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Accor^ns|l»i^ or Coogrets, jn the year 1838i by ^ 
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Haying had an opportonity of examining^ in manostiHptj 
the translations of the popish saint, Ligori, by Mr. Samuel 
B. Smith, and of comparing them with the ori^al work 
in Latin, approved by the pope and cardinali qf Rom^and 
published under their sanction and Authority, I hereby de- 
clare it to be my opinion, that Mr. Smith has faithfully and 
correctly rendered them into the English language; aud 
I very cordially recommend them to the careful perusal of 
the pablic general iy^^and particularly to my brethren in the 
ministry, as a synopsis of the moral theology and doctrines 
of the Romish church, taught in all their divinity schools. 
The work I consider as of invaluable importance in every 
light *, bat especially so, as these translations have never 
before be^ published in our own language. Mr. Smith, 
in his assiduous labors in preparing this book for the press, 
has accomplished a work of no ordinary merit, and he de- 
serves the thanks of every christian and philanthropist in 
America ; and it is hoped that every lover of pure Chris- 
tianity, and every opposer of the anti-christian church of 
Rome, will patronise the work. 


Mimtter qfthe Prtabyterian Church, 
NetO' York, July 28th, 1836. 

I have carefully examined, in proof sheets, Mr. Samuel 
B. Smith's " Synopsis of the Moral Theology of the Church 
of Rome," compiled from the works oi St. Ligori, and I 
have no hesitation in hazarding the opinion, that a candid 
and unprejudiced perusal of the said Synopsis, will do 
more, than any other means yet adopted in our country, to 
render the whole system of popery odious and pernicious 
in the estimation of eveiy rational being, whose intellectual 


riiioDia ucitalnBdjcoinpletel/'deraiigedt^lbat" Mystery 

of Iniquily." 

I, iheieror«, most Aiiscienliously recommend Mr. Smith's 
book lo ihe'^lf onager all lovers of that holiness, withont 
which no man shall tee the Lord. 


^ Palter qf McDougal-atrea Baflitt Churdl. 

ih Yn-^ SatemitT 21, IBJS. 

I have looked dftr a«aflicieDt nnmber of the proof sheets 
o( the " Sfaopsix," to induce me lo nnite most cordially ia 
the above commendation. 

Pailur of OUvtmirai Baptiit Omnli. 

In the great conlrnversy between the Protesianis and 
Romanisis, it has ever appeared to me, that information is 
required more than argumfiU. To dispel darltness Hud 
coBfuBiQli, " Let IheTeie lig/lt." Il is, therefore, *ilh much 
pleasure, Ihat I recommead lo ihc public Mr. Smith's 
" Synopsis," the proof sheets of which 1 have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining. It is a d<fsirab1e work, as it exhibits 
some of the prominent features of the " Moral Theology 
of the Chureh of Rome," and that, too, by a man of high, 
nuthority in Ihat church, — Ligori having been enrolled 
among her saints, by Pope" Pios VII., and as late, too, as 
A. D, 1816. / 

SUnitltr nflhe Mtllitditt Eptteopia Ckunk. 

Xta- Torib, Nn. 23, 1S38. 



We present the following work before the citizens of these 
United States, at a crisis when the subject of Popery begins 
to assume an important aspect in oar country ; and, conse- 
quently, at a time when every one ought to know what 
Popery is. If the doctrines of the church of Rome are 
sound and Scriptural, if her morality is pure and holy, her 
doctrines ought to be promulgated. If she is the One, Holy, 
Catholic, the only true Church, the Infallible Church, out of 
which there is no salvation, all the citizens of these United 
States, and all the inhabitants of the world, ought to know 
that Holv Doctrine which she teaches, and all ought to em- 
brace that saving Faith. 

It is, therefore, that this Holy Doctrine may be commu- 
nicated to all, that we have been toiling, day and night, 
during nearly one year, in exploring the whole length, 
breadth, and profundity of it. 

What we present before the public in this Synopsis, is a 
compendious view of the doctrine of the church of Rome, 
now taught in all her Schools. It is a fair and exact trans- 
lation of selected portions of the voluminous Moral Th£- 
OLOGY of St. AlphoDSUs de Ligorio, published at Mechlin 
in Belgium, " Superiorum permissu" in the year 1828. 

The treatise from which this selection has been made, is 
published in nine volumes, in Latin ; and contains between 
four and five thousand pages. 

It is the complete and imiversal system of the moral doc- 
trine of the church of Rome, and the most modem one that 
has yet been published. 

The authority of St. Ligori stands unshaken ; and being 
of a date so recent, its advocates will hardly pretend that it is 
obsolete or out of date. Upon what ptmcipXe xYie ^QxiVcSi&«% 



of Infallibility conld become obsolete, or change, is sqbm- 

thing that we have ^et to learn. I 

The most important point now, in order to prevent all fth 
<ure Jesuitical caviling on the subject, is to show who this 
St. Ligori was; why he published his Moral Theology; 
and how it has been received by the church of Rome. 

" Alphonsus rfe Ligorio" (as we read in the Preface of his 
Works) " was the Patrician of Naples, Bishop of St. A^- 
tJha of the Goths, and Founder of the Congregation of the 
Holy Redeemer." The title of his Work is, " Thb MoBii» 
Theology op the Illustrious and Most Reverenq Loi» 
Alphonsus de Ligorio." 

He was enrolled among the Saints, as the title-page of 
his work declares, by " Pope Pius VII., on the 15th of Sep- 
tember, in the year 1816." 

Of the sanctity of the man, and of the purity of his doO' 
trines, the Preface of his Work speaks in the most exalted 

When his Work was first published, there were some, 
less corrupt than the rest, whd^emed inclined to condemn 
it. These, however, were soon oFerirwed by the holy char- 
acter of the auth'brity whom they -were* about to condemn, 
and by the universal app^obatiolf with which his Theology 
was received by all classes Of the Romish Hierardiy, from 
his Holiness t^e Pope, downward. 

In allusion to this, the "Preface" reads as follows: " Al- 
though when that Light, the Moral Theology of the Holy 
Prelate ef Naples, first shone upon us, there were several 
persoas, conspicuous both for their piety and learning, who 
complained, not a little, fearful that a loose rein would be 
given to the vices, and that relaxation would be introduced 
in the practice of Confessors ; nevertheless, in a very short 
time, and as if it were by common consent, they perceived 
that the above mentioned Work would be exceedingly ad-» 
rantageous to all, if they would understand it with the pni*i 
dence of Christ, (not of the flesh,^) and would cauticmdy 
i^ply the doctrine to the faithful*. It was, therefore!, byr aj J 
wonderful counsel of Divine Providence, that it happttiedj m 


that so great a relactance in the beginning, on the part even 
of wise men, to adopting, in this region, the aforesaid The- 
ology, which they looked upon as a mere vomit, if we can 
be allowed the. expression ; it was not, we say, without a 
wonderful counsel of Divine Providence, that this very 
circumstance has tended to exalt the doctrine. For, in pro- 
portion as the opinions of his adversaries emanated from 
men of exalted genius, in the same proportion the victory 
which the saint has obtained over them is the more illus- 
trious. By how much the more the doctrine has been scru- 
tinized, by so much the more, if it be found sound and un- 
contaminated, will it be received and retained. By what 
great lights, and by what a profusion of light, has not the 
doctrine of the Blessed Ligori been explored, when Pius 
VII., on the 18th of May, 1803, declared, with the Sacred 
Congregation op Rites, that he had found nothing in t^ 
worthy of censure! — when the Sovereign Pontiff, Leo XII., 
writing to the Prelate of Massilien, (who wished to intro- 
duce the Festival of St. Alphonsus de Ligorio into his dio- 
cess, by the Apostolical ]|$ermis8ion then granted,) when 
this Sovereign Pontiff extolled Alphonsus with no ordinary 
eulogiums '—when, in fine, the Most Eminent Cardinal of 
Castile, the Major Penitentiary, in his letter to the same 
Bishop of Massilien, amongst other commendations, said, 
that the Saint stands foremost in our age, not only as an or- 
nament to the episcopal character, and by the splendor of 
his virtues, but by his doctrine, which is SOUND AND 
ACCORDING TO GOD, saua ac secundum Deum; and 
we testify that, in the voluminous Works which he has 
edited on holy things, and with a judgment to be venerated, 
there is nothing worthy of censure." Ligor. Praef Ed. 
p. V. VI. 

• Ligori himself, in the Introductory Address and Dedica- 
tion of his Work to the Sovereign Pontiff, Benedict XIV. 
tells us, that for many years, he had deviated in his prac- 
tice in the direction of souls from many other authors, 
some of whom, he says, entertained opinions too lax, and 
others, too severe. "I have thought" sa^s\kft/^ ^^ >X 


wonld be worth whfle lo edit a book which would take a 
conrae between these two extremes, and whicb wodM em- 
brace opinions mart emforMabU to Iniih, and unfold those 
which are more desirable than •ateessa.iy in- the direcliiig 
of cpusciecees. I therefore take this opportnoiiy of lafing 
open maay things to my brethren in the miuistr]', which 
appertain to practical morality, and which I hare learned 
in th'e exercise of the Sacred Ministry. I have commenced, 
finished, and published the work with (he aid of Qod, Deo 
jitvaiiU. Since the first edition which I published has been 
nniTersatly received, and as it is for the public good, I have 
arranged this revised ediiica in a more methodical order, 
have more carefully cleared np certain doctrines, and add- 
ed several others, especially some Dissertations on the in- 
fcllibility of Pontifical Decrees, and respecting the snperi- 
dTity of those Decrees over the Councils." Ligor. Pat. 
Benedic. p. VIII. IX. 

" I have dedicated this book to l^t," (continnes the 
Saint, in his address to the' Pope,) "because all books 
which treat on the principles oT 'Theological Faith and 
Morals belong to Thee alone, who art the sovereign Prince 
of ThKology, the soIcl Guide and'Ruler of the Chnrch, the 
preserver and defender of Divine Truth, appointed lo this 
office by the special providence of Qod himself, Maiimi- 
an. Bishop of Consiantiaople, (in his epistle to the Orien- 
tals,) tnily said, ' All the ends of the earth, and all those 
who profess the true Faith, look upon the power of the Ro- 
man Pontiff as they look for tight nnto the sun himself, 
whom the Creator of the world has chosen from among all 
the rest of mortals apon earth, and to whom he has granted ' 
as a perpetual right the privilege of possessing the princely 
Chair (Cathedram) of magisterial power. So thai whoso- 
ever desires to know any thing that is divine or profound, 
he miL't come lo this oracle and docirine for informa- 
tion,'" Id. ib. 

" Hence," (continues Ihe Saint,) " it is not without rea- 
soti, thai I am anxious to dedicate this worlr to Thee, and 
lie more so, in order thai it might have, and enjoy the adn 


vantage of all thy salatary Bulls and Encyclical Letters, 
which are productive of so much good, and which will 
promote the universal reformation of the morals of the 
faithful to the consummation of the world; inasmuch as in 
them the supreme wisdom of Thy Holiness has neither 
leaned to the* side of excessive rigor, nor to that of too 
much benignity, but condescending to the frailties of tke 
timeSy has arranged with admirable sweetness that which it 
had proposed to effect with prodigious fortitude of mind." 
Id. ib. 

Besides the above testimony in confirmation of the au- 
thority of St. Ligori, we have also that of the Rev. Father 
Yarela himself, the Popish Priest of the city of New York. 

This Rev. Father Felix Varela, about a year and a half 
ago, in his attempt at a refutation of my " Renunciation 
OF Popery," quotes this very same St. Ligori as an over- 
whelming and decisive authority against something which 
he found advanced by me. The Rev. Father did not, at 
that time, know that the Saint was lying on my shelves, 
and that, at some future day, I would also quote him, in 
confirmation of the doctrine of the church of Rome, as 
he himself had done, and that I would adduce his using this 
authority as an ad homin^m reason why the same privilege 
should also be allowed to me. 

The Rev. Father, therefore, in order to crush me at once, 
with the weight of authority so modem, so venerable, so 
holy quoad doctrinam, and so universally received, brings 
forward the authority of St. Ligori with as much gravity 
and definitiveness as he would one of the Infallible Decrees 
of the Holy Council of Trent. He writes as follows : " But 
I could not expect such an argument" (referring to some- 
thing that had been said about Purgatory) " from any one 
who has been a Catholic Priest," (alluding to myself) " It 
is expressly taught by Catholic divines that the penitent is 
not bound to follow the Confessor's opinion in such cases ; 
and Ligori, whose works are in the hands of almost every 
PRIEST, positively says, * The confessor is not a judge of eon^ 
troversies, bivt of Ihe dispositums of the jMuileiU? (^t\A- 


gori, lib. in. n. 669.")— Nbw York Weekly Register a] 
Diary of March 28th, 1835. 

Haying now fixed the authority of Bt. Ligori, and firni 
established the purity and soundness of his doctrine by t 
testimony of our opponents themselves, we shall spread 1 
doctrine out before the public, that our citizens may ha 
a prospective view of what the state of morals in this cov 
try will be if Popery should ever obtain the ascendency. 

It will be well to observe, that the Saint, in one part 
his Work, admonishes the reader that he faithfully unfo] 
the opinions of different divines, with their reasons in si 
port of them, that others may judge of what weight they a 
according to their prudence. If you should wish to kno 
says the Saint, what system I think ought to be followed 
the choice of moral opinions, see chapter 3, in anotl: 
Treatise on a Probable Conscience. 

In order not to crowd the Synopsis with the multitude 
authorities quoted by Ligori, I have thought it would 
better, merely to stale their doctrine; and, although, 
some instances, it may not be clearly seen how far the Sa 
himself coincides with them, this is of no importance, sio 
the Saint, in the conflict of different opinions, as he ca 
them, has given us such rules that there will be no difficu 
on the subject. These rules will be found in the Synops 
Moreover, as Ligori has said, every one is at liberty 
judge of the weight of the different opinions, as he choo; 
to call them, according to his own prudence. The Sa 
sometimes quotes a variety of opinions^ in order that eve 
Confessor may suit his own taste. 

The doctrine of the church of Rome is a doctrine of c 
pediency. Every Confessor can be accommodated with 
system precisely to his taste; provided, however, his cc 
science be not too tender; for in such a case as this, 
would be under the necessity of laying aside his scrwpuU 
comcience, as it would be called, and substituting in its pla 
a righi conscience / as it is termed. He would have to 
fls those did, who, at first, as we have read in the Prefai 
were so shocked with the Saint's Moral Theology, that th 


looked npon it, as the Preface to Ligori tells ns, as a mere 
vamU : he would have to do as these did ; that is, do like 
the dogf vfho returns again to his vomit. 

The reader, in the perusal of the Synopsis, will see, 
strange and paradoxical as it may sound, that there is not 


satisfied, too, that Popery is the fir^t, last, grand masterpiece 
of hell. He will perceive, most evidently, that the whole 
system is constituted expressly to exalt the Priesthood to 
the highest pinnacle of worldly power, and to seat the Pope 
on a throne even above the Gbd of the universe ; to give 
them a sovereign control over their subjects ; to fill their 
coffers with gold ; and to facilitate to them the gratification 
of the most lawless passions. It will be seen that the policy 
of the system is to plange the people deeper and deeper into 
ignorance the most abject and profound. 

I have said that there is not a thorough Papist in the 
whole world; and to this I add, that, according to the 
" souTid doctrine" of Ligori, there Is but one sin in the 
WORLD, and that is, disobedience to Romish Priests. When 
I say there is not a thorough Papist in the world, I mean 
that human nature, corrupt as it is, is not sufficiently de- 
praved to become as wicked as Popery would make it. 
These two propositions I bind myself to substantiate before 
I lay the Saint upon the shelves. 

As we deem this Synopsis of the Moral Theology of St. 
Ligori the most important work that ever has been publish- 
ed on the subject of Popery, we now publicly challenge the 
Romish Clergy and the Bishop of New York, to say whe- 
ther this translation which we have made of St. Ligori is 
not fair, true, and correct. Such an abomination, we will 
venture to say, has never appeared in any of the modem 
tongues, as that which the Moral Theology of St. Ligori 
presents before us. 

The Romish Clergy in the United States are now put to 
the test. They must either deny that we have given a fair 
translaticni of Ligori, or they must admit it. If they admit 
it, (and this, most assuredly, they wWV xvov ^xJJaWcVj ^-w^x^ 


do,) Popery, and its Mond Theology, will cqnfVpnedlii 
stand as the masterpiece of hell. If they deny that \re hmm 
given a fair translation, we will then challenge them id 
come forward in a public assembly with the works of St 
Ligori, where we promise to meet them, and submit oar 
translation, and the original, to the inspection of a commit- 
tee, one half of whom to be chosen by ourselves, and the 
other half by the Romish Clergy. Truth never shtms JB«>^ 
vestigation. If we have not given a fair, genuine, and true 
translation ; and if we have not exhibited the doctrine of Sli 
Ligori and the church of Rome fairly and correctly, with* 
out garbling, or giving an erroneous construction, we will 
be wiiliDg to incur the consequences that we ought to oe* 
p6ct fjr having deceived the public. 

This Work, we trust, will for ever terminate all dispates 
in regard to the real doctrine of the church of Rome. Ovef 
this subject clouds of obscurity have been thrown. Charges 
have been made in regard to the moral corrufition and lUf'^ 
pitude of the doctrine of the church of Rome, and endless 
subterfuges have been resorted to in order to wipe away the 
stain. Volumes have been opened, and authoriiies without 
end consulted, until the subject became so diffuse, that the 
mind iLself seems to have been bewildered and lost in th& 
interminable labyrinth of the controversy. Here is where 
Popery takes the advantage ; and although defeated in fact, 
assumes an air of triumph in appearance. 

The Work that is now presented to the public is concen- 
trated into such a focus, that all the subtleties of Jesuitisno. 
will be consumed like feathers in the converging rays of 
the sun. We place the subject in the focus of truth ; open 
upon it the rays of light beaming from the Word of God; 
and the glass through which the rays are made to fall upoa 
the object, is nothing more or less than the Moral Theolo- 
gy of the great St. Ligori, whose works are declared by the 
church of Rome, to be ^' sound and according to God, uma 
ac secumdntm Devm." 

We particularly recommend this Work to all Ministeis 
6f the Gospel. Wc assure Jthem^ and subsequent evefits 

^nU-jBToveour afisertion to he trae,* that it is the only Work 
iktf will stiuQd in need of, to prove that Popery is the first, 
4he last, gra«d masterpiece of hell. His authority em^ 
braces that of all the other Popish Divines. It is the most 
recent system of Moral Theology that has been published 
by the church of Rome. The compiler of it has been en- 
rolled among the Saints. His Office is recited in the Bre- 
viary, the Common Prayer-book of the Romish Clergy and 
Cloistered Nuns. His anniversary festival is celebrated in 
the Mass. " His Theology," (as was admitted by the Rev. 
Father Yarela, the Romish Priest in this city,) " js in th£ 
HANDS OF ALMOST EVERT pRitisr ;"* and It is declared by 
the " Sacred Congregation or Rftes," and by the whole 
church of Rome^ to be sound and according to Qodj 
soma ac secp/ndum Deum" 

In order to afibrd every facility. to Ministers of the Gos- 
pel in the finding of any subject in relation to the Romish 
doctrine and morality, we have first divided the " Stnop- 
jBis" into chapters; these chapters again into paragraphs, 
every one of which is preceded by a short heading, which 
points out what is the leading subject of the paragraph. 
There is, moreover, a General Index referring to the page. 
It may be considered a kind of Dictionary of Popery. Bfere 
aU the most important technicalities of Popery are lucidly 
explained. All that is obscure in it is made manifest ; all 
that is doubtful, rendered certain. 

Ligori, in the Preface of his Work, is called the " Light, 
iMTnen" In the " Synopsis," therefore, we have all the 
light that can be thrown upon this hitherto dark and mys- 
terious subject. 

Such is the opinion we have of this Work, which is now 
dismantled of its Latin garb, that we fondly flatter ourselves 
that it will be translated from the English, into which we 
have rendered it, into aU the modem languages of the civil- 
ized world. 

* See the " Catrouc Diart," a Popish paper, published in this ettyi 
under the date of March 28th, 1835. 


Tte " Synopbw" oug&t to be read, not only by every Bill 
ister of the Gospel, bat by every individual with whoi 
Popery can come in contact. Christians onght to read^ 
in order to know how to refute the subtleties of their Pc 
pish adversaries. Infidels should read it, that they may se 
to what state of degradation the mind can sink when d( 
prived of the grace of God. Papists ought to read it, t 
know what their own doctrine is. Lawyers onght to reai 
it, in order to whet their talents at disputation. Lovers c 
romance should read it, because it is romantically original 
strangely diversified, replete with novelty. Young and olc 
male and female, ought to read it, for then they will knoi 
what Popery is. 

May it be wafled on the wings of the wind. If it is th 
Light, may all the nooks and comers of the earth be An 
nished with it. " No man^ at any time^ lighteth a candU 
and putUth it under a bushel^ but on a candlestick^ that U ma 
give light to the whole world." This " Great Light" ha 
hitherto been hid under the bushel ; we now place it upoi 
the candlestick of public inspection. Since the InfolliM 
Doctors hide their " Light," it is but charity in us to mak 
it shine. 

In order to make the Work more interesting, we have em 
bellished it with four engravings, two of them on steel. On< 
of these is my own portrait. This we think will gratify th 
public, inasmuch as the sight of a converted Popish Pries 
is somewhat of a novelty. We also present the likeness oi 
the great Si. Ligori himself, as il stands in the Preface ol 
his Works. There is likewise an engraving exhibiting the 
adoration of the "HolyOUt Oleum Sanctum;" and another 
in which is portrayed some of the cruelties practised upoc 




■ • * ■ ■ 










A|i.PIKI®ei@!i99 @X Q.II«QRII®, 

•J], /i- 




CouncU of Traity on Auricular Confession. 

W« have judged it expedient to commence the 
Synopsis of the Moral Theology of the church of 
Rome, with a chapter on the subject of Auricular 
Confession, derived from the doctrine of the Council 
of Trent on that subject. Although, as the title of 
this Work imports, the Synopsis is made up from 
the writings of the celebrated St. Ligori, we take 
the liberty of introducing this one chapter from the 
Council of Trent, as a kind of infallible introduction 
and confirmation of what we shall afterwards find 
taught by the Saint whose voluminous writings we 
are about to translate, and concentrate into a volume 
of near four hundred pages. 

This first chapter opens with the subject of Auri- 
cular Confession ; and the same subject is continued 
through several of the succeeding chapters. The 
whole Moral Theology, however, of Ligori, bears 
either directly or indirectly on this same subject, 
inasmuch as it is a work compiled expressly for the 
use and direction of Confessors in the tribunal of 


Auricular Confession, in Popery, signifies thift 
tribunal in which the sinner is bound to Confess alt 
his sins to a Priest. It is called auricular, because 
the Penitent, (as they call him,) Confesses his sins in 
the ear of the Priest privately. 

1. Auricular Confession nectbssart von 
sALVATioN.-^This most execrable tribunal is said by 
the Infallible Council of Trent to be ^'necessary for 
the remission of sin ;" and they maintain, thai "with- 
out it, the sinner cannot hope for salvation.*** •* The 
voice of the Priest," says the Council of Trent, 
** who is legitimately constituted a minister for the 
remission of sins, is to be heard as that of Christ 
himself, who said to the lame man, ** Son, be of good 
cheer, thy sins are forgiven thee} "—Cat. Council 
of Trent, p. 180. 

2. Form of Penance. — "Penance is the cha^* 
nel through which the blood of Christ flows into 
the soul, and washes away the stains contracted 
after baptism." Id. ib. " The form of the absolution 
0^ pardon, granted by the Priest, is this: • I absolye 
THEE* "—Id. p, 181. 

" Unlike the authority given to the Priests of the 
Old Law to declare the leper cleansed from his lep- 
rosy, the power with which the Priests of the New 
Law are invested, is not simply to declare that sins 
are forgiven, but, as the ministers of Grod, really to 
absolve from sin." — Id. p. 182. 

• See Catechism of the Couneil of Trent, revised by Jolut 
Hughes, the Priest of St. John's Church, Philadelphia, p. IM. 

$YNOPSlS. 17 


S. Th£ Priest represents Christ. — "The 
rites used in the administration of this sacrament, 
^Iso demand the serious attention of the faithful. 
Humbled in spirit, the sincere^ penitent casts himself 
down at the feet of the Priest, to testify, by this his 
humble demeanor, that he acknowledges the neces- 
sity of eradicating prides the root of all those enor- 
mities which he now deplores. In the minister of 
God, who sits in the tribunal of peruaiue as his 
legitimate judge, he venerates the power and person, 
of our Lord Jesus Christ ; for, in the administration 
of this, as in that of the other sacraments, the Priest 
represents the character, and discharges the func- 
tions of Jesus Christ. ^^ — Id. ib. 

4. Penance remits all sin. — ** There is no 
sin, however grievous, no crime, however erroneous, 
or however frequently repeated, which penance does 
not remit.'* — Id. p. 183. 

5. All bound to obey the Priest. — " If, 
therefore, we read in the pages of inspiration, of 
somQ who earnestly implored the mercy of God, but 
implored it in vain, it is because they did not repent 
sincerely, and from their hearts. When we also 
meet, in the Sacred Scriptures, and in the writings 
of the Fathers, passages which seem to say, that some 
sins are irremissible, we are to. understand such 
passages to mean, that it is very difficult to obtain 
the pardon of them. A disease may be said to be 
incurable, when the patient loathes the medicine 
that would accomplish his cure ; and, in some sense, 
some sins may be said to be irremiss\\Ae^ v]\iscl\)cl^ 



sinner rejects the grace of God, the proper mediciift.^ 
of salvation." — Id. ib. 

5. All bound to obey the Priest.—** Th^ 
penitent must submit himself /0 tfie judgment ofth^ 
Priest, who is the vicegerent of God." — Id. ib. . 

** Contrition, it is true, blots out sin ; bat who ic 
ignorant, that to effect this, it must be so intense, WQ 
ardent, so vehement, as to bear a proportion to the 
magnitude of the crimes which it effaces ? This ifl 
gr degree of contrition which few reach, and hence, 
through perfect contrition alone, very .few, indeed, 
could hope to obtain the pardon of their sins. It 
therefore became necessary, that the Almighty, in 
his mercy, should ajOford a less precarious and less 
difficult means of reconciliation and salvation ; and 
this he has done, in his admirable wisdom, by giving 
to his Church the keys of the kingdom of heaven. 
According to the doctrine of the Catholic Church, 
a doctrine firmly to be believed and professed by all 
her children, if the sinner have recourse to the 
tribunal of penance with a sincere sorrow for his 
sins, and a firm resolution of avoiding them in 
future, although he bring not with him that contri- 
tion which may be sufficient of itself to obtain the 
pardon of sin ', his sins are forgiven by the minister 
of religion, through the power of the keys. Justly 
then, do the Holy Fathers proclaim, that by the keyi 
of the Church, the gate of heavoi is thrown open ; 
a truth which the Decree of the Council of Florence, 
declaring that the effect of peilance is absolution froiti 


sin, renders it imperative on all, omhesitatiogly to 
believe."— Li p. 190. 

6. The Priests hold the keys of heaven. — 
** Nor let it be supposed that confession, although 
instituted by our Lord, is not declared by him neces- 
sary for the remission of sin : the faithful must be 
impressed with the conviction, that he who is dead 
in sin, is to be recalled to a spiritual life, by means 
of sacramental confession, a truth clearly conveyed 
by our Lord himself), when, by a most beautiful 
metaphor, he calls the power of administering this 
sacrament, * the keys of the kingdom of heaven.^ To 
obtain admittance into any place, the concurrence 
of him to whom the keys have been committed is 
necessary, and therefore, as the metaphor implies, 
to gain admission into heaven, its gates must be 
opened to us by the power of the keys, confided by 
Almighty God to the care of his Church. This 
power should, otherwise, be nugatory: if heaven 
can be entered without the power of the keys, in 
vain shall they to whose fidelity they have been 
intrusted, assume the prerogative of prohibiting 
indiscriminate entrance within its portals. God 
commands us to obey his ministers ; and by obeying 
them, we honor God alone." — Id. p. 192. 

7. All must Confess once a year. — »* Ac- 
cording to the Canon of the Council of Lateran, 
which begins : " Omnes utriusque sexus,^ it com- 
mands all the fiiithfui to confess their sins, at least, 
once a year." — ^Id. p. 193. 

Before we proceed any fuTt\ieT/\lvf*\^\i^^t^'^\ 


to let the reader know that sin is distinguished hy 
the Romish church into mortal and venial. 

" That is mortal sin," says Ligori, " which, on 
account of its enormity, destroys the grace and 
friendship of God, and deserves eternal punishment 
It is called mortal, because it destroys the principle 
of spiritual life, which is habitual grace, and kills 
the soul. 

" Venial sin is that which, on account of its levity, 
does not destroy the grace and friendship of God, 
although it diminishes the fervor of charity, and 
deserves a temporal punishment. It is called venial, 
because the principle of the spiritual life, grace, 
being still sound, it affects the soul with a languor 
that is easily cured, the pardon of which is easily 
obtained." — Ligor. lib. v. n. 51. 

8. Not necessary to Confess venial Sins.< — 
•* All mortal sins must be revealed to the minister of 
religion ; venial sins, which do not separate us from 
the grace of God, and into which we frequently fall, 
although, as the experience of the pious proves, 
proper and profitable to be confessed, may be omitted 
toithout sin, and expiated by a variety of other 
means." — Cat. Council of Trent, p. 194. 

9. Priest and Penitent bound to secrecy. — 
" Secrecy should be strictly observed, as well by 
penitent as by Priest." — Id. p. 196. 

10. Q.UALITIES OF A CoNFEssoR. — ** Besides the 
powers of orders and jurisdiction, which are of ab- 
solute necessity, the minister of this sacrament, 
holding as he does, the place at once of judge and 


phjfsieiant should also be gifted witk knowledge 
and prudence. As judge, his knowledge, it is evi- 
dent, should be more than ordinary, for by it he is 
to examine into the nature of sins, and, amongst the 
various sorts of sins, to judge which are grievous 
and which are not, keeping in view the rank and 
condition of the person. As physician, he has also 
occasion for consummate prudence, for to him it 
belongs to administer to the distempered soul those 
sanative medicines which will not only eflTect the 
cure of her present malady, but prove preservatives 
against its future contagion. The faithful, therefore, 
will perceive the great importance to be attached to 
the choice of a confessor, and will use their best 
endeavors to choose one who is recommended by 
integrity of life, by learning and prudence, who is 
deeply impressed with the awful weight and respon- 
sibility of the station which he holds, who under- 
stands well the punishment due to every sin, and 
can also discern who are to be loosed, and who to 
be bound."— Id. p. 196. 

The foregoing is a brief abstract from the Cate- 
chism of the Council of Trent published by com- 
mand of Pope Pius v., translated into English by 
Priest I. Donovan, Professor, &c., Royal college, 
Maynooth, and revised by Priest John Hughes, of 

\ One important fact, which many of the Papists 
deny, is, in the above document of the Infallible 
Council of Trent, clearly proved; and that is, that 
it is the doctrine of the Romish cViUTcVv\.Vvo\.'?t\^^\& 


can pardon tin. The Papists tell us that 
Priests do not pretend to pardon the sinners tl 
selves, but that they merely pronounce them t 
pardoned. " No one," say^ they, " can pardoc 
sinner, but God, — and this we know." The I 
iible Council, however, declares that it is the P 
who pardons : " / absolve ihee,^' is the form oi 
absolution pronounced by the Priest. He doej 
say, " May Grod pardon thee, or, God pardons tl 
but, " I pardon thee." ■ 

That one sitaner can pardon another sinner, 
of sins, too, not committed against himself, but ag; 
Grod, is a thing so contrary to common sense, to 
son, and to Scripture, that Popery has to twist 
doctrine entirely out of shape, in order to mee 
difficulties that present themselves against it. 
very pretension to such a power as this, is a i 
flagrant insult to the Deity. Suppose, for insta 
that one person is grievously insulted, wronged, 
maltreated by another, and a third person step: 
and says to the offender, " Sir, if you will fall d 
upon your knees, and Confess to me the wrong 
have done to that man, I will pardon you ;" a 
could we think but that the man must be insant 
speaks merely to insult, or that he thinks the pe 
he addresses is an idiot ? Now, this is the very 
rage that every Priest offers against God, when 
he pronounces the words ** I absolve ihee^ Gc 
th^ infinitely holy being who is offended by sin ; 
yet it is a Priest, a miserable siimer, who pare 
the sin, I know the Jesuitical twist that is give 


theivords, ** J absolve thee" **£oo ts absolvo." 
They pretend, that hy the sacred character of Priest- 
hood, the Priest is identified with Christ : — that it is 
Christ who speaks through his mouth : — that the 
pronoun /does not relate to the Priest who pro- 
nounces it, but to Christ. All a gratuitous assertion, 
of course. The Infallible Council, as we have seen 
above, admonishes the faithful of ** the great im- 
portance to be attached to the choice of a Confessor;'' 
and urges them to **use their best endeavors to 
choose one who is recommended by integrity of 
life, by learning and prudence ; and who is deeply 
impressed with the awful weight and responsibility 
of the station which he holds; who understands 
well the punishment due to every sin ; and who can 
also discern who are to be loosed, and who to be 

By this they admit, that there are some Priests 
who are not recommended by integrity of life, and 
that there are some who cannot difcern who are to 
be loosed, and who to be bound. But when these 
Priests pronounce over the sinner, " / absolve thee," 
we would ask the Jesuit, with all his subtlety, to 
tell us whether it is Christ who then speaks ? — If it 
is Christ who then speaks, the consequence is, that 
Christ cannot discern who are to be loosed, and who 
to be bound. A dilemma, out of which, even a 
Jesuit cannot slip. Either it is Christ who speaks, 
(as they pretend it is,) or it is not Christ who speaks. 
If it is Christ who speaks, Christ cannot be God, 
:(yct they acknowledge he is God,") \>cca.\xa» Q«i^ 


knoweth ail things. If it is not Christ who $peai< 
the Infallihle Council of Trent is a liar, Popery is 
cheat, the Priests are deceivers, and the people a^i 
deceived ; because they maintain that the Priest, ^ 
the tribunal of Confession, is identified with Chri< 
and that it is Christ who speaks through his mou^ 
when he pronounces over the sinner, or Peniter^ 
as they call him, the words, ** / absolve thee." 

Perhaps, as an evasion, they will tell us, that 
is sometimes Christ who speaks through the mouC 
of the Priest, and sometimes it is the Priest whi 
speaks through his own mouth. This subterfuge 
is like a fox with one paw in a trap, caught in th« 
other by another trap. " God alone is the searches 
of hearts ;" therefore, the Penitent cannot knoi;^ 
whether the Priest can discern who are to be loosed, 
and who to be bound; — nor can the Priest, (ays 
they admit themselves,) ascertain whether the Peni- 
tent repents of his sins. If the Penitent does not 
repent of his sins, they acknowledge that the Abso' 
lution, the '* / absolve thee,'" is invalid, that the sia- 
ner remains still bound, and bound faster than ever. 
Here, then, they are fast both ways. If the Priest 
is a good man, and the Penitent, or the one who Con- 
fesses to him, is a sinner, the '' I absolve thee^^ is in- 
valid ; and if the Priest is a bad man, it is blasphe- 
jny to identify him with Christ ; for, as the Scripture 
asks, " What concord hath Christ with Belial? and 
vfhai communion hath light with darkness ?'* 2 Cor. 
vi. H 15. 

'This evasion is not a niere supposition, but a 


gptematic sabterfbge. No one, perhaps, who haa 
not been thoroughly initiated in the sophistry of 
Popery, would detect the covered lie that is conceal- 
ed in liie third paragraph of the chapter under con- 
sideration. We win open it as well as we can. 

The paragraph to which we allude, commences 
with these words : ** The rites used in the adminis- 
tration of this sacrament, also demand the serious 
attention of the iaithful. In the minister of God, 
who sits in the tribunal of Penance as his legitimate 
judge, he (the Penitent) venerates the power and 
person of our Lord Jesus Christ; for, in the admin- 
istration of this, as in that of the other sacraments, 
the Priest represents the character, and discharges 
the functions of Jesus Christ" (Cat Coun. Trent, 
p. 182.) The sophistry rolls upon the words min- 
ister of Godt and Priest. 

The doctrine that is openly promulgated to the 
faithful, as they call them, is, that the people are to 
venerate in the Priest, the power and person of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. The crafty Doctors, however, 
sensible of the inconsistency of such a doctrine, and 
fearful lest the heretics should handle it, have left a 
hole for the serpent to hide his head in. ** In (he 
minister of God" say they, ** the pe(^le are to ven- 
erate the power and person of our Lord Jesus 
Christ." By this expression they wish it to be un- 
derstood, as all their followers understand it, that 
they mean the Priests ; bat if we heretics, as th^ 
tail US} ask them how a wicked Priest can be the 
Minister of God, and how the peo^\^ c^iv N^'ojm^ 


in him the power and person of our Lord Jei 
Christ ; they will reply, they did not tell us that 
wicked Priest is the minister of God, or that ti 
people ought to venerate in him the power and p< 
son of. Christ, hut that the Infallible Council us* 
the term minister of God^ and not Priest. Pitil 
sophistry ! Look again at the conjunction /or, 
the above noted paragraph, how it runs in upon t 
word Priest ; including, and meaning to inclut 
on the outside show, all Priests, whether they a 
ministers of God, or servants of the devil. H< 
again, we have the Prince of darkness placed up 
the throne, and the people commanded and bound 
fall prostrate on their knees and worship him. 
they do not worship him personally, they worsi 
him at least emblematically; inasmuch as th 
venerate and worship his image in the person oi 
wicked Priest. '' Doctrine of devils f^ 

Another sophism lurks under the word **;?< 
a»cg," in the fourth paragraph. " There is no sii 
says the paragraph alluded to, '* however grievoi 
no crime however enormous, or however frequent 
repeated, which Penance does not remit." — C 
Coun. Trent, p. 183. 

By the word penance, here, they mean the tril 
nal of Confession. Sometimes this tribunal is si; 
ply called Confession ; at other times it is called t 
Sacrament of Confession. Sometimes it is calli 
the tribunal of Penance ; at other times, simply Pi 
ance. The one who Confesses is called the Pa 


That the word Penance, in the above named para- 
graph, signifies the tribunal of Penance, no one who 
reads, will deny. Then again, in the following 
paragraph, thej^ have got the word Penance to sig- 
nify repentance!!! And stranger still, they make 
Confession to a Priest synonymous with repentance. 
Now, all this is just what they want the people to 
believe, and believe it they do. But then again, 
they have left another hole, out of which to escape 
when closely beset by the heretics ! We heretics ! 
iadmit that there is no crime, however enormous, 
which is not remitted by God, upon the sinner^s 
sincere repentance. Therefore, when we attack 
them upon the doctrine, they tell us we admit it 

This is Popery. This is the double-faced mon- 
ster; the ''Dragon^^ and the '' Lamb.^^ She speaks, 
and her words signify opposites. The poor delu- 
ded followers of " the Beasi^^ see one thing, and be- 
lieve another. They reject the testimony of their 
own senses, trample the garlands of reason beneath 
their feet, and, being stunned by the roaring of the 
" BragoTi^^ are deaf to the whispers of conscience, 
and to the Spirit of God. 

The ** Church says so^" is the " ne plus ultra^^ 
which dethrones them of the prerogative of reason, 
^ makes the Word of God a lie. 
\ " There is no sin," (says the Infallible Council,) 
"however grievous, no crime, however enormous, or 
^wever frequently repeated, which Penance" (by 
^vhich IS here meant the Sacrament oi Peu^jju^^'^ 

2S -STNwns. 

" doe* Bot Tcoik." The Word of God, bow«iKr, de- 
clares thai " the bUiphemy against tke Hotf QAwrf 
tkatl nol be firgivm unfa men. And whgioeitiH', 
tptaketk a uord againtt th* So* efi^an, li t/talt ^ 
forgiven him : but wketotvtT speakttA againtt iitt. 
Holy Ghost, it tkall not be fargivtn Aim, tieitker im 
Ihit world, neither in the world to cMie."--T-Bfatt. 
xii. 31—32. 

One of these proposhions must be falso, aa i^tf 
are in ditecl opposition. The Word of Ckid tAomt 
be&lse; therefore the Popish ckarch stands, goil^- 
of a lie. 

Alluding to the above text of Matthew, ibe In&k 
lible Council obserres as follows : 

" When we also meet, in the aacred Scriptorea, 
passages which stem to say that some sins are irre- 
niissible, we are to understand such passages to 
mean, that it is very diJUiUl to obtaia the pardon of 
them." (Cat. Coun. Trent p. 183.) " The pasaage 
leems to say t" The only seeming there is ahmt i^ 
is in the delirium of Infallibilily! Here, again^. 
the church of Rome, that " Man of Sin" spoken o^ 
by the Apostle, " opposetk and cxaUelh Aimitl^^ 
above all that is called God." 2. Thes. ii. 4. Foi-= 
Christ expressly declares that a certain sin shall no^ 
be forgiven; aad the Romish church declares i^ 
shall he forgiven : "thereisnosin," (saya the Coun — 
cil of Trent,) "however grievous, which Penances 
does not remit." 

But the ulterior portion of the above-named fourtfe^ 
paragraph afforAs to as Acretict / (\uite a treat: ani^B 


that, too, as I think will be clearly shown, at the ex- 
pense, wholly, of Infallibility. 

The thing zigzags along as foUoWis : '' A disease 
may be said to be incurable, when the patient loathes 
the medicine that would accomplish his cure; and, 
in some sense, some sins may be said to be irremis- 
sible," (unpardonable,) ** when the sinner rejects the 
grace of God, the proper medicine of salvation.'* 
(Cat Coun. Trent p. 183.) According to this spe- 
cimen of Infallible reasoning, it appears that, in 
some seibse only, some sins may be said to be irre- 
missible, and that because the sinner rejects the grace 
of God. We would ask the Infallible Doctors of 
the Council of Trent, whether in every sense, eve- 
ry SIN is not unpardonable, if the sinner rejects the 
grace of God ^ 

Either the above proposition of the Infallible 
Church is incorrect, false, and wicked, or else there 
are some sins which are pardonable, even while the 
sinner rejects the grace of God. 

To what wild phrensies, and extravagant contor- 
tions of reason, will not the church of Rome resort, 
in order to impress the minds of her deluded devo- 
tees with the notion that her Priests can pardon 
ALL sins, even that against the Holy Ghost, which 
Christ himself declares " shall not be forgiven, 
neither in this world, neither in the world to comeJ^ 
The Priests are beings of so exalted a power, and 
the Confessional is a box so lucrative, that, rather than 
step down from the pinnacle of their authority, or 
check the flood that flows into their co^ex^A^^ ^^^" 

aa sTNopsis. 

laration of Christ must be set at naught, and the 
Word of God be sealed and closed foreyer. Wett: 
we may say tK these what Peter said to Simon, 
** Thy noTiey perish with ihee^ because thou has$ 
thought that the gift of God may be purchased i£i$k 
money," — Acts viii. 20. 

The fifth paragraph of this chapter, showa td 
wiiat audacity the Romish church has attained, in 
order to hold the world ii\ subjection to their author^ ^ 
ity, for the sake of rendering their followers vassals 
of their ulterior designs, victims of their lusts, and , 
prizes for their avarice. 

How does this doctrine tingle on our ears? " Al- 
though the sinner bring not with him that cotUri" 
Hon which may be sufficient of itself to obtain the 
pardon of sin ; his sins are forgiven by the mats- 
ter of religion, through the power of tke keys" by 
confessing to a Priest. Here we have it, then, the 
blasphemy expressly declared, that the contritioa 
which is insufficient for the obtaining of God^s par- 
doUt is sufficient for obtaining pardon through a 
priest, • ' 

Is it any matter of surprise, that in the Romisli 
church such a general laxity of morals prevails, ' 
when the people are taught, and by the In£|lUjl^l£^^ 
Council of Trent, too, that contrition is not aecea9|i-^ 
ry for the remission of sin ; that the Priest, in Turr<^-: 
tue of the K^ys, can pardon sins». whjk:h Gfod dogii^^ 
QO^ and will not p^i49Q9 ' ^ 

SYN0PSj^3. 31. 


Auricular Confession — Offices of the Confe^sor^Miscella- 


Uatino^ in the preceding chapter, shown what 
are the views of the Council of Trent in regard to 
Auricular Confession, we shall now open the volumes 
pf St. Ligori, and spread out in one comprehensive 
view, the principal moral doctrines of the church of 
Rome, not only as they relate to the subject of Au- 
ricular Confession, but to morals in general. 

We shall, however, for a while continue with the 
subject of Auricular Confession ; and we shall en- 
deavor to show, from the impracticability of the 
thing, that no man is bound, in order to obtain 
God's pardon for sin, to Confess it to men, or to any 
man soever; much less to Confess it to Popish Priests. 
1. Impracticability of the Doctrine. — In 
order to show the impracticability of the thing, we 
shall now avail ourselves of the concessions of the 
Romish Doctors and Theologians themselves. Of 
these we shall select the Moral Theology of the fa- 
mous St. Ligori, the authority of which no Papist 
dare to reject, because the man is enrolled among 
the Saints, and the Popish church has declared that 
there is nothing in his voluminoujs system of Moral 
Theology worthy of censure ; nothing that is. not 
according to God, and sound docirine^^^higot, 
Theol Preet T. 1. p. vi. 

jjd avnopsis. ^ 

2. The ofticsb of a CoNFEsaoii. — The office 

that B good Confessor is bound lo exevciae," {says 
this Saintly Doctor.) "are four, namely, (hose of 
"Father, Physician, Teacher, and Judge." — LigoL 
Theol. T v-iii. p. 7. 

'■ A good Confessor, in order to discharge the du- 
ties incumbent on a Father, ought to he full of char- 
ily." — Id. ib. 

We will now Siaten to what this Holy Father 
says in regard to Confessors in general, and we 
shall then see whether they arc good Fathers, good 
Physicians, good Teachers, or good Judges. If we 
condemn them, and prove from the impraclicability 
of the thing, that no man is bound, in order to ob- 
tain God's pardon for sin, lo Confess it lo men, or to 
any man soever, much less lo Confess it lo Popish 
Priests — I say if we condemn ihem, we seal ihecoQ- 
demnaiiou with the testimony of their own lips. 

First, then, in regard to the Confessor as a Fa- 
ther, the Saint begins as follows : " Says," (says he,) 
'■ devote iheir time only lo bearing the Confessiow 
of certain devotees, or of persons of importance and 
high standing in life. If. however, any poor miser- 
able sinner approach them, they listen to his Con- 
fession with biiicr impatience; nnd having laden 
him with reproach, drive him from their presence; 
tie consequence is. that this poor and miserable sin- 
.Hct, afler having strove for a long lime lo prevail 
KfOD himself to go to Confession, and finding him- 
Hf ' V) roughly received, conceives a hatred a 
Me s&enment of Penance, and. in despair o: 

aYNOPsisL S3 

i$g a Ck)Dfe8sor who will liatea ta him, Kud ab» 
9 him from his sins, he rushes with a iooe<» iietn, 
tipitately down the slippery path of life, lost uid 
Moe, and sinks ipto despair/'-— M. p. 8» 
'he Saint then goes on to tell how a good Qm- 
Mr ought to act, and, among his other instruc* 
I, he has this: ** Eia frater ! nihU referL Take 
lage, hrother I it is of no. consequence if you do 
look into all the turns and winding of your con* 
DCjB ; it is sufficient if you answer the questions 
eh I ask you." — Id. ib. 

Kit should seem expedient to defer abeoluticHi," 
itinues the Saint I) *'let the Confessor appoint a 
jE6r. the Penitent to return to Confession, by ad*- 
isifig him thus : ' take courage, brother 1 on such 
ly I will expect you ; do not neglect to retum; 
lOi but, as I have told you, take courage ; com- 
td yourself daily to the Blessed Virgin, and come 
16.' "—Id. p. 10. 

o much from the Saint, relative to the Confessor 
father ; we will now hear what he says about 
Confessor, considered in respect to his office aa 

In order," (says he,) "* that the Confessor may 
ible to apply the proper remedies for the infirmity 
lis Penitent, he ought to know the origin and 
se of all his spiritual diseases. Confessors, not 
w, inquire about nothing of their Penitent, except 
species and number of his sina If the Penitent 
ears disposed, they immediately absolve him; 
if he does not appear dispoi|ed, they \iaidi\y ^^^iink. 

34 SY\opsis. 

a word to him, but with reverted eyes, they fortiK 
with dismiss him, saying, 'Retire from mt, bectmtf 
I cannot absohe you.^ " — Id. p. 2. 

3. Secret Instruction. — The Saint, here, 
makes a reflection which I am pleased to avail my- 
self of, because the same reflection has frequently 
been made by mjrself " The Sovereign Pontiff Be- 
nedict XIV." (says he,) ** in his Bulla ApofiiolicA, 
^12, says that the admonitions and instructiofls 
of a Confessor are more efiicacious than sermons 
preached from the pulpit: nor is it without reason 
that they should be more efiicacious, because many 
particular circumstances are concealed from the 
preacher, which are clearly known by the Confer 
sor ; hence the Confessor has a much better oppor- 
tunity of giving the Penitent the proper instructions, 
and of applying the remedies suitable to the disease. 
Nor ought the Confessor, then, to attend to the other 
Penitents who are standing and waiting round about 
him ; for, as St. Francis Xavier has said, • it is better 
to hear the Confession of a few, properly made, than 
the ''disorderly Confessions of many, and without 
fruit. Here they ought to reflect how improperly 
those Confessors act, who, if they discover that the 
Penitent is not rightly disposed, immediately com- 
mand him to retire from their presence, in order, 
thereby, that they may save time.*" — Id. p. 12. 

4. Priests, not God, prepare the Peni- 
tents FOR Absolution. — " Let such Confessors,** 
(continues the Saint,) " know, that the sentiments of 
those Doctors who maintain that Confessors are 


»imd by all means to prepare their Penitents for 
Nolntion, although they should come to Confession 
ith improper dispositions, let such Confessors know, 
at the sentiment of those Doctors is grounded upon 
;e strongest reasons." — Id. ib. 
We come now to a point in the Romish doctrine 
a Confession, upon which turns the whole load of 
1 the mor^l depravity which characterizes that 
lurch, and which emanates, as I have often de- 
lared, from that pernicious sink of all abomina- 
ODs, the Confessional. 

The paragraph which I am now about to spread 

at to the public view, ought to be stamped in letters 

r brass, and suspended, conspicuous, high in the 

IT, that all the world might read it, that, by read- 

\gf they might learn what Popery is. 

5. The Sinner must be left in ignorance. — 

le doctrine is as follows : — (I take it from the 

nt, verbatim.) '* If the Penitent," (says he,) " is 

nculpable ignorance, in regard to those things 

'^ming which, it is possible to be invincibly 

rant, although this ignorance be of the * law of 

' and the Confessor pribdently thinks that to 

aish the Penitent would not correct him, then, 

1 that case, the Confessor must abstain from 

ishing the Penitent, and must leave him in his 

ace." — Id. ib. This, I must now give in 

orecisely as it came from the pen of the Saint 

because the doctrine is so atrocious, that the 

will tell their people I have mutilated it in 

lation. Those of my lea&ei^ vjVio w^^tw- 


acquainted with the Latin, will, doubtless, for thv 
cause of Zion, be willing that a few lines shoitt 
thus be devoted. The world will then see whether 
I have distorted the doctrine; and Jesuitism irffl 
have a gag to stop its cavillings. — The passage rtms 
as follows : — 

** Si ignorantia inculpabili erit circa alia, de qod* 
bus potest dari ignorantia invincibilia< licet sit juris 
divini, et prudenter Confessarius existimet admoni- 
tion em non esse profuturam Pcenitenti, tunc absthien- 
dum erit ab admonitione, et Pcenitens relinquendtts 
in sua bona fide." The Saint adds, " and itfthis the 
Doctors of the strictest sentiments agree." Id. ib. 
As a codicil to the foregoing, we will append the 
following, taken, verbatim^ likewise, from the same 
great Saint and Doctor. " In like manner," (says 
he,) •* the Confessor must omit to inform the Penitenl 
about making restitution," (of stolen goods or any 
thing else,) " if he certainly foresee that the Penitent, 
who is now ignorant of the thing, will not obey, oi 
follow his admonition." Id. ib. p. 13. 

The following, however, are the exceptions, ant 
the only exceptions which are given to this rule 
The 1st is ; ** If, from that ignorance an injury shoolc 
redound to the public good ; hence, Princes, Qoy 
emors. Confessors, Curates, and Prelates, who neg- 
lect their official duties, should be admonished, lae 
-cause the ignorance of these persons, although in 
<vineibte, is always injurious to the community, be 
iMi«B6 it k easy for others (o suppose that they ai^ 
Tilhwcd to do what they see their superiors do. Bo, 


•I0O, in lespeet to those who freqaent the aacxEments ; 
because others would suppose that what they do 
would also be lawful for them to do. The 2d ex. 
eeption is ; If the Penitent should ask the Confessor 
about the matter ; in this case the Confessor would 
be bound io open the truth to him. The 3d excep- 
tion is ] If the Penitent would, in a short time, yield 
to the admonition of the Confessor, although at first 
be Would not." Id. p. 14. 

Still treating on the subject of Confessors, in their 
relation to the Penitent, as Spiritual Physicians, the 
Saint, being a Physician himself, has prepared for 
the rest of the Spiritual Physicians, the prescriptions 
which follow : 

6. Priestly Absolution. — "Let the Confes- 
sors," (says he,) ** after having properly admonished 
their Penitent, labor to prepare him for Absolution 
by an act of true sorrow, and of amendment; to this 
end, therefore, I would admonish Confessors that 
there are but few Penitents, especially among the 
rude and ignorant, who approach the Confessional 
with the aforesaid act of sorrow. There are Con- 
feasors, not a few, who imagine they have discharg- 
ed their official duties, if they merely interrogate 
the above mentioned kind of Penitents in the man- 
ner following: * Well, have you asked God^s pardon 
for all these things ?* (which, indeed, is not a true 
act of sbrrow:) *Are you sorry from your heart for 
aU your sins V — ^And, without adding another word, 
diieygi?e them absolution."— Id. ib. 



We shall now take down one of the Saints mM 
trums from behind the curtain, and place it on th 
counter alongside of the same nostrum prepared ii 
the &mous laboratory of the Infallible Council .a 
Trent ; and, by comparing the two remedies togetk 
er, we shall see what a striking difierence they prO' 
sent in their respectiv.e qualities. In doing this, we 
shall have the gratification of bringing the Saint in 
confirmation of what we have advanced in some oi 
the numbers of the ** Downfall" on the subject oi 
the different kinds of Popery. The Infallible Coud- 
cil of Trent strains every nerve to speak wonderful- 
ly wise, and to appear superlatively good. The] 
know that the heretics are all around, watching and 
weighing every word that drops from their mouths 
therefore they say all the good things they possibl] 
can. " They say" (but as our Lord declares,) '* ikei 
do not" Matt, xxiii. 3. It is a very easy thing fo 
them, when assembled together in Council, to givi 
advice, and to appear as lambs ; but all this is shee 
hypocrisy. They know, full well, what is the prac 
tice of the Spiritual Physicians when they visi 
their diseased sheep, or when their diseased sheej 
come to them. They know what remedies are thei 
applied. Each Physician has his own, and each ap 
plies his own. All this they know. Not withou 
Teason, therefoire, is it, that we say all the prattle o 
the Infallible Council is sheer hypocrisy. If theai 
Spiritual Physicians are really solicitous for the re 
covery of the slain of the daughter of their peoph 
why do ihey content themselves with merely mixinf 


up theiT infidliUe specifics, labelling them in letters 
of gold, and spreading them out for the In&Uiblo 
Physicians to gaze upon ? Will those gilded letters 
care the souls of those that never see them ? For, be- 
ingwritten in Latin, they are a mere hocus pocus for 
the nine hundred and ninety-nine thousandths of the 
poor sin-sick sheep whose souls are under their care. 
If these Spiritual Physicians, assembled in Trent, 
are really solicitous for the recovery of their patients, 
we ask again, why do they allow the f^iestly quacks, 
the Saintly Doctors, the lax Casuists, to write and 
publi3h theories and systems of morality in direct 
opposition to their infallible catholicon ? 

Strange paradox, indeed I that contradictory prop- 
ositions signify one and the same thing ; that oppo- 
site and r^Hignant remedies produce one and the 
same effect^ In all the systems of Moral Theolo- 
gy taught in the Popish Schools, the prescriptions 
which are prepared for the Spiritual Physicians, are 
a compound of the deadliest poisons. The oint- 
ments which they prepare are made, not to heal 
the wounds of their dying patients, but to cover 
them. The balm which they infuse, is a narcotic 
nightshade thiU spreads its darkness over the soul, 
lulls the stings of conscience, and leaves the unhap- 
py'^ictim, while dreaming of life, sinking into death. 
Such are the specifics for the diseases of the soul, 
which are found upon the shelves of every Popish 
Doctor, and which, in practice, they apply to every 
pafient that bends before their knees. 

These nostrums and deadly poiBons axe sX»xsv^\ 


and labelled by iD&llibility herself whrnaheCip^ 
izes these Spiritual quacks, and impresaeB tke f^l 
of approbation on their Works. /iH 

We have before us now one of the mosi renoiiiS 
ed of these Saintly Doctors, Saint ligori, ^JMM 
virtues are eulogized, and whose prescripcions ti 
the soul are declared- to be "* sounds and acc^4ifl$ 


(This is the labd which is prefixed to the PnrfMM 
of his works ; and the words are made emphi^ 
precisely as I quote them here, by being purtnil 


What a bubble of a thing, then, is their TnfaHMl 
CouDcil ! What a soapsuds globe, blushing mvk 
the colors of the rainbow, but hollow at heart ^lod 
when touched with the finger of truth, resolving, Ipr 
to its original drop of insignificance, and siokiogll 
the ground ! Such is Popery ; a globe on one sidi^ 
and a drop on the other; a Lamb in Trent, hufc 9> 
Wolf running through the world. 

7. The Infallible CIuagk MEDiolNS8.-fW^ 
now take down, as we promised, one of the Sainl^l 
nostrums, and lay it alongside of another from^dlf 
Infallible Council of Trent. We take them . boll 
from the Saint's own shelf; therefore they inu8ti<^ 
genuine. That of the Saint appears to be a,im0^ 
tic. The prescription runs as follows: ^* D&m0 
ineumbendum,^* '&c., ** Moreover, it is incumbei^l 
the Confessor to apply those remedies whii^ 4 
shall judge to be the most expedient for the ^^^ 
1^ Penitent, by imposing on him tho^e^aoKpr 


aoDS which are the most congenial to his disease ; 
these which he prudently thinks he will perform. 
Let it he observed, here, that, although according to 
he Council of Trent, (Sess. xiv. C. 8,) the satisfac- 
ions," (by which they mean Penances,) ** ought to 
3e in proportion to the crime, since those Confessors 
vko enjoin light Penances for grievous sins, parti- 
cipate of those sins ; nevertheless the Confessor, for 
ost reasons, can diminish the Penances, provided 
he Penitent is affected with violent compunction, or 
if it be during the time of a Jubilee, or a Plenary In- 
lalgence, and, especially, if he labor under any in- 
irmity of body or mind. And lastly, (to be brief,) 
ilways, whenever a prudent fear is entertained, lest 
iie Penitent would not perform the Penance due to 
liis sins. Such is the common doctrine taught by 
he Doctors, with St. Thomas." — Ligor. Prax. Con. 
N. ii. 

8. The healing of the Sick in Purgatory. 
— ^••Moreover," continues the Saint, quoting from 
St Thomas, " it is better for the Priest to point out 
o the Penitent how much Penance ought to be en- 
oined upon him, and to lay upon him, nevertheless, 
10 more than he is willing to bear. . It is safer to 
impose upon him a Penance less than he ought to 
perform, than more, because we shall be more ex- 
cusable before God for excess of mercy, than for too 
nuch severity, because such a defect can be made 
Up in Purgatory." The Saint, then, quotes Saint 
Aithony, " who says, that that Penance ought to be 
cqoined which the Priest thinks diePecaXA^'^r^ 

4ft STIfQMIS. 

afterwards probably perforin, and whicb ke^nj) 
cheerfully accept. And if the Penitent declfupea ifaH > 
he is not able to perform the Pen^ilice whicsh) Jli 
ought, the Holt Archbishop thus concludes «^ 
* Then, however great mcuy have been hii/siru^t/^ 
ought not to be dismissed toithout absolutianile0k0 
should fall into despair.' '' — Id. ib. , • » j 

Id the above extract from the. Theology of |h| 
Baint, we have a specimen of Popery as it wi^b^f 
to show itself and Popery as it really is in practielf 
Popery in the thunders of Trent — and Popery mtii0 
secrecy of the Confessional. ol 


Council, that is, the Spiritual Physicians, tell l)l9 
Spiritual Physicians, that " the satisfactions," [tbl 
is, the Penances,] *'^ ought to be in proportion to ii^ 
crime;" but the Spiritual Physicians, aa soon If 
they get out of the Council, tell another t^e.^ 
•♦Nevertheless," say they, " the Confessor, for fast 
reasons, can diminish the Penances ;" and, behold 
what one of these just reasons is ! " Whenever n pH^ 
dent fear is entertained, lest the Penitent woald nd 
perform the Penance due to his sins." **TiM 
however great may have been his sins, he ought: qqI 
to be dismissed," says the Saint, " withoia abso^ 
tion, lest he should fall into despair." .^a 

Here is the wheel within a wheel. Onelmyi 
this way, the other turns that; nnd yrt thr nin(i||gf 
keeps going. This is Infallibility !! i '^ 

The doctrine of the Saint, o» the sab}ect of ihMl^ 
esdy Ooi^iBSsstiv, to csfS^pldelf oqi 


t have ourselves so frequently advanced^ 
continue to cull from this Sacred Repositorj 
V more nosegays of Popish theology, that 
Id may see what a beautiful bunch of mo- 
presents to view. 


int then continues as follows : " From what 
I said, we may judge how imprudently some 
3rs act, who impose Penances upon their 
At which they are unable to perform. How 
* these Confessors do not hesitate to absolve 
ho relapse into sin, although they are un- 
of being absolved ; and those, too, who con- 
the immediate occasion of sin I They fool- 
.ppose that they will reclaim them, by load- 
n down with heavy Penances, although they 
they will not perform them. For instance 
enjoin upon those who have heretofore sel- 
nfessed more than once a year, to come to 
ion once a week during the whole year. 
Dlige them to recite fifteen decades of Beads 
ly, ahhough, perhaps, they have never been in 
>m of reciting even five a week.* They order 

*09ary^ or Beads^ is a particular form of Popish praying^ 
lyin use among them. It consists of sixty beads, 
d arranged on a string in suqh an order that the per- 
recites the prayers / may know what prayers^ and 
y he is saying. Of these prayers fifty are offered up 
gin Mary ; six of them are the Lord's prayer, or what 
the " Pater noster" and the rest consist of the Creed 
logics. To say the Btads^ therefore, meaivs to conait 
) these mxty prayers I 


them to undergo the discipline," (that is, to whip 
ikemsdves.) "and to exercise themselves in iiien:sl 
prayer, when, at the same lime, they may not ctmi 
know what mtnial prayer means. And what is the 
consequence of all this 1 The consequence is, that 
although they reluctantly accept the Penance im- 
posed upon them, for the sake of obtaining (he Ab- 
solution of their sins, nevertheless, they afterward 
neglect to perform it. Hence it is, that, thinking 
they have &llen into sin, and those who are ignorant, 
fancying that their Confession is of no benefit, on 
account of their not having performed the Penance 
imposed upon them, they relapse into their former 
wicked course of life; and being frightened at the 
weight of the Penance laid upon them. Ihey become 
disgusted with Confession, and thus they continue 
to wallow and to rot in their sins. And this is Ihfl 
fruit that is collected from the ruin of so many mis- 
erable souls who have been destroyed by those kind) 
of Penances, which these Confessors call suitable 
Penances ; but which, in truth, ought rather lo be 
called most unsuitable."— Id. ib. N, 12. 

11. Imaoes confer oracr. — Among various 
other Penances which the Saint recommends, there 
are the following; '■ Daily to visit the Most Holy 
Sacrament, and the Image of the Most Holy Mary, 
to beg of them the grace of perseverance." — Id. ibb, 
N, U. "Let him," continues the Saint, "who iii 
in the habit of blaspheming, be advised to make tM^' 
L sign of the Cross If] ten or fifteen limes a day, upon' 


the g;roTind, with his tongue;* — and thrice every 
morning, to say to the Most Blessed Virgin : * O, my 
Lordess! give me patience.'" — Id. ih N. 16. 

Having now heard what the Saint has told ns 
relative to the Confessor as Father, and Physician, 
we shall now listen to what he has to say ahout the 
Confessor as Spiritual Doctor. 

12. Eternal ltfe depends on Confessing 
TO A Priest. — ^**In order," says he, "that the 
Confessor may be properly qualified for the dis- 
charge of his duty, it is necessary that he be well 
versed in the law ; for he who is ignorant of that, 
cannot teach others. Here let us remember what 
St. Gregory writes ; namely, that the office of direct- 
ing souls in the path of life eternal, is the art of arts : 
*Ar8 ariium regimen animarum.^ St. Francis of 
Sales, says, that the office of hearing Confessions, is 
the most important and difficult of all. Truly it is. 
It is the Most Important of all, because it is the object 
and the end of all knowledge, inasmuch as eternal 
life depends upon it. It is the most difficult ; first, 
because the office of Confessor requires the know- 
ledge of all the sciences, of all other offices, and 
of the arts; secondly, because the knowledge of 
Moral Theology embraces so many subjects so very 
different in themselves; thirdly, because, for the 
greater part, it consists of positive laws, and Sa- 
cred Canons, the meaning of which ought to be 
taken according to their true and genuine significa- 

♦ This confirms Miss Reed's statement in her " Sm MoTarsnaa 
w A ConrvENT," which was denied by the \M^y M>\i«B^ 


tion : moreover, all of these laws are rendered diffi- 
cult on account of the circumstances whicfi affect 
the different cases, inasmuch as the resolutions 
and decisions are, upon these accounts, to be varied." 
—Id. ib. N. 17. 

13. Perplexities of Confession. — "There 
are some Confessors who boast of their erudition, 
and of being Theologians of high standing, who 
disdain even to glance an eye over the pages of those 
Moralists whom, by way of scorn, they call CoM' 
ists. They pretend that, in order to discharge the 
duties of a Confessor properly, nothing more is re- 
quired than the general principles of morality ; by 
these general rules, say they, every particular case 
cao be solved. Who denies," still continues the 
Saint, **that every particular case can be resolved 
by these general principles ? but the whole difficulty 
and labor consists in adapting such a variety of cir- 
cumstances to the particular cases ; and of discover- 
ing, amidst the various circumstances that occur, 
which is the principle that is adapted to these gener- 
al principles ; and this cannot be done without a la- 
borious and profound investigation of the reasons 
that may be presented, both for and against the casa 
This is precisely what the Moralists have effected by 
their indefatigable labors in explaining upon what 
principles the many particular cases are to be re- 
solved. Moreover, in these turbulent and stormy 
timeSf as they are cal led, there are so many positiv$ 
laws^ so many Bulls, so many Decrees, that they 
cannot be understood, unless the writings of the 


CasauU be read These have collected those nu- 
meroaa laws, &c., and, having arranged them ac 
cording to the variety bf their bearings and imports. 
It is there, that they may readily be found; hence, 
the more modern these Moralists are, the more use- 
ful are their Works. Those Confesisors err egre- 
giously, who apply themselves wholly to scholastic 
studies, and think that it is but losing time to devote 
It to the study of Morals ; the consequence of which 
is, that, afterwards, they are unahle to distinguish 
one leprosy from another, which mistake leads the 
Confessors and their Penitents, both down into eter- 
nal perdition." — Id. ib. 

** No Confessor," continues the Saint, ** ought to 
neglect the study of Moral Theology, because out 
of the great variety and opposition of things which 
occur in this science, although many of them be 
studied, still, in process of time, they slip from the 
memory, because they rarely occur; therefore the 
Confessor ought to recall them to his memory by 
frequent and close study." — Id. ib. N. 18. 

The Saint says little of importance in regard to 
the Confessor as Judge ; therefore we shall pass on. 


ittricttlar Confu9ion—Pr<ictical Instructions to Comftssofrs 

relative to the laity. 

With the grsot Saint Ligori still lying before 
tt, we shall continue our extracts fcoxaYim^ oa^^^ 


subject of Auricular Confession, until we gire lh» 
public a fair specimen of what is said and taught by 
the chuTiih of Rome on that subject. We knowthil 
the citizens of these United States, baye but tctJ 
superficial and inadequate ideas respecting tha 
grounds of the doctrine of the Romish church. It 
is true, that the church of Rome has, properly 
apeakine, no ground at all lo stand upon. Hei 
Abricaiion of lies is builded entirely upon sand, 
bogs, and quag-mires. It is for this very reason th»t 
we conceive the best means for overthrowing thfl 
Mighty Babylon, is to dig about her own founiJi- 
tions, and to put the sand in motion. Her own 
doctrine works its own destruction. Now, when 
we take the doctrine fresh from the fountain head, 
pure, and unadulterated as it flows from Inialli- 
bility itself, they cannot justly say, as they arewont 
lo do, that we know nothing of their doctrine, or that 
their doctrine is misrepresented. We lay their doc- 
trine before the public just as they have it lying on 
their own shelves ; and just as it is taught in ail 
their Schools, If the doctrine is good, sound, and 
orthodox, they ought to thank us for the pains w« 
take in spreading it out before the world. St. Ligori. 
Den?, and others of equal note and authority, are 
providentially in our possession. There is not ano- 
ther copy of them to be found in the United StatO, 
except in the bands of the Popish Clergy, Now, 
since the Popish Clergy will npt spread these pewl* 
before the public, we ourselves must do it 
The Infcllibla church is planting ber a 


OUT country ; is preaching to our people, unsuspect- 
ing, as she calls them ; is training up our children 
vrho are sent, unsuspectingly^ indeed, to her schools 
md nunneries ; and we wish to aid her in the de- 
lightfiil task of '* training up the youthful mind, and 
teaching the young idea how to shoot;" and, we 
may also add, the old idea, how to judge. 

Ligori heing a Saint, of course, must tell us the 
truth ; and his Theology heing received, approved, 
and taught in every Popish School, must he orthodox. 

With the Saint as our Preceptor, therefore, we 
intend to open a Popish school. If the doctrine is 
so salutary, and so. necessary as they pretend it is, 
perhaps we shall all hecome Papists. I am willing 
to teach the doctrine, let the consequences he what 
they may. We think, however, that, hy the time we 
have spun a few more threads from the Ligorian 
"ball of Infallibility, we shall be able to weave a net 
around the Infallibles, out of which, nor Pope nor 
Bishop, nor Priest nor Monk, nor Nun nor layman, 
•* small or great" learned or ignorant, " rich or 
poor" high or low, **free or bond" of all who are 
marked, either " in their right hand, or on their 
foreheads" will ever be able to extricate himself 

After we have spun the thread to a sufficient 
length, we shall wind up the ball, and then com- 
mence to make the net. 
We have now open before us of the volumes of 

the Saint, of which we are now entering upon, the 

second chapter, entitled "Praxis Confess a.rii*l1> 


kesr C mrfctaw m f pimparfy J' We lane iln|% 

passed tkioi^ tke fiial tiwp t w, wkkk miiii til 
the CoBfis9»F m Fatko;. Fkpaaan, T^bkIm; W 
Judge. Tbe imnd c^plK trais cMXfBii^iii 
questiocis whiek akmrid be pt fcy the OwjiMBr^ 
Penitems who are raie ami igMiniit. '^i 

The thin^ theo. mM iaiiDiyjahMs; asiiliiw 

1. How TO crass wTmovT an. — ^Let itA 
obserTed," wiitaa the Sent, ■'that when the nil 
and ignonnt aaj '€mned he year fmiiki k ia'M 
to be coosideied as a biaspheny, becaioe diepiD 

not mean the &ith of Christ ; for, bj the word lyiti 
they may mean human £uth. In like memiei; it ii 
not a mortal sin to corse the dtmd^ imleas the OH 
who thus corses, expressly declaies that he BMtfM 
the souls of those who are in Purgatory, or whi 
have died in Christ, or the soub oi the ded^ 
— Ligor. ftax. Con£ N. 29. 

2. Excuses for cursiko. — ** To curse thelinptf 
is a mortal sin« when it is formal ; that ia^ (is 
Cajetau explains it.) when he who curses intepdl^ 
and wishes a grievous evil to befall the one' he 
curses : but it is no mortal sin to curse the liviafv 
when the curse pronounced is merely maUtt^i 
that is, when it is pronounced without anyijffH 
intention. — And why is it not a mnrtnl ii«||y 
because (le who curses a living man dote'M 
always intend to curse the ^oul, or to (J^^^mnHI 
substai^ce, in which, in an ^special roanil^l^^il 

^mgej^GoA shines J>rth, but he cursea ^*m| 


withcrat considering, or reflecting about his soni, 
and therefore, in cursing him, he does not commit a 
grievous sin." — Id. ib. 

The Saint, in order to excuse these wretches, 
further observes, that "those who curse the dead do 
not intend to injure them, but merely to insult those 
to whom they direct their discourse." — Id. ib. 

