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N«to ©attion, Utttmtn in ^xitt, 



Jmt pnbUfthedl, in One Thick Volume ISmo,. pricsi ^n*, neatJ^ and atroDglj bonndf 
673 page!, the Second Editiqet of 

New »Kd Systematic Plan j from the Earliest Timea to the Trenty of 
Vifluna,. To which h added, a Summary of the Leading Eventa siaoe that 
Period. For the Use of Schools and uf PriTate Students, By H, WHITE, 
B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, M.A. and Ph. Dr. of Heidelberg, 

Thia wurk ia divided into Three Parts, <!orrBSpondiiiK ^rith Ancient, Middle, 
and Modem History, and a^in subdivided into Centuries, m that the various 
eT^nts are ByetematicaUy grouped together In the order of time ; while the 
naTrativ© h so aTranged that the annala of each country may be studied 
separately. To guide the rasearchea of tha student, the work coutaiuB numer- (\ 
ous Synoptical and other Tables, with Sketches of Literature, Antiquities, asid 
Manners at the great chronological epochs, 

Tha Three Parts iAneimil, Middle ^ and Modem Hiai&Ty)^ each campkte 
in iiself^ ma^ oiso be had feparate, 2a, 6il* Lmmd, 

** TliB Eiemmtt ^ Unit>ertsU Hiitorv it eotltl^d to great pr^se: the writer ha* token 
a Hnn gTsdp of ht« »ubj^t, be eihibit» a Jti^t &4tiniat& ol tliingi^i an^ s^pamt^, hy lypogm- 
phlcft] dJvlsbiu^ tb& DBTTative of ovents from th^ oommentar^/ upon them. "—^p^iTiq tor. 

'* Executed wiih muQh. Jutigfjient- The difflc^ialt tmk Qt reviqwlnff tbe viho\^ hutory of 

ttiQ worlds ajid condensliki^ it witli cleaTiiice£, has been uccompllAlierJ in this single volutnA \l 

with & siiccoas th^t does jijT^t credit to the aiitlior, usid cBJinot full to fecomuufitij it to ejt- il 

tensive uad p^rciaELeiit citmlaAion/'-^Mominff IJcrtUd, ( p 

*■ Tliia h a mnoit eicellent and valuahl^ work, — aae of the l*st, cleftfesti »nil compncteBt } 
eoiloioes of genenU bl&boi?, micient and modem ^ that we bAVQ met witiu''—SfiinbuTffh ^j 
AdvertUer. (^ 

^ ' We> con.!;id«r tliU tliQ most complete ^nd Ti^lanbl^ cnmpcudJoiD of genfiial hiattJtytQT the X 
040 <3f tJio XQiLDg that WQ havo yet leen.*' — Taifi Mtii^nzins. 

" The acnjracy of tho author'a information is unqncstionedT as it has been collected with \l 
p'Bat labour Irom original authorities;: and the Ektii with which he has digested hia Variuu5 ^i 
materiaifl iato order has given unity to the whoio/'—Edmimrffh Courani- (t 

Df MoFtoD'Anbign^, in tho preface to the Fourth Volume of the History of the TEeformati on, ^^ 

■pnaicLnsef Dr WiiLte, who wsa ei^gaged ivith him In pref^aring the Ecigli^h oHf^nal, tims (n 

acitnawlEklgi^^ Ma valiiatile senrlcca :— '* 1 could not Jifive had a more enlightened ooaiy^tor* i\ 

I liert vxpre^ mj obilgations to him for bii vbtj able asslataiice.'* (> 


Dr WMITB has aln In Pnpftratu)D« 


with an Account of the Preaeni State and Befiources of the Dniied Q 

Kingdom and its Colouies. r2mo^ pric^ 3^ bound. r) 

This Tolume wiU eontain a brief History of England, Scotland, and Ireland, fj 

with Sketches of the Literature, Antiquities, Civilisation, and Commerce of JJ 

the three Kingdom a to the present date, with an Account of the Condition j) 

and Reaonrcea of the United Kingdom and its Coloniea. The Uiatory of the {{ 

People, hitherto muoli neglected m sehool-booka, will form a prominent (i 

fe«tai« ia ttuB Woik. - vt 

£dmbi^gh£ OLtviK & Both* London : SntFimj Mam0b^^& Co. [{ 

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[Price, bound and lettered, 46. 6d. ; w with Nine Haps, 61. 6d.] 

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iTot t!)e ®0e of Scf)ool0 antr ^tibate Students. 

Author qf Principles o/Elocutiont Rhetorical Exerdeei, the r^iiTrfi| jMiHf r 

and a New General Atlas, 







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Printed by Olivwr & Boyd, 
Tweeddale Court, High Strett, Bdinburgli. 


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There is probably no bra«nch of knowledge of more 
general importance than Geography ; and some acquaint- 
ance with its leading principles and details is now justly 
regarded as an essential part of the most ordinary edu- 
cation. A knowledge of the relative position of different 
places is indispensable to the right comprehension even 
of passing events; while to the student of history or the 
man of business its value is too obvious for remark. 
Combining in a peculiar degree much that is at once 
instructing and attractive, its study is frequently regarded 
by the young rather as an amusement than a task, and 
persons of maturer years find in it a source of enlight- 
ened information as well as rational enjoyment. 

In the original compilation of the present work, the 
aim of the author was to supply what his experience 
taught him to regard as defective in the class-books then 
in use. By a diligent examination of the best authorities, 
and the adoption of an easy and systematic plan, he 
purposed to supply the student of Geography with a 
manual at once accurate and comprehensive. Of his 
success in this respect the most flattering testimonies 
have from time to time been received from many dis- 
tinguished teachers both in this country and America; 
and in the successive editions which have appeared, every 
exertion has been made to sustain the character of the 
work, by making such improvements as experience sug- 
gested, and keeping the information in accordance with 
the varying current of events. 

Of late years geographical science has^made very 

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important advances. The elaborate works of Malte- 
Brun, Balbi, Murray, and others, have given to it 
a more connected and systematic Corm, while a large 
mass of statistical and other kindred information has 
been accumulated by the efforts of governments and 
private individuals. , Many of the European states ex- 
hibit at present striking changes in their social and 
political relations. Trade and commerce have raised 
places formerly of little note into a high degree of im- 
portance ; villages have expanded into cities ; and the 
diffusion of knowledge and more rapid means of com- 
munication have effected considerable modifications in 
the manners and customs of the whole civilized world. 
Missionary exertions and the visits of navigators have 
made us better acquainted with the interesting races is^ 
habiting the insular groups of the Pacific ; and the re* 
searches of travellers have thrown much light on the 
interior of the great continents. The empire of China 
has been opened up to the eommeree of the wor)4; 
while in Australasia a vast colonial field has been di&* 
closed to the enterprise of our countrymen. 

Accordingly, in preparing the present edition for the 
press, while the original plan and arrangement have 
been strictly adhered to, several additional articles have 
been inserted, together with a oonsiderable number of 
new and interesting detaib. Great labour has been be- 
stowed in stating cLccurately the boundaries, diviaaona, 
towns, &c., of the different countries, and very partiookr 
attention given to procure correct accounts of th« ym* 
ous colonies and dependencies of the British empire ; 
and in every instance where change was thought advis- 
able, the most authentic sources have been diligen^ 

The following may be now briefly enumerated aa 
constituting the principal features of the work : — 

In the Introduction a distinct detail is ^iven of the 

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leading principles of Astronomy, embracing an account 
of the Solar System, the magnitudes and movements of 
the yarious planetary bodies and their satellites, with 
other preliminary information, designed to introduce the 
pupil to the study of the earth and its inhabitants. To- 
wards the end of the yolume will be found a description 
of the constellations, and tables of the mean right as- 
cension, the declination, and magnitude of the most 
remarkable stars. In the revision of this portion of the 
work, great care has been taken to adapt it to the 
present state of the science, by noticing all the new dis- 
coveries, and giving the more improved modern deter- 
minations of the elements of the bodies previously 
known, and deleting certain exploded terms and names. 
Thus, all the new planets have been inserted, and the 
numerical particulars of the older ones revised according 
to the most approved calculations, in addition to the in- 
troduction of lists of the satellites and the periodical 
comets. The constellations have been curtailed agree- 
ably with the necessary reform recently introduced by 
the British Association and the Continental astronomers, 
in virtue of which all the political and minor asterisms, 
anomalously inserted in the star maps by some late ob- 
servers and map-makers, have been struck out, and 
those only retained in the northern hemisphere which 
are the veritable ancient constellations as described by 
Aratus and Ptolemy, with the addition of nine intro- 
duced by Hevelius ; while in the southern hemisphere, 
the only additions to the ancient constellations are those 
marked by La Caille. 

The number of stars in each constellation has now 
been specifically confined to certain stated magnitudes, 
and has been determined in the northern hemisphere 
l&om the .recent researches of Argelander, and in the 
southern, from the Royal Astronomical Society's cata- 

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Besides bringing down the mean places of the princi- 
pal fixed stars from the year 1*00 to 1850, it has ap- 
peared advisable to substitute for the old list that con- 
tained in the Nautical Almanac, as being altogether 
a better selected one ; and with eyery star of which, 
navigators and travellers should be familiar. The 
scholar's time will therefore not be uselessly spent in 
learning them by heart. 

The subdivisions of the diflferent continents are thus 
treated : In the first place, the boundaries, divisions, 
towns, islands, mountains, lakes, bays, capes, and rivers, 
are accurately and perspicuously stated; the ancient 
divisions are likewise mentioned, and illustrative notes 
added on all these particulars. Then succeed — 1st, The 
Historical Geography of the country, comprehending 
its names, extent, chronology, and antiquities ; 2d, Its 
Political Geography, including an account of the re* 
ligion, government, army, navy, and revenue ; 3d, Its 
Civil Geography^ in which the manners and customs; 
language, literature, manufactures, and commerce of the 
inhabitants are described ; 4th, Its Natural Geography, 
containing an account of the chmate and seasons, ap- 
pearance, soil and agriculture, animals, minerals, and 
natural curiosities : Under the head Chronology, the 
history of every country is traced to the most remote 
antiquity, and brought down to the date of publication. 
In the accounts of islands and districts of minor import- 
ance, where greater brevity was necessary, it will be 
fbund that the above plan has been generally kept in 
view. In foot-notes, the sources of the rivers are in- 
variably mentioned ; in some instances a description of 
their course is added, while in others their, tributaries 
are also enumerated. 

At convenient intervals, exercises are inserted, which 
will afford a useful help for the purpose of examination. 
They are made to embrace several countries at once, so 

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as to secure greater diligence and more extensive pre- 
paration on the part of the pupil, and they can easily be 
yaried or their number increased at the discretion of the 

Lastly, the pupil is introduced to the use of the terres- 
trial and celestial globes, in a description of their nature 
and applications, accompanied by a number of useful 
rules and problems. 

The Vocabulary, which has always formed an import- 
ant feature of the work in the estimation of teachers, 
has in the present edition been carefully revised. Be- 
sides indicating the pronunciation according to the best 
authorities, it contains a brief account of every country, 
city, and place of note throughout the world, with 
its population ; also the principal mountains, rivers, &c. ; 
thus presenting several of the most valuable properties 
of a Gazetteer. 

As a help to the inexperienced, there is subjoined a 
method of teaching ; but this may be received merely as 
a suggestion, practice supplying by far the most efficaci- 
ous means for remedying defects and making improve- 
ments in all systems whatever. 

It only remains to be added, that the Maps attached to 
the volume, as also the Author's New General Atlas, 
have been corrected in the most careful manner, so as to 
correspond with and illustrate the text. 


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When the Maps are to be inserted, they should be placed in the 
following order, viz. 

Map of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres to face the title. 

Europe to face ..... page 25 

England .-,.... 27 

Scotland 38 

Ireland .---.-. 46 

Asia ....... 136 

Africa - 229 

North America -..-.. 249 

South America - - - - - - 274 

It is requested that Booksellers and Teachers, in ordering this Geography, 
-will mention whether they wish it with or withwt Maps. 


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The Manner in which this Geography may be wed 
in Teaching. 

In beginning to teach Geography^ a paragraph of the Intro- 
duction may be given each day, along with a geographical 
lesson, till the whole of the large print at the top of the 
pages be committed to memory: the notes at the bottom 
should be carefully read and explained. 

The first geographical lesson is the map of the World, at 
page 24, the large print of which must be committed to 
memory; the notes may be read twQ or three times: pre- 
vious to this, however, the first paragraph at page 22, 
and the second and third paragraphs of page 23, must be 
learned. The Teacher may then proceed to examine the 
Pupil, by describing where any one of the continents or 
oceans is situated, and asking its name; or naming it, and 
asking where it is situated : Thus, — Question — What conti- 
nent lies N. of Africa, and N. W. of Asia ? Answer — Europe ; 
or. Question — Where is the Atlantic Ocean ? Answer-^E, 
of N. and S. America, and W. of Europe and Africa. 

After the map of the World, the Pupil next proceeds 
to that of Europe, which, with the remarks, must be studied 
in the very same manner. Some may, perhaps, prefer 
teaching the maps of Asia, Africa, and America, before 
proceeding to that of England. This is, indeed, very proper, 
particularly for those who are not to enter upon a complete 
course of Geography. 

A description of the manner in which the map of Eng- 
land may be taught, will be sufficient to show how all the 
other countries should be examined; it being understood 
that the Pupil, while learning his lesson, finds out every 
particular place, which he will easily do, by having a copy 
of the Author's Atlas before him. As the Atlas has been 
purposely engraved for this Geography, and contains every 
place mentioned, the use of it will greatly lessen the labour 
of the Pupil. 

In teaching the map of England, the boundaries, some 
of the counties, and a few of the towns, will serve for the 
first lesson : a few more of the counties and towns may 
form the next. When all the counties are learned (which 
should be done as early as possible, as nothing but towns, 
and perhaps rivers, can properly be learned along with 

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them), a few of the islands^ mountains^ lakes, capes^ or 
bays, may be given with the remaining towns, till they be 
finished. The proper method of describing a river is, to 
mention where it rises, in what direction it flows, what divi- 
sions it runs through or separates, what towns it passes, what 
rivers it receives, and where it terminates. This method 
should be followed at least with the large rivers. The 
principal tributary streams will be found distinctly marked 
in the Author's Atlas. The large print being all committed 
to memory, the Teacher may now, as well as at the end of 
every lesson and revisal, ask the Pupil where such a county 
is, in what division any particular town is, where any island, 
mountain, lake, cape, or bay, is situated; or he may describe 
them, and ask their names. — The additional towns, rivers, 
&c., printed in Italics, should be reserved till the Pupil has 
learned all the large print in the book ; that is, till he has 
gone through a first course. The ancient divisions may be 
useful to classical scholars, by pointing out the situation of 
the ancient divisions, towns, nations, &c., of any country. 
The notes which belong to every lesson may be carefully 
read, and, when very interesting or remarkable, should, if 
possible, be committed to memory. A portion of the histori- 
cal, political, civil, and natural Geography of the country 
should be read by the Pupil every day. The Teacher can 
easily point out any subdivision under these heads to which 
he wishes particularly to direct attention. 

While the Pupil is studying Geography, the circles, &c., 
of the globes may be explained ; the large print at the top 
of the pages being committed to memory. The problems 
may then be solved. The rules for the most useful ones 
should be committed to memory by the Pupil. Though 
in the introductory part the circles on the globes are some- 
times mentioned, yet the Teacher, it is presumed, will not 
find much inconvenience in referring to the latter part of 
the work, where these are fully explained. 


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On the Siin^ Earth, and Moon 13 

On the Solar System 18 

On Maps 22 

Natural DiTiaions of the Earth's Snrfiboe 23 

Political Divisions of the Earth's Surface 23 



Ejpercises upon the Map of the World, and the Continent of Europe 27 

England 27 

Wales 32 

Scotland 38 

Ireland. 46 

British Colonies and Foreign Possessions 51 

Exercises upon England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. 52 

France 53 

Spain 61 

Portugal 67 

Switzerland 70 

Italy 73 

Exercises upon France, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy.... 80 

Germany..... 31 

Holland...... 87 

Belgium 92 

Denmark 95 

Norway 99 

Sweden 102 

Exercises upon Germany, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, 

and Sweden 105 

Poland.. 106 

Russia in Europe 107 

Austria 115 

Pruasia. 121 

Turkey in Europe 126 

Greece 132 

Exercises upon Russia, Austria, Prussia, Turkey in Europe, and 

Greece 135 

ASIA 136 

Turkey m Asia. 138 

Asia Minor and adjacent Countries j>142 

Arabia.. 152 

.Persia .'. 157 

Afghanistan (including Beloochistan) 162 

Hindostan, or India within the Ganges 165 

Exercises upon Asia, Turkey in Asia, Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, 
and Hindostan 174 

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The Eastern Penmsula, or India beyond the Ganges 174 

China 185 

. Tibet 190 

Eastern or Chinese Tartary 194 

Asiatic Russia 197 

Westerner Independent Tartary 203 

The Empire of Japan 206 

Exercises npon the Eastern Peninsula, China, Tibet, Chinese Tar- 
tary, Asiatic Russia, Independent Tartary, and Japan 209 

The Asiaticlsles 210 

Australasia 215 

Polynesia : 223 

Exercises upon the Asiatic Isles, Australasia, and Polynesia 228 


Egypt 231- 

Nubia 234 

Abyssinia....* 234 

States of Barbary 235 

Western Africa 238 

Southern Africa 240 

Eastern Africa. 242 

Central Africa 243 

African Islands 246 

Exercises npon Attica, 248 


British America. 252 

United States 257 

Mexico 263 

Guatemala or Central America 267 

Russian America. 268 

Greenland (including the'Arctic Polar Regions)... 269 

West India Islands 270 

Exercises upon North America, British America, United States, 
Mexico, Guatemala, West India Islands, &o 273 


SubdiTisions of South America 276 

Exercises upon South America 281 

ON THE GLOBES-Terrestrial Globe 282 

Problems to be solved by the Terrestrial Globe. 267 

On the Celestial Globe 295 

Problems to be solyed by the Celestial Globe 304 

VOCABULARY of Names of Places, &c 309 


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Geography {a) is a description of the earth (b) and its 


I. On the Swn, Earth, and Moon. 

1. The sun, earth, and moon, are bodies resembling 
a sphere or globe (c). 

(a) The term Geography is deriyed from two Greek words, yn the 
earthy and y^*^ I write, and in its original acceptation signifies a deserip' 
Hon of the earth. It is sometimes contrasted with hydrography, which 
signifies a description of the water ; but, in general, faydrograpny is rather 
rejg;arded as a branch of geography. Both were anciently considered, along 
with astronomy, as parts of cosmograj)hy, which aspired to delineate the 
xuiiyerse.—Chorography is the description of a country, province, or county. 
Topography is the description of a particular place, as a town or district. 

(b) Bjr the Earth is meant the terraqtieous globe, composed of land and 
water : it is commonly called the terrestrial globe. 

(c) The rotundity or roundness of the earth may bo prored by rarions 
arguments : 1. The appearance of a ship at sea, eitner approaching to, or 
receding from, an obserrer on the shore. In the former case the yessel 
seems to rise out of the water, and in the latter to sink beneath it,— a phe- 
nomenon that can only be accounted for by the convexity of the earth's 
surface. 2. Several navigators, amon/rwhom are Magellan, Drake, Car- 
endish, Anson, Byron, Bougainville, Wallis, Carteret, and Cook, have 
sailed quite round the earth ; not indeed in an exact circle, the winding of 
the shores preventing them from keeping a direct course. 3. Eclipses of 
the moon, which are caused by the shadow of the earth fallingon that planet, 
demonstrate that the earth is of a globular figure ; for this shadow is always 
circular, whatever situation the earth may be in at that time. 4. All the ap- 
pearances of the heavens, both on land and at sea, are the same as they would 
DO were the earth a globe ; which proves that it really is such. Nor are the 
mountains and valleys on the eartlrs surface any matcnrial objection to its be- 
ing considered as a round body ; since the highest mountains hear a less pro- 
portion to the bulk of the eartn than the sHght protuberances on the skin 

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2. The diameter of the sun is about 883,000 miles ; 
that of the earth, 7912 ; and that of the moon, 2160 {d). 

3. The sun is 1,384,000 times the magnitude of the 
earth ; and the earth nearly fifty times the magnitude 
of the moon (e), 

4. The distance of the earth from the sun is about 
95,000,000 miles (/) ; and from the moon 237,000 (g). 

of an orange bear to that fruit, or a ff^m of sand to an artificial globe of 
twelve inches diameter. The earth, indeed, is not a perfect sphere, being 
flattened or compressed at the two poles, so as to form what mathematicians 
call an obiate spheroid. The longest diameter of the earth is to the shortest 
nearly as 313 to 312. making the circumference of the equator 40 miles 
greater than that of tne meridian, and the equatorial 26 miles greater than 
the polar diameter. That the other planets, the sun, the moon, and the 
stars are globular bodies, analogy and observation justify us in believing. 

id) The diameter of the earth, or any other sphere, is a straight line con- 
ceived to pass through its centre, and terminated both ways by the surface. 
The circumference is the line which surrounds and includes any thing. 
The mean diameter of the earth is generally reckoned 7912 English miles. 

Every great circle on the globe is divided into 360 degrees or equal 
parts, llie length of a degree is 60 geographical miles, equal to 69^ 
English miles nearly. Tnerefore— To find the circumference of the 
earth : Multiply 360 by 69, and the product will be the circumference in 
English miles.— 7(9 y?nrf the diameter : Divide the circumference by 3.141 6, 
or multiply by 7 and divide by 22. — To find the superficies : Multiply the 
circumference by the diameter.— 7b find the solid contents : Multiply the 
superficies bytlie 6th part of the diameter.— (Unless great nicety be re- 
quired, degrees may be multiplied by 70 to find the number of English 
miles ; the circumference of a circle divided by 3 for the diameter, and 
the diameter multiplied by 3 for the circumference.) 

ie) The ma^utudes of spherical bodies are to one another as the cubes of 
their diameters. Therefore — To find how many times the sun is larger 
than the earth : Divide the cube of the sun's diameter by the cubd of the 
earth's diameter.— And, To find how many times the earth is larger than 
the moon : Divide the cube or the earth's diameter by the cube of the moon's 
diameter. (The square of any number is the product of the number mul- 
tiplied by itself ; and the cube of any number is the product of its square 
multiplied by the number itself: Thus, the square of 3, is 3 times 3, or 9 ; 
and tne cube of 3, is 3 time^ 9, or 27). 

The diameters of the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are to one another nearly as the 
numbers 8830, 22, 31, 77, 79, 41, 900, 760, 345, and 420. 

(/) From the observations made on the transits of Venus in 1761 and 
1769, Professor Encke found the equatorial horizontal parallax of the 
Sun, at the earth's mean distance, to be 8".5776, and consequently the Sun's 
mean distance from the earth 95,130,640 miles. Professor Bessel makes 
the parallax 8".575, and the distance 95,158,440 miles. 

ig) A body moving in a straight line from the earth to the sun, at the 
late of 10 miles an hour, could not reach it in less than 1077 years. A 
body moving at the same rate towards the moon would reach it in less 
than 3 years. 

The degrees of light and heat derived from the sun, and his apparent 
magnitude, diminish as the squares of the distances increase. Hence it will 
be fooad that the light, heat, and apparent magnitude oC the sun, are at 

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5. The san has one motion, which it performs round 
its axis in 25 days 12 hours (h). 

6. The earth has two motions ; one rodnd.its axis, in 
24 hours (i), called its diurnal motion, which causes the 
apparent motion of the heavenly bodies from east to 
west, and the alternation of day and night; another, round 
the sun, in 365 days 6 hour^, called its annual motion, 
which causes the difference in the length of the days and 
nights, and the various seasons (k). 

Mercury about 7 times greater than at our earth ; while at oar earth 
they are about 360 times greater than at Uranus. 

Oi) The aais of a sphere is the diameter about which it revolves. The 
son, the ])rimary planets, and the secondary planets, whether revolving 
round their own axes, round the sun, or round the primary planets, all 
move from west to east, except the satellites of Uranus. The comets, 
however, move in various directions. 

M. Cassini determined the time which the sun takes to revolve on its 
axis thus : the time in which a spot returns to the same situation on the 
son's disc (determined from a series of accurate observations) is 27 d. 12 h. 
20 m. : now the mean motion of the earth in that time is 27** 7' S" : hence 
360*4 27^ r 8": 27 d. 12 h. 20 m. : : 360'' : 25d. I4h.8m. the time of 

(t) That is, the time from the sun's being on the meridian of any place 
to the time of its returning to the saAie meridian next day ; but the earth 
performs a complete revolution on its axis in 23 hours 56 minutes 4 

ik) The true period of the earth's revolution round the sun is 365 days 
5 hours 48 minutes 49 seconds ; which, being nearly 365 days 6 hours, we 
reckon 365 davs for three years running, and 366 days every fourth year, 
which is callea bissextile, or leap year.* In its annual progress, the earth 
travels at the rate of 68,000 miles per hour ; while by its diamal or daily 
motion, the inhabitants of London are carried 650 miles every hour, and 
those of Edinburgh 600. 

Among the first who formed a just idea of the motion of the planets waa 
Pythagoras, a native of Samos, who flourished aboat 500 years before 
Christ. His doctrine was revived by Nicholas Copernicus, born at Thorn 
in 1473 ; ajid Inore firmly established by the great English astronomer Sir 
iFtoac Newton, who was born in 1642, and died in 1726*.— hence it is some- 
times called the Pythagorean^ sometimes the Copemican, and sometimes 
the Netfftonian system.' 

To find the rate of motion of a planet in its orbit, or that of any point on 
its surface, caused by its diurnal moHoti : 1. Divide the planet's orbitf by 
its annaal period, the quotient will be the planet's rate of motion in its 

♦ This intercalation of a day every fourth year is, however, too much, 
and amounts in the coarse of n>ur centuries to an error of 3 days 2 hours 
and 16 minutes. In order, therefore, to compensate this error, it has been 
amed not to add the day to the year 1900 ; and, that afterwards, every 
400thTear also shall be reckoned a common year. 

f Hie circumference of a pkinet's orbit is found by multiplying twice 
its distance from the sun by Swl416, or by 9f nearly. ^ i 

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7. The moon has three motions : one, round the earth, 
in about four weeks, which causes the moon's apparent 
increase and decrease, and produces the eclipses of the 

orbit nearly. 2. Divide the circumference of the planet by its dinnuJ 
period, and you will have the rate at which any point on its equator moves. 
For any other point multiply the length of a aegree of longitude at the 
given latitude* oy 360, whicn, divided by the diurnal period, will give the 
rate required nearly, in geographical miles. (Geographical miles may be 
reduced to English mUes, by multiplying them by 69^, the number of Eng- 
lish miles contained in a degree at tne planet's equator, and dividing the 
product by 60, the number of geographical miles in a degree.) 

The axis of the earth makes an angle of 23° 28^ with the perpendicular to 
the plane of its orbit, and preserves the same oblique direction throughout 
its annual course ;t hence it foUows that, during one part of its course 
the north pole is turned towards the sun, and, during another, the south 
pole is turned towards it in the same proportion ; hence we have sncces- 

* A TABLE, showing the Length of a Degree of Longitude on the 
Parallel passing through each Degree of Latitude from the Equator 
to either of the roles. 














1 59.24 
























































































41 , 

















































































































































































t This is not strictly true, though the variation, called the nutation of 
the earth's axis, is scaroely perceptible in two or thr^yeftra.. 


sun and moon ; another, round its own axis, in the same 

time ; and a third, round the sun, along with the earth, 

in a year (Z). 

siyely the seasons of summer, autumn, winter, and sprinn^.* The orbit of 
the earth bein^i^ elliptical, and the sun being in one of the /oct, the earth 
must at one period of the year approach nearer to the sun than at another, 
and will of course take more time in moiring through one part of its path 
than through another. Astronomers have observed that the earth is a 
shorter time in the winter than in the summer half of its orbit b^ about 
seyen dB.ja ; but although in winter we are nearer to the sun than m sum- 
mer, yet in the former season it seems farther from us, and the weather is 
oolder. The reason is, that the sun's rays falling more perpendicularly on 
ns in summer, augment the heat of the weather ; but, in winter, being 
transmitted more obliquely, the cold is rendered more intense. The heat 
in the torrid zone does not arise from those parts of the earth being nearer 
to the sun, but from the rays of the sun falhng perpendicularly upon, and 
darting immediately through, the atmosphere. It might likewise be ex- 
pected that, as we are nearer to the sun m the winter than in the summer. 
It would appear larger ; but the difference of distance is so small as to 
make no sensible alteration in the sun's apparent magnitude, except when 
observed with an astronomical telescope, m which the increase or aecrease 
may be rendered visible almost day by day. 

(0 An eclipse of the sun is caused bv the moon coming between the sun 
and the earth ; which can happen only at new moon ; an eclipse of the 
moon is caused by the earth coming between the sun and the moon ; which 

• The different seasons may be familiarly exemplified with a terrestrial 
plobe and a candle, thus :— Rectify the globe for 66" 32' N. lat. and move 
it round till the ecliptic corresponds vnth the horizon ; all other lights 
being excluded from the apartment, place a lighted candle on the floor, so 
that the top of it may be of the same height as the horizon of the globe ; 
place the globe on the W. of the candle ; in this position the globe vrill re- 
present the earth in spring (March), enlightened from pole to pole, the sun 
shining directly upon the equator, and the days and nights being of equal 
length ;— carry the globe round to the S. of the candle (always keeping the 
N. pole towards the N.) ; in this position the globe will represent tne earth 
in summer (June), enlightened 23" 28' rouncTthe N. pole, the sun shining 

r-pendicularly 23° 28' N. ftrom the equator, and to vnthin 23** 28^ of the 
pole, which is in darkness, the days being now long and the nights 
short (in N. lat.) ;— the globe being carried to the £. of the candle, will 
represent the earth in autumn (September), again enlightened from pole 
to pole, the sun shining directly upon the equator, and the days and nights 
being again of equal length ;— lastly, the globe being carried to the N. of 
the candle, will represent the earth in vfinter (December), enli^tened 
2S* 28' round the S. pole, the sun shining perpendicularly 23° 28' d. from 
the eauator, and to within 23° 28'of the r^. pole, which is in darkness, the 
days being now short and the nights long (in N. lat.)— 7V> represent the 
annual and diurnal motions of the earth at the same time .-—Carry the 
globe round the candle from W. to E. and keep it at the same time mov- 
ing round its own axis from W. to E. ; the former will represent the an- 
nual, and the latter the diurnal revolution of the earth — To represent the 
three motions of the moon .—Put a wire or a cord through any round body 
which is to represent the moon, as a ball or an orange ; move it round its 
own axis, and round and round the globe, which must all the while be 
moved slowly round the csEndle.— Tb represent an eclipse of the sun .—Let 
the ball or orange be put in a straight line between the candle and the 
globe :~and, To represent an eclipse of the moon :>-Let the globe be put 
m a straight line between the candle and the ball or orange. 

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II. On the Solar System. 

1. Besides the earth and its attendant the moon, 
other bodies revolve, in a similar manner, about the sun, 
and receive their light and heat from him. All these 
revolving bodies, together with the sun, form what is 
called the Planetary or Solar System. 

2. The solar system consists of the sun, the primary 
planets, the secondary planets (called also moons or 
satellites), and comets. 

3. There are seventeen primary planets, — Mercury, 

.Venus, the Earth, Mars, Flora, Vesta, Metis, Hebe, 

Astrcea, Juno, Ceres, Pallas, Iris (m), Jupiter, Saturn, 

Uranus (w), and Neptune.* 

can happen only at fuU moon. — The phenomena of the tides are produced 
by the joint action of the moon and the sun upon the waters of the ocean ; 
cniefly by tiie moon. 

(m) The existence of nine planets, (Flora, Vesta, Metis, Hebe, Astrma, 
Jtmo, Ceres, Pallas, Ms), oetween the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, 
revolying round the sun at nearly the same distances, and differing from 
all the other planets in their diminutive size, and in the form and posi- 
tion of their orbits, is one of the most sin^lar phenomena in the his- 
tory of aslaronomy. The inocNmpatibility of these phenomena with the 
regularity of the planetary distances, and with the j|;eneral harmony of 
the system, naturally suggests the opinion that the irre^arities in this 
part of the system were produced by some great convulsion, and that the 
four planets are the fraipients of a large celestial body which once existed 
between Mars and Jupiter^ If we suppose these bodies to be independent 
I>lanets, as they must be if they did not originally form one. their dimino- 
tive size, the great excentricity and inclination of their oroits, and their 
numerous intersections when projected on the plane of the ecliptic, are 
phenomena absolutely inexplicable on every principle of science, and com- 
pletely subversive of that harmony and order which, before the discovery 
of these bodies, pervaded the planetary system. But if we admit the 
hypothesis, that tnese planets are the remains of a larger body, which cir- 
cnla4bed round the sun nearly in the orbit of the greatest fragment, the 
system resumes its order, and we discover a re^Iar progression in the 
distances of the planets, and a general harmony in the form and position 
of their orbits. The elements of these new i)lanets furnish us with several 
direct arguments drawn from the excentricity and inclination of their 
orbits, and f^m the position of their perihelion and nodes, and aU con-, 
cnrring to show that the nine new i)lanets have diverged from one point 
of space, and have therefore been originally combined in a hurger boav. 
in) Uranus or Georgian planet was discovered at Bath on the 13th of 

* The discovery of this planet was attended by a very remarkable 
coincidence. Mr Adams of Cambridge, and M. Le Verrier of Paris, 
conceiving that the difEbrenoe between the computed and observed nlaces 
of Uranns was caused by the perturbations ef some undiscovered planety 


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4. There are nineteen secondary planets ; of which 

the Earth has one ; Jupiter, four ; Saturn, with his ring, 

seven ; Uranus, six (o)^ and Neptune, one. 

March 1781, by the late Sir WilKam Herschel, who, in compliment to his 
royal patron, George III., named it tfie GeoraiuntStdus^ or GeoraUm Star. 
Continental astronomers call it Uraniis, following the order of relation- 
ship indicated by the names of the other planets ; thus, Uranus was the 
father of Saturn, Saturn the father of Jupiter, Jupiter the father of 
Mars, &c. 

Those planets that are nearer to the sun than the earth, are called infe- 
rior or interior planets ; and those that are farther from the sun than the 
earth, are called superior or exterior planets.— The orbit or path, which 
a planet describes round the sun, is not circular, but resembles an ellipse 
or oval, haying the sun in one of the foci. 

The 17 primary planets are distinguished by the following characters, yiz. 
9 Mercury, 9Venus, ©the Earth, ^Mars, ^Tlora, fiVesta, *f Metis, 
T Hebe, '^'AstrsBa, tJuno, ? Ceres, f Pallas, <2i Iris, V Jupiter, 
T? Saturn, ^ Uranus, *'^ Neptune. 

Tabular View of the Principal Elements of the Solar System. 

Names of the 



MCM CLrtaiiM 
from th« Sun ia 
EngUth MUm. 


rmind the Sun 

in mean 8oUr 


RfetatiM on 
their Axm. 

iljf wbob j3«.wwL 

The Sun ... 


». ■. M. 

25 12 





1 5 

Known to the ancients 



69,000,000 224.70 

23 21 


The Earth. 


95,000,0001 365.26 





144,000,000 686.98 

1 39 




209,000,000 1187.00 


Hind, . 

. . 1847 



224,000,000 1325.49 


. . 1807 


227,000,000 1346.30 



. . 184B 


240,000,000 1462.50 



. . 1B47 



244,000,000' 1509.00 



- . 1845 



253,000,000 i 1593.07 
263,000,000' 1684.74 

1 3 

Piazai, . 




. . 1801 





Olberd, . 

. . 1802 



1788 30 






9 56 

Known to the ancients 



906,000,000 10759.30 

10 29 




1,822,000,000 30686.82 

9 30 

SirW.Herschel, 1781 



2,869,000,000 160624.63 


Le Verrier & Adams, 1846 

(o) All these satellites were discovered by Sir W. Herschel : their 
orbits are said to be nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic ; and what 
is more singular, they perform their revolutions round Uranus in 
a retrograde order, viz. from east to west, or contrary to the order of 
the signs. 

None of the satellites, except our moon, are seen but through a tele- 
unknown to each other, engaged in a series of calculations on the subject* 
Le Verrier*3 computations were first published, but those of Adams had 
been some time before in the hands of Mr Airy, the astronomer-royal. 

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5. Comets are luminous bodies, or a kind of planets 
which move round the sun in very excentric orbits (p). 

soope. Saturn's ring, the breadth of which is 17,000 miles, and its dis* 
tance from the planet about 19,000, also requires the telescope. 

NamMof ^ 

i> EoffMth 


fmm tta«r Pri- 

MiriM in Bng. 

U*h MOe*. 


tbeir PrimniM U By wkm dJmTcrad. 

Moon... ...... 



27.322 ; Known to the ancients. 

1st Sat. 
2d — 
3d - 






1.769 \ 

l^l lUalileo, . . . 1610 

16.689 ) 

1st Sat. 
2d - 
3d — 
6th — 


0.942 Sir W. Herschel, 1789 
1.370 Do. 1789 
1.888 1 D. Cassini, ... 1684 
2.740 Do. ... 1684 
4.618 Do. ... 1684 
16.946 G. Huyghens, . . 1666 
79.330 D. Ciusini, . . . 1671 

Ist Sat. 
2d - 
3d - 
6th - 


226,000 5.893 
294,000 8.706 
341,000 i 10.961 
392,000 13.465 
784,000 1 38.075 
1,668,000 107.696 

■ Sir W. Herschel, 1787 

Neptune's i 
1st Sat. 1 ... 1 ... 1 

Lassell, .... 1846 

(p) Their tail is a yery thin and slender yaponr, emitted by the head or 
nucleus, and increasing as the comet approaches the sun. — The number of 
comets observed and recorded is about 360. Of 97, the elements of whose 
orbits have been calculated, 24 have passed between the sun and the orbit 
of Mercury ; 33 between the orbits of Mercury and Venus ; 21 between 
the orbits of Venus and the earth ; 16 between the orbits of the earth and 
Mars ; 3 between the orbits of Mars and Ceres ; and 1 between the orbits 
of Ceres and Jupiter : — 32 have been seen between April and September, 
and 66 between September and April : 49 move from west to east, and 
48 in the opposite airection. In the months of September, October, and 
November 1 81 1, a very brilliant comet was observed. Amone all the dif- 
ferent comets that have aj)peared, the period of three only i^ Known with 
anv degree of accuracy, viz. Hallet's Comet, which was observed in 1631, 
1607, 1682, and 1769, the interval being about 76 years. Its last return to 
its perihelion was on the 16th of November 1836. Encke's Comet, whose 
period is 1211 days, will nass its perihelion about the Ist December 1848. 
Biela's or Gambart's Comet, whose periodical revolution is 6.7 years, 
wiU, it is calculated, return to its perihelion in 1862. Humboldt says that, 
according to ProfesBor Encke, the aphelion distanoe of the great oomet 

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6. The solar system is but a small part of the uni- 
verse. Those celestial bodies, called Fixed Stars, which 
are completely unconnected with the solar system, are, 
by astronomers, considered as so many suns, each com- 
municating light and heat to reyolving planets or 
worlds (q). 

of 1680 was 44 times that of Uranus from the sun, or 81,013,000,000 miles, 
and the period of its revolution 8800 years. The orbits of the comets are 
not coniined to any particular rej^on of the heayens like the planets, but 
seemtohaye every possible inchnation to the ecliptic— In the a^i^es of 
ignorance and superstition, comets were regarded as the infallible harbin- 
gers of great political and physical revolutions— portending wars, earth- 
quakes, pestilence, or famine. 


fiM Um Sun in 





Bai^Mli n.ilM. 

ApbdlM dU. 


Halley»s 1,718,000,000 

Encke's 211,000,000 

Biela's 334,000,000 




8 J ,000,000 



On the subject of comets, the following works may be consulted, viz. 
M. Pingr^'s ** Com^tographie," Sir Henry Englefield's work, entitled 
" On the Determination of the Orbits of Comets,'' Mr David Mylue's 
Prize Essiiv on Comets, and the more recent vrritings of M. Arago. 

iq) The fixed stars have a twinkling appearance ; the planets shine with 
a steady light. The number of fixecT stars seen at any one time, by the 
naked eye, does not exceed two thousand ; but, by the telescope, we dis- 
cover countless myriads. Sirius, or the dog-star (supposed until vcnry lately 
to be the nearest to us of the fixed stars, from its being apparently the 
largest), cannot be less than 200,000,000,000,000 miles, t. e. 200 billions of 
miles from the earth ; a distance so immensely great, that light cannot 
pass through it in less than thirty years ; a Dody moving in a straight 
line from the earth to it^ at the rate of eight miles every minute, would 
require almost fifty millions of years to reach it. Philosophers have sup- 
posed some of the stars to be so inconceivably remote, that the first beam 
of light which they emitted at the moment of their creation, though trav- 
elling at the rate of 192,000 miles in a second, has not yet reacned the 
limits of our system ; while others, which have been destroyed for many 
ages, wiU continue to shine in the heavens till the last rav which they 
emitted has reached our earth. Within the last few years, nowever, two 
stars have been ascertained to be within measurable distance. One of 
these, 61 Cygni, a small star in the northern hemisphere, was determined 
by Bessel, the German astronomer, to be 62,481 ,500,000,000 miles distant ; 
the other, « Centauri, a large double star in the southern hemisphere, was 
proved, by the late Professor Henderson of Edinburgh, to be at a distance 
of 21,479.500,000,000 miles, and to be three-fourths the weight of the sun: 
whence it may be inferred that Sirius is not less than ten times larger ; 
and our sun has therefore its superiors as well as inferiors in size amongst 
the stars. 


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III. On Maps. 

1. A MAP is the repreaentation of the earth, or a part 
of it, on a plane surface (r). ^ 

2. The top of a map is towards the north; the bot* 
torn towards the south; the W^A^-hand side towards the 
east; and the Z^yi^-hand side towards the west (s). 

3. Latitude is the distance of a place north or south 
from the equator ; Longitude is its distance east or west 
from the first meridian {t). 

4. The latitude upon maps is expressed by figures on 
their sides. If the figures increase upwards, the latitude 
is north; if they increase downwards, it is south, 

5. The longitude is expressed upon maps by figures 
along the top and the bottom. When the figures increase 
from the left to the right, the longitude is east; but 

(r) Maps differ from the globe in the same manner as a picture differs 
from a statue. The globe truly represents the earth ; but a plane surface 
cannot exhibit a just representation of a spherical body. In well con- 
structed maps, howeyer, comprising no more than ten or fifteen decrees 
of latitude and longitude, the representation will fall little short of the 
globe for correctness. 

A map of the world consists of two circles, generally representing the 
eastern and western hemispheres, into which the earth or globe is conceived 
to be divided. At the top of eacn circle is the north pole ; at the bottom, 
the south pole : the east is towards the right hand, and the west towards 
the left. In the middle, between the poles, ftrom east to west, is drawn 
the eauator : and^ crossing the equator obliquely, the ecliptic ; also, round 
each hemispnere is represented the brazen meridian : each of which circles 
is generally divided into degrees, as its corresponding circle on the globe. 
At '23} degrees from the equator, and at the same distance from the jpolee, 
are drawn the tropics and polar circles ; from pole to pole are meridians 
or lines of longitude j and irom side to side, parallels or lines of latitude. 

In maps representmg only a portion of the earth's surface, the bounding 
line at each side is part of a meridian, graduated or dividea into degrees 
of latitude ; and the bounding lines at the top and bottom are parallels of 
latitude, divided into degrees of lon^tude : these degrees are generally 
subdivided. Besides the meridional lines and parallels thus divided, other 
meridians are (or should be) dravm from top to bottom, and other par- 
aUels from side to side. 

is) When maps are otherwise dravm, the bearings are expressed by a 
small compass, vrith a *^ /teurde-lis^* pointing to the north pole. 

(0 ^h» first meridian is that from which geographers begin to count the 
longitudes of places. Different countries have fixed upon different places 
for the first meridian. In English maps and globes, tne first meri<uan is 
a semicircle supposed to pass through the RoyalObservatory at Greenwich. 

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when they increase from rigJu to left, the longitude is 
west (tt). 

IV. Natural Divisions of the Earth's Surface. 

1. The surface of the earth consists of land {x) and 
water (y), 

2. A continent is a large extent of land. An island is 
land surrounded by water. A promontory or cape {z) is 
a portion of land stretching into the sea. A peninsula is 
land almost surrounded by water. An isthmus is a nar- 
row neck of land joining two portions of land together. 

3. An ocean is a large portion of salt water ; anda^a 
is a smaller portion. A lake is water surrounded by land. 
A bay is a portion of the sea running into the land. A 
gulf is water almost surrounded by land. A strait is a 
narrow passage of water between two seas. A river is 
a stream of fresh water falling into a sea or lake. 

V. Political Divisions of the Earth's Surface. 

The poUtical divisions of the earth are chiefly em- 
pires, kingdoms, and republics (a). 

(tt) The distance of one place from another upon maps may be measured 
by applying it to the decrees on the sides of the maps ; and the degrees 

may DC reoaced to English miles by multiplying them by 69^ A scale 

of miles may be constrncted for any map, bj measuring on the side of 
it the length of a degree, which is 60 geographical, or 69^ English miles. — 
The method of finding the latitudes and longitudes of places on maps is 
similar to that of finding them on the terrestnal globe. 

(x) Denominations or land are continents, iuands, promontories or 
capes, peninsulaB, isthmuses, &c. 

(y> Denominations of water are oceans and seas,, lakes, bays, gulfs, 
straits, rivers. &c. 

(e> PoiiU, head, naxe or neu, and muU, are also used to signify remark- 
able portions of land stretching ont into the water. 

(a) An empire consists of several countries governed by a person who has 
nsoaUy the title of emi>eror ; as Russia, China, &c. — A kingdom is a 
eonntry governed by a king ; as Prussia, Denmark, &c. — A rejmblic is a 
eoontiT m which there is no monarch ; the persons governing being 
eleoted by the people. The British system is a mixture of monarchy, 
aristocraoy, and democracy ; the supreme power being vested in the 
Sovereign, the Honse of Lords, and the House of Commons. 

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Continents. — Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, 
South America (6). 

Oceans. — Atlantic Ocean (c). Pacific Ocean (d), 
Indian Ocean, Northern or Arctic Ocean, Southern or 
Antarctic Ocean. 

(a) The circumference of the earth is 21,600 geographical miles, of 60 
to a degree, or 24,840 English miles, reckoning 69 to a degree.— The surface 
of the earth contains about 196 millions of English square miles, and nearly 
thre^-fourths of it are coTered with water. The number of inhabitants on 
the face of the globe may be computed at about 850,000,000 ; of whom 
Europe is sup^sed to contain 250 millions, Africa 90 millions, America 
45 millions, Asia, with Australasia and Polynesia, 465 millions. 

Of the simace of the globe, seas and lakes occupy about 145 millions of 
English square miles, or nearly three- fourths ; and the land occupies 51 
mimons, or rather more than one-fourth. The extent of the great diyi- 
sions of the world is respectiTcly as follows : — 

Square Miles. 
Europe, with its isles, - - - - 3,750,000 

Africa, with Madagascar, &c., .... 11,700,000 

Continental Asia, 16,500,000 

Asiatic islands, including Australasia and Polynesia, 4,200,000 

South America, 6,500,000 

North do.. 7,400,000 

American islands, - - - - . 160,000 

Greenland (as far as known), .... 620,000 

ib) There are in fact only two grand continents, the eastern continent, 
or the old world, comprehending Europe, Asia, and Afirica ; and the teest- 
em continent, or the new world, comprehending North and South America. 
— Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, are called by geographers the /our 
quarters of the globe. Australasia and Polynesia are now generally 
reckoned a fifth diyisipn. 

ic) The Atlantic Ocean takes its name from Mount Atlas in Africa ; 
and from the fiction of Atlas carrying the world on his back, the name 
Atlas, applied to a collection of maps, is deriyed. 

id) When Magellan entered this ocean (in 1520) through the dangerous 
strait that bears nis name, he sailed three months and twenty days, in a 
uniform direction towards the N. W. without discoTering any hind oesides 
a few small islets. In the extreme distress which he suffered in this 
▼oyage, before he reached the 'Ladrone Islands, he had the consolation, 
however, of enjoying such an uninterrupted course of fair weather, with 
favourable winds^hat he bestowed on'this ocean the name oiPcusific, which 
it still retains. The Spaniards, having passed the Isthmus of Darien from 
N. to S. at the discovery of this ocean, named it the South Sea. 

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'""""' 25 


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jfo £-t*f9^ W' 

r Z^fttg. Jt, 


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Boundaries. — N. Northern Ocean; W. Atlantic 
' Ocean ; S . Mediterranean^ Archipelago, Sea of Marmora, 
Black Sea, Mount Caucasus ; E. Caspian Sea and Asia. 

Countries. — 1. England; 2. Scotland; 3. Ireland; 
4. France; 5. Spain; 6. Portugal; 7. Switzerland; 
8. Italy; 9. Germany; 10. Holland; 11. Belgium; 
12. Denmark ; 13. Norway ; 14. Sweden ; 15. Russia ; 
16. Austria; 17. Prussia; 18. Turkey; 19. Greece. 

Capitals. — 1. London; 2. Edinburgh; 3. Dub- 
lin; 4. Paris; 5. Madrid; 6. Lisbon; 7. Berne; 8. 
Rome; 9. Frankfort; 10. Amsterdam; 11. Brussels; 
12. Copenhagen ; 13. Christiania ; 14. Stockholjn ; 15. 
St Petersburg ; 16. Vienna ; 17. Berlin ; 18. Constan- 
tinople ; 19. Athens. 

Islands. — ^Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Spitzber- 
gen. Nova Zembla, Zealand, Funen, Candia, Negropont, 
Ionian Islands, Sicily, Malta, Corsica, Sardinia, Majorca, 
Minorca, Ivi^a. 

Peninsulas. — Spain and Portugal, Italy, Norway 
and Sweden, Jutland, Morea, Crimea. 

Capes. — North Cape, Naze, Skaw, Dunnet Head, 
Land's End, Cape Clear, La Hogue, Ortegal and Finis- 
terre, St Vincent, Spartivento, Matapan. 

Mountains. — Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees, Haemus 
or Balkan, Carpathian, Dovrefield, Kolen, Ural. 

Seas, Gulfs, &c. — Mediterranean Sea, Gulfs of 
Lyons, Genoa, Taranto ; Adriatic Sea, Archipelago, 
Black Sea, Seas of Marmora and Azoph ; Bay of Biscay, 
English Channel, German Ocean, St George's Channel, 
Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, Gulfs of Bothnia, Finland, and 
Riga'; Skager Rack, Cattegat, White Sea. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


Straits. — Gibraltar, Bonifacio, Messina, Darda- 
nelles, Constantinople, Gaffa or Enikale, Dover, the 
Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt.* 

Lakes. — Ladoga, Onega, Wener, Wetter, Geneva, 

Rivers. — Volga, Dnieper, Don, Danube, Rhine, 
Rhone, Elbe, Oder, Vistula, Po, Seine, Loire, Ebro, 
Tagus, Thames.f 


This part of the globe is the smallest in extent, yielding considerably to 
Africa. From the Rock of Lisbon in the W. to the Ural Moontains in the 
E. the length is nearly 3400 British miles ; and the breadth, from the North 
Cape in Lapland to Cape Matapan, the southern extremity of Greeoe, 
about 2400. The population is estimated at 250 millions. 

The ancients had no just ideas of the boundaries of Europe, the name it- 
self having seemingly originated from a small district near the Hellespont, 
as the distinctive name of Asia also spread from the Opposite shore. 

The ancient porndaHon of Elurope consisted of the Celts in the W. and 
S. ; the Fins in tne N. E. ; and the Laps or Laplanders, a diminutive race 
like the Samoiedes of Asia, in the farthest N.j and who appear to have en- 
riched their ori^nal rude language by adoptmg in a ^eat measure that of 
their more civilized neighbours, the Fms. Those ancient inhabitants, who 
seem to have been thinly scattered, were driven towards the W. by the 
Scythians or Goths from Asia, whose descendants occupy the greater part 
of Europe ; by the Sarmatians or Slavonic tribes, also from Asia, the ances- 
tors of the Russians, Poles, &c., and who were accompanied by the HeruUj 
using what is now called the Lettic speech, to be found in Prussia and the 
W. of Russia, being akin to the Slavonic language, yet with many shades 
of distinction. From Africa, the colony of IbeH, and northern Maurc' 
tani, passed into Spain at a very early period ; and sometime later the 
Hungarians and the Turks entered Europe from Asia. 

The Christian religion prevails throughout Europe, except in Turkey. 
Wherever the Christian laith has penetrated, knowledge, industry, and 
civilisation, have followed ; among the barbarous tribes in the N. the 
progress was unhappily slow, Scandinavia remaining pagan till the 
eleventh century ; and some Slavonic tribes on the S. of the Baltic till the 
thirteenth ; nav. it is not much more than a century since the Lapkinders 
were convertea oy missions from Denmark. The professors of the Chris- 
tian religion are divided into three great classes, CatholicSy Protestants. 
and adherents of the Greek church. The first occupy the south-west oi 
Europe, the second the north-west, and the third the east. 

This fair portion of the globe is situated almost entirely within the 
nwrth temperate zone, and enjoys a climate more agreeable and better 
adapted to preserve tne human frame in health and vigour than that of 
any other equal portion of the earth's surface. 

* For the Sound, Great Belt, and Little Belt, see the Map of Denmark. 

t The Volgaj the Dnieper^ and the Don rise in the middle of Russia, 
the Danube rises in the S. W. of Grermany, the Rtwae and the Rhone rise 
in Switzerland, the ElbCj the Oder, and the Vistula in the N. of Austria, 
the Po rises in the N. W. of Italy, the Seine in the E. and the Loire in the 
S. of France, the Ebro in the N. and the Tagus in the iniddle of Spain, the 
Humes in the S. W. of England. Digitized by LjOO< 


by Google 

ThameTUiiiiQ S. W. of England. 

Digitized by 




i Where is Europe, Africa, Russia, Portugal, the Atlantic 

Ocean, Ireland, the Alps, Copenhagen, Madrid, Asia, the Black 
Sea, Malta, Sweden, the Pacific Ocean, Duhlin, the Volg% 
Sicily, the Pyrenees, Vienna, Italy, Turkey, N. America, the 
Indian Ocean, St Petersburg, the Mediterranean Sea, the Straits 
of Dover, the Bay of Biscay, Scotland, Iceland, Rome, Stock- 
holm, the Adriatic Sea, the Straits of Gibraltar, the Loire, the 
Ebro, S. America, the Northern Ocean, England, Paris, the 
Apennines, the English Channel, Spain, Denmark, the Darda- 
nelles, Lisbon, Constantinople, Sardinia, London, the Tagus, 
the Southern Ocean, Berlin, the Baltic Sea, Norway, France, 
Austria, Edinburgh, the White Sea, the Gulf of Finland, Prus- 
sia, Corsica, Switzerland, the Gulf of Lyons, Christiania, Ma- 
jorca ! &c. &c. Or thus — 

What is the name of the continent N. from Africa, of the 
continent S. W. from Asia, of the country in the N. E. of Eu- 
rope, of the country in the S. W. of Europe, of the ocean E. jfrom 
N. and S. America, of the island W. from Great Britain, of the 
mountains in Switzerland, of the capital of Denmark 1 &c. &c. 
All the preceding questions in the former paragraph may be re- 
peated in this form. 


Boundaries. — N. Scotland ; W. Irish Sea and St 
George's Channel ; S. English Channel ; E. German 

Counties. — 1. Northumberland ; 2. Durham ; 3. 
York ; 4. Lincoln ; 5. Norfolk ; 6. Suffolk ; 7. Essex ; 
8. Cumberland ; 9. Westmoreland ; 10. Lancashire ; 
11. Cheshire; 12. Shropshire ; 13. Hereford ; 14. Mon- 
mouth ; 15. Derby ; 16. Nottingham ; 17. Stafford ; 
18. Leicester ; 19. Rutland ; 20. Worcester ; 21. War- 
wick ; 22. Northampton ; 23. Huntingdon ; 24. Cam- 
bridge ; 25. Gloucester ; 26. Oxford ; 27. Buckingham ; 

Digitized by LnOO^lC 


28. Middlesex; 29. Hertford; 30. Bedford; 31. Som- 
erset; 32. Watshire; 33. Berkshire; 34. Surrey; 36. 
Kent; 36. Sussex; 37. Hampshire; 38. Dorset; 39. 
Devon; 40. Cornwall. 

Towns. — 1. Newcastle, Berwick, Morpeth, Aln*- 
wick (a); 2. Durham (6), Sunderland (c), Stockton; 

3. York, Leeds, Sheffield, Hull, Scarborough, Whitby ; 

4. Lincoln {d), Gainsborough (e), Boston, Stamford; 

5. Norwich, Yarmouth; 6. Ipswich (/); 7. Chelms- 
ford, Colchester, Harwich ; 8. Carlisle, Penrith, White- 
haven, Workington ; 9. Appleby, Kendal ; 10. Lan- 
caster, Liverpool, Manchester, Preston (g) ; 11. Ches- 
ter, Stockport ; 12. Shrewsbury (A), Bridgenorth ; '13. 
Hereford ; 14. Monmouth, Chepstow ; 15. Derby, 
Chesterfield ; 16. Nottmgham (i), Newark ; 17. Staf- 
ford, Litchfield (k), Burton ; 18. Leicester (l), Har- 
borough, Bosworth (m) ; 19. Oakham, Uppingham ; 
20. Worcester (n), Evesham (o), Droitwich ; 21. War- 
wick, Coventry, Birmingham {p), Stratford-upon- 
Avon (q) ; 22. Northampton, Peterborough, Daventry ; 
23. Huntingdon (r), St Neots, St Ives ; 24. Cambridge, 
Ely, Newmarket; 25. Gloucester, Tewkesbury («), 
Bristol; 26. Oxford (t), Woodstock, Banbury; 27. 
Buckingham, Eton; 28. London (w), Westminster, 
Brentford ; 29. Hertford, Ware ; 30. Bedford, Biggles- 
wade ; 31. Bath (a?), Wells; 32. Salisbury (y), Wilton; 
33. Reading, Windsor ; 34. Guildford, Kingston, South- 
wark ; 36. Maidstone, Canterbury (z), Rochester, 
Chatham, Dover, Sandwich ; 36. Chichester, Brighton, 
Hastings (aa) ; 37. Winchester (bb), Southampton, 
Portsmouth ; 38. Dorchester, Weymouth ; 39. Exeter, 
Plymouth, Dartmouth ; 40. Bodmin, Launceston, Truro 
(cc), Falmouth, Penzance. 

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Islands. — Isle of Man, in which are Dotiglas, Castle^ 
ton, Ramsey, Peel ; Isle of Anglesea ; Lundy Isle ; 
Scilly Isles, principal St Mary's ; Isle of Wight, in 
which are Newport, Cowes, and Ryde ; Sheppey ; 
Thanet; Holy Island; Coquet: Near the coast of France 
are, Jersey, m which is St Helier ; Guernsey, in which 
18 St Pierre ; Alderney ; Sark. 

Mountains. — The Cheviot Hills on the borders of 
Scotland; in 3, Bowfell, Whernside, Ingleborough, 
Pennygant ; 8, Skiddaw, Crossfell ; 8, 9, Helvellyn ; 
12, Wrekin ; 15, the Peak ; 20, Malvern ; 24, Gog- 
magog ; 25, Cots wold ; 31, Mendip. 

Lakes. — In 8, Derwent-water or the Lake of Kes- 
wick ; between 8 and 9, UUs-water ; between 9 and 
10, Winander-mere|or Winder-mere ; in 23, Wittlesea- 

Capes. — Flamborough Head, Spurn Head, N. Fore- 
land, S, Foreland, Dungeness, Beachy Head, the 
Needles, St Alban's Head, Portland Point, Start Point, 
Lizard Point, Land's End. 

Bays and Straits. — Robin Hood's Bay, Bridhngton 
Bay, Humber Mouth, the Wash, Yarmouth Roads, the 
Downs, Straits of Dover, Spithead, Torbay, Mounts 
Bay, Bristol Channel, Swansea Bay, Milford Haven, 
St Bride's Bay, Cardigan Bay, Caernarvon Bay, Menai 
Strait, Morecambe Bay, Solway Frith. 

Rivers. — Thames, Great Ouse, Severn, Trent, Hum- 
ber, Mersey, Yorkshire Ouse, Tyne.* 

• The Thames rises in the E. of Gloucester, the Great Ouse in the S. 
w Northampton, the Severn in the S. of Montgomery in Wales, the Trent 
» the N. W. of Stafford, the Humber (formed by the Ouse, Aire, and 
Jwi*), in the S. E. of Yorkshire, the Mersey in the N. of Derby, the 
Yorkshire Ouse (composed of the Swale and Ure), in the N. W..of York- 
Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Additional Towns.* — 1. N. Shields, Hejehatn (dd), Bel- 
f&rdy Wooler^ Bathbury^ BeUingham; 2. 8. Shields^ Hartlepool, 
Bishop Auddandy Darlington; 8. WakefiM, EalifaXy Bradford, 
Huddersfiddy Doncaster, Beverley, Harrowgate, Knaresborough, 
Richmond^ Ripon, Aldborough, Pontefract; 4. Grimsby, Homcastle, 
Louthy Grantham ; 6. Lynn Regis or King^s Lynn, Cromer, Thet- 
ford ; 0. Bury St Edmunds, Lowestoff, Sudbury, Bungay, Orford; 
7. Maldon {ee), Epping, Tilbury-fort ; 8. Cockermouth, Wigton, Kes- 
wick; 0. Kirkby-Lonsdak, Ambleside; 10. Warrington, Bolton, 
Blackburn, Rochdale ; 11, Nantwich, Northwich, Macclesfield ; 12. 
Bishop^ s Gastle, Ludlow (jf) ; 13. Leominster, Ross (gg) ; 14. 
Abergavenny, Newport, Pontypool; 16, Matlock, Buxton,, Wirk- 
' worth; 16. Mansfield {hh), Retford; 17. Newcastk-under-Line, 
Wolverhampton; 18. Hinckley, Loughborough, Lutterworth (ii), 
Melton-Mowbray ; 20» Kidderminster, Dudley, Stourbridge; 22. 
Towcester, Naseby, Fotheringay Castk (kk) ; 23. KimboUon, Stil- 
ton; 24. Wid>each ; 25. Cirencester, Cheltenham, Stroud; 26. 
Witney, Henley ; 27. Aylesbury, Marlow, Wycombe ; 28. Highgate, 
Staines, Hampstead, Uxbridge ; 29, St Albans, Barnet ; 30. Dun^ 
stable, Woburn; 31. Taunton, Wellington {It), Bridgewater; 32. 
Marlborough, Devizes, Bradford ; 33. Abingdon, WaUingford, New- 
bury ; 34. Ryegate, Epsom, Farnham, Egham (mm), Croydon ; 35. 
Deptford, (xreenwich, Woolwich, Gravesend, Q;aeenborough, Sheer- 
ness, Margate, Ramsgate, Deal, Folkestone, Dartford, Tunbridge, 
New Romney, Hythe; 36, Arundel, Shoreham, Winchekea, Rye, 
Lewes; 37. Gosport, Andover, Lymington, Christ Church; 38. 
Bridport, Poole, Shaftesbury ; 39. Barnstaple, Oakhampton, Tavis- 
tock; 40. Penryn, St Ives, HeUstone, 

Additional Rivers. — Wear in Durham, Tees the southern 
boundary of Durham, Eden in Westmoreland and Cumberland, 
Ribble in Lancashire, Witham in Lincolnshire, Nen/row North" 

shire, the Tyne (composed of the N and S, Tyne), in the W. of Northum- 
berland. ^ 

* The places printed in italics may be more snccessfuUy taught in a 
second course. 

Digitizejl by VjOOQIC 


ampton$Mre enters the Waah, Medway and Stour in Kent, li- 
chen and Test in Hampshire^ Exe in Devon^ire, Parret in Somer- 

Ancient Ditisions.— Ottadeni, (1 and 2) ; Brifjantes, (3, 8, 9, 10) ; 
Cornavii, (11, 12, 17, 20, 21) ; Silures, (13, 14) ; Coritani, (4. 16, 16, 18, 
19) ; Iceni, (5, 6) ; Trinobantes, (7) ; Catieuclani, (22, 23, 24, 29, 30); 
Dobuni, (25, 26) ; Atrebatii, (27, 28, 33) ; Regni, (34, 36) ; Cantu, 
(35) ; Belgae, (31, 32, 37) ; Durotriges, (38) ; Damnonii, (39, 40). 

The Saxon Heptarcht, or the Seven Kingdoms of the Saxons. — 
Kent, (35) ; South Saxons, (34, 36) ; East Saxons, (7, 28, and part of 29) ; 
East Angles, (5, 6, 24) ; West Saxons, (31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 39) ; Mercia, 
(4, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30) ; North- 
nmberland, (1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10). 
(a) At Alnwick is the magnificent residence of the Percys, Dukes of 

Northumberland ib) At Neville's Cross, near Durham, Philippa, the 

qaeen of Edward III., defeated David II. King of Scots, who was taken 

prisoner (c) Sunderland is noted for a fine cast-iron bridge over 

the river Wear. {d) The great bell here, called Tom of Lincoln^ 

having been cracked in 1827, was recast and placed in the central tower 

of the cathedral in 1835: it weighs 5 tons 8 cwt. ie) At Gains- 

borongh, Swein the Danish king was mnrdered ; and a bloody engage- 
ment took place in the civil wars between (Charles I. and his parliament, 

when Lord Cavendish was killed. (/) Ipswich, the birthplace of Wol- 

sey. Co) The forces of the Pretender were defeated at Preston in 1715. 

(A) Two parliaments have at different periods been held at Shrews- 
bury ; and a battle was fought between Henry IV. and Harry Hotspur, 
in which Percy (or Hotspur) was killed. (t) At Nottingham the unfor- 
tunate Charles I. raised the royal standard at the commencement of the 

civil wars. (k) Litchfield is the birthplace of Dr Samuel Johnson. 

(/) In the Abbey of Leicester, the haughty and unfortunate Cardinal 
Wolsey died : Henry V. held a parliament here, in which the cruel and 

disgraceful law for burning heretics was made. (m) Bosworth is chiefly 

noted as the scene of the bloody battle between Richmond and Richard III. 

in 1485, which ended in the total defeat and death of Richard. (n) In 

1651^ Charles II. was defeated at Worcester by Cromwell, after a most 

obstinate engagement. (o) A battle was fought at Evesham in 1265, 

which restored Henry III. to his throne, and in which the Earl Df Leices- 
ter and the barons of his party were slain. (p) Birmingham^ Burke's 

" toy-shop of Europe," is celebrated as a rich, populous, manufacturing, 

Elace : between 60 and 70 thousand people are engaged in the various 
ranches of manufacture. (,q) Stratford-upon-Avon, famed as the 

birthplace ■ of Shakspeare. (r) Huntingdon was the birthplace of 

Oliver Cromwell (*) Near Tewkesbury was fought, in 1471, that de- 
cisive battle in which Margaret of Anion was taken prisoner ; her son 
Edward basely stabbed by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, after the en- 
gagement, and her adherents completely defeated by the Yorkists. 

(0 The university of OxfordhB confessedly the first in the world : it con- 
tains 19 colleges and 5 nails, all most liberally endowed. {u) London 

was well known to the Romans as a commercial town ; and in a. d. 26 
its merchants were spoken of as very rich : the length of London is 7 

miles, its breadth 4 J, and population, including the suburbs. 1,870,727. 

ist) Bath is indisputably the most compact, elegant, ana beautiftil city 

in En^l&nd (y) The spire of Salisbury cathecural is the most lofty in 

the kiiL|dom, being 410 leet high ; there are 88 bells in its tower 

(«) At Uanterbury Becket was murdered and enshrined ; and, tiU the Ref- 
ormation, the pilgrimages to the cathedral, where miracles were said to be 
wronght oy his sainted bones, enriched the town and neighbot^hood.--— 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


(aa) The battle of Hastmgi, in 1066, in which King Harold was defeated 

and slain, placed William the Conqueror npon the English throne. 

ibh) Winchester, the ancient residence and burial-place or 13 Saxon kings, 

and of some British monarchs. ice) The tin-mines of Cornwall have 

been uninterruptedly worked from a very remote era : 100,000 miners are 
employed, and about 16,000 are in the neighbourhood of Truro. 

(dd) In 1463, a battle was fought at Hexham between the contending 
parties of York and Lancaster, in which the adherents of the red rose were 
entirely defeated. — r-(««)ilfa/e/on wasa Roman station ; near it, Boadicea 

defeated a Roman army ,and here Ethelred built a castle. iff) Edward V. 

liTed at Ludlow some time before his accession to the throne : Arthur, son 

of Henry VII. kept his court and died here. igg) The town of Ross 

is greatly indebted for accommodation and comfort to JohnKyrle, Pope's 
Man of Ross. (M) Mansfield on the edge of Sherwood Forest, for- 
merly the scene of Robin rfood's depredations. Hi) Wickliffe, the re- 
former, was the rector of Lutterworth; his pulpit is still shown to 
strangers ; in this church he was interred ; and thirty years after his de- 
cease his bones were dug up, burnt with impotent rage and bigotry, and 

the ashes thrown into the nver. ikk). Fotheringay, noted anciently for 

its castle, which is now destroyed : in its church are interred Richard 
Duke of York, killed at the battle of Wakefield, and Edward Duke of 
York, slain in the field of Agincourt : Richard III. was bom in the castle, 

and Mary Queen of Scots beheaded there. (//) Wellington gives title of 

duke to tne Duke of Wellington. {mm) Near Egham is the celebrated 

meadow, called Runnymead, where King John, in 1215, was compelled to 
sign Magna Charta. 

The dinque Porto, five havens on the coast of England, towards France, 
so called by way of eminence, viz. Hastings, Dover, Romney, Hythe, and 
Sandwich, to which Rye and Winchelsea were afterwards added, were 
first established by William the Conqueror for the better security of the 


Counties. — 1. Anglesea; 2. Caernarvon; 3. Den- 
bigh ; 4. Flint ; 5. Merioneth ; 6. Montgomery ; 7. 
Cardigan; 8. Pembroke; 9. Caermarthen; 10. Glamor- 
gan ; 11. Brecknock ; 12. Radnor. 

Towns. — 1. Beaumaris, Holyhead ; 2. Caernarvon, 
Bangor, Conway ; 3. Denbigh, Wrexham ; 4. Flint, St 
Asaph ; 5. Dolgelly, Bala ; 6. Montgomery, Welsh- 
pool ; 7. Cardigan, Aberystwith ; 8. Pembroke, St Da- 
vid's, Haverfordwest ; 9. Caermarthen, Kidwelly ; 10. 
Cardiff, Merthyr Tydvil, Llandaff, Swansea; 11. Breck- 
nock, Builth ; 12. New Radnor, Presteign, Knighton. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Mountains. — In 2, Snowdon; 5, Berwyn, Gader 
Idris; 6, Plinlimmon ; 11, Vann or Brecknock Beacon. 

Islands. — Skerry or the Isle of Seals; Bardsey; 

Capes. — Great Qrmes Head, Holy Head, Strumble 
Head, St David's Head, Gowen's Point, Worm's Head. 

Rivers.— Dee, Clwyd, Severn, Wye.* 

Additional Towns. — 3. Llangollen^ Ruthin; 4. Holywell, Mold; 
5. Harleighf Dirmsmouthy ; 6. Llanidloes, Machynleth ; 8. Mil/ordy 
Tenby; 9. Llanelly, Llandovery, Llandilh ; 10. Carphilly, Neath, 
Cawbridge; 11. Crickhotoel, Hay. 

Ancient Ditistons.— Mona (1) ; GrdoYlces (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) ; Demeta, 
(7,8,9); Silures, (10, 11, 12). 

I. Historical Geography of England, 

Ist, Names.— The name of Britain is deriTod by some from a. Phoeni- 
cian word ; by others from the Brets, a tribe of which there are traces in 
GvLol and Scythia. Amonf the first objects of the Phoenician intercourse 
was tin, whence the Greek name of Casnierides, or the tin islands, an 
appeUation afterwards confined, it has been supposed, to the Scilly isles. 
'Die name of Anglia or Enaland is well known to nave originated from the 
A ngles, a nation of the Cimoric Chersonese or modem Jutland, who settled 
in tne northern parts in the sixth century. 

2d, Extent.— The extreme len^h of Great Britain may be computed 
at 580 British miles, and the extreme breadth at 320. The extent of Eng- 
land and Wales in square miles is computed at 57,812 ; the population m 
1841 amounted to 16^035,795, including the army and nayy on shore; and 
the number of inhabitants to each square mile is 278. 

3d, Chronology. — The earliest inhabitants of England are supposed 
to have been the Gael or Southern Celts, who probably migrated from 
Gaul. The Phcenicians traded yery early with the inhabitants of Corn- 
wall for copper and tin ; but they knew little or nothing of the interior of 
the country. It is supposed that the Cymri or Cimbri, from the same 
regions whence the Angles afterwards proceeded, were Northern Celts, the 
ancestors of the modem Welsh. The Scythians or Goths from Asia having 
seized on Germany and a great part of Gaul, gradually droTO the Celts 

* The Dee rises in the N. of Merioneth, the Clwyd in the middle of 
Denbigh, the Severn and the Wye rise in the S. of Montgomery,from the 
Plinlimmon hills. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC - 


towards the west, and appear to have sent colonies into England before 
the Christian era ; for Gsesar found many tribes of the Belga^ a German 
or Oothic nation, established in the S. and E. of Britain. Julius CsBsar, 
the first Roman emperor, invaded Britain 55 years before Christ. After 
many bloody contests, the Romans subdued the greatest part of the island, 
but finally left it in the year 448. The Britons.y^YLO were originally brave 
and warlike, had become so enervated, that, when left to themselves, they 
were unable to repel the incursions of their northern neighbours, the Scots 
and Picts. The Scueons and Angles whom they invited to their assist- 
ance, found means to establish themselves in England, and divided it into 
seven kingdoms, called^ the Saxon Heptarchy , which were united under 
one monarch, Egbert, in 827. The unsubdued remains of the ancient 
Britons, when expelled from other counties, sought refuge in Wales, Cum- 
berland, and Cornwall. For about 200 years England continued to be 
governed by Saxon princes ; of whom the most remarkable was Alfred 
the Great, The Danes next gaiined possession of the kingdom : and, in 
1017, Canute^ King of Denmark and Norway, mounted the throne. In 
1041, the Saxon line was again restored, till by the defeat and death of 
Harold at the battle of Hastings, 14th October 1066, William Duke of 
Normandy, called henceforth William the Con^tteror, became master of 
the country. The succession of kings, after William the Conqueror, is as 
follows -.—William (Rufus) II. Henry I. Stephen, Henry II. Richard I. 
John, Henry III. Edward I. Edward II. Edward III. Richard II. 
Henry IV. Henry V. Henry VI. Edward IV. Edward V, Richard III. 
Henry VII. Henry VIII. Edward VI. Mary, Elizabeth, James I. (VI. 
^Scotland), Charles I. {The Commonwealth, Oliver CromwelL Protector), 
Charles II. James II. William III. or William and Mary, Queen Anne, 
Greorge I. George 11. George III. George IV. William IV. Queen 

Her present Majesty, Victoria, was bom 24th May 1819, and proclaimed 
queen 21st June 1837. 

Henry II. conquered Ireland in 1172. 

Edward I. united Wales to England in 1283. 

The crowns of Scotland and England were united in 1603, under James 
I. ; the kingdoms were united unaer Queen Anne, in 1707 ; and in the 
year 1800 the consolidation of the government was rendered complete by 
the incorporation of the parliament of Ireland with that of Great Britain, 
under the designation of the Imperial Parliament. 

4th, ANTiQuiTiEs.--On Salisbury plain, in Wiltshire, is a remarkable 
monument of antiauity, called Stonehenge. It consists of 43 very large 
stones, some placea upright and others horizontally across them. One of 
these stones measures 25 feet in length, 7 in breadth, and at a medium 3^ 
in thickness. Most antiquaries suppose this circular work to have been 
a temple of the Druids, After the establishment of Christianity, the 
great courts were held on what were called Moot-hills, or hills of meeting, 
many of which still exist in the British dominions. A great number of 
Roman inscriptions, altars, &c., have been found in the N. along the greai 
frontier wall, which extended from the Solway Frith to the estuary of 
the Tyne ; the roads were also striking monuments of Roman power. 
The vaults erected by Grimbold at Oxiord, in the reign of Alfred, are 
justl;r esteemed curious relics of Saxon architecture. One of the rudest 
specimens is Coningsburg castle in Yorkshire ; but as that region was 
subject to the Danes till the middle of the tenth century, it is probably 
of Danish origin. The camps of the Danes^ like those of the Belga and 
Saxons, were circular : while those of the Roman armies are known by 
the square form. Among others, the cathedrals of Durham and Win- 
chester may be mentioned as venerable monuments of Anglo-Norman 
architecture. York Minster and Westminster. Hall and Abbey ire 
among the finest specimens in Europe of the Gothic style which prevailed 
before the recovery of the Greek ana Roman architecture. 


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II. Political Geography. 

Ist, Keugion.— Christianity, we are told, was first published in Britain 
by the disciples of the Apostle John. Certain it is, that about the year 
150, a great number here professed the Christian faith. In the 14th 
century, John Wickliffe^ styled the Morning Star of the Reformation, 
exposed the corrupt errors and practices of the monks ; and, on his return 
from Rome, preacned with still greater vehemence against the corruptioa 
of the Roman church. The religion now established by law is Episcopal 
Protestantism : all other religions, however, are tolerated. There are two 
archbishops, namely, those of Canterbury and York, and 26 bishops. 

2d, GovBBNMENT, &c.— The British government is a limited monarchy, 
with two senates, one of hereditary peers, the other of representatives 
chosen by the people. The sovereign nas the executive power, and in her 
name all public acts are put in force ; but she cannot make laws nor im- 
pose taxes unless by authority of parliament. The House of Lords re- 
presents the nobility or aristocraqf^ and the House of Commons the 
people ; and thus the three different species of government are combined 
m that of Britain, and constitute its excellence. The institution of trial 
by jury was till lately peculiar to Britain ; and the judicial system has 
been justly held to be more pure and liberal than that of other countries.'^ 

3d, Abmt and Navt.— The armj during the last continental war was 
supposed to exceed 350,000 men, including militia and volunteers ; but 
in 1848, it amounted to only 140,000.— The glory of Britain is her Wooden 
Walls, a name significantly applied to the British navy ; in size, strength, 
and number of ships, far exceeding any example on record. In the navy- 
list for 1810, the total number oi ships was 1113, of which 256 were of 
the line. For this immense fleet the number of seamen amounted to 
140,000. In 1848, the navy consisted of 680 ships of war, carrying from 
1 to 120 guns each, and manned by 56,000 seamen. — The revenue of 
Britain and Ireland is about fifty-two millions per annum, and the 
national debt eight hundred and forty millions. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Mannebs and Customs,— The reign of Elizabeth^hich delivered 
the country from spiritual thraldom, ana ushered in the Reformation, had 
a wonderful efiect m civilizing manners. The cold restraint which some 
foreigners have ascribed to the English exists only in appearance. A 
more genuine attribute of the nation is integrity. Their thorough 
sense ot liberty inspires them with courage ; aha they are renowned for 
valonr both by sea and land. The chier amusements are those of the 
theatre and the field, and various games of skill or chance. The houses 
in England are peculiarly commodious, neat, and clean ; and" domestic 
architecture has arrived at great perfection. 

2d, LAN6UAGE.--Most Euroi>ean languages are derived from the Gothic 
or the Latin. To the Latin origin belong Italian^ French, and Spanish ; 
to the Gothic^ the German, Dutch, Flemish, Danish, Swedish, and Nor- 

* The House of Commons consists of 658 members ; of whom 500 now 
represent England ; 53, Seotknd ; and 105, Ireland. 

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wegian. From the situation of the country, and other oauBes, the Engliah 
participates of both : and unites, in some degree, the force of the GwAtc 
with the melody of the Latin dialects. 

3d, Literature, &c. — Beda or Bede, the wonder of his time, flourished 
in the eighth century. About the year 1100, English literature began to 
advance with a steady pace ; and from that period a numerous train of 
historians, poets, and other writers, fill the page of biography. In the 
13th century, Roger Bcufon aspires even to the praise of oeing greatly in 
advance of the age in which he lived. The writers of the 16th and fol- 
lowing centuries are numerous and well known. English literature has 
been distinguished by a series of writers of great original genius, from 
Lord Bacon and Shakspeare to Milton, Newton, Barrow, and Locke, not 
to mention those of more recent times.— The middle and higher ranks 
spare no expense in the education of their children. The most celebrated 
public schools are those of St Paul's, Westminster, Eton, and Winchester. 
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are foundations of great extent 
and ffrandeur. 

4th, Manufactures and Comkerce.— The earliest staple commodity of 
England was /m, a metal rarely found in other countnes. The Phoeni- 
cians first introduced it into commerce, 500 or 600 years before the Chris- 
tian era ; and their extensive trade soon diffused it among the Oriental 
nations. The leading manufactures at present are the following :— Those 
of cotton, including the raw material, are estimated at £35,000,000 a-year: 
those of wool at £22,000,000 ; those of leather at £16,500,000 ; those of 
linen at £9,000,000 ; and those of iron and hardware at £20,000,000. 
The manufactures of glass, silk, pottery, paper, &c., are also extensiye. 
In these statements Scotland ana Ireland are included. The commerce 
of Great Britain, which, three centuries ago, was of little importance, is 
much more extensive than that of any other country in the world: 
while the railways now in active operation have immensely facUitated 
internal communication, by connecting the capital with all the great 
towns, seats of trade and manufacture, and principal seaports througnout 
the country. The number of merchant vessels belonging to the United 
Kingdom and Colonies in 1846 was 32,499, the tonnage 3,817,112, and 
the number of seamen employed in navigating them 229,276. The entire 
wealth of Great Britain may perhaps be calculated at one thousand two 
hundred million pounds sterling. Of England it has been justly ob- 
served, that '* her trade and commerce encircle the globe, and her capital 
is the emporium of the universe." 

IV. Natural Geography. 

Ist. Climate and Seasons. —The climate of England is perhaps more 
variable than that of any other country on the globe, caused by the vapours 
of the Atlantic Ocean being opposed to the drying winds from the eastern 
continent. The western coasts, in particular, are subject to frequent 
rains ; while the eastern part is of a clearer and drier temperature, though 
less so than that of Scotland. The humidity of the climate, however, 
clothes the delicious vales and meadows with a verdure unknown to any 
other reeion. In consequence of the variable nature of the climate, the 
seasons tnemselves are of uncertain tenor, and the year might more pro- 
perly be divided into ei£[ht months of winter, and four of summer, tnan 
into the usual four divisions originating in the southern latitudes 

2d, Face of the Country.— The face of the country affords all that 
beautiful variety which can be found in the most extensive tracts of the 
globe ; not, however, without romantic and even dreary scenes, lofty 
mountains, craggy rooks, barren moon, and unciiltiTi^ heaths ; ana 

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jet, few oonniries have a smaller portion of land absolutely sterile and 
incapable of cnltoie. The richest parts are, in general, the midland and 
soutnem counties. The E. coast is, in many puices, sandy and marshy. 
A ranse of eleyated land, sometimes rising into lofty mountains, extends 
from the borders of Scotland to the very heart of £ni;land, forming a nat- 
ural dirision between the E. and W. sides of the kingdom. ComwaU is 
also a rough hilly tract ; and a similar character prevails in part of the 
adjacent counties. Of forests, the chief now remaining are those of Dean, 
in Gloucestershire ; Sherwood, in Nottinghamshire ; Windsor, in Berk- 
shire ; and the New Forest, in Hampshire. 

3d, SoTL AND AoRicuLTDRE. — The soil is greatly diversified, but in gen- 
eral fertile ; and nowhere is agriculture more thoroughly understood, or 
conducted in a superior style.— The valuable productions, both animal 
and vegetable, of tnis country, have been introduced at different periods 
from the continent, or the colonies, apd have been kept up and improved 
by constant attention. Considerea as a com country, the £. coast, from 
its superior dryness, is favourable to the growth of grain ; and the W. 
coast, from the humidity of the climate, is better calculated for pasturage. 
Horticulture, or the art of gardening, has undergone great improvement, 
and is pursued with assiduity and success. The value of vegetables ' 
yearly consumed in the metropolis is computed at more than £1,^0,000. 

4th, Animals.— -England has now no other vrild quadrupeds than some 
of the smaller kinds ; as the fox, badger, marten, otter, hare, rabbit, 
squirrel, &c. On the other hand, all kinds of domestic animals, such as 
horses, homed cattle, sheep, deer, dogs, &c., imported from abroad, have 
been reared to the greatest degree of perfection. The chief of our birds 
of prey are, the great eagle, the black eagle, the peregrine falcon, and 
many kinds of hawks. The poultry seem to have been originally brought 
from Asia ; peacocks from India ; pheasants from the E. shore of the Black 
Sea ; turkeys from N. America ; the guineafowl from Africa. The rep- 
tiles are frogs, toads, and several kinds of lizards : of serpents, the viper 
alone is venomous ; other kinds, are the snake, sometimes found four leet 
in length ; and the blindworm, seldom exceeding eleven inches. The 
rivers and seas of England are stocked with a great variety of excellent 

5th, Minerals.— /ron, the most valuable of the English metals, is pro- 
duced in great abundance. The tin of Cornwall supplies most of Europe 
with that rare metal. Copper is found in the north of Anglesea ; letid in 
the Mendip Hills, Somersetshire, which also produce calamine and man- 
ganese. The lead-mines, and the beautiful veins ofjlttor, in Derbyshire, 
are well known. England contains excellent mines of zinc, arsenic, 
plumbago or black-lead, &c. The mines of rock-salt,in Cheshire, must not 
be omitted. Marble and freestone.of various colours and textures, also 
occur. Fine alabaster appears in Derbyshire, fuller*s earth in Berkshire 
and some other counties. Most abundant coaZ-mines are found in the 
central, northern, and western parts, but particularly in the northern, 
around Newcastle. The principal mineral waters are those of Bath, 
Bristol, Tunbridge, Buxton, Scaroorough, Harrowgate, Leamington, and 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— The P^aAr of Derbyshire is perforated with 
such vertical chasms, and such surprising caverns, as have deservedly 
excited admiration. On the western extremity of Yorkshire is YordaU 
Cave, which represents a subterraneous cascade. But the most noted is 
Wethercot Cave, about 60 yards in length and 30 in breadth. Caves have 
also been discovered in Kirkdale, Yorkshire, which contain immense 
numbers of bones of the hyena, rmnoceros, bear, and other animals not 
now existing in Britain. The lakes of Cumberland with their rich scenery 
form grand objects of attraction to the lover of nature. The submarine 
relics of 2k forest, on the coast of Lincolnshire, may be deservedly classed 



amonff the most remarkable natural curiosities. On the N. W. dde of 
the Mendip Hills is a considerable oayem, containing some remarkable 


. Boundaries. — N. North Sea ; W. Atlantic Ocean ; 
S. England a^d the Irish Sea; E. German Ocean. 

Counties. — 1. Caithness ; 2. Sutherland ; 3. Ross ; 
4. Inverness ; 6. Argyll ; 6. Cromarty ; 7. Nairn ; 
8. Elgin or Moray ; 9. Banff ; 10. Aberdeen ; 11. 
Kincardine or Meams ; 12. Forfar or Angus ; 13. Fife ; 

14. Kinross ; 15. Clackmannan ; 16. Perth ; 17. Dum- 
barton or Lennox ; 18. Stirling ; 19. Linlithgow or 
W. Lothian; 20. Edinburgh or Mid Lothian; 21. 
Haddington or E. Lothian ; 22. Berwick or Merse ; 23. 
Roxburgh or Teyiotdale ; 24. Dumfries ; 25. Kirkcud- 
bright or E. Galloway ; 26. Wigton or W. Galloway; 
27. Ayr ; 28. Renfrew ; 29. Lanark or Clydesdale ; 30. 
Peebles <yr Tweeddale; 31. Selkirk; 32. Bute; 33. 
Orkney and Shetland. 

Towns. — 1. Wick, Thurso ; 2. Dornoch ; 3. Ding- 
wall, Tain, Fortrose ; 4. Inverness (a), Fort George, 
Fort Augustus, Fort William ; 5. Inverary, Campbel- 
ton, Oban ; 6. Cromarty ; 7. Nairn ; 8. Elgin, Forres, 
Fochabers ; 9. Banff, Cullen ; 10. Aberdeen, Peterhead, 
Fraserburgh; 11. Stonehaven, Bervie; 12. Dundee 
(6), Forfar, Montrose ; 13. St Andrews, Cupar, Dun- 
fermline, Falkland, Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy ; 14. Kinross ; 

15. Clackmannan, Alloa (c) ; 16. Perth, Scone (c?), 
Dunkeld, Crieff, Dunblane (e), Kincardine ; 17, Dum- 

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bai'ton ; 18. Stirling, Falkirk (/) ; 19. Linlithgow,, 
Borrowstounness or Bo'ness, Queensferry {g) ; 20. 
Edinburgh (A), , Leith, Portobello, Musselburgh, Dal- 
keith; 21. Haddington (i), Dunbar, North Berwick; 
22. Greenlaw, Dunse, Coldstream (k), Lauder; 23. 
Jedburgh, Kelso (Z), Hawick, Melrose (m), Ednam (w) ; 
24. Dumfries, Annan, Moffat, Sanquhar; 25. Kirk- 
cudbright, New Galloway, Castle Douglas ; 26. Wig- 
ton, Whithorn, Stranraer, Port-Patrick ; 27. Ayr, 
Irvine, Kilmarnock ; 28. Renfrew, Port-Glasgow, 
Greenock, Paisley (o) ; 29. Lanark (p), Hamilton, 
Glasgow; 30. Peebles; 31. Selkirk. (5'), Galashiels; 
32. Rothesay ; Brodick, Lamlash ; 33. Kirkwall, Strom- 
ness; Lerwick, Scalloway. 

Islands. — Orkney Islands; principal, Mainland or 
Pomona, and Hoy : Shetland Islands ; principal, Main- 
land and Yell : Western Islands or the Hebrides ; prin- 
cipal, Lewis, Harris, Skye, Mull, Jura, Islay : Bute, 

Mountains. — In 3, Ben Wy vis ; 4, Ben Nevis, 
Cairngorm, Corriarok ; 5, Ben Cruachan ; 10, Ben 
Macdhui ; ll, Mount Battock; 16. Grampians, Ochills, 
Schihallion, Ben Lawers, Ben More, Ben Vorlich, Ben 
Ledi ; 18, Ben Lomond ; 20, Pentland Hills ; 21, North 
Berwick Law ; between 21 and 22, Lammermuir Hills ; 
in the S. of 23, Cheviot Hills ; in the N. of 24, Moffat 
and Lead Hills ; in 29, Tinto. 

Lakes. — In 2, Shin ; 3, Maree, Broom ; 4, Ness, 
Lochy, Linnhe, Laggan ; 5, Etive, Awe, Fyne, Long ; 
14, Leven ; 16, Tay, Rannoch, Ericht, Ketterin, Erne ; 
17, Lomond ; 26, Ryan. 

Friths and Bays. — Friths of Forth, Tay, Moray, 
Cromarty, Dornoch, Pentland, Clyde, Solway ; Bays 

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of Wigton and Glenluce. — The Sounds of Mull, Jura, 
and Islay ; the Whirlpool of CorryTrekan ; the Minch. 

Capes. — St Abb's Head, Fifeness, Bullers of Buchan, 
Kinnaird's Head, Tarbetness, Duncansba j Head, Punnet 
Head, Cape Wrath, Butt of Lewis, Point of Ardna- 
murchan, Mull of Cantire, Fairland Point, Mull of 
Galloway, Burrow Head, Southemess. 

Rivers. — Forth, Tay, Tweed, Clyde, Teviot, Annan, 
Nith, Spey, Dee, and Don.* 

Additional Towns. — ^9. Portsoy y Keith ; 10. Huntlyy In- 
verury, Kintore, Braemar ; 12. Brechin, Arbroathy Cupar-Angus, 
Kirriemuir; 13. Newburgh, Auchtermuchty, Inverkeithing, Burnt' 
island, Dysart, Anstruther (r), Crail; 16. Doune, Callander, KiUin, 
Blair-AthoU, Blairgowrie, Auchterarder, Culross («) ; 18. Grange^ 
mouth, Carron, Bannodcbum (t) ; 24. Lochmahen, Lodeerby, 
Langholm, Gretna Green; 26. Newton^tewart, Glenluce; 27. 
Ardrossan, Saltcoats, Girvan, Largs, Mayhole, Dunlop ; 29. 
Rutherglen, Douglas, Airdrie, Biggar ; 30. Innerleithen, Linton, 

Additional Islands. — N. and S. Uist, Benbecula, Barra, St 
Kilda, Raasay, Canna, Rum, Eig, Muck, CoU, Tiree, Staffa, lona 
or Icolmkill (ti), Lismore, Scarba, Colonsa, Oronsa, Ailsa; in the 
Frith of Forth are May, Bass, Inchkeith, Inchcolm, 

Additional Rivers. — Between 9 and 10, Deveron; in 10, 
Ythan, Ugie; 12, N, and 8. Esk; 13, Leven ; 16, Erne; 17, 
Leven; 20, N. and S. Esk; 21, Tyne; 22, Eye; 24, Esk, Liddel; 
25, Ken ; 27, Ayr, Boon, Girvan, Stinchar. 

Ancient Diyisions.— Damnii, (17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 28, 32) ; Ottad&ii, 

♦ The Forth rises in Ben Lomond, Sturlingshire ; the Tay, in the W. 
of Perthshire, and flows through Loch Tay ; the Tweed, m the S. of 
Peehles-fihire ; the Clyde, in the S. of Lanarkshire; the Teviot. in the W. 
of Rozhnrffhshire ; the Annan, in the Moffat Hills, in the N. of Dumfries- 
shire ; the Nith, in the £. of Ayrshire ; the<S|pey, in the middle of InTemess- 
shire ; the Dee and the Don rise in the S. W. of Abf^eenshire. 

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(a) At CkUloden Moor^ near Invemestj the Dnke of Comberland gained a 

decisiye victory oyer the Highland army, April 16, 1746. (6) Dundee 

was burnt in succession by Edward I. Richard II. and Edward YI. 

(e) Alloa has a fine old castie, built in 1300. {d) Scone was anciently 

lUMted as the place where the Scottish kinffg were crowned. (e) The 

battle ot Sheriff Moor was fought in the neighbonrhood of Dunblane. 

(/) Falkirk is chiefly noted for a yictoi^ gained by Edward I. oyer the 

Scots. iff) Queetuferry has borne this name eyer since the time that 

Margarety queen of I^aloolm III^ usually crossed here. (A) The 

palace of the Scottish monarchs in Edinburgh {Holyrood House) was, as 
the name implies, once a religious foundation. CrMqmillar Castle, two 
miles from Edinburgh, is a not^ ruin, some time the residence of James Y • 
and of his unfortunate daughter Mary. To the S. of Edinburgh are the * 
Buyestic ruins of Roslin Castle. In its yicinity is Roslin Chapel^ founded 
in 1446 by William St Clair, prince of Orkney ; ten Barons of Roslin, 
several Earls of Orkney, and an Earl of Sutherland, lie buried here ; and 
near this three victories were gained in one day by the Scots under Sir Simon 
Fiaser and John Com3ru« over the English commanded by John de Segrave, 

in 1302. (•) Haddington,the birthplace oiJohn Know, the great Scottish 

reformer. (Je) A regiment of guards, still known by the name of the 

Coldstream Guards^ was raised here by Greneral Monk, for the purpose of 

aiding the restoration of Charles II. to the English throne. (/) The 

ahbey of Kelso, the ruins of which still remain, yras founded by David I. in 

1128, for the use of the Cistertian monks. (m) Melrose Abbey, supposed 

to be the finest ruin in North Britain, was built in the commencement of 
the 12th century by David I., who dedicated it to the Yirgin Mary, 
and endowed it ¥dtfa the most ample revenues : here are the tombs of 
many of the Douglas family, and of James Earl of Douglas, who died of 

his wounds after the battle of Chevy-chase or Otterbum in 1388. 

in) James Thomson the poet, author of The Seasons, was bom at the 

village otEdnamf in 1700. <o) In Paisley is a small vaulted chapel, used 

as the fiunily bunal-place of the Marquis of Abercom, which is famous for 
a sorprisinff echo. — -ip) At Lanark the renowned William Wallace began 

his career m arms. ig) The inhabitants of Selkirk pride themselves on 

the heroic bravery of their townsmen at the disastrous battle of Flodden 
Fieldj in 1513, when 100 attended James I Y. to the field, and only three or 
four survived, bearing off some English colours. 

(r) Anstruther, the birthplace of Thomas Chalmers, the celebrated 

divine. is) The ancient abbey of Culross was built in the year 1390. 

(/) Bannockbum is noted for the total defeat of Edward II. by Robert Bruce 
in 1314 ; and for the murder of James III. by his own subjects in 1488 ; he 

lies buried under a hawthorn. iu) Jona or Icolmkill'wtkB the abode of St 

Coiumba, who in the 6th century left Ireland to preach Christianity to the 
Piets. Many Lords of the Isles, 48 Kings of Scotland, 4 Irish, 8 Nor- 
wegian, and one French monarch, it is saia, are buried here : the ruins of 
a nonnery, monastery, and cathedral, are still remaining. 

I. HiHorical Geography of Scotland. 

Isty NAiCBS.~The Roman arms were first carried into Scotland by 
Agrioolflk, A. D. 80 ; and in the works of Tacitus, the inhabitants of the 
nortiiem nart of Britain are for the first time distinguished from the 
Boatbem by the special application of Caledonii, a name said to be derived 
from a Cymraic word signifying woodlands, forests, or perlug^ rather a 

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4a scotlaSd. 

mminiainmts countrv; for the ancients often blended the ideas <^ forest 
and mountain. Beoe, the father of English history, who flonrished in the^ 
beginning of the eighth century, denominates the country Provmeia 
Pictorum^ the province or region of the PicH, The Saxon writers, and 
among them King Alfired, called the people Peohtsy and the country 
Peohtland. These distinctions -continued till the 11th century, when 
the name of Scotia was taken from Ireland, and applied to modem 

2d, Extent. — Scotland is about 278 miles in length, by 150 at its 
greatest breadth. The superficial contents, includine the islands, haye 
been computed at 32,167 square miles. The population in 1841 was 
2,620,184, and hence the number of inhabitants was 81 for each square 

3d, CHUONOLOOT.—The Highlanders, or Gael, are a tribe of the Welsh 
and Irish. The inhabitants of the Lowlands are proved, from their lan- 
guage, to be a kindred tribe of the Saxons. Acooi^ding to some writers, it 
was about the beginning of the 6th century when the Dalriadt passed 
from Ireland to Argyllsmre, and became the germ of the Scottish High" 
landers, who speak the Irish or Celtic language, while the Lowlanders 
have always used the Gothic. — From Fergus 1., who is said to have reiffned 
about 330 years before Christ, till ihe ^ear 1006, there are reckouMl 82 
kings ; but the history of the early princes is now generally esteemed 
fabulous; from the latter period till Britain became subject to one 
monarch, the succession was as follows : — Malcolm II. Duncan I. 
Macbeth, Malcolm III. or Ceanmohr, Donald V. or Bane, Duncan II. 
Edgar, Alexander I. David I. Malcolm IV. William, AJexander II. 
Alexander. III. John Baliol, Robert Bruce, Edward Baliol, David II. 
Robert (Stuart) II. Robert III. James I. James II. James III. James 
IV. James V. Queen Mary, James VI. In 1603, on the death of Elizabeth 
Queen of England, James VI. of Scotland, the more immediate heir, was 
called to the throne of England ; he and his successors bearing the title 
of kings of England and Scotland, and' each oountry having a separate 
parliament tiU die year 1707, in the reign of Queen Anne, when both 
Kingdoms were, by the Treaty of Union, united under the general name 
of Greal Britain, 

4th, Antiquttiss. — The remains of the Roman dominion in N. Britain 
chiefly appear in the celebrated wall, built in the reign of Antoninus 
Pius, between the Friths of Forth and Clyde, in the ruins of which many 
curious inscriptions have been found. Another striking object, generally 
supposed to belong to this epoch, was a small edifice on the stream of 
Carron, vulgarly called Arthur's Oven, which has been regarded by some 
antiquaries as a temple dedicated to the god Terminus. The most northerly 
Roman camp yet discovered is that near the mouth of the river Spey in 
Banffshire. The smaller remains of Roman antiquity found in Scotland, 
as coins, lUensits, &c., are numerous. As the Caledonian kings, when 
converted to' Christianity, had their chief residence at Inverness, the 
singular hill in its vicinity, presenting the form of a boat reversed, may 
pemaps be a monument of regal sepulture. The rude circles of unhewn 
stones, commonly styled Druidic temples, are numerous ; the most re- 
markable is that at Stennis,in the Mamland of Orkney ; another of great 
extent is situated near Classemish, in the island of Lewis, one of the 
Hebrides. — The station? and camps of the natives are distinguished by 
their round form, while those of tne Romans are square. The engravea 
obelisli^ found at Forres, and in other parts of Scotland, have been by 
some ascribed to the Danish ravagers. They are probably monuments of 
signal events, raised by the kings or chiefs. — To enumerate the churches 
and castles erected since the reign of Malcolm III. would be endless. 
Some of the most splendid churches derive their foundation from David I. 
in the 12th century. ^ 

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II. PoUtical Oeography, 

lst» Religioit.— Since the Revolution in 1688^ the ecclesiastical ^oTem- 
ment of Scotland has been of the Presbyterian form. The establishment 
of the Presbyterian system was, in the space of one generation, followed 
by the Secession, which occurred in 1732. In the year 1747, this body 
was divided into two denominations, the Burghers and AnOburghers, 
who being re-united in 1820, were joined in 1847 by the Relief Secession, 
which left the Established Church in 1758 : they now together constitute 
The United Presbyterian Church. In May 1843, about four hundred 
ministers in the Establishment resigned their livings, and formed The Free 
Church of Scotland, on the ground that the civil power had improperly in- 
terfered with the privileges of the ecclesiastical courts. Many oi the 
old families of Scottish gentry are of the Episcopal church. The other 
religious denominations are not numerous. There are but few Roman 
Catholics, even in the remote Highlands. The institutions for education 
are generally excellent, and well supported. 

2d, Government. — The government of Scotland, since the Union in 1707, 
has been blended with that of England. The chief distinction between the 
original constitution of the two countries was, that the legislature of the 
former consisted of only one chamber, in which both peers and commons 
assembled. The most considerable remnant of the independent existence of 
Scotland is the General Assembly. Next to this may be classed the high 
courts of justice, especially that styled the Court of Session. In 1808, tms 
court was divided into two chambers, totally distinct; the first, consisting 
of the Lord President and seven other judges; the second, including the 
Lord- Justice- Clerk and six judges. In 1830, an act was passed, by vvhich 
the total number of judges was reduced to thirteen. Sixteen peers are 
elected to represent the nobility, and 53 commoners to represent the coun- 
ties and burghs, in the Imperial Parliament. 

3d, Laws.— The law of Scotland differs essentially from that of Eng- 
land, being founded^ in a great measure, upon the Roman law. There is 
a considerable admixture of feudal doctrines and forms ^ in mercantile 
affairs the laws of the two countries are gradually assimilating. There 
lies an appeal in civil «ases to the House of Peers. 

The army, navy, revenue, debt, &c., of Scothmd, are now inseparably 
blended with those of England. 

III. Civil Geography. 

1st, Mannebs and CusTOMS.~The manners and customs of the Scots 
do not differ materially from those of the English. The sobrietv of the 
lower classes is in general exemplary ; and the Scottish mecnanic or 
labourer, instead of wasting his weekly gains at an alehouse, is am- 
bitious to appear with his family in decent clothes on Sundays and 
holidays. Tnis may be regarded as a striking characteristic of the Scot- 
tish peasantry, who prefer the lasting decencies of life to momentary Ra- 
tifications ; and to this praise mav be added that of intelligence, arising 
from the diffusion of education. The amusements, as well as the dress of 
the superior classes, are on a parallel with those of the English ; but 
those of the peasantry have several diversities, which the reader maj per- 
haps best learn from the poems of Bums : his Halloween, and his Cot- 
tar's Saturday Night, will convey more information concerning the 
amusements, superstitions, and mannera of the Scottish peasantry, than 
the longest details. 

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2d, Language.— The Scottish langiutfe falls nnder two diyisions, that 
of the Lowlands^ which is chiefly denyecTfrom the ADglo-Sazon ; and that 
of the Highland$i which is the Irish. The Lord's Prayer, in the most an- 
oient language of the Lowlands, woold be as follows : 

1. UoT fader guhilk beest i hevin. 2. Hallowit weird thyne nam, 3. Chim 
ihyrus kingrik. 4. Be dune thyne tmill as is i Itevin sva po yerd. 5. Uor 
dailie bretdgif us thUk day, 6. And forleit us uor skaiihs, as we forleit 
them quha skaith us, 7. And leed us na inHl temtatum, 8. But anfre us 
fra evil. Amen* 

3d, LiTERATURE.~The literature of Scotland has compensated for its 
recent origin by its rapid progress. One of the earliest natiye writers is 
Thomas of Ercildoun, called the Rhymer, who flourished about the year 
1270, and wrote a metrical romance, called Sir Tristrem. John Barbour, 
archdeacon of Aberdeen, wrote his poem on the actions of Robert I. about 
the year 1375. At the same time flourished John Fordun, the father of 
Scottish history. James I. of Scotland wrote some excellent poems early 
in the 15th century ; and he was followed by Holland, and Blind Harry 
or Henry the Minstrel, In the end of that a^ arose Dunbar, the chief 
of the ancient Scottish poets ; and, in the beginning of the next, Gaunn 
Douglas and David Lindsay: Drummond wrote early in the 17th century. 
— In more modern times, the names of Ramsay, Ferguson, Bums, Thom- 
son, Armstrong, Beattie, Blair, Bruce, Logan, Graname, Campbell^ Scott^ 
Hogg, Wilson, Pollok, &c., are uniyersally known. Among the pnncipal 
historians may be named Buchanan, Hume, Robertson, GUlies, Ferguson^ 
and Laing, Black, Robison, Play/air, and Leslie are distinguished as 
cnltiyators of natural philosophy. 

Scotland can now produce able writers in theology, medicine, natural 
philosophy and history, and in moral philosophy. 

4th, Education. — The mode of education pursued in Scotland is excel- 
lent ; and, to judge from its effects, is perhaps the best practical system 
of any country in Europe. — Towards the end of the 17th century, the 
Scottish parliament established schools in all the parishes of the country; 
besides which there are grammar schools in the principal towns, and nu- 
merous priyate seminaries. The uniyersities of Scotland amount to no 
less than fiye : one at Edinburgh, one at Glasgow, one at St Andrews, 
and two at Aberdeen, The Uniyersity of St Andrews contains two 

5th, Commerce and Manufactures. — The general commerce of Scot- 
land is in most respects similar to that of England. The leading exports 
are cottons, linens, iron, lead, glass, fish, eartnenware, leather, &g. The 
principal imports are wines, brandy, rum, sugar, rice, tobacco, indigo, 
cotton, &.C. The chief manufactures of Scotland are cottons of yarious 
kinds, of which Glasgow and Paisley are the greatest seats ; sheetings 
and linens, which are made chiefly in F.feshire, Forfarshire, and the north ; 
ironware, carpets, glass, pottery, woollens, &c. The rapid progress 
which the country has made of late years, has been greatly accelerated 
by the introduction of steam-nayigation on its coasts and friths : while 
the facilities of internal communication haye been much increased oy rail- 
ways, which connect Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth, Dundee, Ayr, Greenock, 
and other important places. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

Ist, Climate and SBA80NS.~In the eastern narts, there is not bo much 
humidity as in England, as the mountains on tne west arrest the vapoun 

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firom the Atlantic. On the other hand, the western countiee are exposed 
to frequent and heary rains. Until lately the winter was more (ustin- 
gnishea by the abundance of snow than by the intensity of the frost : in 
summer the heat is reflected with great power in the narrow valleys 
between the mountains. In the £. and S. the climate differs but little 
from that of Yorkshire. 

2d, Face of the Countrt.— The face of the country is in general moun- 
tainous, to the extent perhaps of two-thirds ; but the name of Hwhlandt 
is more strictly confined to Argylishire, the west of Perthshire, Audlnver- 
nessshire and the counties of Bass and Sutherland. Even the eastern 
parts have little of the uniform flatness we meet with in England, but are 
agreeably diversifled with hill and dale. 

Sd, Animals. — Scotland feeds vast herds of cattle and flocks of sheep; they 
are small, but much valued for the delicacy of their flesh ; and the fleece 
of the latter, though not very fine, is of extensive use in the woollen manu- 
factures. It is in the high grounds that the cattle are so diminutive ; for 
in many parts of the countnr the horses and cows are not surpassed in 
size and beauty by those of England. Among the animals which occur at 
present in the remote and thinly peopled districts, may be mentioned the 
roe, stag, alpine hare, wild cat, marten, badger, fox, and otter, among quad- 
rupeds ; and the ea^le, ptarmigan, grouse, and blackcock, among birds. 
Six or seven centuries ago, the wild boar, the bear, and the wolf, were na- 
tives of the woods, in which the capercailzie maintained its place till the 
middle of last century ; formerly, also, the lakes and rivers were the abodes 
of the beaver, while the bittern ored in the marshes, and the sportsman 
was no stranger to the crane and the bustard. The fisheries of Scotland 
are of great national importance, particularly those of the herring, salmon, 
and white fish ; nor are the lobster and oyster fisheries of triflmg value. 
Pearls are occasionally to be met with in the river-muscle. 

4th, Minerals.— Grold and silver are found in small quantities, as well 
as copper, manganese, titanium, and molybdenum. But the most valuable 
metals are iron, lead, and chromium. Many ornamental minerals like- 
-wise occur, as topaz, beryl, garnet, rock-crystal and its varieties from 
Caimgorin, together with amethyst, bloodstone, agate, porphyry, and 

marble The mineral waters of Scotland are numerous, out are not of 

ec^uBl fame with those of England. The chief are those of Mofiat, Inner- 
leithen, Pitcaithly, Pannanich, Strathpeffer, Peterhead, Airthrie, Dun- 
blane, and Dollar. 

5th, Natitbal Curiosities.— Scotland, like other mountainous countries, 
abounds with singular scenes and natural curiosities. The beautiful Falls 
of the Clyde, near Lanark, have deservedly attracted much attention. 
About 12 miles N. from Fort Augustus, on the E. side of Loch Ness, is the 
celebrated Fall qf Foyers. The height of the principal fall, when the water 
is full, is about 200 feet, of one continued stream : naif a mile farther up is 
another fall of nearly 70 feet. The beauties of Lochs Lomond and Ketterin 
have been frequently described. The rocks on the coast of Aberdeenshire 
often assume singular forms of arches and pillars, of which the Bullers of 
Buchan are the most remarkable. The isle of Staffa is celebrated for its 
basaltic columns, and one of the most surprising objects of nature, the 
vast basaltic cavern, called Au-ua-vine, or the harmonious grotto, either 
from a melodious sound produced by the percussion of the waves on the 
rocks, or from the order in which the columns are disposed. The height 
of the entrance is 66 feet, the breadth 42 feet, and the length of the cavern 
no less than 227 feet. 



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Boundaries. — E. St George's Channel and the Irish 
Sea; N. W. and S. the Atlantic. 

Divisions. — It is divided int& four Provinces, Lein- 
STER, Ulster, Munster, and Connaught ; these are 
subdivided into thirty-two Counties. 

The Counties in liEissTER are — 1. Louth; 2. Meath; 

3. Dublin; 4. Wicklow ; 5. Wexford; 6. Longford; 
7. Westmeath; 8. King's County; 9. Queen's County; 
10. Kilkenny ; 11. Kildare ; 12. Carlow. 

Ulster — 1. Down ; 2. Antrim ; 3. London- 
derry; 4, Donegal; 5. Fermanagh; 6. Cavan; 7. 
Monaghan ; 8. Armagh ; 9. Tyrone. 

