(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Astronautics and aeronautics"

ASTRONOMY 




NASA SP-4006 



\STRONAUTICS AND 
AERONAUTICS, 1965 



CHRONOLOGY ON 
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, 
AND POLICY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 



y 



NASA SP-4006 



ASTRONAUTICS AND 
AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Chronology on Science, Technology, and Policy 



NASA Historical Staff, 
Office of Policy Analysis 




^y^^^^MTo-^/ Scientific and Technical Information Division 19 6 6 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 



Washington, D.C. 






For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 

Price $2.25 (paper cover) 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 66-60096 



Foreword 

The year 1965 recounted by this volume was an outstanding one in the 
U.S. space program. In his space report to Congress, President Johnson 
called it "the most successful year in our history." It was one filled with 
noteworthy milestones deriving from less noticed decisions, actions, and 
labors of previous years. In the same way, milestones of the future are to 
be seen in their formative stages in this chronology for 1965. 

Man received his first close-up view of our neighboring planet Mars 
when on July 14, mariner iv relayed to earth its photographs of lunar-like 
craters on the Martian surface. The conclusion of the Ranger program was 
witnessed by millions of Americans who watched on live television as the 
cameras of ranger ix approached the moon on March 24. alouette ii 
was orbited by NASA for Canada in November and FR-1 for France in 
December. 

The orbiting of ten Gemini astronauts in a series of five spectacular flights 
during the year ended a 22-month gap since the last Mercury flight, faith 
7. The man-rated version of the Air Force Titan II reliably launched aU 
Gemini flights. Astronauts Grissom and Young in March, as well as McDi- 
vitt and White in June, the latter marking his "space walk" outside the 
GEMINI IV spacecraft. The eight-day mission of Astronauts Cooper and 
Conrad in GEMINI V demonstrated that trained space pilots were physically 
capable of a lunar mission. Orbital rendezvous techniques were thoroughly 
demonstrated by the flights of gemini vii and vi. Astronauts Borman and 
Lovell in gemini vii took another long step in astronautics with their four- 
teen-day mission in December of 206 revolutions. Throughout the Gemini 
operation, the team effort involved closest cooperation of all of NASA and the 
military services, contractors, and the scientific community. 

Milestones in the lunar-landing Apollo program were not as well publi- 
cized as Gemini but marked significant progress. The Project Fire success 
in atmospheric entry of a test vehicle at speeds simulating a return from 
the moon provided a geometric jump in reentry physics. The first full- 
duration test of the gigantic Saturn V first stage of 7.5 million pounds of 
thrust on August 5 was a significant milestone in an engine program begun 
in 1958. As the Saturn I concluded its operational life with ten straight 
successes with the orbiting of Apollo boilerplate capsules and three Pegasus 
micrometeoroid satellites, the Saturn IB was being erected on the launch 
pad to begin its flight tests in 1966. 

Spectacular scientific and manned spaceflight events of 1965 could not 
overshadow the practical utility to man on earth of communications and 
meteorological satellites, tiros x, placed in orbit for the Weather Bu- 
reau, maintained service to worldwide needs for weather data, while 
tiros IX provided the first complete picture of the cloud-cover over the 
entire earth on February 13. nasa launched early bird I for the Com- 

III 



IV FOREWORD 

munications Satellite Corporation in April. During the same month, NASA 
turned operational control of syncom hi over to the Department of Defense 
for service in important Far East communications. 

A chronology is not an adequate substitute for a documented narrative 
history. But in this chronology, spliced alongside the U.S. space events of 
1965, one can note the less publicized decisions, actions, and discussions 
concerned with the shaping of the future. About 90 percent of NASA's 
$5,175 billion went to contractors for work done by almost 400,000 people 
in the factories and laboratories of some 20,000 prime contractors and 
subcontractors. In the university program about 10.000 scholars at 100 
universities in all fifty states were working on space-related topics. 

In addition to NASA-related events the chronology gives some of the im- 
pact on the American scene of the space effort, including critical comment 
testing in democratic fashion the pace and scale of space efforts. Actions, 
deliberations, and comment as part of international cooperation and com- 
petition are likewise represented in these pages. Hopefully this volume 
will serve the serious student of today as he seeks knowledge of past events 
so as to better understand the future. 

The late Hugh L. Dryden once wrote: 

Free peoples everywhere must retain a reliable perspective from which to dis- 
cern better the future scientific, social, economic, political, and strategic con- 
sequences of dynamic advances now underway. The manner of the impact 
of technology upon society in the future will partly result from the broadest 
possible appreciation of its full significance. 

His passing on December 2 of this eighth year of the Space Age was noted 
throughout the world. He leaves lasting contributions to the development 
of space technology and of a sound philosophy of astronautics. This vol- 
ume helps to document 12 months marking what Dr. Dryden called "the 
opening of a brilliant new stage in man's evolution." It should assist its 
readers in gaining helpful perspective upon man's challenging venture into 
space. 

James E. Webb 

Administrator 

National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration 



Contents 



PAGE 

FOREWORD III 

Admimstrator James E. Webb 

PREFACE VII 

JANUARY 1 

FEBRUARY 48 

MARCH 100 

APRIL 162 

MAY 213 

JUNE 264 

JULY 307 

AUGUST 363 

SEPTEMBER 410 

OCTOBER 458 

NOVEMBER 500 

DECEMBER 533 

APPENDIX A: satellites, space probes, and manned space 

FLIGHTS, 1965 575 

APPENDIX B: major nasa launchings, 1965 605 

APPENDIX C: summary chronology of manned space flights, 

1961-1965 609 

APPENDIX D: abbreviations of references 619 

INDEX 623 

V 



Preface 



This chronology is designed to collect in preliminary form pertinent in- 
formation on aeronautical and space affairs. Future historical research 
and narratives will of course deepen the process of documentation and 
enrich perspective on the high velocity of contemporary science and tech- 
nology, as well as their impact and implications. The volume was pre- 
pared from open public sources to provide a reference for future historians 
and other analysts, scholars, students, and writers. Its detailed index was 
intended to provide ready access to most specialized needs. 

The entire NASA Historical Staff in Headquarters participated in source 
collection, review, and publication. The Science and Technology Division 
of the Library of Congress was responsible for drafting of the text proper, 
in the persons of Miss Lynn Catoe, Mrs. Anne Horton, and Miss Shirley 
Medley. The index was prepared by Arthur G. Renstrom, also of the Li- 
brary of Congress. General editor of the entire Astronautics and Aeronau- 
tics, 1965 project was Dr. Frank W. Anderson, Jr., Deputy NASA Historian; 
Mrs. Helen T. Wells was technical editor. Lloyd Robbins and Creston 
Whiting (atss-t) provided timely translations of Russian materials. His- 
torians and historical monitors throughout NASA contributed useful inputs: 
validation was the constant concern of many busy persons throughout NASA. 

Appendix A, "Satellites, Space Probes, and Manned Space Flights- 19'65," 
and Appendix B, "Major NASA Launchings, 1965," were prepared by Dr. 
Anderson. Appendix C, "Summary Chronology of Manned Space Flights, 
1961-1965," was prepared by William D. Putnam, Assistant NASA Historian 
for Manned Space Flight. Mrs. Weils prepared Appendix D, "Abbrevia- 
tions of References." 

This preliminary chronicle is but a first step in the historical process of 
documenting the dynamic and complex events of space exploration and 
exploitation. Comments, additions, and criticism are welcomed at any 
time. 

Eugene M. Emme 
NASA Historian (EPH) 
Office of Policy Analysis 

VII 



1 



January 1965 



January 1: Operation of syncom ii and syncom ill communications satel- 
lites was transferred to DOD by NASA, which had completed its R&D ex- 
periments. Telemetry and command stations and range and range- 
rate equipment operated by NASA for the Syncom program would be 
transferred to dod along with the satellites. DOD had furnished the 
communications ground stations used to relay transmissions via the 
two Syncoms for the past two years and would provide NASA with cer- 
tain telemetry and ranging data of continuing scientific and engineer- 
ing interest, syncom ill was to prove useful in dod's Vietnam com- 
munications. (NASA Release 65-5) 

• About 500 employees of the Manned Spacecraft Center's Florida Opera- 

tions were transferred to the Kennedy Space Center, effective today, 
under a realignment announced Dec. 24. 1964, by NASA Hq. Elements 
of the manned space flight organization were regrouped to meet the 
requirements imposed by concurrent Gemini and Apollo launch sched- 
ules, (msc Roundup, 1/6/65, 1) 

• Two hrs. and 20 min. of radio signals from Jupiter were received around 

midnight New Year's Eve as predicted by George A. Dulk of the Univ. 
of Colorado. The signals were received at the Altitude Observatory of 
the National Center for Atmospheric Research at Boulder, which had 
kept its radiotelescope operating for the event. (Osmundsen, NYT, 
1/2/65, 1) 
January 2: NASA had compromised the scientific value of the interplanetary 
research program by spending too little on the Deep Space Net com- 
munications system, according to Frank Drake, prof, at Cornell Univ., 
in Saturday Revieiv article. Drake noted that mariner iv would only 
be able to relay 22 photos of Mars back to earth and that these would 
be of lesser quality — all because of communications limitations: ". . . 
one concludes that the space program could well use an array con- 
taining a hundred or more 85-ft. antennas. One array might cost 
S40.000,000, still only a few per cent of what will almost certainly be 
spent on planetary exploration in the next ten years." iSR, 1/2/65) 

• Soviet cosmonaut Col. Vladimir Komarov. who commanded the three- 

man spacecraft voskhod I on its orbital flight, told a Havana news- 
paper: "I believe I will take part in a similar trip — if not to the moon, 
then to another place." Komarov was a member of the Soviet delega- 
tion in Havana for celebration of the sixth anniversary of Fidel Castro s 
revolution. {New Orleans Times-Picayune, 1/3/65; AP, Hartford 
Courant, 1/3/65) 



2 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

January 2: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., received the first patent for 
a satellite communication system with its own orbit pattern. The satel- 
lite would linger for a considerable period over each of two widely 
separated areas; while hovering virtually stationary, it could relay 
television and radio programs within its range, and also store programs 
from one area to play later on the other side of the globe. (Jones, 
NYT, 1/2/65; Chic. Trib., 1/3/65) 

• U.K. was said to be considering the possibility of a licensing agreement 

with the U.S. that would enable British manufacturers to make parts of 
late-model aircraft produced in the U.S. American planes under con- 
sideration were: McDonnell Aircraft Corp's f4c (Phantom ii) carrier- 
based attack aircraft; F-111 low-level strike aircraft made by General 
Dynamics Corp. and Grumman; and c-141 and Orion, both made by 
Lockheed Aircraft Corp. ( Farnsworth, NYT, 1/3/65, 13 ) 
January 3: mariner iv changed the rate of sending scientific data from 33^/3 
to 81/^ bits of information per second by an automatic switching op- 
eration. This was the first command initiated by the spacecraft itself 
since it performed its mid-course maneuver Dec. 5. mariner iv had 
traveled nearly 63 million miles in its 325-million-mile flight to Mars; 
the straight-line distance between earth and the spacecraft was 6,156,- 
704 miles. Systems were operating normally after 36 days in space. 
(NASA Release 65-4) 

• More than 50 million Europeans — including viewers behind the Iron 

Curtain — had received same-day transmission of the Tokyo Olympic 
Games via U.S. satellites syncom hi and relay I last October, nasa 
announced. ( nasa Release 65-2 ) 

• Japan's Ministry of Telecommunications said signals from what they had 

thought a new Soviet satellite turned out to be Italian-U.S. san marco 
I. launched Dec. 15, 1964. (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 1/2/65; AP, Wash. 
Sun. Star, 1/3/65) 

• Dr. Albert J. Kelley, Deputy Director of NASA Electronics Research 

Center, said in an article in Boston Sunday Globe: "The need for 
increased electronics research to develop devices which will meet the 
demands and rigors of long space flights wiU affect our industrial 
outlook and economy in many ways. By requiring a 'new look' at 
electronics, NASA, led by ERC, will provide a research emphasis such as 
we have not had since World War II when the golden age of electronics 
started. 

"We have been in the 'rocket phase' and are now entering the 'elec- 
tronic phase' of space flight development, a phase which will affect us 
dramatically over many years." (Boston Sun. Globe, 1/3/65) 

• British designers had perfected a miniature rocket costing only $2,240 

per copy, it was reported. Nine ft. in length with a 7l/i>-in, diameter, 
the rocket would use solid fuel and reach a speed of 3,500 mph. 
sending the casing containing scientific instruments to maximum 
altitude of 80 mi. plus. ( AP, Kansas City Times, 1/4/65) 

• Scientists concluded that explosions and resultant earth-craters created 

by giant meteorites bore a striking similarity to the effect produced by 
the larger nuclear weapons; hence a meteorite fall might be mistaken 
for a nuclear explosion. Opinions varied as to the size of the body 
that could couge a crater as large as the Meteor Crater of Arizona — 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 3 

anywhere from 30.000 tons to 2.6 million tons, with an explosive force 
of 20 million tons of TNT. Both the size of the meteorite and its 
velocity on impact would be factors in producing a crater. ( Sullivan, 
NYT, i 3 65, 6E ) 
January 3: Semyon A. Kosberg, 61, one of the Soviet Union's leading de- 
signers of airplane engines, was killed in an automobile accident. He 
had been given the title "Hero of Socialist Labor" and had won a Lenin 
prize for his designs. {NYT, L'5/65, 12) 

• Writing in Pravda, I. Akulinichev, Dr. of Medical Sciences, said: 

". . . Of course, the question of lunar laboratories is now only 
at the level of scientific planning. ... To bring this possibility closer 
to our times, it is necessary to accomplish manned flights to the region 
of the Moon. Further, we need to solve reliably the question of meth- 
ods to use for a successful lunar landing of a spacecraft and the return 
of the cosmonauts to Earth. In my view, the first lunar laboratories 
will initially study the possibilities of the prolonged sojourn of man on 
the Moon. Scientists will investigate ways of using the lunar condi- 
tions for assisting the normal life activity of people. . . . Finally, the 
scientists will study the conditions of orientation on the Moon and the 
possibilities of the navigation of interplanetary spacecraft." 

In the same issue of Pravda, Soviet Academician B. Konstantinov 
wrote: "In this New Year's article, I wish to dwell on the possibility of 
international cooperation in the use of solar energy. . . . What ap- 
pears most attractive is the conversion of solar energy into electrici- 
ty. In the foreseeable future, man may solve this problem; along with 
this, it is conceivable that the problems of controlling the weather and 
climate will also be solved." ( Pravda, 1/3/65, 4, ATSS-T Trans.) 
January 4: Gemini GT-3 spacecraft arrived at NASA Kennedy Space Center 
for final flight preparations before the nation's first two-man flight this 
spring. ( KSC Release 3-65 ) 

• According to Dr. Harold B. Finger, Manager of aec-NASA Space Nuclear 

Propulsion Office (snpo), nasa would not spend any further funds on 
Project Orion (nuclear-pulse propulsion project). The decision was 
based on the fact that such a system could not be used while the nuclear 
test ban treaty was in effect. In addition, NASA felt there were more 
urgent projects on which to spend the money. (M&R, 1/4/65, 9) 

• Dr. Barry Commoner, professor of plant physiology at Washington Univ. 

in St. Louis and chairman of the aaas Committee on Science in the 
Promotion of Human Welfare, told Aviation Week and Space Tech- 
nology that the question of the probability of finding life on Mars had 
not been "fully and fairly aired," and that an "overbalance of the 
positive viewpoint has been presented to Congress and the public by 
NASA officials." Dr. Commoner said that if asked his views on 
Voyager as a tax-paying citizen, his feeling would be that "the value of 
pursuing a program to find life on Mars at this time is not worth the 
$1.25 billion to be invested because the problem of finding life there 
has not been adequately explored." He had made similar charges in a 
speech at the aaas meeting last December in Montreal. 

Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for Space 
Science and Applications, was reported by Aviation Week and Space 
Technology as listing six major points in defending NASA's position 



4 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

regarding Mars exploration: (1) Numerous competent scientists had 
said there was little liquid water on Mars and that the planet had 
a dry, dusty surface with high ultraviolet radiation. Changing pat- 
terns on the planet indicated some form of seasonal change, how- 
ever. (2) With the evidence at hand, it was not possible to say there 
was life on Mars, only that life might be there. (3) If there were life 
on Mars it might be similar to basic life forms on earth. (4) The only 
reasonable approach we could take to the exploration of Mars would 
be to make sure we looked for life before the planet was contaminated 
from earth. If life was not found on Mars, it still would be valuable 
to determine how far the planet's chemical processes had progressed 
toward life formation. (5) The Voyager program had not been sold 
to Congress on the basis that there was life on Mars. It has been 
pointed out during budget hearings that there might not be life on the 
planet but nobody could responsibly take the position that there 
wasn't. Therefore, the early emphasis of Project Voyager was on 
bioscience. (6) The Mars exploration was part of an overall program 
to explore the solar system, including the moon, comets, and other 
planets. Mars happened to be the planet NASA was focusing its at- 
tention on because it would be in the optimum launch position through 
the mid-1970's. (Av. Wk, 1/4/65, 18) 
January 4: Dr. Gerard P. Kuiper, director of the Lunar and Planetary 
Laboratory of the Univ. of Arizona and principal scientific investiga- 
tor on the Ranger project, replied to Robert C. Co wen's article, "Was 
the Ranger Worth the Cost?", which appeared in the Christian Science 
Monitor Nov. 18. Mr. Cowen had raised four principal questions: (1) 
Was the recent ranger vii mission scientifically justifiable? (2) Was 
it well planned and executed? (3) Were the results up to expecta- 
tions? (4) Where do we go from here? Dr. Kuiper said in letter to 
CSM: "Ranger was the U.S. pioneering program of deep-space research 
and accomplished much more than getting the 4,300 lunar photographs. 
It established the worth and feasibility of the 'parking orbit' and other 
concepts of space ballistics, power supply, and communication, as well 
as preparation for Mars and Venus probes. . . . The cost of the 4,300 
lunar records is therefore not the full $270 million (which moreover 
includes Rangers viii and ix, not yet flown) but, say, S50-$100 mil- 
lion. No ground-based effort, even with the 300-400-inch telescope 
costing over $100 million, would, even in the absence of our disturbing 
atmosphere, have yielded 100th of the magnification (resolution) ob- 
tained in Ranger vii. I definitely know of no better and cheaper way 
to get high-resolution photographs. . . ." 

In a reply to Dr. Kuiper, Mr. Cowen quoted from a letter by Dr. 
Andrew T. Young of Harvard College Observatory and published in 
Science: ". . . It is clear that there are some things that can only be 
learned above the atmosphere, and it is important that we have a 
program directed at learning them. . . . [But] many things that can 
be learned from above the atmosphere can also be learned, much more 
cheaply, by ground-based techniques. For example, some of the most 
convincing evidence for life on Mars is based on a few hours of twi- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 5 

light observations with the 200-inch telescope. . . . But the 200-inch 
telescope has been available for planetary research only a few times, 
generally during daylight or twilight. . . . Rocket-borne research in- 
volves many costly failures, but a duplicate 200-inch telescope could 
easilv be built and staffed for the $28 million that Ranger 7 alone 
cost.\ . ." (C5M, 1/4/65) 
January 4: Gen. Bernard A. Schriever (usaf) announced the activation of 
the Contract Management Div.. Air Force Systems Command (afsc), 
under the command of Col. Fred L. Rennels, Jr. (usaf). Located at 
Los Angeles Air Force Station, the new division would be responsible 
for DOD contract management activities in those plants assigned to the 
Air Force under the DOD National Plant Cognizance program, (afsc 
Release 6L64) 

• USAF announced that Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., was receiving a 

$1,056,700 final increment to an existing contract for production of 
ion thrustor systems for orbital flight, (dod Release 917-65) 

• Col. John H. Glenn, Jr., former NASA astronaut and first American to 

orbit the earth, retired from the Marine Corps after 22 yrs. in the 
service. Glenn said he would spend much of his time as a consultant 
to NASA. He would also be a director of Royal Crown Cola Co. (dod 
Release 912-64; Wash. Eve. Star, 1/4/65; Wash. Post, 1/5/65; Bait. 
Sun, 1/5/65; Chic. Trih., 1/5/65) 
January 5: NASA announced plans to negotiate with Lockheed Missile and 
Space Co. to modify five Agena D second-stage launch vehicles for use 
in Lunar Orbiter missions. Modifications under the incentive con- 
tract would include vehicle engineering support; systems testing; over- 
all system integration functions; shroud, adapter and interface co- 
ordination; and design fabrication of ground equipment. The Lunar 
Orbiter program would secure topography data of the moon's surface 
to extend scientific knowledge and to help select and confirm landing 
sites for the Apollo manned moon landings, (nasa Release 65-6) 

• NASA Manned Spacecraft Center had received an estimated 1,351 appli- 

cations or letters of interest relating to the scientist-astronaut program. 
The deadline for filing applications had been Dec. 31, 1964. {Houston 
Post, 1/5/65) 

• J. Stalony-Dobrazanski of the Northrop Corp. reported at aiaa meet- 

ing in New York that spaceships could be kept cool automatically 
during reentry by a new guidance system. Network of supersensitive 
thermometers imbedded in the outer skin of the spacecraft would 
monitor the temperature, then computer would order correction in vehi- 
cle's trajectory or orientation if friction of the atmosphere raised skin 
temperature above a certain point. (Wash. Daily News, 1/26/65) 

• Western Electric Company had received a $90,644,200 modification to 

an existing cost-plus-incentive-fee contract for research and develop- 
ment of Nike-X missile system, dod announced, (dod Release 3-65) 

• Federal Aviation Agency (faa) announced completion of the new Federal 

Aviation Regulations (fars) — a simplification of rules governing the 
Nation's pilots, airlines, and airplane manufacturers. Number of regu- 
lations was reduced from 125 to 55. (faa Release 65-2) 



6 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

January 5: In a television interview, Israeli Premier Levi Eshkol urged 
West Germans to end the activity of German rocket experts in the 
United Arab Republic, said that these experts were helping the Arabs 
to prepare a war against Israel. The West German government had 
officially deplored the participation of German scientists and military 
experts in Arab rocket projects, but had not interfered on the grounds 
that the group was composed of private citizens who, according to the 
German Constitution, could work where they pleased. German rocket 
expert Prof. Wolfgang Pilz, leader of Germans working for the U.A.R., 
spoke in an interview of the pressure brought to bear by the Israeli 
Government, particularly the terrorist tactics of Israeli secret agents 
which made it necessary for Germans to be accompanied by body 
guards at all times. (NYT, 1/7/65, 5; Buchalla, NYT, 1/8/65, 1) 

January 6: NASA Nike- Apache sounding rocket reached a peak altitude of 
91.1 mi. from Wallops Island, Va. Purpose was to simultaneously 
measure the altitude of sodium airglow with sodium vapor and inter- 
ference filters and determine atmospheric density with a 26-in., metal- 
lized, inflated mylar sphere, (nasa Rpt. srl) 

• F-111a was flown successfully for the second time from Carswell afb, 

Tex. Flight data: maximum altitude, 27,000 ft.; maximum speed, 400 
knots (460 mph) ; flight time, 1 hr. and 2 min. General Dynamics test 
pilots Richard L. Johnson and Val E. Prahl conducted stability and 
control tests at 10,000 and 20,000 ft., operating the wing sweep mecha- 
nism from 16° takeoff position to 26° position, then 43°, back to 40° 
to make sure the system worked, and finally to full-swept 72.5° 
position. This was the first time that wing position was varied in the 
flight of a military aircraft. The major test objective of the flight was 
accomplished — 10 min. of flight with wings fuUy aft. Flight plans 
calling for an evaluation of stability at 30,000 ft. were called off be- 
cause fuel flow and temperature in one of the two jet engines appeared 
to be outside normal limits, but this involved no reduction in flight 
time. General Dynamics reportedly would receive a bonus amounting 
to more than $800,000 for completing this milestone flight 24 days 
ahead of schedule. (Thomis, Chic. Trib., 1/7/65; Witkin, NYT, 
1/7/65, 1; Av. JVk., 1/11/65, 19) 

• Air Force Secretary Eugene M. Zuckert placed further restrictions on 

simulated bombing missions of B-58 Hustlers over Chicago: the super- 
sonic bombers would fly at higher altitudes (48,000-49,000 ft. instead 
of 41,000-44,000-ft. range originafly programed) to reduce impacts 
of sonic booms; flights would be canceled during bad weather. It had 
been announced earlier that the number of training missions per day 
would be reduced from a maximum of four to two. {Chic. Trib., 
1/7/65) 

• Federal Aviation Agency Administrator Najeeb E. Halaby proposed that 

a 10-day international aerospace and science exposition be held at the 
Dulles International Airport in June 1966. Purpose of the exposition 
would be to stimulate aerospace exports. {NYT, 1/8/65, 10) 

• Indonesian Air Vice Admiral Budiardjo, deputy air force chief for logis- 

tics, claimed that Indonesia had begun surveys for space flights and 
would be able to launch its first astronaut by 1968. (ap, Wash. Post., 
1/7/65, A13) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 7 

January 7 : mariner iv was 70 million mi. on its 325-million-mi. flight to 
Mars after 40 days in space. All systems were operating normally 
(AP, ?h\\.Eve. Bull, 1/7/65) 

• Dr. William A. Lee of nasa Manned Spacecraft Center announced new- 

launch schedule for Saturn IB and Saturn V: 1966, three unmanned 
and one manned launches of Saturn IB; 1967, two unmanned Saturn 
V launches, one manned Saturn IB, Lem test with Saturn IB, one 
manned flight with complete Apollo spacecraft, using Saturn IB, and 
one manned flight using either Saturn IB or Saturn V, whichever was 
farthest along in development: 1968, a dress rehearsal for the lunar 
mission in earth orbit for one week with astronauts partici- 
pating. "Then the moon." said Dr. Lee. "We have a fighting chance 
to make it by 1970 and also stay within the $20 billion price tag set 
for the mission bv former President Kennedy." (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 
1/7/65) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb swore in R. Walter Riehlman, 

former Republican member of the House of Representatives from New 
York's 34th District (Syracuse) as a consultant on policy 
matters. ( NASA Release 65-9 ) 

• ComSatCorp asked nine foreign companies to propose studies of launch 

vehicles for medium altitude communications satellites in addition to 
the 16 American companies approached a month ago. The deadline 
for submitting proposals was extended from Jan. 11 to Feb. 1. (Com- 
SatCorp) 

• AEC report said that nuclear fuel aboard a spacecraft which failed to 

go into orbit last April 21 had burned up harmlessly at high altitude. 
This was a reply to Russian and other critics who had accused the 
U.S. of causing radiation hazards by putting atomic generators aboard 
spacecraft. The generator involved was a Snap-9A aboard a Navy 
navigation satellite launched from Vandenberg afb, Calif. (UPI, Phil. 
Eve. Bull, 1/8/65) 

• Sen. Leverett Sahonstall (R. — Mass.) introduced in the Senate a bill 

designed to set aside March 16 of every year in honor of Dr. 
Robert H. Goddard, "the father of modern rocketry." The bill was 
referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (CR, 1/7/65, 283) 

• Vice Adm. H. G. Rickover (USN) spoke before the Publishers' Lunch 

Club of New York. In his speech Admiral Rickover said: "How to 
resolve the antithesis between technology and individual liberty; how 
to insure that technology will be beneficial, not harmful, to man, to 
society, and to our democratic institutions — this, I would say, is a 
public question. I raise it here because I believe the members of 
this audience are particularly well qualified to explore this 
problem. In your business the conflict between technology and liberty 
— so prevalent everywhere else in our society — is muted, if not absent 
altogether. 

"Improvements in the mechanics of producing and selHng books 
have not diminished the importance of the author. Your success stiU 
depends on him. He cannot be rendered obsolete by 
automation. The human factor therefore continues to outweigh the 
technical. As in the past, your main function is to discover talent and 
help bring it to fruition. You know that liberty enhances creativity, 



8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

that men with a special competence must be allowed to follow their 
own judgment. . . . 

"How to make technology most useful to ourselves and our society, 
yet prevent it from controlling our lives — that is the problem. The 
problem is aggravated by the bureau-cratization of American life, itself 
largely a result of technology." (Text, CR, 1/29/65, 1522-24) 
January 7: USAF announced that AFSC Space Systems Div. had awarded a 
$1,783,500 increment to an existing contract for procurement of stand- 
ard launch vehicle boosters to Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. (dod Re- 
lease 8-65) 

• Britain would go ahead with the $880-million U.K. -France project to 

build the Concorde supersonic airliner, according to the London Daily 
Express. Two Concorde prototypes, and possibly as many as six, 
would be built with work shared by the British Aircraft Corp. and 
France's Sud Aviation. There had been no official French response 
to British Labor government's proposal that the Concorde project be 
cut back, but French government as well as British union leaders were 
said to be hostile to the proposed "review." (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 
1/7/65; Av. Wk., 1/11/65, 32) 

• Julius E. Kuczma, executive secretary of the U.S. Labor-Management 

Government Commission, said his group had decided to hold a hearing 
and take any steps necessary to resolve the labor dispute that had 
halted construction work at Cape Kennedy last month. (UPI, Orl. 
Sen., 1/8/65) 
January 8: faa announced that contracts for industry study in the super- 
sonic transport program had been extended an additional two months. 
(AP, Bah. Sun, 1/9/65) 

• Dr. Richard Shorthill of Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories report- 

ed that from 400 to 800 "hot spots" were observed on the moon dur- 
ing the eclipse of December 18, 1964. The lunar face had been 
scanned at infrared wavelengths from the Helwan Observatory near 
Cairo, Egypt. Recent impacts from meteors, which would create 
rocky craters slower to cool after the sunlight was obscured, might 
account for the "hot spots." It was already known that prominent 
craters from which rays radiated in all directions, such as Tycho, were 
slow to cool, compared to the normal surface, which was thought to be 
carpeted with dust. While the total number of slow-cooling locations 
would remain uncertain until the tape-recorded results had been plot- 
ted by computer. Dr. Shorthill felt that if the technique produced an 
inventory of young craters, it would help in spotting new ones when 
they occurred and in estimating the rate at which the moon and the 
earth were bombarded by debris from space. (Sullivan, NYT, 
1/9/65) 

• Application for patents on a recoverable single-stage spacecraft booster 

was filed with the U.S. Patent Office by NASA Marshall Space Flight 
Center. Invented by Philip Bono, a space engineer at Douglas Missile 
and Space Systems Div., the booster was called Rombus (Reusable 
Orbital Module — Booster and Utility Shuttle) and would have the ca- 
pability of placing approximately 1 million lb. in circular orbit 175 mi. 
high and could be reused 20 times. Rombus would have its own 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 9 

propulsion for orbiting, deorbiting, and landing retrothrust, would em- 
ploy eight strap-on, jettisonable liquid hydrogen fuel tanks. The vehi- 
cle resulted from a NASA-funded study but was not presently being 
developed. (Marshall Star, 1/13/65, 1-2; Seattle Post-Intelligence, 
1/8/65) 
January 9: At Vatican City, Pope Paul vi saw a movie made up of photos 
taken by ranger vii as it neared the moon. NASA Associate Ad- 
ministrator Robert Seamans, Jr., in Europe on other business, and 
NASA European representative, Gilbert W. Ousley, were received by the 
Pope, showed him the movie, and answered his questions. {N.Y. Her- 
ald Trib., 1/11/65; AP, Bait. Sun., 1/11/65) 

• Dr. Eric Ogden, Chief of the Environmental Biology Division at NASA 

Ames Research Center, was recipient of a Research Committee Citation 
presented by the American Heart Association in New York. His work 
for the Heart Association had been primarily in planning and evaluat- 
ing heart research projects, (arc Release 65-1) 

• Tass announced that the Soviet Union would launch new types of space 

rockets into the Pacific Ocean from Jan. 11 until Mar. 1 to gather 
experimental data, and had asked other governments using sea or air 
routes in the Pacific to make arrangements for ships and aircraft 
not to enter the impact area between noon and midnight during the 
launching period. The carrier rockets would be fired to a point 
within a radius of 74 mi. from a center with coordinates of 1.58° 
north latitude and 164.17° west longitude. (Reuters, NYT, 1/10/65; 
Tass, Izvestia, 1/12/65, 4, atss-t Trans.) 

• Working on the assumption that a leveling off of defense expenditures in 

the Federal budget would be accompanied by diversion of some defense 
funds for other public needs, California was taking steps to find new 
customers for its aerospace industries. 37 per cent of California's 
manufacturing industry was concentrated in ordnance, aircraft, elec- 
trical, and instrument production, all of which, according to Gov. 
Edmund G. Brown, would be vulnerable to cutbacks and phaseouts 
in the Government's space and defense programs. The state was pre- 
pared to finance study contracts in four major problem areas: waste 
management, data collection, care of the mentally and criminally ill, 
and transportation systems. Aerojet-General Corp. had already signed 
a six-month. $100,000 contract to develop long-range state plans to 
manage all kinds of waste, including air and water pollution. (Davies, 
NYT, 1/10/65, 12) 

• Univ. of Louisville would be the first engineering school in the U.S. to 

have installed an electric system linking its computers with all labora- 
tories and classrooms in its Speed Scientific School. Students work- 
ing on experiments would signal measurements directly to a computer 
for immediate calculation and correlation. Experiments could be 
shown on closed circuit TV. Eventually the computers would be pro- 
gramed to direct experiments by automatically changing temperatures, 
mixtures, pressure rates, or liquid flows. [NYT, 1/10/65, 44) 
January 10: NASA signed a one-year S70,000 contract with Flight Safety 
Foundation to report and evaluate research and development projects 
and events related to rough air in the atmosphere. The study would 
be conducted from FSF Offices in New York City, Phoenix, Ariz., and 
Los Angeles, (nasa Release 65-10) 



10 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

January 10: In an article entitled "The Pentagon, the 'Madmen,' and the 
Moon," Maj. Gen. of the Soviet Air Force B. Teplinskiy said: "Sober 
voices in the United States call for collaboration with the U.S.S.R. in 
space research. The Saturday Evening Post said: 'When we reach the 
moon and the stars, we shall find the solutions to the most profound 
secrets of the universe. How much more easily accessible all this 
would be if we would fly there together.' 

"It is known throughout the entire world that the lag in this respect 
does not depend on the Soviet Union. It is the spiteful policy of those 
U.S. circles, which do not hide their military space plans, which consti- 
tute the obstacle. These plans are widely trumpeted by the press, 
television, and radio. Such a position is not accidental. On the one 
hand it allegedly pursues the aim of enhancing U.S. prestige while it 
actually is aimed at blowing up the psychosis around the space arma- 
ments race and at trying to provoke the Soviet Union into retalatory 
measures or to intimidate it by the alleged U.S. possibilities. A naive 
scheme." (Krasnaya Zvezda, 1/10/65, 3) 

• Data from solrad. the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite monitoring 

the sun's x-ray behavior during the 1964^65 International Years of 
the Quiet Sun (iQSYj, indicated that the sun was at its quietest during 
May, June, and July, 1964. Information from solrad also suggested 
that the x-ray region of the corona, instead of being a homogeneous 
region of a million miles or so, was a series of small cells that flared 
up to emit hard x-rays and then decayed rapidly. What was seen on 
earth was the net effect of many knots of very hot, flashing gas 
giving the appearance of a homogeneous region. ( Simons. Wash. Post, 
1/11/65; Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 1/11/65; M&R, 1/18/65) 

• Eight NASA astronauts began geology field training in Hawaii, where they 

visited lava fields of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, active volcanoes, as well 
as upper elevations of dormant Mauna Kea. Geologists believed that 
these shield volcanoes contained features similar to those of the lunar 
surface. 

Study emphasis was on mechanics of lava flow, fissure eruption, 
deep lava lakes; examples of hot and cold basaltic flows; physical 
composition of lava rock; and topographic forms of shield 
volcanoes. Underfoot textures theorized as being typical of lunar ter- 
rain ranged from the glassy form of "pahoehoe" lava, through the 
crusty snow effect of "aa" lava, to the sinking feeling of loose cinders 
and pumice. 

The study was conducted by Dr. Ted Foss, head of the Geology and 
Geochemistry Section at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Astronauts 
were Charles Conrad, Jr., Clifton C. Williams, David R. Scott, Edwin 
E. Aldrin, Jr., Alan L. Bean, Donn F. Eisele, Roger Chaffee, and Ri- 
chard Gordon. ( UPi, Houston Chron., 1/11/65; Bryan, Houston 
Post, 1/14/65) 

• U.S. Chamber of Commerce released a report entitled "Criteria for Fed- 

eral Support of Research and Development," which proposed the 
establishment of a forum for debating scientific and technical issues 
(such as space exploration and desalting of the oceans) before they 
became national policy. The council, to be composed of representa- 
tives of industry, labor, the Government, and the academic industry, 
would investigate the inherent worth of proposed programs and their 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 H 

value to society to increase public understanding of issues that were 
usually decided by the Government alone and debated afterward. 
(Clark, NYT, 1 11/65. 46) 
January 11: Dr. Edward C. Welsh, Executive Secretary of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council, said before the New York Academy of 
Sciences that '"scientists should not set themselves up to judge the 
overall value" of the national space program. Past advice from scien- 
tists had not always been sound advice, he noted. ". . . Organized 
science has not always been outstanding for its courage, its vision, or 
its optimism regarding goals for human efforts. Elements of con- 
servatism, parochialism, and even reactionary thinking do appear 
among scientists just as they do among many other groups in our 
society." 

Dr. Welsh was also critical of the practice of criticizing the space 
program "by narrowly comparing" the dollars spent for space with 
what those same dollars might accomplish "if devoted to other endeav- 
ors, scientific or otherwise." He said that often such dollars were not 
transferable; that space dollars might change the general climate to 
one favoring broader aid to the whole spectrum of science; and that 
since space expenditures sought broader goals than those of science, 
"the comparison may well be invalid on the face of it." 

He continued: "The visionaries, whether primarily scientists or poli- 
cy makers, must be given the opportunity to point out the many 
benefits which can flow from the manned and unmanned uses of 
aerospace. But, given such opportunity, they should use it effectively 
and affirmatively. Regardless of their motivations, the pessimists who 
cry out against aerospace research and technological endeavors have 
clearly set themselves against progress. The United States can no 
longer relax and rest on its past industrial laurels. The race for sur- 
vival, literally and philosophically, is on. Of course, we would all like 
to believe in the solely non-aggressive uses of aerospace by all coun- 
tries which have the needed technology. However, the realities of life 
dictate adequate preparation to preserve our national and Free World 
security. We should follow the axiom that a pound of prevention is 
worth mega-tons of cure." 

Howard Simons commented in the W ashington Post that these re- 
marks were probably precipitated by a report from a committee of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science which had 
charged that social, economic, military, and political pressures were 
distorting the traditional values and effectiveness of science. The re- 
port was highly critical of Project Apollo: "The Apollo program, in its 
present form, does not appear to be based on the orderly, systematic 
extension of basic scientific investigation." (Text, CR, 1/28/65, 
A364-65; Simons, Wash. Post, 1/12/65) 
• NASA announced that Launch Complex 16 at Cape Kennedy would be 
modified to convert the former Titan missile facility into static test 
stands for the Apollo manned lunar spacecraft. Construction bids 
were expected to be opened by Army Corps of Engineers, late this 
month. The modified test facility would replace an Apollo static test 
stand originally planned for the NASA Kennedy Space Center's Merritt 
Island facihty. Officials estimated that the modification of Complex 



12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

16 would represent a cost reduction of about 72 per cent under the 
original S7 million construction estimate for test stands on Merritt 
Island. (KSC Release 7-65) 

January 11: NASA Langley Research Center scientist Windsor L. Sherman 
proposed conversion of Project Mercury spacecraft into unmanned, 
recoverable orbiting telescope platforms. Equipment would include a 
76-cm. Cassegrainian telescope, a camera recording system, and an 
attitude control system. The system would weigh approximately 
4,700 lb. and would be aimed for a 300-mi. orbit. The observatory 
would remain in orbit 100-200 days, exposing four frames of film on 
each orbit for a total of 6,000 frames. After all film was exposed, the 
system would be braked out of orbit and would descend into the 
Bermuda recovery area of the Eastern Test Range, using the same re- 
covery techniques developed for the manned Mercury landings. In 
addition to its capacity to perform a variety of such astronomical ob- 
servations as high resolution photography, photometry, and spectros- 
copy, Sherman said, the recoverable observatory would permit reuse 
of capsule, optical, and control systems. It would allow study of 
space effects on equipment, and the system could serve as a test bed 
for advanced orbiting telescopes. (Av. Wk., 1/11/65, 23) 

• Dr. John J. Brennan, Jr., Chairman of the Committee for the Preserva- 
tion of Cambridge Industries, said he would take to Washington the 
committee's fight to keep the NASA Electronic Research Center out of 
Cambridge. Dr. Brennan said the City of Cambridge's claim that the 
renewal project would cost the Federal government $15 million was 
way off. He said costs would be between $40 million and $50 
million. In a letter to the House and Senate Appropriations Commit- 
tees and the House and Senate space committees, Brennan stated: "We 
are taking every proper course of action, legal and otherwise, to stop 
this senseless destruction. . . .We do not believe that the overall de- 
struction will bear judicial scrutiny." 

Paul Frank, director of the Cambridge Urban Redevelopment Au- 
thority, said Brennan's figures were inaccurate and that the $40-$50 
million figure was wrong. He claimed the overall cost would bring it 
down to $14,500,000. Of this figure, the Federal government cost 
would be $9,600,000 with the remaining $4,900,000 paid by the City 
of Cambridge, he asserted. [Boston Globe, 1/11/65) 

During the week of January 11: Titan III program director Brig. Gen. 
Joseph S. Bleymaier (usaf) said at a meeting of the New York Acad- 
emy of Sciences that the launch of the Titan Iii-A, on Dec. 10, 1964, 
may have gained the most accurate orbit ever achieved in the U.S. 
space program. The vehicle achieved an orbit with 102-n. mi. apo- 
gee and a 99-n. mi. perigee against a planned 100-n. mi. nominal 
orbital altitude. Deviation from a true circle was 0.00075 against a 
predicted value of 0.00050. Time for a single orbit was 88.2 min., 
within 0.04 min. of the time predicted. [M&R, 1/18/65. 10) 

January 11: U.S.S.R. orbited cosmos lii earth satellite. Orbital data: 
apogee, 304 km. (188.9 mi.); perigee, 205 km. (127.4 mi.); period 
89.5 min.; inclination to the equator, 65°. The satellite carried 
scientific equipment "for the further investigation of outer space 
in accordance with the program announced by Tass on the 16th of 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 13 

March, 1962." (Tass. Komsomolskaya Pravda, 1/12/65, 1, atss-t 
Trans. ) 
January 11: North American Air Defense Command (norad) tracked a 
new Russian satellite ( COSMOS Lii ) for several hours before Moscow 
announced the launching. As of this date, norad's space detection and 
tracking system was observing 488 man-made objects in space, of 
which 29 were actual payload satellites and the rest debris from pre- 
vious launchings. (ap, Bait. Sun, 1 12/65) 

• Arthur D. Little, Inc.. released a 54-page study entitled "Strategies for 

Survival in the Aerospace Industry," which predicted that in the next 
five years the production portion of the defense budget would decline 
about 30 per cent and research and development would decline about 
15 per cent. The report recommended that "in view of a declining 
market and fewer opportunities within the market, the aerospace in- 
dustry's principal objective within the next few years should be to 
achieve stability, rather than to search for growth opportuni- 
ties." ( Duggan, N.Y. Her. Trib., 1/12/65 I 

• In January, Dr. Donald F. Hornig began his second year as science 

adviser to President Johnson and director of the White House Office of 
Science and Technology. In interview he mentioned that his job was 
created to prevent a recurrence of the kind of official surprise that 
greeted Russia's launching of the sputnik I on Oct. 4, 1957. Hornig 
said the policy questions that he encountered were not ones of "right 
or wrong, but wise or less wise." (Av. Wk., 1/11/65, 16) 

• U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce named Capt. Joseph H. Engle (USAF) 

one of the ten outstanding young men of 1964. Captain Engle, the 
youngest of the x-15 pilots, had logged nine flights in the x-15. 
Awardees would be honored at an awards congress Jan. 15-16 in Santa 
Monica, Calif, (ap, Des Moines Register, 1/12/65) 
January 12: Kiwi-TNT (Transient Nuclear Test) was successfully completed 
at Jackass Flats, Nev. This was a safety test to verify predictions of 
behavior of graphite nuclear reactor during a maximum power 
excursion. Using data from the test scientists would establish safety 
standards, particularly for launching nuclear-powered rockets. Nu- 
clear energy released in the test was well within the designated maxi- 
mum of nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. Preliminary test results indi- 
cated: (1) from l/)-mi. to 50-mi. downwind from the test site, 
radiation did not approach accepted danger levels; (2) lethal radia- 
tion was confined to 200-to-300-ft. radius of the site, and beyond 500- 
to-600-ft. radius "a person would probably have survived unhurt un- 
less struck by a piece of debris"; (3) pre-test predictions of the 
reactor's behavior were accurate; and (4) cleaning up radioactivity at 
the site was easier than expected. Kiwi ground-test version of a nu- 
clear-reactor rocket engine was a nasa-aec project. (UPI, Wash. 
Post, 1/13/65; NYT, 1/13/65; ap, Bait. Sun, 1/13/65; JAMA, 
2/8/65, 27-29; Rover Chron., n.d.) 

• USN announced the Transit navigational satellite system was opera- 

tional and had been in use since July 1964. The three gravity-gra- 
dient-stabilized satellites, weighing between 110 and 160 lbs. each, 
were launched on Thor-Able-Star boosters into near-circular 600-mi. 
polar orbits from Pt. Mugu, Calif. Operational lifetime of the satel- 
lites was expected to be about two years. The satellites emitted radio 



14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

signals which ships used to determine their positions, and could pro- 
vide ships with navigational fixes — accurate to 0.1 mi. — about every 
90 min. The shipboard computer operated automatically, beginning 
when the satellite approached, receiving the data, computing the ship's 
position, and typing the results for the navigator. A number of fleet 
units were reported to be using the system. Capt. F. H. Price, Jr. 
(usn), who tested the system from the nuclear-powered cruiser U.S.S. 
Long Beach, called the system "the most reliable means of providing 
navigation&l information" and said it met the requirement of an "ac- 
curate, dependable, worldwide, all-weather, 24-hour-a-day capabili- 
ty." This was the first continuous use of space technology in direct 
support of the fleet. It was predicted, but not officially confirmed, 
that the Polaris missile-firing submarines would adopt the navigational 
satellite system. NASA was studying commercial applications of a 
navigational satellite system and considering the possibility of de- 
veloping its own system if it proved economically feasible. (DOD Re- 
lease 16-65; AP, Chic. Trib., 1/13/65; Watson, Bait. Sun, 1/13/65; 
M&R, 1/18/65, 14) 
January 12: S. Walter Hixon, Jr., Supervisory Employee Development 
Officer at the NASA Langley Research Center, was selected for his edu- 
cational activities as the Federal Civil Service Employee of the Year in 
the Hampton Roads area. Hixon had conducted four major programs 
at Langley including graduate study, advanced in-house training, a 
cooperative college education plan, and an apprenticeship training 
system. (LaRC Release) 

• France's newest satellite tracking station, located outside Pretoria, South 

Africa, was nearing completion and would probably be operational by 
July 1965. The $840,000 station would be used to track France's first 
satellite, scheduled to be orbited around the earth in 1965, (ap, Bait. 
Sun, 1/13/65) 

• The first 95-passenger DC-9 jet liner rolled off the Douglas Aircraft Co. 

assembly line. A short-haul, twin-engine jet, the DC-9 would be able 
to land on most conventional airstrips and would, therefore, serve 98 
per cent of the Nation's civil airports. 58 planes had been ordered 
and options were taken on 60 more, but development costs would not 
be met until the 200 mark was reached. Flight tests would begin in 
March 1965 or sooner, and airlines operating the new jet expected to 
start passenger service early in 1966. (UPi, NYT, 1/12/65, 72) 

• DOD announced Peter Kiewit Sons Company had received a $9,495,000 

contract for modification of Titan ii launch facilities in the vicinity of 
Davis-Monthan afb, Ariz.; Little Rock afb. Ark.; McConnell afb, Kan.; 
and at Vandenberg afb, Calif. The Army Corps of Engineers awarded 
the contract. (DOD Release 18-65) 

• A Canadian company, Jarry Hydraulics, Ltd., designed and built the 

variable-wing sweep device for the USAf's f-111 fighter bomber. The 
actuator, consisting of a unit in the fuselage which controlled two 
booms, could withstand more than 500,000 lbs. tension and could set 
the wings within .015 of an inch of the position selected by the pilot, 
at a rate of 200° per minute. (Toronto Globe and Mail, 1/12/65) 

• DOD would be using 1,274 computers by the end of FY 1965, compared to 

the 815 computers which were in use when Robert S. McNamara first 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 15 

became Secretary of Defense, nasa would be using 224 computers in 
various branches of its operations. (Fay, Wash. Eve. Star, 1/12/65) 
January 13: x-15 No. 3 flown by NASA pilot Milton 0. Thompson to maxi- 
mum altitude of 99.400 ft. and maximum speed of 3,712 mph (mach 
5.48 ) . Purpose of the flight was to collect air flow data and record 
measurements of skin friction on the aircraft's surface, (nasa x-15 
Proj. Off.; FRC Release; X-15 Flight Log) 

• NASA launched a two part 994b. sounding rocket payload from NASA 

Wallops Station which reached an altitude of 614 mi. but did not 
separate in flight as planned. Launched on a four-stage Javelin (Argo 
D-4) and designed as "mother-daughter" experiment, the payload was 
to separate into two sections at about 170-mi. altitude with radio signals 
to be sent from daughter to mother as they continued to rise separately. 
The technique was devised to provide more accurate profiles of elec- 
tron density in the upper atmosphere. Telemetry data would be 
analyzed to determine why the sections did not separate. (Wallops 
Release 65-3; NASA Rpt. SRL) 

• NASA successfully launched an Aerobee 150a sounding rocket to peak 

altitude of 110 mi. from Wallops Island, Va., with instrumented pay- 
load to measure the ultraviolet and visible light emitted from the earth's 
atmosphere between 37 mi. and 125 mi. An Attitude Control System 
(ACs) was also flown. Good spectral data were collected, (nasa 
Rpt. srl) 

• Reported that NASA Administrator James E. Webb had ruled against a 

protest by a group of nasa astronauts of the NASA decision to limit the 
first manned Gemini flight to three orbits. The astronauts had re- 
quested that the GT-3 flight should be "open-end," leaving it to the 
astronauts as to whether they should go for three or even 30 orbits. 
(Macomber, Copley News Service. San Diego Union, 1/13/65) 

• XC-142A V/Stol, flown by Ling-Temco-Vought test pilots John Konrad 

and Stuart Madison, made a flawless first transition flight. The trans- 
port aircraft took off like a helicopter, adjusted its wings for conven- 
tional flight, and then circled the field, reversed the process, and made 
a vertical landing. The xc-142a's first transition flight came only 
six flights after its initial hover flight on Dec. 29, 1964. It was the 
Nation's first V/Stol built for operational evaluaticri rather ^han 
research, (ap, CSM, 1/13/65) 

• NASA Langley Research Center scientists Harry W. Carlson and Francis 

E. McLean said that for the first time there was hope for a significant 
reduction in the sonic booms expected from proposed supersonic air- 
liners. A plane flying faster than the speed of sound compresses the 
air around it into shock waves trailing from the nose, wings, engine 
inlets, tail, and any other protuberances. Near the plane there would 
be separate waves, producing "near field effects." Traced on a graph 
to show changes in pressure, the waves would make a jagged line 
resembling the letter "N." As the waves traveled toward the ground, 
they would coalesce into two powerful waves — one appearing to trail 
from the nose and one from the tail — producing "far-field effects" 
also shaped as a letter "N" in terms of pressure patterns. The sharp 
peaks of this N-shaped wave were suspected of causing most of the 



16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

annoyance and structural damage possible from sonic booms. Carlson 
and McLean discovered that planes the length and shape of super- 
sonic airliner designs would not fly far enough away from the earth 
for their far-field effects to be felt on the ground, leaving only the 
less bothersome near-field effect to be taken into account. 

It was hoped that this new finding would mean that designs current- 
ly submitted to the Government in the design competition for super- 
sonic transport, or minor refinements of them, would fit within Gov- 
ernment-imposed sonic boom limitations and that still further 
improvement through design changes would bring further decreases in 
the boom. 

Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, LaRC Director, called what had been 
learned "significant new knowledge" and said it could, under the best 
of circumstances, "have great significance." He pointed out that the 
best of circumstances were seldom found in designing an airplane — 
particularly the supersonic transport, which he said was "at least as 
sophisticated technically as the Apollo." (Clark, ATT", 1/14/65, 1, 
12) 

January 13: DOD announced that during the next six months 150 iCBMs 
scheduled for deactivation (27 Atlas E, 69 Atlas F, and 54 Titan I mis- 
siles) would be put into storage at Norton afb, Calif. Some of these 
missiles would be used eventually as spacecraft boosters, others would 
be employed in the Nike-X program. They would be replaced by the 
more advanced Minuteman icbms, of which a total of 1,000 were 
authorized by Congress. It had cost almost $1 million a year to keep 
each of the older icbms combat-ready, as compared to $100,000 a year 
for each Minuteman. ( Sehlstedt, Bait. Sun, 1/14/65; A&A, 1/65, 92) 

• Dr. John C. Evvard, Deputy Associate Director for Research at NASA 
Lewis Research Center, discussed possible propulsion systems for fu- 
ture space-flight beyond the moon before the Conference on Civilian 
and Military Uses of Aerospace sponsored by the New York Academy 
of Sciences. He cited a manned Mars project as a prime example of a 
mission that could be performed by a number of different propulsion 
concepts. For example, manned trips by chemical rockets would be 
weight-restricted, but chemical rocket systems would have the advan- 
tage of having been extensively flight-tested on many other 
missions. Although the reactor for planned nuclear propulsion sys- 
tems had only been ground tested, evaluations of complete nuclear 
rocket engine systems were expected within the next few years. Elec- 
tric propulsion systems for manned spaceflight were even further in the 
future and might not be ready by 1980; but by then the mission 
capability of the nuclear rocket would have been so thoroughly demon- 
strated that it would be more attractive than chemical engines for 
those missions requiring increased propulsion capability. Even fur- 
ther into the future were nuclear systems such as the gaseous-core- 
cavity reactor which would yield higher performance. (LRC Release 
65-5) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 17 

January 14: mariner iv had functioned in space for more than 1,100 hr. 
on its 6.000-hr. flight to Mars, and had flown 81.3 miUion mi., leaving 
some 245 miUion mi. to be travefled before the spacecraft would en- 
counter Mars next July. The earth-MARiNER distance was 8,342,946 
mi, at 9 a.m. est with the spacecraft travelling 9,276 mph relative to 
the earth and 69,462 mph relative to the sun. (nasa Release 65-12, 
1/14/65) 

• Vincent R. Lalli of NASA Lewis Research Center described to the 11th Na- 

tional Symposium on Reliability and Quality Control in Miami Beach 
the R&QA procedure applied at Lewis to engine subsystems of the Sert-I 
(Space Electric Rocket Test) spacecraft to establish reliability stand- 
ards for equipment never flown in space before. He said an experi- 
mental assembly of components, or "electrical breadboard," was built 
for electrical stress measurements; once the analysis of stresses during 
operation was complete, safety factor could be defined. "Stress" did 
not refer to mechanical stress but to all physical factors — fatigue, cor- 
rosion, current, temperature, etc. — that could degrade or destroy equip- 
ment. 

Lalli pointed out: "The real uniqueness of this process is revealed in 
the stress analysis area where the role of the reliability engineer is 
extended beyond the analytical approach into obtaining transient ex- 
perimental stress data." (LRC Release 65-4) 

• Houston Chronicle reported that preliminary funds for the unmanned 

exploration of Mars would be included in the NASA FY 1966 budget. 
On Oct. 30, 1964, the Space Science Board of NAS had recommended 
to NASA that Mars be the next goal because it was the likeliest of the 
planets to be inhabited by living things and would therefore be of 
greater scientific importance than the moon or proposed manning 
orbiting laboratories. (Mackaye, Houston Chron., 1/14/65) 

• The Enrico Fermi Medal was conferred on Vice Adm. Hyman G. Rick- 

over (usn) by President Johnson. Adm. Rickover, the first nonsden- 
tist to receive the award, was cited for "engineering and administrative 
leadership in the development of safe and reliable nuclear power and 
its successful application to our national security and economic 
needs." He was also credited with almost single-handedly convincing 
Congress and DOD to start the nuclear submarine program. (UPI, 
NYT, 1/14/65, 14) 

• In London, 10,000 British aircraft workers marched to protest the ru- 

mored intention of the Labor Government to curtail production of 
British military planes. Defense Minister Denis Healey reportedly 
recommended that development and production of the TSR-2 (tactical- 
strike-reconnaissance) aircraft be canceled and that Britain buy 
F-lll's from U.S., thus cutting defense costs. Two other projects 
subject to cancellation were the P-1154 vertical-takeoff fighter and a 
short-takeoff fighter, both at a less advanced stage of development 
than the TSR-2. Leaders of the British aircraft industry, which em- 
ployed slightly more than one per cent of the nation's work force, said 
such a cutback would cause widespread unemployment in the 
industry. (Lewis, NYT, 1/13/65, 9; Lewis, NYT, 1/15/65; Farns- 
worth, NYT, 1/16/65) 



18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

January 15: usaf launched a Thor-Agena D booster with an unidentified 
satellite toward polar orbit from Vandenberg afb. (upi, Denver Post, 
1/17/65) 

• USAF successfully launched a four-stage Athena reentry research vehicle 

from Green River, Utah. Impact occurred within a predetermined 
target area in the White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex. {M&R, 1/25/ 
65, 8) 

• The U.S.S.R. filed a brief report with the International Aviation Federa- 

tion on the flight of VOSKHOD I (Oct. 12-13, 1964) for confirmation of 
the flight achievements as absolute world records, and of world records 
in the orbital flight class in multiseat spacecraft: duration of flight, 24 
hrs., 17 min., 0.3 sec; flight distance, 416,195,878 mi. (669,784,027 
km.) ; flight height, 254 mi. (408 km.) ; and maximum weight raised 
to the flight height, 11,729 lbs. (5,320 kg.). (Pravda, 1/15/65, 6; 
Krasnaya Zvezda, 1/15/65, 4, atss-t Trans.) 

• Top fuel experts of the Coordinating Research Council of New York re- 

ported that adoption of a single type of jet fuel by the entire airline 
industry "would not significantly improve the over-aU excellent safety 
record of commercial aviation." The study on fuel safety was re- 
quested by Federal Aviation Agency Administrator Najeeb E. Ha- 
laby following the fatal in-flight explosion that occurred in a jet air- 
liner December 8, 1963, near Elkton, Md. The aircraft was carrying 
a mixture of JP-4 and kerosene when it exploded in a lightning storm, 
giving rise to the question of the relative safety of the two fuels includ- 
ing the effects of mixing the two. Consensus of the group was that 
the airlines should continue their policy of being individually respon- 
sible for selecting fuels and for safety practices associated with han- 
dling such fuels. Another conclusion was that aircraft safety depend- 
ed less upon the particular type of fuel used than upon equipment 
design and proper fueling techniques, (faa Release 65-9) 

• aec entered into 33 mo. contracts with Combustion Engineering, Windsor, 

Conn., and Atomics International, Canoga Park, Calif., for joint re- 
search and development work on the heavy water-moderated, organic- 
cooled reactor concept. This concept could lead to construction of 
large central station power plants and applications to large-scale water 
desalting operations, (aec Release H-12) 

• U.S. recorded seismic signals from an underground event in the Soviet 

nuclear testing area in the Semipalatinsk region. The event was re- 
portedly 75 times stronger than previous explosions registered from 
the same area, (aec Release H-13; ap, New Orleans Times-Picayune, 
1/17/65) 
January 16: NASA announced it would request preliminary design proposals 
from private industry for the unmanned Voyager spacecraft that would 
land scientific instruments on Mars in 1971. From these proposals, 
several contractors would be chosen to perform a 3-mo. program de- 
sign definition. Previous NASA studies had indicated the system might 
consist of a spacecraft "bus" or main body, a propulsion and braking 
system, and a landing capsule, (nasa Release 65-15) 

• Addressing the Houston Junior Chamber of Commerce, Gen. Bernard A. 

Schriever (usaf) emphasized the importance of technology in main- 
taining national security: "Recent events show a number of applica- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 19 

tions of technology designed to increase our national security. These 
include the first flights of the supersonic XB-70 aircraft, the YF-12a 
long-range interceptor, the F-111 supersonic fighter, the Titan IIIA 
space booster, and the Minuteman ii missile. . . . 

"Research not only supports today's weapon systems but also pro- 
vides the advanced technology from which new systems will 
emerge. . . . 

"To name some specifics, a new high-strength, lightweight material 
— formed from boron fibers and a plastic binder — would make possi- 
ble great weight savings in aircraft and space vehicle structures with 
no sacrifice of either strength or stiffness. We have already produced 
laboratory samples of this boron composite. It is potentially as strong 
as the high-strength steels, structurally rigid, and as light as 
magnesium. It may have higher temperature capabilities than alumi- 
num and magnesium, should be easy to fabricate, and should have a 
high resistance to corrosion. 

"Another advance in the materials area is the use of oxide-dispersed 
metals in aircraft engines tO' provide strength at high temperatures. 
This development will make possible a substantial increase in the op- 
erating temperature of turbojet engines, which in turn will make for 
greater operating efficiency and improved thrust-to-weight ratios." 
(Text, AFSC Release) 
January 17: Robert L. Sohn, scientist at Space Technology Laboratories, 
proposed to use the gravity field of Venus as a brake for manned 
spacecraft returning from Mars. 

"We don't expect to have boosters powerful enough to launch space- 
craft of the 1970s that can carry extra propulsion to brake reentry 
speeds. . . . The landing corridor will be so narrow that a small frac- 
tional error in navigation would send the spacecraft into an eternal 
orbit around the sun." He said traveling near Venus on the return 
journey from Mars would slow a spacecraft as it passed through the 
Venutian gravity field. Then, with some midcourse maneuvering and 
navigation, the astronaut could return to earth and reenter earth's 
atmosphere with greater margin of error. (Macomber, San Diego 
Union, 1/17/65) 
• Dr. I. M. Levitt, Director of the Fels Planetarium, said in the Philadel- 
phia Inquirer: "As of this moment, the Soviets have tentatively deter- 
mined that the maximum 'safe' period of weightlessness is 24 
hr. They hold that after this period, 'irreversible physiological 
changes begin to occur in the human system which, if not corrected, 
will eventually lead to death'. . . . 

"The Soviets have also discovered a correlation between high accel- 
erations and weightlessness. They believe that when an astronaut is 
subjected to high accelerations on launch he tends to overestimate or 
to overcompensate for his movements. Once the astronaut is weight- 
less, then a radical reversal takes place in which the astronaut under- 
compensates and may suffer disorientation. . . . 

"The Soviets appear to have concluded that flight crews of the fu- 
ture will be selected as medical teams, and they will further be selected 
on the basis of biological and bacteriological compatibility. The crew 
will be concerned with developing means for forecasting their own 



20 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

health during the entire trip so as to preserve it." (Phil. Inq., 
1/17/65) 

January 17: Tass reported that a Soviet archeologist had discovered a Neo- 
lithic drawing in a cliff gallery in Soviet Central Asia resembling a 
cosmonaut. The figure carried "something resembling an airtight hel- 
met with antennae on its head" and "some sort of contraption for 
flight" on its back. (Reuters, JVash. Post, 1/18/65; NYT, 1/23/65) 

January 18: USAF launched an unidentified satellite on a Thor-Altair 
booster from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Altair was normally the solid- 
fuel fourth stage of the Scout booster. (AP, Wash. Eve. Star, 1/19/65) 

• In an editorial in Aviation Week and Space Technology, Editor Robert 

Hotz said: "This is a year in which we will hear much about the 
growing pains of Apollo. It would be most amazing if we 
didn't. For Apollo is now in the midst of that difficult period when 
the problems of creating this incredibly intricate and complex techni- 
cal system are being hammered the hardest toward solutions. It is 
also the period when the effectiveness of the management structure in 
welding all of the complex subsystems into a successfully functioning 
overall system within the time and money boundaries already estab- 
lished becomes most vital." (Av. Wk., 1/18/65, 17) 

• In his defense message to Congress, President Johnson cited major new 

developments in strategic weapon systems slated to begin this year: 

"A new missile system, the Poseidon [new name for Polaris b-3], to 
increase the striking power of our missile-carrying nuclear submarines. 
The Poseidon missile will have double the payload of the highly success- 
ful Polaris A-3. The increased accuracy and flexibility of the Poseidon 
will permit its use effectively against a broader range of penetration of 
enemy defenses. 

"A new Short Range Attack Missile (sram) that can, if needed, be 
deployed operationally with the B-52 or other bombers. This aerody- 
namic missile — a vast improvement over existing systems — would per- 
mit the bomber to attack a far larger number of targets and to do so 
from beyond the range of their local defenses. 

"A series of remarkable new payloads for strategic missiles. These 
include: penetration aids, to assure that the missile reaches its target 
through any defense; guidance and re-entry vehicle designs, to in- 
crease many-fold the effectiveness of our missiles against various kinds 
of targets; and methods of reporting the arrival of our missiles on 
target, up to and even including the time of explosion." 

In addition, he said that development of the C-5A ( formerly the 
ex) cargo transport and procurement of the Air Force F-111 fighter- 
bomber and new A-7 Navy attack aircraft would begin. 

Finally, regarding the role of science and technology in the Nation's 
security, the President said: 

"We are currently investing more than $6 billion per year for mili- 
tary research and development. . . . About $2 billion a year of this 
program is invested in innovations in technology and in experimental 
programs. Thus, we provide full play for the ingenuity and inven- 
tiveness of the best scientific and technical talent in our Nation and the 
Free World. 

"American science, industry, and technology are foremost in the 
world. Their resources represent a prime asset to our national 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 21 

security." (Text. Wash. Post, 1/19/65; ap, NYT, 1/19/65, 16; Nor- 
ris, Wash. Post, 1/22/65) 
January 18: The new Sram (short-range attack missile), cited by President 
Johnson in his defense message to Congress, would be expected to 
travel 150 mi. from the launching plane to its target. The Sram 
would be designed for launching initially from a B-52, but later from 
smaller aircraft such as the F-4c or the F-111. It would be launched 
toward the rear after the aircraft had passed its target, would climb to 
100,000-ft. altitude, powered by its own solid-propellant motor, then 
plunge vertically toward its target having allowed the launch plane 
time to escape its nuclear warhead detonation. (Watson, Bait. Sun, 
1/19/65; Miles, Wash. Post, 1/20/65) 

• Alfred Gessow, Chief of Fluid Physics Research, NASA, discussed before 

the Compressed Gas Association in New York City the problems of 
spacecraft deceleration and heating involved in return through the 
earth's atmosphere. He explained why the blunt shape solved de- 
celeration and much of the heat problem in returning Mercury 
spacecraft from orbit through the atmosphere to earth. Looking 
beyond the satellite return speed (Mercury and Gemini) and lunar 
return speed (Apollo), return from interplanetary flight poses the 
problem of much higher spacecraft speed (and thus heating). Re- 
search indicates "that the more pointed shape, although it doesn't show 
up too well at the lower re-entry speeds, is better than the blunt nose at 
the higher speeds because the bow shock is weaker, thus producing 
lower radiant heating losses. Thus, in a very short time scale, but 
taking a big leap forward in the velocity-temperature scale, we find 
ourselves going into another phase of the blunt vs. pointed nose cycle. 

". . . The switching between slender and blunt shapes is not new in 
the race for higher speeds at all times of history. Going through 
history, compact rocks were replaced by slender arrows; the concept of 
powder guns created round cannonballs; the rocket age produced 
slender forms again, which ironically, finally got blunt noses. It is 
interesting to see how long it took to make such changes empirically 
and how rapidly these variations have been made by following 
scientific principles. . . ." (Text) 

• Japan expected to orbit a satellite within the next three years, New York 

Times reported. Although Japan's progress in the missile field had 
been slowed by the limited annual budget allocations of the Defense 
Forces, scientific advances, particularly in the field of electronics, plus 
stimulus to Japanese industry provided by the Korean War, had 
brought marked advances in rocketry and missiles. (NYT, 1/18/65) 

• The Communist New China News Agency (ncna) said in a broadcast 

that Indonesia had successfully launched a two-stage scientific rocket 
Jan. 5 from somewhere in West Java. The rocket was reportedly 
made by the Indonesian air force. There were no other 
details. (UPI, Miami Her., 1/18/65) 
January 19: An unmanned instrument-packed Gemini spacecraft (gt-2) 
was launched from Cape Kennedy on Titan ii launch vehicle in subor- 
bital shot preliminary to U.S.'s first two-man venture. Aboard was an 
automatic sequencer which issued orders at precise times en route to 
fire the rocket's second stage, to separate the spacecraft from the rock- 



22 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

et, to jettison the spacecraft's storage section, to cartwheel the space- 
craft into a reentry attitude, and to open the spacecraft's parachutes. 

The rocket reached a maximum altitude of 98.9 mi. and a speed of 
16,708.9 mph before impacting 2,127.1 mi. downrange. The Gemini 
spacecraft descended by parachute into the Atlantic 16 mi. short of the 
planned impact point and 52 mi. from the carrier U.S.S. Lake Cham- 
plain which recovered the capsule an hour and 45 min. after launch. 
The capsule was reported in excellent condition. 

Major experiments for which the test was intended were apparently 
complete successes: a test of the heat shield; a test of the retrorocket 
system; and a test of the sequencing system. 

Despite its successes, the test had some difficulties: a fuel cell that 
would be the primary electrical system in the spacecraft during long- 
duration manned flights failed to operate before launching because of 
a stuck valve; the temperature was found to be too high in the cooling 
system of the spacecraft. (NASA Release 64-296; MSC Roundup, 
1/3/65, 1; Wash. Eve. Star, 1/19/65; Houston Chron., 1/19/65; UPI, 
Rossiter, Wash. Post, 1/20/65; ap. Bait. Sun, 1/20/65) 
January 19: Dr. Burton I. Edelson, staff member of the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Council, spoke on communications satellites at the 
AIAA meeting in Las Cruces, N.Mex. He said: "There is a general grow- 
ing interdependence of politics, economics, and technology, and in no 
area do these forces interact more noticeably, than in international 
communications. When we try to predict the course that communica- 
tions satellites systems will follow in the years to come we must con- 
sider not only decibels and megacycles, rocket thrusts and orbital ele- 
ments, but the competitive economic pressure of transoceanic cables 
and the political aspirations of developing nations. . . . 

"Finally, I believe the words of Arthur Clarke, the visionary who 
first conceived of the communications satellite, will be fulfilled: 'Com- 
sats will end ages of isolation making us all members of a single 
family, teaching us to read and speak, however imperfectly, a single 
language. Thanks to some electronic gear twenty thousand miles 
above the equator, ours will be the last century of the 
savage.' " (Text) 
January 20: President Lyndon B. Johnson was inaugurated. In his Inau- 
gural Address, he said : 

"For every generation, there is a destiny. For some, history 
decides. For this generation, the choice must be our own. 

"Even now, a rocket moves toward Mars. It reminds us that the 
world will not be the same for our children, or even for ourselves in a 
short span of years. The next man to stand here will look out on a 
scene different from our own. 

"Ours is a time of change — rapid and fantastic change — baring the 
secrets of nature — multiplying the nations — placing in uncertain hands 
new weapons for mastery and destruction — shaking old values and 
uprooting old ways. . . . 

"Change has brought new meaning to that old mission. We can 
never again stand aside, prideful in isolation. Dangers and troubles 
we once called 'foreign' now live among us. If American lives must 
end, and American treasure be spilled, in countries we barely know, 
that is the price that change has demanded of conviction. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 23 

"Think of our world as it looks from that rocket heading toward 
Mars. 

"It is like a child's globe, hanging in space, the continents stuck to 
its side like colored maps. We are all fellow passengers on a dot of 
earth. And each of us, in the span of time, has only a moment among 
his companions. 

"How incredible it is that in this fragile existence we should hate 
and destroy one another. There are possibilities enough for all who 
will abandon mastery over others to pursue mastery over 
nature. There is world enough for all to seek their happiness in their 
own way. 

"Our own course is clear. We aspire to nothing that belongs to 
others. We seek no dominion over our fellow man, but man's domin- 
ion over tyranny and misery. . . ." (Text) 
January 20: Dr. Robert J astro w, Director of NASA's Goddard Institute for 
Space Studies, said at the annual meeting of the Franklin Institute in 
Philadelphia: "Beyond military and political advantages of getting to 
the moon are possibilities we cannot conceive." The moon, he said 
could prove to be "the Rosetta stone of the universe. Its lifeless sur- 
face could s;ive us the clue to the process of life." (Phil. Eve. Bull., 
1/21/65) 

• Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. conducted successful static firings of 

the Agena target vehicle for Project Gemini. The firing tests, which 
included simulated maneuvers to be made by Agena during rendezvous 
with the Gemini spacecraft, included five separate firings of the main 
engine and of the secondary propulsion system. The tests lasted some 
12 hrs. and were termed by Lockheed "complete captive flight." All 
systems of the actual flight Agena were tested, including command 
from earth transmitters, programmed commands within the Agena, 
telemetry, and docking simulation. Previous Gemini Agena firings 
had tested the vehicle's engines only. [Huntsville Times, 1/22/65) 

• Dr. M. P. Lansberg of the National Aeromedical Center, Soesterberg, 

The Netherlands, told scientists attending the symposium on the inner 
ear at the Naval School of Aviation Medicine at Pensacola Air Station 
that one role of space flight would be the exploration of the function- 
ing of the vestibular organ. "This might well be the most important 
and fascinating side of space flight," said Dr. Lansberg. "Not what it 
will reveal to us of distant worlds, but what it wiU unveil to us about 
ourselves." 

Dr. Lansberg also warned against expecting too much from experi- 
ments conducted here on earth in trying to determine how much grav- 
ity-producing spinning man could stand. In recommending rates of 
speed to space engineers, he said "we should be conserva- 
tive." {Harris, Pensacola Journal, 1/21/65) 

• In an article in The Huntsville Times, Richard Lewis said: "If Project 

Apollo continues at its present pace, the United States will be able to 
attempt the landing of astronauts on the moon in 1968. . . . 

"This impression of the status of ApoUo . . . was gained by this 
reporter in tours of both industrial and test centers for the mammoth 
project. . . . 

"The story at these centers is this: no new breakthroughs in elec- 
tronics, mechanics, metaUurgy, propulsion or guidance and navigation 



24 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

are required for the program. All major problems are settled. They 
have been solved or 'worked around.' . . . 

"So well does Apollo appear to be running that there is a strong 
probability it will overtake the later flights of Project Gemini, the 
two-man spacecraft program." (Lewis, Chicago Sun-Times, Hunts- 
ville Times, 1/20/65) 
January 20: It was reported that Lockheed Propulsion Co. had successfully 
test-fired a new solid-propellant rocket motor at the proving ground in 
Redlands, Calif. The lightweight "pulse motor" measured 10 ft. in 
length, 2 ft. in dia., and contained 40 solid-propellant wafers, each of 
which could develop more than 1,000 lbs. of thrust. This was possi- 
bly the rocket motor that would power the Sram (short-range attack 
missile) mentioned by President Johnson in his defense message to 
Congress [See Jan. 18, 1965]. (Miles, Wash. Post, 1/20/65; SBD, 
1/18/65, 74) 

• USAF successfully launched its first Minuteman icbm of 1965 from Van- 

denberg afb, Calif. The missile was sent on a 5,000-mi. course to- 
ward a target in the Pacific. (UPI, L.A. Herald Examiner, 1/21/65) 
January 21: mariner iv completed nearly one-quarter of its iy2-Tno. 
journey to Mars and was more than 10 million mi. from earth. The 
craft was traveling 10,680 mph relative to the earth; velocity relative 
to the sun was 68,255 mph; total distance traveled was over 93 million 
mi. After 54 days in space, all systems were functioning normally 
except the solar plasma probe which ceased returning intelligible data 
one week after launch, (nasa Release 65-17) 

• Laser beam was bounced off nasa's explorer xxii ionosphere satellite 

and photographed by Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories 
scientists Robert Iliff and Theodore Wittanen. This was first such 
photo and was important verification of feasibility of use of laser for 
both satellite tracking and geodetic purposes. When such laser reflec- 
tions off satellites were photographed against a star background ' from 
two ground stations of known locations and other ground stations in 
the field, triangulation of the simultaneous photos would locate the 
position of field stations with an accuracy hitherto not possible by 
other means. This success with Largos (Laser Activated Reflecting 
Geodetic Optical Satellite) also set a distance record for photo or 
photoelectric detection of reflected laser signals; slant range to satellite 
was 950 mi. (afcrl Release 2-65-2) 

• USAF launched a 100-lb. arv (Aerospace Research Vehicle) satellite 

pickaback aboard an Atlas icbm from Vandenberg afb, Calif. The 
satellite, carrying instrumentation to sample radiation and microme- 
teoroids, was the first to be sent toward westward orbit around the 
earth. Satellite Situation Report for January 31, 1965, did not indi- 
cate that the satellite had achieved orbit, (ap, Wash. Post, 1/22/65; 
M&R, 2/1/65, 9; SSR, 1/31/65, 13) 

• Sen. Margaret Chase Smith (R-Me.), ranking member of the Senate 

Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, told nana in an inter- 
view that the United States was giving more to the Soviets than it 
got in a lopsided exchange of space data. She said that for several 
months weather information derived from "conventional" sources in 
the Soviet Union had been sent through a communications link be- 
tween Moscow and Suitland, Md. "The weather information is not 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 25 

that derived from a satellite as provided for by the agreement," she 
asserted. 

"Up to the present time, based on the information I have available, 
the Soviets are realizing more from the 1962 Geneva Agreement than 
we are." 

Senator Smith added that measuring the results of the Geneva 
Agreement strictly on scientific knowledge gained "is not a broad 
enough yardstick. Any real plusses, it seems to me, must be measured 
in the light of what we seek to accomplish, namely, the mastering of 
space for the benefit of all mankind. The fact that the Geneva Agree- 
ment ever came into existence shows an awareness of the magnitude of 
the task confronting man if he expects to operate successfully in 
space." (Glaser, nana, Indianapolis Star, 1/21/65) 
January 21 : NASA Administrator James E. Webb received an honorary doc- 
torate from Wayne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. During a speech 
there he said : 

"Our goal is 100 per cent assurance of [space booster] 
success. This is difficult to achieve, but until we are certain in our 
own minds that we can count on success we do not go [on] with a 
manned shot. My directive on this is very clear. It came first from 
President Kennedy and has been restated by President Johnson. It is 
'Go when ready and don't go until ready.' " (Text) 

• As part of the ceremonies dedicating the Capt. Theodore C. Freeman 

Memorial Library of Astronautics at the Houston Baptist College, 
Faith L. Freeman, lO-yr.-old daughter of the late astronaut, was 
awarded a scholarship to the college. {Houston Post, 1/22/65; MSC 
Roundup, 2/3/65, 8) 

• Federal Aviation Agency announced that Alitalia had reserved three ad- 

ditional delivery positions for the U.S. supersonic transport plane, 
bringing the Italian carrier's total to six. The new total of reserved 
positions for the SST was 96; the number of airlines holding positions 
was 2 1 . ( FAA Release 65-12 ) 

• The newspaper La Mariana said "flying saucers" had appeared in 

Uruguay. Several readers had reported saucers zigging and zagging 
at great speed, and said they "could only be manned space 
ships." (UPi, Wash. Daily News, 1/22/65) 
January 22: NASA's TIROS ix successfully injected into a polar orbit by a 
three-stage Delta rocket launched from Cape Kennedy. The spacecraft 
was to have gone into a circular orbit about 460 mi. above the earth 
but the second stage of Delta burned 11 sec. too long and pushed 
TIROS IX into an elliptical orbit with apogee 1,602 mi., perigee 426 
mi., inclination 81.6°, and period 119 min. First NASA attempt to 
place a satellite in near-polar sun-synchronous orbit from Cape Ken- 
nedy involved three dog-leg maneuvers. In a sun-synchronous orbit 
the precession (westward drift) of the satellite would be about 1° 
daily, the same rate and direction as the earth moves around the sun. 

A hat-box shaped structure, tiros ix was an 18-sided polygon, 22- 
in. high, 42-in. in dia., weighing 305 lbs., with one of its flat sides facing 
earth when initially injected into orbit. Ground signals to the control 
system tipped the craft up 90° so that it assurned the appearance of a 
fat wheel rolling on a track around the earth. Two cameras were 
placed on the perimeter opposite each other so that as the wheel rolled 



26 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 




January 22: tiros ix photograph of ice-covered U.S. Great Lakes area. 

at 10 rpm, each camera, in turn, would roll into position and snap a 
picture, triggered by an infrared horizon sensor. 

The combination of tiros ix's polar orbit (83.4°) and rolling 
wheel was expected to provide 100% photographic coverage of the 
earth's cloud cover during daylight hours. 

Primary purpose of the tiros IX launching was to test the new 
cartwheel concept as a forerunner of a joint NASA-Weather Bureau 
Tiros Operational System (TOs) of weather satellites. (NASA Release 
65-7; Goddard News, 1/25/65; ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 1/22/65; upi. 
Wash. Daily News, 1/22/65; ap. Bait. Sun, 1/23/65; Appel, NYT, 
1/23/65, 9; Hixson, N.Y. Her. Trib., 1/23/65) 
January 22: A $5,178,000 contract was awarded to a joint venture of 
Blount Brothers Corp., Montgomery, Ala., and Chicago Bridge and 
Iron Co., Oak Park, 111., for a large space chamber to be built at NASA 
Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station. Facility would be used 
for evaluation and developmental testing of complete spacecraft, as 
well as nuclear electric power generation and propulsion systems. It 
would be one of the world's largest space environment chambers 
(cylindrical chamber 100 ft. in diameter and 122 ft. to the top of its 
hemispherical dome). {Lewis News, 1/22/65, 1) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 27 

January 22: On the Les Crane Show (abc-tv), Dr. Charles S. Sheldon of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Council staff said in his opening 
debate statement: ". . . what is the space program? 

"It is a program in general science which seeks answers to the most 
fundamental processes of nature, and will support a great jump for- 
ward in our mastery of these forces for human betterment. 

"The space program is one of practical applications. . . . 

"The space program is one of exploration, opening the whole solar 
system to the coming generation. . . . 

"Space science is neither good nor evil. It is what men choose to 
do with such knowledge. This country's intent is to develop space for 
the benefit of all mankind, and space offers us new opportunities for 
international cooperation. Our hope is space can become a substitute 
for war by diverting man's restless energies into a supreme challenge 
of a constructive nature." (Text) 

• Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo program director in NASA's Office 

of Manned Space Flight, said that 1965 would be a year of "heavy 
ground testing" in NASA's lunar program. Among the major events he 
anticipated were completion of testing of the Apollo spacecraft for the 
first manned flight; qualification of all elements of the Saturn IB 
launch vehicle and delivery of first flight stages to Cape Kennedy; and 
initial testing of Saturn V elements. ( naa S&ID Skywriter, 1/22/65, 4) 
January 23: Atlas- Agena D launch vehicle with unidentified satellite pay- 
load was launched by USAF from Western Test Range. {U.S. Aeron. & 
Space Act., 1965, 132) 

• Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announced proposals were 

being requested from industry for design studies to assist in develop- 
ing cost and technical information required to proceed with develop- 
ment of the manned orbiting laboratory (Mol). Three contractors 
would be selected. Decision whether to proceed with full-scale devel- 
opment of Mol would be made upon completion of the design studies. 
( DOD Release 42-65 ) 
January 24: French scientists bounced laser beams off NASA satellite ex- 
plorer XXII three times, according to French Ministry of Scientific 
Research on Feb. 3. Laser beams were reflected from glass prisms on 
the satellite. (AP, /VF^, 2/4/65, 3) 

• Eldridge H. Derring, Executive Assistant to the Associate Director and 

head of the Research Staff Office, LaRC, died after an illness of several 
months. {Langley Researcher, 1/29/65, 8) 
January 25: President Johnson sent FY 1966 Budget Request to Congress, 
recommending a total space budget of S7.114 billion. Of this sum, 
NASA would receive $5.26 billion, DOD $1,6 billion, AEC $236 million, 
Weather Bureau $33 million, and National Science Foundation $3 mil- 
lion. 

The NASA request provided for initiation of a major new project — 
Project Voyager, budgeted at $43 million — and intensive study of 
Apollo-X, with funding of $50 million. Hardware development funds 
were requested for the Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory ($25.1 
million), and the Radio Astronomy Explorer Satellite. Advanced re- 
search was reduced by cancellation of development of the 260-in.-dia. 
soHd-fuel rocket motor, the M-1 liquid-hydrogen engine (1.2-million- 
Ib. -thrust) , and Snap-8 nuclear electric power unit. 



28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., labeled 
the budget an austere one, but said the chances of landing a man on 
the moon by 1970 were still good. In discussing the new programs, 
Dr. Seamans said the requested $43 million for Voyager would be 
spent on project definition of the spacecraft bus and landing capsule to 
explore Mars in the next decade. This funding would also enable 
NASA to make a Martian fly-by in 1969 to test the spacecraft and 
launch vehicle prior to the 1971 and 1973 missions. 

Major portions of the DOD space budget were alloted for the follow- 
ing: (1) pre-program definition phase of the Manned Orbiting Labo- 
ratory (Mol) ; (2) accelerated research on reentry and recovery of 
spacecraft; (3) continued development of the Titan ill space booster; 
(4) development of the Defense Communications Satellite System. 

Two thirds of AEc's budget request was earmarked for development 
of nuclear rocket propulsion and nuclear power sources for space 
applications. The nuclear propulsion program. Project Rover, was al- 
loted $84. 1 million; the nuclear power source program, Snap, $70.5 
million; and advanced projects applicable to space, $12 million. The 
Pluto reactor program was not included in the budget request. 

The Weather Bureau would start its investment in an advanced 
weather satellite system in FY 66 with a $500,000 request for sensors 
and subsystem studies in conjunction with NASA studies. Funds for 
three Tiros Operational System (Tos) satellites and four Delta launch 
vehicles to be delivered in two years, $21.6 million, were included in 
the budget request. Most of the rest was requested for the National 
Weather Satellite Center (nwsc) and would be spent to convert the 
present Tiros command and data acquisition facilities to full-time, 
operational centers run solely by the Weather Bureau. 

President Johnson asked Congress for $650 million as a White 
House contingency fund to meet the possible need to accelerate super- 
sonic transport development. (Text, M&R, 2/1/65, 10-17; Text, 
NYT, 1/26/65, 26-28; Av. Wk., 2/1/65, 16-17; nasa Budget Briefing 
FY 1966) 
January 25: President's message sending budget for Fiscal Year 1966 in- 
cluded the following remarks: "Space research and technology: This 
Nation has embarked on a bold program of space exploration and 
research which holds promise of rich rewards in many fields of Ameri- 
can life. Our boldness is clearly indicated by the broad scope of our 
program and by our intent to send men to the moon within this dec- 
ade. 

"The costs are high — as we knew they would be when we launched 
this effort. We have seen a rise in annual expenditures for the space 
program from less than one-half billion dollars in 1960 to over $4 
billion in 1964. 

"Expenditures are continuing to increase. However, we have built 
up momentum and are concentrating on our highest priority 
goals. Therefore, we will no longer need to increase space out-lays by 
huge sums each year in order to meet our present objectives. 

"This budget proposes that expenditures increase by $22 million in 
1966 over 1965. This is the smallest annual increase since 
1959. The new obligational authority requested is about the same as 
enacted for 1965." (nasa lar iv/16) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 29 

January 25: nasa Administrator James E. Webb and DOD Secretary Robert 
S. McNamara announced nasa-dod agreement on the Manned Orbiting 
Laboratory (Moll, released in conjunction with FY 1966 budget: 
". . . Planning for the Defense manned orbiting laboratory program 
will also consider, in cooperation with NASA, broader objectives of sci- 
entific and general technological significance. 

"To determine the essential characteristics of the vehicle that will be 
required, the DOD will continue intensive studies and design of experi- 
ments and systems aimed at the primary military objectives. 

"Cooperative studies, by NASA and Defense, will identify and define 
scientific and general technological experiments which might be car- 
ried out, with NASA participation, in conjunction with the military 
program. 

"dod. with assistance from NASA, will compare configurations of 
Apollo which may be suitable for military experiments with the Gemi- 
ni B-MOL configuration to determine the complete system that can meet 
the primary military objectives in a more efficient, less costly, or more 
timely fashion. 

"On the basis of these studies, a decision will be made whether to 
proceed with full-scale development by Defense of a manned orbiting 
laboratory system and what the specific developments and vehicle 
configurations are to be. The Defense budget includes $150 million 
in FY 1966 for the program. . . . 

"Depending upon the manned orbiting laboratory decision, upon the 
progress in the Gemini and Apollo programs, and upon the results of 
NASA studies, a decision will be made whether to proceed with 
modifications to the Apollo system and the nature and timing of neces- 
sary specific developments. The NASA 1966 budget includes about $50 
million for proceeding with design and pacing developments. . . ." 
(NASA Budget Briefing FY 1966) 
• NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Robert Seamans said during FY 
1966 budget briefing: ". . . it is conceivable . . . that the lunar 
landing would occur in early 1970 ... we feel actually greatly en- 
couraged at the progress that has been made freezing the design, and 
we feel very reassured at the test results we are achieving on our 
propulsion systems and with our stages. So that we really feel that 
there is more chance that we can get off the flight on an earlier mis- 
sion than I would have said a year ago." 

Dr. Seamans said Apollo gave the nation a capability for a wide 
variety of scientific and technological flights in earth orbit, in orbit 
around the moon, and also for an extended lunar stay time. He com- 
mented that the objectives of the current extended Apollo (Apollo-X) 
design and feasibility studies were to extend the time of the lunar 
mission out to the order of two weeks. He also said that Apollo-X 
circumlunar flights, in polar orbit about the moon and taking pho- 
tographs of the entire lunar surface, on missions that could involve 
staytimes on the moon of up to one or two weeks, all would have great 
possibility and would offer great interest scientifically. In comment- 
ing on an earlier agreement (1963) with the Pentagon for developing 
of a manned orbiting laboratory. Dr. Seamans said: "At the time of 



30 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

that agreement, we were really thinking of something that we now 
realize is further out in time, namely, a more permanent space station 
that could stay in orbit for a year's time and could be resupplied, and 
would permit the crew to be ferried into orbit and bring them 
back. The study really related to that kind of possibility which we 
now realize is much further out in time ... we may end up with 
what is called the MOL, and we may also find that there are important 
uses for the Apollo system beyond the present manned lunar landing 
program." 

He said NASA studies of improving both the Saturn IB and the Sat- 
urn V launch vehicles indicated that "these two launch vehicles can 
take care of our needs for an extended period of time." ( NASA Budget 
Briefing FY 1966) 
January 25: nasa announced two Radio Astronomy Explorer satellites 
(rae-a and rae-b) would be designed to investigate low-frequency 
(long wavelength) emissions from our galaxy, its planets, and the 
stars. These emissions are mostly intercepted by the ionosphere so 
that little can be learned about them from ground-based receivers. 
This would be the first attempt to map the galaxy for low-frequency 
emissions. The 280-lb. spacecraft would be launched by Thrust- 
Augmented Delta into circular orbits at altitudes of about 3,700 mi. 
and would measure the intensity of the signals, their frequency, times 
of emission and, within limitations, define the regions of space in 
which they originated. Proposed designs called for the development 
of two 750-ft., V-shaped antennas that would be mounted opposite 
each other, forming a giant X. They would be anchored to the basic 
spacecraft, a cylinder of about 40-by-40 in., capped by two truncated 
cones. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center would design, integrate, 
and test the two spacecraft. First launch was not expected before 
1967. (NASA Release 65-20) 

• AEC announced that the Snap-lOA nuclear generator designed for space- 

craft had produced electricity for the first time in a ground test at 
Canoga Park, Calif., by its builder. Atomics International. The 
system would ultimately provide power for spaceship propulsion sys- 
tems such as the ion engine, (aec Release H-18; Wash. Post, 
1/26/65) 

• Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla., bestowed an honorary dectorate upon 

NASA Administrator James E. Webb. Mr. Webb said in a speech there: 
". . . space science and technology are not remote and esoteric pur- 
suits but rather are deeply woven into the fabric of our society. The 
space scientist does not practice a new art. He is an astronomer, a 
physicist, a chemist, a geologist, rooted in our university system of 
vigorous effort to expand our knowledge of the universe in which we 
live. The space technologist is an engineer of materials, structures, 
fuels, power sources, electronics, rooted in our industrial and govern- 
ment laboratory systems. Both, however, are directing their interests 
and talents to the newest and most exciting frontiers — where the most 
rapid progress is made and the breakthroughs scored. The knowledge 
they gain feeds back into our scientific and technical communities and 
into our industrial laboratories. . . . Thus, the talents, the skills, 
and the funds for space exploration are all drawn broadly from our 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 31 

society and continue to feed back into it, in the forefront of scientific 
and technical progress — the unique hallmark of the American 
way." (Text) 
January 25: ComSatCorp filed with the FCC its intent to contract for 24 
satellites that could be used by ComSatCorp to provide a global com- 
munications service for DOD. The satellites would be made available 
for three launchings which DOD had slated for the early part of 1966 
on either a Titan iiic or Atlas-Agena D launch vehicle. DOD would 
pay only for service rendered following successful launch, with Com 
SatCorp assuming the risk if the satellites did not work satisfactorily 
in orbit. This proposal was separate from the program managed by 
ComSatCorp to develop an international commercial communications 
satellite system. (ComSatCorp Release) 

• USAF was reported to be considering the use of surplus Wing 1 Minute- 

man ICBMS as Guidance Error Analysis Vehicles (Geav). Accord- 
ing to Air Force Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (cigtf), 
surplus Minuteman boosters could be the cheapest means to evaluate 
future inertial guidance systems in a true missile environment. ETR 
was selected for Geav because no other range could measure missile 
velocity in three axes to the required accuracy. The Minuteman guid- 
ance system itself would be reprogramed and located in a recoverable 
payload for reasons of economy. {M&R, 1/25/65, 34) 

• Dr. A. J. Drummond of Eppley Laboratory, Newport, R.I., told Missiles 

and Rockets that a number of Russian cosmonauts were said to have 
died in booster failures at launch. Dr. Drummond got his informa- 
tion through unofficial sources while attending a technical meeting in 
Leningrad last year. He also said there were no large solar-simulation 
testing facilities in the Soviet Union and that Soviet spacecraft used 
crude bulk insulation for thermal control instead of emission-absorp- 
tion coatings. ( M&R. 1/25/65, 7 ) 
January 26: USN fired a Hydra-Iris sea-launched sounding rocket, to 184- 
mi. altitude carrying a 100-lb. payload. The rocket was launched 
from a point about 1,400 mi. east of Montevideo, Uruguay. Mission 
was to measure radiation intensity within the inner Van Allen radia- 
tion belt. (M&/?, 2/8/65, 8) 

• The first j-2 liquid-hydrogen rocket engine built to flight configuration 

was delivered to Douglas Aircraft Co., Sacramento, for installation and 
testing in the Saturn S-IVB battleship stage. The 200,000-lb.-thrust 
engine had been recently accepted by NASA from Rocketdyne Div., 
North American Aviation, Inc. {Marshall Star, 1/27/65, 1, 6) 

• Dr. John D. Nicolaides, Chairman of Notre Dame's Aerospace Engineer- 

ing Dept., formerly Special Assistant to the NASA Associate Administra- 
tor for Space Science and Applications, told National Space Club at a 
Washington, D.C., luncheon that we must realize we were "not yet first 
in the race for space supremacy. . . . The [Soviet] lead in both 
numbers and weights of unmanned launchings continues to 
increase. They are publishing just as many scientific papers as we are 
and they are just as good." Nicolaides added that he was not includ- 
ing their work in life sciences "which is well ahead of ours by virtue 
of the simple fact that they have been experimenting in space." 

Dr. Nicolaides said he was alarmed by the U.S.S.R.'s "extensive 
planetary program." They started early and continued a truly mas- 



32 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

sive effort compared to ours, he said. "They are launching their 
heavy spacecraft at each opportunity to both Mars and Venus, while 
we have abandoned Venus completely and are only studying scientific 
measurement on Mars in 1971. . . ." (NSC Newsletter, 2/65) 
January 26: usaf selected Thiokol Chemical Corp. and Lockheed Propul- 
sion Co. to develop and test new 156-in.-dia. solid-propellant motors 
during 1965. Lockheed would develop two of the three motors. The 
first would be a flight-weight motor with thrust in excess of three 
million pounds. The second motor would be in the one-million- 
pound-thrust class and would incorporate a submerged nozzle. Both 
motors would use advanced liquid injection thrust vector control to 
explore methods of guiding huge motors of this size. Thiokol's Wa- 
satch Div. of Brigham City, Utah, would develop the third 
motor. This flight-weight motor would have a thrust of over 320,000 
lb., and incorporate a deeply submerged nozzle permitting the total 
motor length to be under 21 ft. (dod Release 52-65) 

• At the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Honors Convocation in 

New York, awards were made to men who had made valuable con- 
tributions to development of the aerospace industry: 

Dr. Eugene N. Parker, associate professor at the Enrico Fermi Insti- 
tute of Nuclear Studies, Univ. of Chicago, received the Space Science 
Award "for distinguished individual research on the causes and prop- 
erties of the solar wind." 

Arthur E. Raymond, responsible for the design of the Douglas DC 
series of commercial transports received the Sylvanus Albert Reed 
Award. He was honored for "numerous and distinguished con- 
tributions to the aeronautical sciences and the development of aircraft 
during the last 30 years." 

Igor I. Sikorsky and Michael Gluhareff were given the 1964' Elmer 
A. Sperry Award. Mr. Sikorsky was cited as a helicopter pioneer for 
"the concept and development of a new form of aerial transportation 
capable of carrying and placing large external loads over any 
terrain." Mr. Gluhareff was honored for his engineering con- 
tributions in the development of the multipurpose helicopter. 

Dr. Wallace D. Hayes, professor of aerospace engineering at Prince- 
ton University, received aiaa's fourth annual Research Award for his 
leading role in the development of supersonic and hypersonic flow 
theory. 

Sir Frank Whittle, British engineer, was named first recipient of the 
Goddard Award for his "imagination, skill, persistence, and courage in 
pioneering the gas turbine as a jet propulsion aircraft engine, thus 
revolutionizing military and commercial aviation for all time." 

Harry F. Guggenheim, who had supported aerospace endeavors, re- 
ceived a special commendation for his "contributions, encouragement, 
and personal participation in the development of aviation and rock- 
etry." {NYT, 1/21/65, 53M; NYT, 1/27/65, 58; NYT, 1/9/65, 50; 
Av. Wk., 1/25/65; Av. Wk., 1/11/65, 13; Langley Researcher 
1/29/65) 

• An article by Omer Anderson on U.A.R. rocket program was inserted 

in the Congressional Record by Rep. Silvio Conte (R-Mass.). Based 
on interviews with German scientists just back from Egypt and with 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 33 

West German defense ministry officials who debriefed them after their 
return, the article said: "Egypt's missile program is considerably 
further advanced than is generally realized in the West. 

"Some of these scientists who have returned to West Germany say 
that Nasser will have the missiles to devastate wide areas of Israel by 
late 1967 and that he will have rockets with a 1-ton payload by the end 
of 1965. 

"West German defense ministry experts who have questioned the 
returning rocket scientists regard their assessment of Nasser's rocket 
potential as entirely realistic and possibly too conservative. 

"The scientists say Nasser has accelerated greatly his rocket pro- 
gram since the first test firing of four missiles on July 22, 
1962." (CR, 1/26/65, 1160) 
January 26: Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Space Technology Laboratories 
chosen as the winner in a two-year design competition to produce the 
rocket engine for Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (Lem). The liquid- 
propellant engine was designed to vary its power output between a low 
of 1,000 lb. thrust and a high of 10,000 lb. (NYT, 1/29/65) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics began a two-day seminar 

with a panel discussion on science and technology, with specific refer- 
ence to aeronautics. Speaker of the House John W. McCormack 
opened the seminar. 

Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences began execu- 
tive hearings on the subject of launch vehicles. ( NASA LAR iv/l7) 

• In U.S. launch vehicles hearings before Senate Committee on Aeronauti- 

cal and Space Sciences, NASA Administrator James E. Webb discussed 
recent study by the Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board's 
Launch Vehicles Panel: 

"In considering the merits of canceling certain vehicles in order to 
provide quantity production of the remaining vehicles, the Launch Ve- 
hicle Panel of the aacb evaluated several alternatives against a fore- 
cast of dod's and nasa's needs over the next 10 years. This space- 
mission forecast served as a basis for determining the number of launch 
vehicles required and the cost of producing the various combinations 
of these launch vehicles. 

"The result of the study is particularly interesting in that it shows a 
cost difference of less than 1 per cent among the alternative 
options. This difference is less than the accuracy of the data used in 
the analysis. The results indicate that any economies that might be 
realized by increased quantity production of boosters would be lost 
through cost of adapting specific mission spacecraft to a new vehicle 
where the costs of such work have already been incurred. . . . 

"The major advantages of the recent comprehensive study . . . , as 
distinct from previous reviews, were the development of much im- 
proved methods for estimating the costs of launch vehicles considering 
the effects of quantity production, variety of vehicles, and inplant 
workload; the use of an inclusive or overall forecast as a basis for 
determination of both DOD and nasa space missions against which total 
launch vehicles costs could be calculated; and the value of the results 
of the study to NASA to confirm our judgment on the use of the SATURN 
I-B for the APOLLO and voyager missions. 



34 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

". . . we are making extensive use of DOD-developed launch vehicles 
and will continue to do so for some time to come. However, a wider 
variety of first-stage boosters and upper stages is required by NASA 
space missions than by those of the DOD. We have requirements for 
a wider range of variety of size, payload. and velocity for our missions. 
We have been carefully investigating our future vehicle needs; opti- 
mum vehicle configurations: and the most promising advanced propul- 
sion methods to be sure that our program will provide the options that 
the country will need in making decisions to undertake future missions. 

". . . we are utilizing the channels and procedures established by 
the DOD— NASA launch vehicle agreement and by the AACB to coordinate 
the needs and activities of NASA and the DOD to assure the most effective 
national launch vehicle program. However, we are presenting to the 
Congress, in our budgets each year, the specific booster needs we have 
over and above those which can be met by DOD-developed sys- 
tems. . . ." (Hearings . . . National Space Launch Vehicles, 6-19) 
January 26: USN began tests of two new air-cushion vehicles variously 
called hydro-skimmers, hovercraft, or ground effects machines. The 
craft were lifted a few feet above the surface by cushions of air trapped 
beneath their hulls and were driven at speeds up to 50 knots by air- 
craft propellers. The vehicles would be tested during the next three 
to six months to determine their potential usefulness and operational 
suitability for naval operations. (Baldwin, NYT, 1/31/65, 88) 

• Federal Aviation Agency (faa) Administrator Najeeb E. Halaby told the 

House Science and Astronautics Committee that designs of U.S. manu- 
facturers for the proposed supersonic airliner "demonstrated clearly 
the feasibility" of building a plane that would prove as profitable, if 
not more so, over transcontinental or greater ranges as current jet 
airliners. Presidential Committee to evaluate Sst program would be- 
gin its extensive critical review late next month. (Clark, NYT, 1/27/ 
65, 19) 

• Sen. A. S. Monroney (D-Okla.) suggested in a speech before the Aero 

Club of Washington that the experimental RS-70 bomber be used as 
a test plane for U.S. supersonic transport program. Monroney was 
interested in more extensive use of the RS-70 for civil airliner studies 
than had been made by NASA. He said use of the RS-70 could produce 
savings in both development and construction costs of the proposed 
airliner. (Sehlstedt, Bah. Sun, 1/27/65) 

• William C. Foster, Director of U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament 

Agency, said in testimony before House Foreign Affairs Committee 
that radioactive leakage from Soviet underground nuclear test Jan. 15 
was apparently accidental. The radioactive fallout apparently did not 
violate the intent of the 1963 nuclear test-ban treaty. (FonF, 1965, 
61) 

• The British Defense Ministry announced that its fleet of Valiant bombers 

would be scrapped because of weakened structure caused by metal 
fatigue. Valiant was the first of the three "V" types of jet bombers 
built by U.K. following World War ii. They had been in service nine 
years and only about half the original force remained in service as 
reconnaissance or tankers. This would not affect Britain's con- 
tribution to NATO or its proposal for an Atlantic nuclear force. {NYT, 
1/27/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 35 

January 26: Richard E. Horner, former Associate Administrator of NASA 
(1959-60), was installed as 1965 president of the American Institute 
of Aeronautics and Astronautics. {Av. Wk., 2/8/65, 13) 

January 27 : President Johnson sent to the House and Senate his message 
transmitting annual report on the U.S. space activities. In his letter, 
President Johnson said: "The advances of 1964 were gratifying and 
heartening omens of the gains and good to come from our determined 
national undertaking in exploring the frontiers of space. While this 
great enterprise is still young, we began during the year past to realize 
its potential in our life on earth. As this report notes, practical uses 
of the benefits of space technology were almost commonplace around 
the globe — warning us of gathering storms, guiding our ships at sea, 
assisting our mapmakers and serving, most valuably of all, to bring 
the peoples of many nations closer together in joint peaceful endeav- 
ors. 

"Substantial strides have been made in a very brief span of time — 
and more are to come. We expect to explore the moon, not just visit 
it or photograph it. We plan to explore and chart planets as 
well. We shall expand our earth laboratories into space laboratories 
and extend our national strength into the space dimension." 

A hypersonic aircraft — one that could fly the Atlantic in less than an 
hour — had reached the stage where models were being constructed for 
wind tunnel tests. President Johnson's report disclosed: "Two struc- 
tural models embodying design concepts applicable to the fuselage of a 
hydrogen-fueled hypersonic aircraft were being constructed for testing 
at 1,500-2,500° F — temperatures likely to be encountered in hyperson- 
ic flight. Equipment was developed for inducing angular oscillations 
in the test section flow of a large transonic wind tunnel and will be 
used to obtain the dynamic response of wind tunnel models." {CR, 
1/27/65, 1366; V.S. News, 2/2/65) 

• NASA launched a Nike-Cajun with acoustic grenade experiment at Point 

Barrow, Alaska, to obtain upper atmospheric meterological data within 
the Arctic Circle. 12 grenades were ejected and detonated at intervals 
from about 25 to 56 mi. altitude as the rocket ascended. By recording 
the sounds on five sensitive microphones on the ground, scientists 
could obtain wind direction and velocity, atmospheric temperature, 
density, and pressure data. This was the first of a series of such ex- 
periments to gather upper atmospheric data within the Arctic Circle. 
Point Barrow was 1,100 mi. from the North Pole and 300 mi. within 
the Arctic Circle, at 71° north latitude. (Wallops Release 65-4; AP, 
NYT, 1/29/65) 

• NASA Langley Research Center requested G. T. Schjeldahl Co. to submit a 

bid for construction of six inflatable 100-ft., 130-lb. spherical satellites 
to be used in the national geodetic satellite program. They would be 
nearly identical to echo i and would be named Pageos (Passive 
Geodetic Satellite ( . 

Pageos would be launched in 1966 into a near-polar orbit at an 
altitude of about 2,300 mi. Ground camera stations would simultane- 
ously photograph it against a star background to gather precise data 
for locating any point on Earth. 



36 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

The other two types of spacecraft to be used in the geodetic satellite 
program would be the 350-lb. Geos and the 120-lb. Beacon Explorer- 
B. (NASA Release 65-22; Beacon Explorer-B Press Kit) 
January 27 : nasa Ames Research Center discussed for the press the major 
significant advances in aeronautics and space-oriented research ac- 
complished by the Center during 1964. Accomplishments cited were: 
(1) establishing feasibility of manned control of large boosters; (2) 
problem definition for hypersonic transport; (3) design of new take- 
off and landing aid to precisely locate aircraft position on the runway ; 
(4) design of probe vehicle to define Mars atmosphere; (5) improve- 
ment of M-2 maneuverable atmosphere entry craft; (6) discovery that 
Mars contamination problem is probably not severe; (7) development 
of system for measuring stress in humans; (8) demonstration of need 
for special training for jet transport pilots to combat severe air turbu- 
lence; (9) discovery in meteorite of an extraterrestrial mineral un- 
known on earth; (10) feasibility demonstration of moon and planet 
mission navigation by hand-held sextant; (11) formulation of 
certification requirements for supersonic transport take-off; (12) de- 
sign of ducted-fan to provide efficient airflow for flight from hover to 
high subsonic speeds; (13) formation of organic material under Mar- 
tian conditions; (14) development of a new magnetic field chamber; 
(15) derivation of formula for simple calculation of convective (fric- 
tion) heating of spacecraft in planet atmospheres; (16) tests of radia- 
tive heating in simulated planet atmospheres; (17) improvement of 
techniques for prediction of heat shield performance; (18) develop- 
ment of a low-power, high-performance magnetometer; (19) measure- 
ments of solar wind on imp-b and OGO ii; (20) feasibility demon- 
stration of new pod for vertical-lift engines for Vtol aircraft at flight 
speeds up to 170 mph. (arc Release) 

• Experiments at NASA Ames Research Center by Dr. John Young and Dr. 

Cyril Ponnamperuma indicated that Mars may lie under a steady rain 
of edible sugars produced photochemically in the Martian atmosphere. 
It was speculated that the sugars and other compounds might drift to 
the Martian surface, seep into the soil, and form underground reser- 
voirs of nutrients. 

Results of tests for survival of 50 strains of earth bacteria in simu- 
lated Martian atmosphere indicated that the strains of bacteria which 
form hard spores and are thus most likely to survive space flight are 
most sensitive to the freeze-thaw extremes of temperature that prevail 
on Mars. Thus, while the bacteria might survive on Mars in spore 
form, they would not grow there and would not contaminate the 
planet. Other bacteria would die en route. {S.F. Chron., 1/28/65) 

• In U.S. launch vehicles hearings before Senate Committee on Aeronau- 

tical and Space Sciences, Dr. Alexander Flax, Assistant Secretary of 
the Air Force (r&d), said: 

"In general, the joint dod-nasa study [by the aacb] has shown 
that no drastic revisions to the national launch vehicle family are 
required to meet the mission demands that we can project for the 
immediate future and that further no drastic revisions can be justified 
on purely economic grounds. In addition, it is clear that the exten- 
sive effort on the part of both the dod and the nasa in improving, 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 37 

launch vehicle system reliability has been paying off, and that we can 
expect a continuing trend in this regard. However, it is important 
to also recognize some of the natural limitations inherent in any long- 
range projection of requirements such as we have had to make for this 
study period. There are a number of areas in which unforeseen in- 
creased mission capability demands could react on our launch vehicle 
performance requirements. We must, therefore, continually maintain 
effective exploratory and advanced development programs which will 
provide us with the technology to meet such demands in the fu- 
ture. . . ." {Hearings . . . National Space Launch Vehicles, 87) 
January 27: William M. Allen, president at the Boeing Co., addressed Na- 
tional Defense Transportation Association in Washington, D.C.: "Our 
first Boeing study of a supersonic transport was made in 1952. Pre- 
liminary design effort was started more seriously in 1956 and 1957. 
Then in 1958 the SST became a major engineering project and it has 
continued in that status ever since, involving many of our top engi- 
neers. 

"From the start of our effort to the present, design determinations 
have come in an orderly and unhurried progression, as a result of the 
integration of mountains of test data, much of it worked out in close 
conjunction with NASA laboratories which, incidentally, deserve the 
sincere thanks of the American people for their pioneering work in 
this field. 

"In the process we explored 290 configurations, and completed wind 
tunnel testing on 56 different high-speed wings. . . ." (CR, 1/28/65, 
1454-56) 

• Gen. Bernard A. Schriever (USAF), Commander of the Air Force Systems 

Command, described to members of the Charlotte, N.C., Chamber of 
Commerce the development of the U.S. ballistic missile program: "In 
the ballistic missile program, of course, we were not concerned with 
the missile alone— complicatd as it was- — but also had the problem 
of constructing the facilities to test the missiles; building the ground 
support equipment; and training crews to install, service, and launch 
the missiles. This was a $17 billion program, and was larger in scope 
than the Manhattan Project which produced the atomic bomb during 
World War ii. 