3. Saint Lioori's tender oonsciencb. — He 
observes furthermore, "for the peace df my cort' 
science ! ! I wrote concerning this subject, to many 
learned Doctors at Naples, and even to the three 
Congregations of secular Priests of the Mission, 
who were among the followers of the Neapolitan 
Clergy, and the answer of them all was conformable 
to my sentiments. Moreover, when I committed to 
type, and published a certain letter on this subject, 
against which an anonymous epistle was put afloat, 
of which I have already spoken, in order to be 
certain, I transmitted by the Nuncio, both the letters 
to the Sovereign Pontiff; Benedict XIV., who, after 
having carefully examined the controversy, by 
comparing it with the Works of the pious and Rev- 
erend Fathers, St. Thomas, Sergius, and the Holy 
Counsellor of the Roman Office, (who is now 
deceased,) the Sovereign Pontiff) I say, who thus 
weighed the case, passed his sentence, in con. 
formity with mine, *that to ciirse the dead is no 
blasphemy.' " — Id. ib. 

" To curse insensible creatures, such as the wind, 
the rain, the years, the dajrs, fire, &c., is no bias* 
phemy, unless the one who cuTsea, ergrt^tt^-^ 

52 SYNOPSia I 

coQnecte them in relation lo God, by saying, for \ 
iflSlance, ' curied be Iht fire of God, the bTead of 
Gud. ^c} "—Id. ib. N, 30- 

The abo^'e inslruciions for Confeesora relate lo * 
Ihe third CummandnieDt, which, in Popery, is 
called the Eecond. 

We come now to the inatrnctions given to Cod- 
fesaora, relative to the Iburth Commandment; — 
" RemembtT l/ie Sabbath day, to keep it holy" 
Eiod. II. 8. 

4. ExciraEB for violatikg the Sabbath.— 
We shftll now see what is meant in Popery, by 
keeping the 8abbath holy. The most important, 
and first of all dutiea, as Popery will ha^e it to be, 
is to attend Mass, It appears in fact, lo be the only 
thing they have in mind, in regard lo the sanctifi- 
cation of the Sabbath, for the very first sentence on 
the subject begins as follows : " As to the obligation 
of hearing the Holy Thiso." {which is the Popish 
epithet for attending Mass,) "let the Penitent be 
questioned in regard to whether he has omitted that 
Holy Thiko!" (to attend Muss.) "As to servile 
works, lei him be asked, how long he has worked! 
and what kind of work he did 1 for, according to the 
Doctors generally, those who work two hours are 
excused from grievous sin ; nay. other Doctors 
allow more, especially if the labor be light, or tf 
there be some more notable reason. Let him alw^ 
be asked, why he labored; whether it was tbs*1 
custom of the place, or whether it was from necow 
'ity} Because poverty can cxcnao hrom'sin U^ 

snrNOPsis. 58 

working on the Sabbath; as the poor are generally 
excuBed, who, if they do not labor on the Sabbath, 
cannot support themselves or their &milie8 ; as they 
also are excused who sew upon the Sabbath, because 
they cannot do it on other dajrs.. Many Holy 
Doctors excuse those who work on the Sabbath for 
the sake of shunning idleness, on account of which 
they would probably &11 into sin ; but this opinion 
is not to be admitted, except in some rare cases, in 
which, for instance, they would be so much worried 
by the uneasiness of the temptation, that it could be 
overcome in no other way, Acept by working. Let 
them also be interrogated in regard to whether they 
have eaten forbidden meats on fast days, during 
Lent, or on Fridays, and Saturdays ?" — Id. ib. N. 
32, 33. 

We shall give a fuller detail respecting the 
sanctification of the Sabbath, as taught by this same 
Saint, and by the Romish church, in a subsequent 

In regard to the instructions given to Confessors 
on the seventh and tenth Commandments, or, accord- 
ing to the Saint, on the sixth and ninth, we at 
present pass them by. In a subsequent chapter, 
however, we shall expose as much of the subject as 
we dare. The seal of the Confessional, in this case, 
binds us also, as well as the Holy Confessors: 
under different circumstances, however. Modesty 
forbids our fully opening this Pandemonium of 
pollutions, this ** cage of every unclean and hateful 

HrdJ* The InfiiUible church locks up iliie tSbotD^cDe^ 

64 SYN0Pfi|j[9. 

able secrets, because the exposure of tbem wopiild 
excite the execration of mankiud. She locks thea 
up^ too, for purposes best known to herself. If it 
were not for the tedious length of the sulject, we 
would give it, at least, in its original Latin; but |« 
some have intimated to us that there is sometimsi 
too much of Latin in our writings, we will not 
presume to trespass on their patience, by crowding 
our pages with what they do not understand. We 
now pass on to the consideration of what the Saij^ 
and the rest of the Holy Doctors say in ^eir 
instructions to Confessors, relative to the eight, or at 
they will have it, the seventh Commandment 

5. On Stealing. — ** In respect to the seventh 
Commandment," says the Saint, **Iet the Confes- 
sor ask the Penitent if he has stolen any thing? and 
from whom, whether it was from one personj or 
from different persons? whether he was alone, or 
with others, and whether it was once, or oftenerf 
Because, if at each time he stole a considerable 
ajQoouBt, at each time he sinned mortally. Bi^ on 
the coiOrary, if at each trine he stoUa small amount^ 
then he did «ot sin grievously^ unless the articles 
8t(^n came to a considerable amount; providedy 
however, that in the beginning, he had not the 
intention of steeling to a large amount; but whet ' 
the amount already stolen has become eoosidenraU^ . 
although he did not sin grievovsly, yet he i» boiiii ' 
under a grievous pin, to restitmion ; at least, ae I0 iht . 
last portions that he stoloi by which the aflaouttt.. 
beca»a coumdaamWai It; is to W thsecredn te wevvfe 


that a larger sum is required to constitute a heayy 
amount in small thefts, and more is required if the 
things are stolen from different persons, than if they 
were stolen from the same person ; hence it is said, 
that, in small thefls, which are made at different 
times, double the sum is required to constitute 
what is to be considered a large amount And if a 
considerable time intervene between the thefb, for 
instance, two months, then the theft, probably, does 
not ^amount to a grievous sin. In regard to such 
things as fruits, a still greater amount is required 
to constitute what may be considered grievous. 
And, on this account, servants may be easily 
•excused, who steal eatables from their masters; 
provided they be not in a large quantity, and of an 
extraordinary quality. When thefts are made by 
•children, or by wives, a much larger quantity is 
required, in order to constitute a grievous sin ; and 
it is seldbm that these are bound, under a heavy 
obligation, to restitution." — Id. ib. N. 42. 

6.. Stealino to pay for massks. — " If the per- 
son is unknown^' continues the Saint, ** from whom 
another has stolen, the Penitent is oUiged to resti- 
tution, either by having Masses said, or by bestow- 
ing alms on Uie poor, or by making presents for 
pious places," by which the Saint means churches. 
Nunneries, &c. ; " and if the person himself is poor, 
he can retain the amount stolen for the use of his 
&mily. But if the person on whom the theft has 
been committed, is known, to him the restitution is 
to be made; wherefore, it is wonderful, m&ee^^^EAX 


there are to be found so many Confessors so igno- 
rant, that, although they know who the creditor ii^ 
enjoin upon the Penitent, that, of >the stolen goods, 
which they ought to restore, they bestow alms, or 
have Masses said. It is to be observed, that if any 
one takes the property of another, or retains it, un- 
der the presumption, that if he were to ask it of the 
owner, he would willingly give it to him, he ought 
not to be obliged to make restitution." — Id. ib. N. 44 
7. Lying, no Lying. — Relatively to the ninth 
commandment, of Popery the eighth, the Saint pro- 
ceeds as follows: — ** In regard to the reparation of 
the character of a person, i[ the fault of which be 
has been accused, is false, he who defames him is 
bound to retract. But if the fault is true, the defii- 
mation that is given ought to be looked upon in the 
most favorable light that it can be, without lying : 
let the Penitent say, for example," [by way of excuse^] 
** I was deceived, I erred. Others also admit tnat 
he can equivocate^ by saying, / lied^ since every sin 
is a lie, as the Scripture says.* Again, by an «^wt- 
vocatiojiy he may say, * I only made this up in my 
head,' since all words which proceed from the. mind 
may be said to come from the head ; since the head 
is taken for the mind." — Id. ib. N. 46. 

* Here the Saint siupasses Satan himself in quoting Scrip' 
tiin^ inasmuch as this Father of lies quoted Scripture accurately 
as to the words, but the Saint quotes, as Scripture, what is ao; 
whire to be found in Scripture. 




Awriadar Confession ^InttTuetuma to Cofnfuwuts rdaHvt to 
Priests — NunSf and habitual sinnerst (f>c. — Confeaeora the 
ruin of souls — Miscellaneous, 

The Saint now proceeds to give ConiessoTs some 
instructions relative to how they should hear the 
Confessions of Priests when they come to Confess- 
ion; for the Priests are bound, hy the- laws of their 
church, to Confess their sins as well as the people. 
Among other instructions are the folbwing:— • 

1. Vile solicitations in CoNfBssioir.-^** If 
any Confessor shall come to Confession, in regard 
to whose fitness for the office there should he a pru- 
dent doubt, let him be asked whether he has suffi- 
ciently applied himself to study, and whether he 
continues to prosecute his studies. Also let him be 
asked whether he has absolved those who were still 
continuing in the immediate occasion of sin. Let 
him be asked also if he ever solicited any of his fe- 
male Penitents to ad iurpia ; for, according 

to the Most Holy Father Bendict XIV., those who 
thus solicit their female Penitents, thereby subject 
themselves to perpetual i^icapability, which they 
thereby incur ipzo facto ; the pardoning of which is 
reserved to the Pope alone.'* — Ligor. Prax. Con£ 
N. 51. 

2. Children's Communion. — The Savol^ inx- 
thermore, continues: "Let the PamVi '?tSftsX\i^ 

aaked whisdis' his has inacnurtEii chilifreii m segiri 
to cbeir duty of pcepuing* thenuelves &r makii^ 
their Commanion 3C duf proper is^ which ia^ ovdiHU 
rily spesidn^, Saini the xge of tenta dvcItcv or Mdw 
liutheac, to chit ag!& of ^qxsbuxl For !ftvBh Prierii 
oogixt to know that Safnt Chsiiies Bsmneos cb- 
joined apoa his E^ui^ Ptiestts that they smovi.1 
UAMM TKi CMMLmmms wws hr CamsMmiam m 
u thuBf were fes tmts oiiL* Bk cfaefe aie 
Puish Ptseats wk> nefine to arfminnKrr Ae Sacnfc' 
BBHHt of the Enehaziflt cvm to chHdrei wko Ime 
armed sttweLTe Tcusof age; — asi wkj? in oite 
that thej maj abm thetrodUeof mUBMmtiamgibem!' 
—Id Ok N. 53. 

3^ Thk CoBFsano3i or BissoHl — ^Tlie Sunt 
nov insimcls CoBies»fs kov t&ef dioald act in 
hearing the Coofefiakxis of Bi&opa; i>r Biaho|)i 
also, as ¥reil as Prieats; have to Confess their tini. 
They are not obliged to ConSeas their siiis to other 
Bishopa^ as some suppose. Thej are aUowed to 
Confess them to a Priest The Saint, with other 
instmctions on this saliject, has the foUowing: — 
** Let the Bishop be interrogated in regard ta the 
example he has aet before the people; for certainly 
a Bishop is bound, in a qiecial manner, to gire good 
eiample ; otherwise how coald he rebuke his Cle^ 
gj; for instance, that they should not hare fomilaur 
igiveoarse with women, nor frequent forbidden pltr 

^^*^^ Bt disikt BanomeoB was a odrimted lUatUk 


ces of amusement ; how could they rebuke their 
C9ergy for such evils if they set them the example ?" 
—Id. ib. N. 53. 

4. The Confession of Nuns. — The Saint next 
enters upon the subject of Nuns ; and proceeds as 
follows : "When Nuns come to Confession, let the 
Confessor interrogate them, first, whether they have 
committed any fault in regard to their tows, espe- 
cially that of poverty, by receiving or giving any 
thing away without leave ? whether they have ful- 
filled the obligation of reciting the Canonical 
Hours f^ (i. e. the Breviary.) •*For the opinion 
that Nuns are not under the obligation of reciting 
the Office, (i. e. the Breviary,) in private, is not suffi- 
ciently probable, as has been shown in Lib. vi. Let 
the Confessor interrogate her, secondly, whether 
she has cherished any mtUual and dangerous be- 
nevolence towards any man ; at least, if there were 
any amorous words or letters passing between them? 
In which case, if the Nun will not desist from such 
familiarity, it is evident that the Confessor must re- 
fuse her absolution. Fourthly, let her be asked 
whether she has entertained hatred towards her Sis- 
ters. Fifthly, if the Nun exercises any office, let 
her be examined particularly in regard to that ; for 
instance, if her office is that of Rotaria^ the wheel 
turner, let her be asked if she has carried letters or 
news of a suspicious character ?• If she is poT" 

*li would have been well, if the Saint had thought of it, to 
instruct the Confeseor to ask the isHecl turutr uoXqi^i*^ ^« 


tress or doorkeeper, let the Confessor ascertain i 
has negligently kept the door unlocked, witl: 
danger of scandal of the Nuns, or of others ? I 
ia Abbess, let him enquire whether she has t 
proper care when men enter, or tarry in the ] 
nery ; or whether she has connived at new abus 
~Ib. id. N. 54. 

6. Approximate occasion of sin. — We c 
now to the subject of what, in Popery, is callei 
approximate or immediate occasion of sin. Or 
the Saint is very diffuse ; and among other Sa 
instructions, he tells the Confessor, that, " If the 
sion of sin is morally necessary ! ! that is, if it 
not be removed without scandal, or without a g 
ous detriment to life or character, or loss of g 
then, as the- Holy Doctors teach, the Peniteni 
be toell absolved without removing the occasi 
sin^ because, in such cases, he is not bound ti 
move it; provided, that he promise to follov\ 
means that are necessary to convert iheapproxi 
occasion of sin into the remote occasion." — Ic 

N. 6a 

** Hence," continues the Saint, *• the Holy 

III ■ ■ ■ — - 

bad earned letters or news of a suspicious character, but 
whether she had wheeled round into the Convent, any 
Priest of a suspicious character ; because, as we have bet 
farnMd by Rev. David Gillnier, there is a Convent in thi 
zjli^ wb«re the uhtel of which the Saint speaks, is consti 
in such a manner, that the Priests themselves get into i 
are thus introduced into the apartment of the Nuns. T 
states on the authority of bis uncle^ Joseph Ray, E^q 
AmariovK CqqmiI ta thu Brauls. 


ton teach that those persons are well eapaUe of re- 
ceifing absolation who revise to relinquish any of^ 
fice, business, or house, in which they are accus- 
tomed to commit sin, because they cannot give it up 
wkhoat a grievous detriment. Such persons may 
slways have a true disposition to amend themselves, 
and the means of accomplishing their amendment ; 
SQcli, for instance, are Parish Priests, who, in hear- 
ing the Confession of women, &11 into sin, if, by 
i^baudoning their office, they cannot live according 
to their state or calling in life."— Id. ib. N. 69. The 
^ot, however, can hardly swallow such a pill as 
this, and, in the qualms of his conscience, he ex- 
claiiQs, ** But really it is my opinion, that the Con- 
^<sttor," [in such cases,] ** is bound to defer absolu. 
tiOD ; and he can always easily do it, especially in 
ca«es of base sins."— Id. ib. N. 69. 

6. St. Lioori more holt than the rest.— 
The Saint, however, in thus opposing the gene- 
'^ty of the Holy Doctors / as he calls them, seems 
*^ be fearful of incurring censure; for, in order to 
'Otooth over the thing, he immediately adds : •* Per- 
'^ps in this, some one will think that I am too se* 
^^re; but it is. thus that I have always acted in my 
Own practice. O, that all Confessors would thus 
^t as I do ! How many sins would they escape I 
^ how many souls would they save !" — Id. ib. 

7. Distinction between habitual and re* 
Upsino sinners. — ^The Saint now enters upon a 
^jrter itt which he treats on the manner in whigh 
ConfesiBors ougbt Mfoonduct themaeVrts mV^sAxo^^ 



dieCoiifemmof thoRwbolireiii lialiitiad siiitiiii 
of those who relapse into sin. The diadnctioii the 
Saint makes between the habitual sinner, and Ummb 
who relapse into sin, is quite singa^, and so Tory 
Popish, that, in order to comprehend it, we molt 
<li8card every accnrate and ScriptnraJ notion abodt 
habitual sin, and frame our mind as well as we cut 
upon the Popish meaning of it He begins, then, as 
follows: " Habitual sinners are to be distinguishel 
from those who relapse into sin. The habitual mit 
ners are those who have contracted a habit in some 
certain sin, which they have not yet confessed— 
These, as the Holy Doctors say, can well be abeolT- 
ed the first time they make a Ck>nfession of their de- 
praved habits, provided they are disposed by a true 
sorrow, and a firm proposal of using efficaciout 
means for amendment. But if the habit is deeply 
rooted, the Confessor may even defer absolution, in 
order to try whether the Penitent is constant in ma- 
king use of the means prescribed, and that he may 
conceive a greater abhorrence in regard to the sin. 
Let it here, however, be observed, that five times in 
a month may constitute a wicked habit in any sin of 
an external nature, provided some interval intervene 
between the times when the sin is committed. And 
in the matter of fornication, sodomy, and bestialityt 
a much smaller number of times committing them 
may constitute a habit : he, for instance, who codi^ 
<iilits fornication once a month during the year, oft 

CU be said to be in the habit of sin."— Id. ib. N. 7ft. 


8. Confessors the ruin of souls. — ** Those 
are said to be relapsing sinners," continues the 
Saint, **who, after Confession, have relapsed in 
the same manner, or nearly in the same manner, 
without amendment These, according to the gen- 
eral doctrine, cannot be absolved, if they merely 
bring the ordinary signs of sorrow, to wit: if they 
only Confess their sins, saying that they repent of 
them. Therefore, such persons are to be denied ab- 
solution for some time, untti there appears a prudent 
sign of amendment. And. upon this point we have 
to deplore the ruin of souls, which is caused by so 
wiany bad Confessors, who indiscriminately absolve 
so many of these relapsing sinners, who, finding 
Confessors that always absolve them so easily, lose 
the dread of sin, and continue to rot in the sink and 
pollutions thereof even unto death." — Id. ib. N. 71. 

We come now to where the Saint himself ex- 
plains what is meant by denying absolution for 
" some time." 

9. The meaning of denying Absolution. — 
"I say," observes the Saint, "that such persons are 
to be denied absolution for some time, because it* is 
not necessary in regard to those who relapse into 
sins, whether they be light sins or grievous sins, to 
refuse them absolution during years or months, as 
Juveninus too rigidly maintains; but, as a rule, it is 
a sufficient reason for granting absolution, if the sin 
proceed from inward fragility ; in which case ab- 
solution may be given after a delay of eight or tea 
days, as says the learned author of a woiV -i^xMi^ti- 


ed in Rome, the title of which is, * Istrvzione pi» 
LI NovELLi CoNFESsoRi/ " Instructions for Nem 
Confessors, " The same thing is said by the an* 
thor of abook which is everywhere received through^ 
out Italy, the title of which is, ' Istruzione per u 
NoYELLi Confessori di Terre e Yillaooi,*" 
Instructions for New, or Young, Country and Yil 
lage Confessors. •* And they add, that to deny them 
absolution during a month, is going to an excess, 
and is dangerous ; because, after so long a time, it is 
difficult to get such Penitents to return to Confes- 
sion. This decision has received the sanction of 
the Sovereign Pontiff^ Pope Benedict XIV., in his 
Apostolical Bull, [In Bullar. t. 3 N. xix. ^ 22,] 
where, speaking of Confessors, who rightly defei 
absolution to their Penitents, he thus admonishes 
them : * Let the Confessors invite the Penitents quick* 
ly to return, that when they come back to the Tri- 
bunal of Penance, they may receive the benefit oi 
absolution.' I have said quickly. At the farthest, 
I mean that to such Penitents, absolution may be 
deferred during fifteen or twenty days. An excep. 
tion, however, is to be made in regard to those who 
come to Confession during the time when the com- 
' mahd of making the annual Easter Communion is 
obligatory ; for these Penitents, the trial of a longei 
time is required; since we may justly suspect thai 
they abstain from relapsing into sin, in order to et* 
cape the censures of the Church, rather tl^an from a 
real determination of changing their life. In M 

S7N0PSIS. 65 

^OSM, however, the trial of a month is long enough," 
—Id. ib. N. 72. 

10. Relapsing sinners are to be Absolved. — 
The Saint, still treating upon the manner in which 
Confessors ought to conduct themselves in regard 
to Penitents who are in the habit of relapsing into 
sin, continues as follows : — " If the Penitent relapses 
into sin from intrinsic fragility, as happens in the 
sins of anger, hatred, blasphemy, pollution, or filthy 
delectation, I say, according to the common senti- 
ment of the Doctors, that it is rarely expedient to 
defer absolution to him who relapses into sin, when 
he is disposed : for, the Confessor ought rather to 
suppose that the grace of the Sacrament of Penance 
will be more advantageous to the Penitent, than the 
deferring of the absolution." — Id. ib. N. 76. 

11. LiGORi's excuses for sin. — In regard to 
those who are in the habit of sin, the Saint proceeds 
as follows : — " In those who are in the habit of sin- 
ning from an intrinsic cause, the danger of violating 
their resolution of amendment is more remote than 
it is in those who relapse into sin ; while, on the 
one part, there exists no extrinsic object which so 
violently impels him to sin ; and, on the other part, 
the retaining of the evil habit is not voluntary in 
him, as it is voluntary in him not to remove the 
occaflion of sin when he can ; hence, in such a ne- 
cessity, Qod would give more aid to him who is in 
the habit of sinning; and, therefore, more hopes 
nay be entertained of his amendment by l\ve ^in^cA 
ti^8aciam&nt of Confession, than caxi\>e ex^\.^ 


from deferring Absolution; because the grace of 
the Sacrament renders him stronger, and renderr 
the means that he uses more efficacious in extirpa* 
ting^ the habit of sin. Why, then, as the Doctors of 
Salamanca have very justly observed, can the defe^ 
ring of Absolution be more advantageous to the sim 
Ber who is destitute of grace, than the granting of 
Absolution to him, by which he receives grace? 
And Cardinal Toletus, (Lib. v. C. 13,) treating ex- 
pressly on the sin of pollution, thinks, that, in order 
to avoid the said vice of pollution, there is no rem* 
edy more efficacious than often to fortify one's self 
with the Sacrament of Penance ; and he adds, that 
this Sacrament is the greatest check upon those who 
commit this sin ; and those who do not make use of 
this means, says he, cannot expect an amendmoit, 
except by a miracle. And St. Philip Nerius, as we 
read in his life, chiefly made use of the means of 
frequent Confession in respect to those who relapse 
into the above-mentioned sin. In conformity to the 
practice of this Saint is the following, taken from 
the Roman Ritual ; where, treating on the subject of 
Penance, we read — * It is of the highest utility to 
advise those who easily relapse into sin, often to come 
to Confession, and to Communion, if it be expe* 
dient' And, by saying, * those who easily relap$e} 
it is certain that it means those who have noi'pei 
broke themselves of their wicked habit There are 
some AiUhors, who seem inclined to save souls Duly 
by the way of severity ; and they say that those who 
naU^iee into aia become woxaei ii ihe^ axe obsohrad 


bifbre they amend. But I would like to know from 
these, my Masters, whether all those who relapse 
into sin, when they are dismissed without absolu- 
tion, and deprived of the grace of the Sacrament, . 
whether they all become stronger, or whether they 
an amend ?"(!!!) 

•* How many miserable sinners," continues the 
Saint, " have I not known, in the exercise of my 
(unctions on the Missions, who, being dismissed 
without absolution, have surrendered themselves up 
to vice and despair, and for years have neglected to 
come to Confession ! This, however, is also certain, 
that tho^e Confessors err who are too easy in giving 
absolution, as well as those who are too strict. 
Many Confessors, indeed, on account of being too 
easy, are the cause why so many souls are lost ; and 
it cannot be denied, that there are more of this kind 
of Confessors than of any other, and that they do 
more injury, since it is to them that the greater 
namber of habitual sinners come to Confession ; 
while other Confessors, on account of being too 
rigid, are also a great detriment to the salvation of 
soulsV (!!!) "And I know not, whether a Confes- 
sor ought to feel so much scruple when he absolves 
those who are not disposed for receiving absolution, 
and not also feel the same scruple when he dis- 
misses those without absolution, who are disposed 
to receive it." — Id. ib. N. 77. 

We have now seen what sort of Penitents, as they 
lire called, the Saint teaches ought to be Ah^oltr^d.\ 
irhal;, ihen, must we think of Priestly X\>so\viL\Aax^ 


when the Saint breaks out as follows : — ** O, tiMl 
Confessors would grant absolution to those who » 
lapse into sin, only when they give extraordinaiy 
signs of amendment 1 — But what is to be deploredt 
and what is worse than a]l, is, that the greater put 
of Confessors absolve those who relapse into mA, 
without any distinction, without uncommon signs 
of amendment, without admonition, and without any 
remedy for their correction; — this is the cause jj 
such a universal destruction of souls." — Id ib. 

We shall now hear what instructions the Saint 
gives to Confessors in regard to boys and girls^ 

13. Confession of boys and girls. — ** Witk 
boys," says the Saint, ** the Confessor ought to use 
all charity, and be as sweet in his manners as lie 
possibly can. In the first place, he -ought to ask 
them whether they know the articles of.&itbt 
If they are ignorant of them, he should instruct them 
with all patience at the time they come to Confes- 
sion, if he have time, or send them to some other 
Confessor to be instructed, at least, in respect to 
what is necessary for salvation. In the first placi^ 
he ought to be careful that they of themselves con- 
fess the sins which they remember ; after this^ 1)6 
can put the following questions to them:— p-IsL 
Whether they concealed any sin through shame t 

2. Whether they blasphemed against the Saimitt 
or Holy- Days, or whether they swore to a Ue.l 

3. Whether they omitted to hear Mass on Fesdnl 
day§, and whether they talked during Mass? AlffjL 
whether they worked on Festival days ? 4. Whetiw 


they were disobedient to their parents, &c. ? 5. 
Whether they were guilty of any foul sin ? iurpe 
feecatum. But in this matter the Confessor should 
be very cautious in his questions :* — Let him be- 
gin by interrogating them remotely, de longo, 
and in general terms : and, first, let them be 
asked, whether they said bad words? Whether 
they joked with other boys or girls, and whether 
'they joked with them in private? Then let him 
ask them whether they have committed any filthy 
sins? It is often expedient, even though they 
should answer in the negative, to suggest to them 
the following interrogatives, to wit : • But now, tell 
me how many times did you do that ? Five times, ten 
times V — Let the Confessor ask them, with whom 
they slept, and whether, while they were in bed^ 
they joked with their hands, manibus jocati fuerint 
Let the girls be asked whether they were in love 
with any young man, and whether there occurred 
any bad thoughts, words, or touches? And from 
their answers, let him proceed to more ulterior in- 
terrogations ; but let him take care not to inquire 
of boys or girls whether adfuerit seminis effusio.^ 

* So says the book; but the practice says the contrary. 
When they are locked up in the Confessional, they say what 
they choose, and they do what they choose. In the Valley of 
the West, the Confessional is the Priest's bed-room. 

t This is all sham ; and the Saint knows it to be so. They 
wAit and he knows they ask, just what they choose. The Peni- 
tent is bound, and the Saint knows he is bound, to Confess 
every eireiunstance that may agsoavate the sin ; and the Con* 
is bound, if he thinks the Penitent conceala an^ %9sc^* 

70 8YNWSIS. 

Let the boys be asked, also, whether they canriil 
news or presents from men to women? Andkt 
him ask the girls whether they rec^ved preMBU 
from persons of a suspicious character; namely, 
from married persons, from Clergymen or Monbl 
Let them be questioned respecting the Commvid- 
ments of the church, whether they have inida 
their Easter Confession and Communion 1 Aid 
whether they eat meat, or victuals cooked, wilk 
milk, on fast, or abstinence days ?" — Id. ib. N. 90. 
We come now to the Absolving of these chiidroa 
from their sins. Here we have the testimony of a 
Saint himself, in confirmation of what we advanoei 
in the pamphlet entitled ** Renunciation of Po- 
pery ;" and which the Rev. Father Yarela, who 
undertook to invalidate our statements, very confi- 
dently denied. We there observed, that ** by the dv- 
cipline of the Romish church, all the children of 
her community are to be sedulously prepared bf ' 
their respective Parish Priests, for making thetir fint 
Communion, that is, for receiving, [according to 
their doctrine,] the real body and blood of Chriat in 
the Sacrament of the Eucharist. This is generaUj 
done when they attain the age of ten or twelfo 
years ;" as the Saint himself has told us. [Whit 
will Father Varela say now?] "Hence it il,m 
every parish, that, yearly, this first Communion of 

vating circumstance, to question him respecting it TIm 
knows all this, and yet feigns to be so modest as to toegfiBOl Ml 
duty. If modesty did not forbid it, we could tell just wbtt Utt 


chilcbcen is made. I have been present at many of 
these first Communions, and know that few of the 
children who arrive at the prescribed age, are re- 
jected from a participation of the Sacrament. In some 
instances, I have seen the whole of the children in 
the parish, when of the proper age, receive the first 
Communion. I knew a Priest, who received three 
young men to their first Communion ; one of whom 
was intoxicated on the preceding eve, the other, on 
the very day, after having received, and the whole 
three, on the same day, being Sunday, were publicly 
seen galloping a-horseback from tavern to tavern, 
and whooping, more like wild savages than civilized 
beings. Now, I would ask this question : Since a 
Sacrament, even according to the Popish doctrine, 
ought to be conferred on none but those who are in 
a state of sanctifying grace ; since the absence of 
this grace, even according to this same Popish doc- 
trine, involves the receiver in the guilt of sacrilege, 
and implicates the Priest in the same sin, unless he 
be prudently assured of the worthy disposition of 
his Penitent ; I ask the question : Is it not morally 
certain that this multitude of children are not in a 
state of sanctifying grace? The fact is, can any 
one be in this holy state, * except^ as our Divine 
Lord says; * he he horn again ;' and unless * his af- 
fections are set on things ahove^ not on things on the 
earth V Christ declares that ' many are called, hut 
/ew are chosen? Here, on the contrary, all are 
called, and all are chosen." — Renun. Pop. p. 26. 
We shall now see, that, at theappioac\iol'EAS^»^* 


all the nianeTS in the church of Baum 
Saints; since, at that time, they are alloivad Iol j|ir 
ceive the Communion, which, at other tiiiiei^.||i|i 
say, would be denied them. Not only are the]^.i|ii 
that day, allowed to receive the Commipnioikv ki|i 
they are under the obligation of receiving it^ ttoAlf 
the severest Censures of their church. ...i. 

In regard, therefore, to children, the Saint speatp- 
as follows : ** If it be doubtful whether the chiU l|ii|, 
the perfect use of reason, as it would be, if daxnUj 
his Confession he would not remain compoaed^ ]|l|. 
would look about, play with his. lumds, or "mkf^.jfc- 
relevant and foolish observations; then, if heia^il|v. 
der the obligation of fulfilling the Command whi^^' 
enjoins upon all to receive the Communion at £ai|K 
er, he is to be absolved conditionally; and n^c^. 
especially is he to be absolved if he has confexwjdl 
something that is supposed to be mortal; for tha 
Sacrament can well be administered conditiaiiaU}i 
when there is a just reason for doing so ; for air 
stance, that the child may be delivered from the^ilf ^ 
of condemnation, if he has ever Men into that tMtk^. 
Moreover, even if the child relapse into sin, he oii|^, 
still to be absolved in the same mann^. The Pen^: 
ance enjoined upon these children ought to be ||» 
light as possible. The Confessor should alao tid^i 
the greatest care to impress their minds with. dMHp 
tion towards the Mother of God, and enjoin nff^^ 
them to recite the Rosary (the Beads), dailj^; «||d|| 
say tha 4v^ Manoi, the H^il Maiy.. thma l^imf 


StNOPSlfil. 73 

*Msf MBihBti itiwer me from mofiai iU P "-*-Ligor. 
Prax. Conf N. 91. 

14. Good Priesti^ are very rare. — The Saint 
now goes on to instruct Confessors how they should 
act towards those who seetn inclined to become 
Monks or Priests. Of these two states, he gives the 
preference to the former, and the reason he assigns 
CB, because ** among the PRIESTS who live in the 
WorH it is rare, and VERY RARE TO FIND 
ANY THAT ARE GOOD. Foi*, in order that 
a Priest should be good in the worlds it is necessary 
that he should lead a very elcemplary life, remote 
from plays^ froA idleness, and from evil company. 
He should be given to prayer, and should frequent 
the Sacraments ; but where ts such a Priest to 
be wovjibi and we will praise him ?'' exclaims the 
Saint I ! !— Id. ib. N. 93. 

15; The ScRUPtrtosL^^We will now penetrate 
still fiurthet into the recesses of the Confessional ; 
and, with the Saint as otir guide, and our instructor, 
W^ shall be pretty well initiated into the secrets^ at 
least, inXxy^sotfiB of the secrets of this dark Tribunal. 
Although the iron doors thereof ate locked with the 
£Leys of Peter, yet as Ligori^ one of his Successors, is 
one of the door*keepers, we will take the liberty of 
slipping in as he opens the door, to introduce the 
Holy Confessors, t have said that we shaU be in* 
trodilced into some of the secrets. The foulest, 
blackest, most complicated, diabolical, and mischiev- 
ous of them, nevet appear on paper. These are 
taughl *• suuurone voeis*^* The Serpent hi^^e^ \2q0A. 


in his dark den, only to his own progeny who ji^ 
coiled around him ; and these whisper them again 
to others. This is what they call the traditiooil 
Word of God ; it is too sacred, and too important to 
appear before the world. 

We now see, in yon dark comer of the Gonto- 
ional, something that looks like a human skeklon. 
It is one of the " Scrupulosi;" — one of the devout ;— 
one whom the *' Beast" has ridden almost to death; 
— a poor, emaciated female, who has drunk so'deep 
into the dregs of Popish mysticism, that her reason' 
« has vanished into delusion, and her ^th hanga in 
shreds upon the sleeves of her Confessor. She^hii 
now attained perfection ; — ^has renounced her wil^ 
and sacrificed her judgment. She is a mere- au- 
tomaton. The Priest touches the spring, and puili 
the wire of his authority, and the thing moves ai he 
wishes it. She is now a Saint, and when her reli- 
gious phrensy worries her soul out of its dayej 
tenement, her body will be enshrined and worship- 
ed, her soul beatified, and her name recorded for 
perpetual veneration. Miracles, however, must at- 
test her sanctity; and these will not be wanting. ' 

Let us listen to the instructions of the Saint, and 
we shall soon learn how to arrive at C&riatian pa^ 
fection. •. ■ *■ 

16. No ONE WHO 0BB78 THB P&IS8Ti "Wai 

EVER LOST. — The article that is now befora'V^* 
treats ** On the mtmner tktU the Confessor (mgMtU 
condwct himself vnth those who are SemptdomXt 
** Nev6r," aajrs he, ** has a man been lost ^vfatfrma 


obedient," (to the Priests.) "St. Philip Nerius,'* 
says the Saint, " affirms, that he who obeys his Con- 
fessor, is secure irom rendering an account to God 
for his actions." [! ! ! ] "And, on the other hand, St. 
John of the Cross, says, not to confide in what the 
Confessor dictates, is pride, and the non-observance 
of faitL Let the Confessor be careful in this, that 
the Penitent be exact in his obedience ; and if he 
do not obey, let him be severely reproved, depri- 
ved of Communion, and rigorously compelled to 
obey" [That is, let him be driven ; and they drive 
hiiBt as we have observed in the " Flight of Popery 
from Rome to the West" they drive him as a teams- 
man drives his cattle ; and the Saint, again, confirms 
what we have said.] " If they lose the anchor of 
obedience," continues the Saint, "they are sure to 
make shipwreck." — Id. ib. N. 95, 97. 

17. Cautions relative to women. — We turn 
over now to the next article, which is headed, " How 
the Confessor ought to conduct himself with persons 
who are devout" " Never," says the Saint, " should 
■ the Confessor allow women to speak of the faults [ \] 
of other Confessors, without necessity ; but he should 
rather, on the contrary, sedulously require them to ex- 
cuse any error those Confessors may have committed. 
Let not a Confessor take the charge of any person 
who wished to leave her Spiritual Director, unless 
the necessity be urgent, as we are taught by St. Philip 
Nerius, St. Francis of Sales, St. Charles Barromeo, 
and others. By allowing this, it often happens that dis- 
sipation, trouble, and sometimes even scandals arise. 


In order to allow a Penitent to change her Ckmllp^ 
or, it is not sufficient that she feel towards him toM 
abhorrence, or that she see she can no longer trwl 
to his words ; for, as St. Theresia says, this ia ciii 
a temptation of the devil,"— -Id. ib. N. 99. 

18. The DAN08RS ov Confession. — ^TheSaiil 
continues : " The Confessor ought to be extreoldf 
cautious how he hears the Confession of Wotnei^^, 
and he should particularly bear in mind what wwM 
in the Holy Congregation of Bishops, 21 JiUi. l6lQi 
* Confessors shouXi 'Mi, without rteceisibif^ keafM 
Confessions of women after dusk, or before t%riKgM! 
In regard to the prudence of a Confessor, he (rajgil^ 
in genera], rather to be rigid with young womai la 
the Confessional than bland ; neither ought lul In 
allow them to come to him before Confes^on UiWib 
verse with him; much lessjphouM ha allow QiamfD •{ 
kiss his hands, It is also imprudent for the Coil' 
£pssor to let his eyes wander after hia jbmale FbIbI- 
tents, and to gaze upon them as they are MiAhf 
from Confession. The Confessor should netetW 
ceive ptesents from his female Penitents; and 'Si • 
should be particularly carefUl not to ybit then il 
their houses, except in caise of severe ilineai^'rip 
should he visit them then, unless he be^ st^tfor/ ll 
this case he should be yery cautiotis in what* ^Mf 
ner he hears their Confessions ; therefore tlfaWf^. 
should be left open, and he should sit in lit'^lHi ! 
where he cap be seen by others, and he sfadalSlsMt 
fix'his eyes tipon the &ce of hit Penitent | 
if tbey be spiritual persons, in regard to 


danger of attraction is greater. The Venerable 
Father Serforius Capotus says, that the devil, in or- 
der to unite spiritual persons together, always makes 
use of the pretext of virtue, that, being mutually af- 
fected by these virtues, the passion may pass from 
their virtues over to their persons. Hence, says St. 
Augustin, according to St. Thomas, * Confessors, in 
bearing the Confessions of spiritual women, ought 
to be brief and rigid ; neither are they the less to be 
guarded against on account of their being holy ; for 
the more holy they are, the more they attract.' And 
he adda, * that such persons are not aware that the 
devil does not, at first, lance his poisoned arrows, 
but those only which touch but lightly, and thereby 
increase the affection. Hence it happens, that such 
persons do not conduct themselves as they did at 
first, like angels, but as if they were clothed with 
flesh. But, on the contrary, they mutually eye one 
another, and their minds are captivated with the soft 
and tender expressions which pass between them, 
and which still seem to them to proceed from the 
first fervors of their devotion : hence they soon begin 
to long for each other's company ; and thus,^ he con- 
cludes, * the spiritual devotion is converted into car- 
nal And, indeed, O, how many Priests, who be- 
fore were innocent, have, on account of these attrac- 
tions, which began in the spirit, lost both God and 
their soul !' "—Id. ib. N. 1 19. 

The Saint proceeds: "Moreover, the Confessor 
onght not to be so fond of hearing the Cotvfe«&ioTu& 
of women, as to be induced thereby to Teiuse \.o Yi^at 

76 iTTNOPSia 

the Confessions of men. O, how wretched it.iell 
see so many Confessors, who spend the greater put 
of the day in hearing the Confessions of ccitaiii ft* 
ligious women, who are called Bizocoit" (a knd d 
secular Nuns,) **and when they afterwards tee Ma 
or married women coming to Confessicm to tfaMi 
overwhelmed in the cares and troubles g[ lift^oi 
who can hardly spare time to leave their hornet or 
business, how wretched it is to see th^ Confeasoto 
dismiss them, saying, * I have something else laa^ 
tend to ; — go to some other Confessor;^ hence k hap* 
pens, that, not finding any other Confessor to whM 
to Confess, they live during months and years witlir 
out the Sacraments, and without God l"--<^d. ik 
N. 120. 


Auricular Confession — Ii%fallibiliiy — Nutu — Extra^^ \ Thti 

turn — Miscellaneous* ' " 

From what the Saint says about opinions and 
probabilities, we shall see that the infiillibilitj as 
much boasted o( is a mere speculation, a aoind 
without substance. We shall see, as has alresij 
been stated, that it is of no practical utility. Tkit 
part of the doctrine which they generally adiok k 
infallibly certain, does not embrace the one hunAwd 
thousandth part of the cases which occur in 
tice; :onsequently its practical utility it 
*f,Jike cbaff before the wind. Oa ^Vmax ^odtadiA^f 


robobilities, or "* probaHlism" as they call it, we 
ball treat hereafter. At present, we will merely 
note what the Saint says about it in the chapter 
rhich we are now about to open. 


kmfesaoi" says the Saint, ** ought to use the utmost 
mdence in his chdice of opinions. I do not here 
Hade to the question which is so much controvert- 
d, whether, in the occurrence of a more probable 
pinion, it is lawful to follow one that is less proba- 
le and less safe ? Enough has been said on this 
abject by the authors generally, and especially by 
} many learned writers, who have lately written on 
le subject, in which, indeed, we wish they had 
lUght us the truth by reason rather than by biting, 
iitting, and wrangling." — Ligor. Prax. Conf N. 

2. The inefficacy of Infallibility. — In the 
mflict of opinions, as the Saint informs us, these 
onfessors of the Infallible Church make the most 
oful and fatal blunders. They sometimes "obhge 
le Penitent to make restitution, to which he is pro- 
My not bound."— Id. ib N. 1 1 5. " If the Con- 
aaor," continues the Saint, ** commits any mistake 
I regard to the validity of a Sacrament, without 
18 fault, he is not bound, in justice, to admonish the 
'emieai of it, but only in charity, which does not 
md the Confessor, if it be of any grievous inconveni- 
ice to him, unless he be his Parish Priest." — Id. 
I. N. 116. 

3. Lax morals of the Priiist*. — T^Vie ^^vc*^ 



and the Doctors of the Romish church geMnl||;f 
admonish all Confessors to impress upon the mindp^' 
of the people the duty of rendering thanks after Goilh 
munion, during, at least, what tkne they caa Mg^itf^ 
** But there are few Directors," ohserves the Sajo^ 
" who are careful to do it, and the reason is» becauw : 
there are few Priests who themselves rematnlitf-' 
the Sacrifice of the Mass, vnih Jesus Christ, to gii« 
him thanks ; and therefore, they are ashamed to ai) 
vise others to do what they themselves do not Tbii • 
act of thanksgiving ought generally to continue do- - 
ring an hour ; it should, at least, continue duijag ^ 
half an hour.'*— Id. ib. N. 155. 

We are now about to enter with the Saint into^ 
the Monasteries among the Nuns. Miss Rebecca 
T. Reed, in her ♦* Six Months in a Convent^^^ hss 
told us something about the Nuns ; but Miss Mo^ 
fat, the Lady Abbess, tells us, that all she says is 
false. This, however, she will not dare to say of 
Saint Ligori ; therefore we will hear the Saint 

The article of the Saint from which we quotes k 
headed, " The Method of life that a Nun augkt f^- 
pursue in order to arrive at perfection.^^ . '*; 


first," observes the Saint, **in regard t(xpra3rerrlit; 
her spend, at least, three hours in mental pn^f^ 
one in the morning, another in the evening, |^ 
another after Communion. 2dly. Let her Tiait^ 
Most Holy Sacrament, and the Most Holy iblf^ 
during half an hour, or at leaA, a quarter ;. in ftfUH 
prayers, let her be caref^^iloniie'vr \itflt^^i«a«|v«l^ 


times a day. 3dly. Let her recite the Rosary, (the 
Beads,) at least five decades of them, with other vo* 
cal prayers. 4thly. Let her often use ejaculatory 
prayers. 5thly. To prayer, let her unite spiritual 
reading during half an hour ; let the reading be the 
Works of Rodriguez, or Santejurasi, or the Instruc. 
tions for the Religious, or some other book which 
treats on the virtues; or let her read the Lives of the 
Saints, the reading of which, is, perhaps, more use- 
ful than all the rest."— Id. ib. N. 156. 157. 

" In the second place," continues the Saint, ** she 
ought to receive the Communion every day in the 
week, excepting one. But in the Novenas* of the 
Holy Ghost, the Nativity of the Lord and of the 
Most Blessed Mary, and the Holy Patrons, she 
ought to receive the Communion daily ; and to com- 
municate, at least, three times a day, spiritually." — . 
Id. ib. N. 158, 

Now we shall get hold of something which they 
always deny before us Protestants. 

•• In the 3d place," says the Saint, ♦* as to morti- 
fications — 1st. Lei the Nun whip herself every day, 
during about a quarter of an hour, without drawing 
blood ; and let her whip herself twice, or, at least, 
once a month, drawing blood. 2dly. In the morn- 
ing, let her use the iron chain until dinner time ; 
but after dinner, let her wear a small one, on her 
arm. 3dly, Let her fast upon bread and water, on 
fSatmdays, and on the eves of the Seven Festivals 

• A Novena is a nine-days' pr^yeT. 

. I 

>mENOPSIS. 85 


18 fio gpreat, and such an astonishing variety of dif- 
ferent figures (images) presented, on all sides, to the 
view, that the people prefer reading upon the mar* 
ble stones, than reading in books, and to spend the 
whole day in wondering at these things, rather than 
in meditating upon the Law of God." — Bernard, 
Apol. p. 992.* The same Saint says, " The Bish- 
ops excite the devotion of a carnal minded people 
hy corporal ornamenls, because they cannot do it by 
spiritual" — Id. ib. The Saint does not mean that 
their devotion is excited by such shows, for just be- 
fore, he said, that these carnal minded people ** pre- 
ferred spending the whole day in wondering at these 
things, rather than to be meditating on the Law of 
God." He could have meant nothing else, there- 
fore, than that these splendid images were placed in 
the churches under the pretence of exciting devo- 
tion, while thei^al object was, that the " foolish peo- 
ple," (as be calls them,) "might bestow a gift." 
— Id. ib. ** O, Crux ave, spes unica !" ** Hail, O 
Cross, our only hope!" as exclaims the Romish 
churcii,in her "Breviary." Consistently enough- 
may they call it their only hope, since that .is the 
only book they need learn to read. " 7%e hope of 
the sinner shall perish,^^ says the Word of God : and 
their own St. Bernard tells us, that those who had 
thus learned to read, were " carnal minded ;" and 
the Scripture declares, that, '*^io be carnally minded 

* See '*-RKyrNciATiON op Popkry," p. 59. 


<- ^ 


it de0Uh.'*~Rom, ym. ^ Cenaeqnentfy, the taMiWiiii 
that are taaght in Popery, kill the aoiiL 

9. Mass and money m AKiNe.-^We will iioir 
accompany the Saint to the hed of the dying, and M^ 
what is to he done there* Among other gdoi' 
things, we find this item is not omitted. ** If tbi 
sick man," says the Saint, '* wishes to lee[Te aaf 
thing for the good of his sonl, let the Priest eautiott' 
him not to impose the harden of it upon his hein; 
for experience teaches, that pious legacies are haid* 
ly ever fulfilled hy heirs: hut let him rather he ei» 
horted to leave a sum of money for SaefiJUnl^ 
(meaning the Sacrifice of the Mass, that is, for Maift- 
es,) ** or for other pious toorksy* (such as haildiki|f 
churches, monasteries, &c.) — Ligor. Prax Coii£ 
N. 233. 

10. The sick sated by frayino to imaoes.-^ 
** Besides the little images of Christ ovucified, and of 
the Blessed Virgin," continues the Saint, ** which tbe 
Priest ought to be careful to place near the sickpe^ 
son, if it can be done, let him also place bef6re his 
eyes, large images of the Mother^of Qod, and ih» 
Redein^p, that the sick man, turn which way be 
will, in&Qr.ftee them, and commend himself to thent** 
—Id. ib. N. 236. 

11. Spiritual^ RoBDVRt. — "MbreoTer," stj» 
the Saint, *« let the Priest absolutely prohibit nxuftt 
the sick man's relaiivi^ft&ib coming in to hte'b^' 
lest they should be the cause of his getting ]Dta<t 
passion."— Id. ib..N. 236. 

Well may the Saint wish ttf ke^p the poor man'' 


relatives out of the room ; and well may he fear, af- 
ter the Priest has got his money for the Sacrifi- 
CB8, [!] that his friends and relations might be the 
cause of his getting into a passion. Papists in this 
country, we think, would hardly relish such a doc- 
trine as this. Let Popery, however, get the ascend- 
ancy here as it has in Italy, and Papists will be 
treated here in the same manner that they are treat- 
ed there. Let the Priests only get the power, and 
the poor Popish laic will be driven out of the sick 
room of his dying relative here, with as much arro- 
gancy of authority as he is driven out of it in Italy. 
American Papists have yet to learn what Popery is. 
Having opened, as we said, a Popish school in the 
^ Dotonfall of Babylon" if they will come to this 
school, they will learn much more than by reading 
images and Crucifixes. They will learn the folly 
of following blind Guides ; the wickedness of pray- 
ing to images and Saints ; they will be taught what 
Priestcraft is, and many other iiseful lessons, that all 
the images in the world, Popish or Pagan, could 
never teach them. The ** image tells them" so says 
the Saint, that **it is their book;" but we would 
teach them, that the Bible is their book. The 
Priest tells them to commend themselves to God, 
through the merits of the Lordess Mary, their Di- 
vine Mother, but we would teach them from the 
Word of God, that there is no merit in any crea- 
ture ; that there is but *' one Lord" even the Lord 
Jesus Christ; and, but one Divinity, the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost. ''No out" sa^^a \\v^ ^tv^ 



ture, " can by any means redeem hit brother^ norgim 
to God a ransom for him.^^ — Ps. xlix. " All owr 
righteousMsses,^* sap the prophet, *• are as fiUKf 
rags." — Isa. Ixiv. 6. "* I am the Lord thy God!* 
says the Almighty. — ^Exod. xx. 2. Scripture IIO" 
nvhere speaks of a woman as being Lord or Lordem 
The thing is altogether Popish and idolatrottt; 
wicked and blasphemous. ^'' There is dne Spifiii 
ONE Lord, one God and Father of all" — Eph. ir. 4^ 
5,6. But if Mary is Lord, then there are two Lordt 
If Mary is the Mother of Grod, there are two Gi>ds, it 
she is the Mother of God, she is the Mother of the 
Spirit of God, and there are two Spirits, If she is t!ke 
Mother of the three Divine Persons, she is the M6tfc* 
er of the Deity. The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
are then her children ; and Mary is just what the 
church of Rome has styled her, '^Reoinacoblorun" 
** The Queen of heaven." — Brev. Rom. Offic. B.Virg. 
12. Death of the Papist on the gallows. — 
From the death-bed scene, we will now go with the 
Saint to the gallows, and witness the last end of the 
dying Papist there. •* With those persons," says 
the Saint, ** the Confessor ought to use the greatest 
charity and patience. When the Confessor first vis- 
its the culprit, he ought to intimate to hinj, that that 
death [of being hanged] is a gift of God, who wishes 
to save him. Let him tell him that we are all 
soon -to leave this world, to arrive at that eternity 
which has no end. Hence let him speak to hSoi 
about the happy life of the blessed, and the miMf 
of the damned Then let him exhort him to thank' 


God, who has been waiting for him even to this 
^, and who had not permitted him to die at the 
^ when he was in sin. Let the Confessor then 
comfort him by saying, that, by accepting death on 
>ccoQntof his sins, he would be certain of salvation, 
^ would be saved with great merits on account of 
which he would be recompensed in heaven with a 
^veat reward. Let it then be intimated to him, that 
lie should freely confess all his sins. After being 
^Ived, let the Confessor be careful that he receive 
^e Communion several times, admonishing him, at 
^e same time, to commend himself frequently" [not 
to God, but] " to the Mother of God, in order that 
she may obtain for him a happy death. While the 
criminal is being led from prison to the gallows, let 
"^^ Confessor say to him, * Be of good courage, m}*" 
^D •' follow Jesus Christ, who has gope before you 
to Calvary to-suffer for you a death much more bit- 
tor than yours.' When he has arrived at the place 
^f execution, let the Confessor reconcile him again, 
^d absolve him, and admonish him to gain some 
^^ulgence ; then let him^ be addressed as follows: 

*Be of good courage, N , you are now in the 

?Rice of God :* the gates of heaven are thrown open 
to you: Jesus and Mary stand there waiting for 
you.' When the cap is placed over the eyes of the 
criminal, and he has ascended the scaffold, let the 

* Mark well the bearing of this expression, " You are noto in 
^ grace of Ood ;" that is, having received of the Priest Abso- 
hflSon. In Popery, the people are taught, and believe, that to 
neeive Absolution, 'w to receire, and to be in the gnieft ol C^o\. 



ConfefBor address him thus: *My soil, call vpoa' 
the Virgin Mary, to assist yoa. After he has gist' 
upon the step, let the Confessor say, ' Behold Jesds' 
Christ, with extended arms, is now Twting to em- 
brace yoa.' * God of my son], thou callest me^ l» 
hold i come ! Mary, Virgin, help me 1 Lord, vM' 
thy hands I commend my spirit. Jesus, and Msiy, 
Jesus, Mary, Joseph V " — Ligor. Prax. Conf N. IW. 
We have lately had an example of this doctrioo 
put to practice, in the case of the pirates who were 
hanged last spring, in Boston, '* Spaniards*" ei* 
claimed the Confessor, as they were about to be 
launched into eternity, "ascend into heaven!" 

13. Persons under temptation. — The Saint 
now instructs the Confessors how they should con- 
duct themselves in regard to those who are under 
temptation. ** The principal remedies against temp- 
tations," says the Saint, '• are often to call upon the 
names of Jesus and Mary, and to fortify one's self 
with the sign of the Cross, (t) In regard, however, 
to some special artifices of the devil, it is here 
proper to make some observations :" 

14. I believe what Holy Mother BELisvia 
-^*And 1st. Against the temptations of faith t by 
this terrible temptation, those are particularly agita- 
ted, who, while they led an abandoned h9k, ndheni. 
too much to themselves and their own judgment; 
esp&cially if they were learned men. Here let it 
be sedulously remarked, that if the devil has sog^ 
gested any thing to them that is doubtful or scdblfc 
in regAti to &ith, they should, with a firm 


answer him in general terms, as follows : * / 
, Mine tohai the Holy Mother Church believes, who 
kUetes and Confesses the truth.* And let the Priest 
exhort the sick man that he render the highest 
thanks to God for having vouchsafed to receive him 
into the bosom of the Church, even from the cradle ; 
«nd, therefore, let him declare that he will persevere 
to the end of his life in that same faitf — lb. id. 
N;237, 238. 

15. God's daughter Mart. — Amongst other 
inoiiTes of faith, the Saint places that of the " inter- 
fusion of the Saints, and especially of the Mother 
^f Qod, whom Grod wishes," says he, *'that we, 
^ththe whole Church, should salute as our refuge, 
^^ life, and our hope ; and that we should say to 
*^i 'Refuge of sinners, pray for us: we hail thee, 
^^r life and our hope !* [sfes nostra salve !] Hence 
tie Blessed Virgin is styled by Blosius, • The Hope 
^^ those who are in despair ;' and by St. Ephraim, 
' The Helper of the destitute.' The same Mother 
of God revealed to St. Birgitta, that as a mother, 
seeing her son surrounded by enemies, and in dan- 
ger from their swords, rushes amongst them un- 
daunted, and rescues him from danger, so does the 
Mother of God protect those who are devout towards 
her, and commend themselves to her when they are 
razed by devils. Moreover, said the same Saint, 
when a sinner comes to the Mother of Grod, she 
ices not regard his merits, but the intention with 
vhich he comes to her.' And GOD himself reveal- 
id to Sfc Catharine of Sienna, that HE. Viaii^t«!oX^^ 


to HIS DAUGHTER MART, that aky bivim 
SOEVER who should have recourse to HER, ahonli 
by no means fall into the hands of the deiriL"[l i !]-f ■ 
Id. ib. N. 244. 

16. Bearing pain the most perfect woRK.rr 
The Saint says, (quoting St. Bonav^ture.) "* Thit 
to bear pains patiently, is the most perfect of aU 
works." And to prove it, he adulterates- the Word 
of God, and quotes from St. James as follows : ** Ft- 
tience— has a perfect work,— "instead of *'LetpaHeiui 
have her perfect work." — James i 4. Even taking 
the teict according to the shape in which they have 
put it, it signifies widely difierent from, " To beur 
pains patiently, is the most perfect of all works." 
*'It is thus," continues the Saint, "that God treat! 
his friends in this life, since the Cross is the molt 
certain sign of our predestination. The DwitU 
Mother, on a certain day, addressed St. Birgitta in 
her sickness, in the following words: * Do you 
know why your infirmities are protracted so long? 
It is because I and my Son love you so much.' "— 
Id. ib. N. 246. 

17. Efficacy of the Sacraments. — "Lettbe 
sick man," says the Saint, ** be exhorted to thank 
God for not having permitted him to die when be 
was in sin ; and for having pow prepared him te 
death, by fortifying "him with the Sacraments."— ^UL 
ib. N. 249. 

18. Mart THE hope of sinners. — AmongoAfc 
er motives and affections to be suggested to the jmIv, 
the Si^nt specifies the following : '* lHary, my Bfallir 

S7N0PSIS. 93 

, save me ! have mercy on me ! — Hail, our Hope! 
•To thy protection we fly for succor, Holy Mother 
God I — O, Mary, grant me sorrow for my sins; 
ant me the pardon of them, and perseverance to 
9 end ! — O, Mary, draw me wholly to God ! — ^My 
other, I love thee much ; I desire to come to hea- 
n, to love thee forever. O, Mary, when shall I 
me and see myself at the feet of that Mother who 
8 loved me, and helped me so much!'* — Id. ib. 

19. Sick Priests and Nuns. — To sick Priests, 
dnks, and Nuns, the Saint suggests, among other 
Actions, the following : " Hail, our Life, our 
/eetness, and our Hope ! — Mary, Mother of grace, 
other of mercy, protect us from the enemy, and, 
the hour of death receive us. — O, thou Salvation 
those who call upon theel [S. Bonaventure."] — 
. ib. N. 263. 

We come now to the instructions the Saint gives 
regard to the last Sacraments, by which is meant 
)nfession. Communion, (or the Viaticum, as it is 
lied when administered to the sick, not fasting,) 
d Extreme Unction, or the anointing them with 
oly Oil. 

20. Can be saved dying in the act of sin. 
-Tbe Saint says, that " a dying person who is de- 
lved of his senses, CAN RIGHTLY BE AB- 
3LVED, at least, conditionally, [which is the 
fer,] provided it is evident that the sick man de- 
red Absolution, and showed signs of Penance, or 
he called for a Confessor ; and this is to be uudet^ 


stood, even if the dying man loses his semes Df 
THE ACT OF SIN.'» Ligori derives thisshod^ \ 
ing doctrine, as he tells us, from the authority of iki 
Infallible *' Decree of the Sovereign Pontif[| Bm 
diet XIV.," [Lib. ciL N. 553,1 and the PopegnMttdi 
the doctrine, as Ligori states, ** upon the aathoiilf 
of St Augustin, and upon the reasons he 'advanecli^ 
—Id. ib. 264. . 1 

21. Cruel Holt Mother. — The foUowuif il' 
horrible, and shows what a tender mother, JSMjr 
Mother is. ** If the sick patient wiU not conte 
after the third day," says the Saint, '* notwithatnC 
ing his being warned of the danger of death, the bflU 
thing the Priest can do, according to the Boll of fit 
Pius y., is to visit him no more. If) however, the 
patient still continue stubborn, the physician can 
then undertake his cure again." — Id. ib. • * » 

In regard to . the Communion, or Viaticum, •!! 
can receive it who will Confess to the Priest. Con- 
fession to the Priest implies rep^itance, grace, and 

22. Extreme Unction the crown of lifs.— 
** Extreme unction," says the Saint, ** is the. last Sir 
crament, and, as St. Thomas calls it, is the croim 
of the spiritual life: fortified with this, the sick nan 
is prepared to enter into heaven. John Erokhs- 
relates that a revelation was made from hevMl^' 
concerning a certain man who had died, that U, pMk-' 
vious to his death, he had received the Extiai|S 
Unction, he would immediately have recove:tad;Ul 
hecanae he deferred it, he died, and was condembl 


ID the fire of Purgatory during a hundred years. 
Extreme Unction remits the sins that still remain^ 
and, consequently, even the mortal sins that have 
been hid, as St. Thomas" ( Aquin) •• teaches." — Id 
ih. N. 274. 

23. Anointing the loins of women. — Pa- 
pistS) at least, the common people, pertinaciously 
maintain, that the sick are not anointed on the loins. 
In conversing with them, I have sometimes asked 
them, *• But, my friend, if your Priests are so pure 
and holy, and if your church does not wish to ex- 
pose them to unnecessary danger in regard to that 
BO much vaunted virtue of purity, how does it hap- 
pen, that, by the discipline of your church, women 
are to be anointed by the Priests, on their loins ?" 
This question they seem to take as an insult. The 
very law of nature has stamped upon their minds, 
that the thing is wrong ; and belonging to the InfaU 
lible Church, they cannot believe the fact. They 
are taught that their church cannot err, and they 
believe it. They know that for a Priest to anoint 
the loins of women, is unnecessary, immodest, and 
wrong; therefore, they cannot believe that their 
church ever enjoined it. If we show them that therr 
church has enjoined it, what a predicament will 
her Infellibility be found in ! They acknowledge 
:hat the thing is unnecessary, immodest, and wrong; 
iierefore, in clinging for salvation to the rotten 
;runk of Infallibility, they are clinging to what is 
pvrong, and to what, if they would speak the truth, 
ind be consistent, *hey would acknowledge is wxo^^. 


We will now let their own Saint, Ligori, settb 
the question, and their own " Rituale Romandii,'' 
their own '' Roinan RiiiuiV^ This Roman Ritual 
is a compendium of some, and of the most i?npori4uU 
rites of the Romish church. It is entitled the Bo* 
man Ritual, because it was first published at Rome^ 
because it treats on the rites of the Romish chuiclit 
and because it is published by the authority of tUt 
church, to direct the Priesthood throughout tb« 
world in the proper and lawful administratioa 
of the Sacraments, rites, and ceremonies of that 

Speaking of the anointing of the sick, the Sais^ 
says, '* Unctio renum in mulieribus et etiam in vi* 
ris, quando infirmus (ut Ritualis monet) commode 
moveri non potest, relinquiturJ^ ** The anointing 
of the loins in women, and even in men, when ih4 
sick person cannot conveniently be. moved, is to b< 
omitted." Mark the expression, ** It is to be omit 
ted only when the sick person cannot conveniently 
be moved." Many sick persons can convenientlj 
be moved ; therefore, at least, ma7iy sick women an 
to he anointed on the loins by the Priests^ Whal 
will our Popish neighbors say to all this? Thej 
accuse us of calumny and falsehood ; will they ac- 
cuse their Saint, their Roman Ritual, and theii 
church of the same? If they are consistent, they 
will have to do it. Then, what follows ? Theii 
Infallible Mother is a liar, and the Mother offies. 
In this character she stands inclose connexion with 


the devil, who is represented bs^*A liar^ arid the 
father of il"— John viii. 44.— Id. ib. N. 275. 

" Renum" which is the word used in the Ro- 
man Ritual, signifies the reins or loins. The 
place on which the anointing is performed, is in 
the region of th^ kidneys, and near the hips. The 
parts of the body which are anointed, are the eyes, 
the mouth, the ears, the nose, the hands, the feet, and 
the loins. At the anointing of each of these differ- 
ent parts of the body, the Priest says, " Per istam 
sanetam unctionem, &c. — By this Holy Unction, 
and by his most pious mercy, may God pardon thee 
whatsoever feult thou hast committed by," [here 
he mentions the function of the particular part he is 
anointing ;] for instance, if it be the eyes, it will 
then be, ** whatsoever sins thou hast committed by 
the sight." If it be the mouth, it will be, ** what- 
soever sins thou hast committed by eating or talk- 
ing." So of the rest : and if it be the loins, it will 
be, ** whatsoever sins thou hast committed against 
chastity ; per delectationem lumborum." 

It is true that this latter part of the Sacrament 
[!] is omitted in the United States. But why is it 
omitted ? Because the Light of the glorious Gospel 
of Christ shines too bright in this Protestant coun- 
try, for all the dark deeds of Popery to be practis- 
ed with impunity. It has ever been the policy of 
the church of Rome to stoop, to bend, to cringe, 
to dissemble, to forbear, to conceal, to smile, and 
to boar, when the tide of popular opinion was 

against her. So flagrant an outrage upoTvmo^^'8^.^^ 



aB a Priest's apointing the loins of women, woqU 
be treated in the United States with the disdaia 
which it merits. Of this, the Romish Hierarchy 
are fully aware ; therefore, rather than incur tfM 
just execration of an enlightened nation, they an 
constrained, and are willing to mutilate what thejf 
regard as a Sacrament, and one too, of the kit 
importance. For the same reason, also, it ia now 
omitted in Ireland. But what kind of a religioot 
what kind of an Infallible Church is this, that^ caa 
tear away one of the very main limbs of a Sacim* 
ment, for the sake of popularity ? — ^For the sake rf 
popularity, the poor dying Papist, in the United 
States, must be-depriv^ of the grace, and of all the 
advantages of those Holy Prayers which acconi' 
pany each different anointing! — He must, there' 
fore, be tormented in Purgatory, probaUy for 
thousands of years, because the Priests, intimidated 
by human respect, and influenced by interested 
motives, would not anoint a certain part, and offer 
up the prayers of the Church ! for obtaining the 
pardon of the sins committed by that part I A ten- 
der mother, indeed 1 1 

24. How THE DYING Papist is SAVED. — The 
Saint now enters into further particulars relative 10 
what is to be attended to, in order that the expiring 
patient may be thoroughly prepared for his de|aife- 
ure into the world of spirits. ** When the sick maa,? 
says he, '*is in his last agony« let the Priest, with 
the usual auxiliaries of the Church, aid him as muck 
as he can. 1st. Let him frequently sprinkle the akk 


man with Holy Water, especially if he is worried 
with temptations of thje devil; saying, at the same 
time, 'Let God arise, and disperse his enemies.' 
2dly. Let him fortify him with the sign of the Cross, 
(t) saying: * God the Father, who created thee, bless 
thee; God the Son, who redeemed thee, bless thee; 
Gk)d the Holy Ghost, who has sanctified thee, bless 
thee.' 3dly. Let him often present him with an 
image of the Saviour, and of Mary, to kiss. 4thly. 
Let him be careful that the sick man gain all the In- 
dulgences that he can, and, especially, let him receive 
Benedict the XIYth's Benediction in the article pf 
death, with the Plenary Indulgences which are at- 
tached to it. 5thly. Let him suggest to him some 
act of contrition, &c. 6thly. Let him not neglect 
that he often invoke the most holy names Jesus and 
Mary; and let him often say the prayer, »Mary, Mo- 
ther of grace,' &c. 7thly. At the time of his agony, 
let the bystanders often say *the Litanies of the Most 
Holy Virgin for the sick.' It will be of advantage 
also to have the bells rung, that all may know that 
the sick man is about expiring, and that they may 
pray for him; which, at the same time, will also aid 
those who are well. 8thly. Let the Priest recite the 
prayers of the Church for him. 9thly. Let him not 
to\ich his hands and feet too often to see if they are 
growing cold. lOthly. When the patient is about 
expiring, let the Priest hand him a Holy Candle, 
that he may hold it, and thus profess that he dies in 
the faith."— Id. ib. N. 276. 




Auricular Confession — Attrition— CorUriiion — Tlu firmrf 


1. Thb Sacrament of Pbnancb. — The impoitr 
ance of presenting the subject of Auricular Qmftt 
sum in full view before the public, is such, that we 
have to pursue it still further. It is every-how im: 
portant. Important, as it respects society at large) 
and important, in respect to every individualin. so- 
ciety. It is important to society at large, because the 
Confessional is a tribunal where the Romish Priest- 


hood instil into the minds of their Penitents, princi- 
ples which are subversive of our free Institutions, 
and where they inculcate a system of morality cal- 
culated to defile the whole country. It is important 
that every individual, man, woman, and child, should 
know what is passing on in this dark and hidden re- 
cess, wh^re the Priest and the Penitent are lockei 
up together, by what they call the Keys of Peter; 
and where every thing that transpires is bound op 
in inviolable secrecy under the ** Secul,^^ as they call, 
it, "0/ Confession :^^ it is of importance that these 
should know it, in order that they may be fortified 
against the danger of being seduced over to Popery, 
by the plausible arguments and winning address of 
the Popish Clergy; and it is of especial importance 
that every female should be informed upon Urn mi^ 


ject, since it is upon these that the Spiritual Hawks 
of Rome have fixed their keenest eye. It is in order to 
accomplish this end, that they are establishing their 
Nunneries and Sisterhoods, and private schools, over 
the whole &ce of our country. The jaws of the 
^DragorC^ are open; the Aoeime to Hell gapes 
wide, and Protestants ! throw their daughters in, be- 
cause the exterior of the rottenness is white-washed, 
and perfumed with incense. 

No pains are spared to render these Asylums 
captivating to the mind. Flowery gardens, shady 
walks, cool and sequestered retreats, birds, and ani- 
mals of various sorts, chapels and oratories of splen- 
did magnificence, all salute the eye or ear with rav- 
ishment. Here, the spft music of the flute, touched 
by the Saintly lips of some Reverend Father, gently 
quivers through the surrounding foliage, and mingles 
its melody with the vesperal anthems of the Nuns. 
The scene is solemnized by the moon, whose gentle 
li^ht sheds just enough of lustre to mitigate the rigors 
of the mid-day sun, and to banish the horrors of the 
night. All is invjting, — all is soothing, — all cal- 
culated to Reduce. This is the exterior. — Let us 
now enter again into the interior; — and, having a 
Saint for our guide, we shall not mistake our way. 

We will now follow him through the *' Sacra- 
meniof Penance.^^ It is a dark place, — a mysterious 
maze, — ^but,with such a brilliant light as St. Ligori, 
all things will be made clear, clear enough to show 
ns that the Confessional, as has been stated, is the 
avsnue to heU. 


2. The form of Penance. — "The/orwofAi 
Saci^ment of Penance is, Ego te nbsolvo a peee^ 
tuis — I absolve thee from thy sins. The prayen 
that precede and follow the form, for instance, tlie 
* May the Omnipotent God have mercy on thett ^c! 
which, according to the Council of Trent are praise- 
worthily added, are, however, not neceesaryjaodfor 
a reasonable cause may be omitted ; for instance, if 
the Confessions be short, or if there be many peraom 
to confess." — Ligor. Lib. yi. N. 425. 

3. Priests the ruin cf their people.-*— ^ I 
do not doubt," says St. Ligori, " that the greatest 
damage the Church has ever sustained, has been by 
Confessors who are too indulgent, since the greater 
part of men are prone to sin : on the other hand, too^ 
no small obstacles are thrown in the way of the sal- 
vation of souls by Confessors being too rigid; since 
such a course terrifies the Penitent to such a degree^ 
that he either conceals his sins, or, throwing off the 
galling yoke of Penance, rushes, with loose reins, 
headlong down, and miserably perishes in the sink 
of iniquity."— Id. ib. N. 426. 

4. The Priest alone pardons sin. — "Many 
grave authors," says the Saint, ** maintain that the 
Church in former days, made use of the deprecaU' 
rial form* in giving Absolution, (Absolvat te Denu,) 
and that this form was in use even to the middle of 
the thirteenth century, and that it is the form still 
used among the Greeks even to the present day* 

* Deprecatorial /otyh, that is, a form in which the Piiisl 
prayed that Qod would Absolve the nxiiiec/^ AbMl««t U 0^.' 


But Baronius, Gonet, and others, deny it. It is 
also generally denied by our Moral Theologians, 
Suarez, Soto, and many others, who think that the 
deprecatorial form of Absolution is invalid, because 
Christ the Lord, when he instituted this Sacrament, 
(John XX.) expressly declared that the sentence was 
to be pronounced by the Priest as Judge, saying, 
* Whosesoever sins you remits they are remitted unto 
them.^ Hence it seems clear that the sins should be 
remitted by Priests as the Vicars of Christ; neither 
is it sufficient that they should pray to Gk)d that he 
would remit them.* Be this, however, as it may, 
it is now? certain, and is an article of faith, that the pro- 
per form is indicative: I, the Priest, Absolve thee." 
—Id. ib. N. 430. 

The following paragraph shows who are worthy 
of Absolution conditionally. 

