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EXCHANGE 




's ( 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY: GRADUATE SCHOOL 



A STUDY OF 

P. PAPINIUS STATIUS' THEBAIS 

AND HIS IMITATION OF VERGIL'S 

AENEID 



A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DOCTORATE 
OF PHILOSOPHY 

BY 

ERNEST D. DANIELLS, A. M. 

1905 



BERLIN 

DRUCK VON G. BERNSTEIN 
1906 



Contents 



Dedication 4 

Authorities 5—6 

Scope of the Thesis 7 

Origin and Meaning of Poetry 7 

The Essentials of Epic Poetry 7 

Some of the World's Epics 7—8 

Early Roman Epic Writers 8 

Vergil's Purpose; his Imitators 8-- 

Kinds of Composition in Bk. I, Thebais, Aeneis .... 9—10 
Summary of Composition in Bk. I, Thebais, Aeneis . .11 

Percent of Narration and Description 11 

Statins' UI^k; 12 

Figures of Statins 13—16 

The Theme of the Epic must be t^avfiaavog 17 — -^ 

The Heroic Quality of Aeneas . 17 

The Thebais, an Historical Poem 17 

Man's Insignificance 18 ^ 

Exhaustion of Epic Themes at Rome 18 

Sources of the Thebais 18—20- 

The Motif in the Thebais 20 

Plurality of Heroes an Impossibility in an Epic .... 20 

Copying not Plagiarizing 20 - 

Training of Statins 21 v-' 

Recitationes at Rome 21 ^' 

Statins Reads his Works at Rome 22 

Statins did not become a Christian 22 - 

Tubulation of Similarities between the Thebais and the 

Aeneis Bk. I 22—31 

Summary of Deipser Comparisons 33 

Pontanus' Study of Statins' Alliteration 33 — 34 

Statins' Fondness for the Syllables -bus, -bills and -a 34 — 35 

Unusual and Poetic Words in the Thebis 36 — 45 

Statius, an Improvisator, not an Epic a Writer .... 45 



1* 

296241 



Omnibus meis grammaticis et rhetoribus qui mihi prin- 
cipes et ad suscipiendam et ingrediendam rationem humani- 
tatis fuerunt atque doctoribus Gulielmo Everett Waters 
imprimisque Ernesto Gottlieb Sihler doctissimo sermones 
utriusque linguae maxima cum gratia haec dissertatio in- 
scribitur. 



Authorities Consulted 

Aeneis, Buch VI Eduard Norden. 

Aeneidea James Henry. 

Gurae Statianae Alfredus Klotz. 

Classical Latin Literature . . . W. G. Lawton. 

De Anachronismo, qui est in P. P. 

Statii Thebaide et Achilleide . Julius Miedel. 

De Infinitivi apud P. P. Statium 

et Juvenalem Usu Fredericus Lohr. 

De P. P. Statii Gomparationibus 

Epicis Garolus Krause. 

De P. P. Static in Silvis Priorum 

Poetarum Romanorum Imitatore Georgius Luehr. 

De P. P. Statii Thebaide Quaestiones 

Griticae, Grammaticae, Metricae Fredericus Moerner. 

De P. P. Statii Thebaide .... Rudolphus Helm. 

Dissertationes Philologicae Vol. HI-V 

De P. P. Static Bernhardus Deipser. 

Duae Quaestiones Papinianae . . Paulus Kerckhoff. 

^fetudes sur les Pontes Latins de la 

Decadence D. Nisard. 

fitude sur VergUe A. Sainte-Beuve. 

History of the Romans under the 

Empire Gharles Merivale. 

Jahres - Bericht des Landes - Real- 
gymnasiums Eduard Kranich. 



* • • 



« • • • • •• 

- - ••• 

^•^ ••• • * • • 



• • • • • 



6 

Master Vergil J. S. Tunison. 

Opera, P. V. Maronis A. Sidgwick. 

Quelques Notes sur les Silvae de 

Stace Georges La Faye. 

Roman Literature H. N. Fowler. 

Quaestiones Papinianae .... Vilelmus LundstrOm. 

Studies in Virgil F. R. Glover. 

Statins' Silvae Frederick Vollmer. 

The Metaphor in the Epic Poems 

of P. P. Statins Harry Landford Wilson. 

Td noifjTixd Aristotle. 

Vergil John Gonington. 

Teufels Geschichte der rdmischen Literatur. 
Teufel and Schwabe, History of Roman Literature. 



Author is not res'^9nsibl& for errers 
as proofs were read in Berlin, 



TPxpedient it is in any undertaking to have not only the 
end clearly determined, but also the limits of the endeavor. 
This thesis^ then, will present arguments to prove that 
P. Papinius Statins, though employing the form, has neither 
the merit nor content of an epic writer in the Thebais. It 
is, further, limited to a comparison of the aforesaid poem 
with the Aeneis of P. VergUius Maro. Each in differing 
epochs, was the foremost poet of his type.^) Poetry arising 
from ly (jbifjbfjTix^ xai ^ fjbstQix^ is the language of imagina- 
tion, of strong emotion. It is man's perpetual endeavor to 
express the spirit of the thing, tot xa&oXov^ and reveals that 
what he values as substances has higher value as symbols. 
The Epic is a form of narrative poetrj'^ dnayysXla, It must 
have a great and noble theme, ^avfiaavogy preferring not 
Tcc yiv6(Jb€va but ola av yivono even tec ddvvava xai slxota 
fjbaXXop ^ %a dvvatct xai anid-a^a. It must have unity in itself 
Ilia nqal^igy either being anXoog or closely nenXeyfjbipog with 
complete plot development from ij aqxfi through to fiiaov to 
TO tiXog. Its Xi^ig is the heroic hexameter. ^ didvo^a of 
Homer was to tell a good story for the joy of the telling; of 
VergU, it was Rome's glory, that is, national; of Statins, it 
was purely artistic, „divinam Aeneida longe sequi". Th. 
Xn 816. 

Imaginative races have always had their primitive or 
natural epics, poems narrating the achievements of gods and 



*) Aristotle Td Jloirjjtxd. 



8 

heroes handed down from father to son, such as the Mahi- 
bh^ata, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Nibelungenlied, and Les 
Chansons de Roland. Rome, too, had early ballads of which 
only faint echoes remain. Later, in 235 B. C, Gn. Naevius, 
in Satumian verse, wrote a narrative poem of the first 
Punic War.^) G. Octavius Lampadio Naevii Punicum Hel- 
ium . . . uno volumine et continenti scriptura expositum 
divisit in septem libros, and^) Q. Ennius, 239 B. G., in 
his eighteen books of the Annals recorded the traditions of 
Rome from Aeneas' arrival in Italy down to his own time. 
This poem is important for the introduction of the hexa- 
meter and frequent imitation of Homer. Epos Latinum 
primus digne scripsit Ennius.^) Both of these writers would 
be more accurately classed as patriotic and poetic annaUsts 
rather than epic writers. 

Vergil's primacy in Latin literature is due to the fusion 
of the patriotic purpose of the annaUst and the native 
beauty and art of the primitive narrative epic. The unity 
of his poem was the grand central idea, Rome's mission, 
„Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento". VI, 852. 
His success in this field of art occasioned many imitations, 
Pharsalia of Lucanus (39 — 65), Argonautica of Valerius 
Flaccus, a poet under Vespasianus, the Punica of Silius Ita- 
licus (25—101) and Thebais of Statins (40?— 96?). 



^) Teufel and Schwabe. 

") Diomed. Ars Gram. p. 480—2 (Keil). 



Different kinds of Composition in the First Book 
of the Thebais and of the Aeneis 

Invocation of author and Introduction. 
Thebais Aeneis 

1—45 1—11 

45 



11 



Conversation of gods and Heroes, Prayers. 



Thebais 

56—33, 438—9, 557—118 

173—30, 448—2, 676—6 
214—35, 452—15, 683—37 
250—32, 465— 
285—12, 467—6, 
495—12 



Figures. 