"To give you some idea of the size of the task, imagine that Henry 
Ford in the early days had not only had the problem of designing and 
building his automobiles, but at the same time had to construct all the 
highways and bridges, build all the service stations and garages, and 
plan and conduct driver training programs. . . ." (Text) 

• R. E. Clarson, Inc., St. Petersburg, Florida, was awarded a S2,179,000 

NASA contract for miscellaneous additions and changes at Launch Com- 
plex 34 for the Saturn IB. Work would be done at Cape Kennedy, 
Florida. The contract was awarded by the Army Corps of Engineers. 
(dod Release 53-65) 

• National Science Foundation announced that an ocean area 100 mi. nne 

of Maui Island of the Hawaiian Islands had been tentatively selected 
as the site for the attempt to drill a six-mi. -deep hole into the ocean 
bottom to penetrate beyond the earth's crust. The operation would be 



38 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

called Project Mohole and would be an attempt to gain knowledge of 
the earth's origin and structure, the formation of minerals, and the 
causes of earthquakes. Drilling was expected to begin in 
1968. (Clark, NYT, 1/28/65, 50; ap, Wash. Post, 1/28/65) 
January 27 : Stellar objects dubbed "interlopers" had been discovered by 
the Mt. Wilson-Palomar Observatories in California. Dr. Allan R. 
Sandage of Mt. Wilson said an effort would be made to determine 
whether the new objects were a form of quasar. He said an alternative 
possibility was that the objects were a rare form of star system in 
which two stars lay so close to each other that the presence of one 
caused explosions on the surface of the other. The resulting strongly 
ultraviolet light would superficially resemble that of quasars. Dr. 
Sandage reported that so far about 45 quasars had been identified. 
The "interlopers," so called because of their close resemblance to 
quasars, had been found at the rate of two to a square degree of sky 
in the Umited region studied. So far, they totaled four. (Sullivan, 
ISYT, 1/27/65, 31) 

• J. Gordon Vaeth of the U.S. Weather Bureau's National Weather Satellite 

Center told the American Meteorological Society that the Weather 
Bureau was developing a system in which buoys moored in the ocean 
would broadcast weather data to communications satellites that would 
rebroadcast it almost instantaneously to almost any point on earth. 

Mr. Vaeth said the initial optimum number of buoys would be 300, 
spaced about 600 mi. apart in major ocean regions. They would be 
moored at known, fixed points and would send data on sea and air 
temperature, wind direction and velocity, and barometric pressure. 
Relays from the satellites would be by very-high-frequency radio and 
would be picked up on the ground by inexpensive receiving stations, 
aircraft, or ships at sea. . 

Mr. Vaeth saw the buoy network as an ideal vehicle for internation- 
al cooperation in meteorology. (Schmeck, NYT, 1/28/65, 50) 

• France announced it would build a launching site for spacecraft in 

French Guiana, on the northeast coast of South America, to be ready 
Jan. 1, 1968. (Reuters, Wash. Post, 1/28/65) 

• USAF said in its Project Blue Book that no Ufo "has ever given any 

indication of a threat to our national security" or displayed "tech- 
nological developments or principals beyond the range of present day 
scientific knowledge." Report covered 8,908 sightings during past 18 
yrs, including 532 during 1964. (Noyes, Wash. Eve. Star, 1/27/65, 
28) 

• A new theory for the behavior of matter, called su-6, was presented in 

New York at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society by 
Dr. Abraham Pais of the Rockefeller Institute. The concept, based on 
a branch of mathematics known as symmetry group theory, supported 
views that all matter might be composed of basic building blocks, or 
"quarks," that could be either real fragments or mathematical entities 
smaller than the electron. It grouped the 100+ known fragments of 
matter into groups and then predicted behavior. A modification 
makes the theory also compatible with Einstein's relativity 
theory. (Sullivan, NYT, 1/28/65, 1, 10) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 39 

January 28: mariner iv, launched two months ago, was 11,873,789 mi. 
from earth and moving toward Mars at a speed of 12,291 mph relative 
to the earth at 9 a.m. est. Velocity relative to the sun was 67,086 
mph. (NASA Release 65-21) 

• The first major Saturn V flight component, a 33-ft.-dia., 60,000-lb. corru- 

gated tail section which would support the booster's five 1.5-million-lb.- 
thrust engines, arrived at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center from 
NASA Michoud Operations, near New Orleans. The section was one of 
five major structural units comprising Saturn V's first stage. {Mar- 
shall Star, 1/27/65, 1) 

• USAF announced a four-stage Blue Scout Jr. rocket combination with 

a scientific payload had failed after launch from Cape Kennedy. The 
second stage developed trouble about 100 sec. after launching, causing 
the range safety officer to send destruct signal. The stage broke apart 
on its own. The third stage, meanwhile, separated from the second 
stage, ignited, and followed approximately its preplanned path. The 
fourth stage failed to ignite; it and the payload plummeted harmlessly 
into the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Ascension Island. The probe 
was to have sent its instrumented payload 24,500 mi. into space to 
study earth's magnetic field. (NYT, 1/29/65; U.S. Aeron. & Space 
Act., 1965, 132) 

• Construction work at Cape Kennedy halted as 3,700 building trade 

workers stayed off the job in a two-year-old contract dispute with 
NASA. The present dispute was between building trades unions and 
the Marion Power Shovel Co., a NASA contractor, over pay scales. 
Work on 44 projects involving contracts totaling $192 million had 
been brought to a standstill. The biggest project affected was the 
52-story Saturn V moon rocket assembly building that was to be ready 
for the first of these rockets within two years. (UPI, A^FT", 1/29/65, 
6; AP, Houston Post, 1/29/65) 

• President Johnson, on the advice of Defense Secretary McNamara, and 

contrary to the opinion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, had decided to 
postpone the production order for the Nike-X missile defense system, 
Neal Stanford of the Christian Science Monitor asserted. $2 billion 
had already been spent on the R&D phase of the Nike-X and an addi- 
tional S20 billion would be required to produce and deploy it. The 
FY 1966 budget provided approximately S400 million for continued 
research and development on the Nike-X system pending the decision 
on whether to put Nike-X into production. (Stanford, CSM, 
1/28/65) 

• Army XV-9a experimental pressure jet helicopter, which was first flown 

on November 5, 1964, gave its first public demonstration in Culver 
City, Calif. It was designed and developed under a U.S. Army Trans- 
portation Research Command contract with the Hughes Tool Company 
to evaluate the hot-cycle pressure jet system which would eliminate the 
requirement for heavy gear boxes, complex mechanical drive compo- 
nents, and an antitorque tail rotor. Aircraft based on this concept 
could carry payloads greater than the empty weight of the aircraft 
itself. (DOD Release 55-65) • • 

January 29: AEC said in its Annual Report to Congress that the United 
States now had four Vela satellites in distant orbits to detect nuclear 



40 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

explosions in space. Two more would be launched this year. U.S. 
facilities in the Pacific had been brought to a state of instant readiness 
to resume atmospheric testing should the Soviet Union violate the lim- 
ited nuclear test ban treaty, (aec Annual Report, 76-77) 
January 29: Speaking on the Senate floor. Sen. Richard B. Russell ( D-Ga. ) 
said: "I am greatly disturbed that funds for the continuation of the 
large solid rocket engine program have been eliminated from the 1966 
budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

"... I am concerned about the effect that the proposed termination 
of this program will have over our long-range space effort and upon 
the security of the country. For it will cut off, at a particularly inap- 
propriate time, a crucial research and development program that al- 
ready has shown significant potential for fulfilling future space booster 
needs — -for both defense and nondefense purposes. This is particu- 
larly true for launching large payloads and missions into deep space 
that are contemplated in the not-so-distant future. 

"The booster technology and capability that we are developing 
under the large solid rocket engine program could become a vital 
factor in preventing the Russians from achieving a position of domi- 
nance in space. . . . 

"Indeed, the decision to terminate this program appears to be a 
direct contradiction of Mr. Webb's own views, as expressed as recently 
as Tuesday of this week to the Committee on Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences. He said unequivocally that space missions contemplated for 
the next decade and beyond will require 'new launch vehicles and new 
space vehicle developments.' He said our experience with the Apollo 
moon program has shown that 'a policy of support for the development 
of carefully selected advanced propulsion systems must be followed if 
we are to assure they will be available when needed.' 

"It is highly inconsistent — to say the least — to speak boldly of ex- 
ploring the moon, reaching and charting the planets, establishing 
manned stations in space, and extending our national strength into the 
space dimensions, while at the same time killing off one of the most 
promising programs for the achievement of these very goals. . . ." 
(CR, 1/29/65, 1535) 

• NASA approved a contract with the McDonnell Aircraft Corp. converting 

the $712-million Gemini spacecraft contract from a cost-plus-fixed-fee 
to a cost-plus-incentive-fee. This was the largest incentive contract 
that NASA had negotiated; it provided profit incentives for outstanding 
performance, control of costs, and timely delivery as well as potential 
profit reductions when performance, cost, and schedule requirements 
were not met. ( nasa Release 65-26) 

• The National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic 

Progress, established by law in 1964 to find out what technological 
change was doing to the economic and social fabric of the country 
and how to obtain its maximum benefits with the least possible harm, 
met for the first time with Vice President Hubert Humphrey. The 
Commission would meet again Feb. 18-19 to determine the areas to be 
explored intensively and possibly to select outside personnel to help 
with basic research in these studies. {NYT, 1/30/65, 6) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 41 

January 29: c-141a was certified as a commercial cargo jet. faa Ad- 
ministrator, Najeeb E. Halaby. said the Lockheed fanjet could "help 
give civil freight transportation the kind of mobility that brings suc- 
cess to the armed forces." The plane could operate at 550 mph, and 
needed only a 6.000-ft. runway. The certification climaxed an unusual 
program in which the FAA, USAF, and industry had jointly developed, 
produced, and tested the new craft. Up, NYT, 1/31/65, 27) 

• U.S. Army formally accepted the first two XV-5a V/Stol (Vertical/ 

Short Take-Off and Landing I lift-fan research aircraft at Edwards 
AFB where they were being readied for a six-month Army flight evalua- 
tion. Test pilots from NASA, USAF, USN, and the faa would assist in 
the evaluation, (dod Release 59-65) 
January 30: cosmos liii. an unmanned satellite containing scientific 
equipment for outer space research, was orbited by the Soviet 
Union. Preliminary orbital data: period, 98.7 min.; apogee, 741 mi. 
(1.192 km.); perigee, 141 mi. (227 km.); incHnation, 48.8°. Equip- 
ment on board was operating normally. (Tass, Pravda, 1/31/65, 4, 
ATSS-T Trans. ) 

• Funeral services for Sir Winston Churchill were televised live and by 

delayed transmission from London via telstar ii communications 
satellite. Churchill died on Jan. 24. Earlier in the week, pictures of 
Sir Winston's body lying in state in Westminster Hall had also been 
transmitted live via telstar ii. (nbc; cbs; Wash. Post, 1/27/65) 

• NASA Ames Research Center was conducting tests on a Douglas f5d 

aircraft with a specially designed planform wing that might minimize 
landing speeds for the proposed supersonic transport. A tornado-like 
flow, called "vortex airflow," and resulting from the sharp difference 
between the low pressure on the top of the wing and the high pressure 
on the underside, was generated along the leading edges of the "S"- 
shaped wing. Engineers said use of the sharply angled wings with 
tornado effect on top had these advantages: (1) the tornadoes affected 
air flow over the entire aircraft and eliminated turbulence that would 
make other aircraft directionally unstable when coming in nose high 
for a landing ; ( 2 1 the tornadoes made it almost impossible for the 
wings to lose their lift completely. Also, it was felt this wing shape 
took maximum advantage of the cushioning effect produced in com- 
pressing air between the underside of the wings and the ground which 
would make it necessary to level off sharply at the last moment before 
touching down. 

Existence of this tornado-like flow along the leading edges of the 
wing encouraged the belief that a supersonic airliner might be built 
without resorting to variable-sweep wings. 

In current design competition for supersonic transport under Gov- 
ernment auspices, the Lockheed Aircraft Corp. had taken the first 
approach. The Boeing Co. had a design with movable wings, (arc 
Release 65-3; Witkin, NYT, 1/30/65) 

• An article published in The New Scientist reported that experts at the 

Royal Radar Establishment at Malvern, England, beheved that the 
U.S. communications satellite echo ii — launched Jan. 25, 1964, and 
still in orbit — had been pierced by its own launching canister shortly 
after injection into orbit. 



42 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

According to The Neiv Scientist, the shape of ECHO ii after launch- 
ing was flabby and elongated rather than the perfect sphere wanted for 
some of its communication experiments. 

Analysis of Malvern's radar tracks on echo II revealed writhing 
echoes that, according to their theory, arose when the very short radar 
pulses entered a hole and rebounded from the aluminum-coated interi- 
or of the balloon. The Malvern team thought the balloon had a punc- 
ture about 18 in. long and 27 in. wide in one side. 

NASA spokesmen said they did not believe echo ii had been punc- 
tured by either its launching canister or its launching vehicle and that 
sightings from more than a dozen radar stations had contradicted the 
Malvern theory. They added that echo ii's ability to reflect radio 
signals had not been seriously impaired and many messages had been 
bounced off in the last year. (Hillaby, NYT, 1/31/65, 29) 
January 30: Soviet Union launched a "new type" space booster that 
spanned more than 8,000 mi. of the Pacific, according to Tass. The 
firing was said to have been so successful that a second planned shot 
was canceled. {M&R, 1/8/65, 8) 

• Dr. Joseph Charyk, president of Communications Satellite Corporation, 

speaking in Kaanapali, Hawaii, said the geographic location of Hawaii 
ensured that the impact of Early Bird comsat would be "more pro- 
found there than in any of the other states of the union." Hawaii, he 
noted, would not have to wait, as it does now, to see mainland televi- 
sion programs. Dr. Charyk envisioned a full global communications 
system by 1967. He predicted Hawaii would become a center for 
communications traffic of all types. {NYT, 1/31/65, 13) 

January 30: Columnist James J. Haggerty, Jr., said: "It is all but incredi- 
ble that after seven years of space research no manned military project 
has reached the hardware stage. . . ." (Haggerty, J /Armed Forces, 
1/30/65, 9) 

January 31: Seventh anniversary of the first U.S. satellite, explorer 
I. In defiance of the original predicted lifespan that should have 
ended some two years ago, the satellite continued to pass overhead 
every 104 min., with perigee of 214 mi. and apogee of 983 mi. Tra- 
jectory plotters at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center believed 
EXPLORER I would plunge into the atmosphere and burn in 1968. It 
had slowed down since launch but had logged 904 million mi. around 
the earth. ( Marshall Star, 1/27/65, 1, 6) 

• Japan launched Lambda iii-2, the largest rocket that country had yet 

developed. The 62-ft., three-stage rocket attained an altitude of 620 
mi. and impacted northwest of the Mariana Islands, some 1,130 mi. 
from the launch site at Tokyo University's space center on 
Kyushu. (M&R, 2/8/65, 8) 

• In an interview on the eve of his retirement as Air Force Chief of Staff, 

Gen. Curtis E. LeMay discussed the role of the military in space: 
"Developing military capabilities in space is a task that I think we 
ought to accept as an unavoidable requirement. It is the only way 
that we can establish control over corridors of access to our country 
that would otherwise be open to exploitation by aggressor forces. . . . 

"I am confident that man will prove useful in this medium. Just as 
he has adapted aircraft to tasks no one could foresee in 1903, he will 
undoubtedly discover uses for space systems over the years ahead that 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 43 

go far beyond the observation and inspection functions we envision at 
this time." (ap, Haugland, Bait. Sun, 2/1/65) 
January 31 : Tass had reported that Soviet astronomers beHeved the upper 
layer of the moon's surface was saturated with meteoric matter dis- 
tinguished chemically and in mineral content from deeper layers. 

"Highly accurate and reliable" observation had been made by a 
Gorky University team headed by Vsevolod S. Troitsky, the Soviet 
Union's leading authority on radio emanations of the moon. (Sha- 
bad. Louisville Courier-Journal, 1/31/65) 

• Two U.S. physicists, Prof. Robert V. Pound of Harvard and Assistant 

Professor Glen A. Rebka, Jr., of Yale, were awarded the 
Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of London for 
gravitational red shift experiments reported in 1960 that confirmed 
Einstein's principle of equivalence, one of the basic assumptions of the 
general relativity theory. {NYT, 2/1/65, 12) 

• Smithsonian Institution disclosed architectural plans for a national air 

and space museum to be built in Washington, D. C., opposite the 
National Gallery of Art. Designed by Gyo Obata, a St. Louis archi- 
tect, the building would be modern in concept with an internal design 
that would provide a sweeping vista of exhibit areas. Smithsonian 
officials hoped to receive Congressional authorization to build the mu- 
seum at a cost of $42 million. (NYT, 1/31/65) 
During January: Reviewing Apollo program progress. Dr. Joseph Shea, 
Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office at NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center, said that NASA had characterized the program as a 
series of phases. He explained that 1963 and 1964 were years of 
detailed designs and initial developmental testing; 1964 and 1965 
were years of extensive ground tests and qualifications for flight; from 
1966 on, ground tests would be supplemental to extensive flight tests, 
initially on the Saturn IB and later on the Saturn V. From his visits 
to almost all of the major Apollo hardware contractors, Dr. Shea said 
he could report that all of the subsystems associated with the command 
and service modules "are well along in their ground test programs. 

"Almost all elements are on schedule and the test results indicate 
that the designs will meet our program objectives. By early this year, 
all subsystem hardware will be undergoing the rigorous qualification 
tests which we require before certifying such hardware ready for 
flight. ... By the end of 1965. there will be three Apollo spacecraft 
in continuous ground testing. 1964 was, in retrospect, a year where 
milestone by milestone, we have achieved Apollo objectives." (naa 
S&ID Skywriter, 1/15/65, 1, 4; Witkin, NYT, 1/24/65, 60) 

• Dr. William H. Pickering, Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 

said in an article in Astronautics and Aeronautics for January: 

". . . With Ranger 7, the prime factor was the expectation that the 
Apollo mission would choose a landing area on one of the smooth 
'maria.' So it was of great value to this program to find out as much 
as possible about the mare topography. In particular, it was neces- 
sary to know if these areas were really lava flows and, if so, how much 
was exposed lava and how densely the small craters were scattered 
over the surface. 

"Ranger gave some of the answers. In some areas, at least, small 
craters were indeed strewn very thickly. Probably such areas lie 



44 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

along the rays which radiate from some of the more recent large 
craters. Between these ray regions the surface of the mare appears to 
be quite smooth. No large rocks or fissures are apparent, although 
the general roughness may be comparable to some terrestrial lava 
fields where the lava is of the 'pahoehoe.' or fluid variety. However, 
the absence of any significant number of features showing edges with a 
small radius of curvature, and the presence of small craters which have 
been filled with debris, point to erosion as a significant modifier of the 
primeval lunar surface. This erosion could arise from meteoric bom- 
bardment and the effects of solar radiations. Estimates of the depth 
of surface which has been eroded away range from 5 to 50 
ft. . . ." (A&A, 1/65, 18-20) 
During January: gao charged that mismanagement of the Nimbus meteor- 
ological satellite project resulted in unnecessary costs of $1.2 
million. The report claimed that Nimbus' project manager at NASA 
Goddard Space Flight Center "did not effectively carry out his respon- 
sibility" for flight planning when it became evident that the spacecraft 
had become overweight and that he allowed the contractor to continue 
working toward the original design goal "even though it was clear [the 
effort] would be futile" because of booster limitations. 

Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for Space 
Science and Applications, rebutted the GAO allegations: "The costs 
which were incurred on the Nimbus project during the 5Vl> months 
between May 1961 and November 20, 1961, were for the development 
of the fully redundant Nimbus system to satisfy the requirements 
of the Plan for a National Operational Meteorological Satellite Sys- 
tem. . . . Our effort to achieve the redundant system in the first 
Nimbus flight was continued as long as possible. ... we did not want 
to take the step of dropping the redundant system, even for the first 
flight, until we were sure we had to." (gao Nimbus Rpt., 1/65; M&R, 
2/8/65, 9) 
• Writing in the January 1965 issue of Astronautics and Aeronautics, Dr. 
Harold B. Finger, Manager of aec-nasa Space Nuclear Propulsion 
Office (sNPo), summed up the various components of the advanced 
nuclear propulsion program and emphasized the importance of the 
solid-core nuclear rocket within the field: "Solid-core nuclear rockets 
are the best understood and most nearly developed of the many ad- 
vanced nuclear-propulsion concepts being investigated in this 
country. They offer the most assured and earliest possible means for 
very substantial improvements and advances in space-flight propulsion 
capability. Furthermore, because solid-core nuclear rockets rely heav- 
ily on technology and techniques of chemical rocket engines and al- 
though much extension of these techniques is required, no fundamen- 
tally new engineering approaches are required to develop this new- 
breed of substantially improved rocketry for actual flight use. Solid- 
core nuclear rockets can be relied on for our future space missions. 

"Progress has been made in electric propulsion, particularly in the 
thruster area, and important research data and technology are also 
beginning to be provided in the difficult area of nuclear-reactor electric 
generating systems required for prime electric propulsion. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 45 

"Beyond these systems, other advanced nuclear propulsion concepts 
are not yet well-enough understood to justify undertaking significant 
development efforts." {A&A. 1/65, 30-35) 
During January: Nine areas of scientific experiments for the first manned 
Apollo lunar landing mission had been summarized and experimenters 
were defining them for NASA. Space sciences project group expected 
to publish the complete report by Mar. 1, to be followed by requests 
for proposals from industry on designing and producing instrument 
packages. A major effort was under way by a NASA task force making 
a time-motion study of how best to use the limited lunar stay-time of 
2 hr. minimum for the first flight. {Av. Wk., 2/1/65, 13) 

• NASA Goddard Space Flight Center announced it would negotiate with Ra- 

diation, Inc., of Melbourne, Florida, for a contract to develop a new 
weather measuring system to be tested aboard the Nimbus B meteoro- 
logical satellite. The new equipment. Interrogation Recording and Lo- 
cation System (IRLS), would tie together weather observations made 
on the ground and in space as well as oceanographic measurements. 
(GSFC Release G-1-65) 

• In an article in the Indianapolis Star discussing Soviet medical practices 

observed during his visit to Russia at the invitation of the Soviet 
Academy of Science. Dr. John M. Keshishian, associate in surgery on 
the George Washington University School of Medicine faculty, said: 
"It is not generally known that just before Voskhod was ordered into 
reentry, the pulse rate of one cosmonaut dropped to 40. 

"When your pulse rate drops below 40 heartbeats a minute, you're 
in trouble. 

"The Russians haven't said anything about this . . . but it could be 
another one of the problems their space medicine is encountering for 
which there seems to be no ready solutions. 

"For example, some Russian cosmonauts have suffered severe, hallu- 
cinations, both in flight and afterwards. Others have suffered equally 
severe and, thus far, inexplicable vertigo during which they can't be 
certain whether the floor's coming up to meet them or vice versa, or 
whether they're spinning, or the room is. And Russian physicians 
have found that , . . space flight environment — possibly weightless- 
ness — draws calcium from the blood and expels it in the 
urine." (World Book Encyclopedia Science Service, Inc., Keshishian, 
Indianapolis Star ) 

• In an article in Foreign Affairs entitled "Slowdown in the Penta- 

gon," Hanson W. Baldwin said: "The sprawling bureaucracy of 
big government; the control of major military or paramilitary projects 
by agencies over which the Defense Department has no direct authori- 
ty, including the Atomic Energy Commission, the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Bureau 
of the Budget: congressional legislation and executive regulation — so- 
cial, political and economic; the tremendous size and complexity of the 
Armed Forces; overcentralization and overregulation in the Pentagon; 
too much service rivalry and not anough service competition — all these 
and other factors have become builtin roadblocks in defense develop- 
ment and contracting. 



46 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"The creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion has provided another type of problem. NASA stemmed from the 
same kind of political philosophy that nurtured the aec. Atom bombs 
were too powerful to allow the generals to play with them; ergo, a 
civihan agency must control nuclear power — and it must be channeled 
away from nasty military purposes. The same scientific-political pres- 
sure groups that advocated this concept helped (with President Eisen- 
hower's approval) to establish NASA, again on the theory that space 
efforts must be controlled by civilians and that space must not be used 
for military purposes. . . . 

"But in the case of NASA, the problem has been compounded. For 
while the aec is essentially a research and production agency, NASA is 
an operating agency as well. From a small highly efficient aeronau- 
tical research agency, it has now expanded into a gargantuan multibil- 
lion-dollar empire, with tentacles all over the country, managing the 
biggest program on which the United States has ever embarked — to 
place a man on the moon. 

"In its early years, NASA was sluggishly if at all responsive to mili- 
tary needs, and the Pentagon itself was inhibited from any effective 
space developments (though, curiously, the only effective space 
boosters available were miUtary ballistic missiles). Gradually the 
liaison, due to Dr. [Edward C] Welsh and others, has been greatly 
improved. Numerous military officers, active and retired, now hold 
some of the most important positions in NASA, and in addition the 
Armed Forces have furnished most of the astronauts and by far the 
most important part of the facilities and services used by the 
agency. The two-headed control still offers difficulties, but today the 
main stumbling blocks to the rapid development of military space 
projects are Secretary McNamara and his Director of Defense Re- 
search and Engineering, Dr. Harold Brown, who in his new political 
role in the Pentagon has become a remarkably unadventurous scientist. 

"Often the President's Scientific Adviser, whose contacts with Penta- 
gon and other Government scientists cut squarely across organizational 
lines, has also acted as roadblock to new developments. He exercises 
tremendous power without either specific responsibility or specific au- 
thority; therefore, his intervention often not only delays but 
confuses. The Adviser's great power stems largely from his White 
House status; unfortunately around him has grown up a small but 
important office manned by men more impressive as bureaucrats than 
as scientists, who represent, in effect, another echelon of 
delay. . . ." {Foreign Affairs, 1/65; CR, 2/4/65, 2007) 
During January: Committee assignments for both parties were made in 
both Houses of Congress. New members on the Senate Committee on 
Aeronautical and Space Sciences: Walter F. Mondale (D-Minn.), Jo- 
seph Tydings ( D-Md. ) , Len B. Jordan (R-Ida.), and George D. Aiken 
(R-Vt.). 

New members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics: 
Roy A. Taylor (D-N.C), George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), Walter H. 
Moeller (D-Ohio), William R. Anderson (D-Tenn.), Brock Adams 
(D-Wash.), Lester L. Wolff (D-N.Y.), Weston E. Vivian (D-Mich.), 
Gale Schisler (D-Ill.), and Barber B. Conable, Jr. (R-N.Y.). 
(Comm. Off.) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 47 

During January: Marvin L. White, afcrl's Space Physics Laboratory, 
predicted the sun was encircled by "rings" of electric current totaling 
nearly 200 billion amps. Although total current was high, White 
postulated that the current density was low because the current was 
spread over a large area; he predicted current density to be about 
three trillionths of an ampere per square centimeter, the same order 
of magnitude as in the earth's atmosphere. White's calculations were 
based on particle flux data from mariner ii. (oar Research Review, 
1/65, 1-2) 

With launch of two balloons to 87,000-ft. altitudes from Chico, Calif., 
AFCRL began one-year series of high-altitude balloon flights to measure 
moisture in the stratosphere. Series would consist of vertical sound- 
ings — 25 in all, at the rate of two per month — in which all data would 
be obtained in recoverable instrumented payload parachuted to earth 
when balloon descended to 30,000 ft., and horizontal soundings — five 
11 -day flights at float altitudes averaging 75,000 ft. — in which data 
gathered over thousands of miles would be telemetered every two 
hours to ground stations, (oar Research Review, 5/65, 15-16) 

In an article on detecting extraterrestrial life, William R. Corliss in In- 
ternational Science and Technology described some of the plans for 
collecting data on possible life-forms elsewhere and some of the factors 
making the search for extraterrestrial life so challenging. He noted 
the complications for Martian life-detection if retrorockets were neces- 
sary to brake the landing of a scientific package: "First, of course, 
they add weight to the landing package, right where it hurts the most. 
Also, their control adds complexity and increases the chance of failure. 
Finally and perhaps most importantly, they would make the problem 
of life-detection more difficult and any results more ambiguous; the 
rocket exhaust would tend both to fuse the surface of the landing area 
(maybe even killing any existing organisms), and to add combustion 
contaminants of its own in the most crucial area — around the lander." 
He listed the variety of experimental instruments proposed for detecting 
extraterrestrial life (or clues of life) and explained why the dependa- 
bility of these instruments — based on different physical and chemical 
principles — varied widely. [Int. Sci. & Tech., 1/65, 28-34) 



February 1965 

February 1 : The second meeting of the French-Anglo-United States Super- 
sonic Transport (fausst) group was held in Washington to discuss 
airworthiness objectives in connection with commercial supersonic 
transports ( SST ) . Agenda items included a discussion of atmospheric 
problems, structures, and sonic boom as related to sST flight, (faa 
Release T-65-4) 

• Gen. Curtis E. LeMay. retiring Air Force Chief of Staff, received a fourth 

Distinguished Service Medal from President Johnson at the White 
House. Later, during formal retirement ceremonies at Andrews AFB, 
a letter from the President was read: "All the world can be grateful 
to you for your courage, tenacity and exacting standards of profes- 
sionalism." Gen. LeMay was succeeded by Gen. John Paul McConnell. 
(Loftus, NYT, 2/2/65, 13; NYT, 2/2/65, 13) 

• Sealed brushless DC motor, originally developed to power instrumentation 

on unmanned spacecraft, was selected for use in the Apollo two-man 
Lunar Excursion Module (Lem) and the Gemini two-man spacecraft. 
The new motor utilized photo-optical detectors and transistorized 
switching elements which duplicated the functions of conventional 
brushes and commutator without physical contact of the rotating 
parts. Environmental tests had shown the brushless motor had a 
predicted operational life of one year. A barrier to DC motors had 
been the short life of conventional brushes in the space vacuum be- 
cause of the lack of lubricating moisture necessary to prevent ex- 
cessive friction. Motor was developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center under contract with Sperry Farragut. (CSFC Release G-2-65) 

• NASA Flight Research Center issued requests for proposals for two pre- 

liminary feasibility studies of a manned lifting reentry vehicle to 16 
industrial firms. Primary objective of the proposed studies would be 
to determine problem areas and their influence on design and to pro- 
vide accurate estimates of the weight, cost, and developmental sched- 
ule involved with such a research craft, (frc Release 5-65) 

• NASA awarded S8.3 million contract to Pacific Crane and Rigging Co. for 

installation of ground support equipment at Kennedy Space Center's 
Apollo-Saturn V Launch Complex 39 on Merritt Island. The contract 
called for purchase, fabrication, assembly, installation, cleaning, and 
testing of electrical, mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic systems, 
valves and control modules, pipe assemblies, and support hardware. 
(Ksc Release 17-65) 

• Transfer of usn's Pacific Missile Range and instrumentation facilities at 

Point Arguello, Calif., to usaf operational control became effective. 
The Navy also turned over its Point Pillar tracking stations in Cali- 
fornia and mid-Pacific stations at Canton Island, Eniwetok, and at 

48 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 49 

South Point and Kokee Park, Hawaii. Missile impact location sta- 
tions (MILS) at Wake and Midway were still under Navy control. 
For operation of its Pacific Missile Range, Navy retained tracking 
stations at Barking Sands missile tracking facility, Kauai, Hawaii, 
and was a tenant at Johnston Island. Other pmr stations included 
those at St. Nicolas and San Clemente Islands on the Sea Test Range. 
(Zylstra, M&R, 3/8 65, 33-34) 
February 1: Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr. (USN), said he probably 
would be assigned as command pilot to the sixth Gemini flight, which 
would be the first U.S. attempt to meet and join two vehicles in space. 
(AP, Bait. Sun, 2 2/65) 

• USAF successfully launched an Athena test missile from Green River, Utah, 

to White Sands Missile Range. N.Mex. Up, Wash. Post, 2/3/65) 

• Construction unions' strike, that had shut down all NASA construction at 

Merritt Island and Cape Kennedy since Jan. 28, ended when the 
President's Missile Sites Labor Commission set a date for hearing the 
grievances of the unions involved. It had been the fifth walkout within 
a year. ( UPI, Chic. Trib., 2/2/65; Wash. Post, 2/2/65) 

• FAA predicted continued aviation growth over the next five years: U.S. 

airline revenue passenger miles would increase 30 billion over the 54 
billion flown in FY 1964; general aviation, measured in estimated hours 
of flying, would increase by four million hours over the estimated 15.5 
million flown in FY 1964; general aviation fleet would number 105,000 
aircraft by 1970, compared to 85,088 aircraft as of Jan. 1, 1964. 
( FAA Release T-65-3 ) 
February 2: Capt. Joseph H. Engle (USAF) flew x-15 No. 3 to 98,200 ft. 
altitude and a maximum speed of 3,886 mph (mach 5.7) in a test to 
determine how ablative material reacted to intense heat. (NASA x-15 
Proj. Off.; UPI, Wash. Post, 2/3/65; X-15 Flight Log) 

• NASA announced it would negotiate a two-phase contract with Aerojet 

General Corp. for design and development of a liquid-hydrogen, re- 
generatively cooled exhaust nozzle for the Phoebus nuclear rocket re- 
actor test program. First phase of the contract would include a four- 
month preliminary design study of nozzle concepts and an evaluation 
of fabrication and testing methods. This phase would be negotiated 
on a cost-plus-fixed-fee basis at an estimated value of $400,000. Using 
results of Phase I, the contractor would design, develop, test, and de- 
liver three nozzles to the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at 
Jackass Flats, Nev. Phase ii would be awarded as an incentive con- 
tract with an estimated value of SIO million. 

Phoebus, a 5,000-megawatt reactor, would be tested as part of the 
program to develop nuclear propulsion devices for space missions. 
(NASA Release 65-28) 

• Discussing the missions and plans of nasa's new Electronics Research 

Center, Dr. Winston E. Kock, erc Director, told the Harvard Engi- 
neers Club in Cambridge: "I believe that the recent strengthening 
of research in nasa can act to overcome any such braking of scientific 
enthusiasm which the recent changes in our defense program . . . may 
have instigated. I have seen at first hand true research enthusiasm at 
two NASA Research Centers, Lew is in Cleveland, and Ames in California, 
and, at Cambridge's new NASA Research Center, the response we have 
had from inventive, research-minded individuals, expressing an in- 



50 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

terest in association with the Center has been phenomenal. I have 
always believed in the saying 'necessity is the mother of invention,' 
and I feel certain that it was the necessities of World War II that 
brought into bloom radar, the jet aircraft, nuclear power, the V-2 
rocket (which led to our present missile and space rockets), and many 
other developments which have proved to be of vital importance to 
our way of life. So, I feel that a counterbalance to today's reduced 
necessities of the broad, new opening field of space research . . . will 
help to keep our nation's research talent active and enthusiastic, and 
maintain it in the strong virility it has exhibited since the start of 
World War II." (Text) 

• February 2: Charles W. Harper, Director of NASA Hq. Aeronautics Div., 

discussed aeronautical research at a luncheon of the Aviation/Space 
Writers Association. He said: "... aviation has a tremendous po- 
tential in the short-haul 'aerial bus.' Both VTOL (vertical take-off and 
landing) and stol (short take-off and landing) are being considered 
for this job. . . . On the basis of our current knowledge I would con- 
clude the VTOL commercial transport offers tremendous potential but 
requires additional research . . . before it is ready for detailed feasi- 
bility study as a commercial transport. On the other hand the stol 
machine is ready for a careful examination since the major problems 
seem to be in hand. 

"A 20 to 50 passenger stol machine should, or could, have a top 
speed of 300 to 400 knots, a steep approach with a touch down at 45 
knots and an operational field length of some 1200 to 1500 feet. All- 
weather operation is required and, with the aid of space technology 
advances, this appears quite possible. We think we can display elec- 
tronically to the pilot the important features of the airport so that he 
can approach it and land using the same information that he does in 
clear weather. 

"We see two large markets for vehicles of this type. In a smaller 
simple version, perhaps bearing a little sacrifice in performance, an air 
transport well suited for use in underdeveloped areas. Rugged, easy 
to fly and simple to maintain, it could enable these countries to jump 
from jungle or desert trails to modern transport system without build- 
ing enormously expensive railways and highways. This would be a 
good market for U.S. industry. In a larger sophisticated version it 
could be the vehicle to make the present short haul feeder Hnes self 
sufficient, not depending on connecting traffic from the trunk lines. 
This too would be a desirable situation for American industry. NASA 
plans to pursue both of these potentials actively until the air industry 
has enough confidence in success to proceed on its own. . . ." (Text) 

• Alfred J. Eggers, Jr., NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced 

Research and Technology, addressed the Science Teachers' Associa- 
tion of Santa Clara County, Calif., at NASA Ames Research Center. 
He said: "The question then is, what has man done in space to date? 
According to the eminent archaeologist, V. Gordon Childe, whatever 
man has done in the relatively short evolutionary history documented 
by his fossil remains, he has done without significantly improving 
his inherited equipment by bodily changes detectable in his skeleton. 
Moreover, this equipment is inadequately adapted for survival in any 
particular environment, and indeed it is inferior to that of most ani- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 51 

mals for coping with any special set of conditions. Yet in spite 
of his physical inferiority, man has been able to adjust himself 
to a greater range of environment than any other creature, to 
multiply much faster than any near relative amongst the higher mam- 
mals, and indeed to beat them all at their special tricks. Thus he 
learned to control fire, and he developed the skills to make clothes and 
houses, with the result that he lives and thrives from pole to pole on 
earth, and already he is concerned with a population explosion. He 
has developed trains and cars that can outstrip the fleetest cheetah, 
and he has developed the airplane so that he can mount higher than 
the eagle. Moreover, he developed telescopes to see further than the 
hawk, and firearms to lay low the elephant or any other animal, includ- 
ing himself. But whatever their use, the important point is that fire, 
clothes, houses, trains, airplanes, telescopes, and guns are not part of 
man's body. He can set them aside at will. They are not inherited 
in the biological sense, but rather the skill needed for their conception, 
production, and use is part of our intellectual heritage, the result of a 
tradition built up over many generations and transmitted not in the 
blood but through speech and writing. 

"The true stepping stones to the moon are ourselves and our fore- 
fathers. The stepping stones beyond are our children, and much of 
what they will be and where they will lead the human race, is up to 
you and your kind. U you succeed in your work, you will have made 
an invaluable contribution to the betterment of man's ability to make 
himself, to master himself, and finally to understand himself in his en- 
vironment. Indeed, if you are especially successful, you may, in the 
words of V. R. Potter, 'develop a new breed of scholars, men who 
combine a knowledge of new science and old wisdom, men who have 
the courage of the men of the Renaissance who thought truth was 
absolute and attainable,' and who may yet be right. I submit we can 
do no less than find out." (Text) 

February 2: Philco Corp., opposing the bid by the Communications Satellite 
Corporation to supply dod with communications satellite service, asked 
the FCC to prevent ComSatCorp from signing a "sole source" contract 
with Hughes Aircraft Co. Philco, which was already preparing a 
satellite system for dod under a contract awarded in July 1963, said 
ComSatCorp's proposed contract "is in violation of the letter and spirit 
of the FCC rules and regulations which require competition in ComSat- 
Corp procurement." Since ComSatCorp apparently had been negotiat- 
ing the matter for some time, "its present statement that stringent time 
requirements impel waiver of the Fcc's rules and regulations is in- 
supportable," Philco said. 

Under ComSatCorp's plan, dod would be supplied 24 satellites built 
by Hughes Aircraft Co. and would pay for service only if the satellites 
worked. ComSatCorp would absorb the costs if they did not. dod 
had made no decision for or against the offer. (Wash. Eve. Star, 
2/2/65; upi, NYT, 2/3/65, 54) 

• Sen. Warren G. Magnuson (D-Wash.) introduced in the Senate a bill 
to provide for a national oceanographic program and the estab- 
lishment of a National Oceanographic Council. Senator Magnuson 
said the National Oceanographic Council would have "certain key re- 
sponsibilities and functions ... in the oceanographic field [which] 



52 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

would be similar to those of the National Aeronautics and Space Coun- 
cil in the space program. . . ." 

He noted that "a number of departments and agencies have separate 
missions in the aeronautics and space program," and that the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council "takes precedence over" the operating 
agencies to coordinate the national aeronautics and space program. 
Similarly, 6 departments and 22 agencies "are engaged or have a direct 
interest in the seas. . . ." (CR, 2/2/65, 1754-57) 
February 2: R. E. Clarson. Inc., of St. Petersburg, Fla., was awarded a 
$2,179,000 contract for alterations to Launch Complex 34, Cape Ken- 
nedy, to accommodate the Saturn IB rocket. Army Corps of Engineers 
made the award, (ap, Miami Her., 2/3/65) 

• Editorializing in the Washington Evening Star about "lean years" begin- 

ning for the aerospace industry, William Hines said: ". . . Since the 
'50s, aerospace companies have become accustomed to a diet of caviar, 
filet and champagne. The government has poured something like 
100 billion into rockets, missiles and spacecraft since the Soviet Union's 
Sputnik went up in October, 1957. The torrent of funds is now being 
reduced, if not precisely to a trickle, certainly to a more moderate 
flow. . . . 

"The aerospace crisis is serious enough that the management-con- 
sultant firm of Arthur D. Little, Inc., has just published a study, 
'Strategies for Survival in the Aerospace Industry.' It makes the fol- 
lowing revealing point: 

" 'The period 1954—1963 was one of remarkably steady growth in 
the funding of military and space systems. In fact, it was so steady 
that many participants perhaps forgot that there were concrete, finite 
objectives to be achieved with these funds.'. . ." (Hines, Wash. Eve. 
Star, 2/2/65) 

• Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced plans to buy American 

military aircraft to replace British aircraft, an action he said would 
save more than $840 million over a 10-yr. period. The two U.K. 
projects being dropped were the P-1154 vertical take-off supersonic 
strike aircraft and the HS-681 short take-off military transport. Both 
were made by the Hawker Siddeley group. American Phantom li's, 
made by McDonnell Aircraft, would be ordered to replace the P-1154. 
Phantoms were already on order to replace the Royal Navy's Sea 
Vixens. Lockheed's c-130's would replace the HS-681. The Ameri- 
can planes would be equipped with British engines. On the question 
of the TSR-2, which the U.K. was considering replacing with General 
Dynamics' F-111, Mr. Wilson said there was not enough information 
yet to make a final decision. (Farnsworth, A'FT', 2/3/65, 9; Clymer. 
Bait. Sun, 2/3/65) 

• Soviet news agency Tass announced that firing of a new type of multi- 

stage rocket booster on Jan. 31 had been so successful that further 
tests in the Pacific series had been canceled. The rocket had travelled 
more than 8,000 mi. in the Pacific southwest of Hawaii, (upi. Wash. 
Daily News, 2/2/65; UPi, Wash. Post, 2/3/65) 

• A brightly illuminated object in the sky near Langley AFB, Va., was 

widely reported as a Ufo but identified by USAF as a weather balloon 
with the sun reflecting off its surface. (Newport News Daily Press, 
2/3/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 53 

February 3: oso ii (Oso B2 ) , NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory, was suc- 
cessfully launched into orbit from Cape Kennedy by a three-stage Delta 
rocket. Preliminary orbital elements: apogee, 393 mi.; perigee, 343 
mi.; period, 97 min.; inclination, 33°. The 545-lb. spacecraft included 
parts salvaged from the Oso B, damaged last April prior to launch, 
and components of a spacecraft built for prototype testing. 

The second of eight spacecraft planned by NASA for direct observa- 
tion of the sun, oso ii carried eight scientific experiments and had two 
main sections: the wheel (lower) section provided stability by gyro- 
scopic spinning and housed the telemetry, command, batteries, control 
electronics and gas spin-control arms, and five experiment packages; 
the sail (upper) section was oriented toward the sun and contained 
solar cells and solar-pointing experiments. For the first time, the in- 
struments, controlled by ground command, would scan the entire solar 
surface. Each scan required four minutes. 




February 3: NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory, oso n, was launched from Cape Ken- 
nedy, Fla. 

OSO II experiments were intended to map the frequency and energy 
of solar emissions and represented a joint Government-university-in- 
dustry effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center managed the prbject. 
(NASA Press Kit Release 65-14; NASA Release 65-32; Goddard News, 
2/8/65, 1-2) 
• Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched from Wallops Island, Va., to 
altitude of 87.7 mi. (141.1 km.) with experiments to measure the neu- 
tron intensity above the earth's atmosphere, the flux of solar x-rays, and 
Lyman-alpha radiation; and to determine ionospheric electron densi- 
ties. All instruments functioned as predicted. (NASA Rpt. srl) 



54 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

February 3: NASA Administrator James E. Webb said during a panel discus- 
sion at the Military Electronics Convention in Los Angeles: "I think I 
can report that our ten-year aeronautical and space effort [beginning in 
1961] has been well organized, it has stabilized at the 51/4 billion level, 
and has retained a well-worked-out balance among its various compo- 
nents. At the end of this ten-year period, we will have received back 
from our operating spacecraft the basic measurements of the space en- 
vironment which will give us a much better scientific understanding of 
this environment and our engineers will have proved out the develop- 
mental concepts and engineering designs for effective operations of all 
kinds in space. Further, we will have a launch capability of six Saturn 
ib's and six Saturn V's per year, meaning that we could put almost two 
million pounds into orbit per year, if required. We will have logged 
more than five thousand hours of astronaut spaceflight time and 
learned a great deal about the relationship between man, equipment, 
the task assigned, and performance in the space environment. . . ." 
(Text) 

• NASA Manned Spacecraft Center reported it had saved $12 miUion toward 

a 135 milHon cost reduction goal for FY 1965. Major portion of this 
saving was made possible by a suggestion from Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, 
MSC Director, that instead of spending the budgeted $7,873,000 for a 
static test stand for the Apollo spacecraft at Cape Kennedy, the reserve 
Titan Launch Complex 16 be modified for static test use. Cost of 
modifying the Titan launch complex would be $3,982,900, with a net 
saving of $3,890,100. (msc Roundup, 2/3/65, 8) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was readying its first Saturn V S-ic 

stage, designated s-ic-T, for static firing late this spring, NASA re- 
ported. The S-IC-T, a static test stage, would be hot-fired on a cap- 
tive test stand in MSFc's West Test Area and would be ground tested 
repeatedly over a period of many months to prove out the propulsion 
system, (nasa Release 65-27) 

• FCC vetoed a proposed Communications Satellite Corp. contract with 

Hughes Aircraft Co. for the design of satellites to be used by 
DOD. In a letter to ComSatCorp, the FCC took note of a protest 
by Philco Corp. (see Feb. 2), that it was as qualified as Hughes to 
bid on the proposed contract and said ComSatCorp must award the 
contract only after competitive bidding. ComSatCorp had asked the 
FCC to approve the proposed contract, waiving requirements for com- 
petitive bidding, (fcc Public Notice-C ) 

• usaf "ripple-launched" two Minutemen icbm's from Vandenberg afb. 

Both were launched from silos, the second within minutes of the first. 
{M&R, 2/15/65, 12) 
February 4: Nike-Cajun sounding rocket with grenade payload to obtain 
temperature, wind, density, and pressure data was launched from 
Wallops Island, Va. to altitude 73.5 mi. (118.2 km.). Twelve grenades 
were to have exploded during rocket ascent, but two did not explode. 
All other instruments performed as anticipated. A similar experiment 
was launched from Point Barrow successfully. (NASA Rpt. SRL) 

• USAF's XC-142A V/Stol, designed and built by Ling-Temco-Vought. made 

its first public flight at Grand Prairie, Tex. piloted by John Konrad. 
Designed to take off and land vertically, the experimental aircraft had 
a wing that could be moved in flight from the normal horizontal posi- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 55 

tion to a vertical position, enabling it to hover, fly backwards, side- 
ways, and rotate 360° in either direction over the same spot. It could 
fly forward as slowly as 25 mph without stalling and could be flown 
at maximum speed of 425 mph; cruising speed was 250 mph. Five of 
the airplanes would be delivered to Edwards AFB for further tests. 
{Wash. Post, 2 5 65: Clark, Houston Post, 2 /'5/65; A&A, 4/65, 8) 
February 4: Scientists at Boeing Co., Seattle, had devised a "trampoline" 
bed designed to exercise the blood vessels in a weightless environment, 
it was reported. Compared in effect to a cocktail shaker, the device, by 
its to-and-fro motion, would send the blood surging from the head to 
the feet and back again. Some scientists had feared that days of inac- 
tivity in a weightless environment without exercising the blood vessels 
could result in death to an astronaut. (AP, Newport News Daily Press, 
2 '4 65; AP. Huntsville Times, 2 4 65; Orl. Sen., 2/4/'65) 

• USAF presented a Lockheed Agena-B to the Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 

ington, D.C., for permanent display in the National Air Museum. The 
Agena had performed as an orbital injection vehicle, space satellite 
(first to achieve circular and polar orbits), and as an intermediate 
stage booster for deep space probes. ( Smithsonian Release ) 
February 5: mariner iv was performing normally after nearly 10 weeks in 
space, NASA announced. At 9 a.m. est the Mars probe was 14,421,246 
mi. from earth and had traveled more than 117 million mi. in its sun- 
circling orbit. It was moving at a velocity of 14,478 mph relative to 
earth and 65,670 mph relative to the sun. Instruments aboard MARINER 
IV Mars probe detected a solar flare and the spacecraft telemetered data 
to a tracking station at Johannesburg, South Africa, for relay to the 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (NASA Release 65-30; L.A. Times, Wash. 
Post, 2/6 65) 

• First major piece of flight-type hardware for the Apollo program. Service 

Module 001, successfully underwent a 10-sec. shakedown static test 
firing at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center's White Sands Operations. 
Service Module 001 was unlike previous boilerplate models in that 
it was constructed primarily of aluminum alloy and had an outside skin 
of honeycomb bonded between two aluminum sheets. Made by Aerojet- 
General, the service propulsion system engine had 22,000 lbs. of thrust. 
It would slow down the Apollo for entry into lunar orbit and speed 
up the spacecraft for escape from lunar orbit and the return to earth. 
(MSC Roundup, 2/17/65, 8; naa S&ID Skywriter, 2/12/65, 1, 3) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb, at Nebraska Wesleyan Univ. to 

receive an honorary doctorate, said in a speech: "... while our 
national policy is to maximize the peaceful uses of outer space . . . and 
to avoid the extension of weapons, we have no choice but to acquire a 
broadly-based total capability in space; a capability that can enable 
us to insure the protection of our national security interests while we 
actively seek cooperative peaceful development. . . . 

"The Roman mastery of land and sea communications, the English 
mastery of the seas, the American mastery of the air and of nuclear 
energy were each accompanied by greatly enhanced prestige and 
followed by vast increases in power and position, new knowledge, the 
establishment of strategic international economic advantages, the wide 
use of new resources, great advances in military capability, and a 
quickening of national pride and vigor. Portentous realignments 



56 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

among nations were inevitable. These are the advantages the Russians 
now seek from their enormous investments in space. These are the 
advantages we cannot permit them to acquire and use against the 
non-Communist world. 

"In these lessons of history lies the real challenge of space. The 
portents for our own time are clear enough in the early lead of the 
Soviet Union with the first Sputnik, Vostok, and Voskhod. The spurt 
in Soviet prestige brought a new assurance and weight in the interna- 
tional political arena, a new pride and confidence in Soviet national 
purpose. We have reacted quickly and with ever-increasing success, 
but the challenge of the mastery of space remains to be accomplished 
for us as a nation and for you as a member of the new generation. 
We are meeting this challenge, and in doing so enhancing the broadest 
values for our society and our world. 

"Our power to survive as a great and vigorous Society is in the 
process of being proven again through our space efforts. Your own 
involvement in the actions and consequences will be far greater than 
you or I can fully appreciate today. . . ." (Text; NYT, 2/5/65) 
February 5: NASA announced it had approved a Rice Univ. proposal for a 
satellite to measure radiation and radiation loss in the Van Allen belts, 
aurorae and airglow, bombardment of the upper atmosphere by ener- 
getic particles from space, and galactic and solar cosmic rays. The 
125-lb. scientific satellite, to be known as Owl, would be designed, 
developed, and built by a Rice group headed by Dr. Brian J. O'Brien, 
and would be injected into a near-circular orbit at about 400 mi. 
altitude by Scout launch vehicle. After achieving orbit, the satellite 
would be oriented by a large permanent bar magnet so that one axis 
would be continuously aligned with the earth's magnetic lines of force. 
The Rice project would be part of the NASA University Explorers Pro- 
gram. Spacecraft and experiments would be tested at NASA facilities 
under the direction of NASA's Wallops Station, which also was assigned 
project management of Owl. (nasa Release 65-29) 

• First S-II-S ground test stage in the Saturn s-ll program was completed 

by North American Aviation at Seal Beach. The stage would be used 
for structural tests simulating critical thrust and pressure loads antici- 
pated during Saturn V/ Apollo flight missions. This stage would not be 
fired — it would have no engine, (naa S&ID Skywriter, 2/5^65, 1) 

• A new alloy known as NASA Modified TaZ-8 had been developed by NASA 

Lewis Research Center scientists John C. Freche and William J. Waters 
for use in modified X-15 nose sensors. The new material, which con- 
tained tantalum and zirconium, was necessary because the increased 
speed of the modified aircraft (x-15 No. 2) — up to 5.000 mph — 
would cause greater dynamic heating. (Lewis News, 2/5/65, 1) 

• Menu released by NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in a request for bids 

from industrial firms interested in furnishing the Apollo astronauts with 
food for the journey to the moon included bacon and eggs, frosted 
flakes, toast, fruit juice, and a strawberry cereal bar. Food allowance 
of 8 lbs. would be dehydrated to reduce its weight. Astronauts would 
add water to the food from their drinking water supply. (Schefter, 
Houston Chron., 2/5/65) 

• National Science Foundation announced that a new radio technique might 

make it possible to study Antarctica's ice depth. The technique in- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 57 

volved sending radio waves down through the ice and measuring the 
time it took them to bounce back from the underlying ground. This 
would provide a measure of ice depth. The equipment was checked 
out at the South Pole where earlier seismic soundings had shown the 
ice to be 9J00 ft. deep, (upi, NYT, 2/7/65, 77) 
February 5: Deactivation of 129 obsolete intercontinental ballistic missile 
launch sites was underway. The Thor, Atlas, and Titan I missiles had 
been superseded by more modern weapons, including Titan ii. Minute- 
man, and Polaris. Nearly $2 billion of property in 12 states was 
involved. Government agencies had been advised that equipment Avas 
available as military surplus. (Hill, NYT, 2/7/65, 64) 

• A tentative plan of the Center for European Nuclear Research (cern) to 

build a 300-billion-electron-volt particle accelerator in Bavaria was 
being opposed by residents of Munich, it was reported, cern had stated 
that no final decision had been reached. (NYT, 2/7/65, 24) 
February 6: Tabulations prepared by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 
showed that more than 1,000 man-made objects — satelHtes, spacecraft, 
capsules, and assorted bits and pieces of them — had been placed in 
orbit since Oct. 4, 1957. Of these objects 243 were satellites launched 
by the United States or its allies and 94 were Soviet-launched satellites. 
103 U.S. -sponsored satellites and 16 Soviet satellites were still in orbit. 
Of those no longer in orbit, 140 were U.S. and 78 Soviet. Many 
satellites had separated into two or more space objects or had broken 
apart accidentally or by design to produce space junk. GSFC records 
identified 469 hunks of junk of U.S. origin and 182 of Soviet as having 
orbited the earth at one time or another. Of these, 372 U.S. and 16 
Soviet objects were still in orbit, (ap, NYT, 2/7/65, 80) 

• Among 1965 recipients of the Arthur S. Flemming Award to outstanding 

young men in Federal Government were: Leonard Jaffe, Director of 
NASA Communication and Navigation Programs, for his work in com- 
munication satellite projects; Dr. Robert Jastrow, for his work in 
nuclear theory at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York; 
Dr. Joseph F. Shea, Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office 
at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, for his work in U.S. manned lunar 
landing program; and Wesley L. Hjornevik, Assistant Director for 
Administration at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, for his work in 
construction of space environment simulator. [Wash. Post, 2/7/65; 
NASA Notice) 

• Dr. Frank J. Low, research associate in the Lunar and Planetary 

Laboratory at the Univ. of Arizona, discovered three halved stars 
with halos around them which may be clues to stellar evolution. He 
said he believed these were stars throwing out material that would 
become building blocks of future stars. He identified the stars as 
Betelgeuse, Aldebaran, and Mu Cephei. (ap, Phil. Eve. Bui, 2/6/65) 

• Over 300 Government- and space industries-employed engineers were 

studying for master's and doctor's degrees utilizing closed circuit 
television with two-way communication in a program at the Univ. of 
Florida's College of Engineering. The system had been activated in 
September 1964. TV classrooms were at Orlando, Daytona Beach, Cape 
Kennedv. Melbourne. Patrick afb, and NASA Merritt Island. {NYT, 
2/7/65,' 80) 

• Marshal Nikolai L Krylov, Soviet commander of the strategic rocket 

forces, said in Krasnaya Zvezda: "Representatives of the aggressive 



58 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

imperialist circles often brag about their rocket-nuclear weapons. In 
answer to this we can state with assurance that in respect to the quality 
and quantity of rocket-nuclear weapons, we not only do not lag behind 
those who threaten us with war, but far surpass them." {Krasnaya 
Zvezda, 2/6/65, 2, atss-t Trans.) 
February 7: faa Administrator Najeeb E. Halaby, questioned about the 
supersonic transport in New Orleans, cited the following advantages: 
the 220-plus passenger Sst in one year would carry as many passengers 
as does the Queen Elizabeth with a crew of 1.500; the Sst would effect 
obvious economies by decreasing air transportation time to a third of 
present levels; the program would provide approximately 15,000 skilled 
jobs a year that would otherwise not be filled; the Sst project would 
advance the technology of titanium as much as World War II aircraft 
production advanced that of aluminum. {Wash. Post, 2/8/65) 

• A full-scale aluminum model of a 1.400-lb. telescoping space structure 

had been fabricated to verify design theory and manufacturing 
techniques, AFSC announced. Built by Martin-Denver, the 15-by-8-ft. 
expandable structure could be launched into space in a compact package 
and then, like a telescope, opened to full size after reaching orbit. 
Several of the expandable structures stacked on a booster's upper stage 
could be sent into space and expanded to form a rotating space station. 
(afsc Release 4.64) 
February 8: NASA conducted high-altitude grenade experiments almost 
simultaneously from launch sites in Alaska, Canada, and at Wallops 
Island, using a two-stage Nike-Cajun in each case. Grenades were 
ejected and detonated at intervals from about 25- to 56-mi. altitude. 
This was the third and final set in the current series to obtain upper- 
atmosphere wind, temperature, density, and pressure data at the three 
widely-separated geographic locations. The series marked the first 
time that such measurements had been made with sounding rockets 
within the Arctic Circle. (NASA Release 65-8) 

• NASA Manned Spacecraft Center announced selection of Maj. L. Gordon 

Cooper (usaf) and Lt. Cdr. Charles Conrad, Jr. (usn), to make the 
seven-day Gemini V space flight. Gemini v would be the third manned 
Gemini space flight and would be made in 1965. Backup crewmen 
were two civilians, Neil A. Armstrong and Elliot M. See, Jr. (msc 
Roundup, 2/17/65, 1; ap. Wash. Post, 2/8/65; ap, Bait. Sun, 2/8/65; 
Witkin, NYT, 2/9/65) 

• Among the 11 scientists and engineers presented the National Medal 

of Science by President Johnson at a White House ceremony were 
Dr. Charles S. Draper, professor of aeronautics and astronautics at 
MIT, and Dr. Harold C. Urey, professor of astronomy at Univ. of Calif, 
and consultant on NASA Space Science Steering Committee. (Wash. 
Post, 2/9/65, 9; CR, 2/10/65, A590) 

• 18 additional countries were applying for ownership in the $200-million 

international consortium to operate a global communications satellite 
system, it was reported. Eighteen nations and Vatican City had 
originally participated in forming the consortium in July 1964. U.S.'s 
ComSatCorp acquired 61% ownership and would serve as manager for 
the consortium. 

The new nations applying for ownership participation were Monaco, 
South Africa, New Zealand, Syria, Kuwait, Libya, Yemen, Brazil, 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 59 

Morocco, United Arab Republic, Sudan, Iraq, Lebanon, Tunisia, 
Argentina, Jordan. Indonesia, and Ceylon. {Av. Wk., 2/8/65, 25) 
February 8: The world's first nuclear-powered weather station, designated 
Navy Oceanographic and Meteorological Automatic Device (Nomad), 
began its second year of successful operation 300 mi. out of New 
Orleans in the Gulf of Mexico. Developed by the Navy, the unattended 
station was powered by the AEC generator, Snap-7D. {NYT, 2/14/65, 
90) 
• A Polaris A-3 launched from the nuclear submarine Sam Rayburn re- 
presented the 16th consecutive success for that missile. The Rayburn 
was submerged off the coast of Cape Kennedy. (M&R, 2/15/65, 12) 
During the week of February 8: In an interview, C. R. Smith, chairman of 
American Airlines, backed the Boeing Co.'s entry, one of two basic 
designs under study, in the Government's design competition for a 
supersonic transport aircraft: "I think the SST will have to have 
variable-sweep wings." 

In variable sweep, the angle at which the wings meet the fuselage 
could be changed for efficiency at different speeds. At slow speed, the 
wings would be outstretched for greater lift; at high speed, they would 
be swept back sharply to reduce airflow drag. This principle was used 
on the F-111. (NYT, 2/14/65, 90) 
February 8-10: American Astronautical Society presented a Symposium on 
Unmanned Exploration of the Solar System in Denver, Colo. Speak- 
ing about the Biosatellite Program, Dale W. Jenkins, nasa Office of 
Space Science and Applications said: 

"... The Biosatellite Program is a second-generation series of 
carefully planned and selected experiments, including some highly 
sophisticated experiments which have required several years of baseline 
study and development. These orbiting recoverable Biosatellites 
provide an opportunity to test critically major biological hypotheses in 
the areas of genetics, evolution, and physiology. The Biosatellite 
studies will help delineate hazards to astronauts and assist in deter- 
mining and defining effects on degradation of human performance. 
Prolonged manned flights may involve, for example, physiological 
changes such as decalcification of bones (particularly the vertebrae), 
loss of muscle tone and physical capability, and certain cardiovascular 
changes. Also, the effect of continued sensory deprivation on behavior 
and performance is unknown. 

"Twenty experiments have been selected for flight to study the 
effects of weightlessness and decreased gravity during 3- to 30-day 
orbital periods. The experiments include a wide variety of plants 
and animals from single-cell organisms to higher plants and animals. 
The effects of weightlessness will be studied on the primate, especially 
the central nervous, the cardiovascular, and the skeletal systems during 
orbits of 30 days' duration. 

"Experiments have been selected to study the effects of weightless- 
ness combined with a known source of radiation to determine if there 
are any antagonistic or synergistic genetic or somatic effects on various 
organisms. 

"Experiments are included to study the effects of the unique environ- 
ment of the Earth-orbiting satellite and removal from the Earth's rota- 



60 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

tion in relation to biological rhythms of plants and animals. . . ." 
(Text) 

Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for Space 
Science and Applications, outlining progress made toward the objective 
of solar system exploration, said: "... It would appear . . . that 
enough experience and know-how has been accumulated to make the 
move to a five-ton Voyager spacecraft on the Saturn IB Centaur launch 
vehicle a reasonable next step in the unmanned exploration of the solar 
system. There is no question but that the size and weight of Voyager, 
plus the increased demands that will be placed upon it, will make the 
development of the Voyager a complex and difficult undertaking. 
But certainly, the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory and Mariner 
have shown us that we can deal successfully with complexity. As a 
matter of fact, the increased weight and size may afford considerable 
relief from the need to tailor every last function to a gnat's eyebrow 
in order to achieve the intended mission, as has been the case 
hitherto. . . ." 

Dr. Newell said that reliability was probably the most difficult 
problem for deep-space long-duration missions and that "... the 
development of adequate spacecraft systems will not be the problem. 
The most serious threat to long life operation will lie in the potential 
random failure of one or more [spacecraft] components." 

He added that this would probably be an ever-decreasing problem as 
we gained experience with launch vehicles and that ". . . launch 
vehicle reliability is far less a difficult program than that of long space- 
craft lifetime for very deep-space missions." 

In conclusion. Dr. Newell said: "... Nevertheless, the time 
has arrived when many thoughtful people urge a vigorous program of 
solar system exploration. The President has in his Fiscal Year 1966 
budget request included funds to support initial conceptual and design 
studies of a Voyager spacecraft. Funds are also included for the 
development of a launch vehicle consisting of the Saturn IB plus 
the Centaur. Final decision as to whether to move ahead with the 
development of the Voyager spacecraft would come a little over a year 
from now." (Text) 

Missiles and Rockets reported that scientists at the Symposium had 
differing opinions on Mars goals. Gilbert V. Levin of Hazleton Labora- 
tories opposed the 1971 scheduled landing of the Voyager: ". . . 
although we insist that Mars should not be contaminated by ter- 
restrial life before we search for Martian life, we fail to recognize that 
this is tantamount to saying that the U.S. must get there first, because 
the U.S. appears to be the only nation willing and able to sterilize its 
spacecraft. 

"I'm all for Voyager, but an initial step in the Voyager program 
should be some early landers at the earliest opportunities. We should 
go ahead and devote efforts to develop a program to land on Mars in 
1969." 

Temple Neumann. Automated Biological Laboratory program engi- 
neer with Philco's Aeronutronic Div., agreed with Levin: "If the 
planetary biological exploration task is to be performed in a sound 
scientific manner, the U.S. must do it — first." 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 61 

Lawrence B. Hall, NASA Special Assistant for Planetary Quarantine, 
re-emphasized "the disastrous eflfects that an unsterilized spacecraft 
could have on Mars. ... If a single micro-organism should land on 
Mars and have a replication time of 30 days, it could grow to the 
bacterial population of Earth in eight years. This could not only 
compete with Martian life but could result in drastic changes in the 
geochemical and atmospheric characteristics of the planet." 

J PL's Gerald A. Soffen said that "since the decision between Mariner 
landers and Voyager missions has not been made yet. scientific experi- 
menters have to think in terms both of small payloads and large ones. 
Numerous small missions would provide a good opportunity to perform 
experiments in different locations and during different planetary sea- 
sons." 

Bruce C. Murray, of Cal Tech, said: ". . . finding the right loca- 
tion, getting there, and interpreting the biological experiment results 
in a way that would indicate definitively whether life was or was not 
present would call for at least 100 times more photography than was 
currently assumed. 

"... atmospheric effects, color, seasonal changes, and the large 
number of locations of interest will make Martian pictures 10-50 times 
more difficult to interpret than lunar pictures." 

Robert L. Sohn. trw Space Technology Laboratories, stressed value 
of earth-return missions and recommended serious consideration of 
round-trip missions and multi-plan round trips using DSIF as guide. He 
suggested that an 800-lb. spacecraft could make a fly-by of Mars, using 
the Venus swing-by technique and return to earth to enable recovery 
of a 50-lb. capsule. Use of swing-by techniques for round trips reduces 
earth launch velocities to those of the favorable years and also reduces 
earth reentry velocities. Additional advantages were closer passage 
with Mars at encounter and the opportunity to gather data on two 
planets. 

EHe A. Shneour, of Stanford University, said he ". . . could not 
say whether it was possible to draw up a set of experiments that would 
definitively search for life." He maintained, however, that "discovery 
of any form of extraterrestrial life will be tantamount to a basic 
determination of the nature of all life on that planet." (M&R, 2/22/ 
65, 39. 41) 
February 9: Joint Congressional Atomic Energy Committee, in hearing on 
AEC's FY 1966 authorization, asked NASA Administrator James E. Webb 
why NASA was dropping funds for the Snap-8 spacecraft nuclear 
auxiliary power project. In the joint nasa-aec project, AEC was work- 
ing on the reactor and NASA was working on the power conversion 
machinery. Snap-o was one of three projects that had been deleted 
from the NASA FY 1966 budget request. Mr. Webb said: "... in 
the over-all budgeting ... the President has a hard problem of 
adjusting resources to the needs of the Government. In this case, it 
was decided that these systems, these three systems, could not be 
financed within the resources available for allocation to NASA and 
therefore they were eliminated in the final decision relating to the 
President's budget, but not on our recommendation. . . . 

"Because we are on the verge of significant technical milestones 
with our power conversion equipment, we believe we should phase out 



62 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

the program in an orderly way and provide the maximum amount of 
experience and data for future use. 

"Therefore, we plan to continue current testing of components com- 
bined in the test loop to achieve at least 1,000 hours of operating time 
on each of the major components, by reprogramming our remaining 
fiscal year 1965 funds into these specific task areas. 

". . . we expect to present to you and the committees, if you will 
permit us to do so. an orderly plan for using the resources we now 
have. This gives the Congressional Committees an opportunity to 
look at and plan and decide whether it does really fit what they 
believe is in the national interest rather than to take a sudden 
action. . . ." 

Sen. Clinton P. Anderson ( D-N.Mex. ) , Chairman of the Senate Aero- 
nautical and Space Sciences Committee, expressed his belief "that it 
is too bad that the Bureau of the Budget trimmed you down on this 
work. I wish you had gone ahead with it through the test period, we 
would have learned some very significant things. I disassociate it 
from the other two [canceled projects] but Snap-8 should have gone on 
priority." (Transcript) 
February 9: Six of eight oso ii experiments had been turned on and gave 
"excellent" data, NASA reported. The two experiments not yet operat- 
ing were the ultraviolet scanning spectrometer provided by Harvard 
Univ. and the ultraviolet spectrophotometer provided by NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center. Both had been turned on but were turned off to 
prevent damage to themselves or to the satellite when irregularities 
in the data received were noted. All other functions of the satellite — 
such as solar power supply, telemetry system, tape recorder, tempera- 
ture control, and command system — were normal, (nasa Release 
65-37) 

• At a press conference during the Symposium on Unmanned Exploration 

of the Solar System, presented in Denver, Colo., by the American 
Astronautical Society, Univ. of California chemist Harold C. Urey said 
that he hoped the moon was "interesting enough to make the $20 
billion exploration program 'worthwhile.' " He added, "H it turns 
out that the moon escaped from the earth, it will be just another 
incident and I will be disappointed. H. however, it was captured by the 
earth it will be an outstanding link in history." 

Urey backed the U.S. program designed to land men on the moon 
by 1970 and said he did not consider the cost excessive. {Denver Post, 
2/10/65) 

• During a luncheon speech at the Symposium on Unmanned Exploration 

of the Solar System, presented in Denver. Colo., by the American 
Astronautical Society, Maj. Gen. Don R. Ostrander. Commander of 
USAF Office of Aerospace Research, formerly NASA Director of Launch 
Vehicle Programs, said it was now generally agreed that the near-earth 
space area "looks more promising from the standpoint of potential 
military applications" than lunar bases. Mars flights, and other projects 
suggested earlier. USAF was seeking refinement of its knowledge in 
astronomy, geophysics, geodesy, and other areas. More pressing, he 
said, was to study the space environment as related to weapon systems 
and orbiting satellites. (Partner, Denver Post, 2/29/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 63 

February 9: In a report presented at the 55th national meeting of the 
American Institute of Chemical Engineers in Houston, NASA Lewis Re- 
search Center engineer E. W. Ott said that moisture in an astronaut's 
breath could escape into his space capsule, accumulate and float at 
zero gravity, and short out electrical systems it might come into con- 
tact with. He said something like this was believed to have happened 
when Astronaut Gordon Cooper had had to bring his space capsule 
in under manual control in May 1963. "There is good evidence that 
water found its way into automatic control equipment and caused 
malfunctioning." (Justice, Houston Post, 2/10/65) 

• NASA Manned Spacecraft Center engineer John H. Kimzey told a meeting 

of American Institute of Chemical Engineers that fires during simulated 
spaceflight had the puzzling habit of burning fiercely initially, dying 
out so the flame disappeared, but flaring to life when force of gravity 
took over. Kimzey speculated that in weightless conditions, carbon 
monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water vapor created by the fire might 
surround the flame and cut off both oxygen and fuel. Motion pictures 
of the "dead" fires had shown no indication of either light or infrared 
heat energy coming from fire locations. (Burkett, Houston Chron., 
2/10/65) 

• DOD announced that U.S. would sell United Kingdom: (1) F-4 (Phantom 

II ) fighter /close-support aircraft and (2) C-130E combat assault 
transport aircraft. It had also been agreed that the two countries 
would expand existing program of cooperation in defense research 
and development. Serious consideration would be given to joint de- 
velopment of advanced life engine for vertical- and short-takeoff air- 
craft, (dod Release 80-65) 

• Douglas Aircraft Co. Missile and Space Systems Div. reported that tests 

conducted for usaf had indicated that a spin in a centrifuge might 
recondition astronauts living for weeks or months in a state of weight- 
lessness. Previous research had indicated that long stays in the weight- 
less state could have a debilitating effect on the body and cause the 
heart and circulatory system to lose their tone, (nyt News Service, 
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/9/65 ) 

• A usaf Strategic Air Command crew successfully launched a Minuteman 

ICBM from Vandenberg afb. {M&R, 2/15/65, 12) 
February 10: NASA Manned Spacecraft Center announced four women were 
among the appHcants being considered for the new scientist-astronaut 
program. They would receive the same consideration as the male 
applicants. In the past, because of the requirement that applicants 
have either a test pilot rating or at least 1,000 hrs. in jet aircraft, women 
were not seriously considered. MSC had forwarded the names of just 
over 400 applicants to the National Academy of Sciences, which would 
make recommendations on selection of 10-15 scientist-astronauts. 
(Maloney, Houston Post, 2/11/65) 

• At an AEC FY 1966 authorization hearing. Rep. Melvin Price (D-Ill.), 

acting chairman of the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic 
Energy, attacked "wasteful, irresponsible vacillation" in developing 
nuclear power systems for use in space. He cited the Snap-50 project 
which "in 1962 had a development objective through flight test. About 
a year ago, the flight test objective was dropped for a complete flight 
system ground test. This year, we have had another change in ob- 



64 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

jective, dropping the complete system ground test and cutting back 
to component test objectives. It thus appears we are moving rapidly 
backward in this program. . . ." 

Rep. Price said millions of dollars were being spent to develop these 
power sources for dod and NASA but that the projects were often stopped 
short of flight testing because of lack of funds. He mentioned "several 
specific construction items which were not approved by the Budget 
. . . [because] there was no indication of a user for the finished 
product. . . . 

"The concern of the Committee is that this seems to be a pattern 
that happens on so many of these projects. Usually when it starts, 
you put several more millions in for a few years and then finally cut 
it off completely. . . . We are just worried about this pattern. If 
we thought it was going to end with the same result, it might be wise 
to cut it off earlier rather than later. ... I have a pretty deep feeling 
we are back on this requirements merry-go-round." (Transcript) 
February 10: Detection of the existence of life on Mars could be accom- 
plished by a manned Mars-orbit mission without the necessity of a Mars 
landing, according to two NASA Ames Research Center officials in a 
Copley News Service interview. Alvin Seiff. Chief of Ames' Vehicle 
Environment Div., and David E. Reese, Jr., Assistant Chief of that di- 
vision, said life on Mars could be detected from as far away as "several 
hundred thousand feet" from the planet's surface. "We think we could 
get good accuracy during even hypersonic flight around Mars. . . . We 
don't need to land men on Mars to find out what goes on there. We 
can find out about its atmosphere and whether life exists there through 
the use of a variety of instruments we now have at hand," Seiff said. 
Seiff and Reese were in Denver attending AAS Symposium on Un- 
manned Exploration of the Solar System. (Macomber, CNS, San Diego 
Union, 2/10/65) 

• Hughes Space Systems Div. at El Segundo, Calif., signed a contract 

with NASA to propose designs of a beacon that could be placed 
on the moon as a guide for safe landing for moonbound Apollo 
astronauts. The beacon would be landed on the moon with a Surveyor 
spacecraft, (upi, Phil. Eve. Bui, 2/10/65) 
February 11: MARINER IV received 12 commands from JPL to check out 
spacecraft equipment that would be used if the spacecraft was still 
operating normally when it reached Mars next July 14. These com- 
mands dropped a lens cover off the television camera, turned on a 
scanning platform that carried the camera and two Mars sensors, 
turned on portions of television system and checked out the capability 
of MARINER IV to perform the encounter sequence. It was not planned 
to take television pictures during this sequence. The lens cover was 
dropped at this time rather than at planet encounter to shake loose 
any possible dust particles that might interfere with the Canopus 
sensor, a light sensing device that locked on the star Canopus to pre- 
vent the spacecraft from rolling, (nasa Release 65-43) 

• USAF Titan Iii-A rocket was launched from Cape Kennedy, hurled 

its third stage (transtage) and two satellites into orbit in a ma- 
neuverability test involving three different orbits. Primary goal of 
the mission was triple ignition of the transtage's engine. First firing, 
about five minutes after launch, injected the 7,000-lb. rocket-payload 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 65 

assembly into near-earth orbit of 12o-mi. apogee and 108-mi. perigee. 
After traveling once around the earth, during which the rocket per- 
formed a deliberate somersault, the transtage ignited again, burned 37 
sec, and shifted the rocket into an elliptical orbit of 1,766-mi. apogee 
and 116-mi. perigee. During one and one half orbits around the earth, 
the rocket performed a second deliberate somersault; a third firing put 
it in circular orbit with parameters of apogee, 1.737 mi.; perigee, 1,721 
mi.: period. 145.6 min.; and inclination, 32.15°. 

Titan iii-a's transtage then ejected a 69-lb. experimental com- 
munications satellite ( LES I), and ejected a 1.000-lb. metal chunk to 
demonstrate its ability to launch more than one payload. 

LES I was to have fired a solid-propellant motor to move to an 
elliptical orbit with an apogee of 11.500 mi. and perigee of 1,725 mi., 
but the motor failed to fire. LES I continued to orbit near the tran- 
stage and the metal chunk. LEs I (Lincoln Experimental Satellite) had 
been built by Mix's Lincoln Laboratory to test advanced components, 
materials, and techniques which might apply to future communica- 
tions satellites. Radio signals were to be exchanged between LES I and 
ground stations. (UPL NYT, 2/12/65; ap, Houston Post, 2/12/65; AP, 
Bait. Sun, 2 12 65: U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 133) 
February 11: Flight testing of the parachute landing system for two-man 
Gemini spacecraft was completed. The test simulated an emergency 
in which a stabilizing drogue chute failed to deploy from the capsule. 
Dropped from a plane at 17.000 ft., the unmanned, two-ton capsule 
landed safely after a pilot chute and the main 84-ft.-dia. chute deployed 
on schedule. This was the tenth straight successful test, (ap, Houston 
Post, 2/12/65) 

• NASA announced that it would negotiate with Space Technology Labora- 

tories and Thiokol Chemical Corp. for six-month, fixed-price contracts 
of approximately $1.5 million for definition of a program to develop 
and produce a 100-lb. -thrust rocket engine. The multipurpose engine, 
designated C-1, would be designed for spacecraft attitude control and 
maneuvering systems and also for launch vehicle ullage and attitude 
control systems. It would be powered by the hypergolic, storable 
liquid propellants monomethylhydrazine (mmh) and nitrogen tetroxide. 
(NASA Release 65-41) 

• FAA released the first two volumes of a comprehensive five-part re- 

port on the sonic boom public-reaction study conducted in Oklahoma 
City in 1964. Their main conclusion: weather had a greater effect 
in determining the strength of booms than suspected, but the effect 
was within a corrective capability. 

The first volume, "Sonic Boom Exposures During FAA Community- 
Response Studies Over a Six-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area," 
prepared by nasa Langley Research Center, said measurements taken 
directly under the flight path of the supersonic fighters showed that 
about 80% of the booms were lower in intensity than scientists ex- 
pected. About 20% equalled or exceeded the anticipated levels. 

"Meteorological Aspects of the Sonic Boom," prepared by the Boeing 
Co., revealed that: weather had a greater effect on booms generated 
by planes flying less than mach 1.3 than those produced by aircraft 
exceeding mach 1.3; overpressures were increased by headwinds but 



66 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

decreased by tailwinds and crosswinds, with variations as much as 
20/^, particularly in the mach 1.3 range; under some atmospheric 
conditions, including such factors as wind, temperature, and even the 
time of day, sonic booms may vary from a complete cut-off with no 
boom heard to heavy overpressures concentrated over a small area 
or spread almost unlimited over a wide lateral area; turbulence had 
the effect of distorting booms and increasing or decreasing intensity 
and distribution. ( faa Release 65-15; UPI, Minn. Trib., 2/12/65) 
February 11: In a luncheon address to the National Security Industrial 
Association in Washington, D.C., Lt. Gen. W. A. Davis (usaf), Vice 
Cdr. of Air Force Systems Command, discussed afsc accomplishments 
in 1964: ". . . Important strides were also made in the area of space. 
We carried out intensive studies on the Manned Orbiting Laboratory 
(mol). Last month the Secretary of Defense announced that pro- 
posals are being requested from industry for design studies to assist in 
developing the cost and technical information needed to proceed with 
full scale development of the mol. Titan ill, the Standard Launch Ve- 
hicle 5A, completed two highly successful test launches. Systems Com- 
mand also provided support to the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. This included the use of the Atlas-Agena combination 
to launch Ranger 7 on its successful photographic mission to the moon 
and Mariner 4 on its way to Mars. We also conducted the first launch 
of the man-rated Titan II. It was very successful. 

"There are a number of tasks ahead of us in space. One of our 
most promising present programs is the Titan ill space launching sys- 
tem. The Titan iii will be used to launch the 24 satellites for the in- 
terim Defense Satellite Communications System. It will also be used 
to launch the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (mol), which is designed to 
determine man's capability to perform military functions in space. 
The MOL will have an important bearing on our future space capa- 
bilities." (afsc Release) 

• In an isolation test in caves 330 ft. below ground near the French Riviera, 

two volunteers were reported to be "steadily losing time." Antoine 
Senni was about three weeks behind the actual date, observing New 
Year's Day on Jan. 20; Josiane Laures thought the date was Jan. 4, 
when it was actually Jan. 20. Scientists were conducting an experi- 
ment on man's ability to function in an environment where there was 
no day or night. (Reuters, NYT, 2/11/65, 54) 

• Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. had been awarded $8,052,000 cost-plus- 

incentive contract for Agena D launch services at Eastern and Western 
Test Ranges during calendar year 1965, dod announced, (dod Release 
87-65) 

• Maj. Gen. George P. Sampson (usa), recently retired as Deputy Director 

of the Defense Communications Agency, was appointed Director of 
Operations for ComSatCorp. (ComSatCorp) 

• Moscovsky Komsomolets reported that the wife of Valery Bykovsky, Rus- 

sian cosmonaut, was expecting a second baby. (Reuters, Chic. Trib., 
2/12/65) 
February 12: Escape system for the two-man Gemini spacecraft was suc- 
cessfully tested by NASA at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China 
Lake, Calif. Simulating a pad abort condition, the test vehicle was 
mounted atop a 150-ft. tower equal in height to the Titan ii launch 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 67 

vehicle; the side-by-side ejection seats were thrust out and away from 
the test vehicle to an altitude of about 350 ft. The mannequins 
landed by parachutes approximately 850 ft. downrange. The Gemini 
escape system was designed and built for NASA by Weber Aircraft Co. 
(MSC Roundup, 2/17/65, 2) 
February 12: After almost 7 years, vanguard i appeared to be silenced. Its 
radio signals had weakened to a point where NASA tracking engineers 
thought the satellite might never be heard from again, according to 
NASA announcement. The six-inch, 3.25-lb. sphere was the second U.S. 
satellite, launched by USN as part of the International Geophysical Year 
program. For more than six years, it had transmitted radio signals 
from space with power from only six solar cells. Officially known in- 
ternationally as 1958 Beta ii, vanguard i was circling the globe every 
134 min. and had an apogee of 2,442 mi. and a perigee of 402 mi. 
( NASA Release 65—15 ) 

• USAF scientists at Hanscom Field, Mass., said they had hit explorer XXII 

with a ground-based laser gun and had photographed the spot of 
reflected light and recorded it photoelectrically in relation to sur- 
rounding stars. (AP, L.A. Herald-Examiner, 2/13/65) 
February 13: USAF Athena missile was fired from the Army's launch com- 
plex at Green River, Utah, to impact at White Sands Missile Range; a 
second firing was postponed because of technical difficulties, (ap, 
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/14/65, 13A) 

• California Institute of Technology received a Sl,645,000 grant from the 

National Science Foundation to build the first of eight 130-ft.-dia. 
dish antennas to be trained on distant, recently discovered sources 
of radio energy, quasi-stellar radio sources, called "quasars" — the 
most distant objects yet discovered. ( AP, Wash. Post, 2/14/65; Sci. 
Serv., NYT, 2/24/65, 5) 
February 14: Dr. Fred Whipple, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, Cambridge, had suggested landing on a comet. Dr. 
Whipple also speculated that if a space vehicle were sent near a comet 
scientists could use a low-velocity probe that could be put into an orbit 
in the comet's vicinity for a week or more to study the velocities of 
gas and dust particles boiled off the comet by solar radiation. The 
probe would also be able to take core samples of the comet to give 
direct measurement of one of the oldest physical processes in the 
solar system. Dr. Whipple said. {NYT, 2/14/65, 50) 

• JPL scientists had sent notices to professional and amateur astronomers 

asking them to keep the strip of Mars over which MARINER IV would 
fly next July 14 under surveillance from now on, with special em- 
phasis on photography in March. 

"We don't know what we may learn through this procedure," a JPL 
spokesman said, "but we want all the information we can get. Sup- 
pose, for example, mariner photographs what looks like a dust storm. 
We'll have a better chance of determining that fact if we have pictures 
of the same phenomenon taken through earth telescopes, even though 
it's a different storm months earlier." (ap, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 
2/15/65) 

• The Royal Astronomical Society of London had awarded gold medal to 

Gerald Maurice Clemence, senior research associate and lecturer in 
the department of astronomy at Yale Univ., for his "application of 



68 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

celestial mechanics to the motions in the solar system" and for his 
"fundamental contributions to the study of time and the system of astro- 
nomical constants." {NYT, 2 15 65, 17) 
February 15: NASA announced it had asked astronomers and scientists in 
38 countries to help analyze and interpret the closeup photographs of 
the moon taken by ranger vii in July 1964. The scientists would first 
receive a set of 199 high-quality pictures taken by RANGER vil's "A" 
camera; photographs taken by other cameras would be sent later. 

NASA had also sent RANGER vil photographs to the European Space 
Research Organization, the European Launcher Development Organi- 
zation, the International Committee on Space Research, and the Lnited 
Nations. ( upi, Phil. Eve. Bull., 2 15/65) 

• Christopher C. Kraft, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center director of flight 

operations, said the three-orbit Gemini GT-3 flight with astronauts 
Virgil I. Grissom (USAF) and John W. Young ( USN ) would be 
much safer than Project Mercury orbital space flights. The astronauts 
would not depend solely on the braking rockets to bring them back 
to earth. They would make maneuvers during the first and third 
orbits to bring the spacecraft back through the atmosphere even if 
retrofiring braking rockets failed. Toward the end of the third orbit, 
near Hawaii, Grissom would fire the rockets for about two minutes, 
sending the Gemini spacecraft into a 54-mi. orbit which would be a 
reentry path. Over Los Angeles, the main braking rockets would be 
fired to drive the spacecraft down to a landing about 70 mi. east of 
Grand Turk Island in the Atlantic Ocean. Kraft said if the braking 
rockets did not fire, the GT-3 craft would land about 1.000 mi. due 
west of Ascension Island. {Galveston News-Tribune, 2 '16/65) 

• NASA announced it had determined the areas of Mars to be photographed 

by MARINER iv's' TV camera during the July 14 fly-by. Recording of 
the first picture would occur when the spacecraft was approximately 
8,400 miles above the Martian surface, mariner's camera would 
be pointing at the northern Martian desert, Amazonis. The camera 
would then sweep southeast below the Martian equator covering the 
Mare Sirenum, the southern desert Phaethontis, Aonius Sinus, and into 
the terminator or shadow line. The spacecraft would be about 6.300 
mi. above Mars for the final picture. (NASA Release 65-42) 

• First successful flight test of a miniature mass spectrometer specifically 

for biomedical and environmental use was made at NASA's Flight Re- 
search Center. The system weighed 46 lbs., measured 10 x 10 x 20 in. 
with vacuum system, and could monitor and chemically analyze sam- 
ples of gases that might be encountered in either the cockpit environ- 
ment of the spacecraft or in the pilot's respiratory system. It could 
detect buildup of harmful gas or absence of necessary life support gas. 
The mass spectrometer was built by the Consolidated Systems Corpo- 
ration, Monrovia. California. ( FRC Release 6-65 ) 

• NASA established an Office of Industry Affairs at the Pentagon by arrange- 

ment with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and Logis- 
tics), to coordinate dod-nasa mutual interest procurement and con- 
tract management matters, including quality assurance. Clyde 
Bothmer, who formerly directed management operations in NASA's 
Office of Manned Space Flight, became Director. (NASA Release 65- 
55; NASA Ann. 65-35) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 69 

February 15: Clarence A. Svvertson had been named Director of NASA's 
new Mission Analysis Division of the Hq. Office of Advanced Research 
and Technology. NASA announced. He would be responsible for study 
of future missions for research and technology programs. The Mission 
Analysis Division, to be located at NASA Ames Research Center, would 
be staffed bv outstanding scientists drawn from all NASA Centers and 
would be organized along aeronautical and space mission lines. (NASA 
Release 65-46; NASA Ann. 65-34) 

• President Johnson sent to Congress his annual reports on the National 

Science Foundation, the ComSatCorp. and U.S. participation in the 
International Atomic Energy Agency. In message accompanying the 
NSF report. President Johnson said: "Close and understanding accord 
between science and public affairs is an imperative for free societies 
today." Science would be looked to for use in technology and in- 
dustry, health programs, exploration, and, "most especially for the 
guidance that will permit us to proceed with greater security and 
greater confidence toward our goals of peace and justice in a free 
world."' 

In a message accompanying the report on the ComSatCorp, the 
President said the goal of the U.S. was "to provide orbital messengers, 
not onlv of word, speech and pictures, but of thought and hope" for 
the world. 

"The past year has seen important advances in the program to de- 
velop a global communications satellite system. The first launch of 
a commercial satellite is to take place in the early months of this year. 

"Through the initiative of the United States an international joint 
venture has been established. Under the law I have designated the 
Communications Satellite Corp. as the U.S. participant. The corpo- 
ration is to be the manager on behalf of all participants. 

"The corporation has now been financed, has constituted its first 
board of directors to replace the original incorporators and has moved 
forward with its program. All agencies of the Government with re- 
sponsibilities under the act have made important and faithful con- 
tributions with the svmpathetic assistance of the congressional com- 
mittees concerned. 

"The new and extraordinary satellite telecommunications medium 
bringing peoples around the globe into closer relationship is nearer 
to fulfillment, heralding a new day in world communications." 

In its second annual report ComSatCorp noted that it had ended 
1964 with about S190 million in short-term holdings and more than 
L37.000 shareholders. It reported it had agreements with 18 countries 
to join in a single global system with ComSatCorp as manager and said 
that a satellite was being readied for launching in March. 

The report on the Nation's participation in the International Atomic 
Energy Agency was accompanied by a covering letter which said 1963 
"will possibly be marked in I.A.E.A. history as the year in which a 
firm foundation was laid for its system of safeguards against the di- 
version of materials to military use." (Text, CR, 2/15/65, 2605; NYT, 
2a6/65. 1; AP, NYT, 2/17/65, 64) 

• NASA and U.S. Army Materiel Command adopted an agreement for joint 

participation in low-speed and Vtol aeronautical research. The re- 



70 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

search program was centered at NASA Ames Research Center. (NMI 
1052.7) 
February 15: NASA had selected the Bendix Field Engineering Corp., 
Owings Mills, Md., to negotiate a cost-plus-award-fee contract for con- 
tinued operation, maintenance, and support services of the NASA 
Manned Space Flight Network of tracking stations. Contract was 
valued at about $36 million over two years, (nasa Release 65-48) 

• In National Science Foundation's annual report to the President and the 

Congress, nsf Director Leland Haworth said the Foundation was "at- 
tempting to formulate an approach ... to interfield priority assess- 
ment which would take into account the probable contributions of 
NSF-supported basic research to the solution of a variety of national 
problems. Thus, for example, it is possible that a whole cluster of 
basic research activities might justifiably be supported in several fields 
of the behavioral and environmental sciences, all of which would in 
one way or another shed light on what is now called the 'transporta- 
tion-urbanization' problem. . . ." 

Discovery of what may be the first real baby star — one apparently 
much smaller than the moon — was described in the NSF report. NSF 
credited the find to Dr. Willem J. Luyten, a University of Minnesota 
astronomer doing research aided by an NSF grant. Having roughly 
one-thousandth the diameter of the sun, the new-found dwarf ap- 
parently contained 300 tons of material per cubic inch of volume, 
more than 100 million times the density of water. There was no 
question about the discovery of the star, the report said. The only 
possible question was whether the distance to it had been figured 
accurately, because that would have a bearing on computing its actual 
size. (Carey, Wash. Eve. Star, 2/16/65; Science, 2/25/65) 

• Lt. Gen. Frank A. Bogart (usaf, Ret.) was appointed Director of 

Manned Space Flight Management Operations. Since joining NASA 
on December 1, 1964, General Bogart had served as Special Assistant 
to the Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, (nasa An- 
nouncement 65-30) 

• Dr. Eugene Konecci of the National Aeronautics and Space Council staff 

reported to the Medical Society of the State of New York at its annual 
convention that the semicircular canals of the inner ear had been dem- 
onstrated to play a key role in motion sickness that astronauts might 
experience in a rotating, orbiting spacecraft. Capt. Ashton Graybiel 
at the USN School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, expressed optimism 
that astronauts could be taught to overcome the effects of motion sick- 
ness. One way, he said, was to precondition selected persons by teach- 
ing them how to avoid movements that would invariably upset them. 
Another promising development, Dr. Graybiel said, was drug research. 
(Simons, Wash. Post, 2/16/65) 

• Dr. Karl G. Harr, Jr., President of Aerospace Industries of America, Inc., 

addressed the Economic Club of Detroit: 

". . . the aerospace industry of today does indeed represent a truly 
unique phenomenon in industrial history in almost all of its as- 
pects. ... it is that industry which places at the disposal of the na- 
tion — both its public and its private sectors — the capacity to manage 
the research, development and production of the most technologically 
advanced product that is possible — for whatever purpose desired. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 71 

". . . it is essential that we all understand the principal factors — 
historical, present and future — that have produced and will continue 
to produce this uniqueness. 

"First, the genesis and evolution of what is today's aerospace in- 
dustry is a direct product of the nation's post-World War II history 
and is inextricably linked thereto. . . . World War II unleashed for 
the world, but particularly for the United States, two revolutions 
which have been gaining momentum ever since. The first of these 
was a form of economic revolution which saw the economy of the 
United States surge into new dimensions. The second was a scientific/ 
technological revolution which saw all that had gone before in man's 
scientific history fade into a pale background. . . . 

"World War II itself provided an extreme example of the explosive 
expansibility of the industrial base of the United States. This ex- 
panded industrial base remained after the war to serve as a founda- 
tion for a general economic upsurge. 

". . . the aerospace industry has become and remains, in a very 
real sense, an instrument of national policy, not only in terms of the 
hardware directly provided the government, but also as it underpins 
the economic/technological advances in the private sector of our 
economy. ..." 

Discussing the future of the industry, Harr noted that "the size and 
viability of this industry is not tied to defense and space programs, 
important as these have been and will continue to be in shaping its 
destiny. It is tied, rather, to the total technological progress of the 
nation, meaning the application of advanced technology to whatever 
purposes may be desired. Programs now well underway in such 
diverse fields as air freight, urban transportation, desalination, 
oceanographv, 2000-mph aircraft and hundreds of others serve to 
illustrate this fact. . . ." (Text) 
February 15: In an editorial headed "Space Racing After Seven Years," the 
Miami Herald said: "Fast starters don't always win. The match 
race in space between the United States and the Soviet Union is shaping 
up satisfactorily, from our viewpoint. The start was easy to identify, 
but the finish line is nowhere in sight." {Miami Her., 2/15/65) 
• Among Weather Bureau employees honored at the 17th Annual Dept. of 
Commerce Awards Program were: Dr. Sigmund Fritz, for outstand- 
ing contributions to meteorological research in the fields of solar 
radiation, ozone, and meteorological satellites, for highly distinguished 
authorship, and for exceptional leadership as Director of the Weather 
Bureau's Meteorological Satellite Laboratory; Louis P. Harrison, for 
highly distinguished authorship and outstanding contributions to the 
fields of barometry and psychrometry; David S. Johnson and Dr. S. 
Fred Singer, a joint award in recognition of unusual ingenuity, leader- 
ship, and guidance in the development and implementation of a Na- 
tional Operational Meteorological Satellite System: Jay S. Winston, 
for valuable contributions to meteorology in the areas of general 
circulation studies, the interpretation of weather satellite data, and the 
heat budget of the earth-atmosphere svstem. (Commerce Dept. Release 
WB 65-1) 
February 16: Saturn I (sA-9) two-stage launch vehicle, launched by NASA 
from Cape Kennedy, orbited a 33,000-lb. multiple payload, of which 



72 ASTROiNAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

3,200 lbs. was the pegasus i meteoroid detection satellite. Orbital 
data: apogee. 715 km. (162 mi. ) ; perigee, 496 km. (308 mi. ) ; period, 
97 min.; and inclination. 31.7°. This was the eighth successful test 
in eight flights for Saturn I; PEGASUS i was the first active payload 
launched in the Saturn tests. 

At launch, an Apollo command and service module boilerplate 
(BP-16) and launch escape system ( Les ) tower were atop Saturn I, 
with PEGASUS I folded inside the service module. After first-stage 
separation and second-stage ignition, Les was jettisoned. When second 
stage ( s-iv ) attained orbit, the 10.000-lb. Apollo boilerplate command 
and service modules were jettisoned into a separate orbit. Then a 
motor-driven device extended winglike panels on the Pegasus satellite 
to a span of 96 ft. Each wing consisted of seven frames hinged 
together and made up of 208 panels. PEGASUS i remained attached to 
Saturn I's second stage as planned. A television camera, mounted on 
the interior of the service module adapter, provided pictures of the 
satellite deploying in space. 

PEGASUS I exposed more than 2.300 sq. ft. of instrumented surface, 
with thicknesses varying up to 16/1000 in. As meteoroid particles 
collided with the surface of the panels, they would be registered elec- 
tronically and reported to earth. Exposure of the large panel area 
over a long period would give designers of manned and unmanned 
spacecraft a good sample of meteoroid data. 

PEGASUS I would be visible from the earth without the aid of telescope 
on clear nights. (NASA Release 65-38; Marshall Star, 2/24/65, 1. 5; 
AP, Houston Chron., 2/16/65; Clark, NYT, 2/17/65; AP, Benedict, 
Wash. Post, 2/17/65; Hoffman. N.Y. Her. Trib., 2/17/65: Sehlstedt. 
Bait. Sun, 2/17/65; U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 133-134) 
February 16: On the floor of the House of Representatives, Congressman 
George P. Miller (D-Calif.) commented upon the successful Saturn I 
launch: "... this morning the United States took another giant 
stride in the exploration of space. At 9:37 a.m. a Saturn rocket . . . 
with its 1,500,000 pounds of thrust, lifted off the launch pad at Cape 
Kennedy, Fla., on a mission to place in orbit around the earth the 
Pegasus satellite. 

"This was the eighth launch of the Saturn rocket out of eight 
attempts, a truly outstanding scientific and engineering accomplishment 
of the men of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and 
of the many contractors who worked so long and hard to make this 
event a success. 

"I may say that the gratifying success of the Saturn booster has been 
matched in other programs as well. 

"I need only point to the Tiros weather satellite. 

"Nine have been launched out of nine attempts. 

"I think we have every right to be proud of our space team on this 
day of outstanding achievement," (NASA LAR iv/30-32; CR, 2/16/65, 
2630) 
• North American Aviation's xb-70a made its fifth flight from Palmdale, 
Calif. Maximum speed was mach 1.6; maximum altitude 1.^.000 ft.: 
duration of flight, 1 hr. 10 min. During the flight the wingtips were 
folded to 25° and then to the full-down position of 65°. It was the 
first time this total deflection had been attempted. Flutter and stability 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 73 

characteristics, the inlet control system, and the air inlet bypass door 
system were investigated during the flight. Although the emergency 
landing parachute system did not function during landing at Edwards 
AFB, the aircraft completed a normal landing with normal braking. 
The drag chute had deployed, but the three-chute pack did not deploy. 
(Av. Wk., 2/22/65, 22; \5Vi,NYT, 2/17/65, 74) 
February 16: nasa's Flight Research Center engineers had made direct com- 
parison of the noise levels generated by the XB-70 and a 707-120B com- 
mercial jet transport under the same atmospheric conditions. NASA made 
the measurements as part of its general study of runway noise conditions 
for use in the design of a supersonic transport. ( FRC Release 8-65) 

• NASA awarded a $8,879,832 fixed-price contract to the Univac Division of 

Sperry Rand Corp., for digital data processors to be used in Project 
Apollo. The contract also called for computer programing assistance 
in modifying present computer programs or developing new ones for 
Project Apollo requirements, (nasa Release 65-50) 

• Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA Deputy Administrator, received an honorary 

Doctor of Science degree from the Swiss Federal Institute of Tech- 
nology in Zurich. The presentation was made by the Swiss ambassa- 
dor. Dr. Alfred Zehnder, at the Embassy residence in Washington, 
D.C. ( NASA Release 65-47 ) 

• Dr. Charles S. Sheldon of the National Aeronautics and Space Council 

staff told iSiiT students: 'The Russians are pretty cautious about 
disclosing much about their launch vehicles, but we know pretty well 
what vehicles they're using." Dr. Sheldon noted that ZOND ii, the 
Soviet Mars probe, would pass near the planet perhaps one month after 
MARINER IV. The U.S. Mars probe was due to come within 5,400 mi. 
of the planet on July 14. (Boston Globe, 2/17/65) 

• FAA Administrator Najeeb Halaby, British Aviation Minister Roy Jenkins. 

and French Aviation Minister Marc Jacquet met in London and agreed 
to work for joint establishment of operating conditions for supersonic 
jet transports. The British and French ministers arranged for the 
next stage in the development of their joint Concorde supersonic trans- 
port, which the British Labor government reportedly had wanted to 
cancel. The ministers also discussed a new Anglo-French project for a 
subsonic transport, an "air bus" that could take 200 to 300 passengers 
on short interurban hops. {Wash. Post, 2/17/65) 

• Progress in developing the laser for communications use was evidenced 

by U.S. Army report that it had transmitted all seven of New York's 
standard television channels simultaneously on a laser. Although the 
seven TV channels had been transmitted over a distance only the width 
of a room, the Army said they could have been received at a range of 
several miles. Research described had been carried out at the Army 
Electronics Command's laboratories in Fort Monmouth, N.J. The 
Army was interested in laser communications because the narrow 
beams could be transmitted between specific points, making enemy 
interception difficult. (Sullivan, NYT, 2/17/65, 19) 
February 17: nasa's ranger viii spacecraft, equipped with six television 
cameras to photograph part of the moon's surface, was successfully 
launched from Cape Kennedy by an Atlas-Agena B. Seven minutes 
after lift-off, the spacecraft and the Agena stage went into a parking 
orbit some 115 mi. above Africa; the Agena engines were cut off. 



74 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

For the next 14 min., the combination coasted at 17,500 mph. Second 
burn of the Agena lasted 90 sec, increased the velocity to 24,476 mph, 
and freed the 80o.8-lb. ranger viii from the major pull of the earth's 
gravity. Several minutes after injection, ranger viii was separated 
from Agena, which entered an elliptical orbit. About an hour after 
launch, RANGER VIII received and obeyed the command to deploy the 
solar panels that would convert solar energy to electrical power for its 
equipment. About ShU hrs. after launch, ranger viii completed its 
orientation maneuvering, achieved attitude stabilization, and pointed a 
high-powered antenna toward earth. 

The projected impact area was the Sea of Tranquility, a dark area 
relatively free of crater rays, near the shadow line on the three-quarter 
moon. Lower-angle lighting was expected to give more contrast and 
better definition of detail than was in the photographs made by ranger 

VII. 

A small rocket aboard the craft would be fired later to correct a 
moon-miss error on either side of the target; tracking calculations 
showed that the path of the vehicle would miss the edge of the moon 
by only 1.136 mi., well within the correction capability, (nasa Re- 
lease 65-25; AP, Benedict, Wash. Post, 2/18 '65; UPI, Chic. Trih., 2/ 
18/65; AP, Houston Post, 2/18/65; Appel, NYT, 2/18/65, 1) 
February 17: x-15 No. 2 was flown by Maj. Robert Rushworth (usaf) to 
95,100 ft. altitude at a maximum speed of 3,511 mph (mach 5.27) to 
obtain data for several research programs. (NASA x-15 Proj. Off.; 
X-15 Flight Log) 

• NASA and DOD announced a memorandum of agreement to establish a Delta 

launch capability at the Western Test Range (w^tr). Costs would be 
shared, based on the estimated use of the vehicle by each agency. 
Existing usaf Thor-Able-Star launch sites would be adapted for D^lta 
use wherever practicable. Launch pads and blockhouses would be used 
on a shared basis, with each agency responsible for its own missions. 
NASA would exercise launch vehicle control over all WTR Delta launches. 
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and USAF Space Systems Division 
would be responsible for carrying out the agreement. 

NASA would be responsible for developing an improved Delta launch 
vehicle to meet both agencies' mission requirements for use at both 
WTR and ETR. DOD was planning to phase out the Thor-Able-Star and 
use the improved Delta for payloads carried by this vehicle class. 
(NASA Release 65-51) 

• Hearings on NASA budget authorization for FY 1966 began before the 

House Committee on Science and Astronautics. Of the $5,260 billion 
requested for FY 1966, $4,576 billion was for research and develop- 
ment; $74.7 million was for construction of facilities; and $609.4 
million was for administrative operations. 

Administrator James E. Webb testified: "This budget . . . supports 
an on-going successful research and development effort and the use 
of this knowledge to develop and test operating systems designed to give 
us what we need to know for national security, for applications in 
meteorology, communications, and other working satellite systems, and 
from which to make any decisions which may be called for in the future. 

"An important fact that underlies the President's 1966 budget 
decisions is that the program is now operating at a level of 5V4 billion 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 75 

dollars instead of at the optimum level of S-^ billion originally recom- 
mended by President Kennedy or the 'fighting chance' level recom- 
mended last year by President Johnson. This means that we cannot 
accomplish the 15 Saturn V-Apollo flights now included in the program 
within the period of this decade. If all 15 flights are required to 
succeed in the lunar landing, then this will not be done before 1970. 
However, our overall major milestones are being met and we still have 
a reasonable opportunity for success on a flight earlier than the 15th 
and thus within this decade. In effect we will be launching toward 
the moon on earlier flights than we thought a year ago would be 
possible, but we simply cannot predict which flight will be the first 
either to orbit the moon or to land there. 

"What we can say is this: the systems of equipment for the utiliza- 
tion of men for flights of all kinds out as far as the moon are now 
rapidly proceeding toward tests that will work out any imperfections: 
and our fast-developing knowledge of both the space environment and 
the capabilities of this equipment gives us more confidence than we had 
a year ago that we are on the right track and proceeding on a reason- 
able basis for the development of machines of this size and power. . . . 

"In preparation of this budget, the President has faced two important 
facts. The first of these is that the central core of NASA activities as 
planned in 1961 is proceeding with excellent results. . . . 

"The second major fact faced by the President was the necessity for 
a continued emphasis on supporting research and development. . . . 

"Bearing these two facts in mind, this budget and this request for 
authorization call for an operating level which is approximately the 
same as that approved by Congress for fiscal years 1964 and 1965. 
This means that the work planned in 1961 for accomplishment in this 
decade must be spread out over a longer period, and the cost for the 
total will be increased. . . . 

"The essential funds to give us some opportunity to make the lunar 
landing wdthin this decade are included, as are funds for studies toward 
further use of the Saturn launch vehicles and the Appollo-LEM manned 
space flight systems in the period following the lunar landing. By 
1969, we will have the capability ro launch 6 Saturn-ie's and 6 Saturn 
V's per year. In the unmanned area, we have begun planning for a 
Voyager-Mars mission in 1971 with the possibility of a test flight in 
1969: funds are included in the budget for expansion of this design 
effort during fiscal year 1966. Development and hardware procure- 
ment could then be initiated in fiscal year 1967 if appropriate. . . ." 
(Testimony: 1966 NASA Auth. Hearings, 5-14) 
February 17: Dr. Hugh L. Dryden. NASA Deputy Administrator, testified 
before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics on NASA's 
activities in the field of international cooperation: "Nineteen sixty- 
four was a year in which other nations emerged clearly as friendly 
competitors and valuable collaborators in space science and engineer- 
ing and demonstrated by emulation their endorsement of our view that 
energetic efforts in these fields are essential contributors to the better- 
ment of human society. I am thinking of such things as the energetic 
space programs of France, the demonstrated competence of Canada 
and Italy, the entry of the British aircraft industry into spacecraft 
engineering, the formal establishment of the European Space Research 



76 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Or- 
ganization ( ELDO ) , and finally of the successful first test flight of a 
large new booster by ELDO. . . . 

"A year ago I reported our plans for including foreign experiments 
on NASA satellites under arrangements by which foreign experiments, 
selected in open competition with domestic proposals, are sponsored 
and financed by the experimenter's national space authority. One such 
experiment flew in 1964 — a British ion mass spectrometer on explorer 
XX, the U.S. fixed-frequency topside sounder. Six additional experi- 
ments were selected for flight, bringing the total to thirteen, with ten 
more under active consideration. We now have opened virtually all 
categories of NASA spacecraft, including Gemini and Apollo, to foreign 
participation on this cooperative basis. Indeed, we are now inviting 
foreign biomedic experts to a working conference in Houston, next 
April, to learn directly of the opportunities and constraints which apply 
to this program. . . . 

"A noteworthy development was the fact that ESRO became the first 
foreign space agency to seek a ground station on American territory. 
After conducting a site survey and finding a suitable location near 
Fairbanks. Alaska. ESRO has formally requested the Department of 
State to begin negotiations for an agreement. The ESRO station is 
projected as an element in a network of tracking and data acquisition 
facilities. . . . France is establishing a North/South fence from 
France through the Canary Islands, Algeria, Upper Volta, Congo 
Brazzaville, and South Africa, with an injection-monitoring station in 
Lebanon. This chain will also serve ESRO, which expects to have 
additional stations at Spitsbergen, Brussels, and in Australia and the 
South Atlantic. Both the ESRO and French networks will be entirely 
compatible with nasa's, to maximize possibilities for mutual assistance. 
This is to our advantage, and we encourage it. . . . 

"Let me bring you up to date on the status of our cooperation with 
the Soviet Union. You will recall that we have a series of agreements 
with the Soviet Academy of Sciences providing for three coordinated 
projects — in meteorology, in surveying the geomagnetic field, and use 
of ECHO II for communications tests. The project involving the ob- 
servation and use of ECHO II is completed. The Soviet side observed 
the critical inflation phase of the satellite optically and forwarded 
the data to us; although not including radar data, which would have 
been most desirable. Communications via echo II between the U.K. 
and the U.S.S.R. were carried out in only one direction instead of two, 
at less interesting frequencies than we would have liked, and with some 
technical limitations at the ground terminals used. On the other hand, 
the Soviets provided very complete recordings and other data of their 
reception of the transmissions." (Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 
15-37 ) 
February 17: Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator, 
told the House Committee on Science and Astronautics: "I feel that 
our record over the past calendar vear is evidence of the success we have 
had in building a team that is dedicated to efi"ective management. The 
space flight record for 1964 is impressive by several standards: num- 
ber of flights, percent of success, and variety of missions. The graph 
(spaceflight mission record) shows that, in terms of percentage, our 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 77 

1964 success record is nearly the same as the high achieved in 1963; 
83 percent compared with 85 percent in 1963. However, we more than 
doubled the number of successful missions from 1963 to 1964, from 11 
to 25. . . . 

