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[From llie GiNlUmaH's MajpiJai for 1S37I 

^ *= 













BDrroRrcPC'^^c^cijb or London' 

. i 






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• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

■ k • ■• 

• • • • 


» • 

• * 

• • • ' 

i • • I 

* • • 

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• • 


Two hundred years ago Thomas Hearne recom- 
mended that Stow s Survey should be reprinted as 
a venerable original. No words could express better 
the intention of the present edition. The not in- 
frequent misprints and some obvious errors have 
been corrected, and it has been necessary at times to 
vary the punctuation. But otherwise the text now 
given follows faithfully the edition of 1603, save that 
the list of Mayors and Sheriffs has been revised, since 
the original was in its earlier part so tangled with 
error that more close reproduction could only have 
been mischievous. The edition of 1603 was printed 
for the most part in black letter. In the present 
edition the Roman type represents the black letter 
of the original; the Italic type is used for those 
passages or phrases which, in 1603, were printed in 
Roman type. Occasionally it has been necessary in 
the interest of uniformity to vary the type. But the 
only changes of importance are the printing in Roman 
type on i. 1 1 7 of the paragraph beginning : * Hauing 
thus in generality'; and the printing in Italics of the 
quotations on ii. 96 and 105. The pages of the 1603 
edition are marked by a | in the text, and by the 
number of the page (in Italics) in the margin. 

The text of 1603 is followed by a collation with the 
first edition of 1 598, showing all the variations between 
the two versions. 

Of the making of Notes to such a book as the 
Survey there need be no end. Critics may be dis- 
posed to ask once more : * Why have ye not noted 

this, or that.^' But some restriction was necessary. 

a % 

iv Preface 

The chief aims of the Notes in this edition have 
therefore been : to correct any errors of statement 
or fact which might be found ; to trace as far as 
possible the sources of Stow's information ; to supple- 
ment the text with fresh matter from Stow s own 
collections ; to illustrate it, within a reasonable com- 
pass, by quotations from contemporary writers. There 
has been no intention to complete Stows history. 
Still less have I endeavoured to carry that history 
beyond his own time. I have, however, added notes 
on places and place-names, especially in those cases 
where Stow had himself given some history, suggested 
a derivation, or cited obsolete forms. 

The preparation of the text and its passage through 
the press have been supervised by Mr. C. E. Doble. 
How much care and pains his labour has entailed, 
only one who has had some share in it can realize. 
For myself I have further to thank Mr. Doble both 
for suggesting to me the undertaking of this edition 
and for his constant advice and assistance in its per- 
formance. Mr. Doble has also supplied the Glossary. 
The map of London circa 1600 has been prepared by 
Mr. Emery Walker; it is based on a comparison of 
Stow's text with the maps of Hoefnagel in Braun and 
Hogenberg's adas {firca 1560), of Faithorne (1658), 
and of Morden and Lea (1682). The famous map of 
Ralph Agas was probably based on Hoefnagel's map. 

I have to thank Dr. R. R. Sharpe, the Records 
Clerk at the Guildhall, Mr. W. H. Stevenson of 
St John's College, Oxford, and Mr. J. A. Herbert 
of the British Museum for their assistance in various 
points of difficulty. 

L^. L». iv.. 

Januakv, 1908. 



Iktroduction : — 

§ I. Life of Stow . 

§ 2. The Survey of London 



Appendix to Introduction: — 

L Notes on the Stow Family xliv 

II. Documents iUustrating Stow's Life. 

1. How Stow began to write History and quarrelled 

with Richard Grafton . 

2. Of Stow's quarrel with his brother Thomas, and 

how his mother altered her will 

3. Of Willyam Ditcher alias Tctforde 

4. A dispute over a Bill 

5. The Aleconners' Complaint 

6. A Petition for a Pension . 

7. Royal Benevolence .... 

III. Letters to Stow 

IV. Select Dedications and Epistles 
V. Bibliography 

VI. Some Account of Stow's Collections and MSS. 

CoRKIOENDA ........ 

TrrLX-PAGE OF 1603 
Tablk of thx Chapters 
Text of 1603 












.* xciv 


. xcix 

vi Contents 



Text of 1603 {conitnued) i 

The Variations of the first edition of the Survey in 1598 

FROM the Text of 1603 230 

Notes 269 

Supplement to Notes 389 

Glossary 398 

Indexes : 

1. Of Persons 419 

II. Of Places 452 

III. Of Subjects 467 


Portrait of Stow, from the Gentleman* s Magazine for 1837 

Frontispiece to Vol, I 

Stow's Tomb in S. Andrew Undershaft, photographeS by per- 
mission from the Original . Frontispiece to Vol. II 

Autograph of Stow, from Laud MS. Misc. 557 (in the Bodleian 

Library) ' on front cover 

From Tanner MS. 464 (1),"!^ 155, in the Bodleian Library. 

*^* This represents the first page of a revised draft for the Chapter on 
' Auncient and Present Riuers '. It differs a little from the printed text of 
1598. See ii. 270 to follow p, xciv in Vol, I 

Map of London, showing the Wards and Liberties as described by 
Stow, circa 1600. By Emery Walker. 

Based on a comparison of Stow*s text with the maps of Hoefhagel in 
Braun and Hogenberg's atlas {circa 1560), of Faithome (1658), and of 
Morden and Lea (1682). The information so obtained has been Isud down 
on the first edition of the 25inch Ordnance Map of the Survey of 1873. 
The plan of the Tower is taken from a drawing made in 1597, and 
engraved in Vetusta MonumentcL The famous map of Ralph Ams was 
probably based on Hoefhagel's map . . to fold out ai end of Vol. II 



§ I. Life of Stow 

John Stow, or Stowe (he spelt his name indifferendy 
in either way), the first painful searcher into the reverend 
antiquities of London, was himself most fittingly a citizen of 
long descent. His grandfather, Thomas Stow, citizen and 
Tallow-Chandler, had died about the end of March, 1527, 
nearly two years after the birth of his famous grandson, and 
left his body * to be buried in the little green churchyard of 
St. Michael, Comhill, nigh the wall as may be by my father 
and mother \ Old Thomas Stow was a man of some substance, 
and could leave his son and namesake twenty pounds in stuff 
of household and £6 13^. 4^. in plate.* Thomas Stow, the 
younger, followed his father's trade; he inherited the great 
melting*pan with all the instruments belonging thereto, and 
supplied St Michael's Church with lamp-oil and candles ; ' his 
widow at her death left money to the company of Tallow- 
Chandlers to follow her corpse. By his wife, Elizabeth,^ he 
had seven children, of whom the eldest was the antiquary ; 
the others were three sons, Thomas, William, and John the 
younger, and three daughters, Joan, Margaret, and Alice.^ 
John the elder was bom in the summer of 1525 ; he was 
seventy-eight when he made his will, on 30 August, 1603, and 
is said to have been in his eightieth year at his death.'^ 

John's godparents were Edmund Trindle, Robert Smith, 
and Margaret Dickson, who all, as he dutifully records, lay 
buried at St. Michael, Comhill.^ The second Thomas Stow, 
who died in 1559/ dwelt at one time in Throgmorton Street, 

' Strype, Survey, i, p. i, and ii. 146, an accurate copy of the will from 
'Tunstal, ff. 89-90 ', proved April 4, 1527. 

' Accounts of the Churchwardens , c^. W. H. Overall, pp. 62, 67^ 116. 

' Not Margaret, as stated by Strype {Survey, i. 2), who copied the 
will incorrectly. See p. xliv below. 

* See Notes on Stow family on pp. xliv-xlviii. 

' See p. xxvii. ' See i. 197, ii. 306. '^ See p. xlvi below. 

viii Introduction 

near the modem Drapers' Hall, where John remembered how 
his father's garden had been encroached on for the making of 
Thomas Cromwell's pleasure-grounds, and could recollect to 
have seen more than two hundred persons served well every 
day at Lord Cromwell's gate with bread, meat, and drink.^ 
Of John Stow's other reminiscences of his youth, the most 
personal is how he had fetched from the farm in Goodman's 
Fields many a halfpennyworth of milk hot from the kine.^ 
Of his education he tells us nothing ; it must have been toler* 
^ble for his time and station ; but his description of how in 
his youth he had yearly seen on the eve of St. Bartholomew 
the scholars of divers grammar-schools repair unto the church- 
yard of St Bartholomew hardly suggests that he took a part 
in their exercises.' 

John Stow left his ancestral calling, and after serving his 
apprenticeship to one John Bulley, was admitted to the free- 
dom of the Merchant Taylors Company on 25 Nov., 1547. 
Though he was for nearly thirty years a working tailor, he 
remained all his time a member of the subordinate Bachelors 
or Yeoman Company, and was never admitted to the Livery. 
Consequently he never held any office in the Company, except 
that he was one of the Whifflers, or escort of Bachelors, at 
Harper's and Rowe's pageants when they served as mayor in 
1561 and 1568.* 

Stow established himself in his business at a house by the 
well within Aldgate, between Leadenhall and Fenchurch 
Street, where in 1549, he was witness of an execution * upon 
the pavement of my door *.* Not much later he must have 
married,' since some twenty years afterwards he speaks of 
himself as having three marriageable daughters in service."^ 
He b^an soon to bear his part in civic life, and mentions 
that in 155a he served on a jury against a sessions of gaol 
delivery.* In his trade he must have prospered fairly, and 

' i. 89 and 179. Thomas Cromweirs building in Throgmorton Street 
was done in 1 531-2. John Stow was only six years old. But see i. 
392, and ii. 337 for another memory of the same time. 

* i. 126. » i. 74. 

* Clode, Early History of the Merchant Taylors Company y ii. 299, 267. 

* i. 144 below. ' On Stow's wife or wives, see p. sdviii. 

* See p. Ixii below. " i. 350 below. 

Life of Stow IX 

took his brother Thomas to be his apprentice. (His patrimony 
can have been but small, yet he grew rich enough to spend -^ 
money freely on the collection of books. Fifteen years would 
not have been too many for the self-education of a busy if ^ 
observant man, but from about 1560 onwards he found bis 
chief interest in learning and in the pursuit of our most famous i 
antiquities. His original interest was, he tells us, for divinity, 
sorency (astrology), and poetry, and he never esteemed history, 
were it offered never so freely.^ So his first publication was 
an edition in 1561 of The workes of Geffrey Chaucer^ newly 
printed^ with divers addicions whiche were never in printe 
before. Stow never lost his interest in early English poetry, 
but his. attention was soon diverted to other studies. On the 
course of his collecting he became possessed of a manuscript 
of a treatise, The Tree of the Commonwealth^ written by ^ 
Edmund Dudley. Of this he made a copy in his own hand, 
and presented it to the author's grandson Robert, afterwards 
Earl of Leicester. Dudley suggested that. Stow should under- 
take some historical work on his own account.' ) The suggestion 
thus given chimed in with advice from other friendly quarters. 
In 1563 there appeared Richard Grafton's Abridgement oft 
the Chronicles of England^ followed next year by another 
edition, ' which being little better was as much or more of all 
men misliked.' 'On this,' says Stow, 'many citizens and 
others knowing that I had been a searcher after antiquities 
moved me for the commodity of my country somewhat to 
travail in setting forth some other abridgement, or summary, 
and also to write s^inst and reprove Richard Grafton. To 
the first at length I granted, but to the other utterly refused. 
About the same time^ it happened that Thomas Marshe, 
printer, required me to correct the old common abridgement, 

' See p. xlix below. In 1558 he had copied out a collection of Lydgate's 
poems, now Additional MS, 29729 in the British Museum. 

' Cf. dedication to 1604 edition of Summary, Stow varies in his dates 
as to when he began to write on history; in the Summary for 1573 he 
says, ' It is now eight years since, &c.' ; in that for 1587, 23 years ; in that 
ftn* 15989 36 years ; and in that for 1604, 45 years. See p. fxxxi. 

' The subsequent reference to William Baldwin shows that Marshe's 
proposal must have been made in the summer of 1563, after the appearance 
of the first edition of Grafton's Abridgement^ but before the second edition 
of 1564. 

X Introduction 

which was at the first collected of Languet and Cooper's 
Epitome,^ but then much corrupted with oft reprinting, and 
therefore of Richard Grafton so contemned.^ To this 
request I granted, on condition that some one, which were 
better learned, might be joined with me, for that it was a 
study wherein I had never travailed.' 

The required helper was found in William Baldwyn,^ parson 
of St. Michael at Pauls Gate. But Baldwyn died before he 
had set hand to the work, and Stow at Marshes request went 
on alone until a successor could be obtained. ' After I had 
once b^^n I could not rest till the same was fully ended. 
Then I, of mine own mind, went to Grafton's house, and 
shewed him my book, requiring him not to be offended with 
my doing, for I meant not to give any such occasion/ Grafton 
professed gratitude for a long catalogue of his own errors, and 
they parted in good friendship. But when Stow's Summarie 
^f Englyshe Chronicles appeared, with the licence of the 
Stationers and authority of the Archbishop,^ Grafton began 
to chafe and think how to put his rival out of credit. Leaving 
his own Abridgement^ he drew out of Stow's Summary * a book 
in sexto decimo, which he entitled, A Manuell of Ye Chronicles 

* A Chronicle of the Worlds begun by Thomas Languet {cL 1545), was 
completed by Thomas Cooper, afterwards bishop of Winchester, and 
published in 1549. It was often, as Stow says, reprinted, e.g. in 1559 by 
T. Marshe under the editorship of Robert Crowley (see ii. 339 below). 
Similar was A brevicU Cronicle contaynynge all the kinges, &*c., first 
published by John Mitchell or Mychell, of Canterbury, in 1551, of which 
a later edition, published at London by Tottell in 1561, was long regarded 
as the first edition of Stow's Summary, 

' In the Preface to his Abridgement Grafton writes : ' Unto which 
travayle I was the rather provokea for that I saw used and occupied in 
every common person's hands a certayne booke bearyng lyke title, 
wherein was lytle truth and lesse good order.' 

' No doubt William Baldwin, the chief contributor to the Mirror for 
Magistrates^ and author of Beware the Cat (see ii. 275 below). His cure 
and the date of his death were otherwise unrecorded. The identification 
is helped by a note in Stow's Memoranda (cf. Three Fifteenth Century 
Chronicles^ p. 126), where he relates that when the Romish bishops were 
taken from the Tower for fear of the plague in Sept. 1 563, certain ^ prechers 
prechyd, as it was thought of many wysse men, verie sedyssyowsly, as 
baldwyn at Powll's Cross, wyshyng a galows set up in Smythefyld, and 
ye old byshops and other papestis to be hangyd thereon. Hymselfe dyed 
of ye plague the next weke aitar.' William Baldwin's writings show him 
to have been a violent Protestant. Thomas Marshe was printer of 
Baldwin's works from 1^59 onwards. 

* See pp. Ii and Ixxxii below. 


Life of Stow xi 

of England from y creacion ofy World tyll anfto ij6j\ In 
an address to the Stationers Grafton be^ed that they * will 
take such order that there be no briefe abridgementes or 
chronicles hereafter imprinted '. To his readers he expressed 
a hope that ' none will show themselves ungentle nor so un- 
friendly as to abuse me or this my little labour and goodwill, 
as of late I was abused by one who counterfeited my volume, 
and hath made my travail to pass under his name'. Stow, 
nothing daunted, made and dedicated to the Lord Mayor ^ in 
the beginning of 1566 an abridgement of his Summary. At 
this his opponent marvellously stormed, and moved the Com- 
pany of Stationers to threaten Marshe the printer. The 
Stationers asked Stow to attend at their Hall and meet 
Grafton. But though he oft came thither, Grafton always 
made excuses, until Anally the Master and Wardens told Stow 
that they were sorry they had so troubled him at all. 

Such is Stow's own account of the inception of his historical 
work.^ He and his rival continued to belabour one another 
merrily. Grafton sneered at the * memories of superstitious 
foundations, fables, and lies foolishly stowed together '. Stow 
was as good in the dedication of his edition of 1567 to the 
Mayor, ' that through the thundering noise of empty tonnes 
and unfruitful grafts of Momus' offspring, it be not over- 
thrown'.^ Grafton tried to evade the assault by producing 
a larger work in 1568, a Chroftkle at large and fnere Historye 
of the Affayres of Englande, It was but a monstrous com- 
pilation, and Stow accused him roundly of using others' work 
without acknowledgement, and of counterfeiting Stow's own 
list of authorities without having consulted them. Of his 
edition of his Summary in 1570 Stow writes thus: 'This my 
latest Summary was by me begun after Whitsuntide, 1569, 
and finished in print by Michaelmas next following, but not 
commonly published till Christmas, and therefore entitled in 
anno 1570, being first viewed by wise and learned worshipful 
personages, then dedicate and given to the right honourable 
my lord of Leicester, so to the whole common weal. I have 

^ So he states on p. lii below. But the copy in the British Museum, 
which appears to be perfect, has no dedication. 
* See pp. xlviii to hii below. ' See p. Ixxvii below. 

xii Introduction 

not heard the same to be misliked of any, but for that I wrote 
against the printers of Bede's Chronicle at Louvain (whereof 
I make none account), till now one whole year after by the 
foresaid Richard Grafton, a man that of all others hither- 
towards hath deserved least commendation for his travail in 
many things — as his own conscience (if he had any) can well 
testify. But to speak of that his Abridgement he hath but 
picked feathers from other birds next in his reach.* * Editions 
of Grafton's Abridgement carrying on the warfare had ap- 
peared in 1570 and 1572. Stow had the last word in his 
Summary of 1573, for his opponent was dead, though neither 
then nor afterwards forgotten. 

Some of Stow's criticisms of Grafton appear trifling enough. 
We should find no great cause for censure in the omission of 
all mention of Kings Didantius, Detonus, and Gurguinus,' 
nor I suppose would Stow himself have done thirty years later, 
when study had ripened his knowledge and judgement. On 
one point, moreover, he did Grafton positive injustice, when 
he cast doubts on his rival's account of the Chronicle of John 
Hardyng.^ Grafton had exposed himself to criticism by 
printing in 1543 two editions of Hardyng's Chronicle, which 
differed considerably the one from the other. Stow had seen 
another version which, as he said, 'doth almost altogether 
differ from that which under his name was imprinted by 
Grafton ' : thus hinting pretty plainly that Grafton had been 
guilty of deliberate falsification. The truth was that Hardyng 
himself had repeatedly rewritten his work to please the taste 
of different patrons.* Still the honours of the quarrel rest 
Vith Stow, whose merits as a chronicler were superior to those 
of Grafton. At the same time his own account reveals him 
^as a self-taught man, who was perhaps too jealous of a 
reputation that wanted to be established. The persistence of 
his grievance may perhaps be explained by the fact that the 

* Hurley MS, 367, f. i. See p. xlviii below. 
' See p. 1 below. 

' Epistle to the Reader in Summary for 1573. 

* Heame relates that a fine copy, which had belonged to Stow, had 
passed through Sir Simonds D'Ewes to the Harleian Library (Collections^ 
lii. i). This, which is now Harley MS, 661, is one of the most valuable 
of Hardyng's later versions. 

Life of Stow xiii 

controversy had helped to aggravate other troubles, which 
during this time embittered Stow's life. 

StoVs literary pursuits may have put him out of sympathy 
with his commercial kinsfolk. Whatever the reason, his 
associations with his family had been long unhappy. It is 
possible that there may have been some religious difference, 
for John was inclined to favour old beliefs, whilst his mother 
appears to have been Protestant. Strype * says that John 
Stow in 1544 was in great danger by reason of a false accusa- 
tion brought against him by a priest;^ the nature of the 
chaise is not known, but it was possibly on a matter of 
religion. At all events there was an old family discord, for 
Thomas Stow must have had some sort of excuse for alleging 
that during twenty years John had never asked his mother's 
blessing.* Whatever the reason, old Mistress Stow, soon after 
her husband's death in 1559, went to live with her son 
Thomas, who had quarrelled with John over money matters 
and by an unwise marriage further strained their relations. 
Elizabeth Stow was a timid and anxious peacemaker between 
her children, fearful of giving offence, and governed by who- 
ever was at hand. One day in the summer of 1568 she came 
on a visit to John, with whom over ' the best ale and bread 
and a cold leg of mutton ', she talked too freely on family 
matters. When the poor soul got home, Thomas and his 
wife would never let her rest till she had told them all. When 
it came out that John lamented that Thomas was matched 
with an harlot, they forced her to change her will and leave 
her eldest son out of it altogether. Friends of the family 
intervened, and Thomas, pretending to yield, put John back, 
but only for five pounds, where all the other children got ten. 
'Thus,' says John with a quaint humour, 'was I condemned 
and paid five pounds for naming Thomas his wife an harlot, 

^ As seems to be shown by the drift of his comments, cautious enough, 
in his Memoranda^ cf. p. x above. He had many friends of Catholic 
mdinations. But he also seems to have been on good terms with Foxe 
the Martyrologist. 

• Survey^ i, p. iii. 

' Perhaps the same as the man referred to by Wriothesly, Chronicle^ 

* See p. Iv below. 

xiv Introduction 

privily only to one body, who knew the same as well as I ; 
but if he could so punish all men that will more openly say 
so much he would soon be richer than any lord Mayor of 
London/ ^ Thomas himself had often said the like and worse 
in public, and not long after turned his wife out of doors. 
Not all the neighbours could get him to relent, and when in 
the evening the poor woman at last stole in, at ten of the clock 
at night, Thomas, * being bare-legged, searched and found her, 
and fell again a beating of her, so that my mother, being sick 
on a pallet, was fain to creep up, and felt all about the 
chamber for Thomas his hosen and shoes, and crept down 
the stairs with them as well as she could, and prayed him to 
put them on lest he should catch cold. And so my mother 
stood in her smock more than an hour, entreating him for the 
Lord's sake to be more quiet.' The poor mother fared like 
most interveners in matrimonial broils; for after a while 
Thomas and his wife went off comfortably to bed, but the 
old woman caught such a cold that she never rose again. 
When the parson ^ was called in he, ' though but a stranger 
new come from the country,' exhorted Mistress Stow to 
change her unjust will, but was put off by Thomas. Next 
Master Rolfe, a priest and son-in-law, persuaded with her 
ofttimes, but was told to hold his peace, ' for her son's wife 
was always in one comer or another listening, and she would 
have a life ten times worse than death if Thomas or his wife 
should know.' Then John in despair sent his own wife with 
a pot of cream and strawberries as a peace offering, but only 
got abuse in return. At last, however, with some trouble, 
the affair was patched up over a pint of ale. The will re- 
mained unaltered, so when John got his chance he urged his 
mother to restore him to his share. To have five pounds 

' However, in October, 1570, the Master and Wardens of the Merchant 
Taylors Company intervened to pacify a controversy between Thomas 
Stow and Thomas Holmes, ^both brethren of this mystery, as well for 
and concerning midesent and unseemly words spoken uttered and 
reported by the wife of the said Holmes againste the wyfe of the said 
Stowe.' Holmes's wife had to apologize, and he to pay 2or. to Thomas 
Stow 'in satisfaction of all lawe and other charges incurred by him/ 
Clode, Memorials of the Merchant Taylors Company^ 183-4, Early 
History^ i. 310. 

* Richard Mathew, presented 4 July, 1567 (Newcourt, Repertorium^ 
i. 483). 

Life of Stow XV 

put out of the will was, he said, but a small matter as com- 
pared with other things. ' Consider, it must needs offend me 
much to pay five pounds for one word.' If she would not 
consent for love of her husband or of himself, John bade her 
remember : ' I wax old and decay in my occupation and have 
a great charge of children, and a wife that can neither get nor 
save.' The poor old woman, who had but late been rejoicing 
that her children which were dead were alive, pleaded feebly, 
that if the Lord would suffer her to go abroad again she would 
undo all : 'so that Thomas and his wife shall not know. 
That wicked woman, woe worth her, will be my death.' 
Other relatives and friends tried their influence in vain. The 
dread of Thomas prevailed. Elizabeth Stow died at Michael- 
mas, leaving her will unaltered, most of her property to 
Thomas, only five pounds to her eldest son, and larger l^^acies 
to the other children. The day after the funeral the two 
brothers and Master Rolfe went to the Maiden's Head in 
Leadenhall,^ where they had a pint of wine with Henry 
Johnson,^ an old friend of the family, who prayed Thomas 
to be good to his brother John. 

At this point John Stow's tale breaks off abruptly.* Apart 
from its extraordinary interest as an unstudied, if somewhat 
sordid, record of middle-class life in the reign of Elizabeth, it ^ 
is of the greatest value, for the light which it throws on other 
incidents in Stow's career, and for its explanation of some 
allusions in his writings. ^'(^f 

It was probably in the following year that Stow had occasion 
to address a petition to the alderman of his ward by reason 
of the annoyance done to him by one William Ditcher and his 
wife.^ It appears that Ditcher, believing that Stow had re- 
ported him to the Wardmote for setting his frames in the ^ 
street, came railing at Stow's door with the most slanderous 
speech that man or devil could devise. Incited by Thomas 
Stow, Ditcher soon went to worse conduct, throwing stones 

' Elizabeth Stow's will provided ten shillings for her children and 
friends to drink withal after her funeraL See p. xlv below. 

' He was conductor of the chon* at St. Michael's at a stipend of 3/. 
{Omrchiwarden^ Accounts^ p. 335). 

* See the fall narrative on pp. liii to Ix below. 

* See pp. Ix to Ixii below. 

xvi Introduction 

at John's apprentice, abusing his wife, calling him in derision 
of his trade a prick-louse knave, and to crown his offence 
' adding moreover that the said John hathe made a cronicle 
of lyes '. Finally, he had told the parson and the deputy of 
the ward that, 'there cometh none but rogues and rascalls, 
the vilest in the land, to the house of the said John, which 
rogues have him from alehouse to alehouse, every day and 
nifi^ht till two of the clock in the morning.' 

(whether Stow got any remedy against the scurrilous Ditcher 
does not appear, for the matter is known only by his draft of 
the petition. But he had soon to meet a more dangerous 
accusation. Early in January, 1569, great offence was given 
to the English Government by the circulation in the City of 
a manifesto published by the Spanish ambassador on behalf 
of the Duke of Alva. In this matter Stow was implicated, 
and on 17 February he was called before the Lord Mayor. 
In the record of his examination, where he is described as 
' John Stowe, merchaunt, a collector of cronycles ', he ad* 
mitted that he had been lent two copies of the bill in English, 
whereof he made a copy for himself, and had read it to some 
neighbours, but never gave copy out of it. The charge was 
also investigated before the Master and Wardens of Stow's 
own company, though without attaching any further blame 
to him.^ 

* It was no doubt in connexion with this business of Alva's 
proclamation that Stow was reported to the Queen's Council 
for having many dangerous books of superstition in his posses- 
sion. In consequence direction was given to Bishop Grindal 
of London to have Stow's house searched. On 24 February 
Grindal wrote to Cecil enclosing 'a catalogue of Stowe the 
Taylour his unlawfulle bookes ', together with a report from 
his is)]aplains, dated 21 February, on which day the search 
was made* (iThe chief part of this report was as follows : ^ He 
hath it great store of folishe fabulous bokes of olde prynte as 
of Sir Degory Tryamore, &c. He hath also a great sorte of 

^ See the depositions at both examinations given in full in Clode's 
Early History of the Merchant Taylors Company^ ii. 299-302. It is 
remarkable that Stow never refers to this business of Alva's proclamation 
in any of his printed works. 

Life of Stow xvii 

old written English Chronicles both in parchement and in 
paper, som long, som shorte. He hath besides, as it were, 
miscellanea of diverse sortes both touching phisicke, surgerye, 
and herbes, with medicines of experience, and also touching 
old phantasticall popishe bokes prynted in the olde tyme, with 
many such also written in olde Englisshe on parchement. 
All which we have pretermytted to take any inventarye of. 
We have only taken a note of such bokes as have been lately 
putt forth in the realme or beyonde the Seas for defence of 
papistrye : with a note of som of his own devises and writinges 
touching such matter as he hath gathered for Chronicles, where- 
aboute he seemeth to have bestowed much travaile. His 
bokes declare him to be a great favourer of papistrye.' 

The list of objectionable books contains thirty-eight items, 
and, besides religious works, includes Thomas Stapleton's 
translation of Bede ; a manuscript of the Flares Histariarum ; ^ 
' much rude matter gathered for a summary of a cronacle ' ; 
and 'A brief collection of matters of Cronicles sins Anno 
Domini 1563, entered in an old wry ten boke of Cronicles 
bound in borde, wryten as it seemeth with his owne hand '^ 
An entry of Fundationes Ecclesiarum^ Manasteriorum^ 6rc.^ 
has been erased. The popish books include Thomas Heskyn's 
Parliament of Christ, Richard Shacklock's Hatchet of Heresy? 
Five Homilies made by Leonard Pollard,* The manere of the 
List of Saints^ together with other works of such writers as 
Rc^^er Edgeworth, Richard Smith, Miles Haggerd, and John 
RastelL Although these last discoveries of Grindal's chap- 
lains must have lent some colour to the charge of popish in- 
clinations, it does not appear that Cecil or the Council 
thought the business serious enough to require any further 

' Probably Cotton MS. Nero D. v. See p. xcii below. 

' These are Stew's Metnorcmda^ which are contained in Lambeth MS. 
306^ and have been printed by Dr. Gairdner in Three Fifteenth Century 
Chronicles, pp. 115-47. See turther p. xxxvi below. ^ 

' I suppose the translation of Hoslus, De Heresibus, printed at Antwerp 
in 1565, as A most excellent treatise of the begynnyng of heresy es in our 

* Dedicated to Bonner and printed at London, 1556. 

' Grindal's letter to Cecil and his chaplains' report, with the list of 
saspe^ed booksy are printed from Lansdowne MS. 11 in Arbor's TVan' 

w K now. 1 b 

xviii Introduction 

It is likely enough that Thomas Stow was the informant 
against his brother in this matter of Alva's manifesto. From 
the story of their quarrel it is clear that Thomas was an 
v^ ignorant man, believing that John practised magic, but sharp 
enough to see what handle he might find in his brother's 
strange tastes.^ At all events it was Thomas Stow who set 
in motion another affair next year. In 1570 John Stow was 
brought before the Ecclesiastical Commissioners on a charge 
in seventeen articles made by one that had been his servant 
after he had defrauded him of his goods, and supported by 
witnesses of sullied reputation. Stow successfully confounded 
his accusers before the Archbishop; but when he would 
have prosecuted them he was answered that there was no 
remedy against them.' 

It is plainly with reference to this incident that Stow in his 
Annales undtr 1556, when describing the punishment of a false 
witness, writes as follows : * The like Justice I once wished to 
the like accuser of his master and elder brother, but it was 
answered that in such case could be no remedy, though the 
accuser himself were in the same fact found the principal 
offender. Where through it followeth the accuser never 
shewed sign of shame, but terribly curseth,and blasphemously 
sweareth he never committed any such act, though the same 
be registered before the honourable the Queen's Majest)r's 
High Commissioners. And what horrible slanders, by libel- 
ling and otherwise with threats of murther, he dayly bniiteth 
against me, the knower of all secrets, God I mean, knoweth.' ' 

After the lapse of more than twenty years Stow could not 

forget or forgive the prime authors of his troubles. He never 

^., lost the chance of exposing a fable of Grafton's* or of 

pointing the moral of his brother's iniquity. Against the 

account of William FitzOsbert he set a note in the first 

scnf/ of the Stationer^ Registers^ i. 181. See also Strypc, Survev^ i, 
pp. iv and xxi, and Life of Grindal^ pp. 184, 516. The Register of the 
ravy Council for this year has unfortunately perished. 
^ See p. Ivi below. 

* Strype, Survey^ i, p. iv. 

* See also a similar entry under this year in the 1587 edition of the 
Summary AbridgeeL It was not contained in the 1573 edition, and is 
omitted m that for 1604. 

* See vol. i. 118, 349. 

Life of Stow xix 

edition of the Survey : * A false accuser of his elder brother, 
in the end was hanged. God amend or shortly send such an 
end to such false brethren.'^ In the original manuscript 
there appears the significant addition : ' Such a brother have 
I, God make him penitent. ' How late and long the quarrel 
continued is shown also by a characteristic note preserved 
amongst some private memoranda in Stow's collections.^ 
* *599* The last of July, at the qwenes armes taverne by 
leden hall, in contempte of me the auctor of this boke called 
the Survey of London, one Smithe, dwellinge at Sopars lane 
ende, in the company of T. Stowe and othar suche lyke, 
sayde he marvayled that mention was not made in the saide 
Survay of qwike sylvar roninge out of the grownde at the 
buildinge of his howse. More that the auctor set not downe 
that the parson of Christes Churche lyeth every night with 
the lord maiors wyfe; and suche lyke Knavish talke he 
had to pleasure my bad brother, for he is one of his 

Stow's bitterness may seem excessive. But his obvious | ^^ 
anxiety when Thomas, triumphing and swearing, got posses- • 
sion of his book of alchemy,^ shows how real was the danger r 
that Stow incurred through the suspicion of popish inclina- ' 
tionsy and occult practices. His experiences no doubt taught ] 
him that the study of history was likely to prove both safer 
and more profitable than divinity, poetry, or astrology. 
Apart from this the chief result of his troubles had been to 
establish his literary reputation and personal worth. It is 
probable that he owed his triumph over his enemies in some 
degree to the favour of Archbishop Parker, whose notice he V* 
had attracted some years earlier. Under Parker's direction 
he assisted in the publication of the Flores Histariarum in 
i5^7» of the Chronicles of Matthew Paris in 1571, and of 
Walsingham in 1574; 'all of which,* writes Stow in his 

^ See voL i. 254, and ii. 249 below. In the second edition the last half 
of tills note was omitted. The omission may perhaps be explained by 
the recent death of Thomas Stow in October^ iocs. On the other hand, 
die reference on ii. 76 is an insertion. 

• Ap. Harley MS. 540, f. 82^o. 

' See p. Ivi below. 



Antudes^ ' the archbishop received of my hands/ ^ His labours 
isoon brought him the acquaintance and friendship of all the 
leading antiquaries of the day. Such were William Lambarde, 
* his loving friend/ ^ whose Perambulation of Kent was the 
model for the Survey \ Henry Savile, who, even in 1575, 
addressed him as ^ good old friend ' ; Camden, at this time 
usher of Westminster School; John Dee, the celebrated 
astrologer; Robert Glover, the Somerset herald; William 
Fleetwood the Recorder, who was, like Stow, a Merchant 
Taylor; together with men of scholarly tastes and good 
position, like William Claxton of Wynyard in Durham, his 
familiar correspondent during nearly twenty years. It is 
noteworthy that Stow's friends included several writers of 
Roman Catholic inclinations as Thomas Martyn, and Henry 
Ferrers.^ From these and others Stow received counsel in 
his literary labours and rendered help in return. To Hakluyt 
V \_ he supplied notes on Cabot's voyages from his manuscript 
(now lost) of Fabyan's Chronicle.* To David Powel he 
furnished material for Tlie Historic of Cambria? Thomas 
Speght, the editor of Chaucer, he assisted with notes from 
his own rich collections of ancient poesy .^ 

When the old Society of Antiquaries was formed, about 
1572, under Parker's patronage, it was natural that Stow 
should become a member. He certainly belonged to it be- 
fore February, 1590, and contributed to its discussions a note 
on the origin of sterling moneyJ Amongst his colleagues 
were Walter Cope, Joseph Holland, William Patten, Francis 
Tate, and Francis Thynne,® all of whom he counted amongst 

^ p. 1 1 50, ed. 1605. ' See vol. ii, p. 253. 

' See Letters to Stow on pp. Ixxi, Ixxii. 

* See notes in Chronicles of London^ pp. 328-30, 337-8. 

• Powd's Preface, See p. Ixxxvii below. 
' Speght in his Preface acknowledges his debt to Stow, ' whose litotry 

hath helped many writers.' 

^ Heame, Curious Discourses^ ii. 318 ; see ii. 278 below. In Ashmole 
MS, 763 f. 19^ in the Bodleian Library there is a summons to Stow to 
attend a meetmg of the Society at Garter House on 2 Nov. 1599. On the 
back of the summons Stow has written some notes on the subject for 
discussion, * of the antiquities, etymologie and priviledges of Panshes in 

' Cufious Discourses. For the history of the Society see ArchaeologiA^ 
voL i, and for a list of the members in 1590, Stow MS, lo^j; in the British 
Museum. See also i. 22^ 83, ii4) ii. 23, and pp. xxiii, xxxiii below. 

Life of Stow xxi 

his friends, and Lord William Howard of Naworth, with 
whom he had at least some acquaintance.^ 

Stew's editorial work for Parker brought htm into association 
with Reyne Wolfe, the printer, and when Wolfe died in 1573, 
Stow purchased many of his collections. At the time of his 
death Wolfe had been preparing a Universal History. His 
design was carried out on a less ambitious scale under the 
direction of Raphael Holinshed, to whom Stow lent * divers^ 
rare monuments, ancient writers, and necessary register-books'. 
To the second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles^ which ap- 
peared in 1587, Stow made other contributions, though at 
a later time he complained that its printing and reprinting 
without warrant or well-liking had prevented his own intended 
work. On such a larger history he had long been busy.* In ( ^ 
1580 he had produced The Chronicles of England from Brute r 
unto the present year of Christ This work was written in I 
civic form, the names of the Mayor and SherifTs being placed \ 
at the head of each year. The Chronicles were thus only an \ 
expansion of the Summary ; but this form was abandoned, 
when the work appeared twelve years later in a more extensive 
shape as the Annates of England. The Annates were but a part 
of what Stow intended, for his laborious collection had by then 
grown into a large volume, which he would have published as 
'The History of this Island', had he not been compelled to 
condescend to the wishes of his printer, who preferred a less 
ambitious undertaking.^ When the Annates appeared for the ^ \/ 
last time in 1605 just before the author's death, the 'farre 
larger volume', though ready for the press, still awaited 
a printer ; it appears to have perished, though some 
part of it may have been embodied in the Successions of the 
History of England published under Stow's name in 1638.* 

* The History of this Island ' was not the only larger work 
on which Stow laboured in vain. Grindal's chaplains found 
in Stow's study a collection of Fundationes Ecclesiarum^ to 
which, during many years, he appears to have made great 
additions. Camden wrote to him for the loan of his Fundationes 

^ See p. Ixx below. 

* Annates^ ed. 1605, p. 1438, and Summarie for 1604, p. 458. 

' See p. b[xxx below. * See p. Ixxxvi below. * See p. xvii above. 

xxii Introduction 

for four counties, and William Claxton in his latest letter to 
Stow begged that he might have a copy with the newest 
augmentations, that so he might preserve it to the collector's 
never-dying fame.^ Claxton's fears for the fate of his friend's 
labours were in part realized. Whether Stow sent him the 
desired copy or not, the whole original seems now to have 
perished. Yet part of one or the other passed into the hands 
of Ralph Starkey, the archivist, who^ according to Heame, 
possessed some of Stow's manuscripts 'amongst which his 
Monasticon, out of which Mr. Dodsworth collected several 
things'.* Roger Dodsworth's voluminous collections were, 
after his death in 1654, entrusted to Dugdale, whose celebrated 
Monasticon Anglicanum was thus in part the outcome of 
Stow's industry. 

In the midst of such labours Stow nevertheless found time 

to produce repeated editions of his Summary and its Abridge 

J tnenty and towards the end of a long and busy life set himself 

'' to compile his Survey of London^ which first appeared in 

1598, to be followed after five years by a second, much 

increased, edition. But of this, his most valuable work, more 


X For the troubles of his middle life Stow may have found 
some compensation in a peaceful and honoured end. His 
character had mellowed with age, and he was, perhaps, a little 
more chary of expressing himself too freely. But for that 
matter, the order which Elizabeth and her ministers had 
established in Church and State suited his convictions, and 
his open dislike for sectarians could do him no harm. His 
sentiments are shown in his description of Whitg^ft as a man 
bom for the benefit of his country and the good of his Church. 
Literary work had, moreover, brought him at the last, not 
"« only the friendship of learned men, but a well-deserved 
reputation with his fellow citizens. 

Though still proud to call himself * Merchant-Taylor *, he 
had left his trade,^ and probably at the same time changed his 

* See p. bcxiii' below. 

' Hearae, Collections^ iii. 108, 143, Oxford Hist. Soc. 
' The only reference to his trade which I have found in Stow's books 
is his note on the prices of cloth in the margin of i. 86 below. 

Life of Stow xxiii 

residence to a housein St. Andrew's parish in Lime Street Ward, 
near the Leadenhall.^ This must have been not long after 1570, 
since some years previously to 1579 he had been instrumental at 
a Wardmote inquest in proving the title of his new ward to 
certain tenements afterwards in that year wrongftilly with- 
drawn.* In 1584-5 John Stow appears to have been employed 
as a surveyor of alehouses,^ and in the latter year was one of ^ 
the collectors in Lime Street Ward of the charges for a muster v 
of four thousand men by the City for the Queen's service. 
These are two of the few occasions on which he took any 
active part in civic affairs. He had, as we have seen, never 
taken up his livery, and, as he tells us, was never a feast- 
foUower.^ But his peculiar knowledge was made use of in the 
service of his Company, who from at least the beginning of 
1579 P«^d 'John Stowe, a loving brother of this mistery for 
divers good considerations them specially moving ' a yearly 
pension or fee of four pounds.^ This pension was no doubt 
a practical recognition of his literary merit ; but once, in 1603, 
he appears as in receipt of a fee of ten shillings for 'great 
pains by him taken in searching for such as have been *" 
mayors, sheriffs, and aldermen of the said company/ ^ During 
a controversy between the Lieutenant of the Tower and the 
City in 1595, Stow is referred to as the * Fee'd Chronicler ' of 
the Corporation, and is stated to have lately set out the 
boundaries of the Liberty of Cree Church J On 04 Feb., 1601, 
Stow was one of the persons appointed by the Court of 
Aldermen to treat with Mr. Tate of the Temple touching the 
procuring oi Liber Custumarum and Liber Antiquarum Regum? 
Stow*s labours may perhaps have thus earned him some- 
thing more than a barren reputation ; but, as in the case of 
many others before and since, his zeal for learning was at the X 

expense of his own advantage. After Stow's death one^ who 

^ For letters addressed to him there see pp. Ixviii to Ixxii below. 

' See i. 1 61-2. He had moved at least as early as 1575 ; perhaps to one 

of WoodrofTe's houses to which he refers on i. 151. 

' See p. Ixiii. * See vol. ii. 191. 

• Clode, Memorials^ 535 ; Early History , ii. 302. 

* id. i. 264. 

^ Strype, Survey, i. 67 ^. Some memoranda, apparently prepared for 
the use of the corporation, concerning these claims at the Tower and at 
St Martins are given in HarUy MS. J40, f. 122. 

' Munimenta GUdkallae, II, p. xviii. See further p. xxxii below. 

XXIV Introdtiction 

had known him, refused to take up his work, and ' thanked 
God that he was not yet mad to waste his time, spend aoo/, 
a year, trouble himself and all his friends only to gain assur- 
ance of endless reproach.' ^ It is too much to assume from 
this, as some have done, that Stow had spent such an amount 
yearly on the purchase of books, or even on the pursuit of his 
studies. Nevertheless it is certain that his substance was 

^ consumed to the neglect of his ordinary means of maintenance. 
Of his Summary in 1598 he writes : ^ * It hath cost me many 
a weary mile's travel, many a hard earned penny and pound, 
and many a cold winter night's study.' So also in two 
petitions, which he made, apparently to the City, about 1590, 
he relates how * for thirty years past he hath set forth divers 
somaries and set a good example to posterity. And foras- 
moche as the travayle to many places for serchynge of sondry 
records, whereby the varietie of things may come to lyght, 
cannot but be chargeable to the sayde John more than his 
habilitie can afforde, &c.' ^ Edmund Howes, in his edition of 

/ the Annales^ says that Stow * could never ride, but travelled on 
foot unto divers chief places of the land to search records '. 
These and other like references show that Stow in his latter 
days was in straitened circumstances. But his merits were 
not, as tradition dating from his own time has allied, dis- 
regarded. Robert Dowe, a former master of the Merchant 
Taylors Company, established in 1592 pensions for some of 
his poor brethren, and provided specially that one of four 
pounds should be paid to Stow. In 1600 on Dowe's motion 
the Company increased their own pension to six pounds ' soe 
as with the iiij/. he receaveth out of this howse (as one of the 
almesmen of the said Mr. Robert Dowe) he is on the whole 
to receave yerely duringe his life a pencion out of and from 
this companye amounting to the sum of tenn pounds per 
annum.* When in i6oa Dowe revised his charities he pro- 
vided specially that one pension should still be paid to Stow, 
who was not then a working tailor, yet ' notwithstanding in his 
begynnyng was of the handy craft and now for many yeres 

^ Howes, Epistle Dedicatorie to Abridgment (1607), reprinted at end of 
Annalesxn 1 031. 
' p. 460 in the margin. ' For these petitions see p. bcvi below. 

Life of Stow 


hath spent great labour and study in writing of Chronicles 
and other memorable matters for the good of all posterity/ * 

In addition to the pension from his Company, Stow is said 
to have had an annuity of 8/. from Camden in return for his V 
transcripts of Leland. Ralph Brooke, the herald, who is our 
authority for this, allies that Camden had plagiarized Leland 
in his Britannia^ and that Stow lamented the wrong done to 
Leland both by Camden and Harrison.^ It is probable that 
Brooke had no better justification than Stow's published 
censure of Harrison in the Survey.^ Camden no doubt had 
free access to any collections of Stow's. But the transcripts 
from Leland were in Stow's possession as late as 1598.^ It 
may be that Camden's annuity was paid in anticipation of 
a promised bequest. 

However, there can be no doubt that, in spite of all help 
from friends, Stow in his old age found his diminished means 
too small. He was compelled to seek openly for charity, and 
James I granted him Letters Patent, first on 8 May, 1603, and 
again in February and October, 1604, giving him licence to ask 
and take benevolence.^ It is in reference to this that William 
Warner in lines prefixed to his Albiotfs England in 1606 
wrote : — 

Add Stow's late antiquarian pen, 
That annal'd for ungrateful men. 
Next chronicler omit it not, 
His licenc't basons little got; 
Lived poorly where he trophies gave, 
Lies poorly there in noteless grave. 

Ben Jonson has left a note: *John Stow had monstrous 
observations in his Chronicle, and was of his craft a tailor. He 
and I walking alone, he asked two cripples what they would 


I. p'-' 


* Clode, Early History^ ii. 303-4. 

' A Second Discovery of Errors^ p. 47, edited by Anstis in 1723. 
Brooke himself published A Discoverie of Errours^ attacking the 
Britannia which appeared in 1594. He refers repeatedly to Stow as 
* Camden's £amilier '. 

' See vol. i. 348, and ii. 353-4. 

* This is shown by the fact that a part of the original MS. of the Survey 
is bound up with the transcripts of Leland. See p. xcii below. 

* CcU. State Papers^ 1603-10, p. 84. See also p. Ixvii below ; and Strype, 
Sunury, i, pp. xii, xiii. 

xxvi Introduction 

have to take him to their order '} Thus could Stow turn 
a merry jest at his poverty ; and yet, as he told Manningham 
the Diarist, on 17 Dec, 1602, he 'made no gains by his 

T travail \* Certainly he had not the means to meet his great 

/charges, and spent for the benefit of posterity what he might 
have kept for his own need. Yet the tradition of his poverty 
has been, a little exaggerated, and those of his own time were 
not, according to their customs, negligent of his merits. 
Warner, in his haste to point a moral, was premature ; for 
Stow's widow was rich enough to provide a handsome monu- 
ment, where her husband lay in no noteless grave. Stow 
himself was not ungrateful for the help given to him, and in 
y/ 159a presented his Annates to the Merchant Taylors *as a 
small monument given to this corporation by him in token of 
his thankfulness to this company '. 

Stow continued working to the end. The Annates, * en- 
creased and continued until this present yeare 1605,* were 
reissued within a few days of his death. Two years previously 
he wrote in the Survey : * I have been divers times minded to 
add certain chapters to this book, but being, by the good 
pleasure of God, visited with sickness, such as my feet (which 
have borne me many a mile) have of late refused, once in four 
or five months to convey me from my bed to my study, and 
therefore could not do as I would.' ^ 

Howes, in his edition of Stow's Annates^ writes of him thus : 

] * He was tall of stature, lean of body and face, his eyes small 
and chrystaline, of a pleasant and cheerful countenance ; his 
sight and memory very good ; very sober, mild, and courteous 
to any that required his instructions; and retained the true 
use of all his senses unto the day of his death, beinjg of an 

I excellent memory. He always protested never to have written 
an3^hing either for malice, fear, or favour, nor to seek his own 
particular gain or vainglory ; and that his only pains and care 
was to write truth. . . , He was very careless of scoffers, back- 
biters, and detractors. He lived peacefully, and died of the 
stone collicke, being four score years of age, and was buried 
the 8th of April, 1605, in his parish church of St. Andrew's, 

* Conversations with Drummond^ p. 36 ; Shakespeare Society. 
' Diary ^ p. 103 ; Camden Society. ' Vol. il 187-8. 

Life of Stow xxvii 

Undershaft ; whose mural monument near unto his grave was 
there set up at the charges of his wife Elizabeth.' 

The monument, of Derbyshire marble and alabaster, was 
piously restored by the Merchant Taylors Company in 1905, 
the three hundredth anniversary of Stow's death. It repre- 
sents him sitting in his study writing in a book upon his desk, 
with other books about him. Above it is the motto ^Aut 
scribenda agere^ aut legenda scribere ' ^ The inscription is as 
follows : 

Memoriae Sacrum. 

Resurrectionem in Christo pie expectat Joannes Stowe, 
ciuis Londiniensis. Qui in antiquis monumentis eruendis, 
accuratissima diligentia usus Angliae Annales, & ciuitatis 
Londini Synopsin bene de sua, bene de postera aetate meritus, 
luculenter scripsit : Vitaeque stadio pie decurso, obiit Aetatis 
anno 80, die 5 Aprilis 1605. 

Elizabetha coniux, ut perpetuum sui amoris testimonium 

It is pathetic that Stow, after complaining so bitterly of the 
defacers of tombs who thrust out the ancient dead to make 
room for others, should in his turn have suffered the like i^ 
desecration. Maitland ^ relates that Stow*s grave was ' spoiled 
of his injured remains by certain men in the year 1732, who 
removed his corpse to make way for another *. 

Besides the effigy on Stow's tomb there is an engraved 
portrait, which is found in some copies of the 1603 edition of 
the Survey. Manningham' writes that in Dec, 1602 Stow 
told him 'that a modell of his picture was found in the 
Recorder Fleetwood's study, with this inscription, or circum- 
scription, Johannes Stowe, Antiquarius Angliae, which 
now is cutt in brasse, and prefixed in print to his Survay of 
London *. He sayth of it as Pilat sayd : ' What I have written, 
I have written ' ; and thinkes himself worthie of that title for 

* By a stonemason's error * STVT * appears instead of A VT. Mr. Philip 
Norman informs me that previous to the last restoration the word ' avt ' 
could be read either 'avt' or 'stvt', the original and correct lettering 
not having been obliterated. The iron railing now in front of the 
monument was copied from one which appears in prints of the eighteenth 

* History of London^ ii. 1062. ' Diary y p. 103. 

xxviii Introduction 

his paynes, for he hath no gaines by his travaile '. The en- 
graved copies are dated ^ Aetatis suae 77, 1603 '} 

Of Stow's three daughters two survived him and are men- 
tioned in his will. Julyan, apparently the elder, had married 
a well-to-do neighbour, Mr. Peter Towers, by whom she had 
a large family ; three of them died during the great sickness 
of 1603, when their grandfather made his will; one alone 
1/ seems to have lived beyond early manhood. The second was 
Joan Foster, whose husband lived at Warwick, whence she 
wrote to ask her father's antiquarian help for her very friend 
and neighbour Oliver Brooke.* Of his widow Elizabeth I 
have found no later mention ; but she lived long enough to 
set up his tomb after 1606. The care with which Stow begged 
the overseer of his will to take so much pains that his poor 
wife be not overpressed to take any wrong, suggests that she 
was one and the same with the wife who forty years before 
could neither get nor save.^ 

§ 2. The Survey of London 

The Survey of London is the book of a life. On it the 
author's peculiar title to fame now rests. Yet probably he 
himself had regarded it as somewhat of a relaxation from his 
more serious labours on general English history. The range 
of his research puts Stow outside the class of * lay chroni- 
graphers that write of nothing but of Mayors and Sherrifs, 
and the dere yere, and the great frost'.* He has an indis- 
putable right to our regard for the amount of information, 
which he collected and preserved. Yet when this is admitted, 
the Annales entitle him to little other distinction than that 
which belongs to a painstaking seeker after truth, who brought 
the results of his toil into a chronologically exact narrative, 
without the power to impress them with any greater vitality.^ 

^ This portrait, given as a frontispiece to this volume, was first reproduced 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1857. 

' See pp. Ixx, Ixxi below. ' See pp. xlv and Iviii. 

* Nash, in Pierce Penilesse^ ap. IVorks^ ii. 62. This was written in 1592. 
when Stow had published only nis Summarie and Chronicles of England^ 
to which it applies well enough. Next year, in Strange Newesy &c. 
[Works^ ii. 265), Nash wrote: 'Chroniclers heare my prayers; good 
Maister Stowe be not unmindful! of him.' 

^ Camden, when sending to Abraham Ortelius, in 1580, a copy of Stow*s 

The Survey of London xxix 

Had he done no more^ be would be no more remembered than 
are others, who did good work enough in and for their own 
generation. The Survey stands upon quite other ground. 
In it Stow built himself a monument for all time, and has 
left a record instinct with life. It is at once the summary of 
sixty observant years, and a vivid picture of London as he 
saw it. 

Stow possessed in a peculiar degree the qualities necessary 
for such a work, and the time at which he wrote was excep- 
tionally favourable. In his day he witnessed the passing of 
mediaevalism and the birth of the modem capital. His youth 
was spent in that declining time of charity and other good old 
customs, when he might behold with his own eyes the lordly 
munificence and pomp of prelates and nobles.^ He had seen 
the Prior of Trinity ride in civic procession amongst the alder- 
men.^ He could dimly recollect how the Dean and Chapter 
of St. Paul's in their copes and vestments, with garlands of 
roses on their heads, received a buck at the high altar on the 
feast of the commemoration of their patron saint.^ In his 
middle age he lamented the greed and violence of professed 
reformers, and in his last years saw the growth of a new order. 
He had served his apprenticeship whilst the ancient guild-life 
still retained its power^ but lived to see its bonds broken and 
a fresh dispensation come into being. He remembered pleasant 
walks and g^een fields where in his late days there were only 
streets and houses. He had seen the City spread on every 
side, till the approaches were blocked by unseemly enclosures, 
and even within its ancient bounds remarked how open spaces 
had come to be pestered with small tenements. His own 
sympathies were with the old ways. He recalled with regret ' 
ancient buildings that had perished in the wreck of change or 
through greed of gain. He had loved them for their beauty, 
and, as we may suppose, cherished their memory for the sake 
of what they symbolized. He had grown to manhood before 
the Reformation, and all that it entailed, was accomplished, 

'Annales' (The Chronicles) writes: 'Hominem opinor nosti, eius indu- 
striam laudant nostrates, sed iudicium nonnunquam requirunt. Eius modi 
est hoc opus ut inter nostros Chronographos non posteriores ferat.' 
Camdeni Efnstolae^ p. 12, ed. T. Smith, 169 1. 
M. 89. M. 141. ' i. 334. 

XXX Introduction 

and his studies must have strengthened the associations of his 
youth. Yet he lived to feel in his own old age the warmth of 
the nation's new life. He was proud of the increased prosperity 
of his native city, and of the new state with which the wealth 
of her citizens adorned her. Whatever lurking sympathy he 
might have felt for the old faith was lost in the deep lo3ralty 
of a true Elizabethan, who feared lest seditious religion 
might be a betraying unto Spanish invasion and tyranny. If 
; thus he wrote down his Survey ofttimes in the spirit of the 
I past, he closed it in confident hope for the long enjoyment of 
j the good estate of this city.* 

If Stow was fortunate in the time of his writing he was 
fortunate also in his own qualities. A long life^ a retentive 
memory, a zeal for accumulating material, and the painstaking 
capacity for giving it shape, enabled him to turn his oppor- 
tunity to the best advantage. He disclaims any early interest 
in history, but his passion for antiquity dated from his 
youth. Towards the end of his life he told George Buck of 
how he had talked with old men who remembered Richard III 
as a comely prince,^ and his own history of that time is based 
admittedly on what he had heard as well as on what he had 
read. He had a curious faculty for minute observation and 
for graphic description of small detail. This power he 
practised most in his autobiographical fragments, whether 
those which he left in manuscript, or those which are em- 
bedded as the most charming passages in the Survey* But 
indeed the whole book is full with the fruits of the writer's 

The main framework of the Survey was based on a per- 
ambulation of the several wards of the City, which Stow 
accomplished with scrupulous care and verified from his 
\/ ample collections. The compass of Elizabethan London was 

small, not extending very far beyond the walls or bars, 
and with the whole of that small compass a single man 
could easily be familiar. So there is scarcely a ward to the 
history of which Stow could not contribute something from 
his own knowledge or memory. Now it is the recollection of 

^ ii. 196. 

- Bucky Hist* of Richard III^ ap. Kennet, CompltU History ^ i. 548. 

The Survey of London xxxi 

some old custom of his youth. Here he calls to mind the 
beauty of the perished bell-tower at Clerkenwell,* or describes, 
perhaps not too accurately, the decoration of the old Black- 
well Hall.' Here he tells of an inscription which owed its 
preservation to his care,^ and elsewhere of antiquities and 
remains discovered in the course of excavations, which he 
had witnessed^ But his chance memories, though frequent 
and interesting, are of less value than his deliberate record of 
what he sought for. Every church was visited, and all note- 
worthy monuments carefully described; though, as he told 
Manningham,'' he omitted many new monuments, 'because 
those men have been the defacers of the monuments of others, 
and so worthy to be deprived of that memory whereof they 
have injuriously robbed others.* Often in the Survey he 
laments such irreverent defacement, or the greedy spoliation 
of ancient tombs ; and sometimes he had to supply gaps from 
written records, where such were available. He did not scorn 
to question the oldest inhabitant on the history of a for- 
gotten or nameless grave, or to cross-examine the host and 
his ostler for the story of Gerard the giant.' 

In the same spirit of eager inquiry he had thought to obtain 
from the chief City Companies what might sound to their 
worship and commendation, that so he might write of them 
more at large. But when he met with a rather surly rebuff 
from the Vintners, he was somewhat discouraged any further 
to travail.'' Perhaps also he began to find his material out- 
grow his space, and felt the less inclined to pursue such a wide 
inquiry. To the records of his own Company he no doubt had 
access, and of its early history he gives some account, though 
with less detail than might have been expected.' 

Of the City Records Stow made far more abundant use, 
and the score of occasions on which he cites them specifically 
do not at all represent the extent of his indebtedness. Some 

• ii. 84. * i. 287 ; ii. 337. 

• i. 40. 

• i. 381 138, 168-70; ii.43. 

' Diary^ p. 103. Stow's lists confirm the story. 

• i. 348 ; ii. 353. 
^ ii. 247. 

• i, pp. 18 1-2. 

xxxii Introduction 

of these Records, to wit the Liber Custumarum^ and possibly 
others also, were at this time in private hands,^ and readily 
accessible to Stow. But Stow as the *fee'd Chronicler' of 
the Corporation was no doubt given free permission to consult 
the records which were still at the Guildhall. He had made 
some use of the Liber Home^ and still more of the Liber 
Dunthorne^ and he refers occasionally by name, and very often 
in fact, to the Letter-books.^ Once, at all events, he refers to 
the City Journals.^ Probably also he owed his extensive 
knowledge of wills in part to the Husting Rolls^ though copies 
of important wills were often preserved elsewhere, as in the 
muniments of interested parishes. 

Stow is said to have received assistance from Robert Bowyer * 
the Keeper of the Records ; but Bowyer did not become keeper 
till 1604, though he was apparently in official service at an 
earlier date. It is clear from his frequent and accurate cita- 
tions, especially from the Patent Rolls and Inquisitions post 
mortem^ that Stow obtained abundant extracts from the records 
in the Tower.* This he might have done through Bowyer, or 
through Michael Heneage, who was keeper from 1578 to 1600, 
or Thomas Talbot, who was Heneage's clerk ; Heneage and 

^ The Liber Custumarum and Liber Antiquorum Regum^ with some 
others, had been lent to Fleetwood the Recorder about 1576, for the 
preparation of the volume which now bears his name. At Fleetwood's 
death, in 1594, they passed by some means into the hands of Stow's friend 
Francis Tate, and ultimately into those of Sir Robert Cotton. In 1601 
Stow was helping the Corporation in an endeavour to recover their 
property (see p. xxiii above). Through Tate's agency the Liber Anti- 
quorum Regum and part of the Liber Custumarum were restored in 1608. 
Cotton gave up the Liber Fleetwood in 16 10; but even then retained a 
part of the Ldber Custumarum, now Cotton MS, Claudius D. ii. The 
Liber Custumarum and Liber Home were probably compiled by Andrew 
Home {d. 1328) the City Chamberlain. The Liber Albus was prepared 
about 1419 by John Carpenter. The Liber Duntkome was compiled from 
Letter-books and other sources (as the Trinity Cartulary) by William 
Dunthorae, the Town Clerk, between 1461 and 149a The Liber Con-- 
stitutionis which Stow quotes in three places (L 83, ii. 8, 124) I have not 
been able to identify. For the LU>er Albus and Liber Custumarum see 
Riley's Munimenta Gildhallae in the Rolls Series. 

' See i. 157, 308, and Notes/ojx/Vn. 

' ii. 294. 

^ Heame, Curious Discourses, ii. 442-3 ; see also CaL State Papers, 
1595*79 pp* io» 509, and 1603-10, pp. 178, 568. Bowyer was a member 
of toe Society of /uitiquaries in November, 1599 : see Ashmole MS. 763, 
f. 196. 

' See Notes and Supplement /oxx/w. 

The Survey of London xxxlii 

Talbot were both members of the Society of Antiquaries. 
However, the letter from his daughter, and his own statements, 
show that Stow himself made searches at the Tower.^ 

Other minor records were not neglected. Stow refers once 
to the Church-book of his own parish of St Andrew Undcr- 
shaft,' and in another place to that of St Mildred, Poultry ;^ 
it is evident also that he had consulted the Church-books of 
St. Stephen, Coleman Street, and St. Stephen, Walbrook.^ 
Probably much of his information as to chantries and charities 
was derived from such sources. 

Stow's work on records was surprisingly good, but was 
necessarily imperfect. In other directions bis services to 
posterity were even more precious. With the break-up of 
the Monasteries their muniments were in danger of destruction. 
What was saved from the wreck we owe to the care of Stow 
and others like him. Several of the most important Cartu- 
laries for London history were in his possession. Such were 
the invaluable Roister of Holy Trinity, Aldgate ; the Cartu- 
laries of the Nuns' Priory and the Hospital of St John at 
Clerkenwell; the Liber Papie or Register of St Augustine 
Papey; and the Liber S. Bartkolofnei, a history of St. 
Bartholomew's Priory ^. If he did not himself possess, he had 
access also to, cartularies of St Mary Overy,® of the College 
of St. Martin-le-GrandJ and of Colchester Abbey.' The 
Dunmow Chronicle of Nicholas de Bromfield is preserved 
only in his transcript.^ He appears also to have owned the 
original Liber S. Mariae E bar urn ^ which Francis Thynne 
copied as An Anominalle Chronicle of i^Si, our most valuable 
account of the Peasants* Revolt in London.^^ No doubt the 
large collections of Thynne and other friends like Glover, 

' See pp. Ixvii, Ixxi, and ii. 346. 

' See I. 241. ' See ii. 330. * Sec i. 227 and ii. 317. 

' As to these see p. xcii below. * See i. 244, ii. 63, 324-6, 353. 

^ Sec i. 307. • See i. 254. • Sec p. xcii. 

" Preserved only by Thynne's copy in S/owe MS. 1047. Sec ii. 366 
below. In the same volume arc extracts from a Chronicle of the Kings 
of Man, and the Ledger Book of Osney (now at Christ Church, Oxford), 
which Thynne had borrowed ftom Stow. For instances of Stow's in- 
debtedness to friends see the account (tf his own Collections on pp. Ixxxvii 
to xdi below. The letters of his friends illustrate what community of 
assistance there was between the antiquaries of the day. 


xxxiv Introduction 

Fleetwood, and Camden were at his service. The report of 
Grindal's chaplains on their search of Stow's study in 1569 
proves that he had even thus early accumulated a great mass 
of material. The letters of his friends show the repute in 
which ' Stow's Storehouse ', and especially his Fundatianes 
Ecclesiarum^ was held.^ Not the least of his treasures were his 
transcripts of Leland's Collections^ to which reference has 
already been made.^ 

With the works of the great mediaeval historians, as William 
of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon, Roger Hoveden, Mat- 
thew Paris, the Flores Hisioriarunty Knighton, and Walsingham 
Stow was familiar, and of most if not of all he possessed 
valuable manuscripts. He used also many minor authorities,^ 
and more than one document of interest exists only in his 
transcript.* But for his own peculiar purpose in the Survey 
the old Chronicles of London were of greater value, and 
of them he made constant use. His own Summary and 
Chrofticles were, so to say, in form, and to a great extent in 
matter, the direct descendants of the ancient civic histories. 
Stow himself possessed or used at least three of the copies of 
the Chronicles of London which still survive, and made some 
notes in them all. Two of these have been printed, viz. the 
Short English Chronicle from Lambeth MS. 306 in Dr. Gaird- 
ner's Three Fifteenth Century ChronicleSy^xid the more valuable 
and important copy in Cotton MS. Vitellius A. xvi, which is 
included in my own volume of Chronicles of Lotuion. The 
third is contained in HarUy Roll C. 8, which is no doubt one 
of the ' old Registers ' which Stow searched for information 
on the portreeves and early governors of the City,* But these 

^ See pp. Ixix to Ixxii. ' See p. xxv above. 

' As the Chronicon AngUctCy 1328-88 (i. 71, ii. 168-9) ; monastic annals 
like those of Bermondsey (ii. 66-7) and Dunstable (ii. 49) ; Walter 
of Coventry (i. 24) ; Peter of Ickham (i. 89) ; William de Chambre (i. 90, 
ii. 99) ; and the pseudo-Ingulph (i. 72, ii. 112, 128). 

* c. g. The Arrivall of Edward IV^ and The Chronicle of Calais in 
Harley MSS. J42, 543. See p. xc below. 

* See p. xcii and note on 11. 382 below. Hie Chronicle in Harley 
Roll C. 8, is very similar to the Skirt English Chronicle refenred to above. 
But even in the earlier portions it contains some additions ; from 1400 
to 1434 it is very meagre; from 1434 to 145 1 it resembles closely the 
fuller copy in Cotton MS. Julius B. I (see NICOLAS, Chronicle of London^ 

The Survey of London xxxv 

were not the only copies with which he was acquainted, as 
appears from various references in his printed works,^ and from 
fragments and transcripts preserved amongst hb Collections} 
It is clear, moreover, that Stow had used the longer original 
of the Vitellius Chronicle,^ whether at first hand, or through 
the medium of a lost work of Fabyan. Of Fabyan himself 
Stow has left an interesting note : ^ 'He wrote a Chronicle of 
London, England and of France, beginning at the creation, and 
endynge in the third of Henry the 8, which both I have in 
writen hand/^ The second edition of Fab)^n's Chronicle^ 
which appeared in 1532, included continuations to 1509. But 
for these it is unlikely that Fab)ran was in any sense respon* 
sible, and it is certain that his original work ended with 1485. 
But both in his Survey and in his Annates Stow several times 
quotes * Ro. Fabian ', or * Fabian's manuscript \ as his authority 
for incidents between 1485 and 1512.^ These citations agree 
with nothing in the printed continuations, and where they 
correspond with passages in the Vitellius Chronicle are some- 
times fuller. A possible solution is that Fabyan had himself 
composed a continuation of his original workj which was 
superior to those supplied in the printed editions. Of this 
manuscript continuation all trace has now perished, except for 
Stow s record and occasional quotations. The gap between 
the end of Fabyan's manuscript and the b^inning of Stow's 
own life was not long. For the greater part of the reign of 
Henry VIII he was dependent chiefly on Hall's Chronicle^ 
supplemented by the London Annals in Harley MS. 540. 
But for the last sixty years of his history he writes from his 
own knowledge, at first of memory, and afterwards of record 

ppw 133-7, and 171-3) ; it ends with 1463, the notices for the later years 
again resembling the Short En^ish Chronicle. 

' e. g. Hie notices on the affiur of Laurence Duket in 1284, the play at 
Skinners Well in 1409, the piracy on the Thames in 1440, and the fight 
at Smtthfield in 1442. See i. 93, 254 ; ii. 32, 71. 

* Ap. Harley AfSS. 367, 530, 540, 541, and 543. See further pp. Ixxxviii 
to xc oelow. 

* C£ ii. 310. * See ii. 305 below. 

* One may possibly be the Cotton MS. Nero C. xi. 

* See i. 181, 209; ii. 55, 116 bek>w. It is probable that some other 
matter comes from the same source, as the notes for 1504-5 in i. 67 
and iL 62. 

c 2 


xxxvi Introduction 

set down systematically year by year for his Summary and 
AnnaUs} Between Feb., 3561 and July, 1567 at all events he 
kept some sort of Diary .^ The greater part of this was made 
use of for the AnnaUs, but some matters it would clearly 
have been unwise to print. This Diary ends just before the 
b^nnit^ of his troubles. The search of his library by 
Grindal may have warned him to keep no more any such 
dangerous document. 
I Stow himself tells us that the idea of his Survey was 
I suggested by Lambarde's Perambulation of Kcnt^ which first 
appeared in 1574. He writes modestly that at the desire and 
persuasion of friends he handled the argument after plain 
manner rather than leave it unperformed. From the Letters 
Patent of James I it appears that Stow had spent eight years 
I on the preparation of his Survey^ and since the first edition 
wa^ published in 1598 he must have been long past sixty 
)^^< years of age when he b^[an his work. As already pointed 

i out, a careful perambulation of the several wards of the City 

furnished the main framework of the book. To this particular 
account there was prefixed a more general narrative dealing 
with the origins^ the growth, and social life of the City. For 
that part which deals with Roman Antiquities Stow was 
probably indebted to the assistance of Camden.^ For the 
subsequent chapters on Walls, Rivers, Gates, and Towers, on 
Customs, Sports, and Pastimes, and on the Honour of Citizens 
he found a convenient text in William Fitz-Stephen's De^ 

^ In his Sutnmarie for 1566 when describing Somerset's execution he 
thinks it 'good to writ myne opinion according to that whiche I there 
sawe '. Suitable material was transferred from the Annales to the Survey, 

^ Preserved in Lofnbeih MS, 306 and printed as Stow*s Memoranda in 
Dr. Gairdner's Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles^ pp. 115-47. I have 
given some passages which illustrate the Survey in the notes on ii. 283, 
3'^h 339> 34^> 3^ below. Very little of the Memoranda is personal : on 
3 January, 1565, he dined with a friend at Westminster, and walked back 
on the ice to Baynard's Castle ' as salfTe as ever I went in eny place in all 
my lyfTe ' ; on 2 April. 1566, * was sene in y* elyment as thoughe the same 
had openyd y* bredgnte of a great shete and shewyd a bryght ilame of 
fyre and then closydf agayne, and as it ware at every mynute of an howre 
to opyn and dose agayne, y* whiche I, bevng at y* Barrs without All- 
gate, sawe playne easte as it was ovar the churche namyd Whitchappell ' 

(pp. 131, ^37)' 
^ Much of it resembles closely Camden's Britannia, 

The Survey of London 


scriptian of London^ which he printed accordingly as an 
appendix to the Survey^ 

From the state of the original manuscript ^ we may con- 
jecture that Stow first set out in a fair hand the result of his 
perambulation. This he then proceeded to complete with 
additions and interpolations drawn from his own large store- 
house, and written on the margins, or between the lines, or 
on slips pasted in, at such length as often to double the 
original contents of the page. The draft thus prepared differs 
a good deal from the printed work as well in matter as in the 
arrangement, which was finally altered for the better.^ On 
the other hand. Stow seems to have found his copy too exten- 
sive, and therefore cut out various matters which he had 
dealt with elsewhere or thought superfluous. But no sooner 
was the work printed than he began after his accustomed 
manner to enlarge and improve it. In the preface to his 
second edition he declares with justice that he had added 
many rare notes of antiquity.^ Amongst the longest of these 
additions may be noted the extract from the Lancaster 
accounts,* the whole section ' Of Charitable Alms ', the ex- 
pansion of the Chapter on Honour of Citizens,^ the account 
of the Devil's appearance at St. Michael, Cornhill,* the notes 
on Jews in England,^ and on Tournaments at Smithfield ; ^^ 
and finally the unperfected notes on City government, a 
subject which he did not touch in his first edition, because 
he had hope that another minded such a labour.^^ But of 
more real moment than these long insertions, are the number- 
less small corrections and additions, of which it is impossible 
to give any general description. It is curious that the refer- 
ences to foundations of Chantries are nearly all inserted for 

^ Prefixed by FitzStephen to his Uje of Thomas Becket. 

■ Sec ii. 220-9 below. 

' The main part forms Harley MS. 538. A rough draft of the chapter 
on Soathwaric is in Harley MS. 544, ff. 96-9, where also there is another 
fragment on f. 107. A revised draft of the chapter on Rivers is in Tanner 
MS. 464 in the Bodleian Library. 

* See notes on ii. 285 and 365 below. 
' The additions amount to 100 pages. 

^ i. 85-7 and ii. 236. ^ i. 89-;^! and ii. 236. ' i. 196 and ii. 244. 

• i. 278-82 and ii. 252. " ij. 29-33 and 260. " ii. 187. 


xxxviii Introduction 

the first time in the second edition.V Several new passages 
are inserted from the Vitellius Chronicle of London ; and the 
Cartulary* of St. Mary Overy would appear to have been 
for the first time consulted during the intervaL' Other 
additions relate to events of later date than 1598, such as the 
bequests of Alice Smith to the Skinners, the foundation of 
Plat's School in 1601, and the damage done to Cheap Cross 
in 1599 and 1600.^ Apart from the addition of new matter 
the text of the Survey was carefully revfsed. Of this the 
best instance is to be found in the rearrangement of the 
material relating to Cheapside, which in the first edition was 
spread over Cheap, Farringdon Within, and Cordwainer Street 
Wards, but in 1603 was more conveniently brought together 
in the account of the iirst-named.^ The first edition, more- 
over, seems not to have escaped criticism. So a note on the 
Skinners Company was put in 'to stop the tongues of un- 
thankful men, such as use to ask : Why have ye not noted 
this, or that? and give no thanks for what is done'.^ A 
contrary reason may explain the disappearance of Stow's 
account of his rebuff by the Vintners.^ There is also a char- 
acteristic touch in the note 'that being informed of the 
Writhsleys to be buried there, I have since found them and 
others to be buried at St. Giles, Crippl^ate, where I mind to 
leave them'.'' Certainly Stow improved his book in its 
second edition ; it was substantially larger, and the changes 
were on the whole for the better. Nevertheless both the 
original draft and the first edition contain peculiar matter 
which we should have been sorry to lose. 

Thomas Heame called Stow ' an honest and knowing man ', 
but * an indifTerent scholar '.® The criticism is not altogether 
unjust, for Stow suffered from the limitations which no self- 
taught man can escape entirely. His knowledge of Latin and 
French was imperfect, and he was disposed sometimes to 
evade rather than solve his difficulties. It is not surprising 
that he should occasionally be at fault in his most positive 

^ See for instances, ii. 244-9. 

« See i. 25, 37, 66, 244, 249, 346, ii. 63. • See i. 174, 267. 

* Sec i. 264-70 and ii. 249-54. • Sec i. 231. 

• See ii. 247. ' See i. 204. 
^ Letters from the Bodleian^ i. 288, ii. 98. 

The Survey of London xxxix 

interpretations. In the first compilation of such a work a 
certain proportion of error was inevitable, whether through 
inaccuracy of transcription for which Stow was personally 
responsible, or in mistakes of the printer over dates. What 
is really remarkable about the Surviy is that a man with 
little advants^es of education, working on new ground from 
sources still for the most part in manuscript, was able to 
discover and bring into order so vast a mass of material. 
After all possible deductions the Survey justifies Stow's rule 
in the preface to his Summaru for 1565 : — ' In hystories the 
chief thyng that is to be desired is the truth.' His main 
narrative is substantially accurate, the state of his original 
manuscript, and the variations presented by the printed 
editions bear witness to the pains which he took to verify his 
facts.^ The range of his information is indeed remarkable. 
It appears not only in the text of his published works, but 
also in the vast mass of his manuscript Collections^ of which 
the surviving remnant, considerable enough, can have formed 
but a small part.' 

In the Survey StoVs chief task of research was to find 
illustrations for what he had heard or seen, and criticism or 
discrimination was of less importance. The charm and value 
of the work consist in its personal note. We are not so much 
concerned that Stow should have had a fine scorn for fables 
of other folks' telling, especially if that other chanced to be 
R. G.,^ as that he could tell a merry tale on his own account 
It is well that he should disbelieve in giants,^ but better that 
he could repeat with simple faith his father's story of how the 
Devil appeared at St. Michael, Comhill, and add his own 
testimony on the holes where the claws had entered three or 
four inches deep in the stone.^ But even greater credulity in 
himself, and more harsh censure of it in others, could be for- 
given for the sake of his zeal for truth and just dealing. He 
loved to praise famous men, and rejoiced in the history of 

^ A comparison of Stow's account of St. Michael, ComhiU, with the 
Churchwardens' Accounts, which he does not appear to have seen, 
furnishes a good instance of his accuracy. See i. 195-9 and ii. 305-6. 
And see also iL 331-2 for another contemporary instance. 

' See pp. Ixx3cvi sqq. below. 

» See I. 118, 349. * See i. 348-9. • See i. 196. 

xl Introduction 

their good deeds. The care with which he set down particulars 
of charities seems to have been inspired by a sense of the 
public interest, for he is not less careful to censure the too 
frequent instances of n^lect and misappropriation.^ He 
comments so often on the failure of executors in the discharge 
of their duties,' that one b^ins to suspect the memory of 
some personal grievance. But his censure never seems 
malicious. He speaks out openly against abuses of civic 
government, and the promotion of unfitting persons,^ but 
he glosses over the shortcomings which lost John Cowper 
his term of mayoralty,^ and does not repeat the scandal caused 
by Sir Thomas Lodge, who was ' braky and professe to be 
banqweroute' during his year of office.^ In other matters 
his own predilections could not be suppressed. He did not 
like change, objected to find his former walks pestered with 
filthy tenements, commended archery, thought no harm of 
bull-baiting,^ scorned bowling-alleys^ and passed theatres by. 
Stow*s pronounced opinions on such matters were reflected 
inevitably in the Survey, Of the London of contemporary 
satirists and dramatists we find little trace. It is only through 
his repeated complaints of the dicing-houses, and filthy tene- 
ments, which destroyed the pleasant walks of his youth, 
that we get any hint at the cozenage, gambling, and immor- 
ality which defamed the suburbs of Elizabethan London. To 
the lurid picture drawn by Greene and Nash, Dekker and 
Rowlands , Stow's sober narrative may, however, supply a 
needed corrective. More surprising to readers of to-day must 
be the almost complete absence in the Survey of any reference 
to the adventurous and intellectual activities of the age. ' Sir 
Francis Drake, that famous mariner ', is mentioned once. But 
there is not a word of Shakespeare, nor of any other of the 
great writers of the time, not even of his own acquaintance 

* i. Ii6, 148, 154, 198, 246. « i. 1 14-5, 273. 

* Sec i. 191. * See i. 212. 
^ Memoranda^ ap. Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles^ p. 127. 

' It is the desecration of the Sabbath, not the cruelty to animals, which 
Stow reprehends, when in referring to the accident at Paris-Garden, on 
Sunday, 13 Jan., 1583, he writes : * A firiendly warning to such as more 
delight themselves in the cruelty of beasts, then in the workes of mercy, 
the fruits of a true professed fiiith, which ought to be the Sabbath day's 
exercise.* Annates^ p. 11 73, ed. 1605. 

The Survey of London xH 

Ben Jonson. It may be replied that Stow was not concerned 
with social life ; but in point of £act he is ready enough to 
digress on any subject that interested him. As a matter of 
topography alone such famous, or notorious, haunts as The 
Bull in Bishopsgate, The Mitre, or The Mermaid deserved at 
least a passing notice. But theatrical references were struck *^ 
out deliberately in the edition of 1603, save for a general ^ 
implied censure on stage-plays. Perhaps a like intention 
accounts for the exclusion of other topics to which the writer 
was not attracted. Stow's attitude was not, however, due to 
any recluse-like absorption in books. We get a few glimpses 
of him as a sociable companion, ready to discuss business in 
a friendly way over a quart of ale or pint of wine, interested 
in old sports, in the fun on the frozen Thames, and the time- 
honoured wrestling at Bartholomew Fair. New-fangled 
customs and amusements he did not love, and he either 
censured them openly, or left them unnoticed, like those 
tombs of the lately dead, which thrust out monuments hal- 
lowed by antiquity. 

Such an attitude was perhaps natural to the conservative 
mind of an old man, who found himself in ' the most scoffing, 
carping, respectlesse, and unthankeful age that ever was'.^ 
It certainly hurt nobody. Yet once in a way there comes out 
a touch of spite in his humorous satisfaction at the misfortunes 
which befell the builders of high houses to overlook others, 
and especially a neighbour of his own in Leadenhall, who 
made him a high tower, but being in short time tormented 
with gout could not climb and take pleasure thereof.' But 
we may accept the protest which has come down to us through 
Howes, that he never wrote anything either for malice, fear, 1 
or favour, nor to seek his own particular gain or vain-glory, ' 
and that his only pains and care was to write Truth. 

The text of the Survey as given in the edition of 1603 is 
the only full and authoritative version. Strange as it may N 
appear, it has never been accurately reprinted. The very 
interest of the book encouraged later writers to continue and 

^ AnnaUs^ p. 859, ed. 163 1. It is Howes's observation ; but he may 
have been using Stow*s collections. 
* Scci. 152. 


xlii Introduction 

expand it. No long time after Stow's death Anthony 
Munday took up his friend's work, and in 1618 produced an 
edition, ' continued, corrected, and much enlarged with many 
rare and worthie notes.' It is true that in bulk Munday's 
additions were considerable, but, as Strype remarks, they con- 
sist very largely of copies of monumental inscriptions from 
churches and extracts from the Summarie and Annates. How- 
ever, like Stow before him, Munday had no sooner completed 
his labours than he set to work once more. In 1633, four 
months after Munday's death, there appeared another edition 
' completely finished by the study of A. M., H. D., and others'.^ 
Perhaps the most prominent addition on this occasion was the 
insertion of coats of arms of all the Mayors and the City 
Companies. But, besides further notes on churches, there was 
a large if somewhat undigested mass of new matter, copies of 
Acts and Statutes of Parliament and the Common Council, 
notes on the origin of the City Companies, and the like. 
Strype censures Munday for his deviations from the author's 
edition and sense ; unhappily he had not the wisdom to take 
warning from another's error. 

In 1694 there was a design to reprint the Survey with large 
additions and improvements.' A little later John Strype began 
to work on the Survey^ and after long labour produced in 1720 
a so-called edition in two large folio volumes. Hearne, on 
hearing of the project in 1707, wrote well : ' Stow should have 
been simply reprinted as a venerable original, and the additions 
given in a different character'.* Strype judged otherwise, and 
though he preserved for the most part the original text, he 
embedded it in such a mass of new, if valuable, matter as often 
to conceal its identity and obscure its meaning. A similar 
criticism applies to the version of 1734, edited by John Mottley 
under the pseudonym of Robert Seymour, and to the * Sixth 
Edition ' of 1754, printed under Strype's name but with addi- 
tions ' by careful hands ', bringing the survey and history down 
to that date. 

* H. D. is Humphry Dyson. Sec p. 442 of Sun^ey for 1633. 
' Projected apparently by Awnsham Churchill, and other London 
publishers : see a broadsheet in the Bodleian Library. 
' Collections J ii. 41. 

The Survey of London xUH 

The text of 1603 was first reprinted by W. J. Thoms in 
1842. Thoms added notes of some antiquarian interest, 
together with the chief variations of the text of 1598. But 
he modernized the orthography and omitted some of the 
marginal notes. His text is moreover not free from tjrpo- 
gpraphical errors, which did not appear in the original. The 
example of Thoms' edition has been followed in subsequent 
reprints. Thus it comes to pass that the present edition, for 
die first time after three hundred years, makes Stow's true 
work generally accessible in the form in which he wrote it. 



Early History, 

Stow no doubt belonged to an old London family. His grand- 
father Thomas (d. 1527) in his will refers to his own parents as 
being buried at St. Michael, Cornhill (see p. vii above). This carries 
the descent one generation further back than John Stow could do. 
The name occurs occasionally in early records. There is mention 
of a John de Stowe in 1283 (Sharpe, Cal, Wills Hustings i. 65). 
Henry de Stowe, draper, had a lease of the Coldharbour in 131 9 
(see i. 236 below). Another John Stowe occurs in 1351 (Ca/. 
Wills ^ i. 641), and William Stowe in 1387 (^Anc, Deeds, B. 2055). 
Thomas Stow was Dean of St. Paul's in 1400. But I cannot connect 
any of these with the chronicler. 

I must pass, therefore, to contemporary documents, and will then 
sum up their evidence. 

The Will of Elizabeth Stowe. 

The xxvijth of June 1568. 

' In the name of God Amen. I, Elizabeth Stowe beinge sicke in 
bodye &c.' Her body to be buried ' in the cloyster by my husbande 
in the parisshe of S. Mychell in Comehill '. Her executor to spend 
* xxxv//. vpon my buryall to burye me decentely withall '. 

' Itm. I will myne executor to gy\t vnto lohn my eldeste sonne 
fyve poundes. Itm. I gy\t vnto lohn my younger sonne the monye 
beinge in the handes of Thomas Ifarmer my sonne in lawe, the some 
of xiij//'. v]s, viijV., which shalbe due as apperethe by one obligacion. 
And yf it happen that the saide lohn the yonger doe departe this 
worlde within the time specified in the obligacion, that then it remaine 
vnto William Stowe my sonne, and yf he dye also then it to remaine 
vnto my executor his heires executors or assigns.' 

To William Stowe, ten pounds. To her daughter lohan, five 
pounds 'for she hathe had fyve alredy'. To her daughter Margaret 
' the yearely rent of the house which Stephen Rowlandson dwelleth in, 
which is xxxv by year ' with remainder to her executor. 

Notes on the Stow Family adv 

Vnto my daughter Alyce my best pettycoate for a remembrance, 
for she hathe had tenne poundes of me alredye.' 

'Vnto my brother William Archer his wyfe, my cassocke edged 
with conye, and to his son harye xLr. in monye/ 

' Vnto my oosen Cuttler my worste cassocke/ Ten shillings ' for 
my children and fryndes to drincke withall after my buryall '. Five 
shillings for the poor in bread. To the Tallow-chandlers six shillings 
and eight pence to follow her corpse. 

' My Sonne Thomas Stowe my fall and whoale executor ' is named 
residuary legatee, and Harry Johnson is appointed overseer and to 
have six shillings and eight pence for his pains. 

Elizabeth Stowe makes her mark. Willyam Eyre, and Harrye 
Johnson^ sign. Proved by Thomas Stowe on 13 Oct. 1568. 

The Will of John Stowe. 

* In the name of God amen. The xxx day of August 1603 I lohn 
Stowe Citizen and Marchant Tailor of London Ac. 

* My bodye to be buryed where it please God to take me to his 
mercye. fyrst I gyve and bequeath to my daughter Julyan Towers 
the some of x poundes. And to my daughter Jone foster ten poundes. 
And that they to be satysfyed and contented for any further porcyons 
alter my death. And for the rest of my goodes household stuf and 
appareyle I g3n^e vnto Elizabeth my wyfe, as also I gyve vnto her the 
lease of my house with the Residue of the yeares to come.' 

Elizabeth Stow is appointed executrix, and George Speryng ^ over- 
seer, * desyryng hym moste hartely to take so moche paynes to help 
my pore W3rfe in her busynes, that she be not ouerpressed to take any 

Signed in a very shaky but characteristic hand : ' lohn stow, lohn 
stow aged 78 yeres.' 

Proved by Elizabeth Stow on 6 April 1605. 

Both wills were proved in the Bishop of London's Court, and the 
above abstracts are taken from the originals. 

Eniries in Parish Registers. 

St. Michael, Comhill. 
Chrisiemngs: 20 Sept. 1547, William Stowe. 

12 Dec. 1574, Thomas;. 4 May 1578, Elizabeth; 10 April 1580, 
Judith; 25 Dec. 1581, Emmanuel; 3 June 1584, Judith; all 
children of Thomas Stowe. 

1 See pp. liii and Iviii below. 

^ Deputy of Limestreet Ward, see next page. 

xlviii Appendix to Introduction 

were ' marriageable and in service with right worshipful! personages ' 
by 1569 or thereabouts (see p. Ixii). It has been commonly assumed 
that the Anne Stow, who died in 1581, was the chronicler's first wife, 
but for this I can find no evidence. Joan Foster's mother was clearly 
alive when she wrote the letter to her father which is given on p. Ixx ; 
if she had only dated it fully the point might have been settled. On 
the whole it does not seem safe to connect either Anne Stow or Joyce 
Stooe with the chronicler. Elizabeth Stow is mentioned by name 
only in her husband's will, on the tomb, and in the copy of the Survey ^ 
which presumably belonged to her, and is now in the British Museum ; 
but one of her husband's grandchildren was named Elizabeth. Of 
Stow's three daughters two survived him. Julyan, apparently the 
elder, married Peter Towers in 1581, and died in 161 1 ; the descrip- 
tion of her husband as ' Mr.' seems to indicate that he was well-to-do. 
The second, Joan Foster, lived at Warwick, whence she wrote the 
letter on p. Ixx ; her marriage does not appear in the St Andrew's 
Register, but Foster was a common name in the parish. The 
Margaret Stowes, who married Gylles Dewbery in 1587, and died 
a widow in 1593, might possibly be the third. 

Mr. George Spering, the Alderman*s Deputy, was no doubt the 
Overseer of John Stow's will. 

Of the other persons named in Elizabeth Stow's will, * my cosen 
Cuttler' appears also in John Stow's history. The poor uncle, who 
was overcome by Elizabeth's injustice (see p. Iviii), is presumably 
William Archer, whose son ' Harye ' may perhaps be identical with 
the Henry Archer who served in the Netherlands in 1587, and 
apparently supplied John Stow with material for his Annates (pp. 1 199, 
1 221, ed. 1605). 


I. How Stow began to write History, and quarrelled with Richard 


[Amongst John Stow's private papers now bound up in HarleyMS. 367 
are several disordered fragments (n. 1-3 and if. 11, 12) relatmg to his 
controversy with Richard Grafton. For the most part they deal with 
alleged errors of Grafton's, and such points as the extent of his debt to 
Hall. But f. 3, which deals with the beginning of the quarrel, contains 
autobiographical matter of a wider interest, and hel[>s to explain the 
prefiiices printed on pp. Ixxvi to Ixxix ; it is therefore given in roll. The 
most interesting portion off. i is given on pp. xi, xii above.] 

1563. Richard Grafton published his first bokc. intituled 'An abridgment 
of y® cronicles of England', anno 1563. In y® epistle wherof (dedi^ 

Documents illustrating Stows life xHx 

cated to y« right honorable lord Robert Dudley ftc.), he contemnyth 
all Y^ abrydgments before tjme publyshid, saythe y^ therin was con-' 
tayned lytle trewthe & lesse good order, w^ y vncertaynty of yeres to y^ 
dootjryngt of all, ft vninst dishonoringe of mayny ; but in this boke, 
quod he, yow shall fjrnd these abuqrs reformyd, A trewthe more 
symply vtteryd Ac This boke thus publyshyd was, not w^ stondynge 
y glorios tytle, of moaste men, or rathar of all (except hym selffe) 
TDon myslyked then y former abridgments of othar. 

Ridiard Grafton reprintyd y same his Abridgment Anno 1564 w^ 1564. 
excuse to y readers that in y first imprecion partly by miswritynge, 
pardy by misentrynge and mystakynge of yeres, but chefly by mys- 
printinge, divars and sondry &utes wer commytted, whiche (nowe) 
aftar he had well parused, he had w^ dilygence reformyd and amendyd, 
in suche maner as he trustyd would apeare in y imprecion to y 
contentacion of all those y^ are desyrus to vnderstond y trew notes 
A discorse of tymes Ac This boke beinge little bettar then y first 
(nay rathar worse) was as myche or more of all men myslyked, 
thrwghe occasyon wherof msLyny sitisens A othars knowynge y^ I had 
bene a serchar of antiquitis, (whiche were devinite, sorencys, A 
poyetrye, but nevar extemjred history wer it ofieryfl nevar so frely) 
movyd me for y comoditie of my contry somewhat to travaile in 
settjrnge forth some othar abrydgment or somarye, and also to write 
agajrnst A reprove Richard Grafton. To y first at y lengthe 
I grauntyd, but to y othar I vtterly refiisyd ; about y« same tyme ^ it 
haponyd that Thomas Marche printar requiryd me to corecte y old 
comon abridgment, which at y first was collectyd of Langwit A 
Copar's epitomy, but then moche coruptyd w^ oft reprintynge, and 
th^ore of Richard Grafton so contemnyd as is afore sayd. To this 
request I grauntyd on condicion y^ some one whiche were bettar 
leamyd mowght be ioyned w^ me, for y it was a stody wherin I had 
nevar travayled ; and for my parte I wolde gyve my labores in that 
mattar frely w^ out takjrnge for my paynes y* valew of one peny. 
Sh(»tly aftar Thomas Marche apoynted to me William Baldwyn, 
mynistar A parson of S. Michels at Powles gate ; but or evar we wrote 
one word of y mattar it plesyd God to call y sayd W. Baldwyn to 
his mercy;' wherupon, I thynkynge myselfie dischargyd of my promys 
to Thomas Marshe, he nevartheless required me to begyn a letyl, for 
he woU shortly apojmt one to be ioynyd w^ me, whiche promys as 
yet was nevar performed. But I, aftar I had once begone, I cowld 

^ See note on p. ix above. ' See p. x above, 

fwnr. I d 

1 Appendix to Introduction 

not rest tyll y* same were fully endyd. And then I of myne owne 
mynd wente to Grafton's howse, ft shewyd hyme my boke, requirynge 
hym not to be offendyd w^ my doynges for I ment not to gyve eny 
suche occasyon. Aftar I had shoyd hym what movyd me to travayle 
in that mattar I also shewyd hym his owne abridgment of y* laste 
imprecion, whiche I had coatyd in y® margen, wherin he had not only 
mysplacyd all moaste all ]r« yeares of our lord god, but also y® yeres 
of y« begynengs & endyngs of all y« kyngs of this realme, and of mayne 
kynges had lefte out how longe they severally reygnyd, but in one 
place he left out iij kynges togithar, that is to say, Didantius, Detonus, 
and Gurguinus,^ he dothe not so moche as name them, fo. 6. There 
also lakynge Sygebert, who reygnyd iij yeres, fo. 25. When he 
comyth to the accompte of y* baylyves, maiors, sheryves of London* 
he eythar myse placethe them or levithe them owt, in some place one, 
some place ij, iij, iiij, ye v. togither, fo. 66, w^ also y® yeres of our 
lord, & y* reynes of ye kyngSy & all that was done in those yeres. 
For y« folowynge of his awctor one noate shal sufiyce. Thomas 
Copar saythe y^ xxx garmaynes tawght y« abrogation of y« sacra- 
ments of y* awltar, baptisme ft wedlocked fo. 211., and Grafton 
saythe they tawght a reformation ftc. fo. 42. For y® sterlynge money 
he saythe it was coynyd beinge ft ' ounce of silvar, ft it had y^ name 
eythar of y® bird cawlyd a starre hav^^ng perhaps y* same put in, or 
else of a starr in y® element, fo. 94. For y« well placynge of his 
mattar in fo. 96 he placethe y® conduyte in Grasious strete to be 
buylded by Thomas Knoles in anno 1410, whiche conduyt was 
begane to be buylded by y« executors of Sir Thomas Hyll in anno 
1490 ft finishyd anno 1503. Also in y« same lefe ft y« same yere 
1410 he saythe K. Henry y« fourthe endyd his lyfe y« 12 yere of his 
reigne and was buryed at Canterbery, and then declarethe what was 
done in y« 13 and 14 yeres of his reigne, for y^ he makythe hym to 
raygne ij yeres aftar he was dede and beryed. In folio 154 he 
placethe y« deathe of kynge Edward y« 6 aftar y« lady lane, ye aftar 
qwene Mary was proclamed, and y® duke of Northombarland apre- 
hendyd In y® 2 yere of qwen Mary ft y« i of kynge Philype he 
saythe y® emperour sent y« Cownty Egmount ft othar embassadors 
into england to make a parfet conclusyon of maryage bitwene kynge 
Philype ft qwene Marye. And as thes fewe thynges are placyd, so is 
ahnoste all his whole boke. ¥• printar in fo. 97 hathe printyd iiij lynes 
twyse togethar ftc. Aftar I had thus shewyd my owne boke, ft also 

^ Three mythical monarchs in the first century B.C. 
• The German heretics of 1 166. W. Newburgh, 132-4. 
' fieadzxi. 

Documents illustrating Stow's life H 

Grafton's late abridgment so coatyd as I have partly declaryd, to the / 
fyrste Richard Grafton sayd he lykyd y« same very well, y^ I had bothe 
taken great pajmes and also desarved great commendacion ; for y« 
othar he sayd he had folowyd Fabjran, which was a very nowghty 
cronyde, and Coper whiche was x. tjrmes worse, and cursid y® tyme 
y^ evar he had sene Copar's cronycle, for y^ had cawsyd hjrm to comyt 
aU thos errourSy & Copar was not worthy to be acomptyd leamyd ; 
& then he shewyd me wher Copar had written ij negatyves in on ^ 
sentence, which was not y« part of a leamyd man ; he addyd forthar : 
' I do not ' (quod he) ' write ij negatives in one sentence ; I can tell 
bow to wryt, I trowe &c.' To be short he gave me thankes, and 
professyd his frindshype in eny thynge that lay in hym to do, ft so we 
partyd. Then aftar I had got my boke pereusyd ft lycensyd by 
y« wardens of y« Stacionars, I requirid foord[er] my lord of Caunter- 
bery his grace to auctoryze y« same, and then put y® same in print.^ 
Aftar y« comjmge owt wherof, for y* y« same was well vtteryd by 
y« printar, ft weU lyked of in y* comon weale, Grafton began then 
to chafie and dyvysyd w^ hym selffe, ft toke counsell of mayny othars, ^ 
whiche way to brynge me out of credyt, and at lengthe toke one of 
my bokes namyd y« Summarie of Englysche chronicles, and drew out 
ther of (all togithar leavyng his owne abridgment) a smale boke 
whiche he printed in desimo sexto, ft in y« frontar he entitelythe it, 
A manuell of y* Chronicles of y« world tyll anno 1565; to y« redar 1565, 
he cawletbe it a brydgyd abridgement, and over y« page of y^ leves 
cawlethe it a brefe eolation of history. This boke he dedicatyd to his 
lovynge frends y« mastar ft wardens of y* company of y^ moste 
excdent arte ft science of Imprintynge, reqwestynge them to take 
swche ordar w^ theyr whole company y^ ther be no brefe abridgements 
or manuels of Chronicles imprintyd, but only that ftc. To y« redar 
he sajTthe, I hope y^ none will showe them selves so vngentle, nor so 
vnfirindly as to abuse me in this my litde labor ft goodwill, as of late 
I was abusyd by one y^ counterfeacted my volume ft ordar of y« 
abridgment of y* chronicles, ft hathe made my travayle to passe vnder \/^ 
his name,* abo by omittynge some thynges of myne ft worsse put in 
place, ft by alteracion of some thyngs ft by addicion of some other, 
whicbe kjrnd of dealynge is not comendable ftc. Aftar y^ I had 
viewid this preface ft y« whole emanuell (nc\ I havynge also abridgid 
my summary ft cawsed y« same to be redy prynted, I made a preface 

^ See p. Ixxxii, below. 

* Stow does not quote quite accurately : cf. p. xi above. 


lii Appendix to Introduction 

ther vnto, wher in I aunsweryd (as reson movyd me) Grafton's vntrew 
reportyng preface, and dedicatyd my boke (named y® summary of 
y« Chronicles of England abridgid) to y* ryght honorable Sir Richard 
Champion lorde maior of y citye of London, y^ worshipfull aldarmen 
1566. &c. in y biginninge of Anno 1566. Aftar y publishynge of this my 
abrigid sommary Grafton marvelowsly stormyd & cawsyd y^ mastar 
& wardens of y^ stacionars to threaten Thomas Marche, my pryntar, 
& also to request me to come before them at thejrr comon hawie, 
wher I shuld, they sayd, talke w^ Grafton face to face; but I comynge 
' often thythar Grafton allways made excusys, & drave them of from 
tyme to tyme k, nevar came at them ; whenipon y® mastar & wardens 
desyryd me not to be olfendyd, for they wer sory they had trobelyd 
me so ofte, but they wold no' more trust to Grafton's worde sythe he 
had so ofte disapoynted them. 

Aftar this in y« same yere 1566 I repryntyd my summary w^ 
adytions. And then Grafton seythe that neythar his great abridgment 
nor his small emanueU were of eny extemyd, he alltogether forsoke 
them bothe, & toke my summary of y® last edition laynge that for his 
grownd worke, whiche sarvithe hym for y« accompte of yeres, for y« 
reygnes of kyngs, for y* names & yeres of y« bayles, maiors & shrives, 
& also for mayny speciall noates, which by great labour & not w^ out 
great costes I had gatheryd. Then, I say, he buyldyd ther on \v^ 
Robart Fabyon, lohn Frosart, Edward HaU, & Thomas Copar, tyll he 
had finishid a great volome, whiche he intituled, ' A Chronicle at large 
& mere history of y alfayres of England, and kyngs of y same, 
deduced from y creacion of y^ worlde vnto y first habitacion of this 
Island &c/ On y® second page he, counterfeitynge my cataloge of 
awctors, namethe to y® nombar of thre score and odd, the moste 
parte wherof were devyns & wrote no matar of history towchynge this 
Realm ; the othar beinge historiographers ; to increase his nombar he 
resitethe twyse : as in y« letter A, he writethe Antoninus, in y« letter B. 
byshope, which is all one Slq} Also it is easy to vnderstond Grafton 
nevar saw mayny of thos awctors; for profe wherof I saye y^ 
T. Newton ' drewe out of thos devyne awctors in the catalog alledgyd 
almoste all y® matar conteyned in vi partes of his boke, ft mastar 
Keyes ' of Oxford drew y^ seventhe part tyll about y® end of Henry 

^ I omit some other instances. 

^ No doubt Stow*s friend : see p. bcxi below. 

' Thomas Caius or Keyes (d, 1572) who was Master of University 
College, Oxford, 1561-72. See Diet, Nat, Biog.y viii. 225. The associa- 
tion of Newton and Caius with Grafton does not appear to be elsewhere 

Documents illustrating Slew's life im 

y« second, when the same (being vnperfecte) was taken away from 
hym by Richard Grafton, who at his pleasar patched it vp w* his 
foure awctors afore namyd, Fabian, Frossard, Hall & Coper, all comon 
bokes, tyll y® end of kynge Edward y« 6, and then Mastar G. F.* 
pennyd y« story of qwene Mary, wher Grafton endithe his great 
volame. Of this great boke I will make no great descourse, but only 
by y« way a litle &c. 

2. Of Slews quarrel wilh his hrolfur Thomas, and how his molher 

altered her will. 

[From Harley MS. 367, ff. 6, 7- The date is June— October, 1568. 
The beginning, middle, and end of the story are all missing.] 

... I care not what it be. So I sent for y« best ale and bread, and 
a cold lege of mutton was put before hir, wherof she eate very hungerly, 
and therafter fell both to butter and to cheese. In the end when we 
departyd she promisyd, that as God had placed me to be the principall 
of all her children, for that I was the eldyst, she would not conteme 
me but confyrme the same, and when eythar man or woman should 
go about to perswad hir, for the naturall love y^ she owght to beare 
vnto me she would cry out vpon them, avoyd dyveL But aftar hir 
comjmge home, Thomas and his wyfe would nevar suffer hir to rest 
tyll she had tould them all the talke that had passed betwixt hir and 
me. And when he had hard that I lamentyd his beinge matched w^ 
an harlot, he would nevar let my mother rest tyll he had foarsyd hir to 
break hir will, wher in she had bequethyd me x. //. (equall w^ all y« 
yongar children, except Thomas, whiche had all indede), and to put 
me in nothinge at all ; but even then she could not get William Eyre, 
to whom she had gyven Rowlands house in Fynkes lane, nor Henry 
Johnson, whom she had made hir ovarseer, to put theyr hands vnto y® 
will except I were at y® least put in x. //. as I was afore. And thus, 
seinge no remedy, Thomas put in v. //., and then said he had put in 
as it was afore, for theyr pleasure. And so they set theyr handes to 
it,' and aftar hard it rede, wherin they found but v. //., and wold have 
wtdrawne theyr hands agayne, but was to late. And William Eyre 
hathe told me synce y^ he wiU take his othe, that he did beleve that I 
had some part in x. //., or elles he wold have nevar set his hand to yS 
and offeryd them xL x. out of his purse to have put out his hand 

^ George Ferrers, the poet. In his Annales (p. 1070, ed. 1605) Stow 
writes of the loss of Calais: 'Wherof Mastar George Ferrers hath 
written at large, for he collected the whole history of Queene Mary as the 
same is set downe vnder the name of Richard Grafton.' 

' On 37 June. Compare the extracts from the will on pp. xliv, xlv above. 

liv Appendix to Introduction 

agayne. Thus was I condemnyd and payd v. pounds (Thomas 
beinge his owne bayly, whiche is both agaynst law and reasone) for 
namynge Thomas his wyfe an harlot, prevely only to one body (who 
knew y« same as well as I) ; but yf he could so ponysshe all men 3^^ 
wyll more openly say so moche, he would sone be rychar then eny 
lord maior of London. Y^ this ... ye hyro selfe no longe aftar (as he 
had done ofttymes before) called her an owld . . . whores iny« harynge 
of all his neyghbours . . . suche and suche, and namyd a great nomber 
of her customers saynge that he had taken hir from y® . . . and had 
thought to have made her a honest woman, but it was past cure, 
and therefore he thruste hir out of y* dores.* And aftar yt she being 
convayed agayne into y« house through one of y* nebours wyndows, 
he bett hir, and threwe hir ageyne into the streat ; and all y® neygh- 
bours could not get him to take her in agayne ; for he sayd that she 
would robe h}in to kepe her bastardis, be his deathe as she was her 
/ other husbands, for she styll went to wytchis and sorcerars. Yet 
agayne she was conveyed into the house, and at x of y® cloke at nyght 
he, being bare leggyd, serchyd and found her cropte in to y« jakes 
entry, and then fell ageyn a beatynge of hir, so that my mother lyinge 
syke on a palet was fayne to crepe vp, and felt about y® chambre for 
Thomas his hosyn and shewes ; and crept downe y« stajTes w* them 
as well as she could, and prayd hym to put them on lest he shuld cache 
cold. So my mother stode in hir smoke more than an owre entretynge 
hym for y« lordes sake to be mo quiet. So y* at this tyme my mother 
loke suche a could y* she nevar rose aftar ; but he and his wyffe went 
to bed and agreyd well i-nowghe. Afftar this Thomas perswadinge 
hym selfe y*^ my mother drew nere hir end causyd hir on S. lames 
evenes eve ^ to receyve y« communion, w* whome amongst othar he 
hymselfe receyved. The ministar of y« parishe, althoughe he were 
but a stranger, new come out of y* contry, desyryd to se hir wyll, and 
fyndynge therin }'* she had geven me, her eldyst sonn, but v. /i*. and 
y« othar children x. //. y« peace, excepte Thomas, to whome she had 
geven all hir howsys and goodes, and made hym full and sole executor, 
he so moche myslyked therof, y* he desyryed to know y« cause, whiche 
when by none othar meanes they could excuse, Thomas forcid my 
mothar to say that I was very ryche and nedyd no parte of hir goodes ; 
whenmto y® mynistar answeryd that yf I shuld be nevar so ryche yet 
she must nedes make me equall w^ eny othar hir children, or elles 

' The MS. is damaged, and several words marked by blanks above 
cannot be deciphered. 
« 23 July. 

Documents illustrating Stoivs life Iv 

shuld show hir selfe bothe vnfryndly and vnnaturall, for so moche that 
by reason I was ye cheffe and ought to have y« distribut}'ng of all. 
Then Thomas cawsyd my mothar to answer y^ she had lyne syke in f« ^ 
y^ case y* space ahnost of vj yeres, in all whiche tyme I had nevar 
come, nor sent to her, allthonghe she had sent to me by all y« frendes 
I had, more ovar that I had not axed hir biyssynge in xx yeres ; and 
that I shuld say : ' wherefore shuld I care for her, she had done nothynge 
for me ' (and of whiche I may not write, but for reverens of nature, 
God forgeve hir ') ; and I pray God gyve hym grace to repent y* caused 
hir so myche at that tyme and othar to endanger her owne sowle for 
his filthy pleasure ; and more over she sayd, y^ all most vj yeres 
Thomas lyke a good naturall child had kept hir to his great charges, 
or y^ she mought have starvyd, and she was not able w^ all hir goodes 
to make hym amendes, yf it were v. tymes more. This talke beinge 
all together vntrue (as knojrthe God) was allso to this strange ministar 
vncrediUe for yt he required that I shuld be sent for, which was vterly 
denayed. Then he requeryd to know where I dwelt that he mought 
go and talke to me, which was allso denayed hym. Wherupon he 
refnsyd to mynystar the comunion to them, but in y« end they w^ 
meny glosys perswadyd hym, and so he mynysteryd. The same day 
Mystar Rolfe, a priest, who had ma[rried] one of my systars, told me 
that he had often tymes parswadyd w^ my mothar to set thynges in 
a bettar ordar, and not to gyve all to me and nawght to y® othar &c. 
And (as he said) she always bad hym hold his peace, or else speake 
softly, ibr. hir sonnes wyfe was in one comar or othar harkenynge, and 
she shuld havea lyffe x. tjrmes worse than deathe yf Thomas or. his 
wyfe shuld know of eny suche talke ; ' for ' (quod she) I can nor do 
what I would, but as they wyll, excepte y^ lorde rayse me that I may ^ 
go abrode, and then I wyll vndo that I have done, and do y^ whiche 
shall pleas bothe God and y« worlde, but wo worthe that wicked woman 
(meaninge Thomas his wyffe) for she wyll be my deathe '; (the lyke 
awnswer she mad to hir brothar, her systar, her cosyn Cutlar, Henry 
lohnson, and many othars). Also this Mystar Rolfe told me that my 
mothar that day shuld rece3rve y« communyon, for she had sent for his 
wyfe to receyve w* her, and so we partyd. And I consyderyd my selfe 
y^ it was tyme for me to atempte some way to speake agayne w^ my 
mothar, thought it not good that day to do eny thynge. But on y^ 
moroWy beinge Seint lames even ', in y« afternoon I sent my wyffe wt 

^ This is in reference to a foul remark attributed to him, which Stow 
first wrote down but then erased. 
* 24 July. 

ivi Appendix to Introduction 

'j a pot of creme and an othar of strawberys; but y« present beinge no 
betar she was kept out w^ great threats. Wherupon (as I commaundyd 
hir) she sayd to Thomas : ' why, brothar, are you y« same man y^ y« 
wer wont to be ? I had thought y^ had bene changyd, become a new 
man. how dyd yow rece3rve y« communyon yesterday ? ' Then he 
swar w^ by ttar othes, and sayd : ' how dost thou know yt ? by God 
sowle, thou art a witche, and knowst it by witchcraft' And she 
answeryd agayne : ' Nay, I know it not by witchecraft' ' Yes, by 
God's sowle/ quod he, ' thou knowyst it by witchecraft, or else that 
felse knave, thy husbond, hathe coniurid for it ; but I wyll make the 
vyllayn be handelyed for it, or it shall cost me an hunderyd poundes. 

V I will make all y® world to know what artes he practysythe ; and get 
ye out of my dores, or by peter, I will lay the at my fete.' Wherupon 
my wyfe retumyd, and tould me. In y^ morows mominge, beynge 
seynt lames daye,^ I went to my mother's paryshe chirche, and 
inqueryd for ye parson. Wher it was aunsweryd me that he servjrd 
not ther, but had put in a mynystar. So I taryenge in y« chirche, 
tyll the mynystar came at vij of y« cloke, and sayd vnto hym : * I vnder- 
stond ye mynisteryd to my mothar but ij days passyd.' The whiche he 
confessyd, and told me all that is afore sayd of ye talke betwixt my 
mother and hym, and how that he perseyvyd my mother durst not 
speake one word but as Thomas bad her ; and y^ agaynst his con- 
science he mynestred to them ; moreover he promysyd, when so evar 
I would, to go w^ me to my mother. But on the morow mominge y« 

.^^ same curat ' 

f. ^ro be the furnacis and ye fecis I told you of. And then 

Thomas put y« great boke of lese * then one quyer of papar, bygar 
then y® great byble, into the poket of his hose, tryomphinge and 
swarynge as afore. But mystar Wyntrap ^ wt myche ado gat ye boke 
agayne from hym, a&ar that he had whisper}-d a lyttle. For then 
Thomas his great heat was alayed, and he was bothe could and quiet. 
This boke, beinge compilyd by Thomas Norton,* in short vearse, of j^ 
alteracion of certayn mettaylles, I desyryd Mst' W)mtrap to show to 
some leamyd man for my discharge, as to ye byshope, deane, or arch- 

* 25 July. 

' A leaf, or more, is clearly missing. 
' Possibly it should read ' not less '. 

*■ Perhaps an uncle of John Winthrop, the first governor of Massa- 
chusetts ; the family were clothworkers in London. 

* Thomas Norton (Jl. 1477), alchemist, and author of an 'Ordinal of 
Alchemy' in English verse, and also De TransmutaHone MetcUlorum^ 
likewise in verse. See Did, NaL Biog.^ xli. 220. 

Documents iUustrcUing Sttmfs life ivH 

deacon, Mystar Foxe/ or Mystar Whithed/ which last Thomas vtarly 
denayed to be judge, for, saythe he, he is one that pract3r8ethe y« same 
arte. Thomas, hayynge his pmpos of y« byll, which he rent in pecis 
and bomydy sent for a pynt of ale, and caus3rd me to drynke, and ' 
bothe professyd frindshype and sorowe for his doynges passyd. And 
my mothar sayd : ' Ae lord be praysed, for now my children y^ were 
dead ar alyve agajme.' After this tyme I repayryd dayly to xxxf 
mothar dnrynge hir lyfe, whiche was not longe, and allways awaytynge 
to speake w^ hir in secret. One tyme aftar I had longe taryed thar, 
she cried out, as she dyd allwayes (when I was there) ' Y« lorde send 
me some drynke. 1 that I had some kynd of drynke, what some 
evar it were.' And at y« last she sayd to Thomas his wy fe : ' Dowghter, 
for y« lordes sake gyve me some drynke/ Wherunto after many 
suche callyngs she answeryd : ' I cannot tell what drynke I shuld ^^T^t 
you, for yffe I seche eny of owre owne drynke ye wyll not lyke it' 
' Yes, dowghter, yes,' quod she, ' y« lorde knows I would fayne have 
some drynke.' And then she fetchinge halfe a pynt of small drynke 
(beare as I supose) my mother sayd : ' good dowghter, for y® lordes 
sake loke in my cobard for a lytle gyngar, and put into it.' Whiche 
she djrd. Then my mother desyryed hir to warme it a lytle. Whiche 
she dyd, and went into y® kitchin, whiche was iij romes of, for yt ther 
was no fyer in y« chamber, thoughe it were at Mychelmas. Then 
I sayd to my mothar in this sort folowynge : ' Mothar, yow know that 
I and my brothar Thomas ar now become professars of frindshype, 
and I shall desyre yow for Gods sake so to do towards us y^ y« frind* 
shipe professjrd may become perfecte and vnfaynyd ; yow know y^ for 
one word whiche I spake to yow in secret, whiche ye promysyd not to 
open, he bathe made yow put v. /<*. out of yowr wyll, whiche yow had 
gyven me . . .' is but a small mattar in comparison of y^ he hathe 
deceyvyd me in othar ways . . . pray yow to consyder y^ it mustnedes 
offend me moche to pay v. pound for spekynge a word secretly, & in 
y« way of . . . fryndsh]^ lamentyng his . . . estate, and yf ye wyll not 
be good to me for y« love y« ought to beare to . . . pore fathar your 
husbond, nor for y« love you ought to beare to me your naturall sonne 
& yowr fyrst, yet I pray yow to consydar y^ I wax old & dekay in myn 

' John Foxe, the martyrologist. 

' The association with Foxe makes it likely that this is David White* 
head (1492-1571), the Puritan divine. In Bernard's CcUalogus MSS. 
AnMae^ i. 332, a translation of Ripley's Medulla Alchymiae (ap. AshmoU 
MS. 1480, 1 II, B. 6) is attributed to ^ David Whitehead, doctor of ohysicke ' ; 
but in the MS. the ascription is merely to *D. W.' (Black, Cat. of 
AskmoUan MSS.^ p. 1319). See Diet, Nat. Biog.^ Ixi. 9^8. 

' The margins of this leaf are much worn. 

iviii Appendix to Introduction 

occupation, & y^ I have a great charge of children, and a wyfe y^ can 
neythar get nor save, & be good to me for theyr sakes. Ye, 
yf ye wyll not be good to me for all thes cawsys afore shewyd, 
yet be good to me for Thomas his sake, y^ we maye by that meanes 
contynue, & encrease in fryndshype. I crave no more but to 
be put in y^ v. lu agayne, and so to be made equall w^ the rest 
of yowr children, y^ be moste inferiour, and not to make me 
an inferior vnto them. And Thomas hym selfe, yf he beare eny 
frindshype at all towards me, or enithinge regard his owne quietnes, 
he would rather of his owne parte spare xx. pound, than to let me 
lake that v. pound; for he knowythe y^ I must evar while I lyve 
grudge to pay so deare for so small an errour. I pray you to consydar 
how you shall pleas God to make peace & vnity amonge yowr chyl- 
dren.' And then I red vnto her y® 133 psalme, whiche I had writen, 
& would have lefte it w^ her, but she would not take it. Then 
I desyryd hir to cawse hir sonn Thomas to read it, whiche she sayd 
she daryd not do. Y® psalme beginithe thus : *• behold how plesaunt 
and how ioyfull a thynge it is bretherne to dwell togethar & to be of 
one mynd &c/ And this is a spesyall note to be markyd ; all the 
tyme y* I was thus talkynge w* hir, to breake me of my talke she lay 
as she had bene more afearyd then of deathe, lest hir sonn Thomas or 
his wyffe shuld here eny of our talke. And styll she cryed to me : 
'Peace, she corny th ; speake softly; she is on y« stayres harkenynge 
&c.' And at y« last made me this answer : * I trust y® Lord wyll 
rayse me agayne, then I wyll go abrode and vndo all y^ I have done, 
& they shall not know of it ; but exceple y« lord rayse me I can do 
no thinge for I dare not speake for my lyfe, this wykyd woman (wo 
worthe hir) wyll be my deathe &c.' Also myn vnkle, & my mothar's 
brother, contynually perswadyd my mothar from mayny thyogs, as 
from y« gyvynge an house to a servynge man (who was not kyne to 
eny of our kyne) and y® rest of hir howsys & goods to hir sonne 
Thomas from me and y« rest of hir children &c. And she would all 
f. 7^ ways yeld to her brothar & promes to do aftar his counsell ; but as 
sone as he was gone she was worse than afore, so y^ myn vnkell would 
come to me, and w^ wepynge bjrttarly parswad me to take all things 
paciently for y^ ther was no remandy, he had don what he could, & 
would do as longe as she lyvyd, but it would not helpe for she was 
bywitchid to the sayd Will Eyre and Thomas Stowe. The greffe 
wherof was suche to my pore vnkle, y^ it shortenyd his lyfe. More- 
ovar Henry Johnson, hearynge moche talke whiche he lykyd not, for 
y* my mothar had made hym ovarseer of hir last wyll, on a tyme . . . 

Docmnents illustrating Stows life Hx 

my mothar alone, he knelynge by her bed sayd }^ he hard many evyll 
words of her doynges, and all men cried out on hym for y( he beinge 
great w^ hir gave hir not bettar comisell (whiche fore tyme he d3rd, 
bot all prevaylyd not): ^Mystris Stow/ quod he, 'ye have made 
Willyam Ejrar one of yowr children, for ye have g3rven hym an howse ; 
it had bene more mete to have gyven it to your sonn lohn Stowe, to 
whom, as I have leamyed, ye nevar gave y« valewe of one peny, and 
now yow had gyven h}*m but x. pound, and ye have throwghe your 
sonn Thomas put out v. pound of that, and ye have made your sonne 
Thomas the . . . twayne, who hathe bene a deare child to yow, & 
allwayse spent yow moche money. I praye ... to put in y« v.- pounds 
agayne ft make your sonn lohn Stowe x. pound as he was afore.' 
Vnto whiche she answeryd y^ she cowld not put in one peny, for she 
had it not Wherupon Henry lohnson sayd : ' Mystris Stowe, every 
man cane tell me y^ yow could \^t your sonne Thomas xx. pounds 
to renne away w^ an othar mans wyffe, and wyll yow now say ye are 
not able to gyve lohn Stowe x. pound ftc' All this talke my mothar 
told aftarward to Thomas and his wyfe. And he on y« morow, 
being y^ Sonday aflar Bariylmew day, sent for me, and when I cam 
at my mothars, he sat hym doune on the one syd of my mothar, & his 
i^yfe on }•• othar ; and I, standynge as a prisonar, he examinyd me as 
yf he had bene a Justice, and chargyd me y^ I should set Henry 
lohnson to have that talke afore sayd wt my mothar; whiche I uttarly 
denayed, as well I mowght, for y* was y« first t}Tne y* evar I had hard 
y^ Henrj lohnson had bene so playn w^ her. Amonst many fowl 
words and great threats of Thomas towards me he sayd : ' Mothar, 
eveiy body grutchid at y* which ye have ; breake yowr wyll and make 
a new, & gyve them ynowghe ; ye may gyve them what yow wyll, but 
yf I pay one peny, I forsake God ; Gods sowle, have ye eny more then 
y* cowcbe ye ly on, and who wyll gyve x1.j. for it. How say you, 
have ye eny ? yf ye have eny, speake.' Wherunto she answeryd : 
• No, sonne. It is true I have no more.' ' No, by Gods sowle,' quod 
he, ' nor all that nothar, for y« kyveringe (whiche was but frise) is 
Megc Fyne (I had lent her money on it) ; every body thynkythe that 
ye have gyven me myche, whereas ye have gyven me nothynge at all 
to speke of, and it is not worthe " god have mercy" * ; and yf my mothar 
had gyven me this howse throwly well fumyshyd to me and xxxfn eyrs 
for evar, and an hundrend pound or twayne of redy money, it had 
bene worthe " god have mard " ; but yf evar I say " god have marcy " 
for this, I forsake God & gyve my selfe to y« divell body and sowle.' 

