to proaped 
H}'*lF4i>aticAlly for thix rnttinblc tnincost. TMniAnia in I89'l ]irodui'eil 
136 toDs of Dickcl ore valaod nt £544. 

Cobalt occurs in New Soutli Waloa and Victoria, and efTorto hare) 

de in tlic former colony to treat thi> on>, tlic metal haviii;; a 

amercial valuy ; but tin- nwults liavi- not been of an etic 
'nsturc, and tin- d('vi-Io|nnciit of thin induMry i« in abeyaiieo, 
moD^ncBu iirfK of tlict Bnlhunt district oftnn contain n icinall percent 
oE cobalt — Mifficicnt, indeed, to wnrrniit further attnin|)tH in 
dir<iction, 

Mnnptiniati probably exists in «ll the colonifn, diiporft-s Iinvini I 
found in Now South Wales, Victoria. Queensland, N<iw Zealand. 
Wwteru Australia, the rk-heHt specimens being obtained in New South 
WaJes and New Zculand. Little, however, has been done to uliliM 
tlie ileposUB, till' deiiiands of tin- colonial markets beinf; estreiuely 
liiniteil ; but in thi- event of the t-xtensive iron wreaof New South Wales 
bftiiiK wnrlinl on ii lurgct Kcnle, the luanganesti, plentiful as it ia in tliat 
colony, will liecomc of coinniereial imjiortRnec. The oro geufirnlly oociin 
in the form of oxides, mnnija»xt«, ami p'jroliititt-, and contains a liigh 
percenla^ of xesquioxide of manganese. The production of mangaiMM 
in New Zeahiiid duriti;^ 1891 uii8 valued at XI, 156, and the total yield 
up to the end of ihiil year, X.57,263. New South Wal«a in the only 
other colony [iroducin^ uven n finmll f|uaiitily of this inin^nvl — in 1891, 
13| timt, valued at X41 ; ami in 1K!).'>, ^ tonx, valued at XIO. 

CltromK Iran or chronie ore ha:* be<^ found in Now Zealand 
TasTRania, but the only attempt i« work this mineral in this part of i 
world is that made at New Caledonia. 

SulpfMT exitttH in lar^ qtumtities ia the voloanic regions of Ke 
Zwiaud, nbL-re it will doubtless some day become an article of cominc 
Pro&Mor I jvi.-nii(l;{c, in hitt work on tlie minerals of New South Wa 
■tttta that sulphur occurs in sninll quantitii'S at Mount WinKi-n, in ' 
yppcr Hunter district of that colony, niid also at Tarctitta, lu-nr Ws 
W»gga ; and at Louisa Crt^-W, npjiv Mudgpe. 

Arsenic, in itn well-known and licautiful forais, orpiment and run 
is found in New South Wales and Victoria. It usually occun 
MSOciation with other minerals, in veins. 

Antitttimy in widely difliurd tliroughout Australasia, (utd ia 
times found associativl with ;;oId. Kxlensi^e lielik have bi-en diKcoiYr 
in tbi; northern table-lsnd* <tl' NVw South Wntc«, csppciatty at llillitravf, 
in the Ticinity of L'ralln. In Victoria the pmduction for ilie Use ft 
years has been small in ooniparison with th.it of former poriods ; 
So men were engaged mining for this metal during lt(94, as against : 
in liJSO. Tlie fluctuation in the price of the mineral in lh« 







PBODOCTIOK OP ANTTMON'T. 



in&rkM it tba cauw ■>( tbis grent (utUtig-oir ta the iudiutry. In Qu<«nH- 
UnH ihi- Sntd* urt-ri^ all showing (levelojmienl in IS'Jl, wlieD the i>iit|>ut 
''xbibit^l a very Urgo incnniM; ponijiurtrd wiili Itist of former voum, 
bat Binm- tWii th<^ production hiun fnllm olF t<i u conidderahh: f xti-nl. 
lu New- Zcalftud very littln nntimoiiy nrn wnx oitCAini^ during th« year 
1894, the quantity esportcH from lint colony luring only 44 totif, valued 
tl£7Gl. Good ]odw ot triUnitt (^uipliidoof antimony} have boeafouud 
near Roebounit', m W«etem Australia. 
The folluvriuj; uble fthows the value of antunony produced in AiiBt»l> 
, up to thi; *ud of 1894 ;— 



CMWf. 



Kow Soutli Wah* 

VkloriK 

Qu Willi* nd 

KewZaaland 

Aastralurla 



Vtliit. 






£ 
17-1,314 
]70.(i« 

31.368 
50.268 



]>er cent. 

mo 

4.9-5 

8-0 

11-5 



430. ISl 



lOO'O 



Tlie antimony proiliiwd l»y X«w South Wales in 1894 was valued at 
il?,744 L that produced hy New Zealand wna worth £761 ; by Queeu»i- 
l»iid, iiitiO ; aitd by Victoria. £ 1 75. In 1 695 Now South Wales jiroduvetl 
uttinuHiy to tlio value of £r.2.">l. 

fimuUA in kuown lo «<iUt in all tlio Australian colonies, hut up to 
tW pRMent time it luui btH'n uiincii for in New SoiiUi Wutcn nnd 
Qoeeudand only. It ia UHually found in aaBOciuliuu with tin and otlicr 
MncnJs, bat in ouc iuKtancc a niam of native biHrnuth, weighing 30 lb., 
*M found in Now South Wales. TIki ]>riucipal ntini? i.s Mtuatvd 
at Kingagat^, in th* New Eniflancl diKtrict, whrn? tUr. mineral is 
jaenlly aaaociatrd with molybdenum and gold ; this mine, liowyver, 
u at present clowd. The value of bismuth produced up to the end of 
1891 in New Sovtfa Wales and (Queensland was £'A7.7-i2 and £54,277 
nqievtivvly. The valne of bismuth produced during 1894 in Queenrc 
faed wM X€,270. No produotion of bismuth is reported for New ijoutit 
ValM (unL■<^ 1892. 

CaRBOS MiMtllALS. 

Ui alt the mineral forms of carlion the diamond is the purest, but 
tt it u( nsual to class this precious subHtance iiuder the head of geuia 
that custom will b(- followed in thu prpsiTit instance. 

ffmpAitf, or plumbugii, which utoncis second to the Uiamoud in jKiint 
o( purity, ha« Utcn disenverod in Ntin' Zttaland, in tho form of delacln^d 
tmulders of puro minrril. It alxo occurx in itiipun." niii^es whpn? it 
«on)<s into contact with thp coal racasures. ThiK mineral, up to tho 
freiml time, has not been found in any of the other colonies except 



:i2 



MD1ER.U. EESOtTttCES. 



d 
ric 

'^ 

OK 

WO 

M-C 

xluctioB 
w SontM 



New South Wal«s, where in 18^9 A lode G feet wide wasdiHcoverod 
TJiiderclifT, iu the New Eiigland district ; ttiiil in 'W«8t«m AustrsJiA, i& 
whiolk colony, bowevei', owing ]n-iiMupaUy to difficulties of tnuiait, wecy, 
little of it baa b«en woriced 

Tilt! AuMtml».Kiaii ooloniea liavo beeii IwuntifiaJly supplied hy Natu 
with mineral fuel. Fivo diiittnct rnrintif'S of block cool, of wc-Il cli«rft^ 
triiMMl typr«, mfty be diiitinguiithKl, miiI t.hiiu-, with tbn two rxtroEnm d 
browm coal or IJgnito, «nrf nntlirncito, form n p<>rfnctly continnonK »cnf& 
For stetinticftl piirpoKOs, however, they aro all included un<l<T the g«ntnc 
ti&me of " coal," atxl therefore these miDeroU will bo coniriilprcd hat 
otily under the tlireo main heads — lignite, coal, and ajitliracite. 

Brown coal or lignite occurs |iriiioipalIy iu tlit? ti>loiuea of Ni 
Zealand and Victoria. Attem]>ts bare fn^ijuently btwn inuile to ok 
tbft ntineral for ordinury fuel jmrposi^K, but its inft^rior quality baa 
prnvrmU'il itn giniRrnI niw. In Victtiriii, during 1^94, 3,f>l!> ton* wcro 
raised, valund nt £2,00t<. The ficMn of lignit* in New Zealand arc 
roughly estimntod to coutain aiiout 500 million tons. Tbcjr productioD 
is included with that of black coal. 

Slack eoal foriuK oim of llie principal mineral reaourcea of New 
Wall-It, and in Ni>w Zmland tlid rich iliTpositK of tliii vntuablfi ku 
am rapidly t>cing devclopcNl. That tboy will form an iiajHirtant 
of cnniiiiiTcial prosperity cannot be doubled, as tho known areas of 
the coaUticUU of ttiia cla§g hai-o been rou^ly cetiuiat^il to contain 
about 500 million tons of coal in New Zealand, and 78,198 miUioil 
tona in New South Wales. New Zealand also pOMcMCB a soperior 
quality of bituminous coal, whidi la found on the west oo*iit of llie 
Middle Island. An eHlimalo of the probable cantt.-ut3 of tb«M eoal- 
fielda ia given aa 300 million tons. Oottl bus \yt-fi\ dtsooveied \a 
Tictono, and raimtd in iimall ijuantitii-s for aoiue years post, ths pro- 
duction cif ihn year Ifi93 Iwing 2:t,.1fi.'t Ions, nduVd at £20,044; of 
IXfiS, ai,7i;6 ton^ vaUied nt iltfl.lfl"; and of 1H94, 171,660 tOM, 
valued at £(14,999. Excellent steam coal bos bcttn found in TaamMua^ 
and coabmining in that colony is becooung a well established iudustiy. 
I'Voiu time to time i-eporta liavo been rftised of the ditKy>very of coal in 
8onth Australia, but no very definite or aatiafactory inforiualion on tiie 
subject baa bettn broui;bt forward, «ucb as would warrant the employ' 
niml of capital, cxcvpt in the ilirection of prcuqx^ting r»n«rclica. For 
1894 a |)roduction of 19 tonii, tuIumI at £11, is n?partcii. Coat 
very fair dcecriptjon wan itiscovored in tJie bann of the Irwin Ktver, 
Western Australia, as farback nathe year 1816. Ilbaflbecnascei 
^in recent explorations that the area of carboniferouaforuiatiou in that, 
'extends £ram the Irwiu northwards to the Ua^icoyne Kiver, about 
' milee distaot, and probably all the wuy Iu the Kimborluy district 

own oottl, of a aomewliat jioor quulily, biu b>^-n ducuvcrfMl on the aoatb- 
1 ooaat vi. tbo ooluny, but bluck cout of tiiirly good i|uulity haa botB 



». Var ! 
!oat«f«J 

Brtaineon 



GBOWTH 0¥ COAL-MTNTTG IXDCSTRTT. 



313 



InnA on the Fly llnwk, nmr Cnpe LoMtwiSi mid in the tied of the Collie 
liiver. tmr Banbury, to Che south of P«qrtti. Th« Oovurmufiit arc now 
Mastnotuig a line of railway to the Collie coal-lidil. Mr. Jock, tl»! 
Oovenunetit Oeologiel of <Ja«enslAii(l, eoiuiidem th» «xt<.-nt of tim 
tool-ticldH of that eoJony to 1>e i>ractii:iiliy unliiuittx], nod is of o|>iiiioii that 
tIm cu'boniferuiu fornintionH extend to a considirrubin iliatniiof^ undt^r 
thft Gnat WMrtvm Plains. It i.i roughly rstimutod that tho coal 
IBOMIU'OB at pmumt prnctieiilly rsplorad •xtend orcr an area of aliout 
M^OOO 9()uai-c milcn. Coal'iuining tiiM boMk an Mtablisbed industry 
in QoMnslanil for Miin? yMtrs. and in progressing nttisfactorily. 

Coal wait &rsl discovered in New South Wales in the year 1 797, Dear 
Hoont Ki-in, by a maa named Clark, the supercargo of a wanel culled 
Ihn Sydney Cove which bad been wre<Aed m Btuwi'n ^^t^ut. Lutor in 
&• mi« y«Br IJeutaiaiit Shortland (listcoi-ered the rivrr ilunttr, witli 
Ao coal-brds ntuated at its nioutb. Littln or no 11.11', Iiownvcr, wait 
made of thtt discovery, and in \S'2G thu Australian Agririiltura] Ooni- 
paiiy obtained a grant of 1,000,OOU acres of knd, tngnthcr with the 
sole rifl^t, conforrml upon them hy cbftrtfir, of working the coal-teanis 
Hiat were known to exist in the lluuter River district. Although 
Ae company held this ralnable ])rivilegi? for twenty years, very little 
entcqtritu) was exhibited by thcin in tliL- dinvtion of winTiinjf coal. 
and it was not until the vrnr ltt'17, when their monopnly ccajunl and 
frnblic competition HtrppiKl in, that the coal-ininiug indnntry brgun 
to (bow aigns of progitrHi and prosperity. Krom the 40,7.'i'J tons 
«xtncted in 1i^47 un<UT th« monopoly of tho Australian AgricultuiBl 
CoBipUiy, tho qiiantily rused had in 1891 expanded to the lai-j^^e flguro 

" i,037,939 tons, valued at Xl.743,790. In 1893, however, the output 
only 3,780,968 toiin, valued at £1,402.388 ; and in 1893 tlmitr was 
a turtbeV <lecreas« to 3,278.328 tons, valued at £1.171.722. In 1804 
iheoDtpnt increaBfd to 3,672,076 tonn, but owing Ui the fall in tho 
pnto of cnai tb» valna of this production wiu only £1,15A,573. The 
«i»|iBt for 1S93 w*« 3.r:Jft,589 tons vn!ue<l at .tl,09.''.,»'_'" 

The coai-fiel<b of Now 8outh Wales am ntunted in thrc-i^ cliirtince 
ngioaa— Um Northern, Southimi, and Wratem districts. The &nt of 
AtM oouprisea chiefly the minfs of the )(unter Itiver districts; the 
■Mond indtidea the Illawarra district and. geDerally, the coaetal regions to 
Ibesontb of Sydney, lo^i-elber with Berriuia, on the tableland : and the 
tUrd oonxislji of the mountaiuoua rt^onson tlie Great Western Railway, 
andeztondii a* far an Dubbo. The total aruaof tho carboniferous Htrata 
of New ^<ODth Waloi ia estimated at 23,050 square miles. The Neams 
Tarr in thickness. One of tbo ricliost has been found at Greta, in tho 
Hanl«r Kiver district ; it containa an average thickness of 41 fret of 
clean coal, and the quantity underlying each aero of ground box Ijeeu 
raopoted to be 63,700 tons. 

The niunlier of ooal-minee nji^stered in New South Wales during 
1894 was 91,' Mt compared with 97 in the previouti year. They gavd 






214 



UINEBJU:. EZSOURCES. 



em[>loyuient to 9,34S personit, of whom 7..'>8G were employed toAr- 
ground, 1111(1 1,762 aliove ground. TLeavtrayt ijuiuitily of ooal extracttd 
pfir iiiiiii^r vox 40:2 tons, <u agalnKt no average of 327 tousi in Uu 
|irfvious y<«r, niid .tGO tons in 1692. In ISM the weight per rouKr- 
KtriocI lit 400 toUN. 1>ut th(^ yield ^TndiiaUy drclined iindt thn wmmgc tar 
1K90 WHfl only 'ISO tons, owing to the coliiirrirFi Btnnding idb for suvenl 
mnnths dvirinj; thu year on Account of thu general strike. Since tlint 
year n gradual reco\'ery has taken place, &nd th« averago for 1^94, 
as shown above, was nearly as high aa tLat for 1S85. The average 
<juaiitity of coal extracted per minw, calculatvd upon tlie batds of 
output for the t«B years ended 1894, wan 35G tons, vrliioh, at the 
price of «oal at the pit'a inouth, wan «iiutvalent to £143 t». Sd. 
production ic cvrtainly large, and compares £iTonral>ly with the n»ull3 
exhibitHl by the principal coal-rnising countnt'it of the world, ax will 
be evident from the following ligurcs given by Mulhall : — 






CWatry. 



Naw South WalvH (IS85-B4)... 

Grtat Britain 

United SUt« - 

Garinany 

France 

Balgtuni ...,.,.. 

AudtriA 



(ioHiUtjral Vilunmltb* 
ptr mliwr. i ton. 



TsUI nlu*«t 

CCklntafd Hr 

nUur. 




(. J. 

5 -I 

6 
S 4 
5 3 
•J 

7 6 
i 




New South Wales was its own chief cnstomer during Ihn lost three 
yearn. In 1S9I, out of a totiU production of 4,037,029 tonti, thccoitsump- 
lion (itnountcd to l,rj23,.'iC I tons, or nearly 38 jmr cent. The colony oC 
Victoria tiH>k the next luriirntt sliarr of the output, vix., 9r>4,277 toni^ 
or 3t< percent of n total export of 2,r)U.38t* tons. In 1»91. when tlie 
total production amniinti.'d to 3,G73,07C tons, the home cousumptioB 
wasl,S46,951 tons, or over 42 percent, Victoria look 705,343 toiu, or, 
33 jier cent, of a total export of 2,lti5.135 totia. 

The i)unntity of cool requircl for local consumption shown a satisfactor 
increase dunng most years. I'he annnnl consumption per head inc 
from 16 cwt in 1877 to 25 cwt. in 1894. The larger use of stmrn 
railway locomotives and for nianufacturiuf; and other purpomx, ns wdl 
an tlie niultijilication of ga^-works, accounts for a great pnrtion of thei 
incivjivc ; but it must alKO be borne in niind that th<Mv is a large and! 
growing dc^iinnd for biinkt^r i'oul for occnn-going sti-aniprj!, which app 
not as nil export, but as required for homo conRUmption. The amount 
of CoaI taken by tli« steAnicrs during 1894 was little Ejiort of 300,000 too*. 



LimptMB 
toi»,or J 

isfactonfl 
ncraMdfl 
;«im for" 



A 




EXP0ET8 OF COAL, 



2'5 



Tkt pmgrom at the ex[)Ort trjidi- of Xew 8onUi Wiles, from 1881 to 
Hit, h rikown in Ui« fallowing tublr : — 



bvofUdto- 



Ijuwitlty. 



UU. 



IWl. 



im. 



VUtM 



it«i. 



UK. ISM. 



. . imtaila.... 
IMNdSMM 

CMthAasta 

■MnMSMflM ..,.,.., 

toui 



loM. 

UO.SII 

a,Ma 

uo.oos 
a,air 

U,W4 



1,(IIP.M4 



tana. 
l.Ma.07lt 

m.ooo 

lU.tW 

ttl.TOU 



lanL 

I.ITI.MI 

nRKao 



t,Ul,W8 !,l£fi,ISS 



N.OM 

*«• 

8.011 

Kg, 174 



»6,aw 
ii)a,«w 

TMOS 

m;iM 



tia.«iM 
i.ou 

111,371 

in,z)2 

34.110 



417,630 ,1,1W«,BJ9 



(W,7«g 



h 



New Zealand in the only oilier colony in a pomtion to export coal 
any targe ezlent. Its export trade iu IS61, 1691, aiiii ISdl was as 



t 

EifOftnllo- 




Qnuitit/. 






Vilne, 




IWI. 


IMI. 


ISM, 


IS8I, 


18VL 


IBM. 


AiMnlului colcnia 

I^MdNurtolklitlud... 
nsiicUUiula, etc 


tons. 
6,049 

""21 
5S1 


tOQK. 

14,277 

(tS,87I 

3.282 

5,234 


ton*. 
4,360 
54,047 
7.909 
8,633 


£ 
6,022 

25 
503 


£ 

8,48)t 

7«.(>27 

2,4e!l 

4,189 


£ 

4,347 

56,046 

4,927 

6,118 


Tn^il 


G.eSl 91 MM 


75,004 


fl,BIO 


91.173 


73,438 






■ 



Tbo (!xport« to the United Kingdom from 'Sew Zealand, as well as 
btm Now Mouth Walea, consisted entirety of bunker coal for tlie 
ttcaiDerc Mo«t of the coaUbeds of the fonncr colony aru on the West 
taut ot tbo South Inland. The chief mines are at W'estport, Grey- 
Dontfa, a»d Otogo. The total quantity of coal produced in 1(^94 was 
719,546 toos, of which the Westport colliery contributed 215,770 tons, 
tke Brunuer collieries 131.185 tons, and tho Kaitangata mincK in 
Ol«KO 67,091 tons. Aa ahowing the various kinds of coal found in 
Stw Zealand the following figun-s relatin},' to the production in 18"Ji 
will bo of interest : — 

BJtamJaoiia 00*1 41S.SS0 tona. 

KUheoal I02.38B .. 

Brown cod 17l'.st5 .. 

Lignite ST,7M ,. 

Total ,.."-... 7I0,Hfl .. 



3l6 



IIIKEKAT. RESOVBCES. 



Thfttot*! prodiMtioD of nnU in Qnt«iu1«nd during 1>404 wu 370,1 
tons, valiiiil At £114,ri!)3, most of whidicune from ch« luioMMlpswi 
and at Uurrum, in tli« Maryborovigh districL In 18S1 the cob 
exported 3,743 tans, valueil M £1,783 ; in 1891, d,G3.'i tons, vaiued 
£9.043 ; andiii 1894, 1,367 tou», valued at £1,753. Whil* Victor il 
1892 tJi-uduc«d but 23,363 toiiu, vnluwl at £20,044, tlie output iii 11 
•ma lT1.6t'iOtan.i,vnlo«] at £94,999. Tonuuutw prnduciHl, during 19 
30,922 toD«, vnliKH) lit £I3,lt<l. Ax atrcjuly uliit^il, u production of 
tous of ooal, valued nt £11, is np9rt*d tar the y«BC 1884 ra 
AnatndiL 

The quantity of c»al extracted anniiaDy in Anstralaoa ikTeragM d 
4,600,000 tons, Talued at about £t ..tOO.OOO. The pnxltictioa oC « 
colony duriuj; the year 1894 was as follaws: — 



^ 



Culony. 



N»v,- South WttlM 

Vivturin 

QoMDilnnd 

South AustnUta _._, 

Tuun4n» , , 

Kcw Zoftland 



AnatnUaia. 



QoMlttr. 



lotit. 

3,<;72,07fi 

37I.0W) 

270.705 

10 

ao,e22 

71Q.54G 



4,8tM,iK!N 



Vitlui'. 



TobL 






£ 
1.1B5.S73 

114,1103 

11 
1»,184 



J, 774,08a 



Tho total (luantity and value of the coal produc«d in the AnntraB 

iloiiies up lo tiiB end of 1834 aco shown in Uie fullowing Ijiblc : — 




cjiony. 



Vala*. 



Qnuititjr. 



ItaW. 






TleMria „ 

QneeaBliiDd 

i^outh Australia....... 

Taiinnnia 

Kow Zealand 



toas. 

64,634.100 

3M.eta 

3.701,111 

l!l 

0.^16,395 



i 
8a,2ftS,7S4 
336,tl!)5 
1.7(M,793 

11 

300,530 

4.897.M9 



AnstnlMla ......H 



7B,40S,3»1 3li,T3S.9D2 



pcront. 

07 
4-fl 

oo 

0-3 
IS-3 



1001} 



7BICES OF COAL. 



217 



the year 1894 t&iit indiuttiy ptvr- dirr^ ffDiplonneint in and ■ 
■ioitt the minie-H to tlir f»Uowin>{ iiiiiiiIm::!? of pcraons in the ticvenl 
cdniBi fbr wbicb rcLumn am nvailable ; — 



Smr South Wafaa 












1I.3U 


Vularia _. 









■■*■• 





731 
910 










I5S 




><•«■■«■• 






. ... 


i.s9n 



STerage price of coal per ton varits in tlie colonin ruiy con- 
ibljr. lit K<-w South Wulci, duriu;; tlio 47 yan u-hich liar* 
i|«ed since 18 J 7. t\i« yt*T whcii l)i4! AiiKtniliaii A^cultund 
CnoMny'B moitopnt}- c<:«i().il, the avciugn prico oliUiDod has Ixwn 
k. ^., hut till: DM-au of the last t«n v^ai-s has not been more than 
tk. Id. In laOi tbo aT«rage price per toa of coal at the pit's tuoulh 
«M at foUo va : — 

£ 

^L H«« South W«l» _ 

^^ Tictom „. 

^H QaaenaUad ^ 

^^^^_ TuoiaDJa „ 



Naw Zealand 

AtMbalasia 



a 
II 
II 
8 
8 
,..» 11 



d. 
4 
1 

« 




I ■*#■ *•■•*» ■•&>■»•>« aai ttf a 



7 9 



Tlta average price iu Kew South Wales during 1895 tell to on. lOcL 

Anihriunl^ Is foiiin! oii the islaml of Tit-tniania. It is a hanl and 
, inity mineral, Imniing with difficulty, and possesses very little oom- 
■Bnoal %-alur in countnea whcrn ordinnnr coal iibouitds. 

Tbo following tabl« iihowH the annnal coal production of thi' principal 
countries of iho world to the lat«st(Iat« obtainable : — 



Ocmnr. 




Great ItritaindgMI 

United -States ()S93) ._ 

G«rni«iV (1803) 

Aujtriiii mm _ 

,A«iCC(l'>93) 

Bai(lS»3K. 
aisw) 



T[iii«aIl.U01K 



188.278,000 

les.sin.ixio 
oa.Moa.oiKi 

■2.">.iW,i">0 
:i.l44,IM]l) 
4,8eG,00» 



2ia 



MINERAL BESOUKCKS. 



KertMw* ShaU (torbanitc) i« found in Krvcral parts of Now 
Wnlcx. It iH a specie* of cnnncl-cont, fomcwhat similiir to the Bogfai 
niinci-ul of KcotUod, but it yields a much larger percentage of n 
hydrocarbons than can he obtained from the Scottish niin«nd. 
richest quality of Auatraiiau kerosene ahale yit^Uls ujiwards of IRO fffi\ 
of crui5e oil per ton, or 18,000 cubic Ivvt of gua, with an illumina' 
power of 3S to 48 .iperin camUfK. Tho New Soutli WuIits Shnlo a: 
Oil Cornpany, at Hartley Valf, and tlie Austrnliiiii Ki!ro«nc <M1 ai 
Mineral Ccinipony, iit Joodja Cruck and Katoombo, not ooly 
kproseiie shnln for export, but also nianufacturr from it pet: 
and otiipr products, From tho year l>t(i5, when the mines weore' 
opnutd, to till" rnd of J>!94, thr^ quantity of kerosene iditUe 
has amounted to )^01,OC9 tons, worth £1,685,792. Tlie awnij^ prii 
realised during that period has been £2 la lid. per ton. The 
ruling in 1804, when 21, 171 Ions were extracted, averaged £1 10a. nnr 
ton, repreiienlinij a tolul value of £31,781 for the production of tbat 
yeav. Tim export of sliele from New South Wales during ltJ92, \ild% 
aud 1S94 wtt« as follows : — 



Bxpailnl («— 



1^92. 



quuitltj. Tkliic 



1803. 



Qnuitlty. Tiinc 



13M. 



Quuititr- Taida. 



Violoria 

Uoit«d Kingdom 

Nctbcrlaada 

Italy 

UniWd SUtM .. 

Spaia 

BtMil , 

CUU 

Oth«r countriu 

Total ... 



ton). 

7,717 
16,57S 
l,04G 
l,?10 
3,438 
«,)«0 
l.OM 
3,110 



£ 
0,<HO 

2:;«70 

64.301 

3,330 

3.3M 

10,528 

I2.SS5 

s,6ie 

6,S4D 



<4,7I» 



131,773 



tnaa 
2,097 
e,'J36 
8,0e4 
4,06-1 
003 
1,7S 

2,32S 
1,718 



27,7M 



£ 

8,046 

18,034 

22.714 

11.407 

1,702 

5,202 



8,888 
■'i.OflG 



70,SI]9 



t«liJ. 

s,oi» 

5,SM 

1 

168 



£ 

S1,M 
1«M 






1,014 
1,&0I 

18,8S9 



4,88 




In Il^ifo the production of shule in Xow South Wales amount«d 
59,426 tons, valued at£75,2I9. 

£xt«»sive formations of oil iiliale liav« b«en fonnil iii-Kew Zuabnd 
at Otago, and ntOrepuki, in Southland. Attempts have liecn made to 
develoj) the oil reiiource!! of Wnipooa, but so far unKUcci-.H«fully. Tbe 
oil prcNluctuI doDH not possess the properties requiriNl in illuminating > 
although it is valuable for lubricating purposes. 



I1IF0RT8 OP KEEOSESE. 



219 



. of kcroaenu into Australnsin in 1K04 is shown bolow. 
.'est/Tn Austriilin includi^ n small quimiity of turpen 



Oofaar- 


qvuMj. 


vim. 




3.003.MT 
3,«8tt,012 
1.2Bil.atKi 
1,03",32« 
377,SW8 
«Ui.«73 
1,435.336 


£ 
M,00O 






3»,<I31 
16,1183 




»,T2fl 




B.1T« 
48.505 






Aiwtnluu-.p». 


9.7-W,W7 


238.997 



tie, or tiun«nd wax, ii reported to hara been found at Coolab, 

New South Wales. 

BlaUriiHt mineral caoutchouc, or clastic bitumen, b mid to have been 
irt Now ijouth Wnli:^ and South Au&trnlia. In the last-named 
'(•Iaoj a wibstanoe v*ry siuiilar to claterit* baa been diai.-ov(-ri:d in tho 
Omtm^ Lagoons, and liati ri>ceivc<l tlict name of Cooron){iti'. Up to 
tke jiTMcnt time neitlier tlii.* pxt«iit of these finds nor their commOTci&l 
Tilon has been aBocrtMinf d. 

bitumen is known to i^xi»t in Vintonii, and is rrporUMl to have been 
fintnd n«r th<f townnhip of Cooiiabaiularnn, in Xcw South Wales. 

A'dtiri Gum, a n':?iiious substance somewliat resonibliug aiuber in 
iffeannce, and like that pttxluctioD an exudation from trees, is found 
ml; in tlie Auckland province of New Zealand, where it is included 
nisr tbci head of minwals, although more logically entitled to bo con- 
■dcred a* a vegetable product. The beat, aort is dug out of the ground, 
hit oonnidenible qaantitiea <if inferior ^iwles are taken from the forks 
of Monding tn^'H. In NewZiutand unext'-niiivonnd I ucrativic commerce 
i) carried on in kauri gum. It is computM that tho total value of 
Iliii product obtained from 1^53 to the end of 1894 \ras £7,261,753. 
Intitayear 1894 tho iiuantity obtained represented a value of £404,507, 
■nditbeatimatedlbat al>out R.TDO white people and 1,250 Maoris were 
Mpiged in tUgf^nK for the gum. Kauri gum is not included in the 
fc.HyWM in this chapter giving the total mineral production. 

^PComi 



Salts. 



_ ' Common Rode Salt ha« be«n found in rock crevices in several part* 
of New South Wolex, but it is not known to exist in large depoHita *o 
as to be of commercial importance. JVofron in naid to occur in the 
aeigblKiarbood of tho Namot River, is the came colony. It npp<«rs as 




320 



UZXEBAL RESOrBCES. 



ft d«po«it froni tbe mud-wnllx of tli«t ngioit. £p*omitt, or n|Mom aaltrj 
^snlphaU of mftftnesift), ia won as ^n otKotrstcnMe in eanrm &nd 01 
banging rock§ of liia llftwkMbar; KnniUtotic fonoation, and is found u 
various piurts of Kew 8outh Wal«fl. 

Lur^ il«pont« of Aliuit occnr cIobp co th« Tillage of BullniliUftli, 
30 iiiiieii from Port Stejibeiis, Sew .South Wales. Up to ibe end of tin- 
year ISUI, 3,428 tons of »]uiiiit*i Ijoil l«--eii mised there, loott of which 
had boon aantto England fur treatineut. It is mid to ;r)cld irM, and a 
cuuntity of the nianiirnotitred alum is sinit tu Sydni.'v for lixa) coDKuiuf 
tiOD. During lS1}i the Ilullaiicluh miuo yieldixl 'M>2 tons of stou« 
valued at £3,44>*. In the couisp of the same j-car 2T3 cirL of 
manufactiirod aliiirt, valund at £78, wm c.xport«d to Victoriat < 
Uvw Ztaland, and New Caledonia. 

Earthy Mixekals. 

Marble U found iii many parts of New Soutli Wales, South Austr 
Sttt Z«^au<l, aiu) Tasmania. In New South Watex mnrbk quorric 
hhve been open'-d in SL-VL-ral dititricts, and some \'ery fine Rppcinuos < 
the stout? JiavB biMnt ol>tiiiiii?d. 

Lilh-^yrapkir s(oyiii hns Intpn foiuid in New Zealand, where anethflr' 
beautiful sj>ecicisof limest«ne known as the Oamitruatortfi&t3aia procnrcd. 
Thia Mune hMH H fine, auooth graitt, and is of a Ijttiutifid creamy ttnL 
It is in jj[r)«t demand for public buildings, not only in tliu cottmy where 
it tH found, but in tlie ;;reat uities of continental Auntrolia, which import 
lar^ quantities of the stone (or th«) emlieltisUment of public odifioe& 

Limf-tbttv in being worked on the Mynll Ijikm, rirwc Hungwall, And 
sitintl qunntitiex havn betTi forwnrdnd from tliis district to .Sydney. 

4itfpinim is found crystallised in cUy-lxMis in New South Walet, and 
in isolated crystals in the Salt Lakes of South Australia, where a mull 
proportion of sulphate of lime is preeetit in the water. It in ulso foand 
in portions of Victoria. This mineral is of eouiniM-tiiil vnlu« tor tho 
niaiiufilcture of cement and plaster of Paris. It is found in thi- form of J 
an insolublf! Kolt in New Soutli Wali-a, Victoria, nncl New /cnlanil. V 

Aptttitt, anothitr mineral of considernbk- coninirrcial inipor'anee, and 
very valuabia an a mjiimri', occurs in scvi-ral dintricte of New Soutb 
Walaa, principally on the l,n<-hlan River, at the head of the Aherciombic^ 
sw) in the Clarwoce Kiver district. 




QuAKT* A!fD Silica. 

Quartz is ct coininoii occurrMico in al! part* of Austnilasia. Rock 
<rry»tal, white, tinted, and smoky quailx are frequently met witli, as 
well as varieties of crystalline quart*, such aa amethyst, Jftopvr, and 
•goto, which possess some commercial value. 

Common OpaU are frequently found in the bacaJtic formations of 
Australasitk The precious or noble opal, which might bo included undior 



PBODUCnON OP OPAI£. 



»I 



fta htad of pracioos stones, lias beoii foiuiil GO :[iiU^ iiortb-w«at bwn . 
Wikautia, at a few feet frotu tbti surfuoc^ in la^cn l>M<voai haid ' 
wUeionii midHtoDe; As luuefa as £5 |wr oo. fau brcn oAenxl for good 
■peatmeiia. During 1891 lli« tguautil}' of noble opnJ won from ttuao 
tnifK!* «-■)! yjs lb., valiiMi ut £!>,&fi4, Tha total paradnotion to tba 
eod»f tlwty<MrwiwS84lk, vuIulsI nt X.tr>,o99. Tfao gem baa also been 
fnUMl in bualt, nrar ilic AlHTcromhin Kiv«r, an<l in saodsune^ near; 
Uamun. In Qacniuiland opnU aro found in the Thiui^nindaK 
disteicl, wfaorp in 1S94 tho labour of 50 to WO men, aooorduig to 
tlw aeaaon, produceii ojmls rHiaod al XIS.OOO. 0|>a]-bMu-inK Htono i» 
knOHu lo exiat in tbo raiii^es lietw«eu Adaval« aud Cuo|H'!r'« Oni>k, in 
the CharWtUe district, Quecnuland ; and in the nortlKim poi-Uons of 
N«« Sonth Walttk 

CittUtloMi/, oarn«lian, oiti/x, and eai'»-«t/» arc found in New SouUi 
Walm ; and it \» |>ro)ialile that thvy am alio feo \m met with in tlie otlier 
calcaiaiiparticalarly in QaecuiKlaud. Trijioli, w rottonstoDci, an infusonal 
Mllh, coiUDstJng of liydmuH Rilicn, which has sorno ralne for comiaeraal 

Crpoaes, has been found in Now Soutii Wal«s. Victoria, and Nv<w Zm- 
id. J/«er>eA<iwin is reported to have l)een diacorered near Tamwonh 
■ad in the Rtcluuouii Kiver iIlHtriol, in Kew Soulli Walen. 

JVmb is alno found in i(i%ni tic country, cbictly in tlii^ New Englimd 
nd BaiTior diMrict*. In \V<Ktcm Austrniiit vm-y good mica has been 
bund at itindooit, and also on tho Itlackwixxl Kivor, near Oape Iiwmrin. 
Sotne promising discov«ri«a have been mihle nc^ar llL-rbertoD, in Northern 
Qneensliind -, and reoently sonie mica of exoeilent quiUity woa brotif;ht 
In JLteUiida from tbe Maodonuel) Kaajj^es, in Central Austmliik 

Kaolin, fire-dayti, and hrieh<lay* nm common to all tho colonies. 
Em^l in tbo vicinity of citioa and townnhipB. however, little use has 
Wa made of the abundant dcponts of clay. Kaolin, or porcelain clay, 
*lti)Oiigh capable of application to commercial jiurposee, has not as y«t 
been BtJliaed to any extctnt. 

AAt^n ha^ )H-en found in Kew tiiouth Wales in the Guadagai. 
BaUmnrt, and Broken UIU diittricts — in tho luat-mentioued dialrict in 
tBoaidenUe quantitie*. Sevcml s|jecinieua ot vary fair quality kaT» 
ako hill II met with in Weaturn AuHlrcdia. 

Gen ani> GEHHToxxa. 

Many deacriptions of gems nod geniatoiies have been discovered id 
miona parts of the Atuttralanan oolouieav ^^^ systematic scareli liaa 
faann mado principally for tho diamond. 

Diaawaid* an; found in Now South Walut, Victoria, and QneenslMid, 
bnt only in the fir»t-n&mcd colony havi? any attrmjits bui-n made to work 




322 



MINERAL nESOUBCES. 



the duuuond drifl& The principal diamoud -Gelds ure i!itnnt«<l in the 
fiiiiKitra »nd Inv*rell diitricUi, on tlie Now Eii^laiid tabl^liuul ; and 
lit CMdgagang, iii Ui« Wpllington dirtrift, Thr Covenimwit of New 
South Wftlps has on various oceiviionB olitoiiied thu tervlces oi oxperU 
to iTport ujion th^ HpMb, ah noil an np>ii the ^mn which hav« Imcii trtMU 
tinio to titoi: cxtrnt-t^l from theiD, and tlicMt i-cport* have genentUy been 
of Hn cncoorftgiiia: iinliir''. 

Th«nnR)berof diATiiondH found in the tiingttra district is MtitDAt<Hl lobe 
102,000, weighing 150,000 c-antts, the largest being one of &| carats, or 
16'2 grains. The diamond;! occur in old Tertiary river-drifts, aii<l in the 
more recent drifta derived from them. The deposits an- extensive, and 
liive not yet been tlioroughty prosiwcted. The New South Wales 
diamonds are liardi^ and much whiter than the South African diaiiiond», 
And are oIa-wific<l as on a par with thp best Bnurili&n gcniH. During lite 
year 1887 tho diamonil coropanica at Cope's C'rei-k, near Itinera, pro- 
duced about 33,000 diamonds, weighing 5.151 cantt« ; hut in ItS^, 
owing to the severe droui;hi wliich occurred, th« search had to be 
temporarily abandoued. In \SS9 finds were reported to the extent of 
2,196 carats, valued at XSTB. In ISDl and 1892. 13.000 and 2,250 
oarota of diamonds n.-s[H*ctivi.-ly were won in tliu Tin^dia and Iiiverell 
diMtrict*. but no value is given. The yield for IftflH Ik utatetl at iri.OUO 
canit«, valued at J;15,3T5. During 1894 prospecting only wo;} carried 
on. With efficient methods of working, thia industry bids fair to beconw 
a profitable one. 

Under tlie generic name of Corundum are included the most valuable 
geiua known to commerce, iiest to the diamond. Tlie tajiphin, which U 
the most common of tliese gems, iic found in all the colonied, principally 
in the neighbourhood of Bcuch worth, Victoria. 

OrieiitAl mnPiM/'fjt are found in New South Walen, and in Gippkland, 
in Victoria. An emerald mine, in which the gem occura in graaitio^ 
lode, was opened near Eniranville, in the Glen lanes district, dn: 
1890, nnd to the close of 1893 llio Emerald Proprietaiy Company o' 
tained some 25,000 caiata in a rough state, the value of which, wb 
cut and tiniidied, wua expected to reauh about £2 per carat. No work 
was done in 1894, 

The yi-llow corundum, or Oriwita! tapas, has been found in Ni-w South 
Wales. Oriental amctkyftf alxo have beon found in that colony, and 
th« red coi-utiduni, or Miiy, the most valuable of oil these gems, has 
been found in (Queensland, as well as in New South Wales. 

According to an autliority on the subject of gemstones. rubies, 
Oriental amethysts, emeralds, and topas have been ehi«fiy obtAined from 
alluvial deposits, but liave rarely been met with in ft matrix from w! 
it would jjiiy to extract them. 

T'ttrijiniisrii Inivr Vn-irji fiiund nfar WangarattA, in Victoria, and mi 
operatiunN wen- carried on for some lime, but without sotisfactory 
renlbL 



( 



bies, 
from J 

ningi 
rtorv ^ 




SnXERAL PRODDCTIOS IS 



223 



ChrytolvryU have Sumi found in New South Wnles ; epical rubi«s, in 
Mew Sosth SVftlc8 nnil Victoria; whito topa;(, in wW th& colonies; and 
y«Jlow topAZ, in Tasniania. Zircon, (ourmatine, garnel, ami other gem- 
sloaee of litii« commercial value are fouud throughout AuBtraluaiiL 

In South AuBtralia Bome very fiiie speoiineus «f (pirnet went fnunii, 
CMtsing nnnx: cxcttcniriit nt the time, aa the gems were inixlaki^i I'or 
mbifs. The ntoncn were stiliniitt«<l to tht- examination of experts, 
whom rcportu diKloKed the true itntuit) of the gems, anil ttispflleii the 
faopm of those who had invested in the supposed iiihy-mines of South 
Anstrali*. 

Prodcctios op Minehals. 

The foregoing pagCH sliow tliat AustmUsia jiosscsup^ invaluablo 

ininenil rtwouivm, and nltliough enormous i]uanti ties nf tninemKofnll 

kind* have hceti won since their lirst discovery, yet the dciwuit*, with 

tbe «iccept«on, perhaps of ^oKI, have only rcttehed the tirbt jieried of 

tltrir exploitation. Vast l>ed« of silver, tin, and copper ore and of conl 

an known to exist) hut theii develop nient has not reached a aiillicteiitly 

tflvNKed tiutpi to euahle aa euiet opinion to ire expi-eaaed rejpirdiug 

th«ir comnMrcinl value, though it is oonliduiitly lietd hy uiitiuik expt^rtH 

tb»l tbis must 1)0 enormous. The niineml pirxluction of the various 

cotooMH in 1894 will be found below ; — 



Cilany. 


TKai TAiun. 


l'Ni»niuia( 


TSlUBpn 

hmJL 




£ 

4,817.738 

2,81 9,200 

2.6S0,649 

>U.fi»l 

80S,373 

S08.T08 

1,202,075 


per oi'ut. 

36-0 

20-9 

1B7 

2-7 

5-9 

5-2 

8-e 


£ K a. 

3 IH 6 


Vn;lori» 

QiucDiUnd 


2 T 10 

li 10 

I U & 

10 IS 2 


laSflMUtlft. .••■iana<i-4,,>.- 


4 » 7 
1 18 t 








13,476,233 


100-0 


3 6 7 







The total value of minerals raised in 1S94 excee^led by £3,416.194 
the aremgc onntint amount sine! l!Ji>:J. It will, however, he easily 
Biidenrtood that tlw proportion of mineral wi-Jilth AXtrootcd per head of 
tbe population is much less tlinn it was il\)rin;c; the prevalent! of the 
gM (over. In comparison with that of the years 1)^51 to ISil the 
fmdttctkm of the precious metals is cont^iderably reduced. Tlie SF^nrch 
fijT gold, liowewr, led to the expansion of the mining industry in olh^r 
directions, and although neekeiru of gold have become fewer, the number 
of mincn engaged in the extraction of other luinerala has largely 




224 



aUXESAL BJ^0U£C£3. 




increasfid, aoii it u ft quHtioEi witet&er thft tolal number oF 
wba i{Han their liveliliood by mining; (iitrauibi «t the preaeol ttiue 
(tqiml to tli« niunbar bo on^^-af^l irbeii fpM and cm) ilIocui were 
(■Iciiii^nU oE tlie iniuenl pi-nductioii of tho AiMtnLluuui coloaioa. Tbe 
resourcoi known to nxurt and to Im dcmlopcxl in thvM e^ooiee are ! 
to itKuntftin for mtiny gcti<tration« to cocno a large and prosparoBS I 
j>opulation. 

Tiie following tnbtc shown the ^'alue of tho mineral production of aK^i 
cotouy (lurin(( the throe years 1871, 1^81, and lS91,as well as tlio \'alw 
per inliabitaut for the whole of Aiutralaaia : — 



iVilony, 


1UL 


IfSL 


1»1. 




£ 

1,650,000 

li,«».000 

li06,0iW 

725,000 

5,000 

25.000 

2,032,000 


£ 
2,1-1,000 
3,4S;.O0O 
9.105.000 

421.000 
U.t'OO 


£ 
0,398,1m 
X,339,SIO 

{.SMisao 

3B5JS0 








i.to.oaa 




mt.OdO 518,390 

1,274,000 i,4aa«ao 


Kow Ztoluid ... . 


/Total 


11,543,000 1 11,063,000 13.450.6W> 






AuHtmlMia < 

( Per liMd 


£ s. d. 
S IS 4 


£ ». d. 1 £ .. d. 
3 19 8 3 10 



A compnmnn of the fibres for 1B9I with those for 189J slimm in:) 
tho precfiding tnble rev^nlH th<! fuct that ihv. mineral production of 
1^94 was about £25,000 more than that of lt|!91. Theire were increases 
in Victoria, Queensland, Taeniania, and iiottvbly in Western Atisilralia, 
and ^li^hl doLTeaMes in South Australia and iivw Zealand, while in 
New Soutli WiJ«i the decrease amounted to £1,538,000, t-biefly owing 
10 the fidl in the \iilu» of ulver and, to a smaller exti-nt, to ths doclino 
in tbu pri«- of cool. 

Oompariii^ tlH^ value of tninural produi;tioti in \^Qi wiiJi tho popula- 
tion, tltc IntKTst sharp is lakcin by WesUrn jVustrnlia. wilh £10 18a. 3d, 
per inhabitant ; Qiicpnelaiul i-juiku Boroiiil with £6 Os. lOd. per in- 
habitant; Tasioania third, with £4 9a. 7(1., and New Sotitli Wales 
founli, with £3 18s. 6d. The high averages of Wesleni Aunlralia and 
Queeu^und are due lo the j^ld-muies, while in New 8outh Walea 
nearly half tlie year's wealth wiui etititribut^-d by the nilrer-tteldx. Tlw 
average \>tT inhabitant for AustnUiuun wan £3 '>■. Td. b 

The following tabl« idiown tlio value of production in ''ach of tha H 
eoloniea dnring 1894, tligCingu idling th« principnl minerals. Witk 
regard to som« of th« colonioa the data are defective in resipect to 
"other minerals," but not to such an extent as 10 nriously affect 



i 



A 




VALUE OF HISEBAL PROBCCTIOS. 



225 



duRCEM Uitsl. THo column "other miiicmla " inrludo.s krronono •halo 
ia Suw Sooth Walts :— 



o*>v 


CeU. 




Ooppe'- 


Tlrk 


CMt. 


Oth.t 
Mlncnlk 


TouJ. 


IwfaMliWitM.... 


£ 
1.1M.TIT 

xm.'teB 

14t.7ta 

tu.ie 

ur.na 


£ 
M.077 

a.en 


£ 

(0.(117 
H.3M 


i.tti 

U.tJ* 


£ 

11 

■ 13.1W 
39i.T(lO 


£ 
107,038 

H.DM 

t,ao 


£ 
t,S»3JM 




l.!Ci!.ni 


W«Min Auitnlta. . . . 




a.nt.»M 


«,aiT.tw 


303, M3 


3M.SI7 


I,7TI,0I» 


lt4.8»l 


I3.t7e,i3) 



Ccntatpoiuliiig figtire-s for thi; year 1895 are appended : — 



OJn;. 


OM. 


Ind. 


Osppar. 


Tin. 


Coal. 


Otbei 

Minenli. 


Total. 


KcaGoBIBITaln.... 
IkMb ., 


t 

UMO.Mi 

i:no,n3 
rtMU 

mv.-u 

I11.7S0 

1.1UI.11H 


£ 

3.00a 

lO.OU 

m.No 


t 

MO 

u.on 

U.MS 

o.fln 


£ 
1>7.«33 

«S.tS3 
HA 

07.16* 


£ 

1.0M.t2T 

11 MOO 

uz.uo 

tll.tTT 


£ 
IM.31; 
l.SM 
il.tBT 

> 


t.«u,t8a 


MbAmnlik 

J^Ma AoKnlU. . . , 


«>E.m 

MS.Ut 


XnlailBd 


l,(8T.UL 


AMnlula 


MTC.<M( 


1.01!,HM 


401.(30 


!37.tT3 


i.TTi.Toa 


14I.T73 


U.US.DII 



The total mincrnl produclioii to the end of 1895 is shown iu the 
MUmag tabic, ia vbich the colunui " other miuerals'' again iiicludei 
knofOM tbale : — 



I 



Cikmt. 



OoU. 



BOnruid 
Kltw 
l«d. 



Copp*''' 



Tin. 



CmlI. 



Olhei 

UisinJi 



ToUl. 



nM(k m.iM.tu 

»i ii I MUiu.m 

AlftAMtn^...... I.mt,«93 

■MtMBAittlnU* .. 3.ins.33> 

IWnrti 3,14e.»I 

InrlHtuid .. ... MAil.Wt 



£ £ 

A»!I,MS IO,«S(,iM 



(SO.SSl 

ns,ou 
louTn 

ito 

131 .ira 



£ 

a.630.UB 

too.sw 

B0,nM<4 
1M.H0 

i;,rc« 



ite 'sm.SSl.Ml |£l,9J4.(Bil 



ET,i3i,!ir 



£ £ e 

e,ia3,ti;s m.rh.obi t.^n.-ti 



067.137 
«,32B,T71 

Ofi.§H 



I7,390.a3; 



l.!K)7.1ICI 
II 

su.VfiO 

£,MM.<7e 



170,M0 

100. IM 

10.6M 



£ 

too.uiT.aio 
u3.o!n.i«7 

4i.V)ifi7S 
113.111:1,731 
],<33,«M 
10,a23.M< 
H,aM,738 



3ii,£io.;ii> ,3,6i>;.;oi 



u)>.2te.is«t 



Coal waa tha only iniijerol rai-wd in New South Wales prior to 1802, 
wd Hit [WYtdDction up to that date was valui^d at £279,933. Di^ductiitg 
th>t amount from tlie total value of Australuiian niineraU raised up to 
tlia«na of 1805, the remainder. £488,966,607, repreneiiU the value of 
mineral production from 1853, oqual to an average of £11,113,880 per 
for Um fofty-four years. 




126 



AGRICULTURE. 



TAKEN as a wbole, Aiiirtminsm may W said to ho in tho finrt phii 
of ngriculton^ settiomciil ; iiKlcod, sevoial coliHiiea hav« aol ytvl 
fllBiSIged irom iho pastoral stage. Neverthelosa the value of agrtcultunU 
produce, estloiatetl al fiu-iu priuea, in coDiiiderable^ &nd aiauutiU tu luarly 
3r> pw cent, of llie value o£ the pwtoral uiid dairy produuf.. Tllo return 
from aKriuultun- in ojwh colony for tlic (tciuidii lSfll-8S was approxi- 
iiiiiti-iy lui shown Ill-low. It muBt bo nutiHl, howeviT, tliat all the figures 
^ivoii for South AuHtndiA in thin clmptcr, with tho nxccptiim of ibow, 
nifctrring to wheat, Arc for the year 1^93-94, no ngriculturai statistic 
baTing liMa cuUecled iu tlutt oolony foe the foUowiuf{ ye&r :— 



Odsnr. 


ToMnliuiK 


AttMy Trine 

of wBonoa 

pnwmm 

mdw Cra|i> 


Proportlim of 

TsUl VlllW 
of AurtimUabk 




£ 

3.24K,7!1H 
4,2.13. »N« 
1,404,J8J 
l,S88.3u-2 
25I..Sfi4 
819.104 
4.124,640 


£ *. A. 

2 3 
1 16 
5 3 3 
18 6 

3 2 S 
3 IG 3 
3 6 2 


par cent. 
20 '4 




26-5 




8-S 
11 -S 




IS 

5-1 

25-8 




15,W4,k:- 


2 2 


100 







From t&is eatiinat« it would seem that the ralne of cropa \ixe ncrsl 
cultivated h much Ur^er in Queensland than in tbs oiIklt i.-uUinie«, a 
taut wUieli is due lo the propurtiuiULtely UrKC area uad<;r xagu^tuic. 
In Tasmiuiin the oixu dctvotvil to fruit and httpx, and the highly returns 
of onrcmla, account for iha hifch average ]ier acre wliich thai ]>roviikoe 
ahowK. In point of gro«a voluo Victoria occupies tho tint poeilBon 
uuong the membtHv of tha group, th* proiluco of that proviiico luaviog r» 
nUtie coiuidoratily iu exc«as of one-fourth of that of all Awilniaaia. 
J»«w ZeaUuid also produceii over one-fourth of tho total, aiiit Xew 
^uth Walett over ouu-^fth. The value of tlie priiidpul orajw, and tUu 



TALUE OP AGElCtTKTUHAX PRODUCTIOK. 227 

of «a«h:lO tiie total production, are given In. tlie fi>llotHnj{ 



f)tCKf^ 



Whot 



Bari«j 

Okt* 

OUmt erain crops 
P«a*o, (tnuu, dIo. 
H^ ~ 

RMteM< 

Otbar loot-eropa... 



g«-B~ 

flnoRKing* - 

GtiMMed ^ 

Orchatiils and rauket-sudou . 
Otlurcvopi 



Total, 



r*iiu 



pFapoitioi 



iRionM 



£ 
3,021,220 

074,083 

37«,2S5 

1,193.207 

18.589 

154.807 

3,410,34.1 

l,lS3,rjfi7 

),(M4,4fi<) 

7(i;i.«fl7 

40.515 

fi72;o39 

4T3.817 

152.600 

58.167 

2,51)0,455 

2.'i7,353 



15,974.327 



nrcvnt. 

la's 
4-£ 
2-4 
7-S 
0-1 
1-0 

21-3 
7-4 
0-G 
4-S 
03 
38 
3 
0-0 
01 

IC'2 
IS 



1000 



The Avenffa T«lua of apHslbmil produce per hesd of population in 
tacJiof tb« AnatralMJm oolODios during the season 1894-95 U rcpre- 
Mond by tliD li^^mfli below. lb will be seen that in the uoluuieii of 
New Zmlnnd, South AtiMndia, Tusiuania. and Victoria iJio davplopmcnt 
<f ttgncnltaral mmiroi'K is attmotiiiK the .ttlentioa of the colonists to it 
yilii o!tt«nt than ia thti cas« in thu otlier prorin(M;s o£ Australasia : — 



eoimr- 



AvemfiP rtlufl per hcwL 



£ a. <L 

N«ir South Wales 2 13 S 

VirtcrU S 12 

Qneetubad 3 4 

aenth Aortralia „ „. _. S S 

Weatoro Aaatratia 3 9 3 

TMmania - 5 5 1 

NvwZvaland S I S 

AualralMia , ,...,» 3 17 9 

Below will Ix! found Uin value ot the aj,'ricuUural production of tfa* 
colontM in the ynun 11^71, Ii!8I, and ISUl. Cunipartug the.se flgurea 
widi'tfaufte for 1894-95 given nbox'<?, it will be sei-n thut while the tota^ 
production oi Australoeia is now ono-h»lf higbfr thau it was twenty-foui 
}r«*n alien, the arer&j^ value per liBod of pupulatiun is much lower. Ae 
mbwquent tables will show, the lower total and average value.^ in. 



228 



AGBICULTURE. 



I694-9ri ns compared with IS^l and 1391 are not due to n decline iai 
t}ic iiri'A ittidpr crop or in the qimtitily of produce harveatod, but to tliifri 
rapid full in tho prices o( corekla. The riao iii prices which has t*kea 
pljicr in the pHst vi-ar will proliably be found to have inure tliAn com* 
petisftted for iJie ruiii i>f manv crups bjr <in>ughl, and the value o£ 
aj^riculLurul product) in 1890-'JI> may be expectwl to shuv au increase 
oil the ItxurL-s for thu previous year : — 



cetaair. 


IXl. 


UU. 


liM. 


NewSmiih Walm ^,.. 


£ 
2,220.000 

3.300,000 
U,'AJ.(W<"J 

l,:hU,000 
2fl8.00« 
;24.000 

1,9»>,000 


£ 

3,830,000 
n.H04.000 
!.-JS3.(K)0 
S.283,000 
■J4H,000 
Ml, 000 
4,600,000 


£ 
3.584,500 

7,000,100 




1,11-1,000 




3,045,000 




,-^0,900 




],04«,5O0 

n.ClH.OOO 








10,GS&O00 


20.16S.000 


21.098,001} 






AuttiikLuu { 

(P«rhmd ... 


£ t. il. 
C 12 8 


£ >. d. 
7 5 3 


£ a. d. 

5 14 6 



Compared ^ritb tho principal countries of the world, Auitralflsia do 
not lake n liigh position in regard to the gross value of the produce of^ 
il« tillage, but in value per inhabitant it compares hirly well ; indeed,' 
somn of the colonies, 8ui:h ii^ Kew ZMilaud Kiid South Australia, iibovr 
avi-ragcji which compare wvU with (Jiosd of niniiy of the leading iwrivul- 
tnral iwiiiitriw. This may Im partly siren fnmi thu following table, I 
fi^ir«s in whic)i Am taken from Mu\halVa liictionari/ of Stalittiet. 
is iuiportant to remember, Iiowrver, that since the lutest edition of lhi« 
work Mas compiled tho prictts of agricultural produce have greattjr, 
fallen :— 






OroniTla 



I V»li» 
lifininuaui 



PothSHl. 



Couutrli*. 



In nilillons^ 



rnbMd. 



United EiDgdom 

Vna<M 

Oennaay 

RomLi 

AntrU 

IWy 

8l)n:il , 

Purtiijjpil 

8wed«a .., 

Nonray 

Deumoik 



£ 

Ul 

322 

S«S 

373 

aas 

103 
138 
S3 
3t 
9 
SO 


1 

£ 
3-3 
S3 
6-4 
4-0 
ft-C 
S-0 
7-t 
4-0 
6-5 
4-6 
95 



Holknd ... ,. 

Belgium 

SwitMrlaad .. 
Unite*! StatMl 

Canada 

Capo Colany 

Argentina 

nniguay 



AwitraIa>U(le94| 



£ 

20 

41 

9 

487 

35 

3 
18 

o 



IS 



£ 
4-3 
6-7 
SO 
7-5 
7-0 
1-3 
i-8 



S-9 



AREA UNDER CROPS. 



2ag 



The following figures, giving tli« areiu under titti principal grain itnd 
other crops and the coUJ exUiit of laiiil umUn- cuitivKtion in M^of the 
o^Qoies At difleFeot perioda 5i]ic« tlip vror 1661, will serro to illustrato 
the progTMB wliicli agriculture liiw rnii(ic. In this table, as well nii 
throughout tho whole ot the chaptw, the years ISGl, 1871, I8SI, IS91, 
Mnd 1894 etnhraco ths periods from 1st April iii eadi ot tliOAC yi:(xn to 
tho SUt March in tho following year : — 



VtwSmUi 
Wih*. 



VHtorti. 



land. 



KODlh VToMin 
Aiwlnlk. Aiutnlta. 



Twnviiik. 



Xcw Aiuln]- 

Zslu'l. mU. 



Wiii*r CbrOnln). 



IKI 


UI.KK 


men 


sot 


no,iiw 


U,tH 


HMS 


tt,»i 


Tn,SM 


101 


1M,0M 


W(.flM 


>,«• 


tPl.lWS 


SJ,6W 


a,tt* 


ii»,»a 


i.»ti,B!a 


tm 


m.«M 


(m,T«> 


ia,aM 


i,7Hi,;«i 


11 .Ml 


M.TJT 


SK.Tia 


»,«:,779 


UM 


SM^M 


l.»t,Mi 


1D.3IM 


l,lW,t33 


Si.dM 


4T,bU 


41T2.KS 


S.TK.Ml 


im 


eii.<H3 


l^t,M9 


SS.MT 


i,sn,iK» 


SlitSt 


n,03s 


ia.s7s 


S^4K,SM 



Oin ((orDnln). 



■ 


7,W 


n.tti 


«9 


I.StS 


607 


19.023 


i5.m 


lt;.,39S 


m 


U,Wi 


rnjn* 


1» 


3,U« 


1,471 


19.031 


UD.tas 


sea.vM 


Ml 


IfM 


IMMi 


S9 


s.uat 


m 


n.aa 


9i3.*r 


<3S,?03 


im 


IS,«H 


iHKisr 


716 


1K,B7 


1,301 


2S.3SI> 


sta.us 


IGU.US 


UM 


yi,ca< 


tts,iu 


1,*IT 


u.aiB 


i,r^ 


M,K£ 


Ul,«3t 


eB»,719 



Milt* ((arGulii). 



1M1 


Kjm 


U71 


IIMM 


i«n 


iiT.Bi 


UM 


IIUT7 


UM 


MBJH 



1.TM 



l,9M 

so.n> 

40.480 

i<n,nf 



n 

lU 

» 
a 

6i 



* 



T70 


U,44S 




]«,ltl7 


S.177 


103.»H 


^447 


t99,BTa 


6.6a 


»3,tl» 



BtiOKT (ftir Oraln). 



IMI 


UM 


S,4IS 


IS 


lO.OT 


l,41t 


T.tT> 


),4tT 


II>.141 


UIl 


nm 


l«.77t 


971 


i7.xa 


ft,<>«S 


4,tn 


Ii,SOi 


ai.m 


UU 


a.tn 


•i.<i< 


3U 


U,W3 


S,I179 


4,WT 


»,0M 


WilTl 


m 


4.410 


U.W1 


7M 


]l.t«t 


3.7>a 


!.<M 


t4.M9 


BMU 


UM 

1. 


iiii,»« 


ti.au 


I.4IS 


13,073 


l.MD 


H,ie7 


«LSI4 


IM.IU 




230 



AGKICULTTRE. 






VictoriL 



QnreQfl- 
ImuI. 



BouUi 
AutisUit. 



Amtnliik 



ankod. 



AoMni- 



PoriTOltl. 



irni 


lO.MO 


I7.1M 


nt 


s.eia 


577 


n.No 


J,»K 


AT.IN 


]»i 


i».:to 


w.ou 


S.1U 


a.iio 


IM 


«,1A« 


II.IMS 


SO.Mt 


liKi 


lA.SMa 


1U,IW 


a.uM 


«,i»e 


srs 


e.oiu 


n.MO 


««.« 


imii 


SV.WW 


sr.ioi 


B.nn 


o.ssa 


fK 


le.Kua 


VT.Mtl 


UO,IW 


UM 


«U,OM- 


M.I'Id 


la.fVB 


e.iio 


703 


S3,*U 


»,!» 


ISI^IH 



V»M, 



IMl 

urn 
un 

UM 



l.GRt 
fl.CIS 

t.tn 

7,S7I 



l.w 


411 


t^.as 


IIH 


4.lr93 


1.IIS 


M,«a 


l.MS 


w,sa7 


].*n 



3,HIS 
I7,41» 



«B7 

COT 

S2T 

],DM 

1,W 



'.in 

tsss 



i 



mr. 



lEOl 


«S.1T6 


7i.oai 


2M 


01.871 


<I.S7<t 


»,»(» 




ai,i(0 


liS71 


61.SiU6 


ma.ii* 


a.ias 


SI.SU! 




SI.&7S 


M.T17 


n8,»Ht 


lul 


i4n,«io 


':i:.iso 


id.uie 


SSS.V^ 


SI, Its 


si.ratt 


».tu 


n».Bii 


i«ei 


iia,ma 


am.tw 


30,«« 


Wll,17l 


n.m 


««.«« 


W,OH 


«aMi* 


UN 


ii&M3 


tM.w: 


»,I»S 


W[,LU 


te^SM) 


a.KS 


lM,Xf 


WSfliV 



Otiibk C)v>rA. 



IMt 


ti.af. 


IS.OTl 


i.saj 


S.SSI 


Tin 


ST.IW 


ll.»«t 


">i!H 


U71 


EB.UTB 


17<.S:i7 


111,11117 


17.IMI> 


ia,i7i 


I8,(i7e 


u.<si 


aQB 


lltll 


nr.Bii 


«l,IWt 


K.K* 


fHfJM 


1,110 


10.1 tc 


n:,ua 


au;Ui 


IIWI 


loa.uie 


8»,SU 


78.«4 


e7.rui 


- i.iii 


ST.OIil) 


MU.US 


«B,7n 


IBM 


lui.iai 


tO».IIS 


te,»M 


eUitiM 


3.1M 


3S,4iW 


*ai,MS 


nt.m 



nuL Abu vKDn Oion. 



1811 


SKkBIT 


410^400 


.MO 


41)0,7 17 


3t,TW 


i«a,u6 


M,M6 


i.s«on 


1*171 


ftKl.lt:l 


U1,SM 


s^sno 


W7,7»o 


fil,7M 


iu,Ma 


U7.a: 


tfMOJJS 


iim 


M8,HS 


l.U&,44a 


ir,«o< 


7.isa.im 


^3.U3 


II8,(M 


i^oiv.ne 


^MI.SIS 


IWl 


Mo.ais 


Miti,ea4 


we.fliu 


1.0X1, ami 


IM,M) 


ie«,iiii 


i,4s«.rr! 


(XTWMO! 


IBM 


I.US.tlM 


t,t]U,9UI 


llll,!K-i 


X.USI.1711 


ai,3»i 


2H,(1S7 


1.140. lis 


T.aiM.m 



I 



Laiiii unniw Pnuunin AuRncuLi.r'iawji Uuhbl 



IKI 


lj«M 


n,«M 




m 







laTiiM 


)I*,1U 


un 


I^M 


axsi 


«tt 


«,IU 




M.UT 


TBKUR 


Diavw> 


un 


njB 


Ml.Ml 


S.M6 


iMm 




ucin 


a.Me.6tB 


l,MKI«t 


liM 


m.tM 


iN.Mn 


swiai 


i7,aB 




M»,IM 


TMrv* 


8.]iK4«a 


UN 


MU78 


i«e.i« 


n.8i» 







tii,4n 


*.m,im 


«.»(k«4 



INCREASE IN CiaTtVATIOK. 



^a 



The following; table sbows thi? increase in area and the proportiociul 
yrsaiy iaenuae in euttivfttian in well colonj dunng the peEiod of 33 
fcara iindor rcricw :— 



OOlODJ. 



Inrmn 1r> urralrcunllnnnMninurMff* 
IHlIoliiM. I isr wmiuii. 



Xcw Sonth Wb1« 

kYictorIa 

LQueaudiutd 

iBoath AiutnOik „ 
VoMvra AucUwlis 
rVanDaiiui 

Kew Z«dud 

Anttraluw 



acras. 
1,030,04; 
2.009,450 

270.542 
1,638.455 

ta,m 

51.472 
1.177.fl37 



0,234.224 



fieTcetit. 
46 
54 

5-0 
><• 

0-S 
9-1 



5-3 



litn, ulthough tlip proviuees of Viotom, Soutii Australia, K«w 
Jaod, anil Knir f^ontli Waifs lui\'n (luring tliis period provided the 
. incraMs^ in the area of lami cu!tivat«(], Queensland shows a mueli 
^■■At«r proportional incream. whilst a^icultiiro in Tasmania has relatively 
topo]>uliiti»iii«-niuinedatiuoBt, stationary. Taking AUBtralasis u a wliok, 
it will \k Ken that tli« ore* under crop is uow more thau fivp und ti 
Imlf timm ok Unro ** it wiut in 1861, If, however, the land nrtiliciftlly 
jnaMd be includ(!(l, the tJ)tiil will l-oiqr to l~,lTri,0'J-t ncreu, ormore than 
«lev«n timm Uic arm nndpr (rultivatton in lHf>l. A r-nmpnrisan of the 
acreage under nop mi thi^ hasiK of pnpulntinn, wliirh in a^'nrded hj the 
t«fal« xiven below, niayperhapn Iwst Hcrv« to giv« an idea of the progress 
of agriculture : — 



I 



Ob*«7- 


ia«t. 


UIl. 


im. 


IBM. 


USI. 


1 


a«ne. 


■ores. 


aorra. 


oom. 


acrat. 


fcw Sooth WalM 


IfB 


0-8 


0-7 


07 


1-1 




0-8 
0-1 


11 
0-5 


17 
O'B 


IS 
0-B 


2-1 




0-fi 


BiMkAMtMlia 


8-2 


4-5 


7-C 


n-fl 


A« 




1« 


2-0 


1'8 


I'C 


I-l 




I'B 


1-5 


1-2 


i-i 


1-4 


yrr Zrnl«nil 


07 


1-3 


2-1 


2-2 


1-8 








1-1 


1-4 


2-0 


17 


!« 







232 



AOBICULTl'RE. 



For lh« whole of AiutrtUaHia the increase of ogrictilture as compared 
with population will be cluirly seen in tlie following t«b]e : — 



InDttMCOl— 


1MM1. 


im^flL 


i3ai-«L 


""*■ I'tJl'Sr 




pftremt. 
SS-6 


p«r««nt. 
106 -S 

43 '3 


p«rMTit, 
22-3 
381 


par oaiit. ' ptT «etrt. 







Altbough during ttio poriod covered by tlio tublc th» population of 
Austr^tlaBiti was more thnii trebled, thp firca of land tloTotcd to agricul- 
ture iucreftsed more thnn iivcfold. «nd tho n,to of iiici'eaBe of BflTiculttm 
wiiB e:ca<:tly twice tbtit of the population. This itiiprovetiient took j^Ace 
entirely during tbe period frotu )8Gl to 1881, and cliiefly during the 
latter portion of that lime ; while in the years from 1661 to 1891 tko 
rat« of incrtMuie in the ucreiiKe under orojis (ell fur Nhort of Uifi in<TMtw 
of the population, nlthduifh from 1891 to li(94 thi> oppOKito oocaiTOd. 
This in M-hnt uKiturnliy mi^ht Im oxpcctinl, nH th<igold frvc^rbadnltogCtlMrJ 
subsided about tlm end of the <ii>t period, 1^*01-71, and & Urge [xntioin 
of tlie pupululiun wft.3 Meekin^' employmetit of a more settled ii;ttnr«tliatt| 
was albirdt-d by the (-old-fieldn. Tlie couiparulive det-rtiMO iioticoiiblt^ 
in tJKi luttnr period, 18S1-'91, in owiuf; to varioun caunen, sucb m tfae 
goncrnl tondcncy, olsewliere ulludcd to^ of the population to congregato 
in tbr sovcrnl mc^tropolitan centres ; the dilViCulty of taking up good land 
within ooay occcm to markctai; and abo to tli« fact that there have b««D 
largo acceasions to the numbers of thosn t^ngnged in otli«r callings 
without & corresponding incrpoHo in thct agricultural claases. Under: 
any circunistancen, the area of land devoted to agriculture cannot 
increa^d ilUimtably, uud although enormous tracts adapted tor tilUgnl 
ulill remain untouched by the plough, it is not Hkely that tbrir calt^' 
viitii>n will be attempted until a more certain market is assured for the 
produce. 

As will be seen on refe-rence to a subsequent chapter dealing sith 
" Kmplnyment and Production," the tottJ number of pftrsons engaged 
in agricultural pursuits in the Aiistralnsion colonica at tbo lime of the 
census of 185)1 wa? 310,942, of whom Mfi,2"2 were males, and 24,370 
females, 

In the following tablo will be found the proportion of land nnder 
crop to the total area of each colony, and tlia saiiic- with ri'gard to 
AuHtralnaia as n whole. In instituting C(iui|>arisan.'i between the several 
colonies however, it muxt be bomr in mind iJiat other circurostancaa 
tlian the mere area under cultivation require to be taki-n into considera- 
tion. It would not be fair, for instance, to eonipare Tasmania, w hich has 
60 jit^nions per nquare mile, wiih Western Avrtralia, which has only 
0'06 inhabitant to the squarv mil«, The table has a value chieQy 




INCREASE IN CCLTIVATION. 



233 



raw) it ulion-it Iiow oftch province hna progreeMil in regard to culti< 
Tatioo itarJDg tbe pcriotis named -. — 



COaar. 


Un- 


im. 


inL 


U91. 


UN. 


N«w SomUi Wolos 


p«r cant, 
015 
0-73 
0-001 
0-07 
0-006 
0-«7 
0-10 


ppr cent. 
0-20 
l-fll 
O-Ot 
O'lS 
0-008 
0-92 
0-50 


ptc cent. 
29 
2M 
U'03 
0-37 
0'003 
0'8S 
ICO 


percent. 
0-44 

O'oe 

0-33 
0-01 
OW 
3-13 


per cent. 
0-87 

4-30 




»'0<I 


SmUi AmtnUa. 

WMtorn AaMralia 


0-35 
001 
1-2S 




I'sa 








0-07 


O'U 


0-28 


0'3t 


0-3D 







The sabjoiiied Ub)« sIiowh Uie proportion of cultivated area devoted 
U th« principal cm^is in <.-ach proviuce. It will be Ge<>n Uiat witli two 
Mcq>tioiu) whn«t anil buy form the greatest proportions of thi^ tola! 
tillggc Thin IK ripreiitUy thn casn in South Austrnlin, where iittk clue 
'agmwa; and in Victoriii, where the proportion of wheat ninounts to 
KperMutof tli« total area cultivated, while tliere ih 20 per cent, under 
'p.j craiw : — 



1 Cnv- 


Htw 
South 


Vtotarti. 


IkDd. 


South 
Aui- 


Wutcm 

Auv 
tnliv 


-Tu 


1 


Imr 


Mramt. 
tat 
t» 
IS 7 

OS 

IS 

m 

o-e 
i-t 


twr wni, 
M-7 
IIU 
O't 
fO 
SB 

ail 
'V-s 


1 
pnrrttnl.l iiarotnl. 


ptr (»nt, 
lO'J 
i-O 
01 
»-* 

o-» 

oi-a 

it 

'*7 


U-2 

"i-a 

lOfl 


MrcEnL 

no 

0'4 

S-0 

s-0 
i»4 


wrwnl. 

to-e 




o-o 

W) 
OK 
4« 

lO-S 
0-7 

Wl 


07 

■(1-0 
177 

a-g 

'S'fi 


O'S 
t-1 

a-1 




t-o 

18-8 

1-4 


oEiSSm :'".'.'■"'.'. 


10-a 








lOO'O 


IflO-O 


100 -0 


lOOfl 


1000 


i«-o 


100-0 


IWQ 



Tie position in whicli each of th^ principnl agriculturnt products stood 
IB relation (t> the totitl aroa undir •ro]) in Auntralnsia nt vnriouo periods 
OBoe the year 18CI niay ho ftBcorlsincd from the fiillowinjj ttibli'. Tbe 
figures idwuld, liowi^vvr, be taken in conjunction witli thooc to be found 
ia tlie table on pn^^i-- 229, ;;iviiih' the actual areas oj)eratpd upon, since ft 
decline in the proportion of luuil untier uny partimlar crop dopii not 
Mocawrily nu^an a falling-oti' in the area deputed to that product ; on 
Dv oontTJry, in few inxtaneeN hn.t there been any actual retrogioasion. 
K{t u sMia^Ctorjr to ob^scrvo thnt the proportion of cultivation of the 



234 



AGBTCULTTHE. 



more valuable crops is gnuluall^ increonn^. Thus, in ISiH tlic ' 
Age ilcvoltKl to villi.-!!, Lugar-i'&iie. and *' Otfaer crops," in whi^ nre ino 
gn.ri|pn.':aDiI orciifti-ils, wtts 130, ascoiapared wiUi 12-9 in 1891, 9-6 J 
1881, »nd »-6in 1861:— 



PradaoL 


un. 


un. 


uai. 


MBl. 


I»«. 




par Mint. 
59-B 
10-6 
A-a 

2-2 

4-2 
Ifl-2 

0-5 

«-l 


p«T'o«nt 

BH 

13-6 

S-3 

2-a 

3-0 
11-9 

07 

0-fi 
11-4 


per cent. 

80-7 
7-9 
3-0 

i-e 
i-s 

ISl 
0-3 
07 
8-6 


pcrcsnt. 
6GV 
8-4 
4-3 
I'* 
20 

leo 

07 

1-1 

11-1 


p«rMBit. 


Okta 


0^ 


At.)» 


I'S 




2-2 


Hv 

vfi^ 


Si) 

18-S 

0-e 


88au^«»M ...^. 


1-4 
• 10-8 


Sbtel 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 


100-0 


100-0 



WCEAT. 



Only tlireo of the seven colonies — Victoria, South Australia, and New 
Zealand — produw suffident wheot for their own r«c|uireu«<uU ; Wt iift«ir 
the deficiencies of the r«t of AuBtralasia are supplied by ch^nt tliero is 
ill most Hmioiie w, large bn lance for export, v,-hirh finds a rendy niark«C 
ill Great Brituin, where Austrulinn wbent is well ami fnroiirably bnovn. 
During the j-cnr 1S94 the exports of wbeot and lloiir to nmntrips 
craUidc of Auntmlofiin roprps«nt4'd 1'2,092,42*'> bushels of graiii, and 
wire vftlnvit nt £1,440,000. Of this ciuMitily. S,5-23,14] buafads, or 
ftlino¥t 71 per coot,, were shipjicd to the United Kingdom. 

Tlie subjoined table shows tlie [irogress of wheat-growing daring tfae 
[wriod uf tlie last thirty-three ^'cors : — 



Oniony. 



UOl. 



vm. 



uu. 



iwi. 



iim. 




N«w South Woloa 

Viot'>ri» ,., .„ 

Qut'iiimUiiil ». 

iSoiith AuHtriUa . 
Wutern Anatrolia 

Tumoiiia 

!{««- Zcaknd .... 

Aaatrahuia . 



ocm. 


DETCH. 


acre*. 


MTH. 


l-J.'(.4(iS 


iM.nno 


S-J1,888 


3».6ea 


l!Hi,l>23 


334,auo 


920.729 


1,333.683 


392 


3,0-J-l 


10.(ir.8 


ie.30G 


sio,«3e 


G9'2,.TOS 


1.768.781 


I.B5-i433 


13,5»i 


25.607 


21,BAI 


2i;.IM!li 


fi8.S33 


63,aa2 


61.757 


47.»»4 


29,531 


108,721) 


365,711V 


402,373 


73.1,351! 


1,381,990 


3.357,779 


3,7ar7.eoi 



3,S13.S» 




PRCumcnoN of vueat. 



^5 



It vill he wen thnt during the twenty yous oxtetMling fram 18C1 to 
IBSl all tlie colonics n-itii titn exception of Tamuuiiit, imuia oonsiijurablt! 
wHitWTW to Um area Diidn* wbent, the incrvuc in nr«n for AuBtnlaaaa 
duififc tJw whole period being 3,034,423 ncrec. or on adv4uii^e< uf 3&(t por 
cBBt. From 16'Sl to 1894, bowerflr, tie exteasion of ihk form nf 
cultivation hits hy »u uit^aos lieeu f>eDend. lii Hew Zculuud bud South 
Ai t w Ji* the «iva under wbmt biui Ui^ly docrraaed. in i-onHcijuuici- of 
tbe iinaatisE*ctory {mucii reiKived by tlto fannerG, auil tskiiiK AuHtmlaxia 
M a whole tbn area in IK'Jl wo-i onlv 4S0,3(Jt) acres lurjfur tbun in Itf^l, 
OotwithstiHiding the fact that in VicUiriu and New South WalrH t^7 1 fiHa 
acns wpre oddml to tbo amn ondnr this crop during tlii) thirtncn years. 
At prasent, howfvcr, half of tlin land in cultivation is de^-oted to 
wb(!at-p«wing, nod in an ordinary smeon the produce of 900,000 acres 
ia available for export to Europe. AVbother an eitension of the culli- 
Tolitin of tlie cereal fur export will be profitable is a question to be 
determined by Uxo priwa to be obtained in the London market; but, tut 
Ear as am be judgud from jin-Ht-nt indications, it is hardly puwiblfi to 
expect any taru'^ cKjuiiuion of llie industry, unless it bi- iii Kew Soutli 
Wales — the only oni! of tbe culouiti-i wlitcli, ulthou^'h adupted to wheat- 
growing, product's Icvi thnit th<> rrvguirenients of its papulation. 