"Other significant measures of the pace and rate of change in our 
space program have been our performance in terms of spacecraft opera- 
tions and data return. These performance indicators are at the heart 
of a successful space program. 

"For example, in 1964 an average of 54 experiments were function- 
ing in space throughout the year; this is an improvement of over 35 
percent from 1963. when we averaged 40 working experiments. 

"The volume of information brought back from space, measured 
in millions of data points per day, shows a tenfold increase over 
previous years: in 1964 we were collecting about 57 million bits of 
information each day from our flight missions. . . ." 

Dr. Seamans listed NASA management accomplishments during the 
past year "to find new techniques and new methods to carry out our 
jobs." Among them: establishment of Mission Analysis Div. from the 
Hq. Office of Advanced Research and Technology at Ames Research 
Center; conducting the joint DOD-NASA Launch Vehicle Cost Study; 
growth of incentive contract program ("over $1 billion are under 
active incentive contracts") ; and application of phased project plan- 
ning. 

"The budget presented here has already undergone critical review 
by NASA's management, the Bureau of the Budget, and the President. 
It does not provide any contingency funds for the approved missions; 
it is predicated on a cost reduction program that will require us to 
operate more efficiently; it represents a carefully pared program 
priority list. In summary: 

"First, NASA is dedicated to the accomplishment of the present ap- 
proved missions and projects in terms of cost, schedule, and technical 
performance. 

"Second, new effort is needed to maintain a position of leadership 
in aeronautics and space. This includes the definition of a new pro- 
gram for exploration of the planets commencing with Mars in 1971; 
the research and design necessary for effective extension of present 
Apollo and Saturn capabilities for manned flight; integration of the 
Centaur stage with the Saturn launch vehicle for planetary and other 
unmanned payloads; initiation of an advanced solar observatory 
satellite; and utilization of a prototype XB-70 aircraft for aeronautical 
research. 

"Third, an aggressive research and advanced development effort must 
be maintained in many fields, including chemical and nuclear 
propulsion, to assure the nation meaningful options and alternatives in 
the selection of future aeronautical and space goals and the ability to 
react decisively to external pressures and opportunities. . . ." 
(Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearin(i,s, 37-51) 
February 17: Experimental solar still stations were being tested by Dr. 
Everett D. Howe, director of the Univ. of California at Berkeley's Sea 
Water Conversion Laboratory, it was reported. The small stills were 
located on islands in the South Pacific, where climate was favorable for 
testing solar distillation. The stills, made of light plastic and concrete 
or of metal and glass, produced two to five gallons of pure water a day. 



78 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Knowledge gained from the operation might eventually help the 
thousands of persons in nonindustrial countries where water was in 
short supply and fuel and energy for such things as distillation of 
water was scarce. {NYT, 2/17/65, 28) 
February 17: A new extraterrestrial mineral, previously unknown in nature 
and christened sinoite ( silicon oxynitride, SioN^O ) , had been discov- 
ered, NASA Ames Research Center announced. Discovered in a mete- 
orite which had fallen near the village of Jajh deh Kot Lalu in Pakistan 
in 1926, the mineral was grey in color and occurred in rough rectangu- 
lar crystals. Scientists who made the discovery were Dr. Klaus Keil of 
NASA Ames Research Center; C. A. Anderson, Hasler Research Center, 
Goleta, Calif.; and Dr. B. H. Mason, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. The meteorite had been made available for study 
by New York's Museum of Natural History, (arc Release 65-5) 

• Joan Merriam Smith, who flew solo around the world last year, was killed 

when a private plane she was piloting crashed in the mountains 45 mi. 
from Los Angeles. ( UPi, NYT, 2 18 65, 42) 

• The largest balloon ever constructed completed a successful 26-hr. flight 

over western U.S. Launched at Chico, Calif., by afcrl, the 450-ft.- 
long polyethylene balloon lifted a 450-lb. instrumented payload to a 
record 142.000-ft. altitude. At float altitude, the balloon became oblate, 
or pumpkin-shaped, with dimensions of 330-ft. diameter and 270-ft. 
height. Payload consisted of instruments to measure atmospheric 
temperature, density, and pressures; telemetry equipment; and a com- 
mand receiver for control of the flight. It was parachuted to earth 
and recovered near Logandale, Nev. (oAR Release 2-65-6) 

• Soviet Marshal Vasily Sokolovsky said during a Moscow press con- 

ference held in connection with the 47th anniversary of the Red 
Army that the U.S.S.R. was armed with intercontinental and global 
rockets whose nuclear warheads were equal to 100 million tons 
of TNT. He claimed strategic rocket troops now formed the back- 
bone of the Soviet armed forces so that the effectiveness of the Soviet 
air force had been sharply increased by supersonic planes equipped 
with nuclear-tipped, long-range rockets. He said the Soviet navy was 
now built around atomic submarines of virtually unlimited range that 
were equipped with powerful missiles. New Soviet antiaircraft defenses 
were capable of reaching targets flying at any speed at any altitude. 
He claimed that the Soviet Union had undertaken several measures 
toward the relaxation of international tension, among them a reduc- 
tion of S555 million in military spending for the current year. 
(Sovietskaya Moldaviya, 2/18/65. 1, atss-t Trans.; ap. Wash. Eve. 
Star, 2/17/65; Wash. Post, 2/18/65) 

• The JodreH Bank Observatory, British tracking station, was visited by 

a group of six Soviet scientists led by M. V. Keldysh, president of the 
Soviet Academy of Sciences, (ap, Boston Globe, 2/17/65) 
February 18: ranger viii lunar probe successfully executed a midcourse 
maneuver that corrected the path established at launch and aimed it 
for impact on the moon in the Sea of Tranquillity, an area centered 
2.6° north of the lunar equator and 24.8° west of the moon's north- 
south line. Signal for the maneuver was radioed from earth to 
activate commands previously stored in the spacecraft's computer. At 
that time, the 808-lb. photo probe was 99.281 mi. from earth, traveling 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1%5 79 

toward the moon at 4.100 mph. First command ordered the space- 
craft to roll 11.6°: the second ordered the pitch maneuver of 151.7°; 
the third commanded the motor to burn for 59 sec. Then, after the 
spacecraft was ordered to break its attitude stabilization locks on the 
sun and earth, a "go" command was transmitted and ranger Viii 
executed the maneuver in about 27 min. The correction completed, 
the spacecraft reacquired its stabilization locks and continued on its 
course. One measure of the accuracy of the maneuver was the current 
expected impact time on the moon: Feb. 20 at 4:57:30 a.m. plus or 
minus 60 sec. The original planned time was 4:57:30 a.m. 

The photo probe's initial course would have missed the trailing edge 
of the moon bv 1.136 mi. (NASA Transcript: L.A. Times, Miles, Wash. 
Post, 2 19 '65: Appel. NYT, 2 19/65; upi. Phil. Eve. Bull, 2/18/65; 
AP, Chic. Trib.. 2 19 65; Av. JVk.. 2 22 '65, 34) 
February 18: Dr. George E. Mueller. NASA Associate Administrator for 
Manned Space Flight, reviewing overall manned space flight objectives 
and reporting on the Gemini and Apollo programs in testimony before 
the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, said: 

"Chronologically, the first objective of manned space flight is to 
establish man's capabilities in space. Next is the establishment of a 
national competence for manned space flight, including the industrial 
base, trained personnel, ground facilities, flight hardware, and opera- 
tional experience. Next, we use this capability for further space ex- 
plorations and for other purposes. Finally, accomplishment of all 
these objectives brings about United States leadership in space. 

". . . In 1964. we concentrated our efforts on Gemini ground tests 
and accomplished the first flight test. Filling the pipeline with hard- 
ware and carrying out development testing of subsystems were the 
major Apollo activities. Now in 1965, we have entered a year that 
will be devoted to Gemini flight test operations and the conduct of 
Apollo svstem development tests. 

"Looking at the remainder of the decade, 1966 will be the year when 
we learn new space flight techniques in the Gemini Program, and 
conduct unmanned earth-orbital flight tests of the Apollo/Saturn IB 
space vehicle. In 1967, Gemini will be available as an operational 
system and we will carry out manned earth-orbital flights of the Apollo 
Saturn V space vehicle. Manned flights of the Apollo /Saturn V space 
vehicle are scheduled for 1968, leading to the beginning of manned 
lunar missions before the end of the decade. 

"... I want to emphasize again that Apollo is an orderly pro- 
gram. The buildup of the Apollo effort has proceeded over more 
than three and a half years to its full strength. It is not a crash pro- 
gram. 

"The duration of Apollo, as we reported to the Congress last year, 
is one of the longer United States research and development programs, 
resulting in a schedule that permits rapid, orderly progress. The 
Apollo priority is high but not overriding. Parallel and backup de- 
velopment efforts are limited. Flio:ht testing is being carried out on a 
logical basis, and only after all possible tests are conducted on the 
ground. 



80 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"Efficient use of available resources is a major consideration in the 
conduct of the Apollo program, whereas a crash program follows the 
most expeditious course regardless of cost. 

"Finally, crash programs typically have goals beyond the existing 
state of technology and pursue these goals under the pressure of having 
to achieve a technological breakthrough. Apollo, on the other hand, 
harnesses current technology in the development of launch vehicles, 
spacecraft and facilities to permit effective space exploration. The 
greatest challenges in Apollo, in fact, are in the integration of those 
systems and the men who must fly them as well as the provision of 
ground operational support, and the overall management of this enter- 
prise." 

Dr. Mueller said that data received and analysis continued in 1964 
regarding radiation and the lunar surface indicated that these matters 
were of less importance than had been previously deduced: ". . . 
First, the chance of a significant solar event occurring during a mission 
is very low. Second, if the worst solar flare previously observed had 
occurred during an Apollo mission, the maximum dose that could have 
been received at the bloodforming organs by astronauts in the command 
module would have been about 10 per cent of the allowable safe dose, 
rather than 15 per cent as estimated last year. 

"Regarding the lunar surface, the data from ranger vii have been 
very helpful. The large area photography has indicated the probability 
that there are many areas of the moon's surface where the design of the 
lunar excursion module is adequate with respect to surface slope and 
roughness. . . ." (Testimony; I\'ASA Auth. Hearins^s, 53-134) 
February 18: NASA Langley Research Center announced it would negotiate 
with Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc., an $8 million incentive contract to 
provide complete system management for the Scout launch vehicle. 
The contract would continue support services and materials LTV had 
provided under several contracts. It would include systems engineer- 
ing, logistic support, operational support, test program support, pay- 
load coordination, preflight planning, data reduction and analysis, 
standardization and configuration control, reliability and quality as- 
surance, vehicle modification, checkout, and delivery, (nasa Release 
65-54) 

• NASA awarded a $10,940,000 contract to Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., for 

mission integration and launch services of Delta launch vehicles at 
Cape Kennedy. The cost-plus-fixed-fee contract covered the calendar 
year 1965. (nasa Release 65-52) 

• Saturn V launch vehicle retro-motors developed 100,000 lbs. of thrust 

in test of the solid-propellant motors at USAF Arnold Engineering De- 
velopment Center for NASA. ( aedc) 

• ComSatCorp met with representatives of aerospace companies it had in- 

vited to discuss specifications for 24 communications satellites for a pro- 
posed DOD satellite system. Previously ComSatCorp had indicated it 
would contract with the Hughes Aircraft Co. to build the satellites. 
But when the Philco Corp. protested to the FCC, the FCC required Com- 
SatCorp to give Philco and other competitors a chance to show their 
capabilities. (ComSatCorp; Weekley, Wash. Post, 2/17/65) 

• U.S.S.R. formally protested to Norway plans of the European Space 

Research Organization to establish a satellite tracking station in 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 81 

Spitsbergen. The U.S.S.R. said such a ground station for tracking 
space satellites could be used for "military purposes" in violation of the 
1920 Spitsbergen treaty. Norway later rejected the Soviet charge. 
{NYT, 2/20 65, 2) 

February 18: ComSatCorp filed with FCC a notice of a proposed $300,000 
contract with AT&T for research data and consultant services on ground 
stations for the global communications satellite network. FCC was 
notified that ComSatCorp had analyzed and evaluated other proposals 
and had held subsequent discussions with those making proposals. 
(ComSatCorp) 

• The U.S. was pressing the U.S.S.R. for clarification of its view that it 
did not violate the nuclear test ban treaty with an underground ex- 
plosion that released radioactivity. The large underground test took 
place Jan. 15 in the Semipalatinsk region of Soviet Central Asia. Four 
days later the U.S. announced that it had detected radioactive debris 
from the explosion over the Sea of Japan. [NYT, 2/19/65, 17) 

February 19: In testimony before the House Committee on Science and 
Astronautics, Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for 
Space Science and Applications, summarized significant mission re- 
sults: "U.S. scientific satellites achieved the following firsts: discovery 
of the radiation belt, determination of the earth's irregular geoid, 
ionospheric topside sounding (with Canada), solar spectroscopy, x- 
ray and ultraviolet satellite astronomy, polar orbits, and highly ec- 
centric orbits to map the earth's magnetosphere. Our deep space 
probes achieved the first successful direct monitoring of the inter- 
planetary environment, the first lunar surface detail, and the first 
successful flight to Venus. We may soon achieve the first successful 
flight to Mars, if mariner iv completes its mission. In launch vehicle 
development, this program has yielded the first rocket stage using the 
high energy propellant combination of hydrogen and oxygen. It has 
also yielded the first and only all solid propellant space booster. U.S. 
meteorological satellites have yielded the following firsts: daylight 
cloud photography, night cloud observations including surface and 
cloud top temperatures, world cloud coverage, global heat balance and 
stratospheric temperature measurements, and direct cloud picture trans- 
mission to local users. Our communication satellites have been first 
in the following achievements: erection of large structures in space and 
their use as passive reflectors of radio signals; active repeating of 
radio signals at various altitudes and orbits of interest to system 
designers; transoceanic and intercontinental relay of teletype, facsimile, 
voice, data, and television; and achievement of the first true geostation- 
ary orbit. 

"The specific record of 1964 space missions of the Space Science 
and Applications Program ... is particularly informative because 
most major program areas achieved at least one highly significant suc- 
cess in 1964. Of the 10 scientific satellite missions attempted, 7 
achieved full success and 2 partial success." 

Dr. NeweU observed that syncom hi communications satellite had 
been placed in a "virtually perfect circular equatorial orbit," then 
maneuvered "to within about 1 mile of its station over the western 
Pacific where it successfully performed all its planned experiments. 



82 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

. . . The Syncom maneuver was comparable to the feat of Ranger 
VII in flying to within 6 miles of its target on the Moon. 

"Having completed our experiments with Syncoms II and ill. we are 
turning them over to the Department of Defense. ... If required, 
full-time communications could be provided between the United States 
and southeast Asia by Syncom iii. . . ." (Testimony; NASA Auth. 
Hearings, 136-62) 
February 19: NASA selected Philco Corp.'s Aeronutronic Div. for negotia- 
tions leading to a nine-month, SI million contract for research, de- 
velopment, and preliminary design of a lunar penetrometer system ap- 
plicable to the Apollo program. The penetrometer, an instrumented 
package capable of assessing the hardness, penetrability, and bearing 
strength of a surface upon which it is ejected, could furnish lunar 
surface information to an orbiting Apollo spacecraft for scientific as- 
sessment of remote sites inaccessible to manned spacecraft or unmanned 
earth-launch probes. NASA Langley Research Center would negotiate 
and manager the contract. (NASA Release 65-59; LaRC Release) 

• NASA approved inclusion of three x-ray and gamma ray telescopes on the 

first Oao (Orbiting Astronomical Observatory) and rescheduled the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's celescope experiment for the 
third Oao. The three x-ray and gamma ray telescopes, already fabri- 
cated, contained experiments for surveying the sky proposed by: MIT, 
to detect high-energy gamma rays that did not originate from earth; 
Lockheed Missiles and Space Div., to seek new sources of low-energy 
(soft) x-rays and to study those recently developed; and NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center, to detect low-energy gamma rays. The celescope 
experiment was designed to map the stars and nebulae through ob- 
servations in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum but had encountered 
development problems. 

Unaffected by the change and proceeding on schedule for a 1965 
launch was the Univ. of Wisconsin's photometer-telescope system to 
measure the energy distribution and emission intensities of stars. 
(NASA Release 65-49) 

• NASA's MARINER IV, en route to Mars, passed the 20-million-mile mark in 

its distance from earth. The spacecraft was functioning normally and 
was transmitting data on scientific measurements taken in interplane- 
tary space. (NASA Release 65-58) 

• Twenty Llrv Program personnel at nasa Flight Research Center were 

honored at an informal ceremony. Six emplovees received plaques 
for special and outstanding contributions to the Lunar Landing Re- 
search Vehicle project. ( frc X-Press, 2/19/65, 1) 

• Col. John H. Glenn, Jr. (USMC Ret.), speaking at a National Space Club 

luncheon, said: "Looking back over the 3 years since the flight of 
Friendship 7, I am impressed most of all by the tremendous progress 
the United States has made in space science and technology. 

"I am proud of the determination the American people have shown 
to become the world's leading spacefaring nation. . . . 

"Three years ago. Mercury spacecraft were limited in weight to 
about 3,000 pounds. Today, the Saturn I booster is operational and 
can put 22,500 pounds into Earth orbit, or seven times the weight of 
Mercury. Saturn I-R, which will begin flying next year, will be able 
to orbit a payload equal to 11 Mercury spacecraft, Saturn V, which 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 83 

will fly in 1967. will be able to orbit a payload equal to more than 
80 Mercuries. That's some jump — but it is no more than typical of 
the great gains we are making in national space capabilities. 

"The accuracy requirements for all these missions are almost in- 
comprehensible and are one of the least understood parts of the space 
program. A good case in point was the launch of Friendship 7 3 years 
ago. The speed at insertion into orbit was over 25,000 feet per second 
or 5 miles per second, and the booster and spacecraft were accelerating 
at approximately 240 feet per second at a steadily increasing rate. At 
booster cutoff, each error of 1.4 feet per second resulted in a difference 
of approximately 1 mile in apogee on the far side of the Earth. When 
you consider that before the onboard signal for cutoff was received, 
information had to be obtained by radar at the Cape, transmitted by 
landline to Goddard. run through the computers, returned by landline 
to the Cape, checked against Cape data and then transmitted 350 miles 
down range to the spacecraft, still allowing time for onboard delays 
in operation of relays, valves, and thrust termination, it looks like an 
almost impossibly accurate requirement. 

"Those accuracies, however, are rather crude compared with some 
now being obtained on the deep space probes. 

"Now we have Mariner IV which at 6 o'clock tonight will be 
20.194,023 miles out from Earth on an extremely difficult and signifi- 
cant mission. As you know, there was a checkout of equipment aboard 
the spacecraft last week that indicates the chances are still good that 
we will get revealing pictures of Mars next July, when Mariner IV will 
be 134 million miles from Earth, so far it will take 12Vo seconds to get 
a radio signal back. 

"To wax philosophical for a moment, we might liken our space pro- 
gram to one of Plato's allegories. He told of prisoners chained in a 
cave for so long they had lost touch with reality and felt that their 
whole existence was wrapped up in the shadows they could see on the 
wall ahead of them. He goes on to say that if one escaped to the out- 
side world and returned to tell the others of what really lay outside 
the dark cave, they would probably think him completely crazy. 

"Even though we have seen such tremendous break-throughs in sci- 
entific knowledge in recent years, our knowledge has necessarily been 
limited to such a cave, for practically all we know has been limited to 
this one tiny speck of earth in a much larger environment. But that 
is in the process of becoming changed and with a rapidity no one can 
forecast." (Text, CR, 2/22/65, A751-53) 
February 19: Sen. A. S. (Mike) Monroney (D-Okla.) said in an interview 
that if commercial airlines would voluntarily join the Federal Gov- 
ernment in subsidizing helicopter lines, these services might be saved. 
Commercial helicopter lines operating in New York, Chicago, Los 
Angeles, and San Francisco had received Federal subsidies since 1947, 
but President Johnson proposed in his budget message that they be 
cut off after Dec. 31. 

Sen. Monroney said: "Congress isn't going to appropriate any more 
money. We haven't a chance of selling them or continuing the subsidy 
without added help from the airlines." His plan involved artificially 
lowering helicopter fares so that a greater portion of the flying public 
would use them. This higher load factor, combined with the use of 



84 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

larger, more economical aircraft and hoped-for improvements in heli- 
copter technology might lead to self-sustaining helicopter service in a 
few years, the Senator said. (NYT, 2/19/65, 69) 
February 19: On the floor of the Senate, Sen. John Stennis (D-Miss.) 
argued for development of an advanced manned strategic aircraft, 
pointing out that "for the first time in the history of American strategic 
air power, there is no follow-on manned bomber under development." 
He cited Gen. Curtis E. LeMay who testified last year: "I am afraid 
the B-52 is going to fall apart on us before we can get a replacement 
for it. There is a serious danger this may happen." (CR, 2/19/65, 
3176) 

• AFSC announced that an airborne jet engine analyzing system, designated 

to improve flight safety and operational readiness of USAF tactical air- 
craft, would be flight-tested for one year at Nellis afb, Nev., and Davis- 
Monthan afb, Ariz. The jet engine analyzer system would be used to 
monitor, analyze, and assess engine performance of turbojets; to assist 
in predicting required maintenance; and to indicate engine failures 
before they occurred, (afsc Release 57.64) 

• AFSC Aeronautical Systems Div. had awarded to North American Avia- 

tion, Inc., an $8,150,000 increment to previously awarded contract for 
the XB-70 aircraft, dod announced, (dod Release 100-65) 

• Boeing Co. announced it had ordered its 737 model into production 

and that it had already received an order for 21 of the short- 
range jets from Lufthansa German Airlines. The 737 would be a twin- 
engine jetliner designed for short-haul routes, (upi, NYT, 2/20/65, 
52) 
February 20: ranger viii lunar photography probe struck its target on the 
moon at 4:57:36.8 est, after radioing to earth about 7,000 close-up 
pictures of the lunar surface during the last 23 min. of flight. The 
point of impact was 2.59° north latitude. 24.77° east longitude, in the 
Sea of Tranquillity, an area slightly east-northeast of the center of a 
full moon. The spacecraft impacted at slightly less than 6.000 mph. 
Total distance of travel along its trajectory from lift-off had been 
calculated as 248,766 mi. Accuracy of the shot was reflected in the 
fact that impact had been planned for 4:57:30, and at 3° north lati- 
tude and 24° east longitude. 

ranger viii had been programed to execute a "terminal sequence" 
just before impact to point the six TV cameras more in the direction 
of flight; this sequence was omitted to allow the cameras to cover a 
larger area than planned and to provide greater continuity with the 
pictures transmitted by ranger vil last July 31. A second change in 
the flight was to turn on cameras 23 min. before impact instead of 13 
min. and 40 sec. as planned. The new time had been chosen so that 
initial pictures would be about equal to earth-based resolution and 
then continue into impact. 

Two small anomalies: one part of the spacecraft had registered a 
higher temperature than had been anticipated and more telemetry data 
had been lost during midcourse maneuver than had been expected. 
RANGER viii had been launched Feb. 17 from Cape Kennedy. (NASA 
Transcript: Appel. NYT, 2/21/65, 1, 65) 

• Dr. Gerard P. Kuiper of the Univ. of Arizona, heading the panel for 

scientific evaluation of RANGER viii photographs, said at a press 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 85 

conference that one of the most important results of this flight had 
been the discovery that the Sea of Clouds and the Sea of Tran- 
quillity were similar in structure. He noted several "odd depressed 
regions" and said that they could be areas where collapse had occurred, 
which might suggest the presence of lava fields. He believed the lunar 
surface was composed of verv light, frothy material such as would be 
formed when rock was melted and allowed to resolidify within a high 
vacuum, like that on the moon. The material envisioned by Dr. Kuiper 
might be considered similar to certain volcanic rocks found on earth: 
while it would probably be hghter than water, it could still have sub- 
stantial strength. This theory was based on laboratory attempts several 
years ago to simulate conditions existing when the moon was formed. 

Ewen A. Whitaker of the Univ. of Arizona said he felt the lunar 
material, which he thought had a consistency of crunchy snow, would 
support a manned spacecraft. He said color lines and sharp bound- 
aries tended to show that the surface was some sort of frothy, lava-like 
material and definitely not dust. 

Another member of the Panel, Dr. Harold C. Urey, of the Univ. of 
California, noted dimples on the moon's surface and said their curved 
walls indicated material must have been thrown out of their centers 
when comparatively soft terrain was gouged by heavy masses of rock. 
He thought he saw spots in the center of some dimples into which soft 
material might be draining and estimated the depth of some dimples 
at 50 to 60 ft. Dr. Urey also suggested the surface material might 
have the consistency of crunchy snow. (NASA Transcript; Appel, NYT, 
2 21 65; Miles, L. A. Times, 2/21 65; ap, Indianapolis Star, 2/22/65) 
February 20: No evidence of lunar origin had been found in rock samples 
from western Iowa tested at nasa Goddard Space Flight Center, said 
Donald E. Perry, GSFC Information Officer: "We had not . . . found 
anything in Iowa which could be identified as meteoritic or of the na- 
ture of a tektite." 

NASA had requested a six-county area of western Iowa to submit 
rocks for analysis since GSFC astronomer. Dr. Walter O'Keefe, had had 
the theory that tektites came from the moon. Western Iowa had been 
chosen as a likely spot for the search for tektite fragments because of 
its heavy deposits of loose soil and near absence of natural rock forma- 
tions. (Barton. Omaha Sunday World Herald, 2/21/65) 

• Sir John Eccles, professor of physiology at Australian National Univer- 

sity, cautioned Australia and New Zealand against overconcentration 
of scientific energy on space. At a scientific congress in New Zealand, 
he warned: ". . . we are spending too much of our resources, especially 
our intellectual resources, on the exploration of space when we have 
the much more important problem of life, and of man and his brain." 
{NYT, 2/21/65, 9) 

• The Soviet Union was considering sending weather observers into outer 

space in manned meteorological satellites. Prof. K. I. Kondratief, Univ. 
of Leningrad, said at a meeting in Geneva of the World Meteorologi- 
cal Organization's Scientific Advisory Committee. {NYT, 2/21/65, 24) 
February 21 : Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Chairman of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council, said in remarks taped for the NBC-TV 
program, "The Sunday Show," that the U.S. would extend its national 
strength into the space dimension. "We expect to explore the moon, 



86 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

not just to photograph it or visit it," he said. "We plan to explore 
and chart the planets as well. We shall expand our earth laboratories 
into space laboratories." 

Mr. Humphrey praised the Nation's space effort, saying that such 
activities had encouraged economic development, stimulated new prod- 
ucts and processes, and furthered the cause of peace. This was 
Mr. Humphrey's first public statement on the space program as Vice 
President. ( nbc-tv ) 

February 21 : U.S.S.R. launched cosmos liv, cosmos lv, and cosmos lvi 
on one rocket booster. All three satellites were moving in close initial 
orbits: apogee, 1,856 km. 1 1.141 mi.) ; perigee, 279.7 km. (170 mi.) ; 
period, 106.2 min.; inclination, 56°4'. Equipment aboard "for the 
further investigation of outer space" was functioning normally. ( Tass. 
Pravda, 2/22 '65, atss-t Trans.; NYT, 2/22/65, 12) 

February 22: Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey spent six hours visiting 
Cape Kennedy launching pads, talking to space experts, and looking 
over NASA Kennedy Space Center's Merritt Island Launch Area ( MILA ) . 
"I'm sure the American people can feel this program is in good hands," 
he said before returning to Washington. At one point, Humphrey 
rode to the top of the 100-ft. launching vehicle to be used in next 
month's manned orbital flight and exclaimed: "Man, oh man, what a 
fantastic job!" (nasa Release 65-57; ap. Wash. Eve. Star, 2/23/65) 

• COSMOS LVii earth satellite was launched by the U.S.S.R. Orbital data: 

apogee, 512 km. (318 mi.) : perigee. 175 km. (109 mi.) ; period, 91.1 
min.; inclination, 64°46'. Tass said the satellite carried scientific ap- 
paratus "intended for the further investigation of outer space." Equip- 
ment was functioning normally. (Tass, Pravda, 2/23/65, atss-t 
Trans.) 

• DOD Secretary Robert S. McNamara told the House Armed Services Com- 

mittee that deferral of the decision on Nike-X production from FY 
1966 to FY 1967 "should not delay an initial operational capability by 
many months beyond what we would expect to achieve if we were to 
start production in Fiscal 1966." He said this was primarily because 
of the development, test, and evaluation work already under way. He 
added that the FY 1966 requests included S400 million for the continued 
development of Nike-X "on an urgent basis." Of this, SIO million 
had been programed for preliminary production engineering. Mc- 
Namara confirmed "... a broadening of the objectives of Air Force's 
Manned Orbiting Laboratory (mol) program, including: 1) develop- 
ment of technology contributing to both manned and unmanned space 
operation; 2) development of manned capability to assemble and serv- 
ice large orbiting structures; and 3) other manned military space ex- 
perimentation. In addition, MOL will be used to investigate servicing 
and assembly of non-military structures . . . and will progress to study 
man's biological responses during periods in orbit of as long as 30 
days." (Av. Wk., 2/22/65, 26; M&R, 2/22/65, 18) 

• U.S.S.R. had kept the U.S. under relatively continuous surveillance 

with photo reconnaissance satellites launched as part of the Cosmos 
program, said Edward H. Kolcum in an article in Aviation Week 
and Space Technology. In 1964 14 such satellites were launched, 
he asserted. The article continued: "Soviet photo reconnaissance pay- 
load is believed to be an unmanned version of the Vostok spacecraft, 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 87 

which successfully carried cosmonauts into orbit six times. The un- 
manned camera mission uses the same launch facilities and same re- 
covery techniques developed from Russian manned satellites. The 
recoverable section is the pressurized cabin, which weighs about 5,000 
lb. when it is ejected from the main spacecraft for a parachute descent 
on land. . . . 

"Six of these payloads were recovered after eight days; two after 
seven days, one after six days and another after five days. One came 
down after 24 hr. in orbit; one remained up five weeks, another eight 
and a half weeks, and another, launched Aug. 29, is still in orbit. De- 
partures from the norm are believed to indicate retrofire malfunctions 
or failures. Most recent Soviet reconnaissance satellite was Cosmos 
52, launched Jan. 11 and recovered Jan. 19. . . ." 

He stated that 11 of the 14 reconnaissance satellites orbited in 1964 
were orbited at 65° inclination. The remaining three orbited at 51° 
inclination — "an inclination that also permits the payload to sweep 
over the entire continental United States." The other Cosmos satel- 
lites, orbited at 49° inclination, had remained in orbit until they de- 
cayed naturally. They were "believed to be scientific applications and 
military development payloads." {Av. Wk., 2/22/65, 22) 
February 22: TSR-2, Britain's tactical and reconnaissance bomber, broke 
the sound barrier for the first time. The aircraft was flown to more 
than 1,400 mph over the Irish Sea, to a landing at Wharton. This 
was the 14th test flight of TSR-2 by its manufacturer, British Aircraft 
Corp. (Reuters, NYT, 2/23/65, 53) 

• Martin Co. had delivered the first pair of prototype nuclear generators for 

use in space to NASA, it was reported. The units contained no radio- 
active fuel and would be heated electrically for their qualification tests. 
Each generator was designed to deliver 30 watts of direct current to 
the weather satellite Nimbus B, first NASA satellite to use a nuclear 
power source, (ap, NYT, 2/23/65, 21) 

• John F. Mason outlined in Electronics the dramatic changes underway 

in U.S. tracking and communications stations around the world. 
"Before the end of the year, 85% of the telemetry gear on the 
Atlantic missile range will be replaced. Everywhere, new communica- 
tions equipment is going in, new pulse radars are being installed and 
continuous-wave radar networks are being expanded. Slowly, the 
separate ranges are becoming an integrated global network. . . . 

"Besides the work going on at the ranges, research and develop- 
ment effort for programs of the future continues at an active pace at 
the various government and industry centers throughout the United 
States. 

"The reason for this general overhaul of the missile ranges is to 
support Apollo, the manned lunar mission, and approximately 70 other 
ambitious missile and space programs already under way. . . ." 
(Electronics, 2/22/65, 94^105) 

• Esso Research and Engineering Co. announced development of a fuel cell 

that could convert methanol, a petroleum derivative, into electricity. 
The most immediate practical uses of the cell would be military, the 
company said. (NYT, 2/23/65, 48) 

• Leonid Seliakov, a deputy to the Soviet aircraft designer Andrei N. 

Tupolev, said fundamental breakthroughs would be made in civil 



88 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

aircraft between 1970 and 1975. Seliakov was quoted in Vechernaya 
Moskva as saying: "Airliners will be designed for flight speeds up 
to 2,500 kilometers (1,550 miles) an hour. I am sure that in 10 
years from now, Muscovites will be able to fly to Khabarovsk in three 
instead of eight hours." Khabarovsk is about 4,000 miles from 
Moscow. (AP, NYT, 2/23/65, 53 ) 
February 23: usaf 1,175-lb. Project Asset reentry glider, last in a test series 
of six, was launched from Cape Kennedy by a Thor-Delta rocket booster 
on a 13,300 mph suborbital flight; the spacecraft then was lost at sea. 
The experiment was to test materials for future lifting body reentry de- 
signs; it consisted of 2,000 tiny heat-sensitive spots in ten different 
colors designed to change hue as the ghder came back through the 
atmosphere from an altitude of 40 mi. usaf said that most of the 
information sought had been radioed to the ground during the 30 min. 
flight, but that visual examination of the glider was necessary for data 
on heat distribution. 

Officials presumed the glider sank into the sea, although intermittent 
radio signals received had indicated it had been at least partially 
afloat for some hours. Planes and ships were combing an area in the 
Atlantic Ocean about 2,750 mi. southeast of Cape Kennedy for the miss- 
ing craft. (AP, Wash. Post, 2/24/65; U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 
134) 

• Addressing the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, NASA Administrator 

James E. Webb said: "I would like to acknowledge the debt that NASA 
owes to the armed forces for early and continuing work that has con- 
tributed to some of our most successful space projects. As you know, 
NASA works closely with the Air Force in the development of launch 
vehicles and in the general technology of space flight. . . . 

"As an example — among many — of cooperative nasa-dod activities: 
on January 1, NASA transferred control of its operating SYNCOM II and 
SYNCOM III communications satellites to the Department of De- 
fense. . . . 

"When the great dod missile site construction program — which ran 
at one time to $2.8 billion a year — subsided, the Corps of Engineers 
brought its tremendous engineering capability to the construction of 
NASA facilities. As the Corps moved toward completion of its work 
for NASA, its abilities will have been enhanced by the experience of 
building these great new national resources. The Corps, with new 
skills, will be able to move to new national requirements with assurance 
that it has performed extraordinarily well in engineering fields never 
before attempted. 

"Today there are detailed to NASA 254 active duty military person- 
nel. Five of our astronauts are graduates of this great Academy. 
Nothing could be more fitting. For the debt modern American science 
and technology owes to West Point is too large to be repaid. It can 
visibly be traced back to Sylvanus Thayer who not only is the father 
of this Academy but who had a tremendous influence for half a century 
in the field of technical and scientific education throughout the United 
States." (Text) 

• Statement of Edmond C. Fiuckley, NASA Director of Tracking and 

Data Acquisition, was presented by Gerald M. Truszynski, NASA 
Deputy Director of Tracking and Data Acquisition, in testimony before 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 89 

the House Committee on Science and Astronautics: ''Since 1958, NASA 
has provided tracking and data acquisition support by means of the 
NASA Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network for approx- 
imately 50 DOD earth satellites. During 1965 we expect to provide 
continuing telemetry support for as many as 10 DOD earth satellites, and 
limited tracking support for several more. Also, our station at 
Carnarvon, Australia, being in an excellent geographical relation 
to the launch facilities at Cape Kennedy, will be used to support 
a number of DOD spacecraft, as well as NASA spacecraft, where data and 
flight control after one-half orbit is required. For example, the DOD 
TITAN III launch vehicle development program is vitally dependent on 
support by this station. We anticipate support of approximately 15 
TITAN III operations per year for the next two years. 

"In a similar fashion, the tracking and data acquisition support 
which the DOD provides for NASA is extensive. At Cape Kennedy, for 
example, DOD has supported the launch phase of each NASA space flight 
mission. The extensive support provided by DOD for the Mercury pro- 
gram is well known. The Gemini program requires continuation of 
this DOD support." 

Referring in his testimony to current trends affecting planning for 
support networks. Mr. Buckley said: ". . . equally significant require- 
ment, is the increase in the number of spacecraft which will have high- 
ly elliptical or synchronous orbits. Spacecraft in highly elliptical 
orbits must be supported by a particular ground station, much in the 
same way as done for deep space missions, i.e.. a particular station is 
required to provide as much as 8-10 hours per day of its available 
time for support of one satellite. Spacecraft in synchronous orbits 
require support of a particular station for 24 hours per day. As a 
result, tracking and data acquisition links are being committed to 
longer support periods which means not only that more equipment is 
required, but additional personnel, ground communications, and other 
operations expenditures are needed to meet this upcoming satellite 
support workload." (Testimonv; 1966 NASA Auth. Hearings, 187- 
212) 
Fehnmry 23: On the floor of the House. Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.), 
Chairman of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, com- 
mented on the successful RANGER viii spacecraft as "yet another major 
American space achievement. For the second time in less than a year 
a Ranger spacecraft has successfully taken closeup pictures of the lunar 
surface and returned them to earth from a distance of a quarter of a 
million miles. . . ." (nasa lar iv/33-35) 
• Rep. John R. Schmidhauser (D-Iowa) commented upon and inserted in 
the Congressional Record an article which appeared in the Davenport 
Times-Democrat about the Davenport Alcoa plant and the construction 
of Pegasus satellites. It said: "A unique arrangement of special 
equipment that senses infrared energy — thus indicating which part of 
the satellite is facing earth — enables scientists to determine the direction 
each meteoroid is traveling when it strikes Pegasus. Such information 
will tell spacecraft designers the extent of possible damage from hits, 
enabling them to build manned craft which will be relatively un- 
affected by meteoroids." (CR, 2/23/65, A77374) 



90 ASTRONAUTICS A-\U AERONAUTICS, 1965 

February 23: Scientists at Mix's new Center for Sensory Aids Evaluation 
and Development were screening and testing new items that could po- 
tentially help the blind and deaf-blind, it was reported. Scheduled for 
early testing was an inertial navigation system that could sense move- 
ment off a straight line. It was about the size of a cigaret package and 
would be held flat between the thumb and index finger. If a blind 
person holding this battery-operated device in his right hand veered 
off course to the left, a projection would hit him in the thumb; if he 
veered off to the right he would be hit in the index finger. The sys- 
tem of gyroscopes and accelerometers that would operate this instru- 
ment was also found in missile and spacecraft guidance systems. ( Sci. 
Serv., /Vyr, 2 23 65, 31) 

February 24: Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate Administrator 
for Advanced Research and Technology, told the House Conunittee on 
Science and Astronautics that "although space research, development, 
and operations have absorbed much of our resources within the past 
few years, the NASA has been and will continue to be dedicated to a 
strong program of aeronautical research keyed to the Nation's needs." 
He testified: ". . . The [aeronautics] program embraces the entire 
spectrum of flight from lowspeed private and v/sTOL aircraft to hy- 
personic vehicles. I have already described . . . our part in the 
evolution of the XV-5a and F-111 aircraft, in the evaluation of 
supersonic transport proposals, and in the solution of jet transport 
rough air problems. Looking ahead to FY 1966, we are requesting 
$42.2 million in Research and Development for aeronautics. This 
figure can be separated into two categories: one funds a broad and 
continuing effort in the scientific disciplines underlying advances in 
all areas of air transportation, civil and military; the other funds a 
more concentrated attack on specific advances in air transportation 
whose potential is identified by research in the various scientific 
disciplines. . . . 

"Throughout the aeronautics program budget, provision has been 
made to support the direct requests of the Department of Defense and 
the Federal Aviation Agency. It can be pointed out that although 
the Research and Development request in FY 1966 for aeronautics is 
$42.2 million, we expect to spend a total sum of $106.2 million in this 
field. The difference is accounted for by Administrative Operations 
and Construction of Facilities funds as well as supporting research and 
technology directly applicable to aeronautics in fields such as elec- 
tronics, human factors, basic research, and others. Approximately 
1600 direct personnel will be engaged in aeronautical research in FY 
1966. . . ." (Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 213-269) 

• In testimony before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 
George Friedl, Jr., NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for In- 
dustry Affairs, said: "NASA spends about 93 percent of its dollars 
on contracts with industry, universities and private research or- 
ganizations. These procurements during fiscal year 1964 amounted 
to $4.6 billion. Approximately 96 percent of this amount or $4.4 
billion was awarded bv our field installations in accordance with pro- 
gram and project research and development requirements. NASA con- 
tracts support our in-house research and development activities and 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 91 

establish our coupling with industry and the private scientific com- 
munity. . . ." 

Reporting on contract administration, Mr. Friedl testified: "The 
cost reimbursement contract has been the basic instrument for procuring 
research and development because the Government has had to risk the 
uncertainties and assume the high cost involved. No other type of con- 
tract provides the Government and the contractor the latitude and 
flexibility needed to relate scientific and technical requirements, 
schedules and use of resources to mission objectives. By adding in- 
centive provisions pertaining to time, quality and cost to this type of 
contract, it is our intention to offset some of its deficiencies and 
strengthen the purpose of the Government-contractor relationship. 

"NASA has made a concerted effort to introduce suitable incentive 
arrangements in our cost reimbursement type contracts whenever 
practicable. In each case, the objective is to encourage the contractor 
to manage better and improve his performance; adhere to schedules; 
and hold down costs. 

"As a consequence of our incentive contracting drive, there has 
been a marked increase in this activity in the past 4V2 years. In fiscal 
year 1961 we had one contract worth about $100,000. By December 
31, 1964, we had awarded 75 contracts with a target value of over 
S751 million, 7 of these have been completed leaving 68 contracts 
totalling over S724 million currently being administered. . . . 

"In view of the undesirable features of letter contracts, NASA Head- 
quarters began a concerted effort, early in 1963, to curtail the issuance 
of new letter contracts and to assure the timely definitization of all 
outstanding letter contracts. Headquarters issued instructions to all 
centers directing program and project managers to plan ahead and 
allow adequate lead time for the initial negotiation of definitive con- 
tracts. ... At the end of January only 3 letter contracts having a 
total value of S4 million were outstanding. We expect that these con- 
tracts will be definitized in March 1965." 

Mr. Friedl said that NASA had "structured a sound practicable man- 
agerial technique to direct the planning, approval and execution 
of . . . future programs. We believe that adoption of what we have 
termed 'phased project planning' will materially assist us in achieving 
this goal. 

"Phased project planning represents an orderly sequential progres- 
sion in the execution of NASA major projects. It provides for formulat- 
ing proposed work goals and missions, and allows for decisions, re- 
appraisal points for management consideration to advance or replan 
such proposals, as well as the resources to implement them. 

"Specifically, phased project planning provides for four distinct 
phases as follows: 

"Phase A Conceptual/Feasibility Phase . . . 

"Phase B Preliminary Definition Phase . . . 

"Phase C Final Definition . . . 
and Phase D Development Operation. . . ." (Testimony: NASA 
Auth. Hearings, 269-88) 
February 24: Canada's National Defence Research Council said it would 
negotiate an agreement with NASA for Canadian operation of the rocket 
launching; ran^fe at Churchill, Manitoba. The announcement said such 



92 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

an agreement would open the way for -a new partnership between the 
two countries in research. {NYT, 2/26/65, 13) 
February 24: NASA Kennedy Space Center announced it had awarded three 
contracts for equipment used on launch complexes at both Cape Ken- 
nedy and Merritt Island Launch Area { mila ) . American Machine and 
Foundry Co. received $1,198,923 for umbilical devices that would pro- 
vide fuel, liquid oxygen, and air conditioning to the fin section of 
Saturn V's first stage. $745,601.15 was awarded Kaiser Aluminum 
and Chemical Sales for the fabrication of bulk electrical cable for 
Complex 39. Spaco Inc. received $596,356 to fabricate interconnect 
cables for joining terminal boards in the umbilical towers of Com- 
plexes 34, 37, and 39. (ksc Release 35-65) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center awarded a $8,774,000 research 

and development contract modification to North American Avia- 
tion's Rocketdyne Div. for continued uprating of the H-1 rocket 
engine from 188,000 to 200.000 lbs. Uprated engines would be used 
in clusters of eight to provide a total thrust of 1.6 million lbs. in first 
stage of Saturn IB launch vehicle. Modification brought H-1 contract 
total to $20,648,500. (Marshall Star, 2/24/65, 6) 

• NASA had contracted with Collins Radio Co., Dallas (Tex.) Div., to 

procure Unified S-Band Telemetry Systems for three 85-ft. -diameter 
antennas in support of Project Apollo. Under the fixed-price type con- 
tract worth $2,740,000, Collins would install the three systems at 
antennas to be built at Goldstone, Calif.; Canberra, Australia; and 
Madrid, Spain, (nasa Release 65-63) 

• usaf abandoned the search in the Atlantic for the Project Asset glider 

launched Feb. 23. The 6-ft. spacecraft, which had just completed an 
otherwise successful 2,700-mi. experimental flight at 13,300 mph, was 
never sighted visually after impact in the Atlantic. The only guide 
was a weakening signal from its radio beacon that faded out yesterday 
afternoon. Although the glider had radioed valuable data, engineers 
had wanted to examine the skin of the spacecraft to determine the 
ability of its exotic metals and superalloys to withstand prolonged heat 
of reentry. (Wash. Post, 2/25/65; ap. Bait. Sun, 2/25/65) 

• The number of women earning more than $10,000 annually in scientific 

government jobs had increased dramatically from 1959 because of 
interest in space programs, Mrs. Catherine Dryden Hock, NASA systems 
engineer, informed the New York Section of Society of Women Engi- 
neers. Between 1959 and 1963, number of women in Government 
grades of GS-12 and above in computer fields rose 790*/^ ; in mathe- 
matics and mathematical statistics, 137% : and in physical sciences, 
1229r. NASA's engineering force was 3% women. (NASA Release 
65-60) 
February 25: President Johnson visited NASA Headquarters, accompanied 
by Vice President Humphrey, for a briefing on the mariner iv project 
and to congratulate and express appreciation to NASA officials and mem- 
bers of the Mariner and Ranger project team. The President recalled 
that he had sponsored legislation in 1958 that had created NASA: "I 
think it is really incredible that we have come so far. It was only 
seven years ago this month that we were deliberating and debating and 
still seeking to come to grips with the realities of the .space age." Mr. 
Johnson told NASA officials that the ])eople of America and the whole 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 



93 




February 25: President Lyndon B. Johnson is briefed on the Mariner mission at NASA 
Headquarters. Left to right, James E. Webb, nasa Administrator, President Johnson, 
Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey, and Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, nasa Deputy Admin- 
istrator. 



world were "deep in your debt." (NASA Announcement 65-43; Simons, 
Wash. Post, 2 26 65: Sehlstedt. Bait. Sun. 2/26 65: Young, Chic. 
Trih., 2/26/65; Mohr, NYT, 2/26/65, 10) 
February 25: usaf launched Thor-Agena D launch vehicle from Western 
Test Ranse with unidentified satellite pavload. ( U.S. Aeron. & Space 
Act., 1965, 135) 

• ComSatCorp announced decision of DOD that continuation of its present 

program to secure satellite services, presumably with Ford Motor Co.'s 
Philco Corp. Div., was superior to that proposed by ComSatCorp. The 
satellites involved would make up "initial" DOD system; ComSatCorp 
might bid to supply advanced satellites. ComSatCorp hoped its 
separate commercial system would be afforded some DOD nonsecret 
traffic. Some military men had argued that, since the Government 
would build its own system for secret communications, it should also 
use these facilities for nonsecret transmissions. This had caused Com- 
SatCorp to raise the question of the degree to which the Government 
should enter the communications business in competition with private 
enterprise. President Johnson had established policy in a report to 
Congress, "... a system tailored for the military's exclusive use, does 
not alter the policy under which . . . the Government will use the 
commercial satellite system for the transmission of the bulk of its 
traffic between the United States and various overseas areas." {WSJ, 
2/25/65) 

• NASA had granted an exclusive patent license, the second it ever issued, 

to Exactel Instrument Co. for a "line-following servo-system." The 
device, which "remembers" a given graph curve, could measure one 
characteristic of a physical situation and read out resulting charac- 
teristics in specific quantities. President of Exactel, Eugene A. Glassey 
had invented the servo-system while an employee at NASA Ames Re- 



94 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

search Center. Issuance of the exclusive license on a Government- 
owned patent to a private individual was part of NASA's continuing 
effort to make aeronautical and space inventions available for com- 
mercial development as rapidly as possible. The only previous ex- 
clusive licensing was to Union Carbide in 1963 for a nickel-based alloy 
invented by a NASA scientist, (arc Release 65-6) 
February 25: NASA Kennedy Space Center awarded a Sll million cost-plus- 
award-fee supplement to the Chrysler Corp. for support services on 
the Saturn I and Saturn IB space programs. Chrysler would provide 
prelaunch, launch, and post-launch services at Complexes 34 and 37 
through June 30, 1968. ( KSC Release 43-650) 

• dod's Hibex, the high acceleration experimental booster, was successfully 

tested at White Sands Missile Range, N.Mex. {M&R, 3/8/65, 11) 

• Douglas DC-9, a twin-jet airliner, made its maiden flight. The short-to- 

medium-range transport, expected to benefit smaller airports, flew from 
Long Beach, Calif., to Edwards afb in two hours and 13 min. The 
plane had a wing span of 87 ft. and used about 3,500 ft. of the run- 
way in taking off. Its cabin could accommodate up to 90 passengers. 
The DC-9 was expected to go into passenger service early next year. 
Orders or options for 121 of the planes had been received by Douglas, 
of which 24 were placed by Eastern Air Lines. (UPI, NYT, 2/26/65, 
58; 2/26/65, 37) 

• Dr. C. Stark Draper, head of the Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics 

at MIT, and Theodore C. Achilles, a former ambassador to Peru and 
presently vice chairman of the executive committee of the Atlantic 
Council of the U.S., were sworn in as consultants to NASA. Dr. Draper 
would be a technical consultant on a part-time basis; AchiUes would 
be available for consultation on NASA's university program, (nasa 
Release 65-66) 
February 26: PEGASUS I satellite, launched by NASA Feb. 16, was function- 
ing normally and recording information to ground stations on the size 
and frequency of meteoroid "strikes" or impacts on all three sensor 
panel groups. Scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center said the 
number of penetrations of the panels was not greatly different from the 
expected level. PEGASUS I had a wing-like structure 96 ft. long and 
14 ft. in width, offering more than 2.300 square ft. of area instrumented 
to detect collisions with meteoritic particles. The basic information 
on the penetrating power and frequency of meteoroids was needed for 
the design of future spacecraft. In addition, data on temperature, 
power levels, and the intensity of radiation were being received. The 
latter were also as predicted, (msfc Release 65-45) 

• COSMOS LViii satellite, containing "scientific equipment," was orbited by 

the U.S.S.R. Initial orbital data: apogee, 659 km. (409 mi.) ; perigee, 
581 km. (360 mi.); period, 96.8 min.; inclination, 65°. Equipment 
was said to be functioning normally. (Krasnaya Zvezda, 2/27/65, 1, 
ATSS-T Trans.) 

• X-15 No. 1 was flown by pilot John McKay (nasa) to 153,600-ft. altitude 

at a maximum speed of 3,750 mph (mach 5.40). Purpose was to 
check out landing gear revised recently, give pilot experience at higher 
altitude, and get apparatus data, (nasa x-15 Proj. Off.; X-15 Flight 
Log) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 95 

February 26: Dr. Frank K. Edmonson, chairman of the Astronomy Dept. 
at the Univ. of Indiana, said ranger viii photographs had suggested that 
the moon miglit have features in common with the Karst limestone 
formation in southern Indiana and that a request for aerial photographs 
of the Karst region had been made, ranger viii's pictures showed that 
the Sea of Tranquillity on the moon was pocked and mottled by innum- 
erable depressions. Surface of the Karst limestone layers was similarly 
pocked with sink holes. Dr. Gerard Kuiper, chief experimenter for 
the RANGER VIII project, and Dr. Harold C. Urey of the Univ. of Cali- 
fornia at La Jolla proposed that these "dimples" were produced by 
drainage of material through holes in their bottoms. (NYT, 2/26/65, 
10) 

• Col. John H. Glenn, Jr., was sworn in as a consultant to NASA by Admini- 

strator James E. Webb. His duties would include taking part in con- 
ferences, making speeches in the U.S. and abroad, and checking on 
projects under way. (nasa Release 65-67) 

• Joseph Campbell, Comptroller General, reported to Congress that the 

decision of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to lease rather than 
buy two electric substations from the Potomac Electric Power Co. had 
resulted in $174,000 of unnecessary costs thus far. Campbell ex- 
plained, "We believe that the Center failed to make this determination 
because of the Administration's failure to provide guidelines to its 
employees, setting forth pertinent factors necessary for consideration 
in making decisions whether to lease or purchase property." He added, 
however, that NASA had agreed with gao findings and would purchase 
substations as provided for in contract. The matter was nevertheless 
reported to Congress because it "further illustrates that significant un- 
necessary costs can be and are being incurred," when agencies do not 
make complete lease-versus-purchase studies. (Wash. Post, 2/28/65) 

• Use of ComSatCorp's Early Bird communications satellite was subject of 

a London meeting between U.S. and European participants in the 
program. A general understanding was reached that once commercial 
service started, television networks could use the satellite system outside 
peak transatlantic telephone hours. The peak traffic hours were 
generally considered from about 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. est. Exceptions 
could be made if major news stories broke in Europe during this 
period. (Farnsworth. NYT, 2/27/65, 51) 

• Report of experiments by the European Organization for Nuclear Re- 

search indicated there was no fifth force in nature as had been pro- 
posed, independently, by two groups of American physicists to explain 
some unexpected experimental results. The four forces in nature were 
gravity, electromasnetism, and weak and strong nuclear forces, 
meuters, NYT, 2/28/65, 69) 
February 27: Thiokol Chemical Corp. successfully static-fired its 156-in.- 
dia., lOO-ft.-long solid propellant rocket motor — the largest yet fired — ■ 
for 64 sec. The 900,000-lb. motor developed over three million lbs. of 
thrust, consumed over 800.000 lbs. of propellant, and generated tem- 
peratures up to 6,000°F. The solid propellant was encased in a half- 
inch-thick steel and nickel casing which apparently escaped damage. 
Also left intact was the 10-ton, 20-ft.-tall nozzle which rested on top of 
the 12-stories-deep testing pit. The motor was fired below ground 
level. Primary objective of the test was to validate design of the 



96 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

nozzle for use later on the 260-in. motor. A secondary mission was to 
check out the propellant processing system which would be used in the 
larger motor. The test was part of the large-solid demonstration 
program currently managed by NASA's Lewis Research Center. (Shipp. 
Atlanta J /Const.^ 2 28 '65^ M&R. 3 8 65, 16) 

February 27: NASA announced it had approved a grant of 8100.000 for 
establishment of a Technical Utilization Program at the Univ. of 
Minnesota. Along with funds to be provided by private business 
concerns, the NASA grant would support the development and experi- 
mental testing of new ways in which developments in space science 
and technology could be rapidly transferred to and assimilated by 
business and industry. North Star Research and Development In- 
stitute would participate in part of the program. ( NASA Release 
65-69) 

February 28: The first industry-produced Saturn I first stage (s-i-8) 
arrived at Cape Kennedy aboard the NASA barge Promise after a six- 
day trip from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The stage, which 
was 80 ft. long and 21.5 ft. in diameter, had been built by the Chrysler 
Corp. (msfc Release 65-46; ap, NYT, 3/1/65, 12) 

• Louis Walter, gsfc geochemist, told ap reporter his research with tektites 

indicated lunar surface may be sand-like. The key to this conclusion 
lay in Walter's discovery of the presence of coesite in tektites. believed 
to be particles of the moon sent into space when meteorites impact the 
lunar surface. Coesite, also found around the world at known meteorite 
craters and sites believed to have sustained meteoritic impacts, is a 
form of silicon dioxide — a major constituent of sand — produced under 
high pressure. "If we accept the lunar origin of tektites. this would 
prove or indicate that the parent material on the moon is something 
like the welded tuft that we find in Yellowstone Park. Iceland, New 
Zealand, and elsewhere," according to Walter. Welded tuft was said 
to have some of the qualities of beach sand, (ap, Chic. Trib., 3/1/65) 

• Three Univ. of California ( Berkeley ) scientists concluded on the 

basis of their laboratory studies that Dr. William M. Sinton's 
spectroscopic evidence of organic matter on Mars was not valid. Dr. 
Sinton of Lowell Observatory had made spectroscopic studies of Mars 
in 1959 that suggested infrared radiation from dark portions of Mars 
was comparable to that produced by some terrestrial plant life. The 
California chemists — James S. Shirk. William A. Haseltine. and George 
C. Pimentel — concluded Dr. Sinton had detected vaporized "deuterated 
water" ( H_.0 plus heavy hydrogen — deuterium ( rather than plant- 
produced molecules. fuPi, S.F. Chron., 2/28/65) 

• NATO officials were examining preliminary bids for a $310 million NATO 

Air Defense Ground Environment (Nadge) system that would be used 
to protect continental Europe from enemy aircraft. Nadge was ex- 
pected to be an improved version of the Sage system that had been 
used to defend the United States. At last December's NATO ministerial 
meeting, it was agreed that each country be guaranteed Nadge sub- 
contracts equal to the amount the country was contributing to the 
program. The cost sharing formula for Nadge was based on the con- 
tributive capacity of the member countries; the advantage accruing to 
the user country: and the economic benefit to the countries in which 
the installations would be placed. Under this formula the U.S. was 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 97 

expected to contribute 30.85% of the cost of the program. (Smith, 
A^yr, 2 28 65, 12F) 

February 28: Prospecting for high-grade silver could be done, according to 
Thor H. Kiilsgaard. Chief of the Resources Research Branch of the 
U.S. Geological Survey, by using an infrared system mounted on air- 
craft. He explained that deposits of silver in the earth were associated 
with hot water and that areas of heat flow could be detected by the 
infrared devices. If the heat zones conformed with mineral zones or 
faults, silver might be present. (Sci. Serv., NYT, 2/ 28 65, 64) 

During February: The prime and backup crews for the upcoming GT-3 
three-orbital mission underwent parachute and egress training exer- 
cises. Parachute training, with the astronauts in space suits, was con- 
ducted in Galveston Bay. Tex. Egress training from a submerged 
Gemini boilerplate spacecraft was conducted in a large tank at Elling- 
ton. AFB. ( Msc Roundup. 2 17/65, 2) 

• Atlantic Research Corp. announced the Frangible Areas meteorological 

sounding rocket, developed for USAF, had successfully passed flight tests 
at the Western Test Range. {M&R, 3/8/65, 11) 

• New York Times continued its editorial opposition to the national ob- 

jective for Project Apollo of landing a man on the moon in this decade. 
On Feb. 19, an editorial drew from the two successful major launch- 
ings of the week ( ranger viii and saturn i sa-9 ) the lesson that the 
kinds of experiments on these flights ( lunar photography of RANGER 
VIII and PEGASUS i micrometeoroid detection satellite on Saturn I) 
proved there were many unmeasured perils in space and that "In the 
face of these uncertainties, the American space program ought to retain 
maximum flexibility of timing, rather than try at all costs to achieve 
the artificial goal of a manned lunar landing by 1970." 

On Feb. 22, following the successful conclusion of the RANGER viil 
lunar photography mission, another editorial praised the accomplish- 
ment, then noted that the Ranger series was not providing all of the 
answers to lunar questions critical to the Apollo program, and con- 
cluded: "The two successful Ranger shots, however, make clear that 
much valuable information can be gathered about the earth's natural 
satellite by relatively cheap instrument-carrying rockets that do not risk 
human lives. This demonstration, and the continuing uncertainties 
about matters essential for a safe manned round trip to the moon, 
strengthen still more the case for making progress slowly, without any 
arbitrary deadline, on Project Apollo." (NYT, 2/19/65, 34; 2/22/65, 
20) 

• A warning that "In looking for life on Mars we could establish for 

ourselves the reputation of being the greatest Simple Simons of all 
time" came from Dr. Philip H. Abelson in an editorial in Science. 
Dr. Abelson was editor of the magazine and director of the 
Carnegie Institution's Geophysical Laboratory. He said he did 
not believe that life, particularly life resembling that on earth, would 
be found on Mars and proposed "a few inexpensive experiments" on 
earth to save years, billions of dollars, and the possibility of "con- 
siderable eventual disappointment" if the search for life on Mars should 
prove fruitless. 

Attempts to sterilize spacecraft to prevent them from carrying earth 
organisms to Mars might add "many years and billions of dollars" to 



98 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

the cost, the editorial said. It suggested, instead, careful selection of 
experiments to be sent to Mars and "relatively inexpensive studies here 
on earth" to determine whether sterilization were really necessary. 
(Clark, NYT, 2/13/65; Wash. Post, 2/13/65) 
During February: Dr. Leo Steg. manager of General Electric Co.'s Space 
Sciences Laboratory, Missile and Space Div., was named Engineer of 
the Year — 1964. He was cited for outstanding contributions to the 
advancement of space science and the engineering profession. The 
award was presented by an amalgamation of 41 societies during the 
1965 National Engineers' Week in Philadelphia. (Av. Wk., 2/1/65, 
13) 

• NASA's contributions to the technology of inorganic coatings were de- 

scribed in a new technology survey (NASA SP-5014) published by the 
NASA Technology Utilization Division. They were thermophototropic 
coatings; thermal control coatings for space vehicles; solid lubrication 
coatings; thermal insulation coatings; methods of applying coatings to 
substrates; measurement of coating optical properties; and refractory 
metal oxidation resistant coatings, (nasa Release 65-39, 65-44, and 
65-61) 

• GAO saved the military services a total of S254.7 million, AEC S3 

million, and NASA S727.000 last year. This information was re- 
leased in a 251-page document released by GAO in addition to the 
GAO Administrator's Annual Report to Congress. {M&R, 2/15/65, 9) 

• Nikita Khrushchev, in his first known public appearance in Moscow since 

his removal from power in October 1964, visited the cosmonauts' 
monument on the outskirts of the city, Reuters reported. A militiaman 
on duty at the monument said: "Yes, it's quite true. Nikita 
Sergeyevich visited the monument and spent about 30 minutes." After 
the Soviet Union's three-man orbital mission, voskhod I, last October, 
Khrushchev had been scheduled to welcome the cosmonauts to Moscow 
and to dedicate the monument, but his sudden retirement intervened. 
(Reuters, Waller, Wash. Post, 2/22/65, 1) 

• France's Emeraude rocket, first stage of the Diamant booster, was success- 

fully launched from Hammaguir Range, Algeria, after three failures. 
Its liquid-fueled engine provided 62.000-lbs. thrust for 88 sec. Twelve 
Emeraude launchings were originally scheduled. Second and third 
stages of the Diamant launch vehicle, both solid fueled, had already 
been successfully tested. No attempt had been made to launch the 
three stages linked together. (Av. Wk., 3/22/65, 18; M&R, 3/22/65, 
9) 

• William Cohen, Chief of Solid Propulsion Experimental Motors in 

NASA's OART, discussed the great strides in large solid-propellant rocket 
motors taken in the past few years, in Astronautics & Aeronautics 
article. Among the new technologies he mentioned were maraging 
steels, ablative nozzles, vector control, and the cast-cure-test facility. 
Looking toward the future, Cohen said among the advanced concepts 
associated with large solids showing promise of success were reusable 
motor cases, insulation, and nozzle component; and failure-warning 
systems. {A&A, 2/65, 42-16) 

• Cost and performance comparability of large solid-propellant rocket 

motors was topic of article by G.W.G. Van Winkle, Boeing 
Co., in Astronautics & Aeronautics. The information was based on 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 99 

research obtained in study made by Boeing for MSFC. In the 
same issue, Dr. Walter G. Berl of Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied 
Physic Laboratory discussed combustion instability in solid-propellant 
rocket motors. Four types of instability were listed, and the status 
of solutions to these problems was discussed. Dr. Berl concluded 
that it was "too much to expect that the always latent instability 
problem has been banished from the new propellants of the future. 
It is more likely that the most obvious troubles can be eliminated, 
partly through analysis, partly through recognition and exploitation of 
past trends. . . ." [A&A, 2/65, 48-61) 

During February: In a report titled "Federal Funds for Research, Develop- 
ment, and other Scientific Activities," National Science Foundation said 
DOD obligations for R&D increased each year from $2.3 billion in 1956 
to an estimated S7.5 billion in 1964. Although survey predicted a 
small decrease to $7.2 billion for 1965, the 10-yr. period showed a 
200% gain. Support to applied research accounted for about 22% of 
1965 R&D Defense funds, with 2 or 3% used for basic research; about 
75% went for development. Profit-making organizations had done 
most of dod's R&D during the 10 yrs., increasing from about 50% in 
1956 to 65% in 1965. The report added: "On the other hand, the re- 
lative share of Defense research and development performed intramu- 
rally decreased each year from about 40% in 1956 to 21% in 1963, 
but an increase to 25% was expected in 1965. . . ." (nsf Rpt. 65-13) 

• Experimental model isotopic thruster was tested at AEC Mound Labora- 
tory, using heat from radioactive decay of polonium 210. Mound 
Laboratory was continuing development of polonium 210 fuel forms 
and fuel encapsulating techniques for specific space applications. The 
isotopic small rocket engine, or thruster, concept envisions use of a 
radioisotope to heat hydrogen, which is expelled through a nozzle to 
produce low thrust. {Atomic Energy Programs, 1965, 149) 



March 1965 



March 1: NASA Administrator James E. Webb sent a letter to the House 
and Senate space committees outlining major reprograming of funds 
planned by NASA during the remainder of FY 1965. Webb said $13 
million had been allocated to large solid rockets in FY 1965 and noth- 
ing in the following year "due to the President's decision not to in- 
clude funds in the NASA '66 budget." Close-out costs for the large 
solids would amount to S8.5 million in addition to the S13 million 
already earmarked "and would yield no technical confirmation of the 
planned objectives." By adding another S5.3 million, "bringing the FY 
'65 funding to $26.8 million." NASA would "carry the Phase I program 
through to completion." Phase I called for the manufacture and 
firing of two "half-length" rockets 78 ft. long and 260 in. in 
diameter. Additional close-out funds were also granted to the other 
programs not included in the FY '66 budget: $2.15 million for Snap-o; 
$3 million for the M-1 engine. (Text; NASA Auth. Hearings [Part 
4], 279-88) 

• First Saturn V booster (s-ic-T) had been moved to static test stand at 

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to prove out its propulsion 
system. The 280,000-lb. stage, developed jointly by MSFC and Boeing 
Co., had two tanks with total capacity of 4,400,000 lbs. of liquid oxy- 
gen and kerosene, and five F-1 engines, each weighing ten tons, which 
provided total thrust of 7.5 million lbs. ( msfc Release 65^7; Mar- 
shall Star, 3/3/65, 1, 6) 

• Louis Walter, geochemist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, reported 

that of the 400 specimens received from "Operation Moon Harvest" 
none analyzed was a meteor or other non-earth fragment. It had been 
theorized that because of the low gravity of the moon, meteoroids 
striking the moon might dislodge fragments which would be attracted 
by earth's gravity, and that analysis of the fragments would provide 
important clues to composition of the moon. {Des Moines Register, 
3/2/65) 

• Dr. Mose L. Harvey, Director of the Univ. of Miami Center for Ad- 

vanced International Studies and history professor, was sworn in by 
NASA as part-time consultant in international affairs. Dr. Harvey also 
was a consultant to U.S. State Department's Policy Planning 
Council. (NASA Release 65-71) 

• JPl's Dr. Robert Nathan had developed computer system that was dou- 

bling resolution of Ranger lunar photographs. Picture data were tak- 
en directly from magnetic tape and digitized for insertion into an IBM 
7094, thereby bypassing kinescope response that had contributed to 
distortion of published Ranger pictures. Calibration data obtained 
before Ranger flight were used to remove noise and distortion which 

100 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 101 

brought "a dramatic increase in resolution." Craters became visible 
that were not seen in original pictures. [M&R, 3/1/65, 8) 
March 1: ComSatCorp announced delay of Early Bird synchronous satellite 
launch, previously targeted for end of March, because of decision to 
replace defective transistors and retest replacements. (ComSatCorp 
Release) 

• David Sarnoff. Chairman of RCA. accepting National Commander's 

Award for Distinguished Service, said at the American Legion's fifth 
annual Washington conference: "The same sense of mission that ignit- 
ed our young nation's Westward expansion a century ago should now 
be brought to bear in support of the President's space objectives. . . . 

"Leadership in space and in the communications art which is the 
key to mastery in space, translates itself today into political, military, 
economic and social leadership among the nations of the 
world. Technological leadership resembles a magnet which attracts 
other forces. When it is weakened, these forces are drawn into other 
orbits." 

President Johnson sent a message endorsing the award and praising 
Mr. Sarnoff's achievements "on behalf of a grateful nation." {NYT, 
3/2/65) 

• Editorializing in Missiles and Rockets, William Coughlin suggested a 

"useful mission" for which ranger ix might be adapted: "Our un- 
solicited proposal to NASA is that Ranger be employed to return to 
Earth photographs of Earth from space. Satellites have told us the 
Earth is 'pear-shaped' rather than round and that it draws a perhaps 
invisible but comet-like tail after it through space. Photographs of 
the entire Earth globe as seen from space would have high scientific 
value. As a propaganda triumph, it would be unequalled. . . ." 
M&R, 3/1/65, 46) 

• President Johnson, addressing 40 winners of annual Westinghouse 

science talent search, said science and politics should strive to "serve 
humanity." He added that this country was "very anxious to produce 
all the scientists that we can," and expressed hope that scientists would 
learn about government and politics. Larry Dean Howard of Canoga 
Park, Calif., won first prize for having developed a method of ac- 
curately defining the orbits of earth satellites through the use of 
differential calculus. Prize was a $7,500 Westinghouse scholarship. 
(AP, NYT, 3/1/65; Loftus, NYT, 3/2/65, 14) 

• USAF conducted first inland Minuteman ICBM flight test, launching the 

missile from a silo near Newell, N. Dak. {M&R, 3/8/65) 
March 1-3: The aiaa Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting was held in Los An- 
geles. 

Maj. Gen. 0. J. Ritland, afsc's Deputy Commander for Space, said 
in address that focus on manned space events often caused us to lose 
sight of the numerous space missions adequately performed by un- 
manned spacecraft. Although much of unmanned spacecraft activity 
had directly supported manned missions, "unmanned space technology 
has benefitted only indirectly from manned space effort." He predict- 
ed that future manned missions might reverse this relationship and 
cited the objectives of the USAF Mol program as an effort to strength- 
en and expand technology for all space programs. Mol program 
would develop technology to improve manned space capability; dem- 



102 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

onstrate servicing by man of large structures in space; conduct basic 
scientific and general technological manned experimentation; deter- 
mine biological response of man in space for extended periods. Gen- 
eral Ritland said: "With a laboratory in space, astronaut-scientists or 
engineers can assemble, test, and observe the operation of many sub- 
systems or components in the actual space environment. They can 
observe equipment failures on the spot and will be able to make neces- 
sary replacements or repairs. I have spent many hours . . . looking 
over space flight data — attempting to determine exactly what failed 
and why it failed. The time is near when we can overcome many of 
these frustrations and uncertainties by use of the astronaut to answer 
such questions or to relay data to the ground for detailed analy- 
sis." (afsc Release) 

Discussing future requirements for military satellite communications 
systems, Samuel P. Brown, Technical Director, U.S. Army Satellite 
Communications Agency, said: "The feasibility of gaining significant 
improvements in this area appears very good based on the lessons 
learned from the syncom spin stabilized satellite and the approaches 
planned for the dod's Initial Defense Communications Satellite Project 
and NASA's Applications Technology Satellite Program. From these 
and other programs is expected to evolve techniques for spacecraft 
stabilization which will permit the increase of satellite antenna gains 
by an order of magnitude." (Text) 

NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Sciences and Appli- 
cations Edgar M. Cortright said the reason for a civilian and a mili- 
tary space program lay in fundamental differences in the respective 
roles of NASA and DOD: "nasa's role is to explore and exploit space for 
peaceful purposes. The dod's role is to, stay prepared to defend the 
United States and its allies, operating in any medium that furthers this 
end. The present space program with its great breadth would never 
have evolved under the dod, which must necessarily devote its full 
attention to its awesome military responsibilities. . . . 

"Fortunately, the two space programs are mutually supporting and 
blend together quite well. They use common equipment . . . and 
draw on the same scientific and industrial base . . . numerous 
projects are of great mutual interest. Top management in both agen- 
cies devotes substantial effort to insure close cooperation and to mini- 
mize duplication." (Text) 

JPl's Dan Schneiderman, project manager for NASA's Mariner pro- 
gram, told AIAA delegates that data from MARINER iv's solar plasma 
probe, which ceased normal functioning ten days after the Nov. 28, 
1964, launching, had become understandable to scientists through anal- 
ysis of a component failure in the plasma probe. Telemetry from a 
second instrument indicated that a portion of the ionization chamber 
experiment, which measured radiation in space, was not operating 
properly. Schneiderman said the new failure was in the Geiger- 
Mueller tube. Schneiderman estimated that based on nitrogen con- 
sumption to date, there was enough gas available to keep MARINER 
IV stablized for about six years. He said there had been no loss of 
lock with Canopus since a special command was transmitted to the 
probe Dec. 17, 1964. (nasa Release 65-73) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 103 

March 1-3: The first NASA University Program Review Conference in Kan- 
sas City, Mo., assembled over 400 university representatives interested 
in learning how their institutions could qualify for NASA grants for 
space-related research or expand present programs. Dr. Thomas L. K. 
Smull, Director of the NAS4 Office of Grants and Research Contracts, 
reported that 200 universities were participating in the program, that 
some of the grants were for specific projects, some in university sus- 
taining programs, and others for the support of predoctoral 
candidates. He said that while NASA was "mission oriented," its job 
was not limited to putting a man on the moon: "Its objective is the 
expansion of human knowledge of phenomena in the atmosphere and 
space. One problem is how the academic community can communi- 
cate with NASA." ( McCoy, Kansas City Star, 3/1/65) 

In a luncheon address. Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate 
Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology, urged educa- 
tors not to strangle "the holy curiosity of inquiry." He said the suc- 
cess of the U.S. space program depended largely on "formation of 
ideas by individuals working as individuals in universities." (Text) 

Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo.) told the Conference that the U.S. 
must "widen the scope of man's imagination, trample rough-shod over 
intellectually inhibiting barriers and stimulate to their fullest potential 
the mental powers of young and reasonably young Americans if the 
United States were to achieve and maintain preeminence in 
space." Symington emphasized the need for communication of new 
knowledge. (Kansas City Times, 3/3/65) 

Dr. Willard F. Libby, Director of Univ. of California's Institute of 
Geophysics and Planetary Physics, reviewed activities supported by 
NASA multidisciplinary grant: "In the three years UCLA has adminis- 
tered [the . . . NASA grant, we have aided in bringing thirty-seven 
visiting scientists to this campus for short periods of time. This grant 
has supported fourteen visiting researchers for periods of up to one 
year. Through the use of these funds and program enrichment funds 
from the NASA Predoctoral Traineeship grant, we have aided in bring- 
ing seven new faculty members to this campus to augment the existing 
faculty in space-related fields. . . . Finally, we have made over fifty 
sub-grants to faculty for new starts on space-related research in var- 
ious areas — Biology and Medicine, Physical Sciences, Engineering, 
and Business Administration." (Text) 

• More than 250 scholars and theologians met in New York to discuss 
means of attaining world peace and "to lay groundwork for a 
theology for the dawning age of cybernation." Moral and tech- 
nological implications of Pope John XXlll's encyclical Pacem in Ter- 
ris were studied. Meeting was sponsored by Center for the Study of 
Democratic Institutions and the Fellowship of Reconciliation. (NYT, 
3/2/65,28; /VFr, 3/3/65. 24) 

March 2: Two seconds after lift-off. NASA's Atlas-Centaur 5, carrying a 
dummy Surveyor spacecraft, exploded and burned on Launch Pad 
36-B at Cape Kennedv. Failure occurred when two of the three Atlas 
engines shut off simultaneously due to closing of a fuel-line 
valve. The 150-ton. 108-ft. rocket rose three ft. from the pad, then fell 
back to the ground and exploded. Although burning propellant cov- 



104 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

ered most of the launch complex, no injuries to personnel were 
reported. Damage to the launching pad was estimated at S5 million. 

Objectives of the Atlas-Centaur test had been to test the ability of its 
guidance system and hydrogen-powered second stage to send a payload 
the size of the 2.150-lb. Surveyor on a precise path to the moon and to 
evaluate how well the mock-up Surveyor spacecraft would withstand 
the stresses of launching. (AP. Phil. Eve. Bull, 3/2/65; UPI, Chic. 
Trib., 3/2/65; ap, NYT, 3/3/65; Av. Wk., 3/8/65) 
March 2: NASA invited international scientific community to propose re- 
search experiments and design studies for upcoming missions, primarily 
those scheduled between 1967 and 1970. and to propose space investi- 
gations not presently scheduled. In addition, they were invited to sug- 
gest experiments ( 1 ) involving the design and construction of entire 
spacecraft and (2) involving special characteristics or requirements 
calling for the development of a new Explorer spacecraft or for sched- 
uling of additional missions for Explorers already developed. Pro- 
posals would be evaluated on scientific merit, technological feasibility, 
competence and experience of investigator, assurance of institutional 
support, and scientific adequacy of apparatus suggested. Proposal 
deadline: Jan. 1, 1966. (nasa Release 65-70) 

• In a letter of explanation to Congress, NASA discussed priorities in the 

FY 1966 budget: ". . . As the President pointed out when he sub- 
mitted the budget to the Congress, 'It is a budget of priorities. It 
provides for what we must do, but not for all we would like to do.' In 
assessing priorities and the most urgent national needs, the 260-inch 
solid propellant rocket program, the M-1 liquid hydrogen-oxygen 
rocket engine capable of providing lYo million pounds of thrust, and 
the SNAP-o nuclear electric power generating system to provide 35 
kilowatts of electrical power in space could not be supported in the 
Fiscal Year 1966 budget. 

". . . [nasa] is, therefore, preparing plans for reprogramming Fis- 
cal Year 1965 funds so as to logically phase out these program activi- 
ties in such a way as to obtain as much technical information as is 
possible for future use. . . . Every effort is being made to achieve 
the greatest possible benefit from the funds already invested." (Text) 

• Prof. Thomas Gold, Cornell Univ. astronomer, discussing RANGER 

VIII photographs in an interview with John Lear, World Book Ency- 
clopedia Science Service, Inc., suggested that long, narrow rills and 
irregular depressions could be caused by moon's surface collapsing 
into crevasses opened by the movement of a glacier hidden beneath 
lunar dust. He attributed gently rounded shapes to a shifting of small 
particles by electrical forces which, on earth, were inhibited by 
atmosphere. Concerning the manned expedition. Gold indicated: 
"The presence of ice oceans could give rise to many problems. But 
once these were solved, the ice itself could be mined and used to make 
hydrogen for fuel for rockets returning to Earth." Referring to the 
electrically-charged particles: "Many particles would be dislodged me- 
chanically by the landing of a spacecraft or the footstep of a 
man. Once loose, the dust would jump in response to electrical attrac- 
tion or repulsion. If particles landed on the astronaut's visor, brush- 
ing wouldn't remove them but would instead intensify the electrical 
charges affecting their behavior." Dr. Gold recommended more re- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 105 

search on possible control of these electrical forces. (Lear, Houston 
Chron., 3/2/65; Ind. Star, 3/7/65; wbe Sci. Serv.) 
March 2: A $1,366,511 contract for construction of a high temperature heat 
load testing facility at NASA Flight Research Center was awarded to 
Santa Fe Engineers, Inc. The facility would be capable of producing 
temperatures up to 3.000 °F on small isolated areas of aircraft; larger 
areas could be heated up to about 600°. Contract was awarded by 
Army Corps of Engineers, which was administering it for NASA, (frc 
Release 9-65) 

• A Sl,260.000 contract to build an addition to Central Computer Facility 

at SHdell, La., had been awarded by NASA Marshall Space FHght 
Center to Quinn Construction Co.. New Orleans, La. The computer 
facility was used to support the Michoud Operations in New Orleans 
and tiie Mississippi Test Operations, Hancock County, Miss, (msfc 
Release 65^8) 

• In a Christian Science Monitor editorial, Leonard Schwartz posed the 

problem of ''how the capability represented by manned orbiting space 
stations can be used to enhance national security and promote 
peaceful-scientific uses of outer space." Schwartz suggested formation 
of an inspection agency — International Space Patrol — to neutralize 
military potential represented by manned space stations and to ensure 
usage of outer space for peaceful purposes only. He pointed out that 
Vice President Humphrey, one of the first proponents of an arms con- 
trol agency and an international space agency, was now Chairman of 
National Aeronautics and Space Council, on which sat the Secretaries 
of Defense and State and administrators of AEC and NASA. This posi- 
tion provided him with "an appropriate vantage to supervise their 
arms control capabilities in order to reach a national decision which 
would reconcile control with security and scientific use of outer 
space." (CSM, 3/2/65, 4) 
March 2-3: In testimony before the House Committee on Science and As- 
tronautics' Subcommittee on Advanced Research and Technology, Ed- 
mond C. Buckley. Director of NASA's Office of Tracking and Data Ac- 
quisition, said that during 1965, data processing facilities would 
handle 70.000.000 data points per day and that there would be an 
increase to 200.000.000 data points per day in 1966. He continued: 
"In fiscal year 1966. effort under this category will be directed toward 
developing and evaluating techniques for building up the existing te- 
lemetry data reduction capability to match the increasing require- 
ments. In order to reduce this tremendous amount of data in an 
efficient and reliable manner, new techniques must be evaluated for 
obtaining this additional capability. 

"The heart of this prototype system is the Satellite Telemetry Auto- 
matic Reduction System (Stars). The development program for this 
system was initiated in prior years and is planned to continue through 
fiscal year 1968. The Stars equipment presently includes automatic 
editing, decommutation, and calibration of the telemetry data. Func- 
tions in addition to these will be included in the prototype equipment 
as the developmental subsystems become available. . . ." (Testi- 
mony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 1-87) 



106 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 3: nasa's pegasus i meteoroid-detecting satellite recorded 19 wing 
punctures in its 3 to 4 million mi. travels. Earth-transmitted electron- 
ic signals might have been the cause of several recorded hits, but some 
were definitely meteoroid particles. PEGASUS I orbited the earth every 
97 min. (ap. NYT, 3/4/65, 50; ap, Wash. Post, 3/4/65) 

• NASA, at dod's request, had halted syncom ii's westward drift at 68° 

east longitude over the Indian Ocean. Under the direction of project 
managers at nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center, the command signals 
had been sent from the Syncom station in Salisbury, Australia, begin- 
ning Feb. 20 and ending Feb. 24. No future major locational correc- 
tions were anticipated; SYNCOM ii should remain in same general area 
indefinitely, (nasa Release 65-72) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb said at a press conference held in 

conjunction with the NASA University Program Review Conference in 
Kansas City, Mo., that the space research program would cost $35 
billion over a ten-year period. At the end of that time, NASA expected 
to have accomplished (1) 12 to 15 flights of the Saturn V, (2) 5,000 
hrs. of astronaut flight time, and (3) the capability of lifting 240,000 
lbs. from the earth and orbiting 90,000 lbs. {Kansas City Times, 
3/3/65) 

• Gen, Bernard A. Schriever (usaf), addressing American Management 

Assn. conference in New York City, announced recent approval and 
initation of usaf Spacecraft Technology and Advanced Reentry Tests 
program (Start), "a four-fold research spacecraft program to develop 
unmanned test vehicles capable of maneuvering to a precision re- 
covery site after reentering from orbit." In a Baltimore Sun editorial, 
Albert Sehlstedt, Jr., said that the Martin Co. had designed for this 
program a new, wingless V-shaped plane, maneuverable in atmosphere 
because its shape would provide aerodynamic lift. The program 
would: (1) launch the sv-5 by Atlas booster, (2) continue Asset 
experiments to test vehicles entering atmosphere at very high speeds, 
(3) study effects of vehicles passing through atmosphere at slower 
speeds, and (4) relate to allied studies that had not yet led to specific 
designs for identifiable reentry vehicles. (Text; AFSC Release 31.65; 
Sehlstedt, Bait. 5an, 3/4/65) 

• Rep. J. Edward Roush (D-Ind.), addressing the House, cited the 1965 

National Science Foundation Report to the House Subcommittee on 
Science, Research and Development of the House Committee on 
Science and Astronautics, which pointed out the heavy concentration 
of Government research contracts in New York, California, and 
Massachusetts. "One-half of the 50 states have 96.78 percent of all 
the funds listed for the various States. The remaining 3.22 percent is 
shared by the other 25 states," the report continued. Roush main- 
tained that more equitable distribution of Federal funds would alle- 
viate economic depression in many areas. {CR, 3/3/65, 3895) 
March 4: nasa's oso ii satellite, which completed its first month in orbit 
at 11:36 a.m. est, had circled earth 419 times and daily returned about 
7 mi. of tape-recorded data, NASA reported. Designed to provide de- 
tailed information on solar x-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet rays, 
oso II was functioning normally except for failure of the Harvard 
College Observatory ultraviolet scanning spectrometer and for sporadic 
return of data from the spectroheliograph portion of Naval Research 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 107 

Laboratory coronagraph. Earlier problems with data transmissions 
from GSFC ultraviolet spectrometer had been resolved. (NASA Release 
65-74) 
March 4: NASA's OGO I had received ground-administered "shock treat- 
ments" to correct faulty inverter. Continued malfunctioning of in- 
verter, which supplied power for rotation of solar panels to maintain 
proper angle to the sun, would have shortened OGO I's lifetime for lack 
of electric power. All other systems were functioning normally ex- 
cept attitude control. OGO I was still spin-stabilized in orbit; ap- 
parently horizon scanners were obscured by experiment boom only 
partially deployed. 19 of the 20 scientific experiments were returning 
usable scientific data. (NASA Release 65-75) 

• U.S. -Mexican agreement for operation of NASA tracking station at Guay- 

mas. Mexico, had been extended to 1970, NASA announced. The sta- 
tion would be used to track Project Gemini and Project Apollo. The 
two Governments also agreed to cooperate on meteorological sounding 
programs, (nasa Release 65-76) 

• Milton B. Ames, Jr., Director of nasa Space Vehicle Research and Tech- 

nical Div.. told the House Committee on Science and Astronautics' 
Subcommittee on Space Sciences and Applications that lightweight, 
flexible plastic baffles had proved more efficient for controUing fuel 
"sloshing" in launch vehicle's propellant tanks than heavy metal 
baffles. He said plastic baffles could also serve to prevent leakage of 
propellant gas used in fuel-pumping during w'eightlessness. (Text; 
NASA Auth. Hearings, 133-50) 

• Dr. Maurice Goldhaber. Director of AEc's Brookhaven (N.Y.) Laborato- 

ry, testifying before a subcommittee of the Joint Senate-House Atomic 
Energy Committee, announced discovery of the "antideuteron," largest 
particle of antimatter yet known to be produced on earth. Antimatter 
consisted of various subatomic particles which could annihilate their 
particular opposite number if they struck them. Goldhaber later told 
newsmen that scientists had reported observing occasional particles of 
antimatter running earthward from outer space. "It could be that 
somewhere else in the universe there is an 'anticosmos' that occasional- 
ly leaks particles to the earth." (ap, Louisville Courier-Journal, 
3/4/65) 

• Basing his judgment on successful Feb. 27 firing of Thiokol's 156-in. 

solid propellant rocket motor, Harold W. Ritchey, President of Thiokol 
Chemical Corp., predicted U.S. could produce within 30 months a flya- 
ble rocket capable of generating 7 million lbs. of thrust. Brig. Gen. 
Joseph J. Bleymaier (USAF), Deputy Commander (Manned Systems) 
of USAF Space Systems Div., commented: ". . . this firing provides us 
with final proof that we can configure an all-sohd space booster of 
tremendous capability when the requirement presents itself." (Appel, 
NYT, 3/5/65) 

• Senate passed House-passed bill designating March 16 of each year as Dr. 

Robert Hutchings Goddard Day. iCR, 3/4/65, 4009, 4010) 

• Firefly, a new life detection instrument containing an extract of common 

firefly's lamp, had been developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center to help determine how far out and how much life existed in 
earth's atmosphere. This information would be essential to prevent 
contamination of sterilized probes enroute through earth's atmo- 



108 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

sphere. Firefly, containing luciferin. luciferase, and oxygen, would 
glow whenever it encountered adenosine triphosphate, a chemical es- 
sential to all life known on earth. Report of any encounter with live 
microorganisms would be immediate, precluding need for recovering 
detector, (gsfc Release G-5-65) 
March 4: Columbia. Harvard, and Yale Universities' medical libraries, 
aided by a National Science Foundation grant, were linked by a net- 
work of computers and telephone lines, thereby giving students instant 
access to medical literature in all collections. Frederick G. Kilgour, 
Yale medical librarian, foresaw elimination of duplicate material when 
telecommunication and photographic reproducing devices were added 
to the network. Pages from a book in one city could be furnished 
to student in another city and even reproduced for him to check out. 

(Phillips, yvyr, 3/5/65, i) 

March 5: NASA's mariner iv spacecraft, at 8:02 a.m., est, automatically 
switched from its omnidirectional antenna to fixed narrow beam anten- 
na to communicate with earth, thereby becoming radio-ready for the 
remaining 130 days of its Mars flight. JPL received report from 
tracking station at Canberra, Australia, of a prompt increase in signal 
strength, (nasa Release 65-78) 

• NASA Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched from White Sands, N. Mex., 

went to a peak altitude of 188.5 km. (117 mi.). Primary experimen- 
tal objective was to study the group of stars of Orion in the 
ultraviolet. Because of a failure with the attitude control system the 
experiment had no chance to operate. Experiment instrumentation 
was provided by Princeton Univ. Observatory, (nasa Rpt. srl) 

• In summary of activities of the NASA Office of Lunar and Planetary 

Programs in testimony before the House Committee on Science and 
Astronautics' Subcommittee on Space Sciences and Applications, Dr. 
Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and 
Applications, said: "The Ranger pictures represent our major scientific 
achievement in 1964. In addition to their direct value as new infor- 
mation, the subtle significance of these pictures toward increasing the 
value of other astronomical data is perhaps worthy of mention, as it 
may not be recognized generally. It is interesting to note how the 
information presented in the high resolution Ranger pictures has sent 
scientists scurrying back to the files of photographic plates taken years 
before to discover features which have remained unnoticed throughout 
the years. Some new interpretations of long recognized features have 
also been made possible by the close-up look obtained by 
Ranger." (Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 56-111) 

• At a House Science and Astronautics Committee budget hearing at NASA 

Manned Spacecraft Center, Rep. Olin Teague (D-Tex.) said he 
thought U.S. had about a 50-50 chance of landing a man on the moon 
by 1970 "if we get the money for our space team." Teague felt that 
America was ahead of Russia in development of scientific programs in 
space, but Russia was ahead in development of large boosters. Rep. 
Robert Casey (D-Tex.) stressed that the program would be considered 
a success even if 1970 schedules were not met. Rep. George Miller 
(D-Calif.), Chairman of House Science and Astronautics Committee, 
said that in 50 to 100 years, "people won't care if we made it in this 
decade, if the program itself is successful." Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 109 

MSC Director, said that the Apollo and Gemini spacecraft would not be 
limited to manned space program but also would be useful in other 
scientific programs. Teague expressed his disappointment at the mili- 
tary's failure to make greater use of NASA-developed spacecraft and 
boosters. He predicted that both Gemini and Apollo would be used 
some day as weapon carriers. (Maloney, Houston Post, 3/6/65) 
March 5: NASA had awarded one-year, cost-plus-incentive-award fee con- 
tracts to nine firms for engineering, fabrication, and institutional sup- 
port services to six laboratories and three offices of Marshall Space 
Flight Center. Cost of work was estimated at $58.5 million for one 
year and was primarily in support of the Saturn/Apollo launch vehicle 
program. The firms were Sperry Rand Corp., Brown Engineering 
Corp., Vitro Corp., Hayes International Corp., Northrop Corp., Spaco, 
Rust Engineering Co., RCA Service Co., and Management Services, 
Inc. (NASA Release 65-77; msfc Release) 

• USAF launched a Titan I ICBM from Vandenberg afb, Calif., as one of a 

series of tests to determine compatibility of the missile with various 
payloads. (ap, NYT, 3/6/65, 9; M&R, 3/15/65, 11) 

• General Dynamics Corp.'s F-111 fighter jet broke the sound barrier for 

the first time in a 1 hr. 32 min. flight test. Afterward, in quick-stop 
braking test, both tires in main landing gear blew out. (ap, NYT, 
3/6 /65'; 11) 

• Dr. Clyde W. Tombaugh of the New Mexico State Univ. Research Center 

was quoted in an editorial in the Kansas City Times as saying that the 
"canals" seen on Mars through telescopes were fractures of the planet's 
crust. He said: "The origin may be due to asteroids impacting on the 
surface, much as what happens when a stone hits the windshield of a 
car. I think I have the right answer. . . ." (McCoy, Kansas City 
Times, 3/5/65) 

• West Germany was waging vigorous campaign by letter, circular, and 

word-of-mouth to persuade German technicians to leave their jobs in 
Egyptian aircraft and rocket industry. The campaign could be result 
of recent arrests in Cairo of several West German citizens on espio- 
nage charges. { Olson, NYT, 3/6/65, 7 ) 

• Fred P. Strother, in charge of requirements for Boy Scout merit badges, 

announced that details of a space exploration merit badge were being 
worked out with nasa. ( NYT, 3/6/65, 27 ) 

March 6: John W. Findlay, Deputy Director at the National Radio As- 
tronomy Observatory. Green Bank, W. Va., had been named Director 
of Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico for a one-year 
term beginning in the fall. He would succeed William E. 
Gordon. (A^yr, 3/7/65, 75) 

March 7: cosmos lix satellite, containing "scientific apparatus," was or- 
bited by the U.S.S.R. Initial orbital data: apogee, 339 km. (210.9 
mi.); perigee, 209 km. (129.6 mi.); period, 89.7 min.; inclination, 
65°. Equipment was said to be functioning normally. (Krasnaya 
Zvezda, 3/9/65, 1, atss-t Trans. I 

• Commercial aviation's first nonstop crossing of the Pacific was made by 

Qantas Airlines Boeing 707: San Francisco to Sydney in 14 hrs.. 33 
min. (Wash. Daily News, 3/8/65) 

• DMS, Inc., aerospace market intelligence operation that published annual 

analysis of DOD and NASA budget requests submitted to Congress, fore- 



110 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

cast a S106.57 billion market for the aerospace industry from 
1966-1970, an increase of 13/f for the five-year period, dms pre- 
ferred this "generally favorable market climate," to the "glorified ma- 
jor growth period of fiscal 1962-1964, when Government spending 
skyrocketed, inevitably producing an influx of hopeful though unusual- 
ly ill-equipped competitors, followed by over-capacity as the market 
tapered off. and finally a retrenchment still under way." (NYT, 
3/7/65) 
March 7: A "Dictionary of Scientific Biography" containing essays on 
careers of scientists and mathematicians would be published by 
Scribner with a National Science Foundation grant of more than 
S250,000. Dr. Charles C. Gillispie, Princeton professor of History of 
Science, had been named Editor-in-Chief. (NYT, 3/7/65, Book Re- 
view Sec, 8) 

• Professor Fred Hoyle, British astronomer, might accept U.S. position if 

U.K. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research determined not 
to build new Institute of Theoretical Astronomy which would house an 
American computer essential to his work. Hoyle complained last year 
that he had been prevented from using the only American-built com- 
puter in Britain that would do his work properly. (Feron, ISYT, 
3/8/65, 9; Wash. Post, 3/9/65) 

Week of March 7: Drop tests at North American Aviation's Downey, 
Calif., plant demonstrated that substructure of Apollo spacecraft could 
withstand maximum Apollo water-landing conditions. A series of 18 
more drop tests was planned. (M&R, 3/15/65, 7) 

March 8: In first Pacific Ocean sounding rocket experiment from NASA's 
Mobile Range Facility, two two-stage Nike-Apaches were launched 
from USNS Croalan about one mile north of the equator at 84° west 
longitude. Conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the mis- 
sion of first rocket was to measure ionospheric currents and magnetic 
fields in "equatorial electrojet," a system of electrical current circulat- 
ing in ionosphere in the region of magnetic equator which could be 
responsible for intensifying equatorial magnetic field at about local 
noon. Second Nike-Apache, conducting an experiment for Univ. of 
Michigan, was launched about 2 hrs. later carrying Pitot-static probe 
to measure pressure, temperature, and density in the region of 20 to 75 
mi. altitude. (NASA Release 65-82; Wallops Release 65-12; NASA 
Rpts. srl) 

• The countdown rehearsal for the Gemini (GT-3) flight, conducted 

at Cape Kennedy, was delayed two hours because of (1) a propel- 
lant leak in Titan ii rocket, (2) crossed wires in ground support 
equipment, (3) failure of some of the batteries to reach peak power 
immediately, and (4) faulty reading in control center. Project Gemi- 
ni officials said none of these problems had been serious, but the com- 
bination would have caused a postponement on launch day. {NYT, 
3/9/65; /V.y. Her. Trib., 3/9/65; Bait. Sun, 3/9/65) 

• In testimony before the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space 

Sciences, on "the status, management, and prospects of the aeronauti- 
cal and space program," NASA Administrator James E. Webb said: 
"The progress during this period in the space program has been made 
possible by the cooperative efforts of many organizations and 
people. Ninety-four per cent of our work during Fiscal Year 1964 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 HI 

was conducted by American industry and involved a total of about 
380,000 people in industry, universities, research institutes, and gov- 
ernment installations. Almost 250.000 separate procurement transac- 
tions were initiated during this time. 

". . . the past year saw the continued strengthening of the coordi- 
nation and the mutual support between NASA and the DOD in space and 
aeronautics. The Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board 
has continued to be an effective medium for formal coordi- 
nation. During 1964 NASA and the DOD developed procedures for the 
coordination of the space science programs; a national program in 
satellite geodesy was established by the DOD, NASA, and the Department 
of Commerce: a standardized basis for reporting space and aeronau- 
tical sciences research and technology information has been adopted; a 
joint NASA-DOD study was conducted to determine the launch vehicles 
needed to meet projected requirements during the next decade; a joint 
study was conducted of the current and planned lifting reentry vehicle 
research and development programs; the needs of NASA, the Air Force, 
and the Federal Aviation Agency were incorporated into an expanded 
flight research program utilizing the XB-70 aircraft to confirm theoret- 
ical and wind tunnel data on supersonic flight vehicles. 

"AH of this. Mr. Chairman, of course, is under an umbrella of poli- 
cy followed closely by the [National Aeronautics and] Space Coun- 
cil. ..." 

Commenting on the Soviet space program, Webb said: "Our rapid 
rate of advance and the success we have achieved already has, we 
believe, denied the USSR many of the benefits and many of the options 
which the Soviets expected their space program to provide as a part of 
their forward thrust toward world domination. However, there is 
every evidence, on the basis of their activity during the past three 
years, that the Russians intend to maintain a vigorous effort in space, 
and. in fact, that their activities may be further increased. During 
1963 and 1964 more Soviet spacecraft were put in earth orbit or deep 
space than in the six previous years combined. The number placed in 
orbit last year was double that of the year before. . . ." (Testimony; 
NASA Auth. Hearings, 13-50) 
March 8: NASA Deputy Administrator Dr. Hugh L. Dry den reported on the 
status of NASA cooperation with the Soviet Union in testimony before 
the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences: "Let me 
review where we stand. Of three projects agreed to in 1962, the only 
one completed is that which involved communications tests with Echo 
II. . . . 

"The second project — joint mapping of the geomagnetic field — is at 
the stage of exchanging ground-based magnetic observations ... we 
are now acquiring data that was not previously available in the United 
States. . . . 

"In the third project — for the coordination of meteorological satel- 
lite launchings and the establishment of a link for exchange of data — 
our prime purpose was and remains a sharing of the cost of providing 
weather satellite service and the exchange of satellite data. ... we 
are . . . exchanging conventional data over the link, which ... is 
financed on a 50-50 basis. I look forward for a meeting soon with 
Academician Blagonravov which will afford opportunity to review this 



112 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

exchange and the prospects of satellite data exchange. ... a recent 
check shows the U.S. sending surface data for more stations than it 
receives but receiving upper air data for more stations than it 
sends. In sum, the present exchange is considered by the Weather 
Bureau to improve the quality of forecasts by our national weather 
services since it makes more data available in time for such forecasts 
than was the case prior to establishment of the link." (Testimony; 
NASA Auth. Hearings, 50-76) 
March 8: NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., dis- 
cussing the management of NASA's aeronautics and space effort before 
the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, said: 
". . . our performance in terms of data returned is perhaps the most 
succinct evidence of success. The volume of information brought 
back from space in 1964 averaged 57 million data points per day in 
comparison with a previous high of some 6 million data points per 
day. This indicates not only more advanced instrumentation but also 
more reliable functioning of flight experiments. We averaged 54 
working experiments throughout 1964, which represents an improve- 
ment of 35% over the 1963 average. 

"We have achieved significant results in ground based experimenta- 
tion, testing, aeronautical flights, and sounding rocket 
launchings. Work conducted in our wind tunnels continues to refine 
aircraft configurations for vertical takeoff and landing, supersonic 
transportation, and hypersonic flight. We are continuing to experi- 
ment with materials, fuels, turbines, injectors, and nozzles in order to 
improve the efficiency of air-breathing and rocket propulsion 
systems. The 3 successful power tests of the Kiwi reactor demon- 
strated the applicability of nuclear energy to rocket propulsion. In 
1964 we conducted 27 more flights of the X-15 aircraft, 19 of them 
over Mach 5, amassing data important to supersonic and hypersonic 
flight. In addition, we launched 131 successful sounding rockets from 
stations around the world to test new instrumentation and to obtain 
important scientific data in geophysics, astronomy, and meteorolo- 
gy. In the areas of manned space flight, the Apollo escape system has 
been successfully tested, and a boilerplate spacecraft checked out and 
flown on the Saturn I. A mock-up of the lunar excursion module has 
been approved. The Saturn IB and Saturn V 'battleship' upper 
stages have been successfully fired. The F-1 engine has passed its 
flight rating test. This record was established by the hard work and 
careful attention to detail of the government-industry-university team 
charged with aeronautic and space exploration. This total team, num- 
bering 380,000 people, is managed by the relatively small hard core 
NASA organization of less than 34.000." (Testimony; NASA Auth. 
Hearings, 76-114) 

• Gemini astronaut parachute system was successfully tested in drops from 

a c-130 at 15,000 ft. altitude by USN Chief Warrant Officer Mitch 
Kanowski and usaf Maj. Dan Fulgham over the Naval Air Facility El 
Centro. Parachutes deployed at 9,000 ft. as they would on actual 
Gemini missions. Additional tests would be made in drops from alti- 
tudes up to 35,000 ft. ( Miles. L.A. Times, 3/9/65) 

• U.S.S.R.'s ZOND II would pass within 9(J0 mi. of Mars on Aug. 6, 

according to Soviet space scientist Prof. Mstislav Keldysh. This an- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 113 

nouncement was relayed by Dr. Charles S. Sheldon of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council, who quoted Keldysh as saying ZOND 
II weighed about 2.000 lbs. Dr. Sheldon speculated that the probe's 
considerable weight — four times more than MARINER iv — could mean 
'"it mav be doing something more than a simple fly-by" of 
Mars. '(UPI, Denver, Post 3 10 65: UPi, A'iT, 3/11 65, 42) 
March 8: According to Missiles and Rockets, Dr. Joseph Shea, director of 
Apollo spacecraft program at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, said 
Apollo spacecraft was having no weight problems. He explained that 
the current weight of 89,000 lbs. was under 90,000 lbs. goal and there 
was room for additional growth since Saturn V booster had increased 
estimated payload capability to 95.000 lbs. Weight of Lem was in- 
creasing in early development stage, but new evaluation stemming from 
NASA decision to make it as safe in terms of redundancy as command 
and service modules, could raise weight from 29,500 lbs. to 32,000 
lbs. Shea commented that a stable baffled injector had been selected 
for service module's propulsion system and it was currently undergo- 
ing qualification test series. Recent tests of heatshield in reentry tests 
with Scout (Aug. 18, 1964 » achieved high total heat of 250 Btu's per 
square foot — about 80 /V of the heat expected to be encountered during 
return from moon. iM&R, 3 8/65, 14) 

• NASA had decided to replace Lem's fuel-cell power subsystem with a more 

conventional battery system. Missiles and Rockets reported. Motiva- 
tion was concern for reliability. Decision would not affect use of fuel 
cell in the Apollo command module. (M&R, 3/8/65, 14) 

• In a letter-to-the-editor in Missiles and Rockets, Thomas M. Morse said 

that since there were no indications that the Russians were building a 
bigger booster for their lunar program, they might be planning to use 
a libration orbit to reach the moon. He described the libration orbit 
as an almost stable earth orbit in which a spacecraft would always be 
on a direct line between earth and moon, about 33,000 mi. from the 
moon. Advantages offered over the U.S. -planned lunar orbit included 
easier rendezvous: pre-parking of unmanned freight, shielding, and 
modules: unlimited rendezvous and liftoff windows; continuous line- 
of-sight communications between earth, rendezvous craft, and lunar 
landing crew; better radiation protection; improved safety factor; re- 
duced cost. iM&R, 3/8/65, 6) 

• California's Gov. Edmund G. Brown, in his second Annual Economic 

Report to the legislature, warned that new cutbacks in defense and aero- 
space spending could dilute "the reservoir of scientific brainpower and 
skilled manpower that has made California the leader in the space 
age." Brown said that 200,000 new jobs a year would have to be 
created and that the state had already contracted with aerospace firms 
for studies that might provide solutions "in transferring manpower 
from defense and aerospace production to other areas.'' (ap, L.A. 
Herald-Examiner, 3 8/65 I 

• France announced successful launching in the Sahara of the Emeraude 

stage of the Diamant booster. (M&R, 3/15/65, 11) 
March 8-9: President Johnson's proposal to cut Federal subsidies to heU- 
copter carriers in New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago by Dec, 31, 
was opposed by the cab, who suggested continuation of Federal subsi- 



114 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

dies on declining basis until 1970. Sen. A. S. Mike Monroney 
iD-Okla.), Chairman of the Senate Aviation Subcommittee investigat- 
ing ways to keep helicopter lines alive, suggested increased support 
from major airlines as possible alternative to Federal aid. Stuart G. 
Tipton, President of Air Transport Association which represented al- 
most every scheduled U.S. airline, testified that helicopter lines re- 
ceived about SI million a year in indirect support and that "as a 
matter of principle, this is as far as the airlines should go or be 
expected to go." He added that experience and advances in helicop- 
ters and poor-weather landing equipment were about to make helicop- 
ters potentially profitable in all large cities. Withdrawal of Federal 
support now would be disastrous. (Clark. NYT, 3 '9/65; Clark. NYT, 
3/10/65, 69) 

March 8-12: "Efficiency and Perfection through People" was objective of 
AFSc's Internal Zero Defects Program which encouraged people to "set 
their own immediate goals and devise measurement techniques." Re- 
sults of the program would be analyzed and recognition awards would 
be given to individuals making significant achievements. ( AFSC Re- 
lease 19.65; CR, A1315-A1318) 

March 9: Thor-Agena D launched from Vandenberg afb orbited eight mili- 
tary satellites, the most in any single launch to date. Two satellites 
would measure solar radiation (greb vi and solrad) ; two would test 
stabilization methods for future spacecraft (ggse ii and GGSE ill) ; 
one would be used in geodesy (SECOR ill) ; two would help calibrate 
satellite tracking networks (surcal satellites) ; and one would transmit 
radio broadcasts for ham operators (oscar hi ) . 

OSCAR III would transmit signals from 25 amateur radio channels 
over a 4.000-mi. radius and was being tracked by ham radio operators 
at Foothill Jr. College, Calif. Amateur tracking stations in 30 foreign 
countries were informally participating in the project. ( U.S. Aeron. & 
Space Act., 1965, 135-36; gsfc SSR, 4/15/65; Clark. NYT, 5/19/65; 
Wash. Post, 5/20/65, A12; ap, Omaha Eve. World-Herald, 3/10/65) 

• Gemini astronaut parachute system for use in launch emergency failed 

to function properly during test at El Centro, Calif. When the jumper 
stepped from a c-130 aircraft at 23,000-ft. altitude, a "ballute" (com- 
bination balloon and parachute ) device for stabilizing the fall failed 
to deploy; the chute was opened manually at 12.000 ft. (UPI, 
Minneapolis Trih., 3/10/65) 

• In testimony on NASA lunar and planetary programs before the House 

Committee on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Space 
Sciences and Applications, NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Homer E. 
Newell said: "The Surveyor program to date has accomplished a 
number of significant advanced developments that have found or will 
find their way into other programs. 

"The closed loop automatic landing system has other potential space 
and terrestrial applications. 

"The planar-array high gain antenna has several significant advan- 
tages over the usual parabolic dish. 

"The doppler and altimeter radars represent a significant advance in 
technology and have been adopted by the Apollo Lunar Excursion 
Module. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 115 

"The throttlable high performance vernier engines, which have an 
almost unlimited operating lifetime, represent another significant step 
forward. 

"The high performance spherical main retro rocket has appreciably 
advanced the state of the art. Several launch vehicle programs are 
interested in this motor as a high-energy upper stage. 

"The Surveyor landing gear design represents a new high in 
efficiency of impact energy absorption. 

"Many of the miniaturized geophysical instruments developed for 
Surveyor mav have terrestrial applications." (Testimony; NASA 
Auth. Hearings, 243ff) 
March 9: World's longest antenna had been stretched on the top of the 
Antarctic icecap to study radio conditions in space beyond the earth, 
the National Science Foundation reported. The antenna was a 21-mi., 
plastic-coated, %-in. copper cable that radiated low frequency waves 
that traveled far out into space along a line of force in the earth's 
magnetic field. The waves followed the line of force as it curved back 
toward the earth in the opposite hemisphere, (upi, ISYT, 3/10/65) 

• Rep. Westen E. Vivian (D-Mich.) told the House Committee on Science 

and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications 
that he intended to request adoption of a policy to award one half of 
all NASA Phase lA contracts to companies in areas presently receiving 
less than one half of NASA business. Chairman Joseph E. Karth CD- 
Minn. ) said that although fiscal expedience demanded that procure- 
ment contracts go to industralized areas, geographic distribution should 
be seriously considered in the allocation of research and development 
funds. He said the Subcommittee would consider Vivian's proposal. 
(Transcript, 3/9/65) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center hosted group of 61 Navy, Air Force, 

and civilian personnel from Navy Field Office for Manned Orbiting 
Laboratory at Los Angeles. The group received briefings on Apollo 
and Saturn programs and saw facilities at Marshall. They had previ- 
ously visited NASA Manned Spacecraft Center and were scheduled 
to tour NASA Kennedy Space Center. ( MSFC Release 65-52) 

• A job classification dispute at the Chrysler facility of the Michoud Sat- 

urn plant in New Orleans caused over 200 United Auto Workers 
(UAW) to walk off the job. Chrysler was responsible for developing 
first stage of Saturn IB rocket for NASA. (UPi, Wash. Post, 3/10/65) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center awarded $1,059,000 contract to Ae- 

tron, a division of Aerojet-General Corp., for installation of equipment 
on a Saturn V second-stage test stand at Mississippi Test Operations. 
Equipment would include consoles to check out systems on the flight 
stages being tested as well as in the area's test control center. (MSFC 
Release 65-53 ) 

• Prompted by results of the experiments of Dr. Frank A. Brown, Jr., 

Northwestern Univ. biology professor, NASA and Northwestern Univ. 
scientists were studying a plan to orbit a potato around the sun in an 
attempt to prove whether man could survive in long trips in 
space. Dr. Brown had concluded that rhythmic patterns of wakeful- 
ness and sleep, glandular activity, cellular respiration, and all other 
biological cycles of most live organisms were timed by biological 
clocks outside the organism, not inside. The three primary forces 



116 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

were day-night changes and temperature, atmospheric, and pressure 
fluctuations. 