Munster — 1. Clare ; 2. Kerry ; 3. Cork ; 

4. Waterford ; 5. Tipperary ; 6. Limerick. 

Connaught — 1. Leitrim; 2. Sligo; 3. Mayo; 

4. Galway ; 5. Roscommon. 

Towns in Leinster. — 1. Drogheda (a), Dundalk, 
Carlingford ; 2. Trim, Navan ; 3. Dublin, Kingstown, 
Balbriggan ; 4. Wicklow, Arklow ; 5. Wexford, New 
Boss, Enniscorthy ; 6. Longford, Lanesborough ; 7. 
Mullingar, Athlone; 8. TuUamore, Philipstown; 9. 
Maryborough ; 10. Kilkenny ; 11, Kildare ; 12. Car- 
low, Tullow. 

■ Ulster. — 1. Downpatrick, Newry, Ban- 

bridge ; 2. Carrickfergus, Belfast, Antrim ; 3. London- 
derry, Coleraine ; 4. Lifford, Donegal, Ballyshannon ; 

5. Enniskillen ; 6. Cavan, Cootehill ; 7. Monaghan ; 8. 
Armagh, Lurgan ; 9. Omagh, Dungannon. 

— Munster. — 1, Ennis, Clare ; 2. Tralee, 

Dingle ; 3. Cork, Cove, Bandon, Kinsale, Youghal ; 

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Lt/^ in the N. and the Slaney in tne W. of Wicklow ; the Blackwater, 
Lee, and BaruUm, in the W. of Cork ; the BannArom Down, flows through 
Longh Nd^sh ; and the Lagary-iMier rises in Down. 


zed by Google 

. MuNSTER. — 1. Ennis, Clare ; 2. Tralee, 

Dingle ; 3. Cork, Cove, Bandon, Kinsale, Youghal ; 

Digitized by LnOOQ IC 

UiELAND. 47 

4. Waterford ; 6. Clonmel, Nenagh, Tipperary ; 6. 

Towns in Connaught. — 1. Carrick-on-Shannon ; 
2. Sligo ; 3. Castlebar, Westport ; 4. Galway, Tuam ; 
6. Roscommon, Elphin. 

Islands. — Rathlin, Copeland, Clare, Valentia, S. 
Isles of Arran, Achill, N. Isles of Arran, Tory. 

Bays. — Carrickfergus, Straogford, Carlingford, Dun- 
dalk, Dublin, Dunmanus, Bantry, Kenmare River, 
Dingle, Galway, Clew, Sligo, Donegal, Lough Swilly, 
Lough Foyle. 

Lakes. — Neagh, Erne, Allen, Conn, Mask, Corrib, 
Ree, Derg^ Killarney. 

Capes. — Fair Head, Howth Head, Wicklow Head, 
Carnsore Point, Cape Clear, Mizzen Head, Loop Head, 
Slyne Head, Urris Head, Malin Head. 

Mountains. — Mourne, Slieve Bloom, Wicklow 
Mountains, Carn-Tual, Mangerton, Mount Nephin, 
Croagh Patrick. 

Rivers. — Shannon, Barrow, Boyne, Liffey, Slaney, 
Blackwater, Lee, Bandon, Bann, Lagan-water.* 

Additional Towns in Leinster. — 1. LatUh^ Ardee, Dunleer ; 
2. Keilt^y Slane, Athboy, 4. Blessington, BaltingloM ; 5. Gorey^ 
Fems^ Chnminesy Taghmon ; 6. Edgeworthstawn, Granard; 7. 
KUheggan ; 8. BanagheTy Parsonstown ox Birr ; 9. PortarHngtofiy 
Mountmellick ; 10. Cailany Thomagtawn y 11. Naas, Athy^ May* 

' Ulster. — 1. HUlsboraughy Bangor^ NewtonardSy Donagh- 

adee; 2. Lisburn, RandalsUnvn, Ballymena, Lame; 4. Letter- 

* The Shannon flows from Longh Allen in Leitrim*; the Barrow, from 
the N. of Queen's County ; the Borne rises in the N. of Kildare ; the 
Liffey in the N. and the Slaney in the W. of Wicklow ; the Blackwatery 
tee, and Bandon, in the W. of Cork ; the Bann. from Down, flows through 
liOQgh Nei^sh ; and the Lagan-waier rises in Down. 

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kmny, RathmeUon^ KiUybegs ; 6. Belturhet ; 7. CarrickmacroBS ; 
8. Gharkmont ; 9. Cioghery Strabane. 

Additional Towns in Munster. — 1. Kilrush, KiUaloe; 2. 
Ardfert, KiUamey ; 3. Fermoy, Chyne^ Middleton^ CkmakUtPf Mal- 
low, dmrleville ; 4. Lismarey Dungarvan ; 5. Ccishely Carrick-ari' 
Suir ; 6. BathkecUe, Newcastle, Askeaton, 

CoNNAUGHT. — l.Lettrim, Marwr- Hamilton; 2. Achonry; 

3. BaUina; 4. Loughrea, Gort, Ballinasloe, Athenry (6) ; 6. Boyk, 

Ancient Divisions.— Xdns/er.^Voluntii, (1) ; Cauci, (2, 7) ; Auterii, 
C6) ; Blanii, (3, 4, 11) ; Coriondi, (8, 9, 10) ; Menapii, (5, 12). 

2d, I//8ter.— Voluntii, (1, 7, 8) ; Robogdii, (2, 3, 9) ; Erdini,(5) ; Cauci, 
(6) ; Vennicnii, (4). 

3d, Afttrwter.— Brigantes, (4, 6) ; Velabri, (2, 6) ; Vodiae and lyerni, 
(3) ; Concani, (1). 

4th, Connatf^A/.— Concani, (4) ; Auteri, (5) ; NagnatsB, (1, 2, 3). 

(a) The battle of the Boyne, in 1690, is commemorated by the erection 
of an obelisk near Drogheda, with appropriate inscriptions. 

ib) Athenry is chiefly noted for tne bloody battle fought between the 
English and the Irish in the reign of Edward II. : the Irish lost 10,000 
men, among whom fell 29 Ck>nnaught chiefs of the O'Connor family. 

I. Historical Geography of Ireland, 

1st, Names.— Ireland was called Htbemia by Caesar. Its other names 
were Jeme^ Juvema, and Britannia Minor, It is said that the island 
was known to the Greeks by the name of Juvema, about two centuries 
before the birth of Christ. Towards the decline of the western empire, as 
the country had become better known, and had been peopled with yari- 
ous tribes, the Romans discovered that the ruling people in Ireland were 
the Scoti ; and thenceforth the country began to be termed Scotia, an 
appellation retained by the monastic writers till the eleventh century, when 
the name Scotia having passed to modem Scotland, the ancient title of 
Hibemia besan to reassume its hbnours. It is supposed that this name, 
and the Gothic denomination Ireland, are mere modifications of the native 
term Erin, implying the country of the west, 

2d, Extent.— Ireland is about 280 miles in length, and the greatest 
breadth is about 180. The area may be computed at 32,512 square miles ; 
and since the population in 1841 was found to be 8,175,124, the number of 
inhabitants to each square mile will be about 252. 

3d, Chronology.— Ireland was probably discovered by the Pheeni- 
cians as earljr as the sister island. Great Britain ; and common fame 
ascribes the origin of the Irish to an emi§;ration from Iberia, i. e . Spain. It 
is probable, however, that the original inhabitants of Ireland passed from 
Gaul, and were afterwards increased by their brethren the GuydU from 
England. About the time that the Belfse seized on the south of England, 
kindred Gothic tribes passed to the sou& of Ireland. These are probably 
the Firbplg of the Irish traditions. The history of Ireland is involved in 
considerable obscurity till the year 1172, when Henry II. of England con- 

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qaered that kinffdom, and took the title of lord of Ireland, Henry VIII. 
assumed the title of king of Ireland. Bj the act 0/ union, passed in 1800, 
Gireat Britain and Ireland were united into one kingdom. 

4th, AiVTK^uiTiES.— Harrow* are not wanting in Ireland, being hil- 
locks of earth thrown up in commemoration of the illustrious dead. Other 
monuments, commonly styled DruidiCy are also found ; such as single 
stones erect, circular temples, or rather places of judgment, and the like. 
To the Scandinavian period (the ninth century) belong what are called the 
Danes, Roths, or circular intrenchments ; and probably some chapels. 
Among smaller relics of antiquity, the golden trinJeets found in a bog near 
Callan, in the sand, deserre mention : as gold was found in Gaul, they are 
perhaps ornaments of ancient chiefs brought from that country. 

II. PMical Geography, 

Ist, Religion. — The established religion of Ireland is that of the church 
of England ; but it is computed that nearly five-sixths of the people are 
Roman Catholics ; and of the remaining sixth the Episcopalians consti- 
tute above one half, and the Presbyterians, &c., tne remainder. St 
Patrick, the tutelar saint of Ireland, is asserted by some to have been a 
native of Cornwall, and by others of Wales ; but he was more probably 
bom in Scotland. He converted the inhabitants of Ireland to Christianity, 
and founded many churches and schools of learning. He died about the 
year 460, aged 83. 

2d, Government.— Sin<;e the legislative union between Great Britain 
and Ireland in 1800, the form of government has been the same in both 
countries ; the executive power in the latter being exercised by a Lord- 
lieutenant. There are some minute variations between the statute and 
common laws of Ireland, and those of England. Ireland furnishes 105 
members to the British House of Commons, and 32 to the House of Peers, 
of whom four are bishops. 

3d, Army, Navt, and REVENUE.~The army and navy of Ireland are not 
distinguishCKl from those of the British empire. The net produce of the 
revenue of Ireland in 1845 was £4,478,791, or rather more than one- 
twelfth of that of the united kingdom. 

III. Civil Geography. 

1st, Manners and Customs. — ^The manners of the superior classes of 
people in Ireland now nearly approach to the English standard. The 
Irisn gentry are seldom addicted to literature or the arts ; their chief 
amusement being hunting and other robust exercises, while too many 
absent themselves from their native country. Although the common 
people still retain many features of their ancient national manners, the 
introduction of temperance societies, and the progress of education, nave 
of late produced a marked improvement. Their diet consists chiefly of 
coarse oread, potatoes, and butter-milk ; and the rural cottage is a 
wretched hovel of mud. The native Irish are described as impatient of 
injury, quick of apprehension, implacable in resentment, ardent in all 
their affections, and remarkably hospitable. 

2d, Lanouaob, Literature^ &c. — The English language daily gains 
nroond in Ireland. The ancient Irish is a dialect or the Celtic, The 
Uteratnre of Ireland has claims to a venerable antiquity. The Anglo- 
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Saxons dorived their first illamination from Ireland ; and in Scotland 
literature continued to be the special province of the Irish clergy till the 
thirteenth century. Ireland has to boast of the names of Boyle, Burke, 
Denham, Goldsmith, Macklin, Parnell, Steele, Smft, Sloane, Sterne, 
Usher, &c. Until a comparatively recent period, education was more ne- 
glected in Ireland than m any other quarter of the British dominions. 
The education of the higher and middle ranks, however, is now as much 
attended to as in England, and schools for the lower orders have been 
established by government and by different religious societies. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce.— The principalinanufacture is fine 
linen cloth, which is brought to great perfection. Its value in 1824, as it 
came from the^hands of the weaver before it was bleached or dressed, vras 
estimated b^ the Linen Board at £2,580,709. The quantity exported to 
Great Biitain in 1825 was 52,559.678 yards ; since which time, the cross- 
channel trade having been assimilated to a coasting traffic, no specific en- 
tries have been made at the custom-house. Ireland also sends to Britain 
considerable quantities of com, and vast numbers of black cattle. The 
total value of the exports of Ireland to Great Britain in 1825 was 

IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate.— In Ireland the air is mild and temperate, being cooler 
in summer, and warmer in winter, than in England ; though it is not so 
clear and pure, nor so proper for ripening com and fruits. It is more 
humid than in Englana ; and hence the pastures are excellent, and entitle 
Ireland to its characteristic appellation of the " Green Isle." Great exer- 
tions are being made to promote the drainage of lands, and the improve- 
ment of navigation and water-power in connexion with such drainage. 

2d, Face of the Countrt, &c. — Ireland forms a striking contrast to 
Scotland, being mostly level, fertile, and abundant in pasturage. Some 
of its southern and western districts, however, are traversed by chains of 
lofty mountains, among which may be mentioned Magillicuddy Reeks in 
the south of Kerry. — The quantity of cultivated land in Ireland exceeds in 
proportion that of England. The most striking feature is the rocky 
nature of the soil, stones generally appearing on tne surface, yet without 

any injury to the fertility The farmers are oppressed by middiemen,yrho 

rent farms from the landlord, and let them to small occupiers. Scarcely 
the semblance of a forest remains in Ireland ; but the place of woods is 
unhappily occupied by the moors or bogs, which form a remarkable feature 
of the country. Omaments of gold, and other relics of antiquity, have 
from time to time been discovered in the bogs, at great depths ; and there 
are other indications that they are of comparatively recent formation. — 
Ireland produces much com^ hemp, and flax ; potatoes, also, are raised in 
great quantities, and constituted the principal food of the people until 
1845, when, in consequence of the failure of the crop in tnat and the 
two following years, much suffering and distress were experienced. 

3d, Minerals.— Copper, lead, iron, and even silver ores, have been 
found in the Irish mines, in the county of Antrim there is a mine which 
affords a mixture of silver and lead, every 30 lbs. of lead ore producing 
about a pound of silver. There is another in Connaught of the same kind, 
and one still richer in Wicklow. About twelve miles from Limerick two 
mines have been discovered, one of copper, and the other of lead. Iron 
mines are dispersed all over the kingdom. There are likewise quarries of 
marble, slate, and freestone ; and in numerous localities there are ooal 
and turf. In the county of Wicklow considerable masses of native gold 
have been found. 


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4th, Natural Curiosities.— Among the natural cnrioeities of Ireland 
may be mentioned the beautiful and picturesque lake of KUlamey, sur- 
rounded by an amphitheatre of mountains clothed with trees, whose 
verdure contrasts finely with intervening rocks. The arbutus, with its 
scarlet fruit and snowy blossoms, here vegetates in ipreat luxuriance. The 
lake is divided into three parts, called Lower, Middle, and Up^r. On 
the side of one of the mountains is O^Sullivan's Ciucade, wnich falls 
abont 70 feet into the lake with a tremendous noise ; and opposite this 
cascade is the island of Inisfallen, not only romantic, but or venerable 
fame for the annals there written, and preserved in Trinity College, Dub- 
lin. The W. boundary of the middle lake is formed by the base of 
Mangerton, down the steep side of which descends a cascade, visible for 
150 yards.— The celebrated Giants* Causeway on the N. coast must be dis- 
tinguished among the most remarkable of the curiosities of Ireland. This 
surprising display of basaltic pillars is about ei^ht miles N. E. of Cole- 
raine. ^Hie adjacent coast is verdant, but precipitous ; and from it the 
Causeway projects into the sea to an unknown extent. The part explored 
is about 600 feet in length ; the breadth from 120 to 240 ; the height from 
16 to 36 feet above the level of the strand. It consists of many thousand 
pillars, mostly in a vertical position. In the side of a hill towards the 
N. £. is the rock called the Organ, consisting of 50 pillars ; that in the 
middle is 40 feet high, the others gradually diminishing. 


Ik Eubope. — Heligoland^ Gibraltar ^ Malta and Gozo, Ionian 

Asia. — India and its dependencies : Ceyhn, Penang, Singapore^ 
Hong Kong, Labuan, Aden. 

Afbiga.— ^S^terra Leone^ Cape Coast Castle, Accra, Gambia, St 
Helena, Ascension, Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, 

North America. — Canada, Hudson* s Bay Territory, New 
Brunswick, Noioa Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, 
Newfoundland, Bermudas, Honduras. 

West Ini>i£s. — Jamaica, Antigua^ Barbadoes, Dominica, Gren- 
ada, Montserrat, Nevis, St Christopher, St Lucia, St Vincent, To- 
bago, Tortola, AnguiUa, Trinidad, Bahamas. 

South Ambbioa.-— BrfVMA Guiana, comprehending Demerara, 
Egsequibo, and Berbice; Falkland Islands. 

Australasia. — New South Wales, South Australia, Western 
Australia, Van Diemen^s Land, New Zealand, Norfolk Island* 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Where is Northumberland, Caithness, Flint, Down, Middle- 
sex, Cornwall, Montgomery, Wicklow, Argyll, Perth, Kent, 
Dublin, Inverness, Denbigh, Cork, Wigton, Stirling, Derby, 
Louth, Northampton, Cumberland, Aberdeen, Pembroke, Banff, 
Donegal, Oxford, Clydesdale, Mayo, Rutland, Kilkenny, Selkirk, 
Fife, Wiltshire, Tipperary, Carlow, Radnor, Sutherland, Rox- 
burghshire, Cambridge, Surrey, Sligo, Dumfries, Monmouth, 
Yorkshire, Kinross, Tyrone I &c. 

Where is London, Newark, Fortrose, Trim, Belfast, Holyhead, 
Dublin, Moffat, Falkirk, Tain, Southampton, Wrexham, Chatham, 
Shefifield, Dunkeld, Maryborough, Exeter, Bath, Carlisle, Scar- 
borough, Dunse, Hamilton, St Asaph, Dunblane, Litchfield, 
Birmingham, Yarmouth, Brighton, Newry, Castlebar, Llandaff, 
Bosworth, Port-Patrick, Falmouth, Dunbar, Ballyshannon, 
Windsor, Kirkwall, Tewkesbury, Manchester, Athlone, Kilmar- 
nock, Greenock, St Andrews, Hull, Woodstock, Chepstow, Cole- 
raine, Dundee, Kinsale I &c. 

Where is the Isle of Man, Lewis, Rathlin, Anglesea, Skye, 
Bute, Thanet, Coquet, Lundy, Arran, Holy Island, Mull, Ork- 
ney Islands 2 &c. 

Where is Ben Macdhui, Ben Nevis, Snowdon, The Peak, Skid- 
daw, the Grampian Hills, the Cheviot Hills, the Lammermuir 
Hills, Benledi, the Pentland Hills, Bowfell, Cader Idris, Cots- 
wold, Ben Wy vis ! &c. 

Where is the Lake of Keswick, Loch Awe, Loch Tay, Lough 
Allen, the Lake of Killamey, Loch Broom, Lough Neagh, Loch 
Lomond, Loch Leven l &c. 

Where is Flamborough Head, Fifeness, Howth Head, Yar- 
mouth Roads, the Bristol Channel, the Frith of Forth, Carrick- 
fergus Bay, the Downs, Fair Head, Cape Wrath, St Abb's Head, 
the Sol way Frith, Goodwin Sands, Milford Haven, the Humber 
Modth, the Land's End, Duncansbay Head, Torbay, Portland 
Point, Bantry Bay, the Butt of Lewis, Mizzen Head, the Frith of 
Tay, Spurn Head, Start Point 1 &c. 

Describe the Tweed ; name the river between Northumberland 
and Durham ; what provinces does the Shannon separate ! what 
river passes Perth ! on what river is Windsor situated ? where 
does the Severn rise ? what does the Spey fall into I &c. 

Or, the counties, islands, mountains, lakes, &c., may be de- 
scribed, and their names asked. 

» Digitized by Google 



Boundaries. — N. Belgium and the English Chan- 
nel ; W. the Atlantic ; S. the Pyrenees and the Medi- 
terranean ; E. Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. 

Provinces. — 1. Picardy ; 2. Normandy; 3. Bretagne; 
4. Poitou ; 5. Aunis ; 6. Saintonge ; 7. Angoumois ; 8. 
Guienne; 9. Gascony; 10. Languedoc ; 11. Provence; 
12. Dauphiny; 13. Franche-Comt^ ; 14. Burgundy; 
15. Alsace ; 16. Lorraine ; J.7. Champagne ; 18. Isle of 
France ; 19. Maine ; 20. Anjou ; 21. Touraine ; 22. 
Orleanais ; 23. Nivernais ; 24 Berri ; 25. Bourbonnais ; 
26. La Marche ; 27. Limousin ; 28. Auvergne ; 29. 
Lyonnais ; 30. Beam ; 31. Comtat de Foix ; 32. Rous- 
sillon ; 33. Comtat d' Avignon ; 34. Artois ; 35. French 

Departments,* 86, corresponding to the Provinces 
as follow : — 1. Somme ; 2. Lower Seine, Eure, Calva- 
dos, Manche, Ome; 3. Ille and Vilaine, C6tes-du-Nord, 
Finistere, Morbihan, Lower Loire; 4. Vendue, Two 
Sevres, Vienne ; 5, 6, 7. Lower Charente, Charente ; 
8. Dordogne, Gironde, Lot, Aveyron, Tarn and Ga- 
ronne ; Lot and Garonne ; 9. Landes, Gers, Upper 
Pyrenees ; 10. Ard^che, Upper Loire, Lozere, Gard, 
Herault, Tarn, Upper Garonne, Aude; 11. Lower Alps, 
Var, Mouths of the Rhone ; 12. Isere, Drome, Upper 
Alps ; 13. Upper Saone, Doubs, Jura; 14. Yonne, Cote 
d'Or, Saone and Loire, Ain ; 15. Lower Rhine, Upper 
Rhine ; 16. Mouse, Moselle, Meurthe, Vosges ; 17. Ar- 
dennes, Marne, Aube, Upper Marne ; 18. Aisne, Oise, 
Seine and Oise, Seine, Seine and Marne ; 19. Mayenne, 

* Most of the Departments are named from rivers ; some from inotm- 
taint ; and some from other natural features of the country^ I 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Sarthe ; 20. Maine and Loire ; 21. Indre and Loire ; 

22. Euro and Loir, Loiret, Loir and Cher ; 23. Nievre ; 
24. Cher, Indre ; 25. AUier ; 26. Creuse ; 27. Upper 
Vienne, Correze ; 28. Puy de Dome, Cantal ; 29. 
Rhone, Loire ; 30. Lower Pyrenees ; 31. Ariege ; 32. 
Eastern Pyrenees ; 33. Vaucluse ; 34. Pas-de-Calais ; 
35. North ; Corsica. 

Towns. — 1. Amiens (a), Abbeville, Boulogne, Ca- 
lais (6) ; 2. Rouen (c), Dieppe, Fecamp, Havre, Cher- 
bourg, Caen ; 3. Rennes, Nantes, L' Orient, Brest, 
Morlaix ; 4. Poitiers (d), Bourbon- Vendue, Fontenay ; 
5. Rochelle, Rochefort ; 6. Saintes ; 7- Angouleme ; 8. 
Bordeaux, Montauban, Agen (e) ; 9. Mont-de-Marsan, 
Auch, Tarbes ; 10, Toulouse (/), Narbonne, Mont- - 
pellier, Nismes ; 11. Marseilles, Aix, Toulon ; 12. 
Grenoble, Vienne, Valence ; 13. Besangon, St Claude ; 
14. Dijon (5r),Autun, Macon; 15. Strasbourg (A), Hague- 
nau, Colmar; 16. Verdun, Metz, Thionville, Nancy, 
Epinal ; 17. Rheims, Mezieres, Chalons,. Troyes ; 18. 
Paris (i), Versailles, St Denis, St Germain (k) ; 19. Le , 
Mans ; 20. Angers ; 21. Tours ; 22. Orleans, Blois ; 

23. Nevers ; 24. Bourges, Chateauroux ; 25. Moulins ; 
26. Gueret ; 27. Limoges, Tulle ; 28. Clermont, Au- 
rillac ; 29. Lyons, St Etienne ; 30. Pau (Z), Bayonne ; 
31. Foix ; 32. Perpignan ; 33. Avignon, Carpentrag, 
Orange ; 34. Arras, St Omer ; 35. Lille, Dunkirk, 
Douay, Cambray (m), Valenciennes, Conde. 

Islands. — Ushant, Belleisle, Noirmoutier, Rhe, 
Oleron, Hieres, Corsica, in which last are the towns of 
Bastia, Ajaccio (n), and Calvi. 

Mountains. — Pyrenees, part of the Alps, Vosges, 
Jura ; Cevennes, in 10 ; Puy de Dome and Cantal, 
in 28. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

FftANCE. 55 

Capes. — La Hogue and Baifleur, in 2. 
KivERS. — Seine, Loire, Garonne, Rhone.* 

Additional Towns. — 1. Guise, Gres^ (o), Agincourt {p); 
2. Harfieur (q), Evreux, Lisieux, BayeuXy Falaise (r), Barfkur, 
Coutances, Avranckes, Akn^n ; 3. St Mah, Dinant, St BrieuCy 
Quimper, Vannes ; 4. Lu^mi, Niort, Loudun ; 6. Cognac, Roche- 
foucault («) ; 8. Perigueudf, Cahors, Rodez; 9. Lectoure, Lombex, 
Lourdez, Bagrteres, Bareges ; 10. Privas, Viviers, Le Pug, Mende, 
Alois, Beziers, Cette, Pastres, AWy, Rieux, Carcassonne ; 11. Digne, 
Sisteron, Grasse, Antibes, Frefus, Aries; 12. Gap, Embrun, Brian- 
fon ; 13. Vesoul, Montbelliard, Dole, Lons le Saulnier ; 14. Auxerre, 
ChatiUon^ur Seine, Bourg, Gex ; 15. New Brisaok, Bel/or t, Hun- 
inguen ; 16. Bar le Due, Montmedy, Longwy, Bitche, Luneville, Toul, 
Blamont, Domremy {t), Plombieres ; 17. Sedan, Charlemont, Givet, 
Rocroy, Vitry, Langres, Chaumont ; 18. Laon, Soissons,Noyon (w), 
St Quentin, Compiigne, Beauvais, Chantilly, Senlis, Mantes, Melun, 
Fontainebkau ; 19. Laval; 20. Saumur ; 21. Chinon (v). La 
Haye {w) ; 22. Ckartres, VendSme ; 23. La Charity ; 24. Issoudun ; 
25.. Vichy ; 28. Riom, Thiers, Issoire, St Flour; 29: Montbrison, 
Villefranche ; 30. Oleron, St Jean de Luz, St Jean Pied de Port; 
31. Foiw; 32. Ceret ; 33. Vaison, CavaiUon ; 36. Gravelines, Le 
Quesnoy, Mauheuge, Landrecy,, Avesnes. 

Additional Rivers. — Somme, in 1 ; Ome, in 2 ; Ille and 
VUaine, in 3 ; Sevre and Vendue, in 4 ; Charente, in 6, 6 ; Adour, 
in 9 ; Saone, in 14 ; Marne, in 17, 18 ; Moselle, Meurthe, and 
Meuse, in 16 ; Var, between Provence and Italy. 

Akciewt Divisions. — Ambiftni) (1) ; Unelli, Sail, Lexovii, Yelocafises, 
EbuTOvices, (2) ; Osismii, VenSti, Naonetes, CuriosolItsB (3) ; Pictdnes, 
SantSnes, (4, 5) ; Bitoiiges, Cadum, Ruteni, (6) ; Aquit&ni, (7) ; Helvii, 
Voloae Arecomici, VoIcsb Tectosfiges, (8) ; Salyes, Cav&res, Caturiges, (9) ; 
AllobrSges, CentrOnes, Yocontii, (10) ; Sequ&ni, (11) ; Lingdnes, ^dui, 
(12) : Iribocci, Nemetes, (13) ; Mediomatrici, Leuci^ (14); Rem!, C!ata- 
launi, Tricasses, (15) ; Bellov&ci, Suessiones, Parisii, (16) ; Cenomani, 
And^&vi, Tardnes, (17) ; Aureliani, Camntee, Sendnes, (18) ; Bituriges, 
(19) ; Lemovlces, (20) ; Arverni, (21) ; Segasiani, (22) ; Sardines, (24.) 

• The Seine rises in the N. of Burgundy, the L<Are in the N. of Lan- 
gnedoc, the Garonne in the S. of Gascony, the Rhone rises in Switzerland, 
flows through the Lake of (Geneva, &c. 

Digitized by 



(a) Peter the Hermit, the celebrated preacher of the Cnuadet^WMhon. 

at AmierUf about the middle of the 1 1th centary. (6) In the year 

1346, Edward III. laid siege to Calais, which held out against him dur- 
ing twelve months. It was at last starred into submission; upon which 
the English king expelled the natives, and repeopled the town with his 
own subjects : it continued in the hands of the English till the last year of 

Mary's reign, when it was reconquered by the Duke of Guise, 1558. 

ic)F<mtenelieajidtheCorneillesweTe bom at Rouen. (dyPoitieraisnoied 

for the victory gained near it in 1356, by Edward the Black Prince: the 
English armv amounted to only 16,000 men ; that of the French was esti- 
mated at 60,000. King John and his son Philip were both taken prisoners, 

and brought to England. (e) Agen was the residence of Julius Scaliger^ 

and the birthplace of his Bon Joseph (1540). (/) There is a commumca- 

tion between the Garonne at Toulouse and the Mediterranean, by the 
Languedoc canal, 180 miles long, 130 feet broad, and 6 feet deep. At 
Toulouse, on the 10th of April 1 814, a sanguinary battle was fought between 
the British army commanded by the Duke of Wellington, and the F^nch 
army under Marshal Soult : the latter was completely defeated, and on the 

following day evacuated the town. (g) Dijon, theoirthplace of Bossuet 

and Crebillon. (h) Strasboura, a large and fine town, is celebrated for its 

cathedral and clock. The cIock is an admirable piece of mechanism ; it 
shows a celestial globe, with the motions of the earth and planets, and the 
increase and decrease of the moon ; also a perpetual almanac, on which the 
day of the month is pointed out by a statue. The hours are announced 
by a golden cock, and struck on a bell by an angel ; near whom stands 
another with an hour-glass, which he turns as soon as the clock has finished 
striking : the first quarter is struck by a child with an apple, the second 
by a youth with an arrow, the third oy a man with a tiMtiuT. and the 

fourth by an old man with a cane. (t) On the 30th Marcn 1814, a 

severe action was fought on the heights around Paris between Prince 
Blucher's army and that of Joseph Bonaparte, in which the latter was 

entirely routed. (Ar) At St Germain^ Louis XIV. was bom, and James 

II. of England died. (/) Pau, the birthplace of Henry the Great, king 

of France and Navarre, and also of Bemadotte, late king of Sweden : the 

cradle of Henry the Great was long preserved here. (m) Cambrag, a 

large and fine city, is celebrated as oeing the birthplace of the author of 

Telemachus, and of the notorious general Dumourier. (n) Napoleon 

Bonaparte, late emperor of France, &c., was bom at Ajacoio, in Corsica, 
15th August 1769. 

(o) At Cressy, in 1346, the English under Edward III. defeated Philip, 
king of France : Edward's heroic son, the Black Prince, here first dis- 
tinguished himself, and assumed the Prince of Wales's motto, Ich dien, 
I serve, it being that of the king of Bohemia, who served in Philip's army 

and was slain in the battle. (p) At Agincourt, on the 25th October 1415, 

Henry Y. of England, with 15,000 men, obtained a complete victory over 

the French army, consisting of 60,000 men. ig) At HarJieur,lienTy V. 

of England defeated the Fronch in 1415^ and took the town : this led to 

other victories, till he became master of the kingdom. (r) Falaise, the 

birthplace of WilHam the Conqueror, is) Ro^iefouoauU gave the title 

of duke to a celebrated French wit it) The famous Joan of Arc, or the 

Maid of Orleans, was bora at Domremg, about the year 1412. After 
raising the siege of Orleans, and assisting at the coronation of Charles 
y II. at Rheims, she was taken prisoner at the siege of Compi^gne by the 
English, who tried and condemned her for sorcery. She was burnt at 

Rouen in 1431 (u) Calvin, the reformer, was born at Nogon in 1509. 

(o) Chinon, the birthplace of Rabelais (ir) La Hage, the birth- 
place ofDes Cartes, the pnilosopher, in 1596. 


zed by Google 


I. Historical Geography of Frartce. 

1st, NAifES.~The ancients styled France GaiUay which, after the 
fiill of the Roman empire, was supplanted by that of Franday or France, 
because it was subdued and possessed by the Franks^ an assemblage of 
tribes from Lower Germany. 

2d, Extent.— France is in length from N. to S. about 600 British 
miles, and in breadth from W. to E. about 560. Its area, including 
Corsica, is estimated at 204,412 square miles ; and its population being 
35,401,761, the number of inhabitants to each squard mile is about 173. 

3d, Chronoloot.— The primitive inhabitants of Gaul were the CeUa, 
anterior to>hom no people can be traced in the western regions of Europe ; 
bat on the S.W. the Aquitani^ of African descent, had passed from Spam ; 
and on the N. E. the warlike German tribes, known by the name oiBelgte, 
had seized on a third part of the country, where they introduced the Gothic 
language and manners. On the S. also, the German Gauls had diffused 
themselves over what was called Gallia Bracchata ; nor must the Greek 
colonies be forgotten ; for, in the year 539 b. c. the PhoccBans, sailing 
from Ionia, founded Masstlia iMarseiiles). The Roman conquests dif- 
fiised the Latin language through all ranks. On the N. W. extremity, it 
is probable that there were remains of the ancient Celts, before the British 
eoiony proceeded thither in the 5th century, and imparted a name to the 
district. About 50 years b. c. Julius CsBsar annexed France to the Ro- 
man empire. It continued in the possession of the Romans till the down- 
fal of that empire in the 5th century, when it became a prey to the Goths, 
tiie Burffundians, and the Franks,* The Franks completed the founda- 
tion of the kingdom under Clevis, whose reign commenced in 481 ; he 
was the first christian king, and in bis reign Christianity became the 
religion of the state. Charlemagne was crowned in 800. and became 
master of Germany, Spain, and part of Italy. Soon after nis death, tiie 
Normans, a fierce and warlike people from the N. of Europe, subdued part 
of France, and in 1066 gave a King to England in the person of WUfiam 
duke of Normandy. Great part of^rance was conquered by Edward III. 
of England ; and in the year 1420, Henry V. was declared regent and heir 
to the crown of France. A few years after, the English were routed by the 
famous Joan of Arc ; and in 1450 they were almost entirely driven out of 
the country. Francis I. who was contemporary with Charles Y. emperor 
of Germany and king of Spain, and Henry VIII. of England, mounted the 
throne of France in 1515. The principal succeeding kin|(s were Charles 
IX. Henry IV. sumamed the Great, Louis XI I L Louis XIV. Louis 
XV. Louis XVI. In consequence of the French revolution breaking out 
in 1789, the unfortnnate Louis XVI., who began his reiini in 1774, was 
pablicly beheaded in Paris, January 21, 17^, in the 39th year of his 
age ; his queen and his sister soon shared the same fate, and his son, the 
dauphin, died in prison ; his daughter, the present duchess of Angoullme, 
was exchanged tor some French prisoners with the emperor of Germany, 
and the French princes were compelled to seek an asylum in foreign 
countries. In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte, a victorious French general, 
was made chief consul, and, in 1804, emnerorof the French, by the title 
of Napoleon I. Success continued to follow him till he had subjected a 

♦ The Goths, Vandals, Huns, ^'c, who overturned the Roman empire, 
from the N. of Europe and the N. W. of Asia. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


great part of Europe. In 1814, however, his wild career of ambition was 
checked, and his power overthrown, by the allied sovereigns. The house 
of Bourbon was restored in the person of Louis XVIII., who Entered 
Paris in May 1814 ; but this arrangement suffered a snort interrup- 
tion, as Bonaparte, after continuing nearly a year in the isle of Elba, 
whither he had been sent, sbgain entered France, and seated himself upon 
the throne. The battle of Waterloo, Jane 18, 1815, decided his fate. 
Having surrendered himself to the British, he was conveyed to the island 
of St Helena, where he died 5th May 1821. Louis XVIII. was succeeded 
in September 1824 by his brother Charles X., who was driven from the 
throne in 1830, when Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, was elected king 
of the French. A revolution having broken out on the 22d February 1848, 
Louis abdicated in favour of his grandson, the Count de Paris, with the 
Duchess of Orleans as regent ; but this arrangement having been rejected 
by the people, the king immediately fled to England, and a republic vras 

4th, Antiquities.— The Greek colony at Marseilles seems to have 
imparted some degree of civilisation to the country, and the rude Gallic 
coins are evidently an imitation of 'the Grecian model. Of the Roman an- 
ti<]^uities in France, those at Nismes are particularly celebrated, consisting 
chiefly of an ainphitheatre, and the temple called La Maison Carri. In 
Picardy and other parts possessed by thQBelg<B, there are circles, and other 
monuments of the Kind which we call Druidio, On the coast of Vannes, 
in Brittany, there is a monument of this kind, far exceeding Stonehenge 
in extent, though not so imposing. There are about 4000 stones, many 
18 to 20 feet in height, disposed in the form of a quincunx of eleven 
rows. One of the most singular relics of antiquity is the suite of tapestry 
preserved in the cathedral cjiurch of Bayeux, in Normandy, represent- 
ing in minute and graphic detail the history of the grand contest between 
William and Harold, which led to the conquest of England by the Nor- 
mans. It is said to have been the work of Matilda, wife of William, and 
bears marks of high antiquity. 

II. Political Geography. 

1st, Religion. — The religion of France is the Roman Catholic ; but 
all other sects are tolerated. The Gallican church was emancipated from 
the influence of the Pope, and put under wise regulations by Bonaparte. 
Under the restored Bourbons tne church regained many of its privileges ; 
but these have been reduced lower than ever since the expulsion of 
Charles X. 

2d, Government.— The government before the revolution of 1789 was 
that of an absolute monarchy, which Bonaparte converted into a military 
despotism. At the return of the Bourbons, a representative constitution 
was established ; and since the revolution of 1830 and the proclamation 
of a republic in 1848 the popular influence has stiU farther increased. 

3d, Army and Navy. — After the restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, 
the army was reduced to 150,000 men ; in 1842 it amounted to 334.000 ; 
and in 1848 to 333,510. The maritime power of France was formidable, 
even to England Aill the battle of La Hogue in 1692 ; and since that time 
the struggles of France, though often energetic, have always terminated 
in defeat and disaster. The French navy in 1848 consisted of 203 vessels, 
with 27,372 seamen on board. The revenue of France in 1847 was esti- 
mated at about £52,000,000 sterling. 


zed by Google 


III, Civil Geography, 

Ist, MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.— The maimera and customs of the French 
have been so often delineated^ that the theme has become trivial and 
familiar. The most pleasing parts of the portrait are, vivacity, gaiety, 
politeness, and a singular disposition towards social enjoyments. On the 
other hand, recent events conspire to fix a sanguinary stain on the national 
character, which we would little expect amid so much seeming benevo> 
lence. Tnere is much in the French manners and customs which cannot 
be reconciled to our ideas of purity ; and the looseness of their morals 
has become proverbial. 

2d, Lanouaoe.— The French language is the most universally diffused 
of any on the continent of Europe. In variety, clearness, and precision, 
and adaptation to life, business, and pleasure, it yields to no modem 
speech ; but it wants force and dignity, and still more sublimity. The 
French language is a corruption of the Roman, mingled with Celtic and 
Got?uc words and idioms. Even in the tenth century, it continued to be 
cabled Romance: a name which afterwards passed to the poems and tales 
of chivalry, as oeing composed in this dialect. The epoch of classical 
purity of the French language commences with the reign of Louis XIV. 
(1643). The revolution of 1793 introduced such a number of new words 
and phrases that a neological dictionary is required to explain them. 

3d, Literature. — The literature of France has, in modern times, been 
much admired. In the bolder flights of inventive genius, or in the profound 
researches of philosophy, France cannot stand a comparison with Italy 
or England ; but in tne inferior walks of invention, and in books of ele- 
gant learning and exact science, she remains almost unrivalled. It 
would be idle and superfluous to attempt to enumerate the crowd of her 
modem authors who nave reflected honour on their language and country. 
Who is a stranger to the Roman grandeur of Comeille, to the tender 
elegance of Racine, the tragic pomp x>f Crebillon, the comic powers of 
M^iere, the naivetL the subtile simplicity of La Fontaine, the placid 
instraction of Fenelon, the gaiety of Cresset, the caustic vivacity of 
VoUaire ! 

4th, Manufactures and Commerce. — The manufactures of France in 
woollens and cottons rank next to those of England, and in silks and linens 
surpass them. In hardware, jewellery, wines, oik, &c., the trade is very 
considerable. The vrines or France, especially champagne, burgundy, 
and claret, are the most esteemed of any in Europe. The foreign com- 
merce of France was almost annihilated by the revolution, but revived 
after the peace. The amount of the export trade in the year 1844 was 
£45,871,526 steriing. 

IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The climate of France is, in general, more 
serene than that of England ; but the northern provinces are exposed to 
heavy rains, which^ however, produce beautiftil verdure and rich pasture. 
France may be divided into three climates, the northern, tho central, and 
the southern. The first yields no wines; the second, no maize; the third 
produces wines, maize, and olives. These divisions proceed in an oblique 
line from the S. W. to the N. E., so as to demonstrate that the eastern 
part of the kingdom is two and a half degrees of latitude hotter than the 
westem, or at feast more favourable to vegetation. i 

2d, Face of the Countrt. — The face of the country is generally level. 
Brittany corresponds greatly with Cornwall, and abound in extensive 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

60 FRANC£. 

heaths. For beauty, Upper Vienne and Correze are perhaps superior to 
any other departments of France ; yet much of the country is finely di- 
▼ersified with hill and dale ; and the scenery of the rivers, particularly 
the Seine, is often grand and picturesque. 

3d, Soil and AGRicuLTURE.~The N. E. part, from Fianders to Orleans, 
is a rich loam. Farther to the W. the land is poor and stony. The 
chalk runs through the centre of the kingdom, from Germany by the 
Ardennes to the Gironde ; and on the north of the mountainous tract is 
a large extent of gravel ; but even the elevated region of the S. is gen- 
erally fertile, though the department of Landes presents many level heaths. 
— The defects of French agriculture arise from the minute subdivision of 
property. In some of the departments, however, the modes of agriculture 
correspond with the natural fertility of the soil ; and others display a 
most laudable industry. 

4th, Forests. — The forests of France are numerous and extensive ; 
and as wood is the general fuel, attention to their growth becomes indis- 
pensable. Two of the most remarkable are those of Orleans and Ar^ 
dennes ; the former covers 15,000 acres. To these might be added the 
forest of FontainebleaUf and many others. 

5th, Animals.— The horses of France do not appear to have been cele- 
brated at any period ; and it is well known that the ancient monarchs 
were drawn to the national assemblies by oxen. The sheep are ill 
managed, having in winter only straw, instead of green food as in England. 
Of ferocious animals the most remarkable are the wild boar and the wolf : 
the ibex and chamois are found on the Pyrenees and the Alps. 

6th, Minerals. — Gold mines anciently existed in the S. of France, and 
some of the rivulets still roll down particles of that metal. There are 
several mines of silver, copper, lead, antimony, calamine, manganese, co- 
balt, coal, and jet, but none of great value ; at Seyssel, in Burgundy, 
near the Rhone, are mines of asphaltum. Besides excellent freestone, 
the environs of Paris contain abundance of jnrpsum. Alum is found in 
considerable quantities in Aveyron. The Pyrenees supply beautiful 
marbles.— The chief mineral waters of France are those of Bareges, 
Bagneres, Vichy, and Plombi^res. 'The warm baths of Bareges, at the 
foot of the Pyrenees, have been long celebrated. 

7th, Natural Curiosities.— Among the natural curiosities of France, 
the most worthy of notice is the plain of La Crau, in Provence, not far 
from the mouth of the Rhone. This is the most singular stony desert 
that is to be found in France, or perhaps in Europe. The diameter is 
about five leajpes, and the contents from 20 to 25 square leagues, or about 
150,000 Enghsh acres. It is entirely composed of shingle or round 
gravel, some of the stones as large as a man's head, and the shingle of the 
seashore is not more destitute of soil. The precipitous cliffs of Auvergne, 
and the caverns of Dauphiny, form also remarkable objects. The quarries 
in the neighbourhood of Paris contain numerous organic remains of 
animals no longer known to naturalists. 

8th, French Isles — From the dominion of Carthage, the island of 
Corsica passed under that of Rome, and was for some time subject to the 
Saracens of Africa. In the time of the Crusades it was assigned to the 
republic of Pisa, and was afterwards conquered by the Genoese. In 1 736, 
the malcontents threw off the Genoese yoke, and chose a German ad- 
venturer for their king. After many ineffectual struggles, Corsica was 
ceded to the French. The isles called Hieresy near Toulon, have a 
naked appearance, and present only a few melancholy pines. They how- 
ever contain some botanic riches. On the western coast is the isle of Ole^ 
ron, about 14 miles long by 2 broad, celebrated for a code of maritime 
laws issued bj Richard I. king of England, of whose French territory 
this isle constituted a portion. * 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

SPAIN. 61 


Boundaries. — N. Bay of Biscay and the Pyrenees ; 
W. Portugal and the Atlantic ; S. and £. the Medi- 

Proviijces. — 1. Galicia ; 2. Asturias ; 3. Biscay ; 4. 
Navarre ; 6. Arragon ; 6. Catalonia ; 7. Valencia ; 8. 
Murcia; 9. Granada; 10. Andalusia; 11. Estrema- 
dura ; 12. Leon ; 13. Old Castile ; 14. New Castile. 

Towns. — 1. St Jago de Compostella (a), Vigo, Co- 
runna (6), Ferrol ; 2. Oviedo, Gijon ; 3. Bilboa, Vittoria 
(c), St Sebastian (d), Fontarabia; 4. Pampeluna, 
Estella; 6. Saragossa (e) {Ccesarea Augusta) \ 6. Bar- 
celona, Tortosa (/), Tarragona {g) ; 7. Valencia (A), 
AKcant; 8. Murcia, Carthagena (Car^Aa^o iVova) ; 9. 
Granada, Malaga, Almeria; 10. Seville, Cadiz (i), 
Gibraltar (fc), Cordova (Z) ; 11. Badajos (m), Merida, 
Alcantara ; 12. Leon, Astorga, Salamanca (n), Valla- 
doKd (o) ; 13. Burgos ; 14. Madrid, Toledo, Talavera 
(p). In the island of Majorca is the town of Palma, 
and in Minorca are Port Mahon and Citadella. 

Islands. — Majorca, Minorca, Ivi9a, Formentera. 

Mountains. — Pyrenees, Sierra de las Asturias or 
Mountains of Asturias, of Urbia or Guadarama, of 
Toledo, Sierra Morena, Sierra Nevada, Sierra Blanca, 
the Rock of Gibraltar, and Montserrat in Catalonia. 

Capes. — Finisterre, Ortegal, Trafalgar (q), Europa 
Pomt, de Gata, Palos. 

Rivers. — Minho, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana, Gua- 
dalquivir, Ebro, Guadalaviar, Xucar, Segura.* 

* The Minho rises in the N. of Galicia ; the Douro in the £. of Old 
OMtile ; the Tagua rises in the N. E. : the Guadiana in the £., and the 
(^vadtUquivir in the S. of New Castile ; the Ebro rises in the mountains 


62 SPAIN. 

Additional Towns. — 1. Lugo, Orense, Mondonedo ; 2. SantiU 
lanoy SantandeVy Castropol; 4. Tudela (r), Viana ; 5. Jaca, AU 
harradn, Teruel; 6. Bosae, Lerida (Ilerda), Gerdna ; 7. Segorbe, 
Xativa, Mttrmedro (Saguntum) ; 8. Almanza, Lorca; 9. Rrnida^ 
Loata; 10. Andujar, Pahs, Xeres, Jaen ; 11. TruxiUo, Phcentia ; 
12. Benavente, Ciudad Bodrigo (*), Toro, Zamora ; 13. Segovia, 
Avila ; 14. Siguenza, Guadalaaara, Ciudad Beal, Aranjueat. The 
palace of St Ildefonso, and the palace and royal monastery of the 
Escurial (t). 

Ancient Diyisions.— Spain, including Portugal, was by the Romans 
divided into two provinces, viz. Citerior a&d Ulterior ; Citerior was 
afterwards called Tarraconensis, and Ulterior was subdivided into Boetica 
and Lusitania. Boetica included Andalusia, Granada, and that part of 
Estremadnra which is S. from the Guadiana : Lusitania contained the 
whole of Portugal S. from the Douro, and that portion of Leon and Estre- 
madura wUch lies between the Douro and Guadiana. Tarraconensis in- 
cluded the whole of the remaining provinces of Spain and Portugal. 

Ancient Nations.— CallsBci, Astiires, Cant&bri, Varduli, (1, 2, 3) ; 
Yascones, (4) ; Jaccetani, Vescitani, Ilergetes, Cosetani, Laletani, &c. 
(6, 6) ; Edetani, (7) ; Contestani, (8) ; Bastuli, (9) ; Turdiili, Turdetani, 
(10) ; CallsBci, Vettdnes (Bceturia), (11, 12) ; VaccaBi, Arrevaci, (13) ; 
Carpetani, Oretani, (14). 

(a) St Jamesy the patron of Spain, is said to be buried at Compostella. 

(6) At Corunna is interred the brave and lamented Sir John Moore, 

who so ably conducted the retreat of the British army through a moun- 
tainous and difficult country, in the face of a French army vastly superior 
in number. He received his death-wound by a oannon-ball in the 

shoulder, while ordering up the guards to support the Highlanders. 

(c) At Vittoria, the French armv, commandea by Joseph Bonaparte and 
Marshal Jourdan, was completely defeated by Lord Wellington, on the 

21st of June 1813. (rf) St Sebastian was taken by assault, by the. 

British troops under the direction of Sir Thomas Graham, on the 3l8t 

of July 1813. (e) Saragassa, after repeated sieges, was compelled to 

capitulate to the French on the 21st of February 1809 (/) Tortosa 

was by the Roman general Scipio made a municipal city ; its women so 
nobly distinguished themselves in some skirmishes with the Moors, that 

they had a military order of knighthood conferred upon them. 

iq) Tarragona was taken by storm, by the French general Suchet, on the 
28th of June 1811. — -ih) On the 8th of January 1812, Valencia surren- 
dered to the French army commanded by Marshal Suchet, after a dread- 
ful bombardment ; 18,000 troops of the line, and 374 pieces of cannon, 
were taken. (i) The French army, of 50,000 strong, began the block- 
ade of Cadiz OB the 6th of February 1810, but were obliged to abandon 
their works on the 24th of August 1812 ; the force which defended it 
consisted of only 21,000 men, Spanish, British, and Portuguese. On the 
heights of Barrosa, not far from Cadiz, General Graham defeated Marshal 

Victor and a French army, March 5, 1811 (Ar) (^iftra/tor was taken 

from the Moors in 1462, and in 1704 fell into the hands of the English. 
The Spaniards attempted to retake it in the following year ; and they be- 
sieged it again in 17*27 vnth as little success. It sustained a siege from 

of Asturias ; the Guadalaviar and ^ucar flow through Valencia ; the Se- 
gura flows through Murcia. 

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SPAIN. 63 

July 1779, to September 13, 1782, when the Spanish floatin/? batteries 
were destro^^ed by red hot shot from the garrison : the preliminaries of 

peace were signed February 178A '0 Cordova^ the birthplace of Lacan 

and the two Senecas. It is also noted for the manufacture of cordoyan, the 

tanned hide of the goat. [m) Badajos was supposed by the Spaniards 

to ))e almost impregnable, and the French increased its strength ; but on 
the 6th of April 1812, Wellington, at the head of the British and Portu- 

Siese forces, took it by storm. At Albuera, in the neighbourhood of 
adajos, Marshal Beresford defeated the French, on the 16th of May 

1811. (n) Salamanca surrendered to the British army, under Lord 

Wellington, on the 16th of June 1812 ; and on the 22d of July following, 
a dreadful engagement took place, in which Wellington completely 
routed the French under Marshal Marmont. (o) Valladolid, the birth- 
place of the morose and sanguinary Philip II. 'p) At Talavera, on 

the 27th and 28th of July 1809, the British and Spanish armies defeated 
the French under Joseph Bonaparte, who lost 10,000 men, and 20 

pieces of cannon ig) Cape Trafalgar is famed for the signal defeat 

of the combined French and Spanish fleet, on the 21st of October 1805 ; 
Lord Nelson fell in this battle, which exceeded all the naval yictories of 
the British. 

(r) At Tudela, on the 22d November 1808, the French defeated the 
Spaniards under Greneral Castanos, and thus laid open their way to Ma- 
drid. is) On the 19th of January 1812, Ciudad Rodrigo was stormed 

by Lord Wellington ; the French, after sustaining a severe loss, submit- 
ted. (/) The Escurial is the largest and most maje^ificent royal palace 

in Europe. It is said to have 11,000 windows, 14,000 doors, 800 columns, 
and several thousand apartments, some of which are very large : the 
building of this palace occupied 22 years. 

I. Historical Geography of Spain, 

1st, Names.— Spain, which formerly included Portu^l, was known to 
the ancients by tlie names of Hispania and Iberia* From its westerly 
situation, it obtained also the name of Hesperia. 

2d. ExTENT.^Spain is supposed to contain about 182,000 square miles; 
whicn, estimating the population at 12,300,000, give 68 persons to the 
square mile. 

3d, Chronologt.— It is generally believed that ancient Iberia was first 
peopled by colonies of the Asiatic tribes. Some are inclined to think 
that the first inhabitants were the Celtse, a people of Gaul. After them 
the Phoenicians obtained possession, and were the first civilizers of the 
kingdom ; next followed the Grrecians, and then the Carthaginians: about 
35 years before Christ it became subject to the Romans. About the year 
415 it was subdued by the Vandals. The Visigoths, under Euric, a. d. 
472, overran the whole of Spain, excepting Galicia, held by the Suevi, who 
had entered with the Vandals. On the decline of the lloman empire, it 
became a prey to the Goths, who founded the Spanish monarchy, under 
their king Alaric I. The Goths in their turn were invaded by the Saracens 
or Moors, from Mauritania in Africa, who ravaged the country about the 
end of the seventh century. Ferdinand V. son of John 11. king of Arra- 
gon, and his queen, Isabella of Castile, sister of Henry IV., in 1616, ex- 
pelled the MToors, who had kept possession of the southern provinces . 
about 700 years. The modem Spaniards may be considered as de- 
scended from the African Iberians, the Celtiberians or German Gauls, the 
Romans, and the Visigoths. In 1808, Charles IV. abdicated the crown 
in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII. Allured by the artifices of Bona- 

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64 SPAIN. 

Darte, Ferdinand and Charles both repaired to Bayonne, where the 
former resided the crown to his father Charles IV., and the latter im- 
mediately sifiined an act of abdication in fa^onr of the French Emperor, 
who seated ms brother Joseph on the vacant throne. The British troops, 
under the command of Lord Wellington, having in 1813 succeeded in en- 
tirely expelling the French from tne Peninsula, Ferdmand VII. was 
released trom confinement, and restored to power. On his death in 1833, 
he was succeeded by his daughter, Isabella II. Under the Salic law, in- 
troduced by the French Bourbons, Ferdinand's successor should have 
been his brother Carlos; but this was set aside, and the ancient constitu- 
tional law of Spain, which enabled females as well as males to occupy 
the throne, was revived in favour of Isabella, Ferdinand's oldest daughter, 
he having left no male heirs. 

4th, Antiquities. — Of the first epochs, only a few tumuli and other 
rude monuments exist. Coins are the only certain relics of the Carthagi- 
nians in Spain. The Roman antiquities are exceedingly numerous. The 
noblest of the Roman edifices is the aqueduct of Segovia, which is 750 
yards in length, and is supported by 161 arches of a prodigious height, 
consisting of two rows, rising majestically one above the other ; it nas 
stood upwards of 16 centuries. The Yisigothic kings have left few relics, 
except their coins, which are struck in gold,— a metal then unknovm to the 
other European mints. The monuments to the Moors in Spain are both 
numerous and splendid ; the most magnificent of which was the palace 
at Zehr^, three miles from Cordova, built by Abdoulrahman III. in 950. 
In this palace were reckoned 1014 columns of African and Spanish mar- 
ble. The hall was decorated with marble and massive gold ; and in tiie 
centre of the ceiling was hungthe famous pearl which uie emperor Leo 
had presented to the khalif. I'he palace oi Zehra appears to nave been 
destroyed in the barbarous and fanatic wars of the middle ages. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The religion of Spain is the Roman Catholic, which in 
this country and Portugal has been carried to a pitch of fanaticism unknown 
to the Italian states, or even to the papal territory. That disgrace to 
human reason, the Inquisition, was, in these unhappy kingdoms, invested 
with exorbitant power. The number of the Spanish olergy, including 
assistants, sacristans, monks, nuns, &c., amounted formerly to 188,625 ; 
but during the recent revolutions their numbers have been much reduced, 
the monasteries and convents being suppressed, the whole property of the 
church confiscated, and the secular clergy made entirely depenaent on 
the state. 

2d, Government. — The government is monarchical ; but since the war 
of independence its structure has undergone several changes from abso- 
lute to limited power. By the constitution of 1837, the right of ledsla- 
tion is vested in the sovereign and the cortes composed of two chambers, 
a senate and congress of deputies. 

3d, Laws.— The laws of Spain are contained in several ancient codes : 
recourse is also had to the civil and canon law. The Escrivanos or at- 
torneys are numerous, and, instead of explaining the codes, often impede 
the aoministration of justice. 

4th, Colonies, Army, Navy, Revenue. — After the immortal discoveries 
of Clu'istoval Colon, more commonly called Christopher Columbus, the 
colonies of Spain soon became numerous and extensive in the West 
Indies, South America, and the Pacific Ocean. Since 1810, however, all 
her American colonies have established their independence, and of her 
vast foreign possessions she retains now only Cuba, Porto luco, and tiie 

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SPAIN. 65 

Fhilippme Isles. Her army in 1846 consisted of 99,000 men ; her nay^ 
may oe considered as extinct. Her reyenne under the cortes was esti- 
mated at £6,000,000 sterling ; and in 1847, was £13,000,000. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Mannebs and Customs.— The character of the Spanish population 
varies considerahl^r in the different proyinces ; hut they may he described 
as generally conspicuous for integrity and self-respect, the latter feeline 
communicating a stateliness of manners which has oecome proyerbiaH 
Temperance is a virtue which the Spaniard shares in common with other 
southern nations. The chief defect of the nobility and gentry is their 
aversion to commerce and agriculture : for a living picture of the dress 
and habits of the lower orders, the immortal work of Cervantes may be 
consulted. The siesta, or mid-aay sleep, is common to all classes through- 
out Spain ; business being suspendea from 1 to 4 o'clock, when hardly 
an individual is to be seen in the streets. The amusements of people of 
rank consist chiefly in dancing and cards ; but the combats with bulls in 
the amphitheatres have justly been regarded as a striking feature of Span- 
ish ana Portuguese manners. 

2d. Lanquage. — The Spanish language is one of the three great south- 
em dialects which sprung from the Koman ; many of the words, however, 
are derived from the Arabic. The speech is grave, sonorous, and of ex- 
quisite melody, exhibiting much of tne slow and formal manner of the 

3d, LiTEHATUBE — The literature of Spain is highly respectable, though 
little known to the other countries of Europe since the decline of Spanish 
power. Under the khalifs of Cordova, Arabian learning flourished, and 
produced Aben Roe, Aben Zoar, Rhazes, &c. Many Jewish authors 
also arose in this country. Among the Spanish yyriters may be named 
Isidore of Seville, Alphonso the wise, Cervantes, Quevedo, Lopez de 
Vega, Ximenes, Mariana, &c. The universities, or rather academies, in 
Spain, have been stated at 17 ; of which the most noted is that of Sala- 
manca, founded in the year 1239. But the education communicated at 
these establishments, being entirely in the hands of the clergy, has been 
of the most unprofitable description, and recent events have rather injured 
than improved it. There is reason to believe, however, that the attention 
of the government will be drayni to this important object. 

4th, Manufactures and Commerce Manufacturing industry has at 

no period flourished in Spain, and at present is in a very low condition, 
from the unsettled state of the country. The trade with her American 
colonies, once a considerable source or wealth, is now at an end ; and 
that vnth foreijip states, being burdened with heavy duties, gives rise to ex- 
tensive smuggling. The chief manufactures are those of silk, iron, and 
leather ; andthe exports embrace wines, oil, fruits, wool, silk^ leather, 
quicksilver, saltpetre, and barilUb, the chief intercourse bemg with 
Britain. ' 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The climate of the interior of Spain is par- 
ticularly arid, and the soil parched and barren, during the summer heats. 
Malignant fevers sometimes prevail and sweep off great numbers of the 
inhabitants. The country adjoining the coasts is salubrious and fertile, 
equal if not superior to any in £urope. The severity of the yrinter, in the 
northern provinces, is allayed by humid gales from the Atlantic. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

66 SPAIN. 

2d, Face of the Countbt.— In most seasons the face of the country is 
delightful, abounding with excellent and fragrant pasturage, vineyards, 
and groves of orange trees ; the hills are clothed with wild thyme and 
other odorous plants. The rivers and streams are numerous ; and the 
chains of mountains afEbrd delightful variety to the prospect. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil is generally fertile, especially 
where irrigation has been employed ; and the valleys on the £. coast 
yield a perpetual succession of crops. But agriculture, except in Biscay, 
Navarre, and Arragon, and in the huertas or irrigated lands of Granada. 
Murcia, and Valencia, is in the most backward condition. The principal 
^ains are wheat, maize, barley, and rice ; hemp and flax are cultivated 
in the basin of the Ebro ; madder and saffron in the table-land of Cuen9a; 
and the sugar-cane and cotton in the southern districts. Spain likewise 
produces the richest and most delicious fruits, and of a quality equal, if 
not superior, to those found in France and Italy, as oranges, lemons, prunes, 
citrons, almonds, raisins, figs, dates, pomegranates, olives, in c. Her wines 

are deservedly in high esteem Among the great variety of plants in Spain 

are found many originally Indian, African, and American. 

4th, Mountains.— The term Sierra, peculiar to Spain, implies a chain 
of mountains whose successive peaks present the resemblance of a saw. 
The countrv is traversed from west to east by five great ranges, called re- 
spectively the Cantabrian, the Guadarama, the Toledo, the Sierra Morena, 
and the Sierra Nevada. Part of the Pyrenees is the seat of perpetual 
snow. There are but five passes over them. The Sierra Nevada in Granada 
is always covered with snow ; some of the peaks in this range have an 
elevation of nearly 10,000 feet. The Rock of Gibraltar, the ancient 
Calpe, and Mount Abyla, on the opposite shore of Africa, were celebrated 
in antiquity as the Pillars of Hercules. 

5th, Forests.— Spain contains many forests, partly arising from the 
want of cultivation, partly reserved for the royal pleasures of the chase ; 
that of the Prado, near Madrid, extends nearly 30 miles in length. 

6th, Animals.— The domestic animals are, horses, which are remark- 
ably swift, mules, asses, and sheep, the wool of which is superior to any 
in Europe : the last are computed at 14,000,000 ; and one nobleman has 
sometimes 40,000. The Merino sheep are authorized by a special code, 
the mesta, to travel from one province to another, as the season presents 
pasturage in the vales or on the mountains. Wolves are the chief beasts 
of prey that infest Spain. The wild bulls of Andalusia are remarkable 
for their ferocity, and bull-fights were formerly the most ma|;nificent spec- 
tacles the court of Spain could exhibit. 

7th, Minerals.— Spain abounds in minerals and metals: camelian, 
aS^te, jacinth, loadstone, turquois-stones, quicksilver, copper, lead, sul- 
phur, alum, calamine, crystal, marbles of several kinds, poiphyry, the 
finest jasper, and even diamonds, emeralds, and amethysts, are round here. 
Coal and rock-salt are met with in Asturias, Arragon, and Valencia. An- 
ciently it was celebrated for ^old and silver mines ; but since the discovery 
of the rich mines of America, little attention has been paid to them. 
Those of lead have been extensively worked. Polybius, a Greek historian, 
bom about 203 years b. c, informs us, that in his time a mine of silver in 
the territory of Carthagena employed 40,000 men, and furnished the Ro- 
mans daily with 25,000 drachms ; nearly £1000 sterling.— Britain and 
other regions of the west derived their gold and silver from Gaul and 
Spain.— There are many mineral waters in Spain, but few are celebrated. 
Tne hot springs of Rivera de Abajo, which bear some resemblance to 
those of Bath, are situated not far from Oviedo : near Alicant are the 
baths of Busot,— warm springs of a chalybeate nature. 

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8th, Natural GuRiogiriESU^The natural ouriosities of Spain haye been 
little illustrated. The rock of Gibraltar, as is well known, in some parts 
contains bones which have been supposed to be human ; but are now 
discovered to belong to quadrupeds, and to have been deposited in the 
fissures from above. This rock is chiefly calcareous ; ana on the west 
side there is a stalactitic cave called St Michael's. 


Boundaries. — N. and E. Spain ; S. and W. Atlan- 

Provinces. — 1. Entre Douro e Minho ; 2. Tras os 
Montes; 3. Beira; 4. Estremadura; 5. Alentejo; 6. 

Towns. — 1. Braga, Oporto; 2. Braganza, Miranda ; 
3. Coimbra (a), Lamego ; 4. Lisbon (6), St Ubes or 
Setubal ; 5. Evora, Elvas ; 6. Lagos, Tavira. 

Capes. — Roca or the Rock of Lisbon, de Espichel, 
St Vincent (c), St Mary. 

Rivers. — Minho, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana, Monde- 
go, Sado.* 

Additional Towns. — 1. Viana ; 2. Villa-Real; 3. Guarda^ 
Almeida ; 4. Leirioy Batalha, Abrantes, Santarem, Cintra, Ft- 
mieira [d) ; 5. Estremoz, Ourique, Beja, Portalegre ; 6. Faro^ 

(a) At the heights of Biuaco. N. from Coimhra, Wellington defeated 

Massena on the 27th of Septemoer 1810. ib) Lisbon^ the birthplace of 

Camoens. Great part of tnis city was destroyed by an earthquaKe, No- 
yember 1, 1755. On that fatal day, 60,000 of the inhabitants are said 

to have perished. (c) Near Cape Si Vincent^ on the 14th of February 

1797, the British admiral. Sir John Jervis, with a fleet of 15 ships of the 
line, defeated a Spanish fleet of 27 ships of the line, capturing the Sal- 
vador del Mando and San Josef, of 112 gnns each, and other two ships 
of the line.^(d) At the battle of Vimieira, in 1808, the British de- 
feated the French, who had entered Lisbon the year before, but left it 
after the result of this battle. 

* For the sources of the Minho, Douro^ Ta/TtML and Guadiana^ see 
Spain ; the Mondego rises in the £. of Beira near Guarda ; the Sado in 
the S. of Alentejo. 


by Google 


I. Historical Geography of Portugal, 

1st, Names.— The ancient name of this country ^as Ltmtania ; hut 
the boundaries do not exactly correspond. Its modem name, Portugal, is 
probably derived from a town on the river Douro, anciently called (kUef 
opposite to which the inhabitants afterwards built another town, naming 
it Portucalef now the flourishing city of Oporto. This name, which was 
conferred on the circumjacent region, became, on the country being re- 
covered from the Moors, the designation of the whole kingdom. 

2d, Extent.— Portugal contains about 36^00 square miles, which, with 
a population of 3,500,000, will yield 96 inhaoitants to the square mile. 

3d, Chronology. — The first possessors of Portugal were the Phoenicians 
and Carthaginians, then the Romans; the Goths next became its masters; 
and in the eighth century it was overrun by the Moors. Alphonso I. 
of Portugal, m the year 1139, gained a signal victory over five Moorish 
princes on the plains of Ourique, and was proclaimed king by his troops 
on the field of battle. In 1580, there was a failure in the royal line, and 
Phillip II. king of Spain seized on the kingdom ; but, in 1640, a great revo- 
lution took place, and the crown was conferred on John, duke of Braganza 
(king John IV.), whose descendants still enjoy it. At the close of the 
year 1807, in consequence of the French invasion of Portugal, the whole 
of the royal family sailed to Brazil. By the exertions of the Portu- 
guese, and the powerful aid of our gallant countrymen, the French were 
driven from Portu|^al,and the lawfulsovereign, John Maria Joseph Lewis, 
the prince of Brazil (bom 13th May 1767), son of Maria Frances Isabella, 
]ate queen of Portugal, was reinstated in his rights. He died in March 
1826. The throne was afterwards usurped by his second son Don Miguel, 
who was expelled to make wav for Donna Maria, the daughter of Don 
Pedro, ex-emperor of Brazil, Miguel's elder brother. 

4th Antiquities. — The antiquities of Portugal consist chiefly of Roman 
monuments, with a few Moorish remains. In the north is an extensive 
series of arches, formerly a Roman aqueduct. One of the noblest monu- 
ments of Gothic architecture is the monastery of Batalha, in Estremadura. 
foun4ed in 1386 by John I., who, with his queen Philippa, is interrea 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The religion of Portugal is the Roman Catholic ; 
a strict observance of which forms one of tne national characteristics. — 
Previously to the late revolutions, Portugal contained about 8000 monks; 
and the convents possessed an annual revenue of more than £1,200,000. 
The monks have since been driven from their establishments, and com- 
pelled to subsist on a small stipend, and the nunneries will probably soon 
share the same fate. 

2d, Government. — The constitution of Portugal was till latelv a mon- 
archy, absolute and hereditary. — At length, in September 1836, tne young 
Queen, Donna Maria, declared her acceptance of the constitutional system, 
which had, for a short period, been established in 1820. — The laws are 
lenient in cases of theft, which must be repeated four times before death 
be the punishment. 

3d, Colonies, Arut, Navy, Revenue. — The chief colony was Brazil, 
now an independent state under the emperor, Don Pedro II., with a diB- 
tinct constitution : Portugal still retains the Azores, or Western Isles ; 
Madeira, Cape Verde Islands, and many settlements on the coast of Africa ; 
likewise Goa and Macao in Asia. The army is compnted at about 28,000. 
— The naval power, once considerable, is now very much redaoed,-^The 
revenue for 1846 was £2,658,000. 


by Google 


III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs. — The maimers and customs of the Por- 
tuguese are discriminated into those of the northern and southern pro- 
vinces ; the former being more industrious and sincere, the latter more 
polite and indolent. The Portuguese possess all the vices with few of the 
virtues of the Spanish character : assassination is frightfully common, and 
so httle attention is paid to cleanliness, that the towns enjoy the unenviable 
distinction of being the dirtiest in Europe. The peasantry are chiefly re- 
markable for slavish submission to their priests and superiors. 

2d, Language. — The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin, 
differing but slightly from that of Spain; it is a grave and solemn speech. 
Education has been greatly neglected in Portugal, but is now receiving 
more attention. The university of Coimbra, founded in 1279) is attended 
by 1600 students. 

3d. Manufactures and Commerce.— The Portuguese manufactures 
are few and unimportant ; but plate and jewellery are made at Lisbon, 
and coarse cloths, paper, &c., in other places. The chief commercial in- 
tercourse is with England, to which are transmitted large quantities of 
wine, oil, grapes, oranges, lemons, figs, cork, wool, and other articles. In 
return, England sends her cotton goods, woollens, iron, fish, &c. The 
trade of Portugal with Brazil was extensive while she was able to ex- 
clude other nations; but since this monopoly has ceased, it has become of 
little consequence. The trade with the East Indies is inconsiderable; 
and that with the other European nations scarcely deserving of notice; it 
is chiefiy with Holland, France, Denlnark, and Germany. 

IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The climate of Portugal is mild and 
highly salubrious. At Lisbon the days of fair weather are computed to 
amount to 200 in the year; and those of settled rain seldom exceed 80. 
The air here is reckoned sofb, and beneficial to consumptive patients. 

2d, Face of the Country. — The face of the country is generally fertile, 
though with many acclivities. The numerous vineyards, and groves of 
orange and lemon trees, conspire with the streams and vales to impart 
great bei^ty and diversity to the scenery. The soil, like that of Spain, is 
generally light; but agriculture is much neglected. 

3d, Animals. — The horses of Portugal are much inferior to those of 
Spain. The inhabitants are now so fond of mules, which are of a superior 
quality, that horses are scarce. Sheep are neglected, and far from numer- 
ous ; but swine abound, and are fed with excellent acorns, so that the 
Portuguese hams are deservedly esteemed. The fish on the coast are 
reckoned exceedingly good. 

4th, Minerals.— On the frontiers of Spain there are mountains in which 
were ifbrmerly found gold and silver ; and the river Tagus was anciently 
noted for its golden sands. There are mines of iron, copper, tin, and 
lead, quarries of marble, and some precious stones. Nor is there any 
defieienoy of mineral waters of various kinds. 

5th, Natural Curiosities.— On the N. bank of the river Douro is a 
high cliff, with engraved letters or hieroglyphics, stained with vermilion 
and blue; beneath which is a grotto supposed to abound with bitumen. 

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Boundaries. — N. Germany; E. Austria; S. Italy; 
W. France. 

Cantons. — 1. Berne ; 2. Friburg ; 3. Soleure ; 4. 
Basle ; 5. Lucerne ; 6. Unterwalden ; 7. Uri ; 8. 
Schweitz ; 9. Zurich ; 10. Zug ; 11. Glarus ; 12. Ap- 
penzell ; 13. Schaffhausen ; 14. Orisons ; 15. Valais ; 
16. Geneva; 17. Neuchatel; 18. St Gall; 19. Thurgau; 
20. Aargau; 21. Vaud; 22. Tessin. 

Towns. — 1. Bernb; 2. Friburg; 3. Soleure; 4. Basle 
5. Lucerne ; 6. Stanz ; 7. Altorf ; 8. Schweitz ; 9. 
Zurich (a); 10. Zug; 11. Glarus; 12. Appenzell; 13. 
Schaffhausen ; 14. Coire or Chur ; 15. Sion, Martigny ; 
16. Geneva {h)\ 17. Neuchatel; 18. St Gall; 19. 
Frauenfeld ; 20. Aarau ; 21. Lausanne, Vevay ; 22. 
Bellinzona, Locarno, Lugano. 

Mountains. — Rhaetian Alps; Helvetian Alps; Pen- 
nine Alps, including St Gothard and Great St Bernard; 
Bernese Alps, including Schrekhorn and Jungfrau ; 
Mount Jura. 

Lakes. — Constance or Boden See, Geneva, Neu- 
chatel, Lucerne, Zug, Zurich, Wallenstadt, Brienz, 

Rivers. — Rhine, Rhone, Aar, Reuss, Limmat, Ti- 
cino. Inn.* 

(a) In Zurich the refonner Zain^lius lived, who emancipated his conn- 
try from the papal yoke in the early part of the sixteenth century. 

(6) Calvin resided at Geneva, which consequently hecame the asylum of 
the reformed religion. 

* The Rhine and the Rhone rise near Mount St Gothard ; the Aar 
rises in the S. E. of Berne, the Retus in the S. of Uri, the Limmai in the 
S. of Glarus, the Ticino in Mount St Gothard, and the Inn in the S. of 
the Grisons. 

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I. Historical Geography of Switzerland. 

1st, Names.— That part of Switzerland to the west and sonth of the 
Rhine was ancienti v called Helvetia ; the eastern part was denominated 
RfuBtia, The moaem appellation of Sehweitzerkmd, SwUMerland^ or 
Swisserlandf was derived, either from the canton of Schweitz, as bein/^ the 
most distinguished by the rcYolution of 1907, or because the Austnans 
called all the inhabitants of these mountainous parts by the general deno- 
mination of Schweitzers. Lately, while under the jurisdiction of France, 
it was termed the Helvetic or Helvetian Republic. 

2d, Extent.— The extent of Switzerland has been estimated at 15,260 
square miles; but the greater part is lost to human industry, consisting of 
▼ast rocks, partly covered with eternal ice and snow. The population is 
2,188,000, or about 140 to the square mile. 

3d, Chbonoloot.— The ancient inhabitants of this country were the 
Helvetii ; a Celtic race^ and ancient colony of Germans. — About 60 jears 
before Christ, Julius Caesar reduced the Swiss under the Roman dominion, 
to which they remained in subjection till the beginning of the fifth century, 
when the Burgundians and Germans became masters of the country. 
The house of Hapsburg had, from an early period, the supremacy over 
the E. part of Switzerland, which it retained till 1307, when Uri, Schweitz, 
and Unterwalden entered into a confederacv against Austria, one of the 
chief leaders being the renowned William Tell. ** Geitler, the Austrian 

governor for the Emperor Albert /., put his cap on a pike, which was 
xed on a public place at Altorf, and all who passed were required to 
pay obeisance to it. This was refused by Tell^ who was sentenced to 
shoot an arrow at an apple placed on the head of his own son. He 
fortunately succeeded in cleavin/^ the apple without injuring the child. 
Geisler observing another arrow m his girdle, asked what it was for ; to 
which Tell boldly replied, * To kill thee if I had killed my son.' Shortly 
after, he shot the governor, and the confederates having taken arms, totally 
defeated the Austrians at the battle of Morgarten in 1315, and formed a 
perpetual alliance, which was the grand foundation of the Helvetic confed- 
eracy."* Lucerne, Zurich, Glarus, Zug, and Berne, joined the confedera- 
tion between 1332 and 1353; Aargau was taken from Austria in 1415; St 
Gall, Thurgau, Friburg, and Soleure, were admitted between 1451 and 
1481; the Grisons in 1497; Basle and Schaffhausen in 1501; and Appen- 
zell in 1513. Shortly after, Tessin was taken from the Milanese, and 
Yaud from Savoy. The subjection to France, which commenced in 1798, 
ended with the usurpation of Bonaparte; and at the peace of Paris, in 
1814, the ancient government was restored, the number of cantons being 
increased to 22, by erecting what were formerly subject and allied districts 
into associated cantons. 

4th, Antiquities.— The ancient monuments of Switzerland consist 
chiefly of a few remains of the Romans. Of the middle ages there are 
manv castles, churches, and monasteries; the most celebrated among the 
last beiuff the abbev of St Gall, the library of which supplied the manu- 
scripts 01 three or four classical authors, nowhere else to oe found. 

II. Political Geography. 

1st, Relioion.— In eight cantons the Roman Catholic religion pre- 
vails ; in seven, the Protestant. In the other seven both religions exist 

* This story is, by some writers, considered as partly fitbalooB. 

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together. But in the 'whole Gonfederacy the ProteBtants fonn nearly three- 
finhs of the population. 

2d, Government.— The interior goyemment in these states is repub- 
lican. In case of injustice, yiolence, or oppression, shown to any 
one state or canton, they are bound by solemn compact immediately to 
join for mutual succour, protection, and defence. The burgomctster^ or 
chief magistrate of the town where the diet is held, is for that year called 
landamman of Switzerland, and acts as president. The diet declares war 
and concludes peace, forms alliances with foreign powers, names the 
diplomatic agents, and directs the military force. 

3d, Army and Revenue.— The military contingents of the 22 cantons, 
when called out, amount to 64,000 men. The federal revenue amounts to 
only £32,000, contributed by the respective cantons, to which are added 
certain tolls on imports, and the interest accruing from capital set aside 
for the purpose. 

III. Civil Geography. 

Ist, Manners and Customs.— The Swiss have long been admired for 
their hospitality, sincerity, and frank independence.— The houses, which 
are remarkably clean, are commonly constructed of wood, in the most 
simple form, with staircases on the outside. In general, the Swiss are 
remarkable for an intense attachment to their native country, though 
many of the youth enlist as soldiers in the service of foreign states. So- 
briety, industry, and economy are marked features in the national character ; 
in the rural districts both sexes are seen diligently emplovedin the alternate 
labour of the fielc^ and the loom ; and even children of the earliest years 
are found engaged in some profitable employment. 

2d, Language.— The languages spoken in Switzerland are, the German, 
French, Italian, and the Romansch, which last seems immediately derived 
from the Latin. The debates of the diet are always in German. Educa- 
tion is conducted in each canton at the public expense, and receives great 
attention ; so that the Swiss population may be reckoned among the best 
educated in Europe. 

dd. Literature.— Since the restoration of letters, and the reformation 
of religion, Switzerland boasts of many eminent names, as the reformer 
Ulric ZuingHus, Gesner, Bemouilli, Haller, Bonnet, Zimmerman, Rous- 
seau, Necker, Lavater, Euler, &c. 

4th, Commerce and Manupactures. — Notwithstanding the geoj^phical 
disadvantages of the country, manufactures may be said to nourish. The 
trade in watches and jewellery is of ^at importance; next to which is 
that in silks, linen, cotton, lace, &c. But cattle, sheep, and goats form 
the chief riches of the rural population, and considerable quantities of 
cheese are exported. 

TV. Natural Geography, 

Ist, Climate and Seasons The climate of Switzerland is salubrions 

and bracing. The heat, though sufficient to mature the grape, is tempered 
by the cold gales from the Alps and glaciers. The winter is, however, in 
some parts extremely severe; and the summer heat in the deep vales nre- 
quently oppressive. 


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2d, Facb of the CoimTRT.^No country in the world exceeds Switzer- 
land in diversity of appearance. The vast chain of Alps, with enormous 
precipices, extensiye regions of perpetual snow, and glaciers resembling 
seas of ice, form a sublime contrast to the vineyard and cultivated field, 
the richly wooded brow, and the verdant and tranquil vale, with its happy 
cottages and crystal streams. Barley, oats, rye, flax, and tobacco, are 
cultivated here. There is also abundance of fruits, apples, pears, plums, 
cherries, filberts ; with mulberries, peaches, figs, pomegranates, lemons, 
&c. But a large portion of the country consists of rich pasture-land. 

3d, Animals. — Among the animals peculiar to the Alps may be first 
named the ibejfy or rock-goat. This animal, which resembles the common 
goat, will mount a perpendicular rock of fifteen iTeet, at three springs, 
bounding like an elastic body struck against any hard substance. Another 
nngnlar animal is the chamois, which is commonly seen in herds of twenty 
or thirty, with a sentinel, who alarms them by a shrill cry. The marmot 
is common in the Swiss mountains. Among Alpine birds may be named 
the otf^r^, called also the golden or bearded vulture, and the great eagle^ 
called the golden eagle. This country yields also horses, sheep, goats, 
deer, fish, and fowl. 

4th Minerals. — The chief mines are those of iron. Mines of silver, 
copper, and lead, are also found. Some of the streams wash down par- 
ticles of ^old. Rock-crystal is sometimes discovered in such large pieces 
as to weigh seyen or eight hundredweight. As to granite and porphyry, 
the country may be said to consist of them. Among the Alps are also 
found serpentines, asbestos, with jaspers, agates, and yarious petrifactions. 
5th, Natural Curiosities. — To enumerate the natural curiosities of 
Switzerland would be to describe the country. The Alps, the glaciers, 
the vast precipices, the torrents, the sources of the riyers^the oeautiful lakes 
and cataracts, are all natural curiosities of the greatest singularity and most 
sublime description. Of late the glaciers have attracted particular atten- 
tion; but those seas of ice, intersected with numerous deep fissures, owing 
to sudden cracks, which resound like thunder, must yield in sublimity to 
the stupendous summits clothed with ice and snow, the latter often descend- 
ing in what are called avcUanches^gcesA, masses of snow, which, increasing 
as they roll down, frequently overwhelm travellers, and even villages. 
Still more serious damage is sometimes occasioned by landslips, masses of 
earth and rock which fall like avalanches from the mountains, and carry 
ruin and desolation into the valleys below. One of the most terrible of 
these took place in 1806, when Groldau and several other villages in the 
yallev of Arth, were overwhelmed by a fall of earth and stones from the 


Boundaries. — N. Austria and Switzerland; W. 
France and the Mediterranean ; S. Mediterranean ; E. 
the Adriatic. 

Divisions. — 1. Savoy ;• 2. Piedmont ; 3. Genoa ; 

* Savoy, Piedmont,,Grenoa, and the iskind of Sardinia, constitute the 
kincdom of Sardinia. 

The states of Venice, Milan, and Mantua, called the Lombardo-Venetian 
kingdom, belong to Austria, which see. 

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74 ITALY. 

4. Parma (a) ; 5. Modena ; 6. States of the Church ; 
7. Tuscany and Lucca ; 8. Naples. 

Towns. — 1. Chambery ; 2. Turin, Casale, Susa, Co- 
ni, Nice; 3. Genoa, Savona; 4. Parma, Piacenza; 

5. Modena ; 6. Rome, Tivoli, Frascati, Civita Vecchia, 
Fermo, Loretto (6), Ancona, Rimini, Ravenna, Fer- 
rara, Bologna, San Marino, Urbino ; .7. Florence, Pisa, 
Leghorn, Sienna (c), Lucca ; 8. Naples, Salerno, 
Policastro, Gaeta, Benevento, Capua, Amalfi (c?), Man- 
fredonia, Brindisi, Otranto, Taranto, Catanzaro, Reggio, 
Squillace, Cosenza, Maida (e), Venosa (/), Sulmona 
(g), Pizzo (A). 

Islands. — 1. Sicily; 2. Corsica; 3. Sardinia; 4. 
Malta; 5. Elba. 

Towns in the Islands. — 1. Palermo {Panormus), 
Messina (i), Catania, Augusta, Syracuse (fc), Girgenti, 
Mazzara, Trapani, Marsala ; 2. Bastia, Corte, Ajaccio, 
Calvi ; 3. Cagliari, Sassari ; 4. Valetta. 

Mountains. — Part of the Alps, Mount Rosa, Great 
and Little St Bernard, Mount Blanc (Z), and Mount 
Cenis in the N. and N. W. of Italy ; the Apennines ; 
Mount Vesuvius (m) in the W. of Naples ; Mount 
iEtna (n) in thelEi, of Sicily. 

Gulfs and Straits. — Gulfs of Venice, Trieste, 
Manfredonia, Taranto, Policastro, Salerno, Naples, 
Giieta, Genoa ; Straits o/^ Messina (o), Bonifacio. 

Lakes. — In 6. Perugia ( Thrasimenus), Bolsena ; 9. 

Capes. — Passaro, Spartivento, Leuca, Colonna (p). 

Rivers — Po {Padus or Ei^idanus\ Fiumesino (JKt4- 
hicon (q), Arno, Tiber, Volturno.* 

* The Po rises in the S. W. of Piedmont; all the other rivers rise in the 
Apennines, yiz. the Arno in Tascany, the Tiber and Fiumeamo in the 
States of the Church, and the Voliumo in Naples. 

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ITALY. 75 

Additional Towns. — 1. Annecy, Moutiers, 8t Jean Maurienne ; 
2. Aosia, VerceUiy Ivrea, Asti, Acqui, Monaco, Alegsandria, Tor^ 
tontty Marengo (r) ; 3. Finale, Aibenga, Oneglia ; 6. Perugia, Spoleto, 
Viterbo, Bracciano, Ostia ; 7. Pistoia, Piombino, Chiusi. 

Additional Islands. — Isles of Lipari, principal, Lipari, Vul- 
cano, Felictidi, and Stromboli (*) ; Capri, Ischia, Ventotiene, Pon- 
za ; in the Adriatic, the Isks of Tremiti and Lissa, 

Ancient Divisions. — 1. Northern. — Li/^ria ; Gallia CisalpTna ; Vene- 
tia and Histria. 2. Central.-^Etrum ; Umbria ; Picenum ; Vestini ; 
Marrucini, Peligni, Marsi ; Sabinum ; Latium ; Campania ; Samnium, 
Frentani. 3. SotUhem. — Apalia; Lucania ; Bruttii. 

(a) The duchy of Parma was given to Maria Louisa, late empress of 
France, and after her death, 17th December 1847, it passed to the Duke 

of Lucca. (5) Loretto is rendered famous from the Santa Casa, or Holy 

House, which, it is pretended, was the very same in which the Virgin 

Mary lived at Nazareth, and was brought thence by angels in 1*291. 

(c) Lalius Socinus was born at Sienna, in 1525. He was the founder of 

the sect of Socinians, (d) Flavia Gioia, who is said to have invented 

the mariner^s compass, was bom at Amalfi, about the year 1300. {e) On 

the plain near Mmda, in 1806, a victory was obtained by 5000 British 

troops over 8000 French. {f) Venosa is said to be the birthplace of 

Horace. (g) Sulmona, the birthplace of Ovid. (A) Joachim Murat 

landed at Ptzzo to recover the crown of Naples, when he was imme- 
diately seized, summoned before a court-martial, and shot on the 13th of 

October 1815. (t) Messina, in 1783, suffered much by an earthquake, 

which shook great part of Calabria (the S. part of Naples) and the island 
of Sicily, overturned many rich and populous towns, and buried thousands 
of the innabitants in their ruins : since which it has been rebuilt, with 

elegant houses only two stories nigh. [k) Syracuse was besieged for 

two years by the Athenians under the command of Nicias, Demosthenes, 
and Eurymedon, who, finding it impregnable, were about to retire, but 
were attacked by the Syracusans, and Nicias and Demosthenes, with a 
great part of their troops, made prisoners. Nicias was put to death by 

tne Syracusans b. c. 413. In tne siege of Syracuse by Marcellus, b. c. 

212, Archimedes, the great mathematician, who was a native of the place, 
contrived a variety of machines for annoying the enemy ; but the place 
was taken at last, and the Roman commander gave strict orders that his 
house and person should be respected. He was, however, slain by a 
soldier, while he was deeply engaged in solving a geometrical problem. 

(/) Mount Blanc (in Savoy) is the highest mountain, not only of the 

Alps, but of Europe. (m) Vesuvius is a famous burning mountain or 

volcano, about 8 miles S. E. of the city of Naples. Its first eruption on 
record, which was accompanied by an earthquake, happened in the year 
79, ana proved fatal to Pliny the naturalist. Great quantities of ashes 
and sulphureous smoke were carried not only to Rome, but also beyond 
the Mediterranean into Africa, and even to Egypt. Birds were suffocated 
in the air, and fell down upon the ground ; and fishes perished in the 
neighbouring waters, which were made hot and infected by it. The lava, 
ashes, and other matter ejected from the crater overwhelmed Herculaneum 
and Pompeii. These cities, after remaining buried 16 centuries, were at 
length discovered, the former in 1713, Pompeii about 40 years later, 

many of the houses being in a state of good preservation (n) Mount 

JEtna, or Gibello, the fabled forge of Vulcan, in which the Cyclops made 
thunderbolts, rises 10.870 feet above the sea. The first eruption men- 
tioned is that noticed by Diodorus Sieulus ; the second^ recorded by 

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76 ITALY. 

Thucydides.hsbppeued 734 years b. c. ; one, which began in 1664, lasted 14 
years ; and that of 1693, which was accompanied by an earthquake, over- 
turned the town of Catania (though 10 miles distant from the mountain), 
and buried no less than 18,000 persons in its ruins.— — (o) The Straits of 
Messina, or the Faro di Messina, formed the dangerous passage between 
Scylla and Charybdis. The celebrated whirlpool of Charybdis is said, 
howeyer, to have been almost entirely removea by an earthquake in 1783. 

ip) Colonna, so called from a column of Juno^s temple still existing. 

The neighbouring rocks were called the Isle of Calypso. (q) Cfesar 

was forbidden to quit his government of Gaul, which, on the side of Italy, 
was bounded by the brook Rubicon ; but he disregarded tbe interdiction, 
and passing it, advanced to Rqme and overturned the republic. 

(r) Marengo, memorable for a decisive victory gained by Bonaparte 
over the Austrians, June 14, 1800, by which the rrench again became 

conquerors of Italy. («) Stromboli consists of one large mountain, on 

which is a volcano, rising, in a conical form, to the height of 3000 feet. It 
burns without ceasing ; and for ages past has been looked upon as the 
great lighthouse of the Mediterranean. 

General Description of Italy. 

1st, Names.— Italy, said to be so called from a prince named Ilalus, 
the most renowned country of the ancient world, was, by the Greeks, called 
Hesperia on account of its western situation. It received the name of 
At^onia from the Ausones ; and that of (Enotria, from (Enotrus, an 
Arcadian prince, who settled in Lucania. Virgil calls it Satumia tellus, 
or Saturn's land, from the fabled notion that Saturn resided there. 

2d. Divisions.— Italy may be regarded as having been, in all ages di- 
videa into three parts, the southern, the central, and the northern. The 
southern part having received many Greek colonies, was honoured with 
the appellation of Magna Gracia ; the central was the seat of Roman and 
Etrurian power ; while the northern was denominated Cisalpine Gaul. 
In the middle ages, the kingdom of Lombardy and that of Naples occu- 
pied the two extremities, while the Papal and Tuscan states held the 
centre. In more modem times, the most permanent division has been the 
kingdom of Naples or the Two Sicilies in the south ; the centre and the 
north are now subdivided as follows :— 1. The dominions of the king of 
Sardinia, comprising the island of Sardinia, Piedmont, Savoy, and the 
former republic of Genoa. The country is mountainous, but diversified 
by many fertile plains, and produces fine silk :— 2. Austrian Italy, or the 
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, includes the former duchies of Milan and 
Mantua, and the territory of the republic of Venice. It is a rich and 
highly cultivated territory. Appended to it is the duchy of Modena, in- 
cluding Massa-Carrara ; also the duchy of Parma, which.was vested in 
the Empress Maria Louisa, and since her death, in the Duke of Lucca, 
the latter duchy being now united to Tuscany :— 3. The grand duchy of 
Tuscany including the duchy of Lucca, a beautiful and fertile territory, 
containing Florence, Sienna, and other finely ornamented cities :— 4. The 
Ecclesiastical States, of which the Pope is the temporal soverei^. Rome, 
the metropolis, though fallen from its ancient greatness, exhibits still the 
grandest monuments of architecture, sculpture, and painting of any city 
in the world. Bolo^a and Ferrara are also fine old cities ; but a great 
part of the country is deserted. 

3d, Extent — The len^h of Italy is about 750 miles ; while the meaa 
breadth between the Adriatic and Mediterranean is about 100. The wh<^e 
country, including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, contains 120,000 
square miles. The present population of Italy, with the islands of Sicily. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

ITALY. 77 

and Sardinia, is estimated at 23^35,000. The kingdom of Naples con- 
tains 6,382,000 ; Sicily, 2,040,000 ; the Papal States, 2^8,000 ; Sardinian 
States, 4,650,000 ; Tuscany and Lucca, 1,733,000 ; Venetian Lombardy, 
4,803,000 ; Parma, Modena, and San Marino, 1,019,000. 

4th, Original Population, &c.— The earliest settlers of the south 
consisted of i'e/ia9^,from< the Peloponnesus ; the northern part, of ///yn- 
ans, who were succeeded by German Gauls ; and the Etruscans of the 
centre are said to have been of Lydian extract. The Romans derive their 
origin from the early Greek colonies ; and their language is regarded as 
an ^olic dialect of the Greek ; but as they proceeded from the most bar- 
barous part of Greece at an early epoch, it was a considerable time before 
their manners, rendered ferocious by incessant wars, assumed a tint of 
Grecian civilisation. — The successive population, progressive geography, 
' historical epochs, and antiquities of Italy, are familiar to every reaaer ; 
but it may be remarked, that the Roman state, in Italy, was founded by 
Romulus, about 753 years before the birth of Christ, and by degrees ex- 
tended its conquests, not only over all Italy, but to the greater part of 
the known world. Julius Caesar added to it Gaul^ great part of Germany^ 
and even carried the terror of his arms into Britain, He was slain in the 
senate house, 44 years before Christ. The fifth century witnessed the 
downfal of the Bioman empire. The Lombards, a nation of Germany, 
seized upon the north of Italy, and founded the kingdom oi Lombardy , m 
571, which lasted till 772 ; when it was overturned by Charlemagne, king 
of France. During the feeble government of his successors, Italy was 
divided into different states, which, in general, subsisted till the late re- 
volution. In the interval between 1796 and 1805, these were subdued 
by the French, who possessed the whole country, leaving to Naples a 
nominal independence, till the overthrow of Bonaparte in 1814, when the 
old governments were restored. 

5th Religion. — The established religion is the Roman Catholic; but 
' all sects live unmolested, provided no ^ross insult is offered to the national 
worship. The Pope, when in the zenith of his power, under the modest 
title of Servus Servorum (servant of servants), claimed a right to dispose 
not only of the affairs of such nations as acknowledged his supremacy, but 
also of pagan lands to the ends of the earth, bestowing them as an inheri- 
tance on the royal supporters of his church. The Roman Catholic clergy 
are very numerous, being said to amount to 500,000. 

6th, Language.— The Italian language, a corruption of the Latin, is 
remarkable for its smoothness, and is said to be spoken in its greatest pu- 
rity at Florence, while the enunciation is most perfect at Rome: hence the 
following remark—" Per ben parldre Italidno, bisogna parldre Toscdno, 
e pronunxidre come i Romani ; to speak good Italian, we must speak as 
they do in Tuscany, and pronounce as they do at Rome."— The Italians 
have been the most celebrated of all the moderns for their genius and taste 
in architecture, painting, sculpture, and music, and several of them have 
also been eminent as writers. The education of the mass of the people, 
hoiwever, receives little attention, being mostly in the hands of the clergy. 

7th, Climate and Seasons.— The air of Italy is very different, accord- 
ing to the situation of the countries or states. In those on the N. E. side 
of the Apennines, it is temperate ; but on the S. W. it is very warm. The 
air of the Campagna di Roma, and of the Ferrarese, is said to be un- 
wholesome ; wnicn is owing to the land not being duly cultivated, nor 
the marshes drained. That of the other parts is generally pure, dry, and 
healthy. Atmospheric variations are not frequent, but the changes from 
heat to cold are generally sudden and severe. In summer the heat is very 
great in the kingdom of Naples, and would be intolerable, if it were not 
moderated by the sea-breezes. 

8th, Face of the Countbt.— Nothing can surpass the beauty and di- 

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78 ITALY. 

▼ersity of the scenery of Italy. In the north the towering Alps are con- 
trasted with fertile plains, through which many classical streams flow 
into the Po. In the centre there are numerous marshes, which occasion 
what is called the malaria, or a pernicious state of the air ; hut the varied 
ridge of the Apennines, ana the beautiful prospects of Florence and TiToli, 
excite universal admiration. A great part of the kingdom of Naples is 
mountainous, but the country is generally beautiful ; yet in addition to 
the fiery eruptions of Vesuvius and iEtna, it is exposed to the terrible 
effects of frequent earthquakes, and the enervating sirocco* 

9th, Products, &c.— Italy produces a variety of wines and the best oil 
in Europe ; excellent silk in abundance ; com of all sorts, but not in such 
plenty as in some other countries ; oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, 
almonds, raisins, sugar, innumerable mulberry trees, figs, peacnes, nec- 
tarines, apricots, pears, apples, filberts, chestnuts^ &c. Most of these fruits 
were at nrst imported by the Romans from Asia Minor, Greece, Africa, 
and Syria, and were not the natural products of the soil. This country 
contains rich pastures, from which is produced the famous Parmesan 
cheese, and abounds with cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, wild-boars, mules, 
and horses. "^'^- ^ — ^ " -x _-j _ ..i. j .l x---- 

yield not < 

jasper, po ^ , , , , 
aromatic herb's, 'trees, shrubs, and evergreens, as thyme, lavender, laurel, 
wild olive-trees, tamarinds, junipers, oaks, and pines. Wine, oil, per- 
fumes, fruits, and silk, are the principal articles of exportation ; and great 
sums of money are expended by travellers in the purchase of pictures, ca- 
riosities, relics, antiquities, &c. 

Tfie Southern Paft of Italy, viz, Naples including Sicily and the 
adjacent Isles, 

1st, Extent.— This division comprises Naples and Sicily, Naples is 
350 miles in length, by 100 in breadth, and contains .31,600 sc^uare miles. 
The island of Sicily is about 180 miles in length, by 70 of medial breadth, 
and contains 10,400 square miles. 

2d, Chronology.— On the fall of the Roman empire, this part of Italy 
was successively under the dominion of the princes of Benevento, the 
Greeks, the Saracens, and the Normans. Charles of Anjou became king 
of Sicily in 1266 ; ana after the massacre of the Frenchi called the Sicilian 
Vestoers, 1282, Sicily was seized by a fleet sent by the kings of Arragon ; 
but Naples continued to acknowledge the line of Anjou, which expired in 
the infamous Joan, 1382. Rene of Anjou was king of Naples, 1435 ; the 
French line failed in 1481, in Charles, Count de Maine, who named Louis 
XI., king of France, his heir ; whence the pretension of France to the 
kingdom of Naples. The Spanish line of Naples and Sicily continued till 
1714, when the kingdom passed to the house of Austria ; but was trans- 
ferred to that of Bourbon. 1736, in the person of Don Carlos, duke of Par- 
ma and Piacenza, son of Philip V. king of Spain and of Elizabeth of 
Parma. This prince, succeeding to the crown of Spain in 1759, conferred 
his Italian kingdom on Don Ferdinand, his third son, who married the 
sister of the emperor of Germany in 1768. On Ferdinand IV.f being 
driven out of Italy by Bonaparte, the kingdom of Naples was assigned to 

* Any pernicious wind is in Italy called sirocco ; in the S. applied to 
the hot blasts from Africa ; in the N. to the bleak winds from the Alps. 

+ Upon the restoration of Ferdinand to the throne of Naples in 1815, he 
assumed the title of Ferdinand I. king of the Two Sicilies. 

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ITALY. 79 

the French emperor's brother, Joseph, and afterwards to Joachim Murat, 
his brother-in-law. This order of things having passed away, Ferdinand 
enjoyed the kingdom till his death in 1824. He was succeeded by his son, 
Francis I., who died in 1830, when the crown descended to his son, Fer- 
dinand II. In 1848, the Sicilians revolted, and declared that Ferdinand 
and the Bourbon dynasty had forfeited the crown of Sicily, which the 
parliament agreed to conrer upon an Italian prince. 

Though the Religion be the Roman Catholic, the Inquisition has been 
carefully excluded. This portion of Italy is overrun with priests and 
lawyers. There are no less than 23 archbishoprics, and 86 episcopal sees ; 
the ecclesiastics are computed at 100,000. Tne government is nearly de- 
spotic. The code of laws, as well as the judicialforms established by the 
1 rench, have been generally adopted ; but trials by jury are unknown. 
The revenue is about £4.350,000 ; and the army is computed at 53,000. 
There are one ship of the line and five frigates. 

The Natural Curiosities of these regions are numerous and interest- 
ing, independent of the grand volcanic appearances. About six miles 
fVom Girgentiy in the S. of Sicily, there is a singular volcano^ which in 
1777 darted forth a high column of potter's earth, of which there are con-' 
tinual ebullitions from about 60 small apertures. Spallanzani has ex- 
plained the wonders of Scylla and Charybdis ; the former being a lofty 
rock on the Calabrian shore, with some caverns at the bottom, which, by 
the agitation of the waves, emit sounds resembling the barking of dogs. 
The only danger is when the current and winds are in opposition, so that 
vessels are impelled towards the rock. Charybdis is not a whirlpool, or 
involving vortex, but a spot where the waves are greatly agitated by 
pointed rocks, and the depth does not exceed 500 feet. 

The isles of Lipari contain many natural curiosities, as the rocks of 
volcanic glass, and the spacious cavern in Felicudiy called the Grotto of 
the iSleo-oor, which, from an aperture 40 feet high, opens into a hall nearly 
200 feet long, 1*20 broad, and 65 high. The Stoves or warm caves of Li- 
pari have suffered much by neglect. The isle of Ischia, N. from Capri^ 
abounds with volcanic substances. To the N. of Ischia is Pandatarioy 
now called Ventotiene or Vandotena^ famous for the exile of Julia the 
daughter of Aupusttis, The isles of Malta and Gozo are rocky and barren, 
not producing grain sufficient for half the consumption of the population. 
Malta is about 50 miles in circumference, and contains 106,578 in- 
habitants. It is strongly fortified, and sustained a dreadful siege in 1566; 
in which the Turks lost 30,000 men. Yaletta, the capital, is amazingly 
strong, both by nature and art. This island was subject to the knights of 
Malta^ but was taken frOm them by the French. After a siege of two 
years by the British fleet, the French were forced to evacuate it. It is 
still retained by Britain. The isle of Grozo is about half the extent, and 
is rather fertile, with a population of 16,547. 

The isle of Elba^ the ancient llva, which belongs to Tuscany, is of little 
importance in itself, and derives its chief celebrity from being the domain 
assigned by the allied nowers to Napoleon Bonaparte, after his first abdi- 
cation of the crown or France. It contains mines of iron, copper, lead, 
and tin. Asbestos and amianthus are also among the productions of Elba. 
This isle produces excellent wine, some oil, and flax ; but cannot boast of 
mach fertility in grain. 

The island of Sardinia, which is about 160 miles long, with an average 
breadth of 60 miles, was originally peopled by the Phcenicians and Greeks, 
and called by the latter Ichnusa, Sandialotis, and Sardo, It is mountain- 
ous, rude, and unimproved. It gives name to the king of Sardinia, whose 
principal dominions, however, are on the continent, consisting of Savoy, 
Piedmont, and Genoa. 

Corsica, the birthplace of Bonaparte, formerly subject to Genoa, now 
belongs to France, of which it forms a department ; it is 100 miles long, 
and 44 broad, and is mountainous and woody. 


zed by Google 



Where is Provence, Catalonia, Beira, Lucerne, Piedmont, • 
Arragon, Normandy, Artois, Glanis, Tuscany, Zug, Andalusia, 
Languedoc, Angoumois, Old Castile, Zurich, Granada, Bourbon- 
nais. Burgundy, Algarve, Biscay, Naples, Anjou, Orleanais, Un- 
terwalden. Savoy, Leon, Gascony, Bretagne, Navarre, Uri, Valais, 
Genoa, Berne, Soleure, Asturias, Alsace, Lyonnais, Picardy, 
Lucca, Alentejo, Murcia, French Flanders ! &c. 

Where is Oviedo, Toulouse, Strasbourg, Rheims, Tivoli, 
' Capua, Lisbon, Berne, Paris, Madrid, Rome, SchafFhausen, 
Oporto, Stanz, Seville, Corunna, Talavera, Bayonne, Toulon, 
Calais, Trafalgar, Coimbra, Altorf, Bologna, Maida, Loretto, 
Nice, Leghorn, Malaga, !l^dajos, Amiens, Marseilles, Benevento, 
Piacenza, Sion, Evora, Salamanca, Rochelle, Dunkirk, Grenoble, 
Saragossa, Palma, Cadiz, Burgos, Brest, Barcelona, Braganza, 
Vittoria, Versailles ? &c. 

Where is the Isle of Ushant, Minorca, Sicily^ Belleisle, Cor- 
sica, Majorca, Oleron, Sardinia, Rhe, Malta, Ivi^a I &c. 

Where b Mount Blanc, Puy de Dome, jEtna, St Gothard, 
Sierra Morena, the Pyrenees, Vesuvius, the Apennines, the Alps, 
Jura, Sierra Nevada, the Rock of Gibraltar 1 &c. 

Where is the Lake of Constance, Perugia, Geneva, Cape St 
Vincent, the Gulf of Venice, Cape La Hogue, Spartivento, Bar- 
fleur, St Mary, Colonna, the Gulf of Taranto, Naples, Straits of 
Messina, Lake Zurich, Neuchatel, Cape Finisterre, Lake Ce. 
lano \ &c. 

On what river does Rome stand 1 describe the Tagus ; where 
does the Rhine rise \ through what lake does the Rhone flow ? 
what sea does the Ebro fall into 1 describe the Seine : name the 
principal town on the Amo ; what province does the Guadal. 
quivir flow through ! whgt town is situated at the mouth of the 
Douro! &c. 

Or, the questions may be put as directed at the conclusion of 
the exercises upon England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. It 
is not advisable tbat the questions should be put in the very 
order in which they are arranged in any of these exercises. 
Asking them promiscuously is likely to answer the purpose a 
great deal better. 


by Google 



Boundaries. — N. German Oceao, Denmark, and the 
Baltic ; E. Prussia and Austria ; S. Italy and Switzer- 
land ; W. France, Belgium, and Holland. 

Divisions.* — I.Hanover; 2. Saxony; 3. Wurtem- 
berg ; 4. Bavaria ; 5. Oldenburg ; 6. Mecklenburg ; 
, 7. Brunswick ; 8. Baden ; 9. Nassau ; 10. Hesse Cas- 
sel ; 11. Hesse Darmstadt ; 12. Saxon States of Wei- 
mar, Coburg-Gotha, Altenburg, Meiningen, &c. ; 13. 
The free towns of Hamburg, Bremen, Lubeck, and 

Towns. — l.HANovER,Hildesheim,Gottingen,Zell(a), 
Luneburg, Harburg, Emden, Lingen, Osnaburg, Diep- 
holz; 2. Dresden (6), Leipsic (c), Meissen, Bautzen 
(d) ; 3. Stuttgard, Tubingen, Hailbron, Ulm, Hall ; 
4. Munich (e), Landshut, Augsburg (/), Blenheim 
(y), Neuburg, Ingolstadt, Ratisbon (h), Straubing, 
Passau, Hohenlinden (i), Wurtzburg {k), Culmbach, 
Bayreuth, Bamberg, Nuremburg, Anspach, Schweinfurt, 
Amberg ; W. of the Rhine are Spire (/), Landau, 
Deux Fonts; 5. Oldenburg, Elsfleth, Varel; 6. 
Schwerin, Wismar, Rostock, Gustrow, Strelitz; 7. 
Brunswick, Wolfenbuttel ; 8. Carlsruhe, Baden, Con- 
stance (m), Freyburg, Durlach, Manheim, Heidelberg ; 
9. Nassau, Wisbaden, Weilburg, Dillenburg ; 10. Cas- 
sel, Marburg, Fulda, Hanau ; 11. Darmstadt, Worms, 

* It has been thought proper to leaye out the possessions held in Ger- 
many by Austria, Prussia, Denmark, and Holland, as these will be found 
in their respective places ; the present divisions, also^ are substituted for 
the nine circles into which Germany was formerly divided, viz. Upper and 
Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Upper and Lower Rhine, Franconia,Suabia, 
Bavaria, and Austria. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


Mentz or Mayence (n) ; 12. Weimar, Jena (o), Eisen- 
ach ; Gotha, Coburg ; Altenburg ; Meiningen, Hild- 
burghausen, Saalfeld ; Dessau, Zerbst, &c. 

Mountains. — The Hartz, in Anhalt; the Erzge- 
birge {Hercynii Mantes), between Saxony and Bohemia, 

Lakes.^— Dummer See, in 1 ; Chiem See, in 4; Plan, 
Sch werin, and Muritz, in 6 ; Boden See or Lake of Con- 
stance, in 8. 

Rivers. — Rhine, Elbe, Oder, Weser, Eras, Danube.* 

In 1815, Germany was divided into 38 distinct and sovereign states, 
represented in the Federative Diet of the Germanic Confederation, accord- 
ing to their extent, by the following number of votes :— Austria, 4 ; 
Prussia, 4 ; Bavaria, • 4 ; Saxony, 4 ; Hanover, 4 ; Wurtemberg, 4 : 
Grand Duchy of Baden, 3 ; Electoral Hesse, or Hesse Cassel, 3 ; Grand 
Duchy of Hesse, or Hesse Darmstadt, 3 ; Denmark for Holsteln, 3 ; 
Holland for Luxemburg, 3 ; Brunswick, 2 ; Mecklenburg Sch werin, 2 ; 
Nassau, 2 ; the following have each one vote, viz. Saxe Weimar, Saxe 
Coburg-Gotha, Saxe Meiningen, Saxe Altenburg, Mecklenburg Strelitz, 
Oldenburg, Anhalt Dessau, Anhalt Bernburg, Anhalt Coethen, Schwartz- 
burg Sondershausen, Schwartzburg Rudolstadt, HohenzoUem Hechingen, 
Liechtenstein, HohenzoUem Sigmaringen, Waldeck, Old Reuss, New 
Renss, Lippe Schaumbnrg, Lippe Detmold, Hesse Homburg ; the four 
free cities,— Hamburg, Bremen, Lubeck, and Frankfort-onthe-Maine, 
each a vote,— in all 70 votes, including that of the extinct duchy of Saxe 
Gotha- Altenburg, which passed to Saxe Coburg-Gotha, Saxe M!einiugen, 
and Saxe Alten^iirg. 

