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This Chinesb Eupirb ia, with tbe exception of Rwsia, the lai^eM in the 
world, enibmcing ui area of 5,426,000 Britiah aquare miles, according to 
Balbi'a political and statistical Table pnbliiilied in 1«28. It extends from 
73° to 14^ eaat loDgitude, ' and from Sl° to 55° north latitude. Reckon- 
ing from Raahgar to the month ef the Amoor, its length is about 3,160 
aules, and its greatest breadth from the S^anian monntsiBs to t^e aouth* 
emmoet point of China opposite to the island of Hay-nan more than 2,000 
milee. The Eestera ocean, forming many gnlfe and straile, waehea Ha 
dioree for an extent of 3,fi00 ntiles. The gtilf of Tonqnin and the Chinese 
ttm boond the empire on the south. The channel uf Fermosa separates 
the island of that name frran tbe continent. The Bine sea extends between 
China ani the ialanda of Lieuchoo, and Japan ; the Yellow sea between 
China and Corea. The whtde of the Chinese empire may be included 
under tbe following beads : China Proper, Peninsula of Korea, Isles of 
Hainan, Fermosa, and tbe Lootcfaoo Archipelago ; Mandshooria, incloding 
Lyantong; Mongolia, Soongaiia, Little Bukbaria, Eastern and Western 
TTiibet, and tbe Tartars of Kokonor. All the latter divisiona, beginning 
with Mongolia, comprehend what is now dencHninated Ceatrd Asia. 


Nante.^ CImng-kwe, or tbe Central Kingdom, is tbe name by which 
the Chinese tbemselTes denominate Uieir country, and they so call it from 
a belief that it is situated in tbe centre of the earth, and that all other king- 
doms are mere isolated extremities of tbe world. Khatu, the Tartar ap- 
pellation, taught onr forefathers to call China, Catliay ; while Chin, the 
name given it by its southern neighbonra, is tbe origin of Sin and Sinn, 
Cbin and Machin, tbe names used by the Arabs, Persians, Indians, and 
' Europeans in the middle ages. Tbe 5tnaewere probably the sonthem, as 
the Sera, better known to the ancients, were the northern Chinese. The 
whole of the empire is now generally called by tbe Tartars, the present 
possessors, Ta-ts'hing-kwe, the country of tbe Ta-tshing (i. e. tbe reigning 

Boiindarieg and ExleTU."] China Proper doee not embrBce one-fourth 
of the Chinese empire. It comprehends a surface of l,29f),000 square milet) 
extending from lat. SO" to lat. il" N., and from long. 97° 42* to 122° 53' 
E. It is boonded on the N. by Chinese Tartary ; on the S. by the gnlf 

> Owing ta tb* want of «rtroDonii«l olncmliinu, it ii impoolble to Sx withprs- 
dd<Hi the weM«rn frontirr of the Cbinese empire ; but it cannot be le« than 73^ B. 
long, from Greenwich. The moM eutern point, howerer, of the ChlneH empire li 
weU Imawn, u the moath dT (he Amoor hae bMU determined bMh In W)D|inide uti 
latitude by La Pennue, Broughton, and Knulenttien. 

of Ton-king and the Birman empire ; on the E. by (be Yellow Sea and ihe 
Cbineae ScBt >nd on tlie W. by Thibet. It occnpiea a larger space tliaii 
Hindoostatin, and ita 6gnre is much more compact, approaching to an oval 
form. I'he greatest length is from the moat S-W. point of Yunnan to the 
most eastern point of the peninsula of Shantong; that te, from 97" 42' to 
1S3° 53' E. long. ; whilst its greatest breadrh from S. to N. is from 20i* 
15* to 410 {j. lau, or 20° 45'. Bat if the lalBod of Hainan be in- 
cluded, 2 degrees most be ail<led, making 23 in whole. The superficies of 
1,298,000 square miles only includes the provinces within the great wall. 
Lyantong, or Quantong, being eiclnded, though in all former etaiementa it 
was included in Proper China, as may- be seen in Du Halde. Hence 
tome have made the area of China Proper, including this province, 
1,500,000 square miles. To this must be added the islands of Hainan and 

Divitiont. \ The following table, published by authority in the reign of 
Kien-Lnng, who died in 1799, exhibits the provinces into which China ia 
divided, with their chief cities, population, 8cc. A more particalar descrip- 
tion of these will be found in succeeding chapters. The 5th column ex- 
presses, in geographical milei, the distance from Peking of each capital of 
the 15 provinces. The distance expressed is not horizontal as meaanred 
on a map, but by road stages, originally given in Chinese lis or fnrloaga of 
250 to a degree, and these reduced to geographical miles. The provinco 
at the foot of the table, called Fong-t'hyen-fa, or Chinese-Tartary, i* the 
ancient province Lyantong, without the great wall, and must not be con- 
founded with Mandshooria or Eastern Chinese Tartary. 




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113S7 4& 



Vr. Sheo-sl, 

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8. K««u, 


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no 67 45 



Vlll. Ky«.g-ri. 


111 37 46 



IX. Hu-kwuig. 

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lis 49 45 



t. Ha-oui, 



118 37 45 



X. Swhw^n. 


gg « 

103 37 45 



XI. Fo-kyen, 



117 57 45 




S3 10 

1,491 #71 

Xlll. Kwang-d, 


£S SO 

110 37 46 



XIV. Yon 1.,,., 



89 57 15 



XV. Kwel-ch.u, 


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106 37 46 
18*67 48 







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It ia not aDniaa] for the enemieB of the Bible to point out the Chinese m 
k people whose records are more ancient than Noah's flood, and even than 
tbin coromiin term assigned as the epocl) of the Mosaic creation. Bat al- 
though the Chinese possess an uabroken series of addhIs for b very long 
period, no dependence can he placed npon it, either on the ground of pby- 
sical or moral ci ream stances. Their books are written on very brittle paper, 
and hare been frequently re-copied. It is a welt-esttLblished fact, also, that 
abont two centaries before the Christian era, a barbsrous monarch caused 
ell their writings then in existence to be destroyed. In addition, their na- 
^oaal vanity leads them to gloss over every fact which militates agunst 
their pretensions, and their habitual fslsebood stifles every scruple as to a 
deviation from the truth. Every nation has its fabulous history, and is in- 
clined to assume a high antiquity. Scotland, among the rest, has exhibited 
a long gallery of fictitious monarcha ; and why should any more reliance 
be placed on the early annals of China than on those of other countries? 
Are Pe-kis and Ki-pis, Kang-nangs and Nang-kangs, Tong-wongs and 
Wong-tongs, more worthy of credit than Boeces and Buchanans ? 

It would be idle and insipid to trace out the annals of China with 
minuteness ; for, besides that little dependence can be placed upon them, 
they contain little to rouse the sympadiy of the reader, and are wholly nn- 
conuected with European interests. The most interesting particniurs of the 
Ciiinese history relate to the incursions of the Tartars, who at last cou- 
tjnered the whole empire, and who still continue to hold the sovereignty ; 
Uiooghr by transferring the seat of empire to Pe-king, and adopting the lan- 
guage and manners of the Chinese, Tartary would seem rather to have 
been conquered by China, than China by Tartary- In the earlier ages of 
its existence, the empire of China must have been composed of various 
tribes, who changed their place of residence as circumstances required. 
This is sufficiently established hy such events as the following, recorded in 
Chinese histories, namely, that in the year 1401 before Christ (1500 year* 
after ibe pretended commencement of the monarchies), the emperor Poen- 
keng emigrated, with all his subjects, to a new settlement, and assigned the 
example of his ancestors in vinslication of the measure; that in 1122, the 
empire was conquered by Voo-vang, at the head of the Tcheoo, n people 
whom one of their succeeding sovereigns affirmed to be far from numerous ; 
that the diflerent tributary kingdoms, subdued by the founder of that dy- 
nasty, soon ceased to acknowledge the authority of his successors, and that 
at length the most powerful of them, the Tsin, introduced a new race of 
sovereigns, 255 years before Christ ; tliat the fourth emperor of this new 
dynasty, Sbie-boang-tee, was the first who effectually reduced these inde- 
pendent princes, and thus became sole master of the empire ; but found 
such a variety of usages among these ccwstituent parts of his dominions, that 
be could devise no better expedient for removing mil traces of their dis- 
union, and compelling tbem to live under the same laws, than to causa all 
their historical records to be destroyed, in the year 213 before Christ. 

The Chinese empire, now united for the first time, did not long continue 
under one head, but was soon dismembered into distinct sovereignties, till 
it was again eatablisbed by Kao-tee, the founder of the Han dynasty, 200 
years before Christ. Aboat 220 years after the Christian era, it was again 
divided into three kingdoms ; that of the Han, in the provinces of Se-tchuen 
and ^tenaee ; that of the Oey, in the northern part of China ; and that of 

the Oo, ia the «>ntheni regioos. Th«e three kingdomi and the reigniDg 
fnmiliea were a^a aonihiUted by Voo-tee, who fonnded the dynasty of 
the weatem Thiii, A.D. S65; while Ynen-ty, in like manner, ettahliibed 
that of the euton Tsin, A.D. 317 ; but neither of these princes were long 
in poisesaioa of all China, and several provinces rerolted during their re* 
flpectire reigns. After the destraction of their dynasty, A.D. 420, the 
whole eonntry was thrown into a state of confiieion, which gave rise to 
two empires, the northern and the southern. The empire of the north wtM 
almost constantly occnpied by the Oey or Tartars named Topa, of whom 
the Yuen Oey (or first Oey) reigned in Shsn-see aiid Honan from A.D. 
386 to 634 ; the Tong-Oey (or eastern Oey) reigned in Honan from A.D. 
531 to 550, when they were displaced by the family of Fe-tsee, who held 
the throne till A.D. 578 ; and the See Oey (or western Oey) reigned in 
Shen-see firom A.D. 535 to 556, when they were displaced by the Heoo- 
tcheoo (or later Tcheoo), who prevailed till A.D. 561. The empire of 
the south was held from A.D. 420 to A.D. 479, by the dynasty of Song, 
which was followed in 479 by that of Tsee ; in 503 by that of Leong ; 
and in 557 by that of Tchin. In 581, the two empires were united by Ven- 
lee, founder of the Soo-ee dynastyt which was displaced in 618 by that of 
Tang ; during the latter end of whose government, the empire was ablated 
by new troubles, desolated by the Tartars, named Kee-tan, and divided into 
eo many independent sovereignties, that it was reduced within a very nar< 
row compass, under the Heoo-oo-tay (or five later dynastiec) : the Heoo- 
lang in 907, the Heoo-Ung in 923, Uie Heoo-tsin in 936, the Heoo-han in 
947, and the Heoo-tcheoo in 951. These commotions and divisions were 
once more terminated in 960 by Taytsoo, foander of the dynasty of Song ; 
but the two Tartar nations of Kee-tan and Kin, or Nin-tche, and the priocs 
of Hya still retained possession of the northern parts of China. In 1127, 
the Kin having destroyed the Kee-tan, the Song were obliged to remove 
the seat of their empire to a greater distance from tiiese formidable neigh- 
bours, and resided in the province of Tche-kiang, till they called in the 
Yuen or Moguls, called by the Chinese Mong>koo, to assist them against 
tite Kin in 1235, and were themselves overthrown by those allies in 12S0, 
when Knblai-Khan, a descendant of the renowned Gengis-khan, became 
absolute sovereign of all China. Since the establishment of the Mogul 
dynasty, the empire has never been again divided ; but has experienced two 
great revolutions, at the accession of the Chinese dynasty of Ming in 1368, 
and of the Mautchoo Tartars in 1644 ; and has scarcely, in any reign, been 
entirely free from revolts, wars, and domestic seditions. The empire of 
China, in short, instead of having existed as a great and united nation 8000 
years before Christ, waa never formed into one state till the year before 
Christ 220; but, being soon again dismembered, and only transiently 
united under successive sovereigns, has composed one sole and undivided 
monarchy only sincere year of Christ 1279. Instead, therefore, of being 
regarded ae a privileged country, governed from time immemorial by the 
same constitution, exempt from foreign conquest and intestine commotions ; 
tl)e only peculiarity which it posseeaes, in comparison with the other em- 
pires which have disappeared from the earth, ia this, that, owing perhaps 
to its peninsular situation, at the extremity of the habitable world, and its 
consequent exemption from the sweep of those conquering nations, who 
changed the people whom they overthrew, it has preserved its manners 
and usages in a great measure unaltered, amidst the various revolntioos 
and subjugations which it has experienced. 

Fin emperoia of the Tartar race in nKxenion, aid all oT Umdi nan of 
good nnderstMidiiig and Tigoroiu minda, have now continnod, without in- 
temptioD, to rule over tho Oiioeae empire : and have tbiu, it m^ be avp- 
poaed, compjetdy established their ttanWy in the Buproiue power. Rec«at 
occnrrencci, howevet, hegin to indicate a more niiHeUiEed atale of thing* in 
that coDDtrp, and at least to show, that the adminiitntion of «o vut an 
ompire is becoming daily a atom difficalttarii. Tbe Tnlan, increaaisg in 
aecnrity, have become lets attentive to conciliate the Chineie ; aod all tlte 
high offices are £lled with the coootrymen of the sovweign. It is snspect- 
ed, that ike goremmsit entertain a design of intiodocbg the Msntchoo 
language into general use, instead of tbe Chinese, as great attentioo hat 
hflMi paid to its improvement, and as all the children, one of whoee parent* 
is of Tariar deecent, bare been expressly required to be instrocted daring 
their infancy, and to pass their public eiaminationa in the Mantchoo 


MOHiitaint.^ The geneeat aspect of China is that of a level, Eertilo, and 
hi^ly cultivated coimny. It* snrfiice is, however, varied by mouatuB 
eiiaiH of conmderritle ms^mde, thoogh they seam to be only lower stage* 
of those eoormoaa maaaea which atreich across central Asia, One chain, 
seemingly a prolongation of the Himalaya ridge, mns throag^ the soa^em 
prennoea, from west to east, and terminates on tbe aea coeat, a little to 
the south of the great river the Yang^tse-kiang. Part of this ridge, Ijfing 
between Pekin and Canton, has been crossed by Euiopemis. Being co- 
vorad with verdure and trees to tbe very summit, which is in muy places 
crowned with pagodas, it presents a variety of picturesque aspects. The 
moontaina in the north of China appear also to be very coosideTaUe, par- 
ticukriy those that separsle the province of Shen-ei from that of Se-chwen 
A lofty chain, consisting chiefly of naked rocka, runs along the whole nor- 
dieni frontier, separating Chins from Tnrtary. A branch of this chain 
tarns aside the stream of the Hoaa-ho five or six hundred miles, thoogh 
by a circaitoas tract it again readies its original Ime of course. The pro- 
race of Sbmi-toug cmsists for the most part of a group of monntaiiM 
wholly detached from any other range, and mnnisg ont totrerd* tbe N.E 
into a large peninsnla. Tbeee mountwns contain coal mines. 

Rivert.'} China is distinguished for the magnitude of her rivers, and is 
doubtless indebted to them in a great measure for her early advances in 
cnltore and civilisation. The Hoao-bo, or Yellow rivra, and the Yang- 
tse-kiang, or Blue river, two mighty parallel streams, water the whole ex- 
tent of iu central r^ons. These rivers rise from almost unknown 
aoorces in the heart of Thibet, and from the snmmit probably of that lof- 
tiest portion of the globe. Tie Hoan-ho, after entering China, is, aa 
already noticed, turned to the north, and carried even beyond the limits of 
the empire, but it soan recrosaea them, and this winding course serve* only 
to diStise mora widely tbe benefits of its waters. After spreading fertility 
throng some of tbe finest provinca* of China, it falls into tbe ocsan at a 
very small distance from its brother atream, from which it had once been 
separated by an interval of more than a thousand miles. Tbe couiae of 
tbe Hoan-ho is estimated, though with eome uncertunty, M about 180O 
miles ; that of the Yang-tse-kiang at 2300. This last has by dm grandeur 
of its atream struck all traveller* with admiturion. Marco Polo consider- 

ed it, America beiog then nnknown, u decidedly the greateit rim in tho 
world ; and Mr Ellia conceiveH, that only thote of the New World on dis- 
pute its native title of the " firstborn of Ocean." Its breadth, above Nan- 
kin, ia from three to four miles, its banks popnlons, direiaiSed by wooded 
moantuna, and highly picturesque. These primary atreams hare nnmer- 
ouB tributaries, aeveral of which eqnal thu greatest rivers of Europe. Tha 
Yuenho, the Hoeiho, and the Hoaij-ho fall into the Yellow river. The Ya- 
lon-kians (itself 700 miles b length) the Tchoo, the Ta-kiang and the 
Yuen-kiang are tributary to the Blue River. But besides tbese, China 
haa two independent rivera of great magnitude, the Peiho in the north, 
which, after rising in Tartary, passes Pekin, and falls into the Yellow sea; 
and the Kankiang in the south, which, aftor a coarse of nearly 700 miles, 
falls into the sea of China, near CaotoD, thus giving origin to the immense 
trade of that city. 

Lakei^ Of tbe Lakes of China the Poyang ia the best known, haring 
'been sailed through by a late embassy. It is about 30 or 10 miles in 
drcumference, and the scenery ia most striking, being surrounded by lofiy 
granite mountains, down which vast torrents are continually pouring. On 
its banks are several large cities, and tbe tops of the hills are adorned with 
namerous pagodas. The Tung-ting lake, according to Mr Ellis' informa- 
tion, is much longer, being nearly 300 miles across. It ia situated in the 
province of Hou-quang, which signifies the Country of Lakes, and fully 
attawers to the title, though all the others are much smaller than (he Tung* 
Ung. No remarkable lakes appear to occur in any other part of die em- 

CanaU^ If China is happily sitnated with regard to rivers, she haa been 
DO less happy in, every where, improving and connecting her navigation 
by canala, which she has done to an extent that surpasses all other nations. 
No nation can produce a parallel to the Ynn-ho or Great Canal, which ex- 
tends in a continuous line from Pekin to the Yang-tae-kiang, a distance 
of SOO miles, and by means of which an inland navigation is maintained, 
with the interruption of a single day's journey, between Pekin and Can- 
too, a distance of not less than 1200 miles. This great work is said to 
have been executed under tbe reign, and by the directions of Khublai 
Khan, a grandson of the renowned Genghis Khan. Tbe Chinese canala 
are not coostructed on the same artificial and scientific principles as those 
of Europe, nor composed, like them, of standing water, fed by reservoirs, 
elevated and lowered by locks. They are formed merely by turning aside 
the couiae of a river, utd conducting its waters, by an artifiual chanoel, 
till tbey join those of another river, from which it is again continued, ac> 
cording as it is found neceuary or practicable. They have, for the want 
of locks, generally, a more circuitous course than European canals, and 
their tvatera, instead of being, like them, at rest, have a perceptible cur- 
rent. The Wenho, a river in the province of Shan-tung, is the main 
feeder of the Great Canal, from which it descends on one side to the north, 
falling into the Peiho, near Pekin ; and thence, on the other side, to the 
south, till it joins the Hosng-ho or Yellow river ; tbence to the Yang-tse- 
kiang, which great stream, with ita tributary, the Kan-kiang, carries on 
tha navigation to tbe frontier of the province of Canton. It is here inter- 
mpted by a chun of mountains, to cross which occupies a day's journey, 
when the traveller embarks upon another river, tbe Pe-keanng, which carries 
him to Canton. Smaller canals, connecting the rivers and larger canala 
with each other, are innumerable ; and there occur many bridge*, remwk^ 


blfl for tbair nugnitada, and tho difficulties to be overcome io thMr ccw- 

Climalt.'] A country extending from north to aoath lo far H China, 
must necessarily experience great variety of climate. The southern pro- 
rinces, from their proximity to the equator, experience heats stronger than 
those of Bengal, but moderated by periodical winds ; and the northern 
provinces, owing partly to their distance from the equator, and partly to 
^e Deighbourliood of the lofty mountains of Tortary, are extremely cold. 
The mean heat of Canton is about 76° of Fahrenheit's scale. At Fekin, 
the mean term of the greatest heat is 131° ; that of die greatest cold 63* 
below sero ; the medium heat of tho year 55°. The winds are often ex- 
tremely violent, especially at PekJD. Jnoe, July, and Angnst, are the 
imjny months i it seldom rains la winter. No part of China is said to be 
onlieallhy, a circumstance which may be owing, in soma measure, to die 
■tate of cnltiTation in which the country has long existed. 

Vegetable ProdiKlioiiM.'y In China are produced all the fruita common 
to the tropical and temperate zones ; bnt some of them do not succeed 
well. The apples, grapes, and pomegranates, are very indifferent ; olives, 
though abundant, ore gathered for eating, but not for making oil ; a wild 
^irirot, however, which flourishes in bleak tracts and a barren soil, is much 
used for that purpose. The oil is expressed from the kernels, and the stoaes 
are consumed as fuel. There are lemons no bigger than walnuts, and large 
oranges with a large solid pulp. China has some fruits and vegetables 
peculiar to itself; such as the /i-cAi (diroocarpns litchi), the iong-yan, 
dragon's eye (dimocarpns longan) hnang pi (cookia punctata), &c. Of 
grain, rice is the staple produce ; then bwley, and after that wheat, espe- 
cially in the north ; buck-wheat, millet, maize, pease, beans, and other 
vetches, ore the otiier kinds of grain and pnlse most cnldvaied. Sngar- 
cane, cotton, hemp, lintseed, tobacco, indigo, mulberries, varnish trees, 
(^RhuM vernix,) camphor, tollow-treea (Stillingia Sebifera), and cinnamon, 
•re among the trees and shrubs most common in the fields and gardens. 
Bnt the meet remarkable among the vegetable productions of China is the 
lea plant. 

Tea iVanf.j This plant, though it affords us a duty beverage, is but 
imperfectly known to Europeans. In their descriptions of it naturalista 
differ. It ie not exactly known, whether the different kinds of tea sold in 
Europe, under various names, be produced by the same shrub, or by shrubs 
of different kinds. Xieaving these uncertainties, it appears to be generally 
■greed, that the tea plant is found in China, Japan, and Tonqnin ; and it 
ia not certain that it grows spontaneously in any other part. It is said to 
grow to the height of five or six feet, some say, to the hci^t of tea or 
twelve. The leaves are about an inch and a h^f in length, tapering to a 
point, and indented upon the edges. They have a strong resemblance to 
those of the sweet-brier, and are of a dark green colour. The flowers 
resemble a wild white rose. The branches are numerous and irregular. 
The wood is bard, and of a whitiflh green colour. Tlie fruit, which is 
■mall, contains several round blackish seeds ; but the only valuable part 
of the plant is the leaves. The tea-tree grows in many parts of China i 
bnt it is said to be found In greatest perfection between 30° and 45* N. 
tat. It grows wild, but is much improved by carefnl culture. The soil 
upon which it is planted is sold greatly to affect the quality of the tea. 
That whidi ia pn>duced npon a clay soil is of the worst quality ; that which 
grows in a light soil is better ; and the best is reared in rocky sitnatitN*. 


It w propagKted by Meda. Wlwii die shrub has UMined iIm aga of 
three yeare, the lesres are fit for being palled. When it baa attaiiMd a 
certtun b«igbt it ie cot down, and nameroos spronta riie froia the tame 
root. Kempfer sfGroM, that tea !■ collected at three different BMBotii : 
first at the tnd t>( February, or begiaaiDg of March. The leaves at tbia 
time are small and tender. The tea thus procnred, is called " tea in 
powder," and is used by the npper clsssea. The second crop is gKtbered 
aboDt the ead of March, or beginning of April, He leaves are dien 
(rf different siees ; and after they are palled, they are assorted into differ- 
ent parcels ; the amallest forming tea of the finest qnaJity. The last crop 
is gathered in the end of May, or beginning of June. The laaves hare 
then attuned their full growth, and are namerons. The tea gathered at 
this time is coarse, and is a»ed by the common people- When the leavea 
have been collected and assorted, according to their difereot sizes and 
qnalities, they next nodeigo such operations as are neeeesary to prepar* 
them for preservation and for use. They are expmed to the steam of 
boiling water. They are laid upon plates of C0{^r, and are dried over 
the fire, till they assume the appearance in which we always see tbem. 

For gathering tfae leaves of the teo-shmbe growing wild among the 
iBOuntuns, in situationB where the most active men could not get at tbem, 
the Chineae have lud brutes nuder coatribntioa. It is said that they train, 
monkeys to climb up difficult places, and to sbrip all the leaves from tha 
shrubs that are pointed ont to them. These leaves are piclced up by per- 
sons attending for the purpose, who reward their fonr-footed assistants from 
time to time with fruit. It may esuly be conceived hew diScnlt it is to 
trun BO indocile a creature as the monkey to this kmd of operetioo — but 
iriiat is there that Chinese patience and ingeunity have not accomplished P 
They have availed themselves eran of the voracity of the cormorant, 
trinch tfcey have taught to dive in (pest of fish to the bottom of the lakes 
and livors, and to bring his prize, as a tribute to his master. The Chinese 
and Japanese keep Uteir tea a year before they nsa it for drink, becanaa 
dtey asaert that it is neither so good nor so wholesome when quite new. 
Father Benoit, a French missionary at Pekin, wrote as follows in 1772 to 
M. Delatonr: " Tea in general acquires by the voyage to Europe a much 
more agreeable flaviHir, and becomes much more salubrious ; so that a 
chest of the most common sort, carried to Fiance, and brought back to 
Canton, LB rendered by this double voyage a highly esteemed present in the 
country by which it was produced." The Chinese pour hot water upon. ' 
tea, not in a tea-pot as we do, but in the cap out of which they drink it, 

Ct as it is, without either sugar or cream. The missionariesi in their 
ise at Pekin, have no other beverage. Tha Jsfianese reduce their tea 
to a fine powder, which they use in the following manner : — The equipage 
to the teft-table, and the box containing this powder, are set ont before the 
eompany ; the cnpe are filled with hot water, and so much of the powder 
as can be taken upon the point of a knife is thrown into each cup, and 
stirred with an insimmsnt like a tooth-pick, till the liqnw begins to froth. 
It is then handed round to the company, who sip it while hot. This me- 
thod is not peculiar to the Japanene, but w common in some provinces of 
China also. Such of the Chinese as pretend to be nice judges of tea, pay 
the most minute attention to tha making of this beverage. The water 
must not be boiled upon a fire of any kind of wood, but only one of pine- 
wood, in an earthen vessel from a particular province, and it must be in- 
fused in auether particular sort of vessel. The essences of roses, jessn- 

■nine, and molUhoa, and all the perfames of the flovera, are employed to 
beighten the delicacy of this &rourite drinU. The manner of perfurming 
the honoars of the tea-table with grace, gentility, and politeness, i» in China 
and Japan an art which has it* principles, its mles, and its masters, who 
follow the profession of giving instmc^on in it. This art forms part of 
the eihication of youth of bath sexes, who are taught to make tea and 
wait on company, as in Europe we take lessons in dancing, fencing, or 
riding. When tea has lost its virtues by age, and ia no longer fit for drink- 
ing, the Chinese employ it in dying silks a brown or chesnnt colour. A 
great <]uHntity of old tea destined for this purpose is sent annually from 
China to Snrat. 

Animalt,'] China has scarcely any animals which are not common to 
other countries. The domestic animals are reareil iu comparatively small 
numbers. Elephants are common in the south of China ; and the unicorn 
riiinoceroe frequents the marshes in Yvn-nan and Kwang-eee. l^elion is 
aaid to be unknown in China, but what is there described as the tiger is 
■apposed to be die maoeless lion. Our ignorance, however, of the inte- 
. rior of China prevents ns from saying any thing with certainty on this 
■abject. Monkeys are common in some parts. The musk-dear is among 
the moat valuable of the Chinese quadrupeds ; the buffaloes are usually 
grey instead of black ; and the pigs there are much more cleanly than those 
with us. Small birds of beautiful plumage, and water-fowls, abound. 
Much value is set on the Mandarin duck. Beside the fish common in 
Europe, the Chinese have many unknown to us ; as the tbo-ki/a-ifu, or 
' fish in armour,' (letrodon,) which tastes like veal, and is covered with 
■pines ; a kind of cod, caught and salted on the shores of Fo-kyen ; hai- 
■eng, an unpalatable kind of blubber, (meduia,) eaten by the common 
people; and kin-yn, or 'gold fish,' ia a native of a Chinese lake, and, 
as with us, a constant ornament of the ponds of their pleasure-grounds. 
It was brought to England in 1611. The splendid butterflies, and mni- 
titudes of singular insects peculiar to China, are well known as favourite 
•nbjects of the Chinese artists. Silk-worms are common, and seem to be 
indigenous in the country. 

Miiieralt.'l There are some silver mines in China, but tbey are lit- 
tle. worked. Gold is obtained from the sand of some of the rivers. A 
white metallic substance, called tulenagne, is common in China; but 
it is not exactly known whether it be a simple or compound material. 
There is also a peculiar copper of a white colour, which the Chinese 
call pelaiig, or, according to some, pu-kfong. Yellow copper is used 
in the current coins of the empire. Quicksilver mines are common, 
but lead and tin are scarce. Realgar, or native sulphuret of arsenic, is 
employed by the Chinese in blocks for makmg pagodas and vases. 
Lazulite, jasper, rock-crystal, nephritic jade, magnetic iron, granite, por- 
phyry, and different kinds of marbles, are found in China. Coal is not 
uncommon, and collieries are numerous, particularly in the neigbbour- 
hooil of Canton. The torrents descending from the mountains of Van- 
nan, Kw«-chew, and Shen-si, wash a kind of marble, which yields an 
agreeable sound, and which is called ' the musical stone.' It is used 
in musical instrnments. Pttuulte, a whitish Inmineted feltspar ( kaolin, 
a feltspar in the state of earth or clay; and che-kao, or sulphate of 
barytes, are the mbatancea employed in the composition of Chinese 



Agriculture.^ Of b]1 the aita, agricnltore is ibe moat practined 'n 
China. Next to leamiiig, it ia the most boooured, and is conaidared as 
the basis of luitional prosperity. Every apring, a pnblic ceremony ia 
perfonned in its honour by the emperor, who lays aside bit imperial 
robea, aod opens several farrows with the ploagh, in b field appointed for 
the pnrpose, which ceremony is performed on the same day by the vice- 
roys of all the prorincea. The extraordinary diligence of the peaaantry 
in cultivating the gronad ia not equalled by any people in the world. In 
the preparation of mannre, no aabstance anaceptible of pntrefaction escapes 
them ; and innumerable old men and women, aa well as children, are con- 
atantly employed about the atreeta, pnblic roada, banka of rivers aod ca- 
nals, &c. in picking np o^l of any kind that may forward the proceaa of 
vegetation. To such an extent ia this carried, that maonre, formed into 
cakes, is made an article of commerce, and aold to farmers, who, how- 
ever, do not ose it in a compact state. 

The deficiency of cattle, wLich makes all these arts of procnring man- 
are neceaaary, still leaves the aupply too scanty. It ia seldom applied to 
the rearing of grain, hut is reserved for the purpose of procuring speedy 
and aacceasive anppUea of culinary vegetables. The seeds are steeped in 
liquid manure before they are sown, and liquid mannre is from time to time 
applied to the roots of the plants ; arts which we have frequently seen 
practised in the wilda of Scotland, where the redundancy of population 
was neither felt nor feared. 

Grain ia the principal object of Chinese cultivation. In the soathem 
provinces, rice is chiefly raised, while wheat supplies its place in the north ; 
bnt the species of vegetables, which are cultivated for food, are tlmoet 
innumerable. A kind of braaaica, bearir^ a strong reseroblance tn tbe 
coss lettuce, ia cultivated in great quantitiea, and much relished aa food. 
It thrives beet in the northern prorinces, where it la salted for winter pro- 
visiona, and carried in that state towards the south. In some places, In- 
dian com and millet arc reared. Tobacco is also an object of calture ; 
but instead of being cnred in hooaes, as in America, it is always cored in 
the open air. The annual cotton plant ia reared in considerable quantities, 
though not sufficient for the use of the inliBbitaate, since cotton cloth is 
aiiiversall)' worn by both sexes. A great quantity, therefore, is imported 
from Bombay. 

The mode of cultivation is, in some instances, nearly the same aa in 
Europe ; in others it is very different. The instruments for thrashing and 
winnowing are said to be npon the same principle with our own, and to 
be constructed in almost a similar manner. As animals are few, enclo- 
aurea are not neceaaary; and as they are supposed to occupy too much 
ground, they are in general avoided. The animals used in tillage, which 
are chiefly oxen in the north, and buffaloes in the south, ore fed in 
■tails, npon cbopt straw and beans. The plough is a very simple machine. 
It has no coulter, for tbe ground being seldom in grass, there ia no turf 
to penetrate. Tbe share, which ia sometimes made of iron, bnt more fre- 
quently of that species of timber, from ita hardness, called ironwood, ter- 
minates in a curve so as to turn back the earth. To draw it, more than a 
•ingle ox or bn&lo is seldom necessary ; and that office is sometimes per. 
farmed by men or women. 


The ChineM an too ■panng of their grain to Mtr U in the brotdenl 
way i bende*, they aro coiiTinced that, by drilling, they procore much nore 
lunriant cropi. Erery kiacl of grun, therefore, ia either «owa in drilli, 
or dibbled. The drilla ran generally nonli and tooth, u that i* lappoMd 
to be the beet direction. The fitsltle are not laid oat in ridgee, hot every 
where preeent a level aarfaca. 

Irrigation, or the watering of grouna, whicli in Europe U confined 
ehiefly to ibeadowe, ia in China ^pliod with care in all their procesae* of 
cvluration, WImu the waier detceodi from a lofty aiination, it receiree 
the requiaite direction by proper chaQoeU prepared for it. When the land 
to be irrigated ia higher than the t«BerToir, the difficulty is greater. For 
railing the water rarioaa contnrancea hare been adopted. Sometimea i< 
ia raiwd by bnoketa, awnng on corda between two men, or attached to a 
lerer. Sometimes it ia raised by aapecles of chain pump, of a very pecu- 
liar conatrnction. 

The emperor ia regarded as the aole proprietor of the soil ; and the 
bolder of a landed estate pays as rent to the aorereign one-tenth of what 
his ground is snpposed capable of producing. Though he be thus in 
reality, tbereforei a tenant at will, yet be ia nsTer deprived of hia poeaes- 
sion, as long as he continnea to pay bis rent, or rather land-tax, to the 
crown ; and the Cbineee cultiratora regard their (wcme in no other light 
than peteonal property, a* long as they find means to pay the public aa- 
aeaaments. Tbeee holders of landa from the crown resemble European 
proprietors in this respect also, that they can let what portion of their 
grounds they please, to others, for a rant which ia generally equal to half 
the produce ; and it it on theae terms that the great body of the Chinese 
peasantry cultivate iheir little farms. There ia thna a pretty equal division 
of the lands auioag the growers of grain ; and there are no immense farm* 
ars or mouopolizers of produce, who can command the market. There ia 
ao ground aet apart for the pleasnre of individnala, but all is open to cnl- 
tiration, and a free sale pormitted to every dealer. There are no restric- 
tions either from lishing upon the rivera, coasts, and lakes, or from killing 
game upon their own lamb and the public commons. Yet, with all these 
encouragements to the agriculturists, and notwithstanding all the honour 
attadied to their occupation, they are not able to auf^ly the wants of 
the nation ; and seldom do three years elapse in succession, without a 
hunine in one or other of the provinces. This frequent recurrence of 
scarcity may no doabt be partly ascribed to the circumstance of China 
being surronnded by mountainous and barren countries, from which it 
can draw no proviaions in an unfruitful season, but which it is rather 
obliged occasionally to supply ; to the want of foreign commerce, which 
prevents the imporiatma ol grain in the event of deficienciea ; to the 
destruction frequently occasioned to the crops by droughts or inunda- 
tious i lo the great quantity of grain, especially of rice, which, in spite 
of the existing lanrs, is daily employed in the distillalion of rack, and 
other spirituona liquors. Bnt the principal caoae of these scarcities ia 
to be sought in the immeoae tracts of land which are suffered to lie 
waate, and in ifae want of enterprise and akill in the Chineaa cultiva-. 
ton. It is generally imagined that every spot of ground in the empire is 
in a state of r^pilar tillage ; and then it is made a matter to be accounted 
for, bow famines should be ao very frequent. We read in many of the 
■ocomla of China, of Uw wonderful fertility of its soil ; of the care of 
tlie husbandman to root out every hedge or tree, so that not n foot if 

19 ASIA. - 

gBOond may be lott ] of Ui« very moantain-rides being cnt in terrace*, like 
those of the Fayi d» ^aud, between Lanasnae end Vevay, and covered 
with produce. All thie ijideed is airictly the fact in the immediate neigh* 
banrhoiKl of towns aad villages ; bnt, partly from the dread of plnaderen, 
and parily from the want of cattle to transport the manure and the pro- 
duce, the more distant lands aie almost entirely naeless and nDproductivei 
and it is calculated, that ooe-fourth of the whole canntry consists of lakes 
and stvnmpi, which are totally uncultivated. On each side of the river 
Pei-ho, at no great distance from the capital, the gentlemen of the British 
embassy purceived no appearance of great cultivation- The greater part 
of the land was sour swampy ground, covered with coarse grass, rushes, 
and reeds ; and few trees were to be seen, except in ibe vicinity of ths 
villages. No habitation appeared, that could he considered as the resi- 
dence of a gentleman, or even as a comfortable farm-house ; bnt every 
thing, OD the contrary, seemed to indicate the greatest piiverty aod mean- 
ness of conditiun in the inhabitants. The property of all this waste land 
is vested in the crown ; but any iudiridnol may obtain a portion as a pas- 
lessioD, by merely paying into the public granaries tlie estimated part t>f 
the produce as rent to the government. The little spots of groimd, how- 
ever, which each husbandman occupies, seldom yields more produce than 
paya his rent and supplies his family. Though abundantly industrious, 
the Chinese cultivators are deficient in agricultural slull ; and it may be 
said of them, in general, that they are raliier gardeners than farmers. A 
peasant, indeed, with as much land as he and his family are able to work 
with the spade, will raise a much greater quantity of food from that spot 
Uian an Euro|>eaa could do ; but in the management of a large farm be 
would be found greatly deficient. 

Oi-natMiUal Gardening.^ Although the Chinese hare no idea of the 
many ar-.ihcial methods by which European gardens are enriched with such 
variety and excellence of vegetable productions, tbey are extremely iag»- 
nious in laying out and ornamenting their pleasure grounds. The impe- 
rial pleasure grounds of Yuen-min-yuen, near Pekin, occupying nearly 
60,01)0 acres, and comprehending thirty separate palaces, as well as thos« 
of Je-hol, beyond the Great Wall, are magnificent samples of the Chinese 
taste and skill, not surpassed, either in magnitude or the constant succes- 
uon uf beanues, by any thing in Europe. 

Mantifaclares.'] In a country which proposes to subsist independent 
of foreign commerce, manufactures must be nunierous, to supply the wants 
«f the inhabitants. Notwithstanding their isolated character as a nation, 
the Chinese have strong imitative powers, and have given many instances 
ef dexterity in making, after European copies, watches, mathematical in- 
struments, trmkets, &c Bnt it has been remarked, that those nationa 
which succeed most readily in arts which are merely imitaUve, are least 
romarkable for original inventions. Accordingly, in the sciences, they are 
Tery far behind, and have little to boast of in respect of the fine arts. la 
printing and engraving, however, they appear to have taken the lead, and 
in the manufacture of sUk and cotton cloths, and especially in theu: earth- 
mi ware, they still equal, if they do not excel, the Europeans. 

JiiigrantRg and Frinling.^ From their constant use of seals as signa- 
tures to all deeds and public documents, engraving is probably an art of 
great antiquity among the Chinese. Their works of this kind io wood, 
mother-of-pearl, and ivory, are well known ; and their hollow epberes, ia- 
oluded within each other, are often preserved aa curiosities in public coi- 


Ifctimu. Oat of on wlid ball of ivory thef will our* Bfteen bollaw 
globM, all dutiiict from each other, all movaabls by a toach, and oraa- 
aented widi figure and open work, like the iticks of a fas. Yet thaw 
nngnlar production! of art, which appear to require ao much Uhonr aod 
akiil, are soon fioiibed aod lold for a tiifle. Tkeir art of printing ia aaid 
to have been known to them more than nine centuriea before the ChriaUan 
va i but the procew is extremely different from that practiaed in Enrope. 
The nature of tbnr langtuge, in which each word is represented by a <Jis- 
tinct character, prevent* tkem from having moveable types, to be let up 
■• occaaioQ requires. When a book it to be printed, a. copy of it is written 
■Q a fair character, on very tbio paper. Each leaf ii pasted on a board of 
hard wood, and the engraver cuts out all spaces between the strokes of the 
letter, which are thos left in relief. Each board contains two pagea. 
With a bmah it is laid over wilfa ink ; a sheet of paper is applied, a softer 
brush is pasted over it, and an impreaeion is taken. The paper is printed 
only on one side, but tbe sheets are folded back, «id form two pages. 
When tbey are bound, they are fastened by the open side, leaving tbe fold 
to form tlie outward margin of the leaf. A few moveable types of the 
auMt common character are sometimes, bnt vety laiely, nsed. 

Paper.2 Ibo Chinese claim tbe invention of paper,— tbe first, they 
any, having been made from the bark of a tree (Morat papyrifera) and 
old linen, by Tsulnn, a mandarin who flourished about a century and a 
half before Cbiiat. The bark of that tree, and the ko-cb-hu, hemp, nettlea, 
atraw, the coccoons of the silk-worm, oottou, rags, and the fibres of tha 
bamboo, are the materials now osed ; from the second of these the most 
common sort is made; whence ku-chu has become the usual term for 
pap«. The inner bark of the bamboo, after maceration io water, is re- 
duced to a paste by boiling and bruising in a mortar ; it is then spread out 
on frames of fine bamboo threads, and formed into sheets of variooa 
lengths. A strong rose-coloured transparent p^r ia used in the windftwa 
at Peking as a.snbatitute for glass. 

/ni.] To China we are indebted for that, excellent ink nniversally 
used by our artists under the name of Indian ink- It ia made of the soot 
deposited by the smoke of pines or oil,. and has been long an article of 
manoEactore. Hwet-cbeu-fa, near the south-eastern bonodary of Kyang- 
nan, is the place where it u brought to the greateat perfection. 

Hair-penciU.^ We are probably also indebted to the Chinese for the 
invention of what are called camel's hair-pencils. The fur of rabbits is 
that of which tbey are generally made, and they are as indispensable to 
(be Chinese in writing as pen* are to us. 

J^ctUiiu,2 Of all their mannfactnres, the Chinese are most celebrated 
for their pottery. Its pecoliar excellence made it long an import of con- 
aiderable value, gave ita name 'o the finer kiuds of pottery among oni- 
aelvea, and rendered it a favourite article of luxury in the conrts of Cen- 
tral and Western Asia, long before China was knotvn to Europe. Their 
nateriale themselves, and tbe care with which they are cleansed and pre- 
pared, are tbe real cansea of the anperiority of the Chinese porcelmn over 
that of most European manufacturers. The forms of their inventioi^ 
though not always inelegant, have neither the lightness, variety, nor beau- 
tiful outline of tbe Grecian vases ; and their designs are inferior to thusa 
of Eniupean artists. Porcehun is called TteJtee by the Chinese ; and 
King-ta-cbiiig, a village to the east of tbe lake Po-yang-faoo, in tbe province 
of Kyaog-eee, ia the place at which the finest ia made. This is excluaivolj 


reWTTod for the emperor. Blue and whiw tre the ordinarf colonn ; red 
one or the most esteeroed and expensive ; and gilt fignrM on ■ black gronitd 
are in great request. In brown eartlien-ware the Chinese excel, as well 
as in porcetuD ; bnt they know scarcely any thin^ about the art of making 
glass. They use metallic minws, and their windows are generally com- 
poseil of transparent paper. 

Silt Manvjacluret.'] Silk is manufactured to a areat extent in China. 
The province of Che-kyang is the country from nhich the finest, softest, 
and whitest is brongbt ; but the adjoining province of Kyang-nan has die 
greatest number of weavers, and all articles inteniled for the empemr's nse 
are made there, particularly in its capital. Nan-king. The prodncilons of 
the Chinese looms are said to be more showy than sabstantial ; their bro- 
cades are embroidered with eilk paper, and aro therefore soon spoiled. 
Ganzes, whether flowered or plain, aro the manafactnres in which they 
excel ; and those roost in nae are a strong dull satin, and a close groy 
taffety. The Kyen-e/ieu, epnn by an insect somewhat differing from the 
•ilk-worro, and abonnding in the province of Shan-tong, furnishes a thick 
rough material, rasembling drugget, and much valued by the Chinese. 
The silk goods exported to Europe are manufactured in or near Canton, 
and the raw material h brought Irom Kyang-nau. 

Nanlieent.'\ Kyang-nan also produces the crown cotton, which la 
mannfoctured into nankeens ; particularly in the city of Nan-king, whenca 
the name of those cotton cloths is derived. Linens, also, aro maaufac- 
tured at Nan-king and in Fo-kyen. 

Trade and C'ommertr.] The external commerce of China, taking ita 
extent into account, is inconsiderable ; but ite internal trade is extensive. 
Foreign trade is but barely tolerated by the Chinese goveroment, for it is 
always at variance with that jealous policy which draws a line of per- 
petual demarcation betwi^en China and the rast of the world. Internal 
commeroe, on the other hand, as it excites no apprehension of a dangerona 
rivalry, is encouraged. Inland navigation has b«en carefully improved, so 
that tlie whole distance from Canton to Peking, an interval of nearly 
•eventeen degrees, and considerably more than a thousand miles, can, with 
the exception of one day's jonniey, be travelled by water. The external 
trade is csrried on principally by foreigners ; for every Chinese, wbo ob- 
tains permission to go abroad for commercial purposes, is obliged to retnm 
within a limited period, and is treated as an outcast if he exceed that terra. 
Canton is the only port open to Eurc^ans ; bat a considerable trathc in 
coarse tea, cattle, furs, cloths, &c. is kept up with the Tartars and Kua- 
sians upon the northern boundaries. The Chinese carry to Japan rhubarb, 
jinseng, silks, CB^nt, sweet-smelling woods, leather, cloths, and sugar, and 
bring back pearls, gold, copper, sword-blades, paper, and japanned-waro. 
To Manilla they carry silkn, embroidery, varnish, drugs, porcelain, and 
tea ; while birds' nestn, dye-woods, peartn, and bullion, are the return. To 
Batavia they carry tea, porcelain, tuienague, copper, and drugs ; and re- 
ceive silver, tin, pepper, natmege, cloves, tortoise-shell, and European 
goods. Gold, areca, and cinnamon, are brought to Canton Irom Cochin- 
china ; tin, camphor, resin, birds' nests, ivory, and rhinoceroa' horns from 
Malacca and Siam. The articles exported by the East India Company 
to China, are lead, tin, copper, furs, camblets, long cloths, &c ; but Um 
principal article is broad cloth, the annnal export of which cannot ha 
nach less than £1,000,000 sterling. The other article* may be abont 
£800,000 ; which, together with certain articles, which tba officera of ih* 


eoiDpuiy'i >hipi Lar« the privilege of taking out, micb aa peltry, glut, 
clock*, WBtchea, cutlery, coral, printa, puntings, 8cc make the whole 
anoiuit to £1,500,000. The chief article imported in retnni, ia tea, of 
fvhich Britain alone takes from 84,000,000 to 30,000,000 pounds weight 
aonoally ; the rest of the cai^oea coniiit of nankeens and raw ailk. ilia 
minor articlee, ench aa porcelain, lacquered and ivory goodn, cinnabar, 
dmga, and mother-of-pearl, are principally confined to the private trade. 
The Goet and chances of the total imports in the company's ships amoont 
to about £3,300,000, and the aalefl to about £4-,200,OOOi— thns yielding 
£900,000 of clear profit to the company in its trading capacity. 

The trade of China with India, is principally carried on from the two 
pruidencies of Calcotta and Bombay. The chief articles are cotton and 
opium. The value of the shipping and merchandise required for carrying 
on this trade is estimated at upwards of £2,200,000, exclusive of peck- 
buck, pearls, and sandal wood, &c. ; and pepper, betel-nut, ratiann, &c 
from the east coast and the islands. For many years, the balance of trade 
between China and Great Britain, was greatly in favonr of Chins, and re< 
qnired lai^ sums in specie to be sent out annually ; bnt towards the con* 
elusion of the late war, when specie was most difficult to be procured, and 
its value was greatly increased, this country most forlnnately drew through 
India ■ balance in bullion from China, aiid thus the Indian commerce with 
the port of Canton, became of the utmost importance. The balance in 
fiavour of India, still continues to be drawn from China, in the shi^e of 
bnllion. On the nortbem Rentier of the Birman dominions, an active 
trade is carried on with China and other eastern states. The chief empo- 
rium is at a place called Banmo, on the Chinese frontier ; and at MidiU, 
four or five miles to the northward of Amerapura, Mohammedan and Bir- 
man merchanle of Ave, go to Banmo to meet the Chinese, part of whom, 
not unnsnally four or five thousand, come down to Midu. The Chinese 
import copper, orpiment, quicksilver, vermillion, iron pans, silver, good 
ifaubarh, tea, fine honey, raw silk, spirile, hams, mnsk, verdegris, dry 
ihiits, and a few fresh lruita,with dngs and pheasants. The Chinese travel 
on small horses and mules, and are smd to be two months on the road. 
The tea that is brought by the Chinese is black, and is made up in round 
cdies or balls ; some of it ia of very fine flavour, and it is all of a rery dif- 
ferent deBcription from any which is sold in the market of Cantoi^<— the 
better qnalities are well adapted for Europe : the retail price is but one 
tikal ; little more than a rupee for one vis, or nearly four pounds. This 
tea is used by all \riio can afford it, but a cheaper sort, said to be the pro- 
duce of some part of the Birman territory, is an article of great and 
general demand. It is eaten after meals, with garlic and seeamum oil, and 
it is cnstomary to offer it to guests and strangers as a token of welcome. 
The return of the trade with tlie Chinese are chiefly cotton, ivory, and 
bees* wax, with a email quantity of British woollens, chiefly broad cloth* 
and carpet*. The quantity of cotton is annually very considerable, it ia 
estimated at not less than 70,000 bales of three hundred pounds each : the 
greater part of it is cleaned : the Ave cotton of the lower provinces is of 
a slion etaple, but thai of the upper, long, and of a fine texture. The 
cotton of Pegu, it is said, is sent to Chitiagong and Dacca, and i* the 
naterial of the fine Dacca muslins. 

The following is a table of the annual valae of the trade between Great 
Britun and China in the yean 1825-6-7 : 

Dcinz.SDv Google 

VhIh af Eximiti >nd Im- 

Indlfidonl., tb* CmpcoT. 
l9iS-2a..^3.&i3,729 JC29I.603 
IB£6-27... A761,«H 3GE,105 


*a,687.ni3 ^6,922.3*6 
3,176,901 7.303,710 


Villi* or ih* 

■Tt„6t Kl In. 

.. 3,764i404 




Money.J The only regularly stamped coin among the ChineM u the 
Iseen or eaiA, ai it is called by Europeans. A thousand of them make a 
lale. It is of copper, aliout nine-tenths of an inch in diameter, with a 
flmal] square hnle in the middle, inscribed with tno Chinese words on one 
lide, and two Tartar ones on the other. The hole is made fur connecting 
a nnmber of them together with a string. Silver is nut coined, bat is dis- 
posed of by weight, and is divided into larger or smaller pieces according 
as it may become necessary. Scales, weights, and scissars, are therefore 
necessary for every payment. The value of an article is estimated accord- 
ing to the current price of an ounce of silver. Silver coin of any deno- 
mination is received according to its intrinsic value ; and Spanish dollaia 
ere the sort most current. Their accounts are kept in tales, mace, canda- 
reent, and cash, dius :' 

10 cash^l caudareeo, 
10 c«ndBreeiis=l mace, 
10 raace=l lale. 

73 candareens make a Spanuh dollar, and the eschinge between China and 
England isosually 40 per dollar. £100 sterling wonlJ consequently be 360 
tales, or 500 Spanish dollars. A tale is worth 5f. 6^. British carrency. 
The authorized rates of intereat are as high as 36 per cent., and from 15 
to IS per cent may always be obtvned. Money-lending is a trade well 
miited to the genius of the Chinese ; and there is no country in the worid 
where the pawnbroker's bosloess is better undeietood, or more extensively 

Weight* and Mmrare*.] The number of grains which the htcang-cong 
or musical reed will contain, is the basis of all the Chinese weights and 
measures. In onr ignorance of their terms, it can be of no service to 
copy their tables of admeasurement. 


Popv.lalion.'] In the table of the ororinces of China, given at the 
commencement of this article, the population will be found to be estimated 
at somethmg above 143 millions, liiis is according to an official reiam 
made by order of the emperor, in A.D. 1790 ; and considerable reliance 
may be placed on it, as official returns, from the mode of forming them in 
China, nave much likelihood of being materially correct- Every house- 
bolder u required, under a penalty, to have a tablet, called men-p' noi (the 
tablet of the gate) on which all hia inmates are faithfully enumerated. 


ready for the inspection of the officers appointed to take ko accotuit of tbe 
popnktion, who are not^llovred to exftmine tbe house when there are any 
women or children in the family. By this roeajis, the number of the great 
body of the people may be considered aa pretty accurately ascertained. 
The statement, also, corresponds very nearly with the repoit of Mr Tho- 
utaa, who classed the population of Cfain& aa follows : 

Dwellers on the land, . . . 143,000,000 

Dwellers on the water, . 3,000,000 

Pwtons in civil offices, 9,611 

Military officers, ■ 7,552 

infiwtry, .... 822,000 

Cavalry, 400,000 

Followers of tbe army, .... 31,000 

So that, between the two accotuta, 145,000,000 may be taken in round 
nambers as the sum-total of the Chinese population. Tbe ststementa of 
the Catholic missionaries 'and of lord Macartney, on this subject, are now 
generally considered to be quite erroneoos. It is remarkable that in none 
•f the tables of population in China are tbe towns or cities classed sepa- 
rately — tbe estimation being merely divided luder tbe comprehensive 
beads of provinces. 

Matmert and Ciutonu.^ Tbe manners and cnstoms of the Chinese, 
who, without being mere sav^es, bave lived for many ages in a state of 
almost entire seclusion from all intercourse with the other inhabitants of 
tbe globe, form a peculiarly interesting snt^ect of inquiry; and we there- 
fore propose, under this general head, to enter mto more detail than usual, 
fegarding the physical constitution, habits, domestic economy, religion, &c. 
ef this singular people. The following able summary of the general ap- 
pearance of the country and iis inhabitants, extracted from the * Supple- 
ment to tbe Encyclopedia Britannica,* will be of service in introducing 
our more minute details ; while tbe view given in another chapter of the 
government, laws, &c of the Chinese will afford a material assistance to 
the reader in forming his estimate of their national character. 

General Appearance of the Country and its Inhabitants,^ " When 
an European first sets his foot in China, he will find the appearance of tbe 
country, the buildings, and tbe people, so totally diflferent from any thing 
be bad before seen, that he might fancy himself to be transported into a 
new w<»-ld. In the long line of internal navigation between the capital and 
Canton, of 1,200 miles, with but one short interruption, he will observe 
every variety of surface, but disposed in a very remarkable manner in great 
maBses ; for many days he will see nothing but one uniform extended plain, 
without die smallest variety ; agun, for as many days, he wilt be hemmed 
in between precipitous monntains of the tame naked chai'acter, and as un- 
varied in their appearance as the plains ; and, lastly, a 10 or 12 days' sul 
among lakes, swamps, and morasses, will complete the catal<^e of mono- 
tonous noiformity ; but whether be crosses the dry plains of Petchelee and 
Sbauntimg, abounding with cotton and all varieties of grain and pulse,— 
the more varied surface of Kiang-nan, fertile in silk, in yellow cotton, in 
frails, in the staple commodity of grain, and in every thing that constitntei 
the luxuries, the comforts, and the nec«Bsities of tbe people, — tbe dreary 
nramps, morasses, and extensive lakes of the northern part of Kiang-see, 
where men subsist by fishing, — or its naked and picturesque mountains to 

18 ASIA. 

the Mnithwwd, hmoas Tor ita porcelua muiuhctonM,-^>r wbetlMr be da* 
•cend to the fertile plaiiu of Quu-tnag, od which almoM all the Tegctebls 
prodncti of the £ut may be said to be coaeentnted, the grand charactem- 
tie feature ii atUl the same — « rednndant population. Every where ha 
meets vith large tnasMa of people, but mostly ot one aex ; thouaandi of 
men in a single group, without a «ngle woman mixing among them— men 
whose long gown* and petticoats give them the appearance of the softer 
sex, vphile these are epariogly seen at a distance in the back-gronnd, peep- 
ing over the mad-walls, or partially hid behind trees or bushes; whose 
short jackets and trowsers wonid make them pass for men among atrangera, 
if their braided hur, stuck full of flowers, and their little cnunped and 
bandaged feet, did not betray tbeir sex. He will be pleased wUh the nn- 
eqnivoMl mariiB of good hnmonr which prevail in erery crowd, uninter- 
rupted and unconcerned by the bawling of some unhappy victim suffering 
under the lash of magiaterial correction ; and he will be amused at the 
awkward exertions of the aofter aez to hobble out of sight, when taken by 
surprise ; but his slnmben will be interrupted on the nigfala of the full 
moon by the nocturnal orgiee of squibs and crackers, gonga and trumpeta, 
and other accompaniments of boisterous mirth. 

A conalmt aucceesion of lai^ Tillages, towns, and raties, irith hig^ 
walla, lofty gates, aod more lofty pagodas, la^ navigable rivers, com- 
municating by artificial canals, both crowded with bargea for passengerai 
knd barks for burden, as different from each other, in every river and every 
canal, as they are all different froni any thing of the kind in the rest of ths 
worlds— will present to the traveller an animated picture of activity, indus- 
try, and commerce. He will behold, in the lakes and morasses, every 
little ialet crowned with villages and mud hovels. He will observe birds 
(the lentie or cormorant) catching fish ; and men in the water, with jars 
on their heads, fishing for bird*. He will see shoals of ducks issuing from 
floating faabitationi, obedient to the sonnd of a whiitle ; carts on the land, 
driven by the wind ; and barges on the water, moving by wheels, 
like those recently invented in Enn^, for propelling the steam-boats. 
Among other strange objecta, be will observe, at every ten or twelve 
miles, small military guard-faauaes, with a few eoldiera hntaatically dress- 
ed in paper helmets and quilted petticoats, making use of the ha, if the 
weather he warm, and falling on their knees, if an officer of rank abonld 
paaa them. 

He will observe that the meaueat hnt, with walls of clay, and a roof of 
thatch, ia built on the same plan, and of the same shqw, with the palace 
of the viceroy, constructed of blue bricks, and its tiled roof supported en 
pillars. He will notice that the luxury of glass is wanting in the windows 
of both ; and that, while one admits a free passage to the air, the other but 
imperfectly resists the weather, and as imperfectly admits the light, whether 
through mled paper, ulk gauze, pearl shell, or bom. 

Nothing, perhaps, will more forcibly arrest the attention of die trsveller 
than the general nakedness of the country as to trees and hedge-rows, ot' 
which the latter have no existence, and the former exist only in dumpe 
near the dwellings of the public officers, or ibe temples of i'a, or Tao-tse. 
No green meadows will meet hia eye; no cattle enhven the scene; the 
only hexhage is on the narrow ridges which divide the plots of grain, or 
brown fallow, as in the common fields of England. The terraced hills ha 
mill probably observe to be terminated with a clump of trees, or a pagoda, 
the only objects in the distance that catch the eye. But the bridges on 


tbe canah. of every TariMy of riupe, — circalar, BQiptical, hona^oe, go- 
(hie — slight and onttabla as tliey an, are ottjecla that, by their noTialtjr and 
Tariaty, mmt attract do^m; and the inimumeatal archiiectur*, whioh 
adonu tbe oemateriea under eviery tona, from the lowly tent-shaped 
dwelUogg to the loftiest colnmn,— the eleraled lerracss, snpponed by 
aemicircnlar walls,— and the round hillocks, wbicb, in tbeir graduated size, 
point oat that of the father, the mother, and tbe children, according to 
seniority, — are among the moat intoresting otigecti that China affords. 

If, by cbaoca, he should be admitted within Uie gates of one of their 
great dties, m Pekin, Nankin, San-tcheou-foo, Hang-tcbeon-feo, or Can* 
too, be may fancy himself, from tbe low hotwes with corred overhanging 
roofs, nninterrapted by a single cbimney, tbe pillars, poles, flHgH, and 
■treamflrsf to have got into tbe midst of a large eocampmeat. The glitter 
arising from the gilding, the Tarnishing, and the painting, in rivid colours, 
that adorn tbe front of tbe sbopa, — and, in particular, the gaily painted 
lanterns of bom, muslin, silk, and paper, — tbs hnsy moltitade all in mo- 
Uon, and all of one sex, — tbe painted and gilded inscriptions that, in 
announcing the articiee dealt in, assure the passengvn that, " they don't 
cheat here," — tbe confused noise of tinkcn, cobblen, and blacksmiths, in 
their little portable workshops, — the buying, selling, bartering, and bawU 
ing, of different wares, — tbe processions of men, carrying home their new- 
married wires, with a long train of preaents, and BquoUing and noisy moaic ; 
or carrying to tbe grare some deceased rela^n, wid) moat lamentable 
bowlings— tbe mirth and burst of langbtw occasioaed by jagglers, conjn- 
run, mountebanka, qnack-doctors, musiuans, and comediwiB g in the midst 
of all which ie constantly beard a strange twanging aaise from the barber's 
tweezers, like the jarring sound of a cracked Jew's harp, — the magistrates 
and offiixrs, attended by thev hctors, and a numerous retinue, bearing flags, 
umbrellas, painted lanterns, and other strange insignia of their rank and 
office I— all these preaent to the eyes and ears of a stranger a norel and 
interesUng spectacle. The noise and boatle of this busy multitude com- 
toence with day-light, and cease only with the set^g of tbe sun ; after 
.which, acarcely awhispen is heard, and the streets are entitely deserted. 

Towards the central parts of China, near to the places where the two 
great riren, tbe Whang-bo and the Vang-taa-kiang, interseoi the Grand 
canal, a scene, magnificent beyond description, will erruet the attention of 
tbe tntveller ; here be will find himself in du midst of Inutle and bnsiness. 
The multitude of ships of war, of commerce, of ooDTeoienca and of ple^ 
Bsre, some gliding down the stream towarda the sea, others working 
against it by sails, oars, or wheels, and others lying at anchor ; the banks 
on either side, as well as those of the canals, covered with towns as far aa 
the eye can reach i the continuance along the canab of cities, towns, and 
villages, almost without imerruption, — the vast number of light stoue 
bridges, of one, two, and three arches,^ — tbe temples occarring in frequent 
succession, with thor double and triple tiers of roofs — •the Pei-loe, or tri- 
ple gateways, in commemoration of some honest man or chaste viigin,-— 
tbe lace of the sutroundiog country, beautifully diversified with bill and 
dale, and every part of it in tbe higbeat slate of coltivation, — tbe ^parent 
bappy condition of the numeroos inhalmants, indicated by their cheerful 
looks and subetantial clothing, chiefly in s i lk , s u ch are the seeaee wiiich 
presented themselves to our countrymen who composed the embassy of 
tbe Earl of Macartney, and were repeated to thaw who aecompmied Lord 
Amherst. He would probably be mistaken, however, in inferring tbe ganenl 


happy itate of the people, or beautiful appeorBDC* of the roiutiy, from wbat 
might occur along thie great lioe of commimication between the northern 
and aonthem extremities of the empire. The Dutch embuty setting otit 
in the winter, when tho canals were frozen, proceeded by a different route, 
and the inconTeniences they suffered, are such u can scarcely be credited 
to haye occurred in any nation removed but a few degrees from the savage 
slate. The face of the country was dtewy, without a visible trace of cul- 
tivation, or a bovel of any kind, for the space of eight or ten miles toge- 
ther. In many parts the surface was covered with water, and the mud 
hovels completely melted down. Very few raties, towns or villages, oc- 
curred in their route, and those were almost universally in a ruinous con- 
dition. Near to the capital they passed a city exhibiting only a mass of 
ruins. It was not before they had crossed the Yellow River that the 
prints of wheel-carriages marked out the road. The people every where 
appeared indigent and oppressed, equally destitute of the feelings of hu- 
manity and hospitality. The Dutch were carried in small bamboo chiura, 
each having four bearers, so weak and tottering that they could seldom go 
through the day's journey ; and it frequently happened that tbey halted in ' 
the middle of a cold night, in an open and uninhabited part of the country, 
exposed to all the inclemency of the weather, without a hovel of any kind 
to afford them shelter; and when tbey reached the end of the day's journey, 
the lodgings appropriated for their reception were so miserable, admitting, 
on all sides, the wind, rain, or snow, that they generally preferred taking a 
little rest in their bamboo chairs. Tbey observed on ihe road old mwi 
and young women travelling in wheelbarrows, sometimes in Utters or chairs 
carried by a coaple of asses, one being fixed between the poles before and 
one behind. The rivers were without bridges, and crossed, when not for- 
d*ble, by rafts of bamboo. All this is corroborsted by a subseqaent publi- 
cation of Voyage a Pe-king, by M. de Guignea : and hence it may be con- 
cluded, that China, like other countries, has its fertile and its desolate dis- 
tricts, and that much information is yet required to form a competent no- 
tion of the real state and condition of this mighty empire." 

Physical Contlilulion.'] The physical constitution of the Chinese indi- 
cates a Tartar origin, although, from inhabiting a warmer climate, they are 
inferior to the Tartars iu atreugtii of character and firmness of nerve. 
Both have those peculiarities of feature and complexion which distinguisb 
almost all the northern Asiatics. A complexion olive or brunette ; hiur 
and eyes black, the latter small, and elliptical at the end nearest to the 
none ; foreheads wide ; cheek-bones high ; chins pointed, which, with the 
mode of shaving the hair, gives to the head the appearance of an inverted 
cone ; noses fiat, ears large, figure in general broad and square— these are the 
most striking chaiucteristics of the 'X'artar and Chinese race. A resem- 
blance between the Chinese and the Hottentots of Africa has been point- 
ed out by Mr Barrow. " The form of their persons," he says, " in the re- 
markable smalluess of the joints and the extremities, their voices and man- 
ner of speaking, their temper, their colour and features, and particularly 
their singularly shaped eye, are nearly alike. They also agiee in the 
broad root of the nose, or great distance between the eyes, and in the 
oblique position of these, which, instead of being faoriiontal, as is generally 
the case in European subjects, are depressed toward the nose." From these 
facts, Mr Barrow thinks it probable, that an ancient interconrae subsisted 
between Chma and the eastern coast of Africa i nor is the physical like- 
ness greatly overweigbed by mental disnmilitnde ; for making allowance 


for (he difference of edncKtion, he comiden that the eptitude of k Hotten- 
tM in acqturing and cmnbiniiig ideae, and his powera of imitatioii, are not 
lata than those of a Chinese. 

Rants.'} The people of China taay be arranged under aeren geneial 
clasaea ; the Mondarou or officen of the state, the military, men of learn- 
ing, priests, hosbandnwa, menjiants, and aniaaos. The tenn MoHdariH 
is a Portngnese word, unknown to the Chioeae, but applied by the Jeanit 
missionaries to those in authority generally. Of Mandarins, the degreea 
are nanerons, both in the ciTil and militaiy service ; but it would be tedi- 
ous and nnprofitsble to enter into any detail regBrdiog these, or the differ- 
ent badges by which they are distingniahed. Hononn are not hereditary 
in China, with the exception of those held by the descendants of Confuci- 
us and MenciuB, and those possessed by the Princes of the Blood Royal. 
There may be sud to be no middle class of men in China. If an indivi- 
dual, by mde or industry in hia profession, sbonld accumulate riches, be 
ia obliged to enjoy them as much in private as possible, for the command- 
ing officer of the district would find little difficulty in bringing him witluu 
' the pale of the sumptuary laws, and in laying his property under confisca- 

J>re$s.'2 The chief part of the Chinese dress, like that of many eastern 
nations, congiats of a long robe which reaches almost to the gronnd : tha 
ateevea, which at the sboulders are wide, and which become straiter at the 
wrist, cover almoet the whole of the hand. This robe is folded one part 
over another, and fastened on the right ude by several buttttns of gold or 
silver. Over the robe is worn a girdle of silk, of which the ends generally 
extend to the knees. In a sheath suspended from the girdli<, ore a knife 
and a pair of small sticks which are used as forks. Their shirts are short 
and wide; they are made of different kinds of cloth, though generally of 
cotton, and are sometimes prevented from aflhering to the skin, by a silken 
net which is worn under them. Their drawers which are wide, are made 
sometimes of linen, sometimes of cotton ; but in winter such as can afford 
it, have them lined with fur. When the weather is warm, the neck ia 
bare ; but when cold, it is coTered with a collar, or necklace, made of silk 
or far, and fastened to the upper garment. In winter, the people of rank 
in the north line the whole upper garment with fur. Otbera moat be con- 
tented, to preserve appearances, by having fur trimminga. On the long 
robe, a kind of upper garment is sometimes worn, of which tbe sleeves are 
very wide but short. The Chinese are by no means a cleanly people, 
either in their persons or dress. They seldom cliange their under garmeota 
for the purpose of washing tbem ; never employ the bath, either cold or 
warm ; make no use of soap, and scarcely ever wash tbeir bodies ; and 
even the interior wrappers of tbe ladies' feet, are allowed to remMU as long 
as they will hold together. They carry no pocket-handkerchiefs ; but wipe 
their dirty hands upon the sleeves of their gowns, anil blow their noses into 
small pieces of paper, which their attendants have at hand for the purpose. 
They sleep at night, huddled up under a coverlid, nearly in tbe same 
clothes which they wear through the day ; a circumstance which, tc^tlw' 
with tbeir general filthiness, is prodnctive of an abundant tribe of vermin, 
which the highest officers of the empire will not hesitate to call their at- 
lendaats, even in public, to take from their necks, when they are tronble- 
eome ; and wfatcb, when caught, they very compoeedly pnt between tbeir 

Almost the only innovation which tbe Tartars, when tbey conqnerod 

xa ASIA. 

Cbim, weA *ble to introduce, waa in the vrekiing of tbe hair. TIm 
ChineM bad bean accutomed to prawrva it with graat care ; the Tartan 
obliged them to cat off the greater pert of it. They now wear oaly a lock 
Bpoo the crown, plaited into a long tail Hamething like the laah of a whip, 
and extmidiog helow the waiit lonietiiiieB to the oalf of the leg. The 
coTering of the head is generally in tbe form of an iorerled cone. Tbe 
outaide ia of cane, wronght in a fanciful manner, and tbe intide it lined 
with aatin. On the top, which lerminatai in a point, is generally worn a 
(aft of red hair. This head-<lre8s, though common, is not aniversal, since 
tbe Chinese haTs hats of niany different shapes. Sometimes they are in 
form liko a bell, and sometimes with very hroad brims, and a small sbal- 
low space for the head. Those of the upper ranks never go abroad with- 
out hoots, made soroetimea of cotton, bat more generally of satin, or some 
other kind of silk, except when they ride, and then they have them made 
of pliant leather. When at home, tbey wear slippen of silk. The slippers 
of the common people are of black cotton cloth. No inhabitant of China 
reckons himself completely druased without his tan. 

The different ranks in China are disUngnlsbed by difEareot ornaments, 
and different dreeses. The royal colour is yellow. Tbe different classes 
«f mandarins are distinguished by knobs, or bntlons of different colonrs, 
worn in tbe ixp. The cap is white, lined with red. The peculiar orna- 
ments appropriated to different rank*, cannot be assumed by one of a dif- 
fenat rank, without subjecting the offender to « severe punishment. White 
is tbe colour of mourning in China. 

The dress of the women among the lower orden differs little from that 
of the men, A cotton frock, tawdry coloured trawsers, drawn tight by 
the calf of the leg, to show off an overgrown ankle, swathed round with 
party-coloured bandages, and a dwarfish foot, ornamented with embroidery, 
are the principal articles in the female dress, which are decorated with ar- 
tificial flowers, &c according to the taste and circumstances of the wearer. 
Paints are nsed universally. The teeth arc tinged g^reen and yellow ; and 
the nula, among tbe higher classes, kept anpared till they often reach a 
len^ of 12 inches. Bamboo sbeatfaea are used to preserve them. Tbe 
deure of appearii^ agreeable has nowhere farced upon human beings a 
costom more preposterous, than that adopted by the Chinese ladies, of 
making their feet as little as possible. A female child is no sooner born, 
than her feet are tightly wrapped np, so as to prevent them from attaining 
their natural magnitude. At different periods these bandages are renewed, 
till, by continued torture, the fqot is effectually confined to the fsshionable 
MZe. The shoe of a full grown lady of quality, is often not more than 
four inches in length, and less than two in breads. Instead of walking, 
she hobbles with an awkward and painful motion, so that a Chinese beauty 
is what in oUier countries would be called a cripple. 

The laws of China prohibit tbe dressing of children in silks and furs. 
Tbe head cannot be covered, till the individual be of a certain age. The 
assnmp^on of the cap, like that of the toga among the Romans, is accom- 

Cied with conuderable ceremony. The person is informed that now he 
aasnmed the dress of a man, that be ceases to be a boy, and that he 
ought, therafore, to distinguish hinuelf by his actions, as well as by the 
manly habit. 

Hotuet.'} The Chinese have not received their rules of architectnt« 
from any other nation. Their structures ara totally unlike to any thing io 
Burope. To him who has formed his taste by the orders establisbeil in 


the Weateni trorlJ, their boildin^, no doubt, appear (iuitutici bnt thoT 
miut be confessed to hare b apeciea of beanty peculiar to dieniMlTai, anil 
of which it would b« difficult to give « predse idea. SacU an idea may b« 
moat advantBf^tuly acijnired from representattoas of ChioeM arcbitactore. 
Tlie bnildingB of the ChineM, both public and prirate, are of wood, and 
when ioteaJed for dwelling bonsea have rarely more than ona floor. F(w 
both theae oircnmstancea the lame causes hare been aaaigoed. The fre- 
qaent earthquakes make low house*, built of the ligfateat matarials, tha 
most eligible. The extreme dampneaa of Ab climate, joioed to the warmth 
of the southern and the cold of die northern prorincaa, make hooaM built 
of Btone* at alt dmes inconvenient, and on some occasions aninhabitable. 
From some bnildinga still remaining, it appeara that houses of many floors 
we're formerly in use, bnt they have long yielded to the mora convenient 
dwellings of one floor. Tlie honses of the middle and lower claaae* an 
genenliy muck crowded. A multitude of small apartmenia are separated 
Irom each other by slight partitions, or by mata. Each of theao apartmBota 
is inbabiled by what, in Enrope, wonid be called a distioct family. Th* 
whole bsilding is sorronnded by a wall six or aeren feet in height, inthin 
whi^ dwells a Cliinesa lamily, o^n consisting of three genentions, with 
all their wires and children. If the population in China, therefore, were 
eabmaled from die number of houses, the calculation moat be made on 
principles different from those common in Enrope. Except in cities, tha 
bonaea are seldom collected in groupe. They are icatierod abont the 
country in unconnected situations. "Diey are sud (u exhibit a neat and 
cleanly appearance. Each house has a separate apartment, iu which the 
whole inhabitaota eat. 

Marriage*^ In China polygamy is not abaolutely forblddeo: bnt do. 
c«Dcy, good sense, and sometimes poverty, confine by far the greater part 
to one wife. Hie desire of issne, particularly of male isane, sometiroea 
prompts bim who despairs of having children by his Snt wife, to take a 
second, who, when he has attained his wishes, ia generally dismisMd. But 
thou^ a man oaonot, widi propriety, have more han one wife, he ia al- 
lowed to have seveisl concubine*, a privilege, from the abase of which, tha 
poverty of the gmerelity of the people is a sufficient preventive. Be- 
aides the condition of a concnbine is so dtsagreeable, that few are willing 
to dispoee of their daughters for that purpose. They are in complete sub- 
jection to the lawful wife. They serve her on all occasions, llieir chil- 
dren are acconnted hers, and address her alona as their mother. Marriage 
cannot, in several casn, be legally contracted. If the woman be formerly 
betrothed, the marriage is void. If the female, who has been repreaented 
as being beantifnl, appear to be in reality ugly, the contract is not binding. 
No mandarin can oiany the relation of a family belonging to the province 
which he governa. No marriage can be consummated, while any of tho 
partiea ara in mourning, ot under the preasuie of a severe misfortune. Two 
brothers cannot ba married to two aistera, nor can a widower give hia aoa 
(o the dang^iter of that widow whom bo may chooae for his own wifn 
The woman are closely confined, not beuig pacmitted to coavarae with any 
of the male sex, unleas some of tbeir uuaresl relations. He, therefore, 
who ia in quest of a wife, is never permitted to see hia mistress. He 
trusts entirely to the information fA a female mediator, who reports the 
character and the possessions of the intended spciue In Enrope, a lover, 
when emplaj«d in tbo praise of bis mistresS) is often accused of dasoribing 
imatfinary charma. If evar an unmarried inhabitant of China attempt auy 


thing like lore-poetiy, lie muBt be literally gailty of the same fault. When 
the BDm has been aettled which the bride^om is to pay for the bride, 
every prelimioary is supposed to be adjusted. When the filed day of con- 
iummation arrirea, the bridegroom places himself at bis gate, dressed in 
hit gayest apparel. He there waits the arrival of the bride, who approaches 
locked np in a close palanqain, of which a faithful domestic carries the key. 
It is delivered to the impatieat bridegroom, who, it may be sapposed, with 
considerable agitation, proceeds to open the door of the palanquin, and to 
find his hopes and bis nisbns confircned or disappointed. If the female 
answers not the picture which his imagination has been taoght to form, and 
if be be able and willing to pay her parents a sum equal to the price al- 
ready given for her, he shuts the door and sends hor back without cere- 
mony. If he conceives that he has reason to be satisfied with his bargain, 
he makes the bride descend. To display the gentility of her feet, she 
totters into his nunsioii ; and the scene is concluded with that festivity, 
which, on such occasions, is common in all countries, llie recluse life of 
a Chinese woman does not terminate with her marriage. She is still se- 
clude<l from the conversation of all but her domestics. The husband who 
strictly observes the ceremonial law, has in his house, at least, two apart- 
ment*, the most remote for his wife, the Other for himself. She must not 
quit her apartment without some urgent reason. It is even indecent for 
the husband too frequently to intrude upon her privacy. 

Divorce is allowed in China for several causes, of which some, ia 
Europe, would be accounted very frivolous. Adultery subjects the 
pany not only to be divorced, but to be put to death. A man may 
divorce his wife if he appear to have any rational cause to be jealous 
of her. Mutual dislike, or incompatibility of temper, authorize a man 
to put sway bis wife. Even loquacity ia, in the book of ceremonies, 
reckoned an offence sufficient to subject her to that punishment. Th« 
prevalence of euch a law in Europe would probably silence many a fair 
orator. If a woman however, has lost her parents or former husbaad, 
and has mourned for them three years, she becomes a privileged person, 
and cannot be divorced for any of these slight causes. The woman who 
abscAnds from her busband, if she can be recovered, becomes his slave. 
Tile female sex, however, ia not witbout its privileges. If a husband aban- 
dons his wife for the space of three years, by laying her case before a 
mandarin, she may be authorized to take another husband. When the law 
gives a husband so much power over his wife, nothing is more likely than 
that, in many inalaocea, it will be abused. The wives, accordingly, are 
often kept in the greatest subjection ; are forced to wait behind their hus- 
bands while they eat vt table, and to perform all the drudgery of a menial 

Marriage of the Dead.'} In the interior province of Shansi, if two 
friends happen to lose, the one a eon and the other a daughter, nnburied 
at the same period of time, which is not nnfrequent, since they frequently 
keep the bodies at home for a year or two, then the parenta agree to marry 
them. They send the usual preaenta with much ceremony and music ;< 
after which the two coffins are placed together, and the wedding dances 
celebrated before them. These ceremonies performed, they are then laid 
in the same tomb ; and the families are thenceforward considered as re- 

Birllu.'} The birth of a son is a season of great rejoicing. As aoon 
OS born, he receives liia miiig, i. e. little or infantinu name; but girls enjuy 


Mt raeb honoar, beiiig edied siniftlf ^nt, Beeond, tfajrd, fltc. according to 
•Muoritjr, At ihe age of twenty, he reGeives hia Iai, or nunly Dam*. 
Thwv is alto a common mrnanie borne by arery iudiTidnal ef the family. 
Kone of the Cbinete rales of good-br»e^g are more pieciae thaa thoM 
whi^ ragnlate the nie of namsa. lite emperor bat various namea for 
varioBs occaaioiiB, snch a* the imperial Mune, the year name, the poatbu- 
monB name, he. The imperial name of the raigaintt emperor ia Tao-inang, 
'd>e light of raaaon.' The Chinese cannot be freed from the charge of female 
inbnticide; but trarellera have greasy exaggerated the extent of thia crime. 
Early manii^ea are coDBtantly encouraged by the parents, and almoat en- 
forced by religion, to that many tnfftge in the conjugal atate without tha 
power or proapect of maintaining a family, When auch ia the case, the pa- 
renta aometimeaare tempted to expose dieir female oSapring in public plar.ea, 
that they may have a chance for mainteuaDce, by being found by those 
offic«ra whom government baa appointed for this purpose. This cauae 
of tho exposure of children exlata in Europe, and we may expect, that in 
China, where the population is so great, ouil where anbsietence ia so pre- 
carious, it must operate atill more powerfiiUy. To this cause of exposing 
childreu, another must be added. In aeveml of the provincea of China, 
the bonzes, or prieata, under the influence of a fanatic cruelty, by thero 
called religion, have peraoaded their igDorant votaries, that to throw 
iImIt children into a rirer, ia to perform on acceptable service to the 
deity of the stream — a anperstiuon not peculiar to the Chinese. The 
whole number of children, however, found in rivers and upon the high* 
waya, have not been expoaed alive. Oiriag to the expensive nature of 
Chinese fnnerala, the parent* frequently dispose of them in that manner 
•iter il>ey ara dead, knowing that they will be interred at the public 

SdueatioH.^ In no country is tbe connenon between parents and 
children mope close, or the anbordination of the latter to the former 
Bore complete. A htber ia accountable for many of the crimes of his 
children, from a auppoaition that he might have prevented them. A aou 
eontinuee a minor during hia father's lifetime. He ia liable to all hia 
fatber'a debla, except such aa are contracted by gaming. An adopted 
iioo is under the aame subjection to his nominal father. If we may be- 
lieve tbe writera who have given an account of China, the education of 
youth ia an object of particnlar attention. Hie Chinese have been said 
to put in practice that which only to have proposed has subjected se- 
veral European philosophers to ridicule. Ia the higher classes, the edu- 
cation of a child commences with the birth. At six, he is taught the moat 
common numbers, and the names of the principal porta of the univerae. 
He ia removed from his usters at seven, and is no longer suffered to enjoy 
their company. At eight, he commencea the study of the rules of polite- 
nesa — a study which in China ia not the leoat laborious. At nine, he is 
expected to be master of the kolendar, and at ten, he is despatched to a 
public achool, where, till he be thirteen, he is employed in initiating him- 
self ill the arts of reading and writing. At Uiirteen, he commences the 
study of music, and at this time, in former ages, commenced the repetition 
of the monl precepts, whidi were all in verse, a custom of which the 
sagra of the nation now lament the losa. At fifieen, the youth commences 
the practice of the manly exercises. He mounts on horseback, and ac- 
quires dexterity in the use of the bow and arrow. At twenty, he receive* 
the cap of manhood, is allowed to change hia cotton garment* for others 


36 AUA. 

6f ink, and ii ftdraraished not (o diafaonoar the dunctor which he bw noir 
Bwumed. It may be Buppowd that the periods of this coarse or «dac*- 
don diSer according to the pro^ia of the etudent ; bat the HtatenieDt 
may Heire to fpye as tome idea of a Chinese edaration. Caution and 
reserve, as well as dimioialation and sel&thneas, are Bnaoni; the anavgid- 
able consequences of perpetnal coercion ; bo that even in Aeir earliest in- 
hncy they are taught to repress the baoyancy of spirits and the lirely 
emotions which are natural to that age. A Chinese boy has all the affect- 
ed sedat«ne«s, atifineas, aod f<Kioality of a Quaker; and in after life he 
becomes cold an<) ceremonious even to hie near relations. The eJacation 
of females is chiefly snch u may fit them for their futare condition in life, 
that is, they are tanght to love solitade and to be silent ; an undertaking 
which the ill-natured would pronounce imposslbls. They are inspired with 
a love of modesty, and if their parents can afford it, they are instrncted in 
such other arts, as, to their nsefiii qualities, may add somewhat that ie 

Domestic Life and Diel.'J The Chinese are frugal aod retired in thur 
mode of living, and hare a regalarity and invariablenese of domestic ha- 
bile, not common elsewhere. They rise at day-break, and retire to rest 
at sun-set, and seldom meet for purposes of social intercourse or amuse- 
ment. Those who are in affluence are served by slaves and ennuchs, and 
generally keep sunptnons tables. Rice, yegetables, fish,' poultry, and 
especially pork, are the common articles of diet. The flesh of horses and 
asses is a hvourite dish among the Tartars. The more Mutinous any snb- 
etance is, the more it is relished by the Chinese, and hence they have a 
great passion for certain sea-weeds. Cakes of unleavened bread, pickles 
and preserves, fresh fmita cooled in ice, ragoats, soups, and pastry, are 
common requisites of a Chinese dinner, and go to prove that they are not 
ignorant of the culinary art. The great body of the common people, how- 
ever, live vary miserably. Rice, garlic, and cabbage, Med in rsncid oil, 
are the choicest articles of their diet ; and one of their most delicate 
diahei is made of birds'-nests. Worms, frogs, rats, dogs, and ofial of all 
kinds, they devonr ; and stick not even at putrid carcases. A few earthen- 
ware jars and basins, with an iron chafing-dish, pot, and frying-pan, form 
nearly the whole of their household fnmitDre. Tea is an universat be- 
verage ; but the poor are obliged to economize it, and boil the same 
leaves over and over aj^n. What is called wine in China has no resem- 
blance to Uie wines of Europe. It is, in fact, a spirituous liquor ob- 
tained from gram ; In the northn^ provinces from millet, and in the 
southern from rice. It is perfectly dear and transparent, aod ie swd (o 
be free of that empyreumatic odour, so generally perceptible in European 
spirituons liquors. From the same materials is obtained, by a different 
process, a kind of vinous liquor, of a muddy appearance, and said to be 
disa^treeable to strangers. 

Chinese lant.^ If il be true, as has been stat«dt that die degree of 

* The Chlnen hav< a method of hstohing apawn of fiih, and thug protecllag It fbaai 
thoH accldeoU ivhich ordinu'lly deilroy u lu^e a portiou of It. I'he fitkermen col- 
leot Mth care, on the nurgin aod aurface of the water, nil thOH gelatlnoui masua 
which contain the ipawn of fl<h. After they hare found a luScient qoantitjr, they 
flil irllh il the ehell of a fnuh hen egg, which they have pceyiouilf emptied, alop up 
lb* holei, and put it under a uttiug towl. At the expiration of a c^Tlaiu numlHr oT 
da^ Ihey break the ahell In water warmed b; the ntn. The fouiug try are preaeutly 
hatched, and are kept In pure freeh water liU they are large enough to be tlirown Um 
the rood with the old flah. The aala of ipawn, for tbl> purpose, forms an Important 
bnnoh of trade In China. 

d*i1isation which a couotiy hu attwned xbaj be ettinUed hy tba eandi- 
tion of iti inni, ChineM civilisation is not yet very great, for the inni of 
Chiaa are gennBlly mean and inconmnieiit, being for the moat part noting 
bat fonr walls mtbde of earth, without plaster or flooring, except on the 
{Kintnpal roads of the empire, wbwe they are sometimes large and hand- 
tome. Bat it is aeceasary for traTellera who with to sleep comfortably to 
carry their own beds (commonly a quilt oi two) with diem ; otherwise 
they would have to sleep on a mat. 

Awnuemtnl* and FeilmaU.'\ Games of chance are the most common 
•mosements of the Chinese. Cards and dice are almost always cvried 
■boat : and a game called Udt-nui, very c«mroan among the populace, ia 
■nbititated for them when they are not at hand. It is accompanied 
by gTe«t noise and gesticniation. Chess is a common amnsement with the 
higher orders, but it difFers from ours in name, place, and movements of 
the pieces. Cock, quail, and locnst fighting, are sports of which the Chi- 
neee are immoderately fond \ as well as plays and dances, the latter of 
which are merely wretched ballets. In their public festirals, fire-works 
make a conspicnous figure. In these they are said to excel Europeans. 
Among dieir festivals, one consists in the emperor publicly tilling the 
gronod, a ceremony intended to preserve and nonrish a spirit for agricul- 
ture, and which ii accompanied with moch pomp nnd many exhibitions. 
Anotbw fesuval is celebraied at the commencement of the year, during 
which all public busioess is suspended, visits are mutually paid, and 
preaents are made. Hie festival, called the Fnast of Lantboms, is tba 
most extraordinary of all those which the Chinese celebrate. The time 
of celebration ia geDernlly from the ISth to the 16Ui day of the first 
month. Dnring that time, in every quarter are to be seen numerous Ian- 
thorns, adoroed with elegant devices, and illuminated in the most splendid 
manner. All the deceptions of the magic lanthom are displayed, and the 
evenings are concluded with fire-works. 

Ceretmmut.l In the matter of courteey, the Chinese surpass all other 
people in the worid ; but it is so blended with absurd forms and cere- 
monies as to betray the heartlessaesa of their professions, and to make 
their intercourse with one anoUier a weary round of childish and contempti- 
ble fiomM. They are not only bound to proatrmtions in the emperor's pt«- 
aence, but have a Mt of phrases which it would be death to forget when 
addressing him ; and the profnndity of the bow, and the postnre of the 
body required on every different occasion, from an interview with the em- 
peror himself to a visit from one tradesman with another, are made es- 
•ential parts of legislation and edncation. As an instaoce of their ex- 
cessive ceremonioosnees, the following account of an ordinary Chinese 
muertainment may be given. The person who wishes to be thoi^ht 
in earnest, when he invites his friend to dine at his house, knows 
that his first invitation will not be accepted. He takes care, thei«- 
fore, to despatch a card' on the evening before, another next morning, 
■ad a third jost before dinner. The host receives each of his goesia 
■t his gate, and wth many bows, and much form, introduces them 
to the hall, where be again salutes them iodiridually. Wine is brought 

II wUl Mrhspi be thragbl ■ nmurkable oircumitance, that, ■monE the Chlnn. 
dtfimiMiia, the mbdonule* of tlu ilMftuith onlurjr hut* dMeribed a coiirm limilv 
to tbe modern biiropean uae of m<iting cardu but liuliwl oTs mere cmid, the ChiiuH 
vWtor lMT» ■ UliI. bo^ of nbout twelyo pigei. In <rhieb uothltif 1. written but hi. 
"T^ h J*imTk *'"'"" "^ »obmtariTen«M and ravvrenee MxninU the penon at 

to him in a sinall nip, of which ba tikm hold with both kit hnKh. 
He ngun mRkeB a bow to nch of his goMta, ud sdrntcng towardt th« front 
of the hall, fa« miMa his eyes and the cop towardi hearni, aud dien pouts de 
wine Dpon the groand. Mora wine is brought ; he pOBia it into Um C«p, 
and hiBteiw to place il on a table before his priooipal gnmt. The gacat, 
no lew p<dite than his bost, prerenti him, by bavin; a cap already on bw 
table, by callini; for wine, and •adearonrin^ to place it on a table before 
the master of the hoow. When this cereinoQial strife, wfaidi conttnttea a 
considenUe time, has been adjusted with the principal visitant, it nnut be 
repeated with every indiridoal gneat ; of whom each endeavonra to eoceel 
the other in the extent, that is to any, the ledionmieas of his good breeding. 
All this, however is only an introductory ceremony : the company hare 
not yet bad their proper aeats assigned tbcon. An npper servant conduct* 
the principal guest to an elbow-chair covered with embroidery. The goeM 
declines the honour, and refuses positively what he ia resolved to accept. 
Each of the visitaDta is led to hia chur with the same ceremony, and witli 
equal strennoasiteia each of the guesia protests against the booonr done 
hun. Wine is again brought in, for, in China, to drink befora dinner ia 
genteel- The principal waiter, falling down on one knee, begs the guests 
to take a glass. Each lays hold of hia cap with both hia hands, iBisee it 
to his forehead, then brings it lower than the table, and then, witb deliber- 
niion, ho raises it to his mmitb, and drinks slowly, taking sereral dntnghb. 
The first coarse ia introduced ; each prodncei his small sticks, which serve 
biro in the place of knife and fork. But (hough the meat be presented, 
none presumes to eat, till the wwter CMmestly b^ the goaita to partake of 
vhat ia offered. At the same instant each oommencea ; the little aticks are 
brandished, and the toeal is conveyed to tfae momh, while the whole com- 
pany, ohserviiig each others motions, keep time wid) « regularity little in- 
ferior to that neceasary in military evolutions. The entertainment generally 
consists of twenty-four dishes, of which each is introdoced and began with 
theeama caremuoials.aod eaten with a wmilarragnlarity. Frequent draughta 
of wine are taken during the repast, bnt the aame regularity is not obaerred 
as W first. The first part of the entwtainmeat is concluded with tea. After 
lea, the gneeU retire to another hall, or to a garden, till tbe desaert be in- 
troduced, wbitJi, lika ^e dinner, consist* of tweniy-foar dishes, or, mcM« 
properly, oounee, and which is eaten with caremonie* differing little frooi 
those already described. AfW the dessert, larger cups ara set down, and 
the guests are requaated to drink more freely. ' It may be easily supposed 
that the«e entertainments, with all their attendant fonu, occupy a oonri- 
derable time. They begin early in the evening, bnt are never t«'ininate(l 
before midnight. Each of the gueats, when be departa, gives a small sum 
to (he dumestica. He (ben goes home in a chair, preceded by aevervl B«r>- 
van(s, bearing lanthoms formed of oiled paper, on which ara inscribed the 
name and quality of their master. Next day each of tbe guests returna a 
card of thanks to their host. In tbe course of the entertainment, dramatic 
representationB are sometimes displayed. The women are never permitted 
to form part of any company ; when tha playsve acted, they are placed in 
such a situation, as to see them without being seen. 

From tbis specimen may be inferred the general formality of Chinese 
manners ; and the European advocai«s for tbe forms of what is called good 
breeding, may very reasooably despair of ever being able to eqnal their 
eastern friends. 

When anch are the ceremonials of a private entertainment, it is not to be 
expected that public business will be less formal. When Macartney, was 


received n ambmBdor « the Chioeae court, a long diapnte took placo con- 
ccmic^ the mode in wfiich he wu to talate the emperor, or his ompty 
tIir<M>e. The Chinese repaired a complete proattatioD, an act which the 
ambsMador conceired to be too hutniltatiDg; and it waa not till after a con- 
aiderable altercation, that the Briliafa were permitted to testify their respect 
to the Chinese monarch, in the tame form as to his Britannic majerty. 

Funeralt.'] The formality which has accompanied a native of China 
daring hl» life, doea not leave him at bis death. To appear, then, with 
•oitahle decoram, employe the thongbta of half bis life, and half the pro- 
duce of his laboiir is expended on an elegant cof&n, to be laid up tn the 
^t conapicnons part of his dwelling, of which it constitntes the a 

luable funiitnre. TTie greateat misfortune which attends porerty ia the 
inability to purchase a coffin j and the filial piety of a son ha« Mmetimes 
enended so far as to induce him to sell his liberty, that with the price he 
might purchase for hia father this necessary apparatus of mortality. 

When a person dice, be ia immediately dressed in hia beat clothes ; and, 
if daring his life he enjoyed any office, he ia decorated with its badges. He 
ia placed in his coffin, where be remuns in atate generally seren dayv. Hie 
nearest relations remain in the house, and hia odier friends wut on him 
OTery day to pay their respect*. The hall of ceremony is hung with white. 
Before the coffin is placed a table, on which stands his image, or an orna- 
ment, on which his name is inscribed, with lighted candles, perfumes, and 
flowefa. The visitants aalate the deceased as if he were in life ; tliey ap- 
proach, and, bending downwards, tooch the earth several times with their 
heads. These salutations are returned by the nearest male relations of the 
deceased, who lie concealed behind a curtain in a back comer of the room ; 
they creep out, upon their handa and their kneea, towards those whom they 
are to salute ; and, without rising, creep back again. The females, con- 
cealed behind the same curtain, by their shrieka, at regnlar intervals, testify 
ibehr grief. 

After these ceremoniea hare contiDued for several daya, and after every 
friend baa received repealed invitations to attend the funeral, the proceaaion 
at length commencea. A great nnmber of men march in the front, carry- 
ing images of slaves, and different kinds of beasts. Others follow them, 
with Btandards, flags, and censers filled with perfnmea. A band of musio 
immediately precedes the coffin, playing the moat melancholy alra. The 
coffin is placed apon a kind of machine, supported by a great nnmber ef 
men, and covered with a aplendid canopy. Hm nearest relation follows, 
dreaaed in a canvas garment, supporting bis steps with a staff. The other 
frienda and relations accompany him, dreseed hi white ; and the procesaion 
ia closed by a number of chairs, covered with white, in whit^ are carried 
the female relatioua. The grief of these ia very vocifrrons, but, at the same 
time, is ao methodical, thai it is more like art than Borrow. The body ia 
deposited in the tomb, and here those who have attended the funeral are 
entertained, with a aplendour proportioned to the wealth of ibe deceased. 
If be be of very high rank, many of hia friends remtun at the Mmb opwaida 
of a month, in apartments prepared for the purpose. 

Hie ordinary period of mourning, for a near relation, in China, is three 
years, daring tdl which time, the mourner abataina from wine and animal 
food. He can attend no public assembly, nor assist at any entertainment 
IK" ceremony. During a considerable time he seldom goet abroad, and wheit 
obliged to leave hia own house, be is conveyed in a chair covered with white 
cluih. Hh) excess of filial piety » ' ' ' 

so ASIA. 

UaboiiM, foTthrMorfoarvMn, the corpM of LU lather; during all whicb 
thne he remains nev the coflin, aittiag by day on a atool covered with 
white cloth, and ileepinft by night on s mat, made of reeds. 

When a native of China diea at a diaunce from the prorince in which he 
was bom, it becomes the dnty of hia children to tranaport thither his remuns, 
and to depoMt them in the bnrying place of hii ancestors. He neglect of 
this duty would entail npon the characters of his children a disgrace which 
would prevent them from being admitted into any honourable society. The 
Chinese burying-placee are not permitted to be within towns ; they are 
generally aitnated at a conaiderable distance, upon an eminence, and, if 
possible, in a aitnation so barren aa to he of little nse for any other purpose. ' 
The Chineae viait the tomba of their ancestors once or twice every year 
they cle«r it of weeds, and, renewing the expresaioni of tlieir grief, they 
place Dpon it wine, and other provisions, which serve as an entertainment 
to each aa hare asmated at the ceremony. 

Beaidea viaiting the tomba, they annnally visit the hall of their ancestors, 
a lai^e building, which is accounted the common property of every branch 
of tfaeaama family. The nnmberofindiridnala collected in one of these halls 
of^n amounts to several tbouaanda, among whom are peraons of every situa- 
tion and condition of life. In this place, however, wealth and raoli entitle their 
posaeasora to no other pre-eminence than that of treating the whole family. 
Age is here the only circumstance universally respected ; and, during this 
ceremony, the oldest man of the company, though he at the aame time be 
the poorest, is accounted the moat honourable. Should any of the ances- 
tors of the family have filled a dignified office, hia figure generally appean 
at one end of the hall. In various parts of it are inscriptions, with the names 
and designations of their most elevated predeceesors. To have one's name 
placed in an bononrable and conspicuous station in the hall of ancestors is 
the highest honenr ; when the name is denied admission, nothing ia consi- 
dered to be a greater iliagrace. 

General Character t^lhe Chinese.'] From what has been sud in this 
chapiter, and from the analysis, given in another chapter, of the government, 
law, 8k. of this singular people, the reader maybe led to a pretty accurate 
eatimMe of the general character of the Chinese. It may be observed, that 
we seldom see foreign nations either fully or fairly, and acarcely ever con- 
aider what we do see without prejudice or partiality : novelty ia sure either 
to magnify or diminish the objects with which it ia aaaociated ; and the 

rtaior of strange manners is almost irreaistibly tempted either to despise 
) for differing from hia own, or to admire them as something very su- 
perior. Thia Bcconnta for the striking differences of travellers in matters of 
opinion, even where the &cta upon which these opiniona were founded are 
the same. China especially, a case ao atrange and isolated in its nature, baa 
fnmiahed unbounded scope to dogmatism and speculation ; and on no point 
conld the opinions of men at one time be more opposed than on that of the 
character of the Chinese. Further information on the aubject, however, has led 
to greater unanimity of sentiment regarding the people ; and it is now very ge- 
nerally admitted that they hold a aort of bastard proximity to civilized dbtions, 
in what respects the outward forma.of society, but are in real virtue and worth 
infinitely inferior to many communities who are atyled barbarous and savage. 
Their general politeness and lu'banity are as prepossessing as their real cha- 
racter is too often contemptible. Affected gravity, an exceaa of civility, and 
apparent openness, are combmed in the Chinese character with pride, mean- 
ness, frivolity, groaaneaa, and a duplicity which ia almost unparalleled. Ad 


nttOT i&ragatd of irath pemd«s all nmlu, ind detaetion in the lilart Mm 
bood* occamoDB no shame. Nodung like a feeling of seif-reipect at Mnae 
of bonow exiBit among tbem : the baatiiuula wems to be dteir <mly rale of 
dction. Althoi^ almoat enlirelf Eree from die sin of dmokeniieBs, tliey are 
gnilty of ibe moat unnaMtal MDmalities, an6 make do aecret of tbeir dw- 
giuting alliancee, boaating of tbe jronth and beaaty of tbeir pipe-bearen, 
witb tha same freedom tlwt a take wtmld boast of hii mistraaa. One*irtiie, 
indeed, preraili nnivenallf among diem, i»atr\f,_fiiial pieii/ ; but tbia vir- 
toe ia fu hoot prodndng ita naoal reanlt, of parental affection. Tbe fiuber 
may, and often doei, pnniab his children widi a seTerity diat provei fatal ; 
and, notwithstanding its being discountenanced by the penal CMde, it is W 
be feared that feniale iiifimticide preTails to a connderable extent. Parenla, 
too, often inflict sexual matilatioa on tbeir male children ; sometimeB that 
they may stand a better chance tiS promotion at eoart, and sometimee that 
tbey may sell them as elavea. Many, also, sell tburdaagfalos to pnwUtndon; 
and tbe namber of proatitatee, from this and other causes, is in Ciuna im- 
mense. From a people capable of each iliinga it wonld be in Tsia to ex- 
pect either hononrablB or generone feelinga ; edfisbncaa, in its neaoestt 
most debanng, and cowardly fmms, predominates over every other conai- 
deration^. Tbe treatment of women ia, in erery conotry, a test of tbe 
dnlizadon of tbe people ; and, taking this as the standard, the Chineae 
must rank in tbe lowMt scale. Every man bays his wife from her par«nia 
without seeing her ; and may return her, if he do not like ber ^rpearancei 
upon paying a certain forfeit; be may alao buy'as many as be thinks be 
can maintain ; and may sell into slavery as many as be can convict of any 
infidelity. Women can inherit no property. In the lugfaer ranks, they ara 
kept in tbe strictest seclusion ; and among tbe Iowh ranka, all die heavy 
labour and drndgery falls npon them : iu tbe fields theymay often be wMn, 
nrith an infant on their back, dragging the plough or tbe barrow, wlule tba 
husband indolently directs it. Such •eclnaion- and degndatioD preclude 
all domestic society, end cnt off the sonrcee of bmily afiecdon. In short, 
while the Chinese, at a superficial glance, display much of tbe power and 
polish of a great and cinlised nation, no kingdom could be more essentially 
weak or more easenually debaaed. Their abject submission to a despotism 
upheld by the sordid terrors of the lash — the imprisonment and servility of 
their women — tbemutilation,andininany caaesdestmcdon, of tbeir cbildroi 
— their unnatural vices — dieir unconquerable ignorance of the higher de- 
partments of science and philosophy, and do^ed adherence to tbe litde 
they do know of tbe arts — tbe stupid and heartless formalidea which en- 
comber tbeir soual intercourse, and their monstrous disregard of truth — 
tbe hopeless imperfecdon of tbeir language — tbeir cowardice, uncleannees, 
and inhumanity : these, joined to their great national conceit, and contempt 
for, or want of sympadiy witb, tbe other inhabitants of tbe earth, provokei 
in tbe moet stoii^, a wish, that some mighty moral or physical convulaioii 
wonld break down, or dissipate, a stale of society and system of govMnment 
an beaotted and degrading, and that the dungeon wall, which has ao long 
enclosed so many millions of hnmao beings frmn intercourse widi their fel- 
low crettlures, were for ever swept away. 

ReligioiiJ^ All the accounts diat we poss e ss of tbe religious opinions 
' e of tbe Chinese previous to tbe time of Confnciua, are full 

•Ina a»wUGliaiHmid«'HTBamw-i 

fcU into m ouuJ, sod wen itnwtuii, no effon 

: <ru Duds to nre thtm, slttaiiutli a i 

|ii* cObn w>s all thai mi T^olrsd. 


at ASIA. 

of nnuft^ty, Bnd mixsd with bble. In their primitire rsIigioD tfaty hmid 
to b«ra acluiowledged a Supreme Being, whom tbey wonhipped BBdar 
wiotu nune*, lach a» Tien or Kien, hraoea, Sbaog-tieii, mpnme Aemm, 
Sbuis-tee, aipreme Lord, and Htwn Shang-tee tover^m and mprant 
Lord. Thii Saprenu Btang (bey coiwiderefl «a takwg compleM c^ni- 
saoce of the actions of men, and u retrardiog TUtne and pniiiabiiig rice. 
We find them, however, awodating with the Shangtee or Supreme Being 
S multitude of eDbordinate tutelary epirita •■ objecta of wonhip, nnder the 
lame of Shia or Korey-ahin. Immediately after the ncrifice offered ta 
the Shangtee, they escnficed also to ^ Shin, and to their Tirtaoni deceas- 
ed ancesuwe, imploring their protection and iaterceaiion with the Sbai^- 
lee. The aoreraign alone, who wea conaidered ea the high prieat of the 
nauoQ, had the priril^e of sacrificing to the Tien, bnt any other might 
supply his plane iu making offerings to the Shin. In the earlier ages of 
the empire, when ils bonndaries were bnt small, one ntoontmn was judged 
sufficient on which to perform these rites } but as iu territoriea inraeased in 
size, four principal monatMos in the extremities of the empire, and one in 
the centre, were af^ioted for this parpose, and denominated the fire Yn, 
or mouatmne of sacrifice. To these sacred places ^e emperor repmred 
SBCceatiTely every year to oSei eaerifice, to show himself to hi» people, 
and to reform ahusea. These regular jonmeyB, hoire*er, being found to 
be attended witii namerons diffiooltiei and inconveniences, an edifice waa 
erected in the neighbourhood of the pal&ce, es a stationary and unireraal 
Yo, and here the emperor'bfiered the nanal sacrifices, when it would have 
been iDcmtrenient to remore &om his palace. A similar edifice was erect- 
ed about 1122 bef<M:e Christ, and named Mingtuig, or the temple of l^it. 
This led die way iot «unilar temples to the sun and m«on, and hence arena 
a faultitade of snperatitiena ; the wind, the run, the thunder, and even dis> 
nasfs. &C. were, in like manner, penonified, and wonhipped ea divinitiee, 
while empevors, warriors, &c. became demigods. The people forgot the 
more simple worship of the Sbaogtee, and embnced every new supersti- 
tiao with the greatest avidity. 

TaaUte.'^ The moat ancient of the Chinese reKgioas sects, is that of die 
Tao-lae, or sons of immortals, which was founded by Lao-tse, a philoeo- 
pher, who waa bora about 600 years before Christ. Mis mother, it is 
believed, conceived in a retired place, by the united influence of heaven 
and earth, and after eighty years' pregnancy, at l^igth, under dw shade of 
a plum-tree, brought farlji a son with hair perfectly whito. It is said that 
Tao-tse, after having acquired a profound knowledge of the history ^d 
usages of bis country, tnvelled into Tibet, where he imbibed the doctrines 
of the priests of Lama, and wroto a book entitled Tao-te-king, or the book 
of the power of Tao. According to his doctrine, Tao is the jHineiple of 
heaven and earth, the cause of all that exists, a highly wise, but utterly in- 
cemprefaensible Bemg. He who desires to be united to the Tao is the 
only wise man, and must for this end, be free from the inflneBce of every 
passion, engage m no eublnnary pursuit, keep silence, censore nothing that 
exists, and be kind to bis fellow men. The principles of this sect are 
merely a modification of Boodhism. 

His foilowcrs, named Tao-tse, therefore, place the supreme duty and 
felicity of man in a stato of perfect tranquillity, recommending the auppree- 
aion of all violent desires and passions, the utmost moderation in every 
pursuit and enjoyment, and an atter indifference with regard to the past, 
'e ptenent, or the futnre. But as this apathy, or tranquillity, which dinr 

waMer iaca1aite<], uid wbich they laboured to attaiu, was necMsarily di*- 
tvbed by the proapect of death, they adopted a notion, which tbey are 
■uppoaed to have derired from the idea of the sonl of the Lama paning 
iato the peraon of his flucceaaor, and imagined, that a liquor might be com- 
pounded from the three kingdoms of nature, which woald {ftiAiieu the vir- 
tne of reaorating the vigour of the haman body, and of rendering it finally 
immortal. In pnrenit of diis bererage of immortality, they addicted ^em- 
ealTea to the stndy of alchymy, which tbey mixed np with variona magi- 
cal practicw, tricks of dirination, and other snperatitiona abmtrditieB. "The 
hope of avoiding death drew to them a mnltitnde of foUowen, eiftecially 
among tbe more opulent clasaes ; and aeveial of the emperors abandoned 
tbenaelna entirely to their opinions and piacticea. Thur tenets made tbe 
iDoat rapid progress tfaroaghont the empire ; and the conrt was filled with 
tbe teachers of the system, who receireid tbe title of Tien-ta«, or " calceti- 
«1 doctors," wlule tbnr chief was honoived with the dignity of a grand 
BMndarin, which his saccesson are said still to retain, residing in a splen- 
did palace in tbe province of Kiang-aee, to which mnltitndea of wDnfaip* 
pera contionally resort. These draoghts of immortality, songfat after with 
w much avidity, were not nnfreqnently rendered instmmental in cutting 
off the BOvereigns and grandees of the empire, by administering a poison* 
<Kw dose in their place ; and even in their most genuine slate, tbey ar« 
mppoaed to hare, in many instances, brought on a premature decease. 
This beverage of life, which is still held in great request, espeoally among 
tbe higher classes of the Chinese, is understood to be a compound of opium 
and other stimulating drugs, which excites the system and exhilarates tbe 
spirits for a moment ; but, by tbe frequent repetition of the dose, which 
tfae lai^ionr by which it is succeeded renders necessary, the constitution is 
at length exhausted, and the period of life is thus abbreviated, rather than 
pndooged, by this pemidons superstition ; nevertheless the sect of the 
Tao-tse umtinned to increase in power and nombers, under the protection 
of princes, tbe countenance of the great, and the credulity of tbe people ; 
and has preserved its extensive influence even to this day, in spite even of 
all the attempts of the celebrated Confndus to introduce more enlightened 

Confaciut.'} CcmfncTDs or Ktmg-foo-tse' is regarded by the Chineee an 

' Covractn U thi name by which the great ChiDse philaaonher li known in Eu- 
i«pe; and although hii lire, as reoorded b; his eoontrrmen, is la nil likelihood little 
batter than a rofnanee, It may b« proper to ootloe Ita prominflnt traita. It appean that 
ke waa bom at Chang Ping about llie year B.C 660. He loit hit father when he vnu 
three yetva old, and \nt committed to the care of big gruidfather, whose grave and 
■viena deporlmeat, we are told, he endtavoured to imitate in nil tbingt ! It is record- 
ed lo bis honour, tliat he took no delight Id tbe amUKmenii luid guna of childhood — 
a elrcDmstance which we ihould rather conilder as a bad sympioin of the Tigour of his 
ual or physical faculties. He married at the age of nineteen, and by hli wife 
son, wboae reputed descendants form a aort ol noblLty in Clilna. and are ea- 
empled from taxes. Coufucini soon divorced bis wife, for no other ivuon than thai . 
he might attend the belter to htl atudle^ and put In practice the grand icbeme which - 
b> had conceived for the reformation of phUoso^hy. The repntaiion aoquired by his 
liaminc and vlnuei prr>cured for blm miiny emineot sitnatlons in the magistracy, al 
of whicii he di»<'.hargMl with honour to himself and benefit to his country. His discL- 
plea were numerDUi, and tbe following waa hia order of Inatructkiu : 1. The stud* of 
the moral virtues; S. That of the arts of reaKoiiilg and eloquence; a Tbe study of th 
rales of fOTenunenl, and the duties of the magistracy ; and 4. The delivery of dUcourses 
on meru sul^ects. Hisgrea 
IMhargy Irvm whieb be did 

_ _ lyear ofhis sjre, Ofbis 

I notice will begivenundertlieheBd l^npuige ajid LOerature. Without e»- 
nl or (he philoa 
powerful appel 
eould have acquired or nnaiuad so strong a hold ori tbs aflKtiao ai 

fiven under tlie head tannoge on 
thephiloaiHiby of tbiicelebralcd man, it la erldenl that bs 
R have made •ome powerful appee " '"■" ■" — ■ — '----' " ■ — 

34 AtiA. 

the chief of their wise mm, and m the wUbot of their whole dril ooaiti- 
mtion. He endeavonreil to restore the aiineDt syatam, and to improre 
the conduct of his countiyioan, by exhorting them to obey the commuula 
of hsEtven, to lora their nei^hbonra, and to rettrein their paatioiu. Some 
of hii philoM^ical principles are, that oat of nothing there cannot any 
thing be produced ; that niBl«Tial bodies must hare exiited from all eter- 
nity ; that the cause or [wiaciple of tlungs must hare had a co-exialence 
with the thing* themsetres; that this caaae, therefore, mnat alio be eter- 
nal, infinite, and indettmclible ; and that the central point of inBaence, from 
which this cause chidy ads, is the blue firmament (tien), whance its 
emanations are spread over the mtiverae ; but neither ha nor bit dlaciptea 
ascribe to the Deity any personal existauce, or represent the Firat Cause 
onder any distinct image ; while the son, moon, stars, and elements, are 
considered also as composing the firmament, or Teen, «a the immediate 
agents of the Deity, and as the prodactire power* in creation. The uni- 
verse, in short, according to this philosopher, is one aaimated system, made 
ap of one material substance, and of one spiritual being, of which every 
liring thing b an emanation, and to which, when separated by death trom 
it* ;»rtictilac material part, every living thing again returns ; hwice the 
term death is never used by bia follower*, bat they say of a person, at hi* 
decease, that he haa returned to his family. Thus he taught, that the hu- 
mau body i* composed of two pritttnples, the one light, invisible, and a»- 
cending, the other gross, palpable, and descemUi^ ; that the separation of 
these two principles cause* the death of human beings ; and that, at this 
period, the light and spiritual part ascends into the aw, while the gross and 
corporeal matter sinki into the earth. With these tenets was naturally 
connected a belief of good and evil genii, and of tatalary spirits presiding 
over hmilies, towns, mountains, and other places ; and while the system of 
Confiicins was little better than atheism in tba mind of the philosopher, it 
became a soorca of gross idolatry among the people, who oonid not com- 
prehend Uie more refined notions, hut, needing some palpable object upon 
which to Gi their attention, represented tbi^ tutelary spirits by images, and 
worshipped them by sacrifices. Confucius himself wsa mucl| addicted to 
a species of divination or fortunelelling, and says expressly in one of hi* 
works, that the wise man ought to know future erents before thay happen, 
and that this may be done by means of lots. His tenets, in short, instead 
of ovMYwming the old errors, gave rise to new superstitions ; and the chief 
diflkrence between the proper followers of Confucius and those of Lao-tse, 
is this, that the former inculcate the doty of living among men, and endea- 
vouring to improve them, and the latter avoid every kind of society and 
occupation, and lead a frugal retired life, as their only felicity. 

Fo,'] During the reign of the emperor Ming-tee, of the Han dynasty, 
A.D. 63 — 81, a new superstition was introduced into China, whose influ- 
ence is perhaps still more extensire and pemiciona in that country, than 
any of those by which it was preceded. One of the Tao-tse doctors hod 
promised to a brother of the emperor's, that he would open to him a com- 
munication with the spirits ; and this superstitious prince having heard of 
a spirit in Tien-tso, or Hindostan, named Fo, or Foe, prevailed upon the 
empei'Or, by his importnnities, to send an embassy for this foreign divinity. 
When the officer, who was entrusted with this mission, arrived at the place 
of hie destination, he found only two Dnddhists, or priests of Fo, whom 
he carried to China, with some of their canonical books, and several images 
of the idol painted on linen. The followers of Fo describe him as the son 


of B prince of one of the kingduma of IndU, Dear the line ; and affirm, that 
as socm ks he was horn he Mood upright, walked eeveo steps withoac 
Msiatance, end, pointing to the heavens with one hand, and to the earth 
with the other, cried aloud, " In the heafena and the earth there is no one 
but myaelf who desema to be hooonred." At the age of serenteen, he 
marnMl three wires, hj one of whom he bad a son, named by the Chinese 
Mo-heoolo ; bat at the age of nineteen, be abandoned his hoose and fiunily, 
with all the caree of l\fo, and committed himself to the care of four phil^ 
Bophers, with whom he retired to a raat dewrt. Bni^ filled with th« 
diTinily at the hge of thirty, be was metsmorpboted into the Fo, or F^god, 
as the Indians tenn it, and immediately thoaght of establishini; his doc- 
trines by miracles, which attracted numerous disciples, and spread his foma 
orer every part of India. When he bad attained his seventh-ninth year, 
and perceived from bia infirmities that hie borrowed divinity could not 
exempt him from mortality, he is said to have called hia diaciples together, 
and to have declared to tbem, that hitherto he had spoken to tbem by 
fijnirative expressions, bnt that now he wonld discover his real aenlimeott, 
and unveil the whole mystery of hia wisdom, namely, that there is no otbn 
principle of things but a vacaum, or nothing ; that ham this nothing all 
things at first sprung ; that to nothing they shall again retnm ; and that 
thus ends all our hopes and fears at once. After hia decease, a innltitnde 
of hbles were propagated concerning him by his followets, sach as, that be 
was atiU alive, and had been bom 8000 times, appearing successively under 
the figure of an ape, a liou, a dragon, an elephant, &c. His last words 
exdted much dissension among hia disdples, some of them resolving to 
adhere !« his original tenets, others adopting bis concluding atheistical 
view of things, and a third clasa attempting to reconcile both ayatenis 
together, by making a distinction between the external and interngl doc- 
trine. The internal doctrine, to which the disciples of the idol are ec' 
borted to aspire, is a system of the most absurd atheism ; of winch some 
of the principal tenets are, that nothing is the banning and the end of all 
things ; that all beings are the same, differing only in figure and qudities ; 
that the snpreme happiness of man coiuists in acquiring a reselnblanco to 
(bis principle of nothmg, iu accustoming himself to do nothing, to will 
nothing, to feel nothing, to desire nothing ; that the sum of virtue and 
happineea ia to be found in indolence and immobility, in the cessation of 
bodily motion, the suspension of all mental Acuities, the obliteration of all 
feelings and desires ; that when men have attained this divine insensibility, 
tbey have nothing to do with virtue or vice, rewards or punishments, pro- 
vidence or immortality, no changes, trsnamigrutions, or futurities to fear, 
but have ceased to exist, and become perfectly like the god Fo. This state 
of annifailatiou ia completely identical with the Nerawnna of the Ceylonese 
Boodhiats, with the Nigban of the Bnman Boodhista, and the Neereupan of 
the Siamese Boodhists, and those of Laos. The enemal doctrine hae the- 
gre«teet number of followera. It teaches a grcttt distinction between good 
and evil, and ■ state of rewards for the good, and of punishment for the 
wicked after death, in placos suited to the spirits of each. It acknowledges 
the transmtgntionof thesoul throngfa different bodies, till it ia at length com- 
pletely purified and prepared for annihilation, which, with the Boodhists, ia 
the perfection of bliss, it affirms, that the god Fo came upon this earth to 
expiate men's sins, and to secnre them a happy regeneration in the life to 
eome. Its practical injunctiona are simply these : To pray to the god Fo, 
and to provide his priests witb templw and other necessaries, that by tbeir 

.g and Bupplicfttions they may procare for his worahippen dw fbr- 
givenen of thur aiiu ; and to obseire five prec«pta, tic to kill no Unog 
creatnre, — to take nothing that belongs to another, — to commit no act (^ 
imparity, — to otter no blsehood, — and to drink no wine. The practice 
of these datisH is enforced by threatenings of futnre paniahmsnt, especially 
of tiwumigntion into the bodies of doga, horses, rata, serpenta, &c. The 
nomber of temples dedicated to Fo is altogether incalcolBble, and they 
exhibit great rariety, in respect of sacrednew, magnificence, &c. They 
are open night and day for ^ reception of the rotariea of the god, before 
whose image is placed a Ubie famished with flowers and perfumes ; he is 
also accommodated with a fire fed constantly with odoriferous wood. They 
also contwn im^es of birds, beasts, and creeping things, to symlmliie the 
Tarioiu tiansmigrations of this supposed deity. It need hardly be added 
that Fo is the Baddha of the Hindoos. 