For ten years, Brown had kept potato tubers under constant pressure 
and temperature and in constantly dim light, yet they continued to 
fluctuate at same rate and time as potatoes planted in IlUnois and 
they detected atmospheric pressure changes. Brown concluded that 
"something is getting thru to the isolated potatoes to tell them what the 
weather is outside. It could be the earth's magnetic or electric fields 
or radiation, since they all observe a 24-hour pattern geared to the 
rising and setting sun, but we are not sure. 

". . . biological clocks are necessary to keep a living system a coor- 
dinate, Hving, functioning whole. If the clocks are stopped, the orga- 
nism may go beserk and die." If the orbiting potato were to die 
within 90 days, it would indicate that a 24-hour rhythm was 
vital. (Kotulak, Chic. Trib., 3/9/65) 
March 10: A dummy model of the Gemini spacecraft, dropped from 11,000 
ft. altitude by a c-119 aircraft, parachuted into the Atlantic Ocean 
and was recovered by three usaf pararescue men. This was a practice 
mission in case Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom (USAF) and John W. 
Young (usn) had to abort their GT-3 flight during the launching 
phase. (AP, Or/. Se/r^., 3/11/65) 

• Reviewing nasa's activities in manned space flight in the last year. Dr. 

George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space 
Flight, testified before the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and 
Space Sciences: "It is a pleasure to report that . . . there has been 
substantial progress in the development and testing of flight vehicles 
and earth-based facilities, in the nearly complete marshalling of the 
government-industry manned space flight team, and in the consoli- 
dation of firm program-wide management. 

"During the past year, the Gemini Program has advanced to the 
point that we are ready for manned flight operations. The Apollo 
Program is entering a year of comprehensive development testing of 
major systems prior to the 'all-up' unmanned earth-orbital flights, 
which will begin in 1966. And our study of advanced manned mis- 
sions has established that it is feasible to return dividends from the 
current investment by applying the wide range of Apollo capabilities 
to a number of other potential missions." (Testimony; NASA Auth. 
Hearings, 143ff) 

• Harold B. Finger, Director of NASA Nuclear Systems and Space Power 

and Manager of the AEC-NASA Space Nuclear Propulsion Office, dis- 
cussed NASA's electric thrustor program in testimony before the House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Advanced 
Research and Technology: "We conducted the first successful flight 
test of an electric rocket engine in July, using the SERT I spacecraft. 
This flight demonstrated that ion beam neutralization will take place 
satisfactorily in space and. therefore, eliminated the only uncertainty 
regarding the basic feasibility of successful space operation. A second 
major accomplishment was the design, fabrication, and test of a 30 
kilowatt thrustor. This thrustor is 10 times larger than previous ion 
engines, and demonstrates that we are successfully developing the 
engineering relations required to build the mega-watt size thrustors 
needed for spacecraft prime propulsion." 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 117 

Discussing nuclear propulsion programs, he said: "1964 was a year 
of significant progress in the Nuclear Rocket Program. It was 
marked by the successful completion of the kiwi series of reactor 
development experiments and the successful initiation of the nerva 
reactor testing. These reactor experiments, coupled with work in 
other portions of our Nuclear Rocket Program, provide assurance that 
the graphite core nuclear rocket can be available to fulfill its role as 
the next major space propulsion system. 

"Of particular significance in 1964 was the successful demonstration 
of the adequacy of the reactor structural design, the elimination of 
reactor structural vibrations, full power reactor operation for over ten 
minutes at an altitude equivalent specific impulse of about 750 sec- 
onds, a rapid automatic startup, the ability to restart the rocket reac- 
tor, the determination of the effect of a maximum reactor power excur- 
sion, and the neutronic investigation of two rocket reactors located 
side-by-side as would be necessary in clustered engine configura- 
tions. . . . 

"During this year emphasis will be placed upon extending our reac- 
tor technology to higher temperature, longer duration, and higher 
power while we proceed as rapidly as possible to close coupled nuclear 
rocket engine system testing. We face this task of developing nuclear 
rocket technology including component, subsystem, and engine system 
work, with a confidence that is based on the solid accomplishments in 
our reactor development program and with the knowledge that the 
technology we are developing will provide the propulsion capability 
that will ultimately be required for extensive space 
exploration." (Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 243-300) 
March 10: According to usaf Cambridge Research Laboratories study, a 
continuous barrage of meteoroids was causing moon to lose up to 
6,000 tons a day and earth to gain 10,000 lbs. a day. Because of its 
strong gravity, earth absorbed about four times as many impacts as 
moon. ( OAR Release 3-65-3; Chic. Trib., 3/11/65) 

• NASA announced award of S3.713.400 contract to Raytheon Co. to pro- 

vide digital systems for Project Apollo. Options for additional dis- 
plays and consoles, if exercised, could add .$400,000 to basic 
price. The equipment was for use at NASA control centers and critical 
tracking stations to give instantaneous display of information received 
by encoded radio signals during Apollo flight permitting immediate 
decisions concerning welfare of the astronauts and conduct of the 
mission. ( NASA Release 65-79 ) 

• Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-R.I.) introduced in the Senate S. 1483, a bill to 

provide for a National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. 
(C/?, 4/26/65, 8122) 

• Roy W. Jenkins, British Aviation Minister, presented a plan to House of 

Commons to give grants of up to £100 ($280) each to householders 
plagued by noise of jetliners to soundproof their homes. It was esti- 
mated that about 40% of 200.000 householders affected would accept 
the grant, bringing the total cost to S7 million. An Airport Authority 
would be established to underwrite the cost of the grants. Householders 
complained that money was insufficient for adequate sound-proofing. 
(NYT, 4/11/65, 57) 



118 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 10: Dr. W. Randolph Lovelace ii. nasa's Director of Space Medicine, 
said NASA physicians screening future astronauts were eliminating peo- 
ple with heart and spine defects so slight they would be insignificant 
on earth. "We are interested in finding minute defects between the 
left and right heart," he explained. "If you lose pressure and you 
have this defect, thousands of little air bubbles may find their way up 
to the brain. If there is no defect, they are removed from the 
lungs. We are also looking for congenital defects of the 
spine. When someone experiences the acceleration astronauts do, 
however, a small defect may be magnified in effect." (Kass, Houston 
Post, 3/11/65) 

March 10-11: Stuart G. Tipton, President of the Air Transport Associa- 
tion, testified before Senate Aviation Subcommittee that "more joint 
fares, perhaps more guaranteed flights, certainly more sales cam- 
paigns" by larger airlines might be initiated to help helicopter lines 
which were facing end of Federal subsidies. Tipton stipulated, how- 
ever, that cab's five-year declining subsidy proposal still would be 
essential. Earlier in the week, he had testified that airlines would not 
increase their aid. 

Senators and Representatives from all three states that had helicop- 
ter service testified in support of subsidies. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy 
(D-N.Y.) said: "I think that, really, if we don't do it now [continue 
subsidy] it won't be done and that will affect not just New York and 
the other two cities but the entire country." Opposition came from 
Sen. William Proxmire (D-Wis.) who argued for a "user tax on the 
people who use helicopters . . ." (Clark, NYT, 3/11/65, 55; Clark, 
A^yr, 3/12/65, 66 ) 

March 11: nasa announced that mariner iv, scheduled to reach the vicin- 
ity of Mars July 14, had traveled over 168 million mi. — more than half 
way. (NASA Release 65-80) 

• USAF launched Thor-Able-Star booster from Western Test Range, placing 

in orbit an unidentified satellite and U.S. Army's SECOR II geodetic 
satellite. SECOR ii "failed to deploy properly from its piggyback 
container." [V.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 136; M&R, 4/5/65, 12) 

• Dr. C. 0. Bostrom and Dr. D. J. Williams of the Space Research Div. of 

Johns Hopkins' Applied Physics Laboratory said danger of radiation 
damage to satellites from the artificial radiation belt created in July 
1962, following the nuclear detonation over Johnston Island, was "now 
significantly less severe." Results of measurements by instruments 
aboard Navy research satellite 1963 38C showed that the number of 
high-energy electrons in the artificial radiation belt decreased by 50% 
in from three months to one year in different parts of the belt. The 
decrease in intensity as time passed would continue until natural levels 
of intensity were reached. Dr. Bostrom said, ". . . the observed time 
decay does show that the satellite radiation damage problems have 
been reduced by a factor of ten from what they were two years ago." 
(Bait. Sun, 3/11/65) 

• Despite U.S. Federal Court's issuance of two temporary restraining 

orders, building trade employees halted construction on Saturn IB 
Launch Complex 34 at Cape Kennedy, for second straight day. Dis- 
pute involved general contractor's use of non-union subcontractor. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 119 

NASA claimed work on Launch Complex 34 was "critical" to the na- 
tion's space effort. {Cocoa Tribune, 3/11/65) 
March 11: NASA Kennedy Space Center had extended for the second year 
two of the major contracts under which the NASA Merritt Island Launch 
Area was being operated. Extensions were negotiated with Trans- 
World Airlines, for base support services, and Ling-Temco-Vought, in- 
formation services. (KSC Release 58-65) 

• Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA Deputy Administrator, speaking in Minneapo- 

lis, Minn., before the Twin Cities Section of aiaa, said: "We believe 
that activities in the exploration of space, a modern social need recog- 
nizable from the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act 
and the appropriation of large sums of money by the Congress, pro- 
vide the essential environment to accelerate greatly the growth of theo- 
retical and experimental science in many areas. It is true that this 
accelerated growth in science and technology is essential to the on-go- 
ing development of space capability, but of deeper significance is the 
complex dynamic interaction between science, technology, and space 
exploration, which is essential to the growth of science, technology, 
and space exploration. In this case, as in the cases previously cited, 
to use an analogy from bacteriology, there has to be a nutrient solu- 
tion (money and employment opportunities) to feed the scientific and 
technological effort, and as soon as this environment is provided, many 
latent efforts in science and technology begin to assert themselves and 
move forward. 

"I believe that this interpretation of certain aspects of the space 
program is more significant and meaningful than the current concepts 
of technology utilization and technological spinoff as incidental or ser- 
endipitous benefits of space exploration." (Text) 

• Gerald L. Smith. NASA Ames Research Center, had been awarded $1,000 

special service award for his computer analysis which resulted in de- 
cision to give ground-based navigation a primary role during Apollo 
lunar missions. Smith explained that, although radar tracking from 
earth and visual tracking onboard spacecraft were almost equally re- 
liable, earth-based system could be maintained more easily and was 
not restricted by weight and size considerations. (ARC Release 65-8) 

• American Academy of Arts and Sciences awarded its Rumford Prize to 

Dr. William D. McElroy for his analysis and isolation of chemicals 
that cause bioluminescence in the firefly and other organisms. He 
identified luciferin, lucif erase, and adenosine-5-triphosphate (atp). 
From his research he concluded that bioluminescence had evolved 
"as an accidental consequence of chemical reactions" in the organisms 
as they adapted to changing conditions in the environment. Dr. Mc- 
Elroy was head of the McCollum-Pratt Institute of Johns Hopkins 
Univ. and a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee. 
iSR, 4/3/65, 45-47) 

• Victor D. Lebedev, U.S.S.R. Council of the National Economy, an- 

nounced plan to convert 119 major industrial plants to electronic com- 
puter system of production management within two years. Aimed at 
ensuring fast access to detailed operating information, the systems 
would be introduced in heavy industry and consumer-goods 



120 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

production. For the future: computers serving individual plants or 
groups of plants w ould process detailed data and transmit generalized 
information to central agencies to aid in planning economy. ( Sha- 
bad, NYT, 3/12/65, 8 ) 
March 12: cosmos lx satellite, containing "scientific apparatus," was or- 
bited by the U.S.S.R. Initial orbital data: apogee, 287 km. (177.9 
mi.); perigee, 201 km. (124.6 mi.); period, 89.1 min.; inclination 
64° 42'. Equipment was said to be functioning normally. (Tass, 
Komsomolskaya Pravda, 3/13/65, 1, atss-t Trans) 

• NASA Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched from White Sands, N. Mex., 

went to a peak altitude of 155.5 km. ( 96.6 mi. ) The primary experi- 
mental objective was to obtain ultraviolet spectra of Mars and Orion 
by the use of four spectrographs, provided by NASA Goddard Space 
Flight Center. Because of an attitude control system failure no ex- 
perimental results were obtained. (NASA Rpt. SRL) 

• USAF launched Atlas-Agena D booster with unidentified satellite payloads 

from Western Test Range. {U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 136) 

• Month-long experiment for NASA to test man's ability to withstand rota- 

tional stress ended at U.S. Navy School of Aviation Medicine. Capt. 
Ashton Graybiel, Research Director, expressed satisfaction with results 
of the test which confined four U.S. Navy men in a windowless, circu- 
lar room, equipped with all necessary living accommodations. The 
room began rotating at 2 rpm's and in 16 days built up to 10 rpm's, 
stopping three times daily for meals. This pattern of speed build-up 
had no adverse affect on the men and produced no nausea or 
significant discomfort. This test, one of a series conducted by Naval 
School of Aviation Medicine, was to check new procedure for condi- 
tioning men for space flight. Since long space voyages could require 
rotating spacecraft to create artificial gravity, scientists wanted to de- 
termine spinning rate man could endure without discomfort. (NASA 
Release 65-84 ) ' 

• Launching pad damage caused by the Mar. 2 explosion of an Atlas- 

Centaur rocket at Cape Kennedy amounted to S2 million and would take 
three to four months to repair, NASA reported. To avoid delay in the 
Atlas-Centaur launching scheduled for mid-summer, NASA was speeding 
completion of a new launching pad that was 90% completed and that 
could be ready in two months. ( UPI, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 14/65) 

• DOD announced new type of defense contract for c-5a, 700-passenger 

supertransport and cargo plane: competitors must bid not only for 
initial development contracts, but for production and "lifetime" sup- 
port of proposed aircraft. Lifetime support, estimated to be at least 
10 yrs., would cover spare parts and ground maintenance equipment. 
The plane, expected to be biggest jet transport ever built, would have 
a gross take-off weight of 725.000 lbs. and a payload capacity of 
250,000 lbs. 

Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed were competitors for airframe con- 
tract; General Electric and Pratt & Whitney were competitors for en- 
gine contract. Contracts would be awarded this summer. $2.5 bil- 
Hon was estimated cost for a 58-plane program, (dod Release 
915-64) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 121 

March 12: AFSC announced award of five letter contracts totaling $3.8 mil- 
lion for conceptual phase of Mark ll Avionics System being considered 
for use on f-111a aircraft. General Dynamics. Hughes Aircraft Co., 
Sperrv Gvroscope Co.. Westinghouse Electric Corp., and Autonetics 
Div. of North American Aviation, Inc.. would perform analyses leading 
to system design recommendations integrating many subsystems. 
( AFSC Release 30-65 ) 

• A 23-year old French nurse, after three months in a 240-ft. deep cave in 

Grasse, France, emerged thinking it was Feb. 25. Josie Laures had 
had no clock and a white mouse had been her sole companion in this 
experiment to test effects of solitude. She was flown immediately to 
Paris for three weeks of medical examinations. ( AP, A'lT, 3/13/65, 
6) 
March 13: President Johnson signed a bill and proclamation declaring 
March 16 "Robert H. Goddard Day."' Dr. Robert Hutchings Goddard 
of Clark Universitv had launched world's first liquid-fuel rocket at 
Auburn. Mass.. on March 16. 1926. ( Text, A'lT. 3 15 65, 8) 

• USNS Croatan, which had left Balboa. Panama Canal Zone, on Mar. 6. 

arrived at Lima. Peru. During the interval, ten two-stage sounding 
rockets had been launched from the deck of the ship, carrying upper 
atmosphere and ionosphere experiments for the Univ. of Michigan, the 
Univ. of New Hampshire, and NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center. Three single-stage Areas meteorological rockets, two of which 
carried experiments to measure ozone in the atmosphere, were also 
launched. ( nasa Release 65-13 ) 

• Seventy paintings and drawings rendered by 15 contemporary American 

artists at rocket and satellite launching stations were exhibited at the 
National Gallery. Washington. D.C. According to the National Gallery, 
the purpose of the NASA-sponsored art programs was to "record the 
strange new world which space technology is creating" and "to probe 
for the inner meaning and emotional impact of events of fateful signifi- 
cance to mankind.'" Accompanying the exhibit was a film "The World 
Was There" which contrasted secrecy of some nations' space programs 
with the openness of the American effort. ( National Gallery Release, 
3/14/65) 

• In New York Times Richard Witkin said F-111 variable-sweep-wing 

plane, intended as the mainstay of U.S. fighter forces before 1970, had 
developed problems with engines and with the inlets that feed air to 
the engines. Officials maintained that problems were normal in any 
development, but conceded that fewer difficulties had been anticipated 
because of record number of wind tunnel tests. The two prototypes 
tested, one of which was supersonic, had continuously run into two 
main difficulties: (1) air flow through compressors of engines had 
become disturbed, causing erratic power output; and (2) combustion 
in afterburner section had been suddenly stopping. Otherwise, 
officials contended that flight tests, including tucking wings far back 
for high-speed runs, had been going better than anticipated. (Witkin, 
NYT, 3/14/65, 58; Chic. Trib., 3/15/65) 

• An article in The Economist questioned the political wisdom of the State 

Dept.'s ban on exchange of communications satellite information be- 
tween Hughes Aircraft Co. and the British Aircraft Co.; it suggested 
that unfavorable repercussions to Anglo-American relations could re- 



122 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

suit: "The reason had little to do with military security. The State 
Dept. appeared to think that American industry has a valuable monop- 
oly in commercial satellites which should be exploited for maximum 
profit, which means keeping the know-how in America. . . . The first 
commercial satellite of Comsat happens to be the Hughes-built Early 
Bird due to be launched in the first half of April. Comsat is 
obliged ... to distribute its orders among member countries on a 
basis proportional to the shares they hold. . . . Britain is the largest 
shareholder after the United States. So the less satellite know-how 
there is, particularly in Britain, the more work goes to the United 
States . . . this ... is precisely what some people have been declar- 
ing the Americans would do whenever they found themselves in a 
position of technical superiority. . . ." {Economist, 3/13/65) 
March 13: Two Russian airmen had set a world altitude record by flying 
m1-4 helicopter with a load of nearly two tons to 20,894 ft., Tass re- 
ported. (Reuters, N.Y. News, 3/14/65) 

• Israel, to reassure U.S. of her peaceful intentions for use of atomic en- 

ergy, had permitted two AEC commissioners to inspect Dimona reactor, 
a natural uranium, heavy-water-moderated type, capable of producing 
enough plutonium for several relatively small atomic weapons. Israel 
had imposed strict secrecy on the inspections, one a year ago and a 
second last month. U.S. tentatively concluded that Dimona was not 
being used to produce plutonium for atomic weapons but suggested that 
reactor be placed under inspection by International Atomic Energy 
Agency. Israel refused, explaining: (1) she should not be forced to 
place her national development under agency inspection until interna- 
tional inspection had been accepted by all nations, and (2) the Agency 
had discriminated against her in favor of Arab states in membership of 
its board and location of research centers. 

Many American and British specialists feared that Israel could be 
"keeping the option open" to develop atomic deterrent against Arab 
nations. (Finney, A^YI, 3/14/65, 1) 
March 14: Writing about the visit of President Johnson and Vice President 
Humphrey to NASA Hq. for a briefing on NASA programs on Feb. 25, 
Lt. Gen. Ira C. Eaker ( USAF, Ret.) said in an article for the San Diego 
Union: "I was particularly pleased at the deserved tribute the President 
paid Jim Webb and Hugh Dryden. I have known them both since 
1937. They are extremely modest men. They avoid personal 
publicity. They are not jealous of subordinates, but prefer that the 
publicity and credit for NASA successes carry the pictures and headline 
the names of those members of the NASA team most directly 
responsible. For this reason they can attract and hold able peo- 
ple. . . . 

"While we are giving out the space medals, it is only fair to say that 
without the vision and tenacity of Lyndon Johnson, the first man on 
the moon could not be an American. 

"To have man's most dramatic and significant adventure become the 
achievement of a slave state instead of a free society would be 
intolerable." (Eaker, CNS, San Diep,o Union, 3/14/65) 

• Soviet scientists announced development of compact, light-weight nuclear 

power system, similar to U.S. Snap program, to meet relatively low 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 123 

power requirements of up to several hundred watts by using heat from 
decay of radioisotopes as energy source for generation of electrici- 
ty. Tass described system as a power-generating package weighing 
150 kg. (330 lbs.) with a capacity of up to 200 watts and a lifetime 
of 10 yrs. Known as Beta, the installation was designed to ensure 
continuous operation of automatic weather stations in remote areas. 
{NYT, 3/15/65, 5) 

March 14: U.S.S.R. reported that number of Soviet science teachers and 
scientific researchers had doubled between 1958 and 1963. At the end 
of 1963, 565,958 workers were engaged in scientific research and 
teaching, compared to 284,038 at end of 1958. Most of this increase 
was in persons having only basic undergraduate scientific and techni- 
cal training, with women increasing more rapidly than men. Engi- 
neering sciences accounted for more than half the total of all Soviet 
scientific workers; physicians and mathematicians comprised sec- 
ond largest group; persons in medicine and pharmacy, the third. 
(Schwartz, NYT, 3/14/65, 18) 

March 15: U.S.S.R. launched into orbit three earth satellites^ — cosmos lxi, 
COSMOS LXii, and COSMOS LXIII — with a single booster rocket. Tass 
said three satellites were orbiting in close initial orbits: apogee, 1,837 
km. (1,141 mi.); perigee, 273 km. (170 mi.); period, 106 min.; in- 
clination, 56°. It was reported that the scientific apparatus onboard 
was functioning normally. [Krasnaya Zvezda, 3/17/65, 1, ATSS-t 
Trans.) 

• The S-iB-1, Chrysler-built first stage of NASA's Saturn IB, arrived at 

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center from Michoud Operations in New 
Orleans for static-firing tests. The stage was 21 ft. in diameter, 80 ft. 
in length, and weighed 90,000 lbs. For Saturn IB program, its eight 
engines had been uprated to 200,000 lbs. thrust each and weight had 
been reduced by some 16,000 lbs. It would be returned to Michoud 
Operations in about six weeks for post-firing checks. Saturn IB vehi- 
cles would be used for earth-orbital missions of Apollo spacecraft. 
(msfc Release 65-60) 

• NASA and DOD had approved first phase of a General Dynamics proposal 

for 30% -uprated Atlas SLV x3 booster. This phase covered only reha- 
bility improvement by introduction of new components. Order to 
proceed on actual uprating was expected this month. {M&R, 3/15/65, 
7) 

• The House Committee on Science and Astronautics reviewed the master 

planning standards of ten major NASA centers and concluded that, con- 
sidering the permanence of the space program, ". . . the installations 
and facilities required by NASA to implement the program should be 
planned ... on a long-range basis, in recognition of permanen- 
cy." In addition, they suggested that NASA: (1) develop "consistency 
of planning policy," (2) invest in master plans to prevent situations 
similar to "confused and congested layouts of Lewis and Wallops," 
(3) invest in facility planning, and (4) avoid procrastination and 
expediency. The Committee concluded that "nasa has achieved sub- 
stantial success in master planning at many of its installations . . ." 
but that attempts should be made to succeed at all NASA 
installations. ( House Report No. 167, 3/15/65) 



124 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 15: A Benedictine nun, Sister M. Margaret Bealmear. said she had 
declined an invitation to apply for astronaut training and that she as- 
sumed the letter from NASA Manned Spacecraft Center had been a 
mistake. Sister Bealmear, a candidate for a doctorate in biology from 
the Univ. of Notre Dame, said she had received the invitation in Decem- 
ber 1964. Invitations had been extended by NASA to select names 
appearing on a list provided by the National Academy ©f Sciences. 
<AP. ATr, 3 16/65. 5; msc Historian) 

• Dr. John T. F. Kuo, associate professor at Columbia Univ. Henry Krumb 

School of Mines, was studying the earth's gravity from each of the 
Empire State Building's 102 floors. Kuo was using a gravimeter sen- 
sitive to weight differences of one-billionth of a pound to measure 
gravitational acceleration on each floor. He felt that extrapolations 
from his figures might help in the "design of instrument measuring the 
gravitational acceleration on space vehicles as they hurtle through the 
universe." (NYT. 3/15/65, 29 ) 

• Dr. Thomas F. Bates, professor of mineralogy and director of the 

Science and Engineering Institute at Pennsylvania State Univ., had 
been named science advisor to Interior Secretary Stewart L. Udall, it 
was announced. He would succeed Dr. John C. Calhoun, Jr., who was 
returning to his post at Texas A&M. ( UPI, NYT, 3/16 ^65, 4) 

• Despite boasts of increased Government volume by Westinghouse Elec- 

tric Corp. and Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., most major companies 
complained of decline in defense. Government, and aerospace 
contracts. The Electronic Industries Association offered solutions to 
the problem: (1 ) look for new fields and products, (2) work harder to 
find Government contracts, or (3) continue complaining. (Smith. 

yvyr, 3/15/65) 

• "Project Stormy Spring," a meteorological study by the Air Force Cam- 

bridge Research Laboratories to develop more precise forecasting tech- 
niques for specific local areas, began, afcrl scientists would investigate 
mesoscale structures and weather system dynamics in New England, 
particularly within a mesoscale. A varying distance measure, a meso- 
scale in New England in March was an area about 100 mi. sq. Major 
storm systems would be observed and analyzed for continuous periods 
of 24 to 36 hrs. each. A weather satellite, U-2, and c-130 aircraft 
would provide cloud photographs. The U-2 would also measure ozone 
distributions, temperature, wind, and radiometric data; the C-130 
would contribute cloud physics, temperature, and wind data. Perma- 
nent and mobile radiosonde sites 60 mi. apart would comprise one 
aspect of the data-gathering network; special surface linkage of 25 sites 
spaced 20 mi. apart would gather wind, temperature, pressure, humid- 
ity, and precipitation data. The study would continue through April 
30. (usAF OAR Release 3-65-5 1 

• Aviation Week reported theory of many U.S. officials that COSMOS LVII, 

launched by U.S.S.R. on Feb. 22, 1965, had strayed from its pro- 
gramed flight path and been deliberately destroyed the day after it was 
launched. The alleged reason was to prevent COSMOS LVII from fall- 
ing into foreign hands. U.S. officials were said to have assumed that 
COSMOS LVII was a trial run for VOSKIIOD ii flight because of similar 
orbits: voskhod ii had 30!; mi. (196.7 km.) apogee, 108 mi. (174.4 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 125 

km. I perigee, 65° inclination: COSMOS LVii had 317 mi. (511.3 km.) 
apogee. 107 mi. (172.6 km.) perigee, and 65° inclination. 

According to XASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Satellite Situation 
Report, 51 pieces of cosmos lvii were in orbit Feb. 28, 1965; 39 pieces 
on ]\Iarch 15. 1965. The Report also listed COSMOS L, launched by 
U.S.S.R. October 28. 1964. in 88 pieces. ( GFSC SSR. 3 15/65, 33, 37; 
Av. Wk.A 12 65.34) 
March 15: B. F. Goodrich Corp. had been selected by Hamilton Standard to 
replace International Latex Corp. as subcontractor for garment portion 
of the Apollo spacesuit. Change followed problems with certain por- 
tions of garment. i.M&R. 3 15 65. 7) 

• Astronaut R. Walter Cunningham suffered a simple compression fracture 

of a neck vertebra during exercise unrelated to astronaut 
training. Cunningham would be grounded during the three months 
he would wear a neck brace but would continue other phases of astro- 
naut training. ( \p. Wash. Eve. Star. 3/17/65 ) 

• Opening the annual meeting of the National Research Council, Harvey 

Brooks, professor of applied physics at Harvard Univ., discussed recent 
trends in Federal support of research and development. Of the $14.5 
billion R&D budget for FY 1966. he observed, nearly half was for space 
activities — expended principally through DOD and NASA. Scientific 
satellite programs accounted for 36 // of all basic research expenditures. 
He noted the steady trend toward greater diversity in sources of Federal 
support for academic research. One indication is the fact that in 1954 
DOD accounted for 709^ of academic research but in FY 1966 for only 
27'7f. (NAs-NRC Neiis Report, 3 65. 1) 

• Theory held by Soviet astrophysicists Vitaly Ginzburg and Leonid Ozer- 

noi that intergalactic space is hot was reported by Tass. Scientists 
generally believed the hydrogen gas in intergalactic space to be cold 
(— 273°C). Ginzburg and Ozernoi considered it "incomprehensible" 
that the gas could be cold yet neutral — no emissions in the 21-cm. 
wavelength had been detected from the intergalactic hydrogen. They 
theorized that the gas was heated by galactic explosions and likewise 
ionized by them, making impossible any 21-cm.-wavelength emissions. 
(Tass, 3/15 65 ) 

• Lance battlefield missile was successfully test fired at the White Sands 

Missile Range. Built for the Army by Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc., the 
Lance was said to combine guided missile accuracy and range with the 
low cost and high reliability potential of a free rocket. It would com- 
plement division artillery and expand the capability for nuclear and 
non-nuclear fire. ( AP, NYT, 3 18/65, 57 ) 
March 16: Dr. Homer E. Newell, nasa Associate Administrator for Space 
Science and Applications, told the House Committee on Science and 
Astronautics' Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications that 
NASA had an obligation to make information gained from space ex- 
ploration available to the public. He continued: "To help achieve this, 
a National Space Science Data Center was established at GSFC in April 
1964. . . . 

"The Data Center is responsible for the collection, organization, in- 
dexing, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of all scientific data re- 
sulting from experiments in space and the upper atmosphere. Since 



126 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

its establishment the Data Center has begun: (1) to maintain a con- 
tinuing inventory of data from sounding rockets and spacecraft; (2) 
to acquire data generated by spacecraft previously launched; (3) to 
collect selected ground correlative data; and (4) to produce the an- 
nouncement publications which support its functions. 

"In anticipation of the need for this facility, NASA has established a 
line item in the Physics and Astronomy budget, Data Analysis, of 
three million dollars in FY 1966. Of this, 600 thousand dollars is for 
the operation of the Data Center and 2.4 million dollars is for analysis 
of data from a flight experiment under the flight project. After the 
initial results have been published by the Principal Investigator and 
the data are placed in the data center, the additional analyses of these 
data will be funded from Data Analysis funds on the basis of propos- 
als from competent scientists throughout the Nation . . . This approach 
is expected to . . . encourage them to use all of the available informa- 
tion in their theoretical research." 

Dr. Newell discussed nasa's orbiting observatory program: "The 
primary reason for . . . solar studies is to meet the overall NASA ob- 
jective to expand human knowledge of space phenomena. . . . 

"oso-c [Orbiting Solar Observatory-C] is the next spacecraft to be 
launched and it is undergoing final testing at this time. On 30 May a 
solar eclipse of unusually long duration will occur. Every effort is 
being made to launch oso-c prior to this event so that two oso's, 
with complementary payloads, can be operating and transmitting 
unique data on the solar radiation at the time of the eclipse." 

He said that the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (Ogo) program 
would make a major contribution to our understanding of earth-sun- 
environment relationships and that although OGO I had not functioned 
as planned "it has proven that the basic spacecraft design is adequate 
and that large numbers of experiments can be integrated and operated 
from a single satellite. Furthermore, should OGO I continue to trans- 
mit data for a reasonable period, it is expected that the results will 
contribute substantially to studies of the Earth-Sun relationships. 

"Investigation of the OGO I failure indicated there was no common 
cause for failure, but as a result of the investigation, design modifica- 
tions and additional tests are planned for future OGO spacecraft. The 
modifications include: (1) relocation of the horizon scanner and cer- 
tain boom appendages to assure a clear field of view for the horizon 
scanners; (2) the use of a new type development spring and the addi- 
tion of separate appendage 'kick-off' springs; and (3) the relocation of 
the omnidirectional antenna." (Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 
461-580 1 
March 16: The communications blackout problem was discussed by Dr. 
Hermann H. Kurzweg, nasa Director of Research, Office of Advanced 
Research and Technology, in testimony before the House Committee 
on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Advanced Research 
and Technology : "One of the phenomena that occurs in gases at high 
temperatures is ionization, that is, electrons are torn away by the high- 
speed collisions of the gas atoms and molecules. . . . The free elec- 
trons, produced by the high temperatures in the shock layer around a 
reentry vehicle, interfere with and block the propagation of radio 
signals. . . . This effect produces the communications-blackout 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 127 

problem. To understand what is going on and to eliminate, or at least 
minimize this communication difficulty, one must be able to calculate 
the distribution of free electrons about the body in order to predict 
when the plasma sheath will become opaque for certain radio 
frequencies. This calculation cannot be made until the flow field 
(temperature, density, pressure and velocity) about the body is 
known. A significant part of the fluid physics program is concerned 
with the investigations of flow fields. The results of these studies also 
give us better information on the heat transfer to reentry bodies. 

"As a possible remedv for the communications blackout, we are 
studying the characteristics of various gases, called electrophylic gases, 
which have the unique property of capturing free electrons. Such a 
gas, which effectively reduces the electron concentration when injected 
into the flow, might solve the problem. . . . This work is tied closely 
with the work on radio attenuation going on at the Langley Research 
Center and the technique is being adapted to test a variety of fluids 
suggested by the work at Langley." (Testimony; 1966 NASA Auth. 
Hearings, 447-62 ) 
March 16: First observance of Robert H. Goddard Day. On the floor of 
the Senate, Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo.) spoke of Dr. Goddard's 
achievements as summarized bv G. Edward Pendray in Technology and 
Culture ( Fall 1963 ) : 

"Dr. Goddard — 

"Was the first to develop a rocket motor using liquid propellants 
(liquid oxygen and gasoline) during the years 1920-25. 

"Was first to design, construct, and launch successfully a liquid-fuel 
rocket — the event we mark today. 

"First developed a gyrostabilization apparatus for rockets in 1932. 

"First used deflector vanes in the blast of a rocket motor as a means 
of stabilizing and guiding rockets, also in 1932. 

"Obtained the first U.S. patent on the idea of multistage rockets, in 
1914. 

"First explored mathematically the practicality of using rocket 
power to reach high altitude and escape velocity, in 1912. 

"Was first to publish in the United States a basic mathematical 
theory underlying rocket propulsion and rocket flight, in 1919. 

"First proved experimentally that a rocket would provide thrust in a 
vacuum, in 1915. 

"Developed and demonstrated the basic idea of the bazooka near the 
end of World War 1, although his plans lay unused until finally put to 
use in World War ii. 

"First developed self-cooling rocket motors, variable thrust rocket 
motors, practical rocket landing devices, pumps suitable for liquid 
rocket fuels. 

"Forecast jet-driven airplanes, and travel in space." iCR, 3/16/65, 
5051-52) 
• In commemoration of Goddard Day. Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA Deputy 
Administrator and other Washington officials telephoned greetings via 
RELAY II to Dr. Goddard's widow^ in Worcester. Mass. The call had 
been arranged by Vice President Humphrey, Chairman of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council. Other events commemorating God- 
dard Day: At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, a film on Dr. God- 



128 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

dard's life and work was premiered; at nasa Manned Space Flight 
Center. Astronaut Scott Carpenter spoke to several hundred science 
students about Dr. Goddard and rocketry; at NASA Marshall Space 
Flight Center, special recognition was shown, and at Smithsonian Air 
and Space Museum an original Goddard rocket was displayed. ( NASA 
Release 65-87 I 
March 16: At the dedication of a new laboratory at Worcester Pol\technic 
Institute in memory of rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard. AFSC 
Commander General Bernard A. Schriever said that Dr. Goddard's 
writings still provided guidance to 1965 rocket men. General Schriever 
said the nation had made significant strides since Goddard conducted 
his first successful rocket launch 39 years ago. "His booster and its 
payload reached an altitude of 41 feet and traveled 184 feet before it 
impacted after a flight lasting about 2yo seconds. By contrast, the 
first two-man Gemini orbital space shot scheduled for later this month 
will reach several hundred miles into space for three orbits. . . . 

"The Air Force Titan ii booster and the Gemini capsule stand al- 
most 110 feet — over twice the altitude achieved by Dr. Goddard's his- 
toric rocket." 

Mrs. Esther G. Goddard, Dr. Goddard's widow, attended the 
ceremonies, (ap, Bait. Sun, 3/17/65) 

• A low-temperature, primary, non-rechargeable battery had been success- 

fully tested over a range from — 100° C to 68° C. NASA Lewis Research 
Center engineers reported. Designed by the Livingston Electronic Co.. 
the battery delivered constant power and, when fully developed, could 
be used on Mars where the nighttime temperatures were — 100° C and 
the average daytime temperature —30° C. ( lrc Release 65-20) 

• North American and European television broadcasters met at ComSat- 

Corp headquarters in Washington, D.C., and announced outline of in- 
augural broadcast between the two continents to demonstrate possibili- 
ties of Early Bird communications satellite for television use. Plans 
called for major part of telecast to be live transmissions of events in 
various countries. It would include live broadcasts from participating 
ground stations in Europe and North America, a short documentary 
history of past events carried on satellite television, and a brief explana- 
tion of how Early Bird worked and what it would mean to communica- 
tions in the future. ( ComSatCorp Release ) 

• Sen. Ralph Yarborough (D-Tex.) said on the floor of the Senate that 

results of Government-sponsored research should be "freely available 
to the American public" and that he "viewed with . . . skepticism any 
proposal to create a private monopoly" over this information. [CR, 
3/16/65,5051) 

• A NASA-sponsored, 34-day spacecraft atmosphere test began as six Navy 

and Marine Corps fliers entered a space capsule at the Naval Air Engi- 
neering Center's Bioastronautics Test Facility in Philadelphia. The 
fliers would wear a full pressure space suit during three weeks of the 
period, eat a dehydrated menu, and breathe lOO/r oxygen while ex- 
posed to a simulated altitude of 27,000 ft. Investigators would con- 
duct periodic tests to determine the overall effects, physiological and 
psychological, upon each of the men. ( ap, Bait. Sun, 3/17/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 129 

March 16: Dr. Robert Gilruth. Director of nasa Manned Spacecraft Center, 
told a press conference that "there is a question whether astronauts can 
stand long confinement, let alone weightlessness." Dr. Gilruth was in 
Los Angeles to accept the 1964 Spirit of St. Louis Medal from the ASME 
at the Aviation and Space Conference. (Miles. L. A. Times, 3/17/65; 
NAA S&ID Skyicriler, .3 19 65. 1 ) 

• Abraham Hyatt, a former NASA Director of Plans and Program Evalua- 

tion, delivered the 9th Minta Martin lecture at the Conference on Aero- 
space Engineering at the Univ. of Maryland. He said that while much 
had been learned about the space environment since 1958. we still had 
only meager knowledge of the processes that operated on the sun; the 
sun-earth relationship: the sources of energy of the observed physical 
phenomena in space: the planets; and of many other properties of 
space. For a better understanding of the origin and space environ- 
ment of the solar system, the origin and characteristics of the universe, 
or the possibiUty of life on other planets, measurements and experi- 
ments in space would be necessary for a long time to come, he said. 
(Program Notes) 

• Dr. Wernher von Braun. Director of nasa Marshall Space Flight Center at 

Huntsville. Ala., received an honorary doctorate of laws from lona 
College. (A/yr, 3 17 65, 38) 

• Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus. dean of Minnesota Univ.'s Institute of Technolo- 

gy and past chairman of the National Academy of Sciences, urged the 
Senate Commerce Committee to establish sea-grant colleges that could 
exploit ocean resources. He said that land-grant colleges had done a 
magnificent job in furthering agriculture and the mechanical arts and 
that sea-grant colleges could do the same in the field of 
oceanography. Dr. Spilhaus also spoke in support of a bill to provide 
for expanded research in the oceans and Great Lakes by creation of a 
national oceanography council. ( AP. NYT, 3/17/65, 52) 

• Yevgeny Artemyev. vice chairman of the Soviet Union's State Committee 

of Inventions, announced Moscow's intention to ratify the 82-yr.-old 
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. The 
agreement required that each member state grant the citizens of other 
member countries in the matter of patents, trademarks, and other in- 
dustrial property rights the same treatment it accorded its own 
nationals. The Soviet Union would be the 68th country to adhere to 
the convention. (NYT, 3/11/65) 
March 17: mariner iv's ion chamber experiment failed completely, Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory officials reported. Count-rate of the Geiger- 
Mueller tube portion of the experiment had become abnormal in 
February. The experiment had been designed to measure proton and 
electron radiation. Otherwise the spacecraft was operating normally; 
all other high-energy radiation detectors aboard were continuing their 
interplanetary measurements. In its 110th day of flight, MARINER IV 
was traveling 27,743 mph relative to earth and was 35,000,004 mi. 
from earth. It had traveled more than 178,000,000 mi. (nasa Re- 
lease 65-90 ) 

• First Saturn IB booster, the s-iB-1, was placed into a static test stand at 

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for scheduled static firings. Built 
by Chrysler Corp., the 1.6 million-lb. -thrust, 90,000-lb. booster con- 
tained eight engines, was 21 ft. in dia. and 80 ft. long. The stage 



130 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

would be shipped to NASA Michoud Operations for post-firins; 
checks. (Marshall Star, 3/17/65, 1, 2) 
March 17: Discussing the need for sustaining engineering funds for Cen- 
taur starting in FY 1966, NASA Associate Administrator for Space 
Science and AppUcations Dr. Homer E. Newell testified before the 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Space 
Sciences and Applications: "A preliminary study and design phase is 
being initiated by NASA this Fiscal Year [for adaptation of the Centaur 
to the Saturn ib]. The primary mission for this vehicle is the 
Voyager. Initial studies indicate this vehicle is capable of launching 
a payload to Mars in excess of 8000 pounds during all of the opportu- 
nities in the 1970's. Generally, the modifications necessary to create 
this stage combination are not particularly difficult. They do repre- 
sent a large engineering effort, but there is nothing apparent at this 
time which indicates that new technologies will be required. The Cen- 
taur will be mounted, along with the Voyager, inside a fairing the size 
of the Saturn (260-inch diameter). By constructing this size fairing 
the technical problems associated with adaptation of the Centaur to this 
new booster are significantly reduced and the diameter required for all 
of the Voyager missions is obtained." 

Dr. Newell described NASA's sustaining university program as an 
effort "to broaden the national research base in areas of importance to 
the national space effort and increase our capability to replenish con- 
tinually the reservoir of basic knowledge. . . . 

"In response to the continuing manpower requirements, NASA con- 
ducts a predoctoral training program, under which grants are made to 
universities to select and train outstanding students in space-related 
fields. Specialized training for selected students offers them identifica- 
tion with the national space effort, and involves them directly in the 
new programs of the space age. . . . 

"At the present time, about 1,957 students are in training at 131 
institutions. The disciplines represented by these 1,957 students are 
distributed as follows: physical sciences, 51 percent; engineering, 37 
percent; life sciences, 8 percent; behavioral sciences, 4 percent ... In 
September 1965, about 1,275 new students will begin their three years 
of study and research as NASA predoctoral trainees. At that time, 142 
institutions, located in every state in the union, will be participating. 
With the proposed budget of $25 million for fiscal year 1966, about 
1,300 new students would enter the program. Consequently, the NASA 
goal of an output of 1,000 Ph.D.'s per year will not be reached before 
fiscal year 1968 or fiscal year 1969 ... Of the students participating 
to date, 40 trainees have received their Ph.D. degrees. . . ." (Testi- 
mony; NASA A nth. Hearings, 634-35) 

• Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young gave the official name 

"Gemini 3" and the nickname "Molly Brown" to the spacecraft they 
would ride into orbit Mar. 23. (msc Historian; ap, Miami Her., 
3/17/65) 

• First six ships of a 20-vessel fleet that would participate in recovery 

of the Gemini GT-3 spacecraft following the two-man orbital flight 
scheduled for Mar. 23 left Cape Kennedy. Ships would be positioned 
from the mid-Atlantic to the Canary Islands. [Wash. Post, 3/17/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 131 

March 17: A strike was under way at the S256-million Mississippi Test Op- 
erations under construction in Gainesville, NASA announced. The dis- 
pute apparently concerned NASA's contracting policies. (AP, 5/. Louis 
Post-Dispatch, 3/18/65) 

• DOD attracted more than 1.000 industrial representatives to its "regional 

unclassified briefing" in New York. It outlined the nation's military 
needs for the next decade and offered guidance in planning defense 
contracts. This was one of five meetings DOD had called throughout 
the country to provide industry, business, and labor with an idea of 
the military research, development, and production requirements. 
(Wilcke, NYT, 3/17/65, 65) 

• FAA granted an air worthiness certificate for an automatic landing system 

developed jointly by the Boeing Co. and the Bendix Corp. It was the 
first system in the world to be so certified by FAA for operation in the 
U.S. and would enable users to apply to FAA for "Category ii" certifica- 
tion under which a pilot could land with only 100 ft. downward visibil- 
ity and 1,300 ft., or a quarter mile, forward visibility. Most airliners 
must land under "Category I" conditions under which the pilot must be 
able to see the last 200 ft. to the ground and must have at least a half 
mile forward visibility before he could land. First Boeing 707 or 720 
jetliners equipped to land by computer would be available about Jan. 
1966. (Appel, NYT, 3/18/65, 1, 14) 

• FAA Administrator Najeeb E. Halaby announced that four Government 

agencies had joined forces to establish a national data bank for intera- 
gency exchange of information on civil manpower resources. The 
agencies were Dept. of Labor, Dept. of Health, Education, and Wel- 
fare, Civil Aeronautics Board, and Federal Aviation Agency. Halaby 
said availability of such a bank would make it possible to obtain more 
information on status of aviation manpower than faa maintained. 
( FAA Release 65-20 ) 

• Speaking on safety in the Space Age, John L. Sloop, NASA Assistant 

Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology, told 
the 22nd Annual Greater Akron Safety Conference that "for the past 
ten years, the naca and NASA have had a frequency rate (injuries per 
million man hours work) ranging from 3.2 to 2.1. The national in- 
dustrial frequency average, I am told, is 6.12 for 1963 and the average 
for all of Federal government is 7.9." (Text) 

• Dr. Robert H. Goddard was posthumously awarded the Daniel Guggen- 

heim Medal by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Mrs. 
Goddard accepted the medal. ( Av. Wk., 3/22/65, 13 ) 

• Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh (usafr) was elected to the Board of 

Pan American World Airways. During his 36-year association with 
the airline, he had helped develop several aircraft from the Fokker and 
Sikorsky to the Boeing and Douglas jets. Recently he had worked on 
the supersonic transport and the fanjet Falcon. He was also a 
member of the naca from 1931 to 1939. (NYT, 3/18/65, 47) 
March 18: U.S.S.R.'s VOSKHOD ii, manned by pilot Col. Pavel Belyayev 
and co-pilot Lt. Col. Aleksey Leonov, was launched from Baikonur 
Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Tass reported. The spacecraft set an al- 
titude record, reaching an apogee of 495 km. (309 mi.) — higher than 
any manned spacecraft had flown. Other orbital data: perigee, 173 
km. (108 mi.) ; inclination, 65°; period, 91 min. 



132 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

During the second orbit, Lt. Col. Leonov, clad in a spacesuit with 
"autonomous life support system." stepped into space, moved about 
five meters from the spacecraft I tethered by a cable ) , and successfully 
carried out prescribed studies and observations: he examined the outer 
surface of the spacecraft: turned on a film camera: carried out visual 
observations of the earth and outer space: took horizontal, vertical, 
and somersaulting positions: and returned safely to the spacecraft. 
Tass said: "Outside the ship and after returning, Leonov feels well." 
He spent about 20 min. in conditions of outer space, including 10 min. 
free-floating in space. Entire procedure was carried out under control 
of Col. Belyayev. with whom continuous communication was main- 
tained. A television camera fixed to the side of VOSKHOD ii relayed 
pictures of the maneuver to Soviet ground stations. 

Biotelemetric data indicated that both cosmonauts had satisfactorily 
withstood the orbiting and the transition to weightlessness: the pulse 
rate of Belyayev and Leonov was 70-72 beats a minute and the respi- 
ration rate 18-20 a minute. All spacecraft systems were functioning 
normally. Tass said voskhod ii would complete at least 13 orbits of 
the earth. (Tass, ap, NYT, 3/19/65; Komsomohkaya Pravda, 3/19/ 
65. 1, ATSS-T Trans.: Haseltine. Wash. Post, 3/19/65) 
March 18: Atlas launch vehicle sustainer engine system had been success- 
fully fired for the first time using flox, a combination of liquid fluorine 
and liquid oxygen, as the oxidizer. This was the first time a complete 
engine system had been fired using this high-energy oxidizer. Ap- 
proximately 20 firings would be conducted in the series using the 
standard concentration of 309^ liquid fluorine to 70% liquid 
oxygen. Conditions involving thrust level, oxidant fuel ratio, and 
other engine variables would be run to establish engine performance 
limitations. The tests were being conducted under LRC contract, by 
North American Aviation's Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, Calif. 
(LRC Release 65-21) 

• NASA launched a Nike-Apache sounding rocket with a 63-lb. payload 

from Wallops Station, Va., to peak altitude of 98 mi. The experiment 
was conducted for the Graduate Research Center of the Southwest, 
Dallas, Tex., and was designed to measure ion composition and neutral 
composition of the upper atmosphere as functions of altitude. Impact 
occurred 89 mi. downrange in Atlantic Ocean; no recovery was 
attempted. (Wallops Release 65-14) 

• NASA Aerobee 150 sounding rocket was successfully launched from White 

Sands, N. Mex., to a peak altitude of 154.5 km. (96 mi.). The pri- 
mary experimental objective was to obtain ultraviolet spectra of Mars 
and Orion by the use of four spectrographs. GSFC provided the pay- 
load instrumentation. (NASA Rpt. SRL) 

• USAF launched Thor-Altair booster from Western Test Range with uni- 

dentified satellite payload. {U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 136) 

• NASA bioscience programs were discussed in testimony before the House 

Committee on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Space Sci- 
ences and Applications by NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Homer E. 
Newell: "Results recently submitted by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. from 
flights up to five days in length indicate that long term space flight may 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 133 

have several important and serious physiological and behavior effects 
upon the performance and well being of man that need to be investi- 
gated further. There were changes in the circulation system, in the 
biochemical characteristics of the blood and urine, and in the electro- 
encephalogram indices, all pointing to a need for more detailed investi- 
gations. The results from the Biosatellite studies will have broad 
application to long term, manned space flight, including manned space 
stations and lunar and planetary bases. 

"Prolonged manned flights may involve changes similar to those 
observed after 10 days of strict bed rest on the ground. These are 
moderate losses of bone minerals such as calcium, particularly in the 
vertebrae: loss of muscle tone and physical capability; certain cardio- 
vascular changes; and metabolism in general. The effect of continued 
sensory deprivation on behavior and performance is unknown. 

"Biosatellite experiments are of both scientific and practical impor- 
tance and extremely profitable to investigate. We do not presently 
have sound theoretical bases for making precise quantitative (and in 
some cases qualitative) predictions of what we expect to happen. It 
is. therefore, important to carry out Biosatellite studies of suitable 
duration to critically demonstrate and test the effects of weightlessness 
on living organisms." 

Outlining approaches to the search for extra-terrestrial life in NASA's 
bioscience programs. Dr. Newell testified: "(a) An attempt is being 
made to synthesize models of primitive single-celled organisms in the 
laboratory. . . . 

"(b) The physical environments of the planets are being studied 
and characterized by instruments from the Earth, from high altitude 
balloons and from planetary fly-bys. . . . 

"(c) Living Earth organisms are being grown under simulated 
planetary environmental conditions. . . . 

"(d) Plans are being made for both unmanned and manned direct 
exploration of planets. . . ." (Testimony; 1966 NASA Auth. Hear- 
ings, 806-41 1 
March 18: NASA Deputy Administrator Dr. Hugh L. Dryden told the annual 
meeting of the American Astronautical Society in Washington, D.C., 
that NASA planned to select 10 to 20 scientists to begin astronaut flight 
training this summer from over 900 applicants. Dr. Dryden said the 
Mercury astronauts had demonstrated man's ability as a sensor and 
manipulator, and to some extent as an evaluator, in orbit. "Early 
Gemini and Apollo flights will further examine these capabilities so 
that, in* the future, man's full potential can be exploited." (ap, NYT, 
3/19/65) 

• In an article in the San Diego Evening, Tribune deploring the strikes and 

labor unrest at Cape Kennedy and Merritt Island, Victor Riesel said: 
"Well over SlOO million had loeen lost in strikes. 

"NASA officials report To walkouts between Dec. 1, 1962, and Feb. 
15, 1965. Total work loss has been 63,784 man days. This means 
there has been an average of more than five vital strikes a month. At 
least 35 of them have been illegal and have cost 49,596 man 
days." (Riesel, San Diego Eve. Trib., 3/18/65) 

• Tokyo Univ. Aeronautical Institute announced successful firing of a 

three-stajie Lambda research rocket from Uchinoura in southern 



134 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Japan. The rocket reached an altitude of 680 mi. and landed in the 
Pacific northwest of the Marianas. ( Reuters. NYT, 3/19/65) 
March 18: Among the aerospace pioneers selected for San Diego's new In- 
ternational Aerospace Hall of Fame were Scott Crossfield, Charles A, 
Lindbergh. Gen. James H. Doolittle, Astronauts John Glenn and Alan 
Shepard, Dr. Wernher von Braun. Orville and Wilbur Wright, Robert 
H. Goddard, Jacqueline Cochran, and Amelia Earhart. Representa- 
tives of 287 organizations from throughout the world were on the 
nominating committee. Oil paintings of the honorees were unveiled 
at a dinner given in conjunction with San Diego's Space Fair 65 ob- 
servance. (NAA S&ID Skywriter, 3/19/65, 1) 

• Catholic Univ. was the first school in the Nation to offer undergraduate 

study in space science, said Dr. C. C. Chang, head of the Dept. of 
Space Science and Applied Physics established two years ago. In ad- 
dition to space science, the department offered specialization in aero- 
space engineering, applied physics, and fluid mechanics and heat 
transfer. ^ (Hoffman, Wash. Post, 3/18/65) 

• Soviet VOSKHOD II Cosmonauts Pavel Belyayev and Aleksey Leonov 

talked with Cuban Defense Minister Raul Castro, who was in Moscow, 
and told him they had seen his island from space, Tass reported. "It 
was very beautiful, and her green colors were lovely," they said, (ap, 
3/18/65) 

• Rep. J. Edward Roush (D-Ind. ). speaking on the floor of the House, 

compared the states in distribution of Federal research and develop- 
ment funds per scientist employed: "Of the seven states of Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin only Illinois 
exceeds the national average of approximately $25,000 in research and 
development funds per scientist employed in educational institutions in 
this area. Even then this one state exceeds the average distribution 
by only $4,600. The shares of other states range from a high of 
$15,000 per scientist in Michigan down to only $9,000 in my own state 
of Indiana. In between these we find Minnesota, $13,000; Ohio. 
$11,000; and Wisconsin, $10,900. 

"Leading the national list is New Mexico with $163,000 per scientist 
followed by Nevada with $109,000 and California with $63,000 per 
scientist. At the very bottom of the list is Maine with only $4,000 per 
scientist. 

". . . this matter of the uneven geographic distribution of Federal 
research and development funds is involving our national interest." 
{CR, 3/18/65, 5186) 

• A spacesuit that would enable man to leave his spacecraft was 

discussed by Soviet doctor Vladimir Krichagin in a commentary for 
Tass written before the VOSKHOD ii flight: "It is in fact a miniature 
hermetic cabin which consists of a metal helmet with a transparent 
visor, a multi-layer hermetic suit, gloves, and specially designed 
footwear. The spacesuit has its own power circuitry feeding com- 
munications, and a system of pickups of physiological 
functions ... It is impossible to create atmospheric pressure within 
the suit because it would then inflate as a football . . . and the man 
would turn into a statue unable to bend his legs and arms . . . the air 
pressure inside the spacesuit should be at least 0.4 atmo- 
spheres ... It was established that prolonged (over one hour) respi- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 135 

ration in pure oxygen literally washes nitrogen out of the tissues of the 
body and then the pressure can be safely reduced. It was . . . possi- 
ble to free a man in the spacesuit from . . . the immoblizing effect 
of an 'inflated football'. . . . 

"There must be a steady supply of pure oxygen for the cosmonaut in 
spacesuit . . . his body has to 'breathe' and . . . give off up to 300 
kilo-calories [every hour]. 

". . . the spacesuit has a special airconditioning system through 
which room temperature air is pumped into the spacesuit. This air 
carries away excess heat of the organism and skin-exuded moisture. 

"To protect man in space from . . . heat . . . and cold . . .. the 
spacesuit is covered by thermal insulation layer and coated with a light 
color that deflects heat rays ... In these spacesuits of the ventilation 
type . . . used air is injected into the environment. 

"[In] spacesuits of the . . . regenerating type . . . the available 
air and hvdrogen supply circulates from the spacesuit to a generating 
device and back. This device on the suit's surface removes carbon 
dioxide and excess moisture from the 'spent' air . . . replenishes oxy- 
gen supply and cools off gases to a preset temperature. 

"This spacesuit may be used for prolonged work in space and for 
landing on the lunar surface." ( UPI. Rosenfeld. Wash. Post, 3/19/65, 
1, 2; fanner. NYT, 3/20 -65. 1, 3) 
March 18: Soviet Cosmonaut Col. Pavel Popovich, who orbited the earth 
48 times in August 1962, said during a televised news conference in 
Moscow: "In the future, we shall be able to discard the cord connect- 
ing the cosmonaut with his craft. A small rocket engine will help the 
man to return to his ship." 

Vasily Seleznev. Soviet doctor of technology, told the news confer- 
ence he thought the significance for further space research of Leonov's 
leaving his craft was that "in [the] future cosmonauts will take part in 
assembling spaceships. There may also arise the need for repairing 
the craft and. what is most important, there is the prospect of travel to 
other planets." Seleznev said the Russians hoped to reach the moon 
in the not too distant future. ( Rosenfeld, Wash. Post, 3/19/65, 1, 2 ) 
• Vice Adm. Hyman G. Rickover (USn) urged Congress to approve the 
construction of a new type of nuclear reactor that he said was vital to 
the welfare of the United States and perhaps the whole world. Adm. 
Rickover said the reactor — which he himself conceived — was called a 
"seed-blanket" reactor, would employ thorium as the major fuel and 
would produce more fuel than it consumed. It would run about nine 
years on one fuel charge. Reactors of this type — costing more than 
S263 million for the initial one — could extend the fuel resources of the 
United States by several hundred years and also produce electricity 
economically, he said. 

Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, 
testified that AEC had signed a memorandum of understanding with the 
state of California for the development and construction of the pro- 
posed $263 million prototype, and that whereas present "lightwater" 
reactors tapped only 1 to 2 per cent of the energy available in either 
uranium or thorium, the proposed reactor "will demonstrate technology 
which is expected to provide means for ultimately making available 
for power production about 50 per cent of the potential energy in 



136 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

thorium — which represents an energy source many times larger than 
that of the known fossil-fuel [coal and oil] reserves." Admiral Rick- 
over said the proposed power device would have more than twice the 
electrical-generating capacity of any United States central power sta- 
tion. (AP, NYT, 3/19/65, 12) 

March 18-19: Scientific research papers were presented by high school 
students at regional Youth Science Congress contests conducted by 
National Science Teachers Association in cooperation with NASA. Re- 
gional winners would compete at the National Youth Science Congress 
to be held in Washington, D.C., later this year. ( LaRC Release; GSFC 
Release G-7-65 ) 

March 19: After 26 hrs. of flight. Col. Pavel I. Belyayev landed voskhod 
II manually near Perm, Russia. Tass announced. The two-man space- 
craft had completed 17 orbits of the earth, one more orbit than 
planned, and had traveled 447,000 mi. This was the first time landing 
of a Soviet spacecraft had been described as manual. Impact of 
VOSKHOD II on the ground, later revealed as snow bank, was described 
as "soft." (Tanner, NYT, 3/20/65, 1, 3: Shabad, mT, 3/21/65, 3) 

• NASA plan for use of SYNCOM ll in the communications link between the 

Gemini 3 spacecraft and Cape Kennedy was successfully tested in a 
GT-3 mission simulation. Telemetry signals and voice messages 
would come from the spacecraft to a surface ship, the USNS Coastal 
Sentry, in the Indian Ocean. The Coastal Sentry would transmit the 
signals to the Syncom surface station, USNS Kin^sport, which would 
then be a few miles away. From there the signals would be transmit- 
ted to SYNCOM II, 22,300 mi. above the Indian Ocean, down to a 
ground station at Clark afb in the Philippines, and by cable to a 
Nascom (nasa Communications Network) station near Honolulu. 
From Honolulu the transmission would go by cable to the U.S. and then 
by landline to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and on down to Cape 
Kennedy. 

Simultaneously the signals would be transmitted from the Coastal 
Sentry via high frequency radio to a Nascom station near Perth, 
Australia. Cable would carry it to the Nascom station at 
Honolulu. There, the better reception of the two transmissions would 
be sent to the Cape. ( NASA Release 65-93) 

• NASA launched a scientific payload for the Univ. of Michigan from Wal- 

lops Station using a two-stage Nike-Tomahawk. The 122-lb. payload, 
consisting primarily of a thermosphere probe in the form of a 32-in. 
ejectable cylinder, was boosted to a peak altitude of 315 km. (196 
mi.). Purpose of the experiment, a joint project of the Univ. of 
Michigan and Goddard Space Flight Center, was to measure density 
and temperature of electrons and neutral particles at 75-200 mi. alti- 
tude and to test a solar aspect sensor. This was the first firing of 
Nike-Tomahawk configuration from Wallops Island. (NASA Rpt. SRL; 
Wallops Release 65-16 ) 

• President Lyndon B. Johnson sent a message of congratulations to 

Australian Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies, on the occasion of the 
dedication of a new NASA lunar and planetary spacecraft tracking sta- 
tion at Tidbinbilla near Canberra. Australia. The station would be 
operated entirely by Australians, as are the two other NASA facilities in 
Australia, (nasa Release 65-89) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 137 

March 19: Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey. Chairman of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council, made his first address on the U.S. 
space program at the Goddard Memorial Dinner sponsored by the 
National Space Club in Washington, D.C. He said: "I intend to be 
an advocate of a dynamic space program — a program which will 
succeed in reaching to goals we have set — and one which will see new 
goals — one that can see beyond the moon and into fields where we can 
only speculate about the knowledge awaiting us." 

The Vice President spoke briefly about the Soviet Union's voskhod 
II flight: "It is well for us from time to time to take stock — to take a 
careful look — in order to see how we are making out in comparison 
with our main competitor. The facts are that we do have very strong 
competition and hence we have another big reason for a major space 
effort — namely, prudence. Our national security alone would suggest 
reason enough for us to strive for absolute leadership in space explora- 
tion." 

Humphrey pointed out that the Soviets remained ahead in propul- 
sion for their rockets, while the U.S. continued to lead "in the directly 
useful fields of weather reporting, navigation, and communications." 
He continued: "The Soviets clearly have an advantage in studying the 
effects of space environment on human beings. . . . We can salute 
the Russian achievements . . . but we would be foolish if we did not 
understand the military implications of Soviet space science as well 
as our own. 

"Each Russian shock has produced action here. But a mature na- 
tion should not need shock treatment. We are a peaceful 
nation . . . but we would ignore the real interests of the free world if 
we diminished our miHtary efforts in sp-ace." 

In the principal presentation, the widow of the scientist presented 
the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy to Dr. William H. Pickering, 
Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and leader of the RANGER 
VII team that obtained the first close-up pictures of the moon's sur- 
face. 

The National Space Club Press Award for "an outstanding role in 
adding significantly to public understanding and appreciation of as- 
tronautics" went to Aviation Week and Space Technology; Nelson P. 
Jackson Aerospace Award for "an outstanding contribution to the mis- 
sile, aircraft, and space field" was presented to Florida Research and 
Development Center, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Div. of United Air- 
craft; Robert H. Goddard Historical Essay Award was made to John 
Tascher, Case Institute of Technology, for U.S. Rocket Society Number 
Two: the Story of the Cleveland Rocket Society; Robert H. Goddard 
Scholarship (Sl,500 to the university of the recipient's choice) for 
"the purpose of stimulating the interest of talented students in space 
research and exploration" was awarded Willard M. Cronyn, a graduate 
student in Maryland Univ.'s Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. (Text; 
Program; Carmody. Wash. Post, 3 20/ 65 ) 
• "Present-day Americans are thinking, working, and risking to find ways, 
first to explore, and then to use, the new environment of outer space," 
said NASA Administrator James E. Webb in an address to the New 
Mexico Chapter of the American Institute of Industrial Engineers in 



138 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Albuquerque. He continued: ". . . the exploration of space has 
brought a new force into the affairs and life of this Nation. Once 
more the American people confront a new environment — harsher, 
more demanding, more inspiring than any man has ever tried to enter 
before. . . . We cannot yet foresee all the consequences of man's 
entry into space. But the record of history is clear, that the mastery 
by one nation of a new environment, or of a major new technology, 
or the combination of the two as we now see in space, has always in 
the past had the most profound effects on all nations and on all the 
peoples of the earth." (Text) 
March 19: In an interview with Izvestia, one of the two directors of the 
Soviet space program, the "chief designer," whose identity had never 
been revealed, said the voskhod ii program had called for Lt. Col. 
Leonov to spend "10 minutes outside the cabin" but that he could have 
stayed much longer. He said the weight and space saved by having 
two men aboard voskhod ii instead of three men, as on voskhod I, 
had been used to install a decompression chamber and related equip- 
ment. The designer said Leonov's spacesuit was equipped with "dup- 
licate systems" to ensure a high degree of reliability and that a bellows 
had been installed to allow bending of the torso, arms, and legs. 
Izvestia said in another article that Leonov's spacesuit consisted of 
five layers: a heat reflecting layer outside; material for strength; air- 
tight material; heat insulating material; and an inside layer contain- 
ing a ventilation system. 

The "chief theoretician," joint director of the Soviet space program, 
told Izvestia that Col. Leonov's venture into space had shown that 
future astronauts might find it easier to work in space than on 
earth. He said that "we shall yet live to see the day when orbiting 
platforms appear in space — resembling scientific research institutes in 
the earth's upper atmosphere." The theoretician was also quoted as 
saying that Leonov's principal assignment had been to determine 
man's reaction to "weightlessness in free space." He told Tass: "We 
obtained in practice what we had visualized theoretically before." 
(Tanner, NYT, 3/20/65, 1, 3) 

• President Johnson sent congratulations on the Mar. 18 voskhod II space 

achievement to Anastas Mikoyan, Chairman of the Praesidium of the 
Soviet Union. The message said: "All of us have been deeply im- 
pressed by Lt. Col. Aleksei Leonov's feat in becoming the first man to 
leave a space ship in outer space and return safely. I take 
pleasure ... in offering on behalf of the people of the United States 
sincere congratulations and best wishes to the cosmonauts and the 
scientists and all the others responsible for this outstanding accomp- 
lishment." ( NYT, 3/20/65, 3 ) 

• Pope Paul VI, speaking to the "workers of the world" on St. Joseph's 

Day, expressed the hope that the "great and marvelous" Soviet space 
achievement would "serve to render men better, more united and intent 
to serve ideals of peace and common good." (NYT, 3/20/65, 3) 

• Charles A. Wilson, an expert in management and development of space 

and other advanced systems, had been named Project Manager for 
NASA's Project Biosatellite at the Ames Research Center. He succeed- 
ed Carlton Bioletti, who had retired. ( ARC Release 65-9) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 139 

March 19: NASA signed a five-year S235-niillion incentive contract with the 
AC Spark Plug Div. of General Motors Corp. for manufacture, testing, 
and deliverv of primarv navigation and guidance systems for Apollo's 
three-man command module and the two-man lunar excursion module 
( Lem ) . The svstems were beins; desisned by MIT. ( MSC Roundup, 
3 19 65. 8) 
March 20: President Johnson, asked during a press conference, "where 
does our space program stand in relation to the Soviets' in the wake of 
their latest feat?" replied: "The Soviet accomplishment and our own 
scheduled efforts demonstrate. I think dramatically and convincingly, 
the important role that man himself will play in the exploration of the 
space frontier. The continuing efforts of both our program and the 
Russian program will steadily produce capability and new space 
activity. This capability, in my judgment, will help each nation 
achieve broader confidence to do what they consider they ought to do 
in space. 

"I have felt since the days when I introduced the Space Act and sat 
studying Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 that it was really a mistake to 
regard space exploration as a contest which can be tallied on any box 
score. 

"Judgments can be made only by considering all the objectives of 
the two national programs, and they will vary and they will 
differ. Our own program is very broadly based. We believe very 
confidently in the United States that we will produce contributions that 
we need at the time we need them. For that reason, I gave Mr. Webb 
and his group every dollar in the Budget that they asked for a manned 
space flight. 

"Now the progress of our program is very satisfactory to me in 
every respect. We are committed to peaceful purposes for the benefit 
of all mankind. We stressed that in our hearings and our legislation 
when we passed the bill, and while the Soviet is ahead of us in some 
aspects of space. U.S. leadership is clear and decisive and we are 
ahead of them in other realms on which we have particularly 
concentrated." (Transcript; Wash. Post, 3/21/65) 

• NASA Aerobee 300A sounding rocket was successfully launched 

from Wallops Station. Va.. to a peak altitude of 326.2 km. (203.6 
mi.). Primary objective was the nighttime measurement of the den- 
sity and temperature of neutral N^ using an omegatron mass spectrom- 
eter, and the simultaneous measurement of electron temperature and 
density using a small cylindrical electrostatic probe. A secondary ob- 
jective was the testing of a lunar optical sensor especially developed 
for thermosphere probe application. Univ. of Michigan provided the 
experiment instrumentation. (NASA Rpt. SRl) 

• VOSKHOD ii's two-man crew. Col. Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Col. Aleksey 

Leonov, rested under medical supervision at an undisclosed place in 
the northern Ural mountains, Tass reported. 

Soviet space flight headquarters at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Ka- 
zakhstan reported that VOSKHOD ll's antennas had burned away as the 
spacecraft reentered the earth's atmosphere. The descent had been 
tracked by radar units. 

Lt. Col. Andrian G. Nikolayev, Soviet Cosmonaut, said the order to 
use manual controls in landing voskhod ii was given by a Soviet 



140 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

ground station. Izvestia reported. It was not known whether the man- 
ual landing was part of the original program or was made necessary 
by a malfunction of the automatic controls. (Shabad. ISYT, 3/21/65, 
3) 

March 20: Soviet Cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev said in the press that "all 
these operations — the orientation of Voskhod 2 and switching on of the 
braking engine — were performed by my colleague cosmonauts by 
hand, without the help of automation. They performed this task 
brilliantly. They carried out this landing excellently." He did not 
say if they had landed in their target landing area. (Bait. Sun, 
3/20/65) 

March 21: NASA's RANGER IX, equipped with six television cameras, was 
successfully launched toward the moon from Cape Kennedy by an 
Atlas-Agena B. After the Agena had carried the oOO-lb. ranger IX 
into 115-mi. -altitude parking orbit with 17,500 mph orbital speed, 
the Agena engines were cut off. Second burn of the Agena lasted 
about 90 sec, increasing the velocity to about 24,525 mph and freeing 
RANGER IX from the major pull of the earth's gravity, ranger ix 
then continued on its 2Vo-day, 245.000-mi. trip to the moon. About 
70 min. after launch, nasa announced the spacecraft had been com- 
manded to deploy its solar panels that would convert solar energy to 
electrical power for its equipment. 

Projected target was the crater Alphonsus, about 12° south of the 
moon's equator, where gaseous emissions had been reported. On the 
day of impact, Alphonsus would be illuminated by slanting sunlight, 
producing long shadows and bringing out subtle surface features. 
The terminator — dividing line between the dark and sunlit portions 
of the moon — would be only 11° from Alphonsus. 

Five hours after lift-off, NASA announced that RANGER ix's course 
was so accurate it would hit the moon only 400 mi. north of the crater 
target; an inflight maneuver would be executed later to correct this 
small course error. (NASA Release 65-25; Wash. Post, 3/22/65; Sehl- 
stedt, Bait. Sun, 3/22/65; Sullivan, NYT, 3/22/65; WSJ, 3/22/65) 

• Leonid I. Brezhnev, Soviet Communist Party First Secretary, talked by 

telephone to Cosmonauts Pavel Belyayev and Aleksey Leonov and 
promised them a fitting reception when they arrived in Moscow. He 
thanked them for the successful fulfillment of their mission. They 
said they felt well. Congratulations on the vosKHOD II flight were 
sent to Brezhnev by Mao Tze-tung and other Chinese leaders. Peking 
Radio reported. (Loory, N.Y. Her. Trib., 3/22/65; AP, N.Y. Her. 
Trih., 3/22/65 ) 

• Soviet Cosmonauts Col. Pavel I. Belyayev and Lt. Col. Aleksey Leonov 

appeared in public for the first time since they landed VOSKHOD II in 
the Perm region Mar. 19. They were en route to Baikonur Cosmo- 
drome in Kazakhstan where they were expected to undergo detailed 
medical checkups and debriefings by scientists and technicians before 
being welcomed in Moscow in Red Square. (Shabad. NYT, 3/22/65. 
1,3) 

• At a news conference reported by Soviet press. Col. Pavel Belyayev and 

Lt. Col. Aleksey Leonov, the two-man crew of the Soviet spacecraft 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 141 

VOSKHOD II, said they had sighted an artificial satellite during their 
Mar. 18 flight: '*We shouted with surprise when we saw it slowly 
rotating about 800 meters [900 yards] from our ship." Neither the 
satellite nor the orbit in which it was traveling was identified. 

The cosmonauts related the part that each had played. Col. Be- 
lyayev had operated the controls of the decompression chamber 
through which his companion left the spacecraft, recorded Leonov's 
pulse and respiration rate, and oriented the spacecraft so that Leonov 
was always in sunlight during the televised sequence transmitted to 
earth. Col. Leonov said that when he opened the hatch of the air lock 
after decompression, he was "struck by a flow of blindingly bright 
sunlight like an arc of electric welding." The spacecraft was in its 
second orbit, passing over Kerch Strait. Space had an unexpected 
aspect, he said: "Ahead of me was black sky, very black. The sun 
was not radiant, just a smooth disc without an aureole. Below was 
the smooth-level earth. You could not tell it was a sphere, only by the 
fact that the round edge showed on the horizon." The acrobatics 
tired Leonov. especially because of the eifort required to move. He 
said that although the program required that he carefully wind the 
rope that had tethered him to the craft, he found it "a waste of time" 
and simply pulled it into the hatch. "The commander quickly closed 
the hatch cover and injected pressure into the air lock," Leonov said. 

Describing the manually controlled landing, Col. Belyayev said the 
controls were switched on in time and all systems had "worked without 
a hitch." He said the spacecraft landed in the northern Ural moun- 
tains between two big spruce trees in snow 5-10 ft. deep. (Shabad, 
/Vyr, 3/23/65, 1,23) 

March 21: Over 500 contractors shared the work in NASA's $1.35 billion 
Gemini manned space flight project, it was reported. The biggest 
contractors were aircraft companies, but computer manufacturers, 
major airlines, telephone companies, and small businesses, manu- 
facturing highly specialized items were included. ( Hines, Wash. Sun. 
Star, 3/21/65) 

March 22: In NASA FY 1966 authorization hearings before the Senate Com- 
mittee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Administrator James 
E. Webb testified: "Among the hard decisions and difficult choices 
which had to be made in the preparation of this budget was the deci- 
sion to terminate the programs to develop the M-1 large liquid hydro- 
gen fueled engine, the large 260-inch solid propellant motor, and the 
SNAP-8 nuclear electric power supply. The reduction in the requests 
for space technology activities amounting to about S48 million when 
compared with fiscal year 1965, results mostly from these 
terminations. However, as this Committee knows, there is pending 
before it notification of a plan to reprogram $16,950,000 of 1965 
funds so that these projects can be carried forward into 1966 to appro- 
priate developmental points at which important segments of the engi- 
neering data for which the projects were originally planned can be 
obtained for incorporation in our total bank of technological and engi- 
neering knowledge." 

Mr. Webb was questioned by Sen. Walter F. Mondale ( D-Minn. ) on 
when the first U.S. extravehicular activity was planned, and he replied: 
"Within the next year. We are not sure on which GEMINI flight we 



142 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

will do it as yet." Senator Mondale asked: "When do we plan our 
first rendezvous maneuver?"' and Mr. Webb replied: "Within the next 
year, maybe the latter part of this year." (Testimony; !\'ASA Auth. 
Hearings, 623, 663) 
March 22: Testifying before the House Committee on Science and Astro- 
nautic's Subcommittee on Space Sciences, NASA Associate Administrator 
Dr. Homer E. Newell said that since success of any program was meas- 
ured by the nature of the data provided. MMBUS I had more than 
achieved design objectives: ". . . during its three and one-half weeks 
of life. Nimbus took 12.137 individual frames of AVCS pictures, an 
estimated 1,930 apt cycles, and over 6.880 minutes of hrir data. Hur- 
ricanes Cleo. Dora, Ethel, and Florence were observed and Typhoons 
Ruby and Sally in the Pacific were located by this spacecraft. . . . 

"The launch and successful operation of Nimbus I has proved the 
success of the basic Nimbus spacecraft design. It has also given NASA 
a better insight as to what additional modifications will be required in 
the system design for the next Nimbus flight. As mentioned previous- 
ly, the primary limitation of the first Nimbus flight was the result of 
the failure of the Agena B vehicle to inject the spacecraft in the proper 
polar, near-circular orbit and the failure in the spacecraft solar paddle 
rotation mechanism. The first of these failures resulted in less than 
complete global cloud coverage and the second reduced spacecraft 
lifetime. . . ." {Testimony; NASA Auth. Hearings, 928-35) 

• Telemetry data from ranger ix indicated that the probe was on such an 

accurate course toward the moon that JPL engineers decided to delay 
for one day a planned mid-course correction. RANGER IX began its 
245,500-mi. trip to the moon Mar. 21, and was 144,488 mi. from earth 
at 9 p.m. EST. ( UPI, Wash. Daily Neivs, 3/22/65 ; Hines, Wash. Eve. 
Star, 3/22/65; ap, Phil. Eve. Bull., 3/22/65) 

• More than 900 representatives of news media had been accredited, mak- 

ing the GT-3 mission of Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. 
Young the most intensely covered event in the history of space ex- 
ploration. Nearly 1,200 newsmen had requested credentials from nasa. 
(Wash. Eve. Star, 3/23/65) 

• In an editorial in Aviation Week and Space Technology, editor Robert 

Hotz said: "The trail-blazing mission of the Soviet Voskhod 2 still is 
continuing as these lines are written, but it has already opened a new 
chapter in the history of man's conquest of space. It also has empha- 
sized again that, unless some drastic changes are made, this history 
will be written primarily in the Russian Cyrillic alphabet with only an 
occasional U.S. footnote technically necessary. . . . 

"All of this Soviet progress again emphasizes strongly the ultra-con- 
servatism of the U.S. manned space flight program and the utter inade- 
quacy of the tiny step-by-step approach that sounds so convincing 
when defending under-funded programs. This approach is sounding 
more and more idiotic in the face of Soviet space achievements. . . . 

"Each Soviet manned space flight makes it clearer that the Russians 
are widening their lead over the U.S. in this vital area. It also makes 
it clear that the many billions the American people have poured will- 
ingly into our national space program for the purpose of wresting this 
leadership from the Soviets are not going to achieve that goal under 
the present management. . . ." {Hotz, Av. Wk. ,3/22/65, 1\) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 143 

March 22: Reporting on public reactions to the two-man Gemini flight 
scheduled for Mar. 23, Samuel Lubell said in an editorial in the Wash- 
ington Daily News: "In recent weeks more than half of the persons 
interviewed said funds for moon trips would be the part of the Federal 
budget they would cut first. Another third named space exploration in 
general. This interviewing took place before Russia's space exploit of 
last Thursday." ( Lubell, Wash. Daily Neivs, 3/22/65) 

• NASA Langley Research Center scientists Arthur L. Newcomb, Jr., Nelson 

J. Groom, and Norman M. Hatcher reported their work on an infrared 
sensing instrument to help a spacecraft determine which way was up, at 
the IEEE national convention. The device described was sensitive to 
the difference between infrared radiation in space and that emitted by 
a planetary or lunar body; it employed a mechanically-driven system 
of mirrors to scan the region of space in which it was operating. Ra- 
diation gathered bv the mirrors was focused into four germanium lens- 
es, each containing a thermistor sensitive to infrared. When the scan- 
ning mirror crossed the horizon of a planet, the increase or decrease 
registered on the thermistor and generated an electronic signal that 
could be processed through a series of special circuits to provide a 
stabilizing or control command to the spacecraft. 

The new sensor concept was expected to be useful for weather and 
communications satellites, as well as for space probes and other types 
of spacecraft. (LaRC Release) 

• Britain's Blue Streak Rocket, first stage of the European Launcher De- 

velopment Organization's (eldo) satellite project, was successfully 
launched to an altitude of 150 mi. from Woomera, Australia. 
(Reuters, Wash. Post, 3/23/65) 

• Reasons for choosing the moon crater Alphonsus as the target for 

RANGER IX were given by David Hoffman in an article in the New 
York Herald Tribune: "First, they are just plain curious. Rangers 7 
and 8 photographed two lunar seas and taught scientists that all such 
'maria' are pretty much the same. Now scientists want pictorial cov- 
erage of the moon's rugged highlands. 

"Alphonsus' walls rise 7,000 to 10,000 feet above its crater floor, 
and in the basin thus formed astronomers have observed reddish gas 
seeping from the surface. The question, then, is whether Alphonsus is 
really a lunar equivalent of a live volcano. 

"Second, some space experts believe Apollo astronauts, as they de- 
scend on the moon, may encounter an emergency. That emergency 
might force them down in the moon mountains instead of onto a flat 
lunar plain. Accordingly, NASA wants to know surface roughness of 
the smoothest part of the moon mountains. 

"Third, there are some who believe the smoothest areas on the moon 
actually lie within the great craters (Alphonsus' diameter is 70 
miles). If this proves true, astronauts might select a crater floor as 
their touchdown point, assuming there is no volcanic activity." (Hoff- 
man, A'.y. Her. Trib., 3/23/65) 

• Theo E. Sims, Manager of nasa Langley Research Center's Project Ram, 

reported results of reentry communications blackout research before 
the IEEE national convention in New York. Sims said significant 
progress had been made toward understanding the fundamental nature 



144 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

of the blackout problem and suggested that vehicle shape selection, 
signal frequency choice, use of static magnetic fields, and material 
addition to the flow field were all possible solutions. 

Flight experiments, he indicated, had shown the materials addition 
technique to be useful at speeds up to 12,000 mph, and an experiment 
to be flown on the first manned Gemini spacecraft would attempt to 
demonstrate the effectiveness of water addition at even higher 
speeds. (LaRC Release) 
March 22: nasa's actions in releasing foreign satellite information were 
criticized in a report by the House Committee on Government 
Operations, based on study by its Foreign Operations and Government 
Information Subcommittee. Committee stated NASA had deleted from 
its biweekly Satellite Situation Report certain Soviet launches because 
they were designated as secret information by Norad. "NASA has not 
once challenged these security classifications, blindly accepting the mil- 
itary decision. . . ." Compounding the problem, NASA had "publi- 
cized the facts about Soviet failures [Sept. 15, 1962, letter from Ad- 
ministrator Webb to Senate and House space committees] after those 
facts had been carefully deleted from its routine report of satellite 
information. 

". . . NASA has ignored two clear requirements of law — the require- 
ment for civilian control over nonmilitary space activities and the re- 
quirement for the fullest possible flow of public information. By 
yielding, automatically, to the military judgment on what the Ameri- 
can people shall know about Soviet space activities, NASA fails to imple- 
ment its legal mandate. By playing an on-again, off-again secrecy 
game, NASA tends to confuse the American public. . . . 

"Therefore, the committee recommends that, in every possible in- 
stance consistent with the dictates of national security, NASA exercise 
its right to challenge military-imposed restrictions by requiring 
justification and, thus, carry out the mandate to keep the American 
people informed. . . ." (House Rpt. 197) 

• FAA issued a special regulation banning unauthorized aircraft of U.S. 

registry from the designated recovery and associated areas "during 
the time determined to be necessary for the safe conduct of the 
Gemini flight and recovery operations." (faa Release 65-21) 

• AFSc's 6595th Aerospace Test Wing assumed responsibility for Atlas 

launches into the Air Force Western Test Range in support of the 
Army Nike antimissile program and the USAF Advanced Ballistic 
Reentry Systems (Abres) program. (AFSC Release 46.65) 

• Newsweek reported that plans to capture world's speed record with 

yf-12a "mystery plane" had been blocked by Defense Secretary 
McNamara because he felt Congress might press for mass production 
of the jet — a move he opposed. Present record was held by U.S.S.R. 
{Newsweek, 3/22/65) 

• "[Dr. Robert H.] Goddard's dream was the object of derision 39 years 

ago. Who, we must wonder, is the dreamer today who is being 
ignored? Where is he? What is he working on that will change this 
world so vastly 39 years from now? . . ." These were queries in an 
editorial by William J. Coughlin in Missiles and Rockets. Coughlin la- 
mented the fact that much of the U.S. technological progress in the 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 



145 



missile/space field was directly keyed to a race with the Soviet 
Union. He said that "if we do not provide the atmosphere and sup- 
port required for the acceptance of bold new challenges, the onward 
pace of U.S. science and technologv will falter, then stop." [M&R, 
3/22/65, 46) 




March 23: gemini hi Astro- 
nauts John W. Young (fore- 
ground) and Virgil I. Grissom 
in spacecraft immediately 
prior to launch. 



March 23: NASA's GEMINI ill spacecraft ("Molly Brown"), with Astro- 
naut Virgil I. Grissom (Maj., usaf ) as command pilot and Astronaut 
John W. Young (LCdr., USN ) as pilot, was successfully launched 
from Eastern Test Range on three-orbit GT-3 mission by a two-stage 
Titan ii. 

Within six minutes after lift-off, GEMINI III and its two astronauts 
were injected into elliptical orbit with apogee, 224 km. (139 mi.) ; 
perigee, 161 km. ( 100 mi. ) ; period, 88 min. Speed of spacecraft was 
16,600 mph. Toward the end of the first orbit, 93 min. after launch- 
ing, the first maneuver was performed: Grissom fired two small 
thruster rockets that pushed "backward" on the spacecraft, slowing it 
down by about 45 mph. Lessened velocity caused GEMINI III to 
drop in altitude to a near-circular orbit with apogee, 169 km. (105 
mi.) ; perigee, 158 km. (98 mi.). Second maneuver occurred during 
second orbit: Astronaut Grissom used the thrusters to turn the space- 
craft broadside to its flight path. Then he gave a burst that pushed 
the craft about l/50th of a degree from the original course; short 
bursts, fired rapidly, slowed the craft and he turned it into a course 
nearly parallel to his original one. Third maneuver came in the third 
orbit: Grissom fired the spacecraft thruster rockets, dropping into an 
orbit with perigee of 82 km. (52 mi.). Manually controlling reentry, 
the astronauts turned the spacecraft's blunt end forward, ejected the 



146 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

section carrying the retrorockets. Four hours and 53 min. after 
launching, gemim hi safely landed in the Atlantic Ocean off Grand 
Turk Island, considerably off target and some 50-60 mi. away from 
the recovery ship. Intrepid. Navy frogmen from hovering aircraft 
fastened a float around GEMINI iii. Original plans had called for 
the spacecraft, with the astronauts still inside, to be hoisted aboard the 
recovery ship and immediate medical checks made. When Grissom 
became seasick the men were picked up by helicopter and landed on the 
Intrepid : the spacecraft was recovered later. 

The astronauts helped perform two experiments. One was the irra- 
diation of human blood to test the combined effects on it of weightless- 
ness and irradiation. The other was to squirt small jets of water into 
the plasma sheath that surrounded the spacecraft as it reentered the 
earth's atmosphere, testing a theory that a fluid flowing through the 
ionized layer of atoms would permit radio signals to penetrate the 
communications blackout common to reentry. 

Gemini officials said that, so far as was known, this was the first 
time a manned spacecraft had maneuvered in orbit, changing its orbit- 
al path. (NASA Release 65-81; NASA Transcript; Clark, NYT, 
3/24/65, 1, 22; Simons, Wash. Post, 3/24/65; Bishop, WSJ, 
3/24/65) 
March 23: ranger ix underwent a midcourse correction maneuver at 7:03 
a.m. EST that would aim the spacecraft more accurately for impact on 
the moon crater Alphonsus on Mar. 24. The maneuver consisted of a 
series of radio signals that changed the spacecraft's attitude and then, 
through a 31-sec. burn of a small jet engine, speeded up its flight by 
40.6 mph. RANGER IX was then 175,416 mi. from earth, traveling at 
2.943 mph. 

Newly estimated impact point was 12.9° south latitude and 2.3° west 
longitude — only four miles from the original target point of 13° south 
latitude and 2.5° west longitude. Before the correction maneuver, 
RANGER IX was headed for a point about 400 mi. north of Alphonsus. 

J PL Director Dr. William H. Pickering said during a press confer- 
ence that the landing should be well out of the shadow of the towering 
peak in the center of Alphonsus — a possibility that had caused JPL 
scientists some concern since light was needed for the picture-taking. 
{LA. Times, West, Wash. Post, 3/24/65; Hill, NYT, 3/23/65, 1) 

• President Johnson told Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young 

during a telephone call: "Your mission . . . confirms once again 
the vital role that man has to play in space exploration, and 
particularly in the peaceful use of the frontier of space. I am sure 
you would be the first to say that on this flight, as well as on our other 
manned flights in space, there were heroes on the ground as well as in 
space, and the record made by men like Jim Webb, Dr. Dryden, and 
Dr. Seamans, as well as all of those at the Cape, Cape Kennedy, and 
around the world, is a very proud record under Project Mercury and 
now on Project Gemini. And to all of those who have helped to make 
our space flights safe and successful, I want to . . . say 'Well 
done'." (Wash. Eve. Star, 3/24/65) 

• Vice President (and NASC Chairman) Hubert H. Humphrey, visiting 

Cape Kennedy for the day, congratulated Astronauts Grissom and 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 147 

Young and commended all participants throughout the world for "this 
tremendous flight of three orbits. 

". . . this step forward commits us to the next project. Once we 
have completed the Gemini series, we move on to the Apollo Project 
and we move on even beyond that. . . . Let me say that the Ameri- 
can economy is better because of the space program. American edu- 
cation is better because of the space program. American industry is 
better because of the space program and Americans are better because 
of the space program. We are emphasizing here one great character 
of American life — excellence, performance, achievement. . . . These 
are efforts well made and money well spent. . . ." (Transcript) 
March 23: Following the GT-3 space flight, Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA 
Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, said at a press 
conference: "This particular flight is noteworthy for many reasons. 
Perhaps most importantly it is the first manned flight of a Gemini ve- 
hicle and it represents, then, the first step in the remaining twelve 
Gemini flights. In this flight ... we did for the first time carry out 
an orbital maneuver in space. Another first was the first demonstra- 
tion of reentry control. We did control reentry landing point on this 
mission. Another first was the use of Syncom for communications 
with the Coastal Sentry Quebec during the course of the flight." (NASA 
Transcript) 

• AFSC Commander Gen. Bernard A. Schriever said in the keynote address 

at the Air Force/Industry Planning Seminar in Dayton that "we need 
a broader perspective and greater vision in our conceptual 
planning ... we need to be more farsighted." He continued: "The 
Soviet Union is making a major effort to surpass us in science and 
technology. The Soviets now have approximately the same number of 
scientists and engineers that we have. But every year they graduate 
an average of 200,000 scientific and technical students as compared 
with about 120,000 a year in this country. It is also worth noting 
that the number of scientific institutions in Russia has grown from 
about 3000 in 1957 to about 5000 in 1965. 

"Both of these facts indicate that the Soviets are deadly serious 
when they talk about the importance of science and technology to their 
global ambitions. We must more than match their effort, not only too 
maintain our national security but also to keep our world 
markets." (Text) 

• World Meteorological Day was celebrated by the 125 member nations 

of the World Meteorological Organization, a specialized agency of the 
United Nations. (Commerce Dept. Release WB) 

• An editorial in Red Star, the Soviet Defense Ministry newspaper, re- 

vealed that the booster that had launched VOSKHOD ii had developed 
1.43 million lbs. of thrust. The article said Soviet rockets were "un- 
matched" and that the voskhod ii flight "expedites the appearance of 
orbital stations and the landing of people in the heavenly 
bodies." (Loory, N.Y. Her. Trib., 3/24/65) 

• Cape Kennedy and Moscow's Red Square were linked in a British televi- 

sion program, "East Meets West," marking U.S. and Soviet space 
achievements. First part of the program showed the triumphant re- 
turn to Moscow of Cosmonauts Pavel Belyayev and Aleksey 
Leonov. Then the scene switched to Cape Kennedy to show prepara- 



148 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 



tions for the GT-3 flight of Astronauts Virgil Grissom and John 
Young. Both parts were screened "live"- — the Moscow scenes via 
Eurovision and the Cape Kennedy one via communications satel- 
lite, (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 3/24/65) 




V 



^ 



>% 




'^w I ■ '"*•, 



F -' ' '^i^k^ 







March 24: kanger ix photograph of nioim. 38.8 seconds befoi( 
above lunar surface. 



id o8 miles 



March 24: After transmitting 5,814 close-up lunar pictures to earth, RANGER 
IX, traveling at 5,977 mph. impacted the moon at 9:08 a.m. est at 
12.9° south latitude and 2.4° west longitude in the crater 
Alphonsus. The 10-ft., oOO-lb. spacecraft, last in the Ranger series, 
was only four miles off target. NASA had made real-time TV coverage 
available and the three major networks broadcast "live" pictures dur- 
ing the last ten minutes of ranger ix's flight. First pictures, taken as 
the photographic probe was 1,300 mi. from the moon, had about the 
same degree of detail as telescopic views from earth. Those taken a 
few seconds before impact defined objects as small as 10 in. across, 
including close-ups of canal-like rilles on the floor of the crater and 
dimple-like depressions at points along the rilles. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 149 

Photographs shown on television were taken hy the "B" camera, one 
of two wide-angle cameras used. Four narrow-angle cameras took 
other shots. Pictures were received on o5-ft. antennas at Jet Propul- 
sion Laboratory's Goldstone Tracking Station in the Mojave Desert 
and recorded on both 35mm film and magnetic tape for detailed 
analysis. Simultaneously signals were relayed by microwave to the 
JPL laboratory in Pasadena where an electronic scan converter "trans- 
lated" electronic impulses from the 1.152-lines-per-picture of the 
RANGER IX signal system to the standard 500 lines of commercial 
television. 

The Pianger program had begun inauspiciously in 1961 with a series 
of failures and near-misses. Rangers 1 and 2 had been designed to 
test the spacecraft and launch vehicle but were not injected into the 
desired orbit, ranger hi. iv, and v were to rough-land a seismo- 
meter package on the moon to record moon quakes, and to transmit 
closeup photos of the moon to earth by radio. None of the missions 
was successful, ranger vi, first of the reworked and redesigned 
spacecraft, impacted within 17 mi. of its point of aim — but its televi- 
sion system failed. On July 31, 1964, ranger VII successfully re- 
layed to earth 4.316 high-quaHty close-up photos of the lunar 
surface, ranger yiii. launched on Feb. 20, 1965, transmitted 7,137 
pictures. Total number of photographs from ranger vii, viii, and 
IX was 17.267. (nasa Release 65-96; Sullivan, NYT, 3/22/65, 1; ap, 
Dighton, Wash. Post, 3/25/65, Al, A12, A16; Hill, NYT, 3/25/65, 1, 
23; NASA Proj. Off.) 
March 24: A panel of scientists analyzed slides of the ranger ix lunar 
pictures at a post-impact press conference and noted that crater rims — 
some with level areas — and ridges inside the walls seemed harder than 
the plains but that floors of the craters appeared to be solidified vol- 
canic froth that would not support a landing vehicle. Volcanic activi- 
ty was inferred from indications that the moon had at least three types 
of craters not caused by meteorite impact. 

Dr. Ewan A. Whitaker of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory of 
the Univ. of Arizona said parts of the highlands around the crater 
Alphonsus and ridges within it seemed harder and smoother than the 
dusty lunar plains. Dr. Gerard P. Kuiper of the same laboratory said 
of the crater: "It might well be better to make landings there." 

Most significant finding of ranger ix's photographs, according to 
Dr. Eugene Shoemaker of the U.S. Geological Survey, was the smooth- 
ness of the crater walls and of the long ridges on the floor of the 
crater. 

Dr. Harold Urey of the Univ. of California referred to black patches 
in the pictures which he said might be composed of graphite: 
". . . these dark halo craters are due to some sort of plutonic activity 
beneath the surface of the moon. They do not look to me like ter- 
restrial volcanoes. . . . They look like a unique lunar type of 
object." Dr. Urey said a Soviet scientist had reported a red flare 
near a peak in Alphonsus and that analysis had indicated presence of a 
molecule with two carbon atoms. He said this was "a very curious 
situation because this molecule . . . does not escape from any known 
volcano" on earth, (nasa Transcript) 



150 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 24: After watching televised pictures of the moon's surface trans- 
mitted by RANGER IX, President Johnson issued a congratulatory state- 
ment that said: "Ranger 9 showed the world further evidence of the 
dramatic accomplishments of the United States space team. Coming 
so close after yesterday's Gemini success, this far-out photography re- 
veals the balance of the United States space program. 

"Steps toward the manned flight to the moon have become rapid and 
coordinated strides, as manned space maneuvers of one day are fol- 
lowed by detailed pictures of the moon on the next. 

"I congratulate the scientists, the engineers, the managers — private 
contractors as well as Government — all who made this Ranger shot and 
the successes of its predecessors the great space advances that they have 
been." (Text, A^FT, 3/25/65) 

• First Biosatellite nose-cone test was conducted at White Sands Missile 

Range to evaluate aerodynamic and reentry characteristics of the 
spacecraft designed to carry biological specimens into — and back from 
— space, afcrl's balloon-launch group was assisting NASA in con- 
ducting the tests, which involved carrying the nose cones by balloons 
to 88,000-100,000-ft. altitudes, releasing them, then studying their be- 
havior during descent. Evaluated were the drogue ejection mecha- 
nism, deployment of parachute systems, descent rate, and vehicle oscil- 
lation and impact velocity. A second successful test was conducted 
April 29. (OAR Research Review, 7/65, 30) 

• An editorial in the Baltimore Sun said: "Yesterday's Gemini flight is 

described as 'historic' and so it was. So too is each successful new 
space exploration, launched by whatever country, manned or 
unmanned. . . . What is happening is that a body of knowledge is 
being accumulated through increasingly accurate photographs and in- 
creasingly sophisticated exercises and experiences on the part of the 
adventurers of our age, the astronauts. . . ." (Bait. Sun, 3/24/65) 

• XB-70A experimental supersonic bomber broke world aviation weight 

and speed endurance records during a one-hour 40 min. flight. It 
took off weighing 500,000 lbs., the heaviest at which any aircraft had 
been flown, and flew at continuous supersonic speeds for 80 min., 
longer than any other aircraft had. It cruised at a top speed of 1,400 
mph and was piloted by Al White and Van Shepard. (ap. Wash. 
Post, 3/25/65; NYT, 3/25/65; ap. Wash. Eve. Star, 3/26/65) 

• An editorial in the Washington Evening Star said: ". . . judging 

from Soviet cosmonaut Leonov's spectacular 'walk' in the high 
heavens last week, the Russians seem to be well ahead of us at the 
moment. Interestingly enough, however, in marked contrast to the 
wide-open American procedure, they do not let the outside world have 
any look at either the launching or the landing of their 
spacemen. This furtiveness makes one wonder about the nature of 
their program and whether they're really accomplishing as much as 
they claim to be. 

"In any case, regardless of what the Russians are hiding, there can 
be no doubt that the Grissom-Young flight represents an important 
advance for the United States in the race to the moon. Technically, 
we are ahead of the Reds in many respects, and it is entirely possible 
that we'll make lunar landings before them." (Wash. Eve. Star, 
3/24/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 151 

March 24: An editorial in the New York Herald Tribune referred to the 
U.S.-U.S.S.R. race for the moon: "The moon remains an elusive tar- 
get, but it gets closer all the time. . . . 

"Ideally, this should be a cooperative venture, enlisting the common 
efforts of the peoples of all nations; instead, so far at least, it is a race 
between the United States and the Soviet Union. Because it is a race; 
because space technology is, in major part, inseparable from military 
technology: because space prestige is, however illogically, a factor in 
the struggle to keep the earth free, we have to compete. NASA's 
ambitious program of a manned Gemini flight every three months 
promises a vigorous competitive effort. But the American effort does 
not parallel that of the Soviets; each is giving priority to different 
techniques, and the comparative standings in the race are hard to 
measure. What is clear, however, is that the Grissom-Young flight 
has carried the American program a long way forward — and beyond 
that, and more importantly in the long perspective of history, it has 
brought closer the day when man, not American man or Soviet man, 
finally breaks the terrestrial bonds that hold him to his native 
planet." (TV. Y. Her. Trib., 3/24/65 ) 

• "The three-orbit flight by Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young was in 

some ways the most remarkable space trip yet accomplished by this 
country's astronauts," said an editorial in the New York Times. 
"Particularly impressive was the apparent success of a series of 
maneuvers to change the Gemini's orbit — maneuvers that will be re- 
quired to join two spacecraft in orbit, notably on the return leg of the 
projected manned flight to the moon." {NYT, 3/24/65, 44) 

• In a speech before the National Association of Broadcasters in 

Washington, D.C., Gen. Bernard A. Schriever (usaf) remarked that 
the Soviet's space science timetable "always seems to put them one step 
ahead of us." He said: "It is still true that we lead in some aspects of 
space exploration, such as the total number of space shots, number of 
scientific probes, and practical applications of space satellites for such 
purposes as communications and weather observation. On the other 
hand, the Soviets lead in a number of areas with both propaganda and 
practical implications. 

". . . Thus, they have put into space the first satellite, the first 
living creature, the first man, the first woman, the first multi-man 
space ship and now the first man to step out of the capsule and into 
space itself. They also hold the world record for time in orbit, orbital 
distance, orbital weight lifted, and highest orbital altitude. . . . 

"How will the Soviets use their space capabilities? ... we are in- 
terested. . . ." 

Gen. Schriever said ground tests would begin shortly for a collapsi- 
ble and expandable space laboratory for possible use as a space sta- 
tion: "The structure can be compressed into a small package and ex- 
panded to a cylinder 10 ft. in dia. and 25 ft. long." (Text) 

• U.S.S.R. announced that Cosmonaut Valentina Nikolayeva-Tereshkova 

would arrive in Algiers Mar. 26 at the invitation of Algerian President 
Ahmed Ben Bella, (upi. Wash. Post, 3/25/65, DIO) 



152 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 24: Both U.S. and U.S.S.R. space research were criticized by a 
Vatican Aveekly magazine, UOsservatore della Domenica, which said 
they were using it as a "political instrument." 

In an editorial, the publication's deputy director, Federico Alessan- 
drini, said space competition was "beneficial because it widens man's 
understanding and offers new methods of observations which tomor- 
row will allow man to attain other goals. 

"But, as one can see, the political instrument made of it limits its 
results and reveals ... an obstacle to progress." (ap, NYT, 
3/25/65) 

• Aircraft operations in the U.S. increased 10^ for the second consecutive 

year, according to statistics reported in FAA Air Traffic Activity, Cal- 
endar Year 1964. Ten percent gains were made in each of three major 
categories: total aircraft operations (takeoffs and landings at 278 air- 
ports with FAA airport traffic control towers) — 34.2 million; instru- 
ment approaches at Air Route Traffic Control Center (artcc) areas- — 
1.005 million; and ifr (Instrument Flight Rule) aircraft handled at 
ARTCCs — 11.7 million, (faa Release 65-22) 
March 25: mariner iv was nearly 40 million mi. from earth, traveling 
30,000 mph relative to the sun. It had covered 188 million mi. in its 
orbit around the sun. The Mars probe had transmitted to earth more 
than 160 million bits of engineering and scientific information about 
planetary space. (NASA Release 65-95) 

• Soviet Union launched COSMOS LXiv with scientific instruments 

aboard for investigation of outer space, Tass announced. Orbital da- 
ta: apogee, 271 km. (167 mi.); perigee, 206 km. (127 mi.); period. 
89.2 min.; inclination, 65°. All systems were functioning normally. 
(Pravda, 3/26/65, 1, atss-t Trans.) 

• USAF launched an unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb on a Thor- 

Agena D booster. It also fired its 85th Minuteman icbm. (UPI, 
Phil. Inq., 3/26/65) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb reported to President Johnson and 

the Cabinet on both the two-man GT-3 flight and the RANGER IX pho- 
tographic mission. Mr. Webb made these points: "The most 
significant accomplishment of the GT-3 flight was that ... it provid- 
ed verification of the basic design, development, test and operations 
procedures NASA is using to develop manned spacecraft, man-rated 
launch vehicles and a world-wide operational network. . . . 

"We now know that at least two spots, and perhaps three, when we 
look more carefully at the ranger ix pictures, are at least smooth 
enough for the Lem [manned moon landing]. . . ." 

An American astronaut probably would be able to open his space- 
craft and partly emerge from the cabin during the GT-5 flight. Mr. 
Webb said under questioning that there might be some possibility of 
achieving this in the next Gemini flight, but that GT-5 was more 
likely. 

He regarded a Russian cosmonaut's leaving a space vehicle briefly 
as spectacular but said the U.S. was more intent on developing a space 
suit that would enable American astronauts to work outside on space 
vehicles and develop or put together space centers. (Text; UPi, N.Y. 
Her. Trib., 3/26/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 153 

March 25: At a press conference. Maj. Virgil I. Grissom (usaf) and 
LCdr. John W. Young (USN) described the three-orbit GT-3 flight of 
Mar. 23. as busy, exhilarating, near-perfect, and short on surprises. 
Thev said it was highly significant for future flight in space since it 
proved that a spacecraft could be maneuvered precisely, at will, and 
more independently of the ground than before. They said it also 
proved that man can eat and safely dispose of wastes as they will need 
to do on long flights. 

Major Grissom suggested two possible reasons that the "Molly 
Brown"' had undershot the target landing area: one was that something 
might have gone wrong during the final orbit change or when subse- 
quentlv the braking rockets were fired to start the spacecraft's descent; 
the other was that there might have been a miscalculation of the craft's 
center of gravity. f^ASA Transcript) 

• Soviet President Anastas Mikoyan sent President Johnson congratu- 

lations on the Gemini GT-3 space flight, (ap. Wash. Eve. Star, 
3 '25^65) 

• Use of a special airlock through which Lt. Col. Aleksei I.eonov passed 

from the spacecraft cabin into space and back again was a 
major factor in the success of the VOSKHOD ii flight Mar. 18, it was 
reported. According to Soviet sources, the preservation of normal 
pressure inside the spacecraft throughout flight had had an important 
psychological effect on both Col. Belyayev and Col. Leonov. Findings 
were to be discussed at a press conference to be held by the cosmo- 
nauts Mar. 26. (Shabad. NYT. 3/26/65) 

• Tass reported that the Soviet Union was making extensive use of RANGER 

VII photographs presented to the Pulkovo Observatory: "Prof. Alex- 
ander Markov, who supervised the study of the photos, told a Tass 
correspondent that the materials received from the United States would 
be used to study the size and distribution of moon craters, to ascertain 
the origin and development of the entire lunary relief. He empha- 
sized the particular topicality of these problems 'in view of the landing 
of spacecraft on the lunar surface planned for near future.' " (Loory, 
N.Y. Her. Trib.. 3/26^65) 

• Gen. Curtis E. LeMay (usAF. Ret.) said in a speech at a dinner meeting 

of the National Security Industrial Assn. where he received the James 
Forrestal Memorial Award that the "United States should observe with 
great care any tendency of the Soviet Union to develop space 
weapons. Already there is considerable reason for concern about So- 
viet capabilities in space. Many of the techniques the Soviet Union 
has developed so far point strongly toward a military space 
effort. The development of a capability by the Soviet Union to de- 
liver strategic weapons from near space or to deny to the United States 
the opportunity to continue its present programs in space would 
amount to a serious threat and would negate our present favorable 
balance of military power." General LeMay criticized "current con- 
servatism in the Department of Defense growing out of economic con- 
siderations" and said responsible officials should reappraise existing 
military R&D policies. (Sehlstedt, Bait. Sun, 3/26/65; Raymond, 
NYT, 3/29/65, 36) 



154 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 25: Dr. Wolfgang B. Klemperer, pioneer in glider and missile des- 
ign, died of pneumonia. A fellow of the aiaa. the aas, and the British 
Interplanetary Society, Dr. Klemperer had been active in preparations 
for a NASA project to photograph a solar eclipse on May 30 from a 
jet airliner over the South Pacific. (NYT, 3 '27/65, 27 ) 

• Kenneth Gatland, Vice-President of the British Interplanetary Society, 

urged U.S.-U.S.S.R. cooperation in manned lunar exploration 
in New Scientist article. ". . . it seems we are faced with the ludi- 
crous situation of the world's two most powerful nations, each with 
massively expensive rival programmes, heading for a common objec- 
tive which each proclaims is being pursued in the highest interests of 
peaceful scientific exploration." A joint venture would have the ad- 
vantage of providing for contingencies such as rescue of astronauts 
possibly stranded on the moon or in lunar orbit — a capability not 
included in Project Apollo. "This situation can only be satisfactorily 
resolved by the provision in lunar orbit of a second soft-landing vehi- 
cle and back-up crew capable of mounting an emergency rescue 
operation. To achieve this would require a specially adapted version 
of the craft already designed to soft-land astronauts. 

"This is Avhere the merit of US-Soviet cooperation lies for, as an 
international venture, a project to land men on the Moon would surely 
not be undertaken as envisaged in project Apollo; and certainly not 
with such rigid constraints on time. In all probability it would be 
planned as an operation rather than a solo mission, with logistic sup- 
port from a second space vehicle placed in lunar orbit ahead of the 
main expedition. . . . 

"The essential requirement in terms of the eventual lunar expedition 
is that launchings should be coordinated so that expedition compo- 
nents arrive in lunar orbit together. By the mid-1970's. orbital ren- 
dezvous techniques should be well established Avith the ability of men 
to move between orbiting vehicles. An agreed crew could then de- 
scend to the lunar surface while another ship remains in reserve 
orbiting the Moon in case of need. Alternatively, a reserve vehicle 
might be landed, unmanned, in advance. . . . 

"Although at this stage such ... [a combined lunar expedition] 
would have little influence on overall costs, it could mean a great deal 
to the safety of initial manned missions. 

"Such a move would demand concessions on both sides. It would 
mean America abandoning her 1970 target date for placing men on 
the Moon, and while allowing Russia to keep her rocket secrets she 
would have to be prepared to reveal her programme for manned 
spaceflight. . . ." ( New Scientist. ^ ^25 ^65. 114^76) 
March 26: x-15 No. 1 was flown by Maj. Robert Rush worth (usaf) to 
101,900-ft. altitude at a maximum speed of 3,580 mph (mach 5.2) to 
obtain data using infrared scanner and to check the Honeywell inertial 
guidance system, (nasa x-15 Proj. Off.. X-15 Flipht Lop;) 

• NASA postponed indefinitely the launching of a beacon Explorer satellite 

from Wallops Island. The launching had been scheduled for March 
30. (NYT, 3/27/65) 

• Soviet Cosmonaut Pavel Belyayev told a Moscow news conference 

that VOSKHOD II had been scheduled to land after 16 orbits, but 
that there was an inaccuracy in "the solar system of orientation" that 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 155 

prevented use of the automatic landing system. He said he then had 
to obtain radioed permission from the Soviet space center to land by 
manual control after the 17th orbit. The landing site was overshot 
"by a certain distance" Belyayev said without disclosing how much. 

Belyayev said success of the GT-3 flight of Astronauts Virgil I. 
Grissom and John W. Young "was a national achievement of the Unit- 
ed States." He congratulated "the courageous American cosmonauts," 
and said: "May the flights of both ours and American cosmonauts be 
dedicated to unraveling the mysteries of the universe in the interests of 
science and for the good of all mankind." 

Belyayev said voskhod ii was capable of maneuvering in space as 
did the U.S. gemim hi but that this was not in the Soviet flight plan. 