Ancient Inhabitants. — The IstavoneSy who inhabited the W. of 
Germany, comprised the following nations, viz. Frisii or the Frisons, 
Chauci Mindres, Chauci Mai5res, BructSri, Chamfivi,+ Angrivarii^I 
Marsi, Chasuarii, Cherusci,§ Tubantes, Usipii, Sicambri, Tencteri, Catti, 
Matti&ci, Marcdmanni,|| Alemanni. — The Hermiones, who inhabited the 
S., comprised the nations of the Hermunduri ,Narisci, Boii, Quadi, Gothini, 
Osci, Buri, Lygii.— The Suevi, who inhabited the rest of Grermania Anti- 
qua, comprised the SemnOnes, Longobardi or the Lombards, Yarini, 
Angli and Saxones our English ancestors, Vindili or Vandals, Rugii, 
Burgundiones, GothSnes or Goifu, Lemovii. 

(a) At Zell, the unfortunate Matilda, queen of Denmark, resided after 
her exile from the Danish court. (6) On the 27th and 28th of August 

* The Rhine rises near Mount St Grothard in Switzerland, the Elbe in 
the £. of Bohemia, the Oder in Moravia, S. from Silesia ; the Weser ia 
composed of the Fulda from Hesse Cassel and the Werra from the Saxon 
States ; the Ems rises in the £. of Westphalia, near Paderborn ; the 
Danube in the S. of Baden. 

t The Chamdvi originally settled on the banks of the Rhine, where the 
Usipii afterwards dwelt. 

:|: Hence the name of Angraria or Angria, the kingdom of the Saron 
Witikind, who bravely resisted Charlemagne. 

^ The Cherusd, a. d. 10, destroyed Varus* three Roman legions in 
the Saltus Teuioburgiensis, or bishopric of Paderborn. 

II The Marcomanni afterwards settled in Bohemia. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1813, at Dresden and the neighbourhood, sanguinary conflicts took place 
between the French and alhed armies ; on the latter day, as General 
iforvott was conversing with the Emperor of Russia, a cannon-shot, which 
I>assed through his horse, carried off one of his lees, and shattered the 

other ; after suffering two amputations, he died on tne dd September. 

(c) At Leinstc. on the 18th of October 1813, a dreadful battle was fought 
between tne French emperor, who commanded his troops in person, and 
the grand allied army : Napoleon was defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, 

and 65 pieces of cannon. id) AiBavtzen or Budissen^ on the 20th and 

2l8t of May 1813, the French army, commanded by Napoleon, made 
a SBooessful attack on the allies : the conflict was very sanguinary ; the 
Freooh themseWes haTine stated their loss at 11,000 or 12,000 killed and 

wounded. ie) The palace of Munich is said to contain 11 courts, 20 

halls. Id galleries, 2660 windows, 6 chapels, 6 kitchens, 12 large cellars. 
40 apartments as out-buildings, and 300 large chambers, richly ftimished 
and adorned with fine paintings. The galleries of paintings and sculpture 

are unsurpassed in Europe. (/) At Auffsburg, Luther amd Melancthon, 

in 1530, presented to Charles Y. empero^ of Germany, the Protestant 

or Augsburg ConfessUm of faith. ig) Blenheim^ noted for the yictory 

obtained 2d August 1704, by Marlborough and Prince Eugene, oyer the 
French and Bavarians, under the command of Marshal Tallard^ who 
was made prisoner ; 10,000 of his troops were left dead on the field, 30 
squadrons of horse and dragoons perished in the Danube, 13,000 were 

made prisoners, and 100 pieces of cannon taken. (A) At A bensberg and 

EekmuMy neaj: Ratubon, on the 20th and 22d of April 1809, the French 
defeated the Austrians with great slaughter. In the short space of five 

days the Austrians lost 40^000 men, and 100 pieces of cannon. (t) At 

Hokenlmden^ in 1800, the French under Moreau sained a victory over the 

Austrians after a severe contest. (Ar) At Wurtzburg, Conrad III. 

emperor of Gennany, died on his return from an unsuccessful expedition 

to the Holy Land, 1162. (/) At Spire, in 1529, the electors of Saxony 

and Brandenburg, and other princes, entered th^r protest against the uni- 
Tersal observance of mass throughout the empire, on which account the 

reformed party acquired the name of Protestants. (m) Constance is 

famous for a council, in 1414, which caused John Huss and Jerome of 
Prague to be burnt; it likewise condemned the doctrine of Wickliffe, and 
ordered his bones to be burnt thirty years after his death.— ^(n) Mentz 

lays claim to the invention of printing. (o) Near Jena, in 1806, there 

was a general action between the French and Prussians, in which the 
latter were defeated with immense loss. 

Hanse Towns, certain free towns of Germany and the N. bordering on 
the sea, being ancientlv infested vrith barbarians, for their better defence 
entered into a mutual league, and gave themselves that name, either from 
the ceremony of plighting their faith by a grasp of the hand Uiansa), or 
from the same word, which in their own language signified a league, so- 
cietr, or association. This famous association is supposed to have be^n 
at Bremen on the Weser in the year 1164, or, as others say, in 1260, im- 
mediately after the incursions and 'piracies of the Danes, Normans, &c. 
At first it consisted only of towns on the Baltic sea ; but its strength 
and reputation increasing, there was scarce a tradin/^ city in Europe 
but desired to be admitted into it, so that in process of time it consisted of 
66 cities ; and at length they erew so formidable as to proclaim war against 
Waldemar, king of Denmark, about the year 1348 ; and against Erick in 
1428, with 260 ships and 12,000 regular troops, besides seamen : This 
gave umbrage to several princes, who issued orders to many merchants of 
^eir respective kingdoms to withdraw their effects, and by that means 
broke up the greater part of the strength of the association. Several 
towns in Germany still retain the name of Hanse towns, though they are 
no longer governed by those laws. 


zed by Google 


I. Historical Geography of Germany. 

Ist, Extent.— Grermanv, anciently called Gertnania, extends about 
600 British miles in lenstn from the isle of Rugen in the N. to the south- 
ern borders of the Tyrol and lUyria : the breadth is aboTe 500 miles. It 
contains an area of 246,000 square miles. The population is computed at 

2d, Chbonolooy. — The ancient historjr of the Germans is invoWed 
in obscurity ; yet there are faint indications that the Cimbrij or Celts, 
possessed several triicts in the S. as they certainly occupied a large i)or- 
tion of the N. W. The N. E. of Germany was held by the Finnish nations ; 
hut these as well as the Cimbri were obliged to yield to the inyasion of the 
Scythians or Goths, who migrated westward from their ori^nal Qeats on 
the Euxine. and had planted colonies in Germany, Britain, Gaul, and 
Spain, long oefore the Koman interference in the affairs of those countries. 
—The Romans found Germany inhabited by three principal nations, the 
Istavones, the Hermiones, and the Stievi, Julius GsBsar ibom about 99 
years B. C) was the first that ventured to inyade their country. His 
example was followed by his imperial successors, or their generals. About 
14 ^ears b. c. Drusus and Tioerius reduced all that part of Germany 
which lies S. of the Danube ; and about five years afterwards, the former 
of these chiefs subdued all the nations from the Rhine to the Elbe. The 
Germans, however, soon thereafter recovered the latter conquests ; and 
the Rhine and the Danube became the boundaries of the Roman empire 
in this quarter. — The western empire, which had terminated in the year 
475, in the person of Augustulus, the last emperor, and which was suc- 
ceeded by the reign of the Huns, the Ostrogoths, and the Lombards, was 
revived by Charlemagne, king of France, on Christmas-day, in the year 
800. After his death and that of Louis le Debonnaire, his son and suc- 
cessor, the empire was divided among the four sons of the latter. This 
partition was the source of incessant feuds. The French held possession 
of the empire till the year 911, when Louis III., the last prince of the 
line of Charlemagne, died without male issue. Conrad, count of Fran- 
conia, the son-in-law of Louis, was then elected empsror. Thus the 
empire passed to the Germans, and became elective,* for it had been here- 
ditary under the French emperors. Rodolphus, count of Hapsbura, was 
elected emperor in 1273. He is the head of the house of Austria, wnich is 
descended from the same stock as the house of Lorraine, reunited to it in 
the person of Francis I. father of the two late em^rors, Joseph and Leo- 
pold. On the death of Charles VI. of Austria, in 1740, an emperor was 
chosen from the house of Bavaria, by the name of Charles Yli. On the 
death of this prince in 1745, the aooTe-mentioned Francis, grand-duke of 
Tuscany, was elected emperor ; whose grandson Francis ll. enjoyed the 
dignity of emperor of Germany till 1806, when he formally resigned the 
tiUe and office, contenting himself with the title of emperor of Austria. A 
new political association was then formed of many considerable states. 

* The emperor was chosen by the princes, the lords, and the deputies 
of the cities, till the year 1239, when the number of the electors was re- 
duced to seven ; one more was added in 1649, and another in 1692 : these 
nine electors continued till 1798, when in consequence of the alterations 
made in the constitution of the empire under the influence of Fnnce and 
Russia, they became ten in number. When in 1806 the Austrian monarch 
resigned the empire of Grermany, the electoral system ceased, and re- 
mained in abeyance till 1848, in which year tiie Archduke John of Aus- 
tria was chosen Vicar-general or Protector of the empire. 

Digitized by 



called the CwifederalMn of the Rhine; at the head of which was Bona- 
parte under the title of Protector. The retreat of the French, in 1813, 
Tirtually dissolved this body ; but a new constitution was framed on 
nearly the same basis. The Germanic confederation is represented by 
an assembly of deputies from the different states, which meets at Frank- 

3d, Antk^uities.— The antiquities of Germany consist chiefly of a few 
Roman remains in the S. and W. It would be endless to enumerate the 
churches founded by Charlemagne, or the numerous castles erected by 
powerful princes and barons. 

II. PoHtical Geography. 

1st, Religion. — The people of the Grermanic confederation are diyided 
in nearly equal proportions between the Romish and Protestant com- 
munions ; the former prevailing in the Austrian provinces, Bavaria, Baden, 
Hohenzollern, Liechtenstein, and the (former) ecclesiastical electorates ; 
the latter, under the forms of LtUheranism and Ca/vmt^m, predominating 
in the other states. For several years, however, the Calvinists and Lu- 
therans have been outwardly united under the common designation of the 
Evangelical Church, Christians of all denominations are tolerated, and 
there are numbers of Jews in the large towns. 

2d, Government.— The first Carlovingian sovereigns of Germany were 
hereditary monarchs ; but so earlv as 887, the great feudatories deposed 
the emperor, Charles the Fat, and elected his nephew. The practice of 
election thus introduced continued down to modem times. At the dose 
of the Saxon race, in 1024, the prerogatives of the emperor were still con- 
siderable ; but, in 1437, they were reduced to the right of conferring all 
dignities and titles, except the privilege of being a state of the empire ; 
of panting dispensations with respect to the age of majority ; of erecting 
cities, and conceding the privilege of coining money ; of calling the meet- 
ings of the diet, and presidin^^ in them. But, after all^ there was not a 
foot of land annexed to this title ; for ever since the reij^ of Charles IV. 
the emperors depended entirely on their hereditary dominions, as the only 
source of their power, and even of their subsistence. To prevent the 
calamities of a contested election, a king of the Romans was often chosen 
in the lifetime of the emperor, on whose death he succeeded to the imperial 
dignity. The emperor (always elected and crowned at Frankfort-on-the- 
Maine) assumed the title of august, and professed to be successor to the 
emperors of Rome. Although he was cnief of the empire, the supreme 
autnority resided in the diet, which veas composed of thr^e colleges,— the 
college of electors, the college of princes, and the college of imperial 
towns. The diet had the power of makinfi[ peace or war, of settling gen- 
eral impositions, and of regulating all the important affairs of the empire; 
but the decisions had not uie force of law till the emperor gave his con- 
sent. When a war was determined on, ever^ prince contributed his quota 
of men and money, as valued in the matnculation-roll : though, as an 
elector or prince, he miij^ht espouse a different side from that of the diet. 
The present confederation forms a body of sovereign states united for 
mutual support and protection, but presenting in 'their internal arrange- 
ments every variety of government from democracy to autocracy. The 
sovereigns of Grermany have an absolute authority in their own dominions, 
and can impose taxes, levy troops, and make alliances, provided they do 
not prejudice the empire ; but all disputes between different states must 
be submitted to the decision of the diet. The military contingents of the 
several states amount to 303,000 men, and are commanded in time of war 
by a general named by the diet. Of the Sovereign States into which Gn- 
manv is now divided, the most powerful are Austria and Prussia, whose 
dominions will be separately described. The chief Minor States are-^ 

Digitized by LnOC^lC 


1. The Idnf^dom of Bayaria, consisting of the circle of that name, and a gt«at 
part of Franconia^ with a population of 4,505,000; capital, Munich.— 2. The 
kingdom of Wartemberg, composed of part of Suabia and the Upper 
Rhine, with a population of 1,744,000 ; capital, Stuttgard — 3. The king- 
dom of Saxony, which, though reduced by the late war, still contains 
L758,000 people, remarkable for their industry ; capital, Dresden.— 4. 
The kingdom of Hanoyer, comprising the greater part of Lower Saxony, 
with a population of 1,774,000 ; capital, Hanoyer. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Cust()^s The Germans are frank, graye, honest, 

and hospitable ; they are excellent soldiers and artists ; their character- 
istics are industry, application, and perseyeranoe ; but the manners and 
customs yary in the different states. 

2d, Language and LiTERAtuuE — Various Teutonic and Slav<mic 
dialects preyail in the different districts of Germany ; but the classic or 
literary language is called High Dutch^ and is that used in all public 
transactions and taught in the schools. The Seuton is accounted the purest 
and most classical idiom of the German ton^e ; and the southern dialects 
of Wurtemberg, Baden, Bayaria, and Austria, the most uncouth.— Among 
the many German writers and men of genius may be named Huss, Jerome 
of Prague, Lnther, Melancthon, Leibnitz, Cellarius, Euler, Klopstock, 
Wieland, Goethe, Schiller. Richter, the Schlegels, Werner, Kant, Handel, 
Mozart, &c. &c. Generally speaking, Germany presents at present an 
array of literary and scientific talent perhaps unparalleled in any other 
quarter of the world. 

3d, Edtjcation.— In respect of education^ Germatiy, especially the 
northern part of it. may be regarded as setting an example to the rest 
of Europe. Parochial schools, gymnasiums, l}[ceums, &c., eyery where 
abound^ and plase the means of instruction within the reach of all classes. 
The umyersities are nineteen in number, situated in the principal cities ; 
besides which numerous academies exist deyoted to diyinity, medicine, law, 
agriculture, &c. Germany contains numbers of learned societies, with 
many splendid libraries, and collections of art and natural curiosities. 

4th, MANUFACi(JiiBS.-~In Saxony are manu&otures of woollens, thread, 
linen, laces, &c., ribbons, yeWets, carpets, colours deriyed from yarious 
minerals, glass and porcelain of remarkable beauty. Silesia and Bohe- 
mia haye extensiye fabrics of linen and glass. The wool of northern 
G€»rmany is remarkable for its fineness^ and supplies the material of an 
extensiye manufacture: iron, leather, paper, &c., are also produced in large 
quantities. Printed books form an important branch of the trade of G«r- 
many, the annual fair of Leipsic being perhaps the greatest literary mart 
in the world. Among minor articles may be mentioned watches, jewellery, 
mathematical instruments, and toys. These products afford room for a 
great internal trade, of wnich the chief seats are Leipsic and Frairicfort- 
on-the-Maine : the foreign commerce is conducted miifstly at Hamburg 
and Bremen. A great commercial league, called the Zoll-verein, has re- 
cently been formed under the auspices of Prussia, by which goods are 
allowed to circulate freely among the interior states, though heayy duties 
are imiposed on those introduced from abroad. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Clihatb and Soil.— Gennany may be divided into three distinct 
climatic zones : the northern^ where the air is mmst and yariable ; the 
central, with a mild, dry, and regular climate; and the wuthem. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


where the lofty monntains and deep yalleys preeent striking extremes of 
heat and cold. In the north, the ailluv|ar soil od the banks of the rivers 
yields abundant crops of orain and flax ; the central region rivals iiv 
fertility the richest parts of England ; and the warm valleys of the south 
are favourable to the vine. 

2d, Face of the Ck)UNTBY.--The Sndetic chain of mountains, com- 
mencing with the Westerwald in Westphalia, traversing Hesse-Uassel, 
the S. (^Sax(my,and terminating in the Carpathians, divides Germany 
into two well-marked divisions. — the northern and southern. The former 
chiefly presents wide sandy {Mains, Rwamps, and marshes, raised little 
above the level of the sea ; while the latter contains great ranges of hills, 
alternating with valleys and in some instances extensive plams, among 
which that of the Danube appears conspicuous. Of the vast forests which 
formerly covered the surface of Germany, there still exist considerable 
remains, the Black Forest in Baden being the most extensive. The 
Hartz Mountains and several parts of Central Germany are likewise 
thickly wooded ; and wide tracts in the southern districts are covered 
with trees. 

3d, Animals.— The zoology of the western half of Grermany corresponds 
so much with that of the Austrian and Prussian dominions, that little 
need be added. The horses are generally more remarkable for weight 
than spirit. The German vnld-boar is of superior size, and the domestic 
breed of Westphalia is much esteemed. In the northern districts the 
lynx is common, and the wolf is sometimes seen in the S. The glutton of 
Germany is said to be remarkable for its voracity Caves containing 
skeletons of extinct animals are common in this country. 

4th, MiNERAiA No part of Europe yields a greater variety or abun- 
dance of mineral productions than Germany, and nowhere are the mines 
wrought with greater skill and assiduity. The Hartz mountains in 
Hanover, and the Erzegebirge in Saxony, yield silver, iron, copper, tin, 
lead, jet, porcelain, clay, marble, slate, agates, jasper, coal, & c. Many of 
the other states also contain productive mines. The mineral waters of 
Pyrmont have long been famous ; those of Ems, Wisbaden, Baden-Baden, 
and Carlsbad, are now much frequented. 


Boundaries. — N. and W. North Sea; S, Belgium; 
E. Rhenish Prussia and Hanover. 

Divisions. — 1. Holland Proper ; 2. Zealand ; 3. 
Utrecht ; 4. Guelderland ; 5. Overyssel ; 6. Friesland ; 
7. Drenthe; 8. Groningen; 9. N. Brabant; 10. Part of 
Luxemburg ; 11. Part of Limburg. 

Towns. — 1. Amsterdam (a), Rotterdam (6), Delft, 
the Hague, Leyden, Gouda, Dort, Haarlem (c), Saar- 
dam (d), Alkmaar, Hoom, Holder, Camperdown (e) ; 
2. Middleburg, Flushing, Sluys or Ecluse, Axel; 3. 
Utrecht, Amersfort ; 4. Arnheim, Nimeguen, Zutpheu 

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(/) ; 5. ZwoU, Deventer ; 6. Leuwarden, Dockum ; 7. 
Assen ; 8. Groningen, Winschoten ; 9. Breda, Bois-le- 
Duc, Bergen-op-zoom (g) ; 10. Luxemburg ; 11. Mae- 

Islands. — Texel, Voorn, Schouwen, Walcheren, N. 
Beveland, S. Beveland, Cadsand. 

Seas and Bays. — Zuyder-zee, DoUart Bay, Sea of 
Haarlem or Haarlem Mer, the Wye. 

Rivers. — The Rhine, Yssel, Vecht.* 

Additional Towns. — 1. Ryswick (h), Schoonhaven^ Gorcunij 
Schiedaniy Goree, Briel (i), Helvoetsluys ; 2. Terveer or Campvere^ 
Goes, Zierickzeey Tholen ; 3. Rhenen, Montfoort ; 4. Harderwyck^ 
Elburg, Hattem, Doesburg; 6. Campen, Steenwydk ; 6. Franeckery 
Harlingen, BoUwert, Sloten ; 7. Meppel, Coeverden ; 8. Delfzyl ; 
9. WiUiamstadt, Gertrudenberg (/c) ; 11. Ruremonde, Venloo. 

Additional Islands. — Vlieland, ScheUing, Ameland, YsseU 
monde, Overflakkee, Tholen, Wolfersdyck. 

(a) The houses of Amsterdam are built upon piles driyen into a mo- 
rass, and under the stadthouse alone are 13,039.-- — {b) At Rotterdam the 

famous Erasmus was bom, 1467. (c) Haarlem is memorable for a 

siege it sustained in 1573, durinff ten months, before it capitulated to the 
Spaniards. The great church, which is the largest in Holland, contains one 
of the grandest organs in Europe, with 60 stops and nearly 5000 pipes: but 
it is more remarkable for power tnan sweetness. Near the church stands 
the house of Laurence Coster, whom the Dutch fondly assert to have been 
the inventor of the art of printing (in 1440) ; but impartial inquirers 

have decided the question m favour of Mentz. (d) Peter the Great 

worked at Saardam as a common shipwright. («) Camperdown is noted 

as giving name to a victory obtained by the English fleet under Admiral 
Duncan^ over the Dutch f^eei commanded by Admiral de Winter^ in 
which mne ships of the line were taken : the battle was fought on the 11th 

of October 1797. (/) Sir Philip Sydney received his death-wound \it- 

toTt Zuiphenm 1586. {g) Count Lowendahl, under the command of 

Marshal Saxe, in 1746, besieged Bergen-op-Zoom, which is one of the 
strongest places in Holland, and after a lon^ and brave resistance, sno- 
ceeded in taking it.— Lord Lynedoch, then Sir Thomas Graham, in 1814, 
entered it by^ a coup de main^ but was obliged to retire with great loss. 

(A) The viUage of Ryswiek is noted for a treaty concluded there in 

1697, between France, England, German^^, Holland, and Spain. 

(t) Briel^ the birthplace of the famous Adnural Van Tromp (1597), who 
was killed in an engagement vnth Blake, one of Cromwell's admirals, 

near the Texel. {k) Gertrudenberg acquired its name firom the Roman 

faith in the miracles and death of Saint Gertrude. 

* The Rhine^ from Switzerland, upon entering Holland, divides into 
three branches— the Waal, Leek, and Old Rhine ; the Yssel and Vetht 
have their sources in Westphalia. 

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L Historical Geography of Holland, 

Ist, Names.— Holland, or the Seven United Proyinces, was in ancient 
times chiefly possessed by the Baiavi^ a people highly celebrated by Ta- 
citus ; but the boundaries bein^ modem, there is no ancient appellation 
which applies exactly to this country. It is commonly styled the kingdoifi 
of Holland^ from the name of the cuef province ; so called from the Ger- 
man word hohl, corresponding with the English word hollow, and imply- 
ing a concave or very low country. The people are called Dutch, from 
the German Deuisch or Teutsch ; but Dettlschland properly signifies the 
vast extent of Germany itself, though by the English restricted to a small 
portion using a dialect of the German language. 

2d, Extent.-— Holland is about 150 miles in len^h from N. to S., by 
about 100 in breadth. The number of square miles is computed at 13,176. 
It is very densely peopled, there being 3,248,000 inhabitants. 

3d, CHBONOLOOT.>-The original population appears to have ]>een 
Celtic : but when the Romans conquered this country, the chief inhabit- 
ants were the Batam, the most northern people of Belgic Gaul, and 
evidently a German or Gothic race, who appear to have been secure in 
their marshes and islands, till the Frisians, the next adjacent people in 
the N., in the seventh century extended themselves even to the Scneldt. 
In the eighth century the Frisians were subdued by the Franks under 
Charles Martel ; but the Frisians and Franks may be regarded as mingled 
in the population with the ancient Batavians. The countries watered by 
the Mouse and the Rhine were for a long time divided into small earldoms. 
About the year 868, Thierry assumed the title of count of Holland ; his 
descendants kept the sovereignty of the country till the commencement of 
the thirteenth century : then the earls of Hainault became the lords of 
Holland, which they surrendered to Philip of Burgtmdy in the early part 
of the fifteenth; and after the lapse of another century, the Hol- 
landers offered this country to'the celebrated Charles V. emperor of Ger- 
many and king of Spain. But when his son Philip II. succeeded to the 
crown of Spain, a general insurrection took place, and the Prince of Orange 
(gieat-grandfather to our king William I II.) was elected to be their stadt- 
holdei^, or general, in 1579 ; and soon after formed the republic, called 
the Seven United Provinces, or Holland. After the death of William II. 
(the fourth stadtholder) in 1 667, this office was abolished by the states ; but 
in 1672, when Louis XIV. invaded Holland, the popular commotions 
obliged them to repeal the edict, to invest WilHam III., prince of Orange 
with the office, and to declare it hereditair. On his death, in 1 702, it was 
acain abolished ; but, in 1745, some tumults among the people compelled 
the states to restore the rank to William IV., and again to declare it he- 
reditary in his family. In 1787, a civil war commenced, and the Stadt- 
holder William V. was deprived of the office of captain-general ; but he 
was restored the same year by the interference of Great Britain and 
Pmssia. This country was overrun by the French in 1795. In 1806, Na- 
poleon Bonaparte erected Holland into a kingdom, over which he placed, 
as sovereign, his brother Louis ; but, in 1810. declared it an integral part 
of France ; which it remained till 1813. when, by the downfal of Bonaparte, 
a counter-revolution took place, and ttie prince of Orange aUd Nassau was 
recalled from England, and created king of the NetherTands, which in- 
cluded both Belgium and Holland. The revolution in the former country, 
in 1830, however, converted it into a separate kingdom ; and the kii^; 
dT Holland retains only the ancient temtories of the United Provinces, 
with the addition of North or Dutch Brabant, and parts of Luxemborg 
and limbnrg. 


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4th Anttquities.— The ancient monaments of the United ProTinces 
are neither numerous nor interesting. The chief remains of the Roman 
period consist of the mined tower near Catwick, about six miles N. W. 
from Leyden, at the ancient mouth of the Rhine. In the middle of 
Leyden,upon an artificial hill, stands a round tower, fabled to have been 
built by Uensist, who first led the Saxons to England. Among the 
antiquities of the middle ages ma^ be particularly named the church of 
Utrecht, with a tower of great height, commanding an extensiye prospect 
of the surrounding oount^. 

II. Political Geography, 

Ist, Religion The Protestant religion, in the Oalvinistic form, pre- 
vails throughout the United Piovinces. The other chief sects are the 
Lutherans, Catholics, the Remonstrants or Arminians, Baptists, Jews, 
and a few Quakers ; out indeed every religion is permitted, on condition 
that it do not oppose the fundamental laws, or teach any doctrine subver- 
flive of the state. A stipend is now even paid by government to the 
mdnisters of all the different Christian sects, though net so large as to 
those of the Calvinistic persuasion. 

2d, Government. — The United Provinces were formerly composed 
of seven republics, each retaining its own states, consisting of nobles and 
burgesses. The provincial states sent deputies to the States- General, who 
used to assemble at the Hague, eigoying the right of peace and war, ap- 
pointing and receiving ambassadors, naming the gremer or secretary of 
state, and all the staf officers. The stadtholder vnis originally a kind of 
dictator, appointed, from the necessity of the times, to conduct the affairs 
of the state. The necensity having ceased, this office became of dubious 
auUiority, till William III., in 167^ succeeded in making it hereditary. 
After the expulsion of the French in 1813, Holland was dedared a con- 
jititntional hereditary monarchy ; the executive power being vested in the 
Idng, the legislative in the king and states-general, consisting of two 
chambers. Since the separation from Belgium, Holland preserves the 
came constitution. 

3d, Army, Navy, &c.— The army consists of 43,000 men ; the navy 
of 7 ships of the line, and about 50 frigates and smaller vessels.— The 
colonies are Java, Sumatra, and the Spice Islands in the East Indies, 
Surinam in S. America, and several other islands and settlements. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The Dutch are characterized by indus- 
try, economy, and cleanliness. The air being always moist, and commonly 
cold, their dress is calculated for warmth rather than for elegance. The 
people are of a phlegmatic temperament ; and their courage at sea is rather 
obstinacy than ardour; while, from the same cause, their labour is rather 
persevering than enereetic. The habits of the Dutch are distinguished 
.oy great regularity and decorum ; intoxication is seldom witnessed ; and 
though frugality is sometimes carried to .an extreme, the provident 
habits of the people render mendicancy comparatively rare. 

2d, Languaoe. — ^The langoage of Holland is Low Duiek, whioh is 
> dialect of the German ; but the people of the higher ranks wpeA 
French and English fluently. 

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3d, LiTERATURB.— The literature of the Seren United ProTinces is 
more respectable than that of the other Netherlands. At the head of their 
learned men stands the great Erasmus^ the restorer of letters in Western 
Europe, who was born at Rotterdam in 1467. Their other great men are» 
Johannes Secundus or Hans de Twede^ GroiiiUf Boerh€wve, Paul Me- 
rnla^ Adrian^ Junius, Meurshis, Dousa^ Vossiut^ ^c. JJoogeveen of Ley- 
den died in 1794, after having acquired the reputation of being the firs^ 
Greek scholar in £urope. The uniyersities are three : Lejden, Utrecht, 
and Groningen; with two inferior colleges at Amsterdam and Franecker, 
There is an academy of sciences at Haarlem. Holland possesses a 
complete system of national education, and there are few persons in the 
country unable to read and write. 

4th, Manufactures and Commbbcb. — The principal manufactures are 
those of woollens at Leyden and Utrecht ; silks at Utrecht. Haarlem, and 
Amsterdam ; cottons at Haarlem ; gin at Schiedam ; snipbuilding at 
Rotterdam and Amsterdam ; pottery and painted tiles, especially at Delft : 
with linens, leather, wax, snuff, sugar, starch, paper, &c,, at these ana 
other places. The inland trade with Genpany is very extensive. Its most 
remarkable feature consists in the vast floats of timber, which arrive at 
Dort from Andemaoh and other places on the Rhine, the copious streams 
of wiiich receive the trees of the German forests. The length of these 
rafts varies from 700 to 1000 feet ; the breadth from 50 to 90 ; and some- 
times 500 labourers direct the floating island, which is crowned with a 
village of timber huts for their reception. The navigation is conducted 
with;the strictest regularity ; and, on their arrival at Dort, the sale of one 
raft occupies several months, and frequently produces more than £80,000 
sterling. The interior trade is greatly aided by the vast number of canalu 
which connect every village, and pass even throush the streets of the towns. 
The foreign commerce of Holland, formerly the most extensive in the 
world, was ruined under the dominion of France, but is now reviving. 

IV. Natural Geography^ 

Ist, Climate and Face of the Countrt Humidity is the chief char- 

aeteristic of the climate of the United Provinces.— The general appear- 
ance of the country is that of a large marsh which has been drained ; great 
part of it being in iact under the level of the sea : yet the eye is everywhere 
relieved bv groves, gardens, and meadows ; and to the L. of Utrecht the 
woods and hills gently swell towards Germany. — The provinces of Fries- 
land and Groningen present in the S. and S. K. extensive heaths s while 
the parts in the vicinity of the sea are covered with morasses. Thus the 
whole country may be said to display an intimate combination of land and 
water ; and tne few elevations commonly consist of barren sand. 

2d, Soil and Agriculture. — The humidity of the climate has con- 
nected the rural industry of the Dutch mainly with pasturage ; and the 
produce of the dairy is brought to such perfection, as to furnish a staple 
artiele of commerce ; hence the large export trade in butter and cheese. 
The number of homed cattle is estimated at 1,000,000 ; sheep, horses, and 
•wine are also numerous. The country besides yields considerable quan- 
tities of wheat, rye, oats, and potatoes ; flax, hemp, madder, and tobacco 
are largely cultivated ; and the flower-roots of Haarlem are exported in 
ipreat numbers. 

3d. Animals.— In the zoology of the United Provinces there is nothing 
peculiar or worthy of remark ; the horses are chiefly from England and 
Flanders, the oxen from Holstein. The stork is here frequent, though un- 
known in Ensland. The shores abound with excellent flsh, particularly 
tnrbot and soles ; beds of oysters are found about the island of Texel, 

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4th, Minerals, &c.— With the exception of iron, from which Lnxem- 
bnrff derives its chief wealth, minerals are unknown, unless we rank peat 
in the number ; this is procured not only from the morasses, but also irom 
the bottoms of the rivers, by dragffin^ up the mud, which is exposed to 
dry on the shore, then cut into small pieces, and again dried for use. No 
medicinal waters are found here ; and there are few uncommon appear- 
ances of nature, though the whole country may be deemed an artificial 
curiosity, from tne number of canals, and from the vast dikes erected to 
exclude the sea. 


Boundaries. — N. Holland; W. North Sea; S. 
France ; E. Rhenish Prussia. 

Divisions. — 1. W. Flanders; 2. E. Flanders; 3. 
Antwerp; 4. S. Brabant; 5. Hainault ; 6. Namur; 
7. Liege ; 8. Part of Limburg ; 9. Part of Luxemburg. 

Towns. — 1. Bruges, Ostend (a), Nieuport, Dixmude 
(6), Ypres, Courtray (c), Menin ; 2. Ghent (d), Alost, 
Dendermonde, Oudenarde (e) ; 3. Antwerp (/), Ma- 
lines or Mechlin, Fort Lillo; 4. Brussels, Louvain 
(g)y Waterloo (h), Wavre, Vilvorde, Ramillies {i) ; 

5. Mons (k), Fontenoy (l), Ath, Enghien, Tournay ; 

6. Namur, Charleroi, Marienbourg, Philippeville ; 7. 
Liege, Spa, St Hubert (m) ; 8. Hasselt, Tongres, St 
Tron ; 9. Arlon, Bastogne. 

Rivers. — Scheldt or Escaut, Dyle, Mouse or Maese.* 

(a) Ostend is famous for the siege it sustained, from Jnlv 5, 1601. to 
September 22, 1604, when it surrendered to the Spaniards, arter they nad 

lost nearly 80,000 men before it. (6) Dixmude is famed in history for 

its^frequent sieges. (c) The battle of the iSjpurf, between the French and 

the Flemish, was fought near Courtray, id) Ghent is divided by canals 

into 26 islands, and over the canals there are 300 bridges. Charles Y. of 

Grermany, and John duke of Lancaster, were bom here. (e) One of 

Marlborouah's victories was gained at Oudenardein 1708. (/) Antwerp 

is the birthplace of the famous painter Vandyke, born 1599, and of the 
two TenierSf the elder born 1582, tne younger 1610. This city is celebrated 
for its Cathedral, one of the finest Gothic structures in Europe ; and the 
Exchange served as a model for that of London, burnt in 1838.— (^) In 
the ceutle oi Louvain (now in ruins) the celebrated Charles V. of Grermany, 
and his sisters, spent their infancy. (A) Waterloo, 9 miles from Brus- 
sels, famous for the complete overthrow of Bonaparte on the 18th of June 
1815. (t) Ramillies is memorable for a great victory obtained by the 

* The Scheldt or Escaut rises near Cambray, the Dyle in the south 
of S. Brabant, and the Meute or Maese in the north-east of France. 

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dake of MarlboroQffh oyer the French, in 1706. (k) The aneient catile 

of Mons is said to haye been erected by command otJuliiu Ccnar. (/) 

The yillage of Fontenoy is famous for the battle foufht in 1745, between 

the Duke of Cumberland, son of George II. and Marshal Scute. ^(m) 

Si Huberty in the forest of Ardennes, ^as formerly noted for its Bene- 
dictine' abbey, and has been frequently yisited by pious Catholics as the 
place where tne remains of Saint Hubert are deposited. 

I. Historical Geography of Belgium, 

1st, "S AMES,— Belgium, called also the Netherlands or Low Countries, 
in German Niederlande, was anciently known by the name of GaUia Bel- 
giea or Belgic Gaul. 

2d, Extent.— The length of Belgium, computed from the eastern limit 
of Limburg to Ostend on the coast, is about 140 miles, and about 100 
in breadth. The extent is computed at 11,350 square miles, and the popu- 
lation at 4,335,000. 

3d, Chronologt.— The original population was CeUief but was sup- 
planted by the Belga, a German colony. When Julius Cfaesar conquered 
this part of the country, the chief inhabitants were the Menapii, the 
Tungri, the Nervii, and the Morini. After the irruption of the Franks, 
this country formed part of Neustria, or the new kingdom (the ancient 
kingdom of the Franks beihg on the E. of the Rhine), partly belonging 
to me prqyince of Flandria, and partly to that of Lotharingia, or Lower 
Lorraine. In the middle of the ninth century arose the powerful house 
of the earls of Flanders ; and the counts of Hainault commence about 
the same epoch. The dukes of Lower Lorraine and Brabant are little 
known till the end of the tenth century. These and other great inheri- 
tances gradually fell under the power of the dukes of Buraundy, who, in 
the fifteenth century, enjoyed dominions worthy of the royal title. Charles 
the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy, being killed by the Swiss in 1477, 
his part of the Netherlands deyofyed on Mary, his only child ; by whose 
marriage with the emperor Mcueimilian, the Netherlands became an ac- 
quisition to the house of Austria. Charles V. emperor of Germany anfi 
king of Spain, in 1555, abdicated the soyereignty of the Netherlands, and 
soon after the Spanish crown, in fayour of his son Philip. The tyranny 
of this cruel bigot, PAt/tp II.,whoendeayoured to introduce the inquisitioti 
into the Low Countries, with the barbarities exercised by the duke of Alva, 
exasperated the people to such a degree, that they threw off the Spanish 
oroke, and, under the conduct of William I. prince of Orange, formed the 
famoQs league of Utrecht, in 1579, which preyed the foundation of the 
republic of the Seyen United Proyinces. After a long war (with the 
interyal of a truce of 12 years), Philip TV. of Spain expressly acknow- 
ledged the independence of these proyinces, by the treat^ of Westphalia, 
In 1648. The other proyinces returned under the dominion of Spain, but 
with yery fayourable stipulations in regard to their ancient liberties. On 
the accession of a branch of the house of Bourbon to the Spanish monarchy, 
it was stipulated, in 1714. that the Spanish Netherlands should return to 
the German branch of the house ot Austria. The French and Dutch, 
howeyer, obtained some considerable parts by conquest or cession. In 
1792, the French oyerran the Austrian Netherlands, and in 1795 decreed 
the country to be an integral part of the French republic. In 1814, it 
was included under the same goyernment with Holland, and the prince 
of Orange was styled William I. king of the Netherlands, By the reyo- 

* The Celta occupied the whole of Gaul from the riyer Sequana or 
Seine in the N. to the Garumna or Garonne in the S. ' 

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t94 2EIX3ICM. 

WiA^n of 1830 they hxve been ugain separated and formed into the kingdoai 
of Belgium, of which Leopold of Saze Ck>burg is sovereign. 

itt(h, AirrnjiUTTiE8.--The remains of Roman art are Ifttle memorable, 
and the chief an tiqfuities consist in grand ecclesiastical and civil monuments 
of the middle ages, when those provinces concentrated a great part of the 
wealth of Europe. 

n. Political Qeographp. 

lst« Religion.— The established religion of Belgium is the Rtman 
Catholic ; but other sects are not molested, and a provision is allowed 
to the Protestant clergy. Most of the wealth formerly in the hands of 
ecclesiastics was swept away by the French revolution near the close of 
the last century, and almost all the monasteries were suppressed. The 
clergy are now paid by a moderate stipend from government. 

2d, Government.— The kingdom of Belgium is a limited monarchy, the 
regal power being hereditary in the family of Leopold, the present king. 
The States-general meet at Brussels ; and there are provincial states for 
administering local afiairs. 

3d, Revenue, &c. — Under the Austrian power, the revenue of the 
Netherlands scarcely defrayed the expenses of government, and the various 
extortions of the French rulers could not afford sufficient data to compute 
an equitable and lasting inoome.<~The revenue of Belgium for l847 
.amounted to £4,620,000. 

TIL CifjU Geography, 

1st, Mannees and CusT0M8.^The manners and customs of the Belgians 
resemble those of their neighbours, the Dutch and French ; the phlegm of 
the one being tempered by the vivacity of the other. The lower classes 
are fond of religious pageantry, and much addicted to the observances of 
the Roman Cauiolic faith. 

2d, Larohags and Literature.— The Flemish language partakes %f 
the German and of the Dutch, The native language remains uncultivated, 
and the principal authors have used the Latin or the French. Among 
the Flemish writers and artists are Frmsart, PhU^de Comines, Lifmua, 
Oudenarde, Rubens, Vandpke, Streda, &c But in general the Southern 
Netherlands are more emin^t in artists, and the United Provinces in 
men of letters. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce. — ^In manufactures, Belgium for- 
merly excelled all other states; but they gradually decuned while the 
country remained attached to Spain, and eventually became inconsiderable. 
■ Since me revolution of 1830, however, a new impulse has been communi- 
cated to all branches of industry. Besides the well- known laces of Brussels 
and Mechlin, there are flourishing manufactures of woollens, linens, and 
silks ; the cotton factories employ upwards of 120,000 peo^e ; and the 
fabrication of machinery, cutlery, and other iron goods has nsen to great 
importance. The minor articles of hosiery, leather, paper, hats, refined 
sugar, beer, salt, &c., are likewise extensively produced. The external 
commerce of the country is of 'oomrse greatly on the increase. The im- 
ports for 1835 amounted to ^88,850,000; the exports to «£6j000,000. 

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rV. Natural Geography. 

Ist. CuMATE AND Sbasons.— The dimate of Belgium considerably re- 
sembles that of the S. of England, and is more remarkable for moistnre 
than warmth. 

2d, Face of the ConimfcT.~The face of the country is in general leTel, 
and the semblance of hills can scarcely be discoyered, except in the pro- 
Yinces of Liege and Namnr, where the surface becomes irregular and in 
some parts hill}r> There are, however, seyeral woods even in the centre of 
Flanders; and in Brabant is the forest of Soignies: further to the £. and 
S. are immense forests, which almost pervade Hainault and Luxemburg, 
from Valenciennes to Treves, forming striking remains of the ancient 
forest of Ardennes. Every traveller is impressed with surprise, not only 
at the number, but the great extent of the Flemish cities, towns, and even 
villages; in which respect Belgium exceeds every country in Europe, the 
United Provinces onl^ excepted. Canals are numerous, and a complete 
system of railways is in operation. 

3d, Soil and Aoricultube.— The soil is in general a rich sandy loam, 
sometimes interspersed with fields of clay, but oftener with larg:e spaces 
of sand. Such has been, even in distant ages, the state of agriculture, 
tiiat the Netherlands were long esteemed the very garden of £urope,---a 
praise which they still share with Lombardy and England. The successive 
crops of excellent clover, the cole, the turnips, and clean crops of flax, 
wheat, barley, and oats, deservedly attract attention. Much of the fer- 
tility of the country may be tracea to the constant application of manure, 
to obtain which large numbers of live stock are reared. 

4th, ANiHAL8.->The zoology of Belgium affords no remarkable mate- 
rials. The breeds of horses and cattle are esteemed for their size. 

5th, Minerals.— In the provinces of Namur^ Hainault, Luxemburg, 
and Liege, the mineral productions are numerous and abundant, the work- 
ing of mines forming a valuable department of national industry. The 
coUieries round Mons, Charleroi, Liege, &o., employ 30,000 persons, and 
yield naarly £1,400,000 in value annually. Iron ore is also abundant, 
and is worked witii great success; and there are besides productive mines 
of lead, zinc, copper, sulphur, and alum, with quarries of slate, marble, 
and building- stone. The mineral waters of Spa in the province of Liege 
have long Men celebrated. 


Boundaries. — N. Skager Rack ; W. German Ocean 
or North Sea ; S, Germany ; E. Cattegat, the Sound, 
and the Baltic. 

Divisions. — 1. North Jutland ; 2. Sles wick or South 
Jutland ; 3. The Duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg* 

* By the treaty of peace, January 14, 1814, the king of Sweden, in 
return for Norway, ceaed to Denmark his rights to the duchy of Pomera- 
nia and the isle of Rugen. By a treaty concluded at Vienna, 4th January 
1815, the king of Denmark gave up Pomerania and Rugen (o the king of 
Prussia for the duchy of Lauenburg. 


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in Germany ; 4. The Isles of Zealand and Funen, with 
Anholt and the other small islands in the Cattegat. 

Towns. — 1. Aalborg, Viborg; 2. Sleswick ; 3. Altona, 
Gluckstadt, Rendsburg, Kiel ; Lauenburg ; 4. Copen- 
hagen (a), Elsinore ; Odensee. 

Islands subject to Denmark. — Iceland, in which is 
Mount Hecla; principal town, Reikiavik; Faroe Islands, 
West Greenland. 

Bays, &c. — Lymfiord Bay, the Cattegat, the Sound, 
the Great Belt, the Little Belt, the Skaw. 

Rivers. — Elbe, Eyder.* 

AoDiTiONikL Towns. — 1. AarhuuSy Colding; 2. Flendshorgy 
HtLSurriy Ripen or Ribey Frederickstadty Tonningen; 4. Roskiidey 
Fredericksborgy Gorsoery CaUumborg ; Nyborg, 

Additional Islands. — Fememy near the coast of Holstein ; 

Aken, Aeroe, and Langeland, S. from Funen; Laaland, FaJstery 

, and Moeny S. from Zealand; Amak and SaUholm^ E. from Zea*- 

land ; Bomholm, S,from Sweden, 

(a) At Copenhagen, on the 2d of April 1^1, Lord Nelson defeated the 

Danish fleet, having sunk, burnt, and taken soTenteen sail. In 1807, a 

British fleet arrived here, and demanded the surrender of the ships of war 
in its harbour, to prevent the French getting possession of them: this being 
refiised, the city was bombarded till it surrendered ; and all the vessek 
and stores beingsent off for England, the city was abandoned by the British. 

I. Historical Geography of Denmark, 

Ist, Names. — The peninsula of Jutland was anciently called ChersonUus 
Cimbrica, The islands of Zealand and Funen were inhabited by the 
TeutSnes ; while the Angli and Saofonea^ our English ancestors, possessed 
Holstein — The name of Denmark^ implying the marches, boundaries, or 
territories of the Danes, is derived from the inhabitants, wno are first men- 
tioned by this appellation, in the sixth century, by Jomandes, a Goth, 
who. in the reign of Justinian I. emperor of Rome, vnrote a work, entitled, 
De Mundo et de Rerum et Temporum Successione. 

2d, Extent. — The length of Denmark is nearly 300 miles. Iceland, 
which belongs to Denmark, is 260 miles from W. to E., and 200 from N. 
to S. The population of Denmark with its dependencies is 2,195,000 ; 
that of Iceland being 56,000. 

3d, CHRONOLOOT.'—The original population of Denmark appears to 
.have consisted of Cimbri or Northern Celts, the ancestors of the Welsh. 

* The Elbe now forms the southern boundary of Denmark, the Eyder 
separates Holstein from Slesvnck, and, by means of the canal of Kiel, 
unites the Baltic vnth the German Ocean. 


by Google 


On the progress of the Goths from the N. and E. the Cimbri were ex- 

Selled. In the year 920, Gfumty or Gormo^ spruug either from a native, a 
wedish, or a Norwegian race, ruled Denmark. He was sncceeded by his 
son Harold in 945. who was followed by his son Sweyn in 985, well known 
by his invasion of England. In 1014, his son, Canute the Great^ king of 
Denmark, England, and Norway, ascended the throne. Margaret, 
daughter of Waldemar III. king of Denmark, and wife of Hakon YI. 
king of Norway, was pl&ced on the throne of both kingdoms, on the death 
of her son in 1387. xhe Swedes, dissatisfied with their king, Albert, 
offered their crown to Margaret, who accepted it, and defeated Albert in 
1394. Three years afterwards, the states or Denmark, Sweden, and Nor- 
way passed a law known by the name of the Union of Calmar, by which 
the three kingdoms were united, and the monarchy limited. Margaret, 
however, violated the conditions of the union, and acquired the title of 
the Semiramis of the North. Her successors lost Sweden. Norway, how- 
ever, still continued annexed to Denmark. In 1448, the crown of Den- 
mark fell to Christian, Count of Oldenburg, from whom the present royal 
family is descended. In 1513, Christian or Christiem II. ascended the 
throne: he seized Sweden, but was obliged to restore it to Gustavus Vasa, 
Frederick YI., persisting in his adherence to the cause of Bonaparte, 
was, in 1814, compelled by the allies to give up Norway to Bernadoite, 
crovm prince of Sweden. 

4th, ANTiquiTiES. — The ancient monuments of Denmark and Norway 
are chiefly what are called Runic. Circles of upright stones are common 
in all the Danish dominions: in Iceland some were erected even in recent 
times, being called Domhrmg, or Circles of Judgment, 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, RELi6iON.~The religion of Denmark and Norway is the Lutheran, 
all others being tolerated. The conversion of Denmark to Christianity 
had commenc^ in the beginning of the ninth century; but paganism was 
not entirely extirpated till the reign of Canute the Great. 

2d. Government and Laws.— In the memorable revolution of the 23d 
October 1660, the crown was declared absolute and hereditary. In 1834, 
the constitution was considerablv modified by Frederick YI., who granted 
to his subjects a representative rorm of government. The laws are chiefiy 
eomprised in the code of Christiem Y., who reigned in the end of the 
seventeenth century. 

3d, Armt, Navt, and Revenue The army of this kingdom is about 

25,000 men ; the navy consists of 6 ships of the line and 9 frigates. The 
revenue in 1847 was £1,670,000. 

III. Civil Geography. 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The manners and customs of the superior 
Danes differ little from those of the same classes in the other parts of 
Europe. The peasantry continued in a state of vassalaee till a compara- 
tively recent period ; those on the crovm lands being only emancipated in 
1761, and those on the estates of the nobles not till 1788. They can hardly 
yet be said to have shaken off the depressing consequences of such a con- 
dition: and they are believed to be more addicted to the use of spirits and 
animal food than any other people in Europe. 


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2d, Lakouaoe.— If we ezoept the Laponic, the hincaaces spoken in the 
DaiiiBh donumoos are all dialects of tne Gothic. l3ie leelandic is the 
most ancient and venerable; and, being esteemed the purest dialect of the 
Gothic, has enipi^ the attention of many profound scholars, who ha^e 
considered it as the parent of the Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, and 
in a great degree of the £nglish.x-Frencn and High Dutch are spoken at 

3d, LiTBRATURB.— The literature of Denmark, which makes no great 
fi^rCj cannot aspire to much antiquity. In the twelflJi century lived their 
histonans Sueno and Saro Grammaticus. The Danish astronomer, Ik/cAo 
Bnthe, flourished in the sixteenth century. Tn the remote idand of Ice- 
land, letters made great progress from the twelfth to the fourteenth centnry. 
Snorro, who, in the thirteenth century, wrote the ** Edda Islandica" or 
a history of Icelandic philosophy, was styled the Herodotus of the North. 
The celebrated sculptor Thorwaldsen, who died in 1844, was a natiye of 
Iceland. Denmark contains two universities, those of Copenhagen and 
Kiel; besides which schools are established in every parish under the 
auspices of government. 

4th, Manufactures and Commerce. — The manufactures of the Danish 
dominions are few and unimportant. Several have been recently en- 
couraged by the crown. Jutland, Sleswick, and Holstein generally ex- 
port com to a considerable amount; and the horses and cattle of Holstein 
furnish a supply to Holland. Iceland exports dried fish, falcons, hawks, 
and eider-down. The commerce of this Kingdom has been greatly im- 
proved since the acquisition of Altona and tne opening of the Kiel navi- 

IV, Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and SEA80Ns.-~Denmark possesses a humid and rather 
temperate climate. Yet the winter is occasionally of extreme severity, and 
the navigation of the sea impeded by ice. In Iceland the winter is so 
moderate, notwithstanding the high latitude, as sometimes to permit the 
natives to cut turf even in January. 

2d, Face of the Country.— The isle of Zealand is a fertile and pleasant 
country, with fields separated by mud-walls, cottages either of brick or 
whitewashed, woods of beech and oak, vales, and gentle hills : the same 
description will apply to Funen. Holstein and Slesvnck are also level 
and very fertile countries ; and though Jutland presents many nplanfl 
moors and forests of great extent, especially towards Aalborg, yet there 
are fertile pastures; and the country, being marshy and not mountainous, 
mij|(ht be greatly improved.— In Holstein and the south of Jutland, the 
agriculture may be compared with that of England ; farther to the north, 
cultivation is less advanced ; and in the extensive island of Iceland it is 
almost precluded by the severity of the climate. 

3d, Natural Curiosities.— On the south of the Faroe Isles, which are 
22 in number, there is a dreadful whirlpool. The volcanoes of Iceland 
may be classed among the grandest features of nature. Of these. 
Mount Hecla is the most remarkable, being situated in the southern ^art 
of the island, about 20 miles from the sea, above which it rises to the height 
of about 6000 feet. The summit is covered with snow, except in some 
spots whme the internal heat predominates. The craters are numerous, 
but the eruptions rare. The boiling springs of Iceland present a singular 
phenomenon; that called the Great Geyser to the north of Skalholt is the 
most remarkable, rising at intervals, from an aperture 19 feet in diameter, 
to the height of 90 or even 150 feet. 


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Boundaries. — E. Sweden ; N. and W, Northern 
Ocean ; S. Skager Rack. 

Divisions. — Southern Norway or Norway Proper^ 
contains, 1. Aggershuus or Christiania; 2. Christiansand; 
3. Bergen; 4. Drontheim ; — Northern Norway contains, 
5. Nordland ; 6. Finraark or Norwegian Lapland. 

Towns. — 1. Christiania, Frederickstadt, Frede- 
rickshall (a), Kongsberg, Fossum; 2. Christiansand, 
Arendal; 3. Bergen; 4. Drontheim, Roraas; 6. Trom- 
soe, Altengaard, Hammerfest. 

Islands. — Mageroe, LoflFoden, Vaeroe, Hitteren, 

Bays and Capes. — Christiama, Drontheim, West 
Fiord, Malstrom ; the Naze or Lindesnaes, North Cape. 

Mountains. — Langefield, Dovrefield, Kolen. 

Lakes. — ^Foemund, Miosen, Rands, Tyri, Oresund 
at the source of the Glommen. 

Rivers. — Glommen, Drammen, Louven, Torrisdals, 
Tana, Alten.* 

(a) On a high rock, overhaiiftiag the town of Frederickthall, are the 
ruins of the fortress of Frederickstein, at the siege of which Charles Xll. 
of Sweden was killed, 11th December 1718. 

L BUtoHcal Geography of Norway. 

Ist, Names. — The oonntries north of the Baltic (Sweden and Norway), 
were called Seandia or Seandmavia^ and were very imperfectly known 
to the ancients. Ninrway, Nwrriek, or the Northern Way, afFords a 
plausible derivation. 

2d, ExTENT.^Norwav is 1000 miles in length; its mean breadth is only 
150.— The number of inhabitants is computed at 1,168,000. 

* The Glommen. Drammen, and Louven flow S. through Christiania 
into the Bay of Cnristiania; the Torrisdals flows S. through Christian- 
sand into the Skager Back; the Tana suid Alien flow N. through Finmark 
intatibe Northern Ocean. 


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100 NORWAY. 

3d, Chronologt.— The original possessors of Norway appear to have 
been the Fins and the Laps, who were driven to the northern extremities 
by the Gothic invasion, aUegorically said to have been conducted by Odin, 
the god of war, Norway was governed by its native monarchs till the 
UnUm of Calmar, 1397, when it was joined to Denmark. Since that pe- 
riod the Norwegians were governed by a sovereign council, commissioned 
from the court of Denmark. In 1814, however, by the treaty of Kiel, 
the allied sovereigns obliged the king of Denmark to give up Norwa^r to 
3omadotte, crown prince of Sweden, as a reward for his services in assist- 
ing to crush thatgieantic power which had so long and so ^ievously agi- 
tated and oppressed Europe. The Norwegians, having invited Prince 
Christian of Denmark to assume the royal authority, resolved to assert 
their independence. Their exertions proved ineffectual; and the crown 
prince, in the name of the king of Sweden, accepted the Norwegian 
constitution, of the 20th October 1814, which directs that "" Norway and 
Sweden are to be kept in the separate enjoyment of their ancient rights; 
the laws and internal institutions of Norway beiug subject to such changes 
only as shall promote the union of the two kingdoms.'' 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, RELi6iON.~The reli^on of the Norwegians is the Lutheran; but 
many Popish ceremonies still linger in the forms of worship. There are 
no (ussenters, though all sects ot Christians are tolerated; out J.ews are 
prohibited from settling in the country. 

2d, Government. — Though under the same crown, Norway differs 
greatly in government from Sweden, the constitution b^ing much more 
democratic. The executive power is vested in the king, who rules by a 
viceroy resident in Christiania; the legislative, in the viceroy and the par- 
liament, called the Storthing^ consisting of two chambers both elected by 
the people. This body is said to possess greater powers than even the 
British parliament; a bill after being passed at three successive sessions 
becoming law even without the royalassent. 

3d, Laws.— Trial by jury is a very ancient institution of Norway; but 
many of the details in the administration of justice are of Danish origin. 
Capital punishments have been abolished; labour in chains, for a longer 
or shorter period, being the ordinary sentence for heinous crimes. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The Norwegian peasants possess much 
spirit and fire in their manner; are frank, open, and undaunted yet not 
insolent ; never fawning, though sufficiently respectful. They are a 
|[ood deai addicted to the use of ardent spirits; yet are industrious and 
ingenious, the small farmers and labourers generally building their own 
houses, and making their furniture and farm implements. Till recent 
times, the Danish Laplanders, who inhabit the region of Finmark, or 
Lapmark, were immersed in pEiganism, regarding particular mountains 
ana rocks as holy; their ohief god was Radien, who dwelt in the starry 
heaven; in the lower aerial regions were Beivi, or the sun, with Horang- 
alts, or the thunderer, and other divinities. 

2d, Literature and Education.— Norway enjoys the advantage of 
a free press; but literature cannot be said to be in a flourishing state, 
and will not bear comparison with that of the other northern kingdoms. 

Digitized by 


NOKWAY. 101 

CoDfiiderable attention is paid to education, there being primary Bchools in 
each parish, with hieher academies in the chief towns, supported by a tax 
on householders anda fee from each scholar. Christiania nas a university 
founded in 1811. 

3d, Products.— The chief products of Norway are fish, wood, hides 
(ohicuy those of the £oat), with silver, copper, and iron. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Cltmate and Seasons.— Norway, chiefly extending along the west 
side of the Scandinavian Alps, exposed to the vapours from the Atlantic, 
is not 80 cold a region as might be conceived. Finmark indeed feels the 
utmost riffour of winter. The shortness of the summer season is com- 
pensated by its warmth and by the lensthof the day ; and vegetation is so ex- 
tremely rapid, that in three months tne com is sown, ripened, and reaped. 
2d, Face of the Countrt. — Norwav is perhaps the most mountainous 
country in Europe; but in the south there are tracts of considerable fer- 
tility, and though often rocky, the soil is rich. The face of the country is 
a^eably diversified by numerous lakes and rivulets, and thickly dotted 
with cottages, rudel)r though not unpleasantly situated on rocky eminences, 
in the midst of luxuriant forests, liie Norwegian mountains are frequent- 
ly covered with dark forests of pines and firs ; and the perpetual snow of the 
peaks is not accompanied with the glaciers and other terrors of the Alps. 
3d, Soil and Agriculture.- Tn Norway the portion of arable ground 
is scanty, and far from sufficient to supply the consumption. The prin- 
cipal crops are rye, oats, potatoes, flax, and hemp ; but wheat thrives in 
flhelterea situations, and tne usual kitchen vegetables and fruits of Britain 
grow in abundance. The country affords excellent pasturage, so that 
cattle are reared in considerable numbers, their produce fomung an im- 
portant article of home consumption. 

4th, Animals.— The horses of Norway are as remarkable for their di- 
minutive size as those of Holstein are for the contrary quality. Among 
the more peculiar animals may be named the reindeer, common in Fin- 
mark and throughout Lapland. The elk sometimes appears as far north 
as Norway, and the country is infested by the bear, th^ wolf, and the 
lynx. The lemming or Norwegian mouse, which is of a reddish colour, 
and about five inches in length, is at times found in vast numbers, and 
spreads desolation like the locust. In Lapland are the beaver, the glutton, 
the hare* and the fox. Norway also boasts of eagles, and its falcons are 
reckoned the boldest and most spirited of any in Europe. The salmon 
supplies a considerable part of the Laplander's food. 

5th, Minerals.— The silver-mines of Kongsberg have been long re- 
puted the richest in Europe; and one mass of native silver in the roval 
cabinet weighs 409 marks, being worth 3000 rix-dollars, or £600. The 
copper-mines of Roraas, and the mines of cobalt at Fossum, are very pro- 
ductive. But the iron-mines of Norway are esteemed the most profitakble. 
JThey are chiefiy situated not far from Arendal. Lead appears in the 
vicinity of Kongsberg; and there are alum- works near Christiania. The 
loadstone is also found in Norway ; with curious garnets, especially the 
green, which are little known in other regions. 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— The Malstrom is a remarkable whirlpool 
off the shore of Nordland, which engulfs boats, and even ships ; nay, 
the struggles of the whale have not always saved him ftrom the danger : 
the bottom is full of craggy spires, and the noise truly tremenaous. 
About 20 miles to the northi of Bergen the rocks abound with singular 
petrifactions. The farm of Borre, in the province of Christiania, was in 
1703 swallowed up with all its buildings, and there now remains only a 
chasm full of ruins and sand. ^ t 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

J 02 SWE0EN, 


Boundaries.. — N. Norwegian Lapland; W. Norway, 
the Cattegat, and the Sound ; S. the Baltic ; E. the 
Baltic, Gulf of Bothnia, and Russia. 

Divisions.-—!. Gothland ; 2. Sweden Proper ; 3. 
Norrland, including W. Bothnia and Swedish Lapland.* 

Towns. — 1. Gottenburg, Christianstad, Carlscrona, 
Calmar, Malmo, Lund, Helsingborg, Halmstad,Norrkop- 
ing ; 2. Stockholm, Upsal, Gefle, Fahlun, Carlstadt, 
Westeras, Nykoping ; 3. Tornea, Umea, Hernosand. 

Islands. — Gothland, Oland. 

Lakes. — Wener, Wetter, Maslar. 

Rivers. — Gotha, Motala, Dahl, Tornea.f 

I. Historical Geography of Sweden. 

1st, Nambs.— Sweden, as well as Narway, was by the ancients cftUed 
^camitnaota.— Sweden, in the nati?e language Suiiheod^ and more re- 
cently Sweireke, is said by northern antiquaries to imply a country whose 
woods had been burnt or destroyed. The name seems as ancient as the 
time of Tacitus (a. d. 98): after describing the Suiones^ who lived in 
islands of the sea, the historian passes to the Sitones, who dwelt in the 
southern provinces of Sweden. The appellation Sweden must have been 
derived either from Sictuna, the old name of the chief town of the Sitonea, 
as appears from Adam of Bremen, or from Suiiheod, the native term, 
softened however by the enunciation. 

2d, ExTBNT.^The area of Sweden has been computed at 170,000 square 
miles; and the number of inhabitants b^ing 3,139,000, there are 18 to 
the square mile. 

3d^ Chbonoloot The first inhabitants of Sweden appear to have 

consisted of Fins, who, perhaps seven or eight centuries before the Chris- 
tian era, were supplanted by the Goths. No foreign conquest having 
since extended hither, the population continues purely Gotfiic in the south- 
em parts *f while in the north there are remains of the Fins ; and 
beyond them the Laplanders, a native diminutive race, resembling the 

* Rnland, E. Bothnia, and that part of Swedish Lapland E. of the rivers 
Tornea and Muonio, with the isle of Aland, now belong to Russia. 

t The Gotha connects Lake Wener with the Cattegat; the Motala from 
Lake Wetter falls into the Baltic; the Dahl, consisting of the E. and W. 
Dahl, flows through Sweden Proper ; the Tornea^ after receiving the 
Muonio, separates aweden from Russia. 

Digitized by 


SWEDEN. 103 

Samoiedet of the north of Asia, and the Etmdmawc and GreenlamUrs, 
races of arctic America. — By the Union of Caimar in 1397, Sweden was 
united to Denmark and Norway, under Margaret, and continaed bo till 
1523, when the famoos Gwtavus Vasa expelled the Danes : ever since it 
has remained independent. In 1611, Gustavvs Adolphut ascended the 
throne; he was surnamed the Great, on account of his wonderful success 
against the Germans, Poles, and Russians. That Illustrious madman,, 
Charles XI I., came tathe crown in 1697. He was continually at war with 
Denmark, Poland, and Kussia; he defeated Peter the Great at the battle 
of Narva in 1700; bv whom he was defeated in his turn, at Poltava, in 
1709 : he was killed while besieging FrederickshaU in 1718. SwMen 
was formerly an elective monarchy, and afterwards the most limited 
one in Europe till the ^ear 1772, when Gustavus III. gained the most 
essential royal prerogatives, without however being an absolute mo- 
narch. This pnnce was assassinated March 16, 1792, leaving his son 
Cfustavus heir, and his brother, the duke of Sudermania. regent of the 
kingdom, who, on the abdication of his nephew, assumed the crowiL with 
the title of Charles XIII. This prince dying without issue, the French 
general Bemadottey prince of Ponte Corvo, was declared his successor. In 
the war carried on against France in the year 1813, by the Russians, Ger- 
mans, Prussians, and Austrians, the Swedish monarcn vigorously assisted 
the allies; and at the peace of Paris, 1814, the kingdom of Norway was 
wrested from Denmark and ceded to Bemadotte as arewardfor his services. 
4th, ANTiquiTiBS.— The ancient monuments of Sweden consist chiefly 
of judicial circles, and other erections of unhewn stone, followed by the 
monuments with Rumc characters. Not far from Upsal is the morcuten, 
or stone on which the king used to be crowned, as the ancient Scottish 
monarchs vrere at Scone. Some of the old castles, erected since the nee 
of stone, are remarkable for their resemblance to what are called Pictish 
castles in Scotland. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion. — The religion of Sweden is the Lutheran, all others 
being tolerated; but only those belonging to the established church can 
receive employment under the state. 

2d, Government.— By the act 1789, the Swedish monarch arrogated 
not only the rights of peace and war, and the administration of justice, 
but the imposition of taxes, without the consent of the diet, which could 
not deliberate on any subject till it was proposed by the sovereign. On the 
accession of Bemadotte, however, the diet was restored to its former 
powers. It consists of nobles and landed gentlemen, clergy, burgesses 
or deputies of towns, and those of the peasantry. 

3d, Ck)LONiES, Armt, Revenue, &c.— Sweden only possesses one small 
colony, the island of St Bartholomew, in the West Indies, which was 

ceded to it by the French in 1784 The total amount of the army is 

85,000 men ; and the soldiers are of distinguished valour and hardihood, 
and elated with the former fame of the Swedish arms. The naval force 
comprises 10 ships of the line, 8 frigates, 8 brigs, and other smaller vessels. 
In tne Baltic, which is full of low coasts and shoals, gallevs of a flat con- 
struction are found more serviceable than ships of war, ana of course great 
attention is paid to their equipment by Sweden as well as Russia.— The 
revenae of Sweden in 1844 was £825,000. 

III. Civil Geography. 

IT be 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

Isi, Manners and Customs.— The Swedes mav be described as a tall, 
robust, and handsome zaee, able to sustain the hardest labour. £v«n 

104 SWEDEN. 

the peasantry are distingaished for politeness and hospitality; thou/rh, 
from the general habit of dram-drinkmg and other causes, crime prevails 
to a greater extent than elsewhere in northern Europe. The houses of the 
peasantry are built of wood, and only one story high; but they are gener- 
ally commodious, and exhibit within a laudable picture of domestic indns- 
try, the inmates being constantly employed in spinning, weaving, or some 
other species of home manufacture. 

2d, Languaob, &c.— The language of Sweden is a dialect of the Gothie, 
being allied to the Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic— In the last cen- 
tury lived LinfUBus the celebrated botanist. In history, DcUin and La- 
grebring have distinguished themselves by a precision and force which 
the Danes seem to sacrifice to antiquarian discussion. Puffendorf is 
eminent as a statesman, civilian, and historian. The progress of the 
sciences is supported by the institution of numerous academies. There 
are two universities, those of XJpsal and Lund, at both of which the in- 
struction is of a superior description ; and elementary schools are widely 
diffused, each adult person being required to be able to read the scriptures 
before he can exercise any act of majority. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce — The Swedish manufactures, if the 
home fabrication of articles for domestic use be excepted, are unimport- 
ant ; the chief being those of iron, steel, copper, brass, wool, silk, cotton, 
hats, watches, and sail-cloth. Of native products exported, iron is the 
most considerable ; and it is said that the miners in the kingdom are 
about 25,600.— The commerce of Sweden rests chiefly on the export of her 
native products, iron, timber, pitch, tar, hemp, and copper. Herrings also 
form a considerable article. Tne chief import till lately was corn of various 
kinds, particularly rye, but Sweden now affords nearly a sufficiency for 
her own consumption ; also hemp, tobacco^ sugar, coffee, drugs, silk, 
wines, &c. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons. — In the south, the longest day is 18 hours 
and a half ; but towards the north, there is continual day in summer, and 
continual night in winter, for several weeks successively. In the province 
in which Stockholm is situated, the spring and autumn are scarcely to be 
perceived ; for the winter continues nine months, and the summer only 
three. In winter the cold is excessive, and in summer the heat is almost 
insufferable, the air being generally serene all that time. Notwithstand- 
ing this, t^e Swedes, as well as the Norwegians, live to a great age, as the 
Sure and sharp ai^ which they breathe probably preserves them from epi- 
emicid diseases. 

2d, Face of the Country, &c. — No country can be diversified in a more 
picturesque manner by extensive lakes, large transparent rivers, winding 
streams, wild cataracts, gloomy forests, verdant vales, stupendous rocks, 
and cultivated fields. The soil is not the most propitious ; but agricul- 
ture is conducted with skill and industry, so as much to exceed that of 
Glermany and Denmark. Even Finland presents many rich pastures, and 
not a few fields of rye, oats, and barley. 

3d. Forests, &c.— The forests of this kingdom are numerous, and with- 
out their aid the mines could not be wrought. Dalecarlia in particular 
abounds with them, and the numerous lakes are generally skirted with 
wood to the margin of the water. Of timber trees there are but few spedes ; 
the most common, and those which constitute the wealth of Scandinavia, 
are the Norway pine and the fir ; of these there are immense forests spread 
over the rodcy moantainfl, and darkening with their sombre hne the whole 

Digitized by 


SWEDEN. 105 

horizon : the wood, from ,its lightnoBS and straightnese, is excellent for 
masts and ]^ards, and yarious*domeBtic purposes ; the juice, as tar, turpen- 
tine, and pitchy is almost of equal value with the wood ; and the inner 
bark, mixed with rye-meal, famishes a coarse bread in time of scarcity. 
Linnseus reckons about 1300 species of plants in Sweden, of which 200 are 
used for the purposes of medicine. 

4th, ANiMALS.~The domestic animals are horses, cows, hogs, goats, 
and sheep. The wild beasts are, bears, wolves, foxes, elks, reindeer, sa- 
bles, beavers, squirrels, &c. Linnseus reckons 1400 species of animstls in 

5th, MiNERiXS.— Of modem mineralogy, Sweden may perhaps be pro- 
nounced the parent country ; and her authors, Walleritu, Cronatedt, and 
Bergman, laid the first solid foundations of that science. The principal 
mines are those of jB^old, silver, copper, iron, and lead. Sweden abounds 
with beautiful granite ; porphyry is also found. 

6th, Natural Cukiosities — Sweden and Swedish Lapland abound in 
natural curiosities of various descriptions. Some of the lakes and ca- 
taracts are exceedingly romantic and picturesque ; and it would be in vain 
to attempt to describe the many singular and sublime scenes which occur 
in so variegated and extensive a country. 


Where is Drontheim, Overyssel, Saxony, Gothland, N. Jut- 
land, Finmark, Wurtemberg, Sleswick, Christiansand, Hanover, 
Namur, Bergen, Bavaria, Luxemburg, W. Flanders, Utrecht, 
Hainault, Brunswick, Antwerp^ Sweden Proper, Hesse Darm- 
stadt, liege, Groningen, S. Brabant, Nassau, Oldenburg ! &c. 

Where is Stuttgard, Ostend, Rotterdam, Brussels, Munich, 
Flushing, Ghent, Copenhagen, Roraas, Lund, Dresden, Constance, 
Wismar, Zutphen, Deventer, Calmar, Fossum, Mons, Waterloo, 
Fulda, Gottingen^ Nassau, Stockholm, Elsinore, Charleroi, 
Wurzburg, Bergen- op- Zoom, Frederickstadt, Umea, Oldenburg, 
Mentz, Aalborg, Halmstad, Rendsburg, Ulm \ &c. 

Where is the isle of Zealand, Walcberen, Loffoden, Texel, 
Iceland, Bommel, Gothland, Funen, Yoom \ &c. 

Where is Mount Hecla, Kolen Mountains, the Hartz, Lange- 
field, Erzgebiige \ &c. 

Where is the lake of Constance, Wetter, Foemund, Muritz, 
Wener, Miosen, Oresund, Meelar, the Bay of Christiania, the 
Sound, the Zuyder Zee, the Skaw, the North Cape, the Great 
Belt, Dollart Bay, the Malstrom, the Naze, Sea of Haarlem, 
Lymfiord Bay ! &c. 

Describe the river Maese ; of what does the Elbe form the 
southern boundary \ what countries does the Tomea separate ! 
what is the outlet of Lake Wener ! name the two principal rivers 
in Finmark ; on what river does Antwerp stand \ through what 
province does the Vecht flow ! &c. 

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106 POLAND. 


Poland was bounded on the N. by the Baltic. Prassia, and Russia ; 
S. by Hungary and Turkey ; E. by Russia ; W. by Germany and Silesia. 
— The prmfineee were, 1. Masovia ; 2. Polish Prussia ; 3. Great Poland ; 

4. Podlacbia ; 5. Little Poland ; 6. Red Russia or Galitzia ; 7. Courland ; 

8. Samogitia ; 9. Lithuania ; 10. Yolhynia ; 11. Polesia ; 12. Podolia 

The towns in these diyisions were, 1. Warsaw^ Praga, Lublin ; 2. Dant- 
zio, Elbing, Thorn ; 3. Gnesna, Posna, Kalisch, Siradia ; 4. Bielsk ; 

5. Cracow, Sandomir ; 6. Leopold or Lemberg ; 7. Mittan, Libau, Win- 
dau ; 8. Rosienne ; 9. Wilna, Grodno, Minsk ; 10. Lucko ; 11. Bressica ; 
12. Kaminiec.— The mountains were, the Carpathian or Krapack Moun- 
tains between Poland and Hungary.— l!\iQ rivers were, the Warta^ Vis- 
tula or Weichsel, Bug, Memel or Niemen, Western Dwina, Dnieper, 

Dniester, Bog The population of this country, before its dismemberment, 

was supposed to be about 15 millions.- Their religion was the Roman 
Catholic ; but Jews, Turks, and Infidels were tolerated.^The government 
was monarchical and aristocratical ; all the acts of state being in the 
name of ** the king and republic of Poland." The king was tne only 
elective soyereign in Europe, being chosen by a general diet summoned by 
the archbishop of Gnesna, as chiefof the republic during the interregnum. 
This circumstance proyed the source of great calamities ; for on the 
death of e^ery soyereign, the country was generally inyolyed in a war be- 
tween contending factions, respectiyely supported by foreign powers. 
The Poles, in the choice of a king, did not always confine themselyes to a 
countryman ; at one time all nations were eligible. The king was elected 
by the whole body of the nobility and gentry on the plains of Warsaw ; 
and, before this choice, they obliged him to sign whateyer conditions they 
thought proper. 

Chronology of Poland. 

In the Roman times, Poland was chiefly poeeessed by the Sarmaia or 
Slavons, It was also the region of the ancient Vandals, The Hussions 
and Tartars at length took possession of the countrv. It was divided into 
many small states or principalities, almost indepenoent of one another. In 
the year 700, the people gaye the supreme command, under the title of 
duke, to CracuSf tne founder of Cracow, His posterity failing in 830, a 
peasant, named Piastus, was elected, who liyed to the age oi 120 years. 
In 992, the Christian religion was introduced. In 999, Boieslaus I., who 
conquered Prussia, Bohomia, and Morayia, receiyed the title of king of 
Poland from Otho III. emperor of Germany. Boleslaus II., son of Casi- 
mir I., added Red Russia to Poland, by marrying the heiress of that 
duchy in 1059. The house of Jagellon, dukes of Lithuania, ascended 
the Polish throne in 1384, and ruled till 1572, in hereditary successioo, 
though with pretended election. The throne of Poland became merely 
electiye in the person of Henry de Valois, 1574 ; but it was afterwarcb 
chiefly contested by native princes; and byrthe electors of Saxony. In 
1674, John Solrisski, a yictorious Polish general, was elected king. He 
maintained a successful war against the Turks ; and in 1683 forced them 
to raise the siege of Vienna, which, without him, would ineyitably have 
been taken. The last king of Poland was Stamslmts Augustus Pcnia- 
towskv, who was elected in 1 764. In 1 772, a partition of this country, pro- 
jected by Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, was efi'eoted by that mon- 
arch, in conjunction with Catherine II. empress of Russia, and Maria 

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Theresa^ empress of Gennauy, when a lar^ portion of the territory was 
seized and divided among the three partitioning powers. They, moreover, 
forcibly effected a great change in the constitntion. In 1791 , however, the 
kin^ and the nation, in concurrence, almost unanimously, and without any 
foreign intervention, established another constitution. By this the evils of 
an elective monarchy were avoided ; the throne beinff declared hereditary 
in the house of Saxony. The rights and privileges of all orders in the re- 
public (the king, the nobles, the citizens, and the peasants) wore alike 
equitably consulted ; and it seemed to be formed agreeably to the univer- 
BM. wish of the nation. A few of the nobility, however, discontented at 
the sacrifice of some of their privileges, repaired to the court of Russia ; 
and their representations concurring with the ambitious views of the em- 
press, she sent an army into Polancf, under pretext of being guarantee of 
the constitution of 177*2. Her interference was too powerful tobe resisted ; 
and this new constitution was overthrown. But the principal object for 
which the Russian army entered Poland was not yet attained. The em- 
press had i>lanned, in conjunction vnth the king of Prussia, a second par- 
tition of this country, which took place in 1793. Such multiplied oppres- 
sions at last roused the spirit of the nation. General Kosciusko appeared, 
in 1794, at the head of a Polish army, to assert the independency of his 
oonntry, and to recover the provinces wrested from it. He was sucoessfiil, 
at first, against the king of Prussia ; but was afterwards defeated and 
taken prisoner by the Russians under Sutcarrow, who soon after took the 
capital, Warsaw. The king formally resigned his crown at Grodno in 
1795, and was removed to Petersburg, where he remained a kind 
of state prisoner till his death in 1798. Upon the king's resignation, the 
whole of the country was divided among the three partitiomnc; powers. 
Part of it was reconquered by Bonaparte, and constituted an independent 
state under the name of the duchy of Warsaw. In 1814, it was seized by 
Rnssia, and erected into a kingdom, which the Russianemperor ^uled by 
a viceroy, with a form of representative government. In 1831, it made 
a gallant attemnt to regain its independence ; but bein^ finally subdued, 
it was deprivea of man}r of its privileges, and now virtually forms a 
part of the Russian empire. In 1846, ^the free city of Cracow and its 
territory was, by a decree of the three powers, Austria, Prussia, and 
Rnssia, incorporated with the Austrian empire. 


Boundaries. — N. Northern Ocean ; W. Norway, 
Sweden, the Baltic, Prussia, and Austria ; S. Turkey, 
the Black Sea, the Sea of Azof, and Mount Caucasus ; 
E. Asia. 

Governments or Provinces, 50. — North : 1. Fin- 
land ; 2. Olonetz ; 3. Archangel ; 4. Vologda. North- 
west : 5. Novgorod ; 6. Petersburg or Ingria ; 7. Revel 
or Esthonia; 8. Riga or Livonia; 9. Pskov; 10. Vitebsk; 
11. Courland; 12. Wihia. West: 13. Moghilev; 14, 

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Minsk ; 15. Grodno ; 16. Bielystok ; 17. Volhynia. 
Centre: 18. Kostroma; 19. Jaroslav ; 20. Tver; 21. 
Smolensk; ^2. Moscow; 23. Vladimir; 24. Niz- 
nei-Novgorod ; 25. Tambov ; 26. Riazan ; 27. Tula ; 
28. Kaluga; 29. Orel; 30. Tchernigov ; 31. Kursk; 
32. Voronetz. JSast : 33. Perm ; 34. Orenburg ; 

35. Viatka; 36. Kazan; 37. Simbirsk; 38. Penza; 
39. Saratov. South: 40. Charkov or the Ukraine; 
41. Poltava; 42. Kiev; 43. Podolia; 44. Bessarabia; 
45. Cherson ; 46. Ekaterinoslav ; 47. Taurida with the 
Crimea {Chersonesus Taurica) ; 48. Country of the 
Don Cossacks ; 49. Astracan ; 50. Caucasus. — Kingdom 
of Poland.* 

Towns. — 1. Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg; 2. Petroza- 
vodsk, Olonetz ; 3. Archangel ; 6. St Petersburg (a), 
Narva (6), Cronstadt ; 7. Revel, Baltic Port ; 8. Riga, 
Pernau, Dorpat ; 11. Mittau, Libau ; 12. Wilna ; 13. 
Moghilev; 14. Minsk; 17. Zytomir or Jitomir; 19. Jaro- 
slav ; 20. Tver ; 21. Smolensk ; 22. Moscow (c), Boro- 
dino; 24. Niznei-Novgorod; 27. Tula; 28. Kaluga; 29. 
Orel ; 31. Kursk ; 32. Voronetz ; 34. Orenburg, Oufa ; 

36. Kazan ; 39. Saratov ; 41. Poltava (cQ ; 42. Kiev ; 
43. Kaminiec ; 44. Kitchenev, Ismail, Akerman ; 45. 
Cherson («), Odessa ; 46. Ekaterinoslav, Taganrog ; 
47. Simpheropol, Sevastopol, Caffa or Theodosia ; 48. 
Tcherkask, Azof ; 49. Astracan ; 60. Georgievsk. — In 
Poland, Warsaw (/), Praga, Lublin, Kalisch. 

* A oonsiderable portion of this extensiye empire consists of recent ac- 
quisitions. Thus Finland, East Bothnia, and part of Swedish Lapland, 
nave been acquired from Sweden since 1809 ; Bessarabia and part of Mol- 
dayia were eiined from Turkey in 1812. The territories to the west o( 
the riyers Dwina and Dnieper, including Courland, Wilna, Grodno, 
Minsk. Moghilev, Yolh^ia, Kiev, and Podolia, formerly belonged to 
Poland. The country still called the kingdom of Poland TirtuaUy forms 
a portion of the Russian empire. 


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Islands. — Aland, Dago, Oesel, Kolguef, Waygatz, 
Nova Zembla, Spitzbergen, and the Seven Sisters. 

Lakes. — Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen, Peipus, Saima, 

Mountains. — Olonetz, on ^A^ TF. o/Olonetz; Valdai, 
between Petersburg and Moscow ; Taurida, in the ' 
Crimea; Uralian (h) Mountains, between Europe and 

Gulfs, &c. — Gulfs of Bothnia, Finland, Riga; 
White Sea, Sea of Azof; Straits of Caffa or Enikale, 
Waygatz Straits. 

Rivers. — ^Volga (Rha), Ural, Don {Tanais), Dnie- 
per (Borysthenes), Bog {Hypanis)^ Dniester (Tyros), 
Vistula, Northern Dwina, Western Dwina {Tarun- 
thus), Memel or Niemen {Rvbo), Tornqa, Tana, Pruth, 

Additional Rivers. — Kara./omw the boundary between Europe 

and Asia on the N. ; Swir joins the lake of Onega with that of 

Ladoga; Neva yoirw the lake of Ladoga with the gulf of Finland; 

'NsLTva Joins lake Peipus with the Gulf of Finland; Onega, yrom a 

lake in the N. E, of Novgorod, and Mezen, from the N. of Vologda, 

flow N, to the White Sea ; Petchora, from the N. of Perm, flows 

N. to the Northern Ocean, 

(a) Among the noblest ornaments of St Petenburg is an equestrian statae 
of Peter the Great, in bronze ; the figure of the prince is 1 1 feet high, and the . 
horse on which he is mounted 17 feet ; a granite rock weighing 1428 tons, 
which was brought from a distance of nine miles by Catherine II., at a 

great expense, forms the pedestal of this noble tribute to departed great- 
ness. Tnis city, now the capital of Russia, was founded in 1703 by Peter 
the Great, who, in 1714, removed the Imperial council hither from Moscow, 

ness. This city, now the capital of Russia, was founded in 1703 by Peter 
the Great, who, in 1714, removed the Imperial council hither from Moscow, 

the former capital. (6) At Narva, Peter the Great was defeated by 

Charles XII. king of Sweden, in 1700. (c) The battle of Borodino, or 

♦ The Volga rises in the Valdai Mountains, in the N. W. of the govern- 
ment of Tver, the Ural in the mountains of that name, the Don in Tula, 
the Dnieper in Smolensk, the Bog on the S. border of Volhvnia, the 
Dniester in Austrian Galicia, the Vistula In the Carpathian Mountains 
above the city of Cracow, the Northern Dwina in the S. of Vologda, the 
Western Dwina between the governments of Pskov and Smolensk, the 
Memel or Niemen in the W. of Minsk. The Tomea and Tana separate 
Russia firom Sweden. The Pruth and Danube separate BasaiA frona; 
Turkey. ^ I 

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Moskwa^ between the French and Russians, was foi]||;ht on the 7th of 
September 1812. The loss in this saDffuinary conflict was immense : it 
is supposed that 30,000 men fell on eacn side. On the 14th September 
1812, when the French army, with Bonaparte at their head, entered 
Moscow, nearly two-thirds of the city were consumed by fire ; but almost 

the whole has been rebuilt. (d) Poltava^ or Poltowa^ is famous for the 

defeat of Charles XII. by Peter the Great, Juljr 8, 1709 ; in which 8000 
of the Swedes were killed, and 16,000 taken prisoners. Charles fled to 

Bender, in Turkey. (e) In Chersout the mild and benevolent Howard 

ended his days in 1790 ; he was to the last engaged in the merciful em- 
ployment of visiting those who were eick and in prison ; about a mile from 

the town is an obelisk erected to his memory. (/) Warsaw has been 

frequently besieged ; and a bloody scene occurred in 1794, when it was 
stormed oy the Russians under general Suwarrow^ who committed a 
dreadful slaughter : 5000 Poles were slain in the assault ; and after the 
battle had ceased, the town was set fire to by the victors, and 9000 unarmed 
men, women, and children perished in the flames. The suburb Praga also 
suffered severely. In the late revolution, it was again taken by the 

Russians, after two days of hard fighting. (h) The Uralian chain, 

which extends about 1000 miles in length, has, by the Russians,' been 
called Semenoi Poias, or the girdle of the world ; an extravagant appel- 
hition, when we consider that the chain of the Andee^ in S. America, ex- 
tends nearly 5000 miles. 

I. Historical Geography of Russia in Europe. 

1st, Names.— The European part of the Russian empire embraces many 
ancient kingdoms and states. The ancient Sarmatia included both Rus- 
sia in Europe and Poland. Amidst the grand conflux of nations towards 
the west which attended the decline and fall of the Roman empire, the 
Sclavonic tribe of Rossi escaped the observation of history till tne ninth 
century ; and it is uncertain whether the term Russia was native, or im- 

forted by the Scandinavian chiefs who founded the Russian monarchy, 
n the 16th century, when Russia flrst attracted the observation of en- 
lightened Europe, we flhd that the new appellation of Muscoviay or Mus- 
covy^ had unaccountably passed among foreijipers from the capital io the 
kingdom ; an impropriety which long maintained its ground, and has not 
even yet finally expired. 

2d, Extent.— B]r the final partition of Poland, European Russia now 
extends from the river Pruth to the Uralian Mountains, in length about 
1709 miles, and in breadth 1500 miles. The extent is computed at 
2,200,000 square miles. The Russian empire (that is, Russia in Eu- 
rope JElussian Tartary or Siberia, with the province of Georgia in Asia, 
and Russian America) is perhaps the most extensive that ever existed ; 
the length being above 5000 miles, and the breadth 2000. The population 
is estimated at about 66,000,000. Of this number 60 millions belong to 
European Russia. 

3d, Chronology.— Of the numerous nations which inhabited this vast 
country, the principal were the Venedi^ extending to the interior, along the 
shores of the Baltic ; the Peucini and Bastarna, above Dacia ; the 
laxpges, and Rojrolcmi, on the Palus M8eotis,or sea of Azof; the Hamaa- 
o6t«, in the Interior country ; the AHmnha, far north ; the Budini, 
Gekmij Basihif Perierbidi, whose precise aistricts are not known.— The 
history of the ancient Sarmatians is uninteresting. They were a sa- 
vage race, often confounded with the Scythians, naturally warlike, and 
famous for painting their bodies to appear more terrible in battle. Thev 
generally lived on the mountains, having no other habitations than their 
diariots. These ooontrieB were successively occupied by the Goihs^ Van- 

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daU^ ffutUf Alans, and other barbarians, who, becoming yer^ powerfal, 
finallT overran the Roman empire — RuriCf a Scandinayian chief, laid the 
foanaation of the kingdom in 847. His descendants held the sceptre above 
700 years. In the tenth century, Olsfa, their queen, was baptized, and the 
Russians were converted to Christianity. The great founder of the Russian 
power was Ivan or ItoanlV., sumamed Basitowitz, known to western his- 
torians by the style of the tyrant John Basifides ; he reigned from the year 
1533 to 1584, and subdued the Tartar kingdom of Astracan, and some pro- 
vinces on the N. W. The accession of the dynasty of Romano/ took place in 
1614, in the person of Michael FeodormcitXy sprnnff in the female line f^om 
Ivan IV. He was followed by his son Alexis^ father of Peter the Great. 
Peter Alexiowitz I. (sumamed the Great) became by the death of his 
brother Ivan, in 1696, sole monarch of Russia : he assumed the title of 
Emperor of all the Ruseias.* Dying in 1725, he was succeeded by his 
wife Catherine I. She was followed bv the Duke of Holstein, under the 
title of Peter II. Anne, daughter of Ivan Aleziovitch, ascended the 
throne of Russia in 1730, and died in 1740. Peter III., the son of Anne 
Petrovnia, daughter of Peter the Great, and of Charles Frederick, duke 
of Holstein Grottorp, was declared grand*duke of Russia in 1742, by his 
aunt the empress Elizabeth, whom ne succeeded in 1762. Soon after his 
accession, Peter was deprived of his crown and life by his wife Catherine 11;, 
a woman of great abilities and unbounded ambition. Oji her death, which 
happened suddenly in 1796, she was succeeded by her son Paul;f at 
whose decease, in 1801, his son Alexander I. ascenaed the throne. This 
prince died of fever, December 1, 1825, and was succeeded by his second 
brother Nicholas I.,^m in 1796. 

4th. ANTiQ[7iTiES.~Probabl^ no country of considerable extent can 
affora fewer monuments of ancient art than Russia. Sometimes the tombs 
of the ancient heathen inhabitants are discovered, containing weapons and 
ornaments. The catacombs at Kiev were perhaps formed in the pagan 
period, though they are now replete with marks of Christianity. They 
are labp^rintTis of considerable extent, dug, as would appear, tnrough a 
mass of hardened clay ; but they do not seem to contain the bodies of the 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The establidhed religion is that of the Greek Church; 
but a considerable number of Russian subjects profess the Mahometan 
religion, and not a few are still Pagans. The mhabitants of the pro- 
vinces conquered from Sweden are Lutherans ; and the Protestants, of 
v^hom there are great numbers among the Russians, as also the Roman 

Catholics, enjoy mil liberty of conscience, and the public exercise of their 
religion. The clergy are very numerous, and have several privileges, par- 
ticularly exemption from taxes. They have been computed in all at 

274,000, of whom about 254,000 belong to the established church. The 
cathedrals and parish churches in the empire are estimated at nearly 
30,000, the monasteries at 480 ; nunneries, 74 ; monks supposed to be 
7300 ; nuns, 3000. 

2d, Government.— The sovereigns of Russia are absolute. They were 
formerly called grand-dukes, which is still the title of the heir-apparent. 

* There were three countries that had the name of Russia ; namely. 
Red Russia, White Russia^ and Black Russia ; and hence his imperial 
majesty takes the title of Emperor of all the Russias. 

t In consequence of his tyranny, Paul was put to death by his owa 

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They afterwards assumed the title of cxar; in the sequel, that of em- 
peror. The natives pronounce the word czar like tzar or zaar; and 
it is proha'bly, bv corruption, from Csesar or emperor, from some fancied 
relation to tne Roman emperors ; on account of which thev also bear the 
eagle as a symbol of their empire. The first who assumed the title of czar 
was Ivan IV. or BasiUdes, the founder of the monarchy ; but the title of 
emperor was first assumed by Peter I., who, by his actions, justly acquired 
the surname of Great, and finished his glorious course in 1725. — The 
goyernment of Russia a])pears to have been always despotic, there beinff 
no legislative power distinct from that of the sovereiffD. What is called 
the senate is only the supreme court of judicature. The whole frame of 
the goyernment may be pronounced to be military ; and nobility itself is 
only virtually estimated oy rank in the army. By an ukase, issued by the 
late emperor Alexander in the mouth of June 1801, the rank of senator is 
declared the highest in the kingdom. The senate has the revision of all 
affairs both civu and criminal, and from its decisions there is no appeal. 
Capital punishments are unknown in Russia except for high-treason, 
the penalty for the most heinous offences being the infliction of the knout 
and banisiiment to the Siberian mines. The practice of torture was 
abolbhed in 1801. 

3d, Army, Navy, and Revenue.— The whole amount of the Russian 
troops is estimated at 706,000. The Russian navv consists of several 
detached fleets, employed in the remote seas on which the empire borders, 
amounting to 56 ships of the line and 48 frigates. The revenue of Russia 
is supposed to amount to about £16,000,000. 

III. Civil Geography. 

Ist, Manners and Customs — The bulk of the nation, or the Russians 
properly so called, are of Sclavonic origin ; but no state in Europe pre- 
sents a greater variety of races united under one government, or a wider 
diversity of manners and customs. In general, the people are robost, 
well shaped, and of good complexion. They are great eaters, aud very 
fond of brandy. They use bathing, especially the vapour bath, univer«' 
sally, but smoke no tobacco, lest the smoke should dishonour the pictures 
of the saints, which they hold in great veneration ; they however take a 
great deal of snuff. The nation is very distinctly divided into four classes, 
viz. 1. nobies ; 2. clerm ; 3. merchants, burghers, farmers, &c. ; and, 
4. peasants or slaves. The flrst three, though somewhat ruder, are yearly 
becoming more closely approximated in manners to the same classes in 
Western Europe ; but the last, constituting the great body of the people, 
continue in a state of abject vassalage to Uie crown or nobility, and are 
ignorant, superstitious, and improvident. When a fair opportunity has 
l^en given tnem, however, they have shown themselves hignly susceptible 
of improvement. 

2d, Language. — The Russian language is a mixture of the Polish and 
Sclavonian; it is extremely difficult to pronounce, and not less difficult 
to acouire, as it abounds vnth extraordinary sounds, and anomalies of 
every Kind. The characters amounted to no less than 36 ; and the common 
sounds are sometimes expressed in the Greek characters, sometimes in 
characters quite unlike those of any other language. Among other singu- 
larities, there is one letter to express the sch, and another the ssch, the 
latter a sound hardly pronounceable. 

, 3d, Literature.— The Russian literature succeeded, as usual, the con- 
tendon of the empire to Christianity. The elder authors are either wxiton 

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of annals, or compilers of mart3rroloeie8 and lives of saints. Nestor, the 
earliest historian, also set an example of the latter kind. In recent times, 
the best authors resident in Russia, such as Pallas, and many others, 
have had recourse to the Grerman language ; the most learned of their 
clergy make use of what is called modem Greek. — Education is little 
known or diffused, though the court has instituted academies for the in- 
struction of officers and artists. 

4th, Manufactures and Commerce.— By means of the great rivers and 
canals, the inland trade of Russia has attained considerable success; and 
the yalne of her exports and imports has been long upon the increase. A 
great portion of the internal trade is transacted at annual fairs, the most 
remarkable of which is that of Niznei-Novgorod, which is frequented by 
upwards of 300,000 strangers from all parts of the world. There are manu- 
factures of linen, woollen stuffs, velvet, and silk ; also brass, iron, steel, 
and tin are wrought ; and great guns, arms, wire, cordage, canvass, 
paper, parchment, candles, saltpetre, guni)owder, glass, &c., are made. 
Some of the principal manufactures are in the hands of government. 
This country affords a variety of commodities which are of great use to 
foreigners, and the total value of the exports in 1839 was £14,780,000. 
The home commodities are sables, black furs, the skins of black and white 
foxes, ermines, hysenas, lynxes, btors, panthers, wolves^ martens, white 
hares, &c. ; likewise Russia leather and linen, copper, iron, talc, tallow, 
wax, honey, com, potash, tar, linseed and train oil, castor, isinglass, 
hemp, flax, thread, Siberian musk, soap, feathers, timber^ Hnc, To these 
may be added almost all the merchandise of China, India, Persia, Tur- 
key, and some European countries. The Siberian gold and silver supply 
an important addition to the national currency. 

IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate and Seasons. — The climate of Russia in Europe presents 
almost every variety from that of Lapland to that of Italy. Winter 
maintains a long sway at St Petersburg, where the Neva is annually frozen 
from November to March or April. The climate around the Frozen Ocean, 
and Nova Zembla, or the New Land, is excessively severe, the northern 
side being encompassed with mountains of ice^ and the sun not visible 
from the middle oi October till February; while it never sets during June 
and July. Taurida presents, on the contrary, all the luxuriance of a 
southern climate, and the vine grows as far north as the parallel of 6b'', 
But even in these districts the winter cold is great. 

2d, Face of the Country — The most striking feature of European 
Russia consists in plains of prodigious extent, rivalling in that respect the 
Tast deserts of Asia and Africa. In the S. are some extensive steppes, or 
dry and elevated tracts, such as that above the sea of Azof, in length 
about 400 miles. The numerous and majestic rivers, forests, and canals,* 
also constitute a distinguishing feature of this region. 

dd. Soil and Agriculture. — The soil is extremely various, from the 
ehiUing marshes which border the White and Frozen Seas to the rich and 
fertile plains on the Volga. The most fruitful region is that between the 
Bon and the Volga, from Voronetz to Simbirsk. Pastura^ is so abun- 
dant, that the meadows are little regarded, and the artificial production 
of gniss is scarcely known. Some of the meadows are watered, and pro- 
dace large crops of hay ; the dry pastures yield a short but nutritious 

* The inland navigation of Russia is very extensive ; the Baltic, the 
Black Sea, and the Caspian, being united by rivers and canals. 

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herbage; and, in a few of the steppes^ the grass attains the height of • 
man, and is seldom mown. Agriculture is hardly known in the nmrthem 
parts of the governments of Olonetz and Archangel ; but in the central 
parte of the empire it has been pursued from time immemorial. In general, 
however, the system of husbandry is extremely rude, yet the harvests are 
abundant. The crops are rye, wheat, barley, maize, millet, rice, hemp, 
flax, tobacco, asparagus, sugar-melons, apples, pears, plums, chernes, &c. 
The produce of the vast forests of Russia also forms a principal source of 
wealth. The olive thrives in the southern mountains of Taurida along 
the Euxine. — Bees are not known in Siberia, but form an object of great 
attention in the Uralian forests. 

4th, Animals.— The more peculiar animals of Russia are the white bear 
of Nova Zembla, and the soulisk of the south. In the more northern parts 
are found the rein-deer, the wolf, the l^x, and the elk; nor is the camel 
unknovm in the lower latitudes. The animals in the central provinces seem 
common to the rest of Europe. Of the domestic animals, the most im- 
portant are black cattle, reared principally in the Ukraine, the tallow and 
hides of which are extensively exported; and sheep, which are still more 
numerous, though the wool is oi inferior (]^nality. Horses, goats, and 
swine also abound, the bristles of the last beug extensively shipped fn»B 
the northern ports. 

5th, Minerals.— Russia is rich in minerals. The chief mines are situ- 
ated in the Ural and Altai Mountains, and in the vicinity of Nertschinsk 
in Siberia. In 1837, the produce of gold from the Unil and Siberian 
mines was worth £1,000,000 sterling ; that of silver, from the Altai and 
Siberian Mountains. £330,000. The same districts likewise yield platina, 
copper, and iron. Salt is procured in the Urals, the Crimea, and other 
places, and medicinal springs are not uncommon. 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— Among the natural curiosities of Russia 
may be mentioned the iceberas^ of many miles in extent and surprising 
height, which navigate the I^ rozen Ocean, adorned, like cathedrals, with 
pinnacles, reflecting a thousand colours in the sun. The grotto of Kurgur, 
on the west side of the Uralian Mountains, is of great extent, and con^- 
tains subterranean lakes and meadows. 

An Account of the Cossacks, 

The Cossacks, whose military fame extends throughout Europe, seem 
oripinally to have been a native Russian race, intermixed with Tartars, 
Cannucks, and Gipsies, inhabiting the confines of Poland, Russia, Tar- 
tary, and Turkey. They are first distinctly mentioned in history at the 
time of the downfal of the Tartar dominion in Russia. About the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century they were formed into a kind of military 
republic, and were then first known as Cossacks, under which appellation 
they began to take part in the affairs of Poland. In 1592, they accepted 
the protection of Stephen Bathory, the king of that country, who appointed 
a Hetmun or chief over them, and divided their forces into ten regiments 
of infantry and 2000 cavalry. From this time they constituted the most 
effective auxiliaries of the Polish monarchy, and a main barrier against the 
Turks and Tartars, till 1654, when, exasperated by the encroachments of 
Sigismund III., they transferred their allegiance to the Russian crown, to 
which, with some trifiing interruptions, they have ever since continued at* 
tached. At present they are divided into the Cossacks of the Don, jSuxine, 
Ural, Volga, Siberia, &c., accordin|( to the locality of their various stanitMa 
or settlements; and their military force, besides four regiments of imperial 
guards, numbering 2760 men, amounts to 102,000 cavalry of the line, of 
which one-half is always ready for service. Every Cossack between the 
aces of 18 and 40 is liable to perform military duty, the period of serrice' 

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being unlimited in time of war, btit tenninaiing in three years daring peace. 
The Cossack receites no pay but when on active service, and mhstprovide 
himself with a horse, arms, and equipments. Their dress consists oni short 
vest, large trousers of deep blue, and a black sheepskin cap ; their arms 
are a long spear, sabre, musket, and pistols. The post of hetman of the 
Don has been suppressed by the present emperor, and the nominal dignity 
is now vested in the heir-apparent to the Russian crown. 


Boundaries. — N. Saxony, Prussia, and Poland ; W. 
Bavaria, Switzerland, and Piedmont; S. Turkey, Adria- 
tic, and Italian States ; E. Turkey and Russia. 

Divisions. — 1. Archduchy of Austria; 2. The 
Tyrol ; 3. Styria ; 4. lUyria, comprising Carniola, 
Carinthia, and Istria; 5. Bohemia; 6. Moravia and 
Silesia ; 7. Galicia ; 8. Dalmatia \ 9. Hungary ; 10. 
Transylvania; 11. Croatia and Sclavonia; 12. Lbmbardy 
and Venice. 

Towns. — 1. Vienna (a), Linz, Steyer, Salzburg ; 2. 
Innsbruck, Botzen, Trent, Roveredo; 3. Gratz, Cilley; 
4. Laybach ; Clagenfurt, Villach ; Trieste, Goritz, Capo 
d' Istria, Fiume; 5. Prague, Eger, Koniggratz, Budweis; 
6. Brunn, Olmiitz, Iglau, Austerlitz (6), Troppau ; 7. 
Lemberg, Brody, Czernowitz, Cracow ; 8. Zara, 
Spalatro, Ragusa, Cattaro ; 9. Buda, Pesth, Presburg, 
Raab, Komorn, Tokay (c), Erlau, Montgatz (d), De- 
breczin, Temeswar; 10. Clausenburg, Hermanstadt, 
Cronstadt ; 11. Agram, Carlstadt ; Peterwardein (e), 
Essek; 12. Milan (/), Como, Pavia, Lodi (^), Ber- 
gamo, Brescia, Cremona, Mantua {h); Venice (i), 
Padua (k), Vicenza, Verona (Z), Belluno, Udine. 

Mountains. — The Carpathian, the Sudetic, the 
Erzgebirge Mountains ; the Rhaetian or Tyrolese Alps, 
now called the Brenner Mountains. 

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Lake&. — Cirknitz, in Carniola ; Flatten See and 
Neusiedler See, m Hungary Proper; Maggiore, Lugana, 
Como, and Iseo, in Milan; Garda, between Milan and 

Rivers. — Danube {Ister)^ Elbe ; Ticino, Adda, 
Oglio, Mincio ; Adige, Brenta, Piav^, Livenza, Taglia- 

(a) In the neighbourhood of Vienna, at the villages of Aspem and 
Waf/ram, dreadful conflicts took place between the French and Austrian 
armies, on the 21st and 22d of May 1809; and at Wagram, on the 5th and 
6th of July following, the Austrians suffered a disastrous defeat ; not, 

however, without causing immense loss to the French. {b) Near 

Austerlitz, in 1805, a great victory was obtained by Bonaparte over the 

Austrians and Russians, which led to the treaty of Presburg (c) 

Tokay (on the Theiss) is noted for excellent wine and large salt-works. 
'"' — {d) The fortress of Monigatx is composed of three castles, seated on a 
craggy rock. It is encompassed by a great morass ; and nature and art 
have rendered it almost impregnaole. It was defended three years by 
Princess Ragotsky, wife of Count Tekeli, when besieged by the Austrians, 

to whom it surrendered in 1688. ;(e) At Peterwardein, in 1716, Prince 

Eugene gained a great victory over "the Tarks. (/) At Milan, on the 

26th of May 1 805, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned king of Italy. Milan 

was the ancient capital of Lombardy. ig) At Lodi, on the 10th 

<^ May 1796, a sanguinary action took place between the Austrians and 

the French commanded by Bonaparte: the Austrians were defeated. 

ih) Mantua, the birthplace of Virgil. (i) Venice stands on 72 islands, 

which communicate by 500 bridges; ihis city formerly possessed an im- 
mense population, but now contains only 97,000 inhabitants. ik) Padua, 

the birthplace of Zivy the historian. {I) Verona, the birthplace of Pliny 

the naturalist, and of the poet Catullus, 

I. Historical Geography of Austria, 

1st, Names.— The archduchy of Austria may be considered as belong- 
ing in part to ancient Pannonia ; the Vindobona of the Romans being the 
modem Vienna. But that half of Austria which lies N. of the Danube 
was occupied by the Quadi, a barbaric nation, who anciently infested the 
adjoining provinces of jPannoma and A^oncum; for the western nart of 
Austria, on the S. of the Danube, falls under the latter ancient appellation. 

* The Danube rises in the S. of Baden in Germany, and flows E. 
through the kingdoms of Wurtemberg and Bavaria, then enters the arch- 
duchy of Austria ; the Elbe rises in the E. of Bohemia, flows N. W. 
through Saxony, Prussia, and Germany, and falls into the German Ocean 
below Hamburg ;— the Ticino from Lake Maggiore, the Adda from lake 
Como, the Oglio from lake Iseo, and the Mincio from lake Garda, flow S. 
into the river Po ;— the Adigk, Brenta, Piave^ Livenza^ and Tagliamento^ 
flow S. through the Venetian territory into the Gulf of Venice. 


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The German name and diyision of (Esterich* or the eastern kingdom, soft- 
ened into Austria hy the Italian and French enunciation, arose after Char- 
lemagne had established the western empire, being a remnant of the sove- 
reignty of what was called Eastern France, established by that conqueror: 
it was also styled Marehia Orientalise the eastern march, or boundary. — 
Hungary^ a part of which belonged to ancient DcKia, derives its modern 
appellation from the Ugurs, a nation now known to have been of Finnish 
or^n, who, after spreading devastation through a great part of Germany, 
fixed their residence here in the tenth century. In the time of Charle- 
majj^e it was possessed by the A vars, a Sclavonic people. The Hungarians 
style themselves Magyar ; and their language approaches to the Finnish 
dialect — Bohemia, or the habitation of the Boii, was a central province of 
Barbaric Germany, afterwards seized by a Sclavonic tribe, wnose chiefs 
were originally styled dukes of Bohemia.— TVanf^/vanta, a part of the 
province of Dacia, founded by Trajan, is by the Hungarians styled Er- 
deli ; by the Germans Seiben-burgen, or the seven towns, from a colony 
there established ; the more common name seems derived from the woody 
passes of the Carpathian mountains, and was imposed by the monkisn 
writers.— Venice, as is well known, derives its appellation from the ancient 

2d, Extent.- From the frontiers of Switzerland to the utmost limits 
of Transylvania, the \engftx of the Austrian dominions is about 860 
miles ; the breadth, exclusive of Dalmatia, about 480. The population of 
the entire empire is 36,312,000 ; that of the different great ctivisions may 
be stated as follows, viz.— Archduchy of Austria, 2,277,524; Tyrol, 842,768: 
Styria, 983,744; Illyria, 1,252,831 ; Bohemia, 4,279,190 ; Moravia and 
Silesia, 2,223,730 ; Galicia, 4,910,630 ; Dalmatia, 401,541 ; Hnugary, in- 
cluding Transylvania, Croatia, and Sclavonia, 13,828,908 ; Lombardy and 
Venice, 4,803,000. 

3d, Chronolooy.— The original inhabitants of these extensive regions 
were chiefly Gothic and Sclavonic. Bohemia and Moravia were at an early 
period Sclavonic kingdoms ; and the population of Poland and Hungary 
may be generally referred to the same origin. The Venetians and adja- 
cent Italians may be considered as genuine descendants of the Cisalpine 
Gauls, and the Roman colonies established among them. The house of 
Austria, which by successive fortunate marriages since the fifteenth cen- 
tury has risen to such a summit of power, is well known to have sprung 
from the humble counts of Hapsburg, who possessed a small territory in 
Switzerland, in the northern corner of the canton of Berne. In 1273, Ro- 
dolph of Hapsburg was called to the imperial throne, being at this time, bv 
the extinction of other powers, lord or the greater part of Switzerland.. 
Another emperor of the house of Austria appeared in Albert, a. d. 1298 ; 
from whom the Swiss made their signal revolt in 1307. Albert II. duke of 
Austria, ▲. d. 1438, succeeded to three crowns, on the death of his father- 
in-law the emperor Sigismund : those of Hungary and Bohemia by in- 
heritance, and that of the empire by unanimous election. Maximilian 
having married the heiress of Burgundy, the Netherlands became subject 
to thejiouse of Austria, in 1477 ; and his son Philip, 1496, marrying the 
heiress of Arragon and Castile, the ample dominions of Spain fell after- 
wards under the Austrian sceptre. Charles V. inherited all these domi- 
nions ; but on his resignation, Spain and the Netherlands devolved to his 
son Philip II. ; and Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary passed to Ferdi- 
nand, the orother of Charles Y ., who was also chosen emperor of Germany. 

* Several of the German names of Austrian provinces differ consider- 
ably from our appellations : Carinthia is Camteen ; Camiola, Krain ; 
Styria, Steyermark; Croatia, Crabaten; Bohemia, Boehmen; Moravia, 
Mahren ; Galicia, Gaiitz or Galitzia, 

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Bf ike death cf the empevor CAarfefV I. on the 20tfa October 1740, with- 
out male issue, the house of Austria became extinct.--Fran«u of Lomune, 
son of Leopold, duke of Lorraine, having married Maria Thereaa, daufi^hter 
of the emper(»r Charles VI., succeeded to the Austrian dominions. Their 
son Joseph II. ascended the throne in 1765. Leopold II., brother of the 
former monarch, began his reign in 1 790. Francis II. succeeded his father 
Leopold 1 1, in 1 792. When the confederation of the Rhine was established 
by Napoleon in 1806, the ancient dignity of emperor of Germany was abol- 
ished, and Frauicis became hereditary emperor of Austria, under the title 
of Francis I. The present emperor, Ferdinand I., succeeded his father 
Francis I., March 2, 1835. 

4th, Antiquities. — ^Yindobona, and the adjacent parts of Noricum and 
Pannonia, occasionally display Roman remains. In Hungary, and other 
parts of the ancient province of Dacia,apnear many relics of Roman power^ 
as military roads, ruins, &c. The catnedral charch of St Stephen, in 
Vienna, is a Gothic fabric of singular pomp and minute decoration. 