Tlije prodnctioii of wheat during the period covered by the preceding 
table was on folluw^ : — 



OoOmt. 



un. 



iici. 



mi. 



iw. 




AiwtTaU>ia II^US.WI 



biuhcli. 
I,809,0M 
8.607.787 
5.SS0 
3,410,706 

ieo,i^ 

1.380.913 
772.531 



3,SQ9,IM-2 

4,500,73.'> 

3I3.2S8 

3,967,079 

34rt,3n8 

847,iW2 



14,376,337 



buBhotj. 

3,4oa,e6n 

8,714.377 
39,613 

8,087,032 
I.'i3,6&7 
077.365 

8.207,880 



buihelii. 

3.0G3,6C8 

13,U1>'J,370 

392,300 

6,43a.4»S 

2flS,S10 

!t30,84l 

10.257.738 



29,675,899 |3a,S99,SU 



btuholt. 
7,041,378 
11,430,483 

sta,is& 

7.781,22.1 

170,300 

sia.ooo 

3,013.037 



31,480,690 



In tbr production of wlieat Victoria takes tbe lead, tiaviog to its 
cndit 36*4 per eent. of tbe total yield. South Aagtr»lia coniee next 
*itb 347 pATCiint. of tlie toVtl production ; while Kew Zealand, though 
ii ItlSl it providmt 26 per cent, of the whoBt grown iu AustTabuiw, aud 



L 



236 



AORICULTUUE. 



28-6 p«r c«nL in 1B91, «hown a dccHnn in 1H94 to 1 1 *!> por enLj 
peroonUgo do w contributed lij Kftir South Waitt it S2-t- 
praportion of tltikt colony in 1891. In ibSl TmatuvM prodiia 
per cent, of tli« wlient production of AuMTslaMn, mid wu Bbl« to i 
a trJUio;: quantity, but in 1694 tli«t coloity ooly produced 2-9 pert 
and ImuI to import wheat uid ilour cqnal to 109,091 )>uitli«U of j 
Below will be found tlie proportion of ea«h colony to tho tob 
duotion of AuRtraliuda in IdSl, 1891, and 1894 :— 



Cblony. 


un. 


IWL 


LIH. 




per cont. 

S9-4 
0-1 

£7-2 
0-S 
3-3 


perunt. 

tl-0 

SSD 

■ •I 

17-9 

0-8 

2« 

28 ■« 


22-4 
30 '4 




1-7 

84-7 

0-S 






2-S 


VtT 7,talini1 


11-9 




100-0 


100 -0 


lOftH' 







The i)ro<]netion of wfacAt in tlio Anstralndan oolonira daring I 
ended Marcli, 1996, is shown l>y th« follovring figures : — 



Oolnny. 


VndaeUua. 




LudielH. 
6,195,3)3 




5,669.174 
l3S.6ao 

fi.938,100 
I8S,0T6 






I.)M,9G0 




«,M8.7eS 




2&,ii4.ns 







The importADce of Auntraliuia as n producer of wheat 18 but lltt 
oompariaon with tho gival whcjit-producing coiiiitrica of tho wwld. 
is estimatfid by the ISulUtin d/i /folF'i that the production of whi 
Europe, Americss Asia, and Africa in 1894 waa 2,3->3,4"5,000 bu 
which, with the 31.460,000 bushels yielded by Aniitraluia, gi*w 
world's production at 2,354,935,000 buaheU, and tlw Mvcn oolc 
thi-re4or«, only produco 1 -34 per cent, of the tot«l crop, The BgvrK 



paoDccnoN op waeat. 



»37 



enantry we Mppended, tbo production bein;; repreMnted in lDt|)eriAl 



ImKbrls : — 



1 CrantriM 


Biulida. 


OovurlH. 


Btulick. 


Se^ 


344,0->.'i,(VH) 
2»7,0W,(»(MI 
130,120,000 
lia.3i5.000 

ii0,eoo.ooo 

93.SS5.000 

07,750,000 

45.^5.000 

42.075.000 

30,2.->0,000 

23,050.000 

31,450,000 

10,725,000 

9,075,000 

e,S25,O00 

6.3&5.000 

(i.0.50,000 

i.l-il.OOO 

3.850.000 

3.57.j,000 


1 Afri™— 


30,sao,o(» 

11,379,000 
MS5.W0 
3.900.000 








1 lienBany.,,^ , 

' lUly . , 




Totil 






Sl.lffO.UOO 




Aincrict — 






BalMcb 


453,750,000 




Arsnntbo B«publi«.. 


5T,7MI,000 




43,4C(^000 




Ouwla _ 


33,000,000 


niiiMiii 




I .HetierUads 


587.aM.000 


1 Striix _._. 

Grtcoe 


AuKtraluia— 

New South W'ttlw ... 




11,437,000 




7.781,000 


v>ocr«Huixni» 


7,04t,D00 




3 613 000 


P T«td 


1.333.5^5,000 




87-2,0»» 






171.000 


bu«K 


337,876,000 
33,000.000 
18,250,000 

10.7M.000 


Wo»t<;rn Aii*U-Jk ... 
ToUl 




3l,4G0,O0O 




GruuJ Total 




3.35*,835,000 


IWd 


3OO,S50,000 





He jTMlii uf wheat per acr» in Austmlnsiu during tlii! veai' IS91-5 
nnged treat 4'I) bashelK in South Aiistrnlia tii '24',) in New Zcalnnd, 
tJjit mrnngo for the wholo of the colonies being 82 bushels. Tho 
Kvengo yiold in «*cfa provinco during the ton years ended 11^94 i» given 

Wwr:— 

Coionr- AvtngvfiM.imi-M. 

biuholi. 

Xw South WftlM 12-0 

Viotnfi*... ..,., „„ „ 0-0 

QoMiulani] 144 

Soalh AurtnUa 0-8 

Wntcni Awtnli* ...._ 11*7 

TMBu>ai» 17*4 

New ZcaliBd „. 23 7 

Auslmlui* 0-Q 



sffS 



AGnicrLTnuE. 



A.fi«iil of 9-9 buaheta per &«ra it ctrrtninljr a nnnll one when coim> 
pond with tlie following resuiu obtained in otbor countries : — 



OouDliT. 



Avnnn 
Vlsld. 



Countrr- 



Danniirk 

Uiiit«d Kingdom 
AOnray ...•»•«»«! 

Bvlciiun _..! 

HoUaDd 

Mnnitoba 

Gcrmmijr 

Atintria 

BritlMh Columbia 



httihfllit 
31-1 

M-a 

25-1 
21 5 
21-5 
20-3 
lC-9 
10-4 
IG-U 



Annn 
TMd. 



OnUm i....~.,^ ». 

Franc* 

lUly 

Unitml State* 

Qnabati 

Nova Scotia 

Now Bnuwniok 

Rnarik 



builiol*. 

I4-I 

13-6 

I2-I 

117 

9-a 

»-0 

9-0 

4-4 



A 1>»r» statement of &vDragea, however, is aomewhat mislAftding. 
Thus in Snutli AuKtnliu it is found tliat uurin|> to favoumblo oonditaoni 
of oulluro n yit'ld of 7 liunliols is fiiiaiioiatly as mtisfactory a crop as 
one of 15 Hn«hoIi in Now South Wnlns or of 20 butthcU ia New ■ 
ZMtlaud. Tho yield in tho colonicn could ho greatly increoseil if culti-l 
\:tttion of a, mora sciontitii; clinmctpr wern ntloptciL As a rule, the seed • 
is Hiinpty put into tlie ground, and littlo is done to assist the oatural 
Krowtli of the ernps. 

Below will 1)8 fuuiiil a statamL-iit jjiowiii); the averago annual yioldj 
and L'oiiAuuiptioii of wIiRut in ouch ouluuy (or the period of t«n ytan I 
ondod 1891, with tbu aurpluH or dotidtuiay. in voub owe : — 



ColMy. 


maiiU tot Seod. 


CamuiniKisc. 


SonlaR 
BnlbHiRir 

K.p>A 


EMd«9 


>J#.ur ^«Tff >* WaIm 


bwbalA 
WMMGO 

io.aAa,ooo 

21.1. (X)0 
10.431.000 

a'jo.tmi 

7l.f.0(xi 

6,838.000 


bwtiela. 

e,0T!);ooa 

A. 1 57.000 

■j.i'ji),oon 

2,73fi,OO0 
.*.(I7,"(W 

y:(2,ooo 

4.518,000 


biwlwla. 


bqdick. 

2.944,0M 

1.980,000 




4,(>2G,000 




7,li!l6,<IW 
2. ISO. DM 




tST.OOO 




8io.nno 













33.038,000 


34.oie.ooo BAirnmi 














The exportang coloniea an South Austmlin, Viotoria, and Kevrl 
Zealand ; the othcra import, the dftfici«ncy in Now South Wales being 1 
nearly 3,000,000 busbda, and in Queensland neariy 3,000,000 bushels.. 



COX8l71I£XION OP WHEAT. 



So9 



he i W Pige anuumption per hsftd of popnUticHL in oaoh of ths t&na. 
iloniea for tbe IsM Jeoikde waa ;ui fallows : — 

New SwiUi Walea „ „ 60 

VlcUns „ _ _ S-ft 

<i— MtoBd _ „ a-» 

Sootli AnMraU* 8-3 

WwMni AuvtnJia .,..»._.«..».■•■•.••. •- -■- 0*3- 

SmrZmiMui. ...» T« 

fot tlu vtiole at Aiicti«liisi& the nvmagie oonaoniptlon is 6*3 biidial» 
ler bead, whidi ui lu^^er Uuui the <]uiiRtity i^nti.iumtKl m uny other part 
si tbo world for which reoorcU an nvnilnblc, with thu exoepciim of 
IWice, Spain anil Portugal, and Vaiuuia. 'nii.s uiU be cvitknt from 
iba bllowing figuru : — 

BcuhiUfl. 

P United Kingdom „. _»...^ fi-9 
AaiiM „._„„ _.. _._ 8fl 
Qtrnuaij ^ „.._ 3-0 



^ 



Biuila „ t-l 

.Viii.trt» _„ 2-» 

Italy „ „ C« 

%*ia»iid llortacal 9H 

WiciwM uid Rollaiiil „....„_ » 5*0 

flMIldllUkvU H 

Unilwl Btalas 8D 

CuMla (Mi 



Tli Mlowing takln iihows Uie net importa or exports of wheat and 
Inrof CMoh of tbr^ colonim during the j-«ar ISSj, I toit of flour lx»ng 
I ■• oqnal to 41!' hiaJiels of grain : — 




Ooleor. 


Kttlnpmt 


KMEipert*. 




btuhBla. 
1,701, £98 

8,0U,8I4 


huilioli. 




7,3l2,30fi 




S.SultMU 




37E,ai9 

io».ogi 




l^anMDM 






213,T5fl 








Awtnlufa 





12.0Q2,42» 



ling to tba following sint«iii(^iit nf the imports and exports of 
'for tlM stttsoii 1894-5, publi^lied in the fiuUetin dea I/alUa, 
AiutraiiuiA naim kixtU amoDgsl llie w hen t-cx porting countries. Still, 
IB pnwnt oontributUin to ^e world's markets doM not luuount to 




240 



mnm tliau one-tUirtieth of tbe demand, and it cannot tticrcfore ba audj 
to form a fautor of any consequence in the trad« : — 



Iniportins CauolriM. 




Srt IiuportA. 



United Kinjjiloin.. 

Auitria 

Ccrminy 

Italy -... 

Il«i|^iuin ~.». 

franca 

China, ftv. _ 

Bniil.Ac. 

KclberUndB 

Switwrluid 

.Spain 

GrecGO 

Ckpc Colony 

Snvdnn 

TX'iimark 

I'orlugal 

l>t)icr Cuuntriea 



1 73,250,000 

33,750.000 

3],SS5.0O0 

26.125.000 

22,650.000 

17.875,000 

1U,MK),00(] 

13, 750,000 

B. 625,000 

9,625,000 

6.3-25,000 

4, B; 5, 000 

3.57.1,000 

»,6T5.000 

2,SUI),0()0 

I,effll,0O0 

1.3;3,000 



ToUl. 



380,0.10.000 



Vaitti StsUc.. 

KiuBm 

Argciitino Rcpublio . 

Hungary 

Itounutnia 

AnatriJula 

liijia 

AlfjUria ,„., 

Csinkda ., 

liutgori* 

Ciuliu ., 

Alia Minor 

'I'urkny in Europe.. 

Sjrift 

Kiiinnelik,.. 

Ki'itm 

Perniu 

Tunis „... 

Egypt 



Total. 



bushrl*. 
159.500^0(0 ' 
M.S7&0M 
49w37S.00(l 
42.039,000 

js.itf.ooa 

I2;0OS,500 
8,2S0lO0O 
6.325,000 
e.SS5.00O I 
5..KKI.O0I) 

't.aao.ou 

4,6Tfi,00» 

4.400.0DO 
4,ri.-.,ooii 
3.3i»,000 
S.O25.000 
a.47.>.000 
S.002,A0O 
1,375,000 



«e9,a8o,ooa 



The United Kinf^om is the Urgeet impcrtpr of wheat, niid the British 
(Icniaiid largely ijifluenc*a the prica tlirougbout tlin world. Thn nvrrago 
nt4) p<^r huKhel iii Loiiduii for the sDtuion extpiidliij; from Si'pti?inbrr I, 
1892, to Au(jUBt31, 1893, was 3s. ■Id. In t ho latter ro out lis of 1893 
tho price of wlumt rmigfil from 'is. 2d. to 3h. Gd. per bushel, 
prices in I8SP4 mid Ifig,"* showed a further downward tendency, 
avengee for th* two yo^rs bcirg Sa. OJd. and 2a. Gd. reaiwetivt-lj- ; 
Mrly in 1896 a rise took place, and i>rices 'm Febiuary aiid ^I.iruU nm^ 
from 3ii. IJd. to 3s. 3Jd, iter bitahel. 

Tlic nvnragc lx>iidon prices per qoarter of ^ bualids dorii^ the 
decennial period wcro as follow : — 



Tnt. 


PilOB per qii«i»r. 


Veu. 


Pri» per ijuuUr. 




«. A. 




1. d. 


iitas 


n 10 


ISDO 


31 11 


1886 


31 


1891 


87 


1SS7 


3-2 6 


1892 


30 3 


1688 


31 10 


1893 


se 4 


lesa 


20 9 


1894 


s n 



TALUK OP ATEKAGB flELD OF WHEAT. 



341 



in tlie subjoined table is giv«o the vftliw of the yield per aere for tkn« 
of tfce oolonii-a, estimated on (be basts of tti« markat nim ruling in 
F^ibmary uiul Ifarcb o( eooh jear. It will be wwn that a corari'lnraMo 
dedine bsH t^iki-n jibtce Hince !SS$, duv (or the most part to tlic fall in 
prioea nitbcr than to any divreiisc of priKluclion : — 





Avinr* VltM iwr 


■or*. 


vtiH ot Atwiuiv yi*i<i 


IKrion. 


r«r. 

MiAW 
















VMotta. 




Wilu. 


ViolRla. 


BMMb 

AMlMlb. 


■ 


bailicb. 


bnshiU. 


boihoU. 


£ IL d. 


£ *. d. 


« a. d. 


■r 


><l-4 


!«> 


« 


Z S 1 


1 11 « 


* 


17-4 


11-5 


• 


3 8 2 


2 3 3 


* 


^Vnss 


12-1 


1(K8 


■ 


3 3 10 


1 10 


* 


^P UM 


4-8 


7-1 


« 


1 3 10 


1 12 ft 


« 


i8W 


IS-6 


0-7 


7 8 


2 U 7 


1 15 7 


1 8 


ISBI 


10-0 


111 


5-8 


3 10 


I 19 


i> 19 7 


1803 


111 


10-3 


4-3 


2 2 


22s 


17 11 


lass 


ts-i 


ll-O 


(>-l 


2 5 2 


1 14 


19 3 


ISM 


M-0 


10-4 


7U 


1 in 1 


1 1 


18 4 


isas 


10-9 




4-0 


1 4 8 


13 8 


8 



* RerMuriM. 
The ntU'-ii jnct gjvon, ax well w olsowhem in tbiii chaptor^ tvpnwnt 
hm prices, and noc valaea at the point of consumplion. 

Oats. 

Tie cultivation of oats, whivli come next to wheat in {mportanoe 
grain crO]is i* increasing in AustraJiiaia, an thv fiiUuwin^ tigureii 



Oibmr- 


on. 1 itn. 


int. 


last. 


lau. 


Vktocia 


•ma. 

7,SI 
91.W1 


MOW. 

13.785 

IT&.ftU 


SOTca. 
l«.3iS 
l46,90fi 


aorta. 

I3;gB8 

190. 1S7 

715 

12.037 

1.301 

2»,300 

323,M8 


30,636 
SSG,11S 




ea 1 131 
i.esN 3..is(; 


as 

3,023 


1.477 




1W7 
S9,(«$ 
1S»872 


1,47-1 

29,631 
139,185 


«27 

27,6SB 

S43.S87 


1.63.1 
34,380 


Xtvbalud » 


3»1,8C2 




145^303 


383.746 


43«,203 5t».e38 


698,719 






■ 





llie eolouy of New Zealand fiimi^hefi considcmhly mora than onc- 
Uf ot the produdioii of oMh. Iu New South Wales ilte cultivntion 
of the otmol haabeeoi oimpanitively nt-gWu-d : in Victorin, however, 
it ii iwst to wbent in iinpurUinc« ; wliiUl in QueentJund, South 
AiutnUia, and Wcitcni Austialia the elimatv 14 ill-adi^ted to the 



242 



AGRICCLTnRB. 



cultivation i>f oats, and the yield i« inniill and oounta far vtny litll 
the total [irotluction of the gniiii. The i^otnl yield in nuh voltniy 
thf ]>erii«l cohered by tlie preceding tioblp w«a u follows :— 



CuloD)'. 


IK). 


iKL 


mi. 


im. 


UM. 


New Soiilli Walw.,. 


buthvls. 

1S2,13S 

S,13«,430 

33.160 

8,162 

751,475 

612,(>65 


litielieln. 

2S0,S87 

3,299,889 

38,804 

28.330 

593.477 

3.720,810 


buslieU. 

358.500 

3,012.111 

1.121 

32,219 

8,270 

783,129 

G,»-J4,(i48 


bimlicla. 

270,-2:.ll 

4,412,730 

16.669 

80,876 

18,530 

873,173 

11,009,020 


biuM 

S6^' 

6.S02,! 

sot- 

17%l 

20.! 

0tl,l 

10,221,. 


WcBl«ni AuatTidta... 








3,594,318 


7.96e.ss; 


11.718,304 


16,687,»>0 


17.337^ 



1^ amngQ vield per acre iu each colooy for the ten yous «b 
1894 was M follows :— 

IXniMll. 

Nnw .'^outh Wiloi S0-» i 

Victoria ^ 22-0 

giiptinskod 181> 

Scmtii AuitnUa 11 'I 

Wc*(crii Aiutmlk 17*4 

Tiumniiiji 2C« 

Kdw Zoal^id 30'3 

The nveroge yield of AustralaaiA is 26'8 biisheU, cxcMiding Vn 
with 20'7 bushels: I' nit*d States, 24-3 bushels; Hungary. 2.1 iJ bud 
AustriiL. 32-T huslirls : mid Kussia in Europe, 14'<> bushels. I 
Jfealaiid iw.H ii liiglicr uveruj<e yield thaii the United Kiii<^oii) 
Ueruaiiy, the ruti-a for which iire 29" aiid 27i butihela resjiertiv 
and that colony is only pxc<^i'd<.>d by two of tho Canaduui )>rovu 
namely, Manitoba with 41'! bushels, iind Ontario with 34'& bushelt 

The total value of the oats crop nnd the return per acre in tad 
the Australasian coloDie<B for the season 1894-i> will be found Mow 



Colmj:. 


Talna. 


VaJuD va acn; 


New Sonth Wnic* 


£ 

S6,2T8 

297.617 

.1,(M6 

l>,190 

2.540 

.17,992 

786,604 


1 16 afl 




1 2 sM 




2 1 »M 
13 8^ 




1 11 2 


TmmAiiiii ,. „ 


1 13 g 

2 3 7 




1,1K),267 


1 l« 3 







IMPORTS AND £XFOBTS OF OATS. 



243 



lit net import or e^xporl of oaw for each of tlie colonieH is given in 
tfae foUowirm ttible. Kew Z-^land wiis llip only province whicL vi])orte<l 
tliix c«ru>l t(> Ml/ coiiKiddrablo fxti-nt, U:i7,1^5 IiukIk^U, or tiearl/ one- 

"T of it* export, bt^ing forwnrd^^d to the United Kingdom :— 



OEMor. 


X«t ImpMta. Stt Exptutib 




bu*habi 
«t6.275 

86.460' 

$.113 

446.060 


bndieU. 


Sottth Atutriluk ..._ 










New Z(«lajitl 


131,333 
1,963,178 






1,073,352 







J to a curefiilly-com piled MtiUMte of the ftverage production 

gnghout the world, iMued by the I'nited States Agricultiiml 

Department, thn commerciul supply of tbia grain is represented by dw 
iolloirtDg condenwd itiKults : — 

Europe (officiaJ eatimktea) 1,592.114,138 

„ (aeoffioiul MttnutM) » 34.050.000 

Cwted Stetca .594, mil. 401 

AwtnlM^.. l',5'i',6'J7 

Cwiid* 117,373,147 



■IWal .... 



S.3fi6.435,.'!a3 



MaIZR. 



1b the principfJ crop grgwn in QudenalniKl. and one of the 
'>IMt iinpDrt4uit products of New South WaW ; in tlio other colonie* 
Ue dimnte i.t not siiil«d to its growtli. and the ciittivfLtioii of tlii- 
«mJ ext<'nds to little moi-e th&n 11,000 acre". The following figur*^« 
*baw tiuA fair progress has been made aluce ISCl in the area devoted 
to tUa crop : — 



Ootanr. 


i«et. 


ISII. 


ISBI. 


liiBt. 


no*. 


MwCokMUN ... 


57.959 

1.714 

1,014 

770 

91 


aures, 
119,956 
1.709 
20.320 

113 


117.478 

1.783 

4li,480 

3,177 

.16 


a«ret. 

174.577 
8.230 

101,598 

5.447 

23 


ftCTM. 

208.306 
5.671 

103.671 

5.525 

51 


1 AnitnlMM ... 


63,44S 


142,107 


168,954 


289,875 


323,229 




244 AGRICULTtlBE. 

Th» production in ibe same yean was aa foUowa :— 



oriMV. 


un. 


vsn. 


IML 


XM: 


i»i. J 


Xow South Wklm 


buiboli. 

1.727,*M 

20.788 

42,100 

31,570 

387 


4.0ia.9T3 
30.833 

508.000 


boalwli^ 
4.330.9B8 

81.007 

1,313,655 

127,257 


C,7SI.706 

461.447 

8,077.9ia 

a^74S 

4M 


IiunheU. 

5.62S.533 

!iS4,4W 




3,eS4,»» 
232,880 


Otb«r CokouM — 


3,000 


i.sas 


AnstMlMia ... 


l,S32,SSe 


4,£S6.S0e 


£.863,1;^ 


»,S00,2fT 


8.83»,0I8 



Tbo followinf; teblo shows the avi>rn|[o fi«ld oC «ftcli oolony and < 
Aoetralaaia for ike ten years ended 1894 : — 

Calony. BuifaaU. 

Now Santh Vlwlm „...„ 3W 

VUboru 48-3 

QumuUnd _ 23-8 

Wutom AuatrftUft ...„ _ ISH 

Naw Zvtluui , „.».„ 4|-9 

Auntraluis 28'7 

The avemgoft for Victoria and Kev Zealand are wortJi litUe, as 
area under maiiw in tlioiie cobnics is small and rerv favoumlily !ntuat«d ; 
while Wvst«m AuMtriLlia had lint 5t itorea itndnr cultiviUion, pro- 
ducing li-DA bushuls. Tli<; avi>i'ngR yieJd ni inniu! in tlio Uniti'd Stutol 
in 23-7 buabolit; while lor Aiintria the avcrfige is 208 Inishcli ; for 
Hwiffuy, 22-9 bushels; for France, l.s-2 bushels; for Itaij-, 1-1'3 M 
bveholB ; and for Roumania, 13-S bushels. Nolhini^ is to be gained, J 
however, by oompanng these figurae witli the Audnjasian arenge^.Bi^l 
Che acrease det-oted to maiie in theae ooloniea is too taoaJi to maka aultH 
a coin]K>rixon <>f value. 

TIk! total Tidun of tho crop of 1894^5 and the areniga rtturn pen 
will Ih! found VieJow : — 



Oniony. 



H«w South WftiM 

Vletoria 

(^eamhad 

New Zaduid 

Other Coknio*...... 

.\uMniuia 



Total vdoc (4 



£ 

431,915 

3t,$40 

301,360 

:»,aoo 

2S9 



6;4.5S3 






B. d. 

a 

7 7 
18 10 

14 10 

15 It 



2 1 9 



IMPORTS AST) KXPORTS OF HAIZK. 



245 



He high ftvi-ragt! nilue |*r acre of produclion o( mnizn in Victoria 
and S«w Zraianil is due to tbn facl tllAt tlie area openit«l upon is Bmall, 
uvl the local avorage |>rice8 are relatively higlier tlmn in Wow fteat}i 
Vtin and Qaeenslanid, where larjce aieaB are dsvotcd to tho cultivatioiL 
of this cerenL 

Th« net uu{N>rt or cx|>ort of maize hy mch cotoDy during 1S94 was a« 
MiowH :— 



Culaay. 


Htl |JU|HN U. 


KetEipord. 




faiish«Ia. 
4S,2M 


^^ftlftjf 




4fia 

fi,4TS 


'iJnoMMiand ™.™„.... 


4.003 
4,744 
1. 171 








13,Sl«t 










3t.l0t 









New South Wales in the only colony which iiujiorts maize to any 
ed«Bt iram abroad, chiefly from thu I'nited ijtatui an<l New Oaledonia. 
AwtnUjuiftpnkcticnJlyconKunii-A the whole of its pmdnction of thi» cereal, 
and an excea of importd or <?spoi-ts in any individual your i« of little 
importanoe. In thi§ part of th« world com does not ont«r into con- 
atmptHm as an article of food, as it does in other countries "■I'i 
pariicaUrly in America, whidi produwa and consumea nearly .SO pir 
cent, of thu whole maize crop of Oie world, aa the following figures — 
Dptlnd on the autlHmty of Hut Department of Agrioulturo in thn 
^ StatcM — will show : — 

biuheln. 

(oSnaD 311.820.759 

(nnoffidal] 54,190.250 

. (offioUl) ..„ ».»....» b-2:i,S(tiS 

JJtu» „ .„........»...^....^.,.^..... ■2.»<)4,!>;!) 

,. (luoffioid) 13.e2i).oii() 

ITnHcd State* (offldul) I.flSO.eoe.OcXi 

Anwrlca (unottlcial} S30,10H.60e 

Aaitnlama 8.S39.rMS 

Vuioiu laUmlB (uDofficial) 30,147 

Tola 2.302.011,251 



246 



AGRlCUI.TtJRE. 



BiRLET. 

Of thn wreal prodaclions ot AuHtralaaia, barley is grovni on the 
Hinnlli^t acmtigf. Thi! amn. undctr tliis crit]! nt difTen-nt {K-riodit wns ocj 
follows :— 



Colon)'. 


mi. 


tan. 


itra. 


len. iHM. 


New South WslM. 


MNI, 

9,024 
3,419 
13 
10,637 
2,41S 
7.270 
3,457 


DC res. 
3.461 

18,772 
971 

17,22.1 
5,(183 
4,275 

13,305 


6.427 4.459 

43,652 , 45.021 

25G 1 739 

1l.a^3 ' 11.461 

3,R79 ' 3,738 

4,.')1I7 2,li44 

2»,808 . 24.a(iS 


Km. 

lasM 


Qneentlaad _ 

Smith Altitrnlia 


i,4ia 

13.072 

1.M9 

!*,ie7 

36.519 






30,141 


61,092 


106.374 1 82.330 

\ 


16«tllS 





For the same years the production was as stated below : — 



Cfllnrif. 


aa. 


isn. 


ISGI, 


INl. 


18H. 


NcwSoutli VV»]u 


bnsbelt. 
41,054 

13s 


1)us1ii>1b, 

55,284 

335,508 


biislicli. 
135.218 
927,3(!C 
3,207 
137,165 
3fl,7a0 
102.475 
664,093 


biiihclB. 

il3.446 
8.1(1,741 

21,302 
107. 1«3 

4S„V.I4 

7I.4(« 
6S6.6S3 


bllaiMb, 

I7MM 

i,fir2,i» 

37,8» 

a>^577 
1«.«TS 

fmea 

1,000,612 








168,137 iru.!f;i 




2,412 
ie9,3Sl 


5.01*3 

70,1*12 

287,646 








543,01s 


936.328 


2.00G.5U 


I.*WI1,34U 


3,212,807 ■ 





The ftvera;^ yield of barley per acre in each colony ia given in 
following table (or the ten years ended 1894 ;— 

Coloiii , Biwlilli, 

Kaw .South WalM 18-4 

Vklorrii 18-3 

tjuceiisluid 24 

South AuHtraliB „ 133 

Wcnturu Alutrslia. , 14*4 

Tuiiuiiis „ 230 

:<eiTZMUDd „ 27 -a 

Aiutnkila „., , „ „ 20*2 




TRADE IN BAKLEY AND MALT. 247 

Tlie trade in l)arleyiu:d malt of each colony in 1894 was as follows: — 



tk 



CvltBjy. 



autv- 


tun. 


Net iniporu. 


Not ExporU. 


Sat Impcnt*. 


K4t Exporta. 


bniheb. 

2,128 
4,718 
1,931 
9.9Bii 


boibeU. 


builioU. 
80S;9lfi 

127.028 

ai.TS* 

18,5U1 

83 


Inuhol*. 


'"■'ise 

ISfit* 


07.310 










4^224 






33,412 




387.7W 









Viti<ia ... 

Vwtnti'l 

V«th AuBlnlik .... 
Watcm Aaitrali* . 

BBttift ............. 

rZMlutd 

Auatniljum 



Barley ts not cultivated in tliMc coloiiieH lo the extent it deserves, 
la I'njitfnl si-Asons AoNtraliuiia proUiiven siilficient liaric-y, exclusivn of 
iliat rcquiriMi for mnlt, for liome n-qiurfiut-iits, Jiml a stuhU surplun for 
tipmi ; but if th« coinbiniMl trmlft in barley tiiiii mult be consiilercd, 
all ibp colonies, with th« exMplioii of Victorin, Taanrnnia, anil New 
Zealand, are di-iteiiUent upon external sources. Tii<? high import dutieft 
in Victoria 0:1 both these articles practicAlly prohibit importations. 

The cotnl value of lh« harli^y crop and the avei'sgt^ rt'turii of thi« 
cereal per acre during the sciison ISQ-l-.i will be found below;— 



Colonf. 



IVv SoDlb Walu .- 
Viotoris 
Qufciuluid 
B Aouth Aiiitntia 
H WuU'rn Australia ... 
V TuminiB 
Haw Zothwd 
Tho 



Toul nluc dI 
bulay crop. 



Anttralwia 



£ 

16,430 

100. »S1 

*.(BS 

1.->,U»2 

1,712 

82.927 

100,107 



378,285 



ptrun. 



£ X. 

1 17 

2 I 
2 17 

1 3 
17 
4 

2 d 



<1. 
5 
3 

9 
11 

7 

4 

7 



S S 



Potatoes. 



Tho cultivation of the potato ia not confined to any particular colony, 
but Victoria and Ni-w South Wales bave the Inrgeat urea under this 
CTOf^ although tiM! latter colony is exceeded by both New Z.-aland un.l 




248 



AGRICTLITEE. 



TuKinania in iirodooUou. Tbe foUawiog bible shows tbe acTesgr undrrl 
potntot^s in cAcli colony : — 



(Many. 


isaL 


I£T1. 


liil. 


IM. 


not. 




MM*. 


ocrts. 


acre*. 


anatm. 


■era*. 


Ntw Smitli W*1m .-... 


10,010 


14.770 


1S.M3 


■H^UIO 


aiKoea 


Viotariu ^.~ 


87,174 


»,064 


3[l,129 


S7.SW 


&*jno 


QimcobUuiI wwu.... 


H2 


3,121 


COM 


MTS 


13.29S 




S,SIS 


3.130 


e,i3e 


e.s»2 


0.M0 


Wtntcm Auitroli* 


277 


49) 


278 


532 


TOS 




«.S4a 


8.IM 


0.6T0 


16,368 


23,415 




7,a92 


1I.9H3 


22,540 


27.2eB 


25,339 








07.256 


80,692 


98,78a 


140.1SS 


153.99* 
J 



Hut production for tlie samo periods w«r as fotloirs > 



I 



fXtauy- 


lau. 1 un. 


ini. 


UM. 


UN. \ 




tona. 
30,HS 
5i,384 
1,060 

7,T28 

«7 

47.4S8 

S7.0C4 


tMM. 

44,758 
ISS,S11 

e.5S5 
10,S80 

1,4W 

%eo9 

42. t» 


trail. 
44,323 
134,290 
11.98* 
1S,1S4 
6M 

a3,e6s 

121,890 


tniis. 

G2.283 

109.7S6 

2S.0IS 

x;,83i 

1,«I6 
62.fln.'! 
10:!, OM 


team, j 
86.170 
188.147 
43,*W 


Wculcni Anatnlift 


2S;fi58 

2.1146 

90,SI0 




139.809 




I&I.9U . SU.368 


364.702 


4G1.5IS 


572,SSS 
J 



The ATCTtuto production of pot«taf*K pnr aen ia next ^vcn for thfl 
ten ye*Ts ended IPKl. New Zejilnnd, it will bo bmoi, shows a consider- 
ably Iftrger return Utnn anj* of the otiier provincu : — 

tonx 

Neir SoiiUi Wain* » 24 

Vicrtorii _.„.„ „ _ 14 

Qurxnuknd - 3-2 

^uth Au>tt»lia .^.M......'. -. 34 

Wulnrii Auitnlia S'f 

Tuoujiltt uu.ui. »•■.•• >»>■•»•••• .....wu< 4*0 

NwZWiud ......™. 6-4 



Aurtraluis v M 




IKPORTS ASn EXPORTS 0» POTATOES. 



349 



Only thtvo of tli« colonics Am in a position to export potatocH in any 
(juuitity — Tftimtania, Ni'w /oalimii, and Victoria, Th« Hurjilu^ ia 
Victoda, though at <ia« tiiue OOlMidenttil«, has no*' vei'y luucli decrea«««l. 
Tbe (oUowiug wen tUe iiuports and exporbt of potatoes for ea«b oatuny 
U1891:— 




' Tha total valoe of the potato crapaDd tlin aveni^ returu [Kracre for 
'l^flt"5 will be found beli'w : — 



Oaloqr. 



Kaur SontI) Wain .„.„ 

Viotori* „ 

Qncctitlutd 

Santb Aiwmlu „„„ 

W«l«n AB«tnlk 

TkunHus 

NcwZcalikad 

AsMnkaia. 



^^Alv■ ot pm^K 



£ 

867.4-a 
90,075 

11,467 

isi.eso 

3H,T0S 



i.isc.oe: 






C 1. d. 

6 1 e 

« n 

6 IS G 

6 U 

16 S II 

: IS 2 

IS H S 



7 13 7 



250 



A.6BIC1ILTURB. 



Hay. 



ConwJwnbl* quantities o( wheal, oats, and barky are grow 
tho ])ur|K)Hi! at being converlpJ into luty, aail iKiii crup in ]ioii 
Vllllll^ annrx tint ainongsl agricultunil prodiiclH. The arm \ 
crop for lift}' has sincv 1S8I largely increased, as will be seen froi 
table appeniled : — 



tVilnnjr. 


IWI. 


ISTI. 


lan. 


im. 


U 




aarei. 
4.1.175 
74.081 
2S0 
62,874 
6.678 
81,803 

+27,iao 


acres. 

51,8(15 

103,aXi 

3,828 

Ii:,S12 
•14,343 

31.578 

30,717 


acr«B. 

146,010 

SIS,I50 

10,926 

333,407 

24,445 

31,790 

OS, 433 


urea. 

16.1, wn 

360^490 
30,6K) 

304,171 
2M34 
49.445 
46.652 


W 

4SI 
9 




TMlInBllUl .. 


41 

«1 
IM 








24S,U9 


333,288 


830,811 


988,818 


1.4S] 




The proiluctiou for 


•In 18 

tlie same 


m. 1 In 

periods wa 


s as foUon 


8 : — 




Colonj H 


lUl. 


Wl. 


■HI. 


isoi. 


ia 




fi7,»3 
«B,4«7 
4S» 
78.SS6 
0,009 
S9.851 
30,666 


toot. 
77,460 
144,037 
6,«78 
98,260 
14,288 
30,SS1 
36,674 


ton*. 

19S,S33 

23S.7U3 

10.040 

240,827 

24,445 

44.857 

80,061 


tons. 

2Ua,4I7 
50S,-ii>i 
38.S4a 
103,317 
2.S.534 
66.90S 
67.361 


u 
936 

611 
AG 

334 
3E 

811 
370 






SOU til Austral lA 

Wmteni Amtmlio 








3S!,331 


407,494 


85(S,37a 


!.r2i),7I3 


1,«M 



The nveragn yield of hay per acre 'will Im found in the next | 
the pttriob covered being the U^n ymm which cloxed with 1894 : — 

tona,. 

New South WalM. 1-af 

Violoria .. , I: 

QiiMiiKlniiil ., .'....... 11 

Si)utli Aii«tralfa. „.„, ,.,.«..» 

Wntem AuatnUia I'Ol 

T^muiU : 14] 

Mew Zealand W 

AnaUluia 1-2 






B UrORTS A.ND BXFORTS OF HAY. ^S^^^l 

^^^DK>''T portion oE Hut hnv is ninilr from wlicnt, though largo ^H 
^B^HnfMUnand lucerne hnyniT pixtduccxl in Victoi'im New South ^M 
BIkuiI yev Zmlan'l. Hajr is, for the most (wirt, grown in o*ch ^| 
Hbm lu (juontitica Ruffici«nt for its awn requiremeiits, Xow £ioulb ^| 
HiWD([ the ovly on« vhioh imports Ui any extent. ^| 
Hhi Bii import or export of lujr «nd uhaff for eoob cotonj for the ^H 
B ISti >aB AS foUowB : — ^H 


■ OMoay. 


Mattapwia 


XotBxpcna ^M 




tona. 
37,eH 

3,«8 








7,020 


^^Kv!_i.-j 


lis ^^H 








707 


^H 




^1 


ttstel nUue of the liay crop and th« average return per acre for ^H 
KM IM91^ wUl be found below : — ^H 


•.-okay. 


T0L4I VfcJuoot 

at} 03i<. 


Xnmte Vkloo ^^^^^| 




£ 
76S,SS8 
1/W6.M1 
141,^70 
984,219 
134,470 
100^454 
S41,eM 


3 1 4 ^^H 

S 4 s ^^H 

9 11 ^^H 

1 12 11 ^M 

2 11 ^1 
2 12 S ■ 
2 10 7 B 




)ta*Ani1 














3,410,343 


S 7 10 H 


■ 

Orkex Fotuae and Sowm Gbassol ^M 

1 nhivation of KiaiM!, siiniUnm, barltiy, oata, and other c^rrali (or ^H 

vpoav ot grcrn food, and tli't laying-down of InndH tinder luoem* ^| 

pm, «W>ge ntlfiitinn in the distrii:!}! when; dairy-farming is ^H 

4 an. Tfaa agricultural returns of n>m<^ of tho colonics do not ^H 

l<( adlatributioD b^iug made between thcso forms of cultivation ^H 

la t887. ^iie foUowiii;; table shows the area under si<ch grWD ^H 

HtU87, 1891, aiwl 1894. and it will be seen that there have beea ^M 

^^HlknnMDta in miiot of the colonicti, es|]ecially in New Zeftlsad. ^M 

^^HDnMtntioti of tli« figures n^lating to the laxt-ineutioned pro- ^M 




AGEICn/rURE. 



rince, little difficnltj will bn exi>erienced in nccaunting for iM saperi 
in tlic daiiy-£trmmg tudnttty : — 



Colaajr. 




Oraca Fanl. 




tmnOnmrn. 


OB. 


UBL 


UW. 


lasT. ' 


tan. 


t 


XowSoiitliWmlM.. 
Victoria 


aim. 

30,403 
0,030 
9.562 

30.079 

liaio 

98,029 


Mere*. 
32,138 

!l,20e 
11', 727 

e,4ie 

238 

1.101 

11»,4M 


tent. 

10.048 

12,029 

2«.9M 

9M 

t,A«T 

2s.ooe 


13; 619 

2S.217 

iM.dsa 


■urea. ' ft 
33a,'SS SI 
174,982 II 

20,921 


South Aiutnilii ... 
WtHtom Anatnlift.. 


17,519 




3,8eg.247 '7,»7.2i» A.f 








AuMnlMik ... 


14S,S7e 


I7H,30U 


13U,.i3U 


(1,438,026 «, 11 j;486 9,g. 



In Victoria^ TssmanU, nnd New Zealand large quantities of | 
seeds, chiefly lye-firaM and cocksfoot, Mwt% prodnoed, tJie qiiaiitiii«« in 
being giv«n as 33,466 I>u8li«l«, 45,9U bushels, aiid 870,752 )Miah«] 
jxictivoly, mlttcd at ^3,(>&l ill Victoria, XT,4<il in TnatiMua, 
XMI,4'J7 in Nv«,- Zc-nUnd, or a total of X152.eOU. The acra^ 
which tkia gnuw-M^nl wiw produn-d in Nc*w Zruliuul >s included il 
total given for sown gnuscs, irhilc l'<ir A'ictoria and Tasmania 
so inclad«d, and whs :i,158 and 3,837 ncros tvApeclively. 



Tub Visit. 



1 



The history of the vino in Australia dates from the year 1828, 
cuttings from the colt-brtled vineyards of France, Spain, aiid the I 
Valley wens planteJ in the Hiint«r River District of S<'w Soutli V 
forming; the nursery for tlur jiriiit"i]ial vint-yatd* of that w 
Ynam aftnm'nrd.i thu vini! wait jilmitiHl in tlic! Murray RiTMr D) 
and other piutN of Nrw South Wnli'j;, and wax aftcnrards introi 
into Victoria and l^outh Au>trnliii, ukI \^ now cultivated in alt tlii 
VLQcea of the Australian contiiiont. In South Auotralia a larf^e |n 
tion of Oermans are euiployed in the indu»i(ry of wine-making. 

The cliinttle and soil of Auatralin are peculiarly adapted to tlit 
cetufnl cnltivutiou of the vine, and witli an incraaain^ loeal d«nuuN 
th(' opening up of a nini'ket in Enjcland, when.- Au-itmlian winea 
ohtiuiw<l due apprroiiilioD, tha' futun^ expuunion of wintvgrowing af 
fairly BjBUi-iii. Th<< di^prncijition which t'mich and other foreign ' 
faftvc sufiorcd, botli in quantity and quality, owing to the dewaatati 
tb« vineyards by phylloxera, is an additional reason for the vlnfr^ 
of this continent looking furwanl tn largely-increased 0|>emtMMi 
thmr industry. 





■ 


■ 


^M 




^"^M 




^l^^l 


^H 


^^H PROGRESS OP VIKB CULTIVATION. 253 1 

"^r piiifjriii of vios cultivatioD sinoo tbe year 1861 i* illustrated by ^^H 
iw (able subjoined. Tbe arefts given include tbe vines producing uble* ^^H 

' bait, as well an ihoee cultlTated for wiue-nutking, also tfafl youug vines ^^M 
not rnt in btuirii^ : — - ^^M 


OBiMV. 


nm. 


un. 


un. 


on. 


HM. 


Vktau 


iicres. 

1.698 

1,404 

40 

a,9is 

45; 


axsnm. 

6.618 

5.5es 

363 
£,4o3 

aas 


scmml 
6,624 
4,023 
1.213 
4,202 
i)27 


SCtM. 

8.381 

94,483 
l,»8S 

1«U14 
1.D04 


»cns. 

7,577 
30.307 

1.087 
17.4I!4 

l.ai2 


tNrmilHiil 








7,571 


1S.G56 


17,488 ' 48,070 

1 


S9,ISI 




Until the yeir ISSl New Soutli Wales contaiued the prim-ipal wine- 
gttnriiig districts, but at present the area (kvotcd to vin<ia is much Inr^r 
ioTiictona and South Austral!^ Of i-ei^ent years great attention baa 
been paid to tbe industry iu TlotorJu, and that province now produces 
naaty half tbi' wine made in Australia. The fullowiu^ tables sbow the 
pregrfm made in winisjiirciwing during the lost thirty-four ye«is : — 


OriDDjr- 


um. 


UOi. 


19E». 


UOl. 


UM. 


^^^Ma.xB.t^ 


galloiUL 
85,328 
47,5Ca 

312,021 


413.321 
7I3,&6I> 


CnllODN. 

513,fiS5 
339,101 

72,121 
313,00(1 

(ISl.OOO 


gnltons. 

I113.HJT 

l.»>4,1»0 

lii»,l>2(i 
SCI,K(fi 
l[)U,ti(il 


calloiu 

731.683 

l,i)00,ft72 

IT(i,4H7 

712,»4fi 
7a,H44 


^^r'"" 


W^~' 




8C2,3LS 










M«,017 


1,979, S2II 


1,537.660 


3,604.262 


3^606,841 




Tbe production of tuble^rapes during; the same period is sboim I 
Wkw: — 1 


ctuv- 


uaL 


UTL 


1881. 


un. 


UN. 


iS«*e<niUi WsIm. 


toni. 
224 
M0 

I.I8I 


tDrM. 

rm 

'""i!6()2 


toil*. 

I,HI3 

74<l 

355 

1,498 


tOIM. 

3.694 
2.791 

i.ion 

4,590 


toiu. 
4.(117 
4,470 
1,411 

4,eso 


Qk«Uo<I _ 

vtnii Aiuti^ia. 




2,234 


3,743 


3,5fle 


12,244 


19.118 


^ J 



254 



AGEICULTUEE. 



Among othpr prodoco of th« vineynrdu may l>e nwinttimcil 6^ 
ffalloiis of brnndy in Now Bouth Wal«, unci 9,229 cwt. of rainin* i 
2" cwt. of currwits in Victoria. 

It iii iiupos«il>le to tal>ulat« tlie averages of all tho coloniea, asj 
inftuy institrie.-s the acrea^^ iimlpr cultivation for wiu»-malciug 
caunot bi- Rttpnruled from young uiiproiluctive vitioyturds or 
cultivated for tabic vnrictif^K of tlic gr"|>c only. Makuij; <Iu« all 
for tliix fnct, it would Appi^nr tlint th<' nvin'iigc production for the mmaos 
1894-5 was nbout 136 gallons in Wi-slcm Anxtmlio, 12S galk 
Victoria, 164 gallons in New lSouIIi Wales, nnd 292 gallons in 
land. Taking an average year, the production for Austntilia 
Met down at 190 gallons. The average production u\ gallons per acP 
for other otiunlriea is showu by tlie following figures, which are for i ' 
latest availublt! periods : — 



luHJ W 



Country. 


Okllont 
pflrncro. 


Ceuiili>. 


tWJom 
ptrm.' 


C&pe Colony ......„.„. 


soo 
aao 

210 
IM 
175 
ISO 
143 
140 
134 




1«1 

130 




129 




itn 




Argontlne Repulilic ... 
Auatralu 


100 




87 ■ 




III 




Oil 


Gvnuuiy.a ................... 


190 



Compnrcd with the win« production of other coiiiUries, as giv 
hereunder, that of Australia in certainly trifling, but tJie prospects Of 
the industry are sul£ctt<ntiy promising to encourage a lio|>(! that tbi 
coming years will witnesa important Jevelopnionte. The figures are frd 
the Monileur VinicoU, mid refer to the vintage uf 1S95 : — * 



Ooantcr. 



FrsDM 

Iflf 

Spam „ 

Mgwit. 

Oamuuif 

Roumania 

Auilria 

Hung&ry 

Turkey and Cyprmi 

Pottugftl 

Greece 

Chili 



Ar^BiiCiiia Repalilio 
SwiUorlond 



PlOlUcUania 
milltoi giJIwiEL 



Count?. 



087 

4QS 

379 

83 

80 

es 

60 
63 
53 
44 
33 
S3 
30 
27 



BulgariiL 

UmtDil 8t«t« 

Servis 

RuuiB 

Brwil 

Axorea. CanarlM, and 

Mkdnn 

Tqim 

Caps Colony 

Mexico 

l'er»i« 

Auitralis ,... 

Total 




2.123 



^^^^^ EXPORT OF WINE. 255 

^VnT foUoviag table iltuslrates Ui« prof>r<?»i of the AuHtniliAii wino 
^Brtde iritli Europe since 1^81. The tutal Milue of thi.t tnuin in 
I8J4, it will be DOliced, hut! Jtrown tu tr!e%eu timm what, it wuh in 
ISil, whilo tbi! nuinbi-r of gullotis i-xfwrloil to Eiirr.|i(! [mil iiicrrnscd 
(wmtf-fotd. The 1894 liguifx am pxclusiw of QutH'iiiilBiiKl. 9^9 
pfloD)!, «-altu>d nt £314 : nnd Wi»t4;ri) Australia, 00 gallons, vitlued 
u£15:— 


I 0*0). 


US). 


13BI. 


im 


iJaninT. 


VkhM. 


4}nwitnT. 1 Vatoc. 


^UUltllf. 


Value. 


1 Stw South WbIm.. 
I Tirtorii 


13.271 
5,583 
2,Sfi9 


3,520 
3.3*1 

6S0 


gftllong. 

0.451 

136,213 

228.5s; 


£ 

2,265 
24.727 
3S,630 


18.405 
2IS,ftl2 
205,378 


< 

3.600 
34.787 


^Pmlb Aumlia .... 


33,109 


1 .... 


21.713 


e.44i 


372,951 


65,612 


43S,S!I0 


71,408 



lacinding tho tnuli- of ono province with AtiotlKT, ns wril m 
tiM foreiRti trad*, ilii? exports of each during ihp samo ywire aro 
riumt helow. The ISOi liguroH are esclusivo of Quwiisland, 1,499 
gdkxu; valaed at £536 ; and Western Au8lrali«, 6Q galloiia, valued 



1 


UN. 1 vm. 


imt. 


1 ^'■ 


(tUUltll}. 


Vkliu. (jiuntiiy. 


Vdut. 


(Jiuntlty. 


TtlM. 


SnSMiUiWalM.. 

rM«u 


j()dli)iit. 
22.377 
1%H4 
»7,»I2 


7.233 
fi,38S 
12.879 


galloiM, 
&4.I43 

ieo.BS3 
2Wi,lim 


£ 
11.644 
33.5IQ 
S»I,6S4 


gallooi. 

30,368 

S30,aiD 

255,171 


£ 

6,3OT 

39,S46 


JmhAutMllL 


49,001 


1 Autnlia ... 


92,-33 55,500 


501.313 


102,844 


51.'>.H76 


04,944 




Tho totel value of Uw grapo crop maA tii« Kren^ return per aa 
the Aiwtratiaji cotoniu for the year 11^94 will bo found below ;— • 





TgUl rain* vl 

avp. 


AT«nM laliuiMrMf*— 


colon]'. 


Of Total An* 
Dntlei VioBI. 


Of ProduoUva 


Hev South Wktce 


t 
139.077 
39S,S35 

»T,404 
I08;240 

M,«77 


£ *. A. 
IB 7 2 

B 9 
IS IS 

S 4 4 
IG 12 9 


£ lu ct. 
20 7 1 




11 7 2 




22 8 9 




H S 8 




S7&639 


9 13 7 


U 9 



SUOAII-CAXE. 



I 



The iT^wth of ths amc nnd th« nianutacMira of suKar ore \A 
ttiut indui'triE'H in Queensland and Now tjoutli Wiitc^ ; but whilst 
oLiii)at<> of lli« former colony rpndors the i-mploytiiont of white la 
ill the lii^lil aliiiuiil impos&iliie, the plaDtations of tho latter are woi 
as n rule, without the aaaJHtauce of coloured labour. The QiM 
buid jilantont uHtiuUy combine Uie functions of cnne-growen 
ni^jsr-iDiinufuolitrcn ; but in New South Walea, where the uniM 
holding's arc, an % tmIp, xmnll in an-n, the cuu« is pui'diaud front 
pltuitrrnt, principtktl}' bv the Colonial tiugar Refining Ooinpany, w, 
various ci'aHhing'inills nnd rctinfiry nxr fitted with inn«hinirry of 
most modern cliaraotcr. The importation of coloured labour 
Qaeetial&nd bat been renewed under stringent regutnlioos to protAo! 
Kiuialau. Tlie attempt cnMle in ISOl by tlm planters to solve 
difficult problem aa to whether sucoeHsful BUKiir-gixtwin;:; is voinpe 
witli the employinent of while labour, by tlie iuli-Oiluclion of It 
fttrra'tAhoiinrn under contmct to work in tlie augarpIaiitnlionM f 
number of ycanr, wm a failure. Jnpunusc iuiinigrafliti have i 
inti-odiipi'd. 

"Sk area under cauQ for the years specified wm h follows ;- 



tionM t 
ire olaoi 



Onbo)!. 


m. 


im. 


ISO. 


IM. 


11 


Sew South Wolca 


acres. 
S3 
94 


al■^l^■^. 
4,301 
S.581 


ncro*. 
13.167 

2S.026 


aorta. 
23.302 
50.1M8 


■a 
»■ 








IK 


13.fl75 


*0,Iii3 


73,-ilO 


>0i 



ABEl UKDBB SUGAR-CANE. 



257 



11i9 progn?M of the induatry bus bet-ii very rapiJ, e^pedully in 
Qi]o<n£la»d, Ota area of Guitalilt! luxl Iwiiig very largt? in Uukt colony. 
ae yeura ago BUgai^growiug vus started 011 Uie DiUy River, in the 
Ponhern Territory ot i*out\i Australia, but no atatisticH are avullttble 
iliofc ftcrcngc or prDduulion. 'Vhe. nren giv(.-n nbuve includes *U the 
CW16 jiltuitoi), whetbiT cat during the year or not. The following tabic 
on-ii tlw! ncn^o nctunlly cut during tlio Isat five years: — 



1 Okmj. 


UBDl 


im. 


ijun. 


I9M. 


ISM. 


r 

Xoir South W»Iw 


IWtM. 

8.3M 

«>,S08 


aora, 

9,eS3 

36. SSI 


11,560 
40.572 


Miroa. 
11.755 
43,670 


14,204 
49,839 




I Teul 


48,522 


45,444 


_ 

52.132 


sa.425 


IS4.0i:) 







From returns published by noma of Iho Queensland mills it has been 
MliuiAtMl thut Un- lolil [irodui-tion i)f cjuin in 1894 wiis dbout 757,000 
Mna. TTii* would gi« an average yit-M of lO*-'''! tuns per acre for tliat 
colony, u <s)nipiin'd with S0.1 tons pur ni-rii in New ffoutli Wales. 
Time tigiireH nhow that during the l'<94 sciison the yield of HUgur in 
New South Wnlcs WM l*'l> per cent., and in Quoensland 95 per cent,, 
taking th« produclion n« given in the next table. Tbe yi«1d of sugur 
per tou uf caa« varies, of courao, with the density of ibe juice, but in 
orduiary moaods it may be set do^«'n at xonieUiiug over 9 per cent. 

The produuliun of au;^r from couc crushecl duriivg the last five yearn 
wu as given lielow. The ligureti are compiled from the retuma made 
W ibc mill-owners, an<l in the case of Queensland it is possible tlial they 
uow Mnwthing lewi thim the itctual production :— 



<Mdw 


itw. 


IISI. 


imii. 


mn. 


tSM. 


^MtScnili Waks 


toti. 
S6,«33 

66, eu 


tons. 
23.24S 
SI, 219 


tons. 

24,299 
61,36S 


tons. 

23.030 

78,147 


tonf. 
22,638 


^tiMiailinJ 


91.71:: 


^^ 


0S,4S7 


76,464 


85,«57 


100,077 


114.350 


P^ 





"Hiu net imports ot sugar by each eolony in 1S9| are given in the 
ubjoii,^ table. Queensland was tbe ouly province that was able to 



ill- 



t; f^r^r'-T:';"', ami « -. 



jruiil:"' . 



V.,!i;- 



t.i:i^ 


t 


:rtJ,1jr. 


.v.'j.4:.: 


.■>i,;iTii 


(iii.i.-- 


ill. '-'IT 


1 Tii.^-j' 


:;.:i."i-J 


.Vi. 1 7- 


.i,:.'l I 


Mi..".">i- 


1H,!'-"<II 


147.4(1.1 



l.-Kl.a-4 



i.'.iim.'Ji' 



■■:.-l,Liiil. ill'' iui|"iils I'li.pii. ■ 

: . ;'l.:;ill tilllS. Ml Ulli.-il 1^!,!; 

.iT; '<••• tr.'n'i'il til till' (iiiuiii.'i 





<;iiiMt:!>. 


V.ilui. 


— 


- - 


— 




trill-. 


c 




, Ili.l'JII 


■JliiWR' 




■J4,-Ji!l 


•Jl."!.?-!! 




1 ."L'.4TI> 


II.-),*.-!.-. 




l.riiK 


■J i.r~ 


■lis 1 


I'liri 


T.r.i:. 




74.s(i:i 


i'Miji: 



;r ClTlll 'I'l'l till' llVIT.I^Jl- riTlini [itT 

, 1. 1 Austi-^ilia will I'l- ['miin! liiim- t'.ji' 



V;ilii. •.f(*A'.. 



I'l t ;.■ TV. 



- \V»1* ■ 



£ 

till.ir.'i 



£ M. .1. 
4 Iti 4 

6 i:t 4 





CTrLTIVATION OP 8UGAR-BEET. 



StOAilBEET. 



259 



Thtf (lUHHtwMi of oulLivtttmg tlie beet-root fi>r the pmliiction of mgv, 
vhicfa U now receiving a good dpnt of atUmtion in Victoria, is not 
«lhigeUMr tt now ono in tho hinWry of tliM colony, for an far back aa 
Ibiitf ytMK aga experimoate in this direction were mtide both ou tbo 
OoTemBMDt famia and by privnte gruwers, and tiie rtoiiilte obtained 
ven deemed to be so sn.tisf&ctor7 ibat it wa« coufidently gireclioted by 
iW Melbourne pre« at tlio time t)u*t in a few yum the industry 
voold hr. cstnUiBbed on ft iiermanent luiaia. But tite jireiit )inp*s 
*liicb wero then entortaimtd vri-re niit fulfilled, and in l!i74 th« 
Sccrvtiiry tar Agrii-ultun? ri-pciHnd that the nugnr cxtractivl fram roote 
gniwn expennv'iktally amounted to 70fl pur wnt.— a yield which be 
(msidered too low to permit of tho p«tnbli»liin<Mitof a proti table indHBlry. 
Ibe history of the cnltit-ation of tlie beet for KUgar, however, bw been 
«M of steady pro^rees since the discovery of the saccharine propertten 
ti the root in 1747. In Oermaay, for example, tlie porcentaf^ of »vgaT 
eilnetad froiu tlie beeta grown in tliat ouuiitry averaged hut S-50 per 
prcent. in IB36, whilnnt tJie prcMuit time tht* yield i* nearly 14 per 
€aaK, tite increa«o baring boon most regular. To thn givat iniprov»- 
aunta in the machinery' employed in tho mills where tbo bcioot are 
tKated Ibis notable advance has boon most largely due. hut to a not 
imoondonihle extent it is also attributable to the api^icatton of science 
to the ottltivuticm of the root. Under uncli ciraumaKuioes as tlieae, tlie 
efifaikiD pn>inalgat«d in the reparc of the Seoretary for Agri<<ulttire 
oonld not be taken an unfavourable to thi! profieuution of I'KppriincntK 
ia Victoria, and a continuation of the ittlcirts of the DquircniiMit of 
Agricnlturo bos led to the excellent n-nult of an average yiold of ISIO 
|itreent.af sugar obMuned from sixty-four snmplps of lierta grown on 
the Goveniroent experimental faiiriH during the year lK'J3-4, wliiln roots 
printoly Htown bare been declared by the Agricultoml Chemist to 
contain 22^ per oenL of sugar. 

Both bifih yieldii as these have foi-ced the conclusion that these 
«alaBin mm fitted by nature to become the home of the sugai^beet. 
ladeed, in New Houth Wnlcs, nnalysi's miule by the Chemist to the 
Onlowal Sugar lU-tining Compiiny of ront* grown in the Kew England 
dkriet, where experiment* nre also being inniHucted, ili^closed yields 
■■ijig from l5-fi6 to ■24-75 per cent, of sugar. There is little fear, 
Ihiwlun^ that with proper care and attention, i.he cultivation of the 
hot will not [iroduoe good resnlte ; also, unlike the Mignr-canc, thi^ beet 
fca tnie agriculluml pTodaot> and not only iloes not exclude otln^r crops 
Inoi the lanil bat on the conlmry iuvites them, and, ns gentrrat 
•Xpnicnoe haa pmvcil, leaila to Iheir ({[■eater production by vo«tly 
■avaaing ibe fetrtilily of the K»il. Thr kiil- thiux necessary to ensure 
it the ettabliahment of lat^ mill.i for the produettou of best 



I 





26o 



AGIlICULTUnE. 



Kugnr, iiceoniing to tha mont nioilti^rii jiriticipleti. To attempt to itUixt 
till' iniluRtry on n sinnll ncaUi is to invite foilurv, for tlin cost of 
prodaction would Im! too higk 'Die Victorinti Mitiintvr of Agricultorr, 
in ft report on tlie prospncls of putiibliBhing tho bt-ipt-KUg^r induBti-y, 
i8»ii«d at the ^nd of 18!)4, mnke-s thin clenr, and estimates that with 
a 300 daj'tou factory the financial reflultn would be satisfactory, vrljik 
with one of )^eat«r capacity the coat would bo correspondingly redaotd. 
^le ({uestiun is not ouly one of importance to Viuloria, which now 
impotid all its HUgar, and, be it rem em In-red, iinporU il mottt liirgrly 
from countriuB iiutaide Austmliuiiv, but U> tlie otlier «>1oniM na well. 
At tliB i>rrafnt time, whtn tlie growing of xugur-cnnc in New ijoatfa 
\V'nleK >nd (jiincnKliinil in nn impnrtnnt industry, thn production la b^ 
no means equal to tlm wants of the pimple of Auntmliuiin, nnd there is 
thereforo sutficipnt scope for the immedial«' cultivation of the beet-root 
for t)i« extraction of sugar. ' 

On the 6th Mareh, 1896, the Victorian Parliameot passed an Act 
empowerin;! the Uovertuuent to a^aitit in the estabUaliinont of tb« 
w^ar-boRt induHtry by granting loii:is to duly registered pnhlic oom- 
panifw which might bo formod for tlio purpose of erecting mills and 
equipping them with the nocossary machinery and plant for tho oxtrao- 
tion of sugar from the roota. The compaity applying for aid niu^t 
satisfy the Treasurer of the oolony that there is an area of not leas than 
10,000 acres which is huiled lo the growth of sugarbeet situalt-J within 
a rodiuH uf 10 niilcn of the itite of tht* pra|ioi>«<l factory ; that it Las 
contracted with the owners or occupierK of this land that an aggT<!gBt« 
ama of not Iuns than 'J.OOO acrc-s ohnll In- devolved to tlie growth ot borbs 
for a ]inriod of thrci- yi-nPK ; thnt the pro[>osr(l worka will bn of a 
cngiacity HutGcicnt t'> allow- of tho treatment of not Iriw than anarcntge 
of 300 tons of roots [ler day : that for a period of thrpe yean from tlto 
dale of cummencing man ufactii ring ojierations it will keep ita worics 
going to the full extent of their average capacity ; and that il will noi 
wnploy Aniatic luliour nor otliur ci))oured labourera born imtiide 
AustralaMU. If thi> Treasurer in satislicd that these condilionK 
likely to he fullillc<l, and that the crmipany has a paid-up capital of not 
IcNK than £l'0,()I}IJ, h(> is atithorined tn advancn to tlin company a mm 
not exceeding twicr ilio amount raisinl by its shareholders. This 
advancft is to be made in instalments, and one instalment must be pro- 
perly expended before another is paid over Kepayment of the loan 
must be made to the HtaXe in forly «ix half-y<'arly instalmeDts, com- 
nieneiiLg two years after the first part o( the loan haa been received ; 
and of each half-yearly instalment pnid to the StAte, jiart mniit be 
applied to meet intrrr^iit^hargit at the rate of 4 per cent, per annam on 
the niitHtani;ling loan, and the balance placed to a sinking fund, and 
towards the rwlomption of the principal sum. The company it al< 
required to pay the expensea incurred by the Treasurer in adminMlariiii 
tfae Act to i»TU tliia relatea to ita own advance 



31 



CULTIVATION OP TOBACCO-PLANT. 



261 



TonAoca 

The cdltiraUon of the toliacco- plant hia r^ceirod fitt«tition in thn 
thrrr tioslern colonint. Tlie follmving tabic shows the area and pro- 
(tuction of tohncoo ut mriniis periods : — 



Teu. 


XcwSVDltiVi-tlK 


VlcuriL Queculuid. 


AuitrilHb. 


AfH> 1 rroduction. | Ai^ 


Productloii. 


Arl 


Productlob. 


ArfdL. 


Preduoclon 


Uti 
UTI 
l»t 
UM 
UBl 

un 

IMS 


1,0V 

4.«a 
as 
tu 
tu 
lie 


cart. 

u.ni 

lO^MS 


■OM. 

i,au 

MS 

»;7 
LOST 

Wl! 


inrt. 

t.KiT 
It.RO 

S.ME 
T.UIt 


ncni- Pwt, 

4* 

OS 111 
1!3 I.tIB 

TiH) I.KH 

UN , ixs 

KS , «,6I7 

V16 1 <i,»ri 


otnL 
tt* 
010 
1.1M 
S,M1 
IWl 
l,MS 
£.3M 
SMS 


cwl. 

ft.lUO 

o.:r 

ai,7M 

W,»l 
l»,!rU7 
11^10 

».aii7 



Th« figunnt for 1804 are exolusive of 5 oi-rea in New Zealand and 
M k small arcft in th<; Northern Territory iii South Auxtralia, for whicli 
fvtunis are not avnilnhle. 

Owiuft to over-jirotluclioii and the want of a foreign market, thr arna 

ilcvatcd to tohat-'eo-cuUiiro has greatly declined since 1>$8^, although during 

the lAJit two ytMFA the iurlustry haa again e\'inced an upward tendency, 

Th* AnHtmhuian tobacco-leaf has not yet heeu iii«iiared in such a way 

ft* to find acccptAnoK abroad, and until KUi'h in aeconipliHliLHl it will be 

ubImb to oxpoot tht; culltvutioTt of till? plant to IxK'otii'^ a iiuttliH] 

iadosUry. Thn soil and diniuti- of Au.ttrulia apiwnr to bo Muitubli- 

hr the growth of the plant, but KuDidrnt <-^rc anil Kkill havi> not bi^n 

eipowled upon the pr*'|>arntion of thn leaf, 'nicijunntily of 70,;i.')l cwt. 

U leaf produced in IKHf* was so gre-atly in excels of local nwiirr- 

Dcnta thst very low prices only could be obtained, and a largn 

portion ol tLo crop was left upon the j;'rowers' hands. The renult 

«H that many faniit-rH abandoned the cultivation of tobacco, do that 

thoarea under thin crop during 1889 was only 3,339 acres in New 

8e«tfa Wales, and 9'ti> acrvs in Vlotoria, produoinR i-espectivoly 27,724 

nt. and 4,l'i3 cwt. of leaf — trsK than half thu crop of the previous 

Tear. Id 1^91 tho atta showi-d a further decline to 886 aoree in 

New Soutli Wales an<l r>4'> acrcn in Victoria, with n yield of 9,314 

<«L and 2,579 cwt. respectively. In QuceiiHland, on the othi-r hand, 

lie area incr«aaed from 12:! acr«s in 1888 to 540 acres in 1890 and 

"» in IH91. lu 1892 the area decreased in Kew South Wal<vi to 

MS acftts, in Victoria to 477 acres, and in Queensland to 316 acnw ; 

•ad the prodBRtivn to 8,344 cwt., G58 i-wt., and 3,808 cwt. rospectivly. 

la Victoria tho crop o« twotliirda of the acreage was de«troyed by a 

bngoid diaeaae. In )>SQ3 the uixia tncnateil to 8S4 acres in New 



262 



ACr£ICUIiXU£E. 



South Wal««, 1,037 acTM in Vtcbwin, and 475 ncras in Queensland ; kA 
the production to 10,858 cfwt., 6,96S ewt, and 4,r>77 cwt. respMtinljr. 
Ill 1894 there w-a« » further incrOBse to 1,412 acres in Viotoria aorl 
915 acres in QueensltiuU, kittle ike aoreaj^ in Xew Saaiii W»lc« 
OfKlinud t« 71G. Tlin proiiuctiuu in New SouUi Waliw (ksdiDnd t» 
8,iS'> cwt., nnil in Victoriu tii 7,15>'> cwt., while in Qtuwnxliuul l^ 
incrcMcd tu 9,r>71 cwL 

The aTorago production of tobacco per ocra for tho ten yoan ended 
3Ut December, 1894, was as foUows :— 

Cn. 

N«w South Wttlc« Il-O 

VlcUiria u.... »»...... ....uoo »»■■•.»••■»» 5*4 

QuMMlsad ...„ „.. «. 9*1 

Aiwtiaiuia „ „ S'S 

Tho following table shows tho produclion per acre tn foreign countriea 
for the latest av^lable period ; but the comparison with AuHinlia, 
the ggures for which refer to the ten yeara ended 1894, i« not of much 
value, as the acreage under tobacco in tliese colonies is but nnudt ; — 



ComHT. 



Oirt.p« 
Mm. 



OraM^. 



C*i-p«v 



HolUiid 

{>L-rmaiiy ,. 

Rnuia, 

Aoktrin .. . 
Fnuo« .... 
HnogMy .... 
Italy 

WcatlDdiM 

Java 



I.VH 
13 ■« 
I2'S 

U-5 
10 '4 



.Tnjmn 

Turksy 

MuiDla, M«. .. 

Bruil 

UniteLl 8ta(«s 

India 

RouRiauia 



Autualla. 



7-4 

•■o 

ttrS 
ft* 

8-fl 



The A^rionltarat Departiaent of QueensUuid is eudettvouring ts 
the tobaeeo-grewen bjr the iin])OrtAtiou of Americun seed of Crat 
nutted to the Queensland dinuite. New Zealand itlno han com 
tbi< cnlirivatiuii of tobacco, but it i.t onlj' lo far in thn n>t4ire of on 
<?xprrim«Tiit ; and n Hniall ann bim iMtnti plnuu-d in th« Nortbein 
Tcrritoiy of South ^Vustrnlin. During tho year 11^9(1 the (J)ovemni«n( 
of New South Wales took action towards osHi^tiDg tobacco-Krowera i: 
the colony by introducing' a tobacco expert. The GoTemmeat 
Victoria baa alrendy auob an officer tn its eioploy, and it u, in' 
that the aenioen of the two expeiU ^lall be avoiUhle fur both coknue^ 
60 tliut the K{iecial knowledge of eadi may be fully taken odrwitage of 
both in New South Wak-s and in Yictortu. 




IMPORTS OP TOBACCO AKD CIGARS. 



26^ 



ne Mlowing tnbln xhovix tiif inijiorts oi uAaaoa, dguv, mid cigarepttai 
for liMiin oonKumption during 1B94 : — 

UskMJC Qmnbty. 

Neir South WalM .„„_ „ ],SU,9DS 

Victoria l.SU.SOfl 

QdociuIuiiI ...» , _.,.. T1K).2M 

SoDtii Aiwtniia „ eeci.-i^i 

WMtom AmtraUft „._ „.„ a-IO.?.); 

Tumuii* _.„ S51, 125 

S«irZ«aliuid „ 1,37I,«1U 

AurtnOasia _. 7,(H5,'^M 

The total valne of the to(Miorj> crop and tTie sverage gro*a return 

r BCTQ in ^o AiUtraJoHuui colonics duriu;; tlie yanT 1894 are given 



UoUoy. 



Total nlaaol 



Kbw Sonth WftiM „...., 

VictoriH ....I 

QomimIuii] _ 

SawZmiMud 

AuKtralaaia •••,•■•.< 




fier am. 



« ■- iL 
17 9 
10 2 8 
15 13 10 
10 



13 8 6 




ft will be seen that id N«w South Wales tJie average return pur aen 
bXI Oa. lid. higher than in Queeiislatid atul £6 1^. 1<). liigh«r than 
n Viotorto. The vxptsrituuiiUJ Hta^e of tlie iiiduHtrj- in Now Zealand 
nibs the ligurai of that coluuf of any Htgnificanc«. 

6ABDK!fR ASD OKCHAnDS. 

inllivatioa of fra!t in AuxtmlimiA doe's not attract anything like 
fnrtioa it destrnrr-s, although the soil and cliinale of hirgtt an>uK 
ball th« provinces are well adapted to fruit-growing. Still, some pro- 
paw haB been made, espeoiaDy of reconl yearn. In 1 HSj tlie proportion 
rf the total cultivation allollrd to fruit wait 2-2 jmt cent., and in 1891, 
H p«r oeuL, whilfl in 1S8I thr pro^Hirtton was 1'5 per cMit. Tho nrca 
fcr 1,000 persunK in 1894 wan 307 acrm ; in IftSl, H6 acres; and in 
1881, 29'4 acn*. Graptrit, oninges, nppIcM, pwirH, and pcnchoa arc the 
piBcip*] ^its grown; hut with an unlimited area suitable for fruit- 
tnltivation, and the (rliniatic conditions so variwi, ranging from com- 
(arstivv oold in New Zealand andon tho high lands of New South Wales 
Md Victoria to tropical Iteat in Queensland, » large variety of fniitd 
, toaU Iw cultii'ated Tlie indubUy, however, laiiguuhea paitl/ on 





264 



AOBICriTUBE. 



SMount of the lack of skill And care on the part of tU« grower, good fraCi 
commanding high prices, while llioae placed wilhiii the reach of ^J 
luuUitudH are gpiieralty of but jxxtr (]Uiility ; and partly oviinji to the] 
lark of iiipans of i^npid traiisil< to iiiark«t nt ruuionublt^ ralra. Thr itr«a| 
Biuler orchnrda and gardpti.s in 18^1, IK91, aiiil 1804 woa as fullow :-- 



tMatts. 



USl. 



ACTBft. 



Ill 
111 



U91. 



Acn 



I 

Hi 



UM. 



1 



New South Walec 

Victoria 

Quetmlond . . .... 

South Auilrnlin .. 
\\'ciitmi AuMralU 
TMHjiiJInin . ...... 

New Zi«Uriii 

Auilmluia .. 



24.565 4-3 

•20.m> 1-4 

3.-Jii3 2-8 

B,8(M 0-4 



6,717 
16.360 



4-3 

1-3 



S1,39S ; 1-5 



40. US 

37.435 

!),7.'i8 

U,42^ 

Se.23S 



141,663 



4-7 

1-8 
40 

0-7 

6-4 

SO 



il 



.'•2.713 
42..52I 

I5.1S3 

S,003 

11.068 

3i.au 



i»t,7a4 



4-0 
14 

31 
0-7 
9-7 



M, 



With the oxtension of artlAi'ial irrigation and the incr«iiii«<l facilittfl 
for export alTorilecl liy tin- a<l<)ption uf cuol rhauihers fur the pr 
valion of fruit during long vcivages, (lie orcburduiln of Austrataaia 
now ('UuI'Il-iI to competo with foreign Slates in thi." fruit supply for til 
EugliHh inarki-t, winch a%'crages iilioiit .£)4, 000,000 in voluo annually 
Th« Ttuinuinian fruit tmde with England has piuwd thr (txpnrimcnt 
•lotfe, am) nvnry Reason large st«ani>:rrs visit Hobnrt to rt<ci'iv(> froit to 
thft home markpi. 

The following tabic shows the import and export trade of each cob 
in green fruit and pulp for 1894, from which it will he seen that vrit 
the exception of Tasuiania all the colonies import considerably mo 
Uian is exported :^ 



ODbny. 



tnport*. 






New South Waltv .......^ .„,.._. „._ 


£ 

1 61.053 

7^634 

B3.9I.^ 

IB.974 

A,431 

6.U9 

94,000 


£ 
103.070 
14.507 




K.eS7 




l(i.SS2 




H 




191,090 
1,072 








420,916 


359,374 







PRODCCnON FROU GAEDES3 AND ORCnARDS. 265 



The toUl value of Ui« produce nf g«nl<rni> and orrhnrds nnd the 
&r«mge return p«r luira iu 1894 wctd as givnt bttlow : — 



Ollenjr. 



rSonttiWalM.. 

whnj""!!™!!! 
nth Auidralla .. .. 
reitrni Aootralia,. 

Tiamanik ..,. 

KgvZcAlaad 

Awtrklaiift 



1M«I 
Value of Cro)!. 



£ 
47S,70S 
SIMIS 
1SI.MS 
324,610 

N3,8S( 
616,017 



itiittptttcn. 



2,ew.*.i.i 



t % A. 

9 2 

IU 4 

13 13 10 

31 7 » 

16 

13 

19 10 



15 U 



avMvgv rrturns per ftci* h«v« but IJttk %iilufl for purposes of 

' on, AS tD\ic)i dependa on tbo proportion of the ktcas utMlnr 

kindfl of fniit and nndcr vegetable gardens, which tends to 

ioCT OMC or decrease, ss the caav may be, tlie general aventge of a colony. 

In Sew South Wali-n Utt- sniallnirsii o( the avprdgn i» nxjiluinod by tin; 

fKl that in a grrnt nunil«r of inxlanccfi, owing tn n lack of fni-ilitiiHi for 

di^WBBB of th* fruit rrops, the protiiicv of the orchards di<l not rvach 

I iWnarketo, aii<l in houic cnseH wnn not even gathered, in Tasmania 

*tne frniu are principally gron'n, and the groM returns froui these are 

niuch nialter tlian the retunis obtained trom the cultivatiou of suV 

i bopical fruit« Hueh as the orange and iritrou. vrhivli tend to iucreaae tlie 

^Mwyp returua in tlie continental and iiortliom proviii^ns. 



MiKOK CHOI'S. 



iea the cropB already Hpecitleally iioliced, Ui«ro are uaall areas 
*• wbich ar« grown a varit-ty of jn'oducU, oliidly rye. hvri.; onions, 
Wm, {irMK, tumi|Hi, nipf, tiiaiigold wiirael, am) bo]is ; but they arc- nut 
<dBn*«t1y important to wiirrunt s]H'C.ial mention, nxcrjit tnmi{>!i and 
npeinNoa' Zenland, where no lesa on area than S^,'),'!^!^ ncrrx won 
touted with tbeaa crops. The area under niiiidr crops in oiich provinc*; 
MMl was aa follows :~ 

New South W>1m «,SeA 

Victoria 4a,4S9 

QamwlKiid i 2,T4fl 

Suath Atwtralik ........; „ H.SiHI 

Wcat^ru Aurtnilia 0^3^ 

Tum&Dia - ••■•• IB.^T 

N'ew j^ekbnd _.. 493,890 




Auktraloala 505.781 



566 



A6BICULTUEB. 