Leonov described time outside the ship saying "it is too early to call 
it a pleasant walk. It could not have been done without hard 
training." He reported his small push on voskhod ii to move away 
from it after going out of the hatch started the spacecraft into slow 
rotation. In pulling himself back to the VOSKHOD II by his cable. 
Leonov disclosed he had yanked rather vigorously and had to put his 
hand out to avoid collision with the spacecraft. 

Belyayev said he and Leonov were found by a helicopter 2^2 hrs. 
after a soft landing in snowy woods near Perm. He said VOSKHOD ii 
was airlifted back to the launch site at Baikonur in Soviet Central Asia 
and could be used again if necessary, (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 3/26/65; 
Shabad, NYT, 3/27/65; Flight International, 4/8/65, 542^4) 
March 26: Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young were honored 
in a White House ceremony where President Johnson conferred NASA 
Exceptional Service Medals on both men and pinned a cluster on the 
NASA Distinguished Service Medal awarded Major Grisson for his July 
21, 1961, suborbital Mercury flight. He was the first man to make 
two space flights. 

NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Robert C. Seamans received the 
NASA Distinguished Service Medal for his direction of space 
efforts. Harris M. Schurmeier received an Exceptional Scientific 
Achievement Medal for his direction of the Ranger program. 

President Johnson said : "A sense of history is present strongly here 
today. All of us are conscious that we have crossed over the thresh- 
old of man's first tentative and experimental ventures in space. . . . 

"Since we gave our program direction and purpose seven years ago, 
many successes have been achieved through the efforts of a great 
American team, which now numbers 400 thousand men and women in 
industry, on campuses, and in government. And this team is inspired 
and stimulated and led by a former Marine and a great public servant 
—Jim Webb." 

Following the ceremony, a motorcade bearing Vice President 
Humphrey, the astronauts, and their party took the Pennsylvania Ave. 
parade route, where thousands had gathered to cheer them, to the 
Capitol; a luncheon in their honor was jointly sponsored by Sen. Clin- 
ton Anderson ( D-N.Mex. » and Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.), 
chairmen of the Senate and House space committees. 

At 5 p.m. the group returned to Capitol Hill for a Congressional 
reception hosted by House Speaker John McCormack 



156 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 

(D-Mass.). (NASA Release 65-98: Text: Carmodv- Wash. Post, 
3 26 65: A' IT, 3 27 65. li 
March 26: Propulsion system and structure of the hypersonic Sprint anti- 
missile missile was successfully tested by the Army at White Sands 
Missile Range. Although the missile was being designed for launch- 
ings from underground cells, the Sprint was launched from an above- 
ground launcher for the test. (DOD Release 137-65) 

• Smithsonian Institution's National Air Museum placed on display a 

quarter-scale model of the GT-3 spacecraft, a full-scale model of 
RANGER IX along with some of the photos it took, and a model of 
MARINER IV Mars probe. The spacecraft were part of an exhibit de- 
picting NASA's broad prosram of space research. (NASA Release 
65-100) 

• It was announced that the special magnetic actuator which worked shut- 

ters on RANGERS VII, VIII. and ix. that photographed the moon, and 
on all nine Tiros weather satellites would be granted a patent. The 
device moved the shutter at a constant velocity so that the exposure 
was uniform. It was invented by RCA engineers Langdon H. Fulton 
and Thomas D. Tilton. I Jones, NYT, 3 7 65. 35 ) 
March 27: M. V. Keldysh. President of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
commented on the voskhod ii flight in an article in Izvestia: "One of 
the most significant accomplishments in the conquest of space was the 
experiment dealing with man's emergence into space. New, grandiose 
perspectives are now open for the construction of orbital stations, the 
docking of spacecraft in orbit and the carrying out of astronomical 
and geophysical investigations in space. In the near future it will be 
possible to create, in orbit around the earth, a Space Scientific Re- 
search Institute in which scientists representing the most diversified 
fields will be able to work. The results obtained as a result of the 
flight of 'Voskhod-2' are most important steps on the way toward car- 
rying out flights to the moon and on to other celestial bodies." 
{Izvestia, 3/27/65, 5, atss-t Trans.) 

• Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young had congratu- 

lated Soviet Cosmonauts Pavel Belyayev and Aleksey Leonov on the 
VOSKHOD II flight, Izvestia disclosed. (UPI, Wash. Post, 3/28/65) 

March 28: Robert J. Schwinghamer, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 
received American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers' Re- 
search Medal. Schwinghamer was cited for his research "leading to a 
better understanding of materials, facilities, principles, and operations, 
and their application to better manufacturing." ( MSEC Release 
65-58; Marshall Star, 3/17/65, 1, 6) 

March 29: Gemini gt-3 Astronauts Maj. Virgil I. Grissoin and LCdr. 
John W. Young were given traditional heroes' welcome from New 
Yorkers at a parade given in their honor. Honored with the astro- 
nauts was Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Associate Administrator of 
NASA. They were met by Mayor Wagner and the city's official greeter, 
Commissioner Richard C. Patterson of the Department of Public 
Events. Mayor Wagner presented gold keys to the city to the astro- 
nauts and Dr. Seamans at a ceremony at City Hall. He also presented 
the city's Gold Medal of Honor to Major Grissom and Dr. Seamans 
and the Silver Medal of Honor to Commander Young. At the United 
Nations, Secretary General U Thant presented medals and two auto- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 157 

Graph sets of U. N. outer space commemorative stamps to the astro- 
nauts. (Sibley, NYT, 3 '29 65, 36; Talese, ?JYT, 3/20/65, 1; Orl. 
5e«/., 3/30/65) 
March 29: Pravda described Lt. Col. Leonov's exit and return to VOSKHOD II 
in giving the first detailed description of the inside of the 
spacecraft. The airlock was apparently built into the place occupied 
by a third astronaut during the vosKHOD I flight Oct. 12. After Col. 
Leonov moved into the airlock, his companion, Col. Belyayev pressed a 
button that closed the inside door and created a vacuum inside 
the lock chamber. At the prescribed moment. Col. Belyayev pressed a 
second button that opened the hatch between the airlock and space, 
allowing Col. Leonov to climb out. The procedure was apparently 
reversed for the astronaut's return. (AP, NYT, 3/30/65) 

• USAF announced successful test firing of a simplified rocket engine called 

Scorpio. The engine had eight combusters in a ring around a nozzle 
and an injector that sprayed fuel into the combusters through several 
ports. Scorpio developed 200,000 lbs. thrust and would be modified 
to produce greater power, (afsc Release 44.65; AP, Bait. Sun, 
3/30/65) 

• Construction work at Cape Kennedy and Merritt Island Launch Area was 

halted when an Orlando union local set up picket lines to protest a 
contractor use of non-union labor. USCE estimated that more than 
4,500 of about 5,000 building trades workers refused to cross the 
lines. NASA had advised the National Labor Relations Board. This 
marked the sixth time in 14 mos. that a labor dispute had crippled 
construction work on Merritt Island where launching facilities were 
being built, (ap, Chic. Trib., 3/30/65) 

• DOD Advanced Research Projects Agency had selected three con- 

tractors for research programs in the materials field: Martin Co., 
awarded $1 million, subcontract with the Univ. of Denver and conduct 
a three-year program on the high energy rate of forming metals; 
Union Carbide Corp., with $2.5 million, would subcontract with Case 
Institute of Technology and the Bell Aerospace Corp. and conduct a 
three-year research program on carbon composite materials; Monsanto 
Research Corp., awarded approximately $2 million, would subcontract 
with Washington Univ. of St. Louis, Mo., and conduct a two-year 
research program on high-performance composites, (dod Release 
193-65) 
March 30: A copper-plated 46V2-lb. "minilab," instrumented to measure 
radiation variations in the earth's magnetic field, was launched to 
8,700-mi. altitude from Cape Kennedy on a four-stage Blue Scout Jr. 
rocket. It carried three sensing devices designed to produce a radia- 
tion profile during its two-hour climb into the Van Allen radiation belt 
and the two-hour plunge back through the earth's atmosphere to the 
Indian Ocean. (UPI, NYT, 3/31/65; U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 
1965, 138) 

• Emergency landing of voskhod ii was the third such failure in the 

Soviet space program, according to an unidentified Czechoslovak scien- 
tist, member of the Astronautic Commission of the Czechoslovak Acad- 
emy of Sciences, during a panel discussion on Radio Prague. He said 
there had been two earlier failures in the unmanned Vostoks. The 
disclosure was made in reply to a listener's letter. (NYT, 4/1/65, 6) 



158 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 30: Gemini gt-3 Astronauts Grissom and Young were feted as 
heroes in Chicago, where they motorcaded from O'Hara International 
Airport through the city to City Hall. An estimated one million 
thronged the streets shouting joyous ovations and flinging a deluge of 
tickertape and confetti. At luncheon with city officials the astronauts 
were given honorary Chicago citizenship medallions, and later a recep- 
tion was given in their honor. Accompanying the astronauts were 
members of their families and NASA Deputy Administrator Dr. Hugh 
L. Dryden and Mrs. Dryden. (Wiedrich, Chic. Trib., 3/31/65) 

• Dr. Harold Brown, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, 

appeared before the House Appropriations Committee's Subcom- 
mittee on DOD Appropriations, in testimony supporting dod's request 
for $6,709 billion new obligational authority for FY 1966 research, 
development, testing, and evaluation. 

He discussed the Vela nuclear detection satellites, orbiting in nearly 
circular orbits. "All four satellites remain in operation, providing 
data on the radiation background and the operation of detectors in 
space." He outlined the aacb's 1964 launch vehicle study, which "was 
intended to identify overall effects and provide a data base for, rather 
than to resolve, individual user program booster selections or near- 
term booster improvement questions." The study "confirmed earlier 
estimates" of launch vehicle needs for the near future. [See Jan. 26, 
Jan. 27] {DOD Appropriations Hearings [Part 5], 1-30) 
March 31: Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched from Wallops Is- 
land with NASA Lewis Research Center experiment to study three wave- 
lengths of light in the airglow: one in the red part of the spectrum, 
another in the yellow, and a third in the green. Altitude of the air- 
glow was measured with phototubes maunted on the rocket. A 26-jn.- 
dia. mylar balloon helped scientists correlate measured light intensity 
and altitude with density of the atmosphere. (Wallops Release 
65-19; LRC Release 65-26) 

• U.S. Army disclosed it had orbited a three-satellite earth-mapping sys- 

tem, with two of the spacecraft circling the earth from west to east and 
the third traveling from pole to pole. The satellites were of the Secor 
type. Two were fired into orbit earlier this month; the other was 
launched Jan. 11, 1964. The three spacecraft, each with a radio re- 
ceiver and transmitter, were helping pinpoint locations on earth that 
were widely separated by large bodies of water, (ap. NYT, 4/1/65. 
11; M&R, 4/5/6.5, 12) 

• Studies carried out under NASA contract by the Union Carbide 

Research Institute had demonstrated the ability of many life forms to 
adjust to at least partial Martian conditions. It had also been demon- 
strated that lack of oxygen produced surprising results: turtles with 
little or no blood; plants that could endure lower temperatures than 
plants raised in normal air. Such temperature resistance would be an 
advantage on a cold planet like Mars. Dr. Sanford M. Siegel dis- 
closed these findings during a press tour of Union Carbide and said 
that if earth life could withstand Martian conditions so well, Martian 
life, if there ever had been any, must have been able to evolve to cope 
with the situation there. (Sullivan, NYT, 4/1/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 159 

March 31 : Discussing nasa Kennedy Space Center's evaluation measure- 
ment program for cost-plus-avvard-fee contracting before the GE Annual 
Method and Work Measurement Conference in Gainesville, Fla., John E. 
Thomas of KSc's Support Operations listed eight points designed to 
give a thorough profile of the contractor: (1) quality of work; (2) 
personnel profile: (3) care and control of Government property; (4) 
effectiveness of the contractor's training programs: (5) speed of com- 
pliance with work requests: (6) contractor attitude; (7) cost-control 
practices: (8) business management practices. He said that from 
these data the Ksc Evaluation Board determined how much of the fee 
the contractor had earned. (Text) 

• Maj. Virgil I. Grissom and LCdr. John W. Young, the Gemini astro- 

nauts, returned home to Houston and to an enthusiastic welcome by a 
crowd of some 12,000 persons. The astronauts walked by much of the 
crowd, shaking hands. "We've had a pretty tough week, then came a 
couple of days of debriefing, then three parades, but today is the best 
of all — when we get to come back home." Major Grissom said. Com- 
mander Young said, "We're sure happy to see all you smiling 
Texans."' ( upl yVlT. 42 65. 12 ) 

• USAF sonic boom series over Chicago, which had begun Jan. 4. 

ended. {Chic. Trib., 3 31 '65 ) 

• Senate Armed Services Committee approved a $15,284,000,000 military 

authorization bill for dod; an unrequested .S82 million was added for 
development of a new manned bomber to replace the B-52 and B-58. 
no longer in production. ( Raymond, NYT, 3/31/65) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb told the American Society 

of Photogrammetry and the American Congress on Surveying and 
Mapping, convening in Washington: ". . . since the dawn of the 
Space Age — in less than eight years — one of our most important tasks 
has been that of mapping — mapping the surface of the world and its 
geodetic figure; mapping the world's weather, as revealed in its cloud 
patterns as seen from above; mapping the earth's outermost at- 
mosphere in three dimensions, and exploring its interaction with the 
newly-discovered solar wind ; seeing and mapping astronomical sources 
for the first time in ultraviolet and X-radiation from outside the earth's 
atmosphere; and mapping areas of our moon to an accuracy 2,000 
times better than that now achievable from earth, and preparing to 
map areas of Mars to an accuracy as much as 100 times better than 
that attainable from earth. . . ." (Text) 

• All but six of the 170 pieces into which Soviet satellite COSMOS LVII had 

shattered after being orbited Feb. 22 had fallen to earth, according to 
GSFc's Satellite Situation Report. Another disclosure of the report 
was that a U.S. satellite orbited March 9 from WTR was orbiting in 
eight pieces, four of which were transmitting signals. fcsFC SSR, 
3/31/65) 

• Construction workers at NASA Kennedy Space Center returned to work, 

ending a two-day walkout which NASA spokesman said cost the govern- 
ment S200.000 a day. Pickets of United Association of Plumbers and 
Pipefitters were withdrawn when Assistant Secretary of Labor James 
Reynolds agreed to meet with union representatives Apr. 5. (UPI, 
Cocoa Trib., 3/31/65) 



160 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

March 31: Lt. Gen. James Ferguson, usaf Deputy Chief of Staff (R&D), 
stated in FY 1966 appropriations hearings of House Appropriations 
Committee's Subcommittee on dod Appropriations: "I cannot help but 
believe, if we take a look at the last 10 years of Russian national 
development, that they are watching for an opportunity to gain a 
major military advantage over us. I cannot help but feel that they 
are examining opportunities in space very thoroughly for this par- 
ticular purpose. 

"In order to be able to offset any advantage which they may dis- 
cover, I feel we must move as rapidly as we can in this area, and take 
full advantage of any other national space programs such as the NASA 
activity. 

"The big program that we hope to get a go-ahead on here shortly is 
the Manned Orbital Laboratory. Here we think we will achieve a 
number of answers in the next 2 or three years. . . ." {DOD Appro- 
priations Hearings [Part 5]. 148) 

• USAF announced a high vacuum test chamber that would simulate 

space environment and altitudes up to 990.000 ft. was being con- 
structed at Wright-Patterson AFB. Liquid metal system components 
such as space radiators, and expandable structures such as solar reflec- 
tors, would be tested in the chamber. Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. 
was constructing the facility, which would be completed in Sept. 1965, 
under a $699,780 contract awarded in Nov. 1964. (afsc Release 
1.65) 
During March: Asked in an interview for the San Diego Union if the U.S. 
would succeed in landing a man on the moon in this decade. Dr. 
Donald F. Hornig, special assistant to President Johnson for science 
and technology, said: "When you lay down a schedule, it says that if 
everything goes as I see it, making allowances for reasonable difficul- 
ties, this is what I'll do. It's a tight schedule and will take a lot of 
doing. We also have to acknowledge that unforeseen problems may 
arise. . . . When we started in 1961 on a nine-year program it was 
not wishful thinking but it was a purely paper exercise. We have 
slipped some on our schedules, but in a sense we have gained ground 
in that we have not run into any serious difficulties yet. We are now 
entering the hardest period of all, when the pieces begin to come out 
of the factory and have to be put together and tested." 

Answering a query if there would be a manned expedition to Mars 
one day, he said: "It would be harder than going to the moon. I 
don't anticipate he will go soon. But we have started the unmanned 
exploration. The results may whet our appetite or may prove that 
conditions are so inhospitable that it isn't worth the effort." (San 
Diego Union, 3/7/65 ) 

• JPL scientists W. L. Sjogren and D. W. Trask reported that as a result of 

RANGER VI and RANGER VII tracking data, DSIF station locations could 
be determined to within 10 meters in the radial direction normal to the 
earth's spin axis. Differences in the longitude between stations could 
be calculated to within 20 meters. The moon's radius had been found 
to be 3 km. less than was thought, and knowledge of its mass had been 
improved by an order of magnitude. (M&R, 3/22/65, 23) 

• NASA Manned Spacecraft Center analysis showed that radiation shielding 

offered by the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (Lem) was negUgible: 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 161 

a particle flux producing a 1-rem dose in the Apollo command module 
would produce a 17-rem dose in the Lem. The Apollo space radiation 
warning system would provide advance indication of need for astro- 
nauts to return from the Lem to the command-service modules. 
[M&R, ?>/Tl/(^. 23) 
During March: usaf San Bernardino Air Materiel Area reported that Atlas 
and Titan icbm's scheduled for phase-out by summer would be used in 
antimissile and space booster research and development 
assignments. Requests had been received to use the silos as civil de- 
fense shelters and for storage of petroleum, gas, and grain. {M&R, 
3/22/65, 12) 

• NASA's Office of Technology Utilization published a technology survey on 

advanced valve technology growing out of space research, (nasa Re- 
lease 65-92) 

• A land exchange between the U.S. Government and New Mexico was 

nearing completion, clearing the way for construction of a $20 million 
rocket testing complex to be built by Bell Aerosystems Co. near the 
White Sands Missile Range. ( ap, Houston Chron., 3/24/65) 

• Republican minority of the Joint Congressional Economic Committee 

said, after reviewing the President's Annual Economic Report, that the 
U.S. emphasis on defense, space, and other Federal research was giv- 
ing the other industrial nations the opportunity to concentrate on civil- 
ian-oriented research, which might enable them to build superior 
economies. (Av. Wk., 3/29/65, 78) 

• The theory that temperature change of 3.5° C or more in 5 min. of 

horizontal jet flight was a true indicator of clear air turbulence (Cat) 
had been disproved by George McLean, afcrl. He explained that Cat 
did not always occur near jet streams and that when it did, the angle at 
which the plane hit the jet stream was a determining factor. (OAR 
Release 365-6) 
•British Meteorological Office's Skua solid-propellant sounding rocket was 
described by Kenneth Owen in Indian Aviation. The eight-foot-long, 
five-inch-diameter rocket had been in use since the beginning of the 
year as a tool for weather observations and other research. A series 
of Skuas would be launched as part of IQSY; launchings were planned 
at the rate of three a week during the nine two-week periods of IQSY 
known as "World Geophysical Intervals." {Indian Aviation, 3/65, 
73-74) 

• Interview of Dr. Boris Yegorov, Soviet physician-cosmonaut and member 

of the three-man voskhod I spaceflight crew, by Novosti Press, ap- 
peared in Space World. Yegorov mentioned nothing about any ill 
effects of spaceflight conditions, but did say: 

"Several times we tried to break away from the chair and hang a bit 
in the cabin. I must tefl you that it's far from a pleasant 
sensation. It's also entirely inconvenient to sleep thus. One tries 
rather to lean on something: either with his head against ceiling or 
with his feet against the chair. During weightlessness it's much more 
pleasant to be tied to the chair. . . . 

"During the time we worked none of us had any unpleasant sensa- 
tions because of weightlessness: we felt fine." {Space World, 3/65, 
37-38) 



April 1965 

April 1: The s-iB-1 stage of the Saturn IB booster was successfully static- 
fired by Chrysler for the first time at NASA Marshall Space Flight Cen- 
ter; the test lasted about 30 sec. Powered by 8 Rocketdyne uprated 
H-1 engines, each developing 200,000 lbs. of thrust, S-lB-1 stage 
would be fired at least one more time before being returned to 
Michoud Operations in New Orleans for checkout. It would then be 
shipped to Cape Kennedy for launch early next year, (msfc Release 
65-75) 
• A prototype Tiros weather satellite was donated to the Smithsonian In- 
stitution's National Air Museum by Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA Deputy 
Administrator, on behalf of NASA, in commemoration of the fifth an- 
niversary of NASA's TIROS I launch. 

Dr. Dryden said: ". . . nine experimental meteorological satellites 
of the Tiros series have been successfully launched and operated. 

"Seldom, if ever, has a complex technological effort in its early 
phases returned such valuable dividends as this project. In the early 
stage Tiros was an Army project. When the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration was created in 1958 it took over the de- 
velopment of the spacecraft. 

"The United States Weather Bureau utilized the data from the very 
first experimental flight. The first Tiros had been in orbit only a few 
hours when it began transmitting to NASA ground stations cloud photo- 
graphs of good quality. The Weather Bureau was quickly able to 
apply the pictures to its day-by-day forecasting. During the years 
since then, Tiros satellites have literally been working their way around 
the world, benefitting men everywhere by supplying previously unob- 
tainable weather data. At this stage, it is impossible to estimate how 
many lives have been saved and how much property loss avoided 
through use of Tiros information, but the totals must already be sub- 
stantial." 

David Arthur Davies, Secretary-General of the World Meteorologi- 
cal Organization, discussed international reaction to meteorological 
satellite developments, listing three main points: (1) "... the tre- 
mendous impact which this new means of observing the atmosphere 
has had upon the world scientific community. . . . [For instance,] it 
was the realization that the meteorological satellite was ... a turn- 
ing point in the long history of man's endeavors to improve his 
knowledge and understanding of his environment — the atmosphere" 
that led to the establishment of the World Weather Watch. (2) The 
impact of the meteorological satellite upon the United Nations. The 
". . . impact of the tiros satellites was so great as to inspire the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations to take the very unusual step of 

162 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 163 

adopting a resolution on a scientific question of this kind [Resolution 
1721 on International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer 
Space] and to maintain its interest from that time." And, (3) 
". . . the general feeling of gratitude and admiration towards the 
United States which the launching of tiros I and which the decision to 
distribute the data to all countries throughout the whole world en- 
gendered." 

Speaking at the ceremony, Dr. Robert M. White, Chief of the U.S. 
Weather Bureau, praised the Tiros program and said that the NASA- 
Weather Bureau Tiros Operational Satellite System (Tos), expected to 
be operational early next year, would modify a Tiros satellite similar 
to TIROS IX to permit daily observation of clouds in the earth's atmos- 
phere. He added: "And one day we may even be using the moon as 
a base for establishing a weather station to monitor and study ter- 
restrial weather." Dr. White predicted continued NASA-Weather Bureau 
cooperation: (1) to further develop "satellite visual and infrared 
sensing devices for the indirect probing of the atmosphere"; (2) to 
"broaden the meteorological satellite system as a means of data col- 
lection"; and (3) to "pursue the use of synchronous satellites for 
weather observations." 

Dr. Morris Tepper, Director of Meteorological Programs in NASA's 
Office of Space Sciences, recalled the launching of tiros I: "It was 
a very exciting morning — waiting for my first countdown . . . some- 
one fixed a leaky lox line at the launching pad by wrapping a wet rag 
around the leak and freezing it solid . . . The launch vehicle, the 
Thor-Able, performed exceptionally well. The spacecraft was placed 
into an exceptional orbit. The next question was — what would we see? 
. . . And finally we had our picture — this first picture from tiros I. 
Yes, there were clouds in it . . . The first three pictures were . . . 
carried to Dr. Glennan, the first Administrator of NASA, and finally we 
all trekked over to the White House and interrupted a Cabinet Meeting 
to show President Eisenhower the results of this remarkable space 
capability." (Texts; NASA Release 65-102) 
April 1 : To date, 46 sounding rocket launchings had been made from the 
USNS Croatan operating at sea off South America's west coast, NASA 
announced. 32 of the firings were two-stage sounding rockets carry- 
ing upper atmosphere and ionosphere experiments; 14 were single- 
stage vehicles to obtain high-altitude meteorological data. Launchings 
were part of NASA's sounding rocket program for the 1964-65 Inter- 
national Quiet Sun Year (iqsy) when solar flare and sunspot activity 
were at a minimum. Expedition data would be correlated with find- 
ings of scientists throughout the world conducting experiments to study 
IQSY phenomena. (NASA Release 65-104) 

• Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey visited NASA Flight Research Center. 

(frc X-Press, 4/9/65, 1, 2) 

• FAA announced one-month extensions, through April 1965, of design con- 

tracts with Boeing Co. and Lockheed Aircraft Corp., airframe con- 
tractors; and General Electric Co. and Pratt & Whitney Div. of United 
Aircraft Corp., engine contractors, for U.S. supersonic transport pro- 
gram. Extensions applied to design contracts awarded to four com- 
panies for period Jan. 1, through Feb. 28, 1965, with provisions for 
one-month extensions from Feb. 28, through June 30. Dollar amount 



164 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

of each one-month airframe contract extension was $1 million 
($750,000 Government, S250,000 contractor); dollar amount of each 
one-month engine contract extension was $835,000 ($626,250 Govern- 
ment, $208,750 contractor) . ( faa Release 65-24) 
April 1 : NASA awarded a $1,307,347 firm-price contract to Space Corp. to 
fabricate, test, assemble, install, and check out engine servicing plat- 
forms at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 on Merritt Is- 
land, (ksc Release 72-65) 

• Members of Southern Interstate Nuclear Board, official agency of 

the 17 states of the Southern Governor's Conference for service and 
assistance in nuclear energy and space technology, toured Cape 
Kennedy and received briefing on NASA activities there, (ksc Release 
73-65) 

• Najeeb Halaby, faa Administrator, announced that he would ask Con- 

gress for enabling legislation authorizing a ten-day, federally-spon- 
sored International Aerospace and Science Exposition, to be held the 
summer of 1966 at Dulles International Airport, Washington, D.C. 
The Exposition, approved by President Johnson March 31, 1965, would 
attempt to stimulate export sales of U.S. products and to demonstrate 
U.S. accomplishments in aerospace and related sciences, (faa Release 
65-25) 

• A proposal was made that Great Britain streamline its space and scientific 

research eiforts by dissolving the Dept. of Scientific and Industrial 
Research and transferring its activities to the Ministry of Technology 
and the Science Research Council. Control of British scientific at- 
taches in embassies abroad would be transferred to Dept. of Education 
and Science which would coordinate its activities with Science Re- 
search Council and the Ministry. (Av. Wh, 4/12/65, 33) 
April 2: Summary report of NASA's Future Programs Task Group, directed 
by Francis B. Smith of LaRC, was sent by NASA Administrator James E. 
Webb to the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and 
Space Sciences and House Committee on Science and Astronautics. 
Report presented "the results of studies made during 1964 to answer 
inquiries made by President Johnson as to criteria and priorities for 
space missions to follow those now approved for the decade of the 
1960's. . . ." It examined (1) conditions and constraints for future 
planning, (2) major capabilities existing and under development, (3) 
intermediate missions, and (4) long-range aeronautical and space de- 
velopments. Report concluded: 

", . . The details of these new missions such as specific spacecraft 
designs and exact mission plans will, of course, be the subject of con- 
tinued study. . . . Continued space exploration will be an evolution- 
ary process in which the next step is based largely on what was learned 
from the experience of preceding research and flight missions. The 
pace at which these new programs will be carried out will necessarily 
depend upon many other factors, such as the allocation of budgetary 
and manpower resources and the changing National needs of the 
future. 

"This study has not revealed any single area of space development 
which appears to require an overriding emphasis or a crash effort. 
Rather, it appears that a continued balanced program, steadily pursu- 
ing continued advancement in aeronautics, space sciences, manned 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 165 

space flight, and lunar and planetary exploration, adequately sup- 
ported by a broad basic research and technology development program, 
still represents the wisest course. Further, it is believed that such a 
balanced program will not impose unreasonably large demands upon 
the Nation's resources and that such a program will lead to a pre- 
eminent role in aeronautics and space." (Text; NASA Auth. Hear- 
ings [Part 3], Senate Comm. on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 
1015-1102) 
April 2: Fifty years ago President Woodrow Wilson appointed the first 
members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The 
first meeting of the naca was held on April 23, 1915, in the office of 
Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison. Brig. Gen. George P. Scriven, 
Chief Signal Officer, was elected temporary chairman. (Hunsaker, 
40 Years, 247; A&A, 1915-60, 3) 

• MARINER iv's star-tracking guidance system was updated to compensate 

for changing angular relationship between spacecraft and the star 
Canopus. (NASA Release 65-111) 

• Landing pads that might be used on unmanned or manned vehicles in 

NASA's Project Apollo were patented for NASA. Bowl-shaped, the pads 
W'ould be attached to the spacecraft's struts by ball joints and would 
be braced inside by collapsible ribs to absorb lateral shock. The 
underside of the bowl would be covered by material similar to sheet 
aluminum designed to shear away if the pads should slide. The in- 
ventor. Josef F. Blumrich of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, said 
the pads would support a vertical landing on level terrain and would 
not dig in or transmit undue shock if they should slip against rocks; 
they were designed to settle on rock or dust or a combination of the 
two. (Jones, ^NYT, 4/3/65, 34) 

• USAF designated Textron's Ball Aerosystems Co. an associate prime 

contractor to supply rocket engines for the Agena space vehicle, it was 
announced. Change would enable the afsc Space Systems Div. to 
procure Agena rocket engines directly from Bell Aerosystems. Bell 
had designed, manufactured, and tested the Agena rocket engine since 
1956 under subcontracts from Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Agena 
had orbited more than 80 percent of the uSAF and NASA satellites and 
had placed approximately 60 per cent of the free world's functional 
unmanned payloads in space. The Bell Agena engine, which had 
contributed largely to that percentage, had been fired in space ap- 
proximately 200 times and had achieved a record exceeding 99.3 per 
cent. (Bell Release) 

• Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer announced the Mar. 31 shutdown 

of the S227-million Mid-Canada Warning Line, an electronic aircraft- 
detection device. Mr. Hellyer said that the shutdown would save $13 
million annually and that improvements in the Pinetree radar system 
had made coverage by the Mid-Canada Line unnecessary, (ap, NYT, 
4/4/65, 12) 

• Hsinhua, official Chinese Communist press agency, announced public dis- 

play in Peking military museum of a pilotlegs U.S. reconnaissance 
plane, shot down over central south China, Jan. 2, 1965, "by the Air 
Force." (NYT, 4/3/65, 2) 



166 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 




April 3: Check out of AEc's 
SNAPSHOT satellite. 



April 3: aec's 970-lb. snapshot spacecraft carrying Snap- 10a nuclear re- 
actor was successfully launched from Vandenberg afb by an Atlas- 
Agena booster into nearly circular polar orbit; 820-mi. (1,320 km.) 
apogee; 788-mi. (1,269 km.) perigee; 112 min. period; 90.17° inclina- 
tion. Four hours after injection into orbit, radio command from earth 
activated the 250-lb. nuclear reactor by moving internal shielding that 
had kept the emission of electrons from the uranium-235 fuel element 
from reaching the chain reaction stage. The reactor would provide 
electric power for a 2.2-lb. ion engine. This was the first attempt to 
test a reactor-ion system in orbit. 

Twelve hours after launch, radio signals from the Agena vehicle 
carrying the reactor indicated it was producing 620-668 watts of elec- 
tricity — some 209^ over its designed power. Electricity generated 
by the reactor would be stored in a 480-lb. bank of batteries and 
released as the ion engine was put through start-stop tests during a 
three-month period. The engine would manufacture its own power by 
electrically vaporizing the 3'/^ oz. of the metal cesium in its fuel tank 
into atomic particles and expelling them at high speed through a nozzle 
to provide thrust of two-thousandths of a pound. 



ASTRONAL'TICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 167 

AEC said the satellite would stav aloft more than 3.000 yrs. — far 
beyond the 100 yrs. it would take for the reactor's radioactive elements 
to decay to a safe level. The reactor would be shut down after a year, 
the ion engine after about three months. If successful, the test would 
signal the first operation in space of a light, compact, propulsion sys- 
tem that would produce power over long periods on small amounts of 
fuel for (1) surveillance and patrol satellites functioning in orbit for 
years, and ( 2 ) manned spaceships capable of speeds of 100,000 mph 
on trips to distant planets now beyond the reach of conventionally- 
fuelled rockets. 

Also orbited was U.S. Army SECOR IV geodetic satellite. (Hill, 
NYT. 4 5 65; ap. Wash. Post. 4/4/65; UPi, Chic. Trib.. 4/5/65; aec 
Release H-60; U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 139; Atomic Energy 
Programs, 1965. 151) 
April 3: NASA Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched from Ft. Church- 
ill, Canada, to altitude of 204.67 km. (127.2 mi.) with Rice Univer- 
sity experiment to make time resolution measurements of electron 
fluxes within an aurora for use in determining transit times of these 
electrons from their sources. Performance was satisfactory. (NASA 
Rpt. SRL) 

• USAF School of Aerospace Medicine was conducting experiments on 13 

rhesus monkeys at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to discover how 
nuclear radiation would affect auditory, visual, and motor systems. 
Studies might ultimately reveal how man would be affected under 
similar conditions. Each monkey was conditioned to respond to a 
visual or auditory cue; by measuring the time required for animal to 
respond before and after radiation exposure, scientists could deter- 
mine the effect of radiation on monkey's ability to perform. Pre- 
liminary results had confirmed that "animals exposed to radiation 
undergo a period shortly after irradiation in which they are totally 
unable to function." (A^ 77, 4/4/65, 68) 

• In Saturday Review, Science Editor John Lear reviewed gsfc's Project 

Firefly as "an epic experiment that will at least track the essential spark 
of life wherever it can be found beyond the earth." 

He reviewed Dr. William D. McElroy's pioneering research in 
bioluminescence [see March 11] and noted that Norman E. MacLeod, 
head of GSFC Bioscience Group, emphasized in interviews the contribu- 
tion of the Johns Hopkins scientist. He also reviewed the flight of 
"robot photographer named Ranger 8," concluding "The Russians tend 
to be more practical about small but crucial obstacles than Americans 
do. Although they are years ahead in rocketry (having now demon- 
strated the ability to move a man out through the hatchway of a space- 
ship in flight and safely back again — a preliminary step to using the 
hatchway to link the two spaceships that will travel as one to the moon), 
they have not yet been so brash as to announce a date by which they 
will make a manned landing on the moon. Before we become still 
more acutely embarrassed by our lunar braggadocio, it would seem 
wise for Washington to abandon the virtually impossible 1970 deadline 
for putting an American on the moon." (SR, 4/3/65, 45-48) 

• Sen. J. W. Fullbright (D-Ark. ), speaking at Virginia Polytechnic In- 

stitute, criticized the U.S. "crash program aimed at landing on the 
moon by 1970 at a cost of $20-to-S30 billion." He said that ". . . the 



168 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

moon is only one of our aspirations, a distant one at that, and in the 
meantime we have children to educate and cities to rebuild." Ful- 
bright cited education as the nation's paramount deficit and advocated 
orienting "our space program to our own needs instead of letting the 
Russians determine for us what we will do and how much we will 
spend." (UPI, Boston Sun. Globe, 4/4/65) 
April 3: "Our military space program is a wall decoration," said James J. 
Hagerty, Jr., in an editorial in the Journal of the Armed Forces. He 
continued : "The technology is there, but we are not exploiting it. Our 
DOD civilian leadership is content to drift along with the idea that 
someday we'll get around to it if we need it. This attitude seems to 
be based on the theory often advanced by Secretary McNamara and 
echoed by [nasa Administrator] Mr. Webb in his Hill testimony, that 
there is 'little chance that the Russians can develop a surprise military 
[space] capability' . . . H there is any chance at all, we should be 
doing something more than we're doing." (Haggerty, J /Armed 
Forces, 4/3/65, 8) 

• Walter Henry Barling, Sr., who built the Barling bomber in 1923 for 

Gen. Billy Mitchell, died at 75. Mr. Barling was one of aviation's 
first test pilots and his Barling bomber was the world's largest airplane 
at the time, (ap, NYT, 4/5/65, 31) 
April 4: Gemini spacecraft, scheduled for a four-day manned flight this 
summer, was delivered to Cape Kennedy. It was flown by cargo plane 
from McDonnell Aircraft Corp., prime contractor for manufacture of 
the craft, where it had undergone simulated flights. Astronauts James 
A. McDivitt and Edward H. White ii, who would pilot the Gemini 4, 
also had made simulated flights at McDonnell, (ap, Wash. Post, 
4/5/65) 

• Dr. Edmund Klein of Roswell Park Memorial Institute for Cancer Re- 

search and Dr. Samuel Fine, Northeastern Univ. professor, in a report 
prepared for the 149th national meeting of the American Chemical 
Society, disclosed that laser beams may cause damage to the eyes, brain, 
and other organs in a way that may not be immediately apparent. 
Klein recommended that researchers "err on the side of safety in 
precautionary measures." 

Lasers are devices for concentrating light into extremely powerful 
beams; researchers were exploring their usage in fields of communica- 
tions, eye surgery, cancer treatment, and in chemical and other in- 
dustrial applications, (ap, Houston Post, 4/5/65) 

• Dr. Krister Stendahl, Harvard Divinity School, replying to the question 

of how the discovery of intelligent creatures on other planets would 
affect religions on earth, said: ". . . it would be a refreshing shock 
to our faith if there were something like intelligent life elsewhere in 
the Universe. It would force us to enlarge our image of God and 
find our more humble and proper place within his creation." (Boston 
Sun. Globe, 4/4/65) 
April 5: One of tiros ix's two cameras had stopped returning useful photo- 
graphs, NASA announced, possibly because of malfunction of a diode. 
Second camera was taking about 250 pictures daily of the earth's cover. 
Project engineers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center had begun a 
"turnabout" maneuver to prevent the meteorological satellite from 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 169 

overheating and to ensure continued solar power. Maneuver would not 
affect satellite's picture-taking ability. 

Launched into polar orbit Jan. 22. 1965, tiros IX had apogee of 
1,605 mi. and perigee of 435 mi. The "cartwheel satellite," so called 
because it was moving through space like a rolling wheel with the 
cameras mounted opposite each other on the perimeter, had taken more 
than 32.000 pictures, 92'( of them useful to weather forecasters. 
(NASA Release 65-120) 
April 5: The White House announced scientists appointed by President 
Johnson to his Science Advisory Committee: Dr. Lewis Branscomb, 
chairman of the joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics of the 
National Bureau of Standards; Marvin L. Goldberger, professor at 
Princeton Univ.: Kenneth Pitzer. president of Rice Univ.; Dr. George 
Pake, professor at Washington Univ.: and Dr. Gordon McDonald, Univ. 
of California at Los Angeles' Institute of Geophysics and Planetary 
Physics. Also announced was the nomination of Frederick G. Donner, 
chief executive officer of General Motors Corp., for reappointment to 
ComSatCorp's board of directors. {Wash. Post, 4/5/65) 

• NASA selected three aerospace firms to develop a concept and prepare 

preliminary designs for hypersonic ramjet research engine: Garrett 
Corp., General Electric Co., and Marquardt Corp. Total value of 
first phase of contract would be about S1.5 million. During 9-mo. 
parallel studies, opening phase of NASA's Hypersonic Ramjet Experiment 
Project, the companies would prepare engine development plans that 
would serve as technical proposals for the second phase of the pro- 
gram. The ramjet engine, because of its relative fuel economy at 
hypersonic speeds, was expected to be useful for hypersonic transport 
aircraft, boosters, and spacecraft flying within the atmosphere. Flight 
research with the engine mounted on the X-15 aircraft was planned. 
Hypersonic Ramjet Experiment Project would be under the technical 
direction of NASA Langley Research Center, with the assistance of NASA 
Ames, Lewis, and Flight Research Centers. (NASA Release 65-110) 

• NASA Nike-Apache sounding rocket was successfully launched from USNS 

Croatan carrying an instrumented payload to provide data on the 
neutron intensity, solar x-ray flux. Lyman-alpha radiation, and 
ionosphere electron density at different latitudes. Experiment was 
conducted for the Univ. of New Hampshire, (nasa Rpt. srl) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb appeared before House Com- 

mittee on Appropriations' Subcommittee on Independent Offices, in 
support of the S5.26 billion NASA appropriation requested by President 
Johnson for FY 1966. He said: 'The budget submitted to the 
Congress by the President provides for activities that are essential to 
continuing the progress that we have made towards our goal of pre- 
eminence in space sciences, application satellites, manned space flight, 
and advanced research and technological development necessary for 
aircraft improvements and for future space activities. It does not 
provide for everything that we could do or would like to do. In fact, 
it has been necessary within the strict budget requirements imposed by 
the President that certain desirable project activities started in previous 
years be omitted from the 1966 budget. . . . 

"Within the confines of this limited budget, the President has pro- 
vided the funds necessary to preserve the opportunity that we still 



170 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 

believe we have to accomplish a manned lunar landing and exploration 
within this decade. The margin for insurance that had been built 
into our original program plan has largely disappeared. However, we 
now estimate this may be possible if we can maintain our current 
successful development efforts and make the all-up systems testing pro- 
cedure work on the very large Saturn V-Apollo combination to launch 
men toward the Moon on earlier flights than we had originally 
planned. There is. therefore, still an opportunity to accomplish this 
national space objective within the time specified. Our work to date 
gives us somewhat more confidence than we had a year ago that we 
can still achieve the objectives that were planned in 1961 in spite of 
a limit on resources that will not fund all the flights planned at that 
time. It is important, however, to keep in mind that in Gemini we 
are just now in a position to find out by flight experiments how men 
can live, work, remain efficient, and make important contributions in 
space for extended periods. . . ." (Testimony; Ind. Off. Approp. 
Hearings [Part 2], 84^96) 
April 5: Announcement was made at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center that 
Astronauts Walter M. Schirra. Jr. (Cdr.. USN » and Thomas P. Stafford 
(Maj., usaf) had been selected for the first Gemini docking and ren- 
dezvous mission, scheduled for launch "the first quarter of 1966." 
Virgil 1. Grissom (Maj., usaf) and John Young (Cdr.. USN ) would 
be the backup crew. (Transcript) 

• An equipment modification to permit opening of the hatch on Gemini 4 

had been successfully tested, William Normyle reported in Avia- 
tion Week & Space Technology. Hoses connecting the spacesuits 
to the spacecraft's environmental control system were lengthened to 
permit the astronaut to stand and partially emerge through the hatch. 
NASA had not yet approved a spacecraft-depressurization and hatch- 
opening exercise for the two-man spaceflight. (Normyle, Av. Wk., 
4/5/65, 27) 

• NASA had published 110-page illustrated report containing ten papers 

on diversified utilization of space-research knowledge delivered 
at NASA and Univ. of California-sponsored workshop held in Los 
Angeles, June 2, 1964. (nasa Release 65-109: NASA sp-5018) 

• Danish satellite tracking station official reported what he believed to have 

been the explosion of a U.S. satellite launched by USAF Mar. 25. 
About ten brilliantly lighted objects crossing the sky were at first as- 
sumed to have been meteors. {M&R, 4/26/65, 11) 

• Antoine Senni emerged from a cave 333 ft. below ground near Cannes, 

France. Senni had entered the cave Nov. 30, 1964. to test effects of 
isolation on human system. (Reuters. Wash. Post, 4/6/65) 

• Gen. Bernard A. Schriever. afsc Commander, spoke in a luncheon address 

on military technology at the World Aff'airs Council in Los Angeles: 
". . . we can expect substantial improvements in materials with re- 
spect to their strength, stiffness, and ability to operate at high tem- 
peratures. 

"One such material, a composite formed from boron fibers in a 
plastic binder, has been demonstrated in the laboratory to have approxi- 
mately five times the specific strength of today's aircraft alloys. . . . 
This . . . will give increased strength at greatly reduced weight. 
Another material is oxide dispersed nickel, which can make possible 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 171 

an increase of several hundred degrees in turbine operating tempera- 
tures, enough to double the thrust of today's jet engines, with no 
increase in weight. . . . 

"In propulsion, these advances in materials and component tech- 
nology can make available engines for vertical takeoff and landing 
aircraft with more than double our present thrust-to-weight ratios and 
transport engines with half of today's fuel consumption. The use of 
hydrogen would make feasible engines for long range hypersonic craft 
flying at 7,000 miles per hour — almost four times as fast as the most 
sophisticated supersonic transport now proposed. And the aircraft 
will be of smaller size to do the same job. 

"New technologies in flight dynamics, such as laminar flow control, 
can materially increase the ranges of transport aircraft. If laboratory 
boron composite structures pan out, we could build aircraft that could 
carry twice the payload at the same weight and range of present models. 
With further understanding of variable geometry wings we can alleviate 
the difficulties of operating at a variety of combinations of speed and 
altitude." (Text) 
April 5: "Within a decade . . . space could be as vital to defense as nu- 
clear weapons are todav," postulated an article in U.S. Neivs and World 
Report. It continued: "The deep conviction of top U.S. Air Force 
leaders is that Russia is directing its main energies and resources not 
to the moon, but to mastery of space nearer earth. Some are convinced 
that Russia, far behind in the missile race, is now striving to leapfrog 
the U.S. and move ahead with manned satellite weapons." {U.S. News, 
4/5/65) 
April 5-7: The Second Space Congress of the Canaveral Council of Tech- 
nical Societies was held in Cocoa Beach, Fla. Rep. Olin Teague 
(D— Tex.) reportedly said in a speech that the House Committee on 
Science and Astronautics supported a military man-in-space effort and 
"almost unanimously" favored restoring $30 million to the Apollo pro- 
gram. Rep. Teague revealed that the Committee had written to 
President Johnson to stress the need for a decision on the proposed 
USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory program and to urge him to "take 
a careful look as soon as possible and make a decision" as to whether 
or not the Gemini spacecraft would be used in the Mol program. 
(M&R, 4/12/65, 16) 

In answer to the question of what man could do in space to con- 
tribute to the military mission, Maj. Gen. Don R. Ostrander, Com- 
mander of USAF Office of Aerospace Research, said at the Space Con- 
gress: "I believe that the mol will enable us to come up with some 
of the answers." (Text) 

Dr. George E. Mueller, nasa Associate Administrator for Manned 
Space Flight, speaking before the Space Congress, said: ". . . ex- 
travehicular activity, as accomplished by the Soviets, and orbital 
changes, as accomplished by Gus Grissom and John Young . . . are 
essential to future progress in space exploration. Both are objectives 
of our Gemini Program and both are techniques that we must learn 
in order to carry out the Apollo Program. We have long assumed that 
both were objectives of the Soviet Program. 

"Given these assumptions, the difference between the scheduling of 
these experiments in the Soviet program and ours is a detail of rel- 
atively minor importance. It has been our judgment that maneuver- 



172 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

ing and changing orbits are more important than extravehicular activity 
for the progress of our program. For this reason, we scheduled the 
conduct of such maneuvers for the first manned flight in the Gemini 
Program. We must assume that the Soviets had their good reason for 
scheduling extravehicular activity on an earlier flight in their pro- 
gram." (Text) 

E. Z. Gray, also of NASA's Office of Manned Space Flight, discussed 
future programs. He stressed that one of the cardinal rules guiding 
the planning was that maximum use must be made of hardware either 
already developed or currently in development. (M&R, 4/12/65, 16) 
April 6: ComSatCorp's 85-lb. early bird I, the first commercial communica- 
tions satellite, was successfully launched from Cape Kennedy with a 
three-stage Thrust-Augmented Delta (Tad) booster. An hour after 
launching, flight control center confirmed that the satellite had entered 
an elliptical transfer orbit with apogee, 22,677 mi. (36,510 km.) ; 
perigee, 908 mi. (1,463 km.) ; period, 11 hrs. 10 min., and was sending 
clear radio signals. NASA handled the launching under a contract with 
ComSatCorp. 

About 40 hrs. after launching, a kick motor aboard early bird I 
would be fired to adjust the path of the satellite to a synchronous 
circular orbit at 22,300 mi. altitude above the Atlantic, early bird I 
would become the first link in ComSatCorp's proposed worldwide 
satellite communications system and would relay radio, television, 
teletype, and telephone messages between North America and Europe. 
(Clark, NYT, 4/7/65; ap, Bak. Sun, 4/7/65; ComSatCorp) 

• Subcommittee Chairman Albert Thomas (D-Tex.) and the House In- 

dependent Offices Appropriations Subcommittee were highly critical of 
Astronaut Virgil Grissom's deviation from flight plan instructions dur- 
ing the GEMINI III flight and eating a sandwich instead of fasting. 
According to published reports, one Subcommittee member referred to 
a "$30 million corned beef sandwich." and another asked NASA 
Administrator James E. Webb how he could control a multi-million 
dollar budget if he could not control two astronauts. (Av. Wk., 4/12/ 
65, 25; Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 4/15/65) 

• Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara confirmed that the U.S. had given 

Great Britain option to purchase F-111 aircraft and spare parts total- 
ing more than $1 billion for its Royal Air Force. Delivery orders for 
the F-111 were expected to be placed after completion of the British 
defense review, (dod Release 210-65) 
April 7: ComSatCorp's EARLY bird i communications satellite successfully 
received, amplified, and returned a television signal to Andover, Me., 
ground station in an unscheduled communications test. ComSatCorp 
Vice President Siegfried H. Reiger said that "the picture quality of 
the test pattern was excellent." (Clark, NYT. 4/8/65; AP, Bait. Sun, 
4/8/65) 

• USAF announced that data from AEC's Snap-lOA satellite indicated "an 

extremely high noise factor" when the ion engine was turned on, mak- 
ing it impossible to determine whether it was operating properly. 
Scientists said the engine, which on Apr. 2 had operated normally for 
an hour, would not be tested further until additional analyses were 
made. The difficulty had not interfered with the major experiment — 
operation of the Snap-lOA nuclear reactor. (UF'i, NYT, 4/8/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 173 

April 7: Four airmen emerged with high voices and a hunger for meat after 
five weeks of confinement in a simulated space cabin at the usaf School 
of Aerospace Medicine. Scientists w^ere studying a helium-oxygen 
atmosphere for possible future space cabin work because it did not 
produce decompression sickness in astronauts and was less hazardous 
in terms of spacecraft fires. (Chic. Trib., 4/8/65; M&R, 4/12 ^65, 10) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center awarded IBM a 5-yr. $175,125,000 

contract for integration and checkout of instrument units for Saturn IB 
and Saturn V programs. Initially announced in 1964, the contract 
would give IBM the additional responsibility for structural and environ- 
mental control systems and integration of all systems, (msfc Release 
65-79) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb was asked by Rep. Charles R. Jonas 

(R-N.C.) in NASA appropriations hearing of the Subcommittee on In- 
dependent Offices. House Committee on Appropriations, to "set to rest" 
the rumor that NASA was planning to phase out MSFC in Huntsville, Ala. 
Mr. Webb explained that during his recent visit to Alabama leading 
Alabama businessmen had asked "questions about the future and 
whether the budget was going to be larger, and whether more would 
come to Alabama. Perhaps injudiciously, I said, 'Unless we can recruit 
better and more able people for the new phase of our program, you are 
not going to keep what you have.' . . . 

"We have a real problem in recruiting the kind of people needed 
to manage these contracts with American industry to go and live in 
Alabama, and the image of the State has been one of the problems that 
we have had. I pointed this out to the businessmen, and pointed out to 
them also that not only the problem of our recruitment was involved, 
that the State itself, in my opinion, was missing a valuable oppor- 
tunity to use these kinds of people to build up its own economy, 
because the very existence of them there in the various areas could be 
of great benefit to the State. . . ." {Ind. Off. Approp. Hearings 
[Part 2], 1264^65) 

• Soviet cosmonaut commander Air Force Lt. Gen. Nikolai Kaminin 

denied foreign newspaper reports that some of his men had died in 
unannounced space shots. Kaminin, writing in Krasnaya Zvezda, 
said: "The names of people who have allegedly died listed in foreign 
papers are mostly names of nonexistent cosmonauts." He said the 
aim of the reports "is to weaken the tremendous impressions made 
by the achievements of Soviet science and technology in space." (ap, 
Huntsville Times, 4/7/65) 

• New York World's Fair opened for its second season. It featured nasa- 

DOD U.S. Space Park, containing two and one half acres of full-scale 
rockets and spacecraft. Among the exhibits were a full-scale Gemini 
model, an x-15 model, full-scale reproductions of Tiros, Nimbus, Relay, 
Telstar, and Syncom satellites, and AURORA 7 Mercury spacecraft. 

An honorary astronaut card signed by Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. 
fCdr., usn), the first American in space, and Astronaut Virgil I. 
Grissom (Maj., usaf). the first astronaut to make two trips into space, 
was available at the U.S. Space Park to young visitors taking a ride in 
the full-scale animated Mercury spacecraft on display there. (Press 
Release) 



174 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

April 7: Dr. Franklin P. Dixon, nasa Director of Manned Lunar and Plane- 
tary Mission Studies, told T\\ in Cities aiaa Chapter in Minneapolis that 
NASA was "investigating; and planning manned missions and experi- 
ments beyond the presently appro\ ed Gemini and Apollo pro- 
grams. . . . 

"A logical sequence for future NASA manned space flight programs 
. . . begins with the Gemini and Apollo program base. The next 
logical development is the Apollo Extension System ( AES ) which is a 
stepping stone to advanced Earth-orbital operations, to lunar-orbital 
surveys, and to lunar surface exploration. The AES Earth-orbital ac- 
tivities are a development phase for an orbital research laboratory or 
early space station as well as a lunar exploration station. Based on the 
Apollo Command and Service module technology, we can also develop 
advanced logistic systems for larger orbiting space stations of in- 
definite life or for greater expansion of lunar exploration if desired. 
The advanced orbiting space station can likewise lead to an orbiting 
launch complex for planetary missions such as Martian flyby and 
exploration shelters or a lunar base for potential exploitation of the 
lunar environment. ... In Earth orbit, the AES can provide for 
experimental operations in the three major fundamental areas . . . : 
(1) flights to conduct scientific research in space requiring man's pres- 
ence; (2) Earth-oriented applications to increase the nation's strength, 
and (3) development of advanced technology for support of both 
manned and unmanned space operations. ... In the field of Earth- 
oriented applications of manned space operations, NASA has been 
conducting studies and investigations jointly with the Departments of 
Commerce. Agriculture, Interior and Defense to determine how we 
might apply Apollo's unique capabilities to improve our ability to 
forecast weather, to communicate globally at high data rates, to make 
an up-to-date inventory of the world's resources, to monitor air and 
sea traffic on a global scale, to support a world-wide air-sea rescue 
service, to make better forecasts of food production and to provide a 
data-gathering system on a global scale. Experiments are also being 
evaluated to enhance over-all development of space operations. 
Biomedical, behavioral and other medical studies would be conducted 
as well as the development of advanced subsystems and technology for 
spacecraft. . . ." (Text) 

• National Science Foundation reported that three New Mexico State 

Univ. engineers were studying satellites' radio signals in an attempt to 
determine exact shape of the earth. Under an NSF grant, the engineers 
had set up and were manning a special tracking unit at U.S. McMurdo 
Station in Antarctica and were tuned in on three spacecraft in polar 
orbit that passed near McMurdo 42 times daily. Stanford Univ. 
scientists had established a unit at Byrd Station to receive information 
from NASA's Pogo, to be launched later this year. ( UPI, A^Fr, 4/11/65, 
2) ^ 

April 8: mariner iv, 49,373,799 mi. from earth and traveling 34,738 mph 
relative to earth, had covered 206,868,340 mi. in its journey toward 
Mars at 9:00 a.m. est. (nasa Release 65-111) 

• NASA Goddard Space Flight Center awarded RCA a $4.6-million contract 

to provide a real-time deep space tracking and data acquisition system 
for support of Project Apollo missions. Contract called for installation, 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 175 

checkout, and documentation of rca's long-range (32,000 mi.) fpq 
radar on land made available near a NASA site on Cooper's Island, 
Bermuda, through a land-lease agreement with DOD. The "Q-6" radar 
would have a flexible capability to support NASA programs other than 
manned flight. (GSFC Release G-9-65; GSFC Release G-10-65) 
April 8: Army Corps of Engineers awarded Fisher Construction Co. a 
NASA-funded Sl,497,728 fixed-price contract for construction of Lunar 
Mission and Space Exploration Facility at Manned Spacecraft Center. 
(DOD Release 220-651 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb said at the U.S. Naval Academy: 

". . . we are on the verge of another major breakthrough — the capa- 
bility to forecast weather at least five days in advance with better ac- 
curacy than we can now predict 24 to 36 hours ahead. Atmospheric 
systems such as weather balloons and ground and seabased instru- 
ments which are alreadv developed, together with satellite systems and 
high speed computers, should make it practicable in the next few years 
to establish a global observation system. As distinguished from the 
satellites whose main mission is cloud cover photographs, the more 
advanced future system will be able to map the structure of the earth's 
atmosphere in terms of wind, temperature, and pressure at various 
altitudes." 

He continued: "We foresee the possibility of carrying sensors in 
satellites that will give us the thermal patterns of the ocean's surface 
which, when compared with the atmospheric conditions in any area, 
may give us the ability to predict the formation of fog. Similarly, 
ocean currents can be mapped and studied to advance the science of 
oceanography. We can even measure sea state — roughness of the sea 
— from a satellite." ( Text ) 

• Dr. Eugene Shoemaker, head of the astrogeological branch of the U.S. 

Geological Survey, said in an interview with the Houston Post while at 
Rice Univ. as a speaker in the President's Lecture Series that the 
Ranger program had cost a total of about $200 million. He estimated 
that each Ranger shot had cost just under $30 million and said that 
although four of the seven Ranger missions had failed, it would have 
been foolish to settle for one success: "Just imagine that the Martians 
sent a Ranger-like camera to take pictures of the earth. With just 
one shot, they'd end up with pictures of a space no bigger than the 
size of an urban lot, or of the peak of the Alps, or of the sand dunes 
in Arabia. Could they tell anything about the earth from pictures of 
just one of these?'' The Ranger program, just concluded with the 
success of RANGER IX, gave L'.S. scientists good pictures of three dif- 
ferent areas of the moon. Shoemaker said. "A Ranger picture is worth 
a million computer words." I Perez. Houston Post, 4/8/65) 

• Panel on Science and Technology of the House Committee on Sci- 

ence and Technology reported on its sixth meeting (aeronautics), Jan. 
26-27. Report was a comprehensive summary of views by the Com- 
mittee and Panel members and the more than 150 scientists and engi- 
neers attending as representatives of Government, industry, and the 
scientific and academic communities. In its general conclusion, report 
stated three objectives for future improvement of U.S. civil aeronau- 
tics: "Insure that our economy continued to have the best air trans- 
portation system to give it a continuing advantage in world competi- 



176 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

tion"; "Insure that U.S. aeronautical development is immediately 
responsive to the demand, and sufficiently great to continue leadership 
in the domestic and world markets" ; and "Maintain recognized world 
leadership in technical matters to insure a favorable image and stature 
of the U.S. technological competence in aeronautical development." 

Some of its general observations on the future of aeronautics: 

"There is a need for more centralized direction, control, and pro- 
cedure ... [of the] widely dispersed . , . technical competence and 
expertise behind aeronautical development in the United States. . . . 

"The aircraft industry in general is willing to contribute to any 
program designed to further aviation advancement, but the degree of 
their contribution will depend upon the extent of Government support, 
and the availability of a market. The extent is also dictated by the 
extent of their earnings on marketable products for which the Govern- 
ment is usually the principal customer. 

"There are indications that an insufficient amount of research effort 
is being put forth in the hypersonic regime of the flight spectrum, par- 
ticularly in the field of propulsion. 

"The aeronautical research and development capability of NASA is 
not being used to its maximum capacity." (House Rpt. 227, 32-34) 
April 8: In address on "The Early History of the Space Age" at the Univ. 
of Wisconsin, Eugene M. Emme, the nasa Historian, said: "The Space 
Age clocks on. Never before have basic alterations in fundamental 
knowledge, in practical engineering, and for an universal perspective 
been thrust so quickly upon mankind. . . . 

"Few serious thoughts, whether associated with the physical or so- 
cial sciences, or humanities, can ignore some aspect of the space ven- 
ture. Like it or not, man's time for space mobility is here." (Text) 

• The Flight Safety Foundation, under FAA contract, conducted day and 

night tests in the purposely-wrecked Constellation aircraft at Deer 
Valley, Ariz., to obtain data on emergency evacuation of passengers 
in survivable accidents. "Passengers" were local volunteers; airline 
stewardesses were provided by several air carriers. Evacuation dupli- 
cated obstacles passengers would face in real situations. Passenger 
reactions were recorded with remotely-controlled motion picture cam- 
eras; certain phases of the operation were timed with precision clocks. 
Test results would aid in planning advanced studies which would ex- 
plore seat spacing, aisle widths, and other related factors, (faa Re- 
lease 65-27 ) 
April 9: ComSatCorp's early bird i communications satellite, launched 
April 6 by nasa, was placed into a "near letter perfect" synchronous 
orbit, with apogee. 36,637.1 km. (22,765 mi.); perigee, 35,041.9 km. 
(21,774 mi.) The five-day-early maneuver was accomplished by fir- 
ing small retrorocket onboard satellite 10.7 sec. The satellite would 
be allowed to drift about 5° — over 300 mi. — to the exact point over 
the Atlantic where it would remain for its expected three to five year 
lifetime. (/VYr, 4/10/65 ) 

• USAF launched Blue Scout Jr. space probe from P^astern Test Range with 

instrumented payload to measure sjjace environment effects on biologi- 
cal samples. The probe reached altitude of about 18.000 mi., re- 
entered over the South Atlantic Ocean. Telemetrv was received for 
only 15 min. iU.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1065, 140) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 177 

April 9: Dr. George E. Mueller. NASA Associate Administrator for Manned 
Space Flight, announced change of primary control of manned flight 
missions from Cape Kennedy to Manned Spacecraft Center Mission 
Control Center. Christopher Kraft, mission flight director for GT-3 
flight, completed Mar. 28. would serve as mission director for GT-4. 
flight scheduled for later this year. MSC Mission Control Center would 
provide centralized control of manned spaceflight programs from 
launch through recovery; computer-driven time and data displays 
would report instantly the status of astronauts, spacecraft, and support- 
ing operations to mission 'flight director. Most information would 
travel over land lines. (Transcript: NASA Release 65-119) 

• NASA awarded MIT separate cost reimbursement contract, with no fee, to 

cover further work on guidance and navigation of Apollo command 
and lunar excursion modules. The new contract, running from March 
1 through November 4. 1965. totaled $15,529,000, including $1.4 mil- 
lion to support research activities in the guidance and navigation field. 
(NASA Release 65-116) 

• NASA was negotiating with Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp., prime 

contractor to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for Oao pro- 
gram, to convert prototype Oao into flight-ready spacecraft. The con- 
tract was expected to exceed $8 million. The converted prototype, to 
be designated Oao A-2, would be the third spacecraft scheduled for 
launch in Oao program. First planned launch in the series was 
scheduled for late this year or early next year at Cape Kennedy. 
(NASA Release 65-115) 

• The Christian Science Monitor asked Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Asso- 

ciate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, and Dr. Philip 
H. Abelson. Director of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington and editor of Science magazine, to present 
elements of the debate on the question "Man in space: is it worth $40 
billion?" 

Dr. Newell presented the case for manned space flight: "The manned 
space flight effort serves to round out the total program. Its primary 
aim is to develop a broad space capability that will secure to this na- 
tion strength, security, flexibility, and freedom of choice in space. 
Landing men on the moon and returning them to earth has been 
chosen as the means to this broader, more substantive end, and it is 
not to be considered as the only justification for our manned space 
effort." 

Dr. Abelson, speaking for the critics, said: "The unmanned program 
has been a substantial contributor to our international prestige. 
Moreover, prestige based on science and technology tends to be endur- 
ing. ... 

"Our Apollo program was launched for reasons of international 
prestige. The yield has not been very good or very lasting. How 
many citizens can now recall the names of the astronauts and of their 
capsules? We can expect much the same reaction when we finally 
accomplish a moon landing." iCSM, 4/9/65) 

• NASA announced publication of a summary of research results of the joint 

NASA-USAF-USN, 10-yr. x-15 flight program. (NASA Release 65-114; 
NASA SP-60, X-15 Research Results ) 



178 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

April 9: After two days of discussion with West Germany's Minister of De- 
fense Kai Uwe von Hassel, Britain's Minister of Defence Denis Healey 
told a news conference in Bonn, Germany, that the two countries had 
agreed to develop by the 1970's a light combat Vtol fighter and possi- 
bly a heavy aircraft to succeed the F-104 Starfighter. Healey added 
that studies were being conducted on other weapon projects, including 
tanks and tank equipment. (AT^, 4/10/65, 46) 

• Editorial in Life put into perspective the "break-throughs" and spectacular 

"firsts" recently achieved in space exploration — U.S.S.R.'s VOSKHOD II, 
U.S.'s GEMINI III, RANGER IX, ComSatCorp's EARLY BIRD. "The first 
Sputnik was less than eight years ago. but already the space age 
has reached what President Johnson calls an 'early maturity.' Each 
technical advance is a planned and measured consequence of the 
previous one; Mercury fed Gemini and Gemini feeds Apollo; each 
hero stands on the shoulders of predecessors who are also his con- 
temporaries. . . . 

"Our space program is, as Johnson puts it, 'a national asset of 
proven worth and incalculable potential.' Its cost is leveling off at 
about $7 billion a year. One hopes this includes enough to land us on 
the moon before the Russians — and what's wrong with wanting to be 
first? ... 

"Our program, which may or may not be overtaking the Russian, is 
well past its own first period of jumpy desperation. We can stick to it 
in confidence." (Life, 4/9/65) 

• U.S.S.R. was building a spaceship designed not for space flight, but 

for exhibition in a new space museum to be built at the site of Moscow's 
Space Monument. Inside the model cabin, which would have a seating 
capacity of 100, a movie shov/ing the earth as it appeared from space 
would be shown to visitors, (ap, San Diego Eve. Trih., 4/9/65, 22) 

• Communist China's failure to conduct a scheduled second nuclear test 

in March was reported by an unidentified U.S. researcher in an inter- 
view with AP. He said reasons for the delav might be technical or 
political, (ap, NYT, 4/11/65, 94) 
April 10: One of the five F-1 engines on the Saturn V booster was success- 
fully static fired at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for 16-yi sec. 
{Marshall Star, 4/14/65, 1) 

• In a speech to the Interact Conference of First Rotary District 696 

in Orlando, Fla., Ksc's Richard E. Dutton. said: ". . . .NASA's 
major launch facility for space vehicles and unmanned and manned 
spacecraft [is] the John F. Kennedy Space Center and its new Merritt 
Island Spaceport. I hope you noticed that I used the term Spaceport, 
instead of Moonport, as it is often referred to in the news media. We 
call it a Spaceport because its basic concept is not to exist as a research 
and development facility for any one mission only; it is being created 
to function as an actual port, with a space vehicle launch rate that may 
be some day as high as one manned launch per month. 

"However, just as important to consider is the spaceport's capacity 
for growth. It can accommodate launch vehicles with up to 40 million 
pounds of thrust, 32.5 million pounds more than the Saturn V here can 
deliver. Because of this, the United States has not invested three 
quarters of a billion dollars in a facility which will serve only to 
launch a manned lunar mission. It has acquired a permanent installa- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 179 

tion which will serve the requirements of the National Space Program 
for years to come. 

"But these facilities, like the lunar landing mission, are themselves 
only a manifestation of a greater entity — people. At present, 2,500 
NASA and 6,300 contractor employees work at the Center. By 1967, 
when the spaceport becomes operational, 3,000 government employees 
and 10,000 contractor employees will be employed." (Text) 
April 10: First General Dynamics f-111a developmental aircraft, in its 
13th flight, reached 40.000 ft., its highest altitude so far, USAF an- 
nounced. {Av. Wk., 4/19/65, 27) 

• 17-yr.-old John J. Breaux, who exhibited a "soundovac" that could "solve 

any mathematical problem when a formula was available," and 17-yr.- 
old Douglas A. Whithaus, who based his exhibit on development of a 
liquid-gaseous-propellant rocket engine, were entrants in the Greater 
St. Louis Science Fair selected to compete in the National Science Fair, 
May 6-8. (St. Louis Post Dispatch, 4/10/65). 

• Fred Callahan, 16, of Ft. Benning, Ga., prepared to launch Zeus 2, pos- 

sibly the largest rocket built by an amateur. Zeus 2, nine ft. long with 
2,0604b. thrust, could reach peak altitude of 64 mi. Zeus 1 was 
launched by Callahan three years ago. {Wash. Daily News, 4/10/65) 
April 11: nasa Marshall Space Flight Center had awarded a ten-month, 
$10,934,377. cost-plus-award fee contract to Mason-Rust Co. to continue 
support services at Michoud Operations, New Orleans, and at its Com- 
puter Operations Office in Slidell, La. (msfc Release 65-84) 

• The case of Thiokol's 260-in.-dia. solid motor ruptured during initial 

hydrotest of the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., 
builders of the case. Cause of the failure had not been determined. 
(M&R, 4/19/65, 14; Av. Wk, 4/19/65, 29) 

• Commenting that contributions to science made by the space probes and 

satellites had been "interesting, all of it useful, none of it genuinely, eye- 
poppingly unexpected," an editorial in the San Francisco Sunday 
Chronicle continued: "Surprisingly enough, space research has pro- 
duced several by-products with a practical end. 

"The most significant to the world as a whole are the reconnaissance 
satellites with which Russia and the U.S. are now mutually inspecting 
each other's and everyone else's military installations with the kind 
of accuracy that has given Washington excellent pictures of the tower 
on top of which the Chinese atom bomb was exploded. They can 
prevent any significant military move from going undetected; a by- 
product of them are the weather satellites. 

"Less is heard about the progress of early warning satellites designed 
to pick up the flaming tails of enemy missiles; this could be either 
because they have run into trouble or, like the satellites the Polaris 
submarines steer by, they are too successful to be mentioned. The 
possibility of putting H-bombs into satellites is not mentioned either in 
these days, but this time because the Russians and the Americans seem 
to have decided by mutual consent to forget it: the risks of an un- 
manned satellite going wrong were too great, and the risk of a manned 
one going berserk was even greater." (S. F. Sun. Chron., 4^11/65) 
April 12: Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched from White Sands, N. 
Mex., carried instrumented payload to 125 mi. (200 km.) altitude. 
Payload was a spectroheliograph to obtain a monochromatic picture of 



180 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

the sun. Experiment was conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center, (nasa Rpt. SRL) 
April 12: ComSatCorp announced that clear test signals transmitted via 
EARLY BIRD between Andover, Me., and stations in Goonhilly Downs, 
England; Pleumeur Bodou, France: and Raisting. W. Germany, had 
demonstrated that communications satellite's equipment to receive mes- 
sages from the European stations was functioning properly, as was its 
receiver tuned to the Andover station, (ap, Chic. Trib., 4/13/65) 

• AEC granted a full-term, ten-year operating license to NASA's Plum Brook 

Reactor Facility, NASA announced. The Plum Brook reactor, which 
produced 60,000 kw. of thermal power at peak operation, was being 
used in basic research relating to development of a nuclear rocket and 
of systems and components for space nuclear auxiliary power. The 
Facility is part of NASA Lewis Research Center. ( LRC Release 65-27) 

• USAF had awarded to General Dynamics a fixed-price-incentive-fee con- 

tract covering initial procurement of 431 F-111 aircraft. DOD an- 
nounced. The contract was expected to exceed $1.5 billion, (dod 
Release 228-65) 

• Tass announced: "Scientists of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute 

believe they have received perhaps the first evidence that we are not 
alone in the universe." The report referred to a strange pattern in 
signals emanating from a radio source believed being beamed at earth 
from another civilization. 

During the past year, the Soviet announcement continued. Soviet 
scientific listeners have noted that the signals come and go like the 
radio equivalent of a revolving beacon. Every hundred days the 
signals get strong and then fade out again. 

The Tass announcement quoted Dr. Nikolai Kardashev as saying: 
"A super civilization has been discovered." 

Dr. Kardashev had first announced a year ago that he thought the 
radio signals from a source known as CTA-102 came from intelligent 
beings. Tass -indicated that radio astronomers at Britain's Jodrell 
Bank station had also observed CTA-102. (Loory, N.Y. Her. Trib., 
4/13/65; Simons, Wash. Post, 4/13/65) 

• A spokesman for Britain's Jodrell Bank Radio Telescope Observatory 

said concerning the Tass report that radio signals from CTA-102 might 
come from intelligent beings in outer space: "We have made meas- 
urements on these sources and confirmed that they are very weak and 
very small. But there is no observational evidence at Jodrell Bank to 
show any variation in the signal strength received. We would have 
to scrutinize carefully the Russian evidence before making any further 
statements." (ap, Bait. Sun, 4/13/65) 

• Fourth flight of General Dynamics' second USAF f-111a developmental 

aircraft lasted 1 hr. 40 min. Speeds ranged from 138 to 354 kt.. with 
wings swept at 16°, 26°, and 70°. Landing gear and flaps were 
worked up and down during the flight. 

Fifth flight of the aircraft lasted 2 hr. 10 min. and attained a speed 
of mach 0.8 and an altitude of 27,000 ft. Wings were swept at 16°. 
26°, and 70°. (Av. Wk., 4/19/65, 27) 
• In a Missiles and Rockets editorial. William J. Coughlin questioned 
NASA's wisdom in drawing up mission requirements for lunar 
exploration. The article said: "Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA associate 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 181 

administrator, told Congress last year: 'Ranger will play an important 
role in the support of Project Apollo.' . . . 

"Not a single change has been made in any part of the Apollo 
system or in the program's operational plan as a result of the Ranger 
findings. None is contemplated. The reason for this is simple. 
The Block lll Rangers were incapable of producing any such data. . . . 

"The case for Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter as supports for the Apollo 
program ... is not a very strong one. . . . 

"Dr. Newell sees them as part of what he calls the 'total program for 
exploring the Moon.' ... [He said] in the following statement to 
Congress: 'You will have a lunar landing. That lunar landing will 
involve a few hours of stay on the Moon, a look that the astronauts 
can make, a few collections of samples, maybe some simple tests, and 
maybe the implacement by the astronauts of monitors to be left on 
the lunar surface.' 

"After their departure. Dr. Newell sees the instruments carrying 
on. Lunar Orbiter wheels overhead. Surveyor explores areas on the 
moon which Man would have difficulty in reaching. . . . 

"We suggest that if anyone proposed exploring the Antarctic in 
such a manner, he would be clapped in the pokey as a nut. Man is 
going to the Moon and he is going to explore it. Expenditure of 
billions of dollars on instruments remotely controlled from Earth to 
do the same job is folly." {M&R, 4/12/65, 46) 
April 12: Chickens exposed to one half to three times the earth's gravity 
had contracted chronic acceleration sickness in tests conducted at the 
Univ. of California. Dr. Russell R. Burton, a veterinarian at the Uni- 
versity conducting the experiments as part of a program supported by 
NASA and the Office of Naval Research, said there was great variation 
among the chickens in susceptibility to the sickness: "Some chickens 
will show svmptoms after a few days at L5g. but others not until many 
months at 3g. and. of course, some never exhibit any of the symptoms. 
However, once the sickness develops, symptoms are the same." Sick 
fowl developed enlarged adrenal glands and their digestive functions 
became abnormal. Some chickens' legs were paralyzed as a result of 
increased gravity forces. 

Objective of the tests was to determine effects of artificially altering 
body weight. Interest in increased gravity fields stemmed from 
greater fields present on other planets such as Jupiter, which has 
gravity 2V2 times that on earth. (Av. Wk., 4/12/65, 79) 
• Robert Hotz. editorializing in Aviation Week and Space Technology, 
said that it could be a "dangerous mistake" to defer develop- 
ment of earth-orbital operational capabilities until financial and 
technical peak loads of Apollo had been passed: "The Soviets ob- 
viously have chosen the earth-orbital approach to their lunar landing 
mission. Therefore, they necessarily must develop rather fully their 
hardware and operational techniques in this area as a vital prelude to 
their lunar landing attempts and not as a postlude, in the manner of 
current U.S. planning. They also have made little attempt to conceal 
their primary military interest in the development of manned spacecraft 
operations in the earth-orbital area. 

"Thus, it is entirely possible that unless U.S. policy is drastically 
changed soon, the Soviets may have an opportunity to achieve the 



182 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

technical surprise in space that they so narrowly missed in the race to 
an intercontinental ballistic missile." (Av. Wk., 4/12/65, 21) 

April 12: Pravda announced the birth of Russia's third "space baby": a son 
to Cosmonaut Valery F. Bykovskv and his wife Valentina. ( UPl, Wash. 
Daily News, 4/13/65) 

Week of April 12: European Space Research Organization (esro) selected 
Laboratoire Central de Telecommunications (lct), a wholly-owned 
French subsidiary of International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., as 
prime contractor for development of Esro 1 polar ionosphere satellite. 
The $3-million contract awarded called for development and produc- 
tion of one prototype and two flying satellites — one a backup — to gather 
information on ionospheric and particle conditions in the northern 
polar region. {Av. Wk., 4/12/65, 37; Av. Wk., 4/19/65, 30) 

April 13: Establishment of a Joint Meteorological Satellite Program Office 
(jMSPo), to identify, compile, and coordinate requirements from the 
military services and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for use of meteorological 
satellites, was announced by dod. JMSPO would continually review the 
NASA meteorological satellite program and would define military ap- 
plications of the national system and the dod technical efforts to support 
the national program, (dod Release 229-65) 

• At a news conference, astronomers at Moscow's Sternberg Institute of 

Astronomy repudiated the Tass report that radio signals had been 
received from a "super civilization" in outer space. The astronomers 
explained that their studies had been based on a radio signal from a 
point in space called CTA-102 — a designation of the California Institute 
of Technology for a quasi-stellar radio source. Signals had been picked 
up from CTA-102 systematically in fluctuating strength that followed 
a regular 100-day pattern. They said that although no other radio 
emission from outer space had the same periodicity, it was too early 
to tell whether the radio signals were artificially made by intelligent 
beings or whether they came from a natural source. 

The Soviet astronomers appealed to their Western counterparts to 
help study CTA-102 to determine whether the signals were artificially 
or naturally made, (ap, Bait. Sun, 4/14/65; Post News Service, 
Houston Post, 4/14/65) 

• NASA had awarded Douglas Aircraft Co. .'$2,697,546 contract modifica- 

tion to test Saturn V instrument unit and S-IVB stage instru- 
mentation in a space environment. The test program would be con- 
ducted in Douglas' 39-ft.-dia. space simulator at Huntington Beach. 
Calif., and would simulate a typical Saturn V flight from launch to earth 
orbit and injection into lunar path. Tests would begin in early 1966. 
(msfc Release 65-88) 

• Reported that Dr. William I. Donn of Columbia Univ.'s Lamont 

Geological Observatory, Dr. Wilbur G. Valentine of Brooklyn College, 
and Dr. Bertram D. Donn of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center had 
challenged presently accepted ages of the earth (4.5 billion yrs.) and 
the sun (5 billion yrs.). They had asserted that the oldest of con- 
tinental rocks were so very ancient that the sun's and the earth's ages 
allowed too little time for continent formation by earthly processes 
and from earthly materials. Two alternative explanations were pro- 
posed: (1) either the sun and the earth must be much older, perhaps 
by a half-billion years or more; or, (2) the original continents were 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 183 

thrown down upon the planet's surface when objects from space — 
hundreds of miles across in size — crashed into the earth. Research 
results had been published in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of 
America. (Abraham, Phil. Eve. Bull., 4/13/65) 
April 13: Brig. Gen. Joseph S. Bleymaier (usaf), Deputy Commander for 
Manned Space Systems of afsc's Space Systems Div., announced at a 
Washington, D.C., luncheon for Aviation '^Space Writers that two used 
Gemini spacecraft would be flown by USAF in tests for a Manned 
Orbiting Laboratory (Mol). This would be the first time that a 
Mercury or Gemini spacecraft had been flown twice. Both Air Force 
flights would be unmanned and would test the effect of cutting a hatch 
into the heat shield on the capsule's blunt end. [NYT, 4/15/65, 8) 

• Second General Dynamics-USAF f-111a developmental aircraft made its 

sixth flight, lasting 1 hr. 30 min. Wings were swept at 16°, 26°. and 
70°. {Av. Wk., 4/19/65, 27) 

• Soviet astronomers were seeking increased research funds. At a 

meeting of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences, physicist Lev A. 
Artsimovich reportedly assailed what he called the inadequacy of the 
observational equipment available to Soviet astronomers and noted that 
the U.S. had more large telescopes than did the U.S.S.R. He accused 
those charged with making appropriations of underestimating the 
importance of astronomy, while overestimating the importance of and 
being overly generous to nuclear physics: "At the present time, ex- 
penditures on astronomical work in our country are no more than a 
few percent of the investments in elementary particle physics. Our 
progeny will probably be surprised that we divided in such strange 
proportions the efforts directed to investigate the great world of stars 
and the artificial world of elementary interactions [of nuclear 
particles]." (A^FI. 4/13/65 ) 

• "Award of the [S40 milHonl contract [for 28 Atlas SLV-3s] reflects 

plans by the Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration to use the Atlas in a variety of future space missions," 
Robert Zimmerman said in an article in the San Diego Union. He 
continued: "Its versatility as a launching vehicle lies in the 'plug-in' 
concept which allows electronic instruments for various missions to be 
instaUed on the basic booster as requirements for the mission may 
dictate. 

"Before the Atlas was standardized into the SLV-3 it would take a 
year to 18 months to equip one booster for a particular mission. Now, 
an SLV-3 can be outfitted for any mission in three to four months." 
(Zimmerman. San Diego Union, 4/13/65) 

• According to official sources, both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. had exploded 

certain of their own satellites in orbit to prevent their fallina into 
other hands, but neither nation was known to have attempted to knock 
down a spacecraft belonging to the other. (Clark, NYT, 4/4/65, 1) 

• Commenting on blockade to prevent Negroes from using North Merritt 

Island ocean beach — federally-owned property released for public use 
by NASA — Dr. Kurt H. Debus. KSC Director, said: "If difficulty should 
continue to arise in implementing a basic public policy of non-dis- 
crimination, the Kennedy Space Center would be obligated to with- 
draw the beach from public use." {Miami Her., 4/13/65) 



184 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

April 14: mariner iv set a distance record for communications from 
American spacecraft. The Mars probe transmitted data from 54 
million miles out, exceeding the record of 53.9 million miles set by 
MARINER II in 1963. (ap, San Diego Eve. Trib., 4/14/65; NASA 
Releases 65-111. 65-117) 

• ComSatCorp's early bird i communications satellite reached its 

permanent station over the Atlantic Ocean: apogee, 22.243 mi. 
(35,811 km.) ; perigee, 22.224 mi. (35,780 km.) ; period, 23 hrs. 56 
min. 57 sec: inclination. .085°: location. 28.0° west longitude. 
(ComSatCorp) 

• In a "topping out" ceremony, signifying that the Vehicle Assembly 

Building at nasa's Merritt Island Launch Area had reached its 
maximum height of 525 ft., a 38-ft.. four-ton steel beam inscribed 
with emblems of the companies and Government agencies participating 
in the building's construction and autographed by contractor and Gov- 
ernment personnel, was hoisted into place in the upper reaches of Vab's 
steel skeleton. Scheduled for completion in 1966 as an integral part 
of Launch Complex 39. vab would have 7.5 acres of floor area, would 
be 525 ft. tall, 518 ft. wide, and 716 ft. long. Within the 129 million 
cu. ft. of the structure, Apollo-Saturn V launch vehicles would be as- 
sembled in an upright position in a controlled environment, (ksc 
Release 86-65) 

• NASA launched from Wallops Island a four-stage Journeyman (Argo D- 

8) sounding rocket with 130-lb. Univ. of Minnesota payload. Firing 
was timed to correspond closely with passage of the OGO I satellite in 
an unsuccessful attempt to compare and correlate radiation belt elec- 
tron and proton measurements. Sounding rocket reached peak altitude 
of 1,031 mi.; experiment package impacted in the Atlantic Ocean about 
1,200 mi. downrange. 

Telemetry indicated proper functioning of instrumentation during 
the 26-min. flight, but no useful data were returned because the nose 
cone covering the payload failed to eject and the experiment package 
was not exposed to energetic particles in the radiation belt. (Wallops 
Release 65-21; NASA Rpt. srl) 

• First of four Stellar Acquisition Flight Feasibility (Staff) flights planned 

by USAF failed 73 sec. after launch of the experiment aboard a 
Polaris A-1 booster. The experiment's Stellar Inertial Guidance 
System (Stings) was operating open-loop and was not guiding the 
missile, which had to be destroyed when it veered ofi^ course. Stings 
had been locked onto the star Polaris and had tracked properly through 
the first .54 sec. of flight until time of second-stage ignition, when the 
trouble with the launch vehicle apparently developed. Period during 
which the Stings operated was time of highest dynamic pressure; data 
received were termed excellent. 

Main purpose of the Staff flight was to test a telescope-like device 
intended to allow a Stings to take a reading from Polaris after piercing 
the earth's cloud cover and to plot an exact trajectory to a target area. 
{M&R, 4/19/65, 9) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb told the Harvard Business School 

Club of New York: "The impact of the space program cannot 
be described just by a recital of the flow of technology to industry. 
The NASA system of management, for example, has efficiently mobilized 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 185 

for research and development in aeronautics and space some 400,000 
men and women and is utilizing some 20,000 industrial companies 
under prime and subcontract arrangements. We are handling about 
250,000 procurement actions a year, and over 150 universities are 
involved in the scientific, engineering, and training programs required 
for the rapid solutions and high standards the program requires." 

He continued: "It should be emphasized that our space program is 
not a crash effort. Tt is a planned, deliberate development over a 
ten-year period. 

"Through our programs at NASA, we are proving out important new 
mechanisms through which investments made in science and tech- 
nology can pay substantial dividends. The social, economic, and 
political forces at work in our society today are dependent, as never 
before, on developments in science and technology." (Text) 
April 14: nasa Administrator James E. Webb said at the Boy Scout Launch- 
0-Ree in New York City that the "future will be determined in large 
measure by the kind of talented and dedicated youth found in the Boy 
Scouts. Science and technology, which form the basis for the national 
space program, are pioneering areas within which many of you can find 
opportunities for satisfaction and service." (Text) 

• Dr. Frederick Seitz. President of the National Academy of Sciences, 

speaking at the end of Purdue Univ.'s three-day symposium on "Science 
and Public Policy — Evolving Institutions," warned that the present 
system of Federal grants might be "disastrous" to some areas of 
science if not modified. "The man with the big, obvious project tends 
to get his Federal grant today, but the lonely individual with an 
off-beat idea does not fare so well," he said. Dr. Seitz favored a 
large-scale, supplementary system of Federal grants for research in 
science and the humanities that would permit the individual university 
to determine how the grant would be disposed. "Block grants would 
enable a university administration to draw upon talents of its faculty 
and administrators in deciding how funds for a certain area of research 
are allocated." he argued. Dr. Seitz said that such a Federal grant- 
giving agency would be patterned after the National Science Founda- 
tion and might fulfill the role envisioned for the National Humanities 
Foundations proposed in bills currently before Congress. (Sullivan, 
NYT, 4/15/65, 30) 

• Dr. Joseph F. Shea, Apollo Program manager at NASA Manned Spacecraft 

Center, announced at a press conference at North American Aviation's 
Tulsa facilities that the Tulsa plant would build 16 Apollo service 
modules. Apollo contract work there totaled more than $61 million. 
(Leslie, Tulsa Daily World, 4/15/65) 

• "Positive action must soon replace delay and procrastination" on the 

development of an American supersonic airliner. Sen. A. S. (Mike) 
Monroney (D-Okla.), Chairman of the Senate Aviation Subcommittee, 
told a Washington, D.C., meeting of the Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers. Monroney said that U.S. failure to build the plane could "choke 
off" 375,000 jobs within several years. Sen. Monroney added that 
if U.S. carriers did not fly supersonic planes as early as foreign air- 
lines, it could mean a loss of $1 billion a year in passenger revenues. 
"If we capitulate, it would mean the eventual loss of technical super- 



186 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

iority and a second class airline industry," he said. (NYT. 4/15/65, 
15) 
April 14: Supreme Court Justice William 0. Douglas told Philadelphia 
Rotary Club members that money being spent to put a man on the 
moon could be better spent ending water pollution in the United States. 
He claimed that costs for equipping the Nation with adequate sewage 
disposal was about equal to that of sending a man to the moon in the 
Apollo project, (ap, Galveston News-Tribune, 4/15/65) 

• Arthur E. Jenks, retired faa official, received the Laura Taber Barbour 

Air Safety Award for 1965 at a luncheon in Washington, D.C., given by 
the Society of Automotive Engineers in conjunction with its annual 
meeting. The award, sponsored by the Flight Safety Foundation, was 
presented to Jenks because of his "contributions to improving the 
techniques for flight checking the accuracy of air navigational aids 
and improvement of landing aids on and around airports." (faa 
Release 65-30) 
April 15: Lunar Excursion Module (Lem) ascent engine underwent a 5-sec. 
test firing under ground level conditions at White Sands Missile Range. 
Initial indications were that the test had been successful. The 3,500-lb.- 
thrust hypergolic engine was built by Bell Aerosystems and used a 
50-50 mixture of Udmh and hydrazine for fuel and nitrogen tetroxide 
for the oxidizer, (msc Roundup, 4/30/65, 1) 

• Vice President Hubert Humphrey wrote to Cape Kennedy technician 

Richard Tennis: "I understand that you are the gentleman who cor- 
rected the problem of the oxidizer leak on the Gemini-Titan [GT-3]. 

"I simply wanted to express to you the thanks of all of us here in 
Washington who have watched so carefully the success of this program. 
It is the excellent and quick efforts of people like yourself that have 
made this program so successful." ( KSC Spaceport News, 4/15/65, 2) 

• Federal Urban Renewal Administration would approve location of the 

NASA Electronics Research Center in the Kendall Sq. area of Cam- 
bridge by declaring the area eligible for an urban renewal project, 
the Boston Globe reported. According to an unidentified Federal offi- 
cial, an eligibility report prepared by the Cambridge Redevelopment 
Authority had been approved by the New York regional office and 
approval from Washington, D.C., was expected soon. {Boston Globe, 
4/15/65) 

• The Associated Press applied to FCC for recognition as "an authorized 

entity for the purpose of buying service from the Communications 
Satellite Corporation." AP was the first organization to take advantage 
formally of the clause in the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 that 
authorized ComSatCorp to furnish circuits "to the carriers and to other 
authorized entities, foreign and domestic." The law, however, did not 
define an authorized entity, also known as "authorized user" (in con- 
trast to an "authorized carrier"). (Gould, NYT, 4/27/(35, 1, 25) 

• A. J. Hayes, president of the International Association of Machinists, said 

at a Dallas briefing of industry sponsored by DOD and the National Se- 
curity Industrial Association that Federal procurement officers were 
meddling in negotiations of labor and the aerospace industry to the 
extent that free collective bargaining was being eroded away. He said 
the affected unions would not settle this year for less than the 57-cent 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 187 

package in wage increases and fringe benefits recently worked out for 
the United Auto Workers, (ap, Denver Post, 4/15/65) 
April 15: Battelle Memorial Institute reported reasons the sweet potato 
would be the best vegetable for a space garden : (1) it would yield a 
large number of calories per pound and would have a high count of 
vitamin A; (2) its leaves are edible, either cooked or raw; (3) under 
simulated space conditions, it would grow in 90 to 120 days; (4) it 
would give off oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide, aiding air conditions 
inside a spacecraft. The plan. Battelle said, would be to grow the 
sweet potato in a spacecraft in a soilless culture to provide fresh vege- 
tables for astronauts, (ap. Wash. Post, 4/16/65) 
• A Cairo newspaper revealed that the United Arab Republic was training 
men for space flight. No date for a possible launching was given. 
(UPI, Milwaukee J., 4/16 65) 
April 15-16: World scientists met in a special conference on the lunar 
surface sponsored by the International Astronomical Union and NASA 
Goddard Space Flight Center at Greenbelt, Md. 

Noting areas of disagreement among scientists, theoretical astro- 
physicist Thomas Gold of Cornell Univ. tried to explain why the 
Ranger pictures resolved so little: "The Ranger pictures are like a 
mirror. Everyone sees his own theories reflected in them." Prof. 
Gold saw a moon covered with dust; young craters composed of solid 
rock while older craters had somehow gone soft: and vast sheets of ice 
locked under compacted sediment beneath much of the lunar surface. 

Dr. Harold C. Urey, Nobel prize-winning chemist from the Univ. of 
California, referred to evidence of widespread collapse of the lunar 
surface, probably due to underground movement: "The ranger ix's 
pictures scared me more than anything. There's all sorts of evidence 
that some of these craters are sinking." 

Dr. Eugene Shoemaker of the U.S. Geological Survey said that 
chances that the moon's surface was too soft for the 15-ton Lem were 
"almost vanishingly remote." (Simons, Wash. Post, 4/16/65; Clark, 
NYT, 4/16/65) 

Dr. Ewan A. Whitaker agreed with findings in the paper he presented 
for his colleague. Dr. Gerald P. Kuiper of the Univ. of Arizona's Lunar 
and Planetary Laboratory. Dr. Kuiper concluded that the lunar sur- 
face had a bearing strength of between one and two tons per square 
foot. His calculations, made from data extracted from ranger ix 
photographs, was based on the size of rocks ejected from a given impact 
crater and the distance they traveled. Other tentative findings were 
that the dark portions of the maria were due to some unknown fluid 
flows and not lava or ash flows; that the maria were not completely 
covered with lunar dust: and that the moon's surface exhibited a re- 
markable series of fracture patterns which could be due to polar con- 
traction, tidal effects, or some other force. (Clark, NYT, 4/16/65; 
Simons, Wash. Post, 4^6/65: Av. Wk., 4/26/65, 34) 

Boris J. Levin, section chief of the Institute of Earth Physics, 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, said studies based on radioactive emis- 
sions from meteorites and on lunar data indicated that the interior of 
the moon partially melted some two million years after the formation 
of that body began: "If you assume the moon is of the same material 



188 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 

as meteorites, it is necessary to assume that the interior at one time was 
partly molten." Prof. Levin said the moon was formed simultaneously 
with the earth and was not originally part of it. It was about 10 earth- 
radii distant and later shifted to the present position. He added: "We 
believe that there is a lava flow not covered by dust." ( Wash. Post, 
4/17/65: Milwaukee /.. 4 17 65: CSM, 4/26 '65: Av. WL, 4/26/65, 
34) 

Dr. John Clark. NASA Director of Space Sciences, said that a year 
ago NASA officials had hoped that Ranger would tell something about 
the topography of the moon: "That in turn would tell something about 
the geometry needed for the landing vehicle. Ranger has done this 
and now we look to the Surveyor spacecraft to tell us the bearing 
strength of the moon's surface." (AP, Houston Post, 4/17/65; Clark. 
A^yr, 4/17/65) 

Dr. Fred Whipple of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory said 
the moon's surface might be lower than had been calculated: "The data 
indicates that RANGER vil and Vlll, and maybe RANGER IX, landed one 
second late because the moon was one mile small. The moon's surface 
at the point of landing was lower by two kilometers (a mile and a 
quarter) than the average lunar radius." (ap, Houston Post, 4/17/65; 
Milwaukee /., 4 17/65) 
April 16: Saturn V launch vehicle (s-ic stage) was static-fired for the first 
time, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The five F-1 engines were 
ignited in a test which lasted 6^ •.> sec. during which they generated a 
thrust of 7.5 million lbs. (160.000.000 hp.)' This was the first full 
cluster test and was made on a recently completed 400-ft.-tall test stand. 
The s-ic was the first stage of 364-ft.-tall Saturn V-Apollo combination 
that would ultimately take astronauts and equipment to the moon. 
Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight Dr. George E. 
Mueller congratulated MSFC personnel on the successful test: ". . . As 
this was one of the key milestones in the whole lunar landing program, 
its successful performance. 12 weeks ahead of schedule, has a great 
bearing on our program." (mfsc Release 65-92; Marshall Star, 
5/5/65, 5) 

• NASA had signed a $Q.6-million contract with Ball Brothers Research Corp. 

to build, integrate, and test two Orbiting Solar Observatories. The 
spacecraft, designated Oso-D and Oso-E. would contain experiments 
designed to advance understanding of the sun's structure and behavior 
and the physical processes by which the sun influenced the near-earth 
environment and interplanetary space. The amount included $800,000 
obligated by letter contract signed Feb. 17, 1964. (NASA Release 65- 
129) 

• Following a six-hour visit to Cape Kennedy and the Merritt Island space- 

port, Mayor Willie Brandt of West Berlin said: "The space challenge is 
not only the responsibility of young Americans and Russians, but also 
that of young Europeans." Mayor Brandt said the European space 
effort should be a combined effort and that Germany would welcome 
any cooperation, (ap, Orlando Star. 4/17/65; \P, Miami Her., 4/17/ 
65) 

• FAA approved the British-built BAG 111, a new short-haul jet airliner, 

for passenger-carrying operations in the U.S. faa's airworthiness 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 189 

certificate was awarded after a SVo-yr. evaluation program. (UPI, 
NYT, 4/18/65, 49) 
April 17: U.S.S.R. launched cosmos lxv from the Baikonur launch com- 
plex 200 mi. northeast of Tyuratam, Tass announced. The satellite 
carried scientific instruments for continuing the Soviet space explora- 
tion program. Orbital data: apogee, 342 km. (212.4 mi.); perigee, 
210 km. (130.4 mi.) ; period, 89.8 min.; inclination, 65°. All systems 
were functionins normally. (Tass, Krasnaya Zvezda, 4/18/65, 1, 
ATSS-T Trans.; SBD, 4/22''65, 290) 

• In an article discussing major American testing sites, Howard Simons and 

Chalmers M. Roberts of the Washington Post said: "Indeed it is from 
Vandenberg and not Cape Kennedy. Fla., that the majority of American 
satellites are launched. Between Jan. 1, 1964, and Oct. 31, 1964, for 
example, 33 or three times as many satellites were successfully put into 
space from Vandenberg as from Cape Kennedy. 

"The great majority" of the satellites launched from Vandenberg, the 
hub of what is officially called the Air Force Western Test Range, are 
military satellites with secret payloads or reconnaissance cameras capa- 
ble of peering down on Russia and China." (Simons and Roberts, 
Wash. Post, 4/17/65) 
April 18: United Airlines and Eastern AirHnes had placed the first orders 
for Douglas Aircraft Co.'s new DC-8-61 jetliner, seating 251. The 
aircraft would be the largest commercial jet in existence, having a total 
length of 187 ft. 4 in., and would cost about $8 million. United 
would buy five of the Model 6rs and take options on two more; Eastern 
had ordered four aircraft for delivery late next year. {NYT, 4/18/65, 
84) 

• Soviet Union announced that pilot A. V. Fedotov had established a new 

world speed record for l,()00-km. closed route. He flew an E-266 
aircraft with 2,000-kg. (4.409 lbs.) cargo at average speed of 2,320 
kph. This exceeded by 253 kph the world speed record for that class 
held by U.S. pilot Harold E. Confer in a B-58 Hustler aircraft. 
(Krasnaya Zvezda, 4/18 65, 1, atss-t Trans.) 

• A shipment of American Hawk missiles was unloaded recently at the 

Israeli port of Haifa. Israel announced. (UPi, Wash. Daily News, 
4/19/65) 
April 19: A detailed report on the progress of the Mars-bound MARINER iv 
spacecraft was presented at annual meeting of the American Geophysi- 
cal Union in Washington, D.C.: 

MARINER IV, launched Nov. 28, 1964, was on course to fly by Mars 
shortly after 9 p.m. edt on July 14. Four of mariner iv's six experi- 
ments were still working well. The ionization experiment had ceased 
to function and data from the solar plasma probe were only partially 
interpretable. At 3 p.m.. mariner iv was 58,176,037 mi. from the 
earth. It had traveled 221.330,000 mi. on its journey of 325 miUion 
miles. 

mariner IV had returned a considerable amount of scientific data. 
A cosmic ray telescope aboard the 575-lb. spacecraft had, for example, 
"observed" more solar protons than alpha particles from the sun. 
John A. Simpson of Univ. of Chicago said this indicated there was a 
"different kind of mechanism operating on the sun for accelerating 
these particles in space." 



190 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

A report from a team of scientists from NASA GSFC and Temple Univ. 
indicated that mariner iv was encountering increasing amounts of 
cosmic dust as it moved further away from the sun. MARINER iv's 
cosmic dust detector had been hit 95 times. 

Dr. James A. Van Allen predicted that if Mars had a magnetic field 
no stronger than Y^oth the intensity of the earth's, mariner iv would 
detect it in July. 

Richard Sloan of jpl said he and his colleagues planned to try to 
establish a radio lock with mariner iv in September 1967 after it had 
journeyed through space and come back to within 40-50 million miles 
of earth, (nasa Releases 65-117, 65-1 17-A, 65-1 17-B, 65-1 17-C, 
65-1 17-D, 65-1 17-E, 65-1 17-F; Transcript) 
April 19: Six Navy and Marine flyers emerged from a cylindrical chamber 
at Philadelphia's naval air engineering center where they had spent 34 
days in a simulated journey into space in an experiment sponsored by 
NASA. The project was designed to collect and analyze information 
on long confinement in a space atmosphere, specifically, how pure 
oxygen would affect the blood, the lungs, thinking, and eating. Cdr. 
Kenneth R. Coburn, project manager, called it "a major success," 
noting that "we find that man can live for long periods of time — for a 
month anyway — without any bad effects." (ap, Chic. Trib., 4/20/65) 

• DOD announced award to Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. of $3,000,000 

increment to existing contract for engineering support for Agena sys- 
tem, (dod Release 246-65) 

• Edward L. Hays, chief of crew systems at NASA Manned Spacecraft Cen- 

ter, announced that the crew of the Gemini gt^ flight would wear the 
qualified Extravehicular Activity (Eva) spacesuit during their flight. 
(ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 4/19/65; M&R, 4/26/65, 7) 

• Excerpts from comments on management of research and development 

activity by Dr. L. R. Hafstad, director of General Motors Research and 
Defense Research Laboratories, appeared in Aviation Week and Space 
Technology: "In the modern laboratory the basic research activity is 
essentially an information-gathering intelligence operation. The opera- 
tives must be trained to speak, and allowed to speak, the language of 
the area on which they are expected to keep informed, and to interact 
with other researchers in the same area. It is this apparently excessive 
freedom of action on the part of employees which makes for the concern 
of students of administration about the management of research, or the 
lack thereof. My conclusion is that most of this problem evaporates 
once it is realized that a director of research directs the research pro- 
gram — but certainly not the individual researchers. 

"The partnership of science, engineering and industry is really a 
rather new concept developed since the turn of the century and only 
now reaching maturity. An even newer concept is the partnership of 
science, engineering, and government. A problem we must face up to 
— whether we represent industry, government or science — is the effec- 
tive use of research in creating a better future for everyone. 

"There is never a dearth of projects — the difficulty is to pick worth- 
while projects. It is here that I feel that the discipline of the profit 
and loss statement is essential. . . ." (Av Wk., 4/19/65, 21) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 191 

April 19: Two teams of scientists collecting dust from Greenland and 
Antarctic icecaps presented their findings to the American Geophysical 
Union, meeting in Washington. The scientists were collecting particles 
by "core sampling" — boring through the ice with a thermal drill and 
analyzing particles to determine their origin. Team studying Greenland 
samples — E. L. Fireman. J. Defelice. and C. C. Langway, Jr., of the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the U.S. Army — believed 
their dust samples to be nonterrestrial in origin. Team studying 
Antarctic samples — M. B. Giovinetto of the Univ. of Wisconsin and 
R. A. Schmidt of nasa — was not certain of the origin of these particles. 
They reported a high concentration of spherucles in the core samplings; 
the amount of these particles, which closely matched those found in 
volcanic eruptions, made identification of dust origin more difficult. 
They had collected dust from 165-ft. core of ice. representing 400 yrs. 
accumulation. Greenland team had drilled to depth of 1,800 ft. and 
expected to continue to 5.000 ft. National Science Foundation would 
use the same thermal drill — beginning in summer of 1967 or 1968 — to 
drill to 8.000-ft. depth through the south polar ice. (Simons, Wash. 
Post, 4/20. /65. 1 ) 

Week of April 19: Cryogenic propellants were loaded for the first time into 
a ground test model of the NASA Saturn S-IVB upper stage to verify the 
design of the stage and fabrication techniques, and to demonstrate 
operational procedures. The S-IVB. 58 ft. long and 21.5 ft. in diam- 
eter, was being built for Saturn IB and Saturn V by Douglas Missile 
and Space Systems Div. for NASA msfc. ( msfc Release 65-98) 

April 20: NASA had awarded a S3,135,977 contract modification to the 
Boeing Co. for preparatory work leading to dynamic testing of the 
Saturn V moon rocket at NASA msfc. Boeing would perform engineer- 
ing services for the Saturn V dynamic testing program and would sup- 
ply instrumentation equipment for the test stand, (msfc Release 
65-94) 

• NASA Ames Research Center had let a SI, 382.000 contract to the American 

Machine and Foundry Co. for fabrication of an advanced flight sim- 
ulator which could simulate nearly all flight situations for aircraft and 
spacecraft except cases involving either high acceleration forces on the 
pilot or aerobatics. 

Designed by the Research Facilities and Equipment Div. at Ames, the 
simulator would have "six degrees of freedom," the capability to move 
in all possible axes of motion: fore and aft, vertical, and side-to-side; 
also pitch, roll, and yaw. It would be unique in having 100 ft. of 
lateral motion. This would be needed to simulate supersonic transport 
(Sst) flight since the crew would be far forward of the center of rota- 
tion of the aircraft. (ARC Release 65-12) 

• North American Aviation Co.'s xb-70a experimental bomber reached 

altitude of 59,000 ft. and speed of 1,500 mph on its tenth flight 
from Edwards afb. Duration of flight was 1 hr. 39 min., of which 1 
hr. 14 min. was at supersonic speed, boosting its total supersonic flight 
time to 5 hrs. 5 min. (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 4/21/65, A7) 

• The x-15 research aircraft was praised by William Hines in an article in 

the Washington Evening Star: "The United States spent nearly a 
quarter-billion dollars to produce three copies of the x-15, unro- 
manticallv known as 'No. 1,' 'No. 2,' and 'No. 3.' Modifications, 



192 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

maintenance and operation charges have by now pushed the bill close 
to a third of a billion. 

"By any rational standard, the x-15 has been worth every penny. 
It has given the United States far more than mere supremacy in the 
flight record books; it has provided a foundation for advanced aero- 
nautical technology that could have been obtained in no other way." 
(Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 4/20/65) 
April 20: Dr. Werner R. Kirchner, vice president and manager of Aerojet- 
General Corp.'s solid rocket operations, announced that a new solid 
fuel multipulse rocket engine containing several charges of propellant 
that could be separately fired by electrical signal had successfully com- 
pleted its first series of test firings. The rocket could zip. glide, and 
dart about much like a bird, he said, or could lie dormant in space a 
year and then be restarted on command. Key to multipulse firings 
was described as a lightweight thermal barrier separating each charge. 
Aerojet had conducted demonstration firings of six flight-weight con- 
figurations in the company-funded program, (ap, Denver Post, 4/21/ 
65;Av.Wk.,^/19/65,S0) 
• Donald E. Crabhill of the Bureau of the Budget discussed "Space 
Programs and the Federal Budget" before the National Space Club: 
"What are some of the significant factors to be pointed out in the re- 
lationship between the space program and the budget? 

"The first is, of course, the matter of growth in the funding for space 
and the current absolute amount of funds allocated to space programs, 
including not only NASA, but also DOD, AEC, and activities in this area by 
other agencies. In FY 1957. approximately $150 million was expended 
by the Federal Government on space programs. In FY 1960, the total 
was still below $900 million. In FY 1966, the tenth year of the space 
age, the President's budget provides for space expenditures of $6.9 
billion. 

"Where does this amount stand in relation to amounts in the admin- 
istrative budget for other programs? It is less than the total amounts 
to be spent in 1966 on national defense: on health, labor, and welfare 
programs; and on interest on the national debt. But it is greater than 
that to be spent for any other function of Government. Space expendi- 
tures of all agencies will be greater in 1966 than those for international 
affairs and finance, for agriculture, for natural resources, for commerce 
and transportation, for housing and community development, for vet- 
erans benefits and services, or for other general Government. 

"The space program has not been, since it was initiated, and is not 
today, a budgetary underdog. 

"The second specific point to be made is that the budget process by 
its very nature is an exercise in priorities. ... A great many merely 
desirable projects get deferred throughout the Government every year 
under the press of the budgetary process. 

"In the past, this pressure has not been felt as severely in the space 
area as it has in most others because of the emphasis that has been 
given to creating in a hurry a vast capability to operate in space. The 
space program has been very successful in meeting this aim. In fact, 
it has been so successful that space is now coming of age with other 
Government programs. We will soon have a technical capability to do 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 193 

a great many more space missions than we as a nation will probably 
want to pay for. . . . 

"There is one other point that, as a budget examiner, I feel I must 
mention. Funding and schedule estimates for space programs have 
been historically quite unreliable. Cost estimates have tended not so 
much merely to groiv, but to multiply! At the same time, schedules 
have tended to slip, slip, slip. 

"This was an understandable situation while the space program was 
new, but we have had enough experience that there will be considerable 
resistance from now on to escalation in price and radical slips in sched- 
ule of the next generation of space projects. The more detailed plan- 
ning we are doing now, the phased project procurement processes, and 
the experience we have gained in the technology and the techniques of 
space operations must be expected to show returns in better ability 
to make good cost and schedule estimates in the first place, and then to 
meet the cost and schedule targets that are approved." (Text) 

April 20: Three American scientists were honored by the American Geo- 
physical Union during an honors meeting at the National Academy of 
Sciences in Washington, D.C.: Norman F. Ness of nasa Goddard 
Space Flight Center received the John Adam Fleming Award for 
research done by means of instruments aboard nasa's explorer xviii 
satellite; Gordon J. F. MacDonald of the Univ. of California at Los 
Angeles was given the James B. Macelwane Award for work on a 
variety of subjects ranging from the center of the earth to the solar 
corona; Hugo Benioff, professor emeritus at the California Institute 
of Technology, was awarded the William Bowie Medal for "unselfish 
cooperation in research." (Wash. Eve. Star, 4/21/65) 

April 21: Pegasus B, second of the "winged" micrometeoroid detection 
satellites, arrived at Cape Kennedy to be readied for launch during 
the next two months. Similar to pegasus I, Pegasus B would occupy 
a simulated Apollo service module aboard the SA-8 vehicle. A boiler- 
plate model of the Apollo command module would be placed above the 
Pegasus; in orbit, the Apollo modules would be jettisoned and the 
satellite exposed. Preliminary data from PEGASUS I indicated it was 
confirming current theory on micrometeoroid density, (msec Release 
65^5; Marshall Star, 4/21/65, 1, 2) 

• NASA absolved Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (Maj.. usaf) of any blame in 

the 58-mi.-oflF-target landing of the GEMINI ill spacecraft following 
the three-orbit flight Mar. 23, according to MSC spokesman. The 
mishap was attributed to the fact that the spacecraft did not develop 
as much lift as expected. The possibility that Major Grissom might 
have banked GEMINI in improperly as a result of misunderstanding 
instructions from ground stations had been investigated. (UPI, NYT, 
4/21/65, 11, MSC GEMINI III Fact Sheet) 

• EARLY BIRD communications satellite would relay a sampling of scientific, 

cultural, and entertainment events televised live at 35 sites in North 
America and Europe during an hour-long inaugural program, "This is 
Early Bird." scheduled for 1 p.m. est, May 2, ComSatCorp announced. 
(ComSatCorp Release: Adams, NYT, 4/21/65, 91) 

• Thomas W. Thompson of Cornell Univ. said in a paper presented at the 

meeting of the American Geophysical Union that half the moon's sur- 
face had been mapped in a lunar mapping program using the radio- 



194 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

radar telescope at Cornell's Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico. From 
the radar signal returns, the hardest areas of the moon were the rim 
and floor of the relatively new craters. The floors of the older craters 
and the surface of the maria were covered by a three-to-four-meter- 
thick layer of highly porous material often referred to as "lunar dust." 
(Simons, Wash. Post, 4/22/65; NYT, 4/22/65) 
April 21 : Dr. Gordon H. Pettingill, Dr. Rolf H. Dyce, and Dr. Thomas Gold 
of Cornell Univ., reported to the meeting of the American Geophysical 
Union that through radar studies with Cornell's 1,000-ft. -diameter 
radiotelescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, they had found an apparent 
"flat spot" on the planet Mars that seemed to correspond to markings 
seen there through telescopes. They also reported that radar observa- 
tions indicated the planet Mercury rotated on its own axis once each 
54 to 64 days, exposing all sides to the sun in a year. Its full day. 
corresponding to a 24-hr. earth cycle, would be about 180 earth days 
long. It was inconclusive whether Mercury rotated in the opposite 
direction from its orbit — a retrograde rotation — or in the same direc- 
tion as its orbit — a direct rotation. 