None of these different syBtema can be sud to be the prevailing creed 
in China ; or, what is more remarkable, can be found pure and distinct ftom 
dte rest. Tlie greater part of the Chinese hare no decided opinion on the 
subject, and are either complete atheists, or, if tbey acknowledge a Supreme 
Being, ntteriy ignorant in what new he ought to be regarded ; while they 
all combine with their peculiar sentiments the mnhifahoua Bapersdtions it 
the more papular sects. Of all these tolerated and established religions 
persnasiooB, the emperor is the supreme head ; without whose permission 
not one of them can enjoy a single priril^e or point of pre-eminence ; and 
who can diminish or increase, at his pleasure, the number of their respec- 
tive temples and priests. 

The existing worship of China, th«i, is a confused mixture of super- 
stitions, of which individuals receive and observe just as much aa they 
please ; and those parts of it, which the government seem to uphold, may 
be viewed rather as political than religions institndons. Tlie emperm* 
reserve to themselves die privilege of adoring the Tien, but they equally 
sacrifice to the spirit of the earth, the nin, or the moon, and attach them- 
selves more or lees to the notions of the Tao-tae or of Fo. While the 
rrigning Tartar family acknowledge more particularly the faith of the 
Grand Lama, they nevertheleia perform the established sacred rites of their 
predecessors, and repur to the fesuvals which the kalendar prescribes. 
And, while the literati stady the doctrine of the Tien, they are as enper- 
BtidouB as nnbeliering, and are found with others in the temples praying 
to the idols. 

There is only one temple consecrated to the Tien in the whole empire, 
called Tien-Ian, or the eminence of heaven, and it is situated in the Chinese 
division of the city of Pekin, where the emperor offers a sacrifice at the 
winter solatice, consisting of oxen, hi^, goala, and sheep. The Tee-tan, 
or emiaence of the eardi, is also situated in the Chinese dty, and is covered 
with green tiles; where the emperor, in like manner, sacrifices to the 
earth at the summer solstice. On the Ge-tan, the altar of the son, he 
sacrifices at the Temal equinox ; and on the Yne-tan, the altar of the momi, 
be sacrifices M the autumnal equinox. These rites are performed with 
the greatest solemnity, the tribunals and every public office are shat, and 
business of every kind suspended. 

Beeidee the temples to Fo, whose immense numbers we hare already 
noticed, nameroua email chapels are to be seen in the country and villages, 
dedicated to the different spirits that preside over the land, the water, the 
inountaina, &c. The dragon is held to preside over the air uid the moon- 


Mins, hi* %iire is one of the imperial iiwigni«, and the emperor alone bM 
the priTilege of wearing; a drapjn with five claws embroidered on hie robei. 
Tiie templeB contain a vast nnmber of different idoU, some of which ere 
of a coloesal size, and these are generally placed at the entrance. They 
represent Tsrioiu genii, or gnardian Hpiriia, whose respectire attributes are 
expressed by certain emblems. Some of these are 30, 50, 60, and even 
80 feet in height : some of tbem with four beads, and a mnltitnde of bands 
and arms. The divinities in the interior of the temples are of smaller 
proportions, and in Tarions postnres ; tome with the heads of animals, 
others with bams on thur foreheads ; some reclining, others sitting crosS' 
l^^ied opon flowers or cars ; bat all are represented as vety corpalent, 
which the Chinese r^vd as a very honomabla qnality. In afaiMl, tbey 
have divinitiea of all possible shapes, and so nnmerons, that some of the 
temples contain five bnndred of them. 

Besides those places of pnblic resort, the Cbineae have always an altar 
in their private dwellings, and a few small idols, befwe which they bam 
gilded papers, especially at the new and foil moon ; and there is generally 
placed i^D tbeir door the name or figure of the idol Men-shin, who is a 
kind of bonsehold god, and who is represented with a cinb in one hand, 
and a key in tJie other. 

The priests, offioating in these tMisrent temples, are either the follow- 
ers of Tao-tae, or of Fo, the latter of whom are called Ho-^hang; bnt 
both are generally denominated by tbe name of Bonzes ; and indeed they 
resemble each other so nearly in their appearance and functions, that they 
are scarcely disdngnishable. The bonzes of Tao-tee are generally devoted 
to celibacy, and associated in convents like the Romish monks. They 
wear a long robe, with large sleeree, and withoat a neck. They never 
shave their heads, bnt collMt th«i hair npon the crown. In performing 
their vronhip, they more in procession round the altar, on which the sacred 
flame is kept borning, channting in redtatire, and bowing their bodies aa 
tbey come in front of the altar, while gongs and mnsical plates are sounded 
at certmn intervals. In their dresses, altars, images, incense, bella, caudles, 
channting, 8k. they bear a striking resemblance to tbe Catholic exhibitions ; 
and one of the missionaries, ranch hurt at the similarity, makes the fallow- 
ing observationB on tbe subject; " There is no country where the devil has 
•o sncceasfnlly counterfeited the (me worship of tbe Holy Cborch. These 
priests of the infernal spirit wear long loose gowns, exactly resembling 
those of aovao of the ^bers ; tbey live in temples, like so many monas- 
teries ; and channt in the same manner with us," They sacrifice to their 
idols a hog, a fowl, and a fish ; and then (dMerve a multitude of cerft- 
moniee, incantations, mystical rites, and magical practices, which frequently 
vary according to the fancy or skill of tbe actors. Tbey act also the part 
of fortonetelleiB, in which tbey are sufficiently expert, representiug the 
fignre of their chief in the air, causing the pencil to write the oracular re- 
spoeees of itself, showing Ae figures of persons in a basin of water, &c. 
Tbey attend at funerals, to drive away evil spirits ; profess to cure dw 
sick by their incantations or intercessions ; and pronounce a benediction 
np<m die ships, when first launched into the sea. They mn about tbe 
streets lashing themselves, as an expiation for the sins of their votaries, and 
collecting money as the price of their services. The priests of Fo live in 
a state of celibacy, and in large convents, which the Chinese call Poo-ta- 
h, which is the mode in which they pnmonnce the word Boodba-alaya, that 
is, tbe habitation of Buddha. 

Dcillizedoy Google 

88 ASIA. 

The botWM are genenlly regarded with coalempt, h pentmt wbo de- 
prive tbeir conntry of that persouAl Irixmr, which is counted in Cbim a> a 
mcred duty ; and it is only permtiia advanced in life, or of the lowest claae 
of people, who join in their society. Hence it ie thnr practice to pnnihase 
yonng children to leem and to perpetnau their syatein ; and to attract the 
greater respect and confidence, mey employ every posnble mode of acqvir- 
ing riches, and secoring reverence. When canaQlted widi reipect to die 
most fortonBte spot for bnilding ahonae orerecting a lepulchre, they have 
generally a secret underetanding with the proprietor of the gronnd, which 
they pronoanee to be the nio*t deiirable, and ehare with him the price of 
the purchase. To secure the protection of the emperor or chief manda- 
rine, they place theoi among the number of thrar divinities ; and to draw 
the populace to tbeir temples, they annonnee prodigiee of varioiM kinds, 
and threaten dreadliil transmigrations to those who ne^ect to bring ofier- 
inge, and to secnre the benefit of their prayers. In these offeringe, ani- 
mal victims are now rarely eeen, on account of die great ecardty of sheep 
and the valne of hogs ; bat fruits and roasted fowls are the principal gifts. 
Even these, however, are seldom left for die idol or the priests, bnt are 
carried away by tbe worshipper, after the Invocation has been performed i 
and, in their stead, a snm of money is given to the bomee of the temple. 
In these acta of devotion, it has been remarked that the Chineee appear to 
be actnated rather by a dread of some eril in this life, than the fear of 
punishment in another; that they perform tbeir sacred rites more with a 
view to appease an angry deity, and to avert impendii^ calamitiea, than 
from any hope of obtaining a positive good ; that ihey retber conanlt w 
inqnire of their gods what may happen, than petition toem to accomplish 
or avert it ; that a Chinese can scarcely be said to pray, bat while he may 
be grateful when the event proves favoorable, is petnlant and peevish when 
it is adverse. They hold de difierent idols in more or less estimation, 
according to tbe lavann which they are supposed to have conferred upon 
their votaries ; and when, after repeated applications, their suit is not 
granted, tbey abandon the spirit of that temple as a god withimt power, or 
perhaps pull down tbe edifice, and leave the statues ezpMed in the open 
air. Numbers of temples are thus seen in rains, their bells lying on the 
gronnd, their monstrous idols standing unsheltered, and tbeir bonzes wan- 
dering in quest of alma or a more fortimate asylnm. Sometimes the fallen 
deity is treated with the utmost outrage and contempt. " Thou Aog of a 
spirit," the enraged votaries will say, " we lodge thee in a commodiona 
temple ; thou art well gilt, well fed, and receivest abundance of incense ; 
and yet, after all the care bestowed upon thee, tbon art nngratefal enoagfi 
to refuse us necessary things !" Then, tying the idol with cords, tbey 
drag it through the kennels, and bespatter it with filth. Bnt should they 
happen, during this scene of vengeance, to obtain, or to fimcy that they 
have obtained, their object, then tbey cany back tbe insulted divinity to 
Its place with great ceremony, wash it with care, prostrate themselves be- 
fore it, acknowledge their rashness, sapplicate for^reneee, and promiae to 
gild it again, upon condition that what is past be forgotten. Sometimes 
those, who have found all their gifts and worship ananuling, have brou^t 
tbe idol and its bonzes to a solemn trial before the mandarins, and pro- 
cured tbe divinity to be dismissed as useless, and its priests to be punished 
as impostors. 

Every trouble in China is attribnted to the inflneoce of some evil spi- 
rit, which every one's imagination frames to himself, and which be places, 

CHiNBsB bufiub. 39 

M it pleasn him, in an idiA, an old oak, ft lofty monDtain, or at the bottom 
of the ws. Tbeae nitcliieraiu ipirita are coosideml by Bome as the sonli 
or purified aerial anbatances of animals, anch ai of foxes, apes, hoge, &c.i 
and tbeae creatarM are Bnpposed to hare the power, after liring a certain 
number of yean, to direst thonuelTee of the groBser parts of their nature, 
*»d, after becoming pore enences, to take delight in tormenting buinan 
beings, especially by exposing them to diocMea. Hence, in time of Btck- 
nesa, the principal remedy is to send for the bonzw, to banish, by their 
noises and incantations, those malignant spirits. 

In eTery possible arcBmstance oiF lifis, the Chmean implore the protec* 
tion and aid of some daty. Should a conntryroan be about to raise some 
large stone, or to attempt any work in which he might be in danger of 
receiving some injvry, be places a small stone nprigbt, anrrounds it with 
two or three candles, bams two or three gilded papers, and then applies to 
his h^MHir with perfect confidence. When tbey bare any dread of losbg 
their diildren, they consecrBte tbem to bobm divinity ; and, ia this view, 
they pierce the ear of the child, and saspend from it a smgl! plate of cop- 
per, silver, or gold, vrith the name of the tutelary spirit inscribed upon it; 
or they ramply tie the hair of the head on eftch side into the fonn of a 
small tvh, which indicates that they are devoted to some god, who wilt 
preserve them from aocident and misfortune, lliey pay great regard to 
lucky and unlncky days ; and the government even poblishea an annnal 
■calendar, in which, among other mattera, the bvonrable moments in that 
aeaMH) are properly marked. Midnight is always a lucky point of time, 
because in their opinion the wto'ld was created at that honr. But, of all 
their snpentitions, the two f^lowing an the most prevalent, and form the 
chief object in thei; various acts of worship in the temples. 1. The cal- 
eolation of their destiny, which they call Sooannning, and which ia gene- 
nlly done by blind musicians, who go from faonse to boose, playing on 
some mnsic&l instrument, end ofEering their services for a little money : 
whose art consists chiefly in astonishing their hearers by speaking learnedly 
of the position and inflaence of the stars, and in describing the proper idol 
to whom sacrifices must be offered, or the bonze whose prayers must be 
secured. 2. The securing a good influence, and fortunate exposure, in 
bnitding their habitations or sepnlchree, which is called Fong-shooy, or 
* wind and water.' Upon this depends every one's sui:cess and faappinesa 
in life ; his natural abilities and genius, his advancement to honours, his 
commercial prosperity, good health, a nnmerona bmily, are all ascribed to 
bis hon^e or his burying-place having a happy situation, and his thoa pos- 
sessing a tncky Fong-shooy. They ai« constantly employed in devising 
means to render this circnmstance or influence favourable. Much depends 
upon having the doon of their habitations placed under the protection of 
a proper spirit, arranged in a proper order, or constructed in a proper 
form. A round door is fortunate, and there )* generally one at least in 
every Chinese dwelling. It is bad to have two doon directly opposite to 
each other, as the evil spirit in that case more easily enters. When this 
cannot be avoided, they put np screens of wood to stop the genius in his 
pr<^ese, or form their doors in the shape of a fan, a flower, a leaf, which 
all contribute to bewilder the malignant spirits, and to make tbem afraid 
to leap over. Should a neighbour bnild a house close to another, but not 
upon the same plan, or ehonid there be any comer or slanting of the roof, 
so placed as to cross that of the other, this is enough to occasion desola* 
tion and distress to the proprietor, who lives in constant >|>prebension of 

40 ASIA. 

wme maligimt inflnence. ^tonld m lawsnitfiul to ralwTfl trim from the 
adTene encroachment, fail only moorce in to mse oa the middle of hii 
roof BD enonnmu Sgnra of a dragon, in baked earth, darting a fnrioni look 
upon the btel aogle, and opening ita month bo aa to iwallotr the offending 
object : this removes all apprebeoiion, and reatoies the tranqmllity of tbe 

Ckrittians.'] Dnring the serenth centmy, eboat the year 635, a few 
Chriatians of the Nestorian lect peiwd from India to China, and were to- 
lerated by the government nearly two centuriea, nnder the tlesigmition of 
priests of Ta-tain. Bot in the year 845 they were proscribed by the em- 
peror Voo-Uong, at the initigation ef some of bia faronrite bonaes t &nd, 
after suffering a severe persecution, appear to hare been completely extir- 
pated. In tbe beginning of the ISth century, m number of Christiana of 
the Greek church, who had followed the army of Genghis-Khan, entered 
China ftlong with the Tartan nnder Kablu-Khan, end received from that 
emperor a grant of a space of ground within tbe walla of Pekin, for the 
purpose of erecting a church. Marco Polo, the celebrated Italian travel- 
ler, who Tisiied China about this period, accompanied three missionaiies 
of the Dominican order, who were sent from Venice to Pekin, at t)ie ex- 
preee desire of Kublu-Khan ; but, whether from a want of encourage- 
ment or of zeal, they returned in a ahort time to their native country 
with no small degree of wealth, acquired chiefly by trading in their pro- 
gress through the East. About the middle of the 16th century, Frsncia 
Xarier, at the head of a company of Romish missionaries of the order ot 
Jesuits, reached the island of San-Shian on the coast of China, where be 
died in 1552 ; and, after a communication was opened with India by ^e 
oape of Good Hope, a number of Romish priests passed into China to 
propagate the ^th. In this view they took care, in the first instance, to 
render themselves useful to the goremment «s interpreters, astronomers, 
matheroaticians, and medianics, end in general found means to acquire 
wealth and respectability. The Portuguese, parUcnlariy, who bold tbe 
highest staUons in Felon, ere in poesession of good estates and country 
seats ; and tbe Jesuits, before the dissolution of their society, were a 
very rich and powerful body in China. These missionaries, however, 
especially the Portuguese, are said to be extremely jealous and illiberal 
towards each other ; and it was in a great measnre owing to their frequent 
dissensions, dial the Christians in China have been so severely persecuted. 
The most inveterate of these contests took place between the Jesuits and 
the Dominicans ; the former of whom, by assimilating tb^ opinions and 
practices in a great degree to these of the Chinese sects, and by professing 
that they came only to restore the andent religion of the country to its 
ori^aal purity, when first delivered by their great philosopher Confacins, 
began to gain immense numbers of followers, who were half Christian 
and half Pagan in their sentiments and manners. Tbe Dominicans, up- 
on their arrive! in the country, at once condemned these compromising 
arts, excluded these mixed proselytes from the number of Christian con- 
verts, and prohibited their followers among the natives from observing 
any of their ancient rites, especially from practising that fundamental 
national duty of sacrificing to their deceased relatives in the ball of 
Ancestors. Tlie Franciscans adopted the sentiments of the Dominicans; 
and represented tbe conduct of the Jesuits to the Pope in such a point 
of view, that he sent out a bnll to China, forbidding all the Catholic 
missionaries to permit the union of any idolatrous ceremonies with thoae 


nf tfaa drarcb. Bnt tbe Jeaaiu, iriioM mporior ttloati Md BHeAU wrriDaa 
hid Bemred the proWctioii and &Tonr of tbe nigoiag mtttnaga, Rmg-h»e, 
tiMted the iojiuictioiia of tbe pontiff with contempt, ind continned to 
mke oonvpttB according to their own plan. Tbey obtuned % graot of 
land from the emperor for the pnrpow of bidlding a cirarch at Pekin ; and 
received a dispeoMtion from the succeeding pope in bToar of tbnr pro- 
ceedtnga in the conTenion of the Cfaineee. RepTeaentationi from tbe 
Dominicana and FVaoaseani were again traiuniitted to Rome, repreMating 
tbe Jesitita aa Am greatest eiwmies to die Christian bith ; and ttNee were 
foUewed by contra-remomtrances on die part tA the Jesidts, with an at- 
testation firom the emperor himself, bearing, that tbe ceremony of paying 
homage to the dead, as practised by the Chineee Chriatiana, was not of a 
reKgions bnt of a einl nature, and a duty whie^ tbe ptditical constitntiona 
of the empire rendered indispensable. 

Ilieae dispntea were at length carried so hi, and the mandatea of the 
pope requiring the Chinese conrens to desert those ceremonies which the 
gorernment regarded as ao essential law of the conntry, became so threat- 
ening and imperions. that the emperor at last conceiviwl hia aathority to be 
attacked, and interdicted the Christian &ith from being taught in hia do> 
minions. His son and snccessor, Yoag-tching, begmn his reign with im- 
prisoning and banishing the missionaries. He permitted only a few, whose 
assistance was needed in r^nlating the kalendar, to remain in the metro- 
polis : th«r conrerts he put to death in great nnmben. In spite of these 
penecntions, which hare been renewed in erery reign, and which particu- 
larly preTailed in the year 1785, numbers of new missionaries are occasioa- 
allj' making their way into die conntry ; and two yonng men, under di&t 
diaracter, reqaested and receired permissioa to join Lord Macartney's 
embassy, and to proceed with him to Pekin. lliere are two kinds of 
missions in China ; one which is approved by the goTemment, and rewdes 
at Pekin, and which the Chineee now find essentially necessary in trans- 
acting many of their most important pnblic aflairs ; and anotlier in the 
empire at lai^, which the goremment does not avow, but which the man- 
darins are sometimes backward to detect, lest they should be punished for 
not having been sufficiently watchfbl to prevent tiie fint entrance of the 
missionaries into tbe connt^, and are therefore not always very much dift> 
posed to question any one publicly concerning his faitfa. By letters re- 
ceived from Canton in 1802, it appeared that the probibitiouB agunst the 
Christians had been greatly relaxed ; and that the emperor had actually 
Lssueil an edict permitting the residence of the Roman catholic miBsionaries 
in any part of his dominions, within 20 miles of the conrt ; in conseqaence 
of which indulgence, it was added, that a number of converts bad been 
b^tized. It appears, however, from a subsequent edict, dated 1805, that 
the labours of Bome of those missionaries had excited the alarm of the 
government ; and that a peraecntion was then carrying on agwnst the 
Christians. Tbe edict admits the right of Europeans, settled in the coun- 
try, to practise their own religions usages ; but declares it to be an esta- 
blished law of the empire, that they sboold not propagate their doctrines 
among the natives. A missionary residing at Pekin, and named Odesdsto, 
who had made many converts, and also printed several religions tracts in 
the Chinese language, was banished for life to Gehol in Tartary ; and a 
number of the Chinese, who had become Christians under bis instmctions, 
or been tssisUng to him in his plans, were condemned to suffer punishment, 
according to tbeir respective degrees of gnilt. It was fiirdier declared. 

that all who shall hereafter frequent Ute honaea of £iiropean8, in order Ut 
learn dieir doctrinei, will be paniahed with the ntmoat li^^nr of the law. 
One of the Crimea imputed to Odeadato ww a tnuunisaion of a map of 
China, and several letters, to a Chineae conrert, a natiTe of Canton, and 
his having printed 31 tracts on the ChristJan religion, in the Chinese char- 
acter, and prirately dispersed them throughout the empire. Subsequently 
to this edict, several attempts have been made to crush Cliriatiuiity in 
China. In 1815, the viceroy of Sechwen represented to the emperor the 
growth of the depraved and irregular religion of the Weet, and specifies 
the seizure of persons and books, and the meaauree he took to force a re- 
cantation on the part of the accused. Many of them refused to recant. 
The emperor on this occasion ordered soch ai pei^isted in the Christian 
religion to he strangled ; some, including women, were banished to Tar- 
tary, and the rest were ordered to wear the cangue for ever. In 1817, a 
fnrions penecntion took place at Pelun, some hundreds of Christians were 
cruelly tortured ; several abandoned the faith, and many aacrificed their 
property, and deserted their families and Pekin for the reat of their lives. 
Id 1822, a conspiracy, formed by a secret revolutionary society, called the 
Triad, against the present emperor, b^ng detected, occasion was taken 
from this to implicate and oppress the Christians ; diey were subjected to 
exactions, some were banished, but none suffered death. The number of 
Christians scattered throughout China is calculated by Sir George Staun- 
ton at 160,000. By a statement in a Romish jourual, from a missionary 
bishop in China, the number of Chinese converts in Sechwen in 1824, is 
made 46,987. Previons to this, in 1814, the number was upwards of 
60,000. Two Chinese versions of the Holy Scriptures have been com- 
pleted ; one by Dr Marshman at Serampore, and another by Dr Morri- 
son, both of which have been B{)proved by Mr Itemusat, as faithful and 
accurate versions. By the lateet accounts, only three Portuguese mis- 
nonaries remained at Pekin, bishop Pia and fathers Ribeira and Haon. 
Their congregation consists of Chinese monks. The Russians have a mis- 
sion attached to the suite of their cbai^ d'a^ires at Pekin, consisting of 
eight persons including the Archimandrite. It is intended to perform di- 
vine service in future in the Chinese language, and one of the Russians is 
at present, or wss very lately, employed in translating the principles of the 
Christian fiuth (Greek church) into the Chinese language. The students 
of the mission are carefully studying die Chinese and Mandshoor tonguee. 
Abore 50 of j^sop's fablee have been translated into the former language. 
Some of the Christisn associations in Great Britain have recently turned 
their attention to the practicability of sending the sacred scriptures to the 
Chinese. In 1802, a note was sent by the archbiabop of Canterbury V> 
" the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge," accompanied wiUi a 
copy of a memoir by the Rev. W. Mosely, " on the importance and prac- 
ticability of printing the sacred scriptures in the Chinese language, and 
circulating them in that vast empire ;" and, upon a motion by the bishop of 
Durham, the matter waa referred to the East India mission committee- 
The same idea had occurred to the British and Foreign Bible Society; 
and a young Chinese then residing in London, named Yong Saamtak, lud 
been employed by them in transcribing a Chinese translation of a harmony 
of the gospels, and most of the epistles, which had been found in the Bri- 
tish museum ; but it was discovered, upon examination, to have been made 
from the Vnlgate, probably by some Jesuit, and the work waa abandoned. 
This great object haa since been undertaken, and in a grvat measure accom- 


pliihed, by the Baptiat mhuonuiea ia Bengal, wilb tba assiatAnu of b 
iMmed CiiiueM; whow important lobonra wore noticed with jiut com* 
ra«ndatioa by the ^Temor-^novl in India, in the following impreuiTs 
language : " I mmt nut omit ta coromend the zeaioos and per«eTering Im- 
lioan of Mr Lataar, and of those learned aod pious peraonB associated with 
him, who have BCcompliehed for the future bene&t, we may hope, of that 
immense and popnlgna r^on, Chinese Terdione, in iha Chinese character, 
of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Lnke ; throwini; opra that precioiu 
mine, widi all its religions and mond traaiares, to the Ut^;eat associated 
popalation in the world." A similar atteoipt is making also by a Mr 
MorriBon at Canton, who was sent to that station by the London mitaioa- 
a»y society. 

The Jews are not nnmeroos in China. They reside chiefly in the wlk 
province*, and are the best mannfitcturers of that article. They are called 
by the Chinese, Hoey, or Lang-mao-hoey, that is, Hoey with the bine 
bonnets, became they wear a species of tDrhan of that colour, when they 
assemble in their lynagognes. 

There are not abore 6,000 fomilies of Mahommedana in all China, who 
lire in m dispeised state in the different provinces. They are aa little coa- 
Nderable for wealth or rank, as number, being generally mechanics or hns- 
bandmen. They live peaceably, without interferiog with the religions 
opinions of the conntry, or endearouring to propagate their own doctrines 
by missionaries or intermarriages with the Chinese. 

iMttgjiage and Literature,'} The spoken language of the Chinese is 
composed of monosyllables ; and these are not numerous ; but their mean< 
ings are totally changed by differences of prononciaUon. Thus the word 
Icku, pnmoaaced by lengthening the u, and with a clear tone of 7oice, ug- 
nifies matter or lord : if it is prononnced in a nuiform tone by lengthening 
tbe u, it signifies hog ; when prononnced lightly and with rapidity, it sig< 
aifies kitchen ; and when articulated with a strong voice, depressed towards 
tbe md, it signifies a piilar. In thb way tbe word po is made to signify 
gtatx, to boil, to fi>innow rice, niae or liberal, to prepare, aa old woman, to 
break or cleave, inclined, a very little, to mater, a slaoeor captive, and per* 
haps many other ideas equally heterogeneous. — The tones and inflections 
are so minutely raried by the Chinese aa to eaca^ie the ears of most Eu- 
ropeans, althon^ some hare spoken Chinese so well as to deceive even 
tbe natives. An instance of this occurred some ye«rs ago at Canton, 
which may be mentioned, as it illustrates the inveterate national concMt 
of the Chinese. An English gentleman, long resident at Canton, one 
day imjoired of a blind beggar the history of his miafortunes. The beg' 
gar, hearing his own language, conceived he waa addressed by a country- 
man, and began bis " pitiful story," bnt was stopped in the midst by some 
one reproaching him for couverung with a Sai-kmai (or European) ; upon 
which the miseisble creature changed his whine into a burst of indignation 
at tbe preaomption of any one, not a native, daring to use the language of 
the " Celestial Emfwe." In the Chinese there are four different languages : 
tbe &)u-t»ieit, or classical langtiage ; the Ouen-tckang, or high style of com- 
poeitioa ; the Koma»-ha, or language of the court ; and tbe Hing-lan, or 
provintnal language, llie oral dialects of China are very numerous, and 
tbe inhabitants of neighbouring provinces are frequently unable to under- 
stand one another. Even among tbe natives of one province vorions con- 
trivances are employed to obviate the necessary ambiguity of the language. 
Excessive gcstnrea, and contortions of tbe features, are continually called 

into action. The rocal tongue of China is diMoettieally oppoced to nost 
otbert. The number .of iounda diitiugdisbable by tbe Ei^iib Blph^tet, 
is aboat 350 ; and, if we divide the number of chanctera, 80,000, by 
this, we shall find tbM, upon an average, the same sound, or sounds so 
■imilar as not to be discriminated by meaiis of onr alf^iabet, must be 
applied to abont 229 different and discordant ideas. The man expe- 
rienced Chinese will find one hnndred (or perhaps one thouiend) clnr- 
acten expressed by the same identical eoand. We cannot be sur- 
prised to find, therefore, that since the meaning of the vocal language is 
BO imperfectly trvismitted to the mind by means of the tougua and ear, the 
Chinese are forced, ig common conronation, to trace the characters rapidly 
in the sir, in order to assist the apprehenuon of the person addreseed ; or 
that, in public assemblies, passages of an orator's speech, or of an imperial 
edict, are inscribed on boards and exhibited to the eye, while their ionnds 
are uttered to the ear of the multitude. This expedient is not only con- 
venient as the means of prerenting very awkward mistakes, bat it is a very 
adrantageons mode of commanicating a langnage so conttmcled that it 
sometimes requires several phrases to express, with adequate force, what 
is conveyed by the sight of a single character. 

As the Chinese language consists of a string of monosyllables, ita gram- 
mar differs vastly from that of other languages. All the words are inde- 
clinable; and nothing is known of the disUuctions of gender, number, case, 
mode, tense, or persou. An invariable order of words is the prindpal ex- 
pedient by which this defect is remedied. Tbe subject, verb, and immediate 
object, must always follow each other in succession ; a dependent term 
always precedes that on which it depends ; aud a conditional sentence before 
that to which it is annexed. On these principles all ^e constniction of the 
language rests. There is, however, a considerable difference between the 
ancient style, used by Confucius, Mennna, &c. and the learned langn^^ 
of the present day. The Chinese, it is well known, regard women 
as inferior in tbe scale of creation; this feeling, at once the came and 
the symptom of an ill-o^anized society, may be discovered in the 
mode (in which they employ the character neu, aignilying tbe woman, 
in composition, Suh, discreet, and respectful, ia compounded of tvomaH 
and reilriction. Foo, a married woman, of nwman and broom. Tko, 
subjected, secure ; of a claw placed over wmnan. Wang, immoral, con- 
sists of Jugilive and fnoman. The same character is employed in the fol- 
lowing compounds : Nan, to wrangle or scold, composed of two charac- 
ters of mman placed oppo»'Ue to each other. Neaou, levity of behavionr, 
lewdness ; of a man placed between two women ; and, vice versa, a noman 
placed between ffPO men. CAen, beautiful, el^ant; of rvonianandafif^ 
garment. Seu, weak, feeble ; of a mman and nattl. T'han, to be in a 
disordered dirty state ; of woman and coals. Seun, conceited ; of a womtm 
and to tlrul. He, to play or frolic ; of a woman and pleated. Shmtng, 
a widow ; of woman and hoarfrost, Thuh, gross lewdness ; of woman and 
a muddy dilch. Tiue, to many ; of to take and woman. Gan, suppressed 
anger; o! woman Kid tour wine I — The Following are examples of elegance 
in the use of this key : Ca'ka, a young unmairied woman, composed of 
woman and bending down like an ear of com. Ting, an iotimt at the breast ; 
of two pearls and woman. Hoo, handsome, pretty ; of woman and lo sigh. 

Tbe Chinese mode of writing has been compared, without much pro- 
priety, to the Egyptian hieroglyphics. " If all the fundamental or gener- 
ally necessary ideas are arranged in a ccrlun order; if under these 


fmemtiitg ide&i all thoae otbera are clasied which «re faninliet] by cooi- 
mon language, or which occur to the jadgment of the contriver ; if each of 
tbe leading ideas baa a represantative sign ; if tliis sign ii arbitraiy, rude, 
and whimncal ; if theae Higns, elcTsted to the rank of the true keys of the 
langn^ie, are made the constant basis of sigOB aqnally abstract and arbitrary, 
lo denote the snbordinate idea ; this system will giro us a perfect picture of 
the teamed lango^ie of Chine. Its keys, 214 in nnmber, and ita deriratiTe 
Mgna, aoMiantiDg to 80,000, do not express words, bat ideas ; tbey are ad< 
dressed solely to the eye and the memory ; they nerar excite the imagina- 
tion, and not a hnndredth part of them have any corresponding vocal si< 
prasuon. The beanty of a Chinese poem consists in not admitting of being 
read aload ; and the eminent literati of that conntry conduct their dispntea 
by deacribing in die air, with their fans, characteia which do not correspond 
lo any word in the language which they speak."* 

Coaid we imagiDe that a nation exiBted the indiridnali of which did not 
possess the tacolty of speech, and were able to convey ideas to each other 
by a mediam adapted to the eye alone, their language (if snch a solecism 
may be pardoned) would be constmcted upon the same principles as the 
Chinese character ; it woald, in fact, correspond exactly with that character 
in ita origin and anbaequent hiitory, as developed by Chinese writers, who 
state that their symbols ware ori^nally representatives of the object signi- 
fied, which, for the sake of convenience, and to admit of ready combination 
in forming signs of abstract ideas, were abbreviated and modified ; and that 
many characters still show that the soarce from whence they were derived 
was a resemblance to the object. 

Aa the characters express the idea without any relation to the sonnd, 
tbey can only be arranged in classet, derived from some peculiarity in their 
form common to a large number ; if the characters are compound, all which 
have one common element may be placed hither ; and the CbioeBe gram- 
marians, by adopting this plan, have contrived to arrange the 40,000 words, 
of which their language is composed, in such a manner as to render it easy 
to consult their dictionaries when once the radical character is known. In 
the best lexicons the nnmber of these radicals amonnts to 214 ; and, when 
once the difficulty of ascertaining them has been snrmounted, the written 
language may be easily acquired. But as the characters bare no sound, a 
knowledge of the written language does not secure any knowledge of the 
oral. This most also be studied before the learner could hold a peiaonat 
inlercontse with the Chinese. 

Snch is the shackling nature of the language, that it would be ptepos- 
leron to expect any high attainoieiits in literatore, altfaon^ literature ia 
fostered by government, and an eminence in it almost the only passport to 
official situations. In composition, the chief beanty consists, not so much 
in the novelty or importance of the meaning which is conveyed, as in the 
choice of the characters or groups of metaphors which are employed to sug- 
geat it. When translated into another language, these metaphors are neces- 
aarily dropped ; and a passage, which delighted the eye of a learned Chinese, 
lixHU the variety of pleasing and suitable images which the compound char- 
acteie su^eeted to him, appears, when the naked meanbg is stated in 
wwds, to be ridiculously obvious and trifling. Poetry is a very generd 
etndy amoog the Chinese ; and the late emperor Kiem Long was considered 

Dcinz.SDv Google 

46 ASIA. 

to be a proficient in the •rt." The boolti moet in esteem in Clnna are 
those sttribnted to Confucins. These are the FiTe JGag or ' Doctrinee ;' 
the Ta H'm, or * Grand Saenw ;' tlie Chung Yong, or ' Unchwiging Me- 
diam ;' the Yun Lu, or ' Book of Maxinw ;' the Biao King, or ' Filial 
Reierence j' the Siat Hio, or ' School of Children ;' and an historical work, 
called die C&*n. Tsieu. There U a gasetie published at Pe-king ; and the 
press of China is free, that is, it U not subject to preliminar)- cenrorahip ; 
but its after re^wnsibility is abundantly severe. As a proof erf its freedom, 
Whang-see-heon a doctor of physic, in 1779, published a book, in which he 
predicted the death of the reigning emperor, and spoke with some disrespect 
of Kang-Bi, who bad been dead abore sixty yean. For this ontrage he 
was sentenced to be cnt into ten Uioasand pieces ; but the emperor, out of 
his great clemency, pardoned the prediction regarding himself ; and the pow 
anthOT, for his disrespectful mention of Kang-Hi, was only beheaded.'" The 
miiform testimony, indeed, of all Europeans who hare visited China, 

t«xture ihaw it* long oh ; fill it with 
clear snow water ■ boil it u long at womn De neceaaary lo turn fish white uid cray-fish 
reJ - throw it upou thedtlicate leavM of choir* tea, in a cup of i/ws (b patlieular Mrt of 
poralnln). 1*1 it remain m long as the vapour riau In a doui, »nd lea™ only . Uiln 
ml« floalinK on the auriaoe. Al joor suae driDk this precioui liquor, which will cbue 
away the five causea of trouble. We can taaw and feel, but not deacnbe, the atate of 
repow produced by s liiiuor thus prepared." 

- The dat.eera att«iding authomhlp In China are rtriklngly illuitratsd by tha fMot 
Whane-Me-lioou, whose crime is thua eet ftotlh in the report of bla JudgM ;— 

'•We find," lay they, 1st, "That he hag preaumed to meddle wuh the ereatDiitiou- 
afy of Kani-hi ; havinjc made an abridement of it, in which be has had the audacity 
to eontradicl aome paaaages of that excellent and authentic worlt. 8d, In the prefkoe 
of his abridirment, w» have seen with hon™, that he haa dared to write tha lilOe nana 
t that is, the primitive fomUy nam™) of Coofuciui, and even of your M^eaty— a te- 
merityra w^t of respect, which has made n» shudder. Sd, In theeeneaiogy of bla 
family and hla poetry, he haa aasertod that he is descsided ftom the Whani-IM. 

" Wheaaaked why he had dared to meddla with the great Dictionary of K.aug-lii, be 
replied That Dictionary is very voluminous and inconvenient' 1 have mads an abridg- 
ment which is less cumberMme and expenaivi. 

" Beini questioned how he could Imve the nmJarity to write, In the praface to tbia 
Dictionary, the Uilli namei of the emperors of (he reigning dynasty, he answered— I 
knowtlut itis unbiwful to pronounce the liltrfnanus of the empfrora. I introduced them 
Into my Dictionary merely tlmt vounK people might linow what those namae were, and 
not to be liable to use them by mistake. 1 have, however, acknowledged my error, by 
reprinllog my Dictionary, and omitting what was amiss. 

" We replied, that the little names of the Emperor and of Confuciaa were known to 
the whole empire. He protested that he had long b»en ignorant of them ; and that be 
had not known them himself till he vraa thirty years old, when be saw them for the 
first time in the hall where the literati compose their pieces la order to obtain degree*. 

" When asked how he dared to aaaert that be was de«eaded from the Whang-tee. 
he said,— It wm a vanity that came Into my head ; 1 wanted to make people believe I 
wnt somebody." 

If there were in these three charges any thing r«aUy reprehensihle, according to the 
bnnd principles of nuiveiaal morality, it was the fabrication of an lUastrlaiu genealogy. 
This Imposture, cenaunble in any case, might have been designed to make dupes, and 
perhaps to form a party; but the Judges of Whang-aee-heou attached lea importance 
to this charge than to the other two. They declared the author guilty of high treuon 
on the first charge, and pronounced this sentence : 

■> According to the laws of the empire, this crime ought to be riiorouily ponlshed. 
'Ilie criminal shall be cut in pieces, bis goods confiscated, and his cbiUren and relatlvea 
alioTc the age of Hiteen years put to death. His wives. hisc«)cublnea,>DdhlB(diUdren, 
under sixteen, shall be niled and given as slaves to some grandee of tha emgnre." 

The Sovereign was gradoualy pleaaed to mitigate the severity of the sentencs, in an 
edict, to this effect: — 

" I favour Wbang-sce-heou in regard to the nature of his puniibnHial. He shall 
not be cot In pieces, and shall miu have bis head cot off. I forgive hii relallne. As 
to hti sons, let them he rsaerved Tor the great execution In autumn. Let the sentence 
he cieruted in Its other points— euch is my pleisnre." 

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prove tbmt the freedom of the pren there U a mere ahwlow ; anJ aoch a 
thing u a bold patriotic writer, who wonld eipoM or recist any tyraonical 
abiue, is in China nnknown. 

In China learning haa its lirery : tboae who hara taken the loweit degree 
wear a bine gown, with a black border roiud it, and a pewter or silver bird 
on the top of their cap ; thoM who hare taken the second degree are dia- 
tingaishad by a dark-coloured gown with a bine border, and wear a gold or 
eopper-gilt bird in their c<^ ; while the first d^ree is denoted by a rich and 
precions g^le. 

ArtM and Sciencai-^ The Chinese are far behind in the soences ; al- 
though in the mannal arts they discover skill and ingenoity. 

Attronomy.'] In astronomy they pretend to have made some disco- 

veriea at a remote period ; bat such pretensians are false. Observations, 

appear to have been recorded by them at 

followed ap by no inferences, and ted to 

ty suppose the earth to be a square body, 

lere, to the snr&ce of which the starH are 

d has long existed in China ; but its sole 

nanack, and point out the lucky and nn- 

lipsas or other astronomical phenomena 

he ChiuMe. The tables of the time of 

c. are always intrusted to a European. 

if 354 days ; but an additional montb is 

itb, eleventh, fourteenth, seventeenth, and 

uning nineteen. The first month begins 

enters Aquarius. The mouths have 29 

ay of 12 hours begins at ll o'clock at 

;, and each division of it is equal to two 

I also subdivided into five watches, which 

Each hoar, as well aa every year, has its 

r« to have almost a universal prevalence, 

izea us to conclude, that Correct notions 

>D. Instead of labouring to rectify the 

, the court, that is, the most le«rned men 

same principles, rather assist in confirm- 

ys avoids engaging in any public bnsinesa 

pretends to humble himself for his faults, 

M as may enable bim to amend hie con- 

I of the most learned in the natioii, the 

e supposed to possess true notions. 

are of the Chinese is remarkable for its 

atriness and singnlarity. Some of their pagodas are from SO to IfiO feet 

in height, and have as many as nine stories, although the greater number 

have only two or three stories. Their triumphal arches are numerous, but 

neither very high nor welUproportioned. Ornamented vanlts of varionti 

shapes and sizes, and a series of terraces, within the highest of which the 

corpse is deposited, are some of the expedients they adopt in order to 

soothe the spirits of the deceased. Their bridges are elegant, and some of 

them of great magnitude, but few of them solid or durable. 

Graat Wall.'] The great wall which separates China from Tartary is 
the most remarkable architectural monument of China. A large bulwarii 
or pile of stones thrown up on the edge of the Yellow sea, in lat. 40* 3' 30" 
N. and long. 3" 22' ti" E. of I'eking, forms one extremity of this vast work. 


46 ASIA. 

fjwoi wlueb it proceacU wMtmrd, widi ruioiu enmtoTM, to tat. 39* 48' N. 
and 17° 37' W. of Peking, thus making 21 d^rees of longitnde, includ- 
ing, with its windings, a length of abont 1,500 miles. h passes 
diniiigh nlleya and over mountains, and is carried over atreams by 
■Deans of arches. In some places it is only a simple rampart ; in 
others it has foundations of granite, and ia hnili of brick and mortar. 
There are gate* in it at interrals, stroi^y fortified and garrisoned. The 
building of it is said lo have been commenced, B.C. 2lB, to prevent the 
incursions of the neighbonring barbarians ; and it was probi^ly the work 
oT several generations. Its height is various, from 15 to 30 feet high, and 
its breadth would permit six horsemen to ride abreast of it. It is calcu- 
lated that the materials of which it is composed would be euffident to 
erect all the dwelliDg-housea in England and Scotland. 

Arithmetic'] The Chinese are entirely ignorant of geometry and al- 
gebra; but they are ready and rapid in srithmetical calculations, although 
thnr resnlta are obtained only by means of a reckoning-t^le, sorasthing 
like the abacut of tlie Romans. It consists of a board, about a foot long 
and half a foot broad, inclosed by a border abont an inch and a half deep, 
and dirided into tivo unequal puis by a transverse partition of the same 
depth and breadth. On eight or ten wires, crossing this partition, balb ere 
stning, two in the imalter or upper division of the board, five in the laiger 
or lower ; each of the first set stands for five, and each of the other for a 
imit ; and by pushing one of the npper balls to the edge of the board ai 
often as fire is added to the number found, tbey can very conveniently 
keep the tens and units distinct, and calculate with much ease and expe- 
dition. Their numerals bear some resemblance to those of the Romans. 

Optici.2 In optics tbe Chinese know the use of lenses and manu^- 
tared spectacles, and burning glasses of crystal, though tbey know nothing 
of the principles of the science. 

Ch^itltyri Some of the pracucal parts of chemistry have been com- 
mon to the Chinese for ages ; but in this, as in other sciences, they are 
mere artists, and never seek to discover the simplest prindple of those pro- 
cesses that are known to them. 

3Itdicim.'2 The medical knowledge of the Chinese is said to be truly 
despicable. Anatomy must be unknown, since dissection is considered 
more as the business of a butcher, than of a philosopher. Setting bones, 
replacing a (Uslocated joint, bleeding by scarification, or puncturing with a 
silver needle, and burning tow made of the leaves of wormwood on the 
part afiected, are nearly <Ste sum total of Chinese sargi>ry. Should a sur- 
geon in China open the vein of bis patient, and should the patient in a 
short time afterwards die, whatever might be the cause of his death, the 
surgeon would be exposed to the danger of losing his own life. Their 
medicines consist chiefly of herbs, which are said to be administered with 
very little skilL In midwifery, their knowledge appeara to be somewhat 
greater ; but no man is allowed to practise that art. Books of instruction 
are drawn up for the women, showing the state of pregnant women at va- 
rious periods, and giving directions for the treatment of a great variety of 
*cases. The vactune inoculation has lately been introduced by the British. 
Quacks, who abound in countries where medical knowledge has arrived at 
conuderable perfection, must be more numerous where that kind of know- 
ledge remains imperfect. In China, howeTer, the presumption of tbe 
quacks is still greUer than in Europe. In the latter, tne most valuable of 
their drugs only cure every disease. In the former, there are specifics 

Dcinz.SDv Google 


wfaidi insure immortality, that ia t« say, an endlew life upon earth. That 
nich medicine* Bhoald be f^ricated is in itself sufficiently remarioble : but 
when we are infoTmed, that, by some of the learned, the assertion has 
actually been believed, we can scarcely avoid iaferriog, that they have 
learned to very little parpose. 

Miukri The Chiaese know nothing of the acientiSc part of music, 
althoagh mnsic forme a part of alt their public and religions ceremonies- 
They have a method of noting their gamut of five tones and two semitones, 
but they know nothing of key, time, or expression. They do not arrange 
their bands to play in parts, or to form any harmony from the nnion of 
different melodies. Their music has, therefore, been said to be entirely 
original, or the wreck of a style more ancient tban any at present known. 
Noise and t^idity are the great criterions of excellence among them. 
Dried skin, stone, metal, baked earth, silk, wood, the bamboo, and the 
gonrit, are the eight bodies formed, they say, by nature, to give eight dis- 
tinct sounds, whence their musical instrnmenis are divided into eight 
classes. I. Drums, commonly covered with bufialo-hidea, and sometime* 
40 feet in circumference. 2. The king, a row of square siliceona stonM 
Btnu^ on a reed by one angle, and struck with a stick. 3. Bells, cymbals, 
and goDgs, made of tin, copper, and bismuth. 4. The Siuen, a hollow 
^g of b^ced earth, with six holes to produce notes, and one for the blower. 
5. ^> and kin, each of them a kind of lyre. The first is nine feet long, 
and often has 35 strings ; the other is five feet long, and has seven 
strings of eilk, played upon by the finger, or a small stick. A twO-stringed 
fiddle, and different sorts of guitars, rank in this class. 6. Cku, yi, aitd 
^ung-ta ; the first is a hollow bushel, struck in the inside with a hammer % 
d)e second, shaped like a tiger, emita a sound when scraped on the back 
with a rod ; the third is a bundle of 1 2 pieces of wood, against which they 
beat time. 7. Flutes and clarionets, some of tbem very discordant, and 
others monotonous. 8. The tkeng or aing, the lower part of a gourd, in 
wbich a row of pipes ia fixed, with a curved and lateral one on which the 
performer blows. This ia one of the most agreeable of the Chinese in- 

Ti(E form of Government among the Chinese is patriarchal. The em^- 
ror poBsesses the most unlimited power over all beneath bim ; be claims 
the title of ibe Father of his People, and a spirit of filial reverence for him 
is nniveieally incnlcated as one of the first dntiea and most sacred princi- 
ples that can be cherished by the children of the Celestial Empire. 

Emperor't Council.} The government is composed of the emperor's 
conncil, and of the great public tribunals. The emperor's council is com~ 
posed of the ministers of state taken from the Colao, or first order of man- 
darins, of the presidents of the supreme uibnnals, of their assessors and 
secretaries i but is never assembled unless upon affiurs of the greatest im- 
portance ; and, in genenl cases, every thing is directed by what is called 
the inner mart, or private conncil of tbe emperor. 

Public Tn6uHaU.2 There are six superior tribunals at Pekin, viz : the 
tribunal of Ranks and Dignities ; the tribunal of Kevenne ; the tribnnal of 
Forms and Ceremomes ; the tribunal of Penal Law ; tbe tribunal of Public 
Wfvka; and the Military Tribunal. Each of these six aapreme trilmuala 

,10 ASIA. 

haa two preridentB, one of whom muit be a Tartar by birtb ; and S4 conn- 
mHotS or aisesaora, one half of whom are T^trtanitiadtbe other half Cbinese. 
In order to check these various tribnnala, it is enacted that ntHie of (hem 
shall have absolnte aathority, even in its own department, and iis dedsiona 
can have no effect, withont the concurrence of the other courts. 

There is also a very important tribunal, called Too-tche-yaen, or Iri- 
himil of public centort, who have the inspection of the whole nation, of 
die emperor himself, of the supreme tribunals, of the different orders of 
mandarins, and of every class of citJEeni. Along with the chiefs of tlie 
several tribunals, they have the privilege of addressing remonstrances to 
the emperor himself; bnt it would be a capital offenre in any of them to 
fail in showing due respect to the person of the sovereign. This tribunal 
sends an inspector general, called Ko-tao, to each of the six supreme tri- 
bunals, who takes no part in the delibentions of these coarts, but merely 
observes all that passes ; and, without even communicating with his col> 
leagues, renders an account in secret to the emperor of all that he has oo< 
ticed. Hie same tribunal likewise sends visitors, every three years, to each 
of the provinces ; and these officers, ss soon as they reach their respective 
destinations, are superior to the governors and mandarins, whose adminis- 
bations they inspect, but whose oppressions they seldom denounce, unless 
when they are very flagrant and extensive. They despatch even secret 
vintois through all tbe provinces ; and their mqniriee are dreaded by all 
dsMes in the state. 

Wbite it is by means of the viceroys and mandarins that the emperor 
gorema and reigns, it is by means of these different tribunals, thu he 
knows and sees, as it were, every thing that is transacted thronghoat his 
Immense empire. As the grandees and mandarins, in th^ different sta- 
tions, have a right t« a part of that reverence which is due to the Bove- 
reign from iriiom they derive their authority ; he is careful, both for his 
own safety and the welfare of his subjects, that these officers be prevent. 
«d from fusing their power, or acquiring too much influence over the 
people. He, therefore, changes tliem regularly every three years ; obliges 
them to present themselves before him, both when they depart for their 
respective stations, and when they return ; and, in order to retain a stronger 
hold upon their allegiance, causes their children to be educated in the im- 
perial college of Pekin. An ancient custom of the empire also requires 
that they shall became their own accniers, and make confession of their 
faults ; bnt aa it ntay well be supposed, that they would be inclined to 
palliate and conceal whatever affect«d their character, in order that the 
emperor may know the truth, he despatches th« secret inspectors from the 
tribunal of censors ; and according to the information received from them, 
after personal inqniry in the district of the mandarins under examination, 
the emperor punishes or rewards ; and, that these proceedings may have 
thNT fall effect for the reatraint or encouragement of others, the names of 
those who have been censored or approved, cashiered or promoted, are in- 
aerted in the court gazette, lliis absolute sovereign, in short, always vi- 
gilant, distrustful, and severe, looks into every quarter; exalts or degrades 
his grandeea in snccesaion ; and it is upon the instability of offices, and the 
desire of obtaining them, that be rests his own security and that of hia 
dominitHis. The policy of the Chinese emperor is to make every thing 
depend upon himself ; to change the persons, who are in office, at lus plea- 
sure ; to keep up a constant mutual jealousy among the mandarins ; to take 
care, that no one becomes too wealthy and powerful ; and to be coutiuwd- 


ly dividii^ uew the bnmeBM ricbM and antWity, of which be hu i1m 
entire di^MMal. 

Corruption and oppreMtion.^ TUa plan, howerer, of garermng the peo- 
ple as a iomily, which is the precept of Confndiis, is more beautiful in 
theory, than piscticable in reality ; and, as the sorerMgn ia nnable to sea 
•rery thing with his own eye, all hia anpeiintendance and TigilancQ ara 
rendered ODHTuting, hy the want of int^rity in hie depntieB. These im- 
perial commissaries, whoee function is ao fonnidAble, who poeaew tba 
anlhority of the emperor, who examine the condnct of the great officers, 
and who have the power of aecasing and dapoeing in their bands, seldom 
execate their order* with due fidelity. As soon aa they arrive in a pro- 
rioce, alt the maudariiu hasten to wait upon them, to anticipate their 
wiabea, and to beg their acceptance of presents. All the mandarins, in- 
tonated with any commission &om the comrt, are nominated by the minis- 
try i and, as soon as thur term in office is expired, tbey make preaeots to 
the ministers, the princea of the blood, the pieaidents and asaeasora of tha 
tribnnals, ami then ait down with the rest of their gains, in fnll security of 
DO inqmiy being made into their administration. All coroplainta must 
pMB throDgh the principal officers, befmv they can reach die emperor ; 
and dieae persons are all so miited in interest, that no remonstrance reacbea 
the throne without their foil consent. This lore of presents has always 
prerailed in China among the mandarins ; and all the attempts of the em- 
perors to cheek the practice ha<re proved ineffectnal. 

Thus, with the greatest possible show of paternal regard for the good 
of the people, they are misemhly n^iected in the points most essential to 
tbmr welfare ; and in die times of famine, while die gazettes ere full of 
ibe emperor's expressions of sympathy for Ins children, and of the measures 
adopted for the relief of the distressed districts, so many delays are prac- 
tised, that the calamity is gMierally at an end before the imperial succour 
arrives. Sometimes these seasons of scarcity give rise to violsit oonimo- 
tions, — to robbery, murder, and even, it ia said, to cannibalism. Then, 
indeed, the severity of die government is ditplayed, and the supreuM 
mthorides coldly calculate die neceswty of putting to death a certain nam- 
ber of individuals, in order to restore tnmqaiUity. "The Chinese, in 
abort," observes the same mielligent wriien^, (M. De Gnignes,) to whom 
we have already referred, " are treated in a most rig<nwis maniwr ; and 
if they do not always complain, it is because they would gain litda by 
dmng so." — " I have lived a long time," he adds, " in China. I have tr«- 
versMl that vast empire in all its extent. 1 have every when seen tha 
strong oppress the weak, and every man, who possessed any portion of 
anthority, employ it to harass, to bardm, to outh the people." 

Catuet of itt permanency^ Snch is the mode, in which this govern- 
ment, which has been so highly extolled, and whose stability has beat held 
up aa a proof of its perfection, is fomid to be generally administered ; and 
bow, then, are we to account for its duration and tranquillity ? It ia still a 
matter of doobl, and suffieiendy open to dispute, whether the peace and 
permanency of the Chinese government is to be attributed to its having 
been originally adapted to the genius and h^ts of the people, or to its 
having completely Bubdned and moulded their dispositions and mamiars to 
its views and maxima. 

The basis of the whole system is, the natural and unlimited anthority, 
which a parent is nnderstocrd to possess over bis oflspriag, as long aa they 
Hre; a maxim which haa been mdnstriously inculcated for ages np<m the 


52 ASIA. 

nstirea of China, and which is now completely interwoven with kII their 
•ariiett feelinga and principles. The emperor is re§;arded u the comiDan 
father of his people, and is accordiDKly invested with all that absolate do- 
minion which a parent is conudered, in that conntry, as neceasaril]' pos- 
■eesiD^ over his fomily. He is not only placed above all earthly control, 
bat is supposed also to be of more than mortal descent. Hence he not 
merely takes the title of " the Great Father," but likewise styles himself 
" the Son of Heaven," and " the sole Ruler of the World." He himself, 
too, gives tbe example of that Hnbmisnve respect, wluch, aa the general pa- 
rent, he claims Irom his snbjects ; and, at the commencement of every 
sew year, he prostrates himself in the presence of the empress-dowager, 
before he receives the prostrations of his officers and attendants. The 
eame principle pervades all the braaches of anthority : and the governor of 
a province, a city, or any other department, is considered as the father of 
all who are ander his immediate jarisdiction. ' In practice, however, «■ 
has been shown, diis plausible theory is sadly defective ; and the parental 
affection and care of the governor has rather the appearance of cruelty and 
oppression ; while the filial doty of the governed is little better than fear, 
deceit, and disaffection. The very condnct of the monarch giveaaaffident 
proof, that it is an artificial policy, rather than an arrangement of natnre, 
by which be rales ; for, in direct opposition to that confidence aiid delight, 
with which a father should appear in the midst of his &mily, it is the first 
and great maxim of state, that he shonld show himself as rarely as poau- 
ble to his people in public, and then only, when he is invested with the 
utmost degree of magnificence and splendour. , 

The following causes have alto been assigned, as perhaps contributing 
tfaeir share of influence to the support of the constitution. 1. The low 
stale of dvilisation among the Chinese, which prevents their acquisition of 
enlarged views of politick freedom ; 2. The natnnl barriers of the country 
exclnding foreign enemies, and the extreme caution of the government in 
admitting strangers into the empire : 3. The difficulty of making progrew 
in the language, which keeps the body of the people in ignorance : 4. The 
complete religions toleration which ia exercised, (with only one exception, 
that of Christianity,) neither prohibiting the people from embracing any 
sect that they choose, nor compelling them to contribute to the support of 
one which they dislike : and, 5. The means which are employed to incul- 
cate sober habits, and to render individuals reserved, fonnal, suspicious, 
and nnsocial, which prevent all haranguing and caballing, all conferences 
about political right or wrong, and all plans of oppowtion to the will of the 

ChiaeM Courl^ The following description (by Lord Macartney) of the 
festival on the anniversary of the emperor's birth-day, wilt convey to our 
readers a better idea of the splendour and ceremonies of the Chinese court, 
than any abridged view that we could attempt to give. " The 17th of 
September, being the emperor's birth-day, we set out for the court at 
three o'clock in the morning. — We reposed ourselves about two hours 
in a Urge saloon, at die entrance of the palace inclosure, where fruit, tea, 
warm milk, and other refreshments, were brought to us. At last, notice 
was given, that the festival was going to begin ; and we immediately des- 
cended into the garden, where we found all the great men and mandaiina 
in their robes of state, dniwn np before the imperial pavilion. The empe- 
ror did not show himself, but remained concealed behind a screen, from 
whence, I prenmie, he conld see and enjoy the ceremonies, without incon- 


venience or iDtamptioii. All eye* were tonied to the place where his 
majetty was ima^ned to be enthroned, and seemed to expreBH an impa- 
tience to begin the d«votioiu of the day. Slow solemn mnsic, mnflled 
drnma, and deep toned bells were heard at a distance. On a sadden the 
soDDtU ceased, and all was ttill. Again they were renewed, and then in- 
tennitted, with short pauses ; dniing which, several persons passed back- 
wards and forwards in the pratceaiuni, or foregronnd of the tent, as if en- 
gaged in preparing some grand coup de theatre. At length the great 
band, both Tocal and instrumental, struch np with all their powers of har- 
mony ; and instantly the whole court fell flat upon their faces before this 
invisible Nebnchadnezzar. — The mosic might be considered as a sort of 
birth-day ode, or state anthem, the bnrthen of which was, ' Bow down 
yoar heads, all ye dwellera upon the earth ; how down your heads before 
the great Kien-long, the great Kien-long.' And then aU the dwellers npon 
China earth there present, except onrselves, bowed down their heads, and 
proatrated tbemselves npon the ground, at every renewal of the choms. 
Indeed, in no religion, either ancient or modem, has the dinoity ever been 
■ddresaed, I believe, with stronger exterior marks of worship and adora- 
tion, tbaa were this morning paid to the phantom of his Chinese majesty. 
Snch is the mode of celebrating the emperor's anniversary festival, accord- 
ing to the court ritnal. We saw nothing of him the whole day, nor did 
any of his ministers, I imagine, approach him ; for they all seemed to re- 
tire at the same moment t^ we did." 

The only companions of the emperor, in faia leisure hours, are his women 
and ennnclis. His wives are diatribnted into three clasees. The first 
claaa consists only of one, who has the rank of empress ; the second, of 
two qneens, and their attendants ; and the third, of six queens, with their 
trun. To these ara added a hundred ladies, usually called the emperor'a 
concubines, but formuig an equally legal part of his establishment ; and 
men of the first rank accoimt themselves highly honoured, when their 
dangbtera are admitted into this number. Their children are all considered 
as branches of the imperial family i bnt the male issue of the first empress 
is generally regarded as the heir apparent to the throne, though this de- 
pends upon the will of the emperor, who has the sole right of nominating 
bis successor, and of choosing him out of any class or family in the empire. 
The daughters of the sovereign are generally given in marriage to Tartar 
princes and officers, and rarely to a Chinese husband. The emperor's 
women are doomed to reside for ever within the walls of the palace ; and, 
after his death, they, are immnred for life in a separate building, called the 
palace of chastity. " 

ZdfD.J The. laws of China may be arranged under the following beads, 
▼iz. the difierent kinds and degrees of punishment anthorized by them ; 
the principal provisions which they make in some of the most important 
CMee i and the mode of. their admi&iatiation in the apprehension end trial 
«f delinquents. 

The ponishmenla in common nee are, 1. The baatonade, which is in- 
flicted by the pantse or bamboo. This insnument consists of a latlt <rf 
bamboo, about fire or aiz feet in length, and four inches in breadth at tha 
end which is applied to the culprit. " It is generally applied in a serere 
and cruel way, and it is seldom that a delinquent survives after receiving 
fifty blows. 'liis instrument is in constant application, and is inflicted for 
the smallest offence. The more ordinary chastisements are not attended 
with disgrace, and are considered merely as a slight paternal correction. 

'■* ASIA. 

It u SN<1 to be fraquentiy inflicted in this view, hy tba emperor hioiMlf, 
. upon his courtiera and prime miniBten, without their forfeiting hia &Toiir, 
or losing their retpectability wit)i the nation ; and one officer may apply 
it to another, in a very anrnmary monnBr, upon bis failing in any duty, or 
eren neglecting to salute hia superior vith proper respect. When it i« in- 
flicted in a court of jusuce, the presiding tnandario takea a bduII stick, 
about six inches in length, and one in breadth, and throwa it on the ground. 
The culprit is instantly seized by the attendants, and stretched upon bit 
face on the earth, hia clothes pulled down to his heels, and fire amart 
blows applied to his posteriors; and for every stink that the mandarilt 
throws from his bag, five additional blows are inflicted. The offender 
must then throw himself on the ground before the judge, incline bis body 
to the ground, and give him thanks for the care he takes of his moTsla. 
This is affirmed to be done even by the higher ofBcers to their superiors. 
When women ore subjected to this punishment, they are perruitted to wear 
an upper and under garment, except in cues of adnltory, when they are 
allowed only the under garment. It is aeid that a Chinese when under- 
going the bunboo, cries out in a most piteous manner, and makes his ac- 
knowledgments afterwards with the utmost humiliation ; but that a Tartar 
generally snSera in silence, grumbles against the execution, and at length 
sullenly retires." 

2. The tcha or kangue. — This moveable pillory is a wooden collar, 
generally about three feet square, and varying from 60 to 300 poaodB 
weight. During all die time this machine is worn, which is for weeks or 
months, night and day, the criminal is unable to see his feet or to put his 
band to his mouth, and would die of hunger had he no one to administer 
his food. The culprit is exposed a given time every day in some pabHc 

3. Banishment, in which case the culprit's family is allowed to follow 
him : all banished poisons are obliged to wear a red cap. 

4. Dragging the iroperi«l barks on the canals for a given muuber of 

5. Death by stawigling or beheading. When the crime is of an atro- 
cions nature, the criminal is ordered for execution without delay: in 
general, however, it is postponed till autumn, when all those nndw seor 
tence of death throngbont the empire iia execnt«d in one day. 

In cases of great moment, the Chinese lawe authorize tortore, in ordet 
to extort confeeuons. With respect to all offences committed against the 
BorereigD, they are particularly severe. Those convicted of treasonable 
practices, are pnt to death by slow and painful tortnree ; all their male re- 
lations in the first degree, are indiscriminately beheaded ; all their female 
relations are sold into slavery ; and all their connexions residing in their 
honseholds, relentlessly put to death. Even to intrude into the line of the 
imperial retinae while the emperor is travelling, or to enter any of the 
apartments in the palace actnally occupied by him or any of bis family, ia 
ptmisbed with death. Nay, to ride, or walk upon the road along which 
the emperor is to pass, exposes the offender to severe punisbment. The 
workmen employed about the buildings and grounds belonging to the 
palace, have their names inserted in a list as tfaey go in and come out ; are 
provided with passports, as they enter the gates, which tbey most delivo' 
back at their return i they are r^nlerly counted Ba tbey pass and repass, 
tuid if any stops behind, he is snbject to capital punishment. 

The lile of tbe subject is held peculiarly sacred ; and (iobntidde ex.- 


cepted) nnirder is never oTerlooked. To administer paiBon is a capital 
crime, though the dose Hhonld not take effect. Killing ia ■ scuffle, b also 
punished wiUi death. Killing, or eren wonnding by mere accident, is still 
punishable by death ; only, in this case, the offender may redeem himself, 
by paying a fine to the friends of the deceased. The mere attempt, or 
deeign to commit parricide, is punished with death ; and if actually com* 
mitted, with death by torture. To strike a father, mother, grand&tner, or 
grandmother, is punished by beheading. Sbonld a wife strike her hus- 
band's relations in any of the abore degrees, she is beheaded ; shoald she 
strike her husband, she is ponied threefold more severely than for a 
common assanlt ; shoald ahe maim him, she is beheaded ; and shoalil he 
die, she is executed by torture. Anonymous accnsalions are punished nith 
death, «ren should they prore true. A parent chastising his child so as 
to cause death, is punished only with 100 blows ; and no law whatever 
exists against infanticide. 

Tbe men attempt to steal, is punished with 50 blows ; bnt if the theft 
is actually committed, by from 60 to 100 blows, or by death, according 
to the Talne stolen. In cases of robbery and theft, the mandarin and sol- 
diers of the district are erposed to repeated fli^ings, or to dismissal from 
dieir office, if they fail to discorer and convict tbe offender. Rubbery is 
always punished with death, if the persons robbed be wounded, or tbe 
lobbery be committed daring the night. Fornication, and certain uone- 
tunJ crimes, are punished with 70 blows; adnltery, with 100 blows. 
Rape subjects the offender to death, while even the attempt is punished 
with 100 blows and perpetual benishmeot. 

Tbe law ordains the debtor's goods to be sold, and payment to be made ; 
w if be baa no aabstanoe v^terewith to liquidate the debt, he receives 30 
Uowe, and a mondi's delay to make payment ; and so on, at the rate of 
30 blows per month, till he satisfy his creditor. Hence tiie poor debtor 
■a often ob%ed to render himself a slave, when he has no other means of 
w tr icaring himself from his difficulties. 

Persons under fifteen, or above seventy, or maimed, are allowed to re- 
ileMn thennelvee from all bnt capital punishments, by a small fine. Under 
ten Kud a^ve eighty, even when capitally convicted, to be recommended 
to the clemency of the emperor. Under ninety and above seventy to be 
punished for nothing bnt treason. 

In matters of police, the process is very summary, especially if the 
mandarin hae been a witness of the ofFeace. He does not wait till a com- 
plaint be nude, nor does he send the offender to prison to be brought to 
trial afienrards, but instantly interrogates, judges, and punishes him upon 
the spot. Cities are divided into distinct quarters, of which every one is 
anperintended by an officer of police. Every mast«r of a fomily is account- 
able for the actions of all its members. Several families are subjected to 
tbe inspection of an individual in their neighbourhood. At night tbe 
gates are shut. Nnmerons patroles pass the streets, in every direction ; 
and none is allowed to remiun on them, who cannot give a satisfactory 
reason for his conduct. In this manner, the quiet oS Ao dtizens is in- 
sured ; and that subordina^n is maintaiiied, which appears to be one of 
tbe chief supports of the Chinese government. 

The characteristic defect of the whole system is an nnprofitable mmute- 
BesB of regidation, an intoleraUe interference with every ordinal'y duty 
of life, and an unnecessary endeavour to fix every shade of distinctioiit 
whuk K CMe nay raceiva from its cJrcamstaiicaa. Tins, indeed, BoUiilig 


66 *aiA. 

vhatenr n left to the discretion of the judge, aod 0T«ry offender miy 
almoBt anticipate his sentence : but the ■yBletn ii eompleielf destntctire 
of personal freedom, and resembles more the iritsome discipline of a school, 
than the jadicions reetraints of an enlightened goTemment. It is mffi- 
dentlf adapted to keep subjects in order, and to repress private bjnries 
among individuals ; bnt it is a dead weight npon every thing like d^ity 
of mind or delicacy of feeling, and would be felt as the most cruel oppres- 
sion by a high>spirited and generons-mmded people. The formation of 
snch a code seems to belong to a slate of society not mnch advanced b»< 
yond the first stages of civilization, and its direct tendency evidently is to 
prevent the people, under its inflnence, from making any farther pn^reea 
in the political improvement of their condition, or in personal refinement 
of charecter. The indiscriminate freqnency of corpoml punishment must 
infallibly prevent such attainments, and fixes the subjects always in the 
condition of grown children, who are kept in order by mere flogging. Of . 
fences of all descriptions, and in every rank of society, are punished by a 
certain quantity of flagellation ; and there are at least fiO clanses in this 
code of laws, by whirli a genera) officer is ordered to receive, for parti- 
cular offences, 50 lashes npon his posteriors ; while he is allowed to con- 
tinue in the command of the army. Snch a system of whipping men into 
good morals and civil manners may be adapted to the pecniiar genius of 
the people among whom it prevails ; but it could never have originated, 
□or have continued to be endured, except in a comitry where there existed, 
in an extreme degree, a general debasement of all character. 

Sevenue."] A titbe land-tax, and a tax on the workshops of artizans, 
are the principal sources of revenue in China. The land-tax is at the rate 
of one dollar for five mouu, each mow equal to about one-fiAh of au 
English acre. The revenue is payable in money and grain. There are 
also excise taxes on coal, salt, and a variety of other articles, so that China, 
like our own country, is oppressed by nnmberiess functionaries, in the 
shape of excisemen, collectors, appraisers, &C., the expense of maintaining 
whom equals, in many cases, the assessment, and whose rapacity and inso- 
lence grieve and degrade the spirit of the people. The Chinese minister 
who favoured lord Macartney vrith a census of the population, also famished 
him with an abstract of the revenue, making it amonnt to £60,000,000 
sterling; but as the one has since been proved to have been greatly exag- 
gerated, no reliance can be placed on the other. Indeed, it is diffiicnlt to 
gmn any faithful information on this subject. Tfae following table is from 
a Chinese mannscript work, compiled in 1BS3, by a person named Wang- 
Kwei-Shing, and from a government publication entitled Tsin-ahin. 

BcTcnoa b; taxes and duties. 

TaeU, 6i. Bd. each. 

PsyiUe in mDn<]t, S33S7,056— £11,109,018 6i. 6d. 

Fsfable in gnin, 41,134,677— £lS,7Il,£Sfi tSi. Id. 

£El,SS0,a44 Oi. Od. 
To tbli add dutiM at Canbm on the fordgn trade with the EngUali Esat India Com- 
psof and ^ Americuu. 

Taeli, l,eT0,S99=£0O,65e,766 (<i. Sd. 

General total, £S&,8T7,S10 «>. Bd. 
Tlie total amonnt of grain, inclnding rice, annually received, m 
to the above Uble, is stated at 4,230,959 ahih, each shih bung 140tbs^ 
equal to 264,000 tons. The quantity of grain and rice retained ii ' 


pforindil grsiiBriea for the nippljr of troopa, and agaiut & learcity, t 
following : 

Total, SCI,QM,']B9iUh.=l,gie,000U 
Cl»il MTTiu.— Tmeli, S,6S9t7aO tlfiOflfi] 


NmnlMT of lUitloiliry ti__ ., ,„_, 

Fay umtully, . Tkeb, tO,S8«,S09^.£6,961,401. 

, ... . . ' thfl dykn at tlu Wli«ii|;>^ha. 

Tiala, 8,Oa0,O0O=£O,e6S,flBB 6i. Sit 

Do. of the Yooi-Mtng gu-dew wad baBOial rt-Adiaa sf Jehol in TuUrj. 

TacU, 1. 000,000^ £0333,333 St ^ 

EspBidhurs of tha iBparlal palace, Hanlin coUega, and nlarlfB of the 

•UM, UMuntlog, witk tbalr dapuideotfc tn S^sea pcnona, 

Tadi. 6,8 19, 1 es=£l, 939,707 IS>. Id. 

GeDETaltolai, 33,SE7,0C&=£1 1,109,018 8f . 4d. 

Id Mnne of the provincM tbe expenditure greatly exceeds die rerenoe, 
u in ShiDg-king or Lyaotong, wliere the deficiency ii 41,619 taeli,and in 
Kamnh, tbe N.W. dinaion of Shense, vfaere it amonnta U> 1,859,395 taeb, 
in the cinl and military disbursementa. According to De Goignes, the 
nfiole raTenne in 1777 was £29,597,066 sterling, and the expenditure, 
£80,837,540 aUrling, thoa leaving a snrplns of £8,759,546. This is 
certunly a rery comfortable balance after mch an extraor&iary eipen- 
ditare in the military and naval departmenla. One would im^ne'if 
anch a rorplns were anniully left in the imperial eicheqaer, that it 
would be oversowing with money, and yet in the late war with the 
MahommedanH of Khashghar, the emperor was in great distreas fbr 
money to meet the increaHed expenditure, if the Canton accounts are 
worthy of credit. Besides the revenue given in Ae table above for 1823, 
great snms are received by the pnbHc sale of government eitnationa, a moM 
pemicions practice which commenced nnder the Han dynasty, and whidi 
is a great aoitrce of cormption and oppreuion. A very spirited remon- 
Bb«nce from two of the minlatera was presented to the present emperor, 
Taoukwang, in 1833, aguost diia faring system of corruption, urging ita 
abotitioa as deatmctivo to the empire, and pr<q>osing, in lien of it, a system 
of retrenchment in the imperial eipenditmv. Tbe remonstrance was well 
received by the emperor, who said that sncb ministers deaerred well of 
Uieir errantry, but we have not yet heard that the sale of public ofbcea has 
been sinra abolished. It may here be remariced that Sir Geoi^ Smmton'a 
account of tbe Chinese revenue is entirely taken firom Da Halde, and that 
the taels are valued in Du Halde at Bt. li. each, instead of 6*. 8rf. as in 
the statement above. Tbe foot seems to be, that there ia no agreement 
amongst the variouB writers who liave given ns Chinese statistira, inspect- 
ing tbe amount of the revenue, whether in money or goods, and this mutt 
either arise from our ignorance of the acttfol amount of the Chinese !«• 
renae, or from the great flnctnations in it. 

Military FoTeg7\ Respecting this branch there ia as Httle agreement 
as about the amount of tba revenue. But the foUowing statement is given 
as the amount of the military establishment, and ttrfir cantonmMits. 





























Coaunuided bjr 7,S6S piiUtw? offlcen. 

The cavalry w eMinwted at i^at 400,000 anil the iofiuitrr at abont 
822,000. The army U chiefly composed of Tartar*, wlio, in thia, aa in 
erery other department, take uie lead. To tfaem ia iutnuted (fae protec- 
tion of the fiontierB, and of the great citiea of the empire. The Chineae 
aoldien are repreeented as bwng despicable cowardg, and indeed cowardice 
ia a cbaracteriatic of their countryroen. The dreaa of the military Taries 
in di^rent prorincea : bine jackets bordered wi^ red bong worn in lonie, 
broirn and yellow in othera ; but sugar-loaf caps, terminated by a spear, 
and long tufts of scarlet hair, seem to be the proper distinction of a soldier. 
Cuirassea of quilted cloth, thickly stndded with brass knobs, are worn in 
some districts ; and shields of basket-work, two feet long, and painted to 
look like the heads of dragons, are used by a corps called tht tigtrt of 
war. Fans and umbrellas are a part of the equipment of every Chinese 
soldier ; and Urn reminds us of Voltaire's canstic answer to the question if 
he had any news : " Yes," said he, " his holiness the pope has ordered a 
new blnnderboss and umbrella to be given to each of his soldiers — both to 
be returned at the end of the year in the same state in which they were 

The arms of the Chinese are swords, pikes, matchlocka, and bows, ex- 
cept when, acting aa policemen, they exchange these for a more offensive 
weapon, and one with which they are more formidable — the whip. Their 
matchlocks are provided with a stand upon which they can rest, when dis- 
diarged. Nothing can be more contemptible than their artillery. The 
petards, with which they fire salates, have a very small bore ; they are 
atnck perpendicularly in the gronnd, and dischai^ed by a train, conunnni- 
ceting one with auotlter. 

The soldiers are divided into companies of 25 men, each company hav- 
ing its own standard, which is triangular, and abont six feet high — hence 
the Chinese army is estinukted by the number of its banners. The colour 
of these banners vary — among the Tartars being either white, yellow, red, 
or blue — among the Chinese, nsnally green. The pay of the soldiets is aa 
follows : A fool^oldier receives one tael or Gi. Bd. monthly, besides three 
measures of rice ; a horseman, two taels and sis measures of rice monthly, 
besides their respective clums upon the people. What these claims are 
cannot be exactly estimated, bnt the pay, on the whole, must be compara- 
tively good, le the common people are in general eager to enter the army. 

Navy.^ The navy of the Chinese is very contemptible. Their trading 
vessels are ill-built, and however eafe in their rivers and canals, are unfit 
for the open sea. With a aqolre bow, no keel or bowsprit, thick masts of 
one piece, single sails of bamboo-matting, folded like a fan, heavy and un- 
manageable, and a moveable and anstfady rudder, these crescent-ebi^»ed 
vessels, adorned with dragons' mouths, frightful heads, and goggle eyes, 
are almost ungovernable in boisterous weather, and it is inconceivable the 


number of bouIi who uiniully periiti with them. Prom Canton alone, 10 
or 11,000 persona are supposed to be lo«t in these frail baiks every year, 
■o that the retorn of a mercbant-mao from a distant voyage, is celebrated 
trith great rqoiciiigs by those interested in its safety. A man-of-war dif- 
ien from a merchant'man chieBy by having a narrower bottom, and m 
lower head and stem. It is armed with small cannon and canhinea. A 
parapet of bamboo protects the crew, the military part of whom are pro- 
vided with backlers and lances. 

Fortifieationar\ All the Chinese towna are forUfied by a broad ram- 
part, sometimes flanked witk sqnare towers at intervals, fticed wiUi stone 
or biick, as well as protected by a ditch. Theae ramparts are geneially 
from SO to 30 feet high, and from 10 to 20 feet broad. Little attention 
i« paid to the guns, but the gates are constructed and gnarded with care. 
The Chineae have also fortiGcationa on exposed points, more, however, as 
a protection against robbers, than a check apon the progress of a regolsr 


In the t^le given at the commencement of this article, the reader will 
find the varions provinces and chief towns of China enumerated. Respect- 
mg the number of towns in China there is great discordance of opinion. 
According to the table compiled in 1823, from which we have already 
quoted, there are 183 foot or citiee of the first rank ; 225 choiM or ci^ea 
of ihe second rank ; and 1,156 htm or cities of the third rank, each the 
coital of a district. Total 1,564. It must b« remarked that theae divi- 
aiona belong to the dvil administration of the provinces, not to the military 
government. The military cities are divided into seven claasea, hot their 
number has also been vaiionsly estimated, and we cannot dedde the dif- 
ference. According to some accounts, ^ey ai« more nnmerons than the 
civil citiea, according to others, thay are fewer. But it most be observed, 
that what are called dties in Chiim, whether they belong to the civil or 
military departments, or in whatever rank they are placed, are all walled; 
no town, however la^, unless walled, ever obtains die i^ipellation irf a foo 
or choo or been, or is even ranked in the seven military classes. Each 
province is divided into large districts called foos, which are snbdivided into 
choos wid heens, so many beens composing a choo, and so many chooa a foo, 
or district of the first ms^tude. It most not be imagined, when mention ia 
made of a been, a city and district of the third rank, that such district ia a 
mere canton or bailiwick of small extent, there being many of them 60, 70, 
and even 80 leagues in drcomference, and which pay lai^y into the im- 
perial treasury. Neither mnst it be concluded, that because none but walled 
towns obtain the appellation of a foo, f^oo, or been, therefore all others 
are inconuderahle towns ; on the contrary, many of them are as laige as 
fooe, or citiea of the first rank. According to Chinese accounts, beeidM the 
military dtiee, there are 439 castles on the coasts, several of them veij 
large, and nearly equal to walled towns for p<^ulalion, bendea 2,920 bo- 
rongha, or towns, along the coast, most of Uiem in size equalling walled 
alios. The inland towns and villages, we are told, are incredibly nnmer- 
ons, and crowded with inhabitants. Of the provinces and chief towns it 
now remuns to give a more particniar account. 

Dcinz.SDv Google 

KiKO-sE OR Pm-CBK-LU^ Kug-«« ™>lu ^"^ »M<% ^ (Hwiaeei, m it 
the modem capital, Pe-ldng, the seat of ^reminent, and reNdence 

of the emperor. Every proTUce u dirided into cantoos, districti, aad 
towMUpa, each of wUdi cemprebeod* a cotain definite territorf under ita 
jdriidictioB. They are called Foo, Cboo, Heen, reapectirel)', accord- 
iag a* dieir centals are lowiu of the firat, Moond, and third magaitade ; 
Mid am tfemaelra* aabdirided iato hnndreda, coatunii^ only a few toima 
or Tillagee. Kiag>fle contains ten of the first, forty of the aecond, and one 
fanndrad and right of the third daat. Thoae of Ute fint are^ beaidea Pe- 
king, the metropoUa, Pao-ting, the reudence of die ricaroy ; Ho-keea ; 
Chuig-tiiig, a well-bnilt town, fonr nuka in circamference ; Chnn-te, 
Hwang-ping, Tei-ming, Ymig-pin^ and Saen-hwa. Of PeJung aloiM a 
description can be given. 

Pe-kiMg.'] Pe-king is utoated in a plain, at a diataaoe of 60 tnilea S. 
from the great wtiW The city is divided into tiro part* by a Ugh naU. 
The northern part, which forma nearly a perfect squaie, U called King' 
tcking, or the ' City of the Court ;' this is the Mantchoo lAwn, and contains 
the imperial palace. The soBthem qoaiter, or Cbineee town, i« called Fai- 
tching : it is ID the form of a parallel<^;Tani. The walls of the city are, in 
moat places, 30 feet hi^ 25 feet broad at the baee, and 12 at the top, be- 
tween the parapet*. Nine lofty gates crowned with turrets give ingress 
■nd egress to the inMiitants ; and a seni-circiilBr area hef<H« each gate is 
inclosed by a wall of the eame dimensions in height and thidcnesB as thai 
«Aicfa mrrannda the city. The streets of Fe-king are, for the most part, 
bread, and in stnught lines ; they are nnpaved, bnt clean and well kept. 
The shops are hrilliandy (HTiamented, and have a gay effect. Tlie honaes 
are mostly of one story, bnilt of brick, and tiled. Those in the Cbineee 
town are inferior l« those in King-lching. Id the latter, beside the impecid 
palace and park, there are several odiar palaces, and varicnu pnblic edifices, 
temples, and lakes, occapying above balf of the city. Tlie imperial palace 
n not so mncb one bmlding as a ninltitiide of bniidings. Its walls com|H«- 
bend a little town, inhabited by the great officen of the court, and otboa 
in the emperor's serrice. Father Artier, a French Jesuit, who obtained 
permission to viut the palace, eays, that it is a league in aJrcumfereoce ; 
that ita front is embellished with paintings, gilding, and varnished work ; 
md tfaat the furniture and ornaments of the interior comprise every thing 
that is most rare and valued in China, India, wid Europe. The gardens ttf 
the palace form a vast paric, in which, at proper distances, monntuns rise 
twenty or sixty fleet in height, separated from one another by little valleys, 
which are watered with cuibIs ; these waters unite to form lakeejvbicfa are 
navigated by magnificent pleasnre boats, and their banks are adorned by a 
series of building. Each valley contains a spacious gnrnmer-honse or villa- 
Hie mountuns and hills are covered, widi trees, and fine aromatic flowera; 
the canals, ddrted wi^ rocks, so artfiilty arranged as to be a perfect imita- 
tion of nature in her wildest and most beantifiil forms. 

Besides the Chinese and Tartar towns, Pe-kii^ has twelve large sutraihs, 
which ^together form a very large city. Of its popaladon, no satiabctory 

" Tlirn sf < ■ Dunber of Interior mlli oooneclal irlth the graat wall, uid rannlax 
S. toward) Pc-klnc From thcM, Fe king maj be diKuit about t6 mllei. 

■' Tb« rdlowlDc dMsUi and obKrvadonii ngardlng Pekin are ntracted from Ttro- 
kowikl'a TiaTcla. It miut, hawever, be raaarkod, that though Hmkoir^i waa ds 


KvANG-MAN.] Kyuig-iwn, or Nu'ldng, thM ■•, ' ihe Sontbern Court,' 
raa long considored u tbe Mcond provmce in iha mb|hi«, Mid iu two 


tlut phHwI imui tae pmnK :^ 

" Pa-ldnc lit diHtlnguuhrd fnun Dthu capilab uid gnat cltlt* at Au» by th» mculUr 
■tfle of lubuildines, and the order which nigni In ils Interior. We muit uoi look fbr 
hoiuei or foqr or sVe Morie* In Iie1i;ht ; tb«r« are no flne quays, na hst-paremmta, iHr 
m the Mncta llgliMd ai oight Every thing, hsirerer, in the CbineH capital ladicato* 
■ cauntry Chaihaa long been civilized. The traaquiltity of the inhabitants jiaecured by 
moral UulUutiona, hy liable regulations, and by an actWe police. There are conitintly 
In tin atreeta toldlcn, with ainrda at their aidea a>d whlpa in their handi, raady to 
atitta thaw who ar* dii|Hiaed to onala aoy canfualoo. They take care that the itrecla 
«f Kinc-tdiiuean kepi perfectly clean, and, in case of need, put Ihelrhanda to the work 
IhcnuelTea. They keep watch dnrlng the night, and allow nobody to ro tn the nn«ti 
«nl«H with ■ lantern, an^ lor tamt neeti T T bnil m a t, ■« to fetch a physician. They 
•rai 1 neatiau thoie who may b« charged wllb cammlidons frum the empemr, and a 
Htirfadory answer must alwaye be glien them. They hive a right prOTinlnnally li 

■R«n any person who reelMa them, or li thought tuiplelaua. Th« roteraor of the city 
•Am niafcea TWta when they art leut eiqtected. The officers o( the guard an bound 
to be ^rtremely rltfilant with respect to the fwidicrn under their c^^mmaad. The sllgh teat 
Wfllgence would ne punished, and the officer cashiered the following day. These po- 
Uoe soldien are Chloeae Infontry brionglng H tlie rtgnlar troops. 

'■ Then Is beoidea at To-king, a body af cavalry, s^ to amount to eO,000 man. Their 
principal bufinesi Is to do duty at the gales and on the walls, and to beresdy to march 
on the shortest notice. 

" One of tbe prlndpaj dutlea af the police at Pe-king la to prevent famine. In the 
city, aa well aa in the suburbs, there are numerous gnuurieti, where a great quantity of 
rice la vrarehoused ajainat tfasons of scarcity. Theregulatlons respecting these granarlsa 
an fUthfoUy eiecnled In the vicinity of the court ; If they were equally irdi observed 
in tba provmcea, there wnold be no famine ; but this oslamity frequently occurs 
through tbe ncglltrence of the mnndiiriiis. Besides those grsiiiries. the empprar lias 
othen, which are filled with wheat, putse. and fodder for the bessts of burden. 

" The principal dus of Inhabltanla In Fe-Ung ii compoaed of the Mantchoo 
tronpi : the officers, who are at the same time member* of tbe civil tribunals, but too 
Indolent to employ Ihemsrlvraininvesligating the causes brought bffora thcm.ieavp the 

'more than the tenanta of the bouses, and the lands whirl 
they bate consumed their property, and the estates have fallen into the bands of Chhiesi 
nerehanta. The military, who an in (ood eircamitancsa, possess housea and abopa 
which bring them in a considerable income. 

" The merchantii and arilians compose the second class of tnhabilanls i the former 
prfatdpaliy live in Ihe Val-lo-tehlng. The great popvlatinaoT tbeampiredeprlvea many 
af Ihe inhabiiaiiis of the means of iupportiiig themselvea by agriculture. A great num- 
ber of people resort fmm all the provinces to the capital, to gain their livellhoad ; but 
they do not si ways succeed, the class who have need of workmen being very moderate 
in tbdr desires. 1 1 is said, that there an in Peking fifty ihouaand peraona, who, being 
without employment, have recourse to robbery and cheating. The vigilance and tbe 
Kverity of the police, however, keep them In good order ; for, during a residence of 
abont nx montlu at Peking, I did nut hear of a single robt-ary of Importance. As the 
Chinese are exiremely distrustful of the poor, and iMggars always meet with a decided 
rsfusal, Itle but seldom that a poor Individual has recourse to this essy means of gala- 
big ■llrelihood. The poor are employed In cleaning and watering the ilreeta r—* — 
dena, and eultlvating the ground ; thay also do the buslnen of porter*, and inc 

9 tile iroupes which foliaiv tlie pramaalom at marriages, fui ' ' 

etsome of these poor creatures, who had scarcely clothes toi 

bich folioiv the procaaaloiu at marriages, funerals, he. 

creatures, who had scarcely clothes to cover them, wearing 
with red feathers, accompanyint the funeral of some rich 
man. Wbea a tndeaman smpioyn a man of this class to oarry the goods which be has 
•old t* any body, tbe nnter lailhrully delivers them, and oonleiits himself with a 
mnneratloD of about thmepenca, even if he has worked for two hoUR. 

'^ Wltenver two atraata meet, and at every bridge, then are two-wheeled carrlai_ 
■naweriiic the MRM punoaa aa hscknev-oascbes in Europe. They an linod with iiitin 
and velvet, and drawn by mulea and torerfl ; tbe iirst of which In i 
•dive Tha great Peafiat and esporiallr ihe ladies, use sedan chairs. E 
obt^n permission Ram the amp«or. Feraonsiuoliice pnfsrridia|oo 

and eapedltionii i 

* in Peking who 

•nbdinMoiiB, Kyang-aoo ind Gao-wbii, were foctded into diMiact pn»- 
Tincei by the emperor Kyen-long. It u aitiuted on the golf of Nan-kin^; 
in the yellow sea, ud iu inhabitants are regarded aa the moat cinlized 
of the Chinese. 

Kan-ling,^ Nan-king is the capital of this province, and was formerly 
the capital of the whole empire. It is huilt on seyeral hills, and said to 
be 25 miles in drcnmferenca, so that it may atill cover die lai^«st area (rf 
any city in the empire. It has been on the decline uuce 1423, when the 
aeat of empire waa transferred (nim it to Pe-king. Many of the temples, 
palaces, and public buildings, which it once contained, bare moaldeted 
away ; but a number still remain, and its gates are beantifol. Its most 
attractive ornament and curiosity, however, is a porceluo tower, nine ato- 
nes high, with an ascent of forty steps, and twenty-one between each 
story, making in all a perpendicular height of nearly 200 feet. A pine 
apple of solid gold is swd to adorn its sammit ; its exterior is richly gar- 
nished with red, yellow, and green ; and mnltitndes of small bells sus- 
pended from the angles of the buildings ^ve oat fine sounds at every 
breath of wind. The large river, Yang-tse-kyang, which discharges itself 
into the sea below the city, formerly afforded a convenient harbour, but is 
now greatly choked up. Nan-king ia still the seat of learning in China ; 
it abonnds in libraries ; and several collies. It is also distingniihed for 
its mannlactures, the principal of which ia silk, particularly that of plain 
and flowered satins. 

Su-cheu^u.'] To the north of Nan-king ia Sa-chen-fu, the second 
city in the province, and the most flourisbiDg and Inmrions in the empire. 
It is famous for ila women, its dancers, its jugglers, and iu playeiB ; it is 
the dictatriz of Chinese taste, and the resort of the fuhionable and volnp- 
tuooB. " Paradise," say the Chinese, " may be in heaven, bat Su-chen-fn 
is on earth I" By Enropeans, it is compared to Venice. Its walls inclose 
an extensive area, comprehendmg large fields in a state of cultivation, and 
many separate houses, as well as the streets which properly form the 
town ; and the whole is intersected by canals. 

Besides Nan-king and Su.chen-fii, there are a variety of other towns in 
the province of Kyang-nan. Yang-cheu is remarkable for its antiqiuty, 
and particularly for a fine tower wbicb was erecte<l in die sixth century. 
Hwai-nang, Hwai-chen, ChiDg-kyang, and Fong-yang, are the names of 

> thla, the owners of the ■bove-mmtlDned coaches or chslses esrry on a vsrv lucrative 

" The Inlubitsati of Pekini receive eveir thing ^ra the southern provlnoe*. In 
Peking !t»ir, there are aogoM n)saufisctoria,except of colouredglus. l^riicioiu atone* 
are alMi cat and polished In the capital The Inhabitant* of the dtj, and the Chinese 
la feneral, i>T«rer pork, which I* herebetterflavouredandmoreea*; of dijeatlon tiianin 
Rnaala. The MantchiHM and Mongols eat mnttim, and dw latter beef. Mutton and beaf 
are not vary good tn China, because the cattle coming from Mouolls are too much ex- 
hauatediBud arinot properly attendedtoalUrtheyrBsohtheo^iiW. Batter, eapedallv 
made of sheep's milk, comes tram Mongolia. The Chinese pra^ bogs' lud, and out- 
not bear enn the imell of bntter oiade of cow's milk. The most eomniMi domcatio tmA 
are geese, docks, and chickens. The first are IndispensaUe at gniad entertaimnepl*. 
Tbe phydeisns forbid patienu to eat nxiltiv, a* IndigeatiUe and unwholHonie. A 
speciea of duck, called ya-tm. I* a very lavourils dish oa grand occadons, and isdrond 
In more than thirty dimrent ways. Tlie docks of Peking are very larfe, very &t, and 

tulcy. In the winter, there are partridges, pbeasaoM, sad fom of all kind*. Bat it 
■ necesaary to ba Tery careful in pnTcharing provisloas, for the CUness dealers ■"*. 
frfasterorsandin theflourtoiaerrasethe^ght. Often thev ssU the flesh oT animals 
(hat have died of some disorder, or of such as srs not geiwrsUy used for food \ tor in* 

..-»_ .__ — 1_ ■_ «__ They Improve the appeaianee of ducks «nd chickens 

skin and flesh, which makee them l««k very wbHo 


Other towna in this pronnce, all of some note. Ngati-iiiig, capital of tlie 
Mmtbeni dinaion of Kyang-nan, now forming the prOTinc* of Gsn-whai, 
i« plMod, (lat. SO* SV N. 1 17° £,) near ita Mmthem extremity, at th« con- 
floeoca of a miall stream with the Yang-tse-kyang : it waa formerly a place 
of little canwqneace, and only ranked aa eighth UDODg the dUtricts 
into which the pronnce U dirided. llie island of Taong-ming, separated 
from the continent by an arm of the aea about six leagnea in width, wae 
convwted by the convicte baniahed thither, from a sandy waste, into a 
prodactiTe, popnlona district. Salt, extracted from a kind of grey earth, 
probably the original aoil of the island, ia ita principal production, and 
faniisbea the meana of aabeiatence to the popnlation of its nnmeroua vil- 
lages. Tba island of Shin-aban, (i. e. the golden monntain,) near the 
month of the Yang-tae>kyang, ia the private property of the emperor, and 
remarkable f« prodadng the pale red cotton, (Goffyptum reiigiotum,) 
of which the nankeena, named from the ct^Htal of thia province, are mann- 

The ur of these prorioces ia nsnally dear, and their climate extremely 
temperate, aa might be expected from their position between the 29th and 
35th degreea of northern latitude. The country ia generally lerel and 
welUwatered ; and beeides a great number of amaller atreams, the Yang- 
tae-kyang and the Hwaog-ho, two of the largest rirers in China, discharge 
tbemaelves into the aea on the coaat of this province. Nnmerona canals 
also hcilitate internal navigation, and give a power of laying tbe fields 
nsder water at pleasure, an incalculable advantage in dry seasons. The 
soil of the western districts is a dry, red day, which acquires a yellow 
hue as it approaches tho river, and is replaced by sand in the eaatem 
part of the provinces. To the sonth, clay recurs, and a rich black monld 
is often fonnd. With all these commercial advantages, these provinces 
m«y well be considered as some of the moat flouri^iing in tbe empire, 
and its cotton nunn&ctnres, ao justly celebrated all over the world, are 
carried on to snch an extent, that one township alone is said to fnmi^ 
employment for 200,000 peraons. 

Sham-si.3 Shan-si, to the west of FS-cfa^li, thongb one of the amall- 
est provinces, is highly venerated aa the native aoil of the founders of 
the empire. It contains five cantons or foos, sixteen districts or choos, 
and seventy townabipa or heens. 1. Tai-yuen, iie capital (lat. 38" N. 
110* 37' E.}, an ancient city, three leagues in circuit, waa the residence 
of the princes of the Tal-ming-chao family i but the royal tombs on a 
neighbooring mountain are now tbe only remuns of its former grandeur. 
They conaiat of monuments of stone or marble, triumphal arches, and 
•tatues of men and inferior animals dispersed through a grove of cy- 
presses. A fruitful sinl and akilful manufactnrers make this city a flour- 
ishing place : hardware and variona kinds of cloths, but particularly 
carpets, resembling those of Turkey, are its principal articles of trade. 
2. Fuen-choo, on the river Fnen-ho, neariy in the centre of tbe pro- 
vince, ia celebrated for ita warm hatha and mineral springs. 3. roi*- 
long, close to tbe Great Wall, ia a fortress of great alrengtb, and well 
garriaoned. Its neighbourhood abounda in medicinal herbs, and the 
mountains contra marble, porphyry, l^tia lazuli, and a beautiful kind of 
jaaper. The cold in this province, which lies between tbe S5tb and list 
parallels of N. lat., ia often very severe in winter, but ita atmosphere is 
pecniiarly clear throughout the year. It is an elevated, mountainous tract ; 
in some places rocky and barren ; bnt cultivated wherever the wmi can be 


rendered prodnctife b3r iiuinatry ; and ginng the terrace-hoBbandiy, for 
which the Chinese ate so celebrated, ample exercise. The warm and 
■tony decliritiee of its hille are very fevoiiTable to the vine, and it haa the 
fineet grapes in China. On the aumniits of wTeral of the hilla there arv 
extendTe plains, ae fertile as the valleys below. Besides die minenls 
mentitHied above, these mountains abound in crystal, salt, and coal, lie 
inhabitants hare the strength of Kmb and constltntion commonly enjoyed 
by mountaineers' 

Shav-tono.] Shan-tong contains ail cantons, and 114 districts and 
townships- Its capital, Tsi-aan, on the south aide of the river Tsi, (36* 
45' N. IIT* la* E.) was the residence of a long line of sovereigns, whose 
tombs on a neighbonring mountain are a conspicnous object from the city, 
and it is &mons for its silk of a brilliant whit«. ?. Yen-choo comprehends 
within its domuns, Kyo>foo, celebrated as the burial-place of Kong-fii- 
tsn, (ConfnciuB.) 3. Lin-chin-cboo, on the great CMial, is a place of 
much trade, and haa a splendid octagonal porceltun tower, eight stories 
high, which almost rivals that of Nan-king. It is, as they all are, a tem- 
ple of Fo, whose im^e is placed in the highest' chamber. 4. Tsing-choo 
is noted tor its trade in fish-skins, and a yellow stone, extracted from the 
intestines of cows, and supposed, like the besoar, to possess great medi- 
cinal virtues. The islands on the coast have several good haibonrs, and 
offer a convenient shelter for vessels navigating the Yellow sea. 

This province lies between the 35th and 38th deg. of N. lat., and has 
generally a clear sky and moderate temperature. Its inrfoce is level, 
except in the sonthem districts, which are monntainons and swampy. 
Hie soil is almost everywhere alluvial ; and in some places there are ex- 
tensive morasses thinly peopled. Run seldom falls, but the many lakes 
and streams affijrd a constant supply of water for irr^tion ; and the great 
imperial canal adds greatly to its wealth, by making h the channel through 
which the chief supplies of the capital pass. A peculiar species of silk- 
worm, producing a coarser but stronger thread than that of the common 
sort ; various kinds of grain, tobacco, and especially the herbaceous cotton, 
(Gassypium herbaceum,) aro its staple commodities. 

Ho-VAN.J Ho-nan, lying immediately to the S.W. of Shao-tong, and 
to the W. of Kyang-nan, has eight cantons, and 102 inferior districts. 
1. It is crossed by the mighty Hwang-ho, and at aboat 6 miles fh>m Uiat 
river, its capital Kai-fong is situated, in 35° N. Hi" 55' E. Its site ia 
lower than the level of ^e river, and though protected by strong and ex- 
tensive dykes, it is very liable to be overflowed ; and was. In ^t, com- 
pletely ndned by such a calamity, occasioned, in a. d. 1641, by a body of 
rebels, who had recourse to that expedient in order to get possession of 
the place, which has never since recovered its former population and pros- 
perity. S. Cban-te, in the northern part of this province, is remarkable 
for a fish resembling a crocodile, the fat of which is said to be singularly 
inflammable, and also for a mountain of peculiar n^edness. 3. Ho-nau, 
a little to the S. of the Hwang-ho, surrounded with rivers and in the midst 
of mountains, was formerly the centre of die empire, and seriously be- 
lieved by the Chinese to he the navel of the world, an honour ascribed by 
the Greeks to Delphi, and by the Arabs to Mecca. Teng-fong-hyen, a 
townahip in this district, has an ancient tower, believed to have been the 
observatory of Cheu-kong, an astronomer who lived nearly 1000 years be- 
fore Christ, and who ia a^d by the Chinese to have been the mventor of the 
mariner's compass. The instrument by which be ie supposed to have found 


the lengtb of the abadow at mid-JBy, for the parpose of deteMikiing the 
tatitnde, u still ahoim. As Ho-nan wm called the nnvel or oentre of the 
earth, HO was the provinca iteelf caUed Tong-hwa, or 'the centra! flower;' 
ud iti mild climate, rich scenery, and luxuriant soil, made it in ancient 
times B faronrite resideacA of the emperors during a part of the year. The 
eaetem aide is very level, and so completely cultivated, as to appear like 
onerast garden ; bnt notwithstanding its fertility, commerce does not 
ftomsh J perhaps in consequence of the effeminacy and indolence of the 
ubabitants. Towards the S.W. the country is monntainons and covered 
with forests. Cinnabar, load-atone, and tale, are found in the rocky dis- 
tricts; but the silks mannbctured on the borders of a lake within its li- 
mits, are supposed to derive an extraordinary lustre from some peculiar 
qwlity in the water, and form one of its most valuable productions. 

Shes-81.] Sbeo-si, on the W. of Ho-nan and Shan-si. formerly the 
largest provmce in the empire, is now divided into two, the former retain- 
ing Its old name, the latter called Kan-sii. 1. Tie whole contains 8 foos, 
82 cboos, and 84 beens ; and its capital, Si-ngan, on the Hwei-ho, in S4» 
lO* N. 108" Siy E. is little inferior in beauty to P5-king. A strong and 
lofty wall, sarrounded by a deep ditch, Banked by towers, and inclosing 
an area 4 miles in drcumference, protects the public buildings and remains 
of antiquity which still adorn this place. It is remarkable for a gigantic 
species of bat, the flesh of which is highly prized by the Chinese : it is also 
timous for the monument found in 1625, which records the introduction 
of Christianity into China, by the Nestoriana in the seventh or eighth cen- 
tury. 2. Ping-lyang, a considerable town on the western side of Shen-si, 
ia sorronnded with mountains full of picturesque and well-watered valleys ; 
one of which is so deep as to be scarcely perrions to the snu's rays. 3. 
On one of tbe almost inaccessible mountains near Kong-chang, there is an 
ancient sepulchre, believed to be that of Fo-hi, the founder of the empire, 
and contemporary with Enoch and Methnselab. 4. Lan<choo, in 36" Sff 
N. 108' 47' E., formeriy a district of the second rank, is one of die most 
important places in the province, an acconnt of its trade for skins with 
Tatary. It has now been raised to the first rank, and is the capital of the 
division, now a separate prorince, called Kan-sS. A coaise kind of wool- 
len cloth, mannhctured there from cow's htur, is, together with other wool- 
lens, a large article of export into the Tatar territory. 

Theae provinces, which lie between lat. 32° and 40°, N. long. 99" and 
110° E., are celebrated for their extensive commerce. They are generally 
monntmnons, and have a fine healdiy climate, and are inhabited by a hand- 
some and robust race of men, distinguished for courage, genius, and cour- 
tesy to strangers. The soil is favourable to the cnltivation of alt kinds of 
grain except rice ; and drugs, honey, wax, cinnabar, coals, and gold ore, 
are bronght from the mountainous districts. It is sud that the govern- 
ment prohibits tbe gold mines from being worked ; but a vast quantity of 
ore is washed down by die rivers, the collecting of which affords subsist- 
ence to a great number of persons. Between Shensee and Sechwen, there 
ia a military road cot through an almost impassable country, with bridges 
across ravines of a fearful depth. It is a really stapendons work, and 
next to the great wall, perhaps the most remarkable proof of the resolution 
and perseverance of the Chinese. This hilly region is also favourable to 
the breeding of cattle, and annually rears a great many mules, as well as 
aheep and oxen. 

Che>kyano.|] Che-kyang, to the S.E. of Kyang-nan, has II cautons. 

78 diitricti, and 18 towuhips. 1. Its capital, Hang-choo, in SO* ftC N. 
120* 15' E^ placed between the mouth of tb« impenal canal and that of 
the river Cbyeng, is one of the first dties in the empire. It ia about 13 
miles in circumference, and is said to have a popnWon of one million. 
Narrow streets, well paved with broad flag-stonea, lai^je shops stocked 
with valuable waret, and uumeroaa triumphal arches, strike the stranger on 
Us first entrance, and the clear waters of the little lake, colled Si-hn, 
which bathes the western side of the town, add greatly to its beauty. 
There are open ponicoes, supported by pilhirs and paved with flag-atones, 
along the edge of the lake, and stone causeways craasing it in various 
directions, with bridges at intervals for ^ passage of boats beneath. Two 
islands in the centre are rach adorned with a temple, and provided with 
bouses of entertainment, for the convenience of those who wish for re- 
freshment or relaxation. " Its natnral and artificisl beantles," says Mr 
Barrow, "exceeded every thing previoasly seen in China." Bold and lofty 
mountains, valleys clothed witb trees, especially the camphor-tree, (^Laurtit 
Camphora,) tiJIow-tree, (Battia,) and arbor vit», (Thuja,) with their 
diffurent ^ades of green and purple ; sepulchres of light and singular 
structure, half coached by groves of cypresses : parties of pleasure in 
boats on the lake, present a richness, variety, and animation of scenery, 
which fully justify the glowing terms in which the Chinese extol the 
charms of Hang-choo. 2. Ha-choo, on the Tu-ho, is the seat of the 
principal ulk manufactare. 3. Ning-po, or Liang-po, haa an excellent 
harbour, and caniee on a great trade, paiticolarly in silks, with Bstavia, 
Siam, and Japan ; it ia, indeed, only two days' sail from Nanga-zski. 
Cbeu-shan, or Shippy island, about 18 or 20 leagues from Ning-po, is the 
place where the English ships landed their goods when they first established 
the trade with China in 1700. 4. Cbao-king, on an extensive plain, is 
bmou* on account of the sepulchre of ¥u the Great, (a. c. 2170,) the 
most ancient monument which the Chinese possess. The streets are well 
paved, and lined with piazzas for the protection of the passengers ; and 
the inhabitants are renowned for their knavery. Every great mandarin 
makes a point of having a secretary from Chao-king-foo. 

This province extends from 264° to 31° N. lat.,Bnd its mean temperature 
in winter ia about 61)° of Fahrenheit's scale. From the coast to the neigh- 
bourhood of the capital, the country is level, with a clayey soil on a bed 
of potter's earth. The mountainous tract then commences with a reddish 
sandy surface. This continues for about 60 leagues. On the westero 
side of the province, the mouutmns extend about 12 leagues with a clayey 
soil. The remainder of the country is level, all in aliigh state of culti- 
vation, and extremely populous. Its maritime position, so advantageous 
for trade, combined with the advantages of soil and climate, render it one 
of the firot provinces in the empire in point of wealth and papulation 
and numerous streams, with cantds kept in good repair, give every requi- 
site facility va internal intercourse. Silks, plun and embroidered, are its 
ataple article ; and ordinary tissues may be purchased so cheap, that a suit 
of silk here would cost no more than one of the coarsest woollen in Eu- 
rope. Whole plains are covered with dwarf mulberry trees for the sup- 
pMt of the silk-worms ; for which stunted trees are found to be most ser- 
viceable. Various kinds of wood, particularly bamboo and tallow-trM( 
dried and.pickled mushrooms, indigo, and super-excellent hams, are among 
the articles for which this province b ftuned. The natives are aaid to 

Dcillizedoy Google 


be as coorteona uid good-htunooTed m the Chinese niiully are, bat 
more saperatitiona than the rest erf their coantrymen. 

Kyanc-seb.3 Kyang-aee, which lies between Che-kyang and Kwang- 
toDg, and is itself teparatad from the aea by those prorincea and Fd-kyen, 
has 13 cantQDs and 76 dittricts and toirasbipt. 1. Ita capital, Nan- 
chaag, in 28° iff N. and 115* dCf E^ ia a place of considerable trade ; 
BO much so, that lord Macartney's erabaasy had reason to believe diat 
there were lUO.OOO tons of shipping,' independeatly of aoiall craft, lyiog 
near it, when they paaaed through the place. The snakes inhabiting a 
well belontting to a celebrated temple in this neighbourhood, are a great 
object of adoration, and, as they nsually come to the surface of the tva* 
ter when nin is abont to fall, are anpposed to possess a prophetic 
knowledge of fatnre events. 3, Jao-cboo is the district to which thu 
Tillage of King-iS-ching, famous for its porcelain manufactory, belongs. 
It is placed on the banks of a fine uangable river, and though ranking 
merely as a village, is said to have a million of inhabitants. Ita fnmacea 
amount to 500 ; all its fuel and provisions are brought from a distance ; 
a plain indication that the neighbourhood is naked and unprodnctire. 
Straogera are not allowed to sleep in the town, in order to prevent de- 
predations. It is there that the most beantifal of all the Chinese por- 
celain is manufactared. That is consequently the great article of trade 
at Nan-chang, capital of the province ; but M. de Guignes compluns of 
the extravagant prices charged there ; and adds, that the ahopa wero 
neither large nor well-stocked. 3. Lb-kyang, on the Yn<ha, ia prover- 
bially desolate ; " one bog," eay the Chinese, " woold feed all ita iuhabi- 
tanu for two days ;" but the neighbouring bills abound in medicinal herbs, 
fur which the great mart b in one of its subordinate villages. 4. Kang- 
choo, at the confluence of two rivers, has a bridge formed by 130 boata, 
connected by iron chains ; hut two or three in the middle can be removed 
at pleasure to let vessels pass through. The varnish used in japanning ia 
yielded by a kind of tree, (R/iut Vcrnix 9) found near this place. 

Kyang-«ee lies between the parallels of ~i4° and 30° N. lat., and in win* 
ter has a mean tempeiature of about 60°. The northern part of it is flat, 
ftnd full of rivers, lakes, and marshes ; the southern districts are monn- 
twnous ; the soil is in general a red or yellowish sand on a anhstratum of 
clay. Rice, and more particularly wheat and sugar, ara abundantly pro- 
duced i but not in anfficient quantities to supply the overflowing popula- 
tion. Their poverty, in the midst of this abundance, makes them thrifty 
and abstemious ; and, though laughed at by their more laxurioos neigh- 
bours, they easily console themselves by their superior acuteneas and in- 
dustry, and often rise to the higlieat diignitiea in ihe atate. Bestdea the 
v^etable productiona mentioned above, the mountunous districts yield 
gold, ailver, iron, lead, tin, vitriol, alum, and crystal. Tallow, paper, and 
varuish, are important articles of export, and ao, it may be said, are wives ; 
for, as the women of this provbce have not adopted the absurd custom of 
crippling their feet, and are of a robust make, tbey are much employed in 
field-work ; and a Chinese fiurmer, when he wants a profitable wife, goes 
and purchases one lu Kyang-eee. 

Hoo-KWANG.] Hoo-kwang,on its eastern side contiguous to Kyang-«ee, 
is nearly in the centre of the empire, end contuna 15 cantons, witb 114 
districia and townships. It is divided into two parts by the Yanu'tse- 
kyang river, and those parte now constitute two distinct provinceai I.Hoo- 

Dcillizedoy Google 

pi, the nwthera, and 2. Hoo-dsd, the Mntfaern. 1. Voo-ehang, in 30* 40' 
N. 114* IS' £., tbe capital of the former, is a place of extensire com* 
merce, aituBted on the bank of the Yang-tae-kyang. Excellent tea, tbe 
prodnce of its fields, bamboo p^ier from its foreata, and brilliauL cryBtalB 
from ilamoantaioB, are among tbe piincipal articlea which attract the crowds 
of tradera who frequent its porta. 2. Hang-yang, a large city, is only 
aeparated by the river from Voo-chang. 3. Chan^-sha, (in 28* 20' N. 1 1 1* 
5^ £■) capital of the latter, is placed near a lai^ atream communicating 
with a take of coiuiderable size. 4. King-choo, U the foot of tbe nortb- 
weeteni monntaina, is conaidered as one of the keys to the aouthem pro- 
vincea of tbe empire. 

Tbeae provinces lie between the 25th and 33d parallels of N. latitude, 
hare generally a level aarfiu:e, and are well watered and fertile. They pro- 
duce abundance of rice and other grains, and are thence often called tbe 
granary of tbe empire. Cotton, pa{>er, cryatol, tale, iron, tin, vitriol, anil 
mercury, are among the many valuable articlea whidi they furnish. 

Se-chwen.] Se-cbwen, the next province weatwarda, extending to tbe 
confines of Tibet, haa 10 cantona, 16 diaUicta, and 72 townehipa. It is also 
traveraed by the Yang-tse-kyimg, which diSnses fertility and prosperity 
nherever it passes. 1. Ching-too, in 30° 30' N. and 103''55'E.,its princi< 
pal towo, is placed in a delightful apot, on an island formed by the approach 
of aeveral rivere, and is at no great distance from the western boundary of 
tbe empire. It suffered v«xy greatly in the wars with tbe Tartars in tbe 
Beventeenth century, and has many fine buildings in rains, but ia atill a con* 
Nderable place, and carriea on an extensive trade. 2. But Chong-king, at 
the confluence of the Kin-sha and Ta-kyang (or Great River) is atill more 
important aa a place of trade. It is tmilt on tbe declivity of a mountam, 
and enjoya a hnddiy air. Excellent fish, and trunka made of bamboo bas- 
ket-work, are the articlea for which this place ia moat celebrated. 3. and 
4, LoDg-ngan and Tong-chnen are two strong fortresses at tbe oppoaite ex- 
tremitiea of tbe province ; natber of them of much importance, aince 
China baa been united with Tartary. Tbe latter is garriaoned by aoldiera 
whose profeaaion ia hereditary, like ihat of tbe Kabattries in Indu. 

Se-chwan extends tram 26° to S3° N. latitude, and is exceeded by few 
other provinces either in magnitude or valuable commodities. Silk, wine, 
grain, and fruits, are produced abundantly. It possesaes mines of iron, tin, 
lead, and mercury, lie engar-canes, amber, Iwdstone, and lapis lazuli are 
highly celebrated. Moak, rbnbarfa, and rock-aalt are alao among tbe pro- 
ducts of its mountains ; which fumiafa, moreover, a breed of amall, but 
wall-formed, active horsee. 

' Fo-KYEN.^ Fo-kyen, on tbe eastern coast, between Cbe-kyang and 
Kwang-tong, has 9 cantons and 63 tAwnshipa. 1. Its capital, Fo-choo, in 
Q&o 3' N., 119° SO' E., ia equally celebrated aa a pUce of great trade and 
a school of deep leairung ; but e^cially on account of ils bridge of white 
Btone, with 100 arches, stretching across an arm of the sea. 2. Suen-chen 
haa two lofty and splendid pyramidical temples, and a bridge more remark- 
able than tbe one just mentioned. It is formed of a blackish stone, large 
slabs of which are supported by parallel rows of pillars formed with angu- 
lar aides to break tbe force of the atream. Of these slabs, eighteen yards 
in length, and all alike in materials and figure, there are 1,000. Stone but- 
tresses, with fignrea of lions, &c in relief, atrengthen the sides of this bridge, 
and it is aunnounted by the city castle. 3. Yen-ping, surrounded by moun- 
loins, itself on a declivity overhanging the Min-ho, is so placed titat all the 

CHrassB xupiKE. 69 

boBia wbich tearene the pronnce miut paaa immediately under tU walls. 
4. Cbang-chen, on a fine river, and not far from the tea, cameton ail ao 
live tnuje with tbe eastern itlanda, and ia much freqaenled by the Spaniarda 
from Manilla- Near thia part of die coaat ii tbe small island of Emoy 
(We-mwi or Hyamen), containing a magnificent temple in bononr of Fo, 
and poaseating an excellent barbonr. It was mneb frequented bjr Euro* 
pean traders in the earlier part of tbe last century. A little farther S. is 
the group of islands called Plieng-bu, or Pescadores ; mere rocks and sand- 
banks, wholly nnprodnctire, bnt possessing harboora inralaable to the na- 
ttvea of Formosa who bare none. 

This province, lying between the Tropic of Cancer and 26" N. lat., is 
warm but healthy, and in a very flonrtshing condition. Monntainoas, but 
well wooded and carefally cnltivated, it is rendered highly productive and 
c^mbleof enjoying every advantage of its mBritime positum. Its inhabitants 
BMnnbcture almost all the articles for which China is celebrated ; and ite 
nonntains, besides jewels, contain veins of the precious metals. The work- 
ing of them is, however, prohibited. Ita trade with the Indian Archipelago 
is very extensive. In the age of the Chen dynasty (in the middle of the 
tenth century), it formed a separata state, called Tslie-min, ' tbe Seven 
Barheiians ; and a variety of dialects still prevails among its inhabitants. 

Opposite to the shores of Fo-kyen is the fine island of Thai-wan or 
Formosa (the Beautiful), between the 23d and 27tb parallels of N. lat., 
divided by a chun of mountuns into two parta, of which one only has been 
conquered by the Chinese. The eaatem side, which is farthest from 
the main land, is still in poeseasion of the natives, apparently of 
Malay origin and quite distinct from ^eir continental neigbboun. A 
rich soil, abundant streams, and a genial climate, would render this 
island almost a terrestrial paradise, were it not visited by frequent 
earthquakes, and deficient in wholesome water. Notwithstanding this, 
it is rich and populous, so that the Chinese tbink it necessary to garrison 
it with 10,000 men. Tliai-wan, tbe capital, which has given its name 
to the whole island, and is represented as equally remarkable for the splen- 
dour of ita shops, the regularity of its streets, and the multitudes that crowd 
them, is protected by a fortress of some strength, erected by the Dulrh, 
and called Zelandia. The harbour is deep and spacious, but accessible 
only by some narrow and shallow channels. The beet anchorage ia among 
tbe Plieng-ba, or Fisher's Isles (Ilhaa dot Pescadores), a small group 
lying between Thai-wan and the coast of China. The mountuns on the 
aortfaera and eastern sides of tbe island are inhabited by indigenous tribes, 
little civilised, belonging, as it appears, to the two great Polynesian 
families, the eaatem Negroes and the Malays. The latter, if not all, 
of these mountaineers, depend for their subsistence solely on the chase, 
knd delight as much in tattooing themselves as the South Sea Islanders. 
Staga abound in the forests, and supply the inhabitants of the more elevated 
apots with clothing as well as with food. Their religion is a system of 
idolatry, which appears to be similar to that of those islanders, since diey 
all observe the same remarkable sepulchral rites. 