^ 



Altlioagii coanderaUe progress lias of Utc ymn Iwen mMle la i 
dir«ctiuiia, il mutt be adiDittett genemlly Uwt agricultore in titu 
AuntnUnftiiin cobmiai ham scuvoljr puaad the tentntive irtM^. Tlu 
typical AuHtraliui ngricultnmt, rclTUig Iftrgeljr oa a bountiftit Nnturv, 
ilo*a not cxiTi;!!* upon crops tinyibrng apprmcliing the mm« {xUioiKr, 
ciiim, atiil labour tliat urc hcstoired by the Eiiropc>iui caltinttor, nor as 
A rul<! iiloes ho avaU fiiiuself of the benoiiUi of scientific fanning and 
improTod inipl«m«DU to Cbe extent tliat pr«v&ils in America and Europe. 
It may be expected that iiuprovemeiitti will take place m tlus temeci, 
find that the eflorts iua«le br tlxi Ouvunimcuta of Kew South Walm, 
Vicloria, mul SnuUi Aiutmlin for ihu prwDiitioii of ■cientific Enrmitig ' 
will bear good fruit. Agricultunil nnllc^itn and niodrl fnmm havv txxnfl 
i-stahUsln'ii in tlw! thrm colon irit, nnd tmvclimg Iccturws are sent to™ 
ttOTi<'ultiiml CKmtrea. At present New- .South Wales posMtma tbp 
IlawkcKbury Agricultural College aiid experluieiital farm, and tlM ex- 
pcriiiiontjil farms at Booral, Bomeii, and Wolioiigbar. Victoria has tlM 
two agrlL-uUunU colleK*<< "^ Dooki^ mid Loiigerei)Oiig, willi experiiiiealul 
faruiK iiltaoiiL'J to tlifui, and aiiolJit-r farm at Framliitgliaiii : whilt- ^utli 
AuHtTiiliu li:i.i ait ngricultural cotli'gi: and ex]n!ri mental farm at Roao- 
wortliy. In Xi^w Soutii Wales cxpcrimcntiil cultivation by inmos of 
irrigation witli artesian and catchment water has been Buoceerfully con- 
ducted at some of the tanlcs and borea owiied Ity llie t^te, notably at 
tbe Pern Bore ; and iu Kimtb Australia a eentral a^rwulttual btii«BU ''"fl 
Adelaide, u'itli about eighty branch bureaus in the country, axainta tlufS 
fannftrti by diBHcniiimting valuable? itifurtnatiun, publi.ihiiig papers, intro- 
ducing new ectuianiii: plants, iim) improving tho bn'od of dairy cattlo. 
In July, iH98, the (^iccnilnnd (lovCTiitaMit i«crpt<?il a tendpr for cho 
nrctioD of an Agricultural College at Tatton at n coet of i^,0T9. 

AoEICCLTUBAI. Boxes ES. 

Althuugli the Oovemiueiil of Queensland iMicouragtH the ubiptnenb i 
dairy prndiK^t^ by granting a IxinuK not exiievding '2d. ptT lb. on Itutteri 
and Id. ppr ]\*. f>n ch"'j«i pxprirt'il to miirlcrts outstdo of AuxtrnlnAJi 
and although 8outh Australia grsntixl a similar ItonuR on thr exportation^ 
of butter from October. 1893, to February. 1S95, Victoria is the only' 
colony wliitli lias eiide^\'oared U' alimulate the agricultural indusU^r 
during the past few yeiira by the introducliou of the bonus syBlem »ii an 
extennive Hcnie. In tlwt colony Parliaui en t authorised tlie expenditure 
of no lens a Mum tlian £3.^3,000 in eni.'ouraging the ciiltivu.tioji of 
variouR crops, tho manufacturer of titer raw nmti-riiil, and (lie tjcpiirtntinn 
of cei-tain of the products to finT-ign markets ; and it is <«tjnuit(ril that - 
of ihis Hum over £190.000 had I^Q paid away at the oitd of June,fl 
1S9G. Tlie results, of course, Iiave not been uniformly Biiaoe»ful : the^ 
pro<luct!oii and exi>ortati(iu of nonie arltctea. auch as butter, have greatly 
inoresHL-d ; but in the easi? of other produels, some of which wero 
entirely new to tiw country, the progress made hun been but suutU. 




ifrui 



BOUNTIES IS TICTOEIA. 

> f^wvn of gropos, fmitn, jtiul ^leral ve([etable [iroducts tlie tmm 
<rf ^56,000 w«a authorised to be i-iveii as boiiUiieiL TUu arunbi for vino 
luicl frtiit ctilUvatibti, aiuountiu^ to £30,000, wmr ullottccl ixTforc tJio 
peri'xl HxmI hy pKrliumt-nt expired, tfae appLicRtiaDii approviKl numhcring 
1,5'lil for pUiil-iiijc lui 4ii«a ai 12,5U0 aerai of vinen, and l,!iHti fnr plnnt- 
ing 6,308 ad*-!! of fmit-tnH-i. For tlw cultiviitjoii o( gciinral vpgrtable 
pcodocti, to bcusod for ttii^ iniinufiietiirf! of librr, oilvpapc^r, xjrup, ougar, 
t«nniii, dnwi, dyw, i<ocnt*, and intrictiinileis iho boUnce of i:3<i,000 was 
*vMlabl& Tho )>oniis pByBl-Ii} wils not to cxca«d tli« sum oE £3 for each 
ftcre sown or plnntod, find no ptvmpnt was to be made for leas tiiaii 
1 acre of sufptr plants, half-ftu-ftcro of fibre pliuita, aud a (quarter of an 
aero of the oLiier plauU u&iued. 

A fjraiit of X37,000 was inndo to fnctorins engaged in fruit- canning, 

^ut-drying, daiiyins;, raisin and cut-rant making, and in ilio pi-opai-atioa 

fiax, heoap, ^k, aud utiiei- produetd for the inanubcturer. To factodea 

the preaervittiuu of frtiil a Ixiuua of .£100 wan allowed for oaitnmg, 

diyin^ ur butUin},' '20 tons (if fruit, mid £3 fur each additiuiuLl tun, but 

Uw tota] p«ytui»it to any pi-raon or conijuuiy was not t» cxueod £300. 

^M grantH to Itatti^r foctoritw and irrcanKtricue wun-, it in stated by tbi; 

Dt^rtment of Agriculture, in every way an unqiialifitMl miccess. Wliilo 

tbe sjBt«iJi was in operation £10,730 woa paid as Iranuses to i2 butlor 

factories, and £19,535 to 124 ci'eamerlea. To raisin, uurraut, fig, and 

pnme tuettnvM a bonus waa granU'd of £5 per tou of dricid frutt up to 

30 tnm. Tbi.' paytnuiits to raisin and cun-aut factorii-* have amounted 

to JXi^. TIk' quantity of raiHins prcipariKl for niarlcot last nanon wua 

460 tons, and thv cirlnny in now inilrrHindcnt of importations of tliis 

tnit ; tli«re i», howcrvor, still room for ih» rstrnaon of the cultivatiou of 

cvnot vinM. To vcgeiablf oil faotoriti^, a l)oaug of Is, jter gallon was 

ftf^e on almond, citslor, coVm, earth-nut, linseed, olive, seeaiue, !Uid 

Nndower oUa; but the maximum amount whtcb might lie granted to 

DM penou or coiupany on aocoiuit of the produultou of any va^etahle oil 

na not to exceed £500. A bonua of £5 per Loa wiui payable on Qbre 

UiHiEKtun>d from flax or bi»np, tlw! largt-^t sum given to oiif peniou or 

Mdi|M&y being £100 ; to .lugar fnctoriM, a bonus of £100 fur '20 tonii of 

npr or syrap made fmm aorghum or beet, with £5 for cvirry uilditiouul 

ton 1^ to A totfl] of £500 ; to insocticidc factarit^n, a [•onan at £40 for 

oM kas tlian 1 ton of inxcc-t'dost roving powder nianofncnirvd from artu- 

Biaa, pyretbrum, or sclikuhria, and £20 for eacii a<lditional ton up to a 

Hxtinum ol £100 ; and to tobacco factories, a boousof £50 for 2,000 lb. 

•light of tobaoou, with £^ for each additional 200 Ih., but the total 

■iMunt jiayablu to oiiu jicnion or uompuiiy was limited to '"" ' 

A i;nuit of £79,000 was ori'^ally made for payment u: i -.■'....■ .. for 

export iif dairj- pi-odiioe. froits, aud honey to foreign markets, and 

the devclopoMmt of tbc wine industry. The Ixinus on the export of 

tsller has im>w bocn diaoontiiiued, the uidustry being well aatabliriied. 




368 



AGttlCrLTl'BB. 



I 



For the year ended Jutw, IS95, tW amonnt appropriated by Pariiatnent 
WAS £10,000, aud »ut of Uiis vote H was decided to defray all ^xpeoaea 
iucurrud in rt^ccivinj: and storing butter fur atiipmeiit. and iu workiog 
the ivfri^rating mnchini-ry : to pay a boiiuti at tiie rute of £3 p«r ton 
on tht^ exjHirt of cheese to porta oubiidi; tlie Aiistruliuian colonies 
providfid the price rrnliwd when marketed should not be l«Vi than 
£2 Kh. per cwt. ; on green fruit exported to foreifrii portsi api>n>Tc(l bj- 
the Minister for Agriculture, a bonus not pxceeding 25 per crnt. nf the 
price rcidised by the fruit, and not in any circumstances to be in «xoes« 
of 3s. per uaae ; aud on boiiey exported to approved porta outaide of 
Australasia, Id. per lb., provided it arrived at [he port of coiwignnHnb 
in a urxxl and marketable condition. A bonus of 3d. per f;alloii is nov 
payahli! on tliu export of -irine, and la. p<ir ^llou on the export of 
bniiidy. 

TowartU tho pnrehiise and importation by tlie Department oi Agri- 
eutturc of new varieties of seeds and plnnls for distribution to farueni, 
a Kum of £3,000 was granted. It was also decided that out of this 
»um tho Minister might give a bonus not exceeding £200 to any person 
who Lad inti-oduced into the colony a new and approved variety of 
plant, always provided that the person who introduced it had been 
able to supply the Department, if re((uir(^l, witli 1,000 icioiiH or phuita 
of the new vnrit^ty nt a price not PXfiM'Hing fid. each. A few hundrwl 
pniiiirts or this grant have been i<x|)end<^d, and the Kystem of oeei! 
distribution is dcelarcvi to be in every way Hatisfactoiy. Secdn of tbs 
best-known varieties of sugar-beet grown in France, <.term.\ny, aiu^ 
Sweden lin^e been pureliased and distributed amongst the fanners ; and 
in cousequenee of the dinooveiy of phylloxera in the colony a large 
supply of seed u( American phylloxera- resistant vines has been obtained, 
and Moiai- of it in now biring niised willi a view to dialribulion aiuongst 
the vigni?n>na 

Approval wa^i alwi given to tho exjienditure of a mm of £JS,000 in 
estAblinhing n system of t^cbinent inlttcntion in the colony, bj' tlia 
employment of experts to impart instruction in connection with tho 
introduction of wew vegetable products and lbs improicnient of existine 
agricultural raetbods. It was decided to engage experts in the culture 
of grape-vines ; in wine-niakini; : in the culture of fruit-trees ; iu the 
processes of drying, l>ottling, and cunning fruits ; and in the cultuiv of 
plants jinxlucing librc. papi-r, (lils, tstinin, drugs, dyt«, scents, and 
in».-cticide. A grant of £4,000 wax aUo made for the introduction ot 
new machinery and appliances to [icrfect tile treatment of new agri* 
cultural products and to iniprovp existing agricultural metbodn, and for 
prizes for new inventions in general agricultTiral appliance*. Iturine 
the last season attention was mainly directed to tbe improrenient i4 
mechanical potato-diggers, for which a prize of £120 was awarded. A: 
sum of £11.000 WON Ukewiiie granted for llie publicatiou of agricultural^ 
repcirtx ; and anutlier of £1,000 to be jiaid iu bonuiMis for tho eucounge- 





EXTENSION OF IRBIGATION WORKS. 



went of planting aoil cultivdluit; furmt Ltcmi of «i economic character, 
aa«fa as bUckwood, muplt'. bircb, bii'kory, rcHnr, i-jimphor-trnn, cypresB, 
pine, gam uni) iruiiliork, iHWcb, iwh, s-illcy-n.ik, n-almit, juniper, plane, 
poplar, i«k, williiw, rvdwiKxl, imil rim. Young Itom fire suppUwI 
gratis br th*- I'-in-vt revision i>l tlir LiirnU Dcpnrtinpnt, und a bonus not 
,wic*«ding £1' per ncrc is granted for ptautio)^ and maintaining tliem in 
a vigorouH nnu licaltby condition. So far, liowever.- tbe results liuve 
be^a i]i)tapj>ointing. in June, I89ij, ilie Ijunua vole had all been allotted 
with the ex(«ption of a uusll tLuiouut of tbe ^niiit tuwtiiilB tbo plniiting 
of iontt trees. 

iRRtQATtDM. 

naXly cultivation in Australia was confined to tbe banks of the 
riretx and tbe country ntuir tbe sea, and williin tbo influi,'ncti 
regnlar rainfall ; but now tlmt it bus sproail from tbn coastal din- 
and tb<! adjncent tabli-- lands to tlip interior of the cnntinnnt, 
»liw» the irrrgtilar cbaractir of ibo rainfall niakpn harvesting uncrrtain, 
inigation ba* bocome necpssnry tn ensure successful bustiandry. For 
wane yeara paat flnial) aTea§ have been iiTigated by private enterprise : 
aliMit 40,000 acres are irrtKltwl in New Soutb Wairs iind 7,500 ucn^.i 
in Qupriisliuwl. Tn New i^>utb Wales the grciiter jiiirt of tbn irrigati-d 
Mwi ii! nlunCwl ill tbe Rivcrinti dirtrict, whire tbe free irrigution trust* 
<)t Hay and Itnlrnnabl have l)oen formed undi^r the control of tlie niuni- 
ri|«l councils. Tho Hay trust comprises 19,847 acres, of which 77K 
MTM have hfmn irrigated ; and the Balranald trU8t< couiprises 1,000 
of which a 8inall area only has so far been irrigated. Tliere was 
lima simitar trust at Weotwurtb, having a jurisdiction over 10,600 
Knu. bal it baa now be<rn disiKilred anil its powcni ussutiied by tbe 
(iOTemnwtil, who will carry out tlic undf rt.ikin{.'. In VicUiriu, there 
enitnl in ISy,") thirty irrigation uiid water supjily trusts, with juris. 
'ii'Ttinn ovpr 2,74.'J,449 acrca, of wbicli l,B43,.'t(l4 acres were said to be 
urigablei, and S'llt.fitiL' ncrcM wrni cnpabie of being irrignli'd from works 
(!r oonstriietcl or in course of construction. Alwut .^0,000 acniii 
aclu;illy imgaled. The works constructed are in various districtn, 
tticfly on tbe Goulburn, Ijixldoii. Wimniera, and Avoca Rivers. 
Afyw years ago a wpeoial Act was passed by tbe Victorian Legislature, 
i»Ui»g the Govrruuient to liaiid over to tbe firm of Cbaffey Brothors 
luvaof 2.'>0,000 acres of mnlhn- scrub, situated at Mildura, in tho 
S»»a Hill district, about 340 n]il» north-west of MellKiurne. The hind 
,ns then nni It habited and jiroctically valueless ; but now it has grown 
a colony with about 4,000 inhabitants. Th(? Act oblige<l tbe 
lOters to spend £35.000 on the land within the first fiv« yean, 
M they actually e.tpeuded £2(6,000 within less than four yearv, and 
tliiLR bcoame entitled (o tbe freehold of 50.000 acres, hoUling tho balancti 
ti tlm 2(M)|000 aCTM on lease. In addition to tbe sum in«Dtion«d, tb« 







AGEKniLTUKE. 



< 



settiMS hare i^pont largo sums in iropnoving the \KaiA. Tltv nam 
induBtry is so far the leading one at Mildura. but all tanA% ot fruit gnnr 
to perfectiion, unil out of 7.650 a«r«s cultivated id 477 holdtnj{s ia 
1894, 'i,nO acn-H vvn: onlmnlti aui] ^-anlvDa, uiid 3,880 aerca wen 
vineyanU. 

In Octobnr, IA88, die firm of CIiaRry Brothi<ni commenond opt^mtioM 
in Sotitb Anstralia, at n plam onlliHl Rnnmnrk, ntuatod on thf riT«r 
Murray, clone to the boundnty of Nww Sootb Wnl«v and about 70 milea 
below Mildura, v-faore an liira of 350,000 acres has bmn set apart for 
imgatioii puipoees, and allliough Reuniark has not progressed so rapidlj 
as ilildui'a, it promises in time to Ijeoome an important Betilem«at. 
Uafortuiuilely the company has bad to k" into liquidation, Ixit aa 
orrnu^-viiient has l)een arrived at hy llio iuort^ng<»!ii luul the Mittlen. 

In Now South Wales iiutttei"!! an- in a mora hnckwurd iitatn. Tbo 
Watcj* OotucirvnLion Bnuicli ntturlinl to the Ili-fHirtmrnt ai Mines it at 
pmsent cngiig<-d in obr-nining Kuliicirnt hydrograpliioi! data to form the 
basis of a Hchomi'. of irrigation for vast fHKitn in tlto vicinity of tho 
Murmy, Murruiubidgvxt, Lachlan, Macqusrie, and Darling llivBr& The 
basin of Uie Gwydtr IUxlt, tbo regiuu between the Macqiiarie and tbe 
Bognn, and thii country iHavrtxtn lh« FnnHi and Xhvrlin^ Rivuni liavn b«en 
ca«np(«tt<(], the lineal nicaHurciucnta over wliicli Icvi-U wcra taken 
tsstiuiding to iii> k-m than 17,1!^0 ntikK. In June, 11^96, thv (*«v«m> 
ntrnt fM-curccI fin- nno year the sor\-iccs of the eminent autborigr ott 
hrii^tion, (Lionel Uoma, C.S.I., who will submit a complete sdiienu for 
th« irrigation of tbo waterless wastes of the colony. 

A public oontpony commenoed operations a fi^w years ago with what 
appeared to )>« ^-ivat {>Ttimi!ic of imowsi, nnd Hraimd an arts of about 
30,000 acru in th« ilulgna dixtrtct, within u dtKtnncB of SO miles oi 
th/K mi-tropnlttan markc^t. I'lic Hoil cnni^ists chifily of a rich friabln kaio, 
hut lh« (lixtriet suffbra from an unequal miiifnll. An Act which waa 
pujiind by the New South Wales Ijpgisiatiire in lf*9U gives the right to 
tap t'he Xepnan and, if necee«ary, the Warragamba Kiv«r, for the ptxt- ^ 
pose of irrigating this area, and it is proposed to devote tbe landdiiedyfl 
to the oulLivitlion of viiim and fniit-treea. A certain amount of wort^ 
bos been done, but from various reMMmii no gnnt prognoa has been nuultt. 
The cumpany has liilcly lir^n cnclearoui'ing to induce the Goi'ernnMofcj 
to taki- till! works ox-i-r. 



AJlTWiiAX Wia.iA 

The neci-iuity of providing imxer for ittock in the dry portionn of tho j 
intwor of the Aufrtmlian continent induced the Govemmentd of 
onlontcB to devote certain funds tn the pnrpow of sinking for watM", | 
■nd bringing to the surface such supplies as might be obtained front (bo 
ontiwfpromid eoarces which geologiMs stated to exist in tlw Utttitry 




SrPFLT OF ARTESIAN WATER. 



271 






drifts and tlw cntaoeooB bada which «-xt«i»l nnder an immpitsie portion 
of tiie arett of Central Ansumlia, fron^ the western distrkts ot Hew 
th Whits to a y«l unknown limit into W«st«m AiistrHUa. 
In Ist!W South Wftlea tli« <{ueetJon of the «xiat«iiee ot uQderground 
iter had Iuuk Wen a subject of earuMit diwnnioB, but tinabta vera 
•ot at imt in 1870 hy tli« dUKOVvrf on the Kallura Run, nt n (lo[ith of 
140 fe«t, of nn itrtision icupi>ly of water, which, n'hrn tappod, rose 26 
(mC aborr tlw HiirfiuM\ Thi- (Jiivernnutnt thim undnrtnok tho wot4c of 
searching for »™t«T, and Kiiicn thn yirar IHHI t-hn lunkiiig of artesian 
wcJls haa proceeded in a Kcicntific and i^itt«Riatic manner, und«r th<- 
direction of special ly-trained oflicerK I'riTate enterprise^ wbicfa had 
shown the way, has also followed up ite first successes. 

It hoB been aseertjtiued from otiidal souroea that contxacta havn 
already bw-n let by the Got'<>niiut-nt of New Sontli Walw tor the 
linking of uixhty-oiwt wUs: of tbeee, forty-eijiclit liavn Im-n compli^tpd, 
iNTtticn arr in progresn, and olhf m will bo coiHtnenCT-d nt an «-iu-ly dati?. 
Of the oompii'tfii wc1!k, Iwonty-ntne am ftnwiuj;, ihirt^wn sub«rtc«ian, 
finding pumping supplirs, nnd nix haw \mvn failurnt; d<w> wellfi 
npreaent 70,Pflfl fert of boring, 'fhp tntnl ilcpth hon-d to the 31st July, 
IBJK, WMA 85,806 fe«t. Krom the complet«d wells About 24,000,000 
pHoiut ol ithU-t flow L'very ilay to the surface. Tlie deepest \»n! 
complctwl i» that at thn Gil Gi! croeaing, on the ne>w ruad fmnt Morm 
to Doggabilbi, whrri^ Imring has biHtn aimed to a depth (if 3,093 fbet; 
tUa well yields a supply of appro Kimalely 2,01)0,000 gallonK por fli^m. 
Tbe larf;est flow obtninnd in thr mlDny is from the Kuroka IJore, 
•boat 12 mile* fi'om Walgett, on the Ooonamble road ; the depth of 
(hi* well ia 1,543 feet, and the estininti-d ttow about 4>000,000 fjallonti 
ptr diem. Another iuiportant l>ore i^ that ftt Pern, 8 niilett from 
Bonrfcc, on tli« Wanaarin^ road, where at u depth of 1.1^4 twi n flow 
M 610,000 gallonit jwr diem wub struck. At tlua bor*^ ihe uunl pxtcn- 
in Hjvbrta of irrigntiim by arlL-ni»ii watui- jis yet undL-rUikeu in thn 
oloiy i(t bfiing carrird oat; the land Iiils bern nurveyt-d into 2(l-ncra 
Uotka, which tar- offi'n'd fnr Icaxe uiidi-r tho HomcKtead Scttlfnnent 
tmvisiona of th« Crown l^nds Art, with a wntur ri^ht equivalent to 
Aindkes of rain per annum. An area of ."iT acrt.™ hii« been set apnrl 
far experimental cultivation by the Uovemment, and rertnin fruits and 
cchcr prmlucta indif^uons to the temperate and torrid zones are )>eing 
mn with Kuccean. Equally good resulta are hein^ obtained at Native 
Dt^ Barringnn, Enngi>nia, and Belalte bona, on Uie road from Bourke 
to tUningan. Luenmi;, muiu', wheiit, tofaacoo, millet, pliinter's friend, 
Mpr^ane, datf palnw, pinnvppleH, bananas, and ninny other fruits nnd 
THi4alilni of tropl<nt and Hub-tmpical character have iHim found to 
ttnre Uure excee>lingly well. 

Or the nmd from Waiiaaring to Milparinko, oncn a watc^css track, 
iWircimnTnl bi>rinx opetnlions have bei^n carried on. Of seven bores 
nwfartafcfln, five have been cumplet«U, and two ai-e in ppogresa. Three 




272 



A0E1CU1.TURB. 



i 



gtv« 11 pumpjitg supply, and tliree are nuw flowing, yielding u 
l«ggi«gaU: Rupply of 3,000,000 giilUinii druty. Boring operations an 

ADg oxU^liitnl fiirtlxT tn Uic tiorlli-wmt, will u ciiutracl lias lately bMB' 
entered into for thv Kinking of four borux on tliv nxul from Wiluutiii* 
to Wompah (on the liuoi.niKlAnd liortl(ir), one of «*hic;h ik Ix-ing sunk ol 
a ]>lac« 1 2 milea north of TiboobuiTa. A rrninrkftblo flow h«s also bnoi 
obtained at llie Moree bore, auiouiiLing to 2,907,000 gallons daily. Thi* 
bon- hail been carried to a depth of 2.792 feet, through fonuationa rf 
th<! same ajte as the I|)9vfioh coal iii<^a«ures (7'riag Jttra), thus demoiu- 
trating tho fact that wat«r oua be ohtaljied in other than (he lower 
cretacciOtiK foniiatioii. It is iiitf^rcsting to iiot<! tluit at Tinerou bore, 
on the Milpiirinkn-Wunanring Koad, a nimiliir f<irniation U tJuKi^t 
to have boon mm with at 1,703 fc<'t (flow, .'lOU.OOO gallons); tiiu*, 
if further inv4«tigatjon lionrs out the RUmiisc, its discover}- in tliia 

c^ily will tniid to conlinu the opinion of tho- (.iovemnient Oeoldi^ft, 

st the Triati^e may extend across the colony and iw far as the heigh 

Crede coal-beda in South Anstralia, undeilyiiif; the cretaoeoufi beds oM 

which so inudi wal*r has been ublaiiied. ^ 

Mut^li has h(«!n done in lh« way of artvaiart borinjt by prii'iite (uiter- 

As far as can b»- a»c«rt,nini-ii, curly in IS'.tfi there w<^r(! altogether 

106 private Ijorcs in Kew South Wide-«, witli an upproxiiaalc flow <4 

*38,00O,00O gallons dailv. Amongst tlio most important are two welU 

on IJasinBton Holduig,' with flows of 3.000,000 and 4.000,000 gMlloiu 

per diem ; andooeat Lila.Spriogs with a daily flow of 4.000.000 gal 

A helter idea of the value of artesian wells to tlie connnunity will 
itbtainwl when it U known tliat the a^igregatc daily ilow of unilp 
water in Nuw Houtli Wall's i* now approximately 6S,0()O,OOO gal. 
and that, in lulditinit, Inrgii Hupplks can 1)0 pumpod from Nub-MtnJMi 
wells, '['he nvrrngvT depth of forty-piRlit wells completed by UovecfilMDt 
CO the 31st July, l^KDG, was 1.476 feet 2 inchen, with » ron^o fnm 120 
CO 3,093 feet, and with temperatures varying from SO to 139 <l^rceii 
Fahrenheit. The total cost of the welU (includJiig actual Ifurii^ 
laiainft. carriage, and incidental expeuiies) was £130.193 12k. 9d., 
average of X2,712 7s. 4d. per bore, or £1 IGh. f<J. per foot. 

The Quec-nsland HydiiLulic Enjjineer reports that at the end of 
fifteen bores (Jnc-luding two giving a aub-artcmn xupply) Itad 
SUeCHKsfully couiplelfil by private eontraetors on (lovernment 
while one was in progrcKS and »iix had been abandoned ; the moat 
remarkable heiiig that at Charleville, where a daily supply of 3,000; 
gallons wu« struck at a depth of 1,371 feet. The total daily flow 
these lH)re>iiBgivenaii ."1,572,000 gallonx. Knttn information preparmt ■ 
the middle of the year lis96, it would appear that apart from twenty 
depp httren ea-it <^ tlie ciiiial range, some 412 Ixirt'-s in H.«rch of artman 
water have been nunk in wcHt^'m (jueenkland, the total number of feet 
jored U-ing *K«,130, or an average depth of l.lrtS feet per 
these welU, 2t:l3 arv flowing, giving a daily output of -15,737,! 




ABTESIAN WATER. 



273 



Bu^> 






ef water 4:xdtLiii-e of pnmping supplies. The larg<«t «Uiily supply wm 
riijdrtl by ths w<fll »t UiirrniiliillA, whcro a flow of 4,000,000 gallous wiui 
itrrict at a depth of 1,81 1 foci : on tbo Noornuia Kun ibive urv tlirtrn 
■cyijs — Mifl yielding S.ISC.OOO gallons, am! two, l,.'i0O,O0O ku)1<»"< ''"Kh, 
SeT>^rul otlwr wt-i]g yield over 1,000.000 (i^liuiiK of water per dinm. The 
oost of tbeae bwen, exclusive of i-uaiiii;. waa about XTSO.OOO, an<l of 

ills. -£190,000, or altogether £880,000. 

In ^ntli Atistrala » nuraliL-r of lior™ liiivc lit-cn put ilnwn with 
in widely ilixttuit pwrbi of the ti-jritory, nnil lui cstny mu nwule 
cm tlia OrcAt Auntmliui Hight, which rnHiiltcd in a HUpply being struck 
OD the Nuliarbor i'Uin, at a depth of 777 fcc^t, yielding *>6,000 gtilloiis 
imt (lipin ; the supply in, howeTar, sub-artesian. Uthoi- wells hate heen 
mk uncB with bett«i' results, the w«ter rising to th« nurfacv in seitiral 
ioAaiwei. Th« moat anccesftful wellk, howwei-, am diuuttN) iu the 
MOlnl pofttou of the territory ; those at Ht^rgott Springii, Coward, 
an wi gwaya, Oodusdatta, and Luke Hurry giving supplita of 50,000 to 
1.100,000 gallons p<T diuiu. A bore has bern coniplptf!!! nt Tintiiuiriii, 
n Ihe Miuth-Nuitftm portion of tlui colony, tlmt^ Hhowin^ Lhut tliu 
■utitc tertiary arm in watnr-lipjiring. Other burr's ari! in prniirass. 
Dw (oCal amonnt spent in artesian Itoring in South Austmlin to June, 
IttU. is Ht»t«d to he £495,086. 

The Govemuipi;t of Wcotem Auutmliu, following the example set by 
tbtn of the eattt«rn <wJonieai, propoNen to sink a line at wi-II.-i in thu 
AiMtiaQ oE thQ Cooigardie gohUtielil, and of th« South AuHtndiao 
b«nbr. 

In the province of Vtctorin the Government have sinco the year 1 886 
aucutod sevoral exporini«nt«l borings, but so far the results have not 
Wn euconragiii^ Artesian irat«r was, however, struck at Sale, in 
Gi}i^aiMi, as earl^ as the year 1S80, but the bore is not now used. 

Tlie iwrs so long entertained tJiat tlte search for uiidt^rground water 
nii^t pntve uanKeeuful hav« now bwn dissiimtt^d by the resultit 
(Wdy sUaiued, and botli privutc Itrinx and tlie 8t«ti! are ecuuluting 
fvit utbi-r in cxtttnding tlieir oprmtionK throughout tliu urid portionn 
af the caotincat, taeeving generally vrith iJic uiott pronouncud tuccun. 



274 



PASTORAL RESOURCES AND DAIRY 
INDUSTRY. 



NOTWITHSTANDIXO Hi- fart that Iho soil, climnto. and ^ 
ffenuuH herbage of AuBtralusio are admirably a(l«pt«d to I 
BUSlenaiice of animiil life, no utienipt w*.i niiule to teat ihe capabiH 
of tin- IrniJ UK a fii'ilinit-groon'l foi' tiorka iinil hcnia on a larg* ^ 
until tin? i?xnnip!() of (.'aptnin Macnvtliur hnri dcmonsitmU-J l>ey(ind dt 
tliat Naturi) fnvourcfl the proiluction in Australasia of a fjuality of 1 
un.su qiasmxl by tiiat of any part of the workl. Thm tlir Rrttlfni ht 
to unclprstand ami nlilifltr tie iiatui*t resources of th<? oountry, nn| 
the indomitable spirit of oxploralion gradually opened up thi- npporai 
boundless plalitH of llio inUtrior, jKiatoraliata vxteuded their domaiD:, I 
■heep and cattle iit incn-iuing numbc^rs spread owr tlie face of Ba^ 
AuKtrnlia. The expansion of the paaloiol industry in gradually coni 
ing tlwi cmi tnil »nd wost*rii portions of the continont into lioldingn dett 
to the product irjii of t!ie greatest element of the wpAlth of AustralnJ 

The begin nil!'.;*! of paatoral Miterpriae in Australia wern vpry hui^ 
The wliiitc -tr.i k of the community which accompanied Captain Pn 
compri 111 iiul\ I hull. -1 cowii, I calf, 1 xtalltuu, 3 mares, 3 foalfl 
sfaeop. 1 '2 piijK. and a fi-w gonti ; and nithoiigh tlie whole of tlw pra 
floekH and lurrdu of Australasia hnvo not sprung from these ana 
alone, it will be mrn on honr small a scali- the business of stock'rad 
was iimt ntti-niptjirl. No svstematic recoiil of the arrival of Block 9^ 
to have bi'im kepi in the early days of setllemont, hut it np(H-aM ^^ 
tlie p<^riod between Governor PliilUp's lauding and the yc-nr IJ'OO ' 
WITH itome slight im porta tioiis, chiefly of sheep from India. In 
ths stock in Auslndasin cnmprisrd G,l"21 sliecp, 1,044 cattle, 203 hc 
and a small number of Kwim- ; while in 1(*9I the numbers had in 
to I20,SG6,718 Hhwp, 13,35^,210 cattle, 1,891,19; hon<e«,aitd 1,191 
awinft. 

The following figures give the number of stflek in Aastr 
various epochs ending with 1851 : — 



lf«. 


ShMp. 


CkUiu. 


Bonok 


Bine. 


ITK 


lOil 

6,IM 

33.818 

290,153 

6.3IS.001 
17,336,031 


23 
l.OM 

11. '270 

1.014.833 

i.eai.ees 


n 

S03 

I.IH 

4.S04 

70.615 

180.431 


43 




4.017 
33,909 




1821 




69.086 




121.033 





XXCREASG OP LIVE STOCK. 



The progren unce }^Q\ is iHuHtrated in the following table : — 



375 



TImt. UiHip. 


OiUls. 


Usno. 


Swtne. 




4,030,839 

4.713.tl-J0 

8,7(W.e28 

n. SOI, 330 

13.359,'240 


459,970 

78'A538 

1,249.765 

1.785,833 
1,891.197 


303.417 

737.477 


1»1 IW.B47,B37 

)8M. I20.8ea.718 


903.371 
I.154,5.i3 
1.191.605 



The numbore of «&cli claas of stock i>er iuliabitaiit at the same periodi 
WW8 ax follow : — . 






TWf. 


9b«p. 


CUUt. 


Umim. 


Bwtni. 




t8-» 
S-2 
27-7 
SI'S 
2S1 


a-a 

2^ 

3-1 
3 
3-2 


0^ 
0-4 
0-4 
Oo 
0-5 


0-3 




0-4 


JwL. .H*a***«.« 


0-8 
3 




0-3 







IlwiU licMv-n tliiit in 18G1 tlit-re were 18-8 sheep for every pi-rson in 
Autrakxu, irtiiii; iti 1S94 the numlwr had grown to 29-1 ; on the other 
iuod, cattle gnvo tli(- satoe nverage [icr hciud in both ycArs, although 
dniiig tbe intervening |>(.-rioil the niinilier wns eualler than 3'2. The 
ImadiDg of horeos and swine ha.-' nbout kept pnce with the populaliou. 



Shrep. 

The suitability for paftoral ptireuitA of the land diticovered in tlie early 
days of New South Wales was undoubtedly the means of inducing the 
infant colony to take iu first step on the path of comiuercial progfesa 
and it is not a little sut-jiriiiing at this distance of titue to note how 
ateadity some of the aettlerK. in the faee of the almost insiirinountaWe 
difficulty of tntnMport whieli existed a century ago. availed thi'mselvi!H 
of the vpportunitiRi at tiicir disposal. Tbe importntion of valuable 
specimens of shi-ep from England or the Capn of Good Hope prior to tlm 
introduction of steam wns At all limes attended with grejit risk, and it 
frequently happened that many of these costly animals died during the 
tediona voyage. These enterprises were, however, on the whole success- 
fnl, and thus the flocks and herds of the colonists surely, if at first 
■lowly, increnaed and multiplied. 

By the ycftr l"*."! Captain Maearthur, one of the first promoters of 
diMp-brecaing in Ni^w i^uth WbIi-h, bad accumulated a flock of 1,000, 
which wore held in great estimation, and gradually increased in valun 
until, aa roeorded by an entry in hia journal ten years later, the market 
price of % firt wether had risen to £5. Not satisfied with (be natural 



276 



PASTORAL RESOraCES. 



inoreftM of bift locks, Macartfanr sought to improTe tlio quality oi 
fleeues^ bv which lueaos he could see opening before him llw ;m>ini 
grent wmlth atid the prospect of eetabliahing imporUut cuhirk 
rfiliitionx wiUi Great Britain. With liivue »iuU in view, hi- prot 
from thi! Cape <Jf Good Hope, at greut aunt Kxd troublv, a nntnh 
superior rnmii and cwus. A Imppy drtumxtarici: fnrouml his o 
prise ; for he hnil tlie good fortune to ni-ciim poKtrmion of thre« 
and tive ewos of very lino Hpiini»h brcitiii, wbich hnd been pr«M 
by the King of ■Spitin to the notch (.iovominent Tl)c«e &iiim«k, o' 
a total of twenty-nine purchased at the Gape, arrived in Sydiiey ux 1 
and w«r(! disposed of to various breeders. With the exceptlo 
Macartliur, however, lliose who had securtwi aheep of tbo Hup«nar I 
mndn no attempt to follow up this odvantjt^, bting probably oi 
satisliod with the larger gaiits from the salu of an incriioscd numb 
animalH. Macarchur, on tlm otiier hand, thgught littln of pnvcBt pr 
•nd still leas of breeding entirely for human consuoiption. H« a 
tively watched the results of crossing his imported rams with tie 
atook, and by systematically selecting th« finer ewea which were 
ofHipiiii}; for further mingling with tiie sires, ho ^dually iuiprovet 
Mtiuin, mid iu u few yvAn obtained fleecea of very Cine texture w 
met with the ready appmrintion of Rng[li>ih mnnuracturnm. It hu 
asserted llmt MncnrtJiiir n'as tint thn fimt txi intrndiiee merino sfaof^ 
Austiwlia ; but whcthrrr this )>c no or nnt, tboTs is no doubt tiiat to 
U due the credit of having been the first to prove that the prodndfa 
line wool oould be made a profitable industry in New South Wales. 
Prior to the present century the production of the fiivest wool had 
condnnd uiiieQy to Spun, and woollen iiiaiiufac/tures were neccM 
corrind on in England upon a soinewhat liiaitcd scale, which wax not li 
to itnprnvo in face of cn^in restrictions which the oporocim 
dtMvoured to place upon their enployem. These tnen, in aappo 
their contention that the woollen trade could not be expanded on ao« 
of the limitoii Hiipply of raw mot^'rial, argued that fine wool waa oh 
able only in Spain ; and it was at this favourable period that ^taou 
arrived in England with specimens of the wool obtained frotu hia I 
oheep, conoluairely proving the capabilities of Australia as a woolpn 
ing country, lu thin way he opened up willi English monufactail 
amnll trudr which, us Auatraloatan wool ro.<ce in public esttmatioD, gi 
ally increaiml until it mtchcKl itu prcmnt enormouH dimeniiiotiK- Lhl 
his visit to Kngland, Iklocorthur purchaned an additional stock of t«i i 
and evos of tbo noted Spanish breed, nearly equal iu quality to I 
which in 1797 he hud procured from the Cape of Good Bope. * 
theae animals were the finest obtainuble iti Eura|)e may be gatherod i 
the fact tliey also bad formed portion of a prcannt from the King of & 
to G<>orgo in. Thua did Macarthur, niter hia return to Now 8 
WalM, patiently conlinu« for many years the proce« of idactioB, 
■nob aueetH tbat in IHH, when his Hock was finally divpersed, it 



INCREASE OF SUEEP. 



^77 



•d tbat hk xuperior ew«s numbpTvtl fallj 1,000. Ticteria MMuml 
iaisbl* pardan of bi* flock, aiid iim procMn of bircding pix>- 
■nralteiMouftly in thnt tad adicr mljiu^nt coiflntei. 
pa^ the incpnwin in ihn numbi-m of thn finer shcqi wm mtin- 
r Um importation cf superior ntock wns not discontinuod, and the 
f the MtloniM WAS augmented in 1823 and 1325 by Iho further 
ktion of Spaniafa shMtp^ Sheep-breeding was about this period 
wed in thu Alud^^ee district of New South \\'ales, tiid the 
' of tliMt rf|E:ion bui pruddcnl a more &Tourable raiuli upon the 
of the flr«o)^-i thuii thnt i>f uiiy oth(^^ tiHrt of tha colony, and it 
inca that tbc finest mi-rinoH wi:rL' for a loiij; time pnKiir«d. As 
I be ezpnctrd, tlin clitnato lian in hoiiii< reiqtectii chnii^wtfl Ibn 
V ot Che Spaniiih tIcMc. Tiif wool hns bniomn Koft^ir and morn 
Vid while it has diminish*^ in di-naity it hsu; incTwwed in liwigth, 
itbs weight of tlie fleece has only slightly altered. The tunlity 
frDol has thus »n the whole improved under thn beneficial 
)e of thu diiuali?, and if no furtbei' eiihaucenient of it« intrinMC 
■n be reasonably hi>|MHl for, there is nt Ittmt I'very reason to 
tbat Australasian vuol will nisintaiii its prejtent high standard 
Uenoe. 

bllovinf; table shows the number of nheop in «ich cnlony nttlu- 
■ 1S61 and 1894 ; also the annunl increase percent, in compnrison 
Kt of tht! iKtptilalioa :— 



Ctkaj. 



SxaahKr uj Sh0a|K 



l»t. 



ISM. 



IWltolKH. 



par Mnt. pir mil. 



^ WalM . 



inil , 

Iwtnba 

AaMnlia... 



S,niS.054 

4,0S)3.3K1 
9,088,360 
178,578 
1.7U.498 
2,761.583 



23. 7*1,708 



.>B.!)77.2Ti> 


7-S7 


1:!, 1 sii.ina 


2-29 


IV>»7,i»)l 


i-m 


7,325.i)a'l 


270 


2,13!>,311 


B'SS 


1.727.200 


0-02 


19,936.300 


ft-17 


I20,8(1G,718 


noe 



3-S7 
3-SS 

317 

1-70 



3'117 



inia is the only colony of tbe group in which the business of 
r«MlinK lias not atlvanoird sini-e 1801, though, stmngu to aav^ it 
fUrly vrell adapti'd fur slit*p raiKing, and its stud (Ioc'k!< are well 
End annually dmwn upon to improve the lirecd of siteep in the 
dIoiuml In all tii«< other pmvincps tJiPrc has l>orn n Rintprial 
1; but in Qtincnflland, Victoria, iind Mouth Australia tlic pro- 
'of nfaeep Ium declined as compar«i wilti tho popiilation. ThrTp 
sabetantial iiurease in the number of sheep de[<astured 





PASTOR.\L RESOURCES. 

ill Queensland during the period cy>vnrr<l by (ho tnlilv, but tin? pojiuUtioo j 
liu j>roKro8B*d al & luti! tiven more rapid. In SoaCb Aii»trnli» the 
tuiupied to hLi!C|> is liiEiitcd, and no great expansion in Khccp-faimiDg 
can bi' IooIcchI for. As regards Victoria, t.lie iniporlAiit strides made bj 
that proviiici- in agrifulture and kiudretl pursuits aSbrd suffide 
explnnntion »f the slow ruU- at wliicli its floeka are iucreann^. 
follovnng Rtnti'inGiit shows the proportion of Hbeep in «ach colony to < 
total Socks of Austrnlasia. In 1S61, out of every 100 siHWp, Kcw Sout 
Wales depastured U3-7, while in lKlf4 its j>ro[H>rtion had incrtuumd 
ill, or little short of onp-lialf the total Hoicks. In tlic latter your Ni^wl 
Zealand came second, with 16'r> per cent. With tiie rxc^tion of 
tvo colonies named, and of Western A\i8tralia, the proportion of sheepi 
depastured in each colony to the total number of sheep in Australasia 
was lesK in 1S94 tlian it was in 18G1 : — 



CoIqii)'. 


IWl. 


ISM. 




p«rceDt> 
83-7 
86-3 
I7-4 
12-8 

1-S 

7-8 


p«r ROnt. 
47-1 
10-9 




s-i 




i-« 




14 




]0-£ 




100 -0 


100 '0 







The valne of the sherp de|ifisturHl in AustnilauB, on the hnis a£ ' 
average prices ruling in 1S<J5, was X3S,i 47,000, thaa dig t ribated i 
the various provinces : — 

£ 

N^v South W&1«> .„....„ „ u 17,8(0,000 

Victorid _ 4,341,000 

Quceiuland S.14{,000 

South Australia S.OU.OIX) 

Wrjtvm Auctntlia , «!)3,U00 

Tuifnania ..,„ 777,000 

N«w ZMlaud 7,975.000 

Auitrahwia j:3S,T4T,000 



Cattle. 

Excqit in Quoenslnnd, cattle-breeding in tlin AustnilnBiui eoloUMi 
secondare- to tliat of sJieep. In New South Wales th* 
rolatirely to population, does not occupy so important a position as ^f>" 
formerly did, the increase having only been SD per cent, since liS61, ac 



ISCiUJASK Of CATIXB. 



279 



at Uh< nU- of 0-2C per cent, per Kiiiiuni, uhilo (iuring llw ttanie period 

the [Mipulacioti h«s iiicnTiwed ut ihi? rate of 3-87 aDniulljr. The towMit 

point was rmch<;d in 1KS">, whi-n the hci-da only nnmbNed 1,317,315, 

On mtilt iMtrtlj of contiiiuouK bml neaxona, but priiioipallv of tli<.- luure 

pro6labla character of <>h<'rp'f Arming, which had jikIucmhI (^nzien uu 

many rima to sulfotitHtp shcej) for cAttle. Since lliat period thu improve- 

menl hwt been smdunl, niid, though small, would tm-rn to initiciilc u 

diiipoaition on the part of paatoraUsta in Home jmrln of the colony to 

devote more atti-ntion to catt!«-kr«Mliiig. The prugrtwi of Victoria in 

tkii direction bax lievn >t«ndy ; hut altlioug)) the total number of cattltt 

wM nMrly thmc timrs as great iit 11^9'i as it wax 33 y«ars bofore, 

the poaition occupiMi t>y the colony in rclatioti to th« other provinces 

iWHuned moch the wune ax in It^lil. Qucn^tnnd hu largely JDcreased 

itolwfils, and now powesscH ■>2'r> per cnnt of lh« total cattl« of the irbole 

poup. Nevf Zealand and West<irn Austmlia — especially the former — 

ihow devilled iiuproveinenl, and the breeding of this da&a of Ktoclc accms 

tolii) grMtly in favour in those colouice. 

Tlie following Uble sbova the number of cattle in I86I and 1894, 
»ith the ye»riy inen-am- per cent, during the intervening period, as well 
isllie mte of growth of tfn? populut.ion : — 



ctkar. 


XumlMtolCkltlL '°°™" ^l^JT "™"' 




UU. im. 


Cattla. 


^opululoa. 




2,371, «a3 
II28,0[)2 

3.'»,7!IS 
t«7.ll4 


2.465,411 

1.833,000 

7,O12.0ff7 

67fi,I84 

187,214 

177,038 

LIMIT »M 


0-25 
3-30 
7B8 

5-33 

2'17 
S'13 


S-ST 


Vicion* 


S'SS 




S*17 


VeMrn Aa*traUa „ 

TMutma ....... .,.*,H*M,4*> 


fi-14 

1-70 
G-U4 










4,039,830 l3.3fifi!Ua 


3-69 


3-87 












Ttu! ^aiif. of the cattle in Aiuti'alasia, on thi- basis of the average 
iJtii^i ruling in IKD.'i, wna X^7,0U 2,000, thtiadividi^i nraongst the various 
provinoeB: — 

£ 

N«» SuntU Wal«i „.„. 11394,000 

Victoria tS;Ml,«W 

(toMfwlutd _ - I0.4in.000 

fkmtli AMtralia S,8H:.(>0() 

Wntani Anitralia _ 1,077. INK' 

TauMiiU ,. l,44.'?,«)l) 

Sew ^caUnd ti,0:.y,(l(iO 

AwtnluU £57,008.000 



IIL&L KEJIOrBCBS. 





Ilomn. 

. , lor Ui«i hn-nling of moat 

hm hag bMu dtff<ct«d to thU umIh 
•f ■ fcw ia l Iw iiii harawi wan uaric 

■Asm thocMgkfared AmbuuiB (rooi 

w ■• MfB >■■» wliieh mu n«|uirMl by Um hoi 

^«» hcH; <1m Ha aliwwhiiM of fiiood piwtiira «vci] 

M ta Ihb mMlt. TIm native kaoarM 

» Ml af nocbvtiM nattwi-, mmI joang 

«. TUiaboMlHiMofiatamlptOTeiKlsrd 

toMDcfcdlUMMtUM^trkirii would hft^l 

had H M« hMH lk»l tU genenl cKaapneM o* hwi 
'•^— rffciw^iig In eotUMiaMiroe of tiioiiiMi 
■HMW *wy Ugk priood tTndor ordiiiAry ow« 
• VBaU htt« k<ni faTixmble (o br«<iltog, mmI nJ 
» Twiura. la >"•» Soutli WiOwt, bowaver, jlw 
k« «C tU MMk fl( tlwt eobnr, udadiag a I 
4A»aai«itMU*hnMiiB(nMK%«rMtftkMi WTiet 
ik tiMft* «MMT *iMn ■flair tba goM riuli th« bona. 
„— a^ 9H^ fcW rHw wA Om Jm of stock only tMf 
tk»«hwH^W^ HMV VM fibi H y in|)n>v«d both by tba import 
itf %■* ^Hk ^tm b^Md, bmI by ibo juaidoas sel«ctitn ot mw 

"^ "*-' ^wbUy il ^tH to tte broeiiiny of wtUtle m»J I 

I ia k 4»b»fcl whether those mrtionlar bte« 

lOfoMfwIwfw sumyHiL The bnah horn bh 

» of Makinf *«7 long Md npM jonraeys «hi 

«ai^<t« ift» fl&ii i y hwbiv* •^ **►* comitiT ; and in timw of 

«tei ife ((^ Mil <n»v hava hteome iwuity, tbase aniiiMla 

; iMto Hi •odnnuim Goncrally spMkiiA 

, i»»im^ to ih* hitfoduotian of sii[i(>rior sUid h 

mtm. Wlwre there baa Ijcm ■t(et<'rvv.««ii.« 
_ iiriB»hii»*»I"I»*«luigfnHowoedymareafor raoinipan 

wi«»«h»«ak««io(dKHi«faL *'^ 

Jhtl^M^ Iho dmaiMl in Ttwiia is fair, and Australia h «■ 
^Hhi« b<aM wUofc aofipUM may be Jerivrd, the spcKuIatioii of SS 
^■■a ihMf* i* OM B|Ma Id maoy rinkii, iw, apart (not the danpi 
y^ ivCfNI*^ th*<V ^ always an uncertainty aa to the atoefc h 
mmV^ Owiiift therefore, to ilut liinitod foreign deiuand, it hn 
^M «Mw4 a)l««alat>oiisto bmm) bam« for any hut local reqaimiu 
tV (tilh>«{ii« UMe ahowM tli« mitnlwr of hunrs in each colofiy al 
ui<l 1^91. alao the proportion to the total at ■wA pa 
. s.<uib WalM poncaeed 00-7 per cent, of all the hom 
<ria baiagaaaoad, with 18-S per ecnt In 19H 1 
. , held Um landiiut poaition aa n^rds nuntl>«r», iai 
^ W Um whole had fallen to 37-4 peretnt. QoeenMlaBd 







ZNCBKASE or HORSES. 



Nsw Zoland exliiliit relfttivolj tlie most jirogrvss, having increnscd 
their ix«pnctivc proportions froin €'3 nnd 6'2 per cent in 1861 to 33'5 
and U-SpercenL in l^'JI :— 



Xambvr of n p ri fc 



rat«ii»e of each oniony ta 
MuTaUtutnluu. 



Oola*;. 


1<»L 


UM. WL 


U»4. 




»1,(1S7 
ES.1IS3 
02.697 
I0.T20 
22.118 
28.275 


431,047 
444, J OH 
S01.4W 
50,001 
34,835 
211,040 


10-3 
6'3 

11-4 
9-3 

ts 

6-2 


27-4 




22 '8 




23-S 
10'7 




2-0 




IS 




11-2 








450,970 


1,891.197 


100-0 


lOO'O 



TIm value at hortm in th/ti varitiDn cfllonira is 4«tjtnatc<l an follows : 

N«w South WaUa n.!)»A,WK) 

Victoria _ _ a.5:ill/mi) 

Soath Aiiriralia ^ „ 1.491 ,OIH) 

Wntani AiuttntiB „ 40i),(M)0 

IVMinailia _ 227,000 

K»ir ZcaUad ^ 1.700,0(10 

AnlralMia. „ iU.UO.OOO 



Te* Flocks asd Hekdb of the Wohi-d. 

following tAbli! givMt Uie flocks ami hirtln of ea,fli of the great 

IDS of tbfl rIoIm-. Tlio n-tiims nrr- thu liitrat Hiailiitile, and, witli 

ike ejcoeption of thi»<^ for AuatnLlnsin, aw liasfri on tigart^ given in tlie 

ittof tfaeSutistidftD tolhc Aiui^rican JVpartmcntof Agriciittutx:: — 




OcmUmil 



ittieep. 




cuuk. 



SVlBSh 



1B7.1««.000 
SO.ffK.OO") 
.'i5,58W.0O(» 
U7,ij:t3,OI)() 
120.S*1,")(« 



104.4.10,000 

liO.SI7.000 

ti.CWl.^.OOO 

It.l.^lT.OOO 
13,500,0<lt) 



3fl.4ftS.000 
4,279.000 
1.230.000 

2:i,20:i,[ioii 
i.Ny7,oi>o 



4e.]S4,000 
480.000 
547.0OO 

50,7X3.0(10 

1.227.000 



S3l.D74.00O 300,309,000 67.101,000 109,210,000 



• lurliulliit IVaao Uludi; 



283 




PASTORAL BESOURCES. 



STOCK-CARaVlXH CArACriTV OV AusriEALAtlA. 



None of thf! rnlonira is stockt^ to its full tupadty, while In thft lnT^> 
territory of Wwtwn AuKlrnliii anti in the Nurtbi*ni tcurilory of South 
AualnUia the process has only began. A clwir itiini of tbo coiupnraiivc 
ext*nt to wLicI) each colony in utockrtl ntnnnt bp given unless lie i 
dilTi-n^jit kinda are redtici^d to n common valun AMnmitig, therefore, 
tliiil on« Ijeud of large slock is (equivalent to ten slicwp, and Etiilina 
cttttli^ wid horwat in terms of sheep, it will be fouQd iJiat the number of J 
acres {(cr sheep (or each colony is as foUowa : — 

V«W Sonth Walel ...„ „ S-3 



Victoria 

QUCCDbIbHiI .••.>».•;. 

South Auitr«]ift 



..» 1-6 

..»....»,., 4-5 

33-9 

WmK™ Aiiatntlla 1387 

Tasiuaiiia ...—.. 4'4 

New Zealand „ *2'I 



AustntlMls 



72 



I 



Thf moat dowily-Htocked colony is Victorin, with 1 "6 acroH per sht^-p, 
but tliiH ix by no mcanii the limit to tlie cnrrying-capaHty of that pro- 
vinco : on thn contmry, tli«r(i in still a conndfrabJc tract to be brought 
under the sway of tluf purtomlist. Neither Npw Zeftlaiid nor New South 
Wales, with 21 and 2'8 acTM per ahorp rpflpectively. can be sutd to 
have reached its full cariying-cajiacitT. If the jji'e^^iit uvera^t of Nrv 
South W«lc« be taken as the pos^bie limit to which AuntniUutin may b«> 
Rtookiid, then there U room in these colonies for ^t^O million she«p 
or AS million cattle :nore than are now depaHturecL That Australa&ia 
could cam- I KJH'cp to 2'3 ticn-ii, howevt^r, in nn impr<ibnl>lo sup])Oattion ; 
in ntmoKt rrvvty colony tim Ih-kI land in under occupation, and tba 
domnuds of tho farmer must iliniitdKh the area »t present at tJie diaposol 
of the graxier. This will more cxpcriaily prove true of Victoria, N«iw 
Zealand, and Tasmania. On tho other hand, by )«stsl.iii^- the tewptatton ^ 
to oveiatock inferior country, and by incwaffliig the imturul carrying- ■ 
ca|)u<;ity by water conservation and irHjiration and bv Ui« artificial^ 
cultivation oi' Knutaea, the colonies in which agriculture has atnde moat 
progrrm wilt bti nblf! to carry stock in uvrn lar^r uumbvrs tlian they 
have hitherto attcmptral. Taking nil circumstancrs into consideration, 
it may be fairly estimate*! that under the present syat«m tie culoni(« 
are capable of maintaining, in ordinary seasons, stock e(|uivalfut to 
390,000.000 alieep ; that is, about IICOOO.OOO slieep or their exguivalcnt 
in cattle more than are now depofilured. 



RETURN FROM PASTORAL PUBSflTS. 



283 



Th« number of Atock in Auflralaeia, expresaed i» Uirnia ot thetji, 
ibc naml«r of acres per dieep, and llie number of ^iii<-p pnr hr-sd of 
populatiou, at various dat«a naea 1861, were uh givm Ih.-1i>w :^ 





Ckltli^ 1 HonM 




Am« 


ShHpptF 


1 Tw. 


Shtnp. in tonim (if in UmiH ol 


T0UI. 


I»r 


h«^or 


L 


Shtoji, 1 sh«]k 




ehotp. 


Pnpulitlan, 


Kb 


23.7*I.70fi 


40.3il8,390, i.^im.lW fiS,7ai),7!Hi 


2S-7 


54-3 


IWI 


49.'TA.:iSi 


47,IX'2W 7,«i>.5S()' !(M,:37.;W4 


18-8 


53-2 


1WI 


7s,f)e3,«« 


K7,()iNi,280 


|-.'.4!»7.'i5l)' 177,Hn7,3.i« 


11-1 


83-9 


)«ii 


I34,M:.!137 


II«.(113.3(K1 


l7,Wi«,3.W !2(il,Ot9..*«7 


7-5 


67-4 


IKM 


1-20.866,718 


I33.5lrjr.400l 18,illl.»70. 'iTS.STl.OSS 

1 : 


7-a 


65-8 



VAtUB or Pastobai. Piiopertt asd Pkouuctiok. 

The total value of paatoraJ property in Australasia^ that is, of 
iiDpr(ivenu.-uUi, plant, and atock — was estimnieii in 189G nt X2J0, 1 1 6,000, 
vd nf ttiin litrgK Kuni £7(^,433,000, nr nt^urly otin-thin], belonged to 
>'nr Kotith WalcB. In that amount tlio vnliin of Htock alono fpxcluUiiig 
mnr) comes to about jElOy.SHi'i.OOO. No account is laki>n of llio vaJue 
(f laiid devoted to pastoral purposes for though niiiclt pun-hiLsed Iniiil 
itnsed fordepaaturin^ stock, tlie larger area comprisoe lauds k-uKcd from 
Uie Statu, so tliat a atatvuii-ut which omilt«d to take into account the 
raJiK of iht! Statu U:ida would be misleading. The annual return from 
putomi purmit.1 in 189 1-5 wua X3'l,30j,000, the share of each colony 

Uu! toiml ptiKluctJoii bdiig aa follows : — 

New Soutli Walc» „ £I3,3HO,000 

Victoria „ 4,802,(100 

Qii«ciiiiljisil G.5S)T,000 

SMtliAiMtnJU... l.HSl.OOO 

W<at«ni AuttnLha 401.000 

Taraiania .,...: „ fiflO.OOO 

Kcw ZM]«nd .....i.i..........».-... 7.47'.000 

Aurtntliwia £34,31)4,(100 

■ u4 nndlMitS of dairy cattle and awine are not included in thi^ fore- 
gcKn^ nlMMDt, Uic fi;;urea being given in another place. It should bn 
undrnrt<yyl ihut tlie vuluca i^noted an- those nt the pl.oce of production. 
TliP valac of till! return from vadi clas.s of alocU niity be approximately 
reckoned ux follows : — 

Sfcom..... £2S.](I8,000 

Cattb 6,HSI.OOO 

R««wa 2.515,000 

TMal «.„..,..» £34,304.000 




284 



PASTORAL BESOCBCES. 



Ah iDiKlit be ftu|>poMe(l, tJi« grMter t>art of tU« vnlue of stock ratatw 
iH <lu« to wool. ThuH, out of Uie £3 (.301.000 <|tiot.-<J *\mv,-, X 19,793.000 
in th.'Vnliii!of wool, ri*.: — ilS.el.'i.OOO for wool ci[<r>rtnl,i>n<l£lKO.O0O 
for wool usntl louilly. Th<i wool export of tbo AustnlMinu colouim 
during l$m w«« 74!l,404,7i>0 lb., weighed in tb« gntase, and the quantity 
uasd locally e,4«9,873 lb., makiRg the total clip 749.8»4.633 lb. He 
valueof tiieoxports, according to tJie Costonis ratunts, was £20,292,000 — 11 
that is to say, £G77,O00 more Uiau Uie 6gaMB shown above.. The l| 
cxcow represents the cost of freight, hftndJtn^, and brolcerafc" brtiroen 
th« idM.>cp-WHUeii and thu |>ort of siii|im«tL 

The quantity and value of tho wool clip in tlic an-aan i% givrn for fmch 
colony in the nubjoitK!!) talil« for the yt'nn 1.'<K] and 1^'J4. The 
vnlno of the cli|> of tlio lattf.i- your in Victoria, South Australia, 
Wir^tom Aiisti'nlia, iin<l 'rnsniiuiia docs notcomparo&voutably with that 
of 1881 ; but all tho coloni^^s, with the exception of Sout^ Australia, M 
show an improvement in the qunutity of the clip, tliis iaoroiuit- bein;; 1 
n-latively greatest in QueeiiBknd, Ni.-»' Zealand, and Ni-w Soiilli Waleit 
Ken- South Wales niaintaitia its hij;!! |)OHttiou as a woo! producrr ; and it 
oannut be denieil tnul in Kew Zc^ulund idienp'tireMling ia a fionndung 
conoem, for tJiough the number of nhcrp in 1((94 was not latgiriy in 
exccas of that in 1885, thin wa« mainly due to the lieavj demand upon 
the reiunirces of the province for the supply of stock to meet the 
Fef|uirenieuts of the London market in frozen rantton. Tu conipanng 
tli« weight of the clip with the number of sheep Hhora in bkH rolony, 
it will 1)0 BBOn llial the New Zealniui clip is piTi]K>rlionntp!jf th«> hnatHrsl, 
a:id that the Wi-st<u'n Australian and Qtiecuslnnd clips arti the ligbtN*. 





W<i)[1>t of dip in tiiia 


VlllM. 


CDloiijr. 


UN. 


UH. 


un. 


UM. 


Now Sooth WalM 


tb 

137.881,700 

5S.8a3,«00 

93,^32.500 

U.3'2tt.«00 

4.I0T.U»0 

8.2611.700 

70.787,000 


R> 
36I.630,34S 

G8.'>74,89B 


:. 187,700 

s.M2,soa 


l>,038>.STt 




t. am -Its 




1.SS1.900 1 <.afi&.9n» 


Snuth AuntraUa ...._ 


4(1,i:H).(I'J!> , l,573..lm) 1,098.126 
It.WO.WI 2S(>.7()0 208,981 




!),:il.3,;i30 'I9X.400 ffrtTtWM 




161,;l01.eiG 2.910.000 


*,83r 'S2 






Anatralaiia 


a78,73&S00 


T4S.8Bt,G33 1«.3X1,«00 


ia,VM,asa, 



According to returnn prepared in Ijondon, the nunibiT of hales 
AtDrtralsmnn wool itnp>rt«<] into Eurojx^ and America daring thr yt 
1894 was 1.896,000. which wrrr vniuml at j£l I lOs. per hale, givinn i _ 
total of £21,804.000. Thi- avrnp- |iricr per hale in Sydney during the' 
year waa £10. In comparing thvsu prices, it moat be remembered U>at 



FKICES OF WOOL VS LONDON. 



28? 



aot only 1ut« frvighl «ad cJinr^nH to ho a<lcl«<i to the Australian valu^ 
bat aotiMi aUowanoi! moat bo mitilc for th« diffeivuce in th^ ((uiility aiul 
•omiitiaii of tii« wool dolt with in the AustraliAn uiorkutx aiul in 
Loodon. Lup; (juntitiw of tlw inf«nar portioDs of the clip intuiuled 
forMdomtho London markc>t are sooured prior tu uljipinmt, xiiil tbi^ 
UmdoD price ia tbe(«fot« raiHed to au sver*f;e conuidt^rubly htjclu-r tfann 
tbe Bydoey or Melbourne yviix iritli fTvifflit and clmrKea added. Similar 
retoma for ih» yistr 1^95 sltow t)i« impiirtit into Guropi! and AmoricR. 
w2,001,OOObat«H, viiIandat£22,0ll,00LI— adM:muDof lO*. por bale rni 
the 1694 pricni, notaithxtiinding tho Hm! to tlic price of wool in the 
kttrr p«n of tlm year. 

The «v«ragD price per lb. obtained for wool in groaee, at tlie London 
Vool Sales, (or the five serioa during oach year from Ibt^S, was as 

UlOWBi— 



Xh Booth Wilin. 
(OeadHciiaa^ 



(OaDd Matm.} 



IXSS „..., 

W9B 

I«97 

US8 

laSB .._ 

WO 

MBl 

«« 

ins 

IBM ._ 

1895 



d. 
61 
Si 
91 

S| 
10 
10 

? 

7 



(Uood CnM bnd.) 



It will 1m> noticed that Victorian wool avora^x a tittio If-ss tliaa 
2d. per lb. hijchiT than Neu- South Wnlog wool. Tho figures most ho 
tskmi with qualillc^ion. Much of th« Kcw Moutli Wi^Ios wool, tbo 
pvodact of tbi! Rivcriua diHtricts, is exported iii'ii Melbourne and 
mU aa Port Phillip u-uol, and briti;fa a price cooBidentbly in exei-na 
of the average girini in the table for tbe colony of which it is tba 
produo». 



Thb Frozbk-Meai Tru». 



In vi«w of tbe large inavaae of stock which a sucrnsHioii of Ijivour- 
aUe •diMiDM ban brougbt to the flock-Diasters of Anstrainsia, tho ijuration 
of the tliiyfiwl ot the xurjiIuK cast has become a matt'T of very 
Miiiimii fiiiiiinnnniirn In Kew Bouth Wales ospeeially, and in the 
Birerina diatriet in particular, it was found necoRHuy to have reoourae 
to the old Eoelbod of boiling down, which a fortuoale riae in the price 



386 



PASTORAX KESOURCBS. 



of tallow mB(l« it powibin to aurry on with ft iiiart;in of profit : but 
Huch pHceK lu hari! nilml fiir tnllo«- during; lli« {xuit few ye*n it cM 
Iw Skid tlut boilitig-ilown ofinra nny inductwMnt to the pMton 
alllnoaffli in II494 Hat prodnction of IaIIow in tlic colony raadial 
lurgo quantity of 1,069,100 irwt. In New ZmlADd a mudi M 
solattOQ of the quMtioD of dis|>08al of tbo surplus nwt wm fooDd, ■ 
trail<> in fraien mutton with tbo United Kingdom hM h«sn wUblil 
on a thoroughly payable haBJo— an example vhich aome of tbe a 
colonies are eiideuvouring to follow, although oonuderably ha»diM| 
by t]i« want of crosa-brMl nbeep and tlie prejudice of thn Ei| 
oonminer DK^iiiHt nwrino uiuttun. 

Tbo lint nuoccsHful nttitnipt at shipping froxcn mutton to Englttd 
iDtidc in Now /ralnnil in l^.S!^, and iHiKy tlirn thn trade luu atttii 
great proportions, lo tlie immediate benefit of tbo Colonial ]>rO(liKA 
wr«ll as the Hnglish oonsnmer. The trade initiated by the Nr* ftdi 
Land Oompojiy haa been extended by the formation of nummmji 
Btoclt cotapanios, which now own twetity-one meat-frecMiig woHbIb 
two ialauds, havInK an a^i^rvgate tAi>avity for freezing about ifitfii 
sheep per year. Tlin shii-ji are gtmenilly kilW up country, and H 
ported l>y rail to the frntxing wurlcK. Four fleota of Mounen 
engaged in tbo tnido, and the freight raten cliargpd nnable tlte ootnpi 
to realiiKi Mtisfactory ]>roflt8. The -trowth of the froxen and pmn 
meat industries of New Zealand sinee 1881 is shown in the foOa* 
table. The shipments are almost excluuvety mode to tbe Pu 
Kinodom :^ 



Tai: 






nuwu ar CbillBl Ua 


t 


I-,.. 
















Uttt. 


Vntton, 


lAiub^ 


KUIMn 
■RdtARita. 


WttehL 


1M*J 
Vdor. 


W.HI* 




c*t. 


anatm. 


tanuea 


en. 


BIU 


t 


lb. 


lau 


.... 












1.07I.SM 


IMI 


.... 









U,3M 


tM» 


W»».»«l 


UBS 


MT 






Mum 


KT.nt 


iihw 


!.»».<«■ 


IMH 


I.IMt 






tia,m 


uuw 


U&fiSt 


i^i<a,:H 


IBW 


tt,i;<) 






an,wi 


SMU3I 


«UM 


4.MT,1M 


UM 


U,»l 






XSM<S 


MC.TM 


ttUM 


CUMM 


I»7 


0.100 


oM.rai 


liO^ia 


4£l,4nA 


49I,0U 


«M,Mt 


<,7UMa 


USd 


M.AIS 


au.MS 


M.«a 


MKI.NO 


ui^aig 


«lllO 


«.>iMmI 


lan 


W.SH 


ini).<M 


IM.TM 


W1.U4 


OH^tt! 


rmjKi 


i.m.tM 


1«U 


OS.tM 


i.iao.ire 


sn.Tii 


TM.ni 


IH8» 


\/m,m 


«.na.»» 


IIQl . 


liKI.OOT 


tM7,iSS 


tmju* 


na.ou 


n)*oi« 


LlW.ltt 


t.l4T.«N 


iim 


M;<isa 


l.SIO.TUi 


aojm 


•OMM 


■ti.ut 


IjOB^SH 


i.MD.m 




n.out 


1.1M.WT 


4IMK 


SSMIS 


SNLtl* 


wr«,«f 


t.«M,tW 


m 


1.0S.Ut 


MJMt 


t,l)OI,S«t 


I.WUM 


umTTo 





FBOZKS-MEAT TKADK OP QUEENSLAND. 



287 



Ainoojjtst Ibo oottlineRtal colaDiun tlm frax(-n-iii«at tnuic hns rpAch^ 
iU largmt dimcDtions in Qucoiixlnnd, nUhough oE course tlif exports 
oowUi chiellj of Iwvf, thn tmHc in mutton fomiirtg but ono^lo^entti of 
UiB wholly So tar wA tboy cnn lip given, the tigurcs sbowuig tLe growili 
of thr (Jiif«ndnni:l frowti'meal tradp, im well as tJi« i^xports of preserved 
will be found below ; — 







FToEVJi or 


ChdJtd Meat. 




rntmdVixL 


T<u. 
















BmC 


KDlhm. 


TdUI 
Wsioht. 


Total Vmlns. 


Wdirtit- 


Tilu*. 




owl. 


owt. 


owt 


£ 


Ih. 


£ 


tS8l 










2.270.409 

i.8S9.18U 
6.729.721 


39,fica 

119,343 
151.001 


188-J 










1883 






1,901 


2,IG1 


1881 






8.082 


11.240 


2,298.606 


ST. 101 


isas 






a.02S 


9,003 


8,3n(i,4S2 


171,432 


ISS6 






0.331) 


13,103 


13(),ISGS 


l.:j?f; 


ISST 










S,2?il70 

3.ae4.4i9 

8!i3.621 


99,653 

77,887 
10.743 


, ISS8 
f IBS9 










8,74J 


I5,fi42 


iM,2S- 


112,240 


1890 


30,2^3 


a3.7«l 


5I,0.TJ 


"G,»08 


2,780,881 


44.040 


1801 


6S.fi09 


33.608 


106.307 


Iti 1.345 


3,333.317 


59.032 


1892 


lit,H» 


51,595 


I7J.791 


270,113 


0,030.03,^ 


ee.S28 


ISfKl 


20t..^9 


21 .898 


226.2.17 


377,039 


8,001,788 


143.14S 


ISBI 


301.837 


32.187 


334.024 


498.6.VJ 


15.344.826 


2S0.646 



Knct 10 "Sov Zeslhnil, the largest exporter of frnjcii mutton la New 
Soatb WaJes, During t.he livst few years greater efTortt liave lieon nuule 
in tkis colony toexpaiiil tlic tiade, and the evpioL'tit in 18m and 1995 show 
ft eonnidk-rable inore*Be on previgus yearn. New South Wales, however, 
l«boun undtfr tlie dindvuntofiv of poa«eaaiiig no croHS-ltrL-d slieep for 
oqiort, and the food qu^itira of thtr merino nrv. ecuTcely a[>|<t'i-L-tati>d in 
tbe EnglUli mnrki-t, wh<-n^ Nirw Zealand mutton is favoiiiahly known, 
aiul bring* Id. p«r lb. more than Australian. Lnrgr tracts of the nmthiT 
colony, however, arc siiited to the bT'oedingof largc-carcaxn xhin^]), and now 
tiiAt the pjwtoralisW ai-e becoming nlive to the tmportaniTi- of ««uring a 
fhareof tbcmeat trade of the United Kingdom, ntti^ntion is Iteing directed 
to the introductiun of British rauiA into t)ic colony.tuid it ih not uiireason- 



PAKTOKAL a£S0UBC£6. 



288 



able to «xpecb » fau^e increase id tite eras-bred duclcB at no distant date. 
Prom the fallowing tnlile, shou-inf; cho rtowUi of the {noai'incat tend* 
of New South WaUn, it will ha mwd tbiil tiin <!xpart* of betd Nhowed • 
lu|fe iuoreaae in 1895 ; tlut I'sjiorta of pnsi^rvnd tiKiat, whioh an Bk»« 
girca in the tabic, coDiii«t ahiKMt whollv of tinnod mutton : — 





FTvon or 


ShilladUaL 




Piimiiml Meal. 1 


YW. 


Bh(. 


Mutton. 


ToUl 


TMbI 

V*lu<. 


WBight. 


Taliu. ■ 




iiaiirtcn. 


CTOMW. 


cwt. 


£ 


lb. 


^ 1 


18S1 






Q,980 


H,SQ4 




'176,721 ■ 


1882 






13.782 


122,1110 




■143.601 
-SS1.913 J 

*isi.4;7 1 


16X3 






»i.eii 

is.3oe 


i3.100 

13,321 

6,06i 




I SSI 








ISS^ 






8,271 




•l«,6ttl 1 
•77.TM 
iai>,714f 


urn 




>■**>•*>• 


^SS! 


4.671 




1667 






SI. 831 


1H.310 


9.76I,1H 


ISSS 






K.282 


4i.537 


4,£28,SS» 
&S77,30a 


69,481 


1B80 






S7.»l(iN 


3:1.436 


6s,x;i 


I8UU 






n,304 


7I,S3* 
101.83S 


4.6iUi,&33 


74,339 

97.632 

106.ia2 


ISOl 






105,013 
223,074 


B^l,7i:i 
8,«a0,747 
l3,O'J-.>,042 


1BP3 






1G0.42J 


isaa 


.. . 
4.773 


3S4,g5» 


22a,i6i 


I4I,C40 


ISM 


9.038 


^3,990 


33U.4(M 


im.lM 


ie,383;S07 


2(»,0M 


1S9C 


8S.7W 


i,oct,ooe 


eo7,sis 


3SO,I07 


S2,SSf.989 


-1 



* iQcJudlof Eitnct at Matt. 



ITie total capacity of the boiliiig-doirti works in Hen.- Suutb Walaa 
stated at 298..^00 lieiul of .allle or 7,410,000 5hr.-e]i ; of chilling work^' 
146.100 head of oattl« or t>,730,000 slinep ; <>f frccsdng worlu, 186,000 
h«u(l of cattle or 3,600,000 nlieep ; and of tncot-prGMcrving worka, 
135,300 h<-«d of cattle or l,r>90.000 kHc^ 

Tiw onij other colony in which tbi? mmt-cxpnTt ti-ikds haa rriarlml 
dnwRsioiia of may importance is Vtct^ma, oithoagh its «zporta fall 



* 



FROZES-MEAT TRADE OP VICTORIA. 



289 



WtuBmin nT tlw three colonies ntreddy dealt wiUi. A stat«i»ent of 
Ifai'^ctoriaii trade from 1881 to 1894 will be found below :~ 



Tcu. 


fMnm cr ChlUtd Uol. 


PmavHlUiisi. 


IKK. 


!,,,,,„ ', TdUI ' Tnt«l 
Vvium. 1 ^^^iij,,^ 1 y^^^ 


VmahU Vain*. 


ISSI 


ewt, 
27'.iffi 


cwt. 


£ 


n>. 

4,OS6,073 

1,374,066 

S,83S,6&7 

2,667.866 

I.4S6.849 

618,652 

ll-*n.054 

714,8^6 

883,114 
1.063,887 
],082,lfil 

777.953 
2.267.791 


£ 

i(e.3t»6 

3l.'.7<l.> 
76.015 
63.707 
38.M4 
17.868 
14.291 
16.115 


ISM 

isa 
ms 

ISS7 

isas 


» 


18,023 
9.944 
41.378 
39.107 
3a.3St 
10,2U 


18,969 
l?,2a) 
5.%ie6 
61.617 
70,310 
27,2:0 


IfW 






lO.l.'iti 


isoo 






20,l!t7 
19,330 
51 ,624 
I4,.^49 
40,08a 


1181 
ISK 
1»3 

im 


1.907 
37.335 


1,S8S 
25,370 



The serionsncaN of thr qiKsl.ion of the dispciiial of tlin nuqilim cunt 
m»T h» giwpc'l whnn it is unrlerBtood that, apart from New ZoftliunI, 
it>^ is a surplus of fmiji 60,000 to 100.000 liesti of cattle and 
4.000,000 sheep whirh could be exported iii any ordin&r; year with- 
oat tretHhing upon local roi^uiremenU, vrliilt! if lbe< tntd^ could l>e 
expanded wilbour. loucbiri;; niiiiuuH pricf-s the Huqiluit might b« made 
oincli larjtfir. Looking at the qusBtion fiiJiii nil points of view, it 
i-aiinot Ijr laid tbnl lilt- froju.-!i-iiicat trade is williout strong i-li-iiiiMila of 
Jxipc for ihi- futuri*. Tlip gn-nl diliiculty in the way i>f an t'X|iniiiuoti 
of tim tmde is tluf wiicuk fall in priixw. but tln-re is no maimn wty 
better results should not 1* obtnincil if i^hipjwrs are cnrcftil niit to 
export anything of umsstiofactory (jnality. and combine to ot'Ctirr: n 
regai^r snd irUl« dixtributiun of Auatrniian niutlon anjon^t mnHiimciii. 
SiKiuare not wanting that the prejudlov which t^xinr^d a^ainat frozen 
mntton in tlie United Kin^luiu is faat Uyiii^ out, and the adoption of 
the itvfrontinjc prw*!ui, by wliicli tbi- mtuil may ba plac'iHl on tbt" market 
sith a niucb innn attnuttivK luipi-Hrauci- nt nn fxini cunt of \<l. |K>r lb,, 
will faiutirn itn extinction. Tliut it in Ur^i-ly ]>rpjudicR is niaile clear 
Vfv thp fiMt that of th<^ large imports of AuHtrnlinn mutton into I»ndon 
ooly a small proportion scnms torpach the consumer »« Kwch, tbegnsiter 
purtioB being »okl lu W<ilsh or Engliiib. The nlwlition of thix practici; 
cxnild be iMured to a great extent by t)ie formation of a coui|)aMy to 
ttmtrol operations at the impoi'ting ceutrea, and to eBtnbltBli wlioleuile 
dopota in the <at*eK and towns for the rej^ulur nupply of tlie meat to 
sseli rvtailcn m niij^ht be induced to place it honestly t>efore tJiC public 



290 



PASTORAL RESOURCES. 




by receit-ing ths txdusive rifHit of eaIo in tbe<ir ovn pnrticalAr dii 
II i», however, of the utiiioaL iiii{)ortiuicQ tli^t tiie supply shou) 
uoiistfLut OHO : miii the puoHibilily of a ^lul in thtt uia.i'ket m oii« 
mill u. S[:arL'Uy in till! next, liUL'h tu lu(v« been tieeu in the po&t, 
liuvH til Imi |j;unrdt!<l agftitutt. 

Daring th» ypnre 1894 nnd 1893 N'^vuml nttntnpts, more i 
micctuMful, wcm mndu to pluco lire cRttle and nhtvp in th* I 
mnrkct. Tlip givat difficulty wiiich so far has been found to b« 
way of establishing such & trade is the wildoMS of the can> 
inortAlity in some of the shipments being sulSciently high to p 
strong criticism in Kngl&nd as to the cruelty to which Uie cat 
subjected by being aliipped on Midi a long voyage. It la to bo 
however, thai these expreBnions of opinion liuvo been prompt«d, 
tha tdle)^ nutleringB i>f tho i;altl«, but by the iuti-rests of the £ 
producer and the Amrricnn rxjmrtcr. At tho same tiinr, it ioclct 
tt permanent and [irofitAble trad'' cannot, be PBtabliKhn) until tiM 
have iHvn handlod sufficiently to bring them into a ir&ctable ooo 
If chU he donc^ th«re can Im> liltle doubt that the Australian poMl 
will find th« trade one worUiy of hia attention. 