Thebais 

105—6 

131—6 

370-6 

421—4 

417—2 



Aeneis 

36—13, 257—40, 435—1, 

664—24 
65—13,321—4,460—4,731—5 
44—6, 326—9, 522—36, 732—4 
132—10, 329—35, 262—16 
197—10, 370—14, 580—4 
229—25, 387—14, 595—16 
407—3, 615—16 
346 322 

Aeneis 

82—1, 592—2 
147—5 
315—3 
430—7 
497—5 
389—1 
24 26 



10 



Description. 
Thebais 

46—9, 325—10, 524—28 
90—5, 336—34 
91-3, 378—2 
103—15, 383—4 
129—2, 390—10 
144—20, 402—4 
167—2, 414—7 
199—14, 132—3 
306—2, 437—2 
311—2, 473—6 
315—5, 454—7 
321—2, 493—4 
516—13 



Aeneis 

12—17,173—1,455—4,690—1 
52—8, 182—2, 465-28, 692—2 
84—8, 208—2, 494—2, 697—2 
107—1, 254—2,503—1,709—3 
104—3, 301—1, 516—1, 717—3 
114—1,306—1,574—2,723—1 
117—6, 310- 3, 587—1, 728—6 
124-3, 315—3,590—2, 734—7 
144—5, 402—4, 613—1, 730—3 
154—3, 410—4, 634—11 
159—13, 417—2, 648—8 
420—9, 659—1 
440—13, 661—2 
201 221 



Narrations. 
Thebais 

55—1, 376—2, 672—3 
88—2, 379—1, 652—2 
96—1, 3"82— 1 
100—2, 386—4 
126—2, 390—1 
137—5, 401—2 
142—2, 406—8 
164-2, 425—9 
168—5, 435—2 
197—5, 447—1 
248—2, 450—3 
283—2, 466—2 
303—4, 481—3 
309—2, 490—3 



Aeneis 

29—8, 228—2,505—11, 720—2 
50—3, 250—1, 517—4, 723—2 
59-61, 296—4,559—2,736—3 
81—1, 302—3, 580—2, 747—4 
83—1, 305—1, 586—2 
92—2, 307—3, 594-1 
101—3, 313—3, 611—2 
106—1, 325—1, 614—1 
101, 370—2, 631—3 
113—5, 385—1, 644—3 
123—3, 406—1, 655—1 
130—2, 410—1, 656—2 
142—2, 415—1, 660—1 
157—2, 418—3, 663—1 



11 

312—3, 497—2 172—1, 437-3, 689—1 

320—1, 510—7 174—6, 453—2, 691—1 

324—1, 529—4 180—9, 459—1, 695—2 

533—1 191—7, 464—1, 691—1 

210—13, 496—1, 707—2 
505 , 702—8 
104 175 

By a similar classification. Homer's A tabulates 
Invocation ....... 19 lines 

Conversation and Debates . 360 lines 

Description 28 lines 

Narration 204 lines 

611 lines 

Further, in the twelve books of Statins' Thebais, there 
are according to Tuebner's edition by Kohlman, Leipsic, 1884, 
9912 lines. These, then, according to the above classification 
of Book One of the Thebais and Aeneis, are grouped into 
the following totals: 

487 lines expressing Invocations; 
3753 „ „ Speeches and Conversations of gods 

and heroes; 
581 „ „ Figures; 

3353 „ „ Description of persons, things and 

events; 
1738 „ „ Narration. 

17.5 per cent of the poem is narration. Therefore, the 
whole cannot be denominated narrative or epic. Discrimi- 
nation was at times difficult because parts of lines varied 
and many times differences were sUght. Again, in many of 
the speeches and conversations there is much description. 
Most of the figures are purely descriptive. If their Unes 
had been added to the group „Description", the discrepancy 



12 

would have been greater. As it is tabulated, description 
numbers 33.8 per cent of the whole number of lines in the 
Thebais. 

The episodes of Hypsipyle in Books IV— VI, Arche- 
morus, and the games instituted in his honor in the same 
books, both delay the action and mar the unity of the poem. 
The narrative lines in these and other digressions were tabu- 
lated as a part of the poem's narration. They might have 
been grouped in a separate class and termed digressions. 
This would have stUl further reduced the percent of narra- 
tion proper in the poem. In the first book of the Aeneis, 
the percent of narration is, to be sure, only 21.17 per cent, 
but the major part of the speeches of its heroes is pure 
narration, and not descriptive as in the Thebais. The first 
book of the Iliad is 33.3 narrative. 

A distinctive characteristic of Homer's and Vergil's des- 
cription is that it is personal and concrete, ces't^) que 
rhumanite y tient la plus grande place, et par Fhumanite, 
j'entends Thomme sous ses traits les plus generaux. The 
descriptions of Statius deal more with the exterior, and are 
more diverse and superficial. 

An apparent relation between the Aeneis and the The- 
bais, by no means fortuitous, but indicative of a fixed pur- 
pose in the mind and art of Statius, is that the number of 
books in each is identical, namely twelve, and the total 
number of lines is nearly the same, 9875 in the one and 
9912 in the latter. 

The A^?*5 is frequently „bombastic and not rarely ob- 
scured by artificial brevity". His lines seem to have been re- 
written and polished untU all their strength of original genius 
was removed. They contain odd medleys of science and 



^) Etudes sur les Poetes Latins de la Decadence. — D. Nisard. 



13 

mythology. Suramis cognati nubibus amnes I 206, but also 
Homer's Od. VII 284 dunsxioq TtotafAoto. In addition to the 
studied elegance of a Vergil are added bold conceits and 
innovations in the use and formation of words. 

Some of the tropes and figurae in Statins are very 
beautiful for the skill and delicacy with which he introduces 
them as Achil. I 372 sqq. 

Qualiter Idaliae volucres, ubi mollis frangunt 
Nubila, jam longum caeloque domoque gregatae, 
Si iunxit pennas diversoque hospita tractu 
Venit avis, cunctae primum mirantur et horrent 
Mox propius propiusque volant, atque aere in ipso 
Paulatim fecere suam plausuque secundo 
Gircumeunt hilares et ad alta cubilia ducunt. 

Beautiful is the comparison of the fluttering timidity ol 
the maidens with the actions of the birds. Notice, further, 
a decided step in advance is evinced in a poet's conception 
of nature. Here the birds act entirely in harmony with 
bird nature. In the Aeneis they are introduced as indi- 
cating the will of the gods. Ae. I 393: Aspice bis senos 
laetantes agmine cycnos, sqq. And again Ae. VI 190: Gemi- 
nae cum forte columbae — prodire volando quantum acie 
possent oculi servare. 

In addition to those given in the Achilleis, there occur 
others of the same type in Thebais HI 330 sqq V 599 sqq 
704 sqq VIE 255, 573 sqq 692 sqq X 414 sqq.^) 

Other comparisons of Statius are as remarkable for their 
striking boldness, such as Thebais IV 263:^) 

. . . taedet nemorum, titulumque nocentem 
Sanguinis humani pudor est nescire sagittas. 



*) Carolus Krause. 



14 

Beautiful as many of the figures of Statius are, they 
are not indicative of much originality, nor do they strike 
the reader with a glad sense of surprise. Illustrative of 
this triteness, is the pretty and bold figure in the Achilleis I 
303 novum bibit ossibus ignem, with which cf. Aeneis I 749 
Infelix Dido longumque bibebat amor em, and IV 66 Est 
moUes flamma medullas — — uritur infelix Dido. Again 
in Vn 355, ossibus implicat ignem and I 688 inspires 
ignem. Further, bibula harena XI 44 of the Thebais was 
common already in the language. Is it a proof of genius 
to combine these expressions already popular and in the 
same metrical unity of the verse as Vergil employed in I 749? 
Yes, verily, writes Harry Langford Wilson. „The genius of 
the poet, in every Uterature and in aU times, consists not 
so much in the creation of new poems as in the invention 

of new and beautiful combinations . Statius cannot be 

regarded as a mere slavish copyist" if from bibebat amorem 
and ossibus implicat ignem he juggles forth bibit ossibus 
ignem. Genius? Poetry comparable to that of the merest 
tyro! Note, too, the beautiful line I 61. Fovisti gremio et 
traiectum vulnere plantas Firmasti: but it, too, is composed 
from well known passages from Vergil. E. g. I 692, 11 273, 
VI 159. 

Compare the following figures. Anger, like night, blacken- 
ing the face of the god S d^ijis vvxxl ioixdg II. I 47. The 
winds marshalled in Une of march already to rush forth, 
velut agmine facto, Ae. I 82, and the angry strife of the 
princes likened to unruly buUs. 

„Sic ubi delectos per torva armenta iuvencos 
Agricola imposito sociare adfectat aratro 
Uli indignantes, quis nondum vomere multo 
Ardua nodosos cervix descendit in armos 



15 

In diversa trahunt, atque aequis vincula laxant 
Viribus et vario confundunt limite sulcos." 

Th. I 131-6. 
In the first two, there is a condensation of expression 
and an additional sense of beauty by the comparison. In 
the last, our sense of proportion and due fitness, the basia 
of the artistic sense, is violated. Therefore, instead of illu- 
minating his thought, they serve rather as embellishment too 
explicitly analyzed and prolonged. Thus, they retard the 
action and do not become an integral part of the whole. 
There are^) „six hundred and forty-eight different words 
used by Statius in a metaphorical sense. The actual number 
of metaphors is, of course, far greater, for very few of them 
occur only once and many are found in twenty, thirty, or 
even forty places". 

The lengthening of the figure and the analysis of details 
is further illustrated by Homer's, Vergil's, and Statius' des- 
criptions of a beautiful woman. In the Iliad, the old men 
like Gicadae, are seen sitting on the Scaean gate above the 
walls of Troy. No word in all Homer describes her beauty, 
but it is felt by the thoughts of these old men on seeing 
Helen approach. She was worth aU the toil and blood shed, but 
Alvciq 'ad'avd%fi(St -S'Sijg etg (ana sotxsr, 
aXXa xal cog, toifj nsq eovtf, iv vfjval vsitf^co, II. Ill 158. 
Again in Ver. I 497 sqq. 
Qualis in Eurotae ripis aut per iuga Gynthi 
Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutae 
Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ; ilia pharetram 
Fert umero, gradiensque deas supereminet omnis 
Latonae tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus; 
Talis erat Dido . . . 