Canton.] Kwang-tong (Canton), though not the largest, is one of tbe 
most important among the southern provinces. It forms the south-western 
boundary of Fo-kyen, and lies between that province and Tong-king. 
Kyang-si, Hu-kwang, and Kwang-si, are its boondaries on tbe N. and W., 
■s is the Chinese sea on the S. and E. It conUins ten dties of the first 
class, among which the principal are Kwang-chen and Cbao-cheu. I. Tbe 

70 ASM. 

furmer called by Enropeona Canton, in lat. 23" 8* N., and long. 1 13° 3' £^ 
is the capital of the province, and for nearly two centuries has been almost 
the only place in tbe empire accessible to Enropeans. A fine nrtsr, near 
which it is placed, affords a ready communication with the many canals 
which convey the prodnce of the remotest part of the empire to this fa- 
voured port. It is formed by the union of three distinct towns, which, 
when t^en to^j^ther, make up a complete square. One only of these can 
be entered by Europeans, and that is rather a suburb than a part of the 
city itself. The city, with its suburbs, is estimated at 20 miles in circnm- 
fcrence. The streets, like those of Pe-king, are constantly filled with 
multitudes, and are generally paved with flag-stones, and adorned at inter- 
vals with tiinrophal arches, but they are ususlly narrow ; that appropriated 
to the porceliun, which is one of the Isrgest, not being more than nineteen 
or twenty feet wide. Those which contain the richest shops are roofed 
over, and might be compared to the bazaars of Western Aua, were not 
their neatness and splendour such as are never seen under the oppressive 
rule of Mohommedan despots. The shops of a saperior class consist of 
several apartments in the same line, and opening into each other; the first 
and outer one is entirely open on the side next the street, and generally 
contains coarser wsres, porcelain, toys, or trinkets, such as are commonly 
purchased by the Chinese ; the second rooni is filled with fine China-ware 
calculated to please European customers ; the third has an assortment of 
silks and velvets; and the fourth, if there are more than three, is furnished 
with tea of different qoaKties, and such other articles as are in general de- 
mand. On great festivals, these contiguous apsrtmeDts are all thrown open, 
ornamented with an artificial shmbbcny, and lighted up with coloured lan- 
terns, while musicians, sutioned in the innermost apartments, form concerta 
for the amusement of the amusement of tbe passengers. Besides the re- 
sidents in the town Itself, there is what may be termltd a Boating popula- 
tion, as innumerable boats, ranged in rows Idee streets, cover a large portion 
of the river, and are occupied by families who have no abode on shore. 

Tbe population of Canton alone was rated as high as a million and a half 
by Father Le Comte, which shows what sort of credit his Chinese authori- 
ties deserved, since the whole province, according to the official censoa of 
tbe empire, contained little more than two-thirds of that number not half 
a century before. Sonnerat's estimate of 7&,000 seems too low; and 
perhaps, if all the suburbs are included, 150,000 souls will not be too high 
• number. 

FoJtan,'^ About 1 2 miles from Canton is the village of Fo-Shan, a sort of 
listant suburb, and one of the lai^est villages in the world. It is said to be 9 
niles in circumference, but consists only of one large street parallel with 
hhe direction of the river, and a few shorter at right angles to the former ; 
Its trade and population are very great, th«n)^ like almost every thing else 
in this singular conotry, they have been much exaggerated. Tbe number of 
its inhabitants does not amount probably to half of the million that has been 
^n assigned to it. Macao, at the mouth of the river Ta, on which Can- 
ton stands, is a Portuguese settlement on a small neck of land, once a for- 
tress of considerable importance, but now of little value, except as a place 
of residence for the Europeans engt^d in tbe trade with China, and vir- 
tually in their power. 

Chao-cheujtt.^ Chao-cben, the second city in the provmce, has tbe 
double advantage of a productive territory and two navigable streams ; but 
this is counter-balanced by an unhealthy atmosphere, and tbe prevalence of 


conUgiooa diiordeTB dnriiiK the roitr last montbi of the year. A celebrated 
monasteiy nf the Bonzes 800 or 900 yean old, and a peculinr kind of oi] 
extracted from a plant called cha-chn, gice a kind of celebrity to this town, 
the popnlation of which amounting to abont 50,000 sonla, is supported 
principally by a manufactory of nankeenii. 

lyeit'cheu-Jv.'y Lyeu-chen, separated by impas&able mountuns from 
Tnng-Jdng, lus a good hariwur. Most of the other towns in this pro- 
rince are surrounded by a fertile country, and carry on an extensive trade. 
To the S. a narrow peninsula, which seems to have been originally an 
isthmus connecting Hai-nan with the main land, etretchee out beyond the 
rest of the coast, and is separated from that island by a strait where there 
formerly was a pearl Bshery. On its northern side Hai-nan is flat and 
level, but a mass of lofty mountains f;radunl1y rises to the S., and is occu- 
pied by tribes, which like those of the hi^^lilands in Formosa, have main- 
tained their independence in spite of the Chinese. The low country is nn- 
healthy, but extremely productive of indigo, cotton, and rice. The woods 
aflbrd areca, dragon's blood, and other tropical productions, besides very 
valuable dying woods nsed in colouring porcelain ; but that most esteemed 
by the Chinese is called eagle, rose, or violet-wood by the Europeans, and 
ia exclusively reserved for the use of the emperors. The inhabitants of 
this coast are said to posseas the art of compelling the pearl oysters to ge- 
nerate pearls, by introdncing a thread stning with beads of mother of pearl 
into the oyster shells when open and swimming on the sur&ce of the wa- 
ter. Kyen-chen, the capital, of this island, is placed upon a promontory, 
so that vessels can anchor close to its walls. This province, including the 
island of Hai-nan, lies between the 18th and 25tb parallels of northern 
latitude ; its climate, therefore, is the hottest of any part of the empire. 

For about 90 miles from the sea the river Ta flows through extensive 
plains ; but beyond that limit it has to force its way through bold and ele- 
vated mountains abounding in coal -and other minerals. The soil, generally 
of a yellowish hue, but often red, is either clayey or sandy, and besides the 
ordinary vegetables of these latitudes, produces a very hard kind of timber, 
called by the Portuguese iron-wood, from its colour as well as weight, 
which is BO great aa to prevent it from floatbg on water. The li-chi, 
fLitnea) and i-ven also are natives of this part of China ; the former is a 
soft insipid kind of fruit something like an oniou ; the latter is more re- 
freshing, and has a musky odour. Among the various kinds'of poultry 
reared in this province, ducks, hatched by artiScial incubation, may be 
tneniioned ; their eggs, moreover, are preserved in a coating of salted clay, 
and their flesh is prepared in such a manner as to retain its original flavour 
for a considerable length of time ; these arts, it appears, the Chinese owe 
solely to their own ingenuity. Notwithstanding the level nature of a great 
part of this province, and its poeition so near the tropic, its winters are 
severe, and ice is sometimes formed, though snow is very seldom seen. 
The inhabitants are healthy, active, and industrious, but remarkable for 
their insolence and contempt of foreigners. 

KwANG-si.] Kwang-si, the central province on the sonthem confines 
of the empire, forms the north-western Iwnndary of Kwang-tong, and the 
two are often comprehended together under the name of Lyang-kwang, 
It contains 12 primary, 35 secondary, and 73 towns of the third order. 
Ita northern districts are mountainous, woody, and uncultivated ; but on 
tiie south, the hills sink into the extensive and fertile plains which furnish 
Canton with a supply of rice for six months in the year. Its mines, bow- 


78 ASIA. 

ever, are tfae mcMt abandvtt source of its wealth ; RDd tin and caypw, b«t 
especially gxild and silver, are fonnd in large quantities ; these treasures aro 
wmtched with a jealoos eye by the goremment, which proliibits its subjects 
from working their mines, retsining that privilege as a monopoly in its own 

One of the vegetable productions for which tbis province is celebrated, 
is a singnlar tree, from the pitch of which a farinaceous substance is pre- 
pared, that serves to make a kind of bread ; it is, probably, like the sago, 
a species of palm. The birds and insects also are very nnmerous, and 
none more so than the king-ki, or golden pheasant, fPhagianui Pictus.J 
Though inferior to many others in extent and wealth, this province is one 
of the most populous in the empire ; and the inhabitants of its northern 
and western districts have a coarseness in their manners, so remote from 
the polish and ceremoniousness of the other Chinese, that ihey are con- 
sidered by their countrymen as tittle better than barbarians. A better 
soil and a more extensive treffic have rendered the natives of the eastern 
part of the province more civilized. The capital Kwei-lin, in lat. 25" 20' 
N. and long. 1 1° 30' E., on a narrow and rapid river, is a large city, and ia 
celebrated as the place near which the best stones used by the Chinese in 
making ink are found. 

YuN-NAN.] The adjoining province of Yun-nan, on the south-western 
boundary of China, has 21 first-rate, 25 second-rate, and 30 third-rate 
towns, and is one of tfae most opulent in the whole empire. Being 
monntainous and well-watered, it enjoys a cool and salubrious air, and de- 
rives considerable advantages, with respect to foreign commerce, from ita 
vicimty to other States. The precious roetale, tin, copper, rubies, and 
other gems, together with rich marbles, are yielded by its mpnntains ; ele- 
phants and horsee are brought from iia plaiiu and forests, and silks and 
linens are mannfactnred by its inhabitants, particularly a kind of sa^n 
much valued. Its natives, like most mountaineers, bear an excellent cha- 
racter, and are robust, active, intelligent, and courageous. Yun-nan, ita 
capital, in lat. 25' 5' N. and long. 103° ly E., on the borders of a consi< 
deri^le lake, still possesses many monuments of its former magnificence 
while the residence of a tributaiy prince ; but it has suffered greatly in 
various invasions of the neighbooring Tatars. Vu-ting, on the frontiers, is 
considered as one of the bulwarks of the empire. 

The Lo'Ios, former masters of this country, were not reduced to sub- 
jection by the Chioese till after a long series of bloody contests; this gal- 
lant defence of their independence secured to thero, however, many privi- 
leges, which the jealousy of their conquerors makes them very unwilling 
to grant. They are more like feudal tenants than subjects of an abeo1nt« 
prince, and seem superior in strength and character to the servile Chinese. 
Heir Ungnsge and religion are said to be the same as those of Pegu and 
Ava, and their name resembles that of the Laoe mentioned by the early 
Portuguese writers ; but these Laos are called Mong-ja by the Pa-pe and 
Pe-i, twi^ations on the borders of Yun-nan. That province they name 
Mong-che, while they call Ava Mong-naa ; and Mong is the proper deno- 
mination of the natives of Pegu. The Lo-los, therefore, Laos, and people 
of Pegu, were probably at some former period all subjects of one great 
empire, perh^ that called Kalaminham by the Portnguese. 

Kws[-cuBU.3 The only remaining province of China yet nndeecribed ia 
Kwei-cben, coufeasedty one of the smallest, least cultivated, and least po- 
pulous. It is enclosed by Yun-nan, SS-chwen, Hn-kwaiv{, and Ktntag-si, 

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and occti[Hes a portion of the mooDtaiaoiui tract whicli givea rise to the 
U-keatmK and other streami flowing into the Ysng-tse-keanng. It baa 13 
ad&e and 78 towns of lower rank. Its monntsina abound in nietala, 
among which tin, mercury, and copper dewrre particularly to be noticed ; 
much of the latter required for the imperial mint, is drawn from this pro- 
vince. The beat horses in China are bred here, and a plant resembling 
hemp, but peculiar to this country, fninishea materiala which are well cal- 
culated for making light summer clotfaea. The fastneases in these monn- 
tmna are almoat inaccessible, and thnr inhabitants have always defied the 
attempta of the Chinese to effect their subjogation. The continual war- 
fare in which the governing mandarins are involved, and perhapa the in- 
dement ur of these bold and rugged he^ta, makes an appointment in 
this province a sort of bonoarable exile ; aud there are few things more 
dresded at the court of Pe-king, than a commission to serve his imperial 
tnajeaty in the gtena and wilds of this Chineae Siberia. A cooaiderable 
area, at its sonth-eastern extremity, la atill poasessed by die indepen- 
dent Seng-myaO'Se, who are called a borbaroua people by the Chinese, 
Their country forma one large blank in the great map mentioned above, 
the geogTBphetB of the Central kingdom being either too honest to lay 
down a conntry of which they had no knowledge, or too proud to bonoor 
die hiding places of such vagabonda with their notice. Kwei-yang, the 
capital, in lat. 26° Vy N. and long. 106° 37' £., once a royal residence, ia 
now a aroall town scarcely three miles in drcnit, but atjll retains aome me 
moriala of its former greatneaa. 

AtUhoritiet.^ Three Yeara' Travels irora Moscow overland to China, 
by hia excellency E. Ysbisnta Ides ; tranalated from the Dutch, 1706, 4to. ; 
Du Halde'a Deacriptton of China and Chinese Tartary, 1738-41, 2 vola.fol.; 
Memoires Snr lea Chinoia, 15 vols., Ito., Paris, 1760, compiled from the 
papers of the missionaries resident at Peking, subsequent to the eipulaioa 
of the Jeauita in 1733 ; Groaier'a Description de la Chin6, 1818,4 tomes, 
8vo. ; De Mailla's Hiatoire G^^rele de la Chine, 1777-85, 13 vola., 4to. ; 
Bell's Travela to varioua parts of Aaia, 1762, 2 vola., 4to. ; Philoaophical 
Diaaertationa on the Egyptiaua and Chinese, from the French of De Pauw, 
1795, 2 vols. 8vo. : De Guignea' Voyage il Pekin, Oabeck'a Voyage to China 
and tbe East Indiea, tisnslated from Uie German, 1771, 2 vols., 8va. ; Sir 
George Stsanton'a Account of tbe Embaaay to China, 1797, 2 vols., 4to.; 
Barrow's Travela in China, 1804, 4to. ; Ellis's Account of Lord Amherst's 
Embauy in 1816 ; Dr Cla^ Abel's Personal Obeervatioae made daring the 
Pn^^reaa of the British Embaaay to China, 1818, 4tg.; Morrison's Hone 
SinicK, 1812, 8ro., and hia Dicdanary of the Chineae Language, 1816; 
Remnaat'e Grammaire Chinois, and his sditioa of tbe Chun Tsen of Confu- 
(nns ; Father Basils de Glemona's Chinese and Latin Dictionary, edited by 
M. de Guignea. — In addition to tbeae works, the reader is referred to an 
excellent article on China in the Miacellaneous Diviaion of the Encyclo- 
pedia Metropoi.itana, to which we have been much indebted in 
drawing out this article, particulvly in the topographical detaila. 

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Bxlenl and Boundarkt.'^ This large and eitensire penUunU haa tha 
•ea of Japan on the E. ; the gnU of Peking, or the Kang B«a on the W. ; 
Mandsliooria on the N. ; the Chinese sea on the S. ; and the province of 
Lyautong, now called Qoangtong, and Fongthyen, on the N.W. Its ex- 
tent from N. to S. ia about 9 degrees, or from 34° to almost 43° N- tat. ; 
and ita breadth is from 8" Iff to 14° E. long, of Peking. Its length from 
N. to S. is therefoni about 620 BiitiBh milei ; and its breadth across the 
Deck where it forms the mainland, nearly 300, and towards the sonthem 
extiemity 260 miles,' 

■ The rMwDt voysge ot captiiiiu HkU ( 
much lev than ibsl li^d dawn In Hit nuipii 
put of whnt WM considered the westi^rn 
unall itlandi orrupyliig a space of £00 nn 
Uur navigalor* having Unded on one of 

luit dlKcrnible rrom 
. . Island! in y\ew lying 
round them In thick clusten, ai far ai the eye could reach, but dilf^red Id their cmu- 
putadon from 120 (o 170. When it 1> conaidered ihtt thn point of view mi neither 
very high nor very cenErlcal, aome Idea mav be formed of the multitude of detached 
nusieA, chieliy granite, which compose this Immense archipi^ln^. It follows from this 
Dtw discovered tact that 12,000 uusre mllea Hi least muat now be deducted from tha 
hitherto lupposed area of Korea. Erenmore than this should be deducted, as Ba»l b«t, 
DO the western coast, would be situated, accordlog to our preceding map, 1£0 miles iii 
the interior of Korea, and the error In longitude of that bay is not less than S° IV 
or M much too far W. But this immense asHmblage of islands, amounting, it li 
•uppoaed, to upwards of 1000, is a sort of compenaatlan to his Korean no^eaty, tor that 
pw^n of his continental dominions which our maps usuallv gave him, and his title of 
' king of ten thousand isles,' U therefore aomewhst appropriate. These isles sre Bpp». 
rently all Inhabited, and cultivated wherever practicable. Few of them exceed S or 4 
mllei in length, and the Intervening cliauuels were from I to 4 nuie> la bn-ndth. The 
'- •-- our boats approach the shore, Hed withlh'-'-' — -"-"' — --' 

, ... , ^ Joainappr 

bid theniselvei in recesses among the rocliB ; whilst the men. In a body, but 
- - . [ifieirhanaia. 

a holding intercourv with barbarians, they would lay hdd of i 

throats. They afterwards became more friendly, brought tl 
Teredlheraaiurt oftbeir humble fare ; then, as if suddenly r 
were doing wrong la holding intercourv with barbarians, they would lay hold of soma 
^ihe Bailors by the shoulders, and push them sway, pointing to the ships. To the S. 
of thoe is a small volcanic island about 5 miles in rircumfrretire, rising at once from 
the sea to an elevation of 1,800 fevt \ on thU our voyagers could not huid for the tre- 
meodoua surf which broke on the shore. The sulphureous smell was distinctly lelt 
■t the distwica of 4 milea ; and this Island, therefore, they called • Sulphur Island.' 
When we reflect that the weatem eoaat of Korea was never vidted or even seen by 
Europeans, we need not wtmder at our fomur igiwraDC* with reaped to it ; but «rc 
_j__ .. .1... .r .1,^ Chineae respecUug a peninsula so nigh their owb 

eoaat, and a dependency of their empire. It was theTntention of that great prii: 
emperor Kanghee, that Korea as well as Mandshooria should be Included In I 
and laborious survey of the Chinese empire made by the Jesuits ; I 

Jealo<u]i of his Korean majesty, and his urgent entreaties that no Christian mission, 
arte* should enter his kingdom, the emperor sent In place of them s Tartar mandarin, 
acoompanled by a Chlnen doctor of the board of mathematlca. This mandarin broufht 
back a mu> of Korea which he found in the royal palace. He went as tar a* Uw 
(apital, and meuMired by a line the road ID It from Foug-whang-chlng^ the ft'dOtler 

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Hittorical Semarks.'} When or hy vhom Korea vras origiQatly peopled 
la unknown ; but we may presume that the natives are of Tartarian de- 
scent, mixed with Chinese refugees, who, at different periods of early 
Chinese history, successively colonized Korea, and mingled with the ab- 
original natives. All that la known of Korean history is from the Chinese 
anuals ; and from these it would seem that Korea was anciently inhabited 
by vartons nomadic tribes, who came from what is now called Mendehooris 
to the N. of Korea. Korea has been successively conquered by Japanese, 
Mandshoors, Mongols, Chinese, and finally by the present dynasty which 
fills the Chinese throne. It was twice conquered by the Japanese, in the 
year 200 after Christ, and in 1592 by the famed Taycho the secular em- 
peror of Japan. But his death prevented the complete conquest, and thd 
Koreans, assisted by the Chinese, drove out all die Japanese garrisons, 
except those of the S.E. part called Tsiot-Sijn, which the Japanese still 
ratuned in 1693 while Knmpfer was at Japan. According to some 
modem accounts it is still subject to that power ; but M. Kmsenstem 
is of opinion that the Japanese sovereignty is confined to the small island 
of Tsoo-Tsima; in the strait of Korea, between it and the island of Kiu- 
Siu, and which was formerly subject tn Korea. 

Namr, i^'c.J Korea is railed by its inhabitants, says Hamel, Tio-cen- 
koat ; by the MaiulKhours Solko and Solko-Kiiitm, 'the kingdom of 
Soiko:' and by the Chinese Kaiilee-qiie, or ' the kingdom of Kaulee ;' and 
in modem times its official name is C/iaoxt/en, — a name derived from two 
dynasties which once reigned in this country. Not above one-third of its 
meridional extent belongs to what is properly called the peninsula. On 
the N.W. side it was parted from Lyantong by a strong wall not much 
inferior to that of China, but some part of it was in a great measure de* 
etroyed by the Mandshoors in their irruptions into that peninsula which 
WM one of their first conquests. The rest, on the «I<le of Mandshooria, 
was still standing and almost entire till about a century an<l a half ago, 
since which it has been gradually going to ruin. However, there is no 
getdng into Korea, whether from Tartary or China, without tlie imperial 

Divifitmt.J Korea contains at present B provinces (for it has been 
differently divided at different times) which contain in all 40 kyun or 
great cities, 33 ^om or cities of the first rank, 58 c/ioos or cities of the 
second rank, and 70 heen or cities of the third rank, besides a vast num 
ber of fortresses and castles dispersed in most parts of die country, and 
chiefly bnilt on hills, all well garrisoned by a proportionable number oi 
officera and soldiers. Hamel, in his day, says that it contuned 360 cities 
and towns besides hill forts. The chief province is King-hee, or ' province 
of the court,' which lies in the centre. E. of it is the province of Keeaung- 

cit7 oT Ljmalaag on the side of Koraa, In W30' SO* N. Int., nnd T* 42' E., bfutro- 
nomiial obKrvutlon. A* we bud no opportunity, tiif> Ikthcr K^ls, ft Jauit mii- 
aionary, snd one ofthoK employed in th« triaiigulatiou oF Eheempln, ofvieivinggLther 
thcHeoHt or Interior of Korvn,nrhereli7 we might accurately Hi their sit UHtioiiB, ws 
do Dot pnleud that the miip li tAmpIeu, but only the btial that cuuld be got. The 
whole ol' the northeru limiti are aevurntrly dtHiied, as well Ha tfaoH ou the ilde of 
Lyaulong, and the Kveml latitudei tixed by olnervation. But M to (be peuiniula 
Itaeir, except thecsplul, ntbvw die hiu lieeij utiatHvCarlly tiled, no obwrvatioiii whether 
of latitude or lonfitude nere made either in Ibe iuterior or on any parU of the ooMt*. 
Tbe above being tbe true atate of favU respecting the geography of Korea, It nuy well 
bo imagined that very Utile ntlaraelorv can be anid ou thia sutyect, at no Eurupeaui 
kan ever been there except Headrlek Hamel, cleric (o a Dui«b ihlp which was cart 
away In 1663, oo the idaud of Quetnten, about 18 leHue* 5. of the peolnnlft, and he, 
with the reat of the crew, detained Tor 13 year* in diaerent parte of the louutry. 

7fl ASIA. 

gTven, or ' BOnrce of the river,' or ' the conntry of springH,' whiiA was att- 
ciently the country of the Me's. The 3d, called Chao-tien, lies to the 
W. of King-hee, and was the coontry of the ancient Mahaae. The 4th, or 
northern province, ie Ping-an, or ' the pauEc' The 5th, or Swenlo, a 
the Bontfaem province, and was the country of the Fyen-haoe. Chutin 
on Uie S.W. side is Hm 6th province. The 7th, or N.E. province, is the 
ancient country of the Kau-keeoulee ; and the Sth province on the S.E. 
ride is King-thaii, formerly the wat of the Cheeou-hana. 

Mountains.'J The only well-known physical feature of the geognp^T 
of Korea is a high range of mountains running from N. to S., and aeem- 
ingly connected with die Mandshoorian mountains, "niis long chain ia 
called Chim-Tai, and, when it enters the peninsula, skirts its eastern 
aide, on the shore of the Japanese sea. Its medium altitude is estimated 
at 4,t80 French, or 4,776 English feat. The general inclination of tha 
land is to the W. or to the Yellow sea. The coasts and adjoining islands 
ue eaid to be rocky anil difficult of access. On the W. side, however, 
Basil bay is a safe and extensive harbour; and amongst the numberless 
islands off the coast there are bays and harbours in which all the navies of 
the world mifcht ride in perfect security. 

Riverii.2 There are but two rivers of note known to Europeans in this 
region, — the Yaloa-Keaung, and the Toomen-Keantig, as they are called 
by the Ghbese, or by the Mandahoors Yalao-Oola, and Toonun-Oola, 
these terms denoting, in Mandshoorian and Chinese, ' a river.' Theae 
two streams originate in the great snowy mountain which mns alonget 
the N. of Korea, and which is called by the Chinese Chang-pe-than, and 
by the Mandsboors Jmba-Sfutnggan Alirt, ' the ever white mountain,' and 
Gooliman Shanggan Alin, ' the great white monntun-' These rivers mn 
in opposite directions, the Toomen to the E. and the Yaloo to ^e W., the 
former falling into die Yellow sea, and the latter into the sea of Japan. 
They are both la^e, deep, and rapid streams. Of the streams wat^ng the 
peninsular part nre have no account, though several of them, as depicted 
on the map of Korea, must be considerable. 

Clintale.'] In the nonhem or continental part the cold is long and 
aevere, though it lies in the latitude of Italy. The snow falls here in such 
quantities as oflen renders it necessary for the inhabitants to dig passages un- 
der it, in order to go From one house to another, and such as travel over the 
snow wear boards under their ehoes to prevent them from sinking. Even 
in the peninsub itself, the frost, says Hamel, is so severe by the end of 
November at King-kee-tao the capital — where he resided as a prisoner — in 
37° 38' N. lat., that the river was frozen across, and 300 loaded horaea 
passed over it. This excessivecold ia attempted to be accounted for by die 
mountainous nature of the country, and the vicinity of the great Mand- 
shoorian range, which forms its northern frontier. It is, however, a &ct, that 
the cold increases progressively towarda the East in the Asiatic conuneot. 

Prodaclioiu,'^ Of minerals, Korea is said to possess gold, silver, lead, 
iron, topazes, and rock-salt. The mountains in the north are covered 
with vast forests ; and the soil of the peninsnia ia said to be fertile and 
well cnliirated, and to produce abundance of wheat and rice, with fruita 
of all sorts, and two annual harvests. But this is only predicable of (he 
Bouthem provinces; for in the continental part the soil is barren, woody, 
and mountainous, full of wild animals, and but thinly inhabited. There 
no other grain but barley is produced, which is made into a coarae bread by 
tha inhabitants. Yet we are told by the missionaries, that the Koreans, 


Kk« their Chinese neighboara, cultiratn the hille to the very top, and cut 
diem into termces. Id the •onthern parts, besides abundance of every 
•pedes oS agricnltai«l and horticnltnral produce, tai^e breeds of great and 
•mall cattle are reared. Domettic fotrla, wild fowl, and every apeciea 
of game, abomod,— «• sable* io the Dortbem parts, martins, beavers, de«r, 
wild boars and beara. Reptile* arc alto said to abound in the south ; and 
in the livers that daogerons amphibions reptile, the kaiTnan, is frequent, — ■ 
some of them, sccoHbg to Hamel, from 30 to 40 feet in length. The 
[JteaaaBt is a native of the peninsula of Korea ; and the inhabitants have a 
■pedes of small riding ponies, not above three feet high. The northern 
provincee of Korea produce that far but over-famed root, the Jinseng. 
Silk, flax, cotton, and other commodities of that kind, are produced in the 
peninsula. As tbey are ignorant of ulk>weaving, the wool is exported to 
China and Japan. According to one Chmese statistical accauat, tea is pro- 
duced, bat such a hct is not mentioned in other Chinese acconats. It may 
be produced in the southern part, bat in the central and continental pro- 
vinces the climate is certainly too cold to admit of its growth ; and Ha- 
mel, who was BO long there, is entirely silent upoa this point, yet he could 
hardly have hiled of knowing or hearing of it if such was the fact, and tea 
ia not prodoced in China farther N. than 37° 48', in the province of Slian- 
tong. The oxen in Korea are used for plooghing, and the horses for carriage. 
Manujaclures and Commerce.'} Of these almost nothing is known. 
lite natives are smd to make a very white and strong paper from cotton. 
Tbey also make fans, and painted paper for ornamenting rooms, and 
rery fine linen. They carry mi a small commerce with China and Japan. 
Miscdlaneous Remarkt.^ The Koreans are represented as a stout, 
well-made people, of agreeable aspect and polished manners, — and in reli- 
gion, manners, and customs, bearing a great similarity to the Chinese, with 
whom, from time immemorial, they have been politiodly connected. Like 
them, the Korean government is extremely j^ons of all foreigners, and 
will not allow them to have any intercourse with the natives. Even the 
Chinese envoys, who are sent to Korea, are kept under strict surveillance. 
This extreme candon respecting foreigners was exercised towards onr na- 
vigators, captains Hall and Maxwell. With every diaposition to be kind 
and friendly to them, tbey were obviously under the influence of terror, 
leal, by permitting any communication with the people on shore, their 
heads shonld be endaogered. Their towns are much like those of the 
Chinese; but the hooses are prindpally built of mud, without art, and des- 
titute of convenience, and in some places are raised on stakes. The houses 
of the nobility have more external show, and are surronnded with eiten- 
aive gardens. It appears, from Hamel, that the noble* exercise in their 
respective districts a very oppressive feudal power, allowing no hooses but 
their own to be roofed with tiles, the people being obliged to live under 
thatched roois. The Korean government has always been monarchical and 
deqtolic, and the monarch is the sole hereditary landed proprietor, as all 
the lands hold of the crown, and there is no snch thing as a landed aristo- 
cracy or hereditary nobility. At the demise of the posseaaor, they revert to 
the crown. The nobles are, of course, entirely dependent on tbe king for their 
landsand places, llie royal revenue is one-tenth of the agricultural produce, 
and some duties levied on imports and exports. All the inhatHtants are 
bound to work three months for the sovereign on the royal domains, which 
are very large ; and once in seven year* all the free umi able to bw anna 
are sent from every province (o do duty U the conrt fior two mouth*, ac- 

cording to Hamel. ThoDgli the Korewi king ii onljr one of tbe nnmennn 
TaMols of tbe ChineM empire, yet in hn own dominionii he hu a apleadid 
and nninennu court, and a well-liimiBbed harem ; aud the Chinese court 
never intenneddlet with his internal adminiiCration, provided he be pnoe- 
tnal in paying his annnal tribnte by hia ambaBaador, and doiog hom^e, by 
performing the nine prostnttionB and knockings of ^e head before the 
celestial preeence. Whenever the monarch dies, two grandees are aent 
from Peking to confer upon his incceisor the title of Qui-vang, or king, 
who receives the inve«titnre kneeling, and makes the specified preeenia, 
beeides 8000 taels in money. The Korean crown does not descend by 
right of primogeniture — for each a right is not known in Asiatic monar- 
chies — but to such of hia sons as the king may think fit to appoint as hdr 
apparent ; and the nomination li confirmed by the court of Peking. When 
the emperor sends an embaaay to Korea, the king is obliged to go in per- 
son with all his guards to receive him, at a distance from his coital ; 
whilst, on the other hand, those of the KtMvan prince to the celestial court 
are scarce received with any ceremony, and are even obliged to give 
precedence to a mandarin of the fiiet rank. 

Tliere are two languages in Korea, the Chinese or foreign, and tbe 
Korean or vernacular. Tbe former is confined to the literati, who, aa in 
China, form a distinct order in the state, and are distinguished by two fea- 
thers stuck in their caps. They undergo many examinations, as in China, 
but their learning seems confined to the philosophy of Confncius, The 
vernacular language is wholly different, and, like that of the Mandshoort, 
has a peculiar alphabet, which was probably introduced at an early period 
by the priests of Bnddba or Fo. They write with pencils made of wolfs hair, 
and print their books with wooden blocks. The Korean language is too lit- 
tle known to enable na to say any thing satisfiBctory about it. It cootaina 
some Chinese and Mandshoorian words, as might be expected ; but the 
greater part of it belongs to neither, and is accordingly ranked by Klap- 
rodi, in hb polyglot table of Asia, as a distinct language of itself, the 
cultivation and elucidation of which is left for some future traveller, triio 
may have the good fortune to explore this all but unknown region. 
Whatev«' of learning exists in Korea is of Chinese origin, and is confined 
to the few who have embraced the system of Confucius. Buddhism is 
the prevailing idolatrous system of doctrine and worship in Korea ; and 
the bonxes are Dnmerons over all the country, and have many temples and 
monasteries, mostiy upon the sides of htlls, and some of them contain- 
ing from 400 to 600 monks. Many of them, like the Tibetian lamas, have 
their heads sliaved, abstain from animal food, and avoid the sight of women. 

The army is nnmerons, but would not be formidable to Europeans, and 
is fiirnisbed with bad muskets. Their ships of war are superior to those 
of China, and seemingly imitations of the Portuguese galleys ; they are 
mounted with small camions, and furnished with fire-pots. 

PoputalioH,2 "^^ number of inhabitants is unknown, tad whether 
tbe population is proportioned to the extent of tbe country, we have no 
means of determining. We are told by the Chinese historians, that in the 
reign of Kantsong, of die Tang dynasty, who conquered Korea in the 
middle of the 8th century, it then contuned 170 priocipal cities, and 
690,000 fomilies. This, supposing fire to a family, would make • total 
of more than 3,000,000, which is but a small number for a r^ion 
whose inrface is equal to one-half that of Asia Minor. 



This raat r^on contaim apwurds of 4,000,000 of British iiqnare milei ; 
and is composed of two dUtinct, but very aneqoal (linsioiu : Central 
Asia, and Maadthoorla, or Eastern Chinete Tartar^. Having just 
fioiahed oar deacriptioD of Korea, order requires that, in dwcribing 
Chineae Tartary, we commenco with Mandshooria, which lies to the 
N. and N.W. of Korea. 


The former of the above appellation! b derived from the Mandahoore, 
its inhabitants, sad the latter from its relative eitnauon in respect of 
Mongolia. This extensive r^on is boonded by Mongolia on the W^ 
and Russian Daonria on the N.W.; by tbe Eastern ocean on ^e E.; by 
Eastern Siberia on tbe N.; and by the se« of Japan, the kingdom of Ko- 
rea, and the gulf of Lyan<tong, or < tbe Yellow aea,' on the S. It ex- 
tends from the 118^ deg. to tbe 142d d^. of long.; and from the 
aonthem point of Lyan-tong, in 40° N. Int. to 55° N. Ut. Its greatest 
extent from W, to E. therefore is i^nt 1100 British miles ; and its 
greatest breadth 900 geographical or 1045 British miles ; but its gene- 
ral breadth is from 12 to 13 degrees, or from 800 to 870 British miles. 
'£l>e superficial area is above 800,000 British square miles. 

Diviiioni.^ Mandshooria, according to Du Halde, is divided into 
three governments : Shin-i/ang, or Mookden, IRrin-oola, and Tiilticar. 
Tbe first comprehends the S.W. part, or the ancient Lyau-tong, — the 
second the S.E. — and the third tbe N.W. part of Mandshooria Proper. Of 
these divisions, that of Shiu-yang is the smallest but best peopled, and 
nighest China; the second is the moet extensive and tbe most remote. By 
others it is divided into the two fo"* or snb^vemmenla of Shin-yang, 
or Foiigl-hi/en, on the Yellow sea, and Maudt&aria Prober on tbe Amoor 
and sea of J^an. 

This region being very imperfectly known, and never riaited but by the 
Jeanita employed by Kannghee to make a map of it, very little can be 
said respecting its external aspect. As far as can be judged from the map, 
its appearance is much diversified with mountains, hills, plaina, and forests, 
and altogether difierent from Mongolia, being exceedingly well watered, 
and free from those sandy deserts which occupy so large a space in Cen- 
tral Asia. In the eastern part of Lyan-tong, and on the frontiers of 

80 ASIA. 

Korea, the country is represented as fall of boga «ad marBhes ; and toward* 
the N.E. of the piorince of Kiria-oolaj it is ovemin with extensive and 
impenetrable forests, which increase in nsguitude and density the nearer 
they approach the sea: so much ao indeed, diat, unless on the immediate 
banks of the Amoor, which is thickly planted with Tartar villages, the 
whole country seems one continnons and uninhabited foreat. After pass- 
ing throngh Uie»e immense forests, fine green valleys occnr, which are wa- 
tered by bttandfn) and transparent riToleta, whose banka are enamelled with 
^e flowers common in Europe.' 

Motmtains.2 Mandshooria Proper is bounded on the W^ N^ and S-, 
by great mountain-ranges, which sepaiate it from Mongolia, Lyau-tong, 
Rusua, and Korea. The chain which bounds it on the W. is called tha 
Siolii mountains. These may be denominated the eastern buttress of Cen- 
tral Asia. This range strikes off to the S. from the yaSlanJioi, or ' Apple 
monntains,' and rum towards China, crossing the rivers Schilka and Ar- 
goon in its progress, and extending as far as the wall of Chin*. Thia 
lateral chain is more than 1000 British miles in length, and of great ele- 
vation. The central ridge is generally called Mount Peeho by the Cbineae, 
and Hamar Tabahan by the Mandshoors. It divide* the waters of 
Mandshooria, Pechilee, and Lyau-tong, from those of Mongolia, which de- 
scend to the Argoon. The elevation of Mount Pecbo is estimated by father 
Verhiest at 16,000 feet above the sea; and by another estimate, given by 
lather Gerhillon, at 9 Chinese lys, or 17,820 feet ^love the level of Pe- 
chilee. The ascent cost Verhiest six days' journey, as he tells us ; and ita 
summit ia covered with perpetual ice and enow. Gerbillon, who travelled 
alongst its foot in October, saw ice an inch thick in three small ponds, be- 
tween two of the lowest eminences in its vicinity, and in the brooks tlwt 
descended firora the ridge. Tha descent is much greater on tbe side to- 
wards Mandshooria than on that towards Mongolia. 

The southern range is a south eastern prolongation of the Sioiki moun- 
tains, and runs E. along the frontina of Lyau-tong, and Korea, and 
thence N.E. towards the sea of Tartary. In other words, it fonns the 
southern bonier of the basin of the Amoor. To the N. of Shin-yang, or 
Mookden, it is called Kinthan by tbe Chinese, or ' the Golden mountain i' 
and to the N. of Korea its principal summit is called Amba Shanggan 
Alin, or 'the ever white mountun;' Gooliman Shanggan Alin by the 
Mandshoors, or ' the great whiu mountain ;' and Skan-pe-Skaa by the 
Chinese, from the perpetual snow which invests its side* and summit. It 
ia the highest mountain in all Mandshooria, and is visible to a vast dia- 
tance. The lower part is covered widi wotid.' The Chinese say that thia 

> Thcanpcror Klcnlui^, in Us Ehgt lU Moelcdm,t,fotia in praise oTthe countr* of 
hh SDCcnon, dacribsait M Kcouutr; of 10,000^, having amcccHion of bill* and vi. 
leyi, parched laodi, and othen mli-watcred, mqeMlc river*, impetuoiu torrent^ grace- 
ful ■CTjentiDe itnamg, ainilini plains, and foraus impenetrable to the aoUr rsyi. tlul 
these nneeplthali give lU Ter; little rnl koewladge ol'the counti;. 

■ In ieT7, a penon, named Oamoona, wai deapatehed flnim Peking b; the tm-fovr 
Khuijbee ta ruil It, and briUjg hack an scoount of it, sud al» to offer an animal lacri- 
Su to the proieciliig ipirits of the mountain. Altera laborioui journey , he nutea, he 
■t leogth arrived near Its base, but feond It covered with doudi and mial, » *a to bo 
invieible. Il< tbtu invoked Ibe genii of the mountain, and hmvcc was bii prayer bo- 

Eun, wlien the migl disappeared, and the mounuin appeared in all iU glory, and hs bo. 
dd the path which led up to It. The aseenl, at flnt iMj, gmduJly became very 
dimeult. Ihcf walked ooiuiautljr upon anow covered with a eriut of ice, which a»- 
puenilf had Lun from year to year without melting. When Ibcy attained the imnmrt, 
thejr discovered a platform surrounded by five very high plnnaclca, between which wu 
a lake of water about 40 \j !■ iinmmttnott. I'be aummlt* of four of Ibese pluudea 


moantaio gives birtb to fonr livon i tbe Songora to the N., the Yaloo to 
the E^ the Se-hoo-oola to tbe S^ auil the Toomen-oola to the W. Bnt that 
this IB » miat^e, u riaibia on a bare inspection of the map, where, though 
it be trae that the Soonggaree doea origioate on ita Dorthem ude, the otbera 
tDerely isane from the range ia which this mountaia ia Bitnatad, not from 
it itaelf. 

Tbe third range is the Yablonnoi, which is jnst a N.E. prolongation of 
the Great Altaian chain, from the S.W. of the Bajbal-noor, and which 
separates the baain of tbe Anioor from that of the Lena. From thia lange, 
several lateral rangea are detached S.W. to the Amoor, as the StnJcan 
Alin, and othera ; bnt nothing is known of their nature, elevation, and 
extent. A lateral cliaia from the aouthem range separates Korea on the 
N.W. from T.yau-long, called Fong-whan-Shaiig, or * the monntaine of 
FoDg-whang.' It ia of great elevation, as the Chinese aathora, in their 
hyperbolical atyle, tell ae, that in tbe expedition against the Japanese in 
Kon*, their horaea sweated blood in croasing that chain, which forms the 
N.W. bonndary of tbe basin of the Toomen-oola, or ' green river-' — In the 
western part of Lyan-tong is a great moon tun-ridge, called Eeaungpee, 
one end of which lies close to the commencement of tbe great wall, and 
which extenda itaelf qnite into Mongolia. It ia of great elevation, and 
has a lake 60 ly in circuit, and of prodigious depth, upon it. 

Rivers.'] A region so environed with monatuns cannot fait to have 
many rivers. Theae do cot flowon an elevated plain, and lose themselves 
. in aiutds, or inland lakes, as thoae of Mongolia, hot flow into the sea, or 
into the AmooT, which ia the great tunnel which conveya them to the 
Eastern ocean. Besides the Amoor, the chief rivers aro the Soonggaree, 
Nonitee, Oosooree, Swe^ond, Toomen, Yaloo, Lyai, and othera, too nn- 
merona even to mention, much less to deecribe. 

The AmaoT.'\ Tbe Amoor naea in Mongolia in N. lat. 48° 52', and 8 
d^, W. of the meridian of Peking ; or in 108° 27' E- of Greenwich ob- 
•ervatory, in Mount Kentey or Kinhau, called Kinggan Aleen by Klaproth. 
It is there called the Onon. After a course of more than 200 British 
■ailes E. and N.R, it enters Russian Daonria, where, after running in the 
BBme direction, and rec^ving a multitude of mountwn-atreamB from the 
N.W. side of the Kinhan, it receives the Ingoda, a stream nearly equal to 
itaelf, and originating 330 miles to the S.W., from the N.E. side of the 
■nowy range of Soohonda, which gives birth on its N.W. side to the Shikm, 
a tributary of the Selenga, and on its S.W. aide to a nnmber of torrents 
descending to the Onon. The confluent stream runs N.E. to Nerchin- 
dcy, tbe capital of Russian Daonria, in 51* 49' N. lat., and 0* 45' E. of 
the meridian of Peking. Here it eqnals the Rhine in size, being 660 
yards wide, and very deep. Running still N.E., after a further course of 
170 miles, it receives, in 52° 40* N. lat., and 4° E. of Peking, trom the 
S.W., the powerful stream of tlie Argoon, which forms the Russian boun- 
dary to the S. of the Amoor, as far up as the Kulon-noor. Strictly 
speaking, the Ai^oon may justly he denomioated the twin-sister of the 
Amoor, being ita great southern branch, rising under the name of the Ker' 
Ion, on the S. side of mount Kentey, 7* 30' W. of Peking, and 48° 55/ 

dMlIncd SD much, that thij •Kined in- tbe ut of hlUng ; the flflh or wathera pinnute 
WB> alialght uid lower than the othen, and lu, bMe BMumed the appeusooe of ■/>!<. 
Frtnn Knral porta of tbe moimtsln, ■pringi and rivuleti -wtn leen giuhlng forth, 
flowing to the left to Ih* Si>ODgfU«e-oolil, and to the Gnat and Llttla Neien on (he 

V. *■ 

Dcillizedoy Google 

N. lat. 40 mile* to tb* S.E. of iIm Onon Sakin, or ■ Mwrce af tbe Ooon.' 
After mniiiDK in k diract coune 500 BritUi uiIm, (ud mora thmn 600 by 
th<9 winding*,) and wster'iog the richest putntva in Mongolia, it enters tha 
lake of Kolon, and paniog through it, anbsaqnently recelTea tbe name of 
tbe Argoon, and jobs tbe Amow after a fnrtbw oodiw of 300 mile*, and 
roc^Tiog a host of minor Htreanu from the great range of Sioiki, particn- 
larlf the Kalka, which girea nune to tbe Kalkaa, a powerfnl Mongo- 
liui ttibe. Tbirtf miles baloir thia confloence, the united stream tvceiTe* 
on (he N. side the Ajighe JSxrbechi, or Gorbitca, from the Yahlonnoi 
mounlainsi a rirer which forms on that side ^e Koiiian boundary. After 
a further conne of 80 British miles almost tine E^ in 53° N. lat., it ohangea 
its line of direction, running thence 630 British miles S.E. as far w 48* 
N. lab, where it receives the great river Sooaggarte from the $.Wq a deep 
and navigable stream. Tbance it changes its course again to the N^, 
receiving tbe Ootooree from tbe S., after a courae of 320 Bridsh miles, a 
large and transparent strsam, and tbe Halu Hala hosa tbe Hinkaa Alia, 
a stream of equal size, with a multitude of minor streams on eiihw side. 
Fifteen miles ^rave tbe citjr of SagbaliiV'Oola Hotun, in N. lat. 50° and 
E. long. 128°, it reoeivas the large stream of the Chikiri, called Zia by 
the Russians, which rises in 55° N. lat. in tbe Yablounoi range, which se- 
parates the basin of the Amoor from that of the Lena. This stream re- 
ceives a multitude of othen, both from tbe Yablonooi and tbe Hinkan 
Alin, particularly the TsUimpri, and has a S.W. course of more than 400 
British miles. It is more than a mile and a half broad at its conflnenoa 
wiUi the Amoor, and »o rapid, that it requirea more than two months to 
ascend it, though it may be descended iu 15 daye in a boat. Tbe Amoor, 
after receiving a multitude of odier atraains, finally eiitaia a large gulf 
formed by its mouth, in 53° N. lat. and 143' E« loogn opposite Hie N.W. 
end of the island of Tchoka or Sagulian, by a channel 3 lesgnes wide, 
Vid very deep and rapid. The leqgtb of its conne, including linmwitioB, 
is estimated at 2260 miles, and ita average diachaige of water per second 
at 298,800 cubical feet. Its basin contwu a snrfaca of 900,000 Bntiafa 
square miles, and the rtvK is navigable «■ tar up aa Narchiiisky, a distauoe 
of 1500 3ritith miles, for vessels of large burden. Ita mouth is concealed 
by a vast number of aquatic plants, bat thf ^annel, deep and Btill, 

[iresants no impedimeiits to navigatioD) having neither rock* nor sbal- 
ows, and its banks are lined with magoificeut foresla.*— rThe Snifaad 
Pira falls into the sea of Japan, ^d is a cooaiderable streamf^Ttw T«a- 
mm and Yaha have been naUced in our account of Korea-^Tba Lyau 
is a large stream, ori^natmg in the Siglki rasge, in 43° N. lat. wd 0" id' 
E. of Peking., under tbe name of Sira Mooren. Aher ranning "J" £., it 
turns to the S.W~ and enteriqg Lyan-toog, where it obtaiiu the name of 
Lyan, it nuu quite through that pravipce, and then falls into tbe Yellow 
aea after a comparative cootse gf 500 miles. It yt not, strictly speakiog, a 
Mandshoorian river; but as ilw province of Lyaq-tong has, ainoe th» eon- 
quest of China) been incorporated into tbe government of MandsbocHia^ 
tbe Lyau is now politically a Mamtshaorian stream. 

Climite,^ Though this extensive region is tbe eastern declivity of tbe 
great upland plateau of Mongolia, and conseqaently on a much lower level 

■ Thti rlTO' b called Oiwa and SMlka In tbe early part of lla cooru. Bj the Riu. 
■lana II ta called ihe ^munr aAar iMjuncllaa with (he ArnHio, and Schi&i after ita 
iDDCttoD with tlig logod*. Bj Ihe TMwooslaiu and Mandthoon It li called Safhaiitit 
(Us, ■ the Uaak rivtr i' and by the CUbeae adang Kcaung, • the dn«oa ri)w,' 

Dcinz.SDv Google 

temperate n 
coafiue tbe i 


thui the fonner, yet tbe climate i* remariably aerere. Tbe tnm and 
plants of temperate climates begin agwn to ^»pear, and to winta tbe eye 
of tbe wesiy traveller wbo bas traversed tbe elevated treeless wastes of 
tbe CMitral plateau. Yet tbe bigb elevation of tbe mountains, which on 
throe sides envirou Mandsbooria, and of the transvaTse range of the Hin- 
kan to tbe Ni of tbe Amoor, together with the immense forests which 
cover the oonntjv, connt«t«ct the inflnenca of tbe lolar nya, Thon^ 
imder the same latitude with Franca and Italy, yet the vast aontbern 
inoantaiDS between Korea and the river Amoor have very long and rigor- 
ous wintsre, >■ they v« covered with glacien. A still greater mass of 
anowy mountains forms the nonfaem border of its basin, and tbe sea which 
ancircles its eastern coast is covered with perpetual fogs. Another cause 
of tbe severity of the climate may perhaps be owing to the want of iaba- 
bitants and caltivatton to clear the ground of those immense primeval 
forests which cover its surface, so that the soil is never heated by solar 
inBuence. On tbe whole of the eaatem coast there is frost end mow in 
tbe middle of September.* It must also be remarked, that immediately to 
tbe £. of China and gulf of Lyau-tong, the Asiatic continent gradtwlly 
contracts in breadth to Behring'a straits. There is no mass of heated land 
to tbe S. to communicate to it a part of its caloric, and react upon the 
late mass of air, and by dilaung it, force it towards tbe N., and thus 
e tbe cold, if we consider the mountains that encircle it, tbe im- 
e forests that overapresd it, and tbe cold fogs that for ever envelope 
its coasts, — and likewise, that, from whatever (juarter tbe wind may blow, 
it must Decessarily be sharp and piercing, or cold and hnmidy— we need not 
wonder, from the physical circumstances joat ennmerated, that tbe tem- 
perature of this extensive region should be ao much below the standard 
even of Scotland, and so much like that of Lower Canada. Tlie Jesuit 
missionaries being at Tondon Kajan, the first village of tbe Ketching 
TsrtaiB on the Amow, in H. lat. 49° 24/, on the 8th of September, were 
compelled to put on clothes lined with sbeep skins. They were a&aid also 
that the river, though so deep and wide, would be frozen over, as indeed 
it was every morning to a considerable distance from the ahore. 

Soii and Productiont.'^ In such an extensive r^on there most neces- 
sarily be a great diveruty of soil and produce. Ine province of Lyau- 
tong, or government of Mookdin, is well-cultivatad, and tbe soil good, 
prtfdncing abundance of wheat, millet, and cotton. A great extent of 
pasture lands in this province renden it of much utility to Chiua, when 
these a» scarce, as a vast number of sheep, cows, and oxen, are then 
gr«zed, which animals are by no means abundant in China. Wheat, we aro 
told by tbe bmperor Kien-long, in his thgt already noticed, here produces 
100 fold. Southernwood and mngwon wontd cover all the fields ; but, 
from the general cnliivation, are found only in the deserts. Amongst the 
trees of tins country, Kien-tong mentions the pine, tbe cypress, the acacia, 
tbe willow, the apricot, the peach, and tbe mulberry. In the viciiuty of 
Ningoola, in tbe government of Kirin Oola, oats are so sbundant, that 
they are givan to horses, as in our country, instead of black bewu, com- 
mon to all the northern provinces of China. Abimdance of s species of 
laillet, called maytmi by the Chinese, is raised. Wheat and rice are 
Marce ; and father R^;is is astonished, that in districts situated in 43* 
44/ and 43° of latitude— the latitudes of the south of France — the pro- 

, nndst W N. 1st., oorsnd with maw 

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dnctioDB of the mhI should be ho scHnty and limited in kind, u to be be- 
hind the northern prorincea of Fiance. He imputea its barrennefs to the 
nitnnu qnality of the eoil. Bnt had he taken into account ^e other cir- 
cnmstancea which modify climate ao mach, he would have found, what is 
now a recognised fact by all who ha7e studied the climates of the globe, 
that the climate of a country is not regulated by the sole circumstance of 
latitude, bnt by other cansea, both physical and morat. Perouse, who 
examined the S.E. coaat and the month of the Amoor, nfs that the coun- 
try seemed almost a desert. On every baud a luxoriant vegetation re> 
minded the French sailon of the deer country they had left, and wfaich 
they were never more to reTiait. The lofty mountains were adorned with 
the spreading branches of the oak and the verdant pyramidal forma of the 
pine. In the lower grounds the willows drank the moisture of the rivers ; 
the birches, the maplee, and the medlar-trees, rustled in the winds ; the 
lily, the rose, and the cnnvallaria, perfumed the meadow. The spring 
was that of Europe ; the flora nearly that of France. But there was qo 
trace.of the slighteat cultivation, — no proof that these shores bad ever beeu 
inhabited by hnman beings, — no paths but those of the bear and the stag were 
formed across the rank herbage nearly four feet high. A single grave aud 
some fishing utensils seemed to indicate that some wandering tribe came 
occasionally from the interior to give a momentary disturbance to the 
fishes which swarmed at the months of the rivers.* Every atream that 
swells tile volumes of the Amoor awarms with fish of every kind ; aud 
these serve the poor ttatives both for food and rument. The Yupi Tartars, 
a tribe of fishers so called by the Chinese, spend all the summer in fish- 
iug. One part of what they catch is laid up to make oil for their lamps ; 
another serves them for daily food ; and the rest, which they dry in the 
sun without salting — for of salt they are des^tute — is reserved for win- 
ter provision, whereof both men and cattle eat when the rivers are frozen. 
That vsinoble fish, the stnrgeon, abounds in the Oosooree and Amoor. 
The Ynpi call it the king of fish, lliey commonly spear the larger fish 
and take the leaser with nets. These Yupi know nothing of agriculture, 
and BOW nothing but a little tobacco in a few plats of ground near each 
village on the banks of tlie river. All the rest of the land is covered with 
dense impenetrable wooU», from whence they are annoyed with myriads 


tbM Ibis ahould be 

,'ealMof Ihi 
of Chlnti, In which the reported redundBnr^ of tht population often proTcs Ih* 
Cftuse of limine, with all iU Attendant horrorn. W'e may hda, Ibat it i* indetd BOwAga 
-"--- ■•-'a ahould be the ease, when, if we can believe a late Canton register, lbs popu. 
if China was above SOO millions in 1793, and (hut the emperor Kien-longgaiif he 
nvm^u with great aniiel; fur the future, for the laud did not incruK, although the 
mouths fed b^ it did, and therefore exhoned hia numerous lubjects to use all jnaalbl* 
ecoaomy in the use of tbeir food, to ward off the impending dajiger of a population b^ 
joai the means of subiusKnce. Nothmg is oefded, one would bu|)]kiw, but emigration 
to and rotooua^n of lucb a vast region, eonoigned to bears and fonts as an undislnrlHd 
tot. NolMng would be required for ibst government but to aupply the means 
.rating, and enable the uiluniita tu deiu the isst forests and cultivate a SDil so 
itered, and render Mandihooria another Germany ; for Germany, in tbe day 

It what Mandshosria Is at present— a cauntnr of 
peiHiled by tribes of nomade bunten. Such aremedy, with Bucha « . ., 
U tile very door, would prove a sure resource in the case of a rediuidant population 

— d Bcarcily of food, and, by acting as a constant drain, keep the former down to the 
level of suhslsteuce. The bare fact, (hat such an eitensire region hu been, and aUU 
is, cotuigned as a mere hunting country for a few nomade tribes, instead of being ten- 
tnled and cultivated by an Industrious paaaantry, is a elear and cogent proof of the 
l^norancs of the Chinese government, and that the beaois of the celtMlal pnsaniw 
have never irradiated the alniosphere of Mondabooria, oor dispelled the fege of E^Mt- 

Dcillizedoy Google 


of gUM and oUier inaectB, which they are compulled to drive away with 
■moke. Beyond the Sag^ulieR to the N^ are Dothiog bat fonats frequent- 
ed hy Mblv-huntera. The N.W. portion of thia region, comprehended in 
the gOTemment of TaitBicar, ia in a aimilAr state of non-cnltiration, though, 
bere and there a few Hpotft cnl^vated by the TagonriB or Daonriaoa, an 
agricnltoial tribe of MandBhoora who dwell to the N.W. of Taitaicar, and 
by the Solons, another tribe of the aame stock who are both hunters aod 
■griciiltnriata. The Tagonria raiae barley, oata, and millet, Belling to the 
people of Tntaicir their Borplas produce. They breed cattle, aoch aa 
horaee, dromedaries, balls, cows, and sheep. These last are Tcry fine and 
large, their taila being above a apan thick and two long, are all lat, and so 
Tsry heaiy that they cannot go bst. The Tagonria make great use of 
osen to ride on, and are very expert archers, and thor howa being esteem- 
ed the beet in all Tartary, bear a high price. The soil in the Tictnity of 
Taitaicar and Merghen ia sandy and poor, bnt that in the neighbourhood 
of Sagtnlien Oola Hotnn yields fine crops of wheat, and at Tsitsicar, the 
Solcma have very rich manored lands, all sotta of garden friiits, and seven! 
plantations of tobacco, which ia the article of their aabaiatence. 

Mandshooria aJao prodacea copper, iron, jasper, pearls Euid fniB, and its 
mother of peart ia of admirable qaality. The pearls are found in the Song- 
piis, the Korsin-pira, and other streams which tall into the Arooor, and 
other rivers which descend to the Nonnee and Son^sree, as the Arom and 
Nemer in the road from Tdtsicar to Mergben. These pearls are got with- 
out much art, and an obtuned by plungem who take up the first oyster 
they find, and though much cried up by the Mandshoors, these pearls 
would be little Talned by Europeans, Irom their defects in ah^w and 
colour. These plungers, who form 8 companies, are bound to furnish the 
Bogdo Khan or Great Khan, as tbey coll the emperor of China, with 1,104 
fine pearis annually. Bat the furs form the most valuable part of Mand- 
^oorian commerce. Hie Han Males, and the Solon Mandshoors are the 
most expert in hunting the forred animals, as sable ermines, black foxes, 
and martine in the vast (brasta beyond the Amoor, and on the banks of 
(be Cbildri. The Ruasians were msatera of all these foresia, previoos to 
the peace of Nerchinsky in 1689, and had built a fortress named Alba- 
zen or Yakaa, on the northern bank of the Amoor, a few days' journey 
above Sagfaalien Oola Motun, in order to protect and ingroas th« fur tmde. 
By that treaty, they were compelled to demolish and abandon that forti- 
fied banting station, and leave the Chinesian Mandshoors in full and uu- 
diitnrbed poaeeseion of these forests, and of the fur trade. The Mand- 
aboma still keep a strong garrison on the frontiers in case of Ruasian en- 
croachment, and armed barks on the Amoor. The hnuters are clad in 
abort jackets of wolves' skina, with a cap of the same, and their bows at 
tbeir backs. They have horses laden with millet, and th«r long cloaks of 
t^er or ftHC-ekina to protect from the cold, eepecially of the night. They 
have excellent d<^ trained for the game, who clamber welt ami are ac- 
quainted with the wilds of the sables. Neither the severity of the weather, 
nor tbe fierceness of the tiger can restrain them from the chase, as all their 
licbes depend on it. The finest furs are reserved for the emperor, who 
pays a fixed price. The rest bear a great price, even in Mandshooria it- 
adf, aa being very fine and acwce, and are immediately bought up by the 
mandarina in tbeee qoaners and the merchants of Tsitsicar. The jinsing 
so much extolled by the Chinese, and which usually sold at Peking for 
seven times its weight in silver, is now well known to be a prodnctioi) of 


86 ASIA. 

Canada and l)ie United Stttea, and tbe Amerlcaas an in dw habit of 
exporting it to Canton, m that ita price ii mncli Adien. Tiiis plant snp- 
(xMed for long to be pecnliar to Mandihooria, growi <ya\y on tlie declivity 
of wooded tnotuitaini, on the Innla of deep riren, or about steep rocln. 
It can neither I>ear mneh cold nor beat, for it does not gmw beyond 47" 
N. lat; 

Thb temie Tartar and Tnrlary liare been m long, thoogh erroneonaljr, w^ 
plied to all the nomadio tribes and regiona of Asia, by writer* of all claoaea 
and erery country in Enrope, that it ia now become impoaHtble to eradicate 
^m from onr ethnagn^hiwl nomenclatnre, to firmly have tbey takau 
root in our langnage. In compliance witb eetabliahed custom, therefore, 
we hare been obliged to apply the term of Eailerit Tarlary to die region 
of the Lyao and Mandshoorv ; andifwe are gnUty of applying the name Tar- 
taTB aa a general ^>pellation to all tbe Aaiatic hordes, their vny nughbonra 
the Chinese are eqiuUy guilty, aa they dus theiu all under the general 
name of Tu'Ik : dioogb the Turka, Mongols, and Mandahoon, are aa ra- 
dically different in their featares and language as Hindoo, ChineBOt and 
Arabs. Whether the Abudaboors are tbe aboriginal nittiTes, or anec»eded 
a preriona ncei we cannot determine, as they have no historical recotda ; 
but they are called tfu-itche, by the Chinese, and are supposed to be tbe 
deacendanta of the Kin, who, in the 12th century, subdued Northern 
China, and were, in their tnin, anbdued by Jen^ia Khan, in the 13th 
century. We are told, that the Maodsboon are the same race who, at 
diferent perioHla of the Chinese monarchy, bare been succeanTely de- 
nominated Siat}», Geaugen, Yen, Ookee, Sootkin, Mako, and finally Nyu. 
ching, or Kta ; and we know another tribe, called the SyetoH, Ktilan, or 
Lyau, which came from tbe same region at the Kin, and preceded them in 
tbe path of conqneat. But whether these names really belonged to one 
and the same race,— or to different tribes of that race, who sncceasirely ac- 
quired domination over tbe other tribes,— or were ^pellations of different 
racex, cannot now be determined ; but it is probable they were all nsmea 
of d^erent tribes of the Mandahoorian race, and that these namet are all 
Chiueuan, not Mandahoorian, ^pellations. — The first tribe of whom men- 
tion is made in ^ Chinese aiuala, is tbe Kttlan, who seem to have come 
from Mandshooria Proper, and to ha*B fixed themselves in Lyantong, and 
founded there a monarchy, which lasted from 916 to II 17, or 200 yean. 
They had two cq»itali in Lyantong, — Lyanyang, and Moekden or Stun-yang. 
This tribe gare more trouble to tbe Chinese than all tbe other Tartan. 
Though they made no fixed settlement in China, yet they so harassed the 
Chinese, that one of the emperors waa glad to compound with them by an 
annual tribute of 200,000 taela of silrer, and 300,000 piece* of tilk. Un> 
able to repel these Tartars from the frontiers, tbe Chinese emperor Whayt- 
song called the Kin, another tribe of Mandahoors, to bis assistance, who, 
uniting their forces with the Chinese, defeated iha Keetan in erery batUe, 
and reduced them to such eitremitlee, that the remainder were con^t^led 
to abandon Lyantong and fly to the W., where they founded a new 
dynasty, called the Wetlern Lyau, or KaraKeeUti/ant, wlucb comprriwnded 
aU the tract between the Bogdo Alin and the Caqtiao aea, and of wbiob 
Khashghar wat the capital. This dynasty did not last a century till it, in 
ita turn, was overthrown by tbe Nainuau under KnsUnck Khan, who, ia 

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hia torn, wu d»EMtad and sUU by tlttl mi^tiMt of AuMte conqneron, 
Jangfais Khan. It is from the K«etaa thai the name of Ke«tay was applied 
to Northern China, and Kan-keata to their Tartarian doaniniona, which ez- 
tMided froiB Korea to Kaabgar. Hia name of Khtefa or Kaihai ia atill ap- 
plied bjr all the MobamiDedan hiatoriana to the whole tract extending from 
China to Tootfan, aod area W. to the Beloor. la the time oF Jenghiz 
Kbao, the KeMan rebelled ag^nst the Kin in Lyanlong, haaded by k 
prince of the old dynaaty, called Lyewko, who rwMd 100,000 men to aa- 
eist that conqnaror ; and, aacending- the mountain Kin, to the N. of Mook- 
dan, aaaificed a white horae and a black ox, broke an arrow, and awore to 
be faithful to Jenghis Khan. In 1215, he tent a liat of the families which 
had anbmitl«d to him, namely, 600,000 which would give a population of 
3,000,000 to Lyantong, all Keetana, independant of Kb families, so that 
Lyantong mnit then hava been a very popalom prorince. After the death 
of Lyewko, in 122fi, his ton Paeloo was raised to the throne of Lyantong 
aa a d^Modent soTereign of the Mongol Khans. We haar do mora after 
this of the Keetan printwa of Lyantong. A Keetan prinoe, named Yeloo 
Cbnlaay, waa prime mimater to Jengfaia Khan and bis succeasora for more 
than 30 yaars, and proved himself an able and enlightened atatasman for 
the age in which he livBd.-— The Kin dynatty, which rained the Keetan in 
1 1 17, were another Mandahoorian tribe, who dwelt to (he £. of Uie Kee- 
tan, to the N. of Korea, and atongat the Eaatem lea. Aa Yeloo was the 
name of the imperial family of the Keetan, ap waa Wanyea that of the im- 
perial family of the Kin, from Waayan, the name of a principal tribe of 
tha Nyvchi. This Mandshoor ilyoaaty reigned 117 yeara over Northern 
China, Mamkhooria, and Mongolia, as &r aatha 50th degree of N. lat. and 
90 d^reea W. of Parking. The princes of this dynasty were the Allua 
KImiu of the Mohammedan writers, an appellation denoting the ' Golden 
Khana,' equivalant to Kin or ' Golden,' the name which Ogota, the first of 
the dynasty, gave to his new dominion. This dynasty waa estinguished in 
ISS4, nnder the reign, and by the power, of Oktayi son and successor of 
Jenghis Khan. One of the Kin princes endeavoured to persuade Ningt- 
•ong, emperor of die Song dynasty, then reigning In Southern China, to 
make common canae with him agaiitit the MongoU, the enemies of both. 
Bat Ningtaong, instead of complying, refiued, and exhorted all hii lubjecta 
' t the Moi^ioIb in driving the Kin out of China. When the Kin 
I ioformad of the mfleKibility of Ningtaong, be told him, by 
■^" To-day, Sir, the Weatem Tartan will deatroy my em- 
w they will conquer yoar'a ;" which prophetic declaration 

a exactly verified in IS79, when China waa entirely conqoered by Hoo- 
pitee, or Koohlov Khan. 

It ia believed tnat die present Mandahoorian family, wha conquered China 
ia 164A, are deacanded from the Kin imperial bmity ; and the emperor 
Kanng-hn often affirmed it. But wb^her this really he the caae or not, those 
of the Kin who eataped tha ivrord of the Mongola, aided by the Keetana 
and Chinese, wko all bated Uie Kin, fled into ^ N.W. parts of their an- 
aeat aotuiry, now inhabited by the Solon Tartara. Towards the com- 
meacemaat of die 17th eentnry, tha Nyncbe began again to rear their 
haada, am] became formidable to (he Chmese, as ^ Kin of old had been 
in tbrir day. Thia was accomplished by the union of aeven chiefs, of so 
ao Bsany different tribes, into one goverment, under one prince, who, by 
thia meana, became the founder of the Mandshoor monarchy. Thia prince, 
;, radnced tha khan of the Southern Mongola, nov n« longer for- 

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nidable, and who wu besides baled by his onrn nusals, to tlM state of ■ 
mere depeodent of the Mandshoors ; and Tyentsong, bis son, deprived 
him of the title of khan, giving him only that of tvaag or dnke. His grand- 
son, TsongCe, became the founder of the reigning imperial dynasty, by his 
conquest of China in 1644i, and extinction of the Ming dynasty. 

The province of Shin-yang, or Mookden, has eleven fortresses of the first 
order, eleven of tbe second rank, and eight oF the third. Some of these of 
the first rank are said to be as rich and populous as soma of the provincial 
ct^itals of China ; but, on the other hand, we are told that a great number 
of large and populous cities and towns it once contsined are now in niins, and 
that, instead of them, the Mandshoors have built a great number of military 
cities, and fortresses, and castles, to keep tbe iDhabitanCs under, who are a 
Htont and warlike people, very nnmeroas, and very oneoBy under the Tartar 
yoke. TheinhabitaQtBofthe9efortreRses,BDldien as well as others, ore grown 
very rich and powerful, and drive a good commerce with tbe northern pro- 
vinces of China ; whilst the natives are, for the [nost part, kept in a state of 
slavery and subjection under them. If it be considered that the great mass of 
the Lyan-tongera are perhaps of Keetan descent ; and that between them and 
the I^, the ancestors of the present dynasty, a constant hatred always pre- 
vailed ; that they bore a principal band in the destmctioD of the Kin by 
the Mongols, in revenge for past injuries ; and that they were well affected to 
the Ywen and Ming dynasties, as their anrest protection against the descen- 
dants of these Kin or Nyuche, — it may help to explun the reason why the 
Lyautongers have been wone treated by the Mandshoor sovereigns of Chins 
than tlie rest of their Chinese vassals. The population of &is conntry 
is very small, considering the extent, if we admit the statements of 1743 
and 1761. By the former it is given at only 235,620, and by the Utter 
at 668,852 ; and by the latest statement ^ven by Mr Morrison, in the 
reign of Keea-kiug, it is made only 390,000 ; whilst in that given by the 
manderiDS (o Lord Macartney, Lyautong is made to have a population of 
10,000,000. Nothing can be more stupid, discordant, and ansatisbcCory, 
than snch statements as the above. That it should have no more inhabit* 
ants, on the one hand, than one tenth or one fifth of that of Scotland, a 
country equal in dimensions, and lying between 40° and 43° N. lat., is so 
glaringly improbable as at the very first sight to utterly unworthy of 
all credit ; and that, on the other, it shonld have a popnlation fire times 
that of Scotland, is equally inadmissible. That it shonld have had a popu- 
lation of 600,000 Keetan bmilies in the commencement of the 13tb cen- 
tury is at least passible, not to say probable ; but, at the same time, is irre- 
concilable with a statement given by Fadlallah, which is only 700,000 in- 
habitants at the same period, unless it be supposed that the males only, fit 
for war, are intended, which is frequently the case in oriental statements, ae is 
known to have been the custom of the Jews. It is a mortifying circam- 
etance that something must be said on a subject on which nothing but what 
is discordant can be stated. Respecting the number of the present inhabit- 
ants of Mandshooria Proper, we are told that in the province of Tsitsicar, 
740 miles long by GOO broad, according to the Jesuits' maps, and which 
occupies all the N.W. part, there were not above 10,000 families, as the 
governor told Oerbillon ; and we are informed by the Dw-syn-4-tonnd- 
sbee, that the whole of Mandshooria contains only 47,124 tributary pea- 
sants, not including the aboriginal natives, and that it furnishes 10,000 
Mandshoor sold rs. Nothing in this way can be imagined more nn- 
sa^^tory and meagre than this statement, bnt we have nothing better 

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to commiinicate ; tud it la really a problem worthy of Bolution, how 
• cooDtry ten times tlie area of Great Britain, and the msgor part of it in 
man Bontbem latitadea, should be allowed to remain almost a tenantleas 
waste, occupied by the b«ast« of the forest, in the very threshold of China, 
■nd bow a few thousands of Mandshoor shepherds and hunters should still 
continne masters of ISO millions of iodnatrioua agricultural subjects. 

The Mandshoors belong to the great race called Tongootet by the 
Russians and Tartars, and (Evan in their own langn^e. Their tribes 
are : 1st, The Mandihoori of Ningoata, the dominant tribe. 2d, The 
Lyait or Keeans of Lyautong, in subjection to the first tribe. 3d, Thfe 
Daooriaru or Tagooreet, under which are included the Solons near mount 
Siolki and the Human on the Amoor, above its jonction with the Soong- 
garee or Chnntungion of the Chinese. 4th, The Diuckari, as they are 
called by the Russians, aboTe the Human, removed into the interior by the 
Chine«e goTemment. They seem to be the same with the Han Hala 
Tatso of Gerbilloo, and to have dwelt anciently to the N. of the Amoor, 
and to the E. of the Hinkan Alin, on the banks of the Han Hala, running 
E. to the Amoor. 5th, The Mandshoor fishers, called Y^i TaUe by 
the Chinese. This appellation comprehends the Nalki or Piatia on the 
Amoor, the Ghiiakte or Kelching Talte near its mouth, the Onlchyi on 
the bay of Castries, the Belches more to the S., and a tribe of Mandshoors 
settled in the north part of Saghalten island. There is a tribe who dwell 
near the Chikiri Oola on the N. of the Amoor, and W. of the Hinkan 
Alin, called Orochon by the Maaddioors, who may perhaps correspond to 
the Onichyt of Castries bay ; but as it seems to he a hnnting" tribe, eo 
denominated from the deer which draw their sledges, they must either 
have remored down the Amoor to the S. side near its monui, or else that 
there are two tribes of the same name, the one bnnters, the other fishers. 
The Natki employ dogs to draw their carts, and the Ghiliaks are said to 
nse tamed beers for the same purpose. Whilst these tribes follow fishing 
and know nothing of agriculture, bat are generally a good natnred, 
simple, ignorant race, the Daickaree or Han-Halai, E. of Nlngonta, are 
agiicDltnrists, have both oxen and horses, and raise good crops of grain 
and pidse, thongh, like the Yupees, they are clothed in fish skins. The 
Tagoorea, who are a mixed race of Mongols and Mandshoors, submitted 
to the father of the emperor Kaunghee, whose protection they implored 
against the Russians : for these latter passing in armed barks out of the 
Amoor into the Soonggaree, secured all the rivers belonging to both, and 
became terrible to all the Mandshoors residing on their banka. The 
SoUmt, descended from the Kin who escaped the general destruction of 
their nation, are a stout, roboat race, brave, and skilfid hunters. Their 
women ride on horsebadt, draw the plough, htmt stags, and other game. 
A great number of Solons reside at Nierghi, a pretty large town, not far 
from Merghen and Tsitsicar. 

Zanpioge.^ The Toorkish, Mongolian, and Mandshoor language*, are 
radically distinct from one another. That of the last race is written in the 
character of the Mongols, who in their turn received it from the Oigoors, 
a Tibetian race, according to Mr Schmidt. It was not till the reign of 
Kanaghee that this character was adopted; as before that period they had 
attempted to express the sense and sounds of the Mandshoor language by 
Chinese characters, which was found impracticable. K&unghee, therefore, 
in order to [Heserve the language of bis nation, which was going rapidly 
into disuse, and in danger of being lost, ordered a special commisstOD of 


the belt grammiriMis In ChineM ku<\ MaBdahooran at Peking, to compass 
a grammar and dicUonary of the language expresBcd io the Mongolian 
alphabet, so as to make. a complete repository of the whole IsngoagQ : 
which was done with great care and diligence, a reward being offered 
for erary old word or phrase, which bad become abaolete, that it m^t ba 
inserted in dis dictionary. This dictionary has been sQcceexively re- 
pnhlished at Pans by De Langlea and Klaprath, and the language has 
been pronoimced by itie former to be the most perfect of all the nomadic 
idioms of Ana, not excepting the Tibetian. The alphabet consists of 
1,500 gronps of syllables, which Langles hsa attempted to reduce to 29 
letters, the majority of which have three forms, correaponding to the b»- 
ginnii^, the middle, and the end of a word. The language ia elegant, 
copious, abounds in words imitative of natural sounds, and is noted for 
its extreme softness of sound, as never adimtting two consonants withont 
a Towel between. It abounds in particles capable of modifying the mean- 
ing of words by being joined to them ; and the verbs have a great number 
of inflexions like those of the Hebrew and Arabic So copians ia this 
language thU it has not only names for every species of animals, but 
even words te express their several ages and qnslitiea. The horse, as the 
most serviceable animal they possess, has twenty times more names than 
a dog, almost every motion of this animal ^ving occasion to a new naioB. 
How thur language, a language of a semibarbarous people, became so 
copious in names and terms is a problem. It may be presumed that it was 
the language of their predecessors the Keetan and the Kin, who formerly 
reigoed in Northern Chioa, at which time these people, being very numer- 
ous as well as powerful, took care to cultivate and improve ther language, 
the delicacy and copiousness of which tlie MaadaboorB have endeavoured 
to preserve, by translating all the best Chinese woriu into their own lan- 
guage, and thereby improving both it and themselves. Yet it ia said, that 
notwithstanding all the endeavours of the Mandshoor emperors to preserve 
and perpetuate their native Isngnage, it is on the decline : the conquerora 
gradually disusing it and using that of the conquered. It baa one re- 
markable feature, that, though it belongs to the eastern extremity of Asia, 
it has many radical sounds closely reeembUng those of modem Europe, as 
may be seen by considting the Mitbridatea of Adelung and Vatar. 

The Mandshoors are more robust in their make, but have less expres- 
sive countenances than the Chinese. Their women have not their feet 
cramped and distorted like those of China, and their head-dress consisu of 
natural and artificial flowers. Their geomJ dress is much tiie same with 
the Chineee. 

Whbrb the population is scuity the cities must be few and small. Lyaa- 
toDg, being the most populous province, has the most cities, towns and 
village*. Shen-jrang or Mookden is tbe capital, and was the residence of 
the Mandshoor tc^eandett ai princes immediately previous to the con- 
^MBt of China. It contuns several lemplee, and one in particular wbar* 
the monarch praya atone on the first day of tbe year. It is composed of 
an inner and outer city : the wall iocloeing the whole is 1 1 niles in dr- 
enmferenee. Hiere is nothing about this place that deserves particnlsr 
description. It is the residence of a Mawlshoor governor, and abie«t 4000 


ttoopa are tatnstly alMianMl her*. It hu four pmblK tribmwiB, in wUck 
Don« bnt Miiuldiocn an employed, end tbeir uta an i^l wrine« in the 
Mandsboor loogna. Tbe Chinae inhabii the oErter and the Mandifaoon 
the inaer dty. Tlie former carry on almoet all t^ conmenie of tlus pro- 
vince. — Indeu, mhtt a viUage than a Unrn, contains Bothi^ ivmarkable 
bnt the tamb of a Manddioor m<mMrcii.-~Fo»g.wAaMg-ciung ia the beat 
and DHMt popnkraa rity of iIub province, asd enjoys a rery great comneKa, 
being the key to the peniasnla of Korea, iriiich baa drawn to it a very con* 
aiderable munber of Chinaae, who dwell in tha nburbi. Its chief nuiii- 
factnie m cotteo piqwr, very strong md dw^le, bnt neidMr white n«r 
tianapnreat. — Lyaa-ynng is alao a conaidcc^ile city. — The chief places m 
Monddwaria Pniper are Ktrin OUa HaUm or OoanUn, the largeat town of 
tbe cooatry ; Naun Kotw* oa the Nomii ; NingoMa, the capital <rf a miU. 
tary govanmwut ; Mtrghm, and SagJmlum OoUfHetun, or ' aty of the 
blade rirBr;' Pelume, and Pootaif Oola Hotun. These an all the plaoM 
of note in thia desolate and eitensire regioa, and are mostly peopled 
with Hildieia and axilea, the country eeenui^ly being nsed Ua ne otb« 
porpoae bnt that of hanishinmit. The principal Mandahoor bniilies have 
all left the coantry, and followed tbe cowt w Peking, so that it bM been 
I— te ri a l ly iagond by the conqaeat of China. The dtiea tbost meotiMied 
an aH nry ill built, tbe faomoa nod tbe walls snrroandii^ the towna being 
comtovcted tnlyef uukL Tbe Jeenit &then, who tiaveraed this r^ion to 
the S. of tbe Amoor, fonnd munbaTs of mined town^ aad serenl aatiqae 
remains, m wreral great atone stair-cases at Odrii Holun, a mined city, 
with the rastsgm of a royal palace, the like of n^teh k no where else to 
befaniidhen. These seew to hare been the woilc of tbe Kin in tha 12tb 
etotnry when their power wu donunant in Central Asia. Above SaghaliHi 
Oola Uotnn on the north side of the liver an the nuns oi Aykom, a 
Chinese fertreas, built by (he snccesots of Hoog^-voo to repress the incnr- 
sioM of tbe Tansrs. However, 'HO years after the death of that vigorona 
empeiw Yongloo, they re-crossed the Ahoot and destroyed Aykom. 

Bo^mhrieM and ExlaU,'\ Nest to Siberia this is the moat extenuve 
region of die A^tic coatinent. It m bounded in its whole extent by 
Siberia o« Ae N. ; on the E. by ^ t^ion of the Mandehoors and Lyaa- 
toi^ : Ml the S- by China, the Indo-Cbineie States, Northern Hindoo^ 
Btann, and Afghanistann ; rad on Ae W. by BadakabaiiD, Great Bnkharia, 
and Nortbem Toorkistaan. In its greatest length it extends from tbe 72d 
to the 125th d^ree of long. E. of Greeawich, or 2,625 British miles, and 
from tbe 27th to the b2A degree of N. lat., or 1,750 British mites in 
breadth, contaimng a snr&ce of 3,266,500 British square miles. Bnt the 
length and breadUi are oxceedin^y varions in various places, tbe much 
larger portion lying to tbe N. of the Moos-Tsigler and tbe wall of China, 
and coDtprebeMliDg s maivx v£ 2,500,000 sqnan miles. Tbe tract to 
tbe S. of this vast nnge is chiefly coasprdieaded in Western and Eaatem 
Tibet, tbe Tartary of Kakemar, taA ^ connUy of die Seeftm or Xoofon. 
This southern portion gradnally djaunidns in length till in tbe laiitade of 
28° N. it does not exceed 915 British nilee. Tbe whole of this immenae 
r^on, excepting a small portion beyond the Sioiki inanntBina on the con- 
fines of the Mandaboois, is an immense mass of elevated land rising like 
the boss of a shield from the centre of Asia, inclosed on all aides by lofty 
■DotiotaiB-nagee, which serve as so many bnttnsses to this vast npUod, 


wlulit iu intericM- is tMTersed in e^eiy direction by wide pinina md enor- 
mous ridgea rinlling in altitade thoM which form ita burier. It is in- 
conteMsblf the highest region of the globe, u far Horpnasiiig the elented 
■planda of the Andes, or the lofty tJ»le-l«id of Mexico, u these eicrf 
other tracti of a similM description whether in Europe or Africa, so far 
as the latter is yet known. The elevated platfcwme of South Americ* 
are confined to the rid|rea of the Andee wfiich are generally — the elerated 
upland of Ae lake of Titicaca excepted— from 2 to 3 degrees in breadth. 
These ridges skirt the eeatera shore of the Pacific, and with the exception 
of the elevated platform mentioned above, and a few lateral ridges pro- 
jecting westward from the mun range, and of those w^icfa separate the 
nnmenHu bnocbes of the Oroonoko from those of the MeraiHtn, and of 
that high belt which parte the watera of the latter firom those of the PteMB 
and Paragnay, all the rest of South America consists of immense plains, 
presenting nothing to the eye but a vast expanse of wood aitd water. 
With the exception of the Ajnlachian and Rocky monntuns, and the table- 
land of Mexico, North America is almost one vast level, which, instead 
of being covered with immense forests traversed by ocean floods, is, for die 
most part, a treeless saline expanse, atndded to the N. of 45° N. lat. with 
innnmerable lakes. This singalar confignration of the American continent 
sufficiently accounts for the immense magnitude and length of course of 
ita rivers. Tlie configuration of the Asiauc continent is widely difletent- 
Though largo and extensive plains exist in different parts of ita sniftce, as 
in the vicinity of the Persian gulf and Caspian sea, yet its aspect is exceed- 
ingly diversified, presenting multiplied and successive combinationa of all 
that is beautiliil, magnificent, and sublime in nature. Contrary to what takes 
place in America, the chief elevations of Asia are in the centre. From Cen- 
tral Asia, as from the very heart of the continent, all the gnnd riven of 
Asia flow in every direcuon to the snnomidittg and enhjacent r^ons, 
which circamatance of itself proves its vast elevation. As the bonnding 
rangee of this vast convexity have been conciaely described in oar geneni 
view of the Asiatic continent, we shall proceed to the present political 
divisions of tfab region, which is aometimea divided into the two great 
general divisions of Northern and Southern Central Asia. The former of 
these contains Mongolia, Soongaria, and Eastern Toorkistaun, — end the 
latter, the upper baaina of the Indus and Sntlej, commonly denominated 
Western Tibet, Tibet Proper, Uie Seefaun or Toofaun, aud the Elnths of 
Kokonor. Having in the preceding chapters described die region of the 
Mandahoors, order requires that in the description of Central Asia we 
begin with Mongolia, Ae moat eaatern division. 


This extenuve region has the Mandshoors and Lyautong on the E. and 
S.E. ; the wall of China on the S. ; Siberia on the N. ; and Soongaria and 
the great desert of Gobi or Shamo, which separates it from the eastern 
extremity of what is absurdly denominated the Lesser Bnkaria on the W. 
We must here, however, premise that for want of distinct and predse in- 
formation, we are not able to determine the western boundary of Mon- 
golia, especially on the S.W. angle.' 

> It ia Bdmlttcd on all haodi that on the aids of Smngaria the boundmry ii the cnM 
range o( the Bogdo, which ii lald to run Inun N. to S., and t« join at Its •DUIhern 
eitremity the oMttnt tenniaallon of the AUk Uola or A)sk TagC. The mlafortUDC 
In this cue, however, <i that w* have not a lingle obsemtion whether •t longilade or 


Physical AtpKt."] This region h comptwed of monntains, hilli, pluna, 
and deierta ; bat tlie moat miking feature is the great dflaert called Gobi 
by the natirea, and Shamo by the Chbese. The precise extent of this 
desert is not known : we only know that it extendi 8. to Tibet, and W. 
to the lake of L<^, 25° W. of Peking. It extends thence N.E. to the 
Toola river, the eastern bnmch of the Selinga. Ita longitudinal extent is 
at least 1,400 miles. Its breadth is nrioos in Tarioos places, varying from 
180 lo 100 miles acroae. In some places it is quite bare, without wood, 
or w«t«r, or grass, except a few ponds or nursbea formed by the rain«, 
with here and there a well of water. It is larger and more Irightfal to- 
wards the west, of which quarter Marco Polo has given rach fearfol de- 
scriptions, as the habitation of spectres who wile travellers oat of their way, 
so tJiBt they perish with famine, or are devonred by wild beasts. This part 
of the desert is called ' the Wilderness of Lop.' This commences at the city 
of Nijang, say the historians of the Tang dynasty, 250 ly or TO British miles 
to the E. of Khotan. There in going east the traveller meets with ' the 
great mnning sands,' which are so named becaose these sands are moveable, 
and because poshed aboat by the winds they form waves and hillocks. 
What of this desert lies betwem Peking and Kiakhta moat be crossed by 
all who take this route. The desert here commences aboat IS days' 
joanae]r to the S.E. of Kiakhta a little to the S. of the Toola, and is 
called ' the Hungry Desert,' as neither food nor water are to be got in it. 
Mr Bell, who went this route with the Russian ambassador, took 38 days 
to crosa it, from the Toola to a place called Naring Karassu, and daring 
all that space he saw neither tree, river, bnsb, mountain, nor bouse. This 
desert is much higher, he observes, than the level of China, the descent 
being much greater on the side of China than on that of the desert. But 
this must not be confoanded with the Shamo itself which is a desert of 
moving sand, and in bis route Mr Bell crossed a great aand bank 20 miles 
broad, and which was the eastern extremity of the Gobi or Shamo, which 
ha was told was 30 leagues across in aome places. The fact is that Mon- 
golia is just a high, cold, and barren upland. It is divided politically into 
two regions, namely : Ist, Northern Mongolia, or the country of the Khal> 
khas, or Black Mongols ; 2d, Soathem Mongolia, or the region of the 
Yellow Mongols, including the Ortoo Mongols W. of the former. 

This r^;ion extends from mount Allay or B(^do on the W., to the pro- 
rince of Solon on the E., an extent of 22 degrees of longitude, and from 

Utltuda to nublc ui to aay at what point of eithfr or both the Junctton of tbe two 
rugH take ptwf, and wa know ool thi preclae line of diractlon of tb« inat Bt^do, 
iHia« of tbo JcHilti who compond the treat mapi of Chioa and Chlu^ao Tartarv 
harliw traTeUed in this dirMtlon. 'ilnjpeBt Budo hiu bIk to ba onmsiitad with 
the Kuoiliiiig, tha northern tnmtler of ITbet, and^with the mountalD) of Sheiuee, b; 
latatal rau|eB nmnlng isroM the Cobl from N.W. to 8. E. In Tarlona plana. It ■■ 
■Ud thM ingaingfrom Khys-yaquan N.W. to Hand (the fbrroar Is the N.W. termina- 
tion of the freM waU In SB* 48' N. and 17* SI' 30- W. of Psking) the ground rlaea 
Itn wearriveal Ham! (W53'SO- N. lat, and £8*KS'S0> W. of Peking) at the foot of 
the mountaina, when the road dlTidea, the one to the DOith of the Alak mountatau 
Into SooDgarla, and the other to the S. lo the JVIohauunedan citlee of Little Bukaria. 
The 8.W7muat be iolended, a« anotber road leadi S.S.U. from HamI to Sha-ohsw, 
and from thence dlriri IL. to Khya-yitqiuin aboTe mentioned. The matter being thai 
ooeartain. we an only nay, in general terina, that the Shamo or Great Deatrt la lo 
thia qowter the S.W. boundary of MoogoUa, and Mparatea It from the osda sf 


the 5 1 «t degree of N. bt. to the Kmdwn extreoMtr of the Kobi or (iMNt, 
which it Kcfconed te belmg to tben ,■ bnt in Da Hmlde'e eccmut, the 
breadth ta bet &^ deftreefl, or (nm the 45lb to the 51tt degree. 

Botmdanet.'} Hiia vegiDD hai SoongHu mi the W. j the Mandsboots 
on the E.J the Sbwn Mmgidi en the S. and S.E.; and Siberia on the N. 

JfMKJam.] The ceontry k bmreraed hy aerend nogea of graU eferap 
uon, aa tho raaga of 3oehotida, in whi<li are the eoarcea of the Ingoda, a 
trihaiary nf the Oooa, the KatUy ha» Aiin, io which an dteae of the 
Qaon, the Took and the Kerkm,--— d the Hangag Aim which nuie S.E. 
lirwm die men eeaiem windiiige of the grant Bogdo through Mongolkt awl 
M called CIvmgai Alin by Pnlka,- ■ Hind fiaaUy the great Bogdo itael^ 
aoppoaed by the tmtonm to be the b^beat range of ceotnl Aaia, and which 
raari ita ragged aidea end gnowy snnumta with ainLing snblinuty, between 
the Maagoltaa and Soongarian deeerta. Thk cbnin u of gr^t breadth 
and length aa well aa elevation, and consiata of B nnmbar of parallel rai^aa 
ander difierent appella^nat running Irom S>£> to the N.W. and frem 
S.W. to N.E. On th« Rnaaiair ftootier, k the chain of Egoodin Cham 
AUn, which ODoamenee* 157 venta W. of Kiakhu at the source i^ the 
Kataooratu, whicli klle into the Daeltonri 56 verata from its entrance im- 
to the Dzick. Thk chaio, sko called UMMtimf, rwia 200 rente N.W. 
aeparating the aonrcea of the Ekbe, the Dzida, aad dte Oulcee from each 
otbo-. The road from Kiakhta S. to the Moi^lian upland, k a conunued 
aacent of aereral days' journey. New aa Kiakhta k iiaelf 2560 feet above 
the aea, the h^^t of thk pbtcfta mut be very great, and the cold in- 
creaaea gradnally till it becMoee intenae. On the road to the Oo^ or 
Goart of the khan of the Kiialkhaa, fron Kialdu»— from which it k 220 
milea dktant— several extonaire mountain ranget moat be croaud, aa the 
Blae moiutaina, the White monntains, with long aud narrow defilea, and 
die Mangatai mottntaini to the S.E. ateep and freqnenied by wild goata, 
deer, foxea, ateppe^cate, end bean. On the left of the road k an intuiated 
volcano, caUed Btutgee, and the Tamecky moontaiaa. From a h^h eminence 
in dik laat raoge, k aa eztennve view «f iudi»d bilk, whose sharp sommiia 
aeem like e •nccaasiou of blue waves. To the £. of the Mangatai or ate^ 
nonntaine, rkea at a great distance Momt Dultuhte, insnlated like Mount 
Blanc, and preaenting tbe ^ipearance of an immenae cone, and alill ftt- 
tber east Mount Mandal, a still loftier summit. Tbeae two lofty summits 
tmdoubtedly belong to the range of Mount Kentey. Aa we approach 
Oorga, the moootains increase in number, bnt are covered with foreeta 
large and extensive, used as hunting grennda for the grandees of the khan. 
Twenty rersts N. ot Oo^k the range of Gvntoo, the highest T^kowaha 
and hk suit hod yet croased, and which was cowed widi snow several 
versboka deep.' 

* An Hit nuniiitaiiu en the road h»d«e»f orcainu al ■!«» ea their fnnunJI^ aod 
oattaiUglMMMUiuaitoft^GiuiliBa, li ■ Tar; torga ok* lorrMuidrf wMh woodBi pU. 
]*n, h«ariBf liucriptiaiw In th* TlbMiui Ungufe. Enrr high mooula^ ihad]r tte^ 
<r Urg* rtrer, ii caaMciad b; Um Mongal* m tha abode of nme nsd qirit, ia s hm 
hoDoar thcoa obo* or beant of Moim ara eraetad. £veiy traiwcr paahig by aay of 
than, Cad* binnelf bomuf to all^ and itudiiig towards tba noth aid* ef Iks oho. 
with bis faca tortwd to Iha N. bow l4> It and matltfhii prsyer of Oai'fii»nBHa>-iMr-«a» 
■t the awne Uma tbrowinc down aome of bis propartj bafa* Ifc FreaaeB&r ptaaasM 
Umb ran ara flutwriog dbm * sok, anendsd tofiwse ebas, swi (till oROHr hMcb<a«f 
hocaa hdr. Amoopt thaaa mouuaiiu ia OM odlad Xham Ob or the Hojvl Uaam- 
(■Ib m which ara aeranl tenplas aod sapniahraa. Aa tliia raftoa la but eompnativdr 
lltda luiown, waouuotpniaBdtodawirlbiithaatharruwBi their nuaataitbavaaaw 
la Uu HaUa and D-ADTlUa'a Du^a .ra all that w« kDow Bbeot them, am to thasa w* 
rafar auch rMdi«, who wUh for nora Inibmutkn, M Ihwa wlfl HMaBonkaM aion 
to tha mind hy the Ffc'ihui any verbal dracriptlon. 

Amt*.] Him part of Mongtlw ia prattv well nstar«(l, espBcialljr tft 
tfte N.W. and E. The chi«f rim* are tba SelimgJui, Orkkm Toola, Ktr- 
Ion Argqom, OwM, Khalkha Pira, Altai/ or Si6a, Hara, £eroOy Iben 
jtra, Palarik Pira, Tegiirik Pira, and otiiers, all faiaoiu in Moagoltoa 
•tory^— The SeSttgha i* cmnpoaed of a moltitade of minor streama, all 
orifpnating at tha bow of the nonntaiai of Bogdo. But ita chief aoorce 
•eema to be in tbe lake called Hntnkul or Koaogol in 52 N. lat. and l&> 
27' W. of Peking, whs« it paiww ovt uader tbe name of tbe Ekhe accord- 
ing to the Rosnan m^M. Tbe otber cbief branchei are the Horalol from 
the W. and tbe Haswee from the S.W. — The Orkhon ia tbe great Bonthem 
branch of tbe Selii^faa, and riae* in the aame vart nuge of monntaiiw 
in 46* 40* N. and 14° 40* W. of Peking, and running in a N.N.E. dii«c-- 
titm, jomi tbe Toola in 49° N. and 11° 25' W. <rf Peking, after a course 
of 300 B> miles excloaiTe of eionoaitieB which are very great. The Toeia 
» tbe third Ivgc stFeaa vAk<A% farm tbe gre*t volume of the Selingba. it 
t«ea in 48° 10* N. and 8° SO* W. of Pekmg, in the rery centreof tbe Kin. 
tay or Kinfaaa range, being t&vided from the loarce oJF the Wanan by an 
intnTeaing ridge i from dwi of the Kirloo by another; by another from tbe 
aoarcea <rf the Khan and E«o» ; wbilat on the N. it is finally eepwated by 
a lidge from tbe Botnce of tb» Podemmija, which enters the Selingba at Se- 
fingioBlcy. This mnat tberafore be a very elevated spot, as it divides tbe 
wtters wbaA flow N. to tbe Arctic aea from tboae which deecend eastward 
t« tbe sea of Amoor. Hm Took rana fiiat a S.W. and then a N.W. 
coorae to the Orkhon, of aboat 300 miles, and n breadth of 300 yards 
nig^ the conflnence, Bowing gMttly over a pavement of rocks. Tbe com* 
fained stream, after a N.E. coarse of more ttnn 100 miles, joins tbe Selingha 
alxrat 20 miles to the S. of Ki^hta, when it enters eastern Siberia, and 
pasaos tbe town of Selinpnsky 9 1 versts N. of Kiakbta, with a stream double 
the breadth of the Hnunes at Ixindon Inidge, and finally eaters the sea of 
Baikal in 58° £3' N. and 1 07* 30' £. long, with a stream a mile b breadth, 
laamng thence nndm tbe new neme of the Amgmra in 52* N. and lOo" £. 
long, with a channel of a mile broad and 12 feet deep, and so clear that 
tbe pebbly bed is distinctly seen, it runs N. and N.W, till it joins or rather 
rcceivaa the Jeoisea, after a comparative course of 1440 B. miles from the 
meontains of Bogdo, and 780 from the Baikal More, and 660 under the 
Baste of tbe Selin^ia. The upper basin of this noble river, comprehending 
the three tEoaor basins of the Selmgha, the Orkhon, and the Toola, embraces 
the N.W. angle of northern Mongolia. This large stream is in fact, thoti^ 
not in opinion, tbe main branch and parent stream of the J«usea, and 
dMHikl in all justice be so denominated by modern geographers. — The Aer. 
Ion has been already described in oar acConnt of tbe Mandsboors, as the 
twin stream of the Amoor. It is under tbe name of the Kerlon only that 
it cKn be called a Mongolian river, as beyond tbe Koolon Noor it is partly 
a Rnssiaa river. It is bat a small shallow stream not above 60 feet broad, 
and rune a long winding course of 600 miles, almost due £. to the Koolon 
lake which it entera in 48° 50* 24" N. and 0° 45' E. of Peking, and 
iasoes o«t under the name of the Aigoon. — Tbe Omm hie been already 

deecribed Ihe MhaUcha rises in the Solki range, on the confines of the 

Mandsboors, ia the lake of Kalbee, at the base of tbe Mukhtur Alin in 48* 
N. and 4° SO* £. of Peking, and runs a winding but generally western 
conrae of 1600 miles to tbe Paynr lake. Emerging thence under the name 
of the Urton, it nuis N. to the Koolon Noor, which it enters on the eastern 
«da, in 49* N. and 1° 30* E. of Peking, after • coarse of 70 miles under 

ibe name of Uraon, as above laid. Thia river is coDsidered to nve name to 
the Kbalkhaa, although they do not frequent it rourh, — 'ffae Altai/ or Siba 
is merel]r noticed as the place of encarapmeot of a petty Mongol khan. 
The Horn, Eeroo, and Iben Pira are all Btreama that &11 into the OrkhoD, 
the two former from the S.E., and the latter from the W. In 1726 the 
abode of the Khntnktu-lama and the khan of the Khalkhaa waa in 49° 26' 
47' and 10° 59' W. of Peking, though now it is placed farUier S. on the 
Toola. — The Patarik Pira is parted from the Bonrc« of the Haswee by a 
ridge of the Changai, and rana 2 degreea S. to the Chshan Omo, or * white 

Lakesr\ This region has several lai^e, and • considerable nomber of 
small lakei, or rather meers or ponds. The most northern is the Husakul 
or Kotogol in the N.W. point, where the Chinese and RoMian fronljera 
meet, but it is wholly within the Mongolian frontier, in N. lat. 52°. It is 
completely inrronnded with monntuns, called in the map the Whaypoldok 
Alin, except to the S.E. where flows out the Ekhe the N.W. branch of 
^e Selingha. It is said to be 70 miles from S. to N. and 20 from W. to 
E. ; but it does not seem to be half that erne in the Rnsnan msfts. The 
largest lake aeems to be the KiXilon Noor, into which the Kerlon and Khal- 
ka rivers run, and oat of which issues the Argoon. It extends from 
4S° 45' 50. N. to 490 26' N. : and is abont 46 B. miles long from S.W. 
to N.E. by one-half in breadth. Whether it is fresh, or biKckiih, or salt 
the Jesait fathers have not told as, as they do not seem to have tasted ik 
It is probably fresh. Towards the N.E. it is hidden for much the greater 
part by monnttuns, so that Gerbillon only saw its S.W. extremity, where 
it was BO shallow that one might wade 4 Chinese furlongs and not find above 
three feet water. The shores of the lake ftt the S.W. end are barren and tandy, 
without herbage, except a species of tufty herb, of which the camels are very 
fond. — Next in importance is the lake of P«y«r, Puir, or Piar, about 7U 
miles in compass, extending from S.S.W. to N.N.E. and abounding in fish. 
On account of its great extent, the Koolan Noor is called by the Tartaia 
Argoon Dalai/ 01 'ihe tea of the Atgqaa.' Hienamesof these two lakes have 
been strangely corrupted by all the Western or Mohammedan historians 
from ignorance of the Mongolian language, in which the term itoor al. 
ways signifies a lake, as Balkhash Noor, Suiasan Noor, Altin Noor, and 
others. Theiie historians, as Abnighazi, and those whom 1a Croix fol- 
lowed in hia life of Jen^iz Khan, identifying thia word with the term 
Nauir or Nahar, ' a river,' in the Hebrew, Arabic, and other kindred lan- 
gu^es, hare converted the Koolon Noor or Nnrr into CoUonawcr, and the 
Pinr Noor into Biumawer, thas making them both rivers instead of lakes, 
and in this way the lake of Koolon has been confounded wiUi the Toola 
by the authors of the Modem Universal HiBtory. The nomadic hordes, 
who encamped on the borders of these two lakes and the streams nigh or 
connected with them, were denominated the Sn Mongols and Water Tar- 
tars, by the Western historians, in opposition to those who wandered in the 
dry and thirsty plains of the Shamo. 

Climate, Soil, and Produce,'] From its high elevation, this region is 
very cold, especially in winter, but the two latter form a me^e subject, 
of which but little can be said. The monntoina of Kinhan or Kenty seem 
to be well wooded on their slopes, indicating a much lower elevation than 
those of the Moos Tagler, and the Himallah, which ore totally destitmo 
of that necessary article. Gerbillon, who travelled olongat the Kerlon and 
Toola, gives us a very favourable pictnre of the mountains near their 


•ouTGM, eiipecially those near that of the latter. He deacribeB (bem as 
corered with beantifnl woods of pines and fira, and as aboonding in wild 
strawberries, in shape, size, coloor, and taste, exactly resembling those of 
FraDU, and meotioaa a monnum covered with woods fall of them. The 
same circnmstance was noticed by Moorcroft in the Ticiuity of the Nitee 
pass, where the moantains were covered with strawberry plants, with yel- 
low, red, and white flowers, and having a cone of seed without any pulp. 
On the banks of the Upper Toola, among the monntaios, is the Han Alin, 
a high range quite covered with pines and fira. Moorcroft travelled 30 
lys along«t the side of this forest, the resort of bean, stags, and wild boars. 
The Toola, in this part of its course, forms several small isles, fall of most 
delightful groves, and both its banks are lined with bnsby snd beantifnl 
trees, and beyond these are meadows of the finest and richest grass, llie 
stream ia exceedingly transparent, and the wnter excellent, ranning over a 
bed of flints and pebbles. In fine, Gerbillon describes this place as the 
moat charming he had seen in all Mongolia. The Kbalkhas, in foct, pos- 
scBH by far the beat part of Mongolia, for this plain reason, that it ia best 
watered, and the pastures ^d meadows on the bonks of the Seltngha, 
OrkboD, Toola, and Kerlon, have uooe eqn^ to them in Tertary, and are 
of nxve acconnt with the Mongols on this account than any other streams 
that nre found in this r^on. Hiese meadows and plains afford pasture 
for innumerable flocks of horses, camels, sheep, goats, cows, and oxen, 
which constitute the sole wealth of the Mongols. Thongh the great ele- 
vation of the country he the reason why so much desert exists in Tartary, 
yet these deserts are not altogether so frightful and barren as they have 
been represented by some travellers. Setting aside the Gobi or Sfaamo 
and a few other small sandy tracts, all the rest afford good pasture and 
abundance of gross, as high as a man's waist, which wonld grow still higher 
bat for the scarcity of water. From this defect most of it decays presently 
at the root; and as withered grass qnite chokes up the young, the Mongols 
in spring, like the Indiana of North America, set fiie to the old herbage, 
which sometimes spreads round to a circle of 100 leognes. In a fortnight 
after, the new grass shoots np every where to the height of a span, which 
shows the great fertility of the soil, and so mnch of this vast re^on, as is 
supplied with water, could support quadruple the number of ^e present 
natives were it cultivated, but nomadic tribes never think of ogricultore, as 
it IS quite inconsistent with their wandering habits. The Jesuit mission^ 
oriea, however, soy that all the region westwards, from the Mandshoors to 
tiie Caspian sea, is generally nnfit for tillage, and that that paatored by 
the Naymans, and those of Koichin and Otwin, in S.E. Mongolia, are worst 
of all. 

Mineralogy and Zoology."] Of the former we may be said to he 
qoite ignorant, and of the latter onr knowledge is very limited. It may 
be presumed, from the moDutainous nature of the country, that it should 
abound in metals and mioerala, especially as Russian Daooria, province 
very similar in aspect, ia noted for its minenJs. It abounils, however, 
witii all sorts of gome, even of those known in Europe, as wild boars, 
hares, deer, squirrels, foxes, and an animal colled tael-p«, the skins of 
which are made into monlles at Peking to keep out the cold. Yellow 
goats, so common in Southern Mongolia, are not so here. Tigers and leo* 
pards are numeroua. Of the former there are two kinds, t)je red and the 
white, but both striped, the one with black lists, and the latter with black 
and gray. They are very large and nimble. The other animals which 

nun in Mmgdia and Soongnia only become knuwn by tbeir occuioiwl 
Tints to SilMru ud Chiu. All the aninial* uMful to man are hen fonnd 
ia a itata of nMivret ^ ^ t'ild bone, calbd lakea by the Elntfat, and iaki 
br tbtfMaBdi^ooa. The kootan or wild aa* inhatnti the steppea aod open 
^auw, and doea not appear beyond 48" N. lab His ^tA n naad as food. 
The Mggttai or tqtm* Avmionu*, an intermediate link between the bon» 
and the ass, is fonnil in drorea on the banks of the Onon, the Argoon, and 
the Amoor, in dte Shamo, in iLa ridnity of Hami and Shacbetr, and 
throngh the whtde of Tibet. H« shows more intelligence than the con- 
mon aas, and has been tamed, but doea not entirely lose the wililaeaa of hi* 
chaiacter. Ha is eztreiDely fleet, so tbat no horse can outrun him. The 
doable^Jmrnped or Baotiian cam^ wudsrs independent in the Moagoliaa 
wilds. The monntuna near the aonrca of ^M Amoor mark the limit* of 
the rein-deer to the S- : bnt the elk ia fonnd as low as 45* N. lat. It » 
sailed hcnUdum by the natiTes. The miamonariea aaw soma which wh«a 
Idtled were lai^r than the biggest ox. They frequent the bc^y grw rn ds 
near the Siolki mountains, wtHve they delight to resmt, and are very esnly 
Idtled, their gr**t w^gfat impeding their flight. The a^ali or wild abeep^ 
the goat, the ohameii, ihe wild goat of CaacBsna, Uie atiUlopa guUwota, 
and the taiga, the yellow goat of Dn Halde, wander in flocka on the 
■teepMt monntains. The mnak-deer, which delights in cold and bosutdlaM 
aohtadet, inhatuta Mongolia, Oaouria, the mountains near the sonme of the 
Ooon ; and on the S. is found in Tibet, in the monniaina of Shaasee, ia 
Aose of Quangaae and Tongking, aitd on the W. is fonnd, in ibe vallen 
of die Upper Indus and ^atlej, in the mountains of Cashmere, and in toe 
sabalptne region which flanks the Great Himalaya on the S. Towards the 
N. it has been found' on the banka of the Yenises, near Kramoyank. 
Among the ferocions animals are brown and black bears, the hornk, tba 
iearagtm, and the white lynx called irgu by the Kalmnks. Regis mentiow 
a feline animal called the ehutiM and cAtitnm, which be calls a apeciea of 
lynx. It has liMg soft thick hue of a grayish colour, and its fur is valned 
at die oonrta of Russia and China. Other feline animals are iba feanhd 
or karakulak, (black ear), the manul, and tbe jtUbar or ounce. All the 
fur^nimals of Siberia are found iu Central Asia. One wonld imagiDS 
that in this elerated and extensive le^on Nature had assembled into one 
ooiner of tbe world Tarioue race* of animals which exist in r«giana f*t 
rvmovad from each other, and from this lofty platform it may also be -rtrj 
probably suppoaed that seretal races have descended into the anrroonding 

InhahittMii.2 Tbe present inhabitants, or more properly nomadea, an 
Khalfchat or Black Mongols, — a branch of the great Mongolian family, who 
have ialwbited die Northern part of Central Asia from a period long ante- 
cedent to tbe dawn of history. Their historical epoch is of very modern 
date, cOQunancing with the rise and reign of Tem^jin, afterwards called 
Jmghis Khan. Under his reign they rose first to notice as the most 
warlike and destructire of all the nomadic tribes which had from imne- 
mortal tame wandered in the steppes of Central Aua. Before that afoA 
their nama was not eo much as known, except to their kindred tribes 
But subsequent to tbe reign and conquests of that sanguinary hero, their 
naios swullowed np those of all the other tribes who wandered with tbnr 
flock* in this region, which has ever unce borne tbe denomination of Mo- 
gttlistan or Mongolia. Tbat the names Mongol and Tartar are entirely 
modent, all allow ; but bow these appellauons came to be given to the n^ 


BMdic tribM of Centnl Aus none can dinne. There la no sppeuaiwe 
tfatf the nooMtdic tribee of Mongolia ailed themaelree by these nainee, or 
that their nei^bonra deDomiaeted them so, w that they were known to 
them by theee nuuea before Jen^iw Khen. Theee names cannot have 
come to na from ibe Chinese, for we bad them before we bad any know- 
ledge of or connection with China ; and die name Tata ur TatM, «o often 
met with in the Chineee annals, was indiacnminately bestowed by the 
Chinese writers on all the nomadic tribes of Central Asia, and what wu 
eommon to all could be peculiar to none. It eqasUy belonged to the 
Turkish tribes as well as to the Mongoliso. Accordiog to a Mongolian 
work, entitled Norbtm-prtngba, the Mongoliani were et^xABidte; wi by 
Ma-touanlin, a respectable Chinese aathor, ijiey are called Pi-ti, or the 
Northern H. The name of Mongol could not come from the Hindoos, as 
they had no direct commnnicstioii with tbem, nor are they menuoned in 
wy of their mythological acoonnts. Bnt the reUtions of the Mongola 
witb the Tibetians were very close and intimate, and up to the time of 
Jenghis Khan, the former wen colled Pida or Ptdte by the latter. 
ThwB is no reason vHiy we sbenld not beliere that the Mongols called 
themselves also by the same name at that time, and that eonseqneutly Fe- 
li waa the name by which they were known also to the Chinese, becaase it 
is well known that Mongol is a recent denomination. It ia certain that 
the name Moogol is not fouod in all the andent writings of the Chinese 
lustonaoB. At the time of Pskba Lamei, in the reign of Koeblay Khsn, 
Msr the end of the 13ih century, the Xibetisns no l«»ger designated the 
MoogoU by the name of Pida, but by that of Slor. The square charac- 
ter which Pakbs compoeed ft» the Moogols by order of the emperor Khon- 
vilai (KoobJay Khan) was then called Hor-gig, a term signifying the 
New alphabet. Many chapters of the Norbon-preogba, and amongst 
others those which make mention of the nation of the SitUe, comprehend 
the namtires, the bistwies, and the pro|dieciea of LamadcboD-adichah, 
a personage rery celebnUed in Td>e^ and who hred at an epodi far 
anterior to Jen^iis KHagan. At this very day the Moogolian tribes who 
dwell to the N. of the upper coarse of Uie Kinaha Keanog, in Northern 
Tibet, are called in Tibetian Hor and GhiaSor, or ' the Black Hor.' 
The aboTe remarks are taken from Schmidt's letter to M. Bemnsat, pro- 
fessor o( Chinese at Paris.' The Khalkbas, according to Schmidt, are the 
descendants of those Moogols who were driven oat of China by the cele- 

* Mr Schmidt 1b s very IfArned proteatuit mlBsLoa 

iatnauIsH^ the New TeaUunent into-''-' ' 

iabkUt sloivst tlie Runisii froatler la , , . . ... 

cainpiliii( s Tlbelo-Monfolisn diclioTuij. His acquired Imowledgs of Ibe Monguiiui 
Isopugc hu nubled him to throw s new light on Ih* luu;iuc« and tribes of Cent—' 
Aiu. He bw dedsred the worlw sT Abulgiisxl and AniMish, en the origta of i 

roteatuit mlsslouarT. now or vvrv latdy en^a^ed 
Eo tiM langoan of the Mnnpils and Khalklug who 
la the ti. of Selinginaic; and Kiakbt^ and aUo in 
.., ,_ . 'j,„^[^gj,f ,^g jjgji .- 

;uac« and tribes of C 
nhsh, en the origta 
lat the Ueaiulmaun i 
Wo can refer Buch i 
Lslmucks and PalUa' 
[raditlonajT aeooimtH 
' Abulahaii, Antkaha 
icitlf (ollDWfd b; La 

of the 

were eompltlsl; Ignorant of the hlatory of Central Aiia. Wo can refer giich readen 
■a are curlooa on thit anlgect to Oeorgl'e account uf the Kalmucks and PalUa' trsTeh 
aleocrt the Monfolian mutiar, whtf* be will find tha iradlllonajT aeooimta of the 
ff.lTJiTfi-ln. quite at Tariaoce with the lidiculoua iables of Abulahazi, Antkahali, and 
Otbo- Haasulmauu writer^ who have hitherto been ImpUcitlr followed b; La L'roii, 
Arshl^Aerr, Dea GnliBea, and eren by ttemuaat and Kiaproth. TUi letter of 
Schmidt, puUidwd Id the dnt >alume of the Jouroal Aalalique, (see p. Xi, 3£7> SSOv 

of that work,) gave great offenc« toJolee Von Klaprolh, who replied to Schmidt. Thia 

haa been foUawed bjra coaoter. reply from Schmidt, published iu 1HS7, in Ger ■"— 

sod totitlad ' Hewanhia into the UUtory of tho I'eople irf Centnl A^a.' 

jd gentlamati ha* been anabled to publiih, by the patronage of the emperoi 

tnnalation of the Mongolian hiatory, cumposed by SeUen StuULQ Keonug laid) 
lesmad MongioUsn eiilot. Mr Schmidt has alio pnbliahed a compsrlsMI of the doci 
•fduBoddUsUwilhtlNivi'uonaf the Gnsitlci, en>. ieS8. 


braled Hongvoo, the deliverer of hia country mnd fbaadcr of the Ming dy- 
DBBty, in 1368. They are diRtiognisbed Ironi the Sharnt or Sontbeni Mon- 
gols in this, that the latter always remained in their prraent lettleiiieitts, 
whilst the former, driTen out of China, retired to the N. of the Shamo, and 
lived under their own khans, who were nominally subject to the khan of 
the Shaira Mongols. Upon the expulsion of the Mongols from China, 
the princes of the race of Jenghis Khan seized each a territory for him- 
self, forming different hordes and petty sovereignties. The chief of these 
princes was called the Cfaahar Khan, who was descended from the elder 
branch of the family of Kooblay Kfaan. To this chief all the other Mongol 
hordes were nominally tribntary, includmg the Khalkhas and Eluths. But 
in process of time the two latter grew too powerfiti even to acknowledge 
this BDpremacy of the elder branch, and became totally independent of the 
khan of the Sham Mongols, who was himself compelled, in 1630, to own 
the snpremacy of the Msndshoor princes. The Khalkhaa, who enjoyed by 
far the be«t portion of Mongolia, increased very rapidly, and qaickly be< 
came powerful, rich, and independent of the authority of the Chabar Khan. 
Their lai/ku or heads of tribes, who were all of the family of Kooblay 
Khsn, growing numerous, became gradually independent of each other ; and 
before the war witJi their neighbours the Elutfas, then also independent of 
the Sharra Mongols, they were ranged under seven standards, or chiefs, 
three of whom received, as the most powerfnl, the title of khan, from the 
Great lama of Tibet, the supreme pontiff of the Mongolian faith. The firat 
of these khans, called the Shasaalrloo, to distinguish him from the other two, 
possessed the country immediately to the E. of Soongaria, extending from 
the most western rangeof the great B<^o eastward to the Selingha, Orkhon, 
and Toola rivers. The Tooibidloo khan, the most potent of the tliree, 
possessed all the tract eastward from these rivers to mount Kentey or Kin- 
han Atin, whence the Kerlon and Toola derive their sources. The CAe- 
cAiu^ khan resided towards the source of the Kerlon and alongst that river 
as tar E. as the Ai^oon and Puyur lakes. It must be observed, however, 
that most of the taykis who were under dieee khans acted as sovereigns in 
their owu territories, and pud these khans no further deference than that 
of allowing them the precedence in their Aourouilae or diets, held fw the 
conducting of all public bnsineas. The number of the Khalkhas in 1688 
unounted to 600,000 femilies, or 3,000,000 persons, and thay were very 
rich in flocks and horses, while all the tribute diey then paid to the Celestial 
court was only a dromedary and nine white horses, fur which they enjoyed 
a free trade with China. But an tmfortanate rupture with the Eluths, 
which was caused by the nefarious conduct of Tooshidtoo Khan and his 
brother the Khootookhtoo lama, proved the ruin of their prosperity, and 
compelled them, to avoid utter des&nction, to implore the protection of 
the emperor Kang-hee and become his vassals. Their petition was granted 
and the offer accepted, and after several engagements, the Eluths were 
finally defeated in 1696, and the Khalkhas restored to their wonted terri* 
tories. By the successful termination of this contest the sovereignty of 
China was extended W. and N.W. to Soongaria and die Russian tronuer 
to the S. of the Baikal More, and the Khalkhas have ever since been the 
voluntary vassals of the court of Peking. They were divided into three 
standards by the Chinese, but the chief khan seems to be the Tooshidtoo, 
whose camp or Oorga was placed on the Iben Pirn in 1726, asmall stream 
which falls into the Orkhon on the left bank, 49' 26' 47' N. lat. and lO" 
dS* W. long, of Peking. It eeems at present to be an the Toola river S20 


mtie* &•£■ of Kukhta, and has been converted into a aort of town called 
Kyne. The temples, tbe palaces of the khan and the Khootookhtoo Umo, 
the honsee of tbe lamas, and the palace of the Chinese viceroy and that of 
the Russian mission, are wooden buildingB, the rest are felt hats. It may 
be ohMTTed that none of the Mongol princea or chiefs of the nomadic 
tribes are now allowed to take the title of khan bb heretofore. The prince 
of Che Khalkhaa does not, it would seem, pay any tribate to tbe court of 
Peking, bat on the contraiy leceires magnificent presents, as an acknow- 
ledgment for his tribe Berring as a sort of garrison on tbe Ruaaian frontier. 
Jteligion.2 What was tbe religion of the Mongols before the accession 
of Jenghia Khan, is difficult to detennine, as we have no accounts of them 
prior to that period ; but it seems to hare been a species of Shamanism. 
They received, however, in the reign of Kooblay Kbnn, the system of Boo- 
dha, and the use of alphabetical characters through the medium of Pakba ' 
lama, a learned Tibeban, This eminent peiaonage waa honoured by Kab- 
lay with the title of ' Ihe pre-tntitteiU lama,' — a title which appears, in tbe 
Mongolian history of Setaen Sanan Keoung Taidshi, to be expressed in tbe 
three languages of Tibet, China, and Mongolia. He was also denominated 
in these languages, ' king of the doctrine and of the three kingdoms.' By 
bia infloence, and that of the Tibetian priesthood, tbe Mongols became 
complete Boodbists ; bnt after their expulsion from China in 1368, tbe 
Mongols relapsed into Shamanism, a fact whicli Schmidt has proved from 
the Mongolian biatory above mentioned. There we are told, that Altan 
Kbagau, of the tribe of the twelve Tummeda, in conjunction with bia 
brother, Gnn-bilik-merg-hin-djinong, of the Ortoos tribe, governed a great 
part of the Mongol nauon. Thin peraonage, at the age of 67, marched 
against Kharra-toebit (Black Tibet), and snbdued the two divisions of the 
Upper and the Lower Onigoors, in 1573. He made prisoners three chiefs of 
the Lower Onigoora, with a great nomber of their subjects, and carried 
away, to his own conntry, Arik-lama and Gonmy-ch<^-bakchi, with a 
great number of Tibetiana. It was there that Arik-lama, having rehearsed 
to the Kbagan, with very great detail, the d<^mas of the snccesaion of 
births, according to the three nnlncky d^rees of nativity, and tbeir evils, 
and the way of arriving at the kingdom of the Agauista (this is a species of 
the Tiengri or tUvinity, in the mythol<^ of tbe Boodhista), the science of 
the glorions advantage from the deliverance which one can obtain or lose 
by his virtues or his vices, the soul of the Kbagan felt a commencement of 
the futh, and he aet himself to recite the grand formula of the six syllables, 
" omma ni pad mi kkom." It is clear from this, that after the Mongols 
were expelled from China, Boodhism terminated amongat them, and made 
way for the old worship of tbe Tongri, or spirits ; and more than 200 
years elapsed before that Boodhism was introduced anew amongst them, on 
which the Mongolian history has furnished the meet exact ^tes. The 
Boodhism of the Mongols is exactly the same with Lamaism, the sys- 
tem practised in Tibet. It differs from Shamanism in this, that while tbe 
latter allows no tnccemion to the nnmberless Tisngri or gods, whether 
in time or place, the former teaches, that by a mysterious operation per- 
formed in the person of the Grand lama, the same divinity sabsists eter- 
nally in this anpreme pontiff under different human forms which he deigns 
successively to assume. In tbeir language Boodha is called Cfai^moonee, 
and, amongst the Kalmucks, Cbakamoonee or Sacyomoonee. Moonie sig- 
lufies a sunt. In the same language, T^^nnzilan-irakhsan, or the Comer, 
la one of the names of Boodha, intimating that he comes not into the world 

by binh like hnmui boiogB. Another MaagoUan name is Chdce* Sioclia, 
Ibe Lion Cfaekia ; and Chakia im Atabut, Ijon of the bmllj at Cfaakia. 
rhiaayetemteachesthe ttananignitioii of aonlv Whilat the Rneaian ei»> 
baeay, in 1820, ma on the nad to Ootja, the Rnaaana treia nqamut 
nnt to fish, ae the aoala of their ancaatoia might hare paaaodmtofirfi, B». 
wdM thiB commnn doctrine, they LeUeve in a fiittite atate, pmvatorv the 
WToeation of aamte, unage-tpoi^bip, confinnon, abaolation, paitlana, end 
other doctnnee to very ooofomiable to the Romiah ayatem, aa celibacy in 
both ■ewM,nu>naateriea,annnerioe,eroeeinga, holy leater.boade, ftctlMtit 
aeraaapetfeOeo.nter[^nfit. They behete m the mc«n,ted Boodha 
or to, but they also behe™ that he oommtuMcatea hie diriaity to hiaehoeea 
aer™niB, who officiate ai hie Ticaia ia nrieua parte of hie apiritnal 
iSSL,^- ™" "»■ " -^ Monjalian l«w»8e, deoomit»t«l 
"tooMoMWo*. IhMia a TotyconTament piece of ecdeaiaatical policy 'for 
conaidenng iba immeoae eatent of hia apiritual empii«. it ia impoeeible fiir 
by far the gieater naraber of hia epiritnal anbjecia to eome all the way to 
Laeea, and woiehip hia iacamate peiaon. To aan them the toU and 
trooble of eo diataot a pilgrimage, the Grand buna haa appomted choeoa 
lamas, to tehom a portion of bia divinity ia commnnicated, to act m hia 
name and author,ty, and to confer the aama hleeaing^ and recei.e the aama 
homage, aa be hm«elf.. Thme are r«iooed not leie than 10 kbootootb- 
»oa in bja wide apnmd empire i and tba bum khootookhtoo of the Khal- 
™l,'^"k'" g°'K*,."'"" be bt a B.«id temple, midtnetarecei™ the 
Zf.i'.lnf^'"'";"'^"- Thoogh the khoeteokhtooa, like tl«A 
maater, the DJm lam. „f Le.,a, oere, dm. yet they bm, notbL him J. 
power of choemng the body in wbkJ. they are to i«ppear. The ehdee 

"f^X '^^J" "^ •««■■ Thi. khootookhtoodiip wa. foZw 
S,°f ,tf S"," '"*'• '■'■ ' '--^ •f TooahidtooJtban, wS^ 2 
Bare be bad «»ioued ao great a ropotatimi among hi. fellow btnSe tCto 
t^r^ tS 1 '" '"™'"' '""-^ <«^ a li™g Fo a. S „ 
m. maator. The icbeme .ucceedod ao well that the Kbalkbaa leadily he- 
h.r«l hi. pret«,t,o«, mid ador«l hi. a. an im«,«ed bmnnd b 
brother went regobrfy oo »i day. to womhip him, mtte him on aTUT 
aioo. tb. .pp., hand, and wa. e'nUrely mamLi ij ^. ^ "J^L^ 

Jin^tr '°„,'*1." '^™ '"' '»""»' " t. Dalai lam. W. ^ 


, ^HlSSlj^tS-baSI-ofSSSm^L^TtrSl 


-thlaec. to'tf-of't tSrSaCS^J^.^'^l- 


witnwtcd it have basn Btmck with it. Tbe dreas of the ghylltngt or 
modIu bem a great reaemblsnce to that of the Catholic prieathood. llmr 
idols or iniageH of Boodha are brought generally from Tibet, and are n- 
pnaeated in a ntting po*tiu«i with Upon baraing before them in the dark 
MCMM8 of tbeir t«inplea. Tbeae tapers are gouerallypeHiuned with mnsk. 
Tbe lamas are Tety duumtoik, aa every Mongol family of any diatinction 
eonaiderB it their daty to traio ap one of the family for tbe holy offic& 
llwir sheepskin cape are all dyed yellow, bat that of the kbootoofctoo ia 
•f yellow Mtin, with the four coraen tamed up and faced with extremely 
fine Diack aable. He also wears a long gowo of yellow satin, tbe eoloar 
worn by tbe emperor of China. Sometimes the cloak is red instead of 
yellow. In several places are whole communities of lamas, living together 
in tbe vicinity of soma Btone or wooden temple, one of which, near the 
momitain Minga Dara, ia inhelrited by 1,000 of Uiis class. They affect 
an ^ipearance of great devotion and abstTBction, and seem always so en- 
gaged in readi^ tbeir sacred books, as to pay not the amplest atten^on to 
eztetnal objects. They always seem praying or reading, continually re- 
peating, if not reading, the well-known Boodhist prayer of " Om ma ni 
pad mi khom," in a sort of harmonious low tone like the humming of a 
bee, a pniytr iriiich no one has yet been able to aaderstand or explain. 
Their votaries leave all iliair spiritn^ concerns in tbrir hands, and Hw duty 
of prayer is performed wholly by proxy, being eitber perfonned by the 
lamsa, as there are no congr^atioiul meetings of the hdty for religious 
sronhip, or by piKyer mills, which are set in motion by wind or water, 
which the lamas find mncli more expeditioas and easy than the nsoal mode 
<rf cral petitiona. As the whole burden of prayer is devolved by tbe peo- 
ple OB Uie lamas, this ingenious oiode of perfomuBg it by machinery was 
resMted to to save the coutiuual toil of oral repetition [ and it even savee 
the people tbe tnmble of resorting to or sending for a Uma ; for, by dint 
of this expedient a Tartar can pray as long andaa often as he pleasoa, and 
it is a mtufa cbe^er mode of perfomiing tbe duty than the candle-worahip 
<rf hia Rnasian ne^bonn, and less troablesome than counting beads like 
soma of the Graakdefgy when osgagedinconqkany. This method is per- 
lonoed in the following way : A Mongol procnies a number of prayers 
from s lama, written on a long slip of paper, and thia be hangs when it will 
ba moved by tbe wind, pasieogocB, or any thing whatever that comes in 
eoBtact with it, or it is rolled round a barrel or cylinder of a small wind- 
milL Ooa stage contains 100 of thaae praying-mills, aad the roof of a 
hma d^Ml hae so many bailing preyen, that not one can move a step 
wiibont also moving petitions. Near tbe dow of the chapel is a case 
ooiiteining the books of tbair lav, seoired from intrasion by iron bands. 
This caae tnma round on its axia vertically, and is easily put in motion 
together with a number of balls and pendanU. The motion of thaae wfairii- 
gigs— wfaidi ara sontetiBeB erected near falls of wator in order to produce 
it— aaves tbe trottble ofrepeatiig them ; for, sappoaing 100 prayua pasted 
romd the circumference of me whirligig, every rotation sands off 100 prayers 
M ooce to Shskiamoonee ; and, sappoaing 100 of these praying-null*, 
10,000 prayers are sent 4^ by a single rotation of these milla. This de- 
vice does credit to Tartar ingenuity, and even snrpasses tbat of tbe 
Jeaiut, yiho, by mnotng over the letters of the alphabet, contended 
that he rqiceted all iba prayera that were ever composed out of ik These 
whiriigigs are comnon over all Tibet, in the temples of China, amongst 
the yellow and Uad: Mongols, and tbe Klnth Kalmucks, and are mentiooed 

101 ASIA. 

W every traveller of nute into theM regions, u Turner, Bog^e, Moorcroft, 
"niDkowski, Gordon, Gerard, and oihers. Ai tbe ioprema deity of tbb 
BoodtuBtB liTes in a.atRte of infinite repose, like the god of Epicunu, kII 
the operations of nBtnre are performed byinferior agents. In consequence 
of this notion, Boodba or deity incarnated in his person is always repre- 
sented in a sitting posture, denoting perfect repose. The Dalai lama and 
his vicar, the khootookhtoo, may be considered SB repose personified, is 
wrapt up in a sort of mental abstraction, regardlesa of every external object, 
and seemingly totally divested of all passioa or sensation. This is supposed 
to be the highest point of bliss, and every lama the more be sacceeds id 
divesting himself of all the passions and appetites of human natnre, tbe 
nearer be afiproacbes to a state of absolute perfection and supreme bliss in 
Neramana, where all consciousness of individual existence is lost. The 
lemBH are generally corpulent from their indolent life, and fotness is an in- 
dispensable requisite for the office as a proof of study and lepose. Such a 
religion, in which indolent abstraction is considered a prime virtue, has a 
tendency to divest its followers of all «iei^ of character ; and, wherever it 
prevails, the people are in the lowest state of intelligence and activity of all 
the nations who profess polytheism. 