DAIIlY-rAIUIIXG. 

Dairy-fakmiing baa of late years made fair progress in Avsti 
especially in the colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, ant 
Zealand. Tlie introduction of the factory Kystem at convenient ■ 
Mid the use of the creiuii separator have done much to caowo tbe 
iion of tlie industry. The number of duiry cow* and tli« ■■£ 
quantity Ot milk pn>duer<d by them in each colony in 1894 « 
follcwt— 



Calon;:. 


Dairy OlM. 


dBC»l(l«lllll»llllV 




No. 
43S,SII 
ie5.3S9 
125,000* 
100,000* 
9.000' 
3S,4O0 
257,140 


gallant, ■ 
157,75S,9I»* 
16;.»0.OI0 

37,500.000 

3G.00U.O00 
2.700,000 

l.'>,300,000 
107,»»3.SOO 
















1,433,140 


SS4,S5I,S00 




•BMInnted. 





DAIRY PBODrCTION. 



291 



The ntdnut«] vttlue of the milk uul iu prodncts, bttttM- uid cbers«, 
d of the return obtained from awiue, together witli the total taIim of 
liy produce (or e»cb oulou^ in lB9i, will bo foun<l bdow : — 



I 



Otoajt. 



BulUr. 
uidOinH. 






TuU) Value 

at 

IMrr bthI SwIp* 

Prolum. 



!V Strnth W*k* .. 

ftori* 

twmi^tn*1 ..,..,.,,.. 

Fatb ADitrJh 

(rt«n) AoftnJI*,. 

iWMni 

iwZMlwd 

A««li»lHia 



£ 
2.270.800 
3,444,500 
691,M)0 

5M.000 

59,600 

243.100 

1.468,100 



£ 

427.900 

46n,3M) 

S7,5(»0 

123,000 

50.700 

72.900 

360.900 



7,fifi.l,T00 



1,SG3,70O 



£ 
l,BDS,m 
%904.80O 
6T»,00a 

07»,eoo 

90,300 
316,000 

l.SSO.OOO 



ft227,«)0 



The production of liutter luid cheese in L-sch colony during 1894 U 
■timated U> have boea u follows :~ 



I 



Cbtear. 


Butte. 


CfaHW. 


VictorU ^.^.^ 


lb, 
37,360.000 
as,5SO,000 

4,306.000 

6,400,000 

100,0110 

2,430,000 

111,370,000 


m 

4,820.000 
4,153,000 
1.537,000 

i,,-.?»,ooo 




700.000 

0,2S3,000 




95.606.000 


22.007,000 





^s colonies h&Ting & sarplua of butter and cheese avulable for 
**PWlMioB during 1894 are showa in the following table : — 



Oaleny. 


Buttot. 


CtMtm^ 


V— S».>h W.I.- 


tt. 

4.177.690 

23,«76.419 

1,507,788 

01,623 

6,805,202 


It. 
lti'J.443 




88B.7aa 




e.S39,6H 




3e,228.:22 


7.2TT.'2S 







lf«w South Walea wan formerly both an importer and an exporter 
t IraMer, for only during the spring nnd early Kunnner montha wax 
V preduction Inrgur than tlie local i«(]uiretiienta, while during the 




292 



PASTOn.VL JtESOURCES. 



KDifUDder of the yeftr butter hud to be imported to meet the locd 
(lepiftiid. This iiii])ortal.iou, which wa»i made i-hiefly from New ZmIunI, 
has now jiructii-'aliy t^tiased. anil such as tvok plium during thi- tmttvtj 
or thri* yt-jira came oliiefly fixini South Austrahu as nupplira for tlwi 
Burlier iltxtrict. During 1895, owing to iliniinuOic^ production, doel 
KCArcity of food for thi- otttle on account of the drought, the imp 
exceeded the r-xpi)rt,'i by Sl.fil I lli. 

Th« colonics wliich, on the other hand, were oUig«d to import bntttfj 
aad cheeflo during 11^94 are shown below t — 



Colony. 


BMM. 


Cluag. 




n.. 

315.64S 


ft. 

63,721 

1.172 

3.W.:ifi3 




l;26e,473 




Wit 








l,4Se,lI9 


401, S3B 





From the foregoing figures it will be ae^ that tlioso oolonio vhi> 
produce a surplus of hutter and chceKR liuve, after providing for the 
delicii^ncy of tlie othur provinces, a. lialancv uvailabln for cxportntion tQ. 
outside countries, this balance in 18!j4 amounting to 34,743,60.t lb. 
butter and 6,fi7ti,4U2 lb. nf cheese. An e![|Tort trade id batt«r 
cheero has long b«cn maintained by New ZcAland, wbilo in recent ; 
Victorian, Now South Wales, and .South Australian buttera h«ve 
§ent to tlio London niarkot. and their very favourable reception ihc 
has given a tVesli stimulus to the dairying iiidustiy in tho« eoloDiM.1 
The ra])idity with which this trade is growing may he gauged from tfa«| 
following lahlc, which shown tlie quantity of butter exported to 
TJnited K.ingdoiu diii-ing the six years ended I?<94 : — 



Ynir, 




Etponins 


ColoDf. 




New SQUth Wulci. 


VktorUu 


HouUi AlutnllL 


XtvEulMfL 


)S89 


lb. 

SS4.3fil 

980,100 

301.180 

1..13i!.782 

2,S4(),l'Sfl 
4.333.!K>7 


lb. 

605.478 
l,28e,.'>83 
3.77S,77.i 

r>,44ii,9«t) 

13,UI.42:t 

22.i3a,3ai 


lb. 


th. 

2.383.0^S 
S,B70,H4H 
S,34«.7fiS 
4,048.gw 
O.Net.A.'W 
6.J90,6*O 


Itmo 
1801 
1802 


10,8M 
23,864 


1803 
ISM 


Se7,0S7 
1,233.639 



In 1896 the exports from New South Wales to the ITtiited Kingdom 
fell to 1,853,360 lb., in consequenco of the dimiitution io tlie production 
caused by tlie drought. 



BaEEDING OF 8TTINE. 



=93 



From UUat advices it would appear that the price olitaincd for 

Awttmlian kult«r in London u-aa hij^tier than th« rutcK ruling in the 

local market ; and an tlitrru cilii Imrdly bo a limit ptiic«d to thf cnpncity 

of Aa«tr«lnjuii to pnxlacp butti-rund vhceSL-, it is proluiblc t^Ilt thctie 

high prices will hitvc the uiffct gf giviatly stimulating tlii3 dniry industry 

tlamighout all tlwim colonics. In connection with this subject, it ntay 

I mentioned that tho value of the butter, cheese, and e^gs iunportud 

. the United Kingdom during 189+ was il3,45C,699. £5,4 71,9 10. 

£3,786,329 respectively. The aupply is chiefly drawn from the 

Omlin«Dt of Europe and fi*oin America, and of the total nniotintn 

nentioned, thA only imports fmtn AustralnEiu were butter to thr rnhic 

tf £l,42»,9;j, and chelae to the viilue of £137,512. 

It may not ha out i>f place to remark thut tlii? export of butt*'r from 
cm or two of the cnlonirs has been mniln possible only by restricted 
ne consumption. If n senson of gi'eat prosperity visits Australia 
I wili be a very largv incronsp in the local deniand, with a coiise<|uent 
niUtion in the supply available for export, so that it may be concluded 
dot under any circumstances the prospects of the industry are 

Q(ount)o>'^- 

The brrcding of Bwinn in UKually cnrrieil on in conjunction with duirj'- 

bnoing. lielow will bi> found a rtrtum of the numbor of swine in 

(*ch colony in ISCl and in 1S94, togrtlmr with the proportion owned 

^tuih province in comparison with the total stock. It will be observed 

Ibat the actual number owned by the various colonies has in all caaea 

fnercaMvl, though the relative proiiorlious have altered couaiderubly. 

Sew South Wulta. (or inNtunce, held over 40 per cent, of the stock of 

Kwine in I>^i>l, whilst in 1894 its proportion hud receded to :21'6per cent. ; 

on the otJier hand, Victoria, which possi'ssed only \2 (ler rent in 11^61, 

haa uov nearly 30 per cent, of the total number. During the inter- 

Teoiii); period, New Zealand incrcn.'^ed its stock fmni nearly 12 per cent, 

to nearly 28 per cent of the whole, while the proportion held by South 

Anxtralia decreased from I9'I to 7"9 per cent. : — 



tMuoT. 



Nurabst of Snine. 



I9A1. 



ISM. 



to tolat ot Aiutnlftibi- 



ISOL 



UM. 



Jf«w South WhIo*... 

Tlatona 

Q— ithmd 

Smith Anatialia 

Waat«rti Aiwtmlib. 

I^nnatiia 

NewZmUml 

Auatnbna 



14fi,0el 

",4f;'i 

Cit.'Mfi 
ll.!)84 
40,841 
43.270 



362,<i; 



240.860 
32.S.182 

ltS,OSft 

8S,ia:t 

20,233 
6I,!IS2 



I,ll2,ia8 



40-3 
12 

2-1 
ISI'l 

3 3 
11-3 
11 -il 



100-0 



31 e 

20-S 
0-1 
7-8 
2* 
4-7 

27-8 



lOO-O 



294 



PASTOKAL KESOfRCES. 



The products of the bwId^— bacon, ham, Urd, mmI »lt poric-~«i» 
bUU iiuportej bv all the (.■olonies witJi the exception of Victoria nA 
Nl-w Zcaltuid, ua U eliowii l>y tbu follgwing tftbhi, wbich reUtM to 
tboyear 18'J1 :— 



Culony. 


VktiOnvkl Bwu. 


SkllPak. 


^- iXSS 




< 

17.866 

*14.73S 

1,866 

l,(t!«> 

19,Hr>l 


£ 
M19 

'962 

414 

•IMP 

697 

•291 


£ 1 £ 
•603 16«SiS 
•1,201 ! •IS.lWl 
*2,329 '1 








KO 
•139 


I,4W 






ao« 

•6.9» 






90.320 


•881 


•3,781 


U,71« 



The figures marked (*) show- nn excess of ex}>orts ; oil tlie oUwrsj 
represent sd excess of imports. There seems to Ix* coruudmmUo i 
for an exteiisiou of this particular l^ranch of farming in miwt ol < 
colonies 

POULTBY AXD MiXOR IXDlTaTBIES. 

An cetimat* is given below of ttie valuo of the production of ponltiy] 
and eggs, togetlier witb that ariang from bo«-cultur^ in «*cb 
during the ye&r 1894 : — 



OMv. 


PoiaJtiTud wggi. 


IIOMr rail Hihmi 




£ 
700.000 
IISO.O<JO 

2:«,ooo 

■10,000 

100,000 

400.000 


£ 

15,500 


Victerik .....,„...._, 


12,.-.0O 
7.500 
8,000 
1,200 






3,000 
IftOOO 








2.410,000 


57,71» 







Tho most remarkable feature is the tnida in eg)i» bctwvcn Soath 
Australia as mpplicr and New South Wales, Victoria, and We»ten» 
Australia as buyers. The rotiimg for IS'ii show ihftt during that year 
South AuBtratia exported eggs to the value of £33,679, viz., £50 to the 
Vniiea Kingdom, X2,990 to Victoria. £15.839 to New Sottlh Walt% 
and £3,800 lo Wtsleni Australia. The bulk of the New South Wal« 
tnde wiu donL- with tht- Bturitir diiitrict, which la eominerciaUy k 
depewiUDcy of Soutlt Australia. 



PB0P0BTT0N8 OP BREADWrSSEBS. 



RitKADn INXKR9 AND DkPEKDEKTS. 




297 



Of Ibe total popnIatiOD of Austr^&sia at the Censut: of ISOI. the 
^McDp&tioos of 2.023,999 dmW and l.T-Jt^iOGT fi-niatrs wi-re RjM-cifiod. 
Ttiewpenoui were thus divided into brpadwiniKTB and depeii<lenta:— 



AuBlntia.; AUHtnlliL 



'nudtiuiia. 



KnliiDil. 



Auttn]- 
ula. 



?LiwBi I TD 0.— Nrxwa or BiutvrKHui. 



140,011 

i7o,am 



ins,sn 



tl.tlH 



MSTO 
11,131 
BI.OOl 



l,tM,S» 

i.au.set 



num 1 TO K— nuroiTius or Bikivhikxkri in Si'Xcirirn IVin.'Unun. 



c3-it a-it M-S4 

17-M £113 ISM 

U« lt'31 tG'U 



Ml.! 



15-a 

49M 



aS'M 
IS'IG 
41-91 



IIS'll 
14 W 



M-OI 
lH-11 
4«flr 



Cluc T-'-KrunE or DEriMixMS. 



BK,«S Sai,«l ?«.<I(M 

4a,n> (MMs m,9M 
MB.m sm.an £is,t)M 



SI ,91 a 
isa,H)i 



Jcnu 

34,917 



BS,t»! l!A.eS3 
M,0S9 , !40,TM 
M,U1 SIB,«U 



nS,4MI 
1.440,S!II) 



CCua 7-— PiaroRTTaH or DiruiPBjfTii vj Spbcitikd PoiTL&TiinT. 




M'(8l 


M'ld 


37-W 


tl-(^ 


X1-tM 


37'ln) 


TMS 1 


Sl-M 


M-0> 


M-Ti 


»1-8S 


Wl* 


U-M 1 


M-M 


ai«7 


taw 


M'og 


SO-07 



67'M 



If ft comparison of the proportion of brfodwinn^rs h« londp with tho 
prop<(TtM« of oiaI*s iif BUpporiin^ ages given in tlic tablr on page S7 of 
I this volamn, it will be seen that Western Austmli», with the highest 
' proportion of ■upporting malps, viz., 67-60 ppr cent, naturally supplied 
the highlit propoi'lion of breadwinners, the lendiog positiou occupied 
, hy this colony being sufficiently accounted for by the pioiieet' titaf^ of 
b^ls existence ; Quceiudand atmv second, witJi C5'22 piT cent, of luulea of 
^Bip|x>rtiu;; af-es, and G5'S4 [iti- t-ent. of breadwinnem ; Victoria lliiid, 
^^htii 62-68 per oeiit,, and 65-^2 jjer cent, rfspectivftly ; iitnl New South 
Hvales foartb, with 6t'4l per cent, of mules of supporting itgt'S, und 
i^SS'13 pur cent, of bmiiIwininT!i. Ttt."tnttnia, South Aiistmlin, nnd New 
Zckland, with the lowest prnportions of supporting ages, lind nti^o thi'- 
lownt proportions of brwadwinncrs ; and thp jiwiitJoiis of these cobnits 
may be largely attributed to the exodus from their shores of able-bodied 
nun in search of entploynient. 

In all the eolonim iht- male breadwinners were in excess of the males 
: mpporting ngm. 'flits fact was, of course, due to the employment of 



EMPLOYMENT AND PRODUCTION. 



T^O obtrtin a fnir approximatinn of tlic Il^lm^>«^r of pnrsonn pngngwl 

1 tho vnrioux HniliH of lifr^ in AuirtralaAin wns inipoNiiiiilo bofoj 
th>> L-ctiRUH of IS!)! ntw Inkrti, for nlthoiigb nt tfac Otdhur mumcntioa 
of 1881 and previous years tho occiipatioiw of tli*t poopk www nail* ] 
feature of tiw In'iuii'V, the classiBcation, which followed closely tii 
ori^innlly deviKud by ihv lat« Dr. Fiirr, wan uiiaatiafactory, as il 
pli-tidy faili-d ti> <iUtIn>;uiHU between product-m and dUtributonL 
avoid a rop<;titi<m ol thiK dtrfect tlia Ct-nHus Confereiici.*, lirld nt Hob 
in Matvh, hSDO, uhnndmii.-<l the Eiixlinli ayxtvin and mtoptwt a Kch« 
of clawilication more in ncvordatici' with .lound prinoiple*. Und«r 
claMification tbo popnlntinn is diridtvl into two great snctiona' 
winners and dppflnd*iit« — and th" liri-afiwinnir* arc armngrd in 
natural daaws of producer)) and diHlribntors, with their varioua or 
and sub-oiilera. The dasaea may be shortly defined a§ follow : — 



m A desoripUon of the variouit da§Bea and ordera, to){:ethcr a-: 

■ number of nialea and females, exoluHive of aborigiiicH, bvlumffini; 

H onbir, ID given in the following pages fur al) the Autttmlasian 

H It in impoHKibte, howcvpr, in a work Kuclt as this t<> rnter tninu 

H dntailx, and anyone who may desire to pursui- tha subject fn 

H fvforr«d to tb« OniiUH Kr)>ortx of the variouH cotonira. 



Section A- ^Brcul winner*. 
Cliuis 1. ProfvMionaL 
Cbuw 2. Doineatio. 
Cliuii 3. Commorcial. 
CLan 4. Iii<bii>tria1. 

CIiuiS. A},Ti(Tiiltural.rutotal.MiDQnil. and other priiiutrjProdu 
Ckuti. iDiMoito. 

ScclJcn It— Dciiendoata ; Non-Brendwinncn. 
CUu T. De|>en<loDti. 



PEOPOHTIONS OP BKEADWIXNEBS. 



297 



Of tlie tolAl popitlalion of AuBtnl&sia &l the Census of lf*9l, thn 
ocnpalioaa of 2,023,S99 uialiti mid l,r,>8,9Gr fiMnatcit wptc sprciHi-d. 
HtvH penoua vere thua divided inU) bread winners aiid ilcpi^dents: — 



r 


SaaUi 
Vain. 


'^'^'^XT 


Sooth 


Wulcni 
AualriUlA- 


TiutiAijia, 




Aulnl- 


J dum 1 TO 0.— Xi'KDn or BnuDwiiiua. 






lll.RO 
HII.M4 


itn.oii 1111X11 

31,(U1 Jt.MS 

Ii8.!as iST.utti 


11 .4M 

3.039 


Bi.wa 




1,GI4.»> 




Cunti 1 


nt n.— numiaiiiix or Bbupwixiiiu m fncinn l^1rtUTl>l•. 




tVneiM .. 


4t« 


H3t 




tats ntr 

IbV! lit* 
WIS WM 


i»-i» 
ti-n 


K-II 
14WI 


M«l 

ia-i£ 


Cbua T.— {ICHnK or DHinixn. 


Maim 

rtummrn .. 


UMU 
M.«« 


ttajoeo 


TMM 


1W,E«1 


8.163 

io,«i4 

St,»77 


M.MI 


ItAjSU 


I,i4l),L--JB 




CUM 


T.— PMKnnax or Dxnannm to Sncn 


1ED Pnri-Li 


■nmt. 




i 


1 K-n 




M-M 1 M-s; 


K-BS 
W-TS 


aawu 


Mil 
WOT 


asm 



If B comparison of the proportion of brendurinnera W njAdri wilji tho 
pn>iK>rtiou of msles of supporting ft^esgivrii in tlip tnble on page 37 of 
thi» volunu!, it will be sren that Western Austrnlia, with the high«8t 
proportion of supporting iim!<'9, vW,, 6T'60 p«r cent, naturally supplied 
tJia higbest proponion of breadwinners, the leAdiuf; position occupied 
by this colony Iwinf; autScieiilly acoouiited for by tLe pioneer ttUtfffi of 
it^ existence ; Que«iuland tauw seL-uud, with 63-22 [wr ct-nt. of nmlea of 
«ii|)uortiii|[ agc«, and fiSSl per ci.-ut. of bri.-(idwinnorK ; Vict»ria tliirJ, 
witli 62-S8 per ccaL, und G&->I2 \«-r cent. ri'x|i«t;tivrly ; nnd New South 
WiJm foartb, with 61-41 pitr cnnt. of mnlcK of supporting ngc.t, and 
W-13 per cent, of brradwitiTiRT^. Tasmania, South Australia, nnd New 
Zealand, with tho IowrhI. proportions of supporting ages, had alio the 
lowest proportions of breadwinners ; nnd tli*' positions of these colonies 
may be largely atti-ibuted to the exodus front their Hhures of able-bodied 
in^a in uardi of employment. 

In ^1 the ot^oitieH t)ii' male bn-adwiunera wore in excess of the imIm 
of anpjMrting agrs. Thin fact wax, of eourae, due to the employment of 




EMPLOYMENT A^^> PKODTTCTIOK. 

boys under Id, and tii« cont^nuird Activitjr of lo^n over 65 yean of agb 
Till! excite was greAMst in Tasmania, whure the largest proporlioa of 
iaa\e» o( tlie old •ges was to be found. QueeusloDd, wliere the cxon* 
waa UDftlleBt, vix., to the exteat of ouly 0*62 per oent., had tho amaUMj 
projMrtien of mdea of tlie old ttgiM, uid, except Watem Aaitxalio, i ~ 
ttimillcet proportion of children of dbpeiident ^gi-iL 



Dkpesdestb. 

The ilfpciKlt^nta iirt! all containiid in olam 7, and aru thutc gnfupod :- 
(1 ) Prraons performing donxstic duticn ; (2) si-holftni and stndcnta ; (3 
i-elati>-M not stnt«d to be pprfomiing domestic dutir«; (4) 
supported by the State and by voluotAry contriljutiona ; aJid {6) tlte 
crimintd class. The lirat three groups are comprised in order 23, and 
the last two in order 24. The folloviog table slutvs tlie number of 
males and feiuiLl^a daiiaiSi^d under each of thene koadiiiKa in tli« diflterent 
oolouieti. It hait to b« stated in eoonection with thl^ ll^ureti relating to 
f(!niitli> dnpcndciitu, that in Ukt Victorinn and ^i(lllth AuKtndian rc^urtui 
the p4»vona pr.rforming <loii;ostic dutiM were originally clanfified with 
rel&tivos not stated to be iterforming domestic duties, and tbo figom 
for tbi^se colonies have been adjusted to conespond with tfao returns 
of the utJii^r provinces : — 



X<nr 

Ba. BMUb TloladS. 

Wain. 



^ONiia- 



Seiilh I VTotani 
Anflmlk. Umlndl*. 



iBBnnl*. 



»«• 



Aaauy- 



Okdee a, BcB-aiiDiK I.— PnuoxK l>iiMnitsii!iu IKvimr Dirnn. 



Jtamln. 



tUhTWt 



!U,ilW 



0(1,730 



07,300 



1 

S.BM 



9LXU 
aB.SM I 



Ma 

UUtB 



sn 
ni,tio 
nMM 



0(on m, BuvouiBi S^-SomLUji jan StfeBm. 



>uu» 

rmulfv . . , 



iid.iM 

in,iHj 

JSt.MO 



ItS,SI7 



Tt.Mie 



njnt 

30,1110 

ei.ist 



«,1M 
1,310 

S.SW 



1S.M« Ts,au 
30,111 lu.ni 






I 



Ounot t\ SiriK)anai a— HnAnrn vot >r«TiD m u mnuim Dmumc 1>innBk. 



una «e.lM 

Friiuiiia...! M^aa 



3S.300 
IT9.ISI 



St.tM 

't.ca 






".Its 



lo.im 
eojoi) 



4ft IM 



angaa 

»«JBS 

OKose 



Totu or Ommil— Au Dnni 



KnwMMCuiiuuuMniTiuoM mmonmn Cnjksnr. 



Udn, 


nijatt 


iBs.m 


7S.OTS 


auK 


T.WS 


ff.M 





r<inta ... 


4njw 


4tl.«M 


tiB,a7i 


1SMM 


10;4«1 


u>jn 


MklTS 


PaiKioi 


«Mn 


«B.ltt7 


im.MO 


IM.tlO 


M.M< 


r;tm 


sn^ss 



1<I§^ 




CLASSiriCATlOS OF DBPEMSENTS. 



299 



aoMb 



Twm*. 






Xev 



AiuMab 



OumM, Bi' Cessna t.—ScneBiao n tu*9unii]ii> at VotunuT CbKmtCTMia. 



IWn 



MM 


li^l 


ILOT 


UW 


W*) 


1.W 


•.•M 


nm 


xmt 



1.0) • 



•u 


in 


Uu 


let 


HT 


urn 


KM 


t.H« 


S.TM 



Oiiiin SI. !ti;K-oi<iiKi %— Ckijuhm. Cuu. 



I8,1H 
II44T 

satua 



t.ut 


l^! 


<K 


306 


MB 


IK 


71 


ta 


tM2 


UM 


in 


U7 



14 I tn4 

11 ' 11! 



TOT 
IW 



i.ae 



TOT4b or Obck t<.-*l>flrKxnxTfl or iTxAurv attd Pi]k»ic Si'rniKT. 



S.tM 

s,Ke 



«.T81 

4.M: 



3,n6a 
l,»B 



tllB 

*.m 



ITS 



1.110 

cm 
i.ikJ 



(.TIT 



IT.tM 



ToTit or Cliu T.— All tmnEm. 



ta,sa> 9MJIS 
tu.>u ' 4te.nn 
«w,»s «N,« 



n.DOt Al.UU 

i37.s>»4 u;,«il 



ia,si4 









IS,4W 

i.«4D.n> 



The brewdwinnrm «* included in clnssea 1 W 6, oompriring orders I 
to 2i. first among tb«ac cliuor* in numerical utrengt)) sUnd the 

PiiiMAKY Pkoducbks. 

Thtm are includMl in cIa» 5, vhich ^mbraccn nil poraons mkinly 
^Ttij^a^od til thectiltivAtioiiorftcquiailion of food productsor in obtAining 
othpTtrnw ro&Uffials from nfttuial sources. Order '21 is the only on« 
covcrrd by tbtn eituts, and is d«lined us coutatuing per&oiia directly 
fiOgiigGd in tbtt cultivation of )&ud or in the rearing or breeding of 
iBJltl"**! or in obtaininji; mw products from nalurul EUurtreB. The order 
ia divided into sis tub-nnlrn an (ullow : — (1) Agricultural pursuits ; (^) 
pastoral panmits : (3) tishr^nm, thii capture, prL-si'rvation, or destructioD 
of wild aninuls, or the noquisition at priKlncts yielded by wild nninwla ; 
(4) foreaUry, Of the acquisition of ntw products yiddcd by natni*! 
v^cl4itioD ; (5) the conservancy of water in all its forms, and WKtirr 
supply from natural aourcM ; and (G) mines, quarries, or the acquisition 
of natural mint^ral productit, 

Th«! conditions of production in the Australuiwi colonies are mg3i 
that it is difficult to draw a marked line of aeparatioa 1>etwe«D the 
foiUowen of the vahotus punuita. A iniin may be set down as engaged 



k 



300 



BMPLOYMBNT AND PRODUCTIOK. 



in u^culture, white at the sam« time he utAj be eitjiiaged iu stock- 
rUHing or dairy- fiuining. Asa mutterof fa^t, there are kit fannenwho 
arc not ho (tngnj^n!. A Enlso iiiiprt^asion of tlie valui- uC Hgncultunl 01 
pAHtoml prorliictinn would thnrefore bcr obtairK^d if tlio total v»lu« of ■ 
production hfroafteT' given were divided liy tlie nuinlHir of hands «m-| 
ployed And the re.sult set down as the production per head. ' 

Thn following table shows thp i)uniVH>r8 »f persons iK^loDging to each 
ot the five Hub-orders of primary producers : — H 



•m. 



Nam 
BwUi 
Wain 



VIMoHi. 



Qu»ii»- 
Imd. 









TiutiinniL 



Sow 



AMuy- 



Cuit» ft, ORDum lU Brn-oBDiii 1.— PHuaoSi sniiunii w AniiKi'i.iu«ii. pi'Mi-n*. 



Kuuialoi 

l*er»onn 



BI.BTfl 

Ti.MW 



TII.MS 
O.OSS 
8S.KS 






4.R7S 

164 

«,U3 



10.131 

1.71H 

IT.DM 



GT.WO 

!,3ST 

W.tr7 



n«,f7s 

UI),Wt 



aW'OUltR !.~P>IUO<[I IHItMID » Pmnul PuKIClmi. 



KtlW 

FMulei .. 



(.DM 



10,07^ 
«,Slt 



13,U1 

it,au4 



4,001 
1,991 



1,706 

no 

1,STS 



T3n 
«b7 



9.r» 
zro 

ia,IM MOPtA 



Svna-KUk 3.— Pi»oiii tnainsri ik Fuitum, 4i. 



Xtia 

FMnklM . 
FbMiib . 



I.SS8 



Laaa 
T 

1,<U 



TM 


Ml 


Wl 


4M 


IJH 


a 


1 


s 


3t 


> 


TW 


SS2 


»42 


til 


i.tea 



GuB-iwuBK 4.— Puao!i8 utajQini » FoRnrRT. Ac 



rCBUlM 

Fgnona 



l.«U 



1,B11 
"Mil 



1,1<H 

V,ios 



lis 
its 



t 

SOI 



a 



Ull 

tiii 



art-otiDDi Si.— FiBSfiNa KKOjiniv m nni ComuVATiaa un Burrtr or W^tik 



Mala.... 

PMnn* 



I 



414 

4ia 



I SI 

isi 



Ml 
£41 



IIS 
1 

SIT 



4B 

"« 



m 
1 



au»<»i>ni (L— Piumi »i>*a>D » If ivm inD Qi'Mirim. on is jicgmmui or HinnAL Paaem*.! 



Matot 

Pdrviiu 



I 

SU,(I3T 



IH.Stt 

II 

u.ta 



ll.Stt 

S I 

ii,«r 



4.9K 
'4iBM 



l.tBO 

"urn 



4,004 

'4m 



1«.»4 



40 

M.IW 



1 



TaMb or Olu* S. — Au. Pusot pKomnnaa. 



tUta IM,«M 

raula ..1 11.118 
rrrwrnt )47,n9t 



11S,0H 

IQ.Mt 
1W.»I 



l),7M 



)l7.Mt 
4IUlfl 



■.404 
34t 

11.748 



11,407 



■r.M 

MM* 



MUM 
srjBTt 
MKBt 



PEBSONS ESOAGED IN INDUSTRIAL PURSUITS, 3OI 



TlIK IXDL'tn'RlAL ChAMt, 

' '10 liKluKtrial Class (CIarh 4), which standi n«xt in numerical ntreiigtli 

:. uiie daHS of pritoary producere, eiiibraces all perauiis not oltiHi'wiae 

tkattd, wlio aw priticipully enj>R^«d iu various vforks of utility or in 

^■tciulitiett connected with tbe luamifacturv, conHtruutiun, niodiiication, 

or alteration dE matEriaU so ua to render iheia moiv iiraitiihlt? fur the 

varioiu tism fit man : but «xclud(% as fur an uomibli-, nil who are 

mainlyor xoldy in thu xervicn of commen-ial intrrcliaiiec. VcmonK who 

tuT' both primary proiiacent and moiiufitvturers aro nnt incbidcd in this 

ofa^Ks but an^ grouped in cWi r>. The inilu:^rial claw in divided into 

aevea ordera — Ncut. H to 20- 

Order 14 ouinpriMs jieraons eii;^gMl in vonni^ction with tho mtmufnc- 
tOTW «f, or inothcrprooeGaeti relating to, art ami mechanic productions in 
irtlitA BiaMrialsof varioua kinds am iMiiploycd in oontbiDation. These 
inclade booka and publications ; :iiUNit-jtl inKtrumenta ; prints, pictures, 
ftBtl art n)at«rialA ; omainents, minor art products, and xniall wares; 
t»({uipment for sporta and games ; designs, medals, type, aiid dies ; 
waUJbea, docks, and scientific instruments ; surgical instniiueuts and 
o^ipUaDoee ; arms ai)d explosives ; machines, tools, and impleuientH ; 
carriages and vtthiclca ; liarne!», saddldry, leather, li?athi'rwar« ; Nhipis 
ImmUSi and lb«ir r<]uipmcnL ) furniturr, and chronical.t and by-proiluctn. 

Order 15 includes persons engaged in connection with the manufacture 
of, or ill tcpsuring, ck-aiising, or in other pi-oceases wlating to textile 
fabrics, drvAs, and fibrous toateriala 

Order 16 is compoERd of pemuns engaged in connoction with th« 
m&nufactnre of, or in other prooesses relating to food, drink, Darcottca, 
and RtimnlaDts. 

Order 17 oomprisca pttrsona, not otlierwise clasaod, tmgagcd in niAnu- 
faetDTM or other processes connected with aniuml und vegetable sub- 
■tanoes. In this order are included paper ninnufactMrcrs, workers in 
Tvgetuble produce for fodder, and those working in wood and animal 
iiiatt«r» not elsewhere clasMfied. 

In (ird>>r IK are gniupiid personii engagefl in tlip nltcration, mmlilica- 
jon, or luanufaeture of, or in other processes relating to metals or mineral 
inalten. It inclndea persona engaged in the conversion of coal and other 
■nbsbuioeH to purposes of heat, light, or forms of energy, not otherwise 
cItuHcd ; iit man u fact urcH and processes related to stone, clay, earthen- 
ware, glaio, and minrrala, :iot otherwise cUiuHid : in precious metals and 
pre«ious stones ; and in other metals. 

rt will lie Keen, liirrefure, llrnt orders 14 to 18 comprise all those who 
itiay pmpi^rly bn clawied us tindlng employment in tlie manufaeturing 
indualnca of the ci)ioni<'!i. The classification includea iwrBons employed 
in factories as well as those who work at their own homes, tho latter 
beiag especially numerous in order 10, in which there is a great prv- 



, ipa 







F 


^ ^^^1 


■ 




■ 


■ 


^1 




^H^^l 






^^^I^H 




^^302 BMPLOrMBNT AND PKODTTCTIOIT. 1 

^M pondpninco of feroalo workm. Asinnmftrjr oE ttms first fiv« ord«tsof 1 
^H the industrial class is given below : — ^J 


^M ««>, 


flaalta 
Wtlm. 


VMMb. 


4)i>Mnf Mevth 
iand. AnMnllk, 


Vatem r>.,„.,^ Saw tamat' fl 
ADMnlin. n»™»- ZtmUad. 1^ ■ 


^^^^B CUM 4i Oinni u.— PtwDU voiBiM ti Au UD Uaounc rtBuvtmem. H 


^^^V Ponoiu-,,- 


U.1I7 aijMS 


IW lit 


Ks; i.7>* 
41 n 
9tt um 


xn 
9.MH 


1 


^H OBsu Ul—Puuoxi voikiio » TnriLB funin, IMmb. us Flmnii MiTmuUL H 


^H lUa 

^H PnoH.... 


T.TM 10,M1 
14.SB M.«« 
H,001 SI,«W 


ijaat s,«oe ih 

T.4U T,TI4 4*0 


I.IIB 
I.TIT 

a,ns 


B.SIl 


B.sti ■ 

W,4S6 ■ 


^H Ormk lit— hcuaim nmiM nr Ften. thuna. aid Stnatruuti. 1 


^V MllM 

^H ywMi».... 


7,(W 
EM 

7,1m 


7,ira 
7,Bir 






SIS 

a 


w in 




^B Ouns 17.— PKiMNi wonum a Aniub up Tmrisu Stmuow. V 


^B Midu i P.iai ^U3 

^B finulH...., VI M 
^B Pcnona....! KIM 6.Mi 




u 

KG 


SOS 

1 




a^i 




^H dUUni IB.— PnMm W0HKI1ID DT MlIElALS AID HrAU. ^ 


H lUlw-.... 

^B FIWtfM.... 


Km 
s 

1U» 


1M« 


1J8S 
n 


3,Bft4 


rao 
1 

&X1 


i^« 


Mm 




^^B IttTAL or Ontmu 11 nt t&— All Pnura uojtavD i% iUs^r^cruusn Isnummw^ ■ 


ill 


(a.i«« iio.t» 
iv.m »i,»iii 


!il,<M 


U49( ATM 


eoooB 
7.ta 


SL4H 

ii.tn 


tmjm 


^H Tlut raBainiDg two ordon of the industrial clans contain tose4hev 
^B qiiit« M maay p«non« as th« fii-e ord«ra almttdy nien(JoDe<t Onl«r 19 
^B includmpersonaengRgedinthecoitatructianor re[jur of buUdingiB, roads, 
^B railways, canals, dooka. cai-lhworka^ etc; in Uif: ilinMaal of sUt, dond 
^H mattar, or refuse ; ur U) o|>entioiiii the iintuco of wliich in umlntinrU. 
^H Order 20 ooluitriiien inilustrial workLT!i iiiiprrft^ctly drfinml, atnoi^pit 
^B wlwii) ai-e iucludeil the large bodjr of general laliourcrs not identified n^i 
^M any paiiiuuW iiuluiitry. SlJH 



DISTKIBCTIOX OF IKDUSTRUX. CLASS. 



303 



The follDwinc: table s)iowx tlie wbnlc <>f class 4, divided iiito manu- 
rEaclaring, iiuilding, ac<i iniiierfccllj" liefinnl tmiiiM ; — 



t 


Sew 


TMocta. 


[uid. AiHtnlu. 


x'^::^:.*'-™" 




AtMal- 

■alL 


CUhH 4. <1Uaill M 90 lB.^^EB«im VID40ID IX U AXE! r&CTUU Jll} 


Jhwivtub. 


ttda 


11, Til 




1M41 ls,«8f 

W45 £.1506 

n.im IS, MS 


tut 


l^SST 

urn 


SL«U 

lV,t7S 


n.stn 


Qua 


1^— Pu»»ci uoaaHi D tni CoiontmoK or B(-iiHi^n», kAiLVATs, Rau*, A& 


rtiMiw .. 

TuHMIfe 


n,i« 

■^11 


VlffK 


> 


TjOIB 


I.IM 1 (.KB 

i.fss vtw 


it,;ia 


llthWl 


om n,— I'ancRa natni) ik lamncnr i>Rr»inj liinnrKuti Pt'Binn. 


naooi .. 


tt,WI 

n 


ss,ni 
ax 


ill 


11,071 
11,074 


],8D1 

s 

1.6M 




is.m 

a 

U.HO 


I1S,0« 
3H 

ii3,iai 


^^H TVT*h or Ci^vt i-'^AUt tvDusnui. WtjaiBBfL 


m. 


UMM 

ua,«H 


UD.OIT 

m.Dsi 


•lOlE 

b.TCS 


Am* 

S.SOB 


cm 


i.sir 


ii.mi 
■n.ti6 


ta,nn 



^^^^ TUK COHMBBCIAL ClaSS. 

^^B^M Commi-Tciitl Cluss (class 3) embraces all persons directlj oon- 

1 "not fiiil vith till! hint, sole, triviisfFr, ilistribution. storage^ and secnritj' 

I oC property ami iiifttRrialu, and with the transport of pc»oii8 and goods, 

or who are engsgctJ in effecting connnunicaticm. It is divided into 

four Rub-classes as follow: — (n) Fropeilv and linaDco; (b) trade; (c) 

•Loragv ; and (d) transport and coniniunicatioo. 

I Tho Snt o( ttiCBe aalj-claaseti — jn^jiertv aud financo — ctwuprisee order 

] 4, d«)icribed o» including peraoiis wiio perform ofllci^s iu connection with 

liw exdiaafiC', valuution, insurance, loose, loan or custody of money, 

hiaUM, laad, or pmpnrty riglit& 

SatMiaH \\ tnuii', contains anl4>rs 3 to 11 inetuBtvc. Ordi>r 5 
ttmpriam penonH di-nling in art and meclianie pmductiims in which 
■Hteriala rf various kinds are ('inployd in combtnntion. Tn this order 
w indaded all dcnlerH in booki, publications, and ndvortispinents ; 
tngsiflal LnsLnuueuts ; priata, pictoics, and art matenabt ; ornaments, 




EMPL0Y5IBNT AXD PRODrCTION. 



minor art proilucts. and Kinali wares ; '■ijiiipmcnt for sport* and gai 
(loigDs, luedab, type, and dies ; watches, clocks, and scientiflc in 
lOL-iitH ; Hurgic&l Intitrumeiits and appliances ; ariutt and explow 
■anchinL>s, IooIk, aiid iiuplemenU : carriages and rahides ; ban 
snddlvry, aiid Ic^ittherwari! ; alii^i-t. liouta, and marine Rtorea ; haQ 
matirijilK nnd ImiiKi- littiiigri (not t^laewliere oIilksmI) ; furniture, chiat\ 
anil by-products, mid juLpi-r and pap«r-inuk<'rK' niati-riulii. 

Ordnr 6 contains tb« persons enga-^ed in the sale, hire, or «xchi 
of t^rxLili^ fabriett and dresK, and of fibrous materials. 

Persons engag^id in dealing in nnininl and vegetable food, dri 
narcotics, and stimulants are included in order 7. 

Order S ombracM all {xit^tonK dt-aling in living animals ; luanurea 
animal wa«t« productj^ ; ip-al.licT, mw mnt^'rinlH, and manufivciu 
oilier animal matters : seeds, [ilnnts. flowers, ven;etablc proiiuctd 
fodder and gardening purposes ; and other vefj'etable msttet not incll 
vUuwLf're. 

Order '3 contains persons d^tsting in minerals, etc., mainly used 
fuel and light. 

Ord«r 10 includtut pvnioiis dealing in stone, clay, earthenware, j 
and uiineralB not otherwise ctaased ; gold, silver, and preciuun ^ 
and nirlals other than gold and silver. ^M 

Order 11 comprises general dealers (undefined), upeculatoni 
chance events, and other mercantile persons undefined, 

The number of persons enumerated in luiuli of thr colonies iq 
sown unlrrs lielonging to subclass I! is nbi)wn in the tabl« g 
below. Thii rather numeroua class of peopli- who are mnnufacturere 
doalnrs at th<! mme time are cla£:jed amongnt nianufactureta in ( 
4, and those who are both prinmry pro^luccrs and dealers are grei 
amongst the primary prodiicerx in class 5, Persons who are en^ 
both in dealing and in transportation aro classed in sub-cUuH stonif 
the commercial class : — 



SlL 


New 
Boutb 


vi«ori..|'*s:r 


SouUi WcaUm -„,,,„,. 1 X«ir 
AiutnllL A.innlljL T*""'"*, Zaikui. 


AM 

Ml 


Cuai 3, Ou>u ».— PuKKi Ouuio IX Au axp Mkciiuiu PhodhitkiNk 


Fmute .. 
Fensn*.... 


S,IH 

UT 
S,U1 


x,tm 
wo 

1,MD 


ex 

Til 


MS 

ta 


DO 

4 
M 


tti 
ti 


t,Stl 

tn 

1,IM 


1 


Ouim d.^-pBuoin l)Kiutii m Tiini.ii Kiikiia. Ukos. lid rwiuiis aUruuiui 


NalM 

Fciuiln . . 
PmiHu,,. 




l»1 

fi.OM 


1,4W 


i.ms n 
tu » 

l.M» 110 


i» 

MS 


f.«3t 

j,i« 


1 
J 



FEBSOMS ENGAGED IS TBADE. 



305 



I* 



So. I Soulh Vk-torU. 



Qiittrii- 






T^fDVliL 



.V.» 



AiulnJ- 



OuiK t.— PHuom tHuuia a Potto, Uitiiw, juoi Bnkii'Luin. 



rcM. 



I.Mt 



la.Qxi 



t.OH 
t,Ky> 






11 

MS 






IS,W]1 



W.tM 
11,1m 
M.MO 



tusB a.— PuwiMi DKiuira w axuuu, asd Aniuil akd VujnASi>< Uiinuu. 





MM 

N 


],4D0 

liM 

8,Hfi 


— t 


u 


97 
07 


inn 
1 


TBS 


N.SST 

IM 

S.UO 



Oun H— pEBaam Duuxn n Fim uiD Liairr. 



Ida 


].33a 


i.eu 


OK 


117 


1 


IK 


»>1 


4,MS 


rasla. .. 


10 


1: 


3 


4 




1 


K 


11 


rtaan... 


l.M> 


I.BOS 


f8 


161 


1 


1S7 


ss: 


4,080 



Obmui lO-^PmuiUnt DfcALmo m MuuiALi asd Ubt*i4- 



MB 



I. CM 
l,7»4 



401 
1 

4UB 



301 

I 

3flS 



141 
II 

lU 



MO 



4,tKUl 

IW 

6,0«1 



I U^^BnuL MD PiDDntiD Dkuxu uiD SmccLiniiu <w CiKio Bvtxn. 



U.TW 



I 



u.sia 



ii,oeo 

(107 

a,«6T 



e.oM 

781 



104 

uva 



1,U7 



a.i<» 
1,111 
9,2m 



«9.m 

«.ai7 

"1,718 



Tnu, or Clu* I, SiT»cLUi B.— PKUom Eimioid rx Trade. 



ft Iff 

t.lK 



»T.0&1 



IS.1U 
i4.:m 



I2.»>l 
It.OU 



1.4AS ! a.TTs 

l.UW 4.303 



tO.SIS 
S.3n7 



11, an 

103,900 



SolHlIua C cotDprises only order 12, embracing all perBons engnged 
taitange. 

Sotxlan D contains order 13, i-oin|>ri5ing persons engnced in the 
tnnqxift of pasiien^n or goudE, or id <-l)ectiiig communication. 1'his 
"titr inclndcx aII persons engriged on rniiw&ys (not in railway coii- 
'truf^tion) or tnitnurays ; on rnndx -, on sens, rivers, and cannls ; in the 
postal »erTic«; in tbc telegraph and telephone service; and in th« 
<leIiTerj of docunwnti, parcels, and messages. 

B 



3o6 



EMPLOYMEST ANB PKODTTCTION. 



r 



The following table shows the number of ji^tsoiui contpriaed in each o( 
the four sub-cUsKS of Ut« coDnneraiil clasa ; — 



Bn. 


South 


vidorU. 


Qacsrtt- 
luxL 


Snutli 
Auxnltt. 


Wcuin 
Auitnlli. 


Tumtal. JS^ 


AMinl. 


Cua 8. ScD-cuB A, Oiuinil.-PEiuanDKiLiEi] is yiunnjkin ItauPaomTT. 


F«lbhlV4 . . 

l*(r»iu .... 


r.atr 

T.OI0 


Alt: 

I.Ut 


S.KO 1 I.«t 

ssT xai 
i.Ka i.s» 


SIS 
IS 


l.KO 

»lt 

l.fM 


*.m 


1.SM 

37,S»t 


So-cuas B, Obiou i to 11.— P«uo»i isouik ■■ TUM. 


Femlt* . . 

P<tMM .... 


(T.MS 


M.IM 
fl.MO 


IH.IWI 
1,1.811 


iz.tidt 
l.rai 

U.UVfi 


1.4™ 

i.eM 


».T78 
4.MX 


IHT 


UJffI 




SCK-CLAM C, "lUW 1&— rKKSOKD UHltlOU 


itSraftioi. 




M(i,1m 


SIS 

1 

Hi 


T 


1« 
let 




187 


wo 
Me 


• 


SVl-CLUI 


D, 0«l«l Ul— PeI110» ISOJIOIB 1.1 BlILTAT, llo»I>, 
TllUIJKl^lI tilKVJiK, taw 


UD MtKna TutTHV I^Mr uc» 


FwiulM , . 

PencHu .... 


K.V.3 
WW 




1S,1U 
EM 

in.wi 




I.S33 
ft! 


8.7M 


U,WI 

144 

U.IW 


1IM.M* 


TouL or Ci.i» s.—caminuiu. 


PmMM,... 


81, mi 


9.aa 
auss 


».ni 

s,lTo 
U,1P0 


1.BT6 


4,TM 

J.OST 


II.M7 

l.MB 
10.166 


t.BO 

AIMS 


)M>JM 



The IifDEFTsiTB Class. 

ISie IiKlefinito CIorr (Glut 6) in the next cIass of braadwumers to !)• 
-oonndered. It only coiaprisn one order, No. 22, deOned as pcnoos 
whose occupations are undefined or udIcdowd, embracing tUotie who 
durivH incomen from sources which oauiiot be direutly relaUnl to any 
oUinr cUsH. The nuuber of pn«ons voiuing witlun this class is aluxwn 
in th(i following table : — 



K*« 1 

Sat- Soolh Vlclorw. 

Wdia. 1 


Qoeena- Soalh W««t«n 
luvL AuHnlti. AuMnJt*. 


TaamaAlfe. 




H*l« «.T» 

I'fnoat . . . lo.rn 


t.CM 
IWBI 
W.SS7 


140 

US- 


8BS ' ISO 

1 


447 


l.Ti: 
IJM 


ISJM 



J 




OBADES OF WOBKEKff. 



309 



under "other workers," and that Ui« rath<;r numTOU* class to whom Ui« 
delinitioDa of «mployftni, vroikin^ on thvir own nccouiit, and other 
-workuni are not properly applicable, «ro not included in Uie figures 
presented : — 



8a; 


Soulta 


Vtoloritt. 


Soulh 
Analnlu. 


WHtwn 

Anitnllik 


^ntubla. 


No 
ZnUnil, 


AuHtntlMtn, 

QUHIIllkOd. 


- 






Eitnonota. 








nmt^m .... 


M.OCt 


3,0«4 
4t,«» 


l.OOt 
le.nM 


2,i(e 

901 

S.WII] 


S7& 


tt.SU 


Ill 


&C(ijun& ca mtm cftv MnovVT. 


lii 


Mt6M 
11.113 

a3,«i> 


11.703 
71,^11 


ii;m9 
s.oos 


tro 


T,69« 

i.sm 
e,ii» 


3D. 170 


1M.9)! 


Otikb Woimiu. 


ill 


ShlM 


K3,ST» 

srs.ier 


Il,tW8 


i8,tiea 


U.WT 

n.tu 

U.llO 


1SI,E10 

i«,iy>« 
ii»,n3 


nt.iii 
i.oeu.tH 


Torn. Woiwiu. 


K4lc« 

I- mill ... 

PMsm 




loi.sat 

UI).llKt 


»,oas 


n.Mt 

2t.90!S 


M,»3 
11,(81 







Ai woolil naturally be expected, tlie males greatly preponderate in all 
the cUawa of brea<l-win tiers, except the domestic class, in which, owing 
to the great number of femalen engaged in attendance, there ia a pre- 
pooiknuioe of females for tho whole cJaas. The only other caxe in which 
thb takes place ta in class 4, in the sub-order comprising persons engaged 
tb the manufucture of dress, hut the proportion which this sub-order 
hMn to the whole «la^ is not high enough to affect the figures relating 
to the doac In the aub-order of olnait R which comprises persons of 
inltpcndent nioanx, females also outnumber males in New South Wales, 
Victoria, and Tasmania. 

In the following table are given the total* of t!if^ si-ven classe.i of 
(•KQpationa in each colony. A distinction is made bi'tncen bread- 




KUFLOrUENT AND 



and thoKi- rmpIo}-Rd in satisfying the intellectual, moral, uid soci&l wacU 
of iU inliniiitnnt^. Thiv claM in (li%-id«(l into two orden as follow : — 

Order 1, which comprises pci'sons engaged in government (geaenl 
and local), defence, Inw, and protection. Persons in the emjiloyiiifrnt 
of thi.' State are distributed, as far as possible, aooording Ut their Hpecial 
1111 ploy mi-nt, and aif, therefore, not all included iu thi« order. 

tJrdcr 2, which cdniftiiis thi- pemona uiinititeriiijf to religion, charity 
(exctuxivc (if lioHpilaln), bi-alth, liUTSture, science, civil and nti'chanicsl 
i-nginecring, arctiiUMturc niid surtcy^iug, uducatioa, finis arte, music, 
amusemt'nt];. 

The follouini; lal'lc given the total number of pereons iu the 
orders of the professional class: — 



Sml 



Smith 

WolO. 



Vlrturia. 






South i Wotcni 

AtutmJift-, AuatnlbL 



^wmuilA. 






Oannt 1.— Fiuosa Hiirtimiiuo to OovaK!im», DtmiM, Liv. ■!«, 



MaiH ;,«n a,TH 

FriiiJh...., M ' 1«D 

Wrwis.... T.W (l,UU 



SI 



1,911 






l.l>M 


S,0S6 


a 


« 


1,011 


);W 



licsl 

I 



OntiKR 1.— I'xaaoM HiRinnuiia to tUaiorox. CuuiTT, Hiurn, Envunos, ne. 



UbIh 

rttrn)!*.... 

fttun*.... 



M.IW 



w.vn 

«,;oT 



3,070 
O.MO 



S,Tei 

I,SM 



Bce 



I.IM 






ataM 



Twu. or Ckui 1.— PuriHioviii. 



MiJrt 

FmoM . . . 



£1.080 

idttot 
ll,4«l 



ti>,n3 

0,1 su 



T.MO 
S.W(T 

10,176 



4.«ea 



1,100 
34S 



1,90* 
V8S 



IO,ll« 

cnr 

1(,U1 



«7,t(a 
at.MO 

■M,OU 



Gradss ov WoitXEits. 



A distribution of the population into the ctinrac (eristic dirtidans, ttA 
U eraployoni «rork«Ri on their own account, rolntiree aanstiti;;. wajje- 
etmew,»ndunemployod, would hcextremely interesting. Uuforlunatrly 
it ia (lot possiblu to make such a distribution with accuracy. The 
diKttticlion betwcpn rmploycrs and eniployed ia not nude In the 
tjueeniUnd census, and the other grades are iinjiurfcctly tabulat«Nl in 
all the ccilontM exc('pt New South Wales and Tu-imonia ; but from lli6 
niaterinlx to batid the nummary given Iwhiw liiu berti compil«(L It baa 
to be |>ointcd out that relativen nasisting and thu unemployed are included 



GRADES OF M'ORKBItS. 



309 



mider "«th«r workers,' and that Uie rntht-r nuniToiis cldas to whom tbe 
de&titiouB of cmployen, workttiy on their nwn nccount. and oilier 
«Ork<TS are not properly apiiliciihU', «ro not included iu tlie figurM 
pRKnttHl : — 



s«. 


Now 
South 


riMorla. 


Wniiih 

AuMnlla. 


W«t*m 

AovCnLLL 


Tanpanlft- 


baluid. 


AmlnlulB, 
exDlufttve ot 


BsHorau. 


TCMta .... 


n.tMi 

I,IHI 
M,0«J 


3.0M 


i.om 


1,105 
Ml 


an 

t,uw 


1.3SI 
U.SS3 


1I1.M7 

e.B71 

1U,711 






Eiau 


cm Tiini im ueoDRT. 






ate 
HmlH .... 


)t.lU 




11; MO 


11,0m 

3,330 


T,S9fi 
1,M« 
9.106 


30,170 
3,40S 
3S.S7S 


lE§.llDa 
30,103 


OtIIIb WoiiiEEai. 


Mda 

tvnca 




S3,a75 

373.S8T 


70, «i 


16,119 

s.eno 


35,asr 

B,t5,1 

<5,lia 


lB2,Iin 
IDS, 12s 


HtS.SM 
l.MM.tM 


TWil. WOBIIU. 


ill 




101.2SE 
ttM.USS 


!M,n■^* 


tl,M4 

3, mi 


1B.1W 
11.637 


«>7.«» 
£t!.a30 


I.IM.IM 

tm.esi 

l.«13.t37 



Am would nAturnlljr be expected, tlie males greatly prepODoerate in all 
tbe cImmvi of brtind-winiKtrs, except the domi-^ic class, in which, owing 
to ili« great number of females rngngcd in attendance, there ia a pre- 
pooderauce of femalc« for tho whole class. The only other case in whiclt 
tbia takes place is in class 4, in the aiibordcr coniprisiiig persons engaged 
ih llie Dianufacture ot dress, but the proportion wliich thia suborder 
liean ta the wbole class is not high enough lo ad«ict the figures relating 
to the clAsa. In the sub-order of class G which comprises persons of 
independent inesnn, femules aUo outnumber males In Ifew South Wales, 
TicLoria, and Ta.-iaiania. 

In the following tabic are given the totuls of the seven clnsHes of 
occupatioiis in each colony. A distinction is made between broad- 



3IO 



EMPLOYMENT AND PRODCOTION. 



winnerH and dependeots, aud tho fibres also dltclose tho number 
persons who did not state their occupations %Z the oeosus : — 



Svt. 



souih 

ValM. 



VlitoiU 






South 
AunnlU. 



WnUm 
AiutnJAL 



THtnuls. 



Znlud. 



AoRBt- 



I l.^l'iunuiDtAL^ 






!!l,ciaa 

10,4(13 



9,759 
SB,742 



lo,*™ 



t,«aa 



1,100 

MI 
1,1M 



2,U3 
l.SOT 
3J96 



io,iu 

I6,BS1 



3£,»W 

iw.nu 



Cutn t— Deii M ' i i c . 



Paioi».. 



«.««) 


is.«a 


5,S83 


3,083 


I.IM 


K,«M 


M.MM 


l(,tS.1 


11. ITU 


I, MO 


WMI 


88,6« 


20,380 


ll.MS 


a.wo 



l.«1> 



19.M1 
tt,WI 



1SX.IMT 

iM,u: 



CLM 3.— COHMlIICIlt.. 



iitiM .... 

FlMDlJl* 



ia,9ii 

t.U8 






W,lll 
HMO 



Sl.BH 
1,87* 



(.Off 



i.tos 

I0.1M 



SMS 

*1.1M 



tun 



MatH .... 
FunmlM 
l*Dtanni , , 



CLiMi t.—imvwtmuL. 



l:a.OE« 

IT.IMl 

140,UI 



1)B,D1I 

1S.CU 
lar.ui 



«,01A 
G.IM 

tT.iaa 



SX,OT< 



&,B7U 

a,«aa 



1(,D17 

i-sar 

U,SM 






Ta,«i 



CUU S.— PuNlKt Pujbumu. 



UB.«M ■ 

)7,n« ■ 



IWw.... 
FnnalM 

Nneai.. 



iM.notj 



118,00.1 

iii.anB 



n.Tno 



aT.iwt 

1.118 

ia.us 



B.404 
34'i 



!I,*JJ 



K.im 



Cum e.— txoarum. 



FamiJiB 
IMnnm.. 



10l4tS 



s,o«i 

U.U1 

U.»T 



lU 



mi 



IHI 

"9 

«2B 



III 



1,«T 
l,(M 



is.ue 
aun 



TCTti, or CbuHH 1 TO a.— Biunwranu. 



Mtim.... 



3M.ME 



ll*,?70 

eoi.ou 



iiii.«ii 
ai,Mi 

1TB,«!! 



U».i31 

IK.OW 



KM* 

3.0SI 

tt.tss 



IMA , 

Cl.Ml ' 



sw.sea 
«i.He 

IM.MS 



su,ns 
i.su,9ai 



Olam T.— DRnxDins. 



M«l» .... 
Fnulw 

NnoDa.. 



«4>.toa 



oao.tai 



M.Ofl* 
IK.Mt 

su,tws 



ai.UIB 

isa.wi 



11.103 
)II.Ut 
MJVT 



«.Wt 
M.OW 
S1,M1 



Mun 
3;s.tu 



T(S,MR 





THE MASTJFACTUBING INDUSTBT. 



311 



t 

tm. 


Sootli 
WklH. 


TtptOIU. 


(JUMI»- 


§Olltll 


WaMtn 


TumukiB. 


New 


Auitnl- 










■Kscntrun jut niiiD. 


Xibi 

riniM.... 




ft.MS 

8.»M 


1.1U 
SH 

MM 


LAM 


150 
1» 


niT 


l.TW 




Tcnii. PorriATioi. 


^1 








IM.Ml 

lu.rao 


W.1R5 


n,680 
09.1 0; 
1M.«I7 


esu.ius 


1,701, IN 



Mash pacto ni es. 

TliP progTMs of tlie manufacturing industry in Austrulasifl has be«n 

llow aiul litful I'vpii in the most advjiiit'eil oiilotiies, and it is probable 

■feat there iraru adaiwll/ fuWKi' liajids i;niptoy»l during lt<9o tliau ten 

jtua praviovoly. The p(>i>ubvtii>n (A the continent is not aulSeient to 

nvntain industries on anythtni; libo nii extensive scule, and wvn the 

AuatralaMan iield. such as it is, lias heen still further liinilwi by the 

iDten»loiiial t»ri& Taking the aveiago coniiuuiptiun of niunufnrtnred 

ttmdiiinAuatralnalAfortlie ptt^t five^eAi'H,it would oppi-ar that, oxoludiug 

ue fortuitous (luuan<) creatL-d bj- uutlue govi^mamntjil osppnditure, the 

wfcolo of tbo rci]uir(!nwnt« of tln! tountry i.ould have been met by tlie 

labour of 266,000 adult maloji working in mtsonnbly <i<iiiippe<I factories 

»ith fairly acl«iuate machinery. Whon, tliorefore, allowance is aindt! 

for goods that would, undci- any circiimstances, require to be imported, 

it ^1 bo seen that there is not any very large field for the exten.iion o£ 

liMiiafMturiug operations unleae in conjunction with an export trade. 

Iha p«ater portion of the luanDfautorieH of Australasia may l>e clatsi- 
Cad M domeatic iudusti-i^v — tliiit in to say, mdtistriea naturally arising 
from the eircumstuKres of tli« ])upuhition, or uonnectfH with the treat- 
■WBt ol periihahle producta ; hut there are nevrrthotsER a fair nuinher 
of induBtrim of > more complex character which have been lirmly estab- 
Uali«<d. Stotistica for manufactories cannot be given for any ptiriiKl later 
tlian 1894; indeed, in some casos it has been neeesHary to make an 
atimaM even for that year. The numl»er of haniU employed in 1894 
vNa I4'2,820, working in 10,4S4 establish meuta. A cumparigon with 
Jfap yean 1685 and 1890 is kffurded by the following table 1 — 

^^B Yme. BNtbllabDMIila lliniln emnlond, 

^m 1S9S io.«;8 .» ir,.mi 

^B 1880 ll.IBT ....„ 168.730 

^P ISM „ 10.4H U-2.»:^ 

T1i<- mwHi of the pMt Atertnae which the above table xhnws will be 
piaio from a cooaideimoD of the detailed figures of each colony. 



312 



EMPLOYMENT AND PRODITCTION. 



MAxurACTOitiKx or Victohu. 

Victoria WM the eulony wbicli first displayed aolivitj" in llic inuin- 
fiujturing induKlrifs. In 1 88B lliei* were employed in ftictorics, properly 
su callc-d, HOJiG^ Imiidii ; and in 1889 tlieru were 59,181 h*nds. Tb 
uumb«i', tiowuver, fell .-iway to 39,815 in 1893, but since that year ther 
liu been & slight incmiuin. Th« fignrc* for the Iniit ten veara are 
follow :— 

Year. E>tibllihn»nU. lluiili «ii|iilaj*d. 

1885 2,(C0 a>.563 

1886 2.0M „ 47.131 



I8»T 

188S 

1889 

1890 „. 

1881 _ 

1892 _.„.... 

189S 

ISM 



3,020 M.SS2 

3,164 fia.STl 

3,308 M.I81 

3,296 „....._ 58,173 

3.320 .'>3.52S 

3.0S5 4.1.M1 

2.737 :i!t,Hi5 

2.875 4l.'^3 



Th« loasof Moployment from 1889 to 1893 affected 19,36(1 bandit, tL/., 
1P.I02 males and 1,264 females. The diBplacemeut of labour occur 
in all industries ; but those most lArgoly iifiootod wer« a» follow : — 

Ironworks etc 4,104 

SnwmitU. cto „ 3,798 

Briokwoi ki und potlerica _ ...„. 3,346 

CcKK'h Mill waggon building „„ l.tOi 

FutniluTD factories „.,. 1,375 

Clutliing m«iufiu:torie* 820 

Printin;; nutl titliograithiiig Mlablixliniento 673 

Boot facluricu SI2 

Acrotc'l water nauufoatDrics „ 400 

BiDwcricn SSS 

S»Mlery anii bnmcu tnanufuctorici 196 

Compared with the other ctiloiiies. the proportion of fiwrtorT handi 
who ni-c wom<!n is largt-Mt lU Viotiiri/i ; thus, out <if ii9,18I hajids f" 
1889 tliprc wcr<! 8,327, nc H'07 per cwit,, females, while in 189'1,< 
41,273 hands, 8,224, or 19*93 per cent., were fenutlps. 



SlAxryACTOKiBS OF Nkw South Walks, 

Tim manufacturing industrit^s of New South Wales do not cover 
wide a fiyld as those of Victoria, allhoiish at the present time the^l 
aflbi'd employment lo ^ujle as many perBonsi. The efinality in the* 
number of factory bunds in the two colonics dcMa not, howcrer, iiMuIt 
from any progrc-Jt!< mailp by New South Wale* of Into years, for there . 
has been no such progrrw, hut nrisc.i from tlio (jrcat falling-olT in thai 
nuiobei' of factory hnndx in Victoria, in New South Waie:i the ynur] 
1891 showed a toUl of -16,135 hands, vie, 41,582 mak-s ami 1,0 



THE MANCPACTURISG INDUSTET. 



313 



females ; but tbase figures had declined in 1894 to 39,529 mktes and 
3,232 firinales, or a toinl of 43,7fi]. The uumW ol hundw for ten yuan 
k ahowu in the following altttemeut : — 



Tor. 

ISSS 

isao 
188T 

1888 
1880 
1890 
l»l 
I89S 
1893 
18M 



EMhUthntnU. lUndt rmploj'td. 

.... MIO „ 38.791 

.... 3,.T4l 41.677 

.... 3,541 43JS7 

.... 3.3tS 48.08I 

.... 3,108 45,M1 

.... 2.K8 — «^99 

.... S,583 _ 46,133 

.... 2.ZW ...» 44.908 

.... 2,008 38.018 

.... 2,e*7 42,7ai 



Between 1891 and 1893 the number of hands employed fell from 
46,135 to 38,918, In the following year tliere wss a recovery, but the 
niiraber was ntill leaa tliiiii in any year since I88G, the dissAtroua year 
1893 alone excepted. 



MAKUFKTTnRIRS OF OtHBIC COLONIES. 

• 

la Qneenaland Ryslematic RtJLtistics relating to nianu factorial have 
only boan teken Mince 1891. Tlie Hgtircs fur the last tlir^e years arc a* 
follow : — 

y«u- EitablfahmenU- IfBhtl* Qmplcijr^. 

1892 I,n2» „ l3,aC9 

1893 » J.3111 14,434 

JSS* „...._..„ 1.323 15,224 

In Tonnania ktallatiea Lave been coiuptleU since 188S, but, aa might 
be cxpectird, lit ]irta«it man" factories are on 11 very small scido in that 
colony :— 



ISSR 
1837 
1889 
1889 
IStM) 

laoi 

I89£ 

isas 

1884 



1 1* i*l ■>■•*■•• ••■•■•■ 4. 



SII 

su 

250 
333 
837 

308 

SH 

SOI 



2.107 
2.042 
■2.085 
2,170 
2.30* 
2,052 
1.693 
1.427 
1,680 



In New !!e«land infonuation regnrding the manufucturing indii.itry 
\h obtained at the ([uinqui^nuinl cen.iua. In liiSG there were 1,946 



314 EMPLOYMENT AND PRODCCTION. 

oetuhlKfamonUi RiniilojioK -2,Qd5 persona ; and iu 1S91 ike i»t&bK*ll- 
mcnbt numtic-Tcid 2,2ni, oikI the liaiida 25,633. Suath AustraliA dow^ 
not now colUtct inFnnnntioQ in r«|ranl to eutployineiit lit bctoriea ; Um 
latent ligurcs aTniUblc refer to 1892, when thiu*c vthtk 11,189 hands 
eiuployod in Sl^ cAtnhlisbnients. Weatrni AiiatrntinrnnkiwanenutRiM»- 
tioii of tli« number of factories, but not of tho hu»ls cmploT*^ In IKK5 
there were UO eetablishmeDts ; in 1890, 175; and in 1S94, 36S , 
ealablinhiueiits. An estimate which appears to be reliable gives tha^ 
nuiuhur of hands etaployed as 2,500. H 

TlAXT iSD FbODCCTIOH op MA.\UFACTOItlK>. ^^^H 

.1 

Hie following ligares regarding plant, etc., refer to difTerent yeant, 
vie, in Xow 8»iith Waits and Victoria, except where othervrijM itAted, 
to the yrair emlsd March, 1895 ; in South Australia, to tho year ended 
March, 1S93: and in TAsinania, to the calendar year 1S94; while all tL« 
tiji^res given for New Zenland are those obtained under tJte Census Act 
of 1891. 

The horse-powor f^mployed in manufactories is known only in tli 
case of four colonies, and ia as follows ; — 

New South WaUa ».177 

Tiotoria _ _ 30.S80 

Sonth Anxtialia _. C.3IS 

New Zwalaiiil „ !H,823 

The value of the plant employed is returned only (or Now South 
Wales aiid Victoria, aud la given ah follows :— 

N«w South Waloa ...,„ „.„.„. „„ £S,S29,M6 

Victoria ^ „„,. 1»,6*>.0«) 

With regard to Tasmania, the value of land, tmildingv, and plant i^l 
ntatcd to bo j£3r>9,A10, while a similar return fur Xi-w Znalanil placM 
tho lignrc at £i).26l,836. Assuming 10 per cent, of IheM amounta lyi 
represent tlie plant alone, thp ralues would be : — 

Taomania... „ £U:i.640 

New Zcniaai £2.I(M.TO0 

The value of the plant in the retnaining three coloniee has been] 
estimated as follows : — 

QaecnuJuid £1,3(»,100 

Sontb .\u.tr»lia „ £t,iSS,000 

WMUm Australia » „ _.... £1S1,SM 



VAXTm OP PRODTJCTIOK. 



3IS 



The gtom TtOon of ftrticlcH pmrlnonl in mAnnfactiiring TxtaliliRbrnonts 
b known iit th« oae of four c>:<loiii< n (tho ligureH boing tbose of tli« 
sua year cf 1891) and iastaKd as follows: — 

Kow South WmlM £16,625,238 

Vlotori. „„„ _„ „. £22.3flO.,151 

TaiHiMBi* „ , £?24,7U 

NevZHluirl „ £8.773,837 

' foivg^i>^ figurr'S include, of ootirae, the vnlue of materials used, of 
1 pnid, anil of fuel. In New Smith Wales the returns obtained 
under the Ceruiia and IndiiiitriiJil Returns Act show that thp value of 
iiul«riala used was X;,383,0i0, of wages paiil £1,831,308, md of fuel 
£375,9^7. iiiakiiiR a total sum of £12,589,305, than leaving lfi« net 
Talae of [irodui^uoti at £4,035,953. In New Zealand ilia valuti cif 
inBt«TuilM useil is given as £3,471,304, and of wages paid aa £1,808,(5-10, 
wbU« tliR ralue of fuel may ho estitijated at £267,000, milking u total 
nun of £''>,546,9'14, so thiit the net value of production would amount 
to £3,326,893. Simitar tigures for Ta^mimia are not avnitablc 



VjxoE OP Prodcotioji. 

Full particulars regarding the value <"f primary production iiavo 
»lw«dybccngi¥wi in previous chapter*; combining thereaultsthere shown 
witli the value of manu^tures, the total value of production during 
the year 1894-05 waa £103,672,000. of which amount the total of eaeb 
colony aad live value per inhabitant were as follow : — 




EMPLOYMENT AND PRODCCTION. 



Of thu amount. £78,365,000, or £19 Is. 3<L per inhabitant, ta 
derived from prininnr induatriee, and X35.307,000, or XG 3s. 2d. pec 

inhabitant, from otlier productive iaduatrieH. I 

The diatribulion of iba proJuetioii of tin) L-oloiiiea uiiditr thi? Tnriooi 
bninchiHi of priuiary uiid uth«r pruduclivi! induKlrics wiu u follow* ; — 



Celmr. 


Aj^rleulturK 


InriuatfliH. 




Mid 


Ottw ' 

iDduMlM.^ 


NiwEoMk Wala,,.. 
Vlrtori* 


il.flB.OOU 

4,n4,oo» 

SIB.OOO 

4.u>,cioa 


£ £ 

ii.jao.onii a.ttt.ono 

IJIK.OM ^ Mir nno 


e. 

t.»s,ooa 


<)»o.am 


IMOlOM 
t.t«^om 

SOuMt 
«M.M* 


Ssuth Auilnllk 


B,IWT.aOO 

tai.ooo 

1190,000 

t.»n,o«i 


MT.OOO 
mn.oui) 
ISl.OPO 

tiD.nnn 
•.san.ooo 


S.OGliOCO SW.OOO 

3Mi,Doo lio.oon 

Bos.ooD leo.ooo 

000.000 ' i«n,ow 

1.103.00(1 •rM.wM 


^^ew XoOuil 


AnltnluU 


Ift.Wi.OOC 


»,M4,«ao 


ii,«Dft,ooa 


1 
is.tm.WKi 1 a,Bi£,ooa 


£&.VT^0O 



* Kuirl gciiii prodoatlon tnoludiM bnniBder. 



Corresponding figures, showing approximately the total value oil 
oduction at previouB periods, are given in the following UMv : — 



(Monjr. 


ign. 


1 
u«t. ifn. 




£ 
U.370,000 

1D,2SO.OOO 

3,9as,ooo 

5.228,000 

707,000 
2,131,000 

0,739,000 


C 
23,180,000 

22,750,000 

10,900,000 

8.(57.000 
643,000 

3.SS6,000 
lll,4SK),0O0 


£ 

3e,;39,Tn 


Victoria ,„.„....... 


30.31B,S10 . 

H.273.em 

9,035,S7S 
1,S06,3U 
3,!>S0,M0 






SI Jtl 6,915 








se,43».ooo 


87,608.000 


1 17,6(H.9O0 






Aiutr>lksia< 


28 17 


£ a. d. 
31 i> 7 


£■.■!.. 
30 8 9 




VALUE OF PEODUCTION. 



317 



Compttred villi tha oUler oounlnes ot the world, ttw uiioutiU uUted 

tibOT« «re by no meuift utdgnificaDt, and iti production per li«nd A\ib- 

Mlla «xeeed« Ka/ other oounlrj- for which ir-coids are available, 

AllbooKli the data ore incomplittc im which an vxtiet iitatvinriit oui \>it 

Iwuided, there in miffidont informntinn to wiirmnt thn oMcrtion that 

(rom primarr industrioa slooe AustntlAsin produces mom [kt JnlinbitAiit 

duuiix pn>lucc<l from tbeoombiDcd indtiHtricA of any oliicr country, nnd 

\ ctiTifidentittn of this fact will porliaps explain the case with which 

liiMc colonies i>car their apparently great indebtedness, and the general 

praeperily tii«y enjoyed until the disturbances incideut to the banking 

critis unae4tW goa«i«l buHinetui. The foUowtiigf ttfiiirea, giving the 

v»hie of pTwIuction from primun,- indiirtrica in th« principal coiintriea 

of the world, are, witJi Ihv exception of those for the Australoai&n colo* 

niea, taken from Hnlhsll'a Diclifrnary n/ tHaiUtM : — 



OwMtir. 



T«l>l Pmluctloo. 



I'ntei] Kingdom .„.,.. 

F^onett „. 

Qtmiwiy 

RaniB 

Aiutria. 

July 

Spun 

ri»t<«KI>l 

»w*dw 

Korway 

DMmark „..,.. 

HolUad ^ 

BdflnBn ...... .•.».i«.i.*. 

SwttaerUnd 

UnitMl States 

CumIa 

Ar^cttiua 

AiutnduU(18M-0R) . 
New South NVbIus . 

Victorift 

QuccmlAixi 

South Australia .... 
Watsto AuBttalia . 

Taanwtiia 

NawZMUnd 



311,000.000 

470.000,000 
44!l,000,000 
578,000.000 
337,000,000 

aw, 000.000 

177,000.000 
3'',000.0O0 
&0,000,000 
18,000.000 
85,000,000 
39,000.000 
82,000.000 
IS, 000,000 

S9.1. 000.000 
311,(100,000 
4-i, 000,000 



25,601,000 
]6.18S,OO0 

io.«ao.ooo 

5.311.000 

1.800,0(10 

2,707,000 

13,80n,000 



IVibwl 

of l<gpul*Uon. 



Jailed by the nfKc^^S^t^ production, Xew South Wales stands far 
*^*o the other oototiioi, a jioxition which it owos to the largeness of 
'•* interests id pontoral purKuitx. The value of the return from this 
i^.Jlutry was £13,390,000, a nnm greiiter than the total production 
fron aU priroory iDdoalries in every colony except Victoria and New 




318 



EUPLOTMBNT AND PBOBCCnOK. 



I 



Zoland. In valun of primary production per iTili&ttitant, Qui 
irtandit lirat, 'WrKterrt Austmlin »ccond, mid New ZiuOiuid third, wl 
Victoria is lowpst, with little more thun onn-lutlf of the productinn pn* 
h«A(l of Quociulond. Such a condition of things i« only wkut might 
anticipatecl from the drcarastancfs of the colonifa. 

A comparison of the production of the coIodicb from priiDiiry indi 
trice per head of population, hoirerer, is liable to give a.n undi 
importance to those provinces which have larf^e tenitories and scao^ 
populutioii : for it ia hut a Datiiral exprctatiou that wlwre th« popol^ 
tion of a country in dense n largii projiortion of the inhabitanta wUl be 
engagf-d in other than priniury iudustricN. If tlie valui- uf primary 
prodiicMon, thrrcfore, be compartHi with ttm nxtmt of t«rritory nnjnj-fj 
by each colony, it will he found that the praiition* of jwreral of the 
proi-inces are reversed. Tbos Victoria ocenpics first position with an 
average primaiy prodacllun of £lSi 3s. lid. per square mil?, irhiie 
Western Australia had the lowest return of .£1 1 7a Id. The foUoiring, 
as well an the prtt't^io^ table, bears teatiiuouy to the great natural 
rekources of New Zealand, which lias an avera^'A production per head ol 
£i3 9k. 2a, and pur xqiiarc mile of £152 3s. OJ. :— 



Colony. 



TuUl iiiududlan jm 
KJOUC mil*:. 



£ *. d. 

Now 8»utli WalM i«! 7 II 

Victoria ..„......,». 1S4 S U 

Quoouland , „ _ 16 7 7 

South Anitnilia 6 15 4 

W«rtcm Anrtndia I I* 1 

TuniuuiU „ „ lin S S 

N«ir Zwluid „ _.».... 102 3 9 

AitBtralaala 'J3 4 



319 



PRIVATE FINANCE. 



THE firat century of AustrnliuHan history- closed on the SCtli January, 
l&BS. It is inipoasible to trwx step by step the pro^preas made 
during tliat period, as the data for the purpose are for the most putt 
nntinff. SotBciont material ia, however, avaJlalile, from which a com- 

r->tir« Btateinent of tlii? wealth of tlio colonieB at difTereot pt-riocls mny 
ileduoud. In tho following ligures tliu private wi-alth of thn pt^oplci 
itt alono been ootiiiilumd, the vitlue of the unsold lands of thn Stntf:. as 
•«U M tho T»tao of ptihtic worliH, ha\-iiig been omitted. 'I'hn subjoined 
tabu thows th« private wealth of the vhole of Austrninsia and the 
•Dcnue ^raof ftt iut«rvals of twenty-five years from tlie date wbnn 
ttu territory ww fint colonised : — 



Jmnrnrr. 


Prlntfl WcHllh. 


Incrcue durlDS SS jmi^ 




£ 


£ 


I7SS 


— 


Country fi"t colonwod. 


IS13 


1.000,000 


1.000,000 


1838 


26,000,000 


23,000,000 


1363 


181.000,000 


155.000.000 


1800 


1,189,000,000 


•888,000.000 



* lDar»» for twcnly-vvreD f oui. 

Titt ptoj^naa exhibitetl iu this table is niarvellous, and an reKanla ratio 
quite anprM«xlcnlMl. Tbouf-h Austitilasia has but thi? population of ft 
province of one of this ([re&t Europejiu powers, in the wi«lth and nnrninga 
sf its p«opk it Ktood, in tlio year 1890, liefore moat of the socondaiy 
SlaUs, and as TCgnrdu wMilth and income per head of population far 
ition any other country. Tho plan adopted in valuing the elements of 
private wealth has been skct^-hrd in previous iwuo) of this work, and, 
*■ it ia marked by no features of special interest, il need not be repeated 



320 



PRIVATE PIKANCB. 



on this occasion. Below will be found the valuation of Mch of 
principal elemeats : — 

ClHilllntlnn. ( 

lADd, HouMi, and Pernunent Iniprovemoiiti _._. 831,380,000 

JJve Stock „..„ l»,a06,W» 

Coin iu»1 ItolKon .„.„,.„. „..i. „.„.„.„,,.. 33,032.000 

MeroLaiidiM 51.151.000 

Houwhold Furniture and I'crioiiiil I'roperty 82,874.000 

Shipping owned in Colonics 7,049, IKK) 

Minmwkd Mining I'Uat .„. 38,033,000 

Plant ein]>loyeil in A^rii'iiltiirel, MAiiufaotuling, and 

other iiidiutrice not clie<«li«r« indudvd. SSiSftVOOI) 

Total I,1«(,0*.000 

Let it be understood that the S^res just given refer to the ye 
1890. No attempt has l>een made to bring the estiuiat«s of jxiTat^J 
wealth down lu a. latei- Ual«, but it ciLunot be denied Limt the uplie«v«Ji 
CAiisL-d by thi! Gnaiicial uriaia of 1 803 lius wrought very material change! 
in the value of most descriptions of property m all the coloniea. "Umi 
(iL'preciatioii in the value of real e«tnt« may be gathered from the faot 
that between the beginning of 1893 and the iMgiiiniug of 1895 tb 
rapital value of Melbourne and suburlw declined from XG,039,OI4 
Xi,l)S4.r)96, while during the satue period the eapiliil value of Sydnc 
iind sruburbs fell from i6,067,8S2 to £5,3.V>,920. Tho conditions 
productive industry, however, are still hopeful, and there is nothing to 
warrant a gloomy outlook of the future. True, it is not likely tiist 
certain foims df investineni, notably land, will reach their torner 
speculative values, at least for many years, and it is not desirable tltat 
they should do so; but there is sufficient evidence that, with the expan- 
sioD of population, there will still be ample scope for the rcmuncntive^ 
umployuiciil of capital. 