' Sunday, 29 August. 


ix Appendix to Introduction 

Then sayd his wyfe : ' I wyll nevar say " god have inarcy " for this 
house and all that is in it, for we have but howse and have loade, ft 
I would not wash hir shiten dowts to have it. I forsake God, yf I have 
not washyd x. buks of shitten dowts that she hathe shytten/ Wher- 
unto my mothar answeryd: *Ye, dowghter, y« lord reward you; I 
have gyven yow all that I have, and wold it war an hunderyd pound 
bettar for yow/ ^ [Aftar I was departyd from my mothar, remembryngc 
yt Richard Brison, a fyshemonger, who stayed Thomas & Richard 
Kemps* wyfe when they were rennynge away into Flandars, lay at y* 
mard of god, & y* y« bell had told for hym, I toke ij of our neygh- 
bours & went to the sayd fyshemongar, & tould hym how I had that 
day bene chargyd and threatenyd by Thomas Stow, for that I shuld 
(as he sayd) set Henry lohnson to speak the thynges afore sayd to my 
mothar. Wherupon y^ sayd fyshemonger.] My mothar deceasyed 
a fortnyght aftar mikellmas Anno 1568, and y« morow aftar hir buryall, 
whiche was sattardaye,' I met Thomas Stowe, my systar lohn * Rolf, 
allias Froyke,' and Henry lohnson at leden hall. So we went to ye 
mayden hed, and dranke a pynt of wyne or twayne. At whiche Xjmt 
Henry lohnson sayd to Thomas : ' I pray you be good to your brothar 
lohn. Consyder he your eldar . . . • 

3. Of Willy am Dilcher alias Tetforde, 

[This is the draft of a petition, addressed apparently to the Alderman 
of the Ward, perhaps in June, 1569 ; since Stow was still in business it 
cannot have been much later. See p. xxiii. Harley MS. 367, f. 5.] 

Pleasethe it your worshipe to vndarstond how your pore orator lohn 
Stowe, hathe of late bene more then to to mutche abusyd by one 
William Ditcher alias Tetforde, and his wyfe. The proces whereof is 
to longe to write, but briefly to tuche some parte thereof. 

In primis. At Christmas last past the same W. being by the warde- 
mote inqweste forbiden to set his frame with fetharbends in the strete 
sayd vnto them that the sayde lohn had complayned on hym, where 
vnto the forman aunsweryd that he was deceyved, for the sayd lohn 

^ The passage in brackets was afterwards erased by Stow, and left 

' The MS. reads thus ; but no doubt it means the ' Margerie Kent, 
widdow ' whom Thomas Stow married in 1567. See p. xlvi. 

* Presumably 16 October. Elizabeth Stowe's wiU was proved on 
13 Oct., probably she died on the 12th or nth. 

^ sc. Johan or Joan. 

^ See pp. xlvii and Iv. 

^ Here the story stops abruptly. 

Documents illnstrating Siaw's life bd 

poke DO word of iL This noCwithstuidTi^ when the njd 
vent toward his owne boose the suns W. and his wjfie ra jled 
m, fiist as he passjd bj them, and aftar at his owne dore to 
All and slaondnoiis to be spoken ft faaid. 
L When the Wardcmoteenqwest had gTrenvp thejrendentnre, 
ime W. djd arest the sajd lohn of ij C. poond action^ where 
he sajd lohn pot in sorties to annswer. 

K. On the next morainge j* same W. ft his wife before the 
of the sajd lohn rajled agaynst hjm more then a longe 
; w^ j« moaste shumderons speches that man or deveU cowM 
^ bot the sayd lohn to avoyd the tveadie of peace kepte hjm 
ibove in his boose wt out en j annswere makji^e. 
L iij nightes after the same W. cansyd his famdlorde, Mastar 
By to intreat the sajde lohn to forgjve the same W., and to 
bjm leave to withdraw his action ; where vnto the sajde lohn 
ted w^ conditions to have his costes and that j* same W. shnki 
e die taike which he at that tjme vsed, that is, that he had bene 
ryd by Thomas Stowe to do all what so evar agaynst y* sayd 

u The same W. contrary to his promts made and hand gyven, 
etbe to all men that evar he was procuryd by the fore namyd 
las Stowe to do or say eny diinge agaynste the sayde lohn 
\, And also moaste slaunderowsly sajrthe that the sayde lohn 
ijme to intreat Mastar Ritche to take vp the matar, or eles the 
William would have coersed the sayde I(^, before he would 
r* drawne his accion. 

I. The same W. hath not payde one peny to y« sayd lohn 
da his charges. 

I. The same W. continually thretinithe to do such notable acts 
qdeasure agaynst the sayd lohn as the Ij^e bathe nevar bene 
to eny man, and that all England shsdl speake of it, and of this 
Bthe assurid his frind Thomas Stowe, where of he greatly 

I. The same W. slaimderowsly hathe reportyd to the parson of 
irishey and deputy of the warde, as to all othar he comithe in 
any w^, that ther comithe none but Roages and Rascalls, the 
; in this land to the bowse of the sayde lohn, which Rascalls ft 
es have hym from ale house to ale bowse every day and night 
of the cloke in the mominge. 

I. The same W. comonly and dayly Raylynge on the sayde 
caDyth hym prike lowse knave, beggarly knave, Rascall knave, 

ixii Appendix to Introduction 

vyllayne and lyenge knave, addinge more ovar that the sayd lohn 
^ hathe made a cronicle of lyes &c. 

Itm. The same W. often tymes calendginge to fight w^ y« sayd 
lohn, one tyme sodaynly lept in his face, foarcyd to have dygged oat 
his eyes, fowly scrate hym by the face, drew blod on hym, and was 
pullyd of by the neyghbours. 

Ihn. For that the same W. cannot get his apretises & other servants 
to fight w^ the aprentice of the sayde lohn, he h3rm selfe on the 24 of 
May last past threw tyllshardes and othar stones at the sayd aprentis 
tyll he had driven hym of the stawU from his worke ; and then the 
same W. cam to the stawli of the sayde lohn, and ther thretened that 
yf he cowld catche the sayd aprentice abrode he would coarce hjrm, he 
wowld provyd for hym, and he wowld accuse hym to have kyllid the 
man on the Miles end in whitson weke &c. 

Itm, The 9 of lune at x. of y« cloke in the night the same W. 
callid y^ sayd lohn comon promotor, comon barrator, comon dronkard, 
Rascall vyllayne &c. ; and sayde more ovar he wowld make hym to be 
cartyd owt of the towne for such a one &c. 

Ilm, At that tyme he also sayde, as he hath done dyvars othar 
tymes, that the wyfe of the sayde lohn had two children by one man 
before she was maried, to the great slaunder of the sayde lohn, his 
wyfe, and hinderaunce of theyr children, iij dowghters manageable and 
in sarvyce w^ Right worshipfuU parsonages. 

//01. On the X. of lune the same W. cawsyd William Snel3mge at 
that tyme beinge dronken to come to the stawUe of the sayd lohn, and 
there to cawle hym by suche a name as hym selfe fiair bettar deserved. 

Itm. The xi of lune the same W., Raylynge at the sayde lohn, 
sayde that he was the falsest man in England, and thretenyd to coerse 
hym yf he cowlde get hym owt of hys dores, callendgynge hym oft 
tymes to come owt yf he durst &c. All this he dyde in presence of 
Mastar Fostar one of the lord maior's officers. 

4. A Dispute over a BiU, 

[This is a rough memorandum preserved in Harley MS. 247, f. 209^ 
presumably drawn up by Stow, when Crowche took him into court. 
Crowche may be the Michael Crowche who was churchwarden of 
St. Michael, Comhill, 1574.] 

1576. Somewhat before Christmas Mst' Crowche sent vnto me 
a bill contaynynge parcels to the sume of \s. id., vs. whereof I payde to 
lohan his mayde on Christmas evene next folowinge, and sayde 
I would be his debtor of the odd peny. Where vnto she aunswmd 
wd sayde : ' I pray yow to be our debtor of goodwill, and be noc 

Documents illustrating Slew's life ixiii 

mgiy that I sent for so small a some, for other wyse ye are even with 
ny master, and owe him nothinge/ 

1577. After this more then halfe a yere, to wite iij or iiij dayes 
before bartylmew tyde, Mst' Crowche sent me to bylls in one, the first 
contajrnynge parcells to the some of viir. \d. due on the xv of lune 
1576, the othar vx. xd. due (and confessyd to be payde) at Christmas 
next folowjmge in the same yere. 

Aftar the recept whereof, to wit on bartilmew day, I met with lohan 
his mayd nere to the wrestelyng place, where I demaundyd of hir 
what hir master meant to send me suche a bille for money which I had 
pajde. She aunswerd: 'Alas! Mst.' Stowe, ye must make smale 
acoompCe of my mastar's doinges now, for his heade is intoxicate ; he 
hath maried a wife for Riches, but he had done bettar to have maried 
a pore wench.' 

Sens this tyme Mst. Crowche, metynge me in the strete hath 
sayd : ' When shall we reoon ' ? (x<V). Whereunto I have aunswered : 
' When ye will : ye demaund of me money, which I have payde longe 
sence.' ^ Well/ quod he, ' I fynd it in my boke, and I will wame you 
to the corte of conscience.' ^ Quod I : ' Rathar name to honest indiferent 
men to here the mattar, and as they shall iudge I will be content.' 
' Say you so,' quod he, ' Well one of thes dayes we wyll drynke a 
qwart of wyne and make an ende of it.' But then have I hard no 
more of it in one whole yere altar. The last tyme he spake to me 
therof was about Eastar last, when he came home to my howse, where 
we agreyd that Mastar Rickford, his ovartwarte neyghbour, whom he 
namedy ahold here and ende the mattar on the Twesday next folowinge ; 
but I gyvynge m}^ attendaunce that Twesday, I hard no more of it tyil 
tfannday last that I was warned to the [cojrtes, which I take to be no 
good dealinge towardes me. 

5. Tht Aleconner^ Complaint of a disordered Tippler and Unworthy 
Constable in Castle Bqynard Ward in isiiS- 

[This document {Harley MS. ^67, f. 4) is in Stow's writing, and since 
It IS written in the first person, is composed in his manner, and found 
amoqgst his private papers, it is not unreasonable to suppose that he vras 
personally concenied. If there is no proof that he was one of the 
surveyors, there is also nothing to show why he should have taken any 
interest in the matter tf he were not] 

On Wednesday y« 2 1 of October anno 1 584, survayenge 
the ward of Castle Baynard we found in the house of locelyne Tumar, 

* Or Court of Requests, established in London in 1518 to hear disputes 
in cases where the debt or d^nage did not exceed 40;. See i. 271 below. 


. / 


ixiv Appendix to Introduction 

K typlar, his gests to be served by vnlawfuU measure. Whereupon we 
gave charge to such of the howse as were then present, that they 
shuld from thens forthe sell no more sortes of ale & here but twayne, 

< to wite doble and single, the best for a peny the qwarte, the smak 
for a peny the pode, by sealed measures and not othar wyse, which 
charge they promysed to observe in presence of a conystable and the 
bedle of that warde. 

Itm. On friday the 9 of July 1585, agayne surveyenge the same 
ward of Casde baynard we found in dyvers places ale to be sold in 

^ stone pottes and bottles conteyning the pece not a full ale^warte 
for 3^., but the offendars promysynge reformation, delt the more 
favorably with them, as we can shew by writynge, when tyme shall 
serve ; seven barells of beare we have sent into Christs Hospital], ft 
wold ere this have sent as many more had not bene the late interrup- 
tion of locelyne Tumar, & and his vnlawfuU supportars, of the same 
Castle baynard warde. Into this house of this locelyne Tumar we 
enterid on the day above named, wt one lohn Topalie constable; 
where callynge for a botde of ale we were promysed it ; but the cony- 
stable perswadynge vs that ther was no botde ale to be solde, we went 
farthere into the house, where Tumar's wyfe was, and there vsed suche 
speeches that she forthwith loked the dore, where hir bottles were, and 
sayd to vs she had none, whiche speeche of hers the conystable affermyd 
to be trewe. Then Mastar Symson requerynge her to open the dore which 
she had locked, she aunswered she woulde not ; and we demaundjmge 
to speke with her husbond she sayd he was not within. Then will"* 
inge the conystable to loke further into the house for hym, he ann- 
sweryd he would do nothing without warrant vnder my lord maiora 

y hand, for he knew no authority we had, and therefore willed us to 
loke we ded no more then we mowght well aunswer, for the goodman 
of the house would put vs to it. At lengthe y« sayd locelyne Tumar, 
beinge amongst vs and vnknown to vs, he sayd :' I am he, ye seke 
for. What would you ? ' We told hym it was reported he sold botde 

>\ ale contrary to ordar, which he denyed not, but seyd he ded as othar 
men ded. Whereunto we answered we had reformed some and 
wanted to reforme the rest. We told hym how his wyfe had denjred 
to have eny bottle ale, how she had locked vp the dore, and denyed 
the openynge there of, which was a resystance &c. Quod he : 'I will 
not aunswer for my wyfe, nor eny othar then for my selfe ; and I had 
nevar warninge to reforme thos things ye myslyke of.' The cony- 
stable also aflSrded the same with many stowte words. In the end 
loscelyne Tumar opened the dore whiche his wjrfe had locked, where 

Documents illustrating Stows life Ixv 

t found a 60 pottes and bottles filled with ale, where of we measured 
le which the wjfe sayd was thre &rthinges, and foond it not to con- \ 
jme a full pint of sealed measure. Where vpon Mjstar Coad sayd : 
hb is inowghe to foriaite all y« ale in yowr house/ We then takyng 
loelyn Tumar asyde willed him to reforme, and sell no more suche 
dawfull measure, which charge he promysed to observe, but would 
aunt none amends for the fawlt passed. ' Loke, (quod he), what 
mr authoritie will serve yow to, and spare me not I will not resiste 
nr/ Where vpon we departed with Browne, an ofiScer to the 
. maior, & Payne, y* bedle, who are witnesses that this was the 
Tecte of that days dowynge in that place. 

//m. On Monday the 12 of July we cam aga}*ne to locelyne 
umar, and demaundyd of hym, yf he yet would be conformable, and 
hat beare he would send into Christe hospitall for trespase comytted, \ 
hose aunswere was that He had not offended nor would make satis- 
cdon, but willed vs agayne to vse our authoritie so far as we would 
mswere it, demaundinge whethar the same were by parlyament or by 
alute. Where vnto we aunswered it was by act of comon counsayle, 
hereat he made a pufe. Aftar many words vsed by us to perswade 
fm Topelye, y« conystable, vncalled for cam out of the innar parte of 
le house with a brewar, as was sayde ; this conistable with vehement 
ords diarged vs with offeringe wronge to the sayd brewar, for that we 
id nevar gyven hym warning; addyng that they lyed, that sayd 
iqr had gyven eny warninge there, and tellynge Master Symson 
At he lyed thoward hym. Where vpon Mastar Eliot, barynge his > 
gilt hand on Toplye left showlder, sayd : ' Ye, mystar conystable, is 
At well sayd of yow, beinge an officer to gyve a man the lye ? I had 
tie thought to have hard such a worde of your mowthe/ ' What 1 ' 
pod Toplye), ' dost thou stryke me ? ' 'I stryke yow ? ' quod Mastar 
Bot * Wherefore should I stryke yow ? * ' Why,' quod Toplye, 
I fele myn eare smart yet.' William Lathe, officer to my L. maior, 
id Payne, the bedle, are witnesses to this. 

Thus and othar wayes beinge there abused, we departed thens, and % 
tar declared to my L. maior, and courte of aldarmen, how we had 
rne delt with, cravynge to have his honor and theyr worships ayde in 
is case, or els to be discharged of owr trowblesome offyce. Where 
xm my L. maior and cowrte by warrant comytted the sayd disordered -k 
plar, and vnworthy constable to ward. But by meanes of such as 
^jthar hard or saw, nor inquired aftar the lewde demeanor of them, 
ey were forthe with delyvered, and evar sence have bene stowtly 
iported with great threates agaynst vs, whereof we are to crave 
medy in this courte. 

STOW. I e 

ixvi Appendix to Introduction 

6. A Petition for a Pension, 

[In Harley MS, 367, if. 8, 9, there are two drafts of petitions to the 
^Lord Mayor and Aldermen. In the first Stow says that it was 'almost 
thirty years ', in the second * twenty-five years ' since he set forth his 
Summary. But from the first it appears that Stow was sixty-four years 
of age, and from the latter that the Annates were in preparation. This 
seems to fix them to a common date in the earlier part of 1590. Perhaps 
the drafts were alternatives. The second draft has been printed already 
by Strype in his Life of Stow^ prefixed to the Survey^ i, p. vii, but with 
his own orthog^phy.] 

Pleasethe it your honor and worships to vndarstond that where 
your orator lohn Stowe citizen &c., beinge now of the age of three- 
score yeres fowre, hathe for the space of almost xxx yeres last past 
(besyds his Chronicles dedicated to the Earle of Lecestar) set forth 
divars somaries dedicated to the lord maiors, his brithren thaldarmen, 
and comoners of the Citie. In all whiche he hathe specially noated 
the memorable actes of famows Citizens by them done to the greate 
benefite of the comon welthe, and honor of the same Citie. As also 
(in showynge themselves thankefuU vnto God for his blessynges) have 
left a godly example to the posteritie by them to be embrasid and 
Imitatid. And for as moche as the travayle to many places for 
)(^earche of sondry records, whereby the veritie of thinges may come to 
lyght, cannot but be chargeable to the sayde lohn more then his 
habilitie can aforde, he now craveth your honor and worships ayde as 
in consideracion of the premises to bestowe on hym some yere pention 
or othar wyse, whereby he may reape somewhat towards his greafe 
charges. And your orator according to his bounden dutie shall here 
aftar, God willinge, employ his diligent labor to the honor of this citie 
and comoditie of the Citizens there of, but also dayly pray for your 
honor and worships prosperiiie during lyfe. 

Pleasethe it your honor and worships to vnderstond that where yowr 
orator John Stowe, Citizen of this Citie, hathe heretofore, (to wite for 
the space of these 25 yere last past) besydes his Chronicle, d edi<^ d 
to the right honorable the earle of Leicestar, set forthe dyvers sum- 
ymaries dedicate to the lorde maior, his brithren the aldarmen, and 
comoners of this Citie : In all which he hathe specially noated the 
memorable actes of famous citizens, by them done to the greate beiie6te 
of the comon welthe, and honor of the same Citie, as also in shewinge 
themselves thankefull vnto God, have lefte a godly example by the 
posteritie to be imbrasid and ymitated. In consideration where of the 
sayde lohn Stowe mindithe shortly, yf God so permite, to set forthe 
a fan* larger somary or chronicle of this Citie and Citizens there of, 

Documents illtistrating Stoivs life ixvii 

then heretofore hath bene published. And for as moche as the searche 
of records in the Arches and elsewhere, cannot but be chargable to 
the sayd lohn, as heretofore for many yeres it hathe bene altogethar 
of his owne charges, besids his other travayls and studie, he now 
humbly cravithe your honors and worships ayde. As in consyderation 
of the premises to bestowe on hym the benefite of two fre men, such X 
as yowre honor and worships shall lyke to be admitted into the fre- 
dome of this Citie, whereby he may reape somewhat towards his 
Charges &c. And yowr orator shall dayly pray for yowre honors and 
worships prosperitie during lyfe. 

7. Royal Benevolence^ 

[From a printed copy of James I's Declaration of his royal benevolence, 
in pursuance of his Letters Patent, ap. HarUy MS. 367, f. 10, where there 
is a note of 7/. \od. received from S. Mary Woolnoth parishioners. The 
Declaration has been printed by Strype, and by Thorns in his edition 
of the Survey^ p. xi. The Letters Patent are given by Strype, Survey^ 
i, pp. xii, xiii.J 

lames, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all our well-beloued 
sobiects greeting. 

Whereas our louing subiect John Stowe (a very aged and worthy 
member of our city of London) this fine and forty yeers hath to his 
great charge, and with neglect of his ordinary meanes of maintenance, 
(for the generall good, as well of posteritie as of the present age), 
compiled and published diu^e necessary bookes, and Chronicles; 
and therefore we in recompense of these his painfull laboures, and 
for encouragement to the like, haue in our royall inclination ben 
fdeased to graunt our Let ters Patt ents. vnder our great scale of Eng- 
land, dated the eighth of March 1693, thereby authorizing him, the 
sayd lohn Stowe, and his deputies to collect amongst our louing 
subiects theyr voluntary contribution and k inde g ratuities : as by the 
sayd Letters Patents more at large may appeare : Now, seeing that 
our sayd Patents (being but one in themselues), cannot be shewed 
forth in dtuerse places or parishes at once (as the occasions of his 
speedy putting them in execution may require), we haue t^ierefore 
thought expedient in this vnusuall manner, to recommend his cause 
vnto yoa; bauing already, in our owne person, and of our speciall 
giaoe, begun the largesse for the example of others. Giuen at our 
psbce at Westminster. 

e % 

ixviii Appendix to Introduction 


Note.— The majority of these letters are contained in Harley MS. 374, 
if. 9-24. No. 12 IS from HarUy MS. 247. Nos. 13 and 14 are from 
Harley MS. 530, f. i and f. 76*. No. 9 from Tanner MS. 464 (iv), f. i. 

I. From Henry Savile. 

[The allusion to Matthew Parker—* my lordes Grace*— shows that the 
date was at the latest i May, 1575. Savile's father lived at Halifax. 
Mr. Hare is Robert Hare (d, 161 1) the antiquary, who presented two 
volumes of his collections on the Privileges of the University to Oxford. 
See Diet, Nat, Biog,^ xxiv. 373.] 

After my most hartie commendacions being verie glad and desirous 
to heare from you, trustinge in our lorde that you be in good healthe, 
or els I might be hertelye sorie, for that I have founde at all tymes 
good favoure of you, since our first acquaintance; and other acquaint- 
ance in London I have none, but that I have by your meanes, as 
good Mr. Hare, with whom I pray you commende me and desyre 
him to lett me vnderstande in what towardeness his good workes 
for the privileges of Oxforte is. And forther I beseche you to 
^certifye me if Wigornensis ' is printed, and wheare I may send to buye 
it, and the price. And gladlye of all other I would vnderstande that 
^your last booke ' weare forthe, that I might sende vnto you for one 
or two for my money. Forther I woulde vnderstonde if my Lordes 
S grace be aboute to print Roger Howden, Maulbesburie," and Hunting^ 
ton, and in what fonvardnes they be. Good owlde ffrend let me have 
your letter in the premisses, and God willinge it shalbe recompensed 
or it be longe. And I must forther desire yowe to have answer by 
this bearer. At this tyme from Halifaxe, this first of Maye. 

By your loving ffrende 

HSNRY Samll. 

To my most speciall good friend Mr. lohn Stowe deiiuer this in 
ComewalP in London. 

2. From Robert Glover, 

Thanking him for the loan of a copy of Marianus Scotus. ' It is 
one of the best bookes I handled a great while. I wishe i( were 

* Florence of Worcester. 

' Presumably The Summarie for 1 5 75. 
' William of Malmesbury. 

* A not uncommon corruptk>n for Comhill : e. g. ' At the end of 
Coraewall by the Stocks,' in Chronicle of Queen Jane and Qfutn Mary^ 
p. 40 (Camd. Soc.) ; see also Inq, p, m. Land,, iii. 61. Comhill anciently 
extended to include Leadenhall Street as far as St. Andrew Undershaft : 
see i. 97 and ii. 292 below. 

Letters to Stow ixix 

your owne, for so do I wishe welle vnto myself. Fare ye hartely 
veil. From my house this Wensday the xith of September 1577. 

Your lover and freende 

R. Glouer, Somersett.^ 

3. From Thomas Hatcher, 

[Dated 15 Jan. 1580 (1581 N.S.). A long letter filling the whole of 
f. 14. Thomas Hatcher (a, 1583) was a fellow of King's College, Cam- 
bridge. See Did. Nat, Biog.^ xxv. 151.] 

Returning ' John Blakeman's treatise of Henrie the sixt '. As to 
history of King's College. Wishes Stow to publbh whatever he has y 
of Leiand. And also his own Antiquities under the title of Stow's 
Storehouse. Desires him to speak to ' Mr. Cambden, yor frend, the 
vsher of Westminster School', about publishing the history of TobitV 
in Latin verse. Intends to give an account of the authors cited by 
Stow in- his Chronicle: for this purpose he desires Stow's help, and 
also sight of Leiand De Scriptoribus, Inquires as to author of Book 
De Epucopis Canfuariensibus^ which Archbishop Parker had printed. 

4. From William C lax ton. 

[As his letters show, Claxton was a northern antiquary, and man of 
positioD and repute. He was the owner of Wynyard in Durham, whence 
he wrote these letters. He died in May, M97 (Durham Wills, ii. 272, 
Suitees Soc.). The date of this letter is 20 April, 1582.] 

Asks for the return of a book by his nephew Thomas Layton the 
bearer. Promises his help in what concerns the bishopric of Durham. 
' To his assured ffirynd Mr. lohn Stowe, Chronicler, at his house in 
Leaden haul! in London.' 

5. From the same. 

[Dated 4 Jan. 1584. ' To Mr. lohn Stowe dwelling by y* Ledon Hall.*] 

Thanks him for his courteous letter. ' I am glad to heare of your 
good proseading in these two notable workes you haue in hand, and 
I wish my abilitie were of credyt to doe you eny good therein.' Asks 
for the safe return of the book which he had lent. ' I haue also sent 
yoQ an Inglysshe crowne by Robert Layton for a remembraunce, j( 
wishyng yow to assure your selfe y^ so long as I lyue yow shall not 
want a friend to the vttermost of his power.' Encloses some notes 
on Durham. 

ixx Appendix to Introduction 

6. From the same. 
[Unsigned and undated, but in Claxton's writing.] 

Returns a book, and tells Stow that he has in store for him a 
^parchment life of Edward the Confessor, together with Alured of 
Beverley. 'Where as y* appeareth by y®' letter that yow had 
acquaynted the lord Howerd' w^^ some of our procedynges, I am 
very sory that I did not see his lordsh. at his being in ye countrey, to 
whome I would haue done my dewtye, beynge thereunto reythar 
bound for that I was brought vp by suche as were allyed to his Lp. 


7. From John Dee. 

[The celebrated astrologer and antiquary. The only date is 4 Dec. 
Possibly the occasion was the publication of the Chronicles in 1 580, or of 
the AnncUes in 1592.] 

*Mr. Stow, you sail vnderstond that^my frende Mr. Dyer did 

ydeliuer your bokes to the two Erls, who toke them very thankfully. 

But (as he noted) there was no return commaunded of them. What 

sail hereafter, God knoweth. So could not I haue done. Hope^ 

as well as I. As concerning your burgesses for the Cinq 

ports, &c.* As to Stow's copies of Asser and Florence of Worcester, 

8. From his daughter , Joan Foster. 

[Joan Foster is mentioned in her father's will ; see p. xlv above. The 
hospital is the Hospital of St. Michael outside Warwick, as stat^ in some 
notes written by Stow on the letter. John Fyssher, clerk, was made 
keeper, master or governor of the house or hospital of St. Michael, 
Warwick, by a grant from Henry VIII, on 14 Nov. 1541 (Letters and 
Papers t xvi. 1391 (41)). Dugdale has no mention either of Fisher or 

After my most hartest commendacions vnto you and to my motlier, 
trusting that you bothe be in good healthe as I and my husband 
were at my wrytting hereof. Thankes be to God therefor. This is 
to desyer yowe, father, of all yo' fryndly fryndsheppe that you can or 
maye to pleasure a very ffrj'nd of myn dwellyng here in Warwyck for 
to seche owt for the foundacion of ^a hospetall or spettell Louse of 
Warwyck founded by the earelles ' of Warwyck in this parte. And 
yf yow may healpe him ther vnto he wold reward you verye well for 
yor paynes, and also you shall do me great pleasure therein, for y^ he 
is my verie ffrynd and neyghbour. It is supposed that you shall fynd 

^ No doubt Lord William Howard (i 563-1640), of Naworth. He was 
the first editor of Florence oj Worcester, in 1592. See Diet. Nat. Biog.f 
xxviii. 79. 

' I am very doubtful of the second and third letters of this word ; but 
the sense requires * Earls*. 

Letters to Stow ixxi 

the foundacion hereof yn the Tower of London, therefore good father, 
now agayne I pray you take some paynes therin. The hospital 
house is at the northe syd of Warwyck, the said hospetall was last 
given by kjmge henrye the eyght to a lohn ffisher master of the said 
hospetall for y* terme of h3rs lyffe, and sence his deathe the sayd 
bospjrtall was given to my aforsaid neyghbour and frynd Olyver 
Brook^ who yet leveffe, and is dryven now for to syke oute the 
foundadon thereof, which and you can helpe him berevnto you shall 
do hm greate good» and I praye you so soon as you have found out 
any thing to do him good therin send worde to me w^ as much spyd 
as by. And he will Repair vp vnto you w* what spyd he maye. And 
thus in haste I committ yow to God, from Warwyke the 3 daye of 
december by y^' loving daughter during lyffe to remaine 

Joan ffoster. 

To my loving (father Mr. lohn Stowe benethe Leadon hall neare 
vnto the Thrye Towenes in London, gyve this. 

9. From Thomas Newton, 

[Thomas Newton (1542 ?-i 607) was a poet of some ^^ninence, av 
physician, and rector of Little Ilford, Essex, whence this letter was written 
on 29 March, 1586. See also p. lii above and Diet, Nat. Biog,^ xi. 402.] 

Returns the copy of Leland's Epigrams and thanks him ' for many 
other your curtesies, frendlie amities many tymes showed vnto me, as 
namely at this tyme for this y^ boke of M^ Leland his poetries '. 

Newton, in his Encomia lUustrium Virorum (ap. Leland, Collectanea^ 
v. 177), has an epigram addressed to his friend William Hunnis, the 
musician : 

De lo. Sto^'o Chronigrapho. 

Anglica scire cupis solide quis Chronica scribat? 

Stous id egregia praestat, Hunisse, fide. 
Quottidie e tenebris is multa volumina furvis 

Emit, is mandat plurima scripta typis. 
Ex nitida illius deprompsi ego Bibliotheca 

Plurima, quae nobis nocte dieque patet. 

10. From Henry Ferrers, 

[Htory Ferrers (1549-1633), a Warwickshire antiquary and country 
gentleman of Roman Catholic inclinations. Diet. Nat. Biog,^ xviii. 385. 

M^ StoWe, because I will breake promesse with you no more I have, 
although it be late, first put you these pamphlets, and therwith youre 
other booke, which I borrowed last, and desyre you to lend me youre 


ixxii Appendix to Introduction 

bede and y^ pedigree of kinges, and so till o' next meeting I bid you 


Yor loving friend, 

Henry Ferrers. 

11. From Thomas Mariyn, 

[Thomas Marten {d, 1597) a Roman Catholic controversialist, and 
fellow of New College, Oxford. See Diet, Nat, Biog,, xxxvi. 32a The 
date must be 1592.] 

Likes his Annales and ' the great paynes taken therein '. Offers 
some c ritic isms. ' My founder is bound to you, but that tale of Alice 
Peers is slaunderous, and in my conscience most vntrue.' 

*To my well beloved and very freend Mr Stowe at his house 
beyonde Leadenhall in London.' 

12. From Thomas Wicltffe, 

[There is a fragment of a letter, refering to * Purpool ' (Portpool) and 
Stow's Chronicle in Harley MS. 247, f. 211. The address and a post- 
script, apparently of the same letter, are on f. 210, as below. There is no 
date. 1 nnd nothing as to the writer.] 

' To his assured ffrynd M*" John Stow, chronyclar, dwellinge in the 
Leaden haul at London, d. d.' 

S^ I besech yow of yor aunswer of this Ire. for the within named 
hartely desireth to here from yow. 

Thomas Wicliffe. 

13. From Henry Savile. 

[As to Mr. Hare see note on i. Lord William Howard's edition of 
Florence of Worcester, and the first edition of Stow's Annales were about 
to appear.] 

Mr Stow. After my hertie commendacions. Yor Lfe dated the 
tenthe of maye I receaved at Halifax wt thankes, and synce I am 
come to Oxford, where I have made enquirie to knowe where the 
booke showld bee that M"^ Hare showlde send hyther, yor Lre dyd 
ymporle, and as yet I cannot here of the same. Therefore I desyre 
you to goo vnto the good gentleman Mr Hare in my name, and 
requeste hym to let me vnderstonde by whome and abowte what 
t^e hee sent the booke, and to what place he made his direction, 
and whoo showlde have the custodie theroT; for greate pitie yt weare 
t that 80 worthie woorke showlde be embeazled, and I pray ye w^ 
v^ I speede to certefye me in writynge,^arid delyver yor Lre at the sync of 
the Owle, that yt maye be delyvered vnto the carier, Richard Edwardes, 
whome commythe homeward on Wednys daye next. And further I 
praye ye let me know whoo is the printer of Wygomiensis, and wheare 
hee dwellethe ; and whoo is the printer of y<^ booke. I haue heere sente 

Letters to Stow ixxiii 

yo a mild sixpenoe to drynke a qwaite of w}iie in y<>' travelL This | 

wisshjmge j^ healthe I b3rd ye farewell. Oxon. this sondaye Trinite, 

21 May 1592. 

Your loNinge Trend, 

Hekry Savill. 

Directe y^ If^ I praye to M^" Henrie Shirboume over agaynste 
Merton Colledge, to be delyvered to me. ^V Blanksome, God 
w}-llynge, wyll be at London * . . . 

14. From William Camden, 
[This is without date or address.] 

M' Stow, yfT I might iinde so much fauor alt your handes as to 
lend me the foundations of the Abbayes in Lincoln sliyre, Warwick- 
shire, Darbyshire" and Nottinghamshire, you should pleasure me 
greatly. You shall receaue them againe this day before night. 

Y' Louing freende, 

William Camden. 

15. From William Claxlon, 

[The writer of 4, 5, and 6. Dated Wynyard 10 April, 1594.] 
' Thanks Stow for the receipt of a book and his letter. Encourages 
him to proceed 'to the publishing of such grave histories and 
antiquities' . . • 'I perceiue also by y^ letter, that you haue 
awgmented your booke of foundacions, whereof I ame hartelie glad, a 
and doe most earnestly request that you would let me haue a cogie of \ 
the best sorte w^ your newe augmentacions, which trewlie I would 
make no small accounte of, and keape as a token of your manifeste 
kyndnes vnto me; and y« more earnest I am to haue it, as in y^ 
letter you said there is no coppie of it but y^ owne, wh :, if owght x 
should come vnto you butt good, might happelie*be neuer regarded ^ 
and qmyled, or neuer come to light, and so all y^^ paynes frustrate ; 
whereas yf I haue a coppie of it I hope so to vse it and dispose of it, 
as it shall be extant to all posterities, and amongst them a neuer 
dying fame for you, who bestowed suche paynes in collecting the 
certentie thereof together. What charge so euer you be at in gettinge 
it copied fwrth for me, I will repaie vnto you with thankes*. • . 

Postscript ' The greater your augmentacions are, the greater your 
fiune and commendacions be ' . . . 'I would also request when you 
pnbEsh your great volume ' mentioned in your last booke you sent me, 

' The last lew words are destroyed. 

^ Presumably 'The History of this Island '. The book on which Stow 
worked so long, to no purpose. See p. xxi. 

ixxiv Appendix to Introduction 

you would let me haue one booke of the same '. Asks for return of 
three books which he left in Stow's study, when last there. They are 
not his own. 


[The Dedications and Epistles prefixed by Stow to his books have 

a double interest both as ^ving in their simple way his Canon of 

jt historical writing and for their incidental allusions to events m hvs own 

Jife. ' MucE^of the matter in them was used again and again. Thus the 

"Dedication of the Summary Abridged for 1573 appealed with slight 

modifications not only in later editions of that work but as an address 

'To the Reader' in the Summary for 1575, in the Chronicles^ and in 

both editions of the Anna/es; its final appearance in the Summary 

Abridged for 1604 was Stow's last word, and as such it is printed here. 

Of the others now given the Dedication and Epistle from the Sumnuuy 

for 1565 have a special interest as the first of Stow's writings (the edition 

of Chaucer had no preface of his). The Dedication of 1567, and Epistle 

of 15739 deal with the quarrel with Grafton; they illustrate, ana are 

illustrated by, the document on pp. xlviii to liii above. The dedication of 

the Annales for 1592 (repeated with little change in 1601 and 160^) 

{)ractically completes the series ; it explains how Stow's hopes for his 
arger volume were frustrated.] 

Dedication and Epistle prefixed to the Summary for Ij6j. 

To the Right Honourable and my very good Lord, the Lorde 
Robert Dudley Earle of Lejcester, Baron of Dynghly, knyght of the 
honourable order of the Garter, one of the Queenes most honourable 
priuie counsell and Maister of hir maiesties horse. 

Because bothe by the vniuersall reporte of all men, I heare and allso 
by mjme owne experience I perfectly know (right honourable and my 
very goode lorde) how honorably and cherefiilly diuers workes pre- 
sented to your lordship haue ben accepted : I (though of al others 
most simple) was thereby encouraged, to offer to your honour this my 
simple worke, in token of my bounden duty. The exaumple also of 
that famous monarche Artaxerxes, who so wel accepted the simple 
handfull of water, that the poore Persian Sinetas brought him from 
the riuer Cyrus, putteth me in good hope, that youre honour, who geue 
place to no man in humanitie and curtesie, wil not mislike this simple 
signifieng of my good wylle. For, like as the mite of that poore 
widowe that is mencioned in the Gospell, whiche she gaue in all her 
penurie, is accompted a greater gifle then those huge sommes that 
great men layde out of their greate stoare : so ought this my simple 

1^ pamphlet be adiudged to procede, though not from greater, yet from 
as great good will as the best and learnedst writers beare to your 
honour. For, they of their abundant stoare, haue laied oute somewhat : 

< But I of my meane knowledge, haue presented these few first frutes to 

Select Dedications and Epistles ixxv 

your honor : knowing that your wisedome can in this small present 
right well see my good wyll. My gift is a short briefe or summarie of 
the chiefest chances and accidentes, that hane happened in this Realme, y 
frome the tyroe of Bmtus to this our age. Whiche I hane done by the 
conference of many avthors, both old and new, those I meane, that 
commonly are called Chroniclers, ovt of whom I haue gathered many 
notable thinges, moste worthy of remembrance, whiche no man hereto- 
fore hath noted, whiche worke also I was the bolder to dedicate to yovr 
honour, becanse I know your lordships good inclination to al sortes of ^ 
good knowledges : and especially the great loue that you beare to the 
olde Recordes of dedff doone by famous and noble worthies : whiche 
my boldnes, like as I tniste, your honor will not only pardon, but also 
accept in good part : so I besech all the readers hereof that folowyng 
your honourable example, they will iudge the best of this my trauaile, 
whiche I toke in hand, onely for the respecte that I had to their profite. 
Whereby they shall both shew the goodnes of theer owne natures, and 
also encourage me willingly to go forwarde in this my enterprise* 
Which doubting not, but that I shall the rather obtaine of them, 
becanse of your lordeships fauourable acceptance hereof, I wil now 
cesse any longer to trouble your honor, beseching almightie god long 
to preserue 3'ou to the commoditie of this our natiue countrie. 

Your L. most humble 

loHN Stowe. 

To the Reader, 

Diuers wryters of Hystories write dyuersly. Some pcnne their 
hystories plentifully at large. Some contrary wyse, briefly and shortly 
doo but (as it were) touche by the way, the remembraunce and accidents 
of those t3rmes, of which they write. Some do with a large compasse 
&coiier as wel the affaires done in foreyn partes, as those that hapned 
in that countrey, of whiche especially they write. And some content 
to let alone other matters, pvt in memory only 'such thyngs, as they 
them sehies haue had experience of, in their own countreis. Amongs 
whom, good Reader, I craue to haue place, and desyre roome in the 
lower part of this table. For I vse thee in this my booke as some 
symple feaster, that beynge not able of his owne coste to feast his 
guestes sufficientely, is fayne to bee frended of his neyghboures, and to 
sette before them suche dishes as he hath gotten of others. For I 
acknowledge, that many of the hystories, that thou shake reade here 
abridged, are taken, partely out of Robert Fabian, sometyme Alderman 
of London, Edwarde Halle gentylman ofGreyesInne,John Hardynge, 

ixxvi Appendix to Introduction 

a great trauailer bothe in foreyne countreis, and also in all writynges 
of antiquitie : and other, who reaped great abundance of knowledge 
and filled their bookes full therwith, to the great profite and pleasure 
of all posteritie, and to their own great fame and glory. So that of 
their great plenty I might wel take somewhat to hyde my pouertie; 
Howbe it, I haue not so doone it, as if they should clayme theyr own, 
I shuld forthwith be left naked. For somwhat I haue noted, which 
I my selfe, partly by paynfull searche, and partly by diligent experience, 
haue found out. Wherefore, both the smalnesse of the volume whiche 
comprehendeth gret matters in effect, also the noueltie of som matters 
vttred iherin, ought to cause y^ it shold not be altogither vnwelcome to 
thee. For though it be written homely, yet it is not (as I trust) writen 
vntruly. And in hystories the chiefe thyng that is to be desyred is 
# / K.truthe. Wherfore, if thou fynde that in it, I beseche thee, wynke at 
i small iaultes, or at the least, let the consyderacion of my well meanyhge^ 
drowne them. So shalt thou both encourg^ejne to farther diligence, 
and also vtter thyne owne frendlynesse, in that thou doest rather 
further, then condemne a weak wryter. 

Of smoothe and flatterynge speache remember to take hede : 

For Trouthe in playn wordes may be tolde, of craft a lye hath nede. 

Epistle Dedicatory {Jo the Lord Mayor and Aldermen) prefixed to 

the Summary abridged, /or ij6j. 

Although, ryght honorable and worshipful, I was my selfe verye redy 
to dedicate this my small trauayle of Englysh Chronicles vnto you to 
thentent that through your protection it might passe the snarlynges of 
the malicyous, which are alwayes redy to hinder the good meanyngs 
of laborious men and studious : yet consyderynge the occasyons neces- 
saryly vnto me offered, and dutyfuUy to be considered, I thought good 
to begyn with the ryghte honorable Therle of Leicester. For speakyng 
nothyng of my own duetie, the commoditie of my owne countreyemen 
In the second moued mee hereunto, seynge they were deceyued through hys autho- 
abddi^ment^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ furnyshyng of a friuolous abridgement in the fronture 
with his noble name, I thought good, and that afler amendement 
promised 'and not performed, at vacante times, to take to my olde 
delectable studies, and after a defence of that wherin another had both 
abused hys Lordshype, and deceaued the expectacion of the common 
people. But nowe at the requeste of the Printer and other of my 
louing frends, hauyng brought the same into a newe forme, such as 
\ may both ease the purse and the caryage, and yet nothing omitted 

Select Dedications amd Efistks ixxra 

conuen jent to be knovne ; and bes^'des all dm bais^i^ nanqi l r 
before my face to cbaange m j Fatran (reseran^ syl rn^ Pnnaer, as 
carefoU of his adnanta^ ntfaer tfaeme nnne oane) I am bold to 
submyt it\Tito joarhoDome and m t a i hi |i|i e s prolcctycgs ipgedMr, dafl 
thoroagh the thnndryi^ nofse of cmptr tonnes and iufniizftil graftes 
of Momus' offsprjnge it be noc (as it is preiended) deiaoed and oner- 
throwne. Tnithcs quarrell it is, I laje before yon, the m-faycbe hadi 
bene (if not hitherto idioUj pictcnnitsed) trnelye mraeiable handled, 
mangled I should saje, and sudi an ho t chcp o n e made of tnidie and 
lyes together, that of thignoiante in fajsUHres diooe ooolde not be 
discemde from thother. A strange case it is and n c gUg^yt e dudl h aieE;»nle 
I call it^ or ignorance that bee that mas moned to wiyte cuen for ^''^~"~^' 
pytyes sake to restore the truthe to her inl^gritye Aookle commytte 
so great errors, and so many, that he himsdf had ncde of a correcter, 
and truth of a newe laborer. Yar me a beape of old momnnentes, 
wytnesses of tymes, and brig^ beames of the troth can testyfye that 
I haue not swanied from the tnithe: the whycfae as I am ledy at all 
tymes to shew for mine owne safe condncte agaynst thadoersaryes, so 
am I most certaine that he that pretendeth most hath had very smale 
store of aucthors for hym seUe bdore tyme, and now hath fraughte h}'S 
roanerly Manuell wyth such merchandyse (as to you it shall be most^ 
manyfest at your conference) that by the byinge of my summarye he 
scoured newlye, or cleanly altered his old Abridgment Wliat pre- 
occupation or what insolence is it then to transfer that vnto me that 
am fartheste from such dealing ? And yet hauing muche better pre- 
cedents before myne eyes (euen that excellent Iseamed Dr. Coeper, 
that I name no ancyenter, whose order and deu^-se priuatly he con- 
demneth, and yet openly transformeth into his own Abridgement) 
he accuseth of counterfealyng bis volume and order, whereas it 
might be well sayde vnto hym : What hast thou y^ thou bast not 
receaued of me ? 

But y<i I be not agaynst my nature angry wythe my vndeserued 
aduersary, I wil here surcease to trouble you anye further at this tyme, 
most earnestlye requyiynge your honoure and worshyppes all ones 
againe to take the tuityon of this little booke vppon you. The whych, 
if I may perceaue to be. taken thankfuUye and fruitefullye used to the 
amendment of suche grosse erroures, as hytherto haue bene in The 
Great Abridgement, and presentely are in the Manuell of the Cronycles Too many 
of £nglande, in Thabridged Abridgemente, in The briefe Collection of «>•"»«• ^®' • 
Histories commytted, I shall be encouraged to perfecte that labour 
that I huue begun, and such worthy workes of auncyent Aucthours 

ixxviii Appendix to Introduction 

that I haue wyth greate peynes gathered together, and partly performed 

in M. Chaucer and other, I shall be much incensed by your gentlenes 

to publyshe to the commoditie of all the Queues maiestles louing 


Your moste humble 

loHN Stowe. 

Episile to the Reader prefixed to the Summary abridged yj?r I^^}. 

Calling to memory (gentle Reader) with what dilligence (to my 

great cost and charges) I haue trauayled in my late Summary of y« 

Chronicles : As also y^ vnhonest dealings of somebody towards mee 

(whereof I haue long since sufficientlye written and exhibited to the 

Setting (as it l^^irned and honourable), I persuaded with my selfe to haue surceased 

were) his from this kinde of trauell wherin another hath vsed to rcpe the fruite 

anotl^r'man^s ^^ "^X labours. But now for diners causes thereto moutnge me I haue 

vessell. once again briefely run ouer this smal abridgement, placing the yeares 

of our Lord, the yeres of y« Kings, wyih ye Shyriflfes and Maiors of 

London, in a farre more perfect and plain order then heretofore hath 

bene published. 

Touching Ri. Grafton his slanderous Epistle, though the same wyth 
other his abusing of me was aunsweared by the learned & honourable, 
& by the>in forbidden to be reprinted, he hath since y^ time in his 
second empresion placed his former lying Preface, wherin be hath 
In the first these woords : ' Gentle Reader^ this one thinge offendeth me so much, thai 
page the i6, / am inforced to purge my selfe thereof and shawe my simple and plaint 
ao lin^. dealing therein. One John Stow of whom I wil say none eutl ifc,^ hath 

published a Booke^ and therin hath charged mee bittarlyey but chief efye 
In the seconde ^'*^^ ^^^ t hinges. The one, that I haue made E. Halle s Chronicle my 
nage the i & a Chronicle, but not withoute mangelinge, and (as hee saith) withoute any 
g^* 4» 5» » inggniouSy and plaine declaration thereof The other thinge that he 
chargeth me withall^ is that a Chronicle of Hardings which he haih^ 
doth mWch differ from the Chronicle, which vnder the sayd Hardinges 
I leaue his nam^ was printed by mee, as thought I hadfalcifyed Hardings Chronicle 
puSe^i^ng ^^* ^^^ answeare I say the offence by mee committed, requireth no 
to theiudg- such forced purgation. I haue not so bitterlye cliarged him, as he 
IJ^^ hath plainly accused himselfe. My words be these. Some bodye {with- 

in commend-^ <^^ ^^ ingenious and plaine declaration therof) hath published, but not 
ingmine without mangling. Master Halles boke for his otvne, I name not 
Grafton. This is the firste. The second is this : — lohn Hardinge Sec 
exhibited a Chronicle of England, with a Mappe or description of 

Select Dedications and Epistles ixxix 

Scotland, to King Henry the sixt, which Chronicle doth almost alto^ I saye not ^' 

gether differ from thai which vnder his name was imprinted by Ri. such a ^h^. 

Grafton. cle of 

After this in y« same preface he braggeth to haue a Chronicle of ^ '"^' 

lohn Hardings written in the latine tongue, which he assureth himself 

I neuer sawe, and doubteth whether I vnderstand. If he haue any ^* Grafton 

nener saw 

such booke, it is like that he would allege it, as he hath done manye Robert de 

other Authors, whereof I am better assured he hath neuer scene so 1^^" «pf' 

muche as the outsyde of their books. If ther be no such Chronicle of singfaam, 

lohn Hardings, as he braggeth on, it is like I haue not scene it, & ^' ^^^^f**" 

must needs be hard to vnderstande it. of £^ye, and 

Then he saith my latter Summary differeth cleane from my first. °]?Sl^*' 

To this I aunswere, I haue not chaunged eyther woork, or tide, but alledgeth for 

haue corrected my first booke as I haue founde better Auctours. But ^Jif ,, 

"'•■■9A tinuctn tneni 

hee himselfe hath made his last abridgemente not onelye cleane con- aiiedged in 
iraiy to his first, but the two impressions contrarye the one to the "y^**™"*")^** 
other, and euery one contrary to his mere History. For his true ^ 

aUedging of Aucthors let men iudge by those which are common in 
our vulger tongue, as Policronicon, Ro. Fabian, £d. Hall, Doctour 
Cooper. Look those Authors in those yeres and peraduenture ye 
shal finde no such matter. Try, and then trust. 

Dedication of Annales in IJ92, 

To the Right Reuerend Father in God my Lord Archbishop of 
Canterburie, Primate and MeUropolitane of England, and one of hir 
Maiesties most honorable priuie Councill, lohn Stowe wisheth increase 
as well of all heauenly graces as worldly blessings. 

It is now more than thirtie yeeres (Right reuerende father) since 
I first addressed all my cares and cogitations to the studie of Histories 
and search of Andquities : the greatest part of which time I haue 
diligently imploied in collecting such matters of this kingdome, as 
I thought most worthie to be recommended both to the present and 
succeeding age. These laborious collections in so long a dme haue 
now at length grown into a large volume, which I was willing to haue 
committed to the presse had not the Printer, for some priuate respects, 
beene more desirous to publish Annales at this present. Wherein 
I haue condescended to him to publish these> which I submit to your 
gradous and graue consideration, and to the censure of the courteous 
reader, & learned Antiquaries : relying wholy vpon this comfort, that 
the troth & credit of my Authors is in no point iniuried, how simple 
and naked soeuer the stUe may be iudged. Neither do I doubt but 

ixxx Appendix to Introduction 

they may haue free passage in the world, if they be countenanced 
vnder your honorable name & protection. Vnto whom I offer & with 
al dutiful affection I dedicate both my selfe and them : being heenmto 
induced, both for that your worthy predecessor, and my especiall bene- 
factor Archbishop PARKER, animated me in the course of these 
studies, which otherwise I had long since discontinued ; and also that 
your great loue and entire affection to all good letters in generall and 
to the Antiquities in particular hath beene so singular, that all which 
like and loue good studies, do iustly esteeme you their principall and 
gratious patrone. Thus hoping of your fauorable acceptance of this, 
as but part of that which I intended in a more large volume, I humbly 
take my leaue. 

London this 26 of May 1592. 

Epistle Dedicatorie {to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen) prefixed to the 

Summary Abridged for 1604. 

Amongst other bookes, (Honourable & worshipfull) which are in 
this our learned age published in great numbers, there are fewe either 
for the honestie of the matters, or commoditie which they bring to the 
common welth, or for the plesantness of the studie & reading, to be 
preferred before the Chronicles and histories. What examples of men 
deseruing immortalitie, of exploites worthy great renoune, of vertuous 
lining of the posteritie to be imbraced, of wise handling of weigfatie 
affaires, diligently to be marked, and aptly to bee applied: what 
incouragement of Nobilitie to noble feates, what discouragement of 
vnnaturall subiects from wicked treasons, pernicious rebellions, & 
damnable doctrines, To conclude, what perswasion to honestie, godli- 
nesse ' & vertue of all sorts ; what diswasion from the contrarie is not 
plentifully in them to bee found ? So that it is as harde a matter for the 
readers of Chronicles, in my fancie, to passe without some colour o( 
wisdome, inuitements to vertue, and loathing of naughtie factes, as it 
is for a well fauored man to walke vp and down in the hot parching 
Sun, and not to bee therewith Sunburned. They therefore which with 
long studie, earnest good will, & to their great cost & charges haue 
brought hidden Histories from dustie darkenes to the sight of the 
world, and haue beene diligent obseruers of common wealths, and 
noted for posteritie the fleeting maners of the people, and accidents of 
the times, deserue (at the least) thankes for their paines, and to be 
misreported of none, seeing they haue labored for all. I write no| 
this to complaine of some mens ingratitude towards mee (although 

Select Dedications and Epistles ixxxi 

histly I might) but to shew the commodities which ensue of the Note that 
reading of histories, that seeing they are so great and many, all men ^ickcWtCT^ 
would as they ought, imploy their diligence in the honest, fruitfull, slaieth Three 
and delectable perusing of the same, and so to account of the Authors, Jdfc*^'hi»°' 
as of men carefiill for their countrie, and to confesse, if neede require, owne nudice, 
by whom they haue taken profite. It is now nigh 45. yeares since ^^^^J^ hj, 
I seeing the confused order of our late English Chronicles, and the £Use talei & 
ignorant handling of auncient affaires, as also (by occasion) being ^l^cMteth^ 
perswaded by the *£ar]e of Leicester, (leaning mine owne peculiar * i gnue him 
gaines) consecrated my selfe to the search of our famous Antiquities. *.!^!P^??"' 
What I haue done in them, the former editions of my Sunmiaries, Gnn^ther 
Chronicles, and Annales, with my suruay of the Cities of London, 5^^^ 
Westminster, & Borough of Southwarke, may well testifie : but how 
far (be it spoken without arrogance) I haue labored for the truth more Z^" 
then some other, the last editions will euidently declare. Where in 
that I differ from the inordinate & vnskilfull collections of other 
men, it is no maruaile, seeing that I doe not fully agree with my selfe, 
as some obscure persons haue fondly charged me, but let it be con- 
sidered that there is nothing perfect at the first, & that it is incident to 
mankind to erre & slip sometime, take he neuar so great heede ; but 
only the point of fantasticall fooles to perseuer & continue in their/ 
err<»8 perceiuing them. Wherfore seeing that the perusing of auncient 
reoMds & best approued histories of all times (not without great 
difficoltie obtained) do not only moue me, but for their authoritie driue 
me to acknowledge both mine & other mens errors, & in acknow- 
ledging, to correct them, I trust to obtaine thus much at your Honor 
k. Worships hands : that at the least you will call to remembrance 
a most gentle and wise law of the politike Persians, where in it was 
enacted that a man accused to be in their lawes a trespasser, and 
found guiltie of the crime, should not straightway be condemned, but 
a diligent inquirie & search of his whole life and conuersation (no 
slander imputed vnto him as of importance) if the number of his 
laudable facts did counteruaile the contrarie, he was full quit of trespas. 
The same lawe doe I wish the readers of this my abridged Summary 
and other my larger Chronicles, to put in vse, that if the errours be 
not so plentiful!, as Histories truely alledged, they will beare with them, 
for (as I haue promised and many wayes performed) I meane (God 
willing) so to trie all matters worthy of immortalitie by the certaine 
touchstone of the best allowed Historiographers and sound recordes, 
that neither any body by me shalbe deceiued nor I forced to craue 
pardon if I do offend. 

» f 

ixxxii Appendix to Introduction 


I. The Summary and the Summary Abridged, 

[Stow, in his account of his quarrel with Grafton, distinguishes carefully 
between his Summary, which first appeared in 1565, and the Summary 
Abridged, first published in the next year. The distinction has not al^'jays 
been noted, but the two works are bibliographically ^uite difTerent The 
former is small 8^^, and so long as Leicester was alive was dedicated to 
him ; the additional matter (other than the Chronicles proper) is not so 
full as in the abridgement, the amount varies in different editions, but 
generally comprises some notes as to Terms, a List of Authors, and at 
the end a Table or Index ; the last edition in 1590 was dedicated to the 
Lord Mayor. The Summary Abridged is I6™<> (or 24™<>); the first 
edition had no dedication (Stow says that it was dedicated to the Lord 
Mayor — p. lii above — but the apparently complete copy in the British 
Museum has none), all the later editions were dedicated to the Lord 
Mayor ; the additional matter consists of a Calendar, Rules to find Fasts, 
the Terms, &c., at the beginning, and at the end the distances of towns 
from London, and the dates of the principal Fairs ; there is no List ot 
Authors and no Table. So far as its mam substance is concerned the 
Summary Abridged agrees with Stow's own description of it as brought 
' into a new form, such as may both ease the purse and the carriage, yet 
nodiing omitted convenient to be known '. Successive editions both of 
the Summary and the Summary Abridged were from time to time 
curtailed to make room for fresh matter. The entry of the Summary 
appears in the Stationers' Registers under 1564-5: 'Thomas marshe 
for printing of a breaffe cronenacle made by John Stowe, auctorysshed 
by my lorde of Canterbury.' This is the first time the archbishop's name 
thus appears on the Register. In the margin is the note: 'T. Marshe 
ultimo marcij 1573 chaunged with H. Byneman for Terence, per licem. 
magistri et gardianorum.' This is the earliest note of such an exchange 
(Arber, Transcript, i. 120^). Like all Stow's works printed in his life- 
time, the Summary is in black letter. Copies of editions marked * are in 
the British Museum, and of those marked t in the Bodleian Library.] 

The Summary. 

* t A Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles, Conteyning the true accompt 
of yeres, wherein euery kyng of this Realme of England began 
theyr reigne, howe long they reigned : and what notable thynges 
hath beene done durynge theyr Reygnes. Wyth also the names 
and yeares of all the Bylyifes, Custos, maiors, and sheriffes of the 
Citie of London, sens the Conqueste, dyligently collected by 
lohn Stow ... in the yere . . . 1565. 
fF. xiv, 248, xii. T. Marshe, 1565, 8^® 

t A Summarie of our Englyshe Chronicles . . . Diligently collected 
by John Stowe ... In the yeare . . . 1566. 

fT. xii, 282*, xii. T. Marshe, 1566, 8'»*o 

* However ff. 130 and 137 are, through misprinting, wanting. 

Bibliography ixxxiii 

t [A Summarie, Ac.*]. 

ff. X, pp. 413, ff. xi. T. Marshe, 1570, 8^0 

t A Summarie of the Chronicles of England, from the first comming 
of Brute, into this land, vnto this present yeare of Christ 1574. 
if. viii, pp. 441, ff. xi. Henry Binneman, 1574, 8^0 

* t A Summarie of the Chronicles of Englande from the first arriuing 

of Brute • • • unto . • • 1575. Corrected and enlarged. 

fl^ viii, pp. 570, ff. xxviii. R. Tottle and H. Binneman, 

[1575. 8^*^ 

* A Summarie of the Chronicles of England from . . . Brute . • . vnto 

. . . 1590. First collected, since enlarged, and now continued by 
Idm Stow. 

ff. viii, pp. 760, ff. iv. R. Newbery, 1590, 8^<» 

The Summary Abridged* 

* The Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles. Lately collected and pub- 

lished, nowe abridged and continued tyl this present moneth of 
Marche in the yere of our Lord God, 1566, by L S. 

ff. viii, 197, iii. T. Marshe, 1566, i6™<> 

* t The Summarie of Englishe Chronicles . . . continued til this 

present moneth of Nouember . • . 1567. By L S. 

ff. xii, aoo, ii. T. Marshe, 1567, i6™o 

* t The Summarie of the Chronicles of Englande . . . newly cor- 

rected, abridged, and continued vnto 1573. 

unnumbered. T. Marshe, 1573, i6n»o 

[According to Lowndes there was an edition in 1579, but he gives no 

A Summarie, &c.' 

R. Newbery and H. Denham, 1584. 

^ t A Summarie of the Chronicles of Englande. Diligently collected, 

abridged and continued vnto ... 1587 ... by lohn Stow. 

ff. xvi, pp. 446, ff. xvi. R. Newberie and H. Denham, 

[1587, i6«o 

* t A Summarie . . . Diligently collected, &c. 

ff. xvi, pp. 460, ff. xvii. R. Bradocke, 1598, i6°^o 

^ t A Sununarie . . . Diligently collected, &c. 

ff. XV, pp. 458, ff. xvi lohn Harison, 1604, i6™o 

^ The copy in the Bodleian Library is without title. 
' So given by Lowndes. 

f 2 

ixxxiv Appendix to Introduction 

The Abridgement or Summarie of the English Chronicles, first col- 
lected by master lohn Stow . . . continued vnto . . . 1607, by 
E. H.» 

Imprinted for the Company of Stationers, 1607, 8^0 

The Abridgement of the English Chronicles . . . vnto the end of the 
yeare 16 10. By E. H. 

Imprinted for the Company of Stationers, 161 1, 8^® 

The Abridgement . . . vnto the beginning of the yeare, 161 8. By E. H. 

Imprinted for the Company of Stationers, i6i8, 8^® 

2. The Chronicles and Annates* 

[The Chronicles of 1580 furnish as it were a connecting link between 
the Summary and the AnnaUs, preserving the civic character of the 
former, but approaching the latter in size. Of the Annates the editions 
of 1 601 and 1605 are nearly identical; the latter has only one sheet 
(Qqqq) reprinted, with addfitions down to 26 March, 1605. Howes in 
his two editions, besides his continuation beyond 1605, interpolated 
matter in other places ; quotations from his editions are not to be relied 
on as representing Stow's own work.] 

The Chronicles of England, from Brute vnto this present yeare of 

Christ, 1580. Collected by lohn Stow. 

Ralph Newberie at the assignment of Henrie Bynneman, 

[1580, 4to 

The Annales of England faithfully collected out of the most autenticall 
Authors, Records, and other monuments of Antiquide, from the 
first inhabitation vntill this present yeere 1592. By lohn Stow. 

Ralfe Newbery, 1592, 4*0 

The Annales of England . . . continued . . . vntill this present yeare 

Ralfe Newbery, i6oi, 4*'0 

The Annales of England . . . continued . . . vntill this present yeare, 

George Bishop and Thomas Adams, 1605, 4^ 

The Annales or Generall Chronicle of England . • . continued and 

augmented . . . vnto the ende of this present yeere, 16 14. By 

Edmond Howes. 

T. Adams, 1615, folio. 

Annales or a Generall Chronicle of England . . . continued vnto the 
end of this present yeere 1631. By Edmond Howes. 

Richard Meighen, 1631, folio. 

^ This, and the two subsequent editions published by Edmond Howes, 
are re-editions of the original work, not of the Summary Abridged. 

Bibliography ixxxv 

3. The Survey of London, 

[The Survey of London was entered at Stationers' Hall by John Wolfe 
on 7 July, IJ98. It was transferred by Wolfe's widow to John Pyndley 
on 27 April, 1612, and by Pyndley's widow to George Purslowe on 
2 November, 1613 (Arber, Transcript^ iii. 39, 219, 245). Some copies of 
the first edition have the date 1 599 ; an instance is the presentation copy 
to Elizabeth Stow, now in the British Museum, which has her name 
printed within in an ornamental border on the back of the title-page, and 
her initials and the City arms stamped on the covers.] 

A Suruay of London . . .>y lohn Stow Citizen of London. Also an 

Apologie, &c. 

lohn Wolfe, 1 598, sm. 4*0 

A Suruay, &c. 

lohn Winder, 1603, sm. 4^ 

The Suruay of London . . . continued . . . with many rare and worthy 

notes ... by A. M. 

George Purslowe, 1618, sm. 4*0 

The Suruey of London . . . Begunne first by . . . lohn Stow . . . 
afterwards inlarged by . . . A. M. in the yeare 1618. And now 
completely finished by ... A. M., H. D., and others. 

Elizabeth Purslowe 1633, fol. 

A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster . . . brought down 
from the Year 1633 ... to the present time by John Strype. 

London, 1720, 2 vols, folio. 

A Survey, &c. By Robert Seymour. The whole being an Improve- 
ment of Mr. Stow's and other Surveys. 

London, 1734-5, 2 vols, folio. 

A Survey, &c. [Seymour's work with the addition of Dugdale's History 
of S. Paul's.] By a Gentleman of the Inner Temple. 

London, 1753, 2 vols, folio. 

A Survey of the Cities . . . Corrected, improved and very much 
Enlarged in the Yeare 1720 by John Strype . . . brought down 
to the present Time by Careful Hands. The Sixth Edition. 

London, 1754-5. 2 vols, folio. 

A Survey, &c. Edited by W. J. Thorns. 

8^0, 1842. Reprinted with illustrations 1876. 

A Survey, &c. Edited by H. Morley. 

8V0, 1889. Reprinted 1893. 

ixxxvi Appendix to Introdtiction 

4. Miscellaneous. 
The workes of Geffrey Chaucer, newly printed with diners addicions, 

\vhiche were neuer in printe before. 

1 56 1, folia 

The Successions of the History of England from the beginning of 
Edward vi to the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth : together 
with a list of the Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons 
of England to the present Time. By lohn Stowe. 

London, 1638, folio. 

[Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manual, v. 2525. There is no copy either 
in the British Museum or the Bodleian Library. The Peerage is stated 
to take 45 pp., the list of Bishops 3 pp. ; the History begins on p. 333, 
and ends on p. 843.] 

A Recital of Stow's Collection concerning the Rise, Profitableness, 
and Continuance of the Court of Requests, or Court of Con- 
science in the City of London. 

[London, 1640?] folio. 

[There is a copy in the British Museum.] 

Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles, with historical memoranda by 

John Stowe, the antiquary, and contemporary notes of occurrences 

written by him in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Edited by 

James Gairdner. 

Camden Society, 1880. N. S. xxviiL 



[This account is intended only as a short summary to show the general 
character of S tow's Collections, The contents of some of the volumes are 
so varied and fragmentary that a full catalogue would extend to great 
length. I have, however, included all the items of most interest^ and 
especially such as bear on the history of London. Further particulars 
of the more important volumes may be found in the Catalogue 0/ Har^ 
leian MSS. ; but this summary includes a few notices, which are there 
omitted, together with some fresh identifications. ^ 

Touching the history of Stow's Collections it would appear that part of 
them were purchased at his death by Ralph Starkey, whom Sir Simonds 
D'Ewes calls * an ignorant, mercenary, indigent man ', whilst allowing 
that he had * great plenty of new written collections and divers original 
letters of great moment.' Starkey died in 1628, and D'Ewes eagerly 
purchased his library as an inestimable prize (Autobiography, i. 39l-<i). 
D'Ewes' library was sold by his grandson to Robert Harley, and thus 
this portion of Stow's Collections found its way to the Britbh Museum. 
Whilst in Starkey*s possession Stow*s papers were used by Roger Dods- 
worth in preparing his ' Monasticon' (Heame, Collectanea, iii. 108). In 
Heame*s time a Quantity of Stow's papers, including collections for the 
^;fffa/ifjandonecclesiastical foundations and Leland's////r^rarv,were in the 

StoTvs Collections and MSS. ixxxvii 

possession of a Mr. Davies of Llannerch, and were seen and used by Heame 
\id. Hi. jOj 143). The transcripts of Leland in Tanner MS. 4,6^ are no 
doubt those which were purchased by Camden (see p. xxv above). In 1657 
they were in the possession of Mr. Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt ; they 
came to the Bodleian Library in 1736 (Toulmin Smith, Leland in PValis, 
p. vi ; and Itinerary^ ^> JPP* x^i"» xxiv). The extant papers can be only 
a small part of Stow's Collections. The fate of the remainder is told by 
a note at the head of those in Cotton MS. Cleopatra C. iii : * Bought 
of Edwardes, the Broker and Fripper, ii.j. 27 Octobr. 1613.' As regards 
others Anthony Munday states definitely that Stow, while he was alive, 
delivered him some of his best collections, which were made use of in 
subsequent editions of the Survey (Epistle Dedicatorie, ed. 1633). In 
like manner it is probable that some material had passed into the hands 
of Edmund Howes, to be incorporated by him in his editions of the 
Annates (see vol. ii, pp. 282, 323-4 and ^67). 

The great extent of Stow*s Library is described by David Powel in 
1584 in the Preface to his Historie of Cambria : ' In written hand I had 
Gildas Sapiens alias Nennius, Henrie Huntingdon, William Malmsbury, 
Marianus Scotus, Ralph Cogshall, lo. Eversden, Nicholas Triuet, 
Florentius Wigomensis, Simon of Durham, Roger Houeden, and other, 
which remaine in the hand of I. Stowe, citizen of London, who deserueth 
commendation for getting together the ancient writers of the histories of 
this land.' Stow himself mentions that he possessed copies of Gowei's 
Vox Clamantis and Con/essio A mantis and of Fabyan's Chronicles (see 
voL ii, pp. 57 and 305 below). Camden was indebted to him for a copy 
of GeoHrey le Baker's Chronicle (see Sir E. M. Thompson's Preface^ 
p. vii). For a MS. (relating to 15 13) borrowed from Stow in 1584, see 
Letters and Papers^ Henry VIll^ i, p. 632. Sir Robert Cotton would 
appear to have oeen a great purchaser of Stow's MSS., and his collection 
no doubt includes others besides those which I have noted. To make 
a complete list of extant MSS. which belonged to Stow would be an 
almost hopeless task. 

Of Stow's printed books one containing a few notes in his writing is 
preserved in the British Museum, viz. a copy of Norden's Hertfordshire^ 

A. Collections 
I. In the British Museum. 

Harley 247. A volume of miscellaneous and fragmentary papers, 
including many from Stow's Collections. Note: ff. 20-37. P^rt of 
a history of the Kings of Kent with notes by Stow. f. 45. A 
fragment for the Annales. ff. 82-97. Notes out of Hector Boetius 
made by Stow. ff. 143, and 169-72. Fragments of chronicles in 
English for 1376-7 (Printed in Sir E. M. Thompson's edition of 
Chroniccn Angliae, pp. Ixvii-lxxxiii, See ii. 283 below), ff. 173-4. 
A fi:agment of a translation of the Chronicon Angliae (see Sir £. M. 
Thompson's edition, p. xi), ff. 174, 176. Copies of deeds relating 
to London, f. 208. Conceminge the burning of Moskow by the 
Crimme-Tartar, written by lohn Stow. f. 209. A note by Stow of 
his dilute with Master Crowche (see p. Ixii. above), ff. 210, 210*. 
Fragments of a letter to Stow from Thomas Wiclifie (see p. Ixxiu 

ixxxviii Appendix to Introduction 

above), f. 217. Notes by Stow on the execution of Barrow and 
Greenwood in 1593. 

Harley 293. A miscellaneous collection containing a few papers 
of Stow's. e.g. f. 32. Historical notes, ff. 44-5. List of sur- 
names from Froissart. 

Harley 367. A volume of miscellaneous papers, the majority of 
which belonged to Stow. For ff. i-io see pp. xlix-lxvii above. Nots : 
f. II. Grafton's reply to Stow, with pungent comments by the latter 
in the margin (* This is a lye/ &c. Much of Grafton's statement is 
too worn to be fully legible ; he claims to have had a principal share 
in Hall's Chronicle), f. 12. Stow's further vindication of himself 
against the aspersions of Grafton, ff. 13-18 and 20-45. Various 
historical notes by Stow. f. 19. An extract from a City Chronicle 
for 1502 (Seo^ ii. 341-2 below), f. 46. The way of coining and 
examining or trying of money, written by lohn Stow. f. 48. The 
relation of what was found at the digging of a vault at the comer of 
Bread Street, Cheapside. (See ii. 351 below.) f. 86^0. A morall 
Ballad by Henry Scogan (see i. 241 below), f. 129. A poem, dated 
'5^3 ^y William Vallans, Salter, addressed to Stow and lamenting 
his lack of reward for writing in praise of citizens. — Vallans was the 
author of a piece of verse printed in Leland's Itinerary^ vol. v. * A 
Tale of Two Swannes'; see Did, Nat, Biog,, Iviii. 83. — The last 
few lines will illustrate sufficiently the character of this poem: 

Let citizens themselues declare 

What dedes theyre mayors haue done, 
What benefactors they haue had. 

What honor they haue wonn. 
And though your selfe a Cyiezen 

Regard there lastyng fame 
Yet reason is they should reward 

Or recompense the same. 

This volume also contains copies of poems by Lydgate and other 
writers made by Stow. 

Harley 374. A collection of autograph letters made by Sir Simonds 
D'Ewes. For letters to Stow on ff. 9-24 see pp. Ixviii-lxxiii above. Note 
also: f. 12. Christopher Ridley to the right worshipful Mr. Will. 
Claxton of Wynyard with an account of the Picts Wall. (Some notes 
written thereon by Stow.) f. 20. A note by Camden of inquiries to 
be made of Mr. Claxton touching the Picts Wall. 

Harley 530. Miscellaneous collections of Camden's and Stow's. 
NoTK : f. I. A letter from Henry Savile to Slow (see p. Ixxii above). 

Stow's Collections and MSS. ixxxix 

ff. 2-12. Collectanea ex chron. de Dunmowe. if. 19-30. A trans- 
lation of part of the Vtia Henrici Quintu f. 38. On the buildings of 
John Churchman (see i. 135). f. 75*. A letter from Camden to 
Stow (see p. Ixxiii above), ff. 77-8. Some corrections by Camden 
for the Survey. (They relate to the western suburbs and Westminster, 
and apparently refer to a MS. copy; they are incorporated in the 
printed text.) ff. 81-94. Passages from Greek and Roman writers 
relating to Britain, perhaps collected by Camden for Stow's use. 
ff. 1 1 5-1 8. Fragments of a late copy of a Chronicle of London for 
1270-88, and 1344-58. ff. 119, 120. A London Chronicle for 
1538-9 (see vol. ii. 284, 310 below). 

HarUy 538. Stow's original draft of the main part of the Survey, 
See p. xxxvii and t^oXts passim. 

Barley 539. Collections by Stow. Note: ff. 1-82, William 
Lombard's 'Perambulation of Kent' — *writen by lohn Stowe in 
anno 1579 '. ff. 95-6. The Foundacion of Betheleme without 
Byssoppes Gate of London in anno 1247. f. 183^0. Names of the 
Wards in London with some historical notes by Stow. f. 184. 
* 1590. The 4 of Septembre sir John Leveson, Mistar W. Lambarde 
and Mystar Leonard dyd ryde to see the monument of Catigem 
corruptly called Kytts Cotyhouse, I beinge with them &c/ (A very 
brief note made by Stow.) The other collections relale chiefly to 
ecclesiastical foundations in various places. 

Harley 540. Historical collections of Stow's. Note: ff. 3-6. 
£ Chronico Regum Manniae. ff. 7-21. A London Chronicle 
1 485-1 555. (Partly in Stow's writing; very brief to 1527, fairly full 
to 1 54 1 9 and very short from 1541 to 1549. Prefixed are two brief 
notes of the time of Richard II and Henry IV. — * from a book of 
Mr. Lordynge '. See Notes ii. 295, 352, 370.) ff. 53-6. Notes on 
Annals of London, ff. 68-9. Notes on history of the Conduit at 
Fleet, ff. 70-7. Account of the expeditions into Scotland in 1547 
and 1560. f. 79. A fragment on Honour of Citizens, f. 81. 
Letters patent re St. Nicholas Coleabbey. f. 82^0. Some private 
memoranda of Stow's ; for the only one of interest see p. xix above, 
ff. 83-89. Notes of charitable bequests by London citizens, ff. 
93-110. John Cooke's Relation of Sir Francis Drake's voiage unto 
the West Indies began 15 November 1577. (The only copy extant; 
in Stow's writing. Printed in The World Encompassed^ pp. 187-218, 
Hakluyt Society.) ff. 1 1 1-14. * A Treatise of my Lord of Comber- 
lan's Shippes Voyage (in anno 1592) and of theyr takynge of the 
great Caiack, lately biought into Dartmouth. Writen by Fraunces 

xc Appendix to Introduction 

Seal!.' f. 121. Notes for Annales^ 1604. f. 122. Notes by Stow 
as to information to be found in the Survey, relating to the Tower, 
and the city's claim re St. Martin's, apparently prepared for the use 
of the Corporation in legal business, f. 123. A note on the Standart 
at Leadenhall (see Note, vol. ii, p. 302 below). 

HarUy 54 c. Collections chiefly by Sir Simonds D'Ewes. But 
Note: if. 215*19. List of Mayors, with a few notes (see Chnm. 
Lond^ p. 321). ff. 220-3. 'Here begynnythe the names of all 
parishe churches w^yn the fraunchese of London ' (with some notes 
by Stow), f. 224. The Gates of the Cyttie of London, f. 225. 
List of the Halls of Companies, f. 229. List of trades in London. 

Harhy 542. Historical collections by Stow chiefly for the Annales. 
Note: ff. 15-27. Excerpts from Peter of Ickham. ff. 28-30, 

• Notes gathered by Dr. Talbot out of ye boke of Brute.' flF. 31-3. 
Richard III, his deathe from a book ' borrowyd of Henry Savill '. 
ff. 34-7. * History of a moste horrible murder comytted at ffevershame 
in Kent ' (Arden of Faversham). ff. 54-6. ' Oute of a small pawmflet 
in parchement wryten in Latyn of the trayterous Scottes ' inc : * In 
the yeare of Christes birth 1306.' ff. 57-65. Richard Turpyn's 

* Chronicle of Calais' (published by Camden Soc). f. loi. Speeches 
at the Pageants for Margaret of Anjou, 1446, by Lydgate. f. 102. 
Lydgate's 'London Licpenny'. ff. 105-8. 'Out of an olde booke 
of Master Henry Savill' (on history of Lacy family), ff. 109-16. 
Conquest of Britony (Britain) by Julius Caesar, ff. 125-40. *For- 
tescue on Laws of England. Transcribed by Mr. J. Stowe with his 
owne hand.' ff. 141-66. 'Out of a Chronicle of the Angles pcr^ 
taynynge to Mast. Rose Carrike, translatyd into Englysshe for John 
Stowe and by him wriien anno 1579/ {^^^ years 1381-99.) 

Narley 543. Notes and transcripts by Stow chiefly for the 15th 
centur}'. Note: ff. 31-49. Arrival of King EdNvard IV. 'Got of 
Mystar Flyghtwod's Boke.' 'Transcribed by John Stowe the 
Chronicler with his owne hand' (Published by Camden Society, 
and in Chronicles of the White Rose) ff. 50-92. History of Loys 
Duke of Orleans, ff. 150-60. Extracts from a London Chronicle 
of the type of Cotton MS, Julius B. i ; events of 1423-6 (see Chnm^ 
Lond^ 279-86), articles of surrender of French towns 1417-25. 
^* 151*75* Copies of documents relating to English history during 
Wars of Roses (see Chronicles of the White Rose^ pp. Iviii, Ixxiv, 

Hariey 544. Transcripts and historical notes made by Stow. 
Note: ff. 1-12. From Giraldus Cambrensis; on f. 3. 'Out of 

Stow's Collections and MSS. xci 

an old booke of Master lohn Price's after the description of Wales. 
Writen in Engl>'sshe by lohn Stow, marchaunt-taylour in anno domini 
1579, and in y« monithe of decembre.' ff. 15-22. On introduction 
of Christianity to Britain : lists and biographies of archbishops and 
bishops of London to 1594. if. 23-5. Names of bishops of London, 
and Deans of St. Paul's, f. 26. Dimensions of St. Paul's, ff. 30-2. 
Buryalls in Poles Cherche. ff. 33-64. Registrum Fratrum Minorum 
London. (Extracts, with list of persons buried at Grey friars, see 
ii- 345-) ff. 65-8. Interments at Westminster Abbey, Holy Trinity, 
Charterhouse, Whitefriars, Blackfriars, Austin Friars (see ii. 300, 350, 
364, 376). f. 69. Notes on Cliffords, ff. 72-9. Notes on hospitals and 
colleges in various towns, ff. 80-95. Charters to St. Katherine*s 
Hospital, ff. 96-9. Draft of the chapter of the Survey on Southwark (see 
notes, vol. ii. 365-7 below), f. 100. Notes made by Stow from a 
Cartulary of St. Mary Overy (see ii. 324-6, 352). ff. 101-2. Visitation 
of Clarencieux in 1 533, giving lists of persons buried at St. Mary 
Abbey at the Tower Hill (see vol. ii. 287), Sr. Katherine by the 
Tower, Barking Chapel, Crossed Friars, St. Buttolph's, and St. 
Olave's. f. 104. Rough notes for the Survey on Westminster, 
f. 105. A fragment of a translation of FitzStephen. f. 107. A 
fragment of the Survey. 

Harley 545. Chiefly extracts from Chronicles made by Stow in 
1575- Note: ff. 1-42. Translation of Robert of Avesbury. flf. 
133-8. An English Chronicle 1431-55, with copies of documents 
especially in reference to Cade's rebellion, ff. 139-67. Translation 
of Murimouth's Chronicle 1303-37, with a continuation to 1381. 

Harley 551. Historical collections by Stow. Chiefly translations 
from Giraldus Cambrensis written by Stow 1576-9. The Conquest 
of Ireland is said to be translated by Camden. 

Harley 563. Translations in Stow's writing of the Chronicles of 
Florence of Worcester, Asser, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Trivet. The 
first is said to be by Raphael Holinshed. 

Cottony Geopatra C. iii. ff. 291-7. Cronicle of Donmow in 
Estsex. Nicholas de Bromfeld, Canon of Donmowe. ff. 298^0. 
Latin notes on events in London 1318-20. ff. 297, 300. Boundaries 
of St. Stephen Coleman parish, ff. 301-19. Extracts from a Llan- 
thony Chronicle and other monastic annals. 

Additional MS. 29729. Copies of poems, chiefly by Lydgate, 
made by Stow from the collections of John Shirley and other 
sources. On f. 285^0 is a note : ' This boke perteynythe to John 
Stowe, and was by bym wryten in y« yere of our lord M.d. Iviij.' 

xcii Appendix to Introduction 

2. In the Bodleian Library, 

Tanner 343. On f. 152 some notes by Stow on foundations of 

Tanner 464. Stow's transcripts from Leland's Collectanea, Itinerary, 
Epigrams, &c. In five volumes. Bound up with vol. i are the draft of 
a chapter of the Survey {f^tit Note on ii. 269-70 below) and some notes 
for the Annates. 'Writen by John Stow in anno 1576.' 

AshmoU 848. Extracts made by Robert Glover from Stow's 

B. Note of some MSS. which belonged to or were used by Stow 

I. In the British Museum, 
Harleian MSS. : — 

194. 'An Annale of Queene Marie.' Edited by J. G. Nichols for 

the Camden Soc., 1 850, as a Chronicle of Queen Jane and 

Queen Mary. 
604. Transcript of part of * Liber Papie '. See vol. ii. 297. 
661. Hardyng's Chronicle. See p. xii above. 
2251. A voliune of John Shirley's. See vol. iL 361. 
3634. Chronicon Angliae. 1328-88. Printed in Rolls Series. 
6217. ff. 3-12. Fragment of Chronicon Angliae i a note of Stow's 

on f. 4. 
Harley Roll, C. 8. A London Chronicle with notes by Stow. See 

p. xxxiv above and vol ii. 382. 

Cotton MSS, :— 

Nero D. V. The Chronica Majora of M. Paris. See Luard's 
Preface, i, p. xii, and Madden's Preface to Historia Anglorum^ 
i. Ixi-iv. It is the copy which Stow lent to Parker, and is 
probably the Flores Historiarum^ which Grindal's chaplains 
found. See pp. xvii, xix above. 

Nero D. viii. A coUecdon of various Historical works including 
Geoffrey of Moimiouth, excerpts from Gildas, Giraldus 
Descriptio Camhriae^ Polycronicon. 

Nero E. vi. The Cartulary of the Hospital of St John at Clerken- 
well. See vol. iL 271, 355, 371. 

Vitellius A. xvi. A London Chronicle, with notes by Stow 
{Chromcles 0/ London, pp. 153-263). 

Vitellius F. xvi. Liber Papie. See vol. ii. 297. 

stows Collections and MSS. xciii 

Vespasian B. ix. Liber S. Bartholomei. Some notes by Stow. 

See vol. ii. 271, 360. 
Faustina B. ii. Cartulary of the Nuns Priory at Clerkenvvell. 

Notes by Stow on ff. 6, 9, 27. See vol. ii. 272, 301. 

Additional MSS. :— 

23147. William of Malmesbury, Gesia Regum, A note by Slow 

on f. 42. 
34360. A collection of i)oem8 chiefly by Lydgate. 
Slcfwe MS. 952. An imperfect copy of Lydgate's ' Pilgrimage of the 

Life of Man'. Stow has added the conclusion from another 


2. In the Bodleian Library, 

Ashmole 59. A volume of John Shirley's. See vol. ii. 361. 
Laud. Misc. 557. Lydgate, 'Siege of Thebes.' On fly-leaf: *This 
is lohn Stowe's boke.' 

3. Other Manuscripts, 

Lambeth 306. A London Chronicle {Short English Chronicle) 
together with notes on 15th century history and Memoranda^ 
1561-7. Edited by Dr. Gairdner for Camden Soc. in Three 
Fifletnth Century Chronicles, 1880. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Stow's * Liber Osney ' ; see below i. 292, and 
"• 337- Given to Christ Church by Sir Robert Cotton in ex- 

Trimly College^ Cambridge. R. 3. 19. Poems by Chaucer, Lydgate, 
and others. See vol. ii. 377. 

The Cartulary of Trinity Priory, In the Hunterian Museum at 
Glasgow. There is a modem transcript in Guildhall MS, 122. 
For its history see Dr. Sharpe's Introduction to Letter-Book 
C, p. xviii. 

Davies MS. Afterwards belpnged to Speed. From it was edited 
An English Chronicle, 1377-1461, by Rev. J. S. Davies for 
Camden Soc., 1859. 


i. 43, L 6, read: Westminster 

i. 104, 1. 20, r^a^ flight 

i. 108, 1. 9. The date should be 1391 as in the edition 0/ 1603. 
Compare ii. 169. 

i- i33> margin^ read: Sporiar lane, or Water lane. Bakers hall. 
Hart lane for Harpe lane. 

i. 141, 1. \%^for Cheuie read Chenie 

i. 163-4. The punctuation of the first sentence in the account of 
BishopsgaU Ward is confusing. Read: The next is Bishopsgate 
warde, whereof a parte is without the gate and of the suburbes, from 
the barres by S. Mary Spittle to Bishopsgate : and a part of Hounds 
ditch, almost halfe thereof, also without the wall, is of the same Warde. 

i. 179, 1. lifor Manny read Manny (italic) 

i* 235i !!• 14 ^nd 20. // should have been noted that the text of \6o^ 
gives the dates as 1447 and 1451. See Note on ii. 321 below. 

'• 245, 1. '^ from foot y read 2^ great builder thereof. 

i. 249, 1. I, read Hcunsteed, William Stoksbie and Gilbert March had 

i. 291, 1. 7, read Then lower. 

i. 296, 11. 18, 19, read Raph, Thomas, Raph, and Richard. .S*^^ 
note on ii. 338 below. 

i. 317, 1. 21, r^o^ studies 

i. 318, 1. 4. The date 1429 is a misprint (in the text of 1603) /br 
1 4 2 1 . Compare i. 1 09. 

>• 3*9i J* *l from foot t read Powles, the children 

i. ^20, footnote^ read * Coucy] 

i. 337,y^<?/«^/f •, delete^ Linacre\ 

i. 341, 11. 8-12. Stow's text is confused, and should be corrected 
by omitting and Dame Elizabeth his wife, daughter to the Duke of 
Lancaster. Elizabeth of Lancaster married (i) fohn Holland, Earl 
of Huntingdon and Duke of Exeter ; (2) Sirfohn Cornwall. See ii. 
350 belcfw* She died in 1426, and is buried at Burford in Shropshire 
{WyMe, Henty IV. I los). 

ii. 57, marg. n. 3, read Roses, 

ii. 67, margin. lohn Bauow is probably a misprint for John Bever : 
see Flores Historiarum, ii. 45, and Luard s Preface, vol. i, pp. xl andrXxx. 

ii. 76, 11. 30, 31. Punctuate *Deepe ditch by Bethelem, into' 

ii. ^T, footnote, read * Curars 

ii. 115, marg. n. 3, 1. 4, r^iz</ presented 

ii. 149, marg. n. i, 1. 12, r^a^Domesmen or Judges 

ii. 416, col. I , under State, delete the Pope was a ' state ' ... not a ' Pope.' 

■7. S 
5 5 

■ ij Sh-'{ v^ *~> . 
I ■^\ 

1 I 




Coriteyning the On'ginall, Antiquity, 

Inaeafc. Modcrne rftatr,and dcfcription of that 

Cicy^vrittenintheyeare i $ 98. by Joho Stoi# 

Citizen ofLondoD. 

Since by the fame Author increafcd, 

with diuers rare notes of Antiquity, and 
fnhiijhedm the jetrtt 


AlJbanApolomQor defence^ againjl the 

opinion of(otnemen,conccrniivg that Otic, 
thegreatncAe thereof; 

VVith an Appendix, concaynirijgin Latine 

LAtUtmiifuM & mibthtmt LtnJm: N^^'tten by 
William Fitzficphen,in the rajgneof 

Heat)' the lecond. 

Imprinted by lohn WindetJ'f inter lo ibe hono- 
nblc Grie of London. 


Honorable, Robert Lee, Lord Mayor 

of the City of London, to the Comminalty, 

and Citizms of the same : lohn Stow CiHsen, 

wishetk ht^ health and felicitie. 

■tlnce the first publishing of the perambula- 
; tion of Kent, by that learned Gentleman 
William LattAert Esquier, I haue heard 
' of sundiy other able persons to haue 
' (accordii^ to the desire of that author) 
I assayed to do somewhat for the particular 
, Shires and Counties where they were 
borne, or dwelt, of which none that I know (sauing John 
Norden. for the Counties of Middlesex, and Hertford) haue 
vouchsafed thdr labor to the | common good in that Ixhalfe; Ftt i» 
And therefore concurring with the first, in the same desire to 
haue drawn tt^ether such speciall descriptions of each place, 
as might not onely make vp an whole body of the English 
Chorc^raphie amongst our selues : but also might giue occa- 
sion, and courage to M. Camden to increase and beautify his 
singular work of the whole, to the view of the learned that 
be abroad. I haue attempted the discouery of London, my 
natiue soyle and Countrey, at the desire and perswasion of 
some my good friends, as well because I haue scene sundry 
antiquities my aelfe toudiing that place, as also for that through 
search of Records to other purposes, diuers written helpes are 
come to my hands, which few others haue fortuned to meet 
withall, it is a seniice that most agreeth with my professed 
taw. I g travels. 

xcviii The Epistle Dedicatory 

/^^ff 9 tra|uels. It is a dutie, that I willingly owe to my natiue 
mother and Countrey. And an office that of r^ht I holde my 
aelfe bound in loue to bestow vpon the politike body & members 
of the same : what London hath beene of auncient time, men 
may here see, as what it is now euery man doth beholde: 
t knowe that the argument, beeing of the chiefe and principall 
dtie of the land, required the pen of some excellent Artisen, 
but fearing that none would attempt & finish it, as few haue 
assaied any, I chose rather (amongst other my Labours) to 
handle it after my playne manner, then to leave it vnper- 
formed. Touching the Dedication I am not doubtful! where 
to seeke my Patrone, since you be a politique estate of the 
Citty, as the walles and buildinges be the material! partes of 
Pt^e vi the same. To you therefore, | doe I addresse this my whole 
labour, as wel that by your authority I may bee protected, 
as warranted by your owne skill and vnderstanding of that 
which I haue written. I confesse that I lacked my desire to 
the accomplishment of some special parts, which some other 
of better abilitie promised to performe, but as I then pro- 
fessed, haue since out of mine olde Store-house added 
to this worke many rare notes of antiquitie, as 
may appeare to the reader, which I do aflford 
in all dutie, and recommend to your 
view, my labours to your considera- 
tion, and my selfe to your 
seruice, during life, in 
this or any 

A Table of the Chapters conteyned 

in this Booke 

Pdtge vii 


The antiquitie of London. 
" The wall about the Citie of London. 

Of the ancient and present riuers, Brookes, Boomes, Pooles, 
Wels, and Conduits of fresh water seruing the Citie. 

The ditch sometime compassing the wall of the same. 

Bridges of this Citie. 

Gates in the wall of this Cittie. 

Of Towers and Castels. 

Of Schooles and other houses of learning. 

Houses of students of the Common law. 

Of orders and customes of the Citizens. 
'Sports and pastimes of old time vsed in this Citie. 
-^Watches in London. 

Honour of Citizens and worihines of men in the same. 
^ The Citie of London diuided into parts. 

Portsoken ward. 

Towerstreet ward. 

Ealdgate warde. 

Limestreete warde. 

'Btshopsgate warde. 

Broadstreete warde. 

Comehill warde. 

Langbome ward and Fenny about. 

Billinsgate warde. 

Bridgewarde within. 

Candlewike streete warde. 

Walbrooke warde. 

Downegate warde. 

Vintrie warde. 

Cordwainer streete warde. 

Cheape warde. 
















a 50 

c A Table of the Chapters 


Colemanstreete warde. 376 

Bassings hall warde. 285 

Cripplegate warde. 290 

Page viii Aldersgatc warde. 303 

Faringdon ward infra, or within. 310 

Bredstreete warde. 344 


Queene Hith warde. i 

Castle Baynard warde. ^ 11 

The warde of Faringdon extra, or without. 20 
Bridge warde without, (the 26. in number,) consisting of the 

Borough of Southwarke in the county of Surrey. 52 
"^ The Suburbs without the wals of the Cittie, briefly touched, as 

also without the liberties more at large described. 69 

--^ Liberties of the Dutchie of Lancaster without Temple Barre. 91 
The Citie of Westminster, with the Antiquities, Monuments, 

bounds and liberties thereof. 97 
Spirituall, or ecclesiasti( c )all gouernement. 124 
Parish Churches in the Cittie of London, the borough of South- 
warke, the suburbs and Citie of Westminster. 1 38 
^ Hospitals in this Citie and suburbs. 143 
~ Of Leprose people and Lazar houses. 145 
Temporall gouernement of this Cittie. 147 
Aldermen and Shiriffes of London. 188 
Officers belonging to the Lord Maiors house. 188 
Shiriffes of London their officers. 189 
Maior and Shiriffes Liuerie. 189 
Companies of London placed at the Maiors feast. 191 
Liueries wome by Citizens at triumphs. 194 
An Apologie or defence of the Cittie of London. 1 97 
Singularities in the same expressed. 200 
An Appendix, containing an Auncient Authour, who wrote in 
the raigne of Henrie the second : his Booke entituled, Li- 
belluM de sUu isf nobtUtaU Londini^ neuer before imprinted. 215 

(Variations of the first edition of the Survey in 1598 from the Text 
of 1603.) 

The Suruey of London, containing the Pagei 

originall, antiquitie, encrease, moderne estate, 

and description of that Citie. 

As the Romane writers to glorifie the citie of Rome drew 

the original! thereof from Gods and demie Gods, by the 

Troian progenie : so Giffrey ol Monmouth the Welsh Historian, - 

deduceth the foundation of this famous Citie of London^ for the 

greater glorie thcrof, and emulation of Rome^ from the very 

same originall. For he reporteth that BruiBi lineally descended 

from the demy god Eneas^ the sonne of Venus, daughter of 

lupiter, about the yeare of the world 2855. and 11 08. before 

the natiuitie of Christ, builded this city neare vnto the riuer 

now called Thames^ and named it Troynouant or Trenouant, Trinonantnm 

But herein as Liuie the most famous Hystoriographer of the written copic. 

Romans writeth, Antiquitie is pardonable, and hath an espe- Uuie. 

cial priuiledge, by interlacing diuine matters with humane, 

to make the first foundation of Cities more honourable, more 

sacred, and as it were of greater maiestie. ~" 

King Lud (as the foresaid Giffrey of Monmouth noteth) 
afterward, not onely repaired this Cittie, but also increased 
the same with faire buildings, Towers and walles, and after 
his owne name called it Caire^Lud, as Luds towne, and the Caire Lad, the 
strong gate which he builded in the west part of the Cittie, he bi^Luds^* 
likewise for his owne honour named Ludgate, towne is a 

This Lud had issue two sons, Androgeus, and Theomantius, ^^^ "^^^ ' 
who being not of age to goueme at the death of their father, 
their vncle Cassibelan took upon him the crowne : about the 
eight yeare of whose raigne, Julius Ccesar arriued in this land, 
with a great power of Romans to conquer it, the manner of 
which conquest I will summarily set down out of his owne 
Commentaries, which are of farre better credit, then the re- 
lations of Giffrey Monmouth. 


Antiqtiitie of London 

Cffsar's Com 
li. 5. 

Citizens of 

The chiefe gouemment of the Britons^ and ordering of the | 
warres, was then by common aduice committed to CassibiliHy 
whose Signiorie was separated from the Cities towards the 
sea coast, by the riuer called Thames^ about fourescore miles 
from the sea : this Cassibilin in times past, had made con- 
tinuall warre vpon the Cities adio)niing, but the Britons being 
mooued with the Romans inuasion, had resolued in that ne- 
cessitie to make him their Soueraigne and General! of the warres, 
(which continued bote betweene the Romans and them) but in 
the meane while, the Trynobants which was then the strongest 
Citie well neare of all those countries (and out of which Citie 
a yong gentleman called Mandubrace^ vpon confidence of 
CcBsars help, came vnto him into the maine land of Gallia^ now 
called France, and thereby escaped death, which he should 
haue suffered at Cassibilins hande,) sent their Ambassadors to 
CcBsar^ promising to yeeld vnto him, and to doe what he 
should command them, instantly desiring him, to protect 
Mandubrace from the furious tyrrany of Cassibilin^ and to 

noUnto yeeid ^^^ ^^^ ^"^^ *^^^^ Cittie, with authoritie to take the gouem- 

to Ceesar, and ment thereof vpon him. Ccssar accepted the offer, and ap- 

nc^ en ea p^y^ted them to giue vnto him 40. Hostages, and withall 

to finde him graine for his armie, and so sent he Mandubrace 

vnto them. 

When others saw that Ccesar had not onely defended the 
Trinobants against Cassibiliny but had also saucd them harme- 
lesse from the pillage of his owne souldiers, then did the 
Conimagues^ Segantians» Ancaiits, Bibrokes^ and Cassians, 
likewise submit themselues vnto him, and by them hee learned 
that not farre from thence was Cassibilifts towne, fortified 
with woods, and marish ground, into the which he had 
gathered a great number both of men and cattell. 
Cassibilins For the Brittons cal that a towne (saith Ccesar) when they 

towne west \^2M^ fortified a combersome wood with a ditch and rampire, 

from London, i. , . 

for Cresar saith and thether they resort to abide the approach of their 
^J^**^""" enemies, to this place therefore marched Ci^j/ir with his 
Cities of the Legions, hee found it excellentlie fortified, both of nature, 
combersome ^nd by mans aduice : neuerthelesse he resolued to assault it in 
woods forti- ^wo seuerall places at once, whereupon the Britons^ beeing not 
able to endure the force of the Ramans^ fledde out at another 


AntiqtiUie of London 3 

part, and left the towne vnto him : a great number of cattell 

he found there, and many of the Britons | he slue, and others Page s 

he tooke in the chase. 

Whitest these things were a doing in these quarte{r)s, Cassi- 
bilin sent messengers into Kent, which lieth upon the sea, in 
which there raigned then 4. particular kings, named Cingetarex^ 
Caruill^ Taximagtdl^ and SegonaXy whom he commanded to 
raise all their forces, and suddenly to set vppon, and assault the 
Romanes in their trenches, by the sea side : the which when 
the Romanes perce}rued, they sailed out vpon them, slue a 
great sort of them, and taking Cingetorix their noble Captaine 
prisoner, retired themselues to their campe in good safetie. 

When Cassibilin heard of this, and had formerly taken 
many other losses, and found his Countrey sore wasted, and 
himselfe left almost alone by the defection of the other cities, 
he sent Ambassadors by Connus of Arras to Casar^ to en- 
treate with him concerning his owne submission, the which 
Gesar did accept, and taking Hostages, assessed the realme 
of Brytaine to a yearely tribute, to be paied to the people Brytaine 
kA Rome^ giuing straight charge to Cassibilin^ that he should JSSy*^Cite* 
not seeke any reuenge vpon Mandubrace^ or the Trinobantes, to the 
and so withdrew his army to the sea againe. 

Thus farre out of Casars Commentaries concerning this y 
Historie, which happened in the yeare before Christes natiuitie 
54* In all which processe there is for this purpose to bee noted, 
that Casar nameth the Cittie of Trinobantes, which hath a 
resemblance with Tray noua^ or Trinobantuffty hauing no Trinobant 
greater difference in the Orthographie, then chaunging b. into °®^ London. 
V. and yet maketh an error whereof I will not argue, onely this 
I will note that diuerse learned men do not thinke ciuitas 
Trinobofttum^ to be well and truely translated, the Citie of 
the Trinobantes : but it should rather be the state, comunalty, 
or Signiory of the Trinobantes : for that Casar in his Com- 
mentaries vseth the word ciuitas^ onely for a people lining 
vnder one, and the selfe same Prince and law: but certaineQ^^^f^^ 
it is that the Citties of the Brytaine s^ were in those dayes Briuine* not 
neither artificially builded with houses, nor strongly walled bnUded idth 
with stone, but were onely thicke and combersome woods ^^*?**!» °?f 

t t , 1 « ft • AT « wtUed with 

plashed within, and trenched about : and the like m effect doe stone. 

B % 

4 Antiquitie of London 

other the Romano and Greeke Authours directly affirme, as 

Strabo, Pomponius Mela^ and Dion a Senator of Rotne^ which 

Page 4 fIouri|shed in the seuerall raignes of the Romaine £mperours» 

Strabo, Pom- Tiberius, Claudius, Damitian. & Seuerus. to wit, that before 

ponins Mela, 

Tacitus, Dion, the ariuall of the Romans, the Brytons had no towns^ but 

called that a town which had a thicke intangled wood, de- 

"^ I fended as I saidc with a ditch and banke, the like whereof the 

I Irishmen our next neigbors doe at this day call Fastnes. 

But after that these hither partes of Brytaine were reduced 

i into the forme of a Prouince, by the Romanes, who sowed 

I the seedes of ciuilitie ouer all Europe : this Citie whatsoeuer it 

^ was before, b^an to be renowned, and of fame. For Tacitus, 

London most who first of all Authours nameth it Londinium^ saith that in 

l^^cfaAnu& ^® ^^' yc^*"^ ^ftc*" Christ, it was, albeit no Colonic of the 
intercoone. Romanes, yet most famous for the great multitude of Mar- 
:^ chants, prouision, and intercourse. At which time in that 

notable reuolt of the Brytons from Nero, in which 70000 
Romanes and their confederates were slaine, this Citie with 
Verulam neare Saint Albons, and Maldon in Essex, then all 
famous: were ransacked and spoyled. For Suetonius PauUnus, 
then Lieutenant for the Romanes in this Isle, abandoned it, as 
not then forteiied, and left it to the spoyle. 

Shortly after, lulius Agricola the Romane Lieutenant, in 
the time of Domitian, was the first that by adhorting the 
The Britons Biytaines publikely, and helping them priuately, won them to 
^t "^tocS!* build houses for themselues, Temples for the Gods, and Courts 
for lustice, to bring up the noble mens children in good letters 
The Britons and humanitie, and to apparell themselues Romane like, where 
thdr bSi«' ^ before (for the most part) they went naked, painting their 
painted. bodies, &c. as al the Romane writers haue obserued. 

True it is I confesse, that afterward many Cities and Towns 

in Brytaine vnder the gouernment of the Romanes, were 

Richborow in walled with stone, and baked brickes, or tyles, as Rich borrow^ 

^* Ryptacester, in the Isle of Thanet, till the chanell altered his 

Vemlamiom. course, besides Sandwitch in Kent, Verulamium besides S. 

Cilcester, Albones, in Hartfordshire, Cilcester in Hampshire, Wroxcester 

k^^^kSct* *^ Shropshire, Kencester in Herefordshire, three myles from 

Hereford towne, Ribcester^ 7. miles aboue Preston, on the 

water of Rible, Aldeburge a mile from Borrowbridge, or 

Antiquitie of London 5 

Wathelingstreet^ on Vre Riuer, and others : and no doubt LeyUnd. 
but this Citie of Lon\dati was also walled with stone, in the ^^^s 
time of the Romane goueraement here, but yet verie lately, abourLondoo. 
for it seemeth not to haue beene walled in the yeare of our 
Lord 296. because in that yeare when Alectus the Tyrant was 
slaine in the field, the Franks easily entered Lotidon^ and had 
sacked the same, had not God of his great fauour at the very 
instant brought along the riuer of Thames^ certaine bandes of 
Romaine Souldiers, who slewe those Frankes in euerie streete 
of the Cittie. 

Wall about the Cittie of London. 

In few yeares after, as Sinuan of Durham^ an auncient 
Writer reporteth, HelUn the mother of Constantim the Great, Sikeon of 
was the first that inwalled this Citie, about the yeare of Christ, ^ 
306. but howsoeuer those walles of stone might bee builded ^ 

by Helen^ yet the Britons, (I know) had no skill of building 
with stone, as it may appeare by that which followeth, aboute 
the yeare of Christ, 399, when Arcadius and Hanorius the 
sonnes of Theodosius Magnus, gouerned the Empire, the one 
in the East, the other in the West, for Honorius hauing 
receyued Britaine, the Citie of Rome was inuaded and de- 
stroyed by the Gothes, after which time the Romaines left to 
rule in Britaine, as being imployed in defence of their Terri- The Romains 
tones nearer home, whereupon the Britaines not able to Briffn?^"^" 
defende themselues against the inuasions of their enemies, 
were manie yeares together vnder the oppression of two most 
cruell nations, the Scots and Pictes, and at the length were The Scots & 
forced to sende their Ambassadors with letters and lamentable §J^^[^"*^* 
supplications to Romcy requiring aide and succour from thence, 
upon promise of their continuall fealtie^ so that the Romaines 
woulde rescue them out of the handes of their enemies. 
Hereupon the Romaines sent vnto them a Legion of armed 
Souldiers, which comming into this I|land, and encountering Pag^ 6 
with the enemies, ouerthrew a great number of them, and 
draue the rest out of the frontiers of the Countrie, and so 
setting the Britaines at libertie, counselled them to make a 
wall, extending all along betweene the two seas, which might 
be of force to keepe out their euill neighbours, and then 

6 PFall about the Cittie of London 

Biitaines vn- returned home with great triumph : The Britaines wanting 
bniiding^with Masons, builded that Wall not of stone as they were aduised, 
stone. t^ut made it of turfe, and that so slender, that it serued little 

or nothing at all for their defence, and the enemie perce}ru- 
ing that the Romaine Legion was returned home, forthwith 
arriued out of their boates, inuaded the borders, ouercame 
the country, and as it were bare down all that was before 

Whereupon Ambassadors were eftsoones dispatched to Ronu 

lamentably beseeching that they would not suffer their 

miserable countrey to bee vtterly destroyed: then againe, 

an other Legion was sent, which comming vpon a sodaine, made 

a greate slaughter of the enemie, and chased him home, even 

to his owne Country. These Romaines at their departure, 

tolde the Britaines playnely, that it was not for their ease or 

leasure to take vpon them any more such long and laborious 

iourneys for their defence, and therefore bad them practice 

the vse of armour and weapons, and learne to withstand their 

enemies, whome nothing else did make so strong as their 

faint heart and cowardise, and for so much as they thought 

that it would bee no small helpe and encouragement vnto 

their Tributary friendes, whome they were now forced to 

Witchendns. forsake, they builded for them a Wall of harde stone from 

builded by^°* ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^i^t sea, right betweene those two Citties, 

theRomaini, which were there made to keepe out the enemies, in the selfe 

Britaines and same place where Seiterus before had cast his Trench. The 

Scoto. Britaines also putting to their helping hands as laborers. 

This Wall they builded 8. foote thicke in breadth, and 12. 
foot in height, right as it were by a line from east to West, as 
the mines thereof remayning in many places til this day, do 
make to appeare. Which worke thus perfected, they gaue the 
people straight charge to looke well to themselues, they teach 
them to handle their weapons, and they instruct them in war- 
like feates. And least by the sea side southwardes, where 
Page 7 their ships laye at harbor, the enemie shoulde come on 

land, they made vp sundrie Bulwarkes each somewhat distant 
from the other, and so bid them farewel as minding no more 
to returne. This happened in the dayes of the Emperour 
Tlieodosius the yonger, almost 500. yeares after the first 

IVall about the Cittie of London 7 

arriuall of the Romaines here, aboute the yeare after Christs 
incarnation^ 454. 

The Britaines after this continuing a lingering and doubtful Malmsbery : 
war with the Scots and Pictes, made choice of Var tiger to bee Th^Brittinci 
their king and leader, which man (as sayeth Malnusbery) was ^^^n to glut- 
neither valourous of courage, nor wise of counsell, but wholy neif pride aS" 
giuen ouer to the vnlawfuU lusts of his flesh : the people like- contention. 
wise in short time being growne to some quietnes gaue them- 
selues to gluttony, and drunkennes, pride, contention, enuie 
and such other vices, casting from them the yoke of Christ. 
In the meane season a bitter plague fell among them, con- 
suming in short time such a multitude, that the quicke were 
not sufficient to bury the dead, and yet the remnant remayned The Britaines 
so hardened in sinne, that neyther death of theyr friendes, nor Si^sinfdl 
feare of their own daunger, could cure the mortality of their ^*^*^' 
soules, wherevpon a greater stroke of vengeance insued vpon 
the whole sinfuU nation. For being now againe infested with 
their old neighbors the Scots and Pictes^ they consult with Witchendus. 
their king Vartiger, and send for the Saxons, who shortly l^^^^ij^ 
after arriued here in Britaine, where saith Bede they were sent for to 
receyued as frends : but as it proued they minded to destroy BriSines*but 
the countrie as enemies, for after that they had driuen out the ^y ^.r*"® 
Scots and Pictes^ they also draue the Britains some ouer the monntaines. 
seas, some into the waste mountaines of Wales and Cornewall, 
and deuided the Countrey into diuers kingdomes amongst 

These Saxons were likewise ignorant of building with stone, Saxons vnskil- 
vntni the yeare 680. for then it is affirmed that Benet Abbot Sih st^^^ 
of Wirra/lf maister to the reuerend Bede, first brought Bcnct a Monk 
artificers of stone houses, and glasse Windowes into this Iland Mas^"^ 
amoi^st the Saxons : Arts before that time vnto them vn- 
known, and therefore vsed they but wodden buildings. And 
to this accordeth Policronicou, who sayeth that then had yee Woden 
wodden Churches, nay wodden Chalaces and golden Priestes, goUien** *° 
but since golden Chalaces and wodden Priestes : And to knit pnestes. 
vp this argument, king | Edgar in his Charter to the Abbey of Page 8 
Malmesbury, dated the yeare of Christ 974. hath wordes to 
this effect : All the Monasteries in my Realme, to the out- Monasteries 
ward sight, are nothing but worme eaten and rotten tymber, timber. 

8 IVall about the Cittie of London 

and boordes, and that worse is, within they are almost emptie, 
and void of diuine seruice, 

Thus much be said for walling, not only in respect of this 
Citie, but generally also of the first within the Realme. Now 
to returne to our Trinobant, (as C<Bsar hath it) the same is 
since by Tacitus ^ Ptolofneus^ & Antanius called Londinium^ 
Longidinium^ of AniianuSy Lundinum, and Augusta who 
calleth it an auncient Citie, of our Brytaines Lundayne^ of the 
old Saxons, Lundenceaster, LundefiHrig^ Londennir^ of stran- 
gers Londray and Londres^ of the inhabitants, London^ whereof 
you may read a more large and learned discourse, and how it 
Camden. tooke the name, in that worke of my louing friend M. Camden 

now ClarenceaulXy which is called Britania. 
The Citie of This Citie of London hauing beene destroyed and burnt by 
stroy^bythe ^^ Danes and other Pagan enemies, about the yeare of Christ, 
Danes, and 839. was by Alfred king of the west Saxons, in the yeare 886. 
, T^ CuTc^of repaired, honourably restored, and made againe habitable. 
London lay Who also Committed the custodie thereof vnto his son in law, 

wast, and not 

inhabited for Etlulred Earle of Mercea^ vnto whome before he hath giuen 

SSi'oSTTa^ his daughter ^/A^^^rf. 

yercs. And that this Citie was then strongly walled, may appeare 

W: Malmes- by diuerse accidents, whereof William of Malmesberie hath 

AMMsr. ^^^ about the yeare of Christ 994. the Londoners shut vp 

Marianus. their gates, and defended their king Ethelrcd, within their 

Florentins. n • ^ ^i_ -^^ 

wanes agamst the Danes. 

In the yeare 1016. Edntond Ironside raigning ouer the west 
Saxons, Canute the Dane bringing his nauie into the west 
part of the bridge, cast a trench about the Citie of London ^ and 
then attempted to haue won it by assault^ but the Citizens 
repulsed him, and draue them from their walles. 

Also in the yeare 1052. Earle Goodwin with his nauie 

sayled vp by the South ende of the Bridge, and so assailed 

the walles of this Citie. 

W. Fitz- William Fitzstephen in the raigne of Henrie the second, | 

^p^eo writing of the wals of this Citie, hath these wordes. The 

: The Citie of wall is high and greats wel towred on the Northside^ with due 

round-about*^ distances betweene the towres. On the Southside also the Citie 

^y^^ R»a« was walled and towred^ but t/ie fishfull riuer of Thames with 

his ebbing and flowing ^ hath lofig siftce subtler ted them. 

fVall about the Cittie of London 9 

By the Northside, he meaneth from the riuer of Thames in 
the cast to the riuer of Thames in the west, for so stretched 
the wall in his time, and the Citie being farre more in length 
from East, to West, then in breadth from South, to North, 
and also narrower at both endes then in the middest, is there- 
fore compassed with the wall on the land side, in forme of 
a bow, except denting in betwixt Creplegate^ and Aldersgate : 
but the wall on the southside, along by the riuer of Thames, 
was straight as the string of a bow, and all furnished with 
Towres or Bulworkes, (as we now terme them) in due distance 
euery one from other, as witnesseth our Authour, and our 
selues may behold for the land side. This may suffice for 
proofe of a wall, and forme thereof about this Citie, and the 
same to haue beene of great antiquitie as any other within 
this Realme. 

And now touching the maintenance, and repairing the saide Walles of 
wall, I reade that in the year 1215. the 6. of king loAuj thei^^^^^V^ 
Barons entring the City by Ealdgate^ first tooke assurance of of Wendoucr: 
the Citizens, then brake into the Jewes houses, searched their Rannlph Cog- 
coffers to fill their owne purses, and after with great diligence ****^ 
repaired the walles and gates of the Citie, with stones taken ^ . 
from the Jewes broken houses. In the yeare 1257. //>«rf^ Matt. Paris, 
the third caused the walles of this Citie, which was sore 
decaied and destitute of towers, to be repaired in more 
seemely wise then before, at the common charges of the Citie. 
Also in the yeare 1:282. king Edward the first, hauing graunted 
to Robert Kilwarby Archbishop of Canterburie, licence for 
the enlarging of the blacke Friers Church, to breake and take 
downe a part of the wall of the Citie, from Ludgate to the 
riuer of Thames : he also graunted to Henry IValeis Maior, 
and the Citizens of London^ the fauour to take toward the 
making of the wall, and inclosure of the Citie, certainc 
customes, or toll, as appeareth by his graunt : this wall was ^ 
then to bee made from Ludgate west to Fleetebridge along 
behinde | the houses and along by the water of the Fleet, vnto Page 10 
the riuer of Thames. Moreouer, in the yeare 1310. Edward 2. 
commaunded the Citizens to make vp the wall alreadie 
b^^ime, and the tower at the ende of the same wall, within 
the water of Thames neare vnto the blacke Friars, &c. 1328. 

lo IVall about the Cittie of London 

the second of Edward the 3. the walles of this citie was 
repaired. It was also graunted by king Richard the second 
in the 10. of his raigne, that a toll should bee taken of the 
waresi solde by lande or by water for ten yeares, towardes the 
repairing of the walles, and clensing of the ditch about Lofidan. 
In the 1 7. of Edward the 4. Ralfe loseline, Maior, caused part 
Patenu of the Wall about the citie of London to bee repayred, to wit, 

betwixt Aldgate, and Alder sgate. He also caused the Moore- 
field to bee searched for clay, and Bricke thereof to be made, 
and burnt : he likewise caused chalke to be brought out of 
Kent, and to be burnt into lime in the same Moorefield, for 
more furtherance of the worke. Then y® Skinners to b^n 
in the East made that part of the wall betwixt Aldgate and 
Buries markes, towardes Bishopsgaie^ as may appeare by their 
armes in three places fixed there : the Maior with his companie 
of the Drapers, made all that part, betwixt Bishopsgate and 
Alhallawes church in the same wall, and from AlhaUawes 
towardes the Posterne called Mooregate, A great part of the 
same wall was repayred by the Executors of sir loAn Crosby ^ 
late Alderman, as may appeare by his armes, in two places 
there fixed: and other companies repayred the rest of the 
wall to the Posterne of Creplegate. The Goldsmiths repayred 
from Creplegate towards Alder sgate ^ and there the worke 
Circuit of the ceased. The circuit of the wall of London on the landes side, 
east to the ^o wit from the tower of London in the East, vnto Aldgate^ 
^cst. £s 82. perches : from Aldgate to Bishopsgate^ 86. perches : from 

Bishopsgate in the North, to the Posterne at Creplegate^ i6a. 
perches : from Creplegate to Ealdersgate^ 75. perches : from 
Ealdersgate to Newgate^ 66. perches : from Newgate in the 
west, to Ludgatc, 42. perches, in all 513. perches of assise. 
From Ludgate to the Fleete dike west, about 60. perches: 
from Fleete bridge south to the riuer Thames^ about 70. perches : 
and so the totall of these perches amounteth to 643. euery 
Pagt 11 perch consisting of 5. yeards and a halfe, which do yeeld 1 353^* 

yardes and a halfe, containing 10608. foote, which make vp . 
two English miles and more by 608. foote. 

Riuers and other waters ii 

Of Auncient and present Riuers, 

Brookes, Boorns, Pooles, Wels, and Conduits 
of fresh water, seruing the Citie, as also of 
the ditch compassing the wall of the 
same for defence thereof. 

AUNCIENTLY, vntiU the Conquerors time, and 200. yeres 
after, the Citie of London was watered besides the famous 
Riuer of Thames^ on the South part, with the riuer of the 
wels^ as it was then called: on the west, with a water called 
walbrooke running through the midst of the citie into the river 
ThameSy seruing the heart thereof. And with a fourth water 
or Boome, which ran within the Citie through Langboorne 
ward, watering that part in the East In the west suburbs 
was also an other great water, called Oldborne, which had his 
fiaLll into the riuer of Wels : tlien was there 3. principall Foun- 
taines, or wels in the other Suburbs, to wit Holy well, de- 
ments well, and Clarkes well. Neare vnto this last named 
fountaine, were diuers other wels, to wit. Skinners well, Fags 
well, Tode well, Loders well, and RadwelL All which sayde 
Wels hauing the fall of their ouerflowing in the foresayde 
Riuer, much encreased the streame, and in that place gaue it 
the name of WeL In west Smithfield^ there was a Poole in 
Recordes called HorsepooUy and one other Poole neare vnto 
the parish Church of Saint 6^/7rj \vithout Cripplegate. Besides ' 
all which they had in euerie streete and Lane of the citie ^ 
diuerse fayre Welles, and fresh Springs : and after this manner 
was this citie then serued, with sweete and fresh waters, which 
being since decaid, other meanes haue beene sought to supplie 
the want, as shall be shewed : but first of the aforenamed 
Riuers and other waters, is to be said, as following. 