II. Political Geography, 

Ist, BfLioiON — The predominant religion of the Austrian dominions 
is the Roman Catholic, but a considerable degree of toleration is allowed. 
Protestants of various sects are found in Bohemia and Moravia ; nor are 
Lutherans unknown at Vienna, though they chiefly abound in Transylva^- 
nla. In Hungary the Protestants are numerous. 

2d, GovEMfMBNT AND Laws.— The government is an hereditary mon- 
archy, — The laws varj according to the diffiBrent provinces, almost every 
state having its peculiar code : in general, they may be regarded as mild 
and salutary. Hungary is a feudal monarchy, in which the power of the 
emperor is confined within narrow limits by the privileges of the aris- 
tocracy, who meet in a diet or parliament, coroposea of two chambers, and 
regulate all matters relating to taxes and the interior concerns of the 
country. Some of the other states have legislatures of the same descrip- 
tion ; but, except in Tyrol, they meet rarely, and have little real inflaenoe. 

3d, Arht, Navy, and Revenue.— The Austrian army is computed at 
480,000 men, but can be raised in time of war to 700,000. The navy 
consists of about 8 ships of the line, 3 frigates, 2 corvettes, and three 
brigs The revenue is computed at'£15,800,000. 

III. Civil Geography, 

Ist, Manners AND CtsrOMS.— So many different nations are comprised 
under the dominion of Austria, that the manners and customs vary greatly 
in the different^ provinces. The Germans are distin^ished for gravity, 
industry, and intelligence, while the Sclavonian nations are consjuciuma 
for their sanguine temperan>ent and love of war. The Hungarians are » 
high-spirited race, warmly attached to their national habits and rights : 
their costume is well known to be the most splendid in Europe, and 


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is copied by our hussars.* The people of the Lombardo-Venetian king- 
dom are fayourably characterized beyond other Italians for steadiness, 
activity, and industry. In all the provinces the peasantry evince great 
strength of religious feeling, processions and pilgrimages being frequent ; 
thougn this does not seem to affect the relish for relaxation and amuse- 
ment. The nobility enjoy much vrealth and influence, and are considered 
proud ; but their manners are affable, and many of them are highly ac- 

2d, Language.— The languages spoken in the Austrian dominions are 
numerous and discrepant. They belong chiefly to three grand divisions, 
the Gothic or German of the ruling nation, the Sclavonic of the Poles,f 
part of the Hungarians, the Dalmatians, &c., and also the ancient speech 
used in Bohemia and Moravia ; and, lastly, the Hungarian Prop^, which 
has been considered as a branch of the Finnic. The Italian of course pre- 
Tftils in the states of Italy that are subject to Austria; and the Tyrofese, 
&o., use a mixture of Italian and German, Of these different languages 
the Grerman has the predominance, being used by the court and the liter- 
ary classes ; but there is no national language properly so called. 

3d, Literature.— Exclusive of the Italian provinces, the literary his- 
tory of the Austrian dominions cannot ascend to a remote period. That 
of Austria Proper, in particular, is little interesting, and even the chroni- 
cles and lives of saints are comparatively recent. In the medical branch. 
Van Swieten^ Storck, and others, have acquired deserved celebrity. Bo- 
hemia and Hungary have no ancient claims to literature. Cosmas of 
Prague, a venerable historian, flourished about the year 1 130. Baron du 
Bom, a native of Trausvlvania, has written many able works in natural 
history ; but he used the Latin and French languages. Owing to the 
jealous censorship maintained by government, the periodical literature of 
Austria is peculiarly scanty. 

4th, Education.— Primary schools, in which reading, writing, and 
accounts are taught, have been established in all the Austrian provinces, 
though their number is still deficient in Hungary and the more remote 
districts ; and attendance on them is nearly compulsory, since by law want 
of education disqualifies both for public and private employment. There 
are, besides, numerous academies for the higher branches of science, and 
nine universities, viz. those of Prague, Vienna, Padua, Pavia, Lemberg, 
Gratz, Olmutz, Innsbruck, and Pesth. The general supervision of the 
schools is intrusted to the clergy of the different denominations ; instruc- 
tion being communicated according to a fixed routine, and all inquiries of 
a political nature carefully interdicted. 

5th, Manufactures and Commerce.— Manufactures do not seem to be 
cultivated to a great extent in any part of the Austrian dominions. 
Vienna, in this respect, perhaps equals any of the other cities ; those esta- 
blished there are chiefly of silk, gold and silver lace, cloths, stuffs, stock- 
ings, hnen. mirrors, porcelain ; with silver plate, and several articles in 
brass. Bonemia is celebrated for beautiful glass and paper. But the 
commerce of the Austrian dominions chiefly depends upon their natiTe 
opulence; Austria Proper and the southern provinces producing abundance 
of horses and cattle, com, flax, saffron, and various wines, with several 
metals, particuhirly quicksilver, from the mines of Idria in Camiola. Bo- 
hemia and Moravia are also rich in oxen and sheep, corn, flax, and hemp; 
in which they are rivalled by the dismembered provinces of Poland. The 
wide and miurshy plains of Hungary often present excellent pasturage for 

* In the Hungarian language^ Hussar implies the twentieth, because 
twenty peasants are obliged to furnish one horseman tp the cavalry. 

t Nor is it disused in Bohemia, which may be regarded as the extreme 
western limit of the Sclavonic tongue ; for the people extend to the month . 
of the Elbe. 

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numerous herds of cattie. and the more fayoured parts of that eountrj: 
produce corn, rice, the rich wines of Tokay, and tooacco of an a^eeable 
flavour, with great and celebrated mines of several metals and minerals. 
The exports amount to about £11,000,000 sterling, and are chiefly from 
the port of Trieste, consisting of quicksilver and other metals, with silk 
and various native products. The amount of the imports is nearl)[ the 
same. Lombardv and Venice are highly productive ; the former yields 
excellent silk, and the finest cheese in the world. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

Ist, Climate and Seasons — The climate of Austria Proper is oom- 
monlv mild and salubrious, though sometimes exposed to violent vnnds ; 
and the southern provinces in general enjoy a delightful temperature, if the 
mountainous parts be excepted. The more northern regions of Bohemia 
and Moravia, with the late acquisitions in Poland, have likewise a good 
climate, and their summers are warm enough to ripen the grape. The 
numerous lakes and morasses of Hungary, and the extensive plains, are 
supposed to render the air damp and unwholesome, the cold of the night 
rivalling the heat of the day ; but the blasts from the Carpathian Moun- 
tains seem in some measure to remedy these evils, the inhabitants being 
remarkable for health and vigour. 

2d, Face of the Country. — The appearance of the various regions 
subject to Austria is rather hill^r than level, presenting a striking contrast 
in tnis respect to those of Russia and Prussia. The chief mountainous 
districts are Styria, Camiola, Carinthiaj and the Tyrol : Bohemia and 
Moravia are almost encircled by mountains, which on the east join the 
vast Carpathian chain. There are many level plains in Hungary and 
Austrian Poland. Forests are exceedingly numerous ; and the vegetable 
products of both the N. and S. of Europe unite to please the eye of the 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil is upon the whole extremely 
fertile and productive notwithstanding the long neglect of industry, which 
has permitted many parts of Hungary and of tne Polish provinces to pass 
into wide forests and morasses. Latterly, however, more attention has 
been paid to the cultivation of the soil ; and the care bestowed by the 
government on the construction of roads, by opening new markets and 
channels of communication, has led 'to a considerable amount of waste 
land being reclaimed. The state of agriculture in Moravia is superior to 
the rest, being cultivated by Flemish ^rmers. Venice and Lombardy are 
under hi^h estivation, the latter being improved by an admirable system 
of irrigation. 

4th, ANiMALS.>-The domestic animals are commonly excellent, par- 
ticularly the cattle. Many of the native horses run wild, and are sold in 
great numbers at the fairs, before they have suffered any subjection. The 
breed of cattle is mostly of a singular colour, a slaty blue ; and the Hnnga- 
rian sheep resemble the Wallachian in their long, erect, spiral horns and 
pendent hairy fleece. The large breed of wild cattle, called urus or bison, is 
said to be found in the Carpathian forests, as well as in those of Lithuania 
and Caucasus. Among the wild quadrupeds may also be named the 
bear, the lynx, the wolf, the chamois, the boar, the marmot, and the 
beaver. The Danube boasts of some fishes seldom found in other rivers, 
among which is a small and delicate sort of salmon. 

5th, Minerals.— In the Austrian dominions are mines of gold, sil- 
ver, iron, copper, lead, mercury, alum, saltpetre, coal, garnets, marUe, 

Digitized by 



alitimon]^ salt, natron or soda, &c. The iron of Styria supplies the finest 
steel, and considerable quantities' are imported into England. In Hun- 
gary are the famous gola and silver mines of Kremnitz and Schemnitz; 
places which have arisen solely from these works, and thence callea 
piining towns. . Schemnitz is esteemed the principal. The academy here, 
instituted for the study of mineralogy, is hiehly respectable, and onljr 
riyalled by that of Freyberg in Saxony. But a mineral peculiar to 
Hungary, and as yet discovered in no other region of the globe, is the 
opa/, a gem preferred to isill others by the oriental nations. In Austrian 
Poland, eight miles to the S. of Cracow, are most extensive mines of rock- 
salt. There are several mineral springs in Austria Proper^ Hungary, and 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— Among the natural curiosities may be 
named the grand alpine scenes of the Tyrol. In Camiola is said to De a 

S'otto of prodigious extent, containing natural amphitheatres, bridges, &c. 
ut the cnief-natural curiosity of the district is the lake of Cirknitz, about 
eight English miles in length by four in breadth. In the month of June 
the vrater descends under ground through many apertures in the bottom, 
and in September reascends with considerable force: thus yielding rich 
pasturage in summer, while in winter it abounds with fish. 


Boundaries. — N. Germany and the Baltic; W. 
Holland and Belgium; S. Saxony and Austria; E. 
Poland and Russia. 

Provinces. — 1. East Prussia ; 2. West Prussia ; 3. 
Posen ; 4. Pomera;nia ; 5. Brandenburg ; 6. Silesia ; 7. 
Saxony; 8.. Westphalia; 9. Province of the Rhine.* 

Towns. — 1. Konigsberg, Pillau, Memel, Tilsit (a), 
Eylau (6), Friedland (c) ; 2. Dantzic, Elbing, Thorn, 
Culm, Marienwerder ; 3. Gnesna, Posen, Bromberg ; 
4. Stettin, Stralsund, Bergen in the Isle of Rugen, Col- 
berg; 5. Berlin (c?), Potsdam (e), Frankfbrt-on-fAe- 
Oder, Custrin, Brandenburg, Guben, Cottbus, Luben ; 
6. Breslau, Glogau, Gorlitz, Schweidnitz, Ratibor, 
Liegnitz ; 7. Magdeburg (/), Halberstadt, Merseburg, 
Torgau, Wittenberg, Halle (^), Eisleben (A), Mul- 
hausen, Erfurt, Lutzen (i) ; 8. Munster, Minden {k), 

* The Province of the Rhine includes what were formerly called Cleves 
aud Berg, and Lower Rhine. 


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Lippstadt, Paderborn ; 9. Cologne, Dusseldorf, Wesel, 
Cleves, Bonn, Gelders; Juliers, Aix-la-Chapelle (Q, 
Coblentz, Treves. 

Lakes. — Gross Haff at the mouth of the Oder, 
Frische Haff, Curische fiaff, Spirding See in JB. 

Rivers. — Vistula, Oder ( Viadrus), Elbe, Memel or 
Niemen, Pregel.* 

(a) Tilsit was taken by the French on the 7th of July 1807, when the 
peace was made with France, which for a while curtailed the dominions 

of the kin^ of Prussia. (6) At Eylau, on the 8th of February 1807, a 

desperate engagement was fouf ht between the French and the Prussians. 

(c) At Friedland, on the l4th of June 1807, the Russians were de* 

feated by the French under the command of Bonaparte. The battle lasted 
from five in the morning till seven at night. The loi&s on both sides was 
great. Twenty Russian generals were killed, wounded, or taken ; 80 
pieces of cannon, and a number of standards, fell into the hands of the 

conquerors. (rf) Near Berlin^ on the 6th of September 1813, the prince 

royal of Sweden (Bernadotte) had a severe engagement with the French 
army, commanded by the prince of Moskwa, (Marshal Ney) in which the 
latter lost ftrom 16,000 to 18,000 men, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, and 

30 pieces of cannon. ie) Potsdam was greatly improved by Frederick the 

Greatf who frequently resided at the palace of Sans Sotid. (/) Lvther 

was educated at Magdeburg,-^ — (o) Handel^ the celebrated musician, 

was bom at HaUe in 1684. (A) In 1483, Martin Luther ^ the great re* 

former, was bom it Eisleben. (•) Near I^utzen, in 1632, was fought 

the famous battle between the Swedes and Imperialists^ in vrhich the 
former remained masters of the field, but lost their great king, Gustavus 
Adolphusj in the very moment of victory. On the spot on which he ex- 

firea, a simple stone has been erected. Near this place, on the 2d of May 
813, the allied army of Prussians and Russians attacked the French 
forces ; the slaughter was dreadful, each side having lost in killed and 

wounded upwards of 10,000 men. (Ar) On a heath, near Minden, Prince 

Ferdinand of Brunswick defeated the French in 1759. (/) Aix-la-- 

Chapelie, noted for the treaties of peace concluded here in 1668 and 1748: 
it is also celebrated for its hot baths. 

I. Historical Geography of Prussia, 

1st, Names. — This region was partially known to the ancients, who men- 
tion various tribes that possessed it; and the amber, which was found 
here in such quantities as to form a regular article of commerce, greatly 
contributed to its celebrity. The name of the country originates, accord- 
ing to some, from the Prusszi, a Sclavonic tribe; but, according to others, 
from the name of Russia,B,nd the Sclavonic word Po, which signifies near 
or adjacent. 

* The Vistula or Weichsel rises at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains 
above Cracow, the Oder in Moravia S. from Silesia, the Elbe in the E. of 
Bohemia, the Memel or Niemen in the W. of Minsk in Russia, the Pregel 
flows W. t^rodgh £. Prussia, past Konigsberg, and falls into the Friscne 


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^, Extent Exelusiye of detached territories, the kingdom of Prnssia 

extends from the principality of Halberstadt, the farthest western con- 
neeted district, to the river Memel, or about 600 miles. The breadth, 
from the soathem limit of Silesia to Dantzic, exceeds 300 miles. The 
population of the whole of the Prussian territories amounts to 16,113,000. 

3d, Chronology The original population of Prussia appears, from 

Tacitus and Pliny, to have consisted of the Pudni and ^«/u, Gothic 
tribes bordering on the Venedi, who were Sclavons. The Sclavonic tribes 
on the east extended widely over the north of Grermany, after the old Gothic 
inhabitants had crowded to the more fertile regions of the south, in eonse- 
quenee of the decline and fall of the Roman empire.— The Pruzzi, a Scla- 
vonic nation inhabiting the country at the mouth of the Vistula, were at 
length subdued hj the knights of the Teutonic order. This order origi- 
nated A. D. 1190, in the camp of the crusaders before Akka or Acre, from 
some citizens of Lubeck and Bremen. Next year a bull of institution was 
obtained from the pope, conveying all the privileges enjoyed by the knights 
templars. The crusades to Palestine having failed, the knignts directed 
their enterprise against the pagans of the 1^. of Germany^ a. d. 1227 ; 
and in a few years conquered Prussia, and founded several cities. About 
1446, the four chief cities of Prussia, Elbiog, Thorn, Konigsberff, and 
Bantzic, withdrew their allegiance from the Teutonic order, and claimed 
the protection of Poland. In 1466, Casimir, king of Poland, forced the 
Teutonic order to abandon to him the eastern part of Prussia, and to pay 
homage for the western part. A Ibert of Brandenb urg, grand-master of the 
order, obtained from his maternal uncle, Sigismuncl. king of Poland, the* 
hereditary investiture of all that the order possessed in Prnssia, and em- 
braced the Lutheran religion. In 1618, Jb/in^Stj^t^mun^?, elector of Bran- 
denburg, acquired this duchy; and in 1621, his successor received the 
solemn investiture from the king of Poland. Frederick- William, sumamed 
Xht great elector, succeeded his father in 1640; and in 1656 compelled the 
king of Poland to declare Prussia an independent state. In 1688, he was 
succeeded by his son, Frederick I., who was proclaimed king of Prussia at 
Konigsberg, on the 18th of January 1701, he himself placing the crown 
upon nis head. Frederick-William I., son of the above, commenced his 
reign in 1713. His son Frederick II.,* commonly called the Great, as- 
cended the throne in 1740. In 1742, he acquired Silesia from the house of 
Austria ; and in 1772 added part of Poland to his dominions. He was 
succeeded by his nephew Frederick-William II. in 1786, who, dying in 
1797, left the kingdom to his son Frederick- William III. In 1840, he 
died and was succeeded by his son Frederick-William IV., the reigning 
sovereign, born in 1795. 

4th, Antiquities Some Sclavonic idols, cast in bronze, constitute 

almost the only pa/^n antiquities; and the castles and churches, erected 
after the introduction of the Christian religion, have few singularities to 
attract particular attention. The Polish coinage begins about the twelfth 
century, and is upon the German model. 

II. Political Geography, 

Ist, Rm^iGiON.— The majority of the inhabitants of Prussia belong to 
the Evangelical Protestant Church, which may in some measure be re- 

* In the regal genealogy, the name of Frederick alone is consid^ed as 
distinct from that of Frederick-William; and yet Frederick the Great is 
sometimes styled Frederick III. 


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^ded as the state religion, though all other sects enjoy eqaal r^^htfi: 
m Silesia and the recent acquisitions in Poland, the people are Roman 
Catholics. The members of the Eyangelical Charch are reckoned to 
amount to 9,800,000; the Catholics to 6,000,000; the Mennonites, Jews, 
&c., make up the remainder. In consequence of the universal toleration 
which has been wisely granted by the rrussian monarchs, the different 
sects seem to live in penect concord. 

2d, Government. — The government of Prussia is decidedly military; 
but uie spirit and good sense of the nation have united with the wisdom 
and mildness of successive monarchs to qualify the evils of absolute power. 
In 1823, eight provincial diets were established, with limited privileges; 
and, in 1847, the king granted a constitution forming them into a United 
Diet consisting of two chambers. The succession to the crown is 

3d, Army, Navy, and Revenue. — The regular army is supposed to 
amount to about 116,000 men, with a militia of 430,000. The tactics 
of Frederick II. conferred distinguished reputation on the Prussian batal- 
ions: and in the war with France, when led on by the veteran Bluchery they 
lost none of their former renown. The acquisition of Dantzic, and some 
other ports on the Baltic, may in time place Prussia among the maritime 
powers; but hitherto her sole attention has been paid to the laiid service. 
The revenue is small, amounting only to £9,000,000 sterling. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— Travellers have remarked, that in Com- 
parison with the Saxons, who are a lively and contented people, the 
Prussians appear dull and thoughtful,— a character which they impute 
partly to the military government, and partly to the general anxiety which 
must have been excited by the repeated dangers to which their country was 
exposed, when contending with the powers of Russia and Austria. As to 
the Poles, they seem full of life and action; but their features and general 
appearance are rather Asiatic than European. Beer and spirits are largely 
consumed by all classes; but the people m general seem to be comfortable 
in their circumstances, and have an air of independence and respectability. 

2d, Language.— The ruling language of Prussia is the German, vvhich 
it is probable may in time supplant that of Poland in those provinces 
whicn formerly belonged to that kingdom. 

3d, Literature.— C/wumM*, an eminent geographer, was born at 
Dantzic in 1580 ; Copernicus, a famous astronomer, was born at Thorn 
(1472), and his predecessor Regiomontanus at Konigsberg (1436), his 
designation being a Latin translation of that of his birthplace ; his real 
name was Muller. Kadlubko, the most ancient Polish historian, wrote in ' 
1223. Frederick the Great had a mean opinion of German literature j but, 
'though he wrote in French, must be classed among the most distin- 
guished authors of his kingdom. Nor is Count Hertsherg, his minister, 
without merit. ' Among the names of others, either natives, or who have 
flourished in Prussia, may be mentioned Rainier the poet, Nicolai, an 
original writer of romances, Ac, Busching the geographer, Spalding, 
Mendelsohn, and Humboldt the celebrated traveller. 

4th, Education Since the time of Frederick the Great, the attention 

of the Prussian monarchs has been constantly directed to the subject of 
education ; and the country can now boast of the most complete system of 
national instruction existing in Europe. Every parish has an elementary 
school, to which parents are enjoined by law to send their children ; and 
above these are gymnasiums, resembling the grammar sehoolaof Britain, 

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where the classics are taught. The teachers for these seminaries are all 
carefully educated in normal schools ; and religious instruction is com- 
municated to the children by the ministers of tneir several persuasions. 
The universities are seven in number, viz. those of Berlin, Breslau, Halle, 
Bonn, Konigsberg, Munster, and Greifswald. 

I 5th, Manufactubes and Commerce Though mainly an agricultural 

country, Prussia has lately made considerable advances in manufactures. 
Cottons, silks, and ^nens are largely produced in the Rhenish provinces, 
linen in Silesia, cast-iron articles, jewellery, cutlery, broadcloth, paper, 
&c., in Berlin and other places ; while linens and woollens for domestic 
use are woven in almost every cottage. Beer is extensively brewed in 
ail parts; and the consumption of spirits is estimated at 45,000,000 impe- 
rial gallons a-year I An extensive book-trade is conducted at Berlin and 
Halle. Internal communication is much facilitated by the numerous 
rivers and canals, as well as by good carriage-roads and even railways ; 
and the foreign commerce is considerable, having rapidly increased of 
late years, especially since the establishment of the Zollverein. The 
exports consist chiefly of Polish wheat, fine wool, timber, and other raw 
produce, with the manufactures above noticed ; the imports of tropical 
commodities, British manufactures, wines, salt, coal, &c. 

IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, CuMATE AND SEASONS.— The cUmate of the Prussian dominions is, 
upon the whole, cold and moist. Brandenburg and Pomerania may be re- 
garded as more free from humidity than Prussia Proper, which has about 
eight months of winter, the autumns being often deluged with rain. The 
northern part of Poland, which has fallen under the Prussian sceptre, 
abounds with forests and marshes, which cannot be supposed to render 
the air salubrious. The lower parts of Silesia are regarded as the most 
healthy and fertile provinces of the monarchy ; but the southern and 
western divisions of that duchj, bordering on elevated mountains covered 
with snow, are exposed, even m summer, to severe freezing gales. 

2d. Face of the Countrt.— The surface of the Prussian states is gener- 
ally level. Brandenburg, with Pomerabia, is a sandy and barren country ; 
but Prussia Proper formerly abounded in woods, and still displays supe- 
rior fertility,— a character which may also be extended to that ilnmense 
plain, Prussian Poland. Silesia exhibits a pleasing diversity, being 
partly mountainous, and every where watered by the Oder and its trib- 
utary streams. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture. — The soil of Brandenburg and Pomerania 
is meagre, and even the space between Berlin and Potsdam resembles a 
wilderness ; but the soil of Prussia Proper and Prussian Poland is loamy 
and fertile; The rural products resemble those of Britain : b.ut rye and 
potatoes form the chier food of the lower classes. Flax and hemp are 
largely raised ; also chicory and beet, which last yields about a fourth 
part of the sugar consumed. Tobacco, hops, and madder, are likewise 
cultivated ; and Silesia yields maize and even vines, though the wine is 
inferior. The Saxon and Rhenish provinces are naturally the most fertile 
in the monarchy, the wine of the latter being well known and much 
esteemed throughout Europe. 

4th, Animals.— The different provinces of Prussia yield vast numbers 
of horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and hogs. The sheep of Saxony, Silesia, 
and Brandenburg, mostl^ pure merinoes or half-breeds, alone amount to 
about 10,000,000, and their wool constitutes the great staple of the country. 

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There is plenty of same, as white and common hares, elks, deer, roebucks^ 
and wild boars ; but the forests are at the same time infested> with 
lynxes, wolves, foxes, &c. 

5th, Minerals. — In Prussia are mines of copper and lead ; there are 
also considerable founderies of iron. Agates, jaspers, and rock-crystal are 
found in the Silesian mountains. But the most disting^uished and pecu- 
liar mineral production of Prussia is ambers which is chiefly found on the 
shore of the Baltic, near Pillan^ on a neck of land fopned by the Frischd 
Haff, which seems to have been the chief seat of this mineral from the 
earliest luges. It is found at the depth of about 100 feet, reposing on 
wood-coaL in lumps of yarious sizes, some five pounds in weignt, and is 
often washed ashore by tempests. It adds about £4000 yearly to the 

royal revenue The only mineral water in the Prussian dominions worthy 

of notice is a hot spring in Silesia. 

. 6th, Natural Curiosities.— The Prussian dominions afford few 

subjects oir natural curiosity, if we except the mines of amber above 



Boundaries. — N. Austria and Russia ; W. Dalma- 
tia and the Adriatic ; S. Greece and the Archipelago ; 
E. Dardanelles, Sea of Marmora, Straits of Constanti- 
nople, and Black Sea.* 

Divisions. — 1. Moldavia;-|- 2. Wallachia; 3. Bul- 
garia ; 4. Servia ; 5. Bosnia, including part of Croatia ; 
6. Roumelia, including Thrace or Romania, Macedonia, 
and Thessalj ; 7. Albania. 

Towns. — 1. Jassy, Galatz; 2. Bucharest, Tergovist; 
3. Sophia, Varna, Widdin, Nicopoli (a), Rustchuk, 
Silistria, Shumla; 4. Belgrade (6), Semendria (c), Nissa; 
6. Bosna-Serai, Trawnik, Novi-Bazar, Bihacz, Mostar ; 
6. Constantinople, Adrianople, Philippopoli {d)^ 
Trajanopoli, Gallipoli; — Philippi (e). Seres, Saloniki 
{Thessalonica) (/), Pella {g)\ Larissa, Pharsalia (A), 

* the Adriatic Sea is also called the GtUfof Venice; that j>art of the 
Mediterranean W. from Greece is the Ionian Sea. The Archipelago was 
by the ancients called the jEgean Sea; the Straits of the Dardanelles were 
called the Hellespont ; and the Straits of Constantinople the Botphortu. 

t The province of Bessarabia and part of MoldaTia hare been oeded 
to the Russian empire. 

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Volo; — 7. Janina, Durazzo (Dyrrachium), Albassano, 
Scutari, Arta. 

Mountains. — Haemus or Balkan, Rhodope, Athos, 
Olympus, Ossa, Pelion, Pindus. 

Islands. — On the Asiatic side of the Archipelago are 
Lemnos (f) or Stalimene, Liesbos, (fc) or Mytilen^, 
Ipsara, Scio (Chios), Samos (l), Patmos (m), Stanco 
(Cos) (n), Rhodes, tuith a tomn of the same name. — TAe 
Ionian Islands,* viz* Cerigo {Cythera), Zante, Cepha- 
lonia, Theaki {Ithaca) (o), Santa Maura (Leucadia) (p), 
Paxo, Corfu {Corcyra) {q). — More detached are, Can- 
dia {Crete) (r), with a town of the same name. Scar- 
panto {Carpathus), Cyprus, in which is Nicosia. — 
Tenedos, opposite the ruins of Troy, and Thasos, near 
the coast of Thrace. 

Gulfs. — Gulf of Arta {Ambracia\ Volo, Salonica, 
Cassandra, Monte Santo, Contessa, Saros. 

Rivers. — ^Danube {Ister), Save, Pruth, Maritza 
{Hebrus), Vardar.f 

ANasNT DI7ISI0NS. — Dacia, (1, 2) ; Mcesia Superior and Inferior, 
(,% 4, 5) ; Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, (6) ;t Epirus, (7). 

(a) Nicopoli had its foundations laid by Trajan, and here the Turks and 
Christians had the first severe engagement, in which Baiazet, the Turkish 

emperor, was defeated. (6) Belgrade was taken by Prince Eugene in 

1717, and kept till 1739, when it was ceded to the Turks. It was again 

taken in 1789, and restored at the peace in 1 790. ic) Semendria is noted 

for a bloody battle in 1411, in which the Turks completely cut off their 

enemies the Christians id) Philippopoli was founded by Philip of Ma- 

cedon : 100,000 of the inhabitants were massacred by the Goths, a. d. 250. 

* By a treaty signed at Paris, 5th November 1815, the islands of Cerigo. 
Zante, Cephalonia, Theaki, Santa Maura, Paxo, and Corfu, were formed 
into a republic under the protection of Britain, and denominated the 
United States of the Ionian Islands. Population, 208,041. 

t The Danube, after leaving the Austrian territories, flows E., forms 
the N. boundary of Servia, separates WaUachia and Moldavia on the N. 
froTQ. Bulgaria on the S., and falls into the Black Sea ; the Save rises in 
the N. W. of Camiola in Austria, flows £. separating Sclavonia on the N. 
ttom Croatia, Bosnia, and Servia on the S., and joins the Danube near 
Belgrade ; the Pruth forms the boundary between Moldavia and Russia ; 
the Maritza rises in the N. W. of Romania, the Vardar in the N. W. of 

Ji: In Thessaly, between mounts Pelion and Ossa, was the celebrated 
e of Tempi. 

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ie) To the inhabitants of Philippi St Paul wrote his epistle from 

Rome. In the plains near this town Brutus and Cassius were defeated 

by Octavius Caesar and Mark Antony. (/) The ancient Thessahniea, 

so often mentioned in Scripture, is now called Sahniki. ig) Pella, 

famous as the birthplace of Philip of Macedon, and of his son Alexander 

the Great. ih) Pharsalia is celebrated for the decisive victory gained 

on its plains by Julius Caesar over Pompey, b. c. 48. (t) Lemnosy or 

Stalimene, where festivals were held in honour of Vulcan, who was fabled 

to have had his forges in this island. (Ar) Lesbos or MytUene was the- 

birthplace of Alcaeus and Sappho, Arion and Theo^hrastus. (/) Samos^ 

where Pythagoras was born, and Juno held in particular reverence by the 

inhabitants. (m) Patmos, where, in a cave, St John is said to have 

written the Revelation. (n) Stanco or Cos, the birthplace of Hippo- 
crates, Apelles, and Simonides. (o) Ith<tca or Theaki, where Ulysses 

was born, and where he reigned. ip) Leucadia or Santa Maura^ 

Sappho threw herself into the sea here, at the promontory called Leucate. 

(q) Corfu or Corcyra^ noted in former times for the shipwreck of 

Ulysses, and the gardens of Alcinous. (r) Candia or Crete, the birth- 
place of Jupiter, was celebrated for Mount Ida, the labyrinth of Minos, 
its laws, and hundred cities. 

I, Historical Geography of Turkey in Europe. 

Ist, Names. — As European Turkey constitutes a modem sovereignty, 
the greater part of whicn was formed in the fifteenth century, upon the 
ruins of Constantinopte and of the Byzantine empire, there is no ancient 
appellation for its wnole extent. It embraces many ancient kingdoms 
and states, which now afford only a melancholy remembrance of classical 
names ^nd events. The name Turks or Turkomans signifies wanderers; 
hence the modem ai)peIlation Turkey is applied to the country occupied 
by these tribes both in Europe and Asia.* 

2d, Extent.— Turkey in Europe is computed to contain 183,000 square 
miles ; the population nas been estimated at 10,000,000 ; consequently to 

every square mile there are about 54 inhabitants. The Tyrkish 

empire, though fallen greatly from its former power, is still very exten- 
sive ; but its limits are not easily defined, many countries usually included 
in it being now virtually independent. Thus, Egypt, Tunis, and Tripoli, 
in Africa, own a merely nominal subjection ; Syria and Palestine, in Asia, 
would have been annexed to the dominions of the pasha of Egypt Ijut for 
the interference of the European powers in 1841- ; and even the European 
provinces of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Servia are connected by slender 
ties. Nevertheless, the entire territory in Europe and Asia actually 
under the dominion of the sultan may be roundly estimated as containing 
600,000 square miles, with a population of about 20,000,000. 

3d, Chronology.— This country anciently consisted of Thrace, Macedon,- 
and other smaller kingdoms. About 163 years before the birth of Christ, 
these were formed into a Roman province. Constantino the Great (a. d. 
330) transferred the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, or Con- 

* The Turkish sovereign is styled the sultan, the grand signior, grand 
Turk, or emperor of the Turks : he assumes the titles of God upon earthy 
the Shadow of Crod, the Brother of the sun and moon, the Disposer ofcroumsy 
&c. The Turks are also called Othmans or Ottomans, from their leader 
Othman ; and the court of Constantinople is sometimes called the Ottoman 
or Sublime Porte. 

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rttintinople, as it was afterwards called. His descendants continned on the 
throne till the taking of their metropolis by the Tarks. These were ori^- 
iially a Scythian or Tartar nation dwelling oetwixt the Black and Caspian 
Seas, and became first known in the seventh century, when Herodius, em- 
peror of the East, took them into his service; after which the Arabian and 
Saracen caliphs had particular bodies of them for guards, and filled their 
armies with them. Having gradually got the power into their own hands, 
several governors revolted from the caliphs. In the year 1214, Sch^ih 
Solyman, prince of Nera, a town on the Caspian Sea, passed Mount 
Caucasus, with an army of 50,000 men, making himself master of several 
countries and places mAsia Minor, His grandson, Oihman, Ottoman, 
or Osman I., in the year 1300, assumed the title of sultan, and called his 
people after his own name. Mahomet II., the greatest, or perhaps most 
fortunate of all the Turkish sovereigns, in 1453, took Constantinople from 
Constantine XI II. the last of the Greek emperors, who died bravely fight-' 
ing in the breach. Bajazet II., Selim I., and Solyman I. enlarged the 
Turkish empire in Europe, Asia, and Africa; but it has graduallv declined 
under the succeeding monarchs. Mustapha IV., bein^ deposed in 1808, 
was succeeded by Mahmoud II., who distinguished his reign by several 
vigorous reforms. He died in 1 839, and was succeeded by Abdul-Medjid, 
the reigning sultan, bom in 1823. 

4th, Antiquities. — A venerable monument of antiquity at Constan- 
tinople, the church dedicated to the divine tnisdom, or yulg&rly Sancta 
Sophia, by the emperor Justinian, in the sixth century, has been fortu- 
nately preserved by being converted into a mosque. The celebrated bridge 
of Trajan, over the Danube, near Widdin, is supposed to have consisted 
of 20 arches, or rather vast piers of stone, originally supporting a wooden 
fabric in length more than 3300 English feet. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The relif^on of the Turks is the Mahometan; but of 
their subjects, in this division of the empire, it is probable that three- 
fonrths are Greek Christians. The Turks oelieve in one God, and that his 
great prophet is Mahomet or Mohammed; they appropriate to themselves 
the name of Moslemim, which has been corrupted into Mussulmans, signi- 
iVing persons professing the doctrine of Mahomet, which he calls Islam, 
The Koran of this impostor, or the book, which he pretended to have re- 
ceived at different times from heaven by the hands of the angel Gabriel, 
contains a good deal of practical morality drawn from the Scriptures, but 
blended with extravagant tales and blasphemous doctrines. He pretended 
to have passed into the highest heavens in one night, on the back of a 
beautiful ass called Al Borak, accompanied by the angel Gabriel. There 
he had an interview with Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus 
Christ, who acknowledged his superiority ,'which was confirmed to him 
by the Deity himself. 

2d, Government.— The stUtanis a despotic monarch; but he is him- 
self strictly subject to the laws of the Koran^ which, including also the 
national religion, raise such obstructions to his absolute will, that an in- 
telligent traveller pronounces manv Christian soverei/o^ns more unfettered. 
For administrative purposes, Turkey in Europe is divided into four pro- 
vinces called eyalets, eacn governed by a pasha of the first rank; and these 
are a^ain subaivided mioliyas and sandjaks. — The laws tire contained in 
the Koran; but commentaries have been constructed which have acquired 
th» £»rc9 of enactments. The empire is chiefly guided by those of Abou 

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3d, Army and Navt. — The whole Turkish army nambers above 200,000 
men. The janissaries, of whom they used always to have a great numbery 
were bred in the seraplio, and accustomed to military discipline from 
their youth. When not engaged in foreign conquest, however, this for- 
midable standing force became dangerous to their own government, and 
various schemes for their suppression ended in the deposition or murder of 
the devisers. At length the late sultan, acting with greater energy than 
his predecessors, decreed that the body should be broKen up, and the men 
distributed among the regular troops ; but this order was not carried into 
effect without opposition, and a considerable amount of bloodshed. The 
nobility among the Turks are the chief military officers, judges, and 
ecclesiastics.— Their navy, even since the defeat at Navarino, is consider- 
ably; but it is always miserably equipped and manned. 

4th, Revenues.— The revenues of the whole Turkish empire have been 
variously stated at from three to seven millions sterling, but no accurate 
returns exist. They are partly derived from the cajntation-taa; on fmbe- 
lievers, and from the zechat or customs ; but principally from the tax on 
land, which is called the jizi. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The manners and customs of the Turks 
are distinguished by the striking peculiarities of their religion fi>om those 
of other European nations. On the birth of a child, the father hims(^f 
gives the name, putting at the same time a grain of salt into its month. 
Marriage is only a civil contract, which either party may break ; and is 
managed by female mediation, the husband seldom seeing his wife till aitear 
the ceremony. Polygamy, being allowed by law, is common among the 
wealthy classes ; but the females are never permitted to mingle in society, 
being secluded for life in the apartments of the harem. As they never 
intrench upon a former grave, the burial-grounds (which are near the high- 
ways are verv extensive. The frugal repast, which consists chiefly of hce, 
is despatched with great haste, and is followed by fruits and cold water, 
which are succeeded by hot coffee, with pipes and tobacco. The houses 
of the Turks are seldom expensive ; and the chief furniture is the carpet 
which covers the floor, with a low sofa on one side of the room. To re- 
cline on an elegant carpet, or in the hot season by the side of a stream, 
and smoke the delicate tobacco of Syria, may be regarded as their princi- 
pal amusements. With opium they procure what they call a kief, or 
placid intoxication ; the use of wine being strictly prohibited by the 
Koran. Chess and draughts are favourite games ; but those of chance are 
considered as incompatible with strict morals. The coffee-houses and the 
baths furnish other sources of recreation ; and the bairam, or festival 
which follows their long Lent, is a season of universal dissipation. 

2d, Language. — The Turkish Language, which is of Tartarian origin, 
is of far inferior reputation to the Persian or Arabic, being a mixture of 
several dialects, and possessing neither the force, elegance, nor purity of 
those two celebrated oriental tongues. It is, however, the easiest of any 
we know ; having^nly one conjugation of verbs, one declension of noune. 
and no gender. The Turks have their ancient poets, historians, ana 
divines ; but of little renown when compared with those of Persia or 
Arabia. The state of education among them is very low, and ignorant 
is indeed a national characteristic. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce The manufactures and commerce 

of Turkey in Europe are chiefly in the hands of foreigners. The native 
manufactures exported are inconsiderable, being chiefly carpets and a few 
other articles ; but the rude products are far more numerous, as oorrants, 
figs, saffron, silk, and drugs. 

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IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate and Seasons. — The extensive tracts comprised within the 
limits of European Turkey enjoy in general a fine climate, pure air. and 
regular seasons. In Waljachia, vines and melons thrive, although the 
climate is unsuitable for the fig and olive. In the mountainous parts of 
the more southern districts, the temperature must partake of tne cold 
universal in such elevated regions; but the products of Macedonia, rice, 
vines, and olives, shovr that the climate still sustains its ancient reputation. 
« 2d, Face of the CouNTRT«~The general appearance of the country is 
rather mountainous, but abundantly interspersed with delicious plains and 
vales ; and to the north-west of Constantinople there is a flat country of 
vast extent, while the shores of the Euxine present many level deserts. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil is generally fertile, the northern 
parts producing wheat and rich pasture, the middle and southern abun- 
dance of rice. But agriculture, like every other art and science, is 
neglected by the Turks; and that land must be truly fruitful which, under 
their sway, can support Its inhabitants. 

. 4th, Animals.— The forests of European Turkey are infested by bears, 
wolves, jackals, &c. ; and the gazelle, deer of various kinds, hares, and 
other kinds of game, are abunaant. Sheep and goats are numerous, their 
flesh constituting the chief animal food of the inhabitants, beef being sel- 
dom eaten. The Wallachian sheep have horns of singular elegance ; 
merinoes and other fine-woolled breeds, however, are only found in Servia. 
The Turkish horses are celebrated for spirit and form; but oxen are every 
where employed in field labour. Notwithstanding the national prejudice 
of the Turks, hogs are reared in vast numbers in Servia, Bosnia, and ad- 
jacent provinces, where they constitute a chief resource of the population. 

5th, Minerals.— The gold-mines of Philippi, in the time of Philip of 
BAaoedon, produced yearly about 10,000 talents, i. e. £2.880,000 sterling; 
and mines of copper, lead, iron, and other minerals are abundant; but the 
indolence aifd ignorance of the Turks have generally neglected this branch 
of opulence.— The mineral waters are little known. 

6th, Natural Curiosities, &c.- In the island of Candia are the famed 
Mount Ida and the river Lethi. Its capital, of the same name, is noted 
for its siege by the Turks, which lasted 24 years, from 1646 to 1670. 
Cerigo or Cyihera, was the favourite residence of Venus. Thasos is re- 
nowned for its gold mines, delicate wines, and fruits. Lemnos is distin- 
guished for its mineral earth. In RJiodes stood the celebrated colosstu of 
brass, which was reckoned one of the seven wonders of the world,* 

* The seven wonders of the world were, 1. The colossus at Rhodes, a 
statue of the sun, 70 cubits hi^h, placed across the mouth of the har- 
bour. A man coiud not grasp its thumb with both his arms. Its legs 
were stretched out to such a distance, that a large ship under sail might 
easily pass into the port between them. Its construction occupied twelve 
years, and cost 300 talents. (A Rhodian talent is worth £322, 18s.) It 
stood fifty years, and at last was thrown down by an earthquake.— 2. The 
temple of Diana at Ephesus was a work of the greatest magnificence: 
220 years were spent m finishing it. It was supported by 127 pillars, 
raised by as many kings, and each 60 feet high. Of these columns 
37 were engraven. The image of the goddess was made otebonv.—^. The 
Mausoleum or sepulchre of Mausolus, king of Carta, built by his 
queen Artemisia of the purest marble; and yet the workmanship of it was 
mach more valuable than the materials. It was, from N. to S., 63 feet 
long, almost 411 feet in compass, and 25 cubits (that is, about 35 feet) 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

132 GREECE. 


Boundaries. — N. Turkey ;* W. and S. Mediterra- 
nean Sea; E. Archipelago. 

Divisions. — 1. Continental Greece (Livadia) ; 2. 
Morea {Peloponnesus) ; 3. The islands, viz. Egripo or 
Negropont {Euhoeal, Skyro, Andro, Coluri (Salamis), 
Egina (a), Hydra; — Naxia, Milo, Syra, Santorini, 
Delos (6), Paros, Antiparos. 

Towns. — 1. Athens (c), Thiva {Thehes), Salona, 
Castri {Delphi), Lepanto, Missolonghi ; 2. Tripo- 
litza, Corinth {d), Argos, NapoU di Romania, Napoli di 
Malvasia, Mistra, {Lacedoemon or Sparta) («), Coron, 
Modon {Methone), Navarino, Arcadia, Longinico {Olym- 
pia) (/), Belvedere, Patras ; 3. Each island has a town 
or village of its own name. 

Mountains. — Parnassus and Helicon, in 1 ; the 
Mainote Mountains or Taygetus, in 2. 

Gulfs. — Lepanto,Coron,Colokythia, Nauplia, Egina. 

Capes. — Gallo, Matapan, Maleo or St Angelo, 
Skillo, Colonna. 

high, sarrounded hy 36 colamns, beautiful in the highest degree. — 4. An 
iyory statue of Jupiter in the temple of the city Olpmpia, carved with 
the greatest art by Phidias, and of a prodigious size. — 5. The walls of 
Babylon (the metropolis of Chaldea), erected by queen Semiramis. Their 
circumference was 60 miles, their height 200 feet, and their breadth 50 feet 
iPlin. lib. 6. c. 26.) : so that six chariots abreast might conveniently pass 
upon them.— 6. The Pyramids of Egypt; three of vmich, remarkable for 
their height, still remain. The first has a square basis 763 feet each way, 
and is 460 feet high : it is constructed of great stones, the least of which is 
30 feet in length : 360,000 men were employed in building it for the space 
of 20 years. The other two pyramids, which are somewhat smaller, attract 
the admiration of all spectators. In these pyramids, it is reported, the 
bodies of the kings of Egypt lie interred.— 7. The ro^ palace of Pyrus^ 
king of the Medes, made by Menon,ynth. no less prodigality than art ; for 
he cemented the stones with gold. 

* Greece is separated from Turkey by a line drawn from the month of 
the river Aspropotamos, W. from Missolonghi, to the galf of Yolo, W. 
from the northern extremity of the island of Negroponta^ 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

GR££C£« 133 

Additional Islands. — Spexzia, Ttno, Miconi, AmorgOy Si' 

phanto, Zea, Thermia, S^c. 

Ancient Divisions. — Achaia (1) ; Peloponnesus (2). 

(a) In Effina money is said to have been first coined. (b) Delos was 

said to be the birthplace of Apollo and Diana, who were worshipped 

there. (c) Amone the fine ruins of Athena are, the Parthenon or 

temple of Minerva, the theatre of Bacchus, temple of Theseus, large de- 
tached columns of the temple of Jupiter Ol^mpius, which exceed 60 feet in 
height; but the boast of Grecian and Doric architecture is fast hurrying 
to destruction. (</) Corinth^ in its present state, resembles a large vil- 
lage, each house having a garden or vineyard. The seven wise men of 
Greece were Periander of Corinth, /S'ofony>f Salamis, Chih of Lacedsemon, 
Pittacus of Mytilend, Thales, the Milesian, and Bias and Cleobultu. 

whose birthplaces are uncertain. (e) Near Mistra are the remains of 

Sparta or Lacedtemon, which the sun now parches in silence, incessantly 
consuming the marble of the tombs. Not a plant adorns the ruins; not a 
bird, insect, or creature enlivens them, save millions of lizards which crawl 

without noise up and down the sides of the scorched walls. (/) Olym- 

pia, now called Longinico, is the place where the Olympic games were 
celebrated, and in the vicinity of which was a temple dedicated to Jupiter 

I, Historical Geography of Greece, 

1st, Name. — The celebrated name of Greece, which this country an- 
ciently bore, was in some de^ee obliterated by the Turks, who included it 
in Roumelia, and divided it into the pashalics of Livadia and Tripolitza. 
The Greeks, however, on recovering their independence, restored to their 
country its ancient name. "^ 

2d, Extent Greece contains about 15,000 square miles, with a pop- 
ulation of 810,000 ; consequently to every square mile there are 54 

3d, Chronology. — This country comprehended a number of indepen- 
dent republics till the battle of Chaeronea, 337 years before Christ, when it 
was brought under subjection to Philip king of Macedon, father of Alex- 
ander the Great. About 163 years before i^hrist it was conquered by 
Rome, and continued to form part of that empire, till after the taking of 
Constantinople in 1453, when it was overrun by the Turks, and continued 
under their dominion. In 1822, the Greeks rose in arms against their op- 
pressors, and defeated them in several battles by sea and land, and at last 
made themselves masters of the whole country south of Thessaly. During 
three years they maintained the struggle successfully, and seemed to have 
almost established their independence ; but, in 1825, Ibrahim, son of the 
pasha of Egypt, landed in the Morea with an army disciplined by French- 
men and Italians, and by his superior skill and tactics took several towns, 
vanquished the Greeks in the field, and reduced them to such a decree as 
to render it doubtful whether they would not be entirely subduecL The 
three great powers, Russia, Britain, and France, however, having in- 
terposed in their behalf, compelled the Porte to acknowledge their 

4th, Antiquities. — The ancient monuments of Greece exceed in number 
and importance those of any other country. The remains of Athens, in 
{Mtrticular, formerly the chosen seat of the arts, have attracted the atten- 
tion of many travellers, and have been repeatedly described. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

134 GREECE. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion — The religion professed by the inhabitants of this cele- 
brated country is that of the Greek charch, which also prevails in Russia. 
In consequence of the iirnorance of the people, it is degraded by supersti- 
tious observances, and the Papas or priests possess great innuence 
over the minds of their followers. Full toleration, however, is given to all 
other sects. 

2d, Government.— -The form of government is a monarchy nearly ab- 
solute. Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, to whom the kingdom was 
offered, having declined to accept it, affairs were in a very unsettled state, 
and great dissensions prevailed oetween the cities and the capitani or chiefs 
of the countr^r districts ; but in 1832 the crown was conferred on Prince 
Otho of Bavaria, who ascended the throne of Greece, January 25, 1833. 

3d, Army, &c. — The army amounts to about 7000 men; the navy com- 
prises only a few small vessels. The revenue is £530,000 sterling,— a sum 
hardly equal to the expenditure. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs. — The Greeks are a lively, active, and in- 
genious people; but they are accused of being treacherous, dissembling, 
and artful, vices which their degraded state of subjection too naturally 
tended to increase. 

2d, Language, &c. — The modem Greeks still speak and write the lan- 
guage of their ancestors, with only a few variations. Hitherto, education 
has been in a backward state; but efforts have been made by the govern- 
ment for the establishment of schools, which are now pretty numeroos, 
especially in the islands. Athens has a university founded in 1837, and 
there are gymnasiums in several of the principal towns. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce. — Manufactures are limited in 
amount, and chiefly of a domestic character; but the Morea contains some 
small establishments for weaving silk, cotton, and wool. The country is 
better adapted for commercial industry, and at present the mercantile 
navy amounts to about 4500 vessels, navigated by nearly 16,000 active and 
hardy seamen, mostly employed in the carrying trade of the Levant and 
Black Sea. The exports consist of raw silk, currants, olive-oil, wool, and 
other articles ; and the imports of com, manufactured goods, sugar, and 

IV. Natural Geography, 

Istj Climate and Seasons.— These are in general mild and delightful, 
the vicinity of the sea and hills of moderate elevation tempering the in- 
tensity of the heat. The climate is healthy, except in the low mandiy 
tracts around the shores and lakes. 

2d, Face of the Country. — The scenery is very agreeable, consisting 
of fine valleys diversified by hills, and bordered by winding and beautiful 
shores. Around Thebes is an extensive plain; but to the westward the 
steeps of Parnassus and Helicon, and the rocks of Delphi, give to (he 
landscape a grand and awful character. 


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GREECE. 135 

3d, Soil and Agricultuiib.— About three-fourths of the sarfkce belong 
to the crown and to the church, and the rest to individuals; but scarcely 
a tenth part is under cultivation. The vegetable products resemble those 
of southern Italv; vines, figs, olives, dates, citrons, and other fruits, being 
Indigenous to the country. Hellas possesses the best com districts, 
the richest being perhaps Bceotia, though the wheat of the Morea is in 
highest repute; but the supply does not meet the consumption. The olive 
and currant-grape are extensively cultivated, and the honey of Attica 
maintains its ancient renown. The rearing or sheep and goats is exten- 
sively prosecuted, especially in Livadia and Arcadia. 

4th, Animals.— The zoology differs in no respect from that of European 

5th, Minerals. — Silver mines were anciently worked in Attica, and the 
marbles of Pentelicus and Pares were in high esteem; but under Turkish 
sway they were entirely neglected. In fact, the country is rich in mineral 
treasures, though, with the exception of copper and salt, which last is pro- 
cured in abundance near Missoioughi, they meet with no attention. 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— /'arcw contains the finest white marble. 
In Antiparos is a wonderful grotto. In 1707, near Santorini, a new 
island about a mile in diameter arose from the sea amid violent volcanio 


Where is Transylvania, Riga, Smolensk, Bulgaria, Archangel, 
Styria, Moravia, Pomerania, Morea, Moscow, Novgorod, Servia, 
Brandenburg, Moldavia, Romania, Silesia, Bosnia, Olonetz, Bo- 
hemia, Finland, Poland, E. Prussia, Volhynia, Minsk, Crimea, 
Sclavonia, Macedonia \ &c. 

Where is Vienna, Odessa, Stralsund, Warsaw, Constantin- 
ople, Corinth, Shumla, Dantzic, Trent, Navarino, Philippi, Ber- 
lin, St Petersburg, Thorn, Athens, Tripolitza, Mistra, Onega, 
Breslau, Helsingfors, Ismail, Venice, Cremona, Albassano, Var- 
na, Prague, Trieste, Buda, Nystadt, Austerlitz, Cronstadt, Fre- 
dericksham! &c. 

Where is the Isle of Patmos, Cephalonia, Aland, Lemnos, Cy- 
prus, Nova Zembla, Negropont, Spitzbergen, Milo, Zante, Dago, 
Tenedos, Waygatz, Corfu, Rhodes \ &c. 

Where is Mount Athos, the Cai'pathian Mountains, the Ura- 
lian Mountains, Olonetz, Olympus, Parnassus, Rhstian Alps, 
Hsmus or Balkan \ &c. 

Where is Lake Onega, Flatten See, Gross Haff, Ladoga, 
Como, Garda, Enara, Frische HaflF, Cirknitz, Ilmen, Mag- 
giore! &c. 

Where is the Gulf of Bothnia, Lepanto, Monte Santo, White 
Sea, Cape Matapan, Waygatz Straits, Gulf of Napoli, Gulf 
of Finland! &c. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

136 ' ASU< 


Name the latgest river in Silesia ; what river passes Konigs- 
berg ! on what river does Vienna stand \ into what sea does the 
Volga fall I describe the Maritza ; what is the largest river that 
falls into the Black Sea! in what direction does the Dnieper 
flow! &c. 


Boundaries. — N. Northern Ocean ; W. Ural 
Mountains and River, Caspian Sea, Mount Caucasus, 
Black Sea, Sea of Marmora, Archipelago, Mediter- 
ranean, Isthmus of Suez, and Red Sea ; S. Indian 
Ocean ; E. Pacific Ocean. 

Divisions. — 1. Turkey in Asia; 2. Arabia; 3. Per- 
sia ; 4. Afghanistan ; 5. Hindostan ; 6. Eastern Penin- 
sula; 7. China; 8. Tibet; 9. Eastern or Chinese 
Tartary ; 10. Asiatic Russia ; 11. Western or Inde- 
pendent Tartary ; 12. Japan. 

Chief Towns. — 1. Smyrna, Aleppo; 2. Mecca; 
3. Teheran ; 4. Cabul ; 5. Calcutta, Madras, Bombay ; 
6. Ava ; 7. Pekin, Nankin, Canton ; 8. Lassa ; 9. Yar- 
kand; 10. Tobolsk; 11. Bokhara; 12. Jeddo. 

Islands. — Cyprus, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
Celebes, Moluccas, Philippines, Japan Islands, New 
Guinea, Australia, Van Diemen's Land, New Zealand. 

Mountains. — Uralian, Altaian, Caucasus, Ararat, 
Taurus, Lebanon, Himmaleh ; Mounts Sinai and Horeb. 

Seas and Gulfs. — Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian 
Gulf, Bay of Bengal, Chinese Sea, Gulfs of Siam and 
Tonquin, Bay of Nankin, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, 
Sea of Ochotsk, Sea of Kamtschatka, Caspian Sea, Sea 
of Aral. 

Straits. — ^Babelmandeb, Ormus, Malacca, Sunda, 
Macassar, Behring. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Digitized by 


I^fl I r 



by Google 

ASIA. 137 

Peninsulas. — Kamtschatka, Corea, Malacca or 

Capes. — Sovero, Baba, Ras al Had, Mussendom, 
Comorin, Negrais, Romania, Cambodia, Lopatka, East 

Rivers. — Ob or Oby, Yenisei, Lena, Amur or Saga- 
lien, Hoang-ho, Yang-tse-kiang, Irrawady, Brahma- 
pootra, Ganges, Indus, Euphrates, and Tigris.* 

Lakes. — Baikal, Balkash or Tenghiz. 

remarks on ASIA. 

This great division of the earth extends in length from W. to E. nearly 
6000 miles, and from N. to S. about 5300. The population, including Aus- 
tralasia and Polynesia, has been conjectured to amount to 460 millions. 

This quarter of the globe has been the scene of the most important 
events in the history of manldnd,-~as the creation of man, the establish- 
ment of the Hebrev^ nation and religion, and the promulgation of Chris- 
tianity. In early times part of this vast territory was successively governed 
by the Assyrians, Medes, Persians, and Greeks; but the regions of India 
and China were little known to Alexander, or the conquerors of the ancient 
world. On the decline of these empires, great part of Asia submitted to 
the Romans, and afterwards, in the middle ages, the Saracens founded in 
Asia, Africa, and Europe, an empire more extensive than that of Rome 
when in the height of its power. At the begiuniug of the 13th century 
Gengis Khan established the Tartar or Mongol sovereignty ; but its 
greatness ended with the death of Tamerlane; and the Turks, conquerors 
on every side, took possession of the middle regions of this continent, 
which they stiU enjoy. 

Of the vast extent of Asia, the ancients entertained very indistinct ideas; 
in fact the discovery of the eastern portions of this great division of the 
world may be said to have commenced with the travels of Marco Polo, the 
Venetian, in the end of the thirteenth century ; and it was not comi)leted, 
with regard to the extremities, till the recent travels through Siberia and 
the other Asiatic dominions of Russia, and the voyages of Behring, Cook, 
and La Perouse. 

The population is by all authors allowed to be wholly primitive and 
original ; if we except the Techuks or Tchuktchi, who "by the Russiazi 
travellers and Mr Tooke are supposed to have passed from the opposite 
coast of America. A few colonies have emigrated from Russia to the 
northern parts, as far as the sea of Kamtschatka ; and there are well-known 

* The Ob or Oby. Yenisei, and Lena, flow N. through Siberia into the 
Northern Ocean; the Amur or Sagalien flows E. through Chinese Tar-> 
tary into the Gulf of Tartary; the Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-kiang, from 
Til>et, flow E. throngh China into the Pacific Ocean; the Irrawady and 
Brahmapootra flow S. into the Bay of Bengal ; the Ganges and Indus 
flow S. tnrough Hindostan,— the Ganges into the Bay of Bengal, and the 
Jndns into the Indian Ocean; the Euphrates and Tigris flow S. through 
Turkey in Asia, and unite before flailing into the Persian Gulf. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


European settlements ;n Hindostan and the isles to the S. E.— The thriy- 
in^ colonies in Australasia promise eventually to cover those vast redone 
with a population speaking the language and practising the arts of Great 

The religions are various, and will be noticed in the accounts of the 
several countries. The climate als(^ offers every conceivable variety. The 
Asiatic governments are almost umversally despotic, and the very idea of 
a commonwealth seems unknown. 


Boundaries. — N. The Sea of Marmora and the 
Black Sea; E. Russia and Persia; S. Arabia; W. 
Mediterranean and the Archipelago. 

Divisions. — 1. Asia Minor, comprehending Anatolia, 
(a), Caramania, and Roum ; 2. Syria (6) including Pales- 
tine or the Holy Land ; 3. Algezira ; 4. Irak Arabi (c) ; 
5. Kurdistan ; 6. Armenia or Turcomania. 

Towns. — 1. Smyrna, Aiosoluc (Ephesm), Magnisa 
(Magnesia), Bursa, Angora, Tokat, Amasia, Konieh ; 
2. Aleppo, Antioch, Damascus, Tripoli, Beyrout, Si- 
don or Saide, Tyre or Sur, Baalbec {Heliopolis), Pal- 
myra or Tadmor {in ruins), Jerusalem, Acre or Ptole- 
mais, JaflEa (Joppa), Jericho; 3. Diarbekir, Mosul (Nin- 
eveh) (d), Anah ; 4. Bagdad (e), Bassora (/), Hillah 
(Babylon) (g) ; 5; Betlis, Van, Erbil (Arbela) (h) ; 6. 
Erzeroum, Kars, Trebisonde. 

Mountains. — Taurus, Olympus, Ida, Mount Le- 
banon, Ararat (i). 

Lares. — Ulubad, in 1 ; Sea of Galilee (k), and the 
Dead Sea (/), in 2 ; Van, in 5. 

Rivers. — Kisil-Irmak (Halys), Sakaria (Sangarius)y 
Sarabat (Hermus), Meinder (Meander), Xanthus, 
Orontes, Jordan, Euphrates, Tigris (m).* 

* The Kml'Irmak and Sakaria flow N. throu/^h Anatolia into the 
Black Sea, the Sarabat, Meinder, and Xanihtu flow W. through AnatoUa 


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Additional Towns. — 1. Isniky Sinuby Bergamo, Vourla, 
Akhissar, Tarsotts, Ayas. 

(a) In Asia Minor were the soTen churches of Asia, mentioned in the 
book of Revelation; yiz. Pergamus, Laodicea, Philadelphia, Thyatira, 
Sardis, Ephesus, and Smyrna ; but these places, except Smyrna, are 

mostly in ruins. ib) In Syria were Palestine or the Holy Land, Phce- 

nicia, &c. (c) Irak Arabi, formerly called Chaldea and Pcuianaram. 

(rf) Nineveh, built by Ninns, is said to have been 60 miles in circum- 
ference. The walls were 100 feet high, and so broad that three chariots 
could go on them abreast. They were defended by 1500 towers, 200 feet 

high. (e) This celebrated city, founded a. d. 763, continued to be the 

capital of the Saracen empire and the principal seat of learning, till the 
thirteenth century, when it was taken and sacked by Hulaku, grand- 
son of Gengis Khan. It has since been mostly in the hands of the Turks, 

and is still a place of some consequence, though greatly decayed. 

if) Basra, or Bassora, is of great commercial consequence, frequented by 
numerous vessels from Europe and Asia, and the residence of a British 
consul. Here the various products of Europe and India are exchanged 
for those of Persia; and opulent caravans proceed to the chief cities of 
Asiatic Turkey, to all which it is the most central port of the oriental 

trade. ig) "Near Hillah are the remains of Babylon, the most ancient 

city in the world; built hyBelits (who is supposed to have been the Nim- 
rod of Scripture), in the form of a square, eacn side of which was 15 miles. 
The walls were of great height and thickness. There were ,100 gates, 
25 on each side, all of solid brass, from which ran streets, intersecting one 
another, and dividing the city into squares. The Euphrates flowed 
through the middle of the city. Here also are the supposed remains of 
Nimrod's tower, or the tower qf Babel, exceeding 200 feet in height. The 
materials of which these remains consist are large unbumt bricks, now 
as hard as stone: at the distance of every four feet are layers of reeds, 

four inches thick, as sound as when they were inserted. (A) Near 

Arbela, a decisive battle was fought between Alexander and Darius. 

(«) On Mount Ararat, Noah's ark is supposed to have rested after the ' 

flood ijc) The Sea of Galilee is also called the Sea of Tiberias or the 

Lake of Gennesareth. (/) I'he Dead Sea is also called Lake Asphal- 

tites, or the Sea of Sodom and Gomorrah. (m) The Tigris, called in 

Scripture HiddekeL 

I. Historical Geography of Turkey in Asia, 

1st, Extent.— This region extends from the ^gean Sea or Archipelago 
to the confines of Persia,— a space of about 1000 miles. From the 
Black Sea to the borders of Arabia, may be about 760 miles. The 
Turkish empire in Asia is estimated at 450,000 square miles, and the 
population at 10 millions. 

2d, Chbonoloot.— The progressive geography of this country may be 
traced from the remotest antiquity to modem times ; but Turkish bar- 
barism has prevented the precision of recent knowledge from adding com- 
plete illustration to the geography of this part of Asia. The Tnrics, so 
early as 1037, had seized upon Armenia, and by degrees possessed them- 
selves of the whole of Asiatic Turkey. Upon the aeclension of the call- 

into the Archipelago; the Euphrates nsoB near Mount Ararat, the Tigris 
in the N. of Algezira, the Orontes, in Syria N. from Damascus, the Jordan 
from the mountains of Lebanon. 


by Google 


phate or empire of the Saracens, they made themselves masters of Pales- 
tine; and by their cruel treatment of the Christian inhabitants and pilgrims 
who came to visit the holy city of Jerusalem, gave, rise to the Crusades 
(about the end of the twelfth century), in which most of the Christian 

Sjwers were engaged.— Syria was conquered by Selim II. in 1516; 
iarbekir, which nad formerly belonged to Persia, was subdued by the 
same monarch ; and in 1589, AbbaSy the great sovereign of Persia, was 
obliged to yield three provinces to the Ottmnans ; and Bagdad, with the 
surrounding district of Irak Arabi, became subject to the Turks in 1658. 
The present limits seem to have been fixed by the treaty between the Porte 
and Persia, 1736 ; after which period the Turks were long occupied 
in their own defence against the Russians. These provinces are sub- 
divided into governments, arbitrarily administered by pashas. 

3d, Antiquities. — Numerous and important are the antiquities of 
Asiatic Turkey, once the seat of religion and the arts. Palestine has long 
been the resort of pilgrims and visiters from Europe, and contains many 
interesting remains of places mentioned in Scripture. The mosque of 
Omar at Jerusalem now occupies the site of the temple of Solomon. The 
most splendid ruins are those of Palmyra^ or Tadmor, in the desert. The 
striking relic of Baalbec, the ancient HeliopoliSf is a temple, supposed 
to have been dedicated to the sun. Modern investigation nas disclosed 
another remarkable scene of antiquity, the site and celebrated plain of 
Troy^ towards the mouth of the Hellespont. The tombs of the ancient 
Greeks having been constructed like the large barrows of our ancestors, 
in the lasting form of small hills, they withstood the assaults of time or 
avarice; and travellers indicate, with some plausibility, those of Achilles 
and Pairocltis on the shore, and of some other Homeric heroes. 

II. Political Geography. 

Many of the topics assigned to this chapter have been already treated 
in the description of Turkey in Europe. — Like the European part of the 
empire, Asiatic Turkey is divided into governments or eyalets, which are 
twenty in number. The pashas or viceroys possess absolute power within 
their own dominions, and may even declare war or conclude peace so long 
as they can secure the favour of the sultan or set him at denance. The 
eyalets are again subdivided into the smaller departments called sanjaks 
and livas ; but many of these are independent of the pasha within whose 
territory they are geographically situated. Numerous pastoral and moun- 
tain tribes, and in fact large tracts of country, are only tributary, and some 
are quite independent. — ^No country presents a greater number or di- 
versity of religious creeds. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— In general the most striking feature of 
manners and customs in the Turkish empire is, that half the people may 
be considered as somewhat civilized, wnile the other half are pastoral 
wanderers, ranging over extensive wastes. The settled Turkish popula- 
tion closely resemble the same class in Europe ; but the number oi dis- 
tinct races and tribes renders any general description impossible. 

2d, Language.- At present the ruling language is the Turkishy next to 
which may be placed the modem Greek ; but the Arabicy Syriarty Persiemy 
and Armeniany vnth various dialects used by the tribes on the Black Sea, 
indicate the diversity of the population. 


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3cL Manufactures and CoMMEBCE.—The chief manufactures are those 
of silk, cotton^ and soap, at Aleppo and Damascus. The sabres of the latter 
place still maintain some portion of their former celebrity; and it has also 
manufactures of jewellery, cabinet-work, and horse-furniture. The trade 
of Angora is chiefly in fine camlets and shawls made of the silky hair of a 
particular breed of goats, which occurs in no other country. Silk and 
leather are manufactures of Tokat ; but the principal is that of copper 
utensils, which are sent to Constantinople, and even to Egypt. The inter- 
nal commerce is the most considerable, and is conducted By means of cara- 
vans. The excellent Turkey carpets, with raw sUk, cotton, wool, opium, 
rhubarb, dried fruits, &c., may be regarded as the chief articles of export. 

IV, Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate and Season^. — Tbe climate of Asia Minor has always been 
considered as excellent. There is a peculiar softness and serenity in the 
air, not perceptible on the European side of the Archipelago. The heat 
of the summer is considerably tempered by the numerous chains of high 
mountains, some of which are said to be covered with perpetual snow. 

2d, Face of the Country.— The general appearance of Asiatic Turkey 
may be regarded as mountainous ; but intermingled with large and 
beautiful plains, which, instead of being covered witn rich crops of grain, 
are pastured by the numerous flocks and herds of the Turcomans. The 
soil, as may be expected, is extremely various; but that of Asia Minor is 
chiefly a deep clay; and wheat, barley, and durra,form the chief products. 
Here excellent grapes and olives abound; and the southern provinces are 
fertile in dates. Throughout the whole region agriculture is in the most 
deplorable condition. 

3d, Forests, &c The numerous mountains are often clothed with 

immense woods of nines, oaks, beeches, elms, and other trees. The 
southern shores of tne Bhbck Sea also present many gloomy forests of 
great extent. Among the trees may be distinguished tne olive, abound- 
ing throughout the whole Archipelago and the shores of the Levant; the 
weeping willow, with its graceful and slender pendant branches^ has 
adorned the banks of the Euphrates from time immemorial; ot the 
cypress, and the cedar, a few large trees still remain on Mount Lebanon, 
the venerable relics of its sacred forests. 

4th, Animals.— The best.horses are of Arabian extraction ; mules and 
asses are in more general use; but the camel is the chief beast of burden 
throughout the greater j^art of Asiatic Turkey. In this country appears 
that king of ferocious animals, the lion, which is unknown to anv region of 
Europe, or even to Asiatic Russia : yet he rarely roams to tne west of. 
the Euphrates. The hyaena and the wild-boar are well known in Asia 
Minor, together with troops of jackals, which raise dreadful cries in the 
night. The cities and villages swarm with dogs, which are allowed to 
wander as a constant defence against strangers or enemies. The singular 
goats of Angora have been already mentioned. The common antelope is 
also an inhabitant, with numerous hares and deer. 

5th, Minerals. — Ancient Lydia was famous for the production of 
gold ; bat in modem times no mines seem to be worked, except those of 
• copper, which supply Tokat ; lead and copper ore^ with rock-crystals, 
exist in the island of Cyprus. The most noted medicmal waters are those 
of Bursa, at the foot of Mount Olympus. The baths are splendid, and 
paved with marble, with two reservoirs or rather cisterns, one for the men,^ 
another for the women. The water smokes continually, and is so hot as 
to scald the hand ; but in the baths it is mixed vrith cold water from the 
numerous streams of Olympus. Th^re are many other hot springs iiv. 
different quarters of Anatolia. 

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Remarks an some of the Islands of Asiatic Turkey. 

The Genoese possessed the beautiful isle of Scio (the andient C%t<»> 
240 ye&rs, but lost it in 1566. Near to it on the Asiatic shore, the Turkish 
fleet was destroyed by the Hessians in 1770. The inhabitants of Sdo, 
amounting to 50,000, were nearly all massacred or sold into slayery by 
the Turks in 1823, on a suspicion of their having taken part in the Greek 
insurrection. Rhodes, which contains a population of about 30,000, was 
for two centuries in tne possession of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, 
thence styled of Rhodes, till 1528, when it was taken by the Turks ; and 
the emperor Charles Y. assigned to the knights the island of Malta. — 
Cyprus was long possessed by the Ptoletnies of Egypt, till it fell under 
the Roman power ; it remained a portion of the Byzantine empire, and 
afterwards it was usurped by a Greek prince, who was expelled by 
Richard I. of England. This monarch bestowea the kingdom of Cyprus 
on the house of Lusignan, as a compensation for the loss of the throne of 
Jerusalem. In the fifteenth century the heiress resigned her title to 
the Venetians; but in 1570, the island was seized by the Turks. To 
their disgrace, its population is computed at only 60,000 ! Cyprus is 
pervaded by a chain of hills, among which is a third Olympus, a name 
that seems to have been general for a mountain of great heignt. 


^ I. Asia Minor, 

AsTA Minor, now Anatolia, Roum, and Caramania, comprises the 
countries between the Euxine and the Mediterranean Seas, forming the 
great western peninsula of Asia, and extending eastward to Armenia and 
the Euphrates. It was divided into— 1. Bitnynia, 2. Paphlagonia, 3. 
Galatia, 4. Pontus, 5. Mysia, 6. Lydia (anciently MoBonia, containing 
^olis and Ionia), 7. Caria, 8. Lycia, 9. Pamphylia with Pisidia, 10. Isauria, 
11. Cilicia, 12. Phryda, and, 13. Cappadocia. 

Towns, &c.->-]. Prusa inow Bursa), whence the Bithynian kings 
were called Prusias; Nicsea or Nice (Isnik)^ -where Constantino's covn- 
cil formed the Nicene creed (a) :— 2. Sinope iSinuby, the birthplace of 
Diogenes the cynic, b. c. 414 :— 3. Gordium ion the confines of Phrygia, 

(a) The first general council was held at Nice, a. d. 325. — (6) It was 
an ancient tradition, that the person who could untie the Gordian knot 

should possess the empire of Asia. (c) The account of this victory at 

Zela was transmitted to the senate in these words : — " Veni, vidi, vid ;" 

*' I came, I sawj conquered." id) Pergamus, the birthplace of Galen 

the physician. The church of Pergamus is mentioned in the Revelation 

of St John. ie) To the inhabitants of Ephesus St Paul addressed the 

epistle which bears their name. (/) «Sar^i« was one of the churches 

mentioned in the Apocalypse. ig) Philadelphia, another of the churches 

spoken of in that book. ih) Sardanapalus, a famous king of Assyria, 

who is supposed to have been the same with Pul, mentioned in the Scrip- 
ture, being Desieged by Arbaces and Belesis, burned himself and his palace 

in Nineveh, b. c. 820. (t) Tarsus was a celebrated seat of learning. 

Here Cleopatra paid her grand visit to Antony. 


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ASIA MINOR. , 143 

near the source of the river Sakaria or Sanfjarius)^ where Alexander the 
Great cut the Oordian knot (6) :— 4. Amasia (Amasieh), the birthplace of 
Mithridates, and of Strabo the geographer ; Zela (S. of AmatieK), where 
Caesar (c) defeated Pharnaces, son of Mithridates; Trapezns (Trebisonde), 
the first colony that received the Ten Thousand Greeks in the retreat under 
Xenophon ; east from the riyer Kisil- Irmak were the plaihs of Themiscyra, 
the residence of the Amazons :—&. Troy or Ilium {rtear the mouth of the 
Helfespont), immortalized by Homer ; Abydos (iV. of Trov), famed for 
the lores of Hero and Leander : Pergamus {Bergamo) (d)^ the capital of a 
kingdom enlarged by the Romans in fayonr of f!umenes : the river Grani- 
cns iOnsvola), which flows through Mysia Minor into the Sea of Marmora, 
was the place where Alexander first defeated the Persians, and where 
Lucullus destroyed the army of Mithridates :— 6. Smyrna (Ismir), one of 
the reputed birthplaces of Homer : ClazomensD ( Vourla), the birthplace of 
Anaxagoras : Teos {S. of Vourla), the birthplace of Anacreon : Ephesus 
(e) (Aiosoluc); its temple to Diana was one of the wonders of the world : 
Thyatira iAiehissar)^ a Persian city, mentioned in the second chapter of 
Revelation : Sardis {f)iE. of Smyrna), the capital of Lydia, and residence 
of Crcesus : Philadelphia {g) iE. if Sardis), swallowed up,' with Sardis and 
ten other cities, by an earthquake, a. d. 17 :— 7. Miletus (-S*. of Ephesus), 
an Ionian city ; the birthplace of Thales, and of other great men : Halicar- 
nassus (S. of Miletus), a Grecian colony ; the birthplace of Herodotus, He- 
raclitus, Dionysius Halicamassensis, and other great men:— 11. Anchiale 
iS. W. of Tarsous), where wafl the sepulchre of Sardanapalus (A): Tarsus 
(t) iTarsous), the birthplace of St Paul : Issus iE.ofApas), where Alexander 
defeated Darius. By bathing in the river Cydnus, which fklls into the sea 
below Tarsous, Alexander nearly lost his life. 

Bithynia was an independent sovereignty till the time of Croesus, king of 
Lydia, who conquered Prusias, monarch of this country, about 560 years 
before the Christian era. After this, it underwent all the revolutions of the 
Lvdian and Persian empire, till after the death of Alexander the Great, 
when it became the source of many contests among his generals; but An- 
tigonus being killed at the battle of Ipsus, it was at length allotted to Ly- 
simachus, governor of Thrace, in whose dominion it remained till Seleucus 
endeavoured to wrest it from him. The inhabitants, taking advantage of 
this contest, assumed independence, and raised Nicomedes to the throne. 
The greatest of his descendants was Prusias, the ally of the Romans 
against Antiochus the Great. At the instigation of Hannibal, Prusias II. 
attacked Eumenes king of Pergamus, ally of the Romans; but when peace 
was restored, the Carthaginian general, hearing that the senate had sent to 
demand him, poisoned himseln 182 b. c. Nicomedes III., grandson of 
Prusias, died without issue, and bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, 
who, after some dispute with Mithridates, king of Pontus, reduced Bithy- 
nia to the form of a province, b. c. 70.— This country remained subject to 
the Roman and Eastern empire, till it was invaded and conquered by 
the Seljukian Turks, a. d. 1074. 

Pontus was anciently dependent on the kings of Media and Persia, till 
Darius erected it into a separate kingdom, or satrapy, in favour of his 
son Artabazus (b. c. 486) : and in this state it continued till the reign 
of Mithridates II. who submitted to Alexander the Great. On the death 
of that illustrious warrior, the government of this country was allotted to 
Eumenes; but it was long the subject of contention among the other gen- 
erals. Mithridates, taking advantage of these disputes, recovered his lung- 
dom, and transmitted it to his posterity. His son Mithridates III. is said 
to have added all Cappadocia and Paphlagonia to his dominions; but after 
this we read of nothing remarkable in the history of Pontus, till the reign 
of Phamaces, who haamany contests with the Pergameans, Cappadocians, 
and Romans. Mithridates, sumamed the Great^spired to the sovereignty 
of all Asia (b. g. 112); and began by invading Paphlagonia, Galatia, and 
Cappadocia. This excited the jealousy of the Romans, and producea one 

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of their most serious foreign wars: Mithridates was at first successful; and 
haying driyen out the invaders, overran the whole of Asia Minor, and 
caused all the Romans in Asia, to the number of 150,000, to be massacrod. 
He next invaded Athens, Macedon, and Thrace, and was preparing for a 
descent on Italy, when Sylla was despatched into Attica to stop his pro- 
gress. The Romans took Athens, ana, after several signal victories, com- 
nelled Mithridates to sue for peace (b. c. 84). The second and third 
Mithridatic wars soon followed ; and the king remained, under every 
reverse of fortune, a determined enemy to Rome till the day of his death. 
Pontus was, at his decease, made a province of the Roman empire (b. c. 
63). Mark Antony divided it into two i)artSj one of which he gave to 
Darius the son of Phamaces, for his services m the civil wars ; and the 
other to Polemon (b. c. 41), on whom he afterwards bestowed Armenia 
Minor and Cilicia. Polemon succeeded to the whole, and extended his 
dominions by the conquest of Bosporus, Georgia, and other neighbouring 
countries. The Emperor Nero afterwards reduced this country to a pro- 
vince^ and bestowed on Polemon II. the title of Kin^ of Cilicia. Pontus 
remained in subjection to the Greek empire till the taking of Constantinople 
by the Franks, a. d. 1204. 

In the revolutions of Asia Minor, Mysia, Lydia, and Carta, have gener- 
ally shared the same fate; subject, however, to some occasional deviations, 
wmch it is not here necessary to particularize. It is probable that the 
country was formerly divided into several kingdoms, one of the most 
celebrated of which was Troy. But they were all united under one gov- 
ernment, about 560 years b. c, by Croesus, king of Lydia, who extended 
his conquests to the' river Halys, with the exception of the two countries, 
Lycia and Cilicia. Croesus having provoked tne hostility of the Modes, 
Cyrus with a large army entered Asia Minor, and abolisned the Lydian 
monarchy (b. c. 546). On the death of Alexander the Great, these terri- 
tories were allotted to Lysimachus, in whose possession they remained 
till Philsetinus seized the town and castle of Pergamus, which he left to 
his brother £umenes. This latter prince was succeeded bv Attains, who 
was the first that took the title of King of Pergamus, ana distinguished 
himself, on behalf of his allies, in the second Macedonian vrar. liis son, 
Eumenes II., raised the country to great eminence. He was the firm 
ally of the Romans, who rewarded him with Lydia, Mysia, Phrygia, 
Lycaonia, and the Thracian Chersonese : provinces which had been 
ceded by Antiochus king of Syria. Attains III., the son of Eumenes, be- 
queathed his kingdom at his death to the Roman state; but as the com- 
motions of the Gracchi then raged in Italy, Aristonicus, the next heir to 
Attains, seized the opportunity of opposing the arrangement, and obtained 
possession of the monarchy. He was, however, afterwards defeated by 
Perpenna, and sent in chains to Rome. The country, thus reduced to the 
form of a Roman province, underwent all the revolutions of the empire, 
and was, at the close of the eleventh century of the Christian era, seizea 
by the Seljukian Turks. 

Lycia, with Cilicia and other territories on the south coast of Asia Mi- 
nor, was anciently governed by native kings: of whom, however, nothing 
is known till thd time of their voluntary submission to Cvrus, b. c. 548. 
They were probably still governed by their ovni princes, till their country 
formed a Persian satrapy under Artaxerxes Mnemon. On Alexander's 
invasion, these states became subject to Macedon; and at his dealJ^ were 
successively obtained by his generals, Philotis, Philoxenus, Plestarchus, 
Demetrius, and Seleucus. Antiochus Soter. the son of Seleucus, was de- 

5 rived of tnese territories by Ptolemy Philadelphus, in the hands of whose 
escendants they remained till they were conquered by Pompey, b. c. 64. 
The country continued to be a part of the Roman and Eastern empire till 
the time of the Saracen invasion and conquest, a. d. 652. 

From the earliest periods, Phrygia was governed by its own kings ; but on 
the death of Adrastus (b. c. 635), the royal family became extinct, and the 

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ARMENIA, Ac 145 

eountry formed a proymce of the Lydian monarehy under Ctqbsus. After 
the death of Alexander the Great, it was allotted to Lysimachus, in whose 
possession it remained till seized by Seleucas (b. c. 281). By Antiochus 
the Great it was ceded to the Romans, who bestowed it on Eumenes II., 
kins of Pergamns. In the year 159 before the Christian era, it was 
made a Roman province ; and thus it remained, till Soliman, the son of 
Catalmish, invaded Asia Minor, and founded the dynasty of the Seljuks 
o/Roum* A. D. 1074. 

The early history of Cappadocia is unknown; but it was probably sub- 
ject to Persia, for Cyrus tne Great presented it to Phamaces, who became 
its first king or satrap, b. c. 534. Having submitted to the Tictorious 
Alexander, it shared the fate of Pontus, tillAriarathes III. recovered his 
paternal kmgdom. From the time of his great-grandson, Ariarathes Y., 
nis successors were faithful allies of the Romans, which involved them in 
manv contests vnth the kings of Pontus and Armenia. Archelaus, the 
last king of this country, having assisted the Roman praetors in clearing 
the sea of pirates, was rewarded by Augustus with Armenia Minor and 
Cilicia Trachaea; but on the death of Archelaus, Cappadocia was reduced 
to the form of a Roman province, a. d. 18. It afterwards underwent all 
the revolutions of the Greek empire in Asia. 

II. Armenia^ with Coldiis, Iberiay and Albania. 

Colchis lies £. from the Black Sea ; Albania^ W. from the Caspian 
Sea; Iberia is situated between them. Armenia is S. from Colchisf and 
Ibena, and N. from Mesopotamia and Assyria.— Armenia and Colchis 
now belong partly to Russia and partly to Turkey ; Iberia and Albania 
are wholly included within the Russian boundary. 

Armenia is said to have been, in very early times, a kingdom ; but it 
was afterwards tributary to the Modes, and on the fall of the Persian mon- 
archy was subject to the Macedonians. After the battle of Ipsus, it was 
possessed by the SeleucidsB, who retained it till the time of Antiochus the 
Great. That prince having appointed two prefects, Zadriades and A rtaxia s, 
to govern Armenia, they excited a revolt, and were proclaimed kings of 
their respective provinces, b. c. 223. Extending their conquests, they in- 
troduced the division of Armenia into Major and Minor,— a distinction 
which remains to the present day. We hear nothing more of this country 
till Tigranes II. (b. c. 95) yielded a considerable part of his kingdom as a 
ransom to the Parthians. This monarch was afterwards invited to accept 
the crown of Syria; and he further enlarged his dominions by the conquest 
of Armenia Minor. Mesopotamia, Assyria, Phoenicia, and the neighbour- 
ing provinces; ana thus became master of all the western coasts of Asia, 
from the Caspian Sea to the confines of Egypt. In the Mithridatic war, 
he assisted his father-in-law, the king of rontus, against the Roman 
power: and thus involved himself in hostilities, which finally obliged him 
to yield all his conquests, and confine himself to his paternal kingdom 
(b. c. 37). From this period the kings of Armenia were vassals to the 
Romans ; and in the year 652 of the Christian era, it was subjected to 
the Saracens. 

The Cokhians were of Egyptian origin ; and were, in the earliest ages, 
gOTemed by their own princes, of whom, however, history has recorded 

* So called, because the territories which he had seized were taken from 
the Romans. 

f This was the scene of the Argonautic expedition, and of the fable of 
the i^olden fleece. 


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146 ARMENIA, &c. 

T617 little. Colchis was subdued by Mithridates the Great, but rerolted 
from him while his forces were employed a^inst the Romans. Aristar- 
chus, for his serrices in the Mithridatic war, was rewarded with the king- 
dom by Pompey. Phamaces II., kin^ of Pontus, seized it, while Csesar 
was detained in Egypt by Cleopatra ; but the new monarch was obliged 
to resign his conquest, and was killed by Asander, in the country of the 
Bosporani. From this time we hear nothing respecting Colchis, till it 
voluntarily submitted to Trajan, and became subject to Rome, without 
being reduced to the form of a province. 

Iberia was first peopled, according to Josephus, hj Tubal, the brother 
of Gromer and Ma^og. The Iberians were a warlike and hardy race, 
who preserved their independence against the utmost efforts of the 
Medes, Persians, and Macedonians. The mountaineers were a sava^ 
race, like the Scvthians. Their sovereign Artoces, in the Mithridatic 
wars, drew up a large army to attack the Romans by surprise ; but he 
was afterwards obliged to sue for peace ; and from this period the kings 
remained sulnect to Rome.— Among the Iberians the priests had the 
direction of all judicial proceedings. 

Albania was at first governed by several kings ; and Strabo tells us, that 
not fewer than twenty-six languages were spoken in this country ; but the 
Albani eventually prevailing over the other petty tribes, obtained the en- 
^ tire sovereignty. The first of their monarchs particularly mentioned in 
history is the one who presented a large dog to Alexander the Great. The 
next of whom we read is OrsBses, who, entering into alliance against the 
Romans, was slain by Pompey. The Albani continued to be governed 
by their own princes till the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian II., 
who is said to have subdued the country by his general Leontius. 

III. Syria, with Pakestina and Mesopotamia, 

Syria, considered as including the coasts of Phoenicia and Palaestina, 
extends from the Mediterranean eastward to the Euphrates. Phoenicia 
consisted of the western coast of Syria, with the exception of the northern 
district. Pal^stina, Palestine, or the Holy Land,* was bounded on the 
N. by Phoenicia and Coele-Syria ; on the E. bv Arabia Deserta ; on the S. 
by Arabia Petrsea ; and on the W. hj the Mediterranean, which, in the 
Bible, is called the Great Sea. Palestine comprised the countries of Jndea, 
Samaria, Galilee, and Peraea. Mesopotamia lies between the Euphrates, 
which divides it from Syria on the W., and the Tigris, which separates 
it from Assyria on the E.— The whole are included witnin the territories 
of Turkey. 

Towns, &c. in Stria.— Antiochia or Antioch (a) {now Antakia), where 

* So called, because it was the promised inheritance of Abraham's pos- 
terity, and the scene of our Saviour's incarnation. 

(a) Antioch was built by Selencus Nicator, one of Alexander's greatest 
generals, and father of the Seleucidse. He named Antioch after his father 

Antiochus. (6) Hence Antioch was afterwards called Theopolis,or the 

Divine City, Below it was the delightful grove with its fountains, called 
Daphne, now Beit el Moie. It was celebrated for the worship of Venus, 

(r) Zenobia^ queen of Palmyra, was taken in battle by the emperor 

Anrelian, and was carried captive to- Italy, a. d. 273. The celebrated 

Langintu was her secretary. id) Jerusatem is thought to be the Salem 

of Melchisedek. It was built on several hills, of which the southern one. 
Mount Sum, was the largest. A valley towards the N . separated this from 

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the disciplea of oar Saviour were first called ChrUHans (b) : Helio- 
polis iBaciWec), where are the ruins of a ma^ificeut temple of the sun : 
Palmyra or Tadmor (c), said to have been founded by Solomon: the Syrian 
mountains were Taurus, Amanus, Libanus, Antilibanus, and the lofty 
Casius. In Phoenicia was the town of Sarepta {between Tyre and Sidon), 
where the prophet Elijah wrought his miracles.— In Palestine are — 
Hierosolyma id) or Jebus (e) iJerusalem) : Bethlehem (a little S. of 
Jerusalem), the birthplace of Jesus Christ : !^mmaus {N. W, of Jerusalem), 
on the road to which our Saviour appeared to his disciples after his. 
resurrection : Hierichus or Jericho {Jericho) : Joppa {Jaffa), where 
Andromeda is said to have been chained to a rock that she might be 
devoured by sea-monsters : Accho, afterwards Ptolemais (/) {Acre), fa- 
mous for the exploits of our King Richard I. and Bonaparte's defeat by 
Sir Sidney Smitn. The most celebrated Jewish mountains were, Mount 
Hermon, which was the northern boundary of Palestine, dividing it from 
Ccele-Syria ; Mount Carmel, famed as the retreat of the prophet Elijah ; 
Mount GUboa, where Saul and Jonathan were slain ; Mount Tabor, 
where Christ was transfigured ; Mount Abarim, from one point of which, 
called Pisgah, the Almighty showed Moses the Land of Promise, and on 
another part of it, called Nebo, that prophet died ; Mount Sion, on which 
the city of David and the temple were built ; Mount (Jalvary, where 
Christ was crucified ; Mount Olitei, where he prayed at night, and was 
strengthened by an angel ; Mount Gerizim, where, in preference to 
Jerusalem, the Samaritans worshipped ; and the Hill of Bashan, which 
was the boundary of King Og's possessions in Judea. Below Anatho 
{Anah), on the Euphrates, was the celebrated plain of Cunaxa, where the 
younger Cyrus was slain by Artaxerxes. 

Syria, was originally divided into several small states, the chief of which 
were Zobah, Damascus, Hamath, and Geshur. We know little of Zobah 
till the defeat of its ambitious monarch, Hadadezer, by David king of 
Israel. On the ruins of the kingdom of Zobah arose that of Damascus, 
which eventually acquired the sovereignty of all Syria. Benhadad II. in 
a war against Israel, besieged Samaria, but was repulsed bv king Ahab, 
under the instructions of a prophet. The next year, Benhadad, renewing 
the ¥rar, lost 100,000 men, and was obliged to sue for peace. He again 
besieged Samaria, which was reduced to great extremities ; but his army 
bein^ seized with a panic, precipitately flod. This prince was murdered 
by his captain Hazael, wno had been anointed king by Elijah, and after- 
wards besieged and plundered Jerusalem. The last sovereign of the ancient 
Syrians was Rezin, who leagued with the king of Israel against Ahaz king 
of Judah. They carried away ^eat spoils to Damascus ; but Ahaz pro- 
enring assistance from Tiglath-Pileser, monarch of Assyria, Damascus 
was taken, its inhabitants carried into captivity, and the Syrian monarchy 
abolished, b. c. 740. 

This country then underwent all the revolutions of the Assyrian empire, 
till the death of Alexander the Great, when, after the decisive battle of 
Issus, the dominion was assumed by Seleucus^ governor of Babylon, and 
the court was removed from Babylon to Antioch, the new capital, b. c. 
800. Seleucus, now master of all the Greek provinces from the Indus to 
the Euphrates, styled himself King of Syria ; but he was, about twenty 
yean alter, murdered by Ptolemy Ceraiinus. His successors lost many 

Acra, the second or lower eity, E. of which was Solomon's temple on 
Mount Moriah. N. E. of Moriah was the Mount of Olives, beyond the 
brook and valley of Kidron, which was the E. border of Jerusalem. On 
the S. was the valley of Hinnom, and on the N. was Mount Calvary, 

on which our Satfiaur was crucified. {e) Jerusalem was called Jebus, 

from Uie Jebuaites, a Canaanitish people, from whom David took it. 

(/) Accho was called Ptolemais, from the Ptolemies, kings of Egypt. 

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Erovinces in wars with the Egyptians : but Antioohus the Great, assisted 
y Philip king of Macedon, invaded tne provinces of Egypt during the 
infancy of the son of Ptolemy Philopater, and conquered Phcenicia and 
Palestine. Having reduced some Roman provinces in Asia Minor, and 
given protection to the famous Hannibal, he so provoked the resentment 
of Rome, that, after a series of conflicts, he was obliged to cede many of 
his most valuable dominions. His son, Antiochus Epiphanes, endeavoured 
to introduce among all his subjects the religion of the Greeks, which mea- 
sure the Jews violently opposed. He then invaded Judea, profaned the 
holv temple, and dedicated it to Jupiter Olympius. The bloody wars 
which ensued terminated in the emancipation of tne Jews, by their famous 
leader, Judas Maccabeeus. In the next two centuries, the descendants of 
Seleucus were engaged in continual wars, till at length the civil commo- 
tions which were excited by their turbulent ambition,induced their subjects 
to exclude them, and to place on the throne Tigranes, monarch of Arme- 
nia, B. c. 83. Tigranes, oeing conquered by Lucullus the Roman general, 
Antiochus Asiaticus was partially restored. In the time of Pompey, Syria 
became a Roman province, and thus remained till the middle of the seventh 
century, when it was reduced by the Saracens. 

Of the petty kingdoms of Phoenicia, Tyre and Sidon were the most re- 
nowned. The Phoenicians long resisted the powerful arms of the Assyrian 
and Babylouian monarchs ; and the siege of Tyre (b. c. 585) is one of the 
most memorable recorded in history. For thirteen years the inhabitants 
defied the whole force of Nebuchadnezzar, and though he was at len^h 
victorious, he acquired nothing but an empty city. ' The country having 
been tributary seventy years to Babylon and Persia, recovered for a short 
time its liberty, agreeably to the predictions of Isaiah.* — When Alexander 
the Great invaded Syria, he conquered the Tyrians after much op|>osition. 
After his death, Phoenicia fell under the dominion of the Ptolemies, till, 
being seized by Antiochus the Great, it underwent all the revolutions of 
the Syrian kingdom. 

Palestine, originally inhabited by many small tribes, was given to the 
Israelites, in fumlment of the promise which God had made to Abraham 
and the other patriarchs. The early history of the Jews is to be found only 
in the Bible. They began to be a nation on their leaving Egypt under 
Moses ; and, after wandering forty years in the deserts of Arabia, they 
were settled in Canaan, through the successful valour of Joshua and Caleb, 
aided by the miraculous guidance of the Almighty. On the death of 

Joshua, the Israelites were governed by elders and by judges for 330 years, 
which period was marked by alternations of tranquillity and warfare, as 
may be seen in the sacred books of Joshua and Judges. While Samuel 
was judge, the Israelites, contrary to the command of God, insisted on hav- 
ing, like other nations, a king to govern them. Saul was therefore anoint- 
ed, and was victorious over the Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and the 
kings of Amalek and Zobah ; but towards the close of his reign he was 
afflicted with melancholy, b. c. 1067. The Philistines renewing their 
wars vrith the Israelites, their champion, named Goliath, defied the 
enemy, by challenging any individual of their ranks to single combat. 
David, a young shepherd, accepted this challenge, and killed Goliath with 
a stone from a sling : but this neroic act, far from meeting a due reward, 
excited the jealousy of Saul. The history of the persecutions which Davia 
suffered are too well known from Scripture to be detailed here ; they ter- 
minated in his advancement to the throne on the death of his royal foe. 
His reign was illustrious : he rebuilt Jerusalem, and made it the metropolis 
of the kingdom : he was victorious over the surrounding nations, and thus 
raised his country to an enviable state of independence. He converted 
Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea, into a port of entry ; whence he enriched 
his kingdom by a trade to the East. He was, however, harassed by 

* Isaiah, chap, xziii. ver. 15. 

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domestic troubles ; for his son Absalom excited against Jiim a rebellion, 
nvbich was at length happily quelled by Joab, b. c. 1023. 

David was succeeded by nis son Solomon (b. c. 1015), at the com- 
mencement of whose reign the nation was blessed with peace, enriched by 
commerce, and protected by salutary laws. Solomon built the temple 
of Jerusalem, which was erected in eight years. Towards the close of 
his reign, the Edomites revolted and threw off the Jewish yoke ; this, 
with other adverse circumstances, tarnished Solomon's glory; and the 
nation never after regained the pre-eminence which it possessed in the 
early part of his rule. 

On Solomon's death (b. c. 975), the kingdom was divided : Rehoboam, 
his son, was chosen king by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin ; and the 
other tribes chose Jeroboam. The former was henceforth called the 
kingdom of Judah; the latter the kingdom of Israel. After this 
division, the two nations acted according as their interests, prejudices, 
or passions, led them ; sometimes forming against each other foreign alli- 
ances ; sometimes uniting against the common foe: at one period cement- 
ing their interests by intermarriages between the two royal families ; at 
another kindling the flames of dissension and war. The two states pre- 
served their independence amidst continual conflicts ; for though tneir 
enemies sometimes prevailed, it was but for a short 'season: eventually, 
however, they shared the fate of all the small powers in the East. 

Hazael king of Syria invaded Israel, and kept the country in subjection 
^many years ;Vbut Joash, b:f bribery, prevented his attacking Jerusalem. 
Shalmaneser king of Assyria next rendered them tributary, invaded their 
territory, and reduced Samaria, their capital, to a heap of ruins; devasta- 
tion and camajB^e defaced the whole country: King Hosea and i^l his sub- 
jects were earned into captivity ; and the kingdom of Israel ended 254 
years alter its separation from that of Judah. 

After this. Sennacherib, successor to Shalmaneser, turned his arms 
against Judan, besieged Jerusalem, and commanded Hezekiah to surrender 
the city: this was providentially prevented by the destroving angel in 
one night smiting 185,000 men in the Assyrian camp. In the next reign, 
Esarhaddon king of Assyria invaded this country, and carried Manasseh 
captive to Babylon ; but he was released the following year. About 70 
years after, the Egyptians, under Pharaoh Necho, were engaged in a war 
with Nabopolassar, ruler of Babylon. Necho commenced hostilities by 
attacking tne city of Carchemish, where he was opposed by Josiah king 
of Judah, who was slain at the battle of Megiddo, b. c. 608. Necho af- 
terwards went to Jerusalem, and made Eliakim (whose name he changed to 
Jehoiakim) tributaij prince over Judah ; but Nebuchadnezzar, the partner 
vnth Nabopolassar in the Babylonian empire, marched a/^ainst Jerusalem, 
and murdered Jehoiakim, whose body he left unburied m the road. The 
unfortunate monarch was succeeded by his son Jehoiachin, ^i the first year 
of whose reign Nebuchadnezzar once more ravaged the country ; and having 
stripped it both of persons and property, left only the peasants to cultivate 
the land . He now set Mattanian (to whom he gave the name of Zedekiah) 
on the throne, as his tributary; but Zedekiah, forming an alliance against 
the Babylonians, excited the veng^nce of Nebuchaonezzar, who, after a 
long siege, subdued Jerusalem, murdered Zedekiah's children, put out his 
eyes, sent him in chains to Babylon, and burned his city to the ground, 
^us ended the kingdom of Judah, 460 years after its establishment. 

Palestine underwent the revolutions of the Babylonian empire, till it was 
subverted by the Persians. When Cyrus ascended the throne, he permit- 
ted the Jews to return to their country, and rebuild Jerusalem and their 
temple. After this they enjoyed perfect tranquillity, being governed by 
their priests in religious affairs ; and in matters of state by the heads of 
the tnbe of Judah, subordinate however to the Persians. When Alexander 
the Great invaded Asia, this country, in common with the rest, submitted 
to his power ; and, at Ms death, it was seized by Ptolemy, the governor 

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of Egypt. It remained annexed to that state till Antiochus the Great; 
king of Syria, united it to his empire. The conduct of Antiochns Epi* 

Shanes has been mentioned in the historical notice 6f Syria. After nis 
eath many attempts were made against the Jews, but their dominioB 
only gained more strength from these contests. A dispute arising, on the 
death of Alexander Jann^us, between his sons Hyreanus and Aristobulus, 
respecting the succession, the latter called in the Romans, who, though 
they restored H^pcanus to the priesthood, with the specious title of prince, 
rendered him tributary to themselves. Julius Csesar favoured the Jews; 
but at his death they fell into disorder, and abetted the Parthians, the con-* 
stant enemies of Rome.— rThese commotions were not quelled, till, on the 
taking of Jerusalem by the Romans, Herod was made king of Judea ; and 
in his time our blessed Saviour was born ; which event Herod survived 
only a few months. An^stus divided the kingdom among Hood's three 
sons ; but the natives rejecting them, Judea was made a B^man province. 
In the year 66^ a contest arose between the Palestine Jews and the Syrians, 
respecting their right to the city of Csesarea, which was decided bv Nero 
in fEivour of the latter ; on this the Jews flew to arms, and by horrid cruel* 
ties and massacres expelled the Syrians and the Romans, v espasian was 
then sent into Judea with a powerful army, with which he advanced 
towards Jerusalem; and the reduction of that city was effected by his son 
Titus in the following year (a. d. 70). During the siege, the inliabitaats 
were reduced to the most wretched state by ramine, yet they refused to 
capitulate. The city was at last taken by assault, and reduced to ashes $ 
those who survived were massacred or sent into slavery; and an end was 
put to the Jewish nation. Palestine then suffered all the revolutions of 
the Syrian states. The history of Mesopotamia is, in its leading features, 
identified with that of Syria. 

IV, Media, with Babylonia and Assyria. 

Media, now nearly comprehended in the Persian provinces of Azerbijan 
and Irak-Ajemi, is bounded on the N. by the river Araxes and the Caspian 
Sea, and on the W. by Assyria. Babylonia, now Irak Arabi, is situated 
at the head of the Persian Gulf, on each side of the Tigris and the Euphra- 
tes ; that part in the vicinity of the gulf is Chaldea, a name sometimes 
given to the whole country. Assyria, now Kurdistan, the most ancient 
pf the great empires of the world, was bounded on the N. by Armenia ; on 
the E. oy Media ; on the S. by Bab^rlonia ; and on the W. by the Ti|^is, 
which separated it from Mesopotamia. 

Of the transactions of the ancient Median monarchs, no credible accounts 
have been recorded. They were, it is believed, formerly subject to Assy- 
ria ; but the inhabitants at length found means to throw off the yoke. 
They then lived, for a short time, in a state of anarchy, till Dejoces was 
chosen sovereign, and having reunited the several districts of the state, 
made Ecbatana his metropolis. His soji and successor Phraortes subduea 
the Persians, and with the joint forces of the two nations subjugated Asia 
from the river Halys to the Assyrian frontier. He next invaded Assyria, 
but lost his life at the siege of Nineveh. In the reign of his son Cyaxares, 
an alliance was formed with Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, by which 
Nineveh was levelled with the ground, the Assyrian monarchy was abol- 
ished, and the two conquerors shared the possession of its territories. As- 
tyages, the son of Cyaxares, is called in Scripture Ahasuerus : he was 
succeeded b]^ Cyaxares 11.^ whom the sacred writings style ** Darius the 
Mede." This latter prince was engaged in a sanguinary war with Neri- 
glissar, who had usurped the throne of Babylon, and had formed a coa- 
lition with the Lydians and others against Media. Cyaxares gave the 

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commaiMl of his troops to the Tictorious CyruB, who soon after sacoeeded 
to the empire, and united the Median and Persian states. 

Babylonia was, in the earliest afi^es of the world, in a state of friendship 
with Assyria ; but nothing is known of either, beyond what is mentioned 
in Scripture. We learn that, in the days of Abraham, there was a prince 
of Shinar, named Amraphel, who, under the king of Elam, or Persia, 
made war on the Canaanites. From this period we have no authentic 
records, till the days of Nabonassar, whom Ptolemy considers as the first 
sovereign of Babylon. Pul, the founder or reviver of the Assyrian empire, 
left his dominions to be divided between his two sons,Tiglatn-Pileser and 
Nabonassar ; atid thus the latter obtained the throne of Babylon, which 
country was about 70 years afterwards subjected to Assyria by Esarhad- 
don. It remained part of that empire till Nabopolassar, governor of the 
province, and a general in the army, seized the government, and was pro- 
claimed king. . In the decline of lire, he associated in the sovereignty his 
son Nebuchadnezzar, who invaded Judah, subdued Pharaoh Necno, ruler 
of Egypt, and recovered some of the frontier provinces which that mon- 
arch had seized. Nebuchadnezzar, after his father's death, united with 
Cyazares king of Media ag^nst the Assyrians, and put an end to that 
empire, which was divided between the two conquerors, b. c. 601. In the 
mean time, Jehoiakim king of Judah attempted to throw off the Babylo- 
nian yoke, a vain effort, in which he lost his life, and his country was finally 
subjugated. Nebuchadnezzar soon after set up the j^olden image men- 
tioned in Scripture ; he next conquered the 'fynans, Sidonians, and other 
nations on the cpast of Palestine, and overran Eg3rpt, Ethiopia, and Libya ; 
but he could not retain these African conquests. Towards the end of his 
reign, he was for seven years afflicted with madness. His son and suc- 
cessor, Evil-Merodach, was murdered by the usurper Neriglissar, who was 
soon after killed in an engagement with Cyrus kmg of Media. The last 
king of Babylonia was Nabonadeus, called in Scripiture Belshazzar. 
Agreeably to Daniel's prediction, this monarch was slain on the evening 
in which he saw the handwriting on the wall; and Cyrus obtained his 
dominions. This kingdom afterwards underwent all the revolutions of 
the Persian empire till the death of Alexander the Great ; after which 
it was allotted to Seleucus, whose successors held it many centuries. 
Sharing the fortunes of the Syrian states. Babylonia was at length seized 
by theParthians, b.c. 141 ; it was afterwards successively reduced by the 
Persians and the Saracens. 

The kingdom of Assyria is supposed to have been founded by Ashur, 
the second son of Shem. Ninus. his successor, seized on Chaldea after 
Nimrod's death. He was succeeaed by his wife Semiramis, whose extra- 
ordinary talents raised the Assyrian name to the hghest eminence. After 
her, we read a long list of voluptuous sovereigns down to Sardanapalus, 
tlM last of the effeminate race. No part, however, of this history is to be 
relied on ; for the first authentic reooros begin with Pul, the supposed 
founder of the kingdom, b. c. 771. Dividing his dominions at his death 
between his two sons, he allotted Assyria to Tiglath-Pileser, who assisted 
Ahaz the monarch of Judah, against the confederates, Rezin kinf^ of 
Damascus, and Pekah ruler of Israel. Tiglath-Pileser, marching against 
Damascus, slew the king and put an end to the monarchy ; and his successor, 
Shalmaneser, subjugat^ to the Assyrian dominion the kingdom of Israel 
under Hosea. After Shalmaneser's death, Sennacherib attempted to re- 
duce Egypt and Judea, but was prevented by the miraculous interposi- 
tion of Divine Providence. 

In the first year of Esarhaddon's rei^, the Modes under Dejoces reVolt- 
ed, and separated from the kingdom ot Assyria ; but the loss was compen- 
sated by tne subsequent capture of Babylon, Syria, and Judea. Manas- 
seh king of Judah was sent in chains to Babylon. Saosducheus, the 
Nebuchodonosor of Scripture, turned his arms against Media, demolished 
the great city of Ecbatana, and gave orders to his general, Holofernes, to 

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152 ARABIA. 

Sut to death all who should oppose him. Under his successor, Chynila- 
an, Nabopolassar, the governor of Chaldea, revolted, and became kin^ 
of Babylon. 

Assyria, successively overtomed by the Medes and Persians, w^as even- 
tually united to Persia. 


Boundaries. — N. Syria and the Euphrates ; E. the 
Persian Gulf ; S. the Arabian Sea ; W. the Red Sea 
and the Isthmus of Suez. 

Divisions. — 1. Hedjaz ; 2. Yemen ; 3. Hadramaut ; 
4. Oman ; 5. Lachsa ; 6. Nedjed. 

Towns. — 1. Mecca (a), Medina (6), Jidda, Tor; 
2. Sana, Mocha, Aden, Mareb ; 4. Muscat, Rostak, 
Seer ; 5. Lachsa. 

Islands. — Socotra, Bahrein. 

Mountains. — Sinai, Horeb (c). 

Rivers. — In Arabia what are called rivers are mere torrents, 
which descend from the mountains during the rainSy and for a 
short period afterwards^ hut are soon lost in the sands. 

Ancient Divisions. — By the ancients Arabia was divided into three 
unequal portions ; Arabia Peircea, or the Stony, on the N. of the Red 
Sea ; Arabia Felix, or the Happy, in the S. W. ; Arabia Deserta com- 
prised the central and eastern parts. 

(a) Mecca, the birthplace of Mahomet, is supported chieflv by the an- 
nual resort of many thousand pilgrims, who come to visit tne Kaaba or 
House of God, in honour of the Prophet. This famous shrine, which is a 
inassive oblonfi; structure, of small size, but ornamented with gold and 
silver, and having a black silk curtain hung round it, contains the cele- 
brated black slone of Mecca, and is believed by the Mahometans to have 
been first built by Abraham and Ishmael ; it forms the centre of a temple 
called the Beilullah, 350 feet in length by 300 in breadth, formed of colon- 
nades supported b^ 450 marble pillars, and roofed by numerous small 

^cupolas, gaudily painted in stripes of yellow, red, and blue. (b) Medina 

is celebrated for oeing the burial-place of Mahomet. Here is a stately 
mosoue, supported by 400 pillars, and furnished with 300 silver lamps 
whicn are continually burmng. His coffin is covered with cloth of gold, 
under a canopy of silver tissue. — —ic) On Horeb Moses saw the burning 
bush. On Mount Sinai the Lord delivered the Ten Commandmente io 
the Hebrew prophet. On those mounts are many chapels and cells, poa- 
sessed by the Greek and Latin monks, who pretend to show the very spot 
where every miracle or transaction recorded m Scripture happened. — Hero 
also is the wilderness where the children of Israel sojourned 40 yean in 
passing from Egypt to Canaan. 

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ARABIA. 153 

I. Historical Creography of Arabia* 

1st, Extent.— Arabia extends about 1500 miles from N. to S. and 1300 
from £. to W. The population has been estimated at ten millions, 
but very little is known or the interior of the country. 

2d, Chbonologt The Arabians profess to be descendants of Joktan, 

or Kahtdn, the son of Eber; and IshmaeL the natural son of Abraham, 
They are the same race as the Assyrians of remote antiquity, the probable 
fathers of the Syrians and Egyptians, whose languages are intimately 
allied, as is that of the Hebrews. By all accounts, sacred and profane, 
the Assyrians were the most ancient civilized commercial people ; for 
the pretensions of the Chinese and Hindoos do not seem entitled to much 
cremt. The modem Arabians are a sagacious and intelligent race of men, 
remarkable also for spirit and courage, whose country has never been 
wholly subdued by any invader ; and who alone, of all Asiatic nations, 
have preserved the wild freedom which their progenitors enjoyed. In 
comparatively recent times they have vindicated the fame of their ancient 
pre-eminence, by giving religion and laws to half of Asia and Africa, and 
to a great pairt of Europe. The Arabian Khalifs in Spain, Africa, and 
Egypt, as well as at Bagdad, cultivated the arts and sciences, and evinced 
a great superiority to the barbarous powers of Europe at that period. 
From Samarcand to the centre of the African continent the Arabian lan- 
guage and manners are held in veneration. The history of Arabia is ob- 
scure till the time of Mahomet ; and their traditional songs chiefly cele- 
brate Antar, a hero renowned like the Rustan of the Persians, and the 
Hercules of the Greeks. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The religion of Arabia is Mahometanism^ introduced 
in the seventh century by the impostor Mahomet or Mohammed. About 
the middle of the last century a new reformation was commenced in the 
central division of Nedjed, by AbdtU Waheb; which made for some time 
considerable progress under his successors Abdelaziz and Ibn Saoud. 
His numerous followers, called Wahabees, had made themselves masters 
of nearly all Arabia, including Mecca and Medina, and had even made in- 
cursions into Svria ; but Mehemet Ali not only wrested their cities from 
them, but finally reduced their capital, making captive their chief Abdal- 
lah, who was beheaded at Constantinople in 1819. Abdul Waheb is said 
to have taught that God alone should be adored and invoked ; while divine 
honours paid to Mahomet, or any other prophet, he considered as idolatry. 