TiiK DirFLKioN or Wkaltu. 

In former iasnea of this volume the proliate returns of each colon; 
■wtn niade the bueia of a calculation of its private wealth. Extendi 
ii^Tcstigatioii showed that unkss the ages of the persons dying wer« aW 
taken into considL-rntioii, estimiLtesi hosed on the probate returua wen 
likely to prove fallacious ; and as information in regard t4 aiteti v.-wi not 
procurable, this form of estiniating was abandoned. The occurrence at 
irregular intervals of the deitth of very rich pcrtvuiis, evm if the ages 
had been (procurable, would have had a diaturhiiijK etlwt on thv calcula- 
tions, at it con be I'eadily imagined that, where the average number of 




DEFFCSIOX OF WEALTH. 



321 



dautbs mngcs from only one thonMntl in W«st«m AustralU to sixteen 
tbooMnd in Victoria, an exceptionally large estate might eanly vilJate 
the ttvflrnge. In HupporL of wliat !a here litnUM], it may be pointed out 
tiut, u estimated by probatea, the average weiilth per juliabitant ia 
Victoria duriu}; Jive yuan ranf^^d (nun £325 to £C10, wid in Nnw 
South Wales from £300 to £530. Tliat such wait nctaally thi: comi 
involven 11 su|i[)OKitioti too ridiciilous tn be fur u inoinciit eiitLTtiiinc!il. 
The prohotc nrtiirtiji, Iioircvcr, hnve sonie statistical i-b1up, na will 
presDDtljr appear, and tho returns for tlio latest a\-ailable year (L894) 
an, tlicmfbra, giron lielow :— 



<MMir. 



Knmbtr of 

■tulct. 



TeUl Value ot 



Avvr«gD VaIuc of Eilal« 
IvH by lAuh Ih^tawd 



Knr South WaU* 

cff* 

igSiJt 1 

Sbolli Anitratla 

WnUrn An4W*lia.,...„„ 

TumuiU.. „ 

SvuZtaiMoi 

AiutnUaUA 



1.403 

fiK 
734 
113 

aoi 

009 



a,S26 



641,202 
1.733,479 

200,740 
1,S20,165 



£ 

1.S32 
1,121 
2,302 



■13,389,442 



•3,088 



* liclinlvi ol W«teni AnitnUik, 

A» already pointerl out, the value of estates b liable to vary greatly 
from year to yiiir. For the past fifteen jpars the avemge value of 
property left by penions who have died and left property was :— For 
Se» South WaicB, £2.:>a3 ; Victoria, X2,G0i ; Qiieenslnnd, £l.r.91 ; 
South AnHtntlia, £I,.170 ; and Tasmanin, £l.'H!>. For New Zealand, 
retJimii lav. only availablo for eight years, and they jJiow an average of 
£^S76 ; while thi? valuea have not been aacertaiued in the case of 
WesU>m Australia. 

AJtbough the prubati! returns have iittln value an indicating thn 
t"l&l wealtli of thu luimmunity, in the abitoncc of tho nxact ti^urcrN which 
pK^rty nttnniK disclo»r tlii-y form tiie only means of CKtimating the 
diffusion of w«dth. The f oUowing table showa the proportion of persons 




322r 



PEIVATE EISA&XE. 



not of ovary 100 d}r!iig who left r*tftUs midicifflitly large to be 
object* of ipMilic hoquosb Th« ligures covor tiftcoii yMira : — 



CAIony. 






USCkM. 


ISSMS. 


IEW4I. 




psrtient 

U-0 
lZ-7 
e-8 
12-S 
10-9 


per wnt. 

11-5 
18-1 

8-2 

is-s 

10-7 
11-5 


peroMit. 

11-3 
174 


QuconsUail ., 

Soulli dn*tndut 


10-3 
I7-* 

12-0 




ll-S 
9-4 








•11 -l 


•12-0 


is-s 







• Eicliulta er Urn EMIuid. 

These figui-es show a iliMribiitinn of wt^nlth not t<> be pnnillplM in nn 
other port of llic world ; and in a country when; no moch is saiii «bonl 
tlie poor growing poorer aai\ tho rich richer, it ia pleasing to find anir 
out of every four a<luit luales and females the potwemor of jirujierty. 
In Soutli Auatralia in fouud the widest difiuuou of the in ili vidua! 
coloniu-d ; Vittorin coums iiL-it to HinilU Au3l[7iHii ; tlieu com« AVi-sttTti 
AuHLmJiii, Tiismiiriia, iiud Nuw Suulli WiilfM ; and Quuensland unit Npw J 
ZRklniid ntniid la.^t on tin; list. Too much Mit-sn niay Im; Inid on tho ^ 
iipparnntiy wider ilistribution of wrjiltli in olio colony tliivn in luiolher, 
for it is ohrioiia that a priivinct; with a wtatinnnry or decrvn»ing popu- 
lation will naturally come out of n i^nijinrison of this kind more 
favtiuiTibly (han another with a rapidiy-inerwwing population. How- 
ever, ULkinh' till tiling into convidf'i'utiori. the taltle aa » whole in highly 
Hatisfactory, and slionld be uddiUonally pleudnf; from the (uroamstKncv 
thkt tilt! lutjo of ilitttribution hiui Iwen increasing in envy prorince of 
thp gmnpi. 

In the lfnit4s:l Kingdont, during tho live ynnnt 1K90-94, th« number 
of estates on which legacy- duty wns paid wiut 297,351. Making tlie 
liberal allowance of onn-fourih for succossions, of which the ntinilwr u 
not given in the ^'latuilica! Ahstraet, the total t'stattts would be 3*21,(00^ 
U oouipired with 3,695,447 ileaUis. or a Uttle over 8-9 per cent., m 
agpinct IS'o piu- ciMit. in Aublrulaiuii during the nme period. To 
show Ktill uuirn olenrly the vidi; dintrilnitjon of profwrty in thoe 
otdomiM, the following KtntniDont iH ov«n uoro UNrfni l^nn the %B>m 
jntt giv«a The compatricon is mode u foE every hondreU tkottu of 



DIPFTTSTOX OP WEALTH. 



323 



tMb milM, nad for tJi« mns number of deaths of stlult mttleti and 
Inulea Tlus htt«r tuechod ia undoul^tedly the proper Imu>ui of «ain' 
poiMait as large numbers of fpiualea ore poatteasom of u Hubtituiitial 
mmit of property :— 



Mxr- 


I'mjionion uf EitatH 

]«liHd>iathiiDl 

r-'"" T-'-T 


Proiwrtlon of EatitM 

|>cr imitculuof 

tduli ijioln And iDuulrv. 




rnvai. 


ifiBs-se. 


tSSO-M. 


1SW44. 


USS'W. 


1»0«I. 


KtrSonth Wal» 


percont. 
M-fl 
SS-S 
18-2 

so-o 

237 
28-0 


per cent. 
36-» 
39-0 
23-4 
S3-3 
24-2 
31-7 


percent. 
36 •» 
40-8 

2&e 

09-4 
31-2 
33-2 
27-3 


percent. 
22-4 
23-4 
137 

1»-S 
16-0 


per cont. per coat. 
S3-S 2Z-G 
■24 -S 30-2 




16-1 50-2 




30-8 
19-3 

ie-4 


32-3 




21-1 

20-1 




lG-7 




•34 -a 


•3((-7 


40-1 


•22-0 


•23-1 


34-8 







• Knlnrinvr Xn ZaludL 



Impoiitatiox of Camtai. 

AaittrmfauiA ranks unong tlio dribt/tr niitions. At tlio clone of \8Qti 
ib peofia owod to porcoos oiilcidc its boundaries, or, more corroctly 
faking, there wfts invoBtecI in it by non-residtriits, Knd owing by 
ill variona GovenuDaota, a »iiin approximating to X 3 49, 69 6,000, or 
SSS pur inbabitanl. Of this lar»e sum, XI 33,^50,000 represents the 
prirate investmeuta, and £317,136,000 tUe outatauding liabilities of the 
States and loiud govt-Tntug bodieii. More iiujiorUtit in nome respects 
tlun tito oaq)ii« of tho dubl an! the annual |)ay:nc^iitH iiiad<< in reai>eot 
Iharsof Those ciui bn stntoil -with same oxuctitudc Tlic! yearly inteixnt 
faiii on account of Stato and local govnmmont <!ntitx to other than 
AsBtralasian creditors nniounts to £K,284,0()0, whik' the inwmrr frmn 
prirate iuvMtments may be stated at X6,31T,000 : in all, £14,001,000. 
Tite returu on private iuve.iituieiit3 represents an anntial iulicrrnt of 
nUier leas than 4) per cent. When it ia remembei-ed ihai the bulk of 
tie xbarnt of the l(ir>['.' ilivideud.jmyiiiK minta of New Suulli Wales, as 
»bI1 n» of ii):»tiv iif till? Qmy-nsliuid miiir-s, iirfi held in London, and 
jirid to tho owm-m a nrturn which fnll!. little short of .£900.000, 
and that Ihfrv are very many inwutmi^nts in nil thu coloiii«a which 
rioH a ranch higher return than 4J per oimt., it will 1h? evident that 
I considerable sum, variously estinistod at from ckvon to lift««ii 
milUtuu Mterling, iua been Hunk in unproductive investments. 



324 PRIVATE FINAKCE. 

Ic has been stntorl altovo that the: grmw fttnoitnt of mTwtmntfl, 
non-rcsideiite is i:349,6>!6,000. This r-um may b« diridei] into what 
was received priot' to 1871, and what •wan received subwqueut to tli&t 
dat«, for ISTl tiiay lie conveniently taken sa the opening year of Utt«r- 
dsT Auxti-ukBtuii liiianue. At thv opening of 1871 theae colooies Kb 
indebttid t» Or«at Britain Uiiu : — 

£ 

On acooont of ^tatv and tnimicipa! borrowings 31.3G2.000 

Private inve»tmeaU 38.^01.000 

Tot«l 72.056,000 

From 1871 to 189.5 the increase of inilebtediteBK was : — 

On ftceniint of State and munici)tul borruwingi 182,774,000 

Ptlt'iLU iiiventmenta (13,050,000 

ToU KB,T3O,00lli 

The figurra Just given »re irrespwjtive ol the moii«y brooght to the 
colonies by pei-soiis taking up their nlxxio thcrnin ; the amount of such 
money ta very considerable, as will presently appear. 

TliR intermtM of the various colonies are no intertwined Uiat there is 
pot a little lUfliculty ill accumtely delenniuiiiK the amount nf capititl 
inipnrtiHl on privnu! uucuuiit in wluali euch colony titands indebted to 
Urcjit ilritain, but an uppruxiniation Ims Ixien luiulc, which is giv«a ta i, 
the next table : — 



Oobxr. 


Owinjr li.r HUM 
QoveniniDDl Uodioi. 


On 

PiivM* Amoiini. 


~ 1 




£ 

56.803,000 
50,8*0,000 
30.37*.000 
21.012.UOO 
3,S03,U00 
7,HM,L>U0 


£ 
85.888,000 
63,533,000 
12,705.000 
12.IG3.O0O 
l.eO-2,000 
l.OTl.Uua 


' 1 

iis,3?»,oao ■ 

43,070.000 a 

SS,17».000 ■ 

A. 585.000 

fl,9£l,000 J 
61.»I8,000 f 


Si.iith AnslmUa 




4li.-2.'i0.000 10,508,000 




317.130,000 


ISiWKMMMW 


tta.ese.wo 





The totaU jiiveit in the but column are Jii one reiipeet imprrt' 
. Eiioh colony hax inoiiey iii\-e!it4;il in one or other of tbii n«)gliboari: 
' provinces, but in only two iiixtjinceN dwx the nmount inviwt«d 0x1 
what is owing. The cucnptionaarc Victorin nnd South Aastmlia, and th« 
Other five colonics stand iiutebted to them to the «xt«n( of jE27.600.00Q 



3 



IMPORTATION OP CAPITAL. 



3=5 



-ind £12,I(i3,000 i«spE<ctively. Making tliia correction in thv fig;ur«-ji of 
tbe variouH catoniea, the foUowlug rcHulU are obtAincd :— 



Oalcnr. 


Apymnnt 
t»iJ*)it*ilncM. 




due by other 


5*1 

ladflbMdaeai. 


Vidorii 


£ 

8S>«9e.000 

nS.9T9.000 

43.o;o.ooo 

3.1. 175.000 

11.934,000 
(il.81S,000 


i7Vecib.obo 

12,103,000 


19,400,000 
10,160,000 


t 

102.096.000 
Sfi.:79,0O0 
f,3 -'".0 Hftfl 


SMthAuUBtia 


1 2I,(J1-.'.000 

2.222,000 7.807.000 
1.7711,000 ! 11.700.000 
6,206,000 68.053,000 


WetUm AnMraUn. . . . . . 












948.686.000 SII.TA3.0Oa 


39,703,000 349.fiflH.000 






. 







Catil recnnt yennt Melbonnie won the centre of AuHtivtlusian financr, 
and even at thn pre«cnt time it !» ihn hend-quiirtcr.i of must »f thi: Tiritixli 
banks and mortgage iniHtitntions doing businexq in thetio colonics. It 
a to this circumstance tlint thp colony of Victoiia appenrn, in the former 
«f the tahleti jiiHt given, to Ije so heavily indebted to Biitish investors - 
■ fOHdition which, w* tJie latter tahle shows, is much aineliorateil hv the 
imMtodncHti of tbe other colonies to it. South AuHlraltu atoiiilii in 
a pKultar ponition, us to nil npjieitrnnnw thu privutir in<lcht(idn<w.i of the 
odony to Uritinh itiv«!«loni i* olmunt if not mitiriOy bnlniiccd hy its in- 
TCKtiacntA in the other provinces. The net indcljlniliiPHs on private 
aiTCOont is approxicini'^ly w follows : — 

Kcw S&uth WbIm _ £4.'i.2SS,000 

Victotin _.„. 34,5133,000 

Qiiocnilima 22,80r.,(M)0 

WMtsrn Aii*tra1£a 3,t)t4.')no 

Tumaiiiii „„ 3.747.000 

N«w Zoalaiid 21,803.000 

Ab almtdy explained, the investjiieiits of South Austrnlia in New 
South WaloK, Qiiur-imlnnd, nud West«m Austmlia pmatically cancel its 
tlidnbt<^ne)» on prirntc nccount to Great Uritiiin. 

In conaidpring the question of the annunl payment made l>y AuHtral- 
Biia to Great BritAin — which is il« nole creditor— it is important to 
have distinctly in view the fact thnt part of this income is payable 
intapeetive of production, and jmrt only arises when there has been 
•nteoedviit production. In the first of these categories is the charge 
Ml StAti! and niuiiiciiial liorrowings lo the luuuunt already stated 
(£S,;iS.l,00<'), and probably half tlio income from private inveslnierit.i, 
or, in round ti^irr.i, .£.^,100,000 — -the two tnhpn togethi-r nmhing a. Hum 
of £11,3M,000, or a little less thiin £2 Us. per inhabitant, which must 




'326 



PEIVATE FINANCE. 



beexporte<l entirely irreapective of the wmdition of prodnttivt iiicluttey. 
It may b«<i« be reuutrkeJ tliat tliere is snotbor souroo of drniiui^ Enn 
ihvGn I'ulaiiies to b^ uuiiKidered in eetiiuatiug the tributarjr str«atn Bow- 
ing fruiii AustnUoiiiA to Einyland — lliat is, the income of abwnt«» 
cofonixls, which fi>r 1895 pnobnUy revoked £810,000. The total pay- 
mentH to ontnide crrditoni or investon during IS9S nuty he Buuunftnaetl 
u follow :— 

£ 
Paymsnt* ou awiHiuiit ot 8t«te or nmtiiclpnl liorrnwingn, 
■od m> Bcooiuit o[ phvstv iiiviwtiu«iit« on irhich 
intnTcat murt be [xud icnupvctivo of the eondiliou 
of praduoticra _ 11,334,000 

Return ilciHiiidDnt on natcccdcDt pruduotlOU 3,S1T,OUO 

Alsrntac UtcoDiaa (usuallj' eo colled) 810,000 

teM - 1S.4II.000 

In tlie IdOinAag tablt- thi* amounts to be remitted on account of th& 
State uiiti on privatv account aru Hhtfwn HL-jmrately for t-acb colony : — 



CUtonji. 


Inlflnat on StAl« 


Ein^ of EarRlnj^ ol 
iK>n.na[iJ«nl* mrvr 

NkiOnCa of Uw 
odIdij^' rmm ahroiLd- 


TouL 1 




c 

2.02»,000 

2,(KN).(XIU 

1,2)5,00(1 

WT.OOO 

137,0(Ni 


2,024,000 

1.226,(H)0 
1.7.1(1.001) 
2.11 ,000* 
1. IN. 01)0 


£ 
4,M»,000 

i;iM8.000 

sifliaoo 

S75.WI0 

soB,oeo 

2,SS8.000 


Viotcrift _,„. 






317,000 1 llUiUOO 
l,"4C,a(tO 1.142,000 


Now Ziuiliind „.,„„... 




8,SSi.OI>0 7.127.000 


is,4ii,flno ^ 









* KiMM ul incnnua al rulilcnu from at<»(il 

The fomgoing figvrps includo the rcvmue of DbsontMs, which 
«et down ubovo an £810,000, so that the income of Uritidi mvcaton 
Jhmb AustraJnaia u)ay be set down at £14,001,000. Leaving out of oon- 
ri<il«ntion Stute »ud other pablii: loaim, tlio uot yield to prirate itiTMton 
is £6.317.000, oi- 4-64 per oent. Tbu oolouy yieldiiiK the best rotiuii is 
QueeuHland. with G'8 fwr oeot. — a wry lil)tb rati-, wliidi is madepooiUtt 
by the ridi dov<!lapiuent« nf thr gold-niim-K, which, ax sJriAily rxplnina^ 
are lai^ly owned outside t bo colony. NcwJjouth Walc^xhowsaraLun 
of ti'9 pnr cent., which must akw be ooncidered high. As in the oaKt 
(^ut^'D.vbiud, die retuius from mining inTestutiontfi &re anavenUe lor 
tit*! liirge exceas of tiila return over the present nuu-liet ra(« of inDaqr> 
ToMitania &I10W8 51 jwrciijU ; then follow Sew Zi-ilUii<1, 4-6 peroeat. ; 
Victoria, i per oent. ; Weiteni Auitraliu, 3'^ per cent. ; wad SoatL 



I 



d 



IMPORTATIOK OP CAPITA!.. 



327 



^^lustralia, 3 per cent. Tbe V'totoriui inTesiiufaits in N«irHoDtli Wales 
^^pve an iivefu^ o( JJ por cent.. aii<l tlume of Soutb AuMraliiv 4 per cent. 
Prom tlie figtim! just tfiveii it will Im KaUi*rt>il ibat for the eoloiitoa to 
^j Ihi^r WKT there nu)tht to Ijp %n excess <it ttxporta ovm- luiports 
«iiut |i> tbo iritcmrt <m lonrm outstiuidini; iind tlic eiirnings of invest* 
ToiTils — ilwtt IK to say, if no capitnl wcrii iiiti-diliipml iiml uamt witlitlrawii. 
Iliu «c|ailil)riDni in this rcupoct in not to hi' loolcri! for. Ev<m in tliisio 
tiniM there is a 8tr««m nf capital coming to thp colonifw in bxwks of 
vkl i« witliilrawn : and even iu the worst yenis several thoii*an<l 
I p^nuiis a^rivi^ iii AutilmliK witli the intention of settling theiv, and 
i Wp^ (iniporllon of tliesi- pereooH lirinj; witli tlieni Hinii.' little capital 
»itb wliiph ti> l«>aiii tlifir cnr«t'r in lUeir now liouie. In tlie fore- 
ign); pagi^K thn axprtmann " ca]>ital intniductd " iiiufit be taken lu a 
qvililini sMinf, Under tlw pondilron of ii]uilibrium bi?twt-en thi- intrtv 
Hniiurlion iind withdrawal of rnpilnl, an aln-ady clc^monntrati-d, Autitralatiii 
^Bnuld show an oxccks of i^xpnrts ropros<7nting the intcmit on Ktnti' nnil 
^Botti^r poblic loans and the tribate <iue to privatp invnslom. This export 
^flbrtSSSwaaahont £15.411,000. and it is thorefori3 plain that AustralaEia 
I nigfal increase ittt indebtednees to tlie exlt-iit of over fifteen milliona in 
MT mo ynar and at tint nutaf. tiniit show an njunlity hetween its iiuparta 
and rctpnrts. With this nxplunntioti in uiind it will nut Lm ditScult to 
■udcrstand how, in spito of ihr^ fact tlint daring the last twenty (ivn 
TBUs the indebt^duexs of Australasi.t was inemJicd by X276.7SO.0O0, 
' the tnoney or money's worth actually iv-ccived was only £22,235,000. 
Sidi M tlie (^eralioii of int«re8t as alTecting a debtor conntry. Itt 
further explanation of this view of the matter the following figures ore 
fiven : they nrfer to tin- borrowings of the (JovemmejitH and lociil bo^tn 
aBriu}; tbo twenty-fin; ytmn 1871-95 : — 



p -'• 


BeiTowlBnafBiiitt 
■ml l^ockl 


iMnwt on SMlF 

uid Loul 

aonnuugnt Lttuu. 


K«t Annunt 
Honfj inimdnad. 




£ 

47,1)11,000 
30,517.001) 
a7.04O.0OO 
10.166.001) 
a,8fl3.000 

fi.:iN,(K)o 

3k,hiH),()0O 


£ 
39,1k. 000 
31.5S9.000 

17.0IS,1KXI 

I3,0?J,1IOO 

l.Ci7S,000 

3,9+S.OOO 

3ri,0i4.000 


£ 

18,496,000 
7.835,000 

10.022.000 
6.003,000- 
2,8I5,000' 
2.S(H),00O 
$,750,000 






WM«m Anvtfiilia 


U^ Zealand 


184774,000 


130.858.000 


51.916.000 


IW 



It will Im sni»n tltat ont of loima ai-trrpfjBtinK illfi'2, 774,000 a sum of 
only £51.916.000 renehed Auilrulntia, th<- Itnlnnw of £130,8fl8,000 
bdnf THlained in Luiidoii to mi-rt intrn-Mt rhnrges, as a set-oft' iigainst 
• unular Aum vliidi otiuinriK it would have been necewaiy to remit 





328 




PBIVATE FINANCB. 



Iruin AuBtraliiua. The figurea in regard to private borrowings are 
■till Qiort iitrikiiig ; — 

£ 

Prtvnte borrawio^ in «ic«e8 ol witlidnKsk 93,056,000 

Cftpilol introdaoed by pcnona taking up Ui«ir abocia in 

thecotonica 33,330,000 



Tout inflow nf cnpital £117.402,000 

Etminjt* of tiimtmcnti of noii'Tosidont* And ineome* of 
nlitviitvw ill «ioi:a!i of iiicoiiia ilcrivcd liy fuililents in 
tlieuulouiva Icum invtiitiiieiiU nlirofut 133,637,000 



Kxwn uf outMow over inHow £6,143,000 

It will bo seen that, leaving out of consideration the capital intro 
dueed by imtuipntitA, tlie return to invrntors, toxellicr witb ubventc* 
inoomus, li&a exceeded by nearly thirty mUlioiui tlie uniuuiit tnvB9i(4.-d in 
AuKtritlosiii, ultliougli Uit! principul sum (£93,95(),00O) Htill ri'imiiax due. 
It niuy b<t ilittii'iiU to (.■om-eivi- liuw such a ri-sult Iiuh bti-n pOKxiblc, but 
the difficulty will be losspned whi-n il is rumeiulxMTii tbiit nt the iK'^inning 
of tho period cnihriweiJ in thr> tablp-s the Australasiun coloiiii's were 
already paying an annual tribiit« to pri^'nti? invegtors of .£3,517,000, 
anil, ihorufore, on account of dohts incuiTod and iuTeetmentA niaile prior 
to 1)^71 Homi-lbin^ UUu 88 lailUoiu^ luij^ht havi; bevn pnid uwav during 
tbr tiut twentV'tivc! yeurs williuut any ruduutiou in tbi^ principiil otrio^ 

Tiic movement of capitnl towards Atutndiiiiiii up ti> tlic mid of 1870 
prcHcntcd no fr-nturrs of unu^unl importttncr, fur the total Huni received, 
though large, rcprc*<nting ss it did rather more than £SS per iababittuit, 
was not larger tlian might reoMiiiably have been expected to be Uilr»- 
duced into & country so rapidly adding to ils population and to fertile 
ill resources. ]>uriug ihia jteiiod the iuvestnients on private account 
und by the varioos GovornuiL-ntn were aluioil equal in uinount, but in 
the twrcnty-fivo years tlial followed ihe borniwing ojienttioiu «rf tiM 
Govcmiiicnts fiir ouUtrippwl private investirients. Th<- following tahlo 
shows tho horrowingn of tli<! Statu and on privat* account prior to 1871 
and in five-year periods suhscmiriit to that dnto : — 





Money raJtcil t/y 


rri^il4 Inv^tuieiiU, 




FMol. 




vU'Juiliiiir 


tUtaL 




BodiK 


tnimlgnnli' (^jilU). 






£ 


£ 


& 


Prior to 18T0 


34,3G!,'iOO 


»8,5t)4,000 


72.05e.OC(l 


1S71-75 


2i).909,(HH) 


°2.3K.0O0 


IS.«07.UOO 


1S*6 SO 


32,801,000 


11.407,000 


«4.^ 11.000 


1S3I-M 


1S,01I.UOU 


.■iT.ISIl.OO" 


M. 130,000 


isau-iw 


113.371,000 


<y,i)T7.0'>0 


10!!, 4^1,000 


1891-!W 


2.<l,e.'i3.O0o 


'i,;K;iOoo 


27,331.000 


ToUl ...£ 


£17,130.000 


132.G50,000 


349.6Sfl,000 



o[ wilhdnnlit ova inmlmvnH. 



IMPORTATION OF CAPITAI,. 



329 



In ihf foreKoiiiK UAAe the irojiortalinn of CApitnl by immigmnts Kb* 
bttii iienleclwi ; i( tliis In; taki-ii into <^n)iii!nrntinn, the figures givmi in 
dv! next Ittbln kIiow the full ninount for tliir period suhKcijucnt to 1 iilO '. — 

Pcri'il, TatiJ lliplUlliitrniliicnl. 



1871-75. 
1876-80. 

1881-83. 
1886-90. 
1891-95. 



ToUl 



23.010.000 
4S,eAa.ooo 

9O.SI)4,DO0 

107.0SJ*,OOU 
30.705.000 

i.11)(l,a6(i,000 



( total iiuleWdiims of Australasia to Biitiah iave.itora Ima U-en 
f« down in tin- fon-xoinK pages m £349,GS6,000, and thn nnntinl wlum 
thRrvfrom, rxolvnlinjf alKtntee iiiCOim?M, £11,601,000. Tlio weight of 
iBclcU<<Jn<«it p^r hiMid fnr i-iicli i:i)lriiiy, botli ns rogarrln capital ami 
Hunul Totum, is rs «i>pcnclcil. Allownnci' Im^ been ntntk- in tlio total of 
nch colony for iutorcolonial iDvc»tmuiii.i. The litres ore for the rear 



CcOori]'. 


pnhoid, 
Inuliultns Mrala 


Aanml IMarB 

pcrtiAd. 


Kow South WaIw 


£ a. d. 
TB 17 11 
'i It 8 
llfi 1-2 
:a l.t 10 
77 2 4 
7'J 14 11 
il7 S 


£ t. a. 

3 13 7 




2 10 8 




G 2 




1 U 6 

2 U 4 




3 3 4 
3 IS B 








eS 10 1 


3 3 11 







Prom the taUe given nlwvc, showing the total finioutit of money, 
indading that krouKbt lo tlie country by iniiiii»;i'aiit&. iutrocluct^d 
dnring e*ch quiDqiKiiniul piM-iod since IBTO, it will be seen tliiit the 
Wt iatroductron of capital during the first (>eriod wiu £23,010,000, 
Md of thia New ZviiIaikI received £10,707.000, or neiirly otie-liulf. prin- 
c^Mlly tiM procccdi! of Govcrnimrntal Ijorruwing^ ttii! withdrowaU of 

E'nite oapitol being ncnrly as !nrg<; as tlie ninouni introducttiL Queens- 
d and New South WnlcN hid, during iliu period, nn. ncccmion of 
ttpibU bi the «:ttent of £4,3S<.>,000 nnd X4,3U1,000 irspcctivcly ; in 
ike ofi« ouh; the Bum ohtaineil hy th<^i State was £^389,000, and by 
Iha pobltci £1,910,000, while Lu iJia other case the s.um iutroduced by 



JJO 



PBITATE TINANCE. 



llie Stnte wag i'3,861,000, and by prirnt*' pcnuins Komrtliing Imk dot 
£1.500,000. The nei mm introduced into Victoria um i2,9B2,0« 
the Stttte hiivtiij> iinport«<il £3.352,000. vtiile the export of priral 
cu|)ilal wiuiwjmu £370,000. Taiimaiiui. received in all £1.210,000. i 
whicli X2l'0,000 wiis iiitroilucwl hy tlit: Stale, autl nearly one millio 
by priv.ntc iicmon*, wbich must lii- rfckuiieil n, vi-ry I'OtiKiilemble sum i 
Ttrw (if tlic KinAllntwi of the poputntion of tliir ihiUn<l. Nearly tlie whui 
Niitn intixKliiccd into WpKtcm AaKtrntia (£100,000) vt-iut l>y tbu Govesf 
mont. South Aii«tralia, even bo far buck ux 1871-7-'', wa* in aval 
diflVi-eiit ponition to the otlior colonifw in K^rrf to priwitc invprtmi-nt 
During' the five years the State introduced £1,722,000, bnt £3.661,00 
was witlidriiwii by lenders or sent out of the colony for investuM 
SpBttkiiiji s^'nerally, the jieriod 1871 to 1878 was marked bj- 
puhlic borrowiiij;, with ii very modurnte influx of private capjl 
Xhiring thu ppritvl Uh- inipoitution by tlio vorious Governments antonnt 
to £'2 per inhabitniit ymrly, thi; private inriwtmentH b<-in^' not tuo 
than 4k. p<!r inhnhitJint- 

Tho period from 187i! to 1880 showed a net importation ot cnpital^ 
tho amount of £48,959,000, or more than twice the sum rM«%'ed i" 
tJi* precedinf; five years. Of the sum iiaincd, Now Zealand ■ 
£lS,39(i,UOO, or iJightly less than otte-thtnt, iilthoUKli >(« pojralation «* 
only onii-riglitli of the whole of Austral tisia. TIk! larxin* pc»-tton of tii 
monqr brought to New Z?nland wm; in the iJiajio of (rovomiaont loan 
which nmountinl to £10,Rm,000, th« net sum rt-cpived on acoonnt < 
pri%'ato invntmcnt being £4,.'ir.',000. New South Walcj- stood next « 
regards the amonnt of capital received, but the borrowing by the Stat 
and local bodies oidy amounted to £5,458.000. or half the son) rain 
by New Zealaud, while the private investments nmotuited to abov 
£8,170,000, of which nearly two iniUionit were received witJi immigrant 
taking' up their pi^nmincnt almdc in tht.- colcmy. Tlw total enpitel iit 
port^nl iutii N«w South Wale* during the Arc ymrn was .£I3,626,00( 
Quii^nxlnnd rrceivod £K,02fi,000 during the poriod — an enormooa aim 
considrring that the popuUtirjn was not more than 1 50,000. The moaQ 
imporlod by the Uoremment of that colony was £4,980.000. auit tJia 
invested by private persons, £3,048.000. Tlie Vicloriiiu Giivemmcn 
imported£.'i.'2'20,000, while tlifr sum seiill4> the uoluny by pri<.-at«inv«tori 
over and ubov<- Ihr ajnounl witUdmini, wft« £1,94'J,000. Tim Sovt 
AuBtratiun (Jovernment borrowed l«r;;r-ly during the tivf. ywirs, the sol 
raised being £i"(,:il7,000, but, ax in l.hn prcviotw period, the sam will 
drawn by inve*tor>; or sont to ot.hpr nolonic* for invcfltnient ei 
th(^ vnpitAl introdoood by £l,€44.000. Ikitli Tasmania and Wa 
Avttndia received 1ms capitnl from abroad from 1876 to 1880 thanl 
the previous lire yearH, tlie amounts be^n^ £954,000 and £204,1 
TOspeclively. Tli* Govfrnmmit borrowings were £671,000 in th" 
case and £365,000 in tht? othiTr; but in Taxnuinia thi-D' was nn inntil 
uent of XS83,000 by privato penons, and a withdmwnl of £161,000 1 




IMPORI'ATION OP CAPITAX.. 



the cme of Westoni AuHtralia. Tiilcing AuRtniliiHia ns o, i>'hol«, t}ie 
public iMrrowrings during lH7(i-tfO worolAc^, BiitountiiigU>jC32,!$04,000, 
or a ruari}' auin of about £2 12& pm* inlutliitAnt. The iiuporl af privwti; 
money oiiliiiueil on a mora exioiiileii facale, the sum rooMVLtl iii oxcom 
of wiili4iniw»lH beiiij; £16,l.')r>,tl00, but uearly live inilUoiis of tLiKKDiik 
w^rv bruufrlil ill by iuiiui^'raiiU. 

The facility witli wbiuh Xt-w ZtuJiutd bail bueii able it> nice otoney 
on ionn tlurinj; the Bvc yenra 1876-80 wui un oliji-ut leicxon not loct eo 
the other otlonics, for during tlin tivi- ycwnt from IB&\ to 188>> the sum 
ttf £Jfi,944,000 waa miwil by tlin vurioiix (invftrnmcntB and local iHidteB ; 
vhUu private investors, bank^, and financial ioBtitutioru poui'ed m 
nouey nt au alnioRt equal rate, tlio mt Hum received on private auuuuitt 
faaoK, i« round figurea, ^3,.'nJO,000. Theae sums r«preaeut yi*rly 
amountB of X3 2h. 4d. and £'2 1 8b. Id., or together over XO per inhabit- 
mt B tube of increa*« iu iudebledaeati ((iut« uu parallelled in any country 
(XCopt in tbn next auooMHlinf; live yuarn uS AuHtrulatnuii hietory. Of 
tke large «iitn of jCfiO,SOf,000 rucuivud by th<--ai' cobmice, the shore of 
Xew ijoutb W'aloB ww X3U,4T3,(lO0. In tli<^ light at Uiis siaunnent it 
ii easy to underatAnd how, during thiu simi: pcrind, though uiie of 
drouj(lit and restricted production, the in<lustrial life of tlie colony wax 
marked l>y increaainK wHge«, sLorter buurs, and full eii:pJoyui<?uL Tho 
iaportalKMi by tlut Stale uruounled L» XiG,06l>,000, 4ui<l by privabt 
inrniton: bn XU, 407,000, hut of the aum last quoted X2,719,00() rtrpre- 
wnted tlw mnn<^ brought by iiumigrantH and eutoilod no burtitcn on 
thit colony for futni-e ininn-jit ti> Iw exportisd. ThiB pmod was, &o far 
(B New South Walen is concornod, tbo one mnrkod by the most lavish 
bOTTontiiig by tli« State, though it yields to the 8ul«equent quUtquen- 
aium in rvKanl to the impoi-tation of private capital. (Queensland waa 
llw coUmy next to New South Wales iu receipt of maHt inonoy during 
tbn period undi^r revii-w, the Govei'iunL-nt o( that colony havinf» obtained 
i:7,Oy4,00O, whil<! private invo.tui«nts aniount.:d ti"> i;i2,r>O(;.00O— 
enonuoox sumE for a population of n <{uarlcr of u million. Included in 
the private inrratmntta, bowevL-r, ix thp sum of £1,1)27,000 introduced 
by immigrauts taking up their abode ponnanently in the colony. 
Tlut injporU of capital into 24ew Zeidand during the quinijuenuium 
wcTK auU very heavy, amounting to XT,44fi.OOO by tlie Stato and 
X10.*76,000 on private acoount, or £17,917.000 in all. Of th« privatn 
importation, £'iii'i,O()0 acoJupamed tbu uwuem who wittltMl in tbi? 
colony. The cajiital reciuviNl by Victoria, wbicb in the twn pn^ci^ng 
pstioda amounted to vnry niodomte nutuk, imw row: t» £1:1,002,000, 
m,, £8.519,000 on account of the <;ovomnn;nt, and £4,483,000 by 
private iuvwtora. The South Australian Unvcrnntent in L<^81-85 was 
ttill a larfte borrower, £5.895.000 being raised and expended during 
(hat tiuitt, wbile, contian- to the e^erienoes of previous periods, tltei« 
«aa an ini|>iir(4itM»i on private account of £1,000,000, TasTuantu. niw>, 
gmiderabljr iitcnaaed -its barmwingei, the Stuttj ruiainjf Xi,160,UU0 in 



332 



PRIVATE FTKASCE. 



th« five years, while £426,000 w»s sent to Ihc' colony for inv««tni(nt 1 
or wa.H re«'ived wUh ihe owner* The (lorrowing of tlie Weftteml 
AuHtrulun Govi-muieiit (or lSSl-85 uuouiil«d to :C-IG3,000, but not J 
moift tliiui ^CSG.'iiOOO wBs reu«iv«rl for private inveatnu-nt^ or in aSJ 
£T>.%000. ^ 

Tlio nrxt jn'rifii!, 1 (*l?6-90, wnn twnrJtiti l)y vt-rv ^xtmniilinary features 
The nvorag'" pojuilfttion of the »pvpn cciliinifs wns S,'i40,ClOO, yet duriD!; 
the short u\<iu.v of livn yours ttip various StAtrs govi?ming these ]teople 
Tf>iii«-[! and expended £53,374,000, while nn aildiliojuit sum of X53,7 14.000 
wiL". rt'ti-ivud for iEveftliuenl on pi-ivnte HccoMut, or wiis introduiNtd into 
till- i-outi1ry by |)eraoii8 who made it their abode. IIul m-eti more 
n»tcmishiiii?iit win \x.- evinced on coiisideruiR the detailed figurt^ for t«ch 
ffilijny. Of thf- Ijirj;" total rttft-ived by thu«ev#R ooloniu, L-unndNKbly 
more thnn otwi-liftlf — -£ril.690,000--wiui obtaiiiml by Victorio, aDiJ, ok 
tlio jtopulfttion of this colony during the livo ycjtm under mviow wiw 
1,070.000. thr. inflow of capital (imounlcfl lo ovnr £51 p<^r iiihabitftiit. 
Tht^ State and local >Mjdios Iwrrowcd and di>biii-sird£ 16,9^7 ,000, which was 
ihe larf-eut expenditure from the proc»vHls of loons that any colony cob- 
trired to crowd into the ithort Rpiice of five yeari. The ])rivate capdtal 
intrciilinri^d was iS.'i.iSS.OOO, and the sum broach! by persona taking 
up their ahoiin in the country wi« £1,011,000. Thrw figures affonl 
a sufEcient cine to the nntouniling iin])ntus which trade received 
during these years, and iho iiorrcspon<ling rise in l&nd x-ahiea. Stnrj 
iio\xt\i Wales, though not the recipient of so much money as Uti 
KouthiTii neighbour, nevertheless contrived to obtain £38,145, OOO^a. 
far larger sum than could bo conveniently alworbed in rive yeoi^ 
fM[H!cially as in the like preoedins period £30.000.000 was abKUrbiHl. Thr 
capital intr<MluL'L'd n-prrapnted £1 l,57l,'.'00 of Goveniment borrowingB, 
£l'),IH7,000 of private invertiuenls, and £1,387,000 brought hy pewons 
mnbing Nriw South Wales their homi.'. Tli«i tjui^mKland fiovcmment 
was also a large borrower, its loan expenditure during the five yean, 
186G-90, being nob less than £9.ri.S 1.000. The private eajntarintto-™ 
duced, however, fell off largely. Tbo sum received, allowing for wttlt>H 
drawals to lh« amount of £3,300.000. was £1.S74.000. The flow of " 
privni*! money to New Zealand jiractically ceased during the [leriod 
now under eonsideratiuti, amouuling only lo £632,000, iw compared 
with £10,47rj,O00 in tht; prt'ceding fi* i> year* ; but (Government 
l)orrowings still continued, and n sum of £(i,>'>60,000 wac raised and 
expended. t?outh AuKtmli.-i .le^upied an exceptional position, (or 
though the Govemmcnt int-nidueeil some £5,693,000, there waa a hujte 
withdrawal of private capitnl. or. as it< may be, an export of oapital 
for investment in other colonies, so that the net import on public and 
private account amounted to £l,34.%O00. Taaniania, wiDi it« popuU- 
tion of 150,000, was well in the struggle for Brittsli invtuitinenta, the 
State import iiti<m l:''ing £2,r>S7,000, and the investment hy private 
piTionii, £570,000 ; of thi* laiit Kum £8i>,000 waM introduocd by petaoofl 



1 

I 



IMPOBTATIOS OF CAPITAL. 



333 



up tlM;ir nbcxlo in tin colony. It wm ttbont this pnrtod, 
Mb W«tcrn Australia began to nttract ftttcntion ns a ficl<l for 
iuroctment, for over aikI rIiovc ttio sum of £42Ti,0QQ introtluerKl by the 
Oonminoi it. about £1,009,000 waa u)v«.'it«^l by [irivat« persona, perhaps 
«Hw-fi(ih oi ihe amount being accompaniod by tho inradiom iheiaseli-ea. 

Tbe n-citaiiou of borrowioK jiut !6\eu brtiiitti the financial lustory of 
tho Austriiliua (lawn to the oloxe of 1800. Two y«ar« more of credit 
■od inveatravut rimuiiii to be tiuccid, aftctr wlitcli tuunc thi- cuIIajiko at 
credit, and Uut cvonU ai May, iKUli, rttH »i fi-<'>li in tht^ public: inuniory. 
TIait two y«ars <'la|iKrd after tho close of tB90 bfifore Auxtmlitsian 
public cmlit in Londor. finnlly collapsed is trnc only of Victoria, and 
in a nioililiwl sense of Kew- South Walt's, Westexn Auslmlia, &ml 
TsBUiAnia. Theae colonies continued to be the recipients of British 
money, but private iaveutments were — excepting in the case of 
Vidoria -on a minor scale. Victoria receivisd freali capital to the 
extrot of J:8,(*34,000, of wliicli amount only £1G4.000 ^ns brought 
in by iinntigrantK. New Boutli Wales n-ceived fmin private iiivest- 
Bi^nM ornr .£.^,000,000, but the willidrnwalE were also extensive, so 
tkat th« net amount of capit*! in veiled wa.? only i! 1,71 1,000. Western 
Auatralia received £952,000, of which XiOP.OOO wna nccoinpani<:d by 
Ibe ownent. Tasmania re<.«ived £792,000, and of thj^ about £271,000 
WW introduced by pprmanent residi-nts. Withdrawals of private 
(•pitnl wrri! ulnuwiy in piiign-'Hs before the close of 1890, and wei-e 
fontinucd fnmi Smith Au^tmltn, but to a less extent tlian in tht^ 
frtoeding period. New Zeatund ceased to n-fi-ivc any private money, 
while Queensland, for tho (irat time in ita bistoiy, showed n nut with- 
■hawal of capital, the amount of which during the two ycAm w-os 
£3,011,000, but as the State had introduced £1,917,000, there was an 
actual wilh<ir»wal o( £3,928,000. During the two yeara 1891 and 
18112 the total capital irapurtL-d into the seven colonies was £23,083,000, 
uiil of thiA £18,786,000 was introduced by the various (JovemmontB 
awl local hodifls. 

During the three yean which followed there won a. withdrawal of 
private capital from Australia U> the eit^nt of £7,619,000, »ii that 
is apite of the iraportntion during the ycuirs 1891 and l!^9'J, the 
(|ain<|Ui-iiniuui showed a net withdrawal of £1,322.000. Thei-e was 
during the period a luoveuient of £20,088,000 ap]jai-enlly iiitro- 
ducod, and £:il, 110,000 withdrawn: but this movement was nininly 
Wween tbe colonics themselves, and not between Australasia and 
Ureal Urilain l.ni>king at the fi^'ures in detail, it would scorn that 
there was an importation in excess of withdrawals of £14,686,000 into 
Victoria, and £2,382,000 into Woatern Auslraliji. So far ax Victoria 
icooDoemcd, this introduction of money was not by way of investmeat; 
it was merely the recall by the lai'go financial institutions of their 
capital from otli«r ooluniej«. This withdrawal affected New South Wales 
•nd Queensland mo!>l lar^Jy. £10,162,000 was withdrawn from tho 





334 PBI7ATB TINANCE. 

Utter proTince during the five yearn, nnd it is « fi^rmt bibttto ffr* ^ra 
retumrces and stahilily of that i;real uoloity that this witlidniwnl (iKonld 
bikvo been etTeoUKl with wo little ilislurbiince to it« financiat position. 
New Soutb WaluB lout £4,481,000, part of which represents de- 
pombt gntluimd in Lrmdim and withdnwii <Iurinf; tlw! )iaiiio, and part 
t^ntufenincft at luipital by branch iniitilutionx to the hnad officn in 
Af«lboumc. From New /r^Aland ,£2,143,000 wiw withdrawn, and from 
South Au»trnliA £1,898,000. Tho withflmwRl in nearly all cnwca 
has been a silent one; and it is only when a finfuicinl inKlitntioD' 
abaolutely fails and the courts are invokt'd to consent to t<h« removal of 
aeetB tliut lilt.- <xiiuiiiuiiity iiC lar;j;e i-ealiae the proceu that )ias been 
ifoin>: on, 

Tiikin^ tlmwholerjipriod of live year*, there was a total of £30,705,000 
intriwlucfii. Of this sum, £'28,663,000 reprr.-ii.iita tlie borrowjnfta of 
tlw! vnrirniK Ooveranicnta and locoU bodies, tlic iihnn- of t-ach bnng aa 
fbllowa :^ 

New Sonth WalM. _ £ll,6M,O0O 

Victoria „ „..„ R43o,0fKI 

QiiHUiiJiind „._ „„..„..i.._ S,990,DOO 

Smith Australia -..^~. „.....» 638,000 

Wmtcm AuatraUft ...,..,„„„.„.,..„». i,2SH.im 

I^iunania »..„ .„„._... I,S3;>,UUU 

New ZnOand ». ....■ 3,808,000 

AuMlialMin £28.603.000 

TmnittgMQto did not eiitirety cense, and during tfa« five y«an 
£3,374ifiw'^nn intradiicr^d by tho owuL'rii. 



Banhino. 

The laws relating to banks and hanking at prrwrnt in forc« am sns- 
eaptiblo of great improvement, and in I HHH tho ^ilum of many tnonetary 
institutions vhioh posed as banks 'lircoted attention to tito urgent neoeft> 
fllty for entirely revising llie conditions under which deposits mi^ht Im 
token from tli« gnneral piihlic. but ho far no new lejpslation lias been 
onactcd. All inHtitutions transacting the biiHineHs of banking; are 
reqniroil t>y law to furnish, in a. spccilied form, (juiirterly stateiin^nta of 
tfaoir ametn and linhiliticK, and from these statemnnts and thr periodic 
ba]anc»«heet3 the tables in thiK cliapter hn\-e l»rrn compiled. The 
rctnms fumlslied by the banks, though in compliance witJi the laws of 
the colonies, are by no means satisfactory, being quite unsuited to the 
modem methods uf transactin;; banking buajnees, and tliey cannot 
MceplMl witlxnit qnextiim us indicating tli« Htebility or instability 
the institntirmx by which they nrs issaed. An a rule, nothing <ma ' 




BASKIXO RSIXRNS. 



535 



«Ucit«?cl Iwjronil what is shown in the half-y«Brly or yeuly btLluiL't^- 
ihesti. No uuiformiiy is obserfod an ragknlH the ilHtva <)f i:IuHiii); tim 
MMWIiilW, aiul Uie tiiiides of pretieiitatiou art) hiiuuII y ilivr<nH-. Iiitjiurtatit 
items wluck sliould be frpecilimlly tttaUsi an luintipd witli <>tlll^^K of 
minor iuporl, ami, aa a, ralt-^ curn^iit ncouuiiln ant Llimdcil witli othur 
UOOTiDtd iDrt<!iul u£ bifiiig acponituly sliuvru. Tlic value ckt' tliii iufornift- 
(ioD wWiChiMfed to tin- pul>lii? is illustrated hy thn tncc that it was 
iaifomhta to <ti>tMn from the publicntirmK of sercral iimtitutions 
n^nnding pftvnimit in IStJ^i the amount of their liabilities either to 
lbs pnblifi or the State, and th««e [tarticulara w«re never disoloaed. 



Capital Resoukces or Basks. 

Aooonllng to the Inli-at iufbruiatioii pubUalied, the paJd up oApitol of 
tte tw«nly-lwo hoiilu irpemtin;; in Autttraliisia, ttxclustve of £2,UCI0,U0U 
AMeoapilal uf the liunlc of New Zealand which m giuumutood by the 
GanRununt of that colnny, ift £^1,'16K,491, of wliich £.'1,814,074 has a 
pnfermtial claim on tlie pi-otiUi of the companies Below will Im 
Jomul n ^tau-mvnt of th« ordinary and preferontial capital of each haxik 
at the <lal« of its IobL balunee-slient, with the mni>unt t>i the resnrvo 
^tndof Uie iiiatituliuii. Ip iJie case of several coini«(iiit"S which wpro 
nnnstr acted, tliere are reservi^s which nre held in Husppiise pcndin-^ 
ni&Uioii of luutvbi, and of thnm no account has )i<ten taken ta the 
UW:— 



nuesr 



CjtptljLl laiil u|L 



Onlin«». '■'S^™- T»biL 



Fund. 



JiiMnlkn JninI Mtwk Ruk (Ld.) 

BukolAdaUIitT 

Euk ol Aiwlnlulu 

hnkolNcwNamh Walar 

kHt ol Nn ZmUikI 

hak <K Kunb QLi«'Ti<luul(Ld.) 

lUkal Vl,i.,rli.U'll 

UibaUl I 'MuiaCLiLl 

ItanKni Mulrulln |1A) .... 

OnsionvUI I'^LLkLii^ <\>. ol Srilnov (U,) 

Qa UMiri *! bftiit III Tainiuiiij ( IjI! ) 

I^Ibh.a>.-M(uli.u:[|AuBtnJliLii nuik(LiL) 
l«iil«i lluik ol AiiilrHiliallA) . ,. 
KUIOuJ Bojiksl Ai»lrilula(L>l.) . 
"UiQMl Buh it Kew Xadliid (Ud.) 
XMtsBkl Huik of 'IV<lng,iiu> (1<1.) 



■tiWBjiuid S»llon«l Hank ILd.) 

KifllBuikof Alulnil!u<Lj,) 



CiAdb DHik n( .\iMnll>(M.) .. 
V«)nn AaWalba Bulk 



XUnse, 
30 Uu.. 
WOrt., 
HI Kw., 

30 Judo, 

SO JiUlD. 

30 Jimn. 

.K) JuuD. 
ao .rune. 
» Iiiiit , 

31 Mtr.. 
3\ Mar.. 
.11 Ms), 

no Jiuio> 

3) JiUlD, 
30 Juiul, 



18M 
IMU 
IWh 
ISM 
ISM 

imn 

InU 
lIVHi 

!«:•) 
IRIA 

imr. 

IMXl 

lint 

IHM 
1M» 
ISA 
L9M 



i.aiH.iin 
i.vm.3to 

t7,4tS 

Vm.aai 

t.sU.»D 
Ut.UB 

I.6(<'1.1U 



tw.riyi 



sm.ooo 
Usn.noD 

BO.OOD 



WD.UM 
1.KL38D 

Mi.(iia 

I.TOS.IM 

im.iKU 

i.mi.)^! 
i.mo.ooo 

I «!,(!« 

HR,M.'< 

1,(I7,3W 

SM,»n 
llil,OW 

ns.n« 
Koo.ooo 

t,Mni<no 

SD.OQO 



im,tm 
tm.(xio 

I.IB.STT 

iiMtS 



tODvSM 



I.OID.UW 
IM,<l«i 

ii,no 



1. DM .DIM 

ii.iu.ixin 



Vbrii^raol a^mtunU tfann apital gBumtc^ tiy Niw balau) UorammdL 



336 



PBITATE FIKANCB. 



The pracoding table shows Hip giohitioii of Ui^ capital account at lUtv 
(it bnliincing, but iniHt of tb<- batilcH hiul tuudc cuUh on tli«ir aliarc- 
holdem which will increAan thvir ptiul-iip capita]. Tbi^ amr>unt of these 
calls and tho towl wtirking capitiil that wilf lut avaitnbk- wlicn thvy are 
met are appended l— 



Buk. 



OtiriUl |i^ ud Mng nlled ii|>. 



F*Uap. 



B.i«K«n«I. "'•^Sf^ 



Auainlinn Joint Si«ck Bank {UoillMl} 

IJank of AilnlnlLlD 

Bank of AiiitraJHljt ..--»^4.«iiA.*..ii...*a«i«i4.ii- 

llankof New HuuMi WnUa 

Banliot Xow)>*ij.ni1 

BBiik.ur North qucDiuIuiil (Umiled) 

liankol VlcMrte(UiiilUd) 

aty Bank of Bjilney,. 

Cntpiikl Buiili of AualnUiulii (Umitdl) 

Conimcn'ial Hank ol Atutndia (Llliia«d) ..,. 

CaEniiiprrtrJ lUiikLfiK Cnii^|iany Df ftjilnpf (Uotllfld) .> 
Couiiucreial Baiikof TuriimiSa (LluilLeiL) ..,..,..„,. 
Kngllih. Hi'Dnlili. ancl Aii«lri.ll>n llank (Uinllod) .... 

LondDii Ban\ of AuilnllA(L1iiilUiJ) 

NMlnullluiknt Au>tIa)ulil(Un;ltl>l) 

KMSmwIBankoI New UraWKl (Utiiitad) 

NbUuI Bulk u( Tumtnla (Mini ted) 

QnMMtwid KUIriniLl Uaiik (Lluilud) 

Kaj-tt Bank of Auntnlli CI.im>I>»!) ,,,.. 

Itoj-il ttink nr (^lETunliiml iLiiolIMl) , 

Uiiioii Sank ut AuilnJla (I.initled) ,..,, 

Wsalmi AiMlTmllaii tianb ..,,..... 



t 

i,iee,c>is 

¥ia,m> 

].sao,oua 

i,B»,tta 

•MAiS 

iwo,aou 

1,3»,U0 
MD,inD 

4,<1»I.(S0 
I.0Oa.(KK> 
141,4m 
MMU 
I,4II,K0 
t,M(,e31 

satam 
woto 

800,000 

l.uo.ooo 

ao.wi 






t 

t.l7MU 



■njM 



Ki,a4 



110,IT8 



t.STO 



II, Ma 
■!%,va 



us.ois 



tttuno 
taa/m 

imum 
iu.««> 
tnjta 

i,4ii3a> 

BOUKTO 

4<7.a«o 

LMMOB 



• BuliBlva of (l.OOO.om «ha» nfital gaaitntti by Hew Ztabiitd OontrnixM. 

Tlie paid-up captlnl of the tunking coniimnies tiuw opprating^ 
Ai'strnlasia has increased from ^114,724,56" Worn tJic crisis 
i;2I,4fi8,4!ll, or by Ji6,74AfiOt. In 1803, howovcr, there were in' 
existoncii two banks, with a coiiibJiKsl capital of .£900,000, which are 
now defunct 



LlAUILITIES AKD AfiSETR OF BaXRS. 

The liabilitieji iif die lianks enumerated, at tlie dates which ha\%.. 
been previously K'wn. totalled X144,262,76I, agaiuat which amounti 
asieta ag);regatiDg .£173,314,011 were shown. Tho Mbwing table 



BAXKING LXABILITIES AND ASSETS. 



337 



I the lisbiliUea of ench inKtitiition to the i)ubli(^ iiotcwi in circulittion 
! <!epoidt« lieinja (listin^iiiHliivl from olli«r liabilities. lu §oiue cases 
i31 ib-mx uhich siiniilil Im- cla»««l with "other liabilities" «re included 

I dnpiajtji, VIS thr-y cannot bo distinguishcMl in the balauce-alieetit ; — 



■ 


K«Mi 




<Mb*r 


TaW 


■ Buk. 


ill 


Drpaaik 


UnUMn 


UaUlHiM 


1 


CtrviilfellDri- 




lo tiilillr. 


lo PuMlo. 


■r 


t 


£ 


it 


X 


^Kba Jotni HlMk Uuk iLUnltedl 


1^016 


^.^»^JU3 


M«.fiTX 


ii,o»n,T70 
















•ia,T!0 


1«,BS<,»1S 


K, Mil .HIS 


St,«M,tIT 




ix.'oa 


io,ccaia« 


<i7i.m 


ii,Ti<i,m 




m 


Ua,gio 


ts,sn 


S7,TW 


Iiwit ol Vlcuirf&(UaiU«l) 


m.sii 


s,ma,a» 


wiM* 


bIM.tM 


1 .1 , b'orikepf Sjiiineir 


MM* 


i.ni;.MKi 


no 


i.iti.Tns 


' . '^'.-J lluikol ADftnUviU(U<iill«l) 


»»,4U 


:.»n,(i«i> 


M.Ul 


S.iT7.S»S 


' Miiii<..'n>lil Bukol AiiUnJIii (Lliiillnl) 


les.sio 


j,Ma,7is 


lu.oti 


*,iiin,u*H 


Oamtrtitl Huik <it Twnanin (I.Iii^WmI} 


aofiu 


>.ifTa,iM 


SSB.*™ 


n^i.otn 


MM* 


I.t7S.tR 




I.SW.BIO 


a«tab,»MlItoli. wnl Jtutltnlla^i BitnkCIid.) , 


w.eiK 


•l.MO.TtS 


SIB.SBS 


«.U4.7» 


UMwBHkiri AiD<nli>(Uml[al) 


Iftl.tlBfl 


^,»Bll,H^^i 


.MU,1I3 


a.iku.aM 


XUkdlinukol AU<InlHtB([.l1nlUa) . 


mi.nnn 


7,im.xn 


«7,IH 


8,MS.»T 


HHIwMl MMt M Ii!»;caiUnd<UiiMlc<l). 


iw.niM 


I.BW.IJS 


2M,Tf.7 


i.iti.iiaa 




M.OM 


!B.-I,1^I 


7, ,1.111 


:in4."oj 




8,M0.%il 


vsa.wj 


9.n«.7Tg 


tjm 


SSl.ll!! 


sa.BBii 


i60.l71> 






j«i,-jnii 


:<4,oiin 


TM,)M 




siSpon 


i7.8is,r«i 


«,i>n,«ixi 


!n.3l3,M3 




««,&» 


1.90£,3h? 


ui.iai 


£,ueiT,oas 







• [nahaini «l C3,MI,:U IMIwMutDilWok uid limrllwdHMok. 

Tlie aiMuU oE UHch Imnk am ahnwn ImIow : — 



BM)k. 



Lid 



CMa 
Sullicn. 



AdTiiiM*. tMhtf Amu ToUI AwU. 



.iJalaiai«)iBwik(UnilUd) 

■Mk<<*il«klJii 

hakttAiHlnlul* 

kdk <f NoH Snilb Val« 

hM ■< Xn I-Mluxl 

krt <t XorUi uiwixui (Umltad) 

hak «f ^-Ido^ (UuillRl) . 

ataBk«l3/dan 
M Bulk «< JlwlnlHU (Llmllol) 

I^IM I lI J Bank m AiiW»IU<lJmHwl) ... 
fll^Mnlil nukinfOrminflj' ot .-l^nry (Ud.) 
Pmi r iM BmlA ofTwni^hlB (MlnHnlJ .... 

. SnlUUi, uhI Aufinllkn It&iik (IJd,). 
iRuksl AiulnU»(l,liiillDl) ... .... 

I Buk Hi AncinJuKia <T.li"lu>cl) ... 

. IBuhOfKnZtMluDiKLIi.iiii'l). ... 

MoailBidietrhanunUtUuiiMU,.- 

)Mn^MI KuloMl Iteiik (UnriUd) 

MHHk«fAwUinAaiiiiiUd) 

■ivilCMkiXQuHiBlmiKimmlMI).... 

^Im BMtk at Xuitnlu (UmlMd] 

*MriB AuMnAwi Stnk 



1 
l.tGd.SM 

7.1IM.UHI 
l,7M.7Ci« 

Tt.oin 

l.SBS.TM 

nM.iin 

lJ»a.T7T 

w:.iT>< 

HUM* 



c 

i,eo£,3Ta 
io,«n,m; 

lO.WD.tKU 

IW.AWI 

l.!!3e.lU 

B,TS1.M3 

i.itti.tug 
4.»cn,iK: 

b,t;6,ks 

ta§.«Bft 

tlM.7DU 

i£,3!n,iio(i 
mn.oos 



t. 
SI I. in 

IBa,71T 

i.wi,:iin 

At4S 

isa.sta 
<isB.iat 

MI,IH4 

i.r«i.M(i 

l.SM.tSO 

iiKi,r.ii 

»I7,U« 

S7fi 
11!«,UK 

4TB,Wr 



c 

i7.A;4,niii 

401,407 

T.UX.ItR 

i.a»,iM 

ii.s7t,an 

i;,p)M,g«i 

),SIA,MT 

e,Mi,7Tn 
T.T«a,4<« 

10,2fill,«4tl 
U. Ml ,4X1 

ri4.\Mi 

67ii,»(.n 

i.iiwji* 

it.§)>i,24a 

t.31lU,C7U 




PBIVATB PTNANOE. 



Kli8L-LTM Ol' WvltKINU Of BaXKA. 

Thfi n-Huita of working of each bank for llio IftW^t pftriod for which 
iiifm-duvtion is iivuilnlili.- are givpii Iwlow. With th<.' ^xoojition of U»p 
itinW nf Ailclniclf, thi- Riinls of Sew Zaiikmt, tlii> tliiglLiili. Scottieh, «i>il 
Aimtrnlinii Unnk, and lli^ Xatidtml Hunk of Nt'w '/.'■alasid. for wliii-li 
the ligui'cs refdr to twi^lvc monltis' opcmiiima, tht- unionnls rIvimi oow-r 
a period of six inonth-i. The ilntos of the iMiltinfMtlHWtai me a» Hbown 
ou |xi({e 335 : — 



Duk. 



ShHM 



AuMMiliui Joint SiMk Burn tut.).. 

Bsnk al Aili'loldt 

ninit nf AiinlnUili 

limiknr Ni'it .loiitli WiJm 



llnnV f>r Nrw ZmTuaiL .«, 

Baiikol K<:iiili<jiivFTii]tnillUmtMd] 

lUiiknl Vlrtin1;i<l.lmll«1) 

Cllj Iltnk n( Sjilnc) .. 

Culoiiial llaiik uf Aiwtnil<vi<a(r.t(t.] 

ConilnFrplil Dunk ol AiuLnJIu (I.l<1.) 

CairLii)ur%^i4l njuikinu (\v at T^itlnci 

(l.lmlWil) 

Comntcrc^k) Bknli of IVmiliuija fl^tcl.) 

Kn/lSiIi. Scntdili. mil Amtralinii 

itMik (Llmll«l) 

Lwidon nank i-l AiKtnlla (Jjinitnl) 

NaLlrrrthl lUiik of AciaCf^iL*1;i (Lbl,). 
NiLlii.iial liaiil. irf Ni'W Jlivilttird (Llri.V 

Viif^iMk«]iinbl Nafroiikl i-lLLjtk (LlijtLUii^ 
Ri:jjil HaTil. (.1 Ainlrri.lkH-lliilUalJ . 
lliiiul Jbilih -t UmK'noUiiil (l.liiijtnl) 
I'nLon Jlnrik >i( AtJiTnli'i (IJiitiriHi) , 
Wert.™ AuHtmliun Itoiik . . 



IMlMfy 



JPnfannlUI 
lOnHnuT 

Ordlrmrj' 
f nrltrtoatkl 
\ Onl1nhr> 

OnUii^n 
I FrrtnrmiilAl 
1 Onllnnij 

"l UnllMltjr 

Onlluir.' 



I PmlFRiiitlil 
I nrcliiiAT? 



• um. f lit. (laiii'i'. 



IIaxkino HvniVB^ ok karii Oolovt. 

Of tlif twimty-two 1>ahk»i opiratis}; in Aiiftti-tilaRifi at clii^ li^D»iit{ 
of IS9C, tliirU'i'ti lini! olliwf in Xi-w SouUi U'alon, c'Ip»«i in Vicloi'm 
elcvi-n in t^iii'nnslnncl, cijrht in Soulli AuHruliu, six in WmU-n 
AuHlmliik, four in THKiimiiiA, unci live in Ni-w ZtiiUiid. Tbpiy «<■«• oiil 





BANKING BUSINESS. 



339 



two bttiiks doing baMnoxH in fcch of the seven colonies ; one Iraosacted 
baiun««i in six colonies ; on« in five coIoDic>s : tliree m four ; one in 
tlin'i> ; four ill two ; and ten lianlts did not extend their Viuiuuctts beyond 
ill-' limits of one colony. 

Thr linbililii'a lutil um^Ut of ilia iwontj'-two bwikH of iiuun opt^rating 
in t!n- ilitliin^Ht colonim during; lUr ?tlurcb <|UiirU!r of lt*9fi nm kIiiiwh in 
llii- foDnwing UhlnK. Tlio total linl>tlitJrj> of ttio hatilcK arc i;ivcn rh 
i;if>.V3.''.07K, nod th>- lUwi-tJi .TH XU.''.,fi0r.,9O3, nhowing n kui'i.Ius of 
a)»et8 of f 37,l2(,f*2r>, if ilio ri-lurns jpive all tho fact* in relation to 
the ofWtatioiiH of Ihe haiiko, this suq'lus woald ho ri>jin<iie>itiL-d ahiioKt 
etitiivdy l>j capital or fiutds provided out of Jlieir own reftoiinei: : bm the 
opital and naerve (uiiiU amount only to £2(i.49A,OO0, sa that llic^m in 
n bMljuiO! of about XIO,fi33,000 to be ollitn-wim- iiuoounted for. Tliia xuni 
repr>«(^iit« part of the dtrpdniu olitaim-d in tlu' Uiiitn^ Kingdom and 
wtfil in tlin AuKtralian IxminmH nf th<- biinkN ; the total Itritixh dcpoiiits 
witli Aiutmliiaian hanks i« junlialily not le*» than twrnly-livc millions, 
TUc following ligvirps will convey iwiuo notion of the bimiiieas traoMicted 
within each ooluny. It slmuld be noted that niKier tito beading of 
(IrpoMlH bearing intvrtwl hat li«en included uerpetua] iiuoribed stock of 
tho Bnglinb, SoiittiHh, and Aiutralinn TJaiik (Liniitisl), t,o tJic amount of 
£3,340.093. nnm<-ly. SHO.QXi in Now Sooth WaU*, £1.398.734 in 
Viot^.ria, £84.207 in (Jofien gland, and £30f*,OS9 lu South Australia ; 
nJfio, urider the ^Aine hi-Ai.liiig. liahilitics of ihe old Cotimtei-cia1 Hank of 
AuHtmlia to the amount of £5,0flG, not yet dealt with under thf rt-con- 
struction schfrne, have been net down in the amount for tht- iwluny of 
Victoria :— 





VstHlii 

not liooiliiif 

brttral. 


BDIiln 


DopMiW. 


BiUncn 

■lus 
to allkcT 

liu.ki, 
an 




04am, 


llnli nol 
IntvrvAl. 


Kot bcorlntr 
liilcieat. 


IiilsrrvU 


T"I*I 
LIhIhIIUc*. 


3(«v Sntb Wilw 


HW,7<il 


iis.itu iao».twa 


t 

•ia.4Mi.uH) 

i.wn.iict 
1. iw.ua 

a,W4.Tia 


< 

ir7,»n 
aa.SM 






1.191 M.iM 1 Km.ow 

4tD.(m U.Ml tMi,lSI 


ll.t1B,IIW 

;.o»,u« 
t.wn.snr 
i,iii.7ve 

U.<34,IM 








i.atnjv9 


IM.1K 


nlfitUVU 


Sl.tStfitO 


ia4.ti« 


ioa.M.on 











Tito preceding tnMn ahawii tliat over 95 por cent of the Australasian 
lialiititiea of tli«> hanks eonaixbod of deposits, viz,, £103,054,883 out of 
.£ 1 0*,B3S.078. Thn wtati-mtrnts by Vianks in each colony, with iJie 
•xcetition of TaMnanta, diHtinguish l»etwei.ii deposits at call and deposita 
iHfitnri;; inlfn^it In Tasmania, although not oblijjed by law to do so, 
a simitar diitlnction has been made by two bankx out of four, and 
aasuming that in tlui oaae of the otli^r two bank* the proportion o( 



340 



PEIVATE FIKANOE. 



'Ivposite at call to tlit: total dopoititH ut the muuu, tbo totnl dnpoait 
cnll Bro m Mated in the tahl«, viz., £36,022,813, or n«arly 3K |M 
of all depoute. '^I 

The attaets for the uime period are sliown below. Certain aaari 
small amount, uol cliuuiiiiahle umter any of tlie tiul>-beadH of tbu It 
have Ijctui included in the lutal, ancl in tlie t-anv of tiim colony toch) 
ovnr-stiitcinonts of the aasttta of some of the liiuiks havi- beun nxti 
Alsi), iimlff th<! Itcniling of " Niitcs nnil hillK of other hankn," etc. 
included Quoonsland TroaNiiry NoUra to the amount of £46fi,4)S 



i 



tw 






Orion}'. 



Udn. 



!>»sauiliW*l«. 

VWiwtk 

Qiueniiwiii 

ftMlbAnitnlb 

WHMnJtunnlla. 

Thnnanlt 

HnXaluiil 

AluURlMta 



i.tiw,irB 

l.IMU.S11> 
7»,TM 



«.gtT.t;s 



IliilllDn. 



_ L*»iil«l 
PrayMtjn 



11.]. IK- 



e 

ijn.vior 

Til .711 

1 1 MM 
4W.MI 



KoMuHl I XotmuMt 

ItilJi nib ot 

dlKuunlnl. athsrBuka, 

ukToJI juid 

Mhor DoM> Ibtlinoci 
due la I due tnm 
Ihc liHilit. mhtrauln. 



s 

M.Vl, tM 

W,I«T.J» 

iMift.wi 

I.TSO.KI 

v.M<>.inn 

»,»:.nD 



1,010,030 t,m.i(» ii(i:nT.M« 



t 
wtjim 

tio.tat 

030, i» 
«0,T«4 



t.a(iT,SM iiu 



I 



Mbtallic Bbhkbveh op Banks. 
Tim following taliln shown Uie im-tnllic rcKiTviw lii-M by ihc ' 
iigninst thmi- Nitnl A n^tralai-iurt liuhiliticK, anil alnn againM 1 
linhilitirs at call, vi:t., lit^jiosits nt call ami note circulation. Tbe b 
bowevor, cannot lie Utkon as complete, a8 tliose liankti whicb ret 
<lepOMts in Eii;;land and clsewheri-, and which do not inuln<l<- 
depOKita or liahiliuex, are shown in too fiivourubk tt light : — 



OslgD)^. 



New South Woka. 

Viubiria ..■■. 

QuwiiHlitnil 

South Aiiatmlia ... 
Wottvru AuHtrnli-i 
Titniiaiiia , 

NfTH* Zt^BIlc] 

Auttmloaia .... 



culii 

and BullbUL 



TeitlU 



e 

8,03«.T1HI 

S.0I7,II« 

7*5.723 
3,285.373 



36.9I3.30S 



;(2..>t(1.035 
;li,s.'m.30i 
M.:ilN.wfl 

7.(K.'!l,.VW 
4,Jllil.3liT 

.•t.2;(i.;!M] 

l&,4T'),IGe 



UiMIIUm 
■I Cull. 



£ 

ii.Mi.ift; 

11.772,344 
.1.27B.8G7 
2.04 1. ;*» 
■i!>0.1.!M2 
l,IGS,05& 
8,086.977 



Prapenlaai 
ukI iiultt 



TkTcUl 
tin*. 



p«f UM-fM 



I08.S.1H.OTS 



39.9S2:irr2 



24-70 


< 


2a-74 


7 


IS« 


« 


aV44 


e 


47 -IS 


e 


£t'«9 


e 



21-23 1 



» 



m 




KABNIKOS OF BANKS. 

■ will be Btwti tliat Queemkad ajiparently hulda the weakL-at potiition 

I ihtr (inniorlidn o( cash roiu.Tvt'u to toljil liiibiiiiii.-s, aiid N<iw Zi-.nlund 
in proportiriii to liiibilittn* nt cull. This, liownvtir, miiuim very littk-, 
tuTi'ia^ that in Konid of tlic rajloiiiwi iiiiiny Imiiks profeiw to hold gold 
geiy in exccRs of their wisJies or requircniL'nts. 

KxPKN»i» or Banking. 
, Hie boUiice shc^Ui of hnnkii, as (ireseute^ lo the sbaretiulden, da not 
nsunllj' contttiii i!eljiil." Iik<^ly to .sutisfy the liiijuirtT curious to discover 
tie nnioant of timxi profits as cotiiparcc! with t)ii: nrt iiiiiQUtit iltviKililc 
uimngKt KhnrFholdfin, AJloning the Mtni« iiropoilion of cxp<.<iisb» foi' 
ibc bnnks not disclosing thix information ns for Itioso ooncorning which 
IwticaUn are availaUei, the following results are obtained for the last 
vorkiag year dealt with iu tlie preceding pages : — 

Total trading luucta. £173,3U,O0ft 

Ckpitdlnml lotirvca 20,900,000 

GraMMminoii, leMTnaerre for bad anil iloublful d«bt* ^,£73,000 

OtMa extMiiiiilut«, iiioluiiing tutcrMt. 6,017,000 

SrtMTiungs 660.000 

Coiiipareil with thv total aasote, tim net iiiriiings reprment 0'32 per 
iiL; and compared with the ImiiVs' own resources, i.r~, uapitnl and 

pMMired profits, i'OC per cent. The gross expenditure above set dowo 
Kwybe divideil into expenses u( luanagemeiit, £1,913,000, and interest, 
X4, 104,000 : Uicbu ttigethi-r amount In 9lo ]>er cejil- of the groaa 
nminp, th<! nmnii^unitit i-xpennes being 29' 1 i>cr tmat., mid the 
wrtWftit 81 -6 per ontit. It would iippenr, thrrdforc, that for every XI of 
a^MnunjA thcsumof £3 15s. lOd. ianpcntin inanag^inont expi>ns4«, and 
£7 9s. Sd. in interest. The cost of working banking inslitutions in 
Auainlia 'm undoubtedly very large ; but this class of btiaiuess in every- 
nhore txpenalve, and nn aiiidyHis of the bulimcu-HlieelE of aotue twenty 
firitiiih bralcM HhowM tlmt Ihu expeii^jes of iiiiLtiH^i'nieiit atiiotiiit Ui iiearfy 
Hi. for every ^l of net earnings, 

Compnrod with their resourcps, the net carningn of AuKtmlusian 
liiain are far le»s tlutn those of English iianki, as will appear from tli« 
foUffwing Etat^memt, which given the rate per cent, ]<cr annum of eaniingn 

raupared with lotal resources, including, of course, deposita and issue, 

as wdl as shardialJen' capital : — 

£ ■. d. £ ■. d. 

Bsnk n{ KngUnd 1 IS A 

IMiri> PinrlDcisI »u>ks ... I 10 » 

fMBuik* 1 8 G 

LtDdaaBniiks 1 Sit Wiil«. 5 7 



Bonk of Isle of Man 1 

Scotch Rank* ,. I 

BaqIih tr.'ulini; ID New tiouUi 

Wal«. 



'ni« eKpeiiau of banking in Australia in largely due to the number 
at bnutchot open throughout tlin country : thus, iu New i^uuth Waleo 
thtin ar« 441 Imnks^ and branchcx, or one to every 2,900 pcmtons, whtl<! 
in EngUiKt the pro|^>ortion isone bank Ui 10,000 [icreons, and in Ijcotlond 
one Co every 4,000. 



342 



PRIVATE PISANCB. 



■ 



IXVIMTHKXT COMPANin. 

In mjclit.inn to thi; itnnk^ of Iwm-, thrrp urn iiuimirou* ^rin| 
utid Ijinii, IJuiWiiig, I II vestment, Triuling, ntiH Ck)inmrn:inl Cdi 
rcctiiving money on depoait And imuMtcting much of the bun 
usually ujiderUkkeii ouly by bHtiks ut iifixie. The land, building, 
other trading lonipaiiies were jfrtiuniwl (o be iti a llourUhinf; oond, 
eroii UA ]a,Ui im. tin- yi-nr 1^9(J. Tlii-ir divid<<uda to s)i2vr«liold«ni ' 
very large, und thi- mt<n Allowi-d on dopoiiUi wem contudtrntblv in ei 
of thoao curnrnt in llio liunks of iKsun. As might tic cxpvctt:^, tbo 
intcroat ollbred wrK too tempting & bnit to be rosistod by n s«ctw 
tho iitvcsling ]>ublic, and large s\nu»i were placed in those institni 
with the utmost conlldence that they would be available when requ 
This confidiruci-, mi fortunately, pruvod U> be, iu luauy iaatai 
unmei'it^Hl. Tlll^ xliriiikngir of land vuliica, and the debred»tiou of 
ealAtt! gerinmlly, put Ati end to nil unitounct in.ititutioiiK n'orkiBf 
■[icculativi; lines, nn well as to some other <'ompnnic). ilint wore 
ductod on rcftsoiialile principles. The ditticulticK into which tho de^ 
companies fell may fur thti moat part be attributed t« their pn 
of borrowing money for ahorl penoda, and luL-kiug it up for Ion;; te 
JlMaiduH thiH, howovor, nutny KO-aUInd biiildiiij^ tiodiitiits indulge 
apeoulativn land ]>urchMes, and having i-etailrd the land n.t onb* 
prices, with |>ayment« over extended perio<ls, proceeded to divide 
jireeaii'.i.'d prolits among the abareholders : with a result that n 
easily have been furuaeeii, for iu many ca»ea the purchasers, after pa 
a few iutitAluiontM toward thu iirioc, left the alloluiKiiUt on tfi« b 
of thu coinpaniiw, whom- nntidpntcd prolitd •ori-rv tlieruforo pc 
viiiiutiury, and who^ii ilividrmU wi^rtt rrjiily nnviir caratxl, but, in n 
inslunci!*), wore merely taken from the deponitn. 



KavIKOM ItANKN. 



gW^^ 



Tie Savings Baiiks are ou a very different footing, being" 
or less extent under Slate control and utlierwia« »feguanled, ao 
they enjoy public conlidt^ncn, Th« itiKtilulioiiM i-luaM'd aa Ski 
Banlcii may W divided into two kinds — thoM; workM in conjum 
with thft Post Oliico, and, consequently, diiTctly at] ministered bj 
fitnto ; and those under trubteeB or coiniuisNioners who are goue 
nominated by the (iDveriiiiient. The declared objects of thebe bank 
to encouragi^ thrift in tJie working daases, and to provide a 
investment for tlie funds of charitable iiiFctitutiuu.i, frii'iidly aocii 
ttiid auch like. The inittitutionii, liow(rvi-r, havi! tmcome no popular 
kll olnsmia of the community hv ropreKintwl nniongvt their depoei 
and tho banking crisis of 1)193 bad the otfect of Intgely increAsing I 
buniiiess. 

In New South Wales there are butli State and trustee inatltvl 
for the reotipt of aaringx, the Pont OtTiw' Savingx Bank havji^ 



SAVINGS BANKS. 