Thames the most famous riuer of this Hand, beginneth a 
little I aboue a village called Winchcombe in Oxfordshire, and Page 12 
still increasing passeth first by the university of Oxford, and £{^®^ 
so with a maruelous quiet course to London, and thence break- 
eth into the French Ocean by maine tides, which twice in 114. 
howers space doth eb and flow, more then 60. miles in length, 
to the great commoditie of Trauellers, by which all kind of i - 

12 Riuers and other waters seruingthis Citie 

I Marchandise bee easily conueyed to London^ the principall 
store house, and Staple of all commodities within this Realme, 
so that omitting to speake of great ships, and other vessels of 
burden, there pertayneth to the Citties of London^ WesU 
minster^ and Burrough of Southwarke^ aboue the number as 
Whirries on is supposed of 2000. Wherryes and other small boates, whereby 
* ™"' 3000. poore men at the least bee set on worke and main- 
Riucr of wels. That the riuer of Wels^ in the west parte of the Citty, was 
of olde so called of the Wels, it may be proued thus, Williatn 
the Conqueror in his Charter, to the CoUedge of S. Marten 
le Grand in London^ hath these wordes : I doe giue and graunt 
to the same Church all the land and the Moore, without the 
Posteme^ which is called Cripplegate^ on eyther part of the 
Postern^ that is to say, from the North corner of the Wall, 
as the river of the Wels^ there neare running, departeth the 
same More from the Wall, vnto the running water which 
entereth the Cittie: this water hath beene long since called 
the riuer of the Wels, which name of riuer continued, and it 
was so called in the raigne ol Edward the first: as shall bee 
Decay of the shewed, with also the decay of the saide riuer. In a fayre 
Wels. Booke of Parliament recordes, now lately restored to the 

^<^^^netu Tower, it appeareth that a Parliament being holden at Carlile 
in the yeare 1307, the 35. of Edward the i. Henry Lacy 
Earle of Lincolne complayned that whereas in times past ifie 
course of water^ running at London vnder Oldebome bridge^ 
Riuer of Wels and Fleete bridge into the Thames^ had beene of such bredth 
are s ps. ^^ depths that 10. or 1%. ships, Nauies at once with marchan* 
dises^ were wont to come to the foresaid bridge of Fleete^ and 
some of them to Oldborne bridge : now the same course by 
filth of the Tanners & such others^ was sore decaied^ also by 
raising of wharf es^ but specially by a diuersion of the water 
made by them of the new Temple, for their milks statuiing \ 
^(^ 'S without Baynardes Castle, in the first yeare of King lohn, and 

Mils by Bay- ^i^^^s Other impediments^ so as the said ships could not enter 
nards castell. as they were wont^ & as they oughts wherefore he desired that 
first of King the Maior of London with the shiriffs^ and other discrete Alder- 
lohn. ,^^^ might be appointed to view the course of the saide water ^ 

and that by the ot/ies of good men, all the aforesaide hinderances 

Riuers and other waters seruing this Citie 13 

might bee remoued^ and it to bee made as it was wont of old: 
whervpon Roger le Brabason, the Constable of the Tower ^ with 
the Maior and Shiriffes were assigned to take with them honest 
and discrete men^ and to make diligent search & enquiries /tow Riuer so 
the said riuer was in old time^ and that they leaue nothing that ygl^i w 
may hurt or stop it^ but keepe it in the same estate that it was 
wont to be: so far the record. Whervpon it folowed that the 
said riuer was at that time cleansed, these mils remoued, and 
other things done for the preseruation of the course thereof, 
notwithstanding neuer brought to the olde depth and breadth, 
wherevpon the name of riuer ceased, and it was since called a 
Brooke, namely, Turnmill^ or Tremill Brooke, for that diuers Tumemili 
Mils were erected vpon it, as appeareth by a fayre Roister ^^ ^* 
booke, conteyning the foundation of the Priorie at darken-- 
well^ and donation of the landes thereunto belonging, as also 
by diuers other records. 

This brooke hath beene diuers times since clensed, namely, 
and last of all to any effect, in the yeare 1502. the 17. of 
Henrie the 7. the whole course of Fleete dike, then so called, 
was scowred (I say) downe to the Thames^ so that boats with 
fish and fewel were rowed to Fleete bridge^ and to Oldburne 
bridge ^ as they of olde time had beene accustomed, which 
was a great commoditie to all the inhabitants in that part of 
the dtie. 

In the yeare 1589. was graunted a fifteene, by a common Fleete dike 
Councell of the citie, for the cleansing of this Brooke or dike : bTdensed^ 
the money amounting to a thousand marks was collected, and ^j,™®^ 
it was vndertaken, that by drawing diuerse springes about the Citizens 
Hampsted heathy into one head and course, both the citie ^^^^'*^- 
should bee serued of fresh water in all places of want, and 
also that by such a follower as men call it, the chanell of this 
brooke should bee scowred into the riuer of Thames^ but much 
mony being therein spent, y* effect | fayled, so that the Brooke P<^ H 
by meanes of continuall incrochments vpon the banks getting - 
ouer the water, and casting of soylage into the streame, is now 
become woorsc cloyed and {choken) then euer it was before. . — ^ 

The running water so called by William Conquerour in 
his saide Charter, which entereth the citie, &c. (before there 
was any ditch) betweene Bishopsgate and the late made 

14 Riuers and other waters seruing this Citie 

liber customs. 

vaulted and 
paued oner. 


Page iS 





Posterne called Mooregate, entred the wall, and was truely of 
the wall called Walbrooke^ not of Gualoy as some haue farre 
fetched : it ranne through the citie with diuers windings from 
the North towards the South into the riuer of ThameSy and had 
ouer the same diuerse bridges along the Streetes and Lanes, 
through which it passed. I haue read in a Booke intituled 
the customes of London^ that the Prior of the holic Trinitie 
within Aldgate ought to make ouer Walbrooke in the ward of 
BrodstreeUy agaynst the stone wall of the citie, vz. the same 
Bridge that is next the Church of All Saints, at the wall. 
Also that the Prior of the new Hospital!, S. Marie Spittle 
without Bishopsgate, ought to nlake the middle part of one 
other Bridge next to the said Bridge towardes the North: 
And that in the 28. yeare of Edwarde the first, it was by 
inquisition found before the Maior of London^ that the parish 
of S. Stephen vppon Walbrooke^ ought of right to scowrc the 
course of the saide Brooke, and therefore the shirifTes were 
commaunded to distraine the sayde Parishioners so to doe : in 
the yeare 1300. the keepers of those Bridges at that time were 
William Jordan and lohn de Better. This water course hauing 
diuerse Bridges, was afterwards vaulted ouer with bricke, and 
paued leuell with the Streetes and Lanes where through it 
passed, and since that also houses have beene builded thereon, 
so that the course of Walbroke is now hidden vnder ground, 
and therby hardly knowne. 

Langbarne-wdXer, so called of the length thereof, was a great 
streame breaking out of the ground, in Fen Church street, 
which ran downe with a swift course, west, through that 
streete, thwart Grastreete^ and downe Lumbard streete^ to the 
west ende of S. Marie Wolnothes Church, and then turning 
the course South down Shareborne lane, so termed of sharing 
or diuiding, it brake ] into diuerse rilles or rillets to the Riuer 
of Thames : of this bourne that warde took the name, and is 
till this day called Langbome warde. This Bourne also is 
long since stopped vp at the head, and the rest of the course 
filled vp and paued ouer, so that no signe thereof remayneth 
more then the names aforesaid. 

Oldbome^ or Hilborne, was the like water, breaking out 
about the place where now the bars do stand, and it ran 

Riuers and other waters seruing this Citie 15 

downe the whole streete till Oldbarne bridge^ and into the 
Riuer of the Wels^ or Tumemill brooke : this Bourne was 
likewise long since stopped vp at the heade, and in other 
places where the same hath broken out, but yet till this day, 
the said street is there called high Oldborne hill, and both the 
sides thereof togither with all the grounds adioyning, that lie 
betwixt it and the riuer of Thames^ remaine full of springs, so 
that water is there found at hand, and hard to be stopped in 
euerie house. 

There are {saith Fitzstephen), neare Londotiy on the North Fittstephen. 
side^ special wels in the Suburbs^ siveete^ wholsoine and clear e^ "^ 
amongst which Holywell, Clarkes wel, 6- Clements well, are 
most famous and frequented by Scholers and youthes of the 
Citie in sommer euenings^ when they wcdke forth to take the 

The first, to wit, Holy well^ is much decayed and marred 
with filthinesse purposely laide there^ for the heighthening of 
the ground for garden plots. 

The fountaine called S. Clements welL North from the Clements 
Parish Church of S. Clements^ and neare vnto an Inne of ' 
Chancerie^ called Clements Inne, is faire curbed square with 
hard stone, kept cleane for common vse, and is alwayes full. 

The third is called Clarkes welly or Clarken well^ and is Clarlu well. 
curbed about square with hard stone, not farre from the west 
ende of Clarken well Church, but close without the wall that 
inclosethit : the sayd Church tooke the name of the Well, and 
the Well tooke name of the Parish Clarkes in London, who 
of old time were accustomed there yearely to assemble, and 
to play some large hystorie of holy Scripture. And for 
example of later time, to wit, in the yeare, 1390. the 14. of 
Richard the second, I read the Parish Clarks of London, on pu^es by the 
the 18. of July, playd Enterludes at Skinners well, neare vnto Jfl^k^^. 
Clarkes well, which play continued three | dayes togither, the Page 16 
King, Queene, and Nobles being present. Also the year 
1409. the lo. of Henrie the 4. they played a play at the puyes at the 
Skinners well, which lasted eight dayes, and was of matter Skinner. welL 
from the creation of the worlde. There were to see the same, 
the most part of the Nobles and Gentiles in England, &c. 

Other smaller welles were many neare vnto Clarkes tuell, Skinnen welL 

1 6 Riuers and other waters seruing this Citie 

namely Skinners well^ so called for that the Skinners of 
London held there certaine playes yearely playd of holy 

Wrestling Scripture, &c In place whereof the wrestlings haue of later 

P *^' yeares beene kept, and is in part continued at Bartholomew 


Fagges well. Then was there Fagges weU^ neare vnto Smiihfield by the 
Charterhouse^ now lately dammed up, Todwell^ Loders wel^ 
and Radwell^ all decayed, and so Ailed vp, that there places 
are hardly now discerned. 

Somewhat North from Holywell^ is one other well curbed 
square with stone^ and is called Dame Annis the clear e^ and 
not farre from it but somewhat west, is also one other cleare 
water called Perillaus pond^ because diuerse youthes swim- 
ming therein haue beene drowned, and thus much bee said for 
Fountaines and Wels. 

Horsepoole in Westsmithfield^ was sometime a great water, 
and because the inhabitants in that part of the Citie did there 
water their Horses, the same was in olde Records called 
Horspoole : it is now much decayed, the springs being stopped 
vp, and the land water falling into the small bottome, 
remayning inclosed with Bricke, is called Smithfield pond. 

By S. Giles Churchyard was a large water called a Poole^ 
I read in the yeare 1244, that Anne of Lodburie was drowned 
therein, this poole is now for the most part stopped vp, but 

Poole without the spring is preserued, and was cooped about with stone by 
"P ^^ the Executors of Richard Wittington. 

The said riuer of the Wels^ the running water of Walbrooke^ 
the Bournes aforenamed, and other the fresh waters that were 
in and about this Citie, being in processe of time by in- 
crochment for buildings and heighthnings of grounds vtterly 
decayed, and the number of Citizens mightily increased, they 
were forced to seeke sweete waters abroad, wherof some at 

Pageij the request of king Henry \ the third, in the %i. yeare of his 

Patent. 1236. raigne, were for the profite of the Citty, and good of the 
whole realme, thether repayring, to wit, for the poore to 
drinke, and the rich to dresse their meate, granted to the 
Cittizens, and their successors by one Gilbert Sanforde^ with 

w*^^on- liberty to conuay water from the Towne of Teybome^ by 

Teybozn. pipes of leade into their Citty. 

Riuers and other wcUers 17 

The first Cesterne of leade castellated with stone in the Andxevr Hon. 
Citty of London^ was called the great Conduit in west Cheape^ in'rot ^° ™ 
which was begunne to bee builded in the yeare i ^85. Henry Cheape. 
Wales being then Mayor, the water course from Padingtott to neyed from 
lames hed hath 510. rods, from lames hed on the hil to the J^^ ^ 
Mewsgate^ loa rods, from the Mewsegaie to the Crosse in Cheape 
484. rods. 

The Tonne vpon CornhiU was Cisterned in the yeare 1401. Tonne vpon 
lohn Shadwarth then being Mayor. 

Bosses of water at Beliftsgate^ by Powles wharf e^ and by Bosse of 
S. GUes Church without Cripplegate made about the yeare oth^^^^l^ 

Water conueyed to the Gaoles of Newgate and Liidgate^ 

Water was first procured to the Standard in West Gieape 
about the yeare 1285. which Standard was againe new builded, 
by the Executors of lohn Welles^ as shall bee shewed in an 
other place. King Hefiry the sixt in the yeare 1442. graunted 
to lohn Haiherley Mayor, licence to take vp aoo. fodar of 
Leade, for the building of Conduits of a common Gamery 
and of a new Crosse in West Cheape for the honor of the 

The Conduit in West Cheape by Powles gate, was builded 
about the yeare 144a. one thousand markes was graunted by 
Common Counsell for the building thereof, and repayring of 
the other Conduits. 

The Conduit in Aldermanbury and the Standard in Fleet- 
streete^ were made and finished by the Executors of Sir 
William Eastfield in the yeare 147 1. a Sestern was added to 
the Standerd in Fleetestreete^ and a Sestern was made at 
Fleetbridge^ and one other without Cripplegate in the yeare, 

Conduit in Grastreete^ in the yeare, 149 1. 

Conduit at Oldboume Crosse about 1498, againe new made 
by William Lambe 1577. | 

Little Conduit by the Stockes market about 1500. Pagt tS 

Conduit at Bishopsgate, about 151 3. 

Conduit at London wall, about 1528. 

Conduit at Aldgate without, about 1535. 



Riuers and other waters 

Thames water 
conueyed into 
mens nooses 
in the east 
parte of the 

Conduits in 
old fishstreet. 

Thames water 
conueyed into 
the west part 
of the city. 

towardes the 
water con- 

Page 19 

Conduit in Lothbury^ and in Coletnanstreet^ 1546. 

Conduit of Thames water at Dowgate^ 1568. 

Thames water conueyed into mens houses by pipes of leade, 
from a most artificial forcier standing neare vnto London 
bridge and made by Peter Moris Dutchman in the yeare 
1582, for seruice of the Citty, on the East part thereof. 

Conduits of Thames water by the parish Churches of 
S. Mary Magdalen^ and S. Nicholas Colde Abbey neare vnto 
olde Fishstreet^ in the yeare 1583. 

One other new Forcier was made neare to Broken wharf e^ 
to conuey Thames water into mens houses of West Cheape^ 
aboute Powles^ Fleetesireet, &c., by an English Gentleman, 
named Beuis Bulmer^ in the yeare 1594. Thus much for 
waters, seruing this Cittie : first by Riuers, Brookes, Boomes, 
Fountaines, Pooles, &c. And since by Conduits partly made 
by good and charitable Citizens, and otherwise by charges of 
the Communaltie, as shalbe shewed in description of Wardes, 
wherein they be placed. And now some Benefactors to these 
Conduits shalbe remembred. 

In the yeare 1236. certaine Marchant Strangers of Cities 
beyond the Seas, to wit, Amiens^ Corby ^ and Nele^ for 
priuiledges which they enioyed in this Cittie, gaue 100. 1. 
towardes the charges of conueying water from the towne of 
Teyborne. Robert Large Mayor, 1439. gaue to the new water 
Conduits then in hand forty markes, and towardes the vaulting 
ouer of Walbrooke neare to the parish Church of S. Margaret 
in Lothbery aoo. Markes. 

Sir William Eastfield mayor 1438. conueyed water from 
Teyborne to Fleetstreete^ to Aldermanbury^ and from Highbery^ 
to Cripplegate, 

William Combes Sheriffe 1441. gaue to the worke of the 
Conduits x. li. 

Richard Rawsofi one of the Sheriflfes 1476. gaue xx. li. 

Robert Reuell one of the shiriffes 1490. gaue x. li. 

lohn Mathew Maior^ 1490. gaue xx. li. 

William Bucke Tailor, in the yeare, 1494. towards repairing 
of Conduits, gaue C. Markes. 

Dame Thomason widow, late wife to lohn Perciuall Taylor, 
Maior in the yeare 1498. gaue toward the Conduit in Old-- 
bourne xx. Markes. 

Riuers and other waters 19 

Richard Shore one of the ShirifTes 1505. gaue to the Con- 
duit in Oldbourne x. li. 

The Ladie Ascue^ widow to sir Christopher Ascue, i543- 
gaue towards the Conduits C. li. 

Dauid Wodrooffe shiriffe 1554. gaue towardes the Conduit 
at Bishopsgate xx. li. 

Edward lackman one of the shirifTes, 1564. gaue towarde 
the Conduits C. li. 

Barnard Randulph^ common Sergeant of the Citie, 1583. 
gaue to the water Conduits 900 li. 

Thus much for the Conduits of fresh water to this Citie. 

The towne Ditch without the Wall of the citie. 

1 HE Ditch which partly now remaineth, and compassed Lib. Don- 
the wall of the Citie, was begun to be made by the Lon- clitch^about 
doners, in the yere 121 1. & was finished in the yeare 1213. London a<x). 
the 15. of king lohtty this Ditch being then made of 200. foot Lib. Trinitate. 
broad, caused no small hinderance to the Canons of the « 
holy Trinitie^ whose Church stood neare vnto Aldgate^ for that 
the saide ditch passed through their ground, from the Tower 
of London, vnto Bishops gate. This Ditch being originally 
made for the defence of the Citie, was also long togither, ^ 
carefully clensed and maintained as neede required, but now of 
late neglected and forced either to a verie narrow, and the same 
a filthie chanell, or altogither stopped vp for Gardens planted, 
and houses builded thereon, euen to the verie wall, and in 1 
many places vpon both ditch & wall houses to be builded, to Pagt 20 
what danger of the Citie, I leaue to wiser consideration : and 
can but wish that reformation might be had. 

In the yeare of Christ, 1354. the 28. of Edward the third. Ditch of the 
the ditch of this Citie flowing ouer the banke into the Tower flowed Ac 
ditch, the king commaunded the said ditch of the Citie to be ^^^^^^ into 
clensed, and so ordered, that the ouerflowing thereof should ditch. 
not force any filth into the Tower ditch. 

Anno 1379. lohn Philpot Maior of London, caused this 
ditch to be cleansed, and euerie houshold to pay v.d. which 
was for a dayes worke towards the chaiges thereof. Richard 
the %. in the tenth of his raigne, granted a Toll to bee taken 

c % 

20 The towne Ditch without the Wall 

Plentie of 
good fish in 
the Towne 

Page 21 

of wares solde by water, or by lande for ten yeares, towardes 
repayring of the wall, and clensing of the ditch. 

Thomas Fawconer Maior 1414. caused the ditch to be 

Rolf loceline Maior 1477. caused the whole ditch to be cast 
and clensed, and so from time to time it was clensed, and 
otherwise reformed, namely, in 151 9, the tenth of Henrie 8. for 
clensing and scowring the common ditch betweene Aldgate 
and the Posterne next the Tower ditch. The chief ditcher 
had by the day vij.d. the second ditcher vi.d. the other ditchers 
v.d. And euery vagabonde (for so were they termed) one 
pennie the day meate and drinke, at charges of the Citie* 
XCVJi. iiJA iiij.d. 

In my remembrance also the same was clensed, namely the 
Mooreditch, when sir William Hollies was Maior, in the yere 
1540. & not long before, from the Tower of London to 

It was againe clensed in the yeare 1549* Henrie Amcotes 
being Maior, at the charges of the Companies. And againe 
1569. the II. of Queene Elizabethy for clensing the same ditch 
betweene Ealdgate and the Posterne^ and making a new 
sewere, and wharf of tymber from the head of the Posterne 
into the towne ditch, viii.C.xiiij. pound, xv.s. viij. d. Before 
the which time the saide ditch lay open, without wall or 
pale, hauing therein great store of verie good fish, of diuerse 
sorts, as many men yet liuing, who haue taken and tasted them 
can well witnes: but now no such matter, the charge of 
clensing is spared, and great proiite made by letting out the 
banks, with the spoyle of the whole ditch. | 

I am not ignorant of two fifteenes graunted by a common 
Councell in the yeare 1595. ^^^ ^^^ reformation of this ditch, 
and that a small portion thereof, to wit, betwixt Bishopsgate^ 
and the Posterne called Mooregate^ was clensed and made 
somewhat broder : but filling againe very fast, by reason of 
ouerraysing the ground neare adioyning, therefore neuer the 
better : and I will so leaue it, for I cannot helpe it. 

Brides of this Citie 


Bridges of this Citie. 

The originall foundation of London bridge^ by report of 
Bartholomew Linsted, alias Fowle^ last Prior of S. Marie 
Queries Church in Southwarke was this : a Ferrie being kept 
in place where now the Bridge is builded, at length the Ferri- 
man & his wife deceasing^ left the same Ferrie to their onely 
daughter, a maiden named MaHej which with the goodes left 
by her Parents, as also with the profites rising of the said 
Ferrie, builded a house of Sisters^ in place where now standeth 
the east part of S. Marie Queries Church aboue the Queere, 
where she was buried, vnto the which house she gauetheouer- 
sight & profites of the Ferrie, but afterwards the said house 
of sisters being conuerted into a colledge of priests, the priests 
builded the Bridge (of Timber) as all other the great Bridges 
of this land were, and from time to time kept the same in 
good reparations, till at length considering the great chaises 
of repayring the same, there was by ayd of the Citizens of 
London, and others, a Bridge builded with Arches of stone, as 
shall be shewed* 

But first of the Timber Bridge, the antiquitie thereof being 
great, but vncertaine, I remember to haue read, that in the 
yeare of Christ, 994. Sweyn king of Denmarke besieging the 
Citie of London, both by water and by land, the Citizens 
manfully defended themselues, and their king Ethelredy so as 
part of their enemies were slaine in battaile, and part of them 
were drowned in the Riuer of Thames^ because in their hastie 
rage they tooke no heede of the Bridge. | 

Moreouer in the yeare 1016. Canute the Dane, with a great 
nauie came vp to London, and on the South of the Thames^ 
caused a Trench to be cast, through the which his ships were 
towed into the west side of the Bridge, and then with a deepe 
Trench and straight siege he compassed the Citie round 

Also in the yeare 1052. Earle Goodwin with the like nauie, 
taking his course vp the riuer of Thames^ and finding none 
that ofTered to resist on the Bridge, he sayled vp by the south- 
side of the said riuer. Furthermore about the yere 1067. 
William the Conquerour in his Charter to the Church of S. Peter 

bridge fizBt of 

A Feme oner 
the Thames 
between Lon- 
don ft Sooth- 
bridges, Stmt- 
fofd bow, 
made by 
Matild, wife to 
Hen. the first. 


Pa^ T 22 

22 Bridges of this Citie 

at Westminster, confirmed to the Monks seruing God there, 

a gate in London, then called Buttolphs gate^ with a wharfe 

which was at the head of London bridge. 

Men went dry- We read likewise, that in the yeare 1114. the 14. of Henrie 

Londonbridg. ^^c first, the riuer of Thames was so dried vp, and such want 

Lib. Bennond- of water there, that betweene the Tower of London, and the 

bridge, and vnder the bridge, not onely with horse, but also 

a great number of men, women and children, did wade ouer 

on foote. 

In the yeare iiaa. the aa. of Henrie the first, Thomas Arden 
gaue to the Monkes of Bermondsey^ the Church of S. George 
in Southwarke : and fiue shillings rent by the yeare, out of the 
land pertayning to London bridge. 

I also haue seene a Charter vnder seale to the effect follow- 
ing. Henrie king of England^ to Ralfe B. of Chichester^ and 
Henrie the i: all the Ministers of Sussex sendeth greetings know ye , &c. Icom-- 
mound by my kingly authoritie that the Mannor called Alces- 
tone^ which my father gaucy with other lands^ to the Abbey of 
Battle y be free and quiet from shieres and hundredes^ and all 
other Customes of earthly seruitude^ as my father helde the 
same^ most freely and quietly^ and namely from the worke 
of London bridge y and the worke of the Castle at Peuensey: 
and this I command vppon my forfeyture^ witnesse William 
de Pontlearche at Byrry^ the which Charter with the Seale 
very faire, remaineth in the custodie of Joseph Holland 
Lib. Bennond- In the yeare 11 36. the first of king Stephen^ a fire began in 
Sb. Trinitate. ^^^ house of one Ailewardcy neare vnto London stone, which ] 
Pa^e2s consumed east to Aldgate^ and west to S. Erkenwalds shrine^ 

London ^" Powles Church : the bridge of timber ouer the riuer of 

bridge brent. Thames was also burnt, &c. but afterwardes again repayred. 
For Fitzstephen writeth that in the raigne of king Stephen ^ 
and of Henry the second, when pastimes were shewed on the 
riuer of Thames, men stoode in greate number on the bridge, 
wharfes, and houses, to behold. 
London bridge ^^^ ^^ ^^^ yeare 1 163. the same bridge was not onely 
h^m!?^'"*^^ repayred, but new made of Timber as afore, by Peter of Cole^ 
Churchy Priest and Chaplaine. 
Thus much for the olde timber bridge, maintainde partly 

Brides of this Citie 23 

by the proper lands thereof, partly by the liberality of diuers 
persons, and partly by taxations in diuers Shires, haue I 
proued for the space of 215. yeares before the Bridge of stone 
was builded. 

Now touching the foundation of the Stone Bridge, it London bridge 
followeth : About the yeare 11 76. the Stone Bridge ouer the \[^^ 
riuer of Thames at London, was begunne to be founded by the 
foresaide Peter of Cols Churchy neare vnto the Bridge of timber, 
but some what more towardes the west, for I read that Buttolfe 
wharfe was in the Conquerors time, at the head of London 
bridge. The king assisted this worke : A Cardinal^ then being Lib. Wtner- 
Legate here, and Richard Archbishop of Canterbury^ gaue ^' 
one thousand markes towardes the foundation, the course of 
the riuer for the time was turned an other way about by 
a Trench cast for that purpose beginning as is supposed East 
about Radriffe^ and ending in the West about Patrickseyy 
now tearmed Batersey, this worke to wit, the Arches, Chaple & 
stone bridge ouer the riuer of Thames at London^ hauing beene London bridge 
33* yeares in building was in the yeare 1209. finished by the^J^^"^ 
worthy Marchants of London^ Serle Mercer, William Almaine^ 
and Benedict Botewrite, principall Maisters of that worke, for 
Peter of Colechurch deceased foure years before, and was 
buried in the Chappell on the Bridge, in the yeare 1205. 

King lohn gaue certaine voide places in London to build 
vppon, the piofites thereof to remaine towardes the charges of 
building and repayring of the same bridge : a Mason being Chappie on 
Maister Workeman of the Bridge, builded from the foundation ^° ^^ **"^^" 
the I large Chappie on that Bridge, of his owne chaises, which Page 24 
Chappie was then endowed for two Priestes, foure Clearks, &c. Chappel on 
besides Chanteries since founded for lohn Hatfield and other. J^ ^^l^ 
After the finishing of this Chappie, which was the first building 
vppon those Arches, sundry houses at times were erected, and 
many charitable men g^aue lands, tenements, or summes of 
money towards maintenance thereof, all which was sometimes Gifts giuen to 
noted, and in a table fayre written for posterity, remayning in S^j^^^** 
the Chappie, til the same Chappie was turned to a dwelling Bridge in a 
house, and then remoued to the Bridge house: the effect of for posterity, 
which Table I was willing to haue published in this booke, if 
I could haue obtained the sight thereof: but making the 

24 Bridges of this Citie 

shorter worke, I find by the accompt of William Mariner 
and Christopher Eliot Wardens of London Bridge from 
Michaelmas in the 22. of H. the 7. vnto Michaelmas next 
ensuing by one whole yeare, that all the paymentes and 
allowances came to xvii.s. ii.d. ob. as there is 
shewed by particulars, by which accompt then made, may be 
partly gessed the great charges and discharges of that Bridge 
at this day, when thinges be stretched to so great a prise. 
And now to actions on this Bridge. 
ActioDBon The first action to be noted was lamentable, for within foure 

tobwnotcdf* X^^^^ after the finishing thereof, to witte in the yeare, 1212. 
on the tenth of July at night, the Borough of South warke 
vpon the South side the riuer of Thames, as also the Church 
of our Lady of the Canons there beeing on fire, and an 
exceeding great multitude of people passing the Bridge, 
Lib. Dnnmow. eyther to extinguish and quench it, or else to gaze at and 
Cou«tty. behold it, suddenly the north part, by blowing of the South- 
William wind was also set on fire, and the people which were euen 
LoDdon bridge now passing the Bridge, perceyuing the same, would haue 
pcriihed with returned, but were stopped by fire, and it came to passe, that 
as they stayed or protracted time, the other end of the Bridge 
also, namely the South end was fired, so that the people 
thronging themselues betweene the two fires, did nothing else 
but expect present death : then came there to aide them many 
ships and vessels, into the which the multitude so vnaduisedly 
rushed, that the ships being drowned, they all perished : it 
was saide that through the fire and shipwracke there were 
Page 2s destroyed ajbout three thousand persons whose bodies were 

found in part, or halfe burned, besides those that were wholy 
burnt to ashes, and could not be found. 
Fine arches of About the yeare 1282. through a great frost and deepe 
bome^do^^ snow, fiue Arches of London bridge were borne downe and 
carryed away. 

In the yeare 1289. the Bridge was so sore decayed for want 

of reparations, that men were afraid to passe thereon, and 

PatteQtthei4. a subsidie was graunted towards the amendment thereof, Sir 

ofEdwaid the y^/^^ Britaine being Gustos of London. 1381. a great collec- 

tion or gathering was made, of all Archbishops, Bishops, and 

other Ecclesiastical! persons, for the reparations of London 


Bridges of this Citie 25 

bridge. 1 38 1. Wat Tiler, and other rebels of Kent, by ^ 
this bridge entered the Citie, as ye may reade in my 5«w- • 
marie and Annates, 

In the ycare 1 395. on S. Georges day, was a great lusting I 
on London bridge, betwixt Dauid Earle of Craford of ScoU 
land^ and the Lord Wels of England. In the which the 
Lord Wels was at the third course borne out of the saddle, 
which hystorie proueth,ihat at that time the Bridge being 
coaped on either side was not replenished with houses 
builded thereupon, as since it hath beene, and now is. The NineDcnoni 
next yeare on the 13. of Nouember, the young Qj^eene dc«tfi on Lon- 
Isabell, commonly called the little, for she was but eight ^^n^*^- 
yeares olde, was conueyed from Kenington besides Lamhith, 
through Southwark to the Tower of London, and such a 
multitude of people went out to see her, that on London 
bridge nine persons were crowded to death, of whom the 
prior of Tiptre a place in Essex, was one, & a Matron on 
CamekU, was an other. 

The Tower on London Bridge at the north end of the Tower on 
drawbridge, (for that bridge was then readily to be drawn builded. " 
up, aswell to giue passage for ships to Queenehith, as for the 
resistance of any forraigne force) was begun to be builded in 
the yeare 1426. lohn Rainwell being Maior. 

An other tower there is on the sayd bridge ouer the gate 
at the South end towards Southwarke, whereof in an other 
place shall be spoken. 

In the yeare 1450. lacke Cade, and other Rebels of Kent, lacke Cade 
by this bridge entered the Citie, he strake his sword on q^^^ ^ ^^ 
London stone, 1 and said himselfe then to be Lord of the bridge. 

Page 26 

Citie, but they were by the Citizens ouercome on the same * 

Bridge, and put to flight, as in my Annales. 

In the yeare 147 1. Thomas the bastard Fawconbridge be- Bartaid Faw- 
sieged this Bridge, burned the gate, and all the houses to the ^^^ 
draw bridge, that time 13. in number. bridge. 

In the year 1481. an house called the common si^e on Anhcmteof 
London bridge fell downe into the Thames : through the fall downe. ^ * 
whereof fiue men were drowned. 

In the year 1553. the third of February, sir Thomas Wiat 
and the Kentish men marched from Depeford towards London^ 


Bridges of this Citie 

Sir Tho. Wiat 
lay in Sonth- 
warke at the 
bridge foote. 
The dnwe- 
bridge cut 

The bridge 

Fleet bridge. 



after knowledge whereof, forthwith the drawe bridge was cut 
downe, and the Bridge gates shut, Wiat and his people 
entered Southwarke, where they lay till the sixt of Februarie, 
but coulde get no entrie of the Citie by the bridge, the same 
was then so well defended by the Citizens, the Lord WUliam 
Hoivard assisting, wherefore he remoued towards Kingstone^ 
&c. as in my Annates, 

To conclude of this bridge ouer the said riuer of Thames^ 
I affirme, as in other my descriptions, that it is a worke verie 
rare, hauing with the draw bridge 20. Arches made of 
squared stone, of height 60. foote, and in bredth 30. foote 
distant one from another 20. foote, compact and ioyned 
togither with vaults and cellers, vpon both sides be houses 
builded, so that it seemeth rather a continuall streete then 
a Bridge: for the fortifying whereof against the incessant 
assaults of the riuer, it hath ouerseers and officers, vz. war- 
dens, as aforesaid, and others. 

Fleete bridge in the west without Ludgate^ a Bridge of 
stone faire coaped, on either side with iron pikes, on the 
which towards the south be also certaine Lanthornes of stone, 
for lights to be placed in the winter euenings, for commoditie 
of trauellers. Under this bridge runneth a water, sometimes 
called (as I haue said) the river of the Wels^ since Tumemill 
brooke^ now Fleet dike^ because it runneth by the Fleete^ and 
sometime about the Fleete^ so under Fleete bridge into the 
riuer of Thames. This bridge hath beene farre greater in 
times past, but lessened, as the water course hath beene 
narrowed. It seemeth this last bridge to be made, or re- 
pay red at the charges oi lohn Wels Maior, in the yeare 1431. | 
for on the coping is engrauen Wels imbraced by Angels, like 
as on the Standard in Cheape, which he also builded : thus 
much of the Bridge : for of the water course and decay thereof 
I haue spoken in another place. 

Oldbourne bridge ouer the said riuer of the Wels more to- 
wards the North was so called, of a Bourne that sometimes 
ranne downe Oldborne hill into the sayd Riuer, this Bridge 
of stone like as Fleet bridge from Ludgate west, serueth for 
passengers with carriage or otherwise from Newgate toward 
the west and by North. 

Bridges of this Citie 27 

Ccwbridge more North ouer the same water by Cowbridge Cowbridge. 
streete or Cowlane : this bridge being lately decayed, an other 
of timber is made somewhat more north, by Chicklane^ &c. 

Bridges ouer the Towne ditch, there are diuerse : to witte, Bridge ouer 
without AidgaU, without Bishapsgate, the Posterne called *^^*°^^^^'*' 
Moaregate, the Posterne of Creplegate without Alder sgate, the 
Posterne of Christes Hospitall, Newgate^ and Ludgate, all 
these bee ouer paued likewise with stone leuell with the 
streetes. But one other there is of Tymber ouer the riuer of 
wels^ or Fket dike^ betweene the precinct of the Blacke Friers^ 
and the house of Bridewell. 

There haue beene of olde time also, diuerse Bridges in Bridget ouer 
sundrie places ouer the course of Walbrooke, as before I haue walbrodkc?^ 
partly noted, besides Horshew bridge, by the Church of saint Honhcwe 
lohn Baptist^ now called S. lohns vpon Walbrooke. I reade ^' 
that of olde time euery person hauing lands on either side of 
the sayd brooke, should dense the same, and repayre the 
Bridges so farre as their landes extended. More, in the 11. 
of Edward the third, the inhabitants vpon the course of this 
brooke, were forced to pile and wal the sides thereof. Also 
that in the third of Henrie the fift, this water course had many Walbrooke 
Bridges, since vaulted ouer with Bricke, and the streetes ^^ p^^^" 
where through it passed, so paued, that the same watercourse with stone. 
is now hardly discerned. For order was taken in the second 
of Edward the fourth, that such as had ground on either side 
of Walbrooke, should vault and pane it ouer, so farre as his 
ground extended. And thus much for Bridges in this Citie, 
may suffice. 

Gates in the wall of this Citie. Page 2s 

Gates in the wall of this Citie of olde time, were foure : to Gates of ixm- 
wit, Aeldgate for the east, Aldersgate for the North, Ludgate ^l^^^^^ 
for the West, and the Bridgegate ouer the riuer of Thames for west, & other 

AS sh&ll be 

the South, but of later times for the ease of Citizens and shewed. 
Passengers, diuers other gates and posterns haue beene made, 
as shall be shewed. 

In the raigne of Henrie the second (saith Fitzstephen) there gat^in^he ^ 
were seuen double gates in the wall of this Citie ^ but he nameth waU of this 

28 Gates in the wall of this Citie 

Posterne by 
the Tower. 

Wall imbat- 
telled about 
the Tower of 
Ditch abont 
the tower. 

Poiterae fell 

them not It may therefore be supposed, hee meant for f he first, 
the gate next the Tower of London, now commonly called 
the Posterne : the next to be Aeldgate^ the third Bishopsgaie^ 
the fourth E alder sgate, the fift Newgate, the sixt Liidgate, the 
seuenth Bridgegate. Since the which time hath beene builded, 
the Posterne called Mooregate^ a Posterne from Christs Hos- 
pitall, towards S. Bartholomewes Hospitall in Smithfieldy &c 
Now of euerie of these gates, and posterns in the wall, and also 
of certaine water gates on the riuer of Thames, seuerally, some- 
what may, and shall be noted, as I find authoritie, or reasonable 
coniecture to warrant me. 

For the first now called the posterne by the Tower of 
London, it sheweth by that part which yet remaineth, to 
haue beene a faire & strong arched gate, partly builded of hard 
stone of Kenty and partly of stone brought from Cane in 
Normandie, since the Conquest, and foundation of the high 
tower, and serued for passengers on foote out of the East, 
from thence through the Citie to Ludgate in the West TTie 
ruine and ouerthrow of this gate and posterne, b^[an in the 
yeare 1190. the second of Richard the first, when William 
Longshampe Bishop of Ely, Chancellor of England, caused a 
part of the Citie wall, to wit, from the said gate towards the 
riuer of Thames, to the white tower, to bee broken downe, for the 
enlarging of the said Tower, which he then compassed farre 
wide about with a wall embattelled, and is now the | outer 
wal. He also caused a broad and deepe ditch to be made 
without the same wall, intending to haue deriued the riuer of 
Thames with her tydes, to haue flowed about it, which would 
not be. But the Southside of this gate being then by under- 
mining at the foundation loosed, and greatly weakned, at 
length, to wit, after aoo. yeares and odde the same fell downe 
in the yeare 1440. the xviij. of Henrie the sixt, and was neuer 
since by the Citizens reedified. Such was their negligence 
then, and hath bred some trouble to their successors, since 
they suflered a weake and wooden building to be there made, 
inhabited by persons of lewde life, oft times by inquest of 
Poriesoken ward presented, but not reformed: whereas of 
former times, the said Posterne was accompted of as other 
gates of the Citie, and was appointed to men of good credite. 

Gates of this Citie 29 

Amongst other, I haue read, that in the 49. of Edward the 
third, lohn Cobbe was admitted Custos of the said Fosterne, and 
all the habitation thereof, for tearme of his life, by WilUant 
Walworth^ then Maior of London, &c More, that lohn Credy 
Esquire, in the 21. of Richard the second, was admitted 
Custos of the said Posteme & appurtenances by Richard 
Whittington Maior, the Aldermen and Communaltie, &c. 


1 HE next gate in the East is called Aeldgate^ of the anti- Aldgate. 
quitie or age thereof! This is one and the first of the foure 
principall gates, and also one of the seuen double gates, men- 
tioned by Fitzstephen. It hath had two paire of gates, though 
now but one, the hookes remaineth yet Also there hath 
beene two Portcloses, the one of them remaineth, the other 
wanteth, but the place of letting downe is manifest For anti- 
quitie of the gate, it appeareth by a Charter of king Edgar to 
the knights of Knighton Guilds that in his dayes the said port Lib. Triniute. 
was called Aeldgate^ as ye may reade in the warde of Port- 
soken. Also MatUd the Queene wife to Henrie the first, 
hauing founded the Priorie of the holie Trinitie within Aeld- 
gate, gaue vnto the same Church, to Norman the first Prior, 
and the Chanons that devoutly serued God therein, the Port 
of Aeldgate^ and the soke or franches thereunto belonging, soke or court. 
with all customes as free as shee held the same : in the | which Pagejo 
Charter, she nameth the house Christs Churchy and reporteth 
Aeldgate to be of his demaine. 

More, I reade in the yeare 12 15. that in the ciuill warres Mathew Paris. 
betweene king lohn and his Barons, the Londoners assisting 
the Barons faction, who then besieged Northampton, and after 
came to Bedford Castell, where they were well receyued by 
William Beauchampe^ and captaine of the same : hauing then 
also secrete intelligence that they might enter the Citie of 
London if they would, they remoued their campe to Ware, 
from whence in the night comming to London, they entred 
Aeldgate^ and placii^ gardians or keepers of the gates, they 
disposed of all thinges in the Citie at their pleasure. They Ranuiph 
spoyled the Friers houses, and searched their Coffers, which ^^^s**^* 
being done, Robert Fitswater^ Giffrey Magnauile Earle of 

30 Gates of this Citie 

Essex, and the Earle of Glocester, chiefe leaders of the armie, 
applied all diligence to repaire the Gates and walles of this 
Citie, with the stones taken from the Jewes broken houses, 
Ald|ate new namely, Aeldgaie being then most ruinous, (which had giuen 
^ them an easie entrie) they repayred,. or rather newly builded 

after the manner of the Normans, strongly arched, with bul- 
warks of stone brought from Cane in Normandie, and small 
Bricke called Flanders Tile was brought from thence, such as 
hath beene here vsed since the Conquest, and not before. 
William In the yeare 1471. the xi. of Edward the 4. Thomas the 

Dunthorae. bastard Fawcofibridge^ hauing assembled a riotous companie of 
shipmen and other, in Essex, and Kent, came to London with 
Thomas lord a great nauie of ships, neare to the Tower, whereupon the 
Mt^n^*^^* Maior and Aldermen, by consent of a common Councell, forti- 
Aldgate. fied all along the Thames side, from Baynards castell to the 
Tower with armed men, & Gunnes, other instruments of war, 
to resist the inuasion of the Mariners, whereby the Thames 
side was safely preserued and kept, by the Aldermen and 
other Citizens, that assembled thither in great numbers. 
Whereupon the Rebels being denied passage through the 
Citie that way, set vpon Aeldgate^ Bishopsgate^ CrepUgate^ 
AeldersgaUy Londonbridgey and along the Riuer of Thames, 
Suburbs shooting arrowes and Gunnes into the Citie, fiered the suburbs, 
burnt j^j^j burnt more than threescore houses. And further, on 

Poi^j' Sunday the eleuenth of May, fine thousand of them | assault- 

Rebels wan ing Aeldgaie^ wan the Bulwarkes, and entered the Citie, but 
of Aldgate. the Porteclose being letten downe, such as had entered were 
slaine, and Robert Basset Alderman of Aeldgate ward, with 
the Recorder, commaunded in the name of God to drawe vp 
the Porteclose, which being done, they issued out, and with 
sharpe shot and fierce fight, put their enemies backe so farre 
Lieutenant of as S. Bottolplts Church, by which time the Earle Riuers^ and 
as^st^Se A^ Lieutenant of the Tower was come, with a fresh companie, 
Citixens which ioyning together discomfited the Rebels, and put them 

Rebels. to flight, whom the saide Robert Bassett, with the other Citi- 

zens, chased to the Miles ende, and from thence, some to 
Poplar ^, some to Stratford, slue many, and tool^e many of 
them prisoners. In which space the Bastard hauing assayed 

* Poplar] Popular 1603^ 1633. 

Gates of this Citie 31 

other places vpon the water side, and little preuailed, fled 
toward his ships : thus much for Aildgate. 


The third and next toward the North, is called Bishopsgate^ BUhopsgate. 

for that (as it may be supposed) the same was first builded by 

some Bishop of London, though now vnknowne, when, or by 

whom : but true it is, that this gate was first builded for ease 

of passengers towarde the East, and by North, as into Nor- 

flfolke, SufTolke, Cambridgeshire, &c. The trauellers into 

which partes before the building of this gate, were forced, 

passing out at Aeldgate, to goe East till they came to the 

Miles ende, and then turning on the left hand to Blethenhall 

greene, to Cambridge heath, and so North, or East, and by 

North, as their iourney lay. If they tooke not this way, 

by the East out at Aeldgate^ they must take their way by the 

North out at Aeldersgate^ through Aeldersgate streete, and 

Goswelstreete towardes Iseldon, and by a crosse of stone on 

their right hand, set vp for a marke by the North ende of 

Goldii^ lane, to tume Eastward through a long streete, vntill 

this day called Alderstreet, to another crosse, standing, where 

now a Smiths forge is placed by Sewers ditch Church, and 

then to tume againe North towardes Totenham, Endfield, 

Waltham, Ware, &c. The eldest note that I reade of this 

Bishopsgate^ is that William Blund, one of the Shlriffes of Lib. Trmitatc 

London, in the yere laio, | solde to Serle Mercer ^^Ltid William Pages^ 

AlmaifUy procurators, or Wardens, of London bridge, all his 

land with the Garden in the Parish of Saint Buttolph without 

Bishopsgat€y betweene the land of Richard Casiarin^ towardes 

the North, and the land of Robert Crispie towards the South, 

and the high way called Berewards lane on the East, &c. 

Next I reade in a Charter dated the yeare 1235. that Bishopsgate 
Walter Brune^ Citizen of London, and Rosia his wife, hauing ^^^ 
founded the Priorie or new Hospitall of our blessed Lady, 
since called Saint Marie Spittle without Bishopsgate^ confirmed 
the same to the honour of God and our blessed Ladie, for 
Chanons regular. 

Also in the yeare 1247. Simon Fitzmarie one of the shiriffes Record, 
of London, the ^9. of Henrie the third, founded the Hospitall 

32 Gates of this Citie 

of Saint Marie^ called Bethlent without Bishopsgate. Thus 

much for antiquitie of this gate. 

Lib. Customs. And now for repayring the same, I find, that Henrie the 

London. ^jj.j Confirmed to the Marchants of the Haunce, that had an 

house in the Citie called Guildhalla Theutonicorum^ certaine 

Liberties and Priuiledges. Edward the first also confirmed 

the same. In the tenth yere of whose raigne, it was found 

that the said Marchants ought of right to repaire the said gate 

called Bishopsgate. Whereupon Gerard Marbod^ Alderman 

of the Haunce and other, then remaining in the Citie of 

London : for themselues, and all others Marchants of the said 

Haunce, graunted 210. Markes sterling to the Maior and 

Bishop^ate Citizens. And couenanted that they and their successors 

J^^JJJ^j^^ should from time to time repaire the same gate. This gate 

of Uie Haunce. was againe beautifully builded in the yeare 1479. ^^^ ^^ 

wasSiSoi. raigne of Edwarde the fourth, by the saide Haunce Mar- 


Bishopsgate Moreouer, about the yeare 1551* these Haunce Marchants 

Su'^b^M* ^^"^"S prepared stone for that purpose, caused a new gate to 

new builded. bee framed, there to haue beene set vp, but then their liberties 

through sute of our English Marchantes, were seazed into the 

Kings hande, and so that worke was stayed, and the olde Gate 

yet remaineth. | 

Pa^j^ Poster ne of Moregate. 

Posten called XoUCHING the next Posteme, called Moregate^ I findethat 
Mooitgate. Thontos Falconer Maior about the yeare 1415. the thirde of 
Henry the fift, caused the wall of the Cittie to bee broken 
neare vnto Colemanstreete^ and there builded a Posteme, now 
called Moregate^ vpon the Moore side where was neucr gate 
before. This gate he made for ease of the Cittizens, that way 
to pass vpon causeys into the fielde for their recreation : For 
.the same field was at that time a Marrish. This Posteme was 
reedified by William Hampton Fishmonger, Mayor, in the 
yeare 1472. In the yeare also 151 1. the third of Henry the 
eight, Roger Achely Mayor caused Dikes and Bridges to bee 
made, and the ground to bee leuiled, and made more com- 
modious for passage, since which time the same hath beene 
heighthened. So much that the Ditches and Bridges are 

Gates of this Citie 33 

couered, and seemeth to me that if it be made leuell with the 
Battlements of the Cittie Wall, yet will it bee little the dryer, 
such is the Moorish nature of that ground. 

Posterne of Cripplegate, 

The next is the Posterne of Cripplegate^ so called long before Postcm of 
the Conquest. For I reade in the historic of Edtnond king of aSSo F?orii- 
the East Angles, written by Abbo Flariacensis, and by Bttr- ccnsi$. Bur- 
chard somtime Secretarie to Off a king of Marcia^ but since 
by lohn Lidgate Monke of Bery^ that in the yeare loio. the 
Danes spoiling the kingdome of the East Angles, Alwyne 
Bishoppe of Helmeham^ caused the body of king Edtnond the 
Martyre to bee brought from Bedriswarth^ (now called Bury 
Saint Edmondes^ through the kingdome of the East Saxons, 
and so to London in at Cripplegate^ a place sayeth mine Author 
so called of Criples b^ging there : at which gate, (it was said) 
the body entering, miracles were wrought, as some of the 
Lame to goe vpright, praysing God. The Body of King 
Edmond rested for the space of three yeares in the Parrish 
Church of Saint Gregorie^ \ neare vnto the Cathedrall Church Pagt}4 
of S. Paule. Moreouer the Charter of William the Conqueror, 
confirming the foundation of the Colledge in London, called 
S. Martin the greate, hath these wordes. / doe giue and Lib, S.Bu- 
graunt to the same Church and Canons^ seruing God therein, ^^®^®™«''^- 
All the land and the Moore^ without the Posterne, which is 
called Cripplegate, on eyther part of the Posterne. More, 
I reade that Alfune builded the parish Church of S. Giles^ 
nigh a gate of the Citie, called Porta contractorum, or Criples- 
gate, about the yeare 1090. 

This Posterne was sometime a prison, whereunto such Clti- Cripplegate a 
zens and others, as were arrested for debt, or common tres- f^^gj^J,. 
passes, were committed, as they be now to the Compters, 
which thing appeareth by a writte of Edward the first in 
these wordes : Rex vie. London^ salutem: exgraui querela B. Record. 
capt. Sr detent, in prisona nostra de Criples gate pro x.l. quas 
coram Radulpho de Sandwico tunc custod. Ciuitatis nostrce 
London & L de Blackwell ciuis recognit. debit, &c. This gate criplesgate 
was new builded by the Brewers of London, in the yeare, 1244. newbuflded. 


34 Gates of this Citie 

as sayth Fabians Manuscript Edmond Shaw Goldsmith, 
Maior, in the year 1483. at his decease appoynted by his 
testament his executors, with the cost of 400. Markes, and the 
stuffe of the old gate, called Cripplesgate^ to build the same 
gate of new, which was performed and done, in the yeare 
149 1. 


Eldcngatc. IHE next is ^Idresgate^ or Aldersgate^ so called not of 
Aldrich, or of Elders, that is to say, auncient men, builders 
thereof, nor of Eldarae trees, growing there more aboundantly 

n a booke then in other places, as some haue fabuled, but for the very 

he catf*^*'^ antiquity of the gate it self, as beeing one of the first 4 gates 
of the city, & seruing for the Northerne parts, as Aldegate for 
the East, which two gates being both old gates, are for differ- 
ence sake called, the one Ealdegate, and the other Aldersgate. 
This is the 4. principall gate, and hath at sundry times beene 
increased with buildinges, namely on the south or innerside, 
a great frame of timber hath beene added and set vp, con- 

^g^)S tayning diuers large roomes, and lodjgings: also on the East 

side, is the addition of one great building of Timber, with one 
large floore paued with stone, or tile, and a Well therein 
curbed with stone, of a great depth, and rising into the said 
roome, two stories high from the ground : which Well is the 
onely peculiar note belonging to that gate, for I haue not 
scene the like in all this Citie, to be raysed so high. lohn 
Day Stationer, a late famous Printer of many good books, in 
our time dwelled in this gate, and builded much vpon the 
wall of the Citie towards the Parish Church of S. Anne, 

Posterne out of Christs hospitall. 

iporterneont 1 HEN is there also a Posterne gate, made out of the wall 
iospltalT Oil ^^ North side of the late dissolued cloyster of Friers 
minors^ commonly of their habit called Gray* friers^ now 
Christs Church, and Hospitall. This Posterne was made in 
the first yeare of Edward the sixt, to passe from the said 
Hospitall of Christs Church, vnto the Hospitall of S. Bartlenuw 
in Smithfield. 

Gates of this Citie 35 


The next gate on the West, and by North, is termed New^ Newgate. 
gate^ as latelier builded then the rest, and is the fift principal! 
gate. This gate was first erected about the raigne of Henrie 
the first, or of king Stephen, vpon this occasion. The Cathe- 
drall Church of saint Paule^ being burnt about the yeare Powlc« church 
1086, in the raigne of William the Conquerour, Ma{u)ritius ^J^^ 
then Bishop of London, repayred not the olde Church, as 
some haue supposed, but began the foundation of a new worke, 
such as men then iudged would neuer haue beene performed, 
it was to them so wonderfull for height, length, and breadth, 
as also in respect it was raysed vpon Arches or vaults, a kind 
of workmanship brought in by the Normans, and neuer knowne 
to the Artificers of 'this land before that time, &c. After 
Mauritius^ Richard Beantore did wonderfully aduaunce the 
worke of the said Church, purchasing the large streetes, and 
lanes round about, wherein were wont to dwell many lay 
people, which grounds he began to compasse about with a | 
strong wall of stone, and gates. By meanes of this increase Pe^je 
of the Church territorie, but more by inclosing of ground for 
so large a cemttorie, or churchyard : the high and large street 
stretching from Ald^[ate in the East, vntill Ludgate in the 
West, was in this place so crossed and stopped vp, that the 
cariage through the citie westward, was forced to passe without 
the said churchyard wall on the North side, through Pater 
noster row : and then South downe Aue Mary lane, and againe 
West through Bowyer row to Ludgate : or else out of Cheepe, 
or Watheling streete to tume south, through the old Exchange, 
then west through Carter lane : againe north vp Creede lane, 
and then west to Ludgate. Which passage, by reason of so 
often turning, was very combersome, and daungerous both for 
horse and man. For remedie whereof a new gate was made, Nevmtefint 
and so called, by which men and cattell, with all manner of JjJJ^^|J^*J^ 
carris^es might passe more directly (as afore) from Ald^ate, 
through west Cheepe by PauleSy on the North side, through 
saint Nicholas shambles, and Newgate market to Newgate, & 
from thence to any part westward ouer Oldborne bridge, or 
turning without the gate into Smithfielde, and through 

D % 

36 Gates of this Citie 

y Iseldon to any part North and by West. This gate hath of 

long time beene a Gaile, or prison for fellons and trespassers, 

as appeareth by Records in the raigne of king lohn^ and of 

other kings, amongest the which I find one testifying that in 

Close role. the yeare 121 8. the third of king Henrie the third, the king 

Newgate a writeth vnto the shiriffes of London, commaunding them to 

layle or pnson ^ 

house. repayre the Gaile of Newgate, for the safe keeping of his 

S^"^."" prisoners, promising that the charges layd out should be 
allowed vnto them vpon their accompt in the Exchequer. 

Moreouer in the yeare 1241. the Jewes of Norwich were 
hanged for circumcising a Christian child, their house called 
the Thor was pulled downe and destroyed. Aran the sonne 
of Abraham a Jew, at London, and the other Jewes, were 
constrayned to pay twentie thousand markes at two termes 
in the yeare, or else to be kept perpetuall prisoners in New- 
gate of London, and in other prisons. 1255. King Henrie the 
third lodging in the Tower of London, vpon displeasure con- 
ceyued towards the citie of London, for the escape of lohn 
Pagejy Off rem a prisoner beeing a Clearke | conuict, out of Newgate, 

which had killed a Prior that was of alliance to the king, as 
The Shiriffes coosen to the Queene : he sent for the Maior and shiriffes to 
prismas in ^ome before him, to answere the matter : the Maior layd the 
the Tower fault from him to the shiriffes, forsomuch as to them belonged 
a^prisoDCT out t^^ keeping of all prisoners within the citie, and so the Maior 
of Newgate, returned home, but the shiriffes remayned there prisoners, by 
the space of a Moneth and more, and yet they excused them- 
selues in that the fault chiefly rested in the Bishops officers : 
for whereas the prisoner was vnder custodie, they at his re- 
quest had graunted licence to imprison the offender within the 
Gaile of Newgate, but so as the Bishops Officers were charged 
to see him safely kept. The king notwithstanding all this, 
demaunded of the citie 3000. Markes for a fine. 
The Kinges In the yeare 1326. Robert Baldoke the kings Chancellor was 
^^*^ put in Newgate, the third of Edward the 3. In the yeare, 
Newgate. 1337. sir lohn Poultney gaue foure Markes by the yeare, to the 
reliefe of prisoners in Newgate. In the yeare 1385. WiUiam 
Walworth gaue somewhat to relieue the prisoners in Newgate, 
so haue many others since. In the yeare 1414. the Gaylers 
of Newgate & Ludgate died, and prisoners in Newgate to the 

Gates of this Citie 37 

number of 64. In the yere 141 8. the person of Wrotham in PrUoncrein 
Kent was imprisoned in Newgate. The yeare 1422. the first ud^^dy^^. 
of Henrie 6. licence was granted to lohn Couentrey lenken Car- 
penter^ and WUliant Groue^ executors to Richard whittingtouy 
to reedifie the Gaile of Newgate, which they did with his 

Thomas Knowles Grocer, sometime Maior of London, by JJ^^!^^* '^^^ 
licence of Reynold Prior of saint Bartholomews in Smithfield, 
and also of lohn wakering^ maister of the Hospitall of saint 
Bartholomew^ and his brethren, conueyed the waste of water Water con- 
at the Cesteme nere to the common fountaine, and Chappell ^tclnd^*'^ 
of saint Nicholas (situate by the saide Hospitall) to the Gailes Ludgate. 
of Newgate, and Ludgate, for the reliefe of the prisoners. 
Tuesday next after Palme Sunday, 1431. all the prisoners of 
Ludgate were remooued into Newgate by Walter Chartesey^ Prisoners of 
and Robert Large^ shiriffes of London. And on the 13. of ^^*^J*' 
Aprill, the same shirifTes (through the false suggestion of lohn Newgate. 
Kingesell Gailer of Newgate) set from thence eighteene per- 
sons free men, and these | were led to the Compters pinioned Paec}% 
as if they had been fellons, but on the xvi. of June, Ludgate 
was ag^ine appoynted for free men prisoners for debt, and the 
same day the sayd free men entered by ordinance of the 
Maior, Aldermen and Commons, and by them Henrie Deane 
tayler was made keeper of Ludgate prison. In the yeare 
1457. a great fray was in the North country, betweene sir 
Thomas Percie Lord Egremond^ and the Earle of Salisburies L. Egremonde 
sonnes, whereby many were maymed and slaine ; but in the JrS^^JrJf' 
end the Lord Egremond being taken, was by the kings coun- Newgate, 
sell found in great default, and therefore condemned in great 
summes of money, to be payed to the Earl of Salisburies and 
in the mean time committed to Newgate. Not long after sir 
Thomas Percie Lord Egremofid^ and sir Richard Percie his 
brother beeing in Newgate, brake out of prison by night, and 
went to the king, the other prisoners tooke the Leades of the 
gate, and defended it a long while against the shiriiTes, and all 
their Officers, insomuch that they were forced to call more 
aide of the Citizens, whereby they lastly subdued them, and 
laid them in irons : and this may suffice for Newgate. 

38 Gates of this Citie 


Ludgate. IN the West is the next, and sixt principal gate, and is called 
Ludgate^ as first builded (saith Geffrey Montnouth) by king 
Lud a Briton, about the yeare before Christs natiuitie 66. Of 
which building, and also of the name, as LudsgaUy or Fludsgate^ 
hath beene of late some question among the learned, where- 
fore I ouerpasse it, as not to my purpose, onely referring the 
reader to that I haue before written out of Ccesars Commen- 
taries, and other Romaine writers, concerning a towne or 
Citie amongst the Britaines. This gate I suppose to be one 
of the most auncient : and as Aldgate was builded for the 
Roger of East, so was this Luds gate for the West. I reade, as I tolde 
Mi^eir Parii. you> ^^21^ ^^ the yeare 1215. the 17. of king lohn^ the Barons of 
the Realme, being in armes against the king, entred this Citie, 
and spoyled the Jewes houses, which being done, Robert Fits- 
water^ and Geffrey de Magna villa^ Earle of Essex, and the 
P<»g^S9 Earle of Gloucester, chiefe leaders | of the Armie, applied all 

diligence to repayre the gates and wals of this Citie, with the 
/ stones of the Jewes broken houses, especially (as it seemeth) 

Ludsate new they then repayred or rather new builded Ludgate. For in 
builded. ^j^^ yeare 1586, when the same gate was taken downe, to bee 

newe buylded, there was founde couched within the wall 
thereof, a stone taken from one of the Jewes houses, wherein 
was grauen in Hebrewe caracters, these wordes following. 
Jewes houses nnv^ "xsy^ 13 TWXi y\ 3VD in. HcBc est statio rabbi Mosis filU 
^P°y • insignis Rabbi Isaac : which is to say, this is the Station or 
ward of Rabbi Moysis^ the sonne of the honourable Rabbi 
IsaaCy and had beene fixed vpon the front of one of the Jewes 
houses as a note, or signe that such a one dwelled there. In 
the yeare 1 260. this Ludgate was repayred and beautified with 
Patent. Images of Lud^ and other Kings, as appeareth by letters 

pattents, of licence giuen to the Citizens of London, to take 
vp stone for that purpose, dated the 45. of Henrie the third. 
These Images of Kings in the raigne of Edward the sixt had 
their heades smitten off, and were otherwise defaced by such 
as iudged euery Image to be an IdoU, and in the raigne of 
Queene Marie were repayred, as by setting new heades on 


Gates of this Citie 39 

their olde bodies, &c. All which so remayned vntill the yeare 

1586. The 28. of Queene Elizabeth^ [when] the same gate Ludgate again 

being sore decayed, was cleane taken downe, the prisoners in "^'^ °^**^' 

the meane time remaining in the large Southeast quadrant to 

the same gate adioyning, and the same yere the whole gate . 

was newly and beautifully builded» with the Images of Lud^ Uiged in the 

and others, as afore, on the East side, and the picture of her [J^^^^ ^' 

Maiestie, Queene Elizabeth on the West side. All which was 

done at the common charges of the Citizens, amounting to 

1500. poundes or more. 

This gate was made a I free prisone in the yeare 1378. the Ludgate a free 
first of Richard the second, Nictiolas Brembar being Maior. Icconi, 
The same was confirmed in the yeare 1382. lohn Northampton ^"^^^ ^^' 
being Maior, by a common Councell in the Guild hall : by 
which it was ordained, that all freemen of this citie, should for 
debt, trespasses, accounts, & contempts, be imprisoned in 
Ludgate^ and for treasons, fellonies, & other criminall 
offences committed to Newgate^ &c. In the yeare 1439, the 
tenth of king Henrie the sixt, | lohn Wels being Maior, a court Pagi 40 
of common Councell established ordinances, (as William 
Standan^ and Robert Chicheley^ late Maiors before had done) 
touching the guard and gouemment of Ludgate, and other 

Also in the yeare 1463, the third of Edward the fourth, 
Mathew Philip, being Maior, in a common Councell, at the 
request of the well disposed, blessed, and deuout woman 
Dame Agnes Farster, widow, late wife to Stephen Forster Fish- 
monger, sometime Maior, for the comfort and reliefs of all the 
poore prisoners, certain Articles were established. Imprimis^ 
that the new workes then late edified by the same Dame 
Agnes, for the enlarging of the prison oi Ludgate y from thence- 
forth should be had and taken, as a part and* parcell of the 
said prison oi Ludgate, so that both the old and new worke of 
Ludgate aforesaid, be one prison, gailekeeping, and charge 
for euermore. 

The said quadrant strongly builded of stone, by the before 
named Stephen Forster j and Agnes his wife, containeth a large 
walking place by ground of 38. foot, & halfe in length, besides 
the thicknesse of the walles, which are at the least sixe foote, 

40 Gates of this Citie 

makes all togither 44 foote and a halfe, the bredth within the 
walles is 29. foote and a halfe, so that the thicknesse of the 
walles maketh it ^^. foote and a halfe in bredth. The like 
roome it hath ouer it for lodgings, and ouer it s^aine faire 
Leades to walke vpon well imbattailed, all for fresh ayre, and 
ease of prisoners, to the ende they should haue lodging, and 
water free without charge, as by certaine verses grauven in 
Copper, and fixed on the saide quadrant, I haue read in 
forme following. 

Lndgate. Deuout soules that passe this way^ 

far Stephen Forster late Maior^ heartily pray^ 
And Dame Agnes his spouse^ to God consecrate^ 

that of pitie this honse made for Lofuloners in Lud- 
So that for lodging and water prisoners here naught 

as their keepers shal all answere at dreadful doomes 

This place, and one other of his Armes, three broad Arrow 
heades, taken downe with the old gate, I caused to be fixed 

Pa^ 41 ouer I the entrie of the said Quadrant, but the verses being 
vnhappily turned inward to the wall, procured the like in 
effect to be grauen outward in prose, declaring him to be 
a Fishmonger, because some vpon a light occasion (as a 
maidens heade in a glasse window) had fabled him to bee 
a Mercer, and to haue begged there at Ludgate, &c. Thus 
much for Ludgate. 

A breach in Next this, is there a breach in the wall of the Citie, and 

BiidewelL"°' ^ bridge of timber ouer the Fleet dike, betwixt Fleetebridge 
and Thames directly ouer against the house of Bridewel. 
Thus much foe gates in the wall. 

watcrgates. Water gates on the bankes of the Riuer Thames haue beene 

many, which beeing purchased by priuate men, are also put 
to priuate vse, and the olde names of them forgotten, but of 
such as remaine, from the West, towards the East, may be 
sayde as followeth. 

Blacke Fryers The Blacke Friers stayres, a free landing place. 

Puddle wharf. Then a water gate at Puddle wharfe, of one Puddle that 

Gates of this Citie 41 

kept a wharfe on the West side thereof, and now of Puddle 
water, by meanes of many horses watred there. 

Then Powles wharfe, also a free landing place with staires, Powles wharf. 

Then broken wharfe, and other such like. Broken wharf. 

But Ripa ReginXy the Queenes Banke, or Queene Hithe, Queen Hith. 
may well be accounted the verie chiefs and principall water- 
gate of this citie, being a common strand or landing place, 
yet equall with, and of olde time farre exceeding Belins gate^ 
as shall be shewed in the warde of Queene Hithe. 

The next is Downe gate, so called of the sodaine descending, 
or downe going of that way from Saint lohns Church vpon 
Walbrooke vnto the riuer of Thames, wherby the water in 
the chanell there hath such a swift course, that in the yere 
^574* on the fourth of September, after a strong shower of 
raine, a lad of the age of xviii. yearcs, minding to haue leapt A lad of 18 
ouer the channell, was taken by the feete, and borne downe drained in a 
with the violence of that narrowe streame, and caried toward Channell at 
the Thames with such a violent swiftnesse, as no man could 
rescue or stay him, till hee came against a Cart wheele, that 
stoode in the Watergate, before whidi time hee was drowned 
and Starke dead. | 

This was sometime a large water gate, frequented of ships, Pagi42 
and other vessels, like as the Queene Hith, and was a part 
thereof, as doth appeare by an inquisition made in the 28. 
yeare of Henry the third, wherein was found, that aswell 
come as fish and all other thinges comming to the Port of 
Downegate, were to bee ordered after the customs of the 
Queenes Hith, for the kings vse, as also that the come 
arriuing between the gate of the Guild hall of the marchants Marchantesof 
of Cullen : the (Styleyeard) which is East from Downegate, £jd^<f™2r 
and the house then pertayning to the Archbishoppe of comebetwizte 
Canterbury^ west from Baynardes Castle, was to be measured ^^ bla^ 
by the measure, and measurer of the Queenes soke, or^*"- 
Queene Hith. I reade also in the 19. ol Edward the thirde, 
that customs were then to be paid for ships & other vessels 
resting at Downegate, as if they roade at Queene Hith, and 
as they now doe at Belingsgate. And thus much for Downe- 
gate may suffice. 

42 Gates of this Citie 

W)WMgatciii The next was called Wolfes gate in the roparie in the 
lib. hShic! Parrish of Alhallowes the lesse, of later time called Wolfes 
Lib.S.Albftni. i^nc, but now out of vse: for the lower part was builded on 
by the Earle of Shrewsburie, and the other part was stopped 
vp and builded on by the Chamberlaine o{ London. 
Ejidgate. The next is Ebdgate, a Watergate, so called of old time, as 

Lib. trinitate. \ \ %• % f 

Lib.S.Albani. appeareth by diuers records of tenements neare vnto the same 
Record E. 3. adioyning. It standeth neare vnto the church of S. Laurence 
Pountney, but is within the parish of S. Marten Ordegare. 
In place of this gate, is now a narrow passage to the Thames, 
and is called Ebgate lane, but more commonly the Old 
Oystergate. Then is there a water gate at the Bridge foote, called 

Oyster gate, of Oysters that were there of old time, commonly 
to be sold, and was the chiefest market for them, and for 
other shell fishes. There standeth now an engine or forcier, 
for the winding vppe of water to serue the cittie, whereof 
I haue already spoken. 

Bridge Gate. 

Bridge Gate. ThE next is the Bridge gate, so called of London Bridge, 
whereon it -standeth : This was one of the foure first and 
principall gates of the cittie, long before the conquest, when 

P^* 43 there ] stoode a Bridge of timber, and is the seuenth and last 

principall gate mentioned by W, Fitzstephen^ which Gate 
being newe made, when the Bridge was builded of stone, hath 
beene often times since repayred. This gate with the Tower 
vpon it, in the yeare 1436. fell down, and two of the farthest 
Arches Southwardes also fell therewith, and no man perished 
or was hurte therewith. To the repayring whereof, diuers 
wealthy Citizens gaue large summes of money, namely Robert 
Large sometime Maior 100. Markes, Stephen Forster ao 1. Sir 
lohn Crosby e Alderman 100 1. &c. But in the yeare 147 1. the 
Kentish Marriners vnder the conduct of Bastard Fauconbridge 

w. Dunthoni. burned the said Gate, and xiii. houses on the Bridge, besides 

bridfiVf^te ^^ Beere houses at Saint Katherines, and many other in the 

burned. Suburbes. 

Bttttolphs The next is Buttolphes gate, so called of the parrish 

^^^* Church of S. Buttolph neare adioyning. This gate was 

Gates of this Citie 43 

sometime giuen or confirmed by WUUam Conqueror to the 
Monkes of Westminster in these wordes : ^ W. rexAnglix^ 6f*c. 
William King of England, sendeth greeting to the Shiriflfes 
and all his Ministers, as also to al his louing subiectes, French 
and English of London : Know ye that I haue granted to God 
and S. PeUr of Wistminster & to the Abbot Vitalis, the 
gift which Almundus of the port of S. Buttolph gave them, 
when he was there made Monke : that is to say, his Lords 
Court with the houses, & one Wharfe, which is at the head of 
London bridge, and all other his lands which hee had in the 
same Cittie, in such sort as King Edward more beneficially, 
and amply granted the same : and I will and command that 
they shall enioy the same well and quietly and honourably 
with sake and soke." &c. 

The next is Bellinsgate, vsed as an especiall Porte, or Belini^ate. 
Harborow, for small shippes and boates comming thereto, 
and is now most frequented, the Queenes Hith being almost 
forsaken. How this Gate tooke that name, or of what 
antiquity the same is, I must leaue vncertaine, as not hauing 
read any ancient recorde thereof, more than that Geffrey GeflOney of 
Monmouth writeth, that Belin a king of the Britans, about M°'^«»^ 
400. yeares before Christes natiuity builded this Gate, and 
named it Belins gate, after his owne | calling : and that when P^ 44 
he was dead, his bodie being burned, the ashes in a vessell of 
Brasse, were set vpon a high pinacle of stone ouer the same 
Gate. But Casar and other Romane writers affirme of 
Citties, walles, and gates, as yee haue before heard, and 
therefore it seemeth to me not to be so auncient, but rather 
to haue taken that name of some later owner of the place, 
happily named Beling^ or Biling^ as Somars key. Smarts key, 
Frosh wharfe, and others thereby tooke there names of their 
owners : of this gate more shall be said when we come to 
Belins gate ward. 

Then haue you a water gate, on the west side of Wooll watergate by 
wharf, or Customers key, which is commonly called the house. 
Water gate, at the south end of Water lane. 

One other water gate there is by the bulwarke of the Watergate by 
Tower, and this is the last and farthest water gate East- Tower. 
warde, on the Riuer of Thames, so farre as the Citie of 

44 Gates of this Citie 

London extendeth within the walles : both which last named 

water gates bee within the Tower ward. 

wharfesand Besides these common Water gates, were diuerse priuate 

*** wharfes and Keyes, all along from the East to the West of 

this Citie, on the banke of the Riuer of Thames : Marchants 

of all nations had landing places, Warehouses, Cellers, and 

stowage of their goods and Marchandises, as partly shall 

bee touched in the wardes adioyning to the said Riuer : now 

for the ordering and keeping these gates of this Citie in the 

night time, it was appo3mted in the y ere of Christ, 1 258. by 

Henrie the 3. the 42. of his raigne, that the Ports of Eng- 

Mathcw Paris, land should be strongly kept, and that the gates of London 

London to be should bee new repayred, and diligently kept in the night, 

^^dit**^ for feare of French deceytes, whereof one writcth these verses. 

Per noctem portae clauduntur Londoniarum^ 
Moenia ne forte fraus frangat Francigenarum. 

Page 45 Of Towers and Castels. 

The Tower of jLHE Citie of London {saith Fitzstephen) hath in the East 
^***^^°* a verie great and a fnost stroftg Palatine Tower y wfiose turrets 
and walles doe rise from a deepe foundation^ the morter therof 
being tempered with the bloud of beasts. In the west part are 
two most strong Castels^ &c. To begin therefore with the 
most famous Tower of London, situate in the East, neare 
vnto the riuer of Thames, it hath beene the common opinion : 
j and some haue written (but of none assured ground) that 
lulius CcBsarf the first conquerour of the Brytains, was the 
original! Authour and founder aswell thereof, as also of many 
other Towers, Castels, and great buildings within this Realme : 
In myannalet. but (as I haue alreadie before noted) Ccesar remained not here 
so long, nor had hee in his head any such matter, but onely to 
dispatch a conquest of this barbarous Countrey, and to pro- 
ceede to greater matters. Neither do the Romane writers 
make mention of any such buildings erected by him here. 
And therefore leaning this, and proceeding to more grounded 

Towers and Castels 45 

authoritie, I find in a fayre Register booke containing the acts 
of the Bishops of Rochester, set downe by Edmond de Haden- 
ham^ that William the first, sumamed Conquerour, builded 
the Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square Tower of Lou- 
Tower there, about the yeare of Christ 1078. appoynting i,5\yj}li,j„j 
Gundulph, then Bishop of Rochester, to bee principall surueyer Conqueror, 
and ouerseer of that worke, who was for that time lodged in white Tower, 
the house of Edmere a Burgesse of London, the very wordes 
of which mine Authour are these : Gundulphus Episcoptis man- 
dato Willielmi Regis magni prxfuit operi magnx Turris 
London^ quo tempore hospitatus est apud quendam Edmerum 
Burgensem London, qui dedit vnum were Ecclesix Rofen. 

Ye haue before heard, that the wall of this Citie was all 
round about furnished with Towers and Bulwarke, in due dis- 
tance euery one from other, and also that the Riuer Thames, 
with his ebbing and flowing, on the South side, had subuerted ! 
the said wall, | and towers there. Wherefore king William, /w 4^ 
for defence of this Citie, in place most daungerous, and open ; 
to the enemie, hauing taken downe the second Bulwarke in 
the east part of the wall, from the Thames builded this Tower, ! 
which was the great square Tower, now called the white [ ^ 
tower, and hath beene since at diuerse times enlarged with I 
other buildings adioyning, as shalbe shewed. This tower was ft. Hunting- 
by tempest of winde,sore shaken in the yeare 1090. the fourth w°Vi-ini«- 
of William Rufus, and was againe by the sayd Rufus, and Mathew Paris. 
Henrie the first repayred. They also caused a Castell to be cwtl^^tS' 
builded vnder the said tower, namely, on the South side Tower 
towards the Thames, and also incastelated the same round 

Henrie Huntington libra sexto, hath these words. William 
Rufus challenged the inuesture of Prelates, he pilled and shaued 
the people with tribute, especially to spend about the Tower of 
London, and the great hall at Westminster. 

Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Magnauille Earle Pint Comta- 
of Essex, were foure the first Constables of this tower of ^^^^^^ 
London, by succession : all which helde by force a portion of 
lande (that pertained to the Priory of the holy Trinitie within 
Aldgate) that is to say, Eastsmithiield, neare vnto the tower, Eastsmithfield 
making thereof a Vineyard, and would not depart from it, till * ^^"**«y*^*- 

46 Towers and Castels 

the seconde yeare of king Stephen, when the same was adiudged 
Excharu. and restored to the church. This said Geffrey MagnauiUe 
was earle of Essex, Constable of the tower, Shiriffeof London, 
Middlesex, Essex, and Hertfordshires, as appeareth by a 
Geffrey Charter ol Mcnvde the Empresse, dated 1141. He also forti- 

MagnAnille fj^d the tower of London agaynst king Stephen, but the king 
Essex Consu- tooke him in his Court at Saint Albones, and would not deliuer 
Towered ^*"^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ rendered the tower of London, with the Castles 
Shiriffeof of Waldcn, and Plashey in Essex. In the yeare 1153, ^'^^ 
Richitfdde tower of London, and the Castell of Windsore, were by the 
Lncia Gustos kingr deliuered to Richard de Lucie, to be safely kept. In the 

of the Tower. ^ _, r> , , . \r^i x rr - ^ 

yeare 1155, Thomas Becket being Chancelor to Henrte the 

second, caused the Flemings to bee banished out of England, 

their Castels lately builded to be pulled downe, and the tower 

of London to be repayred. ' 

Roger of About the yeare 11 90, the second of Richard the first, 

TohoB^. IVil/iam Longshampe Bishop of Elie, Chancellor of England, 

Pag$ 47 for I cause of dissention betwixt him and Earle lohn the kings 

brother that was rebell, inclosed the tower and Castell of 

The Tower of London, with an outward wall of stone imbattailed, and also 

passedabout caused a deepe ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as 

with a wall & I haue said before) to haue enuironed it with the Riuer of 

a ditch 

Thames. By the making of this inclosure, and ditch in East 
smithfield : the Church of the holie Trinitie in London, lost 
halfe a marke rent by the yeare, and the Mill was remoued 
that belonged to the poore brethren of the Hospitall of Saint 
S. Katherines Katherine, and to the Church of the holy Trinitie aforesaid, 
v^ere now is which was no small losse and discommoditie to either part, 
the Iron gate and the garden which the king had hyred of the brethren for 
six Marks the yeare, for the most part was wasted and marred 
by the ditch. Recompence was often promised, but neuer 
performed, vntill king Edward comming after, gaue to the 
brethren fiue Markes and a halfe for that part which the ditch 
had deuoured : and the other part thereof without, hee yeelded 
to them againe, which they hold : and of the saide rent of fiue 
Markes and a halfe, they haue a deede, by vertue whereof, 
they are well payed to this day. 

It is also to be noted, and cannot bee denied, but that the 
said inclosure and ditch, tooke the like or greater quantitie o£ 

Towers and Castels 47 

ground from the Citie within thewall, namely one of that part 

called the tower hill, besides breaking downe of the Citie wal, 

from the white tower to the first gate of the Citie, called the 

Posterne, yet haue I not read of any quarell made by the 

Citizens, or recompence demaunded by them for that matter, 

because all was done for good of the Cities defence thereof, 

and to their good likings. But Mathew Paris writeth, that in Mathew Paris. 

the yeare 1 239. King Henrie the third fortified the tower of 2^ towct °^ 

London to an other end, wherefore the Citizens fearing, least bniided. 

that were done to their detriment, complayned, and the king 

answered, that hee had not done it to their hurt, but saith he, 

I will from henceforth doe as my brother doth, in building 

and fortifyii^ castels, who beareth the name to bee wber than 

I am. It followed in the next yeere, sayth mine Authour, 

the sayd noble buildings of the stone gate and bulwarke, which w«t g*^ ^ 

the king had caused to be made by the tower of London, on the Tower fel 

the west side thereof, was shaken as it had beene with an do^^*- 

earthquake, and | fell downe, which the king againe com- Page 48 

maunded to bee builded in better sort than before, which was ^*1^ *nd bul- 

warks agatne 

done, and yet againe in the yere 1247. the said wall and bul- fall down and 

warks that were newly builded, wherin the king had bestowed "^ bniided. 

more then twelve thousand Marks, were vnrecouerably throwne 

downe, as afore : for the which chance the Citizens of London 

were nothing sorie, for they were threatned that the said wall 

and bulwarkes were builded, to the end that if any of them 

would contend for the liberties of the Citie, they might be 

imprisoned, & that many might be laid in diuerse prisons, 

many lodgings were made that no one should speake with 

another: thus much Mathew Paris for this building. More 

ol Henrie the third his dealings against the citizens of London, 

we may read in the said Authour, in 1045. i^^S- 1249. 1253. 

1255. 1256. &c. But concerning the saide wall and bulwarke, 

the same was finished though not in his time : for I read that 

Edward the first, in the second of his raigne, commaunded 

the Treasurer and Chamberlain of the Exchequer, to deliuer 

out of his Treasurie, vnto Miles of Andwarp^ aoo. Markes, <A 

the fines taken of diuerse Marchants or Usurers of London, 

for so be the words of the Record, towards the worke of the 

ditch then new made^ about the said Bulwarke, now called 

48 Towers and Castels 

Ditch made the Lion tower. I find also recorded, that Henrie the third 

^e^thSut **" ^^ 46. of his raigne, wrote to Edward of Westminster, 

the west gate commaunding him that he should buy certaine perie plants, 

H. lYixT'^ ^"^ set the same in the place without the tower of London, 

orchard by within the wall of the said Citie, which of late he had caused 

to be inclosed with a mud wall, as may appeare by this that 

followeth : the Maior and Communaltie of London were fined 

for throwing downe the said earthen wall against the tower of 

London, the 9. of Edward the second. Edward the fourth in 

place thereof buildcd a wall of Bricke. But now for the Lion 

Tower, and Lions in Englande the original!, as I haue read, 

was thus. 

First parkc in Henrie the first builded his Mannor of Wodstocke, with 

^*" * a Parke, which he walled about with stone, seuen miles in 

compas, destroying for the same diuerse villages, churches & 

chappels, and this was the first Parke in England : hee placed 

therein, besides great store of Deere, diuers straunge beastes 

to be kept and nourished, such as were brought to him from 

Pagi 49 farre countries, as Lijons, Leopards, Linces, Porpentines, and 

Lions in Wod- such Other. More I reade that in the yeare 1 235. Fredericke 

rtodcc parke. the Emperour sent to Henrie the third three Leopards, in 

Henrie the 3. token of his regal shield of armes, wherein three Leopards were 

the Tower" pictured, since the which time, those Lions and others haue 

beene kept in a part of this bulwarke, now called the Lion 

tower, and their keepers there lodged. King Edward the 

second in the twelft of his raigne, commaunded the shiriifes of 

London to pay to the keepers of the kings Leopard in the 

tower of London vi. d. the day, for the sustenance of the 

Leopard, and three halfe pence a day for diet of the said 

keeper, out of the fee farme of the sayd Citie. 

More, the 16. of Edward the third, one Lion, one Lionesse, 

one Leopard, and two Cattes Lions, in the said tower, were 

committed to the custodie of Robert, the sonne of lohn 


Edward the 4. Edward the fourth fortified the tower of London, and 

bnUded Bui- jnclosed with bricke, as is aforesaid, a certaine peece of ground, 

the Tower, taken out of the Tower hill, west from the Lion tower, now 

called the bulwarke. His officers also in the 5. of his raigne, 

set vpon the sayd hill both scaffold, and gallowes, for the 

Towers and Castels 49 

execution of offenders, whereupon the Maior, and his brethren 
complained to the king, and were answered, that the same was 
not done in derogation of the Cities liberties, & therefore caused 
proclamation to be made,& shall be shewed in Towerstreete. 
Richard the third repayred and builded in this Tower Rich*«i the 3. 

- ^ repayred the 

somewhat. tow^. 

Henrie the 8. in 153a. repayred the white tower, and other White tower 
parts thereof. In the yeare 1548. the second of Edward the 6. HSrfcl^s. 
on the 2a. of Nouember in the night, a French man lodged in 
the round bulwarke, betwixt the west gate and the Posteme, 
or drawbridge, called the warders gate, by setting iire on 
a barrel of Gunpowder, blew up the said Bulwarke, burnt A bolwarke of 
himselfe, and no mo persons. This Bulwarke was forthwith ^^^^^^ 
againe new builded. 

And here because I haue by occasion spoken of the west 
gate of this tower, the same^ as the most principal, is vsed for 
the receipt, and deliuerie of all kindes of carriages, without Gatet and 
the which gate be diuerse bulwarks and gates, turning towards J^^^^®^ 
the north, &c. Then neare within this west gate opening 
to the South, is a strong po|steme, for passengers, by the Pagejo 
ward house, ouer a draw bridge, let downe for that purpose. 
Next on the same South side towarde the East, is a large 
wateigate, for receipt of Boats, and small vessels, partly 
vndcr a stone bridge, from the riuer of Thames. Beyond it 
is a small Posteme, with a draw bridge, seldome letten downe, 
but for the receipt of some great persons, prisoners. Then 
towards the East is a great and strong gate, commonly 
called the Iron gate, but not vsually opened. And thus 
much for the foundation, building, and repayring of this 
tower, with the Gates and Postemes may suffice. And now 
somewhat of accidents in the same, shall be shewed. 

In the yeare 11 96. William Fitzosbert^ a Citisen of London Actionaof 
seditiously mouing the common people to seeke libertie, and 
not to be subiect to the rich, and more mightie, at length 
was taken and brought before the Archbishop of Canterburie, losticessatein 
in the tower, where he was by the Judges condemned, and ^^*'' 
by the heeles drawn thence to the Elmes in Smithfield, and 
there hanged. 

1214. King lohn wrote to Geffrey Magnauille to deliuer 

STOW, r K 


Towers and Castels 

Mat. p&ris. 

Patent the 15. the tower of London, with the prisoners, armour and all 

o ituig o • other things found therein, belonging to the king, to William 

Archdeacon of Huntingdon. The yeare iai6. the first of 

Mat. pads. Henrie the third, the sayd Tower was deliuered to Lewes of 

France, and the Barons of England, 
plecsofthe In the yeare iao6. Plees of the Crowne were pleaded in the 
STthc tower. Tower : Likewise in the yeare 1220. and likewise in the yeare 
1234. and again in the yere 1243. before William of Yorke, 
Richard Passelew^ Henry Bathe^ lerofne of Saxton lusticers. 

In the yeare 122a. the Citizens of London hauing made 
a tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burge^ 
chiefe lustice of England, came to the Tower of London, 
called before him the Maior and Aldermen, of whom he 
inquired for the principall authors of that sedition : amongest 
whome one named Coftstantine Fits Aelulfe auowed, that he 
was the man, and had done much lesse then he ought to 
haue done : Whereupon the lustice sent him with two other 
to Folks de Breauti^ who with armed men, brought them to the 
gallowes, where they were hanged. 

In the yeare 1244. Griffith the eldest sonne of LeoUne^ 
prince | of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, deuised 
meanes of escape, and hauing in the night made of the hang- 
ings, sheetes, &c. a long line, he put himselfe downe from the 
toppe of the Tower, but in the sliding, the weight of his body, 
being a very bigge and a fatte man, brake the rope, and he 
fell and brake his necke withall. 

In the yeare 1253. ^.ing Henry the third imprisoned the 
Sheriffes of London in the Tower more than a Moneth, for 
the escape of a Prisoner, out of Newgate, as ye may reade in 
the Chapter of Gates. 

In the yeare 1260. King Henry with his Queene, (for feare 
of the Barons) were lodged in the Tower. The next yeare 
he sent for his Lords, and held his Parliament there. 

In the yeare 1263. when the Queene would haue remooued 

from the Tower by water, towardes Windsore, sundrie Lon- 

?Tc 3?^**° diners got them together to the Bridge, vnder the which 

she was to passe, and not onely cryed out vpon her with 

reprochfull words, but also threw myre and stones at her, by 

* Breaut^] Brent 1603 

Fits Aelnlfe 

Page St 

Griffith of 
Wales feU 
from the 

Sheriffes of 
London pri- 
soners in the 

K. Henry 
lodged in the 
Tower, and 
helde his 
Citizens of 
London de- 

Towers and Caste Is 51 

which she was constrained to returne for the time, but in the 
yeare, 1265. the saide Cittizens were faine to submit them- 
selues to the king for it, and the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffes 
were sent to diuers prisons, and a Custos also was set ouer 
the Cittie, to witte Othon Constable of the Tower, &c. 

In the yeare 138a. Leoline Prince of Wales being taken at LeoUnc prince 
Blewth^ Castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir head let on the 
Roger Mortimer caused to bee crowned with luie, and set it Tower, 
vppon the Tower of London. 

In the yeare 1290. diuers lustices aswell of the Bench, as of Tnsticesof the 
the assises, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with ^t^J^/^ 
greate sommes of money redeemed their Libertie. E. 2. the 14. 
of his raigne, appointed for Prisoners in the Tower, a Knight 
ij.d. the day, an Elsquier, i.d. the day, to serue for their dyet. 

In the yeare 1320. the Kinges Justices sate in the Tower, Josticet sate in 
for tryall of matters, whereupon lohn Gisors late Mayor of ^^'^^' 
London and many other fled the Citty for feare to bee charged 
of thinges they had presumptuously done. 

In the yeare 132 1. the Mortimers yeelding themselues to | 
the King, he sent them Prisoners to the Tower, where ^ty Pages^ 
remayned long, and were adiudged to be drawne and hanged. 
But at length Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, by giuing to his Mortimer 
Keepers a sleepie drinke, escaped out of the Tower, and his SJ^*^ut of 
unckle Roger being still kept there, dyed about fine yeares after, the Tower. 

In the yeare 1326. the Cittizens of London wanne thei^ndon 
Tower, wresting the keyes out of the Constables handes, j^^^^^ 
deliuered all the Prisoners, and kept both Cittie and Tower, to Tower from 
the vse of Isabel the Queene, and Edward her sonne. ^"^^ Constable. 

In the yeare 1330. Roger Mortimer Earle of March was Mortimer 
taken and brought to the Tower, from whence hee was drawne the Tower to 
to the Elmes, and there hanged. Sl^*^""^ 

In the yeare 1344. King Edward the 3. in the 18. yeare of a mint in the 
his raigne, commaunded Florences of gold to be made and pj^;^ of 
coyned in the Tower, that is to say, a penie peece of the gold coined 
value of sixe shillings and eight pence, the halfe peny peece ^"* 
of the value of three shillinges and foure pence, and a farthing 
peece worth 20. pence, PerceudU de Port of Luke being then 
Maister of the coyne. And this is the first coyning of Gold 

^ Blewth] Builth 
£ 2 


Towers and Castels 

The kinges 
Exchange in 
Budes Sery. 

Roond plates 
called Blanks, 
deliuered by 
Aigent & pc- 
cnnia, after 
called Ester- 

W. Con- 
queror weare 
no beard. 

W. Malms- 


in the Tower, whereof I haue read, and also the first co3mage 
of Gold in England : I finde also recorded that the saide King 
in the same yeare, ordayned his Exchange of mony to be kept 
in Semes Tower, a part of the Kinges house in Buckles bury. 
And here to digresse a little (by occasion offered,) I finde 
that in times before passed, all great sommes were paid by 
weight of golde or siluer, as so many pounds, or markes of 
siluer, or so many poundes or markes of gold, cut into 
Blankes, and not stamped, as I could proue by many 
good authorities which I ouerpasse. The smaller sommes 
also were paid in starlings, which were pence so called, for 
other Coynes they had none. The antiquity of this starling 
peny vsuall in this realme, is from the raigne of Henry the 
second : notwithstanding the Saxon coynes before the con- 
quest were pence of fine siluer the full weight, and somewhat 
better then the latter sterlinges, as I haue trycd by conference 
of the pence of Burghrede king of Mercia^ Aelfred^ Edward^ 
and Edelred^ kings of the West Saxons, PlegtKond Arch- 
bishoppe of Canterbury, and others. William the Con- 
querors penie also was fine siluer of the weight of the Easter- 
ling, and had on the | one side stamped an armed heade, with 
a beardles face : for the Normans ware no beardes, with a 
scepter in his hand : the inscription in the circumference was 
this, Le Rei Wilam on the other side a Crosse double to the 
ring, betweene fower rowals of sixe poyntes. 

King Henry the first his penny was of the like weight, 
finenes, forme of face, crosse. &c. 

This Henry in the eight yeare of his raigne, ordayned the 
peny which was round, so to bee quartered, by the crosse, 
that they might easily bee broken, into halfe pence and 
farthinges. In the first, second, thirde, fourth, and fift of 
king Richard the first, his raigne, and afterwards I find com- 
monly Easterling money mentioned, and yet oft times the 
same is called argent, as afore, & not otherwise. 

The first great summe that I read of to be paid in Ester- 
linges, was in the fift of Richard the first, when Robert Earle 
of Leycester being prisoner in France, proffered for his ran- 
some a thousand marks Easterlings, notwithstanding the 
Easterling pence were long before. The weight of the Easter- 

Towers and Castels 53 

ling penie may appeare by diuers statutes, namely of weights Wei^fht of 

and measures, made in the 51. of Henry the third in these *^^^5j^£® 

words, Thirty two graines of Wheat, drie and round, taken in wheat 

the middest of the eare shoulde be the weight of a starling 

penie, 2o. of those pence shoulde waye one ounce, 1 2. ounces 

a pound Troy. It followeth in the statute eight pound to 

make a gallon of Wine, and eight gallons a bushel of Londorn 

measure, &c. Notwithstanding which statute, I findc in the 

eight of Edward the first, Gregorie Rokesley Mayor of 

London, being chiefe Maister or minister of the Kinges 

Exchaunge, or mintes, a new coyne being then appointed, 

the pound of Easterling money should contain as afore 12. 

ownces, to witte fine siluer, such as was then made into foyle, 

and was commonlie called siluer of Guthurons lane, 11. 

ounces, two Easterlings, and one ferling or farthing, and the 

other 17. pence ob. q, to bee laye *. Also the pound of money 

ought to weigh xx.s. iij.d. by accounte, so that no pound 

ought to be ouer xx.s. iiij.d. nor lesse then xx.8. ij.d. by 

account, the ounce to weigh twenty pence, the penny weighte, 

24. graynes, (which 24. by weight then appointed, were as | 

much as the former 32 graines of Wheate) a penny force, 25. Page $4 

graines and a halfe, the pennie deble or feeble, 22. g^nes, and 

a halfe, &c. 

Now for the penny Easterling, how it took that name. The pennie 
I think good briefly to touch. It hath beene saide that ^ t^oke §ie^^ 
Numa Pompilius the second king of the Romaines, com- name, 
maunded money first to bee made, of whose name they were 
called Nutniy and when Copper pence, siluer pence, and gold 
pence were made, because euery siluer peny was worth ten 
Copper pence, and euery golde pennie worth ten siluer pence, 
the pence therefore were called in Latine Denarii^ and often- 
times the pence are named of the matter and stufle of Gold 
or siluer. But the money of England was called of the 
workers and makers thereof : as the Floren of Gold is called of 
the Florentines, that were the workers thereof,and so the Easter- h. a made a 
lii^ pence took their name of the Easterlinges which did first "^^J^^-'" 
make this money in England, in the raign of Henry the second, raigne. 

Thus haue I set downe according to my reading in Anti- 

* laye]=alay, alloy, N,E,D. 

54 Towers and Castels 

Starling mony, quitie of money matters, omitting the imaginations of late 

^^LgUi * writers, of whome some haue said Easterling money to take 

this land. ^hat name of a Starre, stamped in the border or ring of 

the penie : other some of a Bird called a Stare or starling 

stamped in the circumference : and other (more vnlikely) of 

being coyned at Stritielin or Starlings a towne in Scotland, &c. 

Of halfpence Now Concerning halfpence and farthings, the accounte of 

andfaithingcs. ^hich is more subtiUer then the pence, I neede not speake 

of them more then that they were onely made in the Ex- 

TheKinges chaunge at London, and no where else: first poynted to bee 

LradOT?*"* naade by Edward the i. in the 8. of his raigne, & also at 

the same time, the saide Kinges coynes some few groates of 

silver, but they were not vsuall. The kinges Exchaunge at 

London, was neare vnto the Cathedrall Church of Sainte 

Paule^ and is to this daye commonlie called the olde Chaunge, 

but in Euidences the olde Exchaunge. 

The Kinges Exchaunger in this place, was to deliuer out 

to euery other Exchaunger throughout England, or other the 

kings Dominions, their Coyning irons, that is to say, one 

Pogess Standerde | or Staple, and two Trussels, or Punchons : and 

when the same were spent and wome, to receyue them with 

an account, what summe had been coyned, and also their 

Fix, or Boxe of assay and to deliuer other Irons new grauen, 

&c. I find that in the ninth of king lohn^ there was besides 

Mints in Eng- the Mint at London, other Mints at Winchester^ Excester^ 

^"t^ t I h Chichester^ Canterbiirie, Rochester, Ipswich, Norwich, Linne, 

Lincolne, Yorke, Carleil, Northhampton, Oxford, S, Edmofids' 

bury, and Durham. The Exchanger, Examiner, and Trier, 

buyeth the siluer for Coynage : answering for euery hundred 

Diminishing pound of siluer, bought in Bolion, or otherwise, 98J. 15.S. for 

of coyne. ^^ taketh 25s. for coynage. 

Starling mony King Edward the first, in the 27. of his raigne, held a 

b«te^l)rtcd. Parliament at Stebenheth, in the house of Henry WcUeis 

Maior of London, wherein amongst other things there handled, 

the transporting of starling money was forbidden. 

Th. Walring. In the yeare 1351. William Edington Bishop of Winchester, 

Mid hSifc*^^ and Treasurer of England, a wise man, but louing the kings 

coyned. commoditie, more then the wealth of the whole Realme, and 

common people (sayth mine Authour), caused a new coyne 

Towers and Castels 55 

called a groate, and a halfe groate to bee coyned and stamped, 

the groate to be taken for iiii.d. and the halfe groate for 

ii.d. not conteyning in weight according to the pence called 

Easterlings, but much lesse, to wit, by v.s. in the pound: 

by reason whereof, victuals, and marchandizes became the 

dearer through the whole realme. About the same time 

also, the old coinc of gold was chaunged into a new, but the 

old Floren or noble, then so called, was worth much aboue 

the taxed rate of the new, and therefore the Marchants in- -** 

grossed vp the olde, and conueyed them out of the Realme, Coines of gold 

to the great losse of the kingdome. Wherefore a remedie ^^"***^* 

was prouided by chaunging of the stampe. 

In the yeare 141 1. king Henrie the fourth caused a new 
coyne of Nobles to be made, of lesse value then the old by 
iiiLd. in the Noble, so that fiftie Nobles should be a pound 
Troy we^ht. 

In the yeare 1421. was granted to Henrie the fift, a fifteen 
to be payd at Candlemasse, and at Martinmasse, of such 
money as was then currant gold, or siluer, not ouermuch 
clipped or washed, to wit, that if the noble were worth fine 
shillings eight pence, then | the king should take it for a ful Pagej^ 
Noble of sixe shillings eight pence, and if it were lesse of 
value then fiue shillings eight pence, then. the person paying 
that golde, to make it good to the value of fiue shillings eight 
pence, the long alway receyuing it for an whole noble of sixe 
shillings eight pence. And if the Noble so payed be better 
then fiue shillings eight pence, the king to pay againe the 
surplusage that it was better then fiue shillings eight pence. More plentie 
Abo this yere was such scarcitie of white money, y* though ^o^^J^"!^ 
a Noble were so good of Gold and weight as sixe shillings siliier. 
eight pence, men might get no white money for them. 

In the yeare 1465. king Edward the fourth caused a newe Coynes of 
coyne both of gold and siluer to be made, whereby he gained ^^ aUonSSed 
much, for he made of an olde Noble, a Royall : which he in valoe. 
commaunded to go for x.s. Neuerthelesse to the same royall 
was put viii.d. of alay, and so weyed the more, being smitten Rote nobles, 
with a new stampe, to wit, a Rose. He likewise made halfe 
Angels of V.S. and farthings of v.s. vi.d. Angeletsof vi.s. viii.d. 
and halfe Angels, iii3. iiii.d. Hee made siluer money of three 

56 Towers and Castels 

pence, a groate, and so of other coynes after that rate, to the 
great harme of the Commons. W. Lord Hastings the kii^es 
Chamberlaine, being maister of the kinges Mints, saith the 
Record, vndertooke to make the monyes vnder forme fol- 
lowing, to wit, of golde a peece of viiLs. iiii.d. starling, which 
should be called a noble of golde, of the which there shoulde 
be iiftie such pieces in the pound weight of the tower : an 
other peece of golde, iiij.s. ii.d. of sterlings, and to be of them 
an hundred such peeces in the pound : and a third peece of 
gold, ii.s. i.d. starling, two hundreth such peeces in the pound, 
euery pound weight of the Tower to be worth xx. pound, 
xvi.s. viii.d. of starlings, the which should be 23. Cants, 
3. graines, and halfe fine, &c. and for siluer, 37.S. 6.d. of star- 
lings, the peece of foure pence, to be Cxii. groates, and two 
pence in the pound weight 
Halfe faced In the yeare 1504. king Henrie the seuenth appoynted 
a new coyne, to wit, a groat, and halfe groat, which bare but 
halfe faces ; the same time also was coyned a groat, which was 
in value xii.d. but of those but a few, after the rate of fortie 
pence the ounce. 

In the yeare 1526. the xviii. of Henrie the 8. the Angell 

noble being then the sixt part of an ounce Troy, so that six 

^(igt X7* Angels was | iust an ounce, which was fortie shillinges starlit^, 

and the Angell was also worth two ounces of siluer, so liiat 

sixe Angels were worth xii. ounces of siluer, which was fortie 

shillings. A Proclamation was made on the sixt of September, 

that the Angell shoulde goe for vii.s. iiii.d. the Royall for 

Sold tod sU- a xi.s. and the Crowne for iiils. iiild. And on the fift of 

Nouember following, againe by Proclamation, the Angell was 

enhaunced to vii.s. vi.d. and so euerie ounce of golde to be 

xlv.s. and the ounce of siluer at iii.s. ix.d. in value. 

Base monies, In the yeare 1544. the 35. of Henrie the 8. on the xvi. of 

^y°*^ ^ May, proclamation was made for the inhauncing of gold to 

England. xlviii. shillings, and siluer to iiii. s. the ounce. Also the king 

caused to bee coyned base monyes, to wit, peeces of xii.d. 

vi.d. iiii.d. ii.d. and penny, in weight as the late starling, in shew 

good siluer, but inwardly Copper. These peeces had whole, 

or broad faces, and continued currant after that rate, till the 

5. of Edward the sixt, when they were on the ninth of Julie 

Towers and Castels 57 

called downe, the shilling to nine pence, the grote to three 

pence, &c. and on the xvii. of August, from nine pence to sixe 

pence, &c. And on the xxx. of October was published new Crownn aod 

Coynes of siluer and gold to be made, a peece of siluer v.s. ^J^J^^"'"" 

starling, a peece ii.s. vi.d. of xii.d. of vi.d. a penny with coined. 

a double Rose, halfe penny a single Rose, and a farthing with 

a Porteclose. Coynes of fine Golde, a whole Soueraigne of 

XXX.S. an Angell of x«8. an Angelet of v.s. Of crowne gold, 

a Soueraigne xx.s. halfe Soueraigne x.s. v.s. ii.s. vi.d. and 

base monyes to passe as afore, which continued till the second 

of Queene Elizabeth^ then called to a lower rate, taken to the 

mint, and refined, the siluer whereof being coyned with a new 

stampe of her Maiestie, the drosse was carried to foule high 

wayes, to highten them. This base monyes, for the time^ 

caused the olde starling monyes to be hourded vp, so that StarUng 

I haue scene xxi. shillings currant giuen for one old Angell h!^^ vp. 

to guild withall. Also rents of lands and tenements, with «>• «• cnirant 

prises of victuals, were raised farre beyond the former ^gell of 

rates, hardly since to bee brought downe. Thus much for i^^- ^ 

base monyes coyned and currant in England haue I knowne : mines. 

But for Leather monyes as many people haue fondly talked, 

I find no such matter. I reade that king lohn of Franoe being 

taken prisoner by Edward the black prince, | at the battaile Pagts^ 

of Poyters^ pakd a raunaome of three Millions of Florences, 

whereby he brought the realme into such pouertie, that manie LeaUier mony 

yearcs after they vsed Leather money, with a little stud or "* ^'■"<*- 

naile of siluer in the middest thereof. Thus much for mint, 

and coynage, by occasion of this tower (vnder correction of 

other more skilfuU) may suffice, and now to other accidents 


In the yeare 1360. the peace betweene England and France French king 
being confirmed, King Edward came ouer into England, and ^ower? ^ 
straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner 
there, whose ransome he assessed at three Millions of Florences, 
and so deliuered him from prison, and brought him with honour 
to the Sea. 

In the yeare i ^8i. the Rebels of Kent drew out of the tower Rebels of 
(where the king was then lodged) Simon Sudberie, Archbishop ^^e Tower, 
of Canterburie, Lord Chancellor : Robert Hales^ Prior of 

58 Towers and Castels 

S. lohns^ and Treasurer of England : William Appleton Frier, 

the kings confessor, and lohn Legge a Sai^eant of the kings, 

and beheaded them on the Tower hill, &c. 

Richard the a, In the yeare 1387. king Richard held his feast of Christmas 

Sie tower? in the Tower. And in the yeare 1399. the same king was 

sent prisoner to the Tower. 
Porter of the In the yeare 1414. Sir lohn Oldcastell brake out of the 
b«h^ed. tower. And the same yeare a Parliament being holden at 
Leycester, a Porter of the Tower was drawne, hanged and 
headed, whose head was sent vp, and set ouer the Tower 
gate, for consenting to one Whitlookey that brake out of the 

In the yeare 1419. Frier Randulph was sent to the tower, 
and was there slaine by the Parson of S. Peters in the tower. 
Counterfeit In the yeare 1426. there came to London a lewde fellow, 

Eoid M?' ^** feyning himselfe to be sent from the Emperor to the yong 
the tower of king Henric the sixt, calling himselfe Baron of Blakamoore, 
^' and that hee should be the principal! Phisition in this king- 
dome^ but his subtiltie being knowne, he was apprehended, 
condemned, drawne, hanged, headed and quartered, his head 
set on the tower of London, and his quarters on foure gates 
of the Citie. 

In the yeare 1458. in Whitson weeke, the Duke of Som- 
merset, with' Anthonie RiuerSy and other foure, kept lustes 
Pag$s9 be|fore the Queene in the Tower of London, against three 

t^^f ^^^^ Esquiers of the Queenes, and others. 

In the yeare 1465. king ZSwr^V the sixt was brought prisoner 
to the tower, where he remained long. 

In the yeare 1470. the tower was yeelded to sir Richard 

Lee Maior of London, and his brethren the Aldermen, who 

forthwith entered the same, deliuered king Henrie of his 

Henrie the 6. imprisonment, and lodged him in the kings lodging there, but 

SetowCT.*" ^'^ n^yX- yeare he was againe sent thither prisoner, and there 

DnkeofClar. In the yeare 1478. George Duke of Clarence^ was drowned 
enoe drowned ^j^h Malmesey in the tower : and within fine yeares after king 
Edward the 5. Edward the fift, with his brother, were said to be murthered 

murdred in ^1^ 
the tower. tnere. 

In the yeare 1485. lohn Earle of Oxford was made Con- 

Towers and Castels 59 

stable ^ the tower, and had custodie of the Lions graunted Ff^^t i* of 

In the yeare 1501. in the Moneth of May, was royall Tur- Instesand 
ney of Lordes and kn^hts in the tower of London before the Setow^ " 

In the yeare 150a. Queene Elizabeth, wife to Henrie the 7. 
died of childbirth in the tower. 

In the yeare 151 2. the Chappell in the high white tower 
was burned. In the yeare 1536. Queene Anne Bullein was 
beheaded in the tower. 1541. Ladie Katherine Howard^ wife 
to king Henrie the 8. was also beheaded there. 

In the yeare 1546. the 27 of Aprill, being Tuesday in Easter WiUiam Fox- 
weeke, William Foxley, Potmaker for the Mint in the tower of {^^^f ^^* 
London, fell asleepe, and so continued sleeping, and could not days & more 
be wakened, with pricking, cramping, or otherwise burning ^j^^, 
whatsoeuer, till the first day of the tearme, which was full 
xiiii. dayes, and xv. nights, or more, for that Easter tearme 
beginneth not afore xvii. dayes after Easter. The cause of his 
thus sleeping could not be knowne, though the same were 
diligently searched after by the kings Phisitians, and other 
learned men: yea the king himselfe examining the said 
William Foxley^ who was in all poynts found at his wakening 
to be as if hee had slept but one night. And he lived more 
then fortie yeares after in the sayde Tower, to wit, vntil the 
yeare of Christ, 1587, and then deceased on Wednesday in 
Easterweeke. | 

Thus much for these accidents : and now to conclude thereof Pagi 60 
in summarie. This tower is a Citadell, to defend or commaund Vae of the 
the Citie : a royall place for assemblies, and treaties. A Prison 2^J^^^ 
of estate, for the most daungerous offenders : the onely place 
of coynage for all England at this time : the armorie for war- 
like prouision : the Treasurie of the ornaments and Jewels of 
the crowne, and generall conseruer of the most Recordes of the 
kings Courts of iustice at Westminster. 

Tower on London Bridge. 

The next tower on the riuer of Thames^ is on London bridge Tower at the 
at the north end of the draw bridge. This tower was newe ^^ dr^ ^ 


6o Towers and Castels 

begun to be builded in the yeare 1426. Ihon ReymveU Maior 
of London, layd one of the first comer stones, in the founda- 
tion of this worke, the other three were laid by the ShirifTes, 
and Bridgemaisters, vpon euerie of these foure stones was 
engrauen in fayre Romane letters, the name of Ihesus. And 
these stones, I haue seene layde in the Bridge store house, 
since they were taken vp, when that tower was of late newly 
made of timber. This gate and tower was at the first strongly 
builded vp of stone, and so continued vntill the yeare 1577. in 
the Moneth of Aprill, when the same stone arched gate, and 
tower being decayed, was begun to be taken downe, and then 
were the heades of the tra}rtours remoued thence, and set on 
the tower ouer the gate at the brieve foote, towards South- 
warke. This said tower being taken downe a newe foundation 
was drawne : and sir lohn Langley Lord Maior laid the first 
stone, in the presence of the ShirifTes, and Bridgemaisters, on 
the 28. of August, and in the Moneth of September, the yere 
1579. the same tower was finished, a beautifull & chai^eaUe 
peece of worke, all aboue the bridge being of timber. 

Tower on the South of London Bridge. 

Tower at the An Other tower there is on London bridge, to wit, ouer the 
Se brid"^.^^ gate at the South ende of the same bridge towards South- 

warke. This gate with the tower thereupon, and two Arches 
Pagt 61 of I the bridge fell downe, and no man perished by the fall 
William Dun- ^l^^^^^^f, in the yeare 1436. Towards the new building whereof, 
thonie. diuerse charitable Citizens gaue large summes of monies: 

gateoT " which gate being then againe new builded, was with xiij. 
London houses more on the bridge in the yere 1471. burned by the 

' Marriners and Saylers of Kent, Bastard Fauconbriefge being 

their Captaine. 

Baynards Castle. 

Baynardg ^N the west part of this Citie (saith Fiizsiepheft) are two 
Casteli. most strong Castels, &c. Also Gernasius Tilbery^ in the raignc 

Geraase of of Hetirie the second, writing of these castels, hath to this 
Tilbnry. effect. Two Castelsy saith hee, are built with walles and ram* 
pires^ whereof one is in right of possession^ Baytiardes : the 

Towers and Castels 6i 

other the Barons of Mountfitchet : the first of these Castels 
banking on the Riuer Thames, was called Bayttards CasteU^ 
of Bayftarde a noble man that came in with the Conquerour, 
and then builded it, and deceased in the raigne of William 
Rufus : after whose decease Geffrey Baynard succeeded, and 
then William Baynard^ in the yeare iiii. who by forfeyture 
for fellonie, lost his Baronrie of little DunmoWy and king 
Henrie gaue it wholy to Robert the sonne of Richard the 
Sonne of Gilbard of Clare^ and to his heyres, togither with the 
honour of Baynards CastelU This Robert married Maude de 
Sent LiciOy Ladie of Bradham^ and deceased 1154. was buried 
at Saint Needes by Gilbert of Clare his father, Walter his 
Sonne succeeded him, he tooke to wife Matilde de Bocham^ 
and after her decease, Matilde the daughter and coheyre of 
Richard de Lucy^ on whom he begate Robert and other : he 
deceased in the yeare 11 98. and was buried at DuntncWy after 
whom succeeded Robert Fitzwater^ a valiant knight. 

About the yeare 1213. there arose a great discord betwixt Lib. Duiimow. 
king lohn and his Barons, because of Matilde^ surnamed the 
fayre, daughter to the said Robert Fitzwater^ whome the king 
vnlawfully loued, but could not obtaine her, nor her father 
would consent thereunto, wherevpon, and for other like causes, 
ensued warre through the whole Realme. The Barons were 
recesoied into London, where they greatly endamaged the 
king, but in | the end the king did not onely, therefore, banish Page 62 
the said Fitzwater amongest other, out of the Realme, but Robert Fitz* 
also caused his Castell called Baynard^ and other his houses JJ^^d. 
to be spoyled : which thing being done, a messenger being Bananls castle 
sent vnto Matilde the fayre, about the kings sute, whereunto vligimtie de- 
shee would not consent, she was poysoned. Robert Fitzwater ^ fended with 
and other being then passed into France, and some into worldly goods, 
Scotland, &c. w-^^'v^V.r*' 

' bodie, for life 

It hapned in the yere 1214. king lohn being then in France of thesoule. 
with a great armie, that a truce was taken betwixt the two 
kings of England and France, for the tearme of fiue yeares. 
And a riuer or arme of the sea being then betwixt eyther 
Host, there was a knight in the English host, that cried to 
them of the other side, willing some one of their knightes to 
come and iust a course or twaine with him: wherevpon 


Towers and Castels 

King lohns 

Robert FiU- 
walter re- 
stored to the 
kings iauoitr. 
castell againe 

The keeping 
of Hertford 
castel be- 
longed to 
Robert Fitz- 

without stay, Robert Fitzwater being on the French part, 
made himselfe readie, ferried ouer, and got on horsebacke, 
without any man to hdpe him, and shewed himselfe readie 
to the face of his chalenger, whome at the first course, he 
stroake so hard with his greate Speare, that horse and man 
fell to the ground : and when his Speare was broken, hee went 
backe againe to the Idng of France, which when the King had 
seene, by Gods tooth, quoth hee (after his vsuall oath) he 
were a king indeed, that had such a knight : the friends of 
Robert hearing these wordes, kneeled downe, and saide: O 
king, he is your knight : it is Robert Fitzwater^ and thereupon 
the next day hee was sent for, and restored to the kinges 
fauour: by which meanes peace was concluded, and he re- 
ceiued his liuings, and had license to repaire his Castell of 
Baynard and other Castels. 

The yeare iai6. the first o{ Henrie the third, the Castell of 
Hartford being deliuered to Lewes the French (Prince), and 
the Barons of England, Robert Fitzwater requiring to haue 
the same, because the keeping thereof did by ancient right 
and title pertaine to him, was aunswered by Lewes^ that 
English men were not worthie to haue such holdes in keep- 
ing, because they did betray their owne Lord, &c. This 
Robert deceased in the yeare 1234. and was buried at Dun- 
mow ^ and Walter his son that succeeded him, 1258. his 
Baronie of Baynard was in the ward of king Henry in the 
nonage oi Robert Fit swater. This Robert tookt to his | second 
wife, Aelianor daughter and heire to the Earle of Ferrars^ in 
the yeare 1289, and in the yeare 1303. on the xij. of March, 
before John Blondon Maior of London, he acknowledged his 
seruice to the same Citie, and sware vpon the Euangelists, 
that he would be true to the liberties thereof, and maintaine the 
same to his power, and the counsell of the same to keepe, &c. 

The right<s> that belonged to Robert Fitzwaltcr 
Chastalian of London, Lord of Wodeham^ 

were these. 

Robert Fits. J. HE sayd Robert and his heyres, ought to be, and are chiefe 
Uiw*and ^"- Banerers of London, in fee for the Chastilarie, which hee and 
ner bearer of his auncestors had by Castell Baynard^ in the said Citie. In 



Towers and Castels 63 

time of warre, the said Robert and his heyres ought to serue 
the Citie in maner as followeth: that is, the said Robert 
ought to come, he beeing the twentieth man of armes on 
horsebacke, couered with cloath, or armour vnto the great 
West doore of Saint Paule^ with his Banner displayed before 
him, of his armes : and when he is come to the said doore, 
mounted and apparelled, as before is said, the Maior with his 
Aldermen, and Shiriffes armed in their armes shall come out 
of the saide Church of Saint Paule^ vnto the saide doore, with 
a Banner in his hande, all on foote, which Banner shall be Banner of 
Guiles, the Image of Saint Paule golde : the face, hands, ^- P***^*^* 
feete, and sword of siluer : and assoone as the said Robert 
shall see the Maior, Aldermen, and Shiriifs come on foot out 
of the church, armed with such a Banner, he shall alight from 
his horse, and salute the Maior, and say to him : Sir Maior ^ 
I am come to do my seruice^ which I owe to the Citie. And 
the Maior and Aldermen shall answere. Wee giue to you as to 
our Bcumerer of fee in this Citie, this Banner of this Citie to 
bearcy and gouertte to the hottour andprofite of the Citie to our ^ 
power. And the said Robert and his heyres shall receiue the 
Banner in his hands, and shall goe on foote out of the gate 
with the Banner in his handes, and the Maior, Aldermen, 
and Shiriffes shall follow to the doore, and shall bring a horse 
to the said Robert worth xx.l. which horse shall be sadled 
with a saddle of the Armes of the said Robert^ and | shall be Pa^ 64 
sadled with a Saddle of the Armes of the said Robert^ and 
shall be couered with sindals of the said Armes. Also they 
shall present to him twentie poundes starling money, and 
deliuer to the Chamberlaine of the sayd Robert for his 
expences that day: then the saide Robert shall mount 
vppon the horse which the Maior presented to him, with the 
Banner in his hand, and as soone as he is vp, he shall say to 
the Maior, that he cause a Marshall to be chosen for the 
hoste, one of the Citie, which Marshall being chosen, the sayd 
Robert shall commaund the Maior and Burgesses of the Citie, 
to warae the Commoners to assemble together, and they shall 
all go vnder the Banner of Saint Patd^ and the said Robert 
shall beare it himselfe vnto Aldgate, and there the said 
* our] your 16^3 •^ Sic 1603 ; am. 1633 

64 ToTvers cmd Castels 

Robert, and Maior shall deliuer the said Banner of Saint 
Paule^ from thence, to whome they shall assent or thinke good. 
And if they must make any issue foorth of the Citie, then 
the sayde Robert ought to choose two foorth of euery warde, 
the most sage personages, to foresee to the safe keeping of the 
Citie, after they be gone foorth. And this counsell shall bee 
taken in the Priorie of the Trinitie neare vnto Aldgate. 
And before euery towne or Castell which the hoast of 
London besiege, if the siege continue a whole yeare, the saide 
Robert shall haue for euerie siege of the Communaltie of 
London an hundreth shillings for his trauaile, and no more. 
These be the rights that the sayd Robert hath in the time of 
Rights be- warre. Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwalter^ and to his 
RoSf *^ heyres in the Citie of London, in the time of peace, are these, 
Fitiwater. that is to say, the sayd Robert hath a soken or warde in the 
Citie, that is, a Wall of the Chanonrie of Saint Paule, as a 
man goeth downe the streete before the Brewhouse of Saint 
Paule y vnto the Thames, and so to the side of the Mill, which 
is in the water that commeth downe from the Fleete bridge, 
and goeth so by London walles, betwixt the Friers preachers 
and Ludgate, and so returneth backe by the house of the 
said Friers, vnto the said wall of the said Chanonrie of Saint 
Paule y that is all the parish of Saint Andrew ^ which is in the 
gift of his auncesters, by the said signioritie : and so the said 
Robert hath appendant vnto the saide soken all these thinges 
vnder written, that he ought to haue a soke man, and to 
place what sokeman he will, so he be of the sokemanrie, or | 
Page 6s the same warde, and if any of the sokemanrie bee impleaded 

in the Guild hall, of any thing that toucheth not the bodie 
of the Maior that for the time is, or that toucheth the bodie 
of no shiriife, it is not lawfull for the soke man of the soke- 
manrie of the sayde Robert Fitzwalter to demaund a Court of 
the sayd Robert^ and the Maior, and his Citizens of London 
ought to graunt him to haue a Court, and in his Court he ought 
to bring his iudgements as it is assented and agreed vpon in 
this Guild hall, that shall bee giuen them. If any therefore 
be taken in his sokemanry, he ought to haue his Stockes and 
imprisonment in his soken, and he shall be brought from 
thence to the Guild hall before the Maior, and there they 

Towers and Castels 65 

shall prouide him his iudgement that ought to bee giuen of 
him: but his iudgement shall not bee published till hee 
come into the Court of the saide Roberts^ and in his libertie. 
And the iudgement shall bee such» that if he haue deserued 
death by treason, he to be tied to a post in the Thames at 
a good wharfe where boates are fastened, two ebbings and 
two Sowings of the water. And if he be condemned for a 
common theefe, he ought to be ledde to the Elmes, and there 
suffer his iudgement as other theeues : and so the said Robert 
and his heyres hath honour that he holdeth a great Tranches 
within the Citie, that the Maior of the Citie, and Citizens 
are bound to doe him of right, that is to say, that when the 
Maior will holde a great counsaile, hee ought to call the saide 
Robert^ and his heyres to bee with him in counsaile of the 
Citie, and the saide Robert ought to be sworne to bee of 
counsaile with the Citie against ail people, sauing the king 
and his heyres. And when the saide Robert commeth to the 
Hoystings in the Guildhall of the Citie, the Maior or his 
Lieutenant ought to rise against him, and set him downe 
neare vnto him, and so loi^ as he is in the Guildhall, all the 
iudgement ought to be giuen by his mouth, according to the 
Record of the recorders of the sayde Guildhall, and so many 
waifes as come so long as he is there, hee ought to giue them 
to the Baylifles of the Towne, or to whom he will, by the 
counsaile of the Maior of the Citie. These bee the Francheses 
that belonged to Robert Fitzwater^ in London, in time of 
peace, which for the antiquitie thereof I haue noted out of an 
olde Recorde. | 

This Robert deceased in the yeare 1305. leauing issue Walter pa^ 66 
FiUsrobert^ who had issue Robert Fitzwalter^ vnto whom in 
the yeare 1320. the Citizens of London acknowledged the 
right which they ought to him and his heires for the Castell 
Baynardi he deceased 1325. vnto whom succeeded Robert 
Fitzrobert^ Fitswaltar^ &c. More of the Lord Fitswaltar 
may ye reade in my Annales in 5 1 . of Edward the third. But 
how this honour of Baynards Castell with the appurtennances 
fell from the possession of the Fitzwaters^ I haue not read : 
oncly I find that in the yeare 1428, the seuenth of HenrU the ^f^^^"" 
sixt, a great fire was at Baynards Castell, and that same by fire. 