Language and Literature.'^ Of all die languages spoken by the people 
of Asia, whether nomadic or fixed, savage or dvilized, tbe Mongolian is 
least known, — a very soTprising circumstance considering tbe great figure 
they once made on tbe theatre of history, and that it is a spoken lan- 
guage all tbe way from the Beloor to tbe Siolki, and from the wall of 
China to Soutbeni Siberia. We have never yet bad a grammar or lezicou 
of the langnage, as of Mandaboorian and Chinese, and all the knowledge 
possessed of it by Europeans, has been through the metlium of these 1^ 
ter, or through the Toorkish. Remusat in his very learned and mteresting 
work on the site of Karakorom and the geography of Central Asia, com- 
plains much of tbe want of a Mongolian dictionary. Such a work, says 
be, b an indispensable reqnisite for an accurate knowledge of the history 
and geography of Mongolia, as it wonld furnish tbe means of restoring the 
names of the cities, (as that of Karakorom for instance,) ^e rivers, and the 
mountains, of which in the maps (of the Jesuits) we have nothing bat 
corrupted transcriptions, or translations in the Chinese, in the Toorkuh, or 
in the Mandsfaoor langu^es. — S^ p. 56 of that work. Had the elder 
Des Guignes been acquainted with the Mongolian lai^uage, he never 
could have committed tbe monstrous error of confounding Huns, Turks, 
and Mongols blether, and taking them for one and the same race, and 
continually giving Chinese translations of Toorkish names, as if Tooricish 
had been the only language used by tbe nomadic tribes of Central Asia. 
Before tbe time of Jenghia Khan, none of the nomadic tribes bad an 
alphabetical character or written language, except tbe O'lgourt, who alone 
of all the congregated host that followed his victorious haiuere, knew the 
use of letters, and therefore that Mongolian hero was compelled to employ 
them as bis secretaries. But who these Qigoors were, is not a^eed 
amongst tbe learned, most of who|n, if nut all, follow Abulghazi and 
Ebn Arabsbah, as La Croix. Remusat, Klaprotb, and others, have taken 
them for Toorks. Bnt the learned Mr Schmidt, of the St Petersborgh 
Academy, has controverted this opinion, and has endeavoured from the 
Mongolian history, before mentioned, to show that the Oigoors were a Ti- 
betiaii race, well acquainted with the language of Tibe^ and tbe books of 
the Boodhisls. If so, then tbe Mongols aa they received their alphabeti- 


cal diaracWn from the Oigoors, ttwed tWr letten not to a Toorkish, (rat 
to a TtbeUu) wibe. It teems dew that the Oigoora were BoAdbiats, and 
kwl Tibetian lamaa auODgM ibero, and temples in htmom of Clnkifimoo- 
nee. It ia alao clear that the OipHman letters wen the name wrth, or 
merely a iwiarioa of those called Tangootiui or Ttbetisn, and thenfore it 
is extremely improbable that the Oigoora were Toorkt, as none of that 
race ater seem to have embraced or profeaeed the religious system of 
Boodba. It ie also cletvly an established fad, that tbe Tooriis bad no 
written charactns, no alphabet of their own, long after their emigration 
from EMtem Toorkistaun to the W. of the Beloor, and ^at at last they 
W«rs forced to adopt the Arabic alphabet, used by (he inhabitants of Bokhara 
and Satnaftaml, to expresa their spoken language. Now it seenu very 
■inuige if ibt Oigoan inhabited Eutera Toorkiaunn — as sll the abettors of 
*be comnoa oinnion maintaia — and were really one of the roorkish tribes, 
«H)o, in oommon with their bredircn tbe Wheyhoo, dwelt there, that they 
alone sboiiM posaete the knowledge and nse of alpbabetical characters, and 
tfaat inatcsd <rf commnnicatiBg such on important benefit to their own kin- 
dred tribea dwelling in their very ricinity, they should conimnnicate it to 
tha Mongols, the sworn enemies of the Toorkisfa nee. Tbe whole accoonts 
of the Oigans, lead as to conclnde thai diey wen a learned and polished 
raca, oompaiwl with tklr Toorkisb and MongoKaa neighbours. The 
Cbiawae historians ny, that the Oigoors understood tbe Chinese cbBracters, 
had the books of Ctofnciue, honoured the spirit of heaTen, had many Bon- 
Ma (lamaa), and followed tbe Chinese calendar. All dMM tbii^ ap- 
pear exceedingly unlike a Toorkish tribe. It is tbe opinion of Schmidt, 
that the Oigoors, amidst tbe revolutions cootimully taking place amongst 
tbe aanonn of centtal Asia, were a tribe driven ont of the Leiiser Bnkbaria 
up into the lofty region of Tibet, where they learned the Tibitian lai^nage 
and religion. However dns be, tbe Otgoorian alphabet, communicated to 
iba Mongols, is essentially Tibelian. It was introduced by Tata-Tong-Ko, 
amongst tbe Mongols, in the latter period of the reign of Jengliis Khagan, 
and that httberto ignorant race began to have some notion of history, and 
tbe Oigoors composed books for their service in tbe Mongolian language. 
After the reign of Jengbis Khagan, the Mongol princes employed in all their 
pttblio acts the Oigoiv and Chinese cbaraetets. But tbe emperor Khoa> 
▼ilai, wbo waa a learned prince, thought it would be for tbe grandeur and 
gl«ry of bifl nation, that it ^ould have characters of its own. He there- 
fore gave a commission to Pakba Lama,— called Pasepa by Gaabil in bi« 
Malory of ihti Ywen Dynasty, chief of the Tibetian lamas, who, before bis 
eletatinn to that d^ity by Kboovihii, was called MaUi Donzava, — to com- 
poae an alphabet for the Mongols. This eminent personage, who was 
weiUacqnainted with the Tibetian, Oigoorian, ShanBcrit, and Chinese 
cbaraetNs, rejected the Chinese which represent the ideas of things, and 
tbov^t <nly of those fitted to express sounds. Tberefore out of tbe ibree 
other chatacters, be formed 1000 of tbe square form, with rules for pro- 
novnciag, shaping, and writing with them. This new alphabet, which suc- 
ceeded 'die Oigoorian before used, waa denominated Uor-Yig, or tbe new 
Mongol ^phabet, which was ordained in February, 1269, to be used in all 
tbe courts of justice, and tbe Oigoorian from that time ceased to be tued. 
An aUempt 1^ been made by Yeloo-Cbooiaay, prime minister to Meng- 
ko, to introdnce the Chinese characters, but it fuled. It may be remark- 
ed that the Mandabooriao language ia expressed in the sane cbamcter as 
tbal invented by Pakba Lama, as it alxu had uo Hl|)|]abet till this wa* 

loe ASM. 

adopted for it, by orders of Kangbee. As it ta affirmed that in tbe reign 
of KoDvitsi, the Nyucbe or Kin, uid tbe Kitan or Lyau had alphabets of 
their own, distinct from the new Mongol characters, we must either iefec 
that the Mandshoors are a different race from these, or that tlie above 
statement is erroneous, and Gaubil says he had never seen any as yet of 
the Kin and Kitan characters.^ 

Manner* and Customs.'^ Like all or moat of the pastoral tribes of Asia, 
the Khalkhas are divided into tribes or aimais, and these are again sob- 
divided into smaller bodies, each of which has its chief, called ta^i, which 
title descends hereditarily to the eldest son. Such are all the nobility the 
Khalkhas have, and riches being pretty equally shared amongst them, there 
is no other difl'erence between the head of one tribe and that of another, 
but merit, or tbe number of families in his ooig;a. In tlieir physiognomy 
and personal appearance, tbe whole of the Mongol race differ from those 
of the Toorkish race, having flat noses, small oblique eyes, thick lips, and 
scanty beards, ears lai^e and prominent, black hair, and reddish, brown, or 
yellow complexions. They share off their hair, leaving only a small lock 
on the crown of their head, which falls down their backs, and is let grow 
to its natural length. In contisst to their homely looks, thsy have very 
pretty mouths, with small teeth, white as ivory, and are perfectly well 
limbed. Their women as having the same features, though not so large, 
are by no means beautiful, but are generally handsome and well-sh^ted. 
Their nannera, as might be expected, are rude and unpolished, but they are 
honest and sincere, and not nearly so much addicted to plunder and rob- 
bery as the Mohammedan Tartars. Both ^e Khalkhas and Sham Mon- 
gols are very nasty and slovenly in dieir tents and clothes, living amidst 
the dung of ^ir beasts, which serves them for fuel, as they have no 
wood. Hence their tents have a rank disagreeable smell. Their general 
clothing is sheep and lamb-skins, the wool next die body. They know 
well how to dress and whiten these skins, as well as those of stags, deer, 
wild goats, and other animals, which serve tbe richer sort for under gar- 
ments in the spring. Yet for idl the care they take, the smell of a Mongol 
is felt whenever he draws near you, hence the Chinese call them Tsaa- 
Tatae, the stinking Tartars. Ked is the colour in greatest esteem, and 
however ill-clothed the taikis may be, in other respects, they never hil 
to have a red or a yellow robe for state-occasions. These chiefs would 
rather want a shirt, as a scarlet coat, and the women are as fond of a scar- 
let gown. But the Mongols genenlly have not yet enjoyed tbe luxury of 
shirts. Their usual food is the flesh of animals, as horaes, dromedaries, 
oxen, cows, and sheep. Horse flesh is much esteemed. When Meng-ko 
succeeded to the throne of his grandfather Jengbis, in 1^50, A.C., be made 
a feast of aeven days, during which, 300 bones, as many cows, and 1000 
sheep were daily killed, dressed, and consumed. But horse flesh aitd mat- 
ton is their general food, which is sometimes eaten with pease and beans. 
When they travel, a whole sheep b dressed in its own skin : the skin . is 
then taken ofl' and converted into a sort of bag, wbich they fill with water, 
along with thu flesh stripped from the bones, Euid throw into it successive- 
ly a number of stones red hot. The meat is thus completely cooked, and 

* Mr Schmiilt bu publisbed the TIIwt»-MDngDliiui dictionsr; of Scbang-dcbah Khoo- 
lookliUn under tbe patronagB of thn amprror NicKnlaa; uul ■ Cbltme, Mmcoliiui, md 
Mandsbootlui dictlmurf , with it KimisD uid LAiin iiiurpnUilon, Issctiull; publiih- 
ing, or hu b«n publiibcd Bt St Prtrnburg, » that ths learned uid liiquinitive part 
of the pubUi^ hrt] iww in poseeHlon of a key to tbe Iftnfiu^e and biitory of tlie 



tlie broth is excellent. Their iheep are very large, with remukably fat tub, 
often two spans long, and abont as macb round, weighing commonly aboat 
1 or I *i \ba, and conBiBting almost entirely of very rank fat. They abhor 
swine's flesh and ponltry. In summer, however, their common food is milk 
rariously prepared, as Uiat of cows, maies, ewea, goats, and cameU. Their 
nsoal drink is water, boiled wiUi the worst kind of CbiDese tea, in which 
they pat cream, butter, or milk. But diey are fondest of mares' milk, 
which is much better and richer than cows' milk. Their cowa, after their 
calrea are taken horn them, will suffer none to draw their teata, miU they 
also quickly lose their milk, so that necessity has in some meaanre intro- 
ilnced the use of mares' milk. From thia milk, when fermented, a spiritaont 
liquor is distilled, called araka by the Mongol, and koumuh by the Toor- 
kiih tribes. This liquor is strong and nonrishing, and they delight to get 
drank with it. Oktay, the successor of Jengbis, died suddenly from a lit 
of hard drinking, which had lasted a whole night ; and as Gibbon reioarkii, 
the disordered digvstion of a rnde barbarian, arrested the career of fiatou, 
and perhaps the subjugation of Enrope. A similar debauch caused tbe 
death of Attila, and saved Italy Irom another devastation. At the inaugu- 
ration of Meng-ko, B waggon loads of wine, 2 of brandy, and 20 of kon- 
miah or araka, were daily consmned. The Mongols, and indeed all the 
nomadic bordea of northern and central Asia, are like the Indians of North 
America, passionately fond of intoxicating liquors, for when they can get 
any, they drink till uiey are unable to stand ; and when they have a mind 
to enjoy thia pleasure, each brings what liquor he can procure, and then 
they set themselves to drink night and day, never rising till every drop ia 
apent. Rnbosquis abonnds in narratives of Mongol drinking-bouts during 
ma stay at Karakorom. They are equally fond of smoking. Polygamy, 
though allowed, is not common, and they marry very young. The women 
bring to their husbands a portion in aheep or cattle, and they prove gener- 
ally active and industriuus wives, as they tan the hides, comb and spin the 
wool, wash tbe clothes, cleanse the esculent roots, cure and dry the winter 
provisions, and distil the konmiah or spirit of mares' milk. TbehuBbands 
shoot the winged game, and hunt tbe animals which wander in great num> 
ben over the vast desert. When the pasture begins to ful, all the tribes 
etrike their tents, which takes place ten or fifteen times in a year. In 
anmmer they move northward, and in trinter southward. The flocks, ^e 
men, the women, and the children, form a r^pilar procession, followed by 
the yottng women, singing cheerful songs. Tbe camp and not the soil is 
the native country of a genuine Tartar. Within its precincts, bis family, his 
companions, his property, are always included ; and wherever be man^hea, 
be is always snrrounded by tbe objects which are dear or valuable, or fa- 
miliar to the eye. As tbe nomadic life is comparatively a life of idleness, 
they have abiwdance of leisure unmixed with care, or servile and assiduons 
toil. But this leisure is devoted to the violent and unguinary pleasures 
of the chase, and tbeir horses, strong and hardy, are equally fitted for war 
or hunting. Horse-racing, is a favourite amusement, in which even the 
yotmg women excel. Other amusements are archery, wrestling, panto- 
mime, and singing generally performed by young women and accompanied 
with the violin and the flut«. Gambling, especially cbess-playing, is a most 
fKvoai'M amnseroent. They have no bouses but tents, small and of an 
oval form, but those of the more wealthy are a sort of wooden palaces, so 
lai^ aa to be fixed on large waggons, and drawn by a team of 20 or SO 
oxen. In tbe days of Rnbusqnis, these houses were 30 feet in diameterf 

106 AaiA. 

projectinf on ewJi side 5 i«ol beyond die wheel*. Ofer the felt, tb^ 
kid mortar, nmrle, or bone whtN, to msks it a dear white, adombig the roof 
with beantiful |MCtarM, wul banging before the door a felt carpet paiutsd 
wi^ birdi, beaaU, ud treea. He coonied 22 oxen drawing a cart, 11 to 
» aide. Tbo asletree was aa large M the maet of a sliip, aod the driver 
etood at the door of the houte. Tbeir honaebold Htuff and treaanre were 
Icept in eqnare wicker cheats, rowuled at top, aod covered with felt, grew- 
ed over to ke^ out rain. They were adonied with puntingi , or feathen, 
and fixed on carte earned by camria for croaeing livera, hot nevw token down 
like the hoooM. Theae house* when let down, are placed, as all their ha- 
bitatiooa ate, with the door facing the south, to avoid the cold north winds, 
•0 very piercing orer all this refjiun ; then the cheat carts are ranged al 
a small dialan*» on each aide, as it were two walla. One rich Mongol bad 
201) carta wtlh aoch cheats, so that his court seemed a great village. The 
leids are all round and c<HiicaI, having an apertore at the top to let ont 
the smoke, which aaceoda from the h^rth placed in the middle undemeatfa. 
The tents of the chiefa are hang with silk atoffs in the interior, aod the 
ftoors covered with Persiui carpets. Silner and porcelain vessels aie 
nsed in the tents of the great. The QlongoU burn their dead, eepecially 
the bodies of their cliiefs and IstnaB, and inter their aahea on aome emi- 
nence, over which they raise an obo or cairn of stones, on which are 
mounted imall dags or banners. 

Cilkt.'} Cities are oot to be expected in the territoriea of nomadic 
tribes. tJuch are neither sufficiently numerons, nor rich, oor industrious 
as to build them. Like the patriarchs of olden time, the Mongols have no 
fixed place of abode. Even the famous Karakorom, die capital of the 
vaunted but imagbary IVeater John and his con<]ueror the mighty Ziugia, 
was built of earth and wood, and haa left no veatigee of its past exiatenoe. 
Ge^raphcrs and historiona bare bean sadly puzzled where to find its site ; 
and some, as Malte Bmn, have supposed it to have been merely a stumnei 
abode of the Karait and Mongolian lUians, like that <A Zheholi, where die 
emperor or khan long received the British emboaay. But there are no 
grounds for inch an opinion, as its existence both as a summer and winter 
residenco of its nomadic lords, is inconicatibly proved by all anthoritieB, 
whether Chinese, Toorkidb, or European. It ia, however, no matter of 
■uiprise, that travelleiB have oot found ita lemaina, considNing the natnn 
of its frail materia, earth and wood. On the contnuy, it is rather sur- 
priaiog tbey abuuJd have expected to find them. From this want of ocolar 
proof, no other mode of knowing ita site, but that of snch historical noti- 
ces as could be gleaned from the meagie accounts of oriental authors, aKi 
the Chmeee records, remaioed. fiut these researches, though the combined 
results of the labonrs of a Gaobil, a Souiaet, a Des Gaigne*, aod a M'Aa- 
viJle, have all proved fruitless, and the inquiry terMiinated just where it b^ 

• So obacure U the lublect, Hnd bo few wb Ih* remains of any th[ng thai bore (]« ». 

mnblanee ol rulB«. or a rnliM* dtj, AbI wlMrenr xuofa wen fouiMi, the osDcIiuiai 

WM irawn, or at im\ Ibe tonjecuire w»i mule, thai such marked the titi (d' Konlw. 

'" i.ll^'i'" "■S,","""^!^ MoEgoUa, imsgliied it tobo Ksra Uibod, Id tbe vlcinky 

I Fulned dtv. esHM ran HMnn. Liit. W^ « 4H~ M i^t... at aa oir- vj -i d.u- ' 

ibll flxedU «0 mile, a W. of the abore n^poKd ^tt, b! **• 81' N. Ut.' a»d in? IT 
'i.^'Vi;.''' """P-'Wti'"' «D the OnghtQ Mureu, n«r iha lake Konhaa UUd. 

Uaubll B] 

W. «i !■*_,, 

See Souclet «.-.,_ 

-ni'f^^V^i'' ■ .'^' "^'.''*' ""* '"" '^■"'' r™^«l uiinmgniied in the map. 


Hiilori/J} It u impoMible to determine die (Hfferent races of the vwi- 
otM Moiaciic hnrdea, which at different time* bore sw^y in Nftrtbem Mon- 

"*? '*.^^ r" ."^ *^ .T™" Cl'ln*" ••tr.MMiOT MKI In 1»TO by KhonTllal u> 
nub otmtntbaaln Moogolis, *■ tb< n^uat of Uu imperinl MtrODomer Kou«-ch«>u- 
klog, >nd In this ChliieM report, Knrokorom I. called HJin, thai is, Ihe ffinct Cilu. Un- 
IWtiuwtoW for the eniit of (hh Chtnew «b»rviitlon, there li mor^ (Kan a d^ree of 
dlbnmkitwNn ths height of tlie pids aod th* ihtOow of Uu rnoBOD, wblcfa U riT- 
fiuent lo overthrow nil (h<^ autharily of the malbemMicUuis employed by Kouo iheou- 
fclii^ to III It! -ittuBlloB. PrefliHl (0 the first volmnp of Ihe history of the MoiiiroK 
wnnmiii CbliuM, hy Yonaiu^lnc, is ■ mapof TarUryand tbeGi'tatdnrrt, with ui 
expLcatunt In the form of a note on the different pUrd, where the Mongol prince* kept 
their lourt, at differpnl epochs. Des Guigno., in his history of the lluus and Turlis, 
ha* gino two Itinerarle, to Karakorom, from Pi-low-tal on the N. bank of the 
Whiingko in the oorthern p«n of the oouirtry of the Urtona TVrtare, In «■ 97 ' W ■ N. 
ud rlong. V/. of I'ekiij^, and addi the reuurli, that dilTennt rontM well ac- 
cord with tht position which M. D'Anviile has aasigned kiirakoram In his map*. Mr 
Rflmunt In his very learned memoir on the site of Karakorom, having compared theiw 
■o«t<* togetbtr, and wHb the chart abrra Hiantioned, slv«i In the Chincee blnoTT of 
tkt Honcoli, and the cxpUatiaa given In the uots of the different places where the 
Mang«l*^ldlheircaartUdilhreiit*poehi,hai found, In addition to tbeerroneou* u- 
VMUMBleal ohMTVatlaD of Ihe Chinaa adroaomer*, ao pompoualy given bv Gaubll and 
. Soodel, and folbiwed ao Implicitly by D'Anrlilc, that th* two roatea given by D*a 
Guignea, oat of the Thang-cduou, will not, tHn- can agree at all with the pnjtiun hi. 
dgnod 1 1 by D* AoviUe, as Dh Onl|n«a aaaerted, i« thewt n>ut« cl ve a diatance of more 
than TOD B. mile* Arom PL-loo-tal t* lUiafcoron, wfaenaa by D'Anrllle'* map ii ia 
only a third of that diMaita in a direct line, from Pl-lou-tai, aad that in a country 
iai, desert, aad without river^ and ooaaequeutly where the wiudlon can neither be 
laaiiy nar gnat. De* Oalnw* has, b«dda, In blacKlnct ftom the ThaDg-chou, front 
tlM clltet of canlsMness whloh i* •canal* coooelvaUe, nimbly allppad over nuny rs- 
markable putlculan there contained, and pamed, ni lUtrUla, over all that which wu* 
snffldant of itaelftoprereDl mistake and dispel error. Thepart whldihehai siippres- 
aod, la aa fallow* : Ta the B. of (hat dty, (the ca^tal of the WheyJioo or itantkoroni, ) 
an Dneultivited plains. To the W. It recUnes upon the mountain Ou-te-ldan, to the 
" It touchea the bank of the river Wtn-kooen, lo the N. 6 or TOO ly dlsluit, aopeani 

Slao-o. LTpm th* northern bank of Ihst river, ia the city of Sou 1 
re to tha N. ajul a little to ths K. tqipear mountains ooversd with snow, and 
pines, atwl birciws, and a lake with many ipringa. At the two sides of tito 
IB, are the rivers Wen^konen and T0.I0. These two rivers In makini ■ rmmt 
mn to the S.H. tnta ths capital of the Whey-hoo, and « 

too If- To the N.E. man than lOOO ly is the lake Kin-lun, the four lUta of which 
peoided by the <;hl-wei. We have ilven Just w much of what Dei Guigiua has 
nremed as is sufficient to point out the site of Karakorom. The portion of mount 

tbe W. of 

Ou-la-kian 1* wht^y unknown to na ; bat as that mountain lay to tbe W. of Kaiakcrom, 
It oDdouhtedly made a part of ths eastern chain of the AltiJan monntalns ; and there 
is every reaaon to believe, that it la the same mountain of which mention is made at 
tt of tbe blstary of the Whay-lioo, under tha names of Yotau-kiao, 

_ __j,., "-'- -'—-■-3S0 very nsmosarenstM Otharlhao varied 

_. , Ii Malouanlin baa given to the Bkountaln 

srhere dwelt the Khagan of the Turks. It was aboBt the enTlnni of that mountain 
wbeia the TehsD-yoo of the Ueeong-noo anciently reigned. I'ke moat western part of 
this nuHUMain Tu-kin, ia, aooardLm to Gnubil, about Ml" N. and 17* Vi. of Peking, and 
the chief movntain belonging to it, in 46* AC and 11° 38 W. of the same merldla^ and 
tU most eMiem part, in 46* fl. and from IK" to 13° W. of that same city. The Wen- 
kaoen ia clearly tlie OrUnm, a name which the Chinese cannot exactly express and 
which they also samelutes eel) KotieD and U ang-kl. The Kiau-o is the Selingha. 

ire sumiue the 8th sheet af Chinese Tartary, we shall find the remains of a placo 
callad Talarho-kara-bolgaaaun, 50 leagues 8. W. of the conBuanoe of tbe Orkhoo and 
Toola, whldi seems corrDpted, but In which Che words kara (black), and bals/uoim 
itityX are found, which correspond lo those of tbe Turkish Kara-kuroum and tbe Chi. 
iiese Uolln, ■ Ihe black city,' or ' city of the black river.' lliie place is In 47° SS' Si," N. 
and 1S*£1'S0* W. of FeklDi, and 150 EH^raphical miles S.W. of OnrgA, an the TooU, 
the pnwnt capital of tlie Kholkhas. in the time of the Mongols, wbeo they had ob. 
talnadsameol the knowledge of the Chiiieea, we see Karakumm, or Uolln, situated 
to tbe E. of one af the lnuicb« of ths Altai, to the S. of tbe SeUoga, to tlie N. of the 
Orkhoa, and la tha W. of the TooU, near that point of Tartary where the rivers di- 
verge to dlKercsit aea*. It would prove tedious to detail all the proois, that Kaiakorom 

WB ftr lo tbe N. of the position as^ened it by Gaubll, Soucie^ a-' ^■'—■" -• 

(iiaC It was 107 probably Ihe same with Ihe i-"--' '■ -' ''-■--■■ 

110 ASIA. 

golia, which seema to have been peopled anciently with Toorkiali as well 
an with Mon^l tribw : aometimes the one nee prevsileil, and aometimea 
the other. But whatever dynasty was for the time lord of tlio ascendant, 
whether the Heeongnoo, the Wbey-Hoo, the Kin, or the Mongols, the dif- 
ferent races were united nnder one <»ni|aeror. Bnt as these dynasties 
Wtre composed of princes, or lanyoos, or khans, as savage and illiterate as 
their SDbjects, we have no accounts of them bnt from their neighbours the 
Chinese, who seem never to hare had sufficient knowledge to discriminate 
one race from another, hut confounded them all nnder the sweeping appel- 
lation of Ta-lte. Hence the very learned but fancifnl Des Guignes, who 
knew only the Eastern Tartars, or Mandshoors, and the Western Tartars, 
or the Turks and Mongols, believed these latter to be the same race, and 
that the Mongols were the descendants of the former, whom be makes to 

llttln to the N. W. of the Orkhou. There is aaoiher rained cily to fhe N. of tUi uiii 
the Drkhon, named BoUiri-Bouritou, (the Payiberi Puritan of thi Jesuits' ma|L) In 
*e° a» so- N. and 13° S* W, of Peking, which, may »!» correspond to the site of the 
ancient Karakorom. It la, baWRver, but coi^eclure ; for, till ae baTe its MongollaD 
name, we csnnal be certsiii of its Identity, the names in tbe map tieing Mindshaorian 
or corrupted Turkish. Kubruquis trvverKd the country of the Nainunui, where Khay. 
ouk had nia residence, and puriuiag his route bif the high covriiry toww^a the N., he ar- 
rlved at the court dT the grest khiui, ten days' journey to the W. of the oountry of 
OiuiH Ckervit, vildck ii tin peculiar and true country of ll^ Moul (Mongoli), luhrreiait the 
court of Kingii. Thatnanuof OnanCherule has been well reBlored by hia 
history of Siberia, who saw that it indicated the country watered by tbe two livers, 
Onon and Kerulon, or Kerlon, between which the Mongala actually dwelt. Had Kan- 
korom atood where D'AnvlUe has placed It, thia could not have been troe. Marco 
Polo, after he baa described the cities of Soutcheou, Kantcheou, and Etzlne, places to 
the N. of this last ruined olty a great aandy deaert of 40 days' journey ; and after hav- 
ing passed It, aaya he, we arrive at tbe city of Karakoroni, where the Tartan drew 
ibelr origin. These iO days required to pasa the desert are unquestionably agrcM ex- 
aggeration. But that exaggeration would be doubled If the breadth of tbe deiert Doly 
had aeparaled Karakorom from Etzine, and if, conseiiuently, these twadtiea were only 
100 leagues distant &am each other, aa these are delineated in the mapa of D'Anville. 
Fischer placed it to the S. of tbe Orkhon, In VT N. and 103° E., wbereaa we have seen 
that it Uy to the N. of that stream. But his conjecture is far lees absurd than that of 
D'Anville, which actually placed it, if we may so speak, in the very henri of tbe kobl 
or desert — a most unfit place for either a camp or a city. Murray has fixed iia 
position far W. In the country of the Eluths, In Soongaria. Tbeannolator of Ahnl- 
gbszl placed it nar the sources of tbe Jenisea and the Selinga. Ebn Said and Abul- 
feda placed it in llt>°40'p;. of the Fortunate islands, Al Haralr in lib' E., latber Ricd 
In 17* W. of Peking, and father Viadelou, in his hiatory of Tartaiy, in SO" W. of tbe 
same meridian. Accardlnc lo a Chinese history of the Moneols by YooanphinE, Holln, 
or Karakorom, derived iu name of Holln, or ' the black city,' from the ri«r Ha-la- 
Holin, and that It was built by Pi-kia, khan of the Whey-Hoo, who lived in tbe mid- 
dle of the »th century under the Tang dynasty. An ancestor of Pi-kia, named Phoo- 
■a, of the bmtly of L»-lo-ko, waa chosen for the first time to be the khan of the Whey. 
Hoo, which then dwelt on the Selinga river ; but he fixed his camp on the banki of 
the Toola in 62S,— and his descendant, Kou-lou-lou Pi-kla, fixed his camp, in tiA, 
where Holln or Karakorom afterwards stood, and which lilen became tbe capital of 
the Wbey-Hoo, aa afterwards of (he Karaites, under the Vang khan, and thw after- 
warda of Zingia Khagan and his successors. When or by whom Kaiakarom was finally 
destroyed, we are not toUl, but probably In the wars which took place between the 
Eluths and Khslkhas. Kemusal expected to find a full account of the alte of Kan. 
korom in the Piani-tian, or foreign geographv of the Mandshoors, but was sadly dia- 
appointed to find almost nothing on the subject, after a rapid reading of that wwk, 

_..... u L !..^ ,o a„ by the kindness of Khiproth. who lent him the vrork, 

1. : » i_ ,1.- „j J library of Paria. But, be 

I khans of the Whey-Hoo 

„ . Ihe town of St Denis, na_ , 

._- je palace of Mangoo was auarcely equal to a teuth part of the Benedic- 

r abbey. It then contained only two streets, one for (Chinese mechanics, and at1&. 
er for Mohammedan traders ; end the places of religious worehip, as one Nestorlan 
jch, two moscbs, and twelve Boodhlst or Shaman temples, may In soms degree. 

lifficulty respecting the ^teol 
ie oracular dscisioos of ii'/io- 


be the HeeOQgnoo of the Cbinete, and tbo celebrated Hnns of the Byzan- 
tine hutorisoB ; or, in othflr words, tbat the Huns, Turks, and Mongols, 
were just so many appellstions of the lame noinadic nation. This capital 
blnnder, of confounding die nomadic tribes of Central Asia together as 
one mass, as spe^ng the same Uogaage, having die same generic featnres, 
perradea his whole work on the origin and historj' of the Hnna and Turks ; 
and this, together with the indistinctness of his Tartoriaii geography, ren- 
ders his elaborate and erudite work of compRratiTely aniall use. The 
historic period of Mongolic history does not commence ull the latter end 
of the 12th century, when they were known first nnder the name of Pe* 
ti, and afterwards of Mongoo or Mongol, from the predominant tribe, to 
which their hero Zingin belonged. At that time the Moi^ls were sdI>- 
jecl to the khan of the Karaites, called the Vang khan, or sovereign of 
all the nomadic tribes of Mongolia, and who was himself a subject of, or 
tribntary to, the Kin sovereigns of Northern China, as the very term inti- 
mates, Vang being the Chinese title at this very day bestowed on the khan 
of the Khalkhaa by the present Mandshoor sovereigns of China. This 
Karaite prince held his court, such as it was, at Karakorom ; and as his 
horde inhabited the banks of the Ha-la<Ho-lin Orkhon, or ' black river,' 
it probably derived the appellation of Karute, or ' black horde,' from 
that circumstance, or ' (he people of the black river.' The fother of 
Temnjin (his real name, for tint of Zingis Kh^an was his subsequeDt 
title) Yeanku reigned over IS hordes, wfaose nnited numbers compos- 
ed about 30 or 40,000 &milies, who fed their flocks in the mountains 
and valleys that environ the sources of the Kerlon, the Toola, and the 
Onon. Temnjin himself was bom in 1I6S, on a mountun near the 
Ooon, and was first called, according to the Chinese, Kyewen, but after- 
wards Temnjin, from the chief of another Mongol horde, whom Yesukai 
had vanquished. Temnjin having lost bis father when a boy, two-thirds 
of his paternal hordes refused to obey him, and at the age of 13 he was 
compelled to take the field agiunst bis rebellions subjects. The fntnre 
Gonqneror of Asia was reduced to fly and to obey ; but he rose superior to 
miafortone, and in his fortieth year had established his fame and his do- 
minion over all the drcnmjaceat tribes, and at last defeated the Vang Khan 
fatmeelf in a eangainary battle, between the Toola and Kerton, and the 
rindl of the vanquished khan, enchased in silver, was placed on the throne 
of Temnjin, with its face to the door, as a warning to the boldest of his 
foes. This victory put him in possession of Karakorom, and all the do- 
minions of the Vang Khan, a prince who, under the name of Prester John, 
bad corresponded with the Roman pontiff and the princes of Europe, though 
there can be little or no doubt of the spuriousness both of the title and the 
letters, as the Vang Khan himself could neither read nor write. His sub- 
aeqnent rictoty over the khan of the Numana in the mountains of Khang- 
gai confirmed his power, and paved the way for his future instBllation 
under the appellation of ZiitgU Khngan, ' iiie most great khan.' This 
aolenm act was performed in the year 1206, in a general kourouUai or 
diet held near the head of the Onon, between it and the upper course of 
d>e Kerlon. There, in the presence of an immense multitude, Temujin, 
seated on an eminence, made a speech exactly adapted to their taste and 
feelings. The multitude tlien, by their khans, set him on a black felt 
carpet spread on the ground, and then a person appointed to give their 
snffi-age told him that his pdwer came from God, who wonld not foil to 
prosper bim in case he roled well, bat if be ruled otherwise he would 

lis ASIA. 

ra«l«r himself u mn«ible m the black foh on whidi he Ht iotunated to 
him. After this remoaetranoe, seTen kliana lifted him up with an air of 
ceremaay, and bore hiai to b throne prepared for the occMton in the midM 
of the •BHinUy. Then they proclunied him the nip^tne khao of ^ the 
Mtmgol tribes, and performed \ite nine pnMtiMione in token of the moet 
profotmd obedience ; after which all the mnltitnda did the ma», with 
Bcclamations of joy. To render the ceivmony more impreenTe on the 
uninatmcted aad Boperatitiona mnltttnde, a naJied Shaman prophet, pre- 
pared for the occasion, came into the assembly, adranced to the dvone, 
and declared that be came from hearen, whither be ww accustomed to go 
on a white horse to converse with the Deity, ta tell him that henceforth 
he tbonld take the name of Zingu or ' the most Rreat,' and order bia rab- 
jects to call him so, and predicted at the same time that all bii posterity 
^onld be kbani from generation to generation, and that God bad given 
the whole earth to the son of YesonkaL The Chinese acconnta do not, 
like those of the western historians, Abnlghazi and De La Croix, say that 
be WBS proclaimed emperor of the Mongols and Tartan, as if these were 
two distinct nations ; for these latter were, according to De La Croix 
himself, called Soo-Mongols or Water-Mongols, and conld not, therefore, 
be Tartars, and, moreover, dwelt alongst the Onon river, and as far S.E. 
as tlie Biur-Noor, called Binmavir in Abulgfaazi, who, from his ignorance 
of the Mongol language and geography, makes it a country and not a lake. 
From the date of Temnjin'i. installation in 1306 as aapreme khan, the 
Chinese hiatmiana commence the ers of the Mongol empire, and the Ywen 
dynaaty. Zingis now commenced a career of victory and CMiqneet un- 
panlleled, save by those of Alexander, in all preceding history, to namtc 
which woidd require a volume. By his own anna and dioae of bia generals 
be anCGeaeively reduced all the hordes who roamed between the wall <rf 
China and the Wolga, whether of Mongol or Turkish descent. The 
powoifnl tribe of the Oigoora snbmitted volnntarily to his arms, and ibis 
event was soon followed by the invasion of the Kin empire. Ziogis was 
now become sole monarch of the pastoral world, the lord of many millions 
of shepherds and robbers, who, conscions of their united strength and their 
own poverty, were impatient to seize the wealth of their southov neigfa- 
bouiB, the indnstriouB, but nnwarlike Chinese. The ancesttws of Zingis 
bad, in common with their rival khans, been tribntaries of the Kin empe- 
rors, the Altoun kbans of the western historians, and even Zingis himself. 
He now not only refused the nsnal tribute, but also, by the month of an 
envoy, demanded tribute and hom^e from the ion of heavtn to the lord 
c/' nalioru. On the reiusal of the Kin monarch, Zingis, with his innn- 
merable squadrons of Mongol cavalry, pierced on all aides the feeble ram- 
part of the great wall. Ninety cities were stormed or starved by the Gioce 
invaders, ten only escaped, and the invasion was seconded by the revolt of 
100,000 Keetane, wbo gnarded the frontier on the ude of Lyantong. TIm 
son of heaven felt his inability to contend with the lord of the shepherd 
raoe, and a princess of the celestial house ; 3000 horaes, 500 youths, as 
many vi^ins, and a tribute of gold and silk, procured a dunt reepilo. In 
his second eipeilition, Zingis compelled the Kin emperor to retire beyond 
the Yellow river to a more southern residence. Peking sustained a long 
and laborious siege, but was finally taken by mining, and the conflagration 
of the palace lasted above 30 days. China was desolated by wsr and in- 
ternal discord, and the five northern prorinces were added to the empire 
of Zingis. Tumiog his arms to the W., he subdued the whole of Eaiiem 


ToorkistonD, then nbject to the Kara-Keelans, till his progieu wu ter- 
iniaatMl by the range of the weRtem Itnftns. In that direetion his do- 
minions bordered on those of Mohammed, snltaan of Karacm, who, by a 
nih, nnjuet, and inhaman deed, provoked the resentment of Zingis, and the 
invasion of western Asia. A caravan of three ambBHsadors, uid a hundred 
and fifty merchanta, sent by Zinfcis to open up a commercial intercourse 
with the moat powerful of Uie Moslem princes, were arrested and mur- 
dered at Otrar by the command of Mohammed himself, or, as others relate, 
by order of Gayer Khan, the governor. The number of merchants thus 
massacred is stated by others at 450. Only one escaped to cany back 
the relation of the horrid deed to the Mongol conqueror, who sent three 
unbaaeadors to the snltaun to demand satisfaction, which was not only 
deiued,bat even duambaasadora themselves were murdered. It was not till 
after this dnial, and fresh murder of pei8<His whose legantine character is 
hdd sacred amongst all civilized nations, till after he had prayed, and 
fiwted, and wept direa successive days on a mountain, that Zingis had re- 
coune to arms, and invaded the Western Asia. Mankind have been 
doomed to snfier much from the ambition, the ingratitude, the injustice, 
the cruelty, and the oppreaaion of prince* ; bnt nowhere, iu all the page 
of recorded events, did the human taca suffer so much as did Western 
Asia from the conduct of Mohammed, and more tbon 600 years have not 
yet lieen able to repair the ruin of this Scythian irrnption. Above 700,000 
warriors, fierce for victory, and conquest, and plander, and blood, com- 
posed the congregated host of kbans and tribes which marched under the 
banners of the modem Attila, and the famed field of Karakoo dedded the 
bte of Mohammed and the destiny of Asia ; more than 160,000 Karasmians 
bit the dust, and Mohammed himself, astonished at the onrober and valour 
of the shepherd- warrioTB, fled from the scene of combat, convinced, but 
too late, of his fatal mistake. Unable longer to contend in the open fitUd 
widi such veteran foes, he distributed hia troops in the frontier garrisons, 
hoping that the baiharians, however invincible in tbe field, would be une- 
qual to the task of bemeging and taking towns. But in thia expectation 
be was also mistaken. Li their two wars with China, the MungoU had 
been well schooled in the science of sieges, and Zingis, who was as know- 
ing as be was ambidona and brave, had formed a body of Chinese en« 
gineers skilled in tbe mechanic arts, and fully competent, as things then 
stood, to direct and manage the operations of a siege. 0ns city after 
another was taken by the victorious Mongols in spite of every effort of 
defence, and the ancceeaive sieges of Otrar, Jund, Zamnk, Tashkunt, 
Tonkat, Khoojund, Bokhara, Samarcand, Oorgnnge, Fenakunt, Termed, 
Balkh, Banmeewm, Saganak, Uzknnd, Talcan, Maroo, Neso, Herat, Nee- 
■hapoor, Noor, Daraghaun, Kaender, Ghazna, and Kandahar, swell the 
page of conquest and blood, and attest the patience, and skill, and prow- 
eaa, of tbe modem Scythians. The destructive inroads of the fierce 
Attila and his desolating Huns, who boasted that the thicker the graaa, 
the eauer it is mown, and that it never grew on the spot where once their 
horaea had trod, are not once to be compared to those of his successor 
Zingis ; and it is sufficient to say, that from tbe Beloor to the Caspian, 
and from the Caspian to the Indus, a tract adorned with the habitations of 
man, and with tbe arts and labours of millions, waa ao completely ruined, 
as not even yet W have recovered from tbe effect of thia direful visitation, 
this outpouring of the vials of Divine wrath. The downfall and death of 
Mohammed, and tbe ruin of his bouse, are but a poor atonement for those 

cahmitiefl whkdi his conduct produced- Could the rain of his lioaee and 
the calamitie* of Asia have been Averted by a homuk arm, it would have 
been accomplished by that of his son the heroic Gelaleddiu, wheee sctire 
TSlonr repeatedly cbedced the Mongols in the career of vicloiy. Hetreat- 
ing M be fooght to the banks of the Indue, be ires oppressed by their inna- 
meiable boat, till, in the last momenC of despair, be spmred his bona into 
tbe w&rea, swam one of the broedest md most rapid of the riFen of Asia, 
and extorted die admirMian and applause of Zingia himsalf : 

It was here tite Mongols, like die aoldiera of Alexander on tbe banks tA 
the HypbsMS, weary whh marching and fighting, and loedea with wealth, 
sighed f^ die Mijoyment «f their nHtire homes, and Zingia reluctantly con- 
sented to lead them back. Eocnmberad with the spoils of Asia, be slowly 
meMnred back his steps, recroesed die Hindookooeh, and repan«d 
tbe Oxna and the laxartes, where be was joined by two ef his general* 
whom be had sent to snbdae Western Perua. These had accomplished 
their errand, and on their retom had tnunpled on the Georgian and Can- 
caaian monntwnenv who had dared to oppose their nurdi, passed tbe 
gates of Derbend, tniTBraed the desert of Astracan, crossed the Volga, tbe 
Jaick, and the Yem, and accomplished the entire circuit of the Caapiaa 
sea, — a feat wfaich, in the history of military marches, bad never been at- 
tempted, aiid has never been r^ieated. The retam of Zingia to his native 
Mongolia vras toon followed by the conqaest of the kii^om of Hya, called 
Tangnt by the western historians, a Tartar moaardiy, which had sabsisied 
nigh 260 years, to the W. and N.W. of China, and comprehended moat of 
the province of Shenaee, the coantry of the Ortoos Mimgols, the cmmtry 
of KokoncH*, and what is now called the province of Kanaoo, N.W. of Shen' 
see, and tbe coantry of tbe See-tiui or Too-fan. This conqaest waa ac- 
complisbed in two caoHiugna, and the dties of Etzine, Kam[Hon or 
Ninghya, the capital, Kbyaynqnan, Kanehew, Suehew, Ganchew, See- 
leeang, Lingcbew, Shachew, Qoachew, Hochew, and Sining, were suc- 
cessively reduced, and Lee-byen, the last monarch, who had wirendefed 
at discretion, and gone to make his humble sahnisaion to the victor, waa 
slain, with all hia family and domeatica, as soon aa he had left his capital, 
Ning-hya, which waa given ap to indiscriminaie plunder by the Inhump n 
Mongols. Not two in a hundred, according to tbe Cbiaeae, escaped tha 
general massacre ; the pbuns of Heea were aown with dead bodiea, and tb« 
caves, mountains, and woods, filled with misetable people, wbo Bed thither 
to eaci^ the destroying eword of Zingia. The entire ruin of the Too- 
ha, Mce a powerfnl state on the froatiem of Tibet, Sec^wen and Shease^ 

Lmmatad in that of Heea in L227, and finished the sanguinary 
career of the ferecions Zingia, who died a few days after he had ordered 
the murder of tbe king of Heea with all hia family, Tbia took place in 
the 21st of hia reign, and 66th of hia age, full cJ yews and sanguinary 
glory. He was p o ss es s e d of all the properties which conatitate a hero. 
But his gemoB, like (hat of heroes, was not the genius of beneralence, but 
of blood ; it was genius guided by bonndless ambition, and tbe love 
of d<Mninatioii ; and the last momenta of his existence were spent in ex- 
horting his sons to complete the nHiquest of China. Never before bad 
such a conqueror sfipeared on the stage of time. His conquests far oat- 
stripped those ef tbe bero of Macedou and the Arabian conqnerors both 


for rapitUly 'and extent, w tbey extended in a Ittngitndinal direction fron 
tha KA of EaHtern Tartary to monut Zagroa, and from llie Wliaiigho to 
tlte frozen r^oiu of tbe north. Hence ha ia with justice acknowledged 
in tbia reapect to be Uie greateat prince tbat ever filled a throne, or wielded 
the aeeptre of imperiil power ; and it was in the pride of victory and con< 
qnest, that the son of an obscure khan, and the khan of a petty tribe, was 
believed to be the deaceadant uf the goda, and to have derived bis exiit- 
Mice from the immaculate conception of tbe virgin Alankawa. Bat tfaeiv 
can be no donbt that m a hero he fills the hi^est niche in the temple of 
eangoinary fame ; for the Chinese biatoriara tell na, that in the first 11 
years of his reign, or from 1206 to 1220, B. C^ there were 1,847 myriada 
or 18,470,000 persons slain by this inhnniaa conqueror j and if this Eie an 
eza^eratioD, they are supported in it by all the biatorians of Weatera 
Asia. After his death, tbe tide of victory, cooqueat, and death, continDed 
to flow for 68 years with nndimimahed vinlHice ; for the Mongols snlx 
dned almoat the whole of Asia, and the half of Eorope. The Kin dynasty 
of Northern China waa annihilated in 1234 by Oktay, tbe em and sac- 
oeasor of Zingia. The dynasty of the Song, which poeaessed tbe latest 
and beat part of China, called Mangee, or the aoutb, anrvived for 45 years 
tbe Ml of the Kin. The celebrated Mengkong, genacal of the Song, was 
while be lived tbe support of that dynasty and of Chinese independence, 
and for more than 12 yean kept tbe Mongols completely at bey. Bnt his 
death proved tbe rain of the Song, aa they had not a commander to fill bia 
place, and the Mongols made continual dioi^ lardy prioress, till in 1279, 
tbe last emperor, an infant, perished in the waves, and in the anna of faia 
general, and the whole empire, from the wall of China to tbe frcHiuera of 
Tonking, submitted to Kublay Khan, the greatest prince of the Ywen 
dynasty. The circamjncent kingdoms of Korea, TtHiking, Cochin China, 
"Hbet, and Bnnnah, were reduced to different degrees of tribute and obe- 
dience by the effort or terror of the Mongolian arms. In 1255, the S.W. 
part of Yunnan, bordering on Tibet and Bnrmah, and then independent, 
was sabdned, together with Tibet itaelf, by Hnlyai^-Hotay, the Mongol 
general. These cooqueats consumed fire years, and of 100,000 Mongols, 
whom Hnlyang-Hotay took with him to Yunnan, not 20,000 returned. 
In tbat expedition he conquered, after quitting Hbet, tbe countries of 
Karadjang, or * black men,' Tcbagan-djang, or * white men,' the Lolos, the 
Abe, and the A-lon, end snbdned 5 fortresees, 8 foo, four principal itiea 

ginn), and S7 tribes of barbarians. In 1258, Perna waa subdued by 
Dolakoo, Bagdad stormed and sacked, and the laat khalif Motasam was 
pat to death. Bat the complete extirpation of the assaBBins of Uoodbar by 
tbe sword of Hoolakoo was a service to mankind, llie tide nMed on to 
the W. to Armenia and Anatolia, both of which were subdued, and tbe 
last sullann of the house of Seljook was extirpated by tbe kbaan of Persia, 
the Bucceaaor of Hoolakoo. A curious journal of the march of Hoolakoo, 
from Karakorom to Kaswin, is given by general Kokan, and preserved in 
the Chineae history of die Mongols. It appears from that itinerary, that 
the army crossed the Khanggai or Altaian range, which occupied seren 
days' march, and that the road from Karakorom continued to ascend the 
whole way for the space of 500 ly or 50 leagues, at the end of which it 
b^ins to descend. The Kbanggu is represented as extromety cold, and 
that in the greatest heata tbe snow never disappears. The whole way ia 
moontainoua and rocky, and then are a vast abundance of pines. In 
1235, the Mongols under Batoo, grandson of Zingia, 500,000 stroi^ 

I 16 ASl^. 

Wt ont for the conquest of the countries N.W. of the Caspian, and micli 
WBi the rapidrty of his niarchei and ftrdoar of bis ionnmerable sqnadfons, 
that in six years he had meaanred a line of 90 degrees of loiigito<)e. The 
whole of Nonhem TudciBtann and Kaptschak was OTeirnn, the kiDgdoms 
of Astracan and Casan shared a similar fate, the matt secret recesses of 
the CaacasiiB were explored, and a permanent canqneat of Rubsia was ef- 
fected, and the capitals of Kiov and Moscow were laid in ashes, and the 
Rnssians held under a servitude of 200 years. So complete was the sub- 
jugation of Rnasia, that the descendants of Roric were compelled, bb 
humble vassals, to bring their tribute on foot, and present it hambly to the 
Tepresentaure of the khan on horsebacti, to make the nine prostrations to 
the khan, offer him milk to dnnk, and if any drops of it fell down, to lick 
them up. Then Poland was overrun, and in the battle of Lignitz, Batoo 
defeated the dnkes of Silesia, the Polish palatines, and the grand roaster of 
the Teutonic order, and filled nine sacks with the right ears of the slain. 
Hungary next shared a worae fate, for the Carpathians, like the wall of 
China, prored but a feeble barrier to these barbarians of the East. The . 
whole country was lost in a day, and depopulated in a summer, and tho 
ruins of cities and cbnrchee were covered with the bones of the Hnngariane, 
who expiated the sins of their Tnrkiah ancestors. Gran, to the S. of the 
Danube, then the metropolis of the country, was besieged, stormed, and 
taken by the Mongols, who had crossed the river on the ice, and of all the 
cities mid fortresses of Hungary three only survived this dreadful calamity, 
and Beta, their unfortunate monarch, hid his bead amongst the islands of 
the Adriatic The Mongols advanced as far as Newstadt, near Vienna, but 
the news of the approach of a German army saved the place, as the Mongola 
retreated from the Danube to the Voli^, wasting in their way the adjacent . 
kingdoms of Bosnia, Servia, and Bulgaria. A Russian fogitive carried the 
siaim of invasion to Sweden and the remote nations of the Baltic, and the 
ocean trembled at the approach of the Tartars, and so great was this terror 
that the inhabitants of Gothea (Sweden) and Friealand were prevented 
from sending, as usual, their ships to fish off the English coast, and as there 
was no exportation, the price of herring fell so low that 50 of these could 
be got for a shilling. Even the poor and frozen regions of the north at- 
tracted the arm of conquest, and a horde of 15,000 families was led by 
Sheebanee Khan, the brother of Batoo, into the wilds of Siberia, in 1212, 
and his descendants reigned near Tobolskoy for more than three centuries, 
till the Russian conquest under the Cossack Yermook Timofiof. Nothing 
but the sudden death of Batoo, in a second march to attack the capital of 
the Cssort, saved Constantinople from ^e horrora of a siege, or the still 
more dreadful catastrophe of a storm. But the fury of the tempest at 
length abated, the tide of conquest gradually recoiled, and the barbarous 
hordes of Central Asia were finally nnable to preserve what they had won. 
In every invasion, the Toorkish or Mongol hordes, call them which we will, 
have been uniformly actuated by a songoinary, savage, and destructive 
•pirit. They destroy every thing, but repair nothing. When the Mongols 
had subverted the empire of the Kin, and conquered the northern provinces 
of China, it was seriously proposed, not in the hour of victory and passion, 
bnt in calm deliberate council, to extermmate all the inhabitants of the«e 
provinces, and convert the whole of the land into posture and bunting- 
grounds. But this inhuman measure was prevented by the wisdom and 
firmness of one nun, Yeloo-Chootsay, a Keetan by birth and a mandarin by 
flffice. He represented to his savage master, the inhuman Ziiigis, that the 



fonr pTorincea be alreadf possessed, Petcbelee, Shanton^, Sbaiuee, and 
Lyaatong, wonld annaally prodnce, under a mild adrouiiBtratioo, 500,000 
onnces of Bilrer, 400,000 meaanrea of rice, and 800,000 pieces of silk, and 
that it waa a much wiser measDre to preserre an iodoBtrious population, 
and reap the Irnit of their toils, by moderate taxation, than to massacre 
tbem. Hia advice was adopted, and the coniiBela of this friend of faia 
country and of mankind saved the livea of unoffending and industrious 
millions. It is a perfect refreshment to one wearied out with the san- 
guinary tales of victory, blood, conquest, and destruction, to find such a 
character. It is one of those green spots in the desert of detailed war&re, 
which delights from contrast to the surrounding cheerless waste. The 
counsels of this man, who for 30 years was the prime minister of Zengis 
uid Oklay, that at length hamanized the victora, and made them, of sa- 
vages, civilized, and iuspired them with a love of the science and arts of 
their conquered subjects ; and the reign of Kuhlay Khan is the only bright 
Bpo\ in the gloomy annala of the Mungola. Yet this great prince became 
a convert to the atheistical system of Booith, and a dnpe of the llbetian 
lamsB and Chinese bonzas. His successors on the throne of Khan-Baligh 
polluted the palace with a crowd of eunncha, (the usual bane of oriental 
dentota), physicians, and astrologers, whilst 13 roilliona of their aobjecia 
perished by hmine in the sontfaem provinces of China in 1334, in the reign 
of the last Mongol emperor, Shnn-tee In 1362, Hong-voo, the founder 
of the Ming dynasty, commenced a auccessful rebellion in the province of 
Kyan^nan. His original name was Choo, a man of low origin, and a 
serTKDt of a Bouzaic monastery, but one whoae character admirably fitted 
liim, in this political juncture, to overturn a degenerate and worthless dy- 
nasty, which he accomplished, after a warfare of 16 years, in 1368, and 
drove the Mongola quite out of all China, and their emperors were hence- 
forth lost in the oblivion of the desert. His second successor, Yong-loo, 
in three successive expeditions, drove the Mongols beyond the Kedon, the 
Toola, and the Amoor, into the mountains of Kinggan. The Mongols 
nvver ceased, however, to make inroads into China and recover their lost 
empire, but all proved unsuccessful, and we hear no more of Uiese irrup- 
tions after 1582, but tbey have since lived quietly, feeding their flocks after 
the manner of their rude ancestoca, previous to the era of their great 
founder Jen^is Khan. The subsequent history of the Khalkhaa baa 
already been discussed. 

T HIS la a very large r^on, extending from the 124th d^ree to the 143d 
dt^i«e of longitude E. of Ferro, and from the 38th to the 47tb de- 
gree of N. latitude, so that its length, from the borders of Mandshooria on 
the E., to the parts over against Ningbya on the W., is full 900 British 
miles, and 600 B. miles from N. to S., though not every where so broad, 
as may be seen on consulting the maps of Du Halde. As we mean to be 
Tcry brief on this part of Mongolia, we shall merely give a abort abstract 
of its ge<^;raphy and other things pertaining to it, without entering into 
formal details. This tract liea entirely to the S. and S.E. of the Shamo or 
great desert, which separates it ^m the territories of the Khalkhas, to the 
W. of the Mandshoora, and immediately to the N. of the Grmt whIL 


118 AM.*. 

' Tbb territorjr it foil of mtmawlna, especially to the E. and S. Mtd u in- 
terBpened with ri»e«, m the Wkani^Jm, which paasing out of Shensee to 
(he N.E. Bnrroiinds the conntry of the Ortoos Montis, and then re'entera 
China, fonnia|r ^^ botindary, as it goet S., between Shensoe and Shansee, 
tlte Skantoo, which enten Petchelee towards the ses, and the Sira Muren, 
deAcribed in onr acconot of the MandahoorB. Their chief mouatuna ara 
the Siolki chain and ita continuation westwarda till it joins the Kwanglung. 
There are mtny lakes in this country, bnt none remarkable for magnitude. 
The climate is piercing cold in many parts, fally as madi so as in the 
country of the Kfaalkhaa, and then is such a similarity in the production!, 
whether ontnitite or inanimate, of both countries, that oue description Nrvea 
tor both. — The territonee of the Sharra Mongols are denominated from the 
several tribea which poeaes* them ; bat since they have come under the ab- 
■olnte power of the celestial monttrch, they hare been divided into 49 shaa- 
■aks or standards, under as many chiefs. The situauon of these terriloriea 
may be considered as it respects the four gates of the Great Wall, goii^ Ironi 
E. to W. N. of the most eastern gate in Petchelee 40' 1 »' 30" N. and 1° 28' 
SO" E. of Peking, are the countries of Karchin or the black Uibe, Tnmet, 
Ohan, NaymBO, and Korchin. — Karckin, which begins at this gate, ia 
composed of two diatricta or standards. The most remarkable place is 
Chafiao Suberhan Hotun, or city of the white pyramid, 11° 33' N. and 2° 
i^ 20" E, of Peking. It ia by far the l>eat district l>elongtng to the Mon- 
gols, for aa the present princes of it are otiginally Chinese, they have drawn 
•ereral of their countrymen hither, who have built towns and improved the 
lands. Here ue also some productive mines, some of excellent tin, with 
Urge forests of fine timber, by which the great ancestisr of the present dy- 
nasty got immense wealth. Karchin is above 145 B. miles from N. to S. 
but much more from W. to E. Here are the snmmer-palacea of the 
Chinese emperors, near which they usually hunt, especially Zheholl, 41" 
fiS* N. lat. 120 miles N. of Peking; and here the British embassy was en- 
tertwned in 1793, Our countrymen observed forests of aspen, elm, hazel, 
and walnut-trees, bnt on the mountains in the vicinity the pines wm« Bm«ll 
and the oaks stunted. — Korchin, or the red tribe, is divided into ten stand- 
ards, including the countries of Turbeda and the Jalayrs. The principal 
residence of this tribe is alongst the river Qoeyler, and their poe-easiona 
extend to the Sira Mnreo in a S.£. direction, hut they have neither spring* 
for drink nor wood for fuel, which they supply by wells and dung of cattle. 
Hie principal point of Turbida is Haytahan Pira, 47° 15' N, and 6* SO" E. 
of Peking. The Jalayrs dwell by the Nonnee Oola, in 46* SO* N. and 7* 
4i>' E. long, of Peking. — The Nai/mans compose bnt one standard, and 
their district begins from the S. side of the Sira Muren, in 43° 37' N. and 
5* E. of Peking. — Ohan is chieSy inhabited alongst the banks of the Nar- 
koni Pira, where «ome rivulets, as the Sbaka-Kol, fall into it 42" 15' N. 
and 4* E. of Peking. Here in 41° 15' N, are seen the ruins of a city called 
Kurban Suberhan Hotun, on a small streamlet which enten tlie Taltn-Ho, 
Nayman and Ohan, though far leas than Korchin, which is a large pro- 
vince extending four degrees from S. to N. and three from W. to E. ar» 
much better tlian it, being intenpened with shrubby hills, supplying 
wood for fuel, and abounding with game, especially quails. 

These three conntrles, along with Turbeda, are sandy and very cold. 
Tumet composes two standards, and they dwell chiefly beyond ttw rirer 
Snbarhan, where occur the mine of Modun Hotun. It extends S. to the 
wall of Chins, E. lo the poliaade t^ Lyvatong, and N. to Hara Pftydiaag. 


N- of the icata Knpl Knr (tetv mMM • atrnt or dafila) m tb» territo* 
riea, lonnerly part sf Korchen and Onhiot, but now courerteil inlo a fo- 
iMt, whera the emperor htuits aitd has aererd pleetnre hotutM. Knpi Kew 
M the gate called Kapki bjr the BuMiaiia, aad u in 10° 4/2' 15* N. and 0* 
39* 4* E. of Peking. N. of tfaii gate ore the distiicts of Oohiot, Ea- 
diiktMi, Farin, Sharot, UchH-Mochin, Ant-KorcIiiB, aad Aba-hanar. 
Onhiot baa two steDdardi on the rirer Irikin, 42° SO* N. and 2* E. of 
Peking. — Parin coDtaina two atandanla, and its prindpa] place ii on the 
Han Mnien, which falU into the Sira Mnren, 43° 36' N. md 2° 14' E. of 
Pekiag. Thia di«trict in larger than Onbiot, hnt haa bnt a poor aoil. 
Kec^ikun coaUuDH two standards, and ita chief atation is on a small •treem 
mnning N.E. to tha Sira Mnreo. 43* N. and 1° Kf E. of do.—Ueha 
Muchin haa two atwidards along (be Halgar Pira, 440 45' N. and 1" \& 
K af do. — Sharol has also two atandanls, and i* inhabited chiefly towards tha 
eoBanetico of the Labu Pira and Sira Mnren, 13° SV N. 4* iV E. Am- 
korchin haa Wt one banner, which resides on the Amkondnlon rivar, 15* 
SC N. 0° 28* E. — Abuhanar haa two atandarda, and is beat inhabited abuat 
the Taal Noor, 43* SC N. 0* 28' E. Within ihU second diriiuio, going h1> 
moat due N. from Kupi Kew, aone towna are foond, and the ruins of soma 
considoable cities, aa Ilan Hutnn, Poro Hotan, Knrtu Hotun, and Chan 
Najrman Saiae Hotun, — all on the Shangtn river. The last of thesa aeema 
to haTe beeo the ut]r of Shaogta, called by the Chiueae Kay-ping-foo, 
and bnilt by Kublay Khan, who denominated it Shanglu, or the ' high 
ooart,' and waa the anmmer reaideace of the Ywan dyaaaty, who in win- 
ter dwelt at Peking. It belosga to the country of Karcbin, and is tha 
Cioodoo of Marco Polo. Immediately to the N. of die gate Cbong-ky^ 
kew is a country which nraa conquered by the emperor Kuigbee, and 
whitji is the property of the Chinese empwors. Tb^ lands, and all the 
nwt alongst the great wall, are occupied by farmers belonging to hia celes- 
tial m^esty, the princes of the blood, and aeToral Tartar lords. Hera 
are Mongols of dl&neut countries ananged under three standards, 
Mid commanded by ofBcar* appointed by the emperor, and ore therefore 
wA reckoned among the 49 Mongol henoera. Farther to tha N. are the 
coDutries of the Mongol princes, of Whachit, SoohJot, Sabahoy, and 
Twincbooz.. — Wkachil has two atandarda, near the Cherin Pira, 44* 6' 
N. 0* 45' E-^^onAioJ has two standarda, and tha principal stauon is near 
a lake in 42° 29* 7* by obsemlion, and 1° 28' W. of Peking. — Abakay 
has two stamiords, which encamp about some lakes or taeers, tha •onth' 
ecHBMMt of which ie called Siretu Hucfam, 14° N., and 1° 31' W.— 
TmiueboK haa bnt one banner, near the Organ Alin, or mount Oigun, 
41* It' N. and 1° 20' W. N. of the gate ShabnJtew, iu Stumses, era 
the emperor's lands, 40° 27' and 1° 12* W. of Peking. In this diatrict, 
Khakn, or Khutuktoo Hoton, or dty of the Lama's vicar amongst the 
Shons Hongola, is the most remarkaUe. Here ia « Lama temple whera 
the seme pantomime i* carried on ea at Losea and Ooiga. Here dweU 
the two dkiefs of tbe Tnmmat tribe, appointed by the emperor. It ia 
tfa« caipital of aJI the coaalry of the Sbarra Mongult, where the impe- 
tn^ governor and tbe Kbntnkln lama reaide. — Beyond this district Ua 
tbaaa of dM Mongol cbida af Kaika, Targar, Maumiiigaii, Ural, and 
Ortooi. Tbe two former have only one bumer each, and iIm Viral or 
Vrat has three standards, who raoga alongat the banks of tbe Koudolia 
river, in 40* 55' R and 6° 80' W. of Peking. The Ortooa Moogola an 
1 ta on «U «lea by tha great wall and the sweep of the Wlianf^ 

120 ASIA. 

ho. The chief point of thia diBtrict, which extendi 300 Britid duIm 
N. and S., is ia 39° 30" N. aad T 30' W. of Peking. Thew Mongols 
are gorenied by aeTeral petty chiefs under six standordt, and pride them- 
eelrea on the InrgeneM and number of their tents, ai well as the inulti- 
tniles of their flwks. Their country once made part of the empire of 
Tangnt or Hya. Thus we haTO gone o^er the territories and BtaniWds of 
die Mongol tribee m briefly aa possible. AlthODgh all these tribes lire a 
roring Ufa, yet they have their limits fixed by cnsMm, beyond which they 
mnst not pais ; end on act of thia kind wonld be riawed as hostile. A 
boundary, c»lled the karou, at ' limit,' has been fixed by imperial aatho- 
rity between the Khalkhas, or black Mongols, and the Shaira, or yellow 
Mongols, just described. It mas from S.W. to N.E. 

As the Sharra Mongott belong to the same stock aa the Khalkhaa, 
the similarity of pastoF^ manners, customs, mode of life, religious opm- 
ions, and other things, is so great, that, in describii^ the one branch, we 
here, in hct, described the other. The only difference seems to be, that 
the latter being in the very vicinity of China, and enjoying the advantage 
of frequent intercourse with a nation more cirilized tban themselves, they 
are consequently somewhat more polished than their more rude and dis- 
tant kindred. Since 1620, they have been possessed of a code of laws, 
•ubscnbed by 44 princes and chiefs. In these tbe greater part of crimes 
is punished by fines, and actions of public utility are rewarded. He wbo 
refasee milk to a traveller is fined of a sheep. Trial by ordeal is admitted ; 
likewise solemn oaths from a superior, attesting the innocence of an 
inferior, iastitutions coiociding with those of Europe in the middle ages. 
The eouthera Mongols are tho9e of the race which always remained in th« 
vicinity of China, and the Khalkhas such as were driven out of China and 
retired to the N. Thus we have gone over the two grand branches of the 
Mongolian family — the Khalkhas and Sharras. There is a third branch 
of Mongols, which inhabit the northern part of Tibet, and who are deno- 
minated, in Tibetian, Hor, and Ghia Hor, or the Ghia of Hor. The name 
Ghia, in Tibetian, signifies a great and very diffosed people. The name 
of the Tibetian Mongols, in Mongolian, is Siraigol or Ckaragol As we 
are very ignorant of the geography of Tibet, we cannot say much about 
the site of this Mongol branch ; but probably it is about the sonrce of the 
Whang-ho, in 35° N. lat. and 19° long. W. of Peking; where we find 
marked, in the 5th sheet of the map of Tibet, two lakes called Charing-, 
kol and Oring-kol, and a small stream called Kara Pira, or the ' black 
river,' descending N. to the Oring-kol. In Tibet, likewise, the Mongola 
are usually denominated Sogh-po, or ' people of the prunes or meadowe,' 
or, in other words, nomadee or wanderers. 


If little is known of the geography of Mongolia, still less ia known of Sooa- 
garia, and that for two obvions reasons. This country has never been ex- 
plored by Europeans, nor ever trodden by a European foot since the days 
of Knysbroeck, in the middle of the 13th century ; whereas, the road For 
the Kussian embassies to China being through Mongolia, we have been 
enabled to say something of Mongolia, from the journals of these embaa- 
aies. The second reason is, that, though little is known of Mongolia, yet 
we had some aids from the Chinese historians to dear oar way, and give 
eome idea of the country. But we have not the same aids respecting 
Sooogaria; for if the Chinese know something of their neighbonrs, yet 


diey are proronndly ignorant ot distant regions — regiooa not in immediate 
contact with their own. Hence Gibbon haa jostly cbaracteiisecl the Clii- 
ae«e annals by two remarkable properties, dometiie accuracy takd/oreign 
ignorance; and, from the poverty of our stock, readers cannot expect 
that we can say either very much, or much to the pnrpoae, on Soongaria. 
We have given them fair warning, and it is not our fkolt if they be (^siq)- 
pointed. We can ooty say, in the general, that Soongaria is abasia or con- 
care platean, bounded on the N. by the KirguUian mountains and the Little 
Altai, which separate it from Western Siberia ; on the S. by the Alak 
Tagh or Alak Oola, which, in the Kiipiiaian dialect of the Turkish 
langoage, sigiiiGes ' the speckled mountain,' and which joins at lis eastern 
estremity, the great Bt^o ; on the E. by the Bogdo Alin, asserted by the 
Mongols and Elutbs to be the highest summit of Central Asia ; and on 
the W. by the northern coatinnation of the Beloor Tagh, which separates 
it from the conotry possessed by the great Kii^isian horde. Respecting 
its loDgitadinal extent, it is impossible to state it accurately for want of 
otHerrations of longitude ; and the same may be said of its breadth. We 
oaiy know that it is a very lofty and extensive region, reaching perhaps 
from the 75th to the lOOih deg. of E. long., or 25 deg. ; or ^lOBt 1200 
British miles in the lat. of 45% and from 43* N. to 52* in ita greatest 
breadth, or 620 British miles ; but the breadth and length are tai from 
being r^ular ; but the superficies of the whole may be about 700,000 
British square miles. 

Name,^ The name Soongaria, applied to thia r^on, is Mongolian, 
signifying * the country to the left,' in apposition to Tibet, which they 
denominate Baronthala, or Barohu'djao, ' the country to the right' or to the 
S. Hence ^e name of Songaree, applied to that branch of the Elnths 
who possess this region, is taken from the conntry eo called by the Mon- 
gols, or, in other words, the region does not derive its name from them, 
bat they from it. Sirahlenbei^ tells ns, that the Kalmnks, properly called 
Elnths, call ^mselves Avirat and yirid, and Derben Firat or Oirat — 
that is, the four Avirai tribes, which are Torga-och, Koshi-oth, Kay-oht, 
Deongar, and Dor-both, which two last make but one tribe. Hence he 
also remarks, that the Mongols call the four above-mentioned tribes not 
only Arir-At, but also Viloth and Avil-oth ; aod in Tibetian they are 
called Oilodh ; hence the modern name Elnths or Alnths. These Elntka 
are probahly descendants of the Avars of Menander, the Aviri of lomandea, 
the Ogorits of Simokatta, and are the same with the Ari-rat of De Herbelot. 
It is probsfale the Ogorits were the Oigoors so famous in Mongolian story. 
Abulghazi, in his romance called a history, classes the Kalmncks or Virata 
among the Tartar tribes, and the Oigoors amongst the Mongol tribes. Now, 
the Kalmucks are evidently a branch of the great Mongol nation, as well as 
the Oigoors, and we cannot help thinking these latter to be a branch of the 
same great family, and not at all of the Turkish nee. But it is impossible 
to arrive at certainty respecting the ori^n and subdivision of the pastoral 
tribes of Central Aua, as ^ey have neither literature nor history to ud ns 
in the search 

CUvtate^ There can be uo doubt thai this region, though in the same 
latitude of France, ia much colder from its high elevation and die varions 
raages of lofty mountains which rise on the base of its platean. The ele- 
vsted re^on called Kai^iaiagay hy D'Anrille, in which the Irtish has its 
■onrce, moat have a vigorous climate, as Mount Bogdo and the other 
EWtt^es in ita viciuiy are covered with perennial aoow. 'i'he Chaban Tala, 

182 AIIA. 

«r wlBte pMn, M ^ W. of the Sughiii TalgUa hke, or Windy ks, mwt 
be T«ry devMed, wid U, periu^i doq of the higheit in the narUieni pert 
of Central Asia ; bnt we mo«t demnr t« Mahe Bmo'i opinion, that tt is one 
of the moat elerated in the old irerld, after what we now know of ihe pro- 
digiom eleration of aome of ^ Tibetiaa uplands. We are radier of opinion 
ttiat, after paMing the Moos Tagler, or northern boandary <rf Wnstem H- 
bet, the nj^afida begin to dedine in eleration ; the plateaa of the Leaair 
Bnkharia beiaf^ tower than that of Tibet, and b^er than diat of Soongarta, 
which, in ita turn, overlook* the terrace wUeb aepatatea the Great Altai 
fiom the Lewer Altai ; eo that, from the Mooz Ta^er and the Kwmglnng, 
there i* a Baooeaaion of sloping plateanB northward, each lower than the 
other, till we reach the aoatiiem confinee of Weatem Siberia. What we eai^ 
OB tliia point la, however, mere etuijecture, aa we have no fitcta on which (o 
gronnd oar opinion ; and, if the plateoa in (he vicinity of the eource of die 
Koif^a, and bonading Soongaria on the M., be 7,000 feet of elevation, 
accmditig to Ledebohr, who explored tbe terraee of the little AHai to the 
very bordera of this region, Soongaria moat be a very lofty region. Bnt 
Cbineaa jeabnay preventa all discovery in Centra Ana. 

MoutOtuiu.'} Tbia region ia tiftveiaed in reriou drreetioDa by many 
■ronntain rangaa, of which the namea mly are kaown. Tbe principal range, 
out of all qoeation, is tbe gre«t AUai Jtin, or ■ Golden inonntain,' c^led 
by the Rnanana tbe Great Bogdo, and ia as it were in the very centre of 
Aaia at almoat an eqaal diatance from tbe CaBpian, the Icy, the Chineae, aad 
the Indian aeaa, and tbe grand calminating poiat whence all the rrrera of 
Central Asia flow to difiiarent kiitha except tbe S. Its direction ee«na to 
be from N.W. to S.E., and has varioas n«mee in different parte of 
ita GOaiae, from the various Domadic tribea wbi«^ at diffiarent peiioda 
roened in its vicinity, aa £jt or Ak, Tak, the White nionntaina fram fta 
anowy sammita ; Kin, or the Golden moantain, from the Chinese, which ia 
nearly a traaalation of the Toorkiah and Mongolian epitbeta, Altin and 
Altai. By tbe Jeanit miagionariea, in their nkap of Soo^aria, thia ini^ 
is called Hangay Alin/ and by other* Kbanggai; and, in the joomal 
of general Kokao, it ia called ifan^oi ; and, by SoR-bonn^keoB-km, 
Hang-kai} bnt none of theae is the proper name of the range acctvding to 
Ramusat, who observee ^at Han-hai is one of the names whidi die mo- 
dwns give to die Coin, or aandy desert. Bat he fnrdier remarks, that Han- 
bai waa aaciendy tbe Cbioeae luune of a lake in Tartary (Soongaria), T«ry 
probably one of tboee wbidi abooad m the aaoiiiitaiiHt:^ Altai; and it arae 
for that reaaon that, in the 7di century, when Taylaoag, after the duneee 
manner divided the Whey-be country into^^or and cAow, be gave ^ tide 
of Han-hai to that region where dwrit tbe tribe properly called M'hay-be, 
and near tbe mountain calebraied aa tbe place where Temajin defieated tbe 
khan of die Naunans, and called Hang^w, wbtcb eeema to be no etber tfaan 
a Mongol corrapiion of the Chineae naaie, Han-hai, miginally beatowed on 
tbe region of tbe Whey-be, bat now given esdnsively to the AltaL When we 
cenaider the Seliogha and Orchon, eajweially tbe latter, have fall 400 B> 
miles, in direct distance Irom tbeir sonrces, in the Altai, to mn, before the 
eoeflnent atream enlen Siberia U Kiakhta, and that Kakhta itself w 
2,560 feet above the level of tbe aaa, we may fbmi aome idea of tbe el»- 
vation of the AltaL From this rai^ a great many branebea are seat off 
in varions directiooa under as variooa names. Hie upper course of the Ir- 
tish is &aDkod on both udes, before it arrivea st the Saiasnn hdie, by ifao 
Bogdo on tbe right, and tteChaaur Dabaa on dm left or S., wUchran 

£. and joins tbe Ui Dsbao. To die S. oF dw Chuur Dabu » b h^ 
lirol, wmtend by the Bortal riTer, wbicb nuu E. ud is iMt in a Uke 
Aaotfaer tw^ w|Mntm ttw npland from that watered by the Hi, wfcicli, 
in ita torn, ii aepBTatod fromthe LeMo- Bnkharia by the Alok chain. An* 
otlMr TBi^, called ibe Malhan Alin, aqnrales the baain of tb« ]ake Kirltir 
ifofn dat of dM Upsa kka. 

Laket.l Id raqwct of the number of lakea, tbe plateaa of SoongarU 
baan a atroBg luenblance to thM of llbet. Tfaia KgMm ieenii to be com- 
poaed of a gnat nnnber of conomtiea ofgreater or loss dimennoni, etiher 
■arronnded by monntaia-gToiipH or bordered by moonUun-dwinB, in irbidi 
moat of tbe riven of tbie region are lost. Of these — if we can tnul the 
Jesnit'a map, made aolaly from itiBcmies or natiiv report — tbe baain of 
tbe lake of KWkw, in the centre of Soengaria, is tbe lurgeal. This baain is 
watered by ■ large atream deeceadiog S.W. from tbe Malhan Alin, and 
then rmming K.W. to that lake into which it oilera, after a eemicirciUar 
coarse of 300 B. miles. So semicirenlBr is its conne as to represent a 
bow, of which tbe ^wce between the lake and tbe sowce of the river re- 
presents the string. — To the S.W. of this is tbe Ektaral hke, wbicb is fed 
by two streams desoendbg N. from tbe Hopto, and communicatiDg with 
that of Kirltir by means of a larg« stream which it sends N.E. to it. — H.W. 
of tbe Kiridr lake is that of Vp*ay into which the Teis Fim dMcends from 
tbe N.Kr— In the eastern extremity of Soengaria, end in the rery heart of 
-tbe Altd, is the large kke of Sangkm Talgkin, snrrounded with lofty 
moontaiiia ; and a litUe to tbe S.E. is IMjetfai Chahan Otno, the soorce of 
tba Sbilotoo, the chief Imtnch of tbe Selingbk — On tbe S. side of Soongaria 
are die lakes -at KitaUnu and tbe Cha&tn Omo. It is probable that tbe 
Chaban lake at tbe sovce of tbe Snkrtoo, N.W. of Kara^orom was tbe 
Ciattga lake of Marco Polo, wbere dte giand khan bad a soramer-palace. 
It abounded with swans, pheasants, cnnes, partridges, and qnula ; bnt as 
tt was too cold in winter, it cenld mIv be visited in sommer. — In tbe weo- 
4en extremity of Soongaria is the Btdkhaih, or Palkati Noor, a large baain 
of water, sud to be 15 days' jonmey in circmnference. It is more than 
two and a half degreee in length, by a d^^ree in breadth. Bnt as a proof 
«f modem ignorance, no two maps soiree in the longitude of this inland 
<laid expanse: some placing its CAStern extrraaity, in 77° and others in 73° 
£. long. RalmK|niB and Piano Carpine passed by this lake in tfa^ way to 
KarakonHD, and say that so violent gnsta of wind blow from tbe surronnd- 
ing covntry as to biiow tmvellerH into die lake. Tbe monntains to the W. 
of this lake form tbe weetem limit of Soongaria. — E. of this lake isannge 
of monntainB wbich separate it from a series of lakes running eastward — 
die Aiaktaokol and the Kinre, into the latter of which descends the river 
bail from tbe E., through a gorge of die mountains which sbnt up diis 
ooocaniy on tbe E. — Another luge lake is that of Smtian, called also 
Honhotoo Noor, said to be 90 miles long from E. to W., and 40 from N. 
to S., in 47i> SO* N. lat. and 84° E. long, at ita eastern extremity. — N.E. 
of this lake is that of AUin Kol or Noor, or < tbe Golden lake,' called by 
tbe Hassiana TekUkog Oktv, or ■ tbe Lake of the Telessi,' a Kslmuk 
tribe which inhabitB tbe vicinity. It lies in very, elevated ground, and is 
Borraanded with monntains ; ita bottom is rocky, the ndos steep, and it ia 
itself very ileep. Tbe ncwtbem port is sometimea so bard frozen as to be 
paasable on foot, but the S. part never freezes. The water in this lake, as 
svell as that in the rivers which run tbiough the adjacent parts — contoary to 
whti happens to other Idies and livers — rises only in the middle of smnmer, 

124 ASIA. 

when the great beati bave melMd thg snowt on the numntain* which re- 
mained andesolved in Bpring. Tlie N. end of this lake is fixed in ^2", and 
£. long. SS" SCf, according to aome mapi, Tor they are by no means agreed. 
By some this lake is placed ont of Soongaiia and within the Rnssian limila. 
We adhere to the Peteraburg academy's nap, which pUcea it in Soongaru. 
Strahlenbei^ identifies, in his map, this lake with that of Kirkir above meiH 
tioned, and the Balkasii lake with the Tshai lake of his map. 

Riveri.^ Compared with other regions of Central Asia, Soongaiia 
seems to be well-supplied widi rirere, as, bdependent of those which are 
absorbed io lakes, the three largeat rit«rs of Western Siberia originate in 
this redon, and water no small portion of eurbce : namely, the Irlifk, 
the 06y, and the Jmuea, It is here as with the mountains and lakes, we 
know little more of the Soongarian streams than their names ; for, since 
tlie days of Carpini and Kuyabroeck, no Enropean has traTeised the 
country, and llnssian knowledge is still confined to the N. of the Altai. 
The Irtith, near its source, is composed of two small streams, called the 
Char Irtith and Chor IrtUli, or ' the Black' and the ' Red Irtish,' which ori> 
ginate at the foot of the Great Bi^do, in 93° E. long, of Greenwich, and W 
N. lat. These two small lakes are sud to be 30 miles asunder. After ft 
long descent of more than 400 B. miles, alongst a very elevated platean, 
in a W.N.W. direction, it enters the SaUsang lake, and issiuDg thence it 
tnriM northward, and enters Siberia opposite the fort of Bukhtarraa, the 
most advanced Russian station towards Uie S. Its course through So«hi- 
garia is upwards of 550 B. miles in a direct line. — >To the N.£. of the Up- 
per Irtisb is the source of the C%, in 48* N. lat. and 96° £. long., at the 
foot of tbe Great Bogdo, where it is called the Shabekan. UndN that 
name, it runs N.W. to the Altin Noor, or ' Golden lake ;' issuing thence, 
under the name of the By, it enters Siberia in 52° N. lat. and 87* Iff ac* 
cording to Pinkerton, and 68" 44^ according to the map of the Russian aca- 
demy, after baring also performed a com-ae of 550 miles throngh Soongaria. 
It is not till after its jimction with the Kiialooni/a that it is called the Oby. 
The Jenitea is composed of two small streams, the Ba Kem and tbe (Ma 
Kem, the latter of which is separated from the upper course and source of 
the Shabekan by a range of mountains on tbe S. Boib these branchea 
originate in tbe N.E. angle of Soongaria, from the western base of the 
Great Bogdo, which separates them from the sources of the Selingha. After 
nmning W. for a small space, tbe two streams unite tmder Uie name of tbe 
Kem, in 51° 30* N. and 95° £. long. Its true name is tbe ifem, and not 
the Jenitea or Enitea, which is the Tongoosian appellation. It is called, 
throughont the whole of its coarse, the Kem, by Mongols, Turka, and 
Chinese. As its whole course through Soongaria is in a monntainona and 
rocky tract, it is not navigable ; and on account of its cataracts and stony 
bottom, it producas no fish. There are not less than 12 cataracts be- 
tween its confluence with tbe KemUchyug, and its junction with the Aba- 
kan. — The next and last large river of consequence is entirely a Soongft- 
rian stream, and is called tbe Hi or Eli. This river is composed of two 
mun branches, the Tekit and the Hi, both which rise in the Alak Tagh, in 
83° £, long., according to the Jesuits' map, and in 44° N. lat., near the pasa 
of Khonghis, and is, on that account, called also the KJumghit river. Tbia 
stream is made first to mn 150 miles N.W., and than 150 miles N., till it 
falls into tbe Balkhash lake. — The Tekis rises considerably to the W. of 
the Hi, and having run 70 miles N.E. enters the latter by sereraJ a 
The mouth of the Hi ii fised by that map in 48° N. 



Cities, 3fC.2 HiTiiig fioithed ma geognpbical remark* on Soongaria, 
ve uraat confe« that we can give no other acconot of its toil and prodnce 
than that it ii a pastoral canntry. Ai to citiea, there are none that are 
marked on the map, bat Munat Hotun, and of it we know nothing. We, 
indeed, read of Beveral ritiee having once existed in the days of the 
Oigoora and Tniks, ai Imil, Almaloo, Aimalig, and Bi*hbaUg, all Tnrkiah 
namea : these cities lay in the southern part of Soongaria, on the confinM 
of the Little Bakharis, but they are said to be now in mins. 

Inhabitantt.'] Who were the original inhabitants of this r^on, none can 
lell ; bnt it is plain from history that it baa been inbabitod by different 
races of wandering hordes at difierent periods, and periiapa at the same 
time. Abulgbazi Khan makes it the original residence of Turk, the son 
of Japbet, the common ancestor of all the Scythian and Tartar tribes of 
Asia, and of that Mythic hero, Ogna Kban. According ta the Chinese 
acconnts, the Oigoort seem to have been the eariiest known inhabitants, 
for they posseased at a rery early period all the tract between the lake of 
I>op and the riTer IIL We know, also, that the Oigoors were settled west- 
waid as far as the Irtish, bnt whether these were a Toorkish or Mongd 
race, or one difiVrent from both, is not at present determined. The Kir- 
gees also dwelt on tbe banks of the Jenisea before the time of Jeoghis 
Khagan, and the Virals or Efitlhs, tbe ancestors of the present race, in- 
habited the region of the Sekir Muran, or ' Eight rirers,' that fi^ into tbe 
Jenisea from the £. ; altbongb tbey no longer dwell on the Jenisea, but to 
tbe W. of tbe Beloor and the Irtish. The migrauons of the pastoral na- 
tioas of Asia hare been so frequent, according as caprice dictated, ambition 
impelled, or necessity compelled, that it is not possible to nnravel the web 
of Tartar history and geography, so that we must be content to know who 
are tbe present inhabitants of Soongaria and their present political state. 
The finit time we hear of tbe Eluths, as a distinct tribe of the great Mon- 
golian femily, is about the commencement of tbe reign of Yong-loo, bdc- 
ceseor of Hong-roo, tbe founder of the Ming dynasty, when Ma-ba-mon, 
kban of the Wa-la, orOilotB, and A-lon-tai, prince.ofthe Mongols, received 
c«ch a Chinese title from the emperor Yongloo. That of the former was 
Chun-Tung- Wang, — ' the obedient and peacefal king,' — that of tbe latter 
Htming-waag, — ' the pacific and tnmquil king ' — so that at that period 
the Mongols and Elaths were viewed as distinct hordes, whose piincea 
condescended to receive the title of tntatgs, which indicates the fallen for- 
tonee of the sncceason of Jenghis Khan, and that tbe kban of the Eluth 
lH«nch was now independent of thp Mongol khans of Kara-korom. We 
bear no more of them till the middle of tbe 16th centory, when all tba va- 
rious brancbea of the Eluths were tuited under one khan who reigned in 
Soongaiia, and were continnally at war with the Ushecs, called by tbem i 
Hattak PuTfikt, who in their torn gave tbem tbe nick-name of Xahnu/ct. 
Ablay, a brother of the Eluth khan who then reigned, raised a rebelhon 
againist him, but was defeated and obliged to retire towards Siberia. Two 
places on the frontier of Soongaria, towards Siberia, and marked on tbe 
■nape of Strablenbei^ and D'Anville, under the names of Abiaket and 
Sempidat, or the ' Seven palaces,' were pertiaps the abode of this Ablay 
Kban, at least a number of nuns have b^n discovered at these places and 
the vicinity ; and at that time tbe power of the Eluths extended as far N. 
«8 55* N. lat. The son-m-law of this khan, named Kalilan Tsereug, and 
Kaldan Pojnkn, was a powerful and ambitions prince, and disputed tbe 
Jibanship with his father-in-law, the Kontaifsha, or grand prince of tba 

1S8 A>i». 

£]iitiit, whom be defatted in k battle dsbt thfl grast Uce Kimlpoo, (pro- 
imbl^ the Balkbuh Horn ia the lalu here meuil)* took priaoDO', and 
nmrdered, in order to lacitr* bia antborit7> He tb«n conqasred tbo 
•rbole of Ibe Lewer Bokbaria; and in 1683, hi> mbdned Hbet, and d»< 
nivod the Mcnlar prince of all bia power. That prince wM colled Ttanpa 
iian, and Kaldau traiisfarred tuB power to the Dalu lama. He next «{• 
tacked the Khalkbu, and but for tbe timely iiil«rfer*iic« of the emperori 
Kbaunghee, wonld bave utterly rained tbera. Ilua tide of h««bb slamed 
Kbann^ae, who plainly saw that if the Kbalkhw were raioed, hii Mongol 
mbjectB wonld join Kaldan, and tbna endanger tbe throne of China. With 
the view of checking Kaldan'a pragrcM, he ordered a large army into 
Mongolia to MBiM the Khalkbaa, who attadied Kaldan, who, although b« 
had no artillery sMd but few treope, reaoiotsly lOBtained die ihodi, and at 
the end of tbe battle retired to bis camp without being pursued by the 
enemy. Aa tfaii was an indeaaive action, Kaldui again advanced, in IGM, 
and raTSged all the landa of the Khalkbaa, and marching thence S. to the 
territoriee of the Sham Mongolt, endeavoared, by a letter to tbe khan rf 
Korehin, the chief of tbe Mongol princes, to stir op him and the other 
kbant against Khani^hee, and to mi^e common oanee whb him agunat the 
Mendshoon. This buld atep ronaed Khanngfaee to instant eiertion ; and 
in 1696, three armies, one c^ them headed by himself, invaded Tartary on 
all aides. One of these obtwned a complete Tictory ovei Kaldan, near the 
■onrce of die Tixda, whilst diat nnder Khanngbee struck every place with 
t«ror. This defeat proved tbe titter ruin of Kaldan, and the destmctioa 
of the Elndis was so grent that very few remuned in the territories of tba 
Khalkbas, whilst die nnfortnnate Kaldan escaped almost alone into Soong*. 
ria e^iposed to tbe reproaches of fail raatal hordes. He now endeavoured to 
negotiate a peace with Kbatinghee, and sent Teebden Baldjir, his aoo, with 
a amalt retiniie of Elath chiefs, to tbe Dalai lama of Tibet, to beg his inter- 
poeition with Khaungbee. But Ebeidoola, tbe Mohammedan chief of 
Ham), s«»d him and tbe other Etmb chieA, and sent them prieonai to 
Khanngbee, who cut off their bead*, and confinned the trutor Ebeida(ri4 
in bis poet. Kaldan, unable to enrviTe such calamities, poisoned himael^ 
and was sacceeded by bie nephew, Tserang Raptan, who proved himeltf 
eqnally ambitions as bis uncle, and almost u formidBble. He eecnred 
Bakbaria from falling into tbe bands of Khanngbee, and pnniibed the 
Mohammedan rebels of Yarknnd. Li 1703, tbe large horde of the Too 
gaata or Black Kalmnka, under dyucka Khan, coiuia of Tscvsng Hapten, 
abandoned Soongaria, and croning the Joick or Ooral, placed themsetvea 
under tbe protection of Rnseia. The ostensible motiTe of Ayucka Khaa 
for taking this step, and thus weakening the power of tbe kontaydn, wan 
the fear of bis life. The ordinary snmmer-.eneampment of tbe kontaysfcn 
called Hancas or Oorga, was on tbe bank* of the Hi, to watch the motionn 
of tbe Toorgants under Ayucka, and the Kirgheee and Usbeca. In win- 
ter be rended at Yarkmid ia Little Bnkharia. In 1716, he invaded Tibet, 
as Ihs uncle had done before, took Lassa, ravaged the coontry, plandered 
the temples, not even sparing Pootala iteelf, tbe residence of the pretended 
Immoital, carried off sJl the yellow-robed kunas be could find, pat them 
in sacks, and transported them od the backs of camels, as jnisonera ta 
Sooi^arw. TUm produced a fresh war with China, which was fimsbed in 
1780, in oonaeqnence of a complete defeat from the array of Khann^M^ 
commanded by hia third son, who snbaeqnenily encceeded hia father in 
1723, ander the tide of Yong-cblng. In coneeqaence of this defeat the 


Ehtths loat ftll Tibet and the prOTiitcea of Kbunil and Toorfann. Though 
rqieUsdIf onntcceufal in their wan with China, yet the reatlcM Eluiht 
iiiTolved tfaemMira* is anotW with (^nns. By the aid and inflvaoce of 
Kienlong. AmniMiiaii, who bad Aed to Peking frota the re«entinent of the 
nigoing Idian, and remained for aome tine a penaioDer on the boonty of 
Kioiloiig, waa on die death of DebMchi, advanced to the dignily irf kon- 
tayaha. Bnt acarcely bad be obtained 1^ new d^nily, wlien, fivgetfnl of 
prior obligatiana, lie attacked the Cbioeae ganiaoos in the diatricta of Hami 
and Too^nn, which ptodnced.a long, anc^ for a conaideraUe time, an in* 
decadTo and haiaaaiDg wer&re ; bnt which finally ended, afUr 13 yeara' 
continnsDca, by the cmoplete deetmetion of tlie independence and power 
of the Elntlw, in 1759, and their almon ntter extirpation. Thi* wae acr 
cmnpliahed chiefly throogh die akill and sagadty of Foote, the general of 
Kienlong. Amrnvnan, with nuJi Elnths m snrrired this dreadfal calamity, 
fled to Sbaria, whei* he diad in a abort ^nie. The Chineae, not aatiifiod 
with hie death, desired the Roanan governor to delirer np hii dead body 
aa that of a traitor and rebel, which was refused, bnt Chinese commit 
Mooeia qipointed for that purpose were gratified with a sight of his corpse. 
Hina anded the formidable power of the EIntlu, which tor a time seened 
to shake the stability of the reigning dynasty on the throne of China. Itt 
conaiqnanca of ihia event, all the extensirc tract which once owned tbrnr 
BOBwdic awa^, re«chii^ from tbe Bogdo to the Beloor, and froin tho 
Kwan^nng to the Sberisn frontier, Ml under the domination of China, and 
tbe spot whna once the kontayaha fixed his camp n now llie residence ai 
m Chineae corouandant. In 1770 and 1771, the Torgnnt Kluths, who 
had fonnetly ranged the plains of the V<dgs and Jaick, rstomed by two 
aKceaaire eaigntioM to their ancient poMessionB in Soongnria. The first 
caugration consisted of 30,000 families, and the second of 50,000 bmiliee t 
60,000 liuuili«B in the whole, or nigh £00,000 pcirMns. The piaa was so 
wril laid, and ao ably exeeated, that in spite of HusstMa Tigilance and Rna- 
aiao pntsah, — in spile of oppositiDn from their hereditary enemies ot tha 
great Kirgkaian horde, — tbey reached tbe Balkhaah Noor, and ware re* 
eaired by tha Chinese guards poated on the Tekis and Li, and pasture-lauda 
en the banks of these two streams were aamgned them by orden of Kien- 
long, bnt the diiefa with th«r hrailies vrtn all sent, under a strong gnard) 
to Peking, there to remain aa hoatages to ensure the anhmiaaion and peac^ 
dhle cvadnct irf the Torganta." The pieaent poaseasors, therefore, of Soon- 
giria, nnder tbe aerereignty of China, are the TorganU, the roost none- 
IVM bod7,~the remaina of the Soougmvet, sui^oaed not to exceed 30,000 
ftmiliear— and the DgrhtU, wlwae mtasbers are nnknown. To these must 
be added, the Soyitu at OriongkhM, a Samined race according to Klap- 
rath, inhabiting the high lands of die npper JeouMa, or more correctly tho 
Kem. This tribe is dirided into 1 1 banners, and coaiains 1 0,000 families. 
In this ennmeration, the Tiletn, an Elulb (riba about tbe Teletakoi Oaer^ 
must also be inclndeiL 

" To eommemanlc M» rem»rli»ble erent,— the TolnntMy nnigratlon of s trhole ns* 
tkD, with bU thdr luaibwIiaB cattle sT miou dncripiliHU,— ■ maiUa amawMt wkh 
an inseriptloa, dMailky riM &ct, wa* vncuAtx PaUiig, t? arden of I£tiiiWnf 

Dcillizedoy Google 


Name^ The former of the above namw ii not made use of becanae 
the couDtiy HO called ia actually leas in HnperGcial extent than Great Bnk- 
haria — for, in reality, it ia much la:^^ — but becanw it ia inferior to it in 
respect of the number of ita citiea, the fertility of ita soil, the amoaot of 
its popnWon, end some other circumstance*. These adjuncts of Great 
and LUtU seem to have originated with the Usbecks, who employed them 
to distinguish auch part of the Bukharian territories as is not poasesaod by 
tbemselTes, from that which is. Yet Abdghazi, himself an Usbeck khan, 
never mentioni Little Bokharia ; but speaks of Kbashgbar, Yaricond, and 
other disbicti belonging to it, withont nsing any general denommatioD 
for the whole tract. Neither is the appellation of Little Bukharia nsed 
by sultan Baber in his memoirs ; he only speaks of Khaahghar and Khita. 
When conqnered by Zingia Khman, it was called Karakilag, or the conn* 
try of the Wesiern Lyan ; but it was afterwards called Jagalay, as being 
aaugned to Jagatai, the son of Zingia, together with the coontry to the 
W. of the Beloor. The Persian writers ninally called it the kingdom of 
Khashghar, being that part of it which was nearest to them, and beat 
known by them. In the life of Timoor Bek, it is nerer called IJttle Bak- 
liaria, bnt is considered as part of Mt^ulestan and the coontry of the Getea. 
By Edriai it seems to have been described under the name of the coontry of 
the Tagbaz Ga2 Toorks, bonnded on the N. by Kaymak, which seem- 
ingly correeponded (o the western part of the modem Soongaria, and his 
Kaymaks seem to be the modem Kalmucks. As it has been inhabited by 
Toorkish tribes from the remotest antiquity, Edrisi was cwrect ia classing 
it as a Toorkish region ; and his Taghaz Gliaz seems to be the Taugtu 
of Simocatta — a Byzantine writer of the 6th century — a Toorkish tribe 
which conquered Northern China, and gave birth to the Sny dynasty, which 
took Nanking in 589, A.D., conquered Sonthem China, and reunited both 
nnder one head in the time of the emperor Mauritius. Eastern Toorldt- 
laun is, tbwefora, or oaght to be, the tme name of this ext«nuve regiim ; 
but the appellation of Utile, or The Letter Bukharia, has obtained such 
firm footing sjnongst modem writers and geographers, that we are her»'- 
as in former instances — compelled to conform to modem usage, in aaaigii* 
ing to this region the name of Little Bukharia. 

Bt)undaries.'\ Little Bukharia is bounded on the N. by Soongaria, al- 
ready described ; on the E. by the Mongolian desert ; on the S. by Weat- 
em Tibet, the unknown parts of Great Tibet, and the N.W. extremity of 
Chma; and on the W. by the Beloor or Tfasoongling range. Bnt triiile 
we have (fans stated its general boundaries, candour obliges na to say, that 
we cannot fis its southern boundaries with all that precision the subject 
lequirea. Being ignorant of die northern frontier of Elastem Tibet, we 
cannot, consequently, determine the aonthern irontier of Little Bukharia 
in this part 

Super/idal Exlenl.^ In the Jtfemoiret lur let ChinoUet, Little Buk* 
haria is said to extend 16 degrees of longitude in the parallel of 40* M. 
lat., and 5^ degrees in breadth IVom S. to N., or 600 British miles, by 
SBO of mean breadth ; thus making a snriace of 300,000 British square 
miles. But, in this estimate, the eastern parts of this region are omitted, 
namely, the large districts of Toorfaun and Kbamil, aa these hare bean sub- 
ject to China since 1720. iDcluding theae. Little Bnldiaria may ba said 
to have more than 25 degreea of longitude in the parallel of 43° N. Ut.. 


anil aboTe 20 di^reei in the paralld of 40° N. lab, or more tban 1,040 
K^tish mileti ; aod we may Tentnre to exteod iu breadth in the eastern 
part aa ftr S. as 35° N. lat., to the northern base of the Kwangtung, the 
frontier of libet. Its general breadtb in the N.W. part is from 38" to 
44° N^ and in the S.E. part from 35' or 86° to 44* N. tat. ; but this, it 
miut be remembered, indndes the Great Desert, or Sharao, of which Marco 
Polo has given mcb a fearfnl picture. The whole may include a sm^ca 
of 500,000 British Rqiuve miles. 

HUlorieal Hotice^ The history of this region in early times may be 
said to be unknown, as the ancients knew little or nothing either of the 
country or it* inhabitants, bnt classed it as a Scythtan regioo to "Cbe W. of 
Serica. In times more modern, all we know is, tliat it was saccessively 
•nbjected to sach of the nomadic hordea as were, for their short and nn< 
certvn bonr, lords of the military ascendant, and the £lntb Kalmucks were 
its last masters. When the domination of the Eluth khan, Tiudshas, was 
aanihilatad by the inperior power of China in 1759, Bukhaiia fell into the 
hands of the victors. 

Pkifticat Aipecl.2 On this we can say bot little ; bnt, if we may 
jadge from the cooree of the rivers, the country seems to decline towarda 
the N.E., and the celebrated lake of Lop is the lowest level. N. of this 
Uce, the cotmtry rises towards the monntvns of Alak ; and to the E. it 
liaee agwn towards Hami, which in its turn is separated from the Desert by 

MoHiUamt.'} Little Bukharia, including the Deaert, is every where 
•Brroanded by lofty mountain-ranges, — as the Alak Tagh, the Moox 
Tagk, the Btloor, and the range that connects the Bogdo with the Kwang- 
laug. All these enclose a very lofty plateau, next, perhaps, to that of 
Tibet in elevation. — The northern daia of Alak has various appellations. 
It is called, in the Kii^hisian language, Alak Oola, or 'the Speckled 
motulains ;' the Mutart mountains by Pailas ; and by the Chiaese, Teen' 
Shan, or < the Celestial monntains,' or < Mouatains of heaven,' from their 
vaat elerauon ; and also Ta-teut-tkan, or ' Great snowy monntains ;' while 
by Remusat it is called the chun of Hami, or K/iautoul, because it ex- 
tends from the W. of Kbasbghar eastward to the N. of Kamonl. The 
Teen-Shan, or Alak monntains, are spoken of by the Chinese geogmphen 
in terms of astonishment, for their height, and their icy, luminous gltHy; 
aa being covered with eternal snow and glaciers ; piercing the clouda ; 
leaching to heaven ; presenting an appearance of long chains, or spiral 
peaks, with cragged breaks, deep gulfs, valleys, and ravines, which 
|Ht>ve theee monntains to be the dragon-ancestors of all other mountains 
ia the world- This chain is aud to be volcanic ; and the mountains of 
Beihbaligh, in 46° N. Ut. and 78° i& E. long., and those of Toorbon, 
m 48° 30' N. and 89° S&, are represented as constantly emitting flame 
and smoke. The Alak is connected with dw Great B<^o, imd runs S- 
to the Desert, on the E. of Hami, and on the W. it is connected wiUi 
the Kyoder Tau and the Thsonogliug, This western rauge is also called 
TJuoung-Skaa, or ' Onion mountains,' as some suppose, from the abun- 
dauce of plants of the allium species which are found npon it. Bnt 
Remusat remarks, that the Chinese term, ikaoung, is ambiguous, and 
aigm£ea both an onion and the pale blue colour, and therefore rJioosea 
to call them the Blue mountains, aa the more natural interpretation of 
the name. We have already described them in our account of Western 
Toorki8Uuia>— Go dw S. are the Moo^ Tagler, or ' Icy mountains,' called 

in Chinese Ping-Shan, which is jnat a tniwlBtitNt of Mooe Tagler ; aiul 
■Ibo Bometimes nuned Natithan, or ' the Sootbeni nmuitBine ;' snd in Chi- 
DMe poetry the KieangAung-Shan. In later times, the ThsoRiigling, or 
' Blue mountuiu,' and the Naa-Shan, or '.Soathern moaDtuiw,' have 
been taken the one for the other ; and, in bet, hoth of theae namee 
have been applied to the Mooz Tagler. At theae monntaira are of the 
Tory first order in respect of masainess and eteTatitm, the term Tkioung- 
Ung'Shan, ' Cerulean,' or * Azure blue moiuitaiBS,' is a very appropriate 
appellation. This colonr, which partakes of the azore of the hi^ re- 
gions of the atmosphere, and of that golden light which liea npon die- 
tant objects, is a sure waming to the spectator, that, before these sntn- 
mita caa be reached, many a Talley must be passed. Snch aa an not 
acqaainted with monntaina of the first order can have no idea of that 
golden and ttanspaiant hue which tinges the higheet enmmits of the eartb. 
It is often by this alone that the eye is informed of their prodigioiis eleva- 
tion ; for, deceived in its estimation of heights and diatancea, it woold ooo- 
fonnd them with every thing, which, either by its form or Htoauon, ia ca- 
pable of imitating their magnificence, did not this species of celestial light 
announce that their sommita inhatut a region of perpetual serenity, and 
josti^ their title of Teen Shan, or ' the Monntaina of heaven.* Ute Moon 
Tagler, or Kwanglnng, stretches all the way K. from where it joins the Be- 
loor, in 7S° E. long, to the N.W. 6tmtier of Sechwin in China, in 100" E. 
long, and S5° N. lat., a space of 27 degrees, or more than 1,500 British 
miles of length : being in its whole length the northern frontier of Tibet, 
as the Mimmaleh is the soathern. As it stands on a much hi^er base 
than the latter, its absolute elevation may be presomed to equal at least, 
if not surpass, that of the Himmaleh. 

River*,'] The chief rivers of thia r^on have thdr rise in the aontli- 
em lange, the Mooz Tagler, end the Beloor, as the river of Khathghar 
which originatee in the Beloor, in 41° SI' N. let. and 71* E.long. by Wad- 
diogton's map, at a place called Koksoo, where it is separated by an in- 
tervening ridge from the source of the Seehoon or Isxartes. It runa fiiet 
due E. through the monntains, and then geaerally E. by S. to Khashghar, 
a distance of 330 British miles by the caravan ronte, and thence mns £. 
till it joins the river of Yarckand. This latter stream rises (says Goes) 20 
days' journey S.W. of Yarchund, in the mountun Cou-Sattgni-K«Bcb, or 
' the stony mountain' (the same with the Karangoui Tagfa of ^eiefeddin, 
and with the Mooz Tagler). This river is called Meletcha by Strahlen- 
berg, and Ta-U-mou by the Chinese, and runs N.E.aud falls into the lake 
of Lop or Lopoo, 600 miles to the E.N.E. of Yarchnnd. The third river 
is that called the river of Kh<itaa, which rises to the S.W. of that dty, 
in the same cbun as tiie Ta-li-moo, and ccmsists of three branches, nam- 
ed the Yorong-kash, or ' white jasper river ;' Kara-kescb, or ' bladk ja^ 
per river;' and Yeschil-kascb, or 'green jasper river;' — all which meet 
below Khotan, end mn N.E. ; but whether it joins the Ta-li-mou, or ia 
lost in tho desert, ia uncertun. Of the other rivers of this r^oo we 
can say nothing farther, than that they are either lost in lakes, or ab- 
sorbed in the sands of the desert. 

Laket.'^ Tbb elevated plateau sbonnds in lakes towards its easton 
extremity ; and it is a remarkable feature of its physical get^rapby, thatt 
none of the rivers which originate in it run out of it, but are all ab- 
sorbed in lakes, or lost in the desert. — The Lopoo lake ia the common 
lec^iacle of all the large rivet's that water this r^on. We know 


BOthing more of it, thmn Akt it ia a hrge Mdt itke, and mmob to be 
the aatne with the wa of Sin, mentioaed by Edrisi in hia imperfect and 
romantic geogrejAj of the country of the Turka.— £. of this, in the 
proTince of Htmi, is the lake called Parkol or BarkU, seemingly inr- 
ronoded with motuilaiiu, aod which liea to the N.W. of Hami. Of 
the other htkei, their namee may be aeoi in the Jesuits' mapa of Bnk- 
baria and Tibet- 

Deterli.'] More than one-half of this region is composed of sandy 
and aterile deeerts, towards the S. and S.E. It is here that the Great 
Kobi or Shamo commeocea, to the E. of the jMxmnce of Khasbghar, and 
mns E. and N.E. aa &r as the tnoimtaiiia of Stolki on the confiuea of 

CUmale.'] Like the other plateana or nplanda of Central Asia, the 
tempentnre is eztremaly cold, eapecially towards the tDonntaios. So 
great is the cold in the pronnce of Toorfann, that the ambassadon of 
Sbarokb ftUrza, in dieir jonmey frmn Samarcand to Peking, foond the 
water corered with ice two inches thick, falla of anow and rain were 
frequent, and all this at the time of the aiminier-eolstice, which reo- 
ilered their jonraey extremely fatigoing and unpleasant. The tract to 
the N.W. of this, on the lli, when the Chinese commandant resides, 
is called in Canton CoJb, oc ' tbe cdd coontry;' and thither the bank- 
rapt Hong merchants ere banished as a pniushment for insolvency. The 
Chinese armies lately sent to cmah the revolt of the Mobammedaoa of 
Khaefaghar soffered severely from the rigour of the climate, and were ar- 
rested in their progress at Hami, through the inclemency of the season. 
The temperatore seems to be mildes^ aa might be expected, in the 
centre of the coonby. 