Dr. Gold also speculated that Mercury could not have been in its 
present orbit for much longer than 400 million years. Otherwise, he 
postulated, the sun would have held the planet over a long enough 
period of time to force it into a synchronous or 88-day rotation. 
This suggested to Gold that Mercury might once have been a moon 
of Venus but broke away or was tugged away to establish its own orbit 
around the sun. (Hines. Wash. Eve. Star, 4/21/65; Clark. NYT. 
4/21/65, 17; Simons, Wash. Post, 4/21/65) 

• In a statement of faa policy outlined by faa Administrator Najeeb E. 

Halaby, faa's obligation was affirmed to regulate private conduct of 
pilots but only to the extent required in the public interest; to 
recognize the right of the general public to be informed and to be 
heard; to apply the regulatory hand evenly in similar situations, 
while also recognizing the different rights, duties, and operational 
requirements of the various segments of the aviation community; and 
to manage the airspace as a national resource in a manner best serving 
the requirements of all users while also recognizing the interests of 
people on the ground. (Text) 

• Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and 

Applications, was among the ten outstanding Federal Government em- 
ployees chosen by the National Civil Service League to receive Career 
Service Awards May 19. (Wash. Post, 4/22/65) 
April 21-23: A Technology Status and Trends Symposium was held at NASA 
Marshall Space Flight Center for industry and university officials and 
invited guests. Purpose of the conference was to make available for 
general use in everyday life the results of research and engineering 
carried out in connection with the U.S. space program. (Marshall 
Star, 4/21/65, 1, 5; nasa sp-5030) 

• At AIAa/aflc/asd Support for Manned Flight Conference in Dayton. 

Ohio, Temple W. Neumann of Philco Corp. reviewed studies of 
manned Mars missions and discussed the importance of "early bio- 
logical precursor missions" to Mars. He concluded: 

"It has been shown that the lack of biological, as well as critical 
environmental, data about Mars can have important ramifications in 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 195 

not only the cost, but possibly even in the feasibility of performing 
early manned missions to Mars. The importance of preliminary 
knowledge about the interaction of possible Martian organisms with 
man and his equipment has been shown to significantly affect surface 
operations, decontamination requirements, and equipment reliability. 
Further, the need for some preliminary data about the nature of 
Martian organisms is necessary in order to intelligently design an 
experimental program for use by the first manned landing expedition. 
The conclusion can therefore be supported that a precursor biological 
mission, such as that represented by the current abl studies, is manda- 
tory in the early 1970 time period if manned missions are to make 
effective use of the mid-1980 launch opportunities." (Text, AIAA Paper 
65-249) 
April 22: With arrival of the sea-going launch platform USNS Croatan at 
Valparaiso, Chile, nasa completed a successful expedition of launching 
scientific experiments off the west coast of South America. A total 
of 77 sounding rockets were fired, 45 of them Nike-Cajun and Nike- 
Apaches, and 32 of them single-stage meteorological rockets. Firings 
occurred at various position from 5° north to 60° south of the equator. 
Five experiments were conducted at or near the 60th parallel at about 
78° west longitude. The project was part of the NASA sounding rocket 
program being conducted during the 1964-65 International Quiet Sun 
Year. Expedition data would be correlated with findings of scientists 
throughout the world conducting experiments on IQSY phenomena. 
(Wallops Release 65-22) 

• Two NASA sounding rockets, a Nike-Cajun and a Nike- Apache, were 

launched at Wallops Station after dark and about one hour apart. 
Both rockets released chemiluminescent gas clouds, which observers on 
the ground used to measure atmospheric winds, shears, turbulence, and 
vertical motions. Nike-Cajun reached altitude of 128 km. (79.5 mi.) 
and the Nike- Apache, 145 km. (90.1 mi.) (nasa Rpt. SRl) 

• NASA selected Ling-Temco-Vought and Lockheed Electronics Co. for com- 

petitive negotiation of contract covering operational support services 
for laboratories and test facilities at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 
TTie support contract would be cost-plus-award-fee for one year with 
options to extend for four additional one-year periods. First year 
costs were expected to exceed $2 million, (nasa Release 65-133) 

• NASA selected three industrial firms with which to negotiate similar pre- 

liminary design contracts for a Voyager spacecraft to undertake un- 
manned scientific exploration of the planets: the Boeing Co., General 
Electric Co., and TRW Space Technology Labs. The three-month, 
fixed-price contracts would each be worth about $500,000. (NASA 
Release 65-135) 

• At Purdue Univ., Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator 

for Manned Space Flight, discussed in a speech NASA's emphasis on 
man's part in future planned space experiments: "The role of man in 
space is basic to any discussion of our planned space experiments. . . . 
We have always recognized his inherent characteristics as a sensor, 
manipulator, evaluator and investigator. 

"As a sensor, man adds little to automatic equipment in space — 
sometimes nothing at all. . . . instruments can measure . . . phe- 
nomena that man cannot perceive at all. 



196 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"But instruments are limited by the knowledge we now have on 
earth; they cannot cope with the unexpected or the unknown. Man, on 
the other hand, can operate in any unprogrammed situation and reap 
full benefits of the true objective of manned operations. He can ex- 
plore the unknown. 

"The second function of man in space is manipulation. Gus Grissom 
demonstrated superbly last month that a man can operate the space- 
craft controls for delicate maneuvering. . . . 

"In the conduct of space research also, man as a manipulator can 
probe into his environment. He can make use of motor responses and 
verbal skills to carry out procedures and to assemble, operate and 
repair equipment. . . . 

"With the capacity to evaluate, man achieves a substantial degree 
of self-reliance in controlling what he perceives and how he reacts. 
When a man remembers, analyzes, compares, and induces — using a 
solid foundation of knowledge — he has improved the degree to which 
meaningful data can be translated into useful knowledge. . . . 

"The most advanced role of man in space is that of an investigator 
who responds creatively to unexpected situations. He is able to 
postulate theories and hypotheses, and to devise and use systematic 
measurements. In this role, the astronaut is a full-fledged scientist." 
(Text) 
April 22: NASA Manned Spacecraft Center's Public Affairs Officer, Paul 
Haney, announced that daily newspapers might have Vi2-hr. interviews 
with the crew of the GT-4 flight on the same basis as television net- 
works and wire news services. Astronauts James A. McDivitt (Maj., 
USAf) and Edward H. White (Maj., usaf) would spend two full days in 
personal interviews at MSC early in May. There would be a mass press 
conference for all news media in Washington, D.C., on April 30. 
Without such an arrangement, the only newspapers that would have had 
personal interviews would be those that subscribed to the service that 
paid astronauts for their stories. (Houston Post, 4/23/65) 

• New sunspots heralding the start of a new 11-yr. cycle were discussed at 

sessions on the International Years of the Quiet Sun held in Wash- 
ington. D.C., under auspices of the American Geophysical Union and 
the International Scientific Radio Union. Scientists said the asym- 
metrical birth of the new cycle suggested it might not reach as intense 
a maximum as usual. 

The cycle was of vital interest to planners of a manned moon land- 
ing since it had been discovered that some solar eruptions shoot out 
protons at so close to the speed of light they could kifl an astronaut. 
While astronauts were on the moon, or inside the Lem, they would 
be poorly protected against such a proton shower. Dr. Herbert 
Friedman, of the Naval Research Laboratory, said during the sym- 
posium they would be comparatively safe if they could return to their 
orbiting command capsule. The goal, therefore, he said, was to learn 
enough about these events so that astronauts could have sufficient warn- 
ing to take refuge in their spacecraft. (Sullivan, NYT, 4/23/65) 

• A two-day conference began at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center on inter- 

national participation in space biomedical experiments on U.S. manned 
spaceflights. About 50 doctors from 17 countries attended. (Houston 
Chron., 4-/21/65; NASA Release 65-31) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 197 

April 22: First of four Canadian Stol cv-7a transport planes was accepted 
by the USA. The aircraft would undergo extensive service, engineering, 
and climatic tests in the next year, (dod Release 253-65) 

• DOD announced award to Thiokol Chemical Corp. of $2,300,000 increment 

to existing contract for production of Minuteman Stage I operational 
and flight test rocket motors, (dod Release 255-65) 
April 23: U.S.S.R. launched its first communications satellite molniya I 
into orbit: apogee. 39,380 km. (24,459 mi.); perigee, 497 km. 
(309 mi.); period, 11 hrs. 48 min.; inclination, 65°. Krasnaya 
Zvezda reported that the "basic purpose of launching the Molniya-1 
communications satellite is to accomplish the transmission of TV 
programs and to perform two-way multichannel telephone, phototele- 
graphic and telegraphic communication. All the onboard equipment 
on the satellite and the ground radio network are operating normally, 
and the first transmission of TV programs between Vladivostok and 
Moscow were successfully completed." (Tass. Krasnaya Zvezda, 4/ 
24/65. 1. ATSS-T Trans.) 

• Successful simultaneous two-way transmission of television tests via 

EARLY BIRD communications satellite between the U.S. ground station 
at Andover, Me., and European ground stations at Pleumeur-Bodou, 
France: Goonhilly Downs, England; and Raisting, W. Germany, was 
announced by ComSatCorp. The pictures were of good quality. 
(ComSatCorp Release) 

• X-15 No. 3 was flown by Capt. Joe Engle (usaf) 79,700 ft. altitude at 

a maximum speed of 3,657 mph (mach 5.48) to obtain data for heat 
transfer experiment with surface distortion panel ablative test, (nasa 
X-15 Proj. Off.; frc Release; X-15 Flight Log) 

• Successful completion of formal flight qualification tests of the uprated 

H-1 rocket engine for use in the Saturn IB space vehicle was announced 
jointly by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, under whose technical 
direction the engine was being developed, and by Rocketdyne Div. of 
North American Aviation, Inc., its manufacturer. Two engines were 
used for the qualification program. In 51 firings they operated suc- 
cessfully for 4.581 seconds — more than 75 min. — and produced 
200.000 lbs. of thrust (188.000 lbs. was previous power rating). 
(msfc Release 65-96) 

• NRX-a3, experimental Nerva nuclear reactor engine fueled with liquid 

hvdrogen. was successfully hotfired for about 8 min., including 3V2 
min. at full power. A loose circuit connection caused the engine to 
shut off prematurely after the SVs min. of full power. (Nerva Proj. 
Off.: Wash. Post. 4/25/65: Rover Chron.) 

• Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge had proposed to NAS\ a design for a Deep 

Space Planetary Probe System to be used in a flyby of Jupiter. Saturn, 
or Pluto. The spacecraft would consist of a larse dish antenna, pos- 
sibly as large as 16 ft. in diameter, which would telemeter data back 
to earth. Power would be supplied by 10-watt Snap-19 generator. 
The spacecraft could be boosted by either Atlas-Centaur or Saturn IB- 
Centaur with upper-stage assist from available solid rockets or from 
the Poodle, a low-thrust radioisotope rocket engine. Flyby missions 
for the probe could be made in 1970 to Jupiter, to Saturn in 1972, and 
ultimately to Pluto. (SBD. 4/23/65. 297) 



198 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

April 23: Addressing a citizen's seminar at Boston College sponsored by the 
College of Business Administration. Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.), 
Chairman of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, gave 
examples of the potential dovvn-to-earth benefits of space research: 

" — Automated highspeed, urban and interurban rail transportation, 
such as the four-hour trip between Boston and Washington mentioned 
recently by President Johnson. 

" — Better communications systems, more reliable radios and televis- 
ion sets, improved home appliances. 

" — Reduction of rust and corrosion by controlling bacteria which 
space researchers found to thrive by eating and digesting metal. 

" — Prevention of muscular atrophy and new methods of treating 
Paget's disease, osteo-porosis and kidney stones. All this springing 
from the studies of weightlessness. 

". . . also new knowledge about the processes of aging, and cancer." 
(White, Boston Globe, 4/23/65) 

• Prof. Hannes Alfven of the division of plasma physics at the Royal Insti- 

tute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, revived a theory that the 
moon was once an independent planet. In an article written for 
Science, he said that "many if not all of the craters of the moon were 
produced" by an "intense bombardment of fragments of itself" when the 
moon swept too close to the earth and partly disintegrated under the 
tremendous tidal forces that were generated. "It is also possible," the 
theory suggested, "that so much of the lunar matter fell down [on this 
planet] that the upper layer of the earth — the crust — originally derives 
from the moon." Prof. Alfven wrote that this theory was first stated 
by H. Gerstenkorn of Hanover, Germany, and published in 1954 in 
Zeitschrift fur Astrophysik under the title "Uber die Gezeitenreibung 
beim Zweikorperproblem" ("About Tidal Friction in a Two-Body 
Problem"). (Osmundsen, NYT, 4/24/65, 31: Myler, Wash. Post, 
4/24/65) 

• USAF received at Travis afb, Calif., the first of 65 c-141 Starlifter cargo 

jets to be delivered this year, dod announced. The aircraft were 
capable of carrying 30 tons of cargo or 123 combat troops 6,000 mi. 
nonstop at a speed of about 500 mph. (UPI, NYT, 4/24/65, 15) 

• FAA announced that U.S. airports known to faa numbered 9,490 at the 

end of 1964, an increase of 676 over previous years. Over the past 
five years, the annual increase in landing facilities reported to FAA had 
averaged 623. (faa Release 65-36) 
April 24: Second major Saturn V milestone this month: First five-engine 
ignition test of the Saturn V second stage, the s-ii, was conducted 
at the Santa Susana, Calif., static test laboratory of North American 
Aviation, Inc., NASA Marshall Space Flight Center announced. The 
five J-2 engines, built by naa's Rocketdyne Div., would produce one 
million pounds thrust. Short-duration firings leading to full-duration 
tests of nearly 400 sec. would follow the ignition firing. (MSFC Release 
65-99) 

• In an address at Duke University, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey 

said: "How fortunate we are to live in this dramatic and creative 
period of change, of challenge, of opportunity. How great is our 
responsibility to achieve excellence of mind and spirit to do the tasks 
that must be done. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 199 

"I appeal, therefore, to you the generation of 1965. 

"Make no little plans. 

"Have not little dreams. 

"Do not set your standards and goals by those of your mother and 
father. 

"Do not set your standards and goals by those of this time. 

"Challenge the impossible. Do what cannot be done. 

"Thirty years ago it was 'Brother, can you spare a dime.' 

"Today we reach the stars." (Text, CR, 4/26/65, 8179-80) 
April 24: The John Young Award, a medal specially struck by the citizens 
of Orlando. Fla., was presented to the astronaut as a highlight of the 
John Young Day celebration. The medal would be used in future 
years to honor Orlando residents for outstanding achievements, but 
would not necessarily be awarded annually. {Orl. Sent., 4/18/65) 

• Soviet astronomer Dr. I. S. Shklovsky of the Sternberg State Astronomical 

Society in Moscow suggested 100 years as the age for a source of radio 
waves known only as 1934 minus 63. These figures pinpoint its 
position in the southern sky. 1934 minus 63 would be the youngest 
known natural object in the sky. (Sci. Serv., A^IT, 4/24/65, 9) 

• Employees of nasa Kennedy Space Center began moving into the new 

headquarters building on Merritt Island. The move of more than 
1,700 employees would be completed by mid-August, (ksc Spaceport 
News A/22/65, 1) 
April 25: faa Administrator Najeeb E. Halaby said that faa's sonic boom 
tests over Oklahoma City last year had shown that construction of a 
supersonic airliner prototype was clearly warranted: "My current con- 
clusion is that a supersonic airplane can be designed in terms of con- 
figuration, operating attitudes and flight paths so as to achieve public 
acceptance in the early 1970s." Halaby 's statement was in conjunction 
with release of a three-volume final report on the Oklaihoma City ex- 
periment. 

The FAA report, which included preliminary results from boom tests 
at the White Sands Missile Range, concluded that only abnormally 
massive booms would create serious problems. A principal finding in 
the "community reactions" study stated: "Substantial numbers of 
residents reported interference with ordinary living activities and 
annoyance with such interruptions, but the overwhelming majority 
felt they could learn to live with the numbers and kinds of booms 
experienced during the six-month study." 

The three volumes just released were "Structural Response to Sonic 
Booms," "Community Reactions to Sonic Booms in the Oklahoma City 
Area, February-July 1964," and "Final Program Summary, Oklahoma 
City Sonic Boom Study, February 3-July 30, 1964." 

Publication of these three documents completed the five-part 
Oklahoma City report. Two volumes had been made public in 
February 1965. (faa Release 65-34) 

• Expansion of the role of the National Science Foundation and expenditure 

by Federal mission-oriented research agencies of more money on basic 
research were two major recommendations of a special panel of the 
National Academy of Sciences to Congress. Recommendations were in 
a report, Basic Research and National Goals, submitted tO' the House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics. 



200 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

The panel, headed by Dr. George B. Kistiakowsky of Harvard Univ., 
former science adviser to the President, was comprised of 15 scientists, 
engineers, and economists. The panel held that the National Science 
Foundation, as the sole agency of Government whose purpose was 
support of science across the board without regard for immediate 
practical gains, should be expanded to serve as a "balance wheel" to 
soften the impact of variable research policies of mission-oriented 
agencies on "little science." The recommendation that agencies should 
devote greater portions of their budgets to basic research was based 
on the view that in many cases these budgets were becoming stationary 
while the capacity for scientific growth was expanding. The panel 
also recommended that in some cases the Congress should extend the 
mission of the agency to include the pursuit of certain branches of basic 
research. 

Three general opinions were widely held by the panel regarding the 
balance of science support today: first. Federal funds should be 
allocated with some consideration to the geographical-social effects of 
their expenditure ; second, biological sciences had been under-supported 
and should receive support to expand them faster than the physical 
sciences; third, there was an impending crisis in the physical sciences 
because mission-oriented agencies, faced with stationary budgets, would 
probably not expand their support of basic physical research as fast as 
capacity to do basic research expanded. (Clark, NYT, 4/26/65, 55; 
SBD, 4/30/65, 330) 
April 25: Dr. Hideo Itokawa, professor at Tokyo Univ. and deputy director 
of Japan's Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, was quoted on 
Japan's role in space activity by Peter Temm in an article in the 
Washington Sunday Star: "Space research is not a competition. It 
should be a cooperative undertaking among all countries, to explore and 
study the universe. 

"Both America and Russia appear to be chiefly interested in artificial 
satellites and manned space vehicles. I see Japan's role as filling 
some of the gaps skipped over by these two nations. 

"I believe it is possible that Russia may be preparing to abandon its 
project of putting a man on the moon in favor of assembling a satellite 
space station; at least, this how I interpret the recent Voskhod flight 
and its emphasis on carrying out tasks outside of the capsule. 

"I sincerely hope if this is so, that American space scientists will 
not swerve from their intentions of getting to the moon. There are 
many sides to space research, and the ideal approach is for all nations 
engaged in the new science to tackle different areas. 

"That way, we will all progress at a faster rate." (Temm, Wash. 
Sun. Star, 4/25/65) 
April 26: A 37-man study group chaired by Dr. Colin Pittendrigh of 
Princeton Univ. and convened by the Space Science Board of the 
National Academy of Sciences at the request of NASA had reconfirmed 
the Academy's appeal for exploration of Mars to receive "the highest 
priority among all objectives in space science — indeed in the space 
program as a whole" and endorsed NASA plans to use the 1969-73 
favorable Mars window for intensive study of the planet with the 
Voyager spacecraft. In its final report transmitted to NASA Adminis- 
trator Webb, the group said that "given all evidence presently avail- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 201 

able, we believe it entirely reasonable that Mars is inhabited with 
living organisms and that life independently originated there," and thus 
that "the biological exploration of Mars is a scientific undertaking of 
the greatest validity and significance." 

The panel noted, however, that "while we are eager to press Martian 
exploration as expeditiously as the technology and other factors permit, 
we insist that our recommendation to proceed is subject to one rigorous 
qualification: that no viable terrestrial microorganisms reach the 
Martian surface until we can make a confident assessment of the 
consequences." 

The group made seven basic recommendations: (1) "every oppor- 
tunity for remote observation of Mars by earth-bound or ballon-and 
satellite-borne instruments should be exploited"; (2) "... An adequate 
program for Martian exploration cannot be achieved without using 
scientific payloads substantially larger than those currently employed 
in outer unmanned space research program. . . . We see very sub- 
stantial advantages in the use, from the onset, of the new generation of 
large boosters which are expected to become operational toward the 
end of the decade"; (3) since flyby missions "yield at best a fleeting 
glimpse of the planet" and carry a relatively small array of instru- 
ments, "we deliberately omit an explicit recommendation in favor of 
any flyby missions additional to those already executed or planned"; 

(4) "Every effort should be made to achieve a large orbiting mission 
by 1971 at the latest. This mission should precede the first lander. . . . 
By 'large' we mean a scientific payload that would include instru- 
mentation for infrared and television mapping, microwave radiometry 
and bistatic radar, infrared spectrometry, and optical polarimetry"; 

(5) "The first landing mission should be scheduled no later than 1973 
and by 1971 if possible" and will "ultimately demand a large lander" 
like Abl (Automated Biological Lab) ; (6) "The task of designing an 
Abl should be initiated immediately as a continuing project"; and 
(7) to maintain "a continuing dialogue among all potential investi- 
gators and the engineers responsible for implementing their scientific 
goals," the Academy's Space Science Board should have a standing 
committee, (nas Release; Abraham, Phil. Eve. Bull., 4/26/65; Hines, 
Wash. Eve. Star, 4/26/65, 2; Sullivan, NYT, 4/27/65, 1) 

April 26: The Federal Communications Commission confirmed it expected 
to rule soon on who should own the initial American ground stations 
providing access to communications satellites. The established inter- 
national carriers, including AT&T, RCA Communications, Western Union 
International, and ITT World Communications, had accused ComSat- 
Corp of exceeding its statutory authority and demanded the right to 
share in the ownership of the ground stations. (Gould, NYT, 4/27/65, 
1, 25) 

• Dr. Charles A. Berry, chief of medical operations at NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center, had said that new body sensor equipment developed 
for astronauts had "stretched the doctor's stethoscope to reach 100 
miles," reported Norm Spray in an article in the Houston Chronicle: 
"This could open the door for new types of medical research and treat- 
ment potentially as important to the family physician as to space 
scientists. Dr. Berry believes. 

" 'Right now,' he said, 'we think our sensing and monitoring system 



202 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

would be a tremendous tool in hospital recovery and intensive care 
rooms. 

" 'Basic medical data that is reliable and distortion-free could be fed 
from each patient to a central computer or console. Each patient could 
be watched as closely as if a nurse or even a doctor were constantly 
at his bedside.'" (Spray, wbe Sci. Serv.. Houston Chron., 4/26/65) 
April 26: Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-R.I.I discussed in the Senate S. 1483, bill 
which he had introduced to establish a National Foundation on the Arts 
and the Humanities. He cited article bv Frank Getlein on the recent 
"Eyewitness to Space" exhibition at the National Gallery of Art. Get- 
lein's article showed "how cooperation between our Government and 
the arts can illuminate some of the most exciting moments in our 
important explorations in space." The exhibition contained some 70 
paintings and drawings by 15 artists under the NASA art program. 

". . . The work shows total freedom and a wide variety, ranging from 
the superb illustrationist's style of Paul Calle to the highly individual 
abstraction of Washington artist Alfred McAdams. 

". . . The space effort, therefore, from Huntsville to the launching 
apparatus at Cape Kennedy, to the pickup system in the Pacific, is 
covered at once as a set of visual phenomena and an immensely varied 
set of artistic responses to those phenomena. . . . 

"The NASA art program is a modest step but a carefully made one in 
the gradually reemerging relationship between American art and the 
American Government. It deserves study by those interested in the 
larger problem." (Getlein, Wash. Eve. Star; CR, 4/26/65, 8122-23) 

• Groundbreaking ceremony for Univ. of Maryland's $1.5-million Space 

Science Building was held at the College Park, Md., campus. Dr. 
Homer E. Newell, nasa Associate Administrator for Space Science 
and Applications, and Edward F. Holter, Vice Chairman of the Univ. 
of Maryland Regents, shoveled the first spadefuls of dirt. ( Wash. Post, 
4/27/65, A12) 

• Dr. Roman Smoluchowski of Princeton Univ. said at the American 

Physical Society's meeting in Washington, D.C., that there was no life 
on Mars. All seasonal changes in the color of the planet could be 
traced to bombardment of minerals with energetic radiation under 
varying temperatures. 

Dr. Jane Blizard of Boulder, Colo., also speaking at the APS meeting, 
suggested that any astronaut braving a 400-day journey to Mars would 
be likely to get a fatal dose of radiation. Maybe, she said, long range 
forecasting of solar storms can be perfected in time. Or maybe 
"superconductive magnetic doughnuts" could be devised to shield 
spacecraft from barrages of protons spewed out in solar storms. 
(Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 4/27/65) 

• Jean Delorme, president of France's L'Aire Liquide and head 

of Eurospace, said he believed there could be no large-scale European 
space program without formation of a European equivalent to the U.S. 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He called for estab- 
lishment of a central coordinating body that would be the suprana- 
tional European NASA, with the power to make financial decisions. 
Delorme was addressing opening of 12-day U.S.-Eurospace conference 
in Philadelphia, (ap, NYT, 2/27/65, 17) 

• Dr. Paul Herget, professor and director of the Univ. of Cincinnati 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 203 

Observatory, was awarded the James Craig Watson Medal of the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences "for important contributions to the field 
of celestial mechanics, and particularly his application of electronic- 
computer techniques tO' calculations of the orbits of comets, earth 
satellites, and asteroids." He previously had responsibility for de- 
veloping operations of the Vanguard Computing Center, which provided 
tracking information on early scientific satellites. Henry Draper 
Medal for original investigation in astronomical physics was awarded 
in absentia to British radioastronomer Martin Ryle. (nas Release; 
NAS-NRC News Report, 4/65, 4) 
April 26: Speaking before the Fourth Symposium on Advanced Propulsion 
Concepts in Palo Alto, Calif., Gen. Bernard A. Schriever, AFSC Com- 
mander, said that the Air Force was studying the possibility of using 
hydrogen-burning, supersonic combustion ramjet engines, known as 
Scramjet, to power hypersonic aircraft: "The Scramjet is the most 
promising approach we have today for sustained hypersonic flight 
.... it could be used effectively on hypersonic aircraft with both 
military and commercial applications." He said experience gained 
with the research airplane might lead to the hypersonc aircraft and 
could make feasible the development of recoverable launch vehicles for 
flight speeds up to about 8,000 mph. This would permit delivery of 
very large payloads into space at far greater economy than is presently 
possible. (Text, afsc News Release 65.65) 

• DOD had asked NASA to consider using Minuteman I missiles 

scheduled to be removed from their silos, as launch vehicles. Missiles 
and Rockets reported. NASA Hq. transferred study to Langley Re- 
search Center. LaRC was expected to complete its feasibility investiga- 
tion in three to four weeks. {M&R, 4/26/65, 7; LaRc) 

• Maj. Gen. Don R. Ostrander, Commander of usaf's Office of Aerospace 

Research, said at the Fourth Symposium on Advanced Propulsion Con- 
cepts in Palo Alto, Calif., that important changes in America's re- 
search and development posture during the past few years "are the 
result of the more stringent requirements that must be met before 
increasingly complex and expensive systems can be approved for 
development." He continued: "These changes have placed more 
emphasis on research and exploratory development. 

"Coupling — or reducing the time lag between discovery and applica- 
tion — is the proposed solution for accomplishing this tremendous task. 
The problem of coupling is the problem of time. . . ." (oAR Release 
4-65-3) 

• Passage of bills concerned with freedom of information was urged by 

William J. Coughlin in an editorial in Missiles and Rockets: "Intent 
of the bills is to establish a Federal public records law and to permit 
court enforcement of the people's right to know the facts of government. 
Providing for sensible exceptions in the case of sensitive and classified 
information, the proposed law would require every agency of the gov- 
ernment to make all its records promptly available to any person. . . . 
"The onus for restrictive news management usually falls on the 
Dept. of Defense, and rightly so, but there are a number of individuals 
in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration who are in- 
clined to regard the agency as a preserve which should be off limits 
to the press. It is to the credit of Administrator James E. Webb that 



204 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

he has a consistent record of correcting abuses of press freedom that 
are called to his attention. The same cannot be said of his counter- 
part in the Defense Department." ( M&R, 4/25/65) 
April 27: The House Committee on Science and Astronautics unanimously 
approved a S5.2 billion NASA authorization for FY 1966, cutting only 
$75 million from the President's request. An unrequested S27.2 
million was included for the 260-in. solid propellant program, the 
M-1 liquid hydrogen engine, and the Snap 8. Biggest single reduction 
was $42 million cut in $3.6 billion request for Apollo. Other programs 
affected by the cut included Oao. Ogo, Surveyor, Rover, Lunar 
Orbiter, and Centaur. (FS/, 4/28/65) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center announced $40 million modification 

to contract held by General Electric Co. for the design of electrical 
equipment for Saturn vehicle launch support. Modification would 
cover the design portion of the work involved in providing electrical 
support equipment for Saturn IB and Saturn V launches, (msfc Re- 
lease 65-100) 

• W. L. Everett, chief test pilot for the Ryan Aeronautics Co., was catapulted 

to his death from an xv-5a experimental plane after the vertical 
take-off aircraft developed mechanical difficulties. 

A witness said the xv-5a was at only 800 ft. and upside down 
when Mr. Everett ejected: "When he ejected, he ejected straight into 
the ground." The parachute did not have time to open. (N.Y. Her. 
Trib., 4/28/65; Miles, Wash. Post, 4/28/65) 

• Gen. William F. McKee (USAF, Ret.), NASA Assistant Administrator for 

Management Development, was named to succeed Najeeb E. Halaby 
as Administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency. (Wash. Post, 
4/28/65) 

• Frederick G. Donner, chief executive of General Motors, appeared before 

a Senate Commerce Committee on his renomination by President 
Johnson as a director of the Communications Satellite Corporation. 
Asked about rivalry from the Soviet Union in view of their recently- 
launched comsat, Donner said he regarded this about the same way he 
did Soviet automobiles as far as competition was concerned, (ap, 
Wash. Post, 4/28/65) 

• "Self-organizing flight controller," featuring device that could cope with 

unexpected flight conditions of satellites and aircraft, was being 
developed by afsc Research and Technology Div. Applying "proba- 
bility state variable devices," bionics researchers had recreated function 
of a living nerve cell in a device called "Artron" (artificial neuron). 
Networks of Artrons in electronic cluster functioned like living neurons: 
they became self-organizing, achieving problem-solving, and learning 
new ways to capitalize on their mistakes and find new ways of perform- 
ing a given task, afsc stressed that flyable self-organizing flight con- 
troller was 5-10 yrs away, (afsc Release 50.65) 

• Dr. Geoffrey Bennett, chief medical officer of the British Ministry 

of Aviation, gave a progress report on the Anglo-French supersonic 
transport, the Concorde, at the annual meeting of the Aerospace Medical 
Association in New York. He said problems of designing a supersonic 
aircraft safe enough for commercial use were proving less difficult 
than had been expected: "It is quite heartening to find that the further 
one goes along, the less difficult things seem to be." 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 205 

After his talk. Dr. Bennett said in an interview that such potential 
hazards as loss of air pressure in the cabin, accumulation of ozone, 
radiation, and problems of acceleration aroused much worry and dis- 
cussion a few years ago. Overcoming these problems by proper designs 
had proved less difficult than many expected, he said. (Schmeck, 
NYT, 4/28/65, 89) 
April 27: President Charles de Gaulle said in address delivered over French 
radio and television: "In the economic, scientific and technical domain, 

... we must see that our activities, for the essential part, remain 
under French management and control. We must also meet, at what- 
ever cost, the competition in advanced sectors. . . . Finally, when it is 
opportune, in order to combine our inventions, our capabilities and our 
resources in a given branch with those of another country, we must 
often choose one of those which is closest to us and whose weight we do 
not think will overwhelm us. 

"That is why we are imposing a financial, economic, and monetary 
stability upon ourselves which frees us from resorting to outside aid ; we 
are converting into gold the dollar surpluses imported into our country 
as a result of the American balance of payments; we have over the 
past six years multiplied by six the funds devoted to research; ... 
we are joining with England to build the world's first supersonic 
passenger aircraft ; we are ready to extend this French-British collabora- 
tion to other types of civil and military aircraft; we have just con- 
cluded an agreement with Soviet Russia concerning the perfection and 
use of our color television process. In sum, however large may be 
the glass offered to us. we prefer to drink from our own, while touch- 
ing glasses round about. . . ." (Text, Atlantic Comm. Qtrly., 6/22/65) 

• Rep. Emilio Q. Daddario ( D-Conn. ) disclosed in speech before Washing- 

ton Section, National Association of Science Writers, that the House 
Subcommittee on Science, Research and Development (of which he 
was chairman) was planning an investigation of the National Science 
Foundation. He said: "For some years, there has been the need to 
review its work and to determine if it were, in fact, thoroughly success- 
ful in promoting the progress of science, the national health, prosperity 
and welfare and for other purposes." {Wash. Post, 4/28/65, C9) 

• In a speech before the Aero Club of Washington, Dr. Raymond 

L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate Administrator for Advanced Re- 
search and Technology, ventured predictions for the next 20 years 
in aeronautics and astronautics. He noted the steady increase in 
civil aircraft output and the expansion in air travel "at a rate better 
than 12 percent per year for more than 15 years." He predicted "a 20- 
fold rise in air traffic volume over the next 25 years," but said that in 
order to reach its full potential the aircraft must be improved "in at 
least three important respects": reduction of minimum speeds for 
safe controlled flight; increase of maximum flight speed; and greater 
simplicity and economy of operation. He cited NASA research in these 
vital areas. (Text) 

• Dr. Erhard Loewe, vice president of the German company Telefunken, 

outlined Eurospace's long-range goals at Eurospace Conference in 
Philadelphia: ". . . we want to avoid errors as far as possible and 
derive the greatest possible profit from experience gained in the 
U.S " 



206 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Loewe said that Eurospace would urge support of the Aerospace 
Transporter, conceived as a two-stage vehicle — both piloted — able to 
carry a 5,000-lb. payload into a 180-mi. (3(X)-km.) altitude orbit and 
capable of rendezvous with an orbiting satellite. Loewe said that 
the Aerospace Transporter "signified as much to Europe as the trip 
to the moon does to the U.S. and the U.S.S.R." 

Other specific projects in the Eurospace recommendations: space 
stations, because long-term platforms were believed necessary to exploit 
space scientifically and economically; communications satellites in a 
system that would be integrated with the worldwide system of the 
U.S. ComSatCorp; applications and scientific satellites, for high- 
capacity commercial television, weather forecasting, and data collect- 
ing; ground facilities for basic R&D. {Av. Wk., 5/10/65, 74— 8U) 
April 27 : Dr. George B. Kistiakowsky, professor of chemistry at Harvard 
Univ. and former special assistant to President Eisenhower for science 
and technology, was selected Vice President of the National Academy of 
Sciences for four-year term beginning July 1, 1965. nas also elected 
35 new members in recognition of their distinguished and continuing 
achievements in original research. 

National Academy of Engineering, holding its first annual meeting 
in coordination with nas, elected 19 new members including Dr. Ray- 
mond L. Bisplinghoff, nasa Associate Administrator for Advanced 
Research and Technology, (nas Releases; nas-nrc J^ews Report, 4/65) 
April 28: X-15 No. 2 was flown by pilot John McKay (nasa) to 92,600-ft. 
altitude at a maximum speed of 3,260 mph (mach 4.80) to obtain data 
on the landing gear modification and on stability and control. (NASA 
X-15 Proj. Off.; frc Release) 

• USAf orbited two unidentified satellites with a single Atlas-Agena D 

launch vehicle launched from Vandenberg afb. (ap, NYT, 4/30/65, 
40; U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 140) 

• In its 11th test flight, the XB-70 aircraft reached a speed of 1,630 mph 

and an altitude of 62,000 ft.— both records for the XB-70. The air- 
craft's total time in the air was 14 hrs. 41 min. Flight was made 
from Edwards afb with naa pilots Alvin S. White and Van Shepard. 
(Clark, NYT, 4/29/65) 

• Quasi-stellar radio sources ("quasars"), cosmic x-ray sources, and 

neutron stars were discussed at nas meeting in Washington. Jesse 
L. Greenstein of Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories suggested 
qucisars were signs of galaxies forming — "the first condensation" of 
intergalactic gases. William A. Fowler of Cal Tech revived his earlier 
theory (proposed with Fred Hoyle) that these sources were huge energy 
masses created by explosive contractions of gigantic stars. Herbert 
Friedman of nrl presented new evidence that cosmic x-ray sources and 
neutron stars were not the same things. (Scientists at nrl had earlier 
suggested that some cosmic x-ray sources were the theoretical neutron 
stars.) Edwin E. Salpeter of Cornell Univ. reiterated the neutron star 
hypothesis. He suggested neutron stars could be oscillating stars which 
generate such great amounts of gravitational energy that the x-rays 
are produced. (Simons, Wash. Post, 4/29/65, A5) 

• Dr. Harold C, Urey, Univ. of California physicist, told members of the 

Overseas Writers Club in Washington, D.C., that Communist China 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 207 

could produce hydrogen bombs by a comparatively simple process and 
could possibly develop a nuclear delivery system in five years. Dr. 
Urey said Communist China had surprised world scientists, including 
himself, when it produced a nuclear bomb last fall with uranium 235 — 
one of the technicallv most difficult ways to produce the nuclear bomb. 

(AP,yvyr, 4/30/65,' 3) 

April 29: NASA's explorer xxvii (be-c) satellite was successfully launched 
into orbit from Wallops Island aboard a four-stage Scout rocket. 
Orbital parameters were: apogee, 796.5 mi. (1,162.4 km.) ; perigee, 
579.7 mi. (921.3 km.) ; period, 108 min.; inclination to the equator, 
41°. Primary mission of the 132-lb., windmill-shaped satellite was 
geodetic measurement: irregularities in the earth's gravitational field 
would be mapped by analysis of the Doppler shift of radio signals from 
the spacecraft. As a secondary mission, explorer XXVII would pro- 
vide data related to ionospheric studies and would evaluate further the 
use of laser techniques in deriving orbital and geodetic information 
and for deep space communication. 

All systems were operating as planned. (Wallops Release 65—24; 
NASA Release 65-147; nasa JProj. Off.) 

• mariner IV set world space communications distance record shortly after 

3:00 a.m. est when it reached a straight-line distance from earth of 
66 million mi. Soviet scientists reported two years ago that they 
lost radio contact with their mars I spacecraft March 21, 1963, after 
149 days of flight at more than 65 million mi. (nasa Release 65- 
141) 

• USAF launched Thor Agena D from Vandenberg afb with unidentified 

satellite payload. (U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 141) 

• Second successful Biosatellite nose cone test at White Sands Missile 

Range was conducted by afcrl, which was assisting NASA in evaluat- 
ing reentry of the spacecraft after being released by balloons at alti- 
tudes of from 88,000 ft. to 100,000 ft. ^ First such test had been con- 
ducted March 24. (oar Research Revieiv, 7/65, 30) 

• An accelerated reservoir light-gas gun had set a world speed record of 

25,300 mph for controlled flight of a visible object, of known mass 
and shape, and over a known distance in a ground facility in tests at 
NASA Ames Research Center, Ames announced. The shot was 3,200 
mph faster than the previous record. In the light-gas gun used, an ex- 
plosive charge was set off in a cylinder behind a plastic piston. The 
explosion pushed the piston into a chamber of hydrogen gas, compress- 
ing it, and the gas in turn pushed the projectile out of the firing tube. 
A light gas must be used because it has low mass and would expand 
at the highest speed after compression. 

With the ability to move objects this fast, researchers could extend 
their knowledge of space flight problems, (arc Release 65-13; ARC 
Astrogram, 4/29/65, 1, 2) 

• DOD announced interagency agreement whereby Defense Supply Agency 

would furnish NASA about $500,000 worth of electronic items annually 
on a reimbursable basis. The agreement would involve approximately 
12,000 centrally-managed items at dsa's Defense Electronics Supply 
Center in Dayton, Ohio, (dod Release 272-65) 



208 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

April 29: At the Spring Meeting of the American Physical Society, Dr. 
Homer E. Newell, nasa Associate Administrator for Space Science and 
Applications, attempted to answer the question "What can the space 
program do for experimental sciences like physics": ". . . the impact 
that space techniques are having and have already had on geophysics 
... is three-fold in character. First, the geophysicist finds in the 
space program powerful tools to use in a new approach to solving old 
problems. Secondly, the application of space techniques to geophysics 
has already turned up a number of exciting new problems, greatly 
broadening the scope of the discipline. Thirdly, as space probes, and 
eventually men, reach other bodies of the solar system such as the 
moon and planets, the domain of geophysics grows beyond the con- 
fines of a single body of the solar system. Let us consider each of 
these extensions to geophysics a little further. 

". . . space techniques have provided new tools for studying old 
problems of geophysics. Geodesy, meteorology, upper atmospheric 
physics, ionospheric research, and sun-earth relationships have all 
benefited from the application of space techniques. In the case of 
geodesy, the influence of the earth upon the orbits of various artificial 
satellites has been measured by careful radio, radar, and optical track- 
ing and used to obtain quantitative measures of the various harmonics 
in the expansion of the earth's gravitational potential. As a con- 
sequence of such measurements it has been found that the earth's 
equatorial bulge is some 70 meters greater than one would expect. . . . 
Other departures of the geoid from the figure of hydrostatic equilibrium 
have also been determined from these satellite measurements. . . . 
These measurements in turn have important implications for the 
distribution of matter within the earth, and for the internal strength 
of the earth's mantle." (Text) 

• At a news conference in Washington, D.C., Dr. George E. Mueller, nasa 

Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, said that although 
"extravehicular activity" was not planned for Gemini astronauts until 
GT-5, "we are working hard at trying to qualify the space suit and 
the hatch itself to see whether we can accelerate that date." 

If their spacesuits and the spacecraft's hatch passed tests in time. 
Astronaut Edward H. White (Maj., usaf) would lean halfway out 
of the capsule for perhaps 15 min. on flight GT-4, scheduled for early 
June. He and Astronaut James A. McDivitt would attempt to orbit the 
earth 63 times in 98 hours, taking off from Cape Kennedy and landing 
in the Atlantic near Grand Turk Island. 

Maj. White and Maj. McDivitt appeared at the news conference with 
their backup crew — Lt. Cdr. James A. Lovell, Jr. (usn), and Maj. 
Frank Borman (usaf). (Transcript) 

• Dr. Winston E. Kock, Director of nasa Electronics Research Center, 

was guest of Dr. Robert R. Gilruth. Director of nasa Manned 
Spacecraft Center, on a tour of MSC facilities. While in Houston, Dr. 
Kock addressed the annual banquet of the Institute of Navigation. In 
his speech he revealed ERG would investigate possibilities of new guid- 
ance techniques for future ion-propelled (or other low-thrust) space- 
craft, employing Mossbauer radiation as an accelerometer to monitor 
systems performance on the spacecraft. He termed Mossbauer radia- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 209 

tion "the most precise electromagnetic frequency yet known" in guid- 
ance applications, (msc Roundup, 5 14/65, 7) 
April 29: National Academy of Engineering's first award, the Charles 
Proteus Steinmetz Centennial Medal, was presented to RCA President 
Elmer W. Engstrom. for his outstanding leadership in electrical engi- 
neering for more than 30 years, (nas-nrc News Report, 4/65, 4) 

• Dr. Charles H. Townes. provost of MIT, reported at the meeting 

of the American Physical Society in Washington, D.C., that a laser 
beam had been used to produce sound waves more than a million times 
higher in pitch than those audible to the human ear. Dr. Townes 
explained that the laser beams at MIT had been used to produce oscil- 
lations constituting sound waves in solids and liquids. Sound had 
been produced by means of the laser at 3,000 mc in a fluid and 60,000 
mc in a solid. It should be possible. Dr. Townes said, to generate 
sound at 300,000 mc in diamond. (Sullivan, NYT, 4/30/65) 

• John G. Lee, pioneer aircraft designer and former director of research 

for United Aircraft Corp., had joined nasa as a part-time consultant to 
NASA Administrator James E. Webb on aeronautical research, (nasa 
Release 65-143) 

• A full-size model of the Soviet Union's Vostok spacecraft was placed on 

public view for the first time. The spherical, silvery capsule, mounted 
on a model of the last stage of its launch vehicle, was on display in 
Moscow's permanent Exhibition of National Economic Achievement. 
The 4.6-ton Vostok had a diameter of IV2 ft. {NYT, 4/30/65, 8) 
April 30: s-ivb stage of the first Saturn IB launch vehicle — first piece of 
flight hardware from Douglas Space Systems Center at Huntington 
Beach — had been shipped aboard NASA barge Orion to Douglas 
Sacramento Test Flight Center for flight readiness testing. The stage, 
58 ft. long and 21.5 ft. in dia., had single Rocketdyne J-2 engine, de- 
veloping 200,000 lbs. thrust, (msfc Release 65-104) 

• NASA had awarded $300,000 grant to the Dept, of Interior's Bureau of 

Mines for a three-year research program on the potential use of lunar 
materials to support manned exploration of the moon. The research 
team, utilizing data from NASA's unmanned lunar programs, would 
study the possible production, processing, and uses of materials on the 
moon for the construction, supply, and operation of manned lunar 
bases. Faculty consultants and graduate students from Univ. of 
Minnesota would assist as part of the Bureau's program to develop 
future capabilities at educational institutions, (nasa Release 65-144) 

• NASA Flight Research Center awarded separate lifting body study contracts 

to McDonnell Aircraft Co. and Northrop Norair. The two separate 
six-month studies would investigate a vehicle concept whose sole mission 
would be the basic research involved with reentry of a manned lifting 
body from orbital flight. Preliminary objectives included determina- 
tion of problem areas and their influence on design. Both contracts 
were fixed price; McDonnell received $152,496 and Norair $150,000. 
(frc Release 11-65) 

• James E. Webb, nasa Administrator, addressed meeting of Eurospace in 

Washington, D.C. 

"Launch vehicle and propulsion requirements for more distant ap- 
plications have led us to establish the feasibility of nuclear reactors 
for space propulsion purposes, and continuing attention will be given 



210 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

to this field. Data obtained in 10 years of extensive technical effort 
have now experimentally verified the analytical predictions of per- 
formance for this type of propulsion. And, of course, the support- 
ing technologies which would be necessary for difficult and distant 
future missions must also be considered, the power sources, including 
fuel cells, radio isotope sources, reactor power plants, vastly improved 
communications technology, pointing and orientation technology, high- 
ly reliable and long-lived componentry, and life support systems, in- 
cluding closed ecological systems. In this wide range of prospects for 
the more distant future, we are not committed to a particular line of 
development nor to given systems. We are too early in the space age 
to make such commitments. . . ." (Text) 
April 30: C. Leo De Orsey, financial advisor and attorney for the seven 
original astronauts and acting president of the Washington Redskins 
football team, died. (UPI, Houston Chron., 5/1/65; AP, NYT, 5/2/65, 
89) 

• Operational control of U.S. weapons to intercept and destroy armed 

satellites had been assigned to the Space Defense Center at Colorado 
Springs, Denver Post reported. The Space Defense Center included 
the Space Detection and Tracking Systems (Spadats), which recorded 
the launches of all space vehicles, foreign and domestic, and logged 
precise orbital data until they decayed in the earth's atmosphere. 
(Partner, Denver Post, 4/30/65) 
During April: More than 100 delegates from Eurospace toured U.S. aero- 
space installations, including NASA Kennedy Space Center, Goddard 
Space Flight Center, and facilities of U.S. firms corresponding to 
Eurospace member companies. Purpose of the U.S. European Space 
Conference was to bring together top industrial leaders from European 
and American aerospace companies to review problems posed for the 
industry by evolution of space technology. (M&R, 4/26/65, 9) 

• A $2.3-million test facility expected to improve space storability of liquid 

and solid rocket propulsion systems would be completed at the Air 
Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, Missiles and 
Rockets reported. (M&R, 4/26/65, 10) 

• The 2,000th full-scale solid rocket motor of the Polaris A-3 model was 

shipped to Navy's Pacific Missile Facility where it would be integrated 
into an operational missile, ij/ Armed Forces, 4/24/65, 15) 

• Walter R. Dornberger, vice president in charge of research for Bell 

Aerosystem Co., wrote in the company's bimonthly magazine. Ren- 
dezvous, the United States was spending too much for space explora- 
tion. As a start to cutting costs, Dornberger proposed developing 
space boosters that could be recovered and reused, (ap, Milwaukee J., 
4/14/65) 

• AFCRL experiment proved that a radio signal transmitted by an orbiting 

satellite could be trapped between two layers of the ionosphere and, 
upon emergence, channeled to ground stations half way around the 
world. Scientists had been aware of the ionospheric ducting capability 
for a number of years, but it had not been fully explored before the 
orbiting satellite experiment. fOAR Release 4-65-1) 

• Dr. Willard F. Libby, chemist and Director of ucla Institute of Geo- 

physics and Planetary Physics, advocated emphasis on manned scientific 
missions in the U.S. space program. "In my opinion, space is a 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 211 

great unknown from which we will obtain many new scientific dis- 
coveries." He approved of the use of scientist-astronauts, "but they 
must be backed much more wholeheartedly by the entire scientific com- 
munity, particularly the academic community, than is at present the 
case. Education will help to accomplish this eventually, but there is a 
particular urgency to determine the post- Apollo objectives in the near 
future." A solution to the immediate problem, which had been pro- 
posed to and adopted by NASA: formation of a "Scientific Task Force," 
made up of scientists about the same age as the astronauts, to work 
and live at MSC and be closely connected with the astronauts, MSC 
Director Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, Director of the Office of Space Sciences 
Dr. Homer E. Newell, and the Advisory Committee for Science and 
Technology. The Scientific Task Force would educate the scientific 
community with the manned space flight program and thereby acquire 
its ideas on the subject, and acquaint the nasa directors with the 
ideas for scientific experiments suggested by the academic community. 
{A&A, 4/65, 70-75) 
During April: Martin Summerfield, Princeton Univ., said in aiaa editorial 
that most of the critics of the U.S. space program were erecting and 
knocking down "straw men." Some of the attacks on the space pro- 
gram were designed to divert space funds "to other, supposedly more 
important purposes," and these viewpoints are "pushed too hard and 
can lead the nation in dangerous directions." The more significant 
criticism on scientific grounds was that ground-based instruments (sup- 
plemented by unmanned probes) can gather data about space, the 
moon and other celestial bodies more effectively than rocket-launched 
exploration. This criticism, he said, "misses the mark completely be- 
cause it takes for granted that the national space program — or at least 
the NASA part of it — was conceived simply as a scientific venture, 
. . ." He recalled the words of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Act of 1958, which provided "clearly . . . the overriding intent to 
develop the technology of space flight as an extension of the former 
naca's commitment to aeronautical flight. . . . 

"The real issue is whether the nation should continue to develop the 
technology for flight in space, capitalizing on such useful applications 
as seem practical from time to time. The answer can only be 'yes,' 
and nothing less than a vigorous program will do. It makes no sense 
to insist that so broad a program be evaluated in competition with 
telescopes or unmanned scientific probes. Advances in space science 
will not substitute for flying capability. Each of these efforts is im- 
portant in its own right. . . ." {A&A, 4/65, 23) 

• Orville H. Daniel discussed small rockets — chiefly meteorological sound- 

ing rockets — in International Science and Technology. "Forty years 
ago, when Dr. Goddard was performing his first experiments, all rockets 
were small rockets. Today, with thrusts nearing 10 million pounds 
and rocket vehicles approaching the size of small skyscrapers, a 500- 
pound-thrust rocket seems like a relic of the past. Nevertheless, such 
small rockets remain as important to science and as challenging to 
technology as Dr. Goddard's fledglings were in his day. About 1500 
of them were fired last year for various scientific purposes. . . ." 
(Int. Sci. & Tech., 4/65, .32-37) 

• Cosmic x-ray detection experiment carried aloft by an Aerobee sounding 



212 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

rocket discovered the first two extragalactic x-ray sources and identi- 
fied a variable x-ray source within the Milky Way galaxy. The two 
extragalactic sources — Sygnus A and M-87 — were found to emit x- 
radiation 10 to 100 times their radio and light energy. The variable 
x-ray source was Casiopeia A. Details of the experimental results were 
announced March 2, 1966, by Dr. Herbert Friedman, Naval Research 
Laboratory physicist. Project was conducted by Dr. Friedman, E. T. 
Byram, and T. A. Chubb of nrl under sponsorship of NRL and National 
Science Foundation. (Clark, NYT, 3/3/66; A&A, 4/66, 98, 100) 



1 



May 1965 



May 1: nasa Administrator James E. Webb, speaking at Rose Polytechnic 
Institute, Terre Haute, Ind.: "Indeed, the success of the national space 
program depends to a very large degree on the quality and the extent 
of involvement by the universities. Their most important contribution 
would naturally be in doing the jobs they are uniquely qualified to do, 
that is, in research and in educating and training at both the under- 
graduate and graduate levels the scientists, engineers, and other profes- 
sional personnel required by the space program. . . . 

"With its university program, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration is approaching a goal established early in its 
history. That goal, when achieved, will provide a substantial incre- 
ment to those trained men who are capable of guiding this country's 
undertakings in science and technology confidently toward future 
needs that are only partially visible to us now. That goal is being 
pursued in institutions of higher learning where men teach and prac- 
tice their specialties in the context of other highly refined fields of 
interest. Surely, this concept is broader than the space program 
itself." (Text) 

• YF-12A, USAF's twin-jet, delta-winged interceptor prototype, established 

four speed and altitude records at Edwards afb: (1) 2,062 mph 
straight-away speed record, breaking the 1,655.9 mph previous record 
held by the Soviet Union's E-166; (2) 80,000-ft. record for sustained 
altitude in horizontal flight, exceeding the E-166's 74,376-ft. record; 
(3) 1,688 mph record for 1,000-km. closed-course event with 2000-kg. 
{4,409-lb.) cargo, surpassing the 1,441 mph record set by the e-166 
in April 1965; and (4) 1,642 mph record for 500-km. closed-course 
event, topping Soviet performance of 1,452 mph. usaf pilots Col. 
Robert L. Stephens and Lt. Col. Daniel Andre set the first two records; 
Maj. Walter F. Daniel and Capt. James Cooney, the others. yf-12a 
performed under requirements of the Federation Aeronautique Inter- 
nationale, world authority for verification of flight records, (dod Re- 
lease 281-65; NYT, 5/9/65, 88) 

• Possibility that the wake of ice crystals — contrails — produced by super- 

sonic jets would persist and spread into a thin, semipermanent haze 
layer at about 14-mi. altitude, increasing temperature of the air mass 
below, altering global wind patterns, and effecting unpredictable cli- 
mate changes had been suggested by several weather specialists, report- 
ed Walter Sullivan. ( Sullivan, NYT, 5/1/65, 1 ) 
May 2: The recommendation to nasa by NAS-convened study group [see 
Apr. 26] that Mars receive "the highest priority among all objectives 
in space science," evoked editorial comment from the New York 
Times: 

213 



214 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"The biological exploration of Mars will not be cheap, and available 
funds for scientific research and development are limited. 

"The likely costs and returns of the search for Martian life must be 
compared with those from, say, programs for stepped-up research into 
cancer or for building giant accelerators that would permit physicists 
to peer more deeply into the recesses of the atomic nucleus. That 
broader consideration may well suggest a less concentrated program 
than the scientists had recommended. 

"Such a decision would have the added advantage of allowing more 
time for an effort to make the search for Martian life a cooperative 
international project and not, . . . merely one more arena for the 
wasteful duplication that is the essence of Soviet-American space com- 
petition." {NYT, 5/2/65) 
May 3: Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched from Wallops Station, 
Va., to obtain temperature, wind, density, and pressure at a time of 
minimum zonal wind flow by exploding twelve grenades during the 
ascent of the rocket. Two grenades did not eject and a third exploded 
before complete ejection, causing complete failure of experiment. 
Coordinated firings did not occur simultaneously at Ft. Churchill or 
Pt. Barrow due to weather conditions and payload problems. (NASA 
Rpt. SRl) 

• FAA announced one-month extensions, through May 1965, of design con- 

tracts with Boeing Co. and Lockheed Aircraft Corp., airframe contrac- 
tors; and General Electric Co. and Pratt & Whitney Div. of United 
Aircraft Corp., engine contractors, for U.S. supersonic transport 
program. Extensions applied to design contracts awarded to four 
companies for period Jan. 1 through Feb. 28, 1965, with provisions 
for one-month extensions from Feb. 28 through June 30. Dollar 
amount of each one-month airframe contract extension was $1 million 
($750,000 Government, $250,000 contractor) ; dollar amount of each 
one-month engine contract extension was $835,000 ($626,250 Govern- 
ment, $208,750 contractor ) . ( FAA Release 65-40 ) 

• Gemini Astronaut John W. Young (LCdr., USn) was presented 

the Navy's astronaut wings by Secretary of the Navy Paul H. 
Nitze. (AP, rasA.Po5«, 5/4/65) 

• EARLY BIRD I transmitted clear pictures and sound of live television 

programs between Europe and North America for 14 hrs. demon- 
strating its usefulness in regularly scheduled television. For three 
weeks, television's use of early bird i would be restricted to Mon- 
days; daily commercial use would not begin until fall when rates had 
been fixed. The satellite would be used on other days for telephone 
purposes and transmission of recorded information. (ComSatCorp; 
Gould,/Vyr, 5/4/65, 75) 

• A GEMINI III experiment in which blood cells subjected to a known 

dosage of radiation were allowed to float around weightless in a con- 
tainer showed that weightlessness had no effect on irradiated human 
blood cells, according to Charles W. Mathews, Gemini program 
manager. He also explained why gemini Iii landed about 60 mi. 
short of predicted spot: The pilots were instructed to fly a bank angle 
based on wind-tunnel data of Gemini spacecraft's lift characteristics. 
But in actual reentry, the spacecraft's "lift was only about % of what 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 215 

we had expected it to be." Onboard instrumentation showed the 
discrepancy, but the command pilot followed ground instructions. 
When he ultimately changed the angle, based on the onboard display, 
it was too late to achieve the spacecraft target. (Transcript) 
May 3: Editorializing in Aviation Week and Space Technology, Robert 
Hotz said that during the Eurospace meeting in Philadelphia, Euro- 
pean members had made significant points of interest: "Europe needs 
a technically strong, economically beneficial and politically imagina- 
tive space program of its own if it is to remain a powerful economic 
entity and maintain its present standard of general prosperi- 
ty .. . Europe must organize its technical and political resources on 
an over-all European level to be successful in space technolo- 
gy. .. . European industry faces a formidable task in selling the 
economic and political benefits of space technology to its people and 
governments. . . . European industry must develop its own space 
technology and cannot remain technically dependent on the U.S. re- 
gardless of how much support this country is willing to 
provide." Hotz concluded that "the fact that the discussions were so 
blunt and realistic proved the value of an organization such as Euro- 
space where these admittedly knotty problems can be 
aired...." {Hotz, Av. Wk., 5/3/65, U) 
• Discussions at last week's Eurospace meeting in Philadelphia indicated 
that "Europeans are eagerly seeking means to acquire U.S. technical 
know-how and systems management capability without buying hard- 
ware," wrote William J. Coughlin in a Missiles and Rockets 
editorial. He continued : "This was recognized in a blunt statement by 
Lockheed vice president Elmer P. Wheaton: 

" 'As we see the situation, the real reason today for joint U.S.-Euro- 
pean industrial cooperation is to facilitate acquisition by Europe of the 
technical capability the United States has been fortunate enough to 
develop. H we objectively appraise the existing circumstances, we all 
recognize that U.S. cooperation will often simply strengthen the Euro- 
pean ability to compete more effectively with U.S. firms. With these 
facts in mind, it is obvious that the purchase of U.S. hardware does 
not best fulfill Europe's aims'. . . . 

"As Lord Caldecote, managing director of the guided weapons divi- 
sion of British Aircraft Corp., put it: T cannot believe European tax- 
payers will be prepared to put forward money for programs on which 
American firms are prime contractors'. . . . 

"The most hopeful route to European space collaboration probably 
lies in the proposals put forward for navigation, meteorological and 
television satellites." (CoughHn, M&R, 5/3/65, 46) 
May 4: Aerobee sounding rocket successfully launched from NASA Wallops 
Station, Va. carried 317-lb. payload to 90-mi. altitude and impacted 
about 54 mi. downrange in the Atlantic. Conducted by NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center, the stellar spectroscopy experiment measured spe- 
cial radiation of two stars, Spica and Alkaid, utilizing an ultraviolet 
stellar spectrometer and an input telescope with a 13-in. aperture. 
Performance of a gimbaled star tracker and modified attitude control 
(Strap) was also tested. Data were telemetered to ground station 
during flight. (Wallops Release 65-26) 



216 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

May 4: Sen. Russell B. Long ( D-La. ) introduced a bill (S. 1899) in the 
Senate "to prescribe a national policy with respect to the acquisition, 
disposition, and use of proprietary rights in inventions made, and in 
scientific and technical information obtained, through the expenditure 
of public funds.*' Senator Long said in introducing the bill: "New dis- 
coveries derived from research supported by public funds belong to 
the people and constitute a part of the public domain to which all 
citizens should have access on terms of equalitv." (CR, 5/4/65, 
9023-9027) 

• Aerospace Corp.'s S22 million expenditure to construct buildings in Cali- 

fornia when space was available in nearbv U.S. facilities was criticized 
by Comptroller General Joseph Campbell in his testimony before the 
House Armed Services Special Investigations Subcommittee investigat- 
ing Aerospace. Campbell said that Aerospace had also incurred "cer- 
tain questionable costs which appear to be of interest." (AP, NYT. 
5/5/65) 

• Dr. Eugene B. Konecci of the National Aeronautics and Space Council 

staff discussed future manned aerospace flight before the American 
Astronautical Society meeting in Chicago: 

"A great deal of lifting-body research is being performed by NASA 
and the USAF. In the not too distant future we will enter into the 
truly second generation manned spacecraft era by relying more on a 
higher l/d (lift-drag ratio) such as a hypersonic l/d of about 
1.3. . . . The lifting body second generation manned spacecraft gives 
operational versatility for reentry from a number of orbit planes and 
gives a recovery capability at a number of landing sites within the 
United States. This versatility also increases the margin of safety for 
the astronauts. . . ." (Text) 

• Orbit of MOLNIYA I Soviet communications satellite was slightly correct- 

ed to increase its usefulness for relaying telecasts between Moscow and 
Vladivostok. Soviet Communications Minister Nikolai D. Psurtsev 
told Izvestia that the firing of a special rocket motor aboard the satel- 
lite had raised the apogee to 40,045.2 km. (24.872.8 mi.) ; perigee to 
548.4 km. (340.6 mi.); and the period to 12 hrs. Previous orbital 
parameters: apogee, 39,467.7 km. (24,514.1 mi.); perigee, 498.4 km. 
(309.5 mi.) ; period, 11 hrs. 48 min. The corrected high elliptical 
orbit put MOLNIYA I within the visibility of Russia's ground stations 
for the greater part of its period. {NYT, 5/5/65, 6) 
May 4-6: U.S.S.R. Mars probe zond ii had stopped transmitting data to 
earth, Russian physicist, Gennadii Skuridin, told the AAS-IIT Research 
Institute Symposium on Post-Apollo Space Exploration in Chicago. 
Cutoff apparently resulted from a failure in the probe's solar panels 
caused by meteoroid impact or solar radiation, he said. Other facts 
about the Soviet space program made public for the first time: (1) 
pressure in Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov's spacesuit during his walk in 
space on March 18, was about 5.9 lbs. psi; (2) Leonov had trouble 
with his vision and in orienting himself while in space, but was 
capable of performing useful work; (3) Soviet scientists have the 
technological know-how to perform orbit-changing spacecraft maneu- 
vers. A thirty-minute movie of Leonov's walk in space gave closeup 
views of construction of VOSKHOD ii's airlock, Leonov's spacesuit, 
gloves, footwear, and life-support equipment back pack. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 217 

Discussing investigation of space by the U.S.S.R., Skuridin said 
that from 1962. the problem of going to the moon had been studied 
with the Cosmos series of spacecraft. He said cosmos ill and COSMOS 
IV had studied solor plasma, its energy and location in earth areas, 
and during the period April 24 to May 2, 1962. had transmitted to 
earth more than 50 million measurements; 20 million more had been 
stored in a data-storage system, cosmos xli had investigated 
charged particles at 40,000 mi. altitude. The Elektron series, he con- 
tinued, had made important measurements of the atmosphere up to an 
altitude of 3,000 km. The ions of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen had 
also been measured. 

Discussing future flights, Skuridin said the Soviet Union would like 
to study Saturn. Pluto, and the sun, but added that a satellite was 
needed that could be launched to far-off planets and the sun and return 
to earth, (upi, NYT, 5/6/65, 2; Kotulak. Chic. Trih., 5/7/65; M&R, 
5/10/65, 12, 13) 

May 4^6: Preliminary plans for Apollo Extension System (Aes) develop- 
ment required selection of three major spacecraft contractors, NASA 
official told Missiles and Rockets during Symposium on Post-Apollo 
Space Exploration in Chicago: one to devise single payload plan, one 
to cover physical installation of experimental payloads and checkout 
systems, and one to translate Apollo spacecraft into Apollo extension 
vehicle with a six-week manned orbiting capability. NASA official at- 
tributed this decision to a reluctance to depend on a single contractor 
and a desire for broad-based readily available industrial capability. 
{M&R, 5/10/65, 13) 

May 5: Soviet Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov, first man to walk in space, had 
received 1 '230th of the permissible radiation dose, proving that space 
travel is radiation-safe. Tass announced. (Reuters, NYT, 5/6/65, 2) 

• NASA Assistant Deputy Administrator Dr. George L. Simpson, Jr., was 

named Chancellor of the University System of Georgia and would as- 
sume the duties of the new post July 15. Simpson, who had joined 
NASA in 1962 as Assistant Administrator of Public Affairs, later be- 
came Assistant Administrator for Technology Utilization and Policy 
Planning. In July 1964 he assumed the additional duties of Assistant 
Deputy Administrator. A native of North Carolina, he had been a 
professor at the Univ. of North Carolina and a planner of the Research 
Triangle, cooperative endeavor of the Univ. of North Carolina, Duke 
Univ., and North Carolina State College, (ap. Wash. Eve. Star, 
5/5^65) 

• USAF Chief of Staff General John P. McConnell, speaking at a meeting of 

the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., said: ". . . As airmen, 
all of us in the Air Force look at space with real concern. Will it 
someday become an area of military operation? If so, what will be 
the U.S. posture? In military language, what is our readiness? . . . 

"Space exploration is the responsibility of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. . . . The act which created the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration gave NASA broad responsi- 
bilities for meeting many of the broad needs of the nation. It also 
stated that the Department of Defense should be responsible for and 
direct those space activities pecuUar to or primarily associated with the 



218 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

development of weapon systems, military operations or the defense of 
the United States. 

"So we have both NASA and Air Force assigned specific responsi- 
bilities. We have the basis of a partnership. And a partnership it is 
in carrying out the national program as recommended by the President 
and authorized and funded by Congress. The intent of Congress is 
very clear. The members wanted the broad space capabilities of the 
nation to be built up as rapidly as possible without unnecessary dupli- 
cation of effort or of waste. This we are attempting to do. And 
while I would not ordinarily try to speak for Jim Webb, the NASA 
Administrator, I think I can speak for him today on this subject, in 
saying, that it is a very well understood mutual objective between the 
Air Force and NASA." 

Asked his opinion about spending of $20 billion to reach the moon, 
McConnell said: "I think it is necessary for us to get everything we 
can out of space. And I think we should get it as rapidly as we can at 
as reasonable cost as we can. But you can't get it rapidly and at the 
same time cheaply . . . going to the moon is just the end product of 
what we are getting out of it. If we were just going to the moon, I 
wouldn't think it would be worth 20 billion dollars to go to the 
moon. But I don't hesitate to say that all of the other things which 
we have to do, the preliminaries, and the things that we're going to 
learn in the process of achieving that goal is well worth the expendi- 
ture of whatever money is required to attain the knowledge which we 
will attain as a result of this project." (Text) 
May 5: Boeing Co. unveiled to the public a mockup of its Molab (Mobile 
Laboratory ) , a six-wheeled vehicle being studied by NASA for use in 
manned exploration of the moon, (ap, Tulsa Daily World, 5/6/65) 
May 6: MARINER iv, after 159 days in space, was 72 million mi. from 
earth, had travelled 243 million mi. The spacecraft continued to re- 
turn scientific and engineering data to ground stations daily and to set 
new records for distance of communications, (nasa Release 65-148) 
• U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing appropri- 
ations to NASA for FY 1966 totaling $5,183,844,850, as follows: 
S4,537,121,000 for research and development; $60,675,000 for con- 
struction of facilities; and $586,048,850 for administrative operations. 
NASA had requested $5.26 billion. 

During the debate preceding passage of the bill, Rep. James G. 
Fulton (R-Pa.) said: "We have moved quickly. But we are not in a 
crash program. We are now conducting a reasonable program . . . 
it is a well-planned program. 

"It is impossible to believe that in the fiscal year 1959 only 
$48,354,000 was authorized for space [nasa]. In fiscal year 1960 it 
went up ten times to $485,550,000. It doubled again in fiscal year 
1961 to $915 million. 

"In fiscal year 1962 it went to $1,361,900,000. 

"In fiscal year 1963, it went to $3,742,162,000 and in fiscal year 
1964 to $5,238,119,400. 

"In fiscal year 1965 it went to $5,193,810,500. 

"For this fiscal year, the committee has recommended $5,183,844?- 
850, which is down from last year's level. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 219 

"I want the House to know we have gone over these programs 
thoroughly. We have made cuts in the committee, and the cuts were 
worthwhile. They are responsible, and they are substantial. They 
are not small." 

Regarding funds restored to the NASA budget. Rep, Fulton said: 
"The M-1 engine development, the 260-inch engine development, and 
the SNAP-8 development, were ongoing programs of research that were 
approved by the committee and authorized by the House over the past 
several years. However, for reasons of economy, the Administrator 
cut these three programs entirely from the NASA budget. The commit- 
tee on the other hand, believed that such actions in the long run would 
be extremely wasteful and later result in very high costs when it would 
become necessary to reactivate these programs. 

"Consequently, the committee restored S15 million to the M-1 pro- 
gram to continue it on a technological development level, S6.2 million 
to the 260-inch solid rocket program to carry it through the test firing 
of two full length rockets, and S6 million to the snap-8 to continue it 
at the scheduled level of effort." 

Rep. Olin E. Teague ( D-Tex. ) discussed changes made by the 
Manned Space Flight Subcommittee: "The total request by NASA for 
manned space flight for fiscal year 1966 is $3,567,052,000.'. . . The 
subcommittee is recommending a total reduction of $42,825,000. 

"NASA requested $3,249,485,000 for research and development in 
manned space flights. Total reduction in research and development 
amounts to $30 million. All of this reduction comes from the Apollo 
program. It is the view of the subcommittee that in the areas of 
Apollo mission support and engine development that program improve- 
ments could be made. However, the reduction was made in the total 
request to allow NASA to make program alterations with a broad man- 
agement latitude of choice without adversely affecting the total 
program. It was recognized by the subcommittee that NASA, prior to 
coming before the committee, had made substantial reductions in their 
total research and development program. A further reduction was 
also made by the Bureau of the Budget. Based on this, the $30 mil- 
lion reduction is considered a maximum amount that could be taken 
without jeopardizing the pace and progress of the Apollo 
program." ( CR, 5/6/65, 9291, 9296, 9301 ) 
May 6: Saturn V booster (s-ic stage) was static-fired for the second time 
at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The five F-1 engines were 
ignited in a 15-sec. test during which they generated 7.5 million lbs. 
thrust. Tests of this stage would gradually increase in duration until 
full-length firing of 2^/2 min. was reached in late spring or early 
summer, (msfc Release 65-117) 
• USAF Titan iii-A rocket was fired from Eastern Test Range in a maneu- 
verability test in which the third stage (transtage), carrying two satel- 
lites, executed a series of consecutive and intricate maneuvers. Pri- 
mary goal of the mission was four separate ignitions of the transtage's 
engines — a feat never before attempted. 

First firing, after burnout of the first two stages, lasted 296 sec. and 
injected the 7,000-lb. rocket-payload assembly into near-earth orbit of 
125-mi. (201.3 km.) apogee, 108-mi. (173.9-km.) perigee, and 88.1- 
min. period. After one earth orbit, about 90 min. after launch, the 



220 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

third stage ignited a second time, for 37 sec, driving the stage upward 
into an elliptical orbit of apogee, 1,757 mi. (2,828.8 km.) and perigee, 
115 mi. (185.2 km.). Two and one-half hours later, transtage's two 
8,000-lb. -thrust engines burned a third time, for 27 sec, to circularize 
the orbit at 1.743-mi. (2,806.2-km.) apogee and 1,729-mi. (2,783.7- 
km.) perigee. Thirty seconds after shutdown of the transtage, an 82- 
Ib. Lincoln Laboratory experimental communications satellite (les 
II ), equipped with its own rocket motor to shoot itself into a higher 
elliptical orbit, was spring-ejected from the stage. LES ii attained 
orbit of 9,364-mi. (15,076-km.) apogee; 1,753-mi. (2,822-km.) peri- 
gee; 315-min. period; and 31.35° inclination. Then, 42 sec. after LES 
11 was released, a 44.5-in.-dia., 75-lb. hollow aluminum radar calibra- 
tion sphere (lcs i) was ejected from the transtage. LCS i was to 
remain in near-circular orbit with 1,743-mi. (2,806.2-km.) apogee, 
1,729-mi. (2,783. 7-km.) perigee. Seven hours after launch, the tran- 
stage was fired a fourth time, driving it into a final elliptical orbit of 
2,317-mi. (3,730.4-km.) apogee; 1,725-mi. (2,777.3-km.) perigee; 157- 
min. period; and 32.07° inclination, (upi, NYT, 5/7/65, 12; Av. 
Wk., 5/10/65, 33; usaf Proj. Off.; JJ.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 
141) 
May 6: nasa announced its agreement with the Brazilian Space Commis- 
sion (cnae) to cooperate in scientific sounding rocket program to 
investigate the lower regions of the ionosphere, emphasizing the effects 
of cosmic rays. NASA would provide and CNAE would launch two' 
sounding rockets from Natal, Brazil; scientific payloads would be con- 
structed by Brazilian technicians at NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center. NASA and cnae would combine to provide ground support 
equipment, to analyze data, and to publish the results of the 
experiment. In addition, NASA would launch one instrumented sound- 
ing rocket from Wallops Station, Va., in a complementary 
experiment. The project would contribute to observance of 1965' as 
International Cooperation Year, (nasa Release 65-149) 

• To assure expeditious completion of NASA's Mississippi Test Facility — 

permanent national center for ground testing of large launch vehicle 
stages — Marshall Space Flight Center announced two changes in prepa- 
ration of the installation : ( 1 ) buildup in personnel would start imme- 
diately; (2) MSEC planning, construction, and activation elements 
would be grouped into a new Mississippi Test Facility Task 
Force. Jackson Balch, until now MSFC's assistant deputy director, 
technical, would have the dual titles of Mississippi Test Facility site 
manager and head of the mtf Task Force. A permanent organization 
to operate mtf once it was activated would be formed later, (msfc 
Release 65-114) 

• Techniques for weather predictions reliable up to two weeks were dis- 

cussed at Geophysics Corp. of America in Bedford, Mass., by Dr. D. Q. 
Wark of the U.S. Weather Bureau, Dr. William Nordberg of NASA 
Goddard Space FHght Center, and Dr. Jean I. F. King of GCA. These 
scientists had successfully utilized radio waves to collect weather data 
and were planning to build a new weather satellite which could log 
greater amounts of data and provide constant coverage. They pro- 
posed placing weather buoys in the oceans and weather balloons in the 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 221 

atmosphere equipped to relay data to the orbiting satelHte which, in 
turn, would relay data to ground stations. (Hughes, CSM, 5/6/65) 
May 6: Russian communications satellite molniya I, because of its higher 
and sharply elongated orbit, could transmit continuously several hours 
longer than American Telstars, reported Tass. Tass claimed that Tel- 
stars could transmit uninterruptedly for only 30 min. (Reuters, NYT, 
5/7/65, 3) 

• Chairman of the UCLA Astronomy Dept. Dr. L. H. Aller believed the 

moon might be as solid as metal below the top few inches of surface, 
reported George Getze in the Los Angeles Times. According to Getze, 
Aller said chances were good that the chemical composition of the 
moon was more like the sun's than the earth's and that elements in 
the sun as gases would be found in the moon as solids. "The first few 
inches of the moon's surface may have been changed a good deal by 
meteor hits and solar radiation, but if we go down a few feet we will 
probably find that the composition is like the sun's," he said. (Getze, 
L.A. Times, 5/6/65) 

• Editorializing in the Evening Star, Richard Fryklund said: "It is a 

pity . . . that the hot, new plane, called the yf-12a, has almost no 
chance to be used by the Air Force for anything except tests and speed 
records. . . . 

"The reason: Secretary of Defense McNamara doubts that any new 
interceptor is needed or that the Air Force's nomination is the right 
plane even if one is needed. . . . 

"Three of the records set by the yf-12a on May Day are consid- 
ered to be the most important performance checks on any airplane: 
Speed over a straight course (2,062 miles an hour, or about mach 
3.2), altitude (80,000 feet, though it can go higher) and speed around 
a circular course (1,688 miles an hour)." (Fryklund, Wash. Eve. 
Star, 5/6/65, 7) 
May 7: U.S.S.R. launched cosmos lxvi with scientific instruments aboard 
for investigation of outer space, Tass announced. Orbital data: apo- 
gee, 291 km. (180.7 mi.) ; perigee, 197 km. (122.3 mi.) ; period, 89.3 
min.; inclination, 65°. All systems were functioning normally. 
(Tass, 5/7/65) 

• The President of Aerospace Corp., Dr. Ivan A. Getting, replying to 

Comptroller General Joseph Campbell's charges that Aerospace had 
spent $22 million to build new facilities in California when Govern- 
ment space was available, told the House Armed Services Special 
Investigations Subcommittee that the separate buildings assured "the 
financial independence and stability to enable the corporation to per- 
form its mission," and that the construction would be paid for with 
earnings from Government contracts and fees. Chairman of the Sub- 
committee Rep. Porter Hardy, Jr. (D-Va.), said that the hearings had 
revealed "startling deficiencies in the control of public funds made 
available to Aerospace." (ap, NYT, 5/9/65, 76) 

• Civil Aeronautics Board approved a United Air Lines plan to lease 

eight Boeing 727-22 jet airliners from a group of 22 banks rather than 
buy them directly from Boeing. United told the CAB, in applying for 
approval of the new agreement, that the lease arrangement would give 
it the use of the planes on a cost basis substantially more favorable 
than if it leased the planes some other way or financed their purchase 



222 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

through commercial bank borrowings. Each plane would be leased to 
United for 13 yrs. from date of delivery. (WSJ, 5/7/65, 6) 
May 7: Civil Aeronautics Board request for $2.1 million in subsidies for 
commercial helicopter lines in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, to 
be paid during July-December period, was denied by House Appropri- 
ations Committee. ( WSJ, 5/7/65, 2) 

• Pan American Airways announced it would purchase four additional 

Boeing 727 jet aircraft, bringing its Boeing purchase program total to 
19. (r5/, 5/7/65, 3) 

May 8: "We are already getting ready for the next manned flight," Soviet 
Cosmonaut Pavel Belyayev's backup pilot wrote in a Soviet air force 
journal. "We are getting acquainted with the construction of a new 
ship" and "planning new flights on new courses with more complicated 
assignments." ( Wash. Post, 5/8/65) 

May 9: luna v, a 3,254-lb. instrumented moon probe, was successfully 
launched by U.S.S.R. on an undisclosed mission. According to Tass 
announcement, the probe was launched by multi-stage rocket into a 
parking orbit and then fired toward the moon. All onboard equip- 
ment was said to be functioning normally and a U.S.S.R. station track- 
ing the probe was receiving "scientific information." Tass reported 
that LUNA V was "moving along a trajectory close to the planned 
one." At 10:00 p.m. Moscow time, the probe was 110,000 km. 
(68,323 mi.) from earth. (Tass, 5/9/65) 

• Sir Bernard Lovell, director of the radiotelescope facility at Jodrell 

Bank, England, said that the telescope would try to track Soviet lunar 
probe LUNA V on May 10. "We have been expecting the Russians to 
make an attempt to achieve a soft landing of an instrumented package 
on the moon for some time now," he said. "This may possibly be the 
attempt." {NYT, 5/10/65) 

• Studies on flight handling qualities of a manned lifting body re- 

entry vehicle during the later stages of reentry and during the land- 
ing approach were being jointly conducted by NASA and Cornell Aer- 
onautical Laboratory at NASA's Flight Research Center using a T-33 
jet aircraft specifically modified for AF Systems Command by 
Cornell. Cornell was working under a NASA-funded $231,000 contract 
which also included human transfer-function studies and ground simu- 
lation of the lifting body, (frc Release 12-65) 

• Recently released photograph of the recoverable capsule of the U.S.S.R. 

Vostok spacecraft revealed that the craft was spherical and that one 
third of it was covered with an unidentified material marked by con- 
centric rings. In a New York Times article, Frederic Appel said that 
the U.S. had rejected a spherical design for U.S. spacecraft because of 
its lack of dynamic stability and because, during reentry, too much 
surface was exposed to hot gases deflected by the heat shield raising 
the internal temperature above allowable limits. Appel speculated that 
the Soviets might have solved the problem with greater heat insulation 
or a more powerful coohng system and that the material marked by 
concentric rings could be the remains of a heat shield that had burned 
away. (Appel, NYT, 5/9/65, 14) 

• U.S.S.R displayed some of its newest, most powerful missiles during a 

parade across Red Square in Moscow commemorating 20th anniver- 
sary of victory over Hitler's Army. Missiles never before displayed 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 223 

included two three-stage missiles about 110 ft. long and 10 ft. in diam- 
eter which Tass described as of "unlimited" range and as similar to 
the rockets that orbited the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft; two mis- 
siles of similar construction — about 65 ft. long — described by Tass as 
"intercontinental rockets" using solid fuel; a massive self-propelled 
missile consisting of a tracked carrier topped by a stubby rocket rest- 
ing as if in a pod and described by Tass as a solid-fuel medium-range 
missile of "tremendous destructive power." This was the first time 
the Soviet Union had officially reported it possessed a solid-fuel rocket 
of the intercontinental, or orbital, type. 

Also in the parade were a Polaris-type missile used by submarines 
and what Tass described as an "antimissile missile." These types of 
weapons had been displayed before. (Tanner, NYT, 5/10/65) 
May 9: Dr. Richard L. Lesher, consultant to NASA since June 1964 and a 
special assistant to Breene M. Kerr, nasa Assistant Administrator for 
Technology Utilization since Nov. 1964, became NASA Deputy Assistant 
Administrator for Technology Utilization. (NASA Release 65-161) 

• Sixty college science and engineering students selected in a nationwide 

competition were awarded NASA grants to participate in a summer 
space science program at Columbia Univ. {NYT, 5/9/65, 34) 

May 9-12: During NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems, NASA 
scientists reported to Government and industry technical experts on 
research accomplishments leading to improved aircraft usefulness and 
safety. Held at NASA Langley Research Center, the technical sessions 
were under the sponsorship of NASA's Office of Advanced Research and 
Technology and included 34 papers, (nasa Release 65-160; NASA 
SP-83.) 

May 10: Tass announced that luna v probe had undergone a planned 
midcourse maneuver to change its trajectory. (Tass, 5/11/65) 

• Evidence of life on earth 2.7 billion yrs. ago was reported by Univ. of 

California professor and Nobel prize winner Melvin Calvin. The evi- 
dence was in the form of two chemicals, phytane and pristane, extract- 
ed from the Soudan Formation, a carbon-rich and precisely-dated geo- 
logical stratum in Minnesota. Both are carbon-hydrogen compounds; 
both are manufactured only by living systems; both are stable enough 
to have survived unaltered. As Calvin reconstructed it, both chemi- 
cals were synthesized by chlorophyll-containing plants — fairly high 
forms of life requiring long ancestry. First signs of earthly life must 
therefore have existed 800 million yrs. prior to the date currently 
accepted. {Newsweek, 5/10/65) 

• Rep. James C. Corman (D-Calif.) announced that a poll taken among 

his constituents showed that 68.7% supported a program to land an 
American on the moon by 1970; 14% felt the program should be 
slowed down; 17.3% disapproved of the program. {CR, 5/10/65, 
A2275) 

• Newest U.S. telescope, a 24-in. reflector for photographing stars, was 

operating at Univ. of Rochester under direction of Dr. Stewart 
Sharpless. It would be used to study the structure of the galaxies, the 
gas and dust between stars, and the evolution of variable stars. (Sci. 
Serv., Wash. Daily News, 5/10/65) 

• USAF scientist Dr. John W. Evans received DOd's Distinguished Civilian 

Service Award for his research on the physical processes of solar mag- 



224 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

netic fields, mass motions of the solar photosphere, and growth and 
development of solar flares. fOAR Release 5-65-1) 
May 10: Second stage (s-iv) for the tenth and last Saturn I launch vehicle 
was delivered to Kennedy Space Center, NASA, aboard "Pregnant 
Guppy" aircraft. The stage was flown from Douglas Aircraft Co.'s 
Sacramento, Calif., facility, (msfc Release 65-135) 

• U.S.S.R.'s antimissile missile and other powerful rockets were shown 

in action for the first time in a film on Moscow television, "Rockets 
in Defense of Peace." Included were test firings of surface-to-air, 
air-to-surface, and underwater missiles as well as launchings of 
intermediate and intercontinental surface-to-surface ballistic missiles, 
some from underground silos. Also displayed were installations of 
the Soviet antimissile defense, including testing stations, computer 
centers supplying data for interceptions, and launching sites for inter- 
ceptor missiles. One sequence showed firing of an antimissile missile 
and the interception of an intercontinental ballistic missile at an 
unspecified altitude. ( Shabad, NYT, 3/11/65, 4) 

• In a New York Times article. Jack Gould suggested that statesmen plan- 

ning EARLY BIRD I telecasts prepare their speeches well in advance and 
consider time differences in their scheduling. He noted that President 
Johnson's speech had received limited European coverage because it 
was hastily arranged and that the address of West Germany's Chancel- 
lor Ludwig Erhard had suffered because of an unusually poor simulta- 
neous English translation. (Gould, NYT, 5/10/65, 59) 
May 11: NASA Administrator James E. Webb, speaking to the Washington 
Board of Trade, said: "In 1959, when NASA attempted 14 space flights, 
we had 37 percent success in missions and launch vehicles. Last year 
we attempted 30 missions, more than twice as many as in 1959, and 
the percentage of success in missions went up to 83, with 93 percent 
success in vehicles. So far this year, the percentages are holding close 
to those of 1964." (Text) 

• Successful 75-min. test of USAF f-111a supersonic fighter bomber was 

conducted at Edwards afb by Lt. Col. James W. Wood (usaf) who 
flew at 760 mph and to 30,000 ft. (ap, NYT, 5/12/65) 

• F-111b, USN version of the F-111 multipurpose fighter designed for use 

by both USAF and usN, was displayed for the first time during a roll- 
out ceremony at the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. plant at 
Peconic, L.I. Secretary of the Navy Paul H. Nitze was the principal 
speaker. Test pilots demonstrated the variable-sweep wing which 
could extend almost perpendicular to the fuselage for take-offs, land- 
ings, and slow flight, and then pivot back sharply for supersonic 
flight. In a news conference. Brig. Gen. John L. Zoeckler (usaf), 
F-111 project manager, acknowledged that f-111b was 500-600 lbs. 
"overweight," but said that "very substantial strides" had been made 
in weight reduction. He added that "some compensation" in perform- 
ance would be achieved in later USN models by addition of high-lift 
devices. The two-man, all-weather, supersonic aircraft was designed 
to fly at about 1,600 mph. (dod Release 285-65; Hudson, NYT, 
5/12/65, 18) 

• A third solid-fuel Pershing ballistic missile unit would be moved to Eu- 

rope this month, dod announced. The Pershing could reach 400 mi. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 225 

with either a nuclear or conventional warhead and would replace the 
slower-firing liquid-fuel Redstone missile. {Wash. Post, 5/11/65) 
May 11: nasa announced closing of its Santa Monica and Dallas Area 
Professional Staffing Offices and moving of its New York office to 
Boston to assist in recruitment program for new Electronics Research 
Center in Cambridge. (NASA Release 65-156) 

• Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate Administrator for Ad- 

vanced Research and Technology, announced the appointment of Fran- 
cis J. Sullivan as Director of the Electronics and Control Div. of 
NASA's Office of Advanced Research and Technology. Mr. Sullivan 
had been serving as Acting Director since Sept. 1, 1964. (NASA Re- 
lease 65-152) 

• Decision to narrow the choice of type of broadcast satellite it 

would consider from three to two was announced by ComSatCorp pres- 
ident Joseph V. Charyk at a stockholder's meeting in Washington, 
D.C. Two of the approaches under consideration involved satellites 
that would operate about 6,000 mi. above the earth: one would have 
18 satellites, orbiting in random positions; the other would have 12 
satellites, orbiting at "phased" or controlled positions. The third ap- 
proach, being tested in EARLY bird I, had satelHtes placed at an alti- 
tude of 22,000 mi. in synchronous orbit. In his speech, Charyk re- 
vealed that the corporation had decided to drop from consideration the 
6,000-mi. random version. It had been discovered, he reported, that a 
6.000-mi.-high satellite could be controlled more easily than ComSat- 
Corp had believed when it first started studying random satelUtes as 
one alternative approach. Moreover, Charyk said, it now appeared 
that a satellite could be designed that would operate either at 6,000 mi. 
in controlled positions or at the 22,000-mi.-high, synchronous position. 

ComSatCorp therefore would invite satelHte designers to offer bids 
to build this type of satellite. (Denniston, Wash. Eve. Star, 5/11/65, 
12) 
May 11-21: 1965 cospar (Committee on Space Research) meeting was 
held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, where it was moved from Buenos 
Aires because of student demonstrations. 

A new working group was formed, with Morris Tepper (Chief of 
Meteorological Programs, nasa) as chairman. Called Working Group 
VI, for Scientific Space Experiments Concerned with Properties and 
Dynamics of the Troposphere and Stratosphere, it was formed to 
"further international understanding of, and cooperation in, the use of 
rocket and satellite systems and techniques for meteorological research, 
and to promote international discussions involving meteorologists with 
scientists of other disciplines in order to provide a good climate for 
the development of imaginative new approaches to the use of rockets 
and sateUites for meteorological research." (nas-NRC News Report, 
Vol. XV, 5/6/65, 6) 

Dr. 0. Z. Gazenko, physiologist and member of the Soviet Academy 
of Sciences, said that cosmonauts had no difficulty knowing the orien- 
tation of their bodies and experienced no nervous disorders if they 
were given visual cues. He based his remarks on experiences of So- 
viet cosmonauts, especially those of Lt. Col. Aleksei Leonov in 
VOSKHOD II: "When he saw the spacecraft, he had no problem know- 



226 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

ing his orientation, but it was different when he didn't see the space- 
craft." 

During the launch phase, the cosmonauts' pulse and breathing rates 
were greater than noted during centrifugal tests in ground laborato- 
ries. In VOSKHOD II, it took a comparatively long time for the normal 
levels to be reached, according to Gazenko. Comparison of the data 
of the Voskhod flights with other space flights showed fewer cardiovas- 
cular variations and better responses to stress. He recommended 
crews of several people since "the feeling of togetherness of cosmo- 
nauts is very important." ( Text) 

Success of the fully stabilized British Skylark rocket in obtaining 
new astrophysical data was described. Skylark was a single-stage, sol- 
id-fuel vehicle designed to carry 150-200-lb. payload to 200 km. ( 124 
mi.) altitude. Using the sun as a reference, Skylark could achieve 
pointing accuracy of between two and three minutes of arc in pitch 
and yaw, reported Kenneth Pounds, lecturer at Leicester College, Eng- 
land, and one of its users: "The new Skylark has revolutionized the 
whole field of rocket research as far as we're concerned." He pointed 
out that many scientific experiments, such as taking x-ray photographs 
of the sun, could not be done by an unstabilized rocket: "You need 
100 sec. or more exposure time, plus roll stabilization, or the pho- 
tographs will be blurred." ( cospar Rpt.) 

M. S. V. Rao, reporting on the Thumba, India, experiments conduct- 
ed on World Days during the 1964—1965 IQSY, said east northeasterly 
winds with speeds of 60-90 knots were observed in the stratosphere 
during the monsoon. In the mesosphere, data revealed a region of 
unusually strong winds with high shear. Rao reported that radar ob- 
servations of the rate of dispersion of chaff confirmed existence of 
complex pattern of high shears and pronounced turbulence in the 
equatorial mesosphere in the monsoon season. (Text) 

NASA scientists at Wallops Station, Va., had made a similar rocket 
launching during the Thumba experiments to get a synoptic 
picture. Arnold Frutkin, NASA Director of International Programs, 
said at the COSPAR meeting that "these data were the first relating to 
the monsoon problem on a global scale. It shows what very important 
work less advanced countries can do." (M&R, 5/24/65, 17) 

Activities in the 1964 U.S. space program were summarized by Dr. 
Richard W. Porter, National Academy of Sciences delegate to 
cospar: ". . . Satellite storm warnings, intercontinental television, 
voice and data transmissions via satellite, all-weather navigational 
'fixes' for ships at sea, and precise map making by means of satellite 
observations have become almost commonplace events. Space launch- 
ings at frequent intervals are providing a continuous stream of new 
information of value to science and mankind. ... In total, the var- 
ious agencies of the United States carried out sixty-one successful sat- 
ellite and space probe launchings; however, because of the occasional 
practice of launching several satellites at a time . . . the total number 
of useful discrete payloads in Earth orbit or escape trajectory was 
seventy-seven. . . . 

"In addition, the United States launched seven large high-altitude 
rocket probes, in the range from 700 to 1100 km., and well over one 
hundred other scientific sounding rockets, most of which reached alti- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 227 

tudes between 110 and 250 km. Twelve hundred twenty-three small 
meteorological rockets, having a payload of about 5 kg. and a maxi- 
mum altitude of about 60 km. were fired on regular schedules by the 
meteorological rocket network and more than one hundred scientifical- 
ly instrumented large balloon flights were made during the period. 

"Technological advances made during this period which will con- 
tribute significantly to the space-research capability of the United 
States include the launching of three SATURN i booster rockets, capable 
of putting about 7500 kg. of useful weight into Earth orbit, one titan 
IIIA booster, and successful tests of the centaur liquid hydrogen 
rocket. Electrostatic ion accelerator rocket propulsion devices were 
tested in space during 1964, and more recently a nuclear reactor with 
thermoelectric energy conversion devices successfully began an endur- 
ance run in space which is still continuing. Passive gravity-gradient 
stabilization techniques have been perfected by means of additional 
satellite tests to the point where this technique is ready for useful 
employment in a variety of space applications. The highly directional 
properties of a lasar beam were successfully used in tracking a satel- 
lite. Significant improvements were also made in sounding rocket, 
high altitude balloon design and in data conversion facili- 
ties." (Text) 

K, Maeda, chief Japanese delegate to the sixth international space 
symposium of COSPAR, told Missiles and Rockets Japan would launch 
its own satellite with its own launch vehicle within the next three 
years. A four-stage, solid-fueled rocket would be used, with the Mu 
rocket as first stage. The satellite, to be used solely for scientific 
research, would weigh between 50—100 kgs. and be sent into a 
500-1,000-km. (311-621-mi.) orbit. {M&R, 5/17/65, 9) 

At a news conference during the cospar meeting, A. A. Blagonra- 
vov, chief Soviet delegate, said that in view of the difficulties of soft 
landing on the moon, the Soviet Union would probably try to soft land 
another Lunik before attempting to land cosmonauts. He said the 
lunar surface must be known in detail and "should be examined by 
automatic stations." Because of the problems involved, he added, "it 
is not possible to set any date for a lunar landing." {M&R, 5/24/65, 
17) 
May 12: luna v "hit the moon in the area of the Sea of Clouds" at 10:10 
p.m. Moscow time [3:10 p.tn. edt], Tass announced. The release 
continued: "During the flight an(i the approach of the station to the 
moon a great deal of information was obtained which is necessary for 
the further elaboration of a system for soft landing on the moon's 
surface." The announcement revealed no further details of the 
landing. Western experts saw evidence that the Soviets had attempted 
a soft landing and failed. (Tass, 5/12/65; Shabad, NYT, 5/13/65, 1, 
24) 

• USAF launched Blue Scout Jr. space probe from Eastern Test Range with 

instrumented payload to measure pitch angle and magnetic field inten- 
sity in space. Probe attained 8,536-mi. altitude in its 3-hr. 50-min. 
flight and returned useful data to earth before falling into Indian 
Ocean. ( ^.5. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 141 ) 

• First developmental test of a possible landing system for the Apollo 

Spacecraft was successfully performed at NASA Manned Spacecraft 



228 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Center with the drop of a boilerplate spacecraft from a crane into a 
700,000 gallon water tank. The boilerplate was fitted with two pairs 
of rockets and an 8-ft.-long altitude sensor. Rockets were mounted in 
the outer rim of the heat shield; thrust vector of the rockets was 
aligned with the gravity vector of the spacecraft. 

Structural reinforcement of the heat shield area was current solution 
for preventing damage to the spacecraft in a rough water landing. If 
the landing rocket system proved desirable, it would cut several 
hundred pounds from the weight of the Apollo command module in 
addition to providing an improved emergency and landing capability. 
(msc Roundup, 5/28/65, 8) 
May 12: usn would build new stations at Raymondville and Roma, Tex., 
as part of its spadats (Space Detection and Tracking System) sur- 
veillance network for detecting satellites passing over the U.S., reported 
Warren Burkett in the Houston Chronicle. (Burkett, Houston Chron., 
5/12/65) 

• NASA announced award of $15 million contract to Grumman Aircraft 

Engineering Corp. to build an additional Orbiting Astronomical 
Observatory. Grumman already was building three Oao spacecraft 
under a previously awarded contract, (nasa Release 65-154) 

• At Bell Telephone Laboratories a two-mile-long laser beam was folded 

into a ten-foot-long space by reflecting the beam back and forth more 
than 1,000 times between two mirrors. By distorting the shape of the 
mirrors to enable the beam spots to form a pattern of slowly changing 
ellipses, scientists kept the reflections separate. Bell predicted that a 
computer utilizing this effect could store 1,000 bits of information 
which could be read out serially one bit every billionth of a 
second. (A^yr, 5/12/65) 

• DOD awarded Smith and Sapp Construction Co. a $1,616,970, NASA- 

funded, fixed-price contract for construction alterations to existing 
spacecraft facilities at Cape Kennedy, (dod Release 323—65) 

• Soviet's first communications satellite molniya I maintained direct ra- 

diotelephone communications between Vladivostok and Sofia, Warsaw, 
and Prague for almost three hours. (Tass, 5/12/65) 

• In interim decision, FCC awarded ComSatCorp for two years "sole re- 

sponsibility" for design, construction, and operation of three ground 
stations for a global communications network. Future of AT&T- 
owned Andover, Me., station was not discussed. (ComSatCorp) 

• XB-70 and Boeing 707 noise comparison results were reported by FRC 

engineers Carol S. Tanner and Norman J. McLeod at Aircraft Operat- 
ing Problems Committee meeting at LaRC. During takeoffs both air- 
craft reached maximum noise level in the frequency range of about 
125 cps. Data from tests would aid in prediction of runway noise 
levels for the proposed supersonic transport, (frc Release 13-65) 

• Capt. Robert F. Freitag (usn. Ret.), Director of NASA Manned Space 

Flight Field Center Development, told Theodore von Karman Memo- 
rial Seminar in Los Angeles that solutions to air and water pollution 
"could very well develop out of the research now being undertaken 
to develop self-sustaining life support systems for astronauts on mis- 
sions of long duration." (West, L.A. Times, 5/13/65) 
May 13: mariner iv, 78,277,013 mi. from earth at 9 a.m. est, had cov- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 229 

ered 251,691,170 mi. along its orbit. The Mars probe was travelling 
46,214 mph relative to earth and was returning data and scientific 
information continuously. (NASA Release 65-159) 

President Johnson transmitted to Congress a plan to merge the Weather 
Bureau, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Central Radio Propa- 
gation Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards into an Envir- 
onmental Science Services Administration. "The new administration 
will then provide a single national focus for our efforts to describe, 
understand, and predict the state of the oceans, the state of the lower 
and upper atmospheres and the size and shape of the earth ... as 
well as enhance our ability to develop an adequate warning system for 
the severe hazards of nature . . . which have proved so disastrous to 
the Nation in recent years." He added that Federal agencies "con- 
cerned with the national defense [and the] exploration of outer space" 
would receive improved services and that combining of offices and 
technical facilities would save money. (White House Release) 

Gemini GT-4 countdown rehearsal at KSC with Astronauts James A. 
McDivitt (Maj., usaf) and Edward H. White ii (Maj., USAf) was 
delayed because of a minor fueling problem. Launch of the GT-^ 
mission was scheduled for June 3. (ap, Galveston Neivs -Tribune, 
5/14/65) 

An Emeraude rocket was successfully fired by France from the Hamma- 
guir range, Algerian Sahara, to a planned altitude of 112 mi. It was 
topped by a mockup of the Topaze rocket which was to be the second 
stage of the Diamant launcher that France was developing. (Reuters, 
NYT, 5/18/65; Root, Wash. Post, 5/18/65; M&R, 5/31/65, 11) 

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center researchers Dr. John B. Schutt 
and Charles M. Shai announced development of a new series of inor- 
ganic spacecraft paints with promise of commercial application; report 
given at a meeting of the Philadelphia Society for Paint Technology 
and the Philadelphia Section of the American Chemical Society. The 
paints would utilize an alkali-metal silicate as a binder and an inorgan- 
ic phosphate as a wetting agent. They would adhere to most metals 
and non-metals; would not crack, peel, chalk, flake, or fade when sub- 
jected to temperatures between 1,800°F and — 320°F; would be wash- 
able; could be made in any color; and would have a long shelf 
life, (gsfc Release G-13-65) 

American Broadcasting Co. notified the FCC it was preparing plans for a 
domestic communications satellite to relay network television programs 
to affiliated stations for rebroadcast, thereby raising for the first time 
the question of a company other than ComSatCorp owning and operat- 
ing a Comsat. (Gould, NYT, 5/14/65, 1 ) 

NBC announced it would televise the June 3 Gemini GT-4 spaceflight in 
color. It would be the first live-color coverage of a space 
flight. ( Doan, N.Y. Her. Trib., 5/14/65) 

Cornell Univ. astronomers at Arecibo radiotelescope facility revealed 
that their radar observations of the planet Mercury April 25 indicated 
that Mercury rotated on its axis once every 59 days, rotating in the 
same direction as its orbit. This new study confirmed clearly that 
Mercury did not have a retrograde rotation and laid to rest the classic 
view that Mercury did not rotate on its axis at all. The astronomers 
had reported their findings on Mercury's rotation in Washington last 



230 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

April 21 but at that time were not sure whether the rotation was 
retrograde or direct. (Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 5/13/65) 
May 13: The Sofar (Sound Fixing and Ranging Device), used to locate 
icbm's through a small explosive charge set off as the missile sank, 
would be transformed into a rescue device for aircraft and ships in the 
Pacific, Capt. John M. Waters. Jr. (USCg), told a U.S. Coast Guard- 
sponsored North Atlantic Search and Rescue Seminar in New York. A 
pressure switch mechanism would fire the explosive at 2,500 ft. below 
the surface — depth at which sound waves encountered least resistance; 
sound of the explosion would be picked up by four hydrophone listen- 
ing stations and the exact disaster site plotted. Capt. Waters said 
the device was "practically foolproof" and had been endorsed by the 
Naval Aviation Center. Each Sofar locator would cost about S75. 
(Bamberger, NYT, 5/14/65, 65) 

• Soviet engineer T. Borisov suggested that cause of LUNa v's apparent 

failure to soft land on the moon might have been failure of the 
braking rockets to fire "precisely when needed," the New York Times 
reported. Borisov pointed out that earth stations could not help the 
automatic equipment during this phase because it takes 2Y2 sec. for 
radio signals to make round-trip between earth and moon. {NYT, 
5/14/65, 3) 

• A descriptive report on the three generations of Soviet manned space- 

craft — VOSTOK I through vostok vi, first generation; voskhod I, sec- 
ond generation; and voskhod ii, third generation — was prepared by 
Space Daily, in collaboration with Soviet space officials and the Novos- 
ti Press Agency: "The Soviet's first three generations of manned space- 
craft are injected into orbit within a standard cone-cylinder configura- 
tion with a maximum length of 30.3 feet and a maximum diameter of 
8.7 feet . . . 

"The launch-to-orbit vehicle is comprised of four major compo- 
nents: the last stage of the rocket; the instrument and service module; 
the cosmonaut cabin and re-entry capsule; and the nose cone and fair- 
ing. . . . 

"The cabin for the first two generation spacecraft remained in exter- 
nal configuration essentially the same. The major modification . . . 
was the internal arrangement providing a capability for two astronauts 
instead of one which included the requirement for an additional hatch. 
The third generation spacecraft has required not only a major modi- 
fication for the internal arrangement, for the third cosmonaut, but has 
forced a configuration addition to the 7.5 foot sphere with the attach- 
ment of the airlock. . . . 

"For the first generation spacecraft the cosmonaut was seated in the 
center of the sphere with his back to re-entry portion of the 
sphere. The capsule had three hatches: the egress hatch, the para- 
chute compartment hatch and an equipment access hatch . . . The 
parachute compartment was located to the left and rear of the 
cosmonaut . . . Antennas for the radio system of the re-entry capsule 
were located 180 degrees from the stagnation point of the heat 
shield. Even in that location it is possible that heat build-up de- 
stroyed all protruding systems as evidenced by the landed voSTOK. . . . 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 231 

"The first generation vehicles weighed about 10,430 pounds, after 
ejection of the nose cone and fairing and separation of the third stage 
of the booster. . . . The cabin for the first and second generation 
missions weighed about 5300 pounds. 

"In addition, voskhod ii represents an advancement to a more 
operational type of vehicle with an arrangement indicating its role for 
extensive Earth-orbital operations. 

"The airlock for the voskhod ii mission would represent the far- 
thest evolution of the Soviet manned spacecraft program ... a 
cylindrical projection to the basic vehicle, positioned within the nose 
cone and fairing above or forward of the cabin in the antenna region. 
With respect to the cosmonauts the airlock would be above and to the 
front as they remained in their seats; its position would be 180 de- 
grees from the stagnation point of the heat shield." {SBD, 5/13/65, 
68-70) 
May 13-14: Executives of four competing companies briefed the USAF 
Space Systems Div. source selection board on their Manned Orbiting 
Laboratory (Mol) entries. Represented were the Boeing Co., General 
Electric Co., Lockheed Aircraft Corp., and Douglas Aircraft Co. {Av. 
Wk., 5/31/65, 22) 
May 14: NASA and faa announced formation of a joint 12-member coordi- 
nating board to strengthen joint planning and facilitate exchange of 
information between the two agencies. The board would focus its 
attention on aeronautical research, development, and testing activities 
to gain the greatest return from available resources and to avoid 
duplication. Co-chairman would be Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, 
NASA Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology, 
and Robert J. Shank, FAA Associate Administrator for Development. 
(NASA Release 65-155) 

• Sen. A. S. Monroney (D-Okla.) told a meeting of the American Helicop- 

ter Society in Washington, D.C., that NASA was spending too small a 
share of its budget on aviation research. 

Senator Monroney, the chairman of the Senate Aviation Subcommit- 
tee, said he became angry when he compared the $43 million ear- 
marked for aeronautics next year with the space agency's total budget 
of $5.2 billion. 

He said that although the agency allocated less than 2 percent of its 
budget to solving the many flight mysteries it acknowledges still exist, 
the agency's working-level scientists wanted to do more in this area. 

Monroney also said he disagreed with those who contended that 
subsidy for the helicopter airlines was wasteful and unwarranted. 

He said that while helicopters might not have made the progress 
many wished for and some had promised, commercial revenues had 
increased, costs had declined, equipment had improved, and capability 
to operate on instruments had been developed, (ap, NYT, 5/15/65) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb announced during a ceremony at 

Western Reserve Univ. honoring retiring Dr. T. Keith Glennan, presi- 
dent of Case Institute of Technology, that Glennan had been asked to 
return to NASA as an adviser. Webb said Glennan would be asked to 
review NASA spending plans for the next ten years. 

Glennan, Webb's predecessor as NASA Administrator, was appointed 



232 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

by President Eisenhower to head the agency when it was formed in 
1958. (Ludwigson. Cleveland Plain Dealer, 5/15/65) 
May 14: Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told the House Ap- 
propriations Committee that about SI. 2 billion — 80 per cent of the 
allocated money — had been wasted on the abortive B-70 bomber proj- 
ect, Howard Margolis reported in the Washington Post. The question 
of how much of the money spent was wasted arose when McNamara 
was asked whether knowledge from the B-70 work would be valuable 
to other mihtary and civilian projects. McNamara suggested that at 
least 80 per cent of the money had been wasted, Margolis said. Mc- 
Namara's general view had been that substantial "waste" of this sort 
was unavoidable in the defense program since it was rarely possible to 
know how valuable a development project would be before large sums 
had been spent. Margolis added that McNamara suggested minimizing 
such waste by insisting on good evidence of probable value before 
allocating large expenditures and, even then, by limiting spending as 
much as possible until the value of a project was proven. (Margolis, 
Wash. Post, 5/15/65) 

• A special educational television satellite station to carry color or black- 

and-white TV direct to home receivers was proposed to NASA by 
Hughes Aircraft engineer Dr. Harold Rosen. {Time, 5/14/65; CR, 
5/20/65, A2549) 

• Sen. Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash.) reported that ComSatCorp would 

construct a $6 million ground station at Brewster, Wash., and that FCC 
had approved ownership of the station by ComSatCorp. (ap, Oregon- 
ian, 5/14/65) 

• A mouse-size "algatron." life-support system designed to make outer 

space habitable for astronauts on prolonged missions, was demon- 
strated by Univ. of California scientists Dr. William J. Oswald and Dr. 
Clarence G. Golueke. In the system bacteria break down animal 
wastes, algae live off the result, and emit oxygen while absorbing car- 
bon dioxide. According to the scientists' report, the algatron, in 
which a mouse lived for six weeks and could have stayed indefinitely, 
would weigh about 1,000 lbs. in a man-sized version. {Wash. Post, 
5/14/65) 

• A lunar dust cloud produced by braking rockets of Soviet probe LUNA 

V as it attempted a soft landing on the moon May 12 was photographed 
by the observatory at Rodewisch, E. Germany, said the observatory's 
director in an interview with adn, E. German press agency. The track- 
ing station had made photographs of the lunar approach of the space- 
craft at 15-sec. intervals. At the moment of best visibility — 10:15 p.m. 
Moscow time — the dust cloud was 140 mi. long and 50 mi. wide. It had 
disappeared by 10:21 p.m. Moscow time. This was the first indica- 
tion that braking rockets aboard the spacecraft had been operative. 
Soviet announcement had given landing time for LUNA V as 10:10 p.m. 
Pictures of the dust cloud were published in Izvestia. {NYT, 5/16/65, 
6; AP, Wash. Sun. Star, 5/16/65) 

• Communist China exploded its second atomic bomb "over its western 

areas" at 10 a.m. Peking time, according to Hsinhua, the Chinese 
Communist press agency. (Reuters, NYT, 5/15/65, 2) 
May 15: NASA Administrator James E. Webb, speaking to the University of 
Alabama Alumni in Washington, D.C.: "During the five years ending 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 233 

this month, NASA will have awarded to the University general-purpose 
grants, project contracts in support of research, and traineeships 
amounting to over S4.8 million. 