5. Conditional Absolution. — "A sinner," 
says Ligori, *' who relapses into mortal sins, can- 
not be absolved conditionally, unless he is proved 
to be disposed for it by the extraordinary signSy\ 
except in the following cases, to wit: except he be 
in danger of death, or except the Confessor enter- 
tain a prudent fear that the sinner will not return 

♦ It if not even necessary that they should pray unto Grod at 
all thdt he would remit the sins, as the Saint has just told us 
in the preceding paragraph^ 2d. 

t The extraordinary aigns^ as we shall hereafter see, do not 
consist in an amendment of life ; but merely in the Confessing 
of the sins, showing some outward marks of sorrow, such as 
striking the breast, shedding some tears, and ptomlcmf^ t^ ^i- 
tea the Pauacea eajoinetL 


again to Confession, and thus rot in his sins ] )Biee|t 
also boys, and those who are partially idiots, thsn 
probably can be absolved conditionally, when dw 
Confessor is doubtful of their l)eing properly dii* 
posed. But if they be in danger of death, or if the 
obligation of making the Easter Coramunicm be 
at hand, it is then the common sentiment of the Doc- 
tors, that such boys are to be absolved conditionally, 
even if the Confessor is doubtful of their being prop- 
erly disposed; and especially are they to be absol- 
ved if they have confessed something doubtfully iM> 
tal, * in which case,' says Lug, * there seems to be no 
doubt but that they are to be absolved.' And thia^" 
says Ligori, ** I hold to be true, that they ought to 
be absolved even though there be no danger of 
death, and no obligation of making the Easter Com- 
munion ; for in such a case, it is not only useful to 
absolve them lest they be deprived of the grace of 
the Sacrament, but it is even necessary that they 
should be absolved, lest they should continue in 
mortal sin." — Id. ib. N. 432. 

6. Habitual sin no mark of want of OoH- 
TRiTioN. — " To return often to Confusion with the 
same mortal sin, is not a certain mark of the want 
of attrition."— Id. ib. N. 433. 

7. LiGORi's scRXjFLEs. — ** Vivaldus, f(nd John 
Sancius, teach that a Penitent can be absolved fioffi 
his sins as ofien as he confesses them, although 
there be no appearance of amendment of life; be- , 
,caus» thcr« may be a real Resolution of ninriidipi^ I 
without any amendment, as \« \.V\& <»»^^UldkiHo ff 

sYNOPsia 105 

ho always confess the same venial sins. But this, 
dare not approve of" exclaims St. Ligori. — Id. ib. 

8. Sorrow of the head and not of the 
BART IS SUFFICIENT. — " A Sensible sorrow for sin 
not required ; an intellectual sorrow is sufficient'' 
-Id. ib. 

9. Contrition not required. — " In order to 
sceive the Sacrament of Penance rightly, perfect 
>ntrition in the Penitent is not required, but it is 
ifficient if he have attrition." — Id. ib. N. 440. 
*he Saint proves this in his exposition of the 4th 
iiapter of 14th Session of the Council of Trent: — 
L ib. 

10. Importance of Absolutioi?. — The Saint, 
1 an elaborate and lengthy ratiocination, shows that 
Urition for sin, even although it be accompanied 
ith the sincere desire of Confessing the sin, and 
ibjecting it to what they call the Keys of the Church, 
I xK)t sufficient for the obtaining of God's pardon, 
nless the Penitent actually do Confess it to a Priest, 
nd receive his Absolution ; and he declares, on the 
uthority of Popes Julian and Celestine, that a Priest 
rho denies Absolution to a dying man who begs it 
f bim, is the cause of his damnation. — Id. ib. N. 440. 

11. Attrition. — We shall see, now, from the 
freat St. Ligori, what is meant by attrition ; that is, 
i^bat is meant by being properly disposed for receiv- 
Qg the Popish Sacramental Absolution. 

He begins with the interrogation, "Ought the act 
f sorrow or attrition to precede, not only the Abso- 
ution which the Priest pronounces over iViePexvvV^Tft.^ 

106 STNOPSia 

but even the Ck)nfe88ion that is made to him)" — ^Hb 
answers, **that one opinion affirms that it ougliti" 
and this, the Saint observes, is maintained by aefvitl 
Divines whom he names. " Another opinion," mji 
he, "and which is the more common, is, fhattke 
sorrow or attrition for sin need not precede the Con- 
fession of if' [to the PriestJ " and this opinion," the 
Saint says, "is sanctioned by the Roman Ritual, ii 
Sacram. Pcsnit, which sajrs: * After the ConfesBor 
has heard the Confession of the Penitent, let him 
strive to lead him to sorrow by efficacious woidi^ 
&c.' " — Id. ib. N. 445. The Saint mentions aooie 
Divines who require nothing els^ than "that the 
Confession should not be a mere disclosure of the 
sins, but that it should be an accusation of one's self 
for the obtaining of Absolution : they a^d, moreora, 
that, in order that the Confession should be Sacnh 
mental, it is necessary that the sorrow, which is had 
after the disclosure of the sins, should be made maft- 
ifest by some sign, at least, by humbling one's self 
before the Priest, and by asking, or waiting for Ab- 
solution. Such a sign relative to the sins just Con- 
fessed, constitutes a true Sacramental accusation. 
To this end," continues the Saint^ " it is suflkiettt 
if the Confession be made with a view of obtaining 
Absolution, and that then, the sorrow or attrition be 
manifest, at least, by asking, or waiting for Absohh 
tion : this constitutes well Sacramental Confessioo.* 
— 1(1. ib. N. 445. 'The Saint observes, '» there am 
ibome Divines, those of Salamanca, who add, in f^ 
gard to the above, that Coufessors are wont, in** 


der to pacify the scruples of conscience which arise 
from being doubtful of the internal disposition of the 
Penitent, to excite him to sorrow for the sins he has 
JQSt confessed/' and that **this is ejected if the Pen- 
itent say, * I am sorry for the sins I have confessed, 
and I accuse myself of them.' " — Id. ib. 

12. Inconsistency of infallibility. — "To 
Confess venial sins without any sorrow for them," 
says the Saint, "constitutes a mortal sin," — Id. 
ib. N. 449. " But it is no mortal sin, and no sin at 
all, not to confess them."- — Id. ib. N. 425. Dens, de 
Peccat. N. 169. 

13. Fear and not love actuates the Peni- 
tent. — "Experience teaches," says the Saint, "that 
Penitents, after they have been absolved, generally 
neglect to use the remedies prescribed, and thus they 
easily relapse again. But when, on the contrary. 
Absolution is denied them, they are more careful to 
follow the prescriptions that are given them, and to 
resist temptations, being moved by fear lest when 
they return to Confession, they will be dismissed 
again without Absolution.^^ — Ligor. Lib. 6. N. 456. 

14. Confession to a Priest is a sign of Con- 
trition. — " An habitual sinner," says- the Saint, 
"can be well absolved the first time he comes to 
Cimfession, even although there should be no amend- 
n^eot in his life previous to his coming to Confession, 
provided he seriously proposes to amend his life. 
The reason is," continues the Saint, " because such 
t Penitent, in one respect, is not to be presumed to 
ke 80 wicked as to wish to approach iTae ^ac.i^Asi^xwX 


indisposed ; therefore the confessing' of his sins to t 
Priest, is a sufficient presumption in fiivor of his be- 
ing properly disposed for receiving Absolution, since 
less there be some positive presumption to the eoB- 
trary; for all agree that sorrow is manifested by 
Confession. To object that the same depraved hib- 
it is a sign of not being properly disposed for re- 
ceiving Absolution, is futile, and of no weight; iir 
although a depraved habit renders a sinner moreiB- 
clined to si^, it is not, however, a sufficient presmnp- 
tion of the infirmity of his will Let us not finfat 
what is taught by the Roman Catechism, de PttniL 
N. 60. ' If/ says the Catechism, * after the Prieit 
has heard the Confession of the Penitent, he judge 
that there was not an entire and total want of dili- 
I gence in the enumeration of his sins, and an entiie 
and total want of sorrow in him, he can be absoloeiP 
—Id. ib. N. 459. 

15 Change of heart not necessary roB 
Absolution. — " A sufficient disposition for Abeo- 
lution" says the Saint, **is a present sorrow-snd 
proposal of amendment, not a futwre (HnendrnMi 
hence the Penitent can be absolved, although tte 
Confessor judge that he will relapse again."-^U. A. 
" It is rarely expedient to defer Absolution, whsBik^ 
Penitent is properly disposed to receive it"«-Jd. A* 

N, 463. 



uticular Canftswrn — AbsohtHon — Canonical Penance* — 
HabUiuU sinners — J^Racellaneous, 

1. Habitual 8INNSR9 are to bs Absolved. — 
^he Saiot now enters into im elaborate discussion 
elative to habitual sinners ; and he undertakes to 
iiove» upon the authority of Pope Bendict XIY., 
he Roman Ritual, St. Thomas Aquin, and a host of 
ther Divines, that habitual sinners ought to be Ab- 
olved, although they still continue in their depraved 
labits \- and the reason he gives, is, because the ad- 
antages which they derive from the Priest's Absol* 
ing them, far exceeds any advantage that might 
therwise be expected from deferring the Abso- 
ttUon fbi the sake of waiting for an amendment 
f their livea In confirmation of this doctrine, the 
laint adduces the following from the angelical St 
Thomas, q. 25, a. 1, and 4, where he says, ** That 
he grace, [of the Sacrament of Penance,] affords a 
rreater remedy against sin, than the putting of our 
¥orks to trial :" and the Saint asks, with the Di- 
vines of Salamanca, ** Why are we to have more 
aope of a sinner who has no grace, on account of 
lis not being absolved by a Priest, than of a person 
who is constituted a friend of Grod, in consequence 
of having received Absolution. And especially,'' 
continues he, quoting from Tol^us, *^iat^V^\.VA 


110 STNQPSia 

the sin of pollution ; in regard to which I thial^ 
there is hardly a more efficacious remedy than 6b- 
quent Confession ; for this Sacrament is the gretteit 
of all checks against this sin \ and whoever does 
not use it, cannot expect an amendment of his lifi^ 
except by a miracle. The Roman Ritual," coofiii- 
ues the Saint, " when it says that frequent ConfenioD 
is the most useful thing for those who easily rehpie 
into sin, takes it for granted that the depraved bsM 
is not yet overcome by the Penitent; yet notwidh 
standing this, it teaches that the grace of the Sacn- 
ment of Penanc^ availeth much towards an amend- 
ment of life.'*— Ligor. Lib. vi. N. 463, 464. 

2. Priests the ruin or souls. — *' There -am 
certain rigid Divines,'' continues the Saint, ** who 
have no other way of conducting souls than by lead- 
ing them along through rugged paths, and who^ 
speaking in too general a way, assert that all those 
who relapse into sin, become more depraved, Whea 
they are absolved before they amend their liver. 
But I would ask these, my masters," exclaims thd 
Saint, ** whether those who relapse into sin, on be- 
ing dismissed without Absolution, and deprived of 
the grace of the Sacrament, I would ask thA 
whether those^ Penitents always become strongeTt 
and amend their lives 1 Ho w many miserable sinneii 
have I known, who, on account of being refused Ahw^ 
lution, have fiillen into despair, and, being disguslrf 
with the Sacraments, have wandered about for yealf 
under the dominion of sin! Many are the Confitoaoi^ 
who, on account of their too great fiu:ility ia grant' 

krmpsis. Ill 

mg AbsoliilioD, arethe cause why many sonla pink 
into perdition ; wiiile other Confesson, on acconot 
of being, too severe, aie as great a detriment to the 
aaivation of( aoula, as those are who are too lenient. 
WouM to God that I could say^ that all Confessors 
abaolre those who relapse into sin, only when they 
fire extraordinary signs^of being disposed for Abso- 
lation I But, what is to be deplored, on the contra- 
ry, is, that the greater part of Confessors, every- ^ 
where, alwa3nB give Absolution to auch relapsing 
sinnars, indiscriminately, without their manifesting 
hardly any extraordinary signs of being disposed, 
without any admonition, and without any remedy ; 
hence the ruin of so many souls.'' — Id. ib. 

8. AnuLTBRiaa and duxllists are to bx Ab- 
•oitTXD. — ** A CaUiolic man," eays the Saint, "can be, 
mod ought to^ be absolved, (conditionally,) even al- 
though he should be deprived of his senses in the very 
act of ain, for instance, even if he be deprived of his 
•enses in the very act of adultery or duelling ; and the 
teaaon why he should be absolved while thus desti- 
tute of his senses, is because we may justly suppose, 
that when he was in the proximate danger of damna- 
tioD, he was desirous, every way, of securing his eter- 
nal salvation. — I have said a Catholic mofk, because 
the case would be different in regard to a heretic. 
For although heretics, in such a case, should evea 
give signs of repentance, they ought not to be absolv- 
sd, unless they expressly demand it, because we can 
•ever prudently suppose that such men can give 


those signs in order to Confession, which they iS- 
premely abhor."— Id. ib. N. 483. 

AND THE SAME TIMS. " In tim%of battle," SIJ8 

the Saint, " or if there be a multitude of dying men, 
. for instance, in a shipwreck, all can be absolved 
together, provided they accuse themselves of but one 
sin, and that the least infamous of their sins, (or em, 
« according to some Divines, if there is no other wij, 
if they acknowledge in general, that they are sin- 
ners,) even then, too, they can be absolved, by the 
Priests sa3ring, * Ego vos absolvo, &c.' * I A- 
solve you, &c/ "—Id. ib. N. 48a 

5. A Priest's blessing confers sANorimiiQ 
GRACE. — " If a Penitent is extremely ignorant or 
simple," observes the Saint, *' and says that he it sorry 
for his sins, without, however, mentioning or know- 
ing what particular sins he accuses himself oC he 
can, speculatively speaking, be absolved from his 
sins; practically, however, he ought not to be alh 
solved; but the Confessor should give him his 
blessing, and then permit him to receive the Ooitt- 
muniqn," (the Eucharist.) — Id. ib. N. 488. 

6. When Confession is invalid. — The Saint 
now enters upon his 4th article^ which is headed, 
** When the Confession is invalid, and when U aug^ 
to be repeated.^^ 

** This invalidity of the Confession occurs, in tk 
first place," says the Saint, '«on the part of the Got* 
feasor, if he have not the requisite juritdictioii; 'tf 
if be is under a Censure of the Church ; or if te 


baa sabstaDtially corrupted or changed the /onpi of 
Absolutioa ; or if he did not intend to absolve ; or if he 
understood nothing of the sin." — Id. ib. N. 498, 499. 
^*The Confession is invalid, 2dly," says the 
Saint, ^ on the part of the Penitent, if he is excom- 
manicated ; if he conceal any mortal sin, or if he 
fiilsely accuse himself of one ; if he has mortally 
neglected to examine his conscience ; also if he was 
not attrite or sorrowful ; if he was unwilling to 
remove the occasion of sin ; and if he confess a carnal 
sin to a Confessor, who was his accomplice in it." — 
Id. ib. N. 501. 

7. Liooaf s LAMENTATIONS. The Saint, after 
descanting largely on the evils that result to the 
Chnrs^ from the Confessors being either too severe 
or too lax in regard to their Penitents, breaks out in 
the following strain : " Oh, how < many unlearned 
Confessors there are, (I speak from the experience 
I have acquired on the Missions, in which I have 
been employed for nearly thirty years,) who hesi- 
tate not to absolve those who are in the proximate 
occasion of sinning, as well as those who relapse 
again into sin, still continuing indisposed for absolu- 
tion, and who foolishly think they can heal their 
sick patients by overloading them with heavy Pen- 
ances ; whence it happens that they — although they 
accept the Penance enjoined upon them, for the 
sake of obtaining absolution — nevertheless, after 
liaving obtained absolution, because there was no re- 
i&edy prescribed for their preservation, in a short 
time, miserably relapse again, neglect to pet{6tmx\i<6 


Peiiance imposed upon them, and being detene 
by the weight of it, they abhor Confeasion, ao 
thus they remain for a long time withering awa; 
in their sins." — Id. ib. 510. 

8. The Penitent bound to psbform Pn 
ANCE. — *' The Penitent, in general, is bound uoderi 
heavy obligation to accept and perform the Penmee 
laid upon him by the Confessor, if the Penance be a 
reasonable one." — Id. ib. N. 515. What is meant by 
an unreasonable Penance is explained by the Siisl 
to be, "that which cannot be performed by the Peni- 
tent for want of sufficient strength." — Id. ib. N. 516- 

9. Penance in mortal sin fulfils the cok- 
MAND. — " He who does Penance" says the Sainti 
** in the state of mortal sin, probably, indeed, fitlft^ 
the command, since he fulfils the substance of the 
Penance ; nevertheless, by performing the Penaoee 
in this state, he sins venially." — Id. ib. N. 521. 

10. Penitents are to be frightened FKOi 
their sins. — " Since it may be very advantageous 
to the Penitent," observes the Saint, " in order the 
more easily to induce him to accept a heavier Pea^ 
ancc, and frighten him the more powerfully firoU 
his sins, to point out to him the Canonical Penanea 
which were formerly prescribed for certain sina— * 
shall take the pains, to select some of the principC 
Penances from the said Canons, according to tb 
order of the Decalogue : 

"The Canonical Penances. 
<* In regard to the 1st Commandment.— H 
who denies the &ith, let hkn do Penance ten yean 


He who consults magicians, let him do Penance 
&we years. He who, &c. &c. 

** In regard to the 2d Comm andment. — He 
who perjures himself in the Church, let him do Pen- 
ance ten years. He who puhlicly blasphemes against 
Qod, the Blessed Virgin, or any Saint, let him 
stand exposed at the Church door, seven Sundays, 
during the celebration of Mass, and, on the last of 
those days, let him stand there without a coat or 
shoes on, and with a halter of leather around his 
neck. Upon every Friday, also, during the seven 
weeks, let him fast upon bread and water, and by 
no means be permitted to enter into the Church. 
IdoTeover, upon each of the above mentioned Sun- 
dajTS, let him feed three, two, or one pauper, if he 
is able ; otherwise, let him perform more Penance. 
If he refuse to perform the Penance, let him be in- 
terdicted from entering into the Church; and when 
dead, let him be deprived of Christian burial. 

" In regard to the 3d Commandment. — He 
who performs any servile work on the Lord's day, or 
on a Festival day, let him do Penance three days, on 
bread and water. If any one break the fasts pre- 
scribed by the Church, let him do Penance on bread 
and water, twenty days. He who violates the fast 
of Lent, let him, for each day he violates, do Pen- 
ance seven days. He who eats meat during Lent, 
without an inevitable necessity, let him not receive 
tbe Communion on Easter : and, moreover, let him 
abstain from meat. 

"In regard T0,THE 4th CoMMA'KDIIl'E.TftT.— ^^ 

1 16 SYNWSIS. 

who curses his piirents, let him do Penance, on hmd 
and water, forty days. He who insults his parent^ 
three years. If any one rebel against his J3isliO|V 
Pastor, and Father, let him do Penance in a Monaf* 
tery, during his whole life. If any one contemn, or 
deride, or slight the commands of a Bishop, or liif 
Ministers, or a Parish Priest, let him do Penance 
forty days, on bread and water. 

** In regard to ths 5th Commandk snt. — V» 
who kills a Priest, let him do Penance twelve yeiii. 
He who kills a man, let him ever afterwards stsnd 
at the church door, and, at his death, he may re- 
ceive the Communion.* He who unwillingly on^ 
lays and smothers his child, let him do Peoaoee 
forty days, on bread and water, herbs and legumee: 
and let him abstain from uxore dies totidem : then 
let him do Penance three years, pn all the Festivtl 
days prescribed by the Church ; and keep, more- 
over, three Lents ^uring the year. 

** In regard to the 6th Comh andment. — If 
any married woman use vermilion, or any other sort 
of paint, to please other men, let her do Penance thiee 
years. If a Priest have unlawful connexion widi 
his spiritual daughter, one, for instance, whom he 
has baptized, or one who has confessed to him, hi 
aught to do Penance twelve years : and if tlM 
crime is public, he ought to be deposed, and do Pb^ 
nance by travelling twelve years ; after which let 
him enter into a Monastery, and i^nain there d# 

* This standing at the church door eeer q/tsnsardi^ 
OB every Lord's day, ind 'Feiiival dar« 

STNOPSia 1 17 

ring the rest of his life. For adultery, let a Penance 
be imposed of seven and ten years. For an immo- 
iest kiss, let a Penance of thirty days be enjoined. 

" In regard to the 7th Commandment. — If 
tny one steal a thing of trifling value, let him do 
Penance one year. If any one steal any of the orna- 
Dents, treasures, money, or gifts, belonging to the 
I^hurch, he shall do Penance seven years. If any 
«e retain the tithes belonging to the Church, he 
•hall restore four-fold, and do Penance twenty dayB, 
m bread and water. 

•« In regard to the 8th Commandment. — ^He 
eho consents to false testimony, shall do Penance 
ive years. A <iounterfeiter shall do Penance, on 
>read and water, as long as he lives. If any one 
asily yields to detraction, he shall do Penance seven 
lays, on bread and water. 

ZJEPTUM. — He who wickedly covets the property 
)f another, and a miser, shall do Penance three 
years. If any one covets to commit fornication, if 
he be a Bishop, he shall do Penance seven years : 
if he be a Priest, five years ; if a Deacon, or a 
Monk, thre^ years : if he be a Cleric, or a layman, 
two years.*'*— Id. ib. N. 530. 

* By Cleric, here, is meant a candidate for what, in Popery, is 
called "Holy Orders." According to the modem discipline of the 
Romish church, their " Holy Ordert^* commence with the Sub- 
DeacoDship ; but from this ancient Canon, we see, that, for- 
BMrly, their "fibZy Orders?* commenced with the Deaconship. 


T%e Ten CommandmenU. 

1. The second CoMlIANDlfENT ABOLISHCDr* 

The Popish church, in order to shun and hide te 
second Commandment, which forbids the makiag 
of " any graven image, or any Oneness of any thing 
that is in heaven above, or that i% in the earth h 
neaih, or that is in the water under the earth: Tim 
shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve theml* 
Ex. XX. ; in order to shun this Commandment, tlw 
Popish church has spliced it at the foot of the fillt 
Commandment ; and thus of the two, she has vuiB 
one Commandment. In the Popish catechisutfi 
prayer-books, and books of devotion, the poor deb* 
ded people are kept in entire ignorance of the second 
Commandment The trick runs thus in Popery >^ 
Romish Catechism. — Question : '* What is the Ifl^ 
Commandment? — Answer: I am the Lord ili§ 
God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, Mt 
of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not h0^ 
STRANGE Gods before me, ^-c." Here the 0» 
mandment ends with an "&c.'' Now it is jmi 
where this &c. is, that the second Commandrntft 
commences. Thus it is, by this subtle contrimA 
the poor Papist never casts his eye upon the seeoid 
Commandment. As for the &c. which he fi^ 
mH^ to the end of the firat Commandn^V 

I snfoesni. 119 

^nfSjgoMM, {Hmt if» if ]i« can read at alL) that it is / 
•omething 6f no great Importance^ or ebe Holy 
Volher wonld certainly llaYe^ bronglit it finwaid. 
Cm a more conTincing eWdeoce of the bad fidth q£ 
A* Bomiah csborch be brought than thiai — She 
kaonn that the mnkitude of images which erery- 
' vkfiie eneomber bet walls, Iane% alleys, highways, 
. ftc, before which the people bow; kneel, and wor- 
, t^^iie pro.hibited byOod's Holy Word in the 
iKood CcHnmandmiBnt; therefore, rather than re- 
lioiiiice the superstition and idolatry of image-wor- 
i% she keeps out of her Catechisms, and other 
iNNrin, one of the most important of Qod's Gom- 
«mdBiBnts, . 

Sl Teb BiBifB PROHiBiTXD. — Before the art of 
pnating, not ooe Papist out of nine hundred and 
aisety-nine thousand, ever saw a copy of the Bible. 
ThB reading of it in the Temacular idiom of the 
pMlde was absolutely prohibited even after the art 
of pnnting was discovered. The Council of l^rent, 
^h was omvoked in the year 1545, Decrees as 
Ulows: "Cum Expbbimsnto, 4bc^'' / ^'liismani- 
Mfram eiperience, that if the HolyBihUt iraju- 
^<M into the wdgar tokgue^ b.e indiscrimimUely 
^Btmd io every oiUt the raekness of men mU cause 
«if| ml ikmn good fotrnte/rosi fl."-^Index. Con- 
l>V.Beg. iv. Hence it has always been the policy 
tf 4h8 ' church of Rome to keep the Bible entirely 
fKsf the hands of the peojde. What they allow, 
^Ba^a^ys, in regard to the reading of tbeBible, is 
^a shear necessiiy.--*It js no wondeTiibien^^iGAX 



image-worship rose to sach an abominable 
during the dark ag«6 that preceded the Re^mndioBi 
that Bernard, one ot their own great Saiiit^ ca- 
ciaimed, speaking of the Romish charch, "Thevoii 
so great, and such an astonishing Tari^ of diftr* 
ent figures presented, on all sides, to the view, tiMt 
the people prefer reading upon the marble stonei; 
rather than reading in books, and to spend the whoh 
day in wondering at these things, rather than in 
meditating upon the Law of God." — ^Bernard ApoL 
p. 992. 

3. The tenth Commandment diyibed niTO 
TWO. — In order, however, to make out a fall ccntt* 
pliment of ten Commandments, the Popish ehafch 
has divided the tenth Commandment into twa 
Thus, " Th&u, shalt not covet thy neighbor's fnfi!* 
in Popery, is the ninth Commandment " Tktm 
shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods" is the Popish 
tenth Commandment. — Who but a Papist could be 
so blind as not to see that these two sentences are 
embraced in one and the same Commandm^f 
The prohibition is against covetousness^ conseqoenl- 
ly it must have been embraced in one and the same 
Commandment. With just as much reason tbef 
might divide the eighth Commandment, *^Tkm 
shalt not steal" into two Commandments : tiw 
•• Thou shalt not steal thy neighbors wife;" — • Vm 
shalt not steal thy fuigkbor's goods ;" or divide il^ 
if they choose, into as many Commandments"* 
tiiere are difi^ent things to steal. 

We will now, lor the sake of sbomug iMr 


wretchedly the tenth Commandment has been man- 
gled by the church of Rome, place it before our eye 
in the very same form and order that it wa9 penned 
by the finger of God himself on Mount Sinai. — Ex. 
xxxiv. 1. Subjoined in the Hebrew, we give the 
9th as well as the 10th Commandment, in order to 
show the division that there is between the Com- 
mandments. By this we see tliat there is the same 
division and same pause between each of the ten 
Commandments, as there is at the end of them. 

: ^p•^V *>rK byt v^nm ^y^v^ wdki nayi 

9th. ** Thou shall not hear false witness against 
thy neighbor. 

10th " Thou shalt not covet thy neighboi^s house, 
thov, shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, rwrhis man- 
servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, 
nor any thing that is thy neighbor's." — Ex. xx. 16, 17. 
By comparing this with the Popish ninth and 
tenth Commandments, we see that they have taken 
their ninth Commandment out of the very middle of 
the tenth Commandment as it stands in the Bible ; 
and then they patch up their tenth Commandment 
out of the fragments which they have left. Thus 
they would make it appear that God wrote part of 
tb^-tenth Commandment, and then, while the tenth 
was still unfinished, he introduced the ninth Com- 
mandment, breaking into and reversing all order, 
^i tnd then went on to finish the tenth, which he had 
left incomplete. — Such is the patch-work of Infalli- 
^ bility. — Such is the execrable and sacT\V©g\o\xa vntVr 


Is SYN0P8I& 

of the **Man of Sii^" in order to 
of image-worship, by die impoi 
lality follows the ** Woman airti 
fm/rfttiimd scarlet color" with ** gold amd f 
sianet, amd pearls^ — and ** ike golden cuip 
hand is fiUl of abominations and fUthiness 
fornication;^^ for in that cnp is contained tl 
FSK-G(oD. This is the traffic of which th€ 
■ tare speaks, in *« slattes and souls of men." 
zviii. 13. 

The ten Commandments, as they are tra 
in oar common version of the Protestant Bil 
precisely in the same form and order as the] 
the original Hebrew. Although the Hebrew 
is not divided in the same manner that our i 
version of it is, into verses, nevertheless, eacl 
ten Commandm^its are distinctly separated t 
from the other in the original Hebrew Bil 
signs or dots. The sign or character which : 
is the letter Samech o or S, which, in the H 
is the initial for Section, which it also sij 
But in order to distinguish the two first Con 
ments, which all the people heard Qod himsi 
noance, from those which were repeated to tl 
pie by Moses, we find, in the Hebrew versi 
Sign Phe » after the second Commandment, t 
that there is a perfect paragraph or pause 
since, as has been observed, Moses repeated tt 
•eqaent eight Commandments, which, as ^ 
are coached in words expressive of their J 
be^ spoken by a third person. 


Other Hebrew copies are found which hate. the 
ten Commandments separated by two dots fitted 
immediately before each of them, thus, (:)^ ' In or- 
der, moreover, that the distinction between the ten 
Commandments should be made as clear as possi- 
ble, there is a blank left between each in all the 
Jewish Hebrew versions. 

It is proper here to observe, that the original He- 
brew versions of which we are now speaking, are 
those which have been handed down to us by the 
Jews, and which are in use in all their Syna- 
gogues over the world. Corroborative of what has 
already been said, we must not omit to mention a 
very conspicuous fact, which every citizen in the 
United States may see, by entering into any of the 
Jewish Synagogues which are to be found in difier- 
ent parts of our country. In the Synagogues, and 
in all of them in all parts of the world, the ten Com- 
mandments are seen pointed out in large and con- 
^icuous characters, placed over what they call the 
Ark of the Covenant. These characters are the 
first few words of each of the ten Commandments, 
each Commandment thus pointed out, being placed 
the one under the other, and each in a distinct and 
separate line, in the manner following : 
" / am the Lord thy God — 

(. ** Thow shalt not make unto thee any graven 

^ image— 

M ** Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy 

^^ God in vain — 
i ^Remember the Sabbath Day — 


^ Honor thy faihtr and thy mother — 

" Thou shalt not kill — 

*' 'tkm^ shalt not commit adultery — 

" Thau shalt not steal — 

** Thou shalt not bear false witness — 

" Thou shalt not covets 

For the sake of the contrast, we will now subjoin 
the Popish order of the ten Commandments; 'they 
are as follows : 

1. ''I am the Lord thy God: thou shalt not 
have strange Gods before me, dfC. 

2. " Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thif 
God in vain, 

3. " Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath Daif' 

4. ** Hon^r thy father and mother. 

5. ** Thou shalt not kill. 

6. " Thou shalt not commit adultery, 

7. " Thou shalt not steal. 

8. " Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbor. 

9. " Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife. 
10. " Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's ^oodsJ* 

In the Popish Schools they Ijave a Hebrew Ycr* 
sion of their own, which is prepared and printed 
under the eye of the Pope. In this adulterated "ver- 
sion they have, of course, suppressed the signsi 
spaces, and dots which are found in all the ancient 
and authentic copies, except those which haye been 
adulterated for the use of the Romish church. 

All the translations of the Bible which we have 
examiiied, (excepting the Popish,) have the ten 


Cloinmandments precisely in the same order as that 
D out English Protestant Bible. The order is the 
ame in the Italian, Spanish, f*rench, German, Rus- 
ian, and in every other which we have had an op- 
ortunity of examining. We have one now before 
B, which is in the Gothic Spanish, the order of 
rhich, in the ten Commandments, is exactly similar 
> ours. 

With all this mass of evidence, what can we con- 
lude but that the Romish church has thus adultera- 
ed the Wordiof God in one of its most essential 
Mirts, for the sole purpose of upholding her doctrine 
if image worship. 

O, my Christian brethren, and all ye who are 
iincerely desirous of knowing the truth, and where 
he true Church is, know this, at least, that the 
:hurch of Rome, of all others, has the least claim, 
lias lost all claim to being even a Christian church. 
She has completely turned the Commandments of 
Grod upside down, and out of the rubbish which she 
has made, has patched up ten Commandments, not 
the Commandments of God, but the dictates of her 
own sacrilegious presumption, and barefaced impu- 

But the Infallible Church has made the division, 
therefore it must be right, — argument enough for 
all who have received that " mark of the Beast" so 
long as that Mark remains unwashed away by the 
tears of a sincere repentance. 

St Ligori himself, knowing and feeling that the 
iiinth and tenth Commandments according to the 

Pi^iisli cknck. i&. mDODT^mg » God. and to ttulk, 
faoi oDe aai ziit saiae Cfmra-ftiiment, pat dm^ 
acroiciiir w :tr£ir sausaacai isi^ast, iislo ooe^ W 
ca'3s« ibe resxT^ viiirh hi has to make upon 
them. c£n:>0L asi co ax scbscaaeialhr apply to mono 
than oce Commandmcis. The Saint. liTing in Po* 
peiy. sjLTromiced bj Popeir.a son of God in Pop^ 
ry. dreams ib-i: :he w?T"i belong? lo Popery. Ho 
hears of hereiics. — hrsi they aie fiir away: and, in 
his dreams^ he &ncie5L that, like the ArianSk thej 
will all soon wither away, and that Holy BAother 
will, ere long, walk over their ashes, mistress agaiB 
of the whole scene. He wriies in Latin, not think- 
ing that his book will erer appear anywhere baton 
the shelves of Popish Bishops, or in the hands d 
Popish Priests and Doctors, to be taught in Schools 
and Seminaries dedicated to the cause of Popery; 
and he writes, taking it for granted that the thing 
will pass quite well among the rest, as knavish and 
as knowing as himself 

We have given the thing in Latin as well as in 
English. A Latin scholar ^^-ill see at once the 
shape of the thing. Two or more numeral adjec- 
tives, in all languages, require the substantive to 
which they relate to be in the plural number. Bat 
here the Saint has. the lie of Popery in the adjectifoi^ 
and the truth of the Bible in the substantive. — ^The 
9th and 10th is the lie, and the CommandmeiU i> 
the truth. *' Nonum et decimum Prttceftum, TBI 
9th and 10th Commandhent'M ! — that is, if it 
means any thing at all, it is 0m« sole CammamdwuA 


hich is called the 9th and lOth i — Ligorian logic ! 
•The 9th and 10th of a thing is the samel — and 
» 9th and 10th of a thing is not the same. 
We have said that the Saint puts the 9th and the 
th Commandments according to the Popish church 
o one, because the remarks he has to make vpon 
$m, cannot, and do not substantially apply to more 
in one Commandment. That this is not a mere 
ijectare, but the real truth, we shall now show 
)in the Sainfs own words, which we find in anoth- 
volume of his same work on Moral Theology, 
is in his 2d volume, under the Treatise " On the 6ih 
d9th Commandment" — N. 4 1 2. The Saint does 
t say, " On the 6th and 9th Commandments," but 
; unites them into one, and uses the substantive in 
e angular number. 

Mutilation of the Ten Commandments. 

We now give the Saint's own words at the head 
this his 4th Treatise, and 2d chapter, " On the 6tk 
id 9ih Commaridment" . His words are as fol- 

" Non mcBchaberis^ et non concupisces, etc. 
" Conjungo hsec duo Praecepta, quia utroque idem 
:plicite prohibetur, scilicet peccata impudicitiae, et 
xuriaB ;" which we now give in English, as fol- 
ws: — 

"TAow shalt not commit adultery, and thou shaltnot 
•tje/, SfcP " We uniie these two Commandments," 
serves the Saint, " because THEY either explicitly 

3^. -V= 




oamely, the riiis of immodesty and ImC**— »I4|ii; 

lib. iii'N. 412. 

Grod gaye ten distinct Comwiandmenis^ bol tlr 
Popish church says, that the 6th and 9th prdbibit 
the same thing, that is, they prohibit the sins at mi 
modesty and lust, under which is included, as Lq^ 
ri himself states, adultery, fornication, incest, sod^' 
my, lustful desires, &c. « We would now ask, siiiei 
all these sins of adultery, &c. are included in the6Al 
Commandment, (as Popery has it,) or in the 7th 
the thing really is, what is the use of the 9th Qoia* 
n^mdment? (as Popery has it) Would God, i| 
the small and important number of ten ComimMl' 
ments which he gave to Moses on the Mount, gifl 
two of precisely the same import? ! We wai Ml 
for an answer : for all the Jesuitical distinguoslSlll^ 
can be devised will never extricate the ** Beasf^ firom 
the slough in which he is now stuck. 

The 10th Commandment, as delivered by God 
to Moses, on Mount Sinai, is as follows: "Th* 
shaLt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt n^ 
covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-servant, nfff 
his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor tatf 
thing that is thy neighbor' sP — ^Exod. xx'. 17. 

The 7th Commandment, (eras Popery has^thf 
6th,) is, " Thou shalt not commit adtdteryy — dot 
jx, 14. 

Now as the 7th Commandment, (or of Pop^ 
the 6th,) prohibits adultery, what is prohibmlll 
the 10th (or of Popery the 9th) Commandmtf^l^ 
not adulteiy: consequently the Popish ohndtck 


naintainiDg that the 10th (or of Popery the 9th) 
Z^mmandment prohibits adultery, teaches a lie. 
WhaX^ then, becomes of her Infalhbility 1 

lithe lOth Commandment means, by coveting a 
leighbor's wife, the committing of adultery with 
ler, or the desire of committing adultery with her, 
he coveting of a neighbor's house, or of a neigh- 
x>r's man-servant, or of a neighbor's ox, or of his 
188, or of any thing else that belongs to him, means 
iie committing of adultery with a house, or a man- 
lervant, or an ox or an ass, or an3rthing else ! ! Be- 
cause the same word covet is similarly applied to 
sach of them, without the least shadow of a change, 
Bnd without the least reason for a change in its sig- 
nification. How adultery can be committed with a 
hoiise or with any thing else, we, who are not in&l. 
lible, cannot imagine. 

All Popish twists aside, coveting means coveting, 
and not the committing of adultery. 

The idea of coveting is wholly distinct from that 
of committing adultery ; consequently, the coveting 
of a ntighbor's wife has no relation whatever to 
odnXiery. The meaning is, that nothing whatsoever 
must be coveted for any advantage whatsoever that 
might be desired upon the possession of it. That it 
<ioes not relate to adultery is evident, not only from 
4e signification of the word covet, but from the fact 
that the 7th Commandment is the one which prohib* 
Jte adultery, and God, in the small number of ten 
Commandments never gave two different ones to 
■'gnify the same thing. It would have beew fa\.\\^^ 


useless, and unnecessary ; which, to say of any cf 
God's Commandments, would be impious. 

It must, we think, be evident from the prooA 
which have been advanced, that the church of Rome 
has materially changed the order of the ten Con* 
mandments, as well as blended some, and diviM 
others ; and were it not that the Bible expressly in- 
forms us that there were ten Commandments giies 
by God to Moses on the Mount, we doubt not tint 
Popery would have maintained there were but nine 
Commandments given. — See Exod. xxxiv. 28; Deot 
iv. 13, and x. 4. This the church of Rome hsB 
done, not, indeed, in word, but virtually, practicallj, 
substantially, to all intents and purposes ; for iC at 
they pretend, ** the 6th and the 9th Commandments 
prohibit the same thing," they then, virtually, practi- 
cally, substantially, and to all intents and purposes, 
constitute but one Commandment ; consequently, the 
legitimate result of the doctrine of the Romish 
church is, and must be, that Moses received but nine 
Commandments from God upon the Mount. 

O, to what pitiful resources will not . Popery flji 
rather than acknowledge that the Romish chuieh 
has erred ; that she is not what she pretends, inftUi- 
ble, or holy I 

P. S. Having written the above number thus bt$ 
we are unexpectedly induced to add a few moA 
Teflections in consequence of having just^reeeiveil 
the '* Boston Rbcorder" of February 5th,in wht^ 
there is an article headed ^' Conversion of IrdtmiP 


rbich teaches upon the subject now before us in a 
^y which ought to be noticed. 

It appears from a letter addressed to the Editor of 
le '* Recorder/' by the Associate Editor of the 
Boston Pilot," a Popish paper, that the " Re- 
order" has been publishing a series of articles on 
le ** Conversion of Ireland" and among other 
lings, that some observations were made by the 
Recorder," relative to the conversion of an Irish 
reman, a member of the church of Rome, which 
le ** Boston Pilot" seems to be somewhat displeased 
t. We here subjoin the article as it appears in the 


"The Editor of the 'Recorder' regrets that his 
lecessary absence in the country has prevented an 
arlier attention to the following note : 

•Boston, Jan. 25, 1836. 
* Dear Sir — In your paper of Friday last, I ob- 
served a continuation of your articles on the Con- 
version of Ireland to Protestantism, and an anecdote 
illustrating the nature of the plan you have proposed 
for effecting that object. In those remarks you 
8ay, that the individual in question, upon reading 
the Scriptures, became acquainted, for the first time 
^ her life, with the existence of what you consider 
as the Second Commandment, but which Catho- 
des regard as a portion of the first. Will you do 
your Catholic brethren the justice to correct the ita- 



pression the public will naturally derire firomaii a^ 
tide of such a tenor ; and which impression mto- 
rally must be, that a knowledge of eren the existence 
of such a command is kept a secret from the majoritjr 
of Catholics 9 

* To give the grounds of such a request on my 
part, a copy of the Catechism used in all the Sunday 
schools in this Diocess will accompany this hasty 
note, and your acceptance and penxsal of it is re- 
spectfully solicited. 

* I have two more iivors to ask, one of which is 
—-When, where, and by whom was the numeneal 
division of the Decalogue established, in the Hehrt9 
Original ; and secondly, that you will do me the 
favor of inserting this note in your next, and if you 
are now convinced that the representations which 
are so rife in regard to the subject of remark, that 
you will have the candor to state your conviction of 
this involuntary error. I have designated that part 
of the Catechism to which I would solicit your at- 
tention, and remain, in haste, very respectfully, 

* Yours, 

TTie Associate Editor 

of the Boston Pilot 

* Editor of the Boston Recorder.' 

*♦ That we may not fail of doing entire justice, iw 
here insert the whole chapter of the Catechism z^ 
ferred to. 

STNOPSia 133 


II j.j|£ j£jf COMMANDMENTS. 

*' d. How many commandments are there ? A. 
Ten. Ct Who gave the commandments? A. Qoi 
himself, in the old law ; and Christ confirmed them 
in the new. 

** QL Which is the fir si commandment? A. " I 
am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the 
land of Egypt ; and out of the house of bondage. 
Thou shalt not have strange Gods before me. Thou 
shalt not make to thyself any graven things nor the 
likeness of any thing that is in the heaven above, or 
in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth. 
Thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them.' — ^Ex. 
XX. 2. Ct What are we commanded by this? A. 
To believe, hope in, love, and serve one true and 
living God, and no more. Gt What is forbidden in this 
commandment? A. To worship false Gods or idols; 
or to give any thing else whatsoever, the honor which 
belongs to God. Ct What else is forbidden by this 
commandment? A. All false religions; all deal- 
ings with the devil ; and inquiring after things to 
come, or secret things, by fortune-tellers or super- 
- stitious practices. Ct What else ? A. All charms, 
" spells, and heathenish observations of omens, dreams, 
^ such like fooleries. Ct Does this command- 
iQ^t forbid the making of images? A. It forbids 
iiEHikuig them, so as to adore and serve them, that is, 
it forbids making them our gods. QL Doe^ti^^^^iox* 



mandment forbid all honor and veneration of Saiali 
and Angels ? A. No ; we are to honor them if 
God's special friends and servants; but not withtiM 
honor which belongs to God. CL And is it alloir* 
able to honor relief, crucifixes, and holy pictarest 
A. Yes ; with an inferior and relative honor, as thef 
relate to Christ and his Saints ; and are memorialf 
of them. Gt May we then pray to relics and ima- 
ges? A. No; by no means, for they have no life 
or sense to hear or help us. 

** What is the second commandment? A. 'TImmi 
shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.' 
Q. What are we commanded by the second 'icmii' 
mandment? A. To speak with reverence of God 
and all holy things, and to keep our lawful oaths 
and vows. GL What are we forbidden by it? A. 
All false, rash, unjust, and unnecessary oaths, as al- 
so cursing, blaspheming and profane words. 

"What is the third commandment? A. /Re- 
member thou keep holy the Sabbath day.' GL What 
are we commanded by this? A. To spend the Stm* 
day in prayer and other religious duties. Ct What 
do you mean by religious duties ? A. I mean such 
as hearing Mass, receiving the Sacrament, readintf 
good books, &c. QL What are we forbidden by thi* 
commandment? A. All unnecessary work, and atB* 
ful profanation of the Lord's day. 

"What is the /owr/A commandment? A. •Howff 
thy father and thy mother.' ' Q» What are we cotft* 
manded by the fourth commandment ? A. To kff^ 
honor, and obey our parents in all that ii not liB* 



Q. Are we commanded to obey only our &ther and 
mother ? A. Not only them, but also our bishops, 
peustors, magistrates, and masters. What is forbid- 
den by this commandment ? A. All contempt, stub- 
bornness and disobedience to our lawful superiors. 
QL And what is the duty of parents and other supe- 
riors? A. To take proper care of all under their 
charge; and to bring up their children in the fear 
of God. 

" What is the ffth commandment? A. * Thou 
shalt not kill.' Q. What does the Mh command- 
ment fprbid? A. All wilful murder, hatred, and re- 
venge. €1. Does it forbid striking? A. Yes; and 
also anger, quarrelling, and injurious words. Ct 
What else? A. Giving scandal and bad example. 
*• CL What is the sixth commandment? A. * Thou 
shalt not commit adultery.* GL What is forbidden 
by this ? A. All kinds of sins and uncleanness with 
another's wife or husband. What else? A. All 
other kinds of immodesties, by kisses, touches, looks, 
words, or actions. Ql And what do you think of 
immodest plays and comedies ? A. They are also 
forbidden by this commandment ; and it is sinfiil to 
be present at them. 

"Q. What is the 56i?67i/A commandment? A. 'Thou 
shalt not steal.' QL What is forbidden by this com- 
mandment ? A. All unjust taking away or keeping 
what belongs to others. Q. What else? A. All 
manner of cheating in buying or selling, or any other 
way of wronging our neighbors. Q,. Must we re- 
store ill-gotten goods? A. Yes* if we ^T^«^:^a^«t 


^86 the sin will not be forgiren ; we must i 
oar debts. 

^QL What is the eighth commandmei 
* Thou shalt not bear false witness against th; 
bor.' €t What is forbidden by this comman 
A. All fiilse testimonies, rash judgments, a 
U. What else? A. All backbilipg and del 
or words and speeches by which our nej 
honor or reputation is any ways hurt. Ct 
he bound to do who has injured his neig 
speaking ill of him ? A. He must make hi 
&ction, and restore his good name as fax 

*' Ct Whatisthenm^Acommandment? A. 
shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife/ Q. 
forbidden by this ? A. All lustful thoughts 
sires, and all wilful pleasures in the irregi 
tions of concupiscence. 

"What is the tenth commandment? A. 
shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.' €1. 
forbidden by this ? A. Ail covetous thoug 
unjust desires of our neighbor's goods s 

Here we have the ten Commandments, as 
iter of the "Boston Pilot" tells us they a 
found in " the Catechism used in the 
schools," (alluding io Popish Sunday schooi 
the diocess of Boston." 

The " DragoT^^ here bleats like a lamb ; 
will compel him to utter the truth, and then \ 
beat' the voice of the Dragon. 


s fine oddity that strikes us is that of Amday 
i — ^Popish Sunday schools I 
3 Catechism that is taught in Popish Sunday 
a, in Boston, has the ten Commandmanla in 

I would take the liberty of asking one or two 
ons here: The first is, *' How long sinee tha 
li Priests opened their first Sunday school? 
e was it first opened? And the second iik, 
it is the motive which induced them to open 
ly schools?'* 

» will observe, in the first place, that aoch a 
as a Popish Sunday School ! is entirely vat- 
a in all countries where Popery predominatea% 
svious to the year 1830, such a thing as a Pp- 
iunday school was not to be found in the Uni- 

B only kind of instractlon th^t we ever knew 
dldren of the Romish chutch to receive on the 
th day, is that of the Catechism. Few of the 
'en attend these catechetical instructions, most 
3m are to be found on the Lord's day, pla3ring 
the streets ; and, in the country, hunting, fish- 
r strolling about the fields. The instructions 
I they thus receive in the Catechism, is gener- 
md we think, always, ra the morning before 
. Mass. The Bible is a book the poor childrea 
' see at their catechetical instructions. They 
ither, not to be taught the Word of Gk)d, not to 
the Bible, or hear it read, but to learn CaU- 


If Popery in the United States, has any thing at lU 
like a Sabbath school, in the sense that we nnde^ 
stand Sabbath school, it must be of a very reeent 
date indeed 

When I was a Priest amongst them, which ivas 
but a few years since, such a thing as a SaUnth 
school was entirely unknown amongst them. 

The state of the case being as we have described, 
we are justifiable in saying, that if Popery has aoir 
established Sabbath schools in the United States, i^ 
which the Bible is taught, it is from mere mobTai 
of policy, and as it were, in some sense, from shetf 

We are still reluctant to believe, however, thit 
even now, and after all that has been said, there is a 
solitary instance of a Popish Sabbath school, wheie 
the Bible is taught, in all our country. 

This impression is still more confirmed from thecir- 
cumstanceof the editor of the '* Boston Pilot^^ meadoQ: 
ing not a word relative to the Bible's being taught is 
their Sunday schools. The Catechism, on the con- 
trary, is mentioned, because, as I have stated, that is 
the only Bible the poor children are taught. 

They pretend, to be sure, that the substance and 
essence of the Bible is included in their Catechiani 
The substance of the Bible in a small pamphlet oft 
few leaves, and those leaves, filled up, too, with "Par 
pery, with Popish rites, ceremonies, Sacraments, ^ 
traditions I 

The fourth chapter of the Popish GoteduM^ 
taught in Boston is now before us t Well, ztfl^ 


We idufit say, it is a show. It is the first of the kind 
we ever saw; and many are the Popish Catechisms 
and Prayer-books we have seen, not only in En- 
glish, but in various languages ; one or two now 
Ittppen accidentally to be lying on our table. 

For the sake of the contrast, it will not be amiss 
to lay them along side of one another. 

We could produce one thousand different Popish 
pnyer-books and catechisms, in all of which the 2d 
Commandment is entirely omitted. The &ct is, we 
<ioiibt if another could be found in all the United 
States, or in any other part of the world in which 
^e 2d Commandment, even adulterated as they have 
It, and tacked on to the first, is to be found, except 
the one alluded to by the " Boston Pilot:' 

Popery always has had, and always will have, 
whenever she discovers her errors, something to 
fi^ow to heretics, as she calls us, by way of blind ; 
iuid as a sort of a gag to stop our mouths. But as 
We are not quite blind, we will make out to spread 
oefore the public two or three different specimens of 
t^e Popish ten Commandments, as they appear in 
*U their Pra^yer-books and catechisms, with, proba- 
cy, the sole exception of the one made up to show 
^e heretics in Boston. And, as we still retain the 
liberty of speech, as well as of the Press, we shall 
publish to the world something of what we know. 

We hold now in our hand a picturesque little 
pocket •* Officium B. Marine," a little pocket " Of- 
^cb" or book of devotions to the Virgin Mary, 
which is in common use among PapiBte «3\ o^«t\!tv^ 

140 STN(»»SIS. 

world. It is in Latin, and is particularly niiMpd 
to the use of Priests, Monks, and Nuns. The saniB 
book has also been translated into the Tulgar tongae 
in Europe, for the use of the people at large. It ii 
not more than two inches and a half long, and eoD> 
tains seven hundred pages. We call it picturesque^ 
because it contains a varieCy of pictures of a charac- 
ter suitable to " excite the devotion of" (as throws 
St. Bernard calls them) ** a carnal minded peopia" 
— Bernard Apol. 992. These pictures, or imagM, 
that is, the likeness of things in heaven^ and upon ik 
earth, and under the earth, are interspersed through- 
out the book. The authority of this little book is 
certainly better established than that of the Cate- 
chism taught in B,oston, inasmuch as it is sanctioned 
and "confirmed by the Bulls of* Pope Pius V., Ur- 
ban VIII., the Sacred Congregation of Rites, and 
is published under the auspices of Philip IV^ 
Catholic King of Spain and the Indies, and the 
Most Puissant Prince of Belgium and Burgundy." 
—Dated, Brussels, 9th July, 1641. 

This is a Prayer-book and catechism of some ac- 
count. It comes directly from the very centre and 
glory of the Popish church, wholly untainted with 
any thing like Protestantism about it It is taught 
wherever Popery predominates, and it is the model 
according to which, as respects the first, and Bcfosi ' 
Commandments, all the rest of the Popish Prayer- 
books and catechisms are firamed ; whereas the P^ 
pish catechism of Boston is a mere mongrd of as- 
pediency. Water taken from the fountain head i* 


srally purer than that which is found at a dia- 
e ; 80 if Popery is genuine, we may reasonably 
set to find her catechisms, Prayer-books, and 
3ral discipline more pure at the fountain head, 
I in this remote quarter of the globe, which is 
DSt overrun and polluted witl;i the doctrine and 
nple of heretics. 

7e now subjoin the Popish form and order of the 
Commandments, taken from the Prayer-book of 
ch we have just been speaking. They are pre- 
ly as follows : 

Decern Dei, Prcscepta^ ^c" The ten Command- 
is of God, which are contained in the Deca- 

I am the Lord thy God who brought thee out 
16 land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. 

1. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me. 

2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy 
1 in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guilt- 
who shall take the name of the Lord his God 

3. Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath-day. 

4. Honor thy father and thy mother. 

5. Thou shalt not kill. 

6. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

7. Thou shalt not steal. 

8. Thou shalt not speak &lse testimony against 

'9. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house. 
' 10. Thou shalt not desire his wife, nor his man- 
vant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox^ nor his 


ass, nor any thing that belongs to hiift>-4 
Panr. B. Virgin, in princip." 

We will now take the French one, entitled 
Petit Parroisiien Rofnain." •• T%e Little B 
Parishumer,^' published at Avignon, A. D. 1 
by the Bishop and Clergy of St. Michel. Fran 
for brevitjr's sake, we will merely select the^ 
second, sixth, ninth, and tenth Ciommandmeo 
Popery has them. They are as follows r 

'* Lsa Comma NDSMSNs ds Dibu." 

" 1. Thou shall worship one only God, and 
shalt thou love perfectly. 

*' 2. Thou shalt not swear by God, in vain, 
by any thing else. 

** 6. Thou shah not be lustful, neither in bod* 
in mind. 

"9. The works of the flesh thou shalt not A 
except in marriage. 

" 10. Thoii shalt not covet the goods of and 
for the sake of obtaining them unjustly." — Pai 
sien Rom. p. 16. ^ 

In all the Popish catechisms and Prayer-bod 
English that we have ever seen, (and we have 
many,) the 2d Commandment is wholly expui 
** J%au shalt not have any strange gods before 
according to their catechisms and Prayer-bod 
the end of the first Commandment Then 
some of their Prayer-books in English, which 
also a tail tacked on to the deformity of the ttaa^ 
Ae shape of an &c. Popery makes a gjf 


rom this &c. entirely over the 2d Command- 

the 3d, wholly leaving out these terribU 
-which not one Papist out of nine hundred 
lety-nine ever thought of being in the Bible; 
errible words, " Thou shalt not make unto 
y graven imager or any likeness of any thing 
in heaven above, or that is in the earth be- 
or that is in the water under the earth: 
halt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve 
— Exod. XX. 4, 5. 

le Romish catechism used in Boston, the 9th 
indment is, " Thou shalt not covet thy neigh- 
fe" But in Italy, Spain, and the other coun- 
Europe under the dominion of Popery, we 
n the quotations made above from the *• Office 
Hrgin Mary,^^ sanctioned in the most solemn 
• by two different Popes, by the Sacred Con- 
on of Rites, and by general usage, — ^from 
see that the 9th Commandment is, " Thou 
9t covet thy neighbor's housed 
le United States, it seems then, as we see from 
oston Pilot^^ that " Thou shalt not covet thy ^ 
n^s wife^ is the 9th Commandment ; but in 

1 it is made to be the 10th Commandment 
luld now ask the learned editor of the **J5m- 
W," as well as all the learned and Reverend 
3 of the Romish church, on which side of the 
c the infallibility of their church now lies ? 
lou adulterer of God's Holy Word! O, thou 
;er of one of his most important Command- 
how canst thou dare to stand foaclYi vcv \!iD[>a 

>^^-^ y^f'U^ 'A. re.. t>'V • a ca o /; . - ^\Vi' '" ' ' I 


enlightened age as the Church of Chnat, aa tha ll^ 
fidlible Church, as the Church out of which no 
can be saved ! 

We fear thee, O, thou bloody one, and a 
ment thrills through the breasts of many, thatlUv 
smiling, happy country, will, ere very long, be Mb- 
jected to thy dreadful sway : but these fears are sodi 
as operate to brace our nerves against thee. Ws J 
fear not what thou canst do to our bodies i wfaedMl 
thou kindlest thy Inquisitorial flames around thcili; 
whether thou immurest them in loathsome dim- 
geons ; whether thou rackest them upon thy toitV' 
ing wheel ; boilest them in cauldrons, or firiestdMBl 
iii pans ; — whether thou huntest us as the Walte- 
ses, or the poor defenceless Mexicans and Pemn- 
ans, from mountain to mountain, from valley to tit 
ley, from cave to cave, with exterminating bhoJ 
hounds ; all this we fear not, although we know it 
will be our doom as soon as thy sanguinary Cross (t) 
is firmly planted on our soil. What we fear i8,di6 
extinction of godliness, and the reign of Antichrut 

One word more on the Commandments as Fo- 
pery has brought them out in Boston, and we eb96 
the subject. * 

Adulterations in the translatiov.— * 
•• Strange Gods before we," instead of " JVitr iifcf 
Gods hefdre me}' •« Thou shalt not make to itptf 
antf graven thing,'* instead of ** Thou Mk if^ 
make unto thee am,y graven imageP ^ ^ftom dV^ 
hot adore them nor serve them'* instead[ of^ W*K 

.^^i^Uhrt^ ^ 


(h d^ 



fhalt not how down thyself to them^ nor serve 

"Thoa shalt not adore them." The original 
MTord is not adorej but bow down. The same word 
is used in Gen. xxx. 3, 6, 7, where it is said that Ja- 
M>b, Rachel, and Leah botoed down before Esau ; 
not that they adored him. Tlu* same word is also 
nse^ in Gen. xxiii. 12. ''And Abraham bowed 
down himself before the people of the land" Cer- 
tainly he did not adore the children of Heth. 

"-This same word," as the 'Boston Recorder* 
Very judiciously observes, "should have been ren- 
dered in the same way, where it occurs in the Deca- 
logue." But this would not answer Roman Catho- 
lic purposes. It might lead honest people to doubt 
the propriety of kneeling, or prostration, or any other 
mode of botving down before pictures and images ; 
«ven before the •likeness' of Christ on the cross, 
called the cmciflx. It must therefore be rendered 
4idore; and then certain shadowy distinctions must 
be attempted, between adoring images and honoring 
tbem with an inferior and relative honor, by bowing 
down unto them. 

** Of such things, we think we have good reason 
to complain. In our view it is not right that this 
inJQnction concerning images and pictures should 
^ omitted in some copies, and its meaning concealed 
^Y an erroneous translation in others. It is not 
^iUthat, in the catechism 'used in all the Sunday 
schools in this diocess,' a violence, injurious to the 
. •^96, should be done to five of the Ten ComxoaxA- 

r o 

146 SVNOPSIS. ^ 

ments. Even if the sense were not afiected by 'i^ 
which is impossible — it is not right that an abndg- I 
ment of the Decalogue should be published, as if it 
were not an abridgment, but the whole, as fint 
written by tbe fmger of God on tables of stone. 

" Why should the Decalogue be abridged or al- 
tered at all? Is it too long for the use of the laity? 
or can its forms of expression be improved 1 On 
these points, who shall correct Infinite Wisdom? 
Neither the author of that catechism, nor the Bishop 
who approved it, so far as we know, claims to be 
• infallible.' The infeUibility of the Author of the 
Decalogue, we suppose, is conceded by all. Wt are 
not afraid to trust all men with a sight of his Com- 
mandments, entire and unaltered. Why should 
the Roman Catholic Clergy of ' this diocess,' or of 
any other, be afraid? And if not afraid, why deal 
thus in abridgments and amendments?" 

Besides these adulterations in the translation, 
several important parts of the Commandments are 
wholly omitted, as may be seen by comparing the 
Boston Popish catechism with the Bible and with 
the original. Among the rest is their omission of 
almost the whole of the 4th Commandment, which 
absolutely forbids all servile labor on the Sabbath 
In regard to the 4th, or of Popery the 3d Comr 
mandment, they ask, 

" What are we commanded by this ? 

" Ans. To spend the Sunday in prayer, and other " 
religious duties. 

" Ques. What do you mean by religious duties' 


** Ans. I mean such as hearing Mass, receiving 
e Sacraments, reading good hooks, &c." 

Here the poor people, instead of hearing God's 
vn Word, have to listen to what their Priests com- 
and them. Their Priests tell them that the 4th; or 
cording to them, the 3d Commandment, com- 
ands them to keep holy the Sahhath day, by hear- 
g Mass, receiving the Sacrament, &c., when they 
LOW, at the same time, that, m the days of Moses, 
hen the ten Commandments were given, there was 
) such thing as Mass in existence, neither their 
ven Sacraments. Their Sacrament of the Mass 
18 instituted, as their Infallible Council of Trent 
firms, ** after Jesus celebrated the feast of the pas- 
lal lamb with his disciples, when he took bread, 
id giving thanks to Grod, blessed and brake, and 
iTB to his disciples, and said, ' Take ye and eat : 
\i$ is my body, which shall be delivered for you : 
4$ do for the commemoration of me.* " — Matt. xxvi. 
i Catechism Council Trent, on the Eucharist, 


The Popish Sacraments, which the church of 
tome calls the Sacraments of the New Law, were 
Iso instituted, as the same Council of Trent informs 
«, by Christ. — Cat. Council Trent,, on the Sacra- 
ments, p. 1Q6. 

What barefaced impudence, and what a sacri- 
'gioQs falsehood, then, to say that God commanded 
5e Israelites to sanctify the Sabbath by attending 
^ass, and receiving the seven Popish Sacraments I 



Doctrine of the Romish diurch concerning persont potfu 
with the Devil — And on cursing and swearing. 

What is now about to be exhibited before the jm 
lie concerning persons possessed with the Devil, 
so extremely wicked, abominable, and ]mmod( 
that we ate under the necessity of presenting t 
principal part of it under its original cloak 

We shall, however, uncloak a word or two oft! 
part of it which is the least shocking, that those w 
are unacquainted with the Latin, may, at least, he 
some faint idea of what the subject is. 

The Romish church, here, certainly has the : 
vantage, because the absurdity, and the wickedne 
and the felsehood of her doctrine, is so interwoi 
with filth, that we dare not bring it before the p 
lie view. 

If what is here subjoined in Latin were presen 
before the eyes of the world, it would prove, in 
clearest and strongest terms, that that church 
Devilish, because what is taught by her Divines 
the subject now before us, never could have ente 
into the mind of man by its mere natural suggest: 
nor by any humanly acquired knowledge wha 
evier ; nor could it ever have been imparted by 
Spirit of Gk)d, because it is not only abomina 
false and contrary to Scripture, \i\i\. mo«\. o\i^tiei 


Glthy, and of a character that« even were it true, 
aever should be known by man, because the know- 
ledge of it, being a mere speculative thing, could 
lever be of the least advantage to him. Such know- 
edge of such filth, and of such a lie, however, al- 
bough it could be of no advantage, is calculated to 
efile his soul : hence its origin must have been 
om the deepest, the filthiest, and the darkest recesses 
f the pit itself 

Although such things should never have been ex- 
agitated, yet since they have been, it becomes our 
uty to expose them, in order to expose the author 
f them, who is the Devil, and his emissary, who is 
le " Man of Sin.^^ 
The putrid exhalation, then, begins with : 
" Qui tamen magis solent confessariorum mentem 
ravioribus difficultatibus implicare, sunt ii qui turpi- 
us visionibus, motibus, ac etiam tactibus vexantur 
. dcemone, qui non solum fomitem sensualem excitat, 
ed aliquandp etiam cum eis carnale commercium 
lub forma viri aut mulieris habet, quapropter Sue- 
'>vHms vel Incubus appellatur. Qui dam hos doDmo- 
aes incubos, vel succubos dari negarunt ; sed com- 
KUNiTER id affirmant Auctores ; ut Martinus Del- 
fio in opere Disquis. Magic. P. Hieronym. Menghi 
L- 1. C. 15, Cardinalis Petrucci Episi.part.2. lib, 
^- opusc. 5. cap. 15. num. 5. et Sixtus Senensis lib. 
5. Bibl. Sacr, Annot. 11. ex S. Cypr. S. Just. Ter- 
W. etc. Et maxime hoc confirmat S. Aug. lib. 15. 
^ Civ. Dei. 53. ubi sic scribit : Apparuisse homi- 
^U4 Angelot in talibus corporibus ul uon ^\xxicl 


iriderl, verum etiam tangi possent, verissim 
tura testatur, et multos (quos Tulgo Incubos 
iraprobos ssepe extitisse mulieribus, et earum 
isse, ac peregisse concubitum. Cluosdam da 
hanc assidue immunditiam, et tentare, et effice 
res talesque viri asseverant, ut hoc negare i 
dentia videatur. Equidem pos9imt dcBmoD« 
hunc improbum usum defunctorum corpora 
mere, vel de novo sibi assumere ex aere et alii 
mentis ad carnis similitudinem, ac palpabiliiu 
calidorum corporum humanorum species effing 
et sic ea corpora ad coitum aptare. Imo tenet p 
fatus Delrio citans D. Th. D. Bonav. Scotum A 
lens, aliosque plures, quod doemon potest etiam 
rum seipien afierre aliunde acceptum, naturalemq 
ejus emissionem imitari, et quod ex hujusmodi coi 
cubitu vera proles possit nasci, cum valeat doemo 
semen illud accipere, puta a viro in somno pollutic 
nem patiente, et prolificum calorem conservando, il 
lico in matricem infundere; quo casu prolea ill 
non erit quidem filia doemonis, sed illius cujus tf 
semen, ut ait D. Thomas apud citatum Auctorem."- 
Ligor. Prax. Conf. N. 111. 

So firmly persuaded is the church of Rome of tb 

truth of what is spoken of above, that the very Utf 

victim publicly burned by the Inquisition at SeviU 

in Spain, on the 7th of November, in the year 178 

^ras burned expressly on account of her being aa] 

K)8ed guilty of the thing above stated. Lorent 

1 his History of the Inquisition of Spain, spealdl 

'this woJitM, who, he says, vra« a «u^p)p(iaed Sail 


\k U8 that she was burned to death by the Inqui- 
ion, for having made a covenant with the Devil, 
d for ** aliquartdo etiam, Sfc^ as above stated. Had 
s not remained *' negatively impenitent" to use 
) Inquisitorial technicality, i. e. had she acknow- 
\ged that she was guilty, says he, she might have 
;aped death. — Lorente. Tom. iv. C. 66. 
This fact proves at once, independent of other 
30&, that the above stated horrors, accord both 
th the doctrine of the Romish Divines, and with 
It of the Romish church. 

The Saint observes that there are some few 
fuidam" who deny that the Devil has the power 
doing what is above stated, but he says the com- 
3n voice of the Saints and of the Divines, is, that 
has the power, and actually exercises it, and that 
MTOuld seem to be imprudent to deny it. 
In order that our readers may have some idea of 
a horror of Popery,, and that they may see how 
tnpletely the Romish Priesthood can screen them- 
ves from detection in any tinlawful intercourse 
;y may have in violation of the seventh Com- 
mdment, we will lay before them as much of the 
bject now before us as modesty will allow. Let 
B world then judge and decide upon the reason 
ly such a doctrine was invented. The doctrine 
ion this subject is, that the Devil has the power, 
d actually exercises the power, of assuming a hu- 
Bin shape, and, under the appearance of a man, of 
dticing females. But, strange to tell ! in this case, 
e oSBBpring' of such connexion, \a said. \o \m\ckv^ 

15^ SVX0PSI9L 

nd to the r^Til, nehber to the womao, hvX "Mi 
iJJi%s ch^%s fst ^wiiiL" — Ligor. Prax. Conf. N. 111. 
This is ihe mos oommoviioas doctrine that Popoyi 
or raiher the DeiiL [ibr none but a demon coali 
hare derised itl could hare fiamed, in order thit 
the Priesis might indulge with impunity their loll- 
ful appetites. Under the cover of this ** doctrim ^ 
devil $y a licentious Priest in order to excul|atB 
himself from the condemnation of illicit conneBon, 
has nothing more to do than to lay it to the charge 
of the Devil. It would be in Tain for the wominto 
pretend to identify the Priest's person. He would 
tell her it was the I>eril, who assumed his sbqpe^ 
and imitated his Toice : and he being a Holy Con- 
fessor, she would be obliged to believe him. Nor 
does the abomination end here, for the doctrine is so 
well adapted to accommodate licentiousness, that 
even if it is certain that the Priest himself is the one 
who is guilty of the action, still the blame will be 
laid wholly on the Devil, and the Priest be excused 
from the guih of sin in what he does. The follow- 
ing is what is said by the Saint on the subject,* and 
is confirmed as he says, by ** Cardinal Petmcci, 
and St. Thomas Aquin." "It is known that the 
Devil can take possession of any part of a man ; for 
instance, his eyes, his tongue, or even oereiufak 
Hence it happens that the man utters words the 
most obscene, although his mind may be fiur firaitt 
thinking about what he says. Hence it sometimef 
happens, also, that the impulse is «o strong, th^ ho i 
Ten urged on to strip himself naked; and to do I 


ler filthy things, which I am ashamed to write 
>at." [! ! !] " When the devil has thus suspended 
I use of reason, there is no more sin in what the 
n does, than there would be if it was done by a 
ist." [! ! !]— Ligor. Prax. Conf N. 111. 
The authority of Ligori no Papist dare deny, 
ce his doctrine is declared by the church of 
me to be " sound, and according io God, sana ae 
undum Deum." — Ligor. Theol. Prasf And the 
.n himself has lately been enrolled among the 

[f we touch upon this subject at all, it is because 
:y constrains us. The pure in heart alone can 
:eT into our feelings, and participate with us in 
i emotions that swell in our bosoms. " Blessed 
e the pure in heart ;" and blessed be God that 
ne are pure in heart. ' 

Christian brethren! little, after all that has been 
posed, do you know of the rubbish through which 
J have to pass, in order to undermine this Popish 
ifice which has been reared upon the ruins of the 
rth — an edifice whose stones have been cemented 
ith the blood of the saints, and whose gorgeous 
ippings of gold, and silver, and precious stones, 
iTe been ground out of the faces of the poor. A 
Javy duty is incumbent on us, and we most ear- 
»tiy entreat your fervent prayers. Whilst the 
orld is hushed in the silence of sleep, many is the 
ght we have to pass in turning over the records 
'antiquity, and in investigating the height, and the 


depth, and the length, and the breadth, of the 
Ur^' of " Babylon the Great?' 

Nor do we suppose that by our feeble 
Babylon will &11. But this we know, that whi 
is able to hurl this mighty structure from it 
dation by a mere volition, still he chooses me 
which to effect his purpose. When creatic 
once floating about in atoms, and darkness ws 
the &ce of the deep, the great Jehovah said 
there he lights and there was lights' soicc 
now, by his sovereign command, dispel the da 
from the sinner's /nind, and yet he chooses 
to efiect his purpose. It is then our duty tc 
in array against the " Man of Sin" and to la 
his downfall. 

And we must say, that, considering the pi 
which the enemy of all good is making in ou 
few, comparatively speaking, seem to be a\^ 
the danger, and, consequently, few are mak 
forts to oppose him. 


" It is a blasphemy," says the Saint, " to ss 
God perish — I deny the Sacraments — also 
.that the Devil is holy, omnipotent. But it 
blasphemy if these words are but half pronoi 
for instance, I deny Go — . The Devil is 1: 
— Ligor. Tom. ii. p. 7. " Neither is it blasp 
•in speaking against men, to say. By the bl 
God — By the body of God — unless the indig 
be directly against God." — Id. ib. "Neithe 


lasphemy to say, I deny God, if I will not strike 
ou." — Id. ib. " Neither is it blasphemy to swear 
Y the modest parts of Christ's body." — Id. ib. 

What follows is horrible, too horrible to appear in 
Inglish — "Vera hlasphemia est dicere: Poiid!^ 
Mirs inhonesta,) " di Christo ; Poita diS. Paolo ;* 

intelligatur per ly poUa, natura mulieris, qtiam 
le verbum sigoificat, sed talis significatio commii- 
iter Deque intenditur, neque scitur ; therefore, gen- 
*ally speaking, such sort of blasphemy does not 
nudtute a mortal sin." — Id. ib. 

We will give a faint idea of the above, as mod- 
itly as we can, because it is a duty which we owe 
• Grod and to our country. Therefore, it is no mor- 
d sin to swear by any part of Christ's hody, even 
apposing Christ to be of the sex of a woman, upon 
»rtain conditions ! — Id. ib. p. 8. 

*' Thus also, rustics, or the ignorant common peo- 
le, are excusable from mortal sin in blas- 
HEMiNo God, if they add the words, yi^ri di Dio, 
I se Vho fatto io^ — Id. ib. p. 8. " But it is 
;lasphemy to curse the Catholic faith, if it 
NUB a relation to God." — Id. ib. p. 1 1. 