STOW. I f* 

66 Towers and Castels 

Hnmfrey Humfrey Duke of Glocester, builded it of new : by his death 
cesteAcw^ and attaindor, in the yere 1446, it came to the hands of 
builded it. Henric the sixt, and from him to Richard Duke of Yorkc, of 

Richiud D. of - , ' t ^ . . . 1 . ^ .. 

Yorke, honor whom we reade, that m the yeare 1457. he lodged there as m 
of Baynirdg jjjg q^jj house. In the yeare 1460. the a8. of Februarie, the 

Earles of March, and of Warwike, with a great power of men, 

(but few of name) entered the Citie of London, where they 

Edward the 4, were of the citizens joyously receyued, and vpon the third of 

L S. Jc^if March, being Sunday, the said Earle caused to be mustred 

^id* his people in Saint lokns field : where, vnto that hoast was 

shewed and proclaymed certaine articles and poynts wherin 

K. Henry ^ as they sayd, had offended, and thereupon it was 

demaunded of the said people, whether the said H. was worthte 

to reigrne as king any longer or not: whereunto 3^* people 

cried, nay. Then it was asked of them whether they would 

haue the E. of March for their king : & they cried, yea, yea. 

Edwaid the 4. Wherupon certain captains were appoynted to beare report 

thcCTowne* in thereof vnto the sayd E. of March, then being lodged at his 

B«yn*«l« castell of Baynard. Whereof when the Earle was by them 

aduertized, he thanked God, & them for their election, not- 

withstanding he shewed some countenance of insufficiencie in 

him to occupie so great a charge, till by exhortation of the 

Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of Excester, & certaine 

Noble men, he granted to their petition: and on the next 

morrow at Paules he went on Procession, ofTred, & had 7> 

Deum sung. Then was he with great royaltie conueyed to 

Westminster, and there in the great Hall, ^ sate in the kinges 

set,^ with Saint Edwards scepter in his hand. 

Edward the fourth being dead, leaning his eldest Sonne Ed- \ 
Pogt 67 ward, and his second sonne Richard both infantes, Richard 
^jjJl^J^^® D. of Glocester, being elected by the Nobles and Commons in 
on him the the Guildhall of London, tooke on him the tytle of the Realme 
SudTcMtk!^ and kingdome, as imposed vpon him in this Baynardes Casde, 
as yee may reade penned by Sir Thomas Moare^^xiA set dowiie 
in my Annales. 

Henry the seauenth about the yeare 1501. the 16. of his 
raigne, repayred or rather new builded this house, not imbat- 
toled, or so strongly fortified Castle like, but farre more 

^'^ 7/. /. in 160s set in the kinges seat. 

Towers and Casiels 67 

beautiful! and commodious for the entertainement of any 
Prince or greate Estate : In the seauenteenth of his raigne, 
hee with his Queene, were lodged there, and came from thence H. Uie 7. 
to Powles Church, where they made their offering, dined in B^f^d" 
the Bishops pallace,and so returned. The 18. of his raigne hee Castle, 
was lodged there, and the Ambassadors from the King of the 
Romaines, were thether brought to his presence, and from 
thence the King came to Powles* and was there sworn to the 
King of Romans, as the said king had sworne to him. 

The 20. of the saide King, hee with his Knightes of the King Henry 
Order, all in their habites of the Garter, rode from the Tower ^JJiu"^ the 
of London through the Cittie, vnto the Cathedral Church of Garter rode in 
Saint Pawles, and there heard Euensong, and from thence from the' ^ 
they rode to Baynardes Castle, where the king lodged, and Tower to 
on the nexte morrow, in the same habite they rode from chnrch. 
thence againe to the said Church of Saint Pawles, went on 
Procession, hard the diuine seruice, offered and returned. 
The same yeare the king of Castle was lodged there. 

In the yeare 1553. ^^^ ^9- ^f J"'y> ^^^ Counsell partlie The Council 
moued with the right of the Lady Maries cause, partly con- S^^irds *' 
sidering that the most of the Realme was wholy bent on her ca»^>« ^ 
side, changing their mind from Lady lane lately proclaimed Qneene Marie. 
Queene, assembled themselues at this Baynardes Castle, where 
they communed with the Earle of Pembrooke and the Earle 
of Shrewesbury and Sir lohn Mason Clearke of the Counsell, 
sent for the Lord Mayor, and then riding into Cheape to the 
Crosse, where Gartar King at Armes, Trumpet being sounded, 
proclaimed the Lady Mary Daughter to king Henry the eight, 
and Queene | Katheren Queene of England, &c. Pagt 68 

This Castle now belongeth to the Earle of Pembrooke. 

Next adioyning to this Castle was sometime a Tower, the 
name thereof I have not read, but that the same was builded 
by Edwarde the second, is manifest by this that followeth. 
King Edward the third in the second yeare of his Raigne, a tower by 
gaue vnto William de RoSy of Hamelake in Yorkeshire, a^][|^^^^ 
Towre vppon the water of Thames, by the Castle Baynarde by E. the 2. 
in the Cittie of London, which Tower his Father had builded : 
he gaue the saidc Tower and appurtenances to the said William 

F a 


Towers and Castels 

HamelakCy and his hcyres, for a Rose yearely to bee paid for all 
seruice due, &c. This Tower as seemeth to mee, was since 
called Legats Inne, the 7. of E, the fourth. 

rower of 

Parens of 

Page 6p 

Power in the 

Tower of Mountfiquit. 

1 HE next Tower or Castle, banckiting also on the riuer of 
Thames, was as is afore shewed called Mountfiquits Castle of 
a Noble man, Baron of Mountfiquit^ the first builder therof, 
who came in with William the Conqueror, and was since named 
Le Sir Mounfiquit: This Castle he builded in a place, not 
far distant from Baynardes, towardes the West. The same 
William Mounfiquit liued in the raignc of Henry the first, and 
was witnes to a Charter, then granted to the Cittie for the 
Shcrifies of London. Richard Mountfiquit liued in King 
lohns time^ and in the yeare, 12 13. was by the same King 
banished the realm into France ^ when peraduenture Kii^ lohn 
caused his Castle of Mofttfiquit, amongst other Castles of the 
Barons to bee ouerthrown : the which after his returne, might 
bee by him againe reedified, for the totall destruction thereof 
was aboute the yeare, 1276. when Robert Kiliwarble^ Arch- 
bishoppe of Canterbury beganne the foundation of the Fryers 
Preachers Church there, commonly called the Black Fryers, as 
appeareth by a Charter the fourth of Edward the i. wherein 
is declared that Gregorie de Rocksley Mayor of London, and 
the Barons of the same Citie granted, and gaue vnto the saide 
Archbishoppe Roberte^ \ two lanes or wayes next the streete 
of Baynardes Castle^ and the Tower of Montfiquit^ to be 
applyed for the enlargement of the said Church and place. 

One other Tower there was also situate on the riuer of 
Thames neare vnto the said Blacke Fryers Church, on the 
west parte thereof builded at the Citizens charges, but by 
licence and commaundement o{ Edward the i. and of Edward 
the 2. as appeareth by their grantes : which Tower was then 
finished, and so stood for the space of 300. yeares, and was at 
the last taken down by the commaundement of loin SAa 
Mayor of London, in the yeare 1502. 

* Kilwardby 

Towers and Castels 69 

An other Tower or Castle, also was there in the West parte Tower or 
of the Cittie, pertayning to the King : For I reade that in the ^"l^^f^j^^nf 
yere 1087. the 20 of William the first, the Cittie of London don by Saintc 
with the Church of S. Paule being burned, Mauritius then «"^«»<^h««^<^**- 
Bishop of London afterwarde began the foundation of a new 
Church, whereunto king William, sayeth mine Author, gaue 
the choyce stones of this Castle standing neare to the banke 
of the riuer of Thames, at the west end of the Citie. After vita Arken- 
this Mauritius^ Richard his successor, purchased the streetes ^* * 
about Paules Church, compassing the same with a wall of 
stone and gates. King Henry the first gaue to this Richard 
so much of the Moate or wall of the Castle, on the Thames 
side to the South, as should be needful to make the saide wall 
of the Churchyearde, and so much more as should suffice to 
make a way without the wall on the North side, &c. 

This Tower or Castle thus destroyed stood, as it may seeme, 
in place where now standeth the house called Bridewell. For 
notwithstanding the destruction of the said Castle or Tower, 
the house remayned large, so that the Kings of this Realm TheKingcs 
long after were lodged there, and kept their Courtes : for ^^^ \^ 
vntill the 9. yeare of Henry the third, the Courts of law and Flectstrcct 
iustice were kept in the kinges house, wheresoeuer hee was 
lodged, and not else where. And that the kinges haue beene 
lodged and kept their Law courts in this place, I could shew 
you many authors of Recorde, but | for plaine proofe this one Page 70 
may suffice. Hcec est finalis concordia^ facta in Curia Domini 
regis apud Sanct. Bridgid, I^ondon^ a die Sancti Michaclis in ub. Burton, 
15. dies^ Anno regni regis lohannis 7. coram G. FiL Petri. ^°P- '^'^*- 
Eustacio de Fmiconberg, lohanne de Gestlinge, Osbart filio 
Heruey^ Walter de Crisping Justiciar. & aliis Baronibus Domini 
Regis. More (as Mathezv Paris hath) about the yeare 1210. Mathew Paris, 
King John in the 1 2. of his raigne, summoned a Parliament at p^^tat 
S. Brides in London, where hee exacted of the Clergie and S. Brides, 
religious persons the summe of looooo. poundes, & besides 
all this, the white Monkes were compelled to cancell their 
Priuiledges, and to pay 40000. poundes to the King&c. This 
house of S. Brides of latter time being left, and not vsed by 
the kinges : fell to mine, insomuch that the verie platforme 
thereof remayned for great part wast, and as it were, but a 

bHUOBK bv 

b^catall of SA and rnfaiBsfc: ameif a byre WcU remayned 
there, a. groat pait of tba hamate mmadfr oo the west, as hath 
bear sod. warn gmcs to the Ba h up of SaKsbaiy, the other 
port t u w jtilB the Ease leiua-fuiii g waste^ Tiitil king Henry 
the 9. binlciBd a siateijr aad hrniififall hoose tiiereupon, giuing 
&tD oane BrxciewelL of the ponrik aad weD there: this house 
he pnrposehr bnScfad iir the f irtririiiKMent of the Emperour 
cXyr^x the 5. who in the jesse rjaa. came into this Citie, as 
Ihaoedfeeiped is niyMfinnarie,Anaaies»aad large Chronicles. 

Ox the au t th w est side of the C&ie; aeare vnto Redcrosse 
stiecte. there mas a Tower riimMi^wKr called Barbican, or 
Btghfcgitiii iigy Sbr that the saase bung placed oo a high ground, 
and abo boSded of some good he^g^ was in olde time vsed 
as a Watch Tower far dfee Cittie, firotn whence a man might 
behold and view die whole Citie towards die South, as also 
iatD Katt Sosacx and Stmer, and likewise euery other way, 
east, occth^ or west. 

Some other B iahhiM itngs or Watdi Towers there were of 
olde time, ta and about the Cittie, aU which were repa3Ted, 
yea and others new builded. by GUkmrt de Clare Earle of 
Glocester. in the raigne of Kii^ Henry the third, when the 
Baroas were in Armcs^ and held the Citie against the King, 
but the Barons being r econciled to hb fauour in the yeare 
^^ 7' 1267. bee caused aD dietr i Borhkenninges, watchtowers, and 

Bulwarkes made and repayred by the sajrd Earle, to be plucked 
downe, and the ditches to be fiDed vp, so that nought of them 
might be scene to remaine : and then was this Burhkenning 
amongest the rest ouerthrowne and destro y e d : and although 
the ditch neare thereunto, called Hounds ditch was stopped 
vp, yet the streete of long time after was called Houndes 
ditch, and of late time more commonly called Barbican. 
The plot or seate of this Burhkenning or watch tower, 
king Edward the third in the >'eare 1336. and the 10. of 
his raigne, gaue vnto Robert Vffard Earle of Suffolke, by 
the name of his Mannor of Base court, in the parish of 
S. Giles without Cripplegate of London, commonly called 
the Barbican. 

Towers and Caste Is 71 

Tower Royall was of old time the kings house, king Stephen Tower Royal* 
was there lodged, but sithence called the Queenes Wardrobe : 
the Princesse, mother to king Richard the 2. in the 4« of his 
raigne was lodged there, being forced to flie from the tower of 
London, when the Rebels possessed it: But on the 15. of 
June (saith Frosard) Wat Tylar being slaine, the king went lohn Frosud. 
to this Ladie Princesse his mother, then lodged in the Tower 
Royall, called the Queenes Wardrobe, where she had tarried Lib. S. M. 
a. daies and a. nights 2 which Tower (saith the Record of * "* 
Edward the 3. the 36. 3^eare) was in the Parish of S. Michael 
de Pater noster, &c In the yere 1386, king Richard with 
Queene Anne his wife, kept their Christmasse at Eltham, 
whither came to him Lion king of Ermony^ vnder pretence to The king of 
reforme peace, betwixt the kinges of England and France, but initoSffSS! 
what his comming profited he only vnderstood : for besides 
innumerable giftes that he recejoied of the King, and of the 
Nobles, the king lying then in this (Tower) Royall at the Richard the a. 
Queenes Wardrobe in London, graunted to him a Charter of a toSct Ro^l 
thousand poundes by yeare during his life. He was, as hee 
affirmed, chased out of his kingdome by the Tartarians. More 
concerning this Tower shall you read when you come to 
Vintrie ward, in which it standeth. 

Sernes Tower in Bucklesberie, was sometimes the kinges ^^'^^^^^^ 
house. Edward the third in the eighteenth yeare of his barie. 
reigne, appoynted his Exchaunge of monyes therein to be 
kept, and in | the 3a. hee gaue the same Tower to his free Page 74 
Chappell of Saint Stephen at Westminster. 

Of Schooles and other houses of learning. 

In the raigne of king Stephen^ and of Henry the second^ saith Famoui 
Fitzstepheny there were in London^ three principall Churches: philoiophleby 
which had famous Schooles^ either by priuiledge and auncient pnoil^Jge in 
dignitie^ or by fauour of some perticular persons, as of Doctors 
which were accounted notable & renowmed for knowledge in 
Philosophic. And there were other inferior schooles cUso. Vpon 
Festiuall dayes t/ie Maisters made solemne fneetings in the 
Churches^ where their Scholers disputed Logically afid demon- 

72 Of SchooUs and other houses of learning 

Solemne siratiuely: some bringing Enthimems^ other perfect Sillogismes: 

^^^^^^f some disputed for shew^ others to trace out the truth : cunniug 

«*o^ Sophisters were thought braue Scholers^ when they flowed with 

Demooftn- wordes : Others vsed fallac{t)es : Rethoritians spake aptly to 

liucly. perswade^ obseruing the precepts of Arty and omitting notkitig 
that might serue their purpose : the boyes of ditterse Schooles did 

Grammar cap or pot verses, and contended of the principles of Grammar : 

s^o^: their ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ which On the other side with Epigrams and 
cxercbcs. rymes, nipping & quipping their feUoweSy and the faults of 
others^ though suppressing their names^ tnoued thereby much 
laughter among their Auditors : hitherto Fitsstephen : for 
Schooles and SchoUers, and. for their exercises in the Citie, 
in his dayes, sithence the which time, as to me it seemeth, by 
the increase of Colledges and Students in the Uniuersities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, the frequenting of schooles and exer- 
cises of schoUers in the Citie as had beene accustomed hath 
much decreased. 

The three principall Churches, which had these famous 

Schooles by priuiledges, must needes be the Cathedrall 

Church of Saint Paule for one, seeing that by a generall 

Poge yj Councell holden in | the yeare of Christ 1176. at Rome, in the 

Mathew Paris. Patriarchie of Laterane, it was decreed, that euerie Cathedrall 

Enery Cathe- Church should haue his Schoolemaster to teach poore SchoUers, 

drai Chaich , 

had his School and Others as had beene accustomed, and that no man should 

J^IJJ^ take any reward for licence to teach. The second as most 

Ingnlphus. auncient may seeme to haue beene the Monasterie of S. Peters 

at Westminster, wherof Ingulphus^ Abbot of Crowland in the 

raigne of William the Conquerour, writeth thus : / Ingulphus 

an humble seruant of God, borne of English parents^ in the 

most beaut if ull Citie of London, for to attaine to learnings was 

first put to Westminster y and after to studie at Oxford^ Src. 

Free schoolc And writing in praise of Queenc Edgitha, wife to Edwarde 

ster, in the ^^ Confessor : / haue scene, saith hee, often when being but a 

Ed^*rf tf» *^' ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ my father dwelling in the Kinges Court, and 

Confessor. often comming from Schoole, when I met Iter, she would oppose 

me, touching my learning, and lesson, and falling from Gram-' 

mar to Logicke, wherin she had some knowledge^ she would 

subtilly conclude an Argument with mee^ and by her handmaiden 

giue mee three or foure peeces of motiey, and sende mee vnto the 

Of Schooles and other houses of learning 73 

Palace where I shoulde receyue some victuals^ and then bee 

The third SchooIe» seemeth to haue beene in the Monasterie 
of S. Sauiaur at« Bermondsey in Southwarke : for other Prio- 
ries, as of Saint lohn by Smithfield, Saint Bartholomew in 
Smithfield, S. Marie Ouerie in Southwarke, and that of the 
Holie Trinitie by Aldgate, were all of later foundation, and 
the Friaries, Colledges, and Hospitals In this Citie, were raysed 
since them in the raignes of Henry the 3. Edward the i. a. 
and 3. &c. All which houses had their schooles, though not 
so famous as these first named. 

But touching Schooles more lately aduanced in this Citie, I 
reade that king Henrie the fift hauing suppressed the Priories priories aliens 
aliens whereof some were about London, namely one Hos- "PP'^ 
pitall, called Our Ladie of Rounciuall by Charing Crosse : one 
other Hospitall in Oldbome: one other without Cripplegate : 
and the fourth without Aldersgate, besides other that are now 
wome out of memorie, and whereof there is no monument 
remaining more | then Rounciuall conuerted to a brother- P^g^ 74 
hoode, which continued till the raigne of Henrie the 8. or 
Edward the 6. this I say, and other their schools being broken 
vp and ceased : king Henrie the sixt in the 24. of his raigne, Henry the sixt 
by patent appointed, that there should bee in London, Gram- SSmmar 
mar schooles, besides S. Paules, at S. Martins Le Grand, S. "choolcs. 
Marie Le Bow in Cheap, S. Dunstons in the west and S. 
Anthonies. And in the next yeare, to wit, 1394,^ the said 
king ordained by Parliament that foure other Grammer Grammar 
schooles should be erected, to wit, in the parishes of Saint ^^^Jj ^P" 
Andrew in Oldbome, AlhaUawes the great in Thames streete, parliament 
S. Peters vpon Cornehill, and in the Hospitall of S. Thomas 
of Aeons in west Cheape, since the which time as diuers 
schooles by supressing of religious houses, whereof they were 
members, in the raigne of Henrie the 8. haue beene decayed, 
so againe haue some others beene newly erected, and founded 
for them : as namely P aides schoole, in place of an old P*al» schoole 
ruined house, was builded in most ample maner, and largely ^^"^ 
indowed in the yeare 151 2. by lohn Collet Doctor of Diuinitie 

* For 1394 {Stow)^ read 1447 

74 Of Schooles and other houses of learning 

Deane of P antes ^ for 153. poore mens children: for which 
there was ordayned a Maister, Surmaister, or Usher, and a 
Free schools Chaplaine. Againe in the yeare 1553. after the erection of 
Hospital. Christs Hospital! in the late dissolued house of the Gray 
Friers, a great number of poore children being taken in, a 
Schoole was also ordayned there, at the Citizens charges. 
Frecfdioole Also in the yere 1561 the Marchant Taylors of London 
the^Mvc^t founded one notable free Grammar Schoole, in the Parish of 
Taylors. S. Laurence Poultney by Candleweeke street, Richard HUs 
late maister of that companie, hauing giuen 500. t. towarde 
the purchase of an house, called the Mannor of the Rose, 
sometime the Duke of Buckinghams, wherein the Schoole is 
kept. As for the meeting of the Schoolemaisters, on festiuall 
dayes, at festiuall Churches, and the disputing of their 
Schollers Logically, &c., whereof I have brfore spoken, the 
Schollers dis- same was long since discontinued : But the arguing of the 
§?BarSmcw8 Schoole boyes about the principles of Grammer, hath beene 
churchyard, continued eucn till our time : for I my selfe in my youth haue 
yearely seene on the Eve of S. Bartholomew the Apostle, the 
schollers of diuers Grammer schooles repayre vnto the Church- 
yard of S. Bartholomew y the Priorie in Smithfield, where vpon 
P*^ IS a banke boorded | about vnder a tree, some one Scholler hath 
stepped vp, and there hath apposed and answered, till he were 
by some better scholler ouercome and put downe : and then 
the ouercommer taking the place, did like as the first : and in 
the end the best apposers and answerers had rewards, which I 
obserued not but it made both good Schoolemaisters, and also 
good Schollers, diligently against such times to prepare them- 
selues for the obtayning of this Garland. I remember there re- 
payred to these exercises amongst others the Maisters and 
Schollers of the free Schooles of S. Paules in London : of 
Saint Peters at Westminster : of Saint Thomas Aeons Hos- 
pitall : and of Saint Anthonies Hospitall : whereof the last 
named commonly presented the best schollers, and had the 
prize in those dayes. 
Ditpatation of This Priorie of S. Bartholomew, being surrendred to Henrie 
Chrbts" *1^^ ^- those disputations of schollers in that place surceased. 
Hospitall. And was againe, onely for a year or twaine, in the raigne of 
Edward the 6. reuiued in the Cloyster of Christs Hospitall, 

Of Schooles and other houses of learning 75 

where the best Schollers, then still of Saint Anthanies schoole, 
were rewarded with bowes and arrowes of siluer^ giuen to 
them by sir Martin Bowes^ Goldsmith. Neuerthelesse, how- 
soeuer the encouragement fayled, the schollers of Paules^ 
meeting with them of S. Anthonies^ would call them Anthonie 
pigs, and they againe would call the other pigeons of Paules^ Pigeons of 
because many pigions were bred in Paules Church, and P*"**^ 
Saint Anthonie was alwayes figured with a pigge following Anthonie 
him : and mindfull of the former vsage, did for a long season P^^w- 
disorderly in the open streete prouoke one another with Salue 
tu quoque^ placet tibi mecum disputare^ placet t and so pro- 
ceeding from this to questions in Grammar, they vsually fall 
from wordes, to blowes, with their Satchels full of bookes, 
many times in great heaps that they troubled the streets, and 
passengers : so that finally they were restrained with the 
decay of Saint Anthanies schoole. Out of this schoole haue 
sprong diuerse famous persons, whereof although time hath 
buried the names of many, yet in mine owne remembrance 
may be numbred these following. Sir Tltomas Moore knight 
Lord Chancelor of England, Doctor Nicholas Heath some- 
time Bishop of Rochester, after of Worcester, and lastly. 
Archbishop of Yorke, and Lord | Chancelor of England, Pagt y6 
Doctor John Whitgift, Bishop of Worcester, and after Arch- 
bishop of Canterburie, &c. 

Of later time, in the yeare of Christ 158a. there was founded Lecture in 
a publike lecture in Chirui^rie to be read in the Colledge of 
Phisitions in Knightriders streete, to begin in the yeare 
1584. on the sixt of May: and so to be continued for euer 
twice eucry weeke, on Wednesday, and Fryday. by the 
honourable '&Bxon^Iohn lord Lombley^zxiA the learned Richard 
Caldwellf Doctor in Phisicke: the Reader whereof to be 
Richard Forster Doctor of Phisicke, during his life. 

Furthermore about the same time there was also begunne 
a Mathematicall Lecture, to bee read in a faire olde Chappell, 
builded by Simon Eayre^ within the Leaden Hall : whereof Mathenuticml 
a learned Citizen borne, named Thomas Hood was the first 
Reader. But this Chappell and other partes of that Hall 
bein^ imployed for stowage of goodes taken out of a great 
Spanish Caracke, the said Lecture ceased any more to be 

76 Of Schooles and other houses of learning 

read, and was then in the yeare 1588. read in the house of 
Maister Thomas Smith in Grasse streete, &c. 
SirThomas Last of al, sir Thomas Gresham knight, Agent to the 
lectures to bee Queens Highnesse, by his last will and testament made in the 
read in Lon- yeare 1579. gaue the Royall Exchaunge, and all the buildings 
thereunto appertayning, that is to say, the one moytie to the 
Maior and communaltie of London and their successors, vpon 
trust that they performe as shall be declared : and the other 
moitie to the Mercers in like confidence. The Maior and 
Communaltie are to find foure to reade Lectures, of Diuinitie, 
Astronomie, Musicke, and Geometrie, within his dwelling 
house in Bishopsgate streete, and to bestow the summe of 
aoo. pound, to wit, 50. pound the peece, &c. The Mercers 
likewise are to find three Readers, that is in Ciuill ]aw» 
Phisicke, and Rethorick, within the same dwelling house, the 
summe of 150.?. to euerie Reader 5o.t. &c. Which gift 
hath beene since that time confirmed by Parliament, to take 
effect, and begin after the decease of the Ladie Anne Gresham, 
which happened in the yeare 1596. and so to continue for 
Names of the euer. Whereupon the Lecturers were accordingly chosen 
ture^ ^ ^^^ appointed to haue begun their readings in the Moneth 
P(^g^n of June, io97* whose names were An\thonie Wootton for 

Diuinite, Doctor Mathew Guin for Phisicke, Doctor Henrie 
Mountlow for the Ciuill law, Doctor lohn Bull for Musicke, 
Brerewood^ for Astronomie, Henrie Brigges for Geometrie, 
and Caleb Willis for Rethoricke. These Lectures are read 
dayly, Sundayes excepted, in the terme times, by euery 
one vpon his day, in the morning betwixt nine and ten, in 
Latine : in the after noone betwixt two and three, in English, 
saue that D. Bull is dispensed with to reade the Musicke lec- 
ture in English onely vpon two seuerall dayes, Thursday and 
Saterday in the after noones, betwixt 3. and 4. of the clocke. 

Houses of students in the Common Lawe. 

An Tiiiuersity BUT besides all this, there is in and about this Citie, a whole 
and*abou?this Uniuersitie, as it were, of students, practisers or pleaders and 
Citie. ludges of the lawes of this realme, not lining of common 

* Brerewood] Becrewood, 160^ 

students of the Common Lawe 77 

stipends, as in other Uniuersities it is for y* most part done, 

but of their owne priuate maintenance, as being altogither 

fed either by their places, or practise, or otherwise by their 

proper reuenue, or exhibition of parents & friends : for that 

the yonger sort are either gentlemen, or the sons of gentle- 

men, or of other most welthie persons. Of these houses there stadenu of the 

be at this day 14. in- all, whereof 9. do stand within the j^"^^^<i 

liberties of this Citie, and 5. in the suburbs thereof, to wit : lodges. 

Sergeants Inne in Fleetstreete ffor ludges & Of euery these 
Sergeants Inne in Chancery lane (Sergeants only ^^^* y« ^^ 
The Inner Temple fin Fleetstreete, houses of their Mucmll 
The Middle Temple (Court. 
Cliffords Inne in Fleetstreete 
Thauies Inne in Oldborne 
Fumiuals Inne in Oldborne 
Bamards Inne in Oldborne 
Staple Inne in Oldborne 


Within the 

places, where 
they stand. 

houses of 
Chanceric. | 

Without the 

/Grayes Inne in Oldborne 
Lincolns Inne in Chancerie 
lane by the old Temple. 
Clements Inne 
New Inne 
Lions Inne. 

houses of Page jS 


houses of Chancerie, without 
Temple barre, in the liber- 
tie of Westminster. 

There was sometime an Inne of Sargeants, in Oldborne, as ASergeanu 
yee may reade of Scrops Inne ouer against Saint Andrewes ^ome. 

There was also one other Inne of Chancerie, called Chester s Chestewlnnc, 
Inne, for the nearenesse to the Bishop of Chesters house, but ^' 
more commonly tearmed Strand Inne, for that it stoode in 
Strand streete, and neare vnto Strand bridge without Temple 
barre, in the libertie of the Duchie of Lancaster. This Inne 
of Chancerie with other houses neare adioyning, were pulled 
downe in the raigne of Edward the 6. by Edward Duke of 
Sommerset, who in place thereof raised that large and beauti- 
ful! house, but yet vnfinished, called Sommerset house. 

There was moreouer in the raigne of king Henrie the sixt, 
a tenth house of Chancerie, mentioned by lustice Foriescue^ 
in his booke of the lawes of England, but where it stood, 
or when it was abandoned, I cannot finde, and therefore I will 
leaue it, and returne to the rest. 

78 Students of the Common Lawe 

Houses of The houses of Court bee replenished partly with young 

^heybe. studentes, and partly with graduates and practisers of the 

law: but the Innes of Chancerie being as it were, prouinces, 
seuerally subiected to the Innes of Court, be chiefly furnished 
with Officers, Attumeyes, Soliciters and Clarices, that follow 
the Courtes of the Kings Bench, or Common pleas ^ : and yet 
there want not some other, being young students that come 
thither sometimes from one of the Uniuersities, and some- 
times immediately from Grammar schooles, and these hauing 
spent sometime in studying vpon the first elements and 
grounds of the lawe, and hauing performed the exercises of 
their own houses (called Boltas MooUs^ and putting of cases) 
they proceed to be admitted, and become students in some 
of these foure houses or Innes of Court, where continuing by 
Page 79 the | space of seuen yeares, or thereaboutes, they frequent 
readinges, meetings, boltinges, and other, learned exercises, 
whereby growing ripe in the knowledge of the lawes, and 
approued withall to be of honest conuersation, they are either 
by the generall consent of the Benchers, or Readers, being of 
the most auncient, graue, and iudiciall men of eucric Innc of 
the Court, or by the speciall priuiledge of the present reader 
there, selected and called to the degree of Vtter Barresters^ 
and so enabled to be common counsellers, and to practise the 
law, both in their chambers, and at the Barres. 

Of these after that they be called to a further steppe oi 
preferment, called the Bench, there are twaine euerie yeare 
chosen among the Benchers of euery Inne of Court, to bee 
readers there, who do make their readings at two times in the 
yeare also : that is, one in Lent, and the other at the beginmng 
of August. 

And for the helpe of young students in euerie of the Innes 
of Chauncerie, they do likewise choose out of euery one Inne 
of court a Reader, being no Bencher, but an vtter Barrester 
there, of lo. or la. yeares continuance, and of good profite in 
studie. Nowe from these of the sayd degree of Counsellors, or 
Vtter Barresters^ hauing continued therein the space of four- 
teene or fifteene yeares at the leaste, the chiefest and best 
learned arc by the Benchers elected to increase the number, as 

* pleas] place /J^, i6oj 

students of the Common Lawe 79 

I sayd, of the Bench amongst them, and so in their time doc 
become first single, and then double readers, to the students 
of those houses of Court : after which last reading they bee 
named Apprentices at the lawe, and in default of a sufficient Apprenticet 
number of Sergeants at law, these are, at the pleasure of the ** ^ * ^^* 
Prince, to be aduaunced to the places of Sei^reants : out of 
which number of Sergeants also the void places of Judges are 
likewise ordinarily filled,albeit now and then some be aduaunced 
by the speciall fauour of the Prince, to the estate, dignitie, and 
place, both of Sergeant and Judge, as it were in one instant. 
But from thenceforth they hold not any roome in those 
Innes of Court, being translated to one of the sayde two 
Innes, called Sergeantes Innes, where none but the Sergeants 
and ludges do conuerse. 

Of Orders and Customes. page^ 

Of Orders and Customs in this Citie of old time Fitzstephen Men of til 

saith as folio weth : Men of all trades, sellers of all sorts ^tinctpUwe^" 

wares ^ labourers in euery worke, euery morning are in their Wtoe in ihipt 

distinct and seuerall places: furthermore, in London vpon the unemt. 

riuer side, betweene the wine in ships, and the wine to be sold in S?*^ ^J^^ 

Tauerns^ is a common cookerie or cookes row : there doyly for 

the season of the y ere, men might haue meate, rost, sod^ or fried: 

fish, flesh, fowles, fit for rich andpoore. If any come suddenly 

to any Citizen from afarre, wearie and not Tmlling to tarrie till 

the meate bee bought, and dressed, while the seruant bringeth 

water for his maisters hands ^ and fetcheth bread, he shall haue 

immediately from the Riuers side, all viands whatsoeuer he 

desire th, what multitude soeuer, either of Souldiers,or straungers, 

doe come to the Citie, whatsoeuer houre, day or night, according 

to their pleasures may refresh themselues^ and they which delight 

in dilicatenesse may bee satisfied with as delicate dishes there, 

as may be found else where. And this Cookes row is very ^ 

necessarie to the Citie: and, according to Plato in Gorgias^, --^ 

next to Phisicke, is the office of Cookes, as part of a Citie, 

* Gorgias] Gorgius i6oj 


Of Orders and Customes 

called smeth 
and smothie. 
Market for 
horses and 
other cattell. 


Smithfield for Without 01U of the Gates is a plaine fields both in name and 
groMd^'u^* ^^rf, where euery fry day ^ vnUsse it be a solemne bidden holy 
day, is a notable shew of horses to bee solde^ EarUs^ Barons^ 
knights^ and Citizens repaire thither to see, or to buy: there 
may you of pleasure see amblers pacing it dilicately : there may 
you see trotters fit for men of armes, sitting more hardly : there 
may you haue notable yong horse not yet broken: there may you 
haue strong steedes, wel limmed geldings^ whom the buiers do 
especially regard for pace, and swiftnes : the boyes which ride 
these horses, sometime two, sometime three, doe runne races for 
wagers, with a desire of praise, or \ hope of victorie. In an 
other part of that field are to be sold all impletnents of hus- 
bandry, as also fat stvifte, milch kine, sheepe and oxen : there 
stand also mares and horses, fit te for ploughes and teames with 
Marchants of their young coltes by them. At this Citie Mar chant straungers 
tmdedTt*this ^f ^^ nations had their keyes and wharf es : the Arabians 
City, & had sent golde : the Sabians spice and frankensence : the Sdthian 
Keyes and armour, Babylon oyle, India purple garments, Egypt precious 
whariies. stones, Norway and Russia Ambergreece and sables^ and the 

The Authors French men wine. According to the truth of Chronicles^ this 
tfc*cSic the ^^^^ ^ auncienter then Rome, built of the ancient Troy tins and 
antiqnitie of Brute, before that was built by Romidus, and Rhemus : and 
This Citie therefore vseth the ancient customes of Rome, This Citie euen 
dinided into ^ Rome, is diuided into wardes : it hath yearely Shiriffes in 
steede of Consulles : it hath the dignitie of Senators in Alder* 
men. It hath vftder Officers, Common Sewers, and Conductes 
in streetes^ according to the qualitie of causes, it hath generall 
Shiriffes. ]^ourtes : and assemblies vpon appointed dayes, I doe not thinke 
j that there is any Citie^ w/terein are better customs, in frequent- 
Customes ov ing the Churc/ies, in seruing God, in keeping holy dc^es^ in 
^^^^^ I giving cJmes, in e ntertayning straun gers, in solemnising Mar- 
1 riages, in furnishing banquets, ce^l^ating funerals, and burying 
] dead bodies. 
Casualties of The onefy plagues of London, (^are^ immoderate quaffing 
hcwsesil^ a^/^//^ the foolish sort, and often casualties by fire. — Most part 
covered with of the Bishops, Abbots, and great Lordes of the land heme houses 
there, wherevnto they resort^ and bestow much when they are 
called to Parliament by the king, or to Counsell by their Metro* 
politane, or otherwise by tlieir priuate businesses 

than 400. 
years since, 
and also had 
then both 


Of Orders and Customes 8i 

Thus farre FitzsUphen^ of the estate of thinges in his time, 
whereunto may be added the present, by conference whereof, 
the alteration will easily appeare. 

Men of trades and sellers of wares in this City haue 
often times since chaung^d their places, as they haue found 
their best aduantage. For where as Mercers, and Haber- 
dashers vsed to keepe their shoppes in West Cheape, of later 
time they helde them on London Bridge, where partly they 
yet remaine. The Gold|smithes of Gutherons lane, and old ^H^ ^^ 
Exchange, are now for the most part remooued into the 
Southside of west Cheape, the Peperers and Grocers of Sopers 
lane, are now in Bucklesberrie, and other places dispersed. 
The Drapers of Lombardstreete, and of Comehill, are seated 
in Candlewickstreete, and Watheling streete: the Skinners 
from Saint Marie PeUipers^ or at the Axe, into Budge row, 
and Walbrooke : The Stockefishmongers in Thames streete : Stockfiih- 
wet Fishmongers in Knightriders streete, and Bridge streete : ^ai^^ete, 
The Ironmongers of Ironmongers lane, and olde lurie, into "»^ "^^ ^**- 
Thames streete : the Vinteners from the Vinetree into diuers 
places. But the Brewers for the more part remaine neare to 
the friendly water of Thames : the Butchers in Eastcheape, 
Saint Nicholas Shambles, and the Stockes Market : die 
Hosiers of olde time in Hosier lane, neare vnto Smithfield, 
are since remooued into Cordwayner streete, the vpper part 
thereof by Bow Church, and last of all into Birchouerislane 
by Comehil : the Shoomakers and Curriors of Cordwayner 
streete, remoued the one to Saint Martins Le Grand^ the other 
to London wall neare vnto Moor^^ate, the Founders remaine by 
themselues in Lothberie : Cookes, or Pastelars for the more 
part in Thames streete, the other dispersed into diuerse 
partes. Poulters of late remooued out of the Poultrie betwixt 
the Stockes and the great Conduit in Cheape into Grasse 
streete, and Saint Nicholas Shambles : Bowyers, from Bow- 
yers row by Ludgate into diuers places, and almost worne out 
with the Fletchers: Paler nosUr makers of olde time^ or 
Beade makers, and Text Writers, are gone out of Pater 
noster Rowe, and are called Stationers of Paules Church 
yarde : Pattenmakers of Saint Margaret Pattens lane, cleane 
worne out : Labourers euerie worke day are to bee founde in 
• G 


Of Orders and Custotnes 

Marchants of 
all nations. 

Page 8) 

Thomas Clif- 

William of 

Cheape, about Sopers lane ende : horse coursers and sellers of 
Oxen, Sheepe, Swine, and such like, remaine in their olde 
Market of Smithfield, &c. 

That Marchants of all nations had theyr Keyes and wharfes 
at this Citty whereunto they brought their Marchandises 
before, and in the raigne of Henry the second, mine author 
wrote of his owne knowledge to be true, though for the 
antiquity of the Citty, | he tooke the common opinion. Also 
that this Citie was in his time and afore diuided into wards, 
had yearely Sherifs, Aldermen, generall courts, and assemblies, 
and such like notes by him set down, in commendation of 
the Cittizens, whereof there is no question, he wrote likewise 
of his owne experience, as being borne and brought vp 
amongst them. And to confirme his opinion, concerning 
Marchandises then hither transported, whereof happily may 
bee some argument, Thomas Clifford (before Fitzstephens 
time) writing of Edward the Confessor, sayeth to this efTect : 
King Edward intending to make his Sepulchre at West- 
minster, for that it was neare to the famous Cittie of London, 
and the Riuer of Thames, that brought in all kinde of Mar- 
chandises from all parts of the world, &c. And William of 
Malmsberie, that liued in the raigne of William the first 
and seconde, Henry the first, and king Stephen^ calleth this a 
noble Cittie, full of wealthy citizens, frequented with the trade 
of Marchandises from all partes of the world. Also I reade in 
diuers records that of olde time no woade was stowed or 
harbored in this Citty, but all was presently solde in the ships, 
except by licence purchased of the SherifTes, till of more latter 
time, to witte in the yeare 1236. Andrew Bokerell being 
Mayor, by assent of the principall cittizens, the Marchants of 
Amiens, Nele and Corby, purchased letters insealed with the 
common seale of the Cittie, that they when they come, might 
harborow their woades, and therefore should glue the Mayor 
euery yeare 50. marks starling : and the same yeare they gave 
100. 1. towardes the conueying of water from Tyborn to this cittie. 
Also the Marchantes ofNormandiemade fine for licence to harbor 
their Woades till it was otherwise prouided, in the yeare 11165. 
Thomas Fits Thomas being Mayor, &c. which proueth that then, 
as afore, they were here amongst other nations priuiledged 

Of Orders and Customes 83 

It followeth in Fitzstephen^ that the plagues of London i/i plagues of 
that time were immoderate quaffing among fooles, and often im^crat 
casualties by fire. For the first, to wit of quaffing, it continueth quaffing «nd 
as afore, or rather is mightily encreased, though greatlie fire. 
qualified among the poorer sort, not of any holy abstinencie, \ 

but of meere necessitie. Ale and Beere being small, and / 

Wines in price | aboue their reach. As for preuention oi Page 84 
casualties by fire the houses in this citty being then builded all 
of timber and couered with thatch of straw or reed, it was Lib. Constitu- 
long since thought good policie in our Forefathers, wisely to Lib^Hornc 
prouide, namely in the yeare of Christ, 1189. the first of Lib. ciarkcn- 
Richard the first, Henry Fitzalwine being then Mayor, that all ^* 
men in this Citty should builde their houses of stone up to 
a certaine height, and to couer them with slate or baked tyle : 
since which time, thanks be giuen to God, there hath not 
happened the like often consuming fires in this cittie as afore. 
But now in our time, instead of these enormities, others are 
come in place no lesse meete to bee reformed : namely. Pur- Pnrprcsture in 

11 flTV'fl 1 t and about this 

prestures, or enchrochmentes on the Highvvayes, lanes, and citty. 
common groundes, in and aboute this cittie, whereof a learned ^- ^'^ttcn. 
Gentleman, and graue cittizen hath not many yeares since 
written and exhibited a Booke to the Mayor and communaltie, 
which Booke whether the same haue beene by them read, and 
dil^ently considered vpon I know not, but sure I am nothing 
is reformed since concerning this matter. 

Then the number of carres, dra)res, carts and coatches, 
more then hath beene accustomed, the streetes and lanes 
being strcightned, must needes be daungerous, as dayly ex- 
perience proueth. 

The Coach man rides behinde the horse tayles, lasheth Carts and 
them, and looketh not behind him : The Draye man sitteth Sd TOuc^ed 
and sleepeth on his Drea, and letteth his horse leade him in tlSs Citty 
home : I know that by the good lawes and customes of this fi^'®'**- 
Gtty, shodde carts are forbidden to enter the same, except 
vpon reasonable causes as seruice of the Prince, or such like, 
they be toUerated. Also that the fore horse of euery carriage 
should bee lead by hand: but these good orders are not 
obsenied. Of olde time Coatches were not knowne in this 
Island, but chariots or Whirlicotes, then so called, and they 

G 2 


Of Orders and Customes 

Lib. S. Mary 
Riding in 

Page 8s 

Riding inside 
sadles, that 
were wont to 
ride a stride. 
Riding in 

W. Fiti- 

onely vsed of Princes or great Estates, such as had their foot- 
men about them : and for example to note, I read that 
Richard the second, being threatned by the rebels of Kent, 
rode from the Tower of London to the Myles end, and with 
him his mother, because she was sicke and weake in a Wherli- 
cote, the Earles of Buckingham, Kent, Warwicke and Oxford, 
Sir Thatnas Percie^ Sir Robert KnowUs, the Mayor of London, ] 
Sir Aubery de Vere that bare the kinges sword, with other 
Knights and Esquiers attending on horsebacke. ^ He followed 
in the next year the said king Richard^ who took to wife ^ 
Anne daughter to the king of Boheme, that first brought 
hether the riding vpon side saddles, and so was the riding in 
Wherlicoates and chariots forsaken, except at Coronations 
and such like spectacles : but now of late yeares the vse of 
coatches brought out of Germanie is taken vp, and made so 
common, as there is neither distinction of time, nor difference 
of persons obserued : for the world runs on wheeles with 
many, whose parents were glad to goe on foote. 

Last of all mine Author in this chapter hath these words : 
Most part of the Bishops^ Abbots^ and great Lordes of the land^ 
as if tliey were Citizens attd free men of London^ had many 
fayre houses to resort vnto^ and many rich and wealthy Gentle- 
men spent their money there. And in an other place hee hath 
these words : Euery sonday in Lent afresh companie of young 
men comes into the fields on horsebacke^ and the best horseman 
coftducteth the rest, then march forth the Cittizetts sonnes^ and 
other youfig men with disarmed launces cmd shieldes, and 
practise feates of warre : many Courtiers likewise and at- 
tefidants of noble men repaire to this exercise, & whilst the hope 
of victorie doth enflame their mindes, they doe shew good proof e 
haw seruiceable they would be in martial affaires, &c. Againe 
he saith : This Cittie in the troublesome time of King Stephen 
shewed at a muster aocoo. armed horsemen, and 40000. foot- 
men, seruiceable for the warres, &c. All which sayings of the 
said Author well considered, doe plainely proue that in those 
dayes, the inhabitants & repayrers to this Citie of what estate 
soeuer, spirituall or temporal, hauing houses here, liued 

^-^ But in the yeare next following, the said King Richard Xxxkit to 
wife, &c. 1^98 

Of Orders and Customes 85 

together in good amity with the citizens, euery man obseruing The causes of 
the customes & orders of the Citty, & chose to be contribu- Sid mJtoT** 
tary to charges here, rather than in any part of the land in thitCjtic 
wheresoeuer. This citty being the hart of the Realme, the more then of 
Kinges chamber, and princes seate whereunto they made^"*** 
repay re, and shewed their forces, both of horses and of men, 
which caused in troublesome time, as of king Stephen, the 
Musters of this Cittie to be so great in number. | 

Great families of old time kept. Pagi&6 

And here to touch some what of greater families and Great families 
householdes kept in former times by noble men, and great ^^f^ ^"* 
estates of this Realme, according to their honours or dignities. Tho- Earle of 
I haue scene an account made by H. Leicester^ cofferer to honsekeej^g, 
Thomas Earle of Lancaster, for one whole yeares expences in *?*^ charge 

' • r thereof for one 

the Earles house, from the day next after Michaelmasse in the ^e. 
seuenth yere of Edward the second, vntill Michaelmasse in p^^^ ^ 
the eight yeare of the same king amounting to the sum of I coald 
seuen thousand, nine hundred, fiftie seuen pound thirteene m. Cadnor. 
shillings foure pence halfe penny, as followeth. 

To wit, in the Pantrie, Buttrie, and Kitchen, 3405.I. &c. 
for 184. tunnes, one pipe of red or claret wine, and one tunnc 
of white wine bought for the house, 104. pound, xvij.s. vi.d. 

For Grocerie ware, 17.S. 

For sixe Barrels of sturgeon, i9.1i. 

For 6800. stockfishes, so called, for dried fishes of all sorts, 
as Lings, Habardines, and other, 41. li. 6.s. 7.d. 

For 1 7 14. pound of waxe, with Vermelion and Turpentine 
to make red waxe, 3i4.1i. 7.S. 4.d. ob. 

For 2319. li. of Tallow candles for the houshold, and 1870. 
of lights for Paris candles, called Perchers, 14.S. 3.d. 

Expences on the Earles great horses, and the keepers w^^es, . 
486.1i. 48. 3^1. ob. 

Linnen cloth for the L. and his Chapleins, and for the 
Pantrie, 43.1i. i7.d. 

For 129. dosen of Parchment with Inke, 4.1i. 8 s. 3.d. ob. 

Summe, 17.S. 7.d. ob. 

Item for two clothes of Skarlet for the Earle against 
Christmasse, one cloth of Russet, for the Bishop of Angew, 


Of Orders and Customes 


104. doathes 


159. clothes in 70. clothes of Blew for the knights, (as they were then 
termed) 15. clothes of Medley for the Lords dearkes, 28. 
clothes for the Esquiers, 15. clothes for Officers, 19. clothes 
for Groomes, 5. clothes for Archers, 4. clothes for Minstrels 
and Carpenters, with the sharing and carriage for the Earles 
Liueries at Christmasse, 46oJi. i5.d. 

Item for 7. Furres of variable Miniuer (or powdred Ermin) 
7. whoodes of Purple, 395. Furres of Budge for the Liueryes 
of Barons, Knights, and Clarkes, 123. Furres of Lambe for 
Es|quierSy bought at Christmasse, 147 .li. 17.S. 8.d. 

Item 65. clothes saffron colour, for the Barons and 
Knights: in sommer, 12. red clothes mixt for Clearkes, 26. 
clothes ray for Esquiers, one cloth ray for Officers coates 
in sommer, and 4. clothes ray for carpets in the hall, for 
345.11. 13.S. 8.d. 

Item 100. peeces of greene silke for the knights, 14. Budge 
Furres for surcotes, 13. whoodes of Budge for Clearks, and 
75. furres of Lambs for the Lordes liueryes in sommer, with 
Canuas and cords to tnisse them, 72.1i. 19.S. 

Item Sadies for the Lords liueries in sommer 6.s. 8.d. 

Item one Sadie for the Earle of the Princes armes, 40.S. 

Summe, 1079.11. i8.s. 3.d. 

Item for things boi^ht, whereof cannot be read in my 
note, 241.!!. 14.S. i.d. ob. 

For horses lost in seruice of the Earle, 8.1. 6.s, 8.d, 

Fees payde to Earles, Barons, knights, and Esquiers, 
623.1i. 15.S. 5.d. 

In gifts to knights of France, the Queene of Englands 
nurccs, to the Countessc of Warren, Esquiers, Minstrels, 
Messengers and riders, 92.11. 14.S. 

Item 168. yeards of russet cloth, and 24. coates for poore 
men with money giuen to the poore on Maundie Thursday, 
8.1L 16.S. 7.d. 

Item 24. siluer dishes, so many sawcers, and so many 
cuppes for the Buttrie, one paire of Paternosters^ and one 
siluer coflen bought this yeare, 5a 6.d. 

To diuerse Messengers about the Earles businessc, 34.11. 
19.5. 8.pence. 

halle yaide 
8l half qnarter 
brode, I have 
scene sold for 
foore pence 
the yaid, and 
was good 
cloam of a 

Of Orders and Customes 87 

In the Earles chamber, 5.11. 

To diuerse men for the Earles olde debts, 88.1L i6.s. ob. q. 

Summe, 1207.IL 7^. ii.d. ob.q. 

The expences of the Countesse at Pickering for the time 
of this account, as in the Pantrie, Buttrie, Kitchen, and other 
places, concerning these Offices, two hundred fourescore and 
fiue pounds, thirteene shillings, halfepennie. 

In Wine, Waxe, Spices, cloathes, Furresi and other things 
for the Countesses Wardrobe, an hundred fiftie foure poundes | 
seuen shillings, foure pence, halfepennie. ^^ ** 

Summe, 439.1i. 8.s. 6.d. q. 

Summa totalis of the whole expences, 7957.1i. 13.S. 4.d. ob. 
Thus much for this Earle of Lancaster. 

More, I read that in the 14. of the same Edward the Record tower, 
second, Hugh Spencer the elder (condemned by the com- the ridS^wT 
munaltie) was banished the Realme, at which time, it was prouiaon for 
found by inquisition, that the said Spencer had in sundrie which theweth 
shires 59. Mannors: he had 28000, sheepe, 1000. Oxen and* 8^'^ . 
Steeres, 1 200. Kine, with their Calues, 40. Mares with their kept in 
Coltes, 160. drawing horse, 2000. Hogges, 300, BuUockes, 40. ®""®'^- 
Tunnes of wine, 600. Bacons, 80. carkases of Martilmasse 
beefe, 600. Muttons in larder, lo. Tuns of Sidar. His 
armour, plate, iewels, and ready money, better then 
36. sackes of wooU, and a librarie of bookes. Thus much 
the Record : which prouision for houshold, sheweth a great 
familie there to be kept. 

Nearer to our time, I reade in the 36. of Henrie the sixt, Rob. Fabian'» 
that the greater estates of the Realme being called vp to "'"'*^"P • 

The Earlc of Salisburie came with 500. men on horsebacke, 
and was lodged in the Herber. 

Richard Duke of Yorke with 400. men lodged at Baynards 

The Dukes of Excester and Sommerset, with 800. men. 

The Earle of Northumberland, the Lord Egremont, and 
the Lord Clifford, with 1500. men. 

Richard Neuell Earle of Warwicke, with 600. men, all in 

88 Of Orders and Customes 

Neneli earle of red Jackets, imbrodered With ragged staues before and behind, 
howkeeping. ^"^ ^^ lodged in Warwicke Lane : in whose house there was 
oftentimes six Oxen eaten at a breakfast, and euery Taueme 
was full of his meate, for he that had any acquaintaunce in 
that house, might have there so much of sodden and rost 
meate, as hee could pricke and carrie vpon a long Dagger. 
Rk. Redmim Richard Redman Bishop of Elie, 1500, the 16. of Henrie 

Bishop of Ely. ^ > ^ ' 

the seuenth, besides his great familie, house keeping, almesse 

dish, and reliefe to the poore, wheresoeuer he was lodged. 

In his trauailing, when at his comming, or going to or from 

Page 89 any towne, the | belles being rung, all the poore would come 

togithcr, to whom he gaue euery one 6.d. at the least. 

Tho. Wolsey And now to note of our owne time somewhat Omitting 

Arch, of York. .^ this place T/iotnas IT^/ro' Archbishop of Yorke, and Car- 

dinall, I referre the Reader to my AnnaUs, where I haue 

set downe the order of his house, and houshold, passing all 

other subiectes of his time. His seruants dayly attending 

in his house were neare about 400. omitting his seruants 

seruants, which were many. 

Lib. Ely. Nicholas West Bishop of Ely, in the yeare 153a. kept con- 

of Ely. ^ tinually in his house an hundred seruants, giuing to the one 

halfe of them 53.S. 4.d. the peece yearely : to the other halfe 

each 40.S. the peece, to euery one, for his winter Gowne, 

foure yeards of broad cloath, and for his Sommer coate thre 

3rards and a halfe : he dayly gaue at his Gates besides bread 

and drinke, warme meate to (wo hundred poore people. 

Edward Earl The housekeeping of Edward late Earle of Darbie, is not 

^ ^* to be forgotten, who had 220. men in checke roll : his 

feeding aged persons^ twice euery day, sixtie and odde besides 

all commers, thrise a weeke appoynted for his dealing dayes, 

and euery good Fryday 2700. with meate drinke and money. 

Thomas Lord Thontas Audley Lord Chauncellor, his familie of Gentlemen 

Audlcy. before him in coates garded with veluet, and Chaines of 

gold : his yeoman ^ after him in the same liuerie not garded. 
Euery lincrie William P owlet Lord great maister, Marques of Win- 
yar!L^br<MS c^^^s^^"** V^X the like number of Gentlemen and yeoman ^ in 
cloath. a liuery of Reding tawny, and great reliefe at his gate. 

Thomas Lord Cromwel, Earle of Essex kept the like, or 

* yeoman] 160^ ; yeomen i6j3 

Of Orders and Customes 89 

greater number in a liuery of gray Marble, the Gentlemen Thomas Lord 
garded with Veluet, the yeoman * with the same cloth, yet '^" 
their skirtes lai^e inough for their friends to sit vpon them. 

Edward Duke of Sommerset was not inferiour in keeping g«k« of 
a number of tall and comely Gentlemen, and yeoman ^, though 
his house was then in building, and most of his men were 
lodged abroade. 

The late Earle of Oxford, father to him that now liueth, Earleof 
hath beene noted within these fortie yeares, to haue ridden ^*^**'^- 
into this Citie, & so to his house by London stone, with 80. 
Gentlemen in a | liuery of Reading Tawny, and chaines of gold Page 90 
about their necks before him, and 100. tall yeomen in the 
like liuery to follow him without chaines, but all hauing 
his cognisance of the blew Bore, embrodered on their left 

Of charitable almes in old times giuen. 

These as all other of their times gaue great relief to the 
poore : I my selfe, in that declining time of charity, haue oft 
scene at the Lord Cramwels gate in London, more then two Almct ginen 
hundered persons serued twise euery day with bread, meate cromwds 
and drinke sufficient, for hee obserued that auncient and g^^te. 
charitable custome as all prelates, noble men^ or men of 
honour and worship his predecessors had done before him : 
whereof somewhat to note for example. Venerable Bcde Bcde. 
writeth that Prelates of his time hauing peraduenture but 
wodden Churches, had notwithstanding on their borde at 
theyr meales one Almes dish, into the which was carued some Almei dish set 
good portion of meate out of euery other dish broght to 
their Table, all which was giuen to the poore, besides the 
fragments left, in so much as in a hard time, a poore Pre- Almes dish 
late wanting victuals, hath caused his almes dish, being siluer, ^^. ^ 
to be diuided amongst the poore, therewith to shift as they 
could, til God should send them better store. 

Such a Prelate was Ethelwald Bishop of Winchester in Bishoppe of 
the raigne of King Edgar ^ about the yeare of Christ, 963. y, savhig 
hee, in a greate famine, solde away all the sacred vessels of ^®?.^*^f |?* 
his Church, for to relieue the almost starued people, saying poore. 
that there was no reason that the senseles Temples of God 

' yeoman] v, p. 88 

go Of Orders and Custotnes 

should abound in riches, and liuely Temples of the holy 

Ghost to lacke it. 

Bishopp« of Walter de Suffilde Bishoppe of Norwich was of the like 

his plate. minde : about the yeare 1245 in a time of great dearth, he 

solde all his plate, and distributed it to the poore euery 


Archbishoppe Robert Winchelsey Archbishoppe of Canterbury, about the 

his (Slrity!*^ yeare 1293. besides the dayly fragments of his house, gaue 

euery fryday and Sunday vnto euery beg^[ar that came to his 

gate, a lofe of bread sufficient for that day, and there more 

vsually, euerie such Almes day in time of dearth, to the 

number of 5000. and otherwise 4000. at the least : more, hee 

vsed euery great Festiuall day to giue 150. pence to so 

Page 91 many poore people, to sende daylie | meate, bread and drinke, 

to such as by age, or sickenesse were not able to fetch his 

almes, and to send meate, money and apparell to such as 

he thought needed it. 

Peter de I reade in ii7i> that Henrie the second after his retume 

l^hoasaiid *"^^ England, did pennance for the slaughter of Thamoi 

poore people Bcckfty of whom (a sore dearth increasing) ten thousand 

vJJsntA ^ persons, from the first of Aprill, till new come was inned, were 

Henrie the 2. dayly fed & sustained. 

Recoidofthe More, I find recorded that in the yeare 1236, the 20. of 

TowCT. Henrie the third, William de HaturhtM the kinges Treasurer 

(^^^^ ^' was commaunded, that vppon the day of the Circumcision of 

pooie people Qur Lord, 6coo. poore people should be fed at Westminster, 

for the state of the king, Queene, and their children. The like 

commaundement, the said king Henrie gaue to Hugh Giffardy 

and William Browne^ that vpon Fryday next after the 

Epiphanie, they should cause to be fed in the g^eat Hall at 

Windsore, at a good fire, all the poore and needie children 

that could be found, and the kings children being weighed and 

measured, their weight and measure to be distributed for 

their good estates. These fcwe examples for charitie of kings 

may suffice. 

I reade in the raigne of Edward the third, that Richard de 
Eerie Bishop of Durham, did weekdy bestow for the reliefe 
of the poore eight quarters of wheate made into bread, besides 
his almes dish, fragments of his house, and great summes of 

Of Orders and Custo7nes 91 

mony giuen to the poore when he iourneyed. And that 
these almes dishes were as well vsed at the Tables of Noble 
men^ as of the Prelates, one note may suffice in this place. 

I reade in the yeare 1452, that Richard Duke of Yorke Duke of 
then dayming the Crowne, the Lord Rtuers should haue^J^^^ 
passed the Sea about the kings business, but staying at contained a 
Plimmoth till his money was spent, and then sending for more, S^inS!" 
the Duke of Sommerset sent him the Image of Saint George in 
siluer and golde, to be solde, with the almes dish of the Duke 
of Glocester, which was also of great price, for coyne had 
they none. 

To ende of Orders and Customes in this Citie: also of great 
families kept by honourable persons thither repayring. And 
of charitable almes of olde time giuen, I say for conclusion, 
that all noble persons, and other of honour and worship, in 
former times lodging | in this Citie, or liberties thereof, did-ft^^p^ 
without grudging, beare their parts in charges with the Citizens, 
according to their estimated estates, as I haue before said, and 
could proue by examples, but let men call to minde sir Thomas 
Crotnwel then Lord priuie Seale, and Vicker generall, lying Th. Cromwell 
in the Citie of London, hce bare his charges to the great miwtcrf"* 
muster there, in Anno 1539. he sent his men in great number 
to the Miles ende, and after them their armour in Carres, with 
their coates of white cloth, the armes of this Citie, to wit, a red 
crosse, and a sword on the breast, and backe, which armour 
and coates they ware amongst the Citizens, without any 
difference, and marched through the Citie to Westminster. 


Sports and pastimes of old time vsed in this Citie. 

l^ET vs now {saith Fitzstephen) come to the sportes a//^of sports and 
pastimes, seeing it is fit that a citie should not only be {^f^iJ^"* 
commodians and serious^ but also merrie and sportful: where- encrie thing 
upon in the scales of the Popes ^ vntil the time of Pope Leo, on the a*timc"o^*"*' 
one side wcu 5. Peter fishing with a key ouer him^ reached as it weepe. a time 
were by the hand of God out of heauen, and about it this verse ^ a time ' 

Tu pro me nauem liquisti, suscipe clauem. to mourn, and 

And on the other side was a Citie^ and this inscription on it. daunce. 
Aurea Roma. Likewise to the praise of Augustus Csesar^ and *^*^ ^ 
the Citie in respect of the shewes and sports was writen : 

92 sports and Pastimes 

Nocte pluit tota, redeunt spectacula mane, &c. 

All night it raitus^ and shews at morrawtide returne again. 

A fid Csesar with almighty I one hath matcht an equal raign. 

Suge pUyei. But London for the sliews vpon Theaters^ and Comicall 

pastimes^ hath holy playcs^ representations of myracles which 

holy Confessours haue wrought^ or representations of torments 

Page 9j wherein the constancie of Martyrs appeared. Euery \ yeare also 

at Shrouetuesday, that we may begin with childrens sports^ 

seeing we al haue beene children^ the schoole boyes do bring 

Cockes of the game to their master^ and all the forenoone they 

Cock fighting, delight themselues in Cockfighting : after dinner all the youthes 

go into the fields to play at the baU The schollers of euery 

schoole haue their ball^ or baston^ in their hands: the auncient 

Ball play. and wealthy men of the Citie come foorth on horsebacke to see 

the sport of the yong men^ and to take part of the pleasure in 

beholding their agilitie. Euery Fry day in Lent a fresh company 

of young men comes into the field on horseback^ and the best 

horseman conducteth the rest. Then march forth the Citizens 

sons, and other yong men with disarmed launces and shields, 

Ezerciies of and there they practise feates ofwarre. Many Courtiers like- 

oDhoi^bad^ '^^^ when the king lieth nere^ and attendants of noble men doe 

with disarmed repair e to these exercises^ and while the hope of victorie doth 

""***' inflame their minds, do shew good proof e how seruiceable they 

Battailet on would bee in martiall affayres* In Easter fwly dayes they fight 

the water. battailes on the water, a shield is hanged vpon a pole, fixed in 

the midst of the stream, a boat is prepared without oares to bee 

caried by violence of the water, And in the fore part thereof 

standeth a young man, readie to giue charge vpon the shield 

with his launce: if so be hee breaketh his launce against the 

shield^ and doth not fall, he is thought to have performed 

a worthy deed. If so be without breaking his launce, he run- 

neth strongly against the shield^ downe hefalleth into the water, 

for the boat is inolently forced with the tide, but on each side of 

the shielde ride two boates, furtiished with yong men, which 

Leaping, recouer him that falleth^ as soone as they may. Vpon the 

dancing, bridge, wharf es, and houses, by the riuers side, stand great 

wrestling. numbers to see, & laugh therat. In the holy dayes all the 

Sommer the youths are exercised in leaping, dancings shooting, 

^ baston] bastion 1598, /6oj ' falleth] falteth i6oj 


sports and Pastimes 93 

wrastling^ casting the stone^ and practizing their shields : the natmcing, 
Maidens trip in their Timbrels, and daunce as long as they can b^, ^yting 
well see. In Winter euery holy day before dinner^ the Boares of B««« "»<! 
prepared for brawne are set to fight, or else Buls and Scares 
are bay ted. 

When the great fenne or Moore, which watereth the wals \ ofPagt 94 
the Citie on the North side, is frozen, many yong men play The Moore- 
vpon the yce^ some striding as wide as they may, doe slide ^^^Jj^no 
swiftly: others make themselues seates of yce, as great oj ditch ijf the 
Milstones : one sits downe, many hand in hand doe draw him, ciUe. 
and one slipping on a sudden, all fall togither : some tie bones sliding on the 
to their feete^ and vnder their heeUs, and shouing themselues 
by a little picked Staff e, doe slide as swiftly as a bird flieth in 
the ayre, or an arrow out of a Crossebow. Sometime two 
runne togither with Poles ^ and hitting one the other, eyther one 
or both doe fall, not toithout hurt: some breake their armes, 
some their legges, but youth desirous of glorie in this sort 
exercise th it selfe agaynst the time of warre. Many of the 
Citizens doe delight themselues in Hawkes, and haundes, for Hanking and 
they hone liber tie of hunting in Middlesex, HartfordshirCy all """^'"K- 
Chiltron^ and in Kent to the water of Cray. Thus farre 
Fitzstephen of sportes. 

These or the like exercises haue beene continued till our a stage play 
time, namely in stage playes, whereof ye may read in Anno ^^2? 
1391. a play by the parish Clearkes of London at the Skinners 
well besides Smithfield : which continued three dayes togither, 
the king Queene and Nobles of the Realme being present 
And of another, in the yeare 1409. which lasted eight dayes, A stage play 
and was of matter from the creation of the world, whereat was ^ght dSes. 
present most part of the Nobilitie, and Gentrie of England. Of Theater and 
late time in place of those Stage playes, hath beene vsed cSnediaTft 
Comedies, Tragedies, Enterludes, and Histories, both true and other shewes. 
fayned : For the acting whereof certaine publike places haue 
beene erected Also Cockes of the game are yet cherished Cocke fight 
by diuerse men for their pleasures, much money being laide 
on their heades, when they fight in pits whereof some be 
costly made for that purpose. The Ball is vsed by noble men The Ball at 
and gentlemen in Tennis courts, and by people of meaner sort *°°'* ^ ^' 
in the open fields, and streetes. 


Sports and Pastimes 


Ranning at 
the Qninteti 
for prises.' 
Math. Paris. 

The kings 
deriding the 
Citizens were 
sore beaten, 
but the 
Citiiens were 
6ned by the 

pared as a prise 

Qninten vpon 

Running with 
stanes on the 



The marching forth of Citizens sonnes, and other yong 
men on horsebacke^ with disarmed Launces and Shieldes, 
there to practise feates of warre, man agaynst man, hath long 
since been left of, but in their Citie, they haue vsed on horse- 

backe, to runne at a dead marke, called 
a Quinten : for note whereof I reade, 
that in | the yeare of Christ 1253, ^^ 
38. of Henrie the third, the youthfuU 
Citizens, for an exercise of their acti- 
uitie, set forth a game to runne at the 
Quinten, and whosoeuer did best, should 
haue a Peacocke, which they had pre- 
certaine of the kings seruants, because 
the Court lay then at Westminster, came as it were in 
spite of the Citizens, to that game, and giuing reprochfuU 
names to the Londoners, which for the dignitie of the Citie, 
and auncient priuiledge which they ought to haue enioyed, 
were called Barons : the said Londoners, not able to bear so 
to be misused, fell vpon the kings seruants^ and bet them 
shrewdly, so that vpon complaint (to) the king, he fined the 
Citizens to pay a thousand Markes. This exercise of running 
at the Quinten, was practised by the youthfull Citizens, as well 
in Sommer as in Winter, namely, in the feast of Christmasse, 
I haue seene a Quinten set vpon Cornehill, by the Leaden 
Hall, where the attendantes on the Lords of merrie Disports 
haue runne, and made great pastime, for he that hit not the 
brode end of the Quinten, was of all men laughed to scome, 
and he that hit it full, if he rid not the faster, had a sound 
blowe in his necke, with a bagge full of sand hanged on the 
other end. I haue also in the Sommer season seene some vpon 
the riuer of Thames rowed in whirries, with staues in their 
hands, flat at the fore end, running one against another, and for 
the most part, one, or both ouerthrowne, and well dowked. 

On the Holy dayes in Sommer, the youthes of this Citic, 
haue in the field exercised themselues, in leaping, dauncing, 
shooting, wrestling, casting of the stone or ball, &c. 

And for defence and vse of the weapon, there is a speciall 
profession of men that teach it. Ye may reade in mine 
Annale$^ how that in the yeare 1222. the Citizens kept games 

sports and Pastimes 95 

of defence, and wrestlings neare vnto the Hospitall of Saint Games of 
Giles in the field where they chalenged, and had the mastrie *^*^*'^' 
of the men in the Suburbs, and other commoners, &c. Also 
in the yeare .1453. of a tumult made agaynst the Maior, at 
the wrestling besides Clearkes well, &c. Which is suflficient 
to proue that of olde time the exer|cising of wrestling, and such Page 96 
like hath beene much more vsed then of later yeares. The 
youthes of this Citie also haue vsed on holy dayes after Euen- 
ing prayer, at their Maisters doores, to exercise their Wasters 
and Bucklers : and the Maidens, one of them playing on a PUybg at the 
Timbrell, in sight of their Maisters and Dames, to daunce ®"^^*®"' 
for garlandes hanged thwart the streetes, which open pastimes Danndng for 
in my youths being/now suppressed, worser practises within ^J streeti!! 
doores are to be feared : as for the bayting of Bulles and 
Bears, they are till this day much frequented, namely in 
Beargardens on the Banks side, wherein be prepared Scaf- 
folds for beholders to stand vpon. Sliding vpon the Ice is 
now but childrens play: but in hawking & hunting many 
graue Citizens at this present haue great delight, and doe 
rather want leysure then good will to follow it. 

Of triumphant shewes made by the Citizens of London, yee Matthew 
may read in the yere 1236. the 20. of Henrie the third, |j^^ ^^^^ 
Andrew Bokerell^ ^ then being Maior, how Helianor daughter triamphes. 
to Reymand Earle of Prouance, riding through the Citie 
towardes Westminster, there to be crowned Queene of Eng- 
land, the Citie was adorned with silkes, and in the night with 
Lamps, Cressets, and other lights, without number, besides The Citizens 
many Pageants, and straunge deuises there presented, the '^^ ^' 
Citizens also rode to meet the King and Queene, clothed in imbrodered 
long garments embrodered about with gold, and silks of di- 8*™*^^** 
uerse colours, their horses gallantly trapped to the number of 
360. euery man bearing a cup of gold or siluer in his hand, 
and the kings trumpetters sounding before them : These Citi- 
zens did minister wine, as Bottelers, which is their seruice at 
the coronation. More, in the 3reare 1298. forvictorie obtained 
by Edward the first agaynst the Scots, euery Citizen accord- 
ing to their seuerall trade, made their seuerall shew, but speci- 
ally the Fishmongers, which in a solemne Procession passed 

^ Bokerell] Bockwell /j^, 1603 

96 sports and Pastimes 

Fishmoogen through the Citie, hauing amongest other Pageants and shews, 
toi^^ of ^^ foure Sturgeons guilt, caried on four horses : then foure 
Tktorj against Salmons of silver on foure horses, and after them six & fortie 
Qiorethen ' armed knights riding on horses, made like Luces of the sea, 
1000. hoTi- and then one representing Saint Magnes, because it was vpon 
S. Magnes day, with a thousand horsemen, &c 
One other shew in the yeare 1377, made by the Citizens for | 
P^g' 97 disport of the yong prince Richard^ son to the blacke prince, 
A shew by in the feast of Christmas in this manner. On the Sonday 
bdnff a%om- before Candlemas in the night, one hundred and thirty Citti- 
meiyof more zens disguised, and well horsed in a mummerie with sound of 
hones. Trumpets, Shackbuts, Comets, Shalmes, and other Minstrels, 

and innumerable torch lights of Waxe, rode from Newgate 
through Cheape ouer the bridge, through Southwarke, and so 
to Kennington besides Lambhith, where the young Prince 
remayned with his mother and the Duke of Lancaster his 
vncle, the Earles of Cambridge^ Hertford, Warwicke and 
Suffolke, with diuers other Lordes. In the first ranke did 
ride 48. in the likenes and habite of Esquires, two and two 
together, cloathed in redde coates and gownes of Say or 
Sindall ^, with comely visors on their faces : after them came 
riding 48. knightes in the same liuery, of colour and stuffe: 
Then followed one richly arrayed like an Emperour, and after 
him some distance, one stately tyred like a Pope, whom fol- 
lowed 24. Cardinals, and after them eight or tenne with black 
visors not amiable, as if they had beene Legates from ^ome 
forrain Princes. These maskers after they had entered the 
Mannor of Kennington, alighted from their horses, and entred 
the hall on foot, which done, the Prince, his mother, and the 
Lordes came out of the Chamber into the hall, whome the 
saide mummers did salute : shewing by a paire of dice vpon 
the table their desire to play with the Prince, which they so 
handled, that the Prince did alwayes winne when hee cast 
The Prince did them. Then the mummers set to the Prince three jewels, one 
kw!£of the ^^^ another, which were a boule of gold, a cup of gold, and 
^^»^^^*^ a ring of gold, which the Prince wanne at three casts. Then 
they set to the Princes mother, the Duke, the Eaiies, and 
other Lordes, to euery one a ring of gold, which they did also 

> Sindall] Sandall idoj 

sports and Pastimes 97 

win : After which they were feasted, and the musicke sounded, 
the prince and Lords daunced on the one part with the mum- 
mers, which did also daunce : which iolitie being ended, they 
were againe made to drinke, and then departed in order as 
they came. 

The like was to Henry the fourth in the 2. of his raigne, hee 
then keeping his Christmas at Eltham, xv Aldermen of London 
and their sonnes rode in a mumming, and had great thanks. 

Thus much for sportfull shewes in Triumphes may suffice : | 
now for sportes and pastimes yearely vsed, first in the feaste Pagt ^ 
of Christmas, there was in the kinges house, wheresoeuer hee ^tch^totJuT 
was lodged, a Lord of Misrule, or Maister of merry disports, 
and the like had yee in the house of euery noble man, of 
honor, or good worshippe, were he spirituall or temporall. 
Amongst the which the Mayor of London, and eyther of the 
shiriffes had their seuerall Lordes of Misrule, euer contending 
without quarrell or offence, who should make the rarest 
pastimes to delight the Beholders. These Lordes beginning 
their rule on AlhoUon Eue, continued the same till the morrow 
after the Feast of the Purification, commonlie called Candle- 
mas day : In all which space there were fine and subtle dis- 
guisinges, Maskes and Mummeries, with playing at Cardes 
for Counters, Nayles and pointes in euery house, more for 
pastimes then for gaine. 

Against the feast of Christmas, euery mans house, as also 
their parish churches were decked with holme^ luie, Bayes, 
and what soeuer the season of the yeare aforded to be greene : 
The Conduits and Standardes in the streetes were likewise 
garnished, amongst the which I reade in the yeare 1444. that 
by tempest of thunder and lightning, on the first of Februarie Tempcstes of 
at night, Powles steeple was fiered, but with great labour /^^j^^^ 
quenched, and towarde the morning of Candlemas day, at the Powlet 
Leaden Hall in Comhill, a Standarde of tree being set vp in onerthrcwthe 
midst of the pauement fast in the ground, nayled ful of Holme fSd^^'u & 
and luie, for disport of Christmas to the people, was tome vp, threw stones 
and cast downe by the malignant spirit (as was thought) and ^^^jj^o^ 
the stones of the pauement all aboute were cast in the streetes, mens houses, 
and into diuers houses, so that the people were sore agast of 
the great tempests. 


98 sports and Pastimes 

Twisted trees In the weeke before Easter, had ye great shewes made for 
^^^^ '^ the fetching in of a twisted tree, or With, as they termed it, 
out of the Woodes into the Kinges house, and the like into 
euery mans house of Honor or Worship. 
May games. In the moneth of May, namely on May day in the morn- 
ing, euery man, except impediment, would walke into the 
sweete meadowes and g^eene woods, there to reioyce their 
spirites with the beauty and sauour of sweete flowers, and with 
the harmony of birds, praysing God in their kind, and for 
Pog^ P9 example hereof Edward \ Hall hath noted, that K. Henry the 
Edward Hall, eight, as in the 3. of his raigne and diuers other yeares, so 
namely in the seauenth of his raigne on May day in the morn- 
ing with Queene Katheren his wife, accompanied with many 
Lords and Ladies, rode a Maying from Green witch to the 
high ground of Shooters hill, where as they passed by the way, 
they espied a companie of tall yeomen cloathed all in Greene, 
with greene whoodes, and with bowes and arrowes to the 
Robin hoode number of 200. One being their Chieftaine was called Robin 
^t before" Hoode^ who required the king and his companie to stay and 
the king. see his men shoote, whereunto the king graunting, Robin 
hoode whistled, and all the 200. Archers shot off, loosing all at 
once, and when he whistled againe, they likewise shot againe, 
their arrowes whistled by craft of the head, so that the noyse 
was straunge and loude, which greatly delighted the King, 
Queene, and their Companie. Moreouer, this Robin Hoode 
desired the King & Queene with their retinue to enter the 
greene wood, where, in harbours made of boughes, and decked 
with flowers, they were set and serued plentifully with venison 
and wine, by Robin Hoode and his meynie, to their great con- 
tentment, and had other Pageants and pastimes as ye may 
reade in my saide Authour. I find also that in the moneth of 
May, the Citizens of London of all estates, lightly . in euery 
Parish, or sometimes two or three parishes ioyning togither, 
had their seuerall mayings, and did fetch in Maypoles, with 
diuerse warlike shewes, with good Archers, Morice dauncers, 
and other deuices for pastime all the day long, and towards 
the Euening they had stage playes, and Boneiiers in the 
streetes : of these Mayings, we reade in the raig^ne of Henry 
the sixt, that the Aldermen and ShirifTes of London being on 

sports and Pastimes 99 

May day at the Bishop of Londons wood in the parish of Bw^opswood 

Stehunheath^ and hauing there a worshipful! dinner for them- by B^^enhall 

selues and other commers, Lydgate the Poet that was a Monke V^^^ 

of Bery, sent to them by a Pursiuant a ioyfull commendation 

of that season containing i6. staues in meter Roy all, beginning 


Mightie Flora^ Goddesse of fresh flowers^ Tbcpletsant 

which clothed hath the soyle in lusiie greene, TOmm«dedy 

Made buds springs with her swcete showers^ \ 

by influence of the Sunne shine. rag$ 100 

To doe pleasance of intent full cUane^ 

vnto the States which now sit here. 
Hath Ver ^ downe sent her owne daughter deare. 

Making the vertiu^ that dured^ in the roote^ 
Called of Clarkes^ the vertue vegitable^ 

for to transcend^ most holsome and most soote 
Into the crop^ this season so agreeable^ 

the bawmy liquor ^ is so commendable^ 
That it reiqyceth^ with his fresh moysture^ 

man, beast ^ and fowle^ aftd euery creature^ 6r*c. 

These great Mayings and Maygames made by the gouemors 
and Maisters of this Citie, with the triumphant setting vp of 
the great shaft (a principall May-pole in Cornehill, before 
the Parish Church of S. Andrew) therefore called Undershaft, 
by meane of an insurrection of youthes against Aliens on 
may day, 151 7» the ninth of tienry the 8. haue not beene 
ao freely vsed as afore, and therefore I leaue them, and wil 
somewhat touch of watches as also of shewes in the night. 

Of watches in this Citie, and other (Matters)^ 
commanded, and the cause why. 

yyiLLIAM Conqueror commaunded, that in euerie towne Carfew Bell 
and village, a Bell should be nightly rung at eight of^ockcc^- 
the clocke, and that all people should then put out their numded fire 
fire, and candle, and take their rest : which order was ob- ^ ^ 
serued through this Realme during his raigne, and the raigne qwnched. 

* Ver\ rSjj ; idoj Vere • dured] dared idoj 

■ (Matters) add. 1633 

H 2 

loo Of watches in London 

of William Rufus\ but Henrie th^ first, restoring to his 

subiects the vse of fire and lights, as afore : it followeth by 

reason of warres within the real me, that many men also gaue 

themselues to robberie and murders in the night, for example 

Page lot whereof in this Citie, Roger Hotieden writeth thus : In | the 

Rog. Honeden yeare 1 1 75. a Councell was kept at Notingham: In time of 

manuscnpt. ^jij^h Councell, a brother of the Earle Ferrers being in the 

night priuily slaine at London, and throwne out of his Inne, 

into the durtie street, when y* king vnderstood therof, he 

sware that he would be auenged on the Citizens. For it was 

then (saith mine Authour) a common practise in the Citie, that 

an hundred or more in a company, yong and old, would make 

nightly inuasions vpon houses of the wealthie, to the intent to 

rob them, and if they found any man stirring in the Citie 

within the night, that were not of their crew, they would 

presently murder him : insomuch, that when night was come, 

no man durst aduenture to walke in the streetes. When this 

had continued long, it fortuned that, as a crew of yong and 

Kightwalkers wealthie Citizens, assembling togither in the night, assaulted 

maidered all g. stone house of a certaine rich man, & breaking through the 

wall, the good man of that house, hauing prepared himselfe 

with other in a comer, when hee perceyued one of the theeues 

named Andrew Bucquint to leade the way, with a burning 

brand in the one hand, and a pot of coales in the other, which 

hee assaied to kindle with the brand, he flew vpon him, and 

smote off his right hand, and then with a loude voyce cried 

theeues: at the hearing whereof the theeues tooke their 

Rich theeues Aigh^ ^ sauing hee that had lost his hande, whom the 

most worthie good man in the next morning: deliuered to Richard de Lucie 

to be hanged. , , . _ . r«i . , ,. ^ , . ..^ 

Thcindge- the kings lustice. This theefe, vpon warrant of his life, 

& water called ^PP^^^^^^ his confederates, of whom many were taken, and 
oTdalii,was many were fled. Among the rest that were apprehended, 
by'poM*^ * certaine Citizen of great countenance, credit, and wealth. 
Innocent the named lohtt Senex^ who for as much as hee could not acquit 
p^^, himselfe by the waterdome, (as that law was then,) he offered 
Ub. 5« to the king flue hundred pounds of silucr for his life : but 

watches in the forasmuch as he was condemned by iudgement of the water, 
Sommlmdcd ^'^ '^^"S would not take the offer, but commaunded him to 
and when. bee hanged on the Gallowes, which was done, and then the 

Of watches in London loi 

Citie became more quiet for a long time after. But for a full 
remedie of enormities in the night, I reade that in the yeare 
of Christ 1253. Henrie the third commaunded watches in 
Cities and Boroughe Townes to bee kept, for the better 
obseruing of peace and quietnesse amongst his people. 

And farther by the aduise of them of Sauoy, hee ordayjned Page 102 
that if any man chaunccd to bee robbed, or by any meancs 
damnified, by any theefe or robber, he to whom the charge 
of keeping that Countrie, Citie or Borough chiefly apper- 
tained, where the robberie was done, should competently 
restore the losse : And this was after the vse of Sauoy, but 
yet thought more hard to bee obserued here, then in those 
parts: and therefore leauing those laborious watches, I will 
speake of our pleasures and pastimes in watching by night. 

In the Moneths of lune, and luly, on the Vigiles of Bonefien and 
festiuall dayes, and on the same festiuall dayes in the {hes^eS."* 
Euenings after the Sunne setting, there were vsually made 
Bonefiers in the streetes, euery man bestowinc; wood or 
labour towards them : the wealthier sort also before their 
doores neare to the said Bonefiers, would set out Tables on 
the Vigiles, furnished with sweete breade, and good drinke, 
and on the Festiuall dayes with meates and drinks plentifully, 
whereunto they would inuite their neighbours and passengers 
also to sit, and bee merrie with them in great familiaritie, 
praysing God for his benefites bestowed on them. These 
were called Bonefiers aswell of good amitie amongest neigh- 
bours that, being before at controuersie, were there by the 
labour of others, reconciled, and made of bitter enemies, 
louing friendes, as also for the vertue that a great fire hath to 
pui^ the infection of the ayre. On the Vigil of Saint lohn Marching 
Baptist, and on Saint Peter and Paule the Apostles, euery ^*^<^^ "^ °*»^- 


mans doore being shadowed with greene Birch, long Fennel, 
Saint lobns wort. Orpin, white Lillies, and such like, garnished Garnishing of 
vpon with Garlands of beautifull flowers, had also Lampes of S^J^uhi^ 
glasse, with oyle burning in them all the night, some hung them out. 
out brauncbes of yron curiously wrought, contayning hun- 
dreds of Lampes light at once, which made a goodly shew, 
namely in new Fishstrcet, Thames streete, &c. Then had ye 
besides the standing watches, all in bright harnes in euery 

I02 Of watches in London 

ward and streete of this Citie and Suburbs, a marching 

watch, that passed through the principal streets thereof, to 

wit, from the litle Conduit by Paules gate, through west 

Cheape, by y* Stocks, through Comhill, by Leaden hall to 

Aldgate, then backe downe Fenchurch streete, by Grasse 

church, aboute Grasse church Conduite, and vp Grasse church 

Page 10} streete into Comhill, and through \ it into west Cheape 

againe, and so broke vp : the whole way ordered for this 

marching watch, extendeth to 3200. Taylors yards of assize, 

for the furniture whereof with lights, there were appointed 700. 

Almort 1000. Cressetes, 500. of them being found by the Companies, the 

fcxr the wfUch' Other 200. by the Chamber of London : besides the which 

at Mid- lightes euery Constable in London, in number more then 240. 

had his Cresset, the charge of euery Cresset was in light two 

More than shillinges foure pence, and euery Cresset had two men, one to 

bftt inLmi^* beare or hold it, an other to beare a bag with light, and to 

^on the <me serue it, SO that the poore men pertayning to the Cressets, 

ech night taking wages, besides that euery one had a strawne hat, with 

marchSi*''^ a badge painted, and his breakfast in the morning, amounted 

watch, the in number to almost 20CO. The marching watch contained 

v^^ in ""-nber about aoco. men. parte of them being olde 

standingwatch Souldiers, of skill to be Captains, Lieutenants, Sergeants, Cor- 

& Ud^ ^ porals, &c. Wiflers, Drommers, and Fifes, Standard and Ensigne 

bearers. Sword players, Trumpeters on horsebacke, Demi- 

launces on great horses, Gunners with hand Guns, or halfe 

hakes. Archers in coates of white fustian signed on the breast 

and backe with the armes of the Cittie, their bowes bent in 

their handes, with shcafes of arrowes by their sides. Pike men 

in bright Corslets, Burganets, &c. Holbards, the like Bill men 

in Almaine Riuets, and Apernes of Mayle in great number, 

there were also diuers Pageants, Morris dancers, Constables, 

the one halfe which was 120. on S. lohns Eue, the other halfe 

on S. Peters Eue in bright harnesse, some ouergilte, and euery 

one a lornet of Scarlet thereupon, and a chaine of golde, his 

Hench man following him, his Minstrels before him, and his 

Cresset light passing by him, the Waytes of the City, the 

Mayors Officers, for his guard before him, all in a Liuery of 

wolsted or Say lacquets party coloured, the Mayor himselfe 

well mounted on horseback, the sword bearer before him in 

Of watches in London 103 

fayre Armour well mounted also, the Mayors footmen, & the 
like Torch bearers about him, Hench men twaine, vpon great 
stirring horses following him. The SherifTes watches came 
one after the other in like order, but not so large in number as 
the Mayors, for where the Mayor had besides his Giant, three 
Pageants, each of the Sheriffes had besides their Giantes but 
two Pageants, ech their Morris Dance, and one Hench man 
their | Officers in lacquets of Wolsted, or say party coloured, P^ 104 
differing from the Mayors, and each from other, but hauing 
hamised men a great many, &c. 

This Midsommer Watch was thus accustomed yearely, time 
out of mind, vntill the yeare 1539. the 31. of Henry the 8. in a gnat 
which yeare on the eight of May, a great muster was made by JJ^J^^** 
the Cittizens, at the Miles end all in bright hamesse with 
coates of white silke, or cloath and chaines of gold, in three 
greate battailes, to the number of 15000. which passed through 
London to Westminster, and so through the Sanctuary, and 
round about the Parke of S. lames ^ and returned home through 
Oldboume. King Henry then considering the great charges 
of the Cittizens for the furniture of this vnusuall Muster, forbad 
the marching watch prouided for, at Midsommer for that 
yeare, which beeing once laide downe, was not raysed againe 
till the yeare 154& the second of Edward the sixt. Sir lohn 
Gresham then being Mayor, who caused the marching watch 
both on the Eue of Sainte lohn Baptist^ and of S. Peter the 
Apostle, to be reuiued and set foorth, in as comely order as it 
had beene accustomed, which watch was also beautified by the 
number of more then 300. Demilances and light horsemen, 
prepared by the Cittizens to bee sent into Scotland, for the 
rescue of the towne of Hadington, and others kept by the 
Englishmen. Since this Mayors time, the like marching watch 
in this Citty hath not been vsed, though some attemptes haue 
beene made thereunto, as in the yeare 1585. a book was John Monnt- 
drawn by a graue citizen, & by him dedicated to Sir Thomas ^^^^* 
PullUon^ then Lord Mayor and his Brethren the Aldermen, 
conteyning the manner and order of a marching watch in the ofth"wmtch 
Cittie vpon the Euens accustomed, in commendation whereof, at Mid- 
namely in times of peace to be vsed, he hath words to this ^^^me of 
effect The Artificers of sondry sortes were thereby well set pe«ce. 

I04 Of watches in London 

a worke, none but rich men charged, poore men helped, old 

Souldiers, Trompiters, Drommers, Fifes, and ensigne bearers 

with such like men, meet for Princes seruice kept in vre, 

wherein the safety and defence of euery common weale con- 

sisteth. Armour and Weapon beeing yearely occupied in this 

wise the Cittizens had of their owne redily prepared for any 

Page JOS neede, whereas by intermission hereof, Armo|rers arc out of 

worke, Souldiers out of vre, weapons ouergrown with foulness, 

few or none good being prouided, &c. 

Wrertling at In the Moneth of August about the feast of S. Bartholomew 

n^^to*" *^ Apostle, before the Lord Maior, Aldermen, and Shiriffcs 

Clarks wcU of London placed in a large Tent neare vnto Clarken well, of 

ina?or. * o^e time were diuerse dayes spent in the pastime of wrestling, 

where the Officers of the Citie : namely the ShirifTes, Seigeants 

and Yeoman, the Porters of the kings beame, or weigh house, 

now no such men, and other of the Citie, were challengers of 

all men in the suburbs, to wrestle for games appointed : and 

Shooting the on Other dayes, before the sayd Maior, Aldermen and Shiriffes, 

broad arrow, '^^ Fensburie field, to shoote the Standard, broad Arrow, and 

& fligh^ flght, for games : but now of late yeares the wrestling is onely 

Dcforc the 

Maior. practised on Bartholomew day in the after noone, and the 

shooting some three or foure dayes after, in one after noone 

and no more. What should I speake of the auncient dayly 

exercises in the long bow by Citizens of this Citie, now almost 

cleane left off and forsaken ? I ouerpass it : for by the meane 

Shooting in of closing in the common grounds, our Archers for want of 

suppressed, roome to shoote abroade, creepe into bowling Allies, and 

erect^^nd*^ ordinarie dicing houses, nearer home, where they have roome 

frequented, enough to hazard their money at vnlawfull games : and there 

I leaue them to take their pleasures. 

Honor of Citizens, and worthinesse of men 

in the same. 

J HIS Citie {saith Fitzstephen) is glorious in manhoode: 
furnished with munitions: populous with inhaHtants^ insomuch 
that in the troublesome time of King Stephen^ it hath shewed at 
a muster twenty thousand armed horsemen^& threescore thousand 
footmen, serviceable for the warres. Moreouer saith hee^ She 

Honour of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 105 

Citizens of London, wheresoeuer they become, are notable before 

all other Citizens in ciuilitie of maners, attire, table, and talke. 

The I Matrones of this Citie are the verie modest Sabine Ladies Page 106 

of Italie. The Londoners sometime called Trinobantes, repelled The modest 

Ccesar^ which alwaies made his passage by shedding bloud, JJ|^*blwne ^ 

whereupon Lucan sung. and ought 

Territa quxsitis ostendit terga Britannis. Worthines of 

The Citie of Lottdon hath bred some, which haue subdued "I? Citizens 

- of London. 

many kingdomes, cmd also the Romane Empire. It hath also 
brought forth many others, whome vertue and valour hath 
highly aduaunced, according to AppoUo in his Oracle to Brute, 
sub occasu solis, &c. In the time of Christianitie, it brought 
foorth that noble Emperour Constantine, which gaue the Citie Constantine 
of Rome and all the Emperiall signes to God, Saint Peter and bomc in 
Pope Siluester: choosing rather to bee called a Defender of the l-ondon. 
Church, then an Emperor : and least peace might be violated, 
and their eyes troubled by his presence, he retired from Rome, 
and built the Citie of Constantinople. London also in late 
time hath brought forth famous kings: Maude the Empresse, 
king Henrie, sonne to Henrie the second, and Thomas the 
Archbishop, &c. 

This Thomas, surnamed Becket, borne in London, brought A Shiriffes 
vp in the Priorie of Marton, student at Paris, became the^^^^j^^"' 
Shirifies Clarke of London for a time, then person of Saint Chancellor of 
Marie hill, had a Prebend at London, an other at Lincolne, Ar5ibishopof 
studied the law at Bononie, &c., was made Chancellor of Canterburie. 

, Honoorable 

England, and Archbishop of Canterburie, &c. Unto this actions done 
might bee added innumerable persons of honour, wisedome, c'ltSoiro?^* 
and vertue, borne in London : but of actions done by worthie London. 
Citizens, I will onely note a few, and so to other matters. 

The Citizens of London, time out of mind, founded an HospitaU kA 
Hospitall of Saint lames in the fieldes for leprous women thefidid! 
of their Citie. 

In the yeare 1197. bolter Brune a Citizen of London, and Walter Bnme. 
Rosia his wife, founded the Hospital of our Ladie called 
Domus Dei, or Saint Marie Spittle without Bishops gate of 
London, a house of such reliefe to the needie, that there 
was found standing at the surrender thereof, nine score beds 
well furnished for receipt of poore people. | 

io6 Honour of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 

Pagi loj 
Citizens spoile 
the sea rooen. 

Simon Fits- 

Henry Wal- 
lice maior. 

Wil. Elsing. 



lohn Stodie. 

Henry Picard. 

lohn Lofken. 

In the yeare 1216. the Londoners sending out a Nauie, 
tooke 95. ships of Pirats and sea robbers : besides innumerable 
others that they drowned, which had robbed on the riuer of 

In the yeare 1247. Sinion Fitzmary^ one of the Shiriffes of 
London, founded the Hospitall of S. Mary called Bethlem, 
and without Bishops gate. 

In the yeare 1 283. Henry Wallice then Maior, builded the 
Tun vpon Comhill, to be a prison for night walkers, and 
a Market house called the Stocks, both for fish and flesh 
standing in the midst of the Citie. He also builded diuerse 
houses on the West and North side of Paules Churchyard : 
the profits of all which buildings are to the maintenance of 
London bridge. 

In the yeare 1332, William Elsing Mercer of London, 
founded Elsing Spittle within Cripplegate, for sustentation of 
an hundred poore blind men, and became himselfe the first 
Prior of that Hospitall. 

Sir lohn Paultney Draper, foure times Maior, 1337. builded 
a fayre Chappell in Paules Church, wherein he was buried. 
He founded a Colledge in the parrish Church of Saint Laurence 
called Poultney. He builded the parish Church called little 
Alhallowes in Thames streete and the Carmelite Friers Church 
in Couentree : he gaue reliefe to prisoners in Newgate, and in 
the Fleet, and ten shillings the yeare to S. Giles Hospitall by 
Oldborne for euer, and other legacies long to rehearse. 

lohn Stodie Vintener, Maior 1358. gave to the Vinteners 
all the quadrant wherein the Vinteners hall now standeth, with 
all the tenements round about, from Stodies lane, where is 
founded thirteene Almes houses, for so many poore people, &c. 

Henrie Picard Vintener, Maior 1357. in the yeare 1363, 
did in one day sumptuously feast Edward the third king of 
England, lohn king of France, Dauid king of Scots, the king 
of Cipres, then all in England, Edward prince of Wales, with 
many other noble men, and after kept his hall for all commers 
that were willing to play at dice, and hazard: the Ladie 
Margaret his wife, kept her chamber to the same effect, &c. 

lohn Lofken Fishmonger, foure times Maior, 1367. builded 
an Hospitall called Magdalens in Kingstone vpon Thames, 

Honour of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men yqtj 

gaue I therevnto nine tenements, ten shops, one Mill, 125. /v^/o^ 
acres of land, ten acres of medow, 120. acres of pasture, &c. 
More, in London, hee builded the faire parish Church of Saint 
Michaell in crooked lane, and was there buried. 

lohn Barnes Maior, I37i* gave a Chest with three locks, lohn Barnei. 
and looo. Markes therein, to bee lent to yong men vpon 
sufficient pawne, and for the vse thereof, to say De profundis^ 
or Pater nosier^ and no more : he also was a great builder of 
S. Thomas Apostles parish church, as appeareth by his armes 
there, both in stone and glasse. 

In the yeare 1378. lohn Filpot sometime Maior, hired with lohn Filpot. 
his owne money 1000. souldiers, and defended the Realme 
from incursions of the enemie, so that in small time his hired 
men tooke lohn Mercer a sea Rouer, with all his Ships, which 
hee before had taken from Scarborrow, and fifteene Spanish 
shippes laden with great riches. 

In the yeare 1380. Thomas of Woodstocke, Thomas Percie^ 
Hugh Caburley, Robert Knowles^ and others, being sent with 
a great power to ayde the Duke of Brytaine, the said lohn 
Filpot hyred ships for them of his owne charges, and released 
the Armour, which the souldiers had pawned for their vittailes, 
more then a thousand in number. This most noble Citizen 
(saieth Thomas Walsingham) that had trauelled for the com- Tho. Wals. 
moditie of the whole Realme, more then all other of his time, 
had often reUeued the king, by lending him great summes of 
mony, and otherwise, deceased in Anno 1384. after that hee 
had assured landes to the Citie for the reliefe of 13. poore 
people for euer. 

In the yeare 1381. William Walworth then Maior, a most wm. Wal- 
prouident, valiant, and learned Citizen, did by his arrest of vaiiande. 
Wat Tyler (a presumptuous Rebell, vppon whom no man 
durst lay hands) deliuer the king and kingdome from the 
daunger of most wicked Traytors, and was for his seruice 
knighted in the field. 

Nicholas Brembar, John Filpot^ Robert Laund, Nicholas ^"^^y^m 
Twifordy and Adam Francis, Aldermen were then for their ^^ ^^^^n 
seruice likewise knighted, and sir Robert Knoles, for assisting ^^^^ ^ 
of the Maior, was made free of this Citie. ^^ Knolc*. 

This sir Robert Knoles thus worthily infranchised a Cijtizen, PagB 109 

io8 Honour of Citizens, and worthinesse of men 

founded a Colledge with an Hospitall at Pontfract : hee also 
builded the great stone bridge at Rochester, ouer the Riuer of 
Medway, &c. 

lohnChnrch- lohft Churchman Grocer, one of the ShirifTes 1386. for the 

"*"• quiet of Marchants, builded a certaine house vpon Wooll 

wharfe, in tower warde, to serve for Tronage ^, or waying of 
wooles, and for the Customer, Comptrollers, Clarkes, and other 
Officers to sit, &c. 

Adam Adam Bamme Goldsmith, Maior, 1381. in a great dearth, 

Bamme. procured comc from partes beyond the seas, to be brought 
hither on such abundance, as sufficed to serue the Citie, and 
the Countries neare adioyning : to the furtherance of which 
good worke, he tooke out of the Orphants Chest in the Guild- 
hall, 2000. Markes to buy the said corne, and each Alderman 
layd out 20. /. to the like purpose. 

Tho. Knoles. Thomos KftoUs Grocer, Maior 1400. with his brethren the 
Aldermen, began to new build the Guild hall in London, and 
in steed of an olde little Cottage in Aldermanberiestreet, 
made a faire and goodly house, more neare vnto Saint 
Laurence church in the lurie: he reedified Saint Anthonies 
Church, and gave to the Grocers his house neare vnto the 
same, for reliefe of the poore for euer. More, he caused sweet 
water to be conuayed to the gates of Newgate, and Ludgate, 
for reliefe of the prisoners there. 

lohnHinde. lohn Hinde Draper, Maior, 1405. newly builded his parish 
Church of Saint Scithen by London stone : his monument is 
defaced, saue onely his armes in the glasse windowes. 

Th. Falconar. Thomas Falconar Mercer, Maior, 141 4. lent to King HenrU 
the sixt towards maintenance of his warres in France, loooo 
Markes vpon iewels. More he made the posteme called 
Mooregate, caused the ditches of the dtie to be clensed, and 
did many other things for good of the same Citie. 

w. Seaenock. William Seuenoke Grocer, Maior, 141 9. founded in the 
towne of Seuenocke in Kent a free schoole for poore mens 
children, and 13. almes houses: his Testament saieth 90. 
poore men and women. 

Richaid Richard Whittington Mercer, three times Maior, in the 

Whittington. ygare 14^11. began the librarie of the gray Friers in London, 

' Tronage] Thorns ; Trenage, 1603 

Honour of Citizens, and worthinesse of men 109 

to I the charge of foure hundred pound : his executors with his Page no 
goods founded and builded Whittington CoUedge, with almes 
houses for 13. poore men, and diuinitie lectures to bee there 
read for euer. They repaired Saint Bartholomews Hospitall in 
Smithfield, they bare some charges to the glasing and pauing 
of the Guildhall : they bare halfe the charges of building the 
Librarie there, and they builded the West gate of London, of 
olde time called Newgate, &c 

lohn Carpenter Towne Clarke of London, in the raigne of lo- Carpenter. 
Henrie the fift, caused with great expences to bee curiously 
painted vpon boord, about the North Cloyster of Paules, 
a monument of death, leading all estates, with the speeches of 
death, and answere of euerie state. This Cloyster was pulled DanDce of 
downe 1549. He also gpue tenements to the Citie, for the ^^^^ 
finding and bringing vp of foure poore mens children, with of Paules. 
meate, drinke, apparell, learning at the schooles in the Univer- 
sities, &C. vntil they be preferred, and then other in their 
places for euer. 

Robert Chichley Grocer, Maior, 1422. appointed by his Robert 
Testament, that on his minde day, a competent dinner ^ould ^*'*^^^- 
be ordained for 2400. poore men housholders of this Citie, 
and euerie man to haue two pence in money. More, he gaue 
one large plot of ground therevpon to build the new parish 
Church of S. Stephen neare vnto Walbrooke. &c. 

John RaiwweU Fishmonger, Maior, 1427. gaue Tenements lohn Rainwel. 
to discharge certaine wardes of London of fifteenes, and other 

lohn Welles Grocer, Maior, 1432.^ a great builder of theiohnWels. 
chappell or CoUedge of the Guild hall^ and was there buried : 
he caused fresh water to be coriueyed from Tybome to the 
standard in west Cheape for seruice of the Citie. 

William Eastfield Mercer, 1438. appoynted his executors of William 
his goods to conuey sweete water from Teybome, and to ^"'^^^^^ 
build a faire Conduit by Alderman berie church, which they 
performed, as also made a Standard in Fleetstreete by 
Shewlane end: they also conueyed water to Cripples gate, &c. 

Stephen Browne Grocer, Maior, 1439. sent into Prussia, 
causing come to be brought from thence, whereby hee brought | Step. Browne. 

* 1432] «V/jp^; 1433 /(Joj 

I lo Honour of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 

Page Hi downe the price of wheate from three shillings the bushell, to 
less then halfe that money. 

Philip Philip Malpas one of the ShirifTes, 1440. gaue by his Testa- 

Malpas. ment, 125. /. to reliefe of poore prisoners, & euery yeare for 
fiue yeares 400. shirts, and smockes, 40. paire of sheetes, and 
150. gownes of Freese to the poore, to 500. poore people in 
London, euery one 6s« 8.d., to poore maides marriages 100. 
Markes, to high wayes 100. Markes, twentie Markes the 3^eare 
to a graduate to preach, 20. pound to Preachers at the Spittle 
the three Easter Holidays, &c. 

Robert Large. Robert Large Mercer, Maior 1440, gaue to his Parish church 
of S. Oliue in Surry 200. /., to Saint Margarets in Lothberie 
25., to the poore 20. li, to London bridge 100. markes, towardes 
the vaulting ouer the water course of Walbrooke aoo. marks, 
to poore maids marriages 100. marks, to poore householders 
100. li, &c. 

Richard Rich. Richard Rich mercer, one of the Shiriffes, 1442. founded 
Almes houses at Hodsdon in Hertfordshire. 

Simon Eyre. Simon Eyre Draper, Maior 1446. builded the Leaden hall 
for a common Gamer of come to the vse of this Citie, and left 
fiue thousand markes to charitable vses. 

Godf. Baliein. Godfrey Bollein Maior of London, 1458. by his Testament 
gaue liberally to the prisons, hospitals, and laser houses, 
besides a thousand pound to poore housholders in London, 
and two hundred pound to poore housholders in Norffolke. 

Rich.RawsoD. Richard Rawson one of the Shiriffes, 1477, g^^^ by Testa- 
ment large legacies to the prisoners, hospitals, laser houses to 
other poore, to high wayes, to the water Conduits, besides to 
poore Maides marriages 340. pound, and his executors to 
build a large house in the Churchyard of Saint Marie Spittle, 
wherein the maior and his brethren do vse to sit and heare the 
Sermons in the Easter holydayes. 

Thomas nam. Thomas I lam one of the Shiriffes 1480. newly builded the 
great Conduit in Cheape, of his owne charges. 

Edmond Edmond Shaw Goldsmith, Maior, 1483. caused Cripplegate 

Shaw. Qf London to be new builded of his goods, &c. 

Thomas Hill. Thomas Hill Grocer, maior, 1485, caused of his goods, the 
Conduit of Grasse streete to be builded. 

Hugh Hugh Clopton Mercer, during his life a batchler, maior, 1 49a. | 

Honour of Citizens ^ and worthinesse of men 1 1 1 

builded the great stone arched bridge at Stratford vpon Auon ^ Pag^ 112 
in Warwickshire, and did many other things of great charitie, 
as in my Summarie. 

Robert Fabiaii one of the ShiriiTes, 1494. gathered out of Rob. Fabian, 
diuerse good Authours, as well Latin as French, a large 
Chronicle of England, and of France which he published in 
English, to his great charges, for the honour of this Citie, and 
common vtilitie of the whole Realme. 

Sir lohn Perciuall nuu'chant Tayler, maior, 1498. founded lo\m Perdiial. 
a Grammar schoole at Macklefield in Cheshire where hee was 
borne: he indowed the same schoole with sufficient landes, 
for the findii^ of a Priest maister there, to teach freely all 
children thither sent, without exception. 

The Ladie Tomasine his wife founded the like free schoole, Rich. Carew. 
togither with faire lodgings for the Schoolemasters, schoUers, 
and other, & added 20. li. of yearely reuenew for supporting 
the charges, at S. Mary Wike in Cornwall ^ where she was 

Stephen Gennings Marchant tayler, Maior, 1509. founded Stq>heii 
a faire Grammar Schoole at Vlfrimhampton in Staffordshire, ^^*^*'«^ 
left good landes, and also builded a great part of his parish 
Church called S. Andrewes Viuiershaft in London. 

Henrie Keble Grocer, Maior, 151 1. in his life a great Henry Keble. 
benefactor to the new building of old Mary Church, and 
by his Testament gaue a thousand pounds toward the finish- 
ing thereof: he gaue to high wayes 300. pound, to poore 
maides marriages, 100. Markes, to poore husband men in 
Oxford and Warwickeshires, 140. Ploughshares, and 140. 
Cultars of iron, and in London to seuen almes men, sixpence 
the week for euer. 

lohn Collet a Cittizen of London by birth, and dignitie, lohnCoUet. 
Deane of Paules^ Doctor of Diuinitie, erected and builded one 
free schoole in Paules Churchyard, 151 2. for 153.^ poore mens 
children, to be taught free in the same schoole, appointing 
a maister, a surmaister, and a chaplaine, with sufficient stipends 
to endure for euer, and committed the ouersight thereof to the 
mercers in London, because himselfe was sonne to Henrie 

^ Auon] Auen i6oj ' Cornwall] Deuonshire 1603 

' i53]353/^J|/^Ji 

112 Honour of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 

Collet Mercer, maior of London, and indowed the Mercers with 
lands to the yearly value of 120 pound, or better. | 

Page II} John Tate Brewer, then a Mercer, Maior, 15 14. caused his 

Brewhouse called the Swan, neare adioyning to the Hospitall 
of S. Anthonie in London, to be taken downe, for the en- 
larging of the said Church, then new builded, a gp:eat part of 
his charge : this was a goodly foundation, with almes houses, 
freeschoole, &c. 

Geor. Monox. George Monox Draper, Maior, 1515. reedified the decayed 
Parish Church of Waltomstow or Walthamstow, in Essex: 
hee founded there a free schoole, and almes houses for 13. 
almes people, made a Cawsey of timber ouer the Marshes 
from Walthamstow to Locke bridge, &c. 

lo. Milbom. Sir lohn Milborne Draper, Maior, 1522. builded almes 
houses fourteene in number by the crossed Friers Church in 
London, there to be placed fourteene poore people, and left 
to the Drapers certaine Messuages, Tenements, and Garden 
plots, in the parish of Saint Olaue in Hartstreete, for the per- 
formance of stipends to the sayd Almes people, and other 
vses. Looke more in Ealdgate ward. 

Robert Thorn. Robert Thorne Marchant tayler, deceased a Batchler, in the 
yeare 1532. gaue by his Testament to charitable actions, more 
then 4440.11. and legacies to his poore kindred more 5142.IL 
besides his debts forgiuen, &c 

Sir loh. Allen. Sir lohn Allen Mercer, Maior of London, and of counsaile 
to king Henrie the 8. deceased 1544. buried Saint Thomas of 
Acres in a faire Chappell by him builded. He gaue to the 
Cittie of London, a rich coller of golde, to bee wome by the 
maior, which was first wome by sir W. LaxUm. He gaue 
500. markes to bee a stocke for Sea coale, his lands purchased 
of the king, the rent therof to be destributed to the poore in 
the wardes of London for euer. He gaue besides to the 
prisons, hospitals, laser houses, and all other poore in the 
Citie, or two miles without, very liberally, and long to be 

SirWiiiitm Sir WUliam Lax ton Grocer, maior, 1545. founded a faire 
** ®"' free schoole at Owndale in Northamptonshire, with sixe almes 

houses for the poore. 

Honor of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 113 

Sir lohn Gresham mercer, maior, 1548. founded a free Sirloh. 
schoole at Holt, a market towne in Norfolke. Grcriiam, 

Sir Rowland Hill mercer, maior, 1550. caused to be made Sir Rowland 


di|uerse cawseys both for horse and man, he made ^oure^'' 
bridges, two of stone contaynii^ 18. Arches in them both : 
he builded one notable free schoole at Drayton in Shropshire : 
he gaue to Christs Hospitall in London 500.11. &c. 

Sir ^iMfr^zcf /i^^ skinner, maior, 1551. erected one notable Sir Andrew 
free schoole at Tunbridge in Kent, and almes houses nigh 
Saint Helens church in London, and left to the Skinners 
landes to the value of 6oJi. 3.S. 8x1. the yeare, for the which 
they bee bound to pay twentie pound to the schoolemayster, 
eight pound to the Usher, yearely for euer, and foure shil- 
linges the weeke to the sixe almes people, and 25. shillings 
foure pence the yeare in coales for euer. 

Sir Thomas White Marchant tayler, maior, 1554. founded S.Tho. White, 
saint Johns Colledge in Oxford, and gaue great summes of 
money to diuerse townes in England for reliefe of the poore, 
as in my Summarie. 

Edward Hall GtniXtmzxi of Grayes Inne, a Citizen by birth Edward Hall, 
and office, as common Sergeant of London, and one of the 
ludges in the shiriffes Court, he wrote and published a famous 
and eloquent Chronicle, intituled The vniting of the two noble 
families Lancaster and Yorke. 

Richard Hils Marchant tayler, 1560. gaue towardes Richard Hilt, 
the purchase of an house called the mannor of the Rose, 
wherein the marchant taylers founded their free schoole in 
London : hee also gaue to the said marchant taylers one plot 
of ground, with certaine small cottages on the Tower hill, 
where he builded faire almes houses for 14. sole women. 

About the same time, William Lambert Esquire, borne in Wil. Lambert. 
London, a Justice of the peace in Kent, founded a Colledge 
for the poore, which he named of Queene Elizabeth^ in east 

William Harper marchant tayler, Maior, 1562. founded a Sir wniiam 
free schoole in the towne of Bedford where he was borne, and ''^^' 
also buried. 

Sir Thomas Gresham mercer, 1566. builded the Royall Sir Thomai 
exchange in London, and by his Testament left his dwelling ' ™' 

STOW. 1 

114 Honor of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 

Page us 
W. Patten. 

Sir T. Roe. 


W. Lainbe. 

Sir T. Offlcy 
much to the 

lohn Haydon. 

B«roaxd Ran- 

Sir Woliton 

house in Bishops gate streete, to be a place for readings, 
allowing large stipends to the readers, and certaine almes 
houses for the poore. | 

William Patten Gentleman, a Citizen by birth, and cus- 
tomer of London outward, Justice of Peace in Middlesex, the 
parrish Church of Stokenewenton being ruinous he repayred, 
or rather new builded. 

Sir Thomas Roe Marchant Taylor, Mayor, 1568. gaue to 
the Marchant Taylors lands or Tenements, out of them to 
bee giuen to ten poore men Clothworkers, Carpentars, Tilars, 
Plasterers, and Armorers, 40.1i. yearely, vz. 4.1i. to each, also to bee lent to 8. poore men : besides hee inclosed with 
a wall of bricke nigh one acre of ground, pertayning to the 
Hospital of Bethlem, to be a buriall for the dead. 

Ambrose Nicholas Saltar, Mayor, 1576. founded xii. Almes 
houses in Monkeswell streete, neare vnto Creples gate, wherein 
he placed xii. poore people, hauing each of them vii. d. the 
weeke, and once euery yeare v. sacks of coales, and one 
quarter of a hundred Faggots, all of his gift for euer. 

WiUiam Lambe Gentleman and Cloth worker in the yeare 
1577. builded a water Conduit at Oldbome Crosse, to his 
charges of i5ooJi. and did many other charitable actes, as in 
my summary. 

Sir 71 Offley Marchant Taylor, Mayor, deceased 1580. 
appointed by his testament, the one halfe of al his goods, and 
900.1L deducted out of the other halfe, giuen to his sonne 
Henry ^ to bee giuen and bestowed in deedes of charity, by his 
Executors, according to his confidence and trust in them. 

lohn Haydon Shiriffe, 1583. gaue large L^;acies, more then 
3000.11. for reliefe of the poore, as in my Summarie. 

Barnard Randolph^ common Sargeant of London^ 1583. 
gaue and deliuered with his owne hand, 900.1i. towards the 
building of Water Conduits, which was performed : more, by 
Testament he gaue to bee employed in charitable 
actions, but that money being in holde fasts hands, I haue 
not heard how it was bestowed, more then of other good 
mens Testaments, to bee performed. 

Sir Wolstofi Dixie Skinner, Mayor, 1586. founded a free 

Honor of Citizens^ and worthinesse of men 115 

Schoole at Bosworth, and indowed it with twentie pound land 
by yeare. 

Richard May Marchant Taylor, gaue 300.1i. toward the | Richard Maye. 
new building of Blackwell hall in London, a market place for Page u6 
WoUen cloathes. 

lohn Fuller Esquier, one of the ludg^es in the ShirifTes lohn Fuller, 
court of London, by his Testament dated 1 59a. appointed houaeTap- 
his wife, her heires and assignes, after his decease, to erect pointed, and 
one Almes house in the parish of Stikonheth \ for xii. poore ^fom^. 
single men aged 50. yeres or vpwardes, and one other Almes 
house in Shoreditch, for xii. poore aged widdow women of 
like age, shee to endow them, with one hundred pound the 
yeare, to witte, fiftie pound to each for cuer, out of his landes 
in Lincolne shire, assured euer vnto certaine Feffies in trust, 
by a Deede of FefTement. Item, more he gaue his Mes- 
suages, lands and tenements lying in the parishes of S. Benet, 
and S. Peter by Powles wharfe in London, to FefHes in trust, 
yearely for euer to disburse all the Issues and profites of the 
said landes and tenementes, to the relieuing and discharge 
of poore Prisoners in the Hole, or two penny wardes, in the 
two Comptars in London, in equall portions to each Comptar, 
so that the Prisoners exceede not the somme of xxvi.s. viij.d. 
for euery one Prisoner, at any one time. 

Thus much for famous Cittizens, haue I noted their charitable 
actions, for the most part done by them in theyr life time. 
The residue left in trust to their Executors : I haue knowne 
some of them hardly (or neuer) performed, wherefore I wish 
men to make their owne hands their Executors, and their 
eyes their Ouerseers, not forgetting the olde Prouerbe : 

Women be forgetfully Children be vnkind^ 
Executors be couetous^ and take what they find. 
If any body aske where the deads goods became^ 
They answere^ So God me help &* holydome^ he died a 
poore man. 

One worthy citizen marchant taylor hauing many years 
considered this prouerb afore going, hath therfore established 
to 12. poor aged men Marchant Taylors 6.1i. 2.s. to each 

1 (Stokenheath) 
I % 

1 16 Honor of Citizens, and worthinesse of men 

yearely for euer : hee hath also giuen them Gownes of good 
broade cloath, lined thorough with Bayes, and are to receiue 
euery 3. yeares end, the like new gownes for euer. 

And now of some women : Citizens wiues, deseruing 

memory, for example to posterity shall bee noted : Dame 

Agnes Foster. Agms Foster widdow, sometime wife to Stephen Foster Fish- 

Pagi III monger, Mayor, | 1455. hauing inlai^ed the Prison of Lud- 

gate, in 1463. procured in a common Counsell of this Citie, 

certayne Articles to be established, for the ease, comfort and 

reliefe of poore Prisoners there, as in the Chapter of gates 

I haue set downe. 

Auice Gibson, Auice GibsoH. Wife vnto Nicholas Gibson Grocer, one of the 

chapell, a free Sherifles, 1 539. by licence of her husband, founded a Free 

schoole, and schoole at Radclyfe neare vnto London, appointing to the same 

atReddyfe. for the instruction of 60. poore mens Children, ^a Schoole- 

maister^and Vsher with 50. poundes : shee also builded Almes 

houses for xiiii. poore aged parsons, each of them to receiue 

quarterly vi.s. viii.d. the peece for euer ^. The gouemment of 

which Free schoole and Almes houses, shee left in confidence 

to the Coopers in London. This vertuous Gentlewomaii was 

after ioyned in marriage with Sir Anthony Kneuet Knight, 

and so called the Lady Kneuet : a fayre paynted Table of hir 

Cursed is hee picture was placed in the Chappie which she had builded there, 

his ne^l^rs ^^^ ^^ '^^^ remooued thence by the like reason, as the Grocers 

marke, haue I Armes fixed on the outer Wall of the Schoolehouse are pulled 

downe, and the Coopers set in place. 
Margaret Dan. Margaret Donne, widdow to William Danne Ironmonger, 
one of the SherifTes of London, 1570. gaue by his Testament 
to the Ironmongers 2000. pound, to bee lent to young men of 
that Company, paying after the rate of v. li. the yeare for 
euerie hundred, which C. li. so rising yearely, to bee imployed 
on charitable actions, as she then appointed, but not performed 
in more then 30. yeares after. 
Mary Ramsey. Dame Mary Ramsey y wife to Sir Thomas Ramsey Mayor, 
about the yeare 1577. beeing seased of landes in Fee simple 
of hir inheritance, to the yearely value of 243. poundes, by 
his consent gaue the same to Christes Hospitall in London, 

^^ xli. the M. and vi. li. vis. viii. d. the Vsher (Stow in * Fmttts 
escaped * 1603). 

Honor of Citizens^ and worthinesse of ^^nen 117 

towardes the rdiefe of poore children there, and other wates as 
in my summarie and abridgement I haue long since expressed, 
which gift shee in hir widdowhood confirmed and augmented^ 
as is shewed by monumentes in Christes Hospital! erected. 

Thus much for the worthines of Cittizens in this citty, touch- lohn Lidgate 
ing whome lohn Lidgate a Monke of Bury, in the raigne of ^Jj^^^ 
Henry the sixt made (amongst other) these verses following. | his time. 

Of seauen ihinges I prayse this Citty. Page nS 

Of true meaning andfaithfull obseruance^ 

Of righteausnes, truth and equity. 

Of stablenes aye kept in Legiance, 

And far of vertue thou hast suffisance^ 

In this lond here^ and other lofid(^e)s ally 

The hinges Chamber of Custome, men thee call. 

Hauing thus in generality handled the original], the walles, 
gates, ditches, and fresh waters, the bridges, towers and castles, 
the schooles of learning, and houses of law, the orders and 
customes, sportes and pastimes, watchinges, and martiall 
exercises, and lastly the honor and worthines of the Cittizens : 
I am now to set downe the distribution of this Citty into 
parts: and more especially to declare the antiquities note 
worthy in euery of the same : and how both the whole and 
partes haue beene from time to time, ruled and gouerned. 