"This sum has supported 68 research projects and renewals and the 
training of 30 graduate students. 

"In the last academic year 63 faculty members, 67 graduate stu- 
dents, 51 undergraduate students, and 25 others were supported 
through NASA research and predoctoral training programs. 

"Over the past five years 49 faculty members, 61 graduate students 
and 73 undergraduate students participated in engineering research 
sponsored by NASA. 

"In addition to this support — and in addition to support for the 
physics, mathematics and chemistry departments — the Marshall Space 
Flight Center has guaranteed support for the graduate training pro- 
gram at Huntsville to a total of $750,000 in five years. This Hunts- 
ville program permitted the establishment two years ago of resident 
master's degree programs in five disciplines. A sixth was added last 
year. In two years, 2,729 students have participated." (Text) 
May 15: "There are 593 objects in earth orbit today," said Maj. Gen. 
Horace A. Hanes (USAf), Commander of the 9th Aerospace Defense 
Div., at an Armed Forces Week celebration at Selfridge afb, 
Mich. He said these ranged from the six-in.-dia. Vanguard satellite 
through the 90-ft.-dia. Echo satellite. Hanes said the primary mission 
of his division was to detect and warn the U.S. of a mass ballistic 
missile attack: "We use radar stations in Alaska, Greenland, and Eng- 
land for this. But to detect satellites and other objects in earth orbit 
we use these radars plus a variety of other equipment including special 
optical cameras eleven feet high that weigh 3,000 pounds." (Pipp, 
Detroit News, 5/16/65) 
• A newspaper article summarizing a report of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization on the safety record of the non-Communist 
world's airlines in 1964 said: ". . . its more than 100 member air- 
lines, which include U.S. carriers, ended the year with the lowest fatal- 
ity rate on record, 0.61 deaths to 100 million passenger-miles flown, 
22.5 percent below 1963, the best previous year." (C/?, 5/19/65, 
10592) 
Week of May 16: A S300.000 telescope produced through gifts of parts and 
money was put on display at the Stamford (Conn.) Museum and 
Nature Center. The 22-in. photo-visual telescope, designed to track 
even man-made satellites, was the result of a project compared to a 
"barn raising." A spokesman said that at dedication on June 13, 
plaques would be distributed to 51 major contributors of equipment 
and labor, and certificates to 81 other cooperators. (Devlin, NYT, 
5/23/65) 
May 16: explorer xxili and pegasus i meteoroid technology satellites 
continued to transmit useful information after months of operation in 
the space environment, reported Milton B. Ames, Jr., NASA Director 
of Space Vehicles Research and Technology. 

EXPLORER XXIII, launched by Scout rocket from Wallops Station, 
Va., Nov. 16, 1964, was last of three S-55 series satellites which were 
the first spacecraft orbited specifically to measure meteoroid penetra- 
tions through spacecraft structures. Performance of explorer xxiil 



234 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

had been entirely satisfactory, and indications were that it would have 
a useful life of more than a year, Ames said. Orbital parameters 
were: apogee, 615 mi. (990 km.); perigee, 290 mi. (467 km.); in- 
clination to the equator, 51.95°. 

PEGASUS I, launched Feb. 16, 1965, was first of a series of three 
satellites intended to measure meteoroid penetrations of greater struc- 
tural thicknesses and contained a meteoroid penetration area of almost 
2,300 sq. ft. Ames said that although useful results had been obtained 
with .0015-in. -thick panels, the data obtained with .008-in. -thick and 
.016-in. -thick panels had not been fully satisfactory because of difficul- 
ties in the operation of the detection system. Still, PEGASUS I had 
provided significant inform.ation leading to improvement of detection 
systems on the remaining two Pegasus spacecraft. Orbital parameters 
for PEGASUS I were: apogee, 451 mi. (726 km.); perigee, 311 mi. 
(500.7 km.) ; inclination, 31.75°. (nasa Release 65-157) 

May 16: Editorializing, the Hartford Courant said: ". . . Lunik V's pur- 
pose was openly said to be a soft landing on the moon, an experiment 
that might have sent back the first pictures of the moon from the 
actual lunar surface, and information about the physical nature of that 
surface. Possibly the Russians were sure they had the problems of a 
soft landing solved. But just possibly they decided this time to be 
frank and out in the open about the whole business. After all. why be 
scared? Look at all the failures the United States has admitted. 
And right now the Russians have something to console themselves 
with. It's called honesty, and its just as good to be distinguished for 
this as it is for technology." {Hartford Courant, 5/16/65) 

May 17: Britain and France signed an agreement to jointly build two 
supersonic military aircraft for the 1970s: (1) a strike trainer; and 
(2) a pivoting-wing attack plane. The strike trainer, to be based on 
France's twin-engine Breguet 121, would be built by the British Air-, 
craft Corp. in cooperation with the Societe des Ateliers d' Aviation 
Louis Breguet. Rolls Royce, Ltd., and Turbomeca, a French engine 
concern, would supply the engines. The variable sweep wing, aircraft 
similar to the American F-111 fighter-bomber, but smaller, would be 
based on the concept of British aircraft designer Dr. Barnes Wallis 
and built by the British Aircraft Corp. and the Societe Generale Aero- 
nautique Marcelle Dassault. 

The agreement committed each country to an initial expenditure of 
$56 million, most of which would be spent on a prototype for the 
strike trainer. (Farnsworth, NYT, 5/18/65, 8) 

• NASA Marshall Space Flight Center had awarded a $1,600,000 contract to 

Aero Spacelines, Inc., to transport Saturn upper stages and outsize 
rocket components in its modified Boeing Stratocruiser, Pregnant 
Guppy. The contract would run through June 1966. (msfc Release 
65-123) 

• Aviation Week reported: "nasa is considering the possibility of launch- 

ing two manned Gemini spacecraft within a few days of each other so 
that the two would operate concurrently in space for a day or 
two." Noting that the plan was not yet approved, the item speculated 
that such action would probably not take place until late in the Gemini 
program. Since only one Gemini launch stand existed, it was most 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 235 

likely that the second vehicle would be erected and checked out first, 
then stored until the first had flown. {Av. Wk, 5/17/65, 23) 
May 17: Robert Hotz said in an editorial in Aviation Week and Space 
Technology: "With each passing year it becomes more and more appar- 
ent that the Soviets agreed to the partial nuclear test ban treaty at 
a time most advantageous to them and most disadvantageous to 
us. The Soviets already had tested their nuclear warheads over the 
entire spectrum — from underwater devices to 50-megaton air bursts 
including live icbm warheads. The U.S. had not tested any of its 
nuclear warheads in strategic systems and can only theorize about the 
effects that high-altitude nuclear blasts in the 50-megaton-and-up range 
will have on communications and control networks of silo-based iCBMs 
and other strategic systems. 

"Mr. McNamara has based his defense policy on the belief that he 
will be able to detect any new Soviet weapons development in time to 
develop a U.S. counter-measure before the Russians can become opera- 
tional with their new force. Since several of the new Soviet iCBMs 
and an anti-iCBM shown in recent Red Square parades came as a 
complete surprise to the Western intelligence community, it would ap- 
pear that this assumption by Mr. McNamara is open to serious 
challenge. History may prove that Mr. McNamara's view of the time 
span available for the U.S. to counter-develop weapons to thwart a 
Soviet challenge is as wrong as his forecasts of the war in 
Vietnam." {Av. Wk., 5/17/65, 21 ) 
• "The Soviet Union, with its May 9 display of missile and space might, 
has dealt a major blow to the complacency of those persons in the 
United States who consistently have underestimated the competence of 
the Russians in these fields," wrote WilHam J. Coughlin in an editorial 
in Missiles and Rockets. He continued: "The appearance of Soviet 
solid-fuel missiles of a type similar to the U.S. Minuteman ICBM indi- 
cates that the Soviets finally have overcome the chemical roadblock 
which until now has made possible the U.S. lead in solids. . . . 

"In a film which the Moscow correspondent of the New York Times 
estimated to be at least three years old, the Soviets also displayed 
launchings from an underground silo. The combination of these 
events suggests the Soviets now are in a position to rapidly close the 
missile gap with the United States to the point where it is of no 
consequence in military calculations. . . . 

"In the film release, the Russians for the first time showed their 
anti-missile missile in action. One sequence was of intercept of an 
ICBM. . . . 

"The increasing Soviet confidence also is indicated in the space 
field. The Soviets let it be known more than a month in advance that 
their next space spectacular could be expected May 9. . . . The 
launch of LUNIK v obviously was right on schedule. The acknowl- 
edgement after launch but in advance of impact that its goal was a 
lunar soft landing also is a more realistic approach to space develop- 
ments than previously shown. 

"This shift toward a franker attitude is supported by the open ad- 
mission of the Zond ii Mars probe failure by Soviet scientists attend- 
ing the Space Exploration Symposium in Chicago on May 4. 



236 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"At the same time, the Russians released more information on the 
Soviet space program at the Chicago meeting than heretofore. 

"All of this points toward greater maturity in both Soviet missile 
programs and Soviet space programs. The competition therefore is 
far keener than many persons in the U.S. have been willing to admit. 

"The conclusion is clear. The U.S. cannot afford to let down or it 
will be far outdistanced in areas which will continue to be vital in its 
national security and well-being for many, many years." (Coughlin, 
M&R, 5/17/65, 74) 
May 17: Communist China's second nuclear bomb was the warhead on a 
missile launched from a military base and detonated in the air after 
traveling an undisclosed distance, asserted the Japanese newspaper 
Asahi Shimbum. The bomb was exploded May 14 over Western 
China. (UPI, Wash. Daily News. 5/17/65, 18) 
May 18: x-15 No. 2 flown by pilot John McKay (nasa) to 102,100 ft. 
altitude at maximum speed of 3.541 mph (mach 5.17) to obtain data 
for stability and control evaluation, star tracker checkout, advanced 
X-15 landing dynamics, and landing gear modification checkout. 
(NASA X-15 Proj. Off.; X-15 Flight Log) 

• USAF launched an unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb with a 

Thor-Agena D booster combination. (uPi, NYT, 5/19/65, 2) 

• TELSTAR II had successfully turned off its tracking beacon as scheduled 

after two years and nine days of service and 4,736 orbits of the earth. 
Bell Telephone System engineers announced. This would not affect 
the Comsat's usefulness, but would conserve energy and permit other 
satellites to use the channel that was cut off. telstar ii was expect- 
ed to remain usable for at least three more years. (UPi, NYT, 
5/20/65, 18) 

• Memorandum of Understanding for a cooperative Argentina-U.S. pro- 

gram of meteorological sounding rocket research was signed by Teofilo 
Tabanera for the Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales 
(cnie) and Hugh L. Dryden for NASA. Specific purpose of this 
experimental program was to obtain high-altitude meteorological data 
in the vicinity of Chamical, Argentina, by Boosted-Dart and Areas 
sounding rockets and to evaluate Argentine ground support equipment 
in conjunction with the payloads. General purpose of the experiment- 
al program was "to develop a basis for future meteorological rocket 
soundings on an operational basis." The program was contemplated 
as "one element in a projected inter-American, experimental, metero- 
logical sounding rocket research network (exametnet) ." (Memo of 
Understanding) 

• 3C-9, a quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) receding from the earth at 

149,000 mps or 80% of the speed of light, had been discovered with 
the 200-in. telescope at Mt. Palomar Observatory, Walter Sullivan 
reported in the New York Times. It was the most distant of a new 
generation of five quasars which included CTA-102, the object Soviet 
astronomers had suggested might be transmitting signals under in- 
telligent control. All appeared to be so distant that their life had 
probably ended during the billions of years required for their light to 
reach earth. Dr. Allan R. Sandage of Mt. Palomar Observatory said 
his studies of brightness and velocities of these five quasars and four 
others previously calculated resulted in evidence supporting the "oscil- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 237 

lating universe" theory. Data on the nine quasars' velocities largely 
was the work of Dr. Maarten Schmidt. Mt. Palomar Observatory. 
(Sullivan. NYT, 5/ 18 65. 1. 2: 5/23/65. 6E) 
May 18: Stanley R. Reinartz. previously deputy manager of NASA Marshall 
Space Flight Center's Saturn i IB Program Office, had been named 
program manager of the newly established Saturn IB /Centaur office, 
MSFC announced. The office would manage the program definition 
and design phase of the three-stage Saturn IB/Centaur space vehicle 
system, (msfc Release 65-124; Marshall Star, 5/26/65, 1 ) 

• NASA Lewis Research Center planned to buy enough Vs-in.-dia. pingpong 

balls to fill a bucket-like device 12 ft. in dia. and 19 ft. deep. The 
miniature pingpong balls would be used to cushion experiments in 
LRc's 500-ft.-deep zero-gravity shaft. Experiments would be recovered 
intact for evaluation and later reuse. The pingpong balls, it was 
hoped, could cushion up to 6.000 lbs. (lrc Release 65-34) 

• Four Ohio college students ended a six-week isolation test at Wright-Pat- 

terson AFB, Ohio, to study diets, effect of continuous wearing of a 
spacesuit, and microbiology of the human body. The four, compris- 
ing the eighth group to take part in space tests conducted by the 
Aerospace Research Labs., spent the first three weeks on a balanced 
but monotonous diet and the last three weeks on a liquid diet with 
the same nutrients as their earlier meals. All agreed that astronauts 
would probably be able to wear spacesuits for long missions but that 
"something would have to be done" about the proposed liquid 
diet. (AP. NYT. 5 19/65; ap. Cleveland Plain Dealer, 5/19/65) 

• Najeeb E. Halaby, retiring faa Administrator, speaking at the annual 

news conference of the Aviation-Space Writers Association in Albu- 
querque, urged President Johnson to make the "tough decision" to 
develop 2,000 mph airliners to handle expanding travel in the 
1970s. He said opponents of the supersonic transport project had 
"seriously overstated" the safety and other problems involved. 

Mr. Halaby received the Monsanto Chemical Co.'s aviation safety 
award for the "most significant and lasting contribution to aircraft 
operating safety in 1964." President Johnson sent him a congratu- 
latory telegram hailing his "outstanding performance" as aviation ad- 
ministrator, (upi, NYT, 5/19/65) 

• Representatives of companies planning to buy the supersonic Concorde 

airliner were told in a report prepared by the joint builders, British 
Aircraft Corp. and Sud Aviation France, that the makers were 
confident, following extensive wind tunnel tests, that the Concorde 
represented "the best possible compromise for a supersonic transport" 
and would be "safe and easy to fly." A special report on the problem 
of sonic boom said tests had shown that the calculated extent of these 
sharp detonations had been "generally pessimistic." It said that 
climb and acceleration techniques were being developed that would 
keep the shock waves of air causing these booms as slight as possible. 

The experts present for the three-day talks on the airliner's progress 
were from Air France, British Overseas Airways Corp., Pan American 
World Airways, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, Qantas, Air 
India, and Middle East AirUnes, which had together ordered or taken 
options on 45 of the aircraft, valued at $560 million. (Reuters, NYT, 
5/19/65, 94C) 



238 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

May 18: Sen. Margaret Chase Smith (R-Me.), interviewed by a group of 
women correspondents, was critical of the Administration's failure to 
"pinpoint" objectives beyond its 1970 goal to put a man on the 
moon. She said she found it "hard to believe" the Administration 
wasn't thinking beyond the moon to Mars and Venus but that "it's 
difficult to get the answers." (Dean, Wash. Eve. Star, 5/19/65) 

• A fuel cell system had successfully operated for more than 1,300 hrs. — 

the time it would take a spacecraft to make nine trips to the moon and 
back— producing electricity and drinking water from hydrogen and 
oxygen, John L. Platner of the Allis-Chalmers Research Div. told the 
19th annual Power Source Conference in Atlantic City. Platner gave 
details of the cell's performance in reporting on an advanced 2,000- 
watt fuel system being built by AUis-Chambers for NASA. (UPI, Wash. 
Post, 5/19/65, A21) 
May 19: A 71-ton Little Joe ii rocket fired from White Sands Missile 
Range, N. Mex., to test the Apollo spacecraft escape system split into 
fragments three miles above ground following a series of excessive 
rolls occurring about 25 sec. after launch. The escape rocket fired 
immediately, however, and carried the 14-ton Apollo boilerplate free of 
the debris; the parachute recovery system operated normally, lowering 
the command module to the ground. Apollo program manager Dr. 
Joseph F. Shea said: "Although the prime objectives of the high alti- 
tude abort test were not met, the launch escape system proved its 
mettle in an actual emergency, which is the purpose for which it was 
designed." The launch escape subsystem would be used to propel the 
spacecraft and its crew to safety in the event of a Saturn launch vehi- 
cle failure either on the pad or during powered flight. 

Little Joe li had been programed to carry the test vehicle. Boiler- 
plate 22, to 22-mi. -altitude in 89 sec; an escape motor would propel 
the spacecraft to a peak altitude of about 35 mi. Finally, the three 
84-ft.-wide parachutes would lower the command module to 
earth, (nasa Release 65-145; N.Y. Her. Trib., 5/20/65; naa S&ID 
Skywriter, 5/21/65, 1, 2; NYT, 5/20/65, 42; msc Roundup, 
5/28/65, 8) 

• U.S. launched eight military satellites into orbit from Vandenberg 

AFB March 9 with a Thor-Agena D booster, NASA disclosed. This was 
the greatest number of payloads the U.S. had ever orbited with a 
single launch vehicle and was believed to exceed any multiple launch- 
ing made by the Soviet Union. Orbital parameters: apogee, 585 mi. 
(942 km.) ; perigee, 561 mi. (903 km.) ; inclination to the equator, 
70°. Two payloads would measure solar radiation; two would test 
stabilization methods for future spacecraft; one would map the earth's 
surface; another, Surcal (Space Surveillance Calibration), would help 
improve precision of satellite tracking networks; another, Oscar (Or- 
biting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio), would broadcast on fre- 
quencies that amateur radio operators could track. The satelHtes had 
been unidentified until NASA listed them in its periodic satellite sum- 
mary. 

The summary also showed that unmanned COSMOS LXI, cosmos 
LXii, and cosmos lxiii, launched by U.S.S.R. March 15 with a sin- 
gle launch vehicle, had become 26 satellites or pieces of satelHtes. cos- 
mos LXVI, and two companions, launched May 7, had fallen out of 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 239 

orbit, (gsfc SSR, 4/15 65; Clark, NYT, 5/19/65; Wash. Post, 
5/20/65, A12) 
May 19: NASA launched a two-part 104-lb. sounding rocket payload from 
NASA Wallops Station, Va., to measure electron densities and ion com- 
position of the upper atmosphere. Designed as a mother-daughter ex- 
periment — with radio signals to be sent from daughter to mother — the 
payload separated as planned at about 170-mi. altitude and the two- 
sections reached peak altitude at 605 mi. The sections were programed 
to rise separately for about 8 min. and reach a distance apart of about 
3 mi. Experimental information was radioed to ground stations and 
no recovery of the sections was required ; they impacted in the Atlantic 
Ocean. Measurement of the differences between the signals of the two 
devices, monitored by ground stations, was expected to provide more 
accurate profiles of upper atmosphere electron density. The launching 
was timed to occur while Canadian satellite alouette was passing 
nearby, alouette's instruments would provide a horizontal profile of 
ionospheric and ion densities and temperatures to be correlated with 
findings of the mother-daughter experiment. (Wallops Release 
65-30) 

• The Gemini 2 spacecraft which made a suborbital unmanned flight from 

Cape Kennedy Jan. 19, 1965, would be reworked by the McDonnell 
Aircraft Corp. and delivered to USAF in July 1966 for a preliminary 
unmanned flight in the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center announced, usaf would launch the 
spacecraft in an unmanned suborbital flight to test the Gemini B heat 
shield design. The heat shield would have a hatch to allow crew 
transfer from the Gemini to the Orbital Laboratory. ( NASA Release 
65-166) 

• NASA successfully launched Argo D-4 sounding rocket from Wallops Sta- 

tion, Va., to peak altitude of 588 mi. Objective of 17M2-i"in. test was 
the measurement of phase differences to determine electron density 
along the rocket trajectory. Experiment was provided by Pennsylva- 
nia State Univ. (nasa Rpt. srl) 

• Dr. Homer E. Newell, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science 

and Applications, was among the ten outstanding Federal Government 
employees who received a career service award from the National Civil 
Service League. ( Mohr, NYT. 5/20/65 ) 

• A S784,600 contract had been awarded to Mechhng Barge Lines, Inc., 

for towing three Saturn space vehicle barges, NASA MSEC announced. 
Two of the barges, Promise and Palaemon, would be used to carry the 
Saturn I and IB boosters. A third, being readied, would transport the 
larger Saturn V booster. The contract covered a one-year period. 
(msec Release 65-128) 

• Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 

was named chairman of the International Sponsors Committee for 
Clark Univ.'s S5.4 million Robert Hutchings Goddard memorial li- 
brary scheduled for completion by 1968. 

Several nuclear-powered, self-supporting lunar bases and a wide va- 
riety of space stations would be in operation by the year 2000, Dr. von 
Braun told the luncheon meeting of the National Space Club in Wash- 
ington, D.C. He made his predictions during the question and answer 



240 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

period following his speech on Dr. Robert H. Goddard's contributions 
to American rocketry. 

The greatest activity in space 35 yrs. hence would be in earth orbits, 
von Braun felt, and space would provide a "tremendous military 
field." This field would not be the science fiction concept of orbiting 
hydrogen bombs, but rather a broad program of military 
reconnaissance. Photography and direct observation of foreign mili- 
tary developments were cited. 

Space stations would be in a variety of orbits and many would be 
manned by scientists and repairmen shuttling back and forth in reusa- 
ble vehicles. Scientists would spend up to six weeks at a time in the 
stations to make their observations. The use of reusable boosters 
would cut the cost of delivering payloads to orbit down to some 10% 
of today's costs, von Braun added, (nsc Newsletter, 5/65, 6/65) 
May 19: "Early Bird should not be construed by any government as just 
another door to be opened when there is a self-serving point to be 
made, and a door to be slammed when that point is in danger of being 
questioned," said Dr. Frank Stanton, president of the Columbia Broad- 
casting System, in a speech at the Career Services Awards dinner of 
the National Civil Service League in Washington, D.C. Dr. Stanton 
said it was agreed the peoples of the world should have an opportunity 
to hear foreign leaders, but that this must be done in an atmosphere 
of freedom "with openness and in candid discussion." He added: 
"Early Bird must not be transformed from the unprecedented opportu- 
nity into the most universal and pervasive censorship — both affirmative 
and negative— ever known." ( NYT, 5/20/65, 75 ) 

• Dr. Johannes H. Klystra, interviewed in his laboratory at the State Univ. 

of New York in Buffalo, revealed that laboratory mice and dogs had 
survived completely submerged in heavily oxygenated salt water; the 
lungs had extracted oxygen from the pressurized liquid. Dr. Kylstra 
said that man might one day find it useful to develop techniques for 
breathing liquids as an aid in the exploration of the two new realms 
that are just opening up to him: space and the ocean depths. A space 
flier, for example, could be protected from the destructive forces of a 
less-than-soft landing on another planet if he were in a cockpit filled 
with oxygenated liquid that he could also breathe; a free-swimming 
underwater explorer with liquid-filled lungs could go deeper, stay 
longer and ascend faster and more safely than a diver breathing a 
gaseous mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. (Osmundsen, NYT, 
5/19/65, 49C) 

• Bendix Corp. would receive from usaf a $2,666,840 initial increment to 

a $22,123,000 fixed-price contract for modification and improvement 
of the an/fps-85 space track radar. Work would be done in Tow- 
son, Md., and at Eglin afb, Fla. (dod Release 343-65) 
May 20: nasa-aec successfully performed a restart of the NRX A-3 Nerva 
experimental engine at Jackass Flats, Nev. The firing lasted for 18 
min., including 13 min. at the engine's full power rating. The engine 
was the same one that had run for four minutes Apr. 23 before being 
shut down prematurely due to spurious malfunction. (SNPO-N-65-9; 
Wash. Eve. Star, 5/21/65; Rover Chron.) 

• USAF launched unidentified satellite payload with Thor Fw4s booster 

from v^^TR. ( U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 142) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 241 

May 20: Ground test version of the Saturn V booster (s-IC-t) was fired 
by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for 41 sec, msfc announced. It 
was the third and longest firing of the five engines, which developed 
7.5 million lbs. thrust. The firing seemed entirely satisfactory, based 
on preliminary evaluation of data, (msfc Release 65-131) 

• USN's F-IIIb fighter aircraft, originally designated TFX, was given its 

first test flight over Long Island at 2,000-mph for an hour and 18 min., 
during which the variable wing-sweep of the craft was tested. {Wash. 
Post, 5/19/65, 11; lpi, Wash. Post, 5/20/65, 2) 

• NASA engineers Harry Carlson and Francis E. McLean believed the sonic 

boom problem in the operation of the supersonic transport could be 
solved by fattening the fuselage just forward of the wing, thereby 
altering the air flow in such a way as to cut the boom to an acceptable 
level, reported Richard P. Cooke in the Wall Street Journal. Fatten- 
ing the Sst fuselage forward of the wings, said the NASA engineers, 
would also help the lift and might permit room for more 
seats. (Cooke, WSJ, 5/20/65) 

• AFSC announced that an airspace surveillance and weapons control sys- 

tem had been proposed for installation in the Ryukyu islands, south- 
west of Japan. Through use of semi-automatic data processing, the 
Ryukyu Air Defense System (Rads) would pick up airspace intruders 
in its area almost instantly, enhancing defense capabilities of the 
Pacific Air Force in that area. The system would consist of radars, 
ultra-fast communications, data processors, display consoles and com- 
mand posts where decision makers could direct manned or unmanned 
weapon interception. Returning aircraft could be directed home or to 
alternate bases through the system, (afsc Release 54.65) 

• Newest Soviet aircraft, including the 186-passenger, four engine 11-62, 

designed for nonstop intercontinental service, were displayed at an 
exhibition of airliners and helicopters at Moscow's Vnukovo 
Airport. The 11-62, whose engines were mounted on the tail section 
of its fuselage, had a cruising speed of 500 to 550 mph and a range of 
5,500 mi. Boris Kharchenko, chairman of the Soviet aircraft export 
organization, said the Soviet Union was seeking orders this year for 
both the 11-62 and the Tu-134, a medium-range, two-engine 
jetliner. Delivery would be in 1967. {NYT, 5/21/65) 

• Secrets unearthed by mariner ii and just made public were reported 

by Frank Macomber in the San Diego Union: "Venus is no lush sea- 
and-swamp world, possibly teeming with primitive life, as some astron- 
omers have speculated. Under its eternal cloud cover, the planet's 
surface must be like fuming slag or lava. The surface temperature is 
about 800 °F. — hotter than molten lead. 

"The clouds surrounding Venus are a dense, unbroken pall of hy- 
drocarbon smog, boiling up to at least 60 miles from the planet's 
surface." 

Macomber said mariner ii was regarded as one of the most suc- 
cessful of U.S. spacecraft. (Copley News Serv., Macomber, San Diego 
Union, 5/20/65) 

• General Bernard A. Schriever, afsc Commander, said in an address to 

the Aviation-Space Writers' Association Conference in Albuquerque: 
"The Air Force responsibility for our nation's military developments 
in space is clearly established. This morning I would like to review 



242 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

our current progress in the areas of unmanned space programs, 
boosters and propulsion, and finally, manned space programs. . . . 

"In the late 1950s, a small group of Air Force officers began a 
program to develop a space-based missile detection and warning 
system. To obtain information on the background as observed from 
space and on the signature of ballistic missile rocket motors, the Air 
Force initiated a series of measurement programs. Instrumented air- 
craft were used to obtain data on our missile target, from many 
aspects and in various weather conditions. Concurrently, a spacecraft 
'piggyback' program for background measurements was instituted. 
This program has resulted in information of great value and is still 
collecting valuable data. . . . 

"The second area of interest is anti-satellite defense. Last Sep- 
tember, President Johnson announced the existence of operational U.S. 
anti-satellite defense systems. . . . 

"The third area of interest is the detection of nuclear detonations in 
space. The original effort was formerly known as 'Vela Hotel,' and 
has now emerged as the present Vela Satellite Program. . . . 

"In 1963 the first pair of Vela Satellites was launched from Cape 
Kennedy; the second launch occurred in 1964. Both launches were 
completely successful, and the four satellites are still functioning. . . . 

"The last area that I would like to consider in unmanned military 
space systems is communication satellites — commonly called COMSAT. 
Our current philosophy of controlled response has placed an additional 
emphasis upon communications between field commanders and the 
highest level of our nation. . . . 

"In summary, space is a new environment of activity. We need to 
exploit it effectively for our own purposes to prevent it from being 
used against us. We are aware of the many problems confronting us 
and do not pretend to have all the solutions. But much has been 
done, and we are building a broad technological base to meet the even 
greater challenges of the future." (Text) 
May 20: NASA mariner iv was 85 million miles from earth and traveling 
faster than 48,000 mph, nasa announced. A radio signal from the 
spacecraft, traveling at the speed of light, would take more than T^/o 
min. to reach a ground station. The Mars probe was returning 
scientific measurements and engineering data continuously and daily 
setting a new record for distance of communications, (nasa Release 
65-167) 
• A NASA report on its Aircraft Noise Research Program to the House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics and the Senate Committee on 
Aeronautical and Space Sciences said: ". . . there is a growing under- 
standing that efforts at a practicable and mutually effective solution 
will need to be evolutionary in nature, and involve a dedicated attack 
on all major aspects of the problem. These include the acquisition of 
definitive information on the manner in which aircraft noises are gen- 
erated and propagated, and the associated development of efficient 
methods for the reduction of adverse aircraft noise at its source; the 
establishment of safe and efficient aircraft operating procedures that 
minimize and control the exposure of airport community property to 
undesirable aircraft noise; and the provision of a rational understand- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 243 

ing of the specific aircraft noise factors which produce subjective an- 
noyance for various activities and environments of a community popu- 
lation, and of optimum methods for the control and adjustment of 
community property usage in critical noise areas in the vicinity of the 
airport." (CR, 5/27/65) 
May 20: aec's Snap-lOA nuclear reactor, aboard snapshot satellite, 
launched by usaf into circular polar orbit Apr. 3, automatically shut 
down on May 16 for unknown reasons, aec announced. Snap-lOA had 
been producing power for its own telemetry; first indications of mal- 
function came when telemetry ceased. Telemetry resumed about 40 
hrs. later, powered by stand-by batteries, and indicated the reactor had 
shut itself down and was no longer producing power. 

The prototype of future auxiliary power systems, planned to operate 
at least 90 days, had been operating successfully although the ion 
engine experiment included in the spacecraft had been shut down when 
it developed electronic noise. The spacecraft containing the defunct 
power system would remain in orbit more than 3,000 yrs.; it would 
take 100 yrs. for the reactor's radioactive elements to decay to a safe 
level. 

AEC said Snap-lOA had provided valuable information for design of 
future nuclear propulsion systems, (ap. Wash. Post, 5/21/65; UPI, 
NYT, 5/22/65, 5; Atomic Energy Programs, 1965, 151) 

• Enriched uranium of U-235 was the fuel used by the Chinese 

May 14 in their second nuclear explosion, according to preliminary 
analysis of airborne radioactive debris, aec announced. It found "im- 
plausible" reports that the nuclear device had been carried by a missile 
although the detonation took place "above ground." aec said the 
May 14 test was somewhat larger than China's first explosion of Oct. 
16, 1964, which was equal to 20 kilotons or the Hiroshima 
bomb. {NYT, 5/21/65; Wash. Post, 5/21/65, A27) 

• Dr. Jeanette Piccard's 1934 balloon flight, establishing the still current 

women's world altitude record for a balloon, was celebrated in Dear- 
born, Mich., by a ceremony and placing of a marker near the takeoff 
site. The balloon had a 600.000 cu. ft. volume, reached 57,559 ft. 
altitude, and took Dr. Piccard from Dearborn, Mich., to Cadiz, 
Ohio. (CR, 5/18/65, A2465 ) 
May 21: U.S. and Argentina jointly announced plans to collaborate in 
launching weather rockets to gain information about hemispheric 
weather patterns. Under terms of an agreement, Argentina would 
provide launching facilities, would transport rockets and equipment 
from the U.S. where they would be manufactured, and would assemble 
and launch the rockets. U.S. launchings would be made from Wallops 
Station; launching pads in Argentina would be at Chamical. Other 
Latin American countries had been invited to participate in the 
program. ( ap, NYT, 5/22/65 ) 

• Vice President Humphrey, Chairman of the National Aeronautics and 

Space Council, said at the 16th annual luncheon for Albert Lasker 
Medical Journalism Awards in Washington, D.C.: "The most impor- 
tant race is not the space race or the arms race. It is the human 
race. If America can get excited about putting a man on the moon in 
1970, why can't we get excited about putting a lot of people on their 
feet by the same date? . . . some day we will be able to tell the world 



244 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

that science has discovered the secrets of aging or of cancer or of 
muscular dystrophy or multiple sclerosis or mental retardation. That 
news will outrank in importance even the wonderful tidings that man 
has landed on the moon." (Text) 
May 21 : David N. Buell of Chrysler Corp. told the Aviation-Space Writers' 
Association Conference that an unmanned spacecraft could be launched 
to the sun by 1975 or 1980 with a modified Saturn IB/Centaur booster 
and that it could obtain information vital to space exploration and a 
better understanding of the universe. Buell envisioned the solar 
spacecraft as a bi-conal structure with the forward cone pointing to- 
ward the sun and acting as a sunshade, bolstered by refrigerants inside 
the craft. ( UPI, Wash . Post, 5/23/65 ) 

• "mariner IV, speeding toward Mars for a rendezvous in July, has 

knocked out the romantic notion that the ruddy planet is the site of a 
dying civilization millions of years older than ours and far wiser," 
wrote David Dietz in the Knoxville Neivs-Sentinel. Continuing: "This 
theory holds that the planet is drying out, losing its atmosphere and its 
water supply and that the inhabitants have taken refuge in under- 
ground cities. 

"Well, if this is the case, one thing is certain. The Martians forgot 
to take their radios with them. For the past five months, Mariner 4 
has been sending a steady stream of radio chatter back to earth ... If 
little Mariner 4 can do that, there is no apparent reason why the 
Martians couldn't do the same, providing, of course, that there are 
Martians of superior intelligence." ( Dietz, Knoxville News-Sentinel, 
5/21/65) 

• David H. Hoffman, aviation editor of the New York Herald Trib- 

une and Arthur C. Clarke, British science writer, were cited by the 
Aviation-Space Writers' Association for outstanding articles in 
1964. Mr. Hoffman received the James J. Strebig memorial award for 
his series on air safety. Mr. Clarke was honored for an article pub- 
lished in Life magazine on communications satellites. {N.Y. Her. 
Trib., 5/23/65) 
May 22: nasa's 200-lb. Project Fire ii spacecraft — similar in shape to an 
Apollo command module — was launched into a ballistic trajectory 
from ETR by an Atlas D booster that sent it over 500 mi. into space in 
test of reentry heating of spacecraft returning from the moon. Some 
26 min. later, when the ballistic path of the payload turned it toward 
earth, a solid-fueled Antares rocket fired for 30 sec, accelerating the 
payload into the atmosphere at 25.400 mph. As a fireball estimated at 
20,000°F formed a shock wave in front of the spacecraft, instruments 
in its interior radioed information to tracking stations. Tracking re- 
ports indicated that the heat probe impacted 32 min. after launch in 
the south Atlantic about 5,130 mi. southeast of Cape Kennedy. The 
spacecraft had been dubbed a "flying thermometer" because it was to 
radio more than 100,000 temperature readings. 

First Project Fire flight took place from Cape Kennedy April 14. 
1964, and was the fastest controlled in-flight reentry experiment ever 
conducted. The spacecraft reached a speed of more than 25,800 mph 
and telemetered many important direct measurements of reentry 
heating, (nasa Release 65-131 ; ap, Wash. Sun. Star, 5/23/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 245 

May 22: Jack N. James of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, responsible for 
MARINER iv's cameras during the July 14 Mars flyby, told the Avia- 
tion-Space Writers' Association Conference that photographs taken by 
the probe were not expected to show signs of life that might exist on 
the planet since surface detail in the photographs would not be 
great. James said mariner iv's cameras probably would be fixed on 
the planet by command from earth; previous plans had called for this 
to be done automatically by equipment in the spacecraft. (AP, Wash. 
Sun. Star, 5/23/65; Wash. Eve. Star, 5/24/65) 

• The Gemini 4 manned spaceflight had been scheduled for June 3, 

NASA announced. The four-day flight would last about 97 hrs. 50 
min., and would increase the U.S.'s hours of manned space flight to 
about 257 hrs. No decision had been made about opening the two- 
man spacecraft and letting one astronaut stand exposed to 
space. ( Clark, NYT, 5/22/65, 8 ) 

• President Chung Hee Park of the Republic of Korea, his wife, and 

members of his official party visited Kennedy Space Center where they 
were briefed on NASA programs and toured facilities at Cape Kennedy 
and on Merritt Island. 

In a luncheon statement, President Park said: "You are now en- 
gaged in a breath-taking race with Moscow for the conquest of 
space. ... I should like to invite your attention to the stark reality 
that there are some fools engaged in utilizing space power politically, 
psychologically and militarily for sinister and dangerous purposes. 

"They are absorbed in developing space power not for the true pur- 
pose envisaged by mankind but for making it an instrument with 
which to conquer the world. 

"Needless to say, they are Communists. I believe you [Americans] 
have the responsibility of causing the Communists to desist from this 
dangerous play and of well preparing yourselves to douse a fire if it 
breaks out of that play. . . ." (nasa Off. Int. Aff.; ksc Spaceport 
News, 5/20/65, 1, 5; ap, Miami Her., 5/23/65) 

• In an interview at Reed College, Dr. John A. Simpson, professor of 

physics at Univ. of Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Stud- 
ies, said that the U.S.'s present space policy was based on scientific 
achievement "and this has been diverse, thorough and deep and has 
led to wondrous discoveries." He lauded U.S. developments in 
weather and communications satellites which he termed an "outstand- 
ing example" of peaceful developments in space exploration. "Russia 
is mainly concerned with putting a man on the moon and has ignored, 
for the most part, the U.S. goals of achieving a better physical under- 
standing of our solar system — and contributing to civilization's use of 
it." (Sun. Oregonian, 5/23/65) 

• European Broadcasting Union's administrative council issued a statement 

saying it was concerned by the possibility that "prohibitive" charges 
might make it impossible to transmit television programs over EARLY 
BIRD I communications satellite. The council expressed the hope that 
the first three experimental years of intercontinental satellite television 
would not be "cut off at the start of commercial satellite 
operation." (Reuters, NYT, 5/23/65, 19) 

• Soviet pilot Natasha Prokhanova, flying an E-22 supersonic jet trainer, 

climbed to 79,000-ft. altitude, exceeding the world altitude record for 



246 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

women of 56,073 ft. set by U.S. pilot Jacqueline Cochran in 1961 at 
Edwards afb in a Northrop T-38 Talon supersonic jet trainer. {NYT, 
5/31/65, 24) 
May 23: The Life Sciences Committee of the National Academy of 
Sciences' Space Science Board recommended to NASA that American 
astronauts returning from the moon and planets be kept in quarantine 
for at least three weeks to prevent possible contamination of the earth 
by extra-terrestrial organisms, Howard Simons reported in the Wash- 
ington Post. Recommendation was in a report entitled "Potential Haz- 
ards of Back Contamination from the Planets." 

Other recommendations included the need to avoid decontamination 
of returning equipment until it had been subjected to biological study; 
the possible need for the astronauts to shed their outer garments on 
the moon and Mars before returning home; the need to conduct imme- 
diate research on any samples of extraterrestrial life brought to earth; 
and trial runs to acquaint astronauts with methods for minimizing 
chance of contamination. (Simons, Wash. Post, 5/23/65) 

• United Press International had announced it would seek to establish a 

worldwide satellite communications system, either on its own or in 
partnership with others, if the governments concerned granted the 
necessary permission. [NYT, 5/23/65) 
May 24: AFSC had selected nine graduates of its Aerospace Research Pilot 
School, Edwards afb, Calif., to participate in crew performance studies 
for manned space flight to be conducted by NASA at the Martin 
Co. Three seven-day lunar landing simulations would be made using 
a simulated Apollo lunar landing mission. Each would utilize a three- 
man crew, (afsc Release) 

• President Johnson said, in transmitting nsf's sixth annual report to Con- 

gress on weather modification programs that control of weather was 
not beyond the reach of man: "The development of methods for alter- 
ing weather and climate is a subject of quickening interest in the Con- 
gress and the Executive Branch ... as, indeed, it is to all of the 
human race. We must recognize that the achievement of such a capa- 
bility would mean vast economic and social gains for human life on 
this earth." (House Doc. 188) 

• EARLY BIRD I Unked audiences at the Parke-Bernet Galleries in New 

York City and at Sotheby's in London for the first trans-Atlantic art 
auction, ComSatCorp reported. BBC broadcasted a portion of the auc- 
tion for British TV viewers. The telecast marked the fourth successive 
Monday on which the satellite had carried a commercial program free 
of charge to show its potential. (ComSatCorp Release; Esterow, 
yVFr, 5/25/65, 1) 

• The British Government announced plans for conversion of weights and 

measures to the metric system over the next ten years. The announce- 
ment meant the U.S. would be the only major power using nonmetric 
units. 

Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-R.L) said on the floor of the Senate: "The 
United States finds itself in the odd position of having inherited our 
anachronistic system of quarts, pounds, and inches from the British, 
only to find that the parent of the system has recognized its impracti- 
cality and is moving over to the metric system. This leaves us virtually 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 



247 



alone in the world in our insistence upon our system of weights and 
measures, which originated in medieval times." (Farnsworth, NYT, 
5/25/65, 6; CR, 5/24/65, 11023) 
May 25: Saturn I (SA-8) launch vehicle, launched from Eastern Test 
Range, orbited a 23.000-lb. payload of which 3,200 lbs. was the PEG- 
ASUS II meteoroid detection satellite and 9,700 lbs. was Apollo boiler- 
plate command and service modules (BP-26). This was the ninth 
successful test in nine flights for Saturn I. 

At launch. Apollo command and service module boilerplate space- 
craft and launch escape system (Les) tower were atop Saturn I, with 
PEGASUS II folded inside the service module. After second-stage igni- 
tion. Les was jettisoned. After injection into orbit, the Apollo boiler- 
plate was jettisoned into a separate orbit and a motor-driven device 
extended 96 X 14-ft. winglike panels on pegasus ii, exposing 2,300 
sq. ft. of instrumented surface. The satellite was attached to the 
Saturn's S-IV second stage and would remain so during its 
lifetime. Each wing consisted of seven frames hinged together and 
providing mountings for a total of 208 detector panels. As particles 
collided with this surface, the penetrations would be registered and 
reported to earth. Orbital data: apogee, 460 mi. (741 km.) ; perigee, 
316 mi. (509 km.) ; period, 97 min.; inchnation, 31.8°. 

Primary purpose of the flight was to gather information on fre- 
quency of meteoroids encountered in the near-earth environment for 
use in design of future manned and unmanned spacecraft. 

PEGASUS II, an improved version of pegasus I launched Feb. 16, 
1965, would be visible to the naked eye under favorable conditions 
near dawn and dusk. (NASA Release 65-151; MSFC Release 65-121; 
Marshall Star, 5/26/65, 1: ap, NYT, 5/26/65, 10; U.S. Aeron. & 
Space Act., 1965, US) 
• X-15 No. 1 was flown by nasa's Milton 0. Thompson to 179,800-ft. 
altitude at a maximum speed of 3,418 mph (mach 4.87) to obtain data 
on the Honeywell inertial system checkout, MIT horizon photometer, 
Pace transducer, RAS (Reaction Augmentation System) modification 




May 25: Saturn I launch of 
PEGASUS n from Cape Ken- 
nedy. 



248 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

checkout, and pilot altitude buildup. (NASA x-15 Proj. Off.; X-15 
Flight Log) 
May 25: U.S.S.R. launched cosmos lxvii containing scientific equipment 
for investigation of outer space. Orbital parameters: apogee, 350 km. 
(217 mi.) ; perigee, 207 km. (128 mi.) ; inclination to earth, 
51.8°. Onboard equipment was functioning normally. {Krasnaya 
Zvezda, 5/27/65, 1, atss-t Trans.) 

• During the planned 4-day flight June 3, Astronaut Edward H. 

White (Maj., usaf) would leave the Gemini 4 spacecraft for 12 min. 
"if conditions are favorable," Msc officials announced at press 
conference. He would be secured to the craft by a 25-ft. safety line. 

NASA said the decision had been delayed "so final qualification tests 
could be completed on the spacecraft, spacesuit, secondary life support 
pack and umbiHcal." 

The 12-layer protective suit that Astronaut White would wear had 
been worn for more than 200 hrs. and White himself had worn it 
during more than 60 hrs. of tests. Among other things, it had had 
pellets fired at it at a speed of 30,000 fps to simulate the impact of 
small meteoroids. 

The flight's command pilot, Astronaut James A. McDivitt (Maj., 
usaf) would not open his hatch but would take movies of White 
through a spacecraft window. Astronaut White would take a 35-mm. 
still camera loaded with color film on his "walk" in space. Although 
he had practiced acrobatics, White had no planned program and would 
"use his own judgment as to what to do while outside the ship." Exit 
from the spacecraft was planned for the second orbit. (Transcript; 
Clark, NYT, 5/26/65, 1, 11; upi, Wash. Post, 5/26/65, A3) 

• Al J. Hayes, International Association of Machinists president, said 

union negotiations with Aerojet-General Corp. would not halt the 
scheduled two-man Gemini shot at Cape Kennedy on June 3. He said 
union members would continue work at Cape Kennedy even if a walk- 
out were called against Aerojet General. (UPi, Wash. Post, 5/26/65, 
A3) 

• X-22a vertical/short take-off and landing aircraft (V/Stol) was inspect- 

ed by Government and military representatives at the Bell Aerosystems 
plant in Niagara Falls. Its unique characteristic was the ducted fan 
concept of propulsion consisting of four shrouded propellers — two for- 
ward and two on the tips of the 39-ft. wing aft — driven by four T-58 
turbine engines. The four engines, expected to propel the aircraft at a 
cruising speed of 300 mph, were run for about five minutes. 

x-22a was constructed for the Army, Navy, and Air Force under a 
Navy-administered contract for $25 million. First flight test would be 
made in September 1965. (dod Release 341-65; ap, NYT, 5/26/65, 
94) 

• Minute amounts of fresh radioactive debris from detonation of Commu- 

nist China's second nuclear bomb were registered over the U.S. by the 
Division of Radiological Health of the U.S. Public Health 
Service. Pollution was far below the hazard level, (ap, Wash. Eve. 
S^ar, 5/26/65,5) 
May 25-26: More than 300 representatives of NASA and industry attended 
the 1965 Cost Reduction and Management Improvement meeting at 
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. {Marshall Star, 6/2/65, 2) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 249 

May 26: NASA launched an ionosphere experiment from Wallops Station, 
Va., on a four-stage Javelin (Argo D-4) sounding rocket. Primary 
objectives of the flight were to measure ion and electron densities and 
temperatures and the ionic composition in the upper atmosphere. A 
malfunction in the launch vehicle caused the 140-lb. payload to reach 
an altitude of only 200 mi. instead of the planned 520 mi. Telemetry 
data were received for about nine minutes. Project officials termed 
the flight a partial success despite the failure to achieve peak 
altitude. ( Wallops Release 65-31 ) 

• PEGASUS II had reported two meteoroid punctures, NASA announced. 

The hits were recorded on the .0015-in. and .008-in. -thick aluminum- 
covered detection panels. (NASA Release 65-175) 

• On the floor of the Senate, Sen. Ralph W. Yarborough (D-Tex.) advo- 

cated that rights to patents from Government-sponsored research 
should belong to the Government: "In this struggle between the public 
interest and those who seek a public subsidy to enrich private coffers, 
the stakes are immense. The Federal Government every year becomes 
more involved in the financing of scientific research. This being the 
case, it is the responsibility of Congress to protect the public purse, 
rather than to construct private pipelines from the Public Treasury to 
private recipients." (CR, 5/26/65) 

• "Establishment of a communications satellite system for commercial pur- 

poses is a matter entrusted to the Corporation under the Communica- 
tions Satellite Act," was the reply of ComSatCorp President Joseph 
Charyk to the FCC regarding the American Broadcasting Co.'s proposal 
to launch its own satellite. The FCC had requested the views of Com- 
SatCorp on the proposal. (ComSatCorp Release) 

• In Second Annual Sight Lecture to the Wings Club, Dr. Jerome C. 

Hunsaker, former Chairman of the naca and MIT professor of aer- 
onautics, said: 

"We cannot return to the time when the century was young, yet we 
still need the ingenuity and luck of gifted individuals. It is important 
to establish an environment with incentives to bring new ideas for- 
ward. 

"I think of the British Admiralty's prize for a ship's chronometer. 
The chronometer appeared, and changed the entire art of navigation. 
Lilienthal's gliding experiments, the Wrights' flights and Sikorsky's 
helicopter were individual contributions, not in government programs. 

"Scientists have a favorable climate for their own research provided 
by the Universities and Foundations, with opportunity for publication 
and recognition through the learned societies. Could we not devise a 
plan to bring ideas of individuals before sensitive and wise people who 
would select wheat from chafF and arrange for development testing of 
some of the harvest. We must be patient. I am reminded of Dr. 
Paul Foote's remark that, for a new chemical, it is usually seven years 
from test tube to tank car. 

"What we must avoid is centralized control of the exploration of 
ideas by the people responsible for immediate needs. There is noth- 
ing more discouraging to an engineer than the statement: 'We have no 
requirement for what you are thinking of.' 



250 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"Today. U.S. military power is supreme, but our intent and resolve 
are more in question than our strength. General LeMay says, 'We 
must make more determined and longer range plans and 
commitments. . . . We must look further into the future to foresee 
the threats that He ahead.' 

"Quantum advances in technology follow availability of scientific 
knowledge plus creative imagination and financial risk taking. Inter- 
national cooperative effort has been valuable in the past in research, 
and could be valuable in development work when the threat of destruc- 
tive purpose becomes less. 

"Let us never think we have no requirement for men with new 
ideas." (Text) 
May 26: First stage (s-i-10) for the tenth and last Saturn I launch ve- 
hicle left MSFc'5 Michoud Operations aboard the barge Promise, to 
arrive at KSC May 31. This was the second s-i stage built at 
Michoud by Chrysler Corp. Space Div. (msfc Release 65-135) 

• ComSatCorp may well face competition from foreign satellite com- 

munications systems in the next few years, David Sarnolf, chair- 
man of the Board of Radio Corporation of America predicted at the 
convention banquet of the Armed Forces Communications and Elec- 
tronics Assn. in Washington, D.C.: "We can expect that ultimately 
Russia will set up a satellite communications system competitive to our 
own and offer it to other nations on favorable terms determined more 
by political than economic considerations." 

Mr. Sarnoff advocated creation of "a single, privately owned Ameri- 
can company" to handle all international communications currently 
handled by six private carriers. He argued that, among other 
benefits, a single "unified carrier" was the only way the U.S. could 
"deal on equal terms with foreign government [communications] mo- 
nopolies. 

The RCA chairman warned that in only five years the interim agree- 
ment between ComSatCorp and the 45 participating nations would be 
up for re-evaluation. The U.S., he said, "will have to negotiate a new 
contract under different circumstances and possibly vastly altered bar- 
gaining conditions." 

It was technically feasible, Mr. Sarnoff said, that direct radio/TV 
broadcasting by satellite could be undertaken by 1975. Three equato- 
rial, synchronous orbit satellites powered by nuclear energy, each 
equipped with a three-TV-channel capability, would be able, he said, to 
broadcast programs to the entire United States and parts of 
Canada. He estimated that the three satellites, exclusive of ground 
stations, would cost S30 million and compared this with the $50 mil- 
lion annual cost to the three major networks for leasing circuits to 
transmit programs to their affiliated stations or to the $30 million cost 
of a single large city television station. (WSJ, 5/27/65, 6; Wash. 
Eve. Star, S/21/6^) 

• Missile lead of the U.S. was put at three to one in an article by Richard 

Fryklund in the Washington Evening Star: "U.S. intelligence estimates 
are that the Soviet Union has 245 to 295 intercontinental ballistic 
missiles on launchers ready to be fired. 

"The United States has 900." (Fryklund, Wash. Eve. Star, 
5/26/65, 2) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 251 

May 26-28: NASA-sponsored Fifth National Conference on the Peaceful 
Uses of Space and St. Louis Bicentennial Space Symposium was held 
in St. Louis with participants from Government, education, industry, 
and the scientific community. (NASA SP-82) 

NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden, delivering the keynote 
address, said: "The rate of growth of space activities in the first six 
years of the space age has been unprecedented in the history of a new 
field of science and technology but there are signs of attainment of a 
certain degree of maturity. The most obvious is the establishment, 
following several years in which available funds nearly doubled each 
year, of a level of five to five and a quarter billions for congressional 
appropriations to NASA, or about seven billions for space activities of 
all agencies at the suitable level. . . . 

"Maturity is also indicated by the drastic reduction in the number 
of unsuccessful missions, the result of increased knowledge and experi- 
ence in the previously unknown field of space. Thus in calendar year 
1958 in the first three months of NASA, four missions were attempted 
without a single success. In the following year eight of fourteen were 
successful, whereas in 1964 twenty-five of thirty more difficult missions 
were successful, a percentage of 83 which has been maintained now for 
three years. . . ." (NASA Release 65-83; Text, NASA Release 65-165) 

Answering the query "What does the future hold in store?" NASA 
Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight Dr. George E. 
Mueller told the Symposium about future manned flight options: "In 
near-earth space, missions could include low and high inclination, po- 
lar, or synchronous orbits to accomplish research, technological, and 
applications objectives. . . . 

"In a low inclination orbit, below the Van Allen belts, the basic 
problems of keeping men in space for extended periods can be studied, 
rendezvous and resupply problems could be worked out, and scientific 
experiments conducted. 

"In synchronous orbit, where the spacecraft hovers over a fixed area 
of the earth all the time, experiments could be carried out which in- 
volve manned observations over a given portion of the earth or which 
use man to assist in the operation of various experimental systems. 

"In polar orbit, scientist-astronauts could monitor and observe the 
entire surface of the earth as it passes beneath the spacecraft, mapping 
it and surveying most of the world's resources. . . . 

"In earth orbit ... a medium-size manned orbiting research labo- 
ratory might be developed. Such a space station would accommodate 
six to nine men and remain in orbit for up to five years. . . . Resup- 
ply vehicles, or space shuttles, could be used for crew rotation and for 
delivery of equipment and supplies. The laboratory would provide 
roomy quarters with a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting a wide 
variety of experiments in space. It would also contain a centri- 
fuge, should it be found essential for reconditioning crew members to 
withstand the effects of gravity after periods of weightlessness. 

"Following this a larger permanent manned orbiting research labo- 
ratory accommodating 20 to 30 men, might then be developed, by 
assembling three or four of the medium-size laboratories in 
space. Artificial gravity could be provided in the laboratories by ro- 
tating them about their axes. 



252 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

"Possibly the most challenging long-term goal of the entire space 
program is manned exploration of the planets — especially of 
Mars." (Text) 

Comparing the space programs of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Dr. 
Edward C. Welsh, Executive Secretary of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Council, said: 

"1. In number of earth-orbiting payloads the United States has 
launched almost three times as many as has the USSR, although the 
1965 rate is less than two to one. 

"2. In the weight of such payloads, the USSR has put up almost three 
times as much as has the United States. 

"3. In propulsion, the Soviets have from the beginning enjoyed an 
operational advantage over the United States. However, we are cur- 
rently making great strides in this regard and it is hoped that we will 
keep moving up the propulsion ladder so as not to be overtaken again. 

"4. In manned space flight, the USSR is ahead of the U.S., not only in 
hours of flight but also in multi-manned flight and extravehicular ac- 
tivity. So far, the U.S. astronauts have completed 40 orbits of the 
earth, the Soviet cosmonauts have completed 342 such orbits. More- 
over, as our Gemini schedule proceeds and contributes continued 
progress, we must look for much more activity on the part of the 
Soviets. 

"5. In the application of space developments to directly useful pur- 
poses, the United States is well ahead, particularly in such fields as 
weather observations, navigation, and communications. However, the 
Soviets have potential capabilities of these types and have already be- 
gun to show some actual experience in space communications. 

"6. In lunar and interplanetary activity, the U.S. may have an edge 
with the spectacular success of the Rangers and Mariners. We have 
developed this advantage, even though the Soviets have made a greater 
relative commitment in this regard, both from the view of absolute 
numbers of launches and also in regard to weight of payloads. 

"7. Based upon clear knowledge of our own program and upon as- 
sertions by the Soviets about theirs, one can reasonably conclude that 
both countries have manned lunar landing projects under way. It 
would be impossible to state definitely who is ahead in this regard but 
I am hopeful that we will turn out to be. 

"8. As regards the collection of scientific data from space, both 
countries have made impressive strides, resulting in a possible advan- 
tage to the USSR regarding the effects of space environment on human 
beings. 

"9. Both countries are in a position to make many observations 
from space, but both countries have pledged not to orbit weapons of 
mass destruction and have stressed that their programs are dedicated 
to peaceful uses. I can only speak for this country in regard to our 
intent and do state that we will maintain our defenses while pledging 
not to use space for aggressive purposes." 

Dr. Welsh warned: "Let us not expect our space program to proceed 
indefinitely without some tragedy involving our astronauts." (Text) 

Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate Administrator for Ad- 
vanced Research and Technology, said: "In assessing our growth in 
space capability in terms of three steps from earth to earth orbit, from 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 253 

earth orbit to moon, and from moon to planets, it is important to 
recognize that the first two steps rest on essentially the same tech- 
nologies. These are technologies which have evolved for decades and 
which are familiar: chemical energy conversion, relatively common 
engineering materials, measurement and control systems generally con- 
sistent with aircraft and ground technology and microwave 
communications. However, the third step will demand performance 
and efficiency well beyond the first two. An entirely new level of 
technology is needed: nuclear energy conversion, new refractory mate- 
rials, accuracy of sensors — improved by orders of magnitude — and 
laser communications. There are the underlying requirements of 
higher reliability and longer lifetimes than have yet been demon- 
strated, together with low specific weight. 

"The requirement for improvement in this spectrum of space-re- 
lated technologies will drive them well beyond their present level. The 
presence of difficult goals can have a profound influence on earth- 
bound consumer products through the advancement of common fields 
of technology in addition to opening the gateway to deep space. The 
NASA program of advanced research and technology embraces most of 
these elements at least in their fundamental forms. Without this re- 
search the space program would soon wither and die. With it, by the 
year 2000, an enormous influence can be exerted on national prestige 
and strength." (Text) 

Discussing space projects of the future at the Conference on the 
Peaceful Uses of Space, Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of NASA 
Marshall Space Flight Center, said: "The reusable vehicle seems to be 
the key to development of an economical earth-to-orbit transportation 
system. Passenger conveniences must be improved so that scientists, 
engineers, technicians, military personnel — and even politicians and 
journalists — can make the trip. 

"One of the methods we have been studying several years combines 
the experience gained in the x-15 rocket plane program with present 
Saturn know-how, for building a high performance two-stage rocket 
"plane"— called the Re-Usable Orbital Transport. It appears entirely 
practical to develop a vehicle that would not subject passengers to 
more than three g's in ascent or descent. 

"In the orbital transport under study, the first stage would fly mis- 
sion paths similar to the x-15, with the second stage, carrying pas- 
sengers and cargo, launched from a piggy-back position. The second 
stage would fly into and out of orbit, gliding to a power-off landing 
after re-entry in the same manner the X-15 does now as routine proce- 
dure. 

"It would offer passengers who are in a hurry transportation over 
global ranges with about one-hour flight time. If we can develop a 
single or two-stage chemical rocket aerospace vehicle and learn to fly it 
over and over before it is worn out, the high-income traveler should 
find the operational cost acceptable. But, of course, the thing we must 
have is the demand — the traffic, cargo, and passengers to make the 
system economical. 

"After we have tried our wings in the immediate earth environment, 
our next major step in exploring and utilizing the solar system is the 
moon. And after that, the planets." (Text) 



254 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Dr. Joseph V. Charyk, ComSatCorp president, announced at the 
Space Symposium that the corporation might invite the aerospace in- 
dustry to submit detailed proposals for satellites that would connect 
the television networks to their affiliated stations and would provide 
new facilities for airplane companies to communicate with aircraft in 
flight. 

Dr. Charyk's disclosure was a consequence of the American Broad- 
casting Company's recent proposal to put up its own comsat to relay 
TV shows to affiliated stations for rebroadcast to home viewers. 

Dr. Charyk said a satellite to relay television programs to affiliated 
stations involved no new basic engineering problems and oifered "real 
potential, sound economic basis." 

He envisioned a television satellite equipped with 12 channels, three 
of which would serve each of the four time zones. A satellite of 
essentially the same design could serve the airplane companies, he 
noted. ( Gould, NYT, 5/29/65, 55 ) 
May 27: All test phases of the Project Fire ii reentry heating experiment 
conducted at Cape Kennedy May 22 were satisfactory, NASA an- 
nounced. Preliminary examination of telemetry data indicated that 
heating information was received throughout reentry and that all test 
sequences occurred as scheduled. (NASA Release 65-179) 

• USAF launched Atlas-Agena D from WTR with unidentified satellite 

payload. (U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 143) 

• Army Lockheed XH-51a, fastest helicopter in the world, demonstrated 

its rigid rotor system and auxiliary jet engine in a successful test 
flight. It had a top speed of 272 mph. Without thrust from the 
engine, the xh-51a could be operated as a helicopter. ( Wash. Post, 
5/27/65, A7) 

• An explosion two minutes after launch ruined a USAF attempt to send a 

plastic replica of an astronaut's body into space aboard an Atlas mis- 
sile from Vandenberg afb. The dummy was instrumented to measure 
space radiation at various depths of the body. Cause of the explosion 
was not immediately determined, (ap. Wash. Post, 5/29/65) 

• First experimental color television transmissions through the Soviet com- 

sat molniya I were reported by Tass. Programs were transmitted 
continuously for more than nine hours from the Moscow television 
center via molniya i to an unidentified ground station about 1.000 
mi. from Moscow and by land lines back to the Soviet capital. Tass 
said the tests included color television systems developed in the U.S., 
France, and the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. and France had recently 
concluded an agreement to cooperate in development of a joint 
system. (NYT, 5/28/65, 2) 

• Dr. Kurt Waldheim, Austrian U.N. delegate, was unanimously elected to 

head the U.N. Outer Space Committee. (NYT, 5/28/65) 

• It was reported that President Johnson was disappointed that the two- 

man Gemini-Titan 4 spacecraft scheduled for June 3 launching, had no 
cameras aboard for simultaneous TV transmission of the space 
walk. The President had hoped that at completion of the four-day 
flight by Astronauts McDivitt and White, the U.S. would have pictures 
similar to those released by the Soviet Union after VOSKHOD II 
flight. TV cameras had been sacrificed for experimental 
instruments. (Humphrey, Phil. Eve. Bull., 5/27/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 255 

May 27 : "If Major Edward H. White leaves his space capsule during next 
Thursday's Gemini 4 flight, it will only be a 'space spectacular' stunt," 
said Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.) during a news conference in San 
Francisco. Rep. MiUer, chairman of the House Committee on Science 
and Astronautics, had made the same comment at the time of a similar 
feat by the Soviet Union. {NYT, 5/28/65) 

• NASA would hire 330 additional summer employees, ages 16 through 21, 

in support of the Youth Opportunity Campaign announced by Presi- 
dent Johnson May 23, NASA disclosed. Instructions had been sent to 
11 NASA field centers directing them to begin recruiting for work to 
begin as early in June as possible. ( NASA Release 65-177) 

• A working model of Electro-Optical Systems, Inc.'s new 100-lb., 15-in,- 

dia. ion engine, using accelerated ions to gain thrust, was presented to 
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., for display in the Arts 
and Industries building. ( Wash. Post, 5/27/65, F3 ) 

May 27-29: Forty educators from Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi, Missouri, and Tennessee attended a NASA-Univ. of Alabama Edu- 
cational Symposium whose prime purpose was to determine the impact 
upon the curriculum of secondary schools of new knowledge and devel- 
opments in science, sociology, and human relations created by NASA 
MSFC activities. Symposium and workshop were conducted by the 
University under a MSFC contract, (msfc Release 65-129) 

May 28: x-15 No. 3 was flown by Capt. Joe Engle (USAF) to 209,600-ft. 
altitude at a maximum speed of 3,754 mph (mach 5.17) to obtain data 
on NSL radiometer, Langley scanner, and boundary-layer noise. (NASA 
X-15 Proj. Off.; X-IS Flight Log) 

• NRX A-3 Nerva reactor, joint nasa-aec project to develop a nuclear 

rocket, was restarted and operated for the third time at Jackass Flats, 
Nev. Total operating time was 45 min., including about 7 min. at 
more than 40% of its designated 55,000-lb. thrust capacity. Function 
of the test was to explore control system response characteristics in low 
and intermediate power ranges. (SNPO-N-65-9; UPI, NYT, 5/29/65, 
8; Rover Chron.) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb said in a statement to Pat Houtz of 

the Huntsville Times: ". . . it is extremely important that both the 
Legislature and the Governor fully understand the importance of the 
George C. Marshall Space Flight Center operation to the success of the 
current United States effort in space and, also, the importance of our 
ability to work in that state in an environment conducive to the most 
effective utilization of our ablest scientists, engineers, technicians, and 
industrial contractors." (Text; Huntsville Times, 5/28/65) 

• Dr. George Mueller, nasa Associate Administrator for Manned Space 

Flight, said at a news conference in Cocoa Beach, Fla., that Astronauts 
McDivitt and White would attempt to steer the Gemini 4 spacecraft to 
a rendezvous with the spent second stage of its booster rocket. This 
plan was outlined for the flight : When the Gemini 4 spacecraft separat- 
ed from the second stage six minutes after launching, Maj. James A. 
McDivitt, as command pilot, would fire jet thrusters to hold a tight 
formation with the spent stage, which would trail the astronauts by 
about 300 ft. 

Throughout the first orbit, the astronauts would make a complete 
check of all their systems. At the start of the second orbit they would 



256 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

begin preparing for Maj. White's emergence by unpacking life support 
packs, the maneuvering unit, and the 25-ft. lifeline. 

Sweeping over the Indian Ocean during this orbit, they would begin 
to depressurize the spacecraft cabin and pressurize their spacesuits. 
Over Hawaii, Maj. McDivitt would maneuver the spacecraft to within 
25 ft. of the second stage. 

Maj. White would open his hatch and at a point west of Guaymas, 
Mexico, he would leave the vehicle. That would be about three hours 
after launching. 

Using the hand-gun maneuvering unit, Maj. White would slowly 
rotate toward the second stage, which is 27 ft. long and 10 ft. in dia. 
and would be equipped with two flashing lights. The astronaut would 
carry a 35-mm movie camera to take pictures of the earth, star back- 
ground, the booster, and the spacecraft. 

After 10 min., over Florida, Maj. White would begin returning to 
the spacecraft. The cabin would be repressurized and the suits 
depressurized. 

Then Maj. McDivitt would fire thrusters so that the spacecraft would 
move about 16 mi. away from the booster. During the fifth orbit, 
about three hours later, the Gemini again would be maneuvered so that 
it would approach the second stage high over Africa. 

The craft would close to within 10 ft. this time to determine how 
well they can approach an orbiting craft, sighting on the flashing 
lights. ( Transcript ; Appel, NYT, 5/29/65, 1 ) 
May 28: Scientists at NASA Lewis Research Center had successfully operat- 
ed a high-field-strength cryomagnet having a volume many times 
larger than any previously known, NASA announced. The cryogenic 
magnet would provide research facilities for magnetics, solid state 
physics, and plasma physics. Effects of' high-strength magnetic fieWs 
on life could also be examined, using plant life, fruit flies, and small 
animals placed in the field. (NASA Release 65-170; lrc Release 
65-38) 

• Lt. Gen. Walter K. Wilson (usa) received NASA's Outstanding Leadership 

medal for his "outstanding leadership as Chief of Engineers, United 
States Army, in directing the effective application and utilization of 
the resources of the Corps of Engineers in the design and construction 
of facilities crucial to the successful exploration of space by the United 
States and the application of its space technology for the benefit of 
mankind." (nasa Release 65-180) 

• A tariff for the use of Early Bird satellites for transmission and reception 

of voice, record, data, telephoto, facsimile, television, and other signals 
was filed by ComSatCorp with the FCC. 

Beginning Sunday, June 27, voice channels would be available be- 
tween 5 a.m. and 9 p.m. EDT on a daily basis. Minimum rental peri- 
od, one month; rent, $4,200. Additional consecutive periods would 
be rented at $140 per day. Voice channels would be two-way. No 
refunds would be given for interruptions of less than 30 min. or for 
those caused by solar eclipse. Interruptions of 30 min. or more not 
the responsibility of the customer would be refunded at roughly $3 per 
30-min. interruption. ComSatCorp could request temporary surrender 
of a voice channel for TV use and, in that event, would refund charges 
in amounts proportional to the surrender period if it falls between 5 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 257 

a.m. and 8 a.m. or between 2 p.m. and 9 p.m.. or in amounts twice 
proportional to the surrender period if it falls between 8 a.m. and 2 
p.m. 

Also beginning June 27, television channels would be available as 
frequently as feasible. Hours would be 5 a.m. to 8 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 
9 p.m. (Schedule l) and 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. (Schedule ii). Channels 
would accept standard TV signals. TV channel rentals must be made 
for at least a 30-min. period." Rent: S2,400 for first 30 min.. S475 per 
immediately following 15 min. (Schedule I) ; S3,825 for first 30 min., 
$710 per immediately following 15 min. (Schedule ii). Regular 
channels would be on one-way monochrome. Two-way monochrome 
and one-way color would rent for an additional 50%. Interruptions 
of more than 30 sec. and not the responsibility of the customer would 
be refunded in amounts proportional to the interrupted period. If a 
customer canceled his application for use of a TV channel, he would 
be billed as though he had not and would be required to pay any 
additional charges involved in acquiring temporary use of a voice 
channel if his application had made such acquisition necessary. TV 
channels w ould be rented on a first-come-first-serve basis. 

Rates covered only transmissions between Andover. Me., and the 
satellite. The arrangement whereby refunds would be made for tem- 
porary TV use of voice channels was necessary because early bird 
I cannot handle both kinds of transmissions simultaneously. 
(ComSatCorp Release) 

May 28: Supersonic transport airframe and engine design contracts had 
been extended through the month of June, faa announced. The air- 
frame contractors were the Boeing Co. and Lockheed Aircraft Corp.; 
engine contractors were the General Electric Co. and the Pratt & Whit- 
ney Div. of United Aircraft Corp. ( faa Release 65-46) 

• The House Armed Services Real Estate Subcommittee approved Air 
Force plans to dispose of Atlas and Titan missile sites representing an 
investment of $856,900,000. The 14 missile complexes, embracing 
113 missile launching silos, were being declared surplus as a result of 
the obsolescence of the missiles they were built to accommodate, (ap, 
NYT, 5 '29 65, 25) 

May 28-29: Fifth Scientific Conference of the Polish Astronautical Society 
was held in Krakow. Reports were read on many important aspects 
of rocketry and space travel and on space physics, technology, and 
biology. Some 93 persons attended the conference which reviewed 
projects conducted in Poland and abroad. [Skrzydlata polska, 
6/27/65, 9) 

May 29: nasa successfully launched EXPLORER xxviii Interplanetary 
Monitoring Probe (Imp-C) from etr on a three-stage Thor-Delta 
booster. A slightly longer than planned burn by the third stage en- 
gines placed the 130-lb. probe into an orbit with 164,000 mi. (264,040 
km.) apogee and 120 mi. (193 km.) perigee instead of the scheduled 
orbit of 130,000 mi. (209,300 km.) apogee and 120 mi. (193 km.) 
perigee. Inclination was 34° ; period, 5 days, 22 hrs. The spacecraft 
was equipped with devices to report on the earth's magnetic field, 
cosmic rays, and the solar wind throughout its highly elliptical orbit. 
Confused telemetry signals from the EXPLORER xxviii for 31/^ hrs. 
after launching made it seem the spacecraft had not separated from the 



258 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

third stage of the booster; however, later signals indicated that all 
spacecraft systems were operating normally, that separation had oc- 
curred. 

The Imp series began with explorer xviii ( Imp-A ) launched 
Nov. 26, 1963. (nasa Release 65-164; Wash. Sun. Star, 5/30/65) 
May 29: mariner iv, nasa's Mars flyby and photographic probe, reached 
the distance of one AU ( Astronomical Unit ) from earth at 9 p.m. 
EST. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance of the earth from the 
sun that had been established, partially from data received from 
MARINER II, as 92,956,000 mi. The probe had traveled over 271 mil- 
lion mi. in its orbit; its velocity relative to the earth was 51,442 mph. 
(NASA Release 65-171) 

• An "antirock"^ — a meteorite composed of anti-matter — may have hit the 

earth in 1908, accounting for what was perhaps the most violent explo- 
sion ever observed on earth, said a report in Nature by Dr. Clyde 
Cowan of Catholic Univ. and C. R. Atluri and Dr. Williard F. Libby 
of the Univ. of California. The 1908 explosion, referred to as the 
Tunguska meteorite, took place in the air at a height estimated at 
three miles. Its effects were comparable to those of a nuclear weapon 
with a yield equivalent to that of 30 million tons of TNT. 

The hypothesis had been supported, to some extent, by an analysis 
of tree rings formed during, before, and after the year of the 
explosion. It was calculated that an anti-matter explosion would 
create enough additional atoms of carbon 14 to produce a worldwide 
enrichment of this radioactive substance. In the study, a 300-yr.-old 
Douglas fir from Arizona and an oak tree from near Los Angeles were 
analyzed. Wood was stripped from a number of annual rings from 
1873 to 1933. In both trees, the highest content of carbon 14 was 
from wood formed in 1909, the year after the explosion. Another 
supporting fact was that the blast left no cloud such as that produced 
by an atomic or chemical explosion; a mass of anti-matter, plunged 
into the atmosphere, would be annihilated, leaving no cloud. (Sulli- 
van, NYT, 5/30/65, 1, 50) 

• NASA Lewis Research Center scientist Charles A. Low, Jr., was co-recip- 

ient (with William R. Mickelsen) of a patent for a radio-isotope 
generator with attached propulsion system. Low and Mickelsen would 
use a colloidal particle thrustor to provide the propellant. Research 
was underway at lrc on use of colloidal particles as propellant in 
various thrustor designs. The system could cut interplanetary flight 
durations by as much as one-half or increase interplanetary payloads 
by substantial amounts. ( lrc Release 65-39) 
May 30: A modified Convair 990A jet transport — NASA's new high-altitude 
research laboratory — carried 30 scientists from five countries and a 
million dollars worth of delicate instruments in a race with a total 
eclipse over the South Pacific. Path of the eclipse stretched from the 
northern tip of New Zealand 8,000 mi. east to the coast of Peru. Ex- 
cept for a few small islands, the eclipse was not visible in any heavily 
inhabited parts of the earth. 

Taking off from Hilo, Hawaii, the jet flew at an altitude of 39,500 
ft.; in its 9 min. 42 sec. race with the 1,700 mph eclipse, it reached a 
speed of 587 mph, doubling observation time possible from a ground- 
based station. 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 259 




May 30: nasa's Convair 990 airborne research laboratory photograph of solar eclipse. 

First indications were that the mission was a complete success; de- 
tailed analyses of data from 13 observation projects would be 
made. Most obvious phenomena were large prominences on the sun, 
Jupiter shining brightly in the sun's corona, and long corona streamers 
flashing with surprising brightness. 

Scientists in the mission were from Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy, 
Switzerland, and the United States. (NASA Release 65-178; ap, NYT, 
6/1/65,20) 
May 30: "A report recently prepared by the Science Policy Research Divi- 
sion of the Library of Congress . . . notes that seven of the agencies 
— the Weather Bureau, Air Force, Federal Aviation Agency, NASA, 
Army, Navy, and Treasury Department — ran through about $266 mil- 
lion last year in collecting and reporting identical weather informa- 
tion," said Fred Blumenthal in an article in the Washinton Post. He 
continued: "If the current structure of our weather efforts continues 
unchanged, untold millions of dollars will keep going down the 
drain. The obvious solution would be to establish one central nation- 
al agency to handle the collection and reporting of all weather data, 
giving us the same service at a cheaper price or better service for the 
same price — or possibly even less. Then each of the agencies which 
are now duplicating each other's efforts can use the information for 
their own purposes." (Blumenthal, Wash. Post, 5/30/65) 

• Maj. Virgil I. Grissom (USAF) was honored by a parade in his home- 

town of Mitchell, Ind. (Indianapolis Star, 5/21/65) 

• Soviet press published first technical details and a sketch of the com- 

munications satellite molniya i, launched April 23. The satellite, 
which was visible nine hours a day from Soviet ground stations, had 
been used for experimental transmissions of television programs, in- 
cluding color, between Moscow and Vladivostok. 



260 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

According to the drawing and the text description, molniya I had 
an airtight cyHndrical body with conical ends, one of which contained 
a rocket engine used to correct the orbit, as well as other solar orienta- 
tion devices. 

Expanding like spokes of a wheel from the cylinder were six long 
panels of solar batteries to supply electrical power to the satellite for 
retransmission of signals received from earth. It was equipped 
with two parabolic antennas, one active, the other in reserve. These 
were pointed toward earth with a high-precision direction finder for 
earthbound transmissions. MOLNIYA I would make two 12-hr. revolu- 
tions around the earth every 24 hrs. One loop would take it over the 
Soviet Union during daytime periods, when it could be of most use for 
transmissions. The other loop would take it over the United 
States. {NYT, 5/31/65, 6) 

May 30: A successful 60-sec. ground test of the solid-fuel rocket programed 
to launch Japan's first artificial satellite in 1968 was announced by 
Tokyo Univ. scientists. The rocket had a maximum thrust of 200,000 
lbs. {Wash. Post, 5/30/65} 

May 31: All technical problems threatening the scheduled launching of 
Gemini 4 on June 3 had been cleared up, NASA said. One problem 
involved what had been thought to be a malfunction in the water 
management system of the spacecraft which would provide water for 
drinking and cooling. Instead of a leak, technicians found that a 
valve had been left open in error. A second problem, rupture of an 
underseas communications cable 10 mi. south of San Salvador in the 
Bahamas, was sidestepped when USAF rented a commercial cable from 
Puerto Rico to West Palm Beach to replace the severed line. (UPI, 
Wash. Daily News, 5/31/65; Appel, NYT, 6/1/65, 16; ap, Wash. 
Post., 6/1/65) 

• Students at West Bend High School near Milwaukee and at Lycee Henri 

IV in Paris talked for 40 min. via a two-way circuit on early BIRD 
I in the first transatlantic linkup of classrooms by live television. 

The exchange was conceived by the Univ. of Wisconsin's education- 
al television station, wha-tv, in cooperation with Radiodiffusion-Tele- 
vision Frangaise. Sound and picture transmission were excellent. 
(NYT, 5/1/65, 32) 

• Members of the International Association of Machinists struck Aerojet- 

General Corp.'s rocket-engine and torpedo plant at Azusa, Calif., be- 
cause of a wage dispute. ( ap, NYT, 6/1/65, 25) 

• "Along with the development of a nuclear weapon, Communist 

China has also conducted a program to develop rockets," wrote Cheng 
Chu-yuan in Military Review. He continued: "Since early 1956, when 
Peking mapped out the 12-year plan for the development of science 
and technology, jet propulsion has been listed as one of the 12 major 
tasks, exceeded only by the use of nuclear energy. The project is 
under the supervision of the Institute of Mechanics in the CAS. 

"In 1958 several new institutes were set up within the Academy — an 
Institute of Upper Atmosphere Physics in Wuhan; and an Institute of 
Automation and Remote Control and an Institute of Mechanics and 
Electronics both in Peking. All of these institutes participate in the 
rocket program. . . . 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 261 

"The Science and Technology University of the CAS, the Tsinghua 
University in Peking, and the Peking Aeronautical Engineering Col- 
lege are the three important centers for training engineers and techni- 
cians in rocketry. During the past ten years, more than 3,000 college 
students, specialists in aeronautical engineering, have been graduated. 
In 1963 the China Aeronautical Engineering Society was formally 
established, indicating the rapid growth of technical manpower in this 
field. 

"Since Communist China has several capable men with long years of 
experience in the rocket field, and since China began her rocket 
project almost in the same period with the nuclear weapons program, 
the development of a rocket booster might soon be anticipated. It is 
quite possible that China may launch her first rocket within the next 
two or three years." {Military Revieiv, 5/65, lOF) 

May 31: Aerobee 150A sounding rocket, launched from Wallops Station, 
Va., attained peak altitude of 90.5 mi. (145 km.). Primary experi- 
mental objective was to measure spectral irradiance of the stars Spica 
and Alkaid in the wavelength interval from 1.100 A to 4,000 A. Instru- 
mentation consisted of an ultraviolet stellar spectrometer with photom- 
eters and optical telescope. Attitude control was obtained with a 
modified Attitude Control System ( Acs ) , a roll-stabilized gyro plat- 
form, and an optical tracker — the combination known as Strap. The 
Strap system performed correctly. Due to an incorrect gain setting, 
the star-tracker failed to lock-on throughout most of the flight. The 
telescope and spectrometer functioned properly, but obtained no data 
due to the failure to lock-on. Experiment was conducted by GSFC. 
(NASA Rpt. srl) 

During May: A camera capsule from the Saturn I SA-7. launched from 
Eastern Test Range Sept. 18, 1964, was found in shallow waters off 
San Salvador in the Bahamas. Color film in the capsule had deterio- 
rated and was not usable. The capsule was the third one found of the 
eight flown on the SA-7. The first two were found in November 1964, 
near San Salvador and Eleuthera Islands. Film in these capsules was 
in good condition. {Marshall Star, 5/19/65, 6) 

• Bell Telephone Laboratories astronomers detected radio waves that 

seemed to be "flying in all directions through the universe." Dr. 
Arno A. Penzias and Dr. Robert W. Wilson made the observa- 
tions with the horn antenna developed for communications sat- 
ellite research at Holmdel, N.J. Princeton Univ. scientists led by Dr. 
Robert H. Dicke, Prof, of Physics, unaware of the btl observation, 
reached a prediction of the existence of such waves, which they theo- 
rized were remnants of light waves from the primordial explosion giv- 
ing birth to the universe. In this theory of the universe's origin — the 
"big bang" theory — the galaxies all originated at a single point, shoot- 
ing outward ever since the cataclysmic event. According to the 
theory, the light waves were stretched into radio waves by the expan- 
sion of the universe. (Sullivan, NYT, 5/21/65) 

• Remarkable adaptability of some fungi and bacteria to life in atmos- 

phere containing high concentrations of ammonia and methane was 
discovered by Dr. S. M. Siegel and Miss Constance Guimarro of the 
Union Carbide Research Institute and reported in Icarus. The report 
suggested there might therefore be life on Jupiter, where extremes of 



262 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

temperature and a dense atmosphere of these noxious gases would 
seem to make life-forms resembling those on earth unlikely. The re- 
search was supported by NASA contract. (Schmeck, ATT", 5/12/65; 
Icarus, iv/1965, 37-40) 
During May: Carl Sagan, Harvard Univ. and Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, and Sidney Coleman, Lyman Laboratory of Physics, 
Harvard Univ., reviewed the need for sterilization of Mars-bound 
spacecraft to protect that planet from contamination. Using prob- 
ability theory, Sagan and Coleman specified formulas to provide pre- 
dictions of onboard-experiment and Mars-contamination relationships. 
{AiScA, 5/65, 22-27) 

• Research expenditures in 1963 totaled $5.9 billion in the national 

economy, according to National Science Foundation report. Of this 
amount, $3.4 billion (58% ) was financed by the Federal Government 
and $2.1 billion (35%) by industry, with colleges and universities and 
other nonprofit institutions providing the remaining 7%. In per- 
formance of research, industry spent $3.2 billion (54% ) ; colleges and 
universities, $1.4 billion (24%); Federal Government, $.9 billion 
(14%); and other nonprofit institutions, $.4 billion (7%). 

Of the $5.9 billion total, nearly $2 billion was expended for basic 
research and the rest for applied research. Predominant in basic re- 
search performance were the colleges and universities and other 
nonprofit institutions, spending more than $1 billion (57%) of the $2 
billion total, (nsf Reviews . . ., Vol. I, 5/65, 1, 2) 

• Article in Soviet Life by Academician Anatoli Blagonravov described 

the "three-directions of modern astronautics": 

"The first is the study of the earth's upper atmosphere and the 
portion of space adjoining our planet. . . . 

"The second is the study and exploration of . . . the moon. 

"The third is the study of solar space, including the nearest planets. 
Mars and Venus. 

"Soviet scientists are working in all three directions. 

"The first to be launched, always, are the automatic scouts, fol- 
lowed by men. 

". . . The final stage in the solution of the first problem — explora- 
tion of near space — will probably be to set up a permanent manned 
space observatory-town, with bilateral contact maintained through 
rockets. Of course, long before this, reliable systems of meteorolog- 
ical sputniks, worldwide television sputniks, navigation sputniks, etc., 
will have been established. . . . 

"Several interesting moves have been taken in the second direction 
[lunar exploration]. . . . The automatic devices have not yet ex- 
plored the moon's surface in detail, have not yet determined the condi- 
tions prevailing there. Presumably, they will be followed by 
animals. Only after the safe return of the ship to earth has been 
assured will man go to the moon. 

"Manned landing will be preceded by numerous earth-moon 
flights. In the course of these flights the conditions along the entire 
route will be studied, detailed maps of the lunar surface made, and 
lunar space investigated. Need I add that all these flights will be 
made by teams of scientists only? 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 263 

"The first stage in the exploration of the moon will be to set up a 
permanent research station on its surface. . . . 

"In the third direction — the exploration of near solar space and 
near planets — only the first steps have been taken, the first flights of 
automatic scouts. . . . The interplanetary routes will be explored 
again and again by automatic stations that will bring back much need- 
ed information on space and the nature of the planets to which they 
are sent. Only then will the first interplanetary expeditions take 
off. They will carry even larger teams than the lunar reconnaissance 
expeditions." {Soviet Life, 5/65, 48) 
During May: Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, President of Cal Tech, discussed objec- 
tives of the space program and what men hoped to learn through the 
space program about the moon, the planets, the sun, interplanetary 
space, and the earth itself. He concluded: 

"Man's growing understanding of the nature and constitution of the 
universe had led to new advances in our knowledge of physics and of 
chemistry; and these in turn have led to applications of this knowledge 
to the development of things which men have found useful. We have 
never been able to predict in advance what the usefulness would be of 
new knowledge about the nature of the physical universe. All we 
know is that, by and large, new knowledge always has proved useful — 
and often it has proved useful in the most unexpected and unforesee- 
able ways. No one would have predicted that Newton's enunciation of 
the laws of motion would lead to the age of machinery; that Faraday's 
experiments would lead to the age of electricity; or that Einstein's 
theorv of relativity and Bohr's theory of the atom would lead to the 
atomic bomb and atomic power. 

"We do know one thing: that scientific research which has been 
aimed at purely practical problems though it often has been of great 
value, has over a long run been of less value in producing wholly new 
things than has the research aimed solely at the extension of 
knowledge. The extension of man's knowledge is the basic and the 
overriding purpose of the space exploration program." (Text, JPL 
Lab-Oratory, 5/65, 10-12) 



June 1965 



June 1 : Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched from White Sands, N. Mex., 
went to peak altitude of 113 mi. (180 km.) . Preliminary experimental 
objective was to obtain clear spectrograms of ultraviolet light from 
stars. Experimentation was provided by Princeton Univ. Observatory. 
(NASA Rpt. srl; ap, NYT, 6/28/65, 2) 

• North American Aviation, Inc., was awarded a S17 million increment to 

a previous contract for the XB-70 flight test program. USAF Aeronau- 
tical Systems Div. was the contracting agency, (dod Release 374--65) 
June 2: U.S. Senate passed a bill (H.R. 7717) authorizing appropriations 
to NASA for FY 1966 totaling $5,196,826,350, as follows: $4,533,350,- 
000 for research and development; $67,376,350 for construction of 
facilities; and $596,100,000 for administrative expenses. [CR, 6/2/ 
65, 11816) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb, testifying before the Senate Judiciary 

Committee's Subcommittee on Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights, 
said: "Fundamental to NASA's approach to the patent policy question 
and to technology utilization is our belief that active effort must be 
expended, and meaningful incentives provided, if the byproducts of the 
space efforts are to flow to the general public through entrepreneurs 
willing to risk investment capital. . . . 

"If NASA's experience has served to establish one principal, it is . . . 
that 'a single presumption of ownership does not provide a satisfactory 
basis for Government wide policy on the allocation of rights to inven- 
tions.' NASA's experience further establishes . . . that the 'Govern- 
ment has a responsibility to foster the fullest exploitation of the inven- 
tions for the public benefit.' " (Transcript) 

• William B. Rieke, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator (Management) 

for Manned Space Flight, was appointed Deputy Associate Administra- 
tor for Industry Affairs, replacing George Friedl, Jr. Prior to his 
appointment to NASA in 1962, Rieke was president of Lockheed Air- 
craft International, Inc. Friedl would continue to serve NASA as a 
consultant, (nasa Ann.) 

• Grove Webster had been appointed Director of NASA Hq. Personnel Div., 

NASA announced. He had previously served as deputy and acting 
director. (NASA Release 65-182) 

• AFSC Commander Gen. Bernard A. Schriever predicted at a Retired 

Officers' Luncheon in Washington, D.C., that "the next major break- 
through in international commerce will be low cost, long haul air trans- 
portation, which could be derived in large part from prior military 
experience." Gen. Schriever said he recognized "that there are 
problems involved in translating military systems into commercial sys- 
tems . . . but these problems can be successfully attacked and solved 
if there is adequate long range planning now." (Text) 

264 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 265 

June 3-7: NASA's gemini iv spacecraft was launched at 11:16 a.m. edt with 
two-stage Titan ii booster from the Eastern Test Range and began 
the four-day space flight of Astronauts James A. McDivitt (Maj., usaf) 
and Edward H. White, ii (Maj., usaf), who would make 62 revolu- 
tions around the earth in 97 hrs. 56 min. Two minutes and 36 sec. 
after liftoff, the first stage of the booster separated. Six minutes later, 
traveling at 17,567 mph, the spacecraft was inserted into an orbit with 
apogee, 174.8 mi. (283.2 km.); perigee, 100 mi. (161 km.); period, 
94 min. Original plans had been for GEMINI IV to be maneuvered 
within 25 ft. of the burned out second stage of the titan ii booster 
rocket and for White to approach and possibly touch it during his 
extravehicular mission. Three hours into flight, ground stations 
reported that excessive tumbling of the second stage had increased 
atmospheric drag and that it was orbiting 32 mi. ahead of and 5 mi. 
below GEMINI IV. Mission Director Christopher Kraft confirmed Com- 
mand Pilot McDivitt's suggestion to abandon further attempts at ren- 
dezvous because of a potential fuel shortage. 

White's extravehicular activity, planned for the second orbit, but 
delayed until the third to allow astronauts more preparation time, began 
at 3:45 p.m. edt. The cabin was depressurized; White, equipped with 
tether carrying oxygen and communication and with chest pack for 
emergency oxygen supply, emerged from the spacecraft just past 
Hawaii. Carrying a modified 35 mm. single-lens reflex camera loaded 
with color film and propelled by a hand-held, oxygen-jet gun, he went 
three times to the full length of his 25-ft. tether and then returned, 
using the gun to halt his motion and prevent his hitting the spaceship. 
When the gas supply in the gun was depleted, he returned to the 
spacecraft by gently tugging on the tether line. At one point, 
McDivitt exclaimed: "You smeared my windshield, you dirty dog." 

Flight plans had called for a ten-minute walk in space but White 
remained outside the spacecraft for 22 min. He experienced no dis- 
orientation during his "walk." When he finally heeded commands 
to return to the capsule, he had difficulty closing the hatch and decided 
not to reopen it to jettison excess equipment. "It's the saddest moment 
of my life," White said as he reentered the spacecraft. 

On June 5 during the 17th orbit, the astronauts spoke to their wives 
at MSC. During the 20th orbit, McDivitt spotted a satellite with "big 
arms sticking out." He was unable to identify it positively. 

On June 6 during the 48th orbit, trouble developed with the space- 
craft's computer and attempts to repair it with the aid of ground in- 
structions failed. The malfunctioning computer made it necessary for 
GEMINI IV to reenter on a ballistic trajectory. 

Throughout the flight the daily routine of the astronauts included 
eating, exercise, and performance of medical and scientific experi- 
ments. They alternated rest periods. During 12 of the 62 orbits, 
when GEMINI IV passed through a heavy radiation area called the South 
Atlantic anomaly, Astronauts McDivitt and White switched on radia- 
tion and magnetic field measuring devices to take readings inside 
and outside the spacecraft and near their bodies. They also attempted 
to improve the knowledge of the earth's terrain through high-quality 
color photographs; to measure with instruments the electrostatic 



266 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 




June 3: Space walk of gemini rv Astronaut Edward H. White. 

charge that accumulates in space and on objects in space; to better 
define the magnitude and direction of the earth's geomagnetic field; to 
test the accuracy of part of a prototype navigational system for future 
space capsules; to measure heartbeats to try to determine the effects of 
prolonged weightlessness on functioning of the heart; to determine the 
effects of limited exercise in space through use of a tension cord; to 
take high-resolution photographs of cloud formations over the earth 
to aid weathermen in improved forecasting from weather satellites; to 
determine more exactly the elevation of the earth's atmosphere and 
its layers through use of filtered film; and to determine if long periods 
of weightlessness might make the bones brittle. 

On June 7, to begin reentry, McDivitt fired a 100-lb. thrusting 
rocket for two minutes, 41 sec. — one second too long — to guide the 
capsule into an orbit with 156.2-mi (252-km.) apogee and 100-mi. 
(161-km. perigee. Twelve minutes later, McDivitt fired the retro- 
rockets; 21/2 min. later he placed the spacecraft into slow rotation 
to reduce reentry dispersion. Communications with the spacecraft 
then ceased for about 4 min. as ion-sheath blackout phase of reentry 
began. GEMINI iv entered the final stage of reentry at 1:07 p.m. 
EDT when the stabilizing chute emerged and damped the oscillations of 
the descending craft. The main parachute opened shortly afterward 
and slowed the spacecraft for its final landing at 1:13 p.m. EDT, about 
450 mi. east of Cape Kennedy. The landing was 40 mi. off target 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 267 

because of the one-second error in the firing of the thrusting rockets 
and one-second delay in the firing of the retrorockets. 

Fifteen minutes after splashdown, Navy frogmen, lowered into the 
water by helicopter, placed a flotation collar around the capsule. 
Before egressing from tlie spacecraft to be hoisted to helicopter, 
astronauts took biomedical data on themselves. About 40 min. later, 
Majors McDivitt and White were landed by helicopter on the flight 
deck of the 'carrier Wasp. They were taken immediately to the ship's 
sick bay for postflight examinations. 

Dr. Charles Berry, Chief Flight Surgeon for the astronauts, said 
after the examinations : "We have knocked down an awful lot of straw 
men. We had been told that we would have an unconscious astronaut 
after four days of weightlessness. Well, they're not. We were told 
that the astronaut would experience vertigo, disorientation when he 
stepped out of that spaceship. We hit that one over the head." The 
most serious problem was fatigue. "Both men were bushed," said Dr. 
Berry. Maj. McDivitt had a few flecks of caked blood in his nostrils, 
caused by the dryness of the mucous membranes from inhaling pure 
oxygen for so long. X-rays taken of the astronauts' little fingers and 
heel bones both before and after the flight to determine if long exposure 
to weightlessness would cause a substantial loss of calcium were being 
studied. 

Commenting on the historical significance of the Gemini flight. 
Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator of nasa's Office of 
Manned Space Flight, said the flight had included "at least two world 
firsts": a record length for two-man flights and the first time a pilot 
had maneuvered outside a ship with a propulsion gun, which gave him 
control over his movements. 

American astronauts had flown a total of 259 hrs. 34 min. in space; 
Soviet astronauts had accumulated 507 hrs. and 16 min. (NASA Re- 
lease 65-158; NASA Proj. Off.; NYT, 6/4/65, 1,15; Wash. Eve. Star, 
6/4/65, A1,A6,A10; Wash. Post, 6/4/65, A1,A7,A8; WSJ, 6/4/65, 
4; Clark, NYT, 6 '5/65, 1,12; Wash. Eve. Star, 6/5/65, A3; Wash. 
Post, 6/5/65, A1,A7; NYT, 6/6/65, 1,70; NYT, 6/7/65, 22C; Wash. 
Post, 6/7/65. A1,A4,A6; Bait. Sun. 6/7/65; Justice, Wash. Post, 6/ 
8/65; Simons, Wash. Post, 6/8/65; Time, 6/8/65, 20.25.25A; NYT, 
6/8/65, 22C; NYT, 6/9/65, 1,22; Lee, Houston Post, 6/9/65; Wash. 
Post, 6/11/65, Al; Wash. Eve. Star, 6/13/65, Al; Wash. Post, 6/15/ 
65, Al.) 
June 3: Viewers in Great Britain and at least 11 Western European nations 
were able to watch the Gemini 4 lift-off live via EARLY bird I satellite. 
Picture reception was reportedly clear. ComSatCorp, cooperating with 
European ground station owners, arranged for free use of EARLY 
BIRD I between 8:00 a.m. and 12 noon edt. {Wash. Post, 6/4/65; 
ComSatCorp Release) 
• Department of Defense should, without further delay, commence full- 
scale development of a manned orbital laboratory (Mol) project, 
recommended a report by the Military Operations Subcommittee of 
the House Committee on Government Operations. The report also 
suggested that dod "pursue a more realistic security policy in its pro- 
gram," and that "careful and intensive consideration be given to 
achieving future economies in space operations with greater standard- 



268 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 

ization of systems and subsystems and through such techniques as 
recoverable and reusable boosters and spacecraft." Moreover. "NASA 
and DOD [should] use each other's facilities and resources to the 
greatest possible extent." ( Text ) 
June 3: RCA Communications. Inc., asked FCC for the right to lease and op- 
erate 30 of EARLY BIRD I's voice-grade and television channels operating 
between the U.S. and Europe. FCC approval would enable RCA, owner 
of the National Broadcasting Co.. to provide international television 
and closed-circuit transmission programs across the Atlantic. {WSJ. 
6/4/65, 6) 

• A home-made U.S. flag, carried by astronauts Virgil I. Grissom (Maj., 

usaf) and John W. Young (LCdr., USN ) on the March 23 Gemini hi 
flight, was hoisted at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center the moment 
Astronauts James A. McDivitt, (Maj., usaf) and Edward H. White II 
(Maj., usaf) went into orbit. Flag would be flown only while astro- 
nauts were in spaceflight, (ap, Knoxville Neivs Sentinel, 6/3/65) 

• House voted to allow Gen. William F. McKee (usaf. Ret.) to serve 

as Administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency and retain his military 
status. Effect of the legislation, if it were to become law. would be 
to let McKee draw reduced military retirement pay of S8,404 annually 
in addition to the Administrator's salary of S30,000. Without the 
bill, he would have to eive up his military status and retirement 
benefits. {CR, 6/3/65, n961; ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 6/4/65) 

• American Telephone and Telegraph Co. made the first formal bid to 

become a customer of ComSatCorp. In a filing with the FCC, AT&T 
asked for the right to lease 100 voice-grade channels that would operate 
through EARLY BIRD I comsat and connect with European telephone 
companies. AT&T also asked that it be allowed to acquire a television 
channel for use from time to time in providing TV service to and from 
Europe in ventures with various European communications carriers. 
{WSJ, 6/3/65, 4) 
June 3: In an article suggesting the possibility of catastrophe during the 
Gemini gt-4 flight, William Hines had said in the Washington Evening 
Star: "The truth is that the only 'first' the United States has a chance 
to achieve in Gemini 4 is 'first casualties in space' — and nobody (in- 
cluding the Russians) seek this dubious record." Commenting on the 
planned "rendezvous," he said: ". . . the other and more questionable 
added spectacular on the present mission — is a risky business of un- 
known proportions . . . There are several purely technical objections 
to this exercise. First, it is not part of the original Gemini 4 mission, 
but an afterthought. Second, the spacecraft was not built for rendez- 
vous. Third, the rocket was never envisioned as a target vehicle and is 
uncontrollable in space. . . . 

"But if tragedy should strike as a result of something that happens 
on the first few orbits of Gemini 4, how will the responsibility be fixed: 
As pilot error ... or politician's error?" (Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 
6/3/65) 

• Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. was awarded a $10,789,000 incre- 

ment to an existing contract by USAF for FY 1965 launch services 
for Agena-D program, (dod Release 379-65) 

• First Negro to receive usaf astronaut training. Capt. Edward J. Dwight, 

Jr. (usaf), denied Ebony magazine's charges that he had been 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 269 

eliminated from selection by the NASA program because of his race. 
Dwight said the charge "apparently had some information out of 
context." A statement released by NASA in response to queries about 
Dwight said: "A formal objective rating system based on flight 
experience, academic background and supervisory ratings was developed 
and used by a preliminary selection committee in rating the candi- 
dates to make sure that the best qualified were selected as finalists to 
be considered for the 14 available astronaut positions. Of the 136 
candidates, 102, including Capt. Dwight, were eliminated by the 
primary selection committee, leaving a group of 34 finalists of whom 
the 14 best were chosen. 

"Selection is made on a best qualified basis without regard to race, 
religion or sex. 

"Capt. Dwight did possess the basic qualifications; he did not score 
sufficiently high to be selected under the rating system." (upi, NYT, 
6/3/65; WSJ, 6/3/65, 1; Wash. Eve. Star, 6/3/65) 

• National Park Service delivered to NASA a comprehensive report outlining 

ways to make Kennedy Space Center a major tourist attraction. 
(Wash. Eve. Star, 6/2/65) 

June 4: Man would someday control enough energy to maneuver planets 
in their solar systems to suit his own purposes, British astronomer Dr. 
Fred Hoyle predicted at the dedication ceremony of Brown Univ.'s 
new science building. He explained : "The only large and still mainly 
untapped reservoir of energy is from nuclear fuels. The conversion of 
deuterium in the waters of the ocean to helium is the biggest potential 
resource. . . There's just the possibility that Venus may possess an 
atmosphere of hot steam. If this is so, pushing Venus a little farther 
from the sun would cause the whole steam atmosphere to collapse into a 
much cooler ocean. In fact . . . with the energy availabilities I have 
been talking about, conversion of Venus to a planet like earth would 
be an entirely feasible proposition." {NYT, 6/6/65, 70) 

June 5: Izvestia, official Soviet newspaper, said that the "walk" in space by 
Astronaut Edward H. White ii (Maj., USAf) had given an impetus to 
U.S. plans for using outer space for military purposes and cited a rec- 
ommendation by a Congressional committee for an orbital laboratory 
run by the Pentagon: "These are the evil 'uses' of man in space being 
thought up here by some influential people in Washington where, in- 
cidentally, not one official word has been said about the peaceful 
purposes of the flight of Gemini 4." (ap, NYT, 6/6/65, 82) 

June 6: The 2 million people of Melbourne, Australia, saluted Astronauts 
McDivitt and White as gemini iv passed overhead by turning on all 
the lights in the city. McDivitt said to the Carnarvon tracking station : 
"Tell them I thank them for lighting the night for me." (ap, Wash. 
Eve. Star, 6/7/65, A6; Houston Chron., 6/7/65) 

• NASA terminated its contract with the Thiokol Chemical Corp., and its 

subcontractor, Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., for de- 
velopment of a 260-in.-dia. solid rocket motor. Reason for the deci- 
sion was the difficulty encountered by the contractors in processing and 
welding special steel required for the rocket case and the time which 
would be required to develop an alternate method. 

During a hydrostatic pressure test April 11 of the first rocket case 
produced under the Thiokol contract, failure had occurred at a pressure 



270 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

considerably below the normal operating firing pressure with the 
consequent destruction of the case. A second case, presently about 
60% complete, had been constructed by the same method and was sub- 
ject to the kinds of faults that resulted in destruction of the first case. 

Aerojet-General Corp., a second contractor undertaking development 
of a 260-in. solid rocket motor, was not affected by termination of 
Thiokol contract, (nasa Release 65-187; Marshall Star, 6/16/65. 6) 
June 6: Dr. Edward C. Welsh, Executive Secretary of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council, told the graduating class of Clark 
University: "Your country has wisely although belatedly made a firm 
decision to conduct a vigorous national space program. It is a clear 
responsibility of each of us to learn what he can about that program, 
find out what it means to the country as a whole and to the individuals 
who live here." He continued: "As we attempt to carry out our 
responsibilities in educating the general public about space, there are a 
few concepts which need particular emphasis: 

"1. Education. The space program has been a catalyst, a stimulus 
to education at all levels, with particular attention to science and 
engineering. . . . 

"2. National Security. . . . How much more secure are we, due to 
improved communications, more accurate navigation, and more com- 
plete weather information? How much is it worth to be better in- 
formed about potential sources of danger? How can we assess the 
advantage of developing competence to detect and offset possible ag- 
gression from space? How important is it to know that we intend to 
keep peace and freedom in space so that all who would go there with 
peaceful intentions are free to do so? I cannot judge the worth of this 
national security. . . . 

"3. Innovations. The space program stimulates the development 
of new materials, new products, new productive processes, and new 
managerial techniques. . . . 

"4. International Status. A substantial difference in influence in 
world affairs evolves from whether a country is in a first position or a 
second position in power. In many respects, a nation's relative position 
depends on how it stands in advanced technology. Power and influence 
in world affairs depend to a great degree upon the technological 
capability of a nation. . . . The ideal picture is that of a nation strong 
in ideas, in technology, in freedom, in standard of living, and in 
military power to protect the viability of the other prestige ingredients. 
The space program, effectively and imaginatively conducted, con- 
tributes positively to all of those ingredients. Of even greater impor- 
tance is the potential impact the space program can have on world peace 
through substituting competence in space exploration for competence in 
building implements of aggression. . . . 

"5. Economics. Combining the best talents in management, in 
engineering, and in science, with the most modern facilities available, 
the net result of the space program is the production of progress. . . ." 
(Text) 
• Russian Cosmonaut Lt. Col. Aleksey Leonov, first man to walk in space, 
was quoted as calling the Gemini iv flight of Majors James A. 
McDivitt (usaf) and Edward H. White il (usaf) "a very interesting 
one." During an interview with the Bulgarian news agency, he con- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 271 

gratulated the Gemini crew, wished them "a happy landing back on 
earth," and said "no doubt the experience from our flight must have 
helped the U.S. space program very much in preparing and executing 
the flight." (Reuters. NYT, 6/7/65) 
June 6: ABC science editor Jules Bergman reported that the satellite sighted 
June 4 by Astronaut James A. McDivitt (Maj., usaf) was a secret U.S. 
military reconnaissance satellite with cameras. He said that space 
officials had been unable to identify it because DOD would not admit 
the existence of a U.S. reconnaissance satellite, (ap. Bait. Sun, 6/7/65) 

• Pope Paul VI, in a mid-day Pentecostal message to a crowd in St. Peter's 

Square, blessed Astronauts McDivitt and White: "Our benediction goes 
to all on earth and rises also to the skies for those who are exploring 
astral paths." (NYT, 6/7/65, 33) 

• The National Science Foundation's past activities were reviewed in a 

report by the Library of Congress Legislative Reference Service for 
the House Committee on Science and Astronautics. No judgments were 
made, but the 286-page report called attention to broad areas of con- 
cern: (1) Could the Foundation meaningfully promote the progress of 
American science on a very limited budget? (2) What was its 
relationship to the Office of Science and Technology which was devel- 
oping national science policy? (3) What was its relationship to 
American universities conducting research? (4) Had it effectively 
gathered data and made statistical analyses essential to research plan- 
ning and administration? (5) Should the Foundation continue to 
manage large-scale research projects? (Text) 

June 6-26: 50 helium-filled tetrahedronal plastic balloons were released 
over New York City by the Weather Bureau to gather air pollution in- 
formation at altitudes of 500 ft. or less. Each balloon carried a radar 
beacon which was tracked by weather radar to obtain a continuous 
record of its position; some were followed by helicopters to gather 
additional information on pressure, temperature, and air pollution 
values. (U.S. Weather Bureau Release) 

June 7: President Johnson telephoned the Nation's thanks to Gemini 
Astronauts James McDivitt (Maj., usaf) and Edward H. White II 
(Maj., USAF) and told them that they had written their names "in 
history and in our hearts.'' He concluded: "What you've done will 
never be forgotten. We can hope and pray that the time will come 
when all men of all nations will join together to explore space together 
and walk side by side toward peace. And you two outstanding men 
have taken a long stride forward in mankind's progress, and everyone in 
this nation, and I think in the free world, feels in your debt." The 
astronauts, aboard the carrier Wasp in the Atlantic for medical tests, 
were invited to spend the week-end with the President at his Texas 
ranch. (Kilpatrick, Wash. Post, 6/8/65, A14) 

• ITT asked the FCC for authority to lease 41 of early bird I's 240 voice- 

grade channels. ( Weekley, Wash. Post, 6/8/65, D8) 

• Educators from various elements of NASA and a group of 65 lecturers 

employed in the NASA Spacemobile program began a week-long 
training session at NASA Langley Research Center. (LaRC Release) 

• "Soviet spaceships make their landings on terra firma, and practically 

everybody in the space flight business agrees that this is much more 
desirable than splashing down in the ocean," wrote the Washington 



272 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Evening Star. The article said that w ater landings by U.S. spacecraft 
proved that "U.S. manned spacecraft lack the capability to come back 
to land." (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 6/7/65, A6) 
June 7: "U.S. space officials are in no particular hurry to develop a ground 
landing because water landings have worked so well," reported the 
Washington Post. The article said that the "Soviet landing system — 
partly due to the Russians' large and sparsely populated land area and 
their lack of sea forces — required Russian astronauts to parachute out 
of the descending spaceship." This put stress on the airman — espe- 
cially after long periods of weightlessness, (ap, Wash. Post. 6/8/65, 
A14) 

• Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Titov, who orbited the earth 17 times in 

August 1961, announced that his wife was expecting a baby in a few 
weeks. (UPI, Houston Chron., 6/7/65) 
June 8: luna vi, 3,179-lb. instrumented moon probe, was successfully 
launched by U.S.S.R. with a multi-stage rocket into a parking orbit 
and then fired on a trajectory toward the moon. All onboard equip- 
ment was said to be functioning normally and the trip was scheduled 
to last about three and a half days, according to Tass announcement. 
(Tass, 6/8/65) 

• Snap 8, nasa-aec experimental reactor, had run continuously at power 

for 209 days, thereby completing the longest known power operation of 
a nuclear reactor. Built by Atomics International Div, of North 
American Aviation, Inc., Snap 8 began power operation in November 
1963, ran 91% of the total time available, and produced more than 
five million kw. hours of heat. It was operated in a shielded AEC 
test facility near Los Angeles. (Atomics International Release Ai-18) 

• Selection of Radiation, Inc., to negotiate a fixed-price contract for Pulse 

Code Modulation (Pcm) Data Handling Equipment Systems was 
announced by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The proposed 
$1,700,000 contract would call for design, manufacture, and spare parts 
for 11 PCM systems, (gsfc Release 6/14/65) 

• ComSatCorp filed application with the FCC for licenses to operate com- 

mercially EARLY BIRD I and the ground station at Andover, Me. 
(ComSatCorp Release) 

• France announced it had successfully completed tests of its three-stage 

Diamant rocket scheduled to orbit a French satellite in 1966. (Reuters, 
Detroit News, 6/10/65; Reuters, NYT, 6/10/65) 

• Communist Hungary acquiesced to a U.S. State Dept. request and sus- 
pended a Budapest radio broadcast which could have interfered with 
base-to-ship communications during the gemini iv splashdown period. 
(Wash. Eve. Star, 6/8/65) 

June 9: usaf launched Thor-Agena D booster rocket with unidentified 
satellite from Vandenberg afb. (ap. Bait. Sun, 6/10/65) 

• USAF launched Blue Scout Jr. space probe from etr on a 10,897-mi. 

altitude flight to measure effects of space radiation on human tissue 
equivalents. Useful data were telemetered, and after the 4-hr., 32-min. 
flight the probe fell into the Indian Ocean. {U.S. Aeron. & Space Act., 
1965, 145) 

• LUNA VI, Russian probe, passed the halfway point on its journey 

to the moon. All systems continued to function normally, Tass an- 
nounced. (Tass, 6/9/65) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 273 

June 9: Astronauts McDivitt and White, onboard the carrier Wasp for 
medical debriefing, received a congratulatory telegram from Soviet 
Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, first man in space: "We send you our con- 
gratulations after the success we witnessed of the spaceflight in ship 
Gemini 4. We express hope that spaceflights will be to serve the world 
and make progress for humanity." (ap. Haughland. Wash. Post, 
6/10/65, Al, All) 

• NASA released a photograph of the GEMINI iv spacecraft taken by Astronaut 

Edward H. White li (Maj., USAf) during his walk in space. The 
picture was one of an unannounced number that Major White recorded 
with a 35 mm. camera mounted atop a space gun that he used for 
maneuverability. Films of Astronaut White floating in space would 
be made available for public showing "sometime within the next 
month." (AP, NYT, 6/11/65, 12) 

• An analysis of worldwide press reactions to the successful GEMINI IV 

flight indicated that most newspapers took the occasion to call for 
U.S. -Soviet cooperation in space ventures. "That this [cooperation] 
is unhkely shows how far our politics lag behind our technology," 
Britain's Manchester Guardian said. Dutch newspapers joined in ask- 
ing for cooperation in space and Trouw said the duplication of effort 
by the Soviet Union and the United States "is a waste of money and 
know-how." The West Berlin press highly praised the U.S. policy 
of reporting the Gemini flight as it was taking place. Swedish news- 
papers refrained from any comment amid a wave of anti-American 
sentiment over Viet Nam and the Dominican Republic. The Hin- 
dustani Times commented: "It is a pity that the two nations [U.S. and 
Soviet Union] are going about the job with such secrecy. The time 
has come for both nations to pool their resources and make the pro- 
jected attempt on the moon a truly human adventure." {Wash. Post, 
6/9/65, A3) 

• Joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. space effort was urged by UOsservatore della 

Domenica, Vatican magazine. An editorial said press comment on the 
GEMINI IV spaceflight had been slanted by "a competitive mentality for 
which, especially in this field, there is no longer any reason." It 
continued: "Let us ask ourselves ... if those who on earth appear 
divided by unbridgeable distances may not meet and collaborate in 
space." (upi, NYT, 6/11/65, 7) 

• EARLY BIRD I communications satellite demonstrated its ability to 

relay commercial voice messages, photographs, and data between 
Europe and the U.S. During one exchange a news photograph was 
relayed from London to the N.Y. offices of the Associated Press; 
simultaneously, Pan American Airways was relaying international 
airline reservations and communications, including pilot and control 
messages. Other uses included transmission of pictures and layouts for 
a fashion magazine and relay of bank signatures from New York for 
verification of a check-signer in London. Except for a slight echo 
bounced back from Europe on the voice transmissions, the reception 
was excellent. fComSatCorp Release; Dewar, Wash. Post, 6/10/65, A3) 

• The earth has four vast bulges roughly in the design of a pyramid and 

four equally large depressions, reported scientists from Johns Hopkins 
Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory. "They are as big as the North 



274 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

American continent," said Dr. Robert R. Newton, Supervisor of 
Space Research and Analysis at the Laboratory. Discoveries an- 
nounced were credited to anna ib geodetic satellite, launched Oct. 31, 
1962, and a number of USN research satellites. By studying rises and 
dips in their orbits, scientists were able to determine gravitational highs 
and lows. One high point centers over Ireland in the northern 
hemisphere and sprawls northward toward the pole. Another extends 
across the equator from New Guinea northward toward Japan. An- 
other is south of Africa centered about half way to Antarctica, and the 
fourth is west of South America with its apex off Peru. (Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab. Release; Myler, UPI, Wash. Post, 
6/9/65, A3: ap, NYT, 6/10/65, 17) 
June 9: usaf awarded Aerojet General a $5,101,000 initial increment to a 
$28,294,800 fixed-price contract for first and second stage engines 
for the Titan iii-x/Agena program, (dod Release 392-65) 

• Gen. Bernard A. Schriever (afsc), in talk on "Materials and Tomorrow's 

Air Force" at the Air Force Materials Symposium in Miami Beach, 
said: "The rate of progress in materials will be measured by accomplish- 
ments in four areas. First, the acquisition of new fundamental knowl- 
edge which will lead either to new materials or to the utilization of 
existing materials to meet specific needs. Second, the exploratory 
development of materials in advance of specific system requirements. 
Third, the evaluation of new materials for potential applications. And 
fourth, the investigation of economical manufacturing techniques and 
equipment. The importance of vigorous efforts in all of these areas is 
obvious when we remember that it takes from 5 to 10 years to translate 
a laboratory result into hardware. 