*) Metaphors in the Epic poems of P. P. Statius, Harry Langford 
Wilson. Vid. De P. P. Stati Comparationibus Epicis, Carolus Krause. 



16 

It is longer, weaker, but far superior to Statius in The- 
bais II 201—7 and 230—243. Oh, what a falling off from slg 

&na iowsv through Latonae pectus to ilia supremus 

amor virginitatis ! 
n. 230—243 
Ibant insignes vultuque habituque verendo 
Candida purpureum fusae super ora ruborem 
Deiectaeque genas; tacite subit ille supremus 
Virginitatis amor, primaeque modestia culpae 
Confundit vultus; tunc ora rigantur honestis 
Imbribus, et teneros lacrimae iuvere paventes. 
Non secus ac supero pariter si cardine lapsae 
Pallas et asperior Phoebi soror, utraque telis 
Utraque torva genis flavoque in vertice nodo, 
Dla suas Gyntho comites agat, haec Aracynthor 
Tunc, si fas oculis, non umquam longa tuendo 
Expedias, cui maior honos, cui gratior, aut plus 
De love, mutatosque velint transumere cultus 
Et Pallas deceat pharetras et Delia cristas. 
Homer, by his dramatic narration of events, makes the 
reader feel Helen's beauty by its effect on men, the greatest 
of their times. That this is true and lasting art is seen by 
the charm of her name in later times. Lucian, in the second 
century A. D. in his Dialogues of the Dead writes: 

M eha dia vovto al %lhak vijsg inlfjqdd'fjtfap 

i^ dnaofjg Tfjg ^Ellddog xal Toaodtot snsaov 'ElXfjvSg 
T€ xal fioQfiaQOt xal toaaviok noXs^g dvda%ai;o^ 
yeyovathv; 
Ovid (43 B. C— 17 A. D.) A. A. Ill 759—60. 
Christopher Marlowe's (1563—93) Dr. Faustus. 
Goethe (1749—1832) in his Faust, and also Tennyson 
(1810—92) in his „Dream of Fair Women". 



17 

But Statius tries in a maze of many words to make one 
see the beauty of the daughters by a detailed description, 
and his heroines became the ideal for no subsequent writer. 

The epic must have a great and noble S-avfiacfTog theme 
and in Vergil's hand, it suggests in addition, as in the drama, 
a great moral question, or purpose. Vergil, while appealing 
to the traditions of a race of nobles and to the carefully 
hidden, sober vanity of the world's monarch, is preaching to 
Roman ears already dulled by wealth, pleasure and Grecian 
effeminacy. By praising the early loyalty and obedience, he 
condemns disloyalty and disobedience in the hearers who 
would listen to the one and not to the other. 

Aeneas is the one great hero ; great in the sack of his 
home city: supremely great in adversity and when others 
are hopeless in the long wanderings. His sin with Dido 
makes him the more human, but also the more heroic, be- 
cause so great an allurement does not cause him to be diso- 
bedient to the divine commands for seeking Italy. He toils 
and plans for others without a thought of compensation, 
without calculation and without selfish motives. The story 
of his journey, the Odyssey of his wandering is one, and his 
contest with Turnus, his Iliad, is one. Together they show 
the Romans what supreme effort it was even Romanam con- 
dere gentem; hence how much more necessary to preserve 
Rome. The movement of the poem is solemn and stately; 
Uttle mirth and no laughter except in the Boat-race V 181 — 2. 
The heroes are too deeply impressed with the seriousness of 
life and the reality of fate for mirth. 

The Thebais is rather an historical poem, rich in terrible 
scenes which are not closely connected, a series of brilliantly 
colored pictures. „Stace I'a gatee en^) lui donnant une forme 



D. Nizard. 



18 

historique, om6e seulement d'6pisodes de la machine. II ne 
manque pas d'imagination, d'idees hardies et de sentiments; 
mais il ignore I'art sublime d'Homfere, de donner k chacun 
de ses heros un caractfere individuel. Sa diction n'est pas 
simple et naturelle, il prend Texag^ration pour la grandeur, 
et les subtilit6s pour Fesprit. 

Au reste, le grand ScaUger juge Stace d'une maniere 
plus favorable. Selon ce critique, il est apr^s Vergile, le 
premier poete epique de Tantiquite grecque et latine." 

But also, Stace s'inquiete plus d'etre erudit que d'etre 
philosophe, mele des dieux qu'il va chercher dans Hesiode, 
Mtout. II n'y a pas d'action si insignifiante, pas de per- 
sonnage, si petit qui ne puisse faire sortir un dieu de TOlympe, 
et deux au besoin. This weakens the effect of the whole. 
Man, in his struggling, is not the unselfish hero if he is the 
mere puppet of the gods. From the whole of the Thebais, 
what great lesson is taught? What human needs or divine 
plans have been idealized to teach one great lesson? 

As early as 65 A. D., it was questioned if there were 
any national subjects for a Roman epic writer. Both authors 
and writers were weary of the changes on well worn Grecian 
themes. Vexatus totiens Theseide Juv. I 2. Necdum finitus 
Orestes I 6. Heracleas aut Diomedeas aut mugitum laby- 
rinthi et mare percussum I 53. Such themes afforded only 
carmen triviale (found everywhere) and were struck off from 
communi moneta. Juv. VII 55. Vid. Mart. VI 49. Laudant 
ilia, sed ista legunt. Statins, fired by a worthy ambition to 
emulate Vergil, and urged on by scribendi cacoethes an epic, 
chose his theme from the only source which could be safely 
selected by a court improvisator under a Domitian, namely 
Greece. It is probable that Statins was famihar with the 
writings of Antimachus, a Greek from Colophon, who lived 



19 

in the time of Socrates, and wrote a Thebais. The poetry 
of Lucan inspired him, and art answered to art. 

ipsa te Latinis 
Aeneis venerabitur canentem. Sil. II 7, 79. 

Aeschylus had treated the same subject matter in the 
„Seven against Thebes", and Sophocles in the „Oedipus Rex", 
„Antigone" and „Oedipus at Golonus", and even Euripides in 
his „Suppliants" and „Phoenissae" fell under the speU of this 
tale of sin and retribution. Indeed, there is not in the whole 
of Statius' Thebais a prominent incident which was new and 
which had not already been treated. 

Quam ob rem nescio an recte illi testimonio ita fidem 
habeamus, ut poetam (statium) quas res summas fabula nar- 
rabat, si non omnes, attamen nonnuUas ex Antimacho hausisse 
credamus; quod non impedivit, quominus singulas scaenas et 
cunctum scribendi colorem aliunde sibi peteret. Nee praeter 
Antimachum desunt, qui eisdem de rebus atque Statins in The- 
baide, ante eum egerint. Suidas quidem nomen Antagorae Rho- 
dii affert, qui cum temporibus Arati viveret Antigono Gonata 
regnante Thebaidem conscripsisse dicitur. Idem Menelaum 
quendam XI libros Thebaidos composuisse tradit cuius car- 
minis in I hbro Tsfigiixtoy aaxv, in IV "Yqiiivav nominata esse 
Stephanus Byzantius refert; quorum nominum neutrum in 
Statii opera legitur et tanta invidia fati utriusque poetae 
carmen oppressum est, ut ne reUquias quidem cum Thebaide 
Statiana comparare liceat. Nee modo Graecos sed etiam 
Romanos Thebanam fabulam aggresses esse ex Propertii 
carminibus cognoscimus : „dum tibi Gadmeae dicuntur. Pontice, 

Thebae armaque fraternae tristia militia", quotquot 

de Thebana fabula vel aliqua, quae prope ad eam accedebat, 
tragoedias fecerunt in quibus si Graecos praeterimus, Accius, 

2* 



20 

Antigones auctor et Eriphyles et Phoenissarum et Thebaidos, 
Seneca, Oedipodis auctor et Phoenissarum.^) 

In gebundener Form haben wir von Seneca Epigramme 
und Tragddien. Deren besitzen wir neun: Hercules, Troades, 
Phoenissae (oder Thebais) zwei nicht zusammengehorige 
Szenen aus dem thebanischen Sagenkreis. Medea, Phaedra, 
Oedipus, Agamemnon, Thyestes und Hercules.^) 

In Aeschylus, the motif is the inexorable fate which 
relentlessly pursues the wrong doer and his descendants 
until the sin is atoned. The sense of remorseless doom is 
appalling. In Statins, the motif is more human, hence less 
tragic and less epic. A compact had been made by which 
the sons of Oedipus should rule at Thebes in alternate years. 
The lot had fallen to Eteocles and Polynices had gone into 
exile. The motif, then, is the greed of one selfishly to retain, 
and of the other, the criminal ambition to gain, the crown, 
even at the cost of war. The motif is neither one, nor 
great. Of the many heroic men in the Aeneis, Aeneas 
excels all. In the Thebais, there are two heroes, the brothers 
Eteocles and Polynices — an impossibility in an epic — and 
Tydeus who is as heroic as either. In spite of the efforts 
of Statins, it is a petty story of the selfishness of two little 
cities. Pugna est de paupere regno Th. I 151. The action is 
melodramatic but not great, nor dramatic. The struggle is for 
a compensation, a crown. It has careful calculation and the 
motive is selfish. „I want the crown." This is not epic. 