Soil and Produet.'y Of thaao little can be said ; and what baa been 
sud on this heed u inconsistent and contradictory. The truth seems to 
be, that the toil aad produce vary ezc«edingly in different places &am tbe 
difference of temperatitre and supply of water, and caii be best described 
in our account of its dttterent prorinces. 

DmnoM.] Chinese Tooriustaan maybe conreniently divided into the 
fuar lai^ districts of KMatighar, AksM, ToorfauH, and Khamiiox Hami. 
All these proviscea are superintended by a Chinese governor, who resides 
at Eelah, and holds mle over tbe following places of importance t Eelsh, 
Khashgfaiu', Yarknnd, Khotan, Karakash, GnmnM, Toorfaun, Elcht, Kar- 
ria, Katgelik, Yenghi-Hissar, and Wooshik. Tbe followiog are said to 
be tbe eight great Mohammedan dties of this region : Kkathghar, Yar- 
ktmd, Hartuhar, Keochag or Ouichi, Alaao, Khotan, and Yinkeahar or 
Yingkitluhaur ; but the lack of geographical information ia so great, that 
even neither Joles Klaprodi, with all hu boasted sU»« of Chmese geogra- 
phy, nor bis friend Remusat, have been ^le to supply the void. Klap- 
roth bas been forced to eke out bis description from the Jehon Nooma of 
Hajy Khalifa and the Takwimal-Beladan of Abolfeda. 

\»t. Province of KAatkgkar.1 Thia is the most weslecn division of 
Chinese Toorldatann, and is now comprebauded in the district of Yarkaod, 
vrhich also includes that of Kboua. Kbasb^sr, the capital, was for many 
ages tbe seat of an independent prince, in later dmes the residence of thu 
Katakiiayan kbans, and aobseqaently that of Jagatay khan and his snc- 
cessors, till subdued in 1663 by the Elotha. It is sttaated, according to 
the Jesuits' maps of 1760, in 39° 25' N. lat. and 76* 0' 45' E. of Greeu- 
wich, on tbe banks erf a river which deriree its name from tho city, and 

\na ft place oF great celabiity bodi ai a royal city and a cominercial 
entrepot. It was, howerar, completely deitroyed by the Mina Abube* 
ker; bat was again lebnilt by bis orders. Before the late rebellion of 1626 
and 1837, this city waa Hnpposed to equal Amritsir, the capital of Rimjet 
Singh, in met coatuning 10,000 hootea, and being crowded with p<^ala- 
tioQ and thronged with etrangera. Kbai^ar is called Ordukend, or ' the 
City of the horde,' by Abnlfeda, and Haaikar in the Jesuits' map ; and 
Kik-ihi-ko-urk by the Chineae. 

Yarkund,'] This is the largest and moat commercial city in all Chinese 
Toorkistann. It is eitnated in S8° IS- N. lat. and 78'" 27' 43' E. long. 
Tbia city also was deBtniyed by Mirza Abnbeker, hot agun rebuilt and 
restored to prosperity and population by the hand which deetroyed iL As 
he found the air and water of the place agreed with hia constitution, be 
made it the place of bis residence, bad water conducted into the town, 
adorned it with splendid bnildings, surronnded it with walls thirty cnbita 
high, and planted 1200 gardens in ile vicinity. Yarkund waa in 1612 
defended by a stone and mud wall with five gates, and had ten colleges 
snpported by donations in land. The city is much larger than Kbaahghar ; 
the faooses are of stone cemented with mud, and are filled with balconies. 
It ia under a Mussulman chief, who r^pilatee its ravic economy, and 
is called the Hakim, and two Chinese collectors called Ambaitt, — all nn- 
der the command of the chief who resides at Khashghar. There are 
above 40,000 individnala who pay poll-tax in Yarkund and ita envinms. 
The inhabitants of these two dties are chiefly me«^ianics, merchants, and 
moollahs. There are no servants in these cities, but slaves imported from 
Badaluhann and Kanflreestaun. Many of the inhabitants are afflicted with 
the large glandular swelling in the throat called goitre. Yarkund is 360 
li or 134 British miles S.K of Kbaahghar. 

Khotan, ifc.'] For* three days' journey to the S.E. of Yarkund, the 
country is filled with riveis, trees, and gardens. Six days' jonmey fortber 
on is the celebrated city of KhoUm, bat, except the stauons, there ia no 
habitation on the whole road. Khoten '^ is the capital of a populous and 
fertile district, 1000 li, or ni^ 350 B. miles in circumference, accwding 
to a Chinese description of the weatem conntriea, published at Peking in 
1777. It is bounded on the W. by very high mountuna and chains, which 
it ia impossible to cross, and to the E. it has nothing but sandy deserts and 
manby grounds, which extend nearly as far as tiie Sing-aoo-hee lake (near 
the source of the Whang-Ho). The country is had, and governed by two 
superior officers, dependent on the commandant of Yarkund. It contains . 
the following six cities, Khotian, Yooroong-kaih, Kara/ttuh, Ttura, 
Karia, and Takhoobooae. Each of these cities has its hakim, and fonn 
what is called the council of Khotan. — To the S. of Khotan, 20 days' 
journey, is Weatem Tibet, and 700 li, or 240 B. miles N.W., is Yarkund. ' 
The country ia flat, and consists of well'Watered fields. It is in fact an 
oasis in the Bnckbarian desert. According to Marco Polo, who visited 
this place, the district ia eight days' jonmey in extent, and produces cotteo . 
flax, hemp, vinos, and other nse^ plants, besides melons and fruits of v». 
nous kinds. The men are employed in agriculture, and the women am 
engaged in domestic economy and commerce. They also nuse silk-worm«, 
the mountain-ailk ia moat esteemed. Khotan is called Cotan by Marco 

" The ille of Kotmn bsa been Torioiulv placed in modern maps. D'Antills hmm 
placed it 33> W.of Peking, nr upmrda of 83* t:. lung, and 37* N. Int. ThompwM in 
D«*rlr Te* K. long., sihI Ut Morriun, lo kis riew oi Ubin*, in 3a* SC N. and 3V W. 


Polo, and Hotom by the jMuit* ; uul the river on nliich it ataada Hotoai. 
tutoUm-Khateen by Bentink, Cholin by Strableabei^, and KoUm and 
Kkoton by die Orientals. Hence some have been led to believe that it ia 
tbe Kune with the Mandahooriaa word khotun or holun Bignifying a city, 
and that it wna bnilt by the Karakitayane, a Maadshoor tribe, who mled 
this r^i<Hi in the I2th ceDtory. Bnt this ia altogether a mistake, aa 
Khotan exiatad many centuries before tbe Karakitayana were even heard 
of, and the name is no other than a corruption of the ^Mnecrit namo 
XourlaniM, ' the Breast of the Bartb.' It was foiuded by a colony of 
'Hindoos long before the biith of Christ. It is called by the Chinese 
ICaumlanna and Julkean, which are mere corruptiuns of the Shaoscrit 
■tame. At present it is named Kholtyan Ililchi by tbe Chinese. Accord- 
ing to Morrison's riew of China, Khotan contuned a population of 13,642 
families, and 44,650 indiridnala. Khotan was not only a Hindoo colony, 
bnt also a colony of Hindoo Boodbists, as Boodbism was established there 
before the birth of Christ, and con^ued to be the prerailing system till 
the Mohammedan Turin conqnered all the cities of Little Bukharia. It 
was a floorisbing wealthy city in the second centnry of the Christian era, 
when it contained a popolatioo of 32,000 bmilies, 83,000 persons, and 
more than 50,000 soldiers. It was a great resort of llie Boodhists from 
■11 qnarters, who brought thither their aacred books and the traditions of 
their fwdi. All tbe enTirons were covered with Boodbist temples and 
monasteriea, in one of which 3000 rahans were lodged, who lived in com- 
moD, and the dty waa adorned with a prodigiooH number of statiieB of 
Boodha and his priests. — To the W. of the city, in the fourth centnry, as 
we are told by the Chinese writers, undai the Tang dynasty, was a great 
monastery called tbe New Temple, which waa 80 years in building, and 
three kings snccessively overlooked the work. It was 250 feet in height, 
and adorned with paintings and inscriptioos engraved in metal, covered 
over with gold and silver, and enriched with all sorts of precious oma- 
menta. It was terminated by a tower, and a saloon was constmcted fcv 
Boodha, tbe beama of which were of the mo«t preuoos wood. The co- 
lumns, tbe gates, the windows, and screens were covered over with plates 
of gold. Close by the side of this monastery were email cells, fat tbe 
Boodhist monka, which alao were beantifnl and very richly onuunented> 
.But the system of Mohammed has long supplanted tbe Boodhist creed of 
Khotan, and the temples, monasteries, and palaces, are now in mins, if 
even these remain. But Khotan has always been celebrated for its jasper 
or yu, as the Chinese call it ; of this, three kinds ore brought down by as 
many riveri, during the annual floods, white, green, and black. 

Province ofAutwo.'] This province lies to the N.E. of Kash(^r and 
of Peking, or B^ 87* B. of Gncnwich, In which Mr Remawt uemi folly to Bcqalesc& 
KUpigtb, on tlu contrary, who can lei no opportiinltf of displaying British IgnDrsnca 

from the Itaundahre, but from the nutn BCfompBDvIng ■ small pluiispherp In one tbect, 
pnbllihrd 11 FekluE in I79&, with which tbe misslooarlH, memben of the joathiimK. 
tlcal Irihnnal at Pefciili, bad noiiiing 10 do. By SlrahleDberg, in his map, it ia plactd 
in nigh W N. Iftt. and SV E. long., the moat erroneous of all the posltiona hllherto 
■udgiied Khotan. eicept byReonel, whoplared IllnW" N. nod TS* K. looB., or 41* g?' W, 
of Pekioe. lla true position, aa determined Id the greil map uf the Jesuits, in 1760, 
fa 37* N. Ul. and 35' 58- lollg. W. of Peking, or 80° 3& 30" X. of Gr^uwich. This 
poaition agrea with that of Sir George Staunton's Chinese map of the seat of the late 
inr In Weatem Tartary, b copy o( which Is lodged in the Indla-botue. From what 
ire ha™ stated of the eieat diaagreement amongst our heat modern get^apbersj re- 
■pecting the podtion of Khotan. It may be safely inferred thai our ignorance of the 
gtogmfbj of Chinese Toorklstaun Is deplorably great, and not likely to b« mmd re- 

134 *="*■ 

W. of tbe province of Toorfanti, and comprehends the tract S. of the Teen 
Shan or'Alak mountains, and the river Hi. These inoiintaios and the auh- 
alpine tract contain, according to the Chinese accounta, much minenl and 
metallic produce, «a gold, silver, and gems, and the soil in the Talleys and 
lowlands is exceeding fertile. In the moantains near the eonrca of the 
Aaksoo, or White river, are mines of lead, sulphur, sal ammoniac, and eil- 
*er. The chief places are Oulchei or Outcheefermait, the Uks of lalenief, 
Harashar, Koochey, and Autsoo, but little more of them is known than 
their names. Koochsy is a large place; and Harashar is probably tbe Ke- 
rasher of Uxet Oolah, a great Kalmuck city on the left bank of a navigaMe 
river that runs from E. to W. and has a resident Chinese govemor. On 
the route westward from Toorfaun to Auksoo, the stream of the Eeia or 
Ettee is passed, which haa given ite name to a city, in former days the ca- 
pital of the Elnth Kalmucks. According to lezet Oolah'a Chinese itinerary 
from' Peking to Khaslighar, Eela is 15 journeys N.E. of Auksoo. This 
phice is probably the Koi^hos of the maps, near the pass of Kbongia, 
where a range of monntMns separates the source of the Eelee from that 
of Hazitoo river, which runs S-E. to the Lake of Lop. Iszet Oolah waa 
informed at Kbashghar that the Chinese governor of Eellah had 100,000 
men under his command, and some even reused it to 300,000 men ; bat 
recent events have completely disproved this enormous estimate. In his 
itinerary, a chain of monnt«uns rune to the N. of Eelah, (whereas all the 
maps place it to the N. of that range,) and at the western extremity is a 
great lake of water called Azasb-Kol, which is no other than the Balkbash- 

ToorfaHti.'] This is the moat N.E. province of Little Bukharia. It 
contained — if it does not now contain — a great number of dUes, as the 
Greater and the Lester Yuldus, Karakojn or OramtfU, the Aramulh of 
Benoit Gois, and Toorfaun itself. This district, though high and cold, is 
well-watered and fertile. Yuldaz, the Cialis of Goes, signides in Penian, 
■ the mOTning star,' trom ^ beauty of its fonnluna and pastures, a reost 
delightful place. Tbe grass there is so nonrisbing, says Sherefeddin, as to 
fttten the leanest horses in a week's time. Toorfaun is a large city, where 
resides a Chinese governor and Mohammedan hakim. Some distance to 
the W. ara the ruins of Old Toorfonn. Goes represents it as a strong well 
fortified city. In the Jesuits' map it is placed in 43* SO* and 89* 86' R 
of Greenwich, and 26* 52' W. of Peking, but in Sir George Staunton's 
map, where it is called Tooloobn, the Chinese being unable to sound the 
consonant r, it is placed at only 24* 30' W. of Peking, or 91* SB* E. of 
Greenwich, and in 43* N. By ihe Jesuits it is stated to be six days' jour- 
ney W.N.W. of Hami, over a branch of the Cobi, but 10 days' by the hills 
to the N., which is reckoned tbe safer road. It must be remariced, that 
Toorfaun was not visited by tbe Jesuit missionaries, who made the map 
of Kansuh and Hami, and its site is fixed merely trom itineraries and tbe 
reports of the people of Rami. The inhabitants of Toorfaun. says Haitbo, 
the Armenian, in his Oriental History, ch. 2d, are called Jogoora ; they 
abstain rigidly Irom drinking wine, and eating animal food. They ruse 
much wheat, hot have no vines. Their towns are very pleasant and con- 
tain many temples sacred to the worship of idols ; they cultivate the arta 
and sciences, but are not at all addicted to war ; they have a peculiar 
mode of writing, (the Oigoorian character,) which has been adopted by 
all their neighbonis (the Mongols). The inb^iiants of Toorfaun, says 
Shadi-Khuaja, who was there in 1420, are idolaters (Boodhists) who per- 


form the cnemanies t^ their religion in spMnotu temptei, on the cwpeta 
of one of them wu |iUtc«d a Urge image, wliich thay called Sacyo Moonee, 
(the bennit Sacyo,) a Sbanicrit appellation of Boodha. To the W. ot 
Towhnn eight or nine leagnea, ia HotJuvi, the ancient capital of the 
Oigoora, and atill called Pe-ting-too-iboo-foa by the Chinese, «ayi &ther 
GanUl, in hii hiatory of the Ywen dynasty. According to tbe Moham- 
medan historiaiw, Bishbali^h was the ci4>ital of the OigoMs, bat thi« ia a 
mistake, as Bishbeligh in Eu to the N.W. of Toorfann, and in Soongaria 
near the base of the volcanic range called in Torkiah Ak-taa{^, ' the white 
mountam.' This district, and that of Ab-maligh, to the W., belonged to 
die Toorkish tribes and not to the Oigoon. To the £. of Toorfann three 
days' jonmey, is Karakoja, at Anunnth, according to Shadi Khnaja and 
Goes. We have no other account of it, than that it is 35 caravan jonmeya 
N.E. of Khotan, and 31 from Tethawl the frontier of China, where there 
b a wall between two inonntains, in which wall is a great gate and cara- 
TBnaerais Va lodge passengers, and where several soldien are always sta* 
tioned to gnard the frontier and entrance of the wall. Hie Tetluwl of 
Sherefeddin can be no other than the fortress of Khyayuqaao, at the west- 
ern extremity of the great wall, in 39° 48' N. and 17' 37' W. of Peking, 
so ib^ frmn Khotan to Khyayuqnao by Karakoja, is not less than 66 
daya' jonmey of a caravan. But the direct road &om Khotan to Khyayn- 
quan, is stated at only 40 days' jotuney, but then it is wholly through the 
Cohi, withont a single house or tent on the road, through moriag sands, 
and where, thongb the water of the wells is easily come at by the thirsty 
caravan, yet in several it it poisonous, and kills the animals which drink 
of it. 

Proomce o/' Ham\.'\ This lies to the E. and S. of Toorfann, and is 
merely an obbIb of ths Cohi, snrronnded by deserts. The climate, says 
Dn Halde, (not the miauonary, as Malte Brun calls him, for he was never 
out of Paris,) ia very warm in summer, but we are equally certmn, that it 
moat be very cold in winter, from its great elevation and that of the neigh- 
bouring moonluns. We are told by Shadi Khnaja, in his rout« firom 
Hami to Shachew, that he and his companions met a flock of yaks or H- 
betian bulla, called by him gao-kilai. Now we know that these anioiala 
and the musk-deer cannot exist but in regions intensely cold or of great 
elevation. The gao kitas, says Shadi Kbu^a, ar« smd to be so strong aa 
to support their riders for a considerable time on their horns. The moun- 
tains produce agates and diamonds, says Grosier, but the only vegetable 
productions are said to be melons and giapes, the former are of superior 
qnahty, and served up at the table of the Chinese emperor. The 
people are strong, able-bodied, active men, well-shaped and handsome. 
The city of Hami stands 90 leagues N.W. of Khyayuquan, the western 
extremity of the great wall, and 185 miles N.N.W. of Sliachew, the most 
western fortress of China, in 42" 53' 30" N. and 22° 23' 20^ W. of Pe- 
king by observation. Between these two places and Kami extends the 
Skamo or Cobi, full of arid shifting sands, and for 10 days' jonmey on 
the road from Shachew to Hami not a drop of water is to be found in the 
desert. Immediately beyond this, is a small pleasant grove of trees, and 
aeveral tprings, where the governor of Shachew entertfuned the ambassa- 
dors of Sharokh Mirza, on tbeir journey to that city. The conntry con- 
tains, besides the capital, Hami, a nnmber of towns and villages, as marked 
on the map, but beyond their names nothing more is known. The inha- 
bitants of this province, like that of Toorfann, were all Boodtusls, and 

136 ASIA. 

Shadi KhoBJa m«itioiui die Boodhirt templet aa nnmeroiu and very epkn- 
did, and filled irilh an eodlesB variety of images of all aizes. The diseo- 
tnte raannen of its Boodhiat inhabitants are graphically described by 
Marco Polo, who says that they seemed born for dancing, linging, and 
rerelling, joat like the people of Khotan, of whom tba Chinese writers 
give an account perfectly umilar. Both this province and that of Toor- 
fann constitnted the country of the Oigoors, so lamed in Mongolian atory. 
They hare been incorporetad with China since 1720, and made no part of 
the Elnth dominions conquered by Kienlong in 1757. Ebeide Oollah, 
the Mohammedan chief of Hami, for bis Beiricee to Khanghee in the war 
with Kaldan, khan of the Elutha, was recompensed with the hononr of 
having his troops enrolled under a distinct standard in the imperial army, 
and was honoured with the title of chief of the Shassak or legion of Hami. 
A grandson of his, called Yoosoof, having rendered new services to the 
emperor, obtuned the title of Wang or king, and the pre-eminence over 
alt the other chiefs of Hami or Kamonl. The prince of the Tnrks of 
Toorfeon, named Amin-Khojah, was for similar reaaonH created a Shasaak, 
or head of a banner, in the reign of Yong-chiog in 1725. He also re- 
ceived a teal, and his sabjects were formed under a banneret, of which be 
was the commander. This was sncceeded by the title of loang or king. 

Thus we have gone over the geography of IJttle Bukharia as accu- 
rately as our limited information would permit, and shall conclude this 
part with observing that we have no account of the city of Lop, mentioned 
by Marco Polo, near the lake of that name, the eastern end of which is in 
42" -iV N. and 25* long. W. of Peking. The fountain named Urta PuUtk 
in the fiiM sheet of the map of Tibet, is the most western poution, geo< 
metrically determined by the Jesuits in the province of Hami, in the work 
of Da Halde. 

InhabUant)^ These are composed of Bukhars or Taujikt, Toorkt, 
Kirgte*, and Kalmucki. The first are the eame race as the Bukhars of 
Great Bukharia ; and what has been said of them equally applies to those 
of Little Bokharia ; but it would aeem that they are meet numeroos in the 
province of Khashghar. The second class are the indigenous nomadee of 
the country, iriiilst the two latter are intruders who have come here as 
conquerors. Respecting the O^oort, who once and loag inhabited the 
etatem parts, we cannot say what is become of tbem : whether they have 
mingled with the Toorks and Western Mongols, or hare migrated to TibeL 
But of this we are certain, that they have now no political existence, and 
no mention of them as a distinct race is made in modem times. — Re- 
epecting the language of the Bukhara and Toorks it is Toorkish, but ao 
mingled with Persian, that Kl^troth has ventured to pronounce Persian to 
be, if not the basis, at least the body of the language. Boodhism, at an 
early period of history, aeems to have been imported hither from Hin- 
doostaun, as is dear from the case of Khotann and the number of Shan- 
scrit terms and names used in that system, as practised formerly amongst 
the natives. But the system of Mohammedism gradnally spread from 
Khashghar eastwards till it aupplanted the Boodhism of Khotann, Toor- 
foun, and Hami. In the middle of the 11th century, Togalak Khaun. a 
descendant of Jagatay the son of Zingis, embraced Islamism with all bia 
Mongol subjects, to the number of 160,000 men. Ever siace it has been 
tlie prevailing religion amongst all classes, the Elutba or Western Mongols 
excepted, if any auch still wander in tiie steppes of this region. 



This extensive region may be'divided into two great portions, tba West- 
ern, and the Eastern ; tbe former comprebending all the elevated tract 
watered by tbe upper conrsesof the Indus and Satluj, — and the latter com- 
monly and strictly denominated Tibet, and Great Tibet, together with the 
region of tbe Seefann or Toofaun, and the extensive conntry of Tangoot. 
The whole of this reg:ion is bonnded on the W. by the Beloor Tagh ; on 
the N. by the Mooz Tagh ; on the S. by the Great Himalaya, which se- 
parates it from Northern Hindostan, tbe upper valley of tbe Butram- 
pooter, and tbe Birtnao dominions ; and on the E. by China. 


This agwn may be conveniently •nbdivided into the upper basins of the 
ladna and Sntlnj, tbe former of which is tbe enbject to be fint described. 

This comprehends all tbe tract from the Beloor to the sources of the In. 
dus, having the Mooz Tagh on the N. ; and the Hindookhoosfa, or Western 
Himalaya, which separates it from Afghanniataun and Cashmere, and tbe 
Caillas range, which divides it from the npper valley of tbe Sntluj, on tha 
S. This large tract may be conveniently denominated Western Tibet, or 
tbe N.W. portion of it ; tbe S.E- portion being confined to tbe npper course 
of the Sutluj. As this ia almost an unknown region, it would be pre- 
samptuoua in ua to fix its bonudariea by degrees of longitude and latitude. 
We shall content ourselves, therefore, with giving its leading divisiona, 
b^linning from the W. Tbey are the following : Upper Katithkaur, Bat- 
titlava or IMtle Tibel, Khofalun, Ladauk, and Changtkang. 

Upper Kaushkaur.'y Respecting the first, according to Elphinston'a 
information whilst at Pesbawer, Kaushkaur was represented as lying im- 
mediately to the E. of Badakshaun, to the N. of the Hindookboosh, having 
the range of tbe Famer, or tbe Mooz Taugh, on tbe N., and Baltistann on 
tbe N.E. and £. In his map, it occupies a large triangular space, of which 
the Hindookhoosh is the base, — and the Beloor Tagh, and the range 
separating it from Baltistaun, form the two sides; whilst the N.W. junc- 
tion of that range with the Beloor constitutes tbe apex or bead of the tri- 
angle. Of this country almost nothing is known, but merely, that it is 
very cold and high, and is possessed by a nation called Cobi, who dwell in 
tents, and even have some towns. They are at present Mohammedans, 
and under several petty diiefs to the number of four, three of which are 
called respectively ChUraul, Drooth, Ma$loock. S.E. of these are tbe 
Dardt, bordering on Cashmere, to the S. and S.B., evidently the Daradte 
of Ptolemy, who places them near the source of the Indus, in a very 
mountainona country ; for he says expressly that the mountains of the 
Daradu ' maxime tupereminenl,' " These Dards extend all the way E. to 
tbe fi^ntiera of LacUnk, and infest the road from tbence to Cashmere, 
mining tbe villages, and carrying o£F the inhabitants, and selling them for 

" 1/ the wort b« derived from Dfcw, ■ mountidii-ridjB, then tbe t«rm mwos tlw 
mniDtiiliwen 1 but hla Indus leenu to hne been tha Abba Seen, whidi cnten ttw Indur 
at Mullal, lining rrmmount^iM In th* N.W. more than 80,000 Stat abova ths plata 

Cooi^ Ic 

UJ} To the N.E. of- Ksiuhkjuir, oa dia opoosite of a lofty 

o-belt, is Balti at Little Tibet, evidently tLa B^ of Ptolemy, 

jfltich he plftcM next Monnt Inuuu, — 'Jiala mtmtem Imaum.' Of tbia 
region we cru uy nothing, bnt that it aeeou to corrMpond to tfaa ToorL. 
kend of D'Aanlle, of his Toorkiatann on the Indni. It obtained tbii lat- 
ter name probably from its being the abode of aome Tooricieb tribes ; but 
boH it obteined that of Little Tibet ia unknown. It liea, however, wholly 
to the N.W. of the Upper Indas.'to the W. of the principality of Tiadank, 
and to the S.W. of the Mooz Taugh. There i« a caranw road through 
tbia territory to KiuuubgBnr of 41 daya' jonmey ; and the capital, Ascar- 
doo, Eahkerdoo, or Shokerdoo, ia said to be 8 day*' journey from the north- 
em frontier of Ceahmere, and 11 from Caefamere itaetf. Beyond this ia 
Shnker. From Shukerdoo to the northern frontier of Little Tibet is 15 
dftya' jonmey, and 15 from thence to Khaahgatu-. The whole jowney of 
15 days throng IJttle Tibet ia eud to be through thick foreats, a oirc«B- 
atanco indicatire of a large enbalpine tract clothed with wood," We hare 
no historical account of Balti, or Little Tibet, bnt only that in 1638 it 
was orerrun by Zuffar Khan, one of the generals of Shah Jehan, when 
Shekerdoo and Shuker were both captured, 

AAo/iibH.] The next dirision is the amall state of Kbofiduo, which 
oppeara for the first time under that name in Moorcroft's journey to La- 
■lauk. It aeema to lie to the E. of Little Hbet, and to the N. of Ledank, 
andtobetheKakalnDof tzzet Oollah'a route, 19 hours to the N. or N.W. 
of the Msa of Karrakoorum ; ao that it apparently liea in the very ccatre 
of the Mooz Tangb. We hare no accouot of it whatever, but merely 
that a very short pass leada from Kakaluo to Baltistaon, and that the Kal- 
mncka and Kirgheea had profited much by means of it to make iocnrsiona 
into LJttle Tibet, — but that the inhabitonta of the latter, in order to put 
an end to the miachief, had conveyed aeveral monntaiU'BtreaQis into the 
defiles, which, being frozen by the intense cold, rendered the passage im- 
uracticable. The rirer of Kakalun, or KhoMun, seema to be that whichj 
in hia further progress, Izzet Oollah found to be called the Yagvi ZJatmitt, 
or ' the new pass,' dawan not being the same as dmead, ' a monntain,' but 
duan, ' a pass,' and which, in its further progress through this range ttf 
monntain country, ia called the rirer of Miaar, afterwarda diat of Kberga- 
lick, and which finally joins the river of Yarknnd. Beyond Kakalun, 9 
hours' journey on the right bank of the river, is Tagtah, opposite which ia 
a mountain in which mines of copper have been discovered, — Ti^tab, ac- 
cording to Izset Oollah, signifying ' minea of copper ' in Tibetian. We 
would rather suppose it Toorklah having no high notion of die Mine's 

Principality or Lad&uk.J TUX widusthese few years, this prind- 
palily was a terra ignola, though its name has figured on uie maps for n^ 
two centuries. The position of this city was the very opprobrium of modmt 
get^raphy. Save Moorcroft, no Europeana had ever seen Ladauk, excep 
two miaaionariea, Freyro and Desideri, who bad reached it from CaaL- 
mere ; and their acconnt of the difficulties they experienced in the route 

H RcnnelplMM Sholurlnar N. lat., 154 mnaphksl aaUe* N.W. «f Culia«% 
■llowing II tucb mila for tach dsj'i jounwy A dtreci diitaim, a vcrv Impmbabla dr- 
cumaUnu Jo »a maiuklalaous a coaatrf. H B mtlcB »-4»j i* abimdantlv aufiduit ; aod 
f ■' jauTocir of S (aiMTwhibU 
imint It loV in W" XV N. Ut. 

Dcillizedoy Google 

■Dppodiu Sbnlwr ts b* in 36* N. and 71* £. loog., 30 da; ■' jnumcir of 
mUsi each would bring tha oaiavan to Klu(b(h«ur, auppating It lobe ' 

>dTG^£. too 

eBM oil the creit of ■ mouDtBin, where mn icen tiro cmtUvcluori 
called Wwuatui. ThEM ttvoMnBrktbediTiilimof the walen^ w __ 

a rid* W Cuhmo^ and an dw oAer (mnrtte ilbat. Thk cnated nwDliaii, tbn*- 


WM mfficimt to ippal tha nonlMt famrti from erer stteinptuig it a weotid 
tine."— This tenitmy lin in tbe centra of die rvrj elmt«d taphnd 

- •* A brief Mitliin of tuM OooMi'* raota fnm Crnhmtn la I^dHnk, In 1H8, hw 
■ppeBied Id El;diiiut«ir, add lathe Orien>>l Hi<uiDe of Calcutta, which bia thrown 
(ome bint light on the nibjecL His roule wu to the N.G., alongit the coone ot tbt 
Little Binde, or Indo* of Cuhnlere, ta the rilliigv ot SaDrnmnrf, cootalnlng 90 Or 00 
^aica, and tb* Ia*l itatiafi in (hat pmrliM*, tb* road diOealt tmA grwrelif. Fira eon 
N.E. iaTaltal, wbere thenlaahoiplcefor traTeller*. Beyond tbb, nnJl hill* acn- 
rati Cadimere fram Tibet. Alter tatafing these beifhta, be arrlted at MutnTen, tb« 
flntpl>oaiiithalcrriiM7«f Tikat,Mil)wricbtbankarthe HraTof LIMle Tltel, tlM 
InbaHtaDti for the moat part Hobaaunadaiu of the Smmila ■•«(. Farther on tlw ronla 

- ... 1 . 'UockaofMonejtheplaoa 

walen^ which d«Kend oo 

trtownw iipat. lu ■" "- 

fore, ahouM b« th* boundary, and oat the nnaU hill* betw __. „__._ 

Two am to the E. of Mutaven la Pauderraa on ■ mull itreani, and fonr con bevood 
UIMrtrBa,(lbeI}raaaor£1pbtBato>i)theHBtaraTlbellan garvrabr olM Kefarfiiin, 
and placed by Elnbiuton, on the aMborilv of Macartnajp, in IP M &. and SV Ur N, 
eiidently too fu distant for a place only iS ooa from Cubmerc, — if Rennd's obaa^a. 
lion be correct, il undoubtedly it is, that In a *ery moaDIainaus coutitry Cinch as that 
balween Caahmers and lAdauh) It minlTeB mure than 60 cdaaea of iratdling distanoe 
to make a degree of a great eirda. From Draus to KanJiao, Ih coai, a city mMunpaaa- 
ed, like Drsus, with ril]a%et, the houses wooden and well built, the inhabiiants Shilla 
Hohsmraedans for the most part. On that route two fajeh moDntnlns are cToasKl, M- 
tsrven which Is an open place where the caimTans bail. Onions abotuid In thaae matuw 
tains, sndcowa with long tails like horse. Theie aniheyakiof Tibet, now well koowa 
animals. To Peabhum, Tcom, the place of a r^jah,i<ubject totbatofTibel^andaplace 
^raeably planted with popUra and willows. To Btili S cobs, beatdt trhlch it ■ rock 
irith a CMtie, the reaidance of a laaski Un Iba raok are many acalplared fmagea. aad 
the people are BoodblaU. There is a small coDient of Gbyilongi, who possea the 
gresCnt part of the land In the tidnlty. Barlrf and wheat are there reaped aboat tKo 
end of SepUmber. He aucc«aai»dy paaaed the viUueaaf HatBstand Ijtnyar U f In Ui 
route from thence to Khalach on the Sanpo^ which in Tlbatian signifies the graat ri*<*( 
and from theucs by SampouU and MemeV to Ladauk. !l coss from KhaJacI^ and 111 
ona from CashmerB. Senral attamsti ban be«n atnce made to reach Ladank bj trdy 
•f the Upper Sulii^ j and captain Herbert, who ascoded the Spastee branch of tha 
Sulli^j, as fur as Lsr, the iionlier village of the Spntee of Ladauh, beliered that ha 
Onuld hare gone oa to Iddank had he bMn dedrons, belOg told thai the road was good, 
the paopio not joalOD^ and imagined hinlsdf to be on lb4 northern aide df (ha -~-~ -* 


le great range. But suecaediog Iravellen fsond Herbot to be mistaken in all tbasa 
.irtleuluTs. One traieUer. in ISliS, made two attempta to reach I.«Ami.i., qik by tlu 
>fty range where the Parati or N.B. branch of the ^peeUe orlgiOatea, Ond anotbtr by 
'-nlleyef thetJpeeteeitaelAovtvttMParahiwraDgBtallMft.W. I hot bNb UM, 

from the depth of the suow and Intensity of the cold. Capmin Gerard madsaereral 
— mpis to Kain Ijodaufc, one by the Parati riTer, and another by the pass of Tari, at 

.,.._ „_,.._ „.,W .. .. ., .■..«_, , * — -ailed 14 bo* 

, . . • J.idHkia 

SepL ISfO, by a dilferent route from any which had hitherto been attempted, fla west 

, J^.. ^ . „j „..„/_ i„, .._... o..-..=-^.-„-_ .^eeapilatof 

ipital of Aa 

Inatancee by Chinese Jealooiy. ivtr Mooreroft waa so fortnnale la (o _ . 

" . ISfO, by a dilferent route from any which had hitherto been attempted, t 
ray of Khot Ks&Krah, and early in Jaly HTrired at SbabjeUnpdre, the ct 
me Kangra state. From tbenc« ha went to iloidtBunpor* a* eftaoapare, tapiti 
Koolino state, where he arriTed on the SSd of tlu saiDe soondi. Qn the loth of An- 
EU9I, accompanied by a caravan of Bukharian merchants loaden with spedmensof Bri- 
tish mannfiBlnres, along the Beyah ur Hyphatli rirer, sacenAng ■ lateral range of th< 
Himalaya, aad oroesing the Chunaub or AoealneB bya jhoolBornip*bridga,bearrind 
at Tandee, camtal of the district of Loboal, at or near the base of the great diridlng 
ranga of die tircM Himalaya, on the gist of Anguat. These names occur, for the flm 
time, in tbe geq(rapby of the Wealem HeenudiBh. Qnittlng thia plats on the STth, 
be saranded tfas Indihed plane of the great range, paariog through a coonlry partly 
desolate and jarify cnlilrated, and crwied It at a great deration By the pass of Bara- 
Lm, the table land of wblelt li higher than the surnmlt of Mount Blanc, and entered 
Idd-alefaori«l-ahya, and reached lAdaiifc on the 20tb Of Sept. 192a The difficulties 
of theronteteeregreat, and the variety ol' tmiperature encountered trying to the con- 
Btitutton. The pwty passed Ihroogh the Pui^anb In the hottest season of the year. 
On ascending tbe monntalni, bes^ and Incessant rains retarded the route ; and [n the 
boning of September, in crossiiiti the Hlmulsya, the thermometer sudk loS- below 
tbe freezbgpotin. Mr Moorctoft resided at Udauk fur two years, from 18!0 to 1884. 
Aaothrr intrspM traveller, ardent In the pursuit of Asiatic literature. Czoma de Ko- 
TBK, a TnunylVsntan, reached Ladaofc, by way of Cabul and Cashmere, in IS^B. Ha 
left (^nabmen! on May I4A, and arrived at Ladauk June I9th. after a journey on foot 
of as days. He intended to have ioae to Tarkuud, but was preventi^ by the Cblnesa 
anthorittea^ and was on Hi retiirn to Caabmere, whso Mr Hoortfoft mat blm and took 

140 ASIA. 

tliTOogfa which flowi the Upper Indas, and which occnpies the whole span 
N. and S. between the very lofty Bnow-clftd range which bonnda the. val- 
ley of the Upper Sntlaj and its tiibatary atreanu, and the equally elevated 
creit of the Mooz Tagh, the eouthem frontier of Bukhara or Chinese 
ToorkietMin. It ia boanded on the E., it is aaid, by the Chinese province 
of Khotan and the Lhassan province of Changtbang; on the S.W. and 
W. by Caahroere and Boltistann, or Little Tibet i on the N.W. and N. by 
part of the latter region, end by Khofalnn, and by the Karrakoorom range 
of mountains ; and on the S. by the Biitish province of Bischnr, and the 
independent states of Kooloo and Cbsmba. Its extent is coinpnted at 
30,000 aqnare miles, or half the snrfeuw of England. Its shape is that of 
an irregular triangle, the longest side or base of which forms the soathem 
limit, mnning obliquely about 220 milee from S.E. to N.W., or from Bis- 
chnr, by KooUoo and Chamba, to Cashmere. In this statement of boun* 
daries, given in Hamilton's Indian Gazetteer, neither longitudes nor lati- 
tndes are given, and the Speetee of Ladank is included within it. Now 
we demur to thia latter part of the statement, aa it confounds the valley of 
the Indna with that of the Sntluj ; and the same rnnge which separates 
Ladank from the sources of the Kiahengonga, the Little Sinde, the Chn- 
naab, the Ihylnm, the Kanwee, and the Beyab, also separates it from the 
valley of the Speetee and the Sutlaj. Its being called a dependency of 
Ladauk La the ostensible reason ; but it is no more a dependency of La- 
dauk, than Ladauk is of Hunjeet Singh, to whom it pays a small tribute; 
and yet no one Tentures to include Ladank in the Funjanb. For these 
reasons we venture to make the Speetee of Ladank, and not Bischnr, part 
of its Bouthem frontier. We have no idea how Khotan, a small district 
in Chinese ToorloBtaun, and on the opposite side of the Mooz Tagh, the 
great dividing range, can possibly form its eastern frontier. The ^t ia, 
that its eastern frontier la naknown, with this exception, that Changtbang, 
where the eastern and southern branches of the Indus originate and uaile, 
lies to the S.E. of this principality, and is probably, like Ladauk itself, 
bounded on the N. by the same range of mountuns continued to the E. 
Mr Moorcroft indeed says that the unexplored territory of Khoten extends 
far to the E. alongst the face of the Mooz Tagh, connected by irregular 
groups with Kentaisse, or the Calllaa, and thu the line of the ancient 
thoroughfare between Khashghar and India was through Khotan and Koo- 
daukh, fonnerly the summer residence of the chief of Ladauk. But, in 
this case, Changtbang must be included in the principality of Ladauk, and 
there can be no doubt that the district of Khotan lies to the N.E. of 
Chaogthong. But since Changtbang is stated, in the above, to be distinct 
trom fioodaukh and the eastern boundary of Ladauk, Khotan cannot be its 

him back with him to LoiUuk, and Irfi him (here to atudy th< Tibetisn luuiwge. 
ilubHquflilly h* njidoed Moorcroft at Cuhmcn, but again returned, fumiihed wiih 
fuuda bj meant of the Indis Compsny, and renomouDdsIioru to the chlermiiiinerst 
Ladwik and to the Lama of Taungls. He rem^ioed in tlie eitabllahmeDt of the Lama 

■C IUkUut, thBS.W. portof Ladauk, tlU June, 1821. when he left it for Stuipora in 
KooUoa, and proceeded thence, b; Mundee, Sukhet, and Bullau^pore, t» SoobathiM in 
Bischur, in lt«3, and firom thence to Soangnaum in KoonawoDT, where he wu left 
very lateljr biuily employed in studying the tooolu of the iioDdbiit system in the Lama 
monaatery, under the proiecllonaud palronagBof the India goiremment. ItismMtorof 
n^ret, that, from the uncimely death of Mr Moorcroft, we have been deprived of hia 
account of that unknown but inieresllng diBtriet, which would have provwl a gnat 
■ccadon to our knowledge of Tibelian geography, and dispelled the darknea that Mill 
remains coacernltig the upper course uf the Indiu. A few gleanings from his pan ars 
■II we have got j and these, lugetber with what has beeu obtained trom lizet UnUah. 
an all tbe data en which we have to nat our pment deacrlptioQ of Ludjuk. 


autem bonnduy, Cbugtbai^ lyin^ between. And u Kbotsn U al(og«- 
tber on tbe N. tide of the Moos Tam^, in STi* N. Iat>, that nuge U, in 
gMgraphic»l strictness, the real N. and N.E. boundary both of Ladank 
■nd Cfaangthang. 

Having little w no knowledge of the interior of Ladank, it would ba 
presomptnons to attempt any detailed deecription of its surface. It is 
qnite evident, however, that, as it is merely a long and apparently narrow 
valley, watered by tbe Indus, and smroiinded on all sides by lateral ridges 
descending to the main stream from the great ranges that bound the prin- 
dpahty, its surface most be very ro^ed and irregular, having a constant 
interchange of hills and valleys, each watered by its mountain-stream, 
— in other words, a complete piece of net-work, which may indeed be 
represented on a m^, bat which laagnage cannot describe. Many of the 
hills are of great altitude, bat far inferior in elevation to the ranges whence 
tbey proceed ; and the hollows between are profound, dangerons, and diffi- 
cult to pass, which renders travelling laborions and tedious. It appears, 
that, aifter a jonniey of five days N.E. of Cashmere, an evident ascent 
commences, which is very great for four days successively, after which it 
ia leas, on to Ladank. But still it oonlinnes even on to tbe great range 
irtiich separatee Tibet &om Yaritand. To the left of this route the country 
ia also very monntaiDous, but perfectly desolate, and on this account we have 
little information conceniing it. A roalo &om Deer, in Pnnjcora, paesea E. 
through tbe eoutbem part of this re^on, but it is excessively mountainona 
and difficult. Two marches before Izzet Oollah reached the pass of Kar- 
rakoorom, he fell in with an icy elevated range, called Khumdan, which, 
as he was ioformed, reached 200 coeses from S.E. to N.W., and which 
•epaiated Ballistann from tbe district of Suirikol, on the frontier of Ba- 
daksbann. Communication with tbe neighbouring countries, except up 
the valley of the Indus, is extremely difficult, whe^er with Cashmere, or 
Khashgfaar, or Yarknnd, or Kbotan, or the Ponjaab, or tbe Speetee ; every 
where motmtain-ranges must be crossed ere Ladauk be entered, so tliat it 
is, as it were, an insulated region, secluded from the rest of tbe world, tbe 
course of the Indus being its only outlet. It is extremely well watered, 
from the nnmberiess streams which run from valley to valley, increasing 
•B tiiey descend their ru^ed channels, ull they reach their common recep- 
tacle the Indus. In the Cashmerian language, the principality of Ladank 
ia called Boottn, (Bootan) says Izzet Oollob ; by tbe inhabitants themselves 
Ladagh ; and in Peruan and Toorki^ T^bet, — that word Mgnifying, in 
Toorkiah, shawl-wool. That shawl-wool is produced most abundantly m 
this mountainous region, is true, but it is not the reason of the name, which 
is more rationally supposed to be a corruption of tbe Tibetian words Teit- 
bool,' kingdom ofBoodb,' as Father Geor^ thinks, — just as the word ' .Boot- 
fen' is 'Ten-bool' reversed. The climate is very col<^ as might be expected 
from its great elevation, and as lying between the Himalays, Caillas, and 
Muoz Tagh ranges, which must infiuence its temperature very much. 
From whatever airth tbe wind blows, it must be from these snowy heights, 
and it communicates a sharpness to the air, of which people coming thither 
from the warm temperature of Hiudoalan must feel very sensibly. 
Mounlmns half-covered with snow during the greater part of tbe year 
skirt tbe plain at no great dbtaoce, where etandii the city of Ladauk. 
Even in the month of June it freezes every night at Ladank ; and Moor- 
croft had still to use his wann furs along with his companions. — Tbe city 
of Lm, or I^adaok, is utnated on the eastern extremity of a plain, in tlw 

140 ASIA. 

r«ceM foiiDed between two OMitigBOiu liills of modente hught, with tli* 
Bummits of both wbid) tha town ia connected by a wall terminatiiig in 
some bnildii^ intanded for defeDO& llie Saopo, or Indiu, flam kbomi » 
uisa to the S. of tbe place. The gesibo, or chief, resides in the middla 
of tbe town, iu a lofty bnildiii^, the farm of which ii preciwly nmilar to 
the Tibeticu) edifice! m depicted by tbe old intTellen. The hoiucB sre of 
■tone or nabunit brick, tbe beams of poplw-mod, the dwellinga of three 
or four Btoriea, and the dty contaias 1000 Bach. The valley of the Sanpa 
ben ia from 2 to 1 com broad for a distance of 17 com np the river, aad 
U vary richly caltivated with wheat and barley. As the territory of La- 
dank is almost entirely compoaed of hills and moon, it is a grazing cotiB- 
try for almost every species of giaminivervns animals, aepecially bones, and 
sheep, and goats. The dogs of Tibet un twice as laig* aa these of 
Hindostan, having large headi, long coats, and so amazingly fierce and 
strong, as to be singly a match for a lion. This exactly agrees with 
Marco Polo's account of tha Tlbetian dogs ; and indeed tbe more we 
learn of these r^oDS the more strongly is the veiadty of the illos- 
trions Italian cooflrraed. The boshy-tailed cow, or gak, of Tibet, 
is common to tbe whole of Western Tibet, and is an invaJnablo boon 
to tbe natives, both a* a beast of burden, and at perfectly fitted, from 
its conatitntioa and haluts, to cany the travellsr over tbe loftiaat 
heights, or convey him acroas the most impetnoos torrents. The po- 
nies of Zaisbkar sell from 80 to 70 rupees each. Tbej are very ficet, 
aorc of foot, and cross tb« highest passes with ease." The produce of 
^wl-wool in this country, Moorcroft |obscrves, is immense, and more 
than 60,000 persons in Cadimere obtua their Uving aolely by the ma- 
nuiactare of it ; but in consequence of the grinding oppression of the 
Afghaiu govemmait, more than 4,000 shawl weavers emigrated in 
1820, and 6,000 more were expected to emigrate in 1821. Ladanic 
abounds in fine timber for ship-bailding, and if it were posMble— which 
it is not — to transport it down the Indus to the Pnnjaab, it would be 
a most invaluable Bcquisition.— Of the mineral produce of LAdauk we 

" Had M<Hkrcrof> beea spared, or hia papen bv«a recovered, we would have received 
a wtisraclorr ■ccouiii of ihe zoology of Ladauk. As 11 In, howeTer, ho liaa cottmaDl. 
cBted an Intcrcating secDont of a new apeeiei of ibeep called /mrii. In thia oomma- 
niation ha atatn tbe ooieltlaa be found, in the department of natural history, to be aa 

volume. This anlmil, ssys he, is, when full grown, surcely ss larse aa a Sontb 
Down lamb nf bte or six raanth* old ; yet, in the 6atuat and weight of its fleece, the 

U aa completely domeiiicaledas n hou:*e-dog. All uigbt It shelters Iu a n-alled yard, or 
under ita maater'i roof. In the day it feeds often on a sSrTwe at granite rock, wbar* 
B blade of vcgetalioa can bardly be seen ; and wheu ^e land in clsand of harvest and 
stubble, and not a stalk of veietatinn appenrs. its indefuiigsble indiulry detecta aub- 
itanc«9 so mlliute aOd oninviting, as ordiuary sheep could neither see om lake, even In 
Lsdauk. The puilk afaeep will esmlne the cooking-pol. pieh up cruinbe, drtnk lbs 
ramsina of a cup of sailed and buttered tea or broth, or nibble a cleanly pl>:ked bone. 
Leaves of lettuce, rindi of turulp, skina of apricots, are lulurious fare ; and the real- 
dunm of (be iroarse tdack tea consumed by the natives, after being meeped, aud the d«- 
ODctlon conducted with th« MioaBt fritgallty, are devoured by this animaL Jt gives two 
lambs annually, and is twice shorn within the aame period, the clip affordiOE S lb& of 
wool annually, tbe Ant crap being fine enough for tolerably good ahatvhi, nloorcroA 
■llinns thai a Briiish cott)«er could keep three of thsse aheep easier than h* coald a, as they would live lujiuriantly by day on the stripes of graaa tl-- ' — ' '^- 

roadi, slul by keeping clean hedge bottoms, lit alao mentions a nondescript speciea of 
wild borse, called Inang, which he thinks might be domeirtlcsted for the nse of Ine small 
hrmer md poor In Britain. 1( Is about 14 hands high, of a raoad mascular farm, 
with remarkably clean limbs. 'iliU specie, of horse Is found in a district of ChaBg- 
thang, in a part called Kanree, or ' ilic snowy mountain;' but it may prrhuabs 
Ihe X:<mi dibaJh,,, which is foaiid wild bi almost every part at Central Asia. 


ba*« DO Bcooont whatever, «v» tbtt bset Ootlah telh lu of minM of 
■nlphor three stages from Lei ; and tliat saltpetre abounds, and that reiy 
•xc«Ueat gunpowder is made at Lei. — But the chief glory of Ladank ia 
the eommOTM which it enjoys, as the great entrepot of all the produce of 
■11 the pastoral r^sn of the upper ralley of the Indus, and as a common 
reatiag pUee for all the cararans that go frmu Khashghar, and Yarkien, 
and Khotan, to Caahmere and Afghauntstann, or from these latter to Cht- 
■M* Tooriiisiaan. It is the great emporium for all the shawl-wool which 
iaprodaeed in the districta of Changthang and the Oondes, and which is 
aabse€|nently exported to Cashmere.'' Three grand hirs are annnally held 
IB Lei at Ladsak, oae in October, one in February, and a third in Augnst. 
The second of these ia the greatest fair. At these fairs the concoarse of 
Mitsanlmauns from Kbeshghar and Yaricnnd, of Lamas from Lasss, Tee~ 
ahooloomboo, De^garchee, and Ghortope from Amritsir, and alt the Pun- 
jaob, and of merchaats from Cashmere and alt other places, as Khoonawnr 
and Kfao<Jlo, is said to be immense, — all of whom pay dnty for their mer- 
chandise ; and the valnable productions of all these regions are ponred 
into Ladank, which seems to be an entrepot for iheir riches, to be re-ex- 
]>mted by the varians natural channels to their nitimate markets. From 
Hindoetaa are imparted every species of Hindoo manafsctnres and pro- 
duce, as Mooltaon chintzes, the silks of Benares and shawls. From Yar- 
knnd come etirer, Russia leather, felt carpets, coarse and fine China silks, 
t^feties, velveta, eardwnware, aable furs, small coral beatts, and seed 

" H tram miexilAi**, Itot In IBM tin ywim nf tht ■ImwI-ti 
nere was from L30a,00D to L. 600,000 MerUngt *oi in ISS 

ruler of the Pmijaub, then in puawasion of Cuhmere, farn .-....._,. 

tatlonef Btwwl-wcKd IdIo CuhDHn at 131 lac ■ of rup«a, or L. 160,000; 800 hnru- 
Vnrli nf thli wont gouiuiuiU; biace la Cuhnur*, »(h livnii-laad wnghuii; SSIcrek*. 
Tke wool U abtajned intm Ihe hide of the goat, anil is distinct from the bail, whick la 
Ttrj long and shagjj. It ia this double cnat of very fine dpwn. or wool and hair, 
which •iwUn Huh (««■ to itand the intense ei>ld of a Ilbelian upland. The LaU- 
fcaci haia ■hawl-wa«l nata likeiriae, l>ut not in uiutben luScittit to •■ppl^ the de- 
nunda of Cuhmere and Amritilr ; and if, at a future period, the produce ol this ar- 

yen thii would Dot do, 

□ily of Ladauk as la the eartward, where the' 
mauutaine are higher and constaDtiy cov^^ with a larve qDnntity of mow. Ai mat- 
ten have itnod for nigh a century, and etill stand, the Idtakees enji>; a eom[riete mo- 
aofolj at the ahawl-wml produw. Tht nwoa aealgned ia, that la the rMgn of. Mab. 
mood Sbab, the Mo^ul sovereign of Indooataun. the Geallw of Ladauk, Ultjiihl« to coi^ 
tend with the Tanan to the eutwurd, Hppiied for aid tu the governor of CashniEre, 
wbo niprMeDled It to Mahmood, who sent [brahitn Khan of Cashmere to thrir aaslal- 
aBM, defeated the Tartan, < Ibe K&lioiHki aocordiof to li«t OoUah, ) aad reatored 
the Cealbo to the possession of his capital, who, out of gratitude, ackoowledged hlm- 
Mlfavasal of Mahmood, and paid tribute to Ihe Hakim of Caahmere, and coined 
BcHief in the aama of tha empersr Mahmood. in ooDseqneaoe of this .defeat nf tha 
Tartan, an article wtis Inagrtad ia the trestj of peaog betwaen them and Ladaak, that 
the Lalakees should have the sole privil«e of buying up, at their own price, all tha 
«faawl-wool produced in the districU of Koodauk, Ghortope, and the Oondes of 
the upper Tallev of the Sutlui, in the vicinity of its source ; and the sals of thta 
article to any other save them, bf d>e inhabitants, ii forblddeu under pain of death, — 
Kven the CanhDieriani, though allowed to attend the fain of Uoodauk and Uhortope, 
and diepose of their merchandhe, ore prohibited ftmn pnrcha^ng the sbawl-wool, but 
Buiat receive It at second liaad from tbe lialalinis and a««n a duty of 4 rupess, or lOa., 
I> charged by the LAtahecs on tmj hone-load of shawl-wool exported to Caabntere ; 

It no duty la levied on i( whet) Imported Into 'Hbet from other countries. A duty < 
__Tupae< la ohargad an enry (enk wdriil of Catlniwre sbairls when exported to Vai 
luiikd. So mui3i la Caahaun dapendeat o> Ladauk for lla aapply of shawl-wool, 


Lpaea la ohargad an enry (enk w 

1i la Caahaun d*p(.._ ... ,. , - - 

the political ruler, whether a Mogul, an Afghaun, or a Seik as Hub- 

-esent poastSMir, he must be ongooS terms with Ladank, becaiue, were 

otborwlM, all Ihe ihawl wsaven of Csahnere wnnld be instantly thrown out of 

il,udt' "■■ ■■ . ... .,-- 


144 AIIA. 

pearls. Tea, of which Ui^ qoantities are drunk at Ladanli, ia brought 
from Lassa, and pays a small duty. 

The qneatioD, whether Ladsuk waa a detached lOTereigniy from Tibet, 
M Father Deaideri muntaioed, and which Malte Bmn was unable to de- 
termioe, is aow solved; and it is aacertaioed that it is altogether a distinct 
atate from Tibet, thoog^ closely connected with it by political, commercial, 
and ecdeuastical bonda. The Chinese chief of Talddacott« assured Webb 
that the authority of the emperor of China extended as far m Ladank, 
which, however, was indepeodeDt of China. This doubt arose from the ex- 
tended application of the name Tibet, or TMkol, which included all the 
vast region between China, Tangoot, the two Bukharias, and Uindoetan< 
I lence it was couclnded, that since Ladauk was in Tibet, it most be a pro- 
vince of it, and not a distinct independent state. But it was forgotten that tbe 
appellative Tibet waa not so mnuh a political as an eccleaiaatical designation, 
like the terms, Christendom, Eeraun, Bebd-al-Ialam, and Kaafeemstana 
denoting the region of the faith of Boodha. Ladauk is actually an in- 
dependent state, though Runjeet Singh sent a vakeel in 1819 to demand 
tribute. In fact, it la the interest of all the neighbouring states that la- 
dauk should be independent, and it is to this sense of common interest 
that it owes its independency. It is the inteiest of the Chinese authori- 
ties, both to the N. and £., that Ladauk be protected, as it is the great 
market for tbeir shawl-wool, and as the great transit of commercial inter- 
conrse with Hindostan ; and it is equally the interest of Cashmere that 
Ladauk be independent, to insnre a constant supply of the precious shawl- 
wool for ita favourite manufacture of shawls. The great diSculty of ac- 
cess to it, surrounded as it is on all sides by the loftiest mountains of the 
globe, is another cause of its independence ; for the expense and trouble 
of keeping up a constant military communication with it across such 
mountain-ianges and difficult passes would be enormous, in addition to the 
certain loss of all the revenue derived from the importation of the shawl- 
wool, and ruin of the Cashmere mannbctures ; and the exportation of that 
material, so essential to Cashmere, would be diverted to another channel, 
namely, the districts of British India, next to the Oondes. As the char- 
acter of tbe natives is that of a quiet, inofiensive, nnwarlike race, the 
country could tie easily overrun, did not the above consideraUona stand in 
the way of ita conquest. All religions are tolerated at Ladauk ; but the 
estabbahed religion is Boodhism, and tbe chief, whose title is Geatbo, or 
rajah, sends a yearly donation to tbe Dalai Lama of Lassa. Whenever 
a SOD is bom to the rajah, be abdicates the severalty, and the minislen 
govern in the name of the prince. Hie principal ministera an tbe GAjr- 
hng, or lama, who acts as deputy, the chagkul, or steward, and ^ mv- 
aghten, or military commander. During this period the Ghylong is perfect 
master of the supreme authority, and the Gealbo takes no part in stata 

The dress of the natives is a coarae cloth made of sheep wool, and in 
winter the poorer sort wrap themselves in tbe skin. They wear very higb 
black caps falling over one ear, shoes of undressed hide, within which tbey 
sew woollen cloth tliat comes np to the middle of the leg ; theb hur ia 
plaited like that of women, and falls down in a braid behind ; tbey shave 
tbe beard, but preserve the mnstachios ; tbe lower port of the tunic ia 
straight and scanty, whilst the upper part is folded, all in one piece. Hie 
tunic is made of black Or coloured woollen. Tbe women wear turquoises, 
emeralds, and pearls, woven with their bur. The Gealbo baa no claim ta 


■ay part of the crop«, bat deriTei hii ineome from ■ Uz (« die bead of each 
hooM, sad be lenes one or two rnpeea amnnlly accarding to the groond, 
iriiich if dirided according to the water cmsamed in irrigation.'^ 

Dittriet of Changlhangr.2 T^ 'rary monntaiDona tract liea to the E. 
and S.E. of Ladank, and coAtuna the aonrcaa of the Indiu. Oo the N. 
It is bounded bv a continnation of the same great range which forms the 
S. frontier of Chinese Tooriciatann ; on the E. by ano^r lofty saow-dad 
lange nuDing N. from the CaillaB to the Moos Tangh ; and on the S. and 
8.W. by the Caillaa range which diridea it inxa the head valley of the 
Snllnj river. Thie tract is subject to the government of Laaaa, which baa 
U officer named the Garpan, Rtationed at Ghortope, to manage its temporal 
coDcerm. It is entirely a country of paatnrage, where immense flodu of 
d>eep, goat*i yaks, and wild horaes, feed. It it wholly composed -of momi- 
Mins and valleys, watered by ionnmerable torrents, all emptying themtelvei 
into die Indns, the valley of which is the widest, and bordered with snowy 
momMuaB and high table-land*. The climate, as might be expected, in a 
country perhaps the loftiest on the globe, is severe, much more so tWi at 
Ladank ; the winters are long, and ^e anmrners only two montha annually, 
and Gortope is habitable, it is said, only fonr montha in tbe year. Snow 
blls here even in Jnly and Angturt. On July 16th, die thermometer stood 
■t 84° in the morning, and the tents were frazea on the road from Daba 
to Gortope, which led diroagh ileGles of frozen snow and ice; on the 
Slat of Ae same month, thermometer 31° and ice 3-4ths of an inch tfaiclc t 
an the iOth of Aognst, thermometer at 32°, and the teats covered two 
inebes thick wid) snow which fell from the preceding midnigbt till nine next 
mernii^. The atmospheric ahanges are rapid, irequent, and severe, during 
■■mmer, with thunder, lightning, niin, hail, and snow, one day, and fine 
aerene aansbine, another. The inhabitants are compelled to wear very 
thick clodiing to present cold. The outer garments are striped woollens 
from Goinak in Chinese Tooikistaun, and beneath these are four other gar- 
mrota worn by both aeies t« preserve heat. The very animals, as the 
goats, the yaks, the wild horses, wild aaws, mnlei, and the bharals, have 
all coats of fine thick for beneath tb«r heavy coats to protect them against 

" One problein ■otred br Moanrolt l«th« adte of Ladank, which Mrongl; evincM the 
lavortuWsfhiiJmmHytofcogntpbiadKiaica. He bu Biad iU liM in SV 9' SI" N. 
IM., ■podiiooHceediii^f diffflrent from snr preriaiulr u^goed to that cltjr, u wiU 
appear Iroin the fdloiviiic tible : 

LamM* Biap, cottkAhI b* th« JaM^iU, • - Wesrli. 74^ 37' 

D'AiiTiUe,Vnhi8g«ienLlniap, - - - 33 «0 7T 17 

HcnncLlnbUHemolrDfamapaflndia, - • 34 30 77 3» 

MandED, in Ui Edition <rf Man» Polo, . - 34 

Inet Oollali, in bii Jonroe; from Caahmare to Ladank, S7 40 
ElphlMlone'amaprfCaubool, ... 87 « 10 

Pr>zer-iTonrina»H«Mn>ll«hraDf^ - - » ^38 

Ammmllh'auqxrflodla, . - - 3S WW 

Hamilton's Indian Gaiettsar, IM sditum, - 35 7B lo 

Hindoatan, ,---■- - - SB ao 78 10 

HerearedllfcrencManioun«ngt<.6and7di«r««of latitnde, and not l™ than Sj of 
fatniltiida, In reapert of th« Jwulta' adldoo oT Iha Lamaa' map. It i» ™iou> W observe 
tbu Dm Utcat antbsritlM, at ElphlMton., liMt Oollah, t"ztT end Hwnilton, an 
widst of the truth ; and it li equally ruriom thai id ft memoir of Anqu.ti Du I'erron, 
^rith. WVtMdte^to it by Mr Pol^n ( M™. i^ l-Acftd.mie de. loKripti™ et JJeUe. 
LBttrMTimn. illi. p. 618). tbs latitude of l-adauk i« fined u it ahould be b;r the oon- 
■tmclor of the map, but Anquetil Du Perron him«df caution, h). reader agaiD.I truat. 
Inc to it, wiidj obtUTlng, that It is better to conault lh» map of D Annlla ond.tlM 

146 A8"- 

the Mverity of the climate. The aiuno is the case with the hue, the cow, 
knd the dogi and indeed with every known animal in the district, no pro> 
' vident hu nature been in clothing them, and the sheep hare very long and 
abaggy coata. It is aatoniahing to think that snch an elSTKted region, far 
exi^eding the plains of Qaito, Loi Paatoa, and aven the table land of Tid- 
cacB, ahonld be capable of feeding each immenae droves of cattle, tame and 
wild, aoUtary and gregarious. The number of sheep, goats, and yaks, graz- 
ing in the vicinity of Gortope, could not, in Mr Moorcroft's opinion, be 
below 40,000. The pasturage is abundant and of the very best kind, but 
haw these animals are supported during a winter of nine months, when all 
the groonda must necessarily be covered with anow, is difficult, if not im- 
possible to divine; the subject requires elucidation. This r^ion abounds 
also in minerals, especially gold ; all the torrents abonnd with it, and ihero 
Bra many gold scours. The hills — stated to be rich in gold — are granite of 
mixed colonra, according to Mr Moorcroft, the red predonunatiDg, with 
horizontal strata of quartz, and small fibrous veins of a white material like 
agate, descending perpendicularly. The gold is here separated by washing, 
.AB-there is little or no fuel in the vicinity, or rather no wood. Several gold 
pits were met with on the road from the Sutluj to Gara, and two gold 
mines were worlung, with tunnels nnder the surface, and the materials are 
carried to the river and there washed. Cinnabar of anUmony seems also 
to abound. Borax is foand in the lake of Tchallatchaka, nigh Roodanck, 
and in great quantitiea iu the places neighbouring Gaia, Mapang, and 
Ladank. Such a lofty, cold, and wintry region cannot contun much po- 
pulation, the chief part of which seema to he employed in tending sheep, 
goats, and jdkB. Villages are scanty, the habitations being chiefiy tents, a 
collection of which makes a pastoral camp. The only villages of importance 
in this Buperalpine region are Tuhzagong and Routko, or Raodauck. The 
former is merely a frontier Chinese post on the banks of the Indus, here 
called Eekang Khampa, or ' eastern branch,' which rises in the lateral 
range connecting the Caillas and the Mooz Taugh, and is joined, as reported, 
B little below this place by the southern btanch or river of Gaia called the 
Sing-choo, which rises SO B. miles S. of Gara, ip the S.£- angle of the 
valley, formed by the junction of the eastern range, which bounds the valley, 
with the Caillas. Tuhzagong is a fortified village built of mud and stones, 
where two Chinese officers reside, who regulate all public afbirs, and watch 
over the public concerns. It contuns about 30 houses within die walls. 
A place called Guitiak by Moorcroft, and said to be 20 days N.E. of Gara, 
and the capital of Tartary, is the quarter whence the Bhoteas receive all 
their woollen cloths. Such a place is oot found in any of our maps, ^t 
seema not to be the name of a place, but of a region, and is a Tibetian ap- 
pellative. The Tibetians give the appellation of Gbia, the great, at the very 
dUpemd, to many nations. Singly employed, it is ordinarily applied to the 
Chinese, and chiefly to those in the Leaser Bukharia and Soongaria, who 
are denominated by the Tibetian compound appellative, Gkia Nagk, black 
Chinese, a term exactly corresponding to the Kara Kitat of the Mongols, 
and the modem Kara Kathay. Guinak, therefore, is Little Bukharia or 
Chineee Toorkiataun ; and probably the dty of Khotaun is the place in- 
tended, aa it re^ly lies to the N.E. of Gara, is a placa of importance, and 
the capital of a district. 

Dcillizedoy Google 


Speetee o/Ladauk.^ This district has Chapratbang on the E, ; La- 
d«uk on the N. ; Koolloo on the S.W. ; and Bischnr, or rather Kboona- 
woor, on the S. and S.E. ; aod pays tribute to Ladank, Koolloo, and Bis- 
chnr. It is composed of three sabdiviaiooB watered hy the Speetee, the 
Paratee, and lt)e Hnoo. The natives are all Tartars, and worshippers of 
Boodb. The villages are from 12,000 to 12,500 feet above the level of 
the sea, but towards Ladauk they are still more elevated ; the conntiy is 
also very barren and the climate inhospitable. It is every where enrironed 
by lofty snow-clad mountains, and is itself intersected with varioas ranges, 
the aources of innvnierable torreats, descending to 'the three prindpal 
rivers, or to the Sntluj itself, through Khoonawoor and Koolloo. lie 
nuge on the aide of Ladauk, which divides its waters from those of the 
Indus, is very lofty, and must be crossed in order to enter Ladauk. The 
natives — who are of the same stock as their neighbours of Ladauk — are 
represented as a rapadons race, having all the vices but none of the virtues 
of real savages. Tfaey are cowardly and assuming ; their yonth is with- 
out honour, and their age without respect. They are ragged and greasy, 
and natnre has not favoured their outward form. Tbeir chief villages are 
Xar, It miles N.W. of Sbealkhoor, and 11,071 feet above the sea; Manet, 
on the same stream, 11,000 feet above the level of the sea; Ihtn/cen, a 
fort of 40 bouses, built of stone and mud, and situated amidst rugged pro- 
jections of gravel, 1 ,500 feet above the Speetee and 13,000 above the sea ; 
and Ttngdi, 12,000 feet above the level of the sea, on tbe S.W. branch 
of the Speetee." 

Dutrict of KhooTuuooor^ This picturesque and ru^^d region ties 
immediately behind the southernmost range of tbe great Himalaya, and 
occupies the lower part of the course of tbe Speetee river, and the IVans- 
Himalayan valley of the Sutluj, as hr up as Shipke. It has the Speetee 
of Ladauk on the N.W., from which it is divided by a range of great ele- 
vation, by the upper part of the territory of Ladauk on the N. and N.E^ 
by the Oondes on the S.E., and on the S. and S.W. by the Hindoo states 
of Bischur and Koolloo ; but its western limit we cannot exactly specify, 
and as little can we assign its extreme poiota of longitude and latitude. 
According to captun Herbert, it extends from 31* 33' N. lat. to 31* hi 
N. 1st.; and from 71* 17' E. long, to 78° l? E. long., exclusive of the' 
Pnrgnnnah o^ Hangarang, on the lower course of the Speetee. This region 
may be said to lie within clusters of mountains sheeted with perpetual snow, 
tbere being no table-land or undulated plain in any part of it. The in- 
habited portions, are confined to the valleys of rivers, or gorges of torrents, 
and the villages are scattered along their banks at a general elevation oC 

" It wu Ibe IntentioQ of th« two bmtlien Genrds to have procwded np this 
bruich to LaiiBiik bjr the mn of T*ri, which ia the moat dlnct road. But catnatiei, 
and ui offered daur«ur of 150 ruMet, were onmialllng ; the La^ or chief of Teof d), 
would aot bear of tbrir [Hwceediog oowmrdi, or Bttemptliig tbe Tui puL After a 
froitleH negotiMion of two dsyi, oar InTellen'were eompiUed to retiua to Huiea, 
and recroM tbe Darbuug pass to Soonpiaum In Kboanawoar. Tutargoariliare everjr 
where pnsted, by ibe cutful Jealoua; of the Celestial court, to prtTent aL acoeaa Into 

r-i.: f .1 li. _<■ "hoonawoor ; and maodarina have boeu dapatebcd hjr 

preasloD at ibe late revolt la ChincM Toorklalattn, to 
w people sf aiast the adoiiaaion of atrangen into thai 

148 AaiA. 

9000 fset, bnt in tb« inUrior they rise to 12,000 feet, and even mora. 
The ■eaaoni nny with die height of the level ; in the lower r^ona of the 
valleys the climftie in anmrner is wttnn. The finest ^pes occur near the 
mai^a tif the Sntluj, and in the dells of streams flowing from the snow, 
where the solar reverbention is great. In this re^on also the finest honey 
is gathered. At the height of 9000 feet and more the climate is delicious ; 
our Knropean fruits come to perfection, and the forest-trees and all the 
wQd flowers of onr country are spread over the soil. In the valleys on 
both sides of the Sntloj, in Lower Khoonawoor, not less than 18 kinds of 
grapes, dislingnisbed by several names, derived from colour, shape, size, and 
flavour, are rwsed to Uie greatest perfection, at an elevation of more than 
7000 feet, even up to nigh 10,000 feet. Some are dried on the topa nf 
bouses, some made into spirits, the rest eaten ripe. All this fertility and 
variety of produce is the nfiect of concentrated warmth, produced by the 
reverbeistion of the solar rays from both sides of die glens ; the clinuLte 
being quite different in this respect from what takes place in the exterior 
chain of the Great HimalayB, where the heat is reflected to it bnt from 
one aide, and therefore is much leas than in the interior clnsters and ranges, 
where there is a strong reverberation from alt quarters. According to 
Gerard, the frontier range on the ude of Ladank and Chinese Tartary is 
granitic. Limestone, however, previuls to an elevation of 20,000 feet, and 
sandstone is found at an elevstiou of 16,700 feet. Horizontal strata of 
sandstone, raarle, and loam, in the most regular layers and at prodigious 
heights, are found the gmnite resting on clay,aod the sandstone above granite, 
in the valley of the Speetee river. Eastwards of this the table-land is 
strewed over with ammonites at an elevation of 16,500 feet. Nay, Dr 
Gerard found mussels and cockles at the height of Ifi,500 feet above 
the sea, at the northern frontier of Khoonawoor. The presence of these 
organic remains at such a stupendous elevation attests Uiat the sea once 
covered these heights." The other. predominating masses of rock are clay 
slate, and mica sUte, and bine slate, and gndss. At the jnnctSon of the 
Speetee and Sntluj the cheeks of the gulf of the former are graliitic, and 
perfectly moral for many hundred feet. Great numbers of sheep and 
oattie'Tare reared here, and great qnantitiea of wool, both raw and woven, 
are exported. Yaks are bred in the remoter parte in great numbers ; and 
nest to grun, these ammala are accounted their greatest wealth. TlieFe is 
also a mixed breed between the yak and common hill-cow raised by the 
native*. The inhabitants of Khoonawoor are reputed to be Hindoos by 
deecent, bnt thdr pbysiognomy is more indicative of a Tartar origin. 
They are very black, with now and then a flash of red in their faces. 
Hey are clearly a distinct race, in features and in manners and language, 
both from the Hmdoos, and the Bhotess, or inhabitants of the other moun~ 
taiu states. Tbey have all an openness of countenance and a franknesa of 
■rundncl and manner quite different from what is witnessed in the people 
of Bischnr, KooUoo, and the Speetee of Ladauk. An unbounded confi- 
dence is placed in them by the Latakees, Casbmeriane, and Bhoteas, 
who find them strictly faon<rst. All onr travellers, as Fraaer, the Gerards, 
Herbert, and others, agree in this character of the natives, as distinct from 

" 11hw ■pcelmpna, u Calebn»li« Juidy mnarkt, an not SaUgnmi itoiMi eodUId- 
^^f (ha impmaiiRu of nmmaiiits u In tbe upper nllef of the OoDdnh, but stnmD- 
nites thcnaelTc^indcocklc-ahfUa: (hiuprvrlngthal orguilemn^iiaaf ■formermrid 
l»Te bven found M cliintlnna f»r inrpH^ng tboss >t whick tbn bsn bwa bund in 


all Braimd then. "Vb* nstivH of Khoonawoor ■!! {tnrfaM the ral^unia 
•yst«m of Luaaum. Not lett thm five different didecto are ipoken in 
Khoonawoor ; and eadi reaeoiblei the other in a mnltitade of word<. The 
words differ cbieflj' in th«r temiinatioiw, bat tlie langnago itwilf is totally 
diffemt from that of the Bhoteaa, and alao from any apoken on the south- 
«ni tide of Himalaya. The people of Soongnaoin (peak the Tibetiaa dia- 
Iccta, and a langoage totally different from that of Khoooawoor. In snch 
a nioantainons region no dtiea can be expected ; villages only, and these 
■mall, are fonnd m the bottoms of the valleys, or on tJie banks of rivers 
or torrents. Onr limits will not allow ns to indulge in topogn^ihical de- 
tails ; bat the following is a table of the eleratioos, && of the beds of the 
Speetee and Sntlvj in Khoonawoor: 

Bad«fthaSj»Mae>t lUngrwk, tbehighatuwndedipot, IS,eOO ftct 

Da do Fort of Duikar, . ' . . . | |,M>0 

Do, do Mums vitlafB, 11,1U9 

Da do Jjiri do lo.aee 

CoaBuuue of the Speetee and I^ntee, .... 10,S0I> 

Bed of the Speetee Bt Shnlkhnr TlUife, .... 10,113 

Do 00 Cbanto do 9,fKlO 

CaaflneaM of the ^eetee uid SutlqJ 8,Sa) 

BnadUi of tbc SpeetM at 11* jiuiclion with the P*nttee, 7S 

Do .do M Shndhhur, . . . . S8 

Do do of tba SatloJ at iu Junctian with the Speette, . 106 

Helghtof the rope-bridge DTcr It It this coofloetKe, . . 78 

BedoftheSuUoJBt Nii^es, 6,600 

Breadth of da at da 76 

id of the SutloJ at Poovet vUbn, 6JtST 

do junellan with the Bhaipa, 6,300 

do at Wan|tD Jhoola, 6,21)0 

Urcodth ntio 

Bad of tbc SutJi^ at Ruipare, capital of Bbcbur, , S,£60 

Do do _ Neert IE milea below, .... 8,918 

IXrect dlitanoe from Neert ta Nmi^lffi, .... 74 niilei. 

ATerase devent of the tjutli^ bf lliJ% per mile, ... 76 Icct. 
Rowidbtaniwfhnii Neert ta^umjea, .... 140 odleK 

ATcnge deacent of the SuilMJ b; Uie road, .... U feet. 

" Oondet, or highetl vaUey of the Sutluj.'} ^liilel the 8peet«e of La> 
dauk pays a small tribute to the inrroonding states, and Khoonawoor, as 
a dependency of Bischnr, is nnder the snrveillaiice of the British govem> 
ment in Indie, this large district has remained under the sway of the Celestial 
court ever since Tibet was placed under a Chinese viceroy, subseqiwDt to 
tbe eipnlsion of the Ghorkaleea, in 179S. This region has the Speetee 
of Ladank and Khoonawoor on die N.W- ; the district of Cbayanthang and 
the Kbaillas range on the N. ; Proper Tibet on the E. and S.E. ; wd on tbe 
S. and S.W. it is part«d from the diatricta of Kemaoon, Gorwhal, and Bia- 
cbnr, by the stopendoua Himalaya. It includes the whole upper valley of 
tbe Sntloj, from the pass of Piming S.E. to its termbntion in tbe angle 
formed by the junction of the Hhnallah and the Caitlas, S.E. of tbe 
Mansarawar lake. It mclndes also the valley and course of tbe Paratee 
river, the main branch of the Speetee up to its source in tbe great dividii^ 
ridge wluch separates this district from the territory of Ladank. It is 
soTTonnded on all aides, except at tbe goi^ of tbe Snthij below Sbipke, 
by tbe Himallab and the CailUs. Tbe whole thus inclosed ia called the 
Oondet, or Ooma Diia, that is, ' the land of woo),' by the Hindoos. 
Bat we are told, on later anthority — that of captun Hodgson if we remem- 
ber right — that the term Oonrlea means ' the land of snow.' Both terms 
may apply well enough to it, as it abottnds m both articles, and the shawl 
wool goats cannot exist but in a snowy region such as this. It ia aob- 

15!> AaiA. 

dirided into a namber of diitrictSi of wlucb we only know mhw* of tba 
name*, bi those of Clui^rroitg Bnd Toling, to the N. W. of Daba, and those of 
Tttkklacote, and Gharatodim, or Gwdon, to the S.E. Of the two ranges 
which bcloM it, that of the Caillas is seemingly the highest; and the 
angle where the two ranges meet is perhaps the loftiest spot on the iflr- 
reetrial surface, bwng the great dividing line whence the rivers of Tibet 
flow to different points of the compass. Whilst Mr Moorcroft and hia 
companion Mr Heanay hare the credit of being the only Europeans who 
crosaed the frozen defiles of the Caillas since the days of father Andrada, 
SQCceeding trftvellera have only had a glimpse of that more northern range 
which bounds on the S. the opper valley and source of the Singchoo or 
Indus. The range appears to nm in a N.W. direction, and has its sides 
and summits very thickly covered with snow. It is clearly seen from the 
passes of Keobrang and Hangarang ; and from this latter pass it was seen 
BO thickly covered with snow that not a rock could be distinguished by a 
telescope of large magnifying power. The prominent features in this lofty 
valley ore the two fsined lakes of Rhaaanhrad and Matuarowar, through 
which the Sotloj runs. These lie S.E. and N.W., and the latter is S.E. 
of the former. They have not yet been sufficiently explored on all sides, 
BO as to enable ub to give a clear and distinct account of them. He 
Manaarovmr, or ' Sacred Lake,' — for the appellation is Shansciit, — is 
bounded on the S. by the HimalJah ; on the E. by the prolongation of the 
Caillas ; and on the N. and W. by very high land, under the form of moon- 
tun, table-land, ravine, and slope, all declining towards it as a profound fluid 
hollow. Its shape approaches to an oval, lying between 81° I0'and81°25' 
E. long, and 30° 12' and 30° 23' N. lat. according to Moorcroa's map of fais 
jonmey, being 15 miles long by II broad. It must be remarked, however, 
that he did not aee its eastern extremity, so that we cannot be exactly sore 
of its longitudinal extent. Though boUi in the Lamas' map and by the noi- 
versal consent of the Hindoos, the Sutluj (the southern branch of the 
Ganges in the Lamas' map) issues ont of this lake, yet Moorcroft could 
find no outlet from it on the N.W. and S. sides, yet die Chinese governor 
of Takklacote assured Mr Webb that the Mansarowar lake had but one 
outlet and that into the Rhawanhrad lake ; so that both Moorcroft's pan- 
dit and the Latakee traveller were right in affirming that it had a commn- 
oicaiion with the latter lake, and Moorcroft wrong in denying it. This 
outlet, it seems, however, is frequently dry, and it is proh^le, as Webb 
thinks, that (he difference of level between the two lakes is considerable, 
and that a aubtemuieouB communication must exist between them, as ooe 
periodical channel could not possibly carry off the redondaut watera of 
more streains which fall into this oval bason. It is surprising that Mr 
Moorcroft never thoi^ht of tasting the water, as that would have gone its 
towards determining the point. As it is about 80 miles S-E. of Daha, and 
the nearest point of the Sutluj to the Nitee pass, whose river-bed ia 
14,921 feet idiove the sea, the elevation of this lake must be considerably 
more: there is, perhaps, 2000 feet of difference at Jeast, as the coune of 
the Snthg ia bo rapid that our traveller could hardly keep his footing 
though monnted on a yak. Between the low and high water mark ai« 
numerous skeletons of yaks, which, in going towards the lake in severe 
weather, &11 into the drifts of snow which then fill the intermediate space. 
A great many Lama moDasteries and temples front this lake in elevated 
situations, with all the usual insignia of the worshippers of Boodha. The 
fojoier appear to ba retreats for both sexes, as a nun came out of one of 


■hem and accoated Moorcroft andar the appellation of Goonee Lama, >nd 
invited him to her rocky dwelling, which he declined. This lake is held 
in the greatest reneration both hy Hindoos and TartaTS, and all the no- 
made afaepherdg. The Tanars and ahepherda cany the aihee of their de- 
ceased relaures and scatter them on tta walerB. There are also many 
terraces of stone covered with inacriptions ; bnt,' inatead of copying them, as 
Moorcroft and his companion might hare done, they contented themaelves 
with catting their own names on a stone. This certainly conld answer no 
nsefiit pnrpose, whereas had they copied the mscriptions, and carried or 
sent tbem to Calcutta for the inspection of the Asiatic society, they might 
hare proved a Tsluable acquisition to Tibetisn learning. The clumges of 
temperature here are freqaent and sndden, and the aurface of the lake is 
almost constantly agitated by very high winds sweeping down the slopee 
of the surronnding mountains. It is frei]Dent«d by large flocks of grey 
geese (the swans of Hindoo poeta) which breed in the surronnding rocks, 
and many aquatic eagles, whose neats are perched on the tops of lofty and 
inaccessible crags. It ia altogether a wild and romantic place. The 
Jthawan-hraii, or ' Lake of Rbawan,' is mnch larger than the Mansaro- 
war, and reported to be four times its aize, but Moorcroft was unable to 
explore it irom indispMition and want of time, and only saw it from an 
eminence. It consists of two legs which are long and not very broad, one 
mnning eastward towards Mansarowar, straight, and ending in a point) 
the other goes S.E. amongst the bills, and their ^veigence forms an angle 
almost strught opposite the town of Darchan or Gangree. On its bordera 
vast numbers of wild geese are bred, and both lakes abound in fish, espe- 
dally the latter. It is well fed by nnmeroua streamlets from the Caillai 
on its northern side, and probably also a large body of water falls into ita 
BODthem side from the Hiroallah range. Some of ita sides are fringed 
with grass of considerable height, and in tbe warm season the lands at the 
mouth of tbe streams which feed it are a complete swamp. Vast nnmbers 
of wild horses, gnrkhara or wild asses, y^cs, and bharale, sheep and 
shawl-goats, feed on its bordera and on the soudiem slopes of the Caillas. 
He Saturdra, or Sntluj, is formed by the junction of the branch coming 
from Rhawanhiad and the Terat river, whicb, in its mm, is composed of 
two streama, one from tbe southern crest of the Caillas, and whicb is sepa- 
rated from the source of the Indus only by an intervening ridge, the other, 
called the river of Tirtapooree, cornea from the high land which, on tbe 
N.W., bounds the valley of IHrcbau or Gangree, which, in its turn, is 
separated from the basin of the Mansarowar by another ridge of high land. 
The dux of tbe country, climate, soil, and productions, whether vegetative, 
animal, or mineral, are all so similar to those already described in Chang" 
thang and tbe Speetee of Ladauk, tiiat farther description may almost seem 
needless ; one fict, however, we cannot avoid noticing, that the forther we 
advance N. from Hindoslan into Uiis aopeialpine region, the limit of 
cultivation rises. S* of the Himallah its extreme limit is 10,000 feet, 
but here it rises successively from 12,000 to 13,600 and 16,000 feet. 
In tbe vidnity of D^m, Doompoo, and Takklacole, all of these villages 
more than 15,000 feet above the aea, the finest crops of a grain called ooa 
are raised, of which the netivea make eicellent bread. This grain is pro- 
nounced by Dr Wailich, who received apecimens from captain Webb, to 
be a new speraeslof wheat, and the farina or meal made from it is remark- 
ably fine. This hardy grain, of which samples have been sent to the royal 
aociety, is found at an elevation of 16,000 feet. Near Gaogreei Moorcrofl 

152 ASIA. 

nwt m eoavoj at 70 jiim loaded with this gnin.^ The gran in the nle of 
Tirtapoaree ia nowed and carried ai winter prorinon for the hotaea of the 
chief of Daba and dioae of the people of Kienlnng, Doompoo, and Daba. 
The^ are alto fed dnrioK the Bam* time with the ooa er wheat abore men- 
tioned. It t( cBldrated in teiracee, and watered by cnta from the aonrcea 
of the streama tb« farm the ravinea in the alope* of the higher gronnds, 
and the prnxluce of the crop ahowa that with nffident irrigation the aoil 
would be very gnMhl. Tbo qnantan of aolar beat developed m ihia 
ptatean mart be very great, conNdering that the mmmen are only two 
months in daration, front the middle of Jane to the middle of Angtut. 
The eztenioa of tfaia great central plateau, instead of cooling the enper- 
incitmbent atmoaphere, has the efiect of raieing iu temperature by ^ 
radietioti of die beat collected from the rays of the Bitmmer ann, whilat 
the (nrfaee of slender peaks, as in oar European r^on, ^ordiog not tbe 
means of such radiation, anfier tbe heat to rise into the higher strata, 
where the c^ncity for caloric is greater. As Uie heat, says Hnmbotdt, 
of high regions of the atiDospfaere depends on the radiation of the plains, 
it is conceived that nnder die same ge«^raphical parallels one may not find 
in tbe system of transatlantic climates (he means the climatea of Qoito and 
the Andes) the iaothennal Imes (lines of equal heat) at the same elevation 
above the level of the sea as in the system of Enropean climates. • Had 
he thengbt on this, when writing en the height of the plains of Tartary be 
tvould certunly never have dreamed of comparing the e%cts of tbe latter 
with those of die very rircnmscribed plains of Loa I^itoa. His own very 
elaborate and sdentific account of the elevated platean of Mexico m^fat 
have convinced him, had he thought cf it at the time, of the absnrdity of 
the comparison, as he found, by actual experiment, the line of perpetual 
congelation in 19* ^O* N. lat. to be 15,090 feet above the sea, or only 617 
feet lower than on the dde of Chimborazo, and 1 ,530 feet higher dian it is 
in Leslie's table, a difierence only of 617 in 20 degrees. Bot the exten* 
sire upland of Tlticaca, in Upper Pera, is a striking instance of the modi- 
Mng mflnence of local circumstances on temperatore. There tbe inferior 
Imee of perpetual congelation, in the eastern range of the Andes, is 17,000 
|!eet, or 1,35S teei higher than on the side of CUmborazo nnder tbe equa- 
tor, and diat in 17° S. lat., bo that die mere circumstance of latitude doea 
not determine tiie limit of perpetual congelation. On the summit of tbe 
Nitee Ghaut, In 3 1* N. lat., the temperature was found to be 47* at 3 j>. m. 
by the thermometer at an elevation of 16,8I4i feet on the Zlat of Augntl. 
Moorcroft foimd it on the Ist and 2d of July, at sunrise to he 11* and 44** 
and on the banks of the Snduj, where he crossed it on the road to Ghor* 
tope, the thermometer was 56* at snnrise, and rose to 96° In the tent, 
during the heat of the day : and this at an elevation of nigh 15,000 feet. 
Even at die Mansarowar lake, which is perh^ equal in elevation to the 
Nitee Ghaut, the thermometer, at sunrise, varied ftota 47° to 49*. But 
It most be remarked, that there is a great difference between the tempera- 
ture of a confined valley and that of an open pass like that of Nitee. At 
Zongching, the highest vill^e in Khoonawoor, tbe thermometer roee to 6S* 
at mid-day at 14,700 feet of elevation, on the 23d of July. At Zinchin, 
a resting-place in Chinese Tariary, but belonging to the Oondes region, 
the thermometer rose to 60 in the shade, and fell to 42° at sunset, and 
early next morning was so low as SO} d^eeB. This place is 16,136 feet 
above tbe sea, and the eminences rise many hundred feet higher. Id every 
direction horses were seen iralloping abont. and feeding on the very topa 


of the faeigbtfl, bi bUo drovefi of ytia', kitMt and raglei, saariag in the 
air, large flocks of linnets flying aboat, and locnits jumping ainonK the 
bushes. Here, at the height of 16,000 and 17,000 feet, is abundance of 
inetoh (fuel) bearing a beautiful yellow flower and no prickles, and a fine 
and serene sky; whilst in crossing the soathem range of the Himallsh, at 
a far inferior elevation, no firewood is nearer than five or six miles, the 
clonds hang round the moantuns, the sun is rarely tjsible, and rains are 
frequent and heavy. At Zinchin, the atmosphere exhibited that dark ap- 
|ieanince, often observed in elevated aitnations. Tba ann shone like an 
orb of fire, whhout the least haze. At night the part of the horizon 
where the moon was expected to rise, conld scarcely be distinguished be- 
fore the limb tonched it, and the stars and planets shone with a brillbncy 
never seen but at great heights. With a transit telescope of SO inches 
and a power of 30, stars of the 6fA magnitnde were distinct in broad day, 
but none of leas size were perceptible. At Soobathoo Math, 4,200 feet 
above the sea, stars of the fourth magnitnde require a power of 40 to 
make diem viaible during the day. Here the ground is covered with fine 
green sward, the stream gently winds through beds of rich tnrf, and no 
pmnts of rocks are seen. In its bed are many large flowering shroba, 
frcHn three inches to eight feet high, which Moorcroft took to be a species 
of tamarisk. The same mineral appearances exist here an in Chanthang. 
All the torrents abound in gold dust. Gold is also found in the district 
of Danga Bonkpa, 12 joumeys S-W. of the Mansarowar Lake. A new 
mine, which fnmished large lumps, was lately opened between the lake of 
Goungeon (Rawanhrad is perhaps meant) and Mansarowar, but by an 
order Irom Lassa it was entirely shot up. Moorcroft met at Gangree or 
Dsrchan three tea-merchants, who came Irom a place two months beymad 
Pekin, which they called the capital of Mahachin, the Sanacrit appellation 
of China. 

Subdivuitmt and place* of note. J As the eastern extremity of thi« 
region only has been visited by Mr Moorcroft, onr knowledge of it, as to 
particnlare, is solely confined to that portion. Whatever other information 
we posseaa is mere hearsay, derived occasionally from a native on the fron- 
tier, or from travelling merchants, and therefore both inaccnrate and im- 
perfect, llie cbief divisions seem to be : that of the Valley of the Para- 
tee onthe. N.W. — the district of CAa^Jron^A, extending W. to Soipke, — that 
of Toling to the E. of it, — and then that of JOaba, — followed to the S.E. by 
others, the names of all of which are not known, but amongst whicb are 
those of Takiacote and Gnrdon. The Paratee river flows through a long 
narrow valley, bordered on both sides by snowy monntains. It comes 
from the N.E. according to Gerard, whereas Fraser, in his map, derives it 
from the N.W." Birgeo is a fortress on a nullah of the same name, with 
towers and loop-holes, garrisoned by the Bhotea inhabitants. Five days 
joamey Irom Birgeo the Paratee is lost amongst snowy mountains to the 
left, and amongst these is a large salt lake, called Choomaorcreel, 13 cosa 
lon^ by 6 coss broad. In winter it is completely frozen over; but in 

" Mr Fr«Kr'» infoniMtlon wm both Impetfecl and Incorreet, for he ha* coarouudad 
tlie PsrstM with the Spwtee, and wu Igmirant a( the fart that the Spettee |g umpoKd 
of three •Ireann ; the Siiino, the Sptaee. mnd the Paralee, the two former belonging to tha 
Spcetee of I -adauk, whllat the lut Is wholly within th» Chinese terrilory. llie vii- 
lue at Choorti, near tbr mouth of the Paratee uid on the hft bank, ii the frontirr Til- 
lage of the Chinese lairllary, sad about a mile and a half to the S.W. of It (ierard and 
bla party were atopped b; a party of 60 'rartars, who woold not allow Ihem la mote ■ 
■tvp farUier In that direction. 

154 A9IA. , 

nniniiier. die diOiBta Bnnind is aeiil to lie veiy fine. It u c^o, free 6$ 
reedi and emmpa, nnd abonnda in fish and wmter-fowl, ami n fed b^ 
itraanw from the mounttinH which Bnrround it." Beyond tfaia point the 
TtmA ii orer a completely anmhabited dMert, occupied hero and there by a 
few tenta of Bhotea ahepherds, with their floclu of ahawl-gt»t*, aheep, and 
yaka. On the Sotlnj, the moat weatern villa^ of this region ia Shipke, 
iD31°48'°44'E.loiig., 10,600 feet abore the aea and 1,600 
feet above the river. Immediately behind it ia a lofty peak, riaing to 
S0,150 feet above the aea, and 9,550 above the village, making an anf^Ia 
of 28 of elevation above the borison. S.E. nf this ia the village of Btk- 
khur, 12,676 feet above the aea and 1,8B4 above the Sotlaj, which is here 
10,793 feet above the aea." Chaprong, the Chaparangue of Andrad^ 
ia eaid to be eight daya op the Satlaj, from Sbipke. It is described aa a 
large town, in a plain covered with short grass, and totally bore of wood. 
Doha, visited by Moorcroft, is 10 British miles N. of tM Nitee psM, in 
direct <Uetance. It is divided into three parts,--4 c<ril«ge, the reudsnce of 
the Lama and faia ghylloi^, or monks,— a nnnoery, — and the booaei »f 
the Wazir, the Deba, and ^e laity in generaL _The town ia upwards of 
15,000 feet above the level of the aea, and ia not merely a snmmer-habita- 
tioB aa Moorcroft imagipod, but a permanent residence. Tbe hoiues are 
of stone, two atones bigb, white-wasbed on the ontude, and siuroanded 
with a band of red and French grey above, heviog temeed roofo fenced 
with parapets. The inaides are very filthy, tbe floor* of the aoMdl yards 
which lead to them beiog covered with bonea of aheap and goaia, and locks 
of wool, Tbe priests of Daba have tlieir proceasioDB, ibeir prayers, and 
their mouc, rooming and evenii^. Their channte an generally accmn* 
panied with cymbala and the beatings of de^toned drnme, aad tbe per- 
lornnnce ia preceded by the blowing of eonclM from tbe top of tbe temple. 
The people of Doha wiab mnch to have s coromercial interconrse opened 
np with the British ude of the frontier, but permiauon has hitherto beui 
refused by the Chinese. Respecting TakMacot* and Ghartwdon we bave 
no informatioD, but only that the lat(er is seven miles N. of tbe former, 
and separated from it by an intervening range of the Cailloa. They aeem 
to be tbe Takta and KerUm of tlie L«inas' map. 


^ittent and Soundaritit.'] This is a very extensive region, reachioc 
from tbe sources of Uie Indoa and Sutluj, in 81° E. long., to the western 
frontier of Sechwen, in China, in about 100* E. long., aod from 28* to 35° 
N. lat. This tract baa the Gobi or Desert on tbe N. eeparaUDg it from die 
eastern part of Chioese Toorkiatann ; the Eluths of Kokooor on tbe K.E. | 
tbe Seefann or Toofann and the province of Secbwen on the E. ; the pnn 
vince uf Ynnnan on tbe S. E. ; the Bnrman dominiona, valley of Aaaam, 
Bootan, Nepanl, and British India on the S. ; aad Western Tibet on ibe 
Vf. Theae are its bottndaries generally speaking, bnt ita particular limita 
we cannot accurately determine for want of aaatmaU." 

A( a Tt»i to Ledsok gov up tbe Parstn nllav tM* Ink* li probaUv tbe PwiJimm 
Somite of tbe I^iui^ map, to tb« 8. of l>datik. 

." /Thb wu the hlfhett polnl np the Sutl^] sttsloed by Gemnl. The bnadth «/ 
the Sutl^J St Sbipke wsi onlji 67 6*1, but It wu deep and npid, ud ronnlnc at the 
"t! '■.'■'■'^ than 100 feet per mile ta Ita junction wltli the Speelee 11 mile* b^w. 
1* We have ataum nathlnv but Cfalnew lafonaatlon, commanleated thnHwti tba 
« guide Di here ; with a few (leanlnm bvm Marco PoT-i, and 
In IS have vMled It, tat the porpMe ef conrertiiv the natlraa 


Ifamet and Divitwiu.J Bhodi, (Tibet or Bbotan) and B/Mit-iaol, or 
' binKdoiB of Bhodt or Boodb/ are ihe moat ordinary denaminBtioM of 
"Tibet, and the moat luiial desijnwtion of tbe people ia Bholeai. It ia 
•ome^inea alao iMeA Bhot-yid, at ' conntry of Bhoodb.' Ilie name of 
Thebetk, Thibet, or Tobbhale, known to ibe Arabian! and PenUna as nrly 
u tbe lOtb ceDtnry, is not nud by tbe inbatutanta tbemidrea. According 
to father Giorgi, Tibet (pronoaoced Tibbet in Bengal) ii a cormption of 
the Tibetian appellation TenhoU, or ' kingdom of Boodb,' tbe lame aa 
Bbodt-iool giren above. According to fatber Hyacinth and Kl^ioth, tbe 
Tibetiam add the word ba, aignifying mart, to tbe word Mtot, and call 

ta the Romu ouhollc (Ulh, u Hthtn Andradi. Daidfrl, Htntx dn ■■ Prana, tuA 
(b< monk ChiIuo. Hono* (pent IS jmn in Ltaw, and might Doiueqiuntlf be lup- 
poMd qiuUAed to fire ui a tolerable uvouot of llbet, and hit Mcounl of tbe minion to 
Tibet wu printed at Rome In 174S. A long und curloiu kcouoI nfTibet, in 900 aiurlo 
pHca in LUio, hat been glteo by Father GtonI, printed at Home In 1162, and en- 
(itlad j^*atthim Tibaianum, but Cajalaiui la the real auihar of the book. Anothw 
nielortane li, that tbcoe producliaoi Ibrow ttiy little light upon tlu gcociwhT of 
Tibet, the miedonariea bdog naturallr and properly much man taken np irltb the n- 
UatoQ thaa (he gaography of the country. Nat aban 19 or £0 pagei are deTotad in 
Glorgra larfe work, to the latter auUect, but aa llinerar; tram Catmandoo to Laaaa ia 
fonunatelr giTeo, which lUghtljr illuilratea tbe geographr of the Interrening apaca 
We ban, la addition to ibeae, an aawnol of two emtaadn from tbe Briliah £aet In- 
dia Cwnpanr M tha Grand Lama Id ITItaod I'7S3, tbe fbrnua by Air George Batata 
£ Ten in the Philoaophical Tranaactlona, and the latter bj captain Turner, publUud 
4«o. leoa Bnl tbeee concern onlf that part which ilea between Bootan and luMm, 
We have p r e a tr ted In Kircliar a Terr abart Itlnerarf of Fathen Grnher and U'Orviile 
aU the war b«<a Sining to Laata and from tlienea to Cataaandaa in NepauL Bat it la 
ao meagre that little aatlafaction ia got &oin tbe penuaL A Cbfawae account of Tibet 
waa puUiabad at St PeterabiUKh In IBffi, by Fatlier Hyadmb, long reeident wlih the 
n — I '—*-« at Peking, intwanda. Bro. the Bnt eontalna the geograpfajr of Tibet, 


„ D in the Buliilin l^L^ritl, the flnt 

jb obawTationa. fraaa Chingtao to Laen and from 

llningbo In Sbcnaee to Lava, 'ilie ortbognphy 

t frrai what bae been uaualiy emplofed in Du 

10 render it a Ten dlOcolt bualneea lo Identi^ tbeoo. 

, , — --, oiui'map of Tibet an all our materlab for a d*. 

aerlptlon of tbe conntry, and It !• matter of deep noret thai that map ia wholly tbund- 
ad upgn roulea without a ^gle obaervatlon of lODgltude or latitude made In the wbela 
wwk, nlktch detiaeta matecUly fram i(a Talne, Klaprolb baa obeerred that theaa 
man of the Chlneae empire, made bv tbe mieaivnarlea ander Kanfhiiti were *ery im- 
pernet citraela of (he Cblneae and Manaboo orlgioala, and tbe proper nanxa were 
tranalated fay a puwm but little vaned in the Chinese language, and these materlala 
Trere put Into D AnTilU'a handa in order Ibal he might redoea and euperintend tbair 
pubUoatien. Tbe mape made by order of KJenlung, he remarkij^lffer nuterlaliy 
ftvm tbeee of the miaalanariea under Kanghee^ eo far aa reipecli Tibet both In tbe 
la^tuda and tbe latltndea. aa in tbe caae of the exit of tbe Sanpoo from Tibet. In 
tbe Chincae ortginals tf the Jeaulla' maps, the place of exit Iron) libel la placed In 87* 
ao-N. UtandaO'60- W.of Pekio, a»d not in gS'lO'N. Ut. and SO-IW W. long, aa 
fat Da Haide'i Ibulty oeplee or ihese orlcinalii. Noi* In tbe mapi of Klenlung, ibla 
podtion ia plaMd in 98^ 40' N. and 19° 30' W. of Pekin. He remarka farther that iba 
xreater tite distance fhim tbe meridian of Pekin, the more erroneotu are the longiludes 
U> the Jeanhe' maps of Tibet. We alao know that the poaition <if ParidroDg in tbeeo 
■npa ia a degiM M« fiv 8., aa Is shown by Reunel bimsdf, and the entrance or tlia 
Gaiifta upon the plalna of India waa In Umsc aame maps two degreea la the S. of the 
place where it aetuallj enters India. Such being tbe error* of tbe Lamas' map, we 
— ■ -' *■ — " '- '— ccuracy, and Klaproih has not told ui if in tb" 

Kus af Kiealang, tboao af Tibet were feuaded on aatronomical abeervatlen*. Net 
haTbif aaen these maps, we are otkabla ta detemdne whetlur they are founded oa ob> 
aenvtlous or menly on roiitee, like their predecessors under Kao^ee. We believe lbs 
latter h the case, and that the case Is the asme with Father Hyacinth's (ranslated 

(BUMt plaoe much eonldencc In Its accuracy, aiid Klaproih hi 

Bius af Kieulang, tboao af Tibet were fauadei' 

haTbif aaen these maps, we are otkabla ta detern 
aenvtlous or menly on roiitee, like their predecei 
latter Is Ihs case, and that the case Is the aeni 

CSiiDcae work on Tibet. Had a tilaogulation of Tibet been made aa waa the caae with 
China, we woold not haie been In the perpleiiity we are in at present, respecting tbe 
tme leography of Hbet, tbe courses of the great rlTen, and the points where they 
leaTB (he Tibetlau pbiean and enter tile Bunnan dominions. Aa we hare atated tba 
case Talrly ta our readn*, they will see liu Impoaaibility on our part of (iTing any 
thini bcTond a Ter? general account of a conntr; an little known and so Inactwralaly 
■d in tb; very btM of aaodcra maps. 

156 ASIA. 

themMlres «nd their Minntry Bhatba and Bhothas. The Mtrng^lx tt«e the 
term la ip place of ba, and call Bhotba, Tubal, of which EitropeaM 
have made "Hhet. Accordinft to this etymon, the name Tibet is originally 
Mon^lian, ami paned from Uie Mongols to the Persians and Anln, and 
there can be no donlit that Marco Polo got the name from the Mongols 
when residing at the coort of Kbnblai Khan. It ia also called Pay, or 
PHtKoackim, the 'region of snow.' The Chinese sometimes call it See- 
fan, or ' Western Fan,' thongh that name be now restricted to the region 
between Tibet and Sechwen. Sometimes they denominate all Tibet by 
the name of Chlaita, and at other times by that of Shan, Seeshan, or 
' the western part of Shan ;' and the name Shan — or as Klaproth writes it, 
Dzang — is also given to the city of Cblassa (Lassa). Tangoot \a a Mon- 
golian word, by which is designed all the region which touches the western 
frontier of China, and which is inhabited by Tibetians. But the Tangoot, 
conquered by Jenghis Khagan, was distinct from Tibet, and seems to have 
comprehended the Seefaon or Toohun, the region of Kokonor to the W. 
of Shensee, the distrjct of Kansoo. part of Shensee, and the Ortoos Mon< 
gols. Tangoot is known in the Chinese annals under the names of the 
kingdom of Seeaip and, Mi/a, and See Hifa, or * Hya of the west,' Out 
Ihang, or Shan, is an ancient name of ilbet, compoiuided of the two 
words, Oui and Ihang. The Chinese transcribe this namo by Ou-ku- 
t/iiang ; and the Mongols render it by Barokn-djao, ' the right side,' or 
' the West.' Its geographical dtviRioos are involved in obscurity, and the 
terms High, Middle, and Lower Tibet, are vague and unmeaning. Marco 
Polo found it divided into eight kingdoms ; provinces would have been a, 
more proper term. Father Gior^ii gives it twelve provinces : viz. Lalai, 
already described, and now known to be a distinct sovereignty from Tibet ; 
Nagaree, which seems to correspond to the N.W. part of "Tibet, already 
described ; Hor, with the lake of Terkiri ; ICiang, Daum, and the prin- 
cipality of Kahang, in the N. ; Amdoa on the E. ; Brediong, or Brama- 
teiong, on the S. ; together with Takho and Congbo, and in the centre the 
provinces of Oa and Chang ; the Oui and Dfong of Kh^iroth. Of these, 
BramaKiong seems to be to the N. of Assam, and near the sonrce of the 
Brahmaputra, and E. of Bootan. On a close inspection of the Lama's map, 
we find the tract watered by the Sanpoo, E. and S.E. of Lassa, to b« 
divided into pcy* or poais, — a term signifying a province, region, or dis- 
trict. The tnkct to the S. and S.W. of the Sanpoo, betwixt it and tha 
Om-choo, is called Tak-fWf or Tak'pooi, that is, the province of Tak, 
which comprehends a considerable number of inferior divisions, and which 
does not at all correspond to the Bootan on the side of Beng^, as Malte 
Brun im^ned, bnt is clearly the Tac-po of Giorgi. On the opposite or 
N.E. side of the San-poo is the province called Konk-poo-i in the same mui, 
also subdivided into a number of districts. Now this is clearly the Congbo 
of Giorgi ; and to the S.E. of this Konk-poo-i, or Congbo, is the province 
of Ken-poo-i, between the Sanpo and the Noo-keeaung ; and funher E. of 
this, is the country or district of Dtanclo, (the Shancio of Marco Polo,) 
between the Lantsan-keeaung and the Kindia-keeaung, or Brius of Marco 
Polo. We speak here solely on the aothority of that map. Amdoa ia 
considered by Malte Bnin to correspond to the Ardandam of Marco Polo. 
Bnt this is merely putting the difficoliy a little out of sight ; for a reader 
will ask, where ia Ardandam ? Malte Brun indeed tells us that Ardan- 
dam is the S.E. part of Tibet, and as he makes it the same with the Am- 
doa of Father Giorgi, Amdoa consequently is the S.E. part of Tibet. 


Unfortniutely for tbia conjecture, both ftbnden in bu notM on Ikbnw 
Polo, and after him Klaprotfa, hsTe ihswa in tbe cleareflt muDer, that thn 
Ardandani of that noted traveller make* no put of Tibet, bat '» altogetbar 
correspondent to tbe S.W. part of the province of Yunnan in China, of 
which Yongchaag is the capital, called Unchiaa (not Noktaa, aa in Malta 
Bnin,) by Marco Pob>. The name of this district, besides, is not Ardan- 
dam, or Arcladam, as Malte Bmn has written it after MuUer's edition of 
Marco Polo; nor is it Kardandam, as Marsden has it ; bat Zar-daodsn, « 
Peniian appellation, a^ifying < teeth of gold ;' be^aose in that district gold 
is BO abnndant, that evnry raan wore a small plate of that metal as a cover 
to his teeth, according to Marco Polo, and which was exchanged for an 
eqnal qnantity of silver, brutight to tbem by the inhabitants of Mien, 
(Barroah,) as it was not to be found at all in the country of CaridL Malta 
Bmn has also identified Caridi, as he writes it with Ardandam or Zar- 
dandam, whereas the proper reading is Catalan, and not Caridi ; and it 
ia a cormption of Kvadjang, or ' the black coantry,' the N.W. part of 
Ynonan, from the colour of the people, called Ouman, or * black bwba' 
nans,' by the Chinese. The capital of this district ia the modem Ta-li-foo, 
called Dw-leion by the Chinese, and tbe capital of an independent atale 
till destroyed by the Mongols in \255, snbiteqnent to die conqoeet of Ti- 
bet. According to Marco himself, he took five days joumey on horseback 
W. from Ta-li-foo to the province of Zardandao. The Caraiam of 
Marco Polo waa not Assbm, as Malt« Bmn imagined, and which, in 
his fiuicy, had some relation to the Garrow mountains, bat lay to tho 
W. and H. of Karadjang, and waa called Karayan by the Mobamme- 
dan writers, and Thsnonman by the Ctunese, who call the people Ca- 
rains. The large lake of Enl-hu, or Tali, separates Karayan from 
Ksrazan or Karadjang. We dissent totally frOm Klaproth in placing 
Caraiam to the S.E. of Karazan, and making it the sonth part of Yon- 
nan, which is inhabited by the Mens. Caraiam extended N. and W. as 
&r as the Caindhn of Marco Polo, on the Bruis, or Kincha Keeang, or 
' river of golden sand,' — nut the Brahmaputra, as Malte Bmn imagined, 
— nor the Sanpo, as Klaprotb dreams, or his Irrawaddy, — but the ge- 
nuine Kincha Keanng of Tibet, and the north-west part of Yunnan^— 
FVom what we have been able to gather from these confosed and imper- 
fect accounts of the dirisions of Tibet are the following : \U, Nagaree, 
towards (be chain that dirides tbe aonrces of the Indns and Sntluj from 
Upper Tibet, and which contains the sources of the Yaron Sanpo, the 
Keanng-koo, and other lai^ rivers ; 2d, Kam, probably the Kahang 
' of Giotgi, called by him a principality ; and kam, in Tibetian, means 
the kingdom. It lies S.R of Nagaree ; 3J, Karra Tatet, on the Yar- 
kia-Sanpoo ; ith, Hor, on the N. side of Tibet ; 5lh, CoHgbo, on the 
left of the Sanpoo; 6lh, Tac-po, on the right of that river, and 
both S.E. of Lasna; 7th, Bregiong, to the W. of Congbo; (Mfi and 9(A, 
0"i and Chang, both comprehended, according to Father Hyacinth, in 
the prorince of Chlassa, and called Oocbang; lOth, Jiamdo; \\lh, 
Zanba, or TeethooUxmboo ; and \2th, Amdoa, on tbe borders of Sech> 
iren. As for tbe districts of Keeauiig and Dnum, we cannot fix their 
relative positions. 

Phyncid FeaturetS^ Tibet presents, on an inspection of the Lama's 
map, the most confused ssaembli^e of mountuna, valleys, lakes, and rivers, 
that can meet tlie eye, resembling a piece of net-work; and to attempt a 
TerbBl deacripUoD of such an apparent chaos would be to make confusion 

1A8 AM^ 

vwM cenroiiBM ; tud ta no trUnguUtion of this nat region vw ever 
made, aa in (he caae of China, we coonot depend on the accoracy of tha 
relattiv poaitioni, nor the directions of the interior obains. The declinfttioa 
of the slope, as indioated hy the cunrves of the rivers, wems to Im chiefly 
to the 8-Ei. und E. From China to 'ni>et b a rwf seoubla aacent tbe 
whole wsy; and the moantains, which are rery numerons, are far higher 
above the hoRzon on the side towards China than on tlwt towards Tibet i 
but wlten once they are passed, there is a descent, and the climate ia mnch 
more mild, and the coontry leas wild and savage, than it is on the borders 
of Sechwin and Yonnan. Aoeording to the account of a Chmeie officert 
who served in the ww of 1793 against Nepaol, the army took 72 days to 
march from the frontiers of Chine to the vicinity of Lassa, 12 days more 
to Upper Tibet, and 15 days more to the weatam ranga which sepanuea 
Tibet from Nepaul — total 99 daye to the seat of war. The passee, in hie 
account, are spoken of with horror, some of them requiring a whole day 
to oroM : and, when once attempted, must be passed before night, as there 
is no halting place, nor any poMibility of travelling in the dark. The 
Chinese generals were compelled to dismoont and walk over these tremen- 
dous mountains, instead of riding across them, as they are totally imper- 
*ioas to cavalry. But on the side of Hindoston the descent is much more 
rapid than on that of China, as being mnch shorter. When once the pou 
of Pharee is passed, the contrMt between Bootan and Tibet ii striking. It 
appears to the eye as one of the least fovoured countries under heaven, and 
aeems in a great measure incapable of cultivation. It exhibits only low 
rocky bills, withont any visible vegetation, or extensive arid plains, both 
of the moat stem and atuUbom aspect, promising fully as littic as they pro- 
duce. But thp very gradual descant of 70 British miles, from this pass to 
the Sonpo, was all that Turner aaw of Tibet. 

MoHntMMt.2 Those of the S.W. and S. towards Hindostan are the 
only ranges known to us, aa geographically described by such of our 
travellers and surveyors as have reached them, — Bogle, Turner, Webb, 
Colebrooke, Crawford, and others ; and the elevations of some of die 
paesee and peaks towards India have been already given. The moun- 
taiiw, on the side of Kemaoon, Nepaul, and Bootojo, correspond to the 
Bmodut of the ancienis, the Sanscrit HeemadTee. There are, properly 
■peaking, three distinct ranges, the Northern, the Central, and the Sontfa- 
ern Emodns ; the first of which b invisible from the plains of Hindo- 
atan, and bounds the valley of the Sanpo to the S., and is not perfo- 
rated by rivers. The central range is that immediately to the N. of 
Nepaal, and which is perforated by aeverol rivers, as the Gt^ra, the 
Ghandauk, the Arun, and the Tutta — all branches of the Ganges ; but 
amidst such tremendons precipices, and by such narrow gi^M, as to 
render their openings generally totally impracticable. It was through the 
pass of the Amn, by Lnngeroote, that the Nepanlese army retreat- 
ed from Teeshooloomboo j bnt another division, which took the pass of 
Kootee, (the Cutki of D'Orville and Groeber) to the weot, lost 2O00 
men amidst the snow. The pass of Mount Langnr, or Lungercote, is 
represented by the above Others as the most tremendons and precipit- 
ons they bad encountered all the way from Sining in Shensee. This 
centra) range ia upwards of 10 miles in horizontal depth, and at the 
aonrce of the Tnsm it ia denominated Khacea Karpda, or ' the moon- 
tain white with snow.' The eonthern range is that called by Kirk- 
patriok the Kuchar Aipt, immediately N. of Catmandoo ; and tbera its 


Mninilla are not, mi be Imbued, oorared aiAf wiih pttchei of Bnow, 
Imt *ri»h perennial mow to & vbit gre«t extent. The distance from 
Catnuuidoo w Lmm is 536 British miles, or 462 gei^Tap>>ic»] miles, b^ 
tbe road, according to Fktber Giorgi, but not above SOO get^npfiical 
mile* in diraet distance, eupposbg Lasu to be in 29* S9' N. lat, aa in 
the Lama's map ; so that raora than one-bair the Hpsce traTerted ia 
taken ap with winding*, from the very monntainoas nature of tbo 
road. It mntt be remariied, however, that Rmnel has placed Cstman- 
doo S3' Um) far N„ and Latss a full degree too far N. ; bnt he bad no other 
way of fixing th«m but by ronles in hit map. AKordingto father Gior^, 
Mount Laqgur is 50 road milee beyond Mount Rimola, (the ■ontbeni 
Himmaleh,) and aboands in suffocating exhalations, which indeaae aa 
it ia ascended bjr the pass ; and S5 milee bsyond this is the beaatlM 
■Ipine Tallay of Tingri,— «n earthly psradise in every respect bot th« 
■luu^DeM of the air. At the sonthem foot of Mount Langnr is tha fortress 
and town of Tankya, tbe first place recognised in the Lvna'e map; 
and 90 miles beyond this ia Zuenga, on the Bontsn. From hence two 
n»ds lead to Lusa, — the most northern by Sgigatcbe, (the Jiekit of 
the Lamas,) and Ringboo,— 4od the other by Kiangtae. Here wild 
hoTMs, variously spotted, are seen sporting in great numbers on the 
banks of the Bontsiu KiangUt is a fine city and fortress, with a con- 
vent of Qhyllongs, so very extensive and magnificent as to seem another 
city of itself Fifty miles beyond this, to tha N.E., and within tfarw 
days' journey of Lassa, is the famooa lake of Polite, w Jamdro, or 
JoMgto, said to be so large by tbe nativea as to be 16 days' journey 
in circumference ; but in tba Lama's map tbe circumference is only 150 
milee. In the middle, according to Oiorgi, ia a continiud range of hil- 
locks and islands ; or, according to the map above-mentioned, atiil tbo 
only one we yet possess, one laige island, encircled by a lake from 
three to eight miles broad. On the western shore of this island is » 
monaalary, and tbe seat of a Lama priestess, called LaiuUta Turotpi^ 
MO, a female incarnation of Boodha. Tha road from Kiangse to Lassa 
Jhs alongst tbe north side of this singular lake, a day and a halTs jour- 
ney. Between this lake and tbe Sanpo is a vary lofty range, i^led 
lHawil Kambala, which travellers must cross in tbe way to Lassa. From 
the summit of this elevated range is seen, towards the N., a still higher 
rai^, covered with during snow. Seven miles beyond tbe base of 
Mount Kambala is tha Sanpoo, which 12 miles &ther on is crossed by a 
bridge of iron chains, stretched from side to side, with planks or logs laid 
across. This chain bridge is composed of 500 links, each a foot long, laid 
across tbe narrowest part of the sUeam, which here ia vary deep and rapid. 
N.E. of this crossing place of tha Sanpoo is tbe fiuned city of Laaa, ii 
miles distant by the road. Thus is Giorgi's itinerary of the route horn 
Catmandoo to L«saa correct in its detuls, but, unrortnnately, no bearings 
of the route are given ; and the same is the case wkh Mr Stale's ronta 
from Coosbeyhar, Ta^isudon, and Paridroi^, to Chanmanning, tbe then 
rendence of the Dalai Lama ; so that we are in the dark respecting tbe 
particular direction of both routes; and these are all we have to rest on 
for tbe relative positions of place, in the total abaence of observatioiu of 
latitude and longitude. Tomer, in his journey to Teesbooloomboo, entered 
Tibet at the pass of Pharee, called Paridrong and I^ridsong in tbe Lama'a 
map, wlucb was ascertained to be a full degree too fir S. in the I«n»'a 


160 ASIA. 

map, u Reonel jastlj nupected, bwog in 27° 58* N. lat^ mA 89° 1' E. of 
Greenwich. The pass ascends Meep for 12 miles np the southern litce of 
the dreary Soomoonang till its summit be scaled. On this is a looft row 
of small inscribed flags, fixed in rnile cairns of stones, and flattering in the 
wind. These mark the boundary hatween Tibet and Bootan. To the 
N.E. of this a few miles, is the noted peak of Chumularee, visible at a direct 
distance of 232 British miles. At the foot of the pass is the sterile vale 
and foitresB of Pharee. The road goee to TuihotAoomboo almost doe N. 
along the banks of the Painomehoo, by Tiitena, Sutndta, C'haloo, Nainee, 
and Jhaiuet Jeang, the distance from Pharee about 70 British miles direct 
E. of this we hear of no other posses through the Himallah to Tibet. £■ 
of the Langtang mountains, which sepai^te Aesam from the valley of the 
Seree Serhit, all the way to the frontiers of Yunnan and the course of the 
Lookianng, a distance of 100 British milee at least, in the parallel of 27* 
30', the range coatinnea an unbroken conrae, of tremendous eleration, and 
skirled at its base by a large tract of rugged snbalpine country, impracti- 
cable even for the hardy mountaineera themselves, and all communication 
is apparently barred to the N. The range seen from the summit of Mount 
Cauibala is that of Koiran, esteemed the highest in Tibet, and runs to the 
S. of the lake of Terkiri. The only reason assigned for its snperiority of 
elevation to the other chains is merely the circumstance of its central 
position, but it is no conclusive proof. The range to the W. is perhaps 
equally elevated, and communicates with the Mooe Taugler to the N. and 
the Himmalah to the S. It is called Kenlame and Kanletkan. The 
names Malaya and Kelatch, signifying ' snowy monntuns,' are cormptiona 
of the Sanscrit Himalaya, and Kailasa, or Khaillas. The Sanscrit !&• 
mola, applied to the dividing range between Tibet and India, has been 
corrupted by transcribers into Moriul, as appears in the ge<^raphic«l 
maps of the 17th century. Respecting the other interior ranges, we 
can say nothing as to their elevation, or whether they are groups or 
ranges, as the maps present us with nothing but a confused assemblage 
of mountains, lakes, and rivers, which it is impossible to descrit>e in 

Lakes.'} This very mountainous region contains a host of lakes, a great 
number of which have no outlet, especially in the northern part, Tlie 
Terfdri is 70 miles long and 25 broad, and contains a superficies of 2,300 
square miles. Malte Brun observes, that if one line be drawn from the 
Tericiri lake 220 miles N., and another W. of the same 470 miles, we 
■hall find 23 other lakee, which have no outlet, or which flow the one into 
the oUier. These masses of stagnant water are the resnlt of the confign- 
rstioo of the Tibeuan platean, which is itself a collection aa it were of 
smaller plateaus, enurcled by mountains, or so many concave basins, wboee 
waters, having no outleta, descend to the bottoms of their respective boU 
lows, where they either form lakes, or find them already prepared for i1m 
reception of their waters. Fifteen days' journey from Tushooloomboo ta 
a lake 20 miles in circumference, that produces lineal, or crude boivx, 
which is formed or deposited in its bed, near the hank ; IVom the deepw 
parts rock-salt is procured ; and dnrii^j one-half of the year this expaoM 
of saline fluid is covered with a smooth sheet of ice. 