" It is blasphemy to say, May the blood of God, 
>r the head of God destroy thee." — *' He who has 
Jie habit of swearing thus, is bound, under mortal 
»in, to try to correct it ; if he tries to correct it, how- 
ever, and stUl falls into it, he may sometimes be ez* 
naei, because such kind of swearing, breakmg out, 

* These words are Italian. It is their common mode of 

'Ii6 fiTNpMIS. 

^ as it were, by a natural imptibe, m mnAuMoffi^ 
Id, ib. p. 10. 

'* It is not a grieYOos sin simply to curse thaJioift 
the day, or the year, unless the word holf ]» idled." 
— Id. ib. p. 11. 

" Ordinarily speaking, I think," says the fiUai^ 
^ that an illiterate and rustic person who cursitt-tlM 
world, at thie most, commits a grievous sin, whea he 
accuses himself of it with a great horror of miod.*' ' 
— Id. ib. p. 1 3. 

Thus, it is a morieU sin to curse the world^-if du 
sinner has remorse enough to Confess it with'tiof - 
for, but it is no m&rtal sin^ if he is obdurate entegl 
to Confess it toithout remorse ! — Or, in other watdli 
(O I paradoxical doctrine of I>evil8 ! ) the greater tiie 
sinner, the less is the sin ! 

♦* To curse the Devil is very rarely a mortal 8^ 
and, excluding impatience, it is not even a venial 
sin." — Id. ib. Let us put this against the Word d 
Ood, and see how it stands : *' Yet Michckel, He 
Archangel, when contending with the Demi, he dtV 
jni4ed about the body of Moses, durif not Mug 
agaifist him a radling accusation, but said, 9V 
. Lord rebuke theeV-^hide 9. 

•♦ To curse the dead is only a light curse.'*'— fit 
ib. The Saint here admoniahes Confessor^ to ift> 
struct the ignorant people on this point, leal, wkgfSh 
sing it to be a mortal sin to curse the dead, ttsf 
should perish, owing to their ignonmce^ aiul to m 
erroneous donscienee, '* Neither let ConfeaaoQi Ihb 
aii-aid, that, by letting them know it is only a>|ipU 


sin, they will thence take occasion to curse with 
greater impunity, for it is better to permit innumera- 
ble venial sins, rather than one mortal" — Id. ib. p. 15. 
Here we have these Holy Confessors, then, these 
Infallible Guides, these only true Pastors, teaching 
the people to break the very laws of nature. 

•• To curse inanimate creatures, is no blasphemy, 
miless these creatures are directly referred to God." 
— Id. Tom. viii. p. 38. Thus, to say, damn the 
stone, damn the log, damn this, or damn that, is no 
mortal sin. 

Now, ail this is horrible. — Are we then to be sur- 
prised, when we hear, in all Popish countries, and 
especially at Rome, the very head and centre, as 
they pretend, of the only true Church, and of all 
sanctity, are we to be surprised at the shocking, 
most filthy, and frightful oaths that strike and pol- 
lute the ear at almost every step one takes in Rome, 
and from Rome, spreading its foul infection through- 
out all the provinces of Italy, Spain, and Portugal I 
Are we to be surprised, when we consider that it is 
sanctioned by their church, and canonized, as it 
were, by the approbation of their Saints ! Nay, 
more, and more horrible still, when we learn that 
they are trained to it by the very Pastors them- 
selves ! — " Neither let Confessors be afraid that by 
letting them know that cursing is only a venial sin, 

k they will thence take occasion to curse with greater 

i impunity." 

j^ Human nature, corrupt as it is, feels a natural 

^ ^^pagmmce to cursing, whether it be iViiaga ^mm^Na 

/ 14 



Other the less coxmaon ; or the one literal, and the 
other spiritual, as were the words which Ghriit 
spoke concerning John the Baptist, He is EUml 
And John the Baptist said, I am not Elias, Thm 
also, if any one is interrogated in regard to any 
thing that it is expedient to conceal, he can answer, 
' / say no,^ that is, I say or utter the word «u>."— 

"Having laid down these general premisei^" 
continues the Saint, ** it is certain and agreed to bf 
all, that as fiir as good or just reason, it is lawfid to 
equivocate in the manner above mentioned, andefOi 
to confirm the equivocation with an patL" — Id. ih 
The Saint confirms what he advances by the autboiir 
ty of St. Jerom. C. 22. q. 2, who says, (according 
to Ligori,) "that to dissemble or feign a thing is use- 
ful, and is sometimes to be practised. And the rea- 
son, according to St Thomas Aquin, why such dis- 
sembling is lawful, is, because we do not deceive 
then our neighbor, but, for a just reason, we permit 
him to jdeceive himself" — Id. ib. 

** A Confessor," says St Ligori, " may afi&rm, evea 
with an oath, he knows nothing about a sin which 
he has heard in Confession, meaning thereby, that bo 
does not know it as a man, but not that he does not 
know it as the minister of Christ" — Id. ib. N. 163. 

**A culprit or a witness," continues the Sainl^ 
** who is interrogated by a judge unlawfully, can 
swear that he is ignorant of a crime, which, in tmtb, 
he knows." — Id. ib. N. 154. 

** Whether a criminal who 'is lawfully interrvig^ 



ted by a judge, can deny the crime, even with «n 
oath, there are," ssljb Ligori, " two opinions ; one i», 
that he cannot, and this is the most probable. The 
other opinion, which indeed is sufficiently probable, 
is, that he can deny the crime even with an oath, 
provided he be in danger of death, or of imprison- 
ment, or of perpetual exile, or the loss of ail hifi 
property, &c.; he can deny it, at least without a 
grievous sin, by a mental reservation, meaning that 
he did not commit the crime in such a way as to be 
bound to acknowledge it^ provided he has hopes of 
avoiding punishment And Elbel," (a celebrated 
Divine,) "adds, that this opinion, although it be 
the least probable, is, however, to be insinuated 
into the mind of the criminal, and of Confess- 
ors, in order that they may deliver him from the 
heavy penalty of the law, which ke would easily 
incur if he were bound to confess his crime." — Id. 
ib N. 156. 

In this conflict of opinions, which, in Popery, 
are called opinions the most probable, and opinions 
swjficienfly probable, it is the common sentiment of 
the Popish Divines, (as we shall hereafter show, 
when we treat on their doctrine of probabtlism,) 
that it is lawful to reject the most probable opinion, 
and to follow that which is sufficiently probable, 
nay, even that which is the least probable ; conse- 
quently a criminal who is lawfully interrogated by 
a judge, can, under the above mentioned circum- 
stances, deny, with an oath, that he is guilty of a 
crime of which, in truth, he is gxiiYty. 'ICVv^ Ost^r 



Ibmr; hjs die katj Dnia^caa ■■riwff Jotfce 
criminal tbift ke cm, &c tint i% tkat Jbe cm dny 
the criraeof which he it accumL uid can coBfiim 
the iie, even with an oath; can pqjnie hfinaeH mJ 
yet be inooccnL Doctrine of deiik ! 

**ltis hwial,'' my Ligori, '^to hide tbe traA. 
if one has a leaaon i>r doing ao; for inatUMC^ if 
any one wants to b<»Tow money of yon, yoa en 
say, would to God thit I had aome!"— Id. ih. N. 
16a • 

The Saint aaln this qiieatioD» " Can an adnheiei^ 
who is questioned by the woman's husband, deny 
that he committed adultery with his wife? An* 
swer. He can, by egmitoetdlf aaaeidng, that bo 
did not break the matrimonial tie, which, in fiict, is 
tme. And if he has sacramentally confessed the 
adukery, he can answer, '/ am innoeeiU of tki$ 
erime,^ because, by CoDfessioo, it has been pardon- 
ed and remored." — Id. ib. N. 162. 

In regard, however, to a woman, who is guilty 
of adultery, the Saint maintains, that she cannot 
lawfully deny it, unless she is afraid of losing her 
life, by the avowal of her crime, ^ in which caa^" 
sajTS he, ** she can answer metaphorically, wtuek 
mode of speaking is common in Scripture, "when 
adukery is taken for idolatry, as in Ezech. xriiL 
37. * Because they are aduLterers^ and have ett^ 
mitted fornication tnth idols? And if the tAo» 
n altogether hidden, the probable opinion ii^ tM 
^he wife can deny her having committed adnltiQl . 
^pn with an oath."— Id. ib. 


** If one person," says the Saint, ''asks another to 
lend him money, he can, with an oath, deny that 
he has any money, provided his inability to lend, 
might be known from circumstances. By denying 
that he had money to lend, under these circumstan- 
ces, he could mean that he had none to lend, that is, 
that he had no superfluity of it to lend." — Id. ib. 
N. 163. 

The Saint says, that it is the probable opinion, 
that merchants can lawfully swear that their goods 
cost them more than they really do, when they do 
not mean thereby the real price of the goods, but 
other additional expenses. — Id. ib. N. 164. 

** It is asked," says St Ligori, " whether a ser- 
vant, by the command of his master, can say, that his 
master is not at home ? It is addmitted, says he, 
by Card, that he can strike his foot against a stone, 
and answer, *he is not hereJ " — Id. ib. 165. *' But to 
this," says the Saint, " I do not agree, if the one 
who asks the question, could by no means notice 
this. I would rather grant, that tbe servant could 
answer, *he is not here! that is, he is not in this 
door, or at this window — he is not here so as to be 
seen ! ! !" — Id. ib. Here is Ligorian logic — this is 
drawing Satan, as one draws out a wire, to the tenu- 
ity of a hair. It would require the ingenuity of a 
Popish Saint to determine which of the two propo- 
sitioDs is the most ridiculous. 

" Ques. Is it lawful," asks the Saint, •• to swear 
to any thing &lse, by adding in a whisper, a cir- 
cumstance that is true ? Some Divines say it is. 

- 'i 


and their reuon k, because? in oider that an wmf 
don be trae, it is sufficient that there be an ontwirf 
concordance with the mind, whether tlus coneoid* 
ance be expressed by signs, or by a whisper, whidi 
may so happen, that the other may not hear it Bit 
it is better, as Sabn obserres," continues the EhudHi- 
** to say, that it is lawfbl, if these signs or this whil; 
per could, by any means, be perceiired by the otlif^ • 
although his senses do not perceive them." — li. h 
N. 168. 


« If any one," says Ligori, " takes what bekogt 
to another, by way of sport, or for the good or coi* 
venience of him from whom he takes it, it. is not to 
be considered as theft. Neither is it to be regarded 
as a theft, if a servant give alms, not to too grest 
an amount, taken from the property of his master, 
to a very poor person, in regard to which the roaflt^r 
is not unreasonably unwilling, from whom, howef* 
er, owing to timidity, or some other reason, he date 
not ask if'—Id. ib. N. 519, 520. 

" It is certain," continues the Saint, *» that he who 
is in extreme necessity, can steal from another tf 
much as is sufficient ^o relieve him from his necet* 
sity, because, in such a case, all things are conunoffl 
property." — Id. ib. 

" When there is a necessity that is prozimatdf 
extreme, any one can provide for himself" (by steil' 
ing,) ** by the ordinary means. But it is dmi^ 
whether a &ther, for instance, can be considsiied to 
be in such a necessity, wb.o, on account of pafevty» 


in danger of prostituting his daughter? Some 
ivines maintain, that under such circumstances, the 
mger will authorize it; others, more prohahly, 
my it, because no necessity can compel any one to 
n, when there is any other way, (U least by lying, 
■ obtaining relief from want." ! ! ! — Id. ib. 

Lying, therefore, according to Ligorian logic, is 
9 sin. It is no sin to break the 9th Command- 

" But what," exclaims the Saint, ** if any honora* 
le man should be extremely ashamed to beg, or to 
rork, can he steal from others ? Some say that this 
ught to be considered a grievous, rather than an 
Ktreme necessity. Others, however, affirm that, 
nder such circumstances, he can steal; and this 
eems to me to be the more probable, especially, if 
le person should be so much ashamed of begging, 
lat he would rather choose to die than beg." — 
d. ib. 

"When a servant," says Ligori, ••is forced by ne- 
cessity to agree to work at low wages, he can com- 
)eiisate himself by stealing from his master the full 
nQue of his services." — Id. ib. N. 522. 

" Can Christians," continues the Saint, ** lawfully 
steal from the Turks? Ans. If Christians are held 
in slavery among the Turks, it is certain, that they 
can steal from their masters enough to redeem them- 
selves, and to pay their expenses back into their own 
country, as a compensation for their unjust bondage, 
wid for the losses which they sustain on account of 



slavery. Such is the Decree of the Congrega 
of the Sacred Office."— Id. ib. N. 523. 

(Papists dare not, at present, teach this doct 
at the South.) 

"Can any Christian whosoever steal the prop 
of Turks ?" asks the same St. Ligori. 

** Ans. Some assert they cannot, but others, 
more probability, maintain they can. The re 
why they can steal from them, is, because it is i 
to presume that Christian princes will allow it, i 
they have the right to despoil the Turks ofal 
property, and of all the lands which they have ui 
ed."— Id. ib. N. 525. 

Wo be to us heretics, whom the church of E 
regards as worse than Turk or heathen, when 
Christian princes get the power of putting theii 
trine into practice! One of these Christian pf 
has already taken his seat at Washington ii 
highest judicature of the country. When we 
Popish President, and a few more Popish Ri 
and Christian princes, we shall be treated lik 
Turks — robbed of our property and driven froi 
soil. Americans ! will you hear this and not 
the alarm % 

" It is not a mortal sin, properly so called, to 
any sum with a design of replacing it within a 
time, say a quarter of an hour." — Id. ib. N. 53 


•• Is it a mortal sin," asks the Saint, " to st 
small piece of a Sacred Relic ? Ans. There 
doubt but that, in the Dislncl o^ "Rome, w \^ «. 


tal sin. But out of this District if any one steal a 
small piece of a Relic it is probable that it is no mortal 
sin, provided the Relic be not thereby disgraced, nor, 
its value lessened ; unless it be some notable or rare 
Helic, such, for instance, as the Holy Gross, or the 
hair of the Blessed Virgin Mary, &c." — Id. ib. 

" If any one steal a small sum," says the Saint, 
"merely from the temptation of the moment, whether 
it be once or several times, not intending to amass a 
Wge amount, and not grievously injuring his neigh'^ 
bor by each theft, it does not constitute a grievous 
sin, neither do all the thefts taken together constitute 
ft mortal sin. If) . after he has stolen to a large 
ftmount, he retain what he has stolen, he does not 
commit a mortal sin if he be unable to restore it." — • 
Id. ib. V. 533. 

" If a tailor," says the Saint, '• steal from different 
persons, for whom he works, small pieces of clothe 
or if a merchant uses a yard'^ick shorter than it 
ought to be, he does not commit a grievous sin, pro- 
vided he has no other way of supporting himself 
or femily."— Id. ib. 

" A wife may give alms or presents," says Li- 
gori, " according to the custom of other women of 
the same place and condition, although her husband 
may have prohibited her from giving any of those alms, 
because custom confers this right upon her, of which 
her husband cannot deprive her. A wife can also 
give away the twentieth part of the income or profits 
of her husband without his knowledge, becaMse \V\va 


ktt hmkmu d woM be mranonable m ofpih 
L SbecuiakogiTeamodmiealiniHioidtf 
to oUua Uie coovenkm of her hoibuid, or to pn* 
veoi God from fMhiny him." — Id. ih. N. 640. 

What a cta&j device lor filling the pockels <tf the 
Holy Confesaors ! Alma-deeds in Popery^ at hM 
already been ahown, aignifiea, not only giving totk 
poor, but alao the giving of money to wealthy P riaW 
Ibr saying Maaa. In order, however, that no on 
of their foilowera, be ahe ever so stupid, might mir 
take the true Priestly signification of alma-deeda, ifte 
Holy Doctors teach that a vwderaU 4Um8 may bs 
itolen from a husband to give toward his convenH^ 
and to prevent God from punishing him. This, •O' 
cording to the doctrine of the church of Romev is ^ 
be effected chiefly, and in the surest manner, by the 
oflfering up of the Holy Sacrifice of Mass fiur the 
good of the soul, and these Masseis, as has also bea 
shown, must be paid for. 

What a perversion of the truth, to teach that w 
vants, under any circumstance, can lawfully *il 
from their masters ; whilst the stealing of a piece rf 
the Virgin Marias hair, a thing which i^ not in efr 
istence, is a grievous sin I How coBtrary to the 
Word of God, which says, that servants oaghl Uk 
oMieiU la their inon msuters, and to pUmm liitf 
^iMinaUtkimgs; notam$werimgm^mim,Mor¥^ 
MIKttita, kmi ^^owimg mil goad fidtlii% tM 0f 
mnjf «(fom lAe docirime af Gad amr Sonar iaJI^ 


On Can9eienee—Ih^dbUi9m--Cu8t<nn'-3fi9edlafuous, 

Wk now enter with the Saint upon the treatise 
On Conscience. In this treatise we shall see how 
anbtlely Satan prepares the conscience, through the 
agency of the Popish Divines, for the fartherance 
and accomplishment of the doctrine, and of the re- 
anllB which they have in view. 

The treatise is opened with an admonition of the 
aathor« in the words following : 


''Know, kind reader, that this first treatise on 
Conscience, hy which a door is opened to the whole 
Moral Theology, has heen elahorately compiled, 
tttd with a special care to facilitate the instruction 
rf my pupils." — Ligor. Lib. 1, C. 1. 

1. The rules of action. — "There are two 
ndes of human actions," says the Saint. *' One is 
called the remote, and the other, the proximate. 
T^ remote or material is the Divine Law; the 
pittzimate or formal, is the conscience ; because, al- 
tiioiigh conscience in all things ought to be conform- 
^to the Divine law, nevertheless, the goodness or 
^ malice of human actions is known to us as they 
^ apprehended or conceived by the conscience."^- 
H ib. N. 1. 

170 STN0P8I& 

2. Definition of conscibnos. — '*<OoiiicieO0 
is thus defined : It is a judgment or practical dicMi 
of reason, by which we judge what, under thip of 
that circumstance, is to be performed as good, or 
shunned as evil. — Id. ib. N. 2. 

** Conscience is divided into a right or tnijB, into 
an erroneous^ a perplexed, a icrnpuloaSf a daUm 
and a probable conscienca — Id ib. N. & 

"A right conscience is that whicb dictatei 
is true ; therefore, he who acts agaitttf such 
science, sins.— -Id. ib. 

" An erroneous conscience is that which Jkl^ii 
what is false, as if it were true: the ^rroneoidless 
of it is sometimes vincible and sometimes invidoMfr 
—Id. ib. 

" A perplexed conscience is that under which i 
person who is obnoxious to two difier^nt pteefffi, 
thinks that he sins, take which part he will; tot 
instance, if a person by perjuring himself can m,n 
the life of a criminal, and on the one hand halt pe^ 
plexed by the precept which prohibits perjoryi ani 
on the other hand (under the influence of enor) he 
cannot extricate himself from the precept of kff9 
towards his neighbor, it is asked, what, under soek 
circumstances, is he to do ?^^If he cannqC ascerltfa 
or discern which of the two is the least evil, he dooa 
not sin, let him act which way he wilL-^U. ik 
N. 10. 

** We come now, lastly, to. the scrupuioos cofr^ 
science, respecting which we shall havtstO'lM'^ 
more at length. A scrupulous conscience is itiia^ 


lich, for some light motive, and without reasona- 
3 ground, often shudders at the thought of commit- 
^ sin, where, in truth, there is no sin. The 
irks of a scrupulous conscience are these: — 1. 
Jrtinacity of judgment, under the influence of 
lich the scrupulous refuses to ohey the counsels 
the wise" (i. e. the Priests,) ''consults various 
ler persons, but reposes confidence in the judg- 
mt of none of them ; nay, the more he listens to 
em, the more he is perplexed. 2. Frequent change 
judgment for slight reasons. 3. Frequent imper- 
lent reflections. 4. In all things a dread of sin, 
d a stubborn resistance of the mind against the 
Igment of the wise, and even against his own 
dgment, hence he is never satisfied with any one 
claration of his Confessor." — Id. ib. N. 11. 


lENCE. — In order to overcome these scruples, the 
int, among other instructions, has the following : 
liet him shun the reading of books, and the conver- 
tion of persons that excite scruples. Let him not 
main long in the examination of his conscience, 
pecially in regard to those things which trouble 
m the most. Let him shun idleness, by which 
e mind is oilen filled with vain fears. Let him 
imestly commend himself to God for obtaining 
sip for obeying the commands o his Director; 
nee this is the principal, nay, the only remedy for 
ich infirmities, wholly to acquiesce in the judgment 
^his Superior or Confessor This is the sentiment 





of ail the Fathers, Theologians, and 
ters."— lA ib. N. 12. 

4. Obediencs to a Priest cancels all six, 
A Confessor cannot err. — The Saint contiwisi 
thus: *'St Philip Nerius us'sd to tell his Penitenti, 
that they who desire to progress in the way of God, 
should submit themselves to a learned Canfumr, 
whom they should obey as God, He who tbni 
acts will be secure from having to render an aceouM 
of any of his actions. A Confessor must Ve be* 
lieved, because God will not suffer him to err. 
Nothing is safer than to follow the will of one's Di- 
rector, and nothing is more dangerous than to be 
directed by one's own judgment If," continnesli- 
gori, quoting from Glossa, ** a commandmeol be 
doubtful, he who acta in obedience to his Confessor 
is excused from sin, although, in truth, what he does 
is sinful." ducting from St Dionysius, he has the 
following : '' If there be a doubt whether ^hat one 
is about to do is against the commandment of Qod, 
we must obey the commandment of our PreUaU^ 
(Bishop, Priest, or Confessor,) ** because, although 
wl^at we do be against God, nevertheless, on account 
of the virtue of obedience, we, being subject to oar 
Prelates, do not sin." — Id. ib. 

5. Priests must be obeyed. — ** Let the Goa- 
fessor,*' continues the Saint, ** strenuously insist iQM* 
the Penitent's obeying him, and if he refuse toobefi 
let him be sharply rebuked, be deprived of Coiiui>' 
nion, and let his obduracy be blunted as rnoui ** 
possible."— Ib. id. N. 16. 


(The persons, who, in Popery, are accused of he- 
mg scrupulous, are those who are afraid of walking 
in the broad way of Popish morality.) 

6. The Confessor and the scrupulous. — 
* Let the Confessor," says the Saint, •* enjoin upon 
those scrupulous, who are afraid of sin in every 
action, that they act freely, despise their scruples, 
and do contrary to what they dictate, where sin is 
not evident.'' — Id. ib. N. 17. 


We will now introduce from the Saint, the Po- 
pish doctrine on the ** probable conscience." 

7. *' A probable conscience," says the Saint, 
•*is that by which a person, leaning upon some proba- 
ble opinion, forms to himself a practical dictation of 
reason from certain reflected or concomitating prin- 
ciples, for acting lawfully. It is to be observed, 
however, that there are a variety of different kinds 
of probabilism. One is an opinion that is slightly 
probable ; another, probable ; another, more proba- 
ble • another, most probable; another, morally cer- 
tain; another, safe; another, safer." — Ligor. Lib. 1. 
N. 40. " An opinion that is slightly probable, is that 
which rests upon some foundation, but not such as 
can obtain the consent of a prudent man. This 
opinion we can never lawfally use." — Ligor. Id. ib. 

** A probable conscience is that, which rests upon 
some solid foundation, either an intrinsic one of rea- 
son, or an extrinsic one of authority, which can ob- 
'tain the consent of a. prudent man, a\lVvow§\v \\.\s«k 


174 8TN0MI8. 

with some fear of tliat which m oppoMd iciitV 
Id. ib. 

** A more probable conscience 18 thai which npl 
npon a more solid foundation, but alao with son 
prudent fear of that which is opposed to it, and i 
such a manner that the contrary opinion also seeni 
probable." — Id. ib. 

** A most probable opinion is that which resls afO 
the most solid foundation, by reason of wbiffk tfa 
contrary opinion is considered to be light, or dodil 
fully probable. It is always lawful to use Uusopb 
ion." — Id. ib. 

" An opinion or sentiment that is morally ceitsii 
] IS that which excludes all prudent fear of felsity ; ■ 

that the contrary opinion is regarded as wholly ii 
probable." — Id. ib. 

'* A safe opinion is that which is removed fros 
all danger of sinning." — Id. ib. 

** A safer opinion is that which recedes still ferdv 
from such a danger, although it be not supported ^ 
more solid reasons." — Id. ib. 

8. ExcLusiYE SALVATION. — ** Heuco WO io 
1st, that it is not lawful, in matters of feith, or in 
thing that appertains to eternal salvation, thrc 
the necessity of the means, to follow an opinior 
is less probable nor more probable; Imt w 
bound to follow the sentiment that is the sa&i 
•equently we ought to embrace a religion that 
safer, such as is, without doubt, our CathoUo. 
avisry other religion is felse, although some re 
§ppmi to some mote i^TobBLble,aeveith« 


10 leaves that which is the safer, and embraces 
It which to him may seem the more probable, 
snot escape the eternal damnation of his souL" — 
ib. N. 43. 

9. Probability of right. — •* Any one," say^ 
I Saint, "can fully use a probable opinion, if it be- 
regard to the probability of right, if he forms to 
nself a conscience that is morally certain of the 
)bity of his action." — Id. ib. N. 53. 

10. Obligation of law. — *• In order that a law 
ould be binding, it is not sufficient that it be pro- 
ilgated, but it must be promulgated as certain. 
1 uncertain law cannot impose a certain obliga- 
n. Therefore, we say, that no one is obliged to 
«eiTe a law unless it is manifestly certain to him. 
one in a doubt is presumed to be bound." — Li- 
►r. Lib. i. Mor. Sys. Die. iii. 

11. Conflict of opinions. — "It is morally 
Ttain that, in the concurrence of two opinions of 
[oal weight, there is no obligation of following 
at which is the safer." — Id. ib. The Saint here 
nst allude to opinions relative to moral conduct, 
»tractedly from what he calls ** matters of faith, 
p any thing that appertains to eternal salvation;" 
jT which he means, as he has told us in a prece- 
iDg chapter, the knowledge of the mysteries of 
ith, the existence of God, and a few other neces- 
iries. With the exception of these, he means, 
there is no obligation, in the concurrence of two 
[anions of equal weight, of following that which is 
le safer." 


12. The mere act of Confession gitm k 
RIGHT TO Absolution. — The Saint says, i\ai, 
generally speaking, a Penitent acquires a ctrttM 
right to Absolution on account of having Confeflsed 
his sins. — Ligor. Lib 1.. Mor. Sys. p. 100. 

13. Priests and people almost univebsal* 
LY wicked. — We find, from Ligori, that the coa* 
fiict of difierent opinions, both among the In&lliUe 
Divines, and among their people, is so great, that it 
is impossible to know with certainty, where the 
greater probability lies, or upon what opinion one 
can repose with safety. The Saint frequently ob- 
serves that both Penitents and Confessors, both she^ 
and Pastors, the sick and their Physicians, the cbil* 
dren and Fathers, the criminals and their Judges, 
often lose their souls on account of ignorance, or too 
much rigor, or too much lenity in the Spiritual 
Fathers, and on account of the Penitenfs followifl( 
their instructions. In corroboration of this awfo 
truth, we will quote a few of the many avowal 
made by St. Ligori himself " And on this point, 
says he, speaking of bad Confessors, ** how has 
we not to lament the ruin of souls, the cause < 
which ruin is the many bad Confessors, who indi 
criminately absolve so many relapsing sinners, wh« 
finding Confessors that so easily absolve then 
lose the horror of sin, keep on until they are rotte 
with it, and sink at last overwhelmed in the sin 
of their pollution I" — Ligor. Prax. Conf. N. 7 
"The greater part of Confessors," continues th 
Plaint, ** universally absolve relapsing sinners witl 


fui any dutinctioo, without any extraordinary 
agns of contrition, and without admonition ; hence 
^e universal destruction of so many souls ! Conr 
fessariorum pars universaliter Reeidivos absolvunt 
%%e distinctione, sine signo extraordinario, sine ad* 
noniiione : — hinc tot Animarum universalis pemi' 
Hesf^ — Id. ib. N. 77. " This is certain," observes 
he Saint, speaking of Confession, ** that in this mat- 
er both those Confessors err who are too easy in 
^ving absolution, as well as those who are too diffi- 
:iilt Many Confessors, on account of their too 
gfreirt indulgence, are the cause why so many souls 
lie lost, and it cannot be denied but that these are in 
he greater number, and do more harm, since it is 
o them that the greater number of habitual sinners 
ome to confess. The other Confessors too, who 
re too rigorous, are also a great damage to the sal- 
ttion of souls.'* — Id. ib. 

** The Church mourns aftd laments," continues 

9 Saint, ** seeing so many of her children destined 

hell, on account of the ignorance, carelessness, or 

piety of bad Confessors, since it is upon their good 

evil government that the destruction or salvation 

lie people principally depends. It is not to be 

bted but that, if all Confessors possessed the 

wledge and integrity of morals so great a Minis- 

lemands, the world would not be disordered and 

used with such a mire of sins, nor hell filled with 

any souls baptized." — Ligor. Introd. ad Prax. 

p. 5. 

The opinion of one Divine sumci^ftTo^ 

178 snropsia 

coNflciSNcs. — ^» If. the opinoiw of the DocloirK 
eontnury/' says Ligori, ** and the Canfeasar enMtf 
believes that he reels upon the text or tkpoD fBuatt 
and that the opinion of his Pendent is doiibtfiil,1l^ 
ought not to absoWe him ; bat if the Penitent atnb 
himself of the same reaftm, or nearly the same; ml 
has upon his side some Doctor or celebsitt; bo 
can absolve him." — Ligor. de Oonsc. p. 101. 

15. Danger in Penance. — **But when it^ii 
doubtful," continues the Saint, ** whether the PmKaH 
ought to have, or to follow such an opinion, the Odd- 
fessor ought to embrace the milder opinion. TUi 
is confirmed by St Antonius, who writes that tte 
same is the opinion of GofTred of the Founts on the 
subject of these contrary opinions which are toUraid 
by the Church, as we have said, and which ought to 
be unfolded before the Penitent, who ought to study 
to inform himself on this subject by the opinion of 
the prudent, because ihme hold a contrary opinioQ, 
especially if the Confessor be not the OrdinaTy,tsoi 
thus he is to be absolved." — Id. p. 102. The foist, 
speaking of certain opinions, in wl^ich the Penileiit 
and Confessor differ, sa3rs, ** That if the Penitent v 
unwilling to receive such counsel, it seems that be 
ought to b^ left to his own judgment ; neither is lie 
to be condemned on this account, nor to be denied alh 
solution. But if the Confessor cannot clearly p^ 
ceive whether the thing be a mortal sin, it does aOt 
seem that he ought then to avail himself of the opif 
ion which holds that absolution, on this.aecovA 
ought to be denied, or that he should make f&r hit Pf 


nitint a conscience of mortal sin ; however, if the Pe- 
nitent should afterwards act contrary to such a con- 
science, ahhough the thing, abstractedly considered, 
would not be a mortal sin, yet, under such a circum- 
stance it would be mortal to him, because whatever 
is against conscience, frames an edifice for hell ; and 
as the right for absolving is clearer than that for 
binding, it seems rather that the Penitent ought to be 
absolved, and then to be left to he examined by God 
When the opinion of the Penitent is 'probable, he is 
excused from sin, and has a right to absolution. 
When there are probable opinions among grave 
Divines, follow which you will, your conscience is 
safe." — Id. ib. 

After all the boastings of infallibility, they are 
reduced to the necessity of acknowledging that a 
Penitent ought to be left to be examined by God. 
If the wretched Priests would leave them to God, 
they might then extricate themselves from the shoals, 
and breakers, and counler-currentsof the wrangling 
opinions of weak, sinful, fallible men, and sail, 
wafted along through life, by the unerring Spirit of 
God, with his grace as their pilot, with Christ as 
their polar star, with his Word, the inspired Volume, 
as their chart, and laden with the fruits of righteous* 
ness, bound to the haven of eternal rest. But, ac- 
cording to their own concessions, ** how many re- 
lapsing sinners are involved in eternal ruin by fol- 
lowing the directions of bad Confessors!" The 
Saint has told us. that, " AMONG THE PRIESTS 



ABE GOOD." Tet these are the InfidlOikPSkli 
these are they who arrogate to themaelYes Che teH 
oV'He that heareik you, kewretk «m, mmd k$ CW 
despisetk yoit, despiseik me." — Luke z. 16. 


OPINION. — *" It it kiwful," says Ligori, ''tofcUowii 
opinion that is equally prohahle for liberty," (Ubci^' 
in regard to moral acdoo,) *«and to leave that wkkk 
is the more probable lor the law. It k kwfalto 
foiHow an opinion that is less probaUe fer libsrti^ 
and to leave that which is the more profaaUe iir ths 
law.!' — Ligor. de ConscL p. 103, compared wilh^ 
106 & 107. As some may not understand the tsoJi' 
nicality of all this, we will now pat it into pkia 
English. The doctrine is this. The law eoat 
mands a certain thing, but the conscience, or opiniosb 
or sentiment, of some certain person does not cols' 
cide with that law. Although it is wuhre prohM 
that the law is right and just, yet if the person han 
merely an opinion that what he thinks is righ^ kf 
then commits no sin in disobeying the law^ Tim 
mere opinion may be founded, either on his own if 
norance or depravity, or, as the Saint informs ii% OB 
the authority of some grave Divines. These giiis 
Divines, as we see from the Saint, are at peipetMl 
variance among themselves, therefore a aioner is # 
liberty to think and to act just as he chooses. 


B0W heard the instructiowi which the Saint giMi 
Confessors, relatiye to how they should pvepm fti; 


ciences of their Penitents, we will listen to his 
notions on other subjects. 
Te come now to what is taught on the subject of 
3m, *' consuetudo,^^ 

I order to have a proper and correct understand- 
of the doctrine of the Romish church on this 
ect, we shall have to elucidate it with a few ple- 
nary observations. In the first place, it is neces- 
• to remark, that Popery often attaches a mean- 
to words and expressions, entirely repugnant to 
r true and genuine import Owing to this per- 
iion, it is sometimes indispensable, in order to 
trtain the true Popish meaning of a thing, to fol- 
tfaem in their own application and elucidation 
leir doctrine. By this means wd ascertain the 
.ning they attach to words, and consequently, 
form a correct idea of any of their propositions, 
'or instance, in treating on the subject of custom, 
nsitetvdo,^^ the Saint proceeds as follows : 
Custom," says he, " is defined the unwritten 

In order that custom should obtain the force 
obligation of law, three things are required. 
1st. That it be introduced, not by any particular 
son, but by a community, or, at least, by the ma- 
ty of a community, which is capable of making 
s, although, in fact, said community cannot 
ke the laws." 

8. Sin when old becomes no sin. — *• 2dly. 
s required that the custom should be reasonable." 
r this he means, as we have already seen, and 

II further see, reasonable in their sense oi viV«X 



is reasonable, which we shall find, as we follow di0 
Saint along in his illustration and application of tto 
Popish doctrine, is diametrically opposed to reaeoDi 
opposed to the Word of God, and opposed to all that 
is good.) "Hence," continues he, ** custom th»tiJ 
contrary to natural, Divine, or human law, is inr 
^alid. We have, however, to add, that good &ith is 
not required in establishing the law of custom, since 
it can be established even by sinning. Custom hn 
a three-fold state. In the beginning all those per- 
sons who introduce a custom contrary to law, sin 
In process of time, those who follow a custom ilui 
has already been introduced by their ancestois, A 
not commit a sin in following the custom, but the] 
can be punished for it by the prince. In fine, tho® 
who follov/ a custom after it has become a rule 
neither sin, nor can they be punished for it." — Id 
ib. N. 107. 

In order to show that these ** three things!' o 
which the Saint speaks, mean absolutely noihiui 
at all, and that the true Popish meaning of the thing 
is, that any custom at all, when once introduced ane 
established, can lawfully be followed without sin, 
we have only to refer to the twenty-second Chap- 
ter of the Synopsis, "on the doctrine of thk 
Church of Rome concerning the Sabbatb." 
19. The time required according to th< 
Canons of the Romish Church, for a custoH 
to become a law. — " In order that custom shouW 
obtain the force and obligation of law, it is required. 
. **odJy,'' continues the Saint, "that it should coft* 


tinne a long time with repeated acts. In regard to 
the time that is sufficient to render a custom lawful, 
one opinion is, that it is to be left to the judgment 
of the prudent, according to the repetition of the acts, 
and the quality of the matter. The second opinion 
is, that ten years are required, and are sufficient ; for 
this is the length of time required for the introducing 
and legalizing of a custom by the Canonical Law, 
unless it be in some place where the contrary is 
satoctioned."— Id. ib. Lib. 1. N. 107. 

23. The intention, &c. — The Saint observes, 
furthermore, that, for the validity of a custom, there 
is also " required the intention of obligating one's 
self, or of introducing the custom." — Ib. id. We 
ask now, where is the In&Uibility all this while? 
On the one hand, the doctrine is, that a thing is Ioajo- 
fid because it is the general custom, (see the pre- 
ceding paragraph 19th',) and, on the other hand, the 
intention of those who introduce a custom is required 
to make it lawful and valid. We would be glad if 
the Infallible Doctors would let us know how the 
itUention of those who have introduced a custom, 
say five hundred years ago, can be ascertained by 
those who are bom five hundred years after them? 
Another instance, this, among the many that occur, 
of ^A^ Romish doctrine^ s being destroyed by its own 

Another, and the last condition that is required 
for the valid and lawful introduction of a custom, 
says the Saint, is, that it should have the consent of 
the prince. How this consent can be known by the 



people after the lapse of a few centuries, is about il 
incoiDprehensible a thing as that which relates to 
their doctrine of intention. And by what rule we 
can certainly know the intention, not of a single lit 
dividual only, (since no one individual, it seems, can 
introduce a custom,) but of the majority of a.comma- 
nity, it remains yet for In&llibiiity to explain. To 
ascertain this, it would be necessary, in the fint 
place, at the time the custom became lawful, to put 
the question relative to its legality, to vote, in orda 
to ascertain whether the majority had actually 'con- 
sented to it, since one of the conditions for the vahdly 
introducing of a custom, is, that it be introduced by 
the majority of a community. This putting the 
thing to vote, however, never has been done, nor is it 
a thing that could be done. The impracticability 
of doing it, arises from the fact, that the Infallible 
Divines have not yet determined among themselves 
what is the precise time required for the legalizing 
of a custom. Moreover, that a custom should re- 
ceive the sanction of legality, merely because a 
prince, perhaps an abandoned debauchee, has con- 
sented to it, is a mere doctrine of Devils. 

" Custom can even render valid," says the Saini, 
" a contract which is nullified by law. It can also 
introduce new impediments which can invalidate 
matrimony." — Ligor. Lib. 1, N. 108. 

24. The effect of custom. — "As to the eflfect 
that appertains to custom," says the Saint, **it is to be 
observed, that custom cannot only do away and de* 
atroy the law, but also the penalty annexed tp ^ 

5 SYNOPSIS. • '< '^^ 

etjber the sin regain or not." — Ligor. Lib. 1. N. 
I. (Th^ Saint alludes here to a custom that is 
ful.) Let us now bring to our mind what the 
Qt teaches in the preceding paragraph 18th, to 
, the second condition which is required, " ihcU 
torn shovM obtain the force and obligation of 
r," which is, '*that it should be reasonable^ 
re, then, we have the church of Rome, the Inf(U' 
'e and the Holy Church, teaching that IT IS 


irine of the chuarth of Rome concerning the Sabbath— 


I. Derivation of the word Sabbath. — The 

rd Sabbath, in the Hebrew, signifies rest ; GU)d 

^ng created the world in six days, rested on the 

enth, Gen. li. 2, that is, after having perfected the 

isible and visible worlds, on the review of all his 

rks, finding them very good, he took pleasiire, he 

a satisfied in all these discoveries of his own per- 

tions in the works of his hands. He blessed this 

f and sanctified it, because he had rested upon it. 

om that time he set it apart, and appointed it in a 

cuhar manner for his worship. And the He- 

3WS, afterwards, in consequence of this designa- * 

n, and to preserve the memory of the creation, 

ttctified, by his order, the Sabbath-day, or the sev- 



itft hf i h il n i ning fam all moA. 

and bj'«p|djiiig' t lMjmtl nBi 
•enieeof the Lord, to the ttndj of Us Law, 
pnjer. And at Mount Sinai, bj a poaitiYiB; 
perpetoal cotninandment, JGod katk i^ 
daj in the aeTca to be kcfit holy ta ii 
wliicK IB the New TcatamenK^ is called the 
day; and istobecondnaed to the end of the w 
the Chratian Sabbath. 

What aoit of InMibilicy, therefore, is that 
declares that the obligation of ofasernng the S 
or the Lord's day, can be abrogated either 1 
torn or by homan authority, that is, as they n 
by the authority of the Romiah chmch ! 

The Romish church, then* it aeema, has th< 
and can exonerate all manldiid fiom the obse 
of the Lord's day; nay, according to their d( 
custom can do it; therefore^ if the people int 
the custom of working on that day, that custoi 
paramount to the Law, and renders it lawful 
late that day by work or servile labor. 

Now, we know that in Popish countries th 
trine is folly exemplified. Since the custom of vi 
the Lord's day makes it lawful, what right 
Popish Priests have to forbid their people 
working, or from doing any thing else on tlu 
Custom makes it lawful — the people could t] 
ply, we Tiolate no law, and by what law, then, 
oommand us to sanctify this day 1 
, The fact is, that the Priests are so &r from 
them to. sanctify the Lord's day, that tU< 



lOt only they, but theil* church allow them to 
iolate it Now, since the Romish church is in&I- 
3)le, the Priests can have no right, even had they 
he will, to interdict that to the people which their 
:linrch permits. 

We shall now select from the Saint a few speci- 
oens of what, in Popery, is meant by the sanctifica- 
ion of the Sabbath Were it not that we have 
challenged the Romish Clergy to deny the accuracy 
lad feimess of our translation of the celebrated St. 
Ligori, we would hardly venture to lay his doctrine 
before the public. The wickedness of it almost ex- 
ceeds belief. 

•2. The Pope's Iisduloence. — "Although the 
Jetenth day," (says Pop© Alexander III. quoted by 
Ligori,) " was especially appropriated, both by the 
Did and New Testament, that men should rest from 
labor, and although the Church has decreed that this 
Day, and the Festivals of the Saints and certain other 
tiays should be appropriated to the Supreme Majes- 
ty of Heaven, nevertheless we gtfint an Indulgence, 
whereby upon the Lord's day, and on other Festival 
days, (excepting the more solemn Festivals of the 
Church,) we make it lawful, if herring approach the 
shore, to attend to the catching of them, if it be 
necessary." — Ligor. Lib. III. N. 265. 

To back the Pope in his infallibility of thus 
panting an Indulgence for violating the Sabbath, he 
adduces a host of Divines of the first authority. 

3. The Pope above God. — The Saint, notwith- 
standing he allows this violation of the Sabbath^ 


seems to be aware that he is trampling both on the 
Natural and on the Divme Law, for he exelaime; 
** But a great opposition bears against this liberty 
we grant ; to wit : The command of sanctifying the 
Sabbath was certainly both a natujal and monl 
commandment, and for this reason it was numbekied 
amongst the precepts of the Decalogue. Therdbn 
the observance of the Lord's day, which was substi- 
tuted for the Jewish Sabbath, is commanded both hj 
the Natural and by the Divine Law. However, 
although both by the Natural and by the Divine 
Law, some specified and determinate time was ap- 
propriated to the worship of God, the object, how- 
ever, of this worship, and the days upon which it is 
to be performed, was left, by Christ, to the disposal 
of the Church : so that the Pope has the right aid 
the power to decree^ ikut the sanctification of thi 
Lord's day shall only continue a few hours^ and 
that any servile works may be done on that dat." 
—Id. ib. 


4. Popish Festivals more holy than thi 
Sabbath. — In regard to the obligation of keeping 
the Festival days commanded by the Pope, behold 
how different is the language! This Command- 
ment of the Pope, in rega Al to the obligation of sanc^ 
tifying the Festival days is obligatory under tbe 
penalty of a grievous and deadly sin. — Id. ib. N. 268. 
What is understood by sanctifying the day, is the 
hearing of Mass. 6 

5. Perversion of Scripture. — Ques, *^h't 


wtdl on Festival days and on the Lord's day to 
join servile work on infidels ?" 
Ans. " Yes — and also on those who are con- 
intly deranged in their mind, because both are out 

the Law, extra legem, as we are taught by the 
postle, who says, * that the Church does not judge 
ose who are withouty^ — 1 Cor, v. 12. — Id. ib. 

The Saint has here given the text a real Popish 
WIST — these words, ** that the Church, cj-c." are 
ot to be found in the Bible, not even in their own. 

However, Ligori is a Saint, and a lie. in his mouth, 
last be sanctified. 

6. We are not obliged to worship God in 
PiRiT. — Ques. " Does the Commandment of sancti- 
jriftg the Sabbath oblige us to worsbip God in 
pint ?" 

Ans. " It is th*? common opinion that it does not." 
This he proves by quotations from a multitude of 
leir best Divines, S. Antonnin, Sanch, Salm. Gov, 
111, Bon, Sayr, &c., and from St. Thomas the An- 
:elic, who says that " wp. are not hound to worship 
tod interiorly, by this Commandment." — Thom. 1, 
!, q. 122, C. 4. "The same doctrine," he says, "is 
lughi in the Roman Catechism." De 3. Pras. N. 1, 
-U.\h. N.'264. 

7. Obedience to God now out of date. — 
lues. " Is it lawful on Sunday or on a Festival day, 
> travel a-foot, on horseback, or to ride in a cal- 
lage ?" 

Ans. "Some say that it is not,b\xXlYwQ\^\)KQX\\. 

* 1 

190 STNOPSia 

id, and this is the common opinioo. The cimtiiij- 
should now be given up, as being out of data"-:^U. 
ib. N. 276. 

8. Custom excuses from sin. — Ques, **lsitlav- 
jfiil to use the Sedan ovt Sundays and Festival dayif* 

Ans, " Some maiiitain that it is, and othen dny 
it Bat in regai^d to this, I say that we moat mind 
what the custom of the place is. This being ctr- 
ried on a Sedan is a very common custom now in Nt* 
pies, and consequently it excuses fromsia" — ^Id. ih 

9. The Saint's excuses for sin. — Qtcft. "b 
it lawful to drive loaded wagons or beasts, on Sim- 
days or Festival days ?" 

Ans. '* This is a weighty question; and there tie j 
three opinions respecting it The first holds thst it 
is a servile work, even self-considered, independeodf 
of the labor. 

'< The second opinion is, that it is prohibited lU* 1 
der the penalty of mortal sin, not as it regards the ] 
act itself, but the labor which accompanies it ; for if I 
the labor be great, either in loading or unloading; I 
then the sin is mortal ; but if the labor be light, it ii'l 
otherwise. I 

** The third opinion, and which is the moet prob* I 
ble, at least, at the present day, is, that it is entiralf I 
lawful, not only to continue driving a loaded wagos 
on Sundays or Festival days, but also to fltajrt ^f^tL 
it on those days. The reason why it is no sio» hl^ 
because ,the drivers do not consume much time M^ 
loading and unloading. But if at times jthe bh4 , 
should he great, the dTivera, however, would sCjII 4^^ 


eietued, either on account of serious loss, or public 
utility, or on account of its being the universal cus- 
tcHU,"— Id. ib. N. 276 

•Qmes, '* Are teaching, writing, playing, singing, 
Ac. serrile works, if they be done for gain V^ 

Ans. ''Some affirm that they are, because although 
such works are liberal, they become servile on ac- 
count of gain. The contrary opinion, however, is 
to be held ; and the reason is, because the intention 
of him who works cai^iot alter the work.'' — Id. ib. 
N. 278. 

Under this paragraph the Saint has a note, in 
which he says, ** that those who distil ardent spirits 
on the Lord's day and on Festival days, do not sin, 
if it be done without fatiguing the body, and more 
ibr the sake of experiment, and acquiring the know- 
ledge of the business, than by way of trade." — Id. ib. 

10. Hunting, hawking, and fishing allow- 
WD. — Ques. " Is hunting, hawking, and fishing pro^ 
hibited on Sundays and Festival days?" 

Atu. ** The more probable, and the common opinion 
is, that they are not prohibited, even if it should be 
done for the sake of making money, because they 
are not servile works, and its being the custom is 
a sufficient excuse, provided, however, if it be done 
.without great labor : for otherwise, it would appear 
that it was without reason, frusira, that the Sover- 
eign Pontiff gave his dispensation for the catching 
of herrings."— Id. ib. N. 283. 

** It is not lawful to buy and sell things that are 
not necessary, on Sunday or Festival dsdy^ unksa 


192 STNOf^SIS. 

it be the ctistom, or be done for ieme other joitff* 

■on."— Id. ib. N. 285. n 

11. Horrible. — " Merchandismg, and tbe mB* 
ing of goods at anction on the Sandayi^ Ur^ 
account of its being the general custom, ahogedNf 
lawful." ** Buying and selling goods on the Lsitff 
day and on Festival days are certainly Ibtbiddctakgr 
the Canonical Law — but where the contnuycos* 
torn prevails, it is excusable." ** Hence, as ^tlii 
observes, it is permitted an the Lor£t day to i§U 
liquor and eatables even to the making of those n^ 
buy, drunk : also, to sell shoes, candles, and soeh 
like things, likewise houses, horses, and metchtf* 
dise ; these are all allowed, both beeowe by user ^ 
timid and scrwpulotbs wre brought to bear it ; and 
also because the Church only prohibits selling in 
public offices on account of the scandaV ' And thti 
he proves by the authority of the Popish Dimes, 
and especially by the authority of the Decrees of the 
*' Sacred Congregation of Rites." — Id. ib. I^. 286. 

12. Working for Monasteries allowbd. — 
** Moreover," continues the Saint, addocing the 
words of Sal m, ** because almost all the Churehai 
and Monasteries in these days are poor, men can 
lawfully work for them on Sundays, in aiding in 
the building of chapels, reaping grain, ploughing 
and tilling the earth."— Id. ib N. 29a 

13. Sewino allowed. — ''Servants and such 
like are allowed to mend their clothes on Sandajv 
if they cantfot do it on week days." — lb. id. N..297.- 

. SYNOPSIS. 193 

is lawful, on Sundays, to butcher and skin animals 
for market, if it cannot be done conveniently the day 
before."— Id ib. N. 298. 

** Bakers, butchers, and such like, are excusable 
in following their occupations on Sundays in large 
town8."-^Id. ib. 

The Saint, speaking in relation to bakers work- 
ing at their trade on Sunday, says that " it is the 
common practice at Rome, and as he believes, every- 
where.''— Id. ib. N. 299. 

ED. — " It is lawful to shoe horses on Sundays, and 
also to mend the ploughshares of those who other- 
wise couid not plough on Monday ; so also to repair 
roads and bridges." — Id. ib. N. 300. 

16. Merchandising allowed. — "Merchants 
and shopkeepers are excusable in selling on Sun- 
dayS) if they close the doors, and can suppose that 
the things are necessary for those who buy them, or 
that they cannot conveniently get them elsewhere." 
—Id. ib. N. 303. 

17. Bull-fights and plays allowed. — "On 
the entrance of a Prince or Nobleman into a city, it 
is lawful on a Sunday to prepare the drapery, ar- 
range the theatre, &c., and to act a Comedy, also to 
exhibit the bull-fights ; the reason is, because such 
marks of joy are morally necessary for the public 
Weal."— Id. ib. N. 304. 

18. The indulgence of the Saint. — Ques, 
** Does he sin grievously, who, on a Festival da^ ox 


194 8TNQPSIS. 

on Sunday, orders six of his semuoits to wmk te 
hourr • ' ' 

Ans, V Some affirm that he does, and mmerimf 
it 'j that is, if he makes them work in saccMioOi 
one after the other ; but if they ail work «U the stflie 
time, there is no one who thinks it a sfn." — Id Ai 
N. 306. * - 

But the Saint himself says that '* it is the nAn 
probable, and by &r the more common opioiQB,thit 
there is no sin at all in it, either way." — Id. ih. 

We thus, for the edification of our fellow-citisaM^ 
have taken the liberty of unfolding to their view, 
some of the beauties of the &ir Alma Mattf^'4ali 
surely, our Romish brethren, who sit at the beb 
of Noah's Ark to direct it through the storm, eiB 
find no &ult with our spreading out the chart tnced 
by the finger of Infallibility. 

In order to perfect the science of medicine, the 
physician dissects the human body, traces thenerfei 
through their intricate ramifications, follows tiw 
veins in all their branches, explores the hea.rt with 
all its secrets, ascertains the relations the difiezinst 
parts bear to one another, and having anatomized the 
whole, his proficiency enables him to apply the 
knowledge he acquires in the regulation of hisft- 
ture practice. He is no longer a novice, but tt 
adept in his profession. 

In like manner, we wish to dissect the prindphi 

and the doctrines of Romanism, tUiat^ the txttH^ 

of the ** Beast ;" for we, Protestants, with the 0iU* 

in OUT hand, are as fiiim\^ i^«\]iaAedL^iMX^¥i9(il 

. ^ 

* SYNOPSIS. 195 

rchy is the Apocalyptic Beast with seven heads 
3n horns, as we are that the sun shines in the 

3 Mysterious Beast shows himself, or would 
LOW himself ** as a Lamb" but when he speaks, 
ar " the voice of the Dragon." On dissection, 
d that his bowels are made of iron, his heart 
miant, his nerves of wire, his veins of fire, and 
11 his viscera are an entangled mass of foul 

It this is the internal state of the subject now 
us, we shall, by the grace of Gk)d, most cer- 
make appear. It requires time ; forthewind- 
f this Mysterious Labyrinth are like the gy- 
3 of a pebble on the tranquil waters of truth, 
where it will, its undulations seem to elude the 

' It is wrapped in clouds, and involved in 
iery'^ — not that the horrid features of the 
?^"do not glare through the darkness which 
mds it, but the mystery is, that the more we 
lize the vast deformity, the more of horror 
3 on the mind. Like the microscopic wonders 
I world unseen, the light of the Gospel mag- 

the object of astonishment into shapes and 
calculated to appal, confound, and overwhelm, 
rish to fly, but duty commands us to stand, 
of truth, love of liberty, love of immortal souls, 
)ve of our enemies, constrain us " to put on the 
armour of God, and to stand against the wiles 
! Devil" therefore ** we standi having our loins 
ihout wM truth, and having on the breast'plale 

196 SYNOPSia 

of righteousness, and our feet shod vnih the preparer 
tion of the Gospel of peace, and above nil, iMngHiii 
shield of faith, wherewith toe shall he able to ^yencA 
all the fiery darts of the wicked, and the helmet of 
salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is tks 
word of God" 

We take that weapon, for Christ has promised 
that he would " consume that Wicked with the spirit 
of his mouth, and destroy him with the brightneu of 
his coming V — 2 Thes. ii. 8. 

The destruction here spoken of, is not with fiw 
and sword, (the instruments with which Papal Rome 
supports her power,) for our Lord, Comes not (asbe 
tells us) to destroy men^s lives, but to save themr^ 
Luke ix. 55. 

It is therefore, not by blood, hut hy contrast, tha 
we are to destroy this Monster. 

On the subject of the Sabbath, the Lord speaks a 
follows : 

If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath fra 
DOING THY PLEASURE on my Holy day ; and ca 
the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord hono 
able; and shall honor him, not doing thine ou 


SPEAKING THINE OWN. WORDS j thou shalt then A 
light thyself in the Lord, and I will cause thee 
ride upon the high places of the earth, df^c. — Isaia 
Ivivi 13. 

And again, in regard to receiving wages on tl 
Lord's day. " The rest of the people, the Priesi 
the hevites, and all they thai had separatec2 thei 


SYNOPSia 197 

idvufrom the people of the lands urUo the Loao of 
G^d, their wives, their sons and their daughters, 
tury one having knowledge, and having under- 
fUimding — entered into a curse, and into an oaih, to 
valk in God!s Law, which was given hy Moses the 
*ifvant of God, and to observe and to do all the com- 
mandments of the Lord, our Lord ; and his judg- 
mtnis and his staitUes. — And if the people of the land 


]>^T Tu SELL, that we WOULD NOT BUT it of them 
ON THE Sabbath, or on the Holy day" — Nehe- 
rniah,!, 28— 31. 

In the above quoted Scripture, God says, •* we are 
^ to do our own pleasure, nor to speak our own 
vords ;" but the Romish church says, that •* no act 


^ause they are for the recreation of the mind." 
01 doctrine of devils ! — Are we to be astonished, 
then, that, in all Popish countries, the theatres are 
longed on the Holy Sabbath, not only by the 
^entious multitude, but by their own Pastors lead- 


^S them to perdition ! 

i perfidious slaughterers of souls 1 the glim- 
Dieringrs of light that still break in upon your be- 
^hted minds, show and convince you that you are 
Wrong — *• A little dissimulation," say you, " may 
be used." — Dissimulation ! — Yes, that is the cloak 
^hich covers all your actions. Dissimulation I — 
^t is the veil which your chaiilY \feiQw^ as€t>5Qft 

198 STZfoi^sia 


eyas of 3roiir poor Prieat-Tidden and ilelndad flrigiA 
— Dissimuiation is the elwnent in which yoa Bwin:,* 
bat remember that it is a stream which is carryiaif 
you down into the vortex of eternal roin, yon aid 

We are at a loss at which the most to wonto* 
the impiety of the Pastors; or the credulity of the pas* 
pie. Were it possible that the light which the B^ 
formation has difiused through the moral worU 
could again be extinct, and Popery oAcemote fsptmi 
her wide dominion oyer it, were this possible^ m 
say, out of your own bosom would another Ladtft 
spring, and out of the fermentation of your comp- 
tion another host arise, like insects that are bredia 
corrupt and stagnant water: thus Popery, workiiig 
ex opere operator as they call it, would work itt 
own destruction. But the Monster is snfiered still 
to live, fpr some wise purpose, no doubt, unknovro 
to us. 

On glancing our eye back on to this in&Uible 
doctrine of the Romish church, indignation thiilla 
through every nerve, when we read that **iti$ Umf 
fuL to fish for herring on the LordJt day" but nid 
lawful to do it on a Popish " FtBtivai dayJ^ Hen^ 
then, we have a full display of that ''ManofSht^ 
of whom it was foretold that he would '* eoudt kkiF 
self above all that it e^ed God, or thai U men* 

. The Sabbath day may be violated bacaoie it if 
on/jf a law of Oody but a Bomish Festival. dif 


vatX be kept sacred, because it i9 a Um of the 


le interpreter of the latos^ Any things and every 
lingt is lawful^ because it is the custom ! O, ye 
tiests of the Infallible Church, certainly you have 
!d adieu to the last vestige of shame to promulgate 
ich principles as these ! You proclaim yourselves 

be shepherds — why do you not theiefore lead the 
leep ? You will not disturb them in their wander- 
igs, because you are afraid they will fly from you, 
id that you will be deprived of their fleece. You 
sep them in the dark that they may not see the 
lOody knives with which you slaughter them. 
ITere you to enlighten them, they would see you 
re wolves, as Bernard has declared, and not shep- 
erds. Were they instructed in the Gospel truth, 
le contrast between your lives and the bright ex- 
mple of Christ and his Apostles, and the contrast 
etween the liberties you allow them, and the re- 
nrictions Christ laid upon his disciples, would be 
3 striking that they would fly from you as sheep 
y from the wolves. 

How shocking to allow your poor deluded sub- 
ects, even on the Holy Sabbath of the Lord, **to sell 
iqttors and eatables, even to the making of thoie who 
•tty, drunk P^ — and that, too, for this diabolical rea- 
on, " because, by use, the timid and scrupulous are 
wrought io bear it" The blood of Abel cried aloud 
heaven for vengeance, and do you think that the 
nmiortal souls whom you are \eadmg V> ^T^i&^sst\, 


200 8TNQPSI& 

wiU not ciyjuoad for Teng^ance toot To^actl^ 
if you thought the moral laws of Qod had beenadb- 
verted : nay, you act as if you thought that Ssitti 
had usurped the throne of the Di?inity, and u it 
he was the Deity whom you had to serva Whenee 
have these foul and pernicious doctrines emaoiteif 
From a Church boasting of In&llibility — andftott 
the very Seat and Centre of that Churcht fromdii 
Seat of the '' BtasV^ A spot on the wide wod4 
Jewish, Pagan, Infidel, or Savage, could not be firasl. 
that would vomit forth such principles as have fll|8i^ 
ed these pages. Rome alone could conceive thflp^ 
and when conceived, Rpme alone would dais ^ 
bring them forth; nor would she even due to 
breathe such horrors, were it not that the whole mtoA 
atmosphere with which she is surrounded, is alreiiiy 
contaminated by her fetid breath. In this countift 
how different is the language of her emissaries. " B|: 
use, the timid and scrupulous'' among us have not 
yet " been brought to bear" such things. An esaaf 
has been lately made, by an experiment in the 
West, to desecrate the Sabbath. You have touched 
the string, but how does it vibrate? It thrilb 
through all our nerves, and agitates the very fibiei 
of our hearts. Its echo will pass from the giw^ 
Valley, through the whole length and breadth of 
our land, and will die away only wh^i liberty dkf 
away with it 

ligori was a Saint, and although the Pdpeani 

the Sacred College of Rites, and all the Ou# 

n&ls, Bishops, and DivineB, ^pionounced that ^ Hnf^ 


u nothing in his Works worthy of censure, and thai 
Ut doctrine is sound, and according to God^^ al- 
thougii, we say, this was their decision, it is quite 
unnecessary that such a decision should have heen 
nuide, because, the bare circumstance of his being 
( & Saint precludes the possibility of his teaching a 
% doctrine, or of inculcating a morality, contrary to 
^andfiiith, or to purity of morals. 

Moreover, be this as it may, the Seal of Infallibility 
^ tet upon the doctrine which he taught, and which 
i| is stili taught in all the Popish Schools. It has been 
is[ confirmed, not only by what they call the " tacit con- 

i*c^," which, according to the doctrine of the Romish 
church, is *• equivalent to a dogmatical Decree" 
t>ut it has been ratified, established, and put beyond 
i all dispute, by the avowed declaration of the Sove- 
i; reiga Pontics, Cardinals, Bishops, and Divines. 
The Romish Clergy, therefore, in the United 
States, have no alternative left but to defend the 
Saint, and to uphold his doctrine. 
We think the Romish church ought to thank us 
^ for the pains we take to promulgate their doctrine ; 
Ti and surely, if it be the Infallible doctrine, the true 
N . Faith, without which no man can be saved. ** nemo 
1* idvari potest" we ought to be recognised by them, 
li not only as the herald of truth, but as a tender father, 
i* solicitous for the return of the prodigal children, and 
^ a friend to the whole human race, who points out 
tae safe and only way to heaven. When John saw 
ii certain man casting out devils in the name of Christy 
fi he forbade him, because he foWowed tvoX w'Ctv.^^ 


A^oA\m, *" Bui Jesus 9aiiduid9 kirn, forHi km mis 
far he thai is not against us isjbr »f.— Luke ii. Ift 
How mconsisteiit then, and how contiaiy to the et 
ample set by Christ, is your objecting to, or feitt 
ding others to disclote or preach yonr doctrine, if v 
be it is the truth. We are all sailing oh thetea* 
pestuous sea of life, surrounded on all sides by TMh 
shoals, and counter-currents, and you are unwiUittt 
that we should spread out the chart by which we mf 
direct our course with safety! Where are Aoii 
** bowels of compassion" of which the Apostle speaks; 
when you can look out of the windows of your Ib- 
fiJlible Church, secure from danger, and see us, poor 
heretics, struggling in the waves, and not evaa^dogn 
to push out a plank to keep us from sinking I Whft 
the Hindoos themselves, who throw out their help- 
less babes to the voracious crocadile, are less cnul 
than you, for they believe that while the body of tbs 
in&nt is crushed in his ravenous jaws, its soul, it 
least, wings its way to heaven; but you canJook 
on without a sigh or tear, and see both soul ^d bodf 
sink for ever into the fiery flood of endless ruin. 

We preach your doctrine because you dare not 
preach it yourselves. We act as shepherds towaitti 
your sheep, because the shepherds that they hsf^ 
fittten them on error ; and when fet, devour them: 
therefore hear, O ye shepherds, the words of tb 
Lord ; '' Thus saith the Lord Ood ; behold I sm 
against the shepherds ; and liM^requtTe MffsA 
^iheir hand, a%d cause them to eeasefromfeeiiag 
^fjhek; neither shMiht sKepXerds Jetdikenuditt 


p more; for I wiU deliver myfioek from their 
Uh, that they may Tiot he meat for themJ** 
'- As for my flocks they eat that which ye have 
Hen with your feet. Therefore I will save my 
okj and they shall no more be a prey-^And IvM 
%f ONE SHEPHERD over them, and he shall feed 
m, even my servant David ; he shall feed them, 
i he shall he their shepherd. — Ye, my flock, the 
k of my pasture, are men, and I dm your God, 
th the Lord God.^^ — Ezek. xxxiv. 


LatD— The privileges of the Clergy— lifiscellaneous* 

I. Anti-Republicanism. — St. Ligori maintains 
t •Hhe Rulers of the Church do not hold their pow- 
Vom the people, nor does the obligation of the civil 
r depend upon its being received by the people, 

it arises from the power of the Prince : which 
^rer of enacting laws he holds independently of 
people." — Ligor. Lib. I. N. 138. 
J. This Priests' Commandments bind under 
. — " Since God is our Lord," says Ligori, " and 
:e he has commanded us to obey our Superiors, 

only can God, but our Superiors also," (the 
iesisy) " can command us, and they do command, 
. their commandments bind us, not only under 
alties, but even under sin. This is the common 
trine of the Divines."— Id. ib. N. 140. 
i. The Conditions of an obligatory law. — • 
I order that a law be obligaloiyj^ i\\i^ ^^xX ^" 

laim kctt lo ifei Wug obligiiory on a wIm 
maxikjr) **lixir coadkioaa are raqoiicd. U 
it be finr the wbok coaunanLcj. Sbdly, T 
Legvktor be invuted wkh poblk power. 
Thet the law be pennaneoL 4thly« That i 
the poUic geod : finally, that it be becomii 
and poaublcL Hence, a law diSeza from i 
mandmeot or mandate, because a Command 
made only for a paiticnlar indiTidoaL" — Id 

4. Popish DKFiifiTioNs MsaE souvi 
latter part of this sounds good ; but the Popis 
ing of it renders it altogether eviL That 
does not attach the tme, Scriptural, and rationi 
ing to words; when she does not wish the de 
wickedness, and unreasonableness of her d 
to be known, we have already proved. 1 
discussion is closed, we shall of this, bring 
and more abundant proofs. 

Here is where Popery has the advanta 
those of her opponents who are not sufficientl; 
in her doctrine as it really is. In the contn 
of the Popish Clergy, they always endeav< 
lect and quote something in their defence 
sounds welL 

Their antagonists, having such well soundi 
tations brought in their defence, are sta 
They see an apparent clashing between the 
and the practice, but for want of a thorougl 
ledge of the subject, they have to submit to t 
tification of but lamely refuting the subtid: 
Popi$b Doctor, who, toLvmg sipc^i wA^ud 


}Mg theory, telLi them, ** Qentlemen, all yon hare 
leen sajriog proYos nothing against our doctrine, it 
mly shows, at most, that there are some a^m^tt}^ 

We will now expatiate awhile on this Popish the 
)ry, which %owikds so well ; and we shall see that it 
irresistibly leads us to the above conclusions, that 
is, that Popery attaches to words just what meaning 
ihe chooses, to suit her purpose, and to conceal the 
deformity of her doctrine. 

** In order that a law be obligatory, four conditions 
are required The first is, that it be for the whole 

We take it for granted, (the Popish doctrine, mere 
sownd, out of the way,) that the law of God does, in 
truth, bind the whole community. — Now, either the 
Popish Clergy are no part of the community, or else 
they are bound, like the rest of mortals, by the Law 
of God. 

One of God's Commands is, (that is, if Christ is 

God, and if the Scriptures are of Divine authority, 

and our Popish Docitors will have to admit this, at 

least, in souryd,) God's Command is, that we should 

^^nLbmii ourselves to every ordinance of man for the 

LortPs sake : whether it be to the king, as supreme, 

<fr unto governors^ as unto them that are sent by him 

for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise 

of them that do welV'—l Peter ii. 13. The Apostle 

ia this verse, as the context proves, is speaking of 

^ obedience that is due to civil magistrates. When 

^commands us to obey " every ordinanct of mau" 

^ means every just and lawful oidix^soace. '^«»a^'sv> 



and the whole scope of Scriptnre, prove that d^ii 

his meaning. That this was his meaning, W6 
prove, moreover, from his own words, in the Aett 
of the Apostles. There we see, that, when Peter 
was summoned hefore the High Priest, to be jndgied 
for having healed the sick, and preached the Goi- 
pel, he answered, ^ We ought to obey Ood rather 
than men," — Acts v. 29. 

Now, since we are commanded by Grod, to obef 
our lawful Rulers in what is just and right, what 
Popery says concerning law being obligatory en tiB 
whole community, is, as we have observed, but wun 
sound. They say one thing to dhow to heredcs, 
and they mean another to insult Grod. 

5. The Popish Cleroy ar£ no part or thi 
COMMUNITY. — They mean that the community is 
not bound, or else that the Popish Clergy consti- 
tute no part of the community. This we will now 
prove from the same Saint himself, when he gets on 
to the subject of the privilegei of the Clergy. This 
is a claim that Popish Priests are very cautious of 
touching upon in a country where their arm is not 
yet strong enough to put their doctrine into execU' 

6. The privileges of the Clergy. — Speak- 
ing of the candidates for the Tonsure, or the shaving 
of the head, which is the initiatory ceremony into 
the Romish Clergy, and into all its privUegeSt hs 
writes as follows : " The effects and the pritUegif 
of those who are tonsured are these ; tst, He yrbff 

28 tonsured is transfetied mto vYi^ CiNKtiaJiL ^»i4^ 



lence he acquires the privilege of exemption 
OM THE CIVIL LAW, provided he wear the Cassock, 
1 retain the Tonsure, ^. 2dly, He acquires also 
\ privilege of the Canonical Lano, so that they 
10 injuriously strike him incur the penalty of ex- 
nmunication, which none hut the Pope can par- 
ti, if the hlow he receive he grievous." — Ligor. 
z. Ord. N. 48. What is meant hy the blow's being 
ievous, is explained by the Saint in his treatise 
De Censuris, &c. Lib. vii. N. 274," where he in- 
rms us that the above mentioned **^ excommunica- 
n is incurred by spitting upon a Clergyman, by 
rowing dust or water on him, by bespattering him 
th mud, by pulling his hair, tearing his clothes, 
snatching any thing from him by force, for in- 
nce, his hat or his cloak, &c." • 
7. The Clergy are not subject to the civ- 
law. — " It is cenain," says the Saint, in another 
ice, " that Ecclesiastics are not subject to the civil 
V, either by Canonical or civil right. They are 
und, however, in conscience, by the civil laws 
lich are not repugnant to their station. The civil 
V has no power to compel them, but it can give 
im directions in order that they may conform to 
J community." — Id. de Privileg. N. 18. "The 
3rgy," continues the Saint, " are exempt from pun- 
iment by the civil law." — Id. ib. N. 19. 
We have now clearly shown, that Popish defini- 
ns are a mere sound, and that Popery uses words, 
I true acceptation of which means one thing, and 
5 Popish acceptation means anolVvex \.VCyj\^\ "«s^\ 

208 SYN0PS1& 

that all this perversion of language is resorted to fiir 
the purpose of puzzling heretics, as they call us, and 
of keeping their own deluded followers in the dark. 

We take some pains in dissecting these four con- 
ditions, which the Saint says are requisite in oider 
that a law be obligatory, for the purpose of refotiog 
the Jesuitical chicanery which we anticipate tbef 
will advance in order to evade their impious doe- 
trine on custom. We think, however, that no are* 
nue will be lefl for their subtlety to escape throogb. 

" Id order that a law be valid and obligatory, the 
2d condition that is required is, that the legislator 
be invested with public power." 

From the ratiocination of the Saint, we see that 
the people have the power of introducing and lega- 
lizing any custom. 

** The 3d condition is, that the law be perxnanent" 
The Saint informs us, that the permanency of "ten 
years is sufficient to legalize any custom." 

" The 4th condition is, that the law be for the 
public good, and that, finally, it be becoming, joBt, 
and possible." 

The expression, public good, sounds well, but we 
must take it, not according to its sound, but accord- 
ing to its real Popish import. Concerning the Po- 
pish meaning of public good, a judgment all suf- 
ficient, and quite correct, can be formed by merely 
turning over a few pages of the Saint. Under the 
Popish notion of public good, we- find among maoy 
other good things^ their doctrine, introduced bycn»' 
torn, relative to the sancufveaXiou oUVw&^A^WVUtf' 


emy, lying, mental reservation, cursing, stealing, 
I. ; by whicii we see that almost any thing what- 
nrer, when introduced by custom, is good. It is 
od, on the Sabbath, '* to sell liquor even to the ma- 
ig of those who buy drunk." 
All the wicked Popish customs are good. It is 
od to prevaricate, to lie, to steal, to persecute, to 
il, to curse and swear, to pro&ne the Sabbath, to 
t drunk, and, in fact, to do almost any thing what- 
Bver. — id. 