". . . the people of the Air Force Materials Laboratory are making 
significant contributions to present and future Air Force systems. 
Their recent accomplishments include development of methods for 
ultrasonic detection of corrosion in aircraft fuel tanks and for installa- 
tion of corrosion-resistant rivets in aircraft skins. They have done 
important work with reinforced structural composites; with graphites 
for leading edges, nose cones, and rocket nozzles; and with chemically 
resistant seals for liquid rocket propulsion systems." (Text) 

• "Much has been done in an effort to alleviate aircraft noise. Annual 

expenditures have risen from $100,000 in 1961 to $1.3 milHon to be 
spent by faa alone in 1965," faa Administrator Najeeb E. Halaby 
told a National Aircraft Noise Symposium in New York City. He 
warned: "H we fail to make progress in reducing noise . . . pressure 
may perhaps ultimately exclude the availability of aviation facilities 
to our centers of trade and commerce. I feel it is essential that we 
all recognize the price that we may be forced to pay for a tolerable 
environment next door to our airports." (Text) 
June 10: luna vi, Soviet probe, would miss the moon by 160,000 km. 
(99,379 mi.) because of an unsuccessful midcourse maneuver, Tass 
announced. Engine used to adjust the spacecraft's trajectory could 
not be switched off, causing a deviation from the planned course, 
(Tass, 6/10/65) 

• A grant of nearly $4 million to the Univ. of Minnesota to strengthen 

its scientific and technological capability, particularly in space re- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 275 

search" was made jointly by nasa and National Science Foundation. 
(NASA Release 65-191 ) 
June 10: Astronauts James A. McDiyitt (Maj.. usaf) and Edward H. White 
II (Maj.. USAF) were flown from Mayport, Fla., to Ellington afb near 
Houston for reunion with their families. (Clark. NYT, 6/10 '65, 1,47) 

• First computer landing of commercial airliner with fare-paying passen- 

gers was made in London by British European Airways' Trident; touch- 
down termed smooth by test crew and passengers. Trident was the 
first civil aircraft certified to employ the automatic landing system, 
Autoflare. developed by Smith & Sons. Ltd.. a British aviation engineer- 
ing company, in association with Hawker Siddeley Aviation Co. 
{NYT, 6/11/65) 

• Formation of a program to achieve a more powerful Atlas booster 

for future Agena and Centaur missions was announced by NASA. 
Presently designated SLV-3x. the program would seek a 21,000-lb. 
propellant capacity increase in the standard Atlas booster by making 
the top of the vehicle cylindrical and would increase the thrust of 
three Atlas engines by using modified Saturn H-1 fuel injector and 
improved turbines. AFSC Space Systems Div. would act as nasa's pro- 
curement agent, nasa Lewis Research Center would supervise; Gen- 
eral Dynamics Convair Div. was expected to receive the contract. Use 
of an uprated Atlas would increase the Surveyor mission capability by 
600 lbs. and would permit similar payload increases for Lunar Orbiter, 
Ogo, Oao, and Applications Technology Satellite (Ats). (nasa Re- 
lease 65-192) 

• W. C. Fortune, manager of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Missis- 

sippi Test Facility since November 1962, had been selected to evaluate 
the cooperative efforts of the Government-industry Saturn rocket team 
and "to ascertain that maximum utilization is obtained from the giant 
new super rocket family now under development," announced MSFC. 
(msfc Release 65-146) 

• The computer aboard the gemini iv, launched June 4, that was to have 

controlled the landing of the spacecraft was returned to IBM for tests to 
determine the cause of failure. {NYT, 6/11/65) 

• U.S.S.R. dominated the International Air Show at Le Bourget, France, 

with premiere showing of 11-62 186-passenger jetliner, powered by 
four turbofan engines, each developing 23,100 lbs. thrust, and display 
of the M-110 crane helicopter reported to have set an unofficial world's 
record last month by hoisting 25 tons more than 8,000 ft. into the air. 
Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin answered questions in the Soviet pavilion. 
(UPI, Miami Her., 6/11/65) 

• Curtiss-Wright Corp. could participate in future naval weapons pro- 

curement, including the procurement of weapon system trainers, DOD 
announced. Last March when R/Adm. Allan M. Shinn, Chief of the 
Bureau of Weapons, testified before a closed session of the House 
Appropriations Committee he disclosed "inadequate performance" on 
the part of Curtiss-Wright in connection with the p3-a trainer pro- 
gram. (Text; NYT, 6/11/65, 12) 
June 11: Saturn V booster (s-iC-T stage) was successfully static-fired for 
90 sec. at nasa Marshall Space Flight Center. During the test, longest 
to date, the five F-1 engines developed 7.5 million lbs. thrust and all 



276 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

four outer engines were gimbaled to simulate the motion required to 
control the vehicle in flight, (msfc Release 65-148; Marshall Star, 
5/16/65, 1) 
June 11 : At a news conference at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center on the 
Gemini GT-^ spaceflight, Astronaut McDivitt said: "I saw three things 
that looked to me like they were satellites on the earth. I saw two over 
the Pacific, I guess. One . . . near Hawaii. ... I saw a white ob- 
ject and it looked like it was cylindrical and it looked to me like there 
was a white arm sticking out of it. . . . We saw another one at night. 
It looked like just a pin point of light in the sky. . . . And I saw 
another one over the western Pacific again just shortly before I got 
into the sunlight on the windshield. . . . The only one I could even 
define the shape of at all was the first one and it looked a lot like 
an upper stage of a booster." 

Astronaut White commented: ". . . we were looking to find out: 
Could man control himself in space? And the answer is yes, man 
can control himself in space." McDivitt continued: "The first thing 
we learned was that the Gemini 4 is a liveable spacecraft for at least 
four days." (Transcript; NYT, 6/12/65, 3) 

• President Johnson announced during an impromptu visit to NASA Manned 

Spacecraft Center — his first — that he had nominated Astronauts James 
A. McDivitt (Maj., usaf) and Edward H. White ii (Maj., usaf) for 
the rank of lieutenant colonel. In a speech before nearly 5,000 MSC 
employees, Mr. Johnson said: "The race in which we of all genera- 
tions are determined to be first is the race for peace in the world. 

"In the labors of peace — as in the explorations of space — let no man 
doubt for the moment that we have the will, and the determination, 
and the talent, and the resources required to stay the course and see 
those labors through." (Text; Stern, Wash. Post, 6/12/65, A3; 
Semple, NYT, 6/21/65; msg Roundup, 6/25/65, 1) 

• Sen. E. L. Bartlett (D-Alaska) introduced a bill to extend privileges and 

immunities, including tax and customs granted international organi- 
zations, to the European Space Research Organization (ESRo). ESRO 
was considering building a satellite telemetry command station near 
Fairbanks, Alaska, and was seeking the same special treatment afforded 
NASA with regard to its tracking stations abroad and personnel abroad. 
{CR, 6/11/65, 12836) 

• Rep. Albert Thomas (D-Tex.), Chairman of the House Appropria- 

tions Committee's Subcommittee on Independent Offices, paid trib- 
ute to NASA on the floor of the House: ". . . too much credit cannot 
be given the top management of the Space Agency . . . 

"To this group of distinguished gentlemen, must go the credit of 
spending some $17 billion without the slightest breath of scandal at- 
tached to the many thousands of transactions." {CR, 6/11/65, 12829) 

• Laser beams could be used to track satellites, a group of scientists re- 

ported at a news briefing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The 
briefing followed a two-day meeting discussing efforts to track explorer 
XXII and explorer xxvii satellites which were orbiting the earth at a 
height of about 700 mi. Dr. Henry Plotkin, Head of GSFC's Optical 
Systems Branch, said the experiments had indicated that: 1) a beam 
of laser light from the ground could be directed with sufficient accuracy 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 277 

to strike satellite reflectors; 2) turbulence in the atmosphere would not 
break the beam enough to interfere with its lighting up the satellite; 
3) very short bursts of light from lasers could be used to measure the 
range of a satellite precisely by means of timing the flight and rebound 
of the pulse; 4) reflected light could be photographed against a stellar 
background to provide angles by which the satellite could be identi- 
fied very accurately. (Transcript) 
June 12: Kennedy Space Center's "lost time rate" because of strikes was 
10 times that at all the other missile and space installations combined, 
reported Victor Riesel in the Indianapolis Star. He said that during 
the 15 months ending March 31 — the deadline months preceding the 
GT-^ spaceflight — there were 93 work stoppages at all missile and 
space sites in the country. Of this number, 56 were at KSC. 65,144 
man-days were lost. At all missile bases and space centers, there was 
a total of 13 major walkouts; 10 of these involved KSC (Riesel, 
Indianapolis Star, 6/12/65) 

• Canada's Black Brant research rocket underwent its first successful launch 

from Ft. Churchill, Manitoba. {M&R, 6/28/65, 11) 

• Discovery of "quasi-stellar blue galaxies," termed a "major new con- 

stituent of the universe," was announced by Mt. Wilson and Mt. Palo- 
mar observatories. The blue galaxies resembled quasi-stellar radio 
sources ("quasars") except that they did not emit strong radio waves. 
They appeared to be 500 times more plentiful than quasars and num- 
bered about one to every 100,000 normal galaxies. According to Dr. 
Allan Sandage of Mt. Palomar, the newly discovered blue galaxies 
substantiated the theory that the "universe is a finite, closed system 
originating in a 'big bang,' that the expanding universe is slowing 
down, and that it probably pulsates once every 82 billion years-." 
(Sullivan, NYT, 6/13/65, 1, 81) 

• British Broadcasting Co. filed a petition with the FCC to request halv- 

ing suggested fee of $3,825 for a half-hour's television use of 
EARLY BIRD I communications satellite. In addition to ComSatCorp's 
charge, any television user must pay an identical fee to the group 
of 17 European countries that helped finance EARLY bird i; this com- 
bined fee of $7,650 would cover the cost of transmission only between 
Andover, Me., ground station and one European point and would not 
include costs for ground lines to broadcasting stations. One BBC ex- 
pert, who estimated that at the proposed rates a half-hour transatlantic 
program would cost more than $11,000, concluded that British broad- 
casters would be able to use the satellite only for the "most compelling 
matters." (Lewis, NYT, 6/13/65, 1) 

June 13: A 22-nation European Post and Telecommunications Congress 
ended its 12-day meeting in Lisbon after appointing a coordinating 
committee to deal rapidly with problems of international radio and 
television communications by satellite. Discussions in the congress, 
which was closed to the press and public, centered on improving postal 
services and satellite-relayed radio and television transmissions, (ap, 
WSJ, 6/14/65, 24; ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 6/13/65, A-11) 

June 14: mariner iv successfully performed a final .tracking correction be- 
fore its encounter with Mars on July 14. A preprogramed command 
electronically altered the look-angle of the star sensor to compensate 
for the changing relationship between the spacecraft, the sun, and 



278 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

Canopus. The star sensor must be pointed at Canopus so that the 
Mars probe would be properly aligned and stabilized in attitude. 
(NASA Release 65-198) 
June 14: A crowd of two million gathered in Chicago during the parade and 
motorcade honoring Astronauts James A. McDivitt (Maj., USAF) and 
Edward H. White ii (Maj., USAf), accompanied by Vice President 
Hubert H. Humphrey. Honorary citizens medals were presented the 
astronauts at a special City Council meeting. Civil rights leaders post- 
poned a demonstration protesting de facto school segregation in def- 
erence to the celebration, (ap, Wash. Post. 6/16/65; Wehrwein, 
NYT, 6/15/65) 

• Radio station wtop in Washington, D.C., assisted NASA in conducting a 

radio signal interaction experiment employing a Nike-Apache rocket 
launched from Wallops Sta., Va., with a 55-lb. instrumented payload. 
WTOP transmitted a steady modulated tone for several minutes during 
the flight to enable Univ. of Illinois scientists to measure interaction 
of the w^TOP signal on a signal of a different frequency broadcast 
from Wallops Sta. Both were received by instruments in the payload 
as the rocket rose to peak altitude of 110 mi. (nasa Release 65-195; 
Wallops Release 65-35) 

• EARLY BIRD I communications satellite experimentally transmitted to a 

Paris physician an electrocardiogram of a passenger on the S.S. France, 
2,000 mi. at sea, the French Line reported. {NYT, 6/15/65, 70; AP, 
Wash. Post, 6/15/65, A14) 

• AT&T and ITT asked the FCC to reverse its May 12 decision awarding 

ComSatCorp temporary control over the initial three U.S. ground 
stations which would comprise important segments of a global satellite 
communications system. ITT, in its petition, contended that the ruling 
supported an "unwarranted monopoly in international communica- 
tions." AT&T argued that the licensing policy was not in the public 
interest. {WSJ, 6/14/65, 24) 

• m2-f2 manned lifting body research vehicle was rolled out at Northrop 

Norair's Hawthorne, Calif., plant and accepted for NASA by Paul 
Bikle, Director of nasa Flight Research Center. The craft would 
be dropped from beneath the wing of a B-52 bomber at high speeds in 
tests to determine how this configuration would perform in the critical 
period during reentry if it were carrying astronauts, (ap, Wash. Post, 
6/17/65, A3; arc Astrogram, 6/24/65, 1) 

• U.S. News and World Report suggested that the success of the Gemini 

GT-4 flight should prompt reassessment of the U.S. position in the race 
with the Soviet Union. Two conclusions were noted: 

"1. In the civilian space race. White's self-propelled 'space walk' and 
McDivitt's ability to maneuver the spaceship put the U.S. ahead in at 
least two key areas and gave the U.S. a fighting chance eventually to 
overtake the Russians in the race to the moon. . . . 

"2. In the military space race, maneuvering of the Gemini space- 
craft demonstrated that the region just above the earth — the inner 
space belt — could soon become vital to American security." {U.S. 
News., 6/14/65) 

• Lt. Col. Aleksey Leonov's comments on extravehicular activity during the 

March 18 voskhod ii flight were quoted in a review report authored 
by Prof. N. M. Sissakian of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and de- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 279 

livered in Paris at the Second International Symposium on Basic En- 
vironmental Problems of Man in Space: "I found that the slightest 
shift in direction of the force of impact caused rotation in the cor- 
responding plane. Those persons who will be working in space will 
obviously have much to do in securing their bodies in . . . [the 
weightless state]. As for the so-called psychological barrier that was 
supposed to be insurmountable by man preparing to confront the 
cosmic abyss alone. I not only did not sense any barrier, but even 
forgot that there could be one." (Wetmore. Av. Wk., 6/21/65. 25) 
June 14: That antimatter could exist in aggregations of particles, not only 
as isolated subatomic particles, was demonstrated by physicists study- 
ing under AEC funds at Columbia Univ. Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory 
and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Protons placed in Brookhaven's 
AGS synchrotron were hurled at almost the speed of light and energy 
of 30 billion electron volts at a target of beryllium: scientists used a 
high-transmission mass analyzer to detect anti-deuterons in the debris 
of collisions between high-energy protons and nuclei of atoms in the 
target. Research report appeared in Physical Review Letters. The 
existence of the antideuteron had been predicted theoretically, but its 
actual production indicated that properties of the nuclear force were 
closely mirrored in the world of antiparticles and that an antiworld 
would be conceivable in terms of contemporary nuclear physics. 
(Schmeck. Jr.. ATT^, 6 14/65, 1) 

• A model of Tu-144. proposed supersonic passenger plane, was displayed 

by the Soviet Union at the International Air Show at Le Bourget, 
France, tu-144 was designed for a capacity of 121 passengers, a 
speed of 1.550 mph, and a range of 4,000 mi. (Kamm, NYT, 6/16/65, 
1.9) 

• An instrumented experiment package capable of recording lunar phenom- 

ena and relaying information to earth, would be installed on the moon 
by astronauts before their return to earth, reported Howard Simons in 
the Washington Post. Simons said that NASA officials explained that 
the package would contain "combination of instruments to measure 
the moon's gravity and atmosphere, heat flow and solar wind, proton 
activity and micrometeorite impacts for as long as a year." Such in- 
formation would be helpful in planning the establishment of perma- 
nent lunar bases and in studying the history of the earth and the solar 
system. (Simons. Wash. Post, 6/14/65, A9) 

• Discussing Russian-American cooperation in space in a letter to the 

editor in the New York Times, Donald Spero, a student at Columbia 
Univ. School of Engineering, said: ". . . technical integration of the 
U.S. and (assumed) Russian lunar programs is out of the question. 
Hardware for every phase of the Apollo program has already been 
designed and built. . . . 

"The integration of a Russian booster and an American capsule 
would be a technical impossibility. . . . The only plausible alternative 
for initial lunar exploration would be to include a Russian cosmonaut 
in the Apollo crew or one of our astronauts as a member of the 
Russian expedition. Even if problems of language and pilot training 
could be overcome, political and propaganda considerations eliminate 
this alternative. 

"Realistic possibilities for cooperation lie in the areas of unmanned 



280 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 



probes, communication and weather satellites, and eventually manned 
planetary exploration and establishing of lunar bases." (NYT, 
6/14/65) 
June 14: A New York Times editorial by Harry Schwartz concerning 
Soviet- American cooperation in space: "The real issues relate to the 
advantages and disadvantages in the moon race itself — including, of 
course, its propaganda aspects. 

"The argument that cooperation will not mean significant savings is 
strongest for the immediate future, but its force weakens rapidly as one 
extends the time horizon of both nations' future space efforts. Even 
in the next year or two both countries could gain from a full pooling 
of space technology and knowledge because this would reduce the 
number of Gemini-type flights each would have to engage in. . . . 

"Major cost advantages can certainly be gained by agreement on 
a division of labor between the Soviet Union and the United States, if 
it is accompanied by a decision to send mixed crews on major mis- 
sions. For example, a pooling of information and resources might 
permit one country to focus on the hardware needed for the moon 
trip, while the other concentrated on the equipment needed to send men 
to Mars. . . . 

"But the major savings from real Soviet- American cooperation in 
space might come from another direction entirely. In both countries 
influential voices are urging major military efforts looking to the 
creation of armed national space fleets . . . The time is past due for 
decision between space cooperation, or the extension of a rivalry that 
could cost both Soviet and American peoples dearly — and perhaps not 
solely in terms of vast sums wasted." (Schwartz, NYT, 6/14/65, 31, 
32) 
June 14-21: pdp-5 and pdp-8 (Program Data Processing) computers, re- 
ported to simultaneously collect and analyze oceanographic data and 
to use data received by radio from artificial earth satellites to fix the 
position of ships, were displayed at the Ocean Science and Ocean Engi- 
neering Conference and Exhibit in Washington, D.C. pdp-5 had first 
been used by the U.S. Coast Guard during the 1964 International Ice 
Patrol season to predict the speed and course of icebergs drifting into 
major ship lanes. (Callahan, NYT, 6/14/65, 58M) 

Dr. James H. Wakelin, Jr., president of the Scientific Engineering 
Institute of Boston, said in an address at the Conference: "We must 
look forward to undersea dwellings, laboratories and military instal- 
lations in which men would live and work for the economic good and 
military defense of the United States." Dr. Wakelin advised Presi- 
dent Johnson to appoint a National Advisory Commission on the 
Ocean to develop a 10-yr. program for study, exploration, and use of 
the seas, (upi, NYT, 6/15/65, 6) 

Capt. Jacques-Yves Cousteau urged the organization to "preserve 
and protect the sea from pollution." He also warned against conduct- 
ing undersea explorations entirely with instruments and suggested: 
"Let us go down . . . and see for ourselves, with our eyes." (Casey, 
Wash. Post, 6/16/65, A14) 
June 14-25: "Science in the Sixties," a seminar sponsored by the Air Force 
Office of Scientific Research, was held in Cloudcroft, N. Mex. In 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 281 

opening remarks, Maj. Gen. Don Ostrander, afosr Commander, said: 
"The purpose of these Cloudcroft meetings is to stimulate ideas — to 
act as an intellectual catalyst. ... We all have a responsibility to try 
to understand the complex interrelationships between science and tech- 
nology, and between technology and national defense; through under- 
standing, to participate in the excitement and urgency of the creative 
turmoil which is such an inescapable part of the age in which we live!" 

Historian A. Hunter Dupree. professor of history at the Univ. of 
California (Berkeley) and a consuhant to NASA, said that scientists 
with a negative attitude regarding the Nation's manned space flight 
activities had a laboratory-limited view of scientific endeavor and had 
lost perspective of the contributions made to American and world 
science through exploration and survey expeditions in the field. He 
pointed out the relationship of the Pacific voyages of Capt. Cook to 
Darwin's later theory of evolution and said: "One can as little predict 
the results of space exploration as Captain Cook could have predicted 
Darwin's theory." 

According to Dupree, it was the general expansion of knowledge 
that would lead to later fruitful developments. But to justify these 
developments immediately or to justify exploration in terms of pre- 
dictable developments would be a mistake. (Simons, Wash. Post, 
6/16/65: AFOSR Release 5-65-2; Aerospace Historian, 10/65, 106- 
110) 

An artificial frog's eye which could be sent to the surface of Mars 
to detect living organisms was described by Warren McCullough and 
Louis Sutro. Research had revealed there were four varieties of 
ganglion cells in the eye of the frog — each processing different infor- 
mation. The MIT scientists had proposed the following scheme to 
NASA: the artificial eye would be coupled to a microscope in a tiny 
computer. Samples of Martian soil would be seen by the frog's eye 
through the microscope. When movement was detected, the eye would 
inform the computer, which would decide whether a picture of the 
moving organism should be taken for relay back to earth. (Simons, 
Wash. Post, 6/18/65, Al) 

Theories on biological rhythms were proposed by Colin Pittendrigh 
of Princeton Univ. at the afosr seminar. He suggested that oscilla- 
tions or biological rhythms were serving a fundamental function that 
was not yet fully identified and that all organisms undergo oscillations 
with a periodicity that matches that of the external world — roughly 24 
hrs. Light, even in negligible amounts, could alter these oscillations. 
In Pittendrigh's view, once the true face of biological clocks — time 
measuring mechanisms innate in all living organisms — was seen, sci- 
ence would have vital clues to how life developed on earth and how 
biological rhythms determine what it is all living things do. (Simons, 
Wash. Post, 6/22/65, A6) 

Star collisions were suggested by astrophysicist Thomas Gold of 
Cornell Univ. as one way that energy now associated with a host of 
new objects observed throughout the universe was released. He said 
a prime candidate for providing the right kind of environment for star 
collisions was elliptical galaxies. In their predeath condition, ellipti- 
cal galaxies start to lose stars that comprise the galaxies. Star loss 
causes the galaxies to shrink and become denser. The remaining stars 



282 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

rush in and out through the heats of these galaxies at speeds possibly 
as high as 24 million mph — greatly enhancing the chance for star 
collisions. The effect of collisions at these speeds would be to release 
amounts of energy equivalent to that calculated to be stored in the 
quasi-stellar radio sources. Gold had not observed such star collisions, 
but dense regions on the "brink of destruction" had been detected. 
"We must inspect each in turn," Gold said, adding, "maybe we will 
learn that something totally different is involved, a new type of energy 
source that physics doesn't know about." (Simons, Wash. Post, 
6/23/65) 
June 15: U.S.S.R. launched cosmos lxviii containing scientific equipment 
for the investigation of outer space. Orbital parameters: apogee, 334 
km. (207 mi.) ; perigee, 205 km. (127 mi.) ; inclination to earth, 65°. 
On board equipment was said to be functioning normally. {Pravda, 
6/16/65, 1; Izvestia, 6/17/65, 4, atss-t Trans.) 

• High-speed transmission of weather data between the U.S. and France 

was provided by early bird i communications satellite. Information 
gathered by tiros ix weather satellite during a 24-hr. period and as- 
sembled on a chart at the World Weather Center in Maryland, was 
relayed to the Andover, Me., ground station; then, via early bird I, 
it was transmitted to the French ground station at Pleumeur-Bodou 
and on to the French National Weather Center in Paris. Conducted 
jointly by the Weather Bureau and ComSatCorp, in conjunction with 
Press Wireless, Inc., and Alden Electronics Corp., the demonstration 
illustrated a new and advanced forecast method which would include 
transmissions of facsimile charts and data at eight times the speed of 
present networks. (ComSatCorp Release; AP, Bait. Sun, 6/16/65) 

• CBS became the first U.S. network to issue a formal statement about com- 

mercial rates proposed May 28, 1965, by ComSatCorp for early bird I 
transmission: "We shall have to make future determinations as to the 
use of Early Bird on a case by case basis, depending on the importance 
or urgency of the news to be transmitted. Certainly, the cost structure 
proposed for the use of Early Bird militates against its use on a routine 
basis. Unless urgency requires transmission by Early Bird, we shall 
have to continue to rely upon air shipments of film and taped coverage 
of European news." (CBS News Div.; Adams, NYT, 6/16/65, 87) 

• NASA announced completed negotiations with Aerojet-General Corp. for 

two-phase $11,163,051 contract to design, develop, and deliver three 
exhaust nozzles for use in testing the 5,000-mw Phoebus nuclear rocket 
reactor. Phase I would be a $1,837,971 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract 
and would include four-month preliminary design study of the nozzle, 
and evaluation of fabrication and testing methods as well as a joint 
design effort involving Aerojet, lasl and American Car and Foundry, 
Inc. Phase II would be a $9,325,080 incentive contract and, relying 
on the results of Phase I, Aerojet would be required to design, de- 
velop, test and deliver three nozzles to the Nuclear Rocket Development 
Sta., Jackass Flats, Nev., by the end of 1967. The contract would be 
under management of the joint aec-nasa Space Nuclear Propulsion 
Office. (NASA Release 65-196) 

• Dr. George E. Mueller, nasa Associate Administrator for Manned 

Space Flight, said at the National Space Club in Washington, D.C., 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 283 

that it would take "a great deal of effort over a number of years" for 
the United States to achieve first place in space and warned it would 
be "a mistake to believe" that the successful GEMINI iv spaceflight had 
"overcome a lead of several years" held by the Soviet Union. He said 
"the most important result" of the gemini iv flight might be the con- 
dition of the astronauts upon their return, based on the preliminary 
medical examinations of Astronauts McDivitt and White. The final 
medical report on the flight and their postflight condition would take 
about two months. (Text; Clark, NYT, 6/16/65, 13) 
June 15: Defense Communications Agency had awarded contracts to six 
firms to conduct parallel systems design studies for the Advanced De- 
fense Communications Satellite Project: ComSatCorp, General Electric 
Co., Hughes Aircraft Co., Philco Corp., RCA, Defense Electronic Prod- 
ucts, and Space Technology Lab. The fixed price contracts ranged 
from $135,000 to $196,000. 

The studies, to be completed in three or four months, would be 
used as a basis for design of any advanced operational satellite com- 
munications system, (dod Release 402-65) 

• Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, nasa Deputy Administrator, was awarded an honor- 

ary Doctor of Science degree from Princeton Univ. (Off. of Deputy 
Administrator) 

• Honorary Doctor of Astronautical Science degrees were conferred on 

Astronauts James A. McDivitt (Maj., USAf) and Edward H. White II 
(Maj., USAF) by their alma mater, the Univ. of Michigan where Maj. 
White received his BS degree in 1959 and Maj. McDivitt, his MS degree 
in 1959. The astronauts then attended a ceremony dedicating the 
University's new $1.7 million space research building and rode in a 
motorcade through downtown Ann Arbor. NASA's official representa- 
tive at the festivities was Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, Director of the NASA 
Langley Research Center, also a Michigan alumnus. (LaRC Release; 
AP, Bait. Sun. 6/16/65) 

• G. Mervin Ault, Associate Chief of Material and Structures Div., NASA 

Lewis Research Center, discussed refractory metals in an honors 
lecture before American Society for Testing and Materials (astm) 
meeting at Purdue Univ. Refractory metals — such as tungsten, tan- 
talum, molybdenum, columbium — have strength at high temperatures 
and corrosion resistance to alkali metals. "The past decade has re- 
sulted in greater progress in refractory metals than ever before achieved 
for any one class of structural materials," Ault said. The lecture 
commemorated metallurgist Horace W. Gillett and was sponsored 
jointly by astm and Battelle Memorial Institute, (lrc Release 65-44) 

• In surprise move, U.S.S.R. landed the world's largest plane at the 

International Air Show, Le Bourget, France. Designated An-22, the 
aircraft could carry 720 passengers or 80 tons of cargo and would 
weight 250 tons with maximum cargo. Powered by four turboprop 
engines, each with twin propellers rotating in opposite directions, the 
aircraft, with maximum load, would have a range of 3,100 mi. at 
cruising speed of 420 mph. Maximum speed would be 460 mph ; maxi- 
mum altitude 36,000 ft. An-22 would require 4,300 ft. for takeoff 
but only 2,600 ft. for landing. It was designed by Oleg Antonov and 
was called "Antaeus" for the mythical Libryan giant wrestler who drew 
new strength every time he touched the ground. 



284 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

USAF supersonic B-58 Hustler jet bomber crashed on landing at Le 
Bourget, killing the pilot, Lt. Col. Charles Q. Hubbs (usaf), and in- 
juring the two crew members. The aircraft was arriving from Torre- 
jon Air Base, Spain, to take part in the air show. A U.S. B-58 had 
crashed at the International Air Show in 1961. (ap, JVash. Post, 
6/16/65, A3; Kamm, NYT, 6/16/65, 1, 9; WSJ, 6/16/65, 1; Av. Wk., 
6/21/65, 24) 
June 15: Referring to the "real success of Luna 6," an article in the Phila- 
delphia Evening Bulletin said: "This is not the first Russian failure in 
space. But it is the first open admission of failure. Americans, who 
have had their own failures, can't help but warm up a little in the glow 
of such non-Marxist honesty." (Phil. Eve. Bull, 6/15/65) 

• Carl L. Norden, inventor of the famous bombsight, died. Mr. Norden's 

device developed for USN was used by aaf b-17's and other bombers 
during World War ii. (ap, NYT, 6/16/65, 43) 
June 16: x-15 No. 3 flown by pilot Capt. Joseph Engle (usaf) to 244,700 
ft. altitude at maximum speed of 3,404 mph (mach 4.66) to measure 
ultraviolet radiation and noise intensity of the boundary layer of air. 
(NASA x-15 Proj. Off.; X-15 Flight Log) 

• Poland launched its first meteorological rocket. The two-stage vehicle 

was 2.5 m. (8.2 ft.) long and reached an altitude of 37,000 m. (121,360 
ft.). (M&/?, 6/28/65, 10) 

• xb-70a research bomber, leaving Edwards afb, flew 1,700 mph at 

65,000-ft. alt. on its 13th test flight. It landed three minutes earlier 
than planned because of a possible leak in a hydraulic system, (ap, 
Bait. Sun, 6/17/65) 

• An atomic clock so accurate it could help determine the position of a 

rocket hurtling at 238,000 mph toward the- moon within three-quarters- 
of an inch was in production at Varian Associates, UPI reported. The 
clock would be about the size of a hatbox. (upi, NYT, 6/16/65, 31) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb, in Subcommittee of the Senate 

ate Committee on Appropriations' hearings on the requested $5.26 bil- 
lion appropriation request for NASA in FY 1966, said: 

"Recent events have clearly demonstrated two important facts about 
space activities. First, the United States has shown that it can suc- 
cessfully build and launch complex spacecraft to measure the space 
environment over large regions of our solar system and to extend our 
knowledge of our neighboring space bodies. We have developed a 
capability to produce large launch vehicles, to test them, and to launch 
them successfully. We are producing the space hardware for environ- 
mental testing that will prove out our concepts and engineering for the 
large launch vehicles and spacecraft that will be required to operate 
out to and on the moon and meet all the demands of our other difficult 
undertakings. We have successfully developed space technology for 
improved communications and weather reporting and forecasting sys- 
tems. The Ranger program, completed with Ranger ix, provided 
17,000 closeup pictures of the moon that have not only given us a 
better understanding of its topography but may reveal totally unex- 
pected processes taking place below the surface. The first two 
manned flights of the Gemini program verified the system for using 
man in space, the capability of the Gemini spacecraft, the capability 
of an astronaut to operate outside of his spacecraft, and the utility of 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 285 

the ground net and mission control, and provided the first tests of 
some of the equipment designed to accomplish rendezvous and docking. 
They also served as an orbiting space laboratory with several experi- 
ments included on both flights. 

"The second major fact demonstrated by recent space events is that 
the Soviet Union continues to make a major commitment to its aero- 
nautical and space activity. In late 1964, they launched the first 
multi-manned mission with the three-man Voskhod I satellite. So far 
in this calendar year, they have launched 17 Cosmos satellites; in the 
Voskhod II flight they achieved the first extravehicular activities of 
man in space; in April they placed in orbit Molniya I, their first active 
communications satellite; in May they launched a Lunik spacecraft to 
the moon with a successful midcourse correction but apparent terminal 
failure; and only a few days ago they launched another Lunik space- 
craft to the moon with an apparent unsuccessful midcourse correction. 
They, too, are expanding upon a sound basis for both manned and un- 
manned activities in space. The growth of their space activity is quite 
apparent. The exhibition in Paris yesterday afternoon of a new very 
large air transport indicates the same kind of emphasis on equipment 
to use the earth's envelope of air. 

"In aeronautics, it is important to note the increasing tempo of our 
research in not only the aerodynamics, loads and structures, propulsion, 
and operating problems of supersonic flight, but hypersonic flight as 
well. There is a resurgence of interest in airbreathing propulsion in 
the form of advanced turbojet and ramjet engines to meet the require- 
ments of supersonic and hypersonic transports and to make them com- 
petitive with transports operating in the subsonic range. And of 
course, we are also engaged at the other end of the speed spectrum in 
our work with vertical takeoff and landing aircraft. . . ." 

In response to questioning, Mr. Webb said: "A substantial amount 
of time is now being put into aeronautics by our top people. Remem- 
ber, we have to go through the air to get to space. The use of thin 
wall structures and the use of power delivered by engines all come 
out of the same research competence which we have, 

"... I have been asked once or twice to consider whether NASA 
should take on the management and development of prototypes and 
all other factors relating to the building of a supersonic transport. 

"Each time I have pointed out that we spend a large number of our 
dollars through the military services because they have the procure- 
ment capability. They are the only people in the U.S. Government 
today who know how to let a contract, monitor a contract, and take 
delivery on large airplanes and large numbers of airplanes. We use 
them for that purpose in boosters where they have already developed 
the competence; and in new boosters like SATURN V, we also use their 
contract administration and their Project 60 for engines. . . ." {Ind. 
Off. Approp. Hearings, 1095-1195) 
June 16: Max Quatinetz of NASA Lewis Research Center addressed Interna- 
tional Powder Metallurgy Conference in New York. He discussed LRC 
research in adding fibered metals to tungsten to strengthen that metal, 
which has a high melting point but is brittle and difficult to work. 
Quatinetz described a new method of producing the fibered compounds 



286 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

— extrusion of powdered metals. Researchers had formed tungsten 
composites containing high-temperature additives such as oxides, 
borides, nitrides, and carbides; they had noted increases in the metal's 
stress-rupture life of up to 50 times. Quatinetz observed that the new 
method of fibering would have wide potential application in materials 
research. ( lrc Release 65-45 ) 
June 16: Dr. Werner R. Kirchner, vice president and manager of Solid 
Rocket Operations, Aerojet-General Corp., received aiaa's James H. 
Wyld Propulsion Award during the Institute's Propulsion Joint Spe- 
cialists' Conference in Colorado Springs. He was cited for "outstand- 
ing contributions to the field of solid rocketry for over 15 years, in- 
cluding the development of thrust-vector control and thrust-reverser 
systems that made possible the use of solid rocket motors in ballistic 
missiles." {NYT, 6/17/65, 54M) 
June 17: Charles W. Mathews, manager of the Gemini program, and Astro- 
nauts James McDivitt (Maj., usaf) and Edward White II (Maj,, USAf) 
received NASA's Exceptional Service Award from President Johnson in 
a special White House ceremony. Introducing the President, NASA 
Administrator James E. Webb said: ". . . we . . . should never for- 
get that at the beginning of the space age, in 1957, the challenge of 
this new frontier which was laid down to us was first met by the man 
who is now the President of the United States and who has so gracious- 
ly invited us here today to indicate again his interest in, and the im- 
portance he attaches to, the new systems we have developed for build- 
ing our national competence in space and using the science and tech- 
nologies acquired to work toward a peaceful world and a better world. 

"This great leader of our nation, and of the Free World, is still 
pioneering, this time on an even more difficult frontier where we must 
learn to master the restrained but decisive use of the powers which 
technology gives our nation. Those of us who are responsible for the 
build-up of our new base of technology believe that power, based on 
advanced technology, can provide new means to hold back those ruth- 
less forces which answer not to the need of all men for security, free- 
dom, dignity, and opportunity. The pioneering which President 
Johnson is engaged in today on this new frontier is, if anything, more 
important than his pioneering actions in 1958 to create our national 
program in aeronautics and space. 

"Seldom in the history of the world has one man had to play so vital 
a role in developing the tools of modern science and technology and 
then in the development of a national capability to use them to achieve 
cooperation toward a world consistent with our own ideals and those we 
have sought for others as well as ourselves." 

Accompanying citations noted "outstanding contributions" and 
singled out Major White as "the first man to engage in self-propelled 
extra-vehicular activity." Terming the three "the Christopher Colum- 
buses of the 20th century," Mr. Johnson said their work had nudged 
the world toward greater international cooperation. "Men who have 
worked together to reach the stars are not likely to descend together 
into the depths of war and desolation," he said. Later, the recipients 
were guests at a luncheon held by Vice President Humphrey and re- 
ceived accolades in both the House and Senate. A crowd estimated at 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 287 

50,000 applauded the motorcade as Mathews and the astronauts rode 
to the Capitol. 

In the evening, Majors White (usaf) and McDivitt (usaf) narrated 
a 20-min. film of the gemini iv flight for the chiefs of foreign diplo- 
matic missions. President Johnson, in a surprise appearance, told the 
astronauts to "take the Presidential plane and travel outside this coun- 
try again." He said: "Many people in many lands were thrilled by 
what you have done. I want you to join our delegation in Paris and 
go out among the friendly peoples of the earth to share with them the 
excitement and thrills of your experience." 

Astronauts White and McDivitt then returned to the White House 
where provisions had been made for them and their families to re- 
main overnight. (Text; Clopton, Wash. Post, 6/18/65, Al, A3; UPI, 
N.Y. Her. Trib., 6/18/65; Semple, NYT, 6/18/65, 1, 13; Sehlstedt, 
Bait. Sun, 6 '18/65) 
June 17: X-15 No. 1 flown by pilot Milton Thompson (nasa) to 108,523 ft. 
altitude at maximum speed of 3,541 mph (mach 5.145) to measure and 
record infrared radiation and to conduct further flight checkouts on 
the new inertial guidance system. (NASA X-15 Proj. Off.; X-15 
Flight Log) 

• President Johnson said during a Washington press conference that "we 

are going to build" a supersonic passenger airliner to compete in the 
world market against a supersonic transport being developed jointly 
by British and French interests and one the Russians intended to enter 
in the competition. Mr. Johnson told reporters he wanted the best 
plane possible, one that the airlines would buy as an economically at- 
tractive investment. (Transcript, NYT, 6/18/65, 14) 

• A Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched from Wallops Sta., Va., to 

peak altitude of 109.9 mi. (176.8 km.) in an experiment to measure 
electron densities. Good signals were received on all telemetry chan- 
nels throughout the flight; indications were that good data were ob- 
tained. Instrumentation was provided by GCA Corp. (NASA Rpt. srl) 

• USAf's attempt to launch Titan iii-c was unsuccessful when a series 

of minor technical problems and then bad weather were encountered. 
Two of thee technical holds were attributed to faulty instrumentation. 
The third hold was caused by a drop in pressure in the second stage 
oxidizer tank. ( Ubell, N.Y. Her. Trib., 6/18/65) 

• F^c Phantom jet pilots downed two attacking Communist Korean 

War-vintage MiG-17's about 80 mi. south of Hanoi, (ap, NYT, 
7/11/65) 

• The Senate, in a 46-20 vote, gave final Congressional approval to a bill 

waiving the restriction barring military men from the post of Ad- 
ministrator of the Federal Aviation Agency, clearing the way for 
President Johnson to appoint Gen. William F. McKee (usAF, Ret.) 
of NASA. (CR, 6/17/65, 13541; WSJ, 6/18/65, 8) 

• Sen. Wayne Morse (D-Ore.) introducing a bill to amend the NASA Space 

Act of 1958 regarding patent rights to inventions, said the bill had 
two objectives: "The first is to reestablish congressional control over 
the disposition of patent rights by the national aeronautics and space 
agency [sic], and the second is to provide that private companies 
desiring to acquire interests in such patents and processes repay the 



288 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

taxpayers of this country fair market value pursuant to the so-called 
Morse formula." (CR. 6/17/65) 

June 17: Commenting on anxiety about the Soviet Union's capability of 
delivering strategic weapons from near space, Dr. S. Fred Singer said 
in an article in Reporter: "If a bomb is released from a satellite with- 
out giving it any propulsion, it will stay with the satellite and simply 
blow it up. For a bomb from a satellite to be directed to a point on 
earth, it must be propelled not only with a lot of rocket power but also 
with exceedingly fine guidance. In principle, this can be done from a 
satellite or from the moon or even from the planet Pluto; but the cost 
and complexity is enormously greater than that of an equally effective 
ICBM buried deep in the earth itself." (Reporter, 6/17/65, 14) 

• In what he termed "Coming of Age in Houston," William Hines wrote in 
the Washington Evening. Star of "a new, mature outlook on the part 
of NASA." He said: "There was a conscious effort to deglamorize (but 
not depersonalize) the [Gemini 4] astronauts, and to focus attention 
on the mission rather than on celebrities who would subsequently tell 
their stories in Life. The decision not to give the spacecraft a name 
and to use the radio call sign 'Gemini 4' was a step in this direction. 

"The determination of NASA to rid itself of what has been called 
the 'Hollywood syndrome' and handle space flights as transcendental 
news events instead of tawdry theatrical productions did not come 
easily, or without prodding from the outside. But once the decision 
had been made not to try any longer to fool all the people all the time, 
a new era in public understanding of space dawned." (Hines, Wash. 
Eve. Star, 6/17/65) 

June 18: USAF Titan iii-c, launched from the Eastern Test Range, became 
the most powerful rocket known to have been lofted and the first 
liquid-fuel spacecraft to be lifted from its pad with solid-fuel rockets. 
Two 120-in.-dia., 86-ft.-long solid strap-on boosters generated a peak 
thrust of 2.647 million lbs. % sec. after ignition to propel the liquid- 
fuel core vehicle to an altitude of 24 mi. Less than two minutes after 
lift-off, the boosters were jettisoned by firing of 16 small rockets. The 
liquid-fuel engines of the 127-ft., three-stage core vehicle then fired a 
474,000-lb. thrust burst that injected the vehicle's third stage (tran- 
stage) with 29,285-lb. lead ballast and instrument payload into an orbit 
with apogee, 116.2 mi. (187 km.); perigee, 110.4 mi. (177.7 km.); 
period, 88.1 min; inclination to the equator, 32.175°. This was the 
heaviest payload ever orbited; insertion velocity was 25,584 fps. 

The solid-fuel motors, made by United Technology Center, were 
formed in lO-ft.-dia. segments stacked inside metal casings. Adding 
two segments to each of the two five-segment boosters used would per- 
mit Titan iii-c to put 32,000 lbs. into orbit. Payload could be in- 
creased to 40,000 lbs, using 13-ft.-dia. segments of another type already 
test-fired by UTC. Liquid stages used nitrogen tetroxide and Aerozene 
50 (a 50/50 mixture of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydra- 
zine) as the oxidizer and fuel; the propellants ignited hypergolically. 
A series of twelve Titan iii-c tests was projected. 

Most powerful rocket previously launched was NASA's Saturn I, 
which produced 1.5 million lbs. thrust. The most powerful known 
Soviet rocket, which orbited voskhod i and voskhod ii, had been 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 289 

rated by American experts at 800,000-900,000 lbs. thrust. The two- 
stage Titan II that launched GEMINI III and GEMINI IV into orbit 
produced 430,000 lbs. of thrust. (Clark, NYT, 6/19/65, 1; ap, Bene- 
dict, Wash. Post, 6/19/65, A3; Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 6/19/65; 
Av. Wk., 6/28/65, 16-19) 
June 18: A briefing given by NASA Administrator James E. Webb to Presi- 
dent Johnson and the Cabinet in session said that the success of the last 
two Gemini missions "has proved the design and confirmed the results 
of the ground tests, has increased our confidence in the reliability of 
the over-all Gemini systems, and has enabled the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration to advance the Gemini program such that 
rendezvous and docking are now scheduled during calendar year 1965." 
(Text) 

• NASA launched 3.5-ton Aerobee 350, new two-stage research rocket, 

from Wallops Station, Va., in first flight test. The 52-ft.-long, 22-in.- 
dia. rocket carried 367 lbs. of performance instrumentation to peak 
altitude of 235 mi. and impacted in Atlantic Ocean 160 mi. from launch 
site. 

Designed and developed by Space-General Corp., Aerobee 350 had 
a main stage "sustainer" propelled by four liquid-fuel engines, each 
developing 4,100 lbs. thrust. Booster stage used a solid propellant 
Nike motor with 51,000 lbs. thrust. Booster and sustainer stages fired 
simultaneously, with the booster burning out and separating about 
3.2 sec. later. The rocket would boost a minimum-weight payload of 
150 lbs. to an altitude of 290 mi. and a maximum payload of 500 lbs. 
to 210 mi. (Wallops Release 65-37; nasa Rpt. srl) 

• An ionospheric sounding probe launched by NASA on a Nike-Apache 

vehicle from Wallops Station, Va., reached peak altitude of 116 mi. 
in an experiment to measure electron density in the E region of the 
ionosphere. Electron profile data were obtained during both the 
ascent and descent portions of the flight trajectory and were telemetered 
to ground receiving stations during the flight. Experiment was con- 
ducted for National Bureau of Standards' Central Radio Propagation 
Lab. and nasa Goddard Space Flight Center. (Wallops Release 65-36) 

• NASA announced it would negotiate with Lockheed Missiles and Space 

Co. for mission modifications on seven Agena-D second stages for 
future missions. Total cost of the modification would be more than 
$13 million. Five of the Agenas would be used with Atlas boosters to 
launch the Applications Technology Satellites (Ats) ; the other two, 
also to be boosted by Atlas launch vehicles, would be used for the 
third and fourth Orbiting Astronomical Observatories (Oao). Lock- 
heed would design, develop, and fabricate equipment and match the 
Agenas with the Atlas boosters and the spacecraft, (nasa Release 
65-199) 

• ComSatCorp was authorized by FCC to begin temporary commercial serv- 

ice at midnight via early bird i to replace circuits lost due to a break 
in the Canada-to-England cable. The authorization would be in 
effect until midnight June 26. 

A temporary tariff, approved by FCC, set a rate of $420 a day, per 
circuit, for the first two days of commercial operation and $210 per 
circuit for the remainder of the time. (ComSatCorp Release) 



290 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

June 18: Canada's Black Brant research rocket underwent its second success- 
ful launch from Ft. Churchill, Manitoba. (M&R, 6/28/65, 11) 

• Brig, Gen. Joseph S. Bleymaier (usaf). Deputy Commander (Manned 

Systems) of afsc Space Systems Div. and head of the Titan ili-c 
progrjmi, and project leaders Cols. David V. Miller (usaf) and Otto 
C, Ledford (usaf) were honored by Maj. Gen. Ben I. Funk (usaf) 
for the success of the Titan-iii program. General Bleymaier's com- 
mendation for the Legion of Merit was for "outstanding service to 
the United States." Colonels Miller and Ledford were awarded 
Commendation Medals. The ceremony was conducted at Eastern 
Test Range one hour after launch of Titan iii-c-1. (Clark, NYT, 
6/19/65, 1, 11) 

• usaf resumed tests of the Athena reentry program with two launches 

from Green River, Utah, into White Sands Missile Range. One was 
termed a complete success; the other 80% successful. {M&R, 6/28/65, 
11) 

• First use of USAF B-52 heavy jet bomber in anger when 28 U.S. Strategic 

Air Command B-52's dropped 750- and 1,000-lb. conventional bombs 
on Viet Cong units in South Vietnam. B-52 had been mainstay 
of U.S. global thermonuclear deterrent for almost a decade. (Margolis, 
Wash. Post, 6/18/65, Al, A18; eph) 
June 19: Vice President Humphrey and the GEMINI iv astronauts, Maj. 
James A. McDivitt (usaf) and Maj. Edward H. White ii (usaf), won 
cheers and applause from visitors to the International Air Show at 
Le Bourget, France. Attendance at U.S. pavilion, which had been poor, 
picked up appreciably. Also present were NASA Administrator James 
E. Webb, and Charles Mathews, manager of the Gemini program. 

A scheduled formal meeting between the American astronauts and 
Lt. Col. Yuri Gagarin, first man in space, fell through when the 
Soviets announced that Col. Gagarin would be "too busy." However, 
at an official luncheon, Gagarin stopped at White's table and the two 
astronauts shook hands and spoke briefly, (ap, NYT, 6/20/65, 38; 
UPi, Wash. Daily News, 6/19/65; ap, Hudgins, Wash. Post, 6/20/65, 
A28) 

• TIROS VII meteorological satellite completed two years in orbit without a 

failure. NASA had orbited tiros vii June 19, 1963, with a Thor-Delta 
launch vehicle launched from etr (then called amr) . (NASA Proj. Off.) 

• Gemini 5 spacecraft was flown by cargo carrier to Kennedy Space 

Center, NASA, for the seven-day flight scheduled for Aug. 9. (UPl, NYT, 
6/20/65) 

• British physicist Samuel Tolansky of London Univ.'s Royal Holloway 

College theorized that a carpet of black diamonds valuable for indus- 
trial purposes had formed on the lunar surface over the ages because 
of meteor impact. He cited diamonds found in the EI Diablo meteorite 
crater in Arizona, (ap, Wash. Eve. Star, 6/19/65, 1) 

• "It is time now to put the manned military control of space on a crash 

basis equal in priority to the Apollo program," said Rep. John W. 
Wydler (R-N.Y.), member of the House Science and Astronautics 
Committee, in a letter to the editor in the New York Times. He sug- 
gested the following steps be taken: "The first M.O.L. flight is 
scheduled from two and one half to three years from now. This 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 291 

should be speeded up at least a year and the necessary sacrifices made 
to achieve it. The Gemini capsules required for the M.O.L. project 
should be ordered at once. To achieve our goals effectively the manned 
earth orbiting program should be placed under military control. . . . 

"I believe the only way the Department of Defense can meet its 
responsibilities in 'near space' is to assume direction of the manned 
earth orbiting program. It should reorganize the U.S. Air Force 
into the U.S. Aerospace Force and make it truly that. . . . 

"The decision we must make is not whether there will be military 
control of space but rather whether that control will be Russian or our 
own. . . ." {NYT, 6/19/65, 28) 
June 19: The Space Act of 1958 may have unwittingly provided competition 
that is getting results, said an editorial in the Cleveland Plain Dealer: 
"There was conjecture then, and there is conjecture now, that NASA 
and the Air Force duplicate efforts in the parallel development of 
rockets. There are rumors of smouldering controversy. 

"But yesterday's dramatic blastoff of the triple-barrelled Titan 3-C 
by the Air Force, coming closely on the heels of NASA's sensational 
Gemini performance, indicates the competition, thus far is beneficial to 
both." (Cleveland Plain Dealer, 6/19/65, 23) 

• USAF has come up with something for NASA to reckon with, commented 

William Hines, concerning the Titan Iii-C success, in an article in the 
Washington Evening Star: "It is the Air Force position — which NASA 
will now be forced to try to disprove — that anything Saturn IB can 
do, Titan lii-c can do better. 

"The Air Force, for its part, must now try to prove Titan iii-c's 
reliability over the long haul . . . Gen. Joseph S. Bleymaier Jr., head 
of the Titan iii-c program, said it is his ^oal to make every one of the 
12 shots in the Titan iii-c development series a 100% success. 

"Equally important with reliability is cost. Bleymaier says the 
Titan iii-c can be produced in quantity for $12.8 million, or just 
a little more than half the $22 million it is estimated NASA's Saturn IB 
will cost. Titan iii-c's $800 million development cost is but a 
fraction of what NASA will have spent to get the first Saturn IB off the 
ground." (Hines, Wash. Eve. Star, 6/19/65) 
June 20: Vice President Humphrey, in France for the International Air 
Show at Le Bourget with Astronauts White and McDivitt, met for 80 
min. with President de Gaulle. (Tanner, NYT, 6/21/65; Newport 
News Daily Press, 6/22/65) 

• Two single-engine propeller-driven Skyraider tactical bombers downed 

two Communist jet MiG-17's over North Vietnam, (ap, NYT, 
7/11/65) 
June 21: F-1 rocket engine completed its 1,000th test firing at NASA MSFc's 
Rocket Engine Test Site where it operated at its full thrust of 1,500,000 
lbs. for 165.6 sec. Test was conducted by North American Aviation's 
Rocketdyne Div. In a cluster of five, F-1 would provide 7,500,000 
lbs. thrust in the s-ic first stage of the Saturn V booster that would 
launch Apollo lunar missions. ( msfc Release 65-154; Marshall Star, 
6/23/65, 1) 

• NASA would negotiate with the Rocketdyne Div. of North American 

Aviation, Inc., for 22 h-1 rocket engines with 200,000-lb. thrust for 



292 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

use on the 12 Saturn IB launch vehicles presently planned, NASA 
Marshall Space Flight Center announced. Engines, with supporting 
services, would cost more than $6 million, (msfc Release 65-155; 
Marshall Star, 6/23/65, 1 ) 
June 21: Dr. Robert C. Seamans, NASA Associate Administrator, received 
the New England Aero Club's Godfrey L. Cabot Award in Boston. 
He was cited for "outstanding contributions to aeronautics." (nasa 
Release 65-193) 

• West German satellite tracking station at Bochum monitored radio 

signals from a new Soviet space probe. The observatory said it had 
received the signals since 11:26 a.m. edt. (Reuters, 6/21/65) 

• AEC reorganized its space-related R&D activities and established a Division 

of Space Nuclear Systems. All AEC space-oriented work on Snap 
reactor and isotope electric power systems was transferred to newly- 
created Space Electric Power Office in that division. Isotopic thruster 
propulsion work, formerly under aec Division of Isotopes Development, 
was transferred to nasa-aec Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPo). 
"A major advantage of the new organizational alignment [was] the 
improved communication and ease of coordination between aec and 
NASA in the power area." {Atomic Energy Programs, 1965, 141) 

• Immediate planning for a fourth jetport for the New York City 

area was advocated by Harold E. Gray, President of Pan American 
World Airways, at the Annual Aviation Luncheon of the Queens 
Chamber of Commerce: "Maybe the need is eight years from now. 
Maybe it is twelve years from now. But it would take ten years, as 
I understand it — starting today — to develop a fourth airport. So, 
tomorrow may be too late to make this start. Manana is not soon 
enough for me!" This was the first time a Pan Am official had stated 
the airline's position on the jetport issue. (Hudson, NYT, 6/22/65, 58) 

• Rep. Oren Harris (D-Ark.), in France for the International Air Show, 

endorsed the idea of an international exhibition at Dulles International 
Airport in 1966. Harris, who headed the House Committee on Inter- 
state and Foreign Commerce which would handle any American counter- 
part of the Paris show, made his statement after comment by American 
aircraft builders participating at Le Bourget that the U.S. had let 
the Soviet Union "steal the show." 

During the first days of the exposition, the Russians had displayed the 
prototype of a 720-passenger commercial aircraft to be ready in two 
years. Also, Yuri Gagarin, first man in space, was on hand. The 
U.S. had recovered some lost ground during the final weekend by flying 
in Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Astronauts Edward White ii 
(Maj., usaf) and James McDivitt (Maj., usaf). American jets had 
also put on spectacular acrobatic demonstrations. 

Rep. Harris said the project had been discussed at the White House 
but that further studies by the faa and the Budget Bureau would be 
necessary. (UPI, Bruns, Wash. Post, 6/22/65) 

• The U.S. showing at Le Bourget was discussed by Robert Hotz in an 

Aviation Week and Space Technology editorial: "The United States 
is presenting a sorry spectacle at the 26th Paris Air Show [June 11-21] 
that does grave injustice to its genuine aerospace capability in relation to 
its principal competitors, including the Soviet Union. As the show 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 293 

draws to a close, only a bold stroke of public relations, such as jetting 
Astronauts White and McDivitt with their Gemini capsule to Le Bourget 
for a weekend finale would offer any chance for the U.S. to recoup the 
prestige lost last week through the combination of top-level govern- 
ment indifference, official naivete and the stifling channels of inter- 
agency bureaucracy between the various government departments in- 
volved in the U.S. show effort. . . . 

"For the past two Paris air shows, the NASA exhibit has been a major 
sensation, convincing Europeans of U.S. technological leadership. This 
year, NASa was conspicuously absent. Even frantic pleas from the 
French to have Astronaut John Glenn appear to match the Soviets' 
Yuri Gagarin were strangled in the maze of interdepartmental coordina- 
tion. . . . 

"The net result of this sad combination of government bungling at 
Le Bourget has been to spend large sums of the taxpayers' dollar to 
create the impression that the United States is resting smugly on its 
technical oars, complacently relying on rapidly obsolescing military 
hardware for the present and craftily confident this aging equipment 
can be foisted on its European allies in the near future." (Hotz, 
Av. Wk., 6/21/65, 13) 

June 21-July 16: Space Research Summer Study — 1965, convened at Woods 
Hole, Mass., by nas-nrc Space Science Board, reviewed the National 
space program. Various working panels were formed to examine in 
detail the three topics of particular focus: planetary exploration, 
astronomy requirements, and the role of man in space research. About 
200 invited scientists participated in the multi-disciplinary review, 
which was under general chairmanship of George P. Woollard, Director, 
Hawaii Institute of Geophysics. NASA provided financial support- 
(nas — NRC, News Report, 9/65, 5) 

June 22: mariner iv spacecraft was functioning well on its mission to 
Mars, but the public should not "expect too much" from the photo- 
graphs of Mars it was scheduled to take July 14, NASA scientists said 
during a press briefing. It was conjectural whether the 21 photo« 
graphs the Mars probe would take would be clear enough to disprove or 
verify the theories held by some scientists that there are canals and 
some form of life on Mars. Scientists who would study the photo- 
graphs pointed out that 21 pictures would only enable them to see 
1% of Mars. Nevertheless, any pictures of the surface would be far 
superior to the best observations now obtainable with earth-based tele- 
scopes. 

The first few photographs might be made public immediately after 
being received, but the others probably would not be released until 
they had been studied for weeks or months. (Transcript, Sehlstedt, 
Bait. Sun, 6/23/65; Hill, NYT, 6/23/65, 7) 

• x-15 No. 2 flown by pilot John McKay (nasa) to 155,900 ft. altitude at 

maximum speed of 3,938 mph (mach 5.64) to obtain data on star 
tracking cameras, landing gear modification checkout, stability and 
control and advanced x-15 landing dynamics, (nasa X-15 Proj. 
Off.; X-15 Flight Log) 

• The GEMINI IV spacecraft's onboard computer that failed toward the end 

of the GT^ flight was working well in ground tests. It would be 



294 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

tested under simulated orbit conditions to determine if the problem 
might have been in the inertial guidance system. (uPi, NYT, 6/22/65, 
36; Phil. Eve. Bull, 6/22/65) 
June 22: Two Nike- Apache sounding rockets launched two sodium vapor 
trail experiments from Wallops Station, Va., as part of nasa's upper 
atmosphere meteorological research program. Vapor trails were 
ejected through a region 40 to 124 mi. above earth. One rocket was 
fired on an azimuth of 90° (due east) and the other on a 130° azimuth 
(southeast) so that the sodium trails were in the same altitude region at 
about the same time but several miles apart to provide data on wind 
behavior variations over a lateral distance as well as at various altitudes. 
(Wallops Release 65-38) 

• President Johnson nominated Astronauts Walter M. Schirra (usn) 

and John Young (usn) for promotions. Commander Schirra was 
nominated for captain and Lt. Commander Young for commander. 
Each had received his current rank in 1961, before the space flights. 
All the original astronaut team had now been promoted, (ap, Wash. 
Post, 6/23/65, A12) 
June 23: Three Nike- Apache sounding rockets launched vapor trail experi- 
ments from Wallops Station, Va., as NASA completed a five-shot, two- 
day series of experiments to measure wind direction and velocity over 
the Atlantic coast as part of its meteorological research program. Pay- 
loads also contained instrumentation to compare electron densities with 
wind dispersion and to measure electron temperatures. Experiments 
were conducted for the GCA Corp. under contract to NASA. (Wallops 
Release 65-39) 

• Pegasus C, third meteoroid detection satellite, arrived at NASA Kennedy 

Space Center aboard the aircraft "Pregnant Guppy." Pegasus C was 
scheduled for launch during summer of 1965 by SA-10, the last Saturn 
I vehicle, (msfc Release 65-159; Marshall Star, 6/30/65, 2) 

• President Johnson nominated Gen. William F. McKee to be Administrator 

of the Federal Aviation Agency. He made the appointment after 
signing a bill that exempted General McKee (usaf, Ret.) from the 
requirement that the FAA administrator be a civilian, (ap, NYT, 
6/25/65) 

• NASA Administrator James E. Webb said in an address to the Defense 

Supply Agency in Alexandria, Va. : "We are at a watershed of history — 
we are at a point where man has made reality of his wildest imagina- 
tion — he has created machines which enable him to move outward from 
the earth into the new environment of space, not just in thought, but 
in actuality, taking long strides toward the stars. . . . 

"With the initial planning and procurement phases behind us, we 
are now approaching a period when decisions on the next generation 
of major activities in space will be made. We have created and tested 
a workable managerial capability to direct the planning, approval, and 
execution of future programs. We believe that adoption of what we 
have termed 'Phased Program Planning' will materially assist us in 
achieving this goal. 

"Phased Program Planning represents an orderly, sequential pro- 
gression in the execution of major NASA projects. It provides for 
formulating proposed work goals and missions, and allows for re- 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 295 

appraisal points for management consideration to advance or replan 
such proposals, as well as the resources to implement them." (Text) 
June 23: nasa ordered new computer equipment that would make possible 
the processing of data sent back by spacecraft at a rate 40 times faster 
than in the systems currently used. The contract, ranging from an 
initial procurement of about $8 million to a possible total of $18 million 
if all contract options were exercised, was being negotiated with Inter- 
national Business Machines Corp. (nasa Release 65-205; AP, NYT, 
6/24/65, 4; ap, WSJ, 6/24/65) 

• Joint plans for higher wage and improved fringe benefits negotiations 

in 29 agreements with major aerospace companies were formulated at 
a conference in Washington, D.C., between leaders of the United 
Automobile Workers and the International Association of Machinists. 
Contracts discussed would expire within the next six months, (ap, 
NYT, 6/24/65, 21 ) 
June 24: A wage dispute involving the International Alliance of Theatrical 
and Stage Employees caused a shutdown of much of the construction 
under way at Kennedy Space Center, NASA, as about 3,000 of some 
5,700 construction workers stayed off the job because of the picket lines, 
(upi, NYT, 6/25/65, 28) 

• NASA and the U.S. Army had entered into an agreement which would 

establish a joint effort in the area of low-speed aeronautical research 
to be accomplished in facilities at NASA Ames Research Center, Ames 
reported. The program would be conducted in cooperation with 
personnel of the U.S. Army Materiel Command, (arc Astrogram, 
6/24/65, 1) 

• USAF launched an unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb with a 

Thor-Able-Star booster. (UPi, NYT, 6/26/65, 6) 

• NASA would Stick with its Saturn launch vehicles for the Apollo program, 

Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips (USAF). Apollo Program Director, 
reportedly said in Tulsa. Asked about the possibility of "leap-frog- 
ging" in the Apollo and making use of Titan III-C — because of its 
launch potential — instead of Saturn V, Phillips said "no," and com- 
mented: "The Saturn vehicle will do what we want insofar as the 
Apollo program is concerned, and leapfrogging now probably would 
mean some setbacks rather than advancing the Apollo project." He 
said launch vehicles such as Titan iii-c, which had a potential of 
11 to 15 million lbs. of thrust, most certainly would have major roles 
in future space operations. "But nasa is committed to the Saturn for 
the Apollo and we plan to stick with this vehicle." (Leslie, Tulsa 
Daily World, 6/24/65 ) 

• Vice President Humphrey announced that the National Aeronautics and 

Space Council, of which he is chairman, would meet July 1 to consider 
a proposed usaf manned orbiting laboratory. Meeting was later 
postponed to July 9. {NYT, 6/26/65, 5; eph) 

• Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate Administrator for Advanced 

Research and Technology, submitted his resignation, effective at the 
end of August, to accept the presidency of Case Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Bisplinghoff had come to NASA in 1962 
from MIT where he was Deputy Head of the Department of Aeronautical 
Engineering, (nasa Release 65-208) 



296 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 

June 24: nasa Administrator James E. Webb presented NASA Exceptional 
Service Award to Dr. George F. Simpson, Assistant Administrator for 
Policy Planning, in an informal Headquarters ceremony. Having 
joined NASA in 1961, Dr. Simpson resigned to become Chancellor of 
the State of Georgia University System, (eph) 

• First Federal regulations specifically governing agricultural flying 

and related activities were announced by faa. Effective Jan. 1, 1966, 
the rules would establish national standards and requirements for 
private and commercial agricultural operator certificates, operating 
rules, aircraft airworthiness, pilot qualifications, and record keeping. 
(faa Release 65-50) 

• Senate adopted a resolution requesting President Johnson to proclaim 

Sept. 17 and 18 as special days in honor of the memory of James 
Smithson, the Englishman who willed all his property for establishment 
of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. 200th anniver- 
sary of his birth would be celebrated this year. ( AP, NYT, 6/26/65, 20) 

• Col. Jack BoUerud (usaf) was appointed Deputy Director of Space 

Medicine, Office of Manned Space FUght, NASA Hq. He would be 
deputy to Dr. W. Randolph Lovelace ii. (NASA Release 65-207) 
June 25: Soviet Union launched cosmos lxix artificial earth satellite 
containing scientific equipment for the study of outer space. Orbital 
parameters: apogee, 332 km. (206 mi.) ; perigee, 211 km. (131 mi.) ; 
period, 89.7 min.; inclination to the equator, 65°. All instruments 
were operating normally. (Izvestia, 6/26/65, 1. atss-t Trans.; Prav- 
da, 6/26/65, 1, atss-t trans.) 

• USAF launched two unidentified satellites from Vandenberg AFB using 

a single Atlas-Agena D booster. (UPI, Chic. Trih., 6/26/65; U.S. 
Aeron. & Space Act., 1965, 146) 

• First Phoebus 1a nuclear reactor test was conducted at nrds, the reactor 

operating successfully at full power for 10^/4 min. The reactor was 
damaged during shutdown when the facility liquid hydrogen supply 
was unexpectedly exhausted. Test was part of nasa-aec Phoebus 
program to extend graphite reactor technology developed under the 
Kiwi series to higher power and temperature, ultimately leading to 
high-thrust nuclear engine system for space exploration. {Rover 
Chron.; Atomic Energy Programs, 1965, 145) 

• NASA Lewis Research Center announced successful test of a large-scale 

facility to investigate the boiling of liquid sodium. Test was just 
one milestone in the complex and extensive research being conducted 
on the properties and engineering performance of liquid metals. 
Liquid alkali metals, having excellent heat-transfer capabilities and 
large liquid range, were being considered as working fluids in future 
advance electric power systems in spacecraft, (lrc Release 65—46) 

• NASA announced it would negotiate with Douglas Aircraft Co. for 

nine additional s-iVB flight stages to be used as the third stage of the 
Saturn V launch vehicle being developed at nasa Marshall Space 
Flight Center. Work would also include related spares and launch 
support services. Value of the S-IVB contract presently totaled some 
$312 million. The new work was expected to exceed $150 milHon. 
(NASA Release 65-209; msfc Release 6.5-162; Marshall Star, 6/30/65, 
1) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 297 

June 25: Thiokol Chemical Corp. received from USAF a $3,195,500 fixed- 
price contract for design, development, and firing of a 156-in. solid 
rocket motor, usaf also awarded United Technology Center a 
$10,500,000 increment to a previously issued contract for design, de- 
velopment, fabrication, delivery, and flight testing of large segmented 
solid propellant motors, (dod Release 426—65) 

• Ives, Whitehead & Co.. Inc., a Washington, D.C., management and 

trade consultant company, proposed that the Nation's program to 
develop a supersonic airliner be financed by a special Government 
corporation similar to ComSatCorp. The plan would eliminate the 
necessity of asking Congress to appropriate the minimum $1 billion 
needed for development of the aircraft. The proposed company would 
be known as the SST Development Corp. and would be authorized to 
raise capital funds through private investment channels, by issuing 
and selling bonds or notes or both. The corporation would then enter 
into contracts with airframe and engine manufacturers whose designs 
had been selected by FAA. The corporation's obligations would be 
repaid by a predetermined percentage of the profits earned by industry 
by selling the planes to private airlines and by royalty payments added 
to the sale price of the plane by the airlines, (upi, ATT", 6/26/65, 42) 

• NASA announced the appointment of Robert F. Thompson as Mission 

Director for the future Gemini missions and Col. C. H. Bolender (usaf) 
as Mission Director for the first and second Apollo/Saturn IB flights. 
Thompson and Bolender were assigned to the Mission Operations 
Organization in the Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Hq., and 
would have overall responsibility for directing assigned missions. 
Christopher Kraft would continue in his regular assignment as Flight 
Director for Gemini missions. 

Thompson was Chief, Landing and Recovery Div., NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center, before receiving this assignment. Col. Bolender 
had directed a studies group in the office of the usaf Chief of Staff 
and had engaged in extensive guided missiles and aeronautical systems 
work. (NASA Release 65-211) 

• Civil Aeronautics Board (cab) authorized Pan American Airways 

and Trans World Airlines to subsidize New York Airways' helicopter 
service temporarily, cab also announced that two stockholders in 
New York Airways. Robert G. Goelet and John Hay Whitney, had lent 
a total of $165,000 to the company, (ap, NYT, 6/26/65, 42) 

• South African Prime Minister Hendrik F. Verwoerd said his government 

would not admit American Negroes if they were assigned to work in 
satellite tracking stations operating in South Africa. The Johannes- 
burg Sunday Times commented: "The United States will have to 
decide whether it can afford morally to overlook Dr. Verwoerd's re- 
marks." (Lelyveld, NYT, 6/27/65) 

• A centennial meeting in Moscow paying homage to the work of Gregor 

Mendel marked the end of a 20-yr. period during which his work was 
discredited and Soviet biological science was based on the work of 
geneticist Trofim D. Lysenko. (NYT, 6/27/65, 2) 
June 26: NASA Administrator James E. Webb announced at a press con- 
ference during the 23rd annual Hampton County (S.C.) Watermelon 
Festival that the Gemini V manned space flight would be an eight-day 



298 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

mission — the time required to fly to the moon, explore its surface, and 
return to earth. Webb also disclosed that nasa would announce next 
week the selection of six scientist astronauts. 

Speaking at "Mendel Rivers Day" ceremony, Webb pointed out that 
Congressman Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed Services 
Committee, "has steadily supported the Nation's effort to build 
strength in space." Webb also said: "Thoughtful students of national 
power and its uses are increasingly aware that America's security as 
well as her leadership of the Free World, depends directly upon our 
progress in mastering and using space. 

"The National Aeronautics and Space Administration cooperates 
closely with the Department of Defense, to ensure that the technological 
progress we make in developing the peaceful uses of space will be drawn 
upon as needed to help keep the peace — in space and on earth. 

"As you can readily understand, the development of military space 
systems follows those basic research fields which provide the scientific 
understanding and technological capability to make such systems 
possible. It is nasa's job, as the space research and development 
agency, to provide this basic knowledge and know-how." 

Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young accompanied Webb 
to this festival, (nasa Release; Text; Aerospace Historian, 10/65, 
111-14) 
June 26: 20th anniversary of the United Nations celebrated in San Francisco. 
President Lyndon B. Johnson said in an address to the General Assem- 
bly: "The movement of history is glacial. On two decades of experi- 
ence none can presume to speak with certainty of the destiny of man!s 
affairs. But this we do know and this we believe: Futility and failure 
are not the truths of this organization brought into being here 20 
years ago. 

"Where historically man has moved fitfully from war toward war, 
in these last two decades man has moved steadily away from war as 
either an instrument of national policy or a means of international 
decision. . . . 

"The promise of the future lies in what science, the ever more 
productive industrial machine, the ever more productive, fertile and 
usable lands, the computer, the miracle drug and the man in space 
all spread before us. The promise of the future lies in what the 
religions and the philosophies, the cultures and the wisdoms of 5,000 
years of civilization have finally distilled and confined to us — the 
promise of abundant life and the brotherhood of man." (Text, NYT, 
6/26/65) 
June 26: Thirteen NASA astronauts left NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for 
an area near King Salmon afb, Alaska, for a week-long study of a 
large volcanic ash flow believed to be similar to the surface of the 
moon. The ash was deposited in 1912 from a volcanic eruption and is 
the largest flow of its type in the world, (ap, NYT, 6/22/65, 2) 
• An S-IVB facility vehicle and an s-ii simulator arrived in New Orleans 
aboard the USNS Point Barrow enroute to NASA Kennedy Space Center. 
Both the S-IVB and s-ii were upper stages of the Saturn V launch 
vehicle. The s-ive would also serve as the second stage of the 
Saturn IB booster, (msfc Release 65-161; Marshall Star, 6/30/65, 
2) 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 299 

June 26: Sealab ii, described as having some interesting "physiological" 
similarities to the proposed usaf Manned Orbiting Laboratory pro- 
gram, was scheduled to begin the middle of August by the Office of 
Naval Research. In the experiment, part of a long-range project to 
determine how effectively man could work under the sea. two diving 
teams of ten men each would descend to the Pacific Ocean bottom off La 
JoUa, Calif. Two of the divers were expected to stay on the bottom 
for 30 days, living and sleeping in specially-designed, 57-ft. long 
quarters about 210 ft. below the surface. 

It was anticipated that Cdr. M. Scott Carpenter (usn), presently on 
loan from NASA, would be leader of the first team. (Anderson, Chic. 
Trib., 6/27/65) 

• The solar boat had been found feasible by Army engineers after extensive 

tests, NANA reported. It was a lightweight craft that operated solely 
by sunlight falling on power-generating cells. The Army said: "The 
solar propulsion boat may have potential military application where 
it is necessary to operate quietly and without using conventional fuel." 
(NANA, Detroit News, 6/27/65) 
June 27: The six scientist-astronauts selected for the Apollo program were 
announced in the Nation's press: Owen K. Garriott, 34, associate pro- 
fessor of physics, Stanford Univ.; Edward G. Gibson, 29, senior re- 
search scientist, Applied Research Labs,, Aeronutronic Div., Philco 
Corp.; Duane E. Graveline, 34, flight surgeon, NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center; Lt. Cdr. Joseph P. Kerwin (USn), 33, staff flight surgeon. Air 
Wing, 4, Cecil Field Naval Air Sta., Pa.; Frank Curtis Michel, 31, 
assistant professor of space sciences. Rice Univ. ; Harrison Schmitt, 29, 
astrogeologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

They were chosen from a group of 16 nominees submitted to NASA 
by the National Academy of Sciences. NAS had screened about 400 
applications forwarded by NASA earlier this year. 

The six new scientist-astronauts were to have been announced offi- 
cially by NASA June 29 but NASA officials confirmed the six named on 
June 28, the day after the press stories. (Schefter, Houston Chron., 
6/27/65; upi, Wash. Post, 6/'27/65) 

• First clear spectrograms of ultraviolet hght from the stars were 

obtained on a Princeton Univ. rocket experiment originally thought 
to have been a failure, a spokesman for the university's rocket program 
announced. 

The films from the June 1 flight from White Sands Missile Range 
had at first been feared to be fogged, but after being developed by 
special techniques, showed spectra of starlight with a fineness of detail 
never before achieved. A detailed report would be issued after the 
films had been studied further, (ap, NYT, 6/28/65; Wash. Post, 
6/29/65) 

• The U.S. should take the lead in establishing an international patent 

system, Dept. of Commerce Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science 
and Technology William W. Eaton said at a patent conference in 
Washington, D.C. At present, an inventor must take out separate 
patents in each of several foreign countries or run the risk of his idea 
being exploited. The new system would eliminate this problem by 
having one international patent cover each invention, Mr. Eaton said. 
(Sci. Serv., NYT, 6/27/65, 53) 



300 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

June 27 : In his column in the New York Journal American, Bob Considine 
cited an item written about Soviet failures in space by Julius Epstein, a 
research associate with the Hoover Institute of War, Revolution, and 
Peace, Stanford Univ.: "According to reliable reports in Washington, 
the Soviets have lost at least three cosmonauts on their way to the 
moon. My first publication of these assertions in 1962 met with no 
denial from our National Aeronautical and Space Agency when I 
forwarded a copy and asked for comment. A free-lance writer, re- 
searching the possibility of Soviet failures, tells me that NASA informed 
him that all such information had been classified as top secret. They 
recommended that he use my material! Isn't that a reasonable indica- 
tion for the veracity of this record?" (Considine, N.Y. /. Amer., 
6/27/65) 

• Soviet parachutist holding world and national records, Vyacheslav 

Zharikov, flew through the air at 119 mph at the end of an airplane- 
towed cable, Tass reported. He then dropped free, opened his para- 
chute above 100,000 spectators at an air show at Tula, U.S.S.R., and 
landed safely. ( ap, Wash. Post, 6/28/65, A17 ) 
June 28: Pictures of Mars relayed to earth by MARINER IV would be re- 
leased to the public within 36 to 48 hrs. after they were taken July 14, 
NASA announced, mariner iv was expected to take more than 20 
photographs in about 24 min. and radio them back to earth in digital 
form: while not as detailed as the Ranger photographs, they were ex- 
pected to make a valuable contribution to space exploration. 

mariner IV would pass within 5.600 mi. of the planet. The pictures 
would be taken at somewhat greater distances while Mars was in sun- 
light relative to the spacecraft. (NASA Release 65-210; UPI, NYT, 
6/29/65 ) 

• NASA officially confirmed the six scientist-astronauts named in the Na- 

tion's press June 27. They were Owen K. Garriott; Edward G. Gib- 
son; Duane E. Graveline: Lt. Cdr. Joseph P. Kerwin (usn); Frank 
Curtis Michel; and Harrison Schmitt. (NASA Release 65-212) 

• USAF and NASA were finishing plans for joint lifting-body tests, reported 

William Normyle in Aviation Week and Space Technology. He said 
a joint USAF-NASA Flight Test Group was being formed at Edwards 
AFB and would include NASA and USAF pilots who would flight-test three 
lifting-body configurations in a program to be monitored by NASA. 
Two configurations, the M-2 and the HL-10, were NASA designs built 
by Northrop Corp's Norair Div. Third configuration, usaf's sv-5, 
was developed by Martin Co. (Normyle, Av. Wk., 6/28/65, 19) 

• In response to newsmen's questions, a spokesman for the State Dept. said 

the U.S. planned to continue operating its two satellite tracking sta- 
tions in South Africa despite the warning by South African Prime 
Minister Hendrick Verwoerd that Negro Americans cannot be em- 
ployed there. Of the two tracking stations, DOD operated one and 
NASA the other. The dod station employed about 50 American tech- 
nicians, almost all civilians, and about 25 South Africans. The NASA 
station had only one American, a liaison officer; other employees were 
South Africans — some of them non-white. (Halloran, Wash. Post, 
6/29/65, A 16) 

• EARLY BIRD I began commercial operations when President Johnson for- 

mally inaugurated telephone service via communications satellite in a 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 301 

25-min., 6-nation conference call with European officials, including 
British Prime Minister Harold Wilson, West German Chancellor Lud- 
wig Erhard. and Swiss President Tschudi. Participants reported satis- 
faction with results. (ComSatCorp Release; Robertson, NYT, 
6/29/65, 12) 
June 28: At a Special Awards Ceremony at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, 
the Presidential Citation was presented to John H. Robinson of Re- 
sources Management Div. Robinson was one of the three individuals 
responsible for organizing a control center, preparing all Pert networks, 
and operating this control center. Operation was so effective that 
USAF was able to complete a modernization program far ahead of 
schedule with a monetary saving of several million dollars, (msc 
Roundup, 7/9/65, 3) 

• President Johnson accepted the resignation of Eugene G. Fubini 

as Assistant Secretary of Defense ( Deputy Director of Research and 
Engineering), effective July 15. (UPI, Wash. Post, 6/29/65) 

• A strike by 86 members of the International Alliance of Theatrical and 

Stage Employees carried work stoppage at Kennedy Space Center into 
the fifth day. They had walked out in a wage dispute with a firm 
providing printing and reproduction services for NASA," about half the 
5,300 construction workers at KSC had honored their picket lines, halt- 
ing work on S178 million worth of projects. {Wash. Post, 6/29/65) 
June 29: NASA successfully conducted an Apollo boilerplate pad abort test 
at White Sands Missile Range to check the launch escape system. 
The test simulated an abort from ground level, using the Apollo launch 
escape system for propulsion. This type of abort would be necessary 
in an actual mission if serious trouble developed with the Saturn launch 
vehicle just before or during ignition of the Saturn engines. 

Boilerplate 23A, the command module used for this test, powered 
by the launch escape rocket's 155,000 lbs. of thrust, traveled 5,000 ft, 
above the range. Eleven sec. after ignition was signaled from the 
blockhouse, canards deployed near the top of the escape motor, caus- 
ing the spacecraft to pitch aerodynamically to a blunt-end-forward 
position. Three seconds later, the tower jettison motor ignited, re- 
moving the tower and boost protective cover from the spacecraft. The 
forward (apex) heat shield was jettisoned .4 sec. later to uncover the 
parachute containers. Dual drogue parachutes were deployed by mor- 
tars from the upper deck two seconds after the LES was jettisoned. 
They slowed the spacecraft's descent, then disreefed to stabilize the 
module in a blunt-end-forward position. When the drogue parachutes 
were jettisoned, three pilot chutes were deployed to extract the three 
main chutes from their containers. The main parachutes were de- 
ployed in reefed condition, then disreefed to lower the spacecraft to 
a gentle landing about one mile from the launch site. The flight se- 
quence took about one minute. This was the first Apollo boilerplate 
to be reused. (NASA Release 65-202; UPi, Chic. Trib., 6/30/65; MSC 
Roundup, 6/25/65, 1 ) 

• President Johnson signed the bill authorizing S5,190,396,200 for NASA 

during FY 1966. (ap, Wash. Post, 6/30/65) 

• At Kennedy Space Center, NASA problems with radio frequencies forced 

at two-day postponement of an attempt to launch Tiros 10 weather 



302 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

satellite, designed to study hurricanes and typhoons. (Wash. Post, 
6/29/65) 
June 29: Ten firms had submitted proposals to the NASA Marshall Space 
Flight Center for preliminary design study of the Optical Technology 
Satellite being considered as part of the Apollo Extension System 
(Aes). Two contracts would be awarded for parallel studies. 

Objective of the proposed Ots program was to advance nasa's capa- 
bility in space optics technology by performing several engineering and 
scientific experiments in space. Selected contractors would review 
existing conceptual designs for Ots and analyze the technical feasibil- 
ity and justification for the performance in space of experiments being 
considered. The contractor would then create a conceptual design 
with onboard experiments. 

In Phase II, the contractor would perform a conceptual design study 
of the Ots subsystem to establish a sound base for overall preliminary 
design. The program would be under NASA Office of Advanced Re- 
search and Technology. (NASA Release 65-213; MSFC Release 65- 
213) 

• Capt. Joseph Engle (usaf) qualified for the military rating of astronaut 

by piloting the X-15 No. 3 research aircraft to an altitude of 280,600 
ft. at a maximum speed of 3,432 mph (mach 4.94) . By exceeding 
264,000 ft. (50 mi.) Engle, 32, met the USAF astronaut requirements. 
Purpose of the flight was to use a scanning device to obtain measure- 
ments of the earth's horizon. The measurements would be used to 
establish the design criteria for navigational systems for future space- 
craft. (NASA x-15 Proj. Off.; NASA Release 65-201; X-15 Flight 
Log) 

• USAF awarded Hughes Aircraft Co. a $13,468,725 contract for modifica- 

tions of missiles and space parts. (WSJ, 6/29/65, 9) 

• Pickets were removed from entrances to Kennedy Space Center, NASA, 

when printing and reproduction workers voted to end their 6-day-old 
construction-crippling strike and submit the dispute to the President's 
Missile Sites Labor Commission. Removal of the pickets would en- 
able 2,200 construction workers who had honored the lines to return 
to vital space projects, (ap, Bait. Sun, 6/30/65) 

• The 10 crew members of a Pan American World Airways Boeing 707 jet- 

liner that caught fire just after take-oif and lost an engine and part of 
a wing would receive faa's Exceptional Service Citation and medals, 
FAA announced. Capt. Charles H. Kimes and his crew landed the plane 
safely at Travis AFB; all passengers were clear of the plane within the 
two-minute goal set by faa as a maximum safe evacuation time. 
iNYT, 6/30/65, 59) 
June 30: A four-stage, 60-ft.-long Journeyman (Argo D-8) sounding 
rocket launched by nasa from Wallops Station, Va., carried a 137-lb. 
instrument package to an altitude of 1,060 mi. on a 25-min. flight that 
ended 1.700 mi. offshore in the Atlantic, east of Bermuda. After 
launch, the payload. unfurled two 35-ft. antennas to provide a single 
dipole antenna, measuring 70 ft. from tip to tip. Main objective of 
the mission was to measure the intensity of radio frequency energy 
originating largely from outside the solar system. This was done at 
three frequencies: 750, 1,125, and 2,000 kc. Secondary objectives 
were the investigation of previously detected radio noise on the top 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 303 

side of the ionosphere and measurement of electron density in that part 
of the ionosphere. 

Information would be used in planning future space radio astronomy 
experiments to investigate certain characteristics of antennas in the 
ionospheric region. Experiment was conducted in cooperation with 
the Univ. of Michigan. (NASA Release 65-214; Wallops Release 65- 
40; AP, Bait. Sun, 7/1/65) 
June 30: Lunar Landing Research Facility, a controlled laboratory for ex- 
ploring and developing techniques for landing a rocket-powered ve- 
hicle on the moon, had been put into operation at NASA Langley Re- 
search Center. The S3. 5 million facility included a rocket-powered 
flight test vehicle which would be operated while partially supported 
from a 250-ft. high, 400-ft.-long gantry structure to simulate the one- 
sixth earth gravity of the moon in research to obtain data on the 
problems of lunar landing. I LaRC Release 6/30/65) 

• ComSatCorp asked the FCC for authority to assemble a third Early Bird- 

type satellite from existing parts for a future launch. A back-up 
satellite to early bird i was already assembled; components for a third 
Comsat were completed earlier this year. The application before the 
FCC requested permission to assemble these components. (ComSat- 
Corp Release) 

• Voice of NASA Administrator James E. Webb was relayed from Washing- 

ton, D.C., to Tulsa, Okla., via relay ii for the dedication of Tulsa's 
Central Library. Mr. Webb spoke briefly before triggering an elec- 
tronic signal that turned on the lights in the new building, (afp; 
Tulsa Daily World, 6/10/65) 

• Senate confirmed the nominations of Gen. Wifliam F. McKee (USAF, Ret.) 

as Federal Aviation Agency Administrator and David D. Thomas as 
his deputy administrator. 

President Johnson formally accepted the resignation of McKee's 
predecessor, Najeeb E. Halaby, with a "Dear Jeeb" letter praising 
Halaby's "vigorous and dynamic leadership," particularly in super- 
sonic transport development. [CR, 6/30/65, 14824: UPI, Wash. Post, 
7/1/65) 

• NASA procurements for FY 1965 totaled S5,187 million, an amount 

13% greater than the amount awarded during FY 1964. About 94% 
of NASA's procurement dollars was contracted directly or indirectly to 
private industry: About 79% of net dollar value was placed directly 
with business firms; 4% was placed with educational and other non- 
profit institutions or organizations, 5% with Cal Tech for operation of 
JPL, and 12% with or through other Government agencies. 90% of 
the dollar value of procurement requests placed with other Government 
agencies resulted in contracts with industry (awarded on behalf of 
NASA) ; also, about 76% of NASA-placed funds under the JPL contract 
resulted in subcontracts or purchases with business firms. (NASA FY 
1965 Annual Procurement Rpt., 54) 

• During FY 1965, nasa awarded S121, 115,000 in grants and research con- 

tracts to 190 colleges and universities in 50 states, the District of 
Columbia, and 8 foreign countries. In addition, $25,527,000 was 
awarded to 53 nonprofit institutions in 20 states and the District of 
Columbia, (nasa Proj. Off.) 



304 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1965 

June 30: Strongly urging greater emphasis on U.S. aeronautics and avia- 
tion than now exists, Sen. A. S. (Mike) Monroney (D-Okla.), Chair- 
man of Senate Aviation Sub-committee, addressed Air Force Associa- 
tion in Dallas, Tex. 

"I am afraid some people, and I mean people of high stature and 
great influence, seem bent on relegating aeronautics to a secondary 
position. This I think is a crucial mistake. In aeronautics we stand 
on the threshold of a boundless upsurge which may well dwarf what 
has been achieved by aviation over the past 61 years. 

"Also, the economic productivity of aeronautics makes dollars . . . 
and sense. It means money in the bank, or rather gold in Fort Knox. 
On the other hand, I don't know of any scheme . . . and I doubt 
that one will emerge within this century . . . for fighting the balance 
of payments deficit in outer space. 

"There simply are no dollars floating around between here and the 
moon. For the time being, outer space commerce just doesn't seem to 
be in the cards. And as long as this is the situation, I don't think 
we should banish aeronautics to the back seat ... or have a NASA 
budget which is better than 98 percent spacecraft and less than 2 per- 
cent aircraft. And this in spite of the fact that NASA and its fore- 
runner, NACA, were ostensibly founded to serve aeronautics! 

"I am not saying this to downgrade space, but to suggest that we 
strike a balance based on how the national interest and economy are 
served best. . . . This widening disparity between NASA's space and 
aeronautical efforts . . . this wall flower treatment of the airplane 
... is a reckless gamble, economically, politically and militarily, that 
will come back to haunt us in the future. My criticism, by the way, 
is not directed at the level of competence in that agency but at the lack 
of programming of aeronautical goals and the failure to mobilize this 
nation's brain power on behalf of aviation. It seems to me the real 
deficiency is that the well qualified aeronautical talent in NASA js so 
far down in the hierarchy that these men rarely ever get involved in 
the decision making. It's crystal clear that other nations, the Russians 
included, have cut this Gordian knot and are rapidly filling the vacuum 
which we so invitingly created for them. . . ." (Text; AP, NYT, 
7/2/65) 

• Dr. Albert J. Kelley, Deputy Director of NASA Electronics Research 

Center, retired as a U.S. naval commander. He had been assigned 
to detached duty with NASA by USN in 1960 and would continue with 
ERC as a civilian. (Boston Globe, 7/1/65) 

• A Titan ii icbm was fired from Vandenberg AFB underground silo on a 

routine flight down the Western Test Range by a Strategic Air Com- 
mand (sac) crew. (UPI, Boston Globe, 6/30/65) 

• The last of 800 usaf Minutemen I icbms became operational at 

Warren AFB, Wyo. Weighing about 65,000 lbs., the three-stage solid 
propellant missiles would have a range of more than 6.300 mi., a speed 
of over 15,000 mph, and would carry a nuclear warhead. The missiles 
were housed in individual blast-resistant underground launch sites and 
could be stored for long periods with a minimum of maintenance. 
(afsc Release 97.65) 
During June: First patent for production and separation of plutonium was 
granted to aec Chairman Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg and co-inventors the 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 305 

late Dr. Joseph W. Kennedy and Dr. Arthur C. Wahl. The patented 
procedure included treatment of uranium in a reactor to produce 
plutonium — first synthetic element to be seen by man — and to sepa- 
rate and recover the plutonium bv a method called oxidation reduc- 
tion. ( Jones, NYT, 6 26/65, 33 ) ' 
During June: Interviewed in Data, NASA Associate Administrator for Ad- 
vanced Research and Technology Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff dis- 
cussed basic research in the NASA program: 

"The term basic is employed for two reasons. The basic research 
program involves elements which undergird everything we do in aero- 
nautics and space. Such areas as materials, fluid physics, electro- 
physics and applied mathematics form a common base for all of our 
work. In addition, most of this program is carried on at a funda- 
mental level, that is. at the atomic and molecular level. If we select, 
for example, the field of materials we can observe that nearly every- 
thing we do in atmospheric and space flight is limited in some way by 
materials. . . ." 

Asked about the role of industry in NASA's advanced research and 
technology program. Dr. Bisplinghoff said: 

"About 75 per cent of the oart research and development budget 
is spent outside the NASA organization. This money goes to university 
and research institutes and to industrial contractors capable of carry- 
ing out the advanced work making up this program." (Data, 6/65, 
22-25) 

• Five-week study of atmosphere contaminants in a closed environmental 

system was concluded at usaf School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks 
AFB, Tex. The three phases of the test: determining leak rate of the 
main test cell; checking the unmanned cabin; and checking the 
manned, fully operational chamber (2 weeks). In the third phase, 
four volunteer airmen lived inside the cabin in the strictly controlled 
experiment. They were not allowed to shave or wash; they subsisted 
on liquid nutritional compounds; they kept logs of diet consumed 
and waste volume and time; they occupied themselves only by operat- 
ing psychomotor test panels or, for recreation, watching television. 
Study was conducted in cooperation with NASA, (afsc AMD Release 
65-125) 

• Harold B. Finger, Manager of nasa-aec Space Nuclear Propulsion Office, 

discussed nuclear-rocket technology in Astronautics & Aeronautics : 

"The recent reactor test experience shows that nuclear rockets can 
be made available to furnish thrust at high specific impulse for many 
possible post-Apollo missions. Whatever direction the future space 
program may take — whether toward extensive manned lunar explora- 
tion, unmanned solar-system exploration, or manned planetary ex- 
ploration — the performance advantages of nuclear rockets will be avail- 
able, valuable, and, certainly for the latter mission, necessary. 
Through this program the country will have the options it must have 
in selecting future missions. For the manned planetary missions, 
which they can perform for all planetary opportunities, nuclear rock- 
ets offer such substantial spacecraft weight reductions, and associated 
savings in cost, that no less-efficient form of spacecraft propulsion could 
be seriously considered. . . ." {A&A, 6/65, 34-35) 



306 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

During June: A decade of nuclear-rocket research at Los Alamos Scientific 
Laboratory was described in Astronautics & Aeronautics by Roderick 
W. Spence and Franklin P. Durham, both of LASL. The 10-yr. effort 
reached new levels of attainment in 1964—65, with successful tests of 
the Kiwi-B-4E and nrx-a2 reactors, and initial strides in the more 
advanced Phoebus reactor program. "The entire operations of both 
Kiwi-B-4E and nrx-a2 gave very close to the desired results and met 
or exceeded all of the test objectives. 

". . . the past decade of experience has given us confidence that 
nuclear-rocket engines can be built and that they will prove to give 
good performance with high reliability." (A&A, 6/65, 42-46) 

• W. Y. Jordan, Jr., R. J. Harris, and D. R. Saxon, all of MSFC, said in 

Astronautics & Aeronautics article that clustering of nuclear rocket 
systems up to 10,000 mw. of power had been studied. These studies 
indicated the concept showed sufficient promise to warrant more de- 
tailed design studies, and these studies had been initiated. They 
stated that a "modular nuclear vehicle system concept, which offers a 
flexible multipurpose space-transportation capability, now appears 
possible through development of only one basic propulsion system and 
vehicle stage. . . ." {A&A, 6/65, 48-52) 

• A. 0. Tischler, Director of Chemical Propulsion, Office of Advanced Re- 

search and Technology, NASA Hq., said in Astronautics & Aeronautics 
article that the time was rapidly approaching "when space will no 
longer be something we throw darts into, but rather an environment 
in which working propulsion systems maneuver and transport space- 
craft payloads, eventually bringing them back to Earth for reuse. . . . 
"Present space systems lag the launch vehicles in both development 
status and sophistication. But we can expect considerable performance 
improvement by the use of more-sophisticated space propulsion sys- 
tems. Moreover, ground facilities that simulate the space environ- 
ment are becoming available. With these to examine new concepts in 
depth, we can anticipate greater and more certain progress in space- 
craft propulsion technology in the future. . . ." {A&A, 6/65, 60-62) 



Julv 1965 



July 1: NASA and the Brazilian Space Commission (cnae) signed an agree- 
ment in Sao Jose dos Campos. Brazil, providing for a cooperative 
project for studying hemispheric weather patterns by launching mete- 
orological sounding rockets from Brazil. Project would be part of the 
Inter-American Experimental Meteorological Sounding Rocket Net- 
work (EXAMETNET). 

Under the terms of the agreement, Brazil would transport the rock- 
ets and equipment from the U.S. to Brazil, assemble and launch the 
rockets from Brazilian launch facilities, and provide meteorological 
data to other participants in the network. NASA would lend ground 
support equipment such as radar to CNAE; train Brazilian personnel in 
the handling of sounding rockets and in reducing meteorological data; 
and provide data obtained at NASA's Wallops Station, Va., to other 
participants in the network. 

Agreement was similar to one signed by the U.S. and Argentina on 
May 18, 1965. The project entailed no exchange of funds between the 
two countries. ( NASA Release 65-258) 

• NASA and India's Dept. of Atomic Energy (dae) signed a memorandum 

of understanding for a joint space research program to be conducted 
in India by NASA and the Indian National Commission for Space 
Research. Program would include two sounding rocket launchings to 
investigate upper atmosphere wind shears, turbulence, and diffusion by 
chemical release payloads; six launchings to investigate relationship 
between wind shears and sporadic E; two launchings to investigate the 
equatorial electrojet; and two launchings to measure electron and ion 
densities and other phenomena in the D region. 

DAE would make available the scientific payloads; range and range 
support facilities; and personnel for conducting the scientific experi- 
ments, for range support, and launching operations. NASA would fur- 
nish the sounding rockets, two test payloads, cameras, and nose cones 
as well as necessary training for dae personnel at NASA centers. No 
exchange of funds was provided for. All scientific results of experi- 
ments would be made freely available to the world scientific communi- 
ty. ( NASA Release 65-259 ) 

• USN f-111b variable-sweep-wing fighter flew supersonically for the first 

time, reaching speed of mach 1.2 and 30,000-ft. altitude. During the 
54-min. flight, the f-111b for the first time changed the angle of its 
wings from a virtually straight 16° takeoff configuration to a maxi- 
mum sweep supersonic configuration of 72.5°. The flight took place 
at Calverton, N.Y. (Gen. Dynamics Corp. Release; NYT, 7/26/65, 
38M) 

307 



308 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

July 1: xb-70a research bomber reached a speed of 1,870 mph and 
68,000-ft. altitude during a one-hour, 44-min. flight from Edwards 
AFB. The 185-ft., 500.000-lb. aircraft, expected to reach its design 
maximums of 2,000 mph and 70,000 ft.-ahitude on its next flight, flew 
over Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Idaho. Wyoming, and Cahfornia. (ap, 
Bait. 5«n, 7/2/65) 
•Astronauts Frank Borman (Maj., usaf) and James A. Lowell, Jr. (Lcdr., 
USn), had been assigned as the prime flight crew for the Gemini 7 
mission scheduled for the first quarter of 1966, NASA announced. 
Backup crew for the flight, which would last up to 14 days, would be 
Astronauts Edward H. White, ii (Lt. Col., USAf) and Michael Collins 
(Maj., USAF). Borman and LoveU had been the backup crew and 
White the pilot for gemini iv. (nasa Release 65-218) 

• General Electric Co. told a news conference in New York that it had 

successfully converted a space age component — SCR — to a device for 
home use that could dial speed or heat like tuning in a radio. A 
silicon-controlled rectifier, SCR had one of the highest power-amplifica- 
tion capacities of any semiconductor, no moving parts, and could con- 
trol kilowatts in thousandths of a second. The unit would cost 35 to 
50 cents for ge customers. GE did not comment on what GE ap- 
pliances would initially incorporate scR. (Smith, NYT, 7/2/65, 37) 

• NASA announced changes in the names of NASA organizations: from Mis- 

sissippi Test Operations to Mississippi Test Facility; from Michoud 
Operations to Michoud Assembly Facility; from MSC White Sands 
Operations to White Sands Test Facility. ( MSFC Release 65-107; 
NASA Hq. Bull. 1-65, No. 13) 

• NASA selected Federal Electric Corp., a subsidiary of ITT, for negotiation 

of an award-fee contract to provide logistical and technical informa- 
tion support services to NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Contract 
would be for one year with renewal provisions for two additional 
years. Estimated cost for the first year was $1.5 million, (nasa Re- 
lease 65-217) 

• Over 50 security guards at nasa Goddard Space Flight Center— members 

of the International Union of United Plant Guard Workers of America 
— went on strike over wage and contract issues with their employer 
Wackenhut Services, Inc. Wackenhut, operating at GSFC under con- 
tract, provided additional guards; there was no breakdown in security. 

Some 250 guards at NASA test sites near Las Vegas, Nev., also went 
on strike against Wackenhut. They were members of a separate local 
union. {Wash. Post, 7/2/65, A3; djns, Bait. Sun, 7/2/65; Wash. 
Eve. Star, 7/2/65) 

• Continuation of Weather Bureau-Navy Project Stormfury during 

the 1965 hurricane season was announced. Hurricanes and cumulus 
clouds would be seeded to investigate the feasibility of modifying 
clouds and tropical storms. The hurricane research program began in 
1961, included experiments on hurricanes Esther (1961) and Beulah 
(1963) and on tropical clouds (1963). Objectives for 1965 were to 
intensify the hurricane-seeding experiments and to begin new experi- 
ments on hurricane rainbands. (Commerce Dept. Release WB 
65-100) 

• NASA Goddard Space Flight Center announced selection of six firms for 

contract negotiations to provide nonpersonal scientific and engineering 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 309 

support services for GSFC. Final negotiations were expected to result 
in cost-plus-award-fee contracts for two years at a total cost of about 
$16 million. Contracts would cover requirements for ten divisions at 
GSFC; although requirements of a single division would be fulfilled 
through a single contract, one contractor might service more than one 
division in several cases. Firms selected: Fairchild Hiller Corp.; Vi- 
tro Corp. of America; Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc.; Consultants 
and Designers, Inc.; Lockheed Electronics Co.; and Melpar, 
Inc. ( NASA Release 65-216; gsfc Release 15-65) 
July 1: Gen. William F. McKee (USAF, Ret.) was sworn in as Federal 
Aviation Agency Administrator — less than 24 hrs. after confirmation 
by the Senate — in a White House ceremony. President Johnson, pre- 
siding, announced that General McKee's primary task would be devel- 
opment of a supersonic transport (Sst). Mr. Johnson had approved 
five recommendations of the President's Advisory Committee on Super- 
sonic Transport: "Those five recommendations . . . are: first, the 
next phase of design covering an 18-month period beginning about 
August 1, 1965; second, the four manufacturers — Boeing Company, 
Lockheed Aircraft Company, General Electric Company, Pratt & Whit- 
ney Division of United Aircraft — be invited to continue this phase of 
the program; third, the faa Administrator be authorized to enter into 
contracts with the airframe manufacturers to undertake detailed air- 
frame design work and test them over the next 18 months; fourth, the 
FAA Administrator be authorized to enter into contracts with the en- 
gine manufacturers to construct and test over the next 18 months dem- 
onstrator engines to prove the basic features of the engines; and five, 
and finally — and very importantly — that the Congress be requested to 
appropriate — Senator Magnuson — the necessary funds to initiate the 
next phase of the program. And for this purpose I shall request an 
appropriation of $140 million." 

Ira C. Eaker commented in the San Antonio Express: "When McKee 
succeeds in his SST mission, as I believe he will, any citizen will be 
able to buy a $50 ticket for a flight from Washington to Los Angeles 
in 55 minutes, or purchase for $55 air passage from New York to 
Paris in one hour. Of course, there will be cynics who will ask: 'Who 
wants to fly to Paris in an hour?' The answer is: Most of the people 
who want to go to Paris. 

"There is one predictable human trait. People will always go for the 
fastest transport. Not long after man got on a train, he took his 
freight out of the covered wagons and off the oxcarts forever. When 
people took up with automobiles, they soon put their produce, their 
pigs and their poultry on trucks. 

"There is also some algebraic or arithmetic relation between the 
speed of travel and the number of people who travel. About 10 times 
as many people fly the Atlantic now in five hours as crossed when the 
trip took five days. No doubt 10 times more people will cross the 
ocean when they can do it in an hour." (White House Release; 
Eaker, San Antonio Express, 7/8/65, 14) 
• Sen. A. Willis Robertson ( D-Va. ) issued a statement opposing Presi- 
dent Johnson's plan for a supersonic commercial airliner: 

"I attended the conference at the White House at which the secre- 



310 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1965 

tary of defense explained his plans for the development of a supersonic 
airplane that would be the fastest of any in the world, making mach 
2.5 to 2.7, or about 1,800 miles per hour. The cost of developing this 
plane will be between 2 and 2.5 billion dollars, and when developed, 
the planes will probably cost 20 to 25 million each. 

". . . if we succeed in the development of this plane any airline that 
agrees to use them will have to be largely subsidized both for the 
purchase of the plane, which will have a limited life, and likewise for 
its operation. Consequently, I feel towards this project like I do 
about the shot to the moon — a fine advertising scheme, but not worth 
what it is going to cost the taxpayers." (Text) 
July 1 : USAF launched an Atlas D icbm from Vandenberg afb in test of the 
Army's Nike-Zeus antimissile missile. (UPI, NYT, 7/2/65) 

• Harvey Brooks, Dean of the Division of Engineering and Applied Phys- 

ics, Harvard Univ., succeeded George B. Kistiakowsky as Chairman of 
the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Science and Public 
Policy. (NAS-NRC I^ews Report, 7/8/65, 1) 

• American Institute of Physics established a Center for History and Phi- 

losophy of Physics, which was the merging of aip's Niels Bohr Li- 
brary of the History of Physics, History of Physics Archives, and 
Project on the History of Recent Physics in the United States, (aip 
Release) 
July 2: TIROS x meteorological satellite was launched from Eastern Test 
range by a Thrust-Augmented Delta booster into a near-perfect 
sun-synchronous orbit from which it would photograph tropical storm 
breeding areas. Orbital parameters: apogee, 517 mi. (832 km.) ; 
perigee, 458 mi. ( 737 km. ) ; period, 100.6 min. ; inclination to the 
equator, 81.4°. The spacecraft at first was spinning too fast for pic- 
ture-taking because of inability to command activation of an automatic 
slowdown device. A more intense ground signal sent during the sec- 
ond orbit activated the device, slowing the satellite's spin rate from 
138 rpm to about 13 rpm. 

TIROS X would photograph the hurricane-breeding area between 70° 
north and 30° south latitude, about 60 to 80 percent of the earth. Its 
two vidicon cameras would take more than 400 pictures daily. TIROS 
IX in its "cartwheel" movement in orbit had been able to provide 
about 100 percent coverage of the earth daily. 

The weather observation spacecraft was the 10th successful Tiros 
(Television Infrared Ob