To copy in Statins' time was not to plagiarize. It was 
practiced in the schools and by his father who was a grammati- 
cus, a tutor of Domitian and often a winner in poetical contests, 
(Vid. Wisard) and like Archias, could magnum numerum opti- 



1) De P. P. Statii Thebaide. — Rudolphus Helm. 

2) Teufels Geschichte r. L. 



21 

morum versuum de iis ipsis quae turn agerentur dicere ex tem- 
pore Gic. Pro. Ar. VIII. Tu decus hoc quodcumque lyrae, pri- 
musque dedisti non vulgare loqui et famam sperare sepulchro 
Sil. V 3, 213 ; and, te nostra magistro Thebais urgebat Sil. 
V 3, 233. The young Statius'had been thoroughly trained in, ^ 
the art and language of Vergil, Ovid and Horace, and as a 
man, he wrote with favorite selections of these and other 
poets ringing in his mind and flowing, at times unconsciously, 
from his pen. Thus, thinking of desolation, he worded quod 
desolata domorum tecta. Th. I 653, almost in Ovid's own 
expression in Metamorphoses I 349 desolatas terras. Again, 
an epithet is to be given to Apollo in the Th. I 495 and 
the god is Augur Apollo as Statins had learned in school 
days from H. Garmina lib. I 2, 32 to call him. Or did he 
wish to express a different season for action he uttered 
„Tempus erit", Th. I 32, in the same metrical unit of the 
verse as Vergil had written Tempus erat in Ae. II 268. 
Vid. also Horace Gar. I 37, 4; Tib. I 4, 79; Ov. Fast. I 
529; Met. XIV 147; Ep. X 7; Fast. V 497; Luc. VIE 467; 
Ovid. Met. X 446; A. A. Ill 69; Met. X 207; Prot. V 6, 53; 
Ov. A. m 2, 44; Ep. E 2, 69; Met. XIV 808.^) 

That Statins was unduly influenced by the demands and 
fashions of his times is evinced throughout the Thebais, for 
this poem, worthy the Venusina lucerna, was written for, 
and read to, the fashionable loungers at the afternoon reci- 
tationes. This custom of an author reading to invited guests 
had been introduced and popularized under Augustus to an 
excess. In medio qui scripta foro recitent sunt multi quique 
lavantes — Horati Sermones Lib. 14, 75; and Ovid, Nullus in 
hac terra, recitem si carmina, cuius intellecturis auribus utar, 
adest — Tristium Lib. Ill 14, 39, and Ex Ponto Lib. IV 5, 1—4. 



^) Suggested by De P. P. Statio etc. — Geargius Luehr. 



22 

Under Nero they were an established institution. In thermas 
fugio: sonas ad aurem. — Mart. Ill 44, 12. 

G. Plini Liber Epistularum I 13: magnum proventum 
poetarum annus hie attuUt. Toto mense Aprili nullus fere 
dies, quo non recitaret aliquis. But the recitatio had become 
an ostentatio G. PL VII 17; Satura Juvenalis III 9: et 
Augusto recitantes mense poetas. Such a poet was Statius 
and he wrote to please such audiences in the halls of 
Abascantius or Glabrio, nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui 
venerat albis. Juv. I. 111. Hence his brilliant verbal conceits, 
pictures like sparkling miniatures; his excess of figures and 
epigrammatic finish; the finish, but not the force, of poetry, 
n ne fit battre aucun coeur.^) 

Gunitur ad vocem iucundum et carmen amicae 
Thebaides, laetam cum fecit Statius urbem 
Promisitque diem; tanta dulcedine captos 
Adficit ille animos, tantaque libidine volgi 
Auditur ; — Juv. VII 82 — is not so gi^eat an endorse- 
ment of the poem as it is of the charm of Statius' voice 
and his popularity at court. 

But „Martial, himself a needy adventurer in the court 
V of Domitian,^) pays Statius the eloquent tribute of jealous 
silence"; yet see Martial XIV 1, 11: vis scribam Thebais. 
Does not this refer to Statius? 

There is also some little evidence that he was acquainted 
with Hebrew literature. Th. II 38: Fulminibus iter est; 
and Job, XXVIII 26, although I can find no contempora- 
neous authority that he became a Ghristian as Dante repre- 
sents him as saying to Vergil in the Inferno XXII 67, 69.^) 



*) Sainte-Beuve. 

2) Classical Latin Literature. — W. C. Lawton. 

*) Through thee I was poet, through thee, Christian. 



23 



Other quotations jfrom Vergil seem to be the result of 
deliberate choice on the part of Statius. 

The following tabulation of similarities of words and 
expressions is restricted to the Thebais and Aeneis. It is 
compiled from the author's knowledge of VergU and Statius, 
protracted study of Latin Dictionaries and the portions of the 
Thesaurus Linguae Latinae accessible. It is not an untried 
experiment, but it is new and in parts more exhaustive 
than previous attempts. 

It is interesting to note that as Statius proceeded, he 
grew more independent in his art, and fewer passages are 
similar to Vergil. 



Thebais. I. 

4 Ganam primordia 

7 Longa series 

9 condentem proelia 

10 Tyrios accedere montes 

9 Expediam penitusque 
sequar 

11 Graves irae 

Saevae Junonis opus 
9 Infandis 

14 II 106, VI 307 

17 confusa domus 

26 Hiulci fulminis expers 

30 Maneas hominum conten- 

tus habenis 
32 Tempus erit 
34 Sceptrum exitiale 
36 Rogi, tumulisque carentia 

regum 



Aeneis. 

Anna virumque cano. 
Longae ambages I. 341. 
conderet urbem I. 5. 
Fertur in abruptum mons 

Xn. 687. 
expediunt I. 702. 

Saevae Junonis ob iram I. 4, 

Nefandi IV. 497. 
Dies infanda; 11. 132; infan- 

dum dolorem II. 3. 
lonio in magno III. 211. 
domus miscetur 11. 486. 
thalami expertem. 
Tenet iUe immania saxa .... 

carcere regnet I. 139 — 141. 
tempus erat II. 268. 
Donum exitiale 11. 31. 
Impositique rogis .... paren- 

tum VI. 308. 



24 



43 propellans caedibus 
41 Immodicum irae Tydea 
52 saeva dies animi scele- 
rumque in pectoreDirae 
54 Ostentat caelo 

60 Si bene quid merui 

61 Fovisti gremio 

62 Trajectum vulnereplan- 

tas firmasti 
62 Girrhaea bicorni 
68 Lamentabile...connubium 

72 Incubui 

73 Si digna precor 

88 Tali a dicenti 
85 barathri 

90 Gocyton juxta 

92 Igne Jovis (VII. 158) 

59 Adnue Tisiphone 

89 sedebat cocyton iuxta 

Instaurare diem VII. 94 

90 Resolutaqueverticecrines 
88 Grudelis diva severos ad- 

vertit vultus 

95 Galigantes .... campos 

96 Limen inremeabile 

portae 

97 Piceo .... nimbo 

98 Arduus Atlas 



Gaedis acervosX. 245; XL 207. 
nii occurit Tydeus VI. 479. 
Dicuntur geminae pestes 

cognomine Dirae XH 845. 
Sustulit .... ad sidera palmas 

n. 153. 
Si bene quid de te merui 

IV. 317. 
Fotum gremio I. 692, 

Gremio fovet I. 718. 
pedes trajectus 11. 273. 

vestigia figit VI. 159. 
Rhenusque bicornis VIII. 727. 
Lamentabile regnum 11. 4. 
Incubuere I. 84. 

Talia jactanti I. 102. 
barathri HI. 421. 
Gocytusque sinu VI. 132. 
clarior ignis II. 705. 
Tisiphoneque se dens VI. 555. 

Instauratque diem IV. 63. 
Grinibus .... passis I. 480. 
Amnemque severum Gocyti 

metuens Geor. III. 38. 
Galigat II. 606; GaKgine 

IX. 36. 
Ripam inremeabilis undae VI. 

425. 
Turbine piceo III. 573. 
Latera ardua Atlantis duri 

IV. 246. 



25 



100 Maleae de valle 

106 Suffusa veneno tenditur 
.... igneus atro ore 
vapor 

114 Plurimus Cithaeron 

115 Fera sibila crine virenti 

121 Curvo delphine 

124 Infecit nube 

122 Gremioque Palaemona 

pressit 
127 Regendi saevus amor 
135 In diversa trahunt 

144 Laquearia fulva metallo 

145 Effulta nitebant 

149 Gementes excubiae 
151 de paupere regno 

157 Quern Sol emissus Eoo 

160 Madidi 

158 Gardine 

160 Aut Borea 

165 lam sorte cadebat 

166 Vacua cum solus in aula 

180 Sedit 

186 Torvum sub fronte mi- 
netur 



Maleaeque sequacibus undis 

V. 193. 
Suffecti sanguine et igni II. 

210. 