2d, GrOVERNMENT. — From the nature of the country, which hardly ad- 
mits of l^e formation of large settled communities^ the Arabian population 
is divided into numerous petty tribes, governed in the patriarchal form 
by mlers called sheiks, imams, or emirs. These chiefe, whose authority re- 
sembles that formerly jyossessed by the heads of the Scottish clans, lead 
tho tribes in battle, administer justice, and decree peace and war; but their 
authority is by no means despotic, their impatient subjects, in cases of 
tyranny, not scrupling to supersede them. In the coast districts, however, 
mremments more despotic and extensive have been established, possess- 
uig regnlar armies ana revenues. The chief of these are the imamat of 
Sana or kingdom of Yemen ; the imamat of Muscat ; and Hedjaz or the 
■bcriifiit of Mecca, now subject to the pasha of Egypt. The Wahabees 
BtiU govern in the district of Nedjed. ^ . 

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154 ARABIA. 

III. Civil Geography. 

Ut, Manners and Customs. — Throaghont the greattr part of Arabia 
capital punishments are nearly unknown, even murder beine either atoned 
for by a pecuniary fine, or left to the private revenge of tne relatives of 
the deceased. In politeness the Arabs vie with the Persians, and there 
are considerable remains of their ancient hospitalitjr. The common salu- 
tation is the Salam Aleikum,or peace be with you: in pronouncing whieh 
words they raise the right hand to the heart ; but this form is seldom ad- 
dressed to Christians. The houses, though generally of stone, are meanly 
constructed ; the apartments of the men oeing in front, thope of tha 
women behind. The Arab is moderate in his ^ood ; the common people 
seldom exceeding a repast of bread made from durra, a kind of millet, 
mixed with camel's milk, oil, butter, or grease ; the only drinks being 
water and cofiee, of which they are particularly fond. Polygamy is con- 
fined to the rich ; and throughout tne whole Mahometan regions is far 
less general than is commonly supposed in Europe. 

2d. Language. — The language of the Arabs was even in ancient times 
divided into several dialects, as may be supposed from its wide diffusion. 
The language of the Koran is so different from the modem speech of 
Mecca, that it is taught in the colleges there, as the Latin is at Rome. 
Education is not whofly neglected, and many of the common people can 
read and write ; while those of rank retain preceptors to teach their chil- 
dren and voung slaves. In the chief cities are colleges for astronomy, as- 
trology, philosophy, medicine, and other sciences, and in the kingdom of 
Yemen there are two universities, or celebrated academies. To tne Ara- 
bians we are indebted for many valuable discoveries : they have been our 
instructors in chemistry and mathematics ; and first introduced into 
Europe the present arithmetical numerals. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce. — The manufactures of Arabia are 
of little consequence, though the people show much ingenuity and industry 
when their genius is not cramped by the vices of their government. From 
Yemen are exported coffee, esteemed the finest in the world, aloes, myrrh 
(the best of which is from Abyssinia), olibanum, or an inferior kind of 
frankincense, senna, ivory, and gold from Abyssinia. The European im- 
ports are iron, steel, cannon, lead, tin, cochineal, mirrors, knives, sabres, 
cut glass, and false pearls. 

IV, Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— There is a regular rainy season in Yemen 
from the middle of June to the end of September ; in Oman there is rain 
from November to the middle of February ; but along the S. coast it 
'begins in February and lasts till the middle of April. In general the 
breeze from the sea is moist, and that from the interior deserts is dry ; 
but the atmosphere is at all times intensely hot. In the northern parts 
of these deserts are chiefly perceived the disastrous effects of the burning 
wind, called Samiel or Simoom. 

2d, Face of the Countbt Arabia presents a central desert of great 

extent, with a few fertile oases, or isles, as in Africa ; while the flourish- 
inir provinces are those situated on the shores of the ocean, the rain that 
falls being sufficient to maintain the vegetation, yet the want of rivers, 
lakes, and perennial streams, must give a sterile appearance to the land- 
scape. In Arabia Deserta, the plains of sand are so immense, tliat trav- 
ellers, in crossing them, are obliged to make use of the mariners oompMs; 

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ARABIA. 155 

and the tempests are not less terrible here than on the sea. Springs or 
streams are rarely to be met with ; a pestilential yapour sometimes passes 
alonff, which instantly kills those who happen to inhale it ; and when the 
wind rises hifh, the desert assumes the appearance of the most tempestu- 
ous ocean. The sand is lifted from its bed by the force of the winds, and 
driren along like waves, clouds, and rain: every thing that falls in its way 
is overwhelmed, and whole caravans of travellers, with their horses and 
camels, find one common grave in the deluge of sand. 

3d, Soil anp Agriculture.— The nature of the soil is. of course arid in 
the extreme. Agriculture is occupied in the production of wheat, maize, 
millet, barley, beans, lentils, rape, with the sugar-cane, tobacco, cotton, 
and friiits ; a few dyeing dru^, especially indigo and Indian madder, are 
also cultivated. The plough is simple, and the pick-axe is used instead of 
the spad^. The chief exertion of agricultural industry is to water the 
lands from the rivulets and wells, or by conducting the rains. The grain 
is torn up by the roots, and forage is cut with the sickle. In Hadramaut 
there is a range of hills remarkable for producing frankincense. Two 
valuable trees, nowever, are the peculiar boast of Arabia Felix, namely the 
coffee-tree, found both cultivated and wild, and the amyrisopobalsamum, 
from whicn is'produoed the balm of Mecca, the most fragrant and costly 
of all the gum-resins. 

4th, Animals.— The horse is the glory of Arabian zoology. It is dis- 
tinguished under two great classes, the Kadeshi^ or common kind, whose 
genealogy has not been preserved ; and the Kochlaniy or noble horses, 
whose breed has been ascertained for 2000 years, proceeding, as the Ara- 
bians assert, from the stalls of Solomon. These will bear the greatest 
&tigue, and pass whole days without food, living on air, to use the Arabian 
metaphor. This region, or Africa, seems also the native country of the 
camel, emphatically styled by the orientals the ship of the desert ; being, 
by the expansion of its feet, the faculty of bearing thirst and hunger, ana 
other qualities, peculiarly adapted by the Author of Nature to traverse 
the sandy wastes which would otherwise remain impassable. The other 
domestic animals are oxen, generally of the hump-backed kind ; sheep, of 
which one variety have extremely tmck and broad tails ; goats and asses, 
one breed of the last being highly prized for their size, strength, and cour- 
age. The wild animals are, the jackal, the hyasna, monkeys, the jerboa or 
rat of Pharaoh, antelopes, wild-oxen, and lioars, wolves, foxes, and the 
large and small panther. Among the birds may be named the pheasant, 
the partridge, the ostrich, and a bird of the thrush kind, venerated because 
it destroys t^ locusts, and is thought to come anually from Khorassan. 
Land-tortoises abound, and are eaten b]r the Christians in Lent. A little 
slender serpent, called beaten, spotted with black and white, is of a nature 
remarkably poisonous, its bite being certain death. The locusts, too, are 
numerous ; but the natives esteem the red kind as a fat and juicy food, and 
viewthemwith no more aversion than shrimps and prawns are beheld by us. 

5th, Minerals. — There are no mines of gold or silver. Some iron is 
foQnd, but this metal is brittle. Not one of the gems appears to be pro- 
daoed in Arabia ; but the province of Yemen yields onyxes: in the same 
distriet there is a warm spring of mineral water. 

€th. Natural Curiosities.— Amidst the deficiency of water, it is not 
flarpnaing that the grand reservoir near the ancient city of Mareb, though 
in a small part a work of art, should have been regarded as a singular 
exertion of nature. / 

7th, IsLES.->Besides several isles of little consequence in the Red Sea, 
there are two islands which deserve particuliar notice. Socotra appears 
in a.11 ages to have belonged to Arabia, and to have been celebrated for 
the proauction of aloes, still esteemed superior to any other: it is also said 
to produce frankincense, while ambergris and ooral are found in the neigh- 
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156 ARABIA. 

boaring seas. The inhabitants are clearly of Arabian extract. The isle 
of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, near the Arabian coast, is remarkable 
for the great pearl-fishery in its neighbourhood. 

HisUyry of Mahomet. 

Mahobiet or Mohammed, a famous impostor, was bom, a.d. 570, at 
Mecca, a city of Arabia, of the noble family of Koreish. Losing his 
father in infancy, his guardianship deTolvea on an uncle, Abu Taleb, 
who employed him to go with his carayans from Mecca to Damascus. 
In this occupation he continued till he was 28 years of age, when he mar- 
ried Cadijah, a rich widow. Becoming thereby one of the wealthiest men 
in Mecca, he formed the design of obtaining the sovereignty ; and judging 
there was no way so likely to gain his end as by effecting a change in the 
religion of his countrymen, he suddenly assumed a very sanctifiecT appear- 
ance. Having remarked in his travels the infinite variety of sects which 
prevailed, he conceived that his project was not impracticable. He accord- 
ingly spent much of his time in a cave near Mecca, seemingly alone and 
employed in meditation and prayer ; but in reality he called to his aid a 
Persian Jew, well versed in the history and laws of his persuasion, and two 
Christians, one of the Jacobite and the other of the Nestorian sect. With 
the help of these men he formed the Koran, or the book which he pre- 
tended to have received at different times from heaven by the hands of the 
angel Gabriel. This work embodies several of the leading doctrines of the 
Scriptures, and contains a good deal of practical morality drawn from the 
same source, but blended with extravagant and blasphemous tales and 
dogmas. At the age of forty he publicly assumed the prophetical char- 
acter, calling himself the apostle of God. At first he haa oniy nine follow- 
ers, including his wife ; but in three years the number of his disciples in- 
creased considerably, when a powerful confederacy being formed against 
him, he was forced to quit Mecca, and to seek refuf^e in Medina. This retreat 
laid the foundation of his empire and of his religion. The Mahometans 
adopt it as their chronological standard, calling it the Hejira, that is, the 
flight or persecution, being the 16th day of our July. a.d. 6*22. Mahomet 
had still a number of disciples, upon whom he inculcated this principle, 
that they were not to dispute for their religion by word, but by the sword, 
— a doctrine well adapted to a lawless and wandering people, and soon 
carried into practice by them. The Jewish Arabs were the first who ex- 
perienced its effects. Mahomet committed upon them the most shocking 
cruelties, put numbers to death, sold others for slaves, and distributed their 
^oods among his soldiers. A faith thus propa^ted could not but succeed 
m d country like Arabia. He rewarded his adherents by plunder in this 
world, and held out to them a certain happiness of the most sensual kind 
hereafter. In 627, he made a treaty with the inhabitants of Mecca, which 
two years afterwards he violated,and stormed the place with fire and sword. 
Having made himself master of Arabia, he extended his conquests into 
Syria, where he took several cities, ana laid some of the princes nnder 
tribute. While engaged in this victorious career, a Jewess poisoned some 
food which was put before him, and of which he and his companions ate 
heartily. One of them died immediately, but the prophet in some degree 
recovered. When the woman was examined, she declared that ^e had per- 

eitrated the deed on purpose to try whether he was really a true propnet. 
e died of a fever on the 7th of June, a.d. 632, at the age of 63, though he 
ascribed his death to the effect of the poison. After the death of Cadyah, 
he had sevelral wives and concubines, by whom he had many children, but 
left only a daughter, named Fatima, who married his successor Ali. Every 
art of seduotion, fraud, and violence was used by the successors of Mahomet 


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F£KSIA. 157 

to dUffiiSe his religion after his death ; so that in less than a century its 
▼ietoriotts banners were displayed oyer all Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, 
Persia. Egypt, and the coasts of Africa, and it is now zealously professed, 
from tne Ganges to the Atlantic, by more than 120 millions of people. — 
There can be little doubt that this religion, such as it is, was a considerable 
improvement on the sanguinary paganism which {)reyailed in Arabia in the 
dskya of the prophet ; but this seems its chief merit, and it now operates as 
an insuperable barrier to the social progress of those nations who profess it. 


Boundaries. — N. Russia, the Caspian Sea, and Tar- 
tary ; W. Turkey in Asia ; S. the Persian Gulf; E. 
Beloochistan and Afghanistan. 

Provinces. — 1. Azerbijan; 2. Ghilan; 3. Mazan- 
deran ; 4. Khorassan ; 5. Irak Ajemi ; 6. Khuzistan ; 
7. Fars or Farsistan {Persia or Persia Proper) ; 8. 
Laristan; 9. Kerman {Carmania). 

Towns. — 1. Tabreez or Tauris ; 2. Resht ; 3. Saree, 
Balfrush, Astrabad ; 4. Mushed, Yezd ; 6. Teheran, 
Ispahan, Casbin, Hamadan ; 6. Shuster ; 7. Shiraz, 
Bushire ; 8. Lar ; 9. Kerman, Gombroon. 

Islands. — Ormus, Kishma, and Karak, in the Per^ 
gian Gulf, 

Lakes. — Salt Lakes of Urmia or Urumeah, and 

Rivers. — Aras or Araxes, Kizil-Ozen, Kerah, Ka- 

I. Historical Geography of Persia, 

Ist, Name. — The most ancient name of this extensive region is that of 
Eiam, applied to it in the book of Genesis ; but the name of Persia^ de- 
riyed from the province of Phars or Pars, chanced by the Greeks to Persis, 
erentnally became the common designation in Europe. The natives, how- 
ever, both in ancient and modem times, have termed their country /ran; 
while th^ territories anciently subject to Persia, beyond the river «Jihon or 
Oxus, were then styled Aniran. 

• The Aras or Araxes, from Armenia, flows E., forming the boundary 
between Russia and Persia, and joins the Kur ; the Kizil-Ozen falls into 
the Caspian Sea ; the Kerah and the Karoon flow S. into the Persian Gulf. 

Digitized by LjOCMJIC 

158 PERSIA. 

2d, Extent.— f*roin E. to W. Persia extends about 850 English miles, 
and 700 from N. to S. The population has been yaeuely c(»npoted at 

3d, CHnoMOLOGr.— The original population of the mountainous coun< 
try of Persia appears to have been indigenous, that is, no preceding nation 
can be traced. The ancient Medes and Parthians in tne N. of Persia 
seem to ha^e been of Sarmaiic or Sclavonic origin, and to have come from 
their native regions on the Volga.— The Persian empire, which succeeded 
the Assyrian or Babylonian, was founded bv Cfyrtu about 536 years b. c 
It ended with Darius, who was conquered by Alexander the Gfreatf 331 
years b. c. The Persians, under Arsaces, formed a new empire, called 
the Parthian, 250 b. c. Artaxerxes restored to it its ancient title, 230 
B. c. The Saracens put an end to the empire, a. d. 651 . Towards the close 
of the fourteenth century, Persia was subjugated by the Tartar prince 
Timwr or Tamerlane ; whose posterity was supplanted by an ancestor of 
the Sophi family (a. d. 1501), who claimed to be descended from 
Mahomet. At the end of the sixteenth century Persia recovered some of 
its ancient distinction during the government of Shah Abbas, sumamed 
the Great, who took the city of Tauris from the Turks, and deieated them 
in several battles. In 1 722, under one of his imbecile successors, the coun- 
try was subjugated bv the Afghans ; but in 1736, the famous Thomas 
Kauli Khan, commonly called Nculir Shah, having vanquished the in- 
vaders, seized the supreme power, and diffused the terror of his arms even 
to the interior of India. On account of his cruelty. Nadir was assassinated 
in his tent in 1747 : when Ahmed Abdalla, one of his generals, founded the 
kingdom of Candahar or Afghanistan out of the ea^m provinces of the 
empire, and Kereem Khan, another of his officers, obt^iin^d the sovereignty 
of the western provinces, forming the present kingdom of Persia. The 
latter governed with ability, refusing the title of shah or king, and assum- 
ing merely that of vakeel or regent ; but on his death in 1779, new com- 
petitors for the throne sprung up, and caused another period of terror 
and bloodshed till the year 1795, when Aga Mohammed Khan became 
sole monarch. On his death in 1797, he transmitted the crown to his 
nephew, FuttehAli Shah, who, in an unsuccessful war with Russia, lost 
a large territory in Armenia. He died in 1834, and was succeeded by his 
grandson Mohammed Mirza, the present sovereign. 

4th, Antiquities. — Of ancient monuments in Persia, the mins of 
Persepolis are the most celebrated and remarkable. They are situated at 
the bottom of a mountain^ fronting S. W., about 30 miles to the N. E. of 
Shiraz. There are many inscriptions in a character not yet explained, the 
letters of which somewhat resemble nails disposed in various directions. 
Several smaller edifices and caverns of similar architecture are found in 
various parts, all which undoubtedly preceded the Mahometan conquest 
(a. d. 636), although it is difficult to ascertain their precise era. 

II. Political Geography. 

let, Rbugion. — The religion is well known to be the Mahometan, 
which veas introduced by the sword, and has been followed by the de- 
struction and depopulation of the country. Yet the Persians adopt 
a milder form of this creed than is followed by the Turks and AraM. 
Their native ^ood sense and benignity of manners lead them to reject sev- 
eral absurdities ; whence they are regarded by the other Mahometans as 
heretics. Of the ancient worshippers of fire, called Parsees or GuehrtM, 
there are still some in Persia who retain that old superstition ; but tiieir 
numbers are diminishing. 


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PDRaiA. 159 

2d, GrOTSRNMENT. — The goyemment, like that of all other oriental 
states, appears to haTe been always despotic ; but its administration is rep- 
resented as mild. The state of the people seems, however, to be deplo- 
rable, being subject to the arbitrary power and extortions of the numerous 
khans or chiefs ; and they are at all times the yictims of the insecurity and 
devastation consequent on the lawless state of the country. 

3d, A&MY AMD Revenue — There is no regular army ; but the royal slaves, 
3000 in number, are now disci pliuedT after the European manner. The 
wandering tribes, who are all norsemen, form the principal military force 
of the country. Of the amount of the revenue nothing certain is kaown ; 
but it has been estimated at £2,000,000 sterling. 

III. divU Geography, 

Ist, Manneius and CusTOiis.^The population of Persia, like that of 
Asiatic Turkey, is divided into two distinct classes ; the first and most 
namerous comprising the settled occupants of the towns and the rural cul- 
tivators ; the second, those nomadic tribes who roam over the country 
without any fixed residence. Between these two classes considerable di- 
versity of cnaracter exists : the former being devoted to permanent occu- 
pations and habits, while the latter are fond of war and tne chase, and not 
unfrequently addicted to robbery and pillage. Generally speaking, the 
Persians are handsome, active, aud robust ; of lively imagination, quick 
apprehension, and agreeable manners ; but they are also inveteratelv ad- 
dicted to flattery, falsehood, and dishonesty. The national vanity and love 
of show lead all classes to indulge in expensive habits, especially in refer- 
ence to dress ; the nobility being almost constantly involved in debt from 
this cause. Marriages are conducted by female mediation ; and the i^omp 
and ceremonies somewhat resemble the Russian. Polygamy is allowed ; 
but the first married is the chief wife. 

2d, Lamovage.— The language of Persia is perhaps the most celebrated 
of all the oriental tongues fbr strength, beauty, and melody. It bears 
a 6tron£ affinity to the Sanscrit, though softened by the long usage of a 
polished peo|de. One of the oldest remains of Persian literature is the 
nunous Sndhnameh, or history of kings, a long heroic poem of Ferdusi, 
Saadi, an excellent and entertaining moralist, writes in prose mingled with 
Terse, like several of the Icelandic sajifas. Hafiz is the Anacreon of the 
East, and his tomb is venerated in the vicinity of Shiraz : a splendid copy 
0f his works is chained to his monument. But the sciences in general are 
little cultivated b^rthe inhabitants, who are lost in abject superstition, and 
imjplicit believers in astrology. The education of the modern Persians is 
chiefly military ; and their gross flatteries, and obliquity of expression, 
eyince that they have totally forgotten the noble system of their ancestors, 
who in the first plaoe taught their children to speak truth. 

3d, Manufactubes and Commerce ^The manufactures and comoMrce 

of this extensive country are at a very low ebb, though there exists a 
eonstderable producti<m of those articles suited to the ostentatious taste 
of oriental nations. Their cotton and woollen cloths, and those made of 
goftts' and camels* hair, with their silks, brocades, and velvets, are superior 
najiafactures. Their Sows are the most esteemed of all in the East, and 
their sabres are finely damasked. They excel in cutting precious stones, 
and dyeing bright and lasting colours. Of late years, British manufac- 
tureB, especially broadcloths, nave been largely in demand- 

Digitized by 


160 PERSIA. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

Ist, Climate and Seasons.— The northern provinces are comparatiyely 
cold and moist. In the centre of the kingdom the winter, which hegins in 
November and continues till March, is commonly'severe, with ice and 
snow. In the centre and S.^ the air is generally dry ; thunder and light- 
ning are uncommon, but hail is often destructive in the spring. In all 
parts the summer heat is excessive, and near the Persian Gulf the hot 
wind called samiel sometimes suffocates the unwary traveller. 

2d, Face of the Country. — Persia may be regarded as an elevated 
table- land, diversified by clusters of hills and chains of lofty mountains, 
with long, arid, valleys, and still more extensive salt and sandy deserts. 
Except in the north, and some parts of tbe western mountains, n>rest6 are 
uncommon. The most remarkable feature of the country is, that the 
rivers are few and small, and, instead of falling into the sea, generally 
flow into lakes in the interior. Some of these lakes, with the rivers that 
supply them, dry up during summer. 

dd. Soil and Agriculture. — The soil, though not unfertile, is arid in 
the extreme, even that of the valleys consisting either of a hard dry clay 
or of sand and stones, while large tracts can only be described as burn- 
ing, salt) and sandy wastes : hence the chief industry of the cultivator is 
directed to irrigation; which is carried to great perfection. The northern 
provinces, however^ are sufficiently rich and fruitful. The most common 
grain is wheat, which is excellent ; but rice is a more universal aliment, 
and regarded by the Persians as the most delicious of food. Barley and 
millet are also sown. On the mountain ridges are found the cypress", 
the box, the cedar, and several kinds of pine. The sumach, whose as- 
tringent wood is so essential to the arts of dyeing and tanning, grows here 
in vast abundance. The fig, the pomegranate, the mulberry, almond, 
peach, and apricot, are indigenous fruits. The vine and orange ^ow in 
great luxuriance. Towards the S., both cotton and sugar are articles of - 
common cultivation. The jasmine and the blue and scarlet anemone are 
found in the thickets, and the tulip and ranunculus in the pastures. 

4th, Animals. — The Persian horses are the most beautiful in the Eadt ; 
but in speed they yield to the Arabian, which are less distinguished by 
elegance of form. Mules are in considerable request ; and the asses 
and cattle resemble those of Europe. The camel is common ; and sheep, 
particularly the large-tailed variety, are every where abundant. The few 
forests contain numerous deer and antelopes ; while the mountains pre«> 
sent wild goats. Hares are common in the extensive wastes. The fero- 
cious animals are chiefiy concealed in the forests, as the bear and boar, the 
lion in the western parts, with the leopard, and, according to some accounts, 
the small or common tiger. Seals occur on the rocks oithe Caspian. The 
wild ass is found in the central deserts ; but the hyena and jackal belong 
to the southern provinces. The seas abound with fish of various descrip- 
tions. Pigeons are verv numerous ; and the partridges are uncommonlv 
large and excellent. Tne bulbul, or nightingale, enlivens the spring with 
his varied song. The Persians have been long accustomed to tame oeasts 
of prey, so as to hunt with leopards, panthers, and ounces. 

5th, Minerals.— Some mines of lead, copper, and iron are found. Al- 
most the only precious stone yet discovered seems to be the turqnois, 
which is peculiar to the country ; but beautiful garnets have also been 
procured, and pearls abound in the Persian Gulf^ some of which weigh 60 
grains. Sometimes whole deserts are covered with sulphur, while those 
of salt afford inexhaustible supplies of that mineral. Kock salt islbiind 


zed by Google 

PERSIA. 16» 

near Ispahan. Medicinal waters of Tarious kinds are common in this 
mountamons country ; but they are generally neglected alike by the 
physicians and the people. 

6th. Natural CuRiosiTiES.--Among the natural curiosities of Persia 
may oe mentioned its great salt deserts, called by the natives Kuveer, 
The great Deria Kuveer occupies nearly all the central and eastern por- 
tions of the country, being about 600 miles in length by 400 in breadth, 
and, with the exception of some fertile oases or cultivated spots, presents 
a dreary waste, covered with a crackling crust of earth, overspread with 
saline efflorescence. When the traveller advances into these dreary regions^ 
the wide expanse resigned by nature to utter barrenness, white with salt, 
glistening in the rays of a hot sun, and onlv here and there varied by 
masses of dark rock, imi)resses him with a proiound sense of desolation. — 
The salt lake Urumeah in Azerbijan is also remarkable, both for its size 
and the intensity of its saltness. It is 300 miles in circumference, and so 
strongly impregnated is the water with salt, that immense cakes are formed 
at the bottom, presenting in the shallow parts near the shore the appear- 
ance of a pavement. 

Ancient History of Persia, 

PSBSiA was at first peopled b^ Elam, the son of Shem ; and Chedor- 
laomer, who conquered many Asiatic provinces, is its first king mentioned. 
Nothing remarkable occurs till the time of Cyrus, the founder of that 
great empire which vras the glorv and the terror of the East. This 
monarch, the son of Cambyses, by conauering Lydia with the other 
parts of Asia Minor ; by reducing Babylonia ; and by uniting, on the 
death of Cyazares, the Median territories with his other dominions, ex- 
tended his empire from the Indus in the east to the Mediterranean and 
the .^^an in the west, while the Euxine and the Caspian seas were his 
northern boundary. In the first year of his reign, he published his famous 
edict permitting the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their 
temple, and restoring to them all the sacred vessels which Nebuchadnezzar 
had brought from that city. Cyrus, marching against Tomyris. queen of 
the Scythians, was defeated and put to death. He was succeeded by his 
son Cambyses, who reduced Egypt to subjection. Darius, the next king, 
was raised from the nobility to tne crown. He was friendly to the Jews, 
diivided his empire into twenty governments called satrapies, and success- 
fully invaded India : he afterwards sent 100,000 men to attack Greece ; 
but these were defeated at Marathon by 10,000 men commanded by Mil- 
tiades. He then renewed the war in person, but died before his purpose 
eoold be effected. His son Xerxes, following the same plan, mvaded 
Greece with 1,700,000 infantry ; which force was bravely, though unsuc- 
cessfully, opposed at Thermopylae by a body of 300 Spartans or Lacedae- 
monians, under the command of their king Leonidas ; but the battle of 
Sadamis afterwards obliged him to leave Europe with precipitation. The 
remnant of this vast army, under the command of Mardonius, was de- 
feated at the battle of Plataea ; and Xerxes was soon after assassinated. 
He was succeeded by his son Aitaxerxes Longimanus (called in Scripture 
Ahasuerus), who raised Esther to the throne, and ^preatly favoured the 
JewB. On the accession of Artaxerxes Mnemon, his brother Cyrus the 
Yoonger, governor of Asia Minor, attempted to dethrone him. With 
113,0w> men, including 13,000 Greek mercenaries, he marched to Cunaxa, 
in the province of Babylon, where he was slain. The remains of the 
Qteeian forces were the fiunoos ten thmuand who retreated under Xeno- 


by Google 


The last prince of this dynasty was Darius Codomannns, in whose rei^ 
Persia was invaded by Alexander the Great, b. c. 334. By a series of 
brilliant victories, be obtained possession of all the strong places ; and 
on the death of Darius, succeeded to the empire, and abolisbea the Persian 
monarchy. At his decease, the SeleucidaB obtained the government of 
these territories, and held them till they were seized by Mitnridates, king 
of Parthia, and annexed to his empire, b. c. 141. Persia afterwards un- 
derwent the revolutions of the Parthian states. 


Boundaries. — N. Independent Tartary; W. Persia; 
S. the Arabian Sea ; E. Hindostan. 

Divisions.— 1. Eastern Part of Khorassan; 2. Cabul; 
3. Candahar ; 4. Seistan ; 5. Beloochistan. 

Towns.— 1. Herat (a) ; 2. Cabul (6), Jellalabad (c), 
Peshawur, Ghizni (d) ; 3. Candahar {e) ; 4. Dooshak ; 
5. Kelat, 

Mountains. — Hindoo-Coosh, Soliman Mountains, 
Paropamisan or Ghoor Mountains. 

Rivers.— Indus, Cabul. Helmund (Etymandrus). 

Lake. — Zurrah (/). 

id) Hera/t was long the oapital of an extensive empire transmitted by 
Tamerlane to bis desoendants, and has been a fireqnent scene of contest in 
the wars of the East. In 1838, the Persians were si^ally routed uMer 
its walls by the native tribes. — -<6) This city is considered the gate or 
key to Hindostan from Tartary ; and by this ronte Tamerlane. Baber, and 
Nadir Shah snocessively led their armies. Here, on the 2a November 
1841, a general rising of the natives, headed by their chiefs, took plaoe 
against the British force sent to assist Shah Snjah. After mnch useless 
neii^otiation, in the course of which the envov Sir William Macnaghten 
was treacherously murdered, the army, on the 6th January, began its 
disastrous retreat. In the tremendous mountain passes leading to Hin- 
dostan, the whole force, consisting Of 16,500 troops and camp ToUowers. 
may be said to have perished, either of cold and hunger or from the ire Oi 
the Ghilzies, who crowned the heights, only a small number of captives 

falling alive into the hands of the enemy. (c) JeUalabad is celemrated 

for its heroic defence in 1841-42, by a small body of British troops under 
'General Sale, for a p^od of five months, aj^inst a very numerous force 

of insurgent Afghans. id) At the beginning of the llth century, this 

town v^s the oapital of the famous Sultan Mahmoud, whose ephemeral 
empire extended during his lifetime from Georgia to Bengal, and froia 
Bokham. to the Indian Ocean ; but on his death It immediately sunk into 
insignificance. (e) Under Ahmed Shah, the foander of the Afglm 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


monarchy, this place was the capital of the kingdom ; but in 1774 his son 

»nd successor remored his resiaence to Cabul. (/) In the middle of 

Lake Zarrah is a fortified island named Koh-i-zur, where the chiefs of 
Seistan hare frequently taken refuge when their country was inyaded. 

I. Historical Qeography of Afybaniatan. 

1st, Name. — The term Afghan is of Persian derivation, and is beliered 
to signify '* destroyer ;" biit the origin of this people is uncertain. The 
native name is Pfishtun, in the plural Pu8htanne\ whence is probably 
derived the term Paians, by whicn they are known in India. 

2d, Extent.— This vast territory measures 760 miles from N. to S. 
and 640 from E. to W., comprehending an area of about 400,000 square 
miles. Population estimated at 7^000,000. 

3d, Chronology.— Afghanistan having, from the earliest period o^ 
authentic history, followed the fortunes or its more powerful neighbours, 
or merely formed the cradle of wider empires, had no proper political ex- 
istence till the middle of the eighteenth century. On the death of Nadir 
Shah of Persia in 1747, Ahmea Abdallah, an Afghan chief, and one of his 
principal officers, seized on Candahar, where he established a kingdom, 
which subsequently included all Afghanistan and Beloochistan. In 1773, 
he was succeeded by his son Timoor Shah, a weak prince, who died in 
1793, leaving the sovereignty to his son Zemaun Shah. After a turbulent 
reign of seven years, this prince fell a victim to a conspiracy ; and his 
brother. Shah Sujah-ul-Mulk, became the legitimate sovereign ; but being 
opposed by his half-brother Mahmoud, and by Futteh Khan, hereditary 
vizier, he was forced to leave the country. Shortly after, Mahmoud, from 
jealousy, caused Futteh Khan to be assassinated ; on which the numerous 
orothers of the latter, among whom was the celebrated Dost Mahomet of 
Cabul, seized on their respective governments, and the country was -split 
into various sovereignties till 1840, when a British force from Hindostan 
reinstated Shah Sujah. But the enmity of the natives to foreigners 
proving unconquerable, the British, after various disasters, abandoned 
the country in 1842 : Sujah has been slain, and matters are still in a very 
tmsettled state. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The Afghans are all Mahometans of the Soonee per- 
suasion, and are very superstitious, believing in alchymy, astrology, and 
magic ; but Hindoos ana other sects remain unmolested. 

2d, Government. — Under Ahmed and his successors the government 
bore some resemblance to the feudal system ; but whether any regular cen- 
tral authority is to arise out of the present confusion, it is impossible to 
foresee. In other respects the country is not unlike Arabia, the numerous 
tribes being presided over by chiefs bearing the title of khan, whose power 
Is controlled by the jirga or assembly of the elders. The two most import- 
•Mtt tribes are the Dooranees and Ohilxies, the former being the most 
eivilized, and having to boast that the royal family belongs to their num- 
ber. The ruder nomadic tribes of Beloochistan have much the same form 
of government ; but the upper mountain tracts are peopled by bands of 
ferocious robbers, little better than savages. 


by Google 


m. Civil Geography, 

1st, MA.NNERS AND CnsTOMS. — The Afghans are a comparatively mde 
race of mountain shepherds and warriors ; brave and hospitable, but 
fierce, cruel, and addicted to war and plunder. The men are for the most 
part robust, generally lean, though bony and muscular. They are fond of 
nuntin^, horse-racini^, and other athletic exercises ; and are rather social, 
delightmg in dinner-parties and conversation. Their dress consists of a 
pair of loose trousers of dark cotton stuff, a large shirt reaching below the 
knees, a low cap or bonnet, half boots, and a cloak of soft gray felt or 
sheepskin. The female dress resembles that of the men, but consists of 
finer materials. 

2d, Language.— The Pushtu language is an original stock, with some 
Persian and Sanscrit words : but it contains no works of any note. The 
children are sedulously taught to read the Koran, though in other respects 
education is at the lowest possible ebb with all classes. 

3d, Manufactubes and Commerce.— The manufactures consist chiefly 
of a few home-made fabrics of cotton, wool, and silk, for domestic use. 
Formerly, Cabul and Herat were the resting-places of an extensive cara- 
van-trade from Hindostan to Persia, and previous to the late outbreak 
the former city received large consignments of Indian goods. At present 
the state of trade is unknown. 

rV, Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons — In the lower portions of the eastern val- 
leys the heat is sufficient to mature the fruits of India, but the winter is 
much colder than that of the latter country. In the elevated districts of 
the west the heat is moderate ; and in the north the temperature varies 
with the elevation of the land. 

2d, Face of the Countrt. — Afghanistan may be described as a sne- 
cession of high valleys or table-lands, situated on the declivities of the 
Hindoo-Coosh, the Soiiman, the Ghoor, and other subordinate mountain 
ranges. Westward the country declines into the great desert of Seistan. 
The valleys are in general well watered, and abound in rich pasture ; but 
the more elevated mountain pinnacles are crovmed with perpetual snow. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil, especially in the valleys, is de- 
scribed as excellent ; but agriculture is in a mde state, the chief attention 
of the tribes being devoted to their flocks and herds. — In the neighbonr- 
hood of the towns, fruits and vegetables are reared in great perfection. 

4th, Animals. — The principal domestic animals are horses, camels, 
humi^ oxen, and the broad-tailed sheep, which form the great stock of 
the pastoral tribes. Lions, tigers, and leopards are sometimes met with, 
and bears, wolves, hyenas, jackals, foxes, &c. abound. Game of all kinds 
is plentiful, and wild sheep and goats are common on the eastern hills. 

5th, Minerals.— Gold is sometimes found in the beds of the rivers, 
and the mountains around Cabul contain silver, copper, iron, lead, ana 


by Google 





Boundaries. — N. Tibet ; W. Afghanistan and the 
Arabian Sea ; S. the Indian Ocean ; E, the Bay of, 
Bengal and the Eastern Peninsula. 

Divisions. — 1. Gangetic Hindostan, viz. Bengal, 
Bahar/ Allahabad, Oude, Nepaul, Agra, Delhi, Ajmere, 
and Malwa ; 2. Sindetic Hindostan, viz. Cashmere, La- 
hore or Punjab, Moultan, and Sinde ; 3. Central Hin- 
dostan, viz. Gujerat, Candeish, Berar, Orissa, the Gircars, 
Hydrabad, Bejapore or Visiapore, Aurungabad, and Con- 
can ; 4. Southern Hindostan, viz. Mysore, the Carnatic, 
Canara, Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore. 

TowNs.f — 1. Calcutta (a), Moorshedabad, Patna, • 
Allahabad, Lucknow, Catmandoo, Agra, Delhi (6), 
Ajmere, Ougein ; 2. Cashmere (c), Lahore, Moultan, 
Hyderabad ; S. Ahmedabad, Surat (d), Burhampore, 
Nagpore, Cuttack, Juggernaut (e), Vizagapatam, Ma- 
suUpatam, Hydrabad, Golconda, Bejapore, Aurungabad, 
Poonah, Bombay (/), Goa ; 4. Seringapatam (g), Ma- 
dras, Arcot, Pondicherry. 

Islands. — Ceylon, Maldives, Laccadives, Elephanta, 

* India in general consistB of /«oo parts — India mthih,B,nd India beyond 
the Ganges. By the term East Indies, the moderns include not only the 
two peninsulas, but niost of the islands in the Indian and Eastern Oceans. 

f The description of one Indian city may stand for a description of all ; 
they heing generally built on one plan, with exceedingly narrow, confined, 
and crooked streets ; having an incredible number of reserroirs and ponds, 
and a great many gardens interspersed. A few of the streets are paved 
with brick. The houses are yariously built, some with brick, others with 
mud, and a still greater proportion with bamboos and mats ; and these 
•diffSBrent kinds of fabrics, standing intermixed with each other, present a 
motley appearance. Those of the latter kind are invariably of one story, 
and covered with thatch ; those of brick seldom exceed two floors, and 
have flat terraced roofs. The presidential capitals, however, contain 
many splendid edifices. 



166 filNBOSTAN. 

Salsette, and Andaman Isles. In Ceylon are the towns 
of Candy, Colombo, <md Trmcomalee. 

Mountains. — The Himmaleh or Himalaya Moun- 
tains, the Western cmd Eastern Grtiauts, running along 
the Malabar and Coromandel coasts. 

Gulfs, &c. — Gulfs of Cutch and Cambay, Cape 
Comorin, Gulf of Manaar, Adam's Bridge, Palk's Strait 
or Channel, and the Bay of Bengal. 

RiVER^. — Ganges^ Indus, Burhampooter or Brah- 

ADDiTiofNAii TowKs. — 1. Ohandemagore^ Sooglyy Daccoy 
Benares (h\ Oude (t), BareiUy, Gwalior ; 2. AttodCy Sirhind, 
Tatta; 3. 'EUidtpore^ Ruttunpore, Rajamundry; 4. Mysore^ Ban- 
gahre^ Cuddalore, Tranquebar, Negapatamy Tai^orey Trichinopoly, 
Dindigulj Maduray Trivandrumy CochinyOdlicut (^), TelUcherryy 

Additional RrvERs.-^5u^/ed^e, Jumna^ GogrOy NerbuddOy 
TapteCy Mahanuddyy Godaveryy Kistna^ Cavery. 

HiNDOSTAN, BO far as it is not held by the British in foU sovereignty, is 
divided amon^ the following powers or states : 

1. The Seiks, who possess Lahore, Cashmere, and Monltan. Lahnre 
is their capital. 

2. Nepaul. Catmandoo is'the capital. 

3. Parts of the Western Mahratta territory, held by Scindia, whose 
capital is Gwalior ; Holkar, whose capital is Indore. 

4. The Berar or Eastern Mahrattas. Their possessions are Berar 
and Orissa. Nagpore is their capital. 

5. The Rajpoot territories, Ajmere, Mewar, Marwar, Eotah, &c. 

6. The king of Oude, whose capital is Lucknow, 

7. The Nizam, or Sovbahdar of the Deccan, who is sovereign oC 
Golconda, principal part of Aurungabad, and the western part of Sevar. 
His capital'is Hgdrabad. 

8. Tne Rajah of Mtsore, who resides at Mysore, 

* The Ganges rises in the Himmaleh Monntain& N. from Delhi, flowB 
S. £., receiving the Jumna, the Gogra, the Sone, &o., divides into several 
branches, and falls into the Bay of Bengal ; its western branch the Ho9gkf^ 
passes Calcutta : the Indus, consisting of several branches from Tibet, 
receiTcs the five rivers of the Punjab, and flows into the Indian Ooean ; 
-the Brahmapootra, under the name of Sanpoo^ rises N. of the Himmaleh 
Mountains, flows S. E. through Tibet, turns S. W. throuf^ Asssm, then 
^ through the E. of Bengal, and Alls into the Bay of Bengal, after suit- 
ing with the eastern branch of the Ganges. 

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(a) In the prison of CkUeuita is thefamons black htde^9, room only 18 foot 
square, into which 146 Englishmen were thrust by a natiye prioce, in 1756, 

of whom 123 died before morning. (Jb) Delhi, formerly the capital of 

the Mongol empire, has been very thinly inhabited since the dreadful mas- 
sacre by Nadir Shah, in which 100,000 people are said to hare perished. 

(c) Cashmere, famed for its manufacture of shawls. id) Surat has 

an hospital for sick and maimed antma/«, but no establishment of the kind 

for the human species. ie) Juggernaut, near which is a famous ipa^^ocfa, 

a vast pile of building, where the most horrid idolatrous rites are performed ; 
here superstition wears her most dreadful aspect : Dr Buchanan, in his 
^ Christian Researches,*' circumstantially describes the honours paid to 

this Moloch of Hindostan. (/) Bombay,* situated on an island of the 

same name, was part of the dower brought by Catherine, the infanta of 

Portugal, to king Charles II. of England. ig) Seringapatam, formerly 

the capital of the kingdom of Mysore, is now in possession of the British. 
In 1792, Lord Comwallis compelled Tippoo, soyereign of Mysore, to cede 
about one-third of his domimons to the East India Company ^ and in 
1799, this tyrant lost his life and kingdom together, his territories being 
conquered by Marauis Wellesley. 

ih) Benares is the ancient seat of Brahminical learning. (t) Oude 

is one of the oldest cities of Hindostan. It is mentioned as the capital of a 
great kingdom, in Ferishia*s history, 1209 years before the Christian era; 
but whatever may have been its former magnificence, scarcely any traces 

of it are left. ik) Calicut, the first Indian port which was visited by 

the English ; the manufacture of cotton goods established here is called 
calico, nrom the name of the town. 


The Brittsh Possessions in India are divided into three Presidencies, 
1. Bengal, which contains the provinces of Bengal, Bahar, Allahabad, 
Agra, and Delhi ; 2. Madras, comprising the Carnatic, Tanjore, the 
Northern Circars, and a great part of Mysore, and Visiapore ; 3. Bombay, 
which contains Sinde, and a large extent of Aurungabad, Candeish, ana 
Gujerat. The British rank as their allies, or rather vassals, the Soubahdar 
of the Deccan, the Kiug of Oude, the Rajah of Mysore, Holkar, and most 
of the Rajpoot Princes. The Seiks and Nepaul^ are independent. 

I. Historical Geography of Hindostan. 

Ist, Names.— The native name of this oelebcated country is said to be 
in the ancient Sanscrit language Bharata; but its proper appellation seems 
to be Medhyama, and Bharatwas the first king. That ot Hindostan appears 
to have been imposed by the Persians, and derived, like the classical name 
India, from the great western river Indus, with the Persian termination 
tan or stan, which signifies a country .f It was long known by the name 
of the empire of the Great Mogul, because it was then subject to Mongol 
emperors, successors of Timur the Tartar. 

2d, Extent The length of this portion of Asia from N. to S. is about 

1900 English miles ; the greatest breadth is 1500. The surface of the 

* The name is Portuguese, buon bafna, a good bay. 

ir The word Hindostan is indeed entirely of Persian origin, componnded 
of stan^ a region, and Hind^ or Hindoo^ Indian ; i. e. the Indian region, 
or the^Mtmlry of India, 

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«oaiitry is compnied to occupy 1/280,000 sqnare miles, and the entire 
population is 134,000,000, of whom 86,000,000 are under the British gov- 
emment, 40,000,000 under princes who are its tributaries or allies, and 
6,000,000 under independent native princes. 

3d, Chbonologt. — The native population may be generally considered 
as indigenous, or, in other words, peculiar to the country. In the N. 
and N. W. there may be some slight admixture of the Persians, of the 
Greeks of Bactriana, and of the ancient Scvthians. The Hindoo chronol- 
ogy, published by Anquetil du Perron, is tnat of the rajahs or sovereigns 
of Bengal ; and the most remarkable facts are, repeated invasions by the 
Persians, one of them supposed to be fourteen centuries before the Chris- 
tian era. The invasion of Western India by Alexander the Great hap- 
pened about 325 years b. c. The first irruption of the Mahometans 
(under Mahmoua of Ghizni) was in a. d. 1000. Genghis Khan, a 
Tartar prince, also directed his forces thither in 1221, but did not pass 
the Indus. In 1389, the Mongol Tartars, under the conduct of Ti- 
mur or Tamerlane, invaded Hindostan : but the conc^uest of the country 
Ivas not effected till 1525, by Sultan Baber, one of his descendants, who, 
from this circumstance, was the founder oCXhe Mongol dynasty ; and hence 
Hindostan has been called the Mongol empire, and its chief the Great 
Mogul. In the reign of Aurungzebe, which lasted from 1660 to 1707, the 
empire attained its fuU extent ; his authority extended over twenty-five 
degrees in lat. and nearly as much in long., and his revenue is said to have 
exceeded £32,000,000 sterling ; equal, perhaps, considering the compara- 
tive value of money, to £160,000,000 sterling in England. Aft&t his 
death, one weak prince succeeded another, till the invasion of India by the 
Persian usurper Nadir Shah, in 1 738. This disastrous event took place in 
the reign of Mohammed Shah ; in that of his successor Shah Ahmed the 
empire fell to pieces from its own inherent weakness, nothing remaining to 
the descendants of Tamerlane but the city and small territory of Delhi. The 
Mongol empire was now become merely nominal ; and the emperors, 
from this period, must be regarded as of no political consequence, other- 
wise than as their names and persons were made use of by different parties 
to promote their own views ; a considerable degree of veneration for the 
name and person of the emperor bein^ retained among the bulk of the people 
in Hindostan. Ahmed was deposed in 1753, and his successor was mur- 
dered in 1 760. The latter was succeeded, however, by his son Shah Alum, 
who died in 1806, when Akbar Shah, his second son, became his successor. 
The East India Company, now the virtual rulers of this wide do- 
minion, consisted originally of a body of mercantile adventurers, who 
obtained a charter from Queen Elizabeth in 1600. In 1611, the Mogul 
gave them permission to establish a factory in Surat; their fiM settlement 
at Madras was formed in 1648; and Fort William at Calcutta was erected 
in 1699. Since that time, partly by treaty and partly by conquest, their 
authority has been gradually extended over tne greater part of the 

4th, Antiquities.— The ancient monuments of Hindostan are very 
numerous, and of various descriptions, exclusive of the tombs and other 
edifices of the Mahometan conquerors. Some of the most remarkable are 
excavated temples, statues, relievos, &c. Several ancient grants of lands, 
some coins and seals, have also been found. 

II. Political Geography, 


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1st, Religion — The original faith of India appears to have been Boodh- 
Mm, a system widely diffused over the East, and which seems radieally 
to be nothing more than a philosophical theory of (he universe combinea 


with moral precepts, though it nowhere exists in a pure state. The balk 
of the inhabitants of Hindostan, however, are now votaries of Brahminism, 
but in numerous sects, offering endless shades of difference. This system 
recognises a supreme oeing in the ineffable Brahm, who is represented as 
too sublime for human adoration ; but he is believed to delegate his powers 
to BramOf Vishnu, and Siva, and an infinite number of subaltern divini- 
ties, each of whom have undergone various avatars or incarnations. The 
doctrine of transmigration is one of the distinguishing tenets of Brah- 
minism. The worship is conducted in magnificent temples, and consists 
of splendid ceremonies and processions ; but though the most minute 
afi&irs of every-day life, dress, food, &c., are regulated by religious sanc- 
tions, the whole system is sanguinary and debasing to the last degree. — 
A numerous sect in Central ^nd Western Hindostan are the JainaSf who 
profess a modified Boodhism, believing in the eternity of matter, and at 
the same time in a deifcy possessing infinite wisdom and power.— The re- 
ligion of the SeUcs owes its origin to Nanek, a native of Lahore, bom in 
1419 : it may be briefly described as a mixture of Brahminism and Islam, 
both the Hindoo Vedas and the Mahometan Koran being esteemed oi 
divine authority.— There are besides various other sects, from the Thugs, 
a tribe of robbers and assassins, who believe their infamous trade to oe 
under the protection of a deity, to the Parsfies of Bombay, who follow the 
mild worship of the ancient Magi. The Mussulmans, long the dominant 
people of India, are supposed to amount to fifteen millions ; the European 
settlers are of course all professors of Christianity. 

2d, Government.— The Hindoos, or Gentoos, like most oriental and 
many other nations, are divided into tribes or castes. The four principal 
tribes are the Brahmins, soldiers, labourers, and mechanics, and these are 
subdivided into a multiplicity of inferior distinctions ; but there is besides 
a fifth class called pariafis^ outcasts from their original rank, who are in 
the lowest state of degradation. The members of each caste adhere invari- 
ably to the profession of their forefathers : from generation to generation 
the same families have followed, and still continue to follow, one uniform 
manner of life. The Gentoo laws (with their sacred books, the Vedas, 
Puranas, &c.) are written in the Sanscrit language, and are intimately 
blended with their religion. The native rulers of Hindostan have been 
almost invariably despots of the most rapacious and unprincipled descrip- 
tion ; but the greater part of the country now enjoys the advantages of 
settled government under the East India Company, and is divided into 
three presidencies, with a governor and council over each. The governor- 
general resides at Calcutta. The laws are administered partly by native 
judges, and are studiously so framed as not to shock the prejudices of the 

III. Civil Geography. 

1st, Manners and Customs.— Various rude and even sanguinary tribes 
are scattered over Hindostan ; but the Hindoos generally may be de- 
scribed as a gentle and peaceful race. Their religion permits them to have 
several wives ; but they seldom have more than one ; and the married 
females are distinguished by a decency of demeanour, a solicitude for their 
families, and a fidelitj to their vows, which might do honour to human 
nature in the most civilized countries. Such as are not engaged in worldly 
pursuits are a very superstitious simple people, who promote charity 
as much as they can, both to man and beast : but those who engage in 
the world are generally the worst of all the Gentoos ; for, persuaded that 
the waters of the Ganges will purify them from their sua, and being 

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exempt from the utmost ligoxtr of the courts of justice (under the Gentoo 
goyemments), th«y run into great excesses. The custom of burning 
widows on a funeral-pile with the corpses of their husbands, formerly 
much practised in Hiudostan, is now prohibited by the British gov- 
emment. The houses, which generally consist only of a ground-floor, 
are built of earth or bricks, covered with mortar, and sometimes with 
excellent cement^ with no windows, or only small apertures. The 
amusements consist of religious processions ; but though dancing-girls 
abound, theatrical exhibitions do not seem so common as in the countries 
farther to the east. 

12d, Lanouagb.— -The ancient language of flindostan is believed to have 
been the Sanscrit, an original and refined speech, consisting of fifty-two 
characters, compared by Sir William Jones to the Greek and Latin. The 
more common dialects are the Bengalee, Hindostanee, Mahrati, Telinga, 
with the dialects of the Camatic, Fiinjab, Nepaul, &c. The literature of 
Hindostan doubtless contains several valuable and curious monuments ; 
but their epochs are extremely uncertain. The chief university in the N. 
is that of Benares^ or Venares* a celebrated and ancient school, now in- 
cluded in the British possessions. 

3d, Manufactures and Commercb.— The chief manufactures of Hin- 
dostan are those of muslins and calicoes, in which the natives long 
excelled all other nations ; the principal exports consist of diainonds, 
indigo, opium, raw silks, with a few wrought silks, spices, drugs, &c. 
The shawls of Cashmere are also deservedly esteemed : they are woven from 
a material chiefly supplied by Tibet. Sculpture is as little advanced as 
painting, the design and execution being alike bad ; yet the temples are 
sometimes majestic and solemn. In most trades very few tools are em- 
ployed. The simple loom is reared in the morning under a tree, and 
carried home in the evening. — Diamonds, and some other precious stones, 
are abundant in Hindostan ; as well as many spices, aromatics, and 
drugs. Rice, sugar, and many articles of luxury, are also products <^ 
this country. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, CtiMATB AND SEASONS.— The climate and seasons are considerably 
diversified by difference of latitude and local situation. Yet in general, 
though the Himmaleh summits are covered with perpetual snow, the 
climate is very similar through the wide regions of Hindostan, being 
mostly regulated by the periodical vnnds called monsoons. Unless in 
Cashmere and Nepaul, there can hardly be said to be any winter, ex- 
cept during the thick fogs of November ; excessive rains and scorching 
heats forming the chief varieties of the year. In Bengal, the hot or dry 
season begins with March, and lasts till the end of May ; the rainy 
season continues from June to September : heavy mists often prevail in 
January and February. By the latter end of June the Ganges has risen 
15^ feet of the 32, which is the extreme height of the inundation. By the 
latter end of July, all the lower parts of Bengal, or the Sunderbunds, 
contiguous to the Ganges and Brahmapootra, are overflowed, and form 
an inundation of more than 100 miles in width. The rainy season on the 
Malabar and Coromandel coasts happens regularly at diffiarent periods of 
the year. 

2d, Face of the ComtTRY. — Hindostan consists chiefly of extensiTe 
plains, fertilized by numerous rivers and streams, and interspersed with 
a few ranges of hills. The chain of mountains, however, along tihe 
northern frontier is now ascertained to be the most elevated in the world, 

* The Bengal language has no v, and instead of it employs the b. 

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rtring to the height of firom 25,000 to 28,000 feet, and covafed to a gsest 
depth with perpetual snow. The Gbauts in the S. are not estimated mt 
abore 3000 feet. The periodical rains and intense heats produce a luxuri- 
ance of Te^i^tion unKnown in almost anv other country on the globe : 
and the variety and richness of the yeg^etable creation deUght the ere of 
every spectator. Large forests occur in various quarters, particularly 
near the mouths of the Ganges, and in the wide unexplored regions on 
the W. of the Circars. These woods surpass in exuberance of growth any 
idea which Europeans can form ; creeping plants of prodigious size and 
len^h, extended from tree to tree, forming an impenetrable gloom. The 
choicest of those plants that contribute to the sustenance, the convenience, 
and elegance of numan life, are scattered over this favoured country : 
double harvests, two crops of fruit from many of the trees, and from others 
a copious and regular supplv during the greater part of the year, support 
its numerous population, wnile its timber of everjr quality, its herbs of 
me^cinal virtue, its valuable dyeing drugs, and its cottons and other 
vegetable articles of clothing, supply its inhabitants in abundance with the 
materials of luxury and refinement.— Each leaf of the talHpoi palm, 
which abounds on the lower mountains of the Camatic, is capable ot, 
covering ten or a dozen men, and two or three of them are sufficient to 
roof a cottage. The cotton-tree rises, with a thorny trunk 18 feet in cir- 
cumference, to the height of 50 feet without a brancn ; it then throws out 
boughs, which are adorned in the rainy season with purple blossoms as 
large as the open hand, and these are succeeded by capsules filled with a 
fine kind of cotton. The teak-tree is used principally for shipbuilding. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil is in some parts so excellent as 
to consist of black vegetable mould to the depth of six feet. Rice is the 
chief grain ; and on the dry sandy lands of the Coromandel coast great 
industry is displayed in watering it. Maize and the sugar-cane are also 
faTonrite products. The cultivation of cotton is widely diffused ; and this 
plant thrives particularly on the arid shores of Ck>romandel. Opium and 
indigo in Bengal, and pepper in Malabar, are also important staples. 

4th, Animals The numerous cavalry which form the armies of the 

Hindoo chiefs employ ^eat numbers of horses. In some regions there 
are ponies not exceeding 30 inches in height. The wild mule and the 
wild ass sometimes pass in herds to the northern mountains, from the cen- 
tre of Asia and the desert of Gobi. The cattle of Hindostan are plentiful, 
and often of a lar^e size, with a hunch on the shoulders. The sheep are 
corered vnth hair instead of wool, except in the most northern parts. An- 
telopes of various beautiful kinds abound. The Arabian camel, or that 
witn a single hunch, is not unfrequent about Patna. The usual neight of 
the elephant is about 10 feet. Apes and monkeys are found in various re- 
gknis of Hindostan. The dogs are generally of the cur kind. The other 
animals are wild boars, bears, wolves, foxes, jackals, hyenas, leopards, 
panthers, lynxes : in the N., musk weasels, and many other quadrupeds 
of inferior size. The lion is found near the northern mountains. The 
royal tiger of Bengal is, however, a far more terrible animal than the 
stoutest lion ; the height of some being said to 'reach five feet, and the 
leng:th in proportion. His spring has been stated to extend 100 feet, 
which is not improbable when compared with that of the cat. Such is 
the nature of the animal, that if unsuccessful in his first leap, he droops 
his tail and retreats. The rhinoceros with one horn, an animal of the 
8w&mps, abounds in the Gangetic isles. 

5ih, Minerals.— The most distinguished and peculiar mineral product 
of Hindostan is the diamond, which indeed also occurs in Brazil, but of 
far inferior quality. This substance is the most hard, transparent, and 
brilliant of ail minerals, and is commonly colourless ; but is seen occa- 
nonally of citron-yellow , gray, brown, or blaok. The chief and most cele- 
loated diamond mines are those near Visiapore and Golconda.~GoM is 

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met with in the rivers which flow from Tihet into the Granffes and Indus. 
Silver is rare thron^^hout the oriental regions, and there is no indioati<Miof 
this mineral in India. — The natives sometimes seek for the care of diseases 
by bathing in the sacred streams ; and their devotion to water in general 
seems to prevent their exploring any medicinal sonrces. Yet there are a 
few exceptions, and several warm springs are reputed sacred. 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— Among the singular features of nature 
maybe mentioned the inundations of the rivers ; the northern mountains 
covered with snow ; the wide desert on the E. of the Indus ; the high 
table-land of Mysore, supported by natural buttresses of hills ; the prodi- 
gious forests ; and the detached ridges of rock, sometimes crownea with 
strong fortresses. Adam's Bridge is a noted fable of the Brahmins, for, 
in their strong imaginations and weak judgments, every thing assumes a 
&bulous tinge. It is a kind of sand-bank, with some isles stretching from 
a promontory to the opposite isle of Ceylon ; but the name of Rama has 
been exchanged by the Mahometans for that of Adam. 


1st, Name.— This isle is the Taprobana of the ancients, the Serendih 
of the Arabians : in Hindostanee it is called Lanca; and4;he people are 
doubtless of Hindoo origin. 

2d, Extent.— Ceylon is supposed to be about 280 miles in length by 100 
of average breadth. Population, nearly one million and a half 

3d, Chronoloot.— In the reign of Claudius, ambassadors were sent to 
Rome by a Singalese* rajah, or king, whom Pliny, mistaking his title for 
his name, has called Rachia. In the year 1506, this island was seized by 
the Portuguese, who were expelled by the Dutch about 1660. It now be- 
longs to the British. 

4th, Religion The religion is the ancient worship of Boodh, whose . 

images appear with short and crisped hair, because it is fabled that he cut 
it with a golden sword, which produced that effect.— Boodhism is sup- 

eised to have originated in Ceylon, and thence to have spread to ancient 
indostan, to Exterior India, Tibet, and even to China and Japan. Such 
are the traditions in Siam, Pegu, and other countries^ which suppose that 
Boodh, probably a kind of Confucius, or deified philosopher, ficurished 
about 540 years before the Christian era. Though they acknowledge a 
supreme God, they worship only the inferior deities, among which they 
reckon the sun and moon. 

5th, Manners and Customs. — ^The natives have few manners and 
customs distinct from other Hindoos. The higher classes have made con- 
siderable advances in European civilisation, and the numerous govern- 
ment and missionary schools throughout the island have done much for 
the instruction of all classes. 

6th, Manufactures.— The Singalese seem not unskilled in the common 
works in gold and iron. There is a considerable export of cinnamon, 
ivory, and other articles ; and the island has long been celebrated for its 
pearl fishery and the valuable gems with which it abounds. 

7th, Climate, &c.— The climate and seasons correspond in some degree 
with those of the adjacent continent ; vet the exposure on all sides to the 
sea renders the air more cool and salubrious. The general aspect of the 
country somewhat resembles that of southern Hindostan ; a high table-land 

^ The naiiffes of Ceylon are called Singaiete^ either from a native or 
Portuguese term. 

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in the centre being snrronnded by low shores, abont six or eight leagues in 
breadth. Lofty mountains, prodigious forests full of aromatic trees and 
plants, and many pleasant rivers and streams diversify this country, which 
by the natives is esteemed a second paradise. The vales, when cleared, 
are amazingly fertile in rice and other useful vegetables. The most valu- 
able yegetable product is the cinnamon tree ; next to which may be named 
the cocoa-nut, and the Palmyra palm, whose juice yields a kind of mUk, 
while its leaves serve for writing-paper. The tallipot palm is also a native 
of Ceylon. The most considerable mountain is tnat called Adam's Peaky 
which is of a pyramidal form, near the centre of the island. On its top 
is a large flat stone, with an impression on it in the shape of a man's foot, 
but considerably longer. The Singalese have a tradition that Boodh, the 
founder of their religion, left the print of his foot on this stone when he 
ascended into heaven. 

8th, Animals. — Among the animals are elephants in great numbers, 
buffaloes, leopards, wild boars, bears, jackals, and many tribes of deer and 
monkeys. The alligator, i^equent in the rivers of Hindostan, is here 
sometimes the length of 18 feet. Among a vast variety of elegant birds, 
the peacock, that rich ornament of the Indian forest, abounds in this beau- 
tiful island. 

9th, Minerals. — There are mines of gold, iron, plumbago, &c. Among 
the precious stones are the genuine ruby, sapphire, and topaz. The finest 
rock-crystals, both the coUiurless and those of the violet colour called 
amethysts, are found here in abundance, and are generally dark-brown, 
or yellowish ; while those of other colours come £om Brazil and Tyrol. 
It IS also asserted that this island prodnces the genuine emerald, which 
is commonly esteemed peculiar to Peru. The cat"s-eye seems the charac- 
teristic mineral of Ceylon, as the noble or genuine opal is of Hungary. 

10th, Pearls.— The pearl fishery commonly begins on the N. W. shore 
about the middle of February, and continues till about the middle of April, 
when the S. W. monsoon * commences. The divers are chiefly Christians, 
or Moslems, who descend from five to ten fathoms, and remain under water 
about two minutes. The pearls are always formed like the coats of an 
onion, around a grain of sand, or some other extraneous particle. The 
yellow or gold-coloured are most esteemed by the natives ; some are of a 
bright red lustre, but the dull gray and blackish are of no value. 


Ptolemt computes the MaldiveSff which mariners saw before they 
reached Ceylon, at more than 1300. They form as it were an oblong en- 
closure of small, low, regular isles, around a clear space of sea, with yery 
shallow water between each. The people are Mahometans, speaking the 
Singalese language, and are governed by a single chief. The traffic is in 
cowrie shells, with cocoa-nuts and fish. The Laccadive islands form a 
more extended gronp, though only 30 in number. They also trade in 
cocoa-nuts and nsh ; and amoergris is often found floating in the vicinity. 
In the small sound of Bombay are the isles of SaUette and Elephanta, in 
which are subterraneous temples. 

* Monsoons are shifting trade-winds in the Indian Ocean, which blow 
f In the Hindoo language, dive implies an isle, ^ i 

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Where is Arabia, Bengal, Syria, Hadramaut,' Delhi, Persia, 
Moultan, Siberia, Mysore, China, Yemen, Irak-Arabi, Tibet, 
Algezira, Allahabad, Oman, Gujerat, Hedjaz, Kurdistan ! &c. 

Where is Mecca, Smyrna, Teheran, Calcutta, Tobolsk, Ispa- 
han, Mocha, Jerusalem, Madras, Juggernaut, Bagdad, Seringa- 
patam, Pekin, Canton, Bokhara, Golconda, Rostak, Gombroon, 
Catmandoo, Medina, Aleppo, Bursa, Pondicherry, Candy \ &c. 

Where is the island of Cyprus, Ceylon, Ormus, Socotra, New 
Guinea, Bahrein, Elephanta, Andaman Isles ! &c« 

Where is Mount Ida, Horeb, Caucasus, Sinai, the Ghauts, 
Hiramaleh Mountains, Ararat, Olympus, Taurus, Lebanon ! &c. 

Where is the Red Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Sea of Gralilee, 
Lake Urmia, Palk's Strait, the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, 
Cape Comorin, the Straits of Ormus, the Sea of Aral, Lake Van, 
the Dead Sea, Adam's Bridge ! &c. 

Describe the Ganges ; into what river does the Aras fall ! in 
what direction does the Indus flow \ name the two largest rivera 
in Turkey in Asia ; on what river does Antioch stand I into what 
sea does the Jordan fall 1 &c. 




Boundaries. — N. China and Tibet; W. Hindostan 
and the Bay of Bengal ; S. Straits of Malacca and Gulf 
of Siam ; E. Chinese Sea and Gulf of Tonquin. 

Divisions. — 1. British Territories, viz, Assam, Ara- 
can, and the Tenasserim Provinces ; 2. Birman Empire ; 
3. Siam ; 4. Malaya or Malacca ; 6. Laos ; 6. Empire 
of Annam or Cochin-China, comprising Cochin- China, 
Tonquin, and Cambodia. 

Towns. — 1. Jorhaut, Rungpore, Aracan, Moulmein, 

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Tavoy, Mergui, Tenasserim ; 2. Ava, Pegu, Rangoon ; 
3. Bankok ; 4. Malacca {which belongs to the British) ; 
5. Lanchang ; 6. Hue, Ke&ho, Saigon. 

Gulfs. — Martaban, Siam, Tonquin, 

Islands. — Pulo Penang or Prince of Wales' Island, 
and Singapore {both belonging to Britain). 

Capes. — Negrais, Romania, Cambodia. 

Rivers. — Irrawady, Thaleain or Saluen, Meinain, 


Assam.— This territory, which consists of a narrow strip of land 
between Bootan and the frontiers of Birmah, 460 miles in length by 60 in 
breadth, contains an area of about 18,000 square miles, with a population 
of 600,000. It is trayersed throughout nearly its whole length from £. to 
W. by the river Brahmapootra ; and its general aspect is that of a fine 
fertile plain enclosed by ranges of hills. Among the products are many 
kinds of valuable^ fruits, silks, musk, pepper, cocoa-nuts, ginger, and 
cotton; but the chief objects of culture are rice and mustard-seed. Tea 
has been discovered growing in great abundance, and efforts are now 
being made for its cultivation. A number of people are emploved in 
wfbshing gold dust from the sands of the rivers ; and silver, leadf, iron, 
coal, and salt abound.— Assam is divided into three provinces, caUea 
Upper, Central, and Lower, of which the first and last are in the direct 
occupation of the British, while the central province is ruled by a tributary 
rajah. The people consist of numerous different tribes, each under a 
separate chieftain ; they are active and hardy, but vindictive, deceitfhl, 
and barbarous. Many go quite naked, their habitations are mere huts, 
and besides rice, which is their principal food, they do not scruple to 
devour serpents, rats, locusts, dogs, &c. Their religion is that of 
Brama, introduced in the 17th century. Amid the revolutions of India, 
Assam maintained its independence till 1822, when it fell into the hands 
of the Birmese, by whom, three years afterwards, it was ceded to the 

Abacan. — This country was conquered from the Birmese by the British 
in 1825. It forms a narrow strip of territory along the Ba^ of Ben- 
gal, 500 miles in length, with a breadth gradually diminishmg south- 
wards from 90 to 30 miles, and is separated from Birmah by a range of 
high mountains. Area, 20,000 square miles ; population, 230,000. The 
country generally is diversified with hill and dale, but having low and 
marshy tracts towards the seashore ; several of the rivers are navigable, 
and the coast contains many good harbours. Owing to the copious rains 
and intense heat, the soil displays great fertility ; but the climate is de- 
cidedly tinhealthy. The inhabitants are a native race called Muffhs; 

* The Irrawady and Thaleain flow S. through the Birman Empire into 
the bay of Bengal, the Meinam flows S. through Siam into the golf of 
Siam, the May-kiang flows S. through Laos and Cambedia into the Chi- 
nese Sea. ^ . 

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bat there are also considerable nambers of Mnssulmans, Hindoos, and 
Birmese. The first resemble the Birmese in language and religion, though 
they universally eat animal food, their chief means of support being hunt- 
ing and fishing. They are mostly all able to read and write, being taught 
by the priests, of whom there are two or three in each Tillage ; and they 
display a considerable love of finery. The farmers and principal traders, 
however, are the Mahometans and Hindoos, who cultivate considerable 
quantities of rice, indigo, and cotton, which, with elephants' teeth, hides, 
Bugar, wax, &c., are now largely exchanged for European and Tndian 
manufactures. The countrv has been greatly improvea since it fell into 
the hands of the British ; the bands of robbers infesting it have been ex- 
tirpated, and the people awakened to industry by the blessings of regular 
government.— Aracan is the chief town. 

Tenasserim Provinces.— This name has been given to a territory taken 
from the Birmese in 18*25, consisting of the W. or coast districts of Siam, 
and comprising the provinces of Martaban, Ye, Tavoy, and Tenasserim. 
The country is about 480 miles in length by only 45 in breadth ; contain- 
ing an area of 32,500 square miles, with a population of 1 60,000. It is 
separated from Siam by a chain of lofty mountains, clothed with dense 
forests containing teak, sapan, and other valuable woods ; along the coast 
is an alluvial flat covered with mangroves ; and the soil in the centre dis- 
plavs great fertility. The climate is divided into the wet and dry seasons, 
each of six months' duration, and is on the whole healthier than many 
parts of India. Only a small portion of the land is cultivated, rice being, 
as usual, the staple product ; but sweet potatoes, yams, beans, onions, and 
cucumbers are common, and tobacco is universally reared. Cocoa-nuts, 
cardamoms, long pepper, and catechu are gathered wild.— The population 
consists of several different tribes, of Birmese extraction, in various stages 
of civilisation. The elephant and rhinoceros abound ; and there is a con- 
siderable trade in ivory, horns, edible birds' nests, vegetable produce, &c., 
which are exchanged for European and Chinese articles. Since these 
provinces were ceded to the British, the towns of Amherst and Moulmein 
have been founded, the latter of which enjoys a considerable commerce ; 
and the country has made rapid strides in improvement. 


Boundaries. — N. Tibet and Assam ; W. Bengal and Aracan ; 
S. Bay of Bengal ; E. Siam, Laos, and China. 

I. Historical Geography of the Birman Empire, 

1st, Name.— The Birman empire derives its name from the Birmese^ 
who have been long knovm as a warlike nation, the capital city of their 
kingdom being called Ava or A wa. Pegu is by the natives styled Bagoo ; 
being the country situated to the S. of the former, and supposed to have 
been the Golden Chersonese of the ancients. 

2d, Extent.— The length of the Birman dominions, from Assam to the 
mouths of the Irrawady, is about 750 English miles ; the breadth 200. 
The population is estimated at four millions. 

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8d, Chronoloot.— Of the original inhabitants little can be said. Al^ 
though this country appears to ha^e been known to the ancients, consti- 
tuting the utmost boundary of their knowledge in this quarter of the globe, 
yet the first precise ideas concerning it ]were derived from the discoTeries 
of the Portuguese. The kingdom of Ava, or Birmahj was conquered in 
1752 by the king of Feau, who carried awa^ the Birman monarch as 
a prisoner, and caused nim to be murdered in 1754. Alompra, a Bir- 
man of low extraction, revolted against the Peguese, got possession of 
Ava in 1753, and after numerous battles, with various success, became 
the conqueror of Pegu in 1757. In consequence of a dispute with the Bir- 
man monarch, the British East India government invaded his territories 
in February 1824, and, after an expensive contest of two years, compelled 
him to sue for peace, which was granted, but upon severe conaitions. He 
ceded Assam, Aracan, and the Tenasserim provinces, comprehending all 
the seacoast of his dominions, except that which bounds the delta of the 
Irrawady, and agreed to pa;^ a million sterling. 

4th, AwTKiUiTiES. — The city of Pegu is decorated with that extraor- 
dinary edifice, the vast pyramid of Shomadoo, on a double terrace, one side 
of the lower being 1391 feet, of the upper 684. The building is comj)osed 
of brick and mortar, octagonal at the base, and spiral at the top, without 
any cavity or aperture. At the summit is a Tee, or sacred umbrella, of 
. open iron work gilt, 56 feet in circumference ; the heieht of the whole 
being 361 feet, and above the inner terrace 331 feet. Tradition assigns 
its origin to a very remote period. 

XL Political Geography. 

Ist, Religion. — The Birmese follow the worship of Hindostan, not as 
votaries of Brama but as disciples of Boodh ; which latter is admitted 
by Hindoos of all descriptions to be the ninth Avatar, or descent of the 
deity in his capacity of preserver. The Birmese believe in the transmi- 
gration of souls ; after which the radically bad will be condemned to 
punishment, while the good shall enjoy eternal happiness in the mount 
Meru, They esteem mercy to be the cnief attribute of the divinity. 

2d, Government. — Though the form of government is despotic, yet 
the emperor consults a council of ancient nobles. The taaloe, or chain, is 
the badge of nobility, the number of strings or divisions denoting the rank 
of the person, being three, six, nine, or twelve, while the monarch alone 
wears twenty-four. The empire comprises two great divisions— Pe^u, 
consisting of the delta of the Irrawady and other S. districts ; and Bir- 
mah, which comprehends all the upper country, and is the seat of the 
dominant people : for administrative purposes the whole is divided into 
provinces rulwl by viceroys. 

3d, Laws.— The Birman system of jurisprudence is distinguished above 
the Hindoo code for perspicuity and good sense ; it provides specifically 
for almost every species of crime that can be committed, and adds a copi- 
ous chapter of precedents and decisions, to /^ide the inexperienced in cases 
where tnere is doubt or difficulty. The pumshments, however, are marked 
by the greatest cruelty, and the ends of justice are too frequently perverted 
by the venality of the legal functionaries. 

4th, Army and Navy.— Every man in the empire is liable to military 
service, though there is no standing army. The infantry are not regularly 
clothed, but are armed with muskets and sabres ; while the cavalry carry 
spears about seven or eight feet in length.— The war-boats form the 
chief Biilitary establifihinent ; they are in number about 600, hollowed out 

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of the solid trunK of the teak tree, the length beinff from 80 to 100 feet, but 
the breadth seldoin exceeding eight. They carry From 50 to 60 rowers, the 
prow being solid, with a flat surface, on which a piece of ordnance is 
mounted. Each rower i^ provided with a sword ana lance^ and there are 
30 soldiers armed with muskets. 

5th, Revenue.— The revenue arises from one-tenth of all produce and 
of foreign goods imported ; but the amount is uncertain. 

III. Civil Geography. 

1st, Manners and Customs. — The general disposition of the Birmese 
is strikingly contrasted with that of the Hindoos. The Birmese are a 
lively inquisitive race, active, irascible, and impatient ; in war they dis- 

Slay the ferocity of savages, while in peace they can boast a considerable 
egree of gentleness and civilisation. They are fond of poetry^ and music, 
and among their instruments is the heenif resembling the ancient pipe of 
Pan, formed of several reeds neatly joined together, and soundod oy a 
common mouthpiece, so as to produce a plaintive melody. The mildness^ 
of the climate and tne fertility of the soil render much active exertion^ 
unnecessary ; and hence sloth seems to be regarded as a chief luxury both 
by rich and poor. The use of animal food is condemned by the Boodhist 
religion ; but fish and fowls that have died a natural death are eaten, as 
well as serpents, lizards, and other reptiles. The Birmese are great con- 
sumers of the betel mixture ; the smoking of tobacco is universal, and 
many are addicted to the use of opium. 

2d, Language and Literatueb. — There are two chief languages spoken 
in Birmah, namely the Birmese and Peguan, exclusive of many rude 
dialects ; but there is also a sacred languaj^e called Pa/t, which has a 
distinct written character. The common Birmese is extremely simple in 
structure, having no inflection of any part of speech. Reading and writ- 
ing are taught in schools and colleges by the Boodhist priests, who are 
very numerous ; but science and general knowledge are at the lowest ebb. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce. — The Birmese excel in gilding, and 
several other oriental arts and manufactures. The edifices and mrges 
are constructed with singular taste and elegance. The trade to China is 
in cotton, amber, ivory, ]^ecious stones, and betel nut ; the returns are 
raw and wrought silks, velvets, gold-leaf, preserves, paper, and some 
utensils of hardware Like the Cmnese,they have no coin ; out silver in 
bullion, and lead, are current. 

IV. Natural Geographff. 

1st, Climate and Seasons. — In Birmah proper there are three 8 . 

the coldf from November to February ; the Ao^, from Mardito June ; and 
the rainjir, during the other months. In Pegu the rainy season lasts from 
April to October, the remainder of the year being distinguished as dry. 
Tne vigorous health of the natives attests the salubrity of the climate. 

2d, Face of the Country.— The surface of the land aflbrds almost every 
variety, from the swampy delta of the Jrrawady to pleasant hills and 
dales, and considerable mountain-ranges. Sugar-canes, tobacco of m 
superior quality, indigo, cotton, and the different tropical fruits in perfee- 
tion, are all indigenous products of this favoured region. The forests are 
large and numerous, many parts remaining in a state of nature. The lord 

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df the Birman forest is the teak tree, superior to the European oak, which 
is there unknown. Perpetual verdure, graee and majesty of form, height, 
and amplitude of growth, are the distinsuishing characteristics of their 
trees, compared with which the monarchs of our forests sink into yege- 
tables of an inferior order. 

8d, Animals.— The animals in general correspond with those of Hin- 
dostan. Elephants principally abound in Peeu. The horses are small, 
but spirited. A kind of wild fowl called the henza^ and by the Hindoos 
the oraminy goose, has been adopted as the symbol of the empire. 

4th, Minerals. — The mineralogy of this region is rich, and some of its 
products rather singular. There are valuable mines of gold, silver, rubies, 
and sapi^ires ; also mines of tin, iron, lead, antimony, arsenic, and sul- 
phur ; and petroleum is obtained in large quantities from wells near the 
river Irrawady. The most singular product of Pegu is the ruby, a stone 
next to the diamond in value, and almost as peculiar to this country as 
the diamond is to Hindostan. 


Boundaries. — N. Laos; W. Birmah, Tenasserim Provinces, 
and Indian Ocean ; S. Gulf of Siam ; E. Empire of Annam. 

I, Historical Geography of Siam, 

1st, Name.— The name of this celebrated country is of uncertain origin. 

In the Portuguese orthography Siam and Siao are the same, so that Stan 

, or Siang might be preferable to Siam ; and the Portuguese writers in Latin 

call the natives Stones. The Siamese style themselves Tai, or freemen; 

and their country Meuang Tai, or the kingdom of freemen. 

2d, Extent.— The length of the kingdom may be nearly 700 miles ; 
but of this about one-half is not 70 miles in medial breadth : area 200,000 
square miles. The population is reckoned at 3,000,000. 

3d, Chronolooy.— The original population of Siam, and other regions 
of Exterior India, can only m traced by the afi&nity of languages ; and 
this topic has been little illustrated. The progressive ^e(^aphy ascends 
to classical antiquity, if the people be, as is reasonably inferred, the Sina 
of Ptolemy. In the reign of the Emperor Justinian, Cosmas, called In- 
dicopleustes, mentions the silk of the Sines as imported into Taprobana ; 
which he also calls Silediva, coinciding with Selendib or Sevehdib, the 
oriental name of Ceylon : and when he adds, that this isle was at an equal 
distance from the Persian Gulf and the region of the Sinse, he affords an 
additional proof that the latter was Siam.—The Siamese history is imper- 
fect, and abounds in fables. By Loubere's account, their first king began 
to reign about 756 years after the Christian era. In 1568, the Peguese 
king declared war on account of two white elephants which the Siamese 
refused to surrender, and after prodigious slaughter on both sides, Siam 
became tributary to Pegu. But about 1620, Kaja Hapi delivered his 
crown from tMs servitude. This country has been much oppressed by 
the Birmese ; and in 1793, the king of Siam entered into a treaty of 

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peaoe, by which he ceded the maritime districts on the bay of BeD(^ to 
the emperor of Birmah, who surrendered them to Great Britam. im 

II. Political Geography, 

Ist. Religion.— The religion of the Siamese is the worship of Boodh, 
and the transmigration of souls forms an essential part of the doctrine ; 
but they imitate the Chinese in some of their rites. The priests Htc to- 
gether m monasteries containing seyeral hundred individuals, and each 
male Siamese must enter the priesthood once in his Ufe. 

2d, GoTERNMENT.— The government of Siam is despotic ; and the 
sovereign, as among the Birmese, is revered with honours almost divine. 
The succession to the crown is hereditary. 

3d, Laws; — The laws are represented by all writers as extremely 
severe, death or mutilation being the punishment even of unimportant 
offences. ' 

4th, Army ^nd Navt.— The army consists of a general levy of the 
inhabitants, who are liable, when called upon, to serve four months in the 
year ; but the war-elephants constitute the most formidable part. The 
navy is composed of a number of war junks, galle^^s, &c. of various sizes, 
some of which are richly decorated. Hence, as m the Birman history, 
naval engagements are not uncommon.— Tbe revenues of this sovereignty 
are estimated by Mr Crawfurd at £3,145,000. 

Ill, Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs. — In manners and customs the Siamese re- 
semble the Birmese, though they are somewhat ruder. Polygamy is 
allowed. The common food of the Siamese consists in rice and fish, ooth 
of which articles are abundant. They also eat lizards, rats, and several 
kinds of insects. The houses, which never exceed one floor, are small, 
and constructed of bamboos upon pillars, to guard against inundations, sa 
common in this country. They excel in theatrical representations. The 
men are generally indolent to excess, and fond of games of chance, while 
the women are employed in works of industry. 

2d, Language.— In the Siamese language there are 37 letters, all con- 
sonants ; the vowels and diphthongs constituting a distinct alphabet. There 
are no inflections of verbs or nouns ; and the words seem mostly mono- 
syllabic, like the Chinese. x • 

3d, Literature.— In letters the Siamese are far from being deficient. 
At the age of seven or eight years, the children are often placed in the 
convents of the monks, called Talapoins^ where they are instructed in 
reading, writing, and accounts ; they are also taught precepts of morality ; 
but it IS to be regretted that Boodh is not only the god of wisdom but of 
cunning ; for the latter quality is esteemed, if not a positive virtue, yet a 

{>roof of superior abilities. Books of history, poetry, tales, and mytho- 
ogical fables, appear to constitute the other departments of Siamese 


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4th, MiNUVACTURBS AND C!oM MERGE.— The Siamese are indolent, and all 
the branches of industry except the simplest agricalture and fishinf are 
carried on by Chinese immigrants. — The commercial relations are chiefly 
with Hindostan, China, Japan, and the Dutch. 

IV. Natural Creography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— Being to the N. of the line, their winter of 
course corresponds with ours, but is almost as warm as a French summer. 
The cold season lasts from November to February ; March, April, and 
May constitute the hot season ; and the wet season, continues during the 
rest of the year. ^ 

2d, Face of the Count&t.— This country is a wide plain between two 
high ridges of mountains. The rocky and variegated shores of the Gulf 
of Siam. and the size and inundations of the Meinam, conspire with the 
rich and picturesque vegetation of the forests to impress strangers with 
delight and admiration. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture The soil towards the mountains is parched 

and sterile, but on the banks of the Meiuam consists of an extremely rich 
mould, in which it is even difficult to find a pebble. Agriculture, as usual 
in the E., is simple and primitive. The chief product is excellent rice ; 
but wheat is not unknown, and sugar has been introduced by the Chinese. 
Pease and vegetables also abound. Maize is confined to gardens. From 
indolence or prejudice, seldom more than one crop in a year is taken from 
the same land. 

4th, Animals. —The chief animals of Siam are elephants, buffaloes, and 
de^r. Horses seem little known or used. The elephants of Siam are of 
distinguished sagacity and beauty ; and those of a white colour are 
treated with a kind ot adoration, as the Siamese believe the souls of such 
to be royal. Wild-boars, tigers, and monkeys, are numerous. The rivers 
are sometimes infested with small poisonous serpents, and swarms of 
mosquitoes fill the air. At night the trees on the banks of the Meinam 
are beautifully illuminated with innumerable fire-flies, which emit and 
conceal their light as uniformly as if it proceeded from a machine of 
the most exact contrivance. 

5th, Minerals There are some mines of gold, and others of copper ; 

but those chiefly wrought by the Siamese are of tin and lead. This coun- 
try also produces iron, loadstone, sapphires, emeralds, agates, crystal, and 

6th, Isles.— Among the numerous isles which yield a doubtful obedience 
to Siam, Junkaeylon is the only one that deserves mention. Captain 
Forrest, who visited the isle in 1784, stated that it contained 12,000 inha- 
bitants, and annually exported about 500 tons of tin. 


The Malay peninsula, forming the most southerly portion of continental 
Asia, is a long narrow tract of aoout 750 miles, with a varying breadth of 
from 60 to 170, and is traversed throughout its whole length by a chain of 
lofty mountains. The northern parts, as far as 5"* N. lat., belong to the 
kingdom of Siam, and are chiefly inhabited by Siamese ; but the southern 
portion, or Malaya Proper, inhabited by the Malays, is <Myided into a 

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nomber of petty states. The inland mountains are inhabited by an 
aboriginal negro race, in the lowest state of barbarism. 

The Portuguese are regarded as the discoyerers of Malacca in 1509. 
The Dutch became masters of the town in 1640; in 17d5, it was taken from. 
them by the English, but restored at the peace of Amiens. It was finally 
ceded to the British goyemment in 1824. In the island at the southern 
extremity of the peninsula, the British have founded the port of Singapore, 
which is rising into a flourishing settlement. They have anower at 
Pulo Penang, or Prince of Wales' Island, on the W. coast. 

The precise origin of the Malay race is unknown, though some have 
regarded them as of Mongolian descent. They are restless, fond of navi- 
gation, war, plunder, emigrations, desperate enterprises, and adventures^ 
They are almost universally pirates, and their rapacious and remorseless 
disposition has rendered them the terror of the eastern seas. The religion 
is a corruption of Mahometanism. Their langu^e is peculiarly soft, and 
is as common in the Indies as the French is in Europe, being very easily 
acquired, because it has no inflection either in nouns or verbs. 

The inland part of the peninsula seems to remain full of extensive ab- 
original forests. It affords few commodities for trade, except tin and ele- 
phants' teeth ; but there are a great many excellent fruits and roots. The 
pine-apples are the best in the world ; and the cocoa-nuts have shells that 
will hold an English quart. There is but little corn, and sheep and 
bullocks are scarce ; but pork, poultry, and fish are very plentiful. Be- 
sides the tiger and elephant, the country produces bears, bisons, musk- 
deer, civet-cats, numerous monkeys, with crocodiles, alligators, and several 
kinds of formidable serpents. 

To the N. W. of Mahicca are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, The 
Great Andaman is about 140 miles in length, by more than 20 in its 
greatest breadthy and is very fertile. The people perfectly resemble ne- 
groes, and are in a state of barbarism. A British settlement was formed 
here in 1783, and some convicts were sent to it from Bengal ; but in 1796 it 
was abandoned. On Barren Isle is a violent volcano, which emits showers 
of red-hot stones ; and the whole island has a singular and volcanic ap- 

The Nicobars are three ; the largest being about five leagues in circum- 
ference. The traffic is in cocoa-nuts, of which a hundred are given for 
a yard of blue cloth. 


The country of the Laos is an extensive but ill- defined territory, occu- 

Eying the upper valleys of the Meinam and Maykiang ; bein^ bounded N. 
y China, E. by Annam, S. by Siam and Cambodia, and w! by Birmah. 
This region contains several ranges of mountains covered with luxuriant 
forests ; but the land is in general- level, and the soil fertile. Rice, fruit, 
honey, wax, and cotton aooi|nd, with benjamin, lac^ and other drugs. 
Gold IS found in the beds oi\the rivers, and silver in various places; 
there are besides ores of tin, iron, and lead. The inhabitants are robust, 
and of a mild disposition, but very superstitious. Their principal occu- 
pation is tilling the ground and fishing ; for they pay Uttle attention to. 
arts and sciences. Zimmai on the Meinam is the capital of the Northern 
Laos ; the rest of the country appears to be divided 9,moi^ petty chiefs, 
trU>ttiary partly to Siam and partly to Annam. The religion, language, 
and manners are much the same as in the former country. 

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Boundaries. — N. China ; E. and S. Gulf of Tonquin, Chinese 
Sea, and Gulf of Siam ; W. Laos and Siam. 

L Historical Geography o/Anriam. 

Ist, Name. — The term An-nam or Anam is of Chinese orig;in. but its 
precise signification is not known. The native name of Cochin-China sig- 
nifies the Centred Country, that of Tonqnin Eaftemal Country. 

2d, Extent. — This vast region is 965 miles in length, with a breadth 
varying from 60 to 400. Area, probably 98,000 square miles ; popola- 
tion, five millions. 

3d, Chronology.— < This country seems to have been more than once 
eonquered and then abandoned by the Chinese. About the middle of last 
century, Tonquin, Cochin-China, and Cambodia, formed separate king- 
doms ; Cochin-China, however, being tributary to Tonquin. In 1774, a 
. revolution was brought about in the last-named country by the Tayons, 
three brothers of low rank, who dethroned the young king Caung Shang, 
and drove him from his capital. The latter, however, aided by Bishop 
Adran, a French missionary, and other Europeans, succeeded after various 
adventures in recovering the throne of Cochin-China about 1790 ; and, 
having subsequently subdued Tonquin and Cambodia, established the 
present empire of Aniiam. His son Gia-long succeeded him (in what 
year is uncertain) ; and in 1819 the crown feU to an illegitimate son of 
the latter, who received the investiture of the empire from the court of 
Pe-kin, to which Anuam still acknowledges a nominal subjection. 

11. Political Geography, 

Ist. REUGiON.—The religion of the mass of the people is a species of 
Boodnism ; the upper orders are mostly followers of Confucius. In the 
district of Tsiampa in the S., Indian gods are worshipped. Christianity 
was introduced in 1624 by the Portuguese Jesuits, and there are now 
nearly half a million of converts ; but they are in a very abject state, and 
their influence bears little proportion to their numbers. 

2d, Government.— rThe government is a hereditary despotism, not un- 
like that of China. The empire is divided into three great civil divisions 
— Cambodia and Tonquin, which are governed by viceroys, and Cochin- 
China, which is under the immediate sway of the emperor. These 
countries are again subdivided into twenty-two provinces, presided over 
by mandarins. 

3d, Laws.— The administration of justice is not neglected, each village, 
and even each street of a city, having its arbitrator or chief, who regulates 
trifling differences, and is responsible for the good conduct of those over 
whom he presides. The highest tribunal is the royal council. Capital 
crinkes are nunished by beheading, and the bamboo is constantly at work 
for minor offences. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


4th, Arht and Navt The army is estimated at 50,000 men, t?ho in 

some measure imitate European dress and discipline, which were intro- 
duced by the French at the close of last century. The war elephants 
amount to 800. The nayy comprises numerous flotillas of galleys, ffon- 
boats, and other Tessels, and seyeral of the cities are strongly fortified. 

5th, Revenue. — The reyenue is deriyed from a land-tax, capitation-tax, 
and yarious oppressive imposts ; but it;3 amount is unknown. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The people of Tonquin and Cochin-China 
are similar in person and manners to tne Chinese ; those of Cambodia 
more resemble the Siamese ; but there is also a savage race called il/ot, 
inhabiting the interior mountains, who are black like Caffres, and are be- 
lieved to be the original natives of the country. Grenerally speaking, the 
Annamese are of short stature, but muscular, ynth a round face and olive 
complexion ; and they are said to be intelligent, good-humoured, and 
imitative. Polygamy is allowed by law. The people are fond of dress; 
but their habits are nlthy in the extreme, and smoking is universal. 

2d, Language.— The language is derived from that of China, which it 
closely resembles ; the literature is entirely confined to Chinese books. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce.— The Annamese excel in ship- 
building, their vessels exhibiting considerable taste and skill in the con- 
struction ; but they are mostly dependent on China for manufactured 
articles, and great part of the internal trade is carried on by settlers 
from that country. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The climate varies in the different pro- 
vinces ; but it is in general healthy, the heat beine tempered by sea- 
breezes. In Cambodia and Tonquin the seasons follow the same course 
as in Siam ; but in Cochin-China they are reversed, the rainy season pre- 
vailing from October till March. 

2d, Face of the Country. — The northern and southern extremities of 
the empire consist chiefly of low alluvial tracts, little elevated above the 
level of the sea ; while the central portion, or Cochin-ChinsL is generally 
mountainous, with here and there valleys of considerable fertility ; but 
great part or the coast is rocky and barren. The country is every where 
covered with extensive forests. 

3d, Agriculture.— Besides the great eastern staple of rice, tea, sugar, 
cinnamon, and silk are raised ; but agricultural laoour is almost wholly 
peiformea by the women, and is in a very neglected state. Tobacco 
IS grown universally. 

4th, Animals.— The wild animals are the same as in Birmah and ISam. 
The buffiilo is domesticated, and is useful in agriculture ; Jarge num- 
bers of hogs and poultry are reared ; and there are also horses of an in- 
ferior breed. 

5th. Minerals.— Tonquin is the only part of the empire known to be 
rich m metals ; it produces larce quantities of gold, silver, copper, and 
iron ; the mines are entirely worked by Chinese, who are said to oe 25,000 
*in number. ^ , 

Digitized by VnOOQlC 

CHINA. 185 


Boundaries. — N. Chinese Tartary; E. the Pacific 
Ocean ; S. Chinese Sea and Eastern Peninsula ; W. 
Tibet and Taftary. 

Divisions. — 1. Pe-chC'lee; 2. Shan-tee; 3. Shen-see ; 4. 
Shan-tung ; 6, Ho-nan ; 6. Kiang-tu ; 7. Gan~hwuy ; 8. Tc^. 
kiang; d.FoJcien; 10. Quang-tung ; 11. Quang-tee; 12. Ft/n. 
nan ; 13, Se-tchuen ; 14,Hou-pee; 15,Hau-nan; 16, Kiang-see ; 
17* KoeUtcheou ; 18. Kan-su. 

Principal Towns. — 1. Pe-kin (a) ; 2. Tai-yuen ; 
3. Si-ngan (6) ; 4. Tsi-nan ; 5. Kai-fong ; 6. Nan-kin 
(c)'; 7. Gan-king; 8. Hang-tchoo; 9. Foo-tchoo; 10. 
Canton (d); 11. Quei-ling; 12. Yun-nan; 13. Ching- 
too ; 14. Voo-tchang ; 15. Chang-cha ; 16. Nan-tchang ; 
17. Koei-yang ; 18. Lan-tchoo.— Tai-wan, the capital of 

Islands. — Hainan^ Formosa, Tsong-ming, Chusan 
Isles ; Hong-kong, at the mouth of Canton River {lately 
ceded to Britain) ; Loo-Choo Isles ; Macao, a settlement 
of the Portuguese, 

Lakes. — Tong-ting-hou, Po-yang-hou, Tai-hou, 

Rivers. — Hoang-ho, or Yellow River; Yang-tse- 
kiang, or Blv>e River; Choo-kiang, or River of Can- 
ton, Pei-ho, or River of Pe-kin,\ 

(a) Pe-kin^ or the northern court, is said to contain 1^00,000 inhabitants. 

ib) Si-ngan is called Kinsai by Marco Polo, in whose time it was the 

greatest city of Qilna, and is still very populous. (c) Nan-kiny " the 

* Subject to the emperor of China, are China Proper, Chinese Tartary, 
Tibet, Corea, and the isles of Hainan, Formosa, and Loo-Choo. 

t The Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-kiang, from Tibet, flow £. through 
China into the racific Ocean ; the Choo kiang falls into the Chinese Sea 
at Canton ; the Pei-ho fisJls into the Gulf of Pe-che-lee. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

186 CHINA. 

southern court or capital/' has declined much both in maf;nitude and 
splendour since the end of the thirteenth century, when Kublai-Khan re- 
moYcd the imperial residence to Pe-kin. The chief edifices are the gates, with 
a few temples ; and a celebrated tower ooyered with porcelain, about 200 
feet in heisht. Such towers were styled pagodas by the Portuguese, who 
supposed them to be temples ; but they seem to have been chiefly erected 

as memorials, or as ornaments, like the Grecian and Roman columns. 

(d) Canton^ till very recently the onlp port where Europeans were per- 
mitted to trade, is said to contain 500,000 inhabitants ; numerous fami- 
lies residing in barks on the river. The European jl^tories, with their 
national flags, are no small ornaments to this city. — Britain, France, 
Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, and the United States, 
have establishments here ; but the British engross the greatest part of the 
trade. The four great seaports on the east coast, Amoy, Foo-tcnoo, Ning- 
po,-and Shang-hae, were by the treaty of 1842 opened to British trade. 

I. Historical Geography of China Proper, • 

1st, Names.— This distinguished region is by the natives styled Tcfion- 
KouBj which signifies the centre of the earthy for they proudly regard other 
coantries as mere skirts and appendages to their own. After the conquest 
of the northern part by the descendants of Genghis, it vras styled Cathav; 
while the southern part was known by the appellation of Manai. Tne 
origin of the name China* or Tsin, seems uncertain. The relation of 
the Mahometan travellers of the ninth century, published by Renaadot, 
calls this country Sin, but the Persians pronounce it Tchin* 

2d, Extent. — China Proper extends from the great wall in the N. to 
the Chinese Sea in the S. aoout 1500 British miles. The breadth from the 
shores of the Pacific to the frontiers of Tibet, may be computed at nearly 
1^0 miles. The contents have been estimated at 1,298,000 square miles. 
According to the information received by Sir George Staunton from a 
mandarin of high rank, the population is computed at 333,000,000, and 
it has lately been stated at 360,000,000 ; but it does not probably much 
exceed 200,000,000. 

3d, Chronology. — The Chinese are generally considered by physiolo- 
gists as belonging to the Mongolian variety of the human race. Their 
empire is very ancient : some of their own records, indeed, carrying back 
its existence to a period many thousand years before the Deluge ; but the 
formation of the nation is also more probably stated to have taken place 
about B. c. 2207,+ when the celebrated Fo-hi divided the people into 
families and tribes, and introduced the rudiments of civil ffovemment and 
the arts. The great Chinese philosopher, ConfudiLS^ nourished about 
530 years b. c. What may be called the modem history of China be- 
gins with the great dynasty of Han, which existed about four centuries 
and a half. It was overthrown a. d. 266 ; and, amid the disturbances 
that ensued, arose those ephemeral races which have been designated 
by the Chinese historians as the six petty dynasties, 265-608. The 
troubles of this period were at length terminated by the elevation of 
the royal house of Tang, 618-907, under whom the nation attained a 
high degree of power and opulence. The most illustrious prince of this 
family was Tai-tsong, in whose reign the frontiers, or at least the in- 
fluence of China, were extended far into Western Asia. The Tang was 

* The connexion between this word and the SimB of the ancients ap- 
pears imaginary ; the country of the SinsB being shown by GosselUn to be 
much farther to the west. 

t As the Deluge took place b. c. 2348, even this date seems too early. 
By some Fo-hi is thought to be only another name for Noah, 

Digitized by 


CHINA. 187 

followed by no fewer tban five successiTe lines of feeble soTereigns, till in 
960 the Song dynasty was founded, and lasted 319 years, presenting during 
that long period a succession of able and Tirtuous monarchs. The last 
eoTereign of the race, howerer, was compelled to become tributary to the 
Tartars ; and, in 1279, China fell nnder tne Mongol yoke. Knblai-Khan, 
a grandson of Genghis, was the founder of this new line of monarchs, and 
extended his authority over all Asia. His successors ruled the country 
till 1368, when they were expelled by the founder of the natiye dynasty of 
Ming. The last prince of tnis dynasty was Haoi-tsong, in whose hands 
the empire fell into great confusion ; and the Mantchoo Tartars being 
called in to settle the disorders, their king Chum-tchi seized the throne for 
, himself, 1644. His son Kang-ki succeeded him in 1661, and proved one 
of the most illustrious sovereigns that ever ruled in China. Kien Long, 
or Tchien Lung, the fourth sovereign of the Tartar dynasty, ascended ths 
throne of China in 1736 ; in 1799 he was succeeded by Kea-king ; and at 
his decease in 1820, the present emperor Taou-kuang mounted the throne. 
Under him ensued in 1839 the war with Britain, which terminated in 1842 
by the granting of all her demands, the cession f^f the island of Hong-kong, 
and the opening to her trade of four eastern ports in addition to Canton. 

4th, Antiquities.— Among the remains of Chinese antiquity may be 
mentioned the coins of the ancient dynasties, of which arranged cabinets 
are formed by the curious natives. There are also several pagodas or orna- 
mented towers, many temples^ and some triumphal arches. But the chief 
remain of ancient art is that stupendous wall, built about 2100 years ago, 
to protect China from the invasions of the Tartars, It is 1500 miles long. 
25 feet high, and 24 broad. This work, which is deservedly esteemea 
among the grandest labours of art, is conducted over the summits of high 
mountains, some of which rise to the height of 5225 feet, across the deepest 
vales, over broad rivers by means of arches, and in many parts is doubled 
or trebled to command important passes ; while at the distance of almost 
every hundred yards is a tower or massive bastion : some of the towers, 
which are square, are 48 feet high and above 50 wide. 

II, Political Geography, 

1st, Religion. — The religion countenanced by the state is the Yu, or 
doctrine of Confucius, whicn recognises one Supreme Being, declares the 
emperor to be his vicegerent on earth, and believes the elements of nature 
to DC peopled bjr genii, demons, and departed spirits, who delight in 
minute acts of evil or good. This system inculcates the highest respect 
for parents and ancestors, the only ceremonies consisting in the worship of 
the latter in spacious halls erected for the purpose. This creed, however, 
is adopted only by the higher ranks and the hterati. The great body or 
the people are addicted to the superstitious system of the Tao tse, ana to 
^the worship of Fo, introduced into China from Hindostan about a., d. 65. 
The name is derived from the idol Fo (considered identical with Boodh), 
and the chief tenets are those of the Hindoos : among which is the me- 
tempsychosisy or transmigration of souls. The last have in a great 
measure supplanted the more ancient sect of the Tao-tse or Lao-tse, who 
still however practise various arts of magic and divination, and have 
nnmerous disciples. Both sects have spacious temples and monasteries, 
lliough the Chinese have no sabbath, nor even such a division as a week,- 
the temples are always open for the visits of devotees. 

2d, Government. — The government of China is weH known to be 
patriarchal. The emperor is indeed absolute ; but examples of tyranny 
are rare, as he is taugbt to regard his people as his children, and not as his 
slaves. All the officers of government pass through a regular education 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

188 CHINA. 

»nd a progress of rank, which are held indispensable. Of these offioen, ttlio 
have been called mandarins, or commanders, by the Portaguese, there are 
nine classes, from the indge of the village to the prime minister. The 
profession requiring a long and severe eoorse of study, the practice of 
ffOTomment remains unshaken by exterior eyents ; ajid while tne imperial 
throne is subiect to accident and force, the remainder of the machine pur- 
sues its usual circle. Though the ideas of a European are shocked by the 
ftequent use of the rod. a paternal punishment which would in his eyes 
appear the most degrading species of slavery, yet the Chinese government 
is perhaps more conducive to the happiness of the people than that of any 
other state in the eastern world. 

3d, Laws.— The Chinese laws are ancient, but numerous ; and edicts of 
the reigning dynasty have restrained the mandarins within strict limits 
of duty. They have laws which regulate the civilities and ceremonious 
salutations they pay to each other ; for which reason thev always appear 
to be extremely good-natured, and yet they are as deceitful as any people 
in the world. 

4th, Army and Revenue.*— The army has been computed at 750,000, but 
they are wholly unwarlike and undisciplined. The Tartars, amounting 
to about 80,000, form almost the sole strength ; yet even they have been 
found quite incapable of contending with European troops.— Sir George 
Staunton estimates the revenue at 200,000,000 iitels or ounces of silver, 
which, he says, are equal to £66,000,000 sterling ; the amount annually 
paid into the imperial treasury at Pe-kin is about £12,000,000. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs The manners and customs of the Chinese 

are extremely different from those of other nations. The indolence of 
the upper classes, who are even fed by their servants, knd the filth of the 
lower, who eat almost every kind of animal, in whatever way it may have 
died, are striking defects, though the latter may be occasioned by dire 
necessity in a country with so dense a population. To the same cause 
may be imputed the exposing of infants. The character of the Chinese is 
mild and tranquil, and universal affability is very rarely interrupted bj 
the slightest tincture of harshness or passion. Tne general beven|;e is 
tea, ofwhich a large vessel is prepared in the morning for the occasional 
use of the family during the day. Marriages are conducted solely by the 
will of the parents, and polygamy is allowed. The bride is purchased by 
a present to her parents, and is never seen by her husband till after the- 
ceremony. One peculiar custom is the artificial contraction of the growth 
of the female foot to so small a size as renders walking difficult. The 
higher ranks wear long nails, to show the want of any necessity of la- 
bour. It is not permitted to bury in cities or towns, and the sepulchres 
are commonly on barren hills and mountains, where there is no chance 
that afpriculture will disturb the bones of the dead. The colour of 
mourmng is white, that personal neglect or forgetfulness may appear in 
its squalor : on solemn occasions it ou^ht to continue three years, but 
seldom exceeds 27 months. The dress is in general simple ana uniform ; 
and at the audience given to Lord Macartney in 1792, that of the em- 
peror was only distinguished by one large pearl in his bonnet. Most of 
the houses consist merely of a ground floor. The chief amusements seem 
to be dramatic exhibitions, fire-works, in which they excel all other 
nations, and feats of dexterity and deception. Besides, the lower orders 
are passionately addicted to gambling. 

2d, Language.— The language is esteemed the most singular on the face 
of the globe. Almost every syllable constitutes a word, and there are 

Digitized by 


CHINA. 189 

flCsreelY 1500 distinct sounds ; yet in the written language there are at 
Least 80,000 oharaoters, or different forms of letters, so thftt every sound 
may have about 50 meanings. The leading characters are denominated keys, 
which are not of difficult acquisition. The language seems originally to 
haye been hieroglyphical ; but afterwards the sound alone was considered. 
Abstract terms are expressed, as usual, by relatiye ideas ; thus, virtue, 
which in Latin implies »trengthj among the Chinese signifies filial piety ; 
the early prevalence of knowledge excluding mere strength from any meri- 
torious claim. 

3d, Education. — The schools of education are numerous, but the chil- 
dren of the poor are cluefly taught to follow the business of their fathers. 
In a Chinese treatise on education, published by Du Halde, the following 
are recommended as the chief topics. 1. The six virtues, viz. prudence, 
piety, wisdom, equity, fidelity, concord. 2. The six laudable actions, 
namely, obedience to parents, love to brothers, harmony with relations, 
affection for neighbours, sincerit}[ with friends, and mercy with regard to 
the poor and unhappy. 3. The six essential points of knowledge, that of 
religious rites, music, archery, horsemanship, writing, and accounts. Such 
a plan is certainly more useful than the acquisition of dead languages. 

4th, Mancfactubes and Commerce.— The manufactures are so multi- 
farious as to embrace almost every article of industry. The most noted 
of them is that of porcelain, ana after it may be classed those of silk, 
cotton, paper, &c. The porcelain has been celebrated from remote ages, 
and is chiefly prepared irom a pure white clay called kaolin, — The in- 
ternal commerce is immense, bemg favoured by numerous canals, which 
connect all the great rivers ; but the external trade is unimportant, con- 
sidering the vastness of the empire, and till the late treaty Europeans were 
excluded from all its ports except Canton. A scanty intercourse exists 
with Russia, Central Asia, and Japan. The chief export is that of tea, 
of which, in 1846. nearly 47,000,000 lbs. were entered for home oonsump- 
tioB in the United Kingdom alone. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The climate of the southern part of China 
is generally considered as hot, whereas the northern part is liable to all 
the rigours of the European winter. In so extensive an empire, such a 
diversity of climate and seasons must occur that no general description 
can be universally applicable. 

2d. Face of the Countbt.— The face of the country is infinitely diver- 
sifiea ; and though on a general view it is flat and fertile, and intersected 
with numerous large rivers and canals,* yet there are cnains of granite 
mountains, and other districts of a wild and savage nature. In general 
the appearance of the country is rendered singularly picturesque by the 
peoukar style of the buildings, and uncommon form of the trees and plants. 

8d, Soil and Aobiculture.— The soil is various, and agriculture is 
carried to a considerable degree of perfection. Where the face of a hill 
or mountain is not nearly perpendicular to the level surface of the earth, 
the slope is converted into a number of terraces, one above another, each 
of which is supported bv mounds of stone. By this management it is 
not uncommon to see the face of a mountain completely cultivated to 
the summit. A reservoir is sunk in the top of the mountain, the rain- 

* The Grand Canal carries on the inland navigation fi*om Canton to 
Po-kin, upwards of 1400 miles, with the sole interruption of a day's journey. 
TU8 wonderful work is said to have been begun in the thirteenth century 
of the Christian era : 30,000 men were employed 43 years in its completion. 

Digitized by dOO^C 

390 CHINA. 

water collected in which is oonyeyed by channeUi BaoceBdyelT to the dif- 
ferent terraces placed upon the mountain's sides. The husbanary is singu- 
larly neat, and not a weed is to be seen. The Chinese excel in the art of 
managing kitchen-gardens, and haye a number of yegetables with which 
we are unacquainted. They cultiyate eyen the bottoms of their waters ; 
the beds of their lakes, ponds, and riyulets, producing crops unknown to 
us, particularly of the pe-tgai, or water-chestnut, the fruit of which (found 
in a coyer formed by its root) is exceedingly wholesome, and of a yery 
delicate taste. Many millions liye entirely in boats upon the water, and 
haye no habitation on land. Among the trees pecukar to China is the 
tallow-tree, from the fruit of which a green wax is procured, that is manu- 
factured into candles. Of the fruit-trees the following are the principal : 
the orange, the plantain, the tamarind ; the white and paper mulberry- 
trees are also cultiyated, the former principally for its leaves, on whioh 
the silk-worms are fed; and the latter for its Dark, of which paper and 
a kind of cloth are made. But the most remarkable production of this 
country is the tea-plant, which is about five feet high. In appearance it 
somewnat resembles a myrtle, and bears yellow flowers, extremely fra- 
grant. The leaves are narrow and indented on the edges. It blossoms 
from October to January. The seyeral sorts of tea known in Europe are 
all produced from the same plant ) but gathered at diiSbrent times, and 
prepared in different ways. 

4th, Aniuals.— There are few animals peculiar to the Chinese territory. 
Du Halde asserts that the lion is a stranger to this country ; but there are 
tigers, bufEaloes, wild-boars, bears, rhinoceroses, camels, deer, &c. The 
musk-deer is a singular animal, found in China as well as Tibet. Among 
the birds, many are remarkable for their beautiful forms and plumage, in 
which they are rivalled by a variety of moths and butterflies. 

5th, Minerals.— China possesses mines of gold, silver, iron, white 
copper, common copper, and mercury, together with lapis-lazuli, jasper, 
rock-crystal, loadstone, granite, porphyry, and various marbles. Accord- 
ing to some, rubies are round in Chma ; but others assert that they come 
from Ava. Among the metals, lead and tin seem to be the rarest. In 
many of the northern provinces coal is found in abundance. The common 
people generally use it pounded with water, and dried in the form of cakes. 
TtUena^fue is a native mixture of copper and zinc, and seems to be a 
product peculiar to China. 