From what has been advanced, we see that custom 
8 all the requisite conditions for legalizing what 

Let the custom be once introduced and acted upon, 
d it is never asked how it was introduced. " It is 
i custom," repeats Ligori ; that settles all dispute. 
Custom, according to Popish doctrine, is not only 
authority equal to positive law, but paramount to 
inasmuch as custom can abrogate positive law, 
lereas the positive law is null and void when op- 
sed by custom. — Ligor. Lib. I. N. 139. 
In accordance with this doctrine, it is, that Ligori 
iches, "that the laws of towns and villages which 
ohibit, under a penalty, the cutting down of tim- 
r, or grass, or fishing, or hunting, are not obliga- 
ry under sin, because such is ike cusiomP — Id. ib. 
From principles such as these, behold what is the 
^itimate result, and how completely the doctrine of 
e church of Rome is made subservient, by the sub- 
jty of Satan, to demoralize the whole world. Cub- 
71, as we have seen, being paTamovkx\l^.o\a:^^vi^^. 


that is necessary, if the doctrine of Popery be tni^ 
to place mankind entirely beyond the control of laWi 
is to abrogate it by the overruling sway of cuitoVL 
If the Ligorian doctrine of the cburch of Rome be 
true, then the more universally depraved and lawletf 
mankind become, the less they sin ; because the&et 
of a thing's being th^ general custom, abrogates tha 
law, and exempts from sin. This being the case^ 
all that is necessary is to induce the whole world to 
become as wicked as possible ; the wickedness; tbei^ 
being universal, ceases, according to the doctrine on 
custom, to be sin. Such is the consequence of ibii 
Popish doctrine, and were it not for the mercy of God 
what universal desolation would mark the path rf 
the *• Beast /" 

8. Who are bohnd by the law. — Suchisthe 
conclusion. Now mark the quotation which follows, 
and we have the Seal of Infallibility stwmped upon 
it. Ligori still before us, we open on his 2d Chap- 
ter, in relation to "What persons are bound bt 


The Saint begins in these words. " I answer, 
that those subjects only, who have the use of reasoDi 
are obliged by the law in such a way as to consti- 
tute sin by its transgression. Drunkards, and those 
who are temporarily deranged, although, in truth, 
they are under the obligation of the law, nevertheless 
in the violation of it, they commit no sin for the 
want of the advertency of reason, and consent"— 
Ligor. Lib. I. N. 153. 

9. To AVOID SIN IB TO I>U0^1» ^lLhM»« tX 


— The reason tbe Saint gives why'dmnk- 
r not sin in violating the law, is because 
iommandment, as it is directive^ supposes the 
iason, and because obedience is only for them 
^rcise their reason and their will. Nor can 
ission be imputed as a sin in any other way." 

Vho are excused from the law.— -'•For 
understanding of this rule/' continues the 
it is to be-^observed, that it is one thing, 7U>t 
%nd by the law ; and another thing to he ex- 
• exempted from the law : hence Infidels, 


3ED FROM THE LAW."--Id. ib. N. 


being the doctrine of the Romish church, 
rs, that the more ignorant a person is, the 
is liable to sin ; so that, in order to be ex- 
from sin altogether, nothing more is neces- remain, or to become as ignorant as an 
his bring^ to our mind the consistency of a 
made by the Saint elsewhere, when he ex* 
, •* How many simple girls, because they have 
to read, have lost their souls r — PraX. Conf. 

•ance, according to Popish doctrine, is the 
of devotion. But when we teW l\vexa ^o» 
le and rage. God, in mercy to iVve Te«X ^^ 


mankind, has restrained the pestilence of Popof 
within certain bounds. Hitherto he has allowed it 
'to come, and no fisirther. The fiiry of its waves tie 
dashed, and split upon the Rock of Christ Satu, 
insidious, wicked, and powerful as he is, cauMt 
fidly accomplish ^ his work. He has done what he 
could to effect it. His first attempt is to dethroae 
reason, and then to shroud the mind in ignonmee. 
2dly, He teaches to obey the commandments of 
men, whom he represents as the ambassadors of 
Christ. Through the instrumentality of these hii 
agents, he has devised a system, which, if followed in 
every point, Would annihilate the moral virtuei^aDd 
substitute vice and ignorance, as yirtues, in their 

Let any one cast aside all prejudice, and take an 
expansive view of the Popish doctrine. He will 
then see why the Bible has been kept so long, by 
the Romish Clergy, from their people ; why such 
multitudes of them are so profoundly ignorant; why 
they are taught to follow implicitly the dictates of 
their Priests ; why the doctrine of Auricular Confes* 
sion was invented; why there is a Purgatory, 9jA 
Masses to release those who sufier in it ; why Chaich 
and State are combined together ; and why the wholt 
Popish doctrine, in order to keep men Papists, or to 
make them so, endeavors to make them more wick- 
ed than Satan can make them. The reason rf sH 
this is because Popery is the masterpiece of hA 
The Priests themselves, at their initiation, when the 
consecrating hands of lYieVt l^i^^xJck^^iiho^j'Di- 

«IYNPPS1S. 818 

168**/^^ fnark of the Beasf upon their hand, 
jret but mere novices in that School of iniquity, 
not until the work has worked its own work 
fully upon them, that they b^ome the instni- 
8 that Satan would have them to be. Well do 
aember how the work worked upon m3rsel^ and 
I labored to resist it While the work was 
ing upon me, the Spirit of God was at work 
With reason may I now exclaim with holy 
d, " Blessed be the Lord^ who hath not given %s 
frey to their teeth. Our soul is escaped as a 
out of the snare of the fowlers : the snare is 
», and we are escaped. Our help is in the 
! of the Lord, who made heaven and earth." 
13 very observable by all who are not interested 

observe it, that Popery is a religion, (to use 
^rd in an improper sense,) the essence of which 
sts in forms and ceremonies. It is true they 
h. from the pulpit that their subjects must obey 
L/ommandments of God, and of the Church; 
they ought to sanctify the Sabbath, abstain from 
iperance, that they ought not to curse, swear, 
teal, or murder. This sounds well, but as the 

1 passes away, the effects pass away with it : 
ise the essence of Popery in public is but sound 

ir Romish neighbors, not being so well versed 
sir own doctrines as we are ourselves, may pro- 
' deny this assertion of a heretic, but as we assert 
ng that we do not prove, we will introduce their 


214 SYNOPSIS. ' 

own great St. Ligori, and hear what he has to aqr 1 
on the subject. 

12. M/kTERIAL OBBDIENCE.— Speaking of COD' 

mandments, he asks, **For the fulfilling of comimirf- 
ments is there required the intention of satisfyiBg 
them? I answer, no ; and this is the common opm- 
ion. The reason is, because the law commands on- 
ly the free performance of the external action. The 
obedience that is required is only material" — ligor. 
Lib. I. N. 163. 

13. Penance how performed. — ** Hetndyfiil- 
fils the Sacrament of Penance,'^ continues the Saiot, 
" who performs the works that he has promised, or 
that have been enjoined, although he have no inten- 
tion of fulfilling them ; provided he do not apply the 
works to something else." — Id. ib. 

14. Commandments how obeyed. — "Doesa 
person satisfy the commandment," asks the Saint, 
" who, while performing the work, expressly int^ds 
by the work, not to perform it ? Ans. He doei 
And the reason is, because the commandments obHp 
only as to the substance of the work enjoiyied.^^ — li 
ib. N. 164. 

15. Pope dispenses with God's Law. — ^W« 
come now to where the passage which the Aposlk 
applies to Antichrist, is shown to belong most etUr 
phaticaliy to the Pope of Rome. ** Who opp^neA 
and exalteth himself above all that is called Goi^^ 
that is worshiped^ — 2 Thes. ii. 4. 

The Romish Divines say it is sufficiently prd»* 
We that the Sovereign Poutxjf t(uiidA,«^%.'w*ft«<^ 


) o/ God. The words of the Saint, (quoting from 
Divines,) run thus ; *'The Sovereign Pontiffcan- 
without just reason, dispense in the law of God, 
[ler can a Bishop in a law of the church."-'^Li- 
Lih I. N. 180. In regard to this, however, 
trves the Saint, some of the Divines deservedly 
I the contrary opinion as more probable. But 
len there is a just reason,*' observes the Saint, 
Dispensation is always valid."— -Id. ib. N. 184. 
a regard to the Popish doctrine respecting Optn- 
we have treated at large in chapter 1 1th, where 
showed, that when an opinion is held by some 
ines as probable^ and by other Divines as more 
Mle, it is lawful to reject that which is the more 
yahie, and follow that which is merely probable. 
!^hi« being the case, it follows that the Pope can 
folly dispense in the Law of God, provided there 
vhat he may choose to call a just reason. Wo 
e already seen, (and we shall yet see still more,) 
he not only claims the power of dispensing in 
Law of God, but that he actually has granted 
pensations from the observance of God's Law. 
is has been shown in chapter 12th, par. 3d of 
I Synopsis. Before we conclude, we shall find, 
i the Pope has granted Dispensations from the 
ervance, not only of one of Grod's Command- 
Qts, but from the observance of the whole of them, 
us it is that he has opposed and exalted liimself 
^e all that is called God, — The very Antichrist 
Id. DispBSSATioKs. — '•Itiaasked,'' o\)aciN«»^^ 


216 8YN0P8I& - 

Saint, *< whether a Superior is to be connderaltf 
grantijog a Dispensation from the Law, when he seel 
a subject violating it whom he might easily coned 
if he would? In thit.^paae a Dispensation is to be 
ccxisidered as granted, because under such ciicmih 
stances we are not to presume that the Superior is 
culpable, who is bound to speak both by the datyrf 
his office, and to prevent the evils that otherwise arinL 
The reverse, however, would be the case, if theflo- 
perior could not correct the &ult without inconfeoi* 
ence." — Ligor. Lib. L N. 187. 

17. Dissimulation. — ** It is lawful," contiones 
Ligori, *' for a Catholic, when he is passing tj^mmgii 
a country belonging to heretics, and is in danger of 
losing his life or property, to pretend that he is not 
a Catholic, and to eat meat on fast-days."— Id. Lib. 
ii. N. 15. 

18. Conniving at sin. — *• A Superior may often 
overlook the sins of a subject," says the Saint, **to 
avoid disturbances or other great evils, which fota 
under other circumstances he would be bound to 
punish."— Id. ib. N. 52. 

19. Sacrament for sinners. — "A Parish 
Priest may lawfully administer, and it is even his 
duty to administer the Eucharist to a clandestine sin- 
ner, if he present himself to receive it^ publicly 
Nay, a Confessor is bound to administer the Gom* 
munion to a sinner who asks it privately, if the sii 
is known only by Confession." — Id. ib. N. 62. 

20. Prostitutes. — '*Is it lawful for aamffllt 
io open the door for a pToc^Scai^^ V^sk^xMin 


. SYNOPSIS. 217 

amon opiaion," sajrs the Saint, "that it is. — Nor 
here any opposition between this proposition and 
tof Innocent XI^ who says, * that it is not a mor* 
81a for a servant to aid Ills master to enter by a 
idow for the purpose of illicit intercourse with a 
giti, (ad itwprandam virginem,) or to assist him 
many other ways, by carrying a ladder, opening; 
i doors, &c« provided he do it through fear of con^ 
erable disadvantage ; for instance, lest he should 
Toughly treated by his master, or be frowned upon, 
be expelled from his house.' " — Id. ib. N. 66. 

21. Sin because others sin. — " Tavern keep* 
Sk" says the Saint, ** who sell meat and wine, on a 
it-day to those who are drunk, are excusable from 
I, provided others would sell them if they did not" 
•Id. ib. N. G9. 

22. The indulgence or Ligori. — It is well 
ire to observe, while it is present to our mind, that, 

the diversity of opinions which arise among the 
i&Uible Doctors, and the Holy Fathers, St. Ligori 

almost invariably found on the indulgent side of 
question. He often stigmatizes those whose 
tntiments are less lax than his own, with the epi- 
let rigid, ''Doctores rigidiores.^^ 

23. Inconvenience excuses from sin.— ** It is 
iked," observes the Saint, ** whether it is lawful for 
Tern-keepers to sell wine to those who, it is foreseen, 
ill get drunk ? Father Cone, excuses those who 
$11 the wine, if they be afraid of death, or of being 
tmnded, by refusing to sell, because, as Ya !s».'^^> 
Hb the selliDg of wine, and the drinking oiVx^vt^ 



actions in themselves indifSer^it, and it is odf 
through the intemperate use of the wine tint dnmk- 
enness happens ; hence he concludes that tiietiraih 
keeper is bound, to hinder their intoxicating tluB* 
selves only through charity. But to me," dieenei 
the Saint, "it seems the more propable opiirioBio 
say, that tavern-keepers are sufficiently exciued firan 
sin through fear of any oribyovs n4^Aon, fiv iB* 
stance, if by^not selling the wine they shoidd be toa- 
siderably injured by the loss of cvstom brs: The 
reason why they are excusable from sin under audi 
circumstances, is, because, as in this case no gfievmu 
temporal evil would happen to the one whowookt^ 
get drunk, charity does not oblige them to seBAls 
liquor to prevent the sin of the other, if by so doing^ 
they suffer a grievotis inconvenience themselves."— 
Id. ib. N. 69. The Saint observes, that his lopmioQ 
is the most common. — Id. ilx 

24. Lawful to shelter prostitftes. — '^hv 
lawful,'' continues the Saint, **in cities, in order tv 
prevent a greater evil, to rent a house to prostitcM 
licet domum locate meretricious.^* — Id. ib. N. 70. ' 

The only exception he makes to this is, '^unbtf 
the prostitutes grievously incommode honest neigfc* 
bors, or afford a greater handle for sin. This is the 
common opinion." — Id. ib. 

25. Lawful to sell poison to KiLL.'^'*ttiB 
doubtful," says the Saint, ** whether a person CO 
lawfully sell: poison to one who, he really believet; 
will use it for bad pnir^^oaes I Some Divines «a^ i^, 

is not lawful to < Al U tot tkub wS» o\ ^pnS^\ \s^«i.tifc8i» 


irm it is, provided the seller cannot re&ain from 
lling it without a loss to himself; or as Tamb. ob* 
rves, withaui losing his customers. In like man- 
r it is lawful to sell ornaments to a girl who will 
e them for bad purposes, if she can otherwise pur- 
ase them elsewhere, because the refusing to sell 
3m would not prevent the sin." — Id. ib. N. 71. 
3ut this/' observes Ligori, ** is not to be admitted 
iless the seller would otherwise suffer a consider- 
le inconvenience by not selling them.** — Id. ib. ; that 
, 88 has been shown above, unless he would thereby 
We his customers." 

26. What is idolatry ?~The Saint now, for 
e first time, teaches something that is true and good, 
his one truth, however, which he teaches, both him- 
If and the whole Popish church violate. 

He asks, "What is idolatry? Answer; That 
idolatry when an honor or reverence is bestowed 
;)on a creature as if it were Grod. This happens, 
)t only by offering sacrifice, but by any mark of 
mor or veneration whatsoever, by which a person 
leans to submit himself to a creature as if it were 
bd; for instance, by bending the knee, by incensing, 
J uncovering the head to the statue of Jove.** — Id. 
.ib. iii. N. 12. 

We shall show, by and by, whether, according to 
le Saint's own definition, the church of Rome is not 

27. Sacrilege to strike a Priest. — "To 
rike a Clergyman is a sacrilege." — Id. ib. N. 35, 

28. Chastity a Doll. — In many Po^\a\l^ioc^&s^ 


and especially in those which have been writtailf 
the Aacetica, and in the livea of the Popiah BiitiM, 
the virtue o( ciiaatity, whose real character it inai' 
cence and loFelinesa, is dressed up in the knoflt fic- 
titious ornaments, daszling the beholder with its ii- 
rious trinkets. All this mockery of virtue is a own 
doll to captivate and please the childishness of tlieir 
credulous devotees, and to exhibit before ^the Wodd, 
to show how pure and holy it is presumed the Prieili 
must be. These books were written for the public, 
and many a simple, unsuspecting female has tsicaii 
the veil, and cloistered herself for life, for the stdca 
of cultivating this virtue, under the guidance of JheOi 
so holy as the Priests. 

29. Some books for the people, others FOt 
THE PRIESTS. — Theso books were written, as we 
have observed, for the people. The Priests have 
other books for their direction. Theso are thef 
which exhibit the genius of Popery in its true cllt^ 
acter. They are written in Latin, and never trans* 
lated, hence the common people could not resd 
them, even if they had them. They are to be fdanA 
nowhere but on the shelves of Priests, consequendfi 
the full and true doctrine of Popery is known h) 
none but the Priests. 

30. Latin (ivotatioks. — Throwing aside the 
Popish books which are written for the people^ wa 
will now see how modest a man a Priest ought ts 
be, according to the Theology of the great St Ligo* 
i% a book written expressly and exclusively tm 
Priests. Some of out patrana o\f^^cX x^ Vaicosi ^sj^fiar 


tatioDs being introduced in our expositions of Pope- 
ry, unless we give them the translation. We would 
observe to these our friends, that modesty forbids the 
translation of them. If it should be asked, then, 
** why quote the Latin at all ?" we answer, — for the 
sake of exhibiting a full view of the horrors of Po- 
pery, at least to those who are acquainted with the 
Latin. Would it not be a pity to conceal things that 
ought to be known, from many, because tbey are too 
indelicate to be exhibited to all ? What we write on 
the subject of Popery, we wish to be read by all, but 
were we to pour out ail the pollutions of the doc- 
trine, it would frustrate our design, since the book 
would be too indelicate to appear in public. God 
alone knows the embarrassments under which we 
labor. Our object is to save our country from the 
devastations of Popery, and from its polluting doc- 
trines ; but to save the country from this pestilence, 
it must be known ; — known at least, in some way or 
other. Those who are ignorant of the Latin, can 
inquire of those who know it. Thus the information 
can be imparted from one to another, without the 
necessity of exposing the revolting scene to the idle 
gaze of all. 

31. Priestly liberties with females. — We 
Jiow turn again to Ligori. Speaking of Priests, and 
Confessors, he writes as follows ; " Non obstante peri- 
oolo pollutionis, licet audire confessiones mulierum, 
*udere casibus conscientiaB, tangere se ex necessi- 
^." (What we dare, we now give in English :) 
**It is hwful for Confessors cautioMsVY ^o s^^saNs^Xa 


women, when it is necessary, and to kin and csd- 
brace them according to the custom of the coontry, 
if) by refraining from it, they would be considered as 
uncivil." — Ligor. Lib. iii. N. 481. 

3*2. Shocking. — " An liceat," asks the Saint, "su- 
mere medicamentum ad semen verum corrumpend' 
um, et postea ejiciendum resolutum in sanguinem, aat 
alium humorem?" He answers, that some Divines 
maintain that it is not, but others, with more proba- 
bility, assert it is, — "for, if it is lawful," observes the 
Saint, (quoting from Sane.) "amputare testiculoa ad 
tuendam vitam, quanivis homo sine illis oomiDO 
impotens reddatur ad generandum ; cur non haiai 
semen corrumpere?" — Id. ib. N. 478. 

33. Shocking. — "Si poliutio secutura prandet* 
tur ex re illicita, otiosa, vel minus necessaria — etrcsil* 
la sit eausatantum remota, per accidens tantumadpol' 
lutionem concurrens*, qualis est, verbi gratia, esitfi 
aut potus calidorum, equitatio, confabulatio inutilis* 
crapula, ebrietas etiam mortalis, (modo pollutioDem 
non intendat, et absit periculum venerei consensus,) 
secuta poliutio non est mortale." — Id. ib N. 482. ' 

34. Gallantry. — " Hinc etiam praevisa poliutio* 
ne involuntaria, licet Confessariis, audire Confcssio' 
nes mu lierum, ac legere tractatus de rebus turpibus.— 
Licet quoque aliis alloqui, osculare, aut amplexaii 
mulieres juxta morem Patriae, servire in balneis, «* 
similia."-^Id. ib. N. 483,— The latter part of thi», 
(suppressing what we blush to translate,) we noW 
giro in English. ** It is lawful," says the SaiiA 
in the above Latin, " for Confessors to hear the C^' 




fnsion of women, and to read treatises on immodest 
subjects. It is also lawful for others to converse 
^h women, to kiss and embrace them, according 
to the custom of the country, to wait upon them in 
the baths, and such like things." 


■Wonib and Nuns— Popish obedience— GamblingSenefices — 
lT\falUbility— Miscellaneous. 

1. Monk's use of money. — " If a Monk," asks 
the Saint, ** after having had permission of his Su- 
perior to expend a certain sum of money, spends it 

n4 for unlawful uses, for instance, in forbidden games, 

ni or with prostitutes, &c. does he then sin against the 

ir. ^ow of poverty, and are he and the one who receives 

e^ the money, bound to restore it to the Monastery ?" 

& Some of the Divines, observes the Saint, maintain 

aft that he is, while others, who are grave Divines, con- 

Tfi: tend that he is not. The reason they give why he 

S- ^oes not sin against his vow, and why he is not 

brf* hound to restitution, is, " because under such circum- 

31^ stances, he is licensed, not, indeed, by his Prelate as 

B5^ administrator, but by Religion as his mistress, who, 

(A in such a case, although unwilling as to the manner, 

Hi* ^ not unwilling, however, as to the substance. Re- 

tlcj IJgion, it is presumed, often consents to this, lest the 

DC*{ character of the Monk or of the Superior should be 

!ai! exposed. Moreover, under such circumstances, the 

f^ Superior removes every obstacle as fax as Vve caiw\ 


and therefore, since he grants a unirersal liccue^ 
there is no reason for supposing that he reatnuni 
the license merely to lawful uses." — Ligor. Lib. Ill 
N. 873. The Saint, however, thinks the first opin- 
ion is the more probable. But since, as we have 
already shown, in the concurrence of two opinion^ 
either of them may be lawfully followed, in practice, 
the latter opinion can be lawfully embraced. 

2. Monks not bound to be perfect. — In re- 
gard to the Monastic Rule, and to Monks, the Saint^ 
writes as follows. ** A Monk is not absolutely bound 
to be perfect, but to aspire to perfection. He is bound 
to aspire to perfection : — 1st. By essential nMUii> 
2dly. By his vows. 3dly. By not contemning se- 
condary means. 4hly. He is bound to use some 
means towards the attainment of perfection, and if he 
reject all means, he is not in a state of salvation. 
5thly. He is bound to the performance of certain 
good works of supererogation ; because, otherwise^ 
he could not have that intention for his salvation 
which is requisite."— Id.- Lib. IV. N. 9. 

3. Rules constitute perfection. — ** He i« 
bound to aspire to perfection by the means of \aB 
own Religious Order, and not by other means ; that 
is, by the observance of its Rules. Hence, he sin^t 
1st, by contempt of the Rule, that is, if he be unwil' 
ling to submit to it He sins, 2dly, if he intend 
merely to observe that part of the Rule which obliged 
under mortal sin, because this would be to de8pi00 
perfection." — Id ib. 

4. Violating the iltsi.e kiiL^vtk\»%ui,—- ^TV 


tiaasgress the Rule freqaently and habitually, is a 
xiioTtal sin." — Id. ib. 

5. The WHIPPING of monks. — " If it be neces- 
sary to correct a Monk, the Superior can even chas* 
tise him with a whip, and break out upon him with 
reproaches, provided he do not act under the impulse 
of anger, nor in the presence of worldlings or novi- 
ces."— Id ib. N. 13. 

6. Vow OF POVERTY. — ** A. Religious, by the vow 

of poverty, is under the obligation of possessing 

nothingofhisown." — Id.ib. N. 14. "This is proved,*' 

observes the Saint, "by the Council of Trent, which 

says, *That none of the Religious, either Monks or 

Nuns, is allowed to possess any property, either real 

or personal, of any description whatsoever.' They 

aw not allowed to retain them as their own, be the 

way in which they have acquired them v/hat it may ; 

"t nor are they allowed to possess them, even in the 

J name of the Convent: but they are immediately to 

; be given up to the Superior, and to be incorporated 

J with the Convent; Neither is the Superior allowed, 

J crer after, to relinquish back again to the regular 

J Monks or Nuns, any of their real estate ; nor is he 

\ to permit them to have the income, use, administra- 

. tion, or appropriation of it. If any one should be 

". npprehended, and convictexi of holding on to any 

PW of his property, let him be secreted or obscured 

*ttbg two years, and even punished according to the 

constitutions of his Rule and Order."*— Id. ib. N. 15. 

'!j * This conBrms what Maria Monk has slated, m le^w^ xo ^^ 
"ons bttinff imprisoned in the subterranean ceW*. 


7. Monks allowed to oamblr. — '^Can a Su- 
perior," asks the Saint,'* grant permission to any of 
his subjects to gamble ? He certainly can if the stun 
be small ; in which case the subject can use tiw 
privilege, eyen with the tacit or pre8umpti?e conaeot 
oftheSuperior.'' — Id. ib. N. 32. The Saint observes, 
that the game ought to be lawful, not unlawful, as n 
dice, and all games that depend merely upon hazaid, 
or chance ; and this he proves from the Council of 
Trent, Sess. xx." — Id. ib. *• Moreover," continofli 
the Saint, " in some Convents it is permitted, throogii 
custom, to play at cards for a small sum of money." 
—Id. ib. 

8. Money won for the Monastery. — ^Thfi 
Saint says, that "the money which a Monk wins by 
gambling does not belong to him, but to the Montf 
tery."— Id. Lib. III. N. 874. 

9. Cloistered life preservative of chu 
TiTY. — "The cloistered life," observes the Saint 
** is introduced for the more secure preservation of 
chastity, not only of the Nuns, but also of the Monb 
who are not permitted to go out of the Monaster] 
without the permission of their Superior." — Id. lib 
IV. N. 37. 

10. Going out a bin. — •* It is the common opin 
ion that a Religious who goes out of the Monaster} 
without the permission of the Superior, commits^) 
mortal sin, because the custom of the Monasteries i 
such, that they regard it as a mortal sin, and sod 
transgressors are always punished as being guih; 
o/" a grievous crime." — 1^. \>a. 


11. Monkish obedience. — **A Religious, by 
ius vow of obedience, is obliged to obey all the com- 
iDands of his Superior, according to the Rules and con- 
stitutions of his Order, whether the command be 
given directly and expressly, or indirectly and im- 
plicitly. And, indeed, if he command in the name 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, or some such form, he is 
bound to obey under mortal sin.'' — Id. ib. N. 38. 

12. Popish obedience. — **I8 a subject bound," 
asks the Saint, ** to obey, if he doubts whether the 
thing the Superior commands is lawful or not ? — 
He is certainly bound, and although he cannot obey 
while the doubt remains, since it is entirely unlaw- 
ful to do a thing with a practical .doubt, yet he is 
bound to lay his doubts aside, and thus he can, and 
ought to obey. If the command be doubtful, the 
subject in obeying, on account of the merits of obe- 

13. The virtue of obedience. — '* In case of 
a doubt," says the Saint, " whether the thing which 
is commanded be against the Commandment of God, 
the subject is still bound to obey the command of 
iiis Superior; because, ALTHOUGH IT BE 



^i support of this blasphemy, it is said to be the ** com- 

^ mon opinion received by all." Here follows a long 

j.^ list of authorities, which we shall omit. 

i4. Proved from scripturb tu^t "Pir.v^s.t^ 
' N, 120. 




our eyes were passing over the above most Ua8p)»- 
mous doctrines, we were strack with astonishmflDt 
and indignation, but who can tell what were wi 
feelings when the Saint I ! quoted the Sacred Scrip 
tures to confirm it ! — ** It is proved," (says he 
speaking of the blasphemy above stated,) **iroiE 
Deuteronomy xvii. v. 8 and 10, where we read at 
follows: **//* there arise a matter too hard for tha 
in judgment **** do whcUsoetet those shaUtellikii 
who are the Superiors in the place which the lAf^ 
has chosen." — Ligor. Lib. IV. N. 47. 

This is a specimen of the manner in which tb 
Popish Priests quote Scripture. 

15. Scripture quoting.— ** We will nowgi^ 
the text as it is in Scripture. *' If there arise 
matter too hard for thee in judgment, between Hot 
and blood, between plea and plea, and betwei 
stroke and stroke, being matters of controver. 
within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and g 
thee up into the place which the Lord thy God sha 
choose." Deut. xvii. verse 8. 

'* And thou shalt do according to the sentem 
which they of that place which the Lord shall choo 
to show thee ; and thou shalt observe to do accordin 
to all that they inform thee" Ver. 10. 

A bare comparison between the true text, and d 
quotation made by Ligori,will show at a glance, tl 
object he had in mangling the te:^t as he has dom 

From this text, the Romish Divines pretend 
prove, that, "Althouok a. tiiing be aoaiks 

8TNOP81S. 229 


THING, DOES NOT SIN," in Other words, that Priests 
must be obeyed in preference to God. 

Well, indeed, are such doctrines as these kept 
from the public view I — Well is their impious sys- 
tem cloaked in Latin, and couched in terms that 
none but Priests can understand 1 

16. Church and state. — We would ask these 
learned Doctors, what have we to do with church 
government under the Jewish dispensation? We 
are now, thank the Lord, under the Christian dis- 
pensation. Church and state, under the Mosaical 
law, were combined. Christians are under the law 
of Christ. The government of the Christian 
Church is spiritual, and has no authority over civil 
and political affairs. *'For the priesthood being 
changed" says the apostle Paul, " there is made of 
necessity a change also of the law. For there is 
Verily a disannulling of the commandment going 
befdre, for the weakness and unprofitableness 
thereof THEN, verily^ the first covenant had also 
ordinances of divine service, and a WORLDLY 
SANCTUARY. But CHRIST being come a 
^igh priest of good things to come, by a GREAT- 
^t made with hands, that is to say, not of this 
b^^ing — he eiUered in once into the holy place, 
^ving obtained eternal redemption for us^ — He- 
brews vii. 12, 18; ix. 1, 11, 12. My kingdom y'ssak^ 
/frf Jesus, is yw£ of this world. John xvV\\. ^^. 
/ 20 


17. Priests to bs obeyed before Gos.-^ 

Whilst we vindicate the truth, we cantiot suffer this 
Popish outrage to remain attached even to the skiit 
of Moses. Far was it from the mind of that holy 
man ever to teach, that '' although a thing he against 
Godj nevertheless; on account of the virtue of ok' 
diencey the subjett who does that thing does not nm." 
On the contrary, it is from the hand of Moses that 
we have received the ten Commandments written by 
God's own hand upon tahles of stone ; the first and 
greatest of which is, ** Thou shalt love the Lori 
thy God with all thy heart, amd with all thy soul, 
and with all thy mind?^ — Matt. xxii. 37. 

The Apostle John tells us what this love is, when 
he says, alluding to Christ, " This is love, that m 
walk after his commandments." — 2 John, 6. 

Power of priests. — *' A i^ubject," (says Ligori, 
alluding to Monks and Nuns,)i »» who may have but 
one sole probable opinion that a thing which vi 
commanded by his Superior, is unlawful, and to 
whom there appears no probability of its probity, is, 
nevertheless, bound to obey. So long as there is no 
certainty of the baseness or dishonesty of an action, 
the Superior has the right of commanding whatso- 
ever may appear lawful to him, although it appear 
unlawful to the subject" — Ligor. Lib. iv. N. 47. 

19. Opinion respecting widows. — Women 
who are illegitimate, infamous, or corrupted, fttch 
as widows, unless their corruption he secret, are iB" 
eiigible to the office of Abbess." — Id. ib. N. 59* 


20. Children are not to consult parents. 
— ^* Children who wish to enter into the Religious 
state," (that is, to become Monks or Nuns, says Li- 
gori,) ** are not bound, neither is it expedient for them, 
to consult their parents ; because in this, not only 
have the parents no experience, but for their own 
convenience, they become their children's enemies. 
St. Thomas, speaking of the Religious vocation, 
says, * it frequently happens that carnal friends turn 
others aside from their spiritual progress.' Verily 
it not unfrequently happens that parents would 
rather see their children perish with them than saved 
without them. — Children should be very cautious, 
ia respect to their vocation to a religious life, not to 
consult their parents, for it is said, * make thy case 
known to thy friend,' because one's carnal relations, 
in this afiair, are not friends, but enemies, according 
to what the Lord has said, ^ A ma/rCs enemies art 
y ih^tt of his own household.^ From all this the con- 
^ i; elusion is, that children who enter into the Religious 
state without consulting their parents, do not sin, 
but, generally speaking, they err greatly, if they let 
them know any thing about their vocation. This is 
iijj, confirmed by the example of so many saints whose 
ipps *®paration from their parents, without their know- 
4; . '^ge, or against their will, God has blessed, and 
,-piT^ ^en approved by miracles." — Id. ib. N. 68. 
/.fii 21, Perpetual imprisonment. — "A iVwn," 
lit ^ys Lagori, "who is guilty of a grievous or perni- 
\ Clous crime, and who appears to be t\oIoi\o\x^\^ Vcv- 






corrigible, is to be confined in perpetual impritonr' 
ment, rather than to be expelled."* — Id. ib. N. 79. 

22. Punishment of Monks. — "Monks, how- 
ever,'' says the Saint, ** are, on the contrary, to be 
expelled, if they are guilty of notorious crimes, and 
remain incorrigible. Their incorrigibility, how- 
ever, is first to be put to the test, by putting them 
under a fast, and confining them in prison for one 
year." — Id. ib. 

We leave it to the reader <o conjecture why the 
Monks can be expelled, and not the Nuns. 

23. GiiMBLiNO. — " Absolutely speaking, and by 
the law of nature," says Ligori, " it is lawful to bet 
concerning a future event, which is connected with 
damage and injury to one's neighbor ; for example, 
that Peter will die within a year ; for, although by 
so betting, it afllbrd an occasion for desiring or plot- 
ting the death of Peter, this occasion is but acci- 
dental, and the danger arising from it may be avoid- 
ed. This, however, by human laws is often prohib- 
ited."— Ligor. Lib. III. N. 879. 

2. Betting to drink. — "Although a bet 
made under some unlawful condition, such, for in- 
stance, as to drink more than another, be unlawful 
because it leads to sin, that, however, which is won 
by such a bet, you are not bound to restore." — Id. ib. 

24. Laws on gambling. — " It is probable," says 
Ligori, ** that a person who, by reproaches or threats, 
induces another to gamble, and wins his money, is 

♦ Confirmation of Man«i"NlotvV?« K^T\jv\^\*e\«Bw«». 

SYN0PS1& 233 

lot bound to restore it, because, absolutely speaking, 
nich a person gambles voluntarily.'' — Id. ib. N. 680. 
26. Custom legalizes cheating. — ** He who 
nakes use of the knavery and cunning," says the 
Saint, ** which is usually practised in gambling, and 
which has the sanction of custom, is not bound to 
restore what he wins, since both parties know that 
iQch tricks are customary, and consequently they 
consent to them." — Id. ib. N. 882. 

26. Gambling for prayer. — " To play for the 
reciting of a Psalm, or the Lord's Prayer, is neither 
a sin, nor an irreverence." — Id. ib. 

27. Gambling for Mass. — "It is asked," says 
the Saint, *' whether it is lawful to play for the win- 
ning of Sacred Prayers^ to be applied for the 
benefit of him who wins ? Habert, Lopes, Vega, 
ftc, say it is not, because it is not lawful to. mingle 
>tcred things with profane ; nay, they say it would 
be simoniacal, if he who wins should have the in- 
tention of compelling the other to pay by having 
recourse to the civil law." — Id. ib. This is the 
opinion of some of the Divines. The above being 
J^ literal translation, it will be necessary to explain 
the technicality of the term •* Sacred Prayers." 
By this expression is meant the Sacrifice of the 
Mass, or the Sacrament, as it is called, in which the 
^afer, after it has been converted by the Priest into 
4e body, blood, soul, and divinity of Jesus Christ, 
• offered up by him, to God, as a propitiatory sacri- 
fice for the living and the dead. W« sbsiVl nov* 
-WfAe decision of the Saint on the a\xb^ecX,«cA 



the reascms for his decision. *" It is righ 
**to affirm that it is lawful to play for tl: 
of Sacred Prayers to be applied for the 
him who wins ; because, although it is 
use spiritual things for profane, it is not 
use profiine things for spiritual. And thi 
by the usage of the pious. As it is lain 
gain for, and exchange spiritual things wi 
things, so also is it lawful to hold one a] 
tually bound for the payment of those '• 
would certainly be simoniacal, however, 
the party were to play for money, and th 
Sacred Prayers.^^ — Id, ib. 

28. Gambling lawful. — The churc 
makes a singular distinction between th 
kinds of gambling. " Gambling," (accor 
definition of the Romish church,) ''is a < 
which those who gamble mutually agree 
him who wins, that which is bet. Thes 
are allowed by the law of nature, provii 
quisite conditions be observed, and there 
scandal, and no just prohibition, and no 
occasion of sin accompany it. Becaus< 
one is master of his own property, he cai 
whomsoever he will ; consequently he ca 
another under any condition whatsoever, 
depend upon chance, or his own carefulne 
gence."— Id. Lib. III. N. 871. 

29. Gahblino twofold. — Accordii 
deiSnition, gambling of e^r^ty kind is alloi 
Imo of nature. The cVwacVi ol \V.q;to«,^ 


the wisdom of her counsels, has seen fit to make a 
distinction in regard to this matter. Hence, by her 
Canonical' law, those games only are considered 
lawfol which depend upon the exercise of the un- 
derstanding, and which, consequently, require skill 
and judgment. Those only are held to he unlaw- 
ful, which depend upon mere chance or hazard, 
such, for instance, as dice." — Ligor. Lib. III. N. 

30. All Gambling lawful. — We will now 
show, however, the Caiions to the contrary notwith* 
standing, that all sorts of gambling are allowed. 
This we prove from Ligori's own concessions. He 
leaches as follows: — r-»*The Canons," says he, 
.*** which forbid games of hazard do not appear to be 
received, except inasmuch as the gambling i? car- 
ried on with the danger of scandal. Be it known," 
continues he, " that the above mentioned Canonical 
law is so much nullified by the contrary custom, 
that not only laymen, but even the Clergy do not 
sin, if they play cards principally for the sake of 
recreation, and for a moderate sum of money." — Id. 
ib. N. 883.* 

31. Canon law. — "Although we have here 
another instance of the paramount law of Custom, 
over every other law, still it is hardly necessary to 
seek shelter under the law of custom, since, ac- 

* What will Bishop England of Charleston say to this, who 
inetended, that the Cardinals whom Mr. Willis saw playing 
cards tor money, had the gold lying OTVlVkeVs^Aj^mertVifttr 


cording to the Saint, those who violate the Ganoa 
law by playing at games of hazard, are guilty 
merely of a venial sin." — Ligor. Lib. III. N. 886. 

32. Venial sin. — A venial sin, as we have shown 
in chapter first is a matter of so trifling importance, 
that it is entirely unnecessary to Confess it; so 
slight a stain, that merely a few drops of Holy 
Water, or the sign of the Cross eflectually ex- 
punges it. 

33. Custom nullifies law. — The above men- 
tioned Canons relative to games of hazard,'are also 
nullified by custom, in regard to the Clergy as well 
as to the laity, except, however, those Clergy who 
are Beneficiaries or in Majoribus. — Id. ib. N. 896. 

34. LiGORi's AVOWAL. — The Saint observes that 
"the Clergy, now-a-days, can truly be said to he 
excusable in playing cards, because it is the uni- 
versal custom, which certainly diflfers from the an- 
cient and strict discipline of the primitive church." 
—Id. ib. N. 900. 

Here we have the avowal of the great St. Ligori 
himself, that a universal custom of the churcS 
OF Rome certainly differs from the ancienI 

AND strict discipline OP THE PRIMITIVl 

Church. To this we all respond, ** Amen," — an( 
we cordially felicitate the Saint on his having utter 
ed one truth at last. 

35. Gambling with understanding. — In re 
gard to gambling when the game depends upon th( 
exercise of the understanding, and not merely upoi 
cAance, there is no pToV\\V)\i\otivf\«iVso^N«t. 


86. Ltitio to shun torments. — "* It is not a 
mortal sin," says Ligori, ^'fitlsely to accuse ones' self 
of a crime of which one is not guihy, in order to 
escape grievous torments, even if death should be 
the consequence of such an avowal ; because a man 
it not bound under such excruciating torments to 
try to save his life ; neither is he upon this account, 
to be considered as a suicide, but merely as having, 
for a just reason, exposed his life to death." — Id. ib. 
N. 983. 

* 37. The tormenting church.: — Here we see 
the mode of punishment inflicted in Popish coun- 
tries ; excruciating torments, to make a man confess 
that of which he is innocent. 

38. Excused from fasting. — The law relative 
to &8tmg in the Romish church, is entirely nuga- 
tory in regard to the Clergy. The exceptions to it 
ue so universal, that a Priest has the power of Dis- 
peasmg almost any one whomsoever from the obli- 
ga^on of it, if he choose. The doctrine relative to 
this subject, is, of course, kept from the people. 
They, on the contrary, are made to believe that they 
Ve bound to fest The Priests, however, can ex- 
j^; CQie themselves whenever they choose. The peo- 
.^ pk are made to fast for various reasons; first, from 
^ the mistaken notion that this appearance of mortifi- 
■ cation will commend them to the world. 2dly, In 
order to keep the people under a slavish subjection 
*o the Clergy. The Priests, having the power of 
Dispensing, the people, of course, and es^^iallY 
^iosp xvho do not relish the discipline oi feLS^.Vc\^^ «i^ 


urged to codti their favor. Hence tbey fed their 
importance, and bestow their fiivors and DispeoM- 
tions on those who please them the most And 
3dly, in regard to some, the subject of festing and 
other corporal austerities is pushed to such eitnvt- 
gant excess, that, through the craftinesi of tiie 
Priests, the}' are made complete fools. After hsTiog 
thus emaciated their bodies, and paralyzed the 
energies of their mind, they fall a prey to the insid- 
ious designs of the Reverend Wolves in sheq/s 
clothing. In regard to the exceptions from the ob- 
ligation of fasting, we refer to Ligori at large in hit 
Treatise, ** On the causes which excuse fiom 
Fasting." We do not quote him, because the ex- 
ceptions are so voluminously multiplied, that they 
would almost fill a book. — Vide Ligor. Lib. III. N. 
1031 et sequent. 

39. Definition OF benefices. — "AnEccIeo- 
astical Benefice,' ' says Ligori, " is a perpetual right 
of receiving the rents which arise firomthe propeity 
and good things of the Church, on account of some 
spiriiual Office instituted by the authority of the 
Church."— Id. Lib. IV. N. 83. 

By this definition, the receiving of rents is called 
a spiriiual Office, We have here another instance 
which shows how difficult it is for persons, who aie 
not thoroughly acquainted with Popery, to haves 
correct idea of the true Popish meaning either of 
what they write, or what they say. To have to 
adequate or thorough knowledge of their princi* 
pleSt it is necessary lo bXavA^j x^akkv va ^Cwwi ««^ 


x>l& It is a lesson, too, of at least nine years ; 
Bson, which, by the light of many a midnight 
p, I have learned. Neither is the whole lesson to 
earned in books. Much of it is taught sussurone 
s^ by the secret whispers of the Lordly Bishops. 
zh^ coo, is afterwards to be acquired by practice. 
a diamond is necessary to cut a di&roond, so is 
riest necessary to cut the polished hardness of the 
)ish doctrine. 

0. Benefices and gold. — By Popish Bene- 
s, then, we are to understand any thing else btrt 
Hritual thing, unless land, and houses, and mills, 
rents, and gold, and pomp, and splendor, and 
IS, are spiritual things;' for it is entirely of such 
)gs that these spiritual Benefices consist. In this 
ance, however, and for the sake of showing the 
east^^ to more advantage, we shall consider the 
Qefices as a spiritual thing. For the sake of the 
antage, we shall not dispute with them about the 
rectness of the definition. We will regard the 
^, not as a material, but as a spiritual thi,ig. 
was under this plea, perhaps, that Bishop Eng- 
d denied that the Cardinals were playing cards 
gold ; that is, that they were playing for gold in 
'. Willis' sense of the word gold, in a material 
ise. The gold that was lying upon that table 
s a spiritual thing ; therefore, the Bishop with his 
pish conscience, could convert the lie into a truth. 
41. The advantages of dignity.— These Ben- 
:es are for the Clergy, and for such ^jetaoua a« 
nd ''high in the Church, evert aVlVvow^V ^^^ 


have no jurisdiction ; for instance, for those who 
hold an honorable place in the choir, at procesaioiiii 
&c."— Ugor. Lib. IV. N. 84. 

42. E>ocTRiNB ON BENEFICES. — " It is generally 
unlawful and repugnant to the natural law," says 
the Saint, '' to possess more than one Benefice, (if 
they be such, that one of them would be sufficient 
for an honest living,) unless it can be justified by 
circumstances." — Id. ib. N. 1 15. 

43. He proceeds as follows. ** I have said, 'vtf 
less it can be justified by circumstances^ becaiue, 
he who, by a Dispensation, obtaiiis more than one 
Benefice, unless there be a just reason, will not be 
safe in his conscience, but will be bound to relin* 
quish one ofthem." — Id. ib. 

44. Dispensations for the nobility.-^ 
*' Moreover," continues the Saint, ** a just cause of 
Dispensation would be the utility of the Church, 
and sometimes even, the prerogatives and merits of 
the person ; for instance, if he be a person conspicQ' 
ous for his nobility, dignity, knowledge, authority, 
virtue, &c. provided there be a care that the accu- 
mulation of the Benefices be not applied to pri?ate 
good only, and not to public." — Id. ib. 

45. Two Benefices unlawful. — *• We have 
said," observes the Saint, "that more than one Ben- 
efice cannot lawfully be obtained, except in case of 
necessity, or utility ; because he who otherwise pos- 
sesses more than one Benefice, cren with the Dis- 
pensation of the Pontiffs tcill not be safe in his con- 
wence."— Id. ib. N. U7. ^ 


46. Benxficbs against heretics. — In regard 
to Benefices we have one word more, and then we 
pass on. It would seem, if the Infallible Council of 
Trent were to be believed, that "more than one Ben- 
efice cannot be lawfully possessed, unless one be 
insufiicient for the support of him who holds it." 
However, " for the utility of the Church^^ says Li- 
gori, and the rest of the Divines, with the tacit con- 
sejit and custom^ *'it is an honest thing to pos- 
sess several Benefices, if a person, though absent, 
should be considered as of a greater utility to the 
Church, either by his authority, learning, or pru- 
dence, than another would be by his presence. 
Hence, several Bishopricks are sometimes conferred 
upon the sons of princes, even before they are of age, 
in order that they may the more powerfully defend 
the Church against heretics." — Ligor. Lib. IV. N. 

47. The wrenching of Scripture. — Again, 
the Saint, with the rest of the Divines, &c. will have 
it, that, " a Dispensation can be granted for the pos- 
sessing of several Benefices, on account of the evi- 
dent prerogative of merit; to wit, if any one is emi- 
nent for learning, counsel, instructing, or his wri- 
tings. And this is conformable to the doctrine of 
the Apostle. 1 Tim. v. 15, where we read, ' Those 
Priests who rule well are worthy of a double honor^ 
that is, as St. Jerom explains it, they are worthy of 
having bountiful largesses and gifts bestowed upon 
them, * especially those who labor in the word aTid 
doctrine:"— Ligor. Lib. IV. ^J. W^. T\v^ ^^occ^x. 


has here given the text a hard wrench to get liis 
bountiful largesses arid gifts out of it. 

48. Benefices — By a quotation which ligori 
has made from the Council of Trent, Sess. xxiv. de 
Reform. C. 17, we find that the possessing of two 
Benefices is absolutely forbidden, as being contraTy 
to law, and as an attempt to deceive Qod\ unless one 
Benefice be not sufficient for the support of him who 
holds it, in which case, the Council allows the per 
son one more, in order to make up the deficiency.-* 
Ligor. Lib. IV. N. 117. 

49. The waverings of Infallibility.— Ifi 
the disputes among the Popish Divines whether the 
possessing of more than one Benefice is forbidden, 
not only by the Canonical law, but by the law of 
nature, many of them contend that it is not forbidden 
by the law of nature, and the reason they give is,be- 
casue, as they say, " If it was contrary to the law 
of nature, the Pope would not so frequently grant 
Dispensations for the possessing of more than one 
Benefice, as we see is the custom." — Id. ib. Hence* 
it is concluded by Ligori, Bellarmine, and others 
that "to possess more than one Benefice, even witl^ 
the Dispensation of the Pope, is a mortal sin.*^ — Id- 
ib. Here, however, he observes, that '* it is not io^ 
tally a mortal sin, because it may be an honest thing' 
undeV some circumstances."— Id. ib. (This obser- 
vation of the Saint is altogether futile, because they 
all admit, with the Infallible Council of Trent, that 
it is lawful, provided one Benefice is not sufficient 
for the support of the one who holds it.) 


50. Infallibility destroys itself. -We have 
here another instance, -among thousands of others 
that we can show, of the Infallible doctrine destroy- 
ing itself. It is admitted, on all hands, by Papists, 
that the venerable Council of Trent was infallible. 
It is acknowledged also by them all, that the Pope 
cannot err in his public administration of general 
discipline, and yet we have their own acknowledg- 
ment that DispensatioTis granted by the Pope are 
frequently of such a nature, that those who receive 
them are guilty of a mortal sin. It is in vain for 
them to tell us, that their infallibility resides only in 
a General Council. Some of them may resort to 
such a quibble as this ; not those, at least, who main. 
tain the Pope's infallibility. We will allow them 
to cover the nakedness of their doctrine by such a 
cob-web subterfuge as this — and, in the mean time, 
we will ask them, where is the application, and what 
is the use of their doctrine concerning the •* Tacit 
Consent .?" These Dispensations, which the Infal- 
lible Council declares to be unlawful, are frequently 
granted by the Pope, and the whole Popish world 
tacitly consent to it. Here then, we have one /»- 
fallihility declaring a thing to be unlawful, and 
wicked, and another Infallibility tacitly consenting 
to it. If the Pope errs in thus frequently granting 
wicked and unlawful Dispensations, why is not his 
Holiness admonished of it ? Why is it legalized 
too, and sanctioned by another Infallibility called 
custom ? Why too, we ask, do ih^ MiaXYxVAa Cq>\\!l- 
:/& themselves wink at, and tac\X\v \iexYeC\\.\)csfc^«^ 

244 SYNOPais. 

to infringe their laws? .The reason is because the 
In&Jlible Council is afraid of the Pope, and the In- 
fiillible Pope is afraid of the Infallible Council 
Custom, however, if not the most in&Uible of the 
four Infallibilities, is, at least, the Mistress of the 
whole. The whole bubble, therefore, being burst, 


Sin— The danger of Confession— Gluttony— DrunkeiuUff— 


Conditions requisite to sin. — We shall now 
listen to the Saint on the subject of sin. 

** In order to constitute sin," observes the Saint, 
** three conditions are required : 1st, That it be vo- 
luntary, that is, that it be committed with the con- 
sent of the will. 2dly, That it be free, or in the 
power of him who commits it, to do it, or not to do it 
3d]y, That the thoughts be turned to the malice of 
it, ut advertatuT malitiaP 

" Hence, if the 1st condition be wanting, no act, 
which is neither in the will, nor from the will, is 
sinful ; consequently it is no obstacle to the receiving 
of the Communion, whether the act be interna], as 
thoughts against the Faith, blasphemy, obscenity,* 
motus carnis, etiam uaque ad effusionem seminUi 
sipe externus ; ac viohnius^ v. g, stuprum virgtnt 
per vim illatvm!^ 


^ 2dly, If the 2d condition be wanting, there is no 
sin in the most vehement motions of anger, or con- 
cupiscence}, by which the use of reason may be dis- 
turbed, or liberty destroyed." 

3dly, ** If the 3d condition be wanting, there is no 
sin in eating ment on a fest-day, if the command- 
ment which prohibits it be forgotten." 

** The harm, and damages, and accidents," con- 
tinues the Saint, ** which follow from drunkenness, 
although they be frequent, if they are in no way 
foreseen, are sinless. If they are foreseen, and the 
negligence is only venial, so also will the drunken- 
ness, and the accidents which usually attend it, only 
be venial sins." — Ligor. Lib. V. N. 2. 

2. The consent requisite to the consti- 
tuting OF SIN. — •* In regard to the advertency and 
consent that is requisite to constitute sin," says the 
Saint, " we have a few necessary observations to 
make. And 1st, in regard to the advertency of the 
understanding, it is to be observed in the first place, 
that the manner in which sin is committed is this ; 
first the object is exhibited to the senses, and by its 
physical delectability, it excites the sensitive appetite. 
Then the understanding notices the sin, and the 
malice of it And, lastly, the will consents to it, af- 
ter it is thus known. Observe, in the second place, 
that the understanding can notice the sin in a two- 
fold manner, either fully, that is, when the sin is no- 
ticed while the mind is free and unoccupied ; or 
aemi-ftiUy, as when we know a thing wheTil![iftmmd. 
IS not fully disengaged : because, peT\\aps, v;^ ^"t^ 

S46 mrwopsi?. 

half asleep, or kalf drunki or odMrwua^duMetell 
since the andeistandin^ may be to tmviahei^irilk Ihi 
delectability of the object which is prasentsdMit 
it, that it does not notice any thing of its numl tat 
pitoda Hence, to this threefiild knowlodge of die 
understanding there are three eoneqioiMUng nr 
tions ; to wit, Ist, the Motm primo jmm, whichM^ 
tirely precedes the advertency of .reason, aadd^ 
motions of the mind are entirely free from sin. Mjri 
the Motus secundo primi, which happen with a hiK 
full advertency of the reason, and these conslilili 
only a venial sin, because, aS they are not preceded 
hy an entire advertency of the reason^ the will fai 
not consent to them with that entire liberty wUdiii 
requisite in order to constitute a mortal sin. dHjt 
the Moius deliberaii, which happen with a full sdr 
vertency of the understanding clearly discerning the 
moral turpitude of the action, at least in a geoenl > 
and confused manner, and with the entire consent 
of the will : these are morta], if the action be pio* 

hibit^ by the law under the guilt of mortal sis." 
-r-Ligor. Lib. V. N. 3. 

3. Voluntary and involuntary ionorakc>> 
— The Saint now runs out into a lengthy discussion 
in order to distinguish between what sort of igno^ 
ranee may be called voluntary, and what soit invrif 
untary. He concludes with entirely condemniii([ 
those Divines whom he regards as too rigid, and 
maintains, <'that, in order to impute any effiBctlo a 
certain causie, there must necessarily precede^ (it 


t, io the beginning,) an actual and express ad- 
«ncy of the malice of the object. — Id. ib. N. 4. 
. Ignorance prevents sin. — In order to up- 
d and defend sin, the Saint even goes so far as to 
" that God, on account of other defects, will de- 
re a person of further light, by reason of which 
will remain subject to his own temptations and 
sions, lest he should sin in other things.'' — Id. ib. 
nee, it follows, that the more a man suffers him- 
i" to be controlled by his passions, the less he sins; 
i the reason is, because the more he offends God, 
Jess light he receives from God. If this reason- 
' be correct, then all that a man has to do, in order 
)e free from the guilt of sin, is to roll and wallow 
his passions, until God wholly deprives him of 
f further light, and then, do what he will, he 
mot sin, because he is entirely involved in dark- 


A.ccording to this Popish doctrine, (and it is 
\ principle on which they always act,) if a man 
shes to become holy and entirely perfect, he has 
:hing more to do than to suffer himself to be led 
all things by the ungovernable fury of his pas- 
ns. Let him only become entirely depraved, and 
JD he can sin no longer. In regard to this doc- 
ne of Darkness^ it would be true indeed, that men 
aid not sin, if they were thus born in darkness, 
lolly deprived of all light whatsoever, without any 
v, either natural, divine, or human. Man, under 
x;umstances such as these, would not be axv «.<> 
intable creature; and God, as a good aud ma^ 

248 8TNOP9I8. 

being, could not hold hhp guilty^. Thii^ howeni; 
is not the case, since. ""The ligki Mniihindtui^ 
nets, and the darkmu edmpreMeniM ttf mMi' isj 
this is the C4mdemnatiani that ligki u cemthit 
the world, and men loved darkness ruiherthomU^ 


Aiu. 19. . ' 

5. Shameful. — In regard to the motieiwof c4fr 
capiaeence, the Saint writes as follows. ** Notandril,* 
non esse obligationem moiibns eamoHbus resimiiMi 
possitive, si jnsta adsit causa non resistendi, niHf^ 
si quis expertus sit resistendo magis motas eseitili 
et augeri ; vel si motus oftum habeant ex ttflSaUb 
necessaria, vel utili, v. g. ex'amdiione ConfessimM, 
ex lectione rerum iurpium, scitu utUiumrr^ei wot 
li. Nor are we, under these circumstances, bomrf 
to resist these motions, if it be not an easy thing t» 
do it." — Ligor. Lib. V. N. 9. The above is too 
indelicate to be translated into English. 

Venial sins. — Venial sins are considered to l)0 
of 80 little importance, that it is Unnecessary toGott* 
fess them. They can be expiated by a mere spriuk* 
ling of Holy Water, or making the sign of the 
Cross, (t) 

7. Coveting, Ac. Venial sins. — ** Sins commit- 
ted against one's own particular advantage," m^ 
the Saint, ** are, at most, but venial in their kind, ai 
for instance, useless and vain desires, trifling iscis- 
ations, prodigality, curiosity, superfluity of oniSMil 
and dress, little lies, roguery, tricks, idle atonti^ 
ibanging, excess in eating ot dtinkm^^ \vl sleeps k 


uu eonjugii, in fear, in sadness, in the coveting of 
nimey, praise, &c." — Id. ib. N. 52. 

8 The dangers of Confession. — In regard 
x> mortal sins, the Saint cautions Ck)nfessor8 to be 
rery careful about pronouncing the sins of their 
Penitents to be mortal. — Id. ib. ** It is very danger- 
ous," says he, "for Confessors to condemn any 
erne of a mortal sin, when the certainty of it is not 
clearly manifest ; because the mistake by which it 
is believed to be mortal, when it is not mortal, on 
accoQQt of conscience, binds to mortal sin — and 
thus the Penitent is exposed to the danger of eter- 
nal damnation." — Id. ib. What a doctrine, which 
damns the Penitent on account of the ignorance or 
malice of a Confessor ! ! — Where, too, is the boast- 
ed infallibility of the Romish Church 7 What are 
the practical results ? 

9. The danger and miseries of the Friest- 
aooD. — "It is asked," observes the Saint, "whe- 
ther he sins mortally who exposes himself to only 
Jhe probable danger of sinning mortally? The 
opinion of Gob. Hozes, &/C., is that he docs not." 
--I4 ib. No. 63. 

To this, however, Ligori objects, because, he ob- 
terves, " If it is unlawful, without a just reason, to 
follow a probable opinion, with the danger of in- 
volving another person either in a spiritual or tem- 
poral loss, as is certain among all, how much more 
unlawful would it be, when there is danger of los- 
ing one-i oxen sovl! We have said," coutiuues 
Ihff Saint, "that it is unlawful ioit?iout a j'^^i f^^' 



$on; for where there is a just reason, dure iik» 
obligation of shanning such a danger, anksBlhinj 
is foreseen a moral certainty of fidltng into sin. 

Hence, surgeons are blameless and excttsabhffj 
they expose thcmselFes to danger in medeniU fit\ 
minU, where they have, in times past, someliiM 
&llen into sin on such occasions; soalso,PmA! 
Priests are blameless and excusable, wIki, in hatt- 
ing Confessions, have experienced the same snuffe 
In like manner those also are blameless whocn- 
not relinquish their business without a gfievMS 
inconvenience, such, for instance, as lawyen^ lol*; 
diers, tavern-keepers, or merchants."--Id. ib. **TIiii^" 
observes the Saint, "is the common opiiiioai.'- 
Id. ib. 

10. Vain-glory. — •* Vain-glory," sajrs StliigP- 
ri, ** is, properly speaking, a venial sin, sometimei i 
is accidentally mortal. It is only a venial sin, evea 
to discharge the sacred functions principslly fiV 
vain-glory, for instance, to preach." — Ligor. LiliiT, 
N. 66. 

11. Hypocrisy a venial sin. — "If any out 
does something good, in order to appear good* tl* 
though he is not good, this is hypocrisy, and prop«rlf 
speaking is a venial sin, unless it be accompanied wiA 
injury, or the contempt of Grod, or one's neighltf * 
— Id. ib; This, however, was not the doctrine flf 
Christ, who said, •* Wo, urUo yo% scribei and Phtf' 
isses, hypocrites, for ye shut up the kingdom ofhu^- 
against men, for yt neither go in yourselves^mdlitf 


r ye them thai are entering, to go in.'* — Matt 
. 13. 

I Lawful to open letters. — ** It is lawful 
public ministers," (Bishops, Priests, Abbesses,) 
open letters, as often as they judge it necessary 
ublic good," (that is, for the good of the Church.) 
igoT. Lib. V. N. 70. 

Anyone who opens and reads a letter, supposing 
U does not contain any thing of great import- 
, «ins only venially/'— Id. ib. 
jeh being the doctrine of the Romish church, 
ask whether the legislators of these United 
ss are not bound, in justice to our citizens, to 
e it ineligible by law for a Papist to hold any 
e in the Postoffice department, or to hold any 
ic office whatsoever ? How easy is it for a Pa- 
with a little Ligorian logic, to reconcile his 
cience to any thing, and to think a thing is of no 
t importance, which is of the greatest import- 
BesideSj a postmaster, or any public officer, 
rding to Popery, as we have just seen, can law- 
open letters, as often as he may judge itneces- 
for the good of the Romish church. Here, 
, we ate, if Papists be put into public office, com- 
jly at the mercy of the Popish Clergy ; since 
y one is bound, in Confession, to disclose to his 
'Urtal Director, every thing that he may choose 
uacy may militate against the interest of Holy 

5. Gluttony. — ** Gluttony," says St. Ligori, 
vch is an wordinaie appetite in eaUw^ mi^ 

drinking; is, from its nature^ otAj a venial i 
Ligor. Lib. V. N. 73. 

14. «« Hence it is probable," continues tb 
<«as Nav. Toi. &c. teach, (doceni,) tiiat it is 
venial sin to fill one's self up with victnals and 
even to vomiting; and that, too, if one vomiii 
der to drink again ; provided it be done y 
scandal and other things." — Id. ib. The L^ 
from the pen. of the Saint, is as follows. Hi 
bebile est, quod docent Nav. Tol. etc. seclm 
dslo, et aliis, veniale tantum esse, usque ad vi 
se cibo, et potu implore : idque etiam, si q^idi 
ut kerato possit bibere. — Id. ib. 

15. Drinkhvo of human blooo. — ^*«It j 
sidered a mortal sin, however," continues tin 
••If any one, through mere gluttony, feed of 
man flesh or blood ; because it is repugnant 
erence towards the dead; and because it is a 
to the instinct of nature, which abhors it I 
casable, however, if it be done by way of me 
or for any other good reason. Hence, publ 
cutioners are excusable, who are said to d 
little human blood in order to animate themsi 
a b^ter discharge of their duties, especially, i 
ing to many divines, if the blood be not take 
the living." — Id. ib. 

16. The daughters op gluttony.— *• 
sins which are called the daughters of glutton 
in their kind, also venial sins ; for instancei 1 


&om gluttony, such aa vk^^^w^mcx^ 


or pfayer, &di which become mortal when a person 
)y eating or drinking inordinately, voluntarily ren- 
ters himself unfit for understanding or discharging 
he duties which are necessary for his salvation, or 
vhich he is bound by his office, or otherwise, to 
lischarge."— Id. N. 74. 

2dly. ** Foolish mirth. — By which we mean, 
lot every inordinate mirth whatsoever, which follows 
nrery sin, but that kind of mirth which moves to 
he singing of obscene songs, base actions, frisking 
ind skipping about at indecent balls, &c." — Id. ib. 
Fhe Saint calls all this only venial sin. He observes^ 
lowever, that it becomes mortal when it induces 
mother to consent to it, to delight in it, and to ordain 
t—Id. ib. 

3dly. "BABBLING;" — Id. ib. 

4thly. " Scurrility, which differs from foolish 
nirth and babbling ; because foolish mirth is in 
he concupiscible faculty, babbling consists of words ; 
>at scurrility, both of words and gestures. It al- 
ways signifies something indecent; yet, properly 
ipeaking, if scandal be excepted, it is a venial sin." 
—Id. ib. The examples which the Saint gives to il- 
lustrate these venial sins of scurrility, are too scur- 
rilous to appear, either in English or Latin. We 
mppress them. 

17. Drunkenness.— "Perfectdrunkenness," says 
Ligorif ** is, in its kind, a mortal sin. This is the 
common opinion of the Doctors. But it is certain 
ind admitted by all the Divines, thai, V^ O^* 



REASON i for according to the doctrine of St 
Thomas, and ALL THE DIVINES, the maUceol 
drunkenness consists in this, that a man wiUingl] 
and knowingly deprives himself of the use of let 
son. Hence he who, hy drinking, does not eniM 
deprive himself of the use of reason, does not si 
mortally, even although his mind should be disDi 
dered by it ; provided, however, that it be in such 
way, that he can distinguish between good and en 
to the general opinion of the Divines, IF ONf 
WHEN DRUNK, does, for a short time, DI 
SON. Croix says, that a long time to remii 
drunk, seems to be an hour." — Id. N. 75. 

18. Drinking to restore health. — "ItisD 
sin to get drunk, by the advice of a physician, i 
one's health cannot otherwise be restored." — Id I 

19. Lawful to make one drunk. — " It is k^ 
fu], for a just reason," continues the Saint, "to mal 
a man drunk, provided a great evil cannot othe 
wise be prevented than by making the author of 
drunk ; provided also that he be made drunk wit 
out his willing it or intending it ; in such a cat 
he is made drunk without any fault of his owi 
for instance, by offering him wine stronger thi 
usualy or medicated \vme» b^ v5!\\q.Vv, owlci^ to h 


ignorance of the strength of it, he is deceived." 
—Id. ib. 

20. Sin, to *»revent sin. — "It is laAvful," says 
Ligori, " to induce a person to commit a smaller sin, 
in order to avoid one that is greater." — Id. N. 77. 

21. Drunkenness. — " K any one, after drink- 
ing," continues the Saint, " can still discern between 
good and evil, notwithstanding his head may' be 
somewhat troubled with wild and roving fancies, 
that vomiting may ensue, that his tongue may titu- 
bate and stammer, his feet stagger, his eyes see 
things double, or the house seem to be turning 
around, still, the drunkenness is not complete; 
therefore, it is only a venial sin" — Id. N. 78. 


TTu Sacraments — Sacramentals — Coi\fe8sion a mere farce — 
The Romiah church radically corrupt— Miscellaneous. 

1. Sin to administer the Sacraments to 
THE UNWORTHY. — " It is Certain," observes Ligori, 
" that the Minister sins grievously who administers 
the Sacraments to those who are unworthy. This is 
the common opinion. The Minister is also bound 
to have a prudent reason for judging he is worthy. 
In regard to the Sacrament of Penance, however, it 
is absolutely necessary for the validity of it, that the 
Penitent be properly disposed, and the Minister, 
who, in this case, is constituted Judge, ought to be 



* Crive not that which is holy to dogs ;' therefore the 
Sacraments are to be denied only to those wIk) are 
unworthy. Moreover, every one is naturally to be 
presumed to be good^ unless he is proved to a cer^ 
tainty, to he bad.*' — Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 43. 

According to this doctrine, and according to the 
general practice, we shall show, before we conclude, 
that the Sacraments, so called, are not refused to one 
out of a thousand ; therefore, it follows that nine 
hundred and ninety-nine of the Papists, ouf of every 
thousand, are well disposed, and are in a state of 
sanctifying grace. 

2. Drunkards and debauchees lawfully 
ORDAINED. — According to the doctrine of the Ro- 
mish church, a man can be lawfully ordained to 
Holy Orders, as they call them, who has been habit- 
ually addicted to drunkenness and debauchery, 
even to the very day of his ordination. "This 
is sufficiently confirmed," says Ligori, '*both by 
the Pontifical,* and the Roman Catechism. In 
the Pontifical we find, when the Bishop ad- 
dresses those who are to be ordained, he speaks 
as follows: *//i even until now, you have bee* 
drunk, for the future be sober : if even until ncWt 
you hare been licentious, henceforward be chaste!^* 
—Id. N. 71. 

3. Few rules without exceptions. — The 
Saint, in order to establish what he advances, sdU 

* The PoxTiFicAL is a large splendid book containing dhf^ 

tiona for Bishopa in \be admmvaienivv; oC the Scu^ramenUt lO 

called, and die rites aud ceTMnome* i^\^\ «tfe \ck\^\aK^%V¥Mk 




further, continues as follows : " Hence," says he, 
"Juveninus himself, treating^ on the subject now un- 
der consideration, and who, iu a former Work which 
he published, was one of the most strict Divines, 
Juveninus himself then maintained, that some pre- 
vious trial was necessary before a clergyman could 
be ordained to Holy Orders, in order, as he says, 
that he might have time to escape out of the net of 
licentiousness, vitio turpe, previous to his ascending 
to Holy Orders. Nevertheless in his Theological 
Institutions, speaking of a Clergyman* Avho is 
habitually licentious, i7i vitio turpe, as if he was now 
correcting himself of his former rigidity, and acting 
more benignantly, he says : ' But, since there are 
but few rules without some exceptions, Ave leave this 
afiair to the prudence of a wise and learned Direc- 
tor/"— Id. N. 72. 

4. No PROBATION FOR HoLY Orders. — This 
leaving the ordination of a Clergyman to the pru- 
dence of a wise and learned Director, means, that a 
wise Director, in the Popish casuistical acceptation 
of the term, will prudently comply with the general 
custom : and that is, according to the Pontifical, 
to ordain the candidate to Holy Orders, even while 
he is habitually licentious and depraved. The only 
preparation that is required, in such a case, is, that 
the Ordination be preceded by what they call the 


* Clergyman, in Popery, is a generic ten.:. It signifies, not 
ooly those who -tre Priests, but those who have received the 
^ ^onsnre, which is the first initiatory step towaTda \\ve di??fiX.i 
]] ^ ^^ ^^ Pneatbood. 



Sacrament of Penanca Vide Ligor. JLib. VL N 
72. ** The Roman Catechism,'* says Ligori, " re 
quires no probation of time," for the Ordination off 
Clergyman who has been licentious up to the tiin 
of his Ordination. — Id. ib. 

5. LiGORi's EXCUSES FOR SIN. — " But it mayk 
said/' observes the Saint, "that there is required, ii 
regard to those who are about to be promoted tc 
Holy Orders, not only an external divine vocation, 
but also an internal ; but how can he be considered 
as having a vocation from God, who has, for a Iod^ 
time, been living in lasciviousness and fosdatust un- 
less he previously exhibit the marks of a true voca- 
lion, by a long* penance, and the exercise of virtnel 
And how can a Confessor grant Absolution to t 
person whom he does not acknowledge is called bj 
God? We answer: it is not to be doubted, that if 
any one should dare to receive Holy Orders, know 
ing that he is not called by God, he could not b< 
excused from the guilt of mortal sin, both on accounl 
of his presumption for intruding himself into the 
Sanctuary against the will of God, since the Apostle 
says ; * Let no one assume to himself the honor, eX' 
cept he who is called by God^ as Aaron was.^ Heb. 
v. ; and on account of the certain danger of damna- 
tion to which he would then be exposed ; for, m 
Abelly, in his little golden work, entitled the 
Priest of Christ,' has said — * He who intrude! 
himself into the Priesthood, knowing that he is not 
called by God, doubdess sins against the Holy 
Obost ; which is the smlWl \\ve C3Q«^\\€SS!fcN»«s 


hardly, {vix,) or rarely, be forgiven.* However, in 
order that he who is to be promoted to the Priest- 
hood may be excused from sin, it is sufficient that 
he propose to himself a good end, and then offer 
himself to the Bishop, that he may be approved ; pro- 
vided he be not certain that he was never called by 
God. With how little reason, therefore, can a Con- 
fessor, who has heard the Confession of such a 
Clergyman as this, deny him Absolution, whom he 
wishes to be ordained, unless he is certain that he 
has not a Divine vocation? The profligate life 
which the penitent had been living, does not afford 
the Confessor any certainty that he was never called 
by God. Therefore, this is no reason why he 
should deny his Penitent Absolution, as he has ac- 
quired a STRICT AND RIGOROUS RIGHT to it, by the 

MAKING OF HIS CoNFES?ION." — Lig. Lib. Y I. N. 73. 

PRIEST," says the Saint, in another place, " IS 
A SIGN OF CONTRITION, unless there be 
some positive presumption to the contrary ; for all 
agree that sorrow is manifested by Confession." — 
Ligor. de Pcenit. N. 459. (For further particulars 
relative to this doctrine, see Synopsis, Chap. VI.) 

* Here is another instance of the mangling of the Word of 
Crod to support a false doctrine. The Gospel never told us that 
the sin against the Holy Ghost can " hardly or rarely be/or- 
fiotn ,•" "war autrarisHme" It positively declares, on the con- 
trary, that " whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghostj it shall 
yu)t be /orgiven him^ neither in this worlds nor in the world to 
eoffM.'* 'OvK d^d^ffsrai airia ovrt iv voiiTtA tw alwvv,, owt Iv tvj 

/riaAirw." Matt. xii. 32. 


7. Sacrament for drunkards. — "It is 
ful," says Ligori, "to administer the Sacraments to 
drunkards, if they are in the probable danger of 
death, and had previously the intention of receiving 
them."— Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 81. 