Nocturnus Githaeron IV. 303. 
Tot Erinys sibilat hydris 
Glari delphines in orbem 

VIII. 673. 
Arma infecta sanguine V. 413. 
Matres pressere ad pectora 

natos VII. 518. 
Auri caecus amore I. 349. 
Nunc nunc .... nunc dividit 

illuc IV. 285. 
Laquearibus aureis I. 726. 
Harum effultus tergo .... 

iacebat. VII. 94. 
Excubiae divom IV. 201 (ob). 
Pauper pater II. 87. 
Dies primo surgebat Eoo 

m. 588. 
Madida in veste V. 179. 
Gessabit cardine rerum I. 

672. 
Autem Boreas III. 687. 
Mihi sorte datum I. 139. 
Sola domo maeret vacua IV. 

82. 
Idque pio sedet Aeneae V. 

418. 
Nequiquam lumine torvo III. 

677. 



26 



190 Et adfatu bonus 
202 Placido vultu 
204 Gaelicolae 

217 Gyclopum bracchia 
210 Florentes lumine postes 

218 Incudibus ignes 

225 Perseos alter scinditur 

227 Mens cunctis immota 

manet 
234 Incestare parentis 

237 Aethere nostro vescitur 

243 Exitiale genus 

249 Flammato versans in- 

opinum corde 
252 Inclita fama 
269 Terrarum furias abolere 
274 Mavortius axis 
269 Abolere 
290 Stygia aequora fratris 

Obtestor (mansurum at- 

que inrevocabile ver- 

bum) 



Nee dictu affabilis uUi HI. 621. 
Placidum caput I. 127. 
Gaelicolum III. 21. 
Gyclopum caminis VI. 630. 
Florentes aere catervas VII. 

804. 
Incudibus urbes VII. 629. 
Sic genus amborum scindit 

se Vm. 142. 
Mens immota manet IV. 449. 

Incestat funere classem VI. 

150. 
Si vescitur aura aetheria 1. 546 ; 

vescitur aura? III. 339. 
Donum exitiale II. 31. 
Flammato corde volutans 

I. 50. 
Incluta fama II. 82. 
Furias Aiacis Oilei I. 41. 
Terra . . . savortia HI. 13. 
Abolere Sychaeum I. 720. 
Stygiam paludem Di cuius 

iurare timent et fallere nu- 

men VI. 323. 



293 Gyllenia Proles 


GyUenia proles IV. 258. 


297 Lethes ripa 


Lethaeumque .... amnem 




VI. 705. 


298 Profundi lege Erebi 


Erebi noctemque profundam 




IV. 26. 


303 Paret dictis geni- 


Paret .... dictis carae gene- 


toris 


tricis I. 689. 



27 



304 Plantaribus inligat alis Pedibus talaria nectit IV. 239. 
306 Dextrae virgam inseruit Turn virgam capit IV. 242. 

Whole passage 
similar. 



307 Nigra .... tartara 
311 Ingenti designat nubila 

gyro 
316 Recursans cura 

319 Aevum cupiat pro luce 

pacisci 

320 Tarda fugae dispendia 



339 Pecudes 



tacent 



cf 



fre- 



337—345 

341 Oblivia vitae 

348 Venti transversa 

mentes 
359 Stagnoque refusa est 
353 Nee non 
356 Agmine facto 
353 Abrupta tremiscunt ful- 

gura 
365 Nubigenas, See I. 435. 
392 Dives avis 

373 Malignis vadis 

390 Rex .... in senium 

vergens 
362 Bracchia silvarum 
394 Gemino natarum pignore 

fultus 
403 Sub nocte sopora 



Nigra videre tartara VI. 134. 
Trahens varies .... colores 

IV. 701. 

Cura recursat I. 662. 
Pro laude pacisci V. 230. 

Morae fuerint dispendia tanti 

III. 453. 

Tacet omnis ager, pecudes 

IV. 525. 
IV. 521—28. 

Oblivia potant VI. 715. 
Mutati transversa fremunt 

V. 19. 

Stagna refusa vadis I. 126. 
Nee non I. 707. 
Agmine facto I. 82. 
Abrupti nubibus ignes. 

Nubigenae VH. 674. 

Africa terra triumphis dives 

IV. 37. 
Aditus maligni XL 525. 
Rex . . . senior in pace reg- 

nabat. 
Annosa bracchia VI. 282. 
Sola domum . . . servabat 

filia VII. 52. 
Noctisque soporae VI. 390. 



28 



403 Conscius horror agit 
405 Infusam tergo glaciem 

415 Integer annorum 
423 Gaveae dissensus 
418 Grebros ictus . . cava 

tempora ingeminant 
420 Genu vacua ilia tundant 
437 Putresque 

462 Quisquis es 
450 Vocis amarae 

464 Non degenerare paterno 

463 Sanguinis hebet 

466 Mens sibi conscia facti 
469 Succedite tecto 
472 Forsan venturus amor 
. . . ut meminisse iuvet. 
457 Stabulare bimembres 

483 Lustrare vacat 
478 Mulcentem dictis 

490 Exuviae 

493 Obtutu gelida ora premit 

497 Sic tendens ad sidera 

palmas 
504 Tuaque omina firmes 
509 Prisca fides Tripodum 
515 — 525 Gumulare , canistris 



Mens conscia I. 604. 

Nix . . . infusa tegit IV. 
250. 

Fretusque iuventa V. 430. 

Consessu caveae VIII. 636. 

Multa volnera cavo lateri in- 
geminant V. 434. 

Genua labant. 

Quadrupedante putrem VIII. 
596. 

Quisquis es I. 387. 

Hostis amare X. 900. 

Degeneremque narrare me- 
mento 11. 549. 

Sanguinis hebet V. 396. 

Mens sibi conscia recti I. 604. 

Succedite nostris I. 627. 

Haec olim meminisse iuvabit 
I. 203. 

Nubigenas . . . bimembris 
VIII. 293. 

Vacet audire I. 373; X 625. 

Dictis . . . mulcet I. 197; 
V. 464. 

Exuviasque omnis II. 496. 

Obtutuque haeret defixus I. 
495. 

Palmas ... ad sidera tendunt 
V. 256. 

Haec omina firma IV. 691. 

Tripodas IE. 360. 

Gereremque canistris expe- 
diunt. I. 696—706. 



29 



527 Siccati discumbunt 

526 Effultus eburno 

527 Siccati vulnera 
534 Mirabile visu 
525 Superbis stratis 
542 Danaus libare 



551 Ora canes . 

latrant 
549 Troia recedit 



nubila 



555 Gui festa dies 

557 Quae sint ea . . . . causis 

563 Amplexum . . . septem 

orbibus squamis 
565 Ore trisulco 

572 Servabat nata panates 

573 Intemerata toris 

573 Felix, si Delia num- 
quam Furta nee oc- 
cultum . . . amorem 

576 Bis quinos 

582 Generis cunabula tanti 

581 Mandat alendum 

583 Gramineos dedit . . toros 
590 Attonitas ut nuntius aures 

adit 
595 Occumbere leto 



Stratoque discumbitur ostro 

I. 700. 

Effultum foliis VIII. 368. 
Siccabat volnera X. 834. 
Mirabile dictu. 
Foribus superbis VIII. 196. 
Quam Belus et omnes I. 

729. 
Ganum latratus in auras V. 

257. 
Terraeque urbesque recedunt 

III. 72. 
nie dies, festa 11. 249. 

Septima , . volumine . . 

squamam 
Linguis micat ore trisulcis 

II. 475. 

Tantas servabat filia sedes 
VII. 52. 

Virginitatis amorem inteme- 
rata colit XI. 583. 

Felix . . Felix si . . . num- 
quam IV. 657. 

Bis quinos silet II. 126. 
Gentis cunabula nostrae III. 

105. 
Mandarat alendum III. 50. 
Aras gramineas XII. 119. 
Nuntius ergo venerat VI. 456. 

Occumbere morti II. 62. 



30 



595—615 Anguis 

605 Armorum praestans animi 

Goroebus 
612 Virum stipante corona 

616 Juvat ire et visere 

618 Grasso .... tabo 

619 Stupet Inacha pubes 

Vid. VI. 192. 

625 Inpastae aves 

626 Oraque sicca ferunt tre- 

pidorum inhiasse lupo- 
rum. 
630 Et celsa Gyclopum tecta 

632 Labuntur dulces animae 

640 Trepidas occurrere morti 

643 Thymbraee 

643 Non missus tuossupplexve 

penates advenio. 

644 Gonscia virtus 

651 Me, me, solum obiecisse 

652 Praestabat 

655 Sed quid fando de- 

moror 
679 Sed si praecipitant mise- 

rumcognoscere curae 
682 Quid nota recondis? 