X HE Auncient diuision of this Cittie, was into Wardes or The Citty of 
Aldermanries: and therefore I will beginne at the East, and didd^from 
so proceede thorough the high and most principall streete of the tast to west, 
cittie to the west after this manner. First through Aldgate hmlfe^and a 
streete, to the west comer of S. Andrewes church called "®^** ^^^^' 
Vndershaft, on the right hand and Lymestreete comer on the 
left, all which is of Aldgate Warde: from thence through 
Comhill streete, to the west comer of Leaden hall, all which 
is of Lymestreete Warde : from thence leauing the streete, 
that leadeth to Bishopsgate on the right hande, and the waye 
that leadeth into Grasse streete on the lefte, still through 
Comhill streete, by the conduite to the West comer against The stockes 
the Stockes, aU which is in Comhill Warde, then by the said ^^'llt'lrfthe 
Stockes (a market place both of fish and flesh standing in the Cittie. 

ii8 The Citie diuided into partes 

midst of the cittie) through the Poultrie (a streete so called) to 
the great conduite in west Cheape, and so through Cheape to 
the Standarde, which is of Cheape Warde, except on the 
Page 119 south I side from Bowlane, to the said Standard, which is of 
Cordwayner streete ward. Then by the Standard to the 
great crosse, which is in Cripplegate ward on the North side, 
and in Bredstreet ward on the South side. And to the little 
Conduit by Paules gate, from whence of olde time the saide 
high streete stretched straight to Ludgate, all in the ward of 
Faringdon within, then diuided truly from East to West, but 
since by meanes of the burning of Paules Church, which was 
in the raigne of William the first, Mauricius then Bishop of 
London layd the foundation of a new Churchy so farre in 
largenesse exceeding the olde, that the way towards Ludgate 
was thereby greatly streightned, as before I have discoursed. 
ThcCitty Now from the North to the South, this Citie was of olde 

north to sooth ^'"^^ diuided not by a large high way or streete, as from East 
h^\f * ?** to West, but by a faire Brooke of sweete water, which came 
west halfe. from out the North fields through the wall, and midst of the 
Citie, into the riuer of Thames, which diuision is till this day 
constantly and without change maintained. This water was 
The course of Called (as I haue said) Walbrooke, not Gains brooke of a 
a broo e. Romane captaine, slaine by Asclepiodatus^ and throwne therein, 
as some haue fabuled, but of running through, and from the 
wall of this Citie. The course whereof, to prosecute it perticu- 
larly, was and is from the said wall, to Saint Margarets 
Church in Lothberrie : from thence beneath the lower part of 
the Grocers hall, about the East part of their Kitchen, vnder 
Saint Mildreds Church, somewhat west from the said Stockes 
market : from thence through Buckelsberry, by one great 
house builded of stone and timber, called the old Bardge, 
because Barges out of the riuer of Thames were rowed vp so 
far into this Brooke on the backside of the houses in Walbrooke 
streete (which streete taketh name of the said Brooke) by the 
west end of Saint lohns Church vpon Walbrooke, vnder 
Horshew Bridge by the west side of Tallow Chandlers hall, 
and of the Skinners hall, and so behinde the other houses, to 
Elbow lane, and by a part thereof downe Greenewitch lane, 
into the riuer of Thames. 

The Citie diuided into partes 119 

This is the course of Walbrooke, which was of old time The coane of 
bridged oucr in diuerse places, for passage of horses, and men, JJ^^d o^er. 
as neede | required : but sinre by meanes of encrochment on Page 120 
the banks thereof, the channel being greatly streightned, and 
other noyances done thereunto, at length the same by common 
consent was arched ouer with Bricke, and paued with stone, 
equall with the ground where through it passed, and is now 
in most places builded vpon, that no man may by the eye 
disceme it, and therefore the trace thereof is hardly knowne 
to the common people. 

This Citie was diuided from East to West, and from North This Citie 
to South : I am further to shew how the same was of olde wvdes. 
time broken into diuerse partes called wardes, whereof Fitz- 
Stephen more then foure hundred yeares since writeth thus. 
This Cittie (saith he) euen as Rome, is diuided into wardes^ it 
hath yearly Shiriffes in stcade of Consuls, It hath the dignitie 
of Senators in Aldermen, &c. The number of these wardes Wardes in 
in London were both before, and in the raigne of Henrie the p^toltReconi. 
third 24. in all : whereof 13. lay on the East side of the sayd 
Walbrooke, and 11. on the West: notwithstanding these 11. 
grew much more larger then those on the East : and therefore Wardes in 
in the yeare of Christ, 1393. the 17. of Richard the second, ^'*'''*'^- ^*- 
Faringdon warde, which was then one entire warde, but 
mightily increased of buildings without the grates : was by 
Parliament appointed to be diuided into twain, and to haue 
two Aldermen, to wit, Faringdon within, and Faringdon 
without, which made vp the number of 12. wards on the west 
side of Walbrooke, and so the whole number of 25. on both 
sides : moreouer in the yeare 1550. the Maior, Communalty, 
and Citizens of London, purchasing the liberties of the Borough 
of Southwarke, appointed the same to be a warde of London, 
and so became the number of 13. wardes on the East, 12. on Wardes in 
the West, and one south the riuer Thames in the said Borough Boro^h^f 
of Southwarke, the Countie of Surrey, which in all arise to Souihwark 36. 
the number of 26. wards, and 26. Aldermen of London. 

Wardes on the East part of Walbrooke are these. 

I Fortsoken ward without 
the walles. 

2 Towerstreete warde. Barnes of 

wardes m 

3 Ealdegate warde. London. 

Page £21 

1 20 l^he Citie diuided into partes 

4 Limestreete warde. 

5 Bishopsgate warde within 

the walles, and without. 

6 Brodestreete warde. 

7 Comehil warde. 

8 Langboume warde. 

9 Billingsgate warde. 

10 Bridge warde within. 

11 Candlewicke streete 

I % Walbrooke warde. 
13 Downgate warde. 

Wardes on the west side of Walbrooke are these. 

14 Vintry warde. 

15 Cordwainer streete warde. 

16 Cheape warde. 

17 Colmanstreete warde. 

18 Bassings hall warde. 

19 Cripplegate warde within 

and without. 

ao Alder^^te warde within 

and without. 
%i Faringdon ward within. 

22 Bredstreete warde. 

23 Queenehith warde. 

24 Castle Baynarde ward. 

25 Faringdon ward without 

the walles. 

One ward south the river Thames, in the Borough of 
Southwarke, by the name of 
26 Bridge ward without 


Of Portesoken warde, the first in the East part. 

Porteokcn SeEING that of euery these Wardes, I haue to say some- 
*' what, I will begin with Portsoketi warde, without Ealdgate. 

This Portsoken^ which soundeth, the Franchise at the gate, 
was sometime a Guild, and had beginning in the dayes of 

lib. Trinitate. king Edgar ^ more then 600. yeares since. There were thirteene 
Knights, or Soldiers welbeloued to the king and realme, for 
seruice by them done, which requested to haue a certaine 
portion of land on the East part of the Citie, left desolate 
and forsaken by the Inhabitants, by reason of too much 
seruitude. They besought the king to haue this land, with 
the libertie of a Guilde for euer : the king granted to their 
request with conditions following : that is, | that each of them 
should victoriously accomplish three combates, one aboue the 
ground, one vnder ground, and the third in the water, and 
after this at a certaine day in East Smithfield, they should 
run with Speares against all commers, all which was gloriously 

Page 132 

Portesoken warde 121 

^formed : and the same day the king named it knighten Boimdet of 

uildy & 80 bounded it, from Ealdgate to the place where q^|^^ 

e bars now are toward the east, on both the sides of the Portsoken 

reete, and extended it towards Bishopsgate in the North, 

ito the house then of William Presbiier, after of Giffrey 

tmner^ and then of the hsyres of Coluer, after that of lohn 

aseby^ but since of the Lord Bourchier, &c. And againe 

wardes the South vnto the riuer of Thames, and so farre 

to the water, as a horseman entering the same, may ride at 

low water, and throw his speare : so that all East Smith- 

Jd, with the right part of the streete that goeth to Dodding 

>nd into the Thames, and also the Hospitall of Saint 

atkerins^ with the Mils, that were founded in king Stephens 

lyes, and the outward stone wall, and the new ditch of the 

ower are of the said Fee and Libertie : for the saide wall 

id ditch of the Tower were made in the time of king 

ichard^ when he was in the holy land, by WUliam Long^ 

ampe^ Bishop of Ely, as before I have noted vnto you. 

lese knightes had as then none other Charter by all the 

yes of Edgar ^ Ethelred, and Cnutus^ vntill the time of 

dward the Confessor, whom the heires of those knights 

imblie besought to confirme their liberties, whereunto he 

aciously graunting, gaue them a deede thereof, as appeareth 

the booke of the late house of the holy Trinitie. The said Lib.Trtniute. 

larter is faire written in the Saxon letter and tong^ue. After 

is king William the sonne of William the Conqueror, made 

confirmation of the same liberties, vnto the heyres of 

ose knights, in these wordes. William king of England to 

aurice Bishops and Godffrey de Magum^ and Richard de 

trre^ and to his faithfull people of London^ greeting: know 

f mee to hane granted to the men of Knighten Guilde^ the 

Milde that belonged to them^ and the land that belonged there- 

\to^ with all Customesy as they had the same in the time of 

Hg Edward^ and my father • Witnesse Hugh de Buche: at 

ftking. After him, king Henry the first confirmed the 

me by his Charter, to | the like effect, the recitall whereof. Page t2j 

pretermit for breuitie. After which time, the Church ofPriorieofthe 

e holy Trinitie within Ealdgate of London, being founded 2ad2tl!^^***° 

f Queene Matilde^ wife to the saide Henrie^ the multitude 

122 Portesoken warde 

of brethren praysing God day and night therein, in short 
time so increased, that all the Citie was delighted in the 
bdiolding of them: insomuch that in the yeare 1115. cer- 
taine Burgesses of London, of the prc^enie of those Noble 
English knights to wit Radulphus Fitzalgod^ WUmarde U 
Deuereshe^ Orgare le Prude^ Edward Hupcarnekiil, Black- 
stanus, and A/wine his kinsman, and Robert his brother, the 
Knighten- sonnes of Leofstaitus the Goldsmith, Wiso his sonne, Hugh 
Sc Cancm^of Pi^^^^ig^y Algare Secusme^ comming togitber into the 
the holy Chapter house of the said Church of the holy Trinitie, gaue 
"° to the same Church and Canons seruing God therein, all the 

lands and soke called in English Knighten Guilde, which 
lieth to the wall of the Citie, without the same gate, and 
stretcheth to the riuer of Thames, they gaue it, I say, taking 
vpon them the Brotherhoode and participation of the bene- 
(ites of that house, by the handes of Prior Norman. And 
the better to confirme this their graunt, they offered vpon the 
Altar there, the Charter of Edward^ togither with the other 
Charters, which they had thereof: and afterward they did 
put the foresayd Prior in seisine thereof, by the Church o( 
Saint Buttolphes which is builded thereon, and is the head o 
that land : These things were thus done, before Bernard 
Prior of Dunstable, lohn Prior of Derland, Geffrey QinUm 
Chamberlaine, and many other Clarkes and Laymen, French 
and English. Orgar le Prude (one of their Companie) was 
sent to king Henrie, beseeching him to confirme their gift, 
which the king gladly granted by his deede. Henrie king Oj 
England to R. B. of London^ to the Shiriffes^ and Praucst^ 
and to all his Barons^ and faithfuU people^ French and Eng- 
lish^ of London y and Middlesex^ g^^^ting. Know yt mee to 
haue grauntedy and confirmed to the Church and Canons of the 
holy Trinitie of Londoti, the Soke of the English knighten 
Guilde^ and the land which pertaineth thereunto^ and the 
Church of S. Buttolph^ as the men of the same Guilde haue 
giuen^ and granted vnto them : and I will and straightfy corn- 
Page 124 maundy that they may hold the same \ well and honourably 

freely y with sacke and soke^ toU^ and Theam^ infangtkefe^ anJ^ 
all customs belonging to it^ as the men of the same Guild ins- 
best sort had the same in the time of K. Edward^ and as kuig^ 

Portesoken warde 123 

iUiam my father^ and brother did grant it to them by their 
its. Witnesse A, the Queene^ Geffrey Clinton the Chaun- 
br, and William of Clinton at Woodstocke. All these pre- 
ibed writings (saieth my booke) which sometime belonged 

the Priorie of the holy Trinitie, are registred in the end 
the booke of Remembrances, in the Guildhall of London, 
xked with the letter C. folio 134. The king sent also his 
iriffes to wit, Aubery de Vere^ and Roger nephew to Hubert^ 
jch vpon his behalfe should inuest this church with the 
ssessions hereof, which the said Shirifles accomplished 
nming vpon the ground, Andrew Bucheuite^ and the fore- 
med witnesses, and other standing by: notwithstanding, 
kewerus^ Acoliuillus^ Otto^ and Geffrey Earle of Essex, Consublei of 
nstables of the Tower by succession, withheld by force * ^^*'' 
x>rtion of the said land, as I haue before deliuered. The 
ior and Chanons of the holy Trinitie, being thus seised of 
\ said land and Soke of knighten Guilde, a part of the 
burbe without the wall, (but within the liberties of the 
je) the same Prior was for him, and his successors, admitted Part of 
one of the Aldermen of London, to goueme the same land w?thSd 
1 Soke : according to the customes of the Citie, he did sit in by Uie 
urt and rode ^ with the Maior, and his Brethren the Alder- the Tower, 
n, as one of them, in Scarlet, or other leuery, as they vsed, 
till the yeare 1531. at the which time, the said Priory by Prior of Uie 
: last Prior there was surrendred to king Henry the eight, AlSraMtfTof 
the 33. of his raigne, who gaue this Priorie to sir Thomas London. 
'dley^ knight. Lord Chauncellor of England, and he pulled 
(vne the Church. Sithens the which dissolution of that 
use, the sayde Ward of Portsoken hath beene gouemed 

a temporall man, one of the Aldermen of London, elected 

the Citizens, as by the Aldermen of other wardes. Thus 
ich for the out boundes of Cnitten Guilde^ or Portsoken 
irde, and for the antiquitie and gouemment thereof. 
Mow of the parts therein, this is specially to be noted. 
St the East part of the Tower standeth there, then an 
>spitall of I Saint Katherins founded by Matilde the Queene, page us 
e to king Stephen^ by licence of the prior and Couent of 

holy Trinitie in London on whose ground she founded it. 

* rode] road 1603 

124 Portesoken warde 

Hotpitall of Helianor the Queene wife to long Edward the first, a second 
A MOMd*^ foundresse, appointed there to be a Maister, three brethren 
fonndresM. Chaplaines, and three Sisters, ten poore women, and sixe 
poore Clarices, she gaue to them the Mannor of Carlton in 
Wiltshire, and Vpchurch in Kent, &c. Queene Pkilip wife 
to king Edward the third 1351. founded a Chauntrie there, 
and gaue to that Hospitall ten pound land by yeare : it was 
of late time called a free chappell, a colledge, and an Hos- 
pital for poore sisters. The Quire, which of late yeares was 
not much inferior to that of Pauks^ was dissolued by Doctor 
Wilson a late maister there, the brethren and sisters remain- 
ing : this house was valued at 315. pound, foureteene shillings, 
two pence, being now of late yeres inclosed about, or pestered 
with small tenements, and homely cottages, hauing inhabitants, 
English and strang^ers, more in number then in some citie(s) 
in England. There lie buried in this church, the countesse 
of Huntington, countesse of the March in her time, 1429. 
foAn Holland Duke of Excester and Earle of Huntington 
1447. and his two wiues, in a &yre Tombe on the North side 
the Quire, Thomas Walsingkam Esquire, and Thomas BaUardt 
Esquire by him, 1465. Thomas Flemming knight 1466. &c 
New Abbey On the East and by North of the Tower, lieth Eastsmith- 
g^^. ' field, and Tower hill, two plots of ground so called, without 

the wall of the citie, and East from them both was sometime 
a Monasterie called new Abbey, founded by king Edward the 
third, in the yeare 1359. vpon occasion as followeth. 

In the yeare 1348. the 23 of Edward the third, the first 

great pestilence in his time b^;an, and increased so sore, that 

for want of roome in churchyardes to burie the dead of Ae 

BoruOl for the citie, and of the suburbes, one lohn Corey dearke, procured of 

^*^l^f^ Nkltolas prior of the holy Trinitie within Ealdgate, one Tofl 

pestflcnce. of ground neare vnto Eastsmithfield, for the burial of them 

that died, with condition that it might be called the Church 

yard of the holy Trinitie, which ground he caused by the aide 

of diuerse deuout citizens to be inclosed with a wall of stone. 

P4git26 Robert Elsing sonne of William Elsing^ \ gaue fine pound 

thereunto : and the same was dedicated by Ralph Stratford 

Bishop of London, where innumerable bodies of the dead 

were afterwardes buried, and a chappell built in the same 

Portesoken warde 125 

ace, to the honour of God: to the which king Edward 
tting his eie (hauing before in a tempest on the sea, and 
aiU of drowning, made a vow to build a Monasterie to the 
mour of God, and our Ladie of grace, if God would grant 
m grace to come safe to land) builded there a Monasterie, 
acing an Abbot, and Monkes of the Cistercian, or white 
der. The bounds of this plot of g^round togither with a 
icree for Tithes thereof, are expressed in the Charter, the 
feet whereof I haue set downe in another place, and haue to 
lew. This house, at the late general suppression was valued 
: 546. U 10. d. yearely, it was surrendered in the yeare 1539. 
le 30. of Henrie the 8. since the which time, the said Monas- 
rie being cleane pulled downe by sir Arthur Darde knight, 
id other, of late time in place thereof is builded a large 
orehouse for victuale, and conuenient Ouens are builded 
ere, for baking of Bisket to serue her Maiesties Shippes. 
iie groundes adioyning belonging to the said Abbey, are 
uployed in building of small tenements. 

For Tower hill, as the same is greatly diminished by Tower hill, 
lilding of tenements and garden plots, &c., so it is of late, 
wit in the yeare of Christ 1593. on the North side thereof, Marchant 
d at the West ende of Hogstreete, beautified by certaine Zo^^v^ 
ire Almes houses, strongly builded of Bricke and timber. Tower hill. 
d couered with slate for the poore, by the Marchant 
lylers of London, in place of some small cottages, giuen to 
em by Richard Hits sometime a master of that companie, 
o. loades of timber for that vse being also giuen by 
^tkanie Radcliffe of the same societie. Alderman. In these 
Imes houses 14. charitable brethren of the said Marchant 
^lers yet liuing, haue placed 14. poore sole women, which 
Dcyue each of them of their founder sixteene pence, or 
iter, weekely, besides 8. /. 1.5. s. yearely, paide out of the 
mmon Treasurie of the same corporation for fewell. 
From the west part of this Tower hill, towards Ealdgate, 
:ing a long continuall streete, amongst other smaller build- 
g;s in that row, there was sometimes an Abbey of Nunnes of 
e order | of Saint Clare^ called the Minories, founded by Page t2j 
imond Earle of Lancaster, Leycester and Darbie, brother to 
ng Edward the first, in the yeare 1 293. the length of which 

126 Porte soken warde 

Abbey of Abbey conteyncd 15. perches, and seuen foote, neare vnto the 

Nnnnes, ^ kings streete, or high way, &c. as appeareth by a deede dated 

cjllcd the 1303. a plague of pestilence being in this Citie, in the yeare 

151 5. there died in this house, of Nunnes professed, to the 

number of 27. besides other lay people, seruants in their 

house. This house was valued to dispend 418. pounds, 8. s. 

5. d. yearely, and was surrendered by Dame Elizabeth Scditage^ 

the last Abbeyes there, vnto king Henry the 8. in the 30. of 

his raig^e, the yeare of Christ 1539. 

Storehouse In place of this house of Nunnes, is now builded diuerse 

forarmonr. j-^.^^ ^^^ large Storehouses, for armour, and habiliments of 

warre, with diuerse worke houses seruing to the same purpose : 

Parish church there is a small parrish Church for inhabitants of the close, 

ofS.Triiutic. called S. Trinities. 

A ianne Neare adioyning to this Abbey on the South side thereof, 

^i^ries ^^^ sometime a Farme belonging to the said Nunric, at the 

wherein hath which Farme I my selfe in my youth haue fetched many a 

3. pints of halfe pennie worth of Milke, and neuer had lesse then three 

milke for one ^g pints for a half-pennie in the Sommer, nor lesse then one 

halfe pennie 

in memorie of Ale quart for a halfe pennie in the Winter, alwayes hote from 

men liubg. ^j^^ Kine, as the same was milked and strained. One Trolop^ 

and afterwardes Goodman^ were the Farmers there, and had 

thirtie or fortie Kine to the paile. Goodmans sonne being 

heyre to his fathers purchase, let out the ground first for 

grazing of horse, and then for garden plots, and liued like a 

Gentleman thereby. 

Ditch of the On the other side of that streete, lieth the ditch without the 

dtie lay open ^alles of the Citie. which of olde time was vsed to lie open, 

and was , *^ 

clensed, bat alwayes from time to time cleansed from filth and mud, as 
now filled vp. ^^^^ required, of great breadth, and so deepe, that diuers 
watring horses where they thought it shallowest, were drowned 
both horse and man. But now of later time, the same ditch is 
inclosed, and the banks thereof let out for Garden plots, Carpen- 
ters yardes. Bowling Allies, and diuerse houses thereon builded, 
whereby the Citie wall is hidden, the ditch filled vp, a small 
channell left^ and that verie shallow. 

From Ealdgate East, lyeth a large streete, and high way, | 

Page J28 sometime replenished with few, but faire and comely buildings 

on the North side, whereof the first was the parrish Church of 

Portesoken warde 127 

Saint Buttolph^ in a large Cemitarie, or Churchyard. This Parish church 
Church hath beene lately new builded at the speciall charges ^ ' "° ^ 
of the Priors of the holy Trinitie, patrones thereof, as it 
appeareth by the Armes of that house engrauen on the stone 
worke. The Parishioners of this parish being of late yeares 
mightily increased, the Church is pestered with loftes and 
seates for them. Monumentes in this Church are few : Henrie 
lorden founded a Chaunterie there, ^ John Romeny^ Ollarius^ 
and Agnes his wife ^ were buried there about 1408. Richard 
Chester Alderman, one of the Shiriffes 1484. Thotnas Lord 
Darcie of the North, knight of the Garter, beheaded 1537. 
Sir Nicholas Carew of Bedington in Surrey, knight of the 
Garter, beheaded 1538. sir Arthur Darcy youngest sonne to 
Thomas Lorde Darcie^ deceased at the new Abbey on the 
Tower hill, was buried there. East from this Parrish Church 
there were certaine faire Innes for receipt of trauellers re- 
payring to the Citie, vp towards Hog-lane end, somewhat Hoggelane. 
within the Barres, a marke shewing how farre the liberties of 
the Citie do extend. 

This Hogge lane stretcheth North toward Saint Marie 
SpitU without Bishop^ate, and within these fortie yeares, 
bad on both sides fay re hedgerowes of Elme trees, with Bridges 
uid easie stiles to passe ouer into the pleasant fieldes, very com- 
xiodious for Citizens therein to walke, shoote, and otherwise 
to recreate and refresh their dulled spirites in the sweete and 1 
wholesome ayre, which is nowe within few yeares made a con- '^ 
binuall building throughout, of Garden houses, and small 
Cottages : and the fields on either side be turned into Garden 
plottes, teynter yardes, Bowling Allyes, and such like, from 
Houndes ditch in the West, so farre as white Chappell, and 
further towards the East. 

On the Southside of the high way from Ealdgate, were 
some few tenements thinly scattered, here & there, with many 
voyd spaces between them, vp to the Bars, but now that street 
is not only fully replenished with buildings outward, & also 
pestered with diuerse AUyes, on eyther side to the Barres, 
but to white Chappell | and beyond. Amongst the which late Paot 129 

*^ lohn Romeny Olarie and Agnes his wife 1603 \ John Romany, 
Olaiie and Agnes his wives 1633 

128 Portesoken warde 

Water conduit buildings one memorable for the commoditie of that East 
at A gate, p^^^ ^j- ^j^j^ (;;j^j|^^ jg ^ i^yx^ water Conduite, harde without the 

Gate, (at) the building whereof, in the yeare 1535. Sir lohn 
Allen being Maior, two fifteenes were granted by the Citizens 
for the making, and laying of Pypes to conuey water from 
Hackney to that place, and so that worke was finished. 
Hounds ditch. From Aldgate Northwest to Bishop^^ate, h'eth the ditch of 
the Cittie, called Houndes ditch, for that in olde time when 
the same lay open, much filth (conueyed forth of the Citie) 
especially dead Dogges were there layd or cast : wherefore of 
latter time a mudde wall was made inclosing the ditch, to 
keepe out the laying of such filth as had beene accustomed. 
Ouer against this mudde wall on the other side of the streete, 
was a fayre (ielde, sometime belonging to the Priorie of the 
Trinitie, and since by Sir Thomas Audley giuen to Magdalen 
Colledge in Cambridge: this fielde (as all other about the 
citie) was inclosed, reseruing open passage there into, for such 
as were disposed. Towards the street were some small 
cottages, of two stories high, and little garden plottes backe- 
Bedred people warde, for poore bedred people, for in that streete dwelt none 
ditcli. ' other, builded by some Prior of the holy Trinitie, to whom 
that ground belonged. 

In my youth, I remember, deuout people as well men as 
women of this Citie, were accustomed oftentimes, especially on 
Frydayes weekely to walke that way purposely there to bestow 
their charitable almes, euerie poore man or woman lying in 
their bed within their window, which was towards the streete 
open so low that euery man might see them, a clean linnen 
cloth lying in their window, and a payre of Beades to shew 
that there lay a bedred body, vnable but to pray onely. This 
streete was first paued in the yeare 1503* 
Brasse ordi- About the latter raigne of Henrie the eight, three brethren 
HoMcuStch. ^^^' "^txt, Gunfounders surnamed Owens, gate ground there to 
build vpon, and to inclose for casting of Brasse Ordinance. 
These occupied a good part of the streete on the field side, 
and^in short time diuerse other also builded there, so that the 
Pagt ijo poore bedred people | were wome out, and in place of their 
homely Cottages, such houses builded, as doe rather want 
roome then rent, which houses be for the most part possessed 

Portesoken warde 129 

\y Brokers, sellers of olde apparell, and such like. The residue 
•f the fielde was for the most part made into a Garden, by 

Gardener named Cawsway, one that serued the Markets 
nth Hearbes and Rootes : and in the last yeare of King 
Idwarde the sixt^ the same was parceled into Gardens, 
fherein are now many fayre houses of pleasure builded. 

On the ditch side of this streete, the mudde wall is also by 
ttle and little all taken downe, the Banke of the ditch beeing 
Eiysed made leuell ground, and turned into Garden plottes, 
nd Carpenters yardes, and many large houses are there 
luilded, the filth of which houses, as also the earth cast out 
f their Vaultes, is turned into the ditch, by which meanes the 
itch is filled vp, and both the ditch and wall so hidden, that 
hey cannot bee scene of the passers by. This Portsoken 
^arde hath an Alderman and his deputie, common Councdlers 
ixe, Constables foure, Scauengers foure, for the Wardemote 
nquest eighteene, and a Beedle. To the fifteene it is cessed 
t foure pound ten shillings. 

Tower streete warde. Page 131 

LHE first Warde in the East parte of this cittie within the Tower streete 

•rail, is called Towerstreete ward, and extendeth along the ^*™*- 

iuer of Thames from the said Tower in the East, almost to 

(elinsgate in the West: One halfe of the Tower, the ditch on 

be West side, and bulwarkes adioyning do stand within that 

arte, where the wall of the cittie of old time went straight 

'om the Posteme gate south to the riuer of Thames, before 

iiat the Tower was builded. From and without the Tower Tower hllL 

itch West and by North, is the saide Tower hill, sometime 

lai^e plot of ground, now greatly streightned by incroch- 
lentes, (vnlawfully made and sufTered) for Gardens and 
louses, some on the Banke of the Tower ditch, whereby' the 
ower ditch is marred, but more neare vnto the Wall of the 
ittie from the Posterne North till ouer against the principall 
>re gate of the Lord Lumleyes house, &c. but the Tower 
^arde goeth no further that way. 

Vpon this Hill is alwayes readily prepared at the charges Scaffold on 
f the cittie a large ScafTolde and Gallowes of Timber, for the '^'''^'^ ^'^' 
xecution of such Traytors or Transgressors, as are deliuered 


130 Tower streete warde 

put of the Tower, or otherwise to the Shirifles of London by 
t^'writ there to be executed. I read that in the fift of King 
\ Edwarde the fourth a scaffold and gallowes was there set vp 
Lib. L. by other the Kinges Officers, and not of the Citties charges, 

o"o 4o« whereupon the Mayor and his Brethren complayned, but were 
aunswered by the King that the Tower hill was of the libcrtie 
of the cittie : And whatsoeuer was done in that point, was not 
in derogation of the ci ties Liberti es^ and therefore commaunded 
f rocUmaUon. Proclamation to bee made, aswell within the Citie as in the 
thomS" Suburbes, as foUoweth : For as much as the seauenth day of 

this present Moneth of Nouember, Gallowes were erect and 
set vppe besides our Tower of London, within the liberties 
and franchises of our cittie of London, in derogation and 
Page tj2 preiudice of the liberties and franchises of this cittie. | The 
king our soueraigne Lord would it bee certainely vnderstood 
that the erection and setting vp of the said gallowes was not 
done by his commaundement, wherefore the King our soueraign 
Lord willeth that the erection and setting vp the said Gallowes 
bee not any president or example thereby hereafter to be taken, 
in hurte, preiudice or derogation of the franchises, liberties, & 
priuiledges of the said cittie, which hee at all times hath had 
& hath in his beneuolence, tender fauour and good grace, &c 
Apud WestminsL 9. die Nouemb. Anno regni nosiri quinto. 
On the North side of this hill, is the saide Lord Lumleyes 
house, and on the west side diuers houses lately builded, and 
Chicke lane. Other incrochmentes along south to Chicke lane on the east of 
Barking church, at the end whereof you haue Tower street 
stretching from the Tower hill, west to S. Margaret Pattens 
. / church Parsonage. 
Tower strfcte. Now therefore to beginne at the East end of the streete, on 
BaS^n^^r ^^ North side thereof is the fayre parish Church called 
parish chnich. Alhallowes Barking, which standeth in a large, but sometime 
chappcU of f**"^^ larger, cemitory or Churchyearde. On the north side 
our Ladie. whereof was sometime builded a fayre Chappell, founded by 
king Richard the first, some haue written that his heart was 
buried there vnder the high Altar : this chappell was confirmed 
and augmented by King Edward the i. Edward the fourth 
gaue licence to his cosen John Earle of Worcester, to found 
there a Brotherhoode for a Maister and Brethren | and he gaua 

Tower streete warde 131 

e Custos of that fraternity, which was Sir lohn Scot 
lit, Thomas Colte^ lohn Tate^ and lohn Crokcy the Priorie 
tingbecke, and auction of the parrish Church of Stretham 
\ county of Surrey, with all the members and appurte- 
s, and a parte of the Priory of Okeborn in Wiltshire, 
priors Aliens, and appoynted it to be called the kinges 
)cll or chantrie. In capella beatae Marine de Barking. 

Richard the third new builded and founded therein The Kings 
edge of Priestes, &c Hamond de Lega was buried in that ^g^g| "^^ 
)le, Robert Tate Mayor of London, 1488. and other were 
buried. This coUedge was suppressed & pulled downe I. Rowse. 
\ yeare 1548. the second of king Edward the sixt, the 
ide was imployed as a Garden plot, during the raigns of 
Edwardy Queene Mary, and parte of Queene Elisabeth^ 
; length | a large strong frame of Timber and bricke was Page ijj 
hereon, and imployed as a store house of Marchantes 
5S brought from the sea, by Sir William Winter ^ &c. 
mumentes in the parrish church of Alhallowes Barking, 
lefaced, are these : Sir Thomas Studinham of Norwich 
5s, Knight, 1469. Thames Gilbart Draper and Marchant 
e Staple, 1483. lohn Bolt Marchant of the Staple, 1459. 
^hn Stile Knight, Draper, 1500. William Thinne Esquier, 
f the Clearkes of the Greene cloath, and Maister of the 
hold to K. Henry the eight, 1546. Humfrey Monmouth 
er, one of the Sheriffes, 1535. buried in the churchy earde. 
'\am Denhamy one of the Sheriffes, 1534. Henry Howard 
\ of Surrey beheaded 1546. Sir Richarde Deuereux sonne 
Heyre to the Lord Ferrers of Chartley, Richard Browne 
ier, 1546. Phillip Dennis Esquier, 1556. Andrew Euenger 
r, William Robinson Mercer, Alderman 155a. William 
rrer Clothworker, Esquier, Gouemour of the Pages of 
•, or M. of the Heance men, scruant to Henry the eight, 
trd the sixt and Queene Mary^ buried 1560. Besides 
I there be diuers Tombes without inscription. lohn 
s and Thofnas Pike^ Cittizens of London, founded a 
tery there 1388. By the West cnde of this Parrish 
h and chappell, lyeth Sydon lane, now corruptly called Sidon Une« 
ng lane, from Towerstrecte vp North to Hart streete. 
s Sidon lane diuers fayre and large houses are builded, 

K % 

132 Tower streete ward^ 

namely one by Sir lohn Allen^ sometime Mayor of London, 
and of counsell vnto king Henry the eight : Sir Frames 
WdUingham Knight, Principal Secretary to the Queenes 
Maiestie that now is, was lodged there, and so was the Earle 
of Essex, &c. At the North West corner of this lane, stand- 
Parish church eth a proper parrish Church of Saint Olaue^ which Church 
HarutreSf* together with some houses adioyning, and also others ouer 
gainst it in Hartstreete, are of the saide Tower streete 
Warde. Monumentes in this parrish Church of Saint Olaue 
bee these : Richard Cely^ and Robert Cely Felmongers, prin- 
cipall builders and benefactors of this Church : Dame lohan, 
wife to Sir lohn Zotichy 1439. lohn Clarentiaulx King of 
Page 1)4 Armes, 1427. Thomas Sawle^ \ Sir Richard Haddon Mercer^ 
Mayor, 1512. Thomas Burttell Mercer, 1548, Tkotnas Morlejr 
Gentleman, 1566. Sit lohn Radcliffe Knight^ 1568. AndDame^ 
Anne his wife, 1585. Chapone a Florentine Gentleman, 158a 
Sir Hainofid Vattghan Knight, George Stoddard Marchant, &c 
Then haue yee out of Towerstreete, also on the North side 
one other lane, called Marte lane, which runneth vp toward 
Mart lane of the North, and is for the most parte of this Towerstree 
about BUnch warde, which lane is about the thirde quarter thereof deuided 
chappel. from Aldgate ward, by a chaine to bee drawn thwart th< 
saide lane aboue the west ende of Harte streete. Cokedoi 
hall, sometime at the South west end of Marte lane I reade of. 
Mincheon ^ third lane out of Towerstreete on the North side \i 

called Mincheon lane, so called of tenements there sometime^:^ 
pertayning to the Minchuns or Nunnes of Saint Helens ii 
Bishopsgate streete : this lane is all of the saide Ward< 
except the corner house towardes Fenchurch streete. In thii 
lane of olde time dwelled diuers strangers borne of Genoa and-^ 
^^^ii^cHh'* thos^ parts, these were commonly called Galley men, as men^ 
that came vppe in the Gallies, brought vp wines and other^ 
merchandises which they landed in Thames street, at a placer 
called Galley key : they had a certain coin of siluer amongst 
themselues which were halfe pence of Genoa, & were called 
Galley halfe pence : these halfe pence were forbidden in the 
thirteenth of Henry the fourth, and againe by Parliament in 
the fourth of Henry the fift, it was that if any person bring 
into this realme Galley halfe pence, suskinges or dodkins, hee 

Tower streete warde 133 

should be punished as a Theefe, and he that taketh or payeth 
such money, shall leese a hundred shillings, whereof the king 
shall haue the one halfe, and hee that will sue, the other halfe : 
notwithstanding in my youth Ihaueseene them passe currant, 
but with some difficulty, for that the english halfepence were 
then, though ^ not so broade, somewhat thicker and stronger. 

The Clothworkers hall is in this lane. Then at the west Clothworkers 
cnde of Towerstreet haue ye a little turning towardes the ^ " 
North to a fayre house sometime belonging to one named 
Griste, for he dwelled there in the yeare 1449. And /ar^^ GrUtet house. 
Cade captaine of the rebels in Kent, being by him in this his 
house feasted, when he had | dined, like an vnkinde guest, -fii^w 
robbed him of all that was there to be found worth the 
carriage. Next to this is one other fayre house, sometime 
builded by Angell Dune Grocer, Alderman of London, since 
possessed by sir lohn Champneis Alderman and Maior of 
London. He builded in this house an high Tower of Bricke, 
the first that euer I heard of in any private mans house to 
ouerlooke his neighbours in this Citie. But this delight of lohn Champ- 
his eye was punished with blindnesse some yeares before his X\\tA, ^""*"' 
death : since that time sir Perceuall Hart ^ iolly Courtier and 
knight, harbenger to the Queene, was lodged there, &c. From 
this house somewhat West is the Parish Church, and parson- 
age house of Saint Margarets Pattens, to the which Church 
and house on the North side, and as farre ouer against on the 
South, stretcheth the farthest west part of this warde. 

And therefore to begin againe at the East ende of Tower- Beare lane. 
streete, on the South side haue ye Beare lane, wherein are 
many faire houses, and runneth downe to Thames street. 
The next is Sporiar lane, of old time so called, but since, and Sporiar lane, 
of later time named Water lane, because it runneth downe to 2^^, or^Hart 
the Water gate by the Custome house in Thames streete : i****- 
then is there Hart lane for Harpe lane, which likewise runneth 
downe into Thames streete. In this Hart lane is the Bakers Bakere hall. 
Hall, sometime the dwelling house of lohn Chichley Chamber- **^ *"*' 
lain of London, who was sonne to William Chichley^ Alderman 
of London, brother to William Chichley^ Archdeacon of Can- 
tcrburie, nephew to Robert Chichley Maior of London, and to 

* though] 163s : thought 1603 


Tower streete warde 

Pagi tj6 

Galley row. 
Chnrch lane 
by East 
Church lane 
in the west. 

Fowie lane. 

Parish chnrch 
of S. Don- 
stone in the 

Henrie Chichley Archbishop of Canterburie. This lohn 
ChichUy^ saith lohn Leyland^ had ^4. children. Sir Thomas 
Kirrioll of Kent, after he had beene long prisoner in France, 
married Elizabeth^ one of the daughters of this Chichley^ by 
whom he had this Chichleys house. This Elizabeth was 
secondly married to sir Ralfe Ashton^ Knight Marshall : and 
thirdly, to sir lohn Burchier^ vncle to the late Burchier Earle 
of Essex, but she neuer had childe. Edward Pqynings made 
part with Burchier and Elizabeth to haue Ostenhanger in 
Kent, after their death, and entred into it, they liuing. 

In Tower streete, betweene Hart lane, and Church lane, | 
was a quadrant called Galley row, because Galley men dwelled 
there. Then haue ye two lanes out of Tower streete, both 
called Churchlanes, because one runneth downe by the East 
ende of Saint Dnnstans Church, and the other by the west 
ende of the same : out of the west lane, tumeth another lane, 
west toward S. Marie Hill, and is called Fowle lane, which is 
for the most part of Tower streete warde. 

This Church of Saint Dunstone is called in the East, for 
difference from one other of the same name in the west : it i^ 
a fayre and large Church of an auncient building, and within, 
a large Churchyarde : it hath a great parish of many rich_ 
Marchants, and other occupiers of diuerse trades, namely^ — 
.Saltars and Ironmongers. 

The monuments in that Church bee these. In the Quire loh 
Kenington persotiy there buried, 1374. William I slip ^ person, 
1382. lohn K{i)ryoll Esquire, brother to Thomas K{t)ryoll^ 
1400. Nicholas Bondy Thomas Barry Marchant, 1445. Rober 
Shelley Esquier, 1420. Robert Pepper Grocer, 1445, lohr^^ 
Norwich Grocer, 1390. Alice Brome^ wife to lohn Coaentry^ 
sometime Maior of London, 1433. William Isaack Draper^ 
Alderman, 1508. Edward Skates Marchant, 1521. lohn Ricrof^ 
Esquire, Sargeant of the Larder to Henrie the seuenth, ancL 
Henrie the eight, 1532. Edwaters Esquire, Sargeant at Armes, 
1558. Sir Bartholo^new lames Draper, Maior, 1479, buried 
vnder a fayre Monument, with his Ladie. Ralfe Greenwaf 
Grocer, Alderman, put vnder the stone of Robert Pepper 1559. 
Thomas Bledlozv^ one of the Shiriffes, 1472. lames Bacon 
Fishmonger, Shiriffe, 1573. Sir Richard Champion Draper, 

Tower streete warde 135 

ilaior, 1568. Henry Herdson Skinner, Alderman, 1555. Sir 

^atttes Garnado knight. William Hariot Draper, Maior, 1481. 

>uried in a fayre Chappell by him builded, i5>7« John Tate 

onne to sir lohn Tate, in the same Chappell, in the North 

i^all. Sir Christopher Draper Ironmonger, Maior, 1566. buried 

580. and many other worshipfull personages besides, whose 

nonuments are altogither defaced. Now for the two Church 

anes, they meeting on the Southside of this Church and 

!;hurchyarde, doe ioyne in one : and running downe to the 

Thames streete : the | same is called Saint Dunstans hill, at the Pa^^ 7^7 

[)wer ende whereof the sayd Thames streete towards the west 

»n both sides almost to Belins gate, but towardes the East vp 

the water gate, by the Bulwarke of the tower, is all of 

ower streete warde. In this streete on the Thames side are 

liuers large landing places called wharfTes, or keyes, for 

Iranage vp of wares and Marchandise, as also for shipping of 

irares from thence to be transported. These wharffes and 

:eyes commonly beare the names of their owners, and are 

herefore changeable. I reade in the a6. of Henrie the sixt 

hat in the Parish of Saint Dunstone in the East a tenement 

ailed Passekes wharffe, & another called Homers key in Passekes 

'hames streete, were granted to William Harindon Esquire. Honufni^i 

reade also that in the sixt of Richard the second, lohn 
"Churchman Grocer, for the quiet of Marchants, did newly 
uild a certaine house vpon the key, called woole wharfe, in 
lie Tower streete warde, in the Parish of Alhallowes Barking, 
etwixt the tenement of Paule Salisberriey on the East part, 
nd the lane called the water gate on the west, to serue for 
Tonage, or weighing of wooUes in the Port of London : Wool wharfe 
thereupon the king graunted that during the life of the said ^^ Cnstomers 
ohn, the aforesayd Tronage should be held and kept in the Water gat« 
lid house, with easements there for the balances and weightes, custome^^ 
nd a counting place for the Customer, Controwlers, Clarkes '^o'"*- 
nd other Officers of the said Tronage, togither with ingresse wolsk*^^ ° 
nd ^resse to and from the same, euen as was had in other 
laces, where the sayd Tronage was woont to be kept, and 
lat the king should pay yearely to the said lohn during his Custom 
fe fortie shillings at the termes of S. Michael & Easter, by ^^^^' 
aen portions, by the handes of his Customer, without any 


Tower streete warde 

Porters key, 
or Porters lane. 

Galley key. 

Petty wales. 

Pc^e ij8 

Princes of 
Wales their 

The Mar- 
chants of 
Italic their 
lodging by 
their Gallics. 

Other payment to the said lohn, as in the Indenture thereof 
more at large appeareth. 

Neare vnto this Customers key towardes the East, is the 
sayd Watergate, and west from it Porters key, then Galley key, 
where the Gallics were vsed to vnlade, and land their mar- 
chandizes, and wares : and that part of Thames streete was 
therefore of some called Galley Row, but more commonly 
petty Wales. 

On the North side, as well as on the South of this Thames 
streete, is many fayre houses lai^e for stowage, builded for 
Mar|chants, but towardes the East end thereof, namely ouer 
agaynst Galley key, WooU key, and the Custome house, there 
haue beene of olde time some large buildings of stone, the 
ruines whereof doe yet remaine, but the first builders and 
owners of them are wome out of memorie, wherfore the 
common people affirm Julius Cxsar to be the builder thereof, 
as also of the Tower it selfe. But thereof I haue spoken 
alreadie. Some are of another opinion and that a more likely, 
that this great stone building was sometime the lodging 
appointed for the Princes of Wales, when they repayred to 
this Citie, and that therefore the street in that part is called 
petty Wales, which name remaineth there most commonly 
vntill this day : euen as where the kinges of Scotland were 
vsed to be lodged betwixt Charing crosse, and white hall, it is 
likewise called Scotland: and where the Earles of Briton 
were lodged without Aldersgate, the streete is called Britaine 
streete, &c. 

The said building might of olde time pertaine to the 
Princes of Wales, as is aforesayd, but is since turned to 
other vse. 

It is before noted of Galley key, that the Gallyes of Italic, 
& other partes did there discharge their wines and marchan- 
dizes brought to this Citie. It is like therefore that the 
Marchants and Owners procured the place to builde vpon for 
their lodgings and storehouses, as the Marchants of the 
Haunce of Almaine were licenced to haue an house called 
Gilda Teutonicornm^ the Guild hall of the Germanes. Also 
the Marchants of Burdeaux were licenced to build at the 
Vintry, strongly with stone, as may be yet scene and seemeth 

Tower streete warde 137 

le, though often repayred: much more cause hath these 
ildings in pettie Wales, though as lately builded, and partly 
the like stone brought from Cane in Normandie, to seeme NoGallies 
le, which for many yeares, to wit, since the Gallies left their J^^^e^ '" 
irse of landing there, hath fallen to mine, and beene letten men liuing. 
t for stabling of horses, to Tipplers of Beere, and such like : 
longst others, one mother Mampidding (as they termed her) 
many yeares kept this house, or a great part thereof, for 
tualing^ and it seemeth that the builders of the hall of this A strange 
use were shipwrights, and not house Carpenters: for the jng|^,)j?^" 
me thereof (being but low) is raysed of certaine principall wnghuand 
stes of maine timber, fixed deepe in the ground, without 
y groundsell, boorded close | round about on the inside, P(^^ 09 
uing none other wal from the ground to the roofe : those 
ordes not exceeding the length of a Clapboord, about an 
h thicke, euery Boorde ledging ouer other, as in a Ship or 
lliey nayled with Ship nayles called nigh, and clenche, 
wit, rugh nayles with broad round heades, and clenched on 
i other side with square plates of iron : the roofe of this 
II is also wrought of the like boord, and nayled with rugh 
1 clench, and seemeth as it were a Gallie, the Keelc turned 
ffrards, and I obserued that no worme or rottennesse is scene 
haue entred either boord or tymber of that hall, and there- 
e, in mine opinion, of no great antiquitie. 
[ reade in 44. of Edward the third, that an Hospitall in the 
rish of Barking Church was founded by Robert Denton 
aplen, for the sustentation of poore Priests, and other both An hospitall 
n and women, that were sicke of the Phrenzie, there to Jj'^phr^sic* 
naine till they were perfectly whole, and restored to good people. 
tnorie. Also I reade that in the 6. of Henrie the fift, there 
s in the Tower ward, a Messuage or great house, called 
^katns Inney and in the 37. of Henrie the sixt, a Messuage Cobhams 
rhames streete, perteyning to Richard Longnile^ &c. Some °"** 
the mines before spoken of, may seeme to be of the 
esayd Hospitall, belonging peraduenture to some Prior 
icn, and so suppressed amongst the rest, in the raigne of 
^ward the third, or Henrie the fift, who suppressed them 
Thus much for the boundes and antiquities of this warde, 
erein is noted the Tower of London, three Parish Churches, 


Tower streete wards 

the Custome house, and two Hals of Companies, to wit, the 
Clothworkers, and the Bakers. This ward hath an Alderman, 
his Deputie, common Counsellors eight. Constables thirteene, 
Scauengers twelue. Wardmote men thirteene, and a Beedle ; 
it is taxed to the fifteene at sixe and twentie pounds. 

Pagt 140 
Aldgate ward. 








Wall, Gate, 
and windows 
of stone, 
found voder 

Aldgate warde, 

XhE second ward within the wall on the east part is called 
Aldgate ward, as taking name of the same Gate : the principal! 
street of this uarde b^inneth at Aldgate, stretching west to 
sometime a fayre Well, where now a pumpe is placed : from 
thence the way being diuided into twain, the first & principal! 
street, caled Aldgate street, runneth on the south side to Lime- 
street comer, and halfe that streete, downe on the left hand, 
is also of that warde. In the mid way on that South side, 
betwixt Aldgate and Limestreet, is Hart home Alley, a way 
that goeth through into Fenchurch streete ouer against North- 
umberland house. Then haue ye the Bricklayers hall and an 
other Alley called Sprinckle Alley, now named Sugar-loafe 
Alley, of the like signe. Then is there a faire house, with 
diuerse tenements neare adioyning, sometime belonging to 
a late dissolued Priorie since possessed by Mistresse Carne- 
wallies^ widow, and her heyres, by the gift of King Henry the 
eight, in reward of fine puddings (as it was commonly sayd) 
by hir made, wherewith she had presented him. Such was 
the princely liberalyty of those times. Of later time. Sir 
Nicholas Throgmorton knight, was lodged there. Then some- 
what more West is Belzettars lane, so called of the first builder 
and owner thereof, now corruptly called Billitar lane, betwixt 
this Belzettars lane and Limestreete, was of later time a frame 
of three fayre houses, set vp in the yeare 1.590. in place where 
before was a large Garden plot inclosed from the high streete 
with a Bricke wall, which wall being taken downe, and the 
ground digged deepe for Cellerage, there was found right 
vnder the sayd Bricke wall an other wall of stone, with a gate 
arched of stone, and Gates of Timber, to be dosed in the 
midst towards the streete, the tymber of the Gates was con- 
sumed, but the Hinges of yron still remayned on their staples 

Aldgate warde 139 

on both the sides. Moreouer in that wall were square 
windowes with bars of yron on either side the gate^ this wall 
was vnder ground about two fathomes deepe, as I then | 
esteemed it, and seemeth to bee the mines of some house Pagt 141 
burned in the raigne of king Stepheuy when the fire began in 
the house of one Alewarde neare London stone, and consumed 
East to Aldgate, whereby it appeareth how greatly the ground 
of this Citie hath beene in that place raysed. 

On the North side, this principall street stretcheth to the 
west comer of Saint Andrewes Church, and then the ward 
tumeth towards the North by S. Marie streete, on the East s. Mary street, 
side to Saint Augustines Church in the wall, and so by Buries 
markes again, or about by the wall to Aldgate. 

The second way from Aldgate more towards the South 
from the pumpe aforesaid is called Fenchurch streete, and is 
of Aldgate warde till ye come to Culuer Alley, on the west Culucr Alley, 
side of Ironmongers hall, where sometime was a lane which 
went out of Fenchurch streete to the middest of Limestreete, 
but this lane was stopped vp, for suspition of theeues that 
lurked there by night. Againe to Aldgate out of the prin- 
cipall streete, euen by the gate and wall of the Citie, mnneth 
a lane South to Crowched Friers, and then WoodrofTe lane 
to the Tower hill, and out of this lane west, a streete called 
Hartstreete, which of that warde stretcheth to Sydon lane by Hart streete. 
Saint Olaues Church. One other lane more west from Aid- 
gate goeth by Northumberland house toward the Crossed 
Friers : then haue ye on the same side the North end of Mart"^ 
lane, and Blanch Apleton^ where that ward endeth. 

Thus much for the bounds : now for monuments, or places 
most ancient and notable : I am first to begin with the late 
dissolued Priorie of the holie Trinitie, called Christs Church, 
on the right hand within Aldgate. This Priorie was founded Priorie of the 
by Matild Queene, wife to Henrie the first, in the same place cSons ^^ 
where Siredus sometime b^an to erect a Church in honour regular, 
of the Crosse, and of Saint Marie Magdaleii^ of which the 
Deane and Chapter of Waltham were woont to receiue thirtie 
shilHnges. The Queene was to acquite her Church thereof, 

* Apleton] Cbappleton, i^gS : Arleton, i6oj 

140 Aldgate warde 

and in exchange gaue vnto them a Mill. King Henrie her 
husband confirmed her gift. This Church was giuen to 
Norman^ the first Canon regular in all England, The said 
Queene also gaue vnto the same Church, and those that 

Page 142 serued God therein, the plot of Aldgate, and the Soke | there- 
unto belonging, with all customes so free as she had helde the 
same, and 25./. Blankes, which shee had of the Cittie of 
Excester : as appeareth by her deed, wherein she nameth the 
house Christes Church, and reporteth Aldgate to be of her 
Demainesy which she granteth, with two parts of the rent of 
the City of Excester. Norman tooke vpon him to be Prior 
of Christs Church, in the year of Christ 1 108. in the parishes 
of Saint Marie Magdalen, S. Michael, S. Katherim^ and the 
blessed Trinitie^ which now was made but one Parish of the 
holy Trinities and was in old time of the holy Crosse, or holy 
Roode Parish. The Priorie was builded on a piece of ground 
in the Parish of Saint Katherine^ towardes Aldgate, which 
lieth in length betwixt the kinges streete, by the which men 
go towards Aldgate, neare to the Chappell of Saint Michael 
towards the North, and containeth in length 83. EUes, halfe, 
quarter, and halfe quartern of the kings Iron Eln, and lieth 
in bredth, &c. The Soke and ward of Aldgate was then 
bounded as I haue before shewed, the Queene was a meane 
also that the land and English Knighten Guild was giuen 
vnto the Prior Norman. The honorable man Geffrey de 
Clinton'^ was a great helper therein^ and obtained that the 
Chanons might inclose the way betwixt their Church and 
the wall of the citie, &c. This Priorie in processe of time 
became a very fayre and large church, rich in lands and 
ornaments, and passed all the Priories in the citie of London, 

Prior of Christ or shire of Middlesex, the Prior whereof was an Alderman of 

Aldel^nTof London, to wit, of Portsoken ward. 

London. I reade that Eustacius the 8. Prior, about the yeare 1^64. 

because hee would not deale with temporall matters, instituted 
Theobald Fitz luonis Alderman of Portsoken warde vnder 
him, and that William Rising Prior of Christs Church was 
sworn Alderman of the said Portsoken warde, in the first of 

* Clinton] Clinton i^qS, 1603 

Aldgate warde 141 

Richard the second. These Priors haue sitten and ridden 

amongst the Aldermen of London, in liuery like vnto them, 

sauing that his habite was in shape of a spiritual! person, as 

I my selfe haue seene in my childhoode : at which time the 

Prior kept a most bountifull house of meate and drinke, both 

for rich and poore, aswell within the house, as at the gates, 

to al commers according to their estates. These were the 

monuments in this Church, sir Robert Turke^ \ and Dame Page 14s 

Alice his wife, lohn Tirel Esquire, Sitnon Kempe Esquire, 

latnes Manthorpe Esquire, lohn Ascue Esquire, Thomas Fauset 

of Scalset Esquire, lohn Kempe gentleman, Robert Chirivide 

Esquire, Sir lohn Heningham^ and Dame Isabell his wife. 

Dame Agnes^ wife first to Sir William Bardolph^ and then • 

to Sir Tfiomas Mortimer^ lohn Ashfield Esquire, Sir lohn 

Dedham knight, Sir Ambrose Charcam^ loan wife to Thomas 

Nuck Gentleman, lohn Husse Esquire, John Bering/tarn 

Esquire, Thomas Goodwine Esquire, Ralph Walles Esquire, 

Dame Margaret daughter to Sir Ralph Cheuie^ wife to Sir 

John Barkeky^ to Sir T/tomas Barnes^ and to Sir W. Bursire^ 

William Roose^ Simon Francis^ lohn Breton esquire, Helling 

Esquire, lohn Malwen and his wife, Anthonie Wels son to 

lohn Welsy Nicholas de Auesey amd Margerie his wife, Antfionie 

son to John Milles^ Baldwins son to king Stephen^ & Mathilde 

daughter to king Step/un, wife to the Earle of Meulan^^ Henrie 

Fitzalwine Maior of London, 1213. Geffrey Mandeuile^ 1215. 

and many other. But to conclude of this priorie, king Henrie 

the eight minding to reward Sir Thomas Audley^ speaker of 

the Parliament against Cardinall Wolsey^ as ye may reade in Priorie of the 

Hally sent for the Prior, commending him for his hospitalitie, ^^^^* 

promised him preferment, as a man worthy of a far greater & rapprosed. 

dignitie, which promise surely he performed, and compounded 

with him, though in what sort I neuer heard, so that the 

Priorie with the appurtenances was (surrendered) to the king, 

in the moneth of luly, in the yeare 1531* the 23. of the said 

kings raigne. The Chanons were sent to other houses of 

the same order, and the priorie with the appurtenances king 

Henrie gaue to sir Thomas Audley newly knighted, and after 

made Lord Chauncellor. 

^ Miulan] MilUn^ 1603 

142 Aldgate warde 

Sir Thomas Audley offered the great Church of this priorie, 
with a ring of nine Bels well tuned, whereof foure the greatest 
were since solde to the parish of Stebunhith^ and the fiue 
lesser to the parish of Saint Stephen in Colemans streete, to 
the parishioners of Saint Katherine Christ Churchy in ex- 
chaunge for their small parish church, minding to haue pulled 
it downe, and to haue builded there towards the street : But 
the parishioners hauing doubts in their heades of afterclappes, 

Page 144 refused the offer. Then was the | priorie church and steeple 
proffered to whomsoeuer would take it down, and carrie it 
from the ground, but no man would vndertake the offer, 
whereupon Sir Thomas Audley was faine to bee at more 
' charges, then could be made of the stones, timber, leade, 
yron, &c. For the workemen with great labour beginning at 
the toppe, loosed stone from stone, and threw them downe, 
whereby the most part of them were broken, and few re- 
mained whole, and those were solde verie cheape, for all the 
buildings then made about the Citie were of Bricke and 
Timber. At that time any man in the Cittie, might haue 
a Cart loade of hard stone for pauing brought to his doore 
for 6.d. or 7.d, with the carriage. The said Thomas Lord 
Audley builded and dwelt on this Priorie during his life, and 
died there in the yeare 1544. since the which time the said 

The Dukes priorie came by marriage of the Lord Audleyes daughter and 

place. heyre, unto Thomas late Duke of Norfolke, and was then 

called the Dukes place. 

Parish church The parish Church of S. Katherine standeth in the Cemi- 

Ch^"* ts **^*^ ^^'y ^^ ^^ ^^^^ dissolued priorie of the holy Trinitic, and is 
church. therefore called S. Katherine Christ Church. This Church 

seemeth to be verie olde, since the building whereof the high 
streete hath beene so often raised by pauements, that now 
men are faine to descend into the said church by diuerse 
steps seuen in number. But the steeple, or Bell tower thereof 
hath beene lately builded, to wit, about the yere 1504. For 
sir lohn Perciuall Marchant taylor then deceasing, gaue 
money towards the building thereof. There bee the Monu- 
ments of Thomas Fleming knight of Rowles, in Essex, and 
Margaret his wife, 1464. Roger Marshall Esquire, lata 
Horne^ wife to Roger Marshall^ William Mutton^ alias Bur* 

Aldgate warde 143 

^ealix Heralde, tohn Goad Esquire, and loan his wife, Beatrix 
aughter to William Browne^ Thotnas Multon Esquire, sonne 

> Burdeaux Herald, lohn Chitcroft Esquire, lohn Wake- 
elde Esquire, William Criswicke^ Anne^ and Sewch^ daughters 
3 Ralph Shirley Esquire, sir lohn Rainsfard knight of 
Issex^ Sir Nicholas Throkmorton chiefe Butler of England, 
ne of the Chamberlaines of the Exchequer, Ambassadour, 
:c 1570. and other. At the North west comer of this warde 
1 the said high streete, standeth the faire and beautifull 

arish Church | of S. Andrew the Apostle, with an addition, Pagt 14s 

> be knowne from other Churches of that name, of the 

^nape or Vndershaft, and so called S. Andrew Vndershaft^ Parish church 
ecause that of old time, eucrie ycare on May day in the vndcnha^^ 
loming it was vsed, that an high or long shaft, or May-pole, 
'as set vp there, in the midst of the streete, before the south 
oore of the sayd Church, which shaft when it was set on A shaft or 
nde, and fixed in the ground, was higher then the Church highCTthcn 
:ceple. Geffrey Chawcer, writing of a vaine boaster, hath ^^^ chorch- 
icsc wordcs meaning of the said shaft. * ^ 

R^ht well aloft t and high ye bear e your heade^ 

The weather cocke^ with flying^ as ye would kill^ 

When ye be stuffed, bet of wine then brede, SllTc^of dice. 

Then looke ye, when your wombe doth fill. 

As ye would beare the great shaft of Cornehill, 

Lord so merrily crowdeth then your croke. 

That all the streete may heare your body cloke. 

This shaft was not raysed at any time since euill May day 
yo called of an insurrection made by Prentises, and other 
oung persons against Aliens in the yeare 151 7.) but the said 
laft was laid along ouer the doores, and vnder the Pentises 
f one rowe of houses, and Alley gate, called of the shaft, 
laft Alley, (being of the possessions of Rochester bridge) in 
le warde of Limestreete. It was there I say hanged on Iron 
ookes many yeares, till the third of king Edward the sixt, 
lat one Sir Stephen, curat of S. Katherine Christs Church, 
reaching at Panics Crosse, said there, that this shaft was shaft or May 
lade an IdoU, by naming the Church of Saint Andrew, with ^^^J^^ 
le addition of vnder that shaft : hee perswaded therefore that Paules crotse. 

144 Aldgate warde 

the names of Churches might bee altered : also that the names 

of dayes in the weeke might be changed, the fish dayes to be 

kept any dayes, except Friday and Saturday, and the Lent 

The said Elm any time, saue only betwixt Shrouetide and Easter : I haue 

Inching o^^ times seene this man, forsaking the Pulpet of his said 

F^? " ic Parish Church, preach out of an high Elme tree in the middest 

downe. of the Church yarde, and then entering the Church, forsaking 

the Alter, to haue sung his high Masse in English vpon 

Page 146 a Tombe of | the deade towardes the North. I heard his 

Sermon at Paules Crosse, and I saw the effect that followed : 

for in the after noone of that present Sunday, the neighbours, 

and Tenants to the sayde Bridge, ouer whose doores the saide 

Shaft had laine, after they had dined to make themselues 

strong, gathered more helpe, and with great labour raysing 

the Shaft from the hooks, whereon it had rested two and thirtie 

Shaft or Ma^ yeares, they sawed it in peeces, euerie man taking for his share 

pecc^aad "* ^^ much as had laine ouer his doore and stall, the length of 

burnt hb house, and they of the Alley diuided amongest them so 

much as had layne ouer their Alley gate. Thus was this IdoU 

(as he tearmed it) mangled, and after burned 

Soone after was there a Commotion of the Commons in 

Norfolke, Suffolke, Essex, and other shires, by meanes whereof 

streight orders being taken for the suppression of rumors, 

diuerse persons were apprehended and executed by Marshall 

Bayliefeof Law, amongst the which the Baylife of Romfort in Essex 

ciuSl within " ^^ °"^» ^ "^^^ ^exx^ Well bcloued : he was early in the Mom- 
AWgate for ing of Marie Magdalens day, then kept holy day, brought by 
to the p^t the shiriffes of London, and the knight Marshall, to the WeV\ 
of tiic parish, within Aldgate, there to be executed vpon a Jebit set vp that 
Morning, where being on the Ladder, he had words to th.^^ 
effect : Good people I am come hither to die, but know not f<^ 
what offence except for words by me spoken yester night 
Sir Steplun^ Curate and Preacher of this parish, which W4 
these : He asked me what newes in the Countrey, I answer^^^ 
heauie newes : why quoth he ? it is sayde, quoth I, that mar^X 
men be vp in Essex, but thanks be to God al is in good quE^^ 
about vs : and this was all as God be my ludge, &c. Vppo^ 
these wordes of the prisoner, sir Steptien to auoyde reproacrli 
of the people, left the Cittie, and was neuer heard of sine 

Aldgate warde 145 

amongst them to my knowledge. I heard the wordes of the 
prisoner, for he was executed vpon the pauement of my doore, 
where I then kept house : Thus much by digression : now 
again to the parish church of S. Andrew Vndershafty for it Parish church 
still retaineth y* name, which hath beene new builded by the Ynde^h^"^ 
parishioners there, since the yeare 1520. euery man putting to new builded. 
his helping hande, some with their purses, other with their 
bodies : Steuen Gennings mar|chant Taylor, sometime Mayor Page z^; 
of London, caused at his charges to bee builded the whole 
North side of the greate Middle He, both of the body and 
quier, as appeareth by his armes ouer euery pillar grauen, and 
also the North He, which hee roofed with timber and seeled, also 
the whole South side of the Church was glased, and the Pewes 
in the south Chappell made of his costes, as appeareth in euery 
Window, and vpon the said pewes. He deceased in the yeare 
1524. and was buried in the Gray Fryers Church. lohn 
Kerkbie Marchant Taylor sometime one of the Shiriffes, lohn 
Garlande Marchant Taylor and Nicholas Leuison mercer, 
Executor to Garland^ were greate benefactors to this worke : 
which was finished to the glasing in the yeare 1529. and fully 
finished 1532. Buried in this Church, Phillip Malpas one of 
the Shiriffes 1439. Sir Robert Dennie Knight, and after him 
Thomas Dennie his sonne in the yeare 1421. Thomas Stokes 
Gentleman, Grocer, 1496. In the new Church lohn MicheU^ 
Marchant Taylor, 1537. William Draper Esquier, 1537. 
Isabell and Margaret his wiues, Nicholas Leuison Mercer one 
of the Shiriffes, 1534. lohn Gerrarde Woolman, Merchant of 
the Staple 1546. Henry Man Doctor of Diuinity, Bishoppe 
of Man, 1556. Stephen Kyrton marchant Taylor, Alderman 

1553. Dauid Woodroffe Haberdasher, one of the Shiriffes, 

1554. Stephen Woodroffe his sonne gave 100. H. in money, for Stephen wood- 
the which the poore of that parish receiue 2.s, in bread weekely b^efwtorto 
for cuer. Sir Thomas Offley marchant taylor. Mayor 1556. he the poore in 
bequeathed the one halfe of all his goodes to charitable ^"* 
actions, but the parrish receyued little benefite thereby. 
Thomas Star key Skinner one of the Shiriffes 1578. Hugh 

Offley Lethersellar one of the Shiriffes, 1588. William 
Hanbury, Baker. 

* Michell I5q8\ Nichell 1603 
frow. \ L 


Aldgate warde 

S. Mary street 



Fage 148 

Papey a 
or Hospital! 
for poore 

The Abbot of 
Bery his Inne. 

Beats markes. 

Fenne church 

Now downe S. Mary streete by the west end of the church 
towardes the North, stand diuers fayre houses for Marchantes, 
and other: namely one faire greate house, builded by Sir 
William Pickering the father, possessed by Sir William his 
Sonne and since by Sir Edward Wootton of Kent. North 
from this place is the Fletchers Hall, and so downe to the 
comer of that streete, ouer against London wall, and again 
eastwardes to a faire house | lately new builded, partly by 
M. Robert Beale one of the Clearks of the Counsell. 

Then come you to the Papey, a proper house, wherein 
sometime was kept a fraternity or brotherhood of S. Charity^ 
and S. lohn Euangelist^ called the Papey, for poore impotent 
Priestes, (for in some language Priestes are called Papes) 
founded in the yeare 1430. by William Oliuer^ William 
Barnabie and lohn Stafford Chaplens, or Chauntrie Priestes, 
conducts, and other brethren and sisters, that should bee 
admitted into the Church of S. Augustine Papey in the Wall, 
the Brethren of this house becomming lame, or otherwise into 
greate pouerty, were here relieued, as to haue chambers, with 
certaine allowance of bread, drinke, and cole, and one olde 
man and his wife to see them serued, and to keepe the house 
cleane. This brotherhoode amongst others was suppressed 
in the raigne of Edward the sixt, since the which time in this 
house hath beene lodged M. Moris of Essex, Sir Francis 
Walsingham principall secretarie to her Maiestie, Maister 
Barret of Essex, &c. 

Then next is one great house large of roomes, fayre courts 
and garden plottes, sometimes pertayning to the Bassets, since 
that to the Abbots of Bury in Suffolke, and therefore called 
Buries Markes, corruptly Beuis markes, and since the dissolution 
of the Abbey of Bury to Thomas Henage the father, and to Sir 
Thomas his son. Then next vnto it is the before spoken Priorie 
of the holy Trinity, to wit, the west and north part thereof, 
which stretcheth vp to Ealdgate, where we first b^^n. 

Now in the second way from Ealdgate more towarde the 
south from the Well or Pumpe aforesaide, lyeth Fenne Church 
streete, on the right hand whereof somewhat west from the 
south end of Belzetters lane, is the Ironmongers Hall : which 
Company was incorporated in the thirde of Bdward the 

Aldgate warde 147 

fourth: Richard Fleming was their first Maister, Nicholas 
Marshall & Richard Coxe were Custos or Wardens. And on 
the lefte hand or South side, euen by the gate and Wall of JJ^^^^, 
the Citty runneth downe a lane to the Tower Hill> the south waU of Uu 
parte whereof is called Woodroffe lane, and out of this lane ^®^" ^ 
toward the West, a | streete called Hart streete. In this Pag^ ^49 
streete at the South east comer thereof sometime stoode one 
house of Crouched or (crossed) Fryers, founded by Raph Crossed Fri 
Hosiar^ and William Sabernes, about the yeare 1298. Stephen 
the 10. Prior of the Holy Trinity in London, granted three 
tenementes for xiii.s. viii.d. by the yeare, vnto the saide Raph 
Ifosiar^SLnd William Sadernes, who afterwardes became Fryers 
of S. Crosse, Adam was the first Prior of that house. These 
Fryers founded their house in place of certaine Tenementes 
purdiased of Richarde Wimbush the 12. Prior of the Holy 
Trinity, in the yeare 13 19. which was confirmed by Edward 
the thirde, the seauenteenth of his raigne, valued at 52. li. 
13.S. 4d. surrendred the twelfth of Nouember, the 30. of 
Henry the eight. In this house was buried Maister lohn 
Tirres^ Nicholas the sonnc of William Kyriell Esquier, Sir 
Thomas MoUington ^ Baron of Wemme, and Dame Elizabeth 
his wife, daughter and heyre of William Botelar Baron of 
Wemme, Robert MoUington * Esquier, and Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter to-F/rr^r^ ofOuerslcy, Henry Louell^sonntto William 
Lord Lottell^ Dame Iscdfel wife to William Edwarde Mayor of 
London, 147 1. William Narborough^ & Dame Elizabeth his 
wife, William Narbrough, and Dame Beatrix his wife, 
William Brosked Esquier, William Bowes ^ Lionel MoUington 
Esquier, son of Robert MoUington^ Nicholas Couderow^ and 
Elizabeth his wife. Sir John Stratford Knight, Sir Thomas 
Asseldey, Knight, Clearke of the Crowne, Submarshal of 
England, and lustice of the shire of Middlesex, John Rest 
Grocer, Mayor of London, 151 6. Sir lohn Skeuington Knight, 
merchant taylor, Sheriffe 1520. Sir lohn Milborne Draper, 
Mayor in the yeare 1521. was buried there, but remoued since 
to Saint Edmondes in Lombard streete, Sir Rice Grifitk 
beheaded on the Tower hill, 1531. 

* Mellington and MoUington are printed indiscriminately in /jp^, 

L 2 

148 Aldgate warde 

In place of this church is now a carpenters yeard, a Tennis 

court and such like : the Fryers hall was made a glasse house, 

or house wherein was made glasse of diuers sortes to drinke 

in, which house in the yeare 1575. on the 4. of September 

The Glasse brast out into a terrible fire, where being practised all meanes 

oQse urn . p^g^jj^jg ^^ quench, notwithstanding as y* same house in a 

Page ISO smal time before, had consumed a great | quantite of wood 
by making of glasses, now it selfe hauing within it about 
40000. Billets of woode was all consumed to the stone wals, 
which neuerthelesse greatly hindered the fire from spreading 
any further. 

Adioyning vnto this Fryers Church, by the East ende 

thereof in Wodrofe lane towardes the Tower hill, are certaine 

Almes houses proper almes houses^ 14. in number, builded of Bricke and 

Fryers. timber, founded by Sir lohn Milborne Draper, sometime 

Testament of Mayor, 1521. wherein be placed xiii. poore men and their 

wiues, if they haue wiues : these haue their dwellinges rent 

free, and ii.s. iiii.d. the peece : the first day of euery moneth 

These poyntes for euer. One also is to haue his house ouer the gate, and 

not performed : .... ^, , ^ , , ^ 

the Diapers ""-s. euery moneth : more he appoynted euery sunday for 
Ml* id^" ^"^^ ^3* peny loaues of white bread to bee giuen in the parrish 
these tene- Church of Saint Edmonde in Lombarde-streete to 13. poor 
SSen plots P^op'^ of tl^^t parish, and the like 13. loaues to be giuen in 
and the poore the parrish Church of S. Michaell vpon Comhill, and in 
^'*^"^ • eyther parrish euery yeare one loade of Chare coale, of thirty 
sackes in the loade, and this gifte to be continued for euer : 
for performance whereof, by the Maister and Wardens of the 
Drapers in London, he assured vnto them and their suc- 
cessors 23. messuages and tenementes, and 18. garden plottes 
in the parish of Saint Olaue in Hart street, with prouiso 
that if they performe not those poyntes aboue mentioned the 
saide Tenementes and Gardens to remayne to the Mayor and 
Commonaltie of the Cittie of London. 
Lord Lumleies Next to these Almes houses is the Lord Lumleyes house, 
builded in the time of king Henry the eight, by Sir Thomas 
Wiat the father^ vpon one plotte of ground of late pertayning 
to the foresaid Crossed Fryers, where part of their house 
stoode : And this is the farthest parte of Ealdgate Warde 
towardes the south, and ioyneth to the Tower hill. The 


Aldgate warde 149 

other side of that lane, ouer against the Lord LumUyes house, 
on the wall side of the Citty is now for the most parte 
(or altogether) builded euen to Ealdgate. 

Then haue yee on the south side of Fenchurch streete, ouer 
against the Well or Pumpe amongst other fayre and large 
builded houses, one that sometime belonged to the Prior of 
Monte loues \ or Monasterie Comute, a Cell to Monte loues page iji 
beyonde the seas, in Essex : it was the Priors Inne, when he Prior of he 
repayred to this Cittie. Then a lane that leadeth downe by ^^^ '^^ 
Northumberland house, towards the crossed Friers^ as is afore 

This Northumberland house in the parish of saint Katherine Northumber- 
Colman belonged to Henrie Percie Earle of Northumberland, 
in the three & thirtie of Henrie the sixt, but of late being left 
by the Earles, the Gardens thereof were made into bowling 
Alleys, and other parts into Dicing houses, common to all 
commers for their money, there to bowle and hazard, but 
now of late so many bowling Allies, and other houses for 
vnlawful gaming, hath beene raised in other parts of the Citie 
and suburbs, that this their ancient and onely patron of 
misrule, is left and forsaken of her Gamesters, and therefore 
turned into a number of great rents, small cottages, for 
strangers and others. 

At the east^ end of this lane, in the way from Aldgate The poore 
toward the Crossed Friers, of old time were certaine tenc- ^"*^ 
ments called the poore lurie, of lewes dwelling there. 

Next vnto this Northumberland house, is the parish Church Parish chnrch 
of saint Katherine called Coleman^ which addition of Coleman coiimar^" 
was taken of a great Haw yard, or Garden, of olde time called 
Coleman haw^ in the parish of the Trinitie, now called Christs 
Churchy and in the parish of saint Katherine, and all Saints 
called Coleman Church. 

Then haue ye Blanch apleton, whereof I reade in the Mannor of 
thirteenth of Edward the first, that a lane behinde the same ap^cton. 
Blanch-apleton, was graunted by the king to be inclosed and 
shut vp. This Blanch apleton was a mannor belonging to Sir 
Thomas Roos of Hamelake knight, the seuenth of Richard the 
second, standing at the Northeast comer of Mart lane, so Mart lane. 

* cast] west i^gS 


Aldgate warde 

called of a Priuiiedge sometime enioyed to kcepe a mart 
there, long since discontinued, and therefore forgotten, so as 
nothing remaineth for memorie, but the name of Mart lane, 
Basket makers and that corruptly tearmed Marke lane. I read that in the 
third of Edward the fourth, all Basket makers, Wiar drawers, 


Page 1S2 

and other forreyners, were permitted to haue shops in this 
mannor of Blanch apleton, and not else where within this 
Citie or suburbs thereof, and this also being the farthest | 
west part of this ward, on that southside I leaue it, with three 
parish Churches, saint Katherine Christ churchy saint Andrew 
Vndershaft^ and saint Katherine Colemans^ and thre hawles of 
companies, the Bricklayers hall, the Fletchers hall, and the 
Ironmongers hall. It hath an Alderman, his Deputie, common 
counsellers six. Constables six, Scauengers nine, Wardmote 
men for inquest cighteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the 
fiftecne in London at fiue pound. 





Limestreete warde. 

The next is Limestreete warde, and taketh the name of 
Limestreete, of making or selling of Lime there (as is sup- 
posed). The East side of this Limestreete, from the North 
comer thereof to the midst, is of Aldgate warde, as is afore- 
said: the west side, for the most part from the said north 
comer, southward, is of this Limestreete ward : the southend 
on both sides is of Langbome ward : the bodie of this Lime- 
High street of streete ward is of the high streete called Comehill street o-) 
which stretcheth from Limestreete on the southside, to \Sr^^^ 
west corner of Leaden hall : and on the north side from tl 
southwest corner of Saint Marie streete, to another com* 
ouer against Leadenhall. 

Now for saint Mary street, the west side therof is of tl 
Limestreete warde, and also the streete which runneth by tl 
north ende of this saint Marie streete, on both sides, fror -^ 
thence west to an house Called the Wrestlers, a signe 
called, almost to Bishops gate. And these are the boun< 
of this small ward. 

Monuments or places notable in this ward be these: ^^^ 
Limestreete are diuerse fayre houses for marchants air^^ 

Limestreete warde 151 

others : there was sometime a mansion house of the kings, An house in 

ailed the kings Artirce whereof I find record in the 14* of^jJuedthe 

Edward the first, but now growne out of knowledge. I readc kings Artirce. 

ilso of another great house in the west side of Limestreete, 

lauing a Chappell on the south, and a Garden on the west, 

hen belonging to the Lord Neuill, which | garden is now Pa^ zss 

ailed the Greene yard of the Leaden hall. This house in the 

linth of Richard the second, pertained to sir Simon Burley 

ind sir lohn Burley his brother, and of late the said house 

vas taken downe, and the forefront thereof new builded of 

imber by Hugh Offley^ Alderman. At the Northwest comer 

>f Limestreet was of old time one great Messuage called 

3enbriges Inne, Ralph Holland Draper, about the year 1452. Bcnbridges 

faue it to lohn Gill^ maister, and to the Wardens, and Fra- "*^' 

emitic of Tailers and Linnen Armorers of saint lohn Baptist 

n London, and to their successors for euer. They did set 

rp in place thereof a fayre large frame of timber, containing 

n the high street one great house, and before it to the comer 

)f Limestreet, three other tenements, the comer house being 

he largest, and then downe Limestreete diuers proper tene- 

nents. All which the Marchant Taylers in the raigne of 

Edward the sixt sold to Steplun Kirton Marchant Tayler 

ind Alderman, he gaue with his daughter Grisild^ to Nic/wlas 

Woodroffe the saide great house, with two tenements before 

t, in liew of a hundred pound, and made it vp in money 

(66. pound, 13. shillings, 4. pence. This worshipfuU man, 

ind the Gentlewoman his widow after him, kept those houses 

lowne Limestreet in good reparations, neuer put out but one 

ennant, tooke no fines, nor raysed rents of them, which was 

en shillings the peecc ycrely : But whether that fauour did 

)uerliue her funerall, the Tenants now can best declare the 


Next vnto this on the high streete, was the Lord Sowches Messuage of 
ilessuage or tenement, and other. In place whereof Richardc soud^ 
WetheW^t Marchant Tayler, builded a fayre house, with an 
ligh Tower, the seconde in number, and first of tymber, that 
wxer I learned to haue beene builded to ouerlooke neighbours 
n this Citic. 

» rr^///^//] Whethill /jp<? 

152 Limestreete warde 

This Richard then a young man, became in short time so 
tormented with goutes in his ioynts, of the hands and legges, 
that he could nether feede him selfe, nor goe further then he 
was led, much lesse was he able to climbei and take the 
pleasure of the height of his Tower. 

Then is there another faire house builded by Stephen Kirton^ 
Alderman : Alderman Lee doth now possesse it, and againe 
Page IS4 new I buildeth it.^ 

Then is there a fayre house of olde time called the greene 
gate, by which name one Michael pistoy Lumbard held it, with 
a tenement and nine shops, in the raigne of Richard the 
second, who in the 15. of his raigfne gaue it to Roger CrophuU^ 
Messuage and Thotnos Bromesier^ Esquires^ by the name of the Greene 
Grwne^^atc. B^^^» ^" ^^ parish of S. Andrew vpon Comehill, in Lime- 
Philip Malpas streete warde : since the which time Philip Malpas^ sometime 
Alderman and one of the Shiriffes, dwelled therein, and was 
there robbed and spoyled of his goods to a great value, by 
Icu:ke Cade, and other Rebels in the yeare 1449. 

Afterwards in the raigne of Henrie the seuenth, it was 
seased into the kings hands, and then granted, first vnto lohn 
Alston^ after that vnto William de la Riuers^ and since by 
Henrie the 8. to lohn Mutas (a Picarde) or Frenchman, who 
dwelled there, and harbored in his house many Frenchmen, 
that kalendred wolsteds, and did other things contrarie to the 
Franchises of the Citizens : wherefore on euill May day, which 
Mtntas house was in the yeare 1517, the Prentizes and other spoyled his 
robbed. house : and if they could haue found Mutas, they would haue 

stricken off his heade. Sir Peter Mutas^ sonne to the said 
lohn Mutas^ solde this house to Dauid Woodroffe Alderman, 
whose Sonne Sir Nicholas Woodroffe Alderman^ sold it ouer 
to lohn Moore Alderman, that now possesseth it. 

Next is a house called the Leaden portch, lately diuided 
into two tenements, whereof one is a Tauerne, and then one 
Leaden porch, other house for a Marchant, likewise called the Leaden 
portch : but now turned to a Cookes house. Next is a fairc 
house and a large, wherein diuerse Maioralities haue beene 
kept, whereof twaine in my remembrance : to wit. Sir WilliaM 
Bowyar^ and Sir Henry Huberthorne. 

* builded it 1633 

Limestreete warde 153 

The next is Leaden Hall, of which I reade, that in the yeare Manner of 
[309. it belonged to Sir Hugh NeuiU knight, and that the^'^"*^^^' 
Ladie Alice his widow made a feofment thereof, by the name 
)f Leaden hall, with the aduowsions of the Church of S. Peter 
/pon Comhill, and other churches to Richard Earle of Arun- 
Icll and Surrey, 136a. More, in the yeare 1380. Alice Neuill^ 
vidow I to Sir lohn Netiilly knight of Essex, confirmed to Page iss 
TJiotnas Cogshall and others the said Mannor of Leaden hall, 
;hc aduowsions, &c. In the yeare 1384. Humfrey de BohnUy 
£arle of Hereford, had the said Mannor. And in the yeare 
r4o8. Robert Rikedeti of Essex, and Margaret his wife, con- 
irmed to Richarde Whittington and other Citizens of London, 
he said Mannor of Leaden hall, with the Appurtenances, the 
\duousions of S. Peters Church, Saint Margarets Pattens, 
kc And in the yere 141 1 the said Whittington and other 
:onfirmed the same to the Maior and Comminaltie of London, 
thereby it came to the possession of the Citie. Then in the 
>reare 1443. ^^^ 21. of Henrie the sixt, lohn Hatherley Maior, 
purchased licence of the said King, to take vp. 200. fodder of Licence to 
Leade, for the building of water Conduits, a common Granarie, lo^thcXuilding 
md the crosse in west Cheape more richly for honour of the vp of common 
"itie. In the yeare next following, the Parson and parish of 
3aint Dunston in the east of London, seeing the famous and 
nightie man (for the wordes bee in the graunt : cum nobilis & 
>otens vir.) Simon Eyre, Citizen of London, among other his ^ 

vorkes of pietie, effectually determined to erect and build a 
lertaine Granarie vpon the soile of the same Citie at Leaden 
lall of his owne charges, for the common vtilitie of the saide 
ritie, to the amplifying and inlarging of the sayde Granarie, 
jraunted to Henrie Frowicke then Maior, the Aldermen, and 
Tomminaltie and their successors for euer, all their Tenements, 
vith the appurtenaunces, sometime called the Horsemill in Hone mill in 
jrasse streete, for the annuall rent of foure pound &c. Also G^**se8treetc. 
rertaine Euidences of an Alley and Tenements pertayning to 
he Horsemill, adioyning to the sayd Leaden hall in Grasse Symon Eyre 
(treete, giuen by William Kingstone Fishmonger, vnto the v^olrter,"" 
)arish church of S. Peter vpon Comehill, doe specifie the sayd then by 
jranarie to be builded by the sayde honourable and famous hu^^ a 
Vlarchant Symon Eyre, sometime an Upholster, and then a l>»P«r. 

154 Lintestreete warde 

Leaden hall Draper, in the yeare 1419. He builded it of squared stone,in 
bca common^ forme as now it sheweth, with a fayre and large chappell in 
A?^' the East side of the Quadrant, oucr the porch of which hec 

bnilded in causcd to be written, Dextra Domini exaltauit nu^ The 
Leaden halL i^rdg right hand exalted mc. Within the saydc Church on 
the North wall was written Honorandtis fatnostis marcaiar 
Pagets6 Simon Eyre \ huius operis, &c. In English thus. The 
honourable and famous Marchant, Simon Eyre founder of 
this worke, once Maior of this Citie, Citizen and Draper of the 
same, departed out of this life, the 18. day of September, the 
yeare from the incarnation of Christ 1459. and the 38. yeare 
of the raigne of king H. the sixt. He was buried in the 
parish Church of Saint Mary Wolnoth in Lombard streete: 
l^ej^iesgiuen he gaue by his Testament, which I haue read, to be distributed 
Eyrc!"^" to all prisons in London, or within a mile of that Citie, some- 
what to relicfe them. More, hee gaue aoco. Markes vpon a 
condition, which not performed, was then to bee distributed 
to Maides marriages, and other deeds of charitie: he also 
gaue 3000. markes to the Drapers, vpon condition they should 
within one yeare after his decease, establish perpetually a 
maister or warden, fiue secular priests, sixe clarkes, and two 
Dayly seniice queristers, to sing dayly diuine seruice by note for euer, in his 
^ "^^' ?^> chappell of the Leaden hall : also one Maister with an Usher 

and three free *^^ 

schooles in the for Grammar, one master for writing, and the third for song. 
Leaden hall, ^j^ housing there newly builded for them for cuer, the 
Master to haue for his Salarie ten pound : and cuerie other 
priest eight pound, euery other Clarke fiue pound six shillings 
eight pence, and euery other chorister, fiue marks : and if the 
Drapers refused this to do, within one yeare after his decease, 
then the three thousand Markes to remaine to the Prior and 
couent of Christs Church in London, with condition to estab- 
lish as is aforesayd, within two yeares after his decease : and if 
they refused, then the three thousand Markes to be disposed 
by his Executors as they best could deuise in works of 
charitie: thus much for his Testament, not performed by 
establishing of diuine seruice in his chappell, or free schooles 
for schollers, neither how the stocke of 3000. Marks, or rather 
fiue thousand Marks was employed by his Executors, could I 
euer leame : he left issue Thomas, who had issue, Thomas, &c 

Limestreete warde 155 

True it is that in one yeare 1464. the third of Edward the Liber albns. 
3urth, it was agreed by the Mayor, Aldermen and Com-^^^^^^^ 
linaltie of London, that notwithstanding the Kings letters wooU at 
*atentes, lately before grauntcd vnto them touching the 
>onage or Weighing of Wares to bee holden at the Leaden 
lall, yet sute should be made to the king for new letters 
tattentes to be granted to the Mayor of the Sta|ple for the Page tjj 
Tronage of wols to be holden there, & order to be taken by 
he discretion of Thovtas Cooke then Maior, the counsaile of 
he Citie, Geffrey Filding then Maior of the Staple at West- 
ciinster, and of the kings Councell, what should bee payd to 
he Maior and Aldermen of the Citie, for the laying and 
lousing of the Woolles there, that so they might bee brought 
X)rth and weighed, &c 

Touching the Chappell there, I find that in the yeare 1466. Abroiherliood 
»y licence obtained of king Edward the fourth, in the sixt of ^j^heSii^pcll 
lis raigne, a Fratemitie of the Trinitie of 60. priests (besides of Uaden 
►thcr brethren, and sisters) in the same Chappell was founded 
>y William Rotise^ lohn Risbic^ & Thomas Ashby priests, 
ome of the which 60. priests, euery market day in the fore 
loone, did celebrate diuine seruice there, to such Market people 
IS repayred to prayer, and once euerie yeare they met all 
ogither, and had solemn seruice, with Procession of all the 
brethren and Sisters. This foundation was in the yere 151 2. 
>y a common councell confirmed to the 60. Trinitie priests, and 
o their successors, at the will of the Maior and Cominaltie. 

In the yeare 1484. a great fire happened vpon this Leaden Leaden hall 
lall, by what casualtie I know not, but much bowsing was °"™***- 
here destroyed, with all the stockes for Guns, and other 
>rouision belonging to the Citie, which was a great losse, and 
10 lesse charge to be repayred by them. 

In the yeare 1503. the eightenth of Henrie the seuenth. Rich. Arnold. 
L request was made by the Commons of the Citie, concerning a request of 
he vsage of the said Leaden hall, in forme as followeth. [^^ M^i^Lid 
Please it the Lord Maior, Aldermen, & common councel, to Aldenncn. 
tiact that al Frenchmen, bringing Canuas, Linnen cloth, and l>eaden hall 
)ther wares to be sold, and all Forreins bringing Wolsteds, ^„JJ ,^'<l 
5ayes, Staimus,* Kiuerings, Nailes, Iron worke, or any other Linnen cloth. 

^ Stamins] 1633 ; Staimus 1598^ 1603 

156 Limestreete warde 

wares, and also all maner Forrdns brii^[ii^ Lead to the Citie 

to be sold, shall bring all such dietr wares aforesaid to the 

open Market of the Leaden hall, there and no where else to 

be shewed, sdde and vttered, like asof olde time it hath beene 

vsed, vpon paine of forfe)rtiire of all the sa)rd wares, shewed or 

sold in any other place then aforesayd, die shew of the said 

Ptige tss wares to be made three da3^es in die wedce, that is to | say 

Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday : it is also thought reason- 

Commoii able that the common Beam be kept from hencefoorth in the 

WkUaden Lcadcn Hall, and die Farmer to pay therefore reasonaUe 

h^ rent to the Chamber : for better it is that the Chamber haue 

aduauntage thereby, then a forreine person : and also the said 

Leaden hall, which is more chargeable now by halfe then 

profitable, shall better beare out the chaises thereof: also the 

common Beame for wooll at Leaden hall may pay yearly a 

rent to the Chamber of London, toward supportation and 

Leaden hall charges of the same place: for reason it is, that a common 

Sc CoT? *^ office occupied vpon a common ground, beare a charge to the 

minaltie. vsc of the Comminaltie : also that Forreins bringing wools, 

imd^ot£r^' f^'s> ^^ ^^y Other Marchandizes or wares to Leaden hall, to be 

»««nd«» kept there for the sale and Market, may pay more largely for 

Leaden hall, the keeping of their goods, then free men.' Thus much for 

the request of the Commons at this time. 
Leaden hall Now to set downe some proofe that the said hall hath beene 
Vl^^ * imployed and vsed as a Granarie for come and graine (as the 
same was first appoynted) leauing all former examples, this 
Roger Achley one may suffice : Roger Achley Maior of London, in the yeare 
coodprouiiion ^5^^- the third of Hetirie the eight, when the said Maior 
forthedty. entered the Maioralitie, there was not found one hundred 
quarters of wheate in all the Gamers of the Citie, either within 
the liberties, or neare adioyning : through the which scarcitic, 
Bread Carts when the Carts of Stratford came ladeo? with bread to the 
^e^Bow?'^ Citie (as they had beene accustomed) there was such pressc 
about them, that one man was readie to destroy an other, in 
striuing to bee serued for their money: but this scarcitic 
lasted not long: for the Maior in short time made sudi 
prouision of Wheate, that the Bakers both of London, and oi 
Stratford were wearie of taking it vp, and were forced to take 
much more then they would, and for the rest the Maior laid 

Limestreete warde 157 

: the money, and stored it vp in Leaden hall, and other 

Tiers of the Citie. This Maior also kept the Market so well, 

it hee would be at the Leaden hall by foure a clocke in the 

mmers mornings, and from thence he went to other markets, 

the great comfort of the Citizens. 

[ reade also that in the yeare 1528. the %o. of Henrie the 

ht, Surueyers were appoynted to view the Gamers of the | 

ic, namely the Bridgehouse, and the Leaden hall, how they Page ts9 

re stored of Graine for the seruice of the Citie. And 

:ause I haue herebefore spoken of the bread Carts comming 

m Stratford at the Bow, ye shall vnderstand that of olde 

le the Bakers of breade at Stratford, were allowed to bring 

^ly (except the Sabbaoth and principall Feast(s)) diuerse 

ig Cartes laden with bread, the same being two ounces in 

I pennie wheate loafe heauier then the penny wheate loafe 

ced in the Citie, the same to be solde in Cheape, three or 

ire Cartes standing there, betweene Gutherans lane, and 

usters lane ende, one carte on Comehill, by the conduit, 

I one other in Grasse streete. And I haue reade that in the Liber, d. 
rth yere of Edward the second, Richard Reffeham being st»SbJd 
lior, a Baker named lohn of Stratforde, for making Bread pnnirf^ »» 
ser then the Assise, was with a fooles whoode on his head, baking bread 
i loaues of bread about his necke, drawne on a Hurdle ^^f ^^ 
ough the streets of this Citie : Moreouer in the 44. of 

Iward the third lohn Chichester being Maior of London, I 

.d in the visions of Pierce Plowman^ a booke so called,, as 

loweth. ' There was a careful commune^ when no Cart lohn Malnexn. 

ne to towne with baked bread from Stratford : tho gan ^^ sSatford 

'gers weepe^ and workemen were agast^ a little this will be miawd in this 

^ght loftg in the date of our Dirte, in a drie Auerell^^cL^tie!^^ ^ 

'housand and three hundred^ twise thirtie and ten, &c.' I 

.de also in the ao. of Henrie the eight. Sir lames Spencer 

ng Maior, six Bakers of Stratford were merced in the Guild 

II of London, for baking vnder the size appoynted. These 
kers of Stratford left seruing of this citie, I knowe not 
pon what occasion, about 30. yeares since. 

in the yeare 15 19. a petition was exhibited by the com- the^ommons 
>ns to the common councell, and was by them allowed, concerning Uie 

^ vse of the 

icerning the Leaden hall, howe they would haue it; vsed, Leaden hall 

158 Limestreete warde 

viz. * Meekely beseeching sheweth vnto your good Lordship, 
and Maisterships, diuerse Citizens of this Cittie, which vnder 
correction thinke, that the great place called the Leaden hall, 
should nor ought not to be letten to farme, to any person or 
persons, and in especiall to any fellowship or companie incor- 
porate, to haue and hold the same hall for tearnie of yeares, 
for such inconueniences as thereby may ensue, and come to 
Pagt 160 the hurt of the common weale of the said Citie, | in time to 
come, as some what more largely may appeare in the Articles 

* First, if any assembly, or hastie gathering of the commons 
of the said Citie for suppressing or subduing of misruled 
people within the saide Citie, hereafter shall happen to be 
called or commanded by the Maior, Aldermen, and other 
gouemors and counsellors of the said Citie for the time being, 
there is none so conuenient meete and necessarie a place to 
assemble them in, within the saide citie, as the saide Leaden 
hall, both for largenes of roome, and for their sure defence in 
time of their counselling togither about the premises. Also 
in that place hath been vsed the Artillerie, Guns, and other 
armors of the said citie, to be safely kept in a readines for the 
safegard, wealth, and defence of the said citie, to bee had and 
occupied at times when neede required. As also the store of 
tymber for the necessarie reparations of the tenements belong- 
ing to the chamber of the said citie, there commonly hath 
been kept. Item if any triumph or noblenesse were to be 
done, or shewed by the communaltie of the citie for the honour 
of our soueraigne Lord the King, and realme, and for the 
worship of the said Citie, the saide Leaden hall is most meete 
and conuenient place to prepare and order the said triumph 
therein, and from thence to issue foorth to the places therefore 
appoynted. Item, at any largesse or dole of any money made 
vnto the poore people of this Citie, it hath beene vsed to bee 
done and giuen in the said Leaden hall, for that the saide 
place is most meete therefore. Item, the honourable father, 
that was maker of the said hall, had a speciall will, intent and 
minde, that (as it is commonly said) the Market men and 
f'^^lw Jkc? * women that came to the Citie with victuals and other things, 
pUce for should haue their free standing within the said Leaden Hall 

Limestreete warde 159 

in wet weather, to keepe themselues and their wares drie, and victolen and 
thereby to encourage them, and all other to haue the better ,t^a^e. *^ 
will and desire the more plenteously to resort to the said 
Cittie, to victuall the same. And if the saide Hall should be 
letten to farme, the will of the said honourable father should 
neuer be fulfilled nor take effect. Item, if the said place, which 
is the chiefe fortresse and most necessarie place within all the 
Citie, for the tuition and safegard of the same, should bee 
letten to farme out of the handes of the chiefe heades of the 
same Citie, and especially | to an other bodie politique, it Pa^ i6i 
might at length by likelihood be occasion of discord and 
debate betweene the saide bodies politique, which God 

'For these and many other great and reasonable causes, 
which hereafter shall be shewed to this honorable Court, 
your said beseechers thinke it much necessarie, that the said 
hal be stil in the hands of this Citie, and to be surely kept 
by sad and discreet officers, in such wise, that it may 
alway be readie to be vsed and occupied for the common 
weale of the said Citie when need shall require, and in no 
wise to bee letten to any bodie politique.' Thus much for the 

About the yeare 1534. great meanes was made about the Leaden Hall 
Leaden Hall to haue the same made a Bursse for the assemblie J^e^madea 
of marchants» as they had been accustomed in Lombard- Bone for 
street, many common counselles were called to that ende: ^ 

but in the yeare 2535* lohn Champneis being Maior, it was 
fully concluded that the Bursse should remaine in Lombard 
streete, as afore, and Leaden hall no more to be spoken of 
concerning that matter. 

The vse of Leaden hall in my youth was thus : In a part 
of the North quadrant on the East side of the North gate, 
was the common beames for weighing of wooU, and other 
wares, as had beene accustomed : on the west side the gate 
was the scales to way meale: the other three sides were 
resented for the most part to the making and resting of the 
pageants shewed at Midsommer in the watch : the remnant 
of the sides and quadrants were imployed for the stowage 
of wooll sackes, but not closed vp : the lofts aboue were 

i6o Limestreete warde 

partly vsed by the painters in working for the decking of 
pageants and other deuises, for beautifying of the watch and 
watchmen, the residue of the lofts were letten out to 
Marchants, the wool! winders and packers therein to wind 
and packe their wools. And thus much for Leaden hall may 

Now on the North of Limestreet warde in the high street 

are diuerse faire houses for Marchants, and proper tenements 

for artificers, with an Alley also called Shaft alley, of the 

shaft or Maypole sometime resting ouer the gate thereof, as 

I haue declared in Aldgate warde. In the yeare 1576. partly 

at the charges of the parish of saint Audrezv^ and partly at 

Page 162 the charges of the chamber | of London, a water pompe was 

Apnmpein raised in the high street of Limestreete warde, neare vnto 

ofLimcstieete Limestreet corner: for the placing of the which pumpe, 

c^'^hiii treet '^^"^'^S broken vp the ground they were forced to digge more 

in tome place then two fadome deepe before they came to any maine 

foclome^highcr ground, where they found a harth made of Britain, or rather 

thenofalcte Roman Tile, euery Tile halfe yarde square, and about two 

app«red by inches thick : they found Coale lying there also (for that lying 

f °*^^^ whole will neuer consume) then digging one fadome into the 

' maine, they found water sufficient, made their prall, and set 

vp the pumpe, which pumpe with oft repayring and great 

charges to the Parish, continued not foure and twenty yeares, 

but being rotted, was taken vp, and a new set in place^ in the 

yeare 1600. Thus much for the high streete. 

s.Mary street, In S. Marie Street had ye of olde time a Parish Church of 

o*Mary, °"^ S.Marie the virgine. Saint Vrsula, and the iiooo. virgins, 

s. Vrrola, Sc which Church was commonly called S. Marie at the Axe, of 

IIOOO virgioes , . <. a -it-. « i ^ 

called at the the signe of an Axe, ouer agamst the East end thereof, or 
for a ware-°°^ S. Marie Pellipar, of a plot of ground lying on the North 
house. side thereof, pertayning to the Skinners in London. This 

parish about the yeare 1565. was vnited to the Parish Church 
of S. Andrew Vndershaft^ and so was S. Mary at the Axe 
suppressed, and letten out to bee a warehouse for a Marchant 
Against the east end of this Church, was some time a faire 
wall, now turned to a pumpe. Also gainst the north end of 
this S. Mary street, was sometime one other parish church 
of S. Augustine^ called S. Augustine in the wall, for that it 

Limestreete warde i6i 

3od adioyning to the wall of the Citie, and otherwise called Parish chmch 
Angus tins Papey, or the poore, as I haue read in the^j^^e^u"® 
igne of Ed. the 3. About the yeare 1430 in the raigne of ™*dc a 
'enrie the sixt, the same church was allowed to the brethren the Paper, and 
the Papey^ the house of poore priests, whereof I ^^^"^ JawTie Ond^ 
oken in Aldgate warde. The Parishioners of this Church made a stable. 
^re appointed to the Parish church of Alhallowes in the 
ill, which is in Broadstreete warde, this brotherhood, called 
%peyy being suppressed, the church of S. Angus tin was 
illed downe, and in place thereof one Grey a Pothecarie 
lilded a stable, a hayloft, &c. It is now a dwelling house, 
dose two parish churches both lying in the ward of Lime- 
reet, being thus suppressed, there is not any one parish 
urch or place for | diuine seruice in that warde, but the Page i6j 
habitantes thereof . repaire to S, Peter in Comhill warde, 
Andrew in Aldegate ward^ Alhallowes in the wall in 
-oadstreet ward, and some to S. Denis in Langbome 

Now because of late there hath beene some question, to 
lat Warde this Church of S. Augustine Papey should of 
l^ht belong, for the same hath beene challenged by them of 
[degate Warde, and without reason taken into Bishopsgate 
arde from Limestreete Warde, I am somewhat to touch it. 
bout 30. yeares since the Chamber of London granted a 
ise of ground (in these wordes) lying neare London wall in 
e ward of Limestreet, from the west of the said church or 
appell of 5. Augustine Papey towardes Bishopsgate, &c. 
n the which plat of gfrounde the lease ^ builded three faire Houses by 

T J a^ 11 

lementes, and placed tennantes ^ there : these were charged |^ Sie**J^ jf 
beare scot and lot, and some of them to beare office in Limestreete. 
mestreete warde: all which they did willingly without 
udging. And when any suspected or disordered persons 
Te by the Landlord placed there, the officers of Limestreete 
irde fetched them out of their houses, committed them to 
arde, procured their due punishments, and banished them 
»m thence : whereby in short time that place was reformed, 
brought into good order, which thing being noted by 

* leasee i6j^ * tennantes] /5P<?; tenementes 160^ 

trow. I M 

1 62 Limestreete warde 

them of Aldegate Warde, they moued their Alderman Sir 
Thomas Offley to call in those houses to be of his Ward, but 
I my selfe shewing a faire ledgier booke sometime pertayning 
A part of to the late dissolued Priorie of the holy Trinity within Alde- 
wunTvniusay S^*^' wherein were set down the iust boundes of Aldgate 
withhelde by warde, before Sir Thomas Offley ^ Sir Rowland Heyward^ the 
wardelT^* * Common Counsel! and Wardemote inquest of the saide Lime- 
streete ward. Sir Thomas Offley gaue ouer his challenge : and 
so that matter rested in good quiet, vntill the yeare 1579. that 
Sir Richard Pype being Mayor, and Alderman of Bishopsgate 
warde challenged those houses to bee of his Warde, whereunto 
(without reason shewed) Sir Rowland Heyward yeelded : and 
thus is that side of the streete from the North comer of 
S. Mary streete almost to Bishopsgate (wherein is one plot 
of grounde letten by the Chamberlaine of London to the 
parrish of S. Martins Oteswich, to be a churchyeard, or 
Page 164 burying place for the dead of that | parish, &c. vniustly 
A chnrchyeard drawne and withholden from the warde of Limestreet. Diuers 
Wall penayn- Other proofes I could set down, but this one following may 
ing to Saint suffice. The Mayor and Aldermen of London made a graunt 
Otoswich in to the fraternity of Papie, in these words : Be it remembred, 
Bi^o^gate. ^^^ where now of late the master and wardens of the frater- 

Liber Fxater. 

mty of the Papie, haue made a bricke wall, closing in the 
chappell of Saint Augustine called Papie chappell, sdtuate 
in the parrish of All-Saintes in the wall, in the warde of 
Limestreete of the Cittie of London : from the southeast 
comer of the which bricke wall, is a skuncheon of xxi. foote 
of assise from the said comer Eastward. And from the 
same skuncheon there to a messuage of 55. foote & a halfe 
westward, the said skuncheon breaketh out of line righte 
southward betwixt the measures aforesaid, iii. foot, and fiue 
inches of assise, vpon the common ground of the city afore- 
said, Raph Verney Mayor, and the Aldermen of the same 
Liber Papic citie, the xxii. day of October, the sixt yeare of Edward the 
fourth, graunted to lohn Hod Priest, master lohn Bolte^ and 
Thomas Pachet priests, wardens of the fratemity of Papie 
aforesaid, and to their successors for euer, &c. yeelding iiiid 
sterling yearly at Michaelmas, and this is, sayeth my booke, 
inrolled in the Guildhall of London: which is a sufficient 

Lhnestreete warde 163 

proofe the same plot of ground to be of Limestreet warde 
and neuer otherwise accounted or challenged. 

On the south side of this streete stretching west from 
S. Mary streete towardes Bishopsgate streete, there was of 
olde time one large messuage builded of stone and timber, 
in the parish of S. Augustine in the wall, now in the 
parrish of Alhallowes in the same wall, belonging to the 
Earle of Oxeford, for Richard de Vere Earle of Oxeford Patent, 
possessed it in the 4. of Henry the fift, but in processe of ^"^^^ P*~*- 
time the landes of the Earle fell to femals, amongest the 
which one being married to Wingfielde of SufTolke, this house 
with the appurtenances fell to his lot, and was by his heire 
Sir Robert Wingfield sold to M. Edward Cooke, at this time 
the Queenes Attumey Generall. This house being greatly 
ruinated of late time, for the most part hath beene letten out 
to Powlters, for stabling of horses and stowage of Poultrie, 
but now lately new builded into a number of small tenements, 
letten out to strangers, and other meane people. | 

One note more of this Warde, and so an end. I finde of P^ i6j 
Recorde, that in the yeare 137 1. the 45. of Edwarde the 
thirde, a great subsidie of looooo. pounde was graunted Sobtidie of 
towardes the Kinges warres in France, whereof the Cleargie ^^^^ j^ ^ 
paid 50000. pounde, and the laitie 50000. pound, to be leuied ycue 1371. 
to 39. shires of England, containing parishes 8600. of euery 
parrish 5. pounde xvLs. the greater to helpe the lesser : this 
Cittie (as one of the shires) then containing 24. Wardes, and 
in them no. parishes, was therefore assessed to 635.1i. I2.s. 
whereof Limestreet ward did beare 34. shillinges and no 
more, so small a Warde it was and so accounted, as hauing 
no one whole parrish therein, but small portions onely of two 
parrishes in that warde. This warde hath an Alderman, his 
Deputie, common counsailors 4. Constables 4. Scauengers 
2. Wardemote inquest 16. and a Beadle, and is taxed to the 
fifteene at 19.8. ii.d. ob.q. 

Bishopsgate Warde 

The next is Bishopsgate warde, whereof a parte is without 
the gate and of the suburbes from the barres, by S. Mary 


■%» f\ 


Bishopsgate warde 

Parrish church 
of S. Bnttolph 

Page i66 

Petty France, 
neare to the 
towne ditch. 

Hospitall of 

Spittle, to Bishopsgate, and a part of Hounds ditch^ almost 
halfe thereof, also without the wall is of the same Warde. 
Then within the gate is Bishopsgate streete, so called of the gate, 
to a Pumpe, where sometime was a fayre wel with two buckets 
by the East ende of the parrish Church of S. Martin Otoswich^ 
and then winding by the West corner of Leaden hall down 
Grasse street to the comer ouer against Grasse Church, and 
this is the boundes of that Warde. 

Monumentes most to bee noted, are these: the Parrish 
church of S. Buttolph without Bishopsgate in a fayre Church- 
yeard, adioyning to the Town Ditch vpon the very banke 
thereof, but of olde time inclosed with a comely wall of 
bricke, lately repay red by Sir William Allen Mayor, in the 
yeare 157 1. because he was borne in that parrish^ where also 
he was buried : an Ancris by Bishopsgate receyued 40.S. the 
yeare of the Shiriffes of | London. 

Now without this Churchyearde wall is a causeye leading to 
a quadrant, called Petty Fraunce, of Frenchmen dwelling 
there, and to other dwelling houses, lately builded on the 
banke of the saide ditch by some Cittizens of London, that 
more regarded their owne priuate gaine, then the common good 
of the Cittie : for by meanes of this causeye raysed on the 
banke, and soylage of houses, with other filthines cast into the 
ditch, the same is now forced to a narrow channell, and almost 
filled vp with vnsauorie thinges, to the daunger of impoysoning 
the whole Cittie. 

Next vnto the parrish church of S. Buttolph^ is a fayre 
Inne for receipt of Trauellers : then an Hospitall of S. Mary 
of Bethelem, founded by Simon Fitz Mary one of the 
Sheriff es of London in the yeare 1246. He founded it to haue 
beene a Priorie of Cannons with brethren and sisters, and king 
Edward the thirde granted a protection, which I haue secne, 
for the brethren Milicix beaix Marix de Bethlem^ within the 
Citty of London^ the 14. yeare of his raigne. It was an 
Hospitall for distracted people, Stephen Geninges Marchant 
Taylor gaue 40. li. toward purchase of the patronage by his 
Testament 1523. the Mayor and Communalty purchased the 
patronage thereof with all the landes and tenementes theiv- 
unto belonging, in the yeare [546; the same yeare King /few7 

Bishopsgate warde 165 

the eight gaue this Hospital! vnto the Cittie : the Church and 
Chappell whereof were taken downe in the raigne of Queene 
Elizabeth^ and houses builded there, by the Gouemours of 
Christes Hospitall in London. In this place people that bee 
distraight in wits, are by the suite of their friendes receyued 
and kept as afore, but not without charges to their bringers 
in. In the yeare 1569. Sir Thomas Roe Marchant Taylor, 
Mayor, caused to bee enclosed with a Wall of bricke, about 
one acre of ground, being part of the said Hospitall of 
Bethelem, to wit on the banke of deepe ditch so. called, Buriall for the 
parting the saide Hospitall of Bethelem from the More field : ^p^aSS^' 
this he did for buriall, and ease of such parrishes in London, ^y Bethelem. 
as wanted ground conuenient within their parrishes. The 
Lady his wife was there buried (by whose perswasion he in- 
closed it) but himselfe borne in London was buried in the 
parrish church of Hackney. I 

From this hospitall Northwarde vpon the streetes side many Page 167 
houses haue beene builded with Alleys backeward of late time 
too much pesterd with people (a great cause of infection) vp to 
the barres. 

The other side of this high streete from Bishopsgate & 
Hounds ditch, the first building, a large Inne for receipt of Dolphin with 
traucllers, and is called the Dolphin of such a signe. In the o«^«»»h«P»- 
yeare 15 13. Margaret Ricroft widow, gaue this house, with 
the Gardens, and appurtenaunces, vnto William Gamy R, Clye^ 
their wiues, her daughters, and to their heyres, with condition, 
they yearly to giue to the warden or gouemour of the gray 
Friers Church within Newgate fortie shillings, to find a student 
of Diuinitic in the Uniuersitie for euer. Then is there a faire 
house of late builded by lohn PowleL Next to that, a farre Fishers Folly, 
more large and beautifuU house with Gardens of pleasure, 
bowling Alleys, and such like, builded by lasper Fisher^ free 
of the Goldsmiths, late one of the six Clarks of the Chauncerie, 
and a lustice of peace. It hath since for a time beene the 
Earle of Oxfords place. The Queenes Maiestie Elizabeth 
hath lodged there. It now belongeth to Sir Roger Manars. 
This house being so large and sumptuously builded by a man 
of no greater calling, possessions or wealth, (for he was in- 

1 66 Bishopsgate warde 

debted to many) was mockingly called Fishers folly y and a 
Rithme was made of it, and other the like, in this manner. 

Kirkehyes Castell^ and Fishers FoUie^ 
Spinilas pleasure^ mtd Megses glarie. 

And so of other like buildings about the Cittie, by Citizens, 
men haue not letted to speake their pleasure. 
Berwardslanc From Fishers Fqllie vp to the west end of Berwards lane, 
of olde time so called, but now Hogge lane, because it meeteth 
with Hogge lane, which commeth from the Barres without 
Aldgate, as is afore shewed, is a continuall building of tene- 
ments, with Alleys of Cottages, pestered, &c. Then is there 
TaicU close, a lai^e close called Tasell close sometime, for that there were 
Tasels planted for the vse of Clothworkers : since letten to 
the Crosse-bow-makers, wherein they vsed to shootc for games 
at the Popingey : now the same being inclosed with a brickti 
ArtiUary ^all, serueth to be an Artillerieyard, wherevnto the Gunner 
p '^^ of the Tower doe weekely | repaire, namely euerie Thursday 
and there leuelling certaine Brasse peeces of great Artilleri 
against a But of earth, made for that purpose, they dis 
Walter Bnine, charge them for their exercise. Then haue ye the lat 
thclhiriSw of ^'ssolued Priorie and Hospitall, commonly called Saint Afart\ 
LondoD, laoj. Spittle, founded by Walter Brune^ and Rosia his wife, fo 
Canons regular, Walter Archdeacon of London laid the firs 
stone, in the yeare 1197. William of Saint Marie Church the 
Bishop of London, dedicated to the honour of lesus Chris 
and his Mother the perpetuall vii^n Marie^ by the name 
Domtis Dei^ and Beatse Marix^ extra Bishop^[ate, in tb 
Parish of S. Buttolph, the bounds whereof, as appeareth b 
composition betwixt the person, and Prior of the said Hos — 
Berwards lane, pitall concerning tithes, beginneth at Berwards lane towarc^ 
S^morT ^^^ ?^ov\\\, and extendeth in breadth to the parish of Saint: 
then 400 Leonard of Soresditch towardes the North, and in length*, 
yearcs since. ^^^^ ^j^^ j^.^^^ streete on the west to the Bishops of Londons 

field, called LoUesworth on the East. The Prior of this Saint 
Marie Spittle, for the emortising and propriation of the Prioric 
of Bikenacar in Essex to his said house of Saint Marit 
Spittle, gaue to Henrie the seuenth 400. pounds in the aa. of 
his raigne. This Hospitall, surrendered to Henrie the eight, 

Bishopsgate warde 167 

was valued to dispend 478. pounds, wherein was found, besides 
ornaments of the Church, and other goods pertaining to the 
Hospitall, 1 80. beds well furnished, for receipt of the poore. 
For it was an Hospitall of great reliefe. Sir Henrie Plesington 
knight was buried there, 1452. 

In place of this Hospitall, and neare adioyning, are now 
many faire houses bullded, for receipt and lodging of worship- 
full persons. A part of the large Church yeard pertaining to 
this Hospitall, and seuered from the rest with a Bricke wall, 
yet remaineth as of olde time, with a Pulpit Crosse therein, PuIpU Croste 
somewhat like to that in PauUs Church yard. And against * ^ 
the said Pulpet on the Southside, before the chernell and Chemell and 
Chappell of Saint Edmond the Bishop, and Marie Magdalen, ^^l^l 
which chappell was founded about the yeare 1 391. by William and of Mary 
Etusham Citizen and Peperer of London, who was there '^°*'*"* 
buried, remaineth also one faire builded house in two stories in Sermons in 
height for the Maior, and other honourable persons, with the {Ijfii^™ ^^ 
Aldermen and ShirifTes to sit in, there | to heare the Sermons the Spittle. 
preached in the Easter holydayes. In the loft ouer them ^^ 
stood the Bishop of London, and other Prelates, now the 
ladies, and Aldermens wiues doe there stand at a fayre 
window, or sit at their pleasure. And here is to be noted, 
that time out of minde, it hath beene a laudable custome, that 
on good Friday in the after noone, some especiall learned 
man, by appoyntment of the Prclats, hath preached a Sermon 
at Paules crosse, treating of Christs passion : and vpon the 
three next Easter Holydayes, Monday, Tuesday, and Wednes- 
day, the like learned men, by the like appoyntment, haue vsed 
to preach on the forenoones at the sayde Spittle, to perswade 
the Article of Christs resurrection : and then on low Sunday, 
one other learned man at Paules Crosse, to make rehearsall 
of those foure former Sermons, either commending or reprouing 
them, as to him by iudgement of the learned Diuines was 
thought conuenient. And that done, he was to make a 
sermon of his owne studie, which in all were iiue sermons in 
one. At these sermons so seuerally preached, the Maior, 
with his brethren the Aldermen were accustomed to bee 
present in their Violets at Paules on good Fryday, and in 
their Scarlets at the Spittle in the Holidayes, except Wednes- 

1 68 Bishopsgate warde 

day in violet, and the Maior with his brethren, on low sonday 
in scarlet, at Paules Crosse, continued vntill this day. 

Touching the antiquitie of this custome, I finde that in the 
yeare 1398. king Richard hauing procured from Rome, con- 
firmation of such statutes, and ordinances, as were made in 
the Parliament, b^un at Westminster, and ended at Shrews- 
burie, hee caused the same confirmation to be read and 
pronounced at Pauls Crosse, and at saint Marie spittle in the 
sermons before all the people. Philip Malpas one of the 
shirifTes in the yeare 1439. gaue ao. shillinges by the yeare to 
the three preachers at the Spittle : Stephen Farster Maior, in 
the yeare 1454. gaue fortie pounds to the preachers at Pattks 
Honae in s. crosse & Spittle. I find also that the afore said house, wherein 
rh '^ h^^ ^^^ Maior and Aldermen do sit at the Spittle, was builded for 
buiided for the that purpose of the goods, & by the Executors of Richard 
Awd^Sf i?<n£;j^« Alderman, & Isabell his wife, in the yeare 1488. In 
the year 1594. this Pulpit being old, was taken down, and 
a new set vp, the Preachers face turned towardes the south, 
Page ijo which | was before toward the west, also a large house on the 
Pulpit Crosse east Side of the said Pulpit, was then builded for the gouemors 
churchyard ^^d children of Christs Hospitall to sit in : and this was done 
new builded. of the goods of William Elkens Alderman, late deceased, but 

A house m , 

Spittle church Within the first yeare, the same house decaying, and like to 
foToie^ffouw- ^^"^ fallen, was againe with great cost repay red at the Cities 
ners and chil- charge. On the East side of this Churchyard lieth a large 
Hospitoll."*" field, of olde time called Lolesworth^ now Spittle field, which 
Lolcsworth about the yeare 1576. was broken vp for Clay to make Bricke, 
Buriail of the in the digging whereof many earthen pots called Vrnae^ were 
Romaincs in foy^d full of Ashes, and burnt bones of men, to wit, of the 

Spittle field. ' ' ' 

Old monu- Romanes that inhabited here : for it was the custome of the 
ROTuiincs''*^ Romanes to burne their dead, to put their Ashes in an Vma, 
found. and then burie the same with certaine ceremonies, in some 

field appoynted for that purpose, neare vnto their Citie : euerie 
of these pots had in them with the Ashes of tlie dead, one 
peece of Copper mony, with the inscription of the Emperour 
then raigning: some of them were of Claudius^ some of 
Vespasian^ some of Nero^ of Anihonius Pius, of Traianus, and 
others : besides those Vrnas, many other pots were there found, 
made of a white earth with long necks, and handels, like to our 

Bishopsgate warde 169 

le lugges : these were emptie, but seemed to be buried ful 
ome liquid matter long since consumed and soaked through: 
there were found diuerse vials and other fashioned Glasses, 
le most cunningly wrought, such as I haue not seene the 
, and some of Christall, all which had water in them, noth- 
differing in cleames, taste, or sauour from common spring 
er, what so euer it was at the first : some of these Glasses 
Oyle in them verie thicke, and earthie in sauour, some 
e supposed to haue balme in them, but had lost the vertue : 
ly of those pots and glasses were broken in cutting of the 
% so that few were taken vp whole. There were also 
id diuerse dishes and cups of a fine red coloured earth, 
ch shewed outwardly such a shining smoothnesse, as if 
y had beene of Currall ^ those had in the bottomes Romane 
ers printed, there were also lampes of white earth and red, 
ficially wrought with diuerse antiques about them, some 
^ or foure Images made of white earth, about a span long 
h of them : one I remember was of Pallas^ the rest I haue 
|[otten. I my selfe haue reserued a|mongst diuerse of those Pfig^ n' 
iquitics there, one Vrna^ with the Ashes and bones, and 
pot of white earth very small, not exceeding the quantitie 
I quarter of a wine pint, made in shape of a Hare, squatted 
>n her legs, and betweene her eares is the mouth of the pot. 
:re hath also beene found in the same field diuers coffins Troughes of 
tone, containing the bones of men : these I suppose to bee the"sp^ttlc^ *" 
burials of some especiall persons, in time of the Brytons, field. 
Saxons, after that the Romanes had left to goueme here, 
reouer there were also found the sculs and bones of men 
lout coffins, or rather whose coffins (being of great timber) 
e consumed. Diuerse great nailes of Iron were there Great nayles 
id, such as are vsed in the wheeles of shod Carts, being ?[ [h^°fie^^& 
h of them as bigge as a mans finger, and a quarter of a yard fond opinions 
y, the heades two inches ouer, those nayles were more 
idred at then the rest of thinges there found, and many 
lions of men were there vttred of them, namely that the 
1 there buried were murdered by driuing those nayles into 
r heads, a thing vnlikely, for a smaller naile would more 

* Currall] /jp^; currcll i6oj 

lyo ' Bishopsgate warde 

aptly serue to so bad a purpose, and a more secret place would 
lightly be imployed for their buriall. But to set downe what 
I haue obserued concerning this matter, I there behelde the 
bones of a man lying (as I noted) the heade North, the feete 
South, and round about him, as thwart his head, along both 
his sides, and thwart his feete, such nailes were found, where- 
fore I coniectured them to be the nailes of his coffin, which had 
beene a trough cut out of some great tree, and the same 
couered with a planke, of a great thicknesse, fastned with such 
nayles, and therefore I caused some of the nayles to bee 
reached vp to mee, and found vnder the broad heades of them, 
the olde wood, skant turned into earth, but still retaining both 
the graine, and proper colour : of these nayles with the wood 
vnder the head thereof, I reserued one, as also the nether iaw 
bone of the man, the teeth being great, sound, and fixed*, which 
amongst other many monuments there found, I haue yet to 
shew, but the nayle lying drie, is by scaling greatly wasted. 
And thus much for this part of Bishopsgate warde, without 
the gate : for I haue in another place spoken of the gate, ancL 
therefore I am to speake of that other parte of this warde, 
which lieth within the gate. | 
Page 172 And first to begin on the left hand of Bishopsgate street . 

from the gate ye haue certaine Tenements of olde time per 
Clearkf Hall tayning to a brotherhood of S. Nicholas, granted to the Parisl^^ 
"^*^ **"' Clarkes of London, for two Chaplens to be kept in the Chappl 
Bishopsgate of S. Marie Magdalen neare vnto the Guild hall of London 
'^'**^* in the 27. of Henrie the sixt. The first of these house^^ 

towardes the North, and against the wall of the Citie, 
sometime a large Inne or Court called the Wrastlers, of sue! 
a signe, and the last in the high streete towardes the South 
was sometime also a fayre Inne called the Angell, of sue 
a signe. Amongest these said Tenements was on the sam 
streete side a fayre Entrie or Court to the common hall of th 
saide Parish Clarkes, with proper Almeshouses scauen i 
number adioyning, for poore Parish Clarkes, and their wiu 
their widowes, such as were in great yeares not able to labou 
One of these by the sayd Brotherhoode of Parish Clarkes wj 

* fast fixed] isqS ; fixe r6oj 

Bishopsgate warde 171 

allowed sixteene pence the weeke, the other sixe had each 
of them nine pence the weeke, according to the pattent thereof 
graunted. This Brotherhoode amongest other being sup- 
pressed : In the raigne of Edward the sixt, the said Hall with 
the other buildings there, was giuen to sir Robert Chester^ 
a knight of Cambridge shire, against whome the Parish Clarkes 
commencing sute, in the raigne of Queene Marie^ and being 
like to haue preuayled, the saide Sir Robert Chester pulled 
downe the Hall, sold the timber, stone, and lead, and there* 
vpon the sute was ended. The Almeshouses remaine in the 
Queenes handes, and people are their placed, such as can make 
best friendles : some of them taking the pension appoynted, 
haue let foorth their houses for great rent, giuing occasion to 
the Parson of the Parish to chalenge ty thes of the poore, &c. 