Christ, however, says, ** Give not thai wlMk m 
holy unto the dogsV — Matt. vii. 6. 

8. Disposition requisite for the sacra- 
ment. — The Saint asks, " What is required, that a 
Sacrament may be received lawfully and beneficiij- 
[y1 Ans. In order that the Sacraments of Baptism 
and Penance may have their effect, it is required 
and is sufficient, that, beside the will of receiring 
these Sacraments, the receiver have faith, hope, 
and attrition ; but it is not required that he have 
charity or grace. But in regard to the other Sacra- 
ments, it is required that the receiver be in the state 
of grace."— Ligor. Lib. VL N. 83. 

9. Condemned proposition. — The following 
proposition was condemned, as Ligori tells us, by 
Pope Alexander VIII, to wit ; the proposition that 
maintained, " Those persons ought to be considered 
guilty of sacrilege, who pretend that they have a 
right to receive the Communion, before they have 
done condign Penance for their sins." — Id. ib. 
What a head of the Infallible Church ! and what a 
church ! to condemn a person for saying that a man 
ought to repent of his sins before he receives the 
Sacrament of the Lord's supper ! 

10. Repentance not necessary for par 
PON.-^*^ The receiving o{ i\\e ^^LW^cKvetvx olvWE* 


charifit or Lord's sapper/' says Ligori, ** ought to 
be preceded by Confession, and Absolution from ail 
mortal sin." — Ligor. Lib, VI. N. 86. By compa- 
ring these two propositions, the reader will see, that 
repentance, according to the church of Rome, is not 
neeeeaary in order, byCJonfession, to obtain Absolu- 
tion from sin. 

1 1. The authority of prater-books, &c. — 
"It is certainly a grievous sin to receive a Sacrament 
in mortal sin ; and it is a sin, even more grievous, 
than to ^fiect and to administer a Sacrament unwor- 
thily." — Id. ib. This proposition, to be true, should 
be turned directly vice versa. What is meant by 
receiving a Sacrament in mortal sin, is to receive it 
without having Confessed it to a Priest, and with- 
oat having received his Absolution. 

Our polemics in the controversies with Papists, 
ought never to listen to any refutation they may at- 
tempt to make upon the authority of their prayer- 
books, their manuals, their common catechisms, 
their Lives of the Saints, or any of their books of 
devotion, nor, in fine, upon the authority of any 
book soever which they have written or translated 
in the vernacular idiom. None of these books are 
of any weight or authority against us whatsoever. 
These books were all written merely to deceive their 
own credulous devotees, and to show to the Protestants. 
We are to go for correct and genuine information 
to the fountain head, where the stream pours out the 
pure and unadtdierated doctrine. The authority of 
Bt. higori rises paramount to a\\ tVve Po^\^\i ^\?c3«t- 


books, and Popish books of devotioo in the woili 
Here we have the full lucid exposition of the doctrine, 
sealed and stamped with the authoiity of all that is 
held venerable in the Popish church: by the sacred 
CJongregation of Rites, Popes, Cardinals, and Bishr 
ops ; by the whole imperial metropolis of Roma; 
by all the Popish Clergy of Italy, and of aU the 
world ; by the tacit consent of the whole churchi 
They have declared his ** doctrine to be soun^ 
AND ACCORDING TO GroD, Sana ac secundum Deti*." 
In his whole system of Moral Theology, they have 


CENSURE.'^ — Ligor. Prsef Edit. p. v. We go, for 
correct information on the subject of Popery, to 
those Works, that are written expressly and exclu- 
sively for the instruction of the Priests how they are 
to instruct the people. They are written, to be sure, 
not for the public eye, and in a language which 
none but Priests can thoroughly understand. Hav- 
ing, however, been taught these Popish arcana, we 
feel it a duty incumbent upon us, to impart the in- 
formation we have acquired for the benefit of the 
world. They are unwilling to teach their doctrine 
themselves, therefore we feel it our duty to teach it 
for them. We teach it, not that it may be followed, 
but, that, being known, it may be deprecated and 
shunned. We teach it for the sake of rescuing their 
deluded followers from eternal ruin; for the bruising 
of the Serpent's head ; for the crushing of his pow- 
er ; for the deliverance of the world from the deep- 

S7N0PSIS. 263 

eet, darkest, and most &tal scheme that Satan ever 
devised for the total ruin of mankind. 

12 The hiding of the sacrament from her- 
Xtigs. — Ligori asks, "whether it is lawful in 
any case, to receive the Sacrament of the Euchar- 
ist in mortal sin? It is the most common opinion," 
Bays he, "that it is; and that, in some very rare 
Cases, does not seem improbable ; for instance, if the 
consecrated Host should be in danger of being pro- 
(aned by heretics, and on account of their sudden 
irruption, could not easily be consumed. Under 
such circumstances as these, it seems that it could 
i)e received without sin, although it would be with- 
out fruit. In this case it would not be received as a 
Stacxament, but would only be concealed in the body 
jf the person, as in a wall, in order thereby, to pre- 
serve it from injury." — Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 86. 

13. The Sacramentals.— -" The Ecclesiastical 
CJeremonies," says Ligori, "which are called 
Sacramentals, are those external acts of religion 
^hich are designed for the worship of God. Such, 
or instance, as the Lord's Prayer, Holy water, 
*sus eulogiarum olim in usw^ (literally, " the eating 
^/praises which were formerly in use^^ what this 
vas or what it means, we have yet to learn,) "gen- 
nral Confession, almsdeeds, Episcopal Benedictions, 
\r Benedictions given by a consecrated Abbot, 
v^hich, from ancient tradition, are said to remit ve- 
lial sins. They are embraced in these words; pray- 
ng, sprinkling, eating, confessing, giving, blessing. 
To these also are added, the striking oi l\ve^)xe«aXA^^ 


anointing of the king, and similar things ; also mnt^ 
other ceremonies^ and even the sacred things thein- 
selves, which, in the church, have heen partly hand- 
ed down hy tradition from the Apostlea themselvei, 
and partly instituted afterwards; such as Exoreisma, 
hreathings, the first tonsure, Benedictions, and con- 
secrations of various things, and persons, as Choidi- 
es, jchalices, &c., and even herhs, candles, the wise 
of St. John,* waxen candles, the Sign of the Holy 
Cross. — What virtue have these 1 Is it «r ofire 
operantis, from the work of him who works, since 
it is certain that we merit by these, as well as by 
other pious works ; or is it ex opere operate firom 
the work worked?" — Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 90. 

In answer to all this work, the Saint's conclusion 
is, that the virtue of the Sacramentals is ex opere ope^ 
rantis. — Id. ib. 

14. False matter sinful. — " It is a grievous / 
sin to make use of a false matter in the Sacrameo' 
tals, for instance, pro aqua lustrali faciendo %ru 
nam." — Id. N. 93. If this be the case, all the Ab* 
solutions in the world, we think, will never wash 
away the stains with wiiich the consciences of the 
Priests must be crimsoned by their wine of St* 

15. The virtue of the Sacramentals.--' 

* This is the first time we ever heard of the wine of St. Johik 
Scripture mentions the whie that was recommended to St 
Timothy, for his "frequent ir^firmitUs /" bat no mention ktf 
ever been made of the wine qf St, John, It is quits iadsKSA 
whether John ever used wine*, and BlVlVmoTe doubtfol, wbetbeC 
be ever presented it to the churcYi oI^tca \o Vin^<b'«redBu 


•* The Sacramentals sometimes operate," continues 
the Saint, ** for the benefit of the body, — ^for instance, 
by restoring health. This is effected by way of pe- 
tition, in virtue of the prayers of the Church. Nay, 
some of the Sacramentals, by a special privilege, 
even have the power of driving the Devil away, by 
m^iails of the work worked, per modum operis 
operati ; because, as they say, even Pagans, who 
have neither the advantage of the prayers of the 
Gharch, nor of the merits of their own works, have 
sometimes, by the sign of the Cross t, been delivered 
from the Devil. It is even said by some, that the 
same effect has happened even by their using the 
name JESUS."— Id. ib. 

16. The selling of Sacramentals. — "Among 
the Sacramentals are also the waxen Lambs of 
God, BLESSED BY the Pope. In regard to these, 
k is to be observed, that it is prohibited, under the 
penalty of Excommunication, to paint or to gild 
them. To sell them at a high price, on account of 
tkeir being blessed, is unjust and simoniacal. It is 
lawful, however, to sell them according to their in- 
trinsic value. Although Gobat. and others say it is 
a venial sin for laymen to touch them without ne* 
cessity, it is probable, however, that it is no sin, 
According to the usage of the present day." — Id. 

17. Blessed bones and eggs. — " To cast the 
hones of a lamb, or eggs, which are blessed, \.o iVi^ 
^ogB, Gr^eras supposes to be \in\aYdu\. 'I^^Dhs, 
however, we deny ." — Id. ib. 



18. Baptism. — ** It is asked," says Ligori, •* whe- 
ther an infant who is in clanger of death can be 
baptized in the womb of its mother ? It is certaii 
that Baptism is invalid if it be conferred on a child, 
by washing the body of the mother, because the in- 
fant is a person distinct from the mother. This ii 
the common doctrine. A doubt is raised whether 
an infant is validly baptized, reseraio uteri ostio, etsi 
nulla pars in lucem prodieret^ si per instrumejUiM 
puer aqua iingi possit? One opinion maintains 
that such a Baptism is invalid, and the reason they 
give, is, because no one can be said to be bornBgain 
unless he was first born, according to the text of 
John, * Except one he born of water^ &c. iii. 5. 
Another opinion, and which is sufficiently probable, 
is, that such a Baptism is valid ; and the reason iSr 
because an infant, in such a situation, being a vf&f 
faring man, can well receive Baptism. Neither is 
the opposite opinion of any obstacle j that that which 
is not born, cannot be born again ; because any one 
can truly be said to be born, not only when ex uiero 
egreditur, but even when in utero jam vivit; ac- 
cording to that which was spoken by the angel to 
Joseph, relative to the conception of the Word made 
flesh, » What is born in her, is of the Holy Ghosi! 
Matt. i. St. Thomas Aquin asserts the same, when 
he says, • There is a twofold carnal nativity, prima 
in, uiero,' secunda extra nierum^ " — Id. N. 107. 

The Saint, after refuting the contrary opinion, and 
nil the objections broug\vi a§;a\TvsX \x, toeATyXjKss&Nfeat 
■"^h a Baptism is enUieVy -vaM.— \^. '^i- 

' SYNOPSIS. 267 

19.The Minister of Baptism. — ** Baptism can 
validly be conferred by any way&iring person so- 
ever, wbether man or woman. No one, however, 
can lawfully administer Baptism but a Priest, except 
at the point of death. Others can well baptize, if 
they have the express license of their own Priest, or 
the reasonable presumption of his license. No one 
can be lawfully baptized at his own house, except 
the children of Princes. It is certain that a Deacon, 
who is commissioned by the Bishop or his Parish 
Priest, can baptize. Such a commission, however, 
cannot be given to a Deacon, except it be in case of 
great necessity, or for the utility of the Church ; for 
instance, if no Priest should be present ; or if there 
should be a multitude to be baptized ; or the Parish 
Priest should be grievously sick, or excommunicated, 
or otherwise occupied in hearing Confessions, or 
preaching.'^— Id. N. 113, 115, 116. 

20. Baptism in necessity. — " When Baptism 
is to be conferred in case of necessity, the follow- 
ing order is to be observed ; if a Priest or a Deacon 
be present, and he do not refuse, let him take the 
precedence of the rest. Thus a Priest should pre- 
cede a layman, a man a woman, one of the faithful 
an infidel, unless, perchance, the inferior should be 
better acquainted with the mode of baptizing, as mid- 
wives usually are ; who, therefore, ought to be ex- 
amined and approved of by their Pastors. If a lay • 
man should baptize in the presence of a Priest, and 
according to some, even in the presence oi a."De^K.Qitv^ 
if 18 considered as a mortal sin ; becaMse V\va\. ^>aX^ 


belongs to the laity only an account of the want of 
a Priest, who cannot, without abusing his Ordina* 
tion, and the Sacrament, grant such a license." — Id. 
N. 117. 

If all this doctrine is correct, and the in&nt who 
dies without Baptism, without being " born again!* 
cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven ; who mtut 
baptize it, under some of the above mentioned cir- 
cumstances, if a Priest happen to be present, or if the 
accident should happen when no one but a Priest is 
present ? Let the extravagance of the doctrine an- 
swer the perplexity of the question. 

As it is the doctrine of the Romish church that 
all who die without being baptized are lost, many 
means are devised of administering this Sacrament, 
not only to those who are born, but also, as we hare 
seen, to those who are unborn. The celebrated 
Divine, Dens, whose theology, previous to the intro- 
duction of St. Ligori's, was taught, generally, in the 
Romish Schools, treating on the subject of Baptism, 
"rfe Baptizandis Abortivis^'' is so much concerned 
lest any should be lost for want of Baptism, that he 
maintains it to be the duty of Priests, " ut caut6 ape- 
riantur secundinse, ne vulneretur foetus, et iis vacuis, 
iterum baptizetur sub prsedicta conditione, qu© om- 
nibus casibus sufficere potest, et, quantum sine Bap- 
tismi mora possibile est, in aqua tepida. Nee irr^ 
gularitatem timeat sacerdos ex eo, quod foetum se- 
cundinis spoliet : secundinas enim aperiendo alio- 
vat foBtam, qui ab eis se exlTici«LTftc.0TvaX\xx,^«.qjii' 
bus, quamvis minimus, inluTdum se e:^\^^\V. «.\^ 


drco totus fluxus abortivus sedulo et per partes ex- 
cutieildus est,, slcut etiani propter multiplicitatem 
fietuum, qui ssepe per intervalia satis distantiaexut- 
ero egrediuntur." — Dens de Bapt. Abort, p. 274. 

Nay, some of the Divines insist that it is the duty 
of Priests, " uxores omnes nondum steriles, et puel- 
las libidinosas, post mortem incidendas fore." — Id. 

21. Baptism of monsters. — " A monster," 
*iy8 Ligori, "that has the head and breast of a 
nwin, is to be baptized, but not if it appears more like 
a beast. Comitolus thinks it ought to be baptized, 
if it have only the head of a beast. Navarre, how- 
ler, and others, think that the baptism ought to be 
deferred until there be more certainty on the sub- 
ject, unless there is danger of death : and that, then, 
it ought to be baptized conditionally.* When it is 
^ubtful whether the monster is a man, St. Thomas, 
*Dd others, think that it is absolutely to be baptized, 
provided it have a human head, although it have 
^«e members of a beast. But if it have the head of 
^ beast, and the members of a man, it is to be bap- 
tized conditionally: hoc vero si prodierit ex con- 
gressu viri cum fusmina : nam si prodierit ex viro 
cum bestia, (quod incredibile puto^) it should then 
le baptized conditionally; secus si ex fcsmina et 
bruto, in such a case it should never be baptized, 
because it could not be said to descend from Adam, 

♦ The form of baptizing conditionally is, " Situea^ <f«c." "If 
thon art a man, I baptize thee in the name ol \)cv&¥^^«^\^!^ 
cf the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 



inasmuch as non conceptum ex semine virili. If k 
have twofold members of a man, so that it is doubt- 
ful whether it is one man or two, then the baptim 
is to be twofold, one absolutely, and the other coo* 
ditionally, and in that part where the members ap- 
pear the most perfect See the Roman Ritual.^-* 
Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 125. 

22. Compulsory baptism. — " It is certain," 
continues tbe Saint, **that if parents abandon tbe 
faith and become infidels, their children can well be 
baptized against the will of their parents, becanae 
FROM THEM. This is the common doctrine 
everywhere ; and the same is also to be said if one 
of the parents only had previously belonged to the 
feithful." — Id, N. 127. Here we have a specimen 
of what, in Popery, is meant by feith ; a mere ad- 
herence to the Romish church. 

23. Stealing of children. — •* Children of 
heretics who have been truly baptized, can also law- 
fully be baptized, in spite of their parents, when the 
parents can be compelled to instruct them in the 
catholic faith ] whom, otherwise, the EccLssiASTt 
CAL Superiors can lawfully force- awat 


24, The meaning of faith. — " In an adult, in 
order that baptism should \» VKwi«\\i ^«)SRsaA% 


h flOid Penance is required* In regard to &ith, 
B' required that he know the Sacraments, (at least, 
ptism, the Eucharist, and Penance,) the Precepts 
the Decalogue, at least, confusedly, and the 
rd's Prayer : besides these four, it is necessary to 
ow that Grod exists, that he is a remunerator ; it is 
ressary, also, that the Trinity, and the Incarna- 
a and Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ be 
own. But in the urgency of the danger of death, it 
sufficient if these last four be known." — Id. N. 138, 

25. Sin to baptize out of the Church. — 
t is a mortal sin to baptize out of the Church, 
thout necessity ; unless it is doubtful wh^her the 
ild is alive; or if it cannot be brought to the 
lurch without risking the character of the parents, 
some other grievous damage ; or unless it be a 
ild of a king or prince." — Id. N, 142. 

We shall now present from the Saint, an example 
th.e ludicrous consequences in which the doctrine 
d principles of the church of Rome sometimes in- 
Ive her subjects. 

26. Opinions bind under mortal sin — Con- 
ssioN A MERE FARCE. — ** If a Confessor," ob- 
rves the Saint, " cannot absolve those who wish 
follow an opinion that is less probable, against his 
m which he supposes is the more probable, it 
ems that many inconveniences would arise. Let 
I suppose a case ; for instance, if any one should 
cept a sum of money simoniacally, he, according 

some Divines, would be obliged to testjote th^ 
ice or value of the thing to him wVio ^Ne*vV»^\i'^ft> 


according to others, he would be bound to restore i 
to the Church or to the poor. Now, if the peraoa 
should go to Confession to two different Confesson^ 
and one of them, supposing the first the more prob- 
able opinion, should oblige him to restore the money 
to him who gave it, while the other Confessor, who 
holds the contrary opinion, would oblige him to re- 
store it to the Church;! ask, in this case, which of 
these two Confessors the Penitent ought to obey, see- 
ing that he is bound to submit himself to the judg- 
ment of both ? And I ask, moreover, if he should 
happen to obey the first, and afterwards go to Con- 
fession to the second, would he be obliged to restore 
the money twice ? Moreover, if every Penitent were 
bound to follow the more probable opinierfi of his 
Confessor, it would follow, that scarcely a single 
Confessor or Theologian could receive sacramental 
Absolution, since an instance can hardly be found, 
in which one Confessor does not hold many opinions 
as more probable, which other Confessors and The- 
ologians maintain to be improbable, or, at least, less 
probable, — We will suppose another case: Two 
Confessors hold two different opinions. One of these 
opinions appears the more probable to one of thetf** 
and the other opinion appears the more probable t^ 
the other. If one of these Confessors wishes to CoX^' 
fess to the other, he ought, according to the sentimeC*^ 
of Fagnani, and his companions, to lay aside hi^ 
own opinion, by bringing his understanding into capr^^ 
tivity,'in order to obey his Confessor, who is consti^^ 
tuted his judge. On the othet Vvwid, \{ the other^ 


3nfessor should afterwards confess to him, this sec- 
id Confessor would have to resume his own opin- 
0, which to him appears the more probahle ; since 
i is then bound to judge according to his own prop- 
judgment, and he would be bound to oblige the 
iier to lay aside the opinion which he had before 
Hind him to follow. Now, would not this be a 
rce worthy of laughter I A ferce, too, that would 
ive to happen among Confessors, every day I Who 
»tild suppose that Christ the Lord, meant to impose 
ich a burden on Confessors and Penitents in the 
icrament of Penance 1 Moreover, it would natur- 
ly follow, that when a Confessor would come to 
ceive this Sacrament, he who was to hear his Con- 
Bsion, would be obliged to inquire concerning all 
le opinions which his Penitent holds, and by which 
3 directs his Penitents, in order, that, if he should 
id him holding any opinion which to him seems 
•ss probable, he might oblige him to relinquish it. 
Tor is it without reason that the Confessor would be 
bilged to act in this manner, because he would be 
Dund in prudence to doubt, that among so many 
umsand opinions, his Penitent might easily hold 
lany opinions which his Confessor supposes to be 
;ss probable, and that therefore they must be given 
p."— Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 604. 
27. The Romish church radically corrupt. 
-In order to shun all this farce, as Ligor i himself 
alls it, the Romish church is reduced to the neces- 
\ty of maintaining, that **aCoi\fessot caiv, wcA\^ 
^igedto Absolve those who wish lo ioWovj ^iWQ^Yto 


ion that is le^ probable, -against his own, which be 
supposes to be the more probable." This being 
the doctrine, it follows, as the reader who peruses 
this Synopsis will see, that the Romish Priests are 
obliged by their church to Absolve almost every sm* 
ner who Confesses to them, and to Absolve him too, 
even against their own conscience. We say, almost 
every sinner, because, in the conflict of the **««»! 
thousand opinions, " the Penitents have the right of 
being Absolved, even though they embrace an opin- 
ion that is the less probable. In regard to what sc* 
tions are sinful, or not sinful, there are, as we else, 
many different opinions among the Divines, and the 
Penitent is at liberty to adopt that which is the lees 
probable. Let us now bear in mind the many abom- 
inable, wicked, and blasphemous opinions which St 
Ligori even calls probable, what then, and where is 
the end of the abomination of the opinions that are 
called less probable ! Human nature is prone to 
evil, and since the Confessors are bound to Absolve 
their Penitents, because their excuse is, that they fol- 
low opinions that are less probable, what must the 
consequence be, but that which really is, that is, that 
the Romish church, as a whole, is desperately wicked! 


Price of Masses — Alms — Perversion of Scripture — Generd 
Councils of no weight — Excuses /or simony — Miscellaneous' 

1. PAY FOR Masses. — Tk^ s-riaa^^ «i Gkrist- 
-'* It is asked," says L.\goT\, *' Vcv^vWt ;i^\^5fi^ 


(Prohibit Priests from taking pay for Masses less 
what is right. Let it be observed that the low- 
pay for a Mass in Italy, is a silver coin, argen- 
;,or in our kingdom a carolenusV (About 20 cts.) 
igor. Lib. VI. N. 320. Some of the Divines say 
he cannot ; but others, observes Ligori, with more 
ability, maintain he can. This he proves from 
)us authorities, and especially from that of Pope 
3dict XIV. from the Declaration of the lio- 
ouncil, held 16th July, 1689. "when it was 
" observes the Saint, " that a Bishop can Well 
ibit Priests from celebrating Mass at a lower 
than is right, and can punish them for doing it. 
the reason is, because otherwise the Sacrifice of 
Mass would become, in a manner, paltry and 
icable. Wherefore, if the Bishop should pro- 
a Priest from taking less than what is right for 
188, he is wholly bound to obey him ; for it is 
lin that subjects are bound to obey their Superior 
n he commands them with a probable opinion."^ 
igor. Lib. VI. N. 320. The Saint with the 
;ors limit the obligation, and say, that if the sub- 
have a probable opinion that the thing com- 
ded is unlawful, that then, if by obedience he 
Id suffer a grievous inconvenience, he is not 
id to obey. — Id. Lib. IV. N. 47. 
ere, we see, (if the Popish doctrine on the Real 
ence were true,) that Christ is not only made 
handise of, but that, if he cannot be sold, he be- 
ss paltry and despicable, Judas \>eVc^^^^\v\"* 
and Master for thirty pieces of s\VveT,\i\>L\.^X\e 


Romish Priests sell him for one piece. Judal b* 
cariot was less obdurate and guilty than the Jndases 
who now betray him. He acknowledged that he 
had sinned, but the modern Judases of Rome coih 
tend that they have a right to sell hinL We are 
fully acquainted with their subterfiige in the matter. 
They pretend that the money they take for Manei 
is not by way of pay ; that it is merely an aim 
This is what they tell Protestants, and what thef 
make their o^n poor deluded followers beliere. 
This is not, however, the talk of the Doctors among 
themselves. Let us step, for a moment, into their 
secret cabinet ; and being favored by the introductioD 
of that shining Light, the Illustrious and Most Rev' 
erend Lord Alphonsus de Ligorio, w^e shall have a 
clear view of the subject ; and, as his doctrine has been 
declared to be "sound and according to God^^ we 
shall run no risk of erring in believing his doctnoe^ 
2. Pay for masses an alms. — He asks, "Is it 
lawful to receive any thing for administering tbe 
Sacraments? Ans. In the administering of the Sa* 
craments and other spiritual functions, it is simonia' 
cal to take money, as the price of a sacred thing, or 
of the intrinsic labor that is required in those actioni 
But it is not simoniacal if the labor is external, for 
instance, if the Priest should celebrate Mass with 
singing, or at such an hour, in such a place, &c. 
I answer 2dly, It is not simoniacal to take money 
for celebrating Mass, if it be taken, not as a price, 
but as psLj for one's suppoil*, svcvce ^vei^ one who 
is employed for the Vjetiefil oi aiioOafft,wi^v,'\XL'^ap 


lice, to be BuppoTted by him ; accordingto Lake, x. 
•• T^e laborer is worthy of his hireP To receiTe, 
or to give, any thing for the support of those who 
administer spiritual things, according to the appoint- 
ment of the Church, and the sanction of custom^ is 
lawfal. ' And this holds good, and is lawful, even 
although the Minister is otherwise wealthy in his 
own, or in his Ecclesiastical possessions ; for, as the 
Apostle says, * No one goes a warfaring at his own 
charges.^ 1 Cor. ix. Hence it is lawful even to 
make a bargain in regard to the payment, provided 
it does not exceed the common rate, or the custom." 
— ligor. Lib. VI. N. 320. Examin. Ordin. C. III. 
N. 106. 

3. Alms to a wealthy Priest. — The Saint ob- 
serves that a rich Priest can take pay for Masses, 
because it is now permitted by the custom of the 
whole Church ; and because the workman, whether 
he be rich or poor, is worthy of his hire ; for *• who^* 
as the Apostle asks, ** goeth a warfaring, at amy 
^iine, at his own charges? — 1 Cor. ix. 7." — Id. Lib. 
n N. 317. 
. 4. Perversion of scripture. — Here is an- 
1 other instance of the perversion of God's Holy 
J Word, in order that the Popish Clergy may in- 
< crease their wealth. They have forced the text to 



Dtean that the people are obliged to pay the Priest for 
spiritual things, and even to pay Priests, too, who 
^^ already wealthy. Now it can be proved from 
^e whole scope of the Sacred Scriptures, that this ia 
^otthemesBingofthe text, •* The loboTer x^viotlhAj 


of his hire." Christ and his holy Apostles, so k 
from craving or possessing the riches of this woiH 
had none at all. Christ, who was Gk)d OTeralli 
was so poor that he was even under the necessity o^ 
working a miracle to get a piece of money ; and fo 
this end, he sent Peter to the sea, where, haviDg 
cast a hook, he caught a fish, and took the iqod^ 
that was wanting, out of his mouth. (See Matt. tA* 
27.) And Peter said, '* Silver and gold ha/ve I none- 
Acts iii. 6. Paul speaks of himself and the reitof 
the Apostles, ** as foor^ yet maJcing many rich; d^ 
having nothing, and yet possessing all things." 
2 Cor. vi. 1 0. The possessing that he alludes to here 
are the inestimable riches of Christ, those good^ 
respecting which Christ said, ** Lay not wp for yaw- 
selves treasures upon earth^^ dfc. " But lay up fof 
yourselves treasures in heaven." Matt. vi. 19, 20. 

In order to show what this hire was, of which 
mention is made by Luke in the text above quoted, 
we have only to turn over to Matt. 10th chapter, and 
10th verse, and there we will find that " The laborer 
is worthy of his hire" means, " The workman ii 
worthy of his meat." This is a very different doc- 
trine from that which St. Ligori wrenches from it* 
We all grant that ministers of the Gospel are wor- 
thy of their hire : that is, are worthy of what will 
render them comfortable and useful in the discharge 
of their sacred fimctions ; but that a wealthy Priea* 
ought to be allowed still to hoard up more wealth, 
and that too, even from the indigent, is repugnant 
to the Law of God, and lo l\ie c,oInmoTk^v!^3bJftft<lf 


iiunaDity. And still more repugnant is it to God's 
Holy Word, that spiritual things, such as the Sacra- 
nents, should he made suhjects of traffic. In re- 
fard to these spiritual things, Christ says, ** Freely 
fe have received, freely give." Matt. x. 8. 

In order to cut off every excuse of the Romish 
Divines in the defence of their simoniacal doctrine, 
we will rebut, and refute another argument which 
they adduce from Scripture, to uphold them in their 
traffic in souls. The text is that which speaks of the 
custom in the Apostolic days, which the ''possessors 
of lands or houses^^ had of selling their property, 
and bringing " the price of the things that were sold, 
and laying them down at the Apostles^ feet : and 
distribution was made to every man according as he 
had needy Acts. iv. 34, 35. This custom, in those 
days, and under the then existing circumstances, was 
no doubt good ; and if all men who now profess to be 
the pastors of Christ's flock, were as disinterested and 
holy as were the Apostles, the same custom now might 
be productive of the same advantages, but such is not 
the case; and such too, now, is not the custom in 
any part of the world. We have proved from 
Scripture, that the Apostles were men who had no 
earthly possessions, ''no silver and gold," conse- 
quently, the money that was confided to them was 
not for themselves, but for the poor Saints. The 
Scripture says, speaking of the disinterestedness of 
the primitive Christians, •' The multitude of them 
that believed, were of one heart, and of one soul: 
neither said any of them that aught of iKe IIxVa^^ 


which he possessed was his own; but they had oil 
things in common." Acts iv. 32. Hence it was, 
that their property was made one common stock. 
The Apostles possessed no more than the rest; for, 
*' distribution was made unto every man according 
as he had need" Acts iv. 34. " / mean not" says the 
Apostle Paul, *' that other men be ea^ed, and jfM 
burdened: but by an eqtuUity, thai now at this 
time your abundance may be a supply for their 
want, that their abundance also may be a supply 
for your want : that there may be equality" 2 CJor. 
viii. 13, 14. 

5. The pope antichrist. — This is entirely 
different doctrine from that which is taught by the 
Romish Priests. They are for getting all the money 
they can, and for holding it. They are very careful 
that all things shall not be in common ; and St. Ligori 
tells us plainly that the multitude of Romish Priests 
are very far from all being of one heart, and one 
soul. What " equality" there is amongst the Ro- 
mish Priesthood and their subjects, is obvious to 
every e5'^e. We will begin with the Pope, who is 
the head, and to whom, if he be the Vicar of Christ, 
we ought to look up for example. We find him 
seated on a royal throne. On his head is placed a 
triple crown. Over his Sacred Person hangs sus- 
pended a crimson canopy. His hand is adorned 
with a golden ring set in costly diamonds. His 
feet sparkle with brilliancy, which kings have been 
taught it was an honor to kiss. His under dress is 
white; over which is thrown a large purple cape, 


mnd with ennine. Around his shoulders he 
ears a red stole which hang« down in front nearly 
his knees. When he goes out, he is drawn in a 
lariot hy six horses, and accompanied hy a sump* 
lous train of Cardinals and other honored dignita- 
68. Previous to, leaving his palace, the route his 
uper Royal Holiness means to take is pointed out. 
lU the streets along which he is to pass, are then 
irefully swept ; and the houses on either side, by 
ray of honoring him, are richly ornamented. When 
e steps into his chariot, all the bells in the city be- 
in to ring. As he passes the streets all fall pros- 
rate before him ; saying, '* Pray, Holy Father, give 
le your blessing."t How exactly does the dress 
f this worshiped moving Idol correspond to that, 
irhich the Apostle John describes, speaking of this 
Antichrist ! He speaks of him under the character 
►f a woman ; " The woman was arrayed in purple, 
md scarlet color , and decked with gold and pre* 
iaus stones and pearls^ having a golden cup in her 
\andjfidl of abominations and filthiness of her for- 
lication.^^ Rev. xvii. 4. This is the cup he says 
l^ss in. And the abomination and filthiness of the 
brnication is, that the wine which he pours into it, 
16 pretends to convert into the body, blood, soul, 
md divinity of Jesus Christ. Con. Trid. Sess. xiii. 
ZJan. 1. He creates his god, and then drinks him; 


SIX. Dens de Euch. N. 26. This every Papist 
ias to believe, if the doctrine of his eVixxxcVv SsXtvift. 
Fhey tell us it is a mystery — We gtanV \\. Ss '^^ 



*' MysUry 0} inigvitif:'^ and the Woman teho sai 
upon the scarlet colored Beast, drunken with ih' 
blood of ike sainfs, bore this mystery on her braien 
front, " Upon her forehead tr/w a name written!^ 
sap the Apostle/ "MYSTERY, BABYLON 
EARTH." Rev. xrii 5. 

Next in dignity come the Cardinals, whose dr€« 
is scarlet, unless they belong to some of the RtU- 
gious Orders, as they call them. And even then, 
such is the predilection for the bloody color of "M« 
Beast" their caps are red. This red cap which 
they wear, is the distinguishing mark of their dig*^ 
nity. These also live in palaces, and pomp, ^si 

The next in the Sacred Hierarchy are the Arch- 
bishops, and Bishops. The Purple is the uniform 
of these. In Popish countries, their residence, toOi 
is a palace. 

Then come the Priests. These are dressed io 
black, as if they were in mourning for the *'goUi 
and pearls, and precious stones^^ of their moresoc- 
cessful competitors. 

And, last of all, come the Monks and NuiA 
hooded as if to hide them from the world. Tbes^ 
being mere subsidiaries, are allowed to dress io 
black, white, or gray. And being the tooli rf 
Priestcraft, they are packed away, and rast and n' 
im idleness and \ice, ut\1\\ caW^foi. 
%4iound this Holy HieiatcVi^, ** v^sMt Wwt'Ww^ 


c^A," roll those ^^many waUrs^ described in 
(rdatioD, ** which are peoples, and multitudes^ and 
ioni, arhd tongues ; into whose hearts God hath 
t to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their 
gdom unto the Beast, until the words of God 
UbefulfilledV Rev. xvii. 1, 17. 
Such is the Romish church. We ask now, where 
he poverty, and where the equality, of which the 
ipture speaks 1 We grant, that, in Popery, there 
)overty enough, and that there are sheep enough ; 

the faces of the poor are ground, to make them 
»rer ; and the sheep are shorn, to clothe the Shep- 
tb ** w purple and scarlet, in gold a?id precious 
»e*." The people are taught that poverty and 
tdience are exalted virtues ; while the Most Rev- 
nd Clergy aspire to an elevation that places them 
irely above these virtues ; so that the Pope, the 
best of all, has no one to obey, being above all 
U both human and divine. He sits on his throne 
iring a triple crown, as Monarch of heaven, 
tb, and hell. He holds in his hand the keys of 
iven and hell ; so that no one can enter but by 

permission. John tells us, in the Revelation, 
t it is Christ that hath " the keys of hell and 
Uh," Rev. i. 18, that it is ''he that openeth and, 
man shutteth ; and shutteth, and no man open- 
P — Id. C. iii. 7. Consequently, if the Pope is 
nan, he cannot have these keys. But he main- 
is he has them, therefore he must be God. Here 
lin he stands revealed as that " Mau oj Stu^ V^^- 
fee/ by the Apostle Paul,) " who iy^o%tX\ a-ad. 


txaiteth himself above all that is called God^ or thsi 
is worshipped ; so that he, as God, sitteth in ike 
temple of God, showing himself that he is God!^— 
2 Th£s. ii. 3, 4. 

6. General Councils of no weight^ — ^We 
are happy to avail ourselves of the sound doctrine of 
St. Ligori, in order to show that the so much vaunt- 
ed authority of General Councils is ^wt of the least 
freight whatsoever. The doctrine on Custom, awi 
the practical authority of custom rises paramount 
to every thing else. We would therefore admonish 
our Protestant polemics, wholly to demur against tes- 
timony founded upon the authority of a General 
Council. The crafty Jesuit will then be driven 
from his last hold. In our controversies, therefore, 
with the Papist who opens upon us the batteries of 
his Infallible Councils, we can convert the whole 
volley of his broadside into mere smoke by this sim- 
ple question ; " Sir, you talk of General Councils, 
and their infallible decisions, but permit me to in- 
troduce a word or two on the infallibility of CusUm, 
which, according to your sound doctrine, abrogates 
and annuls every other law. If it can be shown 
that custom is in opposition to General Councils, 
the argument ^'^ou build upon the Councils is null 
and void." It is not necessary, as we are taught by 
Ligori, and all the Divines, (by Ligori, whose doc- 
trine is declared by the whole Church ! to be sownd 
l^jMil according to God,) it is no way necessary, 
Wflftt a custom, to be \a\vfu\, atid \io Vi^^q^ NTsite^ C<;^TCe of 

MkrniKmtintr law, should be MTOvet^^ \TV>^ ^^^VL" 



ceptation of the term ; it is sufficient, if the custom 
-prevail in any one community, to make that custom 
lawful, at least, in that particular community. (See 
Synopsis, P. xv. Ligor. Lib. 1. N. 107.) Our Popish 
antagonists, in this matter, have the advantage of 
most of their opposers, inasmuch as it is not in the 
power of every one, unless he make a tour of the 
whole world, to know what are the different Popish 
cdstoms which have been introduced and which 
are sanctioned in all the various parts of the world. 
Different customs are sanctioned by the Romish 
church, in different parts of countries. In Popish 
countries, custom sanctions almost every thing. In 
countries where the light of the Gospel shines, and 
where Protestantism prevails, Popish customs can- 
not be introduced in all their glory. The very 
Priests themselves would discountenance a custom 
in these United States, which is general, and sanc- 
tioned in countries where Popery is without re- 
straint, if such a custom would incur the general 
displeasure of the community, and render the 
Priests and Popery unpopular. For the truth of 
this assertion, we have only to ask, whether bull- 
fights, masquerade balls, theatres, selling liquor even 
to the making of those who buy drunk, butchering 
and skinning of animals for market, keeping open 
stores and buying and selling, &c. on the Sabbath, 
would be allowed by the Popish Clergy in this 
country to their people at the present day, and under 
present circumstances? No, — they would cry as 
loudly against it as we do ; — yet aW t\v\s, ^xv^ TttxvsDti. 


more, is all sanctioned by castom in Popish coontiie 
and approved of and participated in by the Pbpn 
Clergy. (See Synopsis on the Popish Sanctific 
tion of the Sabbath.) 

We come now to prove what we have advancec 
that the authority of a General Council is of i 
weight whatsoever. 

In regard to pay for Masses, a subject upon wliic 
St. Ligori expatiates largely, we find that cmloi 
has entirely nullified the Decrees, not only of otb 
Councils, but even of the famous and In&llib 
Council of Trent. The Saint on this subject wiib 
as follows : 

7. Pay for Masses. — ** Is it lawful to bargain f 
pay for Masses? Ans. Father Concina absolute 
denies its being lawful, because the Canons prohil 
all compacts and bargains respecting pay for Mas 
es."^Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 320. 

The Saint now proves the contrary, and in sn 
port of the truth of his doctrine, he quotes a host 
Divines. The contrary, he says, "appears probaK 
provided the bargain be for a just pay or wages, t 
cording to the common rate or custom, as we ha 
already shown in vol. 1. Lib. iii. N. 55. Tl 
reason is, because, although the pay or wages 
not given as the price of the Mass, neverthdei 
since it is in justice given for the support of t! 
Priest, there is nothing to hinder it from being In 
gained for. Neither do the above mentioned Qi 
ons stand at all in the way of the truth of whati 
advance, because they \\a\e e\\)cvex \ie^w a\>TO|^t* 



iy tustom^ as Lassuis and Sancho observe, or they 
^e to be understood in regard to unlawful com- 
pacts, OS Roncag has better said. And these are 
only compacts or bargainings respecting the cele- 
l)iation of the Mass, which is prohibited by the Coun- 
cil of Trent in its 22 Session de Observ. in Cel. 
Mfis. — Therefore, it is not the just demands, but 
illiberal and importunate exactions, that is, those 
that are excessive, which are prohibited, because 
tbese savor of avarice. Moreover, in these bar- 
gainings, scandal ought to be avoided as much as 
pottible."— Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 320. 

8. RATE? OF Masses. — " At what rate is the pay* 
Qient of Masses to be computed, which a testator has 
left by his Will 1 Ans. If the testator did not state 
the rate, it is to be computed according to the com- 
Bwm rate ; but if the rate is to be computed or fixed 
by the Bishop, it ought to be according to the cus- 
tom of the place, sis has been declared by the Sacred 
Council, taking into consideration, however, the fat* 


^k,tis pinquis vel tenuis. ^^ — Id. ib. 

**The reduction in the rate of pay for Masses is 
*Wwonly to be made by the Apostolical See, and not 
ly Bishops, as is evident from the Decree of the 
Sacred Council, held by order of Urban VIII. and 
confirmed by Innocent XII."— Id. N. 331. 

9. Formerly fruits, now money for Mass- 
'■•*-" As to the pay for Masses," observes the 
S^t, *» it is proper here to state what has been re- 
commended by out most learned PonliS "Beci^^^^ 





i { 


XIY. in his work de Synodo^ de Missa, etc. *F(HP- 
merly,the faithful brought to the Priest offerings of 
bread and corn for the Sacrifices ; and what remain- 
ed of these^offerings fell to the lot of the Priests and 
Clergy. Afterwards, they were permitted to bring 
ofierings of oil, spices, grapes, and such like thing& 
And, finally, they were permitted to bring offerings 
also of money, which, at first, were not appropriated 
to the Priests, but were put into a coffer to be dis- 
tributed for the support of the Ministers and dM 
poor: but in process of time, they were given to the 
Priests themselves, that they might apply the Masses 
for them who offered the money.* This the Chuich, 
moreover, deservedly approved oC against the Wkkr 
lififes, who condemned it ; for, as St Thomas teach- 
es, 'the Priest does not take the money as a price fiv 
the consecrating of the Eucharist, for this would 

* By this is meant, to apply the Masses to the intentiMt t» 
they call it, of those who offer it. It is not meant that the peo- 
ple ofier the Mass, as the Mass is celebrated by none but Priests. 
The people are said to offer it in the sense, that they bring the 
offering and pay it to the Priest, that he may ofier it up to their 
intention. These intentions are various. If it is for the release 
of a soul from Purgatory, the Sacrifice is then called ** JMmm 
defunctorum^" a Mass for the dead. If it is in honor of some 
Saint, it is called " Misaa Votiva,*^ a Votive Mass. Theoidi' 
nary Mass, or the Mass of the day, is that which is ofiered fin 
the living, for the recovery of health, for a prosperous joum^t 
for success in business, or for whatever the /aith/td chooie to 
have it offered for. It is not required to tell the Priest what the 
intention is. For aught he knows, it may be for the recovery 
. of a sick horse^ for the death of an enemy, for •acce80 in gVB' 



constitute simony, but he takes it as pay for his sub- 
port I' "—ligor.* Lib. VI. N. 316. 

10. Progress of atarice. — "But notwithstand- 
ing this," continues the Saint, "it was hence that the 
avarice of the Priests broke out; and on account of 
this gain they celebrated several Masses a day. On 
account of this/' (speculation,) ** Innocent III. pro- 
hibited it/' (the celebration of more than one Mass 
a day.) ''But to this prohibition, other craft and 
Ticiousness succeeded ; for the Priests consecrated 
BB many Hosts," (wafers,) " as there were persons 
who presented their Alms. Other Priests, in the 
Mass of the day, read three or four Masses up to 
^Offertory; then they repeated as many Secrets, 
Stcretns, as they read praters ; and, finally, they 
finished the Mass under one Canon, by repeating as 
many Collects in the conclusion, as they had recited 
ia the beginning ; and thus, they received the pay 
according to the number of their repetitions. These 
Masses were called double and triple Masses, Bifa- 
*wte, et TrifaciatcB, Afterwards, many other er- 
foiB crept in amongst them, which were proscribed 
k Alexander VII."— Id. ib. 

11. Excuse for simony. — The reason assigned 
^hy the taking of money for Masses does not con- 
^te simony, is, because it is not taken as a price, 
W is a pay or an alms, for the support of the 
Priest. An alms for the support of a wealthy 
Priest! — Pay for the support of a wealthy Priest! — - 
This, certainly, is just as consistent as il'wwxVdVsfc 
to aajr i* these straws are brougVvl Xo ^^o^ '^'^ ^^ 


pyramids of Egypt/' or, ''this backet of water is 

poured out to replenish the ocean." 


SIMONY. — We have here before us, too, one of the 
reasons why the Wicklifites were condemned, and 
so cruelly persecuted; merely because they main- 
tained with the Apostle, that the gift of God ought 
?iot to be purchased with money. 

13. The fr4c£ of masses on sion-boarm.— 
This execrable traffic in men's souls became so lu- 
crative, and by the impositions and exactions **of the 
Priests so excessive, that Innocent XII," as l4gori 
tells us, "in his Bull Nuper, A. D. 1697, issued a 
command that all the Rectors of Churches should 
have a tablet of the rates of Masses, both tempoial 
and perpetual, exposed or hung out in a conspicu- 
ous place, to the end that the people might not be 
loaded with new burdens which they were unable 
to discharge as they ought." — Ligor. Elxam. Ordift 
p 283. 

14. Exacting of pay for masses. — St Ligori 
calls the payment that is taken for Masses an ahns; 
while, at the same time, he tells us that those Priests 
who exact for the saying of Mass, an alms, or a pay of 
a higher price than what is customary, or than what is 
allowed by the Statutes of the Councils^ shall incur 
the penalty of excommunication. (Ligor. de Rom 
Pon. Dec. c. 1. ep. iv.) Here we have, too, in this 
quotation from the Saint, the Statutes of the Infidli- 
ble Council on the subject. 

Those who will not pay wYialxYifc^ ^^N^ltll'^^&Sf 


8, can be compelled to pay it — ** It can he exacted,^^ 
bat is, it can be required authoritatively — can be de- 
nanded of right ; therefore, as the withholding of 
^hat is right when authoritatively demanded, is a sin, 
ind as those who are in sin, according to the Ro- 
nish book-doctrine, are not to receive the Sacra- 
nents, as in Popish countries it is the law of the 
:hurch that those who do not receive the Sacrament 
)f the Eucharist, at least once a year, are subject to 
excommunication, it follows that those who owe for 
MLasses, are compelled to pay. We say compelled 
:o pay, because the unfortunate delinquent who falls 
under the curse of excommunication in those direful 
i^untries, is completely ruined, not only by the loss 
yf Popish reputation, but by the temporal evils 
inrhich accompany the excommunication. 

This exacting of pay for Masses, is also confirm- 
ed by the Angelical St. Thomas, who says that *♦ it 
b lawful to exact, with the authority of the Supe- 
rior, the established and customary oblations, and 
whatsoever other income from those who are able, 
and unwilling to pay." Thom. Aquin. 2. 2. d. 100. 
A. 3. The exacting of an alms from those 




Sin-' Sinners-' PersectUion— Concubines of the Clergy—PM' 
ly licentiousness — Attrition — Dispensations — Varianctofh- 
fallibility — Popery in Council^ and Popery out ofCouneSr" 
Tiie Vaulted Treasury — Miscellaneous. 

1. Sin is to be permitted. — '^Of two Qvils," 
says the Saint, " the lesser is to be permitted in or 
der to avoid the greater." — Ligor. Lib. vi. N. 610. 

2. Sinners to be kept in ignorance. — The 
Saint proposes and answers the following objection: 
" The Confessor is a Doctor ; therefore, in virtue of 
his office, he is wholly bound to instruct the igno- 
rant, and to make the law clear to them, — Ans. The 
Confessor is not only a Doctor, but also a Physi- 
cian ; hence as a Physician, when he foresees that 
his administration will tend to the ruin of his Peni- 
tent, he ought to abstain from admonishing him: 
and although he is a Doctor, nevertheless, since the 
office of Confessor is an office of charity, instituted 
by Christ the Lord, for the good of souls, he ought 
indeed to teach the doctrines ; but he should teach 
that doctrine only which is advantageous, and not 
that which is hurtful to the Penitents. MoreoveF, 
if, in virtue of his office, he were bound to instruct 
his Penitents in every truth, he ought to remove 
invincible ignorance from them, even the^ ignorance 
of human law, although he should foresee it would 

be in/ririous to them, "bul l\v\s, xvo otve, v^'^^w^^^t at 


east, it would be very improbable if it were to be 
said."— Id. ib. 

3. Sinners to be left in sin. — ** Where there 
s no hope of fruit, the admonition of the Confessor 
Q regard to his Penitent's making restitution, is to^ 
)e omitted." — Id. N. 614. So "also it is to be 
)mitted," continues the Saint, "when there is fear of 
vandalizing others, or fear of the loss of character, 
)f quarrels, and the like." — Id. N. 015. In regard 
this, however, the Saint gives some exceptions. 
^ of the exceptions is this ; ** If the Penitent should 
18k his Confessor, then he is bound to uncover to 
lim the truth, neither is he then allowed to dissi- 
nnltte."— Id. N. 616. But if the Penitent should 
lot ask him, then, he can conceal the truth, and dis- 
amulate. Such is the way that these poor people 
ire kept in ignorance, and suffered to remain in 

4. Grace required for marriage. — " Those 
^lio contract marriage should be in a state of grace, 
tt order not to sin ; because they receive a true 
^rament, although they should be asleep." — Id. 
'^. 884. 

5. Priests' illegitimate children. — " It is 
^ohibited," says Ligori, "by the Constitution of St. 
^ius V. for any Clergyman to leave by Will, any 
iing to his illegitimate children." — Ligor. Epit 
X)c. Mor. p. 338. 

6. Heretics to be punished. — "A Bishop is 
ound," says Benedict XIV. " even in places where 
ie Tribunal of the If oly Inquisition *\s m ^oxce, ^^^• 


ulously and carefully to purge the Diocess that is 
committed to his care, from heretics ; and, if he find 
any of them, he ought to punish them according to 
the Canons; he should, however, be cautious, not Id 
hinder the Inquisitors of the faith from doing theff 
duty."— Ligor. Ep. Doc. Mor. p. 378. What thii < 
duty is, can be seen by casting an eye on the annex- { 
ed plate. J 


however poor he may be, cannot appropriate to ]uii-> 
self pecuniary fines without the license of the iLpoi- 
tolical See. But he ought to apply them to piou 
uses. Much less can he apply those fines to any 
thing else but pious uses, which the CouneU rf 
Trent has laid upon non-resident Clergymen, or 
upon those Clergymen who keep concubines." — ^li- 
gor. Ep. Doc. Mor. p. 444. 

How shameful a thing, that the Apostolical tktt 
as they call it, that is, that the Pope of Rome, ahonU 
enrich his cofiTers by the fines which he lecdwi 
from the profligacy of his Clergy I If they kficp 
concubines, they must pay a fine for it ; but if thflf 
marry, they must be excommunicated I This ac- 
counts, at once, for the custom in Spain, andotlMi 
countries, and especially on the island of Cuba* and 
in South America ; where almost every Priest ka* 
concubines, who are known by the name of f^^ 
These abandoned men are willing to pay the fc® 
rather than forego the gratification of their lu^* 
aip^tiXeA, The " N aruktive of Rosam oirs^/' ''^^ 
was oiice^ herself one o( l\\«ae c-oxicxiJcvaw^*^^ 

SYNOPSIS. ^ 297 

d of Cuba, portrays the general licentiousness 
16 Popish Clergy, in colors so shocking, that 
picture cannot be looked at without a blush. 
> we see the doctrine fully exemplified by prac- 
This keeping of concubines, is a thing so 
Qon in the Popish West India islands, and in 
1 America, that it is rarely noticed. The off- 
g of this Priestly intercourse are n\imerous. 
' are known to be the children of the Priests ; 
because it is the general custom^ it is lawftd ; 
t passes off merely with a joke or sarcasm. 
Penalty of accusing a Priest. — *• A Pen- 
or any other person who shall faJsely declare 
i Ecclesiastical Judges, that he has been soli- 
or allured, incurs a reservation that is reserved 
J Apostolical See." — Bulla Sacrament; Pcenit 
r. Epit. Doc. Mor. p. 458. 
te solicitation here alluded to, is the crime that 
»hibited by the 7th Commandment, ** Thou shalt 
immit adultery" — Ligor. de Rom. Pont. Dec. 
It is in this sense that the word is used by 
aint in his Treatise on the Decrees of the Ro- 
Pontiffs, Chap. II. p. 79. And it is there, that 
ling is more fully unfolded in the following 
i of the Encyclical Letter of Pope Benedict 
"And because," says the Pope, "certain 
id men are found, who, moved by hatred, an- 
Dr some other base reason ; and incited by 
asions, promises, flattery, threats, or in any 
way whatsoever, reckless of the tremendous 
wnts of God, and in oontempt oi l\ve ^.\x\.VvQr&^ 


of the Church, falsely impeach innocent Priesls of 
solicitation before the Ecclesiastical Judges, they 
shall be cut entirely off from the hope of obtaining 
Absolution, except in the end of life, and at the ar- 
ticle of death, which Absolution we reserve to our- 
selves and to our successors." — Ligor. de Rom. 
Pont. Dec. p. 78. 

9. Doctrine of Devils. — We ask now, whoi 
among Papists, could be found that, under such an 
awful threat as the above, would dare to accuse a 
Priest of having solicited her to violate the 7th 
Commandment? Few, indeed, where Popery and 
Popish Priests bear sway, would dare to sulgect 
themselves to the wrath and vengeance of those de- 
vouring wolves. The last unfortunate victim that 
was publicly burned by the Inquisition at Seville, in 
Spain, on the 7th November, A. D. 1781, was burn- 
ed expresslj'^ on account of her being supposed 
guilty of having had illicit intercourse cum Demont' 
(See the History of the Inquisition by Llorent, Tom 
IV. C. 66.) There is but little doubt in regard to 
who this Devil was. There are few of the devoted 
vassals of the Priests who would have fortitude 
enough to risk the consequence, especially as a doc- 
trine has been invented, by which the Priests can 
lay the crime upon one who cannot be summoned 
from his dark and deep abyss to vindicate himself. 

10. Attrition. — According to the doctrine of 
the church of Rome, it is not necessary for a siiuier, 

|il order to obtain the Absolution of his sins in the 
■ftiijuil of Penance, to \iave (loxv\x\Naqitl. \s.^\j.^^s 


e what they call attrition. That is^ he 
! something. But what this something is, 
es, as Ligori himself informs us, do not 
fi this, however, they are all agreed, that 
le pure love of Grod, since this constitutes 
The Saint on this subject, and with the 
of Pope Benedict XIV. writes as follows : 

for sins, according to the Council of 
Kces for disposing the Penitent to receive 

of God in the Sacrament of Penance; 
his attrition is, is not so clear. It may be 
h something of the love of God, with a 
ider, and remiss love. It may also be a 
account of God, not inasmuch as he is 
' good, but inasmuch as he is good to us. 
JO be a sorrow for sins conceived merely 
t of their turpitude, or solely through fear 
aent and of hell, without any love of God 
named attrition may, however, be excited 
* of hell, and be united with some sort of 
e of Grod, in such a manner that sin may 
n account of the torments; and the soul, 
e time, be disposed towards God as an ob- 
ght. The subject is controverted and un- 
ong the Divines, whether servile attrition, 
licited merely through fear of hell and of 
It, and unaccompanied with any love of 

the initial love, is sufficient for disposing 
nt to receive the grace of God in the Sa- 
f Penance ; or whether it is requisite that 
Id he united with it the \T\\Ua\\ov^ol ^^^. 


In this question the sovereign PontiflT admonishes 
the Bishops not to pass any decision in the Synods. 
He counsels them, however, to teach the Confessors 
that it is right to exhort their Penitents to a trae, 
and perfect contrition." — Ligor. Epit Dec. Mor. 
p. 458. 

We have here another ii^stance, among the many 
of the perpetual variance of the Romish Divines 
among themselves. They pretend that " he who 
hears them, hears Christ," and yet their trumpt^ 
give such an uncertain sound, that they are not only 
unable to prepare themselves for the battle, but they 
discomfit and throw into confusion the whole host 
of their credulous and deluded followers. How 
diflferent is the doctrine of these Infallible DoctoH 
from that which is taught in the Word of God- 
The Scripture says, that, " in Jesus Christ neither 
circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircunct- 
sion ; hut faith which worketh by love." — Gal. v. 6. 
" The fruit of the spirit is love*^ ^c, — Id. v. 22. 
•* God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of 
power, and of loveP — 2 Tim. L 7. But Popery 
says the love of God is not required, and that itr- 
vile fear suffices. The Apostle Jude commands 
us, saying, " Keep yourselves in the love of God!^ 
Jude 21; and Paul positively declares, that "W^ 
end of the commandment is charity. ^^ — 1 Tim. i 5. 
With all this mass of Scriptural evidence, the church 
of Rome declares that attrition is sufficient for ob* 

tUdning the pardon of sins \ provided, however, that 
hey be Confessed to aPmsv^ oiCciet^^'vBfc^ ^t^N^V^ 

SYNOPSIS. . 301 

is insufficient. — Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 452. 


Dispensations for honey. — There is no 
neni ! in Popery in regard to the lawful ad* 
ation of which there are more Ecclesiastical 
ments than in that of matrimony. These im- 
ints are so numerous, that we shall not at- 

abuse the reader's patience by an exhibition 
Q. The whole multitude of them are to be 
in Ligori, Lib. vi. De Matrimonio. No 

permitted to marry who is obnoxious to 
these impediments ; and however numerous 
•e, they can all be removed by obtaining a 
nation, as they call it This right of Dis- 
y belongs primarily to the Pope, who, in 
ises, has delegated the right to the Bishops ; 
;n, their right again, in some cases, to the 
1. This power of Dispensing gives to the Ro- 
!lergy an almost uncontrollable influence over 
ibjects. It operates in favor of the Clergy in 
lys ; first, it makes them entire lords over 
bllowers by keeping their consciences under 
;te subjection to Priestly domination ; and, 
ly, it gives them free access to their purses. 

are well aware that the Council of Trent, 
s, the Bishops when they get together and 

1 Council,) pretend that Dispensations ought 
raluitous, yet we know, at the same time, that 
a mere mockery of the thing ; for, as soon as 
fallible Council is dissolved, l1[ie Po^e^^xA^Jftfc 
the Bishops, act just as they ch.oo^^» ^?5 


gard to moneyHnatters, the Decrees of Councils are 
mere empty and unmeaning sounds. These Decree*, 
when interest is concerned, are framed for no other 
purpose than to show to heretics, that they may^ee 
how holy, Mother Church is. 

A General Popish Council is like a landscape 
painted on canvass. It presents to the eye a mere 
representation of a thing. A tree, for instance, will 
be painted luxuriant with delicious fruit ; a garden, 
blooming with the flowers of virtue, overshadowed, 
indeed, with noxious weeds. Rivers and rivulets are 
seen watering the wide expanse, and fertilizing the 
soil with their refreshing moisture. The sun, in 
his meridian glory, sheds his bright beams over the 
whole scene ; and the darkness of night is mellowed 
by the silver light of the moon. This is Popery in 
Council : — a mere painted Show. When the Coun- 
cil is dissolved, the picture vanishes ; — the fruit falls 
to the ground ; — the leaves are scattered to the winds 
— the streams become stagnant, noxious, and pesti- 
lential ; — the sun sinks behind the horizon of fluc- 
tuating opinion ; — and the moon is turned into blood; 
— ^the Shepherds become wolves; — ^the garden is 
converted into a waste, howling wilderness ; — and, 
in the universal darkness of the times, these wolves,, 
with the motto of opinion on their foreheads, prej 
upon the sheep, and leave their bones to bleach and 
wither in the sun. 

Reader, is the picture we have drawn touched 
with the crayon of eyagget^xivoxv^ \% ^ tw^aijictuw 


drawn by the Saint himself? — Truth answers, " the 
picture is fidrly drawn." 

Let ns open the Saint again. — His pages now glis- 
ten with gold. — It is the question, at present, of Im- 
PBDiKBNTs AND DisPENSATioNs.-^Tho moro the 
hopediment the greater the Dispensation : and the 
greater the Dispensation, the weightier the gold that 
btiys it 

Treating on the subject of Dispensations in matrix 
mony, the Saint proceeds as follows. ** Besides the 
tieasons which Busemb adduces for the lawful grant- 
ing of a Dispensation, Salm adds that of the re- 
newing and solemnizing a marriage that has been 
contracted in bona fide, and even in bad faith and 
insincerely. — Also the furnishing of more money." 
-Ligor. Lib. VI. N. 1130. 

12. Trent and the tacit consent at va- 
liiANCE. — Ligori informs us that Father Coucina, 
cme of the Divines, states in his writings, that lie is 
displeased that the Church should grant a Dispen- 
sation in matrimony on account of money ; and he 
Wonders that, since the Council of Trent has de- 
clared that Dispensations ought to be granted gratu- 
itously, that the Doctors should assign as a reason 
for granting Dispensations, that they are not given 
gratuitously. — Id. ib. Against this opinion of Father 
Concina, Ligori adduces the authority of Pope Ben- 
edict XIV and other Divines, and observes that it 
is the common sentiment, that Dispensations in ma* 
trimony are lawfully granted* for moueij. — •\^. "^'. 
"And it is right,^' observes tVve Sa\T\\, *' ?•^^^^^ «*m 


304 \ SYNOPSIS. 

sort of compounds, composiliones, as Pope Innocent 
X has commanded, are not to be mixed up with the 
other moneys of the Vaulted Trgosary, but are to be 
laid up on Mount Piety, from whence they are 
not to be taken, except by the mandate of the Pope; 
and for the sole purpose of being laid out for pious 
uses. Since, therefore, this supply of money is laid 
out for the sake of the poor, it is a reason sufficient- 
ly just why the Church grants Dispensations sofre- 
qwerUly as she does. Nor is the growling of the 
heretics, as Father Concina objects, in the least degree 
to be regarded, for it is evident that they murmur 
without a just reason." — Id. ib. 

13. Popery in Council and popery out of 
Council. — This, we may well say, is a curious 
paragraph altogether. It is so completely Popish, 
that it needs a little elucidation, in order to show it 
to greater advantage, 

" The Council of Trent," as the Saint observes, 
'* has declared that Dispensations ought to be granted 
gratuitously." Now, this Council of Trent, being 
a General, or (Ecumenical Council, represents the 
whole Church; consequently it is infallible. 

This is the picture of which we have spoken. 

But the Holy and Sovereign Pontiff; and the rest 
of the Prelates, as soon as they retire to their pala- 
ces, leave this picture, which they painted in the 
Council, to fade away upon the shelves; or, as has 
been observed, to be scattered to the winds. Where 
do we find them now % — ^WVia\ is their doctrine and 
their practice nowl — ^Yf e fetv4x\i«cok*YCL\Xv^\x Vo»\x«^ 


sfttn>9, arranging and counting out their "com- 
lianes" that is, the compound moneys with 
ih their Vaulted Treasuries are filled — Grold 
8, — silver coins, — copper coins, — paper money, 
welry, — trinkets, — and the last obolum and far- 
^, that the poorest of their subjects may have had 
uying a Dispensation. We find them marching 
Mount Piety, each with a bag filled with the 
3 of Dispensations, to deposite their treasures in 
Vlonasteries for the use of the poor. — They rob 
K)or to feed the poor. — That is, they rob the poor 
dlings, as they call them, to pamper and glut the 

^hen Popery speaks of the poor, she primarily, 
properly means her Monks and Nuns, who are 
oed, as mere vassals, to her car by the vows of 
rty, chastity, and obedience, which form a three- 
;ord that binds them faster than any galley-slave, 
his money is for them. — Here we need again an 
uiation. — ^Being under the vow of poverty, these 
wretches are not allowed to finger the least &r- 
T of the whole. It is for the poor Monks and 
s ; but the Holy Fathers have the distribution 
The poor Monks and Nuns, perhaps, may 
t glittering while their Reverences and Holi- 
3S are gambling it away for wine or pleasure, 
y may hear the sound of it ; but, for them, it is 
dden fruit. — *' Nor is the growling of heretics 
3 in the least degree regarded." These are 
» dogs, and *' holy things are not for them." 
. 7'he Vaulted Treasury. — ^TYveae com- 


founds, which are amassed by the sale of EHspensa- 
tions, "are not to be mixed up/' as the Saint tells us, 
** with the other moneys of the Vaulted Treasu- 
ry." By this Vaulted Treasury, which is in 
Rome, he alludes to the Pope's Treasury ; and the 
other moneys with which it is filled, are revenues he 
derives from the kings and princes who are subject 
to his Spiritual exactions; moneys which he pro- 
cures by the sale of Indulgences ; by the rents of 
his vast domains ; by the4aJLes he receives from the 
licensing of public brothels ; and from Priests for 
keeping concubines ; moneys which flow in torrents 
into this Vaulted Treasury, from that '* golden 
cup which he holds in his hand, full of the abomtM' 
Hon and filthiness of his fornication,^* the Mass-cup; 
for a single gill of which his Holiness is sometimes 
paid, if it be a Mass in pontificalibtis, the sum of 
one thousand dollars. Not a drop of this abomina- 
tion is ever drunk until it is paid for, except on what 
they call " All Souls' Day ;" and then the cup is 
offered up for all the souls in Purgatory. This 
** All Souls' Day" happens to come but once a 
year, on the 2d of November. Wo, then, to the 
man who dies upon the 3d, or any other day. Wo 
to him, unless he have money to leave to the Priest 
for *• MissiE Defunctorum," for *' Masses for 
THE Dead." Weeping, wailing, and gnashing of 
teeth will be his portion, at least, for one long year. 
O, execrable doctrine, *♦ doctrine of Devils^* in every 
respect ] O, cruel Fathers, who will see their chil- 
Iren rolling and agonizing m l\ie ?i^t^ ^oq^ oil'^xa- 


tory, without relieving them, when it could be 
Qe by the mere drinking of a cup of wine ! O, 
bels and traitors; robbers and murderers ! — ''Free- 
you have received" therefore, *' freely you should 
ve" O, ye Judases, whose boasted succession 
mes from the bleeding wounds of Christ, who re- 
se to pour the wine and oil of consolation into the 
>unds of your suffering brethren, because they 
nnot pay you for a Mass ! — Successors you are, not 
the humane and lowly Saviour, but of the treach- 
DOS Judas, who sold, like you, his Lord and Mas- 
% for a few pieces of silver. — ^Judas will yet rise in 
ndemnation against you ; for he sold his Master 
r thirty, but you sell him, rather than miss the sale, 
r one piece. " Judas repented himself, and brought 
fain the thirty pieces of silver to the chief Priests 
\d elders; saying, I have sinned;" but you hoard 
up' in Vaulted Treasuries, to expend it on 
•ur lusts. — He repented, but the tears of contrition 
ve never, as yet, rolled from your flinty hearts. — 
be very Pharisees themselves will yet condemn 
u ; for they took the silver pieces, and said, It is 
t lawful to put them into the treasury, because it 
the price of blood ; and they bought with them the 
tter^s field to bury strangers in : but you maintain 
It it is lawful to retain the money; and you put it 
your Treasury. Go rather with it, as did the 
litors of old ; go, buy a potter's field, and bury your 
)ney and your doctrine with it ; go, and let your 
inejr perish with you, since ** j^ou Ka'oe lliougKl 
f the gift of God may be purcfcascd mlH mvw«" 


TTu laity unirersally prohibited from reading the Bible. 

1. **ln the CouDcil of Toledo," says ligori, 
** which was held in the year 1229, the laity, of what- 
soever rank or class they might be, were prohibited 
from having in their possession, during the heresy, 
any book of the Sacred Scriptures whatsoever, except 
the Psalter and the Breviary. — Cone. Toletan. Statiit. 
13. apud Harduin. tom. 7. Collect coL 178. And be- 
cause it is the custom of the heretics to translate the 
Sacred Scriptures into the vernacular idiom, in order 
that they may, after having interpreted them in their 
own way, erroneously give them to their people to 
learn, the Council of Biterrensis, in the year 1245, 
(chap. 36,) prohibited the translation of any of the 
books of Scripture into the vulgar tongue. The same 
was also prohibited by the Councils of Jerusalem, 
Mechlin, Camarace, and many other Councils, which 
may be seen in a work published at Paris, in the year 
1661, by command of the Clergy of France, under 
the title ofj * .4. Collection of the authors who have ex- 
pressly condemned the translation of the Sacred 
Scriptures into the vulgar tongue.^ In regard to 
this matter, we have also the fourth Rule of the In- 
dex. Moreover, Pope Clement XI. condenmed the 
79th proposition of Cluesnelle, which maintained 
that, *It is always use[u\aIi^T\^c.es5^\>J^^\i^^^a^!«^ 
1 and in every place, and ioT ^W«ix\.'a^ol\cwKW^,va 


stady and to make themselves acquainted with the 
spirit, the piety, and the mysteries of the Sacred 
Scriptures/ " — Ligor. De Prohib. Libros, p. 224. 

2. The •BURNING of the Bible. — Afler having 
enumerated other books that were condemned, the 
Saint obsenres, "I cannot comprehend with what 
iace certain persons assert that the Church has the 
right only of condemning bad books, but not the right 
of prohibiting or of burning them.'' — Id. p. 226. 

How contrary is the prohibiting of the reading of 
the Scriptures to the Word of (jod, which tells us to 
** Prove (Ul things ; fiold fast to that which is good.** 
—1 Thes. V. 21. 

The Saint now undertakes to refute the objections 
that are adduced against the right of the Romish 
church to prohibit the reading of books. And first, 
in regard to the text, ** Prove all things, hold fast 
to that which is good" he observes that this text 
means that "* all things that are doubtful and uncer- 
tain need examination and prooC as were certain pro- 
phecies of which the Apostle was speaking in the 
preceding verse ; where he said, • Despise not prO' 
phesying.* It was these that St. Paul wished to be 
judged whether they were true or false ; for our 
Lord has already commanded the &ithful,(Deuter. 
XIII. 3,) not to listen to False Prophets. But those 
things which were taught by Christ himself, or by 
others to the Apostles, he did not wish to be examined, 
bnt to be held fast and obeyed, according to the 
Apostle; 'Hold fast the traditions •wlixcH -yt V-oac*. 
received' 2 Thes. ii. * I praise i|ou,— because^ '^w* 


have Juld fast to my commandments which I deliver' 
ed to you.^ 1 Cor. xL 2. Moreover, as Alexander 
Natalis ob^rves, to examine and prove the doctrine 
contained in books, is not intrusted to every one, but 
only to the Bishops, whom the Holy Ghost has 
placed over the Church of God; and, especially the 
Sovereign PontiflJ the Vicar of Christ, and the So- 
preme Pastor of the whole Flock of Christ Bad 
books are not condemned by the Church until aAer 
a careful examination; therefore no other examina- 
tion or judgment ought to be expected in regard to 
those works which have already been condemned by 
the Church." — Ligor. De Prohib. Libro. p. 229. 

3. The Bible not prohibited in the prim- 
itive TIMES. — The next objection which Ligori 
tries to refute is that ^vhich is taken from some of 
the primitive Fathers, as they call them. These 
primitive Fathers were of a different sentiment from 
the Romish Doctors, in regard to the reading of 
books ; and especially in regard to the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, the prohibition of which was never thought of 
by them. " If any murmur," says St. Jerom, ♦* be- 
cause I read the expositions of those in whose doc- 
trine I do not believe, let him know, that I choose 
to listen to the Apostle, who says, 'Prove all things, 
hold foAi to thai which is good.^ My determination if 
to read the ancients, to prove all things, to hold &8t 
to that which is good, and not to depart from the 
ikith of the universal ChHTch " — S. Hieron. Ep. ad 

Jdiner, et Alexand., ap\id Li\^ox. ^^"^t^V^-YSsta. 

■^ 227. "This" (^obseivealA^oxV^V^s^Jxiv^^^^s 


opponents,) '^they moreover confirm by the words 
and examples of Theophilus and Dionysius, Bish- 
ops of Alexandria. For when Theophilus was 
blamed for reading the writings of Origen, he an- 
swered, ' If I find any thing good in them, I take it, 
bat if I should see any thing thorny and difiicult I 
pass it by as mere sophistry/ In like manner, when 
Dionysius was blamed for reading the writings of 
heretics, having prayed to God, he heard a voice 
from heaven, saying, * Read all things which come 
to hand, for you are able to examine them, and to 
prove theuL* Therefore Dionysius read them, and 
he wrote to some, (who perhaps blamed him,) that 
he regarded this vision as being conformable to the 
words of the Apostle, * Prove all things^ hold fast 
to thai which is good.^ " — Apud. Euseb. Hist. L. 
VII. C. 7. Ligor. Id. p. 229. 

The next objection which Ligori would refute, is 
that which is taken from Pope Hormisdas, who lived 
in the sixth century. Even in that early period of 
the Church, the ^^ mystery of iniquity, ^^ as the Apos- 
tle foretold, ** had already begun to vaorkP 2 Thess. 
xi. 7. However, to the honor of Hormisdas, this 
mystery of iniquity was not allowed, at least by him 
in his days, to work the prohibiting of the Word of 
God. We will quote the words of this Pope as 
they are delivered to us by Ligori himself, ** Nee 
tamenr "We ought not," says Hormisdas, "to 
blame that diligence which runs through, and ex- 
amines many things, but only the inclination which 
leads us from the truth. By this, vf© o^^iv V^ *\^^ 


Store of instruction that is necessary for the conyin- 
cing of our very rivals themselves. Neither onght 
it to be looked upon as a fault /o know what we 
ought to shun. Therefore, it is not those who read 
unsuitable things, that do wrong by reading, but 
those who follow that which is wrong. If it were 
not so, the Teacher of the Qen tiles would never 
have told the faithful, * Prove all things, holdfasiio 
that which is goodJ " — Hormisdas Epist. LXX. ad 
Possessor, apud Ligor. De Prohib. Libro. p. 228. 