Gacus Vm. 193 sqq. 
Exultans animisque Goroebus 

II. 386. 
Magna stipante caterva IV. 

136. 
Juvat ire et videre 

II. 28. 

Grassum cruorem V. 469. 
Obstupuit Sidonia Dido I. 613. 

Inpastus .... leo IX. 339- 

Lupi ceu faucibus 

exspectant siccis 11. 355. 

Gyclopum educta . . . moenia 

VI. 630. 
Linquebant dulcis animas III. 

140. 
Ne trepidate defendere navis 

IX. 114. 
Thymbraee III. 85. 
Tua nos ad limina mittit. 

III. 155. 

Gonscia virtus XII. 668. 
Me, me .... in me conver- 

tite ferrum IX. 427. 
Praestat lustrare. 
Quid ultra . . . et fando de- 

moror Austros III. 481. 
Sed si tantus amor cognos- 

cere 11. 10. 
Sed Quid haec in- 

grata revolvo? II 101. 



31 



684 — 8 Regnum et furias ocu- 
losque pudentes .... 
destituunt. 

638 Ne perge queri 

700 Umeris subiisse molares 

701 Aegaeum III. 434. 

703 Feros lentandus in hostes 

arcus 
707 Et summo placitura Jovi 

707 Quis letifer annus 

711 Mater ovantem 

712 Torva Megaera 

714 Aetemo premit accubitu 

716 Adsis, memor hospitii 



607 Famam extendere 
381 Lucem fundens 
191 Nos vilis in omnesprompta 
manus casus 

461 Aut hodie spoliis gavisus 
abibis, quisquis es, his 
aut me . . . magni de 
stirpe creatum Oeneos 
.... accipies. 



Quis genus Aeneadum . . • 
nesciat? I 565. 

Perge modo I. 401. 
Ipse subibo umeris II. 708. 
Alto insonat Aegaeo XII. 366. 
Tentandus remus in unda HI. 

384. 
Junonis magnae prece adora 

III. 437. 
Lues et letifer annus HI. 139. 
Ibat ovans VI. 589. 
Lumine torvo III. 677. 
Enceladi . . . urgueri mole hac 

m. 579. 
luppiter, hospitibus nam te 

dare iura loquuntur . . . esse 

veUs. I. 731. 
Famam extendere factis X. 468. 
Fundebat luna. 
Nos, animae viles, inhumata 

infletaque turba, sternamur 

XI. 372. 
Aut hodie victor spolia ilia 

cruenta .... referes aut 

.... occumbes pariter X. 

862. 



By the permission of the Syndic of New York University 
the comparisons of the remaining books II — VII are not printed 
herewith but may be found in the manuscript copy of the 
thesis in the library of the New York University. 



The writer of this thesis thus finds and tabulates 934 
compai'isons and summarizes from Deipser 446 more com- 
parisons between the Thebais and Aeneis. Further, Deipser 
notes in the certamina of Th. Bk. VI. twenty-nine lengthy- 
comparisons of both words and incidents with those of Ver- 
gil in books V, IX and XI. Archemorus and Thoas afford 
eleven more; Thiodamantes and Agylleus, like Nisus and 
Euryalus, sixteen more; Parthenopaeus and Tydeus four; 
Hopleus seven more similar to Euryalus. Occasions for strife 
give eight lengthy comparisons; entrances, too, in both, to 
the lower world. Ismenis is comparable to Cassandra. Thebes 
and Gastra Aeneae give five comparisons. There are also 
sixty-nine comparisons quibus in discribendis non in dispo- 
nendis, eighty-three in loca, forty-six de hominibus, sixteen 
more in which the comparison is in words used, not in con- 
tent. The gods, influencing and interfering, furnish ninety- 
two comparisons; the furies, nine; fama, six; Somnus, four; 
Iris, three; nox, two; aurorae, three; horae, one; BeUona, 
one; Parcae, two; Athens, one. Like references to twenty- 
five heroes and mythological monsters are found. 

A Study of 
Some Verbal Conceits and Interesting Words. 

The alliterations in Statius have been ably discussed by 
J. Jovianus Pontanus,^) „Delectat autem alliteratio haec miri- 

>) Jahresbericht, 1886. 



34 

fice in primis et ultimis locis versus facta", and by Edward 
Kranich who says, „Die Alliteration sei von besonderer Wir- 
kung, wenn sie auf dem Anlaute der beiden Verse gleichwie 
Ecksteine den Kunstbau einschKefiender WQrter beruhe. An 
diesen schon dem Auge des Lesers auffallenden Stellen des 
Verses dringt die Alliteration besonders dann am meisten an 
das Ohr des aufmerksamen HcJrers, wenn die alliterierenden 
W()rter syntaktisch zusammengehcJren wie Subjekt und Pra- 
dikat, Attribut und Substantiv oder sonstwie in einer n^heren 
Beziehung stehen." 

Statius is fond of mouth-filling words and especially in 
the fifth foot of his hexameters. In the 9912 lines of the 
Thebais there are 864 verses containing in the fifth foot a 
syllable with the consonant „b", and of these 384 have the 
syllable „bus". Thebais IV. 406—411: 

At trepidus monstro et variis terroribus impar. 
Longaevi rex vatis opem tene bras que sagaces 
Tiresiae, qui mos incerta paventibus aeger 
Consulit: ille deos non larga caede iuvencum, 
Non alacri pinna, aut verum spirantibus extis, 
Nee tripode implicito, numerisque sequentibus astra 

But Virgil in the first book of the Aeneis has also 
seventy-seven lines containing in the fifth foot a syllable 
with the consonant ^b" and forty-three with the syllable „bus". 

The repetitions of a writer are a result of carelessness 
or are predetermined by him because „it seemethgood" to the 
writer. The first explanation is hardly tenable for an artist 
like Statius. 

Therefore, these repetitions in themselves do not indicate 
lack of pruning and revisions, but are rather to be conside- 
red as conscious revelations of his art. Githaeron occurs 
thirteen times in the Thebais always at the end of the 



35 

verse: I 114, 330; II 80; III 37; IV 447; VIII 346; IX 447; 
X 372; XI 555, 752; XII 52; II 460; IV 371. Tonans, in 
different cases, an epithet of Zeus, occurs twenty-five times 
always at the end of the verse: I 421; II 69, 71, 154, 220; 

III 575; V 511, 641; IV 13, 294, 782; VI 178, 260; VII 24, 
318, 329; VIII 229, 74; IX 510; X 61, 77, 852; XI 11, 
209, 496. 

Ahnost as frequent in all the books is the use of a 
polysyllabic word ending in some form of-bilis, or a similar 
combination of letters, in the fifth foot of the verse, as I 5 
inexorabile ; II 594 inexpugnabilis; III 15 impenetrabilis; 

IV 274spectabilis; V 45 ineluctabUis ; VI 14 flebile; VII 484 
exsecrabile; VIII 582 formidabile; IX 198 inrevocabiHs; 
X 357 lacrimabilis; XI 87 insatiabilis; XII 624 speculabile. 

Another characteristic is the ending of the fifth foot in 
a number of successive lines with the same sound. This is 
too frequent to be counted as an accident, XII 258 — 261. 

Sic quoque dulce solum, cemis, quo praedita cultu. 
Qua stipata manu, iuxta tua limina primum 
Oedipodis magni venio nurus? Improba non sunt 
Vota: rogos hospes planctumque et funera posco. 



3* 



Unusual and P&(tic Words in the Thebais. 



Advigilans 1 147. In Plaut. Ter 

Acclinis II 577, V 345, I 
835, X 288 rare and poetic. 
Verbum a poetis mutuatur 
latinitas argentea. Ver. X 
835. Ov. M. 15, 737. Luc. 
X 356. Val. II 92. The- 
saurus Linguae Latinae. 

Accresco IV 355 poetic. „Prae- 
positione ad utitur familiar- 
iter non sat accurate." Th. 
L. L. 

AdsibUo V 578, p. V. poet, 
only. 
V Adytum VIII 338. Greek. 

Aegi-esco II 18; IV 109; X 
303, also Ver. XII 46. Not 
found in Cicero. „Haec 
verba inchoativa quae ex 
appellativis derivantur, per- 
fectum non habent omnino." 
Th. L. L. 

Aerisonus I 365. „Derivatum 
ab aes et sonare, cf. V. F. I 

704; Sn. II 93. Th. L. L. 



Algentes III 469 — frigidi. 

AKpes III 428; V 699; VI 
276; XI198; VI 558 poetic 
not in Horace. 

Affrango V 150 very rare, 
perhans only Sta. „A Statio 
novatum." Th. L. L. 

Aequaevus IV 626, only poet. 
„Vocabulum unde a Ver. 
lectum poetarum maxime 
est." Th. L. L. 

Aestifer IV 692, VIII 83. 
Plin. Char. Gram. I 120, 4. 
„Aestifer an aestiferus?" 
Th. L. L. 

Deipser in the above quot- 
ed work tabulates in Sta- 
tins 125 compounds of fer 
and 61 of ger. 