343 






cKt«bUitlie(l in It^Tl, oiicl tlio SiiviiiK" Rank of N«w Sotitli WkIch m far 

btdc as 1632. In liot.h instUutionH sum* of ono shilling nm] any 

zBoltlpIp ot tliat nmoiint may Vk' d^jwutAd ; but, wiih the pxcpption of 

tbc funds of ch»rita))Io institutions nnd friendly socieliea, (l«))<Mitii 

«xci.-«dinj; £300 do uot lH?ar iat«r«Kt on iiuch i-xceaa. From Ocuibcr, 

1894, to July, 189G, th<' Pont OlEoe Siaviiiyi Biiiik aUow.J iiiU-n»t at 

tlic riito ot i [>er c«nt., wiUi an udditionul I pirr o»nt. on iiocciunto ogion 

for thit fall okIisuIm' yMir, Init this Intti-r privilege han now havn with- 

dntwn. During 1895 tlic Snring* Ifcink at Now South Walr^ nllowixl 

S| per cent interest, with an nddilional k p«r cent, on ticcouiit§ 

nnutiiUOg opeo at the end of the y<>ar. A inensurc providing; for tliu 

•nalgainatiou of the two inntilalioDN Iir^ l>L-eii [irtpared by the 

OoTenunciil, uud iimy ■horlly l>«-'Come litw. 

In Vietorut Imth Coiuii]ii»ii>ni>Ri' and Ponl (Jdici! Suvinpt Dnnkc, 
ataUtiJuH] in Ir^tJitnd lS66rwipCctivi>1y, ui-ti in oprrution, AnionnWof 
M* Kliilling i*n<i any multiple tncrcof luv rcfi'ivid ; hihI deposilji in tlic 
wniiaiwiotuir)!' bnnkH are guaranteed hy the Govcrnrot^nt, an obligation 
tokiertaken by it in May, 1893, During 1895 tliL- ComniisMioneni' 
StTinjpi Bftnk allowed 2i jjcrcent. interest on bums not exceeding i,'IOO, 
toil i pnr ciuil. fnMu £100 to XiJi^O, Uir lutti-r bniiig tli« innxiiiiuni 
unount carrying intt^rpat. Th^ Post Offi™ tiaving* Itank paid 3 p«r 
ttiit. during the year. 

In QueeiiHlantl, Post Office banks only are in operation, the syutem 
luiag fn>m 1805, Tlit- iattri-Bt allowed during; 1898 was 3J per Lt-ut. 
on nU dupouls bolow .£200, but in July, 189C, the nit<^ waHrL-duuMl 
to 3 p(tr cfiit. 

Ill South AuKtralin thm-c artf, propi^rly npiiaking, no Ooveminent 
S.iving% Sanks ; but ini-titutiona adoiinislcrtid by trustws were estab- 
liiljL'd in 1848. The rate of interest paid by the truiiteeB has beou the 
lubject of uiauy changes. Starting ut 3 per L-eiit., it fell as low as 
1 \vr oont. ill 1853 ; ruwt to G per cent, in 1858 ; and declined U> l jier 
Oiiit, in 187;!, Bctwtrn tin- year last mentioned and 1892, int<'rcj!t 
fluctuabnl bvtwrdi .'i\ ,ind H per ctint. ; and in 1893 it wan niHlucc^I to 
1 percent., at which it rrTntiincd during t.hi'r yvars 1894 and 1895. 

In Wcst«m AuHtralin, Post UtGco banks have licen in operation since 
1^61. One flhilliug and upwards may be received, provided not niore 
tiaii £150 is deposited in any one year, while the inaxiniuni amount of 
'ii^potiitji must not eic«'d £iO0. Interest ia idlowed at the rat(( of lij 
per ci'nt. providi^d the nmoiint nt credit is not less than £1, 

In TaMnianin, Post Othce and truntjT Imnks am working gido by sidu. 
Saniit of one sliilling and U|iwar*lif may bi^ deposited, the? int^-rost 
tllownd during I8D5 being 3J per cpnt. both in the Post OlRce banks 
*fid in tlw lrust«e inatitutioua. Interest is not allowed on aniouute 
ovnr £190. 

In New Zealand, Post Otiici! and truiittrc iimtitiitionH arc* alau twtab- 
liaked. Hhi former oonnnenocd ojHTntions in Februiuy, 1667; but 



344 



PRIVATB FINANCE. 



xonu! o[ Ibo other tilMBOf banks nru of much older »Uinding, tiic Auck- 
land SavingH Bonk, tor inHt4iiice, hnviiig liocn (TatubliMhod an for l>uck *« 
1S47. Dppittitc of one shilling and upntinjit are roc«ivMl. Int«re«t 
WHS formerly allowctl in Imth daasee of iuHtitutions at the ntt« of 4} 
por oeut. up to X20Q, and 4 per cent, from £300 to £500 ; but in 
July, 1893, the rales allowed in the Goveniineut SavuiK* Bank were 
rttdui'i-d to 4 [ler cent, unil 3J pi-r ctmt, re«]KfcUvrly, tlw uiaximuin 
iimmiiit U-ftring iiiti^rcat n-iiiftining ut ^riUO. TliMitr mt«!i ntinainnd 
ill forc« duiinf; lfi)4 luid If^X 'j'hr tnixtiv SiivingH lianks in \S^b 
allowed 4 pur <;(tnt,, hut r<)duc«il thi>. mt« to 31 per cent from ike 
l)i.'f;i lining of IN9fl. A featiirp of tho New Zealand Poat Office Savings 
Buiik is that de[iosit8 of one nhilliu',' uuty l>e made by means of tw«lve 
puriiajjL- Btaiiips uQiied to yards HueciaJly iatiuud for tho purpoae. Tliis 
plan wiut aJoptMl to enuourug« ttirift uinong chiklnsn. It viajt recu^'- 
ninnil til bu a diHicult maltrr for a child Ut mvf. it* pi!n<w until tiicy 
accumulntiH) t<> n shilling ; Imt wndpr the pivscnt system, whenever a 
child rooeivcN a pco^ny il nuty purchMe n postage stamp aiiij affix it to 
the card in its poitsesHOD. 

The returns of the Savinf,-s Benks show un i.-nDrniouH devdo[)iDe«t 
ttincr the year 1861. At that jurriod t)i« llu^l)ll^r of <l<.-|iaMtora in 
Australasia (excluding 'IWinania, for which thor« are no r«burM) was 
30,062, with tho sum of £1,367,396 t« their credit^ or an average (rf 
£47 to ••a.ch depositor. In l)f'71 the nuinber of dupositors had risen lo 
115,071, with deposits amouutin^ to £3,6T3.77'2 : but Uiu urarv^ 
amount credited to each depuaitor waa only £31 ISa. lUd. In the year 
1 8S1 ther.- wer<- 311,1 ii dcpositorn, with a total »f £0, 1 12,379, avut»gina' 
£30 7>i. formuhiu^(!inint In 1K{M thenumbcrof do]>ositorabndincTeaua 
to 74 1 ,627, and thi; amount of doposits to £18,!j43,&4 1 , thoavcra^ being 
£25 10s. Id. In 1891) tho numherof depositors had risento894,ST9, with 
deposits amounting to £26,097,170, giving an averatfesuDi of £20 3«. 3d. 
to each account. It will thus be seen that there baa liMti a decline in 
t)ie uuoutit per depuiutur from the period tint mentioned ; but this 
in no nijin of retrogression, for thci large inemuu! in the nutaber 
depnsitom, which must be takc-n into conMclrmtion, cvidcnoes the fact 
that the 1™* affluent claesos of tho community are more largely repre- 
sented in the liooks of the banks than was fomierly the case. Ju puint 
of fact, th» proportion of depoaitora to the entire population hiut 
inereuwd all along. Thus, in 1861 the numhi^r of iienoin who Wl 
acGountn in the Savinjjs Bitnkn rnpn-«rnted only 2'31 per cent, of tJie 
ontire population of Auitrnlasia : but in 11^71 the percentage had risonto^l 
r,-9!*; in IfiJil, to I1-.-I3; and in 1«91, to 19 47 ; whUe in 1895 IhJ^ 
pioportion fan 2 1 'II i>or cent, an increase being observal>l« in all tiie 
colonies. Dexling with the individuat coloniee, tk« QueeniUaiid d«[ 
torn have tho largest amount at their crudit, averaging £10 I0«. 7d. per 
head ; New South Wales dtrponitoni come im-ond with £39 IGs. m 
wliile thoKc of Tmtuiania have the KniallcBt sum, tbeir average 



I 



SATINOS BANKS. 



345 



omiy X2l la. 3d. Tho snbjainecl table shows the progreae of ftccumula- 
tion in the Saviugs BaDka of euob ot the colonies since 1871 : — 



Yw. 



Houlh 



^"iclorlik 



(Mmiu- 
luid. 



Houih 

Aiutntla. 



AuWnlia. 



Tamiuiiik 






Aiutnl- 



Xi^HUH Or DKniHiTi>iu> 



101 

un 

HDI 
UM 



itM* inijtn 
IM.tM , m\T«i 



IkTW 



1 1, no 

78,786 
tia.7M 



i,noi 
s.aie 

10, iw 



11,738 

!Ht,Ull> 



1 1.2TB 

Gi,aM 



iie.oTi 
wi,s7e 



Ahovkt ur ItirOtriH 





£ 


£ 


c 


c 


<: 


£ 


i: 


e 


mi 


uu,,»u 


i.iii.Tin 


(OT.Hl 


SII.OM 


I.VM 


■ji;.*i» 


IM.IIIH 


3.ina.7T! 


USl 


(.(Ml.TOS 


!.aio.ts« 


81*. W I 


l.iB&AtO 


23.su 


8M,S7S 


L,SM.M(< 


0,I(2,STD 


UBl 


».Mt.L3& 


6,iia,a(7 


t.uan.Tis 


li.UI.llD 


u.iai 


fiM.117 


3,lll«,U«' 


ln,Ma,Ml 


IMI* 


i/<n,t7& 


I^lklS 


^1IW,«ll) 


1MVI.--T9 


MKi.cna 


nM,i)» 


*,iK(i.riw 


sewn, ITS 







AviKiMi AaovKT niR 


Ukfmiior, 










t 


e ■. •!. 


£ ■ d 


£ .. d. 


£ a. d 


£ •. d. 


£ & d. 


t«t 


aia 


» I 11 


<U I 11 


ID t 7 


It 1.1 11 


U 11 7 


SI IT t 


Ut IB 10 


IMI 


r & s 


u 4 r 


u i» n 


M I n 


7 5 


» 1 11 


K, T 7 


WTO 


tan 


n 1* & 


ID 1 


U 18 


!& 2 10 


IS in % 


2U 12 


^ IT [1 


»I0 1 


UBA 


» U 1 


U IV 1 


M 10 ? 


U 7 


an Id 1 


i£i 1 ;i 


ffl 1 X 


aa s i 



Thn following Uiblo shows Uio average lUDount per head of pojiulutioii, 
and tile iivcrHgn numbi^i' of depositors per 100 of populntiun, in cuch 
of the colonies for tli« year Itido :— 



caaof. 



N«» South WklM 

VidoTi* 

QoMiislaiiit 

Soutli Amtnilix ... 
Wotom AuBtralia 

Toanuuija 

N«wZ«kUlid 

AutUaUaia 



At 


finwv 


iLmoLihl 


por 


lll^Ud 


.1 


I'uimlut 


cilk. 


£ 


a. 


<1. 


fl 


« 


4 


(i 


.1 


10 


4 


li) 


4 


7 


10 


7 


4 


11 





4 





7 


6 


12 


3 



6 3 2 



licpMlon ptr 

109 ol 

J'iiputBtion. 



18 

39 
13 
S4 
16 
19 
S3 



21 



It will lie ohservwl ihat Victorin had the largest nunibnr of depositorB 
p«r 100 of twimlttlion ; while the lar^st amount per head of population 
ms readiM in Si>utli Auslralia. 

The following tftbli? kIhiws thu nunilwr of dRpowtow in ihr lUiviiigH 
banks of the principal countries of tho world, the totiil amount standing 



PRIVATE FINiNCB. 

(tt th«ir credil, and th« avitnigc amoaiit per deixisiLor. HiA figUM tF* 
couipUeii fruui dm latent nvoilnbln nuturna: — 



(roanto . 



I>r|ioatti0n 



AniuunI 
td ItKptMtt in 
Itevinifilunk. 



Aitnec 

Amount |i»r 

[inpa^uir. 



UnlUiil Kinicdnni ......... 


Ki>. 
7,S7!i,70» 
1,111,187 

G23,01S 

776,718 
1.035. 1S3 
1.0iW,8e9 
4..'>9»,:!10 
N,(ll)S,S7S 

;i4.3.fi!M 
4.873,019 

£40.105 

stu,sn 


£ 

1*!, 740.1170 

I7.4!t<l,7i3 

l!i,(WH.3W 

8.e68..W0 

Ii0,016.111 
17,002,SS3 
79.081,017 

1M,TS<2.»^> 

30,ooa,;wn 

STt.KiT,;i3 
II.99S.e21 

28.097,176 


£ B. d. 
IT 10 3 
ir, 14 7 




•IS a 9 




U 3 » 


Austria -ltiuigU7 


m \7 a 
Ifl 4 S 
17 4 4 
IS 4 S 




31 lil 11 

77 7 4 




40 IS lU 




39 3 3 







Tlio .i,;iirtui fur the United <Stat«s ar« givon on the nutlmrity of tfa 
otEciiil titalji^ical Ah-itmi'l, nnd nn-, to all a]i])eiirant'es, corrccb. 



Total DHrasm ik Bakks. 

If to the amouiiUi depoBitcU iu the xav-ing^ ImuiIch of tlic colonies 1 
addurl the ilujiomln ui InuiIch uf i&auo, it will ijo aocn that ihn total suin^ 
ou dqiusit ill liiiriJuri^: inatitutioiiB iHfiiUHl lo over X30 for wwh inhAbitant 
of Aui>tmliui,i;i. Till' liir^i'st utiiount on d<T{HHut an cotiipaiml uilh jiopu- 
liitiun in found in Wcitttm Austndia witli £42 la. 0<L. or £111 w. 7d, 
liliovir tln! ftvcrngu of all tlie colonies. The particiilKm for («di [WDvinti; 
will bo found brfow : — 



(>>lanf. 



D«1>obLU It' 

Bankxit Imuu 

(Avfira^v* tor 

llbo Ont qiuTMr 



I«jfl»lU In 

ititviimfe iktfikH, 

fM ef IMS. 



TdUI t>cpc*IM. 



AibKint (4 
DtpotMpcr 

FapuiMM>. 



M 



Kow South WaIm.. 
Victoria 

Ijuix:niillllltl , 

Soutli AiiHtnlia 

\V'<i«l-.'rii Auatialia i 

Taaiiijuiia 

Now ZuJond « 



f 

M,B83,Hfi 

31,128.827 

Il.l0ft,»l5 

7, 1 HI,5H7 

3,7!i!i,flHB 

3,116.68$ 

14.M3.00S 



Aii«Uh1m1a 101,309,734 



i 

B,vti.as 

7.»S,lfift 
3.-J>ifi,i»10 

:;.(l!ll,27.'i 
460,610 

S48.oes 

4,820.696 



£ 

M,60T.l30 

3S,4t4,7.'Mi 

IMOe.l^A 

9,^1, S40 

4.M0.."iOfl 

3,763.771 

19,OS2.702 



£ a. d, 

30 5 

32 10 8 

'."J I » 

•U VJ 1 

4-2 I « 

aa 8 o 

27 S 3 



•2e.oe7,i;6 ; m,406.9io ai i 2 



i 



UBPOSIl-S IN BA.NKS. 



347 



&E already iiieDtioned, likTffe sums arv aiaa ili^itoeiLKl vrilli variouii 
bniliUiiig aud invi-muii-nl aod«ticH, but Un^ Tt-lunu with ivtf nnoi to Uhwii 
mM iuouiti]Jotv. Thi* lutmt Kvuilnljli; lijtuns: iJiow tliut the auiouuto 
wo iuviaitcl wuw:— In Nrw South Wnl.-*, jfiI,28I,B10; in Victoiia, 
£lMr,,-iOi ; in TtinQaDin. ^'J17,931 ; and in N<rw Zi'alaml, £324,CS0. 
In tJiv following tAbio An? given the deposits in banks, including 
WftvingB bviks, and, wliera available, building societieii, etc^ U four 
decennial perioda, aa well aa tor tlie year 1895 : — 



O0)«a]r. 


ML 


vol. 


un. 


tw. 


UN. 


AKluUkWdta 

nNDte 

BC^foSfii* ' 


r.&T9i.<ue 

•MIT 
«U,«T» 


c 

f.DSO.WII 

ilt;e,a7T 

1^038.718 

•It.HS 

>,1W.6» 


■!X,Ta.M!l 

t.Ul.(*M 

•S»,H4 

1M,3RU 


e 

t°,n88,uo 

l.Sll^,ucl(l 
i.aTO.sw 


3D.0a,D3D 

»,&H),WT 

is.wa.iis 

IU.3u7.Ut 








tirtrhma 


K,<im,wt 


3a,ta,Tt\ 


7i,sn,T«» 


in,Mi.7M> 


IW.MCiM 


£13 


£16 


ua 


M 


Ol 



*M»ln(i lltnki onljr. I Ibitilii of Txuc onlf. 

Prom tills tabl« it will be seeo that tho iucrcase of deposits in all 
in bauhs betwi'sn 18G1 and If^Sl was exactlj' 100 per wnt., 
•Bowing for Uw Kf^n*!!! of |>u)iulal)oii ; while between 1S71 and 1891 
tli9 JrjiciKitJ" |H-r ht-ad of poputntioii iitfreiiBwl by about l.^.T [x-r «-nt. 
*1icn conijiarp'l with thi; fij.nire* for (In-at I!ritaiti, the iiiiioiinr. of 
dt|K«ibi [<cr hrad of pofulatioti in .\ iD^tralnxia far f^xceciU that in 
1^ older country. In 1861, inded, the sum per heAd in (.ircat 
firittm wan higher than in Australasiii, nniouutin^ to £15 as agMiiat 
£13 in tli« colonies, and in 1874 ihi' Brilinh a^eI■^Ke alood at £26 
|«r bead ; but ten y««ni laU'r, in 1884, it hiul sudIc to £'23, and in 
1S90 to £16. Ill tb» colonim thcrr wo* no falling-ofl* at any period 
Witil lfi93— th* total dcponitji per hoad in 1SBW far cxcc-cding tho 
liiglMst level ev^ reached in Crcai Jtritaiii. In Mi^'A )iow«rcr, therv 
*W a dedinfl of about t^n millions in the sum total of Australasiaa 
dtfiOHiUi ; that is to say, the oomuiercial ilfprefision which prevailed 
IMTC or leu Ibruocbout Auslnilf.niu <luriii^ that year cautied the amount 

r, ni4intioiied to be withdniwn from tlic Nnvingti of tlie pttopUi nnd to 
employed in meirting current cxpunHO and in the nininlcnanc^e of 
creilit. Durinjt lf94 and lt^9'i tlirre was a furttiiT fallingolf in Vic- 
toria and Tasmania ; but the other coloiiif s show larger deposits in 1 895 
thai) in 1893 — ^tlie Queensland, Westom Autttralia, und New Zealand 
dcpuaita bvln]; even Urf^T than iu 1891. Tlie total fallin^-oir in 189S 
as oompwd with 1891 amounted to over ei^ht millions. 




PRIVATE FINANCE. 



OuftRKKcr. 

Tbo coins circulating in AuKtmlRsin uv thosr of tJi« UnitiHJ '. 
Uold is th^ elAiidnrd, tlic HiKor aod bronze current being mon 
U)kt'n& than ooins. Uold i-oiim ure l^fpil tender to any ainoiiutt 
ail ainuuiit not eXLiMHliiig forty sbilliiige, and broiixe fur nut 
The ataiiUord weiglit and tiiiencuH of each oain arc givnn ticl 
kiLsl curront wi-ight of u auvoreign is l'22-5 Imprriiil gnuns 
hslf'BOvcreign, Cl-125 grains : — , 



Dcnomiitttlnn of Cnln. 



eiMiteil wdKht 



(H&nduri VtiHB 



Gold 



8!l*w.. 



iSoTorcign 
HBlf-Hiver«ign 

Crown 

Double Florin.. 

HnlF>i:tDwu 

Flunn 

Shilling 

SixpentM 

ThrccpeUTO 



Bronec 



UaUjwnnjr ■ 



imiwrJoJ ifnlru. 
Troy, 
I '23 -27147 
e|-B37'J3 



4:W3fiao.') 
My 00090 
21818181 
lTt'5*A4A 

4363630 

srsisis 

Atalrdupak. 
IM'83388 
87'60000 



4 



Elcvt'n- twelfths 
onc-tH'clftli nlln 
nwl iJncncAi HI 



Thirty .Mvon-fiirti' 

nil vor,thr»e- tort 
ur duuiuial Giwa 



^ 



j Mixed nwU], 
I anil iin& 



< 



It may be stated liere that in Queeniiland llit-rc is a It^ 
current in thi' shape of Treaaury noleR, which have now 
nperseded tho ordinary liank-notts. 

Th« only coins Btruck at thf Syiini-y and Melbourne Min 
gold, tliuugh diver and bronze of linglish coinage are alHO iniiu' 
Bmounta at silver and bronze issued during; 189& were, at tli«8vdj 
silver, £4,7fiO, and broiue, i^l.SGO; and at tliij !it«lboum<! Mim 
and £\,Tt5!> rrippctively. The Sydney BraiK^h of thi- Itoyal J 
opened on thn Mth May, 1855, and the iklrlljoumc Branch on 
June, 1873. A third branch of Uir Koyal Mint in in course 
IJahnieut at Perth. The amount of gold received for coinage 
«nd of 1895, in the Sydney Mini, waa 21.963,982 oa., v 
£8I,97'.J.5( 9 ; and the amount received intii thi> MellKumM- Mi 
now date wan 16,81 1,165 oz., valui.-d at i:C 7,055, 209. 




GOLD C0INA6B. 



349 



The following table shows the t|uiintity of goU reui^ivt^ into the two 
Mints to the end of 1895, the uu-xaX K^eivcd fmii) outnidR sourci!* 
bfintc dUtinfpiidiett from that louuUy iiraduond: — 



WiMn riwiuOHL 


Qdkl reoBivBd tin Colnatch 


ayduc] Mint. 


M«lbounw HlDL 


i 


Ob 

8.299.477 

1.442.089 

0,820,024 

78,786 

2,801 

ISIIB7 

'2.520,8.'W 

2B,797 

20U.412 


DC 

14,018 

I2.930.i;5 

9.S30 

191,171 




Wnitcrn Auntralia ..'. 


630.IUT 

000,788 

1.(172.0 

153,77S 

0,900 




Total 


21,903,962 


JMIi.Kia 



The totAl vftluu of guld rai)i(vl in AustrnlitKin to t\m end of 189r> vrax 
£379,:)Kl,e60, of which uuioiuit 39 yer cent, iiawied through tlicSyduey 
»uJ Itlcibonrno Mints. 

Tim following tabli- showK tho amount of jtcAii coin and hiilUon buiued 

ill r«c|i Mint to the fnid of 189S : — 



H Mint 


SsnniKiiii U^I-wr<n>lKn>. 


Ullllloii, 


TbMI Vnlu<r Ot 


1 

Mcttioiimc 


£ 
78.207,500 

lll,02(),78fi 


2.022,600 


£ 
2,9»'2,H7 

5.6H!:i,ooi 


£ 

81,812,147 

fi7.0:f2,fi9S 


■ Toul 


137.SSS.230 


2,903.31(1 


H,6SI,2HS 


148.861 .S13 



Till- qumitity of gold rpocived into the HyAwij Mint in 1893 wn» 
■\121 ot., fnlnnd ni e2,76«,44", of which only 302.317 oz., or about 




350 PRIVATB FIWANCB. 

36 |>«r cent., was the produce of Now Houth Wiiltv, Quocnuliuid rod- 
tributed 470,794 oz., or iiMrly 63 per ceut of tli« wholp, the remniiider 
b^^^ng cliipfly New /euluiii) produce and old coin received for remintin^ 
Tlir ammirit of go]d rBCi'ivetl into Uie Melboui-n« Miul for the sftute 
ycoir was 1,09'J,820 r>/., of which 721,879 ojl, or 66 |«-r c«il., was the 
prodnco of Vifitorift. 

'ITie f?!.'! eoinK Usiiwl from thn Sydnry Mint in 1895 compri: 
2,758,000 Bovcrpifpih, vltWi- tin- MellKiumc Wint inucd 4,105,86! 
•ttvereijpis 'lurinf! the yenr. No lialf-novnivignH have boen issui^ 
cithiT liraiicli iiiiiiV! 1893. Tho vnlue of the ^old coinage ineued 
the Sydney, M<-11>oitmv, and Lundon Mints was «a followH :— 

£ 

Syilnoy !i,;iS8,(»0 

Melbourne ,. >, » 4,IS6,9a9 

London „„ 3,fiK,9S6 

BcaideM^old lo'm. tJie Sydney Mini diiHiiK '^W ismi^d jpihl bulliu 
to iho vulu« of X:!0,300, luid thu Melbourne Mint, tu Uh' %^ur 

Tho iinnuat rrport of tho Dqmty-Mtuitnr of thi> Royid Mint for 1891 
Bhovrs 1h<? value of rilver coin issuod to and withdrawn from, and tbe 
Talue of hronxp coin imued to each of the Aiidtralanian colon!** during 
the twi-nty-four yrnni l872-9.'>, to hnvi- been a.s followii : — 



Oolonr. 


tmraom. 


taaatlMa 


iMNd. 


Wlthdmvn. 


SH Umu. 


ImiwiL 


New Soutli WklM 


g 

047.100 
7S7.750 


1 

£ t 
13I.C61 51M38 
231.838 nOA.012 


C 

ai,&3S 

«,0S0 

9.006 

&0O 

1.320 

19.S0» 




218,500 

2M.300 

2:,B(XI 

rA400 
176', 775 




.■(,«0 
S3,443 


in.«e7 

179.7TS 






3112.425 '17 )-''<' 


1.0W,S«7 


8!.a65 









TImk 6gum ehov an unnunl incrciuii' in th? cirmlJition of ttitver of 
£70,60(^ and of bronxn of i^,40(), hut no allowance b made in tli« 
fignnM for win brought lo tlir folouios or taken away Ity nHKiu'ngPTii. 

Complete infonnntion rrf^nrdin^ worn cobi in not ■vmlahM for the 
Mi'llHiumfl Mint ; the foljowinf" fif*urfti, tlierpforc, refer to Sydney only. 
From IS"^, whon tht> Mint first rem'ived worn iiilver ooin, nntil 1^95, (lie 
amount of silver wiilidniwn fmni «r<'iiUtion was of ilw nominal v«luf 
of £i:)8,fi86. The actual wriKhl afl<^r melting was 440,M9 ox., and die 
corrw|>andin« weight of new coinage would be S03,948 ox. 'Hie Um 



SILVER COINAGE. 



35' 






vhilo Uw coinx were in olreuUUou was therafore 63,399 ogc, Uu! urL'mgo 
tun being 12'^ |>ero«int. From 11^76 U> 1895 f^>Mcoin«f Ui» nomhinl 
vbIiio irf £824,31!! was r(w«'iv«l at tlip Sj-dnny .Mint for rcKiomngo, taiA 
mw found to twve *u actuiil valuo of £8^1,60lt. Tlic Ion Amounted, 
therefow^, to £2,704, or OS-JS jkt wnl. 

A» hns fttreoilj l>eeu (wmted out, HUndnnl silver conustti of -925 pure 

u&Ul aix) '07fj allov. A {)ouiid troy of otAiidard ulver is fioiiiwl into 

lixty-six shillings; thnt in Ui any. 111 uutu'ca of fine iuct«l prodnce coin 

to Ute value of £3 6*. Thi.' »vi*ni;;(- |>ri<:'i- of uUer during 1899 vtm 

*i Sjd. per OuncEi, which for ll-l ounces Kiv<« llicsmnof £1 7a. 8d.;M 

llMt> aft«r luaking du« alloivanciR for Mint rxprnws und lom entailed 

bjr ithraiiion of the ooinagp, it ix i-vidrnt that the Itritisli Uovemmont 

JerivM a cfirtain proGt from the xilwr coin ikvuciI to AuHlnda^. This 

txpUns why the <iu\'emm«iii(>i of Ni>w South Wales and Victoria liiwa 

kpnnached the Imperiid aulliorilieH for periiiiittiidii to coin stlvir tn the 

nine r«qvirod for cirruliition iu thi? i.'olouicttk. With tlio prcsiint limited 

fopalaUon of Auxtmlnxiii, howL-ver, it fs doubtful whether tlio prolits 

voold do more than pay for tlio outlay neoCMnry in ixnini^ion with the 

LiPX AWtUICANVK. 

All the colonies except New South Wall's have special laws re^ilnting 
ibe bniiioeaH of life aiHiimntv. Except that of Queeniiland, tli<^ Ufe 
AmunBOB AelB require yeaily stateMnentti lo be inud« jdiowing the total 
l>iuin»» of coiD|Nuiies in operatiou, and alao certain particulars re^rdin^ 
'ii« trimsactionii witliin tlirir own colony, tn Nrm- WontJi Walts no 
ipi^sal law has biwn pnnNc-d, and L-oinpitnici doing this i-lass of lni3Jne»x 
'ihttiii iuch by regiKtralicin uncl«r tlm (.'mniiaiueH or Friprid))* Six^i^ties 
.Ut, or by Hpi-cial act of inroi-j>orfttion. hi ihc other coliKiiivs tlii^ Acts 
wijiilttlinx Iht- traaJness of life awnrancp deal cliit'fly with drjKisits to Iw 
idjuId by coniptnii-M <ioniiAeni.nu^ business, iiud wirh returriH of busineait 
IruuacbeiL In no province an> the full n-'tumi oHlcially publiHfied ; 
ncvertlielesii, iiit'TRtting and valuable repurtn an- prepared and circulated 
by leseral of the oainpaiiios, and all iufomuit ion n-asonably to Iw dtadnid 
ia ;:ivea In th«r giagiw. Other companies purnue a difh'ivril courMi, 
uid diitcluae very fow [Mrticidani of their Imsinewi. Howt!\'er, from 
inch courses aa are available, the inf on nation contained in the following 
[agM hni( ti«en compiled. 

Uf tlic M'VL-nboen companieii doiu;; buMiiem in the wlonies, four have 
their Iicad^iflicrai in X<;w South Walea, wvcn in Victorbt, one in South 
Auttralia, one in Ni-w Ztialand, nni' in iho Unitntl Kini^loin, and thn-c 
in tliK United Stale*. Tln' EngliHh eorapfiny— the Liverijool nnd 
Lomlon and Olobe In»nmnci- (Wipiiny^Iia* only latirly commenced 
dpcnrtJona in Austrtiliii, and as the only piirtiuulni'n ronceming Its 
bunneflB which arv available are the nunilier of policies in furco OH the 



35* 



PRIVATE PINANCE. 



•IlKt Miiroli, IH96 (],02t<), thi- tobU sum awtunKl nxcliiMvr! of btmnniW] 
(£-'it;fl,6l7), and Uic lunount of the annuiil premiums (£15,627), tfa 
compaTiy in noi i-numttralod in the following tAbl<iB. 

Tlii> results of llic latest publiiihecl acttiarial invMfi]i;fttionx of 
various sucielien wore »s '■iveii below. Tlii? fi^rt« relnling to th 
American companies are according to t)i« return* of Uio fitftte of Nc 
YwW :— 



l...l(lulion. g 3 ^ 11 V.luMlo>i. V.IU.M™. 


Nil or 

prawn 


KarphMt 


AutrilUn Muuu] l>raiMcni Ha.>lct>' 


U» 




1 C 

11 DBF.. IM 11.8SUU 


<fa.fi 


Mutual Lifti AhoiJaUcii or AuvtnlBaiH 


uai 


TilBiinkl.... 


31 .. IMH 


4«.4n 


WiU 


l.'ity >1i]Timl J.tti^ AwunLnn <*Ejiiii4iiy 
(l,M.l 


wm 


.. 


11 ,. im 


IWiTO 


0,53 


I^Sd 




11 .. IMA 


Hi^iia 


n.3«| 


AtntnilijMt AUuniv .VHarinviiE^iCViiTiiiuiy. . 1 Iwf 


Trlttinlal . , ., 


n II iMM 


tN,9t» 


N,e? 










AuilraluU ISBB 


>- . . r - 


JO BopL. isaK 


l,3Nilii> 


turn 


VMot! AxutoiKB HodHt of VletotU 












<jiliD(|iltnDliil 


11 DMk. imo 


»MI8 


VTvUlj 


Auttriliiiij Wlilavi* FUiiil lift AoannH' 








J 


BuH'iljll.M.) mi 


f- 


nOnL. IWI 


nt,iw 


mMi 


UoIoiiIaI MuIubI LIIc Aaunniw Sodcty' 








^ 


(fja.) Mfft 


II 


SlIteB, IMh 


UUiSoa 


Sttbsfl 


Analreluun TFiiipcnni* uxl Umcnl 








"" ^^ 


Uuliiol Llfi< At>urim{7c84ciut.v ...... 1910 


14 


«)t;t|ii..iwo 


ie,tao 


4ttflH 


Vii^Uirid Gannril lNiiiinu]i]« AnrKJtJuikntwi 








"^^B 


Cnmpuv .. ... .1 U8H 






t 


■ «*<* H 










Cuiiiiiuiy ., ..| twu 

New ZiuiUnd nnvrnimcnt Uh Innmuiro 


(>uiii(iuannlii] 


U June. lUe 


UiSti 


t^lM 


-* 






J 




ISJU 


Tiianntil.... 


H ■>«.. un 


liCTMS 


lOO^MV 


&(Ultilifc' Ulv A~unin.'i' Saiiut) o( ihr 












l;nli«l .iMi™ 


l»(il) 


Armiul 


n .. laos 


BM^l<>> 


K,ite,iSA 


\r« Vorit l.ifo liitiifAfier l'oiiipui> 


ISU 


.. ..-.,. 


n ,. laae 


aiUKw^ 


l>Me.l80 


Hutu^l Lilu limnm^E^u CtMiiidAY cif ^frw 












Vort 


IMS 




11 „ IWfl 


a>.im,7H 


A,9a0^4 



* IncrliHt**' of jirniHtrtloii of Hiirp^o^'lU" t^ Inrlmtrml hd^nmt V In^niiftl^on MtH^I^Mn 

Tlif tici or prirsetil liuliility ropr>'setil« the preapnt value of th« NUraa 
QAHun-iJ ut n'.4)u>c-i of wh'ilir lifi- and eridi>wmeiU assurance, rever^iouHr 
bimuKiii, I'll (low mill t-1, iiitd mnnuititw in force at iiat)> of vatuatiori, ie 
thir prcwnl valun of tlin fiiliirp purr pri'miiinw tliprfOn. Tlii' Hitriilut 
giren mpirspiilH the Rmoiint nt'aiUblr fnr distrihutictn nnioiigat poliejl 
lioldi'i'u, And actuarial And com luci vial rpfwrvM. 

Of these §ixtoen conipanitis. eleven are mutual, and the rcnmindcr ar 
what is liTiticd in inimmiict' parUiufi " mixed " — that is. proprictii 
comjKuiiea dividing prolil,i with the jiolicj-holdurs. Two of the infrtjta 
tianit nlHO tinmiart ttidii)rti'inl liii»inf)«i. Most of the offiecB Iiav« wpr 
lu-ntfltivrK in all the ci>l<mir'X, and one iiiHlitution htm rxtiiidi^ iln 0(m 
tiodH to London and South Arrien. Tlir Npw jioaland Goveramenti' 
not transact any busiiieiM ouMide that colony. 

Tli<> followiiix table given the polidea in force and thr Munn asmi^d 
ill rach socifttv At the close of 1895. Ttii^ it*in " Snms OMurecl " mwm 




* AuitnluUn liijiin«v only. 



tnMllDlii4i. 



JnMHut HUMl rmldtnt KvtMr 
IhMl LH* AwMioUaD of Aiutnlulk 
air tlutwl Ul» Aaniann Buc^My (Lid.). 
CWhT LIU iMonoc* Ocmpwii' 



MMbUAm 



toMnlUa AHwhc A«mu» Comun: 

I Hulol Ufa Aaocbliuii DrvicV>rU<Lld.}, 

t)toMvl/nt Viotntlii (l.iil.) 

AmbBwi VMowrnindLirt AHunn«Sa<>Iny(LI'l.) 

tfclaiM MutmJ Li(« Anunuiat Sudoty (Ltd.).. 

Ill nil ^11 T«np*ni(ic* uxl UmmhI Utitad Ufa A» 

■innovBocaMr 

TkAirii Casanl li wi win uid OoamolM Compwir 
UdUde Ul* Amdiwm ukI Ogowit** Okdiwij . ■ 
Jl*w tMlui< OvraisDunC Ut* Ituunniw I>^rtiiitni 
*»>HitfcM< Ufa Awinim Sonil]' er thu fnLtnl HUM 
Imott) Ltfa laaiirvnn Ouniony of ><tw Vork 
•Ko Votk lit* iDnmiw* CDnipuiT 



•AoMntaaUobn 




UFE ASSITRAXCB. 



the -lunu |»]rahl«, e3cclusi\-» of rev^nioiiAry bonowa, at death, or on 
attaining n curtain nge or at <l«ath before that age : — 



IsMUulkoi. 



AnCmiMi Maunl PKnttaiA andMjr 

MiilBat LH* AMnrUtlnn dI AnitnluU 

CKv Moml LUt Auunnn a«Ie(r 

culm*' lilt* Aaiimac* Ojnjwnr 

A— t imliaa AJIianc* Amnuc* Caaytay 

XaikMl Valoil UI* Afio^Idian 

HannlAMomie* Bodily olVIaWiik .. 

fta^BKn WU>nV Fuml 

Olli*I HMam Ul» AaniniK'* K»clatr 
taMMlwtao Tkmnmn-i auil Ofnanl Ufa 

AnnD»a«l(V - 

f taoila n«B*nl tttbtmx and OnwitDU* 

Odiiif*d/ _ - 

liUtUm lilt Axunnn (ad <l<i>n»(n< 

OEapuijf - 

lb* ZVBluid OdflrqintnC Ufa Iniufuicc 

BifirtoMil 

■^AaMa Lift Aanuucc K«al<tr of Ihc 

I'nHalSUtaa 

IftMil Ufa lonisiicc Conqwv o< M** 

_ T*i* , . , , , 

^»* Tork Uto IniDiuin Ctnptoy 

Toul.. 



Tie following tiil>l« sliowa the buniutM in force at the close of each of 
lb* laxt three years : — 



1 oolfi liul looliuln vf Lonut ujilltiuu. 



nXASCE. 




, that ti* (MtUned amount of inti-reat L>(u-ni^ 

I to Bwr* the il^qnanda nn<l«r tlu> lifuul ,,. ^ 

. i^ ^aed fmai other sourwe, hoiri>\-ftr, wu ii 

I ft iffn" cfctuiml ill 1S94 ; )>uL fur uuujr j 

a^MAt (ttjtinl more thnn uK-t tli« fixpendi 

TW ctum^ jo-it imiicatwl m^iy Ite Mtntiiit^ 

''BlMUlcee vhidi liBve followed in th« ( 



d 



LIFE ASS1TRAVCE. 



of (he drpr^ssion, no that wb<>n the new basinets has Iwtin Kft ngiutist 
that which hns lafiaioil, the nut rp^ult. is iMthrr only n ultght incrt'»se or 
eyen s shrinkage iu tho volume of nssuntnces in force. 



Aswn AND LiAUiMTie^ or AasnuxcE Comi-axiss. 

Til* Kooielic!! estabUali aiinnally an asset and liability statement, with 
tho object of showing tho distribution of the accuniuktetl funds and tlm 
ainouDt placnd to ciKniiiurcial resBrve. The relui'u is, however, in no 
way connected with the valuiitioii l)illuu(!(?-s!it-el [in-jiiin-d at tho dato 
of tbe actuarial investigation. The assets and liabilities for each iDsti- 
tatibn, for tha financial year of 1895, were as shown in the subjoined 
table;— 



liUliUli'iii. 



h 







UdIiuI Fnnldeiil 



InMy 

Md Ub AtBdallDii nf Aiutni- 



(kf Itebial Ule AawmaMSMiaty 

^(IM).. 

ubn^ Lit* AMnniKv OomMny 

., {Ul> -..-. 

«a*tllan AIIUuCB AiaunnDt 

OmpHiT — - ' 

»ml Hmtoil Lir* AiKcLtUiin 

«I Ai»lnU4* 

Abuiuoa iodtty of Vlo- 

Mlk<LM.> 

Uanllia WUowi- mad Ut« A» 

nnan S«dc«} <LU,).- 

CWMdkl Uutnl Ute Awiinnixi 
BOkUiU'I.) 

OcMnl MatoiJ til* Aoamiot 
S<ci(lT (Ui.) 

IfcUilft UMutal Ifiwmiee itnij 
Owjurltft Ootn|jvi7 
r|-"r Llftt AKunniv am] 
Cinnau* Ooafvif , , 

X«v Zabind Oorvriinvnt Ufr 
luiqnna Dctautimni, . 



356 



FBITATS fINANCX. 



More than t«o4fainlK iif the toUl lUBets urn rnpitMBtod I7 
on mortgftgo ; indood, in tticvo ooioiuee iounoco corapoiMB » 
restricted to this form of iavMOMBl^ tad to loans on policJM. Hw 
recu*imii£ items require no special OOnUMQt, except loaiu on petaonal 
necuriCy and shares. Investments of this character are unusual in 
AuHtra.aaia, the amount invested aggregating only £94,r25. In Mxn« 
at thu coloni« th« companies are obliged by law to deposit certain suma 
with tlu! Treawury as a f^uanwtoe of good faitii, and tkn amount so 
lodged is included wittier under tlie liead of Government •ocuritica or of 

Exratass or UASAorantirr or AsatntuccB CovPAncs. 

> 
The ratio of «xponii» of manngcmont to promiurn income and grOB 
recoipta muat neccesarily vary according to the age of the sooi«^ and 
the proportion of now business transacted. The figurea aw g^ren for 
what th^ are worth. That a more exact compariaon cannot be made is 
the fault of certain companies which fail to make a oomphtte diocloaari! 
of their af&un, and do not distribute their expenMS of ntanagcmcnt m 
that tha ooat of new busiueoa may be distinguished from tJiat of old 
buainm ; tha rrports of other companies are uoequallcd in any patt of 
the world : — 





KxpaoaatfHkB^WMBt. 1 


lUtllUtiOD. 


AdujuM. 






tiKcaw. 


Okm 

Bao^la 




t 
M.llt 

imiBs 

uu 

t.iio 

n.sM 

u,m 

vjm 

T.Ml 

i.ms 

ON 

Mtjm 


per etnt 

is-« 

sew 
x-it 

rr« 

M-tt 

»«( 

WW 
tt-H 

s-u 
■a-M 

«D1 


pff«Mt. 
IB-SI 




ih'OO 




11^ 


Muluil AMiiiiui(«SaclttjolVTotoif*(Lti!,)-. 

AuitnliiTi v,'l<lniiiii'rni>iIUIaAsmnimi(aidri]'(LtiI.] 

ColoDlkJ iliUuftl LlfsAmruiMtSoclcl^lLlil,) 

aiutnduUa Tnnucnino* wd 0«Mnl Uutiud Ut» A>- 


tm 

IMS 
It's 

nm 
ins 


VletOTi* (idionl Iniuruw* will UuinDtn Onntiuiy . , 
arf*lfeM« tAta Aiiunrm kiid Guu«irtcft Com]An^ .... 



ABStTRAITCE I!) TAniOTB CotTNTBIBS. 



r 

I TTnitcd Kingdom, Canada, am 

I following tabic The Australasian busiuesa of the American 



Tli« avcmgti amount ossurod per policy for each colony, and for Om 

a the United States, is t,'iveu in ike 



institu^H 



UIE ASSUAANCE. 



357 



(iotu excluded from the prerious returns bas been incladed for tb« 
pnrpoae of attablUfaiiu* tlie Aiuitralian kveragM : — 



Oaauj. 



AnatraUna „ 

New SuDth W»1m 

Victwia -----.,.-....».....»...» 

QnDmiUiul ...... 

Sooth Austnlut 

WMUrrti Anstraltk ,.,. 

TiMni4ii]n ,«..„....» 

Kpv ^''filsiid. 

Cnttvil Kingdom 

linitctl liu.Ua (New York only] 

CuuiU _ 




A(M*c« PMmlinn 

pBCllttol 

Attamr*. 



a. d. 
S 8 
e » 
7 5 
1 10 
7 2 
S'll 
3 9 3 
3 3 4 
3 7 6 



£ 

a 

3 
3 

3 
3 
3 



I 



Hw wnnge amount of ftisciirance prr heml of papulation wu, in 
AnitmlMia, £20 ; in Uanada, £1 1 ; in the Unttol EiDf^om, £\3 ; and 
IB th« United States £12 ; wMIe the average number of policies per 
tbootand cf population was, ia Auntmlasia, TO ; in Caiinds, 3S ; in the 
Daitcd Kingdom, 32 ; and in the ITiiitcil States, ^Z. 

The arera^ policy in nnrccly n fitir iiicasiire of thrift. In theiie 
4ntanfas mutual aKnimnco ui the rule, And lurmibpm of the vnriouM 
Mcittins havt! acquired large bonus additioiiH. Tlie average fxinting 
policy, including rRrrrrionnry bonus, of nix leading AuHtralnsinn com- 
putee, Bcmrding to their latest actuarial inveBtigations, was £348, as 
WDifiared villi the £285 shown in tlie comparative table. 

It would seem that the pracliee vf aGsuring life is much more 
pRvslent in Aoitndaaia than in any of the other countries inatancL-d ; 
ud altboujch the avenge mitn assured by cnch policy is Kss, the number 
efpoh'dut in no much greater, an conipured with the population, that the 
amount ascumd per inhabitant is considerably higher. 



Fkissvlt SocieriRa. 

The wrriccs which friendly societies directly render to the State in 
(oaMhig Ibc labouring elafscs to combine for the making of due pro- 
nnoii to meet nnfor(«c«n demands in the case of sickneiis or death, nni 
deariy noogniaed by the GoTeniRientit of the variouH oolontes, and all 
such weieties which are registered iiccording t« law are granted certain 
prii^«ge« Ed eonaidentjon of tho important pnK which they play in the 
aociaJ welfare of the comrounity, in rntie^ng the public purse of claims 
which wouht (itherwite have to bn prcfi-rr«l againrt it, and in maintain- 
ii^ the independence of their nierobeni and obviating the necessity of 



358 



PEITATE nNANCB, 



those members ac-oepting aid which would hare a tendency to pauperiao 
tlieui. The Acts n-guUtJiig tlie opi'istioiiK of friendlf 8ocieti«s lo lfa« 
tuloniea are sll bnscd on Eiifftiiili Itj^ixliLtiun ; luid, geoiM^J Bpealcing, 
the following privilegrs, which nrr gruntnt to membm of mioh societies 
in the colony of New South Wnks, nmy In- takt-n as typical of those 
ei^oyed in Australasia ■.^■ 

1. A regisWred Society can legally hold laud and other kinds ol 

property in the iianiea of trustees, such property pasaiug from 
oue trustee to another by the mere (aft of appointment ; and 
can curry on nil U-gal pi'oueedings in the trusteea' nauic*. 

2. Thfi Society ha^i a renicdy on sunimnry conviction whcmcvor any 

pcfson — 

(a) Obtains possession of its property by false repre- 

sentAtion or impusllion ; 

(b) Having possessioD of any of its property, witUu^d« 

or misapplies it ; 
(e) Wilftdly ftpplicii any part of such property to p 
poses other than those expressed or directed by tli« 
rules and authoiised by the Act. 

3. If anotBoerof Iho Society dies or becomes bunlirupt or inxolvon 

or if ui exi'cution is issued nguinst him whilst he hiu money 
or jirofierty of the Society in his possrasion hy virtue of hia 
oflicc, the trustees of the Society are entitled to claim s 
money or property in profcreneo to any otJier creditors. 

4. The documents of the Society are fi~ee from stamp duly, 
fi. The Society can admit members under twenty-one and take 

from them binding receipt^!, which would otherwioe be of d< 

elTeot. 
C. If it invests money on mort^^age, such mortgages can be di 

charged by & mere endorsed receipt without reconveyance 
7. Its officers are legally bound to render account and give up nil 

money or property iu Uieir possession on deuuwd or noi ' 

and may bo oonipelled to do so. 

5. Dia]>ut«!( can be legally settled according to tUo Society'^ 

rulfSL 

0. Mciohers of registered Friendly Societies hare the privilege of 
legally insuring money, on the deaths of their wives and 
children, for their funeral expenaes, without having an imcur- 
ab!e iiitereai in their Hieii. 
10. MemtH^rs of n-gint^'rcd Sucietic;* may dispose at death of sum 
paynble by the Hociety by written nomination without a 
will ; and this nomination may l>c made by youths of sixteen 
who cannot make a will till they ore tweB^-oiWb 



ke 

:| 

poll 

pticf^ 

ownfl 




FEIENDLY SOCIETIES. 



3S9 



II. ^Itere Ui«r« is no will and nu iiontinntion, th« trtaHtm SUf 
diHtriliule iiainB u-iUiuut lt.-tt<!rH of lulminigt ration bedttg tftken 
<iat (n pmon doing m in nay oihnr ciuw would make himself 
ttiilJv for tilt; ddbtM of tho dc^crAiw^l). 

Tbo AcU conUuD provisions inscrt«d with the object of securing thn 
BolwDCjr of the eocietieH. In most of tite oolouien Oieu* (iniviHionii havit 
been Opentire ; but in New South Wak-B and in QuiiMihliind tim pfHitiuu 
of Uw various ordera is not su iuilinfiu.'t()rv ns il. ahuuld be, nnd ntcpK 
ftre now being tKkwi to pliM»; tbe alTmrs of the tociutic-t pd a proper 
actimriml Imnui 

III Uw following tabk will bo found the number of soaeties, the 
numbtT of lodges or branches of these societies, the a{{gregat« number 
of UMimbersi tba Wtai Moount of their funds, and the average amount 
per Bwmber in each of Uie coloniea. The figuRut are for tlte latest 
arailable periods, the <latee bdng set forth below : — 



CUktaj. 



Dilf. 



iHodirtlK 



or 



jOcmhtnL 



Toul 
IMniJir. 



KurvlB per 



B«w Soott Wiln . 
VMorfB. 



<|ii u i m iii < 

iMttADM 



AnNnllk 



IkMNWU 

KcwZMluwl*.., 

AntolMU. 



MDtc.. ISM 
SIDcn. laM 
11 Oca.. ISM 
II Dm. 1*« 

» D»c, ISM 
31 tMr.. IHM 
31 DKv.lWt 



So. 


tin. 


Kn. 


£ 


a) 


SIS 


m.tss 


tao.dT 


» 


I.07B 


TD.tM 


i,am.D°2< 


17 


MI 


iT.rn 


IM,41III 


16 


ta 


aun 


UD.3M 


W 


SB 


USM 


K.im 


M 


It) 


»IT« 


TO.SOT 


11 


MT 


»,«<» 


ui^tao 


lU 


xva 


M1,UM) 


*ji».«« 



£ ■. 

V S 

IS i: 
all 

II II 

n V) 
« s 

IS s 



U 11 



I 



■ Euliuln ol ST UoUW, (pMteliy aaUiorlHiI iMlctliL 



]( wilt br. WH'n from the foivf^oing tablu tliiit, taking ttie average 
ount of funds p''r pinmlxir as llii! biuin uf cuiiipirison, Nvw Z<uilnnd 
ncenpiee first position with the mim of X18 ^-i. 2d. ; Wrxtern AuKtrivlia 
comes next with £ 1 7 1 Uh. 4<i. ; Vict4>riii, though far behind, tnkoit third 
place with £13 12s. 9d. prr nn-mbiT ; Sonlh Austnvliii comes next wiUi 
XI 1 14«i 3d. ; and then follow (juceiiNland and Tasmania in tlie order 
n*n)ed ; New South Wales having the smallest amount^ vit, £7 2a. 2d., 
Uui credit of each individual member. 



SIOKET OtWEIUt. 

I basineai traniiacted in the rariuus Postal DepartttUltt under the 
I of money orders has grown to vi-ry large dimendonK. Thin 
itMieaM ia duo maintv to the gTcat«r faL-iliticrs now uflurih-d for tlio 
aisBOD of money by this mcthoi), though it ia also to somi; extent 
tributable to the mora general apprecintioti of the sj'stem bj the 



36o 



PRIVATE FIKAKCE. 



working cUsau. The foUowing is a Matmnent of tli« hannta 
during 1894:— 




OqImj. 




CMvipiU. 


Kmnbvr. AoHnnt. 


Komtiar. 


imiiit. 




431,117 
au,<il7 

107,'J(K! 


£ 

1.316.637 

:23,:Ma 

:i!ii 'MIS 






2A0,M4 

iri3,S48 

ee.i68 

15.313 

e«.7*s 

i;4.M7 


ftt7.381 




378,023 
219,509 




7*,o:3 s-Jil-imi 




38,2711 
77.413 


132,822 
155.011 
776,:S3 


M.SftT 




138.602 
etiU,400 






l,lfl3,T3M 


3,721.S02 


1,130.243 


3,6S4,aM 





TIm arerage aiuount of each inoD«_v onlor Uaued wa8 X3 2a, 4d., and 
the busiiic«s doiw lt;f K«w South Wal«s gt««tly exceeded that of any 
otber colony of the ftroup. Tbe average value uf iaou«ir ordi^nt iaiucd 
ia tJic TTiiitrd Kin^lont during 1894 wuh £'2 Hs. 6d. 

Postal KoTBa. 

Be!u<li^!t the mminy ordi-nc meittioned above:, a srst^m of jiovtnl notes 
iii iu forci^ in all tlie colonii-ji. Tlie notes are imuiid fur tixed nmnnnta, 
vuryiiig Uvia Is. to 908. The number nnd Tidue of Dotncasbcid during 
1K!J4 in poch of the colonies trcro us follow : — 



I 



CMoop. 


Hilatbet. 


Amuunt. 


New .South Wales - 


41S.S9I 
813.197 
314.0S5 

4,333 

io,9sa 

309,577 


£ 
ISS.800 
SItKOK 




100,098 
6R,44; 

i,Qse 

8,551 
109,301 


Sootb Awlrala „ ». 

Wwtan AtuAtalia 

T^anaitia ...... .^.».»... 








!t.a73,«40 


7S9^t£9 







These figures show an incrcasu ou those of theprerionsyearof 775,TI&J 
in number, and .£281,316 in value. 

Baxkkl'itcikk, 

The bankruptcy lavs of the diSerant colonies are even morodiasimilat! 
than the laws on moat other <|aeationa of importauce ; tike; bav* alaa 
been fluctuatiujf, and the subject of many «x[>erifl)«uta and auwndtnaata. 




nrsOLTSNOIES. 



Th):i mndMv any vcink at conijiarison diflicult and unsatisfactoiy. For 
th" Vfjir 1S91 fnmpIpU: retiinis nre nvailiililc, and lire givpu below. In 
crirmcctioi) witii tii<; tiMi- it niUHt Ite poJnUxl out that ttin Rgurcs aro 
CTclusivo of lib ii(]uidation« in Queensland, with liaMiitips stated at 
^292,510, and a8ict«at£i24r>.G37 ; and also of 352 private arrangeintriM 
under tbe lusoli'ency Act ia South Australia, for which the aaaets and 
liabilities ore not stated : — 



1 Numbvr 

CMonjr. I dl 

1 SequtMnllaoi, 


A« rixfrn to Bu>lini|ie>' Scbnlulcs. 


UibiUUs. 


itmlM. 1 titflc4Miii7. 


Xew.SoDlli WnJea... 


1,465 

1.087 

3S4 

60 

33 

168 

eat 


£ 

1,839.235 

5^239,010 

19S,S95 

122. la 

18,405 

G2,S4S 

49S,«BQ 


000,955 
S,101,SI«4 
43,»M 
93.308 
43.1B7 
St.lIT 

398,132 


£ 

830.300 

3,137.426 


S«Mitk Au3tial]a...„ 
Western Auiti&lia.. 

HnrZMikiul 


149,446 
33,S1S 

•23,:m 

i!S..i31 
IOS.733 






Aiwtrlilwhi^.». 


3,093 


7,97a,68D 


3,702,112 


■».274.4Sr 



• SUfpllIlL 

littk^ if any, reliaiicv con In? placnt upon tho «tateiiientH n>ad« by 
luikrafiU M to Uid Ntatc of thnir afbira, tbo mm4s Iwing itirariabl}- 
«mggent«d. Taking the figures given abov« for wbat thoy arc worth, 
H wold appear that tiie average aiuoont of Uabdlitiea per bankrupt 
«ii £3.161, and of assets, Xl.OOS, showing a deficiency of Xl,15i4. In 
^ ti^llowiu;^ table tfa« average figures for the t«n yeare ended 1S94 
*** giren ; Ibd amt^ howerer, have been ooiitted, as the Ktat»meitt«, 
*>f>f as MfBO of the colonies are concerned, ore palpably worlblriui : — 



dt-mj. 


1 
Kunihsr 1 Unlnlltln, H 
•Tt ttem In HuknipU' 
SeqiuiinUaniL SdMdulo. 


KavSogth Walaa „_.,._... 

Victoria »..._.»....» 

Santh Aotmlia 

WmMh JUstcatia (S f«ari)„._._ 


1,S3S 
779 
305 
1*4 
33 
120 
734 


£ 
■i6:«.:3i 

135,404 
44,146 

S3.mt 

795,202 




31333 


5,119,5!]9 



362 



PUBLIC FINANCE. 



THE functions of Ooveruinent are much alike tbrougbout Aiuitnl- 
a.iia, anil it U only to be expect«<l, tlicrefciri', tiiut i^imilar ilcata 
of rxprtiditiim kHouUI bn found in t}in liuilgets of the vnrinun cololu«». 
The cbipf point of difftTence in llie extent to which local ivquiremeuts 
nt« proi'idi;i.1 for out of ^'encral revenue. In most of the proviDCM pro- 
\ UioD for local 1111 pro veDioiita is a uiittter of which llie Slat« liaa eretlun 
diveated itaelf : but ia New South Walea and WesU^ru Auiitrtttta the 
cMitral ;,'Ovtrmiieut Mtili churjpw itsi?lf with tli« Construrtiuii of works of 
II pun--ly local churactur, psjujcially in the rural districts ; hrnen tlie 
appcnrnncc, in the stntciiicnlu of public cxpondlluro of thoBo colonies, of 
items of large amount which tind no parnllcl in th« other provinceii. 
Aisu, wbea comparison is made with outside countries, other points of 
difference are found. In tbesw colonies, as in other young coinmunitics, 
it has been nocesaary foe the State to initiate works and Mrvicw which 
in older oouiitrii.'a have cuine witliiti tbe province uf the l<x»I «atfionti«s 
or huvd naturally beun kft to be undertaken by privatn i-nlcrpriM. Even 
at tli<- {>rc«i>nt day it iH dL-cinod advisable tlmt the liovnminmit sbonld 
retain in it« hando the control of services, such as tlie milwayi^ which 
in the UnitH Kingdom ar.d some other countries are not i^eDeraUy 
regarded as forming part of the functions of the Slat^v and it ti on 
account of the adniiiiiutralioo of these services tliat the budgets of the 
Australasian colonies reach sucli comparatively high Qgurcft. 

The financial year of the colonies of Victoria, Queensland, Sootb^ 
AuKtralia, and Westi-rn Australia ends on the 30th June; titat o^| 
Tasmania, on the 3[Nt December; and that of Xew >!ealand, on the^ 
3lHt March. For New ^oiith Wales the tigcal year won the samo as 
the calendar year until 1^94; but in I89!> the ncrounts for the six 
niontlis were closed at the end of June, and the fiscal year began on tbe 
1st July, ae in most of the other colonies. It mu&t also be |)oint«d 
out that from the i-eveuue and expenditure of Victoria, South AtiHlralia, 
Tasiuiinia, and New Zealand us ^'^'^u in the folluwinf; table rcfun<lR are 
excluditl ; fcir Westerii Auatraliii tliere is nothinji to nbow whether the 
acctiuntR are groKS or net ; while for N(!W South Wales and Quivntiland J 
the gniHC amounts nre given. The net revenue of New South >\'ales 
for the year lt$9ii-6 was £9,073,091. or £1 2s. per head of populatioo^j 




BEVENCE AND EXPENDITURE. 

snd the iMt expenditure £9,707,533, or £7 lis. lid. per head ; but u 
tho rcfundB cumot be dutributr<) over the various hmds of receipte it 
has been deemed adviub)«v as in previous yean, to use tlie grons figure* 
throughout this obapter :^ 



Cotoay. 


Y—xtBitd. 


TottL 


pot Iliad of lopulallon. 


tttwiui. 


E>ptndltuR. 


Rabiiiw. 


EllwixUtun. 




aJtufk UK.. 
SOJi»u,UM.. 
MJUM^ l«S«., 

MJuBT. line.. 

■0 Jan*. IRM. , 

n Dn., iHw.. 

SIMM., IKK.. 


£ 
V^Ul.IU 

tptM.TlT 
TBl.frri 

t.aas.ni 


l),«M.t7T 

«,ns.MT 

3,ieT,MT 

I.MO,SW 

i.^t.su 

I4S.M0 


i >. <l. 
T 1 10 

K a 1 
> u 1 

T 4 » 

u « s 

1 16 ft 
cue 


H •. d. 
T i( a 
I 1& s 


UomalMmi 

feotbAiBlnUft' 

WfWcn AHimU 


T ■( 11 

7 I » 
11 IB « 
t 14 1 




A fp ) 








n,Ma.z»i 


to.^D.soo 


Olt 10 


ami 







I 



■ iDcJudlDR Nort>ii!ni Ttn\uaj. 



A» vill be seen from the above tftble, the revenue of tlie co]oniM Hor 
fiiuuiciBl year 1895-6 was £'28,. ^39,239 or £6 Ufi. lOil. perhud 
of popnlatinn, aad thl^ i-xptrndituTv £29,2:19,800 or £6 18h. hi per 
head, leaviDg a total dcticit on tli« twelve nionths' tnuinctioDS of 
£690,54>1. The onlonins which nhiiw n. xtirptug ani Qaeenalatid, 
WesberD Australia, Tasinanin, and Now Zcninnd ; and those which show 
a deceit, Victoria and South Australia. For New !;^outb Walea on 
explanation is oe«<Ied. It will bo seen tliat the fifi"''^* '""" 'l"** colony 
give »n a{>pan-Dl dditit of £G34,432. This is cuused by the inclusion 
in the <!xj>Rnditun> i>t piiyuiciita to the iiinount of £907, 'J63, made on 
account of pn-viouK ytarK, which Fiirliiiiiient authoriicil nhould }>c 
chitr){od against thnxe ycAn ; on thi^ trnnuiclionK of the litinncial year 
1S95-6, taken by thcmsplvpa, them was, ncciirding tn tlip Trpjwurer's 
financial Btat«mi>nr, n surplus of £3S.1,'i!)6. In rpgnriJ to South 
Australia, it may be stntrd that the rrvcniic nnd expenditure of the 
colony proper were £2,531.409 and £i,r,(i9AW, and of the Northern 
Territory, £G3,821 and £131.220. The deftdt on the years transactions 
inu tbi.'r«for« due to the ad miuiat ration of the great area north ot the 
:6th degree of xouth latitude. 



SocRCEa OP Retbxdb. 



I 

F The revenuo of the i»IonicK is mainly dcrivird from lAxntion and publio 

f sarvioea. During tho yrar IKS-l-e thBOu5toniRyicJdtid£7,'J70,!!i76, and 

other forma of taxation, £^,2'i],9ii ; while tho railways and trarnvnys 

retomed a rvvenue of £9,294,662, and posts and tfilegraphs £2,226,212 ; 

making altogether a aum of £22,713,694 derived from these sources. 




3*4 



FUBLIC FINANCE. 



or 79-6 j>er caiit, of the total receipts. A diyiaion of the revenue of r»A 
colony is appendHl :— 



OAltnr- 



TkuUCHi. 



C»U«.. (Mm. T«i««^-. 



ml 



Ttle- 



l^lhlll- 
l^zul*. 



"Uwr I TMal 



Bw9Mib«r>iM .. 

VhtPih 

OoMrind 

awib AmUsli* .... 
WatanAiutnilB .. 

•tamemOk 

XwrSNkful _.. 

Aiotnli^.. 






£ 

7l^ar2 

7t^B 

isnjiit 
7■(^sIs 



3.1M.MS 

i.iM.nt-J 
311 .n; 

Illl.TM 



NO.tiT 

1*0,713 
II3.CM 

»3.1» 



£ 

°,(IIS.1M 
111. MIA 
SM.IOJ 

iA3.t(ra 
M.im 

191 .073 



« I 

MO.MT I 

Eu^BM ; 

si.aaa 

IIH.MI 

37.7«T 
Itl.lU, 



t.m,itt 



1,««.>1T 

Tciin 
«.a(i,»t 



r,Bmn» >,iii,3M 



iKiM.oai .U!(i,i» |s,Tin.m ^ia,m iSUM.ao 



B«)ow will be (onnd * statement of the revenue in I895--6 on tho | 
boBJa of ])opiiliiliuu. It will be Been that llie average for llio whole of 
Aostmlnsia was X6 I4k. lOtl. per li«id, tlie aiuount rnnging from 
£1 15a. 9cL in IWiinnnui to £H i*. 3d. in Wentem ADstmii*, Tho 
high rovrnn? in the luicr colony is attributtthle to tho influx of foreign 
capital canae(|aent on tbo (liscovcry of the gold-fields. Ai) all gooib 
entering the coloar are subject to doty, a lar^ importiitiuu of ciipital 
neecBsarily meoitH a large customs revemue and increMcd trafiic and 
eBmingH of the railways : — - 



Oolnnjf. 


T^hXldOD. 




FMUafid 

gtJiphi. 


Publie 

LUldL 


OtlMf 


IMd 


Du*(ttD*^[ Otl^r. 








£ *. d. 
1 ■ 7 
1 S * 
■ ID 1 
1 10 II 

e 1 t 

I IS 3 

I 7 K 


£ >. d. 

d 11 7 


£ ■■ d. 

tot 


£ 1. d. 
10 7 
S < 
U ID t 

I« » 

1 t 4 
7 
11 3 


C i^ d. £ L d. 
I 11 7 1 C 13 t 

H 11 A T 11 


T 4 IQ 


W-l—fa 


IS t 

4 It 

1» It 

ail 7 

1 11 1 

1 1 4 


t 7 

IS* 

no 1 

S B « 

oin 3 
1 It « 


a B « 

1 U I 
Tit 




1 4 1 

II S 

1 10 t 


10 n 
CIS s 

t C 




TT^iii niMhalta 


11 t a 

4 U B 
< < S 




oat 
OSS 


4 
4 1 










1 ir s 


IE I 


1 S It 


10 a 


17 


ow 


J 













It will be seen from the nbove table that the colony with 
highest revenue froni import dnties m compared with population 
Weetem Australia, New South Wales being at the othor end of the 
!ical(-. A false impression, however, is apt lo be gathered from a lauv 
stotemtoit of tbs amoonts pev head, aa it inight be a•auInl^J that the 
prarintws with the least revenue are the most liRhtly taxed, whiUi thoae 
with largr revpnow arc hnn-ily ItuiticDL-d, An a matter o( 
tmth in oft«n tho rrrrrm of thin : for a low oonfltunpitMn of 
gn i » andor a high tnrilf, u in Victoria and Soatb Atntralia, may 



4 






■ 


■ 


^M 


"^ 


^H 




Hl^^^l 


^^H 


^^^^H S0UBCE8 OF RETEVCE. 365 ■ 

^^^^^HflHNlM'tluui a high conHiUQplion uixler a lower tttritT, oh in H 

1 Dividing tbe reveoac denTed from taxatioa into that payable (a) ^M 
dirtictlj anti (6) indiractly l>y the pfoplc^ tho former JDCluding Istnd ami ^M 
ibcoom; taxes, »taiDp dutieii, "tc., and the latter cuatoiDS and exdae, H 
liceaM foos etc, the appended figares are obtained : — | 


ootonr* 


ToW Tujk^OD. 


Vtt hwul u( populaUuii. ^| 


DincL 


Indirect, 


latal. 


Dinet 


iTidirHt. 


Totnl. H 


^^L, «.„» w.i_ 




i.iai,in 

t^Ml.SW 
l,tttI,tHS 

t.sso.iss 


£ 1. d. 

Oil 
II 10 i 

OSS 
)} 1 
» S I 

ni< 11 
IS c 


C a. d. 
t It 3 
1 IS 

s 1 s 
1 11 t 

e 7 ( 

ISC 

t s g 


Cud. H 

^ !i ^1 

1 t e ■ 
SSI ■ 
t e s H 
«» H 

1 IS « ■ 

B s 9 ■ 




titjaa 
most 
atois 

srs.na 


UeR.SN 

ktiSiSSS 

8»,ns 

ttsMM 










S.IT«,BS7 


s.ouju 


ll.lK,aaJ 


ID 1 


2 S T 


* vi 11 H 








CoDiparioK lh<«« figures with the returns for the year 1881, which 
tn givco b«low, it will be found that the general tendency has b^en to 
incnuo th« direct taxation of the people, on account of the diininishod 
lud ales and tbo Bhrinltage in other rovonue ; while, with the exc^ 
Uon of Quceusl&nd tnH wttrtem Australia, the revenue from indirect 
taxation per head of population has decreased, despite the gcuenU 
ezttonon of the number of dutiable articles and tbe heavier duties 
lovied. This, however, is only what might be expected to follow the- 
nuli«r borrowinga and tbe diminislied purchasing power of tlie people 
daring the past few years : — 


tMkay. 


Total "etxtiloB. 


I<*r InlalilUDt. H 


UneL 


Indliwt. 


Taut. 


Direct. 


ladirect. 


Total. 


■msoMau'iiM 


t 

UUHS 

M7,TR 

W,SI1 

i.iif>ii 

lOMOS 


t 

l,0K,M5 
(KHittS 

sss.sas 

l,»8U,6u7 


f. 

],T70,«S 
1.061.127 

eM.TS4 

M1.19D 

its.iss 

un,i«6 

i.aao.suo 


£ 1. d. 
0(0 
S 1 
t 7 
D 1 I 
a 10 
oil s 

14 8 


£ 1. d. 
IIS 

1 li 

S IS T 
S ! 7 
3 IT 10 
3 8 
SOI 


£ I. d. 
s s s 
t e 1 

SIS 

% i » 

SMS 
t IS 11 
3 IS 7 










Aonnintf*....- 


ijm,git 


<i,v<i,a* 


7,Ma,44S 


T 10 


Its 


lis a 


In respect »f tbe 
Oi^QtUM ditfer consid 
tbe rav«nii« of Tama 
Nev Zealand the pr 
India, 47*9 per cent. 


proporti 
Bmbly. 
lania wb 
oportion 

; in Qu 


an of r 
Thus, n 

lh derive 
wa;: I>< 

eendanci 


evenue 1 
less tl 
d from 
3 per « 
, 43-0 I 


aiscd 1 
lan 60' 
that so 
mt. ; in 
net cent 


y taxai 
9 per 
urce ; 1 
Weatw 
.; in > 


ion, the 
»nt, of 
rhile in 
m Aus- 
rictoria, 




41-5 pOT cent. : in i^trnth Auntrftlin, 32-3 per cent j and in Sew Sonith 
Wftlea, only 277 per o»nt. 'I'ho cnmpftriKon, however, itonly int<tr"«*ing 
iLH rthoniiifj the larg« toTritorinl rev«nii« that New South Wale* ia 
loriuiiuw eiiou;;h lo possens. 

In all tbit colonies i-xcept Western Austmlia pi'obale iJatiett are 
iHvitJ, unii in iill ihe coloiiitia sieept Western Australia ami QiKeofJaiul, 
land and iti<^)tn<- taxvx. In QueentiUn<l incomes are only lax«(l in tfae 
fonn Kit (iiviilttnd.i (if joint ntiivk oompunies. A description of Um probttte 
und liuccpxsion dutim and tliv tnud and income tAsn levit!^ in AuHtral- 
Asia may not bo without intcnwt. 

Prohatk and Succession Dutid^ 



I 



A'ew Soulh IfalM.—Jhe Stamp Duties Act of 1880 (H Vic. Va. 3}, 
whiub waa aaaented to on Uie SOth June, and came into force cm llie 
l»t July foUowinf;, provided tlial a dutjf of 1 per cent^ should be payBiiI«> 
1)11 tbc vulue <if tliu rMl and purHimul esUtle of a testator or ioUotate, 
nnil on ^inttlriiiflnbt of pnipirrty taking clfuct after death. Cnder the 
Amendment Act of 1886 ('>0 \ ic. No. 10) the rat^^ of 1 per cent, vbm 
limited to property of a value under XS.OOO. and 2 pur cent, waa fixed 
as the duty chargeable on estates of tlie ralue of £5,000 and under 
i:i2,.'>00; 3per cent Upon£12,500 and under £25,000; 4 per cent, 
upon £25,000 and uiiiler £50,000 ; and 5 |jer cent, upon £50,000 and 
upwards. For n number of yoar^ tlipre was nu iixemption, but hy the 
Pmbate Act 1S90 Amendment Act of 1S93 (.'16 \ia. No. 30) it was 
provided that e-states not exceeding £300 in groM value should be fi90 
from duty. 

Victoritt. — Tlie Administration and Probate Act of 1890 {54 Ti<x 
No. l.OGO). which was assented to on the lOlh July, consolidated the 
law relatinj; to the estates of deceased persona, and provided thai no 
duly should be payable if the net value of the estate left by the test^itur 
or intettale did not exei'e<l £1,000 ; that if the net value excwwleil 
£1,001) and did not cxcetHl £.'),000, duty should ht: payable at the rate 
of 2 percent., n'ith an exetnption el £1,000; and that if tlie vfttae 
exceetioti £.'>,000 and did iiot exoci'd £10,000, 3 per cent, should be 
chai'ged. with no exemption ; exceeding £10,000 end not exceeding 
£20,000. t percent.-, exceeding £20.000 and not exceeding £30,000, 1 
6 jier cent ; exceeding £30.000 and not exceeding £40,WKI, fi perjfl 
cent : exoeedioR £40,000 and wot exceeding £60,000, 7 per cent ;^ 
ext*eding £60,000 luid not exceeding £80,000, 8 per cent ; exceeding 
£80,000 and not e-xcetrdinjc £100,000, 9 per cent; and exctmiing 
£100,000, 10 per cent. It was further pmvided that only one half of 
these rates should Ixt payable on the net amount received from an 
estate by the widow, children, and grand children of tJie testator or 
intestate ; but by an important Ainendment Act, pauod in 1S92 (fiS 
Vic Ho. 1,261), the half-rates were made applicabte onlf to eetAtes tlie 
total value of which watt not more tbau £50,000 after all debts had 




PKOBATE AND SIjCCESSION DUTIES. 



367 



bnon pamI. Thui Antcnilnx^nt Act u,iaa considerably increcised the ratei 
of duty kricd on ottates gpnoriilly, the new schwiule, which ia in force 
at present, being as folloivs ; — 



ItMMdlnr- 




IU(«. 


EsujeB^ag— 


eiRfdlnE— 


B««. 


< 


£ 


Mr oral. 


£ 


e 


perepDl. 




1,000 


Kil. 


31,000 


3e.ooo 


0| 


I.OW* 


S."c.>0» 


3 


36,000 


S8,CO0 


•H 


BpfW 


(i,0O0 


s 


38,000 


M.000 


fi( 


e/)00 


7.0'H) 


*i 


«,000 


44,000 


1 


7,000 


8,000 


»i 


♦4.000 


48,000 


n 


8,000 


&,000 


3» 


46,000 


Uf,0OU 


'i 


9,000 


10,000 


31 


S2,D00 


Bli,0OQ 


-i 


10,000 


12,000 


i 


Ge,ooo 


00,000 


T| 


18,000 


11,000 


■11 


60.000 


84,000 


S 


14.000 


I*!,000 


*i 


64JXKP 


IW,000 


<H 


16,000 


1H,000 


4i 


fi8,0fj0 


72,000 


ai 


18,000 


JO.OOO 


n 


72,000 


70,1X10 


8| 


tOfJOO 


2S,0(X» 


s 


:g,ooo 


so.ooo 


»( 


23,000 


si.itao 


6i 


80,000 


H1,000 


9 


M,000 


!6.oon 


6| 


Hi.000 


89,tX)0 


n 


Mi,O0O 


2S,0(X) 


6* 


se,D00 


02.000 


»» 


ztfjm 


30.000 


Gi 


!>2.000 


Oti,IK)0 


01 


30,000 


3a.ixio 


6 


011,000 


100,000 


»t 


3J,000 


3 WW) 


di 


100,000 




10 



* with ucmpilnn of £I,Wn. 

QiWfwiamL — Th« Succeaaiim nnil Probata nutien Act of 1892 (5C 
Vic. No, 13), which wns nuicntocl to on the 4th October, and took i-fTeot 
from til* 7th Se]>l#nibor jjrevioiis, repealed the Succeasiiiii Duties Act 
of lt*86, nod levied 011 property ac(|uired by a persun on the deatli of 
it« form«r owner « aucci'BBioo duty of 2 |>er cent, when tlio value of thn 
property U X'200 und under £1,000 ; 3 per cent, ujior property vnlund 
at Xl,000 uid umlcr £2,^00; 4 per cent, upon X2,.^00 und under 
^,U00; 6 jK-r cent. Hpfin .£5,000 and un<lprXlO,0UO : S jmt cent npoa 
£10,000 and undrr £^0,000; and 10 per cent, upon £'i0.000 and 
upwaiida ; provided that when the successor is tho wife or husband or 
Uiieitl iasae of the predecessor one-hnlf of these rates only shall be 
charged, and that when the successor is u stranger in blood to the 
prodocmwr double rates shall be ili»rKed. Under the some Act tlia 
foUowing miatl probate dutiM are pay&blo on the net value of the 
prc^rij : — 



Valnr. 

UiwUrfBO 

fSOainlnot oxccodingllOO 

Ovtr £100 »nd not oxcoeding £300,. 

.. «2oo „ ,. em.. 

„ £900 .„ 



Pnh>t«. 

Nil. 

lOs. 
£1. 
f2. 
£0. 



LolUntrt 

AdDLlfllAnliOQ, 

NiL 
£1. 

a. 