RiveTs.'y Though many of the streams which arise on this mast ul»> 
rated of all terrestrial convexities are lost in the numerous lakes which hei« 
and there occupy the hollows of the dreular depressions of the mouiitainotta 
■urface, yet several of the longest and largest rivers of the Eastern be- 


■usphere originate in diis region. TTie edict of tlie emperor Kuinghee, 
psbli^ed in 1721, and given b^ Klaproth in bia memoir on the soarcea 
rf the Brohmapootra and Irrawaddy, poblistied at Paris in 1828, afforde a 
Tery cnriotu and particnlsr description of the Tibetian rivers, according to 
■ocnrate data fornislied by the superior Lamas. The origin of the Whang- 
ko is, in this document, said to he mtfaont the frontier of Sining, 
The real name of the incipient stream is Mlnn-Jiol, or ' Golden river,' as 
it is denominated by the Mongols-. It is abont three feet deep, and rises 
two d^rees W. of the Tsing-soo-hai lakes. It has much gold mixed with 
itt sands. The source of this small stream, the commencement of the 
Whang-ho, is in 35" N. Ut. and 21" W. of Pekin. The tract watered 
by ito npper co«rse is called Moma in Tibetian, and Thokan in Chinese. 
The Whang-bo enters Shinaee, near Hocbew, 10 days' joorney from its 
sonrc« in direct distance, by a very narrow pass l«tween two vast steep 
n>cks. — The neit river of Tibet mentioned hy Kannghee is the Min-kee- 
auHg : bat it is not a Tibetian but a Chinese river, its coaise being almost 
wholly within Sechwen. — The Yahng-keeaung forms, for 400 miles in a 
S.E. course, the S.W. frontier of the Seefaun, and, for 140 more, the 
western frontier of Sechwen, dividing it from "Tibet ; and after a course 
of 160 more, through the S.W. angle of Sechwen, it finally joins the 
KiiuAa-itaaung, coming N.E. from Yannan ; thus accomplishing a com- 
parative coune of 700 British miles, receiving in its broad and deep chan- 
nel the waters of the Seefiian at the west of Sechwen. From its source 
to its Hitrance into Sechwen, in 29° 54^ N., it bears the appellation of the 
Saehoo-Ttiltirkana, and then of the Yalong, The Keeaung-koo, accord- 
ing to the emperor's memoir, rises in the N.E. of the states of the Daltd 
lama, and runs S.E. into Tibet, and then enters Sechwen. Farther on, the 
Keeang passes Kwei-chow-foo, enters Hookwang, waters King-cfaoo-foo, and 
joins the Han-Jcteaung before Woo-chang-foo. — The Hau-keeaung comes 
from the Po-chung-shan monntwn — a monntain of Shinsee in the dietrict of 
NiH'keang-chow, and bears at its source the name of Ski/i-i/ang-shtvety ; it 
rans to the eastward, and at Nan-ching-hnn enters Hookwang, and joins 
the Great Kteaung near Han-yang-hun : the joint streams are called Han- 
keaoH. — In the map of the Lamas, the Kineka-keeaung rises in Ngari, or 
Upper Tibet, (not in the Seefaan,) in 35° N. ht. and 90° 27' E. long, 
from a lake called Pafaaton Kol. Its name at the source is not given in 
tbeir map. It runs E. to a place called Hnrha, or 'the Custom-house,' 
vriiera it is joined hy a stream from the S. Two degrees E. of its source 
it recnres the Piiie Muran, a large stream from the S<, and a little be- 
yond, a still lai^r, called the Aklam. In 4^ degrees E. of its source, 
iriiere it is separated by Mount Koolkoon from the parent stream of the 
Whang-ho, it turns to the S. and S.E., passing by Cocosay, a custom- 
bouoe, and Tsitsirkhana, a mined city, and is called in this part of it* 
coarse the Portic-Ao, In 31° N. lat. it enters the country of Latoo, and 
niua ^most due S. till at Tachinquan, in 27° 32* N. and 16' 4^ W. of 
Pekin, it enters Yunnan, after a comparative course of 1000 British miles 
througfa Tibet ; and its course through China is at least double that ilis- 
tance. For volume of water, it is the lai^est in the Eastern hemisphere, 
being calculated at 464.400 cubical feet of water, per second of time, dis- 
charged into the sea. Including sinuosities, its length, of conrse, is to 
that of the Thames as 21^ to 1, or as 3,780 to 180 British miles ; and ita 
basin to that of the Thames as 138 to 1, or 760,000 British square miles, 
as it comprehends all titie central part of China and the eastern part of 

Tibet, indtiiimg the Seefauo- The Liutlfan-keefmng rises in 34° SO* 
N. Ut. and 22° W. of Pekin, according to the Lama's map, and enters 
Yunnan under the name of the Lak-choo, whence it proceeds to the coun- 
try of the Northern i-aoa. — To the W. of tliis river nms another called 
Jiara-oonoo, the modem Loo-ketaung of Ynnnan ; and to tb« W. of this 
b the Longchuen-ketaung. We cannot say that we are exactly of the 
Hame opinion widi Klaproth respecting rfie geogiaphtcal meiiu of the edict 
above referred to. Ho appears to ha?e got it up mainly for tlw porposa 
of cootraditting our learned countrymen of Calcutta, and the German jonr- 
naliats of Weimar who have hi^ened to coincide with them in their 
opinion, that the Seree Serkit of the Bor Khampti country is the genuine 
Jrrarvaddy of Ava ; whilst the Sanpo of Tibet on the one hand, and the 
Nou'keeaitg of Yunnan on the other, are boih denied to he the Inawsddy. 
From modern geographic*! ignorance of the region between Tibet and 
Ara, and to the W. and S.W. of Yutinan, it has been found bithwto im- 
poesible to delineate the lower conrses of the Tibetian rivers W. of the 
Lantsan-keeanng, and identify them with diose streams that intersect the 
Gonntries of Ava, Pegu, snd Siam. 

Climole.'} In this respect — to reason analogically — Eastern Tibet mnat 
bear a great resemblance to Western Tibet ; and oar actual knowledge of 
its climate is confined to that part which lies to the S. of the Sanpo. 1^ the 
temperatare of the seasons a remarkable uniformity prevails in Tibet, both 
in their periodical duration and retnm. The same division of these takea 
place as in Bengal. TIm spring is from March to May, with a variable 
atmosphere and heat, thunder-storms, and occasional showers. From June 
to September is the humid season, when heavy and continued rains swell the 
rivers. Prom October to March a clear and uniform sky sncceeds, seldom 
obscured by fogs or clouds. For three months of this season a degree of 
cold, far greater than is known in Europe, prevails. Oil the southern con- 
fines of 'i'ibet its extreme severity has been fdt by such as have crossed 
its mouutaiuous frontier, whether to Tushooloomboo or Lassa. On this 
rest eternal snows snd permanent congelation ; and its vicinity ia at all 
times remarkable for the violence and dryness of the winds. 

Soil and Productiom.'y In such a lofty region, and in a cliaoate wherv 
the inhabitants are obliged to seek for refuge in the valleys and holloira, 
■ — and where, from the glare of light reflected from the snow, they are 
subjected to ophthalmia and blindness, — we cannot expect much fertility of 
soil, or abundance of vegetable and faiinaceoos produce. Yet in autne of 
the valleys grain is abundant ; as in that of Jhansee Jeung, where, as Tor- 
ner passed on his way to Tushooloomboo, abundant crops of ripe com 
bordered the road, and namerous clusters of villages on boih sides delighted 
the eye. The autumn being clear and serene, the furmer spreads bis com 
on the ground tu dry, then employs oxen to tread it. If fiooian seems t« 
possess the pabnlun of vegetable, in Tibet we find a snperahunduice of 
animal life. The variety and quantity of wild fowl, game, and beasts ol 
prey, are astonishiag. In Uootan, on the contiary, except domestic ani- 
mals, nothing of the sort is to be seen. Turner met with no wild awmal 
in Bootan but the monkey, and amid all his travels through it, be saw no 
game except a few pheasants near Chuka. It is not till near the source 
of the Patchieu, at the foot of Somoonang, that wild animals begin to 

Inhab'UomU-'\ Sudi a large and mountmno 
number of distinct tribes, all classed nitder the c 

bat of which very little is known. BesideB these properly eo called, as the 
aboriginea of the country, we know bat of two other ctaaaes, the TTiorpo 
and tbe Bor. 

The fomiec of tbeee tribes dwell to the N. of this region between the 
Yarkea Sanpo on the S. and the Gobi on the N., and to the W. of the 
eonrces of the Keeang Koo, between the e&atern fron^r of Khotaan and 
the tract through which the road paaaes from Lama to Sining. They speak 
a distinct langnage both from the Kalmucks and the Tibetians. Moorcroft 
has confoanded them with tite Elnths who are themselres KalmnckH, 
though at the same time he distingaiafaes them from the Hor or Sogpo, 
who are an Eiuth tribe. Klaproth calls them a tribe of Nomadic Toorka, 
called Ka-tehe by the Tibetians (or Big months) and Kalri by the Chinese 
They are the descendants of the Oigoor tribes, who dwelt in the same 
tnKt daring tbe timo of the Ywen dynasty in China, and who then bore 
the name of Kara Oigoort, or Black Oigoors. Theae then are the long- 
lost and songht-for Oigoors, who made sacb t. figure in the history of 
Jenghia Khan, and who seemed, from oar ignorance, to have ranished 
qnite ont of sight, like their ancient neighhonrs the Hyongnoo. Their 
conntry is called Kara Tibet, and.they are divided into two classee, the 
Upper and Lower Oigoors. Ttiey were subdivided in 1573 by Altnn 
Khagan, one of the Mongolian chiefs, to the N. of the Great Wall, as we 
are informed by Schmidt, ont of the Mongolian history, which calls them 
Tibetians as well as Oigoors, as being a "Hbetian tribe, and also calls them 
Boodhiata, which completely overtlirows Klaprotb's notion that they are a 
Tartdah tribe and Mohammedans. 

The ff'ir are a branch of the Elnth stem, who roam to tbe N. of the 
Kara-Noor. Hor, or Hor-pa, is the 'fibetian name for the Mongolian race 
generally, who are called by the appellation of Gheea Hor, or Gheea of 
Hor, or the people of Hor, whilst the name of this tribe in Mongolian is 
Siraigol, or Karagol, They are also called by the Titietians Sogh-po, or 
wanderers, and Gheea Sogh, or the people of the prairies, because they 
wander in the St«ppes, In Carey 'a Tibetian lexicon the names /for and 
Sogh-po are rendered by the word Tartars, and their cooniry, Sogh-tool, is 
rendered Tartary. These Hor or So^-po are the Kala Soogpa Tartars 
of Kirkpatrick, who inhabit tbe country N. of Joongah, reckoned the 
highest ground in Tibet, 

Besides the Tliorpo or Oigoors of the district of Kara Tibet and the 
Hor or Sogh-po, we know of no other distuict tribes in Tibet, though 
doubtless there are more, aa aereral languages, or at least dialects, are 
spoken there. Whether the priesthood are a different stock from the shep- 
herds and goatherds is impoasibie to determine, but there ia ground to sus- 
pect so, and that they are of Hindoo ori^n ; that they came from Hindoo- 
stan, and imported hither the system of Boodh, and by means of it and 
their superior learning and science, obtained a complete ascendancy over 
the simple and ignorant aborigines, who are a poor harmleaa race, with 
little elae to employ tbem than the care of their flocka. Mr Manning — 
who staid long on the frontier with a design of entering the country and of 
gaining access to Lassa, but who was prevented from obtaining his purpose 
by the ever-watcbfnl jealousy of tbe Chinese — found the natives like the 
Afgbauns, strongly marked with Jewish features, and a race totally distinct 
from the Mongols, Chinese, or Hindoos ; and in fact they have a tradition 
that they came originally hither from the W. 

Language and Lilerature.^ Whatever might have been the spoken 

164 ASIA. 

Un^nage or langaagM in Tibet provioiu to the iatrodoctioa of Boodbism, 
one thing ire are certun of, tbat no written chantcter or alphabet was oaed 
or even known, till that epoch. Although the age of Boodha himself, or 
the author of die Bfstem which bears his name, was at least ten ceiituries 
' anterior to our nra, yet his system was not iBtrodnced into Tibet vntil a 
period comparatively modem, although it is impossible to fix the date of 
its introdnction. It is certain, however, that the present Hbetian language 
and literatnre am of Hindoo origin. The priesthood — who am possoHSed of 
whateTer literatnre exists in Tibet — point to Benares as the source whence ' 
all their learning has been derived. It appean that the Tibetians received 
both their alphabetical charactere from Hlttdooston about the middle of the 
7th century. Mr Moorcroft, in a written commnnication from Cashmere, 
in 1823, to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, has given a sketch of the lan- 
guage of Tibet, illustrated by drawings of the various alphabets used there. 
According to tfais account, not less than 10 varieties of chatacier aro em- 
ployed in that country for familiar and religions porpoees. 

Commerce and Manujacturai.'] Excepting the mannfoctnre of idols, 
we know almost nothing of Tiberian commerce or manufactures; but we 
may presume that they have a considerable commerce with China. For* 
merly a considerable commerce was carried on with Bengal throng Ne- 
paul, but since 1792 tliis has been totally stopped by the timid jealousy of 
the celestial court. No money is coined in Tibet, being forbidden by the 
principles of their religion, and a very adulterated coin is the commoa 
medium of exchange 

SeUgion.'} Tibet is the chief seat of Boodhism and of its incarnated 
bead. The inflnenee of this spiritual lord extends over the whole of Cen- 
tral Asia, and he formerly united in his own person the regal as well as 
the sacerdotal chaiscler. The latter he still preserves in its fullest extent, 
in his own name and by means of spiritual vicars, who reside in different 
parts of his vast spiritual domain ; but his regal power has of late been 
exercised by the emperor of China, who acta in his name, and has got 
military possession of all Tibet under the covert of pions protection, espe- 
cially since Teeshooloomboo was plnndered by the Nepanlese, vrhich ren- 
dered the political intervention of China necessary to protect a spiritual 
potentate who could not defend his own territories. According to euch 
Tibetian accounts as Turner could collect, Kanka Grinbo was the first lama 
who pretended to the sacred character of an incarnated deity, (or rather of 
Boodbo,) and the emperor of China, convinced of the truth of his pretenaiona, 
conferred on him the regal and sacerdotal functions in the year 1 lUO. 

GovernmenL2 He administration of affairs is managed by four ghylongs, 
each of whom has the administration of one-fourth of Tbet. Under time 
the civil and military affairs are conducted by the respectable Chinese who 
dwell at Lassa, and whose nomination must be approved by the Dalai 
lama. They are generally chosen from amongst the wealthy fomitles, and 
distinguish themselves as much by their intellectual capacity as by their 
irreproachable conduct. The Tibetian army is composed, according to 
father Hyacinth's Chinese author, of G0,000 men, of whom 15,000 are 
cavalry. The levy is said to be made with great impartiality, one man 
out of 10 is ordinarily taken. This, if correct, would give 600,000 men 
fit to bear arms ; and this, if reckoned one-fourth of the population, would 
give 2,400,000 as the population of Tibet ; but to this must be added all 
those who belong to the religions orders, whether male or female, so that 
the population may perhaps amount to 3,000,000. 



Mannert and Cattomt,^ Of these rery tittle u koown. An miglit be 
expected in bo cold s climate, the "nbetiaiu nte very warm dothiog, aach 
M we hare already described ia our acconnt of Weatera Tibet. The honses 
of the peasaotry are meanly cosatmcted, and reseoibte brick-kitos, being 
bnilt of rough stooea heaped on each other, with a few ^Mrturea to admit 
light, and a flat tenrsce for the roof, enrronnded with a amall parapet. In 
their food the Hbetiaiw uniformly prefer cmde undressed moat, of wluch 
kind mntton is almost solely osed, and at their feasts the table ia seen 
spread with jointa of raw freah mutton as well as boited, the ftKraer being 
most esteemed. They have no occasion to salt dieir meat dnrio^ winter, 
as it will remun fresh during die whole season, from the coldness and dry- 
ness of the air. Tea is a fevonrite beretage amongst them. The milk of 
the yak is mnch nsed as food, and b a great article of commerce. Thia 
most nsefnl animal gives abundance of ^is lacteal flnid, rich, and yielding 
most excellent butter, which is easily preserved in skins or bladders ex< 
eluding the air. It keeps in this cool dry climate during all the year, ao 
that after some time tending their flocks, when a snfficient stock is accu- 
mulated, they have only to load the yaks and drive them to a proper mar- 
ket, with their own produce, which constitates, to the utmost verge of Tar- 
lary, a most material article uf merchandize. These animals serve the 
Hbetiana for riding, clothing, and food ; and their fine soft sUky bushy tails 
serve as ornaments both to the peasant and the prince. The Tibetians 
are sud to be polyandrisls ; one woman haviog several husbands. The 
eldest brother of the family is said to have the privil^e of choosing his 
wife, but she becomes the common property of all the brothers, however 
numerons. We greatly doubt, however, the tmth of this. As to the rites 
of burial, we have different accounts. Some are burned, others buried, 
others thrown into a river, others taken and bruised to pieces, hones and 
all, and formed into balla, which are given to be devoured by a speues of 
kites, which are esteemed sacred. But the general mode of disposing 
of the dead is tike that of the Parsees of Bombay : diey are exposed in the 
open air, and left to be devoured by carnivorous birds. A place set apart 
for thia purpose vraa seen by Turner and his suite, when descending the 
mountain Soomoonong into the plain of Plmree. But a fote hi different 
is reserved for the body of the sovereign lamas, the Dalai lama, and the 
Teeshoo lama. Soon as the soul of Boodha or Sacyo-Moonee has left the 
body, the latter is placed npriglit in an attitude of devotion, the legs being 
folded under him, with each thigh resting on the instep, and the soles of 
the feet turned upwards ; in this posture they are deposited in shrinea. 
The inferior lamas have their remains usually burned, and their ashes de- 
posited in small metallic idols. Over the shrines of the deceased sovereign 
lamas, splendid pyramidal mausoleums are built. The Tibetians, as might 
be expected in so mountainous and so secluded a country, and immersed 
as they are in all the monstrosities of Lamaism, are very superstitious. 
Every hill, cave, mountain, or inaccessible place, every glen and stream, ia 
the habitation of spirits and supernatural beings. Every village has its 
demon, or protectbg genius, to whom respect is paid, either from fear or 
gratitude. Spirits, ghosts, and other imaginary objects of terror, ore quite 
common in vulgar belief. But sunk as the Tibetians are in the most al^ect 
subjection to the lamas and monks, they are coropaia^vely an amiable, mild, 
humane race, and quite free from many of the cruel and saaguuiary cus- 
toms of the Hindoos. There is no setting of female in&nta, as in Biscbur 
and Sirinagur ; no putting them to death as among the Rajpoots ; no ex- 

166 ASIA. 

posnre of duldren oa trees, or on dte banks of the Gan^ ; nor drowning 
tbem in the aaovd etreain to propitiate an ofiended d«ty; nor fnneral piles 
whereon widows are burnt to accompanjr die manes of their deceased faos- 
bands. In Tibet it most be sud that the system of Boodhs exercises a 
more benignant away than tbe cmel nnltiferioua syatem of Brahma, and the 
obscene sangnioary rites of Jn^emnnt. 

Cities.'] The greater nnmber r)i pWca marked on the map of Tibet as 
given by the lamas, seem, as Malte Bmn very jostly remarks, to be no- 
thing more than villages, or gronpa of cabins, each surrounding some 
temple. Accordii^ to the Dai-Syn-itonndcht, there are bnt 16 dlies iu 
alt Tibet. Of these Lassa and Tee*hoUaomboo only deserve noUce. 
Laiia, called Khhsta by the Tibetians, is seated on the Kaltjoo Mooren, 
a tributary of the Sanpo, and 24 miles N.E. of the cJiain bridge across 
that stream, in a spacious plain. It is a small city, saya Malte Bran, bat 
the houses are built of stone, very spacious and very lofty. It is repro- 
sented by others as a lai^ city, and the Chinese officer, whose account 
has been given by Hyacinth, affirms that the vast palace, the streets, and 
bazaars, are worthy to fix the attention. This city was encompassed with 
a wall, but the chief military governor of the west having demolished it, 
rebuilt it anew, and had it excellently constructed of granite, and but- 
rounded by a strong etone mole 30 li in length, and which encloses all the 
SBcred space, and defends it agunst tbe inundations of the river. It is tbe 
seat of the Tibetan government, and of tbe Chinese mandarins appointed 
to act as overseers. It is inhslHted by merchants and artisans. Tbe fa- 
moos mountain 7 miles S.K. of the city, on wluch is tbe palace of the 
great lama, is called Pvlala, or the Holy Mountain ; but according to tbe 
Chinese, this is only the name of the palace, whilst the mountain is called 
Mar-Bali, or Pamuri. This palace or temple is crowned with a gilt 
dome 63 Cbinese fathoms high. If each of these be 10 feet, as tbe Je- 
tnits tell na, tbe elevation must be enormous, amounting to 620 feet. Tba 
exterior is said to he adorned with numberless pyramids of gold and 
ulrer, and tbe 10,000 rooms (a Chinese hyperbole) of the interior con- 
tain an immense nnml>er of idols of the same precious metals. During 
the first month of every year, all the lamss from every put of Tibet as- 
semble in this temple to perform their religious service. The Chinese 
keep a strong garrison in Lassa, commanded by an officer called Zewaa 

Norba, or rhief of the army of the west Teeshooloombao is the seat of 

Pantscbin, or Bantschan Rimbochay, the second great lama. It is a mo- 
nastery, contmning 300 or 400 houses, inhaUted by monks, besides tem- 
ples, mausoleums, and the palace of the sacred person^e. Of this place 
we have an excellent account from Turner, who visited it in 1763. Tbe 
buildings are all of atone, with flat roofs, and parapets of heath, and small 
boughs. It is defended at a small distance by the fortress of Sbeegotcbe^ 
Jeung, seated on the prominence of a lofty rock. Tbe plain of Teeshoo- 
loomboo is perfectly level, and everywhere surrounded by rocky hills. Its 
direcuon ia N. and S. about 15 miles, and from E. to W. about 5 miles. 
The rock on which ia seated the munsstery is the loftiest in all tbe vict* 
nity, and commands an extensive view, and the Sanpo is visible to the N. 
flowing in a widely extended bed, contuning many iaianda, but tbe prin* 
cipal channel is narrow, deep, aod rapid. At a distance, Teeabooloomboo 
has a grand appearance. If its magnificence, says Turner, could be in- 
oreasctl by any external canae, none could mure superbly have adorned its 
numerous gilded csnopiee and turrets, than the sua rising iu full splendwtr 


dti«ctly opposite. It preMnted > view woDderfnlly beaatiful and brilliatil, 
the effect was little sliort of magic, and it made an imprearion uever to be 
erased from my mind. 

Bislorical Nolke-'\ Like many other pagan countries of Asia, Hvn- 
doston not excepted, Tibet has no histoncai amials, at least none have yet 
appeared. We only know its history by its connection with and .vicinity 
to China. Beyond 790 of the Christian era, we hare nothing bat tradi- 
tion, a most ancertain and precarious guide. According to it, Tibet was 
peopled 1 340 years before Christ, by Prasinpo and Prasrirano ; 300 years 
later, Boodba or Sacyo, was bom of a vii^n, baring descended from the 
skies to restore a purer system of faith. "Die firel king of Tibet was Guia- 
thritz Bengo, son of Mecchiaba, a Hindoo sovereign. His capital was Jarton, 
and he divd 1102 years before our era. The people, weary of anarchy, vo- 
Inntarily snbmitted to China in 790, A.d. It ia from this period that some 
light begins t« dawn on Hbetian history. From the Chinese writers we 
learn that the TibetJans were a powerful people in the Bth century, and 
possessed of all the country from the sources of the Sanpo to the moun- 
tains of Cashmere, and the frontiers of Tokharestann to the W. of the 


This is a large and extensive region, comprehending all the space between 
Tibet, China, and the Kobi, or Great Sandy Desert, Under the aboTe 
appellation — the one Mongolian, signifying din western country, the other 
Chinese, signifying the people of the west, — all the country to the W. of 
China was understood, even including Tibet ; hence the language and charac- 
ters of Tibet werB called Tangoolan by the Mongols and Western Moham- 
medan writers. Secjaun signifies * the Westpm people' in Chinese, and not 
EastemTibet,asKlaprothaflirros,in the same way as the Kukonoor is called 
See-Hay, ' the Western sea,' and the region to Uie W. of the Whang-Ho, 
Ho-See-oo, or the country to the W. of the Ho or river. In a similar way 
Tangoot was called by the Chinese, See-Heea, or Heea of the W., because 
the printxs of that dynasty had the charge of the western frontier, at the ex- 
tremity of the Great wall. The appellation, See-Faun, was subsequently 
merged in that of See- Heea, when that dynasty rose on the ruins of the for- 
mer ; and in that of Tangoot, when the Mongolian dynasty commenced under 
Jenghia Khan, which overthrew that of the See-Heea in 1227. All these 
terms, therefore, are merely relative, not taken from the people who inha- 
bited this extensive region, or the princes who ruled it, but from its relative 
situation to China ; and it must be observed, that it is only from the Chi- 
nese that we have any account of this region; the westeru writers who 
knew it nnder the Mongolian appellation of Tangoot, were acquainted 
only with the N.W. part of this region, hut of the southern part, strictly 
so called, and in modem geography denominated the country of the See- 
Faun, they know nothing, nor of the bifitory of the princes who ruled it 
antecedently to the rise uf the Heea dynasty. At the epoch of Jeoghis 
Khui, Heea or Tangoot comprehended all the country of the Seebun 
to the E. of the Yalong, the coantry of Kokonoor, the district of Sha- 
cjiew, all the N. and N.W. part of Shensee, and the comuries of the Or- 
t«oa Mongols, and Etsine, as tar N.W. as the frontiers of Hamee. This 
was the Tangoot of the western historians, and of Marco Polo. The 
names of See-Heea and Tangoot have long since become obsolete ; hot 
tbe appella^on of Seefann, in its present restricted sense, still remiins. 

Therefore, under the name of Tangoot, or tha conntty to the W. of 
Chiiu, as distinct from Tibet, we comprebend the three fallowing coun- 
tries, the Seefion or Too-faan, the country of the Elnths of Kokonor, 
and the district of Sha-chew. 


This region was once the seat of a powerful dpiastjr fbnnidable to iu 
nrighbcnvs, and even to the empeioTa of China. On the eaat, it not only 
included sereral districts, now helon^^g to Shensee and Sechwen, but 
its chiefs extended their conquests so far within them, as to subdue several 
cities of the second rank whereof they formed goTemments. West- 
wards it included all the country to the W. of the Yalong-Keeang to the 
frontiers of Cashmire, as we are told by the Chinese hiatorians and geo- 
grapheTs of the middle ages. It conseqiiently inclnded all Tibet accord- 
ing to them. When or where this dynasty commenced, and the name or 
site of dieir cipital, the Chinese authors have not informed us, bat merely 
stale that in the 7lh century, Ki-tsong, king of the Seefaun, posseased 
all this vast dominion, had several kings who paid bim tribute, and from 
him received their investiture with patents, and seals of gold, and also 
that be compelled the emperor Taytsoog, the moat powerfal prince of tbe 
Tang dynasty, to giva his danghter in marriage to his son in 640. Hia 
successors were so powerful as even to defeat the Imperial armies, and 
c^ture Singan-Foo in Shensee, the capital of the empire, in 772. But the 
history of this state is involved in darkness, and its geography obscure i 
and Remusat, who has taken great pains to illustrate t^e Chinese geogra- 
phy of their empire, especially during tbe dynasty of Taug, has tbrowu 
no light whatever on tbe subject of tho See-Faun, but merely tells us that 
the Thang-hiang, or Tangootians, founded an empire in tbe 10th century, 
and passes orer in total silence the dynasty of toe Seefoun princes. We 
can only say, therefore, that tbe empire of the Seefann went to pieces in 
the middle of the 9th century, from dissensions amongst the members of 
the reigning family, several (MT whom sobmitted to China, others forufied 
themselves ia the mountains, and others remained independent under « 
petty prince of the blood in the vicinity of Sining, in Sliensee. But io 
the 10th century, all the tribes and petty princes of the Scebon became 
subject to the Heea dynasty, and the family of Tonshen, descendants of 
Psniochi, chief of Luka-Marsining, enjoyed their small principality in 
peace under the protection of the Heea princes, till they were involr<ld in 
tbe common ruin of that dynasty by the conquering arm of the Mongoliwi 
hero, Jenghis Khan, since which event tbe Seefaun have remained in 
their original country without either name or power. 

In the Jesuits' nap of Tibet, sheet first, the territories of the Seefaun 
are distinctly delineated as bounded on the east hy the province of Sech- 
wen, on tbe north by tbe chain of the Nomkoun Oubasbee, which divides 
it from the upper basin of the Wbaugho, and on the west by the Sachoo 
Tsitsirhans river, which forms it* boundary on the side of Tibet. According 
to this map, therefore, the country of the Seefaun lies between 29° 54^ 
N. lat. and 33° SO* N. lat., and between 12° 30*, and 19° W. of Peking, 
at the source of the Sachoo. Its shape is triangular, tbe base formed by 
the Nomkoun Oubasbee on the N., being about 360 British miles long, 
and the other two sides, which meet in a point in 29° 5V N., 300 British 
miles eaa^, but the weetem side is somewhat longer than the eastern. The 
region now delineated, was once well-peopled, bad many cities, towns. 


■Oil TiUagea, and fortnuea ; bat not one town esiaU nt preteot of all tli* 
tbore, BDil the uMioii of tiia Seehiu ii mow reduced to a ooicMlie 
MMe. They we divided by the ChiitMe writen into tiro chaaet : the Ht- 
Se^auH, or While Seeban, and the Wkang-SeefauH, or Yellow SeeAurn. 
Hieae denominationa are not giren them becanse tfaey live on the baok* 
•f the Kara Meorau, or Whangbo or the Bkck riTer, and the Ynngtae 
Koeang or Yellow riw, aa Malle Bran emmeonaty aays, nor from tbair 
camplexion, wbich in both tribes ia iwarthy, but from the colour of thei> 
lente. In this instance, Make Bnm baa commitlMl two mistakes, in call- 
ing the Yangtae Keean^, the Yellow river, whereas it signifies die ri*erf 
Smi of the Sea, and which appelUtion is only given to (he Keeang in the 
lower pan of its conrae, whereas ila tme name is the Keeang-Koo, or Blue 
river ; and secondly, in saying that the Yellow Seefonns dwell on the 
Yangtee Keeang, he confounds it with the Min Keeang, a mere tributary of 
the Gfnt Keeang, and wbich originates in this region under Ae name of the 
Hesbwee Ho. The Black Seefanne, besides tents, have also houses, and are 
governed by two chiefs, who depend on a third, but are very uncivilized. 
Thoae seen by Father Regis, were dressed like the inhabitants of Hamee, 
or Khamil, in the eaatMti eitremity of Chinese Tooridstaun. The women 
w«ar their hair parted into tresses, hanging down their shoalders, and fail of 
little g^aM mirrors. The Yellow Seefiinn are snbject to certain bmilies, 
whereof the eldest is made a lama, and wears a yellow habit. These 
lamas are all of the same fomily, and govern in tbeir respective districts. 
Tbey have the power of deciding canses and punishing criminals. They 
inhabit die same canton, bnt in separate bodies, withont forming large fa- 
milies of the aame kindred, which seem like so many camps. The greater 
pttTt of them dwell in tents, bnt some have thnr houses built of earth, and 
a few with bricks. They want none of the necessaries of life, and have 
nnmoous flocks of sheep. Their horses though small, are welt shaped, 
strong, and full of fire. The lamas who govern these people, do not vei 
w c^>press them, provided they render them dne honoucs, and punctually 
pay tlie duties of Fo, (Boodha) wbich are very trifling. These seem to 
b« a sort of tithes exacted on a religions acconnt. Boodhlam has ever 
been the religion of the Seefaun, who always chose' tbeir lunas to be their 
ministers of state, and eomelimee to command their armies. The black 
and yellow Seebnn are said to speak different dialects of one language, 
bat they undetstand each other well enough for the purpose oS mutual 
commerce. The books and characters used by the lamas and chiefs are 
those of Tibet. Though bordering on the Chmese, tbeir mannera and 
customs are very difl^nt. In some customa they resemble the Kalkhas, and 
the Elntbs of Kokonor. Both the black and yellow See&un are nearly inde- 
pendent of the neighbonring mandarins, who dare not treat them with rig- 
otir or force obedience ; their frightful mountains which diey inhabit, and 
whose summits are covered with snow even in the month of July, secure them 
against all pursuit. They have abundance of gold which their rivers bring 
down from the monntains, which they well know how to collect and work, 
for of it diey make vessels and small siatnea of Boodha. The use of this 
metal is very ancient amongst them, as we are told chat a certain emperor 
of the Han dynasty, having sent a deputation to oertun See&un chiefs 
who bad made a fomy into the Chineee borders, tbese chiefs endeavoured 
Id pacify him by a present of gold plate. Bnt the officer who headed 
tlie deputation refused it, telling them that rice in dishes of gold did not 
leliah with bin. It is impossibU to determine from Da Hakle wbetbar 


llw SMhnn belong to the Mongolian or Tibetian nee ; and hU ai 
the geoentpbical eiM of the Seehnn is confosed and iocoonatent, fw 
wfailet the fint afaeet of the mnp of Tibet exhibits the country of the 
Seefaua very distinctly, yet his account weniH to place them to the N. of 
W. and M. of the Whang-Ho, and according to him the borough of Tapa, 
4 leagnea N.W. of Sining, in Sbeneee, ia the property of, and subjoct to, a 
lama of the yellvir Seetano. We much doabi that the indefinite ^pella- 
^on iSs^un, ' people of the weat,' has led to some confnsion on thia head, 
and that a number of different nomadic tribes who roam on the W.N.W. 
and S.W. of China hare been confounded with each other, by ineaoa of 
this Chinese appellation. The subject is obecnre and likely to remain ao. 


Tmesi are the Koicioth, or Koaholte Elatha, a branch of the gnat Kal* 
mack stem, consisting of the four tribes of the TorgooU, the SamtgarM, 
Um Drrb«U, and the Kotltotet. These last are sud to amonnt to 50,000 
families, and roam in the riclnity of the Kokonoor, or ' bine lake.' The 
country in which they roim lioa to the N. of the Seebnn country deKribed 
before, M the W. of Sheniee, to the N.E. of Tibet ; and on the other aidea 
is boDDded by the Kobi, or ' Great Sandy deserL' We hare a moat con- 
fitsetl and inaccurate ai.<caD0t of this region in Da Halde ; for, after having 
deecribed the country of tbe Seeban, he next describes that of the Tartar* 
of Kokonoor, which is made to coataiu, in one place, all the CMintry W. 
of China, exteniUng from tbe Kobi to the fatatien of Yunnan and Arm 
■^-thtts inrlndinv, not only tbe Se^on before described, bat also the 
mm watered by the Yaloag, Kinsha, Laniaug, tmd Noo-Keeug li- 
Ten, down to ^' &^ N. tal- aud in auother place it is Bade to extoid 
7 dnrneo of U.U. namely, twm tbe abova saatben kt. to $3^ NV which 
UMallv exchMlea the dMaury of KokoMor wkkk bes S. of that lat, and 
)»ch»de« Ae Seeban be had abeady dexribed. Ia thb yaader be is M- 
lewvd by dM kar«ed aatban of tbe Madera Cainesal Hstacy, altfaoagfa 
Aai tbncriptiga be qaite iatw wwwt witb ibasr g rn g Tu ihi t al accoont of 
lb* fW&aa, >a tbe TA ralBMeal'ibsa leaned awl labanavwariL Wen 
it NM for tbe JesMis' m^h atit—faiT i a^ IH UaUa's |iiihiMiii we 
wmM ba leal ia a «mb a( tmfmm m. m dss Mt^Mt ate bis ■ainiili ; 
a»d eriM m lb* larj* wmf of Secbwm. tbe cmMit wikb. ia ife first 
«be*« af TibM. ts pn^wrir caUnI tba vaaatrr at tbe .-Hwm. h tbtR calU 
«4 K*««Mar. .MaiM Bn«. wW Ui a rwr knack *f antkb^ ftafical- 
tM. ar iiinfjf r iii j! biasirtf e^ Tcrr c wwa waiiiy ia tbe ri sak ef gram 
tWM^ Wtts w tkal Ibf C b sas n om tb* ki i biwn Eiaiba. -SsehMi. It 
«M be ■•>:r M b«<««w d»y be W. at Ca^n: wai igmtm tb* toa is 
abi^ilbac ntanva. it wwaM W btoit, ■* aaw^ msi^niB. ta AriAe ilw 
mie M Ibe W. of i.lyaM i 

«f tliMirti 

a C*ia«. la (has w«tr. Ae Sattaa «• ttr & at ^ N«al 
' * SeaAfCia giil'— W. al Secbawk iKt a» li 

ta Ibe X. af Ae mm* <A:««*^ m^a. ibe S«nk<n SMbM «• lU W. of 

b abnt al 4h wf «t ;%(L lbs Mpa> is very- 


monn^nmiB throngbont, and towwds the Hmrca of ifaa Whirogba, and 
mlongM in tipper conrae, ia called Moma and Thokan. On die E. it t« 
pwied from Sheniee by lofty monntaiiu, particularly those called Swee- 
Sban, or ' the BOowy luonntains,' extending N.E. of Sining, to Lyang-cheir, 
and N.W. from it to Hya-yn-ijuan. It aboundi with nrera and lakes, all 
the fbrmer, with a few exceptions, tailing into the Whangho. The latter 
are Tory numerotis, moit of them having no outlets. Of these, that called 
Kokonoor, or ' the Bins Lake,' in Mongolian, and Zin-chay and See-hay, 
or ' tlie weatem sea,' in Chinese. It is more than 70 British miles long 
by faalf that in breaddi, in a very elevated ute, surroanded by moontains, 
atMi coBtaining an area of 1,840 geographical eqnare miles. It lies imme- 
diately to the W. of Sining-chew, in Sbensee, between 36° and 37* N. lat. 
and its western extremity is 17' W. of Pekin. We have no particular 
account of its productions, whether animal, mineral, or vegetative, but, to 
judge from analogy, they must be much the same as those of Tibet. We 
know that the musk-deer and the yak abound in this region — animals 
which cannot exist bat in cold monntainons regions. As the sources of 
tile Whangfao lie on the very frontier of this region, we are certain that 
gold is a native prodnction of the mountains whence they flow. But it is 
inoet AKned for its rhubarb, the best in the world, which is produced in the 
Swe-shan, or 'snowy mountains,' in the vicinity of Sining, and Soo-.cheiv, 
the Snccur of Marco Polo. It grows in the clefts of rocks, in dry and 
arid sitnationa ; the roots are pulled np in April and May, and then hung 
on the trees to dry. There are no towns in this region, as it is merely a 
pastoral region for wandering Tartars, who dwell in tents, but never 
baitd cities. The Koshotee Kalmucks are divided into eight tribes, 
under as many taidshaa or chiefs, all of whom submitted to China after 
the defeat and death of Kaldan Pojnkhtee, Khan Taidsba, or supreme 
prince of the Soongaree Elutba. The chief taidsba received the title of 
Wang, or ' Head Regulo ' of all the Koshotee, wliilst tbe others received 
anbordinMe honours from the court of Pekin. They are all staunch 
Boodhists, devoted to the interest of the Tibetian Lama, whose protectors 
they were, till deprived of that honour by the celebrated Kaldaiu In 
every point of religion, mode of life, mannera and customs, they so much 
resemble tbeir pastoral brethren of the Mongolian, that there Is no necessity 
of retaitbg what has been sud on that bead before, and tre shall therefore 
conclude with a very short view of the political history of this region. It 
WM not till some time after the extinction of the Seefaun monarchy that 
this country made any political figure. By the assisunce of several petty 
Seebun tribes, Likitsyin, a native of Topa, a considerable city W. of Sining, 
was enabled to found a new dominion near the Whang-Ho in 951, tbe 
capital of which was King-Heea, whence the kingdom took its name oiHtta, 
and Sea-Hem, or tbe ' Western guards,' and which was denominated Tan- 
goot, or the ' Western kingdom,' by the Mongols, because it lay to the W. ; 
and hence ihe name Tangoot passed to the Mussntman historians of the W. 
Its capital Ning-Heta is the Campion or Campetion of Marco Polo. This 
dynasty gradually eulai^d its dominions at tbe expense of tbe Kin em- 
perora of Northern China, till it rose to be a powerful and respectable 
monarchy; and a prince of this dynasty. Yuan Chao, received the tiUe of 
emperor fhnn tbe Kin sovereign. This same prince introduced the Indian 
writing (the letters and language of Tibet, oi^inally from India, as before 
stated) amongst his subjects, after making some alterations in the mode uf 
writing tlie cltaracters. The time wlien this prince reigned is not told \» , 

17]! ASia. 

by ibe Chionee ; Mil ahbovgii t&is djnwatf htMed 876 ytm, Aom 9&1 m 
12S7, and mnat haro contaraed 12 racoeMive MrareigBa M least, aufftm- 
ing tb«r average reigtu to bare been 83 yean, which ia even too much, ytt 
the ChineM aiuialB mention only four prince*, the fint, Likitayen, and tb« 
three last, who reigned from 1205 to 13S7, and who are merely mentioDed 
became they wen contemperaneoBS with Jengfais Khao ; and Ijte, Ao laat 
of these three, waa pnt to daalb by that oonqoeror, tad both kfa^dom aod 
dynasty for ever exnngtrithed, aitd the very name of Tangoot Matted froai 
the political map. The western hialnriana nerer heard of tUa IringdoBi 
till it was orertamed, and its last sorerngn ia the only one mendoned by 
them, nniler the name of Sfaidaalura. Tim ia all wa learn of the powoM 
empin of Tai^oot, BO anicb sp«rf[en of by the writers of the 13th century, 
from the meagre, dry, and brief annals of the Chinese. 


To the W.N.W. of Hyn-yn-^inan, tbe most N.W. gate of the great wall, 
ties the district of Sbadiew, projectiiig W. into the Kobi, or Great 
Sandy Desert, and smronnded by it on all ndes, bat wh^re it ia omaee^- 
ad with Kansoo, or the N.W. of Sbensee, by passes accrosa the moan- 
tains, and by a chain of small forta. Tbe district itself ia a long narrow 
T«ll^, eitending for abont 200 miles W.N.W. of Hy-yu-<|iUH), datAy 
watered by tbe small stream of the Polonldr Pira, which Mis into the 
Han Noor or ' black lake ;' long. 23° W. of Peking. This district con- 
tains the fortified dties of Shscbew, Qnachew, Gansechew, Chonhwi, and 
eibeta, and was merely reeerred as an advanced line of military stations 
towards the Kobi and province of Hami, to aecnie the empire against 
tbe H]rong4oo, and thor ancceasora, the western Tartara. This district 
was &Ht nailed to the Chinese frontieoa by tbe emperor Vootee, aboat a 
eentory before the Christian era. It was after die expedition of H»4hia- 
ping, in the reign of that enqienw, that tlte Chineae bimUers were, for tbe 
Inst thne, earned so far weat as the district of Soncbew, which, in tha 
andent Chineae books was known by tbe t^pellation of Tooon-TsioBaD, or 
' the fountain of wine.' Tbe connby so conqnered was peopled speedily 
by Chinese colonists, and divided into 4 tarn or territories, Wow-woi* 
Tchang-ye, Thimhoang or Shachew, and Son^chew. These establisfa- 
menta ware destined to protect the posses of Yangkooan and Imnwi to tbe 
E. of Shachew, and ndiich lead over the Swee-Shan, er ' anowy monn- 
Hons ' into ^tensee. Ever mnce that period, the district of Shadiew, the 
most advanced of tbe tiiree, which are on the line of tbe Great wall, haa 
always been retained as an advanced post by the Chinese coart, except 
when, throogh the imbecility of tbe government, it was unable to retain ib 
It waa aometimee even proposed, in the Chinese cabinet, to abandon 
this district, as diffiodt to mwmain from its great distance, and its being 
always exposed to tbe attacks of tiie Tartars. Bat it waa always om- 
raled in tiie cooncil, as being considered not only a protection to the two 
peases above mentioned, but also as it prevented, by its sitnation, tbe 
uDion of the Tartars with tlie Kiang ch* Tibetians to the S., which m^t 
prove fstnl to the empire. It wis tbwafore relwned as a strong garrison, 
and the idea of ^laadoning it, and withdnwing tiia garrison to Lyanchew, 
was given op. Whan tbe kingdom of Tangoot roee in the lOth contwy, 
this district, and all weatem Sbensee, fell under ib power. It thiui passed 
under the Mongolian dominion widi the other provinces of Tangoot, and 
remained su, till it was retaken by Hong-voo in 1370, and refortificd by 


Yonploo, hia sod. The city of Shachew lies in 20° 40' W. of P^in, 
aiH) 40° 20' N. let., 180 British miles direct distauce from the N.W. ee- 
trance of the Great Wall at Hy-yn-qnon. We have no description of it 
bnt what has been )^rea by the ambawadora of Sharok Meerza in 1420. 
When that vigoroos emperor, Yongloo, filled the throne, Shachenr, accord- 
ing to this ftcconnt, was 25 days' journey from Hami, end for the last ID 
days' jonrney, it was a perfect desert to Shachew, without wood or water. 
Sbachaw, says the writer of the account, is a rery estensiTe city, built 
in a sqoara form, and garromided by a rery lofty walL The streets of the 
bazaars are 50 gaz (100 feet) wide, full of ingenious artizans, and regn- 
tariy swept and W8t««d. The streets are all drawn in a sttaight line, and 
iaieraecled at right angles by others. Each street is terminated at both ex' 
tremines by wooden cupolas of singntar elegance, having projecting beams 
richly ornamented. At equidistances on the wall are placed covered bastions ; 
the four city gates front each other, and altfaongh the interrening distance be 
iBinwnse, yet, &om the straightnasa of the streets, and the multitude of pas. 
sengerSjit appears inconsiderable ; a tower of two shHies annnonnts each 
gateway. The number of temples (of Boodha) b prodigious, with spacious 
eeorts, pared with brick, and covered with carpets ; young men are placed at 
the door, who give admittance with acdammations of joy. From Shacbew 
to Khanbalic (Peking), the residence of the emperor, are 99 yam or towers, 
adjacent to so many towns, and between each of these ore so many sur- 
ghn, which are towers 60 gnz (120 feet) in hei^t, where ten sentinels 
coDBtantly watch. Each soighn is situated so as to be in sigbt of sn- 
other ; and if any accident occur, such as the inrasion of an enemy, the 
sentiBels kindle a gi«at fire ; the same is done instancy by the next, aatil 
the news be carried to court. Intelligence may thus be conveyed in 24 
houra from a place three months' journey distant from the capital. Snch 
is the account of Shachew, and it is valaable when we bare no other. It 
i* stated to be nine yam or stations distant from Cam-chefn, a still larger 
dty dian it ; the some with the modem Kan-ckeu>, capital of Kansoo, or 
Western Shensee. Qua-chew, another place of importance, lies in 4>0^ 
Sy N. and 20° 6* W. of Pekin, and is stnragly fortified. Of the other 
places in this district we have merely the names, and can say nothing about 

Thus we have finished our account of Central Asia. It is rery imp^fect^ 
indeed, from the want of materials, and there is little appearance that unr 
knowledge of it will be increased for a long time to come ; and the carious 
public must just rest satisfied with what meagre accounts they possess, tilt 
some revolution, political or moral, open up the way for the future inres. 
tigadon of this extensive and almost unknown rt^gion. 

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Thk empire of Jftpao, called b^ the natiTes Hifbn, or A>/tm. ud by tbe 
ChiiMM Yang'hoo, conuata of a great number of iHlands united nDiler one 
goTOrament. It is comprehended beCweea 26° 35' Bud 49° N. lat., that is, 
from the southern extremity of tbe arcbipelago of Moniniima to tbe middle 
of the ialand of Sagbalian ; and from tbe Gotto iskiide, to tbe N.E. point 
of the isle of Itonronp. Within these limits we find the followmg large 
and small blinds : viz. 

Itt, Tbe island of Hifon, or Nifon, with tbe dependent i^ids of SaJo, 
Oki, Atmui, snd Fatntio, presenting a total snpe^cies, according to Has* 
■el, of 110,768 square miles. 

2d. Tbe island of Kituiu, or Ximo, with its dependencies of Firatuto, 
Tiootima, and other islets, the total superficies of which is estimated at 
26,552 sqimre miles. 

3d, The iiland of Sieoco, or Xicoco, or Sikokf, with a superficies of 
17,872 squRie miles. 

ith, Tbe isUod of Jeuo, with Kaowuchir, TtcAiftotan, Uroup, and 
Jlouroup, or the JapaneMe Kuriles, as they are sometimes called, the total 
superficial area of which is 63,446 square miles. 

5lh, The island of Saghalian, or Karafia, with a aaperficiea of 48,246 
square miles. 

Gth, The Bonin group, with a total enperficies of 1827 square miles. 

Prom ibe above admeasurements of Hassd, it would appear that this vast 
ioaular empire of Eastern Asia possesses a soperficiee of 270,211 sqnare 
miles. Its component islaada are arranged In a long-curved chain, running 
&om S.W. to N.E., with tbe convexity towards tbe S.E. This chain is 
tenumated on one hand by tbe suuthem point of Kiustn, and on the other 
by tbe island of Itouroup, or by that of Sagbatisn. The sea of Japan 
washes this monarchy ou the N.W. ; the strait of Corea separates it Erom 
the peninsula of that name on the S.W. ; and the strait of Vries, on tbe 
N.E., divides the Japanese and Russian Kuriles from each other. 

Bistorical Notice.^ The existence of these islands was first announced 
to Europeans by tbe celebrated Venetian traveller, Marco Polo, who de- 
nominated them die country of Zipangri or Zipangu, In 1542 or 1543, 
tbe Portuguese adventurer, Fernando Mendez Pmto, was shipwrecked upon 
this coast ; and his countrymen, avuling themselves of bis intelligence, sent a 
commercial expediuon to diera riiurtly afterwards. The expedition esta- 
bli^ied itself at Naaagaki, and for severd years conducted a iwnaitlerable trwle 
with the natives. In 15B5, a missionary deputation was sent from Rome to 
this coimtry, and to its membei-s we are indebted for the first distinct ac- 
conuta of Japan. The Dutch succeeded die Portuguese in the Japan trade, 
end are now the only European nation who enjoy this privij^e. The 
Knsnans have made sevutal attempts to share it with them ; hut have hi- 
therto been unsuccessful. Although it is expressly forbidden by tbe ex- 

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istiog Uws to record the kniula of the dominant line of moDBrcby in thia 
conntry, yet the JapaneM are aaid to poMeaa hiitorical docameota of oo' 
qnestioDoble antbenticity, extending o*er a period which commencei tere- 
ral centuries antecedent to the Chriattan era. Thia hiitory, howerer, ia to 
na unknown. It is aaid that the indigenooa Japaneae were early anbjngsted 
by a tribe of Mongols or Mautchooa, who adopted the langnage of the 
coDqnered. The aacred era of the Japanese goes back to t^e eatabliah- 
■nent of the hereditary succeaaion of the dairit or eccleeiastical emperoTa, 
which was 660 years before the Chriatiaii era. This dynasty retained iti 
power till die year 1585 of oar vulgar era. In this interral two inTasions 
bad been repelled : that of the Mantchooe in 799, the accounts of which 
are accompanied with many &blea. In 1281, the Mongols, under Koobly 
Khan, baring conquered China two years before, attempted to take poases- 
sion of Japan. The learned Amiot has given us, in a work translated from 
the Chinese, the history of that expedition according to the Chinese anthora. 
In thia history the Chinese army, joined to that of the Coreana, amounted 
to 100,000. llie Coreana fnrnished 900 ships of war: but this great 
armada waa dispersed in a dreadful storm, an event which the Japanese 
attributed to the protecting care of their gods. All the acqniaitiona which 
the population of Japan ia known to have received from the continent of 
Asia are confined to some colonies of Chinese and Corean emigiauta. 

Phytical features.'] The general aapect of these ialanda is rugged and 
irregnlar, bristled with rocks, hills, and lofty mountuns. Here and there 
narrow valleys of great fertility present theraeelvea; but there are many 
extensive tracts oatDrally barren, and which are only compelled to yield 
the means of subsistence by the most unremitting industry. No precise 
estimate seems to have been formed of any of the mountmn-peaks, except 
what may be inferred (rom fuii, or Fvsitfama, on the southern coast of 
Nifon, the most lofty of these peaks being covered with perpetual snow. -. 
Several of them are volcanic, and they almost every where abonnd inth 
mineral springs. Earthquakes have very ^qneiitly been felt in these 
islands. In 1703, the greater part of the city of Jcdo, with a vast num- 
ber of its inhabitants, were swallowed up by one of them. The rivera are 
numeroua, but do not seem to be of great magnitude, considering the ex- 
tent of the land. They generally rise in the monniuna which occupy the 
interior. The couraea of only a few of them are known to Europeana. 
The names of the principal rivera are the Jedagatna^ Ojingatna, and Futi- 
ga»a, all altuated in the eoutliern part of Nifon, the Tenrin, which falls 
into the twy of Owari, the Banninjava, falling into the bay of Jeddo, the 
Sakgawa, Jodo, Ojin, Oomi, and A»ka. The principal lake in the Ja- 
panese islands, and the only large one known to Europeans le the lake of 
Ovi, between Osaka and Meaco, which is sud to be 50 Japaneee leagues 
in length, each league being as much as a horse goes in an hour at an or- 
dinary pace. The delightful plain which surrounds it is rendered sacred 
by containing 3000 pagodas. 

Climate.'} Japan is expoeed to the extremes of heat in summer, and 
lA cold in winter. The weather is at all times changeable; and, ahont 
midsummer, they have periodical rains. Thunder is frequent, with tem- 
pests and hurricanes. Thunberg found the greateiit degree of heat at Na- 
gasaki to amount to 29°^, and the greatest cold to 10° of Reaumur. The 
climate is most severe in tbe islands of Yesso, Saghalian, and the Knriles. 
U dpilfy ■ rlTcr' in tlM Japan*** Uogoagt^ ■* It 

176 ASIA. 

Soil and CultivatioH.^ The soil of Japan is nbt naturally fertile, bnt 
has been reiidered very productiTe by the industry of its inhabitants. The 
J^anew equal the Chinese in the labonn of cnltiration ; and the mode* 
adopted are generally sbnilar in both countries. As in China, little gronnd 
is appropriated to the rearing of cattle ; the sane scarcity of manure exists ; 
the same solidtade is exhibited to procure it, and it ia applied in a similar 
manner. Every spot of ground is made prodDcdre ; and the terraced 
mountuns exhibit an astonishing proof of what can be effected by hnman 
ingenuity and perseverance when prompted by necessity. The general 
crop is rice. Wheat is little used ; bnt bnck-wheat, rye, sesame, and 
barley, are treqnently reared. Beans, pease, cabbages, turnips, and a 
species of potatoes, are plentiful. Among the produce of Japan may be 
mentioned the cotton-shmb, and the mnlberry-tree, camphor-laorel, and the 
Tsmisb-tTee. Wheat and barley are sown in the beginning of winter, and 
are reaped in June ; rice is sown in April, and is ripe in Norember. The 
progress of cultiration has left few forests, except upon the monntwna. 
The larger trees consist of pines, willows, lanrals, p^ms, cocoas, cycas, 
mimosas, cypresses, and bamboos. The plants of Japan very much re- 
semble those of China. The tea-shrub grows withont culture in the 
hedges ; and ginger, black pepper, sugar, and indigo, are cnhiTai«d with 
great snccesa. Besides the sweet China orange, there is a wild species 
pecnliar to Japan, the CUrut Japoaica. 

AaimaU.J The cattle in J^an are atill fewer in number than those im 
China. Of sheep and goata there are none except at Nagasaki : the fleeces 
of the former being superseded by the abnndsnce of cotton, and tbe latter 
being esteemed enemies of cnltivation. For the same reason there at« 
only a few swine, and these are almost confined to the island of Kiosio. 
The horses are a small but agile breed. Thnnbet^ compares the number 
' of faorsea in the whole empire to those of a single Swedish province. Cattle 
are reared solely for tbe pnrposea uf ploughing and drawing carts : dia 
Japanese never use either their flesh or their milk. The animal food made 
use of consists of fish and fowl, but vegetables are more generally eaten. 
Dogs, though not necessary for the guarding of cattle, are kept through 
pecnliar notions of saperstiuon. The wolf and the fox are found chiefly 
in the northern provinces ; the latter is much dreaded, being, by the com- 
mon people, supposed to be possessed by an evil spirit. Game is not plen- 
tiful : there are wild geese, pheasants, and partridges, but very few wild 

Mineral*.'] Japan abonnds in gold and silver, parricularly in the for- 
mer, which is fonnd in many places. Bnt every mine is under royal in- 
spection ; and only a certain quantity ia allowed to be dug, diat die metal 
may not be too much diminiahed in value. Gold is not exported ; it is 
used in gilding, in embroidering, and for coining. Tbe purest and the 
richest mines aru in Aado, the largest of the small islands adjoining Nifon. 
Silver, though not scarce, is not so plentiful as formerly, as iastead of ex- 
porting it, the Japanese gladly receive it from foreigners in exchange for 
other commodities. It b chiefly found in the province of Bingo, in tbe 
S.W, quarter of Nifon. The copper of Japan is unequalled by that of any 
other country, and contains a large portion of gold. It ia exported in large 
quantities by the Dutch and Chinese merchants ; and, besides being applied 
to many domestic purposes, it ia coined into money of tow value. Iron is 
scarcer than any other metal ; bnt is fnmixbed by some of the provinces, 
and seems lo be in suHicieni quantity for the use uf the inhabiianis, unce 


thejr neitber export nor import it. The JapancM form it into various 
kinds of tools, and Hword-blades of exqniaite temper. Amber is sanietinie* 
fband. Brimatone is plentifnl, espeuklly in the western part of Kimin ; 
coal is tikewiso abundant. A^te, asbtntos, steatites, pamice, and white 
marble, are mentioned among the produce of these islands. Thnnbei^ 
mentiaai two kinds of £ne porcelaiu'clay wrought in Jsfian, namely, fiao- 
Un, and pelunue. Tm, or white copper, is foand in some of the provinces ; 
with a Idnd of naphtha, which is used in lamps. 

Population,'^ Of tbe number of inhabitants in Japan, Europeans are 
necessarily ignorant, since tbe jealousy of the government effectually pre- 
vents any inquiries being made. Every traveller who has visited this 
country describes it as exceedingly populous. Kaimpfer assures us that tbe 
number of people one encounters on the roads and highways is incredible. 
Some hare estimated the population of Japan at 30,000,000 ; others at 
50,000,000 ; and others, amongst whom are Bmn and Fabri, at only 
10,000,000 of souls. We are utterly unable to decide the point, but 
^ould incline to estimate the population of the Japanese at double the latter 
number. The Japanese are, by Thnnberg, described as being well-made, 
and poBseesing great freedom and vigour in the use of their lirabs, thongh, 
in bodily strength, he supposed them to be much inferior to the inhabi- 
tants of the north of Europe. In external appearance, they considerably 
resemble the Chinese, from whom they are probably descended. They 
are middle-sizeit, seldom corpnlent, and of a yellowish colour, in some 
more while, in others approaching to brown. Their eyes have a close re- 
semblance to those of the Chinese. " These organs," says Thunberg, 
" have not that rotundity which those of other nations exhibit, but are 
oblong, small, and sunk deeper in the bead ; in consequence of which 
these people have almost the appearance of being pink-eyed. In other 
rrtspects tLeir eyes are dark brown, or rather black, and the eve-lids ftH^n 
in the great angle of the eye a deep furrow, which makes Uie Japanese 
look as if they were sharpsighted, and discriminates them from other 
nations. The eyebrows are also placed somewhat higher." They have, 
for the most part, large heads, short necks, and black hair. The nose is 
abort and thick, thongh without any appearance of flatness. 

JUanitert and Cutloau.'J The Japanese dress, though in some respects 
m little different from that of the Chinese, appears in general to have a 
strong resemblance to it. The chief part of it consists of several long 
loose robes, worn one over another, and fastened round the waist with a 
prdle. The form of these cloaks is in all ranks the same ; the only dif- 
ference being in the material, — tbe rich wearing them of silk, the poor of 
cotton. The robes of the women are distinguished from those of the men, 
only by being a little longer. Tbe robes of a man geneially reach to his 
anklea ; but when engaged in a journey, or if of the military profession, 
they are either cut short, or tucked up so as to reach only to the kueea. 
Tbe sleeves are wide, and longer than tbe arms. In wmter, the garments 
are made of thick cloth, and are lined ; in summer, they are of thin cloth 
without lining ; and when the weather is very warm, the dress is entirely 
removed from the upper part of the body, and suffered to hang down upon, 
tbe girdle. The neck is always bare. To tbe girdle are usually fastened 
a eabre, fan, tobacco-pipe, a box containing some medidues, and B pocket 
for smaller articles. Over these long rob^ are worn, on some particular 
a kind of short cloak, made of different materials, according aa 
. to display the rank of the weaier, or is used as a habit of cere- 
z Ic 

178 AS'*- 

BtODv. Undw the npper genuenta are worn k kind of loose drawer* vbkh 
re«^ to tbe uiklea : thoM are either black, or (tripped with brown or 
gi«Mi. Stockings are nnknown ; though the Mldiers, 1^0 lue abort gsr- 
menls, wear a kind erf' boot* of cotton ; and in winter, many uae a kind of 
aocke to prewrro th«r feet from the cold. Shoes, in die Em^pean sense 
of the word, are nnkoown. The shppera are rormed of rica straw, intei^ 
woven I and, sometinies, for those of the higher ranks, of split canes. 
These slippers are fostened on the foot by a strap, whii^ crosses it about 
the middle, and from which anodier passes between the toes to the extre- 
mity of the shoe. They are soon worn out ; so that he wh4 intends M 
walk to a considerable distance, takes two or thr«e pain along with him. 
In winter or in wet weather, a kind of wooden clogs is lued. The Ja- 
panese never Miter their bouses withont putting off their slippers ; being 
unwilling to soil tbe neat carpets with which the floors are covered. 

Tbe Japanese differ from the Chinese, in the mode of dressing their 
hair, more than in any other part of their dress. Tbe whole head is sba- 
Ton, except a little upon tbe temples and neck. What is left is dressed 
with greasy snbstancee, and, b«ng tnmed up, is tied upon the crown of 
the bead. The ends are then cut off about a finger's length above the ty- 
ing, and the point thus formed, is tnmed down, so as to touch die head. 
Priesla and physicians are the only classes who shave tbe whole head. 
Boys wear their hair till the beard begins to grow. Tbe women never cut 
their hair, unless they be separated from their husbands ; and in that case 
they shave tbe whole head. Among the female sax, the hair is eith^ tied 
in a bunch mi the top of tbe head, or dremed in such a manneras to have 
the ^tpearanoe of wings, on each side. In the bur, the wOmwa wear a 
few ornaments, chiefiy difEereot kinds of combs, made in varimis forms. 
Hats are seldom woro. Ear-rings are unknown. Ornaments in drees, 
indeed, appear to be mn^ less UHnmoo here, than is generally the caee in 
tnvilized nationa. The mode of dress which baa just been described is 
common to the prince with tbe peasant. In tbeir domestic economy, they 
have a near resemblance to tlw Chinese. In n«llwr of the conaniea n 
polygamy proUbited ; bnt every man fase eoe woman, who may, with pro- 
priety, be called bis wife, and who has much authority over every other fe- 
male who may be inuoduced into the family. A wife in Japan, as in 
China, must be purdiased. Tbe lover is not permitted to see bis mi*- 
tress i and, if she answers not hii ideas, she may be returned, as in China, 
under a cmtun penalty. The eabjcctioo of the wife to the bnahaod is 
still more severe than in China. The only law to which a married womaa 
can appeal, is the will of her hnsbsnd. If she be seen to speak to anodier 
man, unless be be one of her near relations, she may ha put to death. 
The ceresnoay of marriage is performed in a temple. The bride lights a 
UKth at the altar, and the brid^room lights aaotber at btn, mid this ng- 
nificant emblem constitutes the ceremotual of marriage. 

As cattle are scarce, animal food is seldom used. When presented, it 
is brought m upon lacquered wooden vessels, « in didws of porcelain, cut 
into email pieces, and dressed with di^rent kinds of sauces. A kind of 
beer made erf rice is tbe common drink ; bat ^irituons Uquora are seldom 
used, and wine is nnknown. Tea is used by all ranks, and is highly 
esteemed. Hw smoking of tobacco, which is said to have been inlr«dno- 
ed by tile Portugnese, is now common. 

The houses in Japan have seldom more than one floor ; when they baTo 
two, the upper is used only as a garret fur lumber. Tbe style of architec- 


tare reMmblea tbat of ChiiiB : bat dmllmgvhotuM, dumg^ aqoally neU, 
are wd to be leaa gaudy. Tbey are generally of wood ; and conuit of 
OB» loige Bpsrtment, wbich, by moveabte partilaoiu, or by maU, u divided 
into aa many emaller apartments aa are neceuary- Tlie floors are alwayi 
Gorered with handsome carpets, and straw mats supply tbe place of seats. 

Many of the institntions of private life seem to resemble thoee of China. 
The MUM decree of formality is not perhaps gBoeraJ ; but they have the 
festivals, the gomes, and the pnbKc amnsements, nhich are comnran only 
io the latter country. Among their festivals, the feast of lantfaoms make* 
an elegant appearance. ThestriCBl amusements are also couimwi ; and, in 
tbe display of fireworks, they are said to exce\ even the Chinese. 

Of some of the more elevated personages, the bodies are bnmed, — « 
cnatom which, if it ever prevailed in China, appears there to be laid aside. 
In general, however, in J^)an, as in China, the dead are buried. The 
ceremoDials of burial seem to be in both conntriea the same ; periodical 
visits are paid to the tombs, in the one conntry, as well as in tbe other. 
Instead of the long and narrow coffin of tbe European, the Japanese are 
accnstomed to thrust the corpse into a sort of tnb not above three fiMt 

The Japanese, accordmg to Thnnberg, an in geoeml intelligeoi, cour- 
t«ons, inquisitive, iudusuious, sober, cleanly, hraest) superstitions, proud, 
unforgiving, and brave. Although we may rationally conchide, that to 
any nstionsl character of them that can be drawn, many exceptions may 
be foand ; yet the great body of tbe people in this country, are more like- 
ly to have a fixed and peculiar dispoeition, than where commarual inter- 
course has mingled U^^her tbe customs and manners of many nsUons, 
and where frequent revolutions have altered the political and civd instita- 
tioDs of the country. In general, however, it may be observed, tbat the 
greater part of the qualities which Thunberg attribntaa to tbe Japanese, 
may be deduced from their long established existence as a civilized people, 
from their dvilization being superior to that of all the neighboaring na- 
tions, except the Chinese, and from thew want of intercourse with 

Seitnee and lAltrature.^ Many of the eastern nations seem to have 
excelled die J^nnese in sdenEiGc pursuits. In this respect, they appear 
not to equal the Chinese. Astronomy is sud to be studied amongst them ; 
bnt they cannot even form an ordinary kalendar, or calculate an eclipse of 
the moon, without the assistance of the Chinese or Dutch. Their medi- 
cal knowledge is not greatly superior to their knowledge of astronomy. 
They are acqniunted with the virtues of a few simples ; hut, from tbeir 
ignorance of the true nature of diseases, they often apply them in an erro- 
neons manner. The laws are few and simple, and are said Ut be enforced 
with the most severe impartiality. With regard to chemistry, and all the 
different branches of natural philosophy, their ignoiunce seems to be almost 
complete. In their historical narrations, their principal epoch seems to 
correspond with the year 660 before the Christian era; so that (he year 
1830 of the laner, corresponds with the year 2490 of the former. Their 
week, like that of the Birman empire, consists of a half-moon, or fonrteui 
days. The year begins in February or March. It is measured by lunar 
months ; bo that an intercalary month must be often introdnced, to make 
the beginning of the year correspond with the motion of the sun. The 
day is divided into twelve hours. Clocks, or honr.glas8es, are not known j 
time is measured by the burning of tapers, and the hour is proclaimed by 

180 ASIA. 

■trikin^ on bella in the temples. Mnsic, poetry, and painting, arc cnlti- 
valed. The Jq>anew music is not tgree^le to the ears t>( Enropeana. 
Their poetry ia stud to reaeinble tJiat of the ChineBB, and their painting is 
probably no less defertive than that of the Utter. Their prin^ng a pre- 
cisely the same ; bat their iolc and their paper are aaid to be much aiipe- 
riar. They bRV6 long been acqnsinted with gunpowder ; and in the ^ri- 
cation of all kinds of weapons, particularly of sabreR, they are onequallod. 

Langvofft.} The language of Japan is supposed to have been original- 
ly a dialect of the Chinese. The written language seems U> hare retain- 
ed more of its original resemblance than the spoken language. Like that 
of ike Chinese, their writing is in colamns from the top of the page down- 
ward. The popular dialect has an olphsbet of 48 letters ; the Chinese 
chai«cler is used in the court langoage. Besides the Temacnlar langaage, 
the Bacred language of the Boodhist priesthood is also used in Japan, and 
ita characters, like those of the sacred character of Tibet, are derired from 
the Sanscrit, end consequently of Indian origin. The priesthood deno- 
minate these characters Brahamooma, because derived from the Brah- 
mins. Dr Siebold, who discovered this &ct, also fonnd a treatise on the 
Sanscrit language, printed at Soo-jako, in Chinese and Japanese characters. 
It is called Sittan Maia Turner, or ' Perfection of Indian Letters.' The 
alphabet seems to be of Southern Indian origin. This new fact shows ua, 
that wherever the Boodhiats, went they conied with them their sacred books 
and sacred langaage ; and that this sacred language mnst be carefully dis- 
tii^uished from the vernacular language and alphabet of those countries 
where Boodhism is the established system. 

Reliffion.'} The religious sects in Japan are three ; the most ancient re- 
ligion of the country, or that which is now known by the name of the 
sect of Sialo, — the religion of Budido, which was imported from Hindos- 
tan, and is the same with that of Boodba, or Godamo, — and the sect of 
philosophers, who are, properly speaking, pure deists. 

The sect of Sinto, believe in the existence of one Supreme Being, to 
whose omnipotence sll things owe their eiistence. To this Being they 
attribute every perfection of which they can form any idea; but they sup- 
pose his nature to be too exalted, to permit him to interfere in tlie govern- 
ment of this world, which is only an inferior portion of die universe ; he 
has, therefore, committed the care of all sublunary matters to inferior be- 
ings, on whom are bestowed different degrees of power, according to the 
nature of the station which each of them is to fill. As these inferior dei- 
ties have the immediate care of man, and of all that belongs to him, they 
are regarded as the proper objects of his daily worship. The Great Deity 
requires the greatest veneration, but does not demand continual adoration. 
To impress common minds with eublime ideas of this Great God, and of 
his power, different means are used. His images are made of immense 
size. Thunberg mentions one, made of wood, so targe that six men could 
sit on its wrist, in the eastern mode. His power is sometimes expressed 
by the number of deities who surroand him. Thunberg notices one image 
of the Supreme God, which vras surrounded by no fewer than 33,333 
subordinate divinities. This sect holds the immortality of the soul : but 
they admit not of the metempsychosis. They beUeve that, immediately 
after death, the soul of each individual is conducted into a state of Itappi- 
ness or misery, according as his deeds have been good or eviL To do 
good, is to obey the dictates of conscience, and to submit to the laws of 
the country. They abstain from animal food, and are averse to touch any 


dead bodf. A mirror of polished metal often coiutitates the onl^ fnmi- 
ture of B temple, being intended eymbolically to remind the worahipper, 
llwt bia external appeBrence a not more exactly represented by that mirror, 
than fais most private thoughts are known to die deity whom he worahipi. 
The temples are coostracted in a manner which has some resemblance to 
(he Abyssinian churches ; having aronnd them a corered walk for the ac- 
commodation of the worshippers. The priesH are of two kinds : snch as 
are nntanght, and wail upon the temples, in order to perform the drad)^- 
riea of religioD, and each ta are initiated into the more mysteriona parts of 
dieir doctrines, and are appointed to teach the people. 

The sect of Budsdo profess a religion, which, as has been already remark- 
ed, is the same with that of Godama ammg the Binnans. In its course 
tbrough China, towards this coontiy, it has undergone a few alterations. 
These, however, ere so inconsiderablet that they require not to be enume- 

The pbilosophers of Japan have adopted a doctrine which has a near re- 
•emblance to that of Con^cius in China, and from which it baa probably 
been borrowed. They believe in an omnipotent and omnipresent Deity, 
whom they denominate ' the soul of the worid.' As they imagine his 
power to he unlimited, and that he is at all times preeeut in every part, 
tbey bestow upon him no inferior agents, or subordinate divinities. Tem- 
ples and images they affirm to be alh^ther nnnecessary. The must 
agreeable worship of the deity, they believe to be the performance of such 
moral duties, as are necessary for the good of society. They are said to 
deny the immortality of the soul ; and to give their warmest approbation 
to euidde. 

As baa been already mentioned, the month is divided into portions of 
fourteen days. The last day of each of these portions is celebrated as a 
holiday ; and, at that period, the temples are much frequented. Besides 
ihe monthly holidays, there are several annnal festivals. Of the grand fes- 
tivals there are five : the first on the first day of the year — the second, or 
the feast of doll«, on the third day of the third month, — the third, which 
baa a military cast, on the fifth day of the fifth month, — the fourth, in hon- 
our of certain constellations, on toe seventh day of tbe seventh month, — 
and the fifth on the ninth day of the ninth month. It is to be observed 
that these are all odd numbers ; and are consequently unlucky ; for this 
reason, all public business is stopt. The serious betake themselves to the 
temples, to perform some act of devotion ; while the volatile amuse them- 
selves witb such diversions as strike the fancy 

Like the Mahommedans, the Japanese have attached to some of tbeir 
temples a peculiar character of sanctity. To perform a pilgrimage to any 
of these, is esteemed a highly meritorions action : and it is incumbent on 
every individual, to undertake a pilgrimage to tbe temple of Ifie, at least 
once in fais hfe. Besides the priests who take caie of the temples, there 
are several other classes dedicated to the source of religion. Of these the 
most extraordinary is a class of which every member is blind. The monks 
of tbe order of Jammabos, or ' monks of the mountains,' are continually 
employed wandering in the most unfrequented parts of the monntains, and 
imposing on themselves many kinds of penance. Tbey bathe themselves 
frequently, and live chiefiy^upon vegetables. They pretend to possess 
many supernatural powers, such as that of foretelling future events, discov- 
ering what is hid, or curing disorders. Nunneries are likewise established 
in different parta. Their number is said to be conaiderable. Vowai and 

: ...I.C.OCV, 

other Bnperetitioua practicM, are common ; puttcnlarijr unong the lowar 

The Chriatian religion was introdnceil into Japaa in 1519. During a 
considerable time it made a Tery great progreu ; and appeared to the go* 
Temment to be bo worthy of encoiiragement, that an embasty, with rich 
presentA, was Mnt to pope Gr^^ry XIII. The conduct of the Jeenit 
missionariea, howevBr, and of the PortDgaeee,wholiad settled here in great 
nnmbert, was sncfa, ae altimately led to an exdading decree directed 
i^ainst all Chrisriana. A penecntion was commenced ; and ao affront 
which waa offered to a Japaneae prince by a Portugneee prelate, produced 
an order, that oil Christiana, who did not leave tbe empire immediately, 
should be exterminated. Th'a took place in 1586. The order waa effec- 
tually executed ; and many thonsanda of Christiana periahed; bat it waa 
not till 1638 ^at the form of ChritUaiuty was finally extirpated in this 

Gooammmf, i^c.} Tbe empire of Japan is rabject to the jnriadiction 
of a temporal empn'or, who has the abaotuta direction of all dnl and po- 
litical coDcerna ; and of a spiritual ruler, who baa away in what regard* 
religion. The secular emperor i* called Cuba Soma, or Djogown ; the 
religiooa ruler is called Dairi. The latter derives his lineage, in uninter- 
rnpted BBCceaaion, from the ancient emperors of the conntry, who enjoyed 
suprente powor, from tbe year 660 B.C> till the year 114'2. At that pe-' 
riod, tbe generals of the army began to arrogate into their own bands a 
considerable share of anthority ; and in 1585, Goujio, one of the generals, 
and the founder of the present dynasty, assnroed into his own hands the 
absolute power in temporal matlera, and confined the authority of the Dairi 
to such things as are purely spiritnal. 

The Dairi, though bia aathority be confined to matters of religion, en- 
joya mach of the reverence of the people. He is honoured aa a god. Ha 
eeldom leaves hia temple ; since to expose himself to the riew of any hu- 
man creature, or even to the light of tbe sun, would be debasing the ex- 
cellency of his nature. When he goes from one place to another, he ia 
carried upon men's shoulders that he may not come in contact with the 
earth. He ia, however, only a splendid prisoner, since he ia not permitted 
to go beyond the bounds of hia palace in which be was bom. Hia naila 
mnat be pared, and bis hair most be cut, only during nigbt, that the day 
may not witness the destruction of what is believed to be so sacred I He 
never uses the same vessel or clothes twice : all bis dishes are broken as 
soon as tbey are removed from his table, that they may not fall into un- 
hallowed hands. His name is seldom known till after bia death. His 
court consists generally of hia own relations. He has 12 wives, of whom 
one only is esteemed as empress. The Dairi haa the power of conferring, 
not only all ecclesiastical, but all civil titlee of distinction. The Cubo 
Sama himself receives his deugnation from the spiritual emperor ; and, by 
bis recommendation, the chief noblea receive their titles from tbe same 
band. The revenues which sustain the splendour of tbe dairi, are de- 
rived chiefly from tbe town of Meaco and the district round it. Those 
who have received spiritual title* are distinguished by a particular habit. 
Hk spiritual emperor is vieited by lAia temporal emperor, or by an ambas- 
aadoT in his name, once every year ; the former, on tbat occasion, always 
receives from the latter many valuable preaents. The palace of the dairi 
ia extensive and magnificent. It contains the only seminary in Japan 
which resembles a noiveTsity. To increaso the apparent splendour of tbe 


Vam, but in reality to prerent him from effecting any revolution in tbe 
goremnient, a caplun is appointed, witfa a strong gnard, to reside witbb 
the palace of the spiritual potentate, and to take care of bis person. 

All this, boweyer, is little more than empty pageantry; the real power 
of the empire beiog vested in tbe temporal sovereign. This monarch re- 
sides at Jedo ; and with the assistance of six privy conncillors, regulates 
the general concemi of the empire. As is the case in China, each of the 
provinces is 'governed by a chief, who, within his own district, enjoys an 
Knthorily which is nearly absotnte. These governors are accountable to 
the Cnbo Sama. lliey are obliged to visit the court at Jedo annually ; to 
bring with them conirideisble presents ; and to remun there half the year ; 
when they depart, their families are retained at court as hostages for their 
good condnct. The Japanese have not that number of tribunals by which 
the government of the Cliinese is distinguished ; nor doM so mnch fonnal 
regularity appear to pervade their transactions. 

Travellers have often expatiated on the excellence of the Japanese laws ; 
bat as they say little concerning any code of laws which are universally 
observed, it is impossible to know whether their encomiums are just or not. 
Their chief excellence seems to consist in theu* bemg few tn number, and 
nmple in their nature. Tliey appear likewise to be administered witb im- 
partial severity. Death is more common than any other punishment. 
" All military men," says Titsingh, " the servants of the Djogoun, and 
persons holding civil offices under the government, are hound, when ibey 
have committed any crime, to rip themselves np, but not till they have 
received an order from the court to that effect; for, if they were to anti- 
cipate this order, tbeir heirs would run the risk of being deprived of their 
places and property. For this reason, all the officers of government are 
provided, in addition to their usnal drees, and that which they put on in 
case of fire, with a suite necessary on sach an occasion, which tbey cany 
with tfaem whenever they travel from home. It consists of a white robe 
and a habit of ceremony made of hempen cloth, and without armoHal bear- 
ings. The outside of tbe house is hung with white stnfis ; for the pslaces 
of tbe great, and tbe places at which they stop by the way when going to 
or returning from Yedo, era hung with coloured atuffa on which tbeur arms 
are embroidered, — a privilege enjoyed also by the Dutch envoy. As soon 
as tbe order of the court has been communicated to the culprit, be invites 
bis intimate friends for tbe appointed day, and regales them with zakki. 
After they have drunken together some time, be takes leave of them ; and 
Ae order of the court is then read to bim once mcwe. Among the great, 
tbis reading takes place in presence of their secretary and tbe inspector : 
the person who performs tbe principal part in this tr^c scene, then ad- 
dresses a speech or compliment to die company; after which be inclines 
his head towards tbe mat, draws his sabre, and cuts himself with it across 
the belly, penetrating to the bowels. One of bis confidential servants, who 
lakes bis place behind him, then strikes off his head. Such as wish to 
display superior courage, after the cross cut, inflict a second lungitndinally, 
and then a thin) in the throat. No disgrace is attached to such a death, 
and the son succeeds to die father's place. When a person is conscious of 
having I'onnnitted some crime, mid apprehensive of being thereby disgraced, 
he puts an end to bis own life, to spare his family tbe niioous consequences 
of judicial proceedings. Tbis practice is so common, that scarcely any 
notice is taken of each an event Tbe sons of all people oF quality exer- 
cise themselves in thdr youth, for five or six yean, with a view that they 

184 ASIA. 

may perform the operation, in case of need, with gracefnlBeM and dtsz- 
terity ; and tbey take as mach puna to acquire this ACComplisbmeDt u 
youth among m do to become elegant Oncers, or skilfat boraemeD 
Hence, the profound contempt of death which they imbibe eren in ^eir 
earliest yeoTB. This disregard of death, which tbey prefer to the ell^test 
diBgrace, extends to the very lowest classes among the Japanese." 

The principal laws of the empire are posted up in every city in lat^ 
characters, that tbey may be open to public inspection, and that no one 
may be ignorant of bis duty. The police of the cities seems to have more 
resemblance to that of the Chinese, than any other part of dieir gorem- 
ment. Each city has a superintendent, who has under bim several super- 
intendents of separate districts, who, in their turns, take the charge of such 
as are intrusted with the care of a particular street, or with part of a street. 
Several of the inhabitants patrole the streets at night, to ^ve notice of the 
appearance of fire, and to take care (hat no disturbance be raised with im- 
punity. It is, perhaps, owing to this careful and regular police, no leas 
than to the severity of the general laws, that crimes are seldom com- 

* llie rlfidnen with which Ihsl port of their code of nollce which relal« to the ex- 
clusion of forelnien tram Ihr kingdom, nas striklDgly UlitMnled by the reception and 
Iveatinent of Keunor* Ru»isn minion, in 1806. From the firtt dav to tbe lut of 
the Hhip^s remaining at anchor at Nanaaki, a great number of guard-boats were ata- 
tioued round it la doae order, thrdugh which no JspsOKse boat, eicepting thou that 
brought the banjoi, or ' great men,' and interprelers an olliclsl vlslu, ever Hllcmpted Ut 

Ing about on the outside. The Runians were not permitted to take any such plassun. 
The element they had been beating through, in whatever nioiui^r or direction they 
pleswd, M many tbouaand league*, twcame too sacred for the slightest liberties within 
a little dent of theahore of Jmn. Sii week* of diplamatic and cerenwniBt quarantiua 
would not probably have sufflced, without the additional circumstance of the " pro- 

a little apol on shore, of the fallowing dimenidops and advantages. " This place," aays 
Knucnslem, " wu dose to the shore, In a confined bay, and wae shut in on the land 
side with a high wall of bamboos ; and although its whole length did not exceed 100 

Immediate vlclnilv. One single tree, but not a blade of grass, adorned thia prumsnade, 
which was entirely upon a rocky ground, lliii place of course could not answer its 
intended purpose, nor was it lued as such ; but it was of great advanlage for our aatro- 
nootical obserralLons, which the Japanese did not in any way attempt to disturb. As 
soon aa any boat put off from the ship, for Kibatsch, for so this promenade was called, 
a fleet of 10 of 1^ veeeels immediately put themselves iti iDotlou, surraundjog the boat 
on all sides, and in this same maoner it was conducted back again." The house wac 
•ituated on a neck of land, so near the sea that, on the S. and E. side, the waiw at 
high tide ctune close under the windows. " When I say windows," continues Kia- 
fteuitem, ^' indeed, 1 make use of an impraper expression ^ for this word can acarcely 
apply to a square space about a fool wide, provided with a double lattice-work, and 
which, therefore, admitted but very little Ugbt into the room. A high bamboa feneg 
eurrounded the whole building, not only tonvrds the land, but even on the sea-fwe in 

sufficient. Besides these, there were two rows of bamboo-canes carried tron the door 
down to the sea, as far as the tide ebbed. In order that when the boala came liom tlte 
ahip, they might oidy laud between these canes, a precaution which scarcely would 

answer any one purpose. A large gate, with ■" "-1.1... j^ -i._ — . ^ 

the water-aide. An officer, whose station was ^. __ 

locks, and another, who lived in Megauiki, — as the ambassadar'i 

— Ihoise of the inside : aud when any boat went on shore it was neceeaar^ tnai ina 
keeper of the outward keys should accompany it to open his aide, after which the in.- 
bide WBB unlocked ; and in lilie manner, when any one on shors was deairoua of gidiw 
to the ^ip, the porter of Mcgssulu opened the [nude, when the vessel, on board ol 
which vra the keeper of the outer keys, had to repair to (he house to perform the BBma 
duly. Besides this precaution, the gate* were never left open upwards of five minuleai 
and though they sometimea knew that the persons would return immediately, the por- 
ter would ratber take the trouble of locking aud unlocking the gates again than leave 
them open during this length of time." i^ey counted alwuys the nnmber of penans 

JVavmue.] The emperor of Japu derivei the chief part of hta revenue 
from landa iramediMely belonging to the crown. Each goremor receiras 
the whole rerenne rf hw particnlw province. With tbia he defisvB the 
exp«nftee irf goremment, and inaiotiune the roftda uid other public worki ; 
and from the remsosdeT he roakea an annual present to the emperor, which 
may be only a concealed method of making him pay his balance, "niun- 
bei^ coDipDtes the prodace of tbe crown-lands to atnomt to 44,400,000, 
•acks of rice ; each rack containing 20 pounds ; but, unless we knew the 
*^ne of rice in Japan, this conveys no clear idea of their worth. Of the 
toMl revenue of Japan as an empire, Earapens seem not to have materials 
for a proper catcantion ; but aome French geographen have ventured to 
eatimate it at 814,820,000 franca, while Vartmius calculates it at 
£20,000,000 1 

MSHarif Foree-J Tin army of J^mn is eud to kmoont, in time of 
peace, to HH>re than half a million, and in time of war, the number might 
be greatly augmented. Their anm are bows, arrows, sabres, and spears. 
Mnakets are not in general use. The bows and arrows are long. The 
iabres are thick in the back, and about a yard in length, with a slight 
carve; they are so exquisitely tempered that it is said they will cut 
through a large nail, without any injury to the edge. Hwr marine force 
conaisle only of a few sm^ ships. Their vessels are flat in the stem, and 
ncapaUe of widManding the waves of a heavy aea ; and though the ma- 
lioM's compass is used among them as well as among the Chinese, they 
an very awkward and ignorant sailors. It is, indeed, hardly conceivable, 
■ays Malta Bmn, how they could attempt in former times to keep np an 
interconrsa with Formosa, and even with Java, as they are said to have 
done. Their navigation to tbe N., sccoiding to some Japanese maps, ex- 
tended as far as the American coast in tbe neighbouriiood of Behring's 
Straits, wUch they called Foosang. At present tbey scarcely venture fer- 
ther than lesso ; andihe infaatntaDts of tbat ivBud speak of iheir voyages 
to Hak/eoMtna, or ' the Country of Sea lions,' which is probably either 
Behring's Island or Kamtchalka, as tbe Greeks did of tbe voyage of the 

Comm«rct-2 It has been formerly ramwked, that this empire has long 
ceased to give any encouragement to foreign commerce. The Ctnnese and 
the Dutch alone are permitted to eni«r thmr harbonis ; and, even with re- 
gard to them, the strictest regulations are observed. Tbe Dutch, as tbey 
are known to he Christims, are more narrowly watched than the Chinese, 
whose religious ideas aad poUlktd institutions have a greater resemblance 
ta those of the empire- When the Dutch ships are expected, watchmen 
are placed upon tbe hig^test bills in tba neighbourhood of the port which 
they are to enter ; so that their approach is known a considerable time be- ' 
fore their arrival. Tbey no sooner enter the harbour, than they are boarded 
by officara from Nagaaaky, accompanied by interpreters; for tbe Japanese 
are anwilling that foreigners should even learn their language.' No duties 

who camB oa than, and the boat ms ncnr allovcd to return witboal > ■ImiUr nom- 
het ; %bA if uy dfficer of the thip iriihed la hbs the ni^t to Meiuaki, one of the 
pcTHuu midiag oQ ahorc waa obliged to go back in his mad ; and in like nuumer, 

■one sailor had to fill liia place on ahnre; far the appointed numbfr of personi residing 
tfa«re wu aeiiher (o be incnued nor dlminiahed, uor was any Mtantlon paid to their 
quality in thii reapect, but only to their nuDibcn. 

* Ihe Dutch interpreters are by birtb Japanese, md are 'paid by the govemuunt 
hr Icaming the Dutch Uuguage. i"',^.A,,l,. 

V. 2* ^..(.KlglL 

196 A31A. 

are cbarged upon tbe goodi imported ; but tbe grc&teat care ia taken tbat 
no prohilnted gooda be landed. For tbu pnrposa, when miy person gon 
. aibore, he ia caivinlly Marched before he leavea the ship, and aft«r he has 
landed. Every native who comes on board, except the snperior officers, 
is searclied in tbe laiDe manner ; and every thing imported or exported 
□iHlergoeB a donble examination. The imports of the Datcb are coarse 
sugar, irory, tin, lead, cast iron, chintzes, Dutch cloth, wood for dying, 
and tortoisa^bell. Besides these articles, the officers of the ship often 
take, on thur own account, aaffi'on, aealing-wax, glasa-beads, watches, and 
other triflee. From the Japanese they receive cc^per and raw camphor. 
The profits of the trade, however, are said to be so inconsiderable, that 
only two ships hate of late been annually despatc^ied. These ships sail 
from Batavia in June ; and retnm towards tbe end of tbe year. The trade 
(nth tbe Clunese is mndi more considenble than that earned on with the 
Dutch. From China an received raw silk, angar, turpentine, and drags : 
and in retnm are ^ven, copper, lacqnered ware, and other manafactared 

Bnt, ihongh the foreign trade of the Japanese be so inconsiderable, their 
internal commerce, like that of the Chinese, is very great. Every harbour 
is crowded with vessels ; the dtiea abound in shops ; and numerous birs 
are held in different parts of the cotmtry, to which astonishing crowds re- 
sort. For the purpose of internal conunercet the roads are kept in a good 
state ; bnt canals have not yet been formed. Tbe islands, indeed, are so 
monntainoos, as to render the formation of canals almost impossible; and 
tLe proximity of tbe sea to every part of the country renders it nnneces- 

Monitt.2 The Japanese have coins of gold, of silver, and of copper ; 
some of them of remarkable forms, and having devicea no leas remarkable. 
The wnu or iron coins, like those of the Chinese, have a square hob in 
the middle, by which a certain number of ibem are strung together. 600 
of these make a Uutit or layal, which ia worth about 6». 6d. of our money- 
Large payments are generally made in tiUer ingots. 

T0POORAPHY.3 The empire of Japan is divided into 68 dLstricta or 
principalities, and 7 large prorincee. These latter are, acctwding to Ro- 
berts's chart, pnblished at Weimar in 1611, Ockio, Quanto, JeUegen, Jet- 
ten, Jamaitoit, Kiutiu, and Sikoht, 

Itiaitd of NifoH.2 The island of Nifon, which of itself forms nearly 
5-12ths of the whole area of ^ha empire of Japan, is utnated between 3S* 
SO* and 41° 30* N. laU; to the N.E. of Kinsin and Sikoko, and to tbe 
S.W. of Jeto. It is washed on tbe N.W. by the sea of Japan ; on tbe 
E. and S. by the Great ocean ; and between its western and S.E. extrem- 
ity is separated from Korea by the straits of that name. It is about 600 
imles in length, by 350 in brMddi. Ita diores are rocky and intersected 
by nnmerons bays, amongst which are Aoee of Jedo, Tolomina, Ooari, 
and Otaia. Near its N.E. extremity are situated capee Sangar and Nam- 
bou : capee Nolo and Gamaley are sitnated on the N.W. coast ; and c^iea 
Ava and Diun on the S. coast. Jedo, the capital of the empire, is situ- 
ated on a bay, on tbe S.E. side of tbe island. According to the affir- 
mations of the J^anese, Jedo is not less than 21 leagues in circumference, 
which, supposing it to be drcolsr, makes its length to be at least 21 miles. 
Tbe circumference of tbe emperor's palace alone is said to be 6ve leagues. 
If this extent be truly reported, great part of the apace most be occnpiad 
by gardens aad open courts ; and as many of the grandeea have, in this 

INDS. 187 

city, splendid p&lacen, we may believe that the population, thoof^ nn- 
tloubMdly great, is not proportioi»ta to the extent. The city is watered 
by a. large river, which bill into the harbowr in the neighbourhood ; bnt 
tbia harbour is so ehallow, that the European ships which generally navi- 
gate those seas, can approach no nearer than 15 miles. — The resideoM of 
the superintendent of the spiritnal concerns of the empire is called Meaco, 
It is an inland city, and stands on a plain abont 160 miles S.W. from Je- 
do. Besides being the seat of the chief priests, and of the learned men 
of the nation, Meaco is the principal seat of mannlaGtuTes, and of tnule. 
The number of inhabitants, in 1674, according to Kempfer, was 405,542 ; 
bnt in this enumeration were not includdd the nameroos attendants in the 
diief epiritoal coorL — The five provinces adjoining, reserved for ^B» main- 
tenance of the imperial court, are compr^eoded under the name of GoAinol ; 
they abound in nee and pulse- In one of them, called SUx or SidxfotB, we 
find the important city of Osacca, the port of Meaoo, and one of the most 
flourishing cities of the empire. The canals by which it is intersected, and 
which are crossed by bridges of cedar, remind us of Venice. The pleasures 
which predominate here, U^tber with the great abundance and easy price 
of provisions, atO«ct a great many who are in quest of voluptuous indul* 

gence. Fio^ in the same province, on the gulf of Osacca, possessM a 

harbour protected by a very lai^ mole. — Mooroo, in the province of Fa- 
rima, is famished with a natnral harbour. Morses' hides are manufactured 
into leather at this place in the manner of the Hnstiana. The towns on 
ibe northern and western coasts of the island of Nifon are only known to 
na by name. We remark in geuerel, that the cities in the empire are nu- 
merous, but are too little known to be particularly described. Japan seems 
to difler from China, in having many villages of great size. They consist 
generally of a single street ; but that street is commonly of great length, 
often not less than several leagoes. 

ItlaM of KtuaiuJ] This island is Hitnated between 30' 56' and 34* 
N. lat. It is the itMWt southerly and westerly of the larger Japanese is- 
lands. It is separated Irom Nifon on the N. by a stmt about ^ miles in 
breadth. Its length from N. to S. is about 250 miles, and its breadth 60. 
Cape Tckilchagof forms its southern extremity ; and on its eastern coast 
we recognise capes Nagarf, DfAnmlU, and Cochrane. On the western 
coast are the bays of Saliuma, Simabara, and Ehnoura, The mountains 
are chiefly volcanic, and of these iba prindpal peak has been denominated 
Peak Horner by Kruaenstem. In March and April, 1826, this island was 
visited by several severe earthquakes. The principal town and harbour of 
this island is N^asaki. This place was formerly nothing more than a 
rillage, and is indebted to the Portuguese commerce for its prosperity and 
importance. Nagasaki contains 87 streets, eat^ 130 yarda long, which 
b the length legally assigned to a street ; the houses therefore may be 
reckoned at 1000. When approached by sea, this city pree«its views which 
would be sought for in vain in the most celebrated of our picturesque gar- 
dens. A rock 338 paces long is the only place in which the Dutch mer- 
chants are allowed to reside, where they live in a state of seclneion and 
BoUtnde worse than monkish, immersed in a total ignorance of the whole 
world beside. — Among the other towns are ; Sanga, celebrated for beau- 
tiful women, and a manufoctnie of almost transparent porcela'm; Kakura, 
die place from which people pass to Simonoseki in the isle of Nifon ; and 
Csngoxima, where the Portuguese landed when they fint discovered this 
country.— The dependent islands of Firando and Amakusa had great ce- 

leteity M ihu epoch, fron bung ibe first seats of tbe Cbriiliaii religion- 
The ide ot TtooUima, between Kiuwn and Korea, fonu a principality 
vhich was tribataiy to tbe Koreaiu before it became mbject to die Ja- 
paoeae. — Tbe archipelago of GoUo terminatei Japan on die S.W. 

Itiand ^ Siiolco.'} Sikoko lies to the-S-W. of Nifon and to tbe W. of 
Kind*. On ite east coaat we recogniae Cape Ottechaki, and Qftn ; and 
on ite western coast Cape Mi*aki, 

Itkmdi of Jeito.'] The islands of Jeaao, situated to the north of Ja- 
pan, are some of tbem rabject to the eapire of Japan, particnlariy that 
called Malmai, immediately to the N. of Nifon. It is described u being 
well-wooded, bnt in an indiffercmt state of cultiTation. The inhabitants 
are &r from having obtained a degree of civilization equal to that of the 
ilnpnnmn : they are still in the slate of hnntera and fishers. — To the N.E. 
of Matnui we tbe islands of Kunachir and ZeUaty. Three islands, still 
ferther to the N.E., are known to navigatws by the name of tbe Three 
Sittert. Of tbeee islands little is known ; and that little is not calculated 

Sughaluin, or Tchoha.'\ This island, the most important portion of ^ 
land, explored by die unfortnnate La Peronse, is sepsisted from tbe con- ^ 
tinent of Chinese Tartary, by the narrowest part of tbe channel of Tattary. _^ 
Before La Peronse's voyage, its dimennons were believed to be mnch leaa , ' ' 
than tbey are in reality ; D'Anville placing the sonthem extremity 4' to i" 
tbe N. of Jeaso, whereas it is separated from these islands by a strait, ^ 
about 20 miles in breadth, to which the name of Perouse has been givm. ^ ^ 
The length of tbe island is not leas than 480 geogispbical miles ; aince, ,, J^ 
according to the French navigator, it extends between 46° and 54° N. lat.; ^ ^ 
the breadth, however, is not proportional ) being, on an average, not ukhv ^ * 
than 80 miles. The interior appears to be monniainons, particnlsTly to- ^ ' ^ ' 
words the centre. The eastern coast consista of wooded valleys and bills, k"^ 
behind which ariae Itrfty manntaina covered with snow. To the south of ^ '^ 
die 5Ist d^iree, tbe conntry becomes man level, and exhibits only bills ,^ r 
of auid. The soil in many places exhibits a vigorous v^etation, and ia (,^^> 
(iovered with forests of pine, oak, willow, and birch. Tbe snrroiinding iJf'^ 
sea produces an eitraordiasry qnantity of fish, while the rivers •bound J'^*!!! 
with trout and salmon of the very best quality. Rosea, angeUca, and ^^ ^ * 
odier flowera, flouriah on tbe hilla. — The inhabitants are described by Pa. ^k, ^ 
runse aa being nearly of ibe middle size, strong made, and somewhat in- ^ *^ 
clined to coipnlency. The head is large, the face broad and round, the co- ^^V sg 
loor tawny, bat rendered more dark by continnol exposure to the weather, r^ Hcj, 
The nosttib are broad, the nose short, and round at the extremity. The ^ 
eyebrotw are bushy, and tbe eyes, which are fer the most part black, 
though sometimes bine, are generally lively. The lipa are of a deep red, «^ 
and commonly thick ; and die voice ia not anfrequendy strong. The teeth »^^ | 
sre white and evoi ; and tbe chin is round, and somewhat prominent. The « .L^^< 
features of the women sfe similar to those of the men ; but dieir atatore S^^ ^ 
is more diminutive, and their form romidm and more delicate. They have i^r''l>iat 
the upper lip tatooed blue, while some of the men have on it a spot of ^tp 
blue paint. Their ean are perforated, and decorated with ornaments of 
gloss, or of nlver. The hair of both sexes is black and smoodi. The 
men have long beards. Tbey cut their bur into the form irf' a bnub up- 
on the forehead and tbe temples, and wear it about six inches long behind, 'lip 
The dress, which ia nearly the aame for both seiea, consists of a kind *>f '^^ 
look, mode of akin, or qnilied nankeen, reaching below the knees, Btdi^t^fi"^' 


fastened rovnd the middle with a girdle. Diswen are reckaoed Donecef 
■ary. The greater part have no covering eitber for the bead or the feet ; 
but aome wear a kind of veK, uade of aeal-ekin ; and a few hare on the 
head a bandi^e of bear-^uu, intended more for ornament than lue. In 
the ^rdle, by which their doak ia fastened, is filed their dagger, inth 
Bereral pockets, for the porpoee of eontuning nich sintll articlea m tbey 
think proper to carry about. Their amu are bows, sad wreral kinds of 
Bpears or lances' Their habitations, in general, are abont 18 feet in length, 
by 15 in breadth ; the sides are raised to the height of 3 or 4 feet, 
while the sloping roof rises in the middle, to the height of 12 feet. 
These habitations are formed of diSerent posts, strongly joined toge- 
ther. The interstices are filled with baric, and the top is thatched with 
long grass. In the northern parts, the floor ii the bare earth ; in the 
•onthran parts, floors of planks are fireqnent. The fire is npon a kind 
of hearth, in the middle of the house, raised abont six incbea. Ronnd 
tbe whole building are benches raised abont 12 or 1$ inches, corered 
with nuts, and nsed for beds. In erery honse is an iron pot for cook- 
ing ; wuh dishes of sereral shapea and sizes, formed sometimes of wood 
and sometimes of bark. As agricoltore, if known, is not practised, they 
live chiefly npon snch animals as they can kill, and on the fish fnmiah- 
ed by the surrounding sea ; to which they join snch Tegetsbles as grow 
wild. Each hut is furnished with a Idnd of storebonse reared for the 
pnrpose of containing their winter-prorisions, which are laid np daring 
summer. These prorisions consist of dried fisb, garlic, wild celery, an- 
gelica, a bnlbons root, by them called ap6, and fiahniil preserred in the 
Btomacbs of animals. Tbe inhabitants of Tchoka are not destitute of 
ingenuity ; on the contrary, they display a greater portion of it than is 
generally observed among an nnnrilizei} people. FeroDse assures us, 
that among them were obserred weaving looms, which, though so small 
as to be easily removed from place to place, are constructed in so com- 
plete a manner, as to evince a great extent of mechanical knowledge. 
The bark of the willow, and the fibres of the nettle, are formed into 
thread, with a kind oi spindle, probably similar to the distaff and spindle 
of Enrope. A small commerce is carried on with the Russians from tbe 
northern parts, with the Japaneee from the sonthem parts, and with the 
Mandshoor Tartars Irom the western oosst. Their exports are inconsider- 
able, consisting only of a few furs, and a small quantity of oil, fw which 
they receive snch articles as these nations can furnish, and snch as tbey 
chiefly want. 

AulhuriiieiJ} Langsdorff's Voyages, Ito., Lend. 1814. — Brooghton's 
Voyage of Discovery in 1 795-8.— Thunborg's Travels in 1770-9.— His- 
toire dea Japon, etc par le P6re Charlevoix Jesaite, Paris, 1754, 6 vols., 
12mo. — lUnstrations of Japan by M. Titsingb, Ito. Lond. I822.^Laarie 
and Whittle's map of Japan and Korea. 

The two chuns of mountains which traverse Korea and Japan seem to ap- 
proach one another, and have the appearance of being afterwards continued 
aloog the bed of the sea, so as to form a series of KttlearchipelagoeB extending 

190 ASIA. 

from Japu to the ialand of FormtMa. In tbia maritiue region— which ia 
littla known — we find the (tate of Loo-choo. 

HUlorieal Notice.^ We are indebted to the narcative of Sa-poA-qoang, 
• learned Chinesai who vaa sent hither from China in the quality of an 
ambaasador in 1719, for our Gnt certain information reapecting these 
itlandi. Kampfer had, indeed, prenonaly mentioned them wider the 
name of the itlaadi of Lequego, bat in an obscnre and general manner. 
The misHonary Ganbil introdaced Sn-poa-qnaiig'B narrative to the notice 
of Europe in the " Lettrea Edifiantea." It was reaerred, howerer, fw the 
officers commanding the British frigates, the Alceeta and Lyra — which 
had gone out with Lord Amherst to China — >u> make na more particularly 
acqnuntad with these islands and their interesting inhabitants. The natiree 
trace their faiitory back to a period 'anterior to the Christian era, but they 
^pear to bare had no commamcation with the rest of the world till aboot 
the year 605, whan they were discovered by the Chinese. Ganbil saya, 
that Loo-choo was not subjugated by China nntil seven centuries after Uiia 
event, or about the llth century ; and he adds, that before that tinw, the 
principal island was divided into three political comronnitiea, whence it ia 
called, in some maps, " the Island of the Three kings." 

Number and SUuation.'] According to Ganbil. these islands form, as 
we have already stated, a sort of chain, or series of little archipelagoea, ez> 
lending from Aiu-ritf, the moat southerly of the great islouda of Japan, to 
the ialaiidof Formosa; there are in all 36, subject to the same government. 
To the 8. of Kin-sin, there are seven small islands, and a large one called 
Tantuema, belonging to the Japanese empire ; and, to the S. of these, 8 
others, which belong to the king of Loo-choo ; they are called Oo/bo 
Chima, or < the Islands of Oafoo i die prmcipal one is called Oofoo in the 
country itself, and Tatao, or ' the Great Island,' by the Chinese. These 
islands are fertile and populous, with the exception of Kiktai, which, how- 
ever, like Oofoo, contuns forests of fine large cedan. On the S.W. of 
these is the great island of Loo-choo ; it is about 50 milea long, and from 
12 to 15 broad. The king resides at its S. end, in a palace called Cbeoole, 
in the neighbourhood of the capital Kien-Cking which has a sea port 
named Napakiang, at a distance of 5 miles. This place was found by the 
observations made on board the Alceste, to be in lak 26° 14' N. and in 
127° 52* I" E. loi^. : this is iu S.W. point ; the maio body of the Uland 
extending from this N. and a little easterly. All the rocka about it are 
of coral, and immense maaeea, often of grotesque shapes, are seen every 
when along the sea-shore ; many of the same nature ere found on the 
higher land, at a distance from the beach, the origin of which may be con. 
aidered as problematical, and is supposed by some to have been disguised 
by the action of volcanic fire having raised them to an elevation beyond the 
reach ol' the ocean in which they were generated. To the W. of this island 
there are 10 others, well-peopled and prodnctire, with the exception of 
Lung-Aoang-chau, or ' the ijulphnr Island,' so called from the quantities 
of that substance which it affords. On the E. side of Formosa there are 
other 17, ail dependent on the king of Loo-choo- 

Climate and Productiant.^ The climate of Loo-choo is one of the 
most propitious in the world. Refreshed by the sea-breezes which blow 
over it at every period of the year, it ia free from tfae extremea of beat and 
cold. The land does not conimn those marshes which are so great a source 
of disease in the warmer latitudes, and the people appear to enjoy lobnat 
health. Nature has been bountiful in all her gifts to tlwt favoured country ; 


neb is Um felicity of ita Mil and climBto, thtt v^etabla productioiu, T«y 
tlifierent in thur HMure, and generally found in repooi reiy diaUnt from 
cadi odier, grow here aide by side. Not only the orange and the lime, bnt 
the Indiaa bonysn, sad Norwegima fir, ihe tes-plant and sugar-cane, all 
Oouriab U^(ether. It abounds in rice, wheat, peas, melons, pine-apples, 
linger, pepper, camphor, dye-woods, wood for inel, silk, wax, and salt ; it 
■bo yields coral and pearls. The animals are oxen, sheep, horses, deer, and 
winged gome. Almost the whole animal creation here is of diminntiTe 
size, bnt oil excellent in their Idnd ; the bullocks seldom weigh more than 
350 Iba., bat are plump and well-conditioned, and the beef very fine ; their 
goats and pigs are redvced in the same proportion, their poultry forming 
tbe only exception. 

Inhabilanlt.'] He inhabitants are of diminutiye stature, the average 
height of the males not exceeding five feet two inches, and the women being 
of corresponding stature. They have a good deal of tbe Corean physiog- 
nomy, with more mildness, and exhibit noting of the drowsy and ^ongated 
eye of tbe Chinese ; still, however, as die Loo-choos, for the last tfaonsand 
yean or more, have been more or less nnder the inflnence of the Chinese 
religion, government, laws, and cnstoms, they now present many points of 
agreement, and, in fact, differ very little from them. Not many years ago, 
a Loo-cboo junk, on her voyage to Fokien, being driven to Macao, the 
Chinese of that place eagerly crowded on board, and hailed the crew as tbe 
descendants of dw ancient Chinese, their dress and mode of piniung up the 
hwr on tbe top of the head being the old costume of tbw' countrymen be- 
fore they were conquered and shorn by the Tartars. Tbe narratives of 
captain Hall and Mr M'Leod are certainly well calcnlated to make an im- 
pression on the mind of the European public, highly favourable to the charac- 
ter and happy condition of tbe Loo-choos ; and die Chinese and Japanese 
agree in speaking of them as a dieerful and happy people. Yet with all 
this, it seems evident that in tbeir jealousy of strangers diey are perfect 
Chinese. They have a priesthood of bonzes, who are generally educated 
in Japan. Tbeir booke on religion, morality, and science, are in the 
Chineee character ; but for common purposes the Japanese letters are em- 

To the N. of Borneo we find the great archipelago of the Philippine 
islands, sometimes called the Mwuliai. They are said to be nearly 1,200 
in nnmber, and 400 of them are of cnneiderable size ; but onr knowledge 
regarding this groupe is very circninscribed. They were discovered, in 
152i, by Magellan, who lost bis life here on tbe email island of Moctan, 
while engaged in that voy^e in which man Gist completed the circumnavi- 
gation of the globe. Malte Brun, however, is of opinion diat the Spaniards 
were acqnunted with Luzon, or Manilla, the principal of the granpe, in 
1511. Tbe Spaniards, on establishing themselves here in 1560, gave the 
name of their king, /'Ai/i/i, only to the northern portion of tbe archipelago; 
the cenUvl part ofien receives the distinct appellation of the Bitiay islands. 
All these islands ore traversed by lofty chains of mountains in whic^ vol- 
canoes occnr ; earthquakes are often felt, and violent hmricanes frequently 
devastate the iace of nature. There ia nearly tbe same variety of seasons 
here as on the coast of Coromandel and Malabar. A humid climate pre- 
serves the appearance of perpetual spring throughout these islands ; the 

t9S ASIA. 

treea are always in leaf, — the fieUa alraoet comtantl^ enamriled wHk 
towen, — and the blowom and tbe frail are often exbibitad h^dter m 
the itame tree. The principal alimentary grain is rice ; wbeet wa« iMn>- 
dnced hy the Spaniard! ; and the cocas wai brongitt bithn in 1670, and 
diriras admirably ; bat European froit trees eeoM to bear fnut when trana- 
ported tbither. The orange^tree. grows in the opeo fields to ita full height. 
Among the indigenous plaala is the wild banana tree, from the fibnniB fila^ 
ments of which a kind of cloth and ropes are inanQhctiired. Catde arp 
nnmerona ; and the nambere aad Tsrieties of fish amazingly great. The 
riven are infested with crocodiles ; and the danonpaly serpent is af the 
■DOst poisonona kind. According to native traditioDB, all these islands, 
and especially Manilla, were once entirely possessed by negroes, who, 
when other races arriTed on the coasts, fled to the monntains, which are 
atill inhabited by their descendants. The practice of tattooing is followed 
here, and was at one time so frequent that the Spaniards, from this urcnna- 
stauce, gare some islands of the groope the name of Piniadot, M. Peroase 
supposed that die total population of the I^iUppiaes might be 3,000,000. 
In the Singapore Chronicle of 30th September, 1824, it was stated to be 
as follows : 

Natin Indiaaa E39S,3S1 

MesllfM 118.030 

Chin» . . 7,000 

WhlMa . 4,000 

Many of tha», by their Ereqnent intercourse with Europeans, have ac- 
quired a degree of energy and intelligence greatly superior to all the in* 
habitaats of the more westerly isUnde, In inUepidicy they greatly excel 
the Hindeos, and are hence generally employed ax gunners and steersmen 
in the intercolonial narigatioB. The trade between the Philippines and 
Acapnico, in Mexico, was for ages conducted by one galleon of 1,200 or 
1,600 tons. The well known narrative of Ansou's capture of the Manilla 
galleon may convince ns, not only of the great size, but also of d)e gre^t value 
of theae vnaela. She used to sul, in Jnly or August, with a cargo consiat- 
ing of the mannfactares of China and Hindostan, and the produce of the 
Spice and Snnda islands, and arrived at Acapnico in three or four 
months. The voyage back was performed in abont half the time, with a 
cai^ of cochinml, cocoa, Spanish wines, oil, wool, and bar-iron, bnt chiefly 
in ballast. It is a cinrnmstance remarked by Mr Crawford, that the Phi- 
lippinea are the only islands of N.W. Oceanica which l^ve improved in 
dvilizBtioo, wealdi, and pcqndatiou, in consequence of tbeir intercoorse wiA 
Europe. When Gnt visited, they were inhabited by a race of savages inferior 
ID every re^Mct to any of the adjacent pagan nations ; but now they are m 
decidedly anperior. To nudenund the reason of thia, it is suffident to re- 
mark, that the Spanish government finding here no spices, no rich mana- 
factores, no mine* of precious metal, did not think of monopolizing com- 
merce, but satisfied itself with drawing a fixed capitation tax from its native 
subjects, and freely distributed the unappropriated lands amongst the 
colonisia. The consequence of this state of things was a free intermixture 
of the local sodety, and » communication of the art* and manners of Eon^ 
to the native races. 

Manilla,'} The largest of tbe Philippine gronpe is called Lueim Ltmm, 
Siaait, New Caitiie, or Manilla. The centre of this island is in 14° 38' 
N. kat. and ISV 50' E. long. It is re<^oned by the Spaniards to be 160 


Spanuli leagnM iu length, or (rom N.W. to S.E. and 35 or 40 ia braodth: 
Its sitiiatian is extremely fkvoorUile in a commercul pmut of visw, beii^ 
placed between the eastern and weatern contmeDta ; baring China on the 
N^ the utanda of Japan on the N.E. ; the ocean on the £. ; (be other 
ialanda of the Philippioe gnmpe mi the S. ; and to the W. Malacca, Siam, 
and Cochin China. Point Calaan, at its loutbem extremity, is separated 
friHn the isle of Samar bjr a strut of fitoal three leases brmd ; and point 
Cid>icunga, at its northern estremitf , ia distant 80 le^;aes from the island 
of Formoaa. Manilla ia forned by ttm peninsular masses of land, united 
by an isthmos duee leagues in iM'eadtb ; the northern of these peninsnlas ia 
called Lncon Proper, the sonthem receives the name of Camaritut, An 
elevated cbua of monotidns intersects the whole length of this island, and 
iends ODt a mimber of braacbee in different directions. The most remark- 
able points in the chain are ; Ararat, Tayabat, St Cr'uloval, Labol, and 
the volcanic Abbay in the S.E. quarter. The geneial character of this island 
is volcanic ; and vary violent eartbqoakes were experienced here in 1650, 
1754, and 1824. The principal rivers are the Tajo, on the N., and the 
Rio Grande, the Chiquilo, and the Mardtia, on the W. In the centre of the 
island there is an extensive lake, called Bay, in which we find the island 
of Talin. The climate of Manilla is moist ; but not so warm as might be 
expected from its latitude. Hnnicanes often commit great devastation ( 
the wet season lasts from June to September, dnring which period the & 
wind blows constantly, «id die level country is wholly inundated. The 
climate is esteemed unhealthy to European^ particularly if they visit the 
Hland wfam young ; bat the lunvee irften hve to.a great age. The soil of 
Manilla ia exceedingly ferule, and prodaces cotton, indigo, sugar, rice, 
tobacco, and coffee, with little labonr- Cinnamon, nutmegs, and doves, 
are amongat the indigenous pro^uctians ; and, with a little care, the 
spices of this island might he made a source of great weidth. Of palm- 
trees there are said to be no less than 40 ^wcies ; cocoas are plentiful ; end 
the forests produce ebony mid sandal-wood. A great part of the interior 
of die country is still oorered with dense rich forests. Cattle of dif- 
ferent kinds are nnmeroas, and in some places mn wild ; the forests ^lound 
in deer. Native iron is found in masses, and there are also sevenl quar- 
ries of marble. In short, were this island in the possession of an indus- 
trious race of people, and well-goremed, it would be one of the most va- 
luable possessions in these quarters. Fi»eign vessels were formeily bur- 
dened with such heavy duties that tbey amounted almost to a prohibition 
of eommerce, and the only exports were dollars ; latterly it has received 
greater eneoumgemwt, and the colonists export indigo, ebony, coffee, 
pepper, rice, sugar, pearls, cordage, pitch, tar, and rettans. In 1837, the 
value of inportations amounted to 1,048,680 piastres ; and of exportations 
to 1,094,690 piastres; viz.: 


H Spanidt TtMds. 












ai,69* - . 

i Dutch, 



1 llra^Itn, 



1 HunbuK, 









•i u 


194 ASIA. 

Tbd popnlation waa recently aatimated at 1,376,000 persons, and conneU 
of Spaniards, aborigiiiat Negroes, Malays, erroDeoasly called Indiana by 
the ^laniards, Cbtoese, Japanese, Creoles, and Metis. The Spaniards 
are Dumerona ; L^entil girea a very nnfavonnble pictore of their manners 
and morals. Both sexes so oke cheroots, a practice which often distorts 
the mondi, and renders the &irer sex repnlsiTe- The Negroes, of whom 
the Aela* are a prindpal tribe, reside chiefly io the monatains and impene- 
trahle foreets, whither they hare heen driven by the Malays, and the 
rapacity of the Spaniards. The Malays are natmally a brave, active, and 
tndosiriouB people ; bnt hare lost mncfa of their nationel character nnder 
Enropean domination. One of their principal tribes is the Tagalt or 
Tugalat, who seem to live in comparative plenty and indolence^ The 
Chinese have been' at differeut times attracted to Manilla in great numbers 
by its profitable trade. In 1603, the Spaniards, jealooe of their commerdal 
ireidth and enterprise, massacred 25,000 of them. In 1639, having again 
increased to the number of 30,000, they dared to take up arms in their 
own defence, and a- contest ensued in which their numbers were reduced 
to 700ft The same feeling of jealousy prompted the expulsion of these 
iodustrioos people in 16G2, 1709, and 1751 successively ; .but when the 
public b^an to snfier from the want of supplies and trade, the measure 
was bitterly complained of, and no governor has unce renewed the expe- 
riment. — The viceroy of Manilla is captain-general of the Philippines ; 
but the military strength did not exceed 1500 men, moetly Mexicans, in 
1820; and little discipline exists either in the military or the marine 
force. — The portion of this island which is occupied by the Spamards is 
divided into 15 provinces : v]z. Albay, Balangat, Bulacan, Cagat/an, 
Camarmet, CavUe, Lagutia, Ntttva-Eeija, Pampanga, Pangatijtan, 
Tayabat, Tondo, Valaiigat, Ylaaa, snd Zambalea. — Manilla is Uw 
metropolis not only of this island, but of all the Spanish E^t Indian pos- 
sessions. It is situated apoa a large bay, on the S.E. side of the island, 
at the month of a river to which it gives its name. The environs have a 
pleasing tqipparance, though there is little culdvation. The population 
was estimated in 1820 at between 36,000 and 38,000 sonls, of whom not 
more than 1200 are Enropean Spaniards. Their habits are indolent and 
luxurious. Murders frequently occur here ; one anonymous writer in (he 
Calcutta Journal declares that when he visited Manilla in 1820, there were 
3,000 prisoners in the jails, and a considerable number of them charged 
with homidde. 