Aliger II 1; X 288, a purely 
poet. word. „Gompositum 
a poeta nomen." Th. L. L. 

Anfractus IV 52. Ante class. 

Anguicoma VI 540. only poet. 

Arbiter III 23 in this sense 
poet. p. V. 



37 



Armifer III 420; IV 653; XI 
122. poet, first by Ovid. 

Armiger III 425, 532; VIII 
687; IX 604, 834; XI 328. 

Armipotens III 344; VH 78 
poetic. 

Armisonus I 535. poet. 

Alio VIII 413. rare. 

Astriger VIII 315; X 828 
poet. p. V. 

Attremere III 314, p. V. rare. 

Auxilior VI 664, rare but in 
Plaut. Ter. common in 
Church Latin. Th. L. L. 

B 

Bivertex I 629. 

Bicornis I 62, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Bimembris I 455, poet. 
^ Barathrum — fidga&Qov I 85, 

poet. VIII 15; IX 503. 
Bellipotens II 716. Poetic, 

rare; III 291, VIII 384; 

IX 832. 
Biforis IV 668. 
BeUatrix VIII 57. 
Belliger X 739 poet. 
Bissenos — duodecim. 



■^ Gerastae 
IX 174. 



x€Qd(fTfjg I 103, 



Gonfinium I 336, 1X359; fre- 

quent after Ver. only once 

in Gicero. 
Gircumtono VII 16, poet. 
Gircumfluus II 5, poet. p. V. 

prose. VI 540. 
Gonsonus II 210, rare most 

poetic. VII 261. 
Gonlustro II 510, rare. 
Gunctator III 79, not in Gic. 
Galcati III 208, poet. p. V. 
Gornipes IV 271, 695, poet. 

VII 590; VII 137; VIH 

157. 
Gondensus IV 593, poet, ne- 
ver Gic. 
Gatenatus IV 731, poet, never 

Gic. 
Gorniger IV 830, poet. VII 

66. 
y/Ghlamys V 438 Greek. 
Gaelifer VI 430. poet. 
Gonditor V 713. Glass, but 

freq. p. V. 
Gonnubialis V 113 Used first 

Ovid. 
Gonterminus VII 702 non 

ante V. 
Gontristo VII 46, non ante V. 
Gommaculo VIII 74, rare. 

XI 752. 
Greatrix VIII 303, poet. 
Gircumspicio VIII 14. 



38 



Gonsultor VIII 200 In Sal. 

but rare. 
Ghelyn VIII 374 freq. only 

Ovid. Sta. 
Gonamen IX 774, poet. IX 

268. 
Gontemptor IX 550 not in 

Gic. or Hor. IX 513; IX 

306. 
Gircumvolo IX 736, not 

ante V. 
Gaelicola X 918. poetic. 
Gircumflo XI 42 extremely 

rare. 
Goniugalis XII 157 „Only 

in Ovid". 
Gontemptrix XII 185, very 

rare non Gic. 

D 

Dequestus I 404, p. V. poets. 
Devescor I 604, Recorded 

only in Statins. 
Deculco I 623 p. V. 
y^ Diadema I 82, Greek. II 457 

IX 55, 163; X 800; XI 

207. 
Dilambo I 675 in Sta. only. 
Ductor III 31, a favorite of 

Ve. used 23 times. IV 188; 

V 8; XI 205. 
Detumuere III 259. Very 

rare, p. V. 



Desudo III 277. Very rare, 

p. V. 
Defei-v^ere III 314. p. V. 
Dulcedo III 448. Not in Gaes. 
Despecto IV 165, fortasse non 

ante V. 
Declinis V 298, fortasse only 

here and Luc. IV. 
Driffibulo VI 548, quoted only 

in Sta. 
Dissilio VII 69, poet. p. V. 

VIII 19. 
Dito VII 177, poet, prose non 

ante Liv. 
Dissonus VIII 620. Non in V. 

Hor. Ovid. 
Dividuus VIII 489 poet. p. V. 
DebeUator IX 545 poet, very 

rare. 
Desacro IX 586 poet. post. V. 
Discolor IX 339, post. V. 
Dejungere IX 424. 
Dibello IX 190, non ante V. 

freq. Liv. 
Defluus IX 325 post V. 
.'Delphinus IX 330 Gr. 
Dissocio X 57 al. ex. poet. 



Exsaturabilis I 214. 
Exitialis I 243, rare. I 34, 

IV 190. 
Exitiabilis I 395, rare. 



39 



^Ephebus I 42a, Greek, IX 371. 

Emigro II 22, rare. 

Emensus II 375, not freq. till 
P. Virg. 

Expavit III 190, fortesse non 
ante V. 

Exarmatus III 303, p. V. 

Ensifer IV 321. 

Excusabilis V 453, very rare. 

Expugnabilis VI 103, very- 
rare. 

Exsaturo VI 169, rare but 
class. 

Exsecrabilis VII 484. 
>/Electrum VII 729, Greek. 

ExsiquiaUs VII 90, XI 610, 
Ovid and Sta. 

Exsatio VIII 650, IX 14, non 
ante V. 

Exarmo XI 206, post V. 

Elanguesco XI 383, non ante V. 

Exitialis XI 757, rare. 

Escendo XII 172, rare. ^ 

Exsuperabilis I 214, poet. 



Fluctivaga I 271, Post V, poe- 
try, IX 360, 385. 

Ferruginea I 600, II 13. 

Frugifer I 719. 

Fibra III 436, for Viscera, 
poet. p. V. 

Fragor III 669, poet. p. V. 



Formidabilis IV 474, poet. p. V* 

Vm 581, IX 544. 
Fulmineus IV 94, a poet. 
Fatidicus IV 187, a poet. VIII 

208, X 605. 
Fremibundus V 244 poet. 
Furialis VI 407, most. poet. 
Fusco VI 554, poet. 
Flammiger VIII 675, poet. 
Finitor VIII 92, this sense 

used by Sta. 
Fumifer VIII 466, poet. 
Furibundus 1X353, rare X 896. 
Falisco 1X92, act. only poet. 

p. V. 
Femineus XII 145, poet. p. V. 

G 

Germen II 267, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Glomero II 585, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Gigans IV 176, Greek V 569. 
Genitrix V 715, poet. p. V. 

VII 557, IX 351, 794. 
GlaciaHs VII 356, poet. p. V. 
Grassor VII 574, ante V. 

VIII 570. 
Gemmifer VIII 237. 
Glisco VIII 755, poet. p. V. 

H 

Hiulcus I 26, only in poet. 
IV 707. 



40 



Horresco III 71, most, poet. 
Hortatrix V 164, rare, IX 717. 
Hispidus VI 234, poet. p. V. 
Horresco VII 46, most. poet. 

I 

Inamoenus I 89, poet. 
Inremeabile I 96, poet. 
Inmutabiles I 212. 
Inrevocabilis I 290, poet. IX 

198. 
Impavidus I 326, not in Gaes. 

Gic. Post V. 
Inglomero I 350, rare, only 

Statius? 
Implacabilis I 440, rare but 

class. 
Impexus I 484, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Immurmuro I 532, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Impacatus I 147, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Inpastus I 625; VIII 306, 

poetic word. 
Inaspectus I 50; IV 428; 

VIII 241; Recorded only 

in Sta. 
Inexorbilis I 5, class. VI 48. 
Ignipes I 27. 

Infrenus II 180, poet, post V. 
Infaustus II 265, p. Virg. 

rare. 



Inexpletus II 518, not given 

before Ovid; IV 474 ; VI 703, 

661; VIII 481. 
Interlabentibus II 649, poet. 
Inperditus III 84, poet. 
Inpexus III 138, p. V. 
Impenetrabilis III 15, fortasse 

non ante V. 
Interfusus III 678, most. poet. 
Insuccatus III 359, only in 

Sta. VIII 241. 
Induro IV 65, poet. p. V. 
Interfluus IV 424, rare, p. V. 
Inluctans IV 789, poet. 
Infecundus IV 148, very rare* 
Intersona V 345, poet. 
Illaelabilis V 634, poet. 
Ineluctabilis V 45, poet. p. V. 

IX 290, 502. 
Ingifer V 50. 

Indebilus V 735, poet. p. V. 
Inocciduus VI 255 rare; VIII 

310. 
Insatiatus VI 284, quot. only 

Sta. 
Internigro VI 314, only poet. 
Inviolabilis VI 384, poet. p. V. 
Interligo VII 570, quot. Sta. 
Illabor VII 6, rare. 
Interfor VII 290, often Livy. 
Infamo VII 117, rare. 
Imbrifer VII 427, poet. 1X405. 
InvigUo VIII 623, 263, poet. 



41 



Insons VIII 765, not in Gaes. 