Boundaries. — N. Chinese Tartary ; W. Indepen- 
dent Tartary ; S. Hindostan and the Eastern Peninsula ; . 
E. China. 

Divisions. — 1. Tibet Proper ; 2. Bootan ; 3. Little 
Tibet, &c. 

Towns. — 1. Lassa ; 2 Tassisudon ; 3. Ladak. 

Lakes. — Tengri, Palt^, Mansarowara. 

Rivers. — Indus, Sanpoc* 

* For a description of these rivers, see Hindostan. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

TIBET. 191 

I, Historical Oeoffraphy of Tibet. 

1st, Names — The name of Tibet , which is probably Hindoo or Persian, 
is, in the country itself and in Bengal, pronounced Tibbet or Tibt. But 
the native appellation is Ptte or Ptie Koa-cJ^m, said to signify the snowy 
region of the north, 

2d, Extent.— The length of Tibet from E. to W. is about 1600 British 
miles ; its breadth may be about 500 miles. The population is small, and 
unequally dispersed over the country. 

3d, Chronologt. — The original population of Tibet has not been ac- 
curately examined ; but as the people of Bootan, which is considered a 
southern province of Tibet, are said to differ essentially from the Hihdoos, 
and somewhat resemble the Chinese, it may perhaps be concluded that they 
belong to that race of men to which the general name of Tartars has been 

S'ven, though they cannot properly be regarded as either Mantchoos or 
iongols. — Tibet seems to have been the southern part of the Tangut of 
Marco Polo, who describes the province of Tebeth (which he says con- 
tained eight kingdoms, and many cities and villages) as a mountainous 
country, producing some gold and spices, a breed of large dogs, aifd ex- 
cellent lalcons. — Tne Grand Lama of Tibet is the head of the Shaman re- 
ligion, a branch of Boodhism. He resides at Lassa, vnth a power similar 
to that of the spiritual prince of Japan.~In 1774, the East India Com- 
pany made a treaty with the grand lama, who was at that time an infiint. 
— In 1792, the Nepaulese having committed great ravages in Tibet, the 
emperor of China sent an army to protect the lama : in consequence of 
which the 'Chinese have established militaryposts on the frontiers, so that 
the intercourse between their country and Bengal is now precluded. 

4th, AirriQUiTiES. — As the tombs and monasteries are often constructed 
of stone, some may remain of remote antiquity. But the idols cut in the 
rocks are little calculated to impress travellers with the idea of much ad- 
vancement in the arts. 

11. Political Geography. 

1st, Religion.— The religion of Tibet is Shamanism, or the system of 
Boodh, which once prevailed extensively in India, wnence it has been 
completely expelled, but hafl obtained a full establishment in Tibet, which 
is the seat of its chief, the Grand or Dalai Lama. It includes the belief in 
a Supreme Author of all things, under whom the universe is governed by 
numerous spirits and genii of great power. It has traversed Tartary, and 
pervaded aU the kingdoms E. of India, including China ai\d Japan. It 
bears a very close affinity vnth the reli^on of Branma in many important 
TOurticulars, but differs materially in its ritual or ceremonial worship. — 
The Tibetians are governed by the grand lama, who is not only submitted 
to and adored by uiem, but is also the great oblect of adoration of the 
various tribes of pagan Tartars, who roam through the vast tract of conti- 
nent which stretches from the river Volga to Corea. He is not only the 
sovereign pontiff, the vicegerent of the Deity on earth, but by the more re- 
mote Tartars is absolutely regarded as the Deity himself. Even the em- 
peror'of China, who is of a l^rtar race, does not fail to acknowledge the 
fama in his religious capacity, although, as a temporal sovereign the lama 

Digitized by 


192 TIBET. 

himself is tributary to that emperor. The ^nd lama neyer returns any 
si^ate ; never takes off his hat ; nor even stirs from his sei^t (a large and. 
magnificent cushion, placed on a kind of altar, on ^which he sits cross- 
legged) ; he only lays his hands upon the heads of his superstitions adorers, 
who fancy they thereby obtain the remission of all their sins. They are 
persuaded that Fo lives in him ; that he knows, sees, and understands all 
thin^ without asking any questions, or receiving any information. The 
opinion of the most orthodox Tibetians is, that when tne grand lama seems 
to die either of old age or infirmity, his soul in reality only quits a crazy 
habitation to look for another younger or better ; and it is discovered 
again in the body of some child, by certain tokens known only to the lamas 
or priests. In 1 774, the grand lama was an infant, who had been discovered 
some time before by the Teshoo lama, who, in authority and sanctity of 
character, is next to the ^rand lama, and during his minority acts as chiefl 
The inferior lamas or priests constitute many monastic orders, which are 
held in great veneration among the Tibetians. The most numerous sect 
are called Gylongs^ who are exempt from labour and enjoin temperance ; 
they^ abound over all Tibet and Bootan, notwithstanding the severity of 
discipline, since every family consisting of more than four boys is obliged 
to contribute one of them to this order. Besides the religious infiuence 
and authority of the grand lama, he is possessed of considerable temporal 
power throughout his dominions. His residence is at a vast palace on the 
mountain Putala, seven miles from Lassa. 

2d, Government.— Tibet is now subject to the Chinese emperor, whose 
officers control the lamas in the administration of the civil and military 
affairs ; but the ecclesiastical establishments are maintained in undimin- 
ished pomp. In Bootan, there is a raja or prince, called Daeb^ whose au- 
thority however is far from being firm or extensive. The laws must, like 
the religion, bear some afi^ity to those of the Hindoos. 

3d, Revfnue. — The revenues of the lama, and of the secular princes, 
seem to be trifling ; nor can Tibet ever aspire to any political importance. 
In a commercial point of view, friendship and free intercourse with Tibet 
might open new advantages to the British settlements in Bengal. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The character of the Tibetians is repre- 
'sented as extremely gentle and amiable. The ceremonies of marriage are 
neither tedious nor intricate. The priests of Tibet, who shun the society 
of women, have no share in these ceremonies, or in ratifying the obligation 
between the parties, which, it seems, is formed indissolubly for life. It is 
a remarkable characteristic of the country, that the women are allowed a 
plurality of husbands. It is the privilege of the elder brother to select a 
wife, who stands in an equal relation to nis other brothers, whatever may 
be the number. The Tibetians preserve entire the mortal remains of the 
sovereign lamas only ; every other corpse is either consumed by fire, or 
exposed to be the promiscuous food or beasts and birds of prey. Tbffj 
have a great veneration for the cow^ and highly respect the waters of the 
Gfangea, the source of which they believe to he in heaven. The Sunniatses, 
or Indian pilgrims, often visit Tibet as a holy place : and the grand lama 
always maintains nearly three hundred of them in his pay. The Tibet- 
ians appear to have made considerable progress in civilisation ; but the 
sciences continue in a state of imperfection ; the year, for instaaoe, being 
lunar, and the month consisting of 29 days. 


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TIBET. 193 

2d, LANOUA6E.>-The origin of the Tibetian Bpeech has not been pro« 
perly inyestigated. The literature is chiefly relijB^ous, and the books are 
sometimes printed from blocks of wood, on narrow slips of thin paper, 
fabricated from the fibrons root of a small shrub. In this practice tney 
resemble the Chinese ; while the Hindoos engrave their work with a 
stylus upon the recent leaves of the palmyra tree, a fibrous substance 
wnich seems indestructible by vermin. The writing runs from the left to 
the right, as^in the languages of Europe. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce.— The chief manufactures of Tibet 
seem to be shawls, and some woollen cloths ; but there is a general want 
of industry ; and the fine under-hair of the goats, from whicn shawls are 
manufactured, is chiefiy sent to Cashmere. The principal exports are to 
China, consistinff of eold-dust, diamonds, pearls, lamb-skins, some musk, 
and woollen clouis. lilany of the Chinese imports are manufactured ar- 
ticles. To Nepaul, Tibet sends rock-salt, tincal or crude borax, and 
gold-dust ; receiving in return base silver coin, copper, rice, and coarse 
cotton cloths. Through Nepaul is also carried on the chief trade with 
Bengal, in gold-dust, tincal, and musk. The returns are broadcloth, 
spices, trinkets, emeralds, sapphires, lazulite, jet, amber, &c. There is 
no mint in Tibet, as such an institution is prevented by religious preju- 
dices ; but the base silver of Nepaul is current throughout the country. 

IV. Natural Geography. 

1st, Climate and Seasons. — The climate of Bootan may be said to be 
temperate when compared with that of Tibet Proper ; yet the winters 
are very severe even in the former country. In the temperature of the 
seasons in Tibet a remarkable uniformity prevails, as well as in their pe- 
riodical duration and return. The distinguishin/B; characteristic of the 
climate is an extremely dry and parching cold m winter, which rivals 
that of the Alps in Switzerland. 

2d, Face of the Country. — Bootan, with all its confused and shape- 
less mountains, is covered with perpetual verdure, and abounds in forests 
of Urge and lofty trees. The sides of the mountains are improved by the 
hand of industry, and covered with orchards, fields, and villages. Tibet 
Proper, on the contrary, exhibits only low rocky hills without any vis'- 
ible vegetation, or extensive arid plains of an aspect equally stern ; while 
the bl^k and cold climate constrains the inhabitants to seek refuge in 
sheltered vales and hollows, or amidst the rocks. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The rocky nature of the country impedes 
the progress of agriculture. The vales are commonlv laid under water 
on tne approach of winter ; in the spring they are ploughed and sown, 
while freqtient showers and a powerful sun contribute speedily to mature 
the crops. The autumn being clear and tranquil, the harvest is left long 
to dry on the ground, and when sufficiently hardened is trod out by cattle. 
The course of cultivation is wheat, pease, and barley ; rice being confined 
to a more southern soil. 

4th, Animals.— Tibet produces great abundance and variety of wild 
fowl and game ; with numerous ^ocks of sheep and soats, and herds 
of cattle, and is infested by many beasts of prev ; while in Bootan few 
wild animals are found except monkeys ana pneasants. A particular 
breed of the goats produce that very fine hair or wool which is used 
in the manufaoiure of Cashmere shawls. The horses are of a small 
size, or what we term ponies, and very spirited. The figure of the 
musk-deer somewhat resembles the hog, while the hair approaches the 
quills of the porcupine. Nor must the singular breed of cattle be forgot- 

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ten, called yak by the Turtars, covered with thick long hair : the tail being 
peculiarly flowing and elossy, and an article of Inznry in tne £., where it 
IS used to drive away the flies, and sometimes dried for ornament. It is a 
peculiarity of the country that mutton is generally eaten raw : when dried 
in the frosty air, it is not disagreeable in this state, even to a European 

5ih, Minerals. — Bootan does not probably contain any metal except 
iron, and a small portion of copper ; while Tibet Proper has mines of gold, 
lead, cinnabar rich in quicksilver, rock-salt, and tiucal. But in general 
the metals cannot be worked, as there is a deflciency of fuel ; and coal 
would be far more precious than gold. — There are many medicinal waters 
in various parts of this extensive region ; nor is their salutary use un- 
known to the natives. 


Boundaries. — N. Siberia ; E. Pacific Ocean ; S. 
China and Tibet ; W. Independent Tartary. 

DivisioNS.-^l. Mantchooria, or the Country of the 
Mantchoos ; 2. Mongolia, or the Country of the Mon- 
gols ; 3. Little Bucharia,f Turfan, and Hami, or Cha- 
mil ; 4. Corea. 

Towns. — 1. Sagalien Oula, Moukden or Chin- 
yang, Kirin Oula, Petoune, Ningoota ; 2. Ourga, 
Maimatchin ; 3. Cashgar, Yarkand, Hi, Turfan, Hami 
or Chamil ; 4. Kingkitao. 

Lakes. — Zaizang, Lop-Nor. 

Rivers. — Amur or Sagalien, Yarkiang, Ili.{ 

Mountains. — Thian-shan or Celestial Mountains, 
Khingan Mountains. 

♦ The name of Tartary, or more properly Tatary, was originally ex- 
tended over the vast regions lying between Tibet, China, and the Arctic 
Ocean ; and stretching from the Black Sea on the west to the utmost 
bounds of north-eastern discovery in Asia.— The different tribes which 
inhabit Eastern Tartary were formerly called Mongol Tartars, a warlike 
nation, who, on the one hand, conquered Hindostan under Genghis Khan, 
and, on the other, subdued China. 

f Little Bueharia was probably the country of Uie Seres of Ptolemy. 

t The Amur flows N. £. into the Sea of Okhotsk, opposite the isuuid 
of Sagalien ; the Yarkiang flows £. into Lop-Nor, and the lU, or OuHa 
W. into Lake Balkash. 


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I. Historical Geography. 

Ist, If AMES,— Eastern and Western Tartary now frequently receive the 
name of Central Asia, The tetm Tartary has long been a common but 
Tague designation for the whole region ; though it might more properly 
be called Mongolia^ from the name of the most numerous race ; or the 
western part might be styled Turkestan, the central MorigoHa^ and the 
eastern Mantchooria, Tlie last two are the objects of the present de- 

2d, Extent. — This extensiye and interesting portion of Asia, which has 
repeatedly sent forth its swarms to obscure the arts and civilisation of 
Europe, extends from E. to W. about 3000 miles. The breadth, from the 
northern frontier of Tibet to the Russian confines, is about 1*250 miles. 
The population is thin, but there are no data from which a conjecture can 
be formed as to its amount. 

3d, Chronology.— The original population of Central Asia appears to 
have been indigenous, so far as the most ancient records extend. Part of 
the W. was held by the Scythes of antiquity, seemingly a Gothic race ; 
who were subdued or expelled by the Tartars or Huns from the £., and 
pressed on the other side by the Mongols. Beyond the latter were the 
MantchooSf who, though inferior to the Mongols in power, yet retained 
their ancient possessions, and in the seventeenth century conquered China. 
At present the chief inhabitants are the Mantchoos of the eastern pro- 
vinces ; with the tribes denominated Khalkas, Eluths, and KalmuckSfWho 
are Mongols.— The first appearance of the Huns, or Tartars, may be ob- 
served in the Roman history. The annals of the Mongols, the most im* 
portant nation, faintly illuminate the pages of Abulgasi ; whence, it would 
appear, that prior to Genghis there was only one celebrated khan named 
Offuz, who seems to have flourished about the 130th year of the Christian 
era. The reigns of Genghis and Timur are sufficiently known in general 
history ; but the divisions of their conquests, and the dissensions of their 
successors, have now almost annihilated the power of the Mongols, who 
being partly subject to China and partly to Russia, it is scarcely conceiv- 
able that they can again disturb the peace of their neighbours. 

Few Antii^uitibs remain to illustrate the power of the Mongols. 

II. Political Geography. 

Ist, Religion.— The relidon most universally diffused in this part of 
Asia is Shamanisntf of which the Dalai Lama of Tibet is tiie head. The 
Mongols have among them no less than ten kutukhtus or lamas, who, 
though inferior to the grand lama, are regarded with the highest ven- 

2d, Oovbrnment.— The government was formerly monarchical, vnth a 
gtrozLg mixture of aristocracy, and even of democracy. At present it is 
conducted by princes who pay nomage to the Chinese emperor, and receive 
Chinese titles of honour ; out many of the ancient forms are retained. 

3d, ARMT.-^It is probable that this part of the Chinese empire might 
mofiCer a large thougn inefficient army ; but their interests are now so various 
and discordant that while the empires of Russia and China exist, they 
can only be regarded as connected with the policy of these powerful states. 

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III. Civil Cfeography. 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The manners and cnstoms of the Mongols 
will be briefly described in the account of Asiatic Russia. The Mantchoos 
are little distinguishable in their manners ftrom the Mongols. They haye 
no temples nor idols, but worship a supreme bein^, whom they style em- 
peror of heaven ; but probably tneir real creed is Shamanism, or a kind 
of rational polytheism. The states of Little Bucharia, particularly Kho- 
tan and Cashear, are to a considerable degree industriouB and ciyilized ; 
but they are little known. 

2d, Language. — The three languages of the Mantchoos, Mongols, and 
Tartars, radically differ from each other ; the first appears to be the most 
learned and perfect of the Tartaric idioms. 

3d, Literature. — Of the native literature of the Mantchoos little is 
known, except that a code of laws was drawn up by the order of one of 
the monarchs, prior, it is believed, to the conquest of China. 

4th, Trade.— The principal trade of Mantchooria consists in ginseng 
and pearls found in many rivers which fall into the Amur. Yarkand is 
the chief seat of the commerce with Western Asia. Cashgar was for- 
merly celebrated for musk and gold. The other towns are rather stations 
for merchants than seats of commerce. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate. — Though Central Asia llf s in the same parallel of lati- 
tude with 1«Vance and part of Spain, yet the height of the mountain- 
ridges, and the snow which covers them, produce a degree of cold little 
to be expected from other circumstances. In climate and productions it 
is however far superior to Siberia. 

2d, Face of the Countrt The appearance of this extensive region is 

diversified by all the grand features of nature, — extensive chains of moun- 
tains, large rivers and lakes ; but its general character is that of a vast 
elevated plain, supported like a table, by the mountains of Tibet in the S. 
and the Altaian cnain in the N^ and by the Belur Tagh in the W., and 
the Khingan mountains in the £. This prodigious plain was supposed to 
be the most elevated continuous region on the globe ; but according to 
the information collected by Humboldt, it scarcely ever exceeds the 
height of 4000 or 5000 feet, and is often much lower. Hence Khotan 
and some of its districts are rich in wines, silk, and other productions 
reared in the most favoured temperate climates. It is intersected, how- 
ever, by the vast desert of Cobi or Shamo. Destitute of water and plants, 
it is dangerous for horses, but is safely passed with camels. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil of so extensive a region may be 
supposed to be infinitely various ; but the predominating substance is 
black sand.— Among the southern Mantchoos, and the people of Little 
Bucharia, agriculture is not wholly neglected, nor is wheat an uncommon 

4th, Animals.— The zoology of this portion of the globe has been but 
imperfectly explored. The camel and the tiger are found here, with the 
wild-horse and the wild-ass, and a peculiar species of cattle wluch grunt 
like swine. The wild-horse is generally of a moase-colonr, and small, 
wiUi long sharp ears. 


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5th, Minerals — The mineralo^ of Central Asia is but little known. 
Gold is found both in the eastern and western reeions, and the former are 
also said to produce tin.— The mineral waters, and uncommon appearances 
of nature, have been little investigated. 


Th» island, which belong to Chinese Tartary, was explored by the 
unfortunate navigator La Perouse. The native name is Tchoka; that 
used by the Japanese, Okee Jesso^ perhaps implying Farther Jetso ; while 
the Russians, who know onl:^ the northern part, call it Sagalien, because 
it is opposite to the large river of that name. The people are highly 
praised by La Perouse as a mild and intelligent race ; ana he expressly 
informs us that they are quite unlike the Mantchoos or Chinese. 


Boundaries. — N. the Northern Ocean ; W. Russia 
in Europe ; S. Persia and Western and Eastern Tar- 
tary; E. the Pacific Ocean. 

Governments. — 1. Welstern Siberia; 2. Eastern Si- 
beria; 3. Georgia. 

Towns. — 1. Tobolsk (a), Ekaterinburg, Tomsk, 
Omsk, Kolivan; 2. Irkutsk (6), Kiachta, Yakutsk, 
Okhotsk ; 3. Tiflis, Derbend, Baku, Erivan. 

Islands. — Kurile Isles, the three farthest south of 
which belong to Japan ; the Aleutian Isles, principal 
Behring a7u2 Attoo; the Fox Isles, principal Oonalashka. 

Mountains. — Caucasus, Uralian, Altaian (c). 

Rivers. — Ural, Ob or Oby, Yenisei, Lena, Kur.* 

Lakes. — Baikal, Tchany. 

(a) Tobolsk is chiefly inhabited by Russian exiles, and by merchants 
who carry their ^oods to the frontier town of Kiachta, where they ex- 
change them with the Chinese for teas and silks. All the Chinese caravans 

pass through this town to Moscow. (6) Irkutsk^ near Lalce Baikal, 

called by the Russians the Holy Sea, is the see of an archbishop, and the 
seat of supreme jurisdiction over Eastern Siberia. It is a great channel 
of the commerce with China. (c) The Altaian, Sayansk^ YabUmoy, 

* The Ural flows S. into the Caspian Sea ; the Ob or Oby, Yenisei, and 
Lena, flow N. through Siberia into the Northern Ocean ; the Kur in 
Armenia, after being joined by the Aras, falls into the Caspian. 


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DaourianyBxid Stannovoi^. form one great chain of mountains; which, 
running along the southern limits of Siberia, passes to the S. of Lake 
Baikal ; whence, bending to the N., it skirts the whole eastern coast of 


I. Historical Geography, 

1st, 'SAMFS,—Scf/thia, now Tartary, was in the time of the Romans 
divided into Scythia intra Imaum, or Scythia west of Imaus ; and Scy- 
thia extra Imaum, or Scythia east of Imaus.* When the Mongols estab- 
lished a kingdom in these northern regions, they called their new resi- 
dence Sibir or Siberia ; and the name of the city passed to the Mongol 
principality. When the Russians began the conquest of the country, 
Deing iimorant of its extent, the name of this western province was 
gradually diffused over half of Asia. 

2d, Extent. — The length of this region, in British miles, may be roughly 
computed at 4500 ; and the breadth at 1800, a vast tract, which wiU be 
found to exceed Europe in dimensions. — The population is estimated at 

3d, Chronology. —The people of Siberia may be regarded as almost 
wholly aboriginal.f In 1243, the Mongols under Sheibani established a 

principality in the trestern part of Siberia, around Tobolsk In the reign 

of Ivan Basilowiiz, by his conquest over the Tartars esteemed the founder 
of Russian greatness, incursions were made as far as the river Ob, and 
some Mongol chiefs were brought prisoners to Moscow ; but more than 
half a century elapsed before the real conquest of Siberia commenced in 
the'reign of Ivan Basilowitz IV., who ascended the Russian throne in 
1533. TovTards the middle of the seventeenth century the Russians had 
extended their conquests as far east as the river Amur ; but Kamtschatka 
was not finally reduced till the year 1711. Vitus Behring, a Danish navi- 
gator, who served in the Russian navyk, discovered the extreme parts of 
Asia during his voyage of 1741. The Aleutian Isles were visited in 1745 ; 
and in the reign of the empress Catherine other important discoveries fol- 
lowed, which were completed by those of Cook, Kotzebue, and Beechey. 

4th, Antiquities. — The most curious antiquities seem to be the stone 
temples which abound In some steppes, particularly near the river Yenisei, 
representing, in rude sculpture, human faces, camels, horsemen vnth lances, 
and other oojects. Here are found, besides human bones, those of horses 
and oxen, with fragments of pottery and ornaments. 

* The chain of mountains by the ancients called Imatts is now known 
as the Altaian Mountains. The S. part of this chain was called Emodi^ 
corresponding to the Himmaleh or Himalaya. 

f The Tchutchi, in the part of Siberia opposite to America, are supposed 
to have proceeded from tnat continent. Next to them, in the farthest 
north, are the Yukapirs^ a branch of the Yakuts, and yet farther W. the 
Samoieds. To the S. of the Tchutchi are the Coriaks, a branch of the 
same race ; and yet farther S. the Kamtschatdales, a distinct people, who 
speak a different language. The Lamuts are a part of the Manichoos, 
who have been vaguely called Tartars or Tatars. The Tunguses are 
widely diffused between the Yenisei and the Amur. The Ostiaks, and 
other jtribes of Samoieds, have penetrated considerably to the S. between 
the Yenisei and the Irtish, and are followed by various tribes of the Man* 
gola. as the Kalmucks, Burats, &e., and by those of the Tartars or Huns, 
as the Teluts, Kirghiz, and others. 


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II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— The Grecian system of the Christian faith, which is 
embraced bj the Russians, has made inconsiderable progress in their Asi- 
atic possessions. Many of the Tartar tribes in the S. W. are Mahometans ; 
and others follow the superstition of the Dalai Lama, of which an ac- 
count will be found in the description of Tibet. The more eastern Tar- 
tars seem to adhere with the ffreatest strictness to the original Shaman or 
^ Boodhist faith, a system chiefly founded on the self-existence of matter, 
^ a spiritual world, and the general restoration of all things. The Shama- 
nians even believe that the burchans, or gods themselves, arose from the 
general mass of matter and spirit. Their epochs of destruction and resti- 
tution somewhat resemble those of the Hindoos. While common souls 
immediately receive their final decree, the virtuous become chubilsy or 
wandering spirits, who are purified by transmigration, so as also to become 
burchans or gods. Between men and gods are the tengri^ or spirits of 
the air, who direct sublunary affairs, and all the trifles' so important to 
man, but beneath the most remote attention of the gods. The infernal 
regions chiefly contain those who have offended the priesthood. This 
system is intimately connected with that of the Dalai Lama, and is very 
vridely difi'used. In Asiatic Russia it is professed b^ most races, such as 
a great part of the Tartars, with the- Fins, .Samoieds, Ostiaks, Mant- 
choos, Burats, and Tunguses ; and has even passed to the Coriaks and 
Tchutchi, and people of tne eastern isles. — The archiepiscopal see of To- 
bolsk is the metropolitan of Russian Asia in the North ; and that of Astra- 
can is the ecclesiastical capital of the South. 

2d, Government — Siberia is divided into two great administrations, 
that of Tobolsk in the west, and Irkutsk in the east. At a distance from 
the capital, the government becomes proportionably lax, and tribute is the 
chief mark of subjection. 

III. Giml Geography. 

Ist, Manners and Customs.— The manners and customs of Siberia vary 
vrith the numerous tribes by whom that extensive region is peopled. The 
habits of the Mongols may be taken as a specimen. The women tan 
leather, dig the culinary roots^ prepare the'winter provisions, and distil the 
koumiss, or spirit of mare's milk. The men hunt the numerous beasts and 
game that roam through the vast wilds. The Mongols have surprising 
quickness of sight and apprehension, and are docile^ hospitable, active, but 
voluptuous. Industry is a virtue confined to the females, and in them ac- 
companied with perpetual cheerfulness. Their tents are formed of a kind 
of felt, and in some parts they erect little temples, and the priests have 
also wooden hovels around the temples. When pasturage begins to fail, the 
whole tribe strike their tents, generally from ten to mteen times in the 
year, proceeding in the summer to the northern, and in the winter to the 
southern wilds. The herds, the men, women, and children, form a regular 
procession, and are followea by the girls, singing in harmony. In their 
amusements cards are not known : chess is the favourite game. The 
three distinct barbaric nations of Turks, Mongols, and Tunguses or 
Mantchoos, are by far the most interesting in these middle regions of Asia, 
as their ancestors have overturned the greatest empires, and repeatedly 
influenced the destiny of half the globe. 

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2d, LANonAOE.~The radically distinct languages amount to seyen, 
excIusiTC of many dialects and mixtures. Amon^ the Tungnses, Mon- 
gols, and Turks, there are some slight traces of literature ; and a few 
manuscripts in their several languages. 

dd, Manufactures. — Hunting and fishing being the chief occupations 
of the native tribes, manufactures are entirely in the hands of the settlers 
from European Russia. The principal object of attention is the working 
of the rich mines of the Urals, Kolivan, and Nertschinsk ; besides which 
there are manufactures of iron and copper utensils, leather, shagreen, 
carpets, arms, glass, felts, salt, &c. The art of lackering has been brought 
to great perfection at Taghilsk on the Urals ; and, besides the mining and 
other branches of industry carried on at Ekaterinburg, precious stones 
are engraved and polished with great skill. 

4th, Commerce.— The chief commerce consists in sables, and other 
valuable furs, which are eagerly bought by the Chinese, who return tea, 
silk, and porcelain ; that with the Kirghiz is carried on by exchanging 
Russian woollen cloths, iron, and household articles, for horses, cattle, 
sheep, and beautiful sheep-sluns. 

IV, Natural Geography. 

1st, CuMATE AND SEASONS. — The climatc of Siberia is extremely rig- 
orous ; the country being exposed without shelter to the cold blasts firom 
the Polar ice, while the lofty mountains of Central Asia intercept th» 
genial breezes from the equator. The winter lasts during nine or even ten 
months. The change of tne seasons is very rapid ; the long winter being 
almost instantaneously succeeded by a warm spring, and the quickness 
and luxuriance of the vegetation exceed description. When it is noon in 
the western parts of Siberia, it is almost midnight in the eastern districts. 
In the S. the longest da^r does not exceed fifteen hours and a half ; in the 
N. the sun is always visible for months. 

2d, Face of the Country.— In a general view of Siberia, the northern 
and eastern parts present vast marshy plains covered with almost {)er- 
petual snow, and traversed by large rivers, which, under masses of ice, 
pursue their dreary way to the Arctic Ocean. Even the central region 
seems destitute of trees, vegetation being checked b^ the severe cold of. so 
wide a continent. Towards the S. there are extensive forests. The sab- 
lime scenes around Lake Baikal are agreeably contrasted with the marks 
of human industry, the cultivated field and the garden. The vast plains, 
called steppes, are almost peculiar to Asiatic and some parts of European 
Russia. They may be compared to the deserts of Arabia in their extent 
and uniform surface, but not in other respects, for they generally bear a 
natural crop of luxuriant herbage. They are destitute of wood except on 
the banks of the streams. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— Many parts of Siberia are totally incap- 
able of agriculture ; but in the southern and western districts the soil is 
of considerable fertility. Exclusive of winter wheat, most of the usual 
European grains .thrive in Southern Siberia. The best rhubarb abounds 
on the banks of the Ural, and in the southern districts watered by the 
Yenisei. But in all divisions of the Russian empire agriculture has made 
little progress. 

4th, Animals.— In the greater part of Siberia the rein-deer perfoniu 
the office of the horse, the cow, and the sheep, if we except Kamts- 
chatka, where dogs are used for draught. In tne S. the horse is found 
wild, as well as a species of the ass. The argali, or wild-sheep, is 

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hunted in Siberia ; and large stags idth the musk-animal are met with 
in the mountains near Lake Baikal ; the wild-boar, wolves, foxes, and 
bears, of various names and descriptions, are also found. That kind of 
weasel called the sable affords a valuable traffic in furs. Some kinds 
of hares appear, little known in other re^ons ; and the castor or beaver 
is an inmate of the Yenisei. The walrus or large seal, once termed the sea- 
horse, is no stranger to the Arctic shores, and the common seal extends to 
Kamtschatka ; while the manati, perhaps the mermaid of fable, inhabits 
the Straits of Behring, and the isles between the two continents. 

5th, Minerals.— The chief gold-mines of Siberia are those of Ekater- 
inburg, on the E. of the Uralian mountains ; those of Nertschinsk, E. of 
Lake Baikal, are famous for their silver. There are also numerous and 
yaluable mines of copper, iron, and lead. Sulphur, alum, sal ammoniac, 
vitriol, nitre, and natron, occur in abundance. A great variety of gems is 
found in Siberia, viz. common topazes, jacinth, the beryl or aqua marine, 
chrysolite, red garnets, and beautiful onyx. The fine stones called the 
hair of Venus and Thetis, being limpid rock-crystals, containing capillary 
schorl, red or green, are met with near Ekaterinburg. The green felspar 
of Siberia is carved by the Russians into various ornaments. The red 
and green jaspers are from the most distant mountains, and lapis-lazuli 
is found near the Baikal lake. The Uralian chain presents fine white 
marble ; and in the numerous primitive ranges there are many varieties 
of granite and porphyry.— The chief medicinal viators are those in Kamt- 
schatka. In tne S. of that peninsula, not far from a volcano, there is a 
streapi about a foot and a half deep, and six or seven feet vride, whose 
water is extremely hot. On the N. W. there is a hot spring of a great 
size, and emitting clouds of smoke. 


1st, Names.— The term Caucasia has been applied generally to the 
whole isthmus between the Black Sea and the Caspian, traversed by the 
ffreat mountain-chain of Caucasus, and therefore^ according to the modem 
division, situated partly in Asia and partly in Europe. It comprehends 
the ancient Colchis, Iberia, Albania, and part of Armenia; the more 
northern* districts formed a portion of Sarmatia. The whole now consti- 
tutes two general governments of the Russian empire, viz, 1. Caucasus, 
inclucUng Urcassia ; and, 2. Georgia, comprehending Greorgia Proper, 
Daghe8tan,Shirvan,Imeritia,Mingrelia, Abassia, vrith portionsof Armenia 
and Azerbijan ; the first being on the N. of the Caucasus, the second 
(except the province of Daghestan) on the S. 

2d, ExTENT.—The area of the two governments may be roughly esti- 
mated at 130,000 square miles, and the total population probably amounts 
to between three and four millions. 

3d, Chbonoloot.— The ancient history of this celebrated region has 
already been given.* During the 6th and 7th centuries, Greorgia Proper 
was a theatre of contest between the eastern empire and the Persians. In 
the 8th century, a Jewish prince established a dynasty which continued to 
rule down to modem times. The increasing influence of Russia, however, 
induced the last monarch, George XI., to place Georgia under the pro- 
tection of that power in 1799 ; and in 1802, it was incorporated vnth the 
Russian empire. — The Circassian chiefs acknowledged a doubtful depen- 
dence on the Porte till 1830, when their territory was made over to Russia 
by the treaty of Adrianople.— Shirvan and part of Azerbijan were ceded 
to tiie same power by Persia in 1813. 

Tirfep. 145. 7 ' 

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4th, People.— Perhaps no conntry of similar extent presents saoh a 
variety of nations and languages ; nearly seven of the latter being enu- 
merated, with a multitude of subordinate dialects. The most numerous 
and important nations are the Greorgians and Circassians ; the Abassians 
and Ossetians are also powerful tribes ; and there are considerable num- 
bers of Turks and Tartars. The physical conformation of the aboriginal 
inhabitants, which presents a perfection of form elsewhere unrivalled, 
proves their derivation from a common stock, and has obtained for them 
the general appellation of the Cauctisian rwe. In habits and manners, 
also, they offer a strong family resemblance ; for, excepting the Greorgians, 
who live in towns^ and have formed settled habits, they are mostly rude 
hunters and warriors, agriculture being regarded as of very secondary 

5th, Government. —Besides the two governments already mentioned, 
the territory is ^vided by the Russians into nine subordinate divisions ; 
but a large portion of it, more particularly Circassia and Abassia, can 
only be regarded as in military occupation, the power of the nominal 
rulers extending little beyond the range of their camps. 

6th, Religion.— The inhabitants of Georgia Proper are Greek Chris- 
tians ; but the other provinces are chiefly Mahometan. In Shirvan are 
still found remains of the ancient Ghebres or fire-worshippers. 

7th, Face of the Countey.— The whole of this extensive region may 
be described as mountainous, its most striking feature being the great 
chain of Caucasus, which stretches from the Black Sea to the Ca8|>ian, — 
a length of 700 miles,— and rises In the peak of Elburz to the height of 
nearly 18,000 feet. It thus forms an immense natural wall between 
Europe and Asia, passable only at two or three points, but broken up 
both on its northern and southern declivities into nuflierous fertile valleys, 
expanding into wide plains. 

8th, Climate, &c — The climate varies with the elevation, as a few 
hours' journey serves to convey the traveller from the temperature of 
Southern Europe to that of northern climes. The warmer valleys offer 
all the productions of the temperate zone,— vines, olives, melons, and even 
dates flourishing in some places ; while the mountains are clothed to their 
summits with the oak, beech, cedar, fir, and other valuable trees. Rye, 
wheat, barley, oats, and millet ^row luxuriantly. In the forests are found 
the wild-bull, wolf, bear, Ijnx, jackal, fox, wild-cat, weasel, various species 
of deer, with hares, rabbits, and other small animals. Cattle and sheep 
are numerous, and the horses have been celebrated from a remote anti- 
quity. Pheasants, partridges, grouse, the most valuable domestic fowls, 
and every species of bird of prey, abound. 

9th, Natural Curiosities.— This country exhibits many traces of 
volcanic action. On the N. E. side of the Caucasus are several hot sul- 
phuric springs. The peninsula of Abcheran, in the neighbourhood of 
Baku, has long been celebrated for its mud volcanoes and fountains of 
naphtha or pure rock oil, which is drawn up from the wells in enormous 
quantities. When the weather is thick and hazy the springs boil up the 
higher ; and the naphtha often takes fire on the surface of the earth, and 
runs in a flame into the sea, in great quantities, to a distance almost in- 
credible. The soil round Baku has abo this singular property, that, on 
digging up two or three inches of the surface, and applying a live coal, the 
part vddcn is so uncovered immediately takes fire, almost before the coal 
touches the earth ; the flame makes the soil hot, but does not consume it, 
nor affect what is near it with any degree of heat. If a cane or tube, even 
of paper, be set about two inches in the ground, confined and close with 
the earth below, and the top of it touched with a live coal and blown upon, 
immediately a flame issues, without injuring either the cane or paper, pro- 
vided the edges be covered with clay ; and this method they use for hght 

Digitized by 



in their houses, which have only the earth for the floor : three or four of 
these lighted canes will boil water in a ]}ot, and thus they dress their 
victuals. The flame may be eztin^ished in the same manner as that of 
spirits of wine.— The ancient fire- worshippers of Persia regarded this 
locality as sacred, and several still find their way to it, and pass a number 
of years in the hope of purifying themselves from sin. 


Boundaries. — N. Siberia ; W. the riyer Ural and 
the Caspian; S. Persia and Afghanistan; E. Chinese 

Divisions. — 1. Khiva or Kharism ; 2. Bokhara ; 3. 
Kokan ; 4. Koondooz ; 5. Kirghiz Steppe or Northern 

Towns. — 1. Khiva (a), Urghenz; 2. Bokhara (6), Sa- 
marcand (c), Balkh (d) ; 3. Kokan, Khojend, Taschkend, 
Turkestan ; 4. Koondooz («), Khooloom, Budakshan. 

Mountains. — The Hindoo Coosh and Belur Tagh. 

Lakes. — Sea of Aral ; Lake Balkash. 

Rivers. — Jihon or Amu {Ooms), Sirr or Sihon 

(a) In the winter of 1839-40, a Russian army of 20,000 men sent to 

attack Khiya were nearly all destroyed by the'seyerity of the cold. 

(6) Bokhara signifies *' the treasury of sciences." a name not inappropriate 
to a city containing 366 colleges or endowed scnools, 360 mosques, and 300 
moolahs who superintend both religion and education. The city was 
burnt by Genghis Khan in 1219, but its advantageous situation caused it 
to be rebuilt. It stands in the midst of a rich plain surrounded with trees: 

population, according to Bumes, 150,000. (c) This city was the capital 

of Timour. It still contains the tomb of that conqueror, but the place 

itself has become of only secondary importance (d) BaJkhy the ancient 

Bactra, is belieyed by the natives to be the oldest city in the world, and 
has been styled by the Persians Am-tU-belttd, "the mother of cities." It 
was conquered by Alexander the Great, and about 250 b. c. became the 
capital of the Greek kingdom of Bactria. Balkh was also the birthplace 
of Zoroaster, and the seat of the patriarch of the Magian hierarchy. The 
ancient town is now a heap of ruins ; the modern one contains only 2000 

inhabitants. {e) Koondooz^ the nominal capital of the khauat, is a 

poor place. The largest town is Khooloom, a city of one-story houses, 
Duilt of sun-dried bricks, having a population of 10,000, with considerable 
trade and manufactures. 

* The Jihm and Sirr flow N. W. into the Sea of Aral. . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I. Historical Geography, 

Ist, Names.— This redon is now freqaentlv called Turkestan, or the 
oountry of the Turks, the different tribes of Kirshiz, Kalmucks, Turco- 
mans, and Usbeks, by whom it is held, being merely yarieties of that race. 
The portion to the N. and £. of the Jaxartes was included in the ancient 
Scyihta; that to the S. W. comprised the countries of CkoraamiaySogdiana^ 
Baetria, and part of Parthia. 

2d, Extent — This region is about 1300 miles in length f^om E. to W., 
and 1100 in breadth from N. to S. It contains nearly 900,000 square 
miles, with a population of about 5,000,000. 

3d, Chronoloot.— A large extent of Southern Turkestan seems to 
have been included in the ancient Persian empire ; but little was known of 
these regions till the expedition of Alexander the Great, who subdued the 
country watered by the Oxus, and founded the Greek kingdom of Bactria. 
The authority of the Bactrian princes extended as far nortn as the Aral till 
B. c. 120, when their kingdom was overthrown by invaders from the east, 
who received the vague name of Scythians. In 256 b. c, the Parthian 
monarchy was founded by Arsaces in the neighbourhood of the GEispian, 
and became distinguished for its resolute struggles against the Roman 
power. At the commencement of the Christian era, the Parthian rule ex- 
tended over nearly the whole of Turkestan, and vnth it the fire-worship of 
Zoroaster. In a. d. 711, the Arabians conauered Bokhara and Samar- 
cand, and communicated the faith of the Koran to those rude Turkish 
tribes who eventually supplanted their empire. At the beginning of the 
13th century, Turkestan was overrun by the forces of Genghis Khan ; but 
a new dynasty arose in 1370 under the celebrated Timonr or Tamerlane, a 
native of the country, who fixed his capital at Samarcand,and carried his 
victorious banners over a ^eat part oi Asia. In 1494, Sultan Baber, a 
descendant of Timour, being expelled from Bokhara, proceeded to Hin- 
dostan, and there founded what has been called the Mogul or Mongol 
empire. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Usbeks sprad 
themselves over most of Southern Turkestan, and now constitute the ruling 
people of its several khanats or kingdoms. 

II. Political Geography, 

Ist, States, Slc— Khiva consists of the territory to the S. of the Aral, 
watered by the Jihon. The inhabitants are considered as little betterthan 
an organized banditti : they commit dreadful ravages in Persia, frequently 
carrying off the people as slaves. Similar aggressions against the buIh 
jects of the Czar led to an unsuccessful Russian expedition ; but the cap- 
tives were restored through the intercession of the British resident.— The 
territory S. of Khiva^ and held by it in some degree of subjection, is called 
Twrcomania, and is inhabited by a number of wandering tribes, supposed 
to comprise 140,000 figimilies, perpetually engaged in plunder.— Bomars 
is a large territory to the east of Khiva, considerably more advanced in 
civilisation, and containing some populous cities. — Kokan is a mountain- 
ous territory to the N. £. of the former, watered by the Sirr and its afflu- 
ents, and is very fertile.— JToofufoojsr is another mountain-territory to the 
S. £. of Bokhara,-whose warlike khan has also subjected the high pastoral 
re^Don of Budakshan, celebrated for its mines of rubies and lapis-lamli, 
and inhabited by a people claiminig; descent fh>m the ancient Macedonians. 
—The steppes in the N., the original seat of all the Turkish tribesy are 
inhabited by the roving clans of ttie Kirghim, 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


2d. Religion.— The Usbeka of the south are all strict Mahometans of 
the Soonee seot ; but several tribes on the eastern borders are Shiahs, 
and others idolaters. Amon^ the Kirghiz, Mahometanism also predom- 
inates, though some are said to adhere to the worship of the grand 

3d, Government. — In the states of Bokhara, Khiva, Koondooz, Kokan, 
&c., the sovereigns are all more or less despotic ; but their authority is 
limited by the influence of the moolahs or priests and of the inferior 
chiefs, who are sometimes elected by their clans or tribes. The Kirghiz 
are divided into three principal branches, called the Great, the Middle, 
and the Little Horde; but they seem to possess scarcely any kind of 
political organization. 

III. Civil Geography, 

Ist, Manners and Customs.— The tribes of Independent Tartary all 
possess a strong physical resemblance ; being generally short and stout, 
with broad flat foreheads, high cheek-bones, small eyes, clear complex- 
ions, and black hair. In customs and manners, however, they present all the 
shades of difference between barbarfsm and comparative civilisation; those 
of the tovms in the S. displaying in their dress and habitations no small 
resemblance to the same classes in Persia, while the wandering Kirghiz 
live in tents, subsisting on the produce of their flocks, or by hunting 
and plunder. They esteem horse-flesh a great delicacy, and their favourite 
drink is koumiss or fermented mare's milk. Several of them pass the 
summer in Southern Siberia, but repair in winter with their flocks to 
the neighbourhood of Bokhara. 

2d, Language, &c. — Nearly all the people of these regions speak 
kindred dialects of the Turkish; but the Persian or aboriginal inhabitants 
so preponderate in the south-west, that the dominant Turks now use their 
language.— In Bokhara a general respect for learning exists, and the 
founding of schools is viewed as an act of piety ; but notwithstanding 
the multitude of colleges in some of the towns, the children of the opulent 
onlv are taught to read and write, and other kinds of knowledge receive 
little attention. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce. — The people of Bokhara are favour- 
ably distinguished for manufacturing skill ; fine cottons, silk stuffs, cut- 
lery, hats, ^per, and even firearms, being mentioned among their pro- 
ductions. The chief wealth of the tribes, however, consists in their 
horses, flocks, and herds, which, with furs, wool, hides, horns, &.C., are 
exchanged with the inhabitants of the towns, and with tne neighbouring 
Russians and Chinese, for manufactured articles, tea, and other luxuries. 
The black lamb-skins of Bokhara are prized all over Asia for making 
eaps ; and the hair of the goats is only surpassed by that procured in 
Cashmere. Turkestan is likewise remarkable as the -scene of the great 
caravan trade of interior Asia, the chief centre bein^ Bokhara, where 
an annual caravan of 1300 camels arrives from Russia, besides others 
from China, India, and Afghanistan. 

IV. Natural Geography. 

let, Climate and Seasons In a country of such extent, and embrac- 
ing great diversities of surface, the climate most be extremely various. 



The plains and steppes are subject to wide extTemes of 4ieat and oold; the 
Randy surface reflecting the sun's rajs with intense power in summer, and 
the cold of winter is nearly insupportable. These plains are likewise sub- 
ject to severe storms, hurricanes, and whirlwinds, which carry every thin|; 
moveable before them. The climate, however, is generally healthy. 

2d, Facb of the Covntrt. — The greater part of Turkestan is composed 
of extensive, arid, sandy plains, dotted witn small lakes, most of which 
are salt, and it is intersected by a few rivers, whose banks offer a luxuriant 
vegetation; agriculture being practicable only where water for irrigation 
can be procured. The land rises gradually from the shores of the Casi)ian 
and Aral towards the south and east, where are the sources of the principal 
rivers. To the east of the Aral the river Sirr may be said to divide the 
two great salt deserts of Kizil Koum and Kara Koum, which are little above 
the level of the ocean, and seem as though the}r had been formerly covered 
by its waters. The Kirghiz steppe presents wide plains, alternated with 
hills of moderate elevation ; but the want of rivers and forests, with the 
general scarcity of water, gives to many parts of the region a barren and 
repulsive aspect, though there are not wanting spots of great beauty 
and fertility. 

3d, Soil and Agricultuhe.— The fertility of Southern Turkestan seems 
formerly to have been greater than at present ; and the remains of aque" 
ducts and canals show that the ancient inhabitants practised the neeofdl 
irri^tion. At present the most industrious agriculturists are the people of 
Bokhara and Kokan, and in an inferior de^e those of Khiva ; the chief 
productions being rice, wheat, barley, maize, turnips, and tobacco. The 
most celebrated fruit is the melon, said to have been first cultivated in this 
country ; next to which may be mentioned cucumbers, grapes, apples, and 
pomegranates. Cotton is raised in considerable quantities; and in Kokan 
the mulberrv-tree, the food of the silk^worm, receives great attention, silk 
being a staple commodity. 

4th, Animals. — The domestic animals of Turkestan are the horse, sheep, 
goat, camel, and ox, the rearing of which constitutes the chief employment 
of the nomadic tribes. Some of the richer inhabitants are said to possess 
upwards of 6000 horses, and as many as 20,000 sheep, which last are dis- 
tinguished by their enormous tails, weighing sometimes 30 lbs. The vnld 
animals comprise the wolf, wild-boar, fox, dog, wild-goat, and hare, and 
all the smaller furred animals ; the buffalo, antelope, wild-horse, beaver, 
and water-rat are plentiful in some districts ; and in the south tnere are 
tigers, lynxes, &c. Among the birds are the eagle, falcon, eormocant, 
pelican, stork, pheasant, and goose ; the lakes and rivers contain seals and 
various kinds of fish, among which the sturgeon is the most important. 


Islands.— 1. Niphon; 2. Kiusiu ; 3. Sikokf; 4. 

Towns. — 1. Jeddo, Miaco ; 2. Nangasaki ; 3. Tosa ; 
4. Matsraai. 

* The Japanese have also colonized the southern portion of the island 
of Sagalien, and claim dominion over half of the Kurile Islands. Then 
are besides numerous small isles scattered round the coast, the most ouiioos 
being Fatsisio, to the £. of Nishon, the place of exile for the grandees. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

JAPAN. 207 

I. Historical Geography of Japan. 

Ut, NABEBS.^Marco Polo, the fmther of modem Asiatic ^eomphy, men- 
tions Japan by the name of Zipanari or Zipangu. The inhabitants them- 
selves call it Niphon or Nifon, and the Chinese Sippon and Jepuen. 

2d, ExTEST.— Niphon, the principal island, is in length from S. to N. E. 
not less than 800 British miles ; tne mean breadth is about 100, and the 
extreme 200. Kiiuiu ft*om N. to S. is about 200 miles, the greatest breadth 
about 120. Sikokf is about 90 miles in leneth, by half uiat distance in 
breadth. Japan is estimated to contain 1^0,000 square miles, with a 
population of twenty-five millions. 

3d, Chbonolooy. — No aecurate information has been obtained 'of the 
origin of the population ; but they seem to be a kindred race vnth the 
Chinese, though, according to Ksempfer, the languages are radicallv dis- 
tinct. — The Japanese have as many fabulous legends as their ndghbours 
of China, on the antiquity of their empire. What may be called their his- 
torical period, which mcludes a portion of &ble, begins with the hereditary 
succession of the ecclesiastical emperors, or children of the sun, from the 
year 660 before the Christian era to the year of Christ 1585, during which 
107 princes of the same lineage governed Japan. The emperor was called 
Mikado or Dairi-iama, ** lord of the palace ;" but in 1585, the Sjogun, or 
hereditary military leader, usurped the supreme secular power, producmg 
a total revolution in the government. From that time the Mikado has 
only been at the head of reliaiotu matters ; while the Cuba, or secular 
emperor, bears an absolute aominion over all civil and military affairs. 
Hie former still lives in great state and grandeur at Miaco; and the 
latter, who resides at JeMo, pays him a kind of homage, as u he acted 
only as deputy or viceroy; but, in reality, the Ctibo is now the real monarch 
of Japan, and the Mikado merely his high-priest. 

II. Political Geography. 

Ist, Rkligioii.— The established religion of Japan is a Polytheism, joined 
with the acknowledgment of a Supreme Creator. There are two principal 
sects, that of Sinto and that of Budsdo, The first, which is the ancient 
Japiuiese faith, recognises a Supreme Being, fiir superior to the little claims 
and worship of man, whence tney adore the inferior deities as mediators, 
of whom the Mikado is one, being himself regarded as of celestial lineage. 
They abstain from animal food, detest bloo<tehed, and -will not touch any 
dead body. The sect of Budsdo, imported from Hindostan, is the same 
vnth that of Budha or Boodh, Soon after the discovery of this country 
by the Portuguese, Jesuit missionaries arrived in 1549; and their succes- 
sors continued to diffuse their doctrine till 1638, when a civil war arose, in 
which 37,000 Christians were massacred. Several persecutions had for- 
merly taken place ; and, in 1590, upwards of 20,000 jiersons are said to have 
perisned. Since 1638, Christianity has been held m supreme detestation, 
the cross, and its other symbols, being annually trampled under foot. 

2d, GoyBBNMEMT.— The singular constitution of Japan consists of an 
absolute hereditary monarchy, supported by a number of absolute heredi- 
tary princes, whose jealousy of each other's power consmres, with domestic 
pledges, to render tnem subservient to one supreme. The government of 
each province is intrusted to a resident prince, who is strictly responsible 
to the Cubo for his administration, his lamily remaining at the emperor's 

208 JAPAN. 

court as hostages. The princes of the .first dipdij are staled Daimio^ 
those of inferior rank Siomio.— The lefipl code, though sanguinary, is brief 
and simple, and enforced with promptitude and impartiality. 

3d, Army, Navt, and Revenue.— The army is said to amount to 
100,000 foot and 20,000 horsemen, armed with muskets, pistols, and sabres, 
and provided with artillery. The navy consists merely of, small vessels. 
Balbi estimates the revenue of the empire at £10,000,000. 

III. Oiml Geography, 

1st, Manners and Customs.— The Jai>anese possess a considerable de- 
gree of civilisation. They are stout, active, dexterous, irascible, and per- 
severin|f ; and, as might be expected, their general character strikingly 
resembfes that of the Chinese, though it seems to be less characterized Dy 
fawning and insincerity. They are very ingenious ; but their manners 
are, in many respects, diametrically opposite to those of Europeans. In 
Japan a man- may take as many wives as he chooses ; and they treat the 
women with great severity. The houses are of wood, painted white, and 
never exceed two stories ; and the interior is divisible into apartments at 
pleasure, by moveable partitions sliding in grooves. The Japanese have 
neither tables, beds, nor chairs; but sit and lie on carpets ana mats ; and 
during their repasts, the food is served apart to each in a basin of 
porcelain, or on a square salver of japanned wood. Their food consists 
almost entirely of fisn, fowl, eggs, and vegetables. 

2d, Language and Literature.— The language of Japan is peculiar, 
having no resemblance to any other Asiatic dialect. Tne sciences are 
highly esteemed, and there are several schools at different places : some 
of those at Miaco have from 3000 to 4000 pupils. The principal branches 
taught are arithmetic, rhetoric, poetry, nistory, and astronomy. The 
Japanese study housekeeping, or domestic economy, as an indispensable 
science; and they are well versed in the history of their country. 

8d, Manufactures and Commerce.— Some of their arts and manufac- 
tures almost rival those of Europe. They are excellent Workmen in iron 
and copper; and they yield to few eastern countries in fabrics of silk and 
cotton; while in varmshing wood they are well known to have no equals. 
Glass is also common ; and they even rorm telescopes^ watches, and clocks. 
Their porcelain is deemed superior to that of China. Their swords display 
incomparable skill ; and many varieties of paper are prepared from the 
bark of a species of mulberry-tree.— The inland commerce is very con- 
siderable, being exempted from imposts. The harbours are crowded with 
vessels ; the high roads with vehicles for the transport of goods ; and 
the shops are well stored with merchandise. The trade with the Chinese 
is the most important, consisting of raw silk, sugar, turpentine, drugs. 
&c. ; while the exports are copper in bars, ladcered-vrare, &c. All 
Europeans are excluded by the jealousy of the government, except the 
Dutch on a small scalCy and even they are only admitted at the port of 

IV. Natural Qeograpky. 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The heat of summer is extremely vio- 
lent, and would be insupportable were not the air cooled by tiie sea- 

JAPAN. 209 

breezes. Equally seyere ia the cold in winter, when the wind blows from 
the N. or N. £. The weather is changeable throughout the year ; and 
there are abundant falls of rain, especially in the satsaki.OT rainv months, 
which be^n at midsummer. This copious moisture is the chiei cause of 
the fertility of Japan, and its consequent high degree of population. 
Thunder is Tory common ; and tempests, hurricanes, and earthquakes are 
not onfrequent. 

2d, Face of the CouNTRT.-^The whole territory consists of mountains, 
hills, and valleys, the coast being mostly rocky and precipitous, and in- 
vested with a turbulent sea. The face of the country is aiversified with 
many rivers and streams, and by its luxuriant and varied vegetation. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil in itself may be said to be rather 
barren ; but prolific showers conspire with labour and manure to over- 
come even this obstacle. Except the most desert and untractable moun- 
tains, the whole country is under cultivation. Even the sides of the hills 
are cultivated^ by means of stone walls supporting level plats sown with 
rice or esculent roots. Rice is the chief grain, and tea is largely raised. 
The sweet potato is abundant ; with several sorts of beans and pease, tur- 
nips, &c. Weeding is carried to the utmost degree of nicety. From the 
seed of a kind of cabbage, lamp-oil is expressed, and several plants are 
cultivated for dyeing ; there are also cotton shrubs and mulberry-trees, 
which last feed abundance of silk- worms. The orchards contain oranges, 
lemons, figs, grapes, pomegranates, pears, peaches, cherries, &c. The 
varnish and camphor trees, the vine, the cedar, and the bamboo-reed, not 
only grow wild, but are cultivated for numerous uses. In the central parts 
of Japan is found the rhus vemix, from the bark of which exudes a gum- 
resin that is supposed to be the basis of the exquisitely beautiful and in- 
imitable bla.k varnish with which the inlaid cabinets and other articles 
of Indian luxury are covered. 

4th, Animals.— There are in general but few quadrupeds, neither sheep 
nor goats being reared in any part of the empire, and the number of horses 
and homed cattle is extremely small. A few dogs are kept from motives 
of superstition, and cats are favourites with the ladies. Domestic fowb 
are numerous, out valued chiefly for their eggs, of which the Jiipanese are 
fond ; and the fish of the coast supply an important article of food. The 
wolf appears in iJie northern provinces, and foxes in other parts. 

5th, Minerals.— Gold is found in several places ; silver is more rare ; 
copper is plentiful and very fine. Iron seems to be scarcer than any 
other metal. Brimstone is m great abundance, and pit-coal is likewise 
to be met with in the northern provinces.— Here are several warm medi- 
cinal waters, which the inhabitants use for various diseases. 




Where is Mongolia, the goyemment of Tobolsk, Malacca, 
Bootan, Bokhara, Cochin-China, Mantchooria, Assam, Khiva, 
Georgia, Tonquin, Siam, Birman Empire, Kirghiz Steppe, 
Irkutsk, Japan, Aracan, Cambodia, Corea \ &c. 

Where is Canton, Lassa, Balkh, Ava, Moukden, Ummerapoora, 
Pe-kin, Rangoon, Cashgar, Jeddo, Moulmein, Bankok, Macao, 
Kiachta, Baku, Kokan, Samarcand, Kesho, Nankin, Yarkand, 

Digitized by 



Tiflis^ Erivan, Nangaaaki^ Badakshan, Okhotsk, Ningouta, Si- 
ngan, Amherst ! &c. 

Where is the Island of Formosa, Sing^ore, Prince of Wales, 
Chusan, Kurile Isles ; Lake Palte, Balkash, Lop, Baikal ; Al- 
taian Mountains, Cancasas! &c. 

Name the three large rivers which flow N. through Siberia. 
Into what sea does the Ural fall ! Which are the principal rivers 
in Chinese Tartaiy ! Into what sea does the Jihon fall ! Which 
are the two largest rivers in China \ &c. 


1. The Isles of Sunda or the Sumatran Chain, yiz. 
Sumatra, Baaca, Billiton, Nassau or Pagi Isles, Ni- 
cobar, Java, Madura, Balli, Lombok, Sumbava, Flores, 
Timor. The totwwin Sumatra are Bencoolen, Palembang, 
and Acheen ; in Java are Batavia, Bantam/ Samarang, 
and Sourabaya. 

2. Borneo, Labuan, Sooloo, Tawi, Natuna, Anamba. 
In Borneo are the toums of Borneo, Pontianah. 

3. The Philippine Islands, viz. Luzon, Mindanao, 
Palawan, Mindoro, Panay,Negros,Zebu, Leyte, Samar. 
In Luzon is the toum of Manilla; in Mindanao are 
Mindanao, Samboang. 

4. The Celebesian Islands, viz. Celebes, Sanguir, 
Zula, Peling, Bouton, Salayer. In Celebes is the toum 
of Macassar. 

5. The Moluccas or Spice Islands, viz. Gilolo, 
*Ternate, Tidor, Coram, Bouro, Mortay, Oby, My sol, 

Amboyna, Makian, Batchian : the Banda or Nutmeg 
Islands are Banda, Lanthoir, Gounong, Letti, and 


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Remarks on the AHatic Isles. 

The Atiaiie or Malayan Islands eomprise an immense archipela^, 
Iving between the continents of Asia and Australia, and stretching from 
Sumatra to the island of Papua or New Guinea. The islands are 
throughout of a mountainous nature, and, like other tropical countries, 
^m the great heat and moisture, they are coyered with a luxuriant 
Tegetation. The natural productions are of the most varied descrip- 
tion ; and embrace, besides rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, and other plants 
common to tropical rej^ons, several that are peculiar and indigenous. 
Among these may especially be mentioned pepper, nutmegs, and cloves, 
though the policy of the Dutch has been nearly successful in confining 
the last to the small island of Amboyna. Gold is universally diffused 
throughout the islands, and several contain mines of silver, copper, and 
tin. The inhabitants belong to two distinct races— the Malaffs^ a brown 
people, with lank hair ; and the Fapuas, a negro race, with frizzled 
hair ; the former displaying generally the same superiority over the 
latter that the whites do over tne African negroes. These islands have 
at different times been objects of contention among the maritime powers of 
Europe ; but they are now almost entirely in the nands of the Spaniards 
and JDutch, the former holding the Philippines, while the latter have 
divided their possessions into the seven governments of Batavia, Sumatra, 
Amboyna, Banda, Ternate, Macassar, and Timor. Under the sway of 
these powers, the moral and political condition of the inhabitants nas 
been much deteriorated, 'i'he island of Labuan. on the N. W. coast of 
Borneo, now belongs to Britain, having been ceded to her in December 


Sumatra is 1050 miles in length, and about 200 in breadth. It was 
certainly unknown to the ancients, the information of Ptolemy terminat- 
ing considerably to the N. The Arabs seem to have been acquainted 
with this island in the ninth century, but it became first known to Euro- 
peans in the sixteenth. A chain of mountains runs through its whole 
length, rising in some places to a great height ; Mount Ophir oeing 13,840 
feet above the sea, and Mount Kassoumba, under the equator, 15,000; and 
there are several volcanic craters. Frost, snow, and hail, are unknown; 
but thunder and lightning are frequent. The year hai^ two divisions, 
called the rainy and the dry monsoons. The soil is amazingly fertile, and 
the mountains contain gold, coi)per, iron, and tin. The inhabitants, esti- 
mated at 3,000,000, are distinguished as Sumatrans in the interior ana Ma- 
lays on the coast ; but in physical form, habits, and lan^age they are so 
maeh alike that there seems reason to regard them as originally the same 
people. According to native tradition, Sumatra and the adjacent islands * 
are the original seats of the Malay race, which is now spread nrom Malacca, 
and perhaps the S. of Hindostan, nearly as far as the western coasts of 
America, through the innumerable islands of the Pacific. The religion is 
Mahometanism. According to the account of Marsden, there are inland 
races, of whom the Googoo are covered with long hair, and are little supe- 
rior to the orang-outangs of Borneo. The dress of the Malays consists of 
a vest, a robe, and a kind of mantle, with a girdle in which is the creese or 
dagger. The houses are of wood and bamboos, covered with leaves of 
palm, standing on pillars, and sealed by a ladder. The furniture is simple: 
the common food is rice. Laws are unknown, the chief rendering Judg- 
ment acoording to customs; and most crimes are compensated by money. 

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mnrder itself not excepted. In Sumatra arefoand the elephant, rhinooenm, 
hippopotamus, alli^tor, tiger, bear, otter, porcupine, deer, wild-hog, civet- 
cat, with many varieties of monkeys. The buffalo is employed in d»* 
mestic labour. Amongthe birds, the Sumatran or Argus pheasant is of 
distinguished beauty. The jungle fowl, or wild poultry, also appear ; aiid 
there is a breed in the S. of remarkable height, likewise found in Bantam, 
on the W. of Java, which also gives name to the well-known small breed. 
Insects of all kinds swarm, particularly the destructive termites or wkito 
ants. The most abundant product is pepper, which is exported to th0 
amount of 30,000,000 lbs. a-year. Camphor and cassia are also found ; 
rattans are exported to Europe for walking canes ; and the silk-cotton ia to 
be met with in every village. The Malays excel in gold and silver filigree, 
and in weaving silk and cotton ; but the manufactures generally are im- 
perfect. In the northern part of the island are several petty states ; but the 
Dutch are now masters of all the territory south of the equator. Britain, 
by a late treaty, ceded to them her settlements at Bencoolen and Fort 
Marlborough, receiving Malacca, on the peninsula, in exchange. 

Banco is particularly celebrated for its tin. Of Billiton little is known. 
— The Nassau or Pttgai Isles are distinguished bv the peculiar character 
of their population, which approaches to that of the Otaheitans in amiable 
simplicity of manners. 

Java is about 650 miles in length, by about 100 of mean breadth. The 
population is estimated at 4,600,000. This island abounds with forests, 
and presents an enchanting verdure. It is also intersected by a ridge 
of mountains, like a spine, pervading its length. There are two native 
states in Java, respectively governed by an emperor and a sultan ; but 
the Dutch have seized the greater part of the island, which they have di- 
vided into nineteen provinces. Batavia, the metropolis of the archipelago, 
presents many different races and tongues ; but the Chinese constitute a 
large part of the inhabitants. The Malav language, the French of the 
East, is here universally understood. The streets are planted with 
trees, which, with the Dutch canals, probably contributed to the former 
unhealthiness of the spot. The rainy season begins with December and 
lasts till March. Cultivation in Java has of late years been greatly im- 
proved. Rice is the staple food, and it is also largely exported : the culture 
of sugar and coffee has oeen wonderfully extended; to which we may add 
pepper, cloves, nutmegs, and other spices, which are now allowed to be 
grown here. The teak timber is only second to that of Malabar. 

The small isle of Madura, on the N. of Java, had its independent prince^ 
whose sufferings under the tyranny of the Dutch have been described by 
Mr Pennant.— The isle otBaili seems only remarkable for furnishing oot- 
ton-yam and pickled pork. Of Lomhok, Sumbava, and Fhres, little is 
known. Timor was discovered in 1522 by the companions of Magalhaens, 
who found in it* the white sandal-wood. The Portuguese, after a long 
struggle, effected a settlement, but were expelled by the Dutch in 1613^ 
who regarded this isle as a kind of barrier of the spice trade. Timor id 
nearly 300 miles in length, by 60 in breadth ; ana the inhabitants are 
esteemed the bravest in the Indian Archipelago. 

2. BORNEO, Ac. 

Borneo is one of the largest islands in the world, being about 750 miles 
in length, by 400 at its greatest breadth ; probable population, 3,000,000. 
The interior regions are little known. Tne far greater part, next to the 
sea^ especially the northern side, consists of avramps, covered with forests, 
which penetrate for many miles towards the centre of the island, where lofty 

Digitized by 



mountains are said to exist, many of which are volcanic, and often occasion 
tremendous earthquakes. The coasts are held by Malays, Moors, Anna- 
raese, and even Japanese. The houses are built on posts fixed in rafts, 
which are moored to the shore, and may be moved from place to place 
to suit the convenience of the inhabitants. There are, besides, various 
distinct tribes in the interior, including the aboriginal Papttas or Negroes ; 
and the territory is as usual divided among a number of petty sov- 
ereigns. Pepper abounds in the interior, with the gum called dragon's 
Uood, campnor, and sandal-wood. Eoible bird-nests are abundant. 
There are productive- gold-mines, chieflv worked by Chinese colonists ; 
also diamonds, little inferior to uiose of Golconda. , The orang-outang 
is frequently met with. Brune, the capital, on tlie N. W., consists 
of about 2000 houses, floating as above described ; it was greatly fre- 
quented by the Chinese, who continue to be the chief traders to Borneo. 
7he Dutch have some small settlements at Sambas and Pontianah. 
Gooty and Banjarmassin are the capitals of native states, and places 
of some consequence. 

The Sooloo hies in the N. E. are rich in pearls. The natives are expert 
navigators, and rather polished; and the government is vested in a sultan, 
the Mahometan religion extending thus far. The island of Labuan is 
situated to the N. W. of Borneo, between which and the Sooloos lies Tawi, 
To the W. of Borneo are the groups of Natuna and Anamba^ little visited 
or known. 


This large group was discovered by Magalhaens in 1521, who called \% 
the Archipelago of St Lazarus ; but the islands were subsequently named 
the Philippines, after Philip II. of Spain. They are all nominally 
subject to the Spaniards, who have colonized various places in the prin- 
cipal islands. Aggregate population, 2,000,000. 

Lusson is the largest and most important, beinj^ 500 miles in length, by 
about 100 of mean oreadth. Grold, copper, and iron, are among the pro- 
ducts ; and the soil is reported to be uncommonly fruitful. The natives, 
who are of a mild character, are called Tagals, and seem of Malay origin. 
The houses are of bamboo covered with palm-leaves, and raised on pillars 
to the height of eight or ten feet. The chief food is rice and salted fish. 
Several volcanoes are described, and earthquakes are not unknown. The 
cotton is of peculiar beauty, and the sugar-cane and cocoa-tree are objects 
of particular culture. The city of Manilla is well built and fortified, but 
a third part is occupied by convents : the number of inhabitants is com- 
puted at 140,000. Manjr branches of industry are carried on by Chinese 
settlers. — Next in size is Mindanao, a beautiAil and fertile island, the 
chief Spanish settlement being at Samboang in the S. W. Horses and 
buffaloes have here multiplied to a surprising degree. In the S. there is 
a volcano of constant eruption, which serves as a laud-mark. 

Th€l other chief Philippines are Palawan, Mindoro, Panay, Negrosy 
Zebu, Leyte, and Samar, On the E. of 2^bu is the small isle of Matan^ 
where the celebrated navigator Magalhaens was slain. In general, this 
grand and extensive group presents many volcanic appearances ; such as 
lava, volcanic glass, sulphur, and hot springs. Among vegetables the 
brea4-fruit must not be forgotten, which first appears on tne eastern coasts 
of Sumatra, and thence extends its benefits through innumerable islands 
in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 





Celebes is an island of yerr irregular form, more than 700 miles in 
length, but the average breadth is not above 100. The population has 
been estimated at 3,000,000. This island is lofty and mountainous, es- 
pecially towards the centre, and there are several active volcanoes. It 
surpasses all the Asiatic Isles in sublime and beautiful scenery. The P<Nr- 
tuffuese obtained a settlement near Macassar in the S. W., but were ex- 
pelled in 1660 by the Dutch, who continue to control the island ; the 
Chinese alone being permitted to trade. The houses are raised on pillara, 
as usual, on account of the rainy season or wet monsoon from Noverabw 
till March. The Celebesian islands contain many poisonous trees and 
plants ; though the singular qualities of the upas tree have been grossly 
exaggerated. The inhabitants, of whom the most numerous tribe are 
called Bugis, cultivate great quantities of rice : they are tolerably wdl 
skilled in manufactures, and carrv on a considerable trade with China. 

Around Celebes are many small isles, as Sanguir in the N., Zula and 
Peling in the E., with Bouton and Salayer in the S., and some of lesser 
note in the W. Even the smallest isles are mostly inhabited, and govM*ned 
by chiefs. 


The Moluccas^ originally and strictly so termed, are five small islands 
on the W. of Gilolo, namely Temate, Tidor, Afo/tr, MakiaUf and Bakian 
or Baiehian ; but the term has since obtained a wider signification. The 
natives of th& whole are Mala^^s, and profess Mahometaniam. 

Temate is the most northerly and important of the group, though it 
scarcely exceeds 24 miles in circumference. The sultan controls Makian 
and Motir, with the N. of Gilolo, Mortay,and even some Celebesian isles, 
and part of Papua, whence he receives a tribute of gold, amber, and birds 
of paradise. The chief quadrupeds are goats, deer, and hogs, and the birds 
are distiuguished for their beautv, particularly the kingfisher, clothed.ui 
scarlet and mazarine blue, called by the natives the goddess. In Temate 
the serpent named the boa constrictor is found of the length of 30 feet, and 
is reported sometimes to swallow even small deer.—In Tidor there are 25 
mosques; and the sultan possesses also the S. of Gilolo, and claims tribute 

from Mysol The isle <^ Afo^tr, according to an old English writer, was 

formerly the seat of Venus and voluptuousness.~3/aA;iafi was regarded as 
the chief Dutch settlement here before Amboyna became the metropolis of 
the Moluccas.— ^ai|(uin or Batehian is governed by a sultan, who is like- 
wise sovereign of Oby and Ceram. It rises into wooded hills ; and on 
the shores, as in most isles of this archipelago, there are prodigioua rocks 
of coral, of infinite variety and beauty. 

Gilolo is 200 miles in length ; the breadth seldom exceeds 40. It 
is said to have been once |[ovemed by a sheref from Mecca ; but tbi 
sultans of Temate and Tidor, who are tributary to the Dutch, now 
share this large isle betwixt them. Gilolo abounds with oxen, bnffibloai. 
goats, deer, and wild-hogs ; but the sheep are few. The bread-fruit maa 
tne sago trees are abundant. The natives are industrious, particularly in 
weaving.— Oram is about 200 miles in length, by 40 in breadth. U 
produces cloves ; and there are large forests w the sa^o-tree, the fniit of 
which forms a considerable article of export.— -Amro is about 100 mikfl m 
length, by 50 in breadth. The civet-weasel is found here, and the carious 
hog called babiroussa. Green ebony, and a kind of iron-wood, are men- 

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tioned ftmong the trees.— Jlfor^, subject' to the king of Tenukte, is % 

beautiful isle, but thinly inhabited, though full of sago-trees Oby abounds 

in cloves ; the inhabitants are chiefly fugitire slaves from Ternate. — Mpsol 
contains many picturesque forests, visited by birds of paradise, wmch 
seem to migrate from Papua, and are caught in considerable numbers. 
— Amboifna is a small island, 32 miles in length by about 10 in breadth, 
and remarkable as the chief seat of the clove cultivation, and of the Dutch 
power, vrhich has been extended over the Vfhole archipelago. The 
surface of this island is beautiful. The clove-tree grows to the height of 
about 40 or 50 feet, with spreading branches and long pointed leaves. In 
deep sheltered vales some trees will produce 30 pounds weight annually, 
the chief crop bein^ from November to February. The once rigid pro- 
hibition aeainst raising it in any other place has now been withdrawn. 
When Aniboyna was seized by the English (1796), it was found, with its 
dependencies, to contain 45,25*2 inhabitants, of whom 17,813 were Protes- 
tants, the rest Mahometans, except a few Chinese and savages. The 
natives differ little from the other Malays ; and when intoxicated vnth 
opium will commit any crime. The chief animals are deer and wild-hogs, 
and among the birds is the cassowary. 

Banda is the chief isle of the group of that name, whicli comprises 
six or seven others : it does not exceed eight miles in length, and the 
greatest breadth may be 5 miles. The nutmeg-tree is the principal object 
of cultivation in these isles. In 1796, the annual produce was about 163,000 
pounds of nutmegs and 46,000 pounds of mace. The nutmeg-tree crows 
to the size of a pear-tree, the leaves resembling those of the laurel, and l)ears 
fruit from the affe of 10 to that of 100 years. The nutmeg, when ripe on 
the tree, has both a very curious and beautiful appearance. The inhabitants 
of the ^anda isles number about 6000. 


1. Australia ; 2. Vaa Diemen's Land ; 3. Papua or 
New Guinea ; 4. New Britain, New Ireland, Solomon 
Isles, Louisiade; 5. New Caledonia, New Hebrides; 
6. New Zealand. 

Remarks on Australasia. 
Divisions. — 1. New South Wales, including Australia Felix 
or Port Phillip ; 2. South Australia ; 3. Western- Australia ; 
4. North Australia. 

Towns. — 1. Sydney, Paramatta, Windsor, Liverpool, Bathurst, 
Maitland, Newcastle, Melbourne ; 2. Adelaide ; 8. Perth, Free- 
mantle ; 4. Victoria, <m Port Essington, 

MouNTiiiNs.— Blue Mountains, Liverpool Mountains, in New 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


South Wales; Australian Alps, Grampians, in Australia Fdix ; 
Moant Lofty, near Adelaide, 

KivERS. — Hawkesbury, Hunter, Hastings, Brisbane, Mac- 
quarrie, Darling, Lachlan, Murrumbidgee, Murray, Swan Riyer.* 

L Historical Geography. 

1st, Extent.— Anstralia is the largest island in the world, its len^h 
from E. to W. being about 2400 miles, and its breadth from N. to S. 1960. 
Area, 3,000,000 sqnare miles. The British population in 1846 was found 
to be 220,000 ; that of the natives is vaguely estimated by some at only 
60,000, but by others at 300,000. 

2d, Cheonologt.— There is reason to believe that Australia was first 
visited by the Portuguese or Spaniards in the early part of the 16th 
century. In the course of the 17th, its northern and western coasts were 
folly explored by the Dutch, who called it New Holland ; and it was 
afterwards minutely surveyed by the English navigator Dampier. The 
eastern coast was carefully examined by Cook, and was formally taken 
possession of in the name of Great Britain in 1770. . On the close of the 
American war in 1783, it was resolved to select this new territory as a 
place of transportation for criminals, and the first ship arrived in 1787 
at Botanj Bay, whence the settlement was soon after transferred to the 
spacious inlet of Port Jackson. Further examinations of the coasts were 
conducted by Flinders, Bass, and other able navigators, both English and 
French. Two expeditions for exploring the interior were fitted out in 1 81 7 
and 1818 ; and since that time the joumevs of Oxley, Sturt, Mitchell, and 
others, have disclosed a large portion of the interior. — In the beginning of 
this century, the spirit of emigration being excited in Britain, a numerous 
and increasing body of the middle and labouring classes have been induced 
to remove to tnis new country. The different colonies were respectively 
settled as follows :— New South Wales, which now contains several 
thriving settlements, in 1788 ; Port Phillip in 1837 ; South Australia in 
1834 ; Western Australia in 1829 ; North Australia in 1838. 

II. Political Geography. 

Ist, Keligton.— Like their countrymen at home, the colonists generally 
profess Christianity. The clergy of all sects are provided for out of the 
public property ; in New South Wales, one-seventh part of the whole terri- 
tory being set apart as church and school lands, for the general purposes of 
religion and education, without reference to sect. The Englisn episcopal 
church is under the charge of the Bishop of Australia, who is appointed 
by the crown, and resides at Sydney. The aborigines have a belief in good 
and evil spirits, but apparently no form of religious worship. 

* The Hawkesburpy Hunter, Hmtings, and Brisbane flow E. into the 
Pacific Ocean ; the Macguarrie, Darling, Lachlan, and Murrumbidgee 
unite in the Murray, which falls into Lake Alexandrina at Encounter 
Bay, on the S. coast ; Swan River fiows N. and W. into the sea on Uie 
W. coast. 


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2d, GoTfinEtNMENT. — In the colony of New South Wales, the admin^ 
istration of public affairs is vested in a goyernor, an executive council 
appointed by the crown, and a legislative assembly, consisting of 12mem« 
bers nominated by the crown, and 18 elected by the colonists. The laws 
are those of England, and the administration of justice presents the usual 
officiiUs. The revenue of the colony is derived from crown lands, and from 
duties on imports, spirits, auctions, &c* ; in 1840, it amounted to £443,000. 
— The constitutions of the other colonies present no differences calling 
for remark. 

III. Civil Geography, 

1st, Aboriginal lNHABiTANTS.--The native inhabitants of this island 
seem to be in the very lowest stage of human existence. In complexion 
and general appearance they resemble the African negroes; but are greatly 
inferior to them both in bodily strength and mental capacity. They are 
the only race of men who go perfectly naked ; and they possess no form of 
social organization beyond the natural one of families ; though there is said 
to exist a tribe more powerful than the others, who have the singular prero- 
gative of exacting a tooth fron^the young men of other families, as a token 
of subjection. Fish is the only food of those on the coast, while a few in 
the woods subsist on such animals as they can catch, or on honey, gums, 
and wild fruits. They smear their skins with fish-oil, paint their faces 
with white or red clay, and have a bone or reed thrust through the cartilage 
of the nose. The huts are rudely constructed of the bark of trees, in the 
form of an oven, with the fire in the centre. Their canoes and weapons 
are equally imperfect ; their chief taste and skill being displayed in their 
burial mounds, which nearly resemble the barrows of the Celts. These 
poor savages are the abject slaves of superstition, believing in witchcraft 
and ghosts; they pretend to have spells against thunder and lightning, and 
to foretell events from the meteors calledfalling stars. They possess little 
or no idea of property, and tneir thefts have given rise to violent confiicts 
between them and the Europeans ; they have sometimes also been wantonly 
murdered, but measures have recently been taken for their protection. 

2d, Europeans. — The European population consists of two classes, 
emigrants and convicts^ with their descendants. Prior to the general 
peace of 1814. New South Wales was merely a penal station ; but since 
then the number of emigrants has been so great, that they now form the 
bulk of the population. Their general object is to obtain a tract of land, 
with right of pastura^ge in the unoccupied parts. They are obliged to leaa 
a solitary life, incurring hardships and even dangers ; but many by perse- 
verance have acquired considerable fortunes. Several are engaged in trade, 
the whale-fishery, and other occupations. Sydney ,jbhe capital, contains 
35,000 inhabitants, with many fine houses and splendid equipages. — The 
banished convicts have been employed in government works, or distributed 
as servants among the settlers ; but this latter arrangement, being found 
objectionable, has been discontinued, and all convicts arriving in future 
are to be sent to Norfolk Island.* Those who behave well, after a certain 
time, receive tickets of leave ; and in that case, or after emancipation, have 
in many instances acquired large property. 

3d, Commerce. — The principal export consists of wool, which, include 
ing that from Van Diemen's Land, amounted in 1847 to 28^000,000 lbs. 

* Norfolk Island is a small but beautiful and fertile island, 900 miles 
N. E. from Sydney. 


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There are besides small quantities of hides and bark. The whale-fishBry 

is carried on extensively upon the coasts and in the adjacent seas ; ana 
afforded, in the vear 1840,7880 tuns of oil (1371 being spermaceti), with 
6711 cwts. of whalebone.. The imports of British produce in the same 
year were valued at £2,200,000. The shipping employed in this trade 
exceeded 108,000 tons. Various manufactures are also springing up. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— Australia being situated on the south of 
the equator, the seasons, as in the southern parts of Africa and America, 
are the reverse of those of Europe ; the summer corresponding with our 
winter, and the spring with autumn. The general temperature resembles 
that of Southern Italy, but the atmosphere is much drier : and some of 
the characteristics of the tropics are exhibited, as periodical winds, and a 
division of the year into dry and wet seasons. March, April, and August, 
are generally considered the rainy months ; but there are periods when no 
rain fkUs for one, two, and even three years, and at such times the suffer- 
ings of the settlers and their cattle have been excessive. On the whole, 
however, the climate, particularly in its southern latitudes, is noted 
for its general mildness and salubrity. 

2d, Face of the Countrt.— The most singular feature of Australia is 
the absence of gulfs and bays penetrating to any distance inland, and the 
want of large navigable rivers. Great part of the interior is yet unex- 

{>lored ; but so far as examined it presents the appearance of an immense 
evel plain, in many places covered with' shells and marine remains, and 
having the appearance of land from which the sea has but recently sub- 
sided. Along the coast, generall^r at the distance of thirty or forty miles, 
run chains oimountains, from which a number of small rivers, frequently 
dry in summer, find their way to the sea. The plants of Australia are in 
a great measure peculiar to itself, being chiefly of a kind suited to a dry 
saline soil ; but there are notwithstanding several extensive forests of 
valuable timber. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture — The soil of Australia cannot be expected 
to be fertile, and in many parts it is so arid as to yield only a stunted 
vegetation. It is reckoned that in the original colony only a sixth part 
of the land is of much value ; nor does the proportion appear greater in 
South and West Australia. The Port Philhp district, however, and the 
newly discovered tract called Gipps' Land, being watered by streams 
from the Australian Alps, are more generally fertile, and hence the for- 
mer has been appropriately named Australia Felix. The pastures, even 
where not luxuriant, are well fitted for the reiiring of sheep with very 
fine wool, which have multiplied prodigiously, and proved a source of 
great wealth to the colonists. There are also districts adapted for every 
species of grain ; but the crops are liable to suffer from drought. Wheat, 
maize, barley, rye, and potatoes are reared in considerable quantities ; 
and oranges, grapes, peaches, the mulberry-tree, with other valuable pro- 
ductions, are found to thrive well in certain situations. 

4th, Animals.— The animal tribes of Australia are not numerous, but 
they are characterized by several remarkable peculiarities of structure, 
^e chief are the marsupial or pouched kind, that move forvrard by spring- 
ing. Of this description are the kangaroos, of which there are several va- 
rieties of different sizes, some being from four to five feet in height, when 
seated on their hind legs, and capable of leaping twenty feet at a single 
bound. The opossum, an animal of the same species, is also found in 
considerable numbers. A singular animal, the ornithorhyncus, is the 
connecting link between birds and quadrupeds, having the biU and &et of 

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9triiOTeler dnok, with a body partaking of the characters of the otter, the 
Bu^, and the beaTer. The native do^s are of the jackal kind, and neyer 
hark, but utter a dismal howl ; thej are of two colours, black and whitC) 
with some tinges of red. Other animals mentioned are weasels, porcn- 
pinee, and ant-eaters. Horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, have been in- 
troduced by the European settlers, and thrive well ; many of the cattle 
have already become wild. Among the birds of Australia are white 
eagles, several elegant parrots, parroquets, and cockatoos ; with birds 
of paiadise, pheasants, doves, magpies, plovers, snipes, kingfishers, &c. 
The aquatic birds comprise nerons and gigantic pelicans, ducks and 
^eese with peculiar plumage, and the black swan, a rare product of this 
island. Green turtle abound in the isles of Norfolk and Howe, and 
likewise appear on the coast of Australia. There are several lizards 
and serpents. Amon^ the fish, besides the useful kinds of cod, perch, &c., 
may be named dolphins, porpoises, and a singular amphibious animal 
which leaps like a frog by the help of strong breast-fins. 

5th, MiNEKALS. — Australia possesses inexhaustible supplies of coal and 
iron, with strata of beautiful marble. Valuable mines of lead and copper 
hare been discovered; and it seems probable that, as the colonial settle- 
ments continue to advance, and its interior districts are better knovni, the 
mineral stores of this island will become of great importance. 


This island, which is 170 miles in length and 160 in breadth, received 
ite name from Tasman, the Dutch navigator, who discovered it in 1642, 
and was at first considered as the southmost portion of Australia, from 
which it is separated by Bass's Straits, 150 miles wide. It was taken 
possession of by Britain as a penal station in 1803, and throve open to free 
settlers in 1813. The surface is generally hilly, and covered with forests, 
but there are extensive tracts without wood. The climate is much more 
temperate than that of Sydney, the summer heat rarel^r rising above 80**, 
and snow being seldom seen, or only in trifling quantities, in the winter. 
All the European grains ana fruits thrive well ; but the climate is too cold 
for Indian com, which is cultivated in New South Wales. The zoology 
of Van Diemen's Land is nearly the same with that of the larger adjacent 
island. The native inhabitants were savages, living in a state of great 
mdeness ; but they have gradually been displaced by the white popula- 
tion^ and in 1847 a remnant of forty-five was located at a station about 
20 nules from Hobart Tovm, on the banks of the Derwent. Within the 
last few years the civilized population has been greatly increased by the 
influx of emigrants of a respectable class from Britain. The settlements 
now form a line across the island from south to north, along the rivers 
Macquarrie and Derwent. The wheat is superior to that in Australia, 
and tne wool equally fine. The whale-fishery also is carried on with some 
success. The British population amounted, in 1847, to 60,000, of which 
Hobart Town, the capital, contained 16,000. The government of Van 
Diemen's Land was in 1826 separated from that of New South Wales, 
and is now conducted by a governor and two councils, executive and 


This countrr is One of the most interesting, but least known, in 
Australasia. It is said to have been first discovered by Saavedra, a 
Spanish captain, in 1528 ; bat is still far from being completely ex- 

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plored, as it is yet nncertain whether it may not consist of a nnmber 
of islands densely grouped together. The length is supf)osed to be more 
than 1400 miles, and the greatest breadth 500 ; the form is yery irregular: 
The natives of Papua consist of two distinct races,--the Puaptta* or 
Papuas of the N. W., who resemble the natives of Australia, and hsvo 
given their name to the island, as well as to the corresponding race 
throughout the E. Archipelago ; and the people of the E., who approxx-' 
mate the yellow-complexioned, long-haired natives of the South Sea 
Islands. The Papuas have evidently made some advances in civilisation 
beyond the Australians, being at least partially clothed, having some 
knowledge of commerce, and possessing fixed habitations. Their nouses 
are built on stages in the water like those of the Bomeans and other na- 
tions in the Asiatic Isles. The females are very industrious, but the men 
are exceedingly indolent. The aspect of these people is hideous : the males 
are stout in body, their skin of a shining black, rough, and often disfigured 
with marks like those occasioned by the leprosy ; their noees are flat, 
their eyes and mouths very large, their lips amazingly thick, especially 
the upper lip ; their hair woolly, either a snining black or fiery red, and 
it is aressed in a vast bush, so as to resemble a mop. They sometimes 
ornament their hair with feathers of the bird of paradise ; others add to 
their deformity by boring their noses, and passing through them rings, 
pieces of bone, or sticks ; and many, by way of ornament, hang round 
their necks the tusks of boars. The heads of the women are of less size 
, than those of the men. and in their left ear they wear small brass rings. 
Their religious tenets nave been little examined. They make rude tonoos 
of the coral rock, sometimes adorned with sculptures. Their chief com- 
merce is with the Chinese, from whom they purchase instruments and 
utensils; and the returns are ambergris, tortoise-shell, small pearls, birds of 
paradise and other birds, which they dry with great skill. The Dutch in 
1828 formed a settlement in Triton bay. The coasts are generally lofty ; 
and in the interior mountain rises above mountain, richly clothed with 
wood. This island is the chosen abode of the splendid and singular 
birds of paradise, of which ten or twelve sorts are enumerated by Pennant. 
They are chiefly caught in the adjacent isles of Arroo^ and are supposed 
to breed in Papua, where they remain during the wet monsoon ; and, 
during the dry or western, they retire to Arroo, migrating in flocks of 30 
or 40. New Guinea also possesses elegant parrots ; and the crowned or 
gigantic pigeon almost equals a turkey in size. — Waijoo or Weuijoo is an 
isle of considerable extent, and is said to contain 100,000 inhabitants. — 
Salwaiti is populous, and governed by a rajah. The people of these two large 
islands resemole those of Papua: they live on fish or turtle and sago. 


New Britain was first explored and named by Dampier. The country 
is very populous, the natives resembling those of Papua, and managing 
their canoes with great skill. The chief product seems to be cocoa-nuts, 
but there are yams and other roots, particularly ginger ; and the sea and 
rivers swarm with fish. In the mainland and adjacent isles there are 
several volcanoes. 

Captain Carteret found the people of New Ireland very hostile, and 
had lances headed with flint. Their faces were streaked with white, and 
their hair daubed with powder of the same colour. They are black, and 
woolly -haired. Some of the canoes of New Ireland were 90 feet in 
length, formed out of a single tree. 

The Solomon Islands were discovered by Alvaro de Mendana, who 

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sikd from Lima to the westward in 1567. Some of the natives are of a 
eopper oolour, others of a deep black. The canoes are small, two being 
commonly fastened together. 

The Louinads consists of a nnmerons group of islands to the S. of New 
Britain, discovered and §amed by Bougainville in 1768. .They are lofty 
and volcanic, and appear to be fertile. The inhabitants belong to the 
Papuan race, and are reported to be cannibals. 


The first of these islands was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774. 
Bougainville, in 1768, had sailed through the New Hebrides, the most 
northerly of which is supposed to be the Australia del Espiritu Santo of 

New Caledonia is a large island, the southern part of which, in par- 
ticular, has been little explored. The natives are a muscular race, of 
a deep brown complexion, and they subsist on roots and fish, the country 
being very barren and rocky. The bread-fruit and cocoa-nut are scarce. 
The houses are neat, some having carved door-posts, and they rise in the 
form of a bee-hive, are warm, but full uf smoke. The name of tee^ which 
in the Society Isles implies a guardian-spirit, seems here to denote a chief. 

Dr Forster thought that the people of McUlicollo in the New Hebrides^ 
who are ugly and cuminutite, had a language different from any other met 
with in the voyage. In Tanna there is a remarkable volcano, with some 
hot springs. Here are found plantains, sugar-canes, yams, and several 
kinds of fruit-trees. The natives rather resemble those of Australia than 
the Friendly islanders : they are particularly dexterous in the use of the 
spear, and are very ferocious. 


Ist, Name, SLC—Ntw ZecUand received its name from the Dutch voyager 
Tasman, who discovered it in 1642 ; and in 1770 the coasts were accu- 
rately examined by Captain Cook, who sailed round them and through 
the strait which bears his name. The country consists of two large islands, 
called North Island and South Island, and of a smaller one named Stew- 
art Island ; but the three have also been denominated more recently New 
Ulster, New Munstery and New Leinster. Together they extend, includ- 
ing the straits which separate them, about 1100 miles from N. to S., with 
a varying breadth of from 10 to 260. Area, 86,000 square miles. 

2d, Description.— South Island and the greater part of North Island 
are intersected by a chain of mountains in the direction of their length, 
with peaks elevated in some parts to 14,000 feet, and covered with perpetual 
snow ; and there are several subordinate ranges and detached hills. The 
country presents the appearance of perpetual vegetation, and may be gen- 
erally described as well watered, with a salubrious and temperate climate 
resembling that of France. The mountains are mostly clothed with forests 
of magnificent trees ; and between them and the sea, on both sides, be- 
sides a large stretch of swampy but improvable land near the shores, there 
is an immense extent of wood, with fine plains, and pasture-land of great 
natural fertility, and every where accessible by means of numerous fine 
bays and navigable rivers. The country contains several active volca- 
noes, and there are hot springs and other traces of volcanic action. 

Productions.— Timber and flax are the most valuable native products 


of New 2^aland. Many of the treens, which principally belong to the pine 
species, are admirably adapted for ship-building, and the flax is said to 
possess greater length, strength, and flexibility of flbre than that of north- 
ern Europe. There are but few indigencus edible fruits or roots, the 
most importan^t perhaps being the kumera or mreet potato, and the root 
of a kind of fern ; but maize, wheat, and potatoes have been introduced, 
and found to yield abundant crops, together with the fruits and yege- 
tables of the temperate zone. When first discovered, New Zealand pos- 
sessed no indigenous mammalia whatever, ' the only quadrupeds beinf; 
some species of lizards ; but hogs have since become naturalized, and the 
settlers possess horses, cattle, and sheep. Cats and rats are also importa- 
tions, and both are eaten by the natives as food. Mocking-birds, parrots, 
parroquets, cuckoos, and wood-pigeons, abound, and European ponltrr 
have been found to thrive. The coasts are frecjuented by the whale, seal, 
&e. ; while both the seas and rivers abound with fish of every kind, equal 
in flavour to any in Europe. The mineral productions of New Zealand 
are as yet but little known ; though coal is believed to abound in South 
Island, and iron, lime, and marble are plentiful. 

4th, Natives.— The New Zealanders are a very diffisrent race from the 
people of Australia : they belong probably to the Malay family, and if so, 
thev are by far its best si>ecimen8. They are in general tall, robust, active, 
and well shaped, with olive complexions and straight black nair. They are 
sanguinary and revengeful, and are unquestionably addicted to canni* 
balism and infanticide ; but otherwise iw>y display fewer of the vices of 
savage life than almost any uncivilized people. The tribes are ruled by 
chieuains, who are absolute in their own aoipinions ; and there is also 
an order of priests, the religious belief embracing the idea of God, of 
an evil spirit or devil, and oia future state. The New Zealanders mani- 
fest considerable skill in the building and furnishing of their huts ; prepare 
mats and other articles in flax of great beauty ; and evince much inge- 
nuity in making and carving their canoes. Tneir offensive weapons are 
spears and javelins, with the patoo, a kind of club or battle-axe. Even 
the practice of tattooing, or tracing lines on the skin, designed perhaps to 
render their aspect in battle more formidable, is executed with consider- 
able taste. Thejr possess a rude kind of lyrical poetry, and are passion- 
ately fond of music. They evince great aptitude for adopting the usages of 
civilized life, and make excellent sailors, in which capacity they are now 
frequently employed. A considerable portion of the natives are slaves 
to others, and polygamy is practised by those who continue attached to 
their ancient superstitions. 

5th, Colonization. — After the exploration of New Zealand by Cook, 
its coasts were occasionally visited by whalers and other vessels ; but no 
permanent settlement was made till 1814, when the Church of England 
Missionary Society established a station at the Bay of Islands. The mis- 
sionaries made wonderful progress in the conversion and civilisation of the 
natives, and settlers from Australia and Europe began gradually to take 
up their residence in the North Island. In 1839. a company was formed 
in London for the purchase and disposal of land and the conveyance of 
emigrants, and several thousands have been sent out under their auspices. 
In 1841, this fine country was declared an independent British colony, and 
placed under the control of a governor and council. 

The settlements have been hitherto mainly confined to the North Island. 
Auckland, the capital, advantageously situated on Waitemata Bay, on the 
N. E. coast, has a spacious harbour, and is rapidly attaining importance* 
The other principal towns are Wellington on Port Nicholson m Cook's 
Straits, and Russell, in the Bay of Islands. Plymouth and Nelson, on 
the W. coast, are also thriving places. The most recent settlement ig 
that of Otago, beautifully situated on the S. E. coast of New Munater 
Island. The colony now possesses a regular church establishment, law 
courts, newspapers, and all the usual advantages of a civilized communiiy. 

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1. The Pelew Islands. 

2. The Ladrone or Marian Islands ; Benin Isles. 

3. The Carolines^ Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands. 

4. The Sandwich Islands, j^nncipoZ Owhyhee, Oahu, 

5. The Marquesas, principal Noukahiva, Ohevahoa, 

6. Low Archipelago, including Pitcairn Island, Aus- 
tral Isles, Cook's Isles. 

7. The Society Islands, principal Otaheite and 
Ulieta ; Easter Island. 

8. The Friendly Islands, principal Tongataboo ; the 
Fijee Islands ; Navigators' Islands. 

General Observations on Polynesia. 

PoLTMEBiA, as the name imports, consists of a vast multitude of small 
islands, scattered in groups across the broad expanse of the Pacific. The 
(greater number lie about the 20th degree of south latitude, between longi- 
tude 110° and 1B0° west ; but some important groups are situated to the 
north of the equator. Many seem to have been raised from the sea by the 
labours of the minute coral insect, and scarcely appear aboTe the water IcTel ; 
others display evident traces of volcanic origin, and are hill^ and even 
mountainous. Though situated within the tropics, the climate is delight- 
fal and salubrious, being tempered by cool breezes from the ocean; while 
the eye is everywhere refreshed with the prospect of a luxuriant and 
gorgeous yegetation. Among the natural productions are the bread-firuit,t 
we cocoa-nut, plantains, bananas, yams, sweet potatoes, taro-root, sugar- 
cane, and numerous other edible roots and fruits ; and oranges, pincrapples, 

* The term Polynesia is derived from two Greek words signifying many 

t The bread-fruit tree rises to the height of more than forty feet, with a 
tnink about the thickness of a man's bod^ : its fruit, which is nearly as 
large as a child's head, being gathered while yet unripe, and roasted in 
the ashes, is most wholesome and nutritious, and in taste resembles new 
whMbten bread. During eight successive months every year this tree 
.continues to bear fruit in suqh abundance that the produce ox three of them 
is amply sufficient for the support of one man. Nor is this its only 
YsInB : Uie inner bark is manufactured into cloth, the wood is excellent 
for theooDstruotion of huts and canoes, the leaves serve instead of napkins, 
and from its milky glutinous juice a tenacious cement is prepared. 

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figs, mulberries, grapes, melons, cucumbers, and Tarious European Tejge* 
tMes have been introduced. The forest-trees have been found service* 
able for ship-building. Hogs, dogs, and rats are indigenous to the islands ; 
and the domestic animals of Europe haye been found to thriye wefi. 
The woods contain numbers of poultry and splendid tropical birds, and 
the sea teems with excellent fish. 

The inhabitants belong to the Malay variety of mankind, and eyenr- 
where possess a strong general resemblance. From New Zealand to the 
Society group the same language and customs prevail. Though the people 
of some of the islands have been found mild and gentle in their manners, 
others were treacherous and ferocious. Except where Christianity and 
civilisation have been introduced, they are in the condition of savages, 
going nearly naked, and having few arts beyond those necessary for fash- 
ioning their instruments of war, fishing, and the chase. These, however, 
display no small taste and skill, considering their want of iron tools ; 
and their canoes, which they manage with great expertness, are often 
elegantly formed. In so warm a climate the houses are merely sheds con- 
structed of bamboos and mats ; and their clothing, which consists of little 
more than an apron fixed round the waist, is composed of a species of cloth 
made by the women from the bark of the bread-fruit tree. The practice 
of tattooing the body prevails more or less in all the groups. The govern- 
ment is in the hands of hereditary chiefs, and there are occasionally a sort 
of kings to whom the others are subject. A large portion of the rude 
revenue of these petty sovereigns used to be raised oy meant of a magical 
ceremony called the taboo, by which they declared any animal or article 
of property sacred, and thereby secured it to their own use. The religion 
is a polytheism, embracing the belief in a future state : every family nas 
its guardian spirit ; but there are also deities of a superior order, called 
Atooa or Eatooa. The priests are numerous, as are also the physicians of 
the islanders. At the epoch of the discoverer of the Polynesian Islands, 
the natives had no conception of morality as it is understood among civil- 
ized men. Wars of extermination, accompanied by horrid cruelties, and 
even by cannibalism, frequently prevailed ; the female sex were in a most 
degraded state ; and infanticiae and licentiousness were directly en- 
couraged by a baneful association called the ^r^oi, which was very widely 
diffused. Since the commencement of the present century, however, by 
the exertions of various doToted missionaries, the natives of several of 
these island groups have received the blessings of Christianity and civili- 
sation. Some degree of commerce has even sprung up, especially in the 
Society and Sandwich clusters ; the inhabitants exchanging f^esn provi- 
sions, sandal-wood, cocoa-nut oil, arrow-root, and other products, for Eu- 
ropean cloth, hardware, &c. 


This group attracted considerable attention from an ingenious and 
pleasing account of them drawn up by Mr Keate from the papers of Cap- 
tain Wilson who suffered shipwreck here in 1783. The islands are of 
moderate elevation, rise into oeantiful hills, and are well wooded ; but 
they are bordered by dangerous coral reefs. The people appear^ to be a 
gentle and amiable race, tne gay and innocent children of nature. Tlie 
men are entirely naked, and the women wear only two little aprons, or 
rather fringes, made of the husk of the eocoa-nut. Both sexes are tat- 
tooed, and their teeth are djtd. black. - Polygamy is allowed, and the dead 
are interred. Their principal diet appears to oe fish ; but they make a 
kind of sweetmeat from the sugar-cane. The chief drink is the milk of 
the cocoa-nut. They commonly rise at daylight, and immediately ffo to 
bathe in fresh water. Their bouses are raised on large stones aboai uaee 

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IM from the gFoand, and are eonstracted of plants and bamboos, and the 
fireplace is in the middle, secured with hard rubbish. The knives are 
made of mother-of-pearl, or of a large muscle-shell or split bamboo. The 
weapons are spears, darts, and slings ; and the canoes are formed of the 
tnuik of a tree neatly ornamented. 



The appellation Ladrones implies the Isles of Robbers, and was given 
by that distinguished navigator Magalhaens, who first discovered these 
idands in 1521, the natives showing a strong disposition to pilfer, and much 
address in the execution of their designs. They are twelve or fourteen in 
Bnmber, and all belong to the Spanish government of the Philippines ; but 
only the five southmost are inhabited. They are probably of volcanic ori- 
gin, being mountainous, and two of the 'smaller islands have active yoI- 
canoes. in colour, speech, manners, and government, the natives consider- 
ably resemble the Tagals, or people of the Philippines, before the Spanish 
conquest. Chmm, the lai^est island, is 40 leagues in circuit, and contains 
the capital and seat of government, named Agagna^ which has 3000 inhab- 
itants. The other principal isles are T%nian',Rotta, Agrigan, and Saypan. 
In some of the islands are extensive ruins^ which show them to have been 
once in a most flourishing state ; but cultivation is now much neglected. 

The Bonin Isles are a group of small islands to the south-east of Japan; 
they are said to be 89 in number, but several are only reefs and shoals. 
The northern islands are inhabited by a Japanese colony ; others are the 
resort of smugglers and of persons engaged in the whale-fishery. There 
are besides numerous minute islands in the same seas, not comprenended in 
any group, on some of which are active volcanoes. In these seas is the 
stupendous rock called Lot^s Wife, rising in the form of a pyramid, to the 
height of nearly 300 feet. There is a cavern on its south-eastern side, into 
which the waters roll with a tremendous noise. 


These three groups form together the most extensive connected range 
in the Pacific Ocean. Some of the islands were discovered so early as 
1526 ; and in 1686, the name of Caroline Islands was conferred on the 
principal group in honour of the Spanish monarch Charles 11. They are 
almost innumers^ble, and very populous, except a few, which are uninhab- 
ited. Thej are described by Arago as in general small, low, and wooded. 
The inhabitants are almost amphibious, spending much of their time in 
the water, and swimming with great dexterity. Their manners are gentJe 
and courteous. They chiefly live upon fish and cocoa-nuts ; and it is prob- 
able that their languaj^e differs only in a few points from that of the 
Philippines. They believe in certain celestial si)irit8, and think they 
descend to bathe in a sacred lake ; but there are neither temples nor idols. 
The dead are sometimes thrown into the sea. at other times interred, the 
•gniTe being surrounded with a stone wall. Polygamy is allowed, and the 
iamul, or diief of the large isle of Hogoleu, had nine wives. Criminals 
axe banished from one isle to another. They do not appear to have any 
instmments of music, but their dances are accompanied with songs. 
Their only weapons are lances pointed with bone. 

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These islands were discoTered by oar great navigator Cook in 1778, 
and were so named by him in honour of the Earl of Sandwich, a minister 
who had warmly promoted his labonrs. The islands are ten in number, 
but seven only are inhabited. They are all mountainous and voloanic, 
presenting frequently a strong contrast between the luxuriant verdure of 
the valleys and the naked sterility of the mountain summits. Owh^hee* 
or Hawaii^ the largest island in the group, and indeed in Polynesia, is 
above 100 miles in length, and from 70 to 80 in breadth, with an area of 
4300 square miles. It contains three lofty volcanic mountains ; the highest, 
Mouna Kea, 13,764 feet above the level of the sea ; Mouna Roa, 13,430 
feet ; and Huararai, 8457 feet. On the eastern base of Mouna Roa ier 
situated Kirauea, the largest volcano at present known; and there are 
many other dormant or extinct craters throughout the island.— The 
Sandwich Islands, besides their own indigenous productions, now possess 
European and West India fruits in perfection ; horses, asses, cattle, and 
goats have multiplied greatly since tneir introduction ; and fowls, ducks, 
and geese are abundant. The population of the Sandwich Islands is esti* 
mated by the American missionaries at 150,000. The character of the 
islanders has been variously represented ; bat they seem to be a mild, 
docile, improvable race, who have very readily adopted the manners and 
customs of civilized life. When discovered by Captain Cook, the several 
islands were under the authority of different chiefs ; but towards the close 
of last century they were all subjected to the control of King Tameha- 
meha I., who, profiting b}r the intercourse of Europeans, introduced a great 
number of the arts of civilized life. His son ana successor, Tamehameiia 
II., in 1819, publicly abolished idolatry and embraced the Christian faith, 
and in the foUo wins year missionaries were allowed to settle in the idaad. 
Since then the Bible has been translated and printed in the native tongue, 
schools have been established, churches built, and the forms of religion 
very generally observed. European usages have also become fashionable, 
ana the costume of the better classes, women as well as men, closely re- 
sembles that of the Anglo-Americans. The islands are favourably situated 
for trade, being in the route between America and China ; and they have 
of late become an entrepot for the commerce of the N. W. coast of Amer- 
ica, as well as a place of refreshment for the whalers in the Pacific. In 
1831, there belonged to the islands 14 ships, of 2630 tons, of which 4 brigs 
and 7 sloops were the property of the natives. Houoruru, the capital, in 
the island of Oahu, has a good harbour, and a population of 6500. The 
town consists partly of stone buildings and partly of native huts, and has 
an irregular but striking appearance. A newspaper printed in the Eng- 
lish language has been estaolished in the tovm, and tne missionary press 
also issues a journal called the Hawaiian Monitor. 


These islands were discovered in 1597 by Alvaro de Mendana, who so 
named them in honour of Don Garcia de Mendoza. Marquis of Caniente, 
viceroy of Peru. The /p-oup consists of 1 3 islands, tne largest, Noukahiva, 
being 70 miles in circuit, and the only one generally visited by ships. The 
islands are mountainous, the interior exhibiting a mass of broken and 
craggy peaks, rising in some cases to the height of 5000 or 6000 feet, with 
a sandy belt along the coast. The intervening valleys are singularly fertile 
and picturesque, being copiously vfratered by streams, which form numerous 

* Through an unhappy misunderstanding with the natives, Captain Cook 
lost his life at Owhyhee in 1779. 

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cascades, one of which, in Nonkahiva, has a fall of 2000 feet. The people 
are described as tall, robust, and finely formed ; but they still continue 
saTa^eSjbeing Goyetous,reTen£eful,and carrying on their wars with deadly 
ferocity, though they are friendly and open during peace. The islands 
are divided among a number of independent chiefs and tribes. The reli- 

fion is thb polytheistic superstition formerly universal in the South Sea. 
n 1842, these islands were taken possession of by the French. 


The Low Archipelago consists of a vast multitude of minute isles, rising 
little above the level of the sea. They are nearly all of coral formation, 
and thickly surrounded with reefs. Many are inhabited, and the natives 
of severaJ, through the occasional visits of missionaries, have embraced the 
Christian faith.— Pttootm Island, a small si^ot sometimes considered as 
belonging to this group, has acquired celebrity from having afforded an 
asylum to some of the mutineers of Captain Bligh's ship the Bounty. 

The Austral Isles are commonly reckoned five in number, the principal 
being Hitnaiara, Oheteroa, and Toubouai, which are from 12 to 20 mues 
each in circuit. They are hilly, but fertile and beautiful. The inhabit- 
ants are estimated at 4000, and have recently been converted by native 
teachers from the Society Islands. 

Cook's or Hervey Islands lie to the west of the Society group; they are 
seven in number, but small and unimportant. Rarotonga, the largest, is 
30 miles in circumference, surrounded by a coral reef, and rises into a mass 
of mountains of romantic appearance. The people, estimated at 16,000, 
resemble those of the Society cluEter, and have nearly all embraced Chris- 


This group is believed to have been discovered in 1605 by Pedro Fer- 
nandez de Q,uiros,a Spanish seaman then engaged in a voyage of discovery, 
and comprehends six large and several smaller islands. They have been 
frequently visited by Europeans. Otaheite or Tahiti^ the largest of 
them all, consists of two peninsular mountain masses, connected hy a low 
isthmus and surrounded by coral reefs : the island is 108 miles in cir- 
cumference, and contains aoout 10,000 people. The mountains in some 
cases attain an elevation of nearly 7000 feet ; but extensive as well as fer- 
tile vales open on every side towards the sea, and the entire land is clothed 
from the water's edge to its topmost heights with perennial verdure. 
UUeta or Raiatea,, the next in importance, is about 60 miles in circum- 
ference, encircled by coral reefs, and bordered by numerous islets. It has 
a bold mountainous appearance, and is scarcely less picturesque than the 
former. Etmeo^ another mountainous island, is chiefly distinguished as 
the central station of the missionaries on this group. All these islands are 
volcanic, the larger one containing several curious elevated lakes, which 
are probably the craters of extinct volcanoes. The Society islanders are 
light-hearted, and fond of social enjoyment ; but at the same time indo- 
lent, deceitful, thievish, and addicted to ardent spirits. The introduction 
ct Christianity has not been so successful as in the Sandwich Islands ; 
civilisation is considerably less advanced, and European costume not so 
prevalent ; though on the whole no small progress has been made. In 
1825, the king promulgated a code of laws drawn up by the missionary, 
Mr Nott. Papeta^ the capital and seat of government, sitn^ated on the 

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principal island, exhibits a combination of European houses and nativo 
huts : it has a good harbour, and is often yisitea by shipping. In 1843, 
the islands were attacked by the French, who depriyed the native 
queen of her authority. 