The Bissav Islands.] All the islands situated between Manilla 
and Mindanao go under the general appella^o of th^ Bissay islands. Of 
these Zebu is the most fertile and populous. 

The Calauiaj«ss.j S.W. from Mindoro, between that island and 
I^wan, is the gronpe called the Cslamianee, or the Cane Islands. The 
chain by which these islands are fonned goes off from Manilla in a S.W. 
direction. It seems to be very high and very narrow. The two principal 
islands are Suavagon and Calamian, The population of the gronpe is 
about 16,000 souls. The Spaniards hare occupied a few positions on the 
' "' s of the interior maintain their independence. 
'-'--' - ' e, ebony, canes, WHZ, guma, 

the most eontberly of the 
islets, ranks the second in sine 
9'40' N. lat.; and 121* W aitd 


126* E. long. lu let))^ from N. to S. is 250 miles, and its circninfereiice 
^Mmt 830. Like ManiUa it is formed of two peninsnlaT masses, of wbich the 
eastern is the larger. The coast line is extremely irr^alar ; pools and 
riraleU occur at erery step in the interior ; and there are above 20 nan- 
gable rivers, the principal of which are ihe- Petandji, the Balkan, and tha 
Sibaguey. There are dso sereral lai^ lakes ; the most ertengire is the 
Mindanao or Mandango, in the S.E. — This island produces rice, potatoes, 
sago, cinnamon, and all kinds of tropical fniits ; bnt the cinnamon is infe- 
rior to that of Ceylon. It is not ceri^ whether or not this island con- 
tains mines ; bnt gold and snlphnr hare been fonnd, And great quantities 
of talc exist in it ; millstones are also exported from it. Cattle are very 
numerons ; their nambers not being kept down either by man or yn[d 
beasta. Scorpions, vipers, and centipedes, are namerons. — A great pert 
of this island is governed by native chiefs,' who are styled rajahs ; the 
nobles are called latco. The inhabitants of the interior have been repre- 
sented as a race of fierce black savages, called ffam/oras, or Papooas : 
those of die coast have a great resemblance to the Bomeans, and Macassara, 
and are evidently a Maby race. They are divided into Mindanao!, and 
lUanot s the former of whom are governed by one sultan, who is the most 
powerful prince in the island ; the latter have about 17 rajahs, who form 
a kind of confederacy among themselves. They are all Mahommedans, 
and have imans who teach their children to read and write. Many of 
diem are addicted to piracy ; their vessels carry small guns, and from 70 
to BO men. They also carry on a trade with Hindostan, and chiefly with 
Snrat. Their intercourse with Europeans baa given them a knowledge of 
aeveraJ arts. They are a fierce and vindictive race, fond of show and cmel 
sports, but lively and intelligent. — The Spaniards have formed setdements 
on the coast, which are divided into the three alcaids of Samboango on 
the S.W., Metamit on the N., and Caraga on (he £. The population of 
these colonies is estimated at 51,000 persons ; bat the total population of 
die island exceeds 1,000,000.— The Dutch visited this island in 1607, 
1616, and 1627, and sent an embassy to the sultan in 1689, requesting 
permission to build a fort, which was refused. 

SooLoo.J The island of Sooloo or Suluk lies to the S.W. of Mindanao. 
Great qnantides of ambergrease are cast upon its shores towards the end 
of the western monsoons ; yet it is cnrioiu that this substance is seldom or 
never fou&d on the coast of Mindanao. Sooloo derives its chief wealth, 
however, from the pearl fishery which takes place daring the calm which 
succeeds the western monsoons, while the sea is so smooth and clear that 
the eye can discern objects under water to the depth of 40 or 50 feet- The 
saltan of Sooloo has a small fleet, and holds several neighbouring islands. 
Boman, his capital, is situated on the N.W- part of the bland, and has a 
population of 6000 souls. 

Autharitiei.'\ Comyn's Slate of the PhSippine Islands. Load. I8S1, 
8vo. — F. K. St Croix, Voyage CommerdaL Paris, 1810, 3 vots. Bvo. — 
Historia de la prorincia de Filippinas por al Padre, R. M. Villarde. 
Manilla, 1749, fol. — Maver's Historical View of the Philippine Islands, 
etc. Lond. 1815, Svo. — The Works and Travels of Zuniga, Sonnerat, 
Leyden, Marsden, Peyrouse, Forest, etc — Carte rednite des iales Philip, 
pines par Bettin. Paris. — Dalrymple's Chart. Lond. 1790. — Mapa de laa. 
islas Filippinas. By Alman. Lond. 1821. 

Dcillizedoy Google 


To the N. uf Java, nnd the S.W. of the I^iiippine isIanUs, is the island 
oF Borneo, which, if we except New Hollood, and New Gainea, is tha 
lar^t island in the world. It is situBted between 6* N. let. and 4* 20' 
S. lat., and 109* 5' and 1 19° 20* E. long. lu superficial extent is eBtinat- 
eil by Stein at 9.693 German or 213,699 English sqnare miles, and by 
Frendi geographers Bt 40,000 square leagDea of S5 to a degree. The 
name of Borneo is correctly pronounced by the natiTes Bmnai, and ia, 
to all appearance, a' primitive and indigenous word ; for there is no reason 
to think that Leyden's conjecture, that Btnueo is a cormption of Va- 
rani, that is ' sea-bom,' a Sanscrit epithet — as if the people or natiTsa 
Borneo spoke a roirapt dialect of Sanscrit — is at alt corteet. The name of 
Bmnai, or, as pronounced by Enropeans, Borneo, strictly belongs to tbe 
Malay state of Borneo in the western part- of the island ; and, as is fre- 
qaently dona in similar esses, has been applied by ns to the whole island. 
A complete proof that Dr Leyden' » eonjeotaral etymon of Borneo, from 
Vanini, is false, is t))e fcct that none of the natives are of the Hindoo 
stock ; but aie apparently au original race, except those of the Malay stock. 

History.'^ The natives call the island Dayaka Varunit and affirm that 
it anciently formed a part of the Chinese empire. The companions of 
Magellan saw it in 1521, and c^led it Bunnt. Tbe Portuguese bestowed 
npon it tbe name by which it is now known in Euro|ieBn geogr^hy, in 
1530. Several Eoropean nations have attempted to form settlements on 
the coast of Borneo, but hitherto with little success. The Dutch, however, 
er«cted a factory at Pontiaaa, in 1643 ; and) in 1748, they compelled the 

Erince of Tatas to grant them the exclusive privilege of the pepper trade in 
is dominions. In consequence of the treaty then negotiated, the Datch 
company still carry on a commercial intercourse with this country, but, it 
is believed, with very little profit. In 1 706, the English were allowed to 
build a factory at Banjermassin ; but their impnident conduct procured 
their speedy expulsion. lu 1773, they formed an establishment on the 
island of Balambangan off the nor^em coast of Borneo, which has proved 
equally nnsnccessfnl. The Dutch gorernntent of Java are at present in 
possession of the most of the western coast of Borneo, and have onifed 
their posts there under the name of the residency of the W. coast of Borneo. 
These acquisitions have been made by treaties made with the native 
princes since 1818. The general principle of these treaties is, that in con- 
sideration of tbe potts being placed under the immediate control of the 
Netherlands company, and of the sultans of Sambas, Monepawa, INintianak, 
■nd Mmtan, not negotiating widi other European governments or Americans, 
and using their endeavours to repress piracy, these princes shall be paid v, 
monthly salary by the Dutch. The nature of those which have been conducted 
with tl>e Dap chieftains of the interior of the island is, that their territories 
shidl be administered by tbe Dutch, and the revenues equally divided. A 
rough map of the extent uf the Dutch residency has been constructed prin- 
cipdly from tbe obser^tions of Mr MuUer, assisted by those of other gen> 
tlemen who have travelled in various iKrections. By this map it appears 
that the residency extends over nearly one-third of the whole island. . 

Pkyikal Features, 4«.] Borneo exhibits the osual insular structure — 

a mass of lofty mouutains m the centre, sloping gradually down to level and 

alluvial tracts along the shore. The principal chain of mountains must ex- 

"d N. and S. nut far from the E. coast. It is watered by many line rirera. 

^NDS. 197 

of which dioM beat known to Enropeans ara tbe Someo, the Banjari or 
Bander, and the Sukadana and Pontiana, which are all navigable, by boata, 
lor mare than 50 mil«i above their jnnction with tbe m«. It is probable 
tbey anse from a marahy table-land of great elevation in the raoniitsiDoiis 
district. The interior is covered with immenae foreata filled with wild 
animalB, particnlarly orang-outangs ; hot Qo European has yet explored this 
region. A great part of the coast, for a Iveadth of 15 or 20 inilet, 
IB marshy, exhibiting in scattered patches the eioberance of tropical fertilitv. 
Inland is tbe lake of l)anao Malayu in 1° 5^ N. lat. and 114" 20* E. long. 
It was first visited by Enropeans in 1823. It is 8 leagues by 1 broad, in 
same places 18 feet deep, and its dimensions are considerably incfeased in 
Uie runy season. Two islands rise above the surface of its waters, and it is 
stored with nnnterons fish. The larger island ia called Vaitder Capellen, 
and the lesser Tobias. Uris island has be«n often devastated by volcanoes 
Bnd eafthqnakea. At Sukadana Uie thermometer is very seldom under 
82* or above 94^. The sea and moontun breezes, and the rains, which are 
constant from November till May on the western caaat, constdembly 
freshen tbe fttmospbere. 

PTodttctionir^ Borneo prodace* rice, sago, black pepper, icamphor, 
boney, cotton, cloves, dye-woods, sandal'wood, ebooy, gold, iron, vm, cop- 
per, diamonds, and antimony. Tbe diamond-mines are confined to ^e W. 
and S. coasts, being principally situated in the territories of Pontians and 
Bangennassin. The resident Bngis are the great dealers in diamonds. Tb« 
rajah of Mastan is in possession of one of the largest diamonds known to 
exist. It was obtained about 100 years ago fi'om the mine at Landak, and 
weighs 367 carats gross. Its estimated value is £269,377. Previons to 
ISllii, when the Dnlch seized this coast, npwards of 32,000 Chinese wer« 
employed in the gold mines at Mantradn, and the western parts of Borneo. 
Valuing the yearly produce extracted at 72 dotlara each man, tiie sum total 
wonld amount to 2,224,000 dollars annnally, or £556,000. But taking 
the medium quantity at 117 dollars per man, tbe sum total wonld be 
3,744,000 dollars, or £936,000. In 1812, it was estimated that the 
annual amount of theee mines amounted to 4,744,060 doliars, or 
£1,186,000, valuing Uie dollars at ds. each. The sum annually remitted 
by these industrious emigrants to China was £500,000, and about one-half 
of that was remitted to Bei^al and the western part of India, and the sur- 
plus went to Java. But as a just punishment of Dutch avarice, tbe govem- 
ment of Java now suffers a monthly loss of 34,000 gulders in supporting 
the resideucy of tbe W. coast of Borneo. Tbe camphor of Borneo is 
excellent ; it b obtained from the Daohalanops camphora of Caiebrooke 
— a different tree from die Laurus camphora, and found only in Sumatra 
and Borneo. The Borneo camphor, however, sells for £500 per quintalj 
while that of Sumatra is osoally valued at £330. Benzoin, the resin 
of a spedes of styrax, is largely exported. Antimony has been toahd 
in masses, or rather mountains, and the exportation of this article has pro- 
digiously increased of late years. It is in Borneo that the largest of the 
monkey-trihe, the Jioago, is found. Wild bnffaloes, hoars, tigers, and ele- 
phants abound ; and tlie species of birds are innumerable. 

Population.^ The populauon of Borneo has been estimated — we sup^ 
pose above the truth — at 3,000,000. The Interior is entirety occupied by 
ft native race, bearing the general name of Dayaks, but vftrionsly named 
nccording to the parts of tlie island which they inhabit, and nearly similar 
in character to thuGe who occupy the interior of Sumatra. Some cultivate 

the gronnd, — otben diipUr coiuiderabla iadiutiy in fiahing,— and a f«w 
amptoy themwlrM in collecting gold, — but their institntioiu in general 'a&' 
cate the rndest atnte of hnmaii society. In penonal appearance they are 
decidedly aaperior to the Malays, and their women are rather good- looking. 
Polygamy is not practised. It has been r^XHted that they deroor the flesb of 
llieir enemice — an assertion probably in tbis,,aa in many instances, without 
foundation. All accounts agree, howerer, aa to another trnly savage cns- 
tom, by iriiich every man is debarred from the privilege of matrimony an- 
til he has with his own band cat off the head of an enemy. Those who 
are deairom of entering into this state, form themselves into what Dr 
Leyden calls ' head-hnnting expeditions,' and make an inroad into the ter- 
ritories of a neighbouring tribe ; if their strength appears sufficient, they en- 
deBTODT to effect their objecls by force ; if otherwise, they conceal them- 
selves behind thickets till an unfortunate iodividnal pasaea, whom they can 
make their prey. When a married woman dies, her hnabantl is not allowed 
to take a second wife until he has stain an enemy in battle, and offered bia 
bead in sacrifice to the manes of his deceased wife. Some are also said 
to immolate human victims on the altars of tbeir divinities. The inbsbi- 
tanta of the towns along the coast consist chiefly of Malays and Chinese. 
The nnmber of the latter has been estimated, by a recent writer in lbs 
Sngi^re Cfaronicle, at 125,000 souls. There is another race called 
Papon*, or NegriilM, who reside in the most inaccessible parts of die 
island, and have no intercourse with the surrounding population. 

States.^ Borneo is divided into a great nnmber of independent states, 
whose chiefs, being mnsaelmen, assume the title of rajah or sultan. Of 
these the staiea of Banjarmiutin, Succadana, Samba*, and ^rneo, are the 

Borneo Proper,"] This state has a sea-coast of more than 700 milts 
in eitent, by a depth of from 100 to 150 miles. It has the Dutch resi- 
dency on the W., the boundary in this direction being Tanjoug Data, in 
8* N. Ul and 110° 36' E. long.; on the E. it has the Bomean territories 
of the state of Snlok ; the month of the Sandakan river, in 5° 50' N. bt. 
and 1 18* 15' E. long., being tbe frontier. On tbe S. it has rarious savags 
tribes, as the Dayan, Dusum, Mureet, and Tataos, men who take a plea- 
sure in decapitsting strangers, and glory in boarding their skulls, wHIdi ars 
handed down to posterity as heir-looms of the family, and trophies of b«> 
reditary renown. To the atate of Borneo belong the islands of Malaweli, 
Banggi, Balambang, twice a British settlement, Baiabak, and Babnllsn, 
conmining several fine harbours, favourably sittuted for the trade of Chins, 
the Philippines, and their own vicinity. Borneo contains a nnmber of fine 
rivers, the most important of winch are those of Rayung and Batavis, 
which lead to Sibita, the capital of tbe Kayan, tbe most powerful, idolf 
trous, and uncivilized tribe of the whole bland. Mahari, like the two last 
on the N. coast, that of Borneo, properly so called, navigable for 20 miles 
for vessels of 300 tons ; and Sandakan, or China Bata:igan, on the N.E. 
coast of the island. The interior of tbe Bomean territory is filled by ei- 
tenaive chuos of high mountains, tbe most elevated of which is Keeneebaln, 
in 6* K. lat., and visible from both sides of tbe island, which here nins oat 
into a sort of peninsula. The western districts, as Sarawak and Kasin- 
laka, between 2" and S" N. lat., abound in metals, as gold, sine, and anti- 
mony. Though land animals abonod, yet it is curious that the elephant, 
the riiinocetos, and a species of leopard, (but not tbe royal tiger,) adtt 
only in a comer of this vust island, its northern peninsular eitrenuty, ia 


iba distticta of Ungsang and PaiUo, they an nowhare to be fonnd in mj 
part of tbe arcbipelago, to the eutward of thu. Like all coontriM in a 
rude aad nnimproved Btste, the Botneaii territory is inhabited, or rather 
infeated, by Dnmerooa barbaroui tribea, differing from each other in lan- 
guage, and ever in a Mate of hoatiliiy. The principal tribea inhabiting the 
country are 16 Id natnber, of which the Malaya are the chief, the moat 
powerfal, and the moat civilized. The Pagan tribea closely resemble each 
odier in manneri and curtome, and in one thing the most of them agree — 
in cutting off hnmsn beads and hoarding ebolls. Satage, howerer, as 
they are, they Are not, in some respects, in tbe lowest scale of social life, 
as they hare almost all some knowledge of sgricnltura, cultivating rice 
and Airinaceons roots and poise. None of them are hnntsmen, nor wretches 
living on wild roots or raw oysters. In rehgions feelings the Boraean sa- 
vages are eminently deficient, as they have no apparent system of religious 
belief, have ueither gods nor idols, nor temples nor priests. Yet they are 
very mperstitious, very attentive to good or bad omens, and especially to 
the cry of birds. None of them have any knowledge of an alphabet, or 
any oUier way, by visible signs, of permanently recording their ideas. 
This is somewhat singular, as all the great islands have each one or more 
alphabeta. This may be owing to tbe primitive sterility of a coontry rich 
in minerals, but without foreign intercourse with people more civilized than 
themselves, and the difficulty of commuoication with a coast which has no 
lai^ openings into the interior by means of bays, indentations, or lai^ 
astoaries, but is throughout a compact and unbroken shore. The saltan 
of Borneo is a Malay prince whose Malay subjects do not constitute one- 
tenth of the population, even including the tribes converted to the faith of 
the Koran. Like the other Malayan races, tbey seem to have come from the 
interior of Sumatra, to the W. coast of Borneo, and thence to the N. coast ; 
and this is an event of no great antiquity ; for it took place 29 Bomean 
reigns since, or 560 years ago, estimating each reign at 20 years on an 
average, and the Bomeans had not even adopted the Mohammedan creed 
at their first migration. Tbe government is like that of other Malay states, 
hereditary and despotic. The radah or aultaun has a council of four miois- 
twa, the treasurer, the general, the chief justice, and the minister properly 
so called, and are denominated the pillars of the slate. Under these are 
two subordinate great officers, the second minister, and a depnty-generaL 
Tbe affiurs of trade are managed by four inferior chiefs, of whom the ptinct- 
pal are the intendant of the port and the warehouse-keeper, which latter was 
sent as an envoy to Sincapore in 1825, from the king, to open up a com- 
mercial correspondence with the British government. There are in Borneo 
30 or 40 pangeraus, or hereditary governors, rendering tbe government a 
Man of uisiocracy. Borneo city is seated 16 miles up the river, in 5° N. 
Int., and is built on tbe banks within high-water mark, in a good meaanre 
teoembling Venice, each house being raised on posts from one to two fa- 
thoms in height, and connected with the neighbouring house by a single 
plank. Hie fortification alone is built on dry land- It had a considerable 
comm«t» with China till about 15 years since, and the annual emigration 
of CliinsBe to it was great, but it is now, or very lately, reduced to 500 
emigraats, from the anarchy which then prevailed. The moat considerable 
trade tbe Bomeans have at present is with tbe port uf Sinc^rare, which 
iras, in 1826, visited by 40 vasseLi from die ports of Borneo Proper. 
The present monarch of Borneo is smd to be a liberal and enlightened 
prince, tbe best that ever filled a Borneao throne, one who loves justice 

and hatM oppreuion, speaks CbineM flnently, and aettlM all diqiutea ia 
peiKon between hie Malay and Chinese subjects, which has had the beat 
effect, and tenninated those feuda formerly so frequent. Pepper, anti- 
mony, bees-wax, and aeed-pearl, are piiacipally enpocted to Sincapore. 
The pepper is all the prodnce of Chbese iodiutry, these people being the 
eole cultifators. By means of Borneo an inlennediate commerce may be 
carried on with those prorinces of China with which no European nation 
has erer bad direct communication, and may eventually be of great advan- 
tage to the British commercial interest. 

- Stale Iff Samhat-I The town of Sambas is situated about 30 miles up the 
river gf the same name. Like most other towns in Borneo, it is built of tim- 
ber and bamboos, and raised by stakesabove the swampy foundation. Samba* 
bas been always a powerful state, devoting itself so entirely to piracy as to 
render its existence scarcely compatible with that of its civilized oeigbboura. 
On this account the British, in 1813, imdertook so expedition against it ; 
carried the fort by storm, and obliged the rajah to retire into the ioterior 
of his dominions. A number of small villages are scattered over the &ce 
of the conntry betwixt Borneo and Sambas. 

SliUe of Passir. ] The chief state on the eastern coast is Pasgir, utnated 
on a river of the same name. This district is low and Bat, marshy, woody, 
and extremely unhealthy. The inhabitants have a very bad <^sracter. 

SlaUt of Bargannaisin, t^.} Banjarmassin is the principal state on 
the aoathern coast ; it too owea its prosperity to a lai^e river, on the bank* 
of which it is situated. Ships may andior near the month of the river, in 
the port of Tombangou, or Tombomio, where they are well-eupplied with 
water and provisions. Hie popula^u of Banjarmassin is chiefly Javanese, 
with a co^idenble proportion of Bugis, Macassars, and Malaya. The 
Chiaese are also pretty nnmerons. The sultan resides at MoHapara, 
about three days' journey up the river. The district of Banjar produce* 
gold and diamonds ; pepper is abundant, and maybe considered the staple 
commodity. The iron is very excellent, and peculiarly fit for making steel ; 
but tbfl inhabitants themselves do not imderstand the art of mannfacturiog 
it. On the eastern coast, Mangedava and Pappul are populous, fertile, 
and well-watered districts. — XaUoodao possesses these advantages in aatili 
higher degree. — Tiroon produces sago in abundance, and edible birds' nesla 
more copiously than any other part of the Extern archipelago. 

Stale* ofSuccadana, ^c] Succadana waa anciently the meet power- 
ful state on the western coast. The Dutch began t« tntde here in 1604; 
but it is now entirely in the hands of the Malays, and seldom visited by 
Europeans. — Pontiana is a state uf recent origin, though it now exceeds in 
wealth and power — or at least did so until the recent Dutch expedition — 
all others on the western coast. This distinction it owes to the wisdom of 
the Arab prince by whom it waa fonnded. He renounced the pernicious 
policy — almost universal in these petty alates— of embarking in trade, and 
monopolizing its principal articles, but confined himself to his premier func- 
tions, of dispensing justice and securing protection to all who resorted to 
his dominions. Under this salutary policy, the town of PoatJaaa soon rose 
to be the greatest emporium in these seas. It ia situated on a large rivec, 
formerly called Latia.,^MomfaHaa, situated a little to the N. of Pontiana, 
is the beat market for opium upon the coaat. The dty lies 19 miles ap 
the river. 

Autkaritiet.'} Beckmann'e Voyage, 8vo., Lond., 1788. — Valentyn Bes- 
chryring van Borneo. — Raffles' Account. — Sonnerat's Noticear— A Mr 


UnUcr vaa lately umplojrwl by the Dutch gOT«mmeiit to nmy ihit island, 
bnt he wu mnrdered by the iwtirei, nod bis jaaintlt hare not yet been 

The UUitiia sitoated to the east of Borneo am) Java, and to the south of 
the Philippines, and extending to die immediate neigh bonrfaood of New 
Gainea, mre called by the French (geographers the Molucca*, or Spico 
Islands. More divided and irregular tlwn the Snnda Islsnds, th«y also 
contain a greater nunber of rolcanoes. Trees, beariDg more or leas ei- 
quiaita spices, seem (o be diffused over the whole of tbem. The king of 
Teniat« possesses die whole N. coast of Celebes ; and the govemmeDia of 
Macassar and Bands share with each other the Tinioorian chun. The 
Dutch of Batavia comprehend all these countries nnder the general name 
of De GrooU OomI, or 'the Great East.' 

The largest of these islands is Celebes, separated ^m Borneo on the 
W. by the strait of 'Macassar, and from the Molaccaa, properly so called, 
on the E., by the Mo acca passa^. That portion of the sea on the N. 
which lies betwixt this island and Mindanao, is sometimes called the sea 
of Celebee, sometimes the Mindanao sea. The figure of Celebes is ex- 
tremely irregular. Its superficies, according to Crawford, amounts to near- 
ly 55,000 British sqnare miles. The bays of Boni, of Toh, and, most of 
all, that of Tomiiii or Gunon^-TW/n, divide it into a number of peninsulas. 
The more onr maps have been improved in correctness, the more ragged 
and skeleton-like does this island appear, ft may be compared, saya 
Malte Bran, to a star-fish from which the radiating limbs on that side 
which lies to the W. have been removed : and it is remarkable that the 
■tnaller iaiuid of GUolo, adjtHoiag to it on the E., has the very same singu- 
lar form. The namerons gulfs confer on this island the advantage of a 
lemperatore mild for its equatorial situation, the heat being moderated by 
the copious rains and the cooling winds. The eastern monsoon lasts (rota 
May to November ; the opposite one prevails through the rest of the year. 
The tides liere are extremely irregular. Celebes contains several vol- 
canoes in a state of activity. The bold, broken, and verdant coasts, pre- 
sent some channing landscapes. Nnmeroos rivers fell in broken cascades 
at the feet of immense rocks, in the midst of m^estic groups of picturesque 
trees. The most poisonoaa of known vegetables grow in this island. The 
famons iipaf, the existence of which in Java has given occasion to so many 
fiibles, grows also here ; and the Macassars dip their arrows in its juice. 
Here also grow the clove and nnttneg-Uees, which the Dutch so avari- 
ciously ei^;ross, tbe ebony, the sandal, die calambac, the valuable woods 
of which are articles of export, tbe sago tree, the pith of which is used as 
an aliment by so many nations, the bread-fruit, and other frnit-bearing 
species. Rice and cotton are abundant. No elephants or tigers are seen 
in the forests, but many deer, boars, and, according to some acconnts, elks 
or antelopes. There is an infinity of monkeys of a very strong and very 
mischievons kind ; and there is a large species of serpent, by which many 
of them are devonred. The cattle of Celebes are small, and have a hnmp 
on the back. The island also produces bnfiaioes, goats, and sheep, which 
are remarkably lively and sure-footed, being well accnstomed to the moun- 
tain roads. Besides the fishes common to the seas of Celebes, with others 
in the same regions, we may remark that large qoaatitiea of tnnle are taken 

OD tbe eaatem coast, for tlie wke of tba tortoiM ahell, wliich is faera a 
VKlnabte article of cominerce. The northern peoinaala, from tbe UtboKu . 
to the district of Boolan and beyond it, is full of gold mines. Tboae of 
the district of Ankahooloo, near the Datcb aettlement of Gurootala, yield 
gold of 21 carats ; that fonnd in the others is of 18. Tbe beat known place 
in tbe islaod is Macassar, a fortified lowo in possession of the Dutch. It 
is situated in the S.W., on a point of land watered by two rirers. One 
of these rivers is broad, and allows a vessel to sail up within half-canaon- 
ahot of the town walla. Sonthain is also in the umtfa, on the bay to 
which it gives its name. It has a Dutch fortress immediately adjoining it. 
The bay of Bunthain is large, and atForda safe anchorage during both moo- 
aoons- The city of Boni is at a short distance from a lake which goea by 
the classical name of Tempi, and gives rise to a fine river. The nortbera 
provinces, the capital of which is Marot, supply the whole island with 
rice. Hwy contain 370 lai^ vill^es, occvpyiog tbe plains on tbe W. 
coast. Beyond the gulf of Kaieli tbe territory of the king of Temate be- 
gins, comprehending tbe whole oortheni and eastern aborea, aa far as tite 
gulf of Tomini, and extending a considerable way along the shores of this 
gulf. 'Diia territory, which is able to furaisb 17,000 soldien, is divided 
among a number of vassal princes. Tlie district which the Datch call 
Paloo, a flat and fertile t«mtory, is the ParUm of captain Woodward. 
Tolalola, a large town, according to an English Uavetler, is the Tontoltf of 
tbe Dotch. Magondo and Boolan are tbe lai^est states. Near Maiudo 
is Fori Amsterdam. On tbe grUf of Tomini the Dutch have the settle- 
ment of Goronlalu, in a country which abounds in bnflaloes, in iron-wood, 
and in rattans, and where the nights are rendered very chill by the mr of 
the monntmns. The TomifaiM occupy tbe central part of the island where 
the gulfs terminatB. Tambooko, and a part of the eastern coast, are poa- 
lessed by tbe Sadthooi, a savage race, who spend a greater proportion or 
their time in their fishing-boats than on laud. The inhabitants of Celebes, 
who are distinguished into Booghiete, or Bugit, and Macastart, are a 
vigorous and high-minded people. Their law allows any individual va 
revenge a blow by the death of the person who inflicts it, provided he 
lakes this revenge within three days. Among the more scmpuloua, even 
a haughty manner will not be tolerated. The practice of ranning a mack, 
which is common in all the smrounding blands, is parucalariy frequent in 
this island. A person who has snfiered a severe afiront, especially if his 
life or honour is in danger, and be is laid under restraint or captivity, if 
any weapon is within his reach, lays hold of it without the slightest wara- 
ing; sometimes with a hideous shont, immediately stabs those nearest to 
him, and, nmoing about with an infuriated took, deals death among friends 
and foes indiscriminately, till he is himself put to death by some person, 
who ihns performs an important service to society. The officers of police 
are fornished with three-pronged forks, for the purpose of overpowering 
persons in this unfortunate and desperate condign. 

Rtligxonr\ Tbe ancient natives of ibis island worshipped the enn and 
moon, and some local deities, lliey built no temples, deeming the cano- 
py of heaven the only temple corresponding in magnificence to the leading 
objects of their sacrifices and devotions. The influence of Hindooism ex- 
isted but in a very limited degree. The Mahommedan faith has now be«i 
established in tbe island for two cenlnries, and its priesthood f 

Sanghir, ^c] On the N.E. a dwin of islanda extends between Celebes 


and tbe S.G. point of Mioduiao. The prindpol one U cftlled Sangkir, 
wfaicfa is amd to be fertile tod popnloui. It is occupied by a Dntcb post. 
— Tbe island Siao, and the Talautzi ^np, form a chain along wicli S»Da- 
hir. These ielnnds are rich io ngo and oil of cocoa, and wero eaid a cen- 
tury ^o to contain 28,768 iohabitaDU. Hiey cootain two or three tre- 
mendona volcanoea. On the S. coMt of Celebes we find the ialanda of 
Salajfer, and Biliig- Tbe latter forms a separaM kingdom or anlunate. 
Tbe capital of ButoDg is a fortified dty. The inbabitanls mannfiKton 
cotton stuffs, and make clotb of the fibre of agave. Its exleneire forests 
■warm with parroqaeia and cnckatoos. A species of nntmeg tree grows 
here, called by natoralista Myritlica microcarpa, w umformif, from tbe 
fniit being of small size and in clnsters like the gT^>e. Mnch of the ground 
is OTermn with rattans, which climb trees, then trait along the ground, and 
climb other trees in h long succession. The fniit of the Bombax cliba, or 
iilk^ cotton, snpplies the monkeys with abandance of food. 

Thb MoLtJCCAS.J The Moluccas according to the original and proper 
application of the term, consist of five small islands to the W. of Gilolo, 
ris. Ternali, Tidort, MoUr, Makian, and Bakian, or Baehian, Bnt tbe 
aorereigns of tbe Molaccas had poeseasions in Giloio, Ceram, and other 
islands in the neighbourhood, and these are called the Greai Moivccat. 
The name seeme to be of Arabic derivation, aigniiying ' Royal Islands,' 
because tbey were the places of residence of the soTereigne trf the adjoin- 
ing islands. 

Volctmo«t.'2 The archipelago of the Molnccas bears tiie most erident 
marks of a conntry overturned by one of those physical revolutions which 
naturalists call debaeUt ; contuning islands broken and indented in a singu- 
lar manner ; enormous peaks, projecting abruptly from the surface of the 
deep rocks, piled up to immense elevations, and a great number of volca- 
noes, some of which are in a state of activity and others extinguished, 
I'he earthqnake«, which in these r^ons are Ireqnent and dreadful, render 
the navigation dangerous ; for not a year passes without the formation of 
new sand-banks, and the disappearance of old onee. 

Ciimale aitd planlt.^ Tbe heat attended with excessive moistuTe, fol- 
lowed by long drOQghts, and the natnre of the soil, which is a spongy 
rock, prevent the cultivation of the cerealia. The pith of the sago-tree 
serves for bread to tbe natives. I'he bread-fruit tree, the cocoa, and alt 
the fruit-trees of India, succeed in the islands. Tbe Pterocarput draco, 
or lingoa, is a native of these islands, and is used as a substitute for the 
teak. It is also cultivated for its fiagrant blossoms, which are mnch 
esteemed. Tbe wood of some of its varieties is highly perfumed. Though 
lees hard and durable than teak, it is handsomer, and therefore fitter for 
cabinet work. The enormous eicrescences which grow on it are wrought 
into beautiful articles, equalling in lustre the finest variegated marble. 
The spice trees, however, are the objects by which tbe avarice of Europe- 
ans has been principally attracted to thb part of the world. 

The Clove."^ The clove tree, {now called by botanists Eugenia earyo- 
ph^llatta,) is about forty or fifty feet high, with long pointed leaves like 
those of tbe laurel. Some compare its ^ipearance to that of the beech. 
At the beginning of the wet season in May it throws out a profusion of 
leaves. Soon after the germs of tbe frah are to be seen at tbe extremi- 
tiee of tbe shoots, and in four months the cloves are fully formed. The 
fruit, at first of ft green coloor, assnmee in time a pale yellow, and then « 
blood red. \t this period it is fit to be used as a spice, conseqaently this 


ii the clove harveat. But to ripen rafficimtly for the p 
gation, it reqairec three weeks longer; in whicli period it swells to an ex- 
traordinsry axe, lotas mnch of its spicy qnality, and contains a bard na- 
cleos like the seed of the hay. It is now called ' the Mother Clove.' 
There are fire rarieties of this iruit. It has a more limited geographical 
distribution than any other nsefnl plant. It was originally confined to the 
fire Molncca iitlanda, and chisfly to Makian. It bad bMn conveyed to 
Amboyna a very short time before the aniral of the Portngnese. Not 
partial to lai^ islands, it does not grow well in Gilolo, Ceram, Booro, or 
Celebes. It has been cultivated, and lias produced frait, in the western 
part of Oceonica. It has also borne frait, thongb of inferior quality, for 
these fifty years in the Mauritius. Even at Amboyna the tree is not pro- 
dnctire before die tenth or twelfth year of its growth, and requires great 
attention ; wliereas in the parent blands it beers in its seventh or eighth 
year, and requires very little care or culture. It neither thrives near the 
sea nor on the high hills. The gathering, the drying, and the packing of 
it, are all as simple operations as possible ; and very little care is required 
for its preservation as an article of commerce. 

7%e Nubngg.'] The other ralnable species is the Myrittica Motehata, 
or nutmeg tree ; which, in its general appearance, rmembles the clove tree, 
only it is less pointed at the top, and its branches are more spreading. Ita 
leaves are similar to those of the pear tree, but larger, and, like all those 
of tile nut tribe, dark green on the npper surface and grey beneath. After 
small white flowers, it produces a bmx very similar, in form and colour, to 
a nectarine. When ripe it resembles a ripe peach, and, bursting at die 
fiuTow, discovers the nutmeg with its reticulated coat, the mace, of a fiue 
crimson colour. The external pulpy covering has an austere astringent 
taste. Within the mace is the nntmeg, incloHed in a thin shell of a glossy 
bhuk, and easily broken. It has eight varieties, which ^ipear to be per* 
manent. The limita of its geographical distribution are much wider than 
those of the clove. It grows in New Holland, in the south of India, and 
in Cochin-ChinB ; but in these conatries it is void of flavour; and for oil 
useful purposes its geogrsphical limits are nearly as narrow as those <A the 
clove, and indeed almost exactly die same. The cattivatiou of the nuim^ 
is nice and difficult. The best Irees are those produced by the seeds 
voided by a blue pigeon, called the nutmeg bird, by the excrement of 
whicb its growth is much facilitated. 

In this part of the world there are several minor spicy productions which 
are found in no other country ; via. Maasoy bark, need for culinary pupo- 
ses by the Malays and Javanese, and of late in request in China and Ja- 
pan. The Laum CulUiaman also yields an aromatic bark. The leaf of 
the Melaleuca ieucodendron, or csjeput tree, is well known to yield a fra* 
grant eesential oil. 

HUtoricai Solicet, Sfe,'2 The nativea of the Moluccas, before they wei« 
visited hy foreign nations, attached no value to the vegetable riches whicb 
are peculiar to their islands, and which have rendered them at once so 
celebrated and so oofortunate. Tbe Chinese firat accidentally landed in 
the middle age, and discovered the clove and the nutmeg, in consequenot 
of which a taste for tliese commodities was diffused over India, and thenc« 
extended to i'ersia and to Europe. The active Aiabians, who then en- 
grossed almost all the commerce of the world, tamed their attention tu 
the native country uf these precious commodities, and repaired to it in 
numbers; when the Portuguese, who alwBya followed close behind, wrest- 


ed the treunres from that mtioii- In 15S1, Antonio de Brito fint «p- 
pewed in force in the MoIdccm, for the espren pnipoee of uldng poimes- 
uon of them in the name of the kin^t of Portngal. The aosiupecting bo- 
vereigns received their treicherons guMta with csreesee, bnt soon found 
canae to entertain very different tentimenta towards them. One of the 
Brat acts of the commander was to impriiiOD soine of the foUowen of Ma* 
gelUn, who had been left in this part of the world, becanse tbeybelon^d 
to the hoHtile nation of Spain. A system of riolence, intrigne, and perfidy 
towards the nuiree was immediately be^^mi and con^ned for sixty yeara, 
with the single exception of the two yeare of the gOTemmeot of the Tirtu- 
one GalTsn. At the end of that period the Dutch, with the assistance ut 
the natives, drove ont the Fortugnese ; bat they soon diBcovered a rapa- 
(done policy equally oppreeiiire. In 1606 the kin^ of Temati attempted 
to le^ne Ute different princes tot their expulsion, bnt the jealonaies of his 
neighbonre defeated his intentions. In 1613 the intrigues of the DnttJi 
procnred.fiir them, from the natiro princes, an excltuive right of haying 
cloTes. Every infractimi of these ioiquitona eempacts was reseated ; and 
from this cause the conntry was now deaolated for seventy yean with 
wara and invasions. The natives displayed much bravery, bnt were final- 
ly enbdned. The Portngneee and English nunetimea interfered, and their 
policy wavered according to the prospects which events at different times 
held ODt to their bese avarice. The English were allowed at ime time to 
have a mercantile eHtablishment at Amboyna, when held by the Dntch. 
Bnt ^e latter, in the year 1623, after fordog some Chinese and Javanese 
Boldiers, by the turtnre, to make confession of a plot on the part of the 
English, s«zed on the whole of the Enjjiiah residents, and put them to 
death with circtunsianceB of indignity and crnelty sufficient to disgrace 
any barbarians. In this nnforranate island Governor VUming, one of the 
most detestable monstenthat even colonial depravity can bosBt of, carried 
on a scene of bloody eiecntions, patting to death people, nobles, sud 
priests, by dosens, in all the different forms of cruel death ; strangling, 
breakii^ on the wheel, drowning in the Bea, end beating to death with 
bludgeons. I'boae who were taken prsoners, and those who Bmrendered 
under prombe of pardon, shared the same fate. It was not till 16B0 that 
the Dutch, by completely crushing the natives, carried the principles of 
their commercial policy into rigid practice. 

Spice TradeJ} While the cnltnre of cinnamon was confined to Ceylon, 
that of the dove was confined to Amboyna, and that of the nutmeg to the 
Bauda islands. It was not till 1778, when tbe plantations at Banda were 
greatly dunaged by an earthquake, that the Company allowed the nutmeg, 
aa well as the dove, to be cultivated in Amboyna. In consequence of 
this monopoly of cloves and nnUnegs, the quantity produced is f^r^atly 
- diminished, and the price enhanced. The particalars of this department 
of mercantile history are given in detail in the enlightened worii of Mr 
Crawfurd, and the inferences are laminonsly drawn, pointing out tbe rain- 
ous tendency of all those cruel and onjnst measnres. llie price given fw 
dovea to the cultivator is 3^d. per lb. avoirdupoia, nearly eight dollars per 
picnl of 133^ Iba. When the trade was conducted by the natives, it even 
sold in Java at an average of 14 dollars per picnl. When the article ar- 
rived by a difficult and hazardous land-carri^e to the Caspian Sea, it cost 
91 dollars; at Aleppo 141 ; aud in England 237. Since the close mono- 
poly of the Dntch, t. e. since 1623, the price pmd for doves to the Dutch 
on the spot has been eight udhs the price paid by them to ilie cultivator. 

When brot^ht directly to England, tbey aia sold at an advance of 125S 
per cent, on the natarel export price. Concerning the qnantities produced, 
our information b not eioci. During the Porti^uese and Spanish aupre- 
iuac)>, the fire Molnccaa prodnced annnally 2,376,000 lbs. Whea the 
bBde waa free, the quantity was oae half more. The whole prodac« at 
present does not exceed 700,000 Iba. Before the last time that the islands 
fell ioto the hands of the EDglish, Eorope conanmed annnally 553,000 lbs ; 
since that time about 365,000. The dnty impoaed in England woa then 
more than twenty-fold the price of the commodity where it grows. The 
price indeed fell, bat not in proportion to that of pepper, and other anala> 
gons articles. The quantity now consumed in England exceeds that coq- 
snmed in 1615 by 56 per cent.; but, if the trade had been Ires, it ought 
in the present state of wealth and luinry to have increased in the propor- 
tion oF 147 per cent, that being the case with pepper. The Dutch mono- 
poly liaa occoBJoaed a cultivation of ciovee in BoutIiod and Cayenne, which 
would immediately cease if the Molucca trade were laid open, the produce 
being ao mnch inferior. The same principles operate on the trade in nat- 
mega. In the ancient commerce, down to the establishment of the mono- 
poly, Dntm^ were always sold and tnuisported in the shell, and the na- 
tives, when left to themselves, are still disposed to continue that practice. 
The Dutch, to secure their monopoly more effectually, subject them to 
processes which destroy the powers of germmation, consisting in slow kiln- 
drying and smoking for diree months, and immersion in qnick-Ume and 
salt water, with diying, which require two months longer. This process 
is attModed, not only with loss of time and labour, but with great waste, 
and other inconvenieucea. The kernel is exposed by it to the depreda- 
tions of the nntmeg fly. It is estimated that a tenth part of the produce 
perishes in consequence of the separation of the shell. The English, when 
they conquered the Spice Islands in 1810, found in store more than 
37,000 lbs. of bad, broken, and rotten nutmegs. The natural price of Uie 
article ought not to exceed four dollars per picul, or 2^. per pound, and 
in Europe the pound should not exceed 6d. but it is in general twelve 
times that price ; and in England, duties included, seventeen times as much. 
Mr Crawford, while he details these, among other important circnmstaneea, 
observes, that " the consumer pays this price for no other purpose than 
that a political juggle may be played, by which the party who plays it im- 
poees on itself, ivi^ont gaining any advanti^ whatever, while the grower 
is cheated ont of his property and out of his liberty." The consumption 
of nutmegs, aa well as cloves, in Europe, is emaller at the present day than 
b the middle ages. Black pepper and ginger have in a great measure tB~ 
ken their place, and, above all, the pimento and Chili commodities, un- 
known to Europe before the discovery of America, and of the ronte by the 
Cape of Good Hope. The following is the stale of the nntmeg trade at 
different pei iotls. 

Coosurapdon of nutmegs in all Europe in lei5, . - 100,000 

Do. of mace in do. . . 1M),000 

Cansumptionof nutmegs in England in IGlJ, . . 100,0410 

Do. ot'mws 15,000 

Wben the monopoly tint fell into the bands of the Engliih 

iu 1796, the consumptioo of nutmegs in Europe was S5,9G0 

And oi' ttM-e, --.... Si.'iSi 

Consumption of nutmegs in Ei^Isnd, ... 39,071 



- f ■ . ,, - - 850,0*0 

Cariumpbon of nutmegs in England, ... S6 960 

Banda Islands and Residency.] To the S.E. of the Uland of 
Amboyna, between 3° SO* anil 4." W S. lat., b b amall aoJ distinct vol- 
canic groupe of 10 isles, taking the name of Baiida from the principal 
island, Batula-Latilor. Tliese are all snbject to freqaent eanhquaken. 
Their climate is consitlered unhealthy by strangers. The island of Bands is 
inoantainouB, and an impenetrable bunboo forest occupies the whole in- 
terior. A Portnguese, Antonio Abreus, discorered this groope in 1512, 
at which time they were inliabited by Malays. The Portuguese established 
a settlement here in 1534; but the Dutch drove them Irom it in 1599, 
and nearly extirpated the aborigines also. In 1810, the British captured 
these islands; but, in 1814, they were restored to the Datch. Theyfonn 
a particular goTemment, or residency, nnder the governor-general of Ba- 
tavia. Tliis residency now includes besides the eastern part of Great Ce- 
nin, with the islands of Kuffitig Ceram, Laut, Guier, Coram Ket/, and 
ArtnB, and in general all the other little islands to the E. and S. of Banda. 
The popnlatioD of the six inhabited Banda ishmds, in 1796, was 5,763, of 
whom only 119 were Europeans. 

Aalhoriliet.'] Radennacher's Beschreibnng der Insel Celebes. — Woo- 
dard'a Narrative, Lond., 1804, 8vo.— CrawfnnL 


Silvalitm and ExlerU.'j Tbo island of Java, the centre of the power 
of a commerdal company which once ruled all the eastern aea, ia inferior 
in siite to Borneo and Somatra : being only 666 milea long, and from 50 
to 135 miles in breadth. Its supeiJcial area la estimatMl by Stein at 
53,335 square miles. It lies between 5° 52' and &<■ 46' N. lat. and 105" 
11' and 1140 3' E. long. On the N. it has the aea of Java, on the E. the 
struts of Bali wiiich separate it from tlie island of that name, on the S. 
the Indian ocean, and on the W. the straits of Sonda which sepanite it 
from Sumatra. 

Noma and Sutory."] The name Jawa, corrupted by Europeans into 
Java, in the Malay, signifies, according to some, ' the great island,' — ac- 
cording to others a particnlai grain which grows upon it, — but, according 
to Sir Stamford Raffles, is properly the name of the principal nation of the 
island, bestowed, as is common in such cases, upon the whole territory. 
The Arabs sad Persians call it J}fex«eret ool Maha-radje, or ' the island of 
the great king.' Some have aapposed it to be the lafid iiai of Ptolemy. 
It was discovered in 1510 by tlie Portoguese, who founded vaiioua settle- 
menle on ila coasts, from which they were driven towards the end oF the 16th 
century by the Dutch. The fall of the United Sutes of Holland, brought 
about the transfer of Java and its dependencies to Great Britain ; an 
expedition having been despatched from indis, against this island in 1811, 
wbicli took pOBsessiou of the Dutch settlements after considerable reaia- 
tance. It was restored to its former proprietors in 1816; yet, short as 
the period was during which we held possession of this Island, much waa 
araomplished for its amelioration and eJyancement within that brief space. 
By the abolition of forced services and arbitrary and veiatiooa iinpana. 

208 ASIA. 

and by the ntabliahmerU of a moderate and equitable laod-4ax, (hn com- 
merce and tbe opriculture of the iiltud bo rapidly improvad, that the 
amount of tbe rerenae received in three yeaiB, from 1212 to 1615, wa« 
16,810,149 Jars ntpees ; wtiile the amoant of the precMling three ygmzt, 
under the extortions practised by manhol Daendals, who placed himielf I 
above tbe iwiuJ formalities, and disr^arded all law, was no more than ■ 
8,425,765 rupeea. M. Depping coiroborates our sMertion respecting t) 
improvement efiected on tbia island by the British in these terms : " Tl 
old monopoly vanished, ancient secrets were divulged, dfiy succeeded 1 
night, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles was placed at the head of the Saw 
Society, natnr^iata, such as HorsGeld, laboured in its service, a fr 
was infused into its proceedings. English research prevailed, : 
this, loftier viewa, a more intimate acqutuntance with tbe sts 
in Europe, and a tenor of conduct far more befitting tbe c 
leanted institution. Raffies and Horsfield have aloe 
one-half the members of that sodety before tbem." ] 
ever, that the Dutch have not profiled by the lesson of h^ 
nomy taught tbem by the British. Having renewed tbeia 
tuid forced servicei tbe moment the island was restored 1^ 
chiefs rose against their oppressors, and have kept i _ 
with the Dutch fwces ever dnce, although latterly th« 
is said, has recently surrendered himself to the Dnlcli fl 

Cooii*.'] The most remarkable circumstance in H 
irregularity, narrowness, and great length, which nee 
traordiiiary extent of coast. The northern coast preseeti 
number of bays. Setting out firom Cape Sandaro, the N.E. extremity of tbe 
island, and going W., we encounter a vast bay protected on the N. by (he 
island of Madura. Tbe next object is Cape Mandaiia, at tbe extremity 
of a remarkable peninsula, which is succeeded by Cape Indramayo, Batavia 
and Bantam bays, and Cape St Nicholas. At the extreme N.W. ptant, 
the coast turns suddenly S.W. forming P^per bay, and Delkom bay. 
The southern coast commences with Cape Java, and presents one of tbe 
deepest bays in the whole island, the bay of Winkoopers, to the S.E 
which vre encounter Cape Vinezen. Extern Cape forms tbe S.E. extrei 
of the island, and between this p<Hnt and Cape Sandava, the only renu 
able inlet is the bay of Balemba«ng. Hie priudpal barhour next to Si 
bays, is that of B^via, which is a kind of roadstead sheltered by si 
blands. Indeed, the whole of the northern coast, &om the smoothn 
the sea, and the numerous islands with which it is studded, may I 
■idered a haibour, at least when we regard the mildness of the J 
and the tranquillity of the seas in these parts. / 

" The general aspect of Java, on the northern coast," says Sir Thomas 
B^es, " is low ; in many places swampy, and overgrown with mangrove 
trees and bushes, particolarly towards the west The southern coast, on 
the contrary, consists almost entirely of a series of rocks and cMs, which 
tise peipendicolarly to a consideisble height. In the inteiioT, stupeudons 
monntains stretch loa^tudinally throughout ^e island; while others of an 
iuEsrior elevation, and innumerable ranges of hills running in various direc- 
tions, serve to form and confine plains and valleys of various elevation and 
extent. On the nortberu side, die ascant is in general very gradual froai 
the seacoast to tbe immediate base of the mountains, particularly in the 
western part of the island, where it has the graatest breadlli, und where the 
mountains are situated far inland. 



" Allfaovg^ tbe nortlwni coaat is in mtoj parts fist and uDinterestinK, 
dw interim' and sontbern proTincM, from tbe monntaiDons character of thie 
conotry, may be reckoned aroongat the most romantic, and highly diverai- 
fied in the world ; nnitin)} all the rich and magnificent sccnety which wav- 
ing foreata, ncTer-biling atreama, and cooatant verdiire, can present ; 
heightened by a pare atmoapbere, and the glowing tmta of a tropica) hdd. 

" Qnitting tbe low coaat of the nonh, in many parts nnbealtby, tbe 
traveller can hardly advance fire milea inland, witboat feeling a gensibls 
improrement in the atmoapbere and climate. As he proceeds, at every 
atep be breatbea a purer air, and aarreye a brighter acene. At length be 
reacbea tbe high landa. There tbe boldeat forma of natnre are tempered 
by the rural arta of man ; atupendooa monntmna dotbed with abnndant 
harveata ; impetamu cataracta tamed to tbe peasant'a will. Here is per- 
petual verdure ; beie are tinta of the brightest hue. In the hottest season 
tbe air retmna its freshness ; in the drieat, the innumerable rilla and riroleta 
preserve much of thrar water. Hieae the mountun-farmer diverts in end- 
leaa coudnita and canals, to urigate the land, which he baa laid in terraces 
for ita reception ; it then deacenda to the plains, and apreada fertility 
wberever it flows ; till at laat, by numerous ontlets, it diacbai^es iiaelf into 
the aea." 

Phyrical Fealunt,^ Java ia almost wholly Tolcsoic; and a seriea of 
moantmns betraying this origin, and varying in their elevation from 800 to 
12,000 feet above ^e level of the sea, extends from E. to W. tbroagh tbe 
whole length of the island. "Hie several large monnlsins in this serieb, 
though different from each other in external figure, agree in tbe general 
attnbnte of volcanic features, having a broad ^e, giailualty verging to- 
wsrda tbe summit in the form of a cone ; bat they also exhibit imUcatione 
lesa equivocal of tbeir origin, such as cratera completely extuct, othera 
with amall apertures, which 'continoally discbei^e snlpbureona vaponra, 
and Bome which have emitted flame within a recent p«iod. Ilie follow- 
ing is a list of tbe principal elevations, as meaaured by M. Reinwardt.* 

SnglM FhL 

Tjikaracbi in tbe district of HantbuJB .... 4017 

Souice of the Tjilsruoi 4«4>5 

Tbe N. peskof TiloeinthediiCrictof Sanjanu . - M25 
Goenong GoenCnei in the district of Timangamen . - 60BA 

Sdak ... 7173 

GeJe . 9075 

They all rise from a plain, but little elevated above the level of the sea. 
and each must be considered aa a separate mountain raised by a cause in- 
dependent of that which prodaced the othera. Besides the lai^er series, 
there are extensive ranges of inferior elevation, aometimea connected with 
tbe larger aeriea, and sometimes independent of them. The geological con- 
stitution of tbe island is nnfevoniable to tbe existence of metals. No dia- 
tnonda are found, or any other precioua stonea; but schist, quartz, felspar, 
potatone, and trap, are abnndnit ; porphyry ia alao asid to be found in 

Tbe BMMt important rivers are those of the Cramang, the Indramai/o, 
and tbe Soh, which flow into the sea of Java, tbe Kadiro, tbe Kalileudo, 
and tbe Brotsat ^lone of them are navigable for any considerable way in- 
to die interior,' but there are probably 50, that in tbe wet season bear 

* Aa the thimHimetu bai been obamsd to low u 27* «f Fahraibeit, or ff below tb 
fnedi^ Doini, on the luramit of LIndoro, It !• dor that Ita altitude »UM be greeie 
tbantheUgbeitofthonmeaniradbf M. Rednwardi. 

■lown r&fts charged witb 4imb«r utl other nmgfc prodtKe. and oM leu tlian 
S or 6 at all timei navigable to die distance of 5 or 6 milee from- tke coaat. 
Several other men bll into the eea aloq; the northera cocat ; and count- 
leM rimleta, though not narigable, serve to irrigate the pluna and valleya 
tbrongh which they flow. A few jmigiiificant atreams discharge tbwr wa- 
t«rB into the sea on the soathern coast, which is Tery little known or Ik- 
qnented. Anong the mosntaiBS of the interior, are scattered sevenl amall 
^t beantiful lekes, most of Aen aoppoaed to be the crat«n of eitiact r«l- 

GimaU.'] The seaatms are here diuingaished not by hot and cold, b«t 
liy WM and dry. The westerly winds — which bringrain generally — setin 
during the nont^ of October, become more steady in November and De- 
cember, and gradnally sabtiik, till, in Mtek or April, they are sacceeded 
by the easterly winds and fair weather which continue for die renwiaing 
lialf of the year. The heaviest nuns are in December and .bnvnry ; 
and the driest weather in Jaly and August, whan the nights are coldeet 
«id the days hottest. Thunder and lightniaf; are very freqaent. Occa- 
iMHial showers, even in the driest Beas<m, refresh the air ; and the landscape 
M at -all times of the year covei^ with the brightest verdnre. The tber- 
mometcr of Fahrenheit has been observed on the northern coast, and par* 
ticularly in the latge aad low capitals of Batavia, Sanumu^, and Suraba- 
ya, to indicate above 90° ; bat, by a series of observa^ons published nn- 
der the authority of the Dutch gorerament, it has been found usually to 
range between 70° and 74P in the evenings and roomings, and to stand 
about 83° at noon. In the interior, among die hills, it seldom rises higher 
dmn from 67" to 70" ; and on die aommit of Lindoro it has been observed 
as low as 27". On the whole, the climate of this island — with dM excep- 
tion of Batavia and some other low swampy places on the nordnm coast 
•^is considered on a level, in point of salnbnCy, with the bealthiaat parts 
-of British India, or of any tropic^ country in the world. GorenKn' Kaf- 
flea gives a table ditoovmed icooag the Dittcfa recorda, by which it would 
appear, that the amount of deaths in Batavia, from the year 1730 to 1752, 
exceeded 11,000,000 of soula, or nearly 50,000 a yearl In 1722 up- 
wards of 4400 souls were destroyed by an irruption of the Papandajang. 

Prodwitioru.'i This island is fertile and beautiful ; and its soil yields 
almost every dung which the cultivator can desire. The 8(h1 is for the 
most part rich, and remarkable for its extraordinary depth and fertility. 
By the side of tropical phMa are found most European vegetables, and 
various fruits of more temperate aonea i these are sure to succeed where 
.pn^ter attention is 'paid to the reladve qnalidee of aoil and climate. The 
monnlainB and valleys, hills and daks, coast exposures and inland ahadea, 
offer an inexhaustible variety of vegetable productions. Rice is heie, — as 
almost every where in the East, — the staff of life ; maize, or Indian corn, 
ia an important ardcle in the agricalture of the island, as is the rachang. 
The sngar-cane, coSee-shmb, peppw, indigo, tobacco, several tub^uus 
roots, nutmegs, aloes, cloves, cinnamon, most of the European plants, and 
a great number which afford oils, all cantribnte- abundandy to tbe aeces- 
sides and luxuries of the inhabitants of Java, and furnish valuable Brticlaa 
of comnierdal export. The choicest frnita of tropical elimea nbonod in 
Java. Ornamental and medicinal plants, and those whoae fibccp are coa- 
vertible into rope, thread, and cloth, abound in Java. Amongst the former 
are the datura, the cubeb-pepper, and the tipo*, the extreme poisonona 
qualities of which have given rise to some ndiculona esa^rTHtiooB. A 


tree, howew, Bamed Anchar, and « abrab called chetik, are posaeaaed of 
a malignity aknoat as quickly desbxiaive to life aa the gum from the npaa 
has been described to be. Tbe teak grows in considerable forests ; bnt it 
does not appear that many trees exist of a size sufficient for Bhip-boilding. 
Tbe island prodsceB a great variety of other trees for hooseK^arpentry and 
famitoFe, and some which yield resins and gums. Notwithstanding the 
extent to which cnltlvation has been csrried in many dtatricts of Java, 
large portions are still covered with primsvsl forests. 

Many districts of Java, PfyfTer affirms, are untenantable, on accoimt of 
tbe ntunber of tigers by which they are infeeted, and this in spit« of a re> 
ward of about 27j. for the c^lure of a royal tiger, and 7i. for that of a 
spotted tiger. The rhmoceros inhabits this island, and is a powerful and 
dangeroos animal when provoked. Eren tbe Javanese, tbougfa in general 
good Marksmen, are shy uf hunting this ammal. The kalong, which is 
also called ■ tbe Ayiag fox,' oa account of its breast and tail, it an immense 
bat. It ha* books on its wiage, by means of which it suspends itself to 
(be bnmdiee of fmit-treea in the night-time, bnt when day~light appears it 
flies back to its sequestered haunts. When they roam about at dusk in 
quest of prey, they assouate by thousands, and obscure the sky for several 
minutes. Peacocks are found in tbe solitary monntalnons districts. The 
number of distinct spedes of birds is stated to be flomewhat more than 
£00. The edible birds' nesta, exported in large quantities to the Chinese 
market, hare Icmg been known as tbe production of a small swallow, hi- 
nuuie eacuieata. The mucilaginous Babstance of which the nests are 
formed, is not, as has been generally supposed, obtained from the ocean ; 
but H an animal elaboration. On the dissection of one of these birds, by 
Sir E. Home, he discovered a set of secretory organs peculiar to itself, by 
which, tbwe is little doubt, the mudlaginous matter of these nests is ela- 
borated. This little bird, frequenting ibe rocks and caverns of Java, fur- 
nishes an article of commerce, the annual value of which exceeds 500,000 
Spanish dollars. Tbe crocodile of Egypt is found in the rivers, and that 
species of lizard called tbe Uuxrta monUor. Turtles, tortoises, frogs, 
anakee, and insecta, are numerous. There are above 20 speues of ser- 
pents reputed venomous. Of fish there is great variety in the riven, lakes, 
wid adjoinbg seas. Though sulphur is found more or less in the vicbity 
of every volcano, we believe tbe only instance known of sulphuric add 
foand in a state of nature is in the island of Java, near Batavia. A lake 
of sidphoric acid occnpiea the crater of an eiUnct volcano, from whence 
it flows ui a rivulet down tbe aides of the mountain to a considerable dis- 
tance. In tbe dry season thii acid rivulet becomes absorbed by the sandy 
soil through which it run* ; but in the rwny period it unites with another 
stream, called the White river. Tbe water of tbe latter,",though saturated 
wiUi a whitish clay, is not unwholesome either to 6sh or other animals. 
Bnt after the junction of the acid rivulet, tbe stream becomes transparent, 
the acid precipitating the E«Ttby matter, and destroying not only tbe Gsb, 
but all tbe vegetation it passes over. 

Ptipuiatian.^ The Dutch East Indian government have always bad 
much difliculty in obtuning correct censuses of the population of their pos- 
■Hssions : " For," saya Ffy^r, " the princes, or other great lords, strive as 
much as poasible to increase the number of their households, and endea- 
vour to avoid making any return of births, being apprebenaivo of tbe inter- 
ference of tbe government, who allow them no greater number of servants 
■ a require." The prieata, too, are accustomed 

212 ASIA. 

to oppose Ae taking of crasmea, upon the antboritjr of tbe koran, which 
alia down tbe pntuBhineDt ioflicted on king DaTid on the beads of mcb aa 
iramber tbe people. Gorernor Rmffles baa given two tables of the popu- 
lation : the &t»t taken by the Dutch, and not to he depended on ; the se- 
cond by tbe British goremment, and nader tai more faTonrable drcnin- 
stancee. From tbe latter it sppean, that the popnUtion of Java and Ma- 
dtu«, in 1S15, amounted to 1,615,270 souls, the nnmbei of males and fe- 
males being nearly eqnal. The population of the natire capital, Snrakerta, 
was estimated at 105,000 ; and that of Yugya-kerta at something short of 
this ; that of BataTia bad dwindled to 60,000, or about one-half of its for- 
mer nomber. Pfyffer, in bis ' Skizyen von der Insel Java,' published in 
1829, says that the population is now thought to exceed 5,000,000 souls. 
Among the foreign settlers, the Chinese are the moat numerons, as well aa 
tbe most imprntanL There are nearly 100,000 Chinese in this country, 
and they are said to be " tbe life and soul" of its commerce. The Bugis 
and the Malays are establiahed in the maritime towns only ; of the latter 
about 500,000 inhabit the western part of Java, and apeak the Sunda lan- 
guage. Like the Chioeae, they have their own officers, who are respon- 
uble to the goremment for the conduct of the people under their command. 
The majority of tbe Areba on the islajid are priests ; they are a mixed lace, 
and prevail moU on the eastern extremity of the island, where Mahom- 
medanism waa first planted, llie Javanese possess no slaves ; those which 
are found on the island are the property of Europeans and Chinese alooe, 
and are generally procured from the islands of Bali and Celebes; tbey 
amount to about 30,000. 

Javanese.'] In common with the inhabitants of the whole Indian archi- 
pelago, the inhabitants of Java are pronounced by Sir S. Raffles to bear 
in their features marks of Tartar origin. The Javanese are in general tal- 
ler than the Bugia, but inferior to the Malays. Their colour is that of 
" virgin gold ;" their limbs are slender, their wrists and ankles particolarly 
email, the forehead high, the eye of tbe Tartar cast, the nose small and 
aomewbat flattened, tbe mouth well-formed, tbe cheeks prominent, the 
beard scanty, the h^r lank and black. The countenance is mild, plactd, 
and thonghifol ; and easily expresses respect, gaiety, earnestness, indifier- 
ence, bashfulneas, or anxiety. The women are in general less good-look- 
ing than the men ; and, when old, appear hideously ogly : those of tbe 
higher class, who ore not expoeed to bard labour and the weather, have a 
share of personal beauty. The manners of the Javanese are easy, cour- 
teous, and respectful, even to timidity; pliant and graceful, the people of 
condition carry with them an ur of fashion and good breeding, and are not 
in the least disconcerted by the atare of tbe curious. 

The condition of the peasant of Java would, under a mild and eqnitidtle 
government, be truly enviable. His cottage, or hut, costs him not more 
than from 2 to 4 rupees, or from 5 to 10 shillings ; the pliant bamboo fiir- 
nishes him with the materials for the walls, tbe partitions, and the roof; 
tbe dwellings of the petty chieh are larger, but do not exceed in valne 40 
■hillings each. Those of the chiefa and nobles are still larger ; tbey have 
eupporta and beams of timber, and cost about £10 or £15. Hie Chinese 
have huildingn of brick and mortar- The cottages of the Javanese are 
never lu»ulated, but formed into villages, whose population extends from 
50 to 800 or 300 inhabitants ; each has its garden ; and this spot of 
ground aurroundiog his simple habitation, tbe cottager constdera «a lua 
peculiir p«trimony, and cultivates it with peculiar care. " He laboora," 


my* gOTeniM' lUfflM, " to plant and to rear in it tboae T^;etable« that 
may be mott DKfnl to hia family, and those ahnibs and trees wbicb may 
•t once yield him tbeir fruit and tbeiT shade ; nor does he waste his effoita 
on a thaokleM soil. The aasemblage of hots that compose the village be- 
come thus completely screened from the rays of a scorching eon, and are ' 
ao buried amid the foliage of a loxnriant rngetation, that at a small dift- 
tance no appearance of a bnman dwelling can be discovered ; and the reu- 
dence of a numerona society appean only a Terdaot grove, or a dump of 
evergreens." It is tnie, that toe slavish aabmission of the inferior to hia 
sttperiw, amongst the Javanese, makes a melancholy impresaioo npoa the 
■aiod of a Earopean. The Javanese does not receive the commaods of hia 
radehn, or ' noble master,' or orang besar, ' saperior,' in an erect posture. 
but in the lowlieet attitude he can devise ; stooping down or utting with 
his legs crossed and bis body bent forwards. Whilst the order is giving, 
he frequently repeats the expresBioos, Nja nun! or nun! 'yes, my lord 
and mister,' though he uses luan, ' master,' when addressed by a Euro- 
pean. Withoot rising from the gronnd, or even casting hia eye upwards, 
he now and then brings hia bands toge^er by the tip of tile fiogen, and 
laiiea them to his head, in token of his entire eubmissiveoees. We find, 
however, hy degrees, that this condition, to which our prindples of inde- 
pendence would attach the name of slavery, is any thing but galling. 
Their servility implies just as much and no more than touching the bat, or 
other every-day civilities, among most Europeans : and, on the whole, 
(anch is the wanntb of the climate and the natural fertility of the aoil,) there 
ia acarcely a happier mortal under heaven's canopy than the peasant of Java. 

Every village forms a community withm itself, eadi having its officers, 
its priests, and its temple appropri^ed to religious worship. What Chris- 
tian but ardently prays, that tiiese synagognn of idolatry may be snp- 
planted by temples dedicated to the worship of the only living and true 
God I The furniture of the cottage is equally simple with the cottage that 
contains it, and consists but of a few articles ; the bed is nothing more than 
a mat, with pillows ; the inhabitants ose neither tables nor chairs, but sit 
crosa-l^lgBd ; and, in common with other Mahommedans, make nse of the 
right hand only at tbeir meals. Rice is the chief article of their snbsist* 
ence ; but various pungent pickles and condiments are used almost with 
•very spedea of food- Water is the principal and almost exclusive beve- 
rage ; it is generally drank warm ; eometimefl a little cinnamon or other 
,apice is thrown into it ; and tea ia coounonly taken between meals. Of 
tfaeae there are two a day, one just before noon, and the other between 
seven and eight in the evening. The betel-leaf and areca nut are iodia- 
pensable articles for all classes ; and ^a use of that deleterious drug, 
opium, is hr too extensive for the healtii and happiness of the inhabitants. 
Agriculture is the prindpal employment of the Javanese ; indeed they are 
s nation of husbandmen. The wealth of a province or village is meaaored 
by the extent and fertility of its land, — its Escililies for ric«-irrigauon, — and 
tbe number of its buffidoea. 

Though the Chinese in a great measure monopolize the mannfacturea 
and handicraft trades, the Javanese sr« far from being defident in natural 
aagadty or dodlity. Like moat eastern nations, they are enihnsiaatic ad- 
mirers of poetry ; and are said to possess a delicate ear for music They 
have a kind of improvisatricd amongst them in their rongtM, or dancing- 
fpiia. Pfyffer says of a rongin : " Her songs are impromptu, and suited 
to ber auditory. In the twinkling of an eye she selects the prefer^U 

214 ASIA. 

points of ber admirer's exterior ; an htcI) amile lights up her ftstwes ; she 
eitola bis hsndsome figure, his noble bearing, bis eyes, feet, and dress, and 
sums up ber eulogy with a seductire, and appamitly artless jMntrntiure of 
bis liberality and munificence. These ^rls also recite national ballads, of 
which tbe substance b deriTed from the legendary recoUectiiHii of tbnr 
ancient miers. Many of these b^lade are perfect fac-similea of Orid's 
Metamorphoses, and constitute a portion of JaTanese mythograpby." llie 
Javanese are remarkable for an unsuspecting and ^moat infaotine credulity, 
lending an easy credence to omens, pn^nostice, sootbeayeTs, and qaacks ; 
they are the ready dupes of any religious fonatic, and gire credit, widtout 
scruple or examination, to the clums of every pretender to Bnpernatural 
powers. Listless and unenterprising as they generally are, no sooner is 
their religious enthuaiBsm excited, than they become at once adventnrou* 
and persevering, esteeming no labour arduous, no remit imposuble, and no 
privation pain^l. Hera, as in many other of tbe Auatic islands, the 
people, and especially the slaves, are frequently guilty of those dreadfiii 
acts of vengeance called ' running a muck ;' in which the infuriated indivi- 
doal aims at indiBcriminate slaughter, till he himself ia killed like a wild 
beast. There are instances on record, wherein whole vilifies have devoted 
themselves to inevitable destruction, to avenge an injury or insult. 

Zengger and Bedui,"} To the eastwud of Sorabaya, are the Zengger 
mountains, on which is found tbe remnant of a people, amounting to about 
1200, who follow the Hindoo worship. Tbey occupy about 40 villages, 
in the most beautifully rich and romantic spots in Java, — a r^on where 
tbe thermometer is frequently as low as ^2°, — where tbe summits and 
elopes of the hills are covered with alpine firs, — and where plants com- 
mon ta an European climate flourish in Iniariance. At tbe (^posite ce- 
tremity of tbe island, in tbe interior of Bantan, is another tribe called tho 
Bedui, the descendants of those who escaped into tbe woods after tho Sail 
of the western capital of Bajagaram, in tbe 15th c«ntnjy, because (hey 
would not change their religion ; and who, when at length they subouUed 
to the sultan of Bantan, did it on condition that they should not be com- 
pelled to adopt the faith of tbe Koran : they retain some ungulor customs, 
but their numbeis are inconsiderable. 

GoverHment,'2 The government of the Javanese is a pure unmixed 
despotism ; but dtere are customs of which tbe people are very tenacimis, 
and which ^e sovereign seldom invades. His subjects have no ri^ (rf 
liberty, of person or property : his breath can raise the bnmbleet individual 
from the dust to the highest distinction — or wither tbe honours ot tbe most 
exalted. Hiere is no hereditary rank ; nothing to c^pme his will. Not 
only honours, posts, nnd distinctions, depend Jupon his pleasure, but all the 
landed property of his dominions remains at his disposal, and may, together 
with its cultivators, be parcelled out by hie order among the officers of hie 
household, the members of his family, the ministers of his pleasures, or the 
useful servants of the state. Every officer is paid by grants of land, or 
by a power to receive irom the peasantry a certain proportioa of the pro- 
duce of certain villages or districts. 

Sfatet of Swuhunan and J)}oefokarta.2 " The eutem portion of 
Java," says Pfyffer, " is the seat of two native governments i (bat of tbe 
Sutuhunan, or emperor of Suraktirta, and that of the sultan of lifoejo- 
karta, ( Yugya-kerta.} Though the power of both has been considerably 
curtailed, and ^ey are imunly dependent upon the Dutch authorities, their 
influence is still of so formidable a nature, that the intervention of a ungle 


warlike utd nUe indiridul would ipeedily enable tbem W re-usart their 
iBdependence ; and, from their saperior Dnnibera, combined with the per- 
aiciotiB character of their climate, to extirpate their Eoropean maiten. So 
hmg as these two kingdoma are permitted to exist, die poasession of Jbtb by 
the Dutch mnst be franght with iaaecanty. Fanaticism, jealowy, and mes- 
tingviahable hatred, InrL in the dismal receeses of the iiland, and the natire 
omiia no opportnoity whicli offen of sowing diaCmst and cootempt of En- 
n^Mana, who are called Ormng Kapir, ' pagans,' or < infidels.' " These 
pronncea comprehend sbont one-fourth of the island, wid iaclade sonia of 
■ta richest districla. 

Batavia.'] The chief towns of Jara are : Balavia, Soh, tfjaijmaUa, 
and Samaraag. BMSvia is termed the capital, altlioogh only the fonrth 
in point of popalation. Of the magnificence which procured for tbis capital 
the title of ' Qoeen of the East,' little is now to he found. Streets have been 
pnUed down,— canals half-fiUed np, — forts demolished, — anil palaces 
leTeJled with the dust. The first appearance of Balaria, when yoa bare 
fairly entered into the town (for before then, it is, in common with the na- 
tive tosrae, hid in a forest of ever-Terdant fniit and ornamental trees), is 
rather impoang. The bonsca in the Earcq»ean parts ef the (own are spa- 
ciovs, but ind^aot, and bnilt accordii^ to no known rules of art. The 
vpper story is a receptacle for lumber, and the lower, or gronnd-flDor, is 
filled with a qnantity of clumsy fnniittire, snch as cabinet work, the ill- 
finished manufacture of Uie country, after the Dutch models of the 16th 
century, lustres of painted glass, and defaced mirrors. The recent extended 
connection with Europe is gradually dispelling this kind of barbarism, and 
the modem settlers successfnily imitate the taste and fashions of the Bri- 
tish. The public edifices are neither numerous nor splendid. Tlie fav 
pnblic inslitutioDs are : the orphan chamber, which administera to the estatea 
«f all persons dying intestate, or whose executors are absent, — the supreme 
coHege of justice, consisting of a preaideut and two members, — and a 
literary aociety, institnted in 1777, and renewed dnriag the temporary 
government of the BritisL This society has pnblished seven Dutch vo- 
hmes, and two English, which contain a few essays of aome merit. The 
adminisba^on of the town, and tbe management «f the f>olioe, are solely 
in the bands of geremment, who depute timir authority to a bench of ma- 
gistrates. BaiAvia is, from its westerly sitaatiea and easy access, the best 
and most GOB venicM port in tbe island. In point of security, however, uid 
oonvenieney for tbe landing and sh^jung of goods, it bears no campaiison 
' to the fine hariwar of Surabaya. &^via is even better known in Europe 
by its fatal climate, tban by its great trade and central situation. The du> 
ease whicli diiefly proves mortal, b a fever of tbe remittent kind. Dy- 
•oiteriee sre very rare ; and inflanunatdons of the liver, which termioata 
btally by tbe formation ef matter, are of a chronic nature, and almoat 
always the canseqaence of long-continued spirituous intemperance. The 
merdiaats who transact business in the town diving the d^ enjey as large 
a ebape of health m the European reaidents of any tropical climate what- 
over ; hut a stranger who sleeps far sis or ught days snoceasively in the 
Iowa, may certainly reckon on catching tbe Caver, and it ia more than an 
equal cfawce but he falls a victim to this terrible malady. Batavia owes 
ite insalubrity to tbe recaaaiao of tlie sea for a apace of many hundred 
y^rda, by which an extensive mud fiat is left uncovered, and to the injndiciea* 
diasipatian of tbe waters of tbe rivw into numerous stagnant canals, poisou- 
iim tke parity of tbe air, and depriving the river of the natural impetus 

S18 ASIA. 

which mmld hare kept its chaimel clear of the impoiitiea which now dirite 
ita month, or lie patnf^n^ on it banlu. At present, the lalnbrity of thft 
■ite has enticed all rMpectable persons to take np their reiidence at Wei- 
ieereden, KoMgtplan, or MeitUr Coraeliiu, abont 6 miles beyond the dty, 
where yon may ride for MTeral milea amidst el^iantconntry-aeata, bniltin 
the English M Italian style. Few Eaiopeans redde in Batavia, exceptiiig 
those who are directly concerned in ahipping. 

Madura.^ Ma(l[ua,anialandlyingcloeeto Java, where it ianarroweat, 
and seeming to form apart of it, ia 91^ milea in length, and about 31 in 
breadth. The central re^on is a contianed ridge of no great eleratioD. 
The soil prodaces rice in great abtindance ; bokoes, sheep, and bay-aalt 
are also exported. The popatatioa, according to a census taken in 1615, 
waa 218,659 sonls, of whom 6,344 were Chinese. The nadres tpeak a 
peculiar language, and have less resemblance to tbe Malays than moat of 
die eastern islanders. The principal towns are Samanap, PanHacottan, 
Bancallan, and Kamal; uid the chief subordinate ialn are Gatiian and 
PmdL — 

• ' AuthorUiar\ Jonroal der Reize na Java, etc door S. C. Nedarbnigh, 
Amsteid., 1805, Svo. — Raffle's History of Java, 2 vols. 4to. Lond^ 1818. 
— Travela by Kienbeig, Tombe, Dabellardiere, Stavorinns, and Roggeveea. 
— Professor Keinwardt'a Notes in the Batarian Coorant. — -Atatidc JonmaL 
— Kaan van Eilaud Java, 181S.— Pfyffer's Sketches. 


T1MOR.3 The large island of Timor is situated between the 8th and 
1 Idt d^rees of sontfaera latitnde, and the 1 23d and 127th of eastern longi- 
nde. It is throughout a hilly coontry. Its limestone-mountains exhibit 
•ea'shells at an elevation of 800 feet; they frequently present a conical 
shape ; but it is not known whether any volcanoes exist among them. Tla 
whole island ia subject to frequent earthquakes. The valleys are generally 
very narrow with ateep sides, hot in a few instances open into plains of 
considerable extent. Tbe rivers are all small, and so steep that none of 
them are navigable beyond the influence of the tide, which seldom extends 
above 400 yards, and in the flattest not above two miles. DtUi harbour, 
on the N.E. coast, is well-defended from the sea by a reef of rocks. Gm- 
pang barbonr, on the S.W. coast, is a lai^ bay, about 12 miles wide at 
the moutb, and upwards of 20 feet deep, formed by tbe island of Stmao 
to tbe S.W. and a point of Timor to the N. It ia entirely open to tin 

Productioiu.'] The enthusiasm of navigators, who have visited this 
island immediately after leaving the tiresome shores of New Holland, haa 
created some exaggeration ia their descriptions of the fertility of tUa 
island ; yet it is certunly a very pleasing spot. The coltivation cbieftjr 
consists of rice, maize, millet, kachang, yams, sweet potatoes, and cotton. 
Maize is the principal article of food, but the natives depend for a greai 
part of tbeir food on tbe sugar of the Lontar-palm, and the produce 
of the sago-palm. The um of the plongb is unknown : a wooden hoe 
and sharp-pointed stick are the only implements used in the hill-cultivation. 
The average anunal crop of paddy is 70 fold. ■ Cocoas and areca palm* 
are very scarce ; bnt the lontar is abundant, and small quantities of sugar- 
cane are rused. Fish can scarcely be considered as an article of snbustence, 
" thtte are scarcely any of tbe natives who will trust themaelvea in k 


csnoe. The l!>ee Ifl not domertlcated here, nor indeed in any of die 
■l«i<b in thia quarter ; but the vegetatioB nipporta an infinity of wild 
beei. Gold is found in several of the riTen, hoA in Inmpe and grains. 
Two «f tbe moat prodacdTe firen are ntosted wltbtn the Dntdi go*eni^ 
■MDt ; bnt tbe natiraa are rapetatitioasly afrud of taking gold from thme 
riven, and ai« aaid nerer to do so withoat sacrificing a fanman being to tbe 
river deity. Copper ia said to abonnd in the PhiSaran hitb, which are 
rimaled near tbe centre of the N.W. side of the island. The specimena 
which have been procured are ^xtge nuaaea of native copper imbedded in 
hard wUte ehbing atone. 

Duleh and PorivgveK Poutttiotu.'] The Dutch and Portngnese claim 
between tbem the entire sovereignty of this Island : Fort Concordia being 
the seat of tbe government of the former, and Delli of the latter. But the 
power of both ia so 'much decreased at the present day, that their authority 
tt only acknowledged by such of the native cbiefH aa need their aaaiatanee 
against their more powerful neighbours. The nominal boundary of the 
two governments cannot be formed by a line drawn in any direetidn, as 
some of tbe petty atatee near Delli are under Dutch protection, while 
oAers, near Conpang, are nnder t!ie Fortr^nese. It is, however, conaidered 
that the whole of the conntry to the £. of DelU belongs to the Portngoeae ; 
and the whole of the S. coast to the Dutch. Along the N.W. coast the 
two govemmeate are completely mixed. 

i'opuZtiffDn.] It ia iuiposaible to form any correct estimate of the po- 
pulation. Tie inhabitaata are said to be numerous in the interior and 
■long tbe 6. coast ; but very few villages are to be seen on tbe N. coaat, 
and these consisting only of a few huts. It appeara, however, the general 
costom of the ialand not to form themaelvea into large commnnitiea. The 
natives are generally of a very dark colour, with frizzled bnshy bur, but 
lesa inclining in appearance to the Papnana than the natives of Ende. They 
are below the middle alze, and rather alight in their fignre. In countenance 
Aey more nearly resemble the South sea ialandera than any of the Malay 
tribea. The peasants of both sezea wear a cloth only wrapped round tfaeir 
loina ; the t^abs generally were hajus of silk or chlnti!, with five or six 
bandkerchiefa of different colours wrapped loosely round their heads. Their 
ornaments chiefly consist of arm-rings of gold, silver, or ivory ; the women 
wear arm and ankle-rings of earthenware. There does not appear to be 
any system of laws amongst them ; tbe will of tbe sovereign being in all 
cases supreme. The religion of tbe ialand ia pagan ; moat of the princes, 
indeed, prefer Christianity, but are enturely guided by tbair pagan priests 
and customs. Their deidea are represented' by particular atones or trees ; 
they call them nieio, or ' evil spirits ;' and pray to tbem to avoid the evils 
they suppose would otherwise be infiicted by tbem. Sacrifices are common, 
and generally consist of boffiiloes, bogs, sheep, or fowls ; bnt Hometimes a 
human being is sacrificed, and, until Dutch interference put a stop to the 
practice, a virgin Was onnnally aacrificed to the abarks and alligatora dose to 
the town of Coupsng. The arms at present in use are musketa and spears of 
iron or bamboo ; bowa and arrows are only used by a few nativea in tbe in- 
terior. Obtaining the head of on enemy in battle ia conuderad tbe higbeat feat 
of arma. llie feudal system seems to exist throoghont the island ; for every 
man capable of bearing arms is obliged to attend the call of hla feudal lord, 
Someof tbe rajahs call themselves the descendantsof caymans, or crocodiles, 
and seem to be every way worthy of snch illustrious descent. It has been 
auppoaed that not less than 4>0 languages are apoken on the island. 


Trade^ Tba tnde of Timor U conHidenble, particolarly at DelU 
The piiodpal imports are coarse blue and white cloth, large pattern chiotzea, 
i«d handkerchiefs, Cfiina nlks of gaudy patterns, muskets, gnnpowder, 
iron, coane cntlery, and lead. The exports are principally wax, sandle- 
wood, and cattle. The method of trading is ungular. When the prowa 
arrive off the coast, they land the articles which they have for barter, in 
small qnantie* at a time, on the beach ; whereupon the nativea come down 
with the produce they have for sale, and place it opposite the goods from the 
prows, pointing to the arucles they wish to obtiuD in eichaoge. When an 
offer is considered auffiuent by the native, he Boatchei up the proffered 
goods, and darts off iuto the jungle, leaving his own ; or should he be un- 
able to obtain what he considers an adequate offer, he seizes bia own pro- 
perty, and flies off with eqnal haste, never returning a second time. The 
annual trade of Coopang alone — which is not supposed to exceed one- 
fourth of the trade of the whole island — has of late averaged 1,200,000 
Spanish dollars. 

RoTTi.J Rotti is the largest of the islands under the residency of Con- 
pang, and is situated to the S>W. of Timor. It is about 38 miles broad, 
and 60 long ; and is at present divided into IB districts, under the govern- 
ment of as many rajahs, who can bring upwards of 10,000 armed men into 
the field. This island ia a succession of low hills and narrow valleys ; the soil 
is stony, but productive ; the rivers are few and small. The productiona 
are the same sa those of Timor. The trade is almost entirely confined to 
the exchange of palm sugar, with the Boulan prows, for cotton ; of horses 
and bnfialoea, with whalera, for ammimition ; and of bees' wax for Euro- 
pean and Indian manufactures with Coupaog. The natives are darker than 
the people of Celebes, but are remarkable for having long black hair, whilst 
nearly the whole of the inhabitants of the surrounding islands have frizzled 
hair. Their features bear a stronger resemblance to the natives of India 
than to those of the eastern islands. Tbey are esteemed a mild-tempered 
people. Their religion, customs, and belief in auguries, are, in most res- 
pects, the same as those of the Timorese ; but the natives of the two islands 
do not understand each other's dialects. The slave trade was formerly 
carried to a great length on this island : several hundred slaves being an- 
nually exported to Bataria, Amboyna, and other Dutch settlements. 

Savu.3 Savn is a small island, and, according to some, the name of 
two small islands, lymg about 60 miles due W. of the N. part of BottL 
Hiey are hilly throughout, but fertile. The natives bear a strong resem- 
blance to the Timorese, bat are of a fiercer disposition. 

Sandal-wood Island.] The large island called, ^m its produce, by 
the Dutch, SandaUboscke or ' Sandal>wood ' Island, has, in the Malay lan- 
guage the name of Poolo Tckinnana, which has the same import, but, by 
the natives is called Sumba. It was formeriy under the authority of the 
Dutch, but about 30 years ago the natives threw off their allegiance in 
consequence of the Dutch persisting to cut sandal-wooj, and the natives 
having a belief that for every tree of it which Is cut down some one of 
their number will be deprived of life j or, according to Hogendorp's account 
of the matter, supposing that tliese trees are the present abodes of the sonia 
of their ancestors. The island is rather low in its appearance from the 
•ea ; there does not appear to be a single hill on it. The natives are said 
to be extremely savage, daring, and treacherous. 

SoLDR, ^c.2 The chain of islands to the W. of Timor is double. We 
have followed the sondiem range, and are now to take a survey of the 


nonhern, which are, in genersl, larger and closer together. Leariiig tfit 
N. Bide of Timor, we coonl four Ulanda extending in a westerly direction, 
cslleil Otiibay, Pantar or Alao, iMmbet, and Seirao, all inhabited by 
rery mde and fierce tribes, bearing a strong eitenud resenbtance to those 
of Timor. The island of Sotor u divided from Seino by a Bmail strait. 
Hie inhabitants are divided into two classes : the mountaineers, who are, 
at the present day, perfectly sarage,— «nd the inhabitants of the coast, who 
appear to he of the Badja tribe, and are frequently employed by the 
Dutch as Besmen. They carry on some trade with Conpang, Macassar, 
and Sumbawa, and are expert fishermen. Their religion is Mahommedan ; 
a few on the N. coast have beeo led to profess Christianity by the influence 
of the Portngoese. 

£We.] The island of Ende, or Florin, is nearly as large as Timor ; 
but as the only European establishnent upon it, that of XMrantufca, belonga 
to the PortDgnese, onr knowledge of it is slender. It appears from the 
ae» to he very hUly in all parts, and on the S. coast there are several vol- 
canic monntains of great height. He natives live chiefly in the interior, 
except at the £. end ; the sea-coast and porta to the westward are occn- 
pied by colonies from Snmbawa and Celebes- The natives more resemble 
the Pa|iaans than the Timorese. They form a number of petty states, 
which are constantly at war with each other for the purpose of making slaves, 
for whom, till at least of late, tfaey always find a ready sale on the coast. 
In this island, as in Tunor, there is a great multiplicity of local langnsges. 

Sumatra is a very lai^e, but imperfectly known, island, situated between 
5* 3' S. lat. and 5° W N. lat. ; the equator dividing it into almost equal 
parts. It is 1,050 miles in length, and horn 150 to 200 in breadth ; with 
a general direction from N.W. to S.E. It is separated from Malacca by 
the strait of that name ; from Borneo by the strait of Koremata ; and from 
Java by the strait of Suoda. Its northern point stretches into the bay of 
Bengal ; its S.W. coast is exposed to the Great Indian ocean. Crawford 
estimated its superficial area at 130,000 B. square miles. Among the eastern 
people generally this island is known by the names of Pulo Purichu, and 
Indalat; the origin of the term Sumalra is quite uncertain. By Marco 
Polo it is called Java Minor; and, by the Javanese, ' the land of Palem- 
bang.* By a recent treaty, the British goverhment ceded their possessions 
in this island to the king of the Netherlands, in exchange Jar the Dutch 
settlements on the continent of India. 

Physical Features.^ This island is surpassed by few in the beaatifiil 
indulgences of nature. A duun of monntuns runs through its whole ex- 
tent ; the ranges, in many parts, being double and treble, yet their albtnde 
IB not sufficient to occasion their being covered with snow during any part 
of the year. The highest point in the central chain is Mount Ophir, which 
rises to the height of 13,424 feet above the level of the sea. A number of 
the mountuns are volcanic Between these ridges are extensive pluns, 
considerably elevated above the sur&ce of the maritime lands. In thesa 
the air is cool ; and, fix>m this advantage, they are esteemed the most 
eligible portion of the country, are the best inhabited, and the most cleared 
from woods, which elsewhere, in general, cover both hills and valleys with 
an eternal shade. The western coast of Sumatra is well supplied with 
livers, but they are, in general, too shallow and rapid for the purpose 

.890 ASIA. 

ot narigation. On the N.E. cosat, the inountaiiu being at a greater dUunce 
from the se«, the riTers atim a K>'eai«r magnitude of volnme. Tbe largest 
on tiie weiten^ coast are tbe Kataun, the Indrapura, the Taba^ong, and 
Sinkel, which are all inferior to the Falemhang, the Jambee, the Judragiri, 
and the Siah of. tbe K> coaet. Mr Aadersoa made an exact survey of 
part of the £. corhI of Sumatra, which must be of nae to those who navi- 
gate those seaa ; he ascended sho sereral of the rivers ; and obtuned infor- 
mation of a large lake, mentioned by Maraden, in tbe interior. It is aday's 
■ail across with b good breeze. The borden of it are in a high ertate of 
culdvatioD. Boats, some of them having 50 men on board, navigate the 
lake. Tbev are mostly pirates, plundering each other, and carrying off 
children, whom they sell for alBvea. There is an island in the centre of 
this lake where the edible birds' neets are found, that are in such request in 
^be Chinese market. 

Prodvctiont.'^ It may easily be imagined, th&t a country utnaled 
immediately under the equinoctial line, and covered with deep alluvial 
soil, mnst be luxuriantly fertile ; but the enormous size to which many of 
jta productions arrive is almost incredible. We should look in vain in ex- 
Ire-tropical climates for any ungle flower measuring three feet in diameter, 
like that of the parasitical Raffieiaa ; or for a tabeiose edible root weighing 
4M>lbs.; or for melons, pamkins, and other species of tbe cucnrbita- 
ceoos bmily, equal to half that weight ; or for a shetl-fish, one of which 
might snp 24 men. The choicest trees, herbs, andfiruits, are everywhere 
found, many of them demanding no labour of cultivation whatever. The 
villages are situated in the midst of ^ meet luxuriant groves and plantations 
of the cocoa<iHit, betel.nnt, bananas, jacks, doriaas, mangosteens, guavas, 
pangoes, pomegranates, pine-apples, cashes-apples, tamarinds, the bread- 
fruit, several varietiee of tbe orange, the lemon, the Tune, and the pescing 
or plantmn ; while the air is scented with the sweetest perfumes from innn- 
merable flowers. — Among the productioui of this island may be mentioned 
the camphor-tree, which naturally produces camphor in a concrete state, 
md^, brazil-wood, pepper, benzoin, coffee, cassia, and cotton. The total 
annual produce of pepper has been roughly estimated at 15,000,000 of 
pounds. The-nutmeg and clove have been introduced with great success 
at Bencoolen. The silk-cotton is among ^e most remarkable of the 
Sumatran regetables. " It grows," says Musden, " in pods from four ts six 
inches long, which burst open when ripe. The seeds entirely resemble die 
black pepper, but are without taste. The tree is remarkable, from the 
}>Tanches growing out perfectly straight and horizontal, and being always 
three, forming equal angles at the same height : the diminndve sboot« like- 
wise grow flat, and the several gradations of branches observe the same 
r^pilarity to the top. Some travellers have called it the umbrella-tree, 
hut the piece of furniture called a dumb waiter exhibits a more striking 
picture of it." This cotton has not hidierto been applied to any other pur- 
pose Uum tbe stuffing of pillows, since it is supposed to be too brittle for 
the purposes of manufocture ; but Marsden is of opinion that it has not 
hitherto been properly tried. In the forests are found die cabbage-tree, 
ebony, pine, sandal, the aloe, the teak, the manchineel, iron wood, and the 
banyan, tree. 

AiwHaUr^ Manalone seems here to d^enerete, while other animals ot»- 
tun their la^st size. The elephants are equal in magnitude to those ot 
Ceylon ; and the tiger, the rhinoceros, and the buffalo, are superior to 
those of the continent. The tigers are of great size, and are very numerouat 


I>ul, froDi a mtperatitions idea that they are animatftd by the bodIr of ilu- 
parted heroM, the nativeB can scarcely be bnra^t to kill theoi. The omng- 
ontBog M a aative of Sumatra, and aeveral other Bpecie« of Simite. The riven 
us infeated with alligators, to which Maradea aeems inclined to attribute 
the paw«n of fiwcination. These alligators are also protected by an ixlea of 
thav SBBCtity. The hog-4ieer,ao BaimBl rather larger than a n^>bit, yields 
the besoar, a sabstance to which have been attrihut«d many medicinal viz- 
tnea. The bnfialoea aie fnller, aaya Mr Anderson, ^lan any bollock I ever 
aaw in Smithfield maHiet ; ■ad-— to desceoid in the acale of heingi — the 
common domestic fowl grows so large, that, standing on the ground, it can 
pick cmmb* from an eattng-tshle. It is a disputed point whether the hnga 
hippopotaiane exists in die rirera of Sumatra. Red anla, leechee, and m,iu- 
qnitoea, fbna disagreeable anooysncea in this country. 

MineraU.2 Gold is procured in the cenlnl parts of the island. It is 
aaamed, that from 10,000 to 12,000 onnces of this tnetal have been an- 
nually receirad at Padang alone. Silrer is not known. Tin is a very con- 
aidmhle article of coramerce. Iron ore is procured, bat not in larg« 
quantiUM. Sn^ihnr and yellow sraenic are articles of traffic 

Populatton.'^ Tbe inhabitants of Sumatra are rather below the middle 
«ze ; their Umba are generally slight, bat well-shaped, and particularly 
BmaU abont the wrists and andee. The women follow the preposterons 
custom ef flattening the noaea and compressiog the aknlls of duldren newlv 
Wrn, and also poll out the »ra to ina1i« them stand at right angles wiUi 
the head. The males dentiey ^eir beards, and keep their chins remarkft- 
biy smooth. Their oomplenoa is properly yellow, wandog the red tinge 
that constitntee a tawny or ccq>per colour. The females of the ii[^iei 
classes, not exposed to therayv of thesnn, t^proach toadegree of birneaa. 
Persons of superior rank ancoorage the growth of their hand^iuls to aa 
extraordinary length ; the hands of the natires in general, and even of the 
half-breed, are always cold. The inland nativea are superior in slrei^(tb 
and siae to the Malays of the coas^ and poMeas also fairer complexions. 
Among the hills the inhabitants are subject to mmutroiu wens m goibva 
on the throat. Both sexes have the extraordinary custom of filing and 
disfignrii^ their teeth, which are natarally white and beautifiil horn the 
simplicity of their food. Many, particularly tbe vomen of the Lampong 
country, have their teeth nibbed down even with their gunu ; otheia have 
them formed into points like equlateral trian^es, while some £le off no 
more than the outer extremity, and then blacken diem with the empyreu- 
matic oil of tbe cocoa-nut ahelL The great umh set their teeth in gold, by 
canng with a plate of that metal under the row ; which ornament, oon< 
trasted with dw black dye, has by candle-light a very splendid effect. 
SomeUmea it is indented to tbe shape of their teeth, but more usually it is 
quite plain, and it is not removed either to sleep or eat. The original 
clothing of the Snmaxrans is the same with that found by nav^tors atuoi^ 
the Soutb-sea islands, and in Eorope generally called Otaheitean cloth. 
It is still nsed vnong tbe Rejangs as their working dress, but tbe country 
people now in a great measure conform to the coBtome of the Malays. 

Maantra and CuilomtJ] Tbe du*iiru, or villages of the Snmatrans — for 
die inhabitants are so few that they are not entitled to the name of towns, 
■re always situated on die banks of a river or lake, for the convenienoe. of 
batlimg and of transporting goods. The buildings are of wood and Iwm- 
boos, covered with palm-leaves. The frames of tbe booses rest on s^oul 
wooden pillars abont six or eight feet high, and are ascended to by a piece 

of bamboo cat into notchw. DetBched bniWings in the connlry are raised 
ten or twelve feet from the ground, to be secure agwnat tigera. The ftir- 
aitnre is extremely simple, and neither knirea or forks are reqmred, as in 
eating they take up the rice and other victuals between their fingers and 
dmmb. Tte native Sumatran of the interior differs in some respocta from 
tho Malay of the coast, being mild, peaceable, and forbearing, unless roused 
by violent provocation. He is also temperate and sober ; his diet bemg 
mottly vegetable, and his only beverage water. Their hospitality is great 
and their manners simple ; and they are in general, except among the 
chiefs, devoid of the Malay cunning and chicane. On the other hand, uiey 
ate litigious, indolen^ addicted to gamir^, dishonest in their dealings mth 
strangers, which they do not consider as any moral defect, regardjess of 
truth, mean, and servile ; sad, although cleanly in their persons, filthy m 
their apparel, which they never wash. 

CannibalUm.2 The Battas practise canmbalism in the punishment 
awarded to particular crimes. This fact ia established by abundant and 
nnqneationable evidence. The following account of this horrible custom 
is extracted from the ' Memoirs of Sir Stamford Raffles :' " A man had 
been found guilty of a very common crime, and was sentenced to be 
eaten, according to the law of the land : this took place dose to Tappa- 
nooly. The resident was invited to attend: he declined, but his assistant 
and a native officer were present As soon as they reached the spot, they, 
found a large assemblage of people, and the criminal tied to a tree, with 
his hands extended. The minister of justice — who was himself a chief of 
some rank — tiien came forward with a lai^ knife in his hand, which he 
brandished as he approached the victim. He was followed by a man 
carrying a dish, in which was a preparation or condiment, composed of 
limes, chillis, and salt, called by the Malays lambul. He then called 
aloud for the injured husband, and demanded what part he chose ; he re- 
plied die tight ear, which was immediately cut off with one sboke, and 
delivered to the party, who, turning round to the man behind, deliberately 
dipped it into the sambut and devoured it ; the rest of the party then fell 
upon the body, each taking and eating the part most to bis liking. After 
they had cut off a considerable part of the flesh, one man stabbed him to 
the heart ; but this was rather out of compliment to the foreign viaitoca, 
as it is by no means the custom to give the coup de grace. It was with 
a knowledge of all these facts regarding the Battas that I paid a visit to 
Ta[^anooly, with a deterraination to satisfy my mind most fnlly in every 
thing concerning cannibalism. I had previously set on foot extensive in- 
qniiies, and so managed matters as to concentrate the information, and to 
bring the point within a narrow compass. Yon shall now hear the result ; 
but before I proceed, I must beg of you to have a little more patience 
than yon had with Mr Mariner. I recollect then, when yon came to the 
■tory of eating the aunt, you threw the book down. Now I can assure 
your grace that I have ten times more to report, and you must believe me. 
I have said the Battas are not a bad people, and I still think so, notwith- 
standing they eat one another, and relish the flesh of a man better than 
that of an ox or a pig. Yon must merely consider that I am givmg you 
an account of a novel state of society. The Battas are not savages, for 
thay write and read, and think full as much, and more than those who are 
hnm^t up at our Lancasterian and national schools. They have also 
codes of laws of great antiquity ; and it is from a regard for these laws, 
and ft veneration for the institutions of their ancestors, that they eat each 


Other ; the law declares that for certain crimefl, four in number, the crimi- 
nals ihall be eaten alive. Tfae same hw declarei also, that in great wars, 
that ia to say, one district with another, it eball be lawful to eat i^ 
prisoners, whether taken alire, dead, or in their gnvee. In die four great 
cases of crimes the crimioal ia also duly tried and condemned by a compe- 
tent tribunal. When the evidence is heard, sentence is prononnced, and 
the chiefs drink a dram each, which last ceremony is equivalent to signing 
and sealing with as. Two or three days then elapse to give bme for as- 
sembling the people, and in cases of adultery it is not allowed to cony the 
sentence into effect, unless the relations of the wife appear and partake of 
the feast. The prisoner is then brought forward on the day appointed, 
and fixed to a slake with his bands extended. The husband, or party io- 
jared, comes up and takes the first choice, generally the ears ; the rest 
then, according to their rank, take the choice pieces, each helping himself 
according to his liking. After all have partaken, the chief peraon goes up 
and cuts off the bead, which he carries home as a trophy. The bead is 
bung up in front of the house, and the brains are carefully preserved in a 
botde for the purposes of witchcraft, itc. In devouring the flesh, it is 
sometimes eaten raw, and sometimes grilled, but it most be eaten upon 
tfae spot. Limes, salt, and pepper, are always in readiness, and they some- 
times eat rice with the Besh, bat never drink toddy or spirits ; many carry 
bamboos with them, and filling them with blood drink it off. The asseof 
bly consists of men alone, as <Ste flesh of man is probiluted to the females : 
it is said, however, that they get a bit by stealth now and then. I am 
assured, and leally do believe, that many of the people prefer human flesh 
to any other ; but notwithstanding this penctiant they never indulge the 
appetite except on lawful occasions. The palms of the hands, and the 
Bolee of the feet, are the delicacies of epicures 1 On expressing my sur- 
prise at the continuance of such extraordinary practices, I was told that 
formerly it was usual for the people to eat their parents when they were 
too old for work. The old people selected the horizontal branch of a tree, 
and quietly suspended themselves by their hands, while their children and 
neighbours, forming a circle, danced round them, crying out, ' When the 
fruit is ripe, then it will fall I' This practice took place during the season 
of limes, when salt and pepper were plentiful ; and as soon as the victinis 
became fatigued and could hold on no longer, they fell down, when all 
bands cut them up, and made a hearty meal of them. This practice, how- 
ever, of eating tbe old people has been abandoned, and thus a step in civi- 
lization has been attained, and therefore there ore hopes of future improve- 
ment. This state of society you will admit to be very peculiar. It is 
calculated that certainly not less than from 60 to 100 Battas are thns 
eaten in a year in times of peace." 

Langvagef.2 1^^ Malays of Sumatra use the Arabic character, and 
have intermixed their language with the Batta, Arabic, and Portuguese. 
The other principal languages of Sumatra, are the Batta, the Bejang, and 
the Lampong! the difference between these languages, however, is chiefly 
marked by their being expressed in distinct written characters. 

Heligion.'} The ancient religion of the Rejangs, the Sumatran race vrith 
which we are best acqounied, is now scarcely to be traced. At present 
they seem to have no object of worship whatever, unless it be a specie* 
of genii which they call orang aluM. The superstition which has the strongest 
influence on their minds is that which leads them to venerate, almost to the 
point of worshipping, the tombs and remuns of their deceased ancestors. 

SS4 AM A. 

Topography.^ Tfae nttirM diride Smnatn into three nfpooB : lat, 
Salla, in the N., which tnclndaa the kiiudom ot Acheen, with the vwaal 
ininctpalitiefl of Pedeer, Pamajf, and Delti. It is boonded on the E. aide 
of the island b^ the tirer Siac, and on the W. by the SinkoL The inte- 
lioe of thH diTision ia inhabited by the Battas : — "Die 2d diviuon it die 
anrient empire of Benangkaboa, comprehending the kingdoms of Jambet 
and Andtagiri, on the E. coan, — in dm inlorior the coanby of the 
R^angB, — and on the W. coast the Baroo conntry, Tappanoobf, Nalal, 
and others, with the kingdom of Indrapoora. Tbo 3d diTiuon ia called 
Ballumaty, m Kampaag, and embraces the 8JB, end of the island, indnd- 
kg the state of BeneooUn. 

Palembaug^ The kingdom of Faleiiib«ig — which amongst the 
native states of SomBtra holdg the first rank — occupies that portion of the 
island to the soatiiward of the equator which is indnded between the 
latitndeB of 2* and 4* SO*. It is bounded on the N. and E. by the straita 
of BancK ; on the S. by the Lampoong conntry ; on the W> and S.W. by 
the ranges of nonntains which separate the latter st«te from Bencoolen 
and its dependencies ; and on ^e N-W. its limits adjoin the territories of 
die snitan of Jambee. The prindpal riTer, which is called the Mootea, 
and upon which tfae town of Pablemang ia situated, rana through the 
whole extent of tfae conntry in a general direction from S.W. to NX., 
having its sonrce in the range of hiUa nw to Bencootou With thU rirer 
all tfae others belonging to the district hare confluence, and the acconra- 
lated waters are disembogned into the atnits of Banca by fonr different 
mouths. The Soemang branch affords the easiest comronnication with 
the town of Palembang, which, however, owing to the winding course of 
the river, is about 70 miles distant from the sea. The town ia indeed 
accesmble on the north and eastern sides only by means of theee arnu of 
the Moosee, for the whole coast of Snmatra, along the straits of Buica, 
presents nothing to the eye but a low flat of interminable swamps and 
jungles. The Soensang arm is navigable to Palembang by vessels of the 
lai^est burden. In some parts it ia narrow ; but in general it is of a noble 
breadth. The river throughout its whole extent is much infested with 
alligators ; which are so daring and roradous as frequently to carry off 
the psddlera from the panljaUangs or canoes which navigate the stream. 
The town of Palembang ia formed on both aides of the river, which is here 
1200 feet in breadth. Some of the honses are erected upon large rafts of 
timber anchored near the banks, and which rise and fall with the tide ; 
behind these are houses built upon piles of timber, and which at high 
water become insulated ; at the back of these ^dn a third row of honaes 
built on the land presents itself. The palace of the sultan is a magnificent 
structure built of brick, and Borrounded by a strong wall. The houses of 
the principal chiefs are commodious and comfortable. Not more than three 
or four houses have communication with one another except by boats ; tluE 
airangeroent proceeds more from the aquatic habits and incliuations of the 
people than from the force of circumstances. The town extends at least 
3 miles dong each bank, and contdns a population of about 25,000 souls, 
including about 1000 Arabs and Chinesis. The foreign tr&de from the 
town is carried on with Java, Malacca, Banca, Penang, I^gen, Rhio, and 
the eastern coast of Borneo. Two la^ Chinese junks arrive widi the 
N.W. monsoon in January, and depart with the 8.E. monsoon in August. 
Hie principal imports are woollen clo^, English chintzes, and coloured 
cottons, Bengd and Madras piece-goods, copper, cutlery, teas, dnig% 


tn&a, ntnkeens, euthenwaTe, and salt. The exports conabt of about 
15,000 pecDls of pepper, of 13S| Ibg. each, ammally, Tslned at 45,000 dollart, 
of cotton, wax, dn^oo's-blood, benzoin, ivory, gold-<laBt, and edible-nests. 
The annual export of cotton is about 4000 pecnls, which is lold raw, and 
imported at from 2 to 4 dollars per pecnl. The snlian receivee a certain 
snin from every vessel or prow entering the port of Palembang according 
to its measurement ; a large Chinese jnnk paying about 1500 dollars, — a 
Sianiese jnnk, which seldom exceeds 80 tons bnrden, about 75 dollars. 
The jnriadiction of the port is vested in a chief appointed by the sultan, 
called the thabundara ; that of ^e town by a chief called, in virtue of 
bis office, the patch, assisted by other chiefs in cases of difficulty and im- 
portance. Before execution every sentence must be submitted to the 
saltan. Murder is commotable by fine. The chiefs hold by grant from 
the Bultan their seignorial property and authority in their de»a» or pro- 
vinces ; but the greater part of their time is spent in attendance on their 
lord-superior in the capital. The principal chiefs or pangerangt, are 
generally allied by blood to the royal family; the manlries or inferior 
duels are taken from any class of the people at the sultan's pleasure. 
Chinese, Arabs, and Malays, are found in this class. The lura* or head- 
men of die villages are generally elected by the inhabitants themeetves, 
but their choice most be ratified by the sultan. -The' revenue of the saltan 
cannot be predsely estimated ; the island of Banca yielded him some year^ 
^o 150,000 dollars annually on the sale of tin. — From the record of the 
number of men registered for feudal services, a roogh computation would 
■n{^i;est that there are 75,000 souls scattered over its provinces, and 
25,000 in the towik of Palembang, making a total popalatton of 100,000 
■crals. There is a description of wild people in the interior of the Palem- 
bang dominions who refuse all intercaurse with the sorroimding popula- 
tion, and are called Orang Kubri; they are a harmless and timid race. — 
He districts and provinces which constitute the sultan of Palembang's 
dominions derive their names from the prindpal rivers which flow through 
them. The most valuable of these is that at the head of the river Moosee, 
called Analc Mootee. The other provinces are : Mootte, Laviatang, Ogan, 
Rembaiig Ogan, Ktlida, an.d Kamareeng. — The island of Banca, off this 
eoast, is 130 miles by 45 in breadth. It beloogs to this state. 

Bencoolen,'] The ancient Dutch colony of Bencoolen is situated on 
the western coast of Sumatra, at die embochure of a small river which 
discharges itself into a bay inclosing the isle of Halt, Its geographical 
position is in 3° 49* S. lat. and 102° 17' E. long. The English established 
themselves at Bencoolen in I6B5 after their expulsion from Batavia, and 
biult Fort York in 1690, and Fort Marlborotigh in 1719. It then passed 
into the hands of the Dutch, from whom it tvas retaken in the early 
part of the late war, but to whom we have restored it in exchange for 
tbeir poaeessions in Malacca. The situation of the town is agreeable ; the' 
Buropeans occupy well-built houses ; but the Chinese quarter — as it is' 
called — is a wretched sssemblsge of hnts, inhabited by 600 or 700 vaga- 
bonds. Hm climate is very bad ; the beat varies from 76° to 6S* ; and the- 
Snmd is considered peculiarly prejudicial to health. The most valuable 
prodnction.of this colony is spices. The spice-plantations were only 
formed here in 1804, yet they now yield from 50,000 to 60,000 pounds 
of nntm^, 12,000 to 15,000 pounds of mace, and 15,000 to 18,000 
ponnds of clores. The caltnre of pepper is declinbg, but that of cofiee 
and sugar is on the increase. Indigo and cotton appear to thrive well, but 

S86 AHA. 

aie not exteouvely cnltimtod [' rlca and Hit an imfoneA. Tha nvmutd- 
mg coantiy la goTaroad by thi«a native ofaieli, each <A tbam praaidaa dtw 
a eaoiptmg or nllaga ; bat in all cases of importance the Dotcb aotboiitiea 
iaterfeie with and control the natiTe adminiatratioti. Tb« total popolattoa 
of BcDcooleii, from In<lrapoora on tbe N. to Croe on the S., u ertimated 
by M. Narnii, in the lOtb voluine of the * Batanan Memoin,' at 80>0e0 
•onli, of whom aboot 12,000 raeide in MsrlboroDgh and ile cBTirona. 
These latter coosiat of Enropeaaa, Jafaneae, Bangaleeei Cbineaa, and 

Menangiaboo.^ In the centra of the ialwd is the kingdom of Me- 
nangkaboo, the capital of which U called PvMiarotM/ooHg. The inhabi- 
taots are all MahommedaiH ; and ibe mttan'e power ii chiefly fovnded on 
the saperatitioiM veneration in which be ia heU tH a atwt of Mahommedan 

Campar.2 Campar is an anoent Malayan slMe on the E. coaat of 
Snmatta, between the rivers Siai and Daneer. The month of the Cam. 
par river ia aitoated in abont 0° SS* N. ho. and 102° 51' £. long.; and 
extends, in a (oatherly direction, a dioil diatance inland, and then bnncbes 
off to the right and left. The oonntry on the left branch ef the river ia 
called Campar Kiri, and that on the right Campar Kanan. For 12 or 
14 daya' jonmay np eadi branch, the eoontry is low and flat ; the banka 
pn both udei ara atndded with villages. The principal prodnctiona an 
rice, cocoa, betel nuts, gamluer, sugar-cane, and rattana. A comlderable 
trade ia earned on betwixt the t>e<^le of Campar and the interior, and wilk 
Singapore. The latter trade is entirely in the handa of the Malaya, then 
being no Chinese aettlers here. CoBee ia the principal article of export. 
It appears to be hroiigbt a very coneidmvble distance Irom the interior to 
Campar on men'a beads : peAsps bvm Menangkaboo and the Limapulak 

Nalal.'] Natal is sitnatad on the S.W. aide «f Sninatoa, in 0* 18' N. 
lat. and 0° Bd* 5" E. long. The nativaa of tbia diatriet ara reokooed 
amongst the boldest and bravest of the Snamtnn bribea : they are colonista 
from Acheen and McDaogkaboo. Th* Eogliah have had a settlement ben 
since 1772. Gold dnal, which iaef very fine qoality, is the prindpdartiele 
of export ; camphor, opium, gauu, chma-wwe, and omlery, are the prin> 
dpal imports. Rica is imparted from Niaa. 

AcAeett.2 Tbe kingdom of Acheen form* dw N.W. extremity of So- 
matftt. It formerly reached aa far N. as Indrapoora on the W. eeaat, b«t 
now extends no &rtlMr than 4iO or fiO milea along the eastern and weatem 
shwe The inbabiianta of tbe interioi fom tbme tribea, caUed AUat, 
Retak, and Carrou. The Acbeneese are darker colom«d and atooter dwn 
the other SvmatiVBa. They have also a greater portion ol sagacity mid 
indnstry. They profess Mahemmedanism. The eapiMl, Achetn, is ein- 
ated npen a river, Utont two miles fivM its month. It cwries oa a ctm- 
sidereble trade with the uBtives of the coast of Cor maodel. 

The Batta CoutUry.'^ Tbe conotry of tbe Batiaa cmnpKheBds tka 
mountainova districts of Deirah and Pofm, to tbe & of the plain of 
Acheen. It is botmded on the S. by ftwiwmman and the independent 
district of Arn ; the northern extremity reaches ^ Sinkel rivw, and tha 
■ontbem extends to Tabeoyang. 