Next vnto this is the small Parish Church of Saint Ethel- Parish church 
burge virgin, and from thence some small distance is a large ^nr^, 
court called little S. Helem, because it pertained to the Nuns p^ory of Stint 
of Saint Helens y and was their house : there are seuen Almes Aimcsehouses. 
roomes or houses for the poore, belonging to the companie of 
Leathersellers. Then some what more West is another Court 
with a winding lane, which commeth out agaynst the west ende 
of Saint Andrew Vnder shaft Church. In this court standeth 
the church | of S. Helen^ sometime a Priorie of blacke Nuns, Pa^e 17s 
and in the same a parish Church of Saint Helett, ^Y^^i^iT^ 

This Priorie was founded before the raigne of Henrie the 
third. William Basing Deane ol paules was the first founder, 
and was there buried, and William Basing one of the Shiriffes 
of London, in the second yeare of Edward the second, was 
holden also to be a founder, or rather an helper there : this 
Priorie being valued at 314. pound two shillings sixe pence, 
was surrendred the 25. of Nouember, the thirtie of Henrie 
the eight, the whole Church, the partition betwixt the Nuns 
Church, and Parish Church being taken downe, remaineth 
now to the Parish, and is a faire Parish Church, but wanteth 
such a steeple as Sir Thomas Gresham promised to haue 
builded, in recompence of ground in their Church filled vp 
with his monument. The Nuns hall and other housing 
thereunto appertaining, was since purchased by the Companie Leatijgr^ii^„ 
of the Lethersellers, and is their common Hall: which hall. 

172 Bishopsgate warde 

companie was incorporate in the 21. yeare of Richard the 

In the Church of saint Helen^ haue ye these monuments of 
the dead : Thomas Langton Chaplain, buried in the Quire 
1350. Adam Frances Maior 1354. Elizabeth Vennar^ wife 
to William Venttar Alderman, one of the Shiriffes of London, 
1 401. loan daughter to Henrie Seamer^ wife to Richard^ 
Sonne and heyre to Robert Lord Poynings^ died a virgin 1420. 
lohn Swinjlat 1420. Nicholas Marshall Ironmonger, Alder- 
man, 1474. Sir lohn Crosby Alderman, 1475. ^^^ Anne his 
wife, Thomas Williams Gentleman, 1495. ^^^^ Cocken wife 
to lohn Cocken Esquire, 1509. Marie Orrelly wife to sir Lewes 
Orrell knight, Henrie Sommer^ and Katherine his wife, Walter 
Huntitigton Elsquire, lohn Lang thorp Esquire, 15 10. John 
Cower steward of Saint Heletis^ 151 2. Robert Rocluster 
Esquire, Sergeant of the Pantrie to Henrie the 8, sir William 
Sanctlo^ and sir William Sastctlo^ father and sonne. Eleattor, 
daughter to sir Thomas Butler Lord Sudley^ lohn Sonthworth, 
Nicholas Harpsfield Esquire, Thomas Sanderford, or Sommer- 
ford Alderman, Alexander Clieyney^ Walter Dawbeney^ George 
Fastolph^ Sonne to Hugh Fastolph^ Robert Liade^ Thofnas 
^age 174 Be\nolt alias Clarenciaulx^ king at arms, 1534. William Hollis 
Maior 1540, lohn Fauconbridge Esquire, 1545. Hacket Gentle- 
man of the Kinges Chappie, sir Andrew lud Maior, 1551. sir 
William Pickering, and sir William Pickering, father and 
Sonne, William Bond Alderman, 1567, sir Thomas Gresliam 
Mercer 1579. William Skegges Sargeant Poultar, Richard 
Gresham^ sonne to sir Thomas Gresham 1564. 
M Crosbics Then haue ye one great house called Crosbie place, because 
^ce, and of the same was builded by sir lohn Crosby Grocer, and Woolman, 
Tosbie. in place of certaine ^ Tenements, with their appurtenances letten 
to him by Alice Ashfed Prioresse of saint Helens, and the 
Couent for ninetie nine ^ yeares, from the yeare 1466. vnto the 
yeare 1565. for the annuall rent of eleuen pound sixe shillings 
8. pence. This house he builded of stone and timber, verie 
large and beautifuU, and the highest at that time in London : 
he was one of the Shiriffes, and an Alderman in the yeare 

* certaine] i^gS ; certaines 1603 ' nine] neene i6oj 

Bishopsgate warde 173 

1470. knighted by Edward the fourth, in the yere 1471. and 
deceased in the yeare 1475 so short a time enioyed hee that 
his large and sumptuous building. He was buried in saint 
Hekns, the Parish Church, a fayre monument of him and his 
Ladie is raysed there: he gaue towardes the reforming of that 
Church fiue hundred Markes, which was bestowed with the 
better, as appeareth by his Armes, both in the stone worke, 
roofe of timber, and glasing. I holde it a fable saide of him, 
to bee named Crosbie, of being found by a crosse, for I haue 
read of other to haue that name of Crosbie before him, namely, 
in the yeare 1406. the seuenth of Henrie the fourth, the sayde 
King gaue to his seruant lohn Crosbie^ the wardship of loan 
daughter and sole heyre to lohn lordaine Fishmonger, &c. 
This Crosbie might bee the Father, or Grandfather to sir lohn 

Richard Duke of Glocester, and Lord Protector, afterward 
king by the name of Richard the third, was lodged in this 
house : since the which time among other, Anthonie Bonuice 
a rich Marchant of Itcdie dwelled there, after him Germain 
doll: then William Bond Alderman increased this house in 
height with building of a Turret on the top thereof: hee 
deceased in the yeare 1576, and was buried in saint Helens 
Church : diuers Ambassa|dors haue beene lodged there, namely p^gg jj^ 
in the yeare 1586. Henrie Ramelius Chauncellor of Denmarke, 
Ambassadour vnto the Queenes Maiestie of England from 
Fredericke the seconde, the King of Denmarke : an Ambassa- 
dor of France, &c. sir lohn Spencer Alderman lately purchased 
this house, made great reparations, kept his Maioralitie there, 
and since builded a most large warehouse neare therevnto. 

From this Crosbie place vp to Leaden hall comer, and so 
downe Grassestreete, amongst other tenements, are diuerse 
faire and large builded houses for Marchants, and such like. 

Now for the other side of this warde, namely the right Water conduit 
hande, hard by within the gate is one faire water Conduite, * ^^^^ *' 
which Thomas Knesworth Maior, in the yere 1505. founded, 
he gaue 60.I. the rest was furnished at the common charges of 
the Citie. This Conduit hath since beene taken downe, and 
new builded. Dauid Woodrooffe Alderman gaue twentie 
poundes towardes the conuayance of more water therevnto. 

174 Bishopsgate warde 

From this Conduit haue ye amongst many faire Tenements, 
diuerse fayre Innes, large for receipt of trauellers, and some 
houses for men of worship, namely one most spatious of all 
other thereabout, builded of Bricke and Timber, by sir Thomas 
irThonus Gresliam^ knight, who deceased in the yeare 1579. and was 
ousebnildcd '^"''^^^ ^" 9aXxiX, Helens church, vnder a faire Monument by him 
prepared in his life. He appoynted by his Testament, this house 
to be made a Colledge of Readers as before is said in the 
Chapter of schooles and houses of learning. 

Somewhat west from this house is one other very faire 
house, wherein sir William Hollies kept his Maioraltie, and 
was buried in the Parish church of saint Helen. Sir Andrew 
ir Andrew lud also kept his Maioraltie there, and was buried at saint 
ou^'. ** Helens : hee builded Almeshouses for six poore Almes people 
neare to the saide Parish Church, and gaue lands to the 
Skinners, out of the which they arc to giue 4. shillii^ euery 
weeke, to the six poore Almes people, eight pence the peece, 
and iiue and twentie shillings foure pence the yere in coales 
amongst them for euer. 

Alice Smith of London widdow, late wife of Thomas Smith 
of the same Citty Esquier, and Customer of the Porte of 
London, in her last Will and Testament bequeathed landes to 
the valew of fifteen poundes by the yeare for euer, to the 
Company of Skinners, for the augmenting of the pensions of 
certaine poor, inhabiting in 8. Almes houses, erected by Sir 
Andrew /i/rf knight her father, in the parrish of great S. Helens 
in Bishopsgate streete in London, shee hath also giuen in her 
saide last will and Testament in other charitable vses, as to 
the Hospitals and to the poore of other Parrishes and good 
preachers, the some of 300.1i. As also to the poore schollers 
in the 2. Uniuersities of Oxford and Cambridge, the sum of 
200 li. of which her last Will and Testament shee made her 
sons Thomas Smith late ShirifTe of London, and Richard and 
Robert Smith her Executors, who haue performed the same 
according to her godly and charitable mind. 

Then in the very west comer ouer against the East ende of 

saint Martins Oteiwich church (from whence the street windeth 

towards the south) you had of olde time a faire well with two 

"^age n6 buclkets so fastned, that the drawing vp of the one, let 

Bishopsgate warde 175 

le the other, but now of late that well is turned into 

om this to the comer ouer against the Leaden hall, and 
>wne Grasse streete, are many faire houses for Marchants, 
artificers, and many fayre Innes for trauellers, euen to the 
er where that ward endeth, ouer against Grasse church : 
thus much for this Bishops gate warde shall suffice : which 
an Alderman, two Deputies, one without the gate, 
her within, common counsellers six, Constables seuen, 
lengers seuen, for Wardmote inquest thirteene, and 
:edle : it is taxed to the iifteene at thirteene pound. 

Brodestreete warde 

!£ next is Brodestreete warde, which beginneth within Brodestreete 
opsgate, from the water conduit westward on both the^"^®' 
s of the streete, by Alhallowes church to an Iron grate on 
Jiannell which runneth into the water course of Walbrooke 
re ye come to the Posteme called Moor^^ate : and this is 
farthest west part of that ward. Then haue ye Brodestreete, 
reof the ward taketh name, which stretcheth out of the 
ler street, from the East comer of Alhallowes churchyard, 
ewhat South to the parish Church of saint Peter the 
re on both sides, and then by the southgate of the Augus- 
Friers west, downe Throkmorton streete by the Drapers 
into Lothburie, to another grate of Iron ouer the channell 
«, whereby the water runneth into the course of Wal- 
>ke, vnder the East end of saint Margarets Church, 
aine posts of timber are there set vp : and this is also the 
best west part of this ward, in the said street. Out of the 
ch streete runneth vp Bartholomew lane south to the north 
I of the Exchange, then more East out of the former street 
n ouer against the Friers Augustines church south gate, 
neth vp another part of Brodestreete, south to a Pumpe 
r against Saint Bennets church. Then haue ye one other 
etc I called Three needle streete, beginning at the Well with Page 777 
. buckets, by saint Martins Otoswich Church wall. This Three Needle 
ete runneth downe on both sides to Finkes lane, and halfe 
r Vp that lane, to a gate of a Marchants house on the West 

176 Brodestreete warde 

side, but not so farre on the East, then the foresaid streete, 
from this Finkes lane runneth downe by the Royall Exchange 
to the Stockes, and to a place formerly called Scalding house, 
or Scalding wicke, but now Scalding Alley, by the west side 
whereof vnder the parish Church of saint Mildred runneth the 
• course of Walbrooke : .and these bee the bounds of this warde. 

Parish church Speciall monuments therein are these. First the parish church 

Sf the^idL** of Alhallowes in the wall, so called of standing close to the 
wal of the Citie, in which haue beene buried Thomas Durrem 
Esquire, and Margaret his wife, Robert Beele Esquire 1601. 
On the other side of that streete, amongest many proper 

Carpenters houses possessed for the most part by Curriers is the Car- 
penters hall, which companie was incorporated in the 17. 
yeare of king Edward the fourth. 

Curryers rowe. Then East from the Curriers row, is a long and high wall of 
stone, inclosing the north side of a large Garden adio3ming to 
as large an house, builded in the raigne of king Henrte the 
eight, and of Edward the sixt, by sir William Powlety Lord 
Treasurer of England : through this Garden, which of olde 
time consisted of diuerse parts, now vnited, was sometimes a 

Lane stopped faire foote way, leading by the west end of the Augustine 

^' Friers church straight North, and opened somewhat West 

from Alhallowes Church against London wall towardes More* 

Footeway g^^^t which footeway had gates at either end locked vp euery 

stopped vp. night, but now the same way being taken into those Gardens, 
the gates are closed vp with stone, whereby the people are 
forced to go about by saint Peters church, and the East end 
of the said Friers Church, and all the saide great place and 

Sir William Garden of sir William Powlet to London wall, and so to 

Powlet, Moregate. 

L. Treasurer, ** 

his house. This great house adioyning to the Garden aforesaid, stretch- 

Brodestreet. ^^j^ ^^ ^j^^ North comer of Brodestreete, and then tumeth vp 

Brodestreete all that side to and beyond the East end of 
the saide Friers church. It was builded by the said Lord 
Treasurer in place of Augustine Friers house, cloyster, and 
Page 178 gardens, &c. The Friers | Church he pulled not downe, but 
the West end thereof inclosed from the steeple, and Quier, 
was in the yeare 1550. graunted to the Dutch Nation in 
London, to be their preaching place ; the other part, namely 

Brodestreete warde 177 

e steeple, Quier and side Isles to the Quier adioyning, he 

serued to bousholde vses^ as for stowage of come, coale, and 

her things, his sonne and heyre Marques of Winchester sold 

e Monuments of noble men there buried in great number, 

e pauing stone, and whatsoeuer (which cost many thousands) 

r one hundred pound, and in place thereof made fayre 

abling for horses. He caused the Leade to be taken from 

le roofes, and laid tile in place, which exchange prooued 

>t so profitable as he looked for, but rather to his dis- 


On the East side of this Brodestreete amongst other build- Sir Thomas 

gs, on the backe part of Gresham house, which is in Bishops aimes houses. 

ite streete, be placed eight proper almes houses, builded of 

ricke and timber by sir Thomas Gresham knight, for eight 

Imes men, which be now there placed rent free, and receiue 

.ch of them by his g^ft sixe pounde, thirteene shillinges foure 

!nce yearely for euer. 

Next vnto Pawlet house, is the Parish Church of saint Parish church 

fter the Poore, so called for a difference from other of that ^re^^*^"** 

ime, sometime peraduenture a poore Parish, but at this 

esent there be many fayre houses, possessed by rich 

archants and other. Buried in this Church, Richard Fitz^ 

illiams Marchant Tayler, 1520. sir William Roch Maior, 

140. Martin Calthrope Maior, 1588. 

Then next haue ye the Augustin Friers Church, and Church Frier Augus- 

• «'•« • 1. T<k« tines Church 

ird, the entnng there vnto, by a southgate, to the west Porch, part whereof 
large Church, hauing a most fine spired steeple, small, high, *l^^P"*^*^ 
id streight, I haue not scene the like : founded by Humfrey 
7hun Earle of Hereford and Essex, in the yeare 1253. 
tginald Cobham gaue his messuage in London to the 
ilarging thereof, in the yeare 1344. Humfrey Bohun Earle 
Hereford and Essex, reedified this Church in the yeare 
154. whose bodie was there buried in the Quier. The small 
•ired steeple of this Church was ouerthrowne by tempest of 
ind, in the yeare 1362. but was raised of new as now it 
andeth to the beautifying of the Citie. This | house was P^^ '79 
Jued at 57. pound, and was surrendred the 1 2. of Nouember 
e thirtieth of Henry the eight. 
There lye buried in this Fryers church, amongst others, 

Slow. I N 

178 Brodestreete warde 

Edmotid first sonne to loan^ mother to king Richard the 
seconde, Guy de Mericke Earle of S. Paule, LucU Countes of 
Kent, and one of the Heyres of Barnabie Lorde of Millaine, 
with an Epitaph, Dame Ide wife to Sir Thomas Westy Dame 
Margaret West^ Stephen Lindericle Esquier, Sir Humfrey 
Bohun Earle of Hereford and Essex, Lord of Brekenake, 
Richard the great Earle of Arundell, Surrey and Warren, 
beheaded, 1397. Sir Edward Arundell^ and Dame Elizabeth 
his wife, Sir Frauncis Atcourt^ Earle of Pembrooke, which 
married Alice sister to the Earle of Oxeford : Dame Lucie 
Knowles of Kent, Sir Peter Garinsers of France, the Lord 
John Vere Earle of Oxeford, beheaded on the Tower Hill, 
1463. Aubry de Vere sonne and heire to the Earle of Oxeford, 
Sir T/tomas Tudnam Knight, William Baurser^ Lord Fitz 
Warren^ Sir Thomas de la Lande Knight, Dame locut NorU 
the Ladie of Bedforde, Anne daughter to lohn Vicount Welles, 
Walter Neuell Esquier, Sir John Manners Knight, the wife of 
Sir Dauid Cradocke Knight, the mother to the Lord Spencers 
wife. Sir Bartlemew Rodlegate^ lohn sonne to.Sir lohn Wing- 
field^ Sir Walter Mewes^ Robert Newenton Esquier, Philip 
Spencer sonne to Sir Hugh Spencer ^ Dame IsabeU daughter to 
Sir Hugh. The Lorde Barons slaine at Bamet field, buried 
there, 1471. In the body of the church. Dame Julian wife to 
Sir Richard Lacie^ Sir Thomas Courtney sonne to the Earle of 
Deuonshire, and by him his sister, wedded to CheuerstotUy the 
Daughter of the Lorde Beamont^ two sonnes of Sir Thomas 
Morley to wit William and Raphy Sir William Tcdmagc 
Knight, Nicholas Blondell Esquier, Sir Richard Chamberlainc, 
lohn Halton Gentleman, Sir lohn Gifford Knight, Thomas 
Manningham Esquier, Sir William Kenude Knight, Sir 
William sonne to Sir Thomas Terill^ lohn Surell Gentleman. 
In tlie East Wing Margaret Barentin Gentlewoman, Ioh» 
Spicer Esquier, and Letis his wife, lohn le Percers Esquier, 
Page tSo Roger Chibary Esquier, Peter Morens \ Esquier, Thomas 
sonne to Sir William Beckland^ lames Cuthing Esquier, lohn 
Chornet Esquier, William Kenley Esquier, Margery wife to 
Thomas Band and daughter to lohn Huch^ the Lorde WiUiO'tn 
Marques of Barkeley and Earle of Nottingham, and Dame 
loam his wife. In the West Wing Sir lohn Tirrill^zxA 

Brodestreete warde 179 

ne Katherine his wife, Sir Walter of Powle Knight, Sir 
% Blatukwell and his wife, Dame lane Sayne^ daughter to 
lohn Lee^ Sir lohn Dawbeny^ sonne and he)Te to Sir Giles 
vbenyy William sonne to Sir Roger Scroape^ Dame loan 
ifbeny wife to Sir WiUiatn Dawbeny^ Thomas Charles 
uier, sir lohn Dawbeny knight, and his sonne Robert^ sir 
es Bell Knight, sir Oliuer Manny Knight, Henrie Deskie 
uier, sir Diones Mordaske^ sir Bernard Rolingcort^ sir Peter 
^or^ sir William Tirell^ sir William his brother knightes, 
liam Collingborne Esquier beheaded, 1484, sir Roger 
^ord knight, sir Thomas Coke Mayor in the yeare 1462, 
liam Edward Mayor 1471. sir lames Tirell^ sir lohn 
tdany knights, beheaded 1502. sir lohn Dawtrie knight, 
^. Dame Margaret Rede^ 1510. Edward Duke of 
kingham, beheaded 1521. (7z£/i>^ar//£arle of Huntington, 
n the south side and at the West end of this Church, many Throgmorton 
e houses are builded, namely in Throgmorton streete, one *^'**^®- 
' large and spacious, builded in the place of olde and small 
ementes by Thomas Cromwell Maister of the kinges T. Cromwell 
sll house, after that Maister of the Rols, then Lord ^" ^'''***- 
mwell knight, Lord priuie scale, Vicker Generall, Earle of 
sx, high Chamberlaine of England, &c. This house being 
hed, and hauing some reasonable plot of ground left for 
sirden, hee caused the pales of the Gardens adioyning to 
northe parte thereof on a sodaine to bee taken downe, 22. 
to bee measured forth right into the north of euery mans 
md, a line there to bee drawne, a trench to be cast, 
undation laid, and a high bricke Wall to bee builded. My 
ler had a Garden there, and an house standing close to his 
h pale, this house they lowsed from the ground, & bare 
n Rowlers into my Fathers Garden 22. foot, ere my Father 
•d thereof, no warning was giuen him, nor other an|swere, Pagt iSi 
n hee spake to the surueyers of that worke, but that their 
rster sir Thomas commaunded them so to doe, no man 
»t go to argue the matter, but each man lost his land, and 
Father payde his whole rent, which was vi.s. viii.d. the 
e, for that halfe which was left. Thus much of mine owne 
vledge haue I thought good to note, that the suddaine 
g of some men, causeth them to forget themselues. 

N 2 

i8o Brodestreete warde 

The Drapen The Company of the Drapers in London bought this house, 

and now the same is their common Hall, this Company 

obtayned of king Henry the sixt, in the seauenteenth of his 

raigne to bee incorporate, lohn Gidney was chosen to bee their 

first Maister, and the foure Wardens were, /. Wottan^ L 

Barbie, Robert Breton^ and 71 Cooke. The Armes graunted 

to the said Company by sir William Bridges Knight, first 

The Drapers Gar tier king at Armes in Blason are thus: Three sunne 

*""**• Beames issuing out of three dowdes of flame, crowned with 

three Crownes imperials of gold, vpon a shield azure. From 

this hall on the same side down to the grates and course of 

Walbrook haue ye diuers faire houses for marchantes and 

other, from the which grates backe againe on the other side is 

Lethbury ^, so called in Record of Edward the third, the 38. 

Lethbnry, or yeare, and now corruptly called Lothbury, are candlesticke 

BMtholomew fo^^^^ers placed, till yee come to Bartholomew lane, so called 

lane. of S. Bartholomewes church, at the southeast comer thereof. 

In this lane also are diuers faire builded houses on both sides, 

and so likewise haue ye in the other street, which stretcheth 

from the Fryers Augustins south gate, to the comer ouer 

against S. Bennets Church. In this street amongst other 

fayre buildings the most ancient was of old time an house 

Abbot of S. pertayning to the Abbot of S. Albons, lohn Catcher 

Aiboni hU Alderman now dwelleth there : then is the free schoole per- 

s. Anthonies tayning to the late dissolued Hospitall of saint Anthony, 

tchoole. whereof more shall bee shewed in an other place, and so vppe 

Three needle to Three Needle streete. On the south parte of which streete, 

strcetc. beginning at the East, by the Well with two Buckets, now 

turned to a Fumpe, is the Parrish Church of saint Martin called 

S. Martins Oteswich, of Martin de Oteswich, Nicholas de Oteswick^ 

pariih church. William Oteswich, & lohn Oteswich founders thereoC There 

PageiSi bee monumentes in this Church, of William Coftstan\tine 

Alderman, and Emme his wife, Katherine wife to Benedick 

Augustine^ Sir William Drifield knight, lohn Oteswich and his 

wife vnder a fayre monument on the south side, lohn Churck^ 

man one of the ShirifTes, in the yeare 1385. Richarde Naylor 

Taylor, Alderman, 1483. lames Falleron^ lohn Melchborm^ 

^ Lethbury] isqS ; Lothbury j6o^ 

Brodestreete warde i8i 

Thomas Hey and EUen his wife, William Clitheraw & Margaret 

his wife, Oliuer and William sons to lohn Woodroffe esquier, 

Hugh Pemberton Taylor, Alderman, 1500. & Katherine his 

wife, Mathew Pemberton Marchant Taylor about 1514. he 

gaue 50. pound to the repayring of S. Lawrence Chappel. 

The aforesaid lohn Churchman for William and lohn Oteswich 

by licence of Henry the fourth, the 6, of his raigne gaue the 

aduowson or Patronage of this church, foure messuages, & 17. 

shops with the appurtenances in the parrish of S. Martins 

Oteswich, &c. to the Maister and Wardens of Taylors and 

linnen armorers, keepers of the Guild and fraternity of S. lohn 

Baptist in London, and to their successors in perpetuall almes, Taylen and 

to bee employed on the poore Brethren and sisters, whereupon ^J^i^^ms 

adio3ming vnto the West end of this parish church, the said housei in 

maister & wardens builded about a proper quadrant or squared warde : looke 

court, seauen almeshouses, wherein they placed seauen almes ™^'* ^?^' 

men of that company, and their wiues (if they had wiues) each 

of these 7. of old time had xiiii.d. the weeke, but now of later 

time their stipend by the said maister and Wardens hath 

beene augmented to the summe of xxvi.s. the quarter, which 

is V. pound iiii.s. the yeare to each of them, besides coales : 

more, to each of them xx.s. the yeare by gift of Walter Fish 

sometime mayster of that Company and Taylor to her 


Some small distance from thence is the Merchant Taylors Taylen and 
hal perta]ming to the Guilde and fraternity of S. lohn Baptist^ mhallT^^ 
time out of mind called of Taylors and linnen armourers of Antiqaitieof 
London, for I find that King Edward the first in the 28 of fei^by^- 
his raigne confirmed this Guild by the name of Taylors and ^^^^\ 
linnen armourers, and also gaue to the brethren thereof tranaUe for the 
authority euery yeare at midsommer to hold a feast, and to ^^fJS'i^^j 
choose vnto them a gouemour, or Mayster with wardens : punieyers of 
whereupon the same yeare 1300. on the feast day of the^^\v^„. 
natiuttie of Saint lohn Baptist^ they chose Henry de Ryall to ^^^ 
be their pilgrim, for the maister of this miste|rie (as one that Page iSj 
trauelled for the whole companie) was then so called vntil the 
II. of Richard the second : and the foure wardens were then 
called Purueyors of almes, (now called quarterage) of the said 
fratemitie. This Marchant Taylers hall sometime pertaining 

i82 Brodestreete warde 

Tmykn pv- to a wcrshipTal gentleman named Edmemd Orfim^ D^mdmu 
ckflfetkdrkaL (^^^p^g ^^^ j^,j„^ Recorf, he in the ycre of Christ 1331 the 

sixt of Edward the third, for a certaine somme of money to 
him paid, made his grant thereof hy the name of his prindpaD 
messuage in the wardes of Comdiill and Brodestreete, vhidi 
sir OUuer Ingham knight did then hold, to Ipkm of YaUij 
the kinges Pauilion maker. This was called die new haL or 
Taylers Inne, for a difference from dieir olde hall, which was 
abottte the backe side of the red Lion in Basii^ lane, and in 
the ward of Cordwayncr streete. 
Tftylcn halL The 21. of Edward the fourth, Thomas Holme, alias darn- 
cioidx king of Armes for the south part of Ei^land, granted 
by his pattents to the said fratemitie and guild of Saint lokn 
baptist^ of Taylers and linnen Armourers, to beare in a fidd 
siluer, a Pauilion betweene two mantds imperial, porpk, 
The oMfclMnt garnished with gold, in a chiefe Azure an holy Lambe, set 
uylen tniici. within a sunne, the creast vpon the helme, a pauflion porpk 
garnished with gold, &c. After this king Henrie the seuentfa, 
being himselfe a brother of this fratemitie, or Guild of Saint 
lohn Baptist^ of Taylers or linnen Armourers (as diuerse odicr 
his predecessors kinges before him had beene, to wit, Richard 
the thirde, Edward the fourth, Henrie the sixt, Henrie the 
Tftylen ft lin- fift, Henrie the fourth, and Richard the second). And for that 
^j^l^^J^ diuerse of that fratemitie had time out of minde beene great 
marcbaAt marchants, and had frequented all sortes of marchandises into 
*^ ** most partes of the worlde, to the honour of the kinges realme, 

and to the great profite of his subiects, & of his progenitors* 
and the men of the said misterie during the time aforesaid, 
had exercised the buying and selling of all wares and mar- 
chandises, especially of woollen cloth, as well in grosse, as by 
retaile, throughout all this realme of England, and chiefly 
within the said Citie, therefore he of his especiall grace did 
change, transferre, and translate the Guilde aforesaide, and 
did incorporate them into the name of the master and Wardens 
Page 184 of the Marchant Taylers of the fratemitie | of Saint lokn 

Baptist, in the Citie of London. 
Flnkc Unc. Some distance West from this the Marchant Taylers hall is 

Finkcs lane, so called of Robert Finke, and Robert Finke his 
Sonne, lames Finke, and Rosamond Finke, Robert Finke the 

Brodestreete warde 183 

elder new builded the parish Church of Saint Bennet commonly 

called Fink of the founder, his tenements were both of S. 

Bennets parish, and saint Martins Oteswich parish : the one 

halfe of this Finke lane is of Brodestreete warde, to wit, on 

the West side vp to the great and principall house wherein 

the saide Finke dwelled : but on the other side, namely the 

East, not so much towards Comhill. Then without this lane 

in the foresaid Three needle streete, is the said parish Church 

of S. Bennety a proper Church, in which are these monuments Parish church 

of the dead. Robert Simson, and Elizabeth his wife,./f^^irr J^j^^^"^ 

Strange Esquire, Treresse, William Coolby, lohn Frey^ Tlionias 

Briar Flummar^ 1410, &c. 

Some distance west is the Royall Exchaunge, whereof more 
shall be spoken in the warde of Comhill, and so downe to the 
little Conduit, called the pissing Conduit, by the Stockes 
Market, and this is the southside of Three needle streete. 

On the northside of this street from ouer against the East 
comer of S. Martins Oteswich Church haue yee diuerse faire 
and large houses til you come to the hospital of S. Anthonie^ Hoipiull of 
sometime a Cell to saint Anthonies of Vienna. For I reade ^JmrtimTa 
that King Henrie the third granted to the brotherhood of Synagogue of 
saint Anthonie of Vienna^ a place amongst the lewes, which patent reooid. 
was sometime their Sinagogue, and had beene builded by 
them about the yeare 1231, but the Christians obtained of the 
king, that it should be dedicated to our blessed Ladie, and 
since, an hospitalL being there builded, was called saint An- 
thonies in London: it was founded in the parish of saint 
Bennet Finke^ for a Master, two Priests, one schoolemaster 
and 12. poore men : after which foundation, amongst other 
things was giuen to this Hospitall one messuage and Garden, 
whereon was builded the faire large free schoole, and one other 
parcell of ground containing 37. foote in length, and 18. foote Free Schoole 
in breadth, whereon was builded the Almes houses of hard °f S- Antho- 

' nies builded. 

stone and timber, in the raigne of Henrie the 6. which said Aimeshouses 
Henrie the 6. in the 20. of his raigne, gaue vnto lohn Carpentar 2^^^**°*** 
doctor of Diuinitie ma|ster of saint Anthonies Hospitall, and pageiSj 
to his brethren, and their successors for euer, his Mannor ofcift of Henry 
Poinington, with the appurtenances, with certaine pencions ^^^-^^ 
and portions of Milbume, Bumworth, Charlton, and vp Wim- 

184 Brodestreete warde 

borne, in the Countie of Southampton, towards the main- 
' tenance of fiue schollers in the Universitie of Oxford, to be 
brought vp in the facultie of Artes, after the rate of ten pence 
the weeke for euerie schoUer : so that the sayde schollers be 
first instructed in the rudiments of Grammar at the CoUedge 
of Eaton, founded by the said king. 

In the yeare 1474. Edward the fourth granted to William 
Say, Batchler of Diuinitie, maister of the said Hospitall, to 
haue Priests, Clarkes, schollers, poore men, and brethren of 
the same, Clarks, or lay men, Queresters, Procters, messengers, 
seruants in houshold, and other things whatsoeuer, like as the 
Prior, and Couent of saint Anthonies of Vienna^ &c. Hec 
also annexed, vnited, and appropriated the said Hospital, vnto 
the Collegiate Church of saint George in Windsore. 

The Procters of this house were to collect the beneuolence 
of charitable persons, towards the building and supporting 
thereof. And amongst other things obserued in my youth, I 
remember that the Officers charged with ouersight of the Markets 
in this Citie, did diuers times take from the Market people pigs 
sterued,or otherwise vnholsome for man's sustenance, these they 
S. Anthonies slit in the eare : one of the Proctors for saint Anthonies tyed 

["^dragSe ^ ^^'* ^'^^"^ ^^^ necke, and let it feede on the Dunguehils, no 
billet. • man would hurt, or take them vp, but if any gaue to them 
bread, or other feeding, such would they know, watch for, and 
dayly follow, whining till they had some what giuen them z 
whereupon was raysed a prouerbe, such a one will follow such 
a one, and whine as it were an Anthonie pig : but if such a pig^ 
grew to be fat, & came to good liking (as oft times they did^ 
then the Proctor would take him vp to the vse of ther 

In the yeare 1499, sir lohn Tate^ sometime Alebrcwer, then, 
a Mercer, caused his Brewhouse called the swan neere adioyn- 
ing to the sayd free Chappell, Colledge, or Hospitall of saints: 
Anthonie, to be taken downe for the enlarging of the Church^^ 
which was then newly builded, toward the building whereof 
Page t86 the said Tate gaue | great summes of money, and finished 
in the yeare 1501. Sir John Tate deceased 1514. and 
there buried vnder a fayre monument by him prepared 
Doctor Tayler maister of the Rols, and other. 

Brodestreete warde 185 

Walter Champion Draper, one of the Shiriffes of London 
1529. was buried there, and gaue to the Beadmen twentie 
pound. The landes by yeare of this Hospitall were valued in 
the 37. yeare of Henrie the eight to bee fiftie fiue pound, sixe 
shillings eight pence. 

One lohtison (a Schoolemaster of the famous freescoole Schoole mas- 
there) became a Prebend of Windsor, and then by little and {Sonies m^ 
little followed the spoyle of this Hospitall : he first dissolued Prebend of 
the Quire, conueyed the plate and ornaments, then the bels, spoyied the 
and lastly put out the Almes men from their houses, appoint- u^**^!*!?^ 
ing them portions of twelue pence the weeke to each (but now 
I heare of no such matter performed) their houses with other 
be letten out for rent, and the Church is a preaching place for 
the French nation. 

This Schoole was commaunded in the raigne of Henry the 
sixt, and sithence also ^ aboue other, but now decayed, and 
come to nothing, by taking that from it what thereunto 

Next is the parish Church of Saint Bartholomew^ at the end Parish chnrcb 
of Bartlemew lane. Thomas Pike Alderman, with the assist- JhoJbnLw**^^ 
ance of Nicholas Voo, one of the Shiriffes of London, about 
the yeare 1438. new builded this Church, Sir John Fray knight 
was buried there, Margerie his daughter and hey re, wife to 
sir lohn Lepington knight, founded there a Chauntery the 21. 
of Edward the fourth. Alderban a Gascoyne was buried 
there : sir Wil. Capell Maior, 1509. added vnto this Church 
a proper chappell on the South side thereof, and was buried 
there : sir Giles Cappell was also buried there : lames Wilford 
Tayler, one of the shiriflfes 1499. appoynted by his Testament 
a Doctor of Diuinitie euerie good Fryday for euer, to preach 
there a Sermon of Christes passion, from 6. of the clocke, till 
8. before noone, in the said church. lo. Wilford marchant 
tailer, Alderman, 1544. sir lames Wilford^ ^SS^' sJr George 
Barne Maior, 155a. lohn Dent, Miles Couerdale Bi. of Excester, 
Thomas Darner & Anne his wife.| 

Then lower downe towards the Stocks Market, is the parish Pagf 187 

Church of Saint Christopher, but reedified of new : for Richard ^^ g Christo- 

' also] r^gS 

1 86 Brodestreete warde 

Shore one of the shirifles 1506, gaue money towards the 
building of the steeple. There lie buried Richard Sheringiofty 
1392. who gaue landes to that Church, the Ladie Margaret 
Nor ford 1406. John Clauering 1421, who gaue lands therevnto, 
lohi Gidney ^ Draper, Maior, 1427. This Gidney ^ in the yeare 
An Alderman 1 444. wedded the widdow ol Robert Large late Maior, which 
To prawK* Sy^ widdow had taken the Mantell and ring, and the vow to Hue 
the Cla^ chast to God tearme of her life, for the breach whereof, the 
a^wWow pro-^ marriage done they were troubled by the Church, and put to 
^^ *<> penance, both he and she. William Hampton Maior, 147 a. 
was a great benefactor, and glased some of the church win- 
dowes. sir William Martin Maior, 1492. Roger Achley Maior, 
151 1, hee dwelt in Comehill warde, in a house belonging to 
Cobham Colledge, rented by the yeare 26. shillings, 8. pence, 
Robert Thome Marchant Tayler, a Batchler, 1532. he gaue by 
his Testament in charitie, more then 4445. pounds : lohn 
N or ry holme ^ Raph Batte, Alice Perciuall, lane Drew, William 
Borresbie, John Broke, Richard Sutton, William Batte^ lames 
Well, Henrie Beacher Alderman, 1570. 
ScaWinghousc West from this Church haue ye Skalding Alley, of old time 
wicke. called Scalding house, or Scalding wike, because that ground 

for the most part was then imployed by Poulterers that 
dwelled in the high streete, from the Stocks market to the 
great Conduit. Their poultrie which they sold at their stalles 
were scalded there, the street doth yet beare the name 
of the Poultrie, and the Poulterers are but lately departed 
from thence into other streets, as into Grasse street, and the 
ends of saint Nicltolas flesh shambles. This Skalding Wike 
is the farthest west part of Brodestreete warde, and is by the 
water called Walbrooke parted from Cheap ward : this Brode- 
streete warde hath an Alderman, with his Deputie, common 
Counsellors ten, Constables ten, Scauengers eight, Wardmote 
inquest thirteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene, in 
London at seuen and twentie pound, and accounted in the 
Exchequer after twentie fiue pound. | 

' Gidney] i^gS ; Godnay 1603 

Cornehill warde 187 

Cornehill warde Pageiss 

1 HE next warde towards the south, is Cornehill warde, so Cornhill ward, 
called of a come Market, time out of minde there holderf, and 
is a part of the principall high streete, beginning at the west 
end of Leaden hall, stretching downe west on both the sides 
by the south end of Finks lane, on the right hand, and by the 
North ende of Birchouers lane, on the left part, of which lanes, 
to wit, to the middle of them, is of this warde, and so downe 
to the Stockes market, and this is the bounds. The vpper 
or East part of this warde> and also a part of Limestreete 
warde, hath beene (as I saide) a market place, especially for 
Come, and since for all kinds of victuals, as is partly shewed 
in Limestreete warde. It appeareth of record, that in the yeare 
1522. the Rippers of Rye and other places solde their fresh fish 
in Leaden hall Market, vpon Cornehill, but forraine Butchers 
were not admitted there to sell flesh, till the yeare 1533. ^^^ 
it was enacted that Butchers should sell their beefe not aboue 
a halfe pennie the pound, and mutton halfepennie halfe Fleshmaiket 
farthing: which act being deuised for the great commoditie of Jnd^eratiOT 
the Realme (as it was then thought,) hath since proued farre of prices in a 
other wayes, for before that time a fat Oxe was solde at ^ 
London, for sixe and twentie shillings eight pence, at the 
most, a fat Weather for three shillings foure pence, a fat Calfe 
the like price, a fat Lambe for twelue pence, peeces of beefe 
weighed two pounds and a halfe, at the least, yea three pounds 
or better, for a pennie on euerie Butchers stall in this Citie : 
and of those peeces of beefe thirteene or fourteene for twelue 
pence, fat Mutton for eight pence the quarter, and one hundred 
weight of beefe for foure shillings eight pence, at the dearest. 
What the price is now, I need not to set downe, many men 
thought the same act to rise in price, by meane that Grasiers 
knewe or supposed what weight euery their beastes contained, 
and so raising their price thereafter, the Butcher could be no 
gayner, but by likewise raysing his price. The number of 
Butchers then in the Citie and suburbs, was accounted | sixe Page 189 
score, of which euerie one killed 6. Oxen a peece weekely, 
which is in fortie sixe weekes. 3120. Oxen, or 720. Oxen 

1 88 Cornehill warde 

weekly. The forrein Butchers for a long time stoode in the 
high street of Limestrecte warde on the north side, twise euery 
weeke, vz. Wednesday, and Saturday, and were some gaine to 
the tenants before whose doores they stood, and into whose 
houses they set their blockes and stalles, but that aduantage 
being espied, they were taken into Leden hall, there to pay 
for their standing to the Chamber of London. This much 
for the Market vpon Cornehill. 

The chiefe ornaments in Cornehill warde are these. First 

at the East ende thereof, in the middle of the high streete, 

Standarde of and at the parting of foure wayes, haue ye a water standard, 

Thames water placed in the yeare 158a. in maner following. A certaine 

hall. German named Peter Morris^ hauing made an artificial Fordcr 

for that purpose, conueyed Thames water in Pipes of Leade, 

ouer the steeple of Saint Magnus Church, at the north end 

of London bridge, and from thence into diuerse mens houses 

in Thames street, new (ish streete, and Grasse streete, vp to 

The highest the northwest comer of Leaden hall, the highest ground of 

cSvof Loif-* all the Citie, where the waste of the maine pipe rising into 

don. this standarde, (prouided at the charges of the Citie) with 

foure spoutes did at euery tyde runne (according to couenant) 

foure wayes, plentifully seruing to the commoditie of the 

inhabitants neare adioyning in their houses, and also cleansed 

the Chanels of the streete towarde Bishop^[ate, Aldgate, the 

bridge, and the Stocks Market, but now no such matter, 

through whose default I know not. 

Then haue ye a faire Conduit, of sweete water, castellated 

in the middest of that warde and street. This Conduit was 

TheTnnne first builded of stone, in the yeare 128a. by Henry W outs' 

vpon Comhill Maior of London, to be a prison for night walkers, and oth 

a prison house * o ' 

for night suspicious persons, and was called the Tunne vpon Cornehill 
walkers. because the same was builded somewhat in fashion of a Tunn 

standing on the one ende. 
Temporall To this prison the night watches of this Citie committi 

spWtaall per- ^^^ onely night walkers, but also other persons, as we 
sons for Spiritual! as temporall, whom they suspected of incontinenci 

neon ency. ^^^ punished ] them according to the customs of this Citi 
but complaint thereof being made, about the yeare of Chri 
1297. king Jfrfzi/^irrf the first writeth to his Citizens thus. 

Cornehill warde 189 

Edward by the grace of God, &c. Whereas Richard Graues- The Bishop 
efid Bishop of London, hath shewed vnto vs, that by the j^^j^g^^. 
great Charter of England, the Church hath a priuiledge, that bWdcth the 
no Clarke should be imprisoned by a lay man without our the Clu^ 
commandement, and breach of peace, which notwithstanding ™«"- 
some Citizens of London vpon meere spite doe enter in their 
watches into Clarices chambers, and like fellons carrie them 
to the Tunne, which Henrie le W alleys sometime Maior built for 
night walkers, wherefore we will that this our commaundement 
be proclaymed in a full hoystings, and that no watch hereafter 
enter into any Clarkes Chamber, vnder the forfeyt of 20. pound. 
Dated at Carlile the 18. of March, the 25. of our raigne. 

More, I reade that about the yeare of Christ 1299. ^h^ ^7* ^^^^'^'^ ^^ 
of Edward the first, certaine principall Citizens of London, ^ tbe'VaDne 
to wit, T. Romaney Richard Gloucester ^ Nicholas Faringdon^ vponCornehU, 
Adam Helingburie^ T, ScUy^ lohn Dunstable^ Richard Ashwy^ from thence, 
lohn Wade and William Stortford, brake vp this prison ^^^7^? Acir 
called the Tunne, and tooke out certaine prisoners, for the fact 
which they were sharpely punished by long imprisonment, and 
great fines. It cost the Citizens (as some haue written) more 
then 2CO0O. markes, which they were amerced in, before 
William de March Treasurer of the kings Exchequer, to 
purchase the kings fauour, and confirmation of their liberties. 

Also that in the yeare 1383. the seuenth of Richard the a. Th. Waking, 
the Citizens of London, taking vpon them the rights that 
belonged to their Bishops, first imprisoned such women as Citixem of 
were taken in fornication or aduouterie, in the saide Tunne, Ji^^hJdfomi. 
and after bringing them forth to the sight of the worlde, they cation &adnl- 
caused their heads to be shauen, after the maner of theeves, ^^ ^^^ 
whom they named appellators, and so to be led about the^^<?"tpw' 
Citie in sight of all the inhabitants, with Trumpets and pipes 
sounding before them, that their persons might be the more 
largely knowne, neither did they spare such ktnde of men 
a whit the more, but vsed them as hardly, saying, they 
abhorred not onely the negligence of their Prelates, | but also Pagt 191 
detested their auarice, that studying for mony, omitted the 
punishment limitted by law, and permitted those that were 
found guiltie, to Hue fauourably in their sinne ^ Wherefore 

' by their fines i6jj 


Cornehill warde 

Priests pun- 
ished in the 
Tunne vpon 
forced to for* 
sweare this 

A Priest pun- 
ished for 

Pagt 192 

they would themselues, they sayd, purge their Citie from such 
filthinesse, least through God's vengeance, either the pestilence 
or sworde should happen to them, or that ^ the earth should 
swallow them. Last of all to be noted, I reade in the charge 
of the Wardmote inquest in euerie warde of this Citie, these 
wordes. If there be any priest in seruice within the warde, 
which before time hath beene set in the Tunne in Cornehill 
for his dishonestie, and hath forsworne the Citie, all such shall 
be presented. Thus much for the Tunne in Cornehill haue 
I read. Now for the punishment of Priests in my youth, one 
note and no more. loAn Atwod Draper, dwelling in the 
parish of Saint Michaell vpon Cornehill, directly against the 
Church, hauing a proper woman to his wife, such a one as 
seemed the holyest amongst a thousand, had also a lustie 
Chauntrie priest, of the sayd parish Church, repayring to his 
house, with the which Priest, the said Atwod would sometimes 
after supper play a game at Tables for a pint of Ale : it 
chanced on a time, hauing haste of worke, and his game 
prouing long, hee left his wife to play it out, and went downe 
to his shop, but returning to fetch a Pressing iron he found 
such play to his misliking, that he forced the Priest to leape 
out at a window, ouer the Penthouse into the streete, and so 
to run to his lodging in the Churchyard. Atwod and his wife 
were soone reconciled, so that he would not suffer her to be 
called in question, but the Priest being apprehended, and 
committed, I saw his punishment to be thus : he was on thr^^ 
Market dayes conueyed through the high streete and Mark^ 
of the Citie with a Paper on his head, wherein was written 
trespasse : The first day hee rode in a Carry, the second on 
horse, his face to the horse taile, the third, led betwixt twai 
and euery day rung with Basons, and proclamations made -^ 
his fact at euery turning of the streets, and also before lofS 
Aiwods stall, and the Church doore of his Seruice, where 
lost his Chauntrie of 20. nobles the yeare, and was banish 
the Citie for euer. 

By the west side of the foresayd prison then called 
Tunne, was a faire Well of spring water, curbed round w; 
hard stone : i but in the yeare 1401. the said prison hoL^i^ 

^ that] that that 1603 



Cornehill warde 191 

called the Tunne, was made a Cesteme for sweet water, con- A fairc well in 
ueyed by pipes of lead from Tiborne, and was from thence- Th™ un* vpon 
forth called the Conduit vpon Comhill. Then was the well Comhil made 
planked ouer, and a strong prison made of Timber called gweet water, 
a Cage, with a paire of stockes therein set vpon it, and this ^*fi^» **?^!^* 
was for night walkers. On the top of which Cage was placed Comhill. 
a Pillorie, for the punbhment of Bakers offending in the^^^^J" 
assise of bread, for Millers stealing of come at the Mill, for scolds, and 
bawdes, scoulds, and other offenders. As in the yeare 1468, foJ^^JJimd^^" 
the 7. of Ed. the 4. diuerse persons being common lurors, pan»!»ed on 
such as at assises were forswome for rewards, or fauour of 
parties, were iudged to ride from Newgate to the pillorie in 
Cornehill, with Miters of paper on their heads, there to stand, 
and from thence again to Newgate, and this iudgement was 
giuen by the Maior of London. In the yeare 1509. the first 
of Henrie the 8. Darby^ Smithy and Simson, ringleaders of 
false inquests in London, rode about the Citie with their 
faces to the horse tailes, and papers on their heads, & were 
set on the pillorie in Comhill, and after brought againe to 
Newgate, where they died for very shame, saith Robert 
Fabian. A ring leader of inquests, as I take it, is he that Ringleaders of 
making a gainefull occupation thereof, will appeare on Nisi p^^^nieir^ 
Prius's ^ or he be wamed, or procure himselfe to be wamed, semicc, and 
to come on by a tailes. He wil also procure himselfe to be ,^y fw gwn. 
foreman, when he can, and take vpon him to ouerrule the Careftil choice 
rest to his opinion, such a one shall be laboured by plaintiues be had, a man 
and defendants, not without promise of rewards, and therefore ?,f*f?*4' "^ 

^ that had sworn 

to be suspected of a bad conscience. I would wish a more foolishly 
carefull choyse of lurors to be had, for I haue knowne a man J^J^er u not 
carted, rung with basons, and banished out of Bishopsgate to be admitted 
ward, and afterward in Aldgate ward admitted to be Constable, inror, neither 
a grand luryman, and foreman of their Wardmote inquest, l^otcher, nor 

, , , /.,,., ,. ,0 * ».• «iigeon,i8to 

what I know of the like, or worse men, preferred ^ to the like be admitted, 
offices, I forbeare to write, but wish to be reformed. 

The foresaid Conduit vpon Comhill was in the yeare 1475. Coodnit vpon 
inlarged by Robert Drope, Draper, Maior, that then dwelt in ^^^^ 
that warde, he increased the Cesteme of this conduit with an 
East end of stone, and castellated it in comely maner. 

* Nisi Prius's 1633 ; Iseprises 1603 ' preferred : proffered 1603 

192 Cornehill warde 

In the yeare 1546. sir Martin Bowes Maior, dwelling in 
Pag^ t9s Lomjbarde streete, and hauing his backe gate opening into 
Cornehill against the said conduit, minded to haue enlaiged 
the cesteme therof with a west end, like as Robert Drope 
before had done toward the East : view and measure of the 
plot was taken for this worke, but the pillorie & cage being 
remoued, they found the ground planked, and the well afore- 
said wome out of memorie, which well they reuiued and 
restored to vse, it is since made a pumpe, they set the Pillorie 
somewhat West from the Well, and so this worke ceased. 

On the North side of this streete, from the East vnto the 

West haue ye diuerse faire houses for marchants and other, 

The weyhoosc amongst the which one large house is called the Wey house, 

®^ ^^P ^j? where marchandizes brought from beyond the Seas, are to be 

weighed at the kings beame. This house hath a maister, and 

vnder him foure maister Porters, with Porters vnder them : 

they haue a strong cart, and foure great horses, to draw and 

Carrie the wares from the Marchants houses to the Beame, 

Sir Thomas and backe againe : Sir Thomas Louell knight builded this 

Loncl his gift hQuse, with a faire front of Tenements towards the streete, 

to the Grocen. ' • . t^ 

all which hee gaue to the Grocers of London, himselfe being 
free of the Citie, and a brother of that companie. 

Then haue ye the said Finkes lane, tht south end of which 
lane on both sides is in Cornehill warde. 
The Burse vp- Then next is the Royall Exchange, erected in the yeare 

or Sr^jili ^5^^- ^f^^** ^"^^ order, vz. certaine houses vpon Cornehill, and 

Exchan^. the like vpon the backe thereof, in the warde of Brodestreete, 

nSTaUc/ with three Allies, the first called Swan AUie, opening into 

s.ChrUtophen Cornehill, and second new Alley, passing throughout of 

HoQseholdes Cornehill into Brodestreete warde, ouer against Saint Bar- 

bmfdin^ofAe ^^^^^^^^^ IdSi^y the third Saint Christopliers Alley, opening into 

BnrsM. Brodestreete warde, and into Saint Christophers parish, con- 

chaised with Gaining in all fourscore housholds : were first purchased by the 

builmngs of Citizens of London, for more then 353a. pound, and were solde 

for 478. pound, to such persons as should take them downe and 

carrie them thence, also the ground or plot was made plaine 

at the charges of the Citie, and then possession thereof was 

by certaine Aldermen, in name of the whole Citizens, giuen to 

P^i')4 sir Thomas Gresham knight, Agent to the I Qucenes High- 

Comehill warde 193 

nesse, therevpon to build a Bursse, or place for marchants to 
assemble in, at his owne proper charges: and hee on the 
seuenth of lune laying the first stone of the foundation, being 
Bricke, accompanied with some Aldermen, euery of them laid 
a piece of Golde, which the workemen tooke vp, and forthwith 
followed vpon the same with such dih'gence, that by the 
moneth of Nouember, in the yeare 1567, the same was couered 
with slate, and shortly after fully finished. 

In the yeare 1570. on the 23. of lanuarie, the Queenes Quccne Elka« 
Maiestie, attended with her Nobilitie, came from her house at ^^ butSc. ° 
the Strand called Sommerset house, and entered the citie by 
Temple Barre, through Fleetstreete, Cheape, and so by the 
North side of the Bursse through threeneedle streete, to sir 
Thomas Gresftams in Bishopsgate streete, where she dined. 
After dinner, her Maiestie returning through Comehill, entered 
the Bursse on the southside, and after that she had viewed 
euery part therof aboue the ground, especially the Pawne, which 
was richly furnished with all sorts of the finest wares in the 
Citie : shee caused the same Bursse by an Herauld and a 
Trumpet, to be proclamed the Royal Exchange, and so to be 
called from thenceforth, and not otherwise. 

Next adioyning to this Royall Exchange remaineth one The Banse 
part of a large stone house, and is now called the CastellRoyaU 
of such a signe, at a Taueme doore there is a passage ^^^'**"Se« 
through out of Comehill into Three needle streete, the other 
part of the said stone house was taken downe for enlarging 
the Royall exchange : this stone house was said of some to 
haue beene a Church, whereof it had no proportion, of others, 
a lewes house, as though none but lewes had dwelt in stone 
houses, but that opinion is without warrant : for besides the 
strong building of stone houses against the inuasion of Theeues 
in the night when no watches were kept, in the first yeare of 
Richard the first, to preuent the casualties of fire, which often The catue of 
had happened in the Citie, when the houses were builded of bdldcd*in" 
Timber, and couered with Reed, or Straw, Henry FiizAlewine London. 
being Maior, it was decreed that from hencefoorth no man 
should build within the Citie but of stone, vntill a certainc 
hei|^t| and to couer the same building with slate, or burnt 
tile, and this was the verie cause of such stone buildings, 

STOW. I . O 

194 Cornehill warde 

Page ipj whereof many haue remained | till our time, that for winning 
of ground they haue bin taken down and in place of some one 
of them being low, as but two stories aboue the ground, many 
houses of foure or fiue stories high are placed. 

From this stone house down to the Stockes, are diuers large 
houses especially for height, for marchants and Artificers. 
On the south side of this high streete is the Parish church 
Pariih church of S. Peter vpon Cornehill, which seemeth to be (^ an ancient 
vpo^Coinhil. building, but not so ancient as fame reporteth, for it hath 
been lately repayred, if not all new builded, except the 
steeple, which is ancient : the roofe of this Church, and 
glasing was finished in the raig^ne of E. the fourth^ as appear- 
eth by armes of Noble men, and Aldermen of London then 
liuing : there remayneth in this Church a table wherein it is 
Archbishops written, I know not by what authority, but of a late hand, 
h«dto Se ^^^^ ^^^S Lucius founded the same church to be an Arch- 
proved, tnd bishops sea Metropolitane, & chief church of his kingdom, 
to\e affirmed. & ^^^^ ^^ ^o endured the space of 400. years, vnto the coming 
of Augustin the Monk. 

loceline of Furneis writeth that Thean the first Archbishoppe 

of London in the raigne of Lucius^ builded the said Church 

Library of S. by the aide of Ciran chiefe Butler to king Lucius^ and also 

c*^in^" that Ebianus the second Archbishop builded a Library to the 

a Grammar same adioyning, and conuerted many of the Druides, learned 

^^^^*^ men in the Pagan law, to Christianity. True it is that a 

Library there was pertaining to this Parrish Church, of olde 

time builded of stone, and of late repayred with bricke by the 

executors of Sir lohn Crosby Alderman, as his Armes on the 

south end doth witnes. 

This Library hath beene of late time, to wit, within these 

lohn Leyland. fifty yeares well furnished of bookes : lohn Leyland viewed 

and commended them, but now those bookes be gone, and 

the place is occupied by a Schoolemaister, and his Usher, ouer 

a number of schollers learning their Grammar rules, &c 

Notwithstanding before that time, a Grammer schoole had 

beene kept in this Parrish as appeareth in the yeare 1425. 

Grammar \ read that lohti Whitby was rector & lohn Steward school- 

schoolescom- . , , 1 . • ^ r.- « ^ •. t l 

mauided by maister there : and in the 25. of //. the 6. it was enacted by 
parliament. Parliament, that foure Grammar schooles in London, should 

Comehill warde 195 

bee maintained, vz. In the parrishes of AUhallowes in Thames 
streete. Saint Andrew in Oldbourne. S. Peters vpon Comehill. 
and Saint Thomas of Acars. \ 

Monumentes of the dead in this Church defaced. I reade Page 196 
that I/ugA IValtAam, Nicholas Pricot, Mercer, Alderman, 
Richard Manhall, 1503. William Kings tof^ Fishmonger, gaue 
his tenements called the Horse mill in Grasse street to this 
church, and was there buried about the yeare 1298. John 
Vnisbrugh, Poultar, 1410, John Lawe. Also Peter Mason 
Taylor, gaue to this Church seauen pound starling yearely for 
euer, out of his Tenementes in Colechurch parrish, and de- 
ceased about the yeare 141 6. John Foxton founded a Chauntrie 
there. A Brotherhoode of Saint Peter was in this Church 
established by Henry the fourth, the fourth of his raigne. 
William Brampton and William Askham^ Fishmongers and 
Aldermen, were chiefe procurers thereof for the Fishmongers. 
Of late buried there Sir William Bowier Mayor 1543. Sir 
Henry Huber thorn Mayor, 1546. Sir Christopher Morice 
Maister Gunner of England to king Henry the eight, Edward 
Elrington Esquier, chief Butler to E. the 6. Thomas Gardetter 
Grocer, & Justice Smith and other. Then haue ye the parish 
Church of S. Michaell Tharchangel, for the antiquity wherof 
I find that Alnothus the Priest gaue it to the Abbot and 
Couent of Eouesham,^ Reynold Abbot, & the Couent there 
did grant the same to Sparling the Priest in all measures as 
he and his Predecessors before had held it^ to the which 
Sperling also they graunted all their landes which they there 
had, except certaine landes which Orgar le Prowde held of 
them, and payde two shillinges yearely, for the which graunt, 
the sayde Sperling should yearely pay one Marke of rent to 
the sayde Abbot of Eouesham, and finde him and his lodging 
salt, water, and fier, when hee came to London, this was 
graunted 1133. about the 34. oi Henry the first. Thus much 
for antiquity, of later time I find that Elizabeth Peake^ widdow, 
gaue the patronage or gift of this benefice to the Drapers in 
London, shee lyeth buried in the Belfrey, 151 8. her monu- 
ment yet remayneth. This hath beenc a fayre and bewtifull 

' ^ Eouesham] /. e» Evesham : Covesham edd, 


196 Comehill ivarde 

Church/but of late yeares since the surrender of their landes 
to Edward the sixt, greatly blemished by the building of 
fower Tenementes on the North side thereof towardes the 
highstreete, in place of a greene Churchyeard, whereby the 
Pa^ 7^7 Church I is darkened and other wayes annoyed. The fayre 
new steeple or Bell Tower of this Church was begunne to bee 
builded in the yeare 1421. which being finished, and a fayre ring 
of fiue Belles therein placed, a sixt Bell was added and giuen 
This was by lolui Whitwelly Isabell his wife, and William Rus Alderman 
accotintcdjhc ^nd Goldsmith, about the yeare 1430. which Bell named Rus, 
BeUes to bee nightly at eight of the Clocke, and otherwise for Knelles, 
thaf WW in""* ^"^ ^^ Peales, rung by one man, for the space of 160. yeares, 
England, for of late ouerhayled by foure or fiue at once, hath beene thrice 
sweetnes of broken, and new cast within the space of ten yeares, to the 
sound & tunc, charges of that Parrish, more then loo. Markes. And here a 
Note of this Steeple, as I haue oft heard my Father report, 
vpon S. lames night, certaine men in the lofte next vnder the 
Belles, ringing of a Feale, a Tempest of lightning and Thunder 
did arise, an vglie shapen sight appeared to them, comming in 
Lightningsand at the south window, and lighted on the North, for feare 
vgiyAapK whereof, they all fell downe, and lay as dead for the time, 
seen in Saint letting the Belles ring and cease of their owne accord : when 
steeple. the ringers came to themselues, they founde certaine stones of 

The print of ^he North Window to bee raysed and scrat, as if they had been 
seene in hard SO much butter, printed with a Lyons clawe, the same stones 
stone. yNGv^ fastened there againe, and so remayne till this day. I 

haue seene them oft, and haue put a feather or small sticke 
into the holes, where the Clawes had entered three or foure 
inches deepe. At the same time certaine maine timber postes 
at Queene Hith were scrat and cleft from the toppe to the 
Puljpit Crosse bottome, and the Pulpit Crosse in Powles Churchyearde was 
diMch y(Mrde l^^^^wise scrat, clefl, and ouer turned, one of the Ringers liued 
ouer turned, in my youth, whom I haue oft heard to verifie the same to 
bee true : but to retume, William Rus was a speciall Bene- 
factor to this Church, his Armes yet remayne in the Windowes. 
William ComertoUy Symon Smithy Walter Belengkam were 
buried there, and founded Chaunteries there, lohn Grace 1439* 
Robert Drope Mayor, buried on the North side the Quicr 
vnder a fayre Tombe of Grey Marblci I485, hee gaue to poore 

Come hill wards 197 

maides marriages of that parrish twenty pound, to poore of that 
Warde ten pound, shirtes and smockes 300. and gownes of 
broade cloath 100. &c. | lane his wife, matching with Edward P*^ '9^ 
Grayy Vicecount Lisle, was buried by her first husband 1500. 
she gaue ninetie pound in money to the beautifying of that 
Church, and her great messuage with the appurtenance, which 
was by her Executors W. Caple and other 1517. the ninth of 
Henry the eight, assured to lohn Wardroper, Parson, T. 
Clearke^ IV, Dixson^ and lohn Murdan Wardens of the saide 
Church, and the)rr successors for euer, they to keepe yearely 
for her an obite, or aniuersary, to bee spent on the poore, and 
otherwise, in all three pound, the rest of the profites to bee 
employed in reparation of the church. In the 34. yeare of 
Henry the eight Edward Stephan Parson, T, Spencer^ P, 
Guntar and G. Crouch^ Churchwardens, graunted to T. Lodge, 
a lease for 60 yeares of the saide great messuage, with the 
appurtenance, which were called the Ladie Lisles landes, for 
the rent of eight pound, thirteene shillinges, foure pence the 
yeare, the Parishioners since gaue it Vppe as Chauntery land, 
and wronged themselues, also the saide Robert Drope and 
Lady Lisle (notwithstanding their liberality to that Church 
and Parrish) their Tombe is pulled downe, no monument 
remayneth of them. Peter Hawton late Alderman is laid in 
their vaulte, 1596. Robert Fabian Alderman that wrote and 
published a Cronicle of England, & of France, was buried 
there, 151 1. with this Epitaph. 

Like as the day his course doth consume^ 

And the new morrow springeth againe as fast. 

So man attd woman by natures custome. 

This life to passe ^ at last in earth are cast^ 

In ioy, and sorrow which here their time do wast^ 

Neuer in ofie state^ Init in course Transitory^ 

So full of change^ is of this world the glory. 

His monument is gone: Richard Garnam^ i527« buried 
there, Edmond Trindk^ & Robert Smithy William Dickson 
and Margaret his wife, buryed in the Cloyster vnder a fay re 
Tombe now defaced, Thomas Stow my Grandfather, about 

* G, Crouch] 160J; E, Grouch r6js 

198 Comehill warde 

the yeare 1526. and Thomas Stow my father, 1559. Ickn 
Page 199 Talus Alderman 1548. he gaue to lokn WUlowby Parlson 
John Tolas hii of that Church, to Thomas Lodge^ G. Hind, P. BMe^ church- 
Sbnrch^* Wardens, and to their successors towardes the reparation of 
perfonned but that Church, and reliefe of the poore for euer, his tenement 
concealed. ^j^ ^j^^ appurtenances in the parish of Saint Michael^ which 
hee had lately purchased of Aluery Randolph of Badlesnuere 
in Kent : but the Parish neuer had the gift, nor heard thereof 
by the space of 40. yeares after, such was the conscience d 
G. BarnCy and other the executors to conceale it to them- 
selues, and such is the negligence of the Parishioners that 
(being informed thereof) make no claime thereunto. PhiUf 
Gonter that was Alderman for a time, and gaue foure hundred 
pound to be discharged thereof, was buried in the clo)^ter, 
about the yeare 1582. and Anne his wife, &c. Thomas 
Houghton father to the said Peter Houghton^ Francis Beneson, 
and William Towerson. 

This parish church hath on the southside thereof a pr(^ 
cloister, and a fayre Church yard, with a Pulpit crosse, not 
Pnlpit crosse much vnlike to that in Paules churchyard. Sir lohn Rud- 
churchyard, stone^ Maior, caused the same Pulpit crosse, in his life time 
to bee builded, the Church yarde to bee inlarged by ground 
purchased of the next parish, and also proper houses to be 
raysed^ for lodging of Quire men, such as at that time were 
assistants to diuine seruice, then dayly sung by noate, in that 
church. The said John Rudstone deceased, 153 1. and was 
buried in a vault vnder the Pulpit crosse: hee appo)mted 
Sermons to be preached there, not now performed: his 
Tombe before the pulpit crosse is taken thence, with the 
Tombe of Richard Yaxley Doctor of Phisicke to king Henru 
the eight, and other. The Quire of that Church dissolued, 
the lodgings of Quire-men were by the graue fathers of that 
time charitably appoynted for receipt of auncient decayed 
parishioners, namely widowes, such as were not able to beare 
the charge of greater rents abroade, which blessed worke of 
Math. c. /. harbouring the harbourlesse, is promised to be rewarded in 

the kingdome of heauen. 
Birchovers Then haue ye Burcheouer lane, so called of Birchouer^ the 

^•^" first builder and owner thereof, now corruptly called Birchin 

Comehill warde 199 

lane, the North halfe whereof is of the said Comehill warde, 
the other part is of Langbome warde. | 

This lane, and the high streete neare adioyning, hath beene Pogt 200 
inhabited for the most part with wealthie Drapers, from Voholden 
Birchouers lane on that side the streete downe to the Stockes : J^^jn^ ^^^ 
in the raigne of Henrie the sixt, had yee for the most part ComehiiL 
dwelling Fripperers or Vpholders, that solde olde apparell 
and housholde stufTe. 

I haue read of a Countrey man, that then hauing lost his 
hood in Westminster hall, found the same in Comehill hanged 
out to be solde, which he chalenged, but was forced to buy> 
or goe without it, for their stall (they said) was their Market. 
At that time also the Wine drawer of the Popes head Taueme Popes heade 
(standing without the doore in the high streete) tooke the cora^iiT 
same man by the sleeue, and said, sir will you drinke a pinte Wine one pint 
of wine, whereunto hee aunswered, a pennie spend I may, and breaig^' 
so drunke his pinte, for bread nothing did he pay, for that was ^^* 
allowed free. 

This Popes head Taueme, with other houses adioyning, 
strongly builded of stone, hath of olde time beene all in one, 
pertaining to some great estate, or rather to the king of this 
Realme, as may be supposed both by the largenesse thereof, The kings 
and by the armes, to wit, three Leopards passant, gardant, c^hm. 
which was the whole armes of England before the raigne of 
Edward the thirde, that quartered them with the Armes of 
Fraunce, three Fhwir de Luces. 

These Armes of England supported betweene two Angels, Arms of Eng- 
are faire and largely grauen in stone on the fore front -towardes fcf A^eET^ 
the high street, ouer the doore or stall of one great house, 
lately for many years possessed by M. Philip Gunter. The 
Popes heade Taueme is on the backe part thereof towards 
the south, as also one other house called the stone house in 
Lombard streete. Some say this was king lohns house, 
which might be so, for I finde in a written copie of Mathcw 
Paris his historie, that in the yere 1232. Henrie the third 
sent Hubert de Burgho Earle of Kent, to Comehill in London, Hubert de 
there to answere all matters obiected against him, where he ^^^^ ^i^Xo 
wisely acquited himselfe. The Popes head Tauem hath a Comehill 
foote way through, from Comehill into Lombard streete. 

200 Comehill warde 

And downe lower on the high streete of Comehill, is there 
Pagt 201 one o|ther way through by the Cardinals Hat Taueme, into 
The Cardinals Lombard Street. And so let this suffice for Comehill warde. 
In which be Gouemors, an Alderman, his Deputie, common 
Counsellors foure, or sixe, Constables foure, Scauengers foure, 
Wardmote inquest sixteene, and a Beedle : it is chained to 
the fifteene at sixteene pound. 

Langborne warde, and Fennie about. 

Lan|?boine L#ANGBORNE warde, so called of a long borne of 
Fennfe^nt. sweete water, which of olde time breaking out into 
Fenchurch streete, ranne downe the same streete, and 
Lombard street, to the West end of S. Mary Woolno(hes 
Church, where tuming south, and breaking into smal shares, 
Shareboine or rils or Streams, it left the name of Share borne lane, or 
]^^ ^ South borne lane (as I haue read) because it ran south to 
the Riuer of Thames. This Warde beginneth at the West 
ende of Aldgate warde, in Fenne church streete, by the Iron- 
mongers hall, which is on the North side of that streete, at 
Cniner Alley, a place called Culuer alley, where sometime was a lane, 
^ne stopped ^j-Q^g^ the which men went into Limestreete, but that being 
long since stopped vp for suspition of theeues, that lurked 
there by night, as is shewed in Limestreete warde, there is 
now this said alley, a tennis court, &c. 
Fenchurch Fenne-church streete tooke that name of a Fennie or 
atreete. Moorish ground, so made by means of this borne which 

passed through it, and therfore vntill this day in the Guildhall 
Pagi 902 of this citie, that ward | is called by the name of Langborne, 
and fennie about and not otherwise : yet others be of opinion 
that it tooke that name of Faenum^ that is hey solde there, 
as Grasse street tooke the name of Grasse or hearbes there 
Parish church In the midst.of this streete standeth a small parish Church 
s^ G ^*7' * called S. Gabriel Fenchurch, corruptly Fan church. 

Helming Legget Esquire, by license of Edward the third, in 
the 49. of his raigne, gaue one tenement, with a curtelaige ^ 
thereto belonging, and a Garden with an entrie thereto leading 
vnto sir lohn Hariot parson of Fenchurch, and to his suc- 

> sic isgS, 1603, rdjs 

Lan^ome warde 201 

cessors for euer, the house to be a Parsonage house, the garden 
to be a churchyard, or burying place for the parish. 

Then haue y« Lombardstreete, so called of the Longobardsy Lombard 
and other Marchants, strangers of diuerse nations assembling bdlbre^E.^. 
there twise enery day, of what originall, or continuance, I haue 
not read of record, more then that Edward the second, in 
the 12. of his raigne, confirmed a messuage, sometime belong- 
ing to Robert Turkey abutting on Lombard streete toward the 
South, and toward Comehill on the North, for the Marchants 
of Florence, which proueth that street to haue had the name 
of Lombard street before the raigne of Edward the second. 
The meeting of which Marchants and others, there continued 
until the 22 of December, in the yeare, 1568. on the which 
day, the said Marchants began to make their meetings at the 
Bursse, a place then new builded for that purpose in the 
warde of Comehill, and was since by her Maiestie, Queene 
Elizabeth^ named the Royall Exchange. 

On the North side of this Warde, is Limestreete, one halfe Limestreet. 
whereof on both the sides is of this Langbome Warde, and 
therein on the West side, is the Pewterers Hall, which com- Pewtereis 
panie were admitted to bee a brotherhoode, in the 13. of 
Edward the fourth. 

At the Southwest comer of Limestreete, standeth a fayre Parish church 
Parish Church of Saint Dianys called Baclce church, lately ''^ ^- ^*^"- 
new builded in the raigne of Henrie the sixt, lohn Bugge 
Esquire was a great benefactor to that worke, as appeareth 
by his armes three water Budgets, and his crest a Morians 
head, grauen in the stone work of the Quire, the vpper end on 
the north side, where he was I buried. Also lohn Darby rage 20s 
Alderman, added thereunto a fayre Isle or Chappie on the 
Southside, and was there buried, about the yeare 1466. He 
gaue (besides sundrie ornaments) his dwelling house and 
others vnto the said church. The Ladie Wich widow to 
Hugh Wichy sometimes Maior of London, was there buried, 
and gaue lands for Sermons, &c. lohn Master Gentleman, 
was by his children buried there, I444, Thomas Britainey 
Henrie Tratiers of Maidstone in Kent Marchant, 1501. lohn 
Bond about 1504. Robert Paget marchant Tayler, one of the 
Shiriifes 1536. Sir Thotnas Curteis Pewterer, then Fish- 

202 Langbome warde 

monger, Maior, 1557, Sir latnes HaruU Ironmonger, Muor, 

1 58 1. William Peterson Esquire, William Sheringtan^ Sir 

Edward Osborne Clothworker, Maior, &c 

The (bare coi^ Then by the foure comers (so called of Fen church streete 

SSy Sf^SiS in the East, Bridgestreete on the South, Grasse streete on the 

wayes meet- North and Lombard streete on the West.) In Lombard streete 

^uifth church ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ Parish church, called Alhallowes Grasse church in 

^ L^a^^ Lombard streete, I do so reade it in Euidences of Record, for 

straete. that the Grasse Market went downe that way, when that 

Lib. Triniute. streete was farre broder then now it is, being streightened by 


This Church was lately new builded. lohn Warner armorer, 
and then Grocer, ShirifTe, 1494. builded the south He, his soone 
Robert Warner Esquire finished it, in the yere 1516. The 
Pewtercrs were benefactors towards the north Isle, && The 
Steeple or Bell tower thereof was finished in the yeare 1544- 
about the thirtie and sixt of Henrie the eight The Gsure 
stone porch of this church was brought from the late disaolued 
Priorie of S. John of Jerusalem by Smithfield, so was the frame 
for their belles, but the belles being bought, were neuer brought 
thither, by reason that one old Warner Draper, of that Parish 
deceasing, his sonne Marke Warner would not performe what 
his father had begunne, and appoynted, so that faire steeple 
hath but one Bell, as Friers were wont to use. The monu- 
ments of this church be these. The said Warners^ and lokn 
Walden Draper. Next is a common Osterie for trauellers, 
Lombazd called the George, of such a signe. This is said to haue per- 
^t so called ^gyyj^ ^^ y^^ Earle Ferrers, and was his London lo<^^ in 

Page 204 Lombard street, and that in the yeare, 11 75. a | brother of the 
said Earle, being there priuily slaine in the night, was there 
throwne downe into the dirtie streete, as I haue afore shewed 
in the Chapter of night watches. 

Parish church Next to this is the parish church of S. Edmond the king 

to LoS^d"^ and Martyr in Lombard street, by the south comer of Birch- 

strcete. ouer lane. 

This Church is also called S. Edmond Grasse church, because 
the said Grasse Market came downe so low. The monuments 
in this Church are these : Sir lohn Milborne^ Draper^ Maior, 
deceased 1535. buried there by Dame loan and Dame Mar- 

Langbome warde 203 

^aret his wiues, vnder a tombe of Touch, Humfrey Heyfard^ 
Goldsmith, Maior, 1477, Sir William Chester^ Draper, Maior, 
15^, with his wiues, amongst his predecessors. Sir George 
Av^m, Maior, 1536, Matilde at Vine^ founded a Chaunterie 
there, &c. 

From this Church downe Lombard streete, by Birchouers 
lane (the one halfe of which lane is of this warde) and so downe, 
be diuerse faire houses, namely one with a verie faire forefront 
towards the streete, builded by sir Martin Bowes Goldsmith 
since Maior of London, and then one other, sometime belong- Noble men of 
ing to William de la Pole Knight banaret, and yet the Kings JJ^e^SSV ^ 
maichant in the 14. of Edward the third, and after him toaltoofUte 
Michael de la Pole Earle of SufTolke, in the 14. of Richard ^^1!!' ^^ °^ 
the second, and was his Marchants house, and so downe <^>i^^^- 
toward the Stocks Market, lacking but some three houses 

The Southside of this Ward beginneth in the East, at the 
chatne to be drawne thwart Mart lane, vp into Fen church 
street^ and so West, by the North end of Minchen lane to 
S. Margarets Pattens street, or Roode lane, and down that v 
street to the midway towards S. Margarets Church : then by 
Fhilpot lane, (so called of sir lohn Philpot that dwelled there, phiipot lane. 
and was owner thereof) and downe that lane some sixe or eight 
.houses on each side, is all of this warde. 

Then by Grasse Church comer into Lombard streete, to 
S. Clements lane, and downe the same to S. Clements church : s. Clemenu 
then downe S. Nicholas lane, and downe the same to Saint ^"*' 
Nicholas church, and the same Church is of this ward. Then 
'to Abchurch lane, and downe some small portion thereof: 
then down Sherborne lane, a part thereof, and a part of 
Bearebinder lane bee of this | warde : and then downe Lom- Pagt 20s 
bardstreete to the signe of the Angell almost to the comer 
ouer against the Stockes market. 

On the Southside of this ward, somewhat within Mart lane, Pansh Chnrch 
haue yee the Parish Church of Alhallowes, commonly called su^^^^Jh* 
Stane Church (as may bee supposed) for a difference from 
other Churches of that name in this Citie which of old time 

^ at Vine, om, i6js 

204 Langborne wards 

were builded of timber, and since were builded of stone. In 
this church haue beene diuerse fayre monuments of the dead, 
namely ollohn Costin, Girdler, a great benefactor : he deceased, 
1244. His name remaineth painted in the church roofe : if it 
had beene set in Brasse, it would haue beene fetched downe. 
He gaue out of certaine tenements to the poore of that parish, 
an hundred quarters of Charcoales yearely for euer. Sir Robert 
Test knight of the holy Sepulchre, and Dame loan his wife, 
about i486. Robert Stone, sir lohn Stiward^ and Dame Alice 
his wife, lohn Boslocke Esquire, Christopher Holty sir Richard 
Tate knight. Ambassador to king Henrie the eight, buried 
there, 1554. His monument remaineth yet, the rest being all 
pulled downe, and swept out of the Church, the Church war- 
dens were forced to make a large account, 12. shillings that 
yeare for Broomes, besides the carriage away of stone, and 
brasse of their owne charge. And here I am to note, that 
being informed of the Writhsleys to be buried there, I haue 
since found them and other to be buried at S. Giles without 
Cripplegate, where I minde to leaue them. 

Zradockskne. By this Church sometime passed a lane, called Cradocks 
lane, from Mart lane, winding by the North side of the said 
Church into Fen church streete, the which lane being 
streightned by incrochments, is now called Church alley. 

'arish church Then IS the Parish church of Saint Nicholas Aeon, or Hacon, 

^lacon!*^ ^^^^ ('^^ s^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ *" Recordes) in Lombardstreete. Sir 
Tohn Bridges Draper, Maior 1520. newly repayred this church, 
and imbatailed it, and was there buried : Francis Boyer Grocer, 
one of the Shiriffes, was buried there 1580. with other of the 
Boyers. So was Inliany wife to lohn Lambart Alderman. 
Then is there in the high streete a proper parish Church of 
Saint Marie Woolnoth, of the Natiuitie, the reason of which 
name I haue not yet learned. This Church is lately new 

Pflj^ 206 builded. Sir Hugh Brice \ Goldsmith, Maior in the first yeare 
of Henrie the seuenth, keeper of the kings Exchange at 
London, and one of the gouemors of the kings Mint in the 
Tower of London, vnder William Z. Hastings^ the fifth of 
Edward the fourth, deceased 1496. He builded in this church 
a Chappell, called the chamell, as also part of the bodie of the 
Church and of the Steeple, and gaue money towarde the 

Langbome warde 205 

finishing thereof, besides the stone which he had prepared : 
hee was buried in the bodie of the Church, Guy Brice or Bays 
was buried there, Dame loan wife to sir William Peachy 
T/iotnas Nocket Draper, 1396. he founded a Chanterie there, 
SitHon Eyre 1459. ^^ g^^^ ^^ Taueme called the Cardinals 
Hat in Lombardstreete, with a tenement annexed on the 
East part of the Tauerne, and a mansion behind the East 
tenement, tc^ther with an Alley from Lombard streete to 
Comhill, with the appurtenances, all which were by him new 
builded, toward a brotherhoode of our Ladie in S. Marie 
Woolnoths church. lohn Moager Pewterer, and Emme his 
vrife in saint lohns Chappell : Sir lohn Perciuall Marchant 
tayler, Maior, about 1504, TItomas Rocky and Andrew Michael 
Vinteners, and loan their wife: William Hilton Marchant 
tayler, and tayler to king Henrie the eight, was buried there^ 
15 19. Vnder the Chappell of S. George^ which Chappell was 
builded by George Lufken^ sometime tayler to the Prince. 
Robert Amades Goldsmith, master of the Kings iewels, Sir 
Martin Bowes Maior, buried about 1569. he gaue lands for the 
discharge of that Langbom ward, of all fifteenes to be granted Lanj^bome 
to the king by Parliament : George Hasken, sir Thomas chaiged*of 
Ratnsey late Maior, &c. Thus haue ye seuen Parish Churches fifteens, 
in this ward, one Hall of a companie, diuerse faire houses for 
marchants, and other monuments none. It hath an Alderman, 
his Deputie, common Counsellors 8. Constables 15. Scauengers 
9. men of the Wardmote inquest 17. and a Beedle. It is 
taxed to the fifteene in the Exchequer at 2o,\, 9.S. 8.d. 

Billinsgate warde Pageboy 

Billingsgate ward, beginnethat the west endeofBUlinsgau 
Towerstreete warde in Thames streete about Smarts Key, ^*^*' 
and runneth downe along that streete on the southside to 
saint Magnus Church at the Bridge foote, and on the North 
side of the said Thames street, from ouer against Smarts Key, 
till ouer against the north west corner of saint Magnus Church 
aforesayd : on thb north side of Thames streete is sdxat Marie 
Hm lane, vp to saint Margarets Church, and then part of 

2o6 Billinsgate warde 

saint Margarets Pattens streete, at the ende of saint Marie kUl 
lane : Next out of Thames streete is Lucas lane, and then 
Buttolph lane^ and at the North end thereof Philpot lane, then 
is Rother lane, of olde time so called, and thwart the same lane 
is little Eastcheape, and these be the bounds of Billinsgate 
warde. Touching the principall ornaments within this ward. 
On the south side of Thames streete, beginning at the East 
Smarts key. ende thereof, there is first the saide Smarts Key, so called of 
Billinsgate. one Smart sometime owner thereof, the next is Belinsgate 
whereof the whole warde taketh name, the which (leauing out 
of the fable thereof, faigning it to be builded by King Beline 
a Briton, long before the incarnation of Christ) is at this 
present a large Watergate, Port or Harbrough for shippes 
and boats, commonly arriuing there with fish, both fresh and 
salt, shell fishes, salt, Orenges, Onions, and other fruits and 
rootes, wheate, Rie, and graine of diuers sorts for seruice of 
the Citie, and the parts of this Realme adioyning. This gate 
is now more frequented then of olde time, when the Queenes 
Hith was vsed, as being appointed by the Kings of this Realme, 
to be the speciall or onely port for taking vp of all such kind 
of marchandises brought to this Citie by strangers and 
Forrenners, and the draw bridge of timber at London bridge 
was then to be raised or drawne vp for passage of ships with 
tops thither. | 
Page aoS Touching the auncient customes of Belinsgate in the raigne 

of Edward the third, euerie great ship landing there, payd for 
standage two pence, euery little ship with Orelockes a penny, 
c:ustomes of the lesser boate called a Battle a halfepenny : of two quarters 
"^ ' of come measured, the king was to haue one farthing, of a 
Combe of come a pennie, of euery weight going out of the 
Citie a halfepennie, of two quarters of sea coale measured a 
farthing, and of euery Tunne of Ale going out of England 
beyond the seas, by Marchant strangers foure pence, of euery 
thousand Herring a farthing, except the franchises, &c. 
Sommerskey. Next to this is Sommers key, which likewise tooke that 
»«» ey» name of one Sommer dwelling there, as did Lion key of one 

Lion owner thereof, and since of the signe of a Lion. 
Buttoiphs Then is there a faire Wharfe or Key, called Buttolphes gat^ 

irharie. ^y ^^^ name so called in the times of William the Conqueror, 

Billinsgate warde 207 

and of Edward the Confessor, as I haue shewed alreadie in 
the description of the Gates. 

Next is the parish Church of Saint Buttolphs^ a proper Parish church 
churchj and haUi had many fayre monuments therein, now ®^^' ^^^^^^P^' 
defaced and gone: notwithstanding I find by Testimonies 
abroad, that these were buried there, to wit, Roger Coggar^ 
1384. Andrew Pikeman^ and loan his wife, 1391. Nicholas 
lames Ironmonger, one of the ShirifTes, 1423. William Rain- 
weU^ Fishmonger, and lohn Rainwell his sonne. Fishmonger, 
Maior, 1426. and deceasing 1445. buried there with this 

Citizens of Londoft^ call to your refnembrance, lohn Runwel 

The famous John Rainwell^ sotnetime your Maior ^ ^^'° ^°* 

Of the Stable of Callis^ so was his chance. 

Here lieth now his Corps^ his soule bright and fair e^ 

Is taken to heauens blisscy thereof is no dispaire. 

His acts beare witnes^ by matters of recorde^ 

How charitable he was^ and of what accorde^ 

No man hath beene so beneficiall as hee^ 

Vnto the Citie in giuing liberallie^ &c. ^ 

He gaue a stone house to bee a Reuestrie to that Church for | 
euer : more, he gaue landes and Tenements to the vse of the page 209 
Comminaltie, that the Maior and Chamberlaine should satisfie Billmmte 
vnto the discharge of all persons, inhabiting the wards of ^JJ^^j^^^ 
Belinsgate^ Downq^te, and Aldgate, as oft as it shall happen Aldpte ward, 
any fifteene, by Parliament of the king to be graunted, also ^u^S^m. 
to the Exchequer in discharge of the Shiriifes, ten pound 
yearely, which the shiriifes vsed to pay for the Farme of 
Southwarke, so that all men of the Realme, comming or 
passing with carriage, should be free quitted and discharged 
of all Toll and other payments, afore time claimed by the 
shiriffes. Further, that the Maior and Chamberlaine shall 
pay yearely to the shiriifes eight pound, so that the said 
shiriffes take no maner Toll or money of any person of this 
Realme, for their goodes, Marchandizes, victuals, and carriages 
for their passages at the great gate of the Bridge of the Citie, 
nor at the gate called the draw Bridge, &c. The ouerplus of 
money comming of the said lands and Tenements, deuided 

2o8 Billinsgate warde 

into euen portions, the one part to bee imployed to instore 
the Grayners of the Citie with Wheate for the releefe of the 
poore Comminaltie, and the other moytie to cleare and dense 
the shelues, and other stoppages of the riuer of Thames, &c 

Stephen Forstar Fishmonger, Maior in the yeare I454- and 
Dame Agnes his wife, lie buried there. William Bacon 
Haberdasher, one of the Shirifles, 1480. was there buried, 
besides many other persons of good worship, whose monu- 
ments are al destroyed by bad and greedy men of spoyle. 
The number This parish of saint Buttolph is no great thing, notwith- 
J^[j2^^" standing diuerse strangers are there harboured, as may appeare 
creased in this by a presentment, not many yeres since made, of strangers 
inhabitants in the warde of Billinsgate in these wordes. In 
Billinsgate warde were one and fiftie housholds of strangers, 
whereof thirtie of these housholdes inhabited in the parish of 
saint Buttolph in the chiefe and principall houses, where they 
giue twentie pounde the yeare for a house lately letten for 
foure markes : the nearer they dwell to the water side, the 
more they giue for houses, and within thirtie yeares before 
there was not in the whole warde aboue three Netherlanders, 
at which time there was within the said parish leuied for the 
helpe of the poore, seauen and twentie pound by the yeare, { 
Page 310 but since they came so plentifully thither, there cannot bee 
gathered aboue eleuen pound, for the stranger will not con- 
tribute to such charges as other Citizens doe. Thus much for 
that south side of this warde. 
Bosse Alley On the North side is Bosse Alley, so called of a Bosse of 
of BiUU^^ spring water cdntinually running, which standeth by Billins- 
gate, against this Alley, and was sometimes made by the 
Executors of Richard Whittington, 
S. Mary hill Then is saint Marie hill lane, which runneth vp North from 
^*' Billinsgate, to the end of S. Margaret Pattern^ commonly 

called Roode lane, and the greatest halfe of that lane is also 
of Belinsgate warde. In this saint Marie hill lane is the faire 
Parish chorch parish church of saint Mary called on the hill, because of the 
of^s. Mary ascent from Billinsgate. 

This Church hath beene lately builded, as may appeare by 
this that foUoweth. Richard Hackney one of the shiriffes in 
the yeare 1322. and Alice his wife were there buried, as Rokt^^ 

Billinsgate warde 209 

Fabian writeth, saying thus. In the yeare 1497. in the 
moneth of Aprill, as Labourers digged for the foundation of a 
wall, within the Church of saint Marie hill neare vnto Belins- 
gate, they found a coffin of rotten timber, and therein the 
Corps of a woman whole of skinne, and of bones vndeseuered, 
and the ioyntes of her armes plyable, without breaking of the 
skinne, vpon whose sepulchre this was engrauen, Here lieth 
the bodies of Richard Hackney Fishmonger ^ and Alice his wife. 
The which Richard was shiriife in the fifteenth of Edward the Alice Hack- 
second, her bodie was kept aboue grounde three or foure "•y ^^S;^ ^" 

^ *^ ^ corraptediBore 

dayes without noysance, but then it waxed vnsauorie, and so then 100 yeres 
was againe buried. lohn Mordant stockefishmonger wasj^^*^" 
buryed there, 1387. Nicholas Exton Fishmonger, Maior, 
1387, William Cambridge Maior, 1420. Richard Goslin 
shiriffe, 1492. William Phillip Sergeant at Armes, 1473, 
Robert Reuell one of the shirifTes, 1490. gaue liberally towarde 
the new building of this Church, and steeple, and was there 
buried, William Remington Maior, 1500. sir Thomas Blanke^ 
Maior, 1582, William Holstocke Esquire, Controller of the 
Queenes^ shippes, sir Cutbert Buckle Maior, 1594. | 

This lane on both sides is furnished with many fayre houses Pagi 2u 
for Marchantes, and hath at the North end thereof, one other 
lane called S. Margaret Pattens^ because of olde time Pattens s. Marnret 
were there vsually made and sold : but of latter time this is ^*"«"* ^« 
called Roode lane, of a Roode there placed, in the Church- 
yeard of Saint Margaret^ whilest the olde Church was taken Pansh church 
downe, and againe newly builded, during which time the p^^^-JJ^'*?"^* 
oblations made to this Roode, were imployed towardes 
building of the Church, but in the yeare 1538. about the 23. 
of May in the morning the sayde Roode was found to haue 
beene in the night preceding ' (by people vnknown) broken 
all to peeces, together with the Tabernacle, wherein it had 
beene placed. Also on the 27. of the same moneth, in the 
same parish amongst the Basketmakers, a great and sudden Fire in Rode 
fire happened in the night season, which within the space of ^°^ 
three howres consumed more then a dozen houses, & nine 

^ Queenes] kings IS9^% 1603 

■ Pattens] Patents ijgS ; patentes 1603 

* preceding] proceeding jjgS^ 1603 

now, t P 

2IO Billinsgate warde 

persons were brent to death there, and thus ceased that worke 
of this Church, being at that time nigh finished to the steeple. 
The lane on both sides beyond the same church to the mid- 
way towardes Fenchurch streete is of Bellinsgate warde. 

Rope lane or Then againe out of Thames streete, by the west end of 

ucas ane. gj^jj^^ Mary hill Church, runneth vp one other Lane, of old 

time called Roape Lane, since called Lucas lane, of one Lucas 

owner of some part thereof, and now corruptly called Loue 

Lane, it runneth vp by the east end of a parish church of 

Parith church saint Andrew Hubbert, or Saint Andrew in East Cheape: 

Hubert. ^^^^ Church and all the whole Lane called Lucas lane is of 
this Belins^ate Warde. 

Then haue yee one other lane out of Thames streete, called 
Buttolph Lane, because it riseth ouer against the Parrish 
Church of S. Buttolph, and runneth vp North by the east end 
of S. Georges Church, to the West end of S. Androwes church, 
and to the south end of Philpot lane. 

Parish church This Parrish Church of S. George in Buttolph lane is small, 

of S. n gorge 

Buttolph Une. ^^^ ^^ Monuments for two hundred yeares past are well prc- 
serued from spoyle, whereof one is of Adam Bamme Mayor 
1397. Richard Bamme Esquier, his sonne of GUlingham in 
Kent, 1452. lohn Walton Gentleman i4Oi.J/ay^i0r a Gentle- 
man, 1400. lohn Saint lohn Marchant of Leauaunt, and | 

^^?» »'» Agnes his wife, 1400. Hugh Spencer Esquier, 1424. W ilium 
Combes Stockfishmonger, one of the ShirifTes, 1452. who gaue 
forty pound towardes the workes of that Church. John Stokar 
Draper one of the ShirifTes, 1477. Richard Dryland Esquier, 
and Katherine his wife. Daughter to Morrice Brune Knight of 
South Ockendon in Essex ^, Steward of Housholde to Humfrej 
Duke of Glocester, 1487, Nicholas Partrich one of the 
Shiriffes, 1 519. in the Churchyeard, William Forman Mayor, 
1538. lames Mumforde Esquier, Surgeon to King Henry the 
eight, buried 1544, Thomas Gayle Haberdasher, ly^o. Nicholas 
Wilford Marchant Taylor and Elizabeth his wife, about the 
yeare 1551. Edward Heyward 1573, &c. Roger Delahrts 
founded a Chauntrie there. 

Rother lane or Then haue yee one other lane called Rother Lane, or Red 

Red rose lane, p^^g^ Lane, of such a signe there, now commonly called 

* South Ockendon] : Soutfaucfcenton 1603 

Billinsgate warde 211 

Pudding Lane, because the Butchers of Eastcheape haue their 
skalding House for Hogges there, and their puddinges with 
other filth of Beastes^are voided downe that way to theyr dung 
boates on the Thames. 

This Lane stretcheth from Thames streete to h'ttle Easte 
Cheape chiefly inhabited by Basketmakers, Turners and 
Butchers, and is all of Billinsgate Warde. The Garland in 
little East Cheape, sometime a Brewhouse, with a Garden on 
the backside, adioyning to the Garden of Sir lohn Philpot, 
was the chiefe house in this East Cheape, it is now diuided 
into sundry small tenements, &c. 

This Warde hath an Alderman and his Deputie, common 
Counsellors (seuen) \ Constables eleuen, Scauengers sixe, for 
the Wardmote inquest foureteene and a Beadle, it is taxed to 
the fifteen in London at 32. pound, and in the Exchequer at 
one and thirty pound, ten shillings. 

Bridge warde within Page 21) 

Bridge WARD within^ so called of London Bridge, which Brid^wanle 
Bridge is a principall part of that Ward, and beginneth at the ^" *"* 
stulpes on the South end by Southwarke, runneth along the 
Bridge, and North vp Bridgestreete, commonly called (of Bridge rtrecte 
the Fishmarket) New Fishstreete, from Fishstreete hil, vp ^^^ 
Grasse streete, to the North comer of Grasse church, all the 
Bridge is replenished on both the sides with large, fayre 
and beautiful! buildinges, inhabitants for the most part rich 
marchantes, and other wealthy Cittizens, Mercers and Haber- 

In new Fishstreete bee Fishmongers and fayre Tauemes 
on Fishstreete hill and Grassestreete, men of diuerse trades, 
Grocers and Haberdashers. 

In Grassestreete haue yee one fayre Conduit of sweete Water Con- 
water castellated with crest and vent, made by the appoynt- street" ** 
ment of Thomas Hill Mayor, 1484. who gaue by his testament 
one hundred markes, towardes the conuayance of water to 
this place. It was begun by his Executors in the yeare i49i» 
and finished of his goods whatsoeuer it cost. 

* blank in 1598^ i6oj 

p a 

212 Bridge warde within'^ 

Parish church On the East side of this Bridge warde, haue yee the fa}a'e 
of . Magnua. pj^j^gjj church of S. Mognus, in the which churdi haue beene 
buried many men of good Worship, whose monumentes are 
now for the most part vtterly defaced. I find lohn Blund 
Mayor, 1307. Henry Yeuele Freemason to E. 3 Richard the a. 
& Henry the 4, who deceased 1400. his Monument yet re- 
mayneth. William Brampton^ John Michell Mayor, 1436. 
John French^ Baker, Yeoman of the Crowne to Henry the 7. 
1510. Roberte Clarke Fishmonger 1521. Richard Turke one of 
the Shirifls 1549. William Steede Alderman, Richard Morgan 
Knight, chiefe Justice of the common pleas ^ 1556. Mauritius 
Griff eth Bishoppe of Rochester, 1559. Robert Blanch Girdler 
1567. Robert Belgraue Girdler, William Brame^ lohn Cauper 
Fishmonger, Alderman, who was put by his turn of Mao-| 
Page2i4 raltie, 1584. Sir William Garrard Haberdasher, Mayor 1555. 
a graue, sober, wise and discreete Cittizen, equall with the best, 
and inferior to none of our time, deceased 157 1. in the parrish 
of 5. Christopher^ but was buried in this Church of Saint 
Magnus as in the parrish where he was borne, a fayre monument 
is there raysed on him : Robert Harding Salter, one of the 
ShiriiTs 1568. Simon Low Marchant Taylor, Esquier, &c. 
Parish church Then is the parrish Church of S. Mtxrgaret on Fishstreete 
^^fishSwt ^^''» a proper Church, but monumentes it hath none : a foot 
hiU. way passeth by the south side of this Church, from Fishstreet 

hill into Rother lane. 
Parish church Vp higher on this hill, is the parrish Church of Saint 
MiL^S?^!" Leonard Milke Churche, so termed of one WUliam Melker, 
an especiall builder thereof, but commonly called Saint 
Leonardes in East Cheape, because it standeth at East Cheape 
comer. Monumentes there bee of the Doggets^ namely, 
Walter Dogget Vintner, one of the Shiriifes, 1380. lokn 
Dogget Vintner and Allice his wife, about 1456. this lohn 
Dogget gaue lands to that Church, William Dogget^ &c. 

This Church, and from thence into little East Cheape \.o 
the east end of the saide Church, is of the Bridge Warde. 
Then higher in Grasse streete is the parrish Church of 

* Bridge warde within] : pp, 214-7 in error Billinsgate warde 1603 

* pleas] place 1^98^ idoj 

Bridge warde within 213 

Saint Bennet^ called Grasse Church, of the Herbe market Gmue church 
there kept: this Church also is of the Bridge Warde, and the crasBc church, 
farthest North end thereof: some Monumeptes remayne there 
vndefaced, as of lohn Harding Saltar, 1 576. John Sturgeon 
Haberdasher, Chamberlaine of London, Philip Cushen Floren- 
tine, a famous marchant, 1600. 

The Customes of Grasse church market, in the raigne of Cnstomesof 
Edward the third, as I haue reade in a Booke of Customes, ^^^t.*^'**^ 
were these : Euery* Forren Cart laden with come, or Maulte, 
comming thether to bee sold, was to pay one halfe peny, euery 
Forren cart bringing cheese two pence, euery cart of corne 
& cheese tc^ether, (if the cheese be more worth then the 
come) two pence, and if the come bee more worth then the 
cheese, it was to paye a halfe peny, of two horses laden with 
come or malte, the Bayliife had one Farthing, the cart of the 
Franchise of the temple and | of Saint Martins le grand, payed Page 21J 
a Farthing : the cart of the Hospitall of Saint Join of leru^ 
salem paid nothing for their proper goods, and if the come 
were brought by Marchants to sel againe, the load paid a 
halfepennie, &c. 

On the west side of this ward, at the north end of London 
bridge is a part of Thames streete, which is also of this warde, Thames 
to wit, so much as of old time was called Stockefish monger §J^*gjj. 
Row, of the stockefishmongers dwelling there, downe west to monger row. 
a water gate, of old time called Ebgate, since Ebgate lane, Ebgate Une. 
and now the olde swan, which is a common stayre on the 
Thames, but the passage is very narrow by meanes of en- 
crochments. On the South side of Thames streete, about the 
midway betwixt the bridge foote, and Ebgate lane, standeth 
the Fishmongers hall, and diuerse other fair houses for Fishmongers 

t hall* 


These Fishmongers were sometimes of two seuerall compa- Antlqmties of 
nies, to wit, Stockefishmongers, and Saltfishmongers, of whose ^^jooT 
antiquitie I reade, that by the name of Fishmongers of 
London, they were for forestalling, &c. contrarie to the lawes 
and constitutions of the Citie, fined to the king at 500. 
markes, the 18. of king Edwixrd the first. More, that the 
said Fishmongers, hearing of the great victorie obtained by 
the same king against the Scots, in the 26. of his raigne, made 

214 Bridge warde within 

A triumphant a triumphant and solemne shew through the Citie, with 
the^^mon- ^ diuerse Pageants, and more then looo. horsemen, &c. as in the 
g«» Joj yfcto- Chapter of sports and pastimes. These two companies of 

ne of the king. o«/-f •/ii/.« #»«i. «»!_• 

Stockefishmongers and Saltnshmongers, of old time had their 

seuerall Hals, to wit, in Thames streete twaine, in newe Fish- 

streete twaine, and in olde Fishstreete twaine : in each place 

Fishmonger! one for either companie, in all sixe seuerall halles, the com- 

l^dcm. * * panie was so great, as I haue read, and can proue by Recordes. 

Fishmongers These Fishmongers hauing beene iolly Citizens, and sixe 

Maiors in 34. Maiors of their companie in the space of 1x4. yeares, to wit, 

yearcs. Walter Turke, 1350. lohn Lofkin^ 1359. lokn Wrothy 1361. 

John Pechie^ '3^2. Simon Mordett, 1369. and Williant Wal- 

Fishmongers worthy 1374. It followed that in the yeare 138a. through the 

tings enuwd of counsell of ToftH Northampton Draper then being Maior, 

the other William Essex, John More Mercer, and Richard Northbnric, 

the sayde Fishmongers were greatly troubled, hindered of 

Pa^e ai6 their liberties, | and almost destroyed by congregations made 

against them, so that in a Parliament at London the con- 

trouersie depending betweene the Maior and Aldermen of 

Nicholas London, and the Fishmongers there, Nicholas Exton speaker 

Fiihmo^ngcre* ^^"^ ^^ Fishmongers, prayeth the king to receiue him and his 

craned the companie into his protection, for feare of corporall hurt. 

tio^ ^^^ ^ Wherevpon it was commanded, either part to keepe the peace, 

on paine of loosing all they had. Herevpon a Fishmonger 

starting vp, replyed that the complaint brought against them 

by the moouers, &c. was but matter of malice, for that the 

Fishmongers in the raigne of Edivard the third, being chicfc 

officers of the Citie, had for their misdemeaners then done, 

committed the chiefe exhibitors of those petitions to prison. 

In this parliament, the Fishmongers by the king^ Chartar 

patents were restored to their liberties : notwithstanding in the 

lohn Caueu. yeare next following, to wit, 1383. lohn Cauendish Fishmonger, 

^h craned craueth the peace against the Chauncellor of England, which 

against the was granted, and he put in sureties, the Earles of Stafford and 

chSl^S Salisburie, Cauendish chalengeth the Chauncellor for taking 

him for taking of a bribe of ten pound for fauour of his case, which the 

Fishmongers Chauncellor by oath vpon the Sacrament auoydeth. In further 

by P^iament ^^iall it was found that the Chauncellors man without his 

their liberties, maisters priuitie had taken it. Whereupon Ca$iendish was 

Bridge warde within 215 

adiudged to prison, and to pay the Chauncellor 1000. Markes 
for slandering him. 

After this many of the Nobles assembled at Reding, to 
suppresse the seditious sturs of the said lohn Northampton or 
Combarton^ late Maior, that had attempted great and heynous 
interprises, of the which he was conuict, and when he stoode 
mute, nor would vtter one worde, it was decreed, that hee 
should be committed to perpetuall prison, his goods confiscate 
to the kings vse, and that he should not come within one 
hundred miles of London during his life. He was therefore Prmcipall 
sent to the Castell of Tintegall in the confines of Comewall, SJ" Filh^^ 
and in the meane space the kinges seruants spoyled hisgencon- 
goodes. lohn More^ Richard Northbery^ and other, werep^J^^gl^ 
likewise there conuict, and condemned to perpetuall prison, prison, 
and their goods confiscate, for certaine congregations by them 
made against the Fishmongers in the Citie of London, as is Patent. 
aforesayd, but they obtained and had the kings pardon^ in the 
14. 1 of his raigne as appeareth of Record, and thus was all Pag€ 2iy 
these troubles quieted. Those Stockfishmongers, & Saltfish- 
mongers, were vnited in the year 1536, the a8. of Hetirie the Stockfishmon- 
eight, their hal to be but one, in the house giuen vnto them by f^nJoigw 
sir John Cornwall^ Lord Fanhope, and of AmpthuU, in the vnited. 
parish of saint Michael in Crooked lane, in the raigne of ^1 created 
Henrie the sixt. Thus much haue I thought good to note of ^■"^^"Jr 
the Fishmongers, men ignorant of their Antiquities, not able h. the 6. 
to shew a reason why, or when they were ioyned in amitie ^^^^^" 
with the Goldsmiths, do giue part of their armes, &c. Neither amitiewithihe 
to say ought of sir William Walworth^ the glorie of their ^ wiSworth 
companie, more then that he slue lacke Strazv^ which is a slandered by a 
meere fable, for the said Straiv was after ouerthrown of the stniw. 
Rebels, taken, and by iudgement of the Maior beheaded, ^•^^*^*^* 
whose confession at the Gallowes is extant in my Annales^ H. kniton. 
where also is set down the most valiant, and praise- worthie ^^' ^*^" 
act of William Walworth^ against the principall rebell Waltar 
Tighlar. As in reproofe of Walworihs monument in Saint 
Michaels Church I haue declared, and wished to be reformed 
there, as in other places. 

On that south side of Thames streete, haue ye Drinkwater 
warfe, and Fish Wharfe in the parish of saint Magtius. On 

2i6 Bridge warde within 

Drinkwater the North side of Thames streete is Saint Martins lane, a part 

fishwhaxfe. ^'^ which lane is also of this ward, to wit, on the one side to a 

well of water, and on the other side as farre vp as against the 

said well. Then is Saint Michaels lane, part whereof is also of 

this warde vp to a Well there, &c. Then at the vpper end of 

new fishstreete, is a lane turning towards S. Michaels lane, 

Crooked lane, and is called Crooked lane, of the croked windings thereof. 

Aboue this lanes end, vpon Fishstreet hill is one great house, 

for the most part builded of stone^ which pertained sometime 

Edward the to Ed. the black prince, son to Ed. the 3. who was in his life 

biacke prince. ^^^^^ lodged there. It is now altered to a common hosterie, 

hauing the biacke bell for a signe : Aboue this house at the 

top of Fishstreet hil is a turning into great Eastcheape, and 

so to the comer of Lombardstreet, ouer against the northwest 

comer of Grasse church, & these be the whole bounds of this 

Bridgeward within: the which hath an Alderman, and his 

deputie, for the common counsell 16. Constables 15. Scauengers 

6. for the wardmote inquest 16. & a Beedle. It is taxed to 

the 15. in Lon. at 47. 1. 

Page2is Candlewicke street warde 

Candlcwickc CaNDLEWICKE STREETE, or Candlewright streete 

di'wri M^"* warde, beginneth at the East end of great Eastcheape, it 

street ward, passeth west through Eastcheape to Candlewright streete, and 

through the same downe to the north ende of Suffolke lane, 

on the south side, and downe that lane by the west ende of 

saint Laurence Churchyard, which is the farthest west part of 

cereal East- that ward. The streete of great Eastcheape is so called of 

cheape. ^j^^ Market there kept, in the East part of the Citie, as West 

Cheape is a Market so called of being in the West 
Eastcheape a This Eastcheape is now a flesh Market of Butchers there 
Cookes row. duelling, on both sides of the streete, it had sometime also 
Cookes mixed amongst the Butchers, and such other as solde 
victuals readie dressed of all sorts. For of olde time when 
friends did meet, and were disposed to be merrie, they went 
not to dine and suppe in Taueras, but to the Cookes, where 
they called for meate what them liked, which they alwayes 

Candlewkke street warde 217 

found ready dressed at a reasonable rate, as I haue before 

In the yeare 14 10. the i J. of Henrie the fourth, vpon the The kings sons 
cuen of saint John BapHst^ the kings sonnes, Thomas and lohn^ E«rtdb©ipe 
being in Eastcheape at supper, (or rather at breakefast, for it there was no 
was after the watch was broken vp, betwixt two and three of EiuS^pe. "* 
the dock after midnight) a great debate happened betweene 
their men, and other of the Court, which lasted one houre, till 
the Maior and ShirifTes with other Citizens appeased the same : 
for the which afterwards the said Maior, Aldermen and 
shirifTes, were called to answere before the King, his sonnes, and 
diuerse Lordes, being highly mooued against the Citie. At 
which time William Gascayne chiefe Justice required the 
Maior and Aldermen, for the Citizens, to put them in the 
kings grace : whereunto they aunswered, that they had not 
offended, but (according to the law) had done | their best in Pagi 219 
stinting debate, and maintaining of the peace : vpon which 
aunswere the king remitted all his ire, and dismissed them. 
And to prooue this Eastcheape to bee a place replenished with 
Cookes, it may appeare by a song called London lickepennie^ 
made by Lidgate a Monke of Berrie, in the raigne of Henrie 
the fift, in the person of a Countrie man comming to London, 
and trauelling through the same. In West Cheape (saith the 
song) hee was called on to buy fine lawne, Paris threed, cotton in west cheap 
Vmble^ and other linnin clothes, and such like (he speakethof ^^*=Sjf°*^ 
no silks) in Comhill to buy old apparell, and houshold stufTe, silkes spoken 
where he was forced to buy his owne hoode, which hee had 
lost in Westminster hall : in Candlewright streete Drapers Fripparia. 
profered him cheape cloath, in East cheape the Cookes cried ^^ ^^^qi 
hot ribbes of beefe rosted, pies well baked, and other victuals : sellers of olde' 
there was clattering of Pewter pots, harpe, pipe, and sawtrie, hSSSIoid^ff 
yea by cocke, nay by cocke, for greater othes were spared : Eastcheape. 
some sang of lenken^ and luUan^ &c. all which melodie liked 
well the passenger, but he wanted money to abide by it, and 
therefore gat him into Grauesend barge, & home into Kent. 
Candlewright (so called in olde Records of the Guildhall, of 
saint Marie Queries^ and other) or Candlewicke streete tooke 

^ Umble] 1603 ; umple 1398 


Candlewicke street warde 

or Candlewike 
streete: wike 
is a working 

Weauers in 

brought out 
of Flanders 
and Brabant. 

Page 2 JO 

S. Clements 
lane; parish 
chnrch of S. 
Clement in 

Parish church 
of S. Marie 

that name (as may bee supposed) either of Chandlers, or makers 
of Candles, both of waxe and tallow : for Candlewright is a 
maker of Candles, or of Weeke which is the cotton or yamc 
thereof: or otherwise Wike, which is the place where they 
vsed to worke them, as Scalding wike by the stockcs Market 
was called of the Poulters scalding and dressing their poultrie 
there : and in diuerse Countries, Dayrie houses, or Cottages, 
wherein they make butter and cheese, are vsually called 
Wickes. There dwelled also of old time diuers Weauers of 
woollen clothes, brought in by Edward the third. For I 
reade that in the 44. of his raigne the Weauers brought out 
of Flaunders were appointed their meetings to be in the Church- 
yard of saint Laurence Poultney, and the Weauers of Brabant 
in the churchyard of saint Mary Sofnmerset, There were 
then in this citie weauers of diuerse sorts, to wit, of Drapeiy 
or Taperie, and Naperie. These Weauers of Candlewright 
street being in short time wome out, their place is now 
possessed by rich Drapers, sellers of woollen cloth, &c. On 
the north side of this | warde, at the west end of East cheape, 
haue yee saint Clements lane, a part whereof on both sides is 
of Candlewike streete ward, to wit, somewhat North beyond 
the parish Church of saint Clement in Eastcheape. This is a 
smal Church, void of monuments, other then o( Francis Barnam 
Alderman, who deceased 1575, and of Benedicke Barnam his 
Sonne, alderman also, 1598. William Chartney^ and Willian 
OueriCy founded a Chaunterie there. Next is saint Nicholas 
lane for the most part on both sides of this ward, almost to 
saint NicJwlas church. Then is Abchurch lane, which is on 
both the sides, almost wholy of this ward, the parish Churdi 
there (called of saint Marie Abchurch, Apechurch, or Vp- 
church as I haue read it) standeth somewhat neere vnto the 
south ende thereof, on a rising ground : it is a faire Church, 
Simatt de Winc/tcomb founded a Chaunterie there, the 19. of 
Richard the second. lokn Littleton founded an other, and 
Thomas Hondon an other, & hath the monuments of /. Lof^ 
Esquire of Bedfordshire, 1442. William Wikenson Alderman, 
1519. William lawdrell Tayler, 1440. sir lames Howes Maior, 
1574* sir Tohn Branch Maior, 1580. John Miners ^ WilHo^ 
Kettle, &c. 

Candlewicke street warde 219 

On the south side of this warde, beginning againe at the s. Michaels 
East, is saint Michaels lane, which lane is almost wholy of ^*^*^' 
this warde, on both sides downe towardes Thames streete, to 
a Well or Pumpe there. On the East side of this lane is 
Crooked lane aforesaid by saint Michouls Church, towards Crooked Unc. 
new Fish streete. One the most ancient house in this lane is Jfcrooked 
called the leaden porch, and belonged somethne to sir lohn l*n«- 
Mersion knight, the first of Edward the fourth : It is now of s. Michaell 
called the swan in Crooked lane, possessed of strangers, and jnCrooked 
selling of Rhenish wine. The parish church of this S. Michaels 
was sometime but a small and homely thing, standing upon 
part of that ground, wherein now standeth the parsonage 
house : and the ground there about was a filthie plot, by 
reason of the Butchers in Eastcheape, who made the same 
their Laystall. William dc Burgo gaue two messuages to that 
Church in Candlewicke streete, 1317. John Loueken stockfish- 
monger, foure times Maior, builded in the same ground this faire 
Church of saint Michael^ and was there buried in the Quier, 
vnder a faire | tombe with the Images of him and his wife in Pagt 221 
Alabaster : the said Church hath beene since increased with 
a new Quier and side chappels by sir William Walworth 
Stockfishmonger, Maior, sometime seruant to the saide lohn 
Lotteken : also the tombe of Loueken was remoued, and a flat 
stone of gray Marble garnished with plates of Copper laid on 
him, as it yet remaineth in the bodie of the Church : this 
William Walworth is reported to haue slaine lake Straw, J'^ble of 
but lacke Straw being afterward taken, was first adiudged by worth, and 
the said Maior, and then executed by the losse of his head in J^q^*^^^ 
Smithfield. True it is that this William Walworth being Praue of W. 
a man wise, learned, and of an incomparable manhood, j^i, ^1^^,^^' 
arrested Wat Tyler a presumptuous rebell, vpon whom no in »™^K ®^ 
man durst lay hand, whereby hee deliuered the king and The Maior was 
kingdome from most wicked tyrannie of tray tors. The Maior ^^J^j|^^^'> 
arrested him on the head with a sounde blow, wherevpon Wat hU head a 
Tyler furiously stroke the Maior with his Dagger, but hurt^^^i^J 
him not, by reason he was well armed ; the Maior hauing H. Knightoj. 
receiued his stroke, drew his basiliardi and grieuously wounded Ebomm. 
Wat in the necke, and withall gaue him a great blow on the 
head : in the which conflict, an Esquire of the kings house, 


220 Candlewicke street warde 

called lohn Cauendish^ drew his sword, and wounded Wat 
twise or thrise euen to the death: and Wat spurring his 
horse, cried to the commons to reuenge him : the horse bare 
him about 80. foote from the place, and there hee fell downe 
halfe dead, and by and by they which attended on the king 
enuironed him about, so as he was not seene of his companie: 
many of them thrust him in diuerse places of his bodie, and 
drew him into the Hospitall of S. Bartholamew^ from whence 
againe the Maior caused him to be drawne into Smithfield 
and there to be beheaded In reward of this seruice, (the 
Maior made people being dispersed) the king commaunded the Maior to 
iSSwife^ put a Basenet on his heade, and the Maior requesting why 
rewarded. he should SO do, the king answered, he being much bound 
ing a imight ^^*^ \ivai^ would make him knight : the Maior answered, that 
^S'?^^"' hee was neither worthie nor able to take such estate vpon 
him, for he was but a Marchant, and had to Hue by his 
Marchandise onely : notwithstanding, the king made him put 
on his Basenet, and then with a sworde in both his hands he 
strongly stroke him on the necke, as the manner was then, 
Pag^ 222 and the same | day he made three other Citizens knights for 
Aldermen his sake in the same place, to wit, lohn Philpot^ Nicholas 
knighted. Brembcr^ and Robert Latiftde Aldermen. The king gaue 
to the Maior 100. pound land by yeare, and to each of the 
other 40. pound land yearely, to them and their heyres for 
:oUedgc After this in the same yeare, the said sir William Walwortii 

^'"mI^U founded in the said parish church of S. Michael^ a CoUedge 
Crooked lane, of a master and nine priests or Chaplens, and deceased 1385. 
^vJTwal^ ^^ there buried in the north Chappell by the Quier : but his 
th de&ced monument being amongst other by bad people defaced in the 
ied,and raigne of Edward the sixt and s^ine since renued by the 
mayneth. Fishmongers for lacke of knowledge, what before had becnc 
written in his Epitaph, they followed a fabulous booke, and 
.. . K^ wrote lacke Straw^ insteade of Wat TUar^ a great error meetc 

'^^ to be reformed there, and else where, and therefore haue I the 

i.*>^ ' more at large discoursed of this matter. 