Easter Island, a detached spot, 20 degrees to the £. of the Low Islands, 
was first seen by Davis in 1686. It is only 20 miles in circumference, but 
is bold and rocky, and formerly contained some colossal statues formed of 
lava, which abounds on the island, representing the upper parts of the 
human body. The people are intelligent and industrious. 


The Friendly Islands were discovered by Tasman in 1643 ; they were 
afterwards visited by Cook, who gave them their present name, in allusion 
to the disposition of the inhabitants. The group consists of four principal 
islands, of which Tongatahoo is the largest, being 100 miles in circum- 
ference. They are all low, of coral formation, and surrounded with 
dangerous reefs of the same substance ; but the soil is extremely rich. The 
population has been estimated at 90,000. Though favourably mentioned 
oy Cook, the people^ have since displayed a character as treacherous, 
savage, and superstitious as any tribe in Polynesia. Of late years, 
however, the labours of the Wesleyan missionaries have here met with 
considerable success. 

The Fiiee Islands lie to the N. W. of the Friendly group, and are a 
good deal frequented by traders from America for the purchase of sandal- 
wood. The people are of a different race from the other South Sea 
islanders, being evidently the same with the aborigines of Australia. 
They are extremely ferocious, and addicted to cannibalism. 

The Navigators' Islands were so named by Bougainville, who dis- 
covered them in 1768. They consist of nine islands, of which three 
only are of much importance ; Savaii, the largest, being 350 miles in cir- 
cumference, with mountains visible at 60 or 70 miles'^ distance, clothed 
with noble forests. The others are of similar character. Next to the 
Sandwich cluster, this is the largest and most populous group in the 
Pacific, the people being estimatea at 150,000. Until 1830, they were a 
race of ferocious cannibals ; but being in that year visited by Mr WiUiams, 
the missionary, many embraced Christianity, and since then their progress 
in improvement has been rapid beyond all example. 


Where is the Island of New Britain, New Zealand, the Caro- 
lines, Sumatra, the Celebesian Isles, the Sandwich Isles, New 
Caledonia, Luzon, Java, Van Diemen*s Land, Australia, Society 
Isles, the Pelew Isles, New Guinea, Easter Island, Borneo, the 
Spice Islands, the Fijee Isles, New Hebrides, the Moluccas, Solo- 
mon Isles, the Friendly Isles ! &c. 

Where is the town of Sydney, Bencoolen, Manilla, Samarang, 
Macassar, Samboang, Batavia ! &c. 


zed by Google 

; the' l^Hger flows E. tbrough Nigritia, passeg 


Digitized by LnOOQlC 

Macasaar, Samboang, Batayia ! &c. 


by Google 

AFRICA. 22» 


Boundaries. — N. Mediterranean ; W. Atlantic 
Ocean ; S. Southern Ocean ; E. Indian Ocean, Red 
Sea, and Isthmus of Suez. 

Divisions. — 1. Egypt ; 2. Nubia ; 3. Abyssinia ; 4. 
Barbary, comprehending Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Trip- 
oli ; 5. Western Africa, inclvding Senegambia, Upper 
Guinea, Lower Guinea ; 6. Southern Africa, including 
Cape Colony ; 7. Eastern Africa, comprehending Adel, 
Ajan, Zanguebar, Mozambique, Mocaranga, Sofala ; 8. 
Central Africa, comprehending Sahara or the Desert, 
and Nigritia or Soudan, 

Islands. — Azores or Western Islands, Madeiras, 
Canaries, Cape Verde, Fernando Po, St Thomas, St 
Matthew, Ascension, St Helena, Madagascar, Bourbon, 
Mauritius or Isle of France, 

Mountains. — ^Atlas, Sierra Leone or Mountains of 
the Lions, Kong Mountains in Upper Guinea, Cape 
Mountains, Mountains of Lupata, Jebel Kumrah or 
Mountains of the Moon, Abyssinian Mountains. 

Lakes. — Dembea, Tchad, Maravi. 

Gulfs, Bays, and Straits. — Gulf of Guinea, Sal- 
danha, Table, False, and Algoa Bays ; Channel of Mo- 
zambique, Straits of Babelmandeb, Red Sea, Gulfs of 
Sidra and Cabes, Straits of Gibraltar. 

Capes. — Bon, Bojador, Blanco, Verde, Roxo, Palmas, 
Three Points, Formosa, Negro, Good Hope, Corrientes, 

Rivers. — Nile, Niger or Joliba or Quorra, Senegal, 
Gambia, Zaire or Congo, Orange, Zambezi.* 

* The NUe flows N. through Abyssinia, Nubia, and Egypt, and falls 
into the Mediterranean ; the Niger flows E. through ]^^gritia, passes 

Digitized by LnOOylC 


Remarks on Africa. 

Thts resion is, after Asia and America, the third in size, but in political 
and moral estimation the least important of the four great divisions of 
the earth. Its length from N. to S. is nearly 5000 miles ; the extreme 
breadth from £. to W. about 4600. The population has been estimated 
at 90 millions. The name is supposed to have spread by degrees from a 
small proTince in the N. over the rest of the continent. 

The most striking natural feature of Africa consists in the immense 
deserts which peryade many parts of its surface, and may be said to com- 
prise nearly one-half of its entire extent so far as yet known. Of these the 
chief is that called by eminence Sahara^ or the Desert^ stretching from 
the shores of the Atlantic, with few interruptions, to the confines of Egypt; 
a space of about 2000 miles, by a breadth of 800. This ocean of sand denes 
every exertion of human power or industry ; but it is interspersed with 
various islands {oases) of different sizes, of which Fezzan is the chief 
that has yet been explored. 

The climate, which in the N. is intensely hot, is rather more moderate 
in the southern extremity. The Atlas mountains early attracted the par- 
ticular observation of the ancients, who fabled that thejr supported the 
firmament, and derived from them tne celebrated appellation of the At- 
lantic Ocean and the Atlantic Islands. 

In the central and southern portions, the poj^ulation appears to be in- 
digenous and peculiar, these being the native regions of the Neqroes^ whose 
colour, features, and hair, distinguish them from all the other races of 
mankind. In the northern districts there have been man^ succesaions of 
inhabitants, the Egyptians being probably of Hindoo origin, while the 
Abyssinians emi^ated from Arabia. Farther to the W. the Carthaginians 
passed from Syria ; and according to Sallust, other maritime parts were 
settled by the Medes, Persians, anaArmenians. Ancient Arabian colonies 
seem to have penetrated far to the S., and may be traced in Madagascar 
and the opposite shores. The northern inhabitants sent eonsiti&rable 
migrations into Spain. The Romans appear to have explored the N. of 
Amca as far as the river Niger ; and they established flourishing settle- 
ments in many parts. During the decline of their empire, the VaUdals 
from Spain passed into Africa a. d. 429, and founded a kingdom which 
lasted till a. d. 535. In the following century, the Mahometan Arabs 
subdued the N. of Africa; and their descendants, united with those of the 
original population, under the name otMoors^ constitute a great part of the 
existing population. At present the east coast, northwards to the river 
Zambezi, and part of the interior, are inhabited by the Caffres, a tribe re- 
sembling the Negroes, but with features less fiat ; while the Hottentots of 
the S. appear to be a distinct race, inferior to both Negifoes and CaSres. 
Recent travellers represent the Negro states of the interior as undergoing a 
gradual process of subjection to the Fellatafu, a people of doubtful origin, 
but not improbably the result of a union between the Moors and aboriginal 

During the first six centuries, Christianity flourished extensively in 
Barbary; but it has been almost entirely superseded by Mahometamsm, 
which is now the predominant fiiith of the whole continent. The Negroes 
are mostly idolaters, a prevalent notion being the belief in fetishes, or 
mysterious powers supposed to reside in trees, stones, flshes, &o. 

Timbuctoo, flows S. E. to Funda, then turns S. W., and falls into the 
Gulf of Guinea ; the Senegal and Gambia flow W. and fall into the 
Atlantic Ocean, the former N. and the latter S. from Cape Verde; 
the Zaire or Coriffo flows W. through Lower Guinea into the Atlantic 
Ocean ; the Oranae, to the N. of Cape Colony, flows into the Atlantic ; 
the ZambeMt^ on the E. coast, flows into the Indian Ocean. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

EGYPT. 231 

Towns. — Cairo (a), Alexandria (6), Rosetta (c), Da- 
mietta^ Suez, Cosseir, Siout, Assouan (Syene), Edfou, 
Ruins of Thebes, Dendera (Tentyra), Girgeh. 

<a) Oiiro .is the largest city of Africa, and contains a number of splendid 

mosques and public buildings. It is, however, generally ill built 

ib) Alexandria, or Iskanderia, was built by Alexander the Great, about 
383 years before the Christian era. Diodorus Siculus relates, that it had 
on its rolls, in his days (45 years before the Christian era) 300,000 free- 
men. The celebrated library founded here by Ptolemy Soter, and placed 
in the temple of Serapis, containing in his time 400,000 Tolumes, and at a 
later period 700,000, was, in 642, destroyed by order of the caliph Omar, 
who became master of the city. The general who took it said, in his letter 
to the monarch, that he found in it 4000 palaces, 4000 baths, 40,000 Jews 
who paid tribute, 400 theatres, and 12,000 gardeners, who supplied the 
city with all kind of yegetable food. Here, on the 21st of March 1801, 
the French were defeated by the British under Sir Ralph Aberoromby, 

who was mortally wounded in the action, and died on the 28th 

ie) Rosetta at the W. mouth of the Nile, near which is Aboukir Bay, where, 
in 1798, Lord Nelson gained a signal yiotory oyer the French fleet. 

Remarks on Egypt 

Ist, Extent, &o.~This celebrated country is 500 miles in length ; its 
nominal breadth about 250 ; but of this surface the territory which can 
be considered of any real yalue is a tract extending only a moderate 
distance on either bank of the Nile. Its population is estimated at 2.^ 
millions, of which the city of Cairo may oontain 240,000. The reyeoue 
has been stated so high as £4,600,000. 

2d, AsPKcn, Cliikate, &c.— Ejgypt consists of the long narrow yalley 
through which the Nile flows, bounded on both sides by mountains and 
barren deserts, and gradually widening as it approaches the sea. The 
mouths of the Nile giye to the lower portion of the country the form of the 
Greek letter a, whence it is caUed the Delta, The soil is amaiin^ly fertile, 
aAd the mode ofcultiyation remarkably simple. Wheat, barley, nee, maize, 
and millet are the principal grains; cotton, indigo, and tobacco are like- 
wii^e reared in large quantities; and sugar is oultiyated throughout a great 
portion of Upper £gypt.-^The lotus, a species of water-lily, and the papy- 
rus or j>aper-reed are indigenous productions ; and the sycamore-flg. the 
yine, the oliye, the orange, the date-palm, the pistachio, the oriental plane, 
and the cypress are common. — The climate of Egypt is distinguished by 
great heat and dryness, rain being of rare occurrence. Indeed the whole 

* Egypt was anciently dlyided into Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt. 
Thebes, with its hundredgates, celebrated by the Grecian bard, was the 
ancient capital of Upper ^nrpt* Memphis, on the west side of the Nile, 
was the capital of Middle Egypt ; the modem Cairo is built nearly oppo- 
site, on the other bank of the riyer. Alexandria, the capital of Lower 
Egypt, became a mere mass of ruins under its former Mahometan masters; 
but uie present soyereign clearly pereeiyed its importance, and has rnadt 
it one 01 the most flouruhiDg teaports ia ihe Meditorranean. . . 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

232 EGYPT, 

region would be a barren desert were it not annually watered by the over- 
flowing of the Nile, which diffuses fertility over its entire extent. These 
inundations, which are occasioned by the periodical rains in the Abyssinian 
mountains, begin to rise about the middle of June, attain their greatest 
height in September, and subside about the end of October. The pecu- 
liarity of the climate gives rise to several diseases, among which may be 
mentioned ophthalmia, frequently causing blindness ; while the plagne, 
that scourge of the Levant, rages with extreme violence during the warm 
season. Of the animals for which Effypt was noted in ancient times, the 
hippopotamus has become rare, and the crocodile is only seen in the Upper 
Nile ; but the ichneumon-rat and the stork-ibis are still common. Asses, 
mules, and camels are found in perfection, and there are some fine breeds 
of horses. 

3d, Chbonologt. — It is supposed that Egypt was peopled by Ham, the 
son of Noah; and that Mizraim, or Menes, was the first person who 
assumed the regal title. The earliest event mentioned in authentic history 
is the irruption of the Shepherd Kings, who came from Arabia, and treated 
the Egyptians with great cruelty for 260 years. In 1706 b. c, the Israel- 
ites were settled in the land of Croshen, and in 1491 b. c, they left Egypt 
under Moses. Next followed the reign of Sesostris. At the time of tne 
Trojan war, the reigning prince was Cetes, called by the Greeks Proteus. 
The subsequent history is involved in fable till the reign of Sethon, when 
Sennacherib and Esar-haddon, kings of Assyria, overran Egypt, Ethiopia, 
and Libya ; but they did not retain their conquests. Pharaoh Nech«, 
warring against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Assyria, was opposed by Josiah, 
king of Judah, who was slain at Megiddo, b. c. 608. In the year 594 
B. c, Apries, the Pharaoh Hophra of Scripture, made a league vnth Zede- 
kiah, king of Judah, a|2;ainst the Babylonians. Some years after this, 
Cambyses, king of Persia, effected the subjugation of Egypt ; but, in the 
course of a century, the natives, after many struggles, recovered their 
liberty, b. c. 414. This country was again btought under the dominion 
of Persia in the time of Darius Ochus, and thus it remained till Alexander 
the Great subdued it. At Alexander's death, it fell to the share of Pto- 
lemy,* and again became an independent kingdom about 300 years before 
Chnst. The successors of this prince retained the name of Ptolemies, till 
Cleopatra, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Dionysius, the last king, ascended 
the tnrone. Upon her death, Egypt became subject to Rome. Omar, the 
second caliph of the Saracens, expelled these conquerors from it after it had 
been in their hands 700 years. About the time of the Crusades, between 
the years 1150 and 1192, it w»s governed by Noureddin, and also by the 
famous Saladin so terrible to the Crusaders. He instituted the mifi- 
tory corps of Mamelukes, who. about the year 1242, advanced one of their 
own officers to the throne; ana Egypt continued subject to princes chosen 
from among that body, till the Turks, under Selim, defeated them, and 
reduced the country. The French invaded it in 1798, led by Bonaparte, 
who defeated the Beys in several engagements; but, on the first of August, 
in the same year, his fleet was destroyed by Lord Nelson ; and a strong 
British force arriving to aid the inhabitants, the French were expelled 
in 1801. Egypt is now governed by Mehemet Ali, who entirely de- 
stroyed the ancient corps of MameluKes, and has since made great and 
successful exertions to introduce the arts and learning of Europe into his 
dominions. He has now an army disciplined in the European manner, 
and partly commanded by French officers. He has established varions 

* Ptolemy was a great patron of learning and science*; he founded tin 
Alexandrian library, and erected an academy and a museum. Among Ae 
professors in that academy were the celebrated Euclid and Apolk^mt, 
During the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, his son and successor, -llie 
Sefauagint translation of the Bible into Greek was acoomplidxed. 

Digitized by 


EGYPT. 233 

manafftctures, imported machinery from England, set up printing presses, 
and given encouragement to foreign artisans to settle in tne country. In 
1820 and 1821, he sent his son Ibrahim Pasha with an army along the 
Nile southward, and conquered all the tribes as far as the borders of 
Abyssinia. He overran Syria, parts of Asia Minor and Arabia ; but 
through the interference of Britain and other powers, has been obliged to 
evacuate most of his conquests. He has been recognised as hereditary 
sovereign of Egypt, paying merely a tribute to the Porte. 

4th, Inhabitants.— The bulk of the population of E^B^rpt consists of 
Arabs, of whom the peasantry are called fellahs^ and exist in a very de- 
graded and wretched state. There are also about 150,000 Copts descend- 
ants of the ancient Egyptians ; with considerable numbers of Turks, 
Jews, and^Europeans. The ruling religion is the Mahometan ; but the 
Copts profess a kind of Christianity, which, with all other creeds, is allowed 
to exist unmolested. The Coptic language is now only knovm in manu- 
scripts, the Arabic being universally used. As in all Mahometan states, 
the government is an absolute despotism^ and the people being regarded 
merely as the slaves of the ruler, are subjected by his officers to extortion, 
rendering property insecure, and thus opposing a powerful obstacle to the 
mprovement of the country. 

5th, Commerce. — Egypt is now the emporium of a vefy extensive com- 
merce, owing its existence mainly to the exertions of the pasha, almost 
every branch of trade being still a monopoly in the hands of government. 
The traffic with the interior of Africa, Barbary, and Arabia, is carried 
on by means of caravans from Cairo ; that on the Red Sea, which has 
now also become the common route of the steamers to India, centres 
ohiefly at Suez ; while the Mediterranean trade, the largest and most im- 
portant, is mainly conducted at Alexandria. This commerce embraces 
probably every known commodity,— the spices and gems of the East, the 
gold and ivory of Africa, and the fruits, wines, and manufactures of 

6th. Antiquities.— The EqypHan pyramids are generally supposed to 
haTO been intended as mausoleums for the kings. They were begun, it is 
conjectured, about 1204 years before the birth of Christ, by Cheops and 
Cephrenes. Four of these immense structures have attracted particular 
attention ; the two largest are 460 feet in height ; and one of them 
covers 13 English acres of ground, bein/( an exact square of 763 feet. 
There are six or seven similar structures in the desert, of smaller dimen- 
sions. The sj^ynx^ a rock at no great distance from the largest pyramid, 
is shaped into the head, bust, and negro-like features of a woman ; it was 
formerly 60 feet high, but is now more than half-buried in the sand. 
Near the pyramids are the vnnmmy-piis of Egypt. Many of the mummiet 
or embalmed bodies, though buried more than 3000 years since, are dug 
from the pits in a perfect state. The catacombs are repositories for the 
dead, consisting of large vaults, in the environs of the towns : those in 
Alexandria were chiefly used as burial-places by the Greeks, and the 
coffins are placed in an upright position in niches, regularly ranged in 
the walls. The labyrinth (the ruins of which are near Lake Mareotis) 
contained 300 rooms, and 12 halls, said to have been built by 12 kings as 
mausoleums for the royal race ana the sacred crocodiles. At Alexandria 
are Pompey's Pillar and Cleopatra^ s Needle; the former is one entire 

Eiece of granite marble, 70 feet high, and 25 feet in circumference ; the 
itter is an obelisk on which mystical characters are inscribed. The 
temples, particularly those of Thebes. Edfou, and Tentyra, are of vast 
antiquity^ and the largest in the world. They are highly ornamented, in 
tlie peculiar style of Egyptian architecture, and covered with numerous 


zed by Google 



Towns. — Derr, Dongola Old and New, Meraweh, 
Shendy, Khartoum, Sennaar, Al Leis, Sawakin. 

Remarks an Nubia. 

Thk term Nubia has been va^ely applied by geojpraphera ^ designate 
the vast region lying between Egypt and Abyssinia, and extending east- 
ward to the Red Sea. It neyer formed a political division or separate 
kingdom of Africa, haying been always divided amon^ a number of dis* 
tinct tribes ; and it contained several contemporaneous independent states, 
the chief of which were Dongola and Sennaar ; at Khartoum, in the latter 
state, the two great arms of the Nile form a junction. Since 1821, the 
whole has been subjected to the dominion of the Pasha of Egypt, and 
garrisoned bv his troops. The greater part is occupied by wild deserts on 
the E. and W., burned up by intolerable heat ; but along the banks of the 
Nile and its affluents are some fertile districts. Durrah, millet, and wheat 
are cultivated ; and the date-palm, acacia, and ebony-tree abound in the 
forests. Elephants, rhinoceroses, gazelles, ostriches, giraffes, and other 
African animals are found within the Umits of Nubia. The country con- 
tains some interesting antiquities, particularly large temples resembling 
those of Thebes and Tentyra, but excavated in a sreat measure out of the 
rook. The finest are those of Ibsamboul and Soleb. while there are others 
more extensive but ruder Qear Meraweh and Shenay. 


Towns. — Gondar, Axum (a), Dixan (6), Maauah, 
Adowa, Ankober. 

Lakes. — Dembea, Zawaja, Haik. 

Rivers. — Babr-el-Azrek or Blue River, Tacazz^, 

(a) Ajntm, the ancient capital of Abyssinia, is noted for haying pre- 
served pretended manuscripts of the books of Enoch. Solomon^ and Eaaraa^ 

written with their own hands. (6) Dixan is inhabited by Moors ana 

Christians, whose chief trade is that of stealing ehildren, and oarryisg 
them to a market at Masoah, whence they are sent to Arabia. 

Remarks an Abyssinia, 

Abyssinia extends from N. to S. abont 770 miles ; the medial breadth 
is about 550. The population amounts to about three miUions.— The 
^neral appearance of the country is that of an elevated table-land, 
intersected with ranges of rooky precipitous hills, which sometimes 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


present a fantastic resemblance to castles and towns. Owinj^ to the 
mountainous nature of the country, the climate is more temperate than 
might be expected from its latitude ; but the heat in the lower valleys is 
intense. From April to September occur those heavy rains which produce 
the overflowing!^ of the Nile ; and in the dry season of the six succeeding 
months the nights are cold. Though situated between the tropics, the 
productions of Abyssinia resemble those of the temperate zone ; and the 
chief objects of culture are wheat, barley, millet, maize, and a kind of 
grain called ieff^ smaller than mustard-seed, but forming an agreeable 
bread. The papyrus is here indigenous, as in Egypt ; and the balm of 
Gilead and myrrh are also found. Among the trees may be mentioned 
the sycamore-fig, the tamarind, the date, the coffee-tree, and the enaete, a 
species of palm, the stalk of which, when stript of its green covering, 
affords a nutritious food. Abyssinia is particularly rich in flowers, the 
air being everywhere scented with the perfume of roses, jessamines, 
lilies, and primroses, with which the fields are covered. 
^ Among the domestic animals may be mentioned the Galla ox, distin- 
guished for the enormous length of its horns. The horse is used only fbr 
war, the beasts of burden being mules and asses. The wild animals 
embrace the buffalo, two-horned rhinoceros, elephants, lions, panthers, 
leopards, giraffes, boars, hyenas, gazelles, and monkeys. The hippopota- 
mus and the crocodile abound in the lakes and rivers. Among tne feath- 
ered tribes are enumerated the golden eagle, and some varieties of the 
bird of paradise. The country is peculiarly subject to insect plagues, the 
most formidable being a fly called the saltscUya^ the sting of which fre- 
quently occasions death among the cattle, and is dreaded even by the lion : 
locusts are also particularly destructive. The mineralogy of this alpine 
region must be interesting, but is neglected by the natives. Gold is found 
in the sands of the rivers, and there are large salt plains in the eastern 

Abyssinia seems to have been peopled, at a very early period, by a colony 
from the opposite shores of Arabia. In the year 333, the inhabitants were 
converted to Christianit)t, their general tenets being those of the Greek 
church, received from the patriarch of Alexandria ; with which have since 
been incorporated a great number of Jewish ceremonies, including the rite 
of circumcision. When this region first became known to the Portuguese, it 
was ruled by an absolute monarch, to whom they gave the name of Prester 
John ; but the empire gradually fell to pieces, and is now divided into 
several states, the chief oeing those of Amhara, Tigrtf, and Shoa, while 
the southern parts are overrun by the Galla, a barbarous tribe ft'om the 
interior.— The Abyssinians are distinguished by handsome forms and 
features ; but they are filthv in their habits, extremely superstitious, and 
altogether in a low state of civilisation. Their houses are of a conical 
shape, meanly built of clay and covered with thatch ; and the churches 
are of a round form encircled with a portico. They are peculiarly fond 
of raw flesh, and some travellers assert that slices are cut from the living 
animal and eagerly devoured. 


1. Empire of Morocco, comprehending Morocco, Fez, 
Darah, Tafilet, and Sejelmissa. — Towns: Morocco (a), 
Taroudant, Mogadore, Santa Cruz, Mazagan; Fez (6), 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


Mequinez, Tetuan, Ceuta, Tangier, Salee; Tattah; 
Tafilet; Sejelmissa. 

2. Algiers. — Towns: Algiers, Oran, Bona, Tre- 
mezen, Constantina. 

3. Tunis. — Towns : Tunis, Susa, Cabes, PortOr 
Farina (c) ; Ruins of Carthage, near Tunis (d). — In 
Tunis are the river Mejerdah (Bagradas), and the 
lake called by the ancients Tritonia Palus. 

4. Tripoli including Barca. — T(ywns: Tripoli (e), 
Mesurata, Lebida, Derna. 

5. South from Tripoli lies the kingdom of Fbzzan, 
— Towns: Mourzouk, Sockna. 

Mountains. — The chain of Mount Atlas traverses 
the whole of Barhary. 

(a) As in other Moorish cities, the streets of Morocco are narrow and 
irreffular ; the houses bein^ usually of one story and flat-roofed, and the 
windows opening into interior courts. Here are 19 mosques, 2 colleger, 
and an hospital ; the palace of the sultan is a large edifice, but his prin> 

cipal residence is the splendid fortified palace at Mequinez. (6) Fez is 

regarded by the Mussulmans as a sacred city. The palaces are magnifi- 
centf and there are numerous mosques, several df which are very large and 

highly adorned. (c) Porto-Farina is the ancient 27/tca, where Cato slew 

himself. id) Carthetge was founded about 1250 or 1300 years before 

Christ, as appears from Herodotus and the Parian Chronicle. ie) The 

city 01 Tripoli was taken by the Emperor Charles Y., who settled the 
kmghts of Rhodes here ; but they were expelled by the Turks in 1551. 

Remarks on the States of Barhary, 

The Empire of Morocco, more properly Morocco (the ancient Mawri- 
tania), consists of the two principal kingdoms of Morocco and Fez, situated 
on the northern and western slopes of Mount Atlas, with the distriots of 
Sous, Darah, Tafilet, and Sejelmissa, lying to the south and east of that 
range. It has a coast line along the Mediterranean and Atlantic of Ailly 
850 miles, and, where broadest, extends 360 miles into tlie interior ; the 
entire area being computed at 220,000 square miles. Population estimated 
at 8.000,000. 

Tne chief natural feature of the country is of course the great chain of 
Atlas, rising in some places to the height of 11,000 feet, anacoyered with 
perpetual snow ; between which and the coast lies an intermediate pUus. 
finely watered, and unsurpassed in natural fertility. The regions beyena 
the Atlas are more arid, and unfit for the culture of grain ; but thej yield 
fine dates, and possess a breed of goats whose skins supply the famova 

Digitized by 



movocco leather. The climate is less hot than mi^ht be expeeted from the 
latitude. Cultivation is ve^ imperfect; bnt wheat, barley, and millet are 
extensively raised, together with tobacco, flax, and hemp ; and among the 
froits are the date, fig, grape, olive, almond, lemon, orange, and pome-' 
gEanate. Besides immense herds of goats, the domestic animals include 
camels, horses, mules, oxen, and sheep, the last of which are largely reared, 
and their wool is woven into a coarse fabric forming the chief dress of the 
inhabitants. Among the wild animals are lions, panthers, lyn xes, gazelles, 
and serpents of several kinds ; locusts, mos<iuitoes, and other trouolesome 
insects are numerous, the first being sometimes used as food. 

The people are divided into — the Moors, who inhabit the towns ; the 
Arabs, who dwell in tents ; and the Berbers or pure aborigines, who 
occupy the mountain fastnesses ; the religion of the whole being the 
Mahometan, which presents its usual accompaniments of cruelty and 
superstition. The languagO is a dialect of the Arabic. Trade is princi- 
milly conducted by Jews, who send large caravans across the desert to 
Soudan ; other caravans proceed to Mecca yearly, for the twofold purpose 
of trade and devotion ; and there is a pretty active maritime traffic, es- 
pecially with Britain,— the exports being leather, fruits, gum, olive-oil, 
ostrich feathers, &c., and the imports, cotton, woollen, and silk goods, 
cutlery, tea^ coffee^ and spices. — The government of Morocco is an abso- 
lute despotism. The riegular army atnounts to 16,000, including 5000 
negro mercenaries who form the sultan's guard. 

To the south of Mount Atlas, in the territory of Sous, a small inde- 
pendent state was formed in 1810 by a prince called Sidi-Hesham ; the 
capital being a town named Talent. The people are said to be industri- 
ous and warlike. 

Algiers, now sometimes called A^eria (the ancient Numidia), extends 
along the Mediterranean about 650 miles from W. to £., but has no de- 
finite limit southward. The population has been estimated at 2,700,000. 
The face of the country is very similar to that of Morocco, which it also 
closely resembles in climate, fertility, and natural productions, as well as 
in the classes and character of the population. — In the 16th century Algiers 
became a Turkish pashalik ; but m the course of time the governors 
assumed independence, with the title of Z)£y, being elected b;^ a smairbody 
of Turkish soldiery, whose numbers were kept up by recruits from Con- 
stantinople. For three centuries the Al^erines carried on a piratical war* 
fare a^nimst Europe. In 1816, their capital was bombarded bv the British 
unddr Xord Exmouth, and in 1830 was taken by the French, who have 
since retained it, along with a large portion of tne interior. They have 
hitherto derived no benefit from the conquest, being engaged in incessant 
war with the natives, which compels them to maintain a large army of 

Tunis is about 400 miles in length from N. to S., by 150 in breadth, 
embracing an area of 5*2,000 square miles. Population 2,000,000. The 
state consists mainly of a large peninsula, stretching into the Mediter- 
ranean, to within 100 miles of Sicily. The climate is fine and the soil 
fertile. Tunis .was formerly a Turkish province ; but came at last into 
the possession of a hereditary bey, who is now independent, and exercises 
despotic power. He has long cultivated peaceful relations with Christen- 
dom, ana the state enjoys a considerable commerce. 

Tripoli including Barca (the ancient Tripolis and Libya), forms the 
most easterly of the Barbary states, and consists chiefly of a fertile line 
of coast extending about 800 miles along the Mediterranean, the interior 
being mostly barren mountains or sandy deserts. Population 2,000,000.- 
The government is in the hands of a pasha, nominally dependent on the, 

Fkzzan lies immediately to the south of Tripoli, and consists of ft^ 
large oasis, 300 miles in length by 200 in breadth. Water jb abundant ai^ 

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« Blight depth underground, and by raising it in welk, the people htne 
formed a number of fertile spots in which dates and grain can be reused. 
There are considerable numbers of camels and goats, and a few honMs, 
asses, and sheep. The population, a mixture of Negroes and Arabs, is 
computed at about 70,000. Fezzan is in the centre of the caravan rouiQ 
from Egypt to Morocco, and from Tripoli to Bomou, and is the reaidenee 
of merchants who carrv on a considerable trade. The territory is ruled by 
a chief who has the title of sultan, but ia tributary to the Pasha of Tripdi. 


1. Seneoambia, comprising the Countries on the 
Senegal, Gambia, and Rio Grande. 

Towns. — Fort St Louis, Bathurst. 

2. Upper Guinea, containing — 1. Sierra Leone ; 2. 
Liberia; 3. Grain Coast; 4. Ivory Coast; 6. Gold Coast; 
6. Slave Coast ; 7. Ashantee ; 8. Dahomey ; 9. Benin. 

Towns. — 1. Free Town; 2. Monrovia; 3. Bassa, 
Sestre-grand; 4. Druin; 5. Cape Coast Castle; Elmina; 
6. Whidah, Badagry ; 7. Coomassie ; 8. Abomey, Ard- 
rah ; 9. Benin, Waree. 

3. Lower Guinea, contoimri^ — l.Loango; 2. Congo; 
8. Angola ; 4. Benguela. * 

Towns. — 1. Loango ; 2. St Salvador ; 3. St Paul or 
Loanda ; 4. New Benguela, Old Benguela. 

Remarks on Western Africa. 

Senegahbxa, or the country of the Sene/B;al and Gambia, is the name 
l{iTen by geographers to the line of coast lying between the parallels of 10* 
and 20** ri.. watered by the great riTors Senegal, Gambia, and Rio Grande, 
and eztenaing perhaps 500 miles into the interior. For a considerable 
distance inland the country appears low and flat, with occasionally la^ 
arid tracts of sand and stones ; but the greater part resembles an immense 
swamp, coTcred with rank vegetation, tb^ough which the broad but shallow 
rivers pursue their sluggish course to the sea. Farther inland the land be- 
comes undulatinff and then mountainous, till it reaches the great Kong 
range, forming the boundary of Soudan. The climate is intensely hot, 
moist, and unwholesome ; but the soil is in general of great depth aira fer- 
tility. BesideB the Taluable gums and dye-woods for which the country' 

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ias }<mg heea famous, the forests priMent coooa-trees, mangoes, bananas, 
tamarinds, oranges, citrons, the palm-tree, the shea or butter tree, the 
leeust-tree. the tallow-tree, and the stopendons baobab, whose fruit, called 
monkey's bread, affords abundant food to the Negroes. Rioe, millet, and 
almost every species of alimentary vegetable are met with in abundaiice ; 
while numbers of splendid flowering plants, such as aloes, balsams, lilies, 
and amaranths, communicate a surprising beauty to the scenery. — Except 
a few camels in the countries near the Sahara, the domestic animals are the 
same as in Europe ; but almost every species of wild animal is found, in- 
cluding the elephant, whose tusks supply a valuable article of commerce, 
the lion, hippopotamus, panther, leopard, and hyena. Numbers of for- 
midable reptiles and troublesome insects also appear. The sands of some 
of the rivers contain gold, and iron seems to be abundant in the interior. — 
The inhabitants of Senegambia belong to the Negro race, and are com- 
monly discriminated into the three chief tribes of Mandingoes^FouiahSytind 
Taloffs^ who compose the population of the numerous petty states into 
which the country is divided. Several have embraced Mahometanism, and 
others adhere to the native superstitions ; but they are generally repre- 
sented as peaceable, industrious, and amiable.— The principal European 
settlements are Fort St Louia, on a sandbank at the mouth of the Senegal, 
belonging to France ; Bathurst^ on alow swampy island commanding the 
entrance of the Gambia, belonging to Britain ; and Bissao, a Portuguese 
station on the lEUo Grande ;— their trade consisting in the exchange of 
European commodities for gum, gold, ivory, and palm-oil. 

Upper Guinea is also a geographical designation, applied to the im- 
mense range of coast stretching from 1 3* W. to 1 1 ^ E. long., and extending 
300 or 400 miles into the interior. It closely resembles Senegambia in 
aspect, climate, and natural productions, and like it is inhabited by vari- 
ous Negro races. 

Sierra Leone is a British settlement, formed in 1791, for the benevolent 
purpose of promoting African civilisation. The population amounts to 
42/K)0, chieny liberated Negroes, who have been settled in Free Town, the 
capital, and surrounding villages ; but their progress in refinement has 
not been so great as was expected, and the climate has proved extremely 
fatal to Europeans. 

To the south of Sierra Leone the Americans in 1820 formed the settle- 
ment of Liberia^ for the reception of freed negroes and people of colour 
from the United States, hoping also to diffuse civilisation among the native 
tribes. The population now amounts to about 4000, of whom 1^00 inhabit 
Monrovia, the capital. 

The Grain or Pepper Coast is sometimes called Malaguetta by the 
Portuguese, from a species of pepper which bears that name. Palm- trees 
and dates are plentiful. The Portuguese principally occupy the coiist, 
being the first Europeans who, some centuries since, touched here. 

The Ivory Coast is famed for the tusks of elephants. The natives are 
fierce and savage, allowing no residence to Europeans in the interior ; but 
carry on a considerable traffic with the English, French, Danish, Portu- 
guese, and Dutch adventurers who visit the coast. 

The Gold Coast produces gold-dust plentifully. Cape Coast Castle is 
the capital of the British settlements, and Elmina that of the Dutch ; but 
the inroads of the Ashantees, a powerful people in the interior, have ren- 
dered the inland trade very precarious. This warlike people, since the 
commencement of the present century, have extended their authority over 
seTcral other tribes and a large extent of country. The capital and resi- 
dence of the king is Coomassie, with fifteen thousand inhabitants ; the 
pojwolation of the entire kingdom has been estimated at 1,000,000. 

The Slave Coast, so called f^om having been the great emporium of the 
slaye-trade, comprehends a number of petty states, the principal being 
Dahomey, Yarrioa, and Benin. Dahomey is an absolute monarchy to 
which Whidah is now tributary. The king maintaiDS a large standing 

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«nii]r ; women are his guards, armed as men ; and at the celebration of 4 
horrid feast called his customs^ he orders slaves taken in battle to be, 
sacrificed ; these are chiefly old and middle-a^ed men. The groBses^ 
paganism prevails throughout the shores of Guinea, and the people arar 
immersed m ignorance and darkness. 

From the i^ve Coatt to Calabar extends the delta of the Niger, wber* 
the numerous branches of that river enter the sea. The conntry is almost 
one entire swamp, covered with dense forests, and very unhealthy. 

Of the coasts and interior country of Biafra very little is known. 

Lower Guinea is the term given by the Portuguese to a great extent 
of coast stretching from 4** N. to 14** S. lat., discovered and partly colonized 
by them in the ISth centurv, and comprising the countries of Loanj^o, 
Congo, Angola, and Benguela. This vast region is in general mountain- 
ous, but well watered ; and the abundance of heat and moisture produces 
great fertility in the vegetation. The principal physical feature is the 
number of rivers passing through it, among which the Zaire or Congo, flow- 
ing in a mighty stream from unknown sources in the interior, is the most 
con!«picuous. Besides maize, pulse, and other grains, the finest fruits grow 
wild, palm-trees are abundant, potatoes and ^ams are plentiful, and the 
sugar-cane attains great size. The lakes and rivers abound with fish, and 
the forests with wild beasts. — Of the negro tribes inhabiting Lower Guinea 
very little is known. They are divided into a number of ])etty states, 
more or less controlled by the Portuguese ; and their religion is a mixture 
of Fetishism and Christianity, the latter having been introduced by Catho- 
lic missionaries. This coast is now the chief mart of the slave trade. 


Divisions. — 1. Cape Colony ; 2. Caffraria ; 3. Coun- 
try of the Boshuanas. 

Towns. — 1. Cape Town, Graham Town ; 2. Pieter- 
mauritzburg on Port Natal; 3. Lattakoo, Kruman, 

Rivers. — Orange or Gariep, OHphant, Great Fish 

Remarks on Southern Africa. 

Thb name of Southern Africa is usually restricted to that part of the 
continent extending from the tropic of Capricorn to the Cape of Good 
Hope. The British territorv of Cape Colony occupies the southern ex- 
tremity of this region, stretching about 600 miles in length from £. to W., 
with a breadth of 230, and comprising an area of 130,000 square miles. 
The surface of the colony, and indeed of Southern Africa generally, maj 
be described as mountainous, rugged, and barren, though towards the N. 
E. the country is well wooded and watered, and favourable for agriculture. 
The climate is delightful and salubrious. The^ra of Southern Africa is 
remarkable for its extent, variety, and splendour, the corn and fruits are 
excellent, and many valuable timber-trees are found. The neighbourhood 
of Cape Town produces the famous Constantia wine, together with several 

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olber wrts ; of which 1^,000 ffrallons are nuule yearly, besides 126,000 
f{idlonB of brandy. Nearly all the usual AfHcan animals are found in this 
region, including the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and camelopard ; 
aiul horses, cattle, and sheep are abundant. 

Cape Colony was settled by the Dutch about 1650 ; but since 1806 it 
has been in the possession of the British. In 1838, the population amounted 
to 156,600, consisting of Africanders or Boors, the descendants of the 
original Dutch colonists, British settlers, liberated Negroes, and Hotten*- 
tots. Cape Town, the capital, is a neat well-built town, containing 20,000 
inhabitants. The administration of affairs is vested in a goyemor. aided 
by executive and legislative councils. The commerce is considerable; the 
exports consisting of wine, wool, hides, fresh provisions, &c., and the im- 
ports of British manufactures, foreign spirits, spices, and other luxuries. 
The Hottentots, or aborigines of the colony, have been subjected to much 
oppression at the hands of the Dutch, and their numbers probably do not 
exceed 30,000. Their complexion is a deep yellow colour, resembling a 
European in a confirmed jaundice ; their hair, like that of the Negnro, is 
woolly, their teeth, generally speaking, good. Inattention to cleanliness 
is their characteristic. They dress in dirty sheep-skins ; smear themselves 
with a mixture of soot and grease ; daub and sti'eak their faces and noses 
with red and black paint ; and never comb their hair, which is plastered 
with unctuous substances offensive to the smell. Both men and women 
are fond of beads, rings, and other trinkets, which they wear on the legs. 
The Boshmans, who inhabit the northern mountainous border of the 
colony, delight in hunting and plunder ; they eat with avidity white ants, 
spiders, snails, dried locusts, and caterpillars,— when these rarities are not 
to be procured, plants and oerries supply their place. Their habitations 
are adapted to tneir wandering and pastoral life. They are merely huts, 
resembhng a round bee-hive, from 18 to 24 feet in diameter, and so low 
that a middle-sized man cannot stand upright in them. The fire-place is 
in the middle, and they sit or lie round it in a circle. The low door is the 
only place that admits the light, and the only outlet that is left for the 
smoke. The order of these huts, in a kraal or clan, is most frequently in 
the form of a circle, with the doors inward, by which means a kind of yard 
is formed, where the cattle are kept at night. With respect to the Hotten- 
tots in general, none of them seem to have anv religion, nor do they appear 
willing to receive instruction. All of them, however, firmly believe in the 
power of magic. 

The Caffres or Kaffirs, whose territory commences at the eastern boun- 
dary of that of the Cape, and extends for a considerable space northward 
along the Indian Ocean, are a ^uite different race from the Hottentots : 
they are tall, handsome, athletic, and extremely courageous. They are 
entirely pastoral, tending their flocks with great care and skill ; and they 
excel in basket-making. Some of the tribes are very numerous, as well 
as warlike, particularly the 2iOolas, among whom an attempt was made 
to form a colony, and of late years a number of Boors have migrated 
thither from Cape Territory. They have built a town called Fieter- 
mauritzburg, on Port Natal ; but the attempt to become independent of 
Britain has proved unsuccessful. 

The Boshuanas extend directly north from the frontier of the Cape 
Colony, having the Caffres on the E. They are of smaller stature, and 
less handsome than the people just named, but more industrious : they not 
only rear numerous herds, but practise agriculture with considerable dili- 
gence. Tliey build spacious and somewhat ornamented houses, and fabri- 
cate vessels of earthenware with considerable skill. They are, however, 
less warlike and courageous, though still addicted to predatory habits. 
Their towns are built on hills, and have enclosures into which the cattle 
are driven at night, after having j^een allowed during the day to take a 
wide range of pasture. Kurreecnanee, the largest town, is said to contain 
16,000 inhabitants. 


zed by Google 



Comprising the Countries along the Coast, extending 
from the Straits of Babelmandeb to Delagoa Bay. 

Divisions. — 1. Adel; 2. Ajan; 3. Zanguebar; 4. 
Mozambique; 5. Mocaranga; 6. Sofala. 

Towns. — 1. Zeila, Berbera ; 2. Magadoxo, Brava ; 
3. Mombaza, Zanzibar, Quiloa ; 4. Mozambique, Quili- 
mane ; 6. Manica, Zimbao, Sena ; 6. Sofala. 

River. — Zambezi or Cuama. 

The Eastern Coast of Africa 

Was first visited by the Portu^^uese near the close of the fifteenth cen- 

The district of Adel, which borders on Abyssinia, is said to be fertile. 
Its sovereigns, who are Mahometan, waged long wars with that coantry ; 
but their power is much broken, and the territory is now divided into a 
nnmber or petty states. Zeila, the capital, has a considerable trade. The 
eoast from Ba1>elmandeb to Cape Guardafui, called Berbera, is the most 
noted in the world for the production of myrrh and incense. The So- 
maulis, who inhabit it, are industrious and commercial. 

The coast of Ajan is chiefly Mahometan, and carries on a considerable 
trade in ivory and ambergris. Magadoxo and Brava are ports of some 
consequence, which have maintained their independence, and rigidly ex- 
clude foreign vessels. Patta, once a considerable place, is much decayed, 
its commerce being transferred to a new port called Lamos. Melindl^ 
once held by the Portuguese, and the most flourishing on this coast, has 
been completely destroyed by the barbarous Galla. Mombaza, in its 
vicinity, has a considerable coasting trade : the British maintained there 
a factory for two years, which they abandoned in 1827. 

Zanguebar is said to be marshy and unhealthy, abounding in elephants: 
it is chiefly inhabited by the Mocuas, partly Pagans, partly Mahometans. 
The kingdom of Qut^a, formerly of considerable power, was wrested from 
the Portuguese by the Imam of Muscat ; and the capital is now only a 

Mozambique is considered as subject to the Portuguese. The soil is 
fertile, yielding a luxuriant vegetation. Here are wild beasts of various 
kinds, as stags, boars, and elephants, which last are so fierce and destruc- 
tive that the inhabitants are ooliged to kindle large fires round their sown 
fields, to prevent their being devoured by them. The region is also rich 
in gold, which is washed down by the rivers in great quantities, and makes 
a chief part of its commerce. Ilie town, situated on an island, is now the 
principal place held by the Portuguese in Eastern Africa, and maintained 
for the purpose of collectin|r gold and slaves. These are brought down 
the great nver Zambezi to Qnillimane, a port at a little distance. 

The most civilized and powerful kingdom seems to be that of Moca- 
ranga', or Monomotapa. The soil is said to be fertile, though exposed to 

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sreftt heat: the mountains in the interior are covered with perpetual snow. 
The people are almost naked, and, like those of the western coast, super« 
stitiously afraid of magical charms. According to doubtful accounts, the 
kinff, on days of ceremony, wears a little spade nanging b^ his side, as an 
emblem of cultivation. The children of the great are retained at court as 
hostages ; and the sovereign sends annually an officer to the provinces, 
when the people testify their fidelity by extinguishing their fires, and kind- 
ling others from the officer's torch. The king's guard is said to consist of 
women lightly armed. The Portuguese maintain settlements at Sena and 
T^te on the Zambezi, and smaller ones at Gumla and Manica. in which 
last place are the principal gold mines. The gold is found in the state of 
dust embedded in sand and earth. 

Sofala, near the mouth of this great river, is famous as having probably 
been the Ophir of Solomon, but is now sunk into a place of little import- 
ance. North of Monomotapa is the great Lake of Af aravi, whose boun- 
daries are little known: the banks are said to be inhabited by a people of the 
same name. North of them is the territory which has been named 
Monoemigi, firom the numerous tribe of Monjons, who are pure Negroes 
of a deep black colour. 

The people on the northern and southern banks of the Mafumo, which 
enters the BayofDelagoay follow distinct customs, the men on the former 
wearing singular helmets of straw. On the southern side are fourteen chiefs, 
subject to a King called Capelleh, whose dominions extend about 200 miles 
inland, and about 100 on the seashore, computed by the natives in days' 
journeys of 20 miles each. Cattle and poultry are abundant, and may De 

Eurchased for a trifle; the favourite articles being blue linens, old clothes, 
rass rin^s, copper wire, large glass beads, tobacco pipes, &c. There are 
many fruit-trees and useful plants, particularly the sugar-cane. The wild 
animals are the ti^er, rhinoceros^ antelope, hare, rabbit, wild-ho/^, with 
guinea hens, partridgeS) quails, wild geese, ducks, and some small singing- 


Comprehending Sahara or the Desert, and Nioritia 
or Soudan. 

The principal Districts or Kingdoms of Nigritia 
hitherto explored are — 1. Bondon ; 2. Kasson ; 3. Lnd- 
amar ; 4. Kaarta ; 5. Kong ; 6. Bambarra ; 7. Beroo ; 
8. Timbuctoo ; 9. Houssa ; 10. Bornou ; 11. Begharmi ; 
12. Darfur; 13. Kordofan; 14. Fundah; 15. Yarriba; 
16. Borgoo; 17. Nyffe; 18. Zeg-zeg. 

The Towns are — 1. Fatteconda ; 2. Kooniakary ; 3. 
Jarra, Benown ; 4. Kemmoo; 5. Kong; 6. Sego, Jenneh, 
Silla, Sansanding ; 7. Walet ; 8. Timbuctoo ; 9. Sac- 
katoo, Kashna, Kano ; 10. Bornou, Kouka, Angornou ; 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


11. Mesna; 12. CobW; 13. Obeid; 14. Fundah; 15: 
Eyeo or Katanga; 16. Boussa, Wawa, Kiama; 17. 
Koolfu, Rabba ; 18. Zaria. 

Remarks on Central Africa, 

Sahara, or the Desert, extends through northern Africa, from the 
Tallej of the Nile to the Atlantic Ocean, and from Barbary to the borders 
of Nigritia. The greater part of this immense region consists of an ocean 
of moving sand, or of bare rock, scorched by the incessant glare of an un- 
clouded sun, without water, and destitute of either animal or vegetable 
life. Here and there, at wide intervals, occur fertile spots, or oases, pos^ 
sessing wells of good water, where date-trees and a scanty pasturage are 
found. These localities are inhabited by various wild tribes of Moors, 
Negroes, and mixed races, most of them characterized by ferocity and love 
of plunder The Desert is traversed in various directions by numerons 
routes, along which caravans of loaded camels, engaged in the traffic in 
slaves and commodities, pursue their way between the chief cities of Bar- 
bary and Nigritia, the length of the journeys averaging from 30 to 90 days ; 
but whole caravans are sometimes overwhelmed amid the sand. The only 
vnld animals capable of traversing the desert are the antelope and ostrich; 
but elephants, lions, and panthers are fonnd near its borders. 

NiGBiTiA scarcely anywhere presents that naked and arid aspect which 
renders the northern desert so dreary. The great central chain, commonly 
called the Mountains of the Moon, which at a greater or lesser height crosses 
it almost without interruption, pours down numerous waters,most of which 
unite in forming the celebrated stream of the Niger, whose course, so 
long mysterious, has now been fully disclosed. Rising in the interior 
about 200 miles nrom Sierra Leone, it becomes navigable for large canoes 
at Bammakoo, whence it winds north-east through the fine country of 
Bambarra to Timbuctoo ; then turning to the southward it reaches Yoori, 
passes by Boussa, and flowing between Nyfie and Yarriba, rolls on till it 
enters the sea by numerous estuaries along a coast 300 miles in extent. 
The banks of tnis river, and of its tributaries, compose the largest and 
finest part of Central Africa. The soil is generally very fertile, and yields 
grains peculiar to the climate,— wheat, barley, yams, and in many ^&ccfl 
rice ; also cotton and indigo in abundance, and of excellent qualitv. These 
afford the materials for cotton cloths, the staple manufacture of this region, 
which is carried to very considerable perfection. An active trade is main-, 
tained with canoes on the Niger and its tributaries, while the traffic of the 
interior is conducted by numerous caravans, in which goods are laboriously 
conveyed on the heads of slaves and females. 

The two races by whom Central Africa is peopled are the Negroes 
and the Fellatahs ; the former are good-naturea, superstitious, deficient 
in reflection and intelligence, tolerably industrious, addicted to turbulent 
vrarfare with little blo^shed. The Fellatahs, by whom Houssa is prin- 
cipaUy peopled, appear to have migrated at an early period from tht 
north. They are not so dark as the Negro, and their features are 
expressive and intelligent ; they cultivate tne ground, rear cattle, and 
build their houses in a superior style. Their manners, also, when engaged 
in pastoral life, are simple and amiable, but they are persevering ana ferc^ 
cious conquerors ; and though, after subduing Bomou, they liave been 
expelled from that country, they are now extending their sway to the Vest- 
ward, and boast that only the sea will arrest their career. It may be ob** 
served, that all the governments in this region are absolute, though mild.* 

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Hie monarchs maintain little state, and live on a very familiar footing 
with their subjects. 

, Bambarra consists of a fine and fertile plain, inhabited by Negroes and 
by Moors, who, migrating from rude tracts in the desert, are fiercer and 
Inore intolerant than the Fellatahs. A considerable quantity of gold is col- 
lected in the mountains to the south. Next to Bambarra are the kingdom 
and city of T\mbuctoo, the great mart for the traffic between the ISeg^o 
states and the people of Barbarv ; but they have not yet been satisfactorily 
described. A large unexplored, region follows till we reach Youri, a popu- 
lous and powerful kingdom: the capital, of the same name, is one of the 
largest cities in the interior of Africa. Boussa. where the Niger is confined 
to a narrow space between rocks, is memorable as the scene of Mr Park's 
mnrder, which was committed, however, by the natives of Youri. The state 
of Borgoo in the interior is mountainous and wooded, and the people are 
rode and addicted to predatory habits. To the south, along the western 
bank of the Niger, extends the large and fertile kingdom of Yarriba or 
£^eOf which, with only tolerable industry on the part of the inhabitants, 
yields ample crops, and supports a numerous population. The people, 
with the exception of a few Fellatah settlers, are entirely Negro, ana 
tboQgh otherwise mild and humane, are impelled by superstition to carry 
to a great extent the horrid system of human sacrifice. At the death of any 
great man his fayourite servants and wives are doomed to follow him to the 
grave by swallowing poison,— a fate which they submit to with extreme re- 
luctance. Nyffiy on the opposite side of the nver, though now conquered 
by the Fellatans, is occupied by a Negro population, who are the most in- 
dnstrions and most skilled in the arts of any in Africa. These qualities 
are remarkably conspicuous in the large island of Zor^ot^t^, which presents 
a scene of constant and busy industry. The banks of the stream below 
Nyffi^ are divided among a number of small states, which carry on a great 
tnde with canoes on the Niger, but are ill regulated, turbulent, and fero- 
dotts. This is particularly the case with Eb^^ the principal interior mart 
for slaves and palm-oil. Fundah, on the river Tchadda, near its junction 
with the Niger, was visited by Mr Macgregor Laird, and founa a large 
city, but oppressively ruled. Attempts were made by that gentleman 
and afterwards by government, to form a settlement on this great river ; 
but they were defeated by the pestilential nature of the climate. 
. Eastward from Nyffo and from the course of the Niger is the fine and ex- 
tensive country of Houssa^ the seat of the warlike Fellatahs. It is divided 
into several states, which were concjuered by the Sultan of Sackatoo, but 
iubseqnent attempts were made, with some success, to resain their in- 
dependence. The territory round Zaria, capital of the little kingdom of 
Zeg-zeg^ is perhaps the most fertile in Africa; but Kano is the great seat 
of the caravan- trade. Bomou is a potent monarchy, extending along the 
large kke or inland sea of the Tchad. The inhabitants, though Negroes, 
ar^ Digoted Mahometans, and are much inferior in industry and the arts to 
those of Houssa and Nyffe. This cannot be said of the small kingdom 
of Loggun, situated on the river Shary, which falls into the Tchad : it is 
distinguished by its fine manufactures and by the peaceable and polished 
character of its inhabitants. Mandara consists of a plain, at the foot of 
an extensive and lofty range of mountains, inhabited by rude Pagan tribes, 
who are hunted down and carried off in great numbers as slaves. Begharmi 
and Kordcfan are very little known. Darfur is a powerful state, governed 
by a sultan, and the people are a barbarous race, of Negro complexion. 
The country abounds in wild animals. There is a jf|;reat trade in salt, 
which is the general article of barter here. Cobbe is the chief town. 
Elephants are so numerous that they are seen in herds of many hundreds. 
The popnlation, as stated by Browne, is 200,000. The houses in Cobb^ 
are built with clay: the women here do all the laborious work: the re- 
li^OD 18 Blahometan ; and polygamy is universally allowed. 


zed by Google 


1. Azores or Western Islands, principal St Michael, 
Terceira, and Pico; 2. Madeira Islands; 3. Canary 
Islands, principal Grand Canary, Ferro, and Teneriffe ; 

4. Cape Verde Islands, principal St Antonio, St Nico- 
las, St Jago, Mayo, and Fogo ; Island of Goree, to the 

5. of Cape Verde ; 5. Fernando Po, St Thomas, St 
Matthew, Prince's Island, Ascension ; 6. St Helena, in 
which is Jamestown; (7.* Kerguelen's Land or the 
Island of Desolation, Amsterdam, St Paul, Tristan 
d'Acunha) ; 8. Madagascar, in which are the towns of 
Tananarive and Tamatave ; 9. Bourbon, Mauritius or 
the Isle of France ; 10. The Comoro Isles, Zanzibar, 
Pemba, Mahe, Amirant^. 

Remarks on the African Islands. 

The Azores, or Western Islands, are nine in number ; they were called 
Azores from the number of hawks frequenting them. They were first 
▼isited in 1439, by John Vanderbergf a merchant of Bruges, who was 
driven here by stress of weather. On his arrival at Lisbon, ne boasted of 
his discovery ; on which the Portuguese set sail, and took possession of 
them, which they have ever since retained. All these islands enjoy a 
serene sky and salubrious air : they are extremely fertile in corn, wine, and 
a variety of fruits; and they breed large numbers of cattle. Greographers 
have not determined whether they belong to Africa, America, or to Europe. 
They are subject to earthquakes, and perhaps to these dreadfhl convul- 
sions they owe their origin. Warm springs are numerous. The popula- 
tion of the ^oup is 220^000. 

Madeira is the principal island of a group called the Madeiras^ and 
subject to the Portuguese, who discovered it in 1419. Madeira is 46 miles 
in length by 7 or 8 in breadth, and is extremely mountainous, rising in 
tiie interior into a huge alpine mass, from whicn numerous streams, fre- 
quently forming beautiful cascades, descend to water the valleys. The 
inhabitants, computed at 112,000, are ^ood-natured, sober, and flrugal. 
The scorching heat of summer and the icy chill of winter are here un- 
known ; for spring and autumn reign continually, and {|roduce flovrers 
and fruit thronghout the year. The cedar-tree is found in great abun- 
dance, and the dragon-tree is indigenous. Flowers nursed in the green- 
houses of Englanahere grow wild in the fields ; the hedges are mostly 
formed of the myrtle, rose, jessamine, and honeysuckle ; while the lark- 
spur, fleur-de-lis, lupine, and other beantifhl flowers, spring up sponta- 
neously in the meadows. Of the few reptiles, the lizard is the most com- 
mon. Canary birds and goldfinches are found in the mountains. Tb0 

• For the Islands in No. 7, see the Map of the World. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


island is principally celebrated for its excellent wines called Madeira 
and Malmsey : thev are of various kinds, differing in taste, colour, and 
strength. In Madura are made the finest sweetmeats in the world ; all 
kinds of fruit being here candied in the most exquisite perfection. The 
chief trade is with the English, who export about ten or twelve thousand 
pipes of wine annually ; the remainder, about seven thousand, being con- 
sumed in the country. From the mildness of its climate, Madeira has 
lately become a great resort of invalids firom Britain. The mountain 
scenery of the interior is bqld and highly romantic, and the valleys are 
rich in every species of vegetation. Funchal, the capital, on the S. £. side 
of the island, contains 25,000 inhabitants. 

The Canaries ox^Canary Islands^ anciently called the Fortunate Ulands, 
are 13 in number. They belong to Spain, and are famous for sugar, wine, 
excellent fruits, silk, and Canary birds ; in former times they were noted 
for producing the favourite wine called sack. Teneriffe is celebrated for 
its nigh ana nearly perpendicular mountain called the Peak, which is 
12,176 feet above the level of the sea : at Santa Cruz, a town in this island, 
Lord Nelson lost his right arm. Geiurraphers, in former times, were ae- 
OQStomed to take their nrst meridian n-om Ferro, one of this archipelago. 
The population is about 240,000, of which 85,000 belong to Teneriffe. 

The Cape de Verde Islands (^ in number) are so caUed from the cape 
of that name, or, according to some authors, from a green plant, which 
grows in the sea near them, resembling the water-cress, and bearing a 
uruit something like a gooseberry. This plant, called sargasso^ is some- 
times found so thick as to impede vessels m their course. These islands 
belong to Portugal, and contain about 54,000 inhabitants. They are 
noted for the production of salt. The peoi)le trade in leather and salted 
turtles, which are purchased bj the Americans. The isle of Fogo has a 
volcano, the tremendous eruptions of which are frequent. The islands 
are said to have been known to the ancients, under the name of Gorgades, 
but were not visited by the moderns till the year 1499, when they were 
discovered by Antonio Nolli, a Genoese* in the service of the Infant Don 
Henry of Portugal : at that time they were almost uninhabited. 

The islands of St Matthew and St Thomas belong to Portugal. Prince's 
Island is fertile, with a good harbour, and a town of about 200 houses on 
the northern shore : it is inhabited by about 40 Portuguese and 3000 Ne- 
gro slaves. Fernando Po was thought to possess great advantages as a 
commercial station ; and for the prevention of the slave-trade, a Briti3h 
settlement was formed there ; but it has been found extremely unhealthy. 
Ascension is barren, and was long uninhabited ; but it has a safe harbour 
at which the East India ships often touch ; and with a view to their ac- 
commodation, a small settlement has been formed on the island. 

St Helena (the residence of Napoleon Bonaparte during the last six 
Tears of his life) is about SO miles in circumference, and, at a distance, 
has the appearance of a rock or castle rising out of the ocean, being only 
accessible at one particular spot, where Jamestown is erected, in a valley 
at the bottom of a bay, between two steep and dreary mountains. It was 
discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, on St Helena's day. Afterwards 
the Dutch were in possession of it till 1600, when they were expelled by 
the English. It has some high mountains, particularly one, callea Diana's 
Peak, which is covered with wood to the very top. There are other hills, 
which bear evident marks of a volcanic origin ; and some have huge rocks 
of lava, and a kind of half- vitrified stone. The chief inconvenience to 
which the place is subject is want of rain ; however, it is far from barren, 
the interior valleys and little hills being covered with verdure, and inter- 
spersed with gardens, orchards, and various plantations. There are also 
many pastures, surrounded by enclosures of stone,and filled with afinebreed 
of small cattle, and with English sheep : goats and poultry are plentifhl. 
Ilie rats here are very numerous, an d destructive to the grain. The inhabi- 
tants, about 5000, including 500 soldiers and 600 blacks, are supplied wi^ 
com and manufactures by the East India ships in return for refreshments. 


KergueUrCs Land was discoTered by Kergaelen. a Frenchman, and 
afterwards yisited in 1779 by Captain Cook, who, from its sterility, was 
inclined to call it the Island of Desolation, To the N. £. are the small 
islands of Amsterdam and St Paul, only frequented on account of the 
seal-fishery.— TVuton d^Acunha, about 1500 miles W. from the Cane of 
Grood Hope, is covered with trees of a moderate size and hei/;ht, and iimab- 
ited by a few British settlers. The coast is frequented by sea-lions, seals, 
pengums, and albatrosses.— Botive/'« Land, about 5 leagues in length, 
covered with snow and surrounded with ice, lies in lat. 53'' 30' S., longitude 
7" 30' E. 

Madagascar was discovered by the Portuguese in 1 492. It extends 1000 
miles f^om N. to S., and is from 200 to 300 broad. The greater part of the 
interior is an elevated table-land, and the whole island may be described as 
mountainous, with numerous fertile valleys and plains. The inhabitants 
are divided into a number of tribes, and are supposed to amount to three 
millions. They have no cities or towns, but a great many villages situated 
at small distances from each other. Their houses are pitifiil huts, without 
windows or chimneys, and the roofs covered with reeds or leaves. Both 
men and women are fond of bracelets, necklaces, and ear>rings. They 
have little knowledge of commerce, and exchange among themselves ||[ooas 
for goods ; gold and silver coins brought by Europeans are immediately 
melted down for ornaments, and no currency is established. There are 
a great many petty kings, whose riches consist in cattle and slaves, and 
they are always at war one with another. It is hard to say what is their 
religion, for tney have neither churches nor priests. Here is a great num- 
ber of locusts, crocodiles, chameleons, and other animals common to Africa, 
but no elephants, tigers, lions, or horses. Insects are numerous, and many 
of them troublesome. The country yields several sorts of ^m and honey ; 
as also minerals and precious stones. Radama, the principal chief, lately 
■made attempts to introduce European civilisation, having established a 
printing press, and encouraged British missionaries, who had made some 
pr<Mpress ; but he was murdered by his ¥rife, his improvements subverted, 
anathe teachers persecuted. 

The isle of Bourbon was restored to France at the general peace in 1815. 
It is mountainous, and contains a very active volcano ; but yields fine 
coffee and cloves: it has a population of 103,000. Mauritiiu was so named 
by the Dutch, its discoverers, and afterwards by the French the Isle qf 
Prance, The island now belongs to Britain. It is rugged, yet contains 
very rich sugar plantations, and is also valuable as a station for East 
India ships. The population is 175,000. 

The Comoro Isles are governed by their own chief, or king ; but they 

Ky tribute to the Portuguese. Zanzibar and Pemba are tributary to the 
lam of Muscat. The former has a very fiourishing trade. At a con- 
siderable distance to the E. are the isles of Make and Anwrante^ sur- 
rounded with numerous rocks, and of small importance. 


Where is Egypt, Zanguebar, Cape Colony, Sierra Leone, 
Morocco, Nubia, Upper Guinea, Sahara, Soudan or Nigritia, 
Abyssinia, Mocaranga, Tunis, Mozambique, Algiers, Fezzan ! &c. 

Where is Gondar, Cairo, Oran, Cape Town, Timbuctoo, Ceuta, 
Mourzouk, Alexandria, Silla, Bomou, Sennaar, Tripoli, Eyeo, 
Fundah, Ludamar, Jamestown, Whidah, St Salvador, Bouasa, 
Latiakoo, Coomassie, Susa ! &c. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


by Google 


by Google 


Where is St Helena, Madagascar, St Thomas, Bourbon, Tene- 
riffe, St Matthew, Cape Verde, Mauritius, Azores, Pemba ! &c. 

Where is Mount Lupata, Atlas, Mountains of the Lions, Moun- 
tains of the Moon ! &c. 

Where is Lake Dembea, Tchad, Zawaja, Maravi, Haik ? &c. 

Where is Table Bay, Delagoa Bay, Cape Blanco, Gulf of 
Guinea^ Cape of Good Hope, Channel of Mozambique, Straits of 
Babelmandeb, Straits of Gibraltar, Red Sea \ &c. 

Describe the Nile, the Joliba or Niger or Quorra ; Where is 
Orange River ! In what direction does the Senegal flow \ What 
ocean does the Zaire or Congo fall into ! &c. 


Boundaries. — N. Northern Ocean ; W. Pacific 
Ocean ; S. Isthmus of Darien and Gulf of Mexico ; E. 
Atlantic Ocean. 

Divisions. — British America, United States, Mexico, 
Guatemala, Russian America, Greenland, West India 

Islands. — Newfoundland, Cape Breton, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, Bermudas, Bahamas, Aleutian Isles, 
Queen Charlotte's Isles, Vancouver Island, Georgian 
or Parry Islands. 

Peninsulas. — Nova Scotia, Florida, Yucatan, Cali- 
fornia, Alaska. ^ 

Mountains. — Appalachian or Alleghany, Rocky 

Lakes. — Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario, 
between British America and the United States; Cham- 
plain, W. of Vermont; Great Slave Lake, Athabasca, 
Winnipeg, and Great Bear Lake, in British America; 
Nicaragua, in Guatemala. 

Gulfs and Bays. — Baffin's Bay, Gulf of Boothia, 
Hudson's Bay, James's Bay, Gulf of St Lamence, Bay 

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of Fundy : Gulfs of Mexico and Florida, Bays of Cam- 
peachy and Honduras, Gulf of Oalifornia, Nootka Sound. 

Straits. — Davis' Straits, Barrow's Straits, Prince 
Regent's Inlet, Hudson's Straits, Straits of Belleisle, 
Behring's Straits. 

Capes. — Farewell, Chidley, Charles, Sable, St Lucas, 
promontory of Alaska, Prince of Wales Cape. 

Rivers,— Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, St Lawrence, 
Columbia, Mackenzie River, Coppermine River, Back's 

Remarks on North America, 

America took its name from Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, who 
having, in 1499, accompanied Ojeda, a Spanish adventurer, thithor, 
drew up an amusing; history of his voyaj^e, insinuating therein that he 
had first discovered that continent. The true discoverer of Amerioa, how- 
ever, was Christoval Colon, or, as he is commonly called, Christopher Qh 
lumbus, a citizen of Genoa. At that time the authority of the pope over 
the whole world was generally acknowledged throughout Europe. He 
had granted to the Portuguese aU the lancls, islands, &c., they mMl dis- 
covered, or might discover, to the eastward of Cape Bojador and Cape 
Nun ; hence the other Europeans were deprived of the advantages of tae 
trade to the East Indies hy the Cape of Good Hope, which the Porta- 
guese had but lately discovered. The costly articles of the East, which 
had heretofore come through the Red Sea and Mediterranean, and af- 
forded to the Genoese a lucrative trade, were now brought by the Cape 
of Good Hope. Columbus, concluding the earth to be round, proposed to 
sail to India by a western course. His schemes were treated at firpt as 
the reveries of a madman ; but at length Isabella^ queen of Spun, for- 
nished him with the means of fitting out an expedition. On the l^h of 
October 1492, after a voyage of 70 days, he landed on an island wliicli he 
called San Salvador, but which is now better known by the name of 
Guanahani (the Cat Island of our mariners), being one of the group eaUed 
the Bahama Isles. In his second, third, and fourth voyages he made 
many important discoveries ; first touching the American continent on 
the 1st August 1498 near the mouth of the Orinoco. In 1497 and 1498^ 
John and Sebastian Cabot, employed by Henry VII. of England, discov- 
ered Newfoundland, and traversed a large extent of coast, various other 
able navigators, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English, have since 
prosecuted the exploration of the shores both east and west, oonspionooi 
among whom are our own countrymen Davis, Hudson, and Cook. 

The maritime nations of Europe were not slow in takiog possesaiQin of 
the vast regions thus opened up. Between 1508 and 1510, the Spaniardi 
settled in Hayti, Cuba, and Jamaica ; and in 1521, the celebrated Heniaa 

* The Mississippi flows S. through the United States and falls into tbe 
Gulf of Mexico,— <it receives the Missouri on the right and the Ohio on the 
left; the Si Lawrence, from Lake Ontario, flows ti, E. into the Gulf of St 
Lawrence; the Co/um6ta flows W. into the Pacific Ocean; the Mack€nxiM^ 
^oppenmne, and Back's rivers flow N. into the Northern Ocean. 



Cortez conquered Mexico, whence the anthoritr of the Catholic monarch 
was qnicklv extended over a great portion of the southern continent. In 
1534, the french colonized the shores of the Gulf of St Lawrence ; and in 
1584, the unfortunate Sir Walter Raleigh, hy founding a settlement in 
Virginia, took the first step in the planting of those immense British oolo* 
nies, now known as the United States. 

The whole of the Northern Coast, with the Arctic Ocean which bounds 
it, was entirely unknown till the recent discoveries of Ross, Parry, Frank- 
lin and Richajrdson, and Dease and Simpson, which have made us well 
acquainted with it. This great boundary extends in a line almost due £. 
and W. about 80 degrees of longitude, or 2000 miles, and nearly in the 
70th degree of latitude. It commences at the head of Hudson's B&j from 
the Straits of the Fury and Hecla, and terminates at Behring's Straits. 
Three large riyers, Back's, the Coppermine, and the Mackenzie, flow into 
the ocean, beyond which last the coast is bordered for a considerable space 
bv the terminating ranee of the Rocky Mountains. Coronation Gulf, 
Franklin Bay, LiyerpooT Bay, and Kotzebue Sound, are the chief inlets 
OH this 0reat extent of coast. Captain Parry, in sailing westward from 
Baffin's Bay, discoyered a number of large barren islands which he called 
the North Georgian, and of which the principal are Melville and Bathurst, 
with extensive lands bordering on Barrow's Strait and Prince Regent's 
Inlet. Owinff to the accumulations of ice, it has been hitherto found im- 
possible to ef^ct a passage along the coast to the Pacific Ocean. 

The length of North America from N. to S. is about 4800 miles ; the 
breadth, from the £. of Nova Scotia to the mouth of the Columbia River, 
is 3000 miles. The entire papulation has been estimated at 80,000,000.-^ 
The natural features of this continent are peculiarly grand. Toe vast 
chains of the Rocky and Alleghany Mountains alternate with plains of 
immense extent and ^eat fertility, covered with forests the growth of 
centuries, through which magnificent rivers find their way to the sea. 
Between Canada and the United States a succession of fresn-water lakes 
form a complete natural boundary, and offer one of the most striking fea- 
tures of the continent. The vast deserts peculiar to Asia and Africa are 
here unknown ; and except in the extreme north, where the severity of 
the cold produces perpetual sterility, the whole surface is covered w9i 
vegetation, and capable of being cultivated. — The climate is extremely 
various, as may be conceived, in a region extending from the vicinity of 
the Equator to the Arctic Circle. In general, the heat of summer and the 
cold ot winter are more intense than in most parts of the old continent. 
The middle districts are remarkable for the inconstancy of the weather, 
particularly the sudden transitions from heat to cold. 

At the epoch of its discovery. North America was inhabited by various 
native tribes and nations : some of whom, as the Mexicans and Tlasca- 
lans, had attained a consiaerable degree of civilisation, while others, still 
known as Indians, existed in the state of savages. At present, the num- 
ber of these rude tribes scattered over the contment is probably not short 
of 400. They subsist entirely by hnntins and fishing, are frequently en- 
gaged in war with each other^ and though not wanting in natural acute- 
ness, have been found nearly incapable of adopting the manners of civil- 
ized life. They are extremely superstitious ; and are characterized by a 
stoical indifference to cruelty and suffering, accompanied by great physi- 
cal activity and power of endurance. In the extreme north are found 
the dwarfish tribes of the Esquimaux, apparently a kindred race with the 
Samoieds of Asia and the Laplanders of Europe. They subsist entirely 
by fishing ; and in winter inhabit houses built of snow. The curious 
question concerning the origin of the American population can only be 
decided after the various dialects have been compared with those of the 
other quarters of the globe. The learned Humboldt, in his inquiry into 
the antiquities of Mexico, hf^s traced the people of that country from the 
neighbourhood of Behring's Straits. It may nence be inferred with some. 

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confidence, that they came originally from the north-eastern parts of Asia. 
With regard to the other native tribes, incladine the Peruvians, various 
opinions are held ; but the most orobable is, that they came also from 
Asia. The prevailing religion of North America is the Christian, under 
various forms in the United States; and the Roman CathoUo in the 
former Spanish colonies, and among the French of Canada. 


Boundaries. — N. Baffin's Bay and the Arctic Ocean; 
W. Russian America; S. the United States; E. At- 
lantic Ocean. 

Divisions. — 1. Canada ; 2. New Brunswick ; 3. Nova 
Scotia ; 4. Newfoundland ; . 6. Cape Breton ; 6. Prince 
Edward Island ; 7. Hudson's Bay Territories, includ- 
ing Labrador ; 8. Bermudas, Anticosti, Pictou, St 
Pierre, and Miquelon ; 9. Honduras. 

Towns. — 1. Montreal, Quebec (a), Kingston, To- 
ronto ; 2. Frederickton, St John ; 3. Halifiax, Annapo- 
lii, Pictou; 4. St John, Placentia, Bonavista; 5. Sidney; 
6. Charlottetown ; 8. St George, the capital of the Ber^ 
mudas; 9. Belize. 

Capes. — Sable, Ray, Race. 

Rivers. — St Lawrence, Ottawa, St John, St Croix, 

(a) Quebec was built bv the French in 1605. The British reduced U 
and all Canada in 1626 ; but it was restored in 1632. In 1711, it was be- 
sieged by the English without success ; but was taken by them in 1759, 
after a battle memorable for the death of General Wolfe in the moment oi 
victory ; and it was confirmed to them by the peace of 1763. 

* The St Lawrence, from Lake Ontario, flows N. £., passes Kingston, 
Montreal, Trois Rivieres, and Quebec, and foils into the Gulf of St Law- 
rence ; the Ottawa flows S. £. between Upper and Lower Canada, and 
foils into the St Lawrence near Montreal ; the St John flows S. throng 
New Brunswick, passes Frederickton, and falls into the Bay of Fund^ ; 
the St CroidT forms the boundary between New Brunswick and the distnel 
of Maine in the United States^ the Niagara connects lakes Erie and 

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Remarks on the British Possessions in North America, 

Ist, Extent.— The length of Canada from E. to W. is about 1300 miles; 
the mean breadth is not above 200.— The population amounts to about 
l,a50,000 ; of whom 700,000 belong to Lower, and 650,000 to Upper 

2d, Chrgnologt.— The aborigines consisted of savage tribes, whose 
names and manners may be traced in the early French accounts. In 
1534, Cartier took nossession of the shores of the St Lawrence ; but the 
first settlement at Quebec was not formed till 1608. During a century 
and a half that the French possessed Canada, they extended their re- 
searches towards the west. Quebec being captured by General Wolfe, 
in 1759, Canada was ceded to Great Britain b^ the treaty of Paris 176dw 
In 1836, serious political disturbances arose, in consequence of which a 
change was made in the constitution, the Upper and Lower Provinces 
being placed under one government. 

3^, Reugion. — The religion of the majority of the inhabitants in Lower 
Canada is the Roman Catholic. In Upper Canada the Episcopalian form 
of worship is established; the proportion of Presbyterians and Catholics, 
however, is very considerable. 

4th, Government.- BjT an act passed in 1791, a le|pslative council and 
an assembly, were appointed for each of the provmces of Upper and 
Lower Canada, having power to make laws, with the consent of the 
governor ; but the sovereign might dissent at any time within two years 
after receiving a bill. Since 1836, there has been only one council and 
one assembly for all Canada, these bodies being constituted nearly in the 
same manner as formerly. 

5th, Manners and Customs.— The manners and customs of the settlers 
in Lower Canada are considerably tinctured with French gayety and 
urbanity. The French women in Canada can generally read and write, 
and are in this respect superior to the men ; but both are sunk in ignor- 
ance and superstition, and blindly devoted to their priests. They uni- 
versally use the French language, English being restricted to the British 
settlers, who form the chief part of the population of Upper Canada. 

6th, Manufactures and Commerce.— Except some linen and coarse 
woollen cloth, manufactured articles are chiefly imported from England. 
The principal exports are timber, furs, peltries, and grain, with some fish, 
pota&, and American ginseng. The imports are British manufactures, 
spirits, wines, tea, tobacco, sugar, salt, and provisions for the troops. 

7th, Climate and Seasons.— The extremes of heat and cold are exces- 
sive. The snow begins in November; and in January the ftrost is so in- 
tense^ that it is. impossible to be out of doors for any time without the risk 
of being frost-bitten, which endangers the limbs; and the warm intervals 
only increase the pain and danger. On goinff abroad, the whole body 
must be covered with furs, except the eyes andnose. In May the thaw 
in peneral comes suddenly, the ice on the St Lawrence bursting with the 
noise of cannon; and its passage to the sea is terrific, especially when a 
pUe of ice crashes against a rock. The summer follows the winter vnth- 
out any spring ; and vegetation is instantaneous. September is one of the 
most pleasant months. 

8th, Face of the Country.— The face of the country is generaUy moun- 
tainous and woodv; but there are savannahs and plains of great beauty, 
•Uefly towards Upper Canada, which is a very fertile region. In the 
lower province, the soil and climate are better adapted for tne rearing of 

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cattle. Wheat, tobacco, Tines, raspberries, currants, and gooseberries, 
are cultivated. A great variety of trees is found in uie forests ; beech, 
oak, elm, ash, pine, sycamore, chestnut, walnut, &c. The sugar-maple 
tree also abounds, and the sugar obtained from it is generally used in the 

9th, Animals.— The chief singularities in zoology are ,the moose-deer, 
the beaver, and some other animals. The reindeer appears in the north- 
em parts, and the puma and lynx are not unknown. Both the provinces 
are much infested with rattlesnakes; and the humming-bird is not uncom- 
mon at Quebec. 

10th, Minerals.— The minerals are of little consequence ; and even 
iron seems to be rare. There are said to be lead-mines, which produce 
some silver ; and it is probable that copper may be found, as it appears 
to the S. W. of Lake Superior. 

11th, Natural Curiosities.— The chief natural curiosities are the 
grand lakes, rivers, and cataracts. Among the last are the celebrated 
Falls of Niagara, between Lakes Erie and Ontario, where the fall of the 
river, on the Canadian side, is 2100 feet wide, and 150 high. A small 
island lies between the falls : the one on the side of the United States is 
1140 feet broad, and 164 high. From the great fall a constant cloud of 
spray ascends, which may sometimes be seen at an incredible distance ; 
tne noise is often heard 20 miles off; and the whole scene is awfully 


The ancient province of Nova Scotia was granted by James I. to his 
secretary^ Sir William Alexander, first Earl of Stirling. It was after- 
wards seized by the French, who seemed indeed to have been the first 
possessors, by whom it was called Acadie; but it was surrendered to 
England by the treaty of Utrecht, 1713. In 17B4, it was divided into 
two districts. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The province of New 
Brunswick is 180 miles in length from N. to S., by 150 in breadth, and 

S resents an undulating but not mountainous surface, intersected in all 
irections by considerable rivers. The climate is very similar to that of 
Canada. The chief products are timber and fish, and some mines of coal 
are worked. The town of Miramichi and the neighbouring settlements 
were completely destroyed by a terrible fire in 1825, which ra^ed for 
many weeks, and consumed a great quantity of grain, timber, shipping, 
and growing wood. Above 200 persons lost their lives. A considerable 
number of emigrants have lately settled here, and by the latest census 
the population was found to be 206,000. The province is ruled by a 
governor, and has a representative constitution like that of Canada. 


This province is nearly 300 miles in length, by about 80 of mean breadth, 
being inferior in size to New Brunswick. The Bay of Fundy, between 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, presents an infinite variety of pictur- 
esque and sublime scenery : the ebb and flow of the tide is from 45 to 60 
feet. The minerals of coal and gypsum are found in abundance. There 
are numerous forests : the soil is generally thin and barren, but fertile 

Digitized by 



on the banks of the rivers, in ^ass, hemp, and flax. The Micmacs, an 
Indian tribe of about 200 fighting men, dwell to the E. of Halifax. 
Britain exports to these proyinces linen and woollen cloths, and other 
articles, and receives timber and fish in return, while live-stock and pro- 
visions are sent to the other colonies. The chief fishery is that of cod, 
earried on along the whole coast. The population, which has recently 
been increased by immigration, amounts to above ^0,000, including the 
inhabitants of Cape Breton. The government is the same as in New 


This island was discovered by John Cabot in 1497, whose son Sebas- 
tian, in two subsequent voyages, established the claim of England to the 
North American shores as far S. as Florida. The discovery of John 
Cabot, like that of Columbus and others, was unexpected, his design 
being to penetrate to the East Indies. Newfoundland is about 300 miles 
in length and breadth, the shape approaching to a triangle. It seems to 
be ratner hilly than mountainous, with wo<^s of birch, small pine^ and 
fir ; yet on the S. W. side there are lofty headlands. In the interior of 
the country Ihere are numerous ponds and morasses, with some dry 
barrens. The great cod-fisherjr on the banks of Newfoundland begins 
about the 10th of May, and continues till the end of September ; but the 
British take and cure the fish almost entirely upon the coast. The produce 
of the fishery is mostly sent to Spain and the Mediterranean, the annual 
value being about £800,000. These banks and the island are environed 
with constant fog, or snow and sleet ; the former supposed by some to be 
occasioned by the superior warmth of the gulf-stream from the West 
Indies. The island of Newfoundland, after many disputes with the 
French, was ceded to England in 1713, but to other nations was granted 
the right of fishing. The population amounts to about 96,000. 


This island is divided from Nova Scotia by a strait of only one mile in 
breadth, and forms politically a portion of that province. It is about 100 
miles in length ; and, according to the French authors, was discovered at 
a very early period, about a. d. 1500, by the Normans and Bretons, who 
navigated these seas ; and, being supposed a part of the continent, was 
called Cape Breton. It was colonized by the French in 1712, who founded 
their capital, Louisburg, in 1720. In 1745, it was taken by some troops 
from New England, but restored at the peace of Aix la Cbapelle. In 
1758, it was a^ain subdued by the British, in whose possession it has since 
remained. Sidney, the present capital, is a small town on the eastern 
coast. The climate is cold and foggy, not only from the proximity of 
Ndwifoundland, but from numerous lakes and forests ; and the soil beine 
mossy and unfavourable for agriculture, the island does not produce suffi- 
cient grain for its own consumption. The population amounts to about 
35,000, of whom a great number are descendants of emigrants from the 
Highlands of Scotland. The fur-trade is inconsiderable ; but the fishery 
is very important. The island contains extensive beds of coal of fine 
quality, which are actively worked ; a large portion of the produce b^ing 
exported to the United States and to the neighbouring eolonies. 

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This island, formerly called St John's, was a French colony, and camo 
into the possession of the British, alonc^with Cape Breton, in 1758. It is 
about 140 miles in length by. 30 in breadth : and is well wooded and 
fertile. The climate is salubrious. The population of the island, which 
has been increased* by^ immigrations from Scotland and Ireland, amounts 
to 48,000, who are principally employed in the fishery and lumber trade. 
The constitution resembles that of the other colonies. Charlotte-town^ 
the capital, contains about 2500 inhabitants. 


Thb territories of the Hudson's Bay Company include Labrador and 
the several settlements on the £. and W. of Hudson's Bay, with the yast 
interior countries stretching to the Arctic and Pacific Oceans and the 
Bnssian frontier in the extreme north-west. These dreary regions are in- 
tersected by numerous rivers, ^akes, and marshes ; the ground is every- 
where barren and desolate ; and such is the severity of tne climate, that 
dilring winter, even in latitude 57°, the lakes freeze eight feet thick, 
brandy congeals, rocks are split with a noise resembling thunder, and 
the fragments fly to a great distance. Mock-suns and halos are no4 
unfreqnent ; and the sun rises and sets with a lar^^e cone of yellowish 
light. The aurora borealis is here extremely brilliant^ and sometimes 
equals the splendour of the full moon. There are immense forests 
of trees, principally pines, with numerous berry-bearing shrubs and 
culinary herbs. The wild animals are numerous, comprising the buffiJo« 
reindeer, musk-ox, fallowdeer, beaver, wolf, fox, wild-cat, white, black, 
and brown bears, wolverene, otter^ raccoon^ ermine, &c. ; the hides uid 
furs of these various creatures forming the chief objects of trade and settle- 
ment. The northern and eastern coasts are inhabited by Esquimaux, and 
the interior and southern portions by various Indian tribes, wno all subsist 
by hunting and fishing, and exchange the products of the chase with 
European traders. The Hudson's Bay Company, by whom the fur trade 
of these countries is carried on, was incorporated in 1670 ; it has nearly a 
thousand persons in its employment, the principal depot being York 
Factory^ near the mouth of the Hayes River, in lat. 67 ** N., long. 92° 26' 
W. lliere are various other forts and stations situated at wide distances 
from each other ; the company has formed a settlement on Red River 
for retired officers and other servants. — ^The Moravian missionaries have 
established themselves at Nain, Okkak, and Hoffenthal ; and besides 
preaching the gospel, have taught the Esquimaux many of the useful arts 


Thesb islands are five in number, and were discovered by the Spaniards 
under Juan Bermudes in 1522 ; but being afterwards neglected oy them, 
tiiey were again brought under notice by the shipwreck of Sir George 

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Somers in 1609. They are extremely fertile, clothed with perpetual yer- 
dure, and possess a delicious climate. The chief is that called St George, 
with a capital of the same name, containing about 500 houses built of a soft 
fireestone* the inhabitants beine 3000, and those of all the isles about 9000. 
There is a governor, a council, and a general assembly. The religion is 
that of the church of England. The inhabitants possess about 100 sail of 
small vessels, employed in the carrying trade between North America and 
the West Indies ; and the principal exports are cedar, arrowroot, and 
cotton. The reefs that surround the coasts abound in fish of various 
kinds ; poultry are plentiful ; and the ordinary tropical fruits, together 
with peaches, oranges, grapes, melons, and fi^, are cultivated. 

The isle of AniicosU, at the mouth of the river St Lawrence, is rocky, 
and has no harbour, but is covered with wood; and excellent cod is found 
along the shores. 

The small island of Pictou lies on the coast of Nova Scotia, opposite the 
town of the same name. 

The islets otSt Pierre and Miqtielon were ceded to the French in 1763. 


This settlement, which was long an object of dispute between the Brit- 
ish and Spaniards, extends along the east coast oi Central America, be- 
tween lat. 15' 54' and 18* 30' N. and long. 88* and 90" W. ; but the pre- 
cise area is not well defined. The shore is studded with coral islands, 
and the coast is rocky but fiat ; in the interior, however, the land rises 
into a bold and lofty region, interspersed with rivers and lagoons, and cov- 
ered with noble forests. The country is rich in vegetable productions ; 
but the inhabitants mainly employ themselves in wood-cuttmg, this dis- 
trict being the chief seat of the mahogany-tree, of which large quantities 
are annually exported, together with logwood, cedar, hides, and other 
articles. l%e population amounts to 10,000, of whom only about 350 
are whites, the rest being people of colour. The settlement is gov- 
erned by a superintendent, assisted hy seven councillors elected annually. 
Belize, the only town and port, is built on both sides of the river of that 
name, and has a neat appearance. Considerable quantities of British 
manufactures, &C.9 are now imported through this channel into Central 


Boundaries. — N. British America; W. Pacific 
Ocean and Mexico ; S. Mexico and Oulf of Mexico ; 
E. Atlantic Ocean. 

Divisions. — Northern States of New England : viz. 
1. Maine ; 2. New Hampshire ; 3. Vermont ; 4. Mas- 
sachusetts (a) ; 5. Connecticut ; 6. Rhode Island. — 
Middle States: 1. New York; 2. Pennsylvania (6) ; 

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3. New Jersey ; 4. Delaware. — Southern States : 1. 
Maryland (c) ; 2. Virginia (d) ; 3. N. Carolina («) ; 

4. S. Carolina ; 6. Georgia (/) ; 6. Alabama ; 7. Flori- 
da. — Western States: 1. Ohio; 2. Indiana; 3. Illinois; 

4. Kentucky ; 5. Missouri ; 6. Tennessee ; 7. Miss- 
issippi ; 8. Louisiana ; 9. Arkansas ; 10. Michigan ; 
11. Iowa ; 12. Texas. — Territories not yet erected into 
States: 1. Wisconsin; 2. Oregon. — The territory of 
New Mexico and New California, recently acquired, is 
not yet organized. 

Towns. — Northern States : 1. Portland, Belfast ; 2. 
Portsmouth, Dover; 3. Montpelier, Burlington; 4. Bos- 
ton (A), Salem, Cambridge ; 5. Hartford, New Lon- 
don, Newhaven; 6. Newport, Providence. — Middle 
States: 1. New York (i), Albany, Hudson, Troy, Sara- 
toga (k) ; 2. Philadelphia, Pittsburg ; 3. Trenton, Bur- 
lington, Perth-Amboy ; 4. Dover, Newcastle. — South- 
ern States : 1. Annapolis, Baltimore; 2. Washington,* 
Richmond, Williamsburg; 3. Raleigh (Z), Newbern, 
Trenton, Edenton; 4. Charleston, Columbia, George- 
town ; 5. Augusta, Savannah ; 6. Cahawba, Mobile ; 
7. St. Augustine, Pensacola. — Western States: 1. Co- 
lumbus, Cincinnati ; 2. Vincennes ; 3. Springfield, Kas- 
kaskia, Vandalia ; 4. Lexington, Frankfort, Louisville ; 

5. New Madrid, St Louis, Franklin ; 6. Knoxville, 
Nashville, Clarksville ; 7. Natchez ; 8. New Orleans, 
Madisonville, Opelousas; 9. Arkansas, Little Rock; 
10. Detroit ; 11. Iowa ; 12. Austin, Houston, Galves- 
ton.-^ Territories : 1. Madison ; 2. Burlington. 

Islands. — Long Island, Rhode Island, Staten, 
Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket. 

* Washington^ the seat of gOYernment, is sitaated in a district called 
Columbia, detaehed from Maryland. 


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Mountains. — The Appalachian or Alleghany Moun- 
tains, the Rocky Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. 

Bays. — Penobscot, Massachusetts, Casco, Barnstaple, 
Long Island Sound, Delaware, Chesapeake ; Albemarle, 
and Pamlico Sounds. 

Capes. — Ann, Cod^ May, Charles, Henry, Hatteras, 
Lookout, Fear, Tancha or Sable, Mendocino. 

Rivers. — Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, Ohio, St 
Croix, Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, 
Potomac, Savannah, Columbia or Oregon.* 

Additional Rivers. — Jame^ River enters the 8, of Chesapeake 
Bay; the Roanoke enters Albemarle Sound. The Pamlico and 
Gape Fear flow through N. Carolina ; the Pedee and Santee through 
S, Carolina ; the Colorado enters the Oulf of California. 

(a) Ili Massachfuetts the battle of Bunker^s Hill was fought between 
the Americans and the British on the 17th of June 1775. {b) Pennsyl- 
vania was granted to William Penn by Charles II. of England, in lieu of 
a debt due to Penn, who purchased the land from the Indians for a mere 

trifle, and built Philadelphia. (c) Maryland, so called fi:om Mary^ 

^ueen to Charles I. id) Virginia was the first British settlement made 

m America, and takes its name from our virgin queen Elizabeth, in whose 
reign Sir Walter R^ileigh made the first attempt to establish a colony 
about 1584. ie) The Carolinas were settled in the reign of Charles 

* The Mississijnd flows S., Beparates Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky. 
Tennessee, and Mississippi on the E. from Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, ana 
Louisiana on the W,, recefyes the Illinois^ Missouri, Ohio, Arkansas, 
Red River, &c., and falls into the Gulf of Mexico below New Orleans ; 
the Ohio, from the S. of Lake Erie, flows S. W., separates Ohio, Indiana, 
and Illinois on the N. from Virginia and Kentucky on the S., receives the 
Little Kenhawa, the Chreat Kenhawa, the Scioto, the Miami, the Oreai 
Miami, the Kentucky, the Green, the Wabash, the Cumberland, and the 
Tennessee, and enters the Mississippi N. from New Madrid ; the St CroiJst 
separajtes the British possessions from the United States, and falls into 
Passamaquoddy Bay ; the Omnecticut flows S. between New Hampshire 
and Vermont, through Massachusetts and Connecticut, and falls into the 
Sound ; the Hudson flows S. through the E. of New York, and enters 
the W. of the Sound at the city of New York ; the Delaware separates 
Pennsylvania from New Jersey, and falls into Delaware Bay ; the Sus- 
quehanna, from New York, fifows S. through Pennsylvania, and enters 
the N. of Chesapeake Bay in Maryland; the Potomac separates Virginia 
from Maryland, and enters the W. of Chesapeake Bay ; the Savannah 
flows S. between S. Carolina and Georgia, and falls into the Atlantio 
Ocean ; the Columbia or Oregon flows through Oregon territory, and falls 
into the Pacific. 

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iCarolus)lh of England, and so called in honour of him. (/) Gewf^ 

was colonized by the English in 1732, in the reign of George II. — -Xs^ 
ZimisiafM was settled by the French under Louis XIV., in the 18th cea- 
tury, and named after him. New Orleans, the capital of Louisistna, was 
built in 1720, during the regency of the Duke of Orleans. (h) Bos- 
ton is the birthplace of Dr Franklin. (•) New York was conquered 

by the English from the Swedes and Dutch in 1664, and took its namd 
from James duke of York, to whom it was granted by his brother. King 
Charles II. (Jk) Saratoga, where, in 1777, a British ai*my, under Gen- 
eral Burgoyne, surrendered to General Gates, the American commander. 
(/) Raleigh, so named in honour of the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh. 

I, Historical Geography of ^e United States. 

1st, Extent. — The United States territory extends entirely across the 
American continent, from the 67th to the 125th degree of west longitude; 
on the Atlantic Ocean it reaches from the 25th to the 45th parallel of 
north latitude, and on the Pacific from the 32d to the 49th. Its length 
from east to west is 2750 miles ; its greatest breadth 1340 ; area» 
nearly 3,000,000 square miles. Population, in 1840, 17,063,353, including 
2,487,355 Negro slaves in the Southern and Western States. 

2d, Chronologt. — The aborigines consisted of many wild and rude 
tribes, whose names and memory have almost perished. The first English 
colony, planted by Raleigh in 1584, proved unsuccessful ; but in 1607, a 
private association, called the London Company, established a ne^ settle- 
ment in Southern Virginia ; and during the civil wars and subsequent 
period, the thirteen original states were successively colonized by Puritans 
from the mother country, who settled in New England, Roman Catholics 
in Maryland, Royalists in Virginia, &c.,'with numbers of Swedes, Dutch, 
and Germans. The states long flourished as provinces of Great Britain ; 
but parliament attempting to tax them by its sole authority, without the - 
intervention of their assemblies, a civil war ensued. The Americans 
formed a congress, which, in 1776, disclaimed all dependence on the 
mother-country ; the French king entered into an alliance with them in 
1778 ; the colonies, powerfully assisted by France, Spain, and Holland, 
were successful ; and Great Britain acknowledged their independence by 
the peace of 1783. In 1812, a second war arose between the Americans 
and British, which was closed in December 1 814 by the ireaij of Ghent. In 
1836, Texas, ceased to be a province of Mexico, having achieved its inde- 
pendence ; and, in 1845, it was admitted into the Union as an independent 
state. The number of states is now increased to 29. In 1847, a vrar took 
place between the United States and Mexico, which was concluded in the 
following year by a treaty, ceding New California and New Mexico to 
the former power, for a sum amounting to about 18,000,000 dollars. 

II. Political Geography. 

1st, Religion. — There is no established religion ; but every denomi- 
nation of Christians is left in full liberty of worship. The most important 
sects are the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Congregationalists, 
Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics. 

2d, GoTERNMENT — The federal constitution of the United States is ad- 
ministered by a congress, consisting of a president, vice-president, senate, 

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and house of representatives, the members of which latter body are elected 
%mrf second year ; the senators are chosen for six years, and the president 
and Tice-president for four. The legislative power is vested in the two 
ooancils, while the executive is lodged with the president. There are 
also distinct legislatures in each state for conducting local aJSairs. 

3<L Laws.— Each state has its own laws ; but in all the states the laws 
are founded on those of EngUnd, and there is a supreme tribunal for t^- 
ing questions common to the whole Union. 

4th, Army and Navy.-— The eflTective force of the army of the United 
States amounts to 28,000 men ; the militia exceeds 1,800,000, but they are 
verv imperfectly disciplined. The navy consists of 11 ships of the line, 
14 frigates, 22 sloops, and 37 smaller vessels. 

5th, Revenue.— The revenue of the United States is derived from the 
customs, the sale of public lands, and miscellaneous sources, and in 1846 
was £6,b'00.000. The debt in 1848 was about £13,000,000. The different 
states also nave revenues amounting in all to £1,200,000 ; but they have 
contracted debts of above £45,000,000, which many of them have refused 
to pay. 

III. Civil Geography, 

Ist, Manners and Customs.— In their manners the Americans closely 
resemble the English, from whom they are sprung. They are acute, 
active, enterprising, brave, frank, and high-spirited ; but they are charged 
with being boastful, quarrelsome, and, in mercantile matters, much given 
to speculation, and not very scrupulous in their dealings with others. 

2d, Language.— The English language is in general use from one end 
of the Union to the other ; but German, Spanish, and French, are spoken 
in some places. 

3d, Literature. ^Before the war of independence, Franklin had be- 
come a distinguished name in letters ; and many authors of considerable 
merit have since arisen in the United States. Literary academies publish 
their transactions ; while magazines and an astonishing number of news* 
papers contribute to the popular diffusion of useful knowledge. In the 
northern and middle states the mass of the people are as well educated as 
in any other country in the world. 

4th, Manufactures.— The domestic manufactures of leather, coarse 
cloths, serges, flannels, cotton and linen goods of several sorts, not only 
Boffioe for the families, but are sometimes sold and even exported ; and in 
most districts a great part of the dress is the product of domestic industry. 
Grood wines have been made by Swiss settlers on the Ohio, from various 
wild grapes, which grow spontaneously in these regions. Sugar from the 
maple is prepared in the northern and middle states^ and in the southern 
states it i^ manufactured from the cane. The quantity of spirits distilled 
has been computed at nearly 42,000,000 gallons. Of late years the cotton 
manufacture nas attained great importance, large factories having been 
established in Massachusetts and other northern states ; and the fabrication 
of coarse hardware and machinery is extensively carried on at Pittsburg 
and other places. 

5th, Commerce.— The chief commerce of the United States is still 
eeatred in British ports, though France has a considerable share ; and 
some trade is earned on vnth the West Indies, Spain, Portugal, Hol- 
land, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. That with the East Indies and 
China is also important, and a very extensive whale-fisherv is prosecuted 
in the Southern racific. The chica exports are cotton, wneat and flour, 

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tobaeoo, rice, beef, tallow, hides, honied cattle, pork, baeon, lard, live ^e^f, 
Btaves, shingles, boards, hewn timber, and pot and pearl ashes. The exf- 
ports in 1846 amounted to £23,000,000; the imports to £25,000,000 sterliae. 
There exists, besides, an immense internal trade, which has been mmSk 
facilitated by a magnificent system of canals and railways, and the groafc 
navigable rivers of the country. The Erie Canal, connecting the river 
Hudson with the lake of that name, is 363 miles in length ; the Ohio and 
Erie Canal, uniting Lake Erie with the river Ohio, is ^6 miles long ; and 
there are many others of great extent. The total mileage of railways 
open in 1846 was 5703. 

IV. Natural Geographp, 

1st, Climate and Seasons.— The climate is chiefly remarkable for sudden 
transitions from heat to cold, and the contrary. The wind from the 
N. W. is intensely cold, as itpasses over a wide expanse of the frozen conti- 
nent. In the plains on the E. of the Appalachian chain, the summer heats 
are immoderate; and in some places even ice will not preserve poultry or 
fish from putrefaction. Towards the mountains the climate is salutary, 
even in the southern states. In the northern states, the winter is longer 
and more severe than in England, but the summer heat more intense. — 
The seasons generally correspond with those in Europe, but not with the 
equality to be expected on a continent ; as, even during the summer 
heats, days occur which require the warmth of a fire. 

2d, Face of the Country.-— This immense territory presents various 
distinct features. Two principal chains of mountains intersect it from 
north to south; on the west, the Rocky Mountainsv 8000 feet in mean 
altitude, running nearly parallel to the Pacific coast; and on the east the 
Alleghany Mountains, about 2500 feet in mean height, which are nearly 
parallel to the coast of the Atlantic. These two chains divide the countiy 
into three regions— the Western, watered by the Columbia river ; the 
Eastern, by tne Hudson, Delaware, and other streams; and the Middle 
region, comprehending the great and fertile valley of the Mississippi, 
watered by that river and its tributaries. The surface is in many places 
covered with immense forests and swamps, and the abundance of timber, 
with the diversity of foliage, contribute greatly to enrich the landscape. 

3d, Soil and Agriculture. — The soil, though of various descriptions, 
is generally fertile. The Americans are well skilled in agriculture ; and 
it is computed that three-fourths of the inhabitants of the United States 
are employed in this labour. Among the numerous products, are wheat, 
rye. barley, buck-wheat, oats, beans, pease, and maize, the last a native 
grain. Rice is cultivated in South Carolina, and on the Banks of the Ohio. 
Hemp and flax are considerable objects of attention. The potato plant 
i9 a native of the country; as are several kinds of melon and cucumber. 
Hops are also cultivated. In the southern states a great deal of tobaooo 
is raised : but in Georgia^ Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, cotton 
is the leading article, and is most extensively produced. 

4th, Animals. — The domestic zoology of the United States nearly cor- 
responds, with some few shades of difference in size and colour, with that 
of the parent country from which the animals were exported ; for no 
European species of quadrupeds are indigenous to America. Among the 
larger wild animals may be mentioned the bison. The musk bull anacow 
only appear in the more western regions, beyond the Mississippi Among 
the animals now lost is classed the mammoth, whose enormons bones are 
found in great numbers near the salt-springs upon the Ohio. The Ame- 
rican stag rather exceeds the European in ?ize. Bears, wolves, and foxes. 

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ai>i6 fotiiid in all the stiates, together with a few tajMucious animals of the cat 
kind, improperly called panthers and tigers. The beaver is well known 
from the fur, and the sin^i^ular formation of his cabin, built in i)onds for the 
sake of security. Some kinds of monkeys are said to be found in the south- 
ern states. Among the birds, there are many kinds of eagles, Tultures, owls, 
turkeys, &c. The largest aquatic bird is the wild swan, which sometimes 
Weighs 36 pounds. Some of the frogs are of remarkable size ; and the tor- 
toise or turtle supplies a delicious focd : the alligator is frequent in the 
southern rivers. Of ser]>ents, nearly forty kinds are found in the United 
States. The rattlesnake is the largest, being from four to six feet in length. 
Among the fish are most of those which are esteemed in Europe. In the 
south is found the humming bird, sucking the honey of various flowers, its 
indescribable hues of green, purple, and gold glancmg in the sun ; also the 
mocking bird, famed for its charming notes, and perfect imitation of other 

6th, Minerals. — In the United States are found mines of gold, silver, 
iron, copper, lead, limestone, &c. Coal is found in New England, New 
York, rennsylvania, and Virginia, and on the west side of the Alleghany 
Mountains there is an immense coal-field. Salt springs are numerous in 
the great valley of the Mississippi, and supply in abundance that prime 
necessary of life. The hot mineral waters of Saratoga, in the state of 
New York, are remarkably copious, and surrounded with singular petri- 

6th, Natural Curiosities.— In Vermont is a singular stalactitic cave, in 
which, after a descent of 104 feet, there opens a spacious room sibott 20 
feet in breadth and 100 in length, with a circular hall at the farther end, 
at the bottom of which boils up a deep spring of clear water. Near Dur- 
ham, in New Hampshire, is a rock so poised on another, as to be move- 
able by the touch of the finder. In the state of New York, a rivulet runs 
under a hill about 70 yards m diameter, forming a beautiful arch in the 
rock; and there is a stalactitic cave, in which was found the petrified 
skeleton of a large snake. In the territory on the N. W of the Onio, the 
savannahs, or rich plains, extend 30 or 40 miles without anjr tree ; they 
are crowded with deer, wild cattle^ and turkeys, and often visited by bears 
and wolves; but this district is rjiiefly remarkable for a number of old 
forts of an oblong form, with adjoining tumuli or mounds. 


Boundaries. — N. the United States ; W. the Pa- 
cific Ocean ; S. the Pacific Ocean and Guatemala; E. 
the Gulf of Mexico and United States. 

Divisions. — 1. Yucatan ; 2. Tabasco ; 3. Chiapa ; 
4, Oaxaca ; 5. Vera Cruz ; 6. Puebla ; 7. Mexico ; 8. 
Mechoacan; 9. Xalisco; 10. Guanaxuato; 11. Quere- 
taro; 12. San Luis Potosi; 13. Zacatecas; 14. Durango; 


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264 MEXICO. 

16. Sonora; 16. Chihuahua; 17. Cohahuila; 18. N«ir 
Leon ; 19. Tamaulipas ; 20. Old Califoruia. 

Towns. — 1. Merida, Campeachy ; 2. Villa Hermosa; 
3. Chiapa ; 4. Oaxaca ; 6. Vera Cruz ; 6. Puebla ; 7. 
Mexico, Acapulco ; 8. Valladolid ; 9. Guadalaxara ; 
10. Guanaxuato; 11. Queretaro; 12. San Luis Potosi; 
13. Zacatecas ; 14. Durango ; 15. Villa del Fuerte ; 
16. Chihuahua ; 17. Saltillo ; 18. Monterey ; 19. Tam- 
pico ; 20. Loretto. 

Mountains. — The Topian Chain, extending from 
Guadalcucara 700 miles towards the north. 

Gulfs, &c. — Gulfs of Mexico and California ; Bay 
of Campeachy. 

River. — Eio Bravo or Rio del Nort^.* 

I. Historical Geography, 

1st, Extent.— Mexico extends nearly 1100 miles from south to north, 
and its extreme breadth is aboat 600. The population is estimated at 
7,000,000.— Texas, New Mexico, and New California, formerly jproYinces 
of Mexico, have been recently severed from it, and annexed to the United 
States ; and Old California and Yucatan, nominally included within its 
limits, are now also independent. 

2d, Chronologt.- The ori^n of the aboriginal Mexicans remains in 
great obscurity, notwithstanding the researches of many ingenious and 
learned men. The chief features of their history are wars and rebellions, 
famines and inundations. In 1521, the empire of Mexico was snbdued by 
the Spaniards under Neman Cortex^ and long continued one of the most 
valuable possessions of the Spanish crown. After a civil war of ten year^* 
duration, Mexico established its independence in 1821. 

II. Political Geography, 

1st, Religion.— By the present constitution, the Catholic religion is de- 
clared to be that or the state, and the public exercise of every other 
is forbidden.— The ancient Mexicans believed in the immortality of the 
soul, and a kind of transmigration ; the good being transformed into 
bird^, and the bad into creeping animals. The principal deities were 

* The Rio Bravo or Rio del Norte flows S. E. into the W. of the Gulf 
of Mexico. 


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MEXICO. 265 

tUrloen in nnmber, amonfs whom were the son and moon. Hnman saori- 
fiees were deemed the most acceptable; and every captiye taken in war 
was cruellv tortured and immolated. The heart and head were the portion 
of the ^oas, while the body was resigned to the captor, who with his 
friends teasted upon it. The human Tictims offered at the consecration 
of two temples were said to be 12,210. 

2d, GoYERNMENT. — The ancient government was an hereditary mon- 
archy. Despotism seems to have begun with the celebrated Montezuma. 
— By the constitution adopted in 1824, the country became a federal re- 
public, consisting of 19 states and 3 territories ; but a war having taken 
nlace in 1847 with the United States, at its conclusion New Mexico and 
New California were ceded to that country. The general government is 
vested in a congress, consisting of two houses, and a president, and is in 
all its leading Matures constructed on the plan of the constitution of the 
United States; but it continues in a very unsettled condition. 

3d, Revenue.— The revenue which Mexico yielded to the Spanish 
crown was shown by Dr Robertson to amount to above £1,000,000 ster- 
ling, but there were great expenses. 

III. Civil Geography. 

let. Manners and Customs. — The wars of the ancient Mexicans were 
constant and sanguinary; and their manners in general corresponded 
with their barbarous disposition. On the death of a chief, a great number 
of his attendants were sacrificed.— Four distinct and rival classes now 
exist in the country, viz. 1. the Chapetpnes or pure Spaniards, few in 
nnmber, and now considered a degraaea class; 2. the Creoles, or natives 
of European descent, forming the wealthiest and most poweiful part of 
the population; 3. the Indians, or native Mexicans, composing the great 
mass of the rural labourers; •and, 4^ the Mixed races. The characters of 
these classes are extremely varied ; but ignorance and superstition are 
very general features, combined with a want of industry, and a restless 
changeful disposition. As food is cheap, and labour dear, the lower 
cla43ses are exempt from the necessity of regular work, whence they fall 
into drunkenness and other excesses. The smoking of tobacco is univer- 
sally practised by both sexes. 

2d, Language.— The Mexican language appears to differ radically from 
the Peruvian. The words are of a surprising length, resembling in this 
resi>ect the language of the savages in N. America, and some of the 
African dialects ; but stronjB;Iy contrasted with those of Asia, in which 
the most polished, as the Chmese, are monosyllabic. Some of the words 
are of sixteen syllables. In speaking to their curates the Mexicans em- 
ploy a word of twenty-seven letters, Notkusomahuixleopixcatatzini which 
signifies ^ venerable priest, whom I cherish as my father.'* The number 
of languages in New Spain, by Humboldt's account, is above twenty; and 
of fourteen there are already grammars and dictionaries. Spanish is the 
language of the legislature and of the upper classes. — The unsettled state 
of the country has completely checked the progress of science, literature, 
and art, which are in the lowest possible condition, while the elementary 
instruction of the people is even less attended to than when the country 
remained attached to Spain. 