£4. 
<lOi 



368 



rosuc sisAsux^ 



Souih Jtwrni/M.— Th» Saeoetrion SMk* Act of 1893 (56 uid 57 
Vic X(i- i&"), wbidi wu aM8nt«d to on the 25th October, r«pea)ed the 
Probuli' »it<) Succeesiou Duty Act of 1876 &nd its AuModment Aocs of 
1681 ami 1885, and impoued KucoRuiioii <luti«« cm rvul &nd peraunal 
property (IvrivfHl from the eatiitc of il <tcoea.inl penoa ; on nUJement* 
of property to t^kn eSact aitet lliit dtutth of thn sctUor ; nod on poxKMr^ 
madi? OTPT by d«ed of gift during tlio lifetime of the <Ionor, mm not 
luado beforo and in consideration of marriage, or in fnvour of a kona- 
jhU purch&scr or encumbrancer for vaJnablo conademtion. Tbe duty is 
levitil un t\\v net present value, and is Qxed at 10 per cent, irhen dw 
li!giite« or beneficiary is a stranger In blood to tlie person from wlioni 
tbn pr»i)«ny ia reowred. When tlie person takjog tlie )>roperty Is tlte 
widow, widower, deHoendniit, or ancestor, it Eb subject to u duty of 
lA per cent, if tliv value i:i £500 and under £700 ; if £700 and untter 
;£],000, 2 i>rT c<>nl. ; £1,000 and nnd«r £2,000, 3 ptv ciniL ; £3,000 
and under £^1,000, St pcrcont.; £3,000 and uadnr £5,000, 4 percent.; 
£5,000 and undor £t,U0O, 41 per cent ; £7,000 and under £10,000, 5 
percent. : £10,000 and under £16,000, ^ per crnt. ; £15,000 and 
under £20,000, 6 per cent. ; £20,000 and under £30,000, GJ per c»ni.; 
£30,000 and under .£40.000, 7 per tent. ; £40,000 and under £60,000, 
7) p«r cenL ; £i;o,00a and under £80,000, 8 per oenL ; £80,000 and 
under £100,000, ^ w-r cimt. ; £100,000 and under £150,000, 9 per 
cent, ; £150,000 nnel under £-200,000, 9} per cent ; and £200,000 and 
upwards, 10 p"r cent. ; ono-hnlf of thesp rAtcs only to bo charged wliea 
the person taking tlie property is the child (under 21 yeara <^ age) or 
tlio widow t'f tlio deci^a«ed, and the net pr&^enl value of the whole 
estate i« under £2,000. When the properly is taken by a hrotber or 
abler, or a descendant of a brother or sister, or a person in any other 
degree of collateral conaanguiiuty to the deeoosed pemn, anUlor, or 
danor, a iluty of 1 per cent, is diarged if tlie net nrcMint valuo is under 
£300 1 if £200 and under £300, 1| per cent. ; £300 and under £400, 
2 per cent. ; £400 and nnder £700, 3 per ooot. ; £700 and under 
£1,000, 3J per cent ; £1,000 and under £2,000, 4 per cent ; £2,000 
and under £3,000, 5 per cent. ; £3,000 and under £5,000, 6 per cent. ; 
£5,000 and under £10.000. 7 per cent. : £10,000 and under £15,000, 
Spercent.; £15,000 and under £20,000, 9 per oeut ; and £20,000 and 
upwards, 10 per c«nL J 

K'utcm AwitrtUM. — No pn>bat« or lucceaiioD dntiH an l«vied in 
this colony. 

ramWMia-— Tlie Probate Duties Act of 1868 (32 Vic. No. I), auwntwl 
to on the HUi September, rept-nled the Kuuceiuion Duly .\ct .laJ" 
inipnxud duties on prubateti <>f wills and letters of administration. Ttu 
duty is levied on the net value of the pereonal estate of the teelat 
or intestate. Where the amount is under £100 no duty is payable] 
wbcrv it is £100 and not more than £500 the duty is 2 per cent. ; 



I 



k 










r 

f 



pBOBA.li: akd succession duties. 369 

wbere it is £500 and iipwarfs the duty is S per cent. IJIe polidea 
are «]c«i)i|)l from (ASatton. 

jVrtr ^rti/ai«/.~The DL>c<iased pprBons EsUUw Dutiw Act iif 18ftl 
(45 Vic, X<), H), wliicli Wfts assented to on tlie 24th September, anil 
otnio intj) force on thn 1st Octobrr folKiwing, rpprml«l tho Stamp Act 
of ItS7i> nnil Ihfi t^tnmp Act Amenilment Act of IK76 in ko fnr u thvy 
Tplnt«d to tlip lutrs of <luty pk^ble on the eatntcs of deceased persons, 
nud imposixl llie following duti<« on the linnl balance of the real and 
pevsoiiat property left by a testator or inteatate. iiud on Mttlementa of 
jropatty tnkliig eOect after thu death of tJie settlor : — 

N«t«xccediDg£IOO _ Nil. 

Ov«r £100 and iinilcr £1,000 S per cent, 

Otw £0.0«I— 

On Urat £1,000 » „ ^ „ 

Ou iem:iiiii1ur... S ,, 

On evvry ailditiQual £5,000 («< part th«reof] up to 
rMI.000- 

On fint lulditioDia XJi.ODO (or part thereof) 4 „ 

On Mcond ,, „ „ & „ 

On third „ .. „ S „ 

On avory >4(lltlnniij £10,000 [or p*rt tliarcnf) nn to 
£^0,000— 

On lint idaitionul £10,00O(or part thcrror) 7 .. 

Ou atcDud „ „ „ S ,, 

On third „ „ ,. „ 

On any Mce» over £30.000 10 „ 

It wait [Hovidfd that no duty ghould be payablo on property passing 
ab«olut«ty into the poHncssion of tho ^t-idow of the deceased, and that 
only hAlf-r»t«8 should bo payable on property acquired by the children 
and grand-children of the testator or iut«state. It was furtlier provided 
that in the oute <if property in whiuh the widow of the deceoseil acquired 
a lifn iiit«T«itt or annuity which would be ditnini.'^lK.-d by the paymont 
of duty upon the estate, Kucti payment should bi; ilelayed until the death 
of tho willow, or until shn murrioil agnin if by her second ninrringe she 
would forfeit her interest in the property ; but in any such case in which 
the interest of the widow of the deceased would be diminished by the 
payment of duty, it was o|>eii to the admiiiifltrutor of the estate to pay 
duty duriat; her lifetime, and secure to ht.-r suuh an ubatemeni, nut 
«xcnetling 50 per iri-nt. of the amount, as might be a^i'ued upuri. 

By the Amendment Act of ISS.'i (49 Vic, Niv 'Jl) somn impiirtwit 
altvrntiona in tho liiw wi-re niadu. The wonl "uhililrcn," wlio had \m:n 
gt«nt^ the privilege of paying halfratrM on propnrty derived from the 
eflt«t« of th«ir deceasetl father, was deli ned as including step-children. 
The applicatioD of tho Act was extended to property madi^ over by 
deed ei gift taking efTect during tlie lifetime of the donor, and not being 
prt^ierty graoted before and in consideration of marriage, or in favour 
of a bvtufjide parvbnser or enounihrancer in return for valuable con- 
•ideration. Aa property paasing absolutely into the ])OS3esBion of the 

2a 



b^ 



I 

* 

i 



37Q PUBLIC FIKANCE. 

triilovr on Uie ileftUi ol her busb&ud was «s«mptiMJ horn ihf. ptiytaent t)S 
duty, HO wiu Kuch nti cxiMnptiiui m.-wle n])|>liuiibl(! tn propitny pAwing 
ftbiwlutoly into Lhn [K!«»<!ssion of the wiil[>wnr nn tbt (Iratli of hm wife. 
Tho praviaion of tb« ]Hinci|Ml Act in rv^rd tn the suKpeosion of ]«/- 
BieDt of diitr in th* ««>• of an mtato in which the widow of the 
decMuwd dorired ft Ufc< intoivsl vm n^MBlsd, and i( ww prorided thai 
in the ease of property in which a U£e eat«t« or interaA is act|uir«l by 
tlie widow on tite deatk of hrr huiil>Bjiul, or tiy th» wtdowpr on the dcata 
of bin wife, payment of duly nhculd be imule in onlinnry caantr. if tlw 
jiropurty poxsessiHl a oujiital \M.hin which would gir<! an annual rrtum 
of not less tJiiui £500 if xinesli-cl nt 6 prr ernt., and when th*- pi-oj^rlj 
wnn of lowM' value the widow or wiilowra- vhonld obtain a nihlnd not 
exceeding 50 jlur cent, of the duly. Thr schedule of ilutiea payable under 
the principal Act was repeaW, and tlie following new scale imposed : — 

Not ex^•6«llI'g £100 ,..„ „ „ Kit 

£i<IO ami not cx'^crillng £1,000— 

On firet £100 .. KL 

0» remainder .,,.^,.„„,—^. 2^ jisrosnl. 

Over £1.000 and not «xoeeding £2,000 ._ _ . S| „ 

Over £5.000 aiid up t«£3),D00 _ T .. 

Oil £-^0,000 and upwanl* 10 ,, 

vlth 3 per cent. adJitioiuil in tKe case of sti^angera ia blood, ei 
aduptod diililreu, 

LaRD uit> Ikcomk Taxatiok tx NcwSol-td TCalu, 

The Land and Income Tax Assensnient Aet of ISSJi <&g Vic. \o. 15) 
which ivaa nasented to on Uw 12tli DooenibtT, proridnd (or lli 
tasntioD of boLli land and inoouea. Tho land tax is li-ried on tin 
Bn)nipro\'ed vnlur ; and by tbr Ailing Aot of IKttA (59 Vic No. lfj)i^ 
tfaa tatR \k fixrd nt Id. in tho £ from tho Ht January, 189G. An 
«X9nptten of £2W is nllowrd, and if the untmpropcd valae ■■ 
iamcoen of this sum a deduction equal to the encemptioo ia made, bnt 
when a person or coni|>any hokU soreral bloclcs of land only one auto 
-oi £.U0 may be deduct^'d from the aggregate uniraprovpd vutui^ Abo, 
when a btuulc of land ia niortjcux^d, the mortgu^r in allowed to driinct 
from the amount of his tax a sura which is equal to tlin incoioc tax 
ohar;[«able to the- niortgagm on tlio intr-rrst. derived toon tbe Bior^^kgc 
.of the whole property, iitctmling inijirovrancnts. The azaiaptioins bvai 
taxation crunpriw? <Jrown lundH not subjoct to right of ptmhase, or h«U 
under Kpccial or condilionnl Immo, or as honiestoad sdectMnm ; ulT 
lands vested in Her Majesty or her representatives : lauds T»d«l 
the Itailway Gommissioneia : lands )*e)ougiDt; to ttr veatod in 
authorities: public roiuls, reserwn, p«rle», cwmBleri™, and 
land.i ocmpjed ua pulilic poiindx, or used cxcluKimly for or in ouaiwatMB' 
with public huHpitala, bcnrvolRnt in.-ititutious, and other pablio cbarittOB, 




LAKB AJfD ISCOME TAXATION. 



371 



«Jinrchs« luad dtupels, Cbp UniTersity and iu aiSliAled eoll(^*e<, the 
SyAatj GrwniBkr Sebool, aud meclmiiics' imlitutvii anil sdiuoli of arti ; 
Slid IhuIk (lediant«d to aiid veitMci in lruHtn.-ii und used fur xixilo^cail, 
agricultuml, pajttoral, or borticulluml bIkiw |>urpiwuH, or fi>r other publie 
or Bciontilic pnrpoww. BKould ibu titx n-mnin impnid for n period «f two 
jwis alter it mcoidm duo the (^gmtniHsioiK-ni may, nft«r giving Auother 
jtar'm notice, let th« Innd for n period not exceeding tliree yea.n, or, 
vich the permisBon of « Jndge of the Supreme Coart, sell bo much of it 
M Bwy be neoeaMTjr for the pajmeot of the tax, with fines, coat*, uul 
esperuM added. 

Tbo Aaavtmnent Act of 1800 aUo imposed a lax upon so much of 

every incDnio a* ta^y he in excois of £'^00, vscirjit iti irn fur n* it ix 

4srivad frum th« ownenbip or ane or cullivation uf land upon which 

hod tax is pavnbln ; nnd tin^ rating Act of 1895 (59 Vic No. 1 7) fixed 

&* UBonnt of tlie tax at (hL in t\ia£tmtn thn Ivt Janiiai^, IS^G. The 

ttWDptdoDs includo the revenues of local anthoritics ; the income of life 

MMMBCe nofintiirn and of other sociutioE and cooipanies not carrying ou 

' twiiMB tot pMipOwa of profit or gain, and not beini; income dncivod 

fMoi tuort^^ftm; the dividends and profita of thn Savings Bank of 

Knr Sootti WoIeH Aiid the Post Office S&vinsa Bank ; the fundsonil in- 

on* of rc^iten^d fritmdiy tocivtiea aiul tnidd union.i ; the iiioonie and 

nwmea of all ecclcaiastical, dinritnblv, and educational inatitutions of 

« pidilic dtarwier; and income accmisg to foreign tnvrstors from 

Ootitriunent stock. The regulations provide that in the case of every 

eoDpauy its iocouie shall be taken ha liie income of the company in New 

Snib Wales uud from iuvenlmeiits witliia the colony. PubUe t-ompanies 

•n not allowed Ui« exenijiliou of £200. 



Lako awd Ixcohb Taxation is VicTosrA, 

The land Tax Act of 1877 (41 Via No. 5T5), which was assented 
to on (be lllh October, was paMud with thn obji^ct of biwaking up 
hrgte faoldin)^ For this parpase it wnx dticlnmd tliat all " landed 
OlaMa " should be subject to taxation ; that a " litndetl r'stace " should 
OHMiat of one or more bloclts of land not more than 5 miles apart which 
pgMMsed Ml a;tKn*sul« area of upwiu-ds of G40 acies and a ciipiUl v^ue 
if more than £2,tiQ0 ; Uiat Hitt valuta in uxceim o£ X2,500 xliouUl lis 
taxed at tlis rate of 1 j ptir ount. fu-.r atinuiu, bat that only one oxuinp. 
■ion should bo idlowod to a [)<MW>n or uoiU|iany owning more than 
I " landed estate " ; and that tho aHMnraent of thn capital rnlue of 
(he " landed estate " should lie baned upon Uie arcrage ntiiui>nr of iiho«p 
vfakfa it was estimated to lie able to maintain, iM per acre Wing lixnd 
I tb<^ value of laitd which could carry 2 sheep or more to that area ; 
i per acre if it oouid carry only 1^ ahet-p ; £2 per acre if it could 
tarry only 1 ■h'tep, and XI if it could not luaintoin au avera^ of attlogla 
dneft to the acre 



372 PUBLIC nXANCE. 

Tho IncnmB "IWr Artcf lft95 (r>8 Vic. No. 1,S74), whieh wm usaeotad 
to on the 'J9t!i Juimnry, itnil took clToet from the beginning of that y«r, 
provided for tbo levying of n tnx upon incomos until the «nd of the next 
seisinii of I'Hrliainmt Hfter the \nt Jonuary, 1898, the rat« of tax varj- 
ing nocording to the sonrco wli«uce the incomo is deriTed uid the tas- 
ttblfi niuount of such income. Tfie rates of tax are annually declared l>jr 
n Kjiecial Act of Parliament. For the years 1S9S uud 1696 it wai 
|iiMvi:lMl that on incomes derived from jienonal exertion 4<1. in Uvn £ 
Klioiild bu payablu up to £1,200 ; on evi-ry £ in exooM of tliii sum up to 
£2,300, 6d. ; ant) on evnry £ in iixctwa of X'i,'200, Sd. ; and that double 
these rates should Im pnyabk* on incomo* tho produce of property within 
tho colony. All incomes of and under £200 rncnpa taxation, and tbis 
sum ia exempted in nil cnw« in which the income is higher. lAnd and 
buildings uBi-d by the owner for reaidt-nlinl purposes are regarded u re- 
turning an income of 4 per cent, on the cupital value ; and the tiMXMBe ol 
compimies whose head office is not within the colony ia taken to be aach 
n, proportion of the total divideuda of the company aa the receipta or 
iiKXet^ iiTu) liabilities (as uiity 1>e preacnbed) in Victoria, bear to the toU) 
receipt* or nsxobt and liitbilitieti. The exemptions include tbo inoomc of 
the Utah?, local niithoritii-a, Nivings bn.nks. University of Klelboume and 
affiliated colleges. Working Men's College, schools of mineB, technioal 
achuols, religious tjodies, registered friendly societies, building sodetiM, 
un<l trade unions ; of societies and public bodies not carrying on biuuDCM 
for |iurpi)seti of gain to ^tiareholdera or members ; of mutual life awoi^ 
»nc<! com|)ai)ies whose hetul oCices are iu Australia; of inauranoc com* 
paniea (olner than life) taking out an annual liceiiHu under the Stamps. 
Act; and of mining companies, also suchdividcndsderii'ed from mi ff ii ^ 
oompanien lu mny not Iw in i>xceGs of calls paid up during the yew; 
and income derived by foreign investors from tlio stock of GonmnKOt 
or local bodioB. 



I 



Dividend Tax ik Queejiblaxd, 



m 



There la no land tax in Queenalaiid, and income tax is only collected 
on llie (livideiKlH ileclared by public eompaiiim. Thia duty in lertcd 
under thi? Dividend Duty Act of 1890 (.14 Vic. No. 10). which 
was iieicntcd to on the Ktli November, nnd tO)>k efTect from the 19th 
Keptemb-r previous. The rflto in U. per £ on dividends d«cUt«d 
by id! companies having; their head otKcc or chief place of buaineat in 
Queenxland, provided that when the nperationa of such a «ompMij 
extend beyond the colony duty shall only Iw payable on so uucb of 
the dividends as is proportionate to the a\ erago capital employed vithin 
the colony. In the case of companies which liave not tlioir Iwuid olSoe 
in Que^nKUntl, and which are not cumpauiee carrying on iusnrance 
bmuni-sa only, tlie duty ia payable on ao much of the total dividenda a* is 
proportionate to tho average amount of capital employed in the colony 



LAND ASD INCOME TAXATION. 373 

during tlie year as compared with Ihe tola! avemgs MfHttl of tfao GOin- 
patiy : oih) in the ciu<r nf insui'anci! cnmpnnics duQr IspajlUsfttttie nU 
of 3(H. tor vrary £]00 or part of £100 of ^rosHpicmiums received. An 
exMnption is •llowml in the ciuc of mining companies, tlie t»x of la. per 
£ being pAy«t>)p only on dividends over aiid above tliat>e iipplied to 
repayment of the expenditure actutdly iiicuiTed by tlie company iK-fon; 
the declaration of llie first dividend in respeot o( labour or luutvriiU 
employed in dL-velopiriK tlie mine, and in repuyincnt of thrMtfourthn of 
till! cixit of mauhiiutry LTected for the raixing of orc4 and otlier inatcrialii 
frvm thi? miiH-. 

L.t3iD AJta Imcohr Taxation iir Routr A[TtiTRAi.lA. 

Tho Taxation Act of 1884 f47 and 48 Vic. No. 323), which was 
•amnti^I toon the 14t.h November, provided for the taxation of both 
lukd and imwmen from the 30th June provioua. The land tax was 
m calcalatcd on the uniiuproTed vnlue, the rnte bein^ H- in th« £; 

m irat under the Amendment Act of 1804 (57 and 58 Vic. No. G04) 
W tt additional tax of }d. was levied on every £ in excess of £.^,000, 
■> ukI tli« amount of lax payable hy an alineiitee, who was declared to lie 
pa % person wlio hud been abneiit froTn or re.iidejit out of llio colony for 
fa^ two yL-Hi«, waa ordcrfd to Ijc increoaed by 20 per ci'iit. Tlio «xL-inptioiis 
■■ ki the land tnx conipriiip Crown Injicln which an; not Kubji^-t to any 

t^reeoM^t for khIr or right of purchiuie, park Inodii. public rimdii, public 
ccaieteri<«, and other public reserves, and land used solely for religious 
or ckritAble purposes, or used by any institute under the provisions of 
1^ Iwlitut« Act of 1874. It is provided that an asaessment shall he 
mule evejy throe year«, and that the distribution of the tax shall be 
madi! according to thn projirictary interest hnl<l in tbn buid. It is 
further pinvidctl that if the payment of tho tax ha* been in iirreur for 
> period of two yeai's the tlommissioner miiy, after giving niiothcTr yi'ur'si 
aotice of his intention, lot the JAnd from year to year, and nftnr 
deducting from the rents the amount of lax, with costn itnd expenscH, 
bold (he balance for the benefit of the owner ; or he may oven go so 
U far aa to petition tlie Supreme Court for pemiiaaion to sell so much of 

b the land aa may bo necoasnry for thi; |iitynieiit of the tux and uoals and 

b (xpenMii. 

The income tax imposed by thn Taxation Act of 1884 varied ncc<>nl- 
ikg to the source whence the income was derived. On incomes di-rived 
fimo peraonal exertion th" tax originally (loyable was 3r!. in the £, and 
to iDcon>efl the- produce of property 6d. in the £ ; but under Act US 
•ad 96 Vie. No. 548 the taxation on tmtli sources of income for the 
year 1893 was temporarily itm'eused SO per cent., and for the year 18^3 
(Act 56 and 67 Vic. No, 572), 100 per cent. The furtJier Amendment 
I Aet S7 and 58 Vic No. 604, itsseuted to on the 2Itil December, 1894, 

f permanently nuacd the tax on incomes derived from pcnwual exertion 



I 



J. 



J 



374 



PUBLIC PXXASCB. 



to 4id. in dM jB up to and itudndiiig £800, wm) 6d. for svery X in 
exceas 6f that mm, witk doubU tfacm ntM on incoDiM tlie prodnos of 
property. Ttia origiii&l sum ex«[npt«l from taxation wiw £300, Ini 
lliix v/oA raduL-ed t^ £200 in 1887 by Act 50 and SI Vic. No. 433; 
luid uiukr the Amendmeut Avt of 1895 (5ti and S9 Vic So. 634) H 
via declunil tliut fcr tbo tinandal y«ar endiuK 30tb June, 189fi, th» 
<'XMn]>tod Kiim Khuuld be X120 if the inouiue did not «xcsed £300, whib 
if it oxcoedrd £30U titers iibouUl bo no oxcmption. Under tfan principal 
Act Urn baxiit of taxation wax fixed ns lh« iaeatnv d«rimd front propi.-rtf 
during the preceding ycjvr, and tlic average income derived from frmaai 
^xei'lion during tlie liul throe years ; but the Amondui'^Qt AcC of 1885 
(48 mid 49 Vic. No. 356) placevl the aMcasiuent of the incomos fnu 
penurtml exertion on the »an)e basis as Uiose the prodnoe of property. 
Tlie exemptionti from taxaiion uunipriae lh« inoomas of nmnJcipM oor- 
poratloiui and diatriotcounoiJii; uf cimipanitw, puliUc bodies, and nodeties 
not «arrying on hiiKinewt for purptixcs of gain to bo divided aaian|;M- 
xhurtiholden or niemhc.ni; and of friiindly Hociutita. Land and b«ililin|pi 
ncoipici by tlie owner for rmidwilinl purposo* are taki-n an returning 
an income of b per cent, on tbn cjkpitnl Ta1u«, and thn AmeudnMUt Act 
of lti87 (50 and 51 Vic. No. 433) declared tbe incomo of a company 
10 be the produce of property for taxatioii purposes. 



hxXD iSD IXCOUE TaXATIO:T IK TASHAXtA. 



The "Rtmi and Pewonal Estates Duties Act of 1880 (43 Vie. Na IS), 
wliicli waa sAsctitMl to on tbu 2Gtli February, and took elT«ct from tlM 
1st of tlteaameniontli, imposed tnxoton real tstatcandun tbediriilcntls, 
of pnUio conipunifs carrying on Ininineai within the colony. Tbn dntf ' 
payabli! on land and tciicnipnts wn* fixod at 9<i. p«r £ of tba aaMH«|] 
annual Taluc. Wliero the taxnblo property was of amall valui^ bmng' 
aa*c«sed at not more than £20 pi-r year, or was let to weekly or monthly 
tenanta, whom it would havo Ijuen imposaibia to hold reaponable for tlw 
tax, or wliero thu builduii^ were let out in aparlmenta and it would hsT* 
been inconvmiiitnt bi diatribut« tlm (ax over tlio variona tcnanta, bba 
owner vim loukrd to for payment in thu ttrat inttanoe ; but with tlisM 
exoejitionH the tax was pnynbin by tlia occupier, who had the right to 
cl^ni from the landlord if ho did nr>t nn'n tlio propi^rty hiniwilf. If the 
property went mortgagod, Iho mortgagor wnc called upon to pay tbo full 
atnonnt of the tax, but waa entitled to rfKOv«r from the mortgigae tbo 
pmportion payable on the som advanced on the mortgage^ and voder tha 
Aniendment Act of 1881 (45 Vic Ko. 1 1 ) he waa empowered to deduct 
I proportion fnmi thn interest due to the nxirtgagee aad hand otdy the 

Janoo over. Tlin nUtte which was exenipled from taxation commtod 
of property bnlonHiing t<> municipal corpomtionM ; cliurcbna and other 
bnildingsunidtolrly for public worahip; public «chi>ols under the Board 
of Education ; public libraries and muscuiDR ; hospitals, baiwnhot 



I 



d 



LAKD AND IKCOUE TAXATION. 



375 



•nrhuttiL, and oUi«r buiblinKii nseil solely for charitable purpowa ; the 
public tfHnlvnii nt TAuncrstnii atul blw ^unlous of the Buval Socit^ty at 
Hobart ; anil tnnd hcM uiiditr Icahu or liccncu iH*u»d unrtur tbi! WomU 
IjtndB Act, tlin UoUl FM:l<ts Kc^l&tioa Act gf IHV}, aiul Lh« MiiMntl 
Usdi Act of I«i77. 

Tbea0 daties on ml eatitte contiiiiied tn opemlion uDtil thpy ir«re 
aboliidicd by the land Tax Act of 1888 (53 Vic. No. Al), whicb w«s 
■MWited Ui *>ft tliv IGlh October, aud impoBed ik tax oi Ad. in the X 
«n tlt» total cupita] value oi land- unlma il wen" the property of a 
■mniapal coruoratimi or otbcr local autboritif, or of a re^Ulen.-d friendly 
WaaiAj : or it wem the rcu of it Stato .ichool under lli« EducutioD 
Dkpvtfnent, a, poblic library or iiiitii-aiii, tho TaKmaniitn Stiumim, a 
ko^ntol or benevolent u^luin or otbcr buil<)in^U!!»lEoIdyforchantabte 
•r religioiM porpoBcs, or vested in trust for public purposes ; or it coo- 
■Bted of public roAd^, or of oemeteried which wero not owned by joint- 
Kock or public cooipaiiieii. or of public reserves, f^rdeiis, and recreation 
ffoumlit. Crown landii held on lease wei-e also exempted from taxation, 
Mt if Lbey luul been purohaaed on oreilit the ocoupier was retjuirHl to 
pay fax, and by tlm Amendinmit Act <if l^ilS (.OS Vic, N<i. 27) tlia tax 
wait d4M>lanHl ti> tit- payable an such laiiilK only nfter one-balf of tlin 
prioo hiul bei-n [uii<l or had brcomc dan. Thc\ prini^ipnl Act d(icli>n:d tliat 
lbs value of lain! siihjt'ct to taxation Hhoiild bo ««scj«ci1 cTrry thrno 
jma, but tJiie Ameodnient Act of 1890 (54 Vic. No. 24) provided that 
• freiih aneasment iKhonld be made whenever I^rlitknient might authorise 
it to be done. The owner of the land waa looked to diretrlly fur tlie 
uaoant of the tax, unlcM he residi-tl out of the colony or could not b(^ 
(ooixt, in wliich awe tho nncupirr bi'c^n.mn rRxpon]iil>Ic, but wa» albwei] 
ladccluct the ium from tho amount of his rpnt. The CommiiMionor wo» 
gi*aD jiovcr to let tho land if th« tax reiuainecl unpaid six months after 
It becuno due, or. with the approval of a Judge of the Supreme Court, 
to sell it if the tax remained unpaid for two yeAra; and it was provided 
llwt ebe baUnoe of the prooeeds, after the maount of the tax. with oo«t« 
aad expenaaa^ bftd been dedaet««t, should be bandetl over to the owner 
it tlie rentw) jiroperty or the oriiiinal owner of the pr»p»rly which hod 
been aold. (Jndnr tho princi]ial Act tbo mortgagor of any land was 
atlowpd to deduct fmm the int4-n»ib due to the mort^ngoo auch a propor- 
tion of the amount of tax an the Ktim advanced on the mortgage bor9 to 
tiw AMramd capital value of tlie land : but in 1^93, when an Income 
TuL Act bad been passed in the colony, it was pro; ided by Act 59 Vie. 
So, 21 tliat the owner of any latid subjei't tu mortga;^' might deduct 
from the amutint of tax payable to the Btuto imi'-atxtti of a penny for 
•very £ adTaiiucd on such uiortgiigev whilo tltn nwrtgagce woj rencbod 
by tbo inoome (ax. For fivm years and n half from the 1st JanuAfy, 
I&69, tl»e rati! of land tax mux Jd. per X of asse.'Wnd capital value, but 
on the iKt Jnly, If'94 (under Act 56 Vic. No. 2) the tax was raised to 
1<1. in the £, at which it remains, 



i 



376 



PUBLIC- PIKANCE^ 



Thn Ux on the dividtmiU t>( pnliUo oonpilBiMi. iridob vru [mpoAed hj 
the Kmt nTid Pcmoniil E.itntcK Ehitifs Act cf 1880^ was lixi-il al dil. in 
thn £. It wn-i providiid tlidt ooiniHinii-H wbnaa head olKci'4 wcrr 
ouUidc tlir colony nhonld pny duty uii did dividcndx accruing to shnrp- 
hoUicrs on the Tftsnuiuinn register, while If there wero no Bliar*holdMfl j 
residing in die colony, or if the ftntount uf the dividends Mcming to the { 
Taainatiian shareliolders did not reach £50, the company diould he 
Uiibje U> pay this sum, and if the divideixla nccruin|> to &\ich ahareholckn 
ahould Itt- I'M-r £50 and not luon- lh«n £100, ibe coui)^<aiiy Kbould be 
liubli> to pny tbc stun of £!00. Thui provitiioii onKiuully iipp!i<xl to all 
fiimgn cumpaniat ; but thi? Am«ndinpnt Act of 1880 (44 \ ic Nol IS) 
miidi! nn rj[oc{ition in the cam; nf inmirnnce ccmipuiiiK of «1! kindx, 
which it wriM derided to tax nt the mte of X2 lOx. for «VRTy £100 of 
gi'oM pramiums ix^eeived nitliin the colony, wiib a minimum snm of 
£3S payable to the t^tateand a maximum of £50. Still another change 
was made in 14iiS2, when Act 56 Vic. Nol 12 made the foragoiog 
provision applicable to companies cam-iiig on life buaiueas oaly, and 
imposed a duty of £.'^0, in mldition U> 9d. per £ of ^ro^ diWdends, on 
BTery company efTiM'tins uiiy other form of umuraiK^v wIkwu lirad office 
was in TnJtniania, .and nn cri^ry ntich t^tiinpiiny wIiom' hc«d otficc was 
outside the colony, in lien of the duty of 9d. per £, £2 10*. on pvery 
£100 of net premiums received by the company over and above the bxua 
of £1,500. It was lilcewiM- provided by this Amendment Act that 
btinking companies wboae head oOiceii were not in Taauiuciia should pajj 
9d. per £ on sucli proportion of the tulal di>'td<nid!i declnred hr theS 



companieK as the T&Huiftniun detKieiita held to the totid di-iMKita, and tfaia 
ralr wiia mined to Is. in the £ m \$Si by Act .W Vic. No. 19, 

Witli the cxcirptinn of thn dntieH pnynblc by luuiking and inttmoM 
companins whimr hcjid offices were not in the colony, the taxe« on tb» 
dtvidendn of companies imposed hy the Real ftn<l Personal Duties Act 1 
of ISSO and its Amendment Acts were repealed by tlie Incom« Tax] 
Act of ISM (58 Vic. No. IC). a>Heuted to on tlie :>lsC August, wbicbj 
provided that from the Slut July, 1804, to the 3Ut December, 1897,| 
8d, j>er £ should l™ piiyiible on iucomes derived from pentonal e.xi-rlion, j 
Is. per £ on incimesf thr produco of property, and \n. prr £ <m the' 
pn>fitK of public compnnii's. Tlie chief exemptions were the revenues of 
municipal corporations and other local authorities; incomes of com- 
panies, societies, or public bodies or trusts not carrying on busili6H 
with a view to a dintribution of profits amongst their shareholdera or 
members ; tlie funds and incomes of re;>iatered friendly aocietiea and 
trade unions; income uccruiiiK to foreign iuvestora lu Tauniuiiaii 
'Joveriiineiil slifck : rento f:i)in Iiind sulijeot U> land tax ; incomta of , 
banking and inauranet^ c>m]ianiD.i which havo not their head iithccs in I 
the colony ; and incomeii of jkenonn who hnvc not been re.iident in tba ' 
colony fur at least twelve montlis. Jt wah provided that penona deriv- 
ing income from sources ontsido the colony should not be l&xed in 



LAND AND ISCOME TAXATIOK. 



377 



mpMl of (lio Munn if inoome tAX h«d b««n paid upon tli« money in the 
colony or country whenoe it wm derived. Under llie prinnpal Act all 
inoomm not oxoocding ^l.'iO in amount, wlii'llicr derivi<il from peraonivl 
exertion or from property, were ex«iHpt from taxiilion : on all iiiynnii'd 
«xc«e'ling £1A0 and not exceeding £400, ihn mm of £1*20 ivcnprd 
taxation : and all inooinM ov^r £400 wttro tnxcd tn Ihr full extent. 
But the Amwidmert Act of l.'*9S (59 Vic. No. 20) proridwl that thn 
loregoinK«xwnptiun!iiihi>utd only apply toincomrK derived from jjersomvl 
oxertion ; uad tlmt wb^re the money was tiie produce of property 
incom«)i not «xce<idjng £100 in amount sliould lie exempted from taxa- 
tion, while only £S0 should be exempt wlieu the income excevdrd £100 
ftod did not exceed £400. It waa also provided by this Arai^nilnsent 
Act that when the income was diTi^eil from both Hources no tax ^ll(>llId 
be payable if tlie totnl mnount did uot Pxctipd £1^0 and tUe pnrt rinriviHl 
(rom property wax h-sx than £100, nnd that an exemption of £190 »ihoul<l 
be KlJownd if tJic Uiiid income wax in cxcCM of £1.'>U but did not exceed 
X400, and tlio sum dcrlveil from property was loss than £100, 



Lasd asd Inco»k Tasatiov i."i New Zealand, 

The [dnd and Income Tax Assessment Act of 1891 (54 and 65 Vic 
Ho, IS}, which was assented to on the 8th September, repealed the 
Ptoperty ABSetsment Act o( 1885 and its Amendment Act of 1886, 
and Imposed a tax upon iiiL-oineit and an ordinary tax u[)Oii land 
ODtl mortf^tKi^ till! amount of irhicti it was prtividc^d .-dmuld lin Gxe^l 
tkanually by it Rntinjc Act ) and also an additjnnni graduated tux 
upon the unimproved vahid of land, the mtes of which were Hxed by 
th«< Astmnment Act. Tho ratn of the ordinary tax upon land and 
mortgapw itt present stnndn at Id. in the £ of capital value. It was 
originally provided that the owner of any land should pay the tax 
oa the actual value of his land and ini|iroveinentji thereon, and also 
on the value of uny i]iortgaj,^s which he might hold iivvr other land, 
lot the Talue of i m pro v laments up to £H,000, and of any mortgage 
which might bo oning on hi.< land. If, then, thii ni't valuii did not 
exwed £1,300, nn exemption of ^500 was allowed, hut for r^cry X'J hy 
which th*i not value cxcerdwl the sum of £1,^00 the tixemption of £500 
wiu redDC«d by £1, so that wiien iho value reached the sum of £2.S00 
Ibere was no exemption ».l alL An impoi'taut alteration was made in 
Itm by Act 07 Vic. No. 33, which exempted all improveuienta. leaving 
only the unimproved value of tlie land euhject to the ordinary tax. A 
fnrther exemption to that already mentionisl wiis provided hy thn prin- 
cipal Act in tile ca^c of land owned and mortgugi^ held by pentoiiit 
iacaiMcilAted by age, ill-health, or other cause from earning further 
iOMKne from businem or employment, the exemption of £500 being 
niaed (o £3,000 if the annual income produceil by the land nnd mort- 
ga^es did not amount to a larger sum th^ti j£120, afterwards raised to 




PUBLIC FIKA»CS» 



.£-200 Ih- ihe Amendment Act of 18!>2 (56 Vic. No. M). MortgagM 
an! tr«&teil «s IhdiL, aud lli« holder is allowed Uie exentplioa of £300 
fniDi the oriiiniiry tax. 

Tint gmilunUMi Inod tax ia iuipo«ed oa all land pooKSMinit •■ 
unimpTOTod nUno of £5,000 and ii|iwarUH, lui tai|>ortaiit differenoe 
lHitwc«n tbo two taxea bmng tliat lliv mortgagee ampes tlie gradn- 
at«<l tax, and no dnluction is atlowiKl to tbo mtn-tgn^r in i-otu^dna' 
tiDn of any Bum which may b« lulv&ncftd on th« pnopvrtv. Tb» 
principal Act provided that nn na onimproved valuo of Xli.OOO and 
under £10,000. ^. per £ should be payable ; on £10,000 and under 
£20,000, id. per £ ; £20.000 *nd under £30,000, jd. ; £30.000 and 
und^r £40,000, Ad. ; £40.000 and under £S0.000, W. ; £50,000 and 
under £70,000, id. ; £70,000 and mid.?r £90,000, jd. ; £90,000 and 
uiid.^r £110,000. Id.; £1 10,000 <u>d umler £130,000, lj|d.: £)3C^0O0 
niid undrr £150,000, l^tl. ) £lf)0,000 and under £170,000, l}d. ; 
£170,000 and under £190,000, Ud. ; £190.000 and nndnr £210,000, 
I !id. : and £210,000 and oirer, Ifd. per £ ; and it was furtbor provided 
that an absentee, who was declared to bo a person who had been absent 
from or neideat out of the colony for a period of throe yean or more, 
should pay a xradoated lax of 30 per cent, additional to (be schedule 
fatML Thaae rat«i, liownver, w«ra aboli.ihcd bv the Amendmant Act uf 
1893 (57 Vic No. 33), and th<^ fi>ltn«ing schralulo Hubxtitutnd :— £.'>,000 
and under £10,000, ^1. per £ ; £10,000 and uwlcr £15,000, Jd. 
£1.1,000 and under £i;0,Q00, Jd. ; £20,000 and under £35,000, , d. 
£3S.000 ami under £30.000, ^d. : £30.000 and under £40.000, '■ d. 
£40.000 and under £50.000. |d. ; £60.000 and under £70,000, d. 
£70,000a«d under £90,000, Ij^. ; £90.000 iind nnder£U0,0OO. Ijd- 
£110,000 and under £130,000, l^d : £1.^0,000 and under £130,000, 
lU; £130,000 and un<W £170,000, Hd. ; £170,000 and under 
£l90,000, ijd. ; £190,000 nnd und^r £l>l6,000, IJd.; and £210.000 
ami orcr, 2d, jier £. 

It was originally providoil that returns of land and mortgage* sboilld 
be made annually by companies and trienniolly by person^ but oadar 
the Amendment Act of 1894 {H Vic. Na 65) such rabuaB mml 
now be mode biennially in both oaaee^ PurnliaMrs of Cmwn lands 
on oTodit am liablu tu taxation, and the owner of a leaaebold itttemt 
in land ia Habin to taxutimi in rF!i(M-ct of the vnluo uf nnch inlrnst. 
It wan declared by the principal Act that the cxcinptianK to the land 
tax nhould cnmprin; Crown lands ; lanils vmted in tii« Itnilway Com- 
nii}»ionrni(theltailwayComini8sionha8nowbeenabolished)andin local 
governing bodies ; land used solely in connection with a place of wonUp 
or a place of reudence for the clerpiy of any religious bmly, or in eonne^ 
tion with public sehoola cHtablitdial under the Education Act of 1877, 
or willi any otlw^r aohool not carried on exclusively for gain or profit^ 
but the maxiuiuni area of land exempted for the purpoaes of any sdMiol 
carried on tor prolit is 15 acrm; tbosit« of a univonity or college, or 



LAND ASD IXCOlkLE TAXATION. 



379 



iitcorpora(«d by anj Act or OrdiiuuHie, or tbe Bite of a publiu 
ry, uthoueum, mechanica' instjtutv, or school of mines : a pablic 
crmAtnr or buiutl-Knnml ; the ground or jiliiuu of mnrting of uny ngri- 
culninil Kociviy, firuviiliKl it be the properU' of such sociiity ; tho plnco 
of iiiM-liii}; uf ft frii^iUy sociclT nr Miuonic lodge, or of a rcgist«rod 
building Rc>ci«ty ; Innil us«i fur tin- purponcs of pnhliochnritftblkingtjta- 
tioDs oonstitntol uiwler tbe Hospitals ivad Ch/u'itable InvtitutioiLi Act, 
and of otberchariublo inBtitniioiia not cairiod on for gun or profit '. public 
gsrdeDit, domftiiw, or recreation oi- other public reaerves not occupied by 
k tenant. Mid all public roada aud streets ; land uwued ftud occupied by 
Mw>riii, and iiol teuaed to or ovaujiied bv any ]>cnDn otlier Uiaii tlni 
Maori owiwr ; and any public mtlvray, induditig Uin land occupied and 
DMcl tvt pi^niuuicnt way and for j'iidU, atnttoiui, and nhiulii, and nil 
boildinpi u»ccl for ttn! purpnora of railway trnDic only. Fiirtber 
exemption" laid down by thr Amendment Act ot 189U (S6 Vic. Na 54) 
comprise all land ownm] and mortgages hold by any friondly society 
witbin tli« meuung of the Act ; all land owned and niortgagea held by 
may sanngs bank oonstitut«<d under tlie Savings Bank Act of 1868 ; oU 
land bvned anil niortga^-UH held by lliu Coutmiiisionera of SiiikJn;; l-'unds 
anii«r tlxt Public D^btA Sinkin); Funds Act of 1868, or by tli« tmiitiH'jt 
of any local autbority whtmn rcvmiios are exempt from twoition ; uxl 
^^U moHgagca held by or on behalf of any charitable inatitntion. 
^^b Still anotiwr exffinption was provided for by tho Amendment Act of 
P^695(&9 Vic. No. 70), namely, all land owned and niort gages held by or 
era behal t of any religious body, tlie proceeds of whieU jajid and mart^-a||^ 
ore der(i4«d to the support of aged or intlnu miuisters, or of iridowa ur 
orpban cbildreu of inini*t«nL tt wan aUo declared by tliia Ainuiulninnt 

K't that nativf! Ian<[ iHx:u])ii!d by ntiy other person than the Maori 
ncr shoulrt lift subj<!Pt tji one-half of the orJinnry land tax in respect 
the Maori landowner's intCTTSt thrrein, while being exempt from tho 
iclvat«d tax, and that nil motlgagrMi held by or in trust for Maoria 
mid be Itablo to tho payineiil of ordinary land tax. Mortgages held 
by liiuiking companiea are reacht^d by tbe income tax ; and the Amend* 
mrot Act of !8S3{57 Vic. Nck 33) cKtiupted land owned and mbrtgHgea 
^lielil by luiy registered building ajcirty frma taxation, tho prollta derived 
^^By iNi-mb''ni U'iii^ aubject to income tax. The principal Act ^vc th« 
^^Bammi^sioncrfor Taxation power to puri^lia.sR at the returned valui', with 
^^■0 per cent, added, land which seemc4 U> him to be undervalued ; but 
P^y tho Amendment Act of 1892 the Commissioner is required in such a 
uuic to give notice to the owner, within twelve months of the lugning of 
tbe a«M9Mameul mil, that he must increase the value of the land to thft 
cam placed u|Hin it by the taxation authorities. If the owner ta not 
willing to incTMUH! the value to tlie Mum notilled by the Comniiasioner, 
be may appeal to the Kraudent Magistrate to asHcas the value ; but 
■booUl lie n^^ithcr adopt this coarve nor consent to tlie Commissionera 
nlaaiiun within thirty days, the Commi;iaianer may racommend that 



38o 



PUBLIC PINASCE. 



Uu) (>overnnn«nt should pnrchniio tlu- land nt tbo nttuniRt valn« plm 
10 per (Wat. Ou th« other hanJ. if the owner is not mtts&ed with the 
V«lae at which the laTid has be«n asties^ed, whether by th« BimH of 
R«view or not, he n>*y call u|tou the Couiiul!«iouer to reiluci* llit ^atua* 
tioii to K oertain sura or to purokaw the land at this prioe. 

T)i« income tax is payable u|>on income di^nvetl froui nupluyuient aud 
from buninniK, including invcslnifiitu otlier tlmn tlioHe in mortjiagRi of 
land, upon whit^h onlinaty land tax ix levied. An exemption of £'iO0 
is allowed to every person domiciled in thn colony, thin concaarion lutving 
been withdrawn from nbcrntoos by tho Amendment Act of 1893 {57 
Vic. So. 33) : hut no exmnption is allowed to a public company. The 
r«te of tAS is 6d. in the £ on the firat taxable £1.000, and ta. oii e^erj 
additional £, except in the cn«e of public companies, which jiay Is. pi-r 
£ oil the whole atun. The income of public companies a deciared to be 
the amount of dividends earned, sums carried to reaierve fund, tuul any 
other profita tniwle or incomt; derived by »uch cimipMiira. To thi» pro- 
viaion cxct-jition is mniU in the cnxc of bankin^i compajiicji. iniwraDioe 
oompaiiiiw, Nliippiiig ccmpiinies, and limn, building, and investment 
companic-Jt. It wuh nriginnlly provided that linnkinf oompnnies should 
be taxed upon the incoiim derived from niortgngen ; out by the Amend- 
tnent Act of I8H3 (57 Via No. 33) it was decided that tlieir income 
should not be osstased at Ipss tlmn £10,000 ; and by the Am<-n<1mcQt 
Act of 1894 (58 Vic. N(\ G-'i) it whs declared thnt even- banking 
company thould be a&-<p.ised for income tax at the mto of 7%. Cd. per £100j 
of the avornge of the tnlnl liabitttie* and assets for the foar (|uarter8< 
of tho preceding year. Thn shareholders of ionn, building, and invejii 
ment companies are personalty taxed upon tho amount of income derived 
from such societies. The regulations issued in March, 1893, declare 
that a person or company engaged in business as the owner or cliartenr 
of fehipping shall be aasessed upon tlie income derived from auch boiincsa 
curried on in New Zealand and with plaeen beyond the colony; and 
that when the head office of u pumm or company engngod in micb 
buiineRS is outAidn the colony th« ngcnr shntl be liiil>t<> to tiio paymwc of 
inoomc tax on .'i jx-.r cent, of tho niceiptu from tin- cnrriagn of pMWOgers, 
sooda, and live Ktocic shipped at New ZeeJand ports. It is also pro\'ided 
by these regulations that the income of every insurance company shall 
be taken as the income derived from business carried on in llie colony, 
and bvm investments within the colony other than tJiose iu land and in 
mortga^s of land. The exemptions to the income tux provided by thi> 
principal Act comprine the revenues of any county council, borough 
council, town board, rood iKmnl, linrbour Ixmn!, public univnndty, public 
achool, educAtion tioixrd, school counniniioncRi, licensing committee, and 
Bv<!ry other local authority receiving re\-enue of any kind for the pur- 
poses of or in relation to locnl Kolf-govemment ; the income of friendly 
societies and building societies, and of all public bodies and soeietini not 
canTiag on business for purposes o! gain to be divided awongxt (he 



i 





■ 


■ 


^1 




^H 




^^^^^1 


^^M 


LAND AND INOOUE TAXATION. 381 

tlutnbolders or meuiliera ; and incoiae derired Lij- Uio owner or occupipr 
fram any land on whidi Uuid tax u [layable, ami from iuiirtgiigi>« of ituch 
land. Bj tbe AmeDdment Act of \B'J'2 thu incoiniMif any ntvingn bonk 
conxtitutiH) und(.-r thi- f!aviti)i:« Bunk Act of lHi>(i, and thit incomo of any 
pabtio churitnlili! iiiKtiUition, wi-rr iiIko cxomjiti'd. AUo, n-hcn a person 
occupict for piirpONos of business or employ mctit 1fui<l on wbicb he paya 
laod tax, ttc^ i« allowed to deduct from his incoma n «um etfia.] [0 5 per 
cant, on tli« amount on which ho in liable to pay land lax- 

Und«r the Amendment Act of 1 892 (5G Vic. ft 0. 64) il was provided 
tfaai income derived from the piixf eja of sales of goods by an affent 
acting ou behalf of a priuciiial outside the colony should be subject to 
incotne tax. This was found to place agents with a place of business 
■t a disatlvants^ cntnjiared with coiumercial travctlei-s, and accordingly 
an Aincndmi^t Act (5D Vic. Xo. 7U) was pussctl in liii>5, making il 
■mpenttivv thai a person who doc.i not n^aide permanently in thi; 
colony, and who oftVrs or exposes goodt for sale or disposition by sample 
or othcrvisT, ihull take out an annual license, the fee for which is fixed 
bj* regulation at £50. 

Revksvk krom Direct Taxatiox. 

the (otiowuig table shows the amount of revenue received from tlie 
rarioaa sources of direct taxation during the year 1895-6. It must be 
bomc in mimi that at rpgard.s New South Wales neither land nor income 
lax was pTopfirly payable during the year — the income tax shown wait 
)niil in ailvanoe : — 


CWonj-. 


BUup Dutirs. 


Lwid 
Ih. 


Trnxmie 
Tiuu 


Dividend 
Th. 


To:il. 


Pmlatc. 


other. 


Xvr South Wales 


£ 
136,060 

148,432 

27,984 

34.066 

4,380 


£ 
183.241 

172.918 

72.068 

28,388 

43,668 


£ 
127.17s 

75,207 

49.8S3 
•'J7l,4flO 


£ 
27.658 

163,0M8 
83,261 

48,628 

92,778 


£ 
S3,033 

2.286 


£ 

616,618 

IS3,0W! 
331.015 
43,668 
Il»,3(>* 
e78.2» 








WeiterD Awtnlia 




313.902 




1,179,514 


523.808 


413.310 


S5,319 


2.176.067 




* Inulodliw £U from ytvpntj ^V^ ^| 



i82 



TimiUC FIHAKCS. 



Luso Retesuk. 

The prnctico of trakting nx Dixlinnr)- rvvmue money derived from tin 
mlc uia occupntion of Crown l&ntU obtninii in nil tbo colotues, &ud tlis 
money so ndsed forms oqo of tlio Inr^nxt itcmK of their income. Th6 
propri«tf of so doing is open to grnvc doubt, hut the arEumrnt uxnl it 
its juntili cation is that the sums so obtained havr cncUrd thf Gore 
inent oitber to construct works, wkicli hoth enhimco the vmln« of 
r^inuiiiin;; public limdK ami facilitnte settlement, or to endow tnanH _ 
palilieii, and Uius vnable lli'tm lo carry out local works. Tlio revenna 
from land nalw b declining yiiar by ynar, butli absoluti-ly and a^oompaKd 
with population. In Ni-w Soulli ^^■llll5l and South AualnUia the bJUng' 
off has l>cen most noticenblfi : in thi- formw colony the revenue (rora 
thin source is now some £l,;S25,QO0 Irwi than was tlit- cawia 1881, whila^ 
in South Australia tlie revenue from land Bales i« aiidrr £30,000. 

Adopting the dM-iston of land revenue into ri-cdpl* from uIm i 
receipts from oeuu[iatiou, tbo following table shows tlic incoroo fa 
1881 :— 



Olony. 



Tote] Ldaii ILflviafh 



MMlM. 



Oteum- 
Um,£c.. 






Tul«[. 



Lwid B«io(iu> per tmiL 



AUCUMI 

Kill] uLllDf 



o( jiln. 



Hun. 
ufOrawn 



TtM.: 



New South WaUa 

Victoria „..., 

QuMn*Unil 

Houth An(tnlia..._ 

Westom AastratU 

TftswMiia 

Vew Zealand 



2,483,338 



Austral* fla 



£ ■. d. £ «L d. £ 1. d. 



701,2?8 i:i5.llM 



3:i:.<iS] 12,820.069; 3 4 11 l> 8 10; 



43s,ee4 

SfiLHH 

8,T»0 

37.209 

37MI» 

1,691.573 



1811. sy:i 
ev.oi'j 

»4.a95 
39,4& 
174,4 



' N3(i,4TOI m 4 3 

r.'j2,.vj: 2 ij « 17 

7IS.5iri6 2 S 9 7 

40.445 S It I 3 

76,756 6 e fl 

e30.M0 liv 4 ; 



1,00^441^.687,113 



I 14 2 



S 13 g 

U 19 S 

2 17 U 

2 16 

I 7 e 

13 3 

1 2 t 



7 4' 2 1 



I 



UomparPfl with 1S81, tlie land revenue for 1895-fi shuwxa largedccltai 
in all amounting to£1.994,693. The falling-offis fonnd entindy in th 
uaount of revenue from sales, that derived from renU tiavii^g largeJy 
incroaud. However, ;;eii(!ra[ remarks applicable to all the colonies can 
scftmly he made. New 8»utli Waleti olrtaiiLed £2.4ti3,33{( from land 
solex in 1881, out of a total of X-I,G91,G72 for all the colonies, or mow 
than one-half ; while from occupation it,i revenu« »'as X337,C51 outol 
^1,005,441. or little mom tlian om- third. In 18il^6 tJienTenueol thd 
colour from sale* amounted to i^l,I'>^(.:!3')— still a lar^ amount, ba^ 
£l,33&,103 short of the receipts of li^isi. In re^rd to oocuiiation, a 





KETEXUE FROM PUBUC ESTATE. 



dUFuniut condition of tbingn » iliscJoKctL TIm n>cHpt« in "Sriw 8oalli 
W»l6B during l«95-6 totalled £tU>9,961, or nn incrcme of i^^2.310 aa 
conpsred witli l&^l, and amountiitg to luwrly one^lialf of tlie total 
for AualralABJA. The following ai-e the Gguree (or IS95-G for all tb« 
cotoues:^ 



ottar^ 



TdM Luid Baniiw. 






TaUL 



Und lUtMiu pa bead. 



Prom 

*nd al]i*r 

«l 
dI 



tlnO, Ao, 

of CrawD 

lUldlL 



TWO. 



X*w tkMtli WaJn 

Ttotocia 

QModand 

StmOi AmtmlU .... 

VTauni Anstndl*. 

He* ZMlMd .^.. 



£ 

I,1S8.S3S 
S96.517 
I6!i.0O6 
4&.9ti' 
S9.40g 
SS,234 
128,571 



AunnbMft 1,012.938 



8S8.M1 12,018,106 

3»G.IC>l! 554.1li7 

l;6.2fls' 222.2M 

61.468 1J3,S76 

23,037! SI. 271 

195,102 291,673 



£ B, d. £ ii.ll. 



l,78S.4>a a. 702.420 



IS s 
5 



U S 

1 11 



7 4 U Ifl 9 

It 71 (1 S 10 

IT 8J IS B 

41 3 6 S 11 

3 8 4 



!> I) 



S ft 17 (I 



^^1 



In nil the (xilonies, Nfw South Wnif.^ nnd Victoria f xcoplod, a general 
ikiDg fund is eslnblisVirnl to auitil in tlie rtuitMoptiou of public loans 
on Diaturity. The draimbility of such a fund is on all Hides ndniittMl, 
■nd a jMirlion of the jiroceeds of lauds sales could with ad'i'aiitage be 
«l apirt from the jjeneraJ revenue mid devoted to lliis purpoxo. 
Viotflna iIcuU with a jM>rtior of tUtr jirocLMids from the wile of Crown 
land* Kpart from the gpneral ri'Vi>iim>, by upftropi'iuting about i!IO0,OOI> 
dmnblc ^m thnt hooivc to the crrdit of the Hailway Conotructiott 
Accoont. 



HCAIM or KxpBNmTiTRK. 

Th^i amount disbursed by the <Joverniaent of New South Wales is far 
htger tiian that cxpeuded by any otlier colony of the ^roup; in lUe kat 
finaneiAl year it exL'L-eded ihitt of Victoria Ijy £3,062,630, arxd was ooly 
jE£72,339 Inm tlian thi^ utiitod ex pel uli tare of Kew ZiuiUiid, Qucrds- 
laad, Dod South AuKiralin. Tliis in cliicdy otvtng tu lli« large i'xt«:il 
cf Mttivd territory iu llic colony, and tlie system of cctttralisation 



384 



PUBLIC riKANCB. 



alreaily r^erred to, Birlow will lie f<iuncl n GUttcntrnt of the 
ture of euch colony during the fiscal year 1K95-6 ;^- 



(Mmr- 


■ml 
TnHuoarL 


PoiU 

gnptai. 


Publla 
In- 

■Cnwtlon. 


InUMt 
MM. 


pcpdinuaLi. 


!l(n> South Walct 

Vp,:»or!» 


l.S8«,TIKI 

l,t9t,l>IS 

M4,9IK 

T<i,«n 


£ 
T40,IM 

tBe,2;D 
ttun.tui 

1W,M1 
Bl,«7« 

1.11 ,aiu 


£ 
TM,MI3 

uo.wa 
wi.aji 

tUi.lM 


9.SI<II,7W 

l.MI.UI 

l*«,n« 


l.llt.tlX 
TU.IM 

I9B.IM 

i.iTi.n; 


< 
Mtun 

tJKJM 
















e.Ma.su 


3,t4>.l3£ 


j.aoe.ati 


8.704 j«M 


lu.SIO.«i7 


ta.tat.Doo 



It wiU be seen from tlio foregoing statement tliat 19-3 p«F «ent of | 
tbe whole expenditure is for working (he railways of the oolooieft--* 
tertioe not utiderlakeu by the State iit the United Kingdou} Ami the 
Uuit«d Slnles, Posts aud Telegraphs iib§orb 7 i per cent, while Public 
InHtruction account! for 7-6 per cent, aud iiilermt »u the Public Debt, 
300 \K--r cent. 

Adopting the clASsilicEition of ex|ieii(liture usml in the propcding tabl^ 
the amouiitii per inhabitant of each province are given below. It may be 
here mentioned that in New South Wule«, and to some extent in South 
Australia and Western Australia, the tramways are the property of Umi 
Btute, and are under the game managemoat as the railways, with which 
they are Ineluded In the various statunienU in this iiub-chapt«r relating 
to roveiiuu and exjienditure : — 



OolODf- 









Public 
liiatrutUnra. 



InUrm 

l-nbrM 
Dabl. 



Alt 



ToU 



New South Wale*,, 
Vlctariik 

ljllCCIUltftll<] , , 

l^ioutli A II a India...,, 
WvhUtii Australia,. 

TaBiiiani.i 

New Zoalanil 

.AoBtrslaiia 



£ B. d. 

1 !) tl 

1 4 a 

1 6 

1 )3 11 

2 a 7 

15 2 

1 1 5 



£ m. d. 

U 11 8 

H <! 

la 11 

11 1 

1 1 s 
7 fl 
9 « 



£ ■, d. 

12 II 

u n 

9 8 

B G 

S 3 





4 II 

12 1 



ltt;0 10 TO 10 5215291 6 1$ 



£ ■. d. 
1 in 11 
1 13 l> 
IS 10 

la 1 

5 
4 

8 A 



S 
3 

1 14 

2 1 



£ ». il. 
3 4 2 
I 10 10 
S 8 6 

2 3 
IS 10 

4 II 



S 

e 

1 

I 13 S 



7 14 » 

5 IS S 

7 U II 

7 7 B 

tl 10 S. 

4 14 11 

a a ij 



Till- moHt nnnarkable fi<ature in the gi^nitrtd expendttnre cf 
Austi-alnNiun colonies in the largrncss of the amount raqoind tO 
interest on the public debt, l>oth in r<^igard to the rBt« per fae*d 
the proportion of total revenue thus hypothecated. The proportioil 
for AuKtralaaia is fully 30 per cent, ot the total expenditure, oti 



CHARGES ON PUBLIC DEBT. 



38s 



^3 1b. 5d. per head of iKipulmtion, while tfa» itctaki expenditure for 
each oolony daring 1S9IU6 wu im shown below : — 







Oalonr. 


ZUUI. 


Vnbma 
of 

PoffulaClnrL 


Toul 
EjipcDditurik 




£ 

2,360,799 

I,9SI,636 

1.286.M1 

MS. 702 

174.27H 

328,HH1 


£■.<!. 
1 16 11 

1 13 S 

2 15 10 
2 13 1 

1 U 5 
S 1 4 

2 8 5 


prr ctrnt. 
23-88 




30 'U 




36-06 




35-93 




1*-3S 




43-91 




38-71 








8,7U.0SZ 


S 1 S 


30-00 







The amounu given Bre actual payments made daring the finftucial 
ytar, sad do not Kproseat tbe ititurest liabilities of that period, tint 
axammta of whi«h will \iv fuuud on pa^ 392. 

A i^iuiual kI"!!!-'^ kt the ligui-es quoted will li-tid colour to the BOggCBtioo 

voinRtitncs liaxurded tliat lh« colcitiies an- too rapidly mortgaging tbeir 

raaoums, nod that tha cx[>i>:imi »f the puhlio dtht will prove 11 greater 

bnrtheo thtin can ckxily be borne However truer this may be Sfl tw M 

■n; individual colony is concerned, it in certainly citodgous aa regards 

tb* whole of Anxtraltuia. Out of the siuu of .£8,764,053 required to pay 

iatoreat and charges on the public debt during 1895-li, £3,GG5,344 wait 

dinotly reooujted by the net revenue from public railways; whilti 

»(it«r tujtply and sewerage yielded a further sum of £356,254, making 

* total 01' £4,021,598. Besides tliis, there is a large indirect revenue 

otiUined by each of the colonies from the opening up of its public lands, 

ud from the construction of breakwaters, lighthouHes, bridges, imd 

(thw worlcH of public utility. But even tlicsp advantages might have 

ben bongfat at too high a price if production had not conespoudiiigly 

ririDced. FortuuateJy such lias been tbe case, as will be Been from the 

ctttpten in this Toloiae wliich deaJ with the leading it«ins of Austral- 

uiau production. 

AdJITSTBD SeVBNOR AMD ExPENDtTl'RG. 

The form in which the public aooonnta of the colonies are presented 
bu lr:d to ft great deal of miicconception rrgnrdiitg tin- actual rniuiremcntK 
of the vartoiui <.>ovemmi'ntH for public piirpoxcK. Nor hnx it been 
P<mA^ to do other than follow that form in the foregoing pages, as 
Atherwiw the figoTM quoted would di&r from the various Treasury 
2 B 



386 



f PBLIC PINANCE. 



slittonienU, And adil (innthfr ^l^ancnt of confturion ; n^TR^tIlf^l^sx, tt 
would Ijr wrll buforo closing tho remarks on this Ijnuich of Public 
Fiimnco to tiinkn a, sepai'stion of th« items of r«v«nue Mid eX|x>nditiirv 
according to liio principles which sliould govern the presentktiou of die 
public ftccounta. This is i-f^cled by treating the servica wbtdi »rt 
generally re(;ardnl aa uuteiidt! lUt functions of the oentrftl tioveramaU, 
Ek&mely, tuUvravH and tntinwayn, nnd wmtcr supply atu) nevrerB^ u 
Butt«ra apuri from thi; grnnnil ivct^ipU nnd expcndittirr, and onlj 
<treiliting tbu Htntc witli C<h» niirpliix from, «ir ticbiting it with tbe 
toA of tiiou: xcTvicr-ii, nftcr d^^lucting working «xp«ru>ca «nd uakiiif 
allowaiicR for intcrr^t on tho inTo§t«d capital. Po8t« mkI tolegrapli 
Kftvc not been oicluded, as th^v are ini\tt«'ra of goTernm«ntAl admintttt»- 
tion in Dearly all couulrieM. Tbi.' adjusted revenue for the year 1895-( 
will be found below ; — 



CtAoaj, 




Net R«vaRtiii 
from 


Totd 
wljatud 
li«Teinw 


TvtOtmm 




£ 
£,884,915 
S,SIW.S93 
3,588.801 
1.487,814 
1,000,772 
«)fl,2J53 
3,216.471 


£ 


£ 
n,fi24.9IB 
3,SS»,-i!l3 
3.588,891 
1,487.814 
1,089,621 
aOfl.253 
3.216,471 


£ ■. d 

4 It S 






3 E 1 






5 13 1 






4 3 1 




19,S4S 


10 1.1 a 




3 16 ' 






4 12 6 










18,600.409 


19,B49 


18,716.258 


4 8 G 



It will be soMi tli&t th& only colony which obtained a revenuie from 
these iwrvicv.s during 1893 -C, aftiT working ei]>euse8 and iolerest on 
capital had been allowtnl fur, wax Weatcm Australia — a poaitioit ttu« to 
the incrcftjted tralSc on tbo railway lines loadiiij; to the goldfirldx. Ths 
next table shows the a<Ijuste(l expenditure : — 2 



OalonT. 


Kxptndltur*, 

fuliulliu 
ttnvlaK* 


Bxpontfltun on 


TMd 
EtpmlUun. 






s 

e.]fi7.514 
3.883.800 
2.1fi7.6a8 
I,3fi8,2.s2 
8fi3,2l!) 
468, 1S3 
2.944,267 


£ 
.101,833 
STT.WS 
3i7.M7 
174.990 

1^,045 
933.4)3 


£ 
6,459,347 
4.9S1.796 
2.5I&.2U 
I,IM3.27i 
863,218 
506,2^8 
3.167,700 


< a. 4. 
B 1 1 
3 IS 3 




5 S 3 
4 < 4 




8 10 8 




3 14 11 




4 11 1 








17,8S3.0?2 


1.553.746 


19,<06.8IS 


4 11 8 







* lUUnyk, IrKutkjK w*lci mpplf *ail KW«r*c*i 





lie figures jiict givna show th&t the actual cost of govemDitmt is 
Buteriatly less in the colonies than would appear from tbe ordinary 
Ktement of nrentie luid expenditure. 



Position op Rbtestje Accocntsi. 

he following tabl« has been compiled with the v\6xr of showing tiie 
1 jif tlie Revenue Account of each colony at the close of the iuat 
tjwar. It wit) be iteen tliat live of the colonies Imve Urge over- 
''fivfta, whicb ure {inrtly ctLsh luiil fiftrtly in the form of tretuiury billn, 
tad that to eitablifili thn nrcctuuiry e<iuilibriun) between income and 
Vttgo a iTstriotml expenditure tiy futnre administrations will bo 
tb»>lat«Iy necesMiy. For Tfuimiinin tbe figures refer to the end of the 
j«»r 1895; for Kew Zealand, to the .'llRt 3Ini-cL. 1^96 : and for the 
«tfa«r five coloni««, to the 30th June, 1596. Tbe tiguies given in the 
kat column of the t«ble i-eprcaent the aecumuiuted lieficieiicy at thetie 
dues. It is very iirceiuiary that thin fact should be borne in mind, as it 
dften happeiui that the oniciat statements of tbe coluiues show only Uin 
<aali ovomran, the amount rcpresentdl by oubrtanding treasury bills 
Mug omitted from consideratioQ : — 




Colni}-. 



Ci. B*liiioo. 



DC, IWuim. 



Ovardnft 
liaoMltalb; 

Trem*iiry 
UilJt. 



C#ih 

nrintnil. 



ToU! 
Dr. liulanct. 



ITnr Sooth WsIm, 

TI*ftris 

QMRHlud 

S«rthAwUali>.... 
V((tara AmtriJis 

T^fmsnia 

Sm Ztaluul 

Total,... 



357, 132 



313,004 
21G,5S8 



884,755 



£ 

2,e2:,cM 

71,000 
S10,22S 



2,0o;i,G75 
2a 1, 5172 

105,H)3 



*39S,1&* 



442,103 



£ 

2,270,432 

2,744.941 

292,972 

1,2M.728 

840,237 



4,687,329 3,073,153 7.403,350 



Tnmury milt and l^oaA tnioritiBd HtocV. 



It will be BM-n tliiit lor the colony of New South Wales the tablu 
an overdraft of X2,627,&8i wliidi luui been li^uiduled by 




388 



PUBLIC FINANCB. 



TrooKniy tnllt, while at the tainn lime thit ivtoqik! account liad i 
balance of £357,132 at the cIom of the tinancial yrv. This » 
plained by the fact that tlic (iovrmmcnt have decided not to Bpi 
thU credit balauco to tho redeiuption of any part of the outetatiial 
bilU, wtiiuli were issued to cov«t deticieucies of previous years, bat] 
devoid X333,2d6 to the coitalmction of works and the payment 01 
spiTciid subsidy tu aiunicipulilii.-i>. ;iiid tu hold the balaoctt — X23,836^ 
Btupante a^aiiist i>ulBta.iiding Hikbtliliea of IS95 and previoiu yean. 1 
reference to the SouUi AuNtmliui cajilt ovenlmft of X405,3O3, it tt 
be expluned that this is obtnitnui by a credit balance uf £1 1,468 ) 
^e colony proper, and n debit balnnct! of X4I6,97X fi>r the Noctbt 
Territory. 

Th« condition of cbe rercnne accouata of New Soulh Wales a 
Victoria needs further explanation. In the former colony Land W 
rMutnetl in 1889 for the purpose uf faeil)t«tlng certain iiu pro veiDcni 
coDiieciiou with a street facing the General Pust-offioe, Sydney, 
vBa dvtcnnin«d that the Hum |Mud for resnroption thoold not be 
am » matter of onlinnry ex]ienditurc, but he held in siupenie pending 
mtle of the land resumed, or bo much of it oa was not nreded for 
fbrtaation of the PoatofBce atroet. AitoDicr reenmptios of land by 
GovominiMit of New South Wales was autlioriaed by the Centei]^ 
Celebration Act of 1887, which provided for the nciiuiaitiou of a Injl 
area of land, clone to Sydney, fur the fonualioii of a public pari; I 
Gommenionite the centenary uf the colony. Of the itma sa Mtjaiif 
640 acre* yrorc to be set aside for the [inric, and the renuundcr w»s! 
be cold, and the proceeds placed ngninst thp expenditure. So far I 
ealcH have been rfiected, nnd in 1S94 the payments on account of t 
fomintion of the park were transferred from the Conaoli<lated Beven 
Fund Account to a special nuBpoiiao account. On tlie 30th JoiM^ 18t 
the debit balance of the Centennial Park Account wua £224,374, 4 
of the G&neral Pont-ofEce New Street ReHuniption Acuoont, £469,2^ 
neither of which amountH is inc!u<l«l in the aoorc tables In Victotf 
alao, certain public workn were undertaken nn the nnderKtanding CI 
the cart should bo defmycd from the procoods of the tale of certi 
landn speciticnlly set npart for the purpose. Theao works have M 
constructed, but tho saIc8 have fallen ^lort to the extent of £465,39 
Mid this sura has been placed to a suspense Account, which is like«l 
occluded from the debit b>iliuicu f,'iven above. 

Uie practice of issuing treiuury billn for the purpose of liquidating 
overdraft, whidi is illustrated by the nbgve tjibte, obtains in all I 
cdoniea, the bills being in this re»]>cet somewhat like tho excbeqt 
lulU iscuod by the British Tniosury. This, however, is the only pa 
ol resembloDCO between tbe two. The liritisli exche<)uer bills b 
interest at a nvte which is ^xed from year to year, luid at tli« i 
of every twelve months the holder has the option of retaining then 
preeeniing them at the Treasory for payment. Tbc? wn, tWefc 






REVESrE ACCOCNTS. 



reulIlT sal«iU)le, and are used vith great freedom in commercuU traus- 
actiaiia, for, as will be seen, tbey combine the two advantages of rmwiy 
money *ii(! money bearing intereat. Tlte treasury bills of Hmo colunicti, 
on the oUier hand, are only payable nt the TrcaBury on tJio txjiiry of 
ttic pnriod for wliich ttiey are issui^, and tlicy cnrxT interest nt a lixod 
t»t*i during tlin wliolis term of currency ; consequently tlii-y arc not used 
to any extent in cnmmerce. The nearsst approach to th" Ilrirish systctu 
■Mms to prevail in New Zealand. TrpMury bills arc generally regarded 
U unfunded or Hoating debt, and until wiped ofF form part of the public 



Tbcst Fuxds. 

It may bo pointed out here that all the Goremmenta in AustraJaaia 
liokl sumxin Lruit, cither directly ur itulirectly. In KomeimttunceH these 
snnu nro ooniuderable, and are found tixtri-mcty ui«ful in iidju.iting the 
finance^ forming n Ktrgng reserve which a (tovcrnment is ahle to uxo in 
tiatiog 0»er tomporary difficulties. It is, however, v^rj- ijnestionahle 
wbetlier tbo txiinenco of a large balance out of which a noc«Rsitous 
Ikcasarer cui make advances to an ovei-drawn revenue or loans account, 
if dninil>l& In piLKt years it hui: Iisl to much rxtriivaKaii(« tliat a 
!n«a«iiT-r forced to rely on the logitiniuti! revrnuo of the country wuuld 
hav« bnen compclleil to avoid. Several colonies have seen thi.-', luid in 
}tew Zealand and South Auntralia public trustees have been appointed 
to control Tru»it I''unds in the bands of the Oovemment : but in the 
«thar colfmi«s tlieee funds are directly subject to the Treasury. 



Orovth of Fdbuc Dbbt. 

TIm practico of raising money for State piirpoHpM liy means of public 
loans «M begun in lSt2, when New South Wales i^ued debentures 
redeeBMble in two years and bcAring interest at the rat« of S per cent. 
per annum. The sum i'ai8ed-''jE.4r).9O0 — wns devoted to immigration 
potpoaee. Hiia, as well as the succeeding loons, nine in number, raised 
prior to 185S, was obtained locally; in the year named, however, New 
Sontli Walea placed on tlie London market the BrsI iiistalin<iit uf a 5 per 
caoC loan for X683,300, which wan ilie first external loan miiieil, and 
tnsy be rightly naid to mark tlie cmnmenccnnent of tho present Aus< 
ttalasian indcbtedncjiK. 

Bo br as meet of tho colonies are concerned, their public debts dat« 
from about tlie time of iheii* assuming the control of tli>.'ir own aflairB; 
tmt Wealetn Australia, which obtained responsible goverrituenl in 1890, 
isenred iiabilitieiti iu London as far 1>ack aa 1872. In tlie cane of that 
oalony, however, tlie granting of Parliamentary government wai unduly 
delayed, ^e following table is intci'esting oa showing the liabilities 




^K~ 


PB 


1 


■ 


■ 


^M 




fei^^^H 




^m 390 PVBLIC FINANCE. 

^H of each of the provinces at the 6a,Ut of its taking di«rge of its owQ J 




^^^1 O:>1on;. 


VtU ot obtilnlnK 


Aoidunl of t>«M H 




^^^^H v.— 


1U3 

INSK) 
ItUio 
18» 


1 

1,306, 7T0 ■ 






taaooo ■ 




Nil ■ 




aiH.ooo V 


^^^^H 


l.WT.+M 1 


^^^^^^H 




Nil 1 


^^^^^B 




Nil 








1 


^^1 Ko fentura of Auatmlasian finance is £0 actontsliing as t)i« growth of 
^^H tbo public iutlebtedii^B, and this fact has formed the graramcii of tho 
^H many intlic^niertti wliic-li have be«D urged ftgxinat the coloiii«3 dnriDg 
^H tlie past few vrani. Tim debts have uDdoubtedly growu at « mui£ 
^H mom rapid pacR than th« populatiou ; but u tim culoiiii-x wun; iu on 
^H pntifBly iiiidpvoloi>i'd state when publin Ijorroyring firrt cinw: into favonr, 
^H tbo more rapid ^owth of their indebtedness as coiitpared with tho 
^H populatiuti wan iii a ni-nae the corollary of the poaitioD taken up by the 
^H various Cijvpniiit<.'iiLs — that tfie Slate should reserve to itself lie con- 
^H HtriiL-iion of railways luid Riiiiilar uudr^rlokin},'!! whii:h in other countriea 
^H are pruNuculed by private ctiU^rpri-su. Ev<'n witli thia explaiiBtion, bom 
^H ever, tliR Gguri-s in tlio following statement nru aufficiuiitly ntriking : — * 


^^H Colurjy, 


iMi. 


ISTL 


1881. 


ISM^ 1 


^H Naw Soutli Wales .„,„ 


£ 
4,0IT,«3O 
e,34fi,060 
70,000 
8e6.«00 
Nil 
Nil 
600. TGI 


£ 

I(),H14,X10 
11,!W*,SiK) 
*,047.S50 
2,lfl7,70O 

Nil 
1,315,200 
8.900,001 


Ki.n^M.oi!* 


. 1 




a2,«e,W; *T MRQII 




n.t96.eoo 

SIl.OOO 

2.003.000 

29,Co9.11[ 


32,44-) .931 




34, SI 6,4^ 




4.T3A..'iiS 




8^447,470 




43,050,;S0 


^H ABttralMia...>r 




1 
1 


ll.SaO.tl51 1 39,010,871 


DA,9G.>.IW2 


223.705,800 


^H The Mnounts for the year 1895-6 ropresent both funded and un- 
^H fundrd debt In round fi^^urea Uie increase from 18S1 to 1871 waa 27 
■ millions ; frmi) 1871 tu ISSl, 67 m ill ions ; and from 1881 to 189^, 127i 
^H millions. It ni u it Iir pointed out that the Ggurea in the last ooliunn' 
^H Rhoir the public indebtedness OS rcpreiii'nt(.-d by outHt&cdiDgdelxrnturesor 
^^ stock ; but tbo real sum is less by tlie Moount of niaking funds in thit ■ 



1 



GROWTH OP PUBLIC DEBT, 



391 



nse of nil tbn colonics cxcrpt New Hoxith Wnles and Victoria, vi&, Nnr 
Zeftl&nd, £l4&,>iOl ; guccRsluM). i:74,0!)G ; South Australia, £200,466; 
Weet«ra Australia. £173,033 ; and Tami&iua, £122,464. 

Th« figuivs showiDg the total ninoiint of tbn dplit of «ach colony 
irouM b« inoomplote without conT'Spondiiig information ivspeotJiig Uie 
<lebt per head of jwpultition. In 1^61 the public debt of AuHtralosia 
■toot) at £9 8a. per inhabitant; in IS71. at £19 ICs. Id.; in 1K81, 
kt £31 Oa. 2d.; while iii 189G it w&a £52 la. id. For «ach colony 
the Sgurm an) as follow : — . 



Cdluu/. IML mi. 


U81. 


lMfr-0. 




£ a. d. 
11 4 n 
n 14 3 
3 0!) 
6 IS H 

Nil. 

KU. 

6 1 4 


£ s. d. 

10 10 
IS l> 11 
X! 6 n 

11 13 7 
Nil. 

12 IS 5 
33 a 9 


£ a. d. 
21 14 8 
25 9 7 
68 7 2 
39 2 1 
17 6 
16 16 10 
&S 4 2 


£ *. d. 
46 5 6 


Victwia ••»•. 


40 3 
GO G 7 
67 19 1 
3S 13 10 


SoaUi Atutnlis...^ 




n2 4 10 
61 4 2 










9 8 


IS 16 4 


34 S 


Si! 1 4 







Of the £223,795.865 which 'ionstitutral tho debt of Auatraluda ld 
1896, £'.il6,0!7,G3S was funded debt iiiised cither aa debcaturcs or aa 
funded or inscribed stock, awl £0.77)^,229 van represt-nUKt by unfuuded 
or floating dcbl. The particuliirs for eacli floloiiy will be found below ; — 





lite*. 


Dobvntun 
Iloridl, 


IiuktIWI 

Ktocli. 


Tnajmry fillJi, 




Colour. 


Vaika. 


III iIJ 
of lUvtfQav. 


ToUI. 


KewSealh Vila.. 
VMori* 

WMnn AMnHa.. 
Xvw^ChIhkI 


aUinr. 1«M 

»jiiD,.uts>a 

lOJaniviaM 
(aJllB(,lSM 

K)jiiB>,uoa 


C 
1I,«4§,8M 

ii,an.eoo 
ii.iTS,t)r» 

l,5M,tT70 


i«,SM.4a) 

SO,M(,0M 

11. fill;. WO 
t.tui.raz 
*,jwi,Mn 

M.TSl.lW 


l.TM,«l)0 

"swoio 


< 
t.«t7.iM 
-M.IMO 
71.000 

IIJ.OM) 


£ 

n.4»,tu 
M.tiaiu 


Anilnklll 




».Me.m7 


iw.4iu.im 


1,1U.1«I 


4,&lt,«0« 


t£t,n»,«a> 





lo ono or two instances iha amount of the bills current in aid of 
r«Tcnuc whidi ia act down iu the above table ditVers somt^wbat from 
itet given on paga 3^7. Tti« IJ^ures thcri> ^ivcu rcpn-sent tho net 
Indebtediies)!, allowanoo being mode fur funds in hand to meet tho biUa 
whea tbcy fall due. 



392 



PUBLIC FISASCE. 



Hie re<lativ« burthen of tbp pnhUc <l«bt of the Tarioiu colonus is not to 
be dvMnuiued only by coin|nniig tbe groM aiDoants with tfae popvIuioB, 
for tii« iut« of ioterMl pajftble moat also be tak«» into conuderatioa. 
Tboa the ;^n«ral *vei«j^ intareiit payable by New South WaJai in 3f2 
per cent., vliite Soutit Auatrmlia pays 4-01 |ier cent., so Ibkl » debt of 
XlOO in tlie tonacr u not more LurtJi<-n»oine than X92 IS*. Id. in the 
lattor oolooy. A more oxact Uuix of conipAriiwn i* outaincd by taking 
tlM intWMt liability, which u sdiown bnlow. Tbo interest givott i> gn 
th« supposition that the (i«bt is outstanding for tJio whole of the ymt 
following the day on which the amounta are made up. Tbe wfaole debt, 
funded and unfunded, has been included : — 



i 



Cnioiv. 



A.m»g» ntt (d InlsMaC 



Funded 
DsbL 



VnfaDdad 



Told. 



Amont of Intern!. 



Anioimt 
LutnliUo. 



InlwWHBk 



New South WalM 

Viot«fia 

QaMualand 

South Au«iralia 

Wfatam Auitralia.,.,. 

Tumania 

Nen-ZcolaDd..... ». 

AuitralAiia 



1 

p«r cent, [per cent. 


percent. 