'' " ' It hath also beene, and is now growne to a common opinion, 

that in reward of this seruice done, by the said Willim 
Walworth against the rebell, King Richard added to the 
\ \ 

Candkwicke street warde 221 

armes of this Citie, (which was argent, a plaine Crosse Gules) Dnnthoxne. 
a sword or ds^fger, (for so they terme it) whereof I haue read Old aeale of 
no such recorde, but to the contrarie. I find that in the^,,^*J^^^ 
fourth yeare of Richard the second in a full assembly made new seale 
in the vpper Chamber of the Guildhall, summoned by this xhe Armes of 
William Walworth^ then Maior, as well of Aldermen as of ^**^i^5LT^«^ 

Dot ftl tercel I 

the common Counsell in euery warde, for certaine affaires bat xemayDe 
concerning the king, it was there by common consent agreed ^t^^^^Jlj^t 
and ordained, that the olde Seale of the office of the Maioralty apUynecnMse 
of the citie being very smal, old, vnapt, & vncomely for the ofS.*Paule, in 
honor of the citie, should be broken, and one other new ^^« fi"* <!«*'- 
should be had, which the said maior commaunded to be made dumr of w. 
artificially, and honourable for the exercise of the said office j^^^J^S* ** 
thereafter in place of the other : in which new Seale, besides 
the Images of Peter, & Paul, which of old were rudely 
engrauen, there should be vnder the feet of the said Images, 
a shield of the armes of the saide Citie perfectly graued, with 
two Lions supporting the same with two sergeants of armes, ^an 
other part,^ one, and two tabernacles, in which aboue should 
stand two Angels, between whom aboue the said I|mages of /'^a^ 22J 
Peter and Paule^ shall bee set the glorious virgine : this being 
done, the old Seale of the Office was deliuered to Richard 
Odiham Chamberlaine, who brake it, and in place thereof, 
was deliuered the new seale to the said Maior to vse in his 
office of Maioraltie, as occasion should require. This new 
seale seemeth to bee made before William Walworth was 
knighted, for he is not here intituled Sir, as afterwards he 
was : and certain it is that the same new seale then made, is 
now in vse and none other in that office of the Maioraltie : 
which may suffice to aunswere the former fable, without 
shewing of any euidence sealed with the olde seale, which was 
the Crosse, and sworde of Saint Paule^ and not the dagger of 
William Walworth. 

Now of other monuments in that Church, Simon Mordon 
Maior, 1368. was buried there, A?^» OlneyVL^xox 1446. Robert 
March Stockfishmonger gaue two peeces of ground to be a 
Churchyard: lohn Radwell Stockfishmonger, buried 1415. 
George Gowre Esquire, son to Edward Gowre Stockfish- 
^'^ an other part 1603 ; in the other part /6j^ 

222 Candlewicke street warde 

monger, Esquire, 1470. Alexander Purpoyiit Stockefishmonger, 
1373. Andrew Bur el Gentleman, of Grayes Innc 1487. lohn 
Shraw Stockfishmonger 1487. with this Epitaph. 

Farewell my friends tlie tide abideth no man^ 
I am departed hence^ and so shall ye. 
But in this passage the best song that I can, 
Is Requiem xternam^ now lesu grant it me. 
When I haue ended all mine aduersitic. 
Grant me in Paradise to haue a mansion. 
That shedst thy blood for my redemption, 

lohn Finkell one of the Shiriffes, 1487. was knighted, and 

gaue 40. li. to this church, the one halfe for his monument. 

lohn Pattesley Maior, 1441. Tlunnas Ewen Grocer, bare halfe 

the charges in building of the steeple, and was buried 1501. 

William Combes Gent, of Stoke by Gilford in Surrey, 1502. 

CoUcdge Sir lohn Brudge Maior, ^1530,^ gaue 50. li, for a house called 

c^^ed lane. ^^ CoUedge in Crooked lane, he lieth buried in S. Nicholas 

Hacon, Waltar Faireford, Robert Barre, Alexander Hcybm, 

Page 22 4 lohn Motie, \ lohn Gramstone^ lohn Brampton, lohn Wood, 

Stockfishmonger, 1531. Sir Henry Amcots Maior, 1548. &c. 

Hard by this Saint Michaels Church, on the south side 

thereof, in the yeare 1560, on the fift of Julie through the 

shooting of a Gun, which brake in the house of one Adrian 

Houses in Arten a Dutchman, and set fire on a Firkin and Barrell of 

bl^^e yT^ Gunpowder, foure houses were blowen vp, and diuerse other 

withgunpow- sore shattered, 11. men and women were slaine, and 16. so 


hurt and brused, that they hardly escaped with life. 

S. Martins West from this Saint Michaels lane, is Saint Martins Orgar 

and parish' 'ane, by Candlewicke street, which lane is on both sides 

church. down to a Well, replenished with faire and large houses for 

marchants, and it is of this ward : one of which houses was 

sometime called Beachamps Inne, as pertaining vnto them of 

that familie. Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

commonly for his time was loged there. 

Parish church The parish Church of saint Martin Orgar is a small thing. 

OrL^*^*" H^////aw Crowmer Maior, builded a proper Chappell on the 

south side thereof, and was buried there, 1433. lohn Malfuvi 

*"' 1320, deceased 1^30% Stovfs MS^ 


Candlewicke street warde 223 

Maior, 1490. Sir William Huet Maior, 1559, with his Ladie 
and daughter, wife to sir Edward Osburne ^, Raph Tabinham 
Alderman, Alice wife to Thomas Winslow, Thortidon, Bene- 
dicke Redingy Thomas Harding^ lames Smithy Richard Gain- 
ford Esquire, lohn Boldy &c. Then is there one other lane 
called saint Laurence y of the parish Church there. This lane, 
down to the south side of the churchyard, is of Candlewicke 
street ward. The parish church of saint Laurence was in- Parish church 
creased with a Chappell of lesus by Thomas Cole, for a maister Ponitney 
and Chapleine, the which Chappell and parish Church was{°*^»^o^- 
made a Colledge of lesus, and of Corpus Christiy for a maister 
and seuen Chapleins, by lohn Poultney maior, and was con- 
firmed by Edward the third, the oo. of his raigne : of him 
was this Church called S. Laurence Poultney in Candle- 
wicke street, which Colledge was valued at 79.11. 17.S. xi.d. 
and was surrendred in the raigne of Edward the sixt. 
Robert Ratcliffe earle of Sussex, and Henry Ratcliffe earle of 
Sussex, were buried there, Alderman Beswicke was buried 
there, lohn Oliffe Alderman, Robert Browne and others. 
Thus I much for this ward, and the antiquities thereof. It Page 225 
hath now an Alderman, his Deputie, common Counsellors 8. 
Constables 8. Scauengers 6. Wardmote inquest men la, and 
a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene at xvi. pound. 

Walbrooke warde 

WaLBROOKE warde beginneth at the West end of Candle- Walbrooke 
wicke streete ward. It runneth downe Candlewicke street west ^ ** 
towards Budge row. It hath on the northside thereof S. 
Swithens lane, so called of S. Swithens a parish Church by 
London stone : This lane is replenished on both the sides 
with faire builded houses, and is wholy of Walbrooke warde. 
The said parish Church of S. Swithen standeth at the south- Parish church 
west comer of this lane. Licence was procured to new build ^' 

and encrease the said Church and steeple, in the yeare 1420. 
Sir John Hend Draper, Maior, was an especiall benefactor 
thereunto, as appeareth by his armes in the Glasse windowes 

^ Osbume] Osborne is<^8 

224 IValbrooke warde 

euen in the toppes of them, which is in a field siluer, a chiefe 

Azure, a Lion passant siluer, a Cheueron azure, three Escalops 

siluer : he lieth buried in the bodie of this Church, with a faire 

stone laid on him, but the plates and inscriptions are defaced. 

Roger Dephant Alderman, Thomas AyUsbourghy William 

Neue^ and MatUde Caxton^ founded Chaunteries, and were 

buried there, lohn Butler Draper, one of the Shiriffes, I4aa 

Raph loceliney Maior, a benefactor, buried in a fayre Tombe, 

William White Draper, one of the Shiriffes, 1482. and other. 

Prior of Tor- On the north side of this Church and Churchyard, is one 

Ux^oohis fj^jjpg j^j^j large builded house, sometime pertayning to the 

Ozfoffd place prior of Tartingtoft in Sussex, since to the Earles of Oxford, 

stone. ™* ^"^^ '^^w ^^ ^*'' ^^^^^ ^^^ Alderman: which house hath 

Emown and a faire Garden belonging thereunto, lying on the west side 

^' thereof. On the backeside of two other faire houses in Wal- 

brooke, in the raigne of Henrie the seuenth, sir Richard 

Empson knight, Chanceler of the Duchie of Lancaster, dwelled 

Page 226 in the one of them, and Edmond Dudley \ Esquire in the other: 
either of them had a doore of entercourse into this Garden, 
wherein they met and consulted of matters at their pleasures. 
In this Oxford place sir Ambrose Nicholas kept his Maioraltie, 
and since him the said sir lohn Hart. 

London itone. On the south side of this high streete, neare vnto the chan- 
nell is pitched vpright a great stone called London stone, 
fixed in the ground verie deepe, fastned with bars of iron, 
and otherwise so strongly set, that if Cartes do run against it 
through negligence, the wheeles be broken, and the stone 
it selfe vnshaken. 

The cause why this stone was there set, the time when, or 
other memorie hereof, is none, but that the same hath loi^ 
continued there is manifest, namely since (or rather before) 
the conquest : for in the ende of a faire written Gospell booke 

Antiqnitie of giuen to Christes Church in Canterburie, by Ethelstane king 
on stooe. ^^ ^j^^ ^^^ Saxons, I find noted of landes or rents in London 

belonging to the sayd Church, whereof one parcell is described 
to lie neare unto London stone. Of later time we read that 
Lib. Trinitate. in the yeare of Christ 1135. the first of king Stephen^ a fire 
which began in the house of one Ailward^ neare vnto 
London stone consumed all East to Aldgate, in the which fire 

JValbrooke warde 225 

tke Prioric of the holy Trinitie was burnt, and West to S. 
Erkenwalds shrine in PauUs Church : and these be the eldest 
notes that I reade thereof. 

Some haue said this stone to be set, as a marke in the 
middle of the Citie within the walles : but in truth it standeth 
farre nearer vnto the riuer of Thames, then to the wall of the 
Citie : some others haue said the same to be set for the tender- 
ing and making of payment by debtors to their creditors, at 
their appoynted dayes and times, till of later time, payments 
were more vsually made at the Font in Poules ^ Church, and 
now most commonly at the Royall Exchange : some againe 
haue imagined the same to bee set vp by one lohn or Thomas 
Landanstone dwelling there agaynst, but more likely it is, that 
such men haue taken name of the stone, then the stone of 
them, as did lohn at Noke, Thomas at Stile, William at Wall, 
or at Well, &c. 

Downe west from this parish church, and from London 
stone, haue ye Walbrooke comer: from whence runneth vp 
a streete. North to the Stockes, called Walbrooke, because it 
standeth on | the east side of the same brooke by the banke Page 22j 
thereof, and the whole warde taketh name of that streete. On 
the east side of this streete and at the north corner thereof is 
the Stockes market, which had this b^inning. Aboute the 
yeare of Christ 128a. Henry Wales Mayor caused diuers Walbrooke 
houses in this Citty to bee builded towards the maintenance 
of London brieve: namely one void place neare vnto the 
parish Church called Woole Church, on the north side thereof, 
where sometime (the way being very large and broade) had 
stoode a payre of Stocks, for punishment of offenders, this Stocks market. 
building tooke name of these Stockes, and was appoynted by 
him to bee a market place for fish and flesh in the midst of the The middest 
city, other houses hee builded in other places, as by the patent ^ ^^' 

of Edward the first it doth appeare, dated the tenth of his 
raigne. After this in the yeare 1322. the 17. of Edivard the 
second a decree was made by Hamoftd Chickwell Mayor, that 
none should sell fish or flesh out of the markets appoynted, to 
witte Bridge street, East Cheape, Olde Fishstreete, S. Nicholas 
shambles^ and the saide Stockes vpon pain to forfeite such 

* Pontes 75^; Fonts /^j, t6^ 


226 IValbrooke warde 

fish or flesh as were sold, for the first time, and the second 
time to loose theyr freedom, which act was made by com- 
mandement of the king vnder his letters patents dated at the 
Tower the 17. of his raign, and then was this stocks let to 
farme for 46. pound, 13. shillinges, foure pence by yeare. This 
Stockes market was againe b^unne to bee builded in the 
Ro. Fabian, yeare 1410. in the 11. of Henry the fourth, and was finished in 
the yeare next following. In the yeare 1507. the same was 
rented ^f^. pounds 19. shillinges ten pence. And in the 
yeare 1543. lohn Cotes being Mayor, there was in this Stockes 
Market for Fishmongers 25. boordes or stalks, rented yearely 
to thirty foure pound thirteene shillinges foure pence, there 
was for Butchers 18. boordes or stalles, rented at one and 
forty pound, sixeteen shillinges foure pence, and there were 
also chambers aboue, sixeteene rented at fine pound, thirteene 
shillinges foure pence, in all 82.1i. 3.S. 
Parish church Next vnto this Stocks is the parrish church of S. Mary Wod 
w^'i^h"^^ h c^"''^h» so called of a Beam placed in the church yeard, which 
was thereof called Wooll Church Haw,of the Tronage,or weigh- 
ing of Wooll there vsed, and to verifie this, I find amongst 
Pait 228 the I customes of London, written in French, in the raigne of 
TroDBge or Edward the second, a Chapter intituled Les Custonus di 
wcS^ caused ^olchurch How^ wherein is set downe what was there to bee 
the church to paide for euery parcell of Wooll weighed. This Tronage or 
WooU chuTch Weighing of Woole till the sixt of Ric/iarde the second was 
H*'^- there continued, lohn Churchman then builded the Custome 

house vppon Wooll keye, to serue for the saide Tronage, as is 
before shewed in Towerstreete Warde : This church is reason- 
able fayre and large, and was lately new builded, by licence 
graunted in the 20. of Henry the sixt, with condition to bee 
builded 15. foote from the Stockes market for sparing of light 
to the same Stockes. The Parson of this church is to haue 
foure markes the yeare for tith of the said Stockes, payde him 
by the Maisters of the Bridge house, by a speciall decree made 
the seconde of Henry the seuenth. Ioh$i Wingar Grocer, 
Mayor 1504. was a great helper to the building of this church, 
and was there buried 1505. he gaue vnto it by his testament 
two large Basons of siluer and twenty pound in money, also 
Richard Shore Draper one of the Shiriffes 1505. was a great 

IValbrooke warde 227 

Benefactor in his life, and by his testament gaue 20. pound to 
make a porch at the West end thereof, and was there buried, 
Richard Hatfield of Steplemorden in Cambridgeshire lyeth 
intombed there, 1467. Edward Deoly Esquier 1467. lohn 
Hattdford Grocer, made the Font of that churchy very curiously 
wrought, painted and guilded, and was there buried: lohn 
Archer Fishmonger, 1487. Anne Cawode founded a Chauntrie 
there, &c. From the Stockes market, and this parrish Church 
East vp into Lombarde streete, some foure or fiue houses on 
a side, and also on the south side of WooU Church, haue yee 
Bearebinder lane, a parte whereof is of this Walbroke Warde, Berebindcr 
then downe lower in the streete called Walbrooke, is one other *°^* 
fayre Church of Saint Stephen latelie builded on the east side 
thereof, for the olde Church stoode on the west side, in place 
where now standeth the Parsons^e house, & therefore so much 
nearer the Brooke, euen on the Banke. Robert Chichley Mayor 
in the yeare 1428. the sixt of Henry the sixt, gaue to this Pariah church 
parrish of Saint Stephen one plot of grounde, containing 208. b^^wS^w)ke 
foote and a halfe in length and sixtie sixe foote in | bredth, Pagt 229 
thereupon tobuilde their new church, and for their church yeard : 
and in the seuenth of Henry the sixt, the saide Robert one of 
the founders laide the first stone for himselfe, the second for 
WiUiam Stondon Mayor, with whoose goodes the grounde 
that the Church standeth on, and the housing with the grounde 
of the churchyearde was bought by the said Chichley for two 
hundred markes from the Grocers, which had beene letten be* 
fore for sixe and twenty markes the yeare : Robert Whittingham 
Draper laide the thirde stone, Henry Barton then Mayor, &c. 
The sayde Chichley gaue more one hundred pound to the sayde 
worke, and bare the charges of all the timber worke on the pro- 
cession way, and layde the leade vpon it of his owne cost, he 
also gaue all the timber for the rooflfing of the two side Iles^ and 
paid for the carriage thereof. This church was finished in the 
yeare I439. the bredth thereof is sixtie seauen foote, and length 
125. foote, the church yearde ninetie foote in length, and 
thirty seauen in bredth, and more. Robert Whittingham 
(made knight of the Bath) in the yeare 1432. purchased the 
patronage of this church from lohn Duke of Bedford, vnckle 
to Henry the sixte, and Edward the fourth, in the second of 

228 JValbrooke warde 

his raigne, gaue it to Richard Lee then Mayor : There bee 
monumentes in this church of Thomas Southwell first Parson 
of this new church, who lyeth in the Quier, lohn Dunstable 
Maister of Astronomic and Musicke, in the yeare 1453. ^^^^ 
Richard Lee Mayor, who gaue the saide Patronage ^ to the 
Grocers. Rowland Hill Mayor, 1549. Sir Thomas Pope first 
Treasurer of the augmentations, with his wife Dame Margaret, 
Sir lohn Cootes Mayor, 1542. Sir John Yorke Knight, Mar- 
chaunt Taylor, 1549. Edward lackman Shiriffe, 1564, Richarde 
Achley^ Grocer, Doctor Owyn Phisition to king Henrie the 
eight, Lohn Kirkbie Grocer, 1578. and others. 

Lower downe from this parrish church bee diuers fayre 
houses namely one, wherin of late Sir Richard Baker a knight 
of Kent was lodged, and one wherein dwelled maister Thomas 
Gore a marchant famous for Hospitality. On the West side 
of this Walbrooke streete, ouer against the Stockes Market, 
Pagi2jo is I a parte of the high streete, called the Poultrie, on the 
south side west, till ouer against S. Mildredes Church, and 
the Skalding Wike is of this Ward. Then downe againe 
Walbrooke streete some small distance, is Buckles Bury, a 
Bnckles bery. Street SO called of Buckle that sometime was owner thereof, 
part of which streete, on both sides 3. or 4. houses to the 
course of the Brooke is of this Warde, and so downe Wal- 
brooke streete, to the South comer : from whence west downe 
Budge Row, some small distance to an Alley and through 
that Alley south by the west end of S. Lohns Church vpon 
Walbrooke, by the south side and east end of the same, 
againe to Walbrooke corner. This parrish church is called 
S. Lohn vpon Walbrooke, because the west end thereof is 
ionhew on the verie banke of Walbrooke, by Horshew Bridge, in 
^^tlwuT' Horshew bridge streete. This Church was also lately new 
builded : for aboute the yeare 141 2. licence was graunted by 
the Mayor and comminalty, to the Parson and Parrish, for 
the enlarging thereof, with a peece of ground on the North 
parte of the Quier, ai. foot in length, 17. foot in bredth,& 
3. inches, and on the south side of the Quier one foote of 
the common soyle. There be no monuments in this Church of 
any accounte, onely I haue lemed William Combarton Skinner, 

^ Patronage] Parsonage 160^ 

IValbrooke warde 21() 

who gaue landes to that church, was there buried, 1410. and 

lohn Stone Taylor, one of the Shiriffes, 1464, was likewise 

buried there. On the south side of Walbrooke warde from 

Candlewicke streete, in the mid way betwixte London stone, 

and Walbrooke comer, is a little lane with a turnepike in the 

middest therof, and in the same a proper parish church called 

S. Mary Bothaw, or Boatehaw, by the Erber : this church Parish church 

being neare vnto Downegate on the riuer of Thames, hath Bothaw?*^ 

the addition of Boathaw, or Boat haw, of neare adioyning to 

an haw or yeard, wherein of old time boates were made, and 

landed from Down^ate to bee mended, as may be supposed, 

for other reason I find none why it should bee so called. 

Within this Church, and the small Cloystrie adioyning, diuers 

Noblemen and persons of worshippe haue beene buried, as 

appeareth by Armes in the Windowes, the defaced Tombes, 

and printe of plates torn vp and carried away : there remayne 

onely of lohn West Esjquire, buried in the yeare \^o%. Page siji 

T/iofnas Huytley Esquire 1539. but his monument is defaced 

since, Lancelot Bathurst^ &c. The Erbar is an ancient place The Erhar. 

so called, but not of Walbrooke warde, and therefore out of 

that lane, to Walbrooke comer, and then downe till ouer against 

the south comer of Saint lolms Church vpon Walbrooke. 

And this is all that I can say of Walbrooke warde. It hath 

an Alderman, and his Deputie, common Counsellers eleuen, 

Constables nine, Scauengers sixe, for the Wardmote inquest 

thirteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene in London, 

to 33. pound, fiue shillings. 

Downegate warde 

Downegate warde boglnneth at the south end of Wal- Downgatc 
brooke warde, ouer against the East corner of Saint lohns ^*^^* 
church vpon Walbrooke, and descendeth on both the sides 
to Downegate, on the Thames, and is so called of that downe 
going or descending thereunto: and of this Downgate the 
ward taketh name. This ward turneth into Thames streete 
westwarde, some ten houses on a side to the course of Wal- 
brooke, but East in Thames streete on both sides to Ebgate 
lane, or old Swan, the lande side whereof hath many lanes 


Downegate warde 

Conduit vpon 

A lad of i8. 
yeares olde 
drowned in 
the chanell. 

Page 2)2 

chandlers hall. 

Copped hall 
now Skinners 

Six kings 
brethren with 
the Skinners 
companie in 
London, their 

turning vp, as shall bee shewed when I come to them. But 
first to begin with the high street called Dowgate, at the 
vpper ende thereof is a faire G)nduit of Thames water, castel- 
lated, and made in the year 1568. at charges of the Citizens, 
and is called the Conduit vpon Downgate. The descent of 
this streete is such that in the yeare 1574. on the fourth of 
September in the after noon there fel a storme of raine, where- 
through the channels suddenly arose, and ran with such a swift 
course towardes the common shores, that a lad of j8. yeares 
old, minding to haue leapt ouer the channell near vnto the 
said Conduit, was taken with the streame, and carried from 
thence towards the Thames with such a violence, that no man 
with staues, or otherwise could | stay him, till he came against 
a cart wheele, that stood in the said Watergate, before which 
tinie he was drowned, and starke deade. 

On the west side of this streete is the Tallow Chandlers hall, 
a proper house, which companie was incorporated in the 
second yeare of Edward the fourth. 

Somewhat lower standeth the Skinners hall, a faire house, 
which was sometime called Copped hall by Downgate, in the 
parish of Saint lohn vpon Walbrooke. In the 19. yeare of 
Edward the second, Raph Cobham possessed it with fiue 
shops, &c. 

This companie of Skinners in London were incorporate 
by Ed. the 3. in the first of his raigne : they had two brother- 
hoodes of Corpus Christi, vis. one at saint Marie Spittle, the 
other at saint Marie Bethlem without Bishops gate. Richard 
the second in the 18. of his raigne, graunted them to make 
their two Brotherhoodes one, by the name of the fratemitie 
of Corpus Christie of Skinners, diuerse royall persons were 
named to be founders and brethren of this fratemitie, to wit. 
Kings 6. Dukes 9. Earles 2. Lordes i. Kings, Edward the 
third, Richard the second, Henry the fourth, Henrie the fift, 
Henry the sixt, and Edward the fourth. This fratemitie had 
also once euery yere on Corpus Christi day after noone a Pro- 
cession, passed through the principall streetes of the Citie, 
wherein was borne more then one hundred Torches of Waxc 
(costly garnished) buming light, and aboue two hundred 
Clearkes and Priests in Surplesses and Coapes, singing. After 

Downegate warde 231 

the which were the shiriffes seruants, the Clarices of the Coun- 
ters, Chaplains for the Shiriffes, the Maiors Sargeants, the 
counsell of the Citie, the Maior and Aldermen in scarlet, and 
then the Skinners in their best Liueryes. Thus much to stoppe 
the tongues of vnthankfuU men, such as vse to aske, why haue 
yee not noted this, or that ? and giue no thankes for what is 
done. Then lower downe was a Colledge of Priestes, called 
lesus Commons^ a house well furnished with Brasse, Pewter, 
Naparie, Plate, &c. besides a faire Librarie well stored with 
bookes, all which of old time was giuen to a number of 
Priestes, that should keepe commons there, and as one left 
his place by death or otherwise, an other should be admitted 
into his roome, but this order within this thirtie years being 
discontinued, the sayde | house was dissolued, and turned to Pa^e 2jj 

Downe lower haue ye Elbow lane, and at the comer thereof Elbow lane. 
was one great stone house, called Olde hall, it is now taken 
downe, and diuerse faire houses of Timber placed there. This 
was sometime partaining to William de pont le arcky and by William de 
him giuen to the Priorie of S, Marie Query in Southwarke, in ^Jj^ **'* 
the raigne of Henrie the first. In this Elbow lane is the 
Inholders hall, and other faire houses : this lane runneth west, inholden hall. 
and suddenly tumeth south into Thames street, and therefore 
of that bending is called Elbow lane. On the East side of 
this Downgate- streete, is the great olde house before spoken 
of, called the Erber, neare to the Church of saint Marie The Erber, s. 
BotJiaw, Geffrey Scraope helde it by the gift of Edward the ^ ^^' 
third, in the 14. of his raigne : it belonged since to lohn Neuell 
Lord of Rabie, then to Richard Netul earle of Warwicke, 
Neuell Earle of Salisburie was lodged there, 1457. then it 
came to George Duke of Clarence, and his heires males, by 
the gift of Edward the fourth, in the 14. of his raigne. It 
was lately new builded by sir Thomas Pullison Maior, and 
was afterward inhabited by sir Francis Drake that famous 
Mariner. Next to this great house, is a lane turning to Bush 
lane, (of olde time called Carter lane, of carts, and Carmen 
hauing stables there) and now called Chequer lane, or Chequer 
Alley, of an Inne called the Chequer. 

In Thames streete, on the Thames side west from Downe- 

232 Downegate warde 

Greenwich gate is Grcenewitch lane of olde time so called, and now 

iSe.* ^ "^' Frier lane, of such a signe there set vp. In this lane is the 

loynen ball. loyners hall, and other faire houses. 

Gianthams Then is Granthams lane so called of John GrantJiam some 

lane. \\m^ Maior and owner thereof, whose house was very large 

and strong, builded of stone, as appeareth by gates arched yet 
remayning, Raph Dodmer^ first a Brewer, then a Mercer, 
Maior 1529. dwelled there, and kept his Maioraltie in that 
house, it is now a Brewhouse as it was afore. 

Cosin lane. Then is Dowgate whereof is spoken in another place. East 

from this Dow[n]gate is Cosin lane, named of one William 
Cosin that dwelled there, in the fourth of Richard the second, 
as diuers his predecessors, Father, Gran(d)father, &c. had done 

Page 2)4 before him. | William Cosin was one of the Shiriffes, in the 
yeare 1306. That house standeth at the south ende of the 
lane, hauing an olde and artificiall conueyance of Thames 

A gin to con- water into it, and is now a Diehouse called Lambards messuage. 

^er to Dow- Adioyning to that house, there was lately erected an engine, 

gate Conduit, to conuey Thames water vnto Downgate Conduit aforesaid. 

stelereard for Next to this lane on the East, is the Steleyard (as they 

Ahnaine." ^ terme it) a place for marchants of Almaine, that vsed to bring 
hither, as well Wheat, Rie, and other graine, as Cables, Ropes, 
Masts, Pitch, Tar, Flaxe, Hempe, Hnnin cloth, Wainscots, 
Waxe, Steele, and other profitable Marchandizes : vnto these 
Marchants in the yeare 1 259. Henry the third, at the request 
of his brother Richard earle of Comewell, king of Almaine, 
granted that all and singular the marchants, hauing a house 

Gilhala in the Citie of London, commonly called Guilda Aula 

Tlientofiicorumy should be maintained and vpholden through 
the whole Realme, by all such freedomcs, and free vsages or 
liberties, as by the king and his noble progenitors time they 
had, and inioyed, &c. Edward the first renued and confirmed 
that charter of Liberties granted by his Father. And in the 
tenth yeare of the same Edward^ Hettrie Wales being Maior, 
a great controuersie did arise betweene the said Maior, and 
the marchants of the Haunce of Almaine, about the repara- 
tions of Bishopsgate, then likely to fall, for that the said 
marchants inioyed diuerse priuiledges, in respect of maintain- 
ing the saide gate, which they now denied to rcpaire : for the 


Downegate warde 233 

appeasing of which controuersie the king sent his writ to the 
Treasurer and Barons of his Exchequer, commaunding that 
they should make inquisition thereof, before whom the Mar- 
chants being called, when they were not able to discharge 
themselues, sith they inioyed the liberties to them granted 
for the same, a precept was sent to the Maior, and shiriifes, to 
distraine the said marchants to make reparations, namely 
Gerard Marbod Alderman of the Haunce, Ralph de Cussarde 
a Citizen of Colen, Ludero de Deneuar^ a Burges of Triuar, 
Fohn of Aras^ a Burges of Triuon, Bartram of Hatnburdge^ 
Godestalke of Hundondale, a Burges of Triuon, lohn de Dele 
a Burges of Munstar, then remaining in the said Citie of 
London: for themselues, and all other marchants of the 
Haunce, and so they granted | 210. markes sterling, to tht Pas^ejjs 
Maior and Citizens, and vndertooke that they and their suc- 
cessors should from time to time repayre the said gate, and 
beare the third part of the charges in money, and men to 
defend it when neede were. And for this agreement, the 
said Maior and Citizens granted to the said Marchants their Marchaotes of 
liberties which till of late they haue inioyed, as namely ^fJ^in^Hoen- 
amongst other, that they might lay vp their graine which they led to Uy vp 
brought into this realme, in Innes, and sell it in their Gamers, ^ji^eny but to 
by the space of fortie dayes after they had laid it vp : except ^^'^ yiiihm 
by the Maior and Citizens they were expresly forbidden, 
because of dearth or other reasonable occasions. Also they 
might haue their Aldermen as they had beene accustomed, 
foreseene alwayes that he were of the Citie, and presented to 
the Maior and Aldermen of the Citie, so oft as any should 
be chosen, and should take an oath before them to maintaine 
iustice in their Courts, and to behaue themselues in their 
office according to law, and as it stoode with the customes of 
the Citie. Thus much for their priuiledges: whereby it 
appeareth, that they were great Marchants of come brought 
out of the East parts hither, in so much that the occupiers of 
husbandry in this land were inforced to complaine of them for 
bringing in such abundance, when the come of this realme was 
at an ea^e price : wherupon it was ordained by Parliament, 
that no person should bring into any part of this Realme by 
way of Marchandise, Wheate, Rie or Barly, growing out of 


Downegate warde 

Act of Parlia- 
ment forbid- 
ding come to 
be brought 
from beyond 

Page 2)6 



Stilliard put 

the said Realme, when the quarter of wheate exceeded not 
the price of 6. shillings 8. pence, Rie 4. s. the quarter, and 
Barley 3. s. the quarter, vpon forfeyture the one halfe to the 
king, the other halfe to the seasor thereof. These marchants 
of Haunce had their Guild hall in Thames street in place 
aforesaid, by the said Cosin lane. Their hall is large, builded 
of stone, with three arched gates towards the street, the 
middlemost whereof is farre bigger then the other, and b 
seldome opened, the other two be mured vp, the same is now 
called the old hall. 

Of later time, to wit, in the sixt of Richard the second, they 
hyred one house next adioyning to their old hall, which some- 
time belonged to Richard Lions a famous Lapidarie, one of 
the Shiriffes of London, in the 49. of Edward the third, and 
in the 4. of Richard the second, by the rebels of Kent, 
drawne out of that house | and beheaded in west Cheape : this 
also was a great house with a large wharfe on the Thames, and 
the way thereunto was called Windgoose, or Wildgoosc lane, 
which is now called Windgoose Alley, for that the same Alley 
is for the most part builded on by the Stilyard Marchants. 

The Abbot of S. Albons had a messuage here with a Key 
giuen to him in the 34. of Henrie the 6, Then is one other 
great house which somtime pertained to lohn RainweU 
Stockfishmonger, Maior, and it was by him giuen to the Maior, 
and communaltie to the ende that the profites thereof should 
be disposed in deedes of pietie: which house in the 15. of 
Edward the fourth, was confirmed vnto the sayd Marchants 
in manner following, vz, * It is ordayned by our soueraigne 
Lord and his Parliament, that the sayd Marchants of Almaine, 
being of the companie called the Guildhall Teutonicorum (or 
the Flemish Geld) that now bee or hereafter shall be, shall 
haue, hold and enioy to them and their successors for euer, 
the said place called the stele house, yeelding to the Maior 
and communaltie an annuall rent of 70. pound, 3. shillings 
foure pence, &c.' 

In the yeare 1551. and the fift oi Edward ^t. sixt, through 
complaint of the English marchants, the| libertie of the 
Stilliard Marchants was seised into the kings hands, and so 
it resteth. 

Downegate warde 235 

Then is Church lane, at the west end of Alhallowcs church Church lane, 
called Alhallowes the more in Thames strecte, for a difference or^h^kJI^ 
from Alhallowes the lesse in the same street : it is also called ^^ »««• 
Alhallowes ad fosnum in the Ropery, because hay (was) sold 
neare thereunto at hay wharfe, and ropes of old time made 
and solde in the high street. This is a faire Church with a 
large cloyster on the south side thereof about their Church- 
yard, but foulely defaced and ruinated. 

The church also hath had many faire monuments^ but now 
defaced : there remaineth in the Quier some Plates on graue 
stones, namely of WiUiam Lichfield, Doctor of Diuinitie, who 
deceased the yeare 1448, hee was a great student, and com- 
piled many bookes both moral and diuine, in prose and in 
verse, namely one intituled the complaint of God vnto sinfull 
man. He made in his time 3083. Sermons, as appeared by 
his owne hand writing | and were found when hee was dead. Pas^ ^i? 
One other plate there is of lohn Brickies Draper, who deceased 
in the yeare 1437. he was a great benefactor to that Church, 
and gaue by his testament certaine tenements, to the reliefe 
of the poore, &c. Nicholas Louen and William Peston founded 
Chaunteries there. 

At the East end of this Church goeth downe a lane called Hay wharfe 
Hay wharfe lane, now lately a great Brewhouse, builded there 
by one Pot : Henrie Campion Elsquire, a Beerebrewer vsed it, 
and Abraham his sonne now possesseth it. Then was there 
one other lane, sometime called Wolses gate ', now out of vse, Woiscy lane. 
for the lower part therof vpon the bank of Thames is builded 
(vpon) * by the late Earle of Shrewsburie, and the other end 
is builded on and stopped vp by the Chamberlaine of London. 
lohn Butler Draper, one of the Shirifies, in the yeare 1420. 
dwelled there : he appoynted his house to be sold, & the 
price therof to be giuen to the poor : it was of Alhallowes 
parish the lesse. Then is there the said parish church of Parish church 
Alhallowes called the lesse, and by some Alhallowes on the \y^^ ici.^^^ 
cellers, for it standeth on vaults, it is said to be builded by sir 
lohi Poultney^ sometimes Maior. The Steeple and Quire of 
this Church standeth on an arched gate, being the entrie to a 

* Woolseys Lane 163J ' vpon add, 1398 

236 Downegate warde 

Cold Har> great house called Cold Harbrough : the Quire of late being 
"*°*^ fallen downe, is now againe at length in the yeare 1594. by the 

parishioners new builded. Touching this Cold Harbrough, 
I find that in the 13. of Edward the a. sir John Abel knight 
demised or let vnto Henrie Stow Draper, all that his capital! 
messuage called the Cold Harbrough, in the Parish of AU 
Saints adfcenum^ and all the purtenances within the gate, with 
the key which Robert Hartford Citizen, sonne to William 
Hartford, had, and ought, and the foresaid Robert paid for 
it the rent of ^^. shillings the yeare. This Robert Hartford 
being owner thereof, as also of other lands in Surrey, deceasing 
without issue male, left two daughters his co-he)nres, to wit, 
Idonia^ maried to sir Raph Bigoty and Maude maried to sir 
Steplten Cosenton knights, betweene whom the sayd house and 
lands were parted. After the which fohn Bigot sonne to the 
said sir Raphy and sir lohn Cosenton, did sell their moities of 
Cold Harbrough vnto lohn Poultney, sonne of Adam Poultney 
the 8. o{ Edward the third. This sir lohn Poultney dwelling 

Page 2js in I this house, and being foure times Maior, the said house 
tooke the name of Poultneys Inne. Notwithstanding this sir 
lohn Poultney the 21. of Edward the 3. by his Charter gauc 
and confirmed to Humphrey de Bohune Earle of Hereford and 
Essex, his whole tenement called Cold Harbrough, with all 
the tenements and key adioyning, and appurtenances some- 
time pertaining to Robert de Herford, on the way called Hay 
wharfe lane, &c. for one Rose at Midsommer, to him and to 
his heyres for all seruices, if the same were demaunded. This 
sir lohn Poultney deceased 1 349. and left issue by Margaret 
his wife, William Poultney, who died without issue, and 
Margaret his mother was married to sir Nichoku Louell 
knight, &c. Philip S, Cleare gaue two messuages pertaining 
to this Cold Harbrough in the Roperie, towardes the inlargii^ 
of the Parish church, and churchyard of All Saints, called the 
lesse, in the 20. of Richard the second. 

In the yeare 1397. the ai. of Richard the second, lohn 
Holland Earle of Huntington was lodged there, and Richard 
the 2. his brother dined with him^ it was then counted a right 
fayre and stately house, but in the next yeare following, I find 
that Edmofid Earle of Cambridge was there lodged, notwith- 

DoTpnegate warde 237 

standing the saide house still retained the name of Patdtmys 
Inne, in the raigne of Henrie the sixt, the 26. of his raigne. 
It belonged since to H. Holland duke of Excester, and he was 
lodged there in the yeare 147a. In the yeare 1483. Richard 
the third by his letters Patents granted and gaue to lohn 
Writh^ alias Garter^ principall king of Armes of English men, 
and to the rest of the kings Heraulds and Purseuants of Armes, 
all that messuage with the appurtenances, called Cold Harber 
in the parish of All saints the little in London, and their 
successors for euer. Dated at Westminster y* 2. of March 
anno regnifrimo without fine or fee : how the said Heraulds 
departed therewith I haue not read, but in the raigne oliHenrie ^ * 
the eight, the Bishop of Durhams house neare Charing crosse, 
being taken into the kings hand, Cuthbert Tunstal Bishop 
of Durham was lodged in this Cold Harber, since the which 
time it hath belonged to the Earles of Shrewsburie by com- 
position (as is supposed) from the said Cuthbert TunstalL The 
last deceased Earle tooke it downe, and in place thereof 
builded a great number of smal | tenements now letten out for Page 2j^ 
great rents, to people of all sortes. 

Then is the Diers Hall, which companie was made a brother- The Dyers 
hood or Guild, in the fourth of Henriethe sixt, and appoynted 
to consist of a gardian or Warden, and a communaltie the 12. 
Edward the 4. Then bee there diuerse laige Brewhouses, 
and others, till you come to Ebgate lane, where that ward 
endeth in the East. On the North side of Thames street be 
diuers lanes also, the first is at the south end of Elbow lane 
before spoken of, west from Downegate, ouer against Green- 
wich lane : then be diuerse fayre houses for Marchants and 
others all along that side. The next lane East from Downe- 
gate, is called Bush lane, which tumeth vp to Candlewicke Bnsb lane. 
streete, and is of Downegate warde. Next is Suifolke lane, Snfiblke lane, 
likewise turning vp to Candlewicke streete, in this lane is one 
notable Grammar schoole, founded in the yeare 1561. by the Marchont 
master, wardens, and assistants of the Marchant taylers in the 2^^. 
parish of Saint Laurence Paultney. Richard Hilles sometime 
master of that companie, hauing before giuen 500. pound 
towards the purchase of an house, called the Mannor of the The Manner 
Rose, sometime belonging to the Duke of Buckingham, wherein °^ *^* ^®**' 

238 Downegate warde 

the said schoole is kept. Then is there one other lane which 

SjLaurence tumeth vp to saint Laurence hill, and to the southwest comer 

Poultney lane, of S. Laureftce churchyard : then one other lane called Paultnej 

lane, that goeth vp of this ward to the southeast comer of 

Saint Laurence churchyard, and so downe againe, and to the 

west corner of S. Martin Orgar lane, and ouer against Ebgate 

^3- wardet on Janc : and this is all of Downgate ward, the 13. in number 

of walbrooke, lying East from the water course of Walbrook, and hath not 

not hauing ^ny ^^e house On the west side of the said brooke. It hath an 

one noose on /^ 

the west of the Alderman, his Deputie, common Counsellors nine, Constables 

laid brook, ^jgj^^^ Scauengers fiue, for the Wardmote inquest fourteene, and 

a Beedle, it is taxed to the fiiteene eight and twentie pound. | 

Page 240 Wards on the west side of Walbrooke, and 

first of Vintry ward 

Ward* on ihc NoW I am to speake of the other wardes, 1%, in number, all 
brooke, and* lying on the west side of the course of Walbrooke : and first of 
^'^^ V"»^* the Vintry ward, so called of Vintners, and of the Vintrie, a parte 
of the banke of the Riuer of Thames, where the marchants of 
Burdeaux craned their wines out of Lighters, and other 
vessels, & there landed and made sale of them within forty 
dales after, vntil the 28. of Edward the first, at which time the 
said marchants complained that they could not sell their wines, 
paying poundage, neither hire houses or sellers to lay them in, 
and it was redressed by virtue of the kings writ, directed to 
the Maior and shiriifes of London, dated at Carlaueroke (or 
Carlile) since the which time many faire and large houses with 
vaults and cellers for stowage of wines and lodging of the 
Burdeaux marchants haue been builded in place, where before 
time were Cookes houses : for Fitzstephen in the raigne of 
Henrie the a. writeth that vpon the riuers side betweene the 
wine in ships, and the wine to be sold in tauems, was a com- 
mon cookerie or Cookes row, &c. as in another place I haue 
set downe : whereby it appeareth that in those dayes (and till 
Euerie man of late time) etiery man liued by his professed trade, not any 
io^a^fprn- ^^® interrupting an other. The cookes dressed meate,and 
feswd trade, sold no wine, and the Tauemer sold wine, but dressed no 
meate for sale, &c. 

Vintry warde 239 

This warde beginneth in the East, at the west end of 
Downegate ward, as the water course of Walbrooke parteth 
them, to wit at Granthams lane on the Thames side, and at 
Elbow lane on the land side: it runneth along in Thames 
streete west, some three houses beyond the olde Swanne 
a Brewhouse, and on the lande side some three houses west, 
beyond Saint lames at Garlicke Hith. In bredth this ward 
stretcheth from the Vintry north to the wall of the West Gate 
of the Tower Royall : the other | North part is of Cordwayner Page 241 
streete warde. Out of this Royall streete by the South gate 
of Tower Royall runneth a small streete. East to S. lohnsw^an 
Walbrooke, which streete is called Horshew bridge, of such Honhew 
a bridge sometime ouer the brooke there, which is now vaulted Kni^tri^*^* 
ouer. Then from the sayd south gate west, runneth one other streete. 
streete, called Knight riders streete, by S. Thomas Apostles 
church, on the north side, and Wring^wren lane^ by the said 
Church, at the west end thereof, and to the East end of the 
Trinitie Church in the said Knightriders streete, where this 
ward endeth on that south side the street : but on the north 
side it runneth no farther then the corner against the new 
buildedTaueme, and other houses, in a plot of ground, where 
sometime stood Ormond place, yet haue yee one other lane 
lower downe in Royall streete, stretching from ouer against 
S. Michaels church, to, and by the North side of S. lames 
church by Garlicke Hith, this is called Kerion lane, and thus Kerion lane. 
much for the bounds of Vintrie ward. Now on the Thames 
side west from Granthams lane, haue ye Herber lane, or Brikels Harber lane, 
lane, so called of lohn Brikels^ sometime owner thereof. ^^ e s ane. 

Then is Simpsons lane, of one Simpson or Emperors head Simpsons lane. 
lane of such a signe : then the three Cranes lane, so called Painted Ta- 
not onely of a signe of three Cranes at a Taueme doore, but c^Timc^ 
rather of three strong Cranes of Timber placed on the Vintrie 
wharfe by the Thames side, to crane vp wines there, as is 
afore shewed : this lane was of old time, to wit, the 9. of 
Richard tYit 2. called the painted Taueme lane, of the Tauerne 
being painted. 

Then next ouer against S. Martins Church, is a large house The Vintrie 
builded of stone and timber, with vaults for the stowage ^*~"*' 
of wines, and is called the Vintrie. There dwelled John 

240 Vinfry warde 

Gisers Vintner, Maior of London, and Constable of the 

Tower, and then was Henry Picard^ Vintner, Maior. In this 

house Henrie Picard feasted some foure kings in one day 

(as in my Summarie I haue shewed). Then next is Vanners 

Vanner lane, lane, SO called of one Vannar that was owner therof^ it is 

or church lane ^^^ called church lane, of the comming vp from the wharfe 

Brode lane, to S. Martins church. Next is Brode lane, for that the same 

is broder for the passage of Carts from the Vintrie warfe, 

then be the other lanes. At the northwest comer of this lane 

A? »4^ is the I parish Clearks hall, lately by them purchased, since 

hall. they lost their old hall in Bishopsgate street. Next is Spittle 

Spittle Une or lane of old time so called, since Stodies lane of the owner 

Stodies lane. * 

thereof, named Stodie. Sir lohn Stodie^ Vintner, Maior in 

The Vintnars the yeare 1 357, gaue it with all the Quadrant wherein Vintners 

hall now standeth, with the tenements round about vnto the 

Vintners: the Vintners builded for themsdues a faire hall, 

Almeshouses and also 1 3. Almes houses there for 13. poore people, which 

of the Vint- a^g 1^ t Qf charitie, rent free. 

ners. ^ ' 

Marchant The Vintners in London were of old time called marchants 

Vintners of Gascoyne, and so I read them in the Records 
of Edward the 2. the 1 1. yeare, and Edward the diird the 
ninth yeare, they were as well English men, as straungers 
borne beyond the Seas, but then subiects to the kings of 
England, g^eat Burdeous Marchants of Gascoyne, and French 
wines, diuers of them were Maiors of this Citie, namely lokn 
Adrian Vintner, Reignold at Conduit, lohn Oxenford^ Hen, 
Picard^ that feasted the kings of England, France, Scotland 
& Cypres, lohn Stodie that gaue Stodies lane to the Vintners, 
which 4. last named were Maiors in the raigne of Edward the 
third, and yet Gascoyne wines were then to be sold at London, 
not aboue 4.d. nor Rhenish wine aboue 6.d. the Gallon. I reade 
of sweet wines, that in the 50. of Edward the 3. lohn Peackii 
Fishmonger was accused, for that he procured a licence for 
the onely sale of them in London, which notwithstanding he 
iustified by law : he was imprisoned and fined. More I reade 
that in the sixt of Henrie tihe sixt, the Lombards corrupting 
their sweete wines, when knowledge thereof came to lekn 
Raiftwell Maior of London, he in diuerse places of the Citie 
commanded the heades of the buts and other vessek in the 

Vintry warde 241 

open streetes to be broken, to the number of 150, so that the 
h'quour running forth, passed through the Cittie like a streame 
of raine water, in the sight of all the people, from whence 
there issued a most loathsome sauour. 

I reade in the raigne of Henrie the seuenth, that no sweete 
wines were brought into this realm but Malmesies by the 
longabards, paying to y* king for his licence 6.s. 8.d. of euery 
but, besides I2.d. for bottel lai^e. I remember within this 
,54. yeres, Malmsey not to be solde more then i.d. ob. the 
pint For proofe whereof, it | appeareth in the Church booke Pjtge 243 
of S. Andrew Vndershafie^ that in the yeare 1547. /. G. and 
S.K. then Churchwardens, for Lxxx. pintes of Maluesey^ spent 
in the Church, after i.d. ob. the pinte, payde at the yeares end 
for the same ten shillinges : more I remember that no Sackes 
were solde, but Rumney, and that for medicine more then 
for drinke, but now many kinds of sackes are knowne and 
vscd, and so much for Wines. For the Vintrey, to end there- 
with, I reade that in the raigne of Henry the fourth, the yong 
Prince Henry y T. Duke of Clarence, /. Duke of Bedford, and 
Humfrey Duke of Glocester the Kinges sonnes, being at The kings sons 
supper amongst the Marchantes of London in the Vintrey, vtotrie/*^ ^^* 
in the house of Lewes lohn^ Henry Scogan sent to them H. Scogtn. 
a Ballad beginning thus, 

My noble sonnes and eke my Lords deare^ 
I yotir Fatfier^ called vnworthily^ 
Setid vnto yot$y this ballad following here^ 
Written with mine own hand full rudely ^ 
Although it be that I not reuerenily 
Hone written to your estates^ I you pray 
Mine vncunning taketh benignely^ 
For Gods sake^ and hearken what I say. 

Then follow in like meeter 23. staues, contayning a per- 
swasion from loosing of time, follilie in lust and vice, but to 
spende the same in vertue and godlines, as yee may reade in 
Geffrey Chawcer his workes lately printed. The successors Chaucer, fol. 
of those Vintners and wine drawers that retayled by the ^^ * ^^^' 
Gallon, pottell, quart and pinte, were all incorporated by the 

* Maluesey] 1603 ; Malmsey Thorns 


242 Vintry warde 

wine tiuincrs name of wine tunners, in the raigne of Edward the third, and 
{S^^6. confirmed the 15. of He$iry the 6. 

Palmers lane Next IS Palmcrs lane, now called Anchor lane: the plum- 
Plramers*"* mers haue their Hall there, but are tenantcs to the Vintners. 
^*^*- , Then is Worcester house, sometimes belonging to the Earles 

woister novse __ mm^ 

Kre^tcrere of Worcester, now diuided into many Tenementes. The Fni- 

oidi Swannc. ^^^^^^ ^^^"^ ^^^'^ ^^^ ^'^xft. Then is the Old Swan, a great 
Brew house. And this is all on the Thames side, that I can 
note in this Ward. 
paternoster Qn the land side is the royall streete and Pater nasUt 
Pagi 244 Lane, | I thinke of olde time called Arches, for I reade that 
0^m\ ^"""^ Robert de Suffolke gaue to Walter de Farda^ his tenement with 
the purtenance in the lane, called Lis Arches in the parish of 
S. Michael de pater fioster church, betweene the Wal of the 
^ Selde called Winchester Seld ^ on the East, and the same 
on the West, &c. More, I reade of a Stone house called 
Selda ^ de Winton^ iuxta Stefiden bridge^ which in that Lane 
was ouer Walbrooke water. Then is the fayre parish church 
Parrish church of S. Michael Called Pater noster church in the Royal, this 
J^VJfJ^^^* church was new builded and made a coUedge of S. Spirit, 
CoUedgeone and S. Mary^ founded by Richard Whitington Mercer, 
HospiuU. ° 4' times Mayor, for a maister, 4. fellowes maisters of art, 
clearks, conducts, chorists, &c. and an almes house called 
Gods house, or hospitall for thirteene poore men, one of 
them to be tutor, and to have xvi.d. the weeke, the other 
twelue each of them to have xiiii.d. the weeke for eucr, 
with other necessary prouisions, an hutch with three lockes, 
a common scale, &c. These were bounde to pray for the 
R. Wtiitineton good estate of Richard Whitington and Alice his wfe their 
mwnlton ' founders, and for Sir William Whitifigton Knight, and Dame 
knight. loan his wife, and for Hugh Fitzwaren^ and Dame Molde his 

wife, the fathers and mothers of the saide Richarde Whitington 
and Alice his wife, for king Richard the second, and Thomas 
of Woodstocke, Duke of Glocester, speciall Lordes and Pro- 
moters of the saide Richarde Whitingtofi^ &c. The licence 
for this foundation was graunted by king Henry the fourth, 
the eleuenth of his raigne, and in the twelfth of the same 

' de Forda] Dar/ard i6oj *-' ficlde called Winchester field 160J 

* SMa] Stoda i6jj 

Viniry warde 243 

kinges raign the Mayor and Commonalty of London graunted 
to Richarde Whiti$igtan a vacant peece of grounde, thereon 
to build his CoUedge in the Royall, all which was confirmed 
by Henry the sixt, the third of his raigne, to lohn Couentrie^ 
lenkin Carpenter and William Groue Executors to Richard 
Wkitingtan. This foundation was againe confirmed by Par- 
liament, the tenth of Henry the sixt, and was suppressed by 
the statute of Edward the sixt. 

The Almes houses with the poore men do remayne, and Richard 
are paide by the Mercers : this Richarde Whitingtan was in Jh^^^. 
this Church three times buried, first by his Executors vnder 
a fayre monument, then in the raigne of Edward the 6. the 
Parson of that Church, thinking some great riches (as he 
said) to bee buried | witH him, caused his monument to bee Pa^ 24s 
broken, his body to be spoyled of his Leaden sheet, and 
againe the second time to bee buried : and in the raigne of 
Queene Mary^ the parishioners were forced to take him vp, 
to lap him in lead, as afore, to bury him the thirde time, and 
to place his monument, or the like, ouer him again, which 
remayneth and so hee resteth. Thofnas Windfard, Alderman, 
was buried in this church, 1448. Arpiold Macknam Vintner, 
a Marchant of Burdious, 1457. Sir Hecre Tanke^ or Hartan- 
cleux Knight of the Garter, borne in Almayne, a Noble 
Warriour in Henry the fift, and Henry the sixt dayes. Sir 
Ednto^id Midshew'K.mghXy neare to Thonias Cokhant Recorder 
of London, the Lady Kynte^ Sir William OldftaU knight, 1460. 
William Barnocke^ Sir lohn Yong Grocer, Mayor 1466, Agnes 
daughter to Sir lohn Yong^ first married to Robert Sherington^ 
after to Robert MuUeneux^ then to William Cheyney Esquier, 
lohn Hauing Gentleman, William Roswell Esquier, William 
Postar Clearke of the Crowne, 1520. Sir William Bayly y 
Draper, Mayor 1533. w*^'* Dame Katheren his wife, leauing 
xvi. children. lohn Haydon mercer, ShirifTe 1582. who gaue 
L^acies to the 13. Almes men, and otherwise for a Lecture. 

At the vpper end of this streete, is the Tower Royall, Tower RoyaU 
whereof that streete taketh name : this Tower and great place Hlmly the k* 
was so called, of pertayning to the kinges of this Realme, as may be sup- 
but by whome the same was first builded, or of what antiquity §^^ was 

continued, I hauc not read, more then that in the raigne of ^<><4c^ ***«"• 

R 1 

244 Vintry warde 

Edward the first, the second, fourth and seuenth yeares, it 
was the tenement of Symon Beawmes^ also that in the 36 of 
Edward the 3. the same was called the Royall, in the parrish 
of S. Michael de paternoster^ & that in the 43. of his raigne, hee 
gaue it by the name of his Inne, called the Royall in the 
cittie of London, in value xx.l. by yeare, vnto his Colledge of 
S. Stephen at Westminster : notwithstanding in the raigne of 
Richard the second it was called the Queenes Wardrope, aj 
appeareth by this that followeth, king Richards hauing in 
Smithfield ouercome and dispersed his Rebels, hee, his Lordes 
and all his Company, entered the Citty of London, with great 
Page 246 ioy, and went to the Lady Princes his mother, who was | then 
The Lady lodged in the Tower Royall, called the Queenes Wardrope, 
riTtheTawir^ where shee had remayned three dayes and two nightes, right 
Royall. sore abashed, but when shee saw the king her sonne, she was 

greatelie reioyced and saide. Ah sonne, what great sorrow 
haue I suffered for you this day. The king aunswered and 
saide, certainely Madam I know it well^ but now reioyce, and 
thanke God, for I haue this day recouered mine heritage, and 
the Realme of England, which I had neare hand lost 
Frosarde. This Tower seemeth to haue beene at that time of good 

defence, for when the Rebels had beset the Tower of London, 
and got possession thereof, taking from thence whome they 
listed, as in mine Annales I haue shewed, the princesse being 
forced to flye came to this Tower Royall, where shee was 
lodged and remayned safe as yee haue heard, and it may bee 
also supposed that the king himselfe was at that time lodged 
there. I read that in the yeare 1386. Lyon king of Armonie, 
being chased out of his Realme by the Tartarians, receyued 
King Richard innumerable giftes of the King and of his Nobles, the king 
T^^Ro^ii. *«" ^>^"g *" *® Royall, where hee also granted to the saide 
king of Armonie, a Charter of a thousand poundes by yeare 
during his life. This for proofe may suffice, that kinges of 
England haue beene lodged in this Tower, though the same 
of later time haue been neglected and turned into stabling for 
the kinges horses, and now letten out to diuers men, and 
diuided into Tenements. 
CntlanhalL In Horsebridge streete is the Cutlars Hall. Richard Ji 
Wilehale 1295. confirmed to Paule Butelar this house and 

Vintry warde 245 

edifices in the parrish of S. Michaell pater noster church, and 

S. Johns vpon Walbrooke, which sometime Lawrens Gisors^ 

and his sonne Peter Gisars did possesse, and afterward 

Hugo de Hingham^ and lyeth betweene the Tenement of 

the saide Richard towardes the south, and the lane called 

Horshew bridge towards the north, and betweene the waye 

called pater noster Church on the West, and the course of 

Walbrooke on the East, paying yearely one cloue of Gereflowers 

at Easter, and to the Prior and Couent of Saint Mary 

Query, 6.s. This house sometime belonged to Simon Dolesly 

Grocer, Mayor 1359. They of this Company were of olde 

time three Artes, or sortes of Workemen, to wit, the first | were Page 24y 

Smithes^ Forgers of Blades, and therefore called Bladers, and 

diuerse of them prooued wealthie men^ as namely Walter 

Nele, Blader, one of the Shiriflfes, the 12. of Edward the 3. Biadersor 

deceased .135a. and buried in Saint lames Garlicke /////^ . B»^<Je smithes. 

hee left lands to the mending of high wayes about London, 
betwixt Newgate and Wicombe, Aldgate and Chelmesford, 
Bishopsgate and Ware, Southwarke and Rochester, &c. The 
second were makers of Haftes, and otherwise garnishers of 
Blades : the third sort were Sheathmakers for swords, daggers, Haftemakers. 
and kniues. In the 10. of Henrie the 4. certaine ordinances "* ^"* 
were made betwixt the Bladers, and the other Cutlers, and in 
the 4. of Henrie the 6, they were all three Companies drawne 
into one fratemitie, or brotherhood, by the name of Cutlers. 

Then is Knight riders streete, so called (as is supposed) of Knightriden 
Knights well armed and mounted at the Tower Royall, **^*^*^* 
ryding from thence through that street, west to Creede lane, 
and so out at Ludgate towards Smithfield, when they were 
there to tumey, iust, or otherwise to shew actiuities before the 
king and states of the Realme. In this streete is the parish 
Church of saint Thofnas Apostles, by Wringwren lane, a Wringwien 
proper Church, but monuments of antiquitie be there none, p^^ churoh 
except some Armes in the windowes, as also in the stone of S.Thomas 
worke, which some suppose to be of lohn Barns Mercer^ Maior ^ ^ ^^^ ^' 
of London in the yere 1371. a great builder thereof, H, Caus^ 
ton, Marchant, was a benefactor, and had a Chantrie there 
about 1396, 71 Roman Maior 13 10. had also a Chantrie there 
1319. Fitzwilliams also a benefactor, had a Chantry there. 

246 Vintry warde 

More, sir William Litilesbery, alias Home^ (for king Ed. the 4. 
so named him) because he was a most excellent blower in 
a home, he was a Salter^ and Marchant of the staple, Maior 
of London in the 3'eare 1487. and was buried in this Church, 
hauing appointed by his testament the Bels to bee chaunged 
for foure new Bels of good tune and sound, but that was not 
performed : he gauc 500. marks to the repayring of high waics 
betwixt London and Cambridge, his dwelling house, with a 
Garden, and appurtenances in the said parish to be sold, and 
bestowed in charitable actions, as his executors would answer 
before God : his house called the George in Bredstreete he 
Page 24S gaue to the Saltars, they to find a Priest in the | said Church, 
^^^J^g to haue six pound thirteene shillings foure pence the ycare, 
giuen to the to euery preacher at Paules Crosse, and at the Spittle 4. pence 
conditioM not ^^^ euer, to the Prisoners of Newgate, Ludgate, Marshalsey, 
performed. ^nd Kings bench, in victuals ten shillings at Christmas, and 
ten shillings at Easter for euer, which legacies are not per- 
formed. William Skip fatty William Champneis and lohn 
de Burfordy had Chauntries there, lohn Martin Butcher, (Mic 
of the ShirifTs, was buried there 1 533 &c. Then west from 
the said Church on the same side, was one great messuage, 
ipris inne. sometime called Ipris Inne, of William of Ipris ^ a Fleming, 
the first builder thereof. This William was called out of 
Flanders, with a number of Fleniings to the aide of kii^ 
Stephen y agaynst Maude the Empresse, in the yeare 1138. 
and grew in fauour with the said king for his seruice, so farre 
that he builded this his house neare vnto Tower royall, in the 
King Stephen which Tower it seemeth the king was then lodged, as in the 
Tower Royal, heart of the Citie, for his more safetie. 

Robert Earle of Glocester, brother to the Empresse, being 
taken, was committed to the custodie of this WiUiam to be 
kept in the Castell of Rochester, till king Stephen was also 
taken, and then the one was deliuered in exchange for the 
other, and both set free : this William of Ipres gaue Edredcs 
Hith, now called the Queenes Hith, to the Prior and Cbanons 
of the holy Trinitie in London : he founded the Abbay of 
Boxley in Kent, &c. In the first of Henrie the second, the 
saide William with all the other Flemmings, fearing the 
^ Ipris Inne, so called of William of Ipres /Jpi^. 

Vintry warde 247 

indignation of the new king departed the land, but it seemeth 
that the saide William was shortly called backe againe, and 
restored both to the kings fauour, and to his olde possessions 
here, so that the name and familie continued long after in this 
realme, as may appeare by this which followeth. In the 
yeare 1377. the 51. of Edward the third, the Citizens of 
London minding to haue destroyed lohn of Gaunt^ Duke of 
Lancaster, and Henrie Percie Marshall, (for causes shewed in 
my Annales) sought vp and downe, and could not find them, 
for they were that day to dine with lohn of Ipres at his Inne, 
which the Londoners wist not of, but thought the Duke and 
Marshall had beene at the Sauoy, and therefore poasted 
thither: but one of the Dukes knights seeing these things, 
came in great hast to the place where | the Duke was, and Pf^ »49 
after that he had knocked and could not bee let in, he said to 
Haueland the Porter, if thou loue my Lord and thy life, open 
the gate : with which wordes he gat entry, and with great 
feare he tels the Duke, that without the gate were infinite 
numbers of armed men, and vnlesse he tooke great heede, 
that day would be his last: with which wordes the Duke 
leapt so hastily from his Oisters^ that hee hurt both his l^ges 
against the forme : wine was offered, but he could not drinke 
for haste, and so fled with his fellow Hefirie Percie out at 
a backe gate, and entering the Thames, neuer stayed rowing, 
vntill they came to a house neare the Mannor of Kenington, Kenington 
where at that time the Princesse lay with Richard the yong hith.^ 
Prince, before whom hee made his complaint, &c. On the 
other side, I reade of (a) Messuage called Ringed hall, king 
Henrie the eight the 3:2. of his raigne, gaue the same with 
foure tenements adioyning vnto Morgan Philips alias Wolfe^ 
in the Parish of Saint Thomas Apostles in London, &c. 

Ouer against Ipres Inne in Knight riders streete at the comer 
towards S. lames at Garlicke Hith, was sometime a g^eat 
house builded of stone, and called Ormond place, for that it Onnond place. 
sometimes belonged to the Earles of Ormond. King Edward 
the 4. in the fifth of his raigne, gaue to Elizabeth his wife the 
Mannor of Greenwitch with the Tower and Parke in the 
Countie of Kent. He also gaue this tenement called Ormond 
place with all the appurtenances to the same, scituate in the 

248 Vintry warde 

parish of saint Trinitie in Knightriders streete in London. 

This house is now lately taken downe, and diuerse faire 

Tenements are builded there, the comer house whereof is 

a Taueme. Then lower downe in Royall streete, is Kerion 

Kerion lane, lane, of one Kirion sometime dwelling there. In this lane be 

diuers faire houses for Marchants, and amongest others is the 

Glasiare hall. Glasiers hall. At the south comer of Royall streete, is the faire 

Parish church parish Church of saint Martin called in the Vintrie, sometime 

Sie Vintrie. ^ called saint Martin de Beremand church. This church was 

new builded about the yeare 1399. by the executors olMathew 

Lib. Trinitate ColumboTs a Stranger borne, a Burdeaux Marchant of Gascoyne 

London. ^^^ French wines, his armes remaine yet in the East Window, 

Pagi 2S0 and is betweene a Ouueran^ 3. Columbins : there lie | buried 

in this Church, Sir lohn Gisors Maior, 131 1. Henrie Gisars 

his Sonne, 1343. and John Gisors his brother, 1350. he gaueto 

Gison hall his sonne T. his great mansion house, called Gisors hall in the 

G^Sls^biil. parish of S. Mildred in Bredstreet. This Thomas had issue 

lohn and Thomas^ lohn made a feofment, and sold Gisors 

hall, and other his lands in London, about the yeare 1386. 

Thomas deceased 1395. Henrie Vennar^ Bartholomew de la 

vauch^ Thomas Cornwalles^ one of the Shiriflfes, 1384. lohn 

Cornwalles Esquire, 1436, lohn Mnstrell^ Vintner, 1404. 

William Hodson^ William CastUton^ lohn Gray^ Robert Dalusse 

fiarbar, in the raigne of Edward the 4. with this Epitaph. 

Epiuph. As flowers infield thus passeth life^ 

Naked then clothed^ feeble in the end. 
It sheweth by Robert Dalusse^ and Alison his wife^ 
Christ them sane from t/ie power of the fiend. 

Sir RaphAustrie, Fishmonger, Maior, newroofed this church 
with timber, couered it with lead, and beautifully glased it : 
he deceased 1494. and was there buried with his two wiues, 
Raph Austrie his sonne, gentleman^ William AustrieiSind other 
of that name, Bartrand wife to Grimond Descure Esquire, 
a Gascoyne and Marchant of wines, 1494. Thomas Batson^ 
Alice Fowler y daughter and heire to lohn Howtofi^ wife to lokn 
Hultofi^ lames Bartlet^ and Alice his wife, William Fennor, 
Roger Cottony Robert Stocker, lohn Pemberton^ Philip de 
PlassCy lohn Stc^leton^ lohn Mortimer^ William 'Lee^ Wiiliaw 

Vintry warde 249 

HamsUed^ William Stoksbie^ and Gilbert March^ had Chantries 

Then is the Parish Church of S. lames, called at Garlick hith Parish chuich 
or Garlicke hiue, for that of old time on the banke of the Gariickc hith. 
riuer of Thames, neare to this Church, Garlicke was vsually 
solde : this is a proper Church, whereof Richard Rothing one 
of the shirifTeSy 1326. is said to be the new builder: and lyeth 
buried in the same, so was W altar Ncle, Blader, one of the 
Shiriffes, 1337. lohn of OxenfordWnXXiex, Maior I34i« I read 
in the first of Edward the third, that this lohn of Oxenford 
gaue to the Priorie of the holy Trinitie in London, two tofts 
of land, one Mill, | fiftie acres of land, two acres of wood, Pagt sji 
with the Appurtenances, in Kentish towne, in valour sojs. 
and 3.d. by yeare. Richard Goodcheape, lohn de Cressingham, 
and lohi Whitthorne^ and before them Galfrid Mofuley, 1281, 
founded a Chantrie there. 

Monuments remaining there, Robert Gabeter, Esquier, Maior 
of Newcastle vpon Tine, 13 10. lohn Gisors, William Tiling- 
ham, lohn Stanley, L. Strange, eldest sonne to the Earle of 
Darby, 1503. Nic/iolas Staham, Robert de Luton, 1361. 
Richard Lions^ a famous marchant of wines, and a Lapidarie, 
sometime one of the Shiriffes, beheaded in Cheape by Wat 
Tiler, and other Rebels, in the yeare 1381. his picture on his 
graue stone verie faire and large, is with his haire rounded by 
his eares, and curled, a little beard forked, a gowne girt to him 
downe to his feete, of branched Damaske wrought with the 
likenes of flowers, a large pursse on his right side, hanging in 
a belt from his left shoulder, a plaine whoode about his necke, 
couering his shoulders, and hanging backe behinde him. Sir 
Ihon Wroth Fishmonger, Maior 1361. deceased 1407. Thomas 
Stonarde of Oxfordshire. John Bromer Fishmonger, Alderman, 
1474. the Ladie Stanley, mother to the Lord Strange, the 
Countesse of Huntington, the Ladie Harbert, Sir George 
Stanley, Gilbert Bouet, 1398, a Countesse of Worcester and 
one of her children, William More Vintner, Maior 1395. 
William Venor, Grocer, Maior 1389. Robert Chichley Maior 
1421. lames Spencer Vintner, Maior 1527. Richard Plat 
Brewer, founded a free schoole there^ 1601. And thus an end 
of Vintrie warde, which hath an Alderman, with a Deputie, 

250 Vifitry warde 

common Counsellors nine, Constables nine, Scauengers fotire, 
Wardmote inquest foureteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to 
the fifteene, six pound, 13. shillings 4« pence. | 

Pagiasa Cordwaincr street ward 

Coidwainer J HE next IS Cordwainer street warde, taking that name of 
Cordwainers, or Shoemakers, Curriars, and workers of Leather 
dwelling there : for it appeareth in the records of H. the 6. 
the ninth of his raigne, that an order was taken then for Cord- 
wainers and Curriars in Corney streete, and Sopars lane. 
This warde beginneth in the East on the west side of Wal- 
Budge Row. brooke, and runneth west through Budge Row (a street so 
called of Budge Furre, and of Skinners dwelling there), then 
vp by S. Anthonies Church through ^^/A^AV/^ (or Noble street) 
Wathling as Z^r^//7;;^termeth it^ commonly called Wathling streete, to the 
^^^^^^' red Lion, a place so called of a great Lion of Timber placed 

there at a Gate, entring a large Court, wherein are diuerse 
fayre and large shoppes well furnished with broade cloathes, 
and other draperies of all sorts to be solde, and this is the 
farthest West part of this ward. 

On the South side of this streete from Budge Row, lieth 

a lane turning downe by the west gate of the Tower Royall, 

and to the south ende of the stone Wall beyond the said gate, 

is of this ward^ and is accounted a part of the Royall streete : 

agaynst this west gate of the Tower Royall, is one other lane, 

that runneth west to Cordwainer streete, and this is called 

Tiunbawlane. Tumebase lane: on the south side wherof is a peece of 

Wringwren lane, to the Northwest comer of Saint T/unnas 

Church the Apostle. Then againe out of the high streete 

called Wathling, is one other streete which runneth thwart the 

Corwainer same, and this is Cordwainer streete, whereof the whole warde 

streete. taketh name: this streete beginneth by West Cheape, and 

Saint Marie Bcnv church is the head thereof on the west side, 

and it runneth downe south through that part which of later 

Hosiar lane in time was called Hosier lane, now Bow lane, and then by the 

Cofdwmmcr ^^^ ^^ j ^f Aldmary Church, to the new builded houses, in 

place of Ormond house, and so to Garlicke hill, or hith, to 

Poit 2S} Saint lames \ Church. The vpper part of this street towards 

Cheape was called Hosiar lane of hosiars dwelling there in 

Corefwainer street ward 251 

place of Shoomakers : but now those hosiers being wome out 

by men of other trades (as the Hosiars had wome out the 

Shoomakers) the same is called Bow lane of Bow Church. 

On the west side of Cordewainers street is Basing lane, right Bassmg Ume. 

ouer against Tume basse lane. This Basing lane west to the 

backe gate of the red Lion, in Wathling streete, is of this 

Cordwainers street warde. 

Now againe on th^ north side of the high street in Budge 
row, by the East end of S. Antluniies church, haue ye 
S. Sithes lane, so called of S. Sithes Church, (which standeth s. Sythes lane. 
against the North end of that lane) and this is wholy of 
Cordwainers streete ward : also the south side of Needlers NeedUn lane, 
lane, which reacheth from the north end of Saint Sithes lane, 
west to Sopers lane, then west from saint Anthonies Church Sopan lane, 
is the south ende of Sapars lane, which lane tooke that name, 
not of Sope-making, as some haue supposed, but of Alen Ic 
Sopar^ in the ninth of Edward the second. I haue not read 
or heard of Sope making in this Cittie till within this foure- 
score yeares, that lohn Lame dwelling in Grassestreete set 
vp a boyling house : for this Citie, of former time, was serued 
of white Sope in hard Cakes (called Castell sope, and other) 
from beyond the seas, and of gray sope, speckeled with white. Gray sope 
verie sweete and good, from Bristow, solde here for a pennie don dolier 
the pound, and neuer aboue pennie farthing, and blacke then ^u^t 
sope for a halfe pennie the pounde. Then in Bowe Lane 
(as they now call it) is Goose lane, by Bow Church, William Goose lane. 
Essex Mercer had Tenements there in the 26. of Edward the 

Then from the south end of Bow lane, vp Wathling streete, 
till ouer 2^;ain8t the red Lion : And these bee the bounds of 
Cordwainer streete warde. 

Touching Monuments therein, first you haue the fayre Parish chnich 
parish Church of saint Anthonies in Budge row, on the north <>f S. Anthonie. 
side thereof. This Church was lately reedified by Thomas 
KnowUs Grocer, Maior, and by Thomas Knowles his sonne, 
both buried there, with Epitaphes : of the father thus, | 

Here lieth grauen imder this stone ^ Page a$4 

Thomas Knowles ^ both flesh and bone^ 

252 Cordwainer street ward 

Epitaph of Grocer and Alderman yeares fortie^ 

Til. Knowles. Shiriffe, and twice Maior truly. 

And for he should not lie alone^ 

Here lieth with him his good wife loan. 

They were togither sixtie yeare^ 

And nineteefte children they had in feere^ &c. 

Thomas Holland Mercer was there buried 1456. Thomas 
Windout Mercer, Alderman, and Katherine his wife. Thomas 
Hind Mercer, 15^8. He was a benefactor to this church, to 
Aldemarie Church, and to Bow. Hugh Acton Marchant tayler 
buried 1520. He gaue 36. pound to the repayring of the 
steeple of this Church: Simon Street Grocer lyeth in the 
Church wall toward the south, his armes be three Colts, and 
his Epitaph thus. 

Spnon Streete Such as I amy such shall you be^ 

his Epitaph. Q^^^ ^y. L^^^^ someHme was /, 

The kings wayer more then yeares twentie, 
Simon Streete called in my place^ 
And good fellowship faine would trace ^ 
Therefore in heauen, euerlasting life 
lesu send me^ and Agnes my wife: 
Kerlie Merliey my wordes were thoy 
And Deo gr alias I coupled there to y 
I passed to God in the yeare of grace. 
A thousand foure hundred it was, &c. 

William Dauntsey Mercer, one of the Shiriflfes, buried 1542. 
Henrie Collet Mercer, Maior, a great benefactor to this Church, 
the pictures of him, his wife, ten sonnes, and ten daughters 
remaine in the glasse window on the North side of the 
Church : but the sayde Henrie Collet was buryed at Stebunhith. 
Henrie Halton Grocer, one of the Shiriflfes, deceased 1415* 
Thomas Spight Marchant Tayler 1533. ^^^^ Roger MartiUy 
Page 9SS Mercer, Maior, deceased 1573. lohn Grantham and | Nicholas 
Bull had Chanteries there. 

Next on the south side of Budge row by the west corner 
thereof, and on the East side of Cordwainer streete, is one 
other fayre Church called Aldemarie Church, because the 
same was very old, and elder then any Church of saint Marie 

Cordwainer street ward 253 

in the Citie, till of late yeares the foundation of a verie faire 

new Church was laid there by Henrie Keble Grocer, Maior, 

who deceased 151 8. and was there buried in a vault by him 

prepared, with a faire monument raised ouer him on the 

North side the Quier, now destroyed and gone : he gaue 

by his testament 1000. pound towards the building vp of that 

Church, and yet not permitted a resting place for his bones 

there. Thomas Ronton^ Maior 1310. had a Chauntrie there. 

Richard Chawcer Vintner gaue to that Church his tenement Richard CJun- 

and tauveme, with the appurtenance, in the Royall streete, cd&ey Chan- 

the comer of Kirion lane, and was there buried, 1348. lohn cerUiepoet,ti 

may be snp" 

Briton^ Raph Holland Draper, one of the Shiriffes, deceased poMd. 
145a. William Taylor^ Grocer, Maior deceased, 1483, He 
discharged that ward of fifteenes to bee paide by the poore. 
T/tomas Hinde Mercer, buried in saint Anthofiies^ gaue ten 
fodder of lead to the couering of the middle Isle of this 
Aldemarie Church. Charles Blunt Lord Montioy was buried 
there, about the yeare 1545. he made or glased the East 
window, as appeareth by his Armes : his Epitaph made by 
him in his life time, thus : 

Willingly Jiatie I sought^ and willingly haue I founds 
The f atoll end that wrought thither as dutie bound: 
Discliarged I am of that I ought to my cuntry by honest 

My soule departed Christ hath bought^ the end of man is 


Sir William Laxton Grocer, Maior, deceased 1556. and 
Thomas Lodge Grocer, Maior, 1563. were buried in the Vault 
of Henrie Keble^ whose bones were vnkindly cast out, and 
his monument pulled downe, in place whereof monuments are 
set vp of the later buried, William Blunt L. Mountioy, buried 
there, 1594. &c. 

At the vpper ende of Hosier Lane, towarde West Cheape, 
is the fayre Parish Church of Saint Marie Bow. This Church | 
in the reigne of William Coftquerour^ being the first in this P^t 256 
Cittie builded on Arches of stone, was therefore called newe chwch o78. 
Marie Church, of Saint Marie de ArcubuSy or U Bow in West Mary Bow in 

weft Cbeping. 

Cheaping : As Stratford Bridge being the first, builded (by Li. Colchester. 

254 Cordwainer street ward 

Matilde the Queene, wife to HenrU the first) with Aidies of 
stone, was called Stratford U BaWy which names to the saud 
Church and Bridge remayneth till this day. The Court of 
the Arches is kept in this Church, and taketh name of the 
place, not the place of the Court, but of what antiquitk 
or continuation that Court hath there continued I cannot 

This Church is of Cordwayner streete Warde, and for diuerse 

accidents happening there, hath beene made more famous 

then any other Parish Church of the whole Cittie, or suburbs. 

First we reade that in the yeare 1090. and the thirde of 

Roofc of Bow WiUiam Rufus^ by tempest of winde, the roofe of the Churdi 

turattl by *^' of saint Marie Bow in Cheape was ouertumed, wherewith 

tempest. some persons were slaine, and foure of the Rafters of a6. footc 

in length, with such violence were pitched in the ground of 

the high streete, that scantly foure foote of them remayned 

aboue ground, which were faineto be cut euen wit^ the ground, 

because they could not bee plucked out, (for the Citie of 

London was not then paued, and a marish ground.) 

In the yeare 1 196. William Fits Osbertj a seditious traitor, 
Bow steeple tooke the Steeple of Bow, and fortified it with munitions and 
A false accuser victualles, ^^^ ^^ ^^ assaulted, and William with his com- 
of his elder pHces were taken, though not without bloodshed, for hee was 
end was forced by fire and smoke to forsake the Church, and then by 

hanged. j^j^^ ludges condemned, he was by the heeles drawne to the 

Elmes in Smithfield, and there hanged with nine of his 
fellowes, where because his fauourers came not to deliuer him, 
hee forsooke Maries sonne (as hee tearmed Christ our Sauiour) 
and called vpon the Diuell to helpe and deliuer him. Sucli 
was the ende of this deceyuer, a man of an euill life, a secrete 
murtherer, a filthy fornicator, a polluter of concubines, and 
(amongest other his detestable facts) a false accuser of his 
elder brother, who had in his youth brought him vp in learning, 
and done many things for his preferment. | 
Pagi2S7 In the yeare 1271. a great part of the steeple of Bow fell 

felldo^c.*^ downe, and slue many people men and women. In the yeare 
1 284. the thirteenth of Edtuard the first, Laurence Ducket Gold- 
smith, hauing grieuously wounded one Raph Crepin in west 
Cheape, fled into Bowe Church, into the which in the night 

Cordwainer street ward 255 

time entered certaine euili persons, friendes vnto the sayd 

Raph^ and slue the sayd Laurence lying in the steeple, and 

then hanged him vp, placing him so by the window, as if he 

had hanged himselfe, and so was it found by inquisition : for 

the which fact Laurence Ducket being drawne by the feete, Laurence 

was buried in a ditch without the Citie : but shortly after by y^j^nffA in 

relation of a boy, who lay with the said Laurence at the time Bo^ steeple. 

of his death, and had hid him there for feare, the truth of 

the matter was disclosed, for the which cause, lordan Good" 

cheape^ Rc^h Crepin^ Gilbert Clarke^ and Geffrey Clarke^ 

were attainted, a certaine woman named Alice ^ that was 

chiefe causer of the sayd mischiefe was burned, and to the 

number of sixteene men were drawne and hanged besides 

others, that being richer, after long imprisonment were hanged 

by the purse. 

The Church was interdicted, the doores and windowes were Bow chnrdi 
stopped vp with thomes, but Laurence was taken vp, and 
honestly buried in the Churchyard. 

The Parish church of S. Mary Bow by meane of incroch- 
ment and building of houses, wanting roome in their Church- 
yard for buriall of the dead, lohn Rotluim or Rodham Citizen 
and Tayler, by his Testament dated the yeare 1 465. gaue to 
the Parson and Churchwardens a certaine Garden in Hosier 
lane, to bee a Churchyarde which so continued near a hundred 
yeares. But now is builded on, and is a priuate mans house. 
The olde steeple of this Church was by little and little reedified, 
and newe builded vp, at the least so much as was fallen 
downe, many men gluing summes of money to the furtherance 
thereof, so that at length, to wit, in the yeare 1469. it was 
ordayned by a common counsaile, that the Bow bell should Bow Bell to 
bee nightly rung at nine of the clocke. Shortly after, lohn ni^^at 
Donne Mercer, by his testament dated 1472. according to the nine of the 
trust of Reginald Longdon^ gaue to the Parson and church- 
wardens of saint Mary Bow, two tenejments with the appurten- P^ ^s^ 
ances, since made into one, in Hosiar lane, then so called, to 
the maintenance of Bowe bell, the same to bee rung as 
aforesaid, and other things to bee obserued, as by the will 

This Bell being vsually rung somewhat late, as seemed 


Cordwainer street ward 

Bow or 
Arches on 
Bow steeple. 

schoolc in 
Bow Chnrch- 

Vaults vnder 
Bow church. 

Page iS9 

to the yong men Prentises and other in Cheape, they made 
and set vp a ryme against the Clarke, as foUoweth. 

Clarke of the Bow bell with the yellow lockes, 
For thy late ringing thy head shall /uiue knockes. 

Whereunto the Clarke repljnng, wrote. 

Children of Cheape^ hold you all stilly 

For yon shall hatie the Bow bell rung at your will. 

Robert Harding Goldsmith, one of the Shiriflfes 1478. gauc 
to the new worke of that steeple fortie pound. lohn Hmv 
Mercer ten pound, Doctor Allen foure pound, Thomas Baldry 
foure pound, and other gaue other summes, so that the said 
worke of the steeple was finished in the yeare 151a. The 
Arches or Bowes thereupon, with the Lanthomes fiue in num- 
ber, to wit, one at each comer, and one on the top in the 
middle vpon the Arches, were also afterward finished of stone, 
brought from Cane in Normandie, deliuered at the Customers 
Key for 4.S. 8.d. the tun, William Copland Tayler, the Kings 
Merchant, and Andrew Fuller Mercer, being Churchwardens 
1515. and 1516. It is said that this Coplatid gaue the great 
Bell, which made the fift in the ring, to be rung nightly at 
nine of the clocke. This Bell was first rung as a knell at the 
burial! of the same Copland. It appeareth that the Lanthomes 
on the toppe of this Steeple, were meant to haue beene glased, 
and lightes in them placed nightly in the Winter, whereby 
trauellers to the Cittie might haue the better sight thereof, and 
not to misse of their wayes. 

In this parish also was a Grammar schoole by com- 
maundement of king Henrie the sixt, which schoole was of 
olde time kept in an house for that purpose prepared in the 
Churchyard, but that schoole being decayed as others about 
this Citie : the schoole house was let out for rent, in the ra^ 
of Henrie the eight, for 4, shillings the yeare, a Celler for two 
shillings the yeare, and two vaults vnder the Church for fifteenc 
shillings both. | 

The monumentes in this church be these, vz. of Sir Ioh» 
Couentrie^ Mercer, Mayor 14^5. Richard Lambert Alderman, 
Nicholas Alwine Mercer, Mayor 1499. Roberte Hardittg 

Cordwainer street ward 257 

Goldsmith one of the Shiriffes, 1478, lohn Lake one of the 
Shiriffes, 1461. Edwarde Bankes Alderman, Haberdasher, 
1566. lohn Warde^ pr////«»« Pi^^^w Scriuener, and Attumey 
in the common place. In a proper Chappell on the South 
side the Church standeth a Tombe, eleuate and arched, Ade 
de Buke Hatter glased the Chappell and most parte of the 
Church, and was there buried: all other monumentes bee 
defaced, Hawley and Sowtkam had chauntries there. 

Without the North side of this church of Saint Mary Bow A shed or 
towardes west Chepe standeth one fayre building of Stone, the^kinf °' 
called in record Seldam^ a shed, which greatly darkeneth the caUcd crown 


said church, for by meanes thereof all the windowes and dores 
on that side are stopped vp. King Edward the third vpon 
occasion as shal be shewed in the Warde of Cheape, caused 
this sild or shed to be made and strongly to bee builded of 
stone, for himselfe, the Queene, and other Estates to stand in, 
there to beholde the lustinges and other shewes at their 
pleasures. And this house for a long time after serued to that 
vse, namely, in the raigne of Edward the third and Richard 
the second, but in the yeare 1410. Henry the fourth in the 
twelfth of his raigne confirmed the saide shedde or building 
to Stephen Spilman^ William Marchfardy and lohn WhateU 
Mercers, by fhe name of one new Seldam, shed or building, 
with shoppes, sellers, and edifices whatsoeuer appertayning, 
called Crounsilde, or Tamarsilde, situate in the Mercery in Crounsilde. 
West Cheape, and in the parrish of Saint Mary de Arcubus in 
London, &c. Notwithstanding which graunte, the Kinges of 
England, and other great Estates, as well of forreine Countries 
repayring to this realme, as inhabitantes of the same, haue 
vsually repayred to this place, therein to beholde the shewes 
of this Citty, passing through West Cheape, namely, the great 
watches accustomed in the night, on the euen of S. lohn 
Baptist^ and Saint Peter at Midsommer, the examples whereof 
were ouer long to recite, wherefore let it suffice | brieflie to Ph^ a6o 
touch one. In the yeare 1510. on Saint lohns euen at night, K. Henry the 
king Henry the eight came to this place then called the JJ^| yi^*^^" 
Kinges head in Cheape, in the liuerie of a Yeoman of the a yeoman of 
Garde, with an halberde on his shoulder (and there beholding thefuigs hnd 
the watch) departed priuily, when the watch was done, and *" ^^^v^' 


258 Cordwainer street ward 

was not known to any but to whome it pleased htm, but on 
S. Peters night next following, hce and the Queene came 
royally riding to the said place, and there with their Nobles 
beheld the watch of the cittie, and returned in the morning. 

This church of S. Mary with the saide shedde of stone, al 
the housing in or aboute Bow Church yearde, and without on 
that side the high streete of Cheape to the Standarde bee 
of Cordewainer streete warde. These houses were of olde time 
but sheddes : for I read of no housing otherwise on that side 
the street, but of diuers sheddes from Sopars lane to the 
Standarde, &c. Amongst other I read of three shops or 
sheddes by Sopars lane, pertayning to the priorie of the holy 
Trinity within Aldgate: the one was let out for 28 s. one 
other for 20 s. and the third for xii.s. by the yeare : Moreouer 
that Richard Goodchepe Mercer, and Margery his wife, sonne 
to lordaine Goodchepe^ did let to lohn Dalinges the yonger, 
mercer, their shed and chamber in west Cheape, in the parrish 
of S. Mary de Arches^ for iii.s. iiii.d. by the yeare. Also the 
men of Bredstreete ward contended with the men of Cordwayner 
street ward, for a selde or shede, opposite to the standard on 
the south side, and it was found to be of Cordwainer streete 
ward, W. Waldorne being then Mayor, the i. of Henrie the 6. 
Thus much for Cordwainer streete ward: which hath an 
Alderman, his Deputie, common Counsellors 8. Constables, 8. 
Scauengers 8. Wardmote inquest men 14. and a Beadle. It 
standeth taxed to the iifteene in London at $%X\. i6.s. in the 
Exchequer at 59. pound, 6.s. | 

Page 261 Cheape warde 

Cheape warde. Next adioyning is Cheape Warde, and taketh name of 
the Market there kept, called West Cheping, this warde also 
beginneth in the East, on the course of Walbrooke, in Buckles 
Bury, and runneth vp on both the sides to the great Conduit 
in Cheape. Also on the south side of Buckles Bene, a lane 
turning vp by S. Sithes Church, and by S. Pancrates church 
through Needlers lane, on the north side thereof, and then 
through a peece of Sopars lane, on both sides vppe to Chepe, 

Cheape warde 259 

be all of Chepe ward. Then to begin again in the cast vpon 
the said course of Walbrook, is S. Mildreds church in the 
Poultrie, on the north side, and ouer a^nst the said church 
gate, on the south to passe vp al that hie street called the 
Poultrie, to the great conduit in Chepe, and then Chepe it 
self, which b^nneth by the east end of the saide Conduit, 
and stretcheth vp to the. north east corner of Bowlane, on the 
south side, and to the Standard on the north side, and thus 
far to the west is of Cheape ward. On the south side of this 
high street is no lane turning south out of this ward, more 
then some small portion of Sopars lane, whereof I haue before 
written. But on the north side of this high streete is Cony- 
hope lane, about one quarter of Olde lury lane on the west 
side, and on the East side, almost as much to the signe of the 
Angell. Then is Ironmongers lane, all wholy on both sides, 
and from the North end thereof through Catton streete. West 
to the North ende of S. Lawrence lane, & some 4. houses west 
beyond the same on that side, and ouer against Ironmongers 
lane end on the North side of Catton streete vp by the Guild- 
hal, and S. Lawrence church in the lurie is alt(^ether of 
Chepe ward. Then againe in Chepe more toward the west is 
S. Laurence lane before named, which is all wholie of this 
warde, and last of all is Hony lane, and vppe to the standarde 
on that North side of Chepe, and so stand the bounds of 
Chepe ward. | 

Now for antiquities there, first is Buckles berie, so called ol Page 2^2 
a Mannor, and tenementes pertayning to one BuckUy who Buckles bnry 
there dwelled and kept his Courts. This Mannor is supposed ®^ ^^^ Buckle. 
to be the great stone building, yet in part remayning on the 
south side the streete, which of late time hath beene called 
the olde Barge, of such a signe hanged out, neare the gate 
thereof. This Mannor or great house hath of long time 
beene diuided and letten out into many tenementes : and it 
hath beene a common speech that when Walbrooke did lie 
open, barg^ were rowed out of the Thames, or towed vp so Barm towed 
ferre, and therefore the place hath euer since been called the ^to ^ckies- 
Olde barge. bcry. 

Also on the north side of this streete directly ouer against 
the said Buckles bery, was one ancient and strong tower of 

s % 

26o Cheape warde 

stone, the which Tower king E. the third, in the i8. of his 

Ceraetstowre raigne by the name of the kinges house, called Cemettes 

tery^the ^' towre in London, did appoint to bee his Exchange of money 

kinges Ex- there to bee kept. In the 29. he graunted it to Frydus 

EjccSqucr. Guyttysane, and Landus Bardoile^ Marchantes of Luke, for 

twenty pound the yeare. And in the 32. he gaue the same 

Tower to his Colledge, or free Chappell of Saint Stephen at 

Westminster, by the name of Comettes toure at Buckles bcry 

in London. This Tower of late yeares was taken downe by 

one Buckle a Grocer, meaning in place thereof, to haue set 

vppe and builded a goodly frame of timber, but the sayde 

Buckle greedily labouring to pull downe the olde tower, a 

parte thereof fell vpon him, which so sore brused him that his 

life was thereby shortened : and an other that married his 

widdow, set vppe the newe prepared frame of timber, and 

finished the worke. 

This whole streete called Buckles bury on both the sides 
throughout is possessed of Grocers and Apothecaries. Toward 
the west end thereof, on the south side, breaketh out one 
Penerith other shorte lane,called in Recordes Peneritch street, it reacheth 
SiS' church ^"^ ^^ Saint Sythes lane, and S. Sythes Church is the farthest 
of S. Svth,or part thereof, for by the west end of the saide Church b^n- 
N^Uars lane. ^^^ Needlars lane, which reacheth to Sopars lane as is aforc- 
saide: this small parrish Church of S. Sith hath also an addition 
of Bennet shome, (or Shrog, or Shorehog) for by all these 
Page 263 names haue I read it, but | the auncientest is Shome, where- 
fore it seemeth to take that name of one Benedict Shome^ 
sometime a Cittizen and Stockefishmonger of London, a new 
builder, repayrer or Benefactor thereof in the raigne of E, the 
second, so that Shome is but corruptlie called Shrog, and 
more corruptly Shorehog. 

There lie buried in this church lohn Frqysh Mercer, Mayor 
1394. John Rochford and Robert Rochfarde^ lohn Hold 
Alderman, Henry Froweke Mercer, Mayor 1435. Edward 
Warrington^ lohn Morrice^ lohn Huntley^ Richard Lincoln 
Felmonger, 1548. Sir Raph Waren Mercer, Mayor, 1553. 
Sir lohn Lion Grocer, Mayor 1554. these two last haue 
monuments, the rest are all defaced. Edward Hall^ GcntI^ 
man, of Greyes Inne, common sergiant of this Cittie, and then 

Cheape warde 261 

Vnder ShirifTe of the same, hee wrote the large chronicles 
from Richard the second, till the end of Henry the eight, was 
buried in this church. 

Then in Needelars lane haue yee the parrish church of Saint Parish church 
PancraUy a proper small church, but diuers rich Parishioners <>^S.Pancrate. 
therein, and hath had of olde time many liberall benefactors, charged to 
but of late such as (not r^arding the order taken by her p»nwJi sach 
Maiesty) the least bell in their church being broken, haue from their 
rather solde the same for halfe the value, then put the parish gj]*^^ , . 
to charge with new casting : late experience hath proued this 
to bee true, besides the spoyle of monumentes there. In this 
Church are buried Sir Aker^ lohn Akcr, lohn Barnes^ Mercer, 
Mayor 1370. lohn Beston and his wife, Robert Ray land ^ lohn 
Hambery lohn Gage^ lohn Rowley^ lohn Lambe^ lohn Hadley^ 
Grocer, Mayor 1379. Richarde Gardener Mercer, Mayor 1478. 
John Stockton Mercer, Mayor 1470. lohn Dane, Mercer, John 
Parker, Robert Marshall Alderman, 1439. Robert Corche- 
forde, Robert Hatfielde, and Robert Hatfield, Nicholas Wil- 
filde and Thomas his sonne, the monumentes of all which bee 
defaced and gone. There doe remaine of Robert Bur ley , 1360. 
Richard Wilson, 1525. Robert Packenton, Mercer, slayne with 
a Gunne shot at him in a morning, as hee was going to 
morrow masse from his house in Chepe to S. Thoinas of Acars 
in the yeare 1536. the murderer was neuer discouered, but 
by I his owne confession made when he came to the gallowes /V^ 264 
at Banbury, to be hanged for fellony : T. Wardbury Haber- 
dasher, 1545. lames Huish Grocer, 1590. Ambrose Smith, &c. 
Then is a part of Sopers lane turning vp to Cheape. 

By the assent of Stephen Abunden, Maior, the Pepperers in Pcppcrers in 
Sopers lane were admitted to sell all such spices and other ^" 
wares as Grocers now vse to sell, retayning the old name of 
Pepperers in Sopers lane, till at length in the raigne of Henrie 
the sixt, the same Sopers lane was inhabited by Cordwainers 
and Curriars, after that the Pepperers or Grocers had seated 
themselves in a more open street, to wit, in Buckles bury, 
where they yet remain. Thus much for the south wing of 

Now to begin againe on the banke of the said Walbrooke, The Poultric. 
at the East end of the high streete, called the PoultriC; on the 

262 Cheape warde 

Parish church noith Side thereof, is the proper Parish Church of S. Mildred, 
wwarwi- which Church was new buiided vpon Walbrooke in the j^eare 
1457- J^^^ Saxton then parson gaue 32. pounds towards the 
building of the new Quire, which now standeth vpon the 
course of Walbrooke. Lotiell and Puery^ and Richard KesUm, 
haue their arms in the East windowes as benefactors. The 
roofing of that church is garnished with the armes of Thomas 
Archehull, one of the Churchwardens, in the yeare 1455. who 
was there buried. Thomas Mors ted Esquire and Chirurgion to 
king Henrie the fourth, fift, and sixt, one of the shirifTes of 
London, in the yeare 1436. gaue vnto this Church a parcell of 
ground, conta3ming in length from the course of Walbrooke, 
toward the West, 45. foot, and in bredth from the Church 
toward the north, 35, foot, beeing within the gate of Scalding 
wike in the said Parish, to make a Churchyard, wherein to 
burie their dead, Richard Shore Draper one of the shirifTes, 
1505. gaue 15. pound for making a porch to this Church. 
Salomon Lanuare had a Chauntrie there in the 1 4. of Edward 
the second, Hugh Game had one other. Buried here as 
appeareth by monuments, John Hildye Poulter, 1416. lohn 
KendaUy 1468. John Garland^ 1476. Robert Bois^ J485. and 
Simeon Lee Poulters, 1487. Thomas Lee of Essex Gentleman, 
William Hallingridge^ Christopher Feliocke, I494- Robert 
Draiton Skinner, 1484. lohn Christop/terson Doctor of PhH 

Page2bs sicke, 1524. William Turner Skinner, 1536. Blase WkiU 
Grocer, 1558. Thomas Hobsofi Haberdasher, 1559. William 
Hobson Haberdasher, 1581. The, Tusser^ 1580. with this 

Here Thomas Tusscr clad in earth doth lie^ 
That sometime made the poynts of husbaftdrie^ 
By him then learne thou maisty here learne we must^ 
When all is done we sleepe and turne to dust^ 
And yet through Christ to heauen we hope to go: 
Who reades his bookes shall find his faith was so. 
On the north side of the Churchyard remaine two Tombes 
of Marble, but not knowne of whom, or otherwise then by 
tradition, it is saide they were of Thomas Moftshampe^^^^ 
William Brothers, about 1547. &c. 

' Monshampe 139^^ i6oj ; Muschanipe i6j^ 

Cheape warde 263 

Some foure houses west from this Parish Church of saint Counter in the 
Mildred, is a prison house pertaining to one of the shiriffes ^^ *"*' 
of London, and is called the Counter in the Poultrie. This , 
hath beene there kept and continued time out of minde, for 
I haue not read of the originall thereof. West from this 
Counter was a proper Chappell, called of Corpus Christie and Chappellof 
saint Marie at Conie hope lane ende, in the Parish of saint ^'P'** "•**• 
Mildred, founded by one named lonirunnes^, a Citizen of 
London, in the raigne of Edward the third, in which Chappel 
was a Guild or fratemitie, that might dispend in lands, better 
then twentie pound by yeare : it was suppressed by Henrie 
the eight, and purchased by one Thomas Hobson, Haber- 
dasher, he turned this Chappell into a faire Warehouse and 
shoppes, towardes the streete, with lodgings ouer them. 

Then is Conyhope lane, of old time so called of such a Conibope 
signe of three Conies hanging ouer a Poulters stall at the ** 
lanes end. With in this Lane standeth the Grocers hall, 
which companie being of old time called Pepperers, were first 
incorporated by the name of Grocers, in the yeare 1345. at Grocers hall 
which time they elected for Custos or Gardian of their frater- ^^^^J^ "'^ 
nitie, Richard Oswin, and Laurence Haliwell and twentie 
brethren were then taken in, to be of their societie. In the . 
yere 141 1. the Custos or Gardian, & the brethren of this 
companie, purchased of the Lord Ro. Fitzwaters, one plot | of Page 266 
ground with the building therevpon in the said Conyhope 
lane, for 390. markes, and then layd the foundation of their 
new common hall. 

About the yere 1429. the Grocers had licence to purchase 
500. Markes land, since the which time, neare adioyning vnto 
the Grocers hall the said companie hath builded seuen proper 
houses for seuen aged poore Almes people. Thomas Knowles, 
Grocer, Maior, gaue his tenement in saint Antlwnies Church- 
yard to the Grocers, towardes the reliefe of the poore brethren 
in that companie. Also H. KeebU, Grocer, Maior, gaue to Almes houses 
the seuen almes people, six pence the peece weekely for euer, ^y^JJ^^^^^^" 
which pension is now encreased by the Maisters, to some of 
them two shillings the peece weekely, and to some of them 

' Ion. Irunnes Thorns ; lonyrunnes 1398^ i6jj 

264 Cheape warde 

lesse, &c. Henrie Ady Grocer, 1563. gaue 1000. markes to 
the Grocers to purchase lands. And sir lohn PechU knight 
banaret, free of that company, gaue them fiue hundred pound 
to certaine vses : he builded almes houses at Ludingstonc in 
Kent, and was there buried. 

West from this Conyhope lane is the old lurie, whereof 

some portion is of Cheape ward, as afore is shewed. At the 

Parish church south end of this lane, is the Parish church of saint Mary 

Cokc^imth. Colechurch, named of one Cole that builded it : this church is 

builded vpon a vault aboue ground, so that men are forced 

to goe to ascend vp therevnto by certain steppes. I find no 

monuments of this church more then that Henrie the fourth 

granted licence to William Marshal and others, to found 

a brotherhood of saint Katheren therein, because Thomas 

Beckett and saint Ednwnd the Archbishop, were baptized 

there. More I reade of Bordhangly lane, to be in that 

Parish: and thus much for the north side of the Poultrie. 

The south side of the sayd Poultrie, beginning on the banke 

of the said brooke ouer against the Parish church of Saint 

Mildred passing vp to the great Conduite hath diuerse fayre 

houses, which were sometimes inhabited by Poulters, but now 

by Grocers, Haberdashers, and Vpholsters. 

WestChecpea At the west end of this Poultrie, and also of Buckles bcrie, 

P*aS.°^^^^ beginneth the large streete of West Cheaping, a Market place 

so called, which streete stretcheth west, till ye come to the 

little Conduit by Paules gate, but not all of Cheape warde. 

Page 267 In the East | part of this streete standeth the great Conduit, 

9"*^ ^"^"** of sweete water, conueycd by pipes of Lead vnder ground 

from Paddington, for scruice of this citie, castellated with 

stone, and cesterned in leade, about the yeare 1285, and 

againe new builded and enlarged, by Thomas Ham one of the 

shiriffes, 1479. 

About the middest of this streete is the standard in Cheape, 
of what antiquitie the first foundation I haue not read. But 
H, the sixt by his Patent dated at Windsore the ai. of his 
raigne, which patent was confirmed by Parliament 144*, 
graunted licence to Thomas Knolles^ lohn Chichle^ and other, 
executors to lohn Wels Grocer, somtime Maior of London, 
with his goods to make new the high way, which Icadeth 

Cheape warde 265 

from the city of London towards the palace of Westminster, 
before and nigh the mannor of Sauoy, percell of the Dutchie 
of Lancaster, a way then very ruinous, and the pauement 
broken, to the hurt & mischiefe of the subiects, which old 
pauement, then remaining in that way within the length of 
300. foot, and all the breadth of the same before and nigh 
the site of the mannor aforesaid, they to breake vp, and with 
stone, grauel, and other stuffe, one other good and sufficient 
way there to make, for the commoditie of the subiects. 

And further, that the Standard in Cheape, where diuerse The old 
executions of the law before time had beene performed, which 55«apwith 
standard at that present was verie ruinous with age, in which a Conduit 
there was a Conduit, should be taken down, and an other com- downe and 
petent Standard of stone, togither with a Conduit in the same, ^^"^ builded. 
of new strongly to be builded for the commoditie and honor 
of the citie, with the goods of their said testator, without 
interruption, &c. 

Of executions at the Standard in Cheape, we read that in 
the yeare 1293. ^hree men had their right hands smitten off 
there, for rescuing of a prisoner arrested by an officer of the Executions at 
citie. In the yere 1326. the Burgesses of London caused J^*^*jJ^^^ 
Walter Stapleton bishop of Excester, treasurer to Edward 
the 2, and other, to be beheaded at the Standard in Cheape 
(but this was by Pauls gate). In the yere 1351. the 26. of JSd. 
the 3. two Fishmongers were beheaded at the standard in 
Cheape, but I read not of their offence. 1381. Wat Tiler 
beheaded Richard Lions^ and other there. In the yere 1399. 
H. the 4. caused the blanch Charters made by Ri. the 2. to 
be burnt | there. In the yeare 1450. Ituke Cade captaine of ^0^26^ 
the Kentish Rebels, beheaded the Lord Say there. In the 
yere 146 1. lohn Dauy had his hand stricken off there, because 
he had stricken a man before the ludges at Westminster, &c. 

Then next is the great Crosse in west Cheape, which crosse Great Crosse 
was there erected in the yeare 1 290. by Ed. the first, vpon SsT^uUded.^ 
occasion thus: Queene Elianor his wife died at Hardeby 
(a towne neare vnto the citie of Lincolne), her bodie was 
brought from thence to Westminster, & the king in memorie 
of her, caused in euery place where her body rested in the 
way, a stately crosse of stone to be erected with the Queenes 

266 Cheape warde 

Image and armes vpon it, as at Grantham, Wobome, North- 
ampton, stony Stratford, Dunstable, S. Albones, Waltham, 
west Cheape, and at Charing, from whence she was conueyed 
to Westminster, and there buried 
Crosse in This crosse in west Cheape being like to those other which 

bdWed °^^ remaine till this day, and being by length of time decayed, 
lohn Hatherley Maior of London procured in the yeare 1441. 
licence of king H, the 6. to reedifie the same in more 
beautifull manner for the honor of the citie : and had licence 
also to take vp aoo. fodder of lead for the building thereof 
of certaine Conduits, and a common Gamarie. This crosse 
was then curiously wrought at the charges of diuers citizens, 
lohn Fistier Mercer gaue 600. marks toward it, the same was 
begun to be set vp, 1484. and finished i486, the a. of H, 
the 7. It was new gilt ouer in the year 1522. against the 
Crosse in comming of Charles the 5. Emperor, in the 3rere 1533.^ against 
p^?*P* the coronation of Queen Anne^ new burnished against the 

images * Coronation of Ed. the 6. and againe new gilt 1554 against 
broken. ^^ comming in of king Philip-, since the which time, the 

said crosse hauing beene presented by diuers Juries (or quests 
of Wardmote) to stand in the high way to the let of cariages 
(as they alledged) but could not haue it remoued, it followed 
that in the yeare 1581. the 21. of lune, in the night, the lowest 
Images round about the said crosse (being of Christ his resur- 
rection, of the virgin Mary, king Ed, the confessor, and such 
like) were broken, and defaced, proclamation was made, that 
who so would bewray the doers, should haue 40. crownes, but 
nothing came to light : the im^[e of the blessed vii^n, at 
that time robbed of her son, and her armes broken, by whidi 
Page 26p she Staid him on | her knees : her whole body also was haled 
with ropes, and left likely to fall : but in the yeare 1595. was 
againe fastned and repaired, and in the yeare next following, 
a new misshapen son, as borne out of time, all naked was 
laid in her armes, the other images rema3ming broke as afore. 
But on the east side of y" same crosse, the steps taken* thence, 
vnder the image of Christs resurrection defaced, was then set 
vp a curious wrought tabernacle of gray Marble, and in the 
same an Alabaster Image of DianOy and water conuayed 
* /fjj corr. Thorns ; /jjj edd. The reference is to Q. Aftne Boleyn 

Cheape warde 267 

from the Thames, prilling from her naked breast for a time, image of 
but now decaied. In the yeare 1599. the timber of the crosse at £jJ^*tiJ^' 
the top being rotted within the lead, the armes thereof bending, crosie in 
were feared to haue fallen to the harming of some people, soailt*. li. 1. 
and therefore the whole body of the crosse was scaffolded ;^P' '^' , 
about, and the top thereof taken down, meaning in place crosse being 
thereof to haue set vp a Piramis, but some of her Maiesties ^c*"*^ *o ^"» 

^ * was taken 

honorable counsellers directed their letters to sir Nicholas downe ; 
Mosley then Maior, by her highnes expresse commandement chcpecom- 
conceming the crosse, forthwith to be repaired, and placed mannded to 
againe as it formerly ^ stood, &c. Notwithstanding the said "P^y*"* 
crosse stoode headles more then a yeare after : wherevpon 
the said counsellors in greater number, meaning not any 
longer to permit the continuance of such a contempt, wrote 
to Williafn Rider then Maior, requiring him by vertue of her 
highnesse said former direction and commandement, [that] 
without any further delay to accomplish the same her 
Maiesties most princely care therein, respecting especially the 
antiquitie and continuance of that monument, an ancient 
ensigne of Christianitie, &c. dated the 24. of December, 1600. 
After this a crosse of Timber was framed, set vp, couered 
with lead and gilded, the body of the crosse downeward 
clensed of dust, the scaffold caried thence. About 12. nights 
following, the Image of our Lady was again defaced, by 
plucking off her crowne, and almost her head, taking from 
her her naked child, & stabbing her in the breast, &c. Thus 
much for the crosse in west Cheape. Then at the west ende 
of west Cheape street, was sometime a crosse of stone, called 
the old crosse. Raph Higden in his Policronicon^ saith, that 
Waltar Stapleton Bishop of Excester treasurer to Ed. the a. 
was by the Burgesses of London beheaded at this crosse 
called the standart without the north doore of S. Pauls 
church, & so is it noted in other writers that | then liued. Pctg^ ^70 
This old crosse stood and remained at the East ende of the 
parish Church called S. Michael in the corne by Paules gate, 
nere to the north end of the old Exchange till the yere 1390. 
the xiii of Richard the a, in place of which old crosse then 

* formerly] formally edd. 

268 Cheape warde 

taken downe, the said church of S. Michael was enlarged, 
and also a faire water Conduit builded about the ninth of 
Henrie the sixt. 
liutings and In the raigne of Edward the 3. diuers lustings were made 
west Cheape. ^^ ^^^^ streete, betwixt Sopars lane and the great Crosse, 
namely one in the yeare 1331 about the xxi. of September, 
as I find noted by diuerse writers of that time. In the middle 
of the city of London (say they) in a street called Cheape, the 
stone pauement being couered with sand, that the horse might 
not slide, when they strongly set their feete to the ground, 
Edward the 3. the king held a tornament 3. dayes togither with the Nobilitie, 
mentwli^cs valiant men of the realme, and other, some strange knights, 
in west Cheap And to the end, the beholders might with the better ease see 
togither. the same, there was a woodden scaffold erected crosse the 
Quecne Philip streete, like vnto a Tower, wherein Queene Philips and many 
fcUfroma^'^' Other Ladies, richly attyred, and assembled from all parts of 
scaffold in the realme, did stand to behold the lustes : but the higher 
^^' frame in which the Ladies were placed, brake in sunder, 

wherby they were with some shame forced to fall downe, by 
reason wherof y® knights and such as were vndemeath were 
grieuously hurt, wherefore the Queene tooke great care to 
saue the Carpenters from punishment, and through her prayers 
(which she made vpon her knees) pacified the king and coun- 
sell, and thereby purchased great loue of the people. After 
A shed or which time, the king caused a shed to be strongly made of 
foToicl-i^^^^ ^^°"^ ^^^ himselfe, the Queene, and other states to stand on, 
to behold the & there to beholde the lustings, and other shewes at their 
Cheape? pleasure, by the church of S. Mary BaWy as is shewed in 
Cordwainer street warde. Thus much for the high streete of 
South side of Cheape : now let vs returne to the south side of Cheape 
so fa* M Chepe warde. From the great Conduit west be many faire and larg« 
wardrcachcth. houses, for the most part possessed of Mercers vp to the 
comer of Cordwainer street, corruptly called Bow lane, whidi 
houses in former times were but sheds or shops, with solers 
ouer them, as of late one of them remained at sopars lane 
end, wherein a woman sold seedes, rootes and herbes, but 
those sheds or shops, by incrochments on y® high street, are 
Pagi 2yi now largely builded on both I sides outward, and also vpward, 
some 3. 4, or 5. stories high. 

Cheape warde 269 

Now of the north side of Cheape street & ward, beginning North side of 
at the great Conduit, & by saint Mary Cole church where we *^ ^^^ ^' 
left. Next therevnto westward is the Mercers chappel, some- 
time an hospital intituled of S. Thomas of Aeon or Acars, for Hosj^tall of 
a master and brethren, Militia hospitalism &c. saith the record AcarsT ^ 
of Ed. the 3. the xiiii. yere, it was founded by Thomas Fitz- 
thebaldde heili, & Agnes his wife, sister to T.Becket/mthe raigjne 
of H, the a. They gaue to the master and brethren the lands 
with the appurtenances that sometimes were Gilbart Beckets^ 
father to the said Thomas^ in the which he was borne, there 
to make a church. There was a Chamell, and a Chappel ouer 
it, of S. Nicholas^ and S. Stephen. This hospitall was valued 
to dispend 277. L 3 s. 4.d. surrendered the 30. of H. the 8. the 
xxi. of October, and was since purchased by the Mercers, by Mercers 
meanes of sir Richard Gresham^ and was again set open on C*^*??®^^ 
the Eue of S. Michael^ 1541. the 33. of H. the 8. it is now 
called the Mercers Chappel, therein is kept a free Grammar 
schoole, as of old time had beene accustomed, commanded by A free schoole 
Parliament. Here bee many monuments remaining, but more pitau of °* 
haue beene defaced: lames Butler Earle of Ormond, and^J^<>™*« 
Dame loan his Countesse 1428. lohn Norton Esquire, Stephen 
Cauendish Draper, Maior, 136a. Tliomas Cauendish^ William 
Cauendishy Thomas Ganon called Pike^ one of the shiriifes, 
1410. Hungate of Yorkshire, Ambrose Cresacre^ lohn Chester 
Draper, lohn Trusbut Mercer, 1437. Tho* Norland^ shiriffe 
1483. sir Edmond Sha Goldsmith, Maior, 1482. sir Tho. Hill 
Maior, 1485. Thomas Ham shiriffe, 1479. Lancelot Laken 
Esquire, Rc^h Tilney Shiriffe, 1488. Garth Esquire, lohn Rich^ 
Thomas Butler Earle of Ormond, 15 15. sir W. Butler Grocer, 
Maior 1515. W. Browne mercer, Maior 1513. lohn Loke 1519. 
sir T. Baldry mercer, Maior 1523. sir W, Locke mercer, shiriffe Locke his 
1548. SIT lohn Allen mercer, Maior 1525. deceased 1544. sirj^^^^ 
T. Leigh mercer, Maior 1558. sir Ru Malory mercer, Maior 
1564. Humf. Baskeruile mercer, shiriffe 1561. sir G. Bond 
Maior, 1587. &c. 

Before this Hospital towards the street, was builded a faire 
and beautiful! chappell, arched ouer with stone, and therevpon 
the Mercers hall, a most curious peece of worke: sir lohn 
Allen Mercer | being founder of that Chappell, was there /ii^ 27^ 


Cheape warde 

rowne sQde 
ider Row 


Irish church 
'S. Martins 


buried, but since his Tombe is remoued thence into the 
Chappell ^ of the hospitall church, and his bodie ' diuided IdId 
shops is letten out for rent These Mercers were enabled to 
be a companie, and to purchase landes to the value of 20. L die 
yeare, the 17. of Richard Uti^ 2. They had three messuages 
and shops in the parish of S. Martin Oteswitck in the ward <rf 
Bishopsgate, for the sustentation of the poore, and a chantiie 
the 22. of Ri, the 2. Henry the 4. in the xii. of his ra^;ne, 
confirmed to Stephen Spilman, W. Marchford^ and Ink 
Whatile mercers, by the name of one new seldam, shed, or 
building, with shops, Cellers and edifices whatsoeuer apper- 
taining called Crowftsild situate in the Mercerie in west Cheapen 
in the parish of S. Marie de Arcubus in London, &c. to be 
holden in burgage, as all the Citie of London is, and whkh 
were worth by yere in all issues, according to the true value 
of them, 7.1. 13.S. 4.d. as found by inquisition before Tk 
Knolles Maior, and Eschetor in the said Citie. H. the 6. in 
the 3. of his raigne, at the request of lohn Cauenirie^ lokn 
Carpenter^ and William Groue^ granted to the Mercers to 
haue a Chaplaine, and a brotherhoode for reliefe of such of 
their companie as came to decay by misfortune on the sea. 
In the yeare 1536. on S. Peters night, king/T. the 8. and Queene 
lane his wife, stoode in this Mercers hall then new builded, and 
beheld the marching watch of the Citie, most brauely set out, 
sir lohn Allen mercer, one of the kings counsell, being Maior. 

Next beyond the Mercers Chappell, and their hall, is Iron- 
monger lane, so called of Ironmongers dwelling there, whereof 
I reade in the raigne of E. the first, &c. In this lane is the 
smal parish church of S. Martin called Pamary^ vppon what 
occasion I certainely know not. It is supposed to be of 
Apples growing, where now houses are lately builded: for 
my selfe haue scene large void places. Monuments in that 
Church none to be accounted of. 

Farther west is S. Laurence lane, so called of S. Laurence 
church, which standeth directly ouer against the north end 
thereof: antiquities in this lane, I find none other, then that 
among many fay re houses, there is one lai|^e Inne for receipt 

* Chappell] 13^ ; bodie 1603 
' bodie 1603 ; body-roome 1633 ; 

chapel Thorns 

Cheape warde 271 

of trauelers, called Blossoms Inne, but corruptly Bosoms Inne, Blossoms 
and hath to signe Saint Laurence the Deacon, in a Border of '*'**' 
blossoms or flowers. | 

Then neare to the Standarde in Chepe is Honey lane so Page sjs 
called not of sweetenes thereof, being very narrow and some- Hony lane. 
what darke, but rather of often washing and sweeping, to 
keepe it cleane. In this lane is the small parrish church Parish church 
called Alhallows in Honey lane, there be no monumentes in Jj^ny um^"' 
this church wortli the noting. I find that John Norman 
Draper, Mayor 1453. ^^ buried there: he gaue to the 
Drapers his tenements on the north side the saide church, 
they to allow for the Beame light and lamp, xiii.s. iiii.d. 
yearely, from this lane to the Standard, and thus much for 
Chepe warde in the high streete of Chepe, for it stretcheth no 

Now for the North Wing of Chepe warde haue yee Catte- Catstieete. 
street, corruptly called Catteten streete, which beginneth at 
the North end of Ironmonger lane, and runneth to the West 
end of S. Lawrence church as is afore shewed. 

On the North side of this streete is the Guild Hall, wherein The Guild 
the courts for the citty be kept, namely, i. the court of common courts kept. 
counsaile, 2. The court of the Lord Mayor and his Brethren p!^' . 
the Aldermen, 3. The court of Hustinges, 4. The court of 
Orphanes, 5. The two courtes of the Shiriffes, 6. The court 
of the Wardmote, 7. The court of Hallmote, 8. The court of 
requestes, commonly called the court of conscience, 9. The 
chamberlaines court for Prentises, and making them free. 
This Guilde Hall, sayeth Robert Fabian^ was begunne to bee 
builded new in the yeare, 141 1. the twelfth of Henry the 
fourth, by Thomas Knoles then Mayor, and his Brethren the 
Aldermen, the same was made of a little cottage, a large and 
great house as now it standeth : towards the charges whereof 
the companies gaue lai^e beneuolences, also offences of men 
were pardoned for siunmes of money towards this, worke, 
extraordinary fees were raysed. Fines, Amercements, and 
other thinges imployed during seauen yeares, with a con- 
tinuation thereof three yeares more, all to be imployed to 
this building. 

The first yeare of Henry the sixt, John Couentrie and lofm 

272 Cheape warde 

Carpcntar Executors to Richard Whitington^ gaue towardes 
the pauing of this great Hall twentie pound, and the next 
yeare fifteene pound more, to the saide pauement, with hard 
Page 2^4 stone of I Purbecke, they also glased some Windowes thereof 
and of the Mayors court, on euery which Windowe the armes 
of Richard Whitingtan are placed. The foundation of the 
Mayors court was laid in the thirde yeare of the raigne of 
Henry the sixt, and of the Porch on the South side of the 
Mayors courte, in the fourth of the saide King. Then was 
builded the Mayors chamber, and the counsell chamber with 
other roomes aboue the staires : last of all a stately porch 
entering the great Hall was erected, the front thereof towards 
the South being beautified with images of stone, such as is 
shewed by these verses following, made about some 30. yeares 
since by William Elderton, at that time an Attumey in the 
Shiriflfes courts there. 

Vcreesmade Though most the images be pulled down^ 

oucr the Guild Aiid fiofie be thought remayne in Towne^ 

haU gate. j ^^ ^^^^ there be in London yet^ 

Seuen images such^ and in such a place^ 
As few or none I thinke will hit : 
Yet euery day they shew their face^ 
And thousands see them euery yeare ^ 
But few I thinke can tell me where^ 
where lesu Christ aloft doth standi 
Names of Law and learning on eyther handy 

Discipline in the Deuils necke^ 
And hard by her are three direct^ 
There iustice^ Fortittide and Temperance standi 
where find ye the like in all this land? 

Diuers Aldermen glased the great Hall, and other courtcs, 
as appeareth by their Arms in each window. WiUiam 
Hariot Draper, Mayor 1481. gaue 40. pound to the making 
of two loouers in the said Guildhal, and toward the glasing 
Kitchinsby therof. The kitchens and other houses of office adioyning 
'to this Guildhall were builded of latter time, to wit, about 
the yeare 1501. by procurement of Sir lohn Ska Goldsmith, 
Mayor (who was the first that kepte his Feast there) towardes 

Cheape warde 273 

the charges of which worke the Mayor had of the Fellow- 
shippes of the cittie^ by their owne agreement certaine summes 
of money, as of the Mercers forty pound, the | Grocers Pa^e 2js 
twenty pound, the Drapers thirty pound, and so of the other 
Fellowships through the citty, as they were of power. Also 
Widdowes and other well disposed persons gaue certain 
summes of money, as the Lady Hill ten pound, the Lady 
Austrie ten pound, and so of many other till the worke was 
finished, since the which time the Mayors Feastes haue beene 
yearely kepte there, which before time had beene kept in the 
Taylers Hall, and in the Grocers hall : Nicholas Alwyn 
Mercer, Mayor 1499. deceased 1505. gaue by his Testament 
for a hanging of Tapestrie to serue for principall dayes in the 
Guild hall 73.1!. 6.s. 8.d. How this gift was performed I haue 
not heard, for Executors of our time hauing no conscience, 
(I speake of my own knowledge) proue more testaments then 
they performe. 