Here we have authority enough, quoted by the 
Saint himselt (consequently, faithfully quoted!) to 
prove that in the days of the Apostles, and in the 
primitive times, there was no prohibition, either in 
regard to reading the Works of heretics, or to the 
reading of the Sacred Scriptures. Not only was it 
not considered a fault to read them, but, on the con- 
trary, it was regarded as a fault not to read them. 

4. LiGORi's LAST SHIFTS. — ^Ligori now, being 
embarrassed with the insuperable objections of his 
adversaries, has recourse to his usual subterfuges. 
Being master of dissimulation, and long habitu- 
ated to garbling, and wrenching the Sacred Word of 
God, he brings Scripture against Scripture, and 
Saint against Saint. His sophistry is so futile, and 
at times so long and tedious, that we are under the 
necessity of passing it over. Amongst other obser- 
vations which he makes in regard to the above quo- 
tation from St. Jerome, is this, that " he is to be par- 
Ironed on account of his loo ardent zeal ; for which 
W iras rebuked by t\ieljOTA\\\\iv%^^,w\\es^Tv^xs^- 


ed by flagellation. Moreover, the reading of 
h books had not as yet been condemned by the 
lurch. But w^o can doubt, that, if they had been 
demned, Jerome would have obeyed the Church." 
JgoT. De Prohib. pp. 230, 231. 
>. The Bible not prohibited before a. n. 
S9. — We learn also from the Saint, that **the 
uncil of Tolosa was the first that ever prohibited 

faithful from reading the Sacred Scriptures." — 
^r. Id. p. 234. Velly, and other Popish Divines, 
'e made the same concessions. This Council 
s held in the year 1229. Here, then, we have it 
aitted by our opponents themselve-s, ** That the 
ding of the Bible had not yet been condemned by 

Church in the days of Jerome," who lived in the 
1 centu ry. And, again, that " no Council had ever 
idemned it previous to that of Tolosa, in the year 
J9," except that of Toledo, held in.the same year. 
>. Frauds practised by the Church. — 
Ve acknowledge," says Ligori, ** that, in the con- 
oning of the errors in books, abuses and frauds 
y occur, as well as in any other human judg* 
nt: but what then? Are we, therefore, not to 
y the lawful authority ?" — Ligor. de Prohib. Li- 
. p. 237. 

^ The Inquisition established by the 
mish Church. — The Saint tells us, that •♦ THE 
)RS, and then the Expurgatorial Index, to whom 

committed the examination of \)Oo\is, xwx^ 


the &culty of prohibiting them. The first of all 
was Innocent III., in the year 1204, toko sent the Iw 
quisitors against the heretical ^bigenses who in- 
fested the Province of Tolosa, and gave them power 
to proceed against them, and to prohibit their books, 
and to commit them to the flames.* This was after- 
wards confirmed by other Ponti£&, in other Prov- 
inces. The adoption of the same measures was 
also obtained from Alexander lY., by St Louis, for 
France; and from Pius lY., by the EmperoTf 
Charles Y., for Spain, and for the provinces under 
their subjection." — Id. pp. 237, 238. 

8. Mortal sin to read the Bible. — The 
Saint informs us that those of their subjects who read 
prohibited books, the Bible amongst the rest, are 
guilty of mortal sin; and that they should be *«- 
verely punished^ according to the will of the Bish- 
ops. — Ligor. de Prohib. Libro. p. 239. 

9. St. Thomas A<iuiN approved by thb 
Church of Rome. — **The writings of St Thorn- 
aSj^ ( Aquin,) " notwithstanding they were unjustly 
coTidemned by a certain French Bishop, are now, 
however, universally commended by the Church of 
Rome.'''-U, p. 244. 

10. The Bull of Coztim, Domini. — ** The Bulla 
CcBnss excommunicates under anathemas reserved 
to the Pope, all who read, sell, or retain the books 
of heretics, containing heresy, or treating on reli- 
gion."— Id. p. 247. 



fuisitian an EeclesiasticcU Establi^Tntni—'nu per' 
€» and amtradiduma qf InfaUibitUrf^Extrtm^ Vn> 
EJicacy qfHoly Oit^Miscellanama. 

shall promiscuously gather a few more sprigs 
inadvertently may have been dropped from 
jegay which has been culled from the luxa- 
of this great Saint Ligori, and then place the 
J of this ** sound doctrine" in contrast with 
re, and unadulterated Word of God. 
A Sacrament, in the Christian Church," 
le Saint, " is a visible sign of invisible grace, 
ed by Christ for the sanctification of the peo- 
God."— Ligor. Exam. Ordin. p. 222. 
NQtJisiTioN Ecclesiastical. — The follow- 
»^mble in the Decree of Pope Benedict XIV. 
whether or not the Inquisition is a mere civil 
.1, as Papists would have us believe. The 
; is " against those Priests who solicit those 
Dnfess to them, ad turpia, in the tribunal of 
sion, and who abuse the Sacrifice of the 

*ope's decree, and title, Holy Lord. — 
; General Congregation," observes the Saint, 
Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition, 
1 the Apostolical duirinal Palace, before our 
Holy Lord, Lord Benedict, by Divine Prov- 
the fourteenth Pope, and befot© \.\v<r ^qiA 
It, and Most Serene Doclois, lYie C«s^)j||||| 


of the Holy Roman Church, specially deputsd 
BY THE Holy Apostolical See, General In-* 
QuisiTORs against heretical pravity." — Ligor. De 
Rom. Pont Dec UI. p. 85. 

" POPE PAUL HI.," says Ligori. " ESTAB- 
AT ROME, in the year 1542, by his Bull 34. com- 
mencing with the words, * Licet ab initio.^ " — Ligor. 
De Prohib. Libro. p. 238. 

The following Canons have been issued by sub* 
sequent Roman Pontiffs, in order to reconcile ike 
more modern doctrine and discipline of the Church 
of Rome, with her former doctrine and discipline* 

4. Pope's Decretals, Canons, and Bulls 
BIND UNDER SIN. — We leam from Ligori, that the 
Canons and Decrees, or Decretals, as they call them, 
of the Popes, are binding under mortal sin. The 
following is the concluding form of a Pontifical De- 
cretal : " No one, therefore, whosoever, is allowed 
to infringe this page or book of our will, Oecree, 
command, mandate, and derogation, or with temer- 
ity to dare to contradict it. And if any should pre- 
sume to attempt it, let him know that he will incur 
the indignation and anger of God Almighty, and of 
his Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. Given at 
Rome at the Church of Holy Mary the Great, Ac." 
— Ligor. De Rom. Pont. Dec. p. 81. 

5. Romish Church relaxed. — •* Caium 11 
What was formerly forbidden by the discipline of 

the Church, even undet morlaX sm» ^-wi wow easily 


> ■ 

SYNOPSia 317 

be regarded as a mere law of counsel." — Id. pars. 
1 xna. p. 6. 

6. Priests and women. — Decrees against 
Decrees. — Straining to reconcile repug- 
nant doctrines. — " Canon IV. A former Decree 
of a Roman Pontiff, granting a general permission 
of aoy thing, is not to be considered as violated by 
subsequent Decrees, which, in particular cases, may 
limit that former Decree. Innocent III., for in- 
stance, in cap. * A nobis 9, de cohahitat. Cleric, et 
mulier^^ says, • Women are not allowed to live, or 
dwell in the same house with Clergymen, unless, 
perchance, they be persons who are naturally so 
unsightly and unpleasant, that there can be no 
ground for suspecting the perpetration of any out- 
rageous crime.' In opposition to this Decree stands 
that of the Council of Nannet, the constitution of 
which was inserted in the compilation of the De- 
crees of Gregory IX. By this Council it was de- 
creed that even a mother, an aunt, or a sister, 
should not live in the same house with a son, ne- 
phew, or brother, if he be a Clergyman ; that is, if 
his morals be depraved, and the woman's character 
be suspicious. Therefore, as Benedict XIV. pret- 
tily remarks, * the Decretal of Innocent III. consti- 
tutes a general rule to be observed in ordinary cir- 
cumstances ; but the Decree of Nannet, sanctioned 
by Gr.egory IX., supposes a limitation to the rule, 
and that it is to be applied only in certain special 
cases.' " — Id. pp. 6, 7. 

Z. Hard straining in il'E'Lk.tio'^ t^ ^'V 


TREME UNctiox. — " Canofi V. It is not lawful to 
wrest the words of a Pontiff that permit any certain 
thing, to a sense that is contrary to Catholic dogma; 
or to put a construction upon them that is foreign to 
the ohvious sense of the words in which the Decree 
was couched. Those persons, therefore, sin, and 
violate this Canon, who interpret the words of In- 
nocent I., in his epistle to Decentius, in such a way 
as to make them mean, that all Christians are min- 
isters of Extreme Unction. The epistle alluded to, 
reads as follows : * That the Holy Oil, which is am- 
secrated hy a Bishop, can he lawfully used, not only 
hy Priests, but by all Christians, for anointing them- 
selves in case of their own necessit}^ or of the ne- 
cessity of their relations.' Furthermore, in regard 
to this epistle, it is very probable, as Maldonatus, 
and others, quoted by Benedict XIV., have observed, 
that Innocent was speaking, not of an active, but of 
a passive anointing ; that is, not of a conferring of 
the Sacrament, but of the receiving of it ; since there 
might have been Priests who supposed that no one 
could be anointed with Holy Oil, but by those by 
whom it was consecrated. Certainly, the very word 
to use, indicates this." — Id. p. 7. 

8. The fox in a corner. — There is, in the 
above, so much incongruity, so much absurdity, such 
a repugnance to their own doctrine, and such a de- 
terminate pertinacity in covering this repugnance, 
that we look upon these Infallible Doctors with 
ming-Ied pity and conlem^l. Let the church of 
Bome err ever so mucV\ *, — ^Ve\. s>3^a^feQ^^w\. \y^^^R& 


le ever so contrary to former ones ; — let their mod- 
em theology he what it may ; they still maintain, 
with some few exceptions, that their doctrine never 
changes. Now-a-days, it is the doctrine of the 
church of Rome, that none hut a Priest is a Minis- 
ter of Extreme Unction ; that, 'unless the anointing 
be performed by a Priest, the Sacrament, as they 
call it, is null and void. — Ligor. De Extrem. Unct. 
Lib. VI. N. 710. Whereas we see, by a Decree of 
Pope Innocent I. that, in case of necessity, it was 
not only valid, but lawful for any Christian to ad- 
minister Extreme Unction. Ligori's cavilling at 
the meaiiing of words, as clear as words can be, 
proves to a demonstration, that he is of the number 
of those of whom the Apostle spoke, when he said, 
•* BecaiLse they received not the love of the truth, that 
they might be saved, — God shall send them strong 
delusion, that they should believe a lie" 2 Thess. 
ii. 10, 11. " Certainly, the very word to use, signi- 
fies this :" — signifies the conferring of a thing, and 
not the receiving of a thing. This is Ligorian logic. 
This is the corner into which the Infallible doctrine 
has driven this shuffling Fox, and into which it 
drives them all ; — Bulls, foxes, wolves, asses, sheep, 
and goats. If this be true, and the ** doctrin^^ being 
" sound and according to God," it must be true ; 
then, he who stands upon the Rock of Peter, can drink 
until he gets drunk, and yet not use a drop of liquor! 
9. Anathema against retaining one s hair. 
— ** Because the Sovereign Ponliffe ^xoVviJovV ^ ^^'^- 

tain thing under the penalty of Axv^ilVvexcvai, *\\. ^^«^ 


not thence follow, that that thing is always of itseli 
a grievous sin. Thus Gregory II., in the Council 
of Rome A. D. 721, smote with Anathema the Cler- 
gy that wore their hair, which, of itself, it would 
be hard to say, was a mortal sin."— Ligor. de Rom. 
Pont, pars 1 ma. p. 9. 

10. Drunkenness no deadly sin. — " Drunk- 
ards who die in the state of intoxication, can well 
receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction, unless 
it be certain that they are in mortal sin." — Ligor. 
Lib. VI. N. 732. Hence, drunkenness, in itself 
considered, is no mortal sin. 

11. Efficacy of Holy Oil. — " Those also can 
be anointed," continues the Saint, " who are wound- 
ed in wrangling and fighting, because it is presumed 
that their hearts are bruised and contrite in that af- 
flicted and final state." — Id. ib. The Saint is here 
alluding to persons who are deprived of their senses 
in the very act of fighting. Tliese, he says, can 
receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction, " provi- 
ded it is probable they would have asked for it while 
they were still in the possession of their senses." — 
Id. ib. It is hard for any but the Infallible Divines 
to imagine how a person can be contrite for his sins 
after he has lost his senses. Such, however, it seems, 
is the efficacy of the Popish Sacrament, that a per- 
son can be sorry for his sins before he commits them, 
can then commit them, lose his senses in the act of 
committing them, and, by virtue of a previous desire 
to be anointed, can law^W^ i^^v^^ the Sacrament, 

mnd tbu3 be saved at Aasi. 



ConeuJtnnagty and the Eucharist— Tht effects of Excomm'uni' 
caHon—The " Mark of the Beast," 

1. Prostitutes sanctioned. — "It is asked," 
says Ligori, " whether prostitutes are to be permit- 
-ted/' In regard to this, he observes, there are dif- 
ferent opinioQS. *' The first probable opinion," says 
the Saint, *' is that they are to be permitted, and this 
opinion is held by St. Thomas," (and a list of other 
Diyines whom he quotes, among whom is the cele- 
brated St Augustine, who says, * Remove prostitutes 
from the world, and all things will be disordered 
with lust !') Others of their Divines are of the sen- 
timent, practically more probable, that they are not 
to be permitted. These Divines, however, are of an 
authority and standing far beneath the former. They 
are few in number, and there is not a Saint among 
them. In the conclusion, however, St. Ligori shows 
that the difference of opinion is not in regard to 
whether prostitutes ought to be permitted in large 
cities, but whether they ought to be allowed every- 
where. These are his words; "But Father Sar- 
nelluB has well observed and proved, in his Little 
though, in large cities, prostitutes can be permitted, 
they are, however, by no means, to be permitted in 
other places." — Ligor. Liber. III. N. 434. 

2. CONCVBINAQE T0LERA.TE.1>. — ^'^IX^^ ^^^' 


observes Ligori, " whether he who keeps a concth . 
bine can sometimes be absolved, provided he can- 
not turn her away without scandal or in&my? 
Generally speaking, he is not to be absolved, as 
Bus and Salm have observed. The Doctors of 
Salamanca, however, do not deny, that, in some yery 
r^re cases, he may be absolved; for instance, if 
otherwise he could not avoid a grievous loss of char- 
acter, or of fortune. But in this case," says Ligori, 
** I say that it is altogether expedient that Absolution 
should, at least, be deferred, until the continence of 
the Penitent should be tried by experiment ; unless 
the case should be, that the Penitent, (in other re- 
spects sufficiently disposed, which we take for grant- 
ed,) could not again return to confess his sins ; or, 
unless the necessity of receiving the Communion 
should be pressing, in order to escape positive in- 
femy.^'— Id. N. 435. 

3. Papists bound to receive Communion 
ONCE A YEAR. — ^This ** pressiug necessity of re- 
ceiving the Communion," is, principally, the obliga- 
tion under which the Council of Trent has laid all 
her subjects of making what they call their Easter 
Duties, that is, of receiving the Sacrament of the 
Eucharist, at least, once a year, and that at Easter. 
—Cone. Tred. Sess. XIII. 9. " The Church has 
decreed, that whosoever negfects to approach the 
Holy Communion once a year, at Easter, subjects 
himself to sentence of Excommunication."— Cate- 
CHI8M OF THE CouNCii. OT t^i:.i*T. Revised by 


Rev. John Hughes, Pastor of St. John's Church, 

4. Unworthy communicants. — I am happy 
again to avail myself of the authority of the great 
St liigori, to prove what has been advanced in my 
*' Renunciation of Popery;" and which the 
Rev. Father Varela of this city, very speciously, 
and Jesuit-like, denied. I there observed as foil o ws : 
" How many there are, who, actuated by no better 
motive than human respect, refrain for a while from 
some of the more conspicuous sins, in order to com- 
ply with the obligation of an Annual Communion ! 
This duty performed, they again mingle with the 
giddy throng, fall under the dominion of their for- 
mer habits, and thus remain until the obligation of 
their law urges them to communicate again." — Re- 
nun. Pop. p. 24. 

5. Concubinage and the Eucharist. — Here 
the great St. Ligori, who is called the Light of the 
world, and whose doctrine has been declared " sound 
and according to God" has put the broad seal of 
In&liibility to the truth of what is advanced in my 
" Renunciation." Such, we see, is the dreadful 
obligation of receiving the Easter Communion, that 
even those who live in concubinage, are allowed to 
partake of it, rather than that the Church should 
be deprived of the advantage of their membership, 
by the •* sentence of Excommunication." 

6. The effects of Excommunication. — The 
effects of this Excommunication are laconically 
couched in these words: "Os, — Orare^ — Ya\e^ — 


Communio, — Mensa negaturJ^ — Ligor. Lib. VII. 
N. 188. The meaning of which is this: that, 
•* with those who are excommunicated," (we quote 
the words of Ligori, on the authority of Calixtus 
the Pope,) •* let no one communicate, either in pray- 
er, or eating, or drinking, or in the ordinary ciyili- 
ties and intercourse of life, osculo ; let them not even 
be spoken to; because, whosoever communicates 
with these, or other persons, whom he knows to be 
excommunicated, shall, according to the appoint- 
ment of the Apostles, be subject to the same Excom- 
munication himself" — Ligor. Lib. VII. N. 188. 

7. Buying and selling prohibited. — The 
Saint continues, and explains more fully what is 
meant by ** Communio" in the above laconic stanza. 
" Communion" says he, " includes ei^ery kind of con- 
tract ; also living together, working together, asso- 
ciating together." — Id. N. 194. 

So strikingly characteristic is this Doctrine and 
General Discipline of the church of Rome, and so 
exclusively appropriate to that church, that we are 
induced, in order to expose the thing in its full light, 
to introduce here a short article which we have al' 
ready published in a former work. It is entitled, 


" And he," the Beast, " catused all, both great 
and small, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive 
a mark in their right hand^ or in their foreheads : 
*'And that no man might \yw^ or scU, sa-ct Ke \>wai 


had the mark^ or the riame of the Beauty or the num- 
ber of his name. 

** Here is wisdom. Let him that hath under- 
standing count the number of the Beast : far ii is 
the number of a man ; and his number is six hun- 
dred threescore and six.^* Rev. xiii. 16, 17, 18. 

The book of Revelation relates so expressly to 
the Pope, and the church of Rome, and the relations 
and predictions are so completely verified in and by 
that church alone„ that it is a matter well calculated 
to excite our astonishment, how the Romanists can 
be so fatally blind as not to see it 

For my own part I can say, that, when I was a 
Papist, the reading of the Revelation used to shake 
my Popish faith to the very foundation, so much so, 
that I seldom felt disposed to read it. 

I read it, too, fortified by the best of Popish Com- 
mentaries ; and read it with a fixed determination 
to construe it according to the Romish doctrine. 
The passages which particularly perplexed and dis- 
quieted my mind, owing to their bearing so forcibly 
and irresistibly against the church, of which I was 
then a member, were the following : 

Those which related to the marking *'in the right 
hand, or in the forehead." Chap. xiii. 16. 

To the prohibition of buying and selling, in rela- 
tion to those who had not the mark, &c. Ibid, 
verse 17. 

To the " jjDoman sitting upon a scarlet colored 
Beast, full of naines of blasphemy^ ham%g seoeiw 
i^at/s a?id ten hornsP Rev. xvii. ^. 


To ** the woman arrayed in purple and scarlet 
color, and decked with gold, and precious stones, 
and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand fidl 
of abominations, and filihiness of her fomicatum. 
And upon her forehead toas a name toritien, MYS- 
woman drunken with the' blood of the Saints, tad 
with the blood of the martyrs ofJesus^ Rev. xfiL 
4, 5, 6. 

To the selling of ^ slaves, a/nd the souls ofmen!^ 
Chap, xviii. 13. 

To the '* false prophet that wrought miracles,'-^ 
with which he deceived them that had received the 
mark of the Beast, and them that worshipped ktt 
image*^ Chap. xix. 20. 

These passages, and the explanations of them, 
written by the inspired penman himself, perplexed 
and disquieted my mind to such a degree, that, not' 
withstanding my determination to believe whatever 
the Church ! dictated, I never could get rid of the 
impression that perha/ps the Pope, and the church 
of Rome, was the object typified. 

That such is the case, I trust I shall be able (0 
show without the shadow of a doubt against it. I 
shall therefore begin with the " Mark of the Beast!* 

It is said that ♦♦ he," the Beast, " caused all, both 

^eat and small, rich and poor, free and bond, to re- 

fmnne a mark in ikexr riglit Kaud, ox vn. iKtvr fiT« 


This passage is most literally verified in the or- 
dination of every Priest of the Romish church. It 
is performed as follows : 

The candidate who is to he ordained, heing dress* 
ed in the Popish costume of Deacon, approaches 
the altar, and ascending to the upper step, kneels 
down hefore his Lordship the Bishop, who is seated, 
his back towards the altar, and his &ce towards the 
people, who are assembled in the church to witness 
the imposing ceremony. Being thus kneeled, the 
next step is to tie his hands together ; thus tied, in 
token of his entire submission to his Lordship, (who 
represents the Beast,) he places them between the 
hands of the Bishop who is to ordain him, to whom 
he solemnly vows obedience. He also, at the same 
time, binds himself to a life of continency and celi- 
bacy. Having thus given himself up to his Lord- 
ship, (the "jBeox/,") his hands are unshackled, and 
his Lordship '* marks him in the right haitd" mth 
what they call Holy Oil. This mark is made in the 
ferm of a cross f. Being thus ordained and marked, 
he is dressed in the splendid robes of Sacerdotal 
dignity. The ^'golden cup^^ or chalice, is then 
placed *' in his hand,^^ emblematic of his sacred 
dignity of Priesthood, and expressive of his power 
tq change a wafer into the body, Blood, soul, and 
divinity of Jesus Christ. 

Now for the " mark in the forehead!^ — 

This mark is received by all the subjects of the 
'Romiah church once every year. 
The day appointed for tbeit \)eVng \5a»s TD«*tti 


is on what is called Ash- Wednesday, which is the 
first day in Lent. The ceremony is performed ia 
the church where the whole multitude assemble^ 
**lwih great and smally rich and poor, free mid 

Being all kneeled before the Sanctuary, as they 
call it, the Bishop approaches to perform the cere- 
mony. This is done by his impressing " a markw 
their foreheads^' with a pinch of holy ashes ! This 
mark is also made in the form of a cross t- 

Such is the ceremony that is performed annually 
in every Popish church on the globa 

And the " mark in the right hand!^ is received by 
svERY Priest before he can have the right and 
honor of holding '* the gold cwp^"* 

The obligation of receiving the above marks, and 
the ceremony as above described, are to be found in 
all their Rituals and Ceremonials. No Priest 
dare deny the statement, because, as their subjects 
have all been marked, they know it to be true. 

In respect to " the mark in the right handj^ I 
think it is quite probable that many of their people 
are ignorant of this ; because, although it is done 
while they are present in the church, it^s done in 
such a way, with the Priest's back towards the peo- 
ple, that it is impossible for them to see it. They 
see something going on, and they know that a holy 
Priest is being ordained j but that he is marked 
ip the right hand, they could not see, unless they 

C allowed to appioac\i \)![ie uq\?i. wltksm, and 
by his side •, but tJaaX uovi yi*k»il S& \ss*. Vsi 


THBM. Their ignorance on the subject, however, 
has nothing to do with the fact. This is proved 
by their Rituals, and by their doctrine, as exhibited 
in all their theological Works, under the head of 
^Sacsrd. Ordin.,'' as well as by their universal 


The sioNincATioN and the effect of being 
^ marked in the right hand, or in theforehead.^^ — 
The right hand, in the prophetic language of Holy 
Scripture, denotes power, strength ; thus, '* Thy 
right hand^ O Lord ! is become glorious i7i power ; 
thy right hand, O Lord ! hath dashed in pieces the 
enemy." Exod. xv. 6. 

This marking in the right hand, therefore, signi- 
fies the imparting of power. Now, there is no man, 
and no church on earth, that claims the having of 
ALL POWER excepting the Pope and the Popish 
church; that is, excepting the *' Beast f^ and the 
Scripture expressly declares, that this arrogating of 
all power is the peculiar characteristic of Antichrist, 
even of " him, whose coming is after the working of 
Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying won- 
ders." 2 Thess. ii. 9. And John, in the Revela- 
tion, tells us how this power will be exercised, that 
is, " to make war with the saints, and to overcome 
them; and power was give7i him," (the Beast, by 
divine permission,) ** oi'>er all kindreds, and tongues, 
and nations." Rev. xiii. 7. The Apostle John, 
also speaking of the " lying wonders" mentioned 
by Paul, teUs us that the " Beast" \^\vvi\iVia&'Cw^ 
« /ira horns like a lamb, dectivtih them that A-ujeU. oT^t 


the earth by means of those miracles whith he had 
power to do?^ Rev. xiii. 11, 14. And that ''hi 
caused all, both small and grea4, ^e, to receive the 
mark of the Beast J^ 

This mark, therefore, entitles them to the power 
of performing the "lying wonders" or miracles, as 
tht7 call them, spoken of hy the Apostle. 

It also confers upon them the power of selling the 
** slaves and the sotds of men," mentioned in the 
18th chapter. The slaves are sold when they sac- 
rilegiously pretend to pardon sin, which they do by 
making the sign of the Cross with the right hand, 
over the ** slave" or Penitent, as they call him, who 
crouches at their feet in the tribunal of Penance. 
He is a slave, because he submits his conscience to 
a wretched sinner like himself; and frequently, 
much worse than himself And he is sold, because 
he is pronounced to be pardoned, while Grod still 
holds him bound. 

By the same power they sell, as the Apostle de- 
clares, even the very •' souls of men" These are 
sold in the Mass, where, for the pitiful sum of fifiy 
cents, they pretend to pray them out of Purgatory, 
by the offering of the Wafer, or by the oblation, as 
they call it, of the body of Christ. 

The being marked in the forehead, in the prophetic 
language, is emblematic of audacity ; and the being 
marked by the ** Beast" signifies the audacity of im- 
pudence. Thus, Jeremiah, speaking of the apostate 
Israelites, exclaims, " Thou hadst a whore^s forehead, 
■^ re/usedst to he asKamed?^ 'Jet.VCv^, 


Thus is it also with those who are marked with 
the HOLY ASHES of the ** Beast" They exultingly 
exclaim, " Who is like unto the Pope, the Holy 
Roman Catholic Church ? who is ahle to make war 
and prevail against her ?" Or, in the words of Rev- 
elation, **Who is like unto the Beast f who is ahle to 
make war with him ?" Rev. xiii. 4. 

The effect of the " mark^^ is, unless it he washed 
away by the tears of a sincere repentance, to draw 
down the vengeance of Almighty God, who declares 
that '* ifanf man worship the Beast and his image, 
and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, 
the $€tme shdU drink of the wine of the wrath of 
Chd, — and shall be tormented with fire and brim' 
stone, — for ever and ever." Rev. xiv. 9, 10, 11. 

And he, the Beast, caused "• that no man might 
buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name 
of the Beast, or the number of his name." Rev. 
xiii. 17. 

The Romish church is the only church in the 
world which prohibits her subjects from ** buying or 
teUintf^ of or with those whom she excommunicates. 
By the act of Excommunication, " the mark of the 
Beast, the name of the Beast, and the number of his 
name, is effaced ;" and thus, not having the " mark," 
their subjects are forbidden from dealing with them 

That such is the discipline of the Romish church, 
is openly and expressly declared by the General 
Council of Constance, in Cap. Ad evitanda, held 
under Martin V. in the year 1414. — ^Apud Den's 
Theol T, 2. p. 112. 


OonrnqamAj^ wiMi it hetv add raipftstiqg ik 
•Bema," who **cmaid ikmi «# imii migk^Mi§0 
$iU, 9m>e k€ fffko kmd Oe mmtV' ftc it B^pfMikf^ 
Um Romish choich, and to thai ehoreh on^- f. > 

Some six or eight years sisee^ ode of dioai vki 
%Te ** marktd in ike rigkt kdmd,'* the Set. lb 
Richard, of Detroit, Michigan Tefriteiy, mdtflilk 
1o pnl this discipline into piactioe. 

The circnmstance was thisi-r-A cetlaiB fftif^ 
man of that place, who had recerred the '^mmk'^ 
ike BeAii in ike forehead!^ took a iaacy to man; 
his niece. This being contrary to the dissyBas ef 
the church, his Rererence peremptorily okjaetod 
to it The fond lover, how^ever, wma no maeh 
i^iamored with his feir niece, that have her b 
must, cost what it might Being a man in plMpe^ 
ous circumstances of life, he thongfat he would pot 
the weight of gold m opposition to the weight of die 
Holy and Reverend Father's conscience. He did 
80, and the scale soon kicked the beam. Five han- 
dred dollars were paid down, and his niece became 
his wife t Shortly after this, something occuned, 
which I do not now recollect, which incurred the 
displeasure of the Rev. Father against this very 
same person, and he was excommunicated. 

Being excommunicated, this same Rev. Fadier 
Richard — (a man well known, since he served one 
session as a member of Congress,)— this same Esther 
Richard publicly promulgated, from the palpit, the 
Decree relative to persons excommunicated, by which 
every member of the RotoiiaVi ^xAck ^«^ formal^ 

STNOPSia 333 

finbidd«i irom dealing with him, that is, from buy- 
ing or aelliDg, under the penalty of incurring the 
ceorares of the church. The consequence was, that 
the gentleman, who was a merchant, lost all his 
ciutoiners, and became a bankrupt. At the instiga. 
tion of a friend, he sues his Reverence for damages, 
and, at the time I left that country, which was in the 
year 1831, the cause was still in court His Rev- 
lence had lost the suit, and had then appealed to a 
higher court, in order, if possible, to exhaust the 
pockets and the patience of the plaintiff 

We come now to examine the ** name of the Beast, 
amd the number of his name^ These terms are 
83^on3^ous. (See chap. xv. 2, where both are 
blended into one.) " Let him that hath understand- 
ings count the number of the Beast : for it is the 
nmmber of a man ; and his number is six hundred 
three score and six" Chap. xiii. 18. 

The Beast here spoken of is the one that '* had 
tmo horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon." 
Chap. xiii. 11. Now, in order to understand this 
■i3r8terious number, we must look for it in the num- 
ber of a man, that is, in the name of a man, the let- 
ters of which name, numerically calculated, will 
give the number •* six hundred three score and six" 
or 666. It must be a man, too, in whose character 
are found all the other attributes of the ** Beast" 
since this man, whoever he may be, is identified 
with the " Beast," and is the " Beast." 

Lateinobis the only word in w\^c\i ^NJaa «&tv- 
bates relative to the " BeasC^ caxv\ie foxwv^. \w'^^ 

334 STNOPSia 

letters of this name, numerically computed, is fomid 
thd exact number 666. This is a Greek word, and 
^^ffMm the Latin man, or church. This important 
and celebrated word is the one which was regarded 
as the only one adapted to the Apocalyptic " Beast," 
even at the early period in which Ireneus, one d 
the primitive Fathers, lived, which was in the 8d 
century. Speaking of the name Lateinos, he says, 
" it contains the number 666, and it is very likely, 
because the last kingdom is so called, for they are 
Latins, who now reign : but in this we will not 
glory.** — Here we have the authority of onewhom 
the Papists claim as one of the Fathers of their 
church. The poor man saw, and had candor enough 
to acknowledge, that the frightful number was ap- 
plicable exclusively to the Latin or Romish church; 
and he knew not what lo think about it, — " but in 
this we will not glor)' :" — no, indeed ; he had no 
subject for glorying there. — Lateinos, with the €t, 
is the true orthography, as the Greeks wrote the 
long i of the Latins, and as the Latins themselves 
wrote in former times. The Pope and the Romish 
church is emphatically the Latin church, for as Dr. 
Henry Moore expresses it,they Latinize everything: 
Mass, prayers, hymns, litanies. Canons, Decretali^ 
Bulls, every thing is dressed in Latin. 

We will here remark that the Greeks used all 

their letters as numerals, in the manner following: 

Lamed (L) 30— Alpha (A) 1— Tau (T) 300— 

Epsihn (E) 5— lota 1,1^ \^y— ^>x V:^^ ^V-Q«t 


cron (O) rO—Sigma (S) 200 ; making a total of 
666 in the Dame Lateinob. 

The Hebrews also use their letters numerieally; 
and th^ Hebrew word Romiith, signifying the 
same as the Greek Lateinos, wonderful to tell t 
numerically calculated, gives the precise number 

Now, if this Latin man, or church, has the other 
attributes which belong to the ** Beast" he is the 
great Apocalyptic "^Beast,^^ the number of whose 
name is 666. 

The '-Beasts," spoken of in the Revelation, all 
relate to one and the same power, which is Anti- 
christ. John sometimes describes this power, under 
the figure of a ** Beast," of a ''False Prophet" of a 
" Great Whore" of a " Woman arrayed in jmrple 
oind scarlet color, decked with gold and precious 
ttojus and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand 
fidl of abominations and JUthiness of her fornica- 
tion." The seat of the " Beas^' he styles " Baby. 
Ion the Great." The Beasts are represented as 
having, some " two horns," and some '* seven heads 
And ten horns." 

We have already discovered what the two horned 
Beast is by its number 666, which is, that it is the 
Latin man or church. The Pope of Rome is the 
Latin man, and he, as the head of the Latin church, 
represents that church. 

The ^^ Beast with seven heads and ten horns," and 
the '^^Woman arrayed in purplt" vjVvo \o^^ NJwax 
Beast, arc closely described by the A.^sV^^ \vYKi%<^^. 


**The seven heads,^^ (says he, chap. xvii. 9, 12, 
13,) *' are seven mountains^ on which the Woimm 
sitteihf" — *' and the ten horns which thou saweMt,are 
ten kings.^^ — " These have one mind, and shall give 
their power and strength unto the Beast" 

Here, too, we have the figure conceDtraiing to ooe 
and the same point, the Latin man or church, whose 
seat is Rome, a city built on seven hills, or moun- 
tains. These seven hills are called the Capitoline^ 
the Palatine, the Coelian, the Aventine, the .^ElsquiliDe, 
the Viminal, and the Ctuirinal mounts. In honor 
of which seven mountains, says Parens, an annual 
Festival was formerly observed on the 3d of the Ides 
of December, in memory of Romulus, the founds 
of the seven-mountained city. Vide Gk)dwin'8 Ro- 
man Antiquit. Lib. I. Sect. 1, and D. Parens in 
Apoc. XVII. 19. That Rome was the Babylon 
spoken of in the Revelation, we prove from the con- 
cessions of the most celebrated Romish Divines 
themselves. "Babylon, according to the Aposde 
John," says Tertullian, " is a figure of the city of 
Rome, therefore Rome, in her Imperial pride, is the 
Great Exterminator op the Saints." — Ter- 
tul. adv. Jud. Lih 3. " The ancient Fathers," says 
the Rheimish Testament, *♦ namely, Hierome, Euse- 
bins, CEcumenius, and many more, agree that 
Rome is meant by the word Babylon ; here, 
also, as in XVI. and XVII. of the Apocalypsei— 
The Church, and the very chosen Church, was in 
Borne, when Rome was B^^^xk^^ — ^Wo;^. Teat 
Bi 1 Peter v. 13 • ati4 B.e\. ^V\v ^. ^^^wvi\.^>s.'J 


mjB Bellarmine, ** that great city, which is seated 
apon the seven mountains, is Rome. For there 
was no other city, which, in the days of St. John, 
had dominion over the kings of the earth but Rome; 
and it is well known that Rome was built upon 
seven mountains/* — Bellarm. Lib. II. de Pont. 
Rom. Cap. 2. The fact is striking. 

Italy, which is under the immediate authority and 
control of the Romish church, is subdivided into ten 
petty kingdoms, which have all one mind, that is, 
all profess the Popish doctrine, and all give their 
power and strength unto the ** Beast,^^ the Pope. 

Thus we see that the attributes which belong to 
the ^ Beast" all centre in the Latin or Romish 
church ; nor are they applicable to any other ; con- 
sequently, the Romish church is the great' Apoca- 
Ijrptic ** Btcisi^^ the number of whose name is 666. 

" The woman which thou sawest," (says the Apos- 
tle, Rev. xvii. 15,) ** is that great city which reig7tr- 
eih aver the kings of the earth." 

By a figure of speech, the " great city" is here 
taken for him, or for the power which reigns in the 

This is the Pope, and his Popish Cardinals and 
Bishops. How minutely, and how accurately does 
the description of " the Womari!'' apply to the Pope 
and Cardinals of Rome! — The dress of the Pope is 
purple, that of the Cardinals scarlet. Their deco. 
rations " with gold, and precious stones, and pearls" 
are extmv&gantly profuse. And 1\vg '' goldcu cu'\»>'' 
that symbol of their FTieslly A\^\\.^,— ^^^ ^^"^ 


which she holds in her hand, *'fidl of the abomifu^ 
tions and filthiness ofh^r fornication^^ — that cnp 
wherein she pretends to convert a glass of wine, and 
a wafer, into the hlood, body, soul, and divinity of 
Jesus Christ, well may it be said to he *'7^/Zf (2 k^A 
the abominations and filthiness of her fornicatum}^ 
Where is there a personage, or a power, that ever 
claimed the right of" reigning over the kings of the 
earth" but the Pope and the church of Rome? 
They deny — but what signifies this? — ^thcy deny 
every thing that militates against them. But we 
prove it both from their doctrine, and their constant 
practice, when they had the power. For proof, see 
Bull of Pope Paul IV., A. D., 1558. Bulla in Ccb- 
na Dom. Card. Polus, De Concil. 41.— Bellarm. 
Controv. L. V. C. 6. Corpus Jur. Can. — Acquinas, 
and a thousand others which could be named. 

That it is the Romish church which is represent- 
ed under the figure of the " scarlet-colored Beast^^ 
has already been clearly proved in the " Downfall 
OF Babylon ;" and that the other figure of the 
" woman arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and 
drnnken with the blood of the Saints" is also the 
same identical Romish church, has been proved just 
as clearly. 

As for the ** miracles" or ** lying wonder^^ of the 
Romish church, they are too glaringly false, absurd, 
contradictory, and blasphemous, even to deserve a 
serious refutation. We pass them by; and give 

L hsr aJ] the honor of xYie c\am'. \^ OaMKv^'^a tfcye 

^'mark npon her. 


** Afid upon her forehead was a name written, 
Oae of the most prominent mysteries is, that those 
who have received the ** mark of the Beast" are so 
blinded by the ashes with which they are marked, 
that they can neither see the vast deformity of the 
Monster which they follow, nor be startled at his 
Bulls which roar like ** a dragon.^^ Drunken with 
the blood of the Saints, he reels through the world 
with fire, sword, and fagot, exterminating all be- 
fore him ; and his blind devotees, drinking deep of 
the intoxicating cup, unite in the cry of, "who is like 
unto the Beast ? who is able to make war with him ?" 
Rev. xiii. 4. 

Well may it be said of this Babylonian Belshaz- 
zar, **Thou hast lifted up thyself against the Lord 
of heaven, and they have brought the vessels of his 
house before thee, and thou, and thy wives, and thy 
concubines, have drunk wine in them ; and thou hast 
praised the gods of silver, and gold, and brass, iron, 
%oood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, n^r know ; 
OTid the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose 
are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified." Dan. 
V. 23. 

Bat we trust the hour is not far distant when ** the 
kings of the earth who have committed fornication, 
and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and 
lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her 
burning P Rev. xviii. 9. 

Rejoice over her in fond anticipation, O ye ser- 
vants of the hold \ Rejoice over heT,l\va\x\i'e«:^«cA 


and ye holy Apostles and Prophets 1 for Qod hatji 
promised to avenge you on her. Rev. xviii. 20. 

SIN,'* is already written. " God hath numbered thy 
kingdom, and finished it. — Thou art weighed in tht ' 
balances, and art found wanting. — Thy kingdom 
is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.^^ 
Dan. V. 25-28. 

*' Alleluia, salvation^ and glory, and honor, and 
power, unto the Lord our God: For true and 
righteous are his judgments; for he hath judged 
the Great Whore that did corrupt the earth with 
her fornication, and hath avenged the btood^ofTns 
servants at her Iiand. And again they said, Alle- 
luia. And her smoke rose up for ever and euer." 
Rev. xix. 1-3. 


Priests, Monks, and Nuns — Priests are to be wattJied—Choi 
Priests very rare— Tke different kinds of Popery— MisceUa- 

1. Monks condemned to the galleys. — "It 
has not yet been determined by the Sacred Congre- 
gation," observes the Saint, " whether a Monk, who, 
on account of some crime, has been condemned, for 
a certain time, to the galleys, can again be received 
into the Monastery after the penalty has been per- 
.Armed. This being condemned Xo ihe galleys, 
'^Moders them, says tte S^icted Coxv^te^^jjCvsiJi^T^v 


1}' infamous, even although they may never 
rowed in them." — Ligor. Epit. Doc. Moral. 

Priests not allowed to converse with 
— " Priests of a Religious Order are not al- 
to converse with Nuns, not even with those 
re subject to them, without the express ii- 
not only of the Superior of the Order, but of 
shop ; and never, at one time, during three 
rs of an hour/' — Id. p. 468. We have here 
r instance of Book-Popery. The practice is 
sally and diametrically the reverse. The 
I, in opposition to the book, is known by the 
3S, and is sanctioned by their tacit consent 
their tacit consent needed, when a custom is 
1 ; since custom, according to the " sound doc- 
abrogates all law. There is this advantage, 
er, in the book, which is, that we heretics can 
treby, what sort of characters Popish Priests 
For surely, if they were known to be virtuous 
o many, and such strict precautionary rules 
not be framed to prevent them from overstep- 
le bounds of virtue. What would we think, 
he common intercourse of life, the same re- 
us were put upon the other classes of socie- 
WhaXj for instance, if the letters which are 
;d in the post-office, had to be enclosed in 
ron wrappers? or if the cashier of a bank 
ot allowed to handle the money but in the 
ce of several witnesses ? Certainly we would 
.hat all men were rogues, "^ow ,\^ >>:^ ^'^'S^^ 


this to the above case of the Priests and Nuns ; and 
what must the conclusion be, but that they are all, 
in a general sense, regarded as dishonest men; 
men whom experience has taught it is unsafe to 
trust with women. How different this from the 
simplicity of the Apostolic times, when the doctrines 
of Popery were, as yet, unknown. " Have toe not 
power lo lead about a sister, a wifej'^ sstys Paul, "« 
well as other Apostles, and as the brethren of the 
Lord, and Cephas ?" 1 Cor. ix. 5. If the sound 
doctrine of Popery is true, the answer must be,— 
no. You are not allowed to lead her about at all : 
nor are you ever allowed to converse with her longer 
than " three quarters of an hour at once." The mo- 
ther of the humanity of Christ, if Popery be true, 
and Joseph her spouse, must both have acted very 
rashly, and have been guilty of violating " sound 
doctrine," when they fled alone into Egypt. — We 
have said, that " experience has taught the Ro- 
man Prelates, that it is unsafe to trust Priests 
WITH Nuns, because, in a general sense, they are 
regarded as dishonest men.'' Lest this bold asser- 
tion should sound too heretical, we will quote the 
authority of a Saint to support it, and no less a one 
than Ligori himself 

3. Priests soliciting their Penitents. — 

Speaking of the libidinous curiosity of Priests, who, 

in the tribunal of Confession, tease their Penitents 

to make known to them the names of the persons 

with whom they had \)eex\ comm\\X\T\% wtovr^ \.\yA 

Saint writes as foWows; *' Out 'N^o^x >Ao\^ V*sx^>^^ 


^pe," (alluding to Benedict XIV.) "seeingshow 
;reat is the sin of those lost men," the Priests, "who 
huse the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and the Sa- 
rament of Confession, which was instituted for the 
alvation of the faithful, hut which they make use 
>f for their destruction and danmation, — Decrees, 
hat hereafter ail Priests, hoth secular and regular, 
)f whatever Order, Institution, Congregation, or So- 
:iety soever they may be, who solicit those whose 
Confessions they hear, to filthy and criminal ac- 
lions, shall, besides the penalties already threatened 
by the Canon Law, the Apostolical Constitutions, 
and especially, by the Constitution of Sixtus V. and 
Gregory XV. of happy memory, shall, we Decree^ , 
incur the perpetual inability of celebrating the afore- 
said Holy Sacrifice of the Mass." — Ligor. De Rom. 
Pont. Deer. p. 85. 

4. Priests prying into secrets. — Another 
Decree was issued by the same Pope, in order to 
put a check to a custom that was common among 
the Priests in Spain, of compelling their Penitents, 
in the tribunal of Confession, to tell them wfio were 
their accomplices in sin. It is stated in the Decree, 
that the Ghostly Fathers were so pertinaciously bent 
on ascertaining the names and the residence of those 
with whom their Penitents were in the habit of com- 
mitting sin, that, not content with merely soliciting 
them to tell them where their accomplices lived, 
they were compelled to do it, by not granting them 
the Absolution of their sins \ ** which intolerable 
TMPUDENCE,^* says the Pope, "X\ve^ c^'^^x w«^^^«^r 


der the pretext that they wish to visit them kb&e- 


exclaims the Holy Father, the Pope, ** experience 
HAS TAUGHT US what evils have followed from such 
a course as this !" — Id. p. 88. . 

5. Priests prohibited from entering Nun- 
neries. — Ligori has also presented us with another 
Decree of this same Pontifi^ entitled " Super clau* 
SURA MoNiALiuM." By this Decree, all Clergy- 
men, of whatsoever dignity they may be, are strictly 
prohibited from entering into Nunneries, and from 
liaving any communication with the Nuns, under 
any pretext whatever. — Id. p. 99. 

It appears, from what the Saint writes, that this 
Decree of Benedict XIV. is no more than a renew- 
ed promulgation of Decrees which had already fre- 
quentiy been made, relative to the same subject, by 
many of his predecessors, and especially by the 
Holy Council of Trent. — Id. ib. 

6. "Exceptis dumtaxat." — The only excep- 
tion that is made to this interdiction, is respecting 
the Superiors of those Establishments, that is, those 
Priests, under whose immediate jurisdiction the 
Nuns are placed, and even in regard to these, the 
Decree is as follows : ** In casibus tamen necessor 
riis, et servatis de jure strvandis, et non aliter a«i- 
nino ;" they, the Superiors, are to have no inter- 
course with the Nuns, ♦* except in cases of necessity, 
observing, at the same time, the Rules laid dowa 
by the Canons, but oiheivrise^lheY are by no means 


whatsoever to have any intercourse together."— 
Id. ib. 

7. Priests and Confession-boxes. — The 
Rules laid down by tbe Canons here spoken of, are, 
that Priests shall never hear the Confessions of Nuns 
in a private or clandestine manner, but openly, in 
tbe Confessional boxes in the Chapel. So much 
importance was attached to the observance of these 
Decrees, that those Priests who dared to infringe 
them, incurred, ** ipso facto,^^ the Censures of the 
Church, from which no one could Absolve them but 
the Sovereign Pontiff himself! except at the hour of 
death.— Id. ib. p. 100. 

8. The ring of the Fisherman. — The afore- 
said Decrees were given, " Sub annulo Piscato- 
His, under the ring of the Fisherman ;" the one, on 
the 4th of the Nones of June, A. D. 1746, the other, 
on the 3d of January, 1742. 

9. The Lady Sdperieure must watch the 
Priest. — The great St. Basil, it seems, knew as 
much about the Priests as St. Ligori, and Pope Ben- 
edict XIV., and Sixtus V., and Gregory XV., and 
the compilers of the Canon Law, and of the Apos- 
tolical Constitutions, and the Holy Council of Trent; 
for all these, as we have seen, were perfectly well 
acquainted with the character of the Priesthood, and 
took every precaution to keep them within bounds. 
The great St. Basil, we say, knew as much about 
the thing as any of the rest *' It is more proper,^' 
Says this great Saint, " for the Lady Su^iieox^ V^ 
be present while a Nun is Confessing Xo «i "PiVesfc-^ 

, 346 SYNOPSIS. 

for the sake of decency and safety P — Basil. Reg. 
, Brev. Int. 110. 

lU. A GOOD Priest very rare. — Now, when 
we reflect upon what St. Ligori has told us, that, 
" Among the PRIESTS who live in the world, it 
is rare, and VERY RARE, TO FIND ANY 
THAT ARE GOOD;" what must we think of the 
secret Tribunal of Confession, where these ungodlff 
men, as their own Saint calls them, are alone, listen- 
ing to the Confession of their female Penitents? 
And what must we think, too, of mothers who thus 
expose their daughters to danger so imminent as 
this ? What must we think of their daughters, too! 
Where is the modesty of their sex I In regard to 
husbands, — where is their prudence, thus to relin- 
quish the fond partners of their bosoms to men who 
pry, as we have seen, into all their most inward se- 
crets ; to men who question them in regard to all 
that transpires in the married life, in order, as they 
pretend, to form a correct judgment of their con- 
sciences ! Do they think that there is ought that 
happens in the domestic circle to which the Con- 
fessor is a stranger ? Let me tell them, — no. The 
Priest knows all, — and much more than the hus- 
band knows. 

The fact alone, that the Priests are universally 

disobedient to the Canons, proves most decidedly 

that they are not conscientious men ; or else that 

Decrees, and laws, and Canons, and books, were all 

enacted and made merely m s\>fe&%.tV\eivc^ \o ^e 

two great ends of Popery •, iVvaX \a, Vo ^ecw?^ «A. 


D the peoj>le, and to aggrandize the Romish Hi- 

1 1. The different kinds of Popery. 

That no one may be gulled or deceived by what 
&e may hear from Popish pulpits, or from the 
Qouths of Popish Priests, we will here observe, that 
?opery, in order to accomplish her ends, assumes 
'arious shapes, according to the circumstances of 
ime, place, and the different characters with whom 
he has to do. Hence there are different kinds of 
Popery. — There is Book-Popery, — and Popery, in 
he broad sense of the word, as it applies to the com- 
non people. Thep there is Popery again, apart 
rom books : this is subdivided into public and pri- 
vate ; into high and low, for the more learned, and 
or the ignorant. Again, it is one thing to be all 
Papist, and another thing to be a thorough Papist 
To be all Papist, or Book-Papist, means one who 
las entirely divested himself of his own judgment, 
¥ho has extinguished the last glimmerings of rea- 
son from his mind, and who implicitly suffers him- 
;elf to be guided in all things, both temporal and 
spiritual, both for the present and the future life, by 
^hat he conceives to be the true, genuine, and or. 
;hodox doctrine of the Holy Mother Church. This 
ioctrine, he is firnJy persuaded, is found spread out 
It large in all the holy writings of all the holy 
i)ooks, which Holy Mother approves, and presents 
;o all her holy children, to improve ^livcL <i.ciw^\\sv\\x 
he holy faith, in order thereb'y lo Tcva^i^ \>ft«Ki VsA 



labyrinth of mysticism, to immure himself in some 
cell or cave, and to ponder on the spirituality of 
things until he forgets he has a body. This is te- 
stacy — St. Teresa, sumamed the Seraphic, was oft- 
en found thus spiritualized. In this state, the happy 
soul is so iar ravished as to be unconscious of a per- 
sonal existence. This angelic paroxysm, at times, 
continues half a day, in which state, the soul is so 
absorbed in the contemplation of the Deity, that the 
body can neither hear, see, nor feel. 

Again, and lastly, the most common, and almo^ 
inevitable effect of this Book-Popery, is practically 
to unchristianize a man^s soul, and to make him the 
true master-piece of Popery, namely, an Atheist, or 
at least as atheistical as human depravity is capable 
of being made. 

This Book-Popery, furthermore, admits of sub- 
division. There is a class of books made expressly 
for the common people, which varies according to 
the circumstances of time and place. The Book- 
Popery of Popish countries in Europe, is entirely 
different from that presented to the Popish multi- 
tude in the United States. 

There is another kind of Book-Popery set apart 
for Protestants to look at, and to show them what a 
holy Church it is they dare to persecute ! 

And lastly, the very marrow and quintessence of 

Book-Popery is that which has never yet reached 

the public eye, and which the common people have 

nerer seen, or even dieameA oi 1\\eaft w^xLtwhere 

to be found but under theB'uiVio^^' V^^^\ ^^x»h«l 


to be raid, but by those who are thoroughly initia- 
ted in the Mystery. 

Such is the profound secrecy in regard to the 
subjects treated on in this class of books, that, al- 
though they are in Latin, there is not a Protestant, 
or heretical Latin scholar who could translate them, 
even if by some untoward accident they should &11 
into his hands. They are, as I say, in Latin, but it 
is a sort of Latin that has been invented expressly 
ibr the purpose of preventing detection, if, by acci- 
dent, the books should happen to fidl into the hands 
of heretics. The technicality of these books is 
taught only to those who are for Holy Orders; 
and to acquire a competent knowledge of it, requires 
a doee and intense application of five years. The 
mode of teaching this mysterious science, is not de- 
rived irom books, for this would be a key that here- 
Hci could handle. It is taught sussurone vocis, and 
18 transmitted traditionally from Pope to Bishop, 
firom Bishop to. Priest, and from Priest to Priest 
again. Here is the Qrand Argana, the ars arti- 
usi, and the summum ultimum of Satan's ingenuity. 

Then, there is Popery again, apEurt from books : 
this is also subdivided into public and private ; into 
high and low ; for the more learned, and for the 
ignorant. . 

The Rules for the regulating of this kind of Po- 
pery, are to be found only in the Grand Arcana. 

In instilling the poison of Popery into the minds 
of the subjects, the greatest precaution, is observed. 
That which drops from the holy Upa ot xJa& ^T\ft^- 

862 8TN0PSI& 

hood in the poljxit, is ahogelhtt of a very difimi 
kind and quality from that which ii whispered ioto 
their ears at the aeeiel Tribnaal of OonfeMMn. 
What issues from the palptt io' Protestant cooatiw 
is entirely different from that which is ponied (M 
among the people in Popish countries. In the poP 
pits, these Holy Fathers dare not let out the Pspeiy 
they teach in secret, and that for manj reasoM 
The first, and principal one, is, because the genioi of 
Popery is to accommodate itself to all classes and da- 
positions of people, as Pascal himself a rigid PqMlr 
has well observed. Speaking of the Jesuits, he ssyi^ 
that, ** as the strict maxims of the Goqpel aemoit 
proper to govern some sort of people, thej^hs'ile' 
suits) make use of them in cases which most reqaire 
them. But as these maxims will not suit with the 
greater part of mankind, they are wholly laid sside 
in that case, in order to find something to please alt 
the world. And for this reason, as they are eon* 
cerned with all sorts of people of different nationsi 
they are obliged to find casuists adapted to all hu' 
mors and complexions." — Pascal Lett. V. In a prth 
miscuous congregation there is, of course, divers 
classes of people, people of various dispositions ; 
some rich, some poor, some more ignorant, some 
less ignorant, some more vicious, and some less vi' 
cious ; therefore, the same pill will not suit all sto- 
machs. Moreover, if secret Popery should be maie 
known to all the people indiscriminately, they would, 
at once, thereby detect the fraud. Deluded and li' 
centious as they are^ such a flood of corruptum 


lid be more than they could bear. It would act 
) an emetic, sicken their foul stomachs, and cause 
m to vomit forth the whole load of Popery at 
e. Therefore the pulpit is not the place for in- 
ling the secret poisoh into their minds, but the 
ze where they tickle their ears, as well as they 
, by panegyrizing the glorious Saints, and pull- 
the heretics to pieces. 

The Secret Tribunal of Confession is the spot 
ence Popery in all its horrors takes its rise. 
te the Ghostly Father and his spiritual child, 
i all alone, unseen, unheard. Here it is he can 
liion his discourse to suit all tastes. Here ** the 
.id and scrupulous^^^ as St. Ligori states, ** can 
brought to bear it," (Ligor. Lib. III. N. 286,) 
I be brought to bear whatever the Ghostly Father 
>o8es to inculcate. It is here the poison is poured 
'>n his conscience, wholesale. 
M\ that transpires in the dark recess of this tri- 
lal, is for ever locked up under the seal of invio- 
le secrecy, in regard both to Confessor and Pen- 
fit. As respects the Confessor, however, he, 
ring the Keys, lets out the secret whenever he 
is it expedient The poor Penitent is bound fiist. 



TkeeJfecto/PopUh Penanee^The Romiah (hurch idolatroat 
— The adoration of the Holy Oil, of Wood, 'of the Virgin 
Mary — Miracles. 

1. The effect of Popish Penance. — It is 

the doctrine of the Romish church, that after the 
guilt of sin is remitted, a penalty still remains due 
to the divine justice. — Den*s Theol. de Indul. N. 
286. This penalty, or Penance, as they call it, must 
be suffered in this world, or in the world .to come. 
What this Penance shall be, depends entirely on the 
caprice of the Priest ; and the most singular incon- 
sistency of the whole imposition is, that prayers are 
frequently enjoined by way of Penanca Thus it 
is, that by being practically taught that prayer is a 
punishment, they become disgusted with it ; hence, 
few of them, and I may say, none of them, pray at 
all. It is true they kneel down, and move their 
lips, and count their beads ;* but this is not prayer, 
since prayer is an elevation of the soul to Grod. 

The heart or affections have nothing to do with 
Popish praying : neither is attention, as their St 
Thomas has declared, necessary for the act — Thorn. 
Aquin. II. 2, q. 83, Art. 13. 

The prayer being ended, the task is finished by a 
swevp of the Cross t athwart the breast ; and when 
done, the Penitent is as light and unsanctified as 

* Ligor. Piax. CoxA. 'fl . ^\. 


ever. Such are- the effects of making prayer a pun- 

Another sort of punishment is to make the poor 
deluded bigot lick the floor or ground, in the form 
of a Cross t* One of the Holy Fathers, with 
whom I was well acquainted, used to enjoin upon 
his Penitents to hold an ignited coal of fire in their 
hand. On one occasion, when a certain devoted 
dupe was unwilling to hold the fiery Penance in 
his hand as long as the zeal of the Ghostly Father 
urged it, he clasped the hand of the poor suffering 
wretch between his own, and chiding, asked him, 
" How then could you bear ihe fire of Purgatory ?" 
The tears leaked from his eyes, — not the repentant 
tears of sorrow, but the briny anguish of his tortured 
body. The man, writhing with pain, and startled 
with fear, sprang from his knees, rushed out of the 
door, and mounting his horse, put ofi* at full speed, 
hoping thus to get rid, at once, of his Penance and 
his Pastor. The Spiritual Physician, however, not 
being willing to relinquish his patient till he had 
effected a cure, also mounts his steed, and off he 
goes in pursuit of the affrighted and flying sinner. 
The Ghostly Father's horse, being, like his master, 
better fed than that of his poor Penitent's, he quickly 
overtook the fugitive, and as soon as he arrived 
within striking distance, he began to apply the Pen- 
itential whip to the poor man's back. The Holy 

* See Synopsis, p.4& 


Father laid on with his whip till his spleen waf 
satisfied, and then returned. 

This burning, horse-race remedy for sin had one 
salutary effect, at least, — ^if it did not heal the sinner, 
it cured him of the folly and wickedness of Con- 
fessing his sins to a sinner like himself. 

The Penances, however, that are generally es- 
joined by the Popish Priests, even for the looA' 
grievous sins, are 4ig ht and trifling. The Penance^ 
according to the doctrine, are to be imposed in pro- 
portion to the guilt of the sin. Hence the people, 
measuring their sins by the Penance, are taught 
that sin is something unimportant The conse- 
quence of all this is, that the poor Priest-blinded de- 
votees run on from sin to sin, involving themselves 
daily more and more in guilt The decrepitude of 
age advancing, confirms and seasons them in their 
vicious habits, and when death lays his icy hand upon 
them, even then, at that dread hour, their wretched 
Ghostly Father lulls them, by the pretended efficacy 
of his Sacraments, into the final security which seak 
their delusion, and consigns them to the shades of 
death with all the accountability of a wicked life. 

O, how many of these 8oul-de8tro3ring physicians 
have I seen officiating at the death-bed scene of the 
poor sinner ! Then the great solicitude seems to 
be about the Holy Candles, and Holy Water, If 
the dying patient is able to Confess, and receive the 
Wafer, and be rubbed with Holy Oil, all seems 
weJJ; and then the HoV^ ¥«x\kfcx \»^t» \a elevate 
iiis hopes as he caUs it,^ieaexv\a\i\m>Xv^C.T\MA^\^ 


giZ8 upon, or kiss, and finisbes by reading over him 
the Plenary Indulgence of all his sins.* Thus for- 
tified, and thus pardoned, he gives himself no unea- 
iiness about his salvation. Holy Mother tells him 
he is pardoned ; and being infallible ! he believes 
she speaks the truth. Such is the exit of the dpng 
Papist ! That a rational being could be led so &r 
astray as to believe that such vain ceremonies could 
save his soul, seems almost incredible. What, how- 
ever, is still more astonishing is, that they believe 
the efficacy of these vain things is such, that their 
application can cleanse the soul from sin, even 
although the patient be deprived of sense or reason, 
and die while they are being applied. Such is the 
doctrine of the Romish church. In relation to this 
impious doctrine. Dens, whose Theology is received 
and taught in all the Popish Schools, speaks as fol- 
lows : ** That an Indulgence can be granted to those 
who are deprived of their senses, and who are about 
dying, is no argument against what we have advan- 
ced : for as any one can apply his own satirfaciions 
to a person who is ignorant of their being applied, 
so can a Pastor of the Church apply the satisfactions 
of Christ and of the Church to those who ere de- 
prived of their senses." — Dens* de Indul. N. 290. 

It is truly a matter of surprise that the poor delu- 
ded devotees of Popery do not see the glaring incon- 
sistencies of their system. Their Priests will have 
them to believe that they are led by a principle of 

* Ligor, Prax. Conf. N. 235. "H 

358 SYT^QPSia 

Church goveniment, and by a doctrine that is infal- 
lible, and yet, in the administration of this in&Uibii- 
ity, it is evident that the Priests err most egregiously. 
One leads his followers one way, another leads them 
another. The severity of the one is capricious and 
cruel ; the indulgence of the other, criminally 8e^ 
vile. With some of the Infisdlibie Guides, such or 
such a thing is a mortal sin ; with others, it is but 
vtniaL Others again are found with whom it dwin- 
dles into a mere imperfection ; and again, others are 
not wanting in whose infallible judgment the same 
identical thing is magnified into a virtue ; and ail 
this, too, under the oversight, direction, and accord- 
ing to the legitimate application of the principles of 
the Infallible Church! 

Thus it is that the miserable dupe of Popery i« 
punished by the Penances imposed upon him, not 
in proportion to his sin, but according to the igno- 
rance, caprice, or venality of a set of men who pre- 
tend that, '* unless the sinner submit his conscience 
to their judgment he must die condemned ;" so says 
the Infallible Council of Trent.— ^ess. XIV. C. 2. 
apud Dens' de Sacr. Pobu. N. 21. 

2. The Romish church idolatrous. — If the 
Romish church is not idolatrous, there, is no such 
thing as idolatry upon earth. The end, too, of all 
the idolatry that is practised, is, that the Romish 
Hierarchy themselves may be worshipped. This 
worship, which is rendered to the Prelates of the 
Romish church, comnieTvcea\i^\\i^\wiTvQ\%^wd^riv- 
Jleges that the discipVvue ^nA\<taeX\s^Qi\vW\^'a\Oii 


lequiie ta be exhibited to those who are even Id the 
lowest order or grade of the Clergy. The prepar- 
atory step to Holy Orders I is that of the Tonsure. 
The Tonsure is a word derived from the Latin of 
tondo^ to clip, or to cut The ceremony is perform- 
ed by shaving the crown of the head of the candi- 
date for Holy Orders / in a circular form of the size 
of a dollar. The next gradation to which they rise, 
18 that which they call the Minor Orders. To this, 
aocceeds the Order of Sub-deaconship ; then follows 
the Deaconship ; from this they advance to the Holy 
Priesthood; from Priesthood, to the Bishoprick, 
Aithbishoprick, Cardinalship ; and from this, to the 
Royal Papal Throne. 

3. Popery incompatible with our politi- 
cal INSTITUTIONS. — The Tonsure is not precisely 
what they call one of the Holy Orders, but it is a 
sort of preparation or disposition for the Orders. It 
constitutes the one who receives it a candidate for 
the Priesthood, and consequently he begins to par- 
ticipate in the honors and privileges which the 
Priests enjoy ; hence he acquires what they call the 
^privUegium fori" by which he is entirely ex- 
empted from the jurisdiction of the civil authority.* 
— Ligor. de Prim. Tons. C. IIL A. 1. The Ton- 

* Soe the "Royal Obdkr" for the suppression of the Jesuits 
in thekiDgdom of Spain, as published in the " Irish Advocate," 
m Popish Paper, and dated Montreal, September 1, 1836, and 
jepublished in the 46th number of the 1st volume of the " Down- 
fall." In this "Royal Decree'' we read, that the Jesuits, af- 
ter beings despoiled of their high prerogatives, ate \YieTice^o\v<^^ 
-*/» de subjetrt to the common laveP 

360 * SYNOPSia 

sure also confers upon him the ** privUegium Cm- 
onis" so that any one who strikes him injuriooily, 
incurs ths penalty of excommunication. — Id. ib. 

From this we may see how entirely incompatible 
the principles and doctrine of the Romish church are 
to our Republican government By the laws of our 
Republic, every citizen; be his station or digoitj 
what it may, is amenable to the laws of his country. 
If a Clergyman violate the law, he suffers the pen- 
alty of the law as well as any other citizen. By the 
laws of this Republic^ a criminal, be he Clergymu 
or layman, is to be arraigned and tried by the civ3 
tribunal ; but by the laws of the Romish choreh, a 
Popish Clergyman is not amenable to any authority 
but the Ecclesiastic. 

Such being the case, it necessarily follows that 
Popery is inimical to our free institutions. Tiie 
church of Rome pretends, (as we have already 
proved,) that she is infallibly correct in her general 
discipline. Now, in all Popish countries, and wher 
ever she has the power, her Clergy are not amena- 
ble to the civil law ; therefore it is infallibly correct 
and proper that they should not be amenable to it 
Such are the conclusions that legitimately and ne- 
cessarily follow from the premises, according to the 
infallibility of the Popish doctrine. 

Such a principle as this is in direct opposition to 
the whole tenor and spirit of our laws, which admit 
ct no such Ecclesiastical distinction. 

ft is true, that, at pxeaetvX, vVv^ ^weteignty of our 
AiBpublican principles sl\\\ ^aeax^ ^?i «^vj, \«A^^^ 


pery and Popish Priests have to bend to the ne- 
cessity of the times, and submit themselves, not' 
withstanding their '* priinlegium CanonU^" to the 
civil law. 


FROM NECESSITY. — They submit, I say, from ne- 
cessity. But as it is not the part of Infallibility to 
be controlled by the dictates of laws contrary and 
inimical to her own, this submission must necessa* 
rily be incompatible with her principles, and con- 
sequently, if her claims to infallibility be just, she 
is bound to extricate herself from this coercive ne^ 

If the church of Rome is infallible, as she pre- 
tends to be, her laws must be paramount to every 
other law; consequently, since the law of that 
church declares that her Clergy are not subject to 
the civil law, it is her duty, as soon as she can ob- 
tain the power, to resist that law. All this is self- 

Upon no principle, therefore, are we to be con- 
demned when we say that Popery is inimical to our 
free and Republican institutions. Neither can we, 
with any reason, be condemned when we assert 
that the Romish Hierarchy, as soon as they acquire 
the power, will not only resist, but abolish our laws, 
and bury them under the ruins of our Republic. 

What mercy are we to expect from the hands of 
men who aim to be worshipped ? Will Americans 
ever bow the knee to these Priestly 'D\g;ii\\actSfi»% 
fVe shudder at the thought, and mAigxiooiX'^ «v 

ckuBr-HMnrr I Thoit I uiiw«» now is the 
while we hare the power, to meintiiin and peqpili' 
ate our rights. We maj sayr-HMiert Bat lb 
power of Popery, increasmg with her muhbeiSbwiD 
also have a word to say. The day is not ftr di» 
tint, if foreign emigration flow in npon na as i ki 
done for some years past, when the, n p r sai of lUi 
flood will drown the Toice of liberty, and we Ml 
have to sink beneath the swell, or alee be dnvBi^ 
like exiles, from our lafad. 

Since Popery, and her doetrine, and her giawiil 
discipline are infallible, whatever is oppossi Is eMwf 
mnst be wrong ; and being wrong, infcHiMiiy i» 
bound to make it right. 

The beams of a nnd-day son are net nsie ckw 
than what is here advanced ; and deaA is not mom 
certain than our fate when Popery can dllBin the 

I have said that the end of all the idolatry ef die 
church of Rome is, that the Romish Hienoebf 
themselves may be worshipped. 

5. The Popish Clxrot ark to n uMmsa, 
— In order to bring the minds of their sabjeeti to 
the impious degradation of this man<worsh^ thsj 
commence by putting their doctrine relative to the 
worship of the Cross, the Virgin, pictures, rriiei. 
&c., into operation. Having thoroughly imbned 
the minds of their subjects with the do^ne thst 
inanimate objects are to be worshipped with wfait 
they call ** adoratio dulia!^ their next step is to ini" 
press them with the uo\ioxk ^&>aS(. ^m ^wa SacfU 

dVNOPSlS< 363 

Persons ^,\so are to be Worshipped with this same 
** aioratio dulia." By this they would have us be* 
Ueve that nothing more is meant than mere venerea 
Iwn towards the object or person who is the subject 
of the said ** adoratio dulia.^^ 

They themselves acknowledge that the tenera* 
iion, as they pretend it is, is really an adoraiioni 
vllkh, to be sure, they qualify by the adjective dw 
liOi signifying thereby, a sort of inferior worship. 

Now, we would ask, upon what grounds they suf- 
ibr themselves to be adored, or worshipped at all? 
When the Devil tempted our Lord, by promising 
him all the glory of the kingdoms of this world, if 
he would fall down and worship him, he rebuked 
huOt saying, ** Get thee hence, Satan : for it is ivrit' 
Un^ ' Thou shaXt worship the Lord thy God, and 
him only shaXt thou serve.^ " Matt. iv. li). 

Why, therefore, when Papists fall down and wor- 
^p their Priestly Dignitaries, do they not rebuke 
tbem 1 Far from re^nJiing them for doing it, they 
rebuke them if they d^ it not. What Popish Bish- 
op is there who would not conceive his Sacred Dig- 
f^iiy disparaged were his subjects not to fall upon 
their knees before him to ask his blessing, and to 
UisB his ring? Over and again, I have had this hu- 
miliating and sacrilegious duty to perform. To omit 
it, would have been a mark of disrespect which I 
would have shuddered to be guilty of 

It is as vain for the Popish Prelates to pretend 
that ibis bowing of the knees before them, «xi^kSa&- 
ing their ring^ does not signify adota\.\ou, ^to^«tV| 


00 called, as it would be for one man to strike an- 
other on the fiice, and pretend he did not mean it as 
an insult. Would the Romish Prelates believe him, ^ 
if their Sacred Persons were thus struck ? Why 3 
then should we believe them when they tell us that 
the adoration they receive is nothing more than 
mere respect ? 

If they were not conscious that the act is wrong, 
why do they allow it only in places where the her- 
etics, as they call us, cannot see it? In Popish 
countries it is the universal custom thus to worship 
them : and, in many parts of our own, where it can 
be done without exposure to the heretics, they ex- 
act, and receive the worship also. 

They cannot say that they waive their rights out 
of Tespect to our erroneous judgments, or to conform 
to our Republican prejudices. If this were the truth, 
the same reason would hold good that they should 
suppress their vain and pompous ceremonies, their 
use oi Holy Water! and a'iftbusand other extrava- 
gancies which shock our eyeftl' 

Their conscience, would they but listen to it, would 
dictate that they are wrong ; but the love of domin- 
ation and of honor blunts the stings of conscience, 
and they would rather rob the Almighty of his 
honor than not to receive the honor for themselves. 
Truly, then, did the Apostle exclaim, alluding to 
this same subject, " he opposeth and exalteth him- 
self above all that is called Qod, or that is worship- 
ped: so that he as God, sittetK xutlie tem<^le afChd^ 
^^immff himself thai he is God?' ^"YYis^^/xv ^. 