3-73 


3-53 


3-72 


3-93 


4-33 


3-H 


am 


fW 


3'89 


31» 


4-» 


4-01 


s«a 


4-SO 


3-BO 


S«7 


4-31 


1-88 


SiM 





3-94 


3fl7 


3-SS 


3-87 



£ 

2,313,S92 

l,«73.iM7 

1.960.6*9 

972.126 

iso,m 

33;,G3& 
1,090,002 



8.Q23.M8 



a. d., 
15 11 
II 10] 

13 11 

14 7 
S< 

ej 
a a 



SOS 



In 1884 the nominal rate of intereat on !New South Wales loans wm 
fix^^d at S\ per cent,, at which rate stock to tlie amount of X23,326,20O 
hod heen sold to Juue^ I>^96. Tliin eKotuple wras tiol fuUuwetl by anj 
of the other colonies until 1SS8. wliect Qutwusland Hucw.-uifullr doatwi 
a loan of £3,5'20,00O at tbe reduced mte ; and in 1^69 Victoria, 
South AuKtroliu, To-imaniii, and New Z«alflii<l, in the ordt^r named, went 
viiooeaafiil in iuiuing slnck at a aimilar nriminal rat«. 7'hrougii the 
promuw of the financial crisis, tlie nominal rate for tliom oolonies which 
imud in 1893 was increased to 1 per cent. Jilarly in ike biUowiog yettr, 
however, South Australia and Tasmania a^atu plaoud loons on the 
market at the lower rate. New Zealand, in May, ISSR, w«s the fint 
colony to iMtie a 3 |»ftr cent. luan — im exaiiiplr which was followed hy 
New ikiuth Walen in Dctolurr of thrt snnie year, and by Wi-stcm Australtt 
in Junn, 1896. South Auitralin also has tHued 3 perocnt. stock to tha 
amount of jS639,$00. JUolow will be found theunount of tiie total daU . 



J 



INTEREST FATABLE ON LOANS. 



393 



rMdi nX* of intPrMrt. For N^w Zcolnud the figonM rofor to the 
tUnA, UM, uid for all the otii«r cokmios to the 30th June of 






VkMtta. 



"sr^ 



SonLU 

AuiteiUa-l 



I WMtmm 
tnlib. 



IVuu&dI*- 



Km : 



AMNl. 









FnlBU Dm 


- 








1 

f 

? 

? 

? 


NJM 

OMjm 
mm,m 

MI\tTft 


sCmo 


KMH).«H 


IT.MI.UO 
1.XB.M0 

KD.MO 


M.tcn 




i,'(a;,MO 

MJB7,»I 
t.tMfiCO 


« 

■.na 
■MM 

t»e«a 
UMOMM 


... 


VJH.W 


M,SM.BI 


CKl.Mt S.MT.tm 


*,nt.Ttt 


a,tai4To 


afiK,i» 


ti*,ini.iaa 



t'ntiDiD Dm—TMiuufT KOa. 



UhSm 
1 uEwt 


'mjm 


71.000 


w«.» 


tiiag 


T*.w 




I IW.DH 


mum 


■njm 


t.MMU 


l^«M 




*TW.» 


3— 


i;,at,tu 


K.tUW 


M.BMtt 


i,inan 


MU^no Atei),np 


«&»6,ai» 



UIIk of Kcw Zr*liu)() do not rightly form part oE th« 
I umI iiacli «f tbcso >s wrre oatstuidiiig bavo tLuntor* Iwoii 
I (ram tbe farrgoing statciuont. 



RicDuipno!! or Loa^k. 

*nt eilii«r rKleeoiDd or rsnewed. In tlio fortnfr cman; tli« 

'')' die oblijfaUuuH of thei Stnte to it« public creditors i» rcduc4-d ; 

^'•Uar («we, lliu lUbility remainH tkc' aatiio or is only sliglitiy 

BepaynM-ntt, h'iwe»i-r, am tliiefly uiTccUnl under Uw hf»d of 

ktbeuQounlo' loans ndMriii«<l from nvonue— by HaktD); fund, 

' liiivingg, or diroctly ftt>m tlia geoenl account— b«ing snutlL 

jlP^Miple it Axtingniflbing public dftbt bjr tbo operation of ciitking 

.*^^ utttunl drawings is not general in AuMralwia, and in the 

**Ja ilticfa it has been adopt«d the loans a&bct«d do not miidunt 

L^2^ mo. In the case of sinking funds the moni-y in hold until 

**" ol redemption ; but exactly Uie oppowle courw is f(illow4.-d 

"■ml drawings arc provided, for in audi cases ibe Government 





riKANCB 



retim ti certain amount of itd debencuroH jearly, and thus offects * 
grnilunl cxtinrtion of thi; loan. An atreoUy c^iplaiued, New Zealand, 
CjiicciiHlnnd, South Auslmlin, TaNmania, and WvBleni AutiUalia hava 
sinking funds in oporntion, tho amounts to the civdit uf wliidli will be 
found on page 391. The system of annun) drnwiiigw hiu bixn adopted 
W a veiy limited extent only by New Zealand, New South Wolisi, and 
W«t«ro Australia. 

With tlie fxveiitioD of one or tw.> smaM amounts of pprpettutl or 
inUfriiiinabl*! Ktock, all the AuslraloEUii loans arc redeemable at pr»- 
seribed daicx ; hrncr. Lh<! Oovcmnients freijueiitiy tind thenittlves at the 
iuf'trv of nn lulvrrw market whm they iiru (.•oiuim.-IIihI to raise K lOftQ U> 
pay nli xtock fAlling due. Within the last few rviirt, however, pnctical 
steps have 1m:oii taken liy Victoria, South Aiistrdlin, WpsImti AastndiM, 
and Tasmania to avoid thia disability, the GoTcnimcnls of these coloniu^ 
in their l&te issues, haviiig reserved to themselves tho option of re- 
deemiuff at » miniiiiuiu or a aisxiniuui date, or any interreniog period, 
on giving the iicceseAiy lix or twelve luontJis' uotice. Canada tfaa the 
first of tho Itriti.ih possessions to introduce tJiin principle. 



Dates op IklATiiKi-nr. 



<^^^ 




AusCraUnan loans bare been issued tor lixed periods, and Che am<mnG 
maturing in each year is p\-cn in the following stateueut. No com- 
bined ovt.ion is taken to regulate the raising of toiuui, CAoh colony a'^tiuK 
acoordiiig to tlie exigencies of its (rovernment, regardleas of th« tiniuicial 
condition of its neighbours. TliopUcingof a loan on thi: London markcAi' 
csp-cifdiy if it he for a large amount, genorally romiltA in an all rojg^^ 
fad in tho prices of Australasian stocks, and subsequent i»UM of 4^^^| 
colonies are placed at a disadvantage if the market is approaclisd mH^^I 
it has recovered its tone ; in fact, the colonies have in'this napect alt 
the evils of disinteijration und all the liabilities of federation, without 
any pf the lul vantages which federation would give. It would be tisdesa 
to discusH tho amount falling due in any year, lai^e though it may bCi, 
unless for a period close at hand, as existing conditions will eren*4 
tually Iwcome so intolerable that some chnngn must perforce bo madik 1 
Happily, the amounts to be redeemed during the next decade are mode^l 
rate, and tho fact of heavy obligations requiring to be met in any ranote 
yenr may prove of advantage, as it will simplify negotiations when 
tho time is ripe for the couversiun of Australasian loans into one 
consolidated sloek. Duly ana coliiny — New Zealand — is n( pmwnt 
sysleniatically working willi this end in view, hut .to far it has tr«at«d 
tho (juestion frcim a provincial Htnndfmint only. Thr principle ol 
adopting a minimnm and n maximum dato for repayment has been m 
recently introduced that, in the table now pven, no attempt bss been 
made to specially show the amounts to which it Is applicAblo, the 
of redemption in each case being asauraed to be the more remote d; 



^ 




REDEMPTION OP PUBLIC DEBT. 



395 



U 



Snth 

VtlM. 



rirlDilL 



Qunni- 

Tiqd. 



Bouth 
AuilnlU. 



WCBtfirq 
Aui- 

tnllL 



luviiL 



New 



AuKtrot- 



^VDKD Dm. 



:::: 

:::: 
.... 



r.... 

.... 



OpT.W 
TM.OOO 
tt.tUU 
179,700 
IM,TOO 
W1,MI0 
t!D,90O 

tw,ooo 

l,w»,ii)o 

M,cna 

uw 

tUMt 

i.'t.'ia.ino 
t,ssa.Tm 



lIMMm 



tu.om 



tI],lM 



ai.ttoo 
3,w)6,bi» 



&.4t7,0DI) 






*,w>ii.<m 



nfioafM 



T,m,«t 



s.ou.cia 



I,liW,K>l) 



l!.o;3.6$4 



S,TO4>0O 



S,»XI.O>» 



ClI.DUO 

U»,onn 
1,1(0,000 

«i,oao 

«7,W1) 

<u,ooo 
oi.oou 

W,MO 

TS.tOO 

B7.KKt 

1,037.600 

1^1 .100 

J.lIt.IOO 

eo.w* 

M.ACK) 

M.onn 
ii.ooo 
u.oou 

1.0t)3,SU) 

»,MI6.8(W 
I.ITO.KO 

M.OOO 

m.VM 



300,000 



I.UO.UO 

s.Tu,axi 



M,ona 
Si, WW 

iV.ino 



i.H7a,ora 

ll»,7U 
I,UXI,OOD 



MB,toa 



i(«.eoo 

1W),177 

issiOOt 

17,717 
87.340 

1-it.oi* 

91,100 
bf.Uo 

:t.04u 



100,000 

i,oi»,oba 
»ao,Mo 

sn.obo 



M.DOO 

loH.im 

I.IOI.IOU 

tie.sos 

4«,000 



101.000 

l.obo,OI!ll 
M«,OUU 

u.ooo 

UMM 



ug.nna 

S.iOO 
U.)iOU 



«7,<ioa u.ioo 

.... 29,160,30! 



I.U«,SOO 



B,l!n,JU« 
1,50U.0(W 



o,TM 

tn^Aoo 

011,707 

i.uoe.nx 
3,f7a,Tia 

1.0S0.9M 

3.04>iai 

'i.or.v.wo 

S.OOI^MO 
a41LI74 

las.ioo 

n.OST.HW 

u.i4(Maa 

4,MS,«0 

s,tio,a» 
t.oaMoa 

i.«a(l,-M 

lli»W,OMt 
1.177.300 

ll,!»T,t>)il 
1,U'1,.VKI 
1.405,300 

14,303,100 

«.D3a,aoo 

7.74^70) 

SI,t4£,UI 

M.OOO 

'.1W.S10 
■JV.!\UI,3l>e 

H,7o«,eoa 

1,«70,UUU 
9,llMH,.1nO 

iioi.rsa 

7.000,400 
3,MA,3nO 

trin.w) 

10,587,308 
1,000,000 

iat.im 



031,100 i.ia>.»o 

3.043,610 



HjBi,Sii'te,ii^.n\ i'i,x:3.Mi 



1!V,ttl'i7,^0U 4,T',U,761! K,Ut,t70 13,IM0,:u> j 31 0.01 7,030 



L^Trrditu. l>Kur. (Tf^ttmry OiUt-} 



• ■- ■ 


2.000 
1.760.000 

%a9T,U4 


Oio.ooo 
iio.ooa 

'iM,iM0 


70,000 
1,000 


K41),i36 
300,000 

tw.boo 


11,870 


40,000 
30,000 
(3,000 
60.000 
60.000 




1,800 

1,790,000 

i,iw,ise 

W7,«t0 
60,000 

300,000 

361,000 
1,017,384 


.... 


4,im.loi 


760,000 


71,000 


1,340,3^ 


1I.S10 


113,000 




a,7;t,ifa 


>«U^fi;9B.I73 


17,038,^11 


K,4t4,i)» 


M,:ifl,436 


1.730, D7t 


^44■,470 


(3,000,780 ins.TM.MS 



39^ FCBLIC FINANCE. 



EXPE\'SK8 or NKOOnATIQM. 

From 1855, irhen tho Snt New South Wftlrs loan wm pliw^ on Uw 
London niiu'ket, until tho prtMitt timei, tlio AiistralAaian colonirs h*ve 
obtained from lliia source near^ tie wLolo of the money which ihey 
haiu burrowed. In none of th« proTinces doea the amount of tbe out- 
standing losns locnUy subsoribed form mure than 10 per cttat. of th« 
sum ill which the colony iitkudi iudi-hted. In Xew South Walts the 
total local liorrowingMonlf coinfl toX6,4&0,l73; iiiViflcri*, £3,540,6.1 1 ; 
in giifHTnsliuwl, £2,070,800 ; in Wtmth Australia, £2,381,625; in Wvatcm 
Austrnlia, £ar>,820 ; in Tft«mania, £644,420; and in »w KcaOiuid, 
£4,033,6(<3, Disking altogether a mini of £19,21)7,131, or 8-fi per 
cent, of the total debt of Australasia. Tliia dependence on the Engluh 
murket waa originally due to lack of local capital ; but of late yean^ 
when huch oupital liaa been fairly abundant, the Oovemmeuta have atilt 
turoul to London, whuro the r«l« of interest at which they could borrow 
hai brcn much below what would hare be«n demanded by the Anatraliao 
cnpitnlist. 

Tbe c!)tkrg''ii incidcnttil to the floating of an inicribod Ktock loan ia 
England aro btavr. The chief Mtpense is the atniiip duty of 1 2a 6d. OCT 
cenL iinposed by the British Government on inicrihed fetock, tbe otner 
charges liuing for services rendered. New South Wales, QueenslaiHi, and 
New Zeidand issue their stock through the Bank of Eugland ; the 
London and Westminster Dank acts for Victoria, Western Auntmlia, 
and T.i«mania ; F^outb Australia issues its loana through it* Agmt- 
General inl^ndon; wliilein thecaseof Tasmania also the Agcnt-Grnoral 
is the channel through whom the loans aro placed, hut be hae tJte 
aasiatance of the London and Westminster Bank. 

The cost of negotiation by the ftauk of England is i per cent, cobd- 
minion ; and by tlie London and Westminster BaIU^ \ per cent. 
UrokorngncoHUi \ percent. In addition to them charms and tbe stamp 
duty rrfcrrtsi to above, there has usually to W nilded id. or 5d. per £100 
for incidental ex|>enBes. Tbe cliargcs iinniially nin<le by tiie Itiink of 
England for th" inscription and manngfmcnt of stock and tbe payment 
of the half-yearly dividends are £C00 per million for tho firet len mil- 
lions, £550 for the next lirn, and £500 ))er million for all snbeeouenC 
amounts. Tlie charges of tlie London and Westminster Bank are £500 
per million for llip fiiiit len millions, £450 for a second like aum, and 
jC400 per million for any subnequent amount. From the lat March and 
let May, ISy.'i, tlii>(!ovi?mn»-nlaof New Kouth Wal<™ and Now Zealnod 
respectively oblJiinrd a reduction of charges from thn IJank of England, 
bringing them slightly below tlicee of the l>ondon and Westminster 
Bank. The reduced charges are : — £500 per million for the tir^it ten 
millions, X4I>0 per million for the next five millions, sad £iO0 per 
million for amonnts over £15,000,000. 





^^^n^ 


^M 


^^m COST OF PLACING LOANS. 397 ^| 


■tiieoldfonnofdeWnturellietilauijxtuty impcuscdisSii. 6(1. percent., ^H 


■S50 per latllion. The cxp<.ii<liturf ptTt i^lOU rlebrntiiri's or in- ^H 
K rtodc of thoMi colooiesi for which information is obtAinablc is given ^H 


» ^nl>j(»no(l tftbltt. Tho dobcntan' loans shown nro some of tb« last ^| 


d. It will be seen that the cost of (boating inscribed stock loons is ^H 


greater than that UQd«r tiie debenture sjstem, but the extra ^M 


is iiuiiq)reciablfi when compand with the advantages gaiuecl : — ^H 




«l 


PriDdF^. 


ExpcwM 


^1 


COISoy. 


31 




atr£lW 
DvbtDMt* 


atmetSMtk, ^H 








>» 

x 


luunt. 


AiDOUat. 


MidSMck. 


^1 








£ 


£ •. d. 


H 


^ 


11183 


4 


2,000,000 


11 $ 


Oebeuturek ^H 




ISlffl 


H 


3.500,000 


1 7 10 


loKrilicd. ^H 


^KfbIm 


1891 


»\ 


4.300,000 


1 7 e 


^1 


1893 


i 


2,500,000 


1 a 


^1 


^^^H 


ISM 


H 


»32,IMH> 


1 10 1 


^M 


^" 


1S93 


3 


4, 000,1 NX* 


1 7 10 


^M 


[ 


ISSO 


*i 


■J,tH"H"i/Uin 


17 9i 


pH>>eDture*. ^H 




1801 
1892 


3i 
31 


3.oor.i..xio 1 a 9" 


Insoribed. ^H 


J 


2,(»0,000 


1 3 


( 


1803 


i 


2,107,000 


1 3 


^H 




1881 


t 


! ,osy,w)o 


IB » 


DclieatnnM. ^^| 




1890 


H 


'■^.'zrAjii 


1 8 


tiMcrilied. ^^M 


wd 


1^1 


Si 
Si 


■j,r>oo,«oo 


1 8 2 


^^^H 




I8f)3 


1,182,400 


2 16 8 


^^H 




lS»i> 


3i 


1,250.000 




^^H 




1883 


i 


1,438.500 


9 


Dcbcntura*. ^^M 




1889 


SJ 


1.317,800 


10 1 


Inicribcd. ^^| 




1892 


al 


9K,3(KI 


1 1 2 


^1 




1893 

181U 


3i 


125. 000 
4"J,G0O 






■ 
■ 








1H1I4 


3i 


200,000 




■ 


fc_ 


1S9S 


3i 


311,000 




■ 


^to 


1891 


4 


■250,000 


1 3 6 


^M 


■P 


1892 


4 


400,000 


1 3 7 


■ 


niwlrBlik ... ' 


1S»1 


4 


."MO, 000 


1 a e 


■ 




ISQ.'i 


n 


7.tO,(K)0 


1 3 ; 


■ 




IH% 


3 


7.5O.OO0 




^M 




ISM 


4 


1,000,000 


i)s 


I>«b«itDrM, ^H 




IWW 


3) 


1,000.000 


1 3 G 


lajuribed. ^H 


ia„.„., „... 


1803 


3) 


600.000 


1 3 6 


do. ■ 




lS9t 


4 


1,000.000 


1 3 8 


■ 




1895 


3\ 


-50,000 


1 4 6 


H 


inst Bcrenil loans the expenses have not been stated, ns the ^| 


ation haa not been compute bjr the colony interested. Tho ^| 


kta of expenst:^ on the 1893 Quocnslnnd loan is accounted for ^H 


qr by thff fact that tho amonot was UDderwiitten at the rate i>f ^| 


f cent. 












1 



398 



PUBLIC FIKAXCE. 



QuoTATioifs OP Stock. 

In Another chapter the growth of Auali'alu&iau indebt«duess has be«D 
traced over a period of al>out tvrviiiy'five vtrnrn, uid it Ltu) het-a abovii 
tliftt du!-iiix that tiuiy tiimrly the whole of Um mlvauces made tolbei 
vuriuuH State Goveromeiit.*, Mid novae oun huiuin-d iiiillioiis of private] 
julviinw-s, have bet-n obtainraj in Great Jtritaiii. This c<>nOitii>R oil 
df[ii'n<liuic<! on nxttrrnnl capital for the dov<tlopiDr>nt of thu oounlrj- hu 
on morn than one occasion proved a grc-at danger tn AustratiuiiA, but 
ncvnr to [hn tranip rxt*>iit na during the crisis of 1S92-93, when th« 
withdrawal of confidence on the part of the British iovestor raiased 
widespread confusion ia almost eveiy department of iiidu§tr;, wad 
intense financial unrest, from wliich nome of th« coloniea Imvo not 76! 
recovered, although, as will he seen from thi^ api)euded t&ble, AustnluiAn 
stocks &re now quoted nt satisfactoiy pricmi. 

Thn tmotntions for Colonial stocks in the London markets nt the 
cloieof June, 1892, 1893, 1S91, nnd 1^96 are given below, the price in 
ovpTj" instance being "cum dividend.'' With one exception — Iiidi»— 
the quotations are for loans raised on the swjurity of the local re\-enun 
of th« country borrowing ; in the fnac of Itidin there is iin ItnjX'rial 
guaruntr-e. This ndvnntnge hfis also l>epn extended to some CRnndiao, 
Mauritius, and Ni-w Zealand loans, but these are not <|Ui>t«d in the 
following list. Tn pnasing, it may ho mentioned that the gnaranteie of 
the British (iovemnienl is certainly to the advantage of the depea- 
dcncies to which it has been extended, as in addition to the Mlditlonal 
security afforded, it canii-B the right of trustees in the United Eingiloiu 
to invest trust f imds in the stock — u privilege not extended to Austcnl* 
asian securitiea in gencriil : — 




Coantr)!. 



Clui dt Stock. 



SeDiiiH rri». "lum dirUtwL' 



June. 

lao. 



Juiw, 

isn. 



Joint. I inat, I 

UM. - - ■ 



Atutrslnsia — 
New South Walu 

Victoris 

()u««a>Uiul 

South Auatrftlia.,, 
Wutom Auntcalia 

TuRikniu 

New Zealaod 

Canailn 

Ckpo Colony , 

Ntttal 

India.... 



3J por cent. luscribod 
3| do do 



do 

do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do DobouturM 
do Stocks 



97 

103i 

106 

103^ 

103 

10*1, 

94 i 
lOU 
103 

07i 



93 

99 
lOS 

104 
OSi 
1041 

108 

10s 

SSi 




QCOTATIONS OF COLONIAL SECtTEITIES, 



399 



In order to make the comparisoo between differ&nt afajcla (juit* fair, 
oUier tbin]KS tlinii bare quotations on a ^ven date — L-hiolIy the nccruod 
iat«mtt uiiii tint unexpired currency of the scrip — have to be oon- 
sidwcd. A uniform clatu for tlict jniynient of interest on lonns has not 
been adopt<>ii, jh> that thn amount of interest accrued at the above- 
qnobod dates vttrifi with each loan ; white the dat« on which the loan h 
rapajable is a factor not to ho nrglcctod in ealimatiiig the prtcn of a 
■took. The return obtained by investors from the stock of eacli colony 
on tbe baaa of previous quotations, allowing for intert-at acci-unl and 
redinnntion at jiiir on umturtty, ia f^v^u below. Thu stocks, with tho 
•xoeptum of tlioso of the colony of Kutal, am inMrii>ecI : — 



1 


M 

•s 

1 




S'-o 
If 


5 


Annual Bil1« ot Inicnit |Kr £lm atarllne. 


CwBtrjr. 


m 

m 


(iaJn nr I^uis yurr 


h<.l-l nil 
date ol 




Gnln. 


Loo. 




Utornt, 


M 


¥(913. 


£^d. 


a d. 


n. d. 


Bt. i. 



June, isai. 



SwrSmritiWalM 

TbMrito 

QoHiHtuid 

anih Anitnll* , . 
WiMsni Jiutnllk 
THnunbB r. ...... 

XfwIwUnd 



li 



Guiida 

CtpiOolanj . 

Bu*l 

India 



M'la 

101 -j'J 
100 -°1 
101 ■; a 

101 '13 

lot-oi 

M'lf 
ln.-.»s 
101*56 



3S 

at 
u 

41 

la 

ST 

4« 
SI 
St 



sit 10 
S IS 4 

SIS • 
Sid 
> IS e 

s l> D 

1 Id 11 

Sift 

s n c 
SI3 
i i i 



1 a 
1 a 



I 4 

6"'s 



1 II 

4U 
1 S 

t 

t 1 



d 

1 a 



3 U I 

111 

Sid a 
>ii 1 
sia 11 

>U 10 

su » 

■ 9 9 

s 1 

S16 S 

ltd 



June, IMS. 



n*wl* 

OUMMUnd 

■iiulL Aoalnli* . 
WaMKi Aiulnllk 

Thanut* 

M*<rXMlMid..... 

Ouula 

OaptOslMjF 

HtUi 

iDdU 



p 


MSB 
M-UT 
»7fi 
lin-£3 

«)71 
W(M 

Bt'M 
lOJ-SO 
107 'U 


Kl 
■0 
91 
iS 
41 
Ifi 
M 

4» 

as 


S» 
t « 
4 1) 

a IS 3 
s IS s 

4 S ) 

a lou 

13 4 
JUS 

a tt 4 

SIS 


t s 

« « 

s*'i 
1 I 
6"i 


s"i 
1 a 

4"i 

sid 
B 



S18 8 
* i ± 
4)1 

su I 
a u 

4 ) U 
su 8 

a 4 » 
) s t 
set 

SIT 



40O 



VUBUC FINASCG. 



(MwKUj- 



I 



VcnL 



Arniiul llkia *( Una* rv cm « 




Cain or LMip«r 



tAi. 



<Wn. 



■■ A 



Mf« MhUIi W>lM 
•MUM 

Souh AuHnSk ., 
WITH AmlwHi 

IMnwiU 

KtoXnlui 

L'«nvU ....••.*•< 

Caix Cdku* 

MMil 

lallk 



3 


«« 


■ 


Itt I 


a • 


W«l 


S 


■ » 


1 1 




1«« 


(0 


>u a 






ICb-T* 


41 


XI& ■ 


• ' ■• 




l«« 


«a 


)» ( 


■ ■■■ 




IMV 


i( 


t» 


iPir 




iae« 


u 


a» s 


.»-* 




■»« 


44 


> I > 


BU 




lun 


» 


ana 






l»«T 


B 


au a 


'-■■ 




WM 


M 


J 010 


D a 



I tl 
I II 
] u 
1» 
t ■ 

lU I 



JaM.UML 



AunntlMtt— 
K** Houih WU« 

n»<«j» 

OaHDiUnd 

AalhAuMnlM .. 
Vr««Ura tmiMlH 

T fc Mn i n t* 

rr ■ filial 

CUHla 

gCl™"' 



tl 


lotia 


t> 


a t a 




to T 




idtim 


If 


a e 1 




a a 






114U 


la 


a IB 1 




IB • 






mis 


m 


a s « 




14 1 






in-u 


w 


S 4 11 




n t 






uwa 


11 


sua 




U I 






iie« 


n 


a t s 




IT 4 






1041)0 


u 


a IT a 




a « 






iK-n 


w 


a « a 




a T 






lU-IS 


10 


a 1 




tl 1 






lUW 


It 


a uu 




• a 





Tlie figure* given in Ui« Ia«t column of tbe precMliujt utile ifaov 1 
retntira positioDi of thn vnriotiH sLooka quoUi). An will \» hcb, 
credit of e^oh divisoo at AiiKtrnlasi* wki aoiiicu-lmt betti^r in 1894 i 
in 169:2, nolwitbataoding the tinnDcial piuiic whidi oocumd batv 
thoao dalca. In 1893 tharo was luttumlly n bcAvy fftll, «s 
with tho precAding fMT, in kll Anatnln^ian sccaritiea except tboM 
New Zealand and WMtem Australia. Victorian stock abowexl iha I 
fall -whi(.-h was onlj to be expeo;ed in riew of tbe bot tbat the i 
originnted in tliut colony, and Vi«toriut finances cuteralty were tAi 
low ebb. Thn (Quotation for New XMilond stock nt l)io mtdillo 
1893 wttji tho II11II14! lui thnt of the prticciling year, wliicb aeomcd toi 
to the concluainn tKiit the London markol dtd not conaidn tbo in 
of K«w 2ralAniI to be iionnd tip with thoto of the cohnues on titt i 
land. In L835 a great impravement took place in the prioea of 



PRICES OF COLONIAL SECUB.ITIES. 



401 



colouMM, And the rise )ina since hren well nuiiiitAined, the 
m of AustralitMiun stocks in 1S96 Wing connidrrutily aliove tho 
it 1869. To this general Btatement the only exopptinn is Victoria, 
ilstrate the fluctnatioiis in the prices of colonial scicurilirn, t.ho 
•bt&ined (luring 1893, 1893, 1891, and 1^96 are given below in n, 
|r form than in the pieoeiliug table, and a column showing the 
Bt yielded to iiiveetors in 18S9 ha& been added. During the name 
k British L-onsols were selling at 98^, 97, 99, 101 J, and 113;— 



Oountiy. 




iStfr. 


latz. 


una. 


UM. 


£ ... .1. 


£ t. a. 


£ a. A, 


£ : A. 


3 3 1 


3 14 1 


3 18 B 


3 12 


3 1» 3 


3 15 


4 2 


3 14 7 


3 3 8 


3 16 


4 3 2 


3 15 8 


3 A e 


3 11 I 


3 16 ] 


3 I') 2 




3 16 11 


3 16 


3 9 3 


37a 


3 lit 10 


4 & 11 


3 18 9 


3 10 11 


8 12 


3 12 8 


3 A 1 


3 U I 


3 a >i 


3 4 fi 


3 3 8 


3 4 9 


3 8 


3 5 4 


2 18 2 


3 8 2 


3 15 3 


3 6 4 


3 4 6 


3 16 


3 3 tt 


a 1 7 


3 1 



ISM. 



ioiIaiuI 

Ii Auitrili* . 
tcni Aiutnlia 




£ «. d. 
S 13 S 

2 la 

2 14 

3 IS 
2 3 
S 13 
•2 11 
■2 14 
■2 ■» 

2 3 

3 3 



tv Wkljr the return yielded to the inveator has been connidered. 
'~ ' _ table shows the nveriige prices obtained by thu AuBtral- 
BRUDefltfl tor Bomc of their last issutis, and the ((uotntions for 
I Stocks Id J une, I89G, the latter pricea being, of course, "eic 



OdImv. 



I DaLcot ' Rite 
NcsntUtlon, psr miil 



AnioUTlt nf 
■bus. 



L-ilU'ldfln<i, 



A<«n«a 

|irlcv 
noUfed. j Juui, mn.' 



kuth Wftlca .... 

iiaBd!!!!!!!!!^!!!. 

ftnatiaU*.. 

ra Auitnlia m 



IWI 
1803 

isan 

1N04 
1805 
)90S 
1899 



Si 

4 

34 

H 
H 
H 
3 



£ 

833.M)0 

2,I07,IX» 

1.250,000 

475.600 

750.000 

7ao,ooo 

1,600.000 



£ 
S9'B8 
06-00 

100-01 
90-75 

102-63 
98*) 
93-73 



£ 
108-93 
110-13 

108-86 
lUO-Sd 
111-52 
108-86 
102-34 



ChaBACTEU of ST0(.-K IdSUED. 

lar tJw larger part of Australasian loans is inscribed, and the 
tdhig naueii under the delwuture syaLeui are beinji convertt-il 
lorCbied itock at ijuitikly ax circumstances permit. New Zealand 
2 c 



402 




PTTBLIC FISAXCB. 





wftM the 6r«l eoJoBv to iutroHuw inKoripdon in 1877, io which year ■) 
puuMul th(! GanBoli(lftt«d BUn'k Act, n HHianm mMli- necwoary hy d 
aliolition of tlic Pra^'inciiil CounL-il*. l'R(l<!r ibiti Act the liiilitItU« 
the Vftrinoe proTincm w«m tncrgMl inlD the gMMtrnJ dolit iif tlie ootoq 
and ander the same Act mid its ntncmliiii'nt of 181^4 the (rowmnM 
htu worked svBtooi&tically tn consolidnto tbo debt hjr con< 
and inseripliou, no that lu March, 189o, the whoI« of the pal 
li»bUitiL-« van inacubed. wiih lL« excepuon of £1,671. SM rapi 
by iiv(»?iiture<. TheOonfiulidat<'dStn[>k Act of New Zpitlai)d wiui 
toinDfCPinliw, 1^77: and in AiiK'"*''('J>itye«irlliu riu;K.'riBl Pariii 
jninivt thu Coloiiiul 8l,<H;k Act. whicJi jinividfii for tbi- iiiH^ription 
tmnsi'rr of Colonial stock ntitu-il in tlic Uniti'd Kingdom. Cni 
KtijpK wcn« reqnirod to be takrn Iinforc n ri)]niiy »iid<l tako advantwe i 
the provisionaof the Imperial Acl, Anah-psdy nmntiotipd, NnwZtalan 
passed the nocraaaiy legishition at tlie end of 11477 ; hut Dotfcing w) 
doue by thv olher oolonies until 1^2, wlicn V'icloi'ia and StuUli 
tralta punned Inncribed Stock Act* ; New South Wales and 
pusM-d ximilar le^idfttiiMi in the fbllowtni:; year, Western Am 
]tttjl,BiidTiuimnninin IHH^. It will thtiH Ixi nmii that a gradual 
in the nind« of floating Innnn for public ]>urpi>!icH han hc«a going on 
1877, and the liuie cannot be far disliuU wliiia tlir whole debt of 
oolony will l>e iv'p relented by one claims of »tock. In 1S79, or two yfl 
aft^r paasiii;; ihe CiiiiHolidiitfd Slock At't, New Zealand pW-eiI on' 
tnaHcet a 5 j.er cent loan of £5.000,000 at 97* in the fonn of ilrl 
tMr««.thirMulwmbcrK having thi- option up to Mnroli, l681,of «'3ichiin|_ 
for 4 pr.r pent, inswxibcii stock, at tlinnitnof XlSOof stuck fur Mudi S', 
of (btbdnturpd. 'ITip loan wm xncoc-mfidly floalcd, and withbi cJm> si 
pcriwl X4.47C.00O of the £S,000,000 dcbcntoixs wore Axclui^od 
^.371,200 inscribed ntook at 4 pFrr cent. Thir other ooloniw i 
inaciibed Htoeb loans diurtly aftCT paisinj; the respective Aotfc 

The liiiporuU "Colonial Stock Act, IS?"," as prex-ioiialy in«n< 
□ravldea fur thi; iuHcripLicm and truuKfi-r of >took rained ui the TTi 
Kingdom and for Ktiunp duty to In- lnvicd tliertiou. It olao d<!6i>M 
position of the BritiKJi Gnveninicnt ns iijgnnU Colonial indcbtnt 
and provides tlint every docTinicnt eonnectcd with stock tnu: 
shall hiive printed upon it e. distinct Intimation chat no lialHlily, di 
or inthroct. is incurred by tb« Uriti^h Uoroirinient in respect of 
stock, uideaa the loan in under Imperial guarantee. 

The diffproiit* l)«tw«inn PpRintered and ioacribod stouk is pnclicd 
amall. Transnctlous under tlm fiinni.'r hi-ud are cotilincd to a frw < 
funded xtoi^k lonn.i, I)ebontur<-s nnd iiiMcribMl Ktock form thv princt) 
class of Reonritins. and, as proi-iously pointed out, tlin didxinture foi 
is rapiiily giving way to inscription. Dobentiire <y>ii|n>ns 
ordinary mrip, negotiable Ity bearer, and are liable to the 
forgery. By inschption Uie jiosiii bill ties of fraud Iti transfer t 
UtMd, as iht .ilook i> iiuoribsd in the buoka of the bank, and i 



CHABACTEE OF STOCK ISSrED. 



403 



«U* 'tfaerctD br tbv stoch-hol(l«ii« prrannaJly or bjr Ukoir attorneys, 
Tithoat tlie issue of cmificatcs of stock. In tlie case of ragistered 
stock, ceTttftcates are issned InLnsfcraltle bj (l«ed. 

Tli« practice of iaauint; ireasury bills, either ill antiuipatioii of or tu Dialed 
good d«ficd«aiciMt in revenue, obttuus in tturh eoluny. aod, as jiivviouHly 
expUined, in mi old-turtabliiliedeuctoiii ; but trtuuiary liilln huvo bcini timde 
to nerve Rnothc-T pnrpocHS and nianey baa bcnii ruisi^l by th«ir rale to 
meet onrtain obligiitinnK for public -wnrkx. 'I'hin k an innovation wliicb 
«(m]d not wpll boa^-oidmd in thp diiitiirlicil fnarbotJi of the last few yeara. 
Xhe billK nns in reality ordinary inans with Bliort currencies, and carry 
a bi^iBr i*te of inteimt tbaa wmiea of the funded debt~ The uoiuitiK- 
iKtorj siAte of Australaoftii finanoe does »ot allow oC Hit- ulisulutti 
redemption of these bills ; uonaoiuently tlit-y will f ithi>r liavu to bi; 
njiewed or cooverted into slock, au opcnition whicli will ttntail an 
additianul i-xprnditurL' to the cliargps 01 first iifgotiiitinn. The New 
Zealanil tn-aiury bilk art isnued dirc'ct by the Treasury nt par, aiid the 
nfOBMO* of negotiation are Kinall. Tim bills arc uRUally rcdccnicd 
<||DU^ tJieyparof i«njf-,Bn(l for this reaBon tbcyhnvn not bi^en included 
«itli orconridered n^ part of tlie j-ulilic debt of New Zealnnii. though 
ib thA case of the other colomeH trea-iury bills have been »o mvludi^d. 
Anatraloiiiiui ti-eaHory biitn btl- like th(-> liritiHli treaoury bilU in nam» 
oily, \mt they have some points in common with the Hritiiih exchr^uei' 
tnlja. 



COKVEBSIQX AMD CoXHO NIDATION OF TiOA?l8. 

CoDveraion and conaolidation ah applied to loans are not int^ircbange- 
^e t«rtn9s ''ut ropTMcnt tw<. distinct transactions in so far reUted that 
tntlioat convf-nnon consolidation would be impracticable. All tli« 
calanies are systematicAlly converting,' their old loans into iiuurribed 
MOcic, Wkd by so doing tliey are tuking a Ht«p towards consolidation. 
Since tbfl Consolid;tt«d Stock Act waa pa.iMed in 1S7T. New Zeudand 
!■« been aof^fied in couvertinx its old loun.i into inHcribed iitock, and 
enwoUdalin^ tlie whole debt by adopting two uniform intr^mat rateN of 
4 and 3^ pnr cant, and fixing thc> dntcM of maturity at l'J'29 and lOlO 
rtapectivoly. The trnnxnctionH in conversion and conxoliilation id New 
ZealAod from 1S77 to SUt March, I89fi, were as t'otlow :~ 



AnHMnlokl 


Addflloniil 
t^jiilal alldsd W 

li; Coiivenliiii 
« OBBBllfUIlnn, 


Sew Slnck iHued. 


DtVonnrm 
bniitisl 


KomtnsI Rau of 


AniolinL ' DkU: Dt Motiirit). 


t £ 

I9,;24.'100 1. £00.902 


i per cent. 
31 „ 


c 

21.32S.a03 
a,4G0,.'Tl 


193e 
19tO 



404 



PUBLIC FINANCE. 



Tlic londing of ttic principal T>y conversion appears heavy ; but Xew 
Zetilaii'l was smKIIcd witli a niimixT of sniall loans, nmcb aft«r the t^pe 
'>f municipal Iiorrou'iLi<,'s, which it was most desiraltle aluHilcl l>u con- 
Roliduted williout iMay, ntid name sacriQce was iu&<1« ta accoin]>liHh Uiii ; 
bosideB, tbt! compeiiaiilioii oblaiiied in a lower rat* of intenuiL miict be 
Ktit aguiiiat thi! incri-nned cupituL The annual MiTinff in inU'rnt on (be 
tiniount conviTtci) to the 31xt M»r<rli, 1896, in itaU-d nt i:irt<),644, vk, 
£101>,1I-I on till- -I per cent., and i:S7,r)30 on th« 3^ per cent. Stock. 
Tli« cubjet^t of the New Zealand conTcrsion is a larg« one, and inquiwn 
should coiiisult tliR publications of the (iovernment of that colouy, which 
give details that would hardlj- be in place in a volume aucU ati this. 



ISBUBS DP LOjLNS AMD TrKASDHV BlLLfl. 

As ]at« as the year 1890 tho colonics could borrow iu LoDdoa on 
very favourable terras, but in the year named the conditions wen no 
longer Hatisfiu'tory. This change had for ita immediate cause a condition 
of tliingH nut of Australasia's own creation, tjie Bariii;; failure and the 
Ai-gvnliiie crisis Ijeiiig primarily res|(onsibli> for the nloppagc of Aus- 
ti'alasin.n credit ; but there is no n.-ivsonablc k'^oi'"'' for suppoang 
that if the Baring fnilure hod not taki-n jilnco the London markets 
would have been iiiucli longer <)piin to the AustrnlAsian colonies The 
TreaKurerii of the vnriouji provinces wei-c entirely unprepared for tliii 
rtivulsiuu in credit. They were committed to engagements for the con- 
KtructioM of public works which they could not l*rmiuale ; contract* 
had been entered into for large >uma on the assumption that fundt 
would be available ; besides thin, no preparations had been made to mc«t 
del)entur«r« falling due in a, short time. The sudden stoppage of credit 
;jreatly embarrassed the Governments, and most of the colooiee bsd 
recourse to treasury bills to enabln timm to adjust their fimknoes to 
the altered eircumHtnnces, The amounts received from the *ale of tbMe 
bill* weie devoted to meeting loanK maturing, and providing funds for 
public works alreiidy contracted for. Pri'SMiiig necetuilirs and the 
improvi-d condition ef the London market encouraged wtveral of the 
coloniw durinji 1893 and 1894 to place oriliimry loan iiMiuesi, which were 
successfully ripgotiutvU ; and tlie proc<f<!« of tlif.-ui toani relieved the 
liabititie* on matured Ireusury bitts and current nhligations. In 1R95, 
tlie credit of the Australasian colonies was fully re-establiabed in 
London. 

A'mc Soaih Wide*.— In 1892 and 1893 the Treasury had authority 
issue ^63,000,000 of 4 per cent, funded sloak at a niiniinum j>ri'3n of par. 
Up to the 8th May, IS94. when thi- stock waa withdrawn, .£2,345,780 
had been dispowd of. Tim ccot of the iwruc was practically niL In 
October, 1893, an inacrilwd stock loan woa floated in London, the rate oC 



"■■■ 



d 




LATEST LOAX ISSTTE8. 



iatoraet being 4 [>er cent., aiut the ciinvnc^r forty yrnre. Tlio minunum 
price wsHlixt^ at 9&}, and till- nvrriif^}>nccr(-nliK(xl was £100 lli;. 10}<1. 
The mti' piiid hjr the Oovprnnicnt, dllowing for rodcmptioii nt jmr on 
BUktuHtv, wu I'-l 2k. 5jA J white thp iTtorn to inveetora was £i le. Uil. 
I>»ring lvi9-lt M'TcrsI mdaII S-per cent, loans niatureH, amounting in 
the aggregate to £832.000. In Snptembtrr uf ihut yuar « 3^-per cent, 
covering ioait was socceasfuUy issued, ibe iivL'ragn piite roulisetl on Uio 
gross proceeds being £101 13s., wliicli is reduced to X99 Us. Cd. if 
allowftnce he made for accrued interest nnd charges. T]i« rati: utiid hy 
tfas Gdrernineut in £3 IOn. 4iI. per cent,, nnd tlie intcrcKt yielded to 
inreatom, X.t 7.i. lOjtI. The lonn was eiiliscribcd over tivcvfnld, thu 
amount tondrrcH lieing £4,2ti8,000. In October. 1895, an inwrilwd 
stock loan fur £4,000,000 was floated, the rate of inl«reflt bein^ !i per 
ODt., and til* caiTGticy forty years. Thu miuimum price was fixed at 
94, ajxl the grass proceeds avera^^^d £9G 18s. 3d. 

lu January. 1^93. the two hut iiumeH i>{ the £4,000,000 treasury 
bills, amounting U> £i3C,.^00, wtv placid in London. 

Vieloria. — An inscrihwl atork lonn of £2,107,000 was floatt-d in 
London in Octnlier, 1893, thi- mtc> of inteivat being 4 pir 0'!nt,and thu 
dat« of maturity between 191 1 nnd 19'2G, at the option of the Uovcm- 
tiKnt on due notice beiii^ given. Four per cent. deljeiitiirEa were also 
disposed of locally from Wai'cb, 1893, t« June, 1895, to ihn aiuouut of 
£746,795 ; and 4 per cent, stock on the MullHxirne rc^iitiT, amounting' 
to £134,151, was sold duniiR tlx: first half of 1895. 

!Io imuury bills weri^ sold during 1893, and tha atnount of out- 
(taading bills 'on tlin .10th June, 1894, was £750.000. E^oon aft^erwardK 
Irauur)' hill.-s for £2iiO,000 were sold, niakiug the aiuount outstanding 
go the 30th June, 189.% £1.000,000. 

Qi»4en»land, in January, 1893, placed a 3J-per cent, loan of £1,182,400 
OD tlie Ixwdon market, the aversj^e price obtained being £88 IGa. 4d. 
lie cbar;fe8 were heavier than usual, as the loan wax undi^mTitten at 
the nit« of 1 percent In June, IKE).'), luiotlier 3J pur ci-nt. loan for 
£1,250,000, with a currency of lifly years, was placiil on tlu; uiu-ket. 
Tbo gro«N price obtained was £101 l^n. 7d., and deducting accrued 
inltrrst the Covcrnnicnt received alx>ut £100 Os. L'd. 

During 1893 threw issues of trensiury liills were placed locally, vix., 
£^22,500 in January, £5,000 in April, and £] 1,000 in Dceeniber. The 
ni« of intcrittic is 4 per cent, and the dates of maturity an- 1899, J('98, 
and 1903 rtspoctirely. In January, 1S94, bills to thoamount of £1,000 
were also disposed of locally, the rate being tho same as for tlw previous 
ianies, and the date of redemption, 1903. 

Soutii Atislraiia. — In 1893 a small loan of £126,000, being portion 
ol the 1890 loon of £1,532,800, wan floated in London. The rate ol 
intonat is SI per cent, and Ihe loan in redeemable lu 1939. An iiutul- 
aunt of the £1,013,279 loan of 1S9!! wax placed in Adelaide in February, 



406 



PtmUC FISASCB. 



1894. Tiui amonnt of th« iMUc vox £200,000, tJie price rvniined mb 
£100 being 92. 'Ilia nte of inlcirM n :U prr cent. In Jnne, I^M^ 
a fiinhcr i>«u« of ilSll.OOO waa floitud in AdH»id& 

In JuDc, 1893, tfMMiry bills ivere issued lo tfce mbpuiiI of £349,225, 
with tnterwtat llie mt« uf £4 IW 3d. per oenL, and {mynblA in tivtt 
yma; and in Manli and July, 19!>3. further issues of £250.000 each 
vera made bearing the oame nte, the daUH of uMnnty being 1898 and 
ISlOrespectirvlf. 

nV«<«ra ^tiMtm/M. — In June, 1^91, a lonn of £540,000, nt 4 per 
cent., WM floatH in London st n minimum of 102, tli« average priM 
rcAliij^d being X103 Bs. Id. In May, 1895, th* colony flontod a SJ-fcr 
cent, lonn of £750,000, hiiTiiig « forty yean currency, bat rodoemoils 
from 1916 on tvelve moutba' notice being given. Ttw minimnni prico 
WAS fixed ul 99, aiul the ■tv«ra;,v obtained w&a £103 Is. 6d., or, deducf ing 
accrufii Juivn-st, £101 9s. 3d. In June, 1S96. Western .\iislralia. 
following thi: pxiimpti; of New ^calimd iind New South Wales, placed 
on thi- innrkpt a S-pcr cent, loan for £750,000, linving a cnrrwicy until 
19.10, but i-eili?cmable from 191"' nn twelve numth*' notice being given. 
A linking fund is to iw estnblixbed in connettion witb this lout, com- 
nimdng thre« yeai-s after Sotatiun, the cDntribution being 1 per 
cent, per aniiutn. The groas price oblAiiied was £100 Ifts. Sd., and tlie 
accnii-d iiitimuit mnountiMl to aliout I2ii. Jd., aa that t)i« Govemmenfe 
obtained £100 41. 411. This is the L-hcnpmt loun yet floated by May oC 
the AuHtmliLiann colonies. 

Tbe Governiiiirnt biul authority to hiiae treasury hilU during 1893, 
the total uRiount «oM bring £179,535, of which £150,000 wvitf 
negotiated in Ijondon, mid the halonea tocnlly. The rate of intorent 
wufl 4J per cent,, and the dates of mfttariCy were T895-8 for the bills 
dun in Perth, and 1894 for those redeemable in London. 

7'njimirni<i, in March, 1893, issued a. 3A-per cent, lonn of £S00,0OO| 
which was part of the £2,100,000 authorised in December, 1S92. 
loati WHS only a piirtinl succcea, £600,000 beiiiK taken up and the balance 
withdrawn. Th(( nremge price realiK-cl ptr £100 wiw £lt2 2x. 2d. In 
1894 n Wn of £1,000,000 was ncgntiati-d in London, the rata of intermt 
being 4 per cent,, and the dnte of maturity between 1920 and 1940. at 
the option of the Government on 12 monlha' notice being given. Tho 
average amount realised per £100 was £101 4s. 3d. In Fetimary, 



tuUa 



1995. a S^per eent. loan of £790,000 was floated, redeemable in I940,J 

realiwcl| 
waa £98 6a. Id. 



or from 1920 on 12 inontlis' nalice beinf- given. The price 



l)uring 1894, treasury bills to tho amount ol £96,900 were ne^ttolaA 
in the colony, vix. :^£40,n0U at 4 per cent, nod £56,400 at 41 
cent., the bills having a currency until 1899 and 1900 rospectively. 

AW ^i/aW—During the year 1894-£, £682,300 of o\d ■ 
were {inverted into inscribed stock of the anxxtnt of £730^5B9L ' 





LATEST LOAX ISSUES. 



^ 



Under tlie ameading Consolidation Act of 18St, iliart-diLtail dobentarei 
nn; iiuunt |ifn»linK the wili? of inscribwl stflck undrr tlio Act of 1S77. 
In Mur, 1890, N'rw Zpalitnd pifwetl a loan for £l..'»00,0')f> on tho 
mftritet. With t.ho oxc^ption of some Now South Wulos Iroiiaury bills, 
tliis vos Ui« first 3-per cent. loan floated by Auy of the Au&trtil&iiian 
colonies. Thelwinluiaa fUireiLcy o( fifty years, luid the niiuiiuuiii |iii<;e 
«•■■ fixed al 90. Tlie iivtrujfc \{rus» priti? ublabied waa ^91 Sa. 9d., 
to tltat after deducting uccrui^l intercut tliu Govenuneiit obtuined 
^3 lU 6d. 

TIio BHionnt of trramaiy bilU oatjitnndin^' nn the Stst Itlni-oh, ISS.'i, 
WAS j£K!O,t>0l) ; thq iwuc during the (^nKiiint; twdvc raonthfi nmountt^d 
to £1,25.^.100, whdabiILsAinountingto£t,330,100 weropaidofT. Iraving 
the Mnoiint outstanding on the SIst March, l.^dfj. at £735.000. Ah, 
koweTCT, allovrsnoe is made for thew at the «tid of the tluaiieial year 
wli«ii carrying for%t'aiiU the baUiiw of the Rovphup Aooount, Uie liability 
U pnictiadly wijted out. 

The purticqlars of tbo Iiitiiet tsNuea of the Funded Sabts are a* 
fallow:— 









Mnoimi- 


Jn(cr<jil. 


Anniml 1nUrr«l \ict £l(a 














» 


OotoPT^ 


3 

B 

1 


i: 

g 

St 

1 


1 

a 


1 

4 


J 
g 


..1 

& 

£ 


II 

Si 

i- 
Is 


aUn otiam 

In liitenat ^ 

t*i1*in|>tl<Bi 

Ab T*r ojk 


«3j 

III 

-p' 




Gaia. 


LOK 


SMvSeviltWilM.. 


tttS 


ma 


t 




< 
1I.(117.'J41I 




C •. il. •. d. 

4 S Of .- 


H. ll. 

(1 e 


C Ik cl. 

t 1 tl 


•^^ 


isn 


IMS 


t 


i,§j».tm 


IpMi.STiO 


ao-w 


4 Iflj .. 


ot 


t U 1} 


<> 


thM 


IMS 


H 


sa.im 


siD.wn 


DO'Ui 


|»10 » .. 


It 


It ID 4 


u " 


IMC 


t»3& 


s 


t,im.tioa 


!l,KHJi73 


Mil 


3 S 1 


11 


3 ( u 


TIcMfta .. 


UM Iffit-3I 


SI 


E.tOO.IXO 


i,eia,(jea 


WW 


iw «; .. 


a i| 


ion 


,. 


i«a> ini-M 


4 


'^.IIIT.IKKI 


t.UMiTM 


M-n 


1 4 S 




9 S 


1 10 » 




Iff93 lfi)0 
IMM IMS 




i.i«.«m 
i.xw.oov 


i.i>i«.ii» 


sb-n 


t I r 


^_ 


US 


iU t 


Bonk A□■■Bn■■■ 


18WMI irai 


a 


i.iut,»Da 


i.4i7.m 'i Mir 


a la 8 


,, 


? Oi 


I 1 H 


t.. 


IMIIiJi lUM 


H 


su.ua 


4UT.UU 


van) 


1 11 ■ 


,, 


aim 


(lA It 


WM(«n AnWnia 


UM mi-3i 


4 


uoMn 


*W»l 


ns'.io 


4 1 *1 ., 


3) 


1 I S 


H -- 


UM IUU-31 


« 


NO.OCQ 


6M,HM 


lOu-M 


I l» SI o u 




■ IS 41 


'■ 


IKK tHlfr-ilt 


Hi 


iw.iiou 


TOUMl 


lOlM 


) 8 Ul t <^ 


.. 


1 « « 


■ I " 


ISM |UIU-3i 


3 


7HI.W0 


.... 


., 


.... 1 .. 


.. 




'^^Miift. >..».. 


UBS ,r!iaM(i 


1 


i.wo.miii 


DM, Dili 


9a-ti> 


t a 




ut 


4 0. It 


^ ........ 


UBS 


uno-io 


H 


I.W.OOU 


"8",WS 


H-U 


a 11 £ 


., 


1 


lit 8. 


ir««tMdvid .... 


IBM 


UM 


s 


I.HM.IKU 


.... 




.... 


" 








■Pamltil nook. 



t r«rt m 111* ii.oiB.rB ib«i. 




40S 



PITBLIC FIXAXCE. 



TIm particulan of the troftwry bills usuod daiiiig 189S-4 w«ni a* 
foUow:— 



CMnjr. 



llanlml- 



iMciaiiw**! 
MtrBeMMMoL 



Atannt 
of 

Loan. 



■KM. 






I '^, 



IMnerhM Ijl 
Mpwon 

DBtBIMir. 



IUb. Ldk. 






KcvamiUiWabi fbj 



QlUMUhllltfll 

W 

1. fO> 

faj 



WnUni AiMindU (aX 






IBM 
INM 
1»D3 
IMM 
IHM 
19I» 

UM 

iirns 

lilfi 



cenl. 
< 
i 
I 

i 






A.WU 
l.KU 

ao.ooo 
itojxn 

£0.000 
Ol.MN 

n.uoo 



ra.oM 

n.iiu) 

IQ.WTJ 

WT 

UO,MD 
OS.IM 



MtM 
vU-Oi 

1UJ«b 

VOtS 
MM 
W-«T 
BMI 

100^ 

M-d 

»tS 
M-Oi 



£ •. A ftd. 




(d) nuKd la«U;. 



(^) Plkfol In Londoc. 



ExMwniTcnB from Loaxs. ' 

In tho foragoing iingi-a tlin chief jiointR dwelt upon liAve been the 
amount of ttif publii^ indcl>t4?dn»i! nnd IV credit enjoyed by «««h 
colonj as tested by tbe selling price of its lo&us. Before donng tUa 
diapter it would be well to consider for what purpose die d«btii were 
iatiurred. The atrvices ujKin which the proceeds of the public loamn ' 
ex{ie»d<ii nre vnriou&.'but the bulk uf the ei^peudilure niuy be plaord to 1 
itccoiint of till- cotiRtructiou of railways, wuter supply ftitd xowcrage, . 
(-j(s:tric ti'li-grnpliK. In the <iarly ntnges of AuKtmlAinnn botTDwing tfnl 
cxpciulitiiro W.1H moderikb!. loans bc-ing honl to rniKc nnd intcvMt iiigb ; 
but latl<^rly, as the cunditioiU! under which lonns could be C0lltn^«d 
became fnvournlil*, o«pcciaIly fiincc It^tjl, foir of the colouin Inve aet 
any bounds to their requir«ment8. It w,%s a repetitiou of the old 
exjierieuoe — the opportunity engendered tho desire^ and the open n»ran 
of the investors tL-uiptt-d the colotiiee to undue borrowji^ ami )«viflk 
nxjH^nditure. Wlmt isi termi><d a " vifl<orouji public works policy" waa 
thn ordcir of thi' dny, and worlcH were preiued rammnl which under Otbt 
circuro stun el's would not have Ix-cn undcrlukcn, or have been held 
until tho growth of i^opuintion warranted their con&tructiou. 




ESPEXDITCBB OF PROCEEDS OP LOAKft. 



409 



I ptctbom 4^ raoney hu bc«n harmful in mAity VA}>a, die most apparent 
I bciDg tho conttrurt.ion of not n few br&nch ruilwa^fa, in outlying and 
ipaisdy-Bottlml <listncti>, wliiti'h 1)0 not \ia.y ev^n tlieir working eixpensea. 
The con8«|Uence uthat the interest on loaii <.-Hpit«l baa U> be met out of 
{[eoeral revenue, and in eoine insljincf» ihi? present genl^r«tion will pam 
vny before thin uaudtUon of afTuirs will U- i^nitKlicd. But wlien every 
■Uowauce liai been nindc for iinwiiH? or improvident eK|)enilitnrc, it will 
be foond lliat by fnr tlic larger portion of the procwiln of loanii linn been 
wd! rxpejided. In sonie inNtnncrH it will be years, taking a mint 
bopcfnl ricw of tho situation, ln^fore many of the revenuivproiliicing 
works will yield a sum suHicient to pay n'orkiu<f expenses and inlt^rrst ; 
nevertheleaii, a praclicaJ consideration of tlie conditionn which surround 
AuBlnlasian seltlemenC will demonstrate tbal in some instances tlie 
MOBtructiou of these works was justiliable, for apart from the con- 
•idenitlon tliiil they mill ultimately be self-supporting, tbcy have alreedy 
materially sHKiNtiil in developing tbc country's resources, and Iiuve 
largely enhanced tho value of the public e^tnte. 

I'hc following statement givu, under a convenipnt claMnfication, the 
loan «speDditura of «nch colony during 1895-C : — 





YmrmaiM. 


Amount «]>fiit mi Werkw yloMIn^ dIfiMt 
licvflnue. 


other 

V<irk« 

mil 

Senlm, 




O»>oar. 


Rallm^i. 




EJHtiiii 
Tolo. 


Total. 


Total. 


K<' South M'llD.. 


lOJunMBM 

WJUIM. 1M« 
MJUM, IfSO 
»lant,tlM 
>OJun»,l«M 
SlUnv, IStB 


Kfl.ltf 
ITT.MI 
t8S,H8 

tm.iw 


« 
t»,Bll 
41,tU 

7.0a 

IST.MT 


»,TIO 

"6,731 

lliMfl 

11, DM 

SM 


£ 
ni.MM 

SS1,7S1 
tonjlB 

!41,WHH 


I 

aiii.si? 


i.m,B«s 

SlliTIW 


SiMia Auiinib .. 
W«^«n Autiilta.. 

KtwXatud 


«I1.1U 

iia.sTs 






iMi.ua 


S83,MS 


m.siD 


«,M7,«3 


l,GT3,(ill 


a.Tsi.ns 







The expetiditnrp of Austiwlnsia during l?9-'j-6 from fnuds derived 
from the proceeds of loans wa.'i £3.791,325. Of this amount, the sum of 
£2,217.^13 was ^nt on ecrvices directly revenue-producing, and tho 
remaindttr waa chiefly devoted lo works of a substantinl naturr, nuch 
an the cotistrudiou of roads imd liriilgtrs, lln* improvement of harliours 
and rivers, and the erection o( liglithousr.s, sclioitis, and public build- 
iiigs. Th(^ amount expended on fortilicatioiis and military works was 
wlativoly Minnll. 

The expenditure from loans has been grently rpducofi during the last 
three years, especially in the largrr colonics. This nmy be attributed 
In aome cftses to a settled policy of retrenchment ; but in others, the 
iltffieulty of rsiaiog a loan in London a year or two ago alforxla a moro 



4IO 



PUBLIC FINANCB. 



probable explanatlou. Tlie expenditure of each prOTmcedoring tlu lut 
Bre yeura U ){i'"-''i in ''"> fuilowinK table :— 



OMaoT. 


ISOM 


uw-s. 


I9S»4. 


UtM. 


UH>«. 


Npw ifoulli W«le» 


4.813.780 

1.0S1.719 

CS2.281 

576.713 

77.ttM 

3jn.oe« 

48S,761 


s,ot4.e80 

.547.382 
342,633 
6«l.aM 
47S,»eS 


f 

I,9M,580 
701. iOO 
373.077 
5Stf,3SI 

174.027 
406,016 


£ 

l,3.1»,0t« 

314,713 

280.130 

302. IGO 

6oe.ice 
ioe,aos 

7B0,2SJ 




South AuBtnlU... 

Wtatora Aii>Ct*Ua 

TSwmZmUM 


S0i,15S 
583.137 
890.7CS 
n3.27S 
4JU,33> 




8,0S1.3M 


6,963.409 


4.S80.M9 


3,753,030 


3,7»I.32S 



I 



The total expenditure of the proceedti of loum from the 
ment of borrowing lc> tbn jfjir I89&'^ wu X-->0t>,376,299. Ot tUs 
suin£l.'il,B7I),779, ornmrly thmn-fourthK, wuxpont iatlw coaabiMlioit 
of ruilwavH, wnU^r supply iind scnvmge wotka, ftnd olactrk talognpha; 
utid the linlftitce was expended on works and ^rvices which, though 
c-1b»hk1 nn lion -product] v«^ for the most part aatiisted ia the nadtMiAl 
developuieiiL Tlie yx|)enditurp <in defcntu niiU tbir ]iuympaU aitulo to 
m*«rt di;llcici!cy in rfivcnuu arp the <!Xci<plioii!i to the rule which, has 
^ovoi-un] th« vxpimditure of thv priKOMU of loan isxiiCK. "nio expen- 
liilun- t» cit\-cr dcliciency Jii rvvcmuiB hu not bwn Irn^c, and is looked 
ujron lu but n temporary charge on the ioan funds ; while the expen-fl 
iliturL- on defence has been extremely small in all the colouied pxeopfe V 
New Zealand. Tlio fullowin;,' tnble ^iovh the total loaa expmdilura 
of each province up to the dose u£ thif lost liiuuiuial ye^r : — 



OOlDDf. 



1 


Amount cpuit on mirlB jilcldlns 4lnA 


Othtr 

IDd 
ttarrfcM. 


BlIWIldlHU* 


BaUwv>< 


Wakr 

Supply 


Tslt- 


ToUl. 



lattL 



S.S.W11M .... 

Vleiorin 

U"CTn AiiiiL^in.. 
Tvmvi]4 , . - 
Stv Zmlui J 



SO June, 

M* Juno. 
110 Jtiko, 
30 Juoc. 
ID Jani. 
:ill)<c.. 



13M 
ISM 



M,Tor,i« 
l^oM,on 



c 

7.140,00! 
3,8IKi,&7a 



mjsna 



AtutnbuL. iaa.iB7.iM ifl,t»B.su j,n»,7«i ui,BnkT» ujin,M[i nciii,nht 



sat,rsi 

SSS.Wl 
^7U,002 

] 1'1.(>U 
7M,M>J 



« 

tT.aM,S3(l 

tn.EI!t.*4* 

in,mi.<M 
u.Mi.ai? 



ajtua 

s.m.M 

I.IOT.Wt 

H,(m,ti3 



■VKUnr 

<MM,Ttf 

KtWiMa 



Id the New Zealand returns old provincial d«bts centmcted prtorl 
18TG. uniouiitin;! to £Il,A35,4fi9, hare bi-c-n iiiclnded tindof t£e Iwe 
*' Other works and scrrices," as them is no nvaih^te record 



BXPENDITCRE OF PROCEEDS OP LOi.NS. 



411 



wrTiMS upon wbidi tbe loaiix of lli« old Proviiiional GoremineiiU wore 
flxponcted, cxcejit wlu-ri' such wmn for tltc cfinstructioii of milwayii, 
Tbo fi^rcK givrn for N<:vr Soiitli Wii!«s, South AtiKtrnltn, Western 
Awtralin, oiul Tutnanin. und«r tha heiul of " Railways " include loan 
axpenclitaro on Stnto immways, but, except in the cose of th« 6rsU 
mentioneil coloay, tha amount thiiB cixpended is onimportiLiit, a& this 
wrrtue iu tl>e other proviucea i§ geuerjJty in tha bands of miuiictptd 
•uUnoritieH or private' L-otupaiile^ 

In tho pmcdini; table !i large sum has been pluond under tlut head 
ot " OUier worlcH awl serviuas": in thr. following statement this ninount 
bw b<wn xulxliviileil and is shown under sevinul hrnds. In mgiinl to 
JTow Zfnland, thi- sum andcr the handing of " Dii^ctico works'* also 
iliclnd(« thf expenditure on light-houapa and hnrbour works ; and under 
** UiioellaiwouK " the pronncial loans prior to 187C are included : — 





Dtftna 


tion. 


KImllb 


TMtf, 




£ 

ijua.tn 

riT.aii 

3,ur.0M 
n8.iT( 

3Ms.na 


!ia.(ITS 

na.tis 


1M,00 


£ 
U>I,1M 
l,aifi.T!S 
t.<WI.i»i 
l.tM.OtS 


Amoir 

9,031 .Ml 




a,K>r.4w 




£,13;.mil 


ITtitmi llTntnlh 


IS, ISO 
I.1U.Mt 


I.1U7.IA^ 




111 .Ml 


».T!W,47» 
t4.(MS.I33 








iii,ua4iT 


!l,lll7.3tt 


r;,3;T.iK> 


«',sia.3)« 


S4.»)C),I>a) 



In tlM^ cnw of Xew 8outIi Wale« the suu of X706,2(}0, which wok 
spent on itnmigmUotv bi^fore tha iiwagamljon of the Lonn Account, ii 
not incin'lrd in the abovn ulIiIc If tliix amount vcm iticludeil, tlie 
«xpeiiditurp on iniinignitilm by that L-olony wnuld hn iS99,630. 

The aubjoined tnblo shows the expenditure per inlutbitaut on tjM 
ha^ of lira figur«8giv«n in the t&bleon the prociMJing page: — 





Amount nHmt on Worka )1aldla)[ 

dlTMl IWtHlD*. 


other 

Work! 

and 

SnrUn. 


- 


OMoqr. 


IWI«V>. 


ViOaz 

tuid 


TslEgnipbii 


TOUI. 


Total. 




£ >. ll. 
»17 S 

30 Z S 
tu 1 I 

uia 1 
11 t « 

tt It 8 
tl s * 


£ ■- <L 
A lu 

e ic s 

IS a 
U) la a 

D u a 


e t. d. 

U IS 6 

lie '0 
2 g s 
•lit 
a i« t 
1 11 


£ «. d. 

» 1 1 
MI lU 1 

K W 7 

to 11 a 
lia u u 

S3 7 1 

S3 T 


C •. d. 

H ]!< « 

2 t U 

IS 1« 7 
U U t 
•J 11 

SI a 

Mil 


e *. d. 
•n Id H 
;ki .1 10 
mas 




U3 U ft 


V«iUmAnCnlk 


.■Ct 111 It 
M T 10 




n 11 4 




KID i 


• U a 


17 1 


3S 10 


U H B 


H t T 








ExPKxniTntr. hy mar. Govedkmbnt axd Locai. Bodies. 

The <in«stion of LwaI CJovprnnntnt ib dtmlt with in thn tif xt chnjiWr 
It is well, however, to pvc hci-o a stntcment of the totnl uninunt wliiA 
pftSSPB through t)ie hands of the geiieml and local govenitiicnt«. Tbi* 
sum cait in no ueaae he taken as the co§t of governing thp vuiou^ 
coloiiieK ; as will Bjijicar from page 386, tJm maj bo taken »* 
£19,406,818. 

Thn totnl Hum rxficinlril hv the ([eupral and lo<'al Ki>^<^rniDi^i>(^ ** 
AustraloMa during the yc-n'r 1895-fi was over Xif 7,000,000, *>'' 
.£8 i 4s, 10^. per hciuL Of this Urge sum, J! :i 9,^29,800, or i6 I&l Id- 
ppr inhabitant, wm tqient by the general govcmmttnts from thri** 
revenues, and X3.791.335, or ITs, lid. per inhahitant, from loann r 
the local expenditure, excluaivo of course of a sum pqual to ihtf^ 
Uoveruuieiit eudowweiit, was £3,983,2IS, or l!^a. lOd. per iDkalnt&nt 

Tlie following wnji the genera], loan, and local expttiditure f 
each colony : — 



:i 





COST OF GOVERNMENT. 



noM extent misleoiling, &« nbout 40 per cent, of the popuUtion live 
oauide the lieundkriiTH of th« municipalities : — 





Gcoftnl CatrniiDDnt. 


Qaigiiimtnt. 




_ Cttfuy, 


Raiwiue, 


PMulioaua. 


TVM. 


Anr&rolliWftlen.. 


7 14 S 

s m a 

7 M 11 
7 7 !l 
11 Ifl c 
4 J4 I 
6 6 I 


< a. A. 
19 11 

3 6 

1 A 

1 9 lit 
(i 8 7 
14 3 
U 10 


£ 1. tl. 
17 
13 
13 » 
13 4 

• 

IS 3 

1 3 


£ ■. d. 
9 11 S 
6 tT 3 




19 a 


>Soutlt Auitralia ... 
Vi'Mttm Aiutnili*. 


» 10 tl 
IS 8 1 
6 7 


KvwZeaJand 


6 « 2 


AtutnlAiU... 


H 18 1 


17 11 


IS 10 8 14 10 



■ Xo ntonu. 



414 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 



HtnnciPAL TiW Hun ioiis. 

PRIOR to 1840 no municipol iiwtitations «xwl«>cl in An 
On tii« Slut Octoljer of tkat ye»r nianicipal <-trcliiMu ir<f*J 
in Adelaiilv, w)iiah wmi lh« finl AuHtmlinu Mty to lUMioin' tlie ' 
ot MiU-govununent. On the 20th July, 1842, an Art wiw m 
to, provifling (or tho inoornorntion of Sydney; and on the 11 
Augiul nf tho mins you NlnllNXirni^ wbm cnunlitutcil » luunii* 
In the former ctwo the town wm vmutA to Ihn dignity ol •" 
Mcllwum*, however, wm proclainied a town, nnd cnntinuMi to fat] 
atyleil until 1847, when letters pntent were n?«ivrd acconlin},' I*' 
th« t>rivilu;;^ enjoyed l>y i^ydni^y. In New Zcnlnnd an Ar: 
ptuted in 1 BS3, <lividjng tlie colony Into ax provinces, tlui local < 
tration of which wwi ^ustoil in Provindal Counctla. lUc 
oontiniii'd until \f>~6, wlittn thi- gimvininal Hyiit«ni was abolili 
th4i whole vnlony, nxcqit thi^ nm> within thu forty-one lioroiiGb* ' 
vxistin^, wiui nuMividrd into rauntii<^ cjich ciiunty hitving foU «M 
of it« local nitnini. In lt?r>K Hobart wa« incorporatcil, mid iu W 
Uriftbaufl and Pordi wore orvctcd into inTini(-i{)«]>tir«. In Victoriij 
general By&teni of local government cnrae into force in 1^74. Quo 
laud adopted a ffeneral system iu 1879, avd ^ouih Australia in It'^T. 

New South Wales, of all the colonies, la the moat hackwanl iaj 
to local iroveriitncmt. The privilegit of aeU-f^Tenunent ia on 
rnoogniKud ax a xound onct, niul varidUK ini-iuurea to aeoajre Ita o 
ment hnrr fi'um timii lo timi; biH'n placi-d bufarv Parliament, hul <•> ' 
tho Logimliitiire lia» not tiuccroded in giving etTcot to tln^ uiMiiifetAi 
of the cmiAtitiioncies. As tlie fojliiwing tabic thowK, a larj^ area i 
remainu under the control of tile oentml government in othrr coin 
than New South ^VKtc(^ but for this ninple justification exi<^t* till 
larfienesa of tlie territory and tlie a{>Kriiene«s of tlw population 
in the unincorpomted arena, and it may be said that ill all the 
eutoept Kew South Waica local governing bodiea liare been 



TAXUE OF RATABLE PEOPEBTV. 



415 



ht til places wImicv Lhe pupolatian is sufficient to nuke tbe introduetinn 
of Ac mniuci))kt nystem desinAAc 



iMonr- 



Uuvrponrtsl Ana*, dtildel Into— 



,,„ „, Ana UJU 



DIlUllAB. 



OanrDmaot. 



W*lM... 



<3MandMi<l 

Sostli AiiRtcalitt 

B TOpcr. 
'^VWrnn Amtralia. 



%ie« ZmIoihI 



VtMUglis Anit ntriilnl D)*tricu... 
Cilis*, T01TTIS. ReMH% anil SJiircs 
BoraiigliB. iSliire*. aMinvuionB... 
CorpcrBtiDos duiI Dislrict Council! 

MiinicipaUtic*..,- 

MunidpalititB. Tomi [k*nli, nitd 

K(«cl TruiU. 
Boroiiiflix »iiil Cminty Omiicil*, 

Bood Diiilnctaaii JTti\ni Uialriota 



M. mil«. 

'2.7*2 

87.167 

B68.252 

<a.'i37 



■q. anilw. 

SI7,9SS 
217 
240 

2S;,fi43 




7.247 



• Ami of MimicijuIHl™ 

In New Sontii Wal<«, Viclorift, South AiiHlralin, Wtst^m Auatralk, 
■OM) Tasmania the rat«s arc anewed on the nR^mcd annual talui* : in 
<}ae«ttslan(], on the ca]jitfi,l valuu ; and in Now Zealonil the pi-»[H:rty 
'^thincotuitieaaiulroaildistricta is nssessed on thpcapilal valur. wliilo in 
\x)rau^ia and toirn diatricls both descriptions of aasenfiinL-ut un? adopted. 
The iialua at ratable propei'ty iu each of tlie colonics for which such 
informatioa i* nrailnbh: wilt ha found below : — - 



Calonj^. 


C«pIUlT*lae. 


AnniiA] TaIo^ 




£ 
lR(i,2l)2, 10() 
I74.fW4.&)l 
41.772.975 
•42.00ftOM 
•S«.500.0I» 
1S3.300.403 


£ 
T,S!)ri,(t4Ii 




H,fi7li,0"'.' 


Soutlt Aa«tnll»,.„„ „ 


•2.SI0.000 
2,053.830 
l^-(6Jt.36S 

•T.39S.000 



* ApproxInuU tMinat*. 

n^ annual vulun shown for Tasmania is to a certain extent over- 
rated, as the same projierty may l» rated by more than one of tlic thnie 
hoX authorities — tLe Muidcipal Council, the Kuad Trust, and tli« 
Tatrn Boon)- The Nt.-w Zt.-alatid returns uri> ttimilnrly nfTi-L'ted, some of 
tlie rarioiia divMona overluppiiij^, but tho error from tliis souws can be 
bat Kmalt. Tlic capital valtin for borough.s and town distrieta tn Nnv 

Zealand iaX37,ir>l,l'l 7, and thn unuiial value, £^,229,073. Tlieni ar« 

00 ntnrns {rora Westcru-AaiOratia. 



4i6 



LOCAL GOVBRSUEST. 



The e^tal and anmiiO vnlues of ratable property in Sjrdney uidl 
^tlclbounte alnce 1891 are given below. The ti^'iires fjiow cbe dej 
ntioit in tli» \a,\ap of reaX CBtate wlikh hfts taken placo :— 



v«. 


SjiliMV uid auburba. 


' ^ 

tlellioumfi and SuliarbiL 


Aniiuij VllMV. 


OqilUI Value 


Annoal ViJu*. 


OnfriulVthw. , 


1S91 
1892 

1893 
1894 
1695 


£ 

fl,851,589 
6,01.3,697 
8,067,883 
5,«S6,1!)7 
,'1,352,920 


£ 
99,221,810 

106,891,100 

110,061,000 

1(W,951.000 

96.692,200 


£ 
6.S33.7I7 
6.815.31.1 

S.S4T,()71I 
4,Htl4,G»C 


87.990,287 
92;XS8,81» 

78.916,730 



Th« annual valuo of assMsod property, even under tbe present 
reduced valuations, is fttr higher, both for Sydney aud for Melbounie, 
than (i)ranycity ill Great ItritAin, I»tidon alone excepted. The annual 
\'iilu» of Glan^w, the second city of the Kin^^om, is £4,'2O8,0O0, and 
of Manobonter luwt Salford, £3,097,000. 

Tim revenue aud e.tpenditni-o of the local Iiodiea in eaoli colony i 
givwi below. In the rei-eipta the amount of the Govt-mmpnt ondoi 
mont is «[M^citied, while in the expenditure the outlay on public vrork 
ia similarly treated ; — 





BMvipU. 


Etpuiililurt. 


Coloiur. 


Owtwn- 

munt. 


BaMuAa 


ToWL 


FobUo 
WoHu. 


Olber. 


Tow. 


SewSooUi Wil» 
Victoria 

IjUHEUllftncl , , - , 

Kmith Aiialmlti,, 
XgwZeduU ... 


S 

317.0Zt 
74,(131 
l»,nS7 
17.M8 


£ 
l,tM,7M 
l,llD,Mt 

13«,«84 
l,(M4,lffi6 


£ 
l.itg.3C7 

i.ua,bi!ii 
uu,;m 


£ 
4fti.S7! 

OU.TTS 


t 

tM,4a) 

UKKO 


< 

i.m.Tcr 

lOUM 
I.I»,S8t 



The revenue of local IxkIIph per head of jjopulatiou in incorporat 
districts, and per square mile of t«i'ritory iu iiicurpurati.'d arM, is, 
far aa can bo ascertained, as follows : — 



OiiMiy. 



lUsoBlpU per InbBiUtuit 



Oomn. Othir 
rant. Souno. 



Tool 



Innvinnt*!! Arak. 



OaTernmcnl. 



Othu 



tttUL 



NewRoHth Wale*.., 

Violnria 

Qa«uDilanil 

South AiiHtralia 

Tuiiiuiia 

Niw Znaluid 



£ 


B. ■!. 





10 





a i 





3 3 





S 1 





2 » 





3 10 



1!> 

19 

1 1 
12 

17 

1 10 



£ a A. 

19 11 

1 4 4 
7 1 4 10 
9 17 10 
4,0 19 7 
5 1 U 3 



£ «. d. 


£ ■. d. 


ID 10 1 


43.1 14 8 t 


3 12 » 


12 1« 10 


2 3 


14 8 


2 2 2 


r> n 10 


1 10 S 


UBS 


1 6 10 


10 H 11 



£ ■. d. 

4.U 4 S 

16 9 7 

16 11 

7 8 

16 3 4 

12 1 S. 





iirsicipju:- u)ASs. 



417 



Tbe Urge nnniH per square mile obtBinpcl in Now South WaIab 
n dne to (he circiunBtBuce ttlready explained, that ibn ar«a incorporated 
ia in&U eocapoTod witli the total territory of tbe colony, and coiupnseB 
fortlie most part odIj uriian settlemeiitn. 

Tbe anwrant ot onttttundiiiK municipul loaoH for eacli colony furnishing 
iMoma K shown below. The li^'uns iiicludt; thci liiibilitiee to the Govern- 
ant:— 



GUlaoT. 



0uucani[l»« hetat. 



Sfv SMitl> Wal«i 

Victoria 

Qiwanabuul » 

Twtimriii - 

New ZfoUnd 



3.MS.93S 
MUSS 
413,888 

3,308.628 



AgaiiMt the groKi linl>iliti«s shovm above sinklDg funds&K Wtftbliiihed 
Id MHDe of the ooloiiii's. The amount to tlia crMit of loi!*l bodies in 
Kew Soutb Wales i« .£201,431 ; in Vicloria, £370,892 ; in Tasmania, 
£31,193 ; and in New Zenland. i244,913. There is also a fund in 
Qaounsland, but the amount accumulated cannot be given. 




Boards asd Tri-st* in Nkw Sodtk Walss. 

In addition to the municipalities, there are bodies known ns lionrds 
or TrualK whoite funi^tion it is to eoiistruct and supervise certaui works 
wfaicb, x^iii-ml!y sptakiiiK. have been eatablialied far the benefit of dis' 
Irictfiditfrriiig ham, and inmost cniuM liir;p'r than, the areas incorporated 
for ordinary tnunicijiol pnqiaxtu. Iliac bodiva are uKuully conipoaed of 
mMnbera r<>pre«cnting nspnctivoly tin; ociitrul guvi-niineut, the intmici- 
palitita nffectod by thi^ works in qumtion, and otliLT jii^nons directly 
miereated in the particular undortakings ; and as a ruin thi^y raise the 
fnnds necea&ary for carrying out the works they control, by means of 
ratca ou tbe aaavn^ed