Now for the chappell or col ledge of our Lady Mary Chappel or 
Magdalen, zx\A of All-Saintes by the Guild hall called London Sdtel** 
coUedge, I reade that the same was builded about the yeare 
1299. ^wd that Peter Fanelare, Adam Frauncis and Henry 
Frowike cittizens gaue one Messuage with the appurtenances 
in the parrish of Saint Fawstar to William Brampton Gustos 
of the Chauntrie, by them founded ^ in the said chappell with 
foure Chaplens, and one other house in the parrish of S. Giles 
without Criplegate, in the 27. of Edward the third, was 
giuen to them. Moreouer I find that Richard the 2. in the Patent 
20. of his raigne, graunted to Steplien Spilman Mercer, licence 
to giue one messuage, 3. shops, and one garden, with the 
appurtenances, being in the parish of Saint Andrew Hubbard^ 
to the Gustos and Ghaplens of the said chappell and to their 
successors for their better reliefe and maintenance for euer. 

King Henry the 6. in the eight of his raigne gaue licence to 
lohn Barnard Gustos, and the Ghaplens to build of new the 
said chappell or colledge of Guild hall, and the same Henry chapi>eli or 
the 6. in the 27. of his raigne, graunted to the parish Clearkes cuiid^Uew 
in London, a Guild of S. Nicholas^ for two Chaplens by them builded. 

^ founded] found /j^, /doj 

STOW. 1 T 


Cheape warde 

Page 2j6 

lohn Wels 
a principall 
boDefactor to 
Guild hall 

to be kepte in the said Chappell of S. Mary Magdalen^ neare 
vnto the Guild hall, and to keepe 7. Almes people. Henry 
Barton Skinner, Mayor, founded a chaplen there, Roger 
Depham Mercer, and Sir William Langford knight had also 
chaplens there. This Chapjpell or colledge had a Custos, 
7. chaplens, 3. clearkes, and foure Quiristers. 

Monumentes there haue been sundrie, as appeareth by the 
tombs of marble yet remayning, seuen in number, but al 
defaced. The vppermost in the quire on the South side 
thereof aboue the Reuestrie dore, was the tombe of lohn 
Welles Grocer, Mayor 143 1. The likenes of welles are grauen 
on the tombe, on the Reuestrie dore, and other places on 
that side the Quire. Also in the Glasse window ouer this 
tombe, and in the East Window is the likenes of Welles, with 
hands eleuated out of the same Welles, holding scrowles, 
wherein is written Mercy^ the writing in the East window 
being broken yet remayneth Welles : I found his armes also 
in the South glasse window, all which doe shew that the East 
end and South side the Quire of this Chappell, and the 
Reuestrie were by him both builded and glased: on the 
North side the Quire the tombe of Thomas Knesworth Fish- 
monger, Mayor 1505. who deceased 1515. was defaced, and 
within these 44. yeares againe renewed by the Fishmongers : 
two other Tombs lower there are, the one of a Draper, the 
other of a Haberdasher, their names not knowne : Richard 
Stomine is written in the window by the Haberdasher, vnder 
flat stones do lye diuers Custos of the chappell, chaplens and 
officers to the chamber. Amongst others lohn ClipsUmt 
priest^ sometime Custos of the Librarie of the Guildhall, 1457- 
An other of Edmond Alison priest, one of the Custos of the 
Library, 1510. &c. Sir lohn Langley Goldsmith, Mayor, 
1576. lyeth buried in the vault, vnder the tombe of I(Jm 
welles before named. This chappell or colledge, valued to 
dispend twelue pound, eight shillinges nine pence by the 
yeare, was surrendered amongst other, the chappell remayneth 
to the Mayor and Comminalty, wherein they haue seniicc 
weekely, as also at the election of the Mayor, and at the 
Mayors fest, &c. 

Adioyning to this chappell on the south side was sometime 

Cheape warde 275 

a fa3rre and large library, furnished with books, pertayning to Library at 
the Guildhall and colledge : These books as it is said were ^'*"**^ "*"• 
in the raign of Edward the 6. sent for by Edward Duke 
of Somerset, Lorde Protector, with promise to be restored 
shortly : men laded from thence three Carries with them, but 
they were neuer retur|ned. This Library was builded by the Page 277 
Executors of R. Whitington^ and by William Burie : the 
armes of Whitington are placed on the one side in the stone 
worke, and two letters to wit, W. and B, for William Bury^ 
on the other side: it is now lofted through, and made a store 
house for clothes. 

Southwest from this Guildhall is the fayre parrish church of v^r^ church 
Saint Laurence called in the lury, because of olde time many jq the lury. 
lewes inhabited there about. This church is fayre and large, 
and hath some monumentes, as shall bee shewed. I my selfe 
more then 70. yeares since haue seene in this church the 
shanke bone of a man (as it is taken) and also a tooth of a The tooth of 
very greate bignes hanged vp for shew in chaines of iron, ^o^^fi^'a, 
vppon a pillar of stone, the tooth (being aboute the bigpies of i take it. 
a mans fist) is long since conueyed from thence : the thigh or ^f ^^ inches 
shanke bone of 25. inches in length by the rule, remayneth lo°g» ®(* 
yet fastened to a post of timber, and is not so much to be but might be ' 
noted for the length, as for the thicknes, hardnes and strength ofanOUphant. 
thereof, for when it was hanged on the stone pillar, it fretted 
with mouing the said pillar, and was not itselfe fretted, nor as 
seemeth, is not yet lightned by remayning drie : but where or 
when this bone was first found or discouered I haue not 
heard, and therefore reiecting the fables of some late writers 
I ouerpasse them. Walter Blundell had a Chaunterie there, 
the foureteenth of Edward Xho. second. There lie buried in 
this church Elizabeth wife to lohn Fortescue^ Katherine Stoke- 
ton, lohn Stratton, Phillip Albert, lohn Fleming , Phillip Ag- 
viondesham, William Skywith, lohn Norlong, lohn Baker^ 
Thomas Alleyne, William Barton Mercer, 1410. William 
Melrithy Mercer, one of the Shiriffes, 1425. Simon Bartlet 
Mercer, 1428. Walter Chartsey, Draper, one of the Shiriffes, 
\^y:>. Richard Rich Esquier of London the Father, & Richard 
Rich his sonne, Mercer, one of the Shiriffes, 1442. deceased 
1469 with this Epitaph 

T 2 

276 Cheape warde 

Respice quod opus estprsesentis temporis xuum, 
Offine quod est^ nihil est prxter atnare Deum, 

This Richard was Father to lohn buried in S. Thomas 
Acars, which John was Father to ThomaSy father to Richard \ 
Page aj8 Lord Ritchy &c. lohn Pickering, honorable for seruice of his 
prince and of the Engh'sh marchantes beyond the seas, who 
deceased 1448. Godfrey BoUen Mercer, Mayor, 1457. Thotnas 
Bollen his sonne Esquier of Norfolke, 1471. lohn Atkenson, 
Gentleman, Dame Mary S. Maure^ John Waltham, Roger 
Bonifant, lohn Chayhee, lohn Abbott^ Geffrey Filding Mayor, 
1452. and Angell his wife, Simon Benington Draper, and loan 
his wife , lohn Marshal Mercer, 1 493*. William Purchase Mayor, 
1498. Thomas Burgoyne Gentleman, Mercer, 1517. The Wife 
of a Maister of defence, seruant to the Princes of Wales, 
Dutches of Cornewell, and Countesse of Chester, Sir Richard 
Gresham Mayor 1537. Sir Michell Dormer Mayor, 1541. 
Robert Charsey one of the ShirifTes, 1548. Sir William Row 
Ironmonger, mayor 1593. Samuell ThornhiU 1597. Thus 
much for Chepe ward, which hath an Alderman, his Deputie, 
Common counsellors xi. Constables xi. Scauengers ix. for the 
Wardmote inquest xii. and a Beadle. It is taxed to the 
fifteene at 52. pound, sixteene shillinges, and in the Ex- 
chequer at seuenty two pound, eleuen shillinges. 

Coleman street warde. 

Next to Chepe Warde on the North side thereof is Cole- 
manstreete Ward, and begfinneth also in the East, on the 
course of Walbrooke in Lothbury, and runneth west on the 
South side to the end of Ironmongers lane, and on the North 
side to the West corner of Bassinges hall streete. On the 
South side of Lothbury is the streete called the old lury, the 
one half and better on both sides towardes Cheape is of this 
Warde. On the north side lyeth Colemanstreete, whereof the 
Ward taketh name, wholy on both sides North to London 
wall, and from that north ende along by the Wall, and More- 
gate East to the course of Walbrook. And again from 
Page 279 Coleman streete west to the Iron grates : and these bee | the 
boundes of this Warde. 

^ John Marshal, Mercer, Mayor tdoj 

Coleman street warde 277 

Antiquities to be noted therein are these : First the streete 
of Lothberie, Lathberie, or Loadberie (for by all these names Lothbery. 
haue I read it) tooke the name (as it seemeth) of Berie, or 
Court of olde time there kept, but by whom is growne out of 
memorie. This streete is possessed for the most part by 
Founders, that cast Candlestickes, Chafingdishes, Spice mor- 
tars, and such like Copper or Laton workes, and do afterwarde 
turne them with the foot & not with the wheele, to make 
them smooth and bright with turning and scrating (as some 
do tearme it) making a loathsome noice to the by- passers, 
that haue not been vsed to the like, and therefore by them 
disdainedly ^ called Lothberie. On the south side of this street, 
amongst the Founders, be some faire houses and large for 
marchantes, namely, one that of old time was the lews Sina- The lewes 
gogue, which was defaced by the Cittizens of London, after ^^*^^- 
that they had slaine 700. lewes, and spoyled the residue of 
their goods in the yeare 1262. the 47. of Henry the third. 
And not long after in the yeare 1291. King Edward the i. 
banished the remnant of the lewes out of England, as is afore 
shewed. The said sinagogue being so suppressed certaine 
Fryers got possession thereof: For in the yeare 1257. (sayth 
Mathiw Paris) there were scene in London a new order of 
Fryers, called de pcenitentia lesu^ or Fratres de sacca^ because Fratretde 
they were apparrelled in sackecloth^ who had their house in Sjdtcnti«r 
London, neafe vnto Aldersgate without the gate, and had 
licence ol Henry the third, in the 54. of his raigne, to remoue 
from thence to any other place : and in the 56. hee gaue vnto 
them this lewes Sinagogue: after which time Elianor the 
Queene, wife to Edward the first, tooke into her protection 
and warranted vnto the Prior, & brethren de Peniteniia lesu 
Christi of London, the said land and building in Colechurch Cole church 
street in the parish of S. Olaue in the lury, and S. Margaret "^^^ °' ^^^^ 
in Lothbery by her graunted, with consent of Stephen de 
Fulbornfy vnder- Warden of the Bridge house, & other breth- 
ren of that house, for Ix. marks of siluer, which they had 
receiued of the said prior and brethren of repentance to the 
building of the said bridge. This order of friers gathered 
many good schoUers, & multiplied in number exceedingly 

^ disdainedly] i6jj ; disdainely 1603 

278 Coleman street warde 

vntill the counsell at Lyons, by the which it was decreede, 
Page 280 that I from that time forth there should be no more orders of 
begging friers be permitted, but onely the 4. orders, to wit, 
the Dominicke or preachers, the Minorites or Gray Fryers, the 
Carmelites or white Fryers, and the Augustines : and so from 
that time the begging Fryers decreased, and fell to nothing. 
Robert Fitz- Now it followed that in the yeare 1305. Robert Fitzwalter 
houi' " requested and obtayned of the said king Edward the first, 
that the same Fryers of the Sacke might assigne to the said 
Robert their chappell or church, of olde time called the Syna- 
gogue of the lewes, neare adioyning to the then mansion 
place of the same Robert^ which was in place where now 
standeth the Grocers hall : and the saide Sinagogue was at 
the north Corner of the old lury. Robert Large Mercer, 
Mayor in the yeare 1439. kept his Mayoralty in this house, 
and dwelled there vntill his dying day. This house standeth 
and is of two parrishes, as opening into Lothberie, of S. Mar- 
garets parrish, and opening into the Old lury of S. Olaues 
parrish. The said Robert Large gaue liberally to both these 
parrishes, but was buried at S. Olaues. Hugh Clopton Mercer, 
Mayor 1492. dwelled in this house, and kept his Mayoralty 
The windmill there : it is now a Taueme, and hath to signe a Windmill, 
dd^lurie!^*^^ ^^^ ^^^ much for this house, sometime the lewes Syna- 
gogue, since a house of Fryers, then a Noble mans house, 
after that a Marchauntes house, wherein Mayoralties haue 
beene kept, and now a Wine Taueme. 
The olde Then is the olde lurie, a streete so called of lewes sometime 

'^' dwelling there, and neare adioyning, in the parrishes of S. 

The lewes Olaue, S. Michaell Bassings Hall, S. Martin Ironmonger lane, 
RSy w" S. Lawrence called the lury, and so West to Wodstreete. 
Duke of Nor- William Duke of Normandy first brought them from Rone, 
man y. ^^ inhabite here. 

W. Rufus fk- William Rufus fauoured them so farre, that hee sware by 
uoredthem. \jj\^^ f^ce his common oath, if they could ouercome the 

Christians he would be one of their sect. 
H. the a. puni- Henry the second grieuously punished them for corrupting 

shed them. j^j^ ^^^^ 

forUdthemto Richard the first forbad lewes and women to bee present 
come to his at his coronation for feare of inchantments, for breaking of 


Coleman street warde 279 

which I commaundement many lewes were slayne, who being Page jSj 
assembled to present the king with some gifte, one of them 
was stricken by a Christian, which some vnruly people per- 
ceyuing, fell vpon them, bet them to their houses, and brent 
them therein, or slewe them at their comming out : Also the 
lewes at Norwich, Saint Edmondsbury, Lincolne, Stanford, 
and Lynne, were robbed and spoyled, and at Yorke to the 
number of 500. besides women and Children, entered a Tower 
of the Castle, proffered money to be in suretie of their Hues, 
but the christians would not take it, whervpon they cut the 
throtes of their wiues & children, and cast them ouer the wals 
on the christians heads, and then entering the kings lodging* 
they brent both the house and themselues. 

King loAn in the eleuenth of his raigne, commaunded all King lohn 
the lewes both men and women to be imprisoned and JeJ^**^ '^^ 
g^ieuously punished, because he would haue all their money, 
some of them gaue all they had, and promised more to escape 
so many kindes of tormentes, for euery one of them had one 
of their eyes at the least plucked out, amongest whome there 
was one which being tormented many wayes would not ran- 
some himselfe, till the king had caused euery day one of his 
great teeth to bee plucked out by the space of seuen dayes, 
and then gaue the king loooo. markes of siluer, to the end 
they should pull out no more : the sayde king at that time 
spoyled the lewes of 66000. markes. 

The 17. of this king, the Barons broke into the levvq The Barons 
houses, rifeled their coffers, and with the stone of their houses ""^™^«^- 
repaired the gates and walles of London. 

King Henry the third in the eleuenth of his raigjn graunted Charta n. of 
to Semayne or Balaster the house of Benotnye Mittun the lew h! |.'excheted 
in the parrish of S. Michaell Bassinghaughe in which the *^*J*"^* *»*^ 
saide Benomy dwelt, with the fourth part of all his land in of the lewes. 
that parrish which William Elie held of the Fee of Htigh 
Neuell^ and all the land in Coleman streete, belonging to the 
said Benotnye^ and the fourth parte of the land in the parrish 
of S. Lawrence, which was the fee of T. Buckerell^ and were 
excheted to the king for the murder which the saide Benotnye 
committed in the Cittie of London, to hold to the sayde 
Semaine, and his heyres of the king, paying at Easter a payre 

28o Coleman street warde 

Page 2^2 of gilt spurres, and to doe the seruice thereof due | vnto the 
Lords Court. In like manner and for like seruices the king 
graunted to Gtiso for his homage, the other parte of the lands 
of the said Benomye in S. Michaels parrish, which Lawes the 
Paynter held, and was the kinges Exchete, and the lands of 
the saide Benomye in the sayde parrish, which W altar Tnrnar 
held, and xv. foote of land which Hugh Harman held, with xv. 
yron elles of land and halfe in the front of Ironmongar lane, 
in the parrish of S. Martin, which were the said Benomies of 
the fee of the Hospitall of S. Giles^ and which Adam the 
smith held, with two stone houses, which were Moses the lewc 
of Canterbury, in the parrish of S. Olaue, and which are the fee 
of Arnold le Rens^ and are the kinges exchetes as before said. 
The lewes The 1 6. of the saide Htnrie the lewes in London builded a 

a'^iogrc Synagogue, but the king commaunded it should bee dedicated 
in London, to our blessed Lady, and after gaue it to the Brethren of 
founded an S. Anthonie of Vienna, and so was it called S. Ant/umies 
^oMMioT con- Hospitall : this Henry founded a Qhurch and house for con- 
uerted lewes, in new streete by the Temple, whereby it came 
to passe that in shorte time there was gathered a great number 
of Conuertes : the 20. of this Henry seuen lewes were brought 
lewes stale a from Norwich, which had stolne a Christened child, had dr- 
^dsei him ^"'"cised, and minded to haue crucified him at Easter, where- 
and minded to fore their bodies and goodes were at the kinges pleasure : the 
hfm!^^*^ 26. the lewes were constrayned to pay to the king 20000. 
H. the third ^arkes at two termes in the yeare, or else to bee kept in 
neyofthe perpetuall prison: the 35. hee taketh inestimable summes of 
lewes. money of all rich men, namely of Aaron a lewe, borne at 

Yorke^ 14000. markes for himselfe, and ten thousande markes 
for the Queene, and before hee had taken of the same lewe as 
much as in all amounted to 30000. markes of siluer, and 20a 
markes of gold to the Queene. In the 40. were brought vp to 
Westminster 202. lewes from Lincolne, for crucifying of a 
lewes hanged child named Hughy eightteene of them were hanged : the 43. a 
oTa^SSd^ lewe at Tewkesbery fell into a Priuie on the Saturday and 
would not that day bee taken out for reuerence of his sabboth, 
wherefore Richard Clare Earle of Glocester kepte him there 
70a lewes till munday that he was dead : the 47, the Barons slew the 

slayn at Lcn- 

don. lews at London 700, the rest were spoyled and their Syna- 

Coleman street warde 281 

gogue defajced, because one lew would haue forced a Christian Page 28j 
to haue paide more then 2. d. for the lone of xx. s. a weeke. 

The third of Edwmrd the first, in a Parliament at London, 
vsury was (brbidden to the lewes, and that all Vsurers might Vsury for- 
be knowne, the king commaunded that euery Vsurer should ^**^"'" 
weare a Table on their breast, the bredth of a paueh'ne, or 
else to auoyde the Realme : the 6. of the said king Edward a 
reformation was made for clipping of the kings coyne, for 
which offence 267. lews were drawne and hanged, three were English lewes 
English Christians, and other were English lewes : the same °*"fi^^" 
yeare the lewes crucified a child at Northampton, for the lewes hanged 
which fact many lewes at London were drawn at Horse tayles ^^^^^!^!^^^ 
and hanged: the 11. of Edward the first, lohn PeciAam cMid at Nor- 
Archbishoppe of Canterbury commanded the Bishop of Lon- AU^^wes 
don to destroy all the lewes Sinagogues in his Dioces. The ^"^^f^^^Pj 
16. of the said Edward all the lewes in England were in one redeemed for 
day apprehended by precept from the king, but they re- T{f57* t 
deemed themselues for 12000. poundes of siluer: not with- banished this 
standing in the 19. of his raigne, he banished them all out of ^*' 
England, giuing them onely to beare their charge, till they 
were out of his Realm, the number of lews then expulsed 
were 15060. persons : the king made a mighty masse of money 
of their houses, which he sold, and yet the Commons of 
England had graunted & gaue him a fifteenth of all their 
goods to banish them : and thus much for the lewes. 

In this sayde streete, called the olde lury, is a proper Parish church 
parrish Church of S. Olaue Vpwdl, so called in Record, 1320. vpweU^the 
lokn Brian Parson of Saint Olaue Vpwcll, in the lury, lewry. 
founded there a Chauntrie, and gaue two messuages to that dertiie^t^ 
Parrish the 16. of Edward the second, and was by the said J?.^ ®^.^^"s 

Church, late 

King confirmed : In this Church, to the commendation of the turned to a 
Parsons and Parishioners, the monumentes of the deade re- ^"§* ^^^ ^*' 
ma}me lesse defaced then in many other: first of William 
Dikntan Fereno or Ironmonger, one of the Shiriffes of London, 
1367. Roherte Haueloke Ironmonger, 1390. lohn Organ Mercer 
one of the Shiriffes, 1385. lohn Forest Vicker of Saint Olaues, 
and of S. Stephen^ at that time as a Chappell annexed to 
S. Olaue, 1399. H, FrioU Taylor, 1400. 71 Morsied Esquire, 
Chirurgion | to Henry the fourth, fift and sixt, one of the Pc^ 284 

282 Coleman street warde 

shiriffes, 1436. hee builded a faire new He to the enlargement 
of this church, on the North side thereof, wherein he lyeth 
buried, 1450. Adam Breakspeare^ Chaplen, 141 1. William 
Kerkbie Mercer, 1465. Robert Large Mercer, Mayor T440. 
He gaue to that Church lioo pound. lohn Belwine Founder, 
1467. Gabriell Roue Fuller, 151 1. Wenlworth, Esquier, 1510. 
Thomas Michell Ironmonger, 151x7. Giles DeweSy seruant to 
Henry the seuenth, and to Henry the eight, Cleark of their 
Libraries, and schoolemaister for the French tongue to Prince 
Arihury and to the Lady Mary^ 1535. Ri^ff^d ChamberUntu 
Ironmonger, one of the shiriffes, 1 562. Edmond Burlacy Mer- 
cer, 1583. lohn BriaUy &c. 

From this parrish church of S. Olauey to the north 
ende of the Old lurie, and from thence west to the north 
end of Ironmongers lane, and from the said comer into 
Ironmongers lane, almost to the parrish Church of saint 
Martin, was of olde time one large building of stone, 
very ancient, made in place of lewes houses, but of what 
antiquitie, or by whom the same was builded, or for what 
vse I haue not lemed, more then that king Henry the 6. 
in the 16. of his raign, gaue the office of being Porter or 
Kings pallace keeper thereof, vnto lohn Stent for terme of his life, by the 
lewry. name of his principall palace in the olde lurie : this was in my 

youth called the old Wardrope : but of later time the outward 
stone wall hath been by little and little taken downe, and 
diuers fayre houses builded therevpon, euen round about. 

Now for the North side of this Lothburie, b^inning again 
at the East end thereof, vppon the water course of Walbrookc 
Parish church haue yee a proper Parrish Church, called saint Margaret 
Ui Loth^^!* which seemeth to bee newly reedified and builded aboute the 
yeare 1 4*jO. For Robert Large gaue to the Quire of that Church 
one hundred shillinges, and twentie pounde for omamentes, 
more, to the vaulting ouer the Watercourse of Walbrookc 
by the saide church, for the inlarging thereof, two hundred 

There be monuments in this church, of Reginald Coleman 
Sonne to Robert Coleman buried there, 1383. This said 
Robert Coleman may bee supposed the first builder or owner ^ 

' owner] i6jj\ Honor /jp^, lOoj 

Coleman street warde 283 

of Coleman streete, and that saint Stephens church then builded Page 28j 
in Coleman streete was but a chappell belonging to the parrish 
Church of saint Olaue in the lury : for we reade (as afore) 
that loAn Forest Vicker of saint Olaues, and of the chappell 
annexed of saint Stephen^ deceased in the yeare 1399. Ifugh 
Clapton Mercer, Mayor, deceased 1496. lohn Dimocke^ An-- 
selme Becket^ lohn lulian and William Ilford <had > Chaunteries 
there. Sir Brian Tewke knight, Treasurer of the Chamber to 
King Henrie the eight, and Dame Grisilde his wife, that 
deceased after him, were there buried, 1536. lohn Fetiplace^ 
Draper, Esquier, 1464, and loan his wife, sir Hugh Witch 
Mercer, Mayor, sonne to Richard Witch, intombed there, 1466. 
He gaue to his third wife three thousand pound, and to maides 
marriages fiue hundred marks : Sir lohn Leigh 1564. with this 

No wealth, no prayse, no bright renowne^ no skill. 

No force, no fame, no princes loue^ no toyle. 

Though forraigne land by trauell search ye will, 

No faithfull seruice of tlie country soyle. 

Can life prolong one minute of an houre. 

But death at length will execute his power. 

For Sir lohn Leigh to sundry countries knowne, 

A worthy Knight well of his prince esteemdcy 

By seeing much to great experience growfte. 

Though safe on seas^ though sure on land he seemde 

Yet here he lyes too soone by death opprest. 

His fame yet liuesy his soide in heauen doth rest. 

By the West end of this parrish church haue ye a fayre 
water Conduit, builded at the charges of the cittie in the Conduit in 
yeare 1546. Sir Martin Bowes being Mayor: two fifteenes ^°^^^^* 
were leuied of the Cittizens toward the charges thereof : this 
water is conueyed in great aboundance from diuers springes 
lying betwixt Hoxton and Iseldon. 

Next is the Founders Hall, a proper House, and so to The Founders 

. II 

the Southwest Comer of Bassinges Hall streete, haue yee 
fayre and large houses for Marchauntes : namely the Corner | 
house, at the ende of Bassings hall streete, an olde peece of Page 286 
worke builded of stone, sometime belonging to a certaine lew 

284 Coleman street warde 

named Mansere^ the sonne of AroUy the sonne of Coke the 
lew, the 7. of Edward the first : since to Rahere de Sopars 
lane, then to Simon Francis. Thomas Bradbery mercer kept 
Bay Hall. his Maioraltie there, deceased 1509. Part of this house hath 
beene lately imployed as a Market house for the sale of wool- 
len bayes, Watmols*, Flanels, and such like : Alderman Bemut 
now possesseth it. On this North side against the old lurte, 
Coleman is Coleman streete, so called of Coleman the first builder and 
street. owner thereof, as also of Colechurch, or Coleman church 

agaynst the great Conduit in Cheape. This is a faire and 
large street, on both sides builded with diuerse faire houses, 
besides Allies, with small tenements in great number. On 
the East side of this streete, almost at the North end thereof, 
ArmoreriHal. is the Armourers Hall, which companie of Armourers were 
made a fratemitie or Guild of Saint George^ with a Chantrie 
in the Chappie of saint Thomas in Paules Church, in the first 
Kings alley, of Henrie the sixt. Also on the same side, is kings Alley, 
pSsh Church ^^^ Loue lane, both containing many tenements. And on 
of S. Stenen the west side towards the south end, is the parish church of 
Sinagogue of Saint Stephen^ wherein the Monuments are defaced : notwith- 
thclcwes. standing, I find that William Crayhag founded a Chantrie 
there, in the raigne of Edivard the second, and was buried 
there. Also lohn Essex the 35. of Edward the third, Adam 
Goodman the 37. oi Edward the third, William King Draper, 
sometime owner of Kings Alley, the 18. of Richard the 
second, lohn Sokeling the 10. oi Henrie the sixt, lohn Arnold 
Leatherseller, the 17. oi Henrie the sixt. Thomas Bradberu 
mercer, Maior, the first oi Henrie the eight, his tombe remain- 
eth on the north side the Quire. Richard Hamney 1418. 
Kirnigham 1468. Sir lohn Garme^ Richard Colsel, Edmond 
Harbeke Currier, all these were benefactors, and buried there. 
This Church was sometime a Synagogue of the lewes, then a 
Parish church, then a chappell to saint Olaues in the lurie, 
vntill the seuenth of Edward the fourth, and was then incor- 
porated a parish church. 
Cocke of wa- By the East ende of this Church is placed a cocke of swectc 
phwl^w^. w^^^^' ^^"^^^ ^^ ^^^ tmxne pipe that goeth into Lothbcric. 
Page28j Also in | London wall directly against the north end of 

' Watmols] Wodmels IS9S 

Coleman street warde 285 

Colman street, is a Conduit of water, made at the charges of Conduit at 
Thomas Exmew goldsmith, Maior 151 7. And let here be the ^°*^°" ''*"• 
ende of this warde, which hath an Alderman, his Deputie, 
common Counsellers foure, Constables foure, Scauengers foure, 
of the Wardmote inquest 13. and a Beedle. It is taxed to 
the fifteene xv. I. xvi. s. ix. d. 

Bassings Hall warde 

The next adioyning to Colemanstreete ward on the west Bassings htll 
side thereof is Bassings hall warde, a small thing, and consist- ^"^^ 
eth of one streete call^ Bassings hall streete, of Bassings hall, 
the most principall house, wherof the ward taketh name. It 
b^nneth in the South by the late spoken Market house 
called the Bay hall, which is the last of Colemanstreete warde. 
This streete runneth from thence north downe to London 
wall, and some little distance both East and West, against the 
said hall, and this is the bounds of Bassings hall warde. 

Monuments on the East side thereof, amongst diuerse fayre 
houses for Marchants, haue ye three halles of Companies, 
namely, the Masons hall for the first, but of what antiquitie Masons Hall. 
that company is I haue not read. The next is the weauers Wenars Hall, 
hal, which companie hath beene of great antiquitie in this 
Citie, as appeareth by a Charter of Henrie the second, in 
these wordes. Rex omnibus ad quos^ &c. to be Englished thus. 
Henrie king of England, Duke of Normandie, and of Guian, 
Earle of Aniow, to the Bishop, lustices, Shiriifes, Barons, Patent of H 2. 
Ministers, and all his true Lieges ^ of London, sendeth greet- 
ing : Know ye that we haue granted to the Weauers in 
London, their Guild, with all the freedomes and customes 
that they had in the time of king Henrie my Grandfather, so Henry the i. 
that none but they intermit within the Citie of their craft but 
he be of their Guild, neither in Southwarke, or other places 
pertaining to London, otherwise then it was done in the time 
of king Henrie my Grandfather : wherefore I will and straightly 
comjmaund that ouer all lawfully, they may treate, and haue Page 2S8 
all aforesaid, as well in peace, free, worshipfuU, and wholy, as 
they had it, freer, better, worshipfullier, and wholier, then in 

^ Lieges] i6js ; Leagues i6oj 

286 Bassings Hall warde 

the time of king Henrie my Grandfather, so that they yceld 
yearely to mee two markes of gold at the feast of S. Michaell^ 
and I forbid that any man to them do any vnright, or disease, 
vpon paine of ten pounds witnes Thomas of Canterburie^ 
Patent. Warinofilio Gerardi^ Camerario. Also I read that the same 

Henrie the second in the 31. of his raigne, made a confirmation 
to the Weauers that had a Guild of fraternitie in London, 
wherein it appeareth that the said Weauers made wollen cloth, 
and that they had the correction thereof : but amongst other 
Articles in that patent, it was decreed, that if any man made 
cloth of Spanish wooU mixed with English wooll, the Portgrauc, 
or principall Magistrate of London ought to bume it, &c. 
Mathcw Paris. Moreouer in the yeare 1197. king Ric/tard the first at the 
instance of Hubert Archbishop of Canterburie and lusticier 
of England, ordained that the woollen clothes in euery part of 
this realme should be in bredth two yards within the listes 
and as good in the middest as in the sides, &c. King Henrie 
the third granted to the Citizens of London that they should 
not be vexed for the burels, or clothlisted, according to the 
constitution made for bredth of cloth the ninth of his raigne, 
&c. Richard the second, in the third of his raigne, granted 
an order of agreement betwcene the Weauers of London, 
English men and Aliens or straungers borne, brought in by 
Edward the third. 
Girdlers liall. Lower downe is the Girdlers hall, and this is all touching 

the East side of this ward. 
Bakewell hall. On the west side almost at the south end thereof is Bake- 
well hall, corruptly called Blackewell hall: concerning the 
originall whereof I haue heard diuerse opinions, which I ouer- 
passe as fables, without colour of truth, for though the same 
seemed a building of great antiquitie, yet in mine opinion the 
foundation thereof was first laide since the Conquest of 
William Duke of Normandie : for the same was builded vpon 
vaultes of stone, which stone was brought from Cane in Nor- 
mandie, the like of that of Paules Church, builded by Mauri- 
Page 28^ tius and his successors Bi|shops of London : but that this 
house hath beene a Temple or I e wish Sinagog^e (as some 
haue fantasied) I allow not^ seeing that it had no such forme 
Bassings ball, of roundnes, or other likenesse, neither had it the forme of a 

Bassings Hall warde 287 

Church for the assembly of Christians, which are builded East 
and West, but contrariwise the same was builded north an^ 
south, and in forme of a noble mans house, and therefore the 
best opinion in my iudgement is that it was of olde time 
belonging to the family of the Bassings, which was in this 
realme a name of great antiquitie and renowne, and that it 
bare also the name of that familie, & was called therefore 
Bassings Haugh, or Hall : whereunto I am the rather induced, 
for that the Armes of that family were of olde time so Armes of the 
abundantly placed in sundry parts of that house, euen in the '^^^"^ 
stone worke, but more especially on the wals of the hall, 
which carried a continuall painting of them on euerie side so 
close togither, as one escutcheon could be placed by another, How Bassings 
which I my selfe haue often scene and noted before the olde ^qj^^^* 
building was taken downe: these armes were a Gerond of name, 
twelue poynts, Gold, and Azure. Of the Bassings therefore, 
builders of this house, and owners of the ground neare adioyn- 
ing, that warde taketh the name, as Coleman streete warde 
of Coleman, and Faringden ward of William and Nicholas 
Fartngden, men that were principall owners of those places. 
And of olde time the most noble persons that inhabited 
this Citie, were appointed to be principall magistrates there, 
as was Godfrey de Magun (or Magnauile), Portgraue or Shiriffe 
in the raign of William Conqmror, and of William Rufus^ 
Hugh de Buck, in the raigne of Henry the first. Auberie de 
Vere Earle of Oxford : after him Gilbert Becket, in the raign of 
king Stephen, after that Godfrey de Magnauile the sonne of 
William the sonne of Godfrey de Magnauile Earles of Essex, 
were Portgraues or Shiriffes of London and Middlesex. In 
the raigne of Henrie the second, Peter Fitzwalter: after him 
John Fitznigel, &c. so likewise in the raigne of king lohn, the 
16. of his raigne, a time of great troubles, in the yeare 1^149 
Salomon Bassing, and Hugh Bassing, Barons of this realme Salomon 

as may bee supposed, were Shiriffes: and the said •S^^-^^^^ ^5SCT°of that 
Bossing was Maior in the yere 1216. which was the first of name. 
Henrie the thirde. Also Adam Bas\sing sonne to Sahfnon Page 290 
(as it seemeth) was one of the Shiriffes, in the yeare 1243, ^^ 
28. of Henrie the third. 
Vnto this Adam de Bassing, king Henrie the third in the 

288 Bassings Hall warde 

31. of his raigne, gaue and confirmed certaine messuages in 
Aldermanbury, and in Milke streete (places not far from 
Bassings Hall) and the aduouson of the Church at Bassinges 
hall, with sundrie liberties and priuiledges. 

This man was afterwards Maior in the yeare 1251. the ^(i^ 

of Henrie the thirde. Moreouer Thomas Bossing was one of 

the Shiriffes, 1269. Robert Bossing ShirifTe, 1279. and William 

Bossing was ShirifTe 1308, &c. for more of the Bassings in this 

Citie I need not note, onely I read of this family of Bassinges 

in Cambridgeshire, called Bassing at the bourne, and more 

BassiDg borne, shortly Bassing bourn, and gaue Armes as is afore shewed, 

and was painted about this old hall. But this familie is wome 

out, and hath left the name to the place where they dwelt. 

Thus much for this Bassings hall. 

Bakewell hall Now how Bakewell hall tooke that name is another question: 

Cit^ o c j.^^ which I read that Thomas Bakewell dwelled in this house 

in the six and thirtieth of Edwarde the third, and that in the 

20. of Richarde the second, the saide king for the summe of 

fiftie poundes which the Maior and Comminaltie had paide 

into the Hanapar graunted licence, so much as was in him, to 

lohn Frosh^ William Parker^ and Stephen Spilman (Citizens 

and Mercers) that they, the said Messuage called Bakewell 

hall, and one Garden with the appurtenances in the parish of 

Saint MicJiael of Bassings Haugh, and of Saint Lour erne in 

the lurie of London, and one messuage, two shops, and one 

Garden, in the sayde parish of Saint Michaelly which they 

held of the king in burgage, might giue and assig^ne to the 

Bakewell hall Maior and Comminaltie for euer. This Bakewell hall thus 

*Q^^ll^^*^^ established, hath beene long since imployed as a weekely 

clothes. market place for all sorts of WoUen clothes broade and 

narrow, brought from all partes of this Realme, there to be 

solde. In the 21. of Richard the second, R. Whittington 

maior, & in the 2%. Dreugh ^ Barringtine being maior, it was 

decreed that no forrein or stranger should sell any wollcn 

cloth but in the Bakewell hall, vpon paine of forfeyturc 

thereof | 

Pag€ 291 This house of late yeares growing ruinous and in daunger 


^ Dreugh] Drengb idoj ; Drew idjS 

Bassings Hall warde 289 

of falling, Richard May marchant Tayler at his discease gaue 
towards the new building of the outward part thereof 300. 
pounds, vpon condition that the same should bee performed 
within three yeares after his discease, whervpon the old 
Bakewel hall was taken downe, and in the moneth of Feb- Bakeweil hall 
marie next Following, the foundation of a new strong and "*^ ^»ided. 
beautiful storehouse being laid, the worke therof was so 
diligently applied, that within the space of ten moneths after 
to the chaises of 2500. poundes, the same was finished in the 
yeare 1588. 

Next beyond this house be placed diuerse faire houses for 
marchants and others, till yee came to the backe Gate of Guild 
hall, which gate and part of the building within the same, is 
of this warde. Some small distance beyond this gate, the 
Coopers haue their common hall. Then is the Parish Church Coopers hall. 
of S. Micliaell^ called S. Michaell at Bassings hall, a proper Parish cborch 
Church lately reedifyed, or new builded, whereto lohn Barton of^-^^i°l>»«"- 
mercer, and Agnes^ his wife were great benefactors, as appear- 
eth by his marke placed throughout the whole roofc of the 
Quier and middle He of the Church, he deceased in the yeare 
1460. and was buried in the Quire with this Epitaph. 

lohn Barton lyeth vnder here^ 
Sometitnes of London Citizen and Mercer^ 
And lenet^ his wife, with tlieir progenie^ 
Beene turned to earth as ye may see ^ 
Friends free what so ye bee^ 
Pray for vs zue yon pray^ 
As yon see vs in this degree. 
So shall you be another day, 

Frances Cooke^ lohn Martin, Edward Brofnflit Esquier, of 
Warwickeshire, 1460. Richard Barfus, Sir Roger Roe, Roger 
Velden, 1479. Sir latnes Yarford mercer, Maior, deceased 
1527. buried vnder a fayre Tombe with his Ladie in a speciall 
Chappell by him builded, on the North side of the Quire. 
Sir John Greshant mercer, Maior, deceased 1554. Sir lohn \ 
Ailife Chirui^ion, then a Grocer, one of the ShirifTes, 1548. Page 292 
Nicholas Bakhurst one of the ShirifTes 1577. Wolston Dixi^ 


* sic 



Bassings Hall warde 

Skinner, Maior 1585. &c. Thus haue you noted one Parish 
Church of S. Micfiaell, Bakewell hall, a Market place for 
wollen clothes, the Masons hall, Weauers hall, Girdlers^ hall, 
and Coopers hall. And thus I ende this Ward, which hath 
an Alderman, his Deputie, for common Counsaile foure, 
Constables two, Scauengers two, for the Wardmot inquest 
seuenteene, and a Beedle, it is taxed to the fifteene in London 
seuen pound, and likewise in the Exchequer at seuen pound. 


From the 
standard to 
the Crosse in 
Cheape on the 
north side^ is 
of Cripplegate 

Page 2g) 

Creplesgate warde 

XhE next Warde is called of Cripplesgate, and consisteth 
of diuerse streetes and lanes, lying as well without the Gate 
and Wall of the Cittie, as within : first within the Wall on the 
East part thereof, towards the north, it runneth to the West 
side of Bassings hall Warde : and towardes the South it 
ioyneth to the Warde of Cheape, it beginneth at the West 
ende of saint Laurence Church in the lurie, on the North side, 
and runneth West to a Pumpe, where sometime was a Well 
with two Buckets, at the South comer of Alderman burie 
streete, which street runneth downe North to Gay spurre 
lane, and so to London Wall, which streete and lane are wholy 
on both sides of this Warde, and so bee some few houses on 
both the sides from Gay spurre lane, by and agaynst the Wall 
of the Citie, East to the Grates made for the Watercourse of 
the Channels, and west to Cripplesgate. Now on the south- 
side from ouer against the west end of saint Laurence church 
to the Pumpe, and then vp Milke streete south vnto Cheape, 
which Milkestreete is wholy on both the sides of Cripplegate 
warde, as also without the South ende of Milkestreete, a part 
of west Cheape, to wit from the standarde to the Crosse is ail 
of Cripplegate warde. Then downe great Woodstreete, which 
is wholy of this warde on both the | sides thereof, so is little 
Woodstreete which runneth downe to Crippl^jate. 

Out of this Woodstreete be diuerse lanes, namely on the 
East side is Lad lane, which runneth east to Milkestreete 
corner : down lower in Woodstreete is Louelane, which lyctb 
by the south side of S. Albons church in Woodstreete, and 

^ Girdlers] 1633 ; Cordeliers /J9<S, 1603 

Creplesgate warde 291 

runneth downe to the Conduite in Aldermanburie streete. 
Lower downe in Woodstreet is Addlestreete, out of the which 
runneth Phillip lane downe to London wall. These be the Phillip lane, 
lanes on the East side. 

On the west side of Woodstreete is Huggen lane by the 
south side of S. Michaels church, and goeth through to 
Guthuruns lane. The lower is Maiden lane, which runneth 
west to the north end of Gutherons lane, and vp the said lane 
on the East side thereof, till against Kery lane, and backe 
againe : then the sayd Maiden lane, on the north side goeth 
vp to staining lane, and vp a part thereof on the East side, to 
the farthest North part of Haberdashers Hall, and backe 
againe to Woodstreete, and there lower downe is Siluer- 
strecte, which is of this warde, till ye come to the East ende of 
S. Oliues church, on the south side, and to Munkes well streete 
on the north side, then downe the saide Munkes well streete 
on the East side thereof, and so to Cripplesgate, do make the 
boundes of this ward within the walles. 

Without Cripplegate, Forestreete runneth thwart before the 
gate, from against the north side of saint Giles church, along 
to More lane end, and to a Posteme lane ende that runneth 
betwixt the Towne ditch on the south, and certaine Gardens 
on the north almost to Moregate, at the East of which lane 
is a Pot-makers house^ which house with all other the Gar- 
dens, houses, and Allies on that side the Morefieldes, till ye 
come to a Bridge and Cowhouse neare vnto Fensburie Court 
is all of Criplegate ward : then to turne back again through the 
said Posteme lane to More lane, which More lane with all the 
Allies and buildings there, is of this warde, after that is Grub- 
streete, more then halfe thereof to the streightning of the 
streete, next is Whitecrosse streete, vp to the end of Bech 
lane, and then Redcrosse streete wholy, with a part of Golding 
lane, euen to the Postes there placed, as a bounder. | 

Then is Bcchlane before spoken of, on the East side of the Pa^ 294 
Red crosse, and the Barbican streete, more then halfe thereof, 
towarde Alder^ate streete, and so haue you all the boundes 
of Cripplegate ward without the walles. 

Now for Antiquities and Ornaments in this warde, to be 
noted : I find first at the meeting of the comers of the old 

U 2 


292 Creplesgate warde 

A pumpe at lurie, Milkestreet, Ladlane, and Aldermanburie, there was of 
AldcTBMuibury ^^^ ^*"^^ ^ fayre Well with two Buckets, of late yeares con- 
sirect. uertcd to a Pumpe. How Aldermanbury streete tooke that 

name, many fables haue beene bruted, all which I ouerpasse 
as not worthy the counting : but to be short, I say, this street 
tooke the name of Aldermans burie (which is to say a Court) 
there kept in their Bery, or Court hall now called the Guild 
hall, which hall of old time stoode on the East side of the 
same streete not farre from the west ende of Guildhall now 
vsed. Touching the antiquitie of this old Aldermans burie 
or court, I haue not read other then that Richard Renery one 
Liber Osncy. of the Shiriffes of London, in the first of Richard the first, 
^ourtTcSS which was in the yeare of Christ 1189. gaue to the Church of 
hal by Alder- S. Mary at Osney by Oxford, certaine ground and rents in 
charch7 Alderman bery of London, as appeareth by the Roister of 
that Church, as is also entred in the Hoistinges of the Guild 
hall in London : this olde Bery Court or hall continued, and 
the Courts of the Maior and Aldermen were continually 
holden there, vntill the new Bery Court or Guildhall that now 
is was builded and finished, which hall was first b^un to be 
founded in the yeare 141 1, and was not fully fini^ed in 20. 
yeares after. I my selfe haue seene the ruines of the old Court 
hall in Aldermanbery streete, which of late hath beene imployed 
as a Carpenters yard, &c. 

In this Alderman bury streete be diuerse faire houses on 

both the sides, meete for marchants or men of Worship, and 

in the middest thereof is a fayre Conduit, made at the charges 

of William Eastfield^ sometime maior, who tooke order as 

well for water to bee conueyed from Teyborne, and for the 

building of this Conduit not farre distant from his dwelling 

house, as also for a Standarde of sweete water, to bee erected 

in Fleetestreete, all which was done by his executors, as in 

another place I haue shewed. | 

Page 29s Then is the parrish church of S. Mary Aldermanbury a 

Parish church fayre Church with a churchyeard, and cloyster adioyning, in 

Aid' ^^\ the which cloyster is hanged and fastned a shanke bone of a 

Shanke bone man (as is said) very great and larger by three inches and 

rn<i«^d a ^ h^'^^ ^^^^ th^^ ^h^ch hangeth in S. Lawrence church in the 
halfe long. lury, for it is in length 28. inches and a halfe of assisse. but 

Creplesgate warde 293 

not so hard and steely,^ like as the other, for the same is Ught 

and somewhat Porie and spongie. This bone is said to bee 

found amongst the bones of men remoued from the chamel 

house of Powles, or rather from the cloyster of Fowls church, 

of both which reportes I doubt, for that the late Reyne Wolfe Rcyne Wolfe 

Stationer (who paid for the carriage of those bones from the SJi^,"^uect- 

chamell to the Morefieldes) tolde mee of some thousandes of «d the great 

Carrie loades and more to be conueighed, whereof hee wondred, creased and 

but neuer told of any such bone in eyther place to bee found, pwWished by 

' ' '^ hit executors 

neyther would the same haue beene easily gotten from him, if vnderthe 

hee had heard thereof, except he had reserued the like for Hdo^JM^df ^ 

himselfe, being the greatest preseruer of antiquities in those 

partes for his time. True it is, that this bone, (from whence 

soeuer it came) beeing of a man, as the forme sheweth, must 

needes be monstrous, and more then after the proportion of 

fiue shanke bones of any man now liuing amongst vs. There 

lie buried in this Church Simon JVinc^comde Esquier^ 1391. 

Robert Combartofi i^M, lohn Wheatley Mercer, 1428. Sir 

William Estfild, knight of the Bath, Mayor, 1438. a great 
benefactor to that church, vnder a fayre monument, hee also 
builded their steeple, changed their old Bels into 5. tunable 
bels, and gaue one hundred poundes to other workes of that 
church. Moreouer hee caused the Conduit in Aldermanbury Conduit in 
which he had b^;un, to be performed at his charges, and bury.^"^*" 
water to be conuayed by pypes of leade from Tybome to 
Fleetstreete, as I haue said. And also from high Berie to the 
parrish of S. Giles without Cripplegate, where the inhabitants 
of those partes incastellated the same in sufficient otsxemsjokn 
Midletofty Mercer, Mayor 1472. lohn Tomes Draper, i486. 

William Bucke^TzyXoT^ 1501. Sir William Brozune Mayor, 1507. 
Dame Margaret leninges^yixk to Stephen /eningeSjMsiyor 1515. 
A widdow named Starkey sometime wife to Modie. Raffe Wood- 
cock Grocer, one of the shiriifes 1586. Dame | Mary Gresham Page 296 
wife to Sir lohn Gresham^ 1538. Thomas Godfrey Remem- 
brancer of the office of the first fruites, 1577. Beneath this 
church haue yee Gay spur lane, which runneth downe to Gay spur lane. 
London Wall as is afore shewed. In this lane at the North 
end thereof was of olde time a house of Nunnes, which house 

' steely] i6js \ Steele like /doj 

294 Creplesgate warde 

being in great decay, William Elsing Mercer in the yeare of 
Christ, I3«9. the 3. oi Edward the 3. began in place thereof 
Priory or Hos- the foundation of an Hospitall, for sustentation of 100. blind 
Fhln/spiulc ^^^^ towardes the erection whereof, he gaue his two houses in 
the parishes of S. Alphage^ and our blessed Lady in Alder- 
manbury neare Cripplegate. This house was after called a 
Priorie or Hospital of S. Mary the Virgin, founded in the 
yeare 1332. by W, Elsing for Canons regular: the which \V. 
became the first Prior there. Robert Elsing son to the said W. 
Charterhouse gaue to the said Hospitall 12 li. by the yeare, for the finding 
with^/"^ of 3. priestes, hee also gaue 100. s. towards the inclosing of the 
Aldersgate, & new churchyeard without Aldegate and loo.s. to the inclosing 
5ke wiAout* ^^ ^^ "^^^ Churchyeard without Aldersgate, to Thomas Elsing 
Aldgate. his SQnne 80. pound, the rest of his goods to bee sold, and 
giuen to the poore. This house valued 193 li. 15. s. 5. d. was 
surrendered the xi. of May, the xxii. of Henry the eight. 

The monumentes that were in this church defaced. Thomas 
Cheney^ sonnc to William Cheney^ Thomas^ lohn^ and William 
Cheney^ John Northampton Draper, Mayor 1381. Edmcnd 
Hungerford^ Hefiry Frowike, loan^ daughter to sir William 
Cheney^ wife to William Stokes^ Robert Eldarbroke Esquier, 
1460. dame loan Ratcliffe^ William Fowler y William King- 
stone^ Thomas Swineley^ and Helen his wife, &c. The princi- 
pall Isle of this church towardes the north was pulled down 
and a frame of foure houses set vp in place : the other parte 
from the steeple vpward, was conuerted into a parrish Church 
Parish church of S. Alpkage^ and the parrish Church which stoode ncarc 
of s. Alphage. ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^jl ^f ^j^^ (^j^^j^ ^^ Cripplesgate was pulled downe, 

the plot thereof made a Carpenters yearde, with saw pittes. 
The hospitall it selfe, the Prior, and Canons house with other 
lodgings, were made a dwelling house, the church yeard is 
a garden plot, and a fayre gallery on the cloyster: the 
Page29y lodgings for the poore are | translated into stabling for 

Eliing Spittle In the yeare 1541. sir lohn Williams maister of the kingcs 
burned. lewels, dwelling in this house on Christmas euen at night, 

about seuen of the clocke, a great fire began in the gallery* 
thereof, which burned so sore, that the flame fiering the whole 
house, and consuming it, was seene all the Cittie ouer, and 

Creplesgate warde 295 

was hardly quenched, whereby manie of the kings lewels 
were burned, and more imbeseled (as was said). Sir Rowland 
Heyward^ Mayor, dwelled in this Spittle, and was buried there, 
1593. Richard Lee^ aliaSy Clarenciaulx king of Armes, 1597. 

Now to retume to Milkstreete, so called of Milke sold 
there, there bee many fayre houses for wealthy Marchantes 
and other : amongst the which I read that Gregory Rokesley Greffory 
Mayor of London in the yeare 1275. dwelled in this Milke ^^^^^Lo^. 
streete, in an house belonging to the Priorie of Lewes in don, hu honse 
Sussex, whereof hee was tenant at will, paying t wen tie shil- lings the yeare. 
linges by the yeare without other charge: such were the 
rentes of those times. 

In this Milke streete is a smal parrish church of Saint Parish church 
Marie Magdaletiy which hath of late yeares beene repayred, MagdalSu 
William Browne Mayor 1513. gaue to this church forty 
pound, & was buried there, Thomas Exmew Mayor, 1528. gaue 
forty li. and was buried there : so was lohn Milford one of the 
shiriiTes i375(?). lohn Olney Mayor, 1475. Richard Rawson 
one of the shirifTes, 1476. Henrie Kelsey^ Sir lohn Browne 
Mayor, 1497. Thomas Muschampe one of the ShirifTes, 1463. 
Sir William Cantilo Knight, Mercer, 1462. Henry CantUnv^ 
Mercer, marchant of the Staple, who builded a Chappell and 
was buried there, 1495. John West Alderman, 1517. lohn 
Machell Alderman, 1558. Thomas Skinner Clothworker, Mayor 

Then next is Woodstreete, by what reason so called, I Woodstreet. 
know not, true it is that of olde time, according to a decree made 
in the raigne of Richard the first, the houses in London were 
builded of stone for defence of fire, which kind of building 
was vsed for two hundred yeares or more, but of later time 
for the winning of ground taken downe, and houses of timber 
set vp in place. It seemeth therfore that this street hath 
beene of the latter building | all of timber, (for not one house Page sgS 
of stone hath been known there,) and therfore called Wood- 
street, otherwise it might take the name of some builder or 
owner thereof. 

Thomas Wood one of the shirifTes in the yeare 149 1. 
dwelled there : he was an especiall benefactor towardes the 
building of S. Peters church at Woodstreet ende : he also 

296 Creplesgate warde 

builded the beautifull front of houses in Cheape, ouer against 
Woodstrecte end, which is called Goldsmithes row, garnished 
with the likenes of Woodmen-, his predecessors might bee 
the first builders, owners and namers of this streete after their 
owne name. 

On the East side of this street is one of the Prison houses, 
pertayning to the Shiriflfes of London, and is called the 

^^^^ ^ Compter in Woodstreet, which was prepared to be a prison 
house in the yerc 1555. and on the Eue of S. Micliaell the 
Archangell, the prisoners that lay in the Compter in Bred- 
streete were remoued to this Compter in Woodstreete. 

Ladle lane, Beneath this Compter is Lad lane, or Ladle hall ^, for y!i 


called Lad I find it of Record, in the parrish of S. Michaell Woodstreete, 

Louelan *^"^ beneath that is Loue lane, so called of wantons. By 

Parish church this lane is the parrish church of S. Albon^ which hath the 

® * ^ "• monuments of Sir Richard Illingworth Baron of the Exchequer, 

Thomas Catworth Grocer, Mayor, 1443. lohn Woodcock, 

Mayor, 1405. lohn Collet and Alice his wife : Raph Thomas, 

Raph and Richard sonnes of Raph Illingworth^ which was 

Sonne to Sir Richard Illingworth Baron of the Exchequer, 

Thomas sonne of Sir Thomas FitzwilliamSy Thomas CkalUm, 

Mercer, Mayor, 1449. T/tomas Ostrich Haberdasher 1483. 

Richarde Swetenham Esquier, and William, Dunthorne Towne 

Clearke of London, with this Epitaph : 

Foelix prima dies postquam mortalibus ami 
Cesserit^ hie morbus snbit^ atgue repente senectus. 
Turn mors qua nostrum Dunthom cecidisse Wilelmum, 
Hand cuiqnam latuisse reor^ dignissimus (inqt/am^) 
Artibus hie doc tor ^ nee non celeberrimus huius 
Clericus vrbis erat primus^ nuUique secundus^ 
MoribuSy ingenio, studio^ nil dixeris illi, 
Quin dederit natura boiii, pius ipse, modestus^ 
LonganimuSy '^ solers^ patiens\ super omnia gratus^ \ 
J age 2^9 Quique sub immensas curas variosque labores, 

Anxius atteritur, vitx dum earpserit auras ^ 
Hoe tetro in tumulo^ compostus pace quiescit. 

Simon Mors ted, Thomas Pipehurst^ Esquier, Richarde 

' lane 1398', hall idoj *^^ solers^patiens Thorns \ solis 16^ 

' Pikehurst 1598^ 1603 ; Pikehurst Harl. 538 

Creplesgate warde 297 

Take^ Robert Ashcovibe^ Thomas Louet^ Esquier, ShiriflFe of 
Northamptonshire, 1491. lohn Spoore, Katheren daughter to 
Sir Thomas Mir ley Knight, William Linchlade Mercer, 139a. 
lohn Penie Mercer, 1450. lohn Thomas Mercer, 1485. Chris* 
topher Hawse y Mercer, one of the shirifTes 1503. William 
Skarborongh Vintner, Simofi de Berching^ Sir lohn Cheke 
Knight, Schoolemaister to king Edivard the sixt, deceased 
^SSl' do lie here. 

Then is Adle streete, the reason of which name I know Adlc street. 
not, for at this present it is replenished with fayre buildinges 
on both sides : amongst the which there was sometime the 
Pinners Hall, but that Company being decayed, it is now the Pinners hall, 

Plaisterers HaU. ?ertn!"'" 

Not far from thence is the Brewers Hall, a fayre house, Brewers hall. 
which companie of Brewers was incorporated by King H. 
the 6. in the 16. of his raign, confirmed by the name ot 
S. Mary and S. Thomas the Martyr, the 19. of -£". the 4. 

From the West end of this Addle streete, little Woode- 
streete runneth downe to Cripplesgate, and somewhat East 
from the Sunne Taueme against the wall of the Citty is the Curriers hall. 
Curriers Hall. 

Now on the West side of Woodstreete haue yee Huggen Haggen lane, 
lane, so called of one Hugan^ that of olde time dwelled there : 
hee was called Hugan in the lane, as I haue read in the 
34. of E. the first, this lane runneth downe by the south side 
of S. Michaels church in Woodstreet, and so, growing very 
narrow by meane of late encrochmentes, to Guthurons lane. 

The parrish church of saint Michaell in Woodstreete is a Parish church 
proper thing, and lately well repayred, lohn lue Parson of j^ ^^^^^^^j^^ 
this church, lohn Forster Goldsmith, and Peter Fikelden 
Taylor, gaue two messuages and two shoppes, with solars, 
sellars, and other edifices in the same parrish and streete, 
and in Ladle lane, | to the reparations of the church, Page 300 
chauncell, and other workes of charitie, the 16. of Richard 
the second. 

The monumentes here be of William Bambrough the sonne 
of Henry Bambrough of Skardborough, 139a. William Turner 
Waxechandler, 1400. lohn Peke Goldsmith, 1441. William 
Tauerner Girdler, 1454. William Mancer Ironmonger, 1465. 

298 Creplesgate warde 

lohn Nash 1466. with an Epitaph, John Allen Timbermonger, 
1441. Robert Draper 1500. lohn Lamberde Draper, Alder- 
man, one of the Shiriffes of London, who deceased 1554- and 
was father to William Lambarde Esquire, well knowne by 
sundry learned bookes that he hath published, lohn Medley 
Chamberlaine of London^ lohn Marsh, Esquire, Mercer and 
common Seargeant olLondon, &c. There is also (but without 
lames the any outward monument) the head of lames, the fourth king 
^ote, his l^d ^f Scots of that name, slayne at Flodden field, and buried 
Mi^h^ ^ '*^' ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ occasion. After the battell the body of the 
church in saide king being founde, was closed in lead, and conueyed 
Woodstrcet. fj-^j^^ thence to London, and so to the Monastery of Sheync 
in Surrey, where it remayned for a time, in what order I am 
not certaine : but since the dissolution of that house, in the 
raigpie of Edivard the sixt, Henry Gray Duke of Suffolke, 
beeing lodged and keeping house there, I haue beene shewed 
the same body so lapped in lead, close to the head and body, 
throwne into a wast roome amongst the olde timber, leade, 
and other rubble. Since the which time Workemen there 
for their foolish pleasure hewed off his head : and Launcelot 
Young Maister Glasier to her Maiestie, feeling a sweet savour 
to come from thence, and seeing the same dryed from all 
moisture, and yet the forme remayning, with the hayre of the 
heade and bearde redde, brought it to London to his house 
in Woodstreet, where for a time hee kept it for the sweete- 
nesse, but in the ende caused the Sexton of that Church to 
bury it amongst other bones, taken out of their Charnell, &c 
wl!^ ^^ "*• ^ reade in diuers Recordes of a house in Woodstreete then 
S. Michaels Called Blacke Hall, but no man at this day can tell thereof. 
P*^^-, On the North side of this S. Michaels church is Maydcn 

Ingenelane or ^ 

Maydenlane. lane, now SO called, but of old time Ingenelane, or Inglane. 

Waxchandlers In this lane the Waxechandlers haue their common Hal on 

Page jot ^^ south side | thereof: and the Haberdashers haue their like 

Haberdashers hall on the North side at Stayning lane end. This Company 

Record in the of the Haberdashers or Hurrers of olde time so called, were 

Rowles. incorporated a Brotherhood of saint Katherine, the 26. of 

Henry the sixt, and so confirmed by Henrie the seauenth, the 

17. of his raigne, the Cappers and Hat Marchantes or Hurrers 

being one Company of Haberdashers. 

Creplesgate warcfe 299 

Downe lower in Woodstreete is Silucr streete, (I thinke silner street, 
of siluer smithes dwelling there) in which bee diuers fayre 

And on the North side thereof is Monkes well streete, so Monks well 
called of a well at the North end thereof, where the Abbot ^'""** 
of Garendon had an house or Cell called saint lames in the 
Wall by Criplesgate, and certaine Monkes of their house 
were the Chaplens there, wherefore the Well (belonging to 
that Cell or Hermitage) was called Monks Wei, and the street 
of the Wei Monkswel street. 

The East side of this streete downe against London wall, 
and the south side thereof to Criplesgate, bee of Criplesgate 
ward, as is afore shewed. In this street by the comer of Monks 
well street is the Bowyers halL On the said east side of Monks Boyers halL 
well streete be proper Almesehouses, la. in number founded 
by sir Ambrose Nicholas^ Salter, Mayor 1575. wherein be Almes houses 
placed tweluc poore and aged people rent free, hauing each ^r^°"^* ^^^^ 
of them seuen pence the weeke, and once the yeare each of 
them fiue sackes of Charcoales, and one quarter of an hundreth 
of Fagots of his gift for euer. 

Then in little Woodestreet be seauen proper Chambers in Almes cham- 
an Alley on the west side, founded for seuen poore people, woodrtrcct * 
therein to dwell rent free, by Henry Barton Skinner, Mayor 
141 6. Thus much for the Monuments of this Ward within 
the walles. 

Now without the Posteme of Criple^ate, first is the parish Pamsh chnrch 
Church of saint Giles a very fayre and large church lately ^thom^ 
repaired after that the same was burned, in the yeare 1545. Criplegate. 
the 37. of Henry the eight, by which mischance the monu- 
ments of the dead in this church are very fewe : notwith- 
standing I haue read of these following : Alice^ William & 
John wife and sonnes to T. \ Clarell, Agnes daughter to Page S02 
Thomas Niter Gentleman, William Atwel^ Felix daughter to 
sir Thomas GisorSy and wife to Thomas TrauarSy Thomas 
Mason Esquier, Edmond Wartar^ Esquier, loan wife to lohn 
Chamberlaine Esquier, daughter to Roger Lewkner Esquier, 
William Fryer^ lohn Hamberger Esquier, Hugh Moresbye^ 
Gilbert Prince ^ Alderman, O liner Cher ley Gentleman, sir lohn 
Wright or Writhesley^ alias Garter King at Armes, loan 

300 Creplesgate warde 

wife to Thomas Writhesley^ sonne to sir lohn Writhesky^ 
Garter, daughter and heyre to William Hal Esquier, lohn 
Writhesley the yonger, sonne to sir lohn Writhesley & 
AlianoTy A Honor second wife to lohn Writhesley daughter 
and heyre to Thomas Arnolde^ sister and heyre to Richard 
Arnold Esquier, lohn her sonne and heyre, Margaret Writk^ 
her daughter, lohn Brigget^ Thomas Ruston Gentleman, lohn 
Talbot, Esquier, and Katheren his wife, Thomas Warfle, and 
Isabel his wife, Thomas Lucie Gentleman, 1447. Raph Rock- 
ford knight, 1409. Edmond Watar Esquier, Elizabeth wife 
to Richard Barnes^ sister and heyre to Richard Malgraue, 
Esquier, of Essex, Richard Gonere, & lohn Gouere Esquiers, 
'^lohn Baronie of Millain, 1546*, Sir Henry Grey knight, sonne 
and heyre to George Grey Earle of Kent, 1562, Reginalde 
Grey Earle of Kent, Richard Choppin ^, Tallowe Chandler, one 
of the shiriifes, 1530. lohn Hamber Esquier, 1573, Thomas 
Hanley alias Clarenciaux King at Armes, Thomas Busbie, 
Cooper, who gaue the Queenes head Tauerne to the reliefc 
of the poorc in the parrish, 1575. lohn Whelar Goldsmith 
1575. Richard Bolene, 1563. William Bolene 1575. W. Bolene 
Phisition, 1587. Robert Crowley Vicker there, all these fourc 
vnder one olde stone in the Quire, the learned lohn Foxe writer 
of the Actes and Monumentes of the English church 1587. 
The skilful! Robert Glouer alias Sommerset Herralde 1588. 
Brothcrhoodc There was in this church of old time a fratemitie or 
Oiurch!^ Brotherhoode of our blessed Ladie, or Corpus Christie and 
saint GileSt founded hy lohn Belancer in the raigne of Edwarde 
the thirde, the 35. yeare of his raigne. 
WaterCondnit Some small distance from the east end of this church is 
Criplwgate. ^ water I Conduit brought in pypes of leade from Highbcry, 
Pagc)o} by lohn Middleton one of the Executors to Sir William East- 
field, and of his goodes, the inhabitantes adioyning castelated 
it of their owne costes and charges, about the yeare 1483. 
Bosse in the There was also a Bosse of cleare water, in the wall of the 
Chorchye^r Churchyeard, made at the charges oi Richard Whitiugton som- 
times Mayor, and was like to that of Belins gate : of late the 
same was turned into an euill pumpe, and so is cleane decayed. 

* Margaret IVrith ij^S; Margaret with 1603 
^-' onu i6ss ; out cf. idjj^ p, JJJ b ^ Champion 1633 

Creplesgate warde 301 

There was also a fayre poole of cleare water neare vnto the Poole of fpring 
Parsonage, on the west side thereof, which was filled vp in ^*^^'' 
the raigne oi Henry the sixt, the spring was coaped in, and 
arched ouer with hard stone, and staires of stone to goe down 
to the spring, on the banke of the Towne ditch : and this 
was also done of the goodes, and by the executors of Richard 

In white crosse streete king Henry the fift builded one white Crosse 
fayre house, and founded there a brotherhoode of saint GiUs^ 
to bee kept, which house had sometime beene an Hospitall Hospiuli of 
of the French order, by the name of saint Giles without oVde/^" 
Criplesgate, in the raigne of E, the first, the king hauing 
the iurisdiction and poynting a Custos thereof, for the pre- 
cinct of the parrish of saint Giles^ &c. patent R. 2. the 15. yeare, 
which Hospitall being suppressed^ the landes were giuen to 
the Brotherhood for reliefe of the poore. 

One Alley of diuers tenementes ouer against the north wall 
of S. Giles Churchyeard, was appoynted to bee almes houses 
for the poore, wherein they dwelled rent free, and otherwise 
were relieued : but the said Brotherhoode was suppressed by 
Henry the 8. since which time Sir lohn Gresham Mayor pur- 
chased the landes and gaue parte therof to the maintenance 
of a free schoole, which he had founded at Holt, a Market 
town in Norfolke. 

In Red crosse street on the west side from saint Giles Red Crosse 
Church3rard, vp to the said Crosse, be many fayre houses Liberls. 
builded outward, with diuers Alleyes, turning into a large ^*^o^P^ 
plot of grounde, of olde time called the lewes Garden, as Garden or 
being the onely place appoynted them in England, wherein &|^jj^"^^ 
to bury their deade, till the yeare 1177. the 24. oi Henry the 
second, that it was permitted to them (after long sute to the 
king and Parliament at Oxford) to haue a speciall place 
assigned them in euery quarter where they dwelled. | 

This plot of ground remayned to the said lewes, till the Pagtjo4 
time of their final banishment out of England, and is now 
turned into faire garden plots and summer houses for pleasure. 

On the east side of this Red crosse streete, bee also diuers 
faire houses, vp to the Crosse. And there is Beech lane, Beech lane, 
peraduenture so called of Nicholas de la Beech^ Lieutenant of 

302 Creplesgate warde 

the Tower of London, put out of that office in the 13. of 
Edward the third. This Lane stretcheth from the Red 
Crosse streete, to white crosse street, replenished not with 
Beech trees, but with beautifull houses of stone, bricke & 
The Abbot of timber. Amongst the which was of old time a great house, 
inncl^^ ** pertayning to the Abbot of Ramsey, for his lodging when he 
repayred to the Cittie : It is now called Drewry house, of 
sir Drewe Drewrie^ a worshipfull owner thereof. 
Almes houses On the north side of this Beech lane, towardes white Crosse 
"* *"*' streete, the Drapers of London haue lately builded 8. Almes 

houses of bricke and timber, for 8. poore widdowes of their 
own Company, whom they haue placed there rent free, 
according to the gift of the Lady Askew ^ widdow to sir 
Christopher Askew somtime Draper and Mayor, 1533. 
Golding lane. Then in Golding lane Richard Gallard of Islington Esquicr, 
the^^^^* Cittizen and paynter stayner of London, founded thirteen 
almes houses for so many poore people placed in them rent 
free, hee gaue to the poore of the same Almesehouses two 
pence the peece weekly, and a loade of Charcoale amongst 
them yearely for euer, hee leftc fayre landes about Islington 
to maintaine his foundation : Thomas Hayes sometime Cham- 
berlaine of London, in the latter time of Henrie the eight 
married Elizabeth his daughter and heyre, which Hayes & 
Elizabeth had a daughter named Elizabeth married to lohn 
Ironmonger of London, mercer, who now hath the order of 
the Almes people. 
Buijhkcning On the west side of the Red crosse, is a streete called the 
Barbican, because sometime there stoode on the North side 
thereof, a Burgh-Kening or Watch Tower of the Cittic called 
in some language a Barbican, as a bikening is called a Beacon : 
this Brugh-kening by the name of the Manner of Base court, 
was giuen by Edward the third to Robert Vfford earic of 
Suflfolke, and was lately pertayning to Peregrine Bartie Lord 
Page JOS Willoughby I of Ersby. 

•Garterhouse. Next adioyning to this, is one other great house, called 

Garterhouse, sometime builded by Sir Thomas Writhe, or 

Writhesley knight, alias Garter principal! king of Annes, 

second son of Sir lohn Writltc knight, alias Garter, and was 

vnckle to the first Thomas Earle of Southampton knight of 

Creplesgate warde 303 

the Gartar, and Chancelor of England. He built this house 
and in the top thereof, a chapell, which he dedicated by the 
name of S. Trinitatis in Alto. Thus much for that part of 
Cripl^^te Warde without the wall, wherof more shall be 
spoken in the suburbe of that part. This ward hath an 
Alderman & his Deputie within the gate. Common Coun- 
saile e^ht, Constables nine, Scauengers twelue, For Wardmote 
Inqueast fifteene and a Beadle. 

Without the gate, it hath also a Deputie, Common Coun- 
saile two. Constables foure, Scauengers foure, Wardmote In- 
quest 17. and a Beadle. It is taxed in London to the fifteene, 
at forty pound. 

Aldersgate warde 

The next is Aldersgate Ward, taking name of that north Aldersgate 
gate of the citic, this ward also consisteth of diuers streetes ^ 
and lanes, lying aswell within the gate and wall, as without, 
and first to speak of that part within the gate thus it is. The 
east part thereof ioyneth vnto the west part of Criplegate 
warde in Engain lane or Maiden lane. It beginneth on the 
north side of that lane, at Stayning Lane end, and runneth 
vppe from the Haberdashers Hall, to S. Mary Staining 
Church : and by the church east winding almost to Wood- 
streete : and west through Oatelane, & then by the south side c^^e lane. 
of Bacon house in Noble streete, backe againe by Lilipot Noble 
lane, which is also of that ward, to Maiden lane, and so on **'*«**• 
that north side west to S. lohn Sacharies church, and to 
Faster lane. Now on the south side of Ingaine or Mayden 
lane is the west side of Guthuruns lane, to Kery lane, and 
Kery Lane | itself (which is of this ward) and backe again Pag€)o& 
into Engainlane, by the north side of the Goldsmithes hall, to 
Faster lane : and this is the East wing of this ward. Then is 
Foster lane almost wholy of this Warde, b^inneth in the 
south toward Cheape, on the East side by the north side of 
S. Fosters church and runneth down North west by the west 
ende of Engaine lane, by Lilipot lane, and Oate lane, to 
Noble streete, and through that by Shelly house (of old time Noble 
so called, as belonging to the Shelleyes) Sir Thomas Shelley\ ^'^^^ 


Aldersgate warde 

house now 

S. Martins 




Briton streete. 




knight, was owner thereof in the i. of H. the 4. It is now 
called Bacon house> because the same was new builded by sir 
Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper of the great Seale. Down on 
that side by Sergeant Fleetwoods house, Recorder of London, 
who also new builded it, to S. Olaues Church in Siluer streete 
which is by the North west end of this Noble streete. 

Then again in Foster lane this ward b^nneth on the West 
side thereof, ouer against the South west comer of S. Fosters 
church, and runneth downe by S, Leonards church by Pope 
lane end, and by S. Anns lane end, which lane is also of this 
ward, north to the stone wall by the wall of the Citty, ouer 
against Bacon house : which stone wall, and so down north to 
Criplegate on that side, is of Farmgdon ward. 

Then haue yee the maine streete of this warde, which is 
called S. Martins lane, including Saint Martin on the East 
side thereof, and so downe on both the sides to Aldersgate. 
And these be the boundes of this ward within the wall and 

Without the gate, the maine street called Aldersgate streete 
runneth vp North on the east side, to the west ende of Howndes 
ditch or Barbican streete : A part of which streete is also of 
this warde. And on the west side to Long lane, a part 
whereof is likewise of this ward. Beyond the which Aiders- 
gate street, is Gosewell streete vp to the Barres. 

And on this west side of Aldersgate streete, by S. But- 
tolphes church is Briton street, which runneth west to a 
pumpe, and then north to the gate, which entreth the church- 
yeard somtime pertaining to the Priory of S. Bartholomew, 
on the east side : and on the west side towards S. Bar- 
tholomewes spittle, to a paire of postes there fixed. And these 
be the boundes of this Aldersgate ward without, j 

The antiquities be these, first in Stayning lane, of old time 
so called, as may be supposed, of Painter stainers dwelling 

On the east side thereof, adioyning to the Haberdashers 
Hall, bee ten almes houses, pertaining to the Haberdashers 
wherin be placed ten Almes people of that company, cueiy 
of them hauing eight pence the peece eucry Fryday for cucr, 
by the gifte of Thomas Huntlow Haberdasher, one of the 

Aldersgate warde 305 

Shiriflfes in the yeare, 1539. More, Sir George Baron gaue 
them ten poundes by the yeare for euer. 

Then is the small parrish Church of S. Mary called Stain- Paridi Church 
ing, because it standeth at the North ende of Stayning lane, staynbg. "^ 
In the which church being but newly builded, there remayne(s) 
no monument worth the noting. 

Then is Engaine lane, or Mayden lane, and at the North- Parish church 
west corner thereof, the parrish Church of S. lohn Sachary : A sldiJry^ 
fayre church, with the monuments wel preserued, of Thomas 
Lichfield^ who founded a chauntrie there in the 14. of E, the 
a. of sir Nicholas. Twiford^ Goldsmith, mayor 1388. and Dame 
Margery his wife : of whose goods the church was made & 
new builded, with a Tomb for them, and others of their race, 
1390. Drugo Barentine^ Mayor, 1398. He gaue fayre landes 
to the Goldsmithes : hee dwelled right against the Goldsmithes 
HalL Between the which hall and his dwelling house, hee 
builded a Galory thwarting the strcetc, whereby hee might 
go from the one to the other : he was buried in this church, 
and Christian his wife, 1427. lohn Adis Goldsmith 1400. and 
Margaret his wife. lohn Francis^ Goldsmith, Mayor 1400. 
And Elizabeth his wife, 1450. /. Sutton^ Goldsmith, one of 
the Shiriffes, 1413. Bartholomew Seman^ Gold-beater, Maister 
of the kinges Mintes, within the Tower of London and the 
town of Calice, 1430. lohn Hewet Esquier, 1500. William 
Breakesfere, Goldsmith, 1461. Christopher Elioty Goldsmith, 
1505. Bartholomew Reade, Goldsmith, Mayor 150a, was buried 
in the Charterhouse, and gaue to this his parrish Church one 
hundred pound. His wife was buried here with a fayre 
Monument, her picture in habite of a widdow, Thomas Key- 
touy Lorimar, 15%2. William Potketi Esquier, 1537. lohn 
Cornish with an Epitaph, 1470. Robert Fenruther, Goldsmith, 
one of I the shiriffes in the yeare 1512. PagejoS 

On the east side of this Faster lane, at Engayne lane ende, The Gold- 
is the Goldsmithes hall, a proper house, but not large. And snathes hall. 
therefore to say that Bartholomeiv Ready Goldsmith, Mayor 
in the yeare 1502. kept such a feast in this hall as some haue R. Grafton, 
fabuled, is far incredible, & altogether vnpossible, considering 
the smalnes of the hal & number of the guests, which as they 
say, were more then an hundreth persons of great estate. 

•TOW. 1 X 

306 Aldersgate warde 

For the messes and dishes of meates to them serued, the 
paled Parke in the same hall, furnished with frutefuU trees, 
beastes of venery, and other circumstances of that pretended 
feast well weighed, Westminster hall would hardly haue 
suffised, and therefore I will ouerpasse it, and note somewhat 
of principall Goldsmithes. 

First I read, that Leefstane^ Goldsmith, was Prouost of this 
Cittie, in the raigne of Henry the i. Also that Henry Fitz 
The first Alewin Fitz Leafstane^ Goldsmith, was Mayor of London in 
London'was the I. of Richard the first, & continued Mayor 24. years. 
aGoldsmith. Also that Gregory Rocksly chiefe say-maister of all the Kings 
oftheCitty Mints within England, (and therefore by my coniecture) a 
GoldsmiAes. Goldsmith, was Maior in the 3 of Edward the first, and con- 
tinued Maior 7. years together. Then William Faringdon, 
Goldsmith, Alderman of Faringdon ward, one of the shiriffes, 
1 28 1, the 9. of E, the i. who was a Goldsmith as appeareth 
in record, & shall be shewed in Faringdon warde. Then 
Nicholas Faringdon his son, Goldsmith, Alderman of Faring- 
don Warde, foure times Mayor in the raign of Edward the 
second, &c. For the rest of latter time are more manifestlie 
knowne, and therefore I leaue them. The men of this mistery 
were incorporated or confirmed in the sixeteenth of Richard 
the second. 
Pamsh church Then at the North end of Noble streete, is the parrish 
Siluer sieete" church of S. Olaue in Siluer streete, a small thing, and without 

any noteworthy monuments. 
Parrish church On the west side of Fauster lane, is the smal parrish Church 
in Faster lane! ^^ S. Leonardes, for them of S. Martins le graund. A number 
of Tenements beeing lately builded in place of the great 
Collegiate Church of S. Martin, that parish is mightily in- 
creased. In this Church remayne these Monumentes. First 
PagejoQ without the Church is | grauen in stone on the east cnde, 
John BrokeitwelL an especiall reedifier or new builder therof. 
In the Quire, grauen in brasse, Robert Purfet^ Grocer, 1507. 
Robert Trappis^ Goldsmith, 1526. with this Epitaph. 

When the bels be merily roong^ 
Aird the masse deuautly sung^ 
And the meat merily eaten ^ 

Aldersgate warde 307 

Then shall Robert Traps ^ his wuies 
And children be forgotten. 

Then in Pope lane, so called of one Tope that was owner Popelane, 
thereof, on the north side is the parrish church of saint Anne of sfAnnc'itt 
in the willowes, so called I know not vpon what occasion : but the willowes. 
some say, of willowes growing thereabouts : but now there is 
no such voyde place for willowes to grow, more then the 
Churchyeard,wherin do grow some high Ashe trees. 

This church by casualty of fire, in the yeare 1548. was 
burnt, so far as it was combustible, but since being newly 
repayred, there remain a few monuments of antiquity, of 
Thomas Beckhentofi *, Clarke of the pipe, who was buried there, 
1499. Raph Caldwell^ Gentleman of Greyes Inne, iS'^h 
lohn Lord Sheffelde^ John Herenden^ Mercer, Esquire, 157a. 
these verses on an old stone. 

y$ ^s y yo ym 'licit Vt 

William Gregory Skinner, Mayor of London in the year 1451, 
was there buried*, and founded a chauntrie, but no monument 
of him remayneth. 

Then in S. Martins lane was of old time a fayre & large Colledge of 
colledge of a deane and secular canons or priests, and was gi^^u^^f" ^* 
called S. Martins le graund, founded by Ingelricus and claimed priai- 
Edwardus his brother in the yeare of Christ 1056. & con- ganctoary. 
firmed by W. the Conqueror, as appeareth by his charter dated Lib.S. Martin, 
1068. This colledge claymed great priuiledges of sanctuary 
and otherwise, as appeareth in a booke, written by a notary 
of that house about the yeare 1440. the 19 of H. the 6. 
wherin amongst other things is set down & declared, that | on Pagijio 
the I. of September in the yeare aforesaid, a souldier prisoner 

* Traps] HarL 538 ; Trips 1603 

■ Becihenton] lOoj ; Lekhimpton 1633 

X % 

3o8 Aldersgate warde 

in Newgate, as he was led by an officer towards the Guild 
hall of London, there came out of Panycr Alley 5. of his fellow- 
ship, & took him from the Officer, brought him into sanctuary 
at the west dore of S. Martins church, and tooke grithe of 
that place, but the same day Philip Malpas and Rob. Marshall 
then shirifTes of London, with many other entered the said 
Church, and forcibly tooke out with them the said 5. men, 
thether fled ; ledde them fettered to the Compter, and from 
thence chained by the neckes to Newgate, of which violent 
taking the Deane and Chapter in large manner complayned 
to the king, and required him as their patron to defend their 
priuiledges, like as his predecessors had done, &c. All which 
complaint and sute the Cittizens by their counsell, Markam 
Argumeiit sergeant at the law, fohn Carpentar late common Clearkeof 
j^Mt pnui- ^j^^ Citty, and other, learnedly aunswered, offering to proue that 
<iJengcdby the said place of saint Martin had no such immunity or 
of saint Liberty, as was pretended : namely Carpenter offered to loose 

Martins. jjjg Huelode, if that Church had more immunitie then the least 
church in London : notwithstanding, after long debating of 
this controuersie, by the kinges commaundement, and assent 
of his Councell in the stered Chamber, the Chauncelor and 
Treasurer sent a writ vnto the shiriffes of London, charging 
them to bring the saide fiue persons, with the cause of their 
taking, and withholding, afore the king in his Chauncerie, on 
the Vigill of AU-hallowes. On which daye ^he saide shiriffes 
with the Recorder and Counsell of the Cittie, brought and 
deliuered them accordingly, afore the saide Lordes, whereas the 
Chauncelor,after heehad declared the Kinges commaundement, 
sent them to saint Martins, there to abide freely, as in a place 
hauing franchises, whiles them liked, &c. 

Thus much out of that Booke haue I noted, concerning the 
priuiledge of that place challenged in these daies,since the which 
time, to wit in the yeare 1457, ^^ 3^- of the said Henry the 6, 
an ordinance was made by the king and his counsel, concerning 
the said sanctuary men in saint Martins le graund, whereof the 
Articles are set down in the booke of K within the Chamber 
of the Guild hall, in the leafe 299.I 
Pagejtt This Colledge was surrendered to king Edward the sixt, the 

a. of his raigne, in the yeare of Christ, 1548. and the same 

Aldersgaie warde 309 

yeare the Colledge church being pulled downe, in the east part 
thereof a large Wine tauerne was builded, and withall downe 
to the west and throughout the whole precinct of that Colledge 
many other houses were builded, and highly prised, letten to 
straungers borne, and other such, as there claymed benefite 
of priuiledges, graunted to the Canons, seruing God day and 
night (for so be the wordes in the Charter of W, Conqueror) 
which may hardly be wrested to artificers, buyers and sellars, 
otherwise then is mentioned in the 21. of saint Matkewes VL9,i!titvf 21. 

Lower down on the west side of S. Martins lane, in the 
parish of S. Anne almost by Aldersgate, is one great house, 
commonlie called Northumberland house: it belonged to 
H. Percy. K. H. the 4. in the 7. of his raign, gaue this house 
with the tenements therevnto appertayning to Queene lane 
his wife, and then it was called her Wardrope, it is now 
a Printing house. 

Without Aldersgate, on the east side of Aldersgate street, 
is the Cookes hall : which Cooks (or Pastelars) were admitted Cookes Hall. 
to be a Company, and to haue a Maister & Wardens in the 
22. of E. the 4. From thence along vnto Hounsditch or 
Barbican streete, bee many faire houses. On the west side 
also be the like faire buildings till ye come to Long lane, 
and so to Goswel streete. 

In Briten street, which tooke that name of the Dukes of Briton streete. 
Briton lodging there, is one proper parish church of S. Buttolph, oj^. Bnttolph. 
in which church was sometime a Brotherhood of S. Fabian 
& Sebastian, founded in the yeare 1377, the 51. of -£*. the 3. 
and confirmed by H, the 4. in the 6, of his raign. Then 
H. the 6. in the 24. of his raign, to the honour of the Trinitie, 
gaue licence to Dame loan AsUey^ somtime'his Nurse, to 
R. Cawod and 7". Smith to founde the same a fraternity, 
perpetually to haue a M. and 2. Custos with brethren & 
sisters, &c. This brotherhood was indowed with landes, more 
then 30. pound by the yeare, and was suppressed by E. the 6. 
There lie buried, lohn de Bath, Weuar, 1390. Philip at Vine, 
Capper, 1396. Benet Gerard, Brewer, 1403. Thomas Bilsington 
founded a Chauntrie there, and gaue to that Church a house, 
called the Helmet vpon Comhill. lohnBradmore Chirurgion, 


Aldersgate warde 


Margaret %i Katheren his wiues, 14 ii. lohn Michaell sen^i 
at Armes, 1415. Allen Bret^ Carpenter, 1425. Robert Malion 
1426. lohn Trigilion, Brewer, i^iT, lohn Mason^ Brewer, 1431. 
Rob. Cawod, Clarke of the Pipe in the kings Exchequer, 1466. 
Ri. Emmessey^ lohn Walpole^ /. Hartshorne Esquier, seruant 
to the king, 1400, And other of that family great benefactors 
to that church. W. Marrow ^ Grocer, Mayor 0455-)* & 
Kathereti his wife, were buried there, about 1468. The Lady 
Anne Packinton widow, late wife to lo. Packinton knight, 
Chirographer of the court of the common pleas : shee founded 
Almes houses neare vnto the white Fryers church in Fleet- 
street, the Clothworkers in London haue ouersight thereof. 
And thus an end of this ward, which hath an Alderman, 
his Deputie, common Counsellers iiue, Constables eight, 
Scauengers nine, for the Wardmote inquest 14. and a Beedle. 
It is taxed to the fifteen in London, seuen pound, and in the 
Exchequer, 6. 1, 19. s. 

ward within. 

extra, and 
infra, all one 
ward, and 
then dinided 
into twain, by 
ward took 
that name of 
W. Farindon. 

Page PS 

Faringdon Ward 

Infra or within 

On the south side of Aldersgate warde lyeth Faringdon 
ward, called infra or within, for a difference from an other 
ward of that name, which lyeth without the wals of the citie, 
and is therfore called Farindofi extra. These two wardes 
of old time were but one, and had also but one Alderman, 
til the 17. of Richard the a, at which time the said ward for 
the greatnes therof, was diuided into twain, & by Parlia- 
ment ordered to haue 2. Aldermen, & so it continueth til 
this day. The whole great ward of Farindon, both infra and 
extra^ tooke name of W. Farendon, Goldsmith, Alderman of 
that ward, and one of the shiriffes of London : in the yeare 
laSi. the 9. of Ed. the first, he purchased the Aldermanry of 
this ward, as by the abstract of deedes which I haue read 
thereof may appeare. 

Thofnas de Arde{r)fie, sonne and heyre to Sir Ralph Ardeme 
knight, granted to Ralph le Feure Cittizen of London, one of 
the I shiriffes in the yeare 1277. all the Aldermanry with the 

Faringdon IVard within 311 

appurtenances within the Cittie of London, and the suburbs Sir Raph 
of the same between Ludgate and Newgate, and also without kiiight,*Alder- 
the same gates : which Aldermanry, Anketinus de Aueme man of that 

ward now 

held during his life,by the graunt of the said Thomas deArdema^ called Farm- 
to haue and to hold to the said Ralph and to his heyres, freely d^°» '^J^ 
without all chalenge, yeelding therefore yearly to the said the third. 
Thomas and his heyres, one cloue or slip of Gilliflowers, at xScmc*'* ^* 
the feast of Easter, for all secular seruice and customes, with Alderman, 
warranty vnto the said Ralph le Feure^ and his heyres, against ^tm, Alder- 
all people Christians and Jewes, in consideration of twenty "*"• 
marks, which the said Ralph le Feure did giue before hand, 
in name of a Gersum or fine, to the said Thomas, &c. dated 
the fift of Edward the first, witnes G. de Rokesley maior, 
R. Arras one of the shiriffes, H. Wales^ P. le Taylor, T. de 
Basing^ /. Horne, N. Blackthorn, Aldermen of London. After 
this lohn le Feure, son and heire to the saide Raph le Feure, lohn le Fenre, 
granted to William Farendon, Cittizen and Goldsmith of^^^JJ^ 
London, & to his heires the said Aldermanry, with the don,Aldennan 

i- 1 . . 1 1 • . t *od one of 

appurtenances for the seruice thervnto belongmg, m the the shiriflfes 
seuenth of Edward the first, in the yeare of Christ, 1279. ^f London. 
This Aldermanry descended to Nicholas Farendon son to the Nicholas 
said William and to his heyres, which Nicholas Farendon^ also a AidOTliiIn'5c 
Goldsmith, was foure times Mayor, & liued many yeares after: mayor. 
for I haue read diuers deedes wherevnto he was a witnes dated 
the yeare 1360. He made his Testament, 1361. which was Nicholas 
53. yeares after his first being Mayor, and was buried in ^^"^j^ye^rs 
S. Peters church in Cheape. So this ward continued vnder aft« he had 
the gouemment of William Faringdott the father, and Nicholas Mayor?^ 
his son, by the space of 82. yeares, and retaineth their name 
vntil this present day. 

This ward of Faringdon within the walles, is bounded thus : 
B<^inning in the East, at the great Crosse in west Cheape, 
from whence it runneth West. On the north side from the 
parish church of S. Peter, which is at the Southwest comer 
of Wood street, vnto Guthuruns lane, and down that lane, to 
Hugon lane on the East side, and to Kery lane on the west. 

Then again into Cheape, and to Foster lane, and down that 
Lane on the east side, to the north side of saint Fausters 
church, I and on the West, till ouer against the Southwest comer Page J14 

312 Faringdon JVard within 

of the saide Church, from whence downe Fauster lane, and 
Noble street, is all of Aldersgate streete ward, till yee come 
to the stone wall, in the West side of Noble streete, as is afore 
shewed. Which sayde Wall downe to Neuils Inne, or Windsor 
house, and downe Monkes well streete, on that west side, then 
by London wall to Criplegate, and the west side of that same 
gate, is all of Faringdon Ward. 

Then backe againe into Cheape, and from Fauster Lane 
end, to S. Martins lane end, and from thence through saint 
Nicholas shambles, by Penticost Lane, and Butchers alley, and 
by stinking lane through Newgate market to Newgate. All 
which is the North side of Faringdon warde. 

On the south from against the saide great Crosse in Cheape 
West to Fridayes streete, and downe that streete on the East 
side, till ouer against the North East comer of saint Mathewes 
Church : and on the west side, till the south comer of the 
saide Church. 

Then againe along Cheape to the old Exchange, and downe 
that lane (on the East side) to the parrish church of Saint 
Augustine, which church and one house next adioyning in 
Watheling streete bee of this warde, and on the west side of 
this lane, to the east arch or gate by saint Augustines church, 
which entereth the south churchyeard of saint Paules, which 
arch or gate was builded by Nicholas Faringdon about the 
yere 136 1. & within that gate on the said north side, to the 
gate that entereth the North churchyeard, and all the North 
Churchyearde, is of this Faringdon Warde. 

Then againe into Cheape, and from the North end of the 
olde Exchaunge, West by the North gate of Powles church- 
yearde, vp Pater Noster Row, by the two lanes out of Powles 
church, and to a signe of the Goldyng Lyon, which is some 
twelue houses short of Aue Mary lane : the west side of which 
Lane is of this Warde. • 

Then at the south end of Aue Mary lane, is Creedc Lane, 
the west side whereof is also of this ward. 

Now betwixt the south ende of Aue Mary Lane, and the | 
^^S^j's north end of Creed e lane, is the comming out of Paules church- 
yard on the East, and the high streete called Bowier row to 
Ludgate, on the west, which way to Ludgate is of this ward. 

Faringdon IVard within 313 

On the North side whereof is saint Martins Church. And on 
the South side a turning into the Biacke Friers. 

Now to tume vp againe to the North ende oi Aue Mary 
lane, there is a short lane which runneth West some small 
distaunce, and is there closed vp with a gate into a great 
house : and this is called Amen lane. Amen lane. 

Then on the north side of Pater noster Raw^ beginning at 
the Conduit ouer against the olde Exchaunge Lane ende^ and 
going west by saint Michaels Church. At the west end of 
which Church is a small passage through towardes the North. 
And beyond this Church some small distance, is another 
passage, 'which is called Paniar Alley, and commeth out Panier Alley. 
against Saint Martins lane ende. 

Then further west in Pater Noster Raw, is luie lane, which luie lane, 
runneth North to the West end of Saint Nicholas Shambles. 
And then west Pater noster Rawe^ till ouer against the golden 
Lion, where the ward endeth for that streete. 

Then about some dozen houses (which is of Bainards Castell 
Warde) to Warwicke lane end : which Warwicke Lane stretch- 
eth north to the high street of Newgate Market. And the 
west side of Warwicke lane is of this Faringdon ward. For 
the East side of Warwicke lane, of Aue Marie lane, and of 
Crcede lane, with the West end of Pater Noster Row^ are all 
of Ba3mardes Castell warde. 

Yet to begin againe at the saide Conduit by the old 
Exchange, on the North side thereof is a large street that 
runneth vp to Newgate, as is aforesaid. The first part or 
south side whereof, from the Conduit to the Shambles, is 
called Bladder street Then on the backeside of the shambles Bladder Street. 
be diuers slaughter houses and such like, pertaining to the 
shambles, & this is called Mount Godard street. Then is Monntgodard 
the Shambles it selfe. And then Newgate Market. And so *'^^- 
the whole street on both sides vp to Newgate, is of this warde, 
and thus it is wholly bounded. 

Monuments in this warde be these. First the great Crosse 
in I West Cheape streete, but in the warde of Faringdon, the Page )i6 
which Crosse was first erected in that place by Edward the 
first, as before is shewed in west Cheape streate. 

At the Southwest comer of Woodstreet, is the parish church 

314 Faringdon IVard within 

Parish church of S. Peter the Apostle, by the said Crosse, a proper Church 
Ch^ii''^" ^ lately new builded. lohn Sha, Goldsmith, Maior, deceased 
1503. appointed by his Testament, the said church and steeple 
to be newly builded of his goods, with a flat roofe. Notwith- 
standing Tho. Woody Goldsmith, one of the Shiriffes, 1491- is 
accounted principall benefactor : because the roofe of the 
midle He is supported by Images of Woodmen. I find to 
haue bcene buried in this Church, Nicholas Fareftdon^ Maior, 
Richard Hadley, Grocer, 1592. Tokn Palmer y fishmonger, 1500. 
William Rus, Goldsmith, Shiriffe 1429. T. Atkins^ Esquire, 
1400. John Butler^ Shiriffe, 1420. Henrie Warley^ Alderman, 
1524. Sir lohn Monday, Goldsmith, Maior, deceased 1537. 
Augustine Hinde Cloth worker, one of the Shiriffes in theyeare 
1550 (whose monument doth yet remaine, the others be gone) 
sir Alexander Auenon, Maior, 1570. 
Long shop or The long shoppe or shed incroching on the high street 
CroMc^m^ before this Church wall, was licenced to be made in the yeare 
Chcape. 1401, yeelding to the Chamber of London 30. shillings foure 

pence ycarely for the time, but since 13 shillings foure pence. 
Also the same shop was letten by the Parish for three pound 
at the most many ycres since. 
Guthurons Then is Guthuruns lane, so called of Guthurun somtime 

*"^' owner thereof : the inhabitants of this lane of old time were 

Goldbeaters, as doth appeare by records in the Exchequer. 
For the Easterling money was appoynted to be made of fine 
siluer, such as men made into foyle, and was commonly called 
Imbrothcrers siluer of Gutkuruns lane, &c. The Imbroderers hall is in this 
lane. lohn Throwstone Embroderer, then Goldsmith, shiriffe, 
deceased 1519. gaue 40. pound towards the purchase of this 
Hugon lane, hall. Hugon lane on the East side, and Kery lane (called of 
cry ane. ^^^ Kcry) on the West. 

Sadicrshail. Then in the high streete on the same north side is the 
Parish church Sadlers hall. And then Fauster lane (so called of Saint 
of s. Fauster. Fausters, a fayre Church, lately new builded). Henrie Coote, 
Goldsmith, one of the Shiriffes, deceased 1509. builded saint 
Pagejiy Dunstons chappell there, | lohn Throwstone one of the shiriffes, 
gaue to the building thereof one hundred pound by his Testa- 
ment, lohn Browne Sergeant Painter, Alderman, deceased 
1532. was a great benefactor, and was there buried. William 

Faringdon JVard within 315 

Tristy Selerar to the king, 1425. lohn Standelfe Goldsmiths, 
lie buried there. Richard Galdety 1544. Agnes wife to William 
Milbame Chamber lane of London, 1500. &c. 

Then downe Fauster lane, and Noble streete both of 
Ealdersgate street ward, till ye come to the stone wall which 
indoseth a Garden plot before the wal of the City, on the west 
side of Noble streete, and is of this Faringdon ward. This 
Garden plot contayning 95. EUes in length, 9. Elles and a halfe 
in bredth, was by Adam de Burie. Maior, the Aldermen, and Barons of Lon- 
Citizens of London letten to lohn de Neuell, Lord of Raby, g^e. ' 
Radtdph and Thomashls sonnes for 60. yeares, paying 6. s. 8. d. 
the yeare : Dated the 48. of Edward the third, hauing in a 
seale pendant, on the one side, the figure of a walled Cittie, 
and of S. Paul^ a sword in his right hand, and in the left 
a banner, 3. Leopards, about that Seale, on the same side Scale, 
written, Sigillum Baronum Lottdoniarum, On the other side 
the like figure of a Citie, a Bishop sitting on an Arch, the 
inscription, Me : que : te : peperi : ne : Cesses : Thama : tueri : 
Thus much for the Barons of London, their common seale at 
that time. At the north end of this garden plot, is one great 
house builded of stone and timber, now called the Lord 
Windsors house, of old time belonging to the Neuels, as in 
the 19. of Richard the 2. it was found by inquisition of a lurie, 
that Elizabeth Neuel died, seased of a great Messuage in the 
Parish of saint Olaue in Monks well street in London, holden Monkeswell 
of the king in free burgage, which she held of the gift of lohn s^*^*- 
Neuell of Raby, her husband, and that lohn Latimer was next 
Sonne and heyre to the said Elisabeth. In this west side is 
the Barbars Chirurgions hall. This companie was incorporated Barbar Chi- 
by meanes of Thomas Morestede Esquire, one of the shiriffes ™^sians ^W- 
of London, 1436. Chirurgion to the Kinges of England, //i?«rii? 
the 4. 5. and 6. He deceased 1450. Then laques Fries 
Phisition to Edward the 4. and William Hobbs Phisition and 
Chirurgrion for the same kings bodie, continuing the sute the 
full time of %o yeares. Ed. the 4. in the 2. of his raigne, and 
Ri\chard duke of Glocester became founders of the sssa^ Pagt 31^ 
corporation in the name ^ of S. Cosme and Damiane. The 

' name] i6jj ; parish i6oj 

3i6 Faringdon IVard within 

first Assemb(ly) of that craft, was Roger StrippCy W. Hohbs, 
T, Goddardy & Richard Kent, since the which time they 
builded their hali in that street, &c. 

At the north comer of this strecte, on the same side, was 
Hennitage of some time an Hermitage, or Chappell of saint latnes^ called 
WaTl™**"*** in the wal, neare Crepplegate: it belonged to the Abbey and 
Couent of Garadon, as appeareth by a Recorde, the 27. of 
Edward the first : And also the 16. of Edward the third, 
William de Lions was Hermet there, and the Abbot and 
Couen(t) of Geredon found two Chaplaines, Cestercian Monks 
of their house : in this Hermitage one of them, for Aymorde 
Valence Earle of Pembrooke, and Mary de Saint Paule, his 

Of these Monkes, and of a Well pertaining to them, the 
street tooke that name, and is called Monks- well streete. 
This Hermitage with the appurtenances, was in the raign of 
Edward the sixt purchased from the said king, by WiUiam 
Lambe one of the Gentlemen of the kinges Chappell, Citizen 
and clothworker of London : he deceased in the yeare 1577. 
and then gaue it to the Cloathworkers of London^ with other 
tenements, to the value of fiftie pound the yeare, to the intent 
they shall hire a Minister to say diuine seruice there, &c 

Againe to the high streete of Cheape, from Fauster lane 

ende to S. Martins, and by that lane to the shambles or flesh 

Pentecost lane, market, on the North side whereof is Penticost lane, containing 

diuerse slaughter houses for the Butchers. 
Parish church Then was there of old time a proper parish church of saint 
o . icholas. j^i^fiQi^^ wherof the said flesh market tooke the name, & 
was called S. Nicholas shambles. This Church with the tene- 
ments and ornaments, was by Henrie the eight giuen to the 
Maior and communaltie of the Citie, towards the maintenance 
of the new parish Church,then to be erected in the late dissolued 
church of the Gray Friers : so was this church dissolued and 
pulled downe. In place wherof, & of the churchyard, many 
fayre houses are now builded in a Court with a Wei, in the 

Stinkine lane "™'^^^* whereof the church stoode. 

or Chick lane. Then is Stinking lane, so called, or Chicke lane at the East 
cSrch"^" end of the Gray Friers church, and there is the Butchers halL I 
Page Jig In the third of Richard the second, motion was made that 

Faringdon IVard within 317 

no Butcher should kil no flesh within London, but at Knights- 
bridge, or such like distance of place from the wals of the citie. 

Then the late dissolued Church of the Gray Friers : the 
orig^nall whereof was this. 

The first of this order of Friers in England, nine in number, 
arriued at Douer : fiue of them remained at Canterburie, the 
other 4. came to London, were lodged at the preaching Friers 
in Oldbome, for the space of 15 dayes, and then they hyred 
an house in Comhill of lohn TrauarSy one of the shirifles of 
London. They builded there litle eels wherein they inhabited, 
but shortly after the deuotion of citizens towardes them, and 
the number of the Fryers so increased, that they were by the 
Citizens remoued to a place in S. Nicholas shambles : which 
lohn Ewin Mercer appropriated vnto the Comminaltie, to the 
vse of the said Friers, and himselfe became a lay brother 
amongst them : about the yeare 12^5. William Toy tier 
. builded their Quire, Henry Walks the body of the church, 
Walter Potter Alderman the Chapter house, Gregorie Rokesley 
their Dorter, Bartholomew of the Castle made the refectorie, 
Peter d$ HelUand made the infirmitorie, Beuis Bond king of 
Heraulds made the studie, &c. 

Margaret Queene, second wife to Edward the first, began New chmch 
the quire of their new church, in the yere 1306. to the building ^^0!^"^ 
whereof, in her life time she gaue 2,000. markes, and 100. 
marks by her testament. lohn Britaine^ Earle of Richmond, 
builded the bodie of the church to the charges of three hundred 
pound, and gaue many rich Jewels and Ornaments to be vsed 
in the same. Marie Countesse of Pembroke, seuentie pound. 
Gilbert de Clare^ Earle of Glocester, bestowed 20. great beams 
out of his forrest of Tunbridgc/ and 20. pound starlings, Lady 
Helianor le Spencer^ Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, sister to Gilbert 
de Clare, gaue sums of money, and so did diuers Citizens, as 
Arnald de Tolinea, 100. pounde, Robert Baron Lisle, who 
became a fryer there, 300. pound, Bartholomew de Almaine 
fiftie pound. Also Philippe Queene, wife to Edward the 
third, gave 62. pound, Isabell Queene, mother to Edwarde the 
thirde, gaue threescore and ten pound. And so the worke 
was done within the space of 21. | yeares, 1337. This Church Pt^s^o 
thus furnished with windowcs made at the charges of diuerse 

3i8 Faringdon tVard within 

persons, the Ladie Margaret Segraue, Countesseof Norffolke 
bare the charges of making the stalles in the Quire, to the 
value of three hundred and fiftie markes, about the yeare 1380. 
Richard Whittington in the yeare 1429. founded the Librarie, 
Library of the which was in length one hundred twentie nine foote, and in 
ray ners. breadth thirtie one : all seeled with Wainscot, hauing twentie 
eight desks, and eight double setles of Wainscot. Which in the 
next yeare following was altogither finished in building, and 
within three yeares after, furnished with Bookes, to the charges 
of fiue hundred fiftie sixe pound, ten shillings, whereof Richard 
Whittington bare foure hundred pound, the rest was borne by 
Doctor Thomas Winclulsey^ a Frier there : and for the writing 
out of D, Nicholas de Lira his works in two volumes, to be 
chained there, one hundred markes, &c. The seeling of the 
Quire at diuers mens charges, two hundred marks, and the 
painting at fiftie markes : their Conduit head and water course 
giuen them by William Tailery Tayler to Henrie the third, &c 
Length and This whole church containeth in length three hundred foote, 
G^%ri of the feete of S. PauU : in breadth, eightie nine foot, and 
Charch. in height from the ground to the roofe, 64. foote, and two 

inches, &c. It was consecrated 1325. and at the generall 
suppression, was valued at thirtie two pound, ninteene shillings, 
surrendred the twelfth of Nouember, 1538. the 30. of Henrie 
the eight, the ornaments and goods being taken to the kings 
vse : the church was shut vp for a time, and vsed as a Store 
house of goods, taken prises from the French: but in the 
yeare 1546. on the third of Januarie, was againe set open. 
On the which day preached at Pauls crosse the Bishop of 
Rochester, where he declared the kings gift thereof to the 
citie, for the releeuing of the poore. 
Gray Friers Which gift was by Pattents ^ (of) S. Bartholomewes Spittle in 
a ^''rrh™*^* Smithfield, lately valued at three hundred fiue pound sixe 
Church. shillings seuen pence, and surrendred to the king: of the 

sayd church of the Gray Friers, and of two parish churches, 
the one of Saint Nicholas in the Shambles, and the other of 
S. Ewines in Newgate market, which were to be made one 
Page}2i Parrish church in the sayd { Fryers church, & in lands be 

^ Pattents] 160$ ; Pattents. /6jy 

Faringdon IVard within 319 

gaue for maintenance for the said church, with diuine seruice, 
reparations, &c. 500. markes by yere for cuer. 

The thirteenth of January, the 38. of Henry the eight, an The Maior & 
agreement was made betwixt the King and the Mayor and i^^don ^ ° 
communalty of London-, dated the 27. of December: byPa«owof 
which the said gift of the gray Fiyers church, with al the the Vicar to be 
Edifices & ground, the Fratrie, the Library, the Dortar, & »^^^''^P- 
Chapter-house, the great Cloystry and the lesser : tenements, 
gardens, and vacant grounds. Lead, Stone, Iron, &c., the 
Hospitall of S. Bartholomew in west smithfield, the church of 
the same, the lead, belles, & ornaments of the same Hospital, 
with al the Messuages, tenements, & appurtenances, the 
parishes of S. Nicholas^ and of S. Ewin^ and so much of S. 
Pulchers parish as is within Newgate, were made one Parish 
church in the Gray Fryers church, and called Christes church 
founded by Henry the 8. 

The Vickar of Christs church was to haue 26. pound, 13. s. 

4. d. the yeare. The Vicar of S. Bartholomew 13. pound 6. s. 
8. d. The Visiter of Newgate (being a Priest) ten pound. 
And other 5. Priests in Christs church, all to be helping in 
diuine seruice, ministring the Sacraments, and Sacramentals, the 

5. Priests to haue 8 pound the peece. Two Clarkes, 6. pound 
each. A Sexton 4. pound. Moreouer, he gaue them the 
Hospitall of Bethelem : with the lauer of Brasse in the cloyster, 
by esteemation 18. foote in length, and two foote and a halfe 
in depth, and the water course of lead to the sayd Fryer house 
belonging, contayning by esteemation in length 18. Acres. 

In the yeare 1552. began the reparing of the Gray Fryers Chriits Hospi- 
house, for the poore fatherlesse children. And in the month of **^^- 
Nouember, the children were taken into the same to the num- 
ber of almost foure hundreth. On Christmas day in the 
aftemoone, while the Lord Mayor and Aldermen rode to 
Powles, and children of Christs Hospitall stood, from saint 
Lawrence lane end in Cheape, towards Powles, all in one liuery 
of russet cotten, 340. in number. And at Easter next, they 
were in blew at the spittle, and so haue continued euer since. 

The defaced Monuments in this church were these. First Monuments 
in the Quire, of the Lady Margaret, daughter to Phillip King l^^^ 
of I France, and wife to Edward the first, foundresse of this new Pagt}22 

320 Faringdon Ward within 

Foure Queens church, 1317. Of Isabel Quccne, wife to Edward the second, 
ch^i^.^ ^^' daughter to Phillip King of France, 1 358. lohan of the Tower, 
Queene of Scots^ wife to Dauid Brtise^ daughter to Edward 
the second, dyed in Hartford Castle, and was buried by Isabel 
her mother, 1362. William Fitzwaren, Baron, and Isabel his 
wife, sometime queene of Man. Isabel daughter to Edward 
the third, wedded to the Lord Coucy ^ of France ^ after created 
Earle of Bedford, Elianor wife to John Duke of Britaine. 
Beatrix Dutchesse of Britaine, daughter to Henry the third. 
Sir Robert Lisle Baron, the Lady Lisle^ and Margaret de 
Riuers^ Countesse of Deuon, all vnder one stone. Roger 
Mortimer Earle of March, beheaded 1329. Patar Bishop of 
Carbon in Hungary, 133 1. Gregory RocksUy Mayor, 128a. 
Sir lohn Deuerux knight. 1385. lohn Hastings^ Earle of 
Pembrooke, 1389. Margaret daughter to Thomas BrotharUm, 
Earle Marshall, she was Dutchesse of Norfolke, and Countesse 
Marshall and Lady Segraue^ ^i^9' Richard Haueringkaigbt^ 
1388. Robert Trisilian knight, (Chief) Justice, 1388. Geffrey 
Lucy^ Sonne to Geffrey Lucy. lohn Aubry^ sonne to lohn Mayor 
of Norwich, 1368. lohn Philpot knight. Mayor of London, and 
the Lady lane Samford his wife, 1384. lohn Duke of Burbon 
and Angue, Earle of Claremond, Mounpouncier, and Baron 
Beaugeu, who was taken prisoner at Agencourt, kept prisoner 
18 yeares, & deceased 1433. Robert Chalons knight, 1439. 
lohn Chalons. Margaret daughter to sir lohn Philpot^ first 
maried to T. Santlor Esquire, and after to lohn Neyband 
Esquier. Sir Nicholas Brembar Mayor of London, buried 
1386. Elizabeth Nenel wife to lohn^ sonne and heyre to Raph 
Earle of Westmerland, and mother to Raph Earle of Westmer- 
land, and daughter to Thomas Holland Earle of Kent, 1423. 
Edward Burnell sonne to the Lord Burnel. In Alhallowes 
chappell. lames Fines Lord Scfy. 1450. and Helenor his wife 
1452. lohn Smith Bishop of Landafe, 1478. lohn Baron 
Hilton : lohn Baron Clinton, Richard Hastings knight, Lord 
of Willowby and Welles, Thomas Burdet Esquier beheaded, 
1477. Robert Lite sonne and heyre to the Lord Lisle. In 
Pagt32j our Lady chappel, lohn Gisors of London knight. | Humfrej 

Coucy] Courcy Thorns \ Cause 1598^ 160s 

Faringdon IVard within 321 

Stafford Esquicr, of Worstershire i486. Robert Bar tram 
Baron of Bothell. Raph Barons^ knight. William Apleton 
knight. Reynold de Cambrey knight. Thomas Bewmond^ sonne 
and heyrc to Henry Lord Bewmond. lohn Butler knight. 
Adam de Howton knight, 141 7. Bartholomew Center knight, 
of London. Reinfride Arundele knight, 1460. Thomas Couil 
Esquier, 1422. In the Postles chappell, Walter Blunt knight 
of the Garter, and Lord Mountiqy^ Treasurer of England, sonne 
& heyre to T. Blunt knight, Treasurer of Normandy, 1474. 
E. Blunt Lord Mountioyy 1475. Alice Blunt ^ < Lady) Mountioy^ 
sometime wife to Wil. Brown Mayor of London and daughter 
to H. Kebel Maior 152 1. Anne Blunt daughter to /. Blunt 
knight, L. Mountioy^ 1480. Sir Allen Cheinie knight, and sir 
T. Greene knight. William Blunt Esquier, sonne and heyre 
to Walter Blunt Captayne of Gwynes 1492. Elizabeth Blunt 
wife to Robert Cur son knight, 1494. Bartholomew Burwashe^ 
and lohn Burwashe his sonne. John Blunt Lord Mountioy^ 
Captayne of Gwins and Hams 1485. lohn Dinham Baron, 
sometime Treasurer of England, knight of the Garter 1501. 
Elianor Dutchesse of Buckingham 1530. lohn Blunt knight 
1531. Rowl. Blunt Esquier, 1509. Robert Bradbury 1489. 
Nicholas Clifton knight. Francis Chape. Two sonnes oiAllayne 
Lord Cheiney^ and lohn sonne and heyre to the same. Lord 
AUaine Clieiney knight. lohn Robsart knight of the Garter 
1450. Alley ne Cluinie knight. T/iofnas Malory knight, 1470. 
Thomas Yotig a Justice of the Bench, 1476. lohn Baldwin 
fellowe of Grayes Inne, and common Sergeant of London, 1469. 
Walter Wrotsley knight, of Warwickshire, 1473. *S^^'^« lenUiSy 
Vi^yox 1523. Thofnas a Par, and John Wiltwater, slaine at 
Bamet, 1471. Nicholas Poynes Esquier, 1512. Robert Elkenton 
knight, 1460. John Water {alias Yorke) Herault 1520. John 
More (alias Nory) King of Armes 1491. George Hopton knight, 
1489. Between the quire and the Altar, Raph Spiganel knight, 
lohn MoyU Gent, of Grayes Inne, 1495. William Huddy knight, 
1501. To, Cobham a Baron of Kent, To. Mortain, Knight, lo. I 
Deyncort knight, To. Norbery Esquier, high Treasurer of 
England, //;?«. NorberyYCx^ sonne Esquier, A;. Southlce \ Knight, Page 324 
Tito. SakuUe, Tho Lucy knight, 1525. Robert de la Riuar, 
Sonne to Mauricius de la Riuar Lord of Tormerton, i457- 

STOW, t y 

322 Farmgdon JVard within 

lo. Mcdmaynas Esquier, and Tho. Maltttaynas knight, Hugh 
Acton Taylor, 1530. Nicholas Maintains^ Hugh Par sal knight 
1490. Alexander Kirketon knight, &c. In the body of the 
church, WilliamPaulet Esquier of Summersetshire 1482. lohn 
Moyle Gent 1530. Peter Champion Esquier 151 1. To. Hart 
gentleman, 1449. Alice La, Hungerford^ hanged at Tibomc 
for murdering her husband, 1523. Edward Hall gent of 
Grayes Inne, 1470. Ri. Churchyard gent fellow of Grayes 
Inne, 1498. lohn Bramre gent, of Grayes Inne 1498. lo, 
Mortimar knight, beheaded 1423. Henry Frowike Alderman, 
Renauld Frowike ^ Philip Pats^ 151 8. Wil. Porter Sergeant 
at armes 1515. Tho. Grantham Gentleman, 151 1. Edmond 
Rotheley gentleman, 1470. Henry Roston gentleman, of Grayes 
Inne^ 1485. Nicholas Mongomery gentleman, sonne to lo. 
3/i7ia5gw«^rvof Northhamptonshire, 1485. Sir Bar tho, Emfield 
knight, sir Barnard S. Peter knight, sir Raph Sandwich knight, 
Gustos of London : sir Andrew Sakeuile knight, lohn TreszC' 
w^i// gentleman and Taylor of London, 1520. All these and 
fiue times so many more haue bin buried there, whose 
Monuments are wholly defaced : for there were 9. Tombes of 
Alablaster and Marble, inuironed with strikes of Iron in the 
Quire, and one Tombe in the body of the Church, also coped 
with iron, all pulled downe, besides seuen-score graue stones 
of Marble, all sold for 50. pounds, or thereaboutes, by sir 
Martin Boives^ Goldsmith and Alderman of London. Of late 
time buried there, Walter Hadden^ Doctor, &c. From this 
Church West to Newgate, is of this Warde. 

Now for the South side of this warde, beginning againe at 

the crosse in Cheape, from thence to Fryday streete, and downe 

that streete, on the West side, till ouer against the Northwest 

'arish chnrch comer of saint Matthewes Church. And on the West side, to 

If Frida"^"^ the South comer of the sayd Church, which is wholly in the 

trect. Warde of Faringdon. This church hath these few Monuments^ 

Thomas Pole Goldsmith, 1395. Robert lohnson Goldsmith, 

Alderman. lohn Twiselton Goldsmith, Alderman. 1525* 

Raph Allen Grocer, one of the Shiriffes, deceased 1546. | 

Vagc}2s Anthony Gamage Ironmonger, one of the Shiriffes, deceased 

1579. Anthony Cage, lohn Mabbe Chamberlaine of London, 

&c. Allen at Condit and Thomas Warlingworth founded 

Faringdon IVard within 323 

a chauntric there. Sir Nicholas Twiford Goldsmith, Mayor, 
gaue to that church an house with the appurtenances, called 
the Griflfon on the hope, in the same streete. 

From this Fryday street, west to the old Exchange, old change, 
a streete so called of the Kings Exchange there kept, which 
was for the receit of Bullion^ to be coyned. For Henry the 3. 
in the 6. yeare of his raigne, wrote to the Scabines and men 
of Ipre^ that he and his counsell had giuen prohibition, that 
none, Englishmen or other, should make chaunge of plate or 
other masse of siluer, but onely in his exchaunge at London, 
or at Canterbury. Andrew Bukerell then had to Farme the 
Exchaunge of England, and was Mayor of London in the 
raigrne of Henry the third. lohn Soinercote had the keeping 
of the Kings Exchaunge ouer all England. In the eight of 
Edward the first, Gregory Rockesly was keeper of the sayd 
Exchaunge for the King. In the fift of Ed, the second 
William Hausted'w^s keeper thereof. And in the 18. Roger 
de Frawicke, &c. 

These receiued the old stamps, or coyning irons, from time 
to time, as the same were wome, and deliuered new to all 
the Mints in England, as more at lai^e in another place 
I haue noted. 

This street beginneth by west Cheape in the North, and 
runneth downe South to Knight-Riderstreet, that part there- 
of which is called Old Fishstreet : but the very housing and 
Office of the Exchaunge and Coynage, was about the midst 
thereof. South from the East gate that entrcth Powles church- 
yard, and on the west side in Baynards Castle Warde. 

On the East side of this lane, betwixt West cheape, and 
the church of S. Augustine, Henry IValles, Mayor (by license 
of Ed. the first) builded one row of houses, the profits rising 
of them to bee imployed on London Bridge. • 

The parish church of S. Angus tine ^ and one house next parbh chnrch 
adio)ming in Watheling street, is of this Warde called Faring' ^nJ, "^^ 
don. This is a fay re church, and lately well repaired, wherein 
be monuments remaining of H. Reade Armorer, one of y* 
Sheriffes, 1450, | Robert BelUsdon haberdasher, Mayor, i^^\.Pagt}26 
Sir — Towftley^ William Dere one of the Shiriffes, 1450. 
Robert Rouen haberdasher 1500. Thomas Apleyard Gentle- 

Y 2 


Faringdon Ward within 

Church ofS. 


man, 1515. William Moncaster Merchant Taylor, 1524. 
William Holte Merchant Taylor, 1544 &c. 

Then is the North churchyard of Powles, in the which 
standeth the Cathedrall church, first founded by Ethelbart 
King of Kent, about the yeare of Christ, 610. He gaue 
thereto lands as appeareth. 

Aedelbertus Rex, Deo inspirante, pro anima sua remedio, 
dedit episcqpo melito terram quae appeUatur Tillingeham ad 
mottasterii sui solatium scilicet^, S. Pauli: et ego Rex Aethel- 
bertus ita firmiter concedo tibi presuli melito potestatem eius 
habendi & possidendi vt in perpetuum in monasterii vtilitate 
permaneat, &c, Athelstan, Edgar e, Ed. the Confessor^ and 
others also gaue lands therevnto. Wil. Conqueror gjaue to 
the church of S. Paule, and to Mauricius then Bishop, and 
his successors, the Castle of Stortford, with the appurtenances, 
&c. He also confirmed the gifts of his predecessors, in these 
words: Rex. Angl. Clamo quietas in perpetuum^ 24. Hidas 
quas Rex Aethelbert dedit S. Paulo iuxta murum London. &c. 
The Charter of King. Wil. the Conqueror, exemplified in the 
Tower, englished thus. 

William by the grace of God, King of Englishmen, to all 
his welbeloued Fre