Island of Pulo Nias.] The island of Pnlo tfiaa ia the kvgtat of 
that chain of ishutdH which skirt ^ weatetn coaat of Siwatra; and is U 
tbe same lime the mast popvleos and beat cnltivMsd. It ■ abont 10 milos 


in lo^lb. itMUltfaig Ertfm S.E. to N.W. Ita BWfhe» is for the noit ptrt 
faiUy bat >«t maiHiiaiiioM ; it poMwsMa Mvtiral rivefli of conmdetable aize, 
wkom quatioe* or mouha tdtotd enroBce M the TesMla sih] beatt used b3r 
tiM DaaT«. Thore bm Mvaml good Wb«W« hoA M tiw nortliera and 
soubcrn nd of ibtt islud, aBd thoFe Is andMiUge ht ahipH elmoat tdl 
along tba Mslern coast. The getteral aspect of the conntty is bigfily 
pUaui^ ; ibe dark sombre hne of DBdiBMrbed finest is nowhere to be ifis- 
oeveied ; the Talleys and tbe aides of the hills sre well-enlti rated, and the 
Ugh groniMls geoendly praaent elnmps of trees marking the sites of the 
vilkgaa. Tba setl is hk ef pecvliar feniKif , sod even en tbe declivities 
of tbe hills produces hunrimt crops of rice and potatoes. The popola- 
IMA ia vary eoMderaUe irilb reference to the extent of the island, being 
s^poaad to exceed 800,000 soale. Tbe notiveB ar«tns«ti*e stMeticTsce, 
abont ^ iHdcHe etatore, tmt as Ariatics, and with nrad) finer features than 
tha Mal^. Tbe nose is prDmineM, and has somewhat of the Grecian 
alTMghinew ; Ae eye is pecdbiiy ftm md fall. The women are considered 
the beanies o$ the Eastera Archipelago, ranking in this respect with the 
wowen of Soto. Their bouses are hiiilt of wood, and are in general of 
la^ size. The eniraace is by a trapnloor and a ladder in tbe centre, tho 
booses themselras being fawsd upon ht^ iron-wood timbers. Their vil- 
lages am genor^ly plaeed on defansiMe sitnation^ — « practice which has 
n« doubt ari^Btad iv the state af war&« in wbidt they are idnmst con' 
alanlly swlrad' i far the nwiives we divided into oiimeroos independent 
tribes w dwas, between meay of whi^ inveterate fevds enst. Their 
■rms eonuet of a ^ear, a shert sw<»d, and an obloi^ wood' n shield, be- 
aides wtaeb dwy generally wew a aiS leathem jacket and a helmet of the 
aame material. Tbe orduwry drees of the conmion people consists of a 
bq* vr jsehe^ and a clotfe retted roond the want and carried between the 
tfa^hs ; that of the cfaiefe is- more elegauk Red is their bvomite colonr ; 
mi they wear ft fnvttmtm e< gold ommeMs, one of which is of peculiar 
degaoce, being • crown m the form of a high Persian cap, with a large 
peak ia freul. Tbe women, generally display 8 profnnon of this barbaric 
weallb ^on ^eir peisoBS} atdiosrgh their only dress is a piece of cloth 
roUed ti^tty ronnd tbe lems, and extemling down to the kneee, secumf 
by a broad belt of gold. There is a good deal of difference between dnr 
people of the northern bdf wi the island and these of the Bonthem. Tbe 
former bare intermixed mem wiib the Ualays aad AcbeeMae, while Uie lat- 
ter ^dooely axdadft atnogers from settliag amoagal them. Marriage by 
jw/'iu is universal ; aad the jojas is vary Ugh, varyiag fMoonKng to th« 
i«Dk of the parties from 60 or 70 to 500 dollars. The laws of Nias, in 
i«gard to adultery, are very severe, the pnnishment being capital ; the nnm- 
bei of wives which a man lavf liave is only limited by his meansg but few 
except the chiefs have more than one. The mode of bnrial in the eonth- 
en divisiaa of the idsBd is pecaKar : the body is not committed to the 
earth, bni is enclosed io s wooden shril or cofiin, which ia elevated on fonr 
posts, lod thus- exposed to dM free- winds of heaven. Flowering shrabs 
and creepen we generally pUnied beneath, and soon climb up and cover 
the coffin wilb' folisgO' These' cemeteries are at some little distance from 
the vfllsgee. Riea is A» tMfii» export of the coontry. It is exponed to 
tbe extent of abont 13,000 bags o-year. Hogs are an important part of 
tbe domestic eslaUidunent, and die aiost general tiwd of tbe names. 
Neither bn&lMak cMtle, nor huisu, are indigenous to the island- 

IsLAKD OF LiKGO**] LtDgga^ OT Lingm, which mnit now be regard- 

ed as tbe prindpal poMeaaioD of. the independont Malay*, unce Djobv 
and Pahang fell nndex Englieh aupremacy by tbe treaty of 17tb Marchi 
1824, is aitiuted ander tbe equator, betwixt Samatra and Bomao, to tbe 
&.E. of the straits of Malacca, aud N.W. from those of Banca, in 101° W 
E. long. The coasts are in geneml low, marshy, and corered with thorny 
shrubs. A chun of mountains intersects tbe island from W, to E. In the 
eoDthem part of this chain, one mountain sbooia up two pyramidal sum- 
mits to a great height ; tbe natives believe that this mountain is tbe haunt 
of ^iriu. The climate is variable; showers occur every day, and greatly 
moderate the heat. There are two monsoons, or moutnm, as the Malays 
call them : the Timer from the E. and the Barat from the W. The for- 
mer blows from April to September, the latter during tbe remaining inonths 
of the year. The chief river is navigable for 3 or 4 leagues by boats ; it* 
entnuce is defended by bd old fortification motmting 20 or 24 piece* of 
cannon. The forests yield excellent timber, and fire wood, such as lignvm 
aloes and chakas, panieulala. The bamboo, however, though so abundant 
in Java and the Celebes, is rare here. The Chinese inhabitants collect and 
eat a kind of gummy exudation from the leaves of certain plants, called 
gambien. Rice is little cultivated, and salt is scarce. Gold and tin are said 
to exist here. The population of this island does not exceed 10,000 souls, 
two-thirds of whom, including 400 or 500 Chinese, inhabit Kitiala-iiai, 
the capital. The Malays are well made, and possess pleasant features, 
but are of small stature. The men wear a robe called ttlouar, which does 
not descend below the knees, a sabok or girdle, and a badjin, or short up- 
per coat or vest. Their mannera are polite, bnt dissembling like those of 
ibeir nation in general. They possess two musical instruments : the 6aag- 
tie, a kind of flute, and the rahab, a speciea of violin with two strings. 
Their airs are plaintive and monotonous, but not destitute of melody. 
They manufacture bullets and gunpowder, and fabricate poignarda and 
sabres, equal in beauty and temper to those of Pslembang. Tbey tntde 
with .Java, China, Ponlo Penang, and Malacca ; and commit frequent pira- 
cies upon the inbabitsnia of Se/fanah, Baro, Pmagan, and Tamacvg. 
They punish theft among themselves with the loss of tbe hand, and loiir- 
der with death ; bat tbe parent of the murdered may accept of blood- 
money in compensauoD. 

Authoritiet.'} Maradeo's History of Sumatra, Lond. 4to. 1783. — 
Heyne'a Tracts on India, Lond. 4ito. 1801. — Anderson's Mission, Loud. 
1826. — Crawfurd'e History.— Sumairae et inaulanun drcumjacentiam 
Ubols nova, Ammel. — Arrowamith's Chart, Lond. 1808. 

The only gronp* in the bay of Bengal, which deserve notice, ai« the 
Andaman islands, and Nicobar islands. 

Andaman Islahd&Q The gronp of isluids, called Andaman, is si- 
tuated on the eastern side of the bay of Bengal, between 10° 30* and 14* 
N. lat. ; tai run N. and S., nearly in the meridian of 93° E. long. Tbey 
lie to the S.W. of the Burmese dominions, and have in all the intermediato 
space a chain of islets, reefs, and banks, upon which there are sound- 
inga, and which ofier considerable resistance to the roll of water from 
the Indian ocean into the bay of BengaL There are two principal i»> 
lands. The largest, called the Great Andamaa, is 140 miles m length, 


but not more thut 20 wiles in breadth. Its coast is every where cat 
with deep bays, among which are found good harboura. The soil is 
fertile; sod in the forests is found ebony. Wld bogs, monkeys, and 
nts, are swd to be the only qaadrnpeds; bat tbe sea on the coast 
abounds with different kinds of fisb. Tbe number of natiTes upon tbe 
Greater Andaman and all its dependencies does not exceed 2500 sods ; 
these are dispersed in smalt societies along the coast, or in the lesser 
islands within tbe harboar, never penetrating deeper into the interior 
than the skirts of tbe forest. In stature they seldom exceed five feet ; 
their limbs are slender, and bellies protuberant; they have high shoulders, 
and Isi^ heads, with woolly bur, flat noses, and thick lips ; dieir eyes ore 
smell and red, their skin of a deep sooty black, and their conntenances ex- 
hibit the extreme of wretchedness, a horrid mixture of &mine and ferocity. 
They go quite nsJced, and are insensible to any shame from exposure ; 
in this and some otber respects resembling the natives of New South 
Wales. Tbe dimate ia exceedingly unhealthy, and the British settle- 
ments once made apon these islands have been long since abandoned. 
— To the E. of the nonfaemmost Andaman is Barren Island, which 
rises to tbe hewbt of 1800 feet, and contains a volcano ; the emptions 
are sometimefl rery violent, and stones of the weight of three or four 
tons have been 'kriown to be discharged from it. 

NiCDBAR Islands.] The ^icobv islands are situated in the S.E. 
quarter of tbe bay of Bengal, almost equally distant from the Andamsus 
and from Sumatra. The largest of the gronp is named Sambelong ; but 
the two most visited by Europeans are called Camicobar, and Naucouri/, 
There are nine other islands of moderate size, besides a multitude of 
rery small ones, as yet withoat any distinct appellation. Most of these 
islands are hilly ; and some of the moontains are of considerable elevation. 
The valleys and sides of the hills are so densely covered with cocoa and 
areca^pslms, that the Honbeams cannot penetrate through their foliage ; 
and in some places these are so thickly interwoven with rattans and bush- 
rope, that they sppear span together, which render the woods almost dark. 
The leaves and truit falling down, rot below, which contributes to make 
the islands unhealthy, and absolutely pestilent to a European constitu> 
lion. BuAloes, and other cattle, swine, dogs, imd monkeys, are found in 
moat of the islands ; snakes and alligators are numerous. Tbe number 
and variety of sbelUfisb is so great, that here tbe most beautiful concholo- 
gical collections might be made with very little trouble. — The inhabitants 
of the Nicobars are of a copper colour, with small eyes, flat noses, large 
mouths, thick lips, and black teeth ; they ate well-propoitioned, rather 
short than tall, with large ears. They have strong black hair ; the men 
have little or no beard, and shave their eyebrows, but never cut their nails. 
The hinder part of tbe head is compressed at birth. The occupation of 
die men consists chiefly in building and repuring their buts, and flsliing 
and traiUng to tbe neighbouring islands. The women cook and cultivate 
tbe ground. Most of the country ships, fiom the different coasts of India, 
tonch at tbe Nicobar islands in order to procure cocoa-nnts, which they 
purchnse at the rate of four for a leaf of tobacco, and 100 for a yard of 
blue cloth. Tbe h«^. are fed on cocoa-nnts, and the pork is excellent. 
.Tobacco is the current medium of all exchange and barter. The Danes 
formed an establishment on these islands in 1756, but have since absn- 
duoed it, owing to the unhealthiness of the climate. Tbe inhabitants do 
not follow any of tbe systems of religion prevalent on the neighbouring 

continent ; bnt tbwr notioBi of a Dirino Being are ezUntoely perplexed 
and miiirtelKpble. Their jwter* act in the treble c^wcity of eoBJmtir, 
phjnirian, and priaW. The MoraTi«n», a body of ChrisiianB «xemp]ar]> fof 
znt and peraBTefmnoe, cownenced a aumion here ; but niaaionary after 
miwionary falling a yietim to tba climate, they, after enduing many pri- 
rations, retiBqmf^Md the nndarlaking. 

Aiithoritkt.2 Sonnerat, Voyage anx Indei Orientale* ; Parii, 1806, 
BvTi.— AsialJc Reaeardiei— Haeiwl'a Lettera ; Lond. 1813, 9*o. — Do 
IfikobariM^ Oere, af B. PrahL j Kiob. 1804, Bn. 

The islfpid of Ceylon ts wtoaied at the weo»«:n eatrance «rf the bay of 
Bengal, between 5° 56' and 9" 46' N. lal., and 79" Se- and 81' 58' E. long. 
On tbe N.W. it is separated from the Coroinandel coast by the gnlf of 
Maoaar, and ia distaat about 160 milea from cape Comeria. On tbe & 
and E. it is waahed by the great Indian ocean. From Paint Pedro at die 
northern extremity, to Dondn Head in the acwhon, the extreme length 
is about 270 miles. The breadth is uHeqnal, extendiig from 40 to 50, 
and in eome part* from 70 to 140 mile*. The whole itlud bai very nw* 
the shape of a pear, tyng N. and S., with the larger end twwards tba S. 
ItB anperfieial area is abort 27,000 sqaara milaa. The name from nhidi 
the modem one is formed is Siaghala, that ia, ' the coontry af lions," 
which may have been intended m deacripttre of the dispositinD of the 
people, as the Bon has not been met with open it at leaat in BOdem tiniest 
Bittorical Natter.} LHtle i» kndwn of the kiatory of this Mignlv 
island before the arriTal of the Portngoose Mder Almeida, in 1505. Tha 
natives, long haraased by the attacks of the A«afcs, rendily cMaaentsd to 
pay a tribnte in rinnamon to these EnropeaBS, in cwiaiderMion of being 
assisted agmnit their Arab ioTaders. At this period aome Batagea called 
Feddaht, or Beddaht, ocenpied the woody remans ; the rett of the island 
was possessed hy the Cii^Jeae. Nat content with a friendly alliance, die , 
Poitngaese endeavonred to (arm a aettleaMBt in thv island, in which diay 
sncceeded, after a long and severe stn^le. The sea-coast feH into their 
hands, and the interior remained to the original possessew. After tJn 
lapse of nearly a cantnry, the Dateh found their way to Ae East and 
reached this island in I6{B. They were fiwonrably received by the op- 
pressed natives, and being assisted by ihem, after a aa^uhuay ttraggle of 
nearly 50 yesra, at last overpowered the PartagSMacv wfco yieUed tie do- 
minion in 1656. The eondnct of the ancceasfd alfias, however, aoon 
proved as offensive to the natives as that of their predecewoia ; and bosta- 
lities of a lOTg dnration took place, in which the CeyIo«aa were avonuUy 
driven to the mountuns and jnngles of the interiev, where alone tfaey conU 
preserve their mdependencc. A treaty was at lart concluded between the 
two parties in 1766, which left to the natiw kmg of Candy at leaat the 
name and aomewhat of the appeonneB of reytdty. Tba progrees af the 
American war brought Ae British to this iriaad ; bat their arms, tbragh 
victorious, were not rewarded with permanent sncose^ liB the cooteat wilh 
revolutionary France and her allies inrfoeed our gerwament t« deapUck a 
new and powerful expedition agamst Ceyhm, whicb trnk poaaeaaHM o< it in 


1796. Since tbw pariad, nrioiu miuactioBi bun •eeocred bttwrai av 
eaanlrymea Md the Camtiaiw. A traatjr of alfimnce sad oommerca wm 
pTDJectad in 1800, but &ilad. Onr troops took pnawwifiii of their conntry 
■nd capital ia 180S ; but, beiag mi^le to mainaJB their craqoeata, warn 
forcad t* eapitiJua, mi condition of liberty to ntnni t« Colonba. In 
pUca of dia iMou of iwrnKler being obsarrad, howenr, ibey wero 
trcacbaroiuly put to desth with drcamstanca* of the moat nrage cnielty. 
An atpadidon of 3000 nem, fitted out in 1815, nadar the commnd of 
gmsral Browarigg, in concert with the popalMion, who had become wear^ 
«i their tfrannical and blood-thirsty aumarch, entered Candy in trinmph. 
and deprived the native inonari^ of all power. In 1817, a baraning re- 
bellion broke o«t in the central prorincea which lasted ontil the end of 
1819, stnca wWch period anintermpted peace ha» preToiW, and Tariooa 
impro<rementa, fiscal, jndioial, and commemial, have been eiecntad. The 
whole island may now be regarded as a British c^ony, not nndw the Eatt 
India company, bat wider the crown, and tfaoa baring its porta and com- 
Meree open to the whole Bii^h people. 

PhytuMl AafwTM.] Prom the aea tiiii island praaaota a fresher green, 
and nM»B fertile appMnuiee, dnn moat pMOs of the Coromandel coast, the 
aearaat point of aMA it abonl 65 milea distant. Ptam the termmation of 
ihia ponnt, on the B. side of the river Vi^garoo, all the way to the coast of 
Oylon, there ia a eaeoeasion of banks and Bboala known by the name of 
Admmt Bridge, because the natives, who believe that this island was 
pamdiee, describe these as the footsteps of the first nan, when, after iho 
fiiU, be fled thenee to the ooatinent. The aea to the sonthward of this 
chain of shoals gets the name of the Memtutr Pauagt, from an island of 
that name at Ae termination of the chain apon the coast of Ceylon. Ilie 
eastwn shore is bold and rodcy, and the water deep. Hie N. and N.W. 
is flat, and indented with lagoons and inlets from the aea, several of which 
form small hat^nrs ; bat the N.W. coast is so fdU of sand-banks and shal- 
lows, that it is impassible for vessels of a large sise to ^tproacfa it. The 
principal harbours for large ships are TrineomaU*, on the N.E., and Pmnt 
Je Galls. The interior of tiie island nhonnds with steep and lofty moon- 
taina, covered with forests, and fall of almost impenetrable janglee, which 
completely sonoanded the dominions of the king of Candy. Hills rise 
over eadb other here in sncceaaive ridges and chains. The moat lofty range 
of monntaina,— haring an elevation of from 4000 to 5000 feet, — divides 
d>e island nearly into two parts, and so completely separates them from 
each odier, that both die ^mates and seasons differ on the respective sides. 
These moontains also terminate the efiect of die monsoons, which set in 
periodically from opposite sides of them, and are connected with those mi 
the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, and very nearly oorreepond with diem. 
Tbera are no lakes among the monotains of Ceylon ; and the riven, gene- 
rally speakii^, are mail, and have their comves from the moontwns to the 
nearest sea. To diis, however, there ia one exception, — the river Mnha- 
veify, which rises on the N. side of Adaai's f^ak, has a coone of aboat 
95 mdei tfirect N. to die dty of Candy ; thence bends to the E. for ibont 
35 miles ; after which it flows N. to the sea about 70 miles more, and 
empdes hself by three principal months, two of which enter the bay of 
Trincomi^ee. Tfab river is navigable, at least to Candy. Another sroaH 
rircr, the Colony, rises on the W. side of Adam's Peak, and (hlls into the 
na-at Colnmbo, but is nav^^le only daring the nina. 
" CUnaU.'] On the W. tdde, where Colombo liea, the runs prarail ip 

May, Jnnei and July,— the season in which they are felt on the Malabar 
coast. During their con&mation, the nonhem parts of the iatand ace little 
affe4:t«d, and are ganeimlly dry. In the months of Octoher and NoTember, 
when the oppoMte monaoon aeta in on the Coromandel coast, it is the N. 
of Ceylon which is affected, and scarcely any impreision ia made in the S. 
The climate is unhealthy in the interior; but every point of the eea-coast 
that is cleared of wood, and druned and cultivated, is salnbrioaB; the 
mean annoal temperature here may be stated at 80°. Colombo and ita 
Deigfabonrhood, bemg the best cnluvated, are particularly ao. It is now, 
indeed, well known, that healthiness of climate does not depend on the 
sitoation of places, as to their paralleia of latitude ; and that a healthy state 
of the homan conotitntion is not incompatible with the most intense beat of 
the BDn, — on the contrary, that it is more adapted to an equatorial than a 
polar climate, provided the atmosphere be not overchai^d with humidity. 
There are no volcanoes on the island. 

Producliont.'] A mere catalogue of the valuable and nsefnl prodnc- 
^onH of this uWd would require mora room than we have to spare. With 
some few exceptions, all the productions of which India and the Indian 
islands can boast are to be met with here ; besides many others peculiar to 
itself. The tribe of the palms, — the most common, and at the eanw tima 
the most magnificent and beaatifal of eaatem vegetation, — may be con- 
sidered as the most generally nsefal to the Ceyloneae. Among these tha 
cocoa-nut tree nnqnestionably holds th^ first rank. It snpplies the inhabi- 
tants with bread, milk, and oil ; it affords them a strong spirit, vinegar, and 
yeast ; ita top is an excellent substitute for cabbage ; it fumishea umber 
to build their huts, and thatch to cover them ; the shell of its nut is no 
mean article in the scanty catalogue of their household utensils ; and it 
supplies them with cloth and cordage. Of the other members of this 
vegetable tribe we can only barely ennmerate the following: the palmyra, 
areca catechu, sago palm, talipot palm, and the bread-lruit tree. Pine- 
apples, oranges, lemons, mangos, plantains, almonds, pomegranates, and 
other fmits are plentiful and excellent. The bark of the Uturus cinna- 
momum is the chief export. Its growth is confined from about the middle 
of the W. coast to a little beyond Dondra^head on the S. The seeds of all 
Enropean plants degeneiai« rapidly. 

Ceylon is less rich in the animal than in the vegetable part of the crea- 
tion, if we except its omitholc^, but it boasts of the largest and finest 
elephants iu the world, great numbers of which are caught and exported. 
Among die woods and jungles the ferocious bufialo is fonnd, and tamed 
with difficulty. The large striped tiger of India ia not met with in 
Ceylon. The elk, stag, and deer abonnd. Birds of the most splendid 
and beautiful plumage enliven the woods and thickets; amongst these are 
the gaudy peacock, the uatameable jungle fowl, a great variety of the 
pheasaat family, also parrots, pigeons, wood-peckers, and paddy birds. It 
need scarcely be added, that all the noxious and disgusting claasea of in- 
sects and reptiles are abundantly geaemted here amid tite h«aX and moisture 
of the rich vegetable soil. Venomous toads, acorpiona, cockroaches, mos- 
quitoes, red, black, and white anta — the most numerous of the whole in- 
sect tribe — infest every house. Snakes, too, are not wonting, and these of 
the moat pmaonous kind. Alligators of a prodi^ona size infest the rivers, 
and the marshes abound in leeches. 

The mmerals are numerous, and precious stones, espedally amethyst, 
mbies, and cat's eye, are abundant^ but not of a fine quality. The great 


tDMS of the Ceylim rock is of primitive fomution, granite, or gnnn. Tlte 
rocla alonf^ the Bhores are in geoeral sandstone. 

Pi^lalioH.^ The total population of the island ia stated hj Cot- 
diner~-on vhat authority we Iniow not — at 1,500,000 souls; of whom, 
the Cingiftlese, the Candiwu, and the Malaban, each constitute 500,000. 
" The first," he saya, " occupy the coasts of the southern half of the 
island, from Dondra Head to the con6ne8 of Balticoloe on the east, and to 
die river of Chelan on the trest ; the second are shut up in the heart of 
the conntry ; and the Molabars occupy the northern parts of the coast." 
Mr Bernard, who resided for apwards of 35 years on the island, and had 
oflBcial opportunitieB of making himself acquainted with its statistics, ex- 
presses himself thns on the aubject of its population : " The common 
opinion of those that ThaTe conrersed with is, that the population of Cey- 
lon amounta to 2,000,000 of inhabitants ; 1,000,000 in the territory that 
is now in possession of the British gOTeroment, and another in that which 
belongs to the king of Candy, l^is estimate, however, b likely to he 
exaggerated. An enameration, as correct as possible, was made in the 
year 1789, by the order of governor Vander Graaff, of all the iohabitants 
in the territory of the Dutch East India company, end that reckoning gave 
817,000 inhabitants. With regard to the Candian provinces, the popnta- 
tion ia nnmerons in those that are cultivated, but it mnst be remarked that, 
with the exception of the conntry immediately sorrgnnding the town of 
Candy, and ^e provinces of Onva and Mattele, all the interior of Ceylon 
ia, in the proportion of seven-eighths, covered with woods and forests ; and, 
therefore, it may be concluded that this part of the territory of the king of 
Candy is, in proportion to its extent, even more thinly peopled than the 
conntry under the British government. The Wannydiips of Soerlie wid 
Nogerie, and the whole of the great forest occnpied by the Weddaa from 
Maagame on the S., to the Coblay river at the northern side of the island, 
does not contain 10,000 inhabitants. These reflections will lead to a con- 
clusion that Ceylon does not contain more then 1,500,000 inhabitants." 

We have the- testimony of all writers on Ceylon, that the Cingalese, or 
Ceylonese, ere a mild, timid race of men, exceedmgly civil to strangers, 
•tndions to oblige, and delighting in acts of hospitality. Hieir stature is 
rather below the middle uze ; thdr limbs sleuder, but well-shaped, and in 
good proportion ; their features more resemble Europeans than any other 
people of Asia ; their colour is as various as the tints of bronze, but leas 
deep on the whole than that of the Hindoos ; their eyes are dark ; and 
their hair long, smooth, and jet black; they turn it np and fix it with a 
tortoise-shell comb on the top of the head. A piece of calico or mnslin 
wrapped round the waist ia the only clothing worn by nine-tenths of the 
population. The addition of short jackets, wustcoats, ruffles, ear-riaga, 
caps, swords, &c. is regnlated by the oppressive system of castes which, 
with the exception of Cbma and Japan, appears to have pervaded alt those 
countries where the doctrines of Buddha and Brahma have fonnd or forced 
their way. The Moodelliara and higher orders of Ceylonese profess Chris- 
tianity, and have adopted many European customs, restricting themselvee 
to one wife, and marrying according to the forms of the Dutch church. 
A considerable nnmber of the lower ordera contintie votaries of Buddha; 
and many have embraced the Mahommedan bith. The Cingalese have a 
hnguBge and written character of their own. 

Modem writera talk of the Cingalese and Candians as two distinct 
races ot people : we are unable either to confirm or disprove this. Knox, 


who knew the Candisns well, thns describes tbem : " In carriage and be- 
bsTioar they are grave and stately, like imto tha Ponngneee ; in luider- 
etanding quick ai^ apprehensive, in deaign subtle and crafty, in diiconrse 
canrteoaa, bat fall of flatteries ; 'natnially inclined to t«mpeivice both in 
meat and drink, bat not to chastity ; neat and provident in their fiuniliee, 
commending good husbandry. In their dispositionB not passionate, neither 
hard to be reconciled again when angry. In their promisee very uafuthfbl, 
approviog lying in themselves, bnt disliking it in otben ; delighting ia 
sloth, deferring labour noUl urgent necesuty constrain them ; aemt in 
apparel, nice in eating, and not given to muco sleep." They are all ex- 
tremely poor, and appear to be content with very little ; their dwellings 
are mnd huts, and their rnmiture acanty ; fruit and rice are the principal 
articles of their food, and water ia almost their only beverage. Like the 
Spaniards of Valencia, they pour it from a ipont at a considerable distance 
from their mouths, that the vessel may not be defiled by touching the lips. 
Their chief luxaries are the betel-leaf, areca-nnt, and chunum. To pre- 
sent betel is thronghont the East the symbol of friendship, — it is the 
calumet of peace. The men labour bnt little ; the women rather more, 
but not much. Rice, millet, and pulse, are the principal articles that cost 
them any laboor in raising, and even of these they do not cnltivute much, 
for the rest they depend on the natural prodoctions of the atul. " The pos- 
sessor of a guden," says Cordiner, " which contains twelve cocoa-nut 
trees, and two jack-treea, finds no call for any ezotion. He reclines all 
day in Uie open air, literally doing nothing ; feels no wish for active em- 
ployment, and never complams of the langnor of existence." 

There is a race known among the original Cingalese by the name of 
Sfeddaht, or Veddaht, who live in a free and independent state in the 
inaccessible mount^us and forests of Bintan, behind Batticollo. They 
seek their food in the deep forests, abonnding with elephanta, bufialoes, 
wild hogs, elks, and antelopes. They cantionsly abstain firoui all con- 
nection with the rest of the islanders, except in bartering with the bor- 
derers of their forests, ivory, deer skias, dried flesh, and, honey, for salt, 
arrows, doth, and a few other articles. They are a robost and hardy race, 
coarageouB and resolute, but very treacheroua. Their language u a direct 
of Cingalese ; and the foint notion which they have of religion approacbea 
nearer to Brahmanism than to Buddhism. Their only places of worahip 
are under the shade of the banyan-tree. 

The next class of inhabitants, who were reckoned to form one-half of 
the population of the British possessions before the addition of the Can- 
dian dominions, ara tha Malahara, — the same active, enterprising, cnfty 
people, in their character of merchants, pedlars, jewellers, workers in 
metals tailors, fishermen, jugglers, as we find them on the continent from 
which they came. About one-half of these people are indifferent Mahom- 
medans; the other half are worse Hindoos. They chiefly inhabit the 
district and city of Jaffnapatam. 

The Malays, who are found on almost every island in the Indian aeaa, 
are here pretty nnmerous ; they are soldiers, sailors, fishermen, and uti- 
ficera ; many of them were introduced by the Dutch in a state of slavery. 
Among the vanous nations who inhabit Ceylon, the Malays are the only 
people oat of which we have been able to make soldiers. 

The number of Dutch in the island does not exceed 900 ; with the ex- 
ception of a few families, they have been redncod to comparative indigenca 
by our capture of the island. — Of the Portuguese who first opened the 

*»DS. 235 

way to IniUa little now ramuns but tbe mins of their former gramleinv 
HiMT DBine, langaage, religion, and religions ealablishmenla, Mill exist ; but 
die Portognese tbemtelret bare diiappeared. Slavery is still permitted in 
Ceylon, in ccnueqnence of tbe existing slaves of the Dutch and natives 
Wt die period of tbe capilnlation to Great Britain, being declared private 
property. The namber of slaves may amonnt to A,(KK). 

Ji«Ugum.2 Hie Inngntige and religion of the Candiam, or Ceylonese 
Proper, are tbe satue aa the Siamese, from whom, an we have noticed, 
they consider themselves descended. Tbe religion of Brahma is said to 
have prevailed in Ceylon till the sixth century B.C., when that oF Bnddba 
obtained the ascendency. Many of the towns and villages yet ret^n tbe 
name of Hindhn deities, and the rains of their temples are yet seen anr- 
nonding modem edifices of woiship constructed to Bnddba. In the year 
181 tithe number of temples dedi<:ated to Buddha, and other inferior deities 
of Cingalese snpentition, amonnted to 1,200. In Ceylon, the distinction of 
CMtee is perhaps more minute than in any other country into which tbe re- 
ligion of Brahma or Buddha has found or forced its way. Cvery profession 
forms a particalar caste nnder its own headman, — gold and silver-smiths, 
fishermen, barbers, wasbermen, manubctarers ofjagen/, drawers of toddy, 
makers of Ume, &c. are all enrolled in distinct and separate castes. 

Christianity was introdnced into Ceylon by the Portngnese. Tbe 
Dntch were very zealona in their exertions to bring over their Ceylonese 
subjects to the Protestant faith, and with that view translated and printed 
die scriptures in tbe Cin^ese and Malabar dialects. In 1811, the num> 
ber of native protestant Chnstiana was ascertained to be 146,000, and 
those of the Catholic denominstion 37,649. Of these about 50,000 speak 
the Tamnl language ; the majority employ the Cingalese ; and a few speak 
the corrupted Portugneee, so common over all the coast of India. The 
British sntl Foreign Bible Society, and the American, Baptist, London, 
Cborch of England, and Methodist Missionary Societies, have recently 
tnmed much of their attention to this popnlons island, and nnder the 
auspices of tbe first of these, various editions of the scriptures have been 
published in the native dialects; and it is remai4table tl»t the priests of 
Bnddba have shown great readiness in astisting the translators c^ the sa- 
end volume. 

Imporlt and Exporb.2 Tbe grand article of importation to Ceylon is 
rice, the value of which frequently exceeds half tbe amount of tbe whole 
goods exported ; and the next in consequence is cotton-cloth ; yet tbe soil 
of tbe island is capable of prodndng a redundant qnantity of tbe &iest 
cotton. Hemp is raised abundantly, the sandy soil of tbe maritime pro- 
vinces b«ng well-adapted for its cultivation. The cultivation of tbe sugar- 
cane on a large scale has been twice attempted, and each time failed. 
From tbe toddy of the cocoa-nut tree arrack is distilled by the common 
•tilt, in the same manner as brandy from wine. From 400 gallons of 
toddy, 50 gallons of airadt are drawn, equal in strength to brandy 25 
London under proof, which when rectified produces half tbe quantity of 
strong spirit Compared with Bengal rum, Ceylon arrack is admitted to 
be the most wholesome liqaor, and it is SO per cent, cheaper. In 1813, 
the total value of exports from Ceylon was 2,443,910 rix-dollan (eleven 
and a half to tbe pound sterling) ; of imports 6,378,739 rix-dollars ; bat 
•f this last two-Uiirds was rice, it having been a year of ecarcity. The 
total tonnage of ell descriptions belonging to the island was estimawd at 
8,000 tons. 

Cocn^ Ic 

Raimue, ^c] The public reTeDne of Ceylon may be divided into two 
brancbes : m. one derived from certain pradocdoDs of tbe iataod reaerred 
by goreniraent to the fiscal reeoorcea, — the other, inch impoRta u the 
luid-tax, taxes on property, taxes on connimpdoD, and capitation taxea. 
Of the reeerred productions cinoamoa is the moat important, but of the 
net profits no official document has recently been published ; the pearl- 
6sbery in 1814 yielded £64,000 -, the Gibery of cbank shells (a species 
of large baccinam which are sawed into female ornaments for the wrirts, 
&c), and madder root, are also prodnctiTe sonrces of rerenoe. Tbe tekioK 
of elephants, formerly so lucrative to the Dutch, is no longer considered 
of any importance, the value of the animel having Mien so mnch in price. 
The government share of tbe crop differs so greatly as from one-tenth to 
one-half, and is received in kind. In 1812, it amounted to 513,174 rix- 
dollars. Mo giants of land are permitted to be made by goventmeDt to 
British subjects, or to European settlers on the island. Salt is one of the 
roost prodnctive sonrces of revenue, and promises to yield a considerable 
alimentation. In 1812, tbe total amount of the public annual revenoa 
of every description was 3,028,446 rix-dollare (£268,343) ; the total ex- 
penses to 8,339,726 rix-dolUra ; defiut 371,280 rixnlollars. Tbe estsb- 
liabmeot of civil servants, forty in number, fill a gradation of offices to 
which salaries are attached of ftom £500 to £3,000 per annum, and after 
a residence of twelve yeais are endtled to retire on pensions of &om £400 
to £700 per annum. 

~ Topography.'} Jaffiiapatam, built on a tongue of land, in 9° 36' N. tat., 
and 79° 50' E. long., is a great resort of tbe Dutch famiUes : the proraica 
itself comprehends rather less than ooe-fonrdi of the whole island, and has 
several small islands attached to it. For a part of the distance between 
Jaffii^atam and Manaar, it is not very easy to say whether tbe country 
is sea or land. Tbe sorfaco is water ; but it is in general so shallow, and 
the bottom under it so firm, that it can be walked over. — Still farther 
south, on the coast opposite to Coromandel, there is a singular peninsnljii 
Calpenteen, which lies parallel to the shore, from which it is divided by a 
very narrow portion of water^ which extends from the isthmus, at the S. 
end, between 60 and 70 mites. This peninsnia, though sandy, is thickly 
covered with cocoa-nut trees and palmtrB paJme ; and the country on the 
other side of the bay, or, rather, natural ditch, is very rich and beantifnl. 
This curious peninsula extends south as fer as Chilarv, a distftnce of about 
150 miles firom Jafhiapatam; and along tbe whole of that line of coMt, 
no mountains are visible from the sea — verdant woods forming everywhere 
the boundary of the horizon. Afier passing Chilaw sonthwerd, tbe moim- 
tatns begin to make their appearance, while the coast retaim its beauty^ 
and indeed gats more luxuriailt in ^tpearance as Colnmbo is approached. 
At Negtmbo, ahont 40 miles to the N. of Colombo, the cinnamon country 
begins, and it extends to a considerable distance south ef that city.— 
Coiombo 'a a very betatifal place, with proper attention to avoiding the 
direct action of the son, very healthy, and it contmns a number of inhabi- 
tants. Tbe dty itself is nearly insulated by water, but the land imme- 
diately across the lake is the most rich and picturesque that can be ima- 
giued. Small vessels only can approach the shoro at Colombo, and while 
the S.W. monsoon blows, ships cannot ride in the rosdateed, but muat 
either leave the island altc^ther, or pass round to Trincomalee. For 
every thing that can make the earth delightful and desirable, it is hardly 
possible to imagine a place stqperior to die neigbbonthood of Colombo ; 


bot oa tbe peninsula die mter is brscldab. Accordinfc to CordiDer, we 
may set down its population at 50,000 inhabitants. The part inhabited 
b; tbe principal Europeans ta surreiuided with a regular fortification, on 
one side resting «n the sea, the other on an inland lake ; the streets are at 
right angles, shaded by rows of trees, cbiafiy the showy and el^^ant portis 
or tnlip tree ; the houses are low, but neat, fronted with verandas and 
Venetiaq blinds before the windows. Without the fort is the Pellah, or 
block town, and the bazar, or market. Here people of all nations, lao- 
gOBg«s, tnaimeiB, and religions, are blended together — Dutch, Portngneee, 
and English ; Cingalese, MaUbars, and Moon of erery class ; Hindoos, 
Genloos, Parseee, Arabs, Malays, Chinese, Jsvaoeae, Bnggees, Cafiires, 
half castes, and mongrel breeds of every shade and tint of colour, irom the 
sickly white of tbe European to tbe jet black of the A&icaa. — South from 
Cotombo tbe cocoa-nut trees get still more plentiful, and the formation of 
cables of tbe fibres is one of tbe staple niann&ctures of some of tbe vil- 
lages on tbe coast. This richness and besnty contione along the whole of 
the soDtb-west and south ; and there is then the advantage of at least a 
tolerable harbour at PoitU de GaHe, a few miles W. of tbe sonthmost part 
-^!1>e province of Malura, in the extreme sontb, is also celebrated for its 
scenery, the groves and thickets there alternating much more with open 
glades than in other paru of the island. — Dondra Head, tbe soothmost 
part of tbe island, lies a few miles to the G. of the little town of Matnrs ; 
and a few miles inland, there is a ungle block of stone {MulgureUnna) 
300 feet in height, widi a flight of 545 steps, of great antiquity, winding 
to the sammit, which is crowned with a tomb, or temple, of Buddha, in the 
shape of a bell. After passing the south point, the chaiactcr of the coast 
changes mnch for the worse. It is unhealthy, covered with wood, broken 
by salt marshes, and infested with wild beasts. Even this country, were 
it properly cleared, would be very fertile, and probably much improved in 
point of healthiness ; but in its present state, neither cultivated plants nor 
domestic animals are safe, tbe elephants attacking the former, and the 
beasts of prey the latter. This general character of the coast coatinuea all 
the way to TrincomaUe ; and thence to Jafin^atam it partakes of tbe 
chaiacter of the coast immediately to tbe south of that settlement. Tbe 
town of MtntioUf, now in mins, is said to have been the capital of a king- 
dom founded by the Biahtnioa, who had possession of almost all tbe north- 
em parts of Ceylon, including Jafiiiapatam. Contiguons to Mantotte is 
an immense reservoir, called ' tbe Giant's Tank;' it is 16 or 18 miles in 
extent, and would hold, if in repur, a supply of water sufficient to irrigate 
all the rice-grounds around it. At tbe distance of about uiae miles ^m 
this tank, an embankment, constructed of immense stones cemented with 
lime, has been laid across the Moesely or Aripo river, in order to coUect 
the water, and lead it by means of canals into tbe Giant's tank. The 
length of this dam is 600 feet ; its breadth in some parts 60, in none less 
than 40 feet; and its hught from 8 to 12 feet.* The city of Candy, the 

* Thae worki iudlats tbe saclcst miatence of miii» powerful snd populooi natioa 
In tbo island, m minion which !■ fsrUier amflrnud bv tbo Bitaniiblng worka wound 
the Iskt of Cindcfej, dlrtut about 16 mllea from Triaeanuli. TbU iska, which ia 
Hurl; IG milts la circumference, la embanked in aevEral plana with a wall of tmge 
Monea, each from 1£ to 14 feet Idnc. and brond and tblck in prnpartion, Uid rcgularlv 
one oTBT the other. At one point In thia majestic work two hilla are Joined logetbrr in 
order to ooilect the water of tbe lake bv an embsakment nearly ISO feet in bnadtb at 
the baae and 3U at the summit, in tbli part of the wall archei are to be aeen; bih* 
orer (beae. In the work which is under the lerel uf the wsler, an opening ia made r 
■cllr nannbllni; the coodultorl used bf the Humaiu lu khdc of the hjua of Italy, 

capital of the native rejah, is sitnated in the prorinM of Tallanonr, Bor- 
rouncled on all aides by lofty moantaios, whose aides are covered with 
thick jungle. It ia abont two miles in length, and conaiats of a number 
of mad-built honaea, aarronnded by a mud-wall. The only bnildiiigs of 
any consequence in Candy are the temples of Buddha and the royal palace 
which ia a square-built edifice of immease dimeosions. 

Political Importance.^ There is no doubt that the poMession of Cey- 
lon was turned to good account by the Portnguese and Dutch, although 
its expenditure exceeds ita revenue at preaent, and a vote of supply is an- 
nually made by parliament for the support of our Ceyloneae establishment. 
The reaources of this raluable island have not yet been opened np. At 
present they want capital to call that labour into action ; but if a tibial 
system of colonization is pursued towards it this want will be speedily 
supplied, and the deficit in its financea made up. But it is not in a com* 
mercial view alone that we ore to estimate the valne of this possession, 
which is one " that," says M. Bartolacci, " in the event of a great rererse 
of fortune on the continent of India, would stilt afford ns a most command- 
ing position, invulnerable by the Indian powers in the peninsula, and yet 
so situated as to give ns the greaMst facility of r^aining the sovereignty 
of that country." — " The faarbonr of Trincomal6 is open to the largest 
fleets in every season of the year, when the storms of the S.W. and N.E 
monsoons render impracticable, or very daDgeroua, the approach to other 
parts in India. This circnmstaDce alone ought to fix our attention to that 
spot, as peculiarly adapted to be made a strong military depot, and a place 
of great mercantile resort, if a generally free trade becomes efiectnally 
established irom India to other puis of the world. It ought farther to be 
obserred, that the narrowness of the channel which separates the island oi 
Ceylon from the continent of India, and the position of Adam's Bridge, 
which checks the violence of the monsoons, Iraves on either side of it a 
calm sea and facilitates a passage to the opposite coast at all times of the 
year. A respectable European force stationed at Colombo, Jaffiiapatam, 
or Trincomal^, can, in a very few days, or hours, be landed on the Mala- 
bar and Coromandel provinces." The possession of such a station as this, 
among the rich islands of the vast Indian archipelago, ia of the utmost 
importance to a commercial nation. 

The earliest account, in our language, of this interestii^ and important 
island, is an exceedingly amusing and instructive nanstive, written by 
Robert Knox, who, in the year 1659, was kidnapped by the Icing of Candy, 
and detained 19 years in his dominions, llie narratives of Mr Perdvat 
and Mr Cordiner, were both published since the commencement of the 
present century, and will be found to contmn a great deal of correct and 
interestiog iofonnatioo. A variety of valuable information respecting this 
island and the inhabitants has been fiimished us, in the reports of our Bible 
and Missionary societies ; but the most valuable work that has yet Bp~ 
peaied on Ceylon is Mr Anthony Bartolacci's view of its agricultiira), 

letting oat tha water, pcrhapa for ths purpma of inigatiDU. Nor can we ocoll to mea- 
tion * einguldr momimcnt, discoveml by Mr Sowmh, collBCior of UBtticaloe, In the 
jt»t 1810, in the centre of a veiy thick tonau It is ■upnwed to bave twen a Boadtw 
paioda, nared, liku the bgyptliA pyramids, in hononr ol tlie dead. The aiu of the 
(lujldini la gigantic; the basis of ils uine !i about a quarter of a mile in circumTereiicc, 
and on tbe tops and Ma large ireea have fixed their roots among the ruins, and that 
up to the height of 50 or 60 teet. It ia surrounded by a square inclcmira, amilBiacIr- 
comferene*, oonalstina of u brsad wall, made of brick and oiortar, and havinx witbiu 
itanumberofcells. ^ 


oomniBrciil, and financial interests, published in 1817, and accompanied 
by a very large and comprebenuTe map froin die latest surreys. 

Adjacknt Islanos.J Ramueram, the holy island or Rama, is ei- 
tnate at the oortbern extremity of Ceylon, aboat iJO miles from tbe shore. 
It is a low flat island, about W miles in circamference, and may be con- 
udered as tbe most southerly pier of that series of shoals and coral-rocks 
which, under the name of Kama's or Adam's Bridge, serves to connect 
Ceylon with the coast of Coromandel. The whole inland is dedicated to 
the purposes of religion; no plough is allowed to break the soil, and no 
animal, either wild or tame, to be killed within its precincts. It is in- 
habited chiefly by priests, who are supported in luxury by the produce of 
certaiD lands in Coromandel, and the donations of pious individuals ; and 
by immense crofvds of pdgrims, ju^lers, and beggars, who resort to it 
from all parts of India, to implore absolution for their sins, or to take ad- 
TBUt^e of the momentary charity of tbe riiiher penitents. It is adorned 
with a multitude of beautiful temples, besides an immense pagoda, which 
forms tbe chief object of curiosity and veneration. The number of pillars 
within this temple amounts to 2,628, and some idea of its extent may be 
formed from the admeasurement of its surrotudiug walls, (between which 
and the building itself there is but a small vacant space,) which is 830 feet 
from £.'to W., and 625 from N. to S. There are upwards of 300 
Brahmins attached to this temple, which is for the most part of recent con- 
atruclion, the ancient hbric having been almost entirely demolished by tlie 
Mahommedan conquerors. 

Delft, one of tbe cluster of islands adjacent to Jafliiapatam, has been 
almost entirely set apart under government fur tbe growing of hane or 
hemp, and manufacturing it into cordage. A valuable breed of horses is 
also reared upon it> 

AulKoritiet^ Campbell's Accotmt, Lond. 1798, 8vo.— Perceval's Ac- 
count of Ceylon, Lond. 1803, 4to. — Cordiner's Description of Ceylon, 
Land. 1607, 2 vols. 4to. — Auatic Researches. — Lotgevallen door J. Uaaf- 
ner, Haarlem, 1606, 8vo. — Valestia's Travels, Land. 1609.— Reise nach 
Ceykin etc von J. C. Wolf, BerL 1762-4, 2 vols. 6vo.— tiertolacci's Sta- 
tisdcal Account, Land. 1817, Svo. — Davy's Account of Ceylon, Lond. 
1821, 4(0. 


Thb Laeeadiee* are a group of islands in the Indian ocean, 75 miles to 
the W. of Malabar. They are divided into 15 smaller clusters, each of 
which contiuns two or more islands, and several rocks and dry uninhabited 
spots ; but the latest of them does not contain above six square miles of 
land, and they are snrroanded by dangerooH coral reefs. The soil is rocky, 
and yields no grwn ; then only produce is poultry, eggs, cocoa-nuts, betel- 
nuts, and plantains. Tie inhabitants are inoffensive, and not so sky as 
their JVUldivian neighbours. They subsist on cocoa-nuts and fish, and 
nanu&cture a kind of sugar trom cocoa milk. Their numbers are ^>oui 
10,000, scattered over 19 islands. Tbej are of Arabian origin, and pro- 
fess Islamism. They are called Moplay* by the inh^itante of the Deccan. 
These islands were discovered by Vasco de Gama in 1499, but are politi- 
cally dependent on Canaia, and under the dominion of England. Tbey 
■re seldom visited by European ships, on account of the intricate nanga- 

S40 ASIA. 

tion. Ships may, boneTer, rafelf take in refreabments at Kan RatUa, in 
10° 3V N. lat. and 72° 56' E. long. Tliere u a]M a good hartxrar in dw 
isle of Kalptw). The Laccadirea extend betv«ea the 10th and 13th 

To the S. of the Laccadires, aod extending between the 8th d^^ree of 
N. Intitnde and the equator, are the Maidivet, or MaU'IHve*, coniisting 
oF namerons attoUons or drcalar cloaten, inclostog Interior smooth shallow 
seas, and HUiTonnded by chsini of cocal rocks, in general level with the 
water, and ranning from half a mile to within 50 yards of the land. In 
some parti of these Teefa there are openinga sufficient to admit boats ; and 
where bays are formed by projecting parts of the clnstors, there is anchor- 
age orer a aand; bottom mixed with shells and coral. Many of tbe islaoda 
famish Iresh water a few feet from the sur&ce of the soil. The whole are 
covered with cocoa-trees anil a thick growth of underwood. The most 
northern islands of the groupe are the most fertile and salubrious ; ambei^ 
grease and coral are collected in great abundance on the shores ; an impor- 
tant fishery of cowrie-shells is dso carried on. At one time a resael or 
two from the British settlements used to risit the Maldives to load cowriea, 
bat owing to the nnhealthioess of the climate, and the long detention, theae 
viuts were discontinned, and the trade is now carried on with Balaaore, tn 
Oritsa, by native vessels. Ships from Eastern India some^mes resort to 
the Maldives to procnre sharics' fins for the Chinese, who esteem them an 
excellent seasoning for soup. — The Maldirians appear to be of Malay ori- 
gin. Some consider them as a melange of Hindoos and Aimbs. Acoord- 
ing to their own traditions, their ancestors arrived from the Malabar coast 
aome centtuiee ago. Their language appears peculiar to themsehea ; bot 
many of tbem can speak Hindoslanee. They are well-made, and of an 
olive complexion, with bushy beards. They profeas Islamism, and the 
more leaned among them speak Arabic, and expound the koian. It ia 
aaid that national animosities long stirred up violent wara between the in- 
habitants of the Maldives and Laccadives ; but that nnca the sovereign of 
the Laccadirea came under British control, these dispates have ceased. A 
plurality of wives, but no concubines, is allowed, yet adnltery and fomi- 
cation are hardly ever known. The women are extremely industrious, and 
generally employed in spinning or dyeing cloth, twisting cois or cocoa fibree, 
picking cowrie*, or managing their domestic aflairs. They dress very mo- 
destly in garments of cotton, and sometimes of silk, brought close round 
the neck, with long sleeves, and flowing to the ancles. — MaU, in if 20' N. 
laL, is the seat of government. It is nearly circular, and not above three 
miles in drctunference. The island ia fortified all round with work* 
mounting 100 pieces of artillery. The town extends over the whole island, 
and is remarkably neat and clean, llie houses are built generally of wood 
and mats ; some of the richer b^ers have stone houses, and the sultan's 
house is a low stone building regularly fortified. Tbe government ^tpeara 
to be despotic, and hereditary in the bmiiy of tbe sultan ; but he baa a 
ministry composed of eight chieft or viziers, who have islands assigned 
them for their suppMt while in office. The diief prieat ia called panJiar. 
No European aoltlement bat yet been effseted on these islands. 

Dcillizedoy Google 


Eastward of Asia, westward of Europe and Africa, between the Atlantic 
and I^iEc oceans, lie« the great continent of America, next to Asia the largest 
of the five general divisiona of the globe. It extends from Cape Horn, in 55* 
58' S(f S. lat., to an unknown northern latitude, and from the 55th to the 
165th degree of E. long. It ia upwards of 9000 miles in length, and from 
1500 to 1800 in aveiage breadth. Templemann has es^ated its snper- 
Sdal area at 14,323,000 square mUes ; Balbi at H633,000 ; and Groberg 
at 15,737,000. 

DifuioM.] The continent of America is naturally divided into two 
portions, which almost merit the diatinution of independent continents, 
being only sepaiuted from each other, under the 9th parallel, by the iathmua 
of PanamSi, or Dsiien, which Is in some places not more than from 40 to 
50 miles brosd. These two great general divisions of this continent are 
distiDguished by the names of North and South Amehica. Between 
these two divisions lie the West India Islands, extending from the gulf 
of Mexico, and the Caribbean sea, into the Atlantic. 

North America includes Greenland belonging to Denmark, — BritUh 
America, which comprises Netn Briiainj Upper Canada, Lamer Canada, 
Nero Brunstvick, and Nova Scotia, — the Rusiian pottetiiont in die N.W., 
— the United Stales, — Mexico, — and Guatimala. 

South America comprises Colombia, Guiana, Braxil, Peru, Bolivia, 
Chili, Buenos Ayret, Paragwof, the Banda Oriental, and Patagonia, 

Whether we consider the magnitude of this comment aa a whole, — ■ 
the scale upon which all tbe great features of lla natural geography 
are constructed, — tbe recent period of its discovery, — the character 
and inadtutions of its aboriginal Inhabitants, — or the social inatitntiona to 
which it has ^ven birth, — America, In both hemiapherei, presents a most 
interesting field of Inquiry to the naturalist, the philosopher, the politician, 
and the merchant. 

General Aspect.^ When we cast our eyes on the Western world, the 
first thing which strikes us, besides Its extraordinary magnitude as a whole, 
is the laige forms in whicli Nature has cast its different physical features. 
Ita rivers are laige and rapid beyond thoee of the ancient continents ; and 
after felling into the ocean, they give rise to currents which are perceptible 
at a very great distance from tJieir mouths. The Maranon, the Orinoco, 
and the Plata, in South America, and tbe Mitiitsippi and Si Laurence in 
North America, are all consplcnODs for the vridth of tbe channels in which 
they flow, and the prodigious mass of waters which they each contribute 
to the ocean. There is no chain of mountains on this side of the globe, — ■ 
tbe Himalaya exceptedr— whidi, in extent and altitnde, can be compared. 

V. 2 H ,K 


with the Anda of South America ; the Alps tbemselres dirindle into m- 
■ignificaace in the comparison- The plains, likewise of the new world are 
•8 extensive and beautiful as its moantains are elevated and grand. In 
some places, and at certain seaaona of the rear, the eye of the traveller 
ID vain attempts to scan the fartheet verge of the plun which stretdes iu 
moDotonons expanse before him like some vast ocean ; in other qnarlera 
the whole country is one wide rich savannah, teeming with v^etabte life, 
and clotlied in the fairest hues of creation. Its lakes are equally remarka- 
ble. In North America a chsin of lakes extends from E. to W., each of 
them an inland sea in magnitude ; and thi^ lakes even of a third class, 
in America, equal, if they do not excel, any feature of this kind of which 
the Old world can boast. 

Hie great leading features in tlie Htractura of the New world are : IW. 
The contioaons belt of high moantains and plateaus traverung the western 
border, from Behring's straits to Terra del Fuego, and forming the most 
uninterrupted extent of primitive mountains known. Their northern por- 
tion, consisting of the Jiocki/ mounlaitu, appean to be chiefly granitic; 
while in the Cordillertu of Mexico, and the Andes of South America, 
the primitive strata are, for the most part, covered with 'immense accnmn- 
latioDs of transition-porphyries, trachytes, and lavas, the produce of nn. 
merous volcanoes, many of which yet remain in constant activity. 2dh/. 
The wide expanse of low and generally level comitry which succeeds, 
immediately on the W., to the above-mentioned zone of moantains ; and 
through which, in both hemispheres, flow some of the most magniScent 
rivers in the world. This region consists of immense deposits of newer 
rocks, over which is strewed every where, as with a manUe, the alluvial 
formation, or a covering of saud and gravel, with which are intermingled 
rolled maasea of rock. Sdlt/. The chain of mountains, of lower elevation 
and inferior continnity, which forms the eastern boundary to the low coan- 
try, and whose principal masses and highest points are composed of giaoite. 
4Hili/. The magnificent inland coUections of water, 5thli/. The cluslera of 
islands occnpying the seas between North and South America, and which 
are, almost without exception, of a volcanic origin. The geoli^cal char- 
acter of America partakes of the simplicity observable in her great monn> 
tain-ranges, which obey very uniform laws of arrangement, and are in a 
great measure free from those interruptions which occnr in Europe, arisii^ 
oat of numerous chains, whose irregular, and often contradictory stmcturtt 
— as geolo^ts would say — it is frequently difficult to recoqcUe or explain. 
The two continents, however, agree m the prevailing primitive character of 
their northern extremities, and in the occurrence of volcanoes aboat their 
equatorial and soatbem regions ; and an investigation of ibeir geological 
relations affords no ground for die opinion that the New world is of more 
recent origin than the Old. 

Rivert.^ Malte Bran sapplies us with the follovring table of the 
length and course of the rivers of this continent : 

Baiin of the Grtal Oaan. 

LMtnb IB l«(M. 
Df !» U ■ defiH. 

MaiAanilc, tha Ounilgsb, 

ShukMbaiviD. with the Nelsoi], [Its mautb,; 


The Rivir St Lawnnce, {boa Ontuio,) 

Oatiwa, (1M tribuUTf,) 


MiHIuppl, (nlone,) 
Mlmuri, with tbe Lswer Muainlpi^ 
rRinr Platt«, 


>D/H> JUUHjio, (SoUTfl AXUICA. 

EMcquibo, . 

It! trttularics, 

Jnjrkl, or Apo-Faro and Bent, 

Parnna-Gnza, or UadeltB, 

Topar-. . _ . 

Tocantln, or River at Gram-Pim, . - . 500 

PU-niiba, ...... 180 

San- Franoiaco, ..... 1S5 

Paraiu, or Rio da la llata, . . .710 

J Paraguay, .... WO 

PilcomsTO, a tribntaiy of the preceding, 310 

Vennqcs . - ■ . SSO 

Salado, ... . 8S0 

Uragnar, .... HO 

Hoyale-IieTou, or Colorado, .... aSO 

Cuiu-Leioo, or Negro, . .ISO 

C^male,"] The continent oE America posseasee of course every ra- 
riety of climate; but in this respect it difiere geDerally &om the Eastern 
benisphere by a greater predominance of cold. It ia calculated tfaat the 
beat b at least 10 d^rees less upon an average than nnder the same p*- 
lallels in tlie Eastern contineot. While Britain enjoys temperate teaums 
and mild air, Labrador, and the conntriea of the Eaqnimanz, though lying 
in the same parallel, are extremely cold ; even the torrid zone, in Ame- 
rica, knows none of those bmning heats which are experienced in Asia 
and Africa. The great cause of the cold in North America has been attri- 
bnted to the quantity of land stretching towards the North pole, a propor- 
tion of which is involved in perpetual winter, and the wind paaaiDg over 
it, it is said, brings a severity of cold along with it which nothing can resist. 
But Asia has an eqnal extent of tenritorial snr&ce stretching towards the 
North Pole. " Its elevation alone" — as Malte fimn judicioosly observes, 
— " expluna this foct as far as regards the monotainons r^ou ; but why, it 
may be asked, does it extend to low tracts of country ? To tEiis an 
able observer (Hninboldt) makes die following reply: 'The trifling 
breadth of diis continent; its elongation towards the icy poles; the 
ocean, whose unbroken surface ia swept bjr the trade mudB ; the cur- 
rents of extremely cold water which flow from the Straits of Magel- 
lan to Pern ; the numerous chuos of mountains abounding in the sources 
of rivers, whose inmnuts, covered with snow, rise far above the re- 
pon of the clouds ; the greater number of immense rivers that, after in 


nnmerable curves, always Und evea to the tdoM distant shorea ; deserta, 
but not of sand, and coDseqoently, less nuceptible of being impregnated 
with beat ; impenetrable forests, that spread over the plains of the eqnator, 
covered with rivers, and which, b tbote parts of tbe country that are the 
farthest distant from mountains and from the ocean, give rise to eDormoni 
toasses of water, which are eitlier attracted by them, or are formed during 
the act of vegetation. All these causes produce, in the lower parts of 
America, a climate whicli, from its coalneaa and homidity, is singularly 
contrasted with that of Africa. To these causes alone must we Bscribe 
that abundant vegetation, so vigorona and so rich in jnicea, and that thick 
and umbrageous foliage, which cona^tnte the cliaracteristic features of the 
new continent.' Aseuming this explanation," continues Malta Bmn, " as 
SD£Bcient for South America and Mexico, we shall add, with regard to 
North America, that it scarcely extends any distance into the torrid 
zone ; but, on tbe contrary, as we shall see in the succeeding book, 
Btretcfaes, in all probability, very for into the frigid zone, and, unless 
the revived hope of a North* West passage be confirmed, may, perhaps, 
reach and surround the pole itself. Accordingly, the column of frozen air 
attached to this continent is no where counterbalanced by a column of 
equatorial air. From this results an extension of the polar climate to the 
very confines of the tropics ; and hence winter and summer stm^le for 
the ascendancy, and the seasons change with astonishing rapidity. From 
all this, however, New Albion and New California are happily exempt ; 
for, being placed beyond the reach of the freezing winds, tl>ey enjoy a 
temperature analogous to their latitude." Tbe character of eiceesive 
humidity has likewise been ascribed to the American continent ; but it 
is traiversally acknowledged that, as coltivation has spread, the climate has 
grown sensibly milder, drier, and more salubrious. , 

Producliont.'^ America produces almost all tbe known varietiea of tbe 
animal, v^etable, and mineral kingdoma. It contiuns a great variety of 
wild animala ; and, since its discovery, Uie various domestic animals of 
Europe have been introduced. Tbe hotse, the ass, the cow, the aheep, 
tbe goat, the hog, the dog, and the cat, have been carried from Europe, 
and domesticated in America, where, in some places, diey have multiplied 
to an amazing degree. The following anim^, and remains of animab, 
are common to America and Europe : 







Whit« Bw, 




Bed Fox. 


PslloiT D«r, 


Water- Rat. 





Fifing- Squirrel, 


Crej Fox, I«tii, 




species are found only in 

1 America: 



The Grmt GT«r Squirrel, 
Fox Squirrel of Virginia, 

Elk, round homed. 

Sloth, Al, 


KapaJDU Uuuiai, 



Sa^ou CoaiU 



l-Btoii Encubfrc, 

Tatou Ap«-. 

Indian Pig, Cohan tf 


T»lou ( acliica 


Cougar of North Anu- Little Cueiidou. 



Opowim Srigu. 



Caagn »I Soutb Am«- Vapeti, Coqiullln, 

rlo, Margav, Leuer Grej Squirrel, 

Oceloi, Crabier, Bluk SqiamI, 

Peciri, Agouti, tUd Squilrel, 

Jwunt, Sap^ou Sal, Sakl, 

AJca, TktDU Cirqulnfon, Sa^n Pioche. 

Luna, ThIod Tatomte. Sa|oln 'I'unarin, 

Fuo, Mooffftte Saiuah, Sagcun Oiutili, 

Faca, MouSette Cluche, Sacoln MarakiiM, 

Sern], Mnuflctle Cuuepace, Sagoln Mico, 

Sloth, Unau, Scunk, Csyopolln, 

SaricoTlellnm Moulicte, ZoriUa, Fuurmlller, 

Kincajou, Wfaabus, Han, Rabtnl. MiirniaK, 

Tatou, KabsaMu, Apcres, Sarigne of Cayenne, 

Vnen, Unhin, Akouchi, Tuon, 

Bacwn, Halon, Ondatra. Miuk-rat, Red Mole, 

Coati, Pilori, Ground Squirrel. 

The most remarkable of these BntiDala will be described with those coun- 
tries where they are principally fonnd. We hare already taken occaaion 
to notice the fact that, in comparing animals of the same species, in the 
two conUnents, it has been found in a majority of instances, where a dif- 
ference of size did exist, ttiat the American animal was lai^er than that of 
the Eastern conunent. — The birds of America are exceedingly Domerona ; 
and are said to be more beautiful intbeir plumage than tbose of Asia and 
Africa, but in their notes less melodious. The coader, which freqaenta 
the Andes of South America, holds, on account of its size, atrength, and 
rapacity, the pre-eminence over all the feathered creation. — Reptiles are 
numerous, and many of them venomous. Insects abound, and in many 
parts are very offensi7e.^Tlie American waters are remarkable for the 
abimdance and variety of their fish. 

America produces every kind of grain, fruit, putae, herbs, plants, and 
flowers, native to Europe : besides a great variety of othets, as cacao, cin- 
namon, pepper, sarsaparilla, banilU, balsams, mahogany, logwood. Brazil- 
wood, sassafras, barks, gums, lesins, and medicinal herbs. 

This continent, particularly South America and Mexico, abounds in gold 
and silver. It also produces copper, qnickailTer, iron, antimony, antphur, 
nitre, lead, loadstone, marbles of every sort, and varioua kinda of precious 
atones, as the diamond, emerald, and amethyst. Rock and spring-salt is 
of frequent occurrence tfaronghout America. 

Fopulalion^ The population of America may be divided into three 
classes : Whites, Negroes, and Indians. The Whites, who are descended 
from Spanish, Portuguese, British, French, Dntch, Danish, German, and 
Russian colonists, were estimated by Humboldt at 13,500,000 ; the In> 
diaos at 8,600,000 ; the Negroes at 6,500,000 ; and the mixed races at 
6,500,000. The whole amount, he supposed, would exceed 35,000,000, 
but this number is unquestionably much below the actual truth now, and 
the popnlation of the whole American continent probably does not at this 
moment fall short of 55,000,000, and there is yet space and fertile soil for 
600,000,000. The numbers of those who speak tfae'difierent languagea 
made use of in America are thus distributed by Humboldt, — and the pro- 
ftortions probably still hold good : 

English language, ■ - - 11,6i.T,000 

Spanish, Jftl74,00O 

Portuguese, ... - 3,74«/)00 

Indian iBDguagei, - - - - 7,593,0UO 

French language. .... l,2*ii.000 

Dutch, LhuiUh, Swrdish. anA Russian, - 2IG,000 

Qf the Peopling of Anieriva.'] It Ium been matter of much debai 

ich uebabi 
Co (1*^1 C 


among learned men how this contiDont WM first furaished with inhnbitanta ; 
bat as this is a subject that admits not of certainty in any of its conclnsioDi, 
it shall not detain ns long. After ennmerating the chief hypotheses which 
have been formed by those who hare written on the topic, we will leave 
oiv reader to adopt that which to him shall appear the moat probable. 

The first opinion we shall mention is, that America was peopled by the 
Carthaginians. It is well-known that these people planted colonies on the 
western coasts of Africa, and the Canary islani^ ; and it is urged as being 
not only possible, bat highly probable, that some of their ships, employed in 
carrying oat people and proTiaiona for theae coloniea, m^ht be driven west- 
ward by a atono, nil getUng into the trade-winds they found a return im- 
posaible, and, sabmitting to that fate which they contd not renat, at length, 
reached land. Against this opinion it has been argned, that the Americans, 
when first discovered by Enropeans, were nnacqaainted with the oae of iron, 
with ship-bnilding, or with the use of the plongh, all which were well-known 
to the Carthaginians, and are arts so necessary to civilized life, that it is 
scarcely poaaible they coald have been forgotten by any people to whom 
they were once known. Besides, the order which the aborigines of America 
appear to have followed, in cultivating the ordinary arts of life, was widely 
different from any thing known to have existed among the Carthaginians. 
In short, they scarcely poaseaaed that resemblance in their civilized inatl- 
tutiona which we are taught to look for among beings having the same 
common origin. 

It having been established beyond a donbt, by the discoveries of Behring, 
and of captain Cook in his last voyage, that in abont 66° N. let., the 
continents of Asia and America are separated by a strut only 18 miles 
wide, and that the inhabitants of each continent possess many similar fea- 
tnrea, and frequently paaa and repass in canoes from one continent to the 
other, it has b«en contended that America was first peopled from the N.E. 
pans of Asia. Bat since the Esquimaux are manifestly a separate species of 
men, distinct from all the nations of the American condnent, in language, 
in disposition, and in habits of life, and in all these respects bearii^ a near 
reaemhlanca to the northern Europeans, it ia reasonable to suppose that 
they mnat have emigrated from the N.W. parts of Europe. Several cir- 
cumstances confirm this belief. As early as the 9th century the Norwe- 
gians discovered Greenland, and planted colonies there. The communi- 
cation with that country, of^r long interruption, was renewed in the last 
century, when some Lutheran and Moravian missionaries, prompted by 
pious zeal, ventured to settle in this frozen region, with the view of intro- 
dudng among its miserable inhabitants the gladdening doctrines of the 
gospel. From them we learn that the N.W. coast of Greeulaud is 
separated from America only by a very narrow strait, if it be actually 
separated at all ; and that the Baquimanx of Amnica closely resemble the 
Greenlanders in their aspect, dress, mode of living, and language. By these 
decisive facts, not only the consanguinity of the Esquimaux and Green- 
landers is established, hut mach support given to the theory which asserts 
the possibility of peopling America from the N.W. parts of Europe. 

To us it appears rational to conclnde on the whole, that the progenitors of 
all the American nations, from Cape Horn to the sontLem limits of La- 
brador, migrated from the N.E. parts of Asia ; and that the nations which 
inhabit Labrador, Esquimau, and the parts adjacent, from their nntike> 
ness to the rest of the Americau nations, «nd their resemblance to the 
northern Europeans, came over from the N.W. parts of Europe. 


Such are a few of the moat rational conjectnrea which have beeo formed 
on this subject. The reader may, with impnoity, adopt that io which he 
■eea, or bodea he aeei, the greatest probability. Of thia only we are cer- 
tun, that, whatever wna their origin, a nnmeroita race of men had possessed 
America long before it was known to the Europeans. Leaving, therefore, 
coDJectnral opinioiu, we proceed to a subject of more certainty, namely, 
an account of the manner in which the New world was discovered. 

Thb Discovert of America-^ The moat important human dia- 
Goveriea have often ori^nated in trinal and ^parently accidental circnm- 
■tances. He who discovered America was not in qnest of new lands, but 
only pnipoeed lo explore a new way to lands already known. The m^M 
of the age in which this great diacovery was made were rudely sketched 
and most inaccurate in their delineations. They place China, for eiamplet 
no less dian 15 hoars, or 225 degrees, eastwards from the western coasts 
of Enrope. This was an error of 85 degrees ; but allowing it to have been 
accurate, it is evident that to proceed to China by.a westward route was 
1 35 degrees shorter, than to proceed eastwards, supposing both the voy^ea 
lo be in a straight line. This was a tmth sufficiency striking to a mind ac- 
customed to reflection on ench subjects, and early suggested the idea of 
sailing westwards to the rich conntries known by the name of the l^at 
Indies, and opening a shorter passage for the trade which at that time en- 
riched aeveral of the commercial nations of Europe. 

Norwegian Diteomriea.^ The earliest claim, however, to the honour 
of discovering the New world — as it was at first called — is that which has 
been advanced by Bayer, from a passage in the Chronicle of Olaus, pub- 
lished at Stockholm in 1697, on behalf of the Norwegians. We have al- 
ready stated that Iceland was discovered by Norwegian mariners in A.D. 
800. In 982, Snorro Sturlffins represents the Norwegians to have advanced 
as far as the coast of Greenland, when they are said to have " proceeded 
towards the W." and finding a more attractive coast, on which were tome 
grape-vines, and, in the interior, several hospitable valleys, shaded with 
wood, they gave it the name of Wintand or Pindland, and settled some 
colonists there. The commanders of this expedition, Biom and Lief, lived 
two centuries before Snorro, according to his own account ; and, except 
from the tradition of the length of the days and nights at the place whN« 
they landed, it would be impossible to form any conjecture as to the spot. 
From this data, however, it would appear to be about the 58tfa or 59th 
degree of northern latitude, somewhere near the uibuth of Hudson's straits, 
altbongh grapes are there unknown. The latter parts of the tradition can 
only be solved by supposing that they actually did penetrate to some part 
o( die eastern coast of North America. 

Modoc's f^o^age.'^ The Welsh bards and historians put in another 
claim to the honour of discovering America, on beh^f of Madoc, one of 
their princes, who, they affirm, made a voyage to the shores of the New 
world in the 1 2th century. There wae long a tradition in Wales of some 
Indians being still near the Missouri, who spoke a dialect of the Welch 
language ; but this notion has no foundation whatever in fact The cnnous 
reader may consult Lord Lyttleton'a observations on this subject, in his 
history of England ; and an article, by Mr Pennant, in the 58th volume of 
the PniloBophical Transactions. 

Martin Bekaim-J A third claim to the honour of discovering America, 
of earlier date than the first yoyage of Columbus, is of equally doubtful 
authority. Schedel, a Germau d^ronologiat, of the 15th century, main- 


tains thitt his coantiynian, Martin BeliMm, having been entraated with tbe 
command of a Portaguew expedition oF discoTery, in 1483, made thoK dis- 
coveries, the commnnicBtion of which to his intimate friend, Colnmhas, 
first excited that navigator to enter upon liis splendid career of discovery. 

Columbut.'} Several seamen, beudes Behaim, who had been carried 
westerly far from their course, are said to have reported that in those re- 
mote seas they had seen an island ; and it is particolarly aaserted by the 
Spanish historians, diat the charts and jonmals of an old Andalusian pilot 
who died in his house, aneqnivocally informed Colambns of the discovery 
of land (ai to the westward.' Snch hints, if they really were given, wanld, 
doubtless, supply his mind with additional ai^uments in support of hia 
notions ; but the strong hope which carried him through an nndertsking, 
in the peribrniance of which he found so many obstacles, seems to have 
been founded on his knowledge of the true figure of the earth, joined to 
hia accurate ideas of the geography of the world, as it was then delineated. 
The scheme of sailing to the East Indies by a westerly course was a 
favonrite idea with Columbus during a great part of his life ; and was not 
likely to be adopted in an instant ; a conception so vast and daring must | 

have been gradually matured, and continually strengthened by reflection, 
and supported by the discovery of new facts, till, from the possession of a 
mere theoretical notion, he became anxious to establish it as a practical 
truth, and, filled with this desire, dedicated the latter part of his life to 
the execution of so hazardous an enterprise, as the proof demanded. 

The conception of this idea, in an age of ignorance, required an acCDt«to 
knowledge of the true figure of the globe, and a mind li-ee from ordinary 
prejudices ; and the execution of it demanded uncommon courage and per- 
severance. These qualities of mind were, in a very extraordinary degree, 
possessed by Christopher Columbus. He was bom in an obscure village 
of Genoa ; his lather, and several of his ancestore, had been bred to the 
sea. The young Columbus received an edncation which, considering the 
times, must be reckoned good : he was taught arithmetic, navigation, astro- 
nomy, and drawing. At an early part of his life, he went to sea, and was 
in several engagements with the Turks and Venetians. In a voyage oS 
the coast of Portugal, the ship in which he sailed took fire, and our young 
seaman witii difficulty escaped ashore upon a plank, and travelled to Lis- 
bon, where he found several of his countryinen. The Portuguese at this 
time were the most expert navigators in Europe ; and by frequent voyages 
along the western coast of Aliica, had added much to men's knowledge of 
that part of the world. The spirit of enterprise, and particularly of disco- 
very, existed amongst them in vigour, and served to inflame that disposi- 
tion which seems early to have distinguished the mind of Columbus. En- 
ticed by the society of many of bis countrymen, he was easily persuaded 
to remain in a nation which seemed, more than all others, to afibrd him ^ 

opportunities of gratifying his ardent desire of visiting unknown regions. ^ 

He therefore entered into the service of the Portuguese, and made several H 

voyages both to the northward and southward, particularly along the coast ^ 

of Africa. 

' la Bddition to hii reasnning, foimded on the iiipposrd aitiution of the Eu( Indies, 
Calnmbui li aid to have been inrnrmed that a FortugUEi« pilot, muned Mu-iin Vln- 
eeot, iMd picked up a piece of oirved wood. *50 leuuea to the wmtwird of Cape St 
VincfDt, and which, from the coniinued weslerly wind thai bad prevailed, he judged 
to have come from laad in that quarter. A eimUar piece of wood, together with eome 
lhi<i caoea, li said Is have betn iiirta b; the w<«orl; windgto Porto Surto, one of 

CotontbtM tiwaght it proper to make the first offer of hU service* to 
John II. long of Portngst. His propoaal w«a to sail to the East Indie* hf 
dw weateni ocean, sad hi* mMiw sppearMl t« the kkg to carry convic- 
tion ; but while he ^proved of the plan, be would not accede to the 
terms. Making, therefore, tw ongenerons use of the information be had 
rttceired, b« ja said prinMely to hare deepatched a ship on the projected 
evpeditiofl, while 'ColnBtbus was employed in negotiation, and indulging 
fruitless hopes. The commander of this secret expedition, deficient in 
coung9 or capacity, peiliape in both, retnmed without efiet^ng any dia- 
coTcsy, and spread each accounts of the afiair, that Columbus soon became 
tbe ot^ect of pnblic ridicule. ProFoked by this injurious treatment, he 
left the court of Xisbou, and despatched his brother BanfaoloineH' to Eng- 
land to make propoeals in his name to Henry VIL Buiholomew was 
taken captire by pirates on his Toyagi^ ^and not heaid of by bis brother 
for ten years, eight of which Columbus himself was destined to consume 
in flactuatlng and most perplexing intercoorae with the conn of Sp»io, to 
whom he h^ made his overtures in person. At last, in 1492, Ferdinand 
and Isabella of Spain consented to equip oar adventurer, after the moat 
frugal mimner, and on the 3d of Angnst 1192| Jia sailed with three miser* 
able reBsels, from IUob in Spain, for the Canaries. 

First Voyage t^ Columbm.'} The following accotmt is given in the 
Norlh Aaiericcm Beoieto, oi a journal of the first voyage of Coliunbua, 
recently discovered in the archives of the Doke del Infantado, which 
tbrowi considerable light on the character and adventores of the dUcoverer 
of the new world. It is throughout in the handwriting of the celebrated 
BartoloDi^ de las Casas, who potsesaed many papers written by Columbus, 
which be made use of in the composition of his unpublished HUtori4t de 
lot Indiat, and who unquestionably abstracted this jonmal from tbe adf 
mind'a It^-hook, giving a literal copy of the most important passages. 
Not tbe slightest doubt of its authenticity can exist. Indeed Las Csaa* 
inserted an atnidgment of it in his mannscript history, which served aa tbe 
basis of tbe works of Herrera and other standard historians of the new 
world. Tbe introdnction to the journal exhibits, in the very words of 
Columbus, the views and feelings with which he set sail upon this memor- 
able voyage. We transtate it word for word, leaving the original arrange- 
ment of the senteocea untouched, because it would be difficult to br^ 
them without taking serious liberties with the text. 

. ■• /h ntmlm D.N. Jmu CkriitL-~Vl^mu, mMt Chriatiu, dhM Ufta, moM naHmt, ud bisk 
pAwerfitl prlDot, oar lorda, klnjf aad nawm of the Spaloi md (lu talu of Ui« seB, tUa pretent yat 
1W9, after T^ibr hlfbiuiBn lud endHl the wht Hgibifll the Moon who rolled In Europe, uid tud 
QnnidiL, wben Ode pneent fmr on the leoeiid iAj of Jioury I 
Baiei p^uiud br fone ofunuon the tomnof AUumbn, whJiA 
w the Mnjtlih king coma out of the git« of the city ind kUe th* 

bM glnn joiT Uf Bneaeee Df the ludi at India, md of ■ prime isUhI Om Cm, 
In opr i^rt|T.|^ < u^ Df idngh* how be tnd hit pndecHoon hid oAo lODt 1o Boma 

u muy pcoplo wvn loet by 1w]ldviDffLDidolabl«,ftiulhiirbonrliigdoctriii« of perdition^ 
H CUhalii; ChriatUuii ud prlsctt, who ui Ion n of th* holy Cbhnlu ItUb mi 
tmnMBsof It, «sd enemlot of the Hct of lUliomot, lod of lUlihiliMM ud hneilH, Uuiif ht Id 
nod ma, Ckriataphtr ColuabiiB, to Bid ntlou of IniU*, to ice tbo uld prinm, ud the people tai 
nuntlT, and the di>p«ltlaii of tbeoi ud of the whole, ud the coone to be adoptiid foi their contir- 
Mom to oar holj filth ; ud ordaliMd thit I ehnnid not proceed by lud Id the Eut, u It hith been 
«M«iMiTlaSB,bittby wsyof tbe WMtilawhldidlreetkmwihcmothla deyiu cwtelD eiiikD^ 
(hUuTpaKBbHpuHiL So ifter b»ld( eipeUad ill the Jawi from yooi klngdome ud •■l«ikii' 
tatho Hitie monthof Juury, your hl|kiisiu> cominuiiled me to proceed to Ihou nfioneof ' 
wtth ■ uBdent anninntj ud forthli siantedme great (aToufi, ud aniuhled me to Ihattb r 
V. g 1 , 1 *-' 

AMI laUiM IB can 1 ml|U 1^ uTMir Opm «b4 akwU bt Ufh-Umlnl of 

■nd pflrpvtynl foTcroor of 
wWdi iliaal " ■ ' ' 

br picture. 

nfokn fTHt IDlL"*— Tabu L ; 

Tba firat thing which striket m in the jonmBl is tba utiGce to which 
Columbns was contianally driven, to BDHtain the sinking courage of hb 
crews. Nowhere ii the exalted chancter of this truly P*^^ >nau more 
■trikingl}' displayed, than in the fertitaile and magnaoimity with which he 
bore up against the manifold obstactea to the prosecution of his magnifi- 
cent undertaking. He bad suffered the hardships of penury and oppres- 
sion, with spirits unbroken, with hopes nnrepressed. Animated by the 
conviction that nndiscorered worlds lay hidden in the Western sea, and that 
be was the instrument ordained to discorer and explore them, he had 
b^>pily OTercome the sapantitianB of the priesthood, who in the ontset 
■dgmatiwd his hypothesis by the odious name of heresy, llie incrednlity 
of the goremment bad yielded to the force of truth ; and its parnmony 
was melted by his ardour. The narrow-minded individuals, who, unable 
to rise themselves, huug the weight of their jealousy around his neck as 
usual, to hold down his lofty genius to the level of their own lowly career, 
he had shaken off at last in triumph. He was now floating |npen the full 
tide of adventuroas experiment. But here also the ignorance and envy of 
bis fellowe pursued him at every hour. His unalterable belief in the ez- 
ietence of dte lands he sought, would luwe avuled him little, had not his 
pre-eminent nautical skill exacted the confidence of those around him, and 
bis intellect and course proved equal to any eme^ncy of fortune. For 
when his daring prow was pointed to the west, and his companions felt 
themselves on the botom of the great deep, leaving home if not life behind, 
and sailing they knew not whither, it demanded a rare combination of ex- 
traordinary talents for one man, an ol»cure foreigner, to retain the obe- 
dience of his turbulent but faint-hearted followers. Their terrors bvgan 
• to be troublesome a few days aft^r quitting Gomeru, on perceiring the va- 
riation of the magnetic needle. Columbus deserves the honour of beiug 
the first to observe this phenomenon, which still remains among the nnei> 
plained mysteries of nature. The surprise and consternation of hia officers 
and men on the occasion aro sufficient proof that it was mmoticed until 
then. Some writers have ascribed the credit of making this observation 
to Csbot, in 1497; but Las Cases, Ferdinand Columbus, Herrera, and 
Munoz, had all concurred in claiming it for the admiral ; and the follow- 
ing extract from the journal of biajtrtt tm/agg, dated Sept. 13, taken in 
connexion with a passage in his account of his third voyage, is considered 
by Seiior Navarrete as establishing the iacU He succeeded in quieting 
the apprehensions of his people by an ingenious explanation, which, how- 
ever, was unsatisfactory to bis own mind. In reading the passages we are 
'about to dte, it should be observed, that they are not taken from the ori^ 



fSmS joiitdbT of CohimbtM, bnt from a mere sbMnct in the word* of L« 
Catw; and as it appears from Mudoz'b nnfinislied Huforia del Nuovo 
Mtmdo, that Colnmbui kept two journals, one private and aotheDtic, and 
tbe otiter with false reckoning and specious statemoDta, it would seem that 
both wera osed in making this abstract, tbe phrase, ' the admiral says,' 
ofl«D iairodocing not what he thought, but what he wished his companions 
to beliere. Las Caaas l>aa gireo some long passage* in the very words of 
Columbus, but sucb are ai'companied by a notice l« that effect, and in 
Senor Nararrete's book are (liatinguiahed by inrerled commas. 


Ititiit 80 la^us Iram ibm. TlHf foanil the h> mter \tm Hit liiH* Vuj lift tli> Ciurki, tbe lir 

■on ud Bon miU ; tlier wen tU Id food tptiiti, ud tb* thiiU siolaadad whkli thonU (d tetnt, 

(beidnilnl lap Uio« tifat mrt fRm tbe W,, where Huipa In Uul Uih Odd, In wboea hind li nD 
•IchXT, tbU be wU) rerr iiiaii glnualuid. TUi munliif be H^be bit t white Urd, sUtd Babo 

•> Awdi^, SiTpt aa— Atnlght ifae lUsdlH TtfM ■ lOBter-ls tbe N.W„ ud at lar^mk (btr W**< 

fiKUgiwlthlbaiuri br wMeb H ipptvi tbtttbiatubMssttso like the otbar «Mn, ud tbd Ibi 
mfiilm ilmji Infllnli tlir lm poIiiL"— Too. L f,S.^ IS. 

r It has been generally nnderstood that Columbna was compelled to de- 
eein his companiooe in r^ard to the distance they tailed, and the Tariona 
signs of proximity to land. The birds they saw were land-birds ; tba 
weeds were freshly disengaged from racks ; and ^e fish were rirer-fish, 
that never ventured far into salt water ; sometimes the wind was a breexe 
from shore ; and thos it was that every possible expedient was tried to 
counteract the fears and feed the credulity of ignorant mariners. We 
ttanslate several passages of the journal which illnstrate theaa remarks : 

■ Smuiof, Stpt. Mt,— Stiled Uut diy 19 iHgnei, snd dtt^nilaed le eovnt Im tbu m oUed, ■■ 
Ifaiti f Ibe TDjeffl abimld be lonfi the people ihould not be terrlOedordlivered.'' 

■' HVdMidiir. $>;» IRU.— CodHudbiI thrir •nine, ud twtiresn dar and n<|bt uUed IS le^oM, be. 
caiiHlberaiTiiiicilDi; wrote dunmU At 10 Uiii day > peUcsn owe to U]i ihlp, ud anntbei to- 

ad baane.UcUj eUled, la the idea 
"ShA^, SipL BA— Tbe mode w 

We pass over many entries in the journal of like import, and come to 
the time when ^e vessels actually approached their desunation. 

Dt 19 mUii Ika koor, ad at twa a'(liMfc.i.ii. bad 
■Ued W mils. Uiml 1> ffiJlHgoK (Itdlin bIIh or * to Iha l«(iM.] And ImnH th* «nm FlDtam* 
b«tt« iidleriUd kept >be*di>fttHAibBliid,ili«diii»Tendlud,ul Bite Ilia ilgiuliprMaf bed hyblm, 

TIiUludwuantHaiibriHUarilHiiedRoddKodsTriiiWi th(AdmtnI,lianf«ar,utfflliiUiecTen. 
lug itudlny on Uu qiurur-dtcli, nw a llflit, allhaoRti It naa a Uilug » IndbUiict, that ha woa\i not 
alBro It mi land ; bnl haollsd Fsro Oiitlemt.a featlciaaa of tha Idng'i hcmKliald, and taldbiD that 

Rititigo Saodmor SflgoHa, irbom (he ktD^«vii( in the fleet for bnpaetor^ who onM mm an it on 

. Aftertl - 

tiant vhen ther kad latd tha Sahe, itUofe 
amed to lar or chant in their viay, all tatolhf r, the Adninl daelmd aad ad- 
L them to keep a gaoi watch from the farecaatlei and took nrrll ont for the laDdt ttal thtt ta 
n ihould liril eiT he aav land, ba would tonhwltli ginaiabjaekat, healie tin othfr ftimn 
e sovsrclgu bad pronlAed, which wer* ten thouand rnanredla Bo the bit wha tbootd ata K 
lock, A.u. tbe ebon wae Id ili^hl, R lea(n« oS Therbankd all iM, and itosd DDdm tha 
ill BlDne, and lay to QDtU Fr)^,wheD therreaebed onaof the Luayoa liUiBda, wbMI IM 

Much tlonbt and ancerudntyhave eiiated u to the island nrhick Colnm- 
buB firat dUcorered. He gare it the iiaDie of San Salvador, and it ha* 
b«MD KeDemHy Bnpposed to be the island bow called Si Salvador, or Cat 
uland, Ilie pomtion of this JbIbiuI not agreeiag perfectljr with the Ad- 
minl'a cotme and description, Mnnoz conjectared that Watling's iaUnd 
WBB the tme GoaDahani. Bat Senor Nararrete aildycee reiy atroi^ rea- 
Bona for believing it to be the lai^at of the Turk itlands. The ceorsa 
of Cohnnbus from GnaDahani nas continually west, from island to isUod, 
till be arrived at Nipe in Cnba. Now this fact is irreconiMlesble with tha 
ideat that Gnanahani is Cat ialandt which lies nearly due north of Nipe. 
Bendes, the great Bahama bank, and a long chain of keys called Cayot 
de la Cadena, stretching between St Salvador and Cuba, interpose a most 
serious obstacle to holing such a westerly conise as Colambnt panned. 
But by settug ont from Nipe, and proceeding in a retrc^rade direction 
along hia coarse, as he very particolarly describss it in his journal, we may 
easily trace his path, and ehall be convinced that Goanabaai is do other 
than Turk's island. Add to this, that bit description of it accords exactly 
wilh the latter, especially in the circnmatance of there being a lai^e lake 
in the middle of it. This point is of no great consequence, but it is 
satisfactory to know precisely what spot in America was fits) revealed to 
the eye of Europeans. 

In the snbsequent parts of the journal we frequently discover the infln> 
eiice of the opinions which Columbus had imbibed from the travels of 
Marco Polo and the famous letter of Paolo ToGcanelU. It is the Indies, 
and the Indies alone, which he seeks. Although bis reason assured him 
of the true figure of our globe, and he dedncied the right consequencM 
from this position, and thus was much in advance of his age, yet he had a 
most vague and incorrect idea of the actual locality of the Indies. After 
he has discov««d Guanahani, his ioqairiea of the savages iavariably point 
to Cathay or Cipango, or other distant Asiatic countries, at which he every 
moment expected to arrive. Indeed, many yean aftermrda, in a letter 



written to tbe P<^ in 1502, be ray*— " Thii island n Tsnri^ it b CediiR, 
it n Opbir, and Opfau and Gpa^a, and we have callni it Hispaniola." 
Confonnable to this idea are die eatrien in his journal. 

"Friiaji, (Ic(.t6^— H«'ie(nnrwCiib4,kBmHbTtlM^(u wtddi Ibilaaui g»r Um of Ih 
l»Uiillii<ii. nd o( tba goM ud puf )• Mtn, 1>* Uwuglit II mut b* (hi Ha* wltk Opufii." 

>■ ruwjov. Oct SOU.— H( uFB tfait te nmit Mcrt UiDHll to g« (a Ihe GruHl Cm, vhs be thinigU 
na there, dt mt tiis iHy of Cktba]', baliwglnf <o Uia Onnd Cm, wUeft he Hyg la nry itzgi, u ha 
WH told itton ba left Spain."— Tom. I. p. W, 44. 

We pass OT«r the intermediate portions of the jonmal, !n which the 
Admiial relates hit discoraiet among the ialandg, describing' the appeu- 
ance «nd productiont of the eoimtiy, and the condition of the infmfct- 
tsnts. The Inxnriance of bvpical regetation, abonndii^; m neble trees, 
splendid flowers, and exqniute fnuta, and sprhi^Dg from a rii^n soil of 
exhanstlesa fertility, awakens his admiration at evny step. Nor ia k« less 
enchanted with the blandnees and nuivity of the atmosphere of the new 
rc^ona he was exploring, where the people, the climate, the richness of 
the Tegetable and mineral kingdoms, all excited his imaj^tion, and drew 
from bim the wannest pnoses. The riches planted in those beandful is- 
lands by the band of nature still remain ; mi the conqaerors hara in- 
creased thrar abun<^ce by transporting thither and naturalising the con- 
genial prodnetions of Asia and Europe. Bat in one ether req»eet how 
changed is the whole face of things there I The natira races of Gnsna- 
hani, Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, have Tanished tike the dew of morning ; and 
AMca is unpeopled to sapply their place. NoCtnog was more deeply 
impressed on the mind of Cohmbua than the perfectly amiable character 
of the inhabitants. He dwells opon it in the description of erery island 
at iriiicti he touched. At peace amcmg themselves, nnanned, and engaged 
in the tranquil arts of cnltivation, they dreaded nothing bat the minoos 
descents of the brutal and ferocions Caribbees. They received the Span- 
iards tnth unsuspecting confidence, as beings of a higber order, deseeaded 
among tbem for objects of philanthropy and beneficence. How crarily 
they were disappointed in the sequel, was but too fatally proved by tbeir 
speedy destmction, under tbe merciless rule of their foreign mastera. 

On the 6th of December Columbus arrived at Bohio, which, from a 
landed resemblmice to their native country, was, by the Spaniards, named 
Hitpaniola. At this time tbe admiral bad only two ships uoder his com- 
mand- Martin Rnzon, some time before, having deserted him. While 
Colnmbus was proceeding along the coast, one of his remuning vessels ran 
%;ronnd ; and Columbus, reflecting that he had now only one ship remain- 
tog, thought it prudent to return homewards with the tidings of his dis- 
covery ; but to prepare for a more extensive settlement, he erected a fort 
wiiii the timber of ^ wreck, and, leaving in it a garrison of 39 men, with 
anus and other necessaries, siuLed eastwards along the coast of the island, 
when he discovered bis other ship, whose treacberoa* commander endeavoured 
to excuse himself for having separat«d from tbe fleet, and impnte his con- 
duct to stress of weather. On the 16tb of January he left the coast of 
Hispaniola; and, on the Uih of February, when 150 leagues westwards 
from the Azores, he parted from Pinzon's ship in a storm, which thrsatened 
to destroy the vessels. While the ship's company were endeavouring, by 
TOWS and promises to the viipn, to secnra their safe return, Columbns 
himself was using means to prevent tbe knowledge of his discovery perish- 
iag with himself should the worst h^pen, " In this perpteiity," says 
he,— writing to their catholic majeaties, — " I meditated on your higbneases' 
good forlwM, and considered, that thongh I wets dead, and the ^ip loat, 


yon might some way reap the fraila oJ this enterprise. As briefly as I 
could, thflTefore, I wrote r oarrotiTe in parchment, of what I had discovered, 
in bow many days I perfonned tlie voyage, and what way I had done it, 
with the nature of those lands, of the inhabitants, and that your majestiea' 
Hnbjects were left in possession of what I had discovered ; which writing, 
folded up and sealed, I addressed to your highnesses, promising a reward 
of a thousand ducats to him that should deliver it to you sealed, that if any 
foreigner found it, the promised reward might induce him not to give it to 
another ; then 1 wrapt the writing in an oited cloth, and enclosed that in 
a ball of was, which I pat into an empty cask, and having bunged the cask 
up close, threw it into the sea. Another cask with a copy of the sama 
writing, enclosed in like manner, I placed on Ae highest part of the ship, 
BO th^ if the ship sunk, the cask miglit still remain above water." Thia 
sufficiently indicates the spirit of the man. It does not appear that the 
cask which he threw overboard ever came to land ; fortunately, however, 
the storm abated, and on the 15th of Febmary they arrived at the islands 
of Azores, and next day cast anchor at St Mary's. On the 21th they left 
the Azores, and soon after encountered another storm, which forced them 
for shelter into the river of Lisbon. Here, contrary to the admiral's expec- 
tations, he was kindly received ; and had tlie satisfacuon of demonstrating 
to the Fortngnese court, that he bad actually performed that project which 
tbey had formerly treated as the dresm of an adventurer. On the 13th of 
Mairch, X4Q3, he arrived at Faloa in Andalusia, having been absent seven 
mouths and eleven days. Finzon bad arrived in Gallida some ^e before, but 
not meeting with the welcome which he expected from court, he retired U> 
bis native coantry, where he soon after died. Columbus having proceeded 
to Barcelona, where the court then was, was received in the most hoDonr- 
able manner. 

Having thus detailed at some length the particulars of that voyage, which 
opened up America to Eun^wan curiosity, avarice, and cruelty : it will 
not be neceesary to follow Colnmbna so minutely in his succeeding expe- 

Second Fagagt of Cobimbus,2 The Spanish monarch in hopea of being 
now amply refunded for all his ezpenses, forgot his former paraimony. 
Sevenloen ships, carrying 1500 men, were quickly fitted out; with tlu* 
fleet Columbus railed from Cadiz on the 25tb of September, 1493, and on 
tbe 2d of November, he arrived at one of the Caribbee islands, which he 
called St Dominica. He likewise touched at another, which he called 
Marigalaote. On his passage hence to Hiapaniola, he passed St Mary of 
Guadalonpe, St Martin, Boriquean now Forto Rico, and many other 
islands. On the 12th of November he arrived at Uispaoiola, and found 
all the garrison, whom he bad left in the fort which he had erected there, 
dead, or killed by the natives. Columbus resolved not to re-establish a 
colony on the same spot, but finding a convenient harbour forther to the 
eastward, be there founded a town, to which be gave the name of Isabella, 
in booour of Isabella, queen of Casdle. Having sent back 12 of bis 
^ps to Spain, and quelled a mutiny which had arisen from the hopes of 
sudden riches entertuned by his followers, — hopes which they found were 
not to be gratified without labour and patience, — he then proceeded into 
tbe country of Cibos, and there erected a forttess, whicb he called St 
Hiomas, where he left a ganison of 400 men. Having appointed acooncil 
of his principal officers, and given the presidency to James, bis brother, 
' swled with three ships towards Cuba, and discovered the ialaul of 


jBDHUOt where bb men wete Utaelced hy the mtl*flei wlioin he rapreaenta 
as a warlike race. Deterred by shoalH and breaker* from peraisting in bis 
expedition, be returned to Hiaponiola withont effectiDg his pQrpoae. In 
the nieanwbile the conncil which he had appointed to goreni in his absence, 
had only proved themselres nnqualiSed for the task ; the colony was in 
eonfiuion, and tbe natives in a state of inanTrection. By the aeuatance cf 
a friendly chief, Colnmbna soon anbdned the whole force of the natires, 
imposed a tribute npon them, sent one of tbe principal chiefs, or caciquet, 
M a hostage to Spain, end once more saw his tettlement in a respectable 
ritnation. Thia etate of sffiurs did not long continoe. The tribnte of 
m horse-betl fall of gold, irapoied npon every individoal above 14 
years of age in Ciboa, and of twenty-five pounds of cotton, for every 
other inhaUlant of the i&land, aeemed to the nalivea an iDsnpportable 
grievance, asd provoked them to frequent insnrrectiona. The Spaniarda, 
too, began to feel the effects of an unhealthy climate, and were un- 
willing to enhmit to the eeverity of tbe disdpline imposed npon them. 
Their dissatisfaction, too, waa iacreased by the disappointment of their 
hopes of acquiring fortunes withont trouble, and broke ont in frequent 
mntinies. Their discontents had reached the Spanish court, and were 
there frequently and loudly repeated by those who envied the fame 
of Colombos, or coveted his fortune. Tbe admiral, therefore, thought 
it necessary to return to Spiun, to vindicate hia character, and solicit re- 
inforcements. He accordingly set sail from Hispsniola on the lOth of 
March ; but through bis ignorance of the nature of tbe trade-winda, he 
■Uncled against them three months before he arrived at Spun. Colum- 
bus ivuted on their (Catholic majeatiea at Bnrgoa, and was received with 
bonour and apparent favour ; but the little profit that hod accrued from 
the great expenses incurred by tbe last expedition, was ill -calculated to 
satisfy a monarch at once avsricions and needy ; and Columbus spent no 
]e«s than two years in solicitation, before he could obtain the requisite re- 
inforcements for a third expedition. 

Third Voyage <f Columbus.'] At length sis ships were prepared, and 
with them, on the SOib of May, 1498, Calambus set out on bis third 
voyage to the new world. From the Canaiies, where he bad touched, he 
despatched three ships directly to Hispaniola, and, with the other three, he 
held a course different from any he had formerly sailed. In hopes of 
m^ing new discoveries he now steered S.W., till, in 5* N. Int., he was 
deterred from proceeding hrtfaer, by tbe intense heat, and frequent thunder- 
storms ; be therefore altered his couise to N.W., till he was in 7° N. lat., 
and then sailed due W., when, on the first of Angust, he discovered an 
■•land, to which he gave the name of Trinidad. Hoon afterwards, he dis- 
covered the continent, and landed on that part of it which is called Guiana. 
After about a fortnight's stay on this coast, he sailed directly for Hispa- 
tuola, where he arrived on the SOth of August, and found tbe colony in a 
very distracted atate. Hia brother, whom be had made governor in his 
absence, Beems not tu have been well-qualified for an office so important. 
Francis Roldan, who enjoyed the place of chief justice, talung advantage 
of the admiral's long ^ence, bad formed a numerous party, and Jamea 
had, with great difficulty, preserved a small part of the island in his power. 
Colnmbua, after quelling this insurrection, b^pn to work tbe gold minee. 
Id tbe meantime, hia enemies in Spun were daily renewing their accusa- 
tions, and used various orgamenla to induce the king to recal him. Their 
artifices proved too aaccoHful, and at last Francis Boradilla was despatched 


wtth wflimted poirew *• OMriiie mV> tbe admai'a «a4n«, and, if omm- 
iiary, to send him priwmer to Spwn, to answer for hu slladged mal^dmin- 
fatration. Boradilla seems very justly » h*.ye supposed, thW to bestow 
on him power so anUmited, was, in fact, to command him to dHgrace Uo- 
lombus. He consequeafly no sooner amyed at Hispaniola, than, w«h vary 
little oren of the forms of justice, Colambra and his brother were pat la 
irons, and sent prisoners to Spain. These irons he indign and y wore dormg 
the whole voyage, although the captain of the veesel m which he sailed 
offered to take them off: declaring that fae would carry them into the pre- 
sence of their Catholic majesties, and eipresM.^ his confidence that a 
treatment so nnjost could not proceed from their orders. On prewnling 
himself at court, their majesties apologiaed for the harsh usage whieh be 
had Bustamed, and were pleased to assure him that BovadBla had exceeded 
his commission. Bnt he was soon convinced of the irouncerity of ttese 
professions, by the appointment of a Spanish governor to the ulandrf His- 
paniola ; and in the beat of resentment, he vowed never agiun to risk his 
life in discoveries for snch ungrateful patrons. 

Columbui'i Fourtli Voyage.'] Ferdtnaod, however, had sufficient poli- 
tical sagacity to perceive, that though Columbus was not likely to be pro- 
fitable to him as a governor, yet as a discoverer he might open new regions 
of adventure, where men of leas scrnpulons minds would play that pwt 
which he wished them ; and he had the art once more to prevwl on Co- 
lumbns to undertake a voyi^ of discovery, with a squadron of 4 ships, 
carryi:ig 140 men each. With this squadron he sfuled from Cadiz on (ho 
9th of TVlBy, 1502 : on the 20th of the same month he took in wood and 
water at the Canaries : sailing thence, on the 24th, he arrived at Martinica 
on de 15th of June, and about the end of the ssme month he was off St 
Domingo, in Hispaniola. This port he was forbidden to enter, although 
his ships were leaky, and a storm threatening; he put into a small crerfc, 
however, in the same island, and rode out in safety a tempest, in which 
Bovadilla perished, with 14 ships bden with treasure, composed partly, 
no doubt, of the wreck of Columbus' fortune. As soon as the storm abated, 
the admiral stood to the westward, and, passing by the 6. side of Jamaica, 
he arrived at the island of Guyana in the gulf of Honduras ; here he met with 
a canoe with an old man in it, from whom he learned, that, to the N.W. <X 
their present situation, lay a mighty empire, governed by a powerful prince, 
and that to the S.E. was a strait which led to a great ocean. The empire 
was afterwards discovered to be tiiat of Mexico ; the strait was the isthmns 
of Darien ; but Columbus not reflectii^that, by a strait, the ladian m\^ 
mean a narrow neck of land, as well as an arm of die sea, resolved to 
search for the latter, which he conceived must bring him to these richer 
parts of the 'Indies, which, by an opposite course, were already frequented 
by European merchants. The prosecution of this erroneous conjecture 
led the admiral into many difficulties. He sailed eastwards along the 
coast of Honduras, continually struggling with the trade-winds, till became 
to a cape where the coast bended southward, from which circumstance be 
named it'Cspe Oracios a Diets, or ' Thanks to God ;' continuing hb course 
along the coast, and baring landed at several places, he came at last to a 
fine harbour which he called Porlo Bella, a name which it still retains. 
Here having been informed that in Veregua, a country to the eastward of 
Porto Bello, there were gold mines, he sailed backwards along his former 
ttack, encountering such storms as had nearly destroyed bis whole squadron 
With much difficulty he arrived on tiie coast of Veragua, and having sent 


■ome men adtorei they raported that gold wu to be fonnd in coniidamblfl 
quantities. Hereupon Colambna resolved to make an establishment in the 
country, and, with this design, built a fort, in which he placed BO men, 
with arms and annnnnition, giving the command of them to his brother. 
Their excesses, hotrever, soon brought upon them the rengeaiice of the 
Indians ; they were attacked in their fort, some of then killed, and the 
rest obliged to absudon the settlement. Having with difficulty got his men 
aboard, be set sail, and agwn arrived at Porto Bello. He then directed 
hb course northwards till be arrived at Cuba, aad, on the S4th of June, 
reached the island of Jamaica. His two remaining ships were now so leaky 
that he was obliged to ran them aground, having, with much labonr, kejrt 
tfaem swimming till they reached land. It is not easy to conceive a utns- 
tion more distresaing than that in which Columbus now was ; cast npon 
an island at which no European ship was likely hi touch, and exposed to 
the continual reproaches of bis crews, who laid nn him the whole blame of 
ibeir misforttmes, and, by thrar incessant mntinies, rendered his life a per- 
petual scene of agitation and anxiety. To relieve bim from this sitnation, 
several of bis Iriewla ondertook a voyage, whic^, even at present, would be 
reckoned desperate t namely, to pass from Jamaica to Hispaniola, a dis< 
tance of 60 leagues, in canoes, not only unfit to weather a storm, bnt liable 
to he overset by the first squall. Providentially they arrived safely in His- 
paniola, where the governor actually refused to afford him the smallest as- 
sistance. Tbey employed above a year in frnltless importanity, daring 
vkidi time one-half of the admiral's people bad deserted him, and com- 
mitted everywhere the most savage depredadons, refosing to submit, till, 
after a Gerce engagement, they were reduced by force. At length, his 
ftiends in Hispaniola fonnd means to pnTchase a vessel, independent of the 
govemor'e sasistance, with which, proceeding to Jamaica, they brought 
away Colnmbns, who arrived in Hispaniola on the 13th of August, 1501. 

In this island be collected that pan of his fortune which had escaped the 
avarice of his enemies, and with it returned to Spain. 

At conn he was received with every mark of external courtesy ; bat 
his voyage having failed in disclosiDg the expected road to new wealth, and 
Isabella, his constant patroness, being now dead, he seems in the latter part 
of bis life, to have experienced cold neglect. He died on the :JOth of May 
1506. In his four voyages, Colnmbus discovered the Bahama islands, Cuba, 
Hispaniola, and Porto Rico, — many of the Cairibbee islands, the island of 
TrinidaJ, and that part of the continent of Soatb America which lies at the 
mouth of the Orooooco, — a pan of Mexico, — the bay of Hondnras, — and 
the coast of tbe American continent stretching thence to Porto Bello : thus 
leaving to others very little bnt tbe merit of following bis track, and of 
completing, by degrees, the discoveries which he had so adventurously 

Amerigo Vetpucci.'} While Colnmbns was eolidting the court of 
Spain to fit him out for his third voyage ; iiyrtead of complying with his 
demands, his enemies had snfficient infiuence with the king to cause 
Amerigo Vespncd, a Florentine, to be sent out to prosecnte discoveries 
in those countries first made known by Colnmbns. He sailed in 1497. 
Touching at the Canaries, be stood westwards abont 1000 leagues, and 
arrived at land, which must have been some of tbe Carribbee islands ; he then 
conbnned standing westwards till fae again reached land, which, from the 
dutancQ and latitude, ^ipear to have been part of Mexico. In this voyage 
Veepac<u neitlier made any discovery of importance, nor established any 

V. 2 k. 


-new Mttlement. In the foUowtng yew ht nMdsModiflr voflga in thaiRw 
rica of tha Spanivds. He landed io a coBntiy which be pkcea in 5* N< 
ht^ probably Snrinatn in Guiana ; and hanng proenred from die natirea 
aoma gold aad peaflsi in axcbenge fbr Myi, be retnnwd by ibe Lee- 
ward iilanda. He was aftarwarda Mophiyed by the kiag of Portngal, in 
whoae aarrice ha sailed from Liabon, ia May, 1501. AninaB; at the con- 
tinent, in S* S- lat, he niled along it to 47*, which was a greater eztent af 
eoBst than, in that quarter of the woHd, bad been hitherto explored by aay 
nangator. When he retomed, he pabHshed an aeconnt of this large eon- 
tinent ; which, diongb perii^ net a masterly perienaance, was the snly 
one hitherto ofiined to the world ; it was eagerly read by all mdcs of men, 
and the continent itaelf, instead of being named from him who first dia- 
corared it, waa called America from him vrbo diacoveved Uia groainat ex- 
tent of it> and first made known to the world tha natoie of dtosBGOuatnee, 
not ini[»^perly denominated the New worid. 

Fateo Nimez.'] Vasco Nnnez de Balboa was likewise employed in 
posecndng the discorery at tboee regions. He cmiqiteted Cnbt^ and fint 
ascertained that it was an island. On that part of the iathmns of Deriea 
.T^ere Colnmbns had failed, he fonndsd an eswUtahment, wluA he 
called Saneta Mmria dtl Aiatigwi. Here the Indians guided him erec 
that krfiy chain of moantaius i^ich, in the auddle of the isthmoat nuw 
paiallel t« the shores of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Tlie haidships 
ancoaatered in this jonmey afe described as hariag beok almost inanv- 
tnountable ; so that, althongfa tha distaaee between the two aeaa is not 
. more than 80 miles, they wandered amMg rocks, precipice*, and im- 
penetrable forests, 25 days, before ^y caoM mthtn sight of the Pacific 
ocean. The enlta^n <^ the Spsniacda at this discovery was more than 
equal to their previons dejection. They erecl«il a crosa on the spot whuice 
the ocean was first spod ; claimed the country u form as the proper^ of 
their monardi ; and descended to die opposite shor^ where Balboa, walk 
log into die sea in annou, and biaodithing his eword, took potaeesion of 
the Paa^c ocean ia the name of hU Cadiolic majesty, vowing to risk hia 
Ufa in defending it from all intrnderg. On tluA ocean be erected die fw- 
trees called Panama, and built a fleet to prosecute farther discoveriee. Aa 
a reward for these important services, the coart of Spain, to hia commiswoa 
of governor of Cuba, added that of the governmeDt of Panama, and the 
office of admiral of the South sea. Bat this settlement soon increaung in 
importance, the Spanish court, with a c^trice which at that time distin- 
guished many of their resolutions, instead of adding to the power of Bal- 
boa, sent over one Pedrarias with a snperiw commission, who, through mo- 
tives perhaps of envy, joined to the p^dions injunctions of bis employers, 
qnarrelled with Balboa, and with a parade of justice put him to dMtb. 

John Cabot.'] Henry VII. of England had at one time consented to 
enpport Columbus in the prosecution of his designs ; and that navigatw 
was only prevented &om entering into the English service by his prior 
engagement with the conrt of S[Min. When the fame of the discoveries 
made by Columbus bad spread throngh Europe, Henry also begna to con- 
sider whether he conld not yet reap some advantage Irom a quarter to 
wUch all commercial and enterpriung nations were turning their attention. 
Aa early a« the year 1496, Cabot waa engaged for thia pnrpoae in the ser- 
vice of the English king. John Cabot waa a Venetian, who had settled 
in England. With his three sons he sailed from Bristol, in May, 1597, 
with five ships under his command. His avowed intention was. not to mnk« 


di MP w riw in that gMM cooatcy Mnce knovo by tlia name of Amarin, 
Imtloexplore, ueoidiiig to Colambas'i origuial design, a weatward passaga 
to the Eaat Ltdin. It wu not yet known haw fiv the New world ex- 
tended northwanl. Cabot tbereforo imagined, that by niling westward in 
a high northern latitado, he wight paw these newly discovered r^oni, 
and find a otear paae^e to the Eaat Indies, which would Mill be mach 
ibeiter than that wbidi waa gaiarally nsed. With this design he sailed in 
n N.W. direction, bM be waa unexpectedly prerented by land from com- 
pleting hi* intmded voyi^, and only aequrod the iame of being the first 
diaeorenr id the North Ameriean continent. To the land at which be at 
first aniTad, he gare the wune pf Prima Yiita, or Newfonudland. Having 
aa|rioi«d die eeaat from 58' to 3S* N. laL without bong able to discorot 
any pawago jraeMnrds, be retniiwd home- 
In the following year, 1197, be made a second voyage to America with 
Us Bon Sebastian, who afterwards pcoceeded in the ducoreiies which his 
father had h^^nn. On the 24th of Jane he discovered Bonavista, on the 
N.£. aide ef Newfenndland. Before lus retnm he traversed the coast 
from Daria's Stnuta to Cape Florida. 

In 1502, Sebaatiaa Cafaot waa at Nawfottndlandi and, on his return car- 
ried diree of the natives of that iriand to Hmxy VIL 
' Af iner Abltcar.] Fernando Cortee, in the year 151B, made bodi the 
diaeovary and oonqnest ef Uesioo, or New Spain; end, in 1525, Pinrro 
made the discovery and oaMfBeat of Pern. Theee impwtaot tranaaftiona 
remain to be fnlly detailed in their proper places. 

Dem JHegtt de Aimagro, ^tont 1535, discovered Chili, and conqwad 
aame part of it. Tym eanqneet was, in 1640, £utber proeecated by yal- 
dnia, who, in 1541, boilt tbem a city which he called St Jago. 

^Dffigo Vespaeci, as already mentioned, disoarered the coaat of 
Bnoil, in I49& In 1500, a fleet destmed fw the EMt lodiea, was fwoed 
npon this coeat by streai of weather ; the intelligence given by it, of the 
fertility and riches of that country, induced many private adventurers to 
proceed thidier : these ware generally destroyed by the natives, till in 1549, 
John 111, king of Portugal, sent Thomat de Soia, with a fieet carrying 
1000 aoldiera, and many eccleeiastics. Ha made a settlement in the bay of 
All Smnta, where he bmlt the city of St Salvador. 

GoHzallo I^xarro, brother to the conqueror of Pern, in 1540, acciden- 
tally dtscorered the great river Amazon, and the country on its banks 
called Amazonia. 

In 15S0, MageUan discovered thoae straits, at the sonthem extremity of 
America, which still retun bis name ; and, having sailed through them, 
waa the first who, by a westerly comae, arrived at the East Indies. 

In 1513, Florida was discovered by John Ponce, who eailed Mtm Porto 
Rico. He arrived on the coast in spring, and was induced by the bean- 
lifnt appearance of the country to give it the name of Florida. Xhia name 
was for some time common to all the American continent. 

Fnndi L of France, in 1524, despatched JoKn Verraxam, a Florentine, 
to make discoveries on the American coast. He traversed it from 28° to 
SO* N. lat. 

The firat native of Spun who commanded an expedition for making dis- 
coveries in America, was Stephen Gomez, who, in 1525, in search of a 
N.W. passage to the East Inches, sailed to Cnba, thence to Florida, and 
along the coast to 46* N. lat. 

In 1SS4, Franda 1. fitted out a second npedition, and gave (be com' 

mmi] of it to JatMi Cartier. He toaclwd it Newfoundland, diMO*«rad 
the gulf and river of St Jjtwnaee, and railed norAwardi to SI' N. lit, 
in March of a paaaage to Cliina. Next year, he sailed up the river St 
Lawrence 300 miles ; be called the conntry New France ; bnilt a fort in 
which he passed the winter, and in spring returned home. 

FraactM La Roche, in 1542, was sent by the French Ung, with 200 
people, to make a settlement in Canada : they built a fort in which they 
staid only one winter, and retnmed home, A company, which, in 155<^ 
niled for Canada, were never afterwards heard of. 

Kvm the island of Cuba, Ferdinand de Solo, with 900 men, in 1539, 
sailed for Florida, intend!)^ it« conqnest. He landed at Spirito Saneto, 
and trsTelled from the sea n<Hlhwards 450 leagues ; he here dlscoTered a 
river, on the banks of which he died. Aharado, his siieceesor, built 7 bri- 
gantines, and, in the year following, embarked npon the rirer, which waa 
here a quarter of a mile broad, and 19 fothoin* deep. In loventeen daya 
be sailed 400 le^;nee, when he arrived at the sea into which this river di»> 
chsrges Itself by two months. This ^ipears to hare been the mer now 
called the MisaissippL 

By these, and. other expeditions, the esstem coast of the Ameri- 
can continent was traced with some degree of precision, and the west- 
MD coast, from the straits of Magellaii to the gulf of California. — 
Northwards from tbia gulf the coast had sometimes been visited by naviga- 
tors, bat was very itnperfectly known, till c^lain Cook, in 1778, explorad 
it from 45° to 70° M. lat., having neariy completed the delineation of the 
weaten coast of this continent. To mention the particular persoas bf 
whom every minute portion of the New world was discovered and settled, 
would be uninteresting, and is unnecessary. The different dates and cir- 
cwostances of discoveries and settlements ahall be related in the histories 
of the conntries to whidi they refer. 

Dcillizedoy Google 




Ths nordieni extremity of this vut contineat nitl fint eng^e onr atten- 
tion. ** lliMe regioua, however, wfaidi may be termed Atneriean Sibe- 
ria," says Malte Bnui, " er«n after the recent voy^ea of Ron, I^wry, 
Franklin, and Kotzebne, still continue in a great meanire uaknown.''' We 
are ignorant, for example, whether the watera seen by Mackenzie and 
Hearoe, two of the latest travellers in the extreme nor^ of Amerin, ai« 
lakes or gnlfs, or a part of ^ Icy seas. We do not know whether the 
•ea, bto which the Mackenzie and Coppermine riverB &11, commnoicatei 
with the ocean at Repniw bay. It is not known whether the coasta leen 
by Baffin are really a continnons line, or belong to a chain of islands. The 
ielandfl seen to the N. of Cape Severovostochnoi, in Siberia, have not yet 
been explored, neither has the neighbonring land of Liukbof and Jelmer. 
Perhaps Greenland is actaally united with America; and the coasts de- 
scribed by Baffin may be only an ardiipelago which leaves behind it a lai^ 

Notih-Wegt Pauage,'\ Incomplete, however, as onr knowledge of 
these bay* and straits and the general outline of the western continent in 
this qoaiter is, it woold have been still more imperfect, had it not beea 
f(w the Dnmerous expeditions sent out to those parts, to search for what ia 
well known to geogra[rfiers by the name of the North-wtat patiage- The 
existence of such a passage into the Pacific ocean, was long an important 
question among gec^^r^hers ; and its discovery tiie bronrile object among 
enterprising navigators. This problem has occupied the minds of specula- 
tive reascHiers, and called forth the powers and skill of the ablest seamen, 
from the conclusion of the 15th century to onr own times. And, althon^ 
it now appears that the existence of snch a passage is extremely donbtfol, 
and althoogb, if it actaally does exist, it will be fonnd ntlerly nnGt for the 
pnrpoaes of commerce, yet, it may not be improper to give a short acconnt 
of the reeolts of the difierent expeditions which have been undertaken in 
aearchof it. 

The discovery of a shorter passage to India wsa the first indtemeni 
to the attempts to navigate westward by the N. side of America. The 
trade carried on to the East Indies by European oations, at first fonnd 
tia way through the Mediterranean, across the iatbmns of Suez, down the 
Red sea, and, by the straits of Babelmandej, into the Indian ocean. This 
WBs a tedious and dangerous passage, but it was the only one which, at 
that time, seemed practicable. The Portuguese, after many adventnrone 
expeditions along the Atrican coasts, at length donbled the cape of Good 
Hope, and opened a passage to India, whidi, if not much shorter, was bk 
. least more expeditions and attended with less risk. This important dis- 
covery roused the genins of navigation, and men began to think of ehorteq- 

iDg tbii TOyage atill farther, by uiling to the Eaat Iniliea in a WMteiiy 
direction. Tim idea gare rise to the fomed Toyigoa of Calmnhna, and 
the discovery of the Netr World ; and there is reason to beliere that, in 
the 15th century, prerions to his grand expetUtion, Colambos had visited 
Iceland, and swled to aome distance within the Polar circle. Enropeaiu 
bad not long visited these new re^ons, when they were coovinced, not 
only that they were not the Indies tfaey were in search of, but dat no pas- 
aage could be found to them by a coarse directly to the westwards. The 
abnndance of go]d, however, fonnd by the Spaniards, rewarded researches 
which were foiled in the object for which they bad been originally under- 
taken. Other nations, perceiving the advantages gained by the Spaciards 
from voyages of discovery, but deterred from approaching the Spanish 
posseasiom by tin pope's bnlt, ud by the Spanish anu— 4>at)i at that time 
very faTtnidablft--ninied their dooghta toinrds discoveries in other qnar- 
tera. The westward passage to the East Indias again recurred, and it wat 
imagined, that, aldKn^ no paatage could be obtuned by sailiog doe W, 
yet, by steering towards the N.W., the nevly-discevered continent might 
be left on the S. and the passage to India might still be mncfa dbortoied. 

England was the first nation which endeavoored lo realize this idea. 
Henry VIL despatched the Venetian mariser, John Cabot, and hie eon 
Sebastian, in li97, with instructioDS to endeavonr to sail along the newly 
discovered continent on its N. aide, and th«k proceed, if possible, to the 
East Indies. Cabot sailed on a north-weeteriy course, ran a caoaideraUe 
distance along the coast of irtiat is now lite United States, and discovered 
Newfoundland, to which he gave the name of Prima Vitla. He con- 
cluded, however, that a passage to the East Indies, in t|ji« direction, was 
altogether impracticable, since an extensive conntry was discovered to exist, 
with on invariable and iDcreasing directioD to the N.E, where the sea hod 
been conjectured to be entirely open. The design of saekiag a pawage in 
ibis diractioQ was for some tinie, therefore, lud aside. 

After the Portuguese under the Cortareals, de Frotch under Atdtert, 
aad the Spaniards, had extended tb«r discoTeriM along the western coasts 
of America to the N. of California, reports were everywhere circulated of 
the pretended straits of Anian. Throngfa this strait it was anerted, that 
^iwe was a clear passage from the Atlaotic to the Padfic ocean. Andrew 
Urdanetta, a friar, is said to have affirmed, that he bod pawed from the 
one ocean into the other tfanmgh tfaia strait. And so abvngly was the 
world convinced of the truth of theae aaavrantiona, that the geognfi'en 
of those days dellnealad the strait in their mi^ making Anwica a large 
island, bounded by the stiaita of Magellan on the S., nd the atraita of 
Anian, leading from the coast of Ixbrador to the great ocean, on the N. 

Siuji circumstances were adequate to revive the search of a north-west 
passage. In the early pan of die I6th ceatniy, various attempts in the 
same course of navigation were made by En§)tsb seamen. Among then 
occurred the celebrated asid disostrena expedition of Sir Hugh Wiltonghby. 
Martin Frobi^er, an Englishman, bad inflnence snffitaent to [«ocaie the 
equipment of two «nall efaips of 25 tons burden for this pmpose by pri- 
TBte adrenturen- H