6. The adoration of the Holy Oil. — Be- 
fore we conclude our brief observations respecting 
the idolatry of the Romish church, we shall describe 
the adoration of the Holy Oil ! — The oil which 
they call holy is that which is used in what they 
call the Sacrament of Extreme Unction, for anoint- 
ing the sick preparatory for death. This oil is con- 
sidered so sacred that it can be consecrated by no one 
but a Bishop. The consecration of this oil is per- 
formed on what they call Holy Thursday ! which 
is, the Thursday before Easter. The ceremony is 
performed in the church, and publicly before all the 
worshippers, who, on that day, throng to witness 
the imposing ceremony, and to participate in the 
adoration. The mode in which the people worship 
the Holy Oil is far less sacrilegious than that prac- 
tised by the Priests. The people, when the Priests 
begin to worship the oil, merely fall prostrate on 
their knees, each one in his pew ; the Priests, how- 
e^r, perform their adoration in a manner that une- 
quivocally marks it as supreme. The ceremony is 
as follows : — In the first place, all the Priests in the 
Diocess are invited, and are expected to be present 
Being assembled in the Vestry, they dress them- 
selves in apparel suitable to the solemnity and to the 
importance of the occasion. They then enter the 
Sanctuary, as they call it, in file, one after the other, 
with as much apparent gravity as if they were 
marching to their graves. I say apparent gravity, 
for in the Vestry they are as light and trifling as if 
it were a play-hoase. Having enlexcd \.\\<i ^\9kK^ 

366 SYlfOPSls, 

aiy, they approach the altar, and after making a 
genuflexion to the Holy Wafer, each one takes hii 
seat around the Sanctuary. 

The Bishop, in the mean time, sits on his throiu; 
watching their References, to see whether they 
perform their evolutions with grace and dignitj. 
Every step is measured, every movement is aeoord' 
ing to role, even the countenance itself must assmne 
an expression the most profound. 

All being seated, then commences the dressing of 
his Lordship the Bishop, **t» paiUifiealibus" His 
Sacred Person is approached by two of the Sub- 
deacons, bearing water, and a napkin to wash and 
wipe his Sacred Hands. These they administer to 
him on their knees. This done, they rise from 
their knees, and commence to dress him, as if ho 
were a mere doll. Having dressed the upper pait 
of the Reverend Doll in the sumptuous insignia of 
his office, they finish by putting on his silken stock- 
ings, and spangled white satin shoes. Then the 
pastoral staff of his authority, the Crozier, is placed 
in his hands. All this is done with hissings memf. 
Every piece of garment which is to invest his Sa- 
cred body must be kissed by the Sub-deacons, who 
wait upon him. These being kissed, in token of the 
•acred use to which they are to be applied, they 
then kiss his Sacred hands. After this, standing on 
his throne, and holding the Crozier of his authority, 
his Lordship receives the incensing. The censor is 
waved thrice before him, and \.\ve ^mc^tV^ ^1 \.hA in. 
^4 yfVf» ditthses its deliclouB (ra^'c^tvc^ v^ eu^]{a\\ci, v& 

. vJ 


A©<@Q3^'iJ'D©S3 @? Vsaa Ni>!LV ©DO.. 

teicltwe tothi pji «*--■ 

unci ar^iti Tppcmr. ■•. .-. -■ ■. - . - f.-, 


it were, his Sacred person^ and to express the ado- 
ration which is due him. 

Having been thus worshipped himself, he is now 
ready to worship the oil. 

The adoration of the oil is performed as follows : 
In the first place, the oil that is to be consecrated is 
placed in an urn on a stand of Credence, as they call 
it, -placed near the middle of the Sanctuary. The 
Bishop then approaches, and having read the cere- 
mony of the consecration, accompanied with cross- 
ings and recrossings oflen, he mixes with the oil a 
quantity of the Holy Balm : the compound, then, is 
converted into an object of supreme adoration. 

His Lordship is the first one to render his hom- 
ages to this god of Oil. This he does by receding 
back a few steps towards the altar. There he pros. 
ttales himself upon his knees, and bending himself 
before the Holy Oil, he exclaims, with his hands 
joined together before his breast, expressive of the 
most profound adoration, "AVE! SANCTUM 
OLEUM ! Hail, Holy Oil !"— He then rises, 
and advancing a step or two nearer, prostrates him- 
self again. At this repetition of the adoration, he 
bends forward till his head comes nearly in contact 
with the floor, exclaiming, at the same time, in a 
more elevated tone of voice, "AVE! SANCTUM 
OLEUM !" — He then rises again, and having ap- 
proached close to the oil, prostrates himself as be- 
fore, and again repeats, in a still louder tone of voice, 
«AVEi SANCTUM OLEUM \"—TVv\s^oTv^>^ 

370 SYNWSaS. 

rarerently places his two hands lipon the stand, md 
most dei^outly kisses the rim of the urn. 

Having thus worshipped tbe oily god, he relnnis, 
and takes bis seat upon his throne, where he tits 
under a rich and sumptuous canopy, oyerlookiDg 
the show, while the rest of the Priests, in succession, 
pass through the same ceremony. 

Such is the fkrce of the adoration of the Holy OH. 
This rite was instituted in the dark ages. 

What were the feelings of the Popish Clergy ia 
those dark times, when the Word- of Gk)d was en- 
tirely ei^cluded from the people, and when few, eten 
of the Priests themselves, possessed a copy of it, 
what, I say, were tfaeir feelings then, on witnearing 
this ludicrous, and, at the same time, impious rite, 
it is not for me to say. This, I know, however, that 
the ceremony now, at least, notwithstanding the sol- 
emn pomp with which it is enjoined to be perform- 
ed, is so completely ludicrous, that the poor Prieita, 
in spite of the august presence of his Lordship the 
Bishop, are so tickled at tbe thing, that they are 
unable to restrain their risibility. Such is the titter 
which works about their ribs, that many of them 
dare not raise their eyes for fear of mueeting the 
glance of some of their similarly tickled compan- 
ions. Such an event would cause the babble all 
to burst, and the deluded people, then, might take 
the hint, and thus, judging from the effect, mistrust 
tbe cause. 

Tbe rite, just as Iba^e deBcr^»^\VSa \a\sfe^s«»d 
in their Rituals and Cei«nio\m\%. '^Viea ^^^^ 


know I aaiert the truth respecting it At least, 
those know it whose devotion ! leads them, on that 
$oi€mn oeeoiian ! to participate in the blessed priv- 
ilege ; and few, I presume, are to be found so inde- 

I TOOt as not to attend. 

I If any of our citizens should doubt the correct- 
ness of my statement, I would simply request him 
to be present on a Holy Thur$day I in any Popish 
Cathedral in the United States in which his Lord- 
ship the Bishop officiates, and if the rite is not per* 
fimned just and exactly as I have described it, my 
clduis to veracity shall be forfeited. For the sake 
d those who would wish to see this impious Show, 
a is wtell to state that the ceremony is performed in 
the morning. 

' Such is now the accumulated, intricate, tedious 
multiplication of rites and ceremonies which have 
bseo enjoined* upon the Popish church, by the dif- 
ferent Pontiffs that have sat upon the throne, that 
their Clergy are weighed down, and groan under 
the pressure of them. Having been prescribed by 
the Sovereign and In&llible Head of the church, 
Aey are constrained to believe the thing is right, 
since, in matters of general discipline, (as has been 
shown,) the doctrine is, ** the Church cannot err" 

Every Pontiff that ascends the throne seems am- 
bitioas oi the honor of decorating the Idol with some 
new mark of his zeal and piety. The ornaments 
with which the thing already hangs encumbered, 
tHe stiii miered to remain, since the fmget tA \tl- 

AUibilkjr placed them there. Some one ^^^vVSsoA 


rite, he thinks, to the obligation which is incumbent 
of performing all the rest, will not materially in- 
crease the weight of daty, — ^then, on he pins another 
jewel to the gaudy Idol. Thus it is, that the Idol 
now is adorned with such a profusion of ear-bobs, 
nose-pendants, necklaces, bracelets, fringes, head- 
dresses, trappings, ribands, and trinkets from head 
to foot, that hardly a hair of her head can be found 
where the glittering folly is not to be seen. 

The United States, however, is not the place 
where this Popish Diana is to be seen in her glory. 
Her numerous breasts, at which her devoted chil- 
dren in Popish countries, suck the pernicious doc- 
trine, are here, most of them, carefully screened 
from the public gaze. What then must be the real 
object of their worship, when the shadow of it, ex- 
tended over the Atlantic to these distant regions, 
presents an aspect so deformed, so ludicrous, so im- 
pious as we see it I 

Well may the Popish Bishops in the West, as I 
have often heard them observe, declare that it is in- 
expedient to perform, in the United States, all the 
rites and ceremonies which the Roman Rituid ear 
joins. Well, indeed, may they say it is inexpedient. 
Well may they hide the cloven foot. 

Even in regard to this, however, the In&llible 

Ones are at variance. Some conceive it expedient 

to lop off this trinket, others, that. None are to be 

found who are willing to retain the whole ; nor is 

there any among them w\\o vf qvA^l n9\s^ ^\ daxe to 

exhibit the Idol in her naked ioim. 

STNOPSia 873 

His Lordship^ the Bishop of Bardstown, in Ken- 
tscky, was one of those who were the most relac- 
tant to relinquish the rites and ceremonies of the 
Mother Church. 

The services of this renowned and zealous Pre- 
late were, therefore, as long and tedious as they 
were pompous and ludicrous. To this circumstance 
was attributed^ even by his own Clergy, his ill sue* 
cess in converting the heretics. 

During my residence under the domination of 
this I^late, which was several 3rear8, there were 
but two conversioTUt ! that is, perversions, from what 
they were pleased to call Protestantism, to the Holy 
Roman Catholic faith. One of these was a silly 
woman, and the other, a poor simple man, whom, 
on hift death-bed, they frightened out of his senses, 
and whose money, trifling as was the amount, one 
hundred and fifty dollars, was transferred out of his 
pockets into the coffers of the In&llible Church, for 
Ihe good of his soul. 

This bad luck was attributed by several of the 
Clergy, and by mytelf among the rest, to the Bish- 
op's pertinacity in exhibiting too much of the cere* 
monial mummery in the service of the church. 

The " AVE SANCTUM OLEUM I" is a spec- 
tacle that every American ought to see. This Holy 
OtZ, I think, would be an effectual cure for their in- 
difiference in regard to Popery. 

7. ApoRATioN OF WOOD. — Another object of su- 
preme adoration, in the Romish cliUTeVi\a^^\!AX^^l 
ire pleased to call the wood of the Cxoas- 



St Thomas Aquinas, otherwise styled the an- 
gelical Doctor, expressly teaches, that, ** The Cross 
of Christ is to be worshipped with the same adora- 
tion with Christ, that is, with the adoration of la- 
triit, (supreme worship,) and for this reason we 
also address the Cross, and pray to it, as if it were 
he who was crucified himself: For the Church 
sings, * Hail, O Cross I our only hope in this time 
of suffering: increase the righteousness of the pi- 
ous, and pardon the guilty.' Crux Christi adcra- 
tur, adoration^ latruR,^^ — Thom. Aquin. III. Ql 25, 
Art. 4. 

The theology of this celebrated Divine is admit- 
ted by the Romish church to be sound and or- 

The poor deluded Papists, therefore, must either 
be idolaters, or heretics. If they believe the doc- 
trine of their church, they are idolaters, if they re- 
ject it, they are heretics. Take it either way, if they 
remain in the doctrine they now hold, they must be 
lost, because idolatry and heresy are both damnable 
sins. How applicable are the words of St Paul on 
this occasion. ** Professing themselves to he ime, 
they became fools, and changed the glory of the in- 
corruptible God into an image made like to corrupt- 
ible man. Who changed the truth of God into a 
lie, and worshipped and served the creature more 
than the Creator, who is blessed for ever,^^ Rom. i. 
22, 23, 35. 

8. Adoration o¥ tuh Nvblgy^ '^Vk.^x. — Aji- 
aiber object of theiTsupxeme«Aw«J^au'\^\)wi^\\^^ 



Mary, who is called by them the " dueen of hea- 
yen;* the DiviDe Mother ;t the Hope of sinners;! 
the Only Hope of sinners."^ It is through her 
merits that sinners are taught to look for salvation. | 
She is said to be our Lordess ; our Mediatrix ; our 
Advocate. If Her image is everywhere to be found 
— in churches, in their private dwellings ; and in 
Popish countries, where the idol Clueen can be 
worshipped in all her glory, the image is exhibited 
on the common highways, in the groves, in public 
places, add almost everywhere. It is carried about 
in processions, and the superstitious multitude follow 
it, chanting their hjrmns of praise, as if, in reality, 
the idol was what they call it, the " Clueen of hea- 
ven." They bow before it, kneel before it, pray 
unto it. It is made to perform all sorts of miracles. 
It speaks, — it moves, — ^it opens and shuts its eyes, — 
it weeps, — it promises, threatens, prophesies. This 
miracle of the opening and shutting the eyes, is 
firmly believed by all the Popish Clergy. Before 
my ov(m eyes were opened to the deep delusions of 
Popery, when I vras a Popish Priest, I as firmly 
believed this miracle as any one. The belief of it 

* Axt Regina Ccelomm ! Ave Domina Angdorum i Hail ! 
Clueen of heaven ! Hail I Lordess of the angels !"— Brev. Rom. 
ad Completorium. 

t Ligor. Prax. Conf. N. 216. 

* Ibid. N. 25&--267. 

§ Preces MissflB, p. 150. 

II Ligor. Prax. Conf N. 216. Preces Missse, p. 93. 
V "O, Domina nostra; Mediatrix nostra; Adtocala -ao*- 
/ra/" Preces MiaasB, p. 4B, ^^ 

876 evNQPsia. 

i« $0 genenU in lt»}j, that to deny it would ^»oK 
be considered as heresy. The ceiel>Tated Bomiiii 
Prelate Ricci, Bishop of Pisloia, toociiing upon tbii 
subjeet, writes as follows : — ** The miraciilous inn^ 
of the Virgin, at Aneona« was crowned on the IStk 
Msyt 1814, by Pids VII. It had for several moiitb? 
opened and shut its eyes, as was attested by 80,000 
persons. This miracle took place on the 25th June, 
1796. The eyent was commemorated by an in- 
scription ; and the Pope also fixed its annivenaiy 
on the second Sunday of the same month, and at' 
tacbed to it the benefits of a Plenary Indnlgenca''— ' 
Bicci,Tom. II. pp. 110, 111. 

So firmly persuaded was I, while a Papist^ of ths 
miraculous powers of the Virgin's image, and so 
eager was I while on my knees before it, of seeing 
some miracle, that I really used to imagine that I 
saw rays of light radiating from it; and so brillinit 
were the rays, that the image, to which I was pny* 
ing in the dark, became qnite visible, and shone 
with glory. Another devotee, as highly &voredta 
myself, though in a difiereat way, used to see the 
same image sweat profusely, especially about (be 
time of the anniversary of the crucifijuon. 

Mariana, the celebrated Popish annalist, speak- 
ing of the multitude of miracles believed in Spain, 
exclaims, *«Methmks I am writing fiibles or ro- 

The following are some of the ejaculatory pray- 


♦ Mahana, Hist. l«p. V.THV^.Vk 


era that are continuall}*^ offered up unto the Clueen : 
•• Give me power against thy enemies ! — Have mer- 
cy upon us sinners ! — Hail, O Clueen, Mother of 
mercy, our life, our sweetness, and our hope, hail ! 
To thee do we cry, the hanished sons of Eve. — 
Hear us, then, our Advocate, and turn thy eyes of 
mercy towards us !"* The following is the prayer 
that is offered up by the Priests after the celebration 
of the Mass. We take it from their formulary of 
prayers called the *'Preces Missct^ The PR/kYSRs 
OF Mass." — ** Domina mea, &c. O my Lordess, 
Holy Mary, I commend my soul and my body into 
thy blessed care, and special custody, and into the 
bosom of thy mercy, to-day, daily, and at the hour 
of my death : I commit all my hope and consolation, 
all my perplexities and troubles, my life, and the end 
of my life, unto thee : that by thy holy intercession, 
apd by thy merits, all my works maybe directed, and 
ordered according to thy will, and the will of thy 
Son. Amen."t The will of the Lord is here, as 
we see, by the order of the prayer, made subordinate 
to the will of a mere creature, a woman, whom they 
have constituted " Queen of heaven," and at whose 
feet they have placed the King of Glory. 



* Brev. Roman, ad Completorium. 
t Preces Missse, p. 93. 


Our task is now nearly at a close. The citizens 
of the United States are here presented with a &ir 
view of the doctrine of the church of Rome on the 
subject of morality, as well as on various other sub- 
jects appertaining to the Popish doctrine and gene- 
ral discipline. 

We call the Work which is here unfolded to the 
world, a task, and we may add, it has been a most 
unpleasant one. We have accompanied the great 
St. Ligori, that shining Lights as he is called, into 
the hidden recesses of that sink of all pollutions, the 
Confessional. We have heard the instructions that 
are given to Confessors, as well as those which they 
are taught to give to their Penitents. We stand 
astonished, and notwithstanding the Light with 
which we have been fevored in exploring the dark 
regions through which we have passed, the whole 
presents an aspect dark, hideous, and revolting. 

It is, however, the Moral Theology of the church 
of Rome, at the present day, that has been the sub- 
ject of our investigation. Were we not assured by 
the title-page of the Work, that it was published in 
the year 1828, we should have thought vlN*ias«>.\kT^- 
duction of the dark ages which, have \oTi^ ^ow^Vj. 


It is the compilation of a Romish Saint, yet Satan ' 
himself could not have devised any thing more per- 
nicious, more wicked, more atrocious, blasphemous, 
and polluted than this very Moral Theology, which 
is declared by the church of Rome to be " Sound 
AND ACCORDING TO GoD — Sana ac secuTtdum 

This Synopsis of the Moral Theology of the 
church of Rome, we look upon as the end of all 
controversy on (hat subject. 

The authority of St. Ligori is unquestionable; — 
it is admitted. — It now only remains to be known 
whether the translation we have given is fiiir and 
correct. This we leave for our opponents themselves 
to say. If they deny the fairness of the translation, 
it will then rest with the public to decide. 

We now again publicly repeat our challenge to 
his Lordship, the Romish Bishop of New York, 
and to all, or any of his Clergy in the United States, 
or elsewhere, to say whether we have, or have not 
presented a fair and true translation of the Moral 
Theology of their great St. Ligori. 

It will be futile for them to pass this challenge by 
unnoticed. The subject is of importance, and if they 
do not vindicate their Saint, and the doctrine which 
he teaches, there is not an unprejudiced mind in the 
world that will not pronounce the sentence of guilty, 
both against the abettors of that doctrine, and the 
church which sanctions, approves, and teaches it. 

This Sjnopsis wiWbe «i\^BNATv^Tj\^Tfta\v\» «>S.^VfflJL 
Popery was in the Tv\neleeivl\\.<i^Tv"taT^. "W^^^t^ 


Theology of St. Ligori is now to be found exclu- 
sively in the hands of the Romish Clergy. As the 
light of truth becomes more generally diffused 
through the world, it is more than probable that the 
church of Rome will, through motives of policy, de- 
stroy this Work of their Saint, lest it should fall 
into the hands of Protestants, and be brought against 
them as a memorial of what their church taught in 
the nineteenth century. This Work of St. Ligori's 
was written at a time when Popery still felt her self- 
importance; written by one, who, in the delirium of 
his Popish feelings, felt as if the world was Popish. 
Little did he think that the church which he was 
taught to believe was founded on the rock of Peter, 
was even then tottering on the verge of ruin : he 
therefore wrote, what, under other circumstances, he 
would not have dared to write. They may now, or 
hereafter, destroy the '* Moral Theology" of St 
Ligori, which they still retain in their own hands, 
but it will not be in their power to arrest the circu- 
lation of the Synopsis of it. As time rolls on, so 
also will float upon its surface this Synopsis, laden 
with the fruits, pearls, and riches of a doctrine which 
was declared by the church of Rome in the nine- 
teenth century, to be ** sound and according to 

The challenge which we have given will also 

wave triumphantly on the Pre&torial topmast of the 

Synopsis, emblematic of the victory of truth. Every 

volume of the Saint may now sink to the \^\Xq>t£lq1 

ibe deep, and penetrate to the daTk ab^Bi^ ^^ \w^^ 



whence their foul contents emanated, still the vic- 
tory is won, so long as a single Synopsis of the 
doctrine is found floating upon the course of time; 
long as freedom waves her banners ; long as the 
blush of modesty flushes on the cheek ; long as tnUh 

If the Romish church would but step down from 
the arrogant pinnacle of her pretended Infellibility^ 
she might then weep over the slain of the daughter 
of her people : might repent in sackcloth and ashes, 
over the pernicious influence of her doctrine ; might 
correct her errors ; and might yet become a Chris- 
tian church. Whereas, now she is the execration 
of the world ; stands as a dry and withered beacon, 
a continual memento of the extravagance of human 
folly, when abandoned to its own delusions. 

Who can look upon that church, — (how ill that 
venerable word here comports with its application !) 
who can look upon that church without the mingled 
emotions of pity, horror, and indignation! She 
claims to be infallible ; curses all who do not em- 
brace her faith ; persecutes all who leave it or op- 
pose it ; and holds her dominion, not by the gende 
sway of love, but by the control of fear and power. 
She clothes herself in darkness, as a mantle : — cm 
her forehead is written ** Mystery ;" and all she 
teaches, however mysterious, contradictory, absurd, 
wicked, or inconsistent it may be, must be believed 
under penalty of anathema and death. In order to 
promulgate her docttiaes, ^e iiolds the sword in one 
hand, and chains in lYie oXYiRt. Ixi^v^.'^LSlY?^ ^\ '^ 



aiversalify and supremacy of hfer power, she sits 
ider a royal canopy wearing" a triple crown, em- 
ematic of her right to govern the empires of the 
or Id both spiritually and politically, and of her 
ght over the empire of death itself The keys of 
3aven and hell hang suspended by her side; and 
5 one is allowed to enter either, but by her permis- 
on or compulsion. Ignorance, superstition, fanat- 
ism, and delusion, bend before her throne. To 
iss the feet of the Sovereign Pontiff is held as an 
Dnor even to kings : — to bow before a wafer is sub- 
ituted for the worship of the great Jehovah, and 
e Crucifix, a lump of wood or metal, is declared to 
J the only Bible necessary for salvation. The 
Tord of God for ages was nowhere to bo found 
nongst them, but upon the dusty shelves of their 
holastics. The reading of it was prohibited to 
1 except the Clergy, who themselves were the last 

use the privilege. 

Being deprived of the Word of God, the only 
>oks the people had were the legendary tales of 
eir pretended Saints, stuffed with miracles the most 
>surd and impious, and manuals, catechisms, pray- 
-books, with other productions of a similar kind, 
imposed for the purpose of leading their credulous 
jvotees still farther and farther from the truth. The 
ily portions of the Word of God the people ever got, 
ere such as were culled out to suit the purposes of 
crafty Priesthood, who presented those portions so 
utilated, and so completely varnished over with. 
tcs, and erroneous expositions, tiaaV, 'vasXea.^ oflXsRr 


ing^ the bread of life, they became the deadliest poU 
son. Penance was there substituted for repentance : 
— works of supererogation, for the merits of Christ; 
— wine, for his blood; a wafer, for his flesh; — 
bread, for his life-giving Spirit. For Christ, lybOi 
the Scriptures declare, is the only hope of sinners, 
they substitute the Virgin Mary, who they are 
taught to believe is "^Diviru.^^ She is called '*thk 
ONLY HOPE OF SINNERS, Spes unica peccatorum,"* 
who are said to be saved " by her men/5."f Christ 
the Lord, and King of glory, is sold by them as a 
thing of common traffic. The^nce of the Masses, 
. in which he is sold, is fixed upon a board or tablet, 
which is hung at the church door, that all may know 
what are the rates of the difierent sorts of Masses at 
which he is sold. These prices vary, as has al- 
ready been stated, according to the splendor and 
pomp of the ceremony which accompany them. If 
it be a High Mass, the price is from ^yc dollars to 
one thousand. Low Masses are generally fifty 

The doctrine, in all its ramifications, is made to 
converge to one unique and invariable point, into the 
Vaulted Treasuries, which have been described in 
a preceding chapter. Power and pleasure is the 
end of the whole system. Money being the means 
of obtaining both, every device that the ingenuity 
of avarice can conceive, is adopted to acquire it 
Scripture is wrenched, and distorted from its true 

♦ " Preces Missap," p. ISO. 

t Synopsie,p. 84. Preces 'NV\ftOT^»\».^'i. 


meaning; the signification of words is entirely 
changed ; the senses are all made to hear false tes- 
timony; reason is laid prostrate at the shrine of 
mystery; common sense, experience, and self-evi- 
dence are all banished out of the question, when 
Priestly judgment sits poising the golden balance. 
Cupidity is the weight that sinks the scale, and 
though the sacrifice is truth and virtue, though the 
victims sold are Christ himself, and, as we read, the 
" souls of vaen^ still the traffic must go on ; the fires 
of Purgatory must be kindled, and a dreary Limbo 
m vented for inoffensive infants. Into these abodes 
of misery must be hurled those who are so unfortu- 
nate as to be poor and negligent. Laws are enact- 
ed, varied, multiplied; — impediments without num- 
ber thrown across the bands of matrimony, shack- 
ling and circumscribing their subjects on every side, 
and nothing can remove them but the weight of gold. 
Tears fall unheeded ; — sighs are heaved in vain ; — 
pity is a stranger to the subject ; — nothing can move 
those flinty hearts but gold itself 

When the treasuries are filled, and they are never 
empty, then power sits upon her throne. The blood 
that has gushed beneath the ponderous wheels of 
Juggernaut, is but a sprinkling when compared 
with thef 'flood of it that has rolled and foamed around 
that Mighty '* Bahylon,^^ whom the pen of inspira- 
tion has described as being *' d^unk with the blood of 
the Saints^^ — that ''Woman arrayed in purple and 
scarlet color, and decked with gold, aud 'pT&cxo-vx^ 
stones, and pearls, having a golden cup iu HeT l\,auA.\ 


(the Mass cup,) " fuU of abomimUians, andfiltkiness 
of her fornication. And upon her forehead was a 
name written, MYSTERY. BABYLON THE 
Rev. xvii. 

Nor is her power exercised merely on the saints. 
It extends to all. and stretches itself even beyond 
the grave. Onward it rushes still, and scaling the 
battlements of heaven, hurls even the Almighty him- 
self from his throne, and sits as Lord of all. Seated 
on the throne of the Almighty, he is seen with the 
keys of heaven and hell hanging at his belt. His 
arrogance proclaims that none can enter but by 
his permission ; thus making Christ a liar, who de- 
clares, that it Ls he who has " the keys of hell and 
dcathy^^ — " the key of David /" that it is ''he that 
openeth, and no man shutteth ; and shuiteth, and 
NO MAN openethy Rev. i. 18 ; iii. 7. 

Thus invested with the keys of power, this mighty 
door-keeper, judge, architect, Lord. God, and all. 
employs his vacant moments in building cells for 
superstition ; walls and cloisters for deluded Monks 
and Nuns ; prisons and dungeons for those whom 
he is pleased to call heretics, and having the keys 
of authority, locks his victims in. Various are his 
prisoners, and diversified their ends. The heretics, 
chained to their damp cells, are suffered to pine 
away to mere skeletons, and then, as if the pains of 
such a death were sl\\\ \.oo mA^^Yva ^\?>.^% iliem forth 
to the derision of a sVaVis^v twvsXvww^^, ^xv\ ^^\^\s:^s^ 


them to the flames, torturing, however, previously, 
their bodies with the rack, and every other torture 
that cruelty can invent. 

Those who are unacquainted with the genius of 
Popery seem inclined to think that those who stand 
in array against it, are too severe in their manner 
of exposing it to the public view. This, in regard 
to some, is true. We would observe, however, that 
Popery is a subject which cannot be handled with 
that lenity which some imagine it ought to be. As 
well might we attempt to hush the fury of a storm 
by a whisper, as to think that the soft didactic voice 
of cool reasoning could prevail against the hurri- 
canes of Popish eloquence and sophistry. The 
minds of most men, notwithstanding our boasted 
prerogatives of reason and good sense, may be com- 
pared to the slender reed which bends the most 
where the winds blow the heaviest. Popery is a 
deep-rooted sophistry, the prongs of which extend 
their ramifications far, wide, and deep ; deep as the 
bottomless abyss whence it derives its nourishment, 
power, and universal dissimulation : to pluck it up, 
therefore, requires a vigorous effort. 

Popery denies every allegation brought against it. 
It admits nothing, however true it may be, and how- 
ever true they know it to be. Can any thing more 
- trying be conceived than to contend for the truth of 
a thing, which one*s opponent knows to be true, and 
who opposes the truth, although he knows it to be 
truth, and knows that we know il lo \>ei Vtxy'^i, «sn^ 
who denies that truth merely and so\e\^ iotx^^^^^- 


pose of keeping those in suspense and doubt who 
have not the means of investigating the subjects- 
Nothing more trying, nothing more disgusting to a 
man of candor and noble feelings, than baseness sucii 
as this. 

Their own poor credulous devotees, did they but 
know the rottenness of the Popish system, would be 
the first to desert their crafty, interested^ and iotri- 
guing leaders; but they know it not, because they are 
deprived of the means of acquiring the knowledge. 

Popery, as it is taught to them, is as different from 
Popery as it really is, and as it is known, practised, 
and understood by the Priesthood, as light is from 
darkness. They have books for the people, and 
books for themselves. Ligori is a book, which I 
Vv'ill venture to affirm, not one Papist in the United 
States, no, nor in Europe, ever had a glimpse o( 
except the Priests and Clergy. I appeal to tliera- 
selves for the truth of my remark. The people ad- 
here to the church as they conceive it to be, but not 
to their church as it really is. This I shall now 
prove : it shall be proved by a brief recapitulation 
of some of the doctrines of their church, which we 
shall now select from their own great Saint Ligori, 
and from other authorities equal lo his, which we 
will place before their view. Having long been 
a Papist myself, and having had every opportunity 
of knowing their sentiments and feelings, I assert, 
and know, in the assertion, that I have their assent, 
that ihey do noi believe what lam now about to ad- 
vance of the doctiiive oi lYveu o>nxv OwsxtOcv, 


L They do not believe, (I allude to tbe laity, or 
common people, as they are contradistingoiahed by 
their Priests ; as for the Priests, most of them believe 
nothing at all,) the people, I say, do not believe that 
a piece of wood ought to be adored with supreme 

2. They do not believe, or" at least, so they say, 
that the reading of the Bible was ever publicly pro- 
hibited to the people. 

3. They' do not believe that the Virgin Mary is 
the only hope of sinners, and that it is through her 
merits they are to be saved. 

4. They do not believe, if their own word is to 
be taken, that it is the doctrine of their church that 
they should pray to the Virgin Mary for grace, for 
succor, or salvation. They pretend that they only 
pray to her to pray to Grod for them. 

6. They do not believe that they ought to be Ab- 
solved from their sins, if they die in the habit, and 
in the very act of sin. 

6. They do not believe, or at least so they pre- 
tend, that the Priest alone pardons their sins. 

7. They do not believe that Priests are allowed 
to keep concubines, if they are willing to pay a fine 
for it. 

8. They do not believe that all the Protestants in 
the world, who die Protestants, will inevitably be 

9. They do not believe, at least the Papists in the 
United States do not know, oi be\\«^fe \!CkaX '^NswaSa 

a thing of such common trafficA^^^^^'^'*^ ^V^i^- 


rope, where Popery predominates, the Tarioiis rates 
for which they are said, are affixed on.sign-boardBt 
at the church doors. 

10. They do not believe that their Priests must 
be obeyed in preference to Qod. 

11. They do not believe that it is very rare to 
find a good Priest in the world, and that Priests are 
the ruin and damnation of multitudes of souls. 

12. They do not believe, or at least they deny, 
that the mere act of Confessing to a Priest is a sign 
of contrition, and that this act entitles them to Ab- 

13. They do not believe, or at least they are 
ashamed to acknowledge it, that the Priests' bless- 
ing confers sanctifying grace. 

14. They do not believe that both their Priests 
and their people are almost universally wicked. 

15. They do not believe that drunken Priests and 
debauchees can be lawfully ordained. 

16. They do not know that custom legalizes any 
sin, and every sin. 

17. They do not know how many excuses their 
Holy Doctors advance for lying, prevaricating, 
cheating, stealing, cursing, and drunkenness. 

18. Some do not know, or at least they are un- 
willing to acknowledge it, that their church grants 
Dispensations for money. 

19. They do not know, or at least they dare not 
acknowledge it, that. the Pope can dispense with 
God^s Law. 

^ 20. They do not kivow, ot «X Vasfiv. ^^^n«i^^^ 


>lush to acknowledge it, that their Divines teach 
hat it is lawful to sell liquors on the Lord's day, 
;ven to the making of those who huy, drunk. 

21. They do not know, and they pertinaciously 
leny, that their Priests ever were allowed to anoint 
;he loins of women. 

22. They do not know that their Dirines teach 
hat it is lawful to gamble for prayers and for 

23. They do not know that their church teaches 
:hat images confer grace. 

24. They do not know, or at least they deny, that 
;he Inquisition was established by their church, and 
;hat it is an Ecclesiastical tribunal. 

25. They do not know that their Priests are 
:aught to keep sinners in ignorance, and to leave them 
in their sins ; neither do they know that they are 
:aught to teach them that sin is no sin. 

26. They do not believe a thousandth part of all 
^he abominations taught by their own church, and 
:hey do not know the hundred thousandth part of 
what is taught. They cannot believe what they do 
not know, and if they knew, they would not, could 
aot, believe it 

27. Strange as it may sound to some, there is not 
a. Papist in the world, from his Holiness the Pope 
downward, that knows what Popery is in all its 
bearings. They know it not, for this obvious rea- 
Bon, — it is a mass of corruptions which has been so 
long accumulating, that the ordinary leTxu oC V\fe \^ 
oo short to turn, or overturn \he TwV>)H\?Jtv, ^^ ^\v\Oc^ 


the system is composed. How superficial, then* 
must be the knowledge of the people, especially as 
the quintessence of what Popery is, is carefully con- 
cealed from their inspection. The dark arcana of 
the doctrine are wrapped up in a language which 
their people do not understand, or are transmitted 
orally from Pope to Pope, from Priest to Priest, the 
whisper of which is never heard beyond the pre- 
cincts of scholastic cloisters, or Monkish cells. 

The knowledge of Popery would be the death of 
the ** Beast i^ hence it is, that ignorance in Popery, 
is the mother of Popish devotion : hence, too, the 
reason why, in the whole S3rstem of their ** Moral 
Theology,'' the reading of the Bible is not incul- 
cated to the people. There is not a solitary syllable 
in the whole four thousand seven hundred pages of 
the '* Moral Theology" of St Ligori, which is so 
" sound a/nd according to God" that even intimates 
the utility of read^ig God's blessed Word. On the 
contrary, the reading of it, as we have seen, is ex- 
pressly condemned. Images are the only books 
that are said to be necessary to be read. This is the 
doctrine that the image itself as Ligori tells us, 
taught to the Venerable Brother Bernard of Cor- 
lion, **when, upon a certain occasion, he begged 
of the image to let him know whether it wished him 
to learn to read." 

In confirmation of the preceding category, relative 
to what the laity in the Romish church do not be- 
lieve, and do not know, we lefet the reader to the 
Index of the Synopsis, aa^ v\vex^ ^^ ^«^ %5A>iM6 


page ; by taming to which he will find what we 
have advanced is prov/ed. 

Lest any oncr however, should be embarrassed in 
making the search, and in order to save trouble, we 
will here refer to the page ourselves. In the cate- ' 
gory there are 27 propositions, and we now an- 
nex the page where each of these propositions is 
proved. Prop. 1st, page 373.— 2d, pp. 308, 313.— 
3d, pp 84, 367. — 4th, pp. 90, 91. 367.— 5th, p. 111. 
— 6th, p. 102.— 7th, p. 294. — 8th, p. 389.— 9ih, p. 
290.— 10th, pp. 227, 230.-1 1th, pp. 73, 102.— 12th, 
pp. 102, 110. 17a— 13th, p. 112.— 14th, p. 176.— 
15th, p. 256.— 16th, p. 190.— 17lh,p. 158.— I8th,p. 
30L— 19th, p 214.— 20th, pp. 192, 254.— 21st, p. 
95.— 22d, p 233.— 23d, p. 44.— 24th, pp. 313, 315. 
—25th, pp. 292. 293, 181.— 26th, p. 78.— 27th, 

The doctrine that all Protestants who die but of 
the Ck)mmunion of the Romish church will be 
damned, is so barbarous, so anti-scriptural, so re- 
pugnant to reason and common sense, that the 
church of Rome, in order not to disgust her subjects 
with her own doctrine on this subject, has been un- 
der the necessity of hiding its deformity, as she is 
wont to do, under the clo^ik of Jesuitical distinctions. 
She says that if they live and die in invincible ig- 
norance of the true faith, (meaning thereby the Po- 
pish,) they may be saved ; provided, they were so 
disposed, that if they had known it they would have 
embraced it The poor Papist, whose Vi^i^tX \a\sx\xRkjL 
tenderer than that of Holy MotheT^uxviet xVvVa s^'^^s^ 


difldncdoD, hopes, and believes, that there are some 
among his Protestant brethren, some, perhaps, among 
his dearest relatives who are not in communion with 
the church of Rome, that maybe saved. The thought 
IB a cheering thought ; but if Popery is true, it is a 
mere chimera. If Popery is true, not a Protestant 
in the world can possibly be saved ; but, thank the 
Lord, the thing stands just the reverse; 

In regard to this logomachy, called invincible ig- 
norance, we contend that it is a mere play upon 
words. Their own definition of it sufficiently proves 
it '* Invincible ignorance-," says their angelical St 
Thomas, '^is that which cannot be overcome by 
study" — Thom. Aquin. L 2. Clusst. 76, Art a. 

In order to show, first, that no Protestant can be 
saved under this plea of invincible ignorance, we 
have merely to show, according to the doctrine of 
the church of Rome, what cannot formally be dis- 
believed without incurring the guilt of heresy, and 
the consequent damnation of the man who dies in 
that disbelief We o^n again for our instruction 
on this subject, the great St Thomas Aquinas, whose 
doctrine is venerated by the Romish church as sound 
and orthodox.* 

Speaking of what must be explicitly believed from 
the necessity of the Precept, (as the Popish scholas- 
tics term it,) he says we are ** bound to have an ex- 
plicit &ith of the mysteries of Christ, and especially 
of those things which are commonly solemnized in 


the Church, and which are publicly proclaimed."— 
Thorn. Aquin. Qasst. 2. A. 7. in corp. Some of 
these things are, as the celebrated Romish Divine 
Dens informs us, " the belief in the Real Presence 
in the Eucharist, the necessity of Auricular Confes- 
sion, the invocation of the Saints, the worship of Re- 
lics, the existence of Purgatory, &c." — Dens de 
Virt. Fidei. N. 40. 

Heresy, as the church of Rome is vociferous to 
proclaim, excludes from the kingdom of heaven. 
" Heresy," they tell us, " is the infidelity of those 
who acknowledge that Christ is come ; but who re- 
ject some part of his doctrine as it is proposed to 
them by the Church : such are the Lutherans, the 
Calvinists, &c.," and the rest of the Protestants. — 
Dens de Virt Fidel N. 60. 

Such being the doctrine of the church of Rome, 
the consequence is, according to it, that no Protest- 
ant can be saved, because all Protestants universally, 
formally, and pertinaciously reject the doctrines of 
the church of Rome in regard to the Real Presence 
in the Eucharist, to the necessity of Auricular Con- 
fession, to the invocation of Saints, to the worship 
of Relics, to the existence of Purgatory, &c. &c. 
They not only reject it with indifference, but with 
soYoreign horror and disdain. So also do they re^ 
ject the rest of their doctrine in regard to their arro- 
gant and sacrilegious claims to infallibility ; in re- 
gard to the Pope's supremacy; — in regard to 
their doctrine of Indulgences, D\8i^n«divyQ&> "^^ 
ceiring pay fox Masses;-— in legaid \o ^^ ^^- 


trine of human merits. Protestants abhor the pomp 
and pageantry of the church of Rome, — her *'fur- 
ple,^* and her ** scarlet,** emblematic of her sanguin- 
ary, persecuting creed: — her tinsel trappings of 
*' gold^ and precious stones, and pearls,^* are equally 
as detestable in the sight of every Protestant as the 
means she uses to acquire those treasures. Hence; 
if Popery be true, not a Protestant can be saved. 

We will, secondly, remark, that, according to 
their own definition of invincible ignorance, no soch 
ignorance can exist among Protestants, or amongst 
any other of the human race on the whole globe. 

Invincible ignorance is defined to be that ** igno- 
rance which cannot be overcome by study." Now, 
we know, and our opponents themselves admit it, 
that there are some, nominal Protestants at least, and 
myself was one of the number, who, by studying the 
Popish doctrine, have been led to embrace it. In 
regard to such, at least, invincible ignorance has no 
place. Now, in respect to them, it is impossible that 
the ignorance of which the Popish church speaks, 
can be admitted. In the first plac«, we would ask, 
what kind of a doctrine is thcu, the ignorance of 
which cannot be overcome by study ? Certainly it 
cannot be the Popish doctrine, at least not that part 
of it, the knowledge of which they admit is suffi- 
cient for salvation. In regard to this, those who do 
not believe it, cannot be said to be in invincible ig^ 
norance. They may be said to be pertinaciously 
bent on not believing il\ Wx'wv i^%^\^\a VsftMi^ in- 
vincibly ignorant of wh^X oiv^ \w\o\^ft,^^^^xsiL\^ 


we be said to be invincibly deaf when we hear, or 
invincibly blind when we see. 

The only way in which a person can be invinci- 
bly ignorant of a thing, is when that thing is placed 
entirely beyond his reacL Thus, in the present 
economy of things, we are invincibly ignorant of 
what is passing on ii^ those worlds that lie beyond 
our sphere of vision. We are invincibly ignorant, 
too, of what lies hid in the centre of the earth on 
which we stand. There are many things of which 
we are invincibly ignorant, but the essential doc- 
trines of Popery are not of those things. We may 
study until our aching heads find no other rest than 
in the cold lap of death, and we shall still be igno- 
rant, as has already been said, of what is passing in 
the innui^erable worlds that are rolling in the im- 
mensity of space, &r, hr beyond our reach, as well 
as of what lies hid in the centre beneath our feet ; 
but to say that the essential doctrines which the 
church of Rome declares are necessary and suffi- 
cient for salvation, cannot be overcome by study, is 
an absurdity and a nonsense that hardly merits a 
serious reply. 

^ Away, then, with the sophistry. Let the undis- 
guised truth appear, and not a Protestant can be 
£aved if Popery is true. This the Priests know full 
well ; but, Jesuit-like, deny it. 

We shall now proceed to show, as has been prom- 
ised in a preceding chapter, that the Pope has grant- 
ed Dispensations, not only from the observance of 
vne ofOod's Commandments, but fioia «^ o\>^«Ki. 

998 C0XCLU310X. 

This, we think, has been sufficiently shown, thimigii 
the whole course of the Synopsis. We will now 
merely exhibit it in a categorical point of view. 

tst Commandment — " / am the Lord thy €hi, — 
Jliou shah have no other gods before wieJ' Eiod. 
zx. 3. 

Popery has Gods and Goddesses many. Tlie 
foremost on the list stands, "Our Lord God, the 
Pope." This is his common title, and certainly he 
must be above God, to Dispense in the Law of God, 
as the sound doctrine of Ligori has taught us has 
been done. Amongst the Goddesses, the Virgiii 
Mary is the most conspicuous. She is emphatically 
styled the ** dueen of heaven, the Divine Mother, 
the Only Hope of sinners." St Bernard exclaims, 
" You that are floating about amidst the waves of this 
world, if you desire to escape the tempest, turn not 
your eyes from this North Star ; — if the winds of 
temptation do arise, if you are ready to strike upon 
the rock of tribulation, look upon this Star, and io- 
voke Mary. If you begin to sink with the weight 
of your sins, and stand aflTrightedat the Divine judg- 
ment, and are about to fall into the abyss of despair, 
think of Mary." — S. Bern. Hom. 2, super Missus 


There is no intimation of any Claeen of heaven 

in all God's blessed Word, except that which we 

find in the prophet Jeremiah, who most vehemently 

reproaches the idolatrous Jews for having dared to 

Ltall any creature \\ie QlxieetL o^ Vi«a.veu. There we 

mnd that the idoWlious 3ev:^ \iowo\^^ «xv^ ^w?fiiw^ 


ed their dueen of heaven, jast as she is honored 
ow hy the idolatrous worship of the church of Rome. 
?bey burned incense to her, — poured out drink of- 
;rings to her, and made cakes to worship her. Jer. 
Iiv. 18, 19. This burning incense to her image is 
le common practice of the whole Romish church. 
The drink offerings which they offer her, and the 
akes with which they worship her, are poured out 
f the " golden cup full of the obomiTuUions of her 
^ormcation,^^ and eaten at the Mass. This is all 
one, at what is called the *' Missa Votivay the Vo- 
ir^ Mass of the Virgin Mary.* The wine is what 
hey pretend is the blood of Christ; the cake or wa- 
er is what they call his flesh. 

So extravagant is the idolatry of the church of 
lome, that, not satisfied with raising the Pope above 
jrod, they must also place above him another crea^ 
ure, whom they worship under the title of the 
' duEEN OF HEAVEN, RegiTUi ccsloTum ;^*i and 
(rhom they call the " Mother of God.^' Strange in- 
pnsistency, however, of In&llibility ! — Sometimes 
he is called the ** Mother of Grod,'' and at other 
imes his " daughter." J 

The Word of God everjrwhere holds out Christ 
is the only hope of sinners, but the church of Rome 
ays that Mary is their Only Hope.^ 

The Romish Saints direct us in the storms of life 

* Vide Missale Rom. circa fioem. 
t Vide Brev. Rom. ad Completorium. 
t See Synopeia, p. 91. 
§ Precet MiBsse, p. 160. 


to look to Blaiy as the Star of our aalTaikm; bot 
God's blessed Word points us to -/uib ike brigki 
and morning star." Rev. xzii 16. ''If yoa begin 
to sink with the weight of yoar sins," says Popery, 
" and stand affrighted at the Drnne judgment, and 
are about to &11 into the abyss of despair, think of 
Blary." But God's unerring Word tells us of 
something better. When the storm was ragin|^ 
and Peter began to sink, he did not look unto the 
North Star, or invoke Mary, but ^ cried, saying. 
Lord, save me .'" Matt. xiv. 30. 

The other objects of supreme adoration in the 
church of Rome, as has been shown in the preceding 
chapters of the Synopsis, are the Wafer, or as they 
call it, the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist ; 
the pretended wood of the identical cross on which 
Christ died ; and the oil for anointing the sick, call- 
ed the Holy Oil. 

2d Commandment. — *^Thou shalt 7U>t make unto 
thee any graven image^ or any likeness of any thing 
that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth he- 
neath, ^c. — Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto 
them, nor serve them." 

To witness the shocking violation of this Com- 
mandment, we have but to enter any Popish temple^ 
where we shall see their images, and their image- 
worship in full display. 

3d Commandment. — *< Thou shalt not take the 
name of the Lord thy God in vain" 

To see how this Conau^xi<dia«a\.\& ^sc^^Vj txamr 
pied under foot, weYiavft\>u\.\o c»s^wi«i^\»^« 


■the Synopsis from page IGO to 164. Here, as in 
many other places, we will see that the most palpa- 
ble falsehoods are allowed to be confirmed by an 

4th Commandment. — •' Remember the Sabbath- 
deify io keep it kolyV 

Open the 12th chapter of the Synopsis, page 185, 
and there will be seen that the Pope Dispenses with 
the sanctification of the Sabbath wholly, making it 
emen unnecessary to worship God at all on that day. 

5th Commandment. — '* Honor thy father and thy 

St. Ligori even pretends that it has been proved 
by miracles that God blesses children who act 
against the will of their parents in becoming Monks 
or Nuns. See Synopsis, page 231. 

6th Commandment. — ** Thou sfuilt not killV 

The whole Popish doctrine is a doctrine of blood 
and extermination, w^hen it is a question whether a 
hereiic shall live. Their subjecis are even allowed 
to sell poison to those whom they know purchase it 
io kill. Synopsis, pages 218, 405. 

7th Commandment — ** Thou shalt not commit 

This Commandment is permitted to be violated by 
ihe mere paying of a fine to the Pope. See Synop- 
sis, page 294, on the subject of Priests' concubines. 

8th Commandment — " Thou shall not steal.^^ 

Stealing is allowed in all its branches, evjp^ to the 
stealing of pay for Masses, — even to the steglia^ qC 
children. — ^Synopsis, pages 54, 55,Sin^. 


9th Commandment — ** Thou skalt not bear f aim 
witness against thy neighbor." 

The Popish doctrine on eqnivocatioii and mental 
reservation, shoves this Commandment entirely aside. 
Synopsis, page 163. 

1 0th Commandment — " Thou shall not covet thji 
neighbor's house ^ thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's 
wife^ nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor 
his oxy nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neigkr 

As for this Commandment, the ** Beasf* has torn 
it entirely to pieces, and out of the scraps has tried 
to make two. These, like the rest, he Tiolates ad 
libitum. Synopsis, p. 120. 

We have said, that, in Popery, there is but one 
SIN, and that is disobedience to the Priests. 
This, we think, has been most amply shown in the 
pages of the Synopsis. 

Popery says, indeed, that there are many sins ; 
but as what she says is not the true meaning of what 
is, we have to collect the truth of what is, by ascer- 
taining what, in Popery, is meant by sin, and what 
by the different kinds of sins. 

The church of Rome teaches, for instance, that it 
is a sin to administer the Sacraments to the unwor- 
thy;* but when we examine, what, in Popery, is 
meant by unworthy, we find that 7io one is unworthy, 
— no one, at least, who is guilty of no other sin 
than vJ9lating God's Commandments. The only 


sin, accordipg to the true Popish meaning of un wor- 
thiness, is disobedience to the commands of the 
Priests, independent, entirely, of the Command- 
ments of God. As I advance nothing in the Synop- 
sis which I do not prove, I shall now, as has been 
promised, prove this. 

Those, therefore, we say, according to Popery, 
who violate God's Commandments are not unwor- 
thy. Drunkards are not unvvoj^.* Gamblers 
and debauchees jtre not unworl^t Liars, blas- 
phemers, thieves, are not unworthy. J Habitual sin- 
ners, and those who die in the act of sin, are not un- 
worthy.^ No one, in fine, as we have said and 
shown, who merely breaks God's Commandments, 
is unworthy.— All are unworthy, however, who 
disobey the commands of the Priests. All can be 
saved who disobey God's Commandments, but none 
can be lost, as Ligori teaches, who obeys the 
Priests ;|| and yet he tells us it is a very rare thing 
to find a good Priest, IT and that the greater part of 
Confessors universally absolv6 relapsing sinners 
without any distinction, without any extraordinary 
signs of contrition, and without admonition ; hence, 
(continues he,) the universal destruction of so many 
souls !** 

We will venture to say, that the system of theol- 
ogy now taught in the Romish church, is more cor- 

* Synopsis, p. 260. t Idem, pp. 234, 256. 

t Idem. p. 158. § Idem, pp. S5,^^. 

// Idem, p. 74. ^ Idem, p. ^^. 
** Idem, p. 1 76. 


rupt and wicked than any thing ever taught by Ma- 
hometan, Pagan, or Infidel : nay, we maintain that 
the ingenuity of the most abandoned of the human 
race, could never have devised a system so diaboli- 
cal and so originally and inconceivably wicked as 
that taught by St. Ligori, except by the immediate 
aid, and under the most subtle instigation of Satan 
himself. The system is most emphatically, as the 
Scripture ejxpr^nes it, " The mystery of iniquity" 

It is of vital inportance that the people of the 
United States should be apprised of the doctrines of 
the church of Rome, because, unless the dissemina- 
tioQ of her principles can be arrested, the whole 
country will eventually be demoralized. The over- 
whelrniiii;^ Hood of Popish emigration that is pour- 
ing ill uf.>on us, will, in a few years, at the present 
ratio of its increase, spread itself over the whole face 
of our country, sweeping like a deluge every obsta- 
cle that may oppose its progress, until Popery, sit- 
ting on the ruins of our Republic, shall spread the 
dark mantlf? of her 'doctrine over our smiling coun- 
try, and rule us with a rod of iron. 

The Despot of Austria already holds this iron 
sceptre, and he has sworn as defender of the church 
of Rome, thai ''he will oppose a rod of iron to the 
^progress of liberal opinions^ The opposition is 
-aow on foot, and the emigrants and refugees he 
•ends upon our shores, in union with those that are 
pouring in upon us from all parts of Europe, are 
ring the way fox v\\e e^ecx\w^ cil owx TOLVOL^and 
iplishmenl o{ \\\a i\e^\«w%. 


Let us no longer hear the lullaby that there is no 
danger, — that Popery is Wrecked in Europe, and 
will soon be banished from the earth. — The conse- 
quence of her being wrecked in Europe is the very 
thing we have to fear. — One hundred and thirty 
millions of them, now headed by half a million of 
imhooded Monks and Nuns, uncloistered and vaga- 
bond upon the earth, naked, starving, and despised. 
No danger, when the eyes of all this starveling mul- 
titude are gazing on our smilin^^l^Peys of the West. 
No danger, when their emissaries are already 
amongst us preparing, the way for their reception. 
No danger, when our country is already racked 
with civil discord, and the seeds of disunion are 
even now being disseminated fer and wide. — No 
danger, when our laws have lost their force, and 
mobocracy usurps their place. — No danger, in fine, 
when our citizens cannot be prevailed on to believe 
there is danger before they feel its sting. 

Let us bear in mind, that if Popery ever become 
predominant, not only will our country be blasted 
with the moral pestilence of her pernicious doctrine, 
not only will liberty, civil and religious, be extin- 
guished, but every heretic denoted by " the ChurcK^ 
will have to sacrifice his conscience, or be put to 
death. " The blood of heretics," says the Rheimish 
Testament, " is not called the blood of saints, no more 
than the blood of thieves, mankillers, and other male- <j| 
factors, for the shedding of which, by order of jus- ' 
tice, no commonwealth shall suffer." — Rheim.. Te«.t, 
Annot. upon Rev. c. xvii. 6. "'E»x^eV\exv^e.\««^<5^'^^' 


says Cardinal Bellannine, *'that there is no other 
remedy for the evil, but to put heretics to death ; for 
the Church proceeded gradually, and tried every 
remedy: at first, she merely excommunicated them; 
afterwards she added a fine ; then she banished them; 
and finally, she was constrained to put them to death." 
— Bellarm. de Laicis, Lib. III. c. 21. Then comes 
the Decree of the General Council of Lateran on the 
subject, which atonce stamps the doctrine with the 
Seal of Infellibinj^r The Decree runs as follows : 
«* Let the secular powers be compelled, if necessary, 
to exterminate to their utmost power all heretics de- 
noted by the Church,'' — Gen. Coun. Lat. A. D. 1215. 
We now again repeat, that, in the Synopsis we 
have given a true and correct translation, and have 
exhibited the doctrine taught by Ligori, without the 
least variation or change of meaning from the ori- 
ginal. We close, by again challenging the Romish 
Bishop of New York, or any Romish Priest soever, 
to deny what we have advanced. 


The word yannet occurring twice on page 317, was inadver- 
tently omitted to be translated, the English of which is Nantes. 



Absolution, priestly, 37. 
Absolution, Priests (not Qod) pre* 

gate for, 34. 
solution, importance of^ 105. 

Absolution, the mere act of Con- 
fession ^ves a right to, 176. 

Absolution, the meaning of deny- 
ing, for some time, 63. 

Absolution, change of heart not 
necessary for, 106. 

Absolution, conditioiud, 108. 

Absolved, relapsing sinners to be, 

Absolved, habitual sinners to be, 

Absolved, a multitude at one and 
the same time can be, 112. 

Absolved, adulterers and duel- 
lists to be, 111. 

Absolved— To be Absolved sy- 
nonymous with being in the 
grace of God, 89. 

Adoration of oil, 365. 

Adoration of wood, 373. 

Adoration of Priests, 362. 

Alms to a vealthy Priest, 277. 

Alms, pay for Masses an, 276. 

Anathema against retaining one's 
hair, 319. 

Antichrist, the Pope, 280. 

Attrition. (See Contrition.) 

Anointing, (dee Extreme Unction.) 

Avarice, progress oC 289. 


Baptism, 266. 

Baptiam, the Minister ot2Sff, 
BapdBm in neeet^tj, 2B7. 
Baptism ofmonsteraf 2B9. 

Baptism, compulsory. 270. 
Baptism, children stolen for, 270. 
Baptism, conditions requisite for, 

Baptism — 8in to baptize out of the 

Church, 271. 
Baptism of children before they 

are b<)m, 266, 268. 
Beast, the Mark of the, 324. 
Benefices, the definition of, 238. 
Benefices and gold, 239. 
Benefices, doctrine on, 210. 
Benefices against heretics, 2il. 
Benefices, two, unlawful, 240, 2^. 
Bible— The reading of other books 

inculcated, but not the Bible, 81. 
Bible, perversion of the, 18R, ^l, 

Bible quoting, 228. 
Bible, the fiiity universallypro- 

hibited from reading the, 30h. 
Bible, the burning of the, 309. 
Bible not prohibited in primitive 

times, 313. 
Bible, mortal irin to read the, 314. 
Blood, drinking of human, 268. 
Bones and eggs, blessed, 266, 
Books->Some for the Priests, 

others for the peofdc, 220. 
Bull of Osna DonUniy 314. 
Buying and selling prohibited, 324. 

Chastity a doll, 219. 

Church and State, 289. 

Church, the tormenting^ 237. 

Cbarcb— The 'BLahoa^ -c«&s»Ses 
I Churc\i— vrauda v****^®^^'' '^^"^ 
I church of "Rome^^X^- 



Church, RomifSh, relaxed, 316. 

Church, Romish, idolatroas, 368. 

Christ, the selling of; 274. 

Coaunaudmeats of the Priests bind 
under sin, 203. 

ComnuuidmeBts, how obeyed. 214. 

Commandments, the ten, US. 

Commandment, the second, abol* 
ished, lis. 

Commandments. The tenth divi- 
ded into two, 120. 

Commandments, the mutilation of 
the ten, 127. 

Commandments, the Popish ten, 

Communicants, unworthy, 323. 

Communion, childrens*. (See Eu- 

Concubinage tolerated, 322. 

Concubines of the Priests, 294. 

Concubinage and the Eucharist, 

Confession. (See also Penance.) 

Confession, auricular, necessary 
forsBlvation, 16. 

Confession, impracticability of, 31. 

Confession, perplexities o^46. 

Confession, vile solicitations in, 57. 

Confession of Bishops, 58. 

Confession of Nuns, 59. 

Confession of boys and girls, 66. 

Confession, the dangers of, 76, 249. 

Confession, when invalid, 112. 

Confession a mere farce, 271. 

Confession of venial sins not ne- 
cessary, 112. 

Confession, the mere act ofj gives 
a right to Absolution, 176. 

Confessor, the qualities of; 20. 

Confessor cannot err, 172. 

Confessor, the offices of, 32. 

Confessor and the scrupulous, 173. 

Confessors the ruin of souls, 68. 

Confessors and young women, 76. 

Confess, all must, once a year, 19. 

Confessing to a Priest, eternal life 
depends on. 45. 

Conscience, definition of, 170. 

Conscience, how to overcome a 
scrupulous, 171. 

Conscience, a probable, 173. 

Conscience, the opinion of one Di- 
vine suffices for, 177. 

Contrition— Attrition, 298. 
Contrition not required^ VQ&. 
Contrition of the tiead, and nol of 

Councils, general, of no weMiL 

Council Popery in, and Popery 

out of; SQL 
Curse without sin, how to, 50. 
Cursinft 154. 
Cursing, excuses for, SO. 
Custom. The time required to 

make it a law, 182. 
Custom, the effect of; 184. 
Custom excuses from sin, 190. 
Custom nullifies law, 236. 
Custom, it is reasonable to sin be* 

cause it is the, 185. 
Custom legalizes cheating 233. 


Decrees against Decrees, 317. 
Definitions, Popish, mere eoond, 

Devil, doctrine eoncemiof tfae,14& 
Devil's children, a woman burnt 

for denying the docttllM of; IGOi 
Devils, doctrine of,- 2981 
Dignity, the advaiitagee o^ 299. 
Dispensations, 215. 
Dispensations from fiurting, 237. 
Dispensations for money, 301. 
Dispensations for the nooiUty, 210. 
Dispenses, the Pope, with God's 

Law, 214. 
Dissimulation, 216. 
Drunkenness, SS5. 
Drunkenness, what constitutes, 

Drunkenness no deadly sin, 2S^ 

Drunk, lawful to make men, 192; 

Drunkards and debauchees law- 
fully ordained, 256. 
Drunkards, sacrament for, 260. 
Dying Papist, how saved, 98. 

the heart, is sufficient, A0&. 
"" ~*-»#inn. Confession to a I* 


Equivocation allowed, 189. 
Eucharist, doctrine relative to the 

receiving of the, 260. 
Eucharist for children, 57. 
Eucharist for sinners, 216. 
Eucharist— Papists bound to re* 

ceive it once a year, 322. 
EwcVvadst and concubinage, 323. 
^xc,otavfixxxi\cAiCiQ>\SL.\2GA effects ot; 



« 409 

me Unction, efficacy of, 320. 

ine Unction, hard straining 

elation to, 317. 

me Unction in i^egard to wo- 


meaning of, 270. 
ig Priests excused from, 237. 
nuan, tl)e ring of the, 345. 
I a corner, 318. 

ling twofold, 234. 

ling lawful, 234, 235. 

ling, laws on. 1£)2. 

ling and the Canon Law, 234. 

ling and custom, 235, 2%. 

ling allowed to the Clergy, 

ing—Custom legalizes cheat- 


ing— Betting to drink, 232. 

ing for prayer^SSS. 

ing for Mass, 233. 

ny, 251, 252. 

Priest's blessing confers 
tifying, 112. 


ig is a gill of God. 88. 
ca to be punished, 293. 
cs to be put to death, 406. 
lother— '' I believe what she 
ves," 90. 
(other, cruel, 94. 
risy a venial siOj 250. 

y, what it is, 219. 

3U8, the Romish Church, 

ice, the sinner must be 

in, 292. 

icp, voluntary and involon- 


ice the Mother of devotion, 

ice prevents sin, 247. 
confer grace, 44. 
I the only booic of Popish 
tion, 84. 
, the Bick saved hj praying 

'ity, 78. 

InMibitity^Decrees against 1>e- 
crees, 317. 

Infallibility, inconsistency oi, 107. 

Infallibility, the inefficiency ofi 79. 

Infallibility, the wrangUngs o^ 78. 

In&Ilibility, the waverings of, 243. 

Infallibihty, the frauds of; 313. 

Infallibility destroys itself, 243. 

Infallible quack-medicines, 40. 

Inquisition established by the Ro- 
misli church. 313. 

Inquisition an Ecclesiastical tribu- 
nal, 316. 

IntentioD, 183. 

Keys ofheaven held by the Priesia, 

Latin quotations, 220. 

Law, the conditk>ns of an obligato* 

Law, obligation of, 176. 
Law, who are bound by the, 210L 
Law, who are excused from the,21L 
Law, the Pope disuenses with 

God's, 214. 
Law, custom nullifies, 236. 
Ligori, St., more holy tluui the resif 

Ligori's tendet conscience, 61. 
Ligori's excuses for sin, €6^ 190^ 

Ligori's scruples, 104. 
Ligori's lamentations, 113. 
Ligori's indulgence, 193, ^7, S90. 
Ligori's avowal, 236. 
Ligori's last shifts, 312. 
Lying no lying, 56. 
Lying allowed, 189. 
Lying to shun torments, 237. 


Mark of the " Beast," 334. 
Mary the Divine Mother, 83. 
Mary, the Virgin, above Chfist,8S. 
Mary, God's daughter, 91. 
Mary the hope of sinners, 92. 
Mary— We are saved by her mer- 
its, 84, 375, 377. 
Mary the only hope of sinners, 375. 
Mary, the Virginia, hair, J66. 
MaTT\a^e^ f,tac% tftojivYc«i^, Vst^*3SS^. 
Masa— T\\« xs\c%\v\xv^ o^ ^ wUw» 
tions /or Mewses ,"*25«>. 




M88I, the exactin^c of pay for, 290l 

Mass, stealing to pay for, 5& 

Mass and money* making, 86. 

Masfl^ pay for, 274^6, 286. 

Masses, ratas of; 287. 

Masses, formerly fruits, now mo- 
ney iorjJB7. 

Masses— The price of, en sign- 
boards, 290. 

Mental reservation allowed, 161. 

Money, Monks' use of; 223. 

Money won for the Monastery, 226. 

Monks not bound to be perfecr,224. 

Monks and their Rule — Violating it 
a mortal sin, 224. 

Monks, the whipping of, 225. 

Monks' vow of poverty, 235. 

Monks allowed to gamble, 226. 

Monks— What they win belongs to 
the Monastery, 226. 

MonkeuNuns, and imprisonment, 

Monks' going out a sin, 226. 

Monks, punishment of, 232. 

Monks bound to works of supere- 
rogation, 221. 

Monks condemned to the galleys, 

Monkish obedience, 227. 


Novena, 81. 

Nuns, devotional exercises of, 80, 

Nuns — Nothing required of them 
but to obey their Priest, 82. 

Nuns — Priests not allowed to con- 
verse with them, 341. 

Nuns— Criminal ones to be per- 
petually imprisoned, 231. 

Obedience to God now out of date, 

Obedience— Priests must be obey- 
ed before God, 227. 

Obedience to a Priest cancels all 
sin, 172. 

Obedience, material, 214. 

Obedience, Popish, 227. 

Obedience, Monkish, 227. 

Obedience, the virtue of, 227. 

Obedience — Children are not to 
consult parents, 231. 

Obeys the Priests, no one who is 
ever lost, 74. 

Oilf adoration of the Holy, y^. 
Oik efficacy of Holy, 320. 
Opinion, probable, 175. 

Opinions, conflict of, 175. 
Opinion, it is lawful to follow tb« 

less probable, 180. 
Opinion of one Diviae suffices for 

conscience, 177. 
OpUil(Hi8 bind under mortal sin, 

OrdMra, no probation for Holy, 257 

Penance, the Sacrament o^ 100. 
Penance, form of, 16, 102. 
Penance, the efltect of Popish, 361 
Penance remits all sin, 17. 
Penance the destruction of souls. 

Penance in mortal sin folfils the 
command, 114. 

Penances, the Canonical, 114. 

Penance, danger in, 178. 

Penance— How perifonned, 214. 

Penitents are to be frightened from 
their sins, 114. 

Penitent, feur, and not lore, actu- 
ates the. 107. 

Penitent bound to perform Pen- 
ance, 11 4. 

Poison, lawful to seD. to kiD, 218. 

Pope, Antichrist, 280. 

Pope above Grod, 187. 

Pope's indulgence, 187. 

Poj)e dispenses with God's Law, 

Pope's title, "Our Most Holt 
Lord," 316. 

Pope's Decretals, Canons, and 
Bulls, bind under sin, 316. 

Popery, the different kinds of, 347. 

Popery incompatible with onr po* 
litical institutions, 359. 

Prayer-books, the authority of,261. 

Priests the representatives of 
Christ, 17. 

Priest's power, 230. 

Priests— All bound to obey tliem. 

Priests hold the keys of heaven,19. 

Priests, not Grod, prepare the Pen- 
itents for Absolution, 34. 

Priests — Good ones are very rare, 

Priests — No one who obeys them 
is ever lost, 74. 

Priests, lax morals oi; 79. 

Priests and money, 86, 301, 306. 



'*' 4U 

Priests alone pardon dn, 102. 

Priest, confession to, a sign of con* 
trition, 102, 110. 

Priests' blessing coital sanetifj- 
log grace, 112. v'> 

Priests, obedienoa^lhi^aacalt all 
sin, 172. >^ 

Priests must be obeyed, SS7. 

Priests and people almost unlvaf- 
sally wiclced. 176. 

Priests' concabines, 294. 

Priests' illegitimate children, 293. 

Priests, penalty of accusing, 297. 

Priests and women, 317. 

Priests nut allowed to conyerse 
with Nuns, 341. 

Priests soliciting their Penitents, 

Priests — Lawful for them to break 
open letters, 261. 

Priests prying into secrets, 343. 

Priests and Confession-boxes, 345. 

Priest, the Lady Superieure must 
watch the, 346. 

Priests' commandments bind im- 
der sin, 203. 

Priests and Clergymen no part of 
the community, 206. 

Priests' and Clergymen's privile- 
ges, 206. 

Priests not subject to the civil law, 

Priest, sacrilege to stritce a. 219. 

Priests are to be adored, 362. 

Priests— Proved from Scripture 
they must be obeyed in prefer- 
ence to God, 227, 230. 

Priests allowed to gamble, 236. 

Priests excused from fiisting, 237. 

Priests, drunlcards, and debau- 
chees, lawfully Ordained, 266. 

Priests— No probation necessary 
for their receiving Holy Orders, 

Priests, avarice of, 269. 

Priests' gallantry, 222. 

Priestly liberties with femalcs,221. 

Priesthood, ttie miseries and dan- 
gers of the, 249. 

Probabilisro. J 73. 

Prostitutes, 216. 

Prostitutes sanctioned, 321. 

Prostitutes, lawful to shelter, 218. 

Purgatory, the healing of the sick 
in, 41. 


Kppcntance not nrcessary for 
yardon, or salvation, 260. 

Republicanism, and. 903. 
Right, probability o£ 175. 
Robbery, spiritual, 86. 
Rosary, or Beads, 43. 
Rules of action, 169. 
Rules— Few without exeeptton, 


Sabbath, derivation of; 186. 

Sabbath, the Pope's indulgence 
respecting the, 187. 

Sabbath, excuses for violating the, 

Sabbath. Popish Festivals more 
holy than the, 188. 

Sabbath, Ligori's indulgence re- 
specting the, 193. 

Sabbath, working for Monasteries 
allowed on the, 192. 

Sabbath, sewing allowed on the, 

Sabliath, butchering and baking 
allowed on the, 192. 

Sabbath, hunting, hawkiI^^ and 
fishing, allowed on tiie, 191. 

Sabbath, horse-shoeing and plough- 
ing allowed on the, 193. 

Sabbath, merchandisii^ allowed 
on the, 193. 

Sabbath, bull-fights and plays al- 
towed on the, 193. 

Sabbath, makina men drunk allow- 
ed on the, 192. 

Sabbath, not requhred to worship 
God in spirit on the. 189. 

Sabbath— Bible-doctrine respect- 
ing it, 196. 

Sacraments, 256. 

Sacrament, definition o( 315. 

Sacraments, the efflcacv o( 92. 

Sacraments— To use false matter 
for them a grievous sin, 264. 

Sacraments— Dispositions requi- 
site for them, 260. 

Sacrament for druitkards, 26Ql 

Sacrament for sinners, 216. 

Sacraments— Sin to administer 
them to the unworthy, 256. 

Sacraments received while asleep, 

Sacraments— The hiding of them 
from heretics, 263. 

Sacramentals, 263. 

Sacramentalii, the virtue ot 264. 

Sacramentals^ the «ie,N\ix\^ov*3*K>. 

Balvaxion, exc\\x'aNc>Yl\. 

Bcnpiorti. ceKieB\>oVft^ 

412 % 


■crupuIoiM, 73. 

flcrupoloiu and the ConfeMor, 


BecrecT of the Coofeaflioiial, 90L 
Huiony, excuses for, 280. 
SImooy, the Wicklii&tes condsnin- 

•d for opposingi 290. 
Sin. condiiioas requisite for, 914, 

Hn^Lifiiri's excases for, an; 1110^ 

Bill, veaisl snd morta], 90^ SM& 

Bill, comuTiof at, 210. 

Cttn, because others sin, 217. 

Bbi, approximate oocaaton oi; OOi 

81% R-iests alone pardoiL lOB. 

Bin, tebitoal, no mark or want of 
contziUoo, 104. 

Bin— Aaorrow of the head, and not 
of the hearty is sufficient, 106. 

Bin, repentance for, notnecasaarjr, 

Bin, receivln( the Sacraments ex- 
punges, 92. 

Bin to administer the Sacraments 
to the unworthy, 2GI. 

Bin, inconvenience ejccuses from, 

Sin is to be permitted 292. 

Sin when old bccomHi^io sin, 181. 

Kn, custom excuses from, 190. 

Sin, drunkenness no deadly, 263, 

Sin— To avoid sin is to drown rea- 
son in drinl^ 210. 

Sin to prevent sin, 256. 

Sin, to read the Bible a mortal, 

Sinners, distinrti'in between habit- 
ual and relapBing^ 61. 

BiBseny Baonmetita far, SMw 
Blnne g^i;i|i painfe are to be Ab' 

BhuicgBB|Me kept in iiaa- 

^'^^^'^^^VHB^^^ !■ sin, 293. 
Bianen dE^ratved dying in the 

BtaaUngaUowecL M. 
Stealing to par ibr Masaes, 6Ei 
Stealing of children. 270. 
Staalini a Holy A«die a mortal sin, 

Supererogntioii, a M onk boond t» 

works oC 2SM. 
Swearing 169. 

Tkcit^consent and the Gomicil of 

Trent at Tarianee, 803. 
Tempcationa, peraons under, 90. 
Theft, 164. 
Thomas Aquin, St, approved by 

the Church of Rome, 314. 
Tongue— Penance perlbnned by 

heking the groand with it, 45. 
Treasury, the vauKed, 306. 
Trent, Council o^ on Auricular 

Ck)nfe88lon, 15. 
Trent, Council of; and foctf can- 

sent at variance, 303. 


Wheel vrithin a wheel, 49. 

Widows cannot be made Abbess- 
es, 230. 

Women, cautions relative to, 75. 

Work, bearing pain the most per- 
fect, 92.