Gic. IX 666; XH 683. 
Intemecto VIII 168, poet. 
Inservo VIII 194; X 886, 

VI 935, favorite of Sta. 
Indecerptus VIII 87, quot. 

only St. 
Impingo VIII 34, rare till p. V. 
Inevitabilis IX 549, post V. 
Infesto IX 812, post V. mostly. 
Immitis IX 19, poet. p. V. 
ImbeUes IX 115, poet. p. V. 
Imfamo IX 96, rare. 
Implacidus IX 4, poet. 
Inmurmuro XI 63, poet. p. V. 
Indubitabilis XI 64, poet. p. V. 
Infrendeo XI 297, poet. p. V. 

V 663. 
Imperfectus XI 582, not com. 

p. V. 
lUaudatus XI 11, p. V. 
Illabor XII 112, rare. 
Intermico XII 253, only poet. 



Jaculabilis VI 636, Sta. and 
Ovid. 



Laboratus I 341 post V. 
Lauriger I 42; VIII 174. 
Longaevus I 65, poetic word; 
IV 74, 407; XI 184. 



Lacrimabilis IV 718, poet. p. 

V. XI 636; IX 882, X 791, 

357. 
LetaUs VI 40 poet. p. V. XI 

535. 
Laborifer VI 25 poet. 
Letifer, poet. I 707; III 32; 

V 737; VI 65; VH 709; 
VIII 2. 

Lympa, poet. VIII 766. 

Litamen X 610 Sta. first, 
quot. 

Libamen VI 224 poet. only. 

Lucifer XII 50. 
Pampas XII 365. Gr. 
^.Lychnis I 521. Gr. 

M 

Monstrifer I 453, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Multivagus I 599, poet. p. V. 

poetry. 
Montivagus I 581; VI 1. 
Multifida III 142; p. V. 

poetry. 
Magniloquus III 192. 
Mulceo III 178, poet. p. V. 
Magnanimus IV 112, rare, 

VI 246; VIII 355; IX 547. 
Meo IV 69, poet. p. V. 
Mysticus VIII 765, poet. 
Multisonus VIII 25, poet. 

Mart. 



42 



MissUe VIII 524, XII 767, not 

Caes. Gic. 
Moderamen X 183, poet. p. V. 
Mansuesco XI 474, poet. p. V» 
Munimen XII 9, poet. p. V. 

N 

Nubigena I 365, poetic word. 
Nubifer I 193, poet. word. 
Numerosa I 567, numerous 

only p. V. 
Nubna 1 342, 551, 664; II 137; 

IX 851, 896. Poetic and 

post. Ver. prose. 
Navita I 370, poetic and post 

Virg. prose. 
Noctivagus III 420 poet., XII 

132. 
Nemoralis IV 209; IX 627, 

poet. 
Nigresco IV 171, poet. p. V. 
Necopinus VI 570; IX 223, 

poet. 
^ Nympha IX 384, 417, 598, Gr. 
Naufragus IX 310, class. 



Obumbro VI 751, poet. p. V. 

XI 275, poet. 
Olor post V. for. cy gnus IX 

859. 



Occiduus I 200, post. V. 
Oestrus-only in p. V. poets. 
Occubat II 374, poetic. 
Olorifer IV 227, poetic. 
Omnipotens IV 383. 
Olivifer IV 50, poet. 



Plantaris pes, poetic I 

304. 
Praesolido I 353. Late Latin. 
Pestifer I 630. 
Praemonstro I 67, poetic. 
Perduro I 143, poet. p. V. 

prose. 
Pernox XII 46. 
Praecelero II 497; IV 798, 

poet, in Sta. only. 
Praevideo II 692, not. in Gic. 

or Gaes. 
Proflo II 77. Poetic. 
Propinquo II 529, most. poet. 

and p. V. 
Planctus III 75, most. poet, and 

p. V. 
Proturbo III 81, most poet. 

and p. V. 
Plagor most. poet. 
Prociduus III 127 most. poet. 
Primaevus III 196; IV 354. 
Praecingo IV 68, poet. p. V. 
v^Paean IV 157, Greek. VIII 224. 
Praesudo VI 4, poet. 
Penetrabilis VII 652, poet 

p. V. VIII 198; X 85, 104. 



43 



Prodigialis VII 403 ante, post 

class. 
Piniger VII 272, poet. 
Populator VII 380, fortasse 

non ante V. 
Praepondero VIII 615, post V. 
Praescio VIII 183, poet. p. V. 
Pervigil III 696; VIII 266, 

270; XII 150 p. V. 
Praesagus, poet., p. V. V 620; 

VIII 118, 145, 335, 635; 

IX 631, 850, 886. 
Profano IX 8, fortasse non 

ante Aug. 
v/Phalanx IX 140 Gr. 
Pacifer XII 65, poet. 
Pavescens XII 222 p. V. 



Quadrijugus VI 370; VII 310, 
poet. 

R 

Rorifer I 338, poetic. 
Raresco I 441, poet. p. V. 

prose. II 613. 
Rector II 483. p. Ver. IV 

457 ; XI 420. 
Retego III 174. Not freq. till 

p. V. 
Remensus III 324. p. V. prose. 
Remeabilis IV 537, poet. VI 

920; VII 333. 
Refluus IV 704. 



Repto V 582 only p. V. 
Respergo VII 211, rare. 
Rasilis VII 659, most. poet. 
Ruricola IX 305, poet. 
Resupino IX 312, rare not Gic. 
Regnator IX 421, poet. XI 

410. 
Remeo IX 331, 645, p. V. once 

Gic. not Gaes. 
Reseo XII 10, p. V. 



Saetiger I 397, a poetic work. 

VIII 532. 

Semideus 1206; V373; III 518 ; 

IX 376; VI 112; Achil. II 
363. 

Speculabilis XII 624, quot. 

only Sta. 
Subligo II 712, most. p. not 

in G. 
Semianimus II 83, a poetic 

word. Ill 187, VIII 592. 
Semianimes VII 597, a poetic 

word. 
Sator Astrorum III 218. 
Seductus III 460, poet. p. V. 
Seminecis IV 466, not found 

ante V. 
Superimmino IV 529, poet. 

p. V. 
Simulatrix IV 551, quoted 

only Sta. 



44 



Sacrificus IV 552, poet non 

ante V. 
Succiduus IV 663, poet. only. 
Sonipes IV 136, poet. VII 

632; IX 284, 212; XI 392, 

398, 513. 
Spumifer V 56; IX 437. 
Semivir VI 796, non ante V. 
Septemplex VII 310, poet. 
Sagittifer VII 255, poet. IX 

571. 
Scrutator VII 720, p. V. 
Sidereus, poet. Ovid, VIII 177. 
Signator, poet, non Cic. VIII 

41. 
Scrupeus, poet, very rare, 

IX 411. 
Sontes X 610. 
Soporifer, poet. XII 291. 
Sulsator XI 588, p. V. poets. 



Terrigena I 710, poetic II 

573, IV 441, 556. 
Trefidus I 64, poetic, and p. V. 
Triformis I 53, poetic. II 54. 
Temno II 570, poetic, very 

rare. 
Tergiminus II 31; VII 783. 
Taurinus II 78, mostly poetic. 
Terrificus III 224, poet. Ill 666. 
Temerasse III 463, poet. p. V. 
Tonans IV 13, Zeus. 



Turritus IV 47, most. poet. 
Turbatrix IV 369, most. pote. 

very rare. 
Trifidus IV 380, most. poet. 

p. V. 
l/1'rieterus IV 722, Greek. VII 

93; IX 480. 
Transadigo V 125, poet. p. V. 
Trisulcus V 571, poet. p. V. 

VII 324. 
Terrificus VII 678, only poet. 
Trepido VIII 137, non in Cic. 
j^Tripodes VIII 117, 176, 276, 

367, Greek. 
Tetricus IX 615, fortasse non 

ante V. 
Tumefacio XI 313, poet. only. 
Tapetas I 518. 

U 

Umbrifer I 57, VIII 18. 
Unanimus I 354, p. V. IX 

164. 
Uvifer IV 655, poet. 
Ulbrix V 117, poet. 



Vocabilis I 491, quoted late. 
Vociferans III 349; VI 177; 

VII 663; X 219; XI 463. 
Viduo III 385, poet. p. V. 
Vasanus III 626, most, poetic. 
Volnificus IV 67, poet. 



45 



Violabilis V 259, poet. 
Vaporifer VI 694, poet. 
Venerabilis VII 697 non ante V. 
Vanesco VIII 86, poet. p. V. 
Vittatus VIII 175, quoque Ov. 
Luc. 



VenerabUis XI 428, 453 non 

ante V. 
Viduus X 13 in this sense 

only poet. p. V. 



Such was Statins, the improvisator of a corrupt court 
nuUum enim ex ilUs biduo longius tractum, quaedam et in 
singulis diebus effusa (vid. proem, lib. I. Sil.), who, in mechani- 
cally faultless verse and with epigrammatic finish, re-wrote 
for the „turbae togatae" the tales, old even in Homer's time. 
C% €v Oij^ria^v anrnXtto Xnoq ^Axaif^p lb. 6, 223. 

Measured by true Art, Statins in his Thebais is not an 
Epic poet, but a Composite Phonograph as it were, of an 
artificial age,.