3d, Manufactures and Commerce.— The manufactures of Mexico are 
not of much consequence, the rich mines constituting the chief source of 
national wealth. Coarse cottons form the universal dress of the Indians. 
The principal muiafactures are those of woollen cloth, indigo, cotton, silk^ 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 

266 MEXICO. 

and plate; there are also potteries and glass-honaes.— The eommeroe of 
the country has been much reduced by the rerolution; but under the 
Spanish rule it was diyided into five distinct heads; that with China, or 
rather the Philippine islands, that ^th Peru, the West Indies, S[Ain, 
and the interior of the viceroyalty. The trade with the mother-country 
was the best regulated. The imports amounted to about 14,000,000 of 
dollars, while the exports were computed at 22,000,000. The interior 
trade has hitherto been vety insignificant, there being neither canals nor 
good roads. 

IV. Natural Geography, 

1st, Climate and Seasons — The climate of this interesting country is 
singularly diversified, combining the tropical seasons and rams with the 
temperature of the southern and even middle countries of Europe. The 
rains, however, temper the extreme heat, which would otherwise be in- 
tolerable. The maritime districts are hot and unhealthy ; the inland 
mountains, on the contrary, will sometimes present white frost and ice in 
the dog-days. In other interior provinces the air is mild and benign, 
with some slight falls of snow in winter; but no artificial warmth is found 
necessary, and animals sleep all the year under the open sky. There are 
plentiful rains, generally after mid-day, from April to September ; and 
nail-storms are not unknown. Thunaer is common, and earthquakes are 
frequent, though not often very destructive. 

2d, Face of the Countrt.— Mexico consists generally of a vast table- 
land, about 6000 feet above the s^; but grand ridges of mountains, nume- 
rous volcanoes, some of them co^red with perpetual snow, precipices and 
cataracts worthy of the pencil of Rosa, dekcions vales, fertile plains, pic- 
turesque lakes and rivers, romantic cities and villages, a union of the 
trees and vegetables of Europe and America, contribute to diversify this 
fine country. 

2d, Soil and Agriculture.— The soil is often a deep clay of surprising 
fertility, and requiring no manure save irrijB^ation.— Agriculture is capable 
of indefinite extension, the varieties of soil and climate being fitted for 
the growth of almost every kind of vegetable production on the globe ; 
but it is at present in a veij backward state. Tne chief objects of culture 
are maize and bananas, besides which are mentioned cotton, indigo, Bv^gaix, 
tobacco, pimento, vines, and cochineal. 

4th, Animals.— Among the most singular animals is the Mexican or 
hunchback dog, a kind of porcupine. What is called the tiger seems a 
species of panther, and sometimes grows to a great size. The largest quad- 
ruped, the danta, anta, or tapir, sibout the size of a middling mme, is am- 
pliibious. The birds of Mexico are particularly numerous and interestiiv. 
What is called a lion rather resembleff a cat in figure and manners. Tame 
snakes are kept in the fields of maize, where they destroy rats, molee, 
and insects. The buffalo of N. America is common, and valuable for its 
wool, skin, and flesh. Horses, mules, and beeves, are extremely plentifbl. 
Wild-goats and wild-boars abound. In the southern provinces are found 
armadillos, many varieties of apes, beautiful birds, and insects ; among 
the last there is a species of ant, which elaborates a kind of honey, so 
abundant as to be an article of commerce. Its form and all its habits are 
those of the common ant, but it is veined with gray and black. 

5th, MiNERAiA.~The mineralogy of Mexico is beyond doubt the i 

valuable in the known world, as, within a district comparatiTelyiiBal], it 

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yields a ^ater amount of wealth than all South America. The gold and 
aUver mines are very productive. In the province of Sonora are found 
lamps of gold, so large as sometimes to weigh six pounds, at the depth of 
only two feet. One mine, in 1736, yielded balls of virgin silver weighing 
nearly 40 hundredweight. The mmes of New Spain, in 1805, yielded 
27,000,000 of dollara, piastres fortes, and might have produced 30,000,000, 
or nearlv £7,000,000 sterling. Their produce was much diminished daring 
the civil war, and, though several millions of English capital have since 
been invested in them, they have not yet reached their former produc- 
tiveness. The silver coined at the mint of Mexico in 1837 amounted to 
11,616,000 dollars, or £2,468,000. There are besides mines of copper, 
quicksilver, iron, tin, lead, amber, and asphalt. Among the precious 
stones are a few diamonds, with amethysts and turquoises. The mountains 
also produce jasper, marble, alabaster, magnet, steatite, and talc— There 
are several mineral waters of various qualities, sulphureous, vitriolic, and 
aluminous; and some springs of great heat; but none seems to be par- 
ticularly distinguished. 

6th, Natural Curtostttes Besides the volcanoes there are many 

natural curiosities, one of the most remarkable being the Ponte de Dvos, or 
Bridge of God, resembling the natural bridge in the territory of the United 
States. It is about 100 miles S. E. from Mexico, over a deep river, and is 
constantly passed as a highway. The other chief curiosities are, a moun- 
tain or hill of loadstone, and the famous Ahahuete, or cvpress, which is 
73 feet in circumference. On the shores of the Gulf of Mexico the shoot- 
ing of the stars, as it is termed, is sometimes so general throughout the 
firmament, as to appear like a grand firework of skyrockets, flying in all 
directions,— a spectacle singularly awful and sublime. 

7th, Antiquities. — The greater part of the monuments of Mexico were 
destroyed by the Spanish conquerors, or have been allowed to decay by 
the ignorance or indifference of the people. In the district of Yucatan, 
as well as in the neighbouring republic of Guatemala, travellers have 
discovered, buried in the forests, tne remains of ancient cities, palaces, 
and temples, covered with sculpture and hieroglyphs, and bearing no small 
resemblance to the famous ruins of Egypt. Of the names of these cities, 
or the people who reared them, all trace has vanished. 


Boundaries. — N. Mexico and the Bay of Honduras ; 
W. and S, the Pacific ; E. New Granada and the Carib- 
bean Sea. 

Divisions. — 1. Guatemala ; 2. St Salvador ; 3. 
Honduras ; 4. Nicaragua ; 5. Costa Rica. 

TowNS.-rl. Guatemala, Vera Paz; 2. St Salvador; 
3. Comayaglia, Truxillo; 4. Leon, Nicaragua; 5. Costa 
Bica, Cartage. 

Lake. — Nicaragua. 

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Remarks on Guatemala. 

The territory of this state consists of the lon^ and comparatively narrow 
isthmus which connects North and South America, oeing al>out 1000 
miles in length, with a breadth varying from 90 to 250. Area, 196,000 
square miles. The population, which presents the same variety of classes 
as in Mexico, has been estimated at 2,000,000. Being traversed through 
its whole length by the Andes, the country possesses a very diversified 
surface ; the centre consisting of a high table-land averaging about 5000 
feet above the sea, with a comparatively temperate climate, while the ooast 
region, especially the eastern, is low, hot, and unhealthy. Earthquakes 
are very irequent, in consequence of which the capital and other towns 
generally consist of buildings only one stor^ high. The soil is extremely 
fertile, yielding abundantly all the productions Doth of tropical and tem- 
perate climates ; but the staples of the country are indigo, cochineal, sar- 
saparilla, hides, mahogany, dye-woods, sugar, cotton, cocoa, and Peru- 
vian balsam. The domestic and wild animals are nearly the same as in 
Mexico. There are rich and productive mines of the precious metals, 
with copper, iron, lead, nickel, zinc, antimony, &c., and the pearl-oyster 
is found on the coast. The people very closely resemble their Mexican 
neighbours in manners and disposition, the same indolence, superstition, 
and want of enterprise being everywhere apparent. Central America 
became independent in 1821, and was subsequently incorporated with 
Mexico ; but in 1823 it was formed into a separate confederation. The 
government is modelled on that of the United States, and consists of a 
president, senate, and house of representatives, the elections being made 
through the medium of electoral colleges. The established religion is 
the Eoman , Catholic, but complete toleration exists. The principal 
manufactures are coarse woollen and cotton cloths, earthenware, and 
cabinet work ; and the foreign trade, which is chiefly in the hands of the 
English and Americans, comprises a pretty active export of the natural 
proaucts of the country, which are exchanged for foreign manufactured 
articles, wines, and trinkets. 


Boundaries. — N. Northern Ocean ; W. and S. the 
North Pacific ; E. British America. 

Town. — New Archangel. 

Mountains. — Rocky Mountains, Mount St Elias, 
Mount Fairweather. 

Islands. — ^Aleutian or Fox Islands, King George 
Islands, Prince of Wales Island. 

Gulfs and Bays. — Kotzebue's Sound, Norton Sound, 
Bristol Bay, Cook's Inlet. 

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Capes. — Point Barrow, Icy Cape, Cape Lisburne, 
Cape Newnham. 

Remarks on Russian America. 

This territory extends about 800 miles ftrom N. to S., bj 700 from 
W. to £. ; and, including the narrow strip along the coast from 60" to 
54" N. lat., contains an area of 500,000 square miles. Population 60,000. 
The whole region is dreary and unproductive, and is tninly inhaoited 
by tribes of Indians and Esquimaux, who subsist by hunting and 
fishing. It is only nominally under the Russian dominion, great part 
of the interior being very imperfectly explored. The supreme authority 
is Tested in the Russian American Company, who possess the exclusive 
privilege of trading for peltry ; but their settlements are confined to New 
Archangel, the capital, and a few forts along the coast. The long chain 
of the Aleutian Islands, and the others to the S., which are numerous, 
appear to be volcanic, and several of the former possess volcanoes in con- 
stant activity. The whole present a barren aspect, with high and conical 
surfaces,covered with snow during the greater part of the year. Vegetation 
is scanty, and there are no trees or plants larger than shrubs and bushes. 
The inhabitants, who are of a middle size and dark brown complexion, 
are chiefiy occupied in hunting sea-otters, sea-lions, and seals. Tne Rus- 
sians have also formed a settlement at Bodega^ on the coast of California, 
where they cultivate a fertile tract which extends several miles inland. 



Divisions. — East or Old Greenland, West or New 
Greenland ; Cumberland Island, Melville Peninsula, 
Cockbum Island, Boothia Felix, North Georgian or 
Parry Islands. 

Remarks on Greenland^ S^c. 

Greenland lies between Baffin's Bay and the Northern Ocean, ex- 
tending from Cape Farewell, in lat. 59° 49 , indefinitely northward towards 
the Pole. The discovery of this extensive region was effected by the 
people of Iceland^ a. d. 982, who called it Greenland^ because thej 
found the shore covered with ^een moss. The intercourse between this 
colony and Denmark was maintained till the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, the last of 17 bishops bein^ named in 14()6; and in that century, 
by the gradual increase of the arctic ice, the colony appears to have been 
completely imprisoned by the Frozen Ocean ; while on the W. a range of 
impassable monntains and plains, covered with perpetual ice, preclnded 


all access. In more recent times the wester^ coast was chiefly ex|>Iored 
by Davis and other English navigators ; but there was no attempt to 
settle any colony. A pioas Norwegian clergyman, named Bigede^ haTing 
probably read the book of TorfiBu$, pabli^ed in 1715, was deeply im- 
pressed by the melancholy situation of this colony, if it should be fonnd 
to exist; and in 1721 proceeded to the western e^ore, where he continued 
till 1735, preaching the gospel to the uatives : his beneyolent example 
has since been followed by several missionaries. The sect called Aforo- 
vians began their settlements about 30 years after. This dreary country 
may be said to consist of rocks, ice, and snow ; but in the southern puts 
there are some small junipers, willows, and birches. There are reinAieer, 
and some dogs resembling wolves, with arctic foxes and polar bears. 
Hares are common ; and the walrus,- and five kinds of seals, frequent 
the shores. The birds, particularly sea and water fowl, are tolerably 
numerous, as are the fish; and the insects exceed 90 species. The short 
summer is very warm, but foggy; and the northern lights diversify the 
gloom of winter. The natives are short, with long black hair, small eyes, 
and flat faces, being a branch of the Esquimaux or American Samoieds: 
it is supposed that they do not exceed 10,000, the number having been 
' greatly reduced by the small-pox. Their canoes, in which one man 
proceeds to kill seals, are of a smgular construction, and have sometimes 
been wafted as far as the Orkneys. A new mineral substance, called 
cryolite, has been recently found in Greenland. The lapis ollaris is of 
siniplar utility here and m the N. of America, being used for lamps and 
culmary utensils. The soil consists of unfertile clay or sand. The 
winter is very severe; and the rocks often burst by the intensity of the 
frost. Greenland was long supposed to be joined to America, but is now 

ascertained to be an island ^The other Polar re^ons are still more 

dreary than Greenland, many of them being uninhabited, and some 
only occasionally visited by wandering tribes of Esquimaux. Human 
subsistence can be found nowhere but in the waters, wnich abound with 
whales, morses, seals, &c. 


1. The Great Antilles. — Cuba, in which are the 
towns of Havannahf and Santiago de Cuba ; St Do- 
mingo or Hayti, in which are Cape Haytien, Port an 
Prince, St Domingo ; Jamaica, in which are Kingston, 
Port Royal, Spanish Town, Savanna la Mar, Montego 
Bay ; Porto Rico, having a town of the same name, 

2. The Leeward Islands. — Anguilla, St Martin, 
Saba, St Eustatius, St Bartholomew, St Christopher or 
St Kitts, Barbuda, Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, Guade- 
loupe, Deseada, Mariegalante, Dopainica. 

3. The Windward Islands. — Martinique, St 

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Lucia, St Vincent, Grenada, Barbadoes^ Tobago, 

4. The Virgin Isles. — The principal are St 
Thomas, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, St John, 
Santa Cruz or St Croix. 

5. The Bahama or Lucaya Islands. — The prin- 
cipal are Bahama, Lucaya, New Providence, in which 
is Nassau, Eleuthera, Guanahani or St Salvador. 

6. Islands in the Spanish Main. — Margarita, 
Tortuga, Buen Ayre, Curagoa, Oruba. 

Remarks on the West India Islands* 

The West India Islands lie between 10° and IT N. lat., and 59** and 
85*" W. long. They received their present designation from the belief at 
first entertained that they were connected with India; but in honour of 
their discoverer they are also sometimes called the Columbian Archipel- 
ago. The general aspect of the islands is mountainous; many exhibit 
striking proofs of Tolcanic origin, and all are subject to violent earth- 
quakes. Their soil is generally speaking productive far beyond that of 
most parts of Europe ; moisture and heat combining to produce a sur- 
prising luxuriance of vegetation. As in most tropics^ climates, the year 
IS divided into two seasons, the dry and the wet ; yet four may be distin- 
guished—the spring, with gentle showers, in April and May ; the hot 
sultry summer, from May till October, when the autumnal rains begin 
and continue till December; from which till April, in fact the winter, se- 
rene and cool weather prevails. Between August and the end of October 
the islands are occasionally visited with violent hurricanes. In general 
the low coast regions may be described as hot and unhealthy, while the 
climate of the mountainous districts is equable and salubrious. 

Almost every variety of vegetable production is to be found in the West 
Indies. The most delicious fruits, as limes, lemons, oranges, shaddocks, 
citrons, pomegranates, pine-apples, melons, and cocoa-nuts, are met with 
in abundance. Besides wheat, maize, and rice, the alimentarv plants com- 
prise the plantain, banana, yam, cassava, &c., most of which yield an 
immense return; and the bread-fruit has been introduced from Otaheite. 
A variety of valuable trees grow on the mountaifts, as cedars, lignum-vitaa, 
mahoganv, and others, which take the highest polish and are admirably 
adapted for cabinet-work. The great staples of these islands, however, 
are the sugar-cane and coffee-plant,— the former vielding the threefold 
produce of sugar, molasses, and rum ; while tobacco, ginger, indigo, 
pimento, and various medicinal drugs are likewise cultivated. 

The indigenous animals are in general small, the principal being the 
agouti, a creature resembling the rat, the armadillo, opossum, raccoon, and 
monkeys ; but some European animals, as dogs and cats, have become 
wild, and hor^^es, cattle, and swine are numerous. One very peculiar 
animal, highly prized as food, is the land-crab^ which inhabits the moun- 
tains, but descends periodically in vast numbers to the sea to deposit its 
spawn. The feathered creation are distinguished by brilliancy of plumage 
and elegance of form, and comprise the parrot in all its varieties, tne 
flamingo, and the humming-bird ; while the woods and marshes contain 

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wild fowl of exqniaite flavonr. Crocodiles, caymans, lizards, and serpents, 
are not unfrequent ; and the insect tribes, as the scorpion, mosqaito, cen- 
tipede, and chi^o, are peculiarly annoying. 

The chief political oistinction of the islands is according to the nation 
by whom they are possessed. The British hold Jamaica, Tortola, An- 
ffuilla, St Christopher^ BarbucUi, Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, Dem- 
inica, St Lucia, St Vincent, Grenada, Barhadoes, Tobago, Trinidad^ 
and the Bahamas, The French islands are Guadeloupe, Afartiniaue^ 
the N. part of St Martin, Mariegalante, Deseada, and All Sasnis. 
Spain holds the large ones of Cfuba and Porlo Rico, The Dutch posaeai 
Buen A pre, Curagoa, Oruba, St Martin (S. part), Saba, and St Busia- 
Hus, Margarita and Tortuga belong to Venezuela. St Thotnas, StlJohm, 
and St Croix, belong to Denmark, and St Bartholomew to Sweden.-^The 
indigenous population of these islands has long been extinct, and they 
are now entirely inhabited by Europeans, Negro slaves or labonren, 
and mulattoes or mixed races. The entire population of the British 
islands is about 780,000. The measure of slave emancipation, which came 
into operation on the Ist of August 1834, effected a great and beneficial 
change on the condition of the Negroes in the British West Indies. 

Cuba was discovered by Columbus during his first vojage, and in 1511 
was conquered by 300 Spaniards under Velasquez. It is about 700 miles 
in length, with a medial breadth of 70. Population 750,000, of whom 
from one-third to one-half are whites, about one third Negro slaves, and 
the remainder free people of colour. The island is traversed from £. to 
W. by a chain of hills, whence the land gradually declines on both sides 
towards the coast, being finely diversified with hill, valley, and plain. 
The productive value of Cuba has ^eatly increased of late vears; the ex- 
ports in 1837 having amounted to 20,346,407 dollars, and the imports to 
22^40,357 dollar^,— the great staples being sugar, coffee, and tobacco, 
though all other West Indian products are abundant. There are import- 
ant mines of copiwr near Santiago, which are worked bv English and 
American companies. — The white population, like other Spaniards, are 
passionately fond of bull-fights and similar amusements, and balls form 
another favourite recreation ; but education is at a very low ebb, that of 
the Negroes being in fact wholly neglected. Cuba is governed by a 
captain-general who resides at Havannah, assisted by various subordinate 
functionaries. Havannah, the capital, contains 130,000 inhabitants, and 
is one of the greatest commercial cities of the New World. 

St Domingo, in point of extent, ranks second in the American archi- 
pelago, being about 400 miles in length by 150 at its greatest breadth. In 
the centre rise the loftv mountains of Cibao, in some places above 6000 
feet high, covered nearly to the summits with ve|;etation and noble woods, 
and from them descend numerous streams which, uniting in four larse 
rivers, bestow extreme fertility on the plains and valleys. Under the 
name of Hispaniola this island was the first Spanish settlement in the 
New World. At the pea^ of Ryswick, 1697, the W. part was ceded to 
France, having previously been occupied by parties of Buccaneers be- 
longing to that nation. The population is estimated at 600,000. Before 
the French Revolution, the average exports, consisting of clayed sugar, 
muscovado, coffee, cotton, indigo, molasses, rum, raw and tanned hides, 
amounted to £4,765,000 sterling. The revolutionarv tendencies of the 
time, however, soon found their way to the islana, and after many 
struggles between the whites and mulattoes, about 3000 Negro slaves, 
supported by the mulattoes, entered the capital city of Cape Fran9ais 
(now Cape Haytien) on the 2lst June 1793, and perpetrated a universal 
massacre of the white men. women, and children. An independent Negro 
republic is now formed, wnich has given to the island its original name 
of Hayti, meaning high land. The population, estimated at 1,000.000, are 
in a very low state or civilisation ; and the exports, consisting chiefly of 
coffee, do not now exceed a million sterling. 


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Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in 1494, dnrinff his second 
Yoyage ; and in 1655, it fell into the hands of the English, who have made 
it nernaps the most Yalaable of the West India settlements. The island 
is 150 miles in length by 50 in breadth, and is trayersed firom £. to W. 
by the lofty Blue Mountains, covered with noble forests. It is divided 
into three counties, — Cornwall in the W., Surrey in the E., and Middle- 
8B» in the centre. The entire population amounts to 377,433, of whom 
30,000 are Europeans. Spanish Town is regarded as the capital ; but 
the chief city and port is Kingston, with a population of 33,000. The 
principal trade is with Great Britain, Ireland, and North America : the 
exports, consisting of sugar, rum, coffee, indigo, ginger, and pimento, 
were valued in 1836 at £3,315,000; and the imports, chiefly provisions 
and manufactures, at £2,108,000. The executive power is vested in a 
governor and council nominated by the crown, and there is an elective 
legislative assembly. 

Porto Rico is about 100 miles in length by 40 in breadth, and is a 
fertile, beautiful, and well watered island. It w^s discovered by Columbus 
in 1493 ; and was taken possession of by Ponce de Leon, the first explorer 
of Florida, about the year 1509. It yields in abundance all the usual 
West India products, and the northern part is said to contain mines of 
gold. The population amounts to 375,000 ; of whom 188,000 are whites, 
42,000 slaves, and the remainder free Negroes. 

The Smaller Islands of this great archipelago, which some geographers 
have named the Little Antilles, are likewise of considerable commercial 
importance. The Bahama group are reckoned 500 in number ; but of 
these only 12 are of any value, the rest being mere rocks and sandbanks. 
The population is estimated at 25,000. Guanahani is celebrated as being 
the first land seen by Columbus, who called it San Salvador.— The Wind- 
ward and Leeward clusters sometimes receive the collective appellation 
of the Caribbee Islands; those in the possession of Britain being the 
most important. Barbadoes, 21 miles in length by 14 in breadth, is the 
oldest or the British West India colonies. Irinidad, 60 miles long by 50 
broad, is a beautiful and fertile island ; but only partially cultivated, and 
the interior yet unsurveyed. The French island of Guadeloupe contains 
Souffrier, a noted volcano. — The chain of islands in the Spanish Main, 
along the coast of South America, present no peculiarities calling for 




Where is Guatemala, New Brunswick, Greenland, Alabama, 
Old California, Labrador, Vermont, Mexico, Pennsylvania, Nova 
Scotia, Vii-ginia, Louisiana, Canada^ Indiana, Florida I &c. 

Where is*, Washington, Quebec, Guadalaxara, Havannah, 
Boston, New York, Kingston, Lexington, New Orleans, Mon- 
treal, New Madrid, Porto Rico, Philadelphia, St Domingo, 
Baltimore, New London, Charlotte-town, Annapolis, Vera Cruz, 
Pittsburg, Knoxville, St Augustine, Bonavista ! &c. 

Where is Jamaica, Trinidad, Neiyfoundland, Martmique, Gua* 

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274 , SOUtH AMEttlCA. 

nahaniy Martha's Vineyard, Porto Rico, Dominica, Long Island^ 
Bermudas, St Lucia, Santa Cruz, Cuba, Aleutian Islands, Queen 
Charlotte's Isles, Vancouver Island^ Hayti, Antigua^ Staten 
Island, Guadeloupe ! &c. 

Where are the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian or Alleghany, 
the Topian Chain ! &c. 

Where is Lake Superior, Nicaragua, Slave Lake, Cape Sable, 
Cape Farewell, Bay of Honduras, Straits of Belleisle, Gulf of 
Mexico, Cape St Lucas, Baffin's Bay, Lake Ontario, Athabasca, 
Nootka Sound, Lake Huron, Cape Charles, Cape Race, Pamlico 
Sound, Chesapeake Bay, Cape Fear, Winnipeg Lake ! &c. 

Where is Mackenzie River, Rio Bravo I Describe the St Law- 
rence, the Mississippi ; What rivers does the Ohio receive ! On 
what river does New York stand 1 What states does the Potomac 
separate ? What sound does the Connecticut fall into ! &c. 


Boundaries. — N. Caribbean Sea and the Isthmus of 
Darien ; W. Pacific Ocean ; S. Southern Ocean ; E. 
Atlantic Ocean. 

Divisions. — 1. Colombia, comprehending New Gran- 
ada, Venezuela, and Ecuador ; 2. Peru ; 3. Bolivia or 
Upper Peru ; 4. Chili ; 5. Patagonia ; 6. La Plata ; 7. 
Banda Oriental or Uruguay ; 8. Brazil ; 9. Guiana ; 
10. Paraguay. 

Towns. — 1. In New Granada, Bogota, Popayan, 
Panama, Porto Bello, Carthagena ; in Venezuda, Car- 
ACCAS, La Guayra, Cumana, Maracaybo ; in Ecuador, 
Quito, Guayaquil, Cuensa ; 2. Lima, Callao, Cuzco, 
Arequipa, Puno, Huamanga, Truxillo (a) ; 3. Chdqdi- 
SACA, La Paz, Potosi, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; 4. 
Santiago, Valparaiso, Conception, Valdivia, Coquimbo, 
Copiapo; 5. Port St Julian; 6. Buenos Ayrbs, Santa 
Fe, Cordova^ Tumiman, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, 

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zed by Google 

Fe^ Cordova^ Tueaman, Mendoza, balta, &^an Juan^ 

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Santiago ; 7. Monte Video ; 8. Rio Janeiro, Bahia, 
Para, Maranham, Pernambuco, Caxoeira, San Paulo, 
Victoria, Villa Boa, Villa Bella, Villa Rica; 9. George 
Town, New Amsterdam; Paramaribo; Cayenne; 10. 

Islands. — Galapagos Islands, Juan Fernandez (6), 
Masafuera, Chiloe, Madre de Dies, Tierra del Fuego, 
Staten Land, Falkland Islands, S. Georgia, Sandwich 
Land, S. Orkneys, S. Shetlands,* Trinidada, Fernando- 
Noronha, Joannes or Marajo dt the mouth of the Amazon, 
the Pearl Islands in the Bay ofPanam^a. 

Gulfs, Bays, and Straits. — Gulf of Paria, Gulf 
of Maracaybo, Gulf of Darien, Bay of Panama, Gulf of 
Guayaquil, Bay of All Saints, Straits of Magellan, 
Straits of Le Maire. 

Mountains. — The Andes or Cordilleras (c). 

Capes. — St Roque, St Maria, Antonio, Horn. 

Lakes. — In 1. Maracaybo ; 2. Titicaca. 

Rivers. — ^Amazon (d), Orinoco, La Plata (e), Mag- 
dalena, Tocantins, San Francisco, Essequibo, Demerara, 
Berbice, Surinam.-|- 

(a) Truxillo was built by Pizarro, and settled by his foUoweis : it is 

called after the pla<:e of his natiyity in Si>ain. \b) The isle of Juan 

Fernandez y so called from its discoverer, is uninhabited, but is touched 
at b]r the English cruisers for the purpose of procuring water. A lexander 
Selkirk, a Scotchman, was left on shore by his captain in this solitary 
place^ where he lived nve years, till he was discovered by Captain Woodes 
Rogers, in 1709. The narrative of his residence in this island gave 
rise to the celebrated production, '* The Adventures of Jiobinson Crusoe,** 

* For S. Shetlands, S. Orkneys, and Sandwich Land, see Map of the 

f The Amazon, from the Andes, flows E. through the N. of Brazil, 
and falls into the Atlantic ; the Orinoco takes a circuitous course N. W., 
through Venezuela, then turns £. and falls into the Atlantic ; the Rio de 
la Plata, composed of the Paraguay, the Parana, and the Uruguay, flows 
S. into the Atlantic, between Buenos Ayres and Monte Video ; the 
Magdalena flows N. through New Granada, and falls into the Caribbean 
Sea ; the Tocantins and the San Francisco, both in Brazil, fall into tho 
Atlantic; the Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, and Surinam, flow N. 
through Guiana, and fall into the AtlimtiG. 


zed by Google 


written by Daniel de Foe. («) The Andes, the highest moantaiafi in 

America, extend from the Isthmus of Darien to the Straits of Magellan, 
a distance of .4300 miles. They generally follow the windings of the 
western coast at the distance of about 100 miles. Chimboraxo, which is 
sitnated about 100 miles to the S. of Quito, was supposed to be the 
highest of the range, till, by the obserrations of Mr Pentland in Boli> 
yia, it was ascertained that Sorata and Illimani are both more eleyated. 
The height of Chimborazo is 21,436 feet above the sea, while the 
loftiest of the Peruvian Peaks attains 25,250 feet. The elevation at 
which the limit of perpetual snow commences on the Andes is 15,800. 
These mountains were believed to be the most elevated on the earth's 
surface till the survey of the Himmaleh or Snowy Mountains in the N. 
of Hindostan ; some of the summits of which are several thousand feet 

higher. id) The Amazon (called also the Maranon or Orellana) is the 

largest river in the world. Its course is 3300 miles in length, its mouth is 
150 miles broad, and 1500 miles above its mouth it is 30 fathoms deep. It 
receives in its progress near 200 other rivers, many of which have a course 
of 1500 miles, and some of them are not inferior to the Nile or the Danube. 

ie) The Rio de la Plata, or the River of Silver, is composed chiefly of 

three great rivers, the Paraguay, Parana, and Uruguay. 

Remarks on South America, 

Thb length of South America is nearly 4500 English mUes, while the 
breadth is about 3200.— The population is estimated at 15,000,000. Various 
opinions have been entertained respecting its origin ; but the most probable 
supposition is, that Uie tribes which entered North America by Behrinff*s 
Straits gradually extended themselves southward, and peopled both di- 
visions of this region. The Spanish and Portuguese conquerors in- 
troduced the Roman Catholic worship^ which now prevails over the 
greater part of the continent. Patagonia seems to eiy'oy a temperate but 
rather cool climate. Towards the N. the great chain of the Andes con- 
stitutes real zones and climates, which strangely contradict the theories of 
ancient geographers; the chief iujconveniences of the torrid zbne bein/^ here 
extreme cold on the mountains^ and excessive moisture in the plains. — 
South America is best known for its gold and silver mines. The choicest 
gums and drugs are likewise found in various parts. Spain, till lately, 
possessed Terra Firma or Castile del Oro (now Venezttela, New Granada^ 
and ^ctMM^or), Peru, Chili, Paraguay, and La Plata ; the Portuguese haa 
Brazil ; Guiana is now shared by the English, Dutch, s,nd French ; Ama- 
zonia (now the N. W. part of Brazil) and Patagonia are occupied by 
native tribes. — The great struggle, which began in 1810, between the 
Spanish colonies and the mother-country, terminated by the surrender of 
Callao in 1826. The colonies now form independent states, and Spain 
does not possess a foot of land in the American continent. 


This part of America was discovered by Columbns. in his third voyap^. 
It WM subdued and settled by the Spaniards about tne middle of the six- 
teenth century. 

After a contest of ten years* duration, the Spanish colonies of Venezu- 
ela, Caraccas, Santa Martha, and others formerly comprised under the gen- 
eral name of Terra Firma, established their independence in 1820, and as- 
sumed the name of the ** Republic of Ck>lombia." This country now forms 

Digitized by 



three republics. New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador. The first con- 
tains about 1,930,000 inhabitants; the second, 900,000 ; the third, 600,000 ; 
in all, 3,430,000. The governments are entirely elective, that of each 
state being vested in a president, a house of representatives, and a senate. 
The joint revenue is about a million sterling ; and a small navy and a 
considerable arm]r are kept up. Bolivar, by v^hose courage ana perse* 
verance the Spanish power was overthrown, was president of all Co- 
lombia during his life, but since his death the above division has taken 
place. — The natural aspect of the country is of the most diversified kind ; 
plains of vast extent and fertility alternating with lofty mountains and 
table-lands, and yielding ever^ variety of vegetable product. The 
country is watered oy two great rivers, the Orinoco and Magdalena, with 
numerous tributaries ; the former fiovnng 1480 miles from west to east, 
and falling into the Atlantic bv a delta oi about 50 channels ; the latter, 
from its source in the Andes, flowing northward into the Caribbean Sea, 
after a course of 820 miles. The climate, however, is in general moist 
and hot, and the low grounds along the seacoast are unhealthy. The 
^at staples of the country are cocoa, cotton, tobacco, sugar, coffee, 
indigo ; and these articles, with hides and brazil-wood, constitute the 
chief exports. The people, divided into the same classes as in Mexico, 
are noted for a similar degree of superstition, indolence, and want of en- 
ergy ; manufactures are chiefly domestic,* and consist of coarse woollen 
clotns, leather, and a few other articles of prime necessity ; and the trade, 
which is chiefly in the hands of foreign merchants, is inconsiderable, 
when compared vnth the vast resources of the country. The animals are 
.those generally found in the tropical regions of America. The tapir* is 
well known, as are several kinds of wild-boars and deer ; the ant-eater is 
not uncommon ; the jaguar^ called the American %«r, though he appears 
to be spotted and not striped, is the most ferocious and dreaded animal, 
and attains a great size ; while the puma, of a uniform colour like the 
lion, rarely attacks mankind. Serpents of enormous size are found in the 
marshes ; and the cayman or alligator swarms in the rivers. Vipers 
are common, and here also is that remarkable animal the sloth, some- 
times called ironically Swift Peter, from the uncommon slowness of its 
motion. Monkeys are very numerous ; keeping together, twenty or thirty 
in company, and rambling over the woods, leaping from tree to tree. 
There are mines of gold, sflver, iron, and copper ; but those of gold are 
nearly exhausted. 

2 and 3. PERU, and BOLIVIA or UPPER PERU. 

When the Spaniards landed in this country, in 1530, they found it 

governed by sovereigns called incas, who were revered as divinities 
y their subjects ; and the inhabitants were much more polished than the 
natives of other parts of (America, those of Meuco excepted. These 
were soon subdued by a few Spaniards, under the command of Francis 
Pizarro, who caused the Inca Atabalipa to be burnt alive in 1533. 
Some time afterwards, a difference arose amonff the conquerors, and Pi- 
zarro was assassinated in 1541. The religion of Peru seems to hkve been 
a beni^ and simple faith, sacrifices of the smaller animals, and offerings 
of fruits and fiowers, forming the chief rites. The character of the gov- 
ernment was much less sanguinary than that of Mexico ; and the captives 
taken in war were not immolated, but instructed in the arts of civilisation. 
Amidst all these laudable qualities, superstition led them to sacrifice 

* This animal somewhat resembles the cow, though seldom larger than 
an ordinary 'Sized mule. . Oi^ his front is a firm horn or bone, with which 
he opens his way among the underwood. 

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Umberons -nctimson the death of a chief ; and a farourite monarch was 
Bometiffles followed to the tomb by a thoasand slaughtered serrants. 
The grammar of the Pemyian language, and it is said even that of the 
Tehuels, is nearly as copious and artificial as the Greek. Hie ruins 
t>f the temple of the sun at Cuzco are formed of stones fifteen or sixteen 
fiset square, which, though of the most irregular shapes, are 'so exactly 
adjusted that no- yoid is pefceiyable. The tombs, hke those of other 
ancient nations, were barrows resembling; natural mllocks. 

Pern is diyided into three distinct regions, — ^that of the coast, consist^ 
ing of fertile yaUeys alternating with stony wastes ; the Andes region, 
distinguished by grand natural leatures, rich in the precious metals, and 
extremely fertile ; and the wide eastern plains, consisting of immense 
forests or sayannahs, and as yet almost lyholly uncultiyated. Rain is 
nearly unknown in the doast regions ; but yast torrents sometimes descend 
from the mountains, which are coyered at a ^eat height with perpetual 
snow. No country in the world is more subject to the tremendons visi- 
tation of earthquakes, the inhabitants «yen reckoning from them as a series 
of dates. The population consists of natiye Indians, Spaniards, Negroes, 
and mixed races, and ciyilisation is at a yery low ebb. The Indians 
still retain much of their original superstitions, blended with the Romish 
tuith, and are described as iale, filthy, and intemperate, a result doubtless 
gyring in some measure to the mildness of the chmate and the fertility of 
the soil. The immense forests which clothe the maritime plains indicate 
ihat the population has always been scanty. The tree most yahied is that 
which famishes the Pemyian bark ; tobacco and jalap abound in the 
groyes at the foot of the Andes ; and Guiana pepper, or as it is more fre- 
quently called Cayenne pepper, from the circumstance of its being ship- 
ped for Europe at Cayenne, in Guiana, grows in the S. of Pern. T%e 
fiercest beasts of prey are the puma and jaguar : the mountain-cat abounds 
in the forests, always hunting in the night, while its eyes shine like fire, 
and it will even attack men unawares. Seyeral yarieties of animals, as 
the llama, alpaca, guanaco, and yicuna, peculiar to South America, are 
here found in great numbers : the llama was used as a beast of burden by 
the natiyes preyious to the Spanish inyasion, and the alpaca has lately 
become noted for its fine wool. Among the objects of the chase are deer, 
wild-boars, and armadillos ; and the domestic animals include yast num- 
bers of cattle, horses, sheep, and ii^oats. The riyer Guayaquil abounds 
ynth alligators, and the neighbouring country swarms with snakes and 
yipers. The birds are much superior to those of Europe for the beauty of 
their plumage ; but their notes are disagreeable : here also is found the 
condor, the largest of the feathered tribe. There are seyeral insects like 
those in Europe, but they are yastly larger : the earthworms are as long 
as a man's arm, and as thick as his thumb ; there are also spiders coyered 
with hair, and as large as a pigeon's egg. The bats are of a monstrous 
size, and will suck the blood of horses, mules, and eyen of men who sleep 
in tne fields. This region is chiefly noted for its mines of gold, silver, and 
mercury, the produce of which was formerly immense, but nas been much 
reducea by the late conyulsions. Attempts have been made to restore it, 
chiefly with British capital, but hitherto without muoh success. Tb» 
annual produce of gold and silver is estimated at about £750^000. 

Peruvras the last of all the Spanish American colonies which threw <^ 
the authority of the mother country. Its independence was not finally 
established tm the viceroy Lasemawas def^eated oy the Colombian troops 
in 1825, and compelled to lay down his power. Since that took place, the 
provinces of Upper Pem, namely La Paz, Potosi, Cochabamba, and 
Charcas, hfive separated from the others, and ereetea themselves into an 
independent republic, taking the name of Bolivia ftrom that of their de- 
livetrer. Lima is the capitol of Pern ; Chuqnisaca that of Bolivia. 
The popnlatioii of Pern is estimftted at 1,700,000 ; that of fioUvia a« 

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4. CHILI. 

This part of S. America was discovered in 152S "hj Diego ^ Almwgro^ 
the associate of Pizarro. The mountaioous part of it is possessed bv dif- 
ferent tribes of its orudnal inhabitants, who are still formidable neiehSoors 
to the Spaniards. The European settlers are thinly dispersed along the 
shores of the Soath Sea, on a narrow tract, extending from N. to S. wbont 
1200 miles; average breadth about 100 miles. Though bordering on the 
torrid zone, it never feels the extremity of heat, being screened on the £. 
bjr the Andes, and refreshed from the W. by cooling sea-breezes. Com, 
wine, and oil abound; all the fruits introduced ftrom Europe attain to full 
maturity ; and the animals not only multiply but improve. There are 
valuable mines of gold, silver, copper, and lead. By the efforts of &in 
Martin, Giili established its independence in 1818. The government is 
republican, with a president and two chambers, but it has undergone re- 
peated changes. Tne population is estimated at 1,200,000; the revenue at 
about £500,000 sterling. 


PATAGONiii was first discovered in 1520 by Ferdinand Magalhaens, a 
native of Portugal, in the service of Spain. The peo^e are a savage 
race, and are said to be remarkably tall, some even exceeding seven feet; 
they are very expert in the use of the bow and arrow; their clothing con- 
sists of skins, which they wear wim the hair inward. The country is 
moimtunous and barren. Storms and earthquakes are frequent. 

6 and 7. LA PLATA and URUGUAY. 

La Plata or Argentine Republic comprehends the districts on the south 
and west of the river oi the same name, now forming a republic, of which 
Bnenos Ayres is the capital. Since the ezpolsion of the iBritish in 1806, 
this eountry has been in subeAance independent, though the authority of 
Spain was not openly set aside till 1810. The government is vested m a 
congress chosen by tne people, and a president, who is styled director. 
The territories of the republic extend from the 22d to the 41st degree of 
aonth latitude, and from the 54th to the 70th of west longitude, comprising 
an area of about 726,000 square miles. It claimed also the provmce of 
which Monte Video is the capital; but after a severe contest with Brazil, 
this redon has been erected mto an independent republic under the name 
of the Banda Oriental or Uruguay. The country generaUy consists of 
vast plains called Pampas, covered with luxuriant herbage, but almost 
entnely destitute of wood. The heat is not excessive, and the climate is 
more salabriou ih«n that of other oountries equally near the tropics. 
The population of La Plata is estimated rt 1,000,000 ; that of Uruguay 


Thib country was discoyered in January 1500, by Vineente Yanex Put" 
afgn. A few mooths aftorwardi, Pedro AJvarez de CabraL a Portuguese, 
was £>roed npoQ it by % tempest, when lie immediately to«k pQasessioa 0f 

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h on behalf of bis soTereign. It is believed to bftTo derived its uune 
from tiie abundance of hnutU-wood found here. The physical eharae- 
ter of this yast renon, which comprises nearly two-fifths of the wholo 
continent, is as yeTont imperfectly Known, thonj^ so fio* as ascertained 
it appears to possess ffetX natural capabilities. The northern pro- 
Tinces are watered by the majpiificent stivam of the Amazon and its in- 
numerable tributaries ; while the central and eastern contain the ipreat 
riTers Tocantins, San Francisco, and numerous inferior waters. A ran^re 
of mountains, of moderate eleyation, called the Serra do Mar, extends 
along the coast from lO*" to 32** S. lat., and the interior contains several 
other chains, of greater hei|;ht, which j^tc to the country somewhat of the 
character of an upland region, the chief plains being found on both aides 
of the riTer-courses and along the coast. The climate is temperate 
and mild, when compared with that of the African coast opposite, owing 
chiefljr to the refreshing wind which blows continuall]r n-om the sea. 
The rivers annually ov^ow their banks; and the soil, in many places, 
is very rich, but the portion under cultivation as yet consists chiefly or 
tracts extending from 90 to 40 miles around the seaports. The produc- 
tions are tobacco, cotton, sugar, maize, several sorts of fruit, and 
medicinal drugs. The mines of gold and diamonds, first opened in 1681, 
yield a considerable amount annually, of which a fifth belongs to the 
crown. The cultiyation of susar, coffee, and cotton, has been of late 
vastly extended, and is of mudi greater value, raising the exports to 
£5,500,000. The cattle increase so prodigiouslv that they are hunted for 
their hides only, of which 20,000 are sent annually to Europe; and there is 
great plenty of deer, hares, and other game, as well as of the various wild 
animals common to South America. 

In consequence of the revolution in Portugal in 1821, this colony shortly 
afterwards asserted its independence, under the auspices of Don Pedro, 
who framed a constitution, vesting the^vemment in a cluunber of peers, 
and one of deputies. He assumed the title of emperor, which, however, he 
was compelled to resign to his son. The people, consisting of persons of 
Portuguese descent, native Indians, and of various inixe<f races, arising 
from tne union of tnese with each other and with Africans, are admitted 
to be somewhat superior to their Spanish neighbours in other parts of 
the continent, though their propensity to seek for gold and diamonds has 
produced a considerable disrelisn for sober industry. Literature has made 
some pro^^ress, and there is a pretty active periodical press; but education 
remains in a very imperfect state. The population may be vaguely esti- 
mated at 6,000,000, of whom nearly 3,000,000 are Negro slaves; and the 
revenue is stated at £2,800,000 sterling. 


Of this extensive country the French possess the colony of Cayenne, 
the Dutch, Surinam; and the English, Berbice, Demerara, and Esseqnibo, 
which are very fruitful and valuable. The soil is amazingly fertile, but 
the climate is unhealthy : from July to October the rains are excessive, 
and from October to March the heat is intense; the inundations durinc 
these tropical rains are very great. The aborigines are partly Garibs, and 
purtly tnbes of a more dvilized character, but they are not numerous. 
Morasses and swamps abound, and tigers prowl in the woods ; deer with- 
out horns are found; as are the largest snakes, serpents, and the Surinam 
toad. This region is also remarkable for its variegated beauties, and 
' birds, plants, and insects : the rivers are well stocked with fish, though in- 
fested with alligators, and by the torpedo fish, which has the singular power 
•whrai touched, of conveying an electric shock; iU common sue is 

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three or four feet, and it is known in Surinam by the name of gymnotua. 
The great staples of all these colonies are sugar, rum, molasses, coffee, 
spiees, cotton, and medicinal plants, which are exported in considerable 
quantities. British Guiana contains 104,000 inhabitants; Cayenne 22,000; 
Surinam^ 57,000 ; the greater proportion being Negroes, who are free in 
the British colony, but mostly slayes in the two others. 


In 1580, the disciples of Loyola were admitted into these fertile regions, 
and in the next century founded the famous missions of Paraguay; 
which were a number of colonies, each govemed by two priests, one of 
whom was rector, the other curate; and in process of time, by the most 
wonderful address, they acquired an absolute dominion, both spiritual 
and temporal, oyer the natiyes. In 1767, the court of Madrid expelled 
the Jesuits, and the natiyes were put upon the same footing with the other 
Indians of the Spanish part of S. America. This region is in general 
leyel, intersected with numerous tributaries of the Plata, and is extremely 
fertile. The Abipons, a warlike race of natiye Indians, are generally 
employed in catching, breaking in, and training the numerous herds of 
wild horses, which, since the settlement of the Spaniards, haye multiplied 
prodigiously. The country produces cotton in great abundance, tobacco, 
and the herb called Paraguay ; the last is peculiar to this region, and an in- 
fusion of it is drunk in most parts of South America, instead of tea^. There 
are mines of gold, siWer, copper, tin, and lead. In the western district 
there is a singular yolcano. which might appear the palace of Bolus, where 
the winds were imprisonea, for they rush forth in the morning with sur> 
prising yiolence. Paraguay for some years was ruled by-Dr Francia, a 
natiye lawyer, who set at defiance the efforts of the republicans of Buenos 
Ayres to subdue him. The population is 300,000, of whom 10,000 inhabit 
Assumption, the capital. 


Where is New Granada, Bolivia, La Plata, Patagonia, Brazil, 
Chili, Ecuador, Guiana, Venezuela, Paraguay \ Sec, 

Where is Porto Bello, Lima, Buenos Ayres, Potosi, Rio Ja- 
neiro, Assumption, Paramaribo, Conception, Bahia, Cayenne, 
Valparaiso, Panama, Quito, Mendoza, Truxillo, Pemambuco, 
Carthagena! &c. 

Where is Juan Fernandez, Tierra del Fuego, South Georgia, 
Falkland Islands, Galapagos, Staten Land \ &c. 

Where are the Andes, Straits of Magellan, Lake Maracaybo, 
Cape Horn, Bay of All Saints, Cape St Roque, Gulf of Guayaquil, 
Cape St Maria I &c. 

Name the largest river in S. America ; the principal river in 
the E. of Brazil ; describe the Magdalena ; name the three rivers 
which compose the Rio de la Plata ; in what division are ^he 
rivers Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, and Surinam ! in what di- 
rection do those four rivers flow! into what ocean do they fall! &c. 

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1. Thb artificial terrestrial globe represents the n^t- 
nral figiire of the earth. 

2. The oo^ is the rod or wire on which the globe re- 
Tolves, and represents the imaginary line or axis abont 
which the earth itself turns. 

3. The poles of the earth or globe are the extreme 
points of the axis, in which it meets the surface ; one of 
them, the north or arctic ; the other, the south or ant- 

4. The circles on the globe are of two kinds, great 
and small (a). Every circle is divided into 360 d^ 
grees, or equal parts (fe). ' 

5. There are four great circles, viz. The equator or 
equinoctial line, the ecliptic, the meridian, and the 
horizon ; and four small ones, viz. the arctic and ant- 
arctic circles, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. 

6. The equator is a circle everywhere equally distant 
from the poles, and divides the globe into the northern 
and southern hemispheres (c). 

7. The ecliptic is a circle which cuts the equator 

(a) A gre€tt circle diyides the f lobe into two eqaal parts; or it is » circle 
whose centre is the same with tnat <^ the globe. A amaU cireie dlTides 
the globe into two unequal parts. 

(6) Every circle, great or small, is supposed to be divided into 360 eooal 
parts, called degrees ; every degree is subdivided into 60 equal parts, called 
minutes; every minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds; smaller por- 
tions are expressed in decimal fractions of a second. Deerees^ minntes, 
seconds, and fractions, are commonly denoted thus, 26" 14^30" '2804. &o. 

(c) The latitudes of places are counted /rom the eauator, northward and 
southward ; and the longitudes of places are reckonea upon it eastward and 

On most globes the degrees on the equator are marked from the meridiaii 
of Greenwich, with 10, 20. 30. &c., to 180* to the right hand, or E.; and, 
in like manner, towards tne left hiaiid from Greenwich, witn 10, 20, 90. 
&c., to 180" W.; sometimes the degrees are marked the whole wayronna 
the globe to 360". On the equator the 24 hours are also marked at equal 
distances of 15" : between the hours the minutes likewise are marked. 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 


obliquely at two opposite points, and reprosents the sun's 
path in the heavens. It is divided into 12 equal parts 
called signs, and each sign into 30 degrees. The names 
of the signs are Aries or the Ram y* , Taunts the Bull ^ , 
Gemini the Twins n, Cancer the Crab C5, Leo the 
Lion Si, Virgo the Virgin tiR, Libra the Balance :^, 
Scorpio the Scorpion Tit, Sagittarius the Archer /, 
Capricomus the Goat V? , Aquarius the Water-bearer zz^ 
Pisces the Fishes K {d). 

8. The meridian of any place is a circle conceived to 
pass through that place, and through both the poles^ 
dividing the globe mto the eastern and western hemi- 
spheres ; the brass ring which surrounds the globe is 
called the brazen meridian (e). 

id) It is called the eeliptie^ because the eclipses must necessarily happen 
in this line, where the sun always is. The firat six are caUed the northern 
signs, as they lie in the northern hemisphere, and the last six are the 
southern signs. The earth, in performing its annual revolution round the 
sun, advances 30 degrees every month in each of these signs, which causes 
the sun^apparently to do the same in the opposite ones ; thus, when the 
earth is in Libra, the sun appears to be in Aries, which is the opposite 
sign ; when in Scorpio^ we see the sun in Taurus ; and so on through the 
rest.— There is reason to suppose that the ancient astronomers affixed 
such images as those of the Kam, the Bull, &c., to the 12 signs of the 
zodiac as nieroglyphics of the seasons of the year, alluding to the annual 
course of the sun. Thus, Aries,* Taurus, and Gemini, represent March. 
April, and May, the spring quarter of the year, when lambs, calves, and 
goats (the latter generally bringing forth twin kids) are produced. Can" 
cer, the Crab, which creeps both ways, represents the increase and decrease 
of the sun's declination, to and from the summer solstice of June. Leo, 
the Lion, intimates the raging heat of the sun in July, which the ancients 
compared to the furious nature of that fierce animal. Virgo, the Virgin, 
with a spike or ear of com in her hand, properly represents August, when 
the harvest is ripe. Libra, the Balance, is displayed in September, to in- 
timate that the days and nights, at the autumnal equinox, are equal in all 
parts of the globe. Scornio, the Scorpion, a noxious animal, is placed a« 
the hieroglyphic of October ; because at that season diseases of various 
kinds were sup^sed to rage. Sagittarius, the Archer, marks November 
as the proper time for huntin j^ Capricomus, the Goat, by its climbing 
n^ the rocks, is placed as an emblem of December, when the sun, at the 
winter solstice, begins to ascend again towards the equinoctial. A quariu^ 
the Water-bearer, with his urn, represents January, when rains are fire* 
qnent. Pisces, the Fishes, are emblems of the fishing season, which began 
in the Nile during the month of February. 

(e) Every place upon the globe is supposed to have a meridian passing 
through it, though tnere be only 24 drawn upon the terrestrial glooe; the 

* The sun enters Aries on the 20th or 21st of March, and the other signs 
nearly about the same day of the succeeding months. 

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9. The horizon is a great circle which separates the 
visible half of the heavens from the invisible ; the earth 
being considered as a point in the centre of the sphere 
of the fixed stars. The horizon, when applied to the 
earth, is either sensible or rational. The sensible or vis- 
ible horizon is the circle which bounds our view, where 
the sky appears to touch the earth or sea. The rational 
or true horizon is an imaginary plane, passing through 
the centre of the earth parallel to the sensible horizon ; 
it determines the rising and setting of the sun, stars, and 
planets (/). 

deficiency is supplied by the brass meridian. They are called meridians 
because when any of them is, by the motion of the earth, brought directlj 
opposite to the sun, it is always mid- day or noon there. The orass meri- 
dian, like the equator and the ecliptic, is divided into 360" ; but with this 
difference, that it is divided into 4 quadrants of 90** each. From the equa- 
tor towards the N. and S. poles, the meridian is marked with a cipher over 
the equator thus (0), and on each side with 10, 20, 90, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 
and 90, ending at the pole. Then again from each pole to the equator on 
the other half of the meridian, is marked 10, 20, 30, 40, &c., to 90, which 
ends in the equator. The graduated edge of the brazen meridian shows 
the latitude of places, and their difference of latitude, either N. or S. firom 
the equator. The distance of a place E. or W. from the first meridian, 
or that of Greenwich, is calleil its longitude. The degrees of longitude 
are not equal, like those of latitude, but diminish as they approacn the 
poles, as may be seen in the table of longitude, page 16.— Longitude may 
be converted into time, by allowing 15^* to an hour ; consequently every 
degree will answer to 4 minutes of time, and 15' of a degree will an- 
swer to one minute of time ; and so on for the rest. 

(/) The wooden Aorijyon, circumscribing^ the artificial ^lobe, represents 
the rational horizon on the real globe. This horizon is divided into several 
concentric circles, which on Carp's globes are arranged in the following 
order : The jfirst, which marks the amplitude,* is numbered firom the L. 
towards the N. and S. from to 90°, and from the W. towards the N. and 
S. in the same manner. The second contains the 32 points of the mariner's 
oompass. The third contains the 12 signs of the zodiac, with the charac- 
ter of each sign. The/our^ contains the degrees of the signs, each sign 
oomprehending 30°. Thejifth contains the days of the month answering 
to eaeh degree of the sun's place in the ecliptic. The sixth contains the 
names of the 12 months in the year.— On these globes also, in the £. of the 
Pacific Ocean and W. from America, is a Table qf Equation, showing tta 
difference of time between the dock and the sun, likewise the declinatioii 

* The amplitude of any object in the heavens is an arc pf the horizon, 
contained between the centre of the object when rising or setting, and the 
£. or W. points of the horizon. Or it is the distance which the sun or a 
star rises from the E. and sets from the W. ; and is used to find the varia- 
tion of the oompass at sea. 


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10. The two tropics are situated parallel to the equa- 
tor ; one on each side, at ahout 23^ degrees from it. 
The northern tropic is called the tropic of Cancer ; the 
southern, the tropic of Capricorn; because they touch 
the ecliptic at the beginning of those signs (^). 

11. 'The polar circles are situated at about 23^ de- 
grees from the poles ; that on the N. is called the arctic 
circle, that on th^ S. the antarctic circle (h). 

12. The horary or hour circle is a brass ring sur- 
rounding the N. pole, having twice twelve hours marked 
upon it (i). 

13. The quadrant ofoLUitude is a narrow flexible plate 
of brass, equal to a fourth part of the equator, and di- 
vided into 90 degrees. 

of the san for eyerv day in the year. The operation w performed thtu : 
Bring the day of the month to the brazen meridian ; and the particalar 
minute of the settle of time, cut by the meridian, indicates how much the 
clock is too fast or too slow ;* the degree of the meridian which lies imme- 
diately over the day of the month is the sun's declination for that day. 

The two col'ures are two meridians, which pass through the poles of the 
world ; one of them through the equinoctial points of Aries and Libra, 
and therefore called the equinoctial colure ; the other through the solstitial 
points of Cancer and Capricorn, and therefore called the sohHtial colure. 
These circles divide the surface of the globe into four equal parts, denot- 
ing the seasons of the year ; thus, the equinoctial colure marks spring and 
autumn, and the solstitial colure marks summer and winter. 

(g) The word tropic denotes a return, because in these points the sun 
returns again to the equinoctial line. These circles, the boundaries of the 
sun's apparent course, are usually marked on the globe bj €lots to distin- 
guish tnem from other parallels which are drawn at the distance of 10 de- 
grees from the equator and from each other. When the sun is over the 
tropic of Cancer, we have our longest day, the 21st or 22d of June, called 
the summer solstice ; and when he is over the tropic of Capricorn we have 
our shortest day, the 21st or 22d of December, called the winter solstice; 
when the sun is over the equator, it is equal day and night to all the 
world, the 20th or 21st of March and the 23d of September ; the former 
of which we call the vernal equinox, the latter the autumnal equinox, ^ 

(Jh) As the north ^olar circle passes through the constellation called Arc* 
tos, or the Bear, it is thence called the arctic circle ; and that which is op- 
posite to it about the S. pole, is called the antarctic circle. 

(•) On the best globes the horary circle is moveable ; so that any hour 
upon it may be brought to the meridian ; in others this is fixed, and has 
an index or hand, which may be turned to any hour. 

* The clock is too fast when the meridian cuts the western half of the 
scale oftime, and too fAH0 when it cnts the MtflffmAa^. . 

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14. The most remarkable points in the heavens are, 
Ist, The poles : 2d, The zenith smd nadir ; the former 
being the point of the heavens which is directly above 
us, and the latter that which is immediately under onr 
feet : 3d, The cardinal points, viz. the north, south, 
east, and west : 4th, The solstitial points, the one in the 
first degree of Cancer, and the other in the first degree 
of Capricornus: 5th, The equinoctial ,]poinis, in, the first 
degree of Aries and Libra. 

15. The tropics and polar circles divide the globe into 
five portions or belts, called zones; viz. the torrid zone, 
between the tropics ; the northern and southern ,;?^t(i 
zones, within the polar circles ; and the northern and 
southern temperate zones, between the tropics and polar 
circles (k). 

16. The globe is divided into climates of half-hours, 
and climates of months. There are 24 half-hour climates 
from the equator to either polar circle j and '6 month 
climates within each polar circle ; making 60 climates 
from pole to pole (Z). 

ik) The zones are so called on account of the different degrees of heat 
and cold in those parts of the earth. 

(/) The days are alTfays 12hoQrs long at the equator ; and from thence 
to that parallel of latitude where they are 12A hours long, is the first 
climate ; from that to where they are 13 hours long, the second climate ; 
and so on.^In order to ascertain in what climate any place is, subtract 
12 from the length of the longest day, and the number of half -hours which 
remain will be the particular climate. Thus, the longest day at London 
is 16A hours, therefore it is in the ninth climate. — The first month climate 
reaches from either polar circle to where the longest day is one month; the 
second month climate reaches from the first to where the longest day is two 
months ; and so on to the pole, where the sun continues six months aboTO 
the horizon. Besides dividing the earth into different climates, the ancients 
fldso employed certain terms to distinguish the inhabitants of particular^ 
countries. Those who Htc under the same meridian and parallel of lati- 
tude, but on opposite sides of the equator, were called relatiyely to one 
anonier AntoBcif from avn, opposite to ; and otxia^ to dwell. Those who 
liye on the same side of the equator, and under the same parallel of lati- 
tude, but differ 180° in longitude, were called Periceci, from vt^i, about; 
and fiixioff to dwell. The inhabitants of places nnder the same parallel of 
latitude, but on opposite sides of the equator, and differing in longitude 
180% were called the Antipodes of each other, from «yri, opposite to; and 
iTtf^of, tfie foot,— The inhabitants of the different zones were also dis- 
tinguished according to the projection of their shadows. Thus, the inhabit- 
ants of the torrid zone were caUed Atnphiscii, from «^i, around, and 
f «i«, a shadow ; because their shadow is projected sometimes towajrds the 

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Problem L — To find the latitude of any place. 

Rule. — Bring the place to the graduated side of the 
brazen meridian, and the degree of the meridian that 
stands immediately over it shows its latitude or distance 
from the equator. 

Exercises.— What, is the ktitade of Edmburgh, Home, Mecca, and 
the Cape of Good Hope ? * 

Prob. IL — To find the longitude of any place. 

Rule. — Bring the place to the edge of the meridian ; 
and the degree of the equator cut by the meridian will 

N. and sometimes towards the S. ; or Aseii, from «, without, and vxm^ 
because they sometimes have no shadow. The inhabitants of the temper- 
ate zones were called Heterotcii, from tn^o;, different, and ^»ia, because 
their shadows are always projected in opposite directions, or towards the 
poles. And the inhabitants of the frigia zones were named Periscii, from 
ff-f^i, aboutt and ^»m, because, during their longest day, their shadows de- 
scribe a circle round them. 

The following TABLE shows at what latitude each climate ends, pro- 
ceeding from the equator towards either pole. 








8" 25' 


56'' 37' 


66° 06' 


16 25 


58 29 


66 20 


23 50 


59 58 


66 28 


30 25 


61 18 


66 31 


86 28 


62 25 


67 21 


41 22 


63 22 


69 48 


45 29 


64 06 


73 37 


49 01 


64 49 


78 30 


52 00 


65 21 


84 05 


54 27 


65 47 


90 00 

By this table, and inspecting a globe, may be known what parts of the 
eartn are in each climate. Also, from the latitude of a place, the climate 
in which it is situated may be found. Thus, London being in 5U*^ of 
latitude, is in the ninth climate ; and Edinburgh, in 56* of latitude, is in 
the eleventh climate. 

* The number of exercises on each problem may be increased as oceasion 
requires ; the baertioB o! answers to them is tl^ought quite wanoeauaary* 

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be the longitude of the place, or its distance east or 
we$t of the first meridian, viz. that of Greenwich. 

Ex.— What is the longitude of Paris, Quebec, Jerasalem, and New 
Orleans ! (m) 

Prob. III. — T%e longitude and latitude of a place 
being given, to find that place. 

Bulb. — Bring the given longitude to the edge of the 
meridian ; look for the given latitude on the meridian, 
and immediately under it is the place required. 

Ex.— What places are nearly in the following longitude and latitude t 
Long. 3° W. lat. 66° N.— long. 18^° E. lat. 34^^ S.-3ong. 20^ E. lat. SI" 
N.-4ong. 4" 16' W. lat. 40° 25' N. 

Prob. IV. — To find the antoeci (n) of any place. 

Rule. — Find the latitude of the place given ; reckon 
the same number of degrees on the meridian on the op- 
posite side of the equator, and the inhabitants of the 
place found under that point of the meridian will be the 
antoeci of the place. 

Ex.— Who are the antoeci of the people at New York, Isle of France, 
St Helena, and St Domingo 1 

Prob. V. — To find the periosci (o) (^ any place. 

Rule. — Bring the place given to the meridian, and 
12 on the hour-circle to the meridian ; then turn round 

(m) Loneitude may he converted into time, hy allowing 15" to an honr; 
consequently every a.egree will answer to 4 minutes of time, and 16' of a 
degree will answer to one minute of time ; and bo for the rest. Thus, for 
instance, any place that is 16** E. of London will have noon^ and every 
hour of the day, one hour before the inhabitants of London : if 30% there 
will be two hours' difference, and so on ; because, being more eastward, 
that place will meet the sun so much sooner. In the same manner, any 
place 15* W. of London will have noon, and every hour of the day, one 
nour UUer; at 30% there will be two hours' difference, and so on ; because, 
being so much more westward, that place will be so much later in meeting 
the sun. 

(n) The anUeci are those who live in the same semicircle of the meri- 
dian ; but in opposite parallels of latitude : both of them have noon and 
midni|;ht at the same instant of time ; but the seasons of the year are differ- 
ent : it beinff summer to the one when it is winter to the other : and to tiie 
one it is the longest day when it is the shortest to the other. 

(o) The perteeei m uiose who live under the same parallel of latitude, 
but in opposite flemicireles, or oppoeite meridians : they have their samner 
and winter at the same time ; out their day and night at contrary times. 

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the glabe till the other 12 comes to the meridian, and 
the place which is under the same degree of the meri* 
dian as the place given will show the perioeci of that 

Ex.— Who are the perioeci of the people at Honduras, Jamaica, Borneo, 
and Lassk I 

Prob. VI. — To find the antipodes {p) of any place. 

Rule. — Bring the place and 12 on the hour-circle to 
the meridian ; then turn round the globe till the other 
12 comes to the meridian, and under the same degree 
of the meridian as the latitude of the place given, but 
on the opposite side of the equator, will be found the 
antipodes (q), 

Ex.— Who are the antipodes of the people at Lima, Bnenos Ayres, 
Owhyhee, and Canton ! 

Prob. VII. — To find the difference of latitude and 
the difference of longitude between two given places. 

Rule. — Find the latitudes of both places, and take 
the difference or sum of these according as they lie on 
the same side, or on different sides of the equator. The 
difference of longitude is found in the same way, by 
taking the difference or sum of the longitudes accord- 
ing as they lie on the same side, or on opposite sides of 
the first meridian. 

Ex.— What is the diflference of latitude between London and Edinburgh, 
and between London and Lima ; also the difference of longitude between 
Rome and Constantinople, and between Rome and Edinburgh ! 

(p) The antipodes are those who live diametrically opposite to each other, - 
or stand, as it were, feet to feet, on different sides of the equator ; the^ 
have their da^s and nights directly contrary, as also their seasons of the 
year ; when it is summer with the one, it is winter with the other ; and 
when it is noon to the one, it is midnight to the other. 

(gr) The antoct, periceci and antipodes of any place, may be found 
thus : Place the two poles of the globe in the horizon ; and bring the given 
plaee to the eastern part of the horizon : then, if the given place be in N. 

latitude, observe how many degrees it is to the northward of the east point 
of the horizon ; the same number of degrees to the southward of the east 
point will sHow the antoeci ; an equal number of degrees, counted from the 
west point of the horizon towards the north, will show the perioeci ; and 
the same number of degrees, counted towards the south of the west, vnU 
point out the antipodes. If the place be in south latitude, the same rule 
¥riU serve, by reaoing S. Cor N., and the contrary. 


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Prob. VIII. — To find ihs distance between two 
places on the globe. 

RuLB. — Lay the quadrant of altitude oyer the two 
places, and count the nun^ber of degrees between them. 

Ex. — What is the distance between Pekin and Rome, Lisbon and 
Vienna, Jamaica and Naples, Edinburgh and Jerusalem ! 

Prob. IX. — To rectify the globe for the latitude of 
any given place. 

Rule. — Elevate the N, or S. pole, accordmg as the 
place is N. or S. of the equator, till its altitude or height 
above the horizon be equal to the latitude of the place. 

Ex.— Rectify the globe for Cairo, Sydney, Madras, and the Isle of 

Prob. X. — The hour being given at one place, to find 
the hour at any other plaice at the same time. 

Rule. — Bring the given place and hour to the me- 
ridian, then turn the globe till the other place comes to 
the meridian, and the hour immediately under the me- 
ridian is the time required (r), 

Ex.— When it is noon at Amsterdam, what is the time at Canton and 
Montreal ! When it is 8 in the morning at Edinburgh, what is the hour 
at Moscow and Delhi ! When it is midnight at Lisbon, what o'clock is it 
at Florence and Washington ! 

Prob. XI. — To find the sun's place in the ecliptic for 
any given time. 

RuLE.-^Find the given day on the wooden horizon ; 

directly opposite to it in the adjoining circle is the sign 

and degree in which the sun then is ; look for the same 

degree in the circle of the ecUptic drawn on the globe, 

brmg it to the meridian, and that is the sun's place at 

noon for the given day. 

Ex.— What is the sun's place on the Uth of July, the 27ih of February, 
the 12th of August, and the 7th of January 1 

Prob. XII. — To find on what point of the compass 
the sun rises or sets on a given day at any particular 
place ; also the amplitude of the sun, . 

(r) If the difference of lonantude between any two places be diyided by 
15, the quotient will be the difference of time at the places; and, if the dif- 
ference of time be multiplied by 15, the product will be the duferenoe of 


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Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the 
place, and find the sun's place on the ecliptic for the 
particular day; observe what point on the circle of 
rhumbs the sun's place in the ecliptic cuts, when brought 
to the eastern edge of the horizon ; and also, when 
brought to the western. The number of degrees counted 
on the horizon, between the points of sun rising and 
setting and the E, or W., is his amplitude. 

Ex. — On what point of the compass does the san rise and set at Edin- 
hursh on the 5th of May, at Rome, on the 10th of September, at Mexico 
on the 13th of January, and at Alexandria on the 8th of Octooer % 

Prob. XIII. — To find towards which point of the 
compass one place is situated in respect of another. 

Rule. — Bring the latter place to the zenith (s) ; fix 

the quadrant of altitude {t) above it to the meridian; 

lay it along the former place, and it will cut the horizon 

in the point required. 

Ex.— Towards which point of the compass is Jerusalem from Edinburgh, 
Jamaica from London, Cairo from Venice, and Madras from Berlin ! 

Prob. XIV. — To find at what hour the sun rises and 
sets on any day in the year, also the length of the day 
and night 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the given 
place, bring the sun's place for the particular day and 
12 on the hour-circle to the meridian ; the hours cut by 
the meridian, when the sun's place is brought to the 
eastern and western edge of the horizon, will be respec- 
tively the times of rising and setting. The hour of sun- 
rismg, doubled, gives the length of the night ; and the 
hour of sun-setting, doubled, gives the length of the 
day {u), exclusive of twilight (v). 

(«) That is, rectify the globe for the place. 

(/) Instead of the quadrant of altituae a thread may be used. 

iu) In all places upon the equator the sun rises and sets at six the whole 
year round. From tnence to the polar circles the days increase as the lati- 
tude increases: so that at those circles themselves the longest day is 24 
hours, and the longest night the same. From the polar circles to the poles, 
the days continue to lengthen into weeks and months; so that, at the poles, 
the sun shines for six months together in summer, and is absent fifom them 
six months in winter. Every part of the world, however, partakes of an 
equal share of light and darkness. 

(o) TTfilight is caused by the atmosphere refracting the sun's rays to- 
wards (he earth, and always begins when the sun approaches within 18** of 


Ex.—At what time does the sun rise and set at Dablin. Mecca. Canton, 
and St Petersburg, on the 20th of May ; and what is then the length of 
the day and night at those phices ! 

Prob. XV. — The day of the month being given^ to 
find the sun's declination (w), and all those places 
where the sun luill be vertical (x) on that day. 

Rule. — Find the sun's place in the ecliptic for the 
given day, and bring it to the meridian ; the degree 
marked over it is its declination ; turn round the globe, 
and all the places which pass under the particular degree 
of declination will have the sun vertical on that day. 

Ex.— What is the sun's declination, and to what places will he be yer- 
tical on the 15th of January, the 22d of June, the Ist of August, and the 
25th of December ! 

Prob. XVI. — A place being given in the torrid zone, 
to find on what two days the sun will be vertical there. 

Rule. — Find the latitude of the place, turn round 
the globe, and observe the two points of the ecliptic 
that pass under the particular degree of latitude ; the 
days on the wooden horizon, opposite to these points, 
will be the days required. 

Ex.— On what day fs the sun yertical at Lima, Madras, Cape Verde, 
and the isle of Bourbon ! 

Prob. XVII. — At a given pkcce and hour, to find 
where the sun is then vertical. 

Rule. — Find the sun's declination, or the parallel to 
which he is vertical that day, and bring the given place 
and hour to the meridian ; then turn the globe till 12 
at noon come to the meridian ; the intersection of the 
meridian with the parallel of latitude to which the sun 
is vertical will be the place required. 

the eastern part of the horizon^ and ends when it descends 18° below the 
western. Tnere can be no contmual twilight to any place having less than 
48* ^ of latitude. In our part of the world we haye no total night from 
the 20th of May to the 20th of July, but a constant twilight from sunset 
to sunrise. 

(w) The deeiinaium of the sun is its distance from the equator N. or S. 

i9) That is, to find oyer whose heads the sun will pass that day. 

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£x.-~Wliere is the sun Tertioal on the 5th of April, when it is 9 in the 
morning at Lisbon ? Where is the sun vertical on the 26th of July, when 
it is 8 in the eyening at Montreal ! Where is the sun vertical on the 3d 
of November, when it is midnight at Palermo 1 

Prob. XVIII. — The day, hour, and place being 
given, to find all those places of the earth where the sun 
is then rising and setting, and iuhere it is noon and 

Rule. — Find the place to which the sun is vertical 
at the giyen hour, bring it to the meridian, and rectify 
the globe for the latitude of that place. In this position 
of the globe, to all the places under the western edge 
of the horizon the sun is rising ; to those under the 
eastern, setting ; to those under the upper half of the 
meridian, it is noon ; to those under the lower half, 

Ex.— At what place is the sun rising and setting, and where is it noon 
and midnight, when at Vienna it is 8 in the evening on the dOth of March ! 

Prob. XIX. — To find all those places in which an 
eclipse of the sun or moon will he visible, 

KuLE. — First, of the sun : Find the place to which 
the sun is vertical at the time of the echpse, and bring 
it to the zenith, or top of the globe ; then to most of the 
places above the wooden horizon, if the ecUpse be large, 
will the sun appear partly obscured. — Second, of tne 
moon : Bring the antipodes (or country opposite to the 
place where the sun is vertical at the time of the eclipse) 
to the zenith or top of the globe, and then the eclipse 
will be seen in most places above the wooden horizon at 
that time. 

Ex.~There was an eclipse of the sun at Edinburgh at 2h. 59m. in the 
afternoon on the 15th of May 1836: to what places was it visible 1— There 
was an eclipse of the moon at Edinourgh at 27 minutes past 8 in the after- 
noon on the 20th of April 1837; to what places was it visible I 

Prob. XX. — To find the sun*s meridian altitude (y) 
at any given place. 

iy) The aUUude of the son is his height above the horizon. 

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RuLB. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the 
place, bring the sun's place for the given day to the 
meridian ; and the number of degrees, counted on the 
meridian, between that place and the horizon, is the al- 
titude required. 

Ex.— What is the meridian altitude of the bub at Naples, April 4th; 
at Samarcand, May 21st ; at Quito, October 15th ; ana at Bermudas, 
NoTember 27th ! 

Prob. XXI. — To find the sun's altitude and azimuth 
at any given time and pla^. 

Rule.— -Rectify the globe for the given place, and 
bring the sun's place in the ecliptic and the 12th hour 
of the horary to the meridian. Turn the globe towards 
the E. or W., according as the time is before or after 
mid-day, till the given hour is under the meridian. Fix 
the quadrant of altitude on the zenith, and make its 
graduated edge fall on the sun's place in the ecliptic : 
the number of degrees on the quadrant, counted between 
the sun's place and the horizon, will give the altitude ; 
and the number of degrees between the point of the 
horizon intersected by the quadrant and the N. or S. is 
the' azimuth. 

£x.<^What is the altitude and azimuth of the sun at Madrid on the l(Hh 
of June, at six in the morning; at London on the 21st of January, at 3 in 
the afternoon ! 

Prob. XXII. — Any place being given in the N. 
frigid zone, to find the number of days the sun shines 
constantly without setting at that place, and the number 
of days he is totally absent. 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the 
place, bring the ascending signs of the ecUptic to the N. 
point of the horizon, and observe what degree of the 
ecliptic is intersected by that point ; find on the horizon 
the day of the month corresponding to that degree, and 
thus you will obtain the day on which the sun begins 
to shine continually. Bring the descending signs to the 
same point of the horizon, and proceed as above ; and 
thus will be given the time when the sun ceases to shine 
continually, or the end of the longest day. Proceed in 

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the same manner with the southern point of the hori- 
zon, and you will obtain the beginning and end of the 
longest night. 

Ex — What is the length of the longest day and night at the North Cape, 
and at the north part of Noya Zembia ! 

' Prob. XXIII. — To exhibit a general representation 
of the length of days and nights throughout the year, in 
any given latitude. 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the given latitude, 
bring the summer solstice, or the first degree of Camcer, 
to the brazen meridian, and setting the index to 12, 
there let it rest ; then will the paraflels of N. latitude, 
from the equator to the tropic of Cancer, represent the 
length of days in the summer half-year, from the mean 
day when the sun is in the equator to the longest day, 
which is represented by the tropic itself ; the same par- 
allels of S. latitude above the horizon represent the de- 
creasing length of days, from the mean day in the equa- 
tor to the shortest day, when the sun is in the tropic of 

Ex.— Thus, elevate the globe for the latitude of London, bring the be- 
ginning of Cancer, and 12 on the horary, to the brass meridian; then look 
where the wooden horizon cuts the equator on the east; and if you trace 
up the meridian which intersects the equator at that part to the hour-circle, 

{rou will find it lie under 6 ; which, being doubled, gives 12 hours for the 
ength of the mean day, when the sun is in the equator ; which is about 
the 21st of March and 23d of September. 

Then, in like manner, trace up the meridian that intersects the tropic of 
Cancer at the wooden horizon, and you will find it lie under 8 and about a 
quarter; which, being doubled, gives about 16Jhour8 for the longest day, 
when the sun is in that tropic, which is about the 22d of June. 

Trace the meridian that mtersects the tropic of Capricorn at the wooden 
horizon, and you will find it lie under 3 and about | ; this, doubled, giyes 
7^ hours for the shortest day, when the sun is in that tropic, which is about 
the 22d of December. 


Thb Celestial Globe i& an artificial representation of 
the heavens, on which the stars are laid down in their 
apparent situations. The diurnal motion of this globe 
is from E. to W., and represents the apparent diurnal 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


motion of the sun, moon, and stars. In using this globe 
the student is supposed to be situated in the centre of 
it, and. viewing the stars in the concave surface. 

A Constellation is an assemblage of stars on the sur- 
face of the celestial globe, circumscribed by the outlines 
of some assumed figure, as a ram, a dragon, a bear, &c. 
This division of the stars into constellations is necessary, 
in order to direct a person to any part of the heavens 
where a particular star is situated. 

The Zodiac, on the celestial globe, is a space which 
extends about eight degrees on each side of the ecliptic, 
like a belt or girdle, within which the motions of all the 
planets* are performed. . 

The XII, Constellations in the Zodiac, 


1. Aries, The Ram, 

2. Taurus, The BuUj . 

3. Gemini, The Twins, 

4. Cancer, The Crab, . 

5. Leo, The Lion, . 

6. Virgo, The Virgin, . 

7. Libra, The Balance, 

8. Scorpio, The Scorpion, 

9. Sagittarius, Tfie Archer, 
10. Capricomus, The Goat, 
n. Aquarius, The Water-bearer^ 
12. Pisces, The Fishes, 

No. of Stan 

. 50 


.\ 63 

. 76 

. 28 

. 136 

. 139 

Names of the Principal Stan, 
and their Magnitudes.! 

CAldebaran, 1. 
< The Pleiades4: 
Castor and Pollux, 1. 2. 

Re^us, 1. 
Spica, 1. 

Antares, 1. 

The XXVIIL Northern Constellations. 


1. Serpiens, The Serpent, 

2. Ophiuchus, The Serpent-bearer, 

3. Aquila, The Eagle, . 

4. Equuleus, The Little Horse, 

No. of Stars 
of IS Mag. 


Names of the Principal Bten. 
and their Magnitudes. 

Altair, 1. 

. * Except the newly-discoyered planets, or asteroids. 

t The lai^est stars are called stars of the first magnitude; those of the 
sixth magnitude are the smallest that can be seen by the naked eye. 

X These are oonspiouons groups of small stars. 

Digitized by 







No. of Stan 
ConsteUations. of 1-6 Mag. 

Leo Minor, The lAtOe Lion, 21 

Coma Berenices, Berenice's Hair, 39 
Canes Yenatici, The Greyhounds, 
Bootes, The Dmver, 
Corona Borealis, The Northern \ 


Lyra, The Harp, 
Vulpecula, The Fox, 
Saffitta, The Arrow, 
DeTphinus, The Dolphin, 
Pegasus, The Flying Horse, 
Andromeda, . 
Triangulum, The Triangle,"^ 
Ursa Minor, The Little Bear^ 

19. Ursa Major, The Great Bear, 

20. Draco, The Dragon, 

21. Cygnus, The Swan, 

22. Lacerta, The Lizard, 

23. Cepheus, 

24. Cassiopeia, 

25. Perseus, 

26. Camelopardalus, The Camelo 


27. Auriga, The Charioteer or\ 

Waggoner, . . J 

28. Lynx, The Lynx, 










Names of tbe Principal Stan, 
and their Magnitudes. 

Arctoms, 1. 

Vega, 1. 

Markab, 2. 

Polaris or Pole Star, 2. 
f Upper Pointer, 1. 
t Lower Pointer, 2. 

Algol, 2. 
Capella, 1. 

The XLIV. Southern Conetellatione. 


1. Cetns, The Whale, 

2. Eridanus, Ths River Po, 

3. Orion, .... 

4. Monoceros, The Unioom, . 

5. Canis Minor, The LUtle Dog, . 

6. Hydra, 

7. Sextans, The Sextant, . 

8. Microscopium. The Microscope, . 

9. Piscis Austraiis, The Southern) 

Fish, . . . f 

10. Apparatus Sculptoris, The ) 

Scuiptor*s Apparatus, . ) 

11. Fornax Chemica, The C^temioal\ 

Furnace, . . ) 

12. Lepus, The Hare, 

13. Colomba, The Dove, . 

No. of stars 
of 1-6 Mag. 


Names of the Principal Stan, 
and their Magnitudes. 

Mira, variable 3-0. 
Achernar, 1. 
Kigel, 1. 

Procyon, 1. 

10 . 
24 Fomalhaut, 1. 




* The 11 following northern constellations do not set in the latitude of 


by Google 











. ofl-6aCag. 

Canis Major, The Great Dog^ 38 

Antlia Pneamatica, The Air-}. « 

Pump, . . ) 

Crater, The Cup or Goblet, 31 

Corvus, TAtf CVow,* . . 10 

Centaarus, The Centaur, . 36 

Lupus, The Wolf, - • 24 

^orma., The Rule, , . 12 

Circinus, The Compasses, . 4 

Triangulum Australe, The \ ^ 

Southern Triangle, . ) 

Crux, The Cross, 
Musca, The Southern Fly or Bee, 
Chamseleon, The Chameleon, . 
Ara, The Altar, . 
Telescopium, 7%e Telescope, . 
Corona AostnJis, The Southern ) 




Crown, . . J 

Indus, The Indian, 
Grus, The Crane, 
P»vo, The Peacock, 
Apus, The Bird of Paradise^ 
Octans, Octant, 

Horolodum, The Clock, . ±o 

Reticulus, The Reticule Micrometer ^ 10 
Hydrus, The Water-Snake, 10 

Toucan, The American Goose, 9 

Mons Mensffi, The Table Moun- \ 
.tain, . . . \ 

Coelum Sonlptorium, The En- 1 

graver's ToolSf . . > 

Equuleus Piotonos, The Paint- 9 

er's Easel, . . S 

Xiphias, The Sword-Fish, 
Argo Nayis, The Ship Argo, 
Piacis Volans, The Flying Fish^ 



Names of the Principal Stan, 

Siriu or Dog-star, 1. 

Canopns, 1. 

An Alphabetical List of the ConsteUationSf with the Right Ascen- 
sion (iLl.) and Declination (2>«) of the middk o/sadi.f 


16. Andromeda, N. . 
10. Apparatus Sculptoris, S. 
15. Antlia Pneumatica, S. . 
32. Apns, S. 

16 48 






34 N. 
88 S. 
32 S. 
75 S. 

* The 27 following soutftem eonstellations do not rise in th« latitode of 

+ The figures in the left-hand column refer to the nomben in the pre- 
ceding tables; the letter N. or S. immediately following the name oT (he 
constellation, shows whether it is north or south of the zodiac ; if the con- 
stellation be situated in the zodiac, it has the letter Z annexed to it ; N. 
and S. in the column marked D. point out whether the middle of the con- 
stellation has north or south decDnation. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



11. Aqoarius, Z. 

3. Aqaila, N. 
26. Ara, S. 

1. Aries, Z. 
43. Argo Navis, S. 
37. Auriga, N. 

8. Bootes, N. . 

36. Camelopardalns, N. 

4. Cancer, Z. 
14. Canis Major, S. 

5. Canis Minor, S. 

10. Capricornus, Z. 

24. Cassiopeia, K. 

18. Centaurus, S. 
23. Cepheas, N. 

1. CetuSjS. 

25. ChamsBleon, S. 
21. Cirdmis, S. . 

40. Coelum Sculptorium, S. 

13. Colnmba, S. 

6. Coma Berenices, N. 

28. Corona Anstralis, S. 

9. Corona Borealis, N. 
17. Corvus, S. 

16. Crater, S. . 

23. Crux, S. 

21. Cygnu8,N. 

14. Delphinus, N. 
20. Draco, N. . 

4. Equuleus, N. 

41. Equuleus PictoriuB, S. 

2. Endanus, S. 

11. Fornax Chemica, S. 

3. Gemini, Z. 

30. Grus, S. . 

10. Hercules, N. 
35. Horologium, S. 

6. Hydra, S. 

37. Hydrus.S. 

29. Indus, S. 

22. Lacerta,N. 

5. Leo Major, Z. 
5. Leo Minor, N. 

12. Lepus, S. 

7. Libra, Z. . 

19. Lupus, S. 
28. Lynx,N. . 

11. Lvra,N. 

8. Microscopium, S. 

4. Monooeros, S. 
39. Mons MenssQy S. 

24. Musca, S. 

20. Normals. 
33. Octans.S. . 

2. Opkiucnus, N. 

3. Orion, S. 

31. PaTO, S. . 


H. U. 

22 20 

19 40 


7 40 

14 8 
4 32 

8 32 
7 20 

20 40 


13 20 
22 32 

1 40 

11 40 

14 48 

4 32 

5 40 

12 20 

18 32 

15 40 
12 20 

11 12 

12 12 
20 32 

20 32 

21 4 
5 86 


2 48 
7 24 


2 40 

9 16 
1 52 


22 24 

5 20 
15 4 

15 20 
7 24 

18 52 

7 20 

5 4 
12 20 

16 8 
20 40 

17 20 

6 20 
20 8 

Digitized by 


















65 S. 
22 N. 
50 S. 
45 N. 
20 N. 
20 N. 
20 S. 

20 S. 

65 N. 

12 S. 
78 S. 
64 S. 
40 S. 
35 S. 
26 N. 
40 S. 
30 N. 
15 S. 
15 S. 

42 N. 
15 N. 

66 N. 

55 S. 
10 S. 
30 S. 
32 N. 
45 S. 
22 N. 




55 S. 

43 N. 
15 N. 
35 N. 
18 S. 

45 S. 
50 N. 
88 N. 
35 S. 

72 S. 
68 S. 
45 S. 

13 N. 

68 S. 




15. Pe|B;asns, N. 
25. Perseus, N. 
34. Phoenix, S. 

12. Pisces, Z. . 
9. Pisois Anstralis, S. 

44. Piscis Volans, S. 
36, Reticulus, S. 
9. Sagittarius, Z, 

13. Sagitta, N. 

7. Sextans, S. 

8. Scorpio, Z. 

1. Serpens, N. 

2. Taurus, Z. 
27. Telescopium, S. . 
38. Toucan, S. 
20. Triangulum, N. . 
22. Triangulum Australe^ 
19. Ursa Major, N. . 
18. Ursa Minor, N. 

6. Virgo, Z. . 
12. Vulpecula, N. 
42. Xiphias, S. 


2r2 40 

3 4 

^ 20 
8 28 

4 8 

19 40 

16 16 
15 40 

4 20 
18 32 
23 56 

1 48 
15 62 
10 12 
15 40 



1^ D. 























41^ N. 
50 S. 
68 S. 
62 S. 
35 S. 
18 N. 

26 S. 
16 N. 
50 S. 
66 S. 
32 N. 
65 S. 
60 N. 
75 N. 

25 N. 

A Table of the Mean Right Ascensions in Time^ Declinations^ Annual 
Variations, and Magnitudes of 100 Principal Fixed Stars, with 
their Names and Literal Characters, for the Year 1850. 

star's Name. 






« Andromida 
> Pkoasi (Algenib) 
fi Hydri - - 
« Cassiofia 

3. 2 


h. m. %. 

38 -5 
5 31 -0 
17 47 -1 
32 1 '5 

+ 3-1 

O 1 tf 

N.28 15 44 '1 
N.14 20 57 -8 
S. 78 5 59 "4 
N.55 42 50 -4 

+ 19-S 

19 a 

/3 Ceti 

m Urs. Mih. (Pohris) 

^» Ceti 

at Eridani (Achemar) 



36 3-4 
15 0-8 

1 16 31 -6 
1 32 7 '3 

+ 3-0 

17 -6 



S. 18 4a( 39 -6 
N.88 30 35 -3 
S. 8 57 32 -1 
S. 58 0*2 

+ i9-a 
19 -a 

18 M 

at Aribtu - 
y Ceti 
« Cbti 
a Persii - 

3. 4 
2. 3 


1 58 43 -6 

2 35 31 -9 

2 54 26 -6 

3 13 38 -3 

+ 3-4 

N.22 45 2 '2 
N. 2 36 2 -1 
N. 3 29 52 -6 
N.49 19 20 -5 

+ 171 
15 -^ 
13 < 

fi Tauri 

9.»Eridani - 

at Tauri iAldebarari) 

a Auriga {Capella] 



3 38 34 -6 

3 51 1-9 

4 27 19 '1 

5 5 36 -9 

+ 3-6 

N.23 38 13 -5 
8.13 56 19*6 
N.16 12 11-3 
N.45 50 20 -5 

10 •( 

fi Orionis (Rigelj 1 
/3 Tauri - - 2 
J Orionis - - 2 
at Leporis - - 3 

5 7 19 -8 
5 16 48 -8 
5 24 20 -7 
5 26 6 '9 

+ 2-9 
3 1 

S. 8 22 45*5 
N.28 28 30 -6 
S. 24 53 -1 
S. 17 56 0-9 

+ 4^ 





Star's Name. 

i Orionis - 
a Columbs 
» Orionis 
fA Geminorum 

a Argus {Canopus) 
51 (Hev.) Cephei 
a Cavis Maj. {Sirius) 
f Canis Majoris 

^ Geminorum • 
a^ Gkmimor. (Cattor) 
a Can. MiK. (Proc//on) 
/3 Geminor. iPoUujp) 

15 Argus 
$ Hydre . 
i Urs« Majoris 
i Argus 

• Htdrjb - 

f Ursae Majoris 

i Leonis . 

a LsoNis {Regulus) 

n Argus 
» Urs^ iM ajoris 2 

) LvoNis - . 2 . S 

5 Hydrae et Crateris 3 . 4 

fi Lbonis • 
y URSiB Majoris 
i Cbamaeleontis 
«i Crucis . 

fi Corvi 
12 Canum Venaticonim 

tt VlRGINIS {Spici) 

91 Vrsm Majoris 

fi Bootis . . 3 

/3 Ccntauri . 1 

« Boons (Arcturus) 1 

oc'Centauri . 1 

t Boons . . 2 . S 

«'LtBRA{ - . 2.3 

$ XJksm MiNORia 8 
/} Librae . 








2 , 1 


2. 1 

1 . 


3. 4 





1 . 2 


5 28 36 -2 
5 34 13 -2 

5 47 3-1 

6 13 53 -1 

6 20 37 -5 
6 28 33 -6 
6 38 32 -3 

6 52 43 -9 

7 II 9-6 
7 25 I .3 
7 31 26 -7 

7 36 7-8 

8 19-4 
8 38 49 -8 

8 48 54 -7 

9 13 4-5 

9 20 12 -9 

9 22 47 '6 

9 37 19 -7 

10 22 '7 

10 39 15 -2 
iO 54 25 -7 
116 7-4 

11 11 50 -6 

2 11 41 24 -3 

2 . 3 1 1 45 55 -0 

12 9 39 -5 

12 18 17 -5 

2. 3 

12 26 30 -9 

12 49 -1 
3 17 17 -7 

13 41 S7 -4 

IS 47 32 -5 
IS 53 17 -2 

14 8 49 
14 29 27 -8 

14 51 12 

15 8 56 


- 3 -0 

3 -2 
3 -6 

. 1 -3 





+ 2-6 

3 -2 

4 -1 
1 -6 

+ 2 
4 -1 

+ 3-2 

+ 2-3 
3 -8 
3 -2 


S. I 18 8 -2 
S. 34 9 24 -5 

N. 7 22 26 
N.22 35 6 

2 -7 
2 -3 

4- 1 

— 1 -3 

S. 52 36 55 -6 
N.87 15 20 •( 
S. 16 30 52 •' 
S. 28 46 16 -1 

N.22 15 12 ■ 
N.32 12 42' 
N. 5 36 19 ' 
N.28 23 1 ' 

S. 23 52 30 -7 
N. 6 57 56 -6 
N.48 37 35 ' 
S. 58 38 48 ' 


8 40 
N.52 21 27 -1 
N.24 27 43 -9 
N.12 41 53 


S. 58 53 47 -91—18 -7 
19 -6 
19 '4 

N.62 33 33 -9 
N.21 20 40 -9 
S. 13 58 3 '4 

+ 3 '1^15 24 37 -3—20 
3,-2N.54 31 43-3 20-0 
3 -SJS. 78 28 45 -1 20 -0 
3 -3 8.62 15 59 -4 19-9 

+ 3 IS. 22 34 •3|-"20 -0 
2-8N.39 7 46 -I 19 -5 
3 -IS. 10 22 36-6 19-0 
2 •4'N.50 3 48 -6 18 -1 

2-9N.19 9 5 
4 -IS. 59 38 45 
2*''|N.19 57 56-1 
4 -0 8.60 12 37 

14 38 26 -1 + 2 -6N.27 42 32 
14 42 35 -3 4- 3 -3 8. 15 24 54 

1—0 -3 N.74 46 6 
•4 4- S-2,8. 8 49 33 


— 1 

4 -6 
4 -6 


7 -3 

8 -8 
8 -2 

—10 -0 

12 -8 

13 -8 

14 -9 

16 • 

16 -3 

17 -4 



18 -9 
15 '1 

-8l 15 
si 14 

13 6 



Star's Name. 






a CoKOVJB Borralis 

at Serpentis 
^ Ursae Minoris 
fi^ Scorpii . 

2. S 

4. 5 

h. m. «. 

15 28 20 '2 
15 36 52 -9 
15 49 31 -8 
15 56 43 -3 


3 O 

N.27 13 21 -V 
N. 6 54 3 -7 
N.78 15 12 -2 
S. 19 23 25 -6 

— 12 -4 
11 -7 
10 -8 
10 -S 

I Ophiucbi 

a Scorpii (Antares) 

fi Draconis 

m Trianguli Australis 

1 . 2 
3. 2 


16 6 29 3 
16 20 13 -0 
16 21 58 -4 
16 32 50 •! 


3 -1 
6 -3 

S. 3 18 14-8 
S. 26 5 38 "e 
N.61 51 16 -7 
S. 68 44 35 -3 

— 9 -e 

8 -5 
8 -2 
7 -5 

< Ursae Minoris 
« Herculis 
3 Draconis 
« Ophiucbi 

4. 5 


3. 2 


17 1 31 '0 
17 7 48 -5 
17 27 2 -7 
17 27 58 -3 


6 '5 
2 '7 
1 -3 

N.82 16 32-2 
N.14 33 54«8 
N.52 24 5I -7 
N.12 40 23-9 

— 5-1 
4 -5 
2 -9 

— 3-0 

r Octantis 
y Draconis 
% Urs^ Minoris 

2. 3 

4. 5 

17 30 2 -9 

17 53 7 -4 

18 4 47 -5 
18 20 43 •7 

107 -6 

+ 3-6 

S. 89 16 22-1 
N.51 30 30-5 
S. 21 5 34 -4 
N.86 35 50 -0 

2 -5 
— 0-6 
+ 0-4 
+ 1 -8 

a Lyrjb - {Vega] 
fi Ltrjb - 
^ Aquila 
i AauiLiB 


3. 4 

18 31 51 '5 
18 44 32 -5 

18 58 30 -9 

19 17 56 -0 


3 -0 

N.38 38 49 '3 
N.33 1 1 29 -7 
N.13 38 40-0 
N. 2 49 1 1 -2 

+ 3-1 
3 -9 
5 -0 


y Aquil^b 

« AQuiLiB (Aitair] 

fi Aqvilm 

«« Capricorni - 

1 . 2 

3. 4 

19 39 7 -6 
19 43 27 -8 

19 47 56 -6 

20 9 43 -6 



2 -9 

3 -3 

N.IO 15 5 -2 
N. 8 28 S3 -7 
N. 6 2 9-1 
S. 13 21 ••2 

+ 8-4 
9 -1 
8 -6 
10 -8 

k Urs« Minoris 
« Pavonis - 
» Ctgni - 

611CTGNI - 

2. 1 
5. 6 

20 13 1-9 
20 13 45 -2 

20 36 19 -1 

21 10 -5 


53 -3 

N.88 51 38 -2 
S. 57 12 35 -2 

N.44 44 47 -7 
N.38 51 -8 

+ 11 -0 

11 -0 

12 -6 
17 -4 

Z Cygni - 
» Cephei . 
fi Aquarii 
fi Cepbei . 


3. 2 



21 6 33 -2 
21 14 59 -7 
21 23 39 '5 
21 26 42 S 


1 -4 
3 -2 

N.29 36 50 -6 
N.61 57 4 -4 
S. 6 13 41 -8 
N.69 54 10 -1 

+ 14 -5 
15 -1 
15 -6 

15 -7 

. Pegasi - 

« Aquarii 

« Gruis 

? Pegasi - - 

2. 3 


3. 4 

21 36 49 -1 
21 58 4 -6 

21 58 45 -4 

22 33 58 -9 


3 O 
3 -1 

N. 9 11 22 -8 
S. 1 2 47 -7 
S.47 41 3-2 
N.IO 2 59-4 

+ 16 -3 
17 -3 

17 -1 

18 -7 

« Pis.Acs.(2^omaMa«0 
a Peoasi (ilfarila6) 
< Piscium . 
y Cephei . 

1 . 2 

4. 5 
3. 4 

22 49 21 K) 

22 57 17 -5 

23 32 14 -2 
23 33 14 K), 


3 '3 

S. 30 24 56 -1 
N.14 23 57 -4 
N. 4 48 49 -2 
N.76 47 43 -4 

+ 19 -0 
19 -S 
19 -5 

+ 20 -J 


The Qteek Alphabet. 

Ab the Greek letters so frequently occur in catalogues of^the stars and 
'on the celestial globes,* the Greek Alphabet is here introduced for the use 
of those who are unacquainted with the letters. Tholigh the capital 
letters are seldom used in the catalogues of stars, they are here inserted 
for the sake of regularity. , 





















e ihwt. 
















































V S 



























* John Baver, of Augsburg in Bayaria, published in 1603 an excellent 
work, entitled Uranometria, being a complete atlas of all the constellations, 
with the useful inyention of denoting the stars in eyery constellation by the 
letters of the Greek and Roman alpnabets; setting the first Greek letter « 
to the principal star in each constellation, fi to the second in magnitude, y 
to the third, and so on; and when the Greek alphabet was finished, he 
began with a, b. c, &c. of the Roman. This useiul method of describing 
the stars has oeen adopted by all succeeding astronomers, who haye 
farther enlarged it by adding the numbers, 1, 2, 3, &c. in the same 
regular succession, when any constellation contains more stars than can 
be marked by the two alphabets. The figures are, howeyer, sometimes 
placed aboye the Greek letter, especially when double stars occur ; for 
though many stars may appear single to the naked eye, yet when yiewed 
through a telescope of considerable magnifying power, they appear double, 
triple, &c. 


by Google 




Prob. I. — To find the latitude and longitude of any 
given star (a). / 

Rule. — Put the centre or 90tli degree of the quad- 
rant of altitude on the pole of the ecliptic, and let its 
graduated edge fall upon the star ; then the degree of 
the quadrant over the star is its latitude, and the degree 
of the ecliptic cut by the quadrant is its longitude (6). 

Ex. — What are the latitudes and longitades of Castor (in Gremini), and 
Sirius or the Dog-Star (in Canis Major) (c) ! 

Prob. II. — The longitude and latitude of a star being 
given, to find the star upon the globe. 

Rule. — Place the centre of the quadrant of altitude 
on the pole of the ecliptic, and make its graduated edge 
intercept the ecliptic, in the longitude of the star ; then 
the star will be found under the degree of the quadrant 
denoting its latitude. 

Ex.— What star is that whose lon^tade is 297°, and whose latitude is 
30** N. ? What star is that whose longitude is 142**, and whose latitude is 
22' 30' S. I 

Prob, III. — To find the declination of the sun or 
stars (d). 

(a) The Uuitude of the heayenly bodies is measured from the ediptie N. 
and S. ; their longitude is reckoned on the ecliptic from the first point of 
Aries, eastward round the globe. — The sun, being always in the eclii^c, 
has no latitude. 

(6) On some globes, howoTer^ the degrees of longitude are marked on tlie 
equinoctial^ and not on the echptic. 

ic) The largest and brightest stars are of the first magnitude, and become 
yisible when the sun has sunk 12" below the horizon ; those of the 2d, Sd, 
and 4th magnitudes are seen when it is 13, 14, and 15** ; and those of the 
5th and 6th when the sun has descended 18** below the horizon. All stars 
smaller than those of the 6th magnitude cannot be seen by the naked eye, 
and are called telescopic stars. 

id) The declination of any heayenly body is measured upon the ] 
dian from the equinoctial. 


by Google 


Rule. — Bring the sun's place, or the star, to the 
brazen meridian, and the degree over it is its declination. 

Ex.— What is the declination of the snn on the 12th of Noyember, and 
of Capella (in Auriga) I 

Prob. IV. — To find the right ascension of the sun or 
stars {e). 

Rule. — Bring the sun's place, or the star, to the 
brazen meridian, and the degree of the equinoctial cut 
by the meridian is the right ascension. 

Ex. — What is the sun's right ascension on the 23d of August, and of 
Rigel (in Orion's foot) ! 

Prob. V. — The right ascension and declination of a 
star being given, to find the star on the globe. 

Rule. — Bring the degree of the equinoctial denoting 
the right ascension to the meridian, and the degree of the 
meridian denoting the declination will be over the star. 

Ex.— What star is that whose right ascension is 114°, and declination 
28** 30' N. ! On what day is the sun's right ascension 291% and declina-> 
tion 22" S. I 

Prob. VI. — To dispose the celestial globe so as to 
exhibit the actual appearance of the heavens at any 
given time and place. 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the 
place, and set it due N. and S. ; then bring the sun's 
place in the ecliptic, and the 12th hour of the horary, 
to the brazen meridian. Turn the globe towards the 
E. or W., according as the time is bewre or after noon, 
till the given hour on the hour circle comes to the meri- 
dian, and the globe will represent the actual appearance 
of the heavens at that time and place. 

Ex.^Kepresent the face of the heaTens at Edinburgh for 10 o'clock in 
the eyening of the 15th of April, at London for 4 o'clock in the morning 
of the 17th of January. 

Prob. VII. — To find when a given star rises, sets, 
or culminates, at any place on a given day. 

ie) The right ascension of any heavenly body is its distance from the 
first meridian (or that which passes through the first point of Aries) 
counted on the equinoctial. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the place, 
and bring the sun*s place in the ecliptic, and the 12tlx 
hour of the horary, to the brazen meridian ; then bring 
the star successively to the eastern side of the horizon, 
the meridian, and western side of the horizon, and the 
times of its rising, culminating, and setting on the hour- 
circle, will come to the meridian respectively. 

Ex. — Required the rising, culmitiatiiig, and setting, of Aldeharan (in 
Taurus) at Morocco on the 10th of February; and of Altair (in Aquila) at 
Hamburg on the 3d of Noyember. 

Prob. VIII. — To find on what day any given star 
comes to the meridian, at any given hour. 

Rule. — Bring the given star and hour to the meri- 
dian, then tui^n the globe till 12 at noon comes to the 
meridian, and the degree of the ecliptic cut by the meri- 
dian is the sun's place. The day on the horizon corres- 
ponding with that degree is the day required. 

Ex. — ^On what day does Antares (in Scorpio) come to the meridian at 
10 o'clock in the evening \ On what day does Regultis (in Leo) coma to 
the meridian at 2 o'clock in the morning I 

Prob. IX. — To find those stars that never rise, and 
those that never set, at a given place, not under the 
equator (/). 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude, and make 
it revolve. The stars that do not sink below the wooden 
horizon, are those that never set ; and the stars that do 
not appear above it, are those that never rise in that 

Ex.— What stars never rise and neyeor set at Edinburgh, and the CJape 
of Good Hope 1 

Prob. X.-t-To find what stars are rising, setting, or 

culminating, at any given tims and place, and also tlie 

altitude and azimuth of any star, at the same time and 


Rule, — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the place, 
and bring the sun*s place in the ecliptic, and the 12th 
hour of the horary, to the brazen meridian. Turn the 
globe towards the E. or W., according as the time is 
before or after noon, till the given hour on the hour-circle 

(/) If the place be under the equator, every star is 12 hours above and 
12 hours below the horizon. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


comes to the meridian ; then the stars under the eastern 
side of the horizon are rising, those under the western 
side are setting, and those under the meridian are cul- 
minating. — If the quadrant of altitude be fixed on the 
zenith, and its graduated edge made to fall on a given 
star, the degree of the quadrant over the star will be its 
altitude ; its azimuth is the number of degrees, counted 
on the horizon, from its intersection by the quadrant to 
the N. or S. point of the horizon. 

Ex What stars are rising, setting, and culminating, at London on the 

6th of March at 11 ia the evening; and at Canton on tne 18th of October 
at 4 in the morning ? 

Prob. XI. — To find the amplitude of any star, and 
the length of its diurnal arc, at any given place. 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the place, 
and bring the given star to the eastern part of the hori- 
zon ; the number of degrees between the eastern point 
of the horizon and the star is the amplitude required, 
either N. or S. — The number of hours passed over in 
moving the star from the eastern to the western part of 
the horizon is the star's diurnal arc, or its continuance 
above the horizon of the given place. 

Ex.— -Required the amplitude and length of the diurnal are of Spka 
(in Virgo) at Paris ; and of Procyon (in Canis Minor) at Venice. 

Prob. XII. — To find the apparent angular distance 
between two stars; that is, the arc of the great circle 
intercepted between them. 

Rule, — Apply the quadrant of altitude to the globe, 
so that its graduated edge may fall on both the stars, 
the zero, or commencement of the graduation, being on 
one of them ; then the degree of the quadrant over the 
other will be the angular distance required. 

Ex.— Required the apparent angular distance between Rigel (in 
Orion) and Aldebaran (in Taurus) ; and between Arcturtu (in Bootes) 
and Pollux (in Gemini). 

Prob. XIII. — The latitude of the place, the altitude 
of a star, and the day of the m^nth, being given, to find 
the hour of the night. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

308 PROBLEMS, Ac. 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude, bring the 
sun's place and 12 on the horary to the meridian, and 
fix the quadrant in the zenith ; tlien niove the globe and 
quadrant till the star comes under the quadrant at the 
given altitude, and the meridian will cut the horary at 
the hour required. 

Ex.— At EdinbnrKh, on the 20th of Jannary, when the altitude of Ca- 
pella (in Auriga) is 70", what is the hour of the night 1 At London, on 
the 10th March, when the altitude of RegtUus (in Leo) is 50°, what is the 
. hour of the night ! 

PiioB. XIV. — To find the place of a planet, also when 
it rises, sets, or culminates, on any day at a given place. 

Rule. — Find the planet's place on the globe, from 
its longitude and latitude, or right ascension and decli- 
nation, as given in the Nautical Almanac, or any other 
ephemeris, and fix on that place the name or character 
of the planet ; then its rismg, setting, or culminating, 
also its altitude, azimuth, and amplitude, may be found 
in the same way as if it were a fixed star. 

Ex.— What will be the place of Venus on the 25th of December 1850 ; 
and of Jupiter on the Sd of April 1851 1 

Prob. XV. — For any given place and day to find 
the sun's right ascension, oblique ascension, and ascen- 
sional difference {g). 

Rule. — Rectify the globe for the latitude of the place, 
and find the right and oblique ascension of- the sun. 
Subtract the less from the greater, and the remainder is 
the ascensional difference (h). 

Ex. — Required the right and oblique ascensions, &c., of the sun at War- 
saw, on the 27th of June ; and at cTerusalem, on the 14th of July. 

(ff) The right ascension of the sun or a star, is that degree of the equi- 
noctial which is cut by the brazen meridian, when the sun's place or the 
star is brought to the meridian ; obliqw ascension is that point of the 
equinoctial, counted in degrees from Aries, which is cut by the horizon, 
wnen the sun or star is rising ; ascensional difference is the difference 
between the right and the oblique ascensions. 

ih) The ascensional difference, when turned into time (15° being equal 
to one hour), will show how long the sun rises either before or after 6. In 
all places which have N. latitude, the sun rises before 6 when he is in any 
of the northern signs ; and after 6 when in any of the southern signs. 
When the right and oblique ascensions are equal, as on the 21st of March, 
and 23d of September, the sun rises exactly at 6. When the right is 
greater than the oblique ascension, the sun rises before 6 ; and when the 
oblique exceeds the nght ascension, he rises after 6. 

Digitized by 






Divided and accented in the way in which they are usually pronounced 
in this country. 

Aal'-borg^ a city in the N. of Den- 
mark, on the Lym-fiord. Pop. 

A '-ar^ a river of Switzerland, which 

falls into the Rhine. 
A-ar-au', a town of Switzerland, on 

theAar. P. 3100. 
A-ar-gau'^ a canton of Switzerland. 

P. 182,700. 
Aaf^'huus^ a seaport in the £. of 

Denmark. P. 8000. 
Abbeville (Ab'-veel). a town in the 

N. of France, on the Somme. P. 

Abb's Headf St, a promontory on 

the £. coast of Scotland. 
Ab-che-ran% a peninsula at the E. 

extremity of Mount Caucasus. 
Ab-er-deen, a county in the N. E. 

of Scotland. P. 192,387.— Also 

the capital of the county. P. 

Abergavenny ( Ab-er-ga'-ny) a to?m 

in Monmouthshire. P. 2720. 
Aberystwith (Ab-er-ustMth), a town 

of Cardiganshire, in S. Wales. P. 

Ab'-ing-don^ a town of England, on 

the Thames. P. 5585. 
A'-bOy a seaport of Finland. P. 

A-bo'-meVt the capital of Dahomey, 

W.Africa. P. 24,000. 
A-bran'-tes, a town of Portugal, on 

thoTagus. P. 5000. 
Ab-ys-sin^-i-a, a large kingdom of 

l!. Africa. Pop. 3,000,000. 
Ac-a-pul'-co, a seaport of Mexico, 

on the Pacific. P. 4000, 
Ac' -era, a town and British settle- 
ment, W. Africa, on the Gold 

Coast. P. 5000. 

Aeh'-een^ the chief city of the ishind. 

of Sumatra. P. 40,000. 
Ach'-ily an ishind on the W. coast 

of Ireland. P. 6392. 
Ac'-quif a strong town of the Sar- 
dinian States. P. 6700. 
Acre ( A'-ker), a celebrated seaport 

of Syria. P. 20,000, 
Ad'-anCs Bridge^ a narrow ridge of 

rocks, in the Gulf of Manaar, N. 

of Ceylon. 
Adf-da, a river of Italy, falling into 

the Po. 
A' -del, a kingdom on the eastern 

coast of Africa. 
A'-de-laide^ the capital of S. Anstra- 

Ua. P. 8000. 
A' -den, a seaport of Arabia, belong- 
ing to Britain. P. 22,000. 
Ad'-i-gi, a river of Italy, which rises 

in tne Tyrol and foUs into the 

Adour (A-door'), a river in the S. of 

France, falling into the Bay of 

A-dow'-a, a town of Abyssinia. P. 

Ad-ri-an-o'-ple, the second city in 

European Turkey. P. 90,000. 
A-dri^^-ie Sea, a branch of the 

Mediterranean, on the E. of Italy. 
jEt*-na, a celebrated volcanic moun- 
tain of Sicily, 10,872 feet high. 
A/-ghan-i-stan\ a country of Asia, 

between Persia and the Indus. P. 
Ajf-ri'Ca, one of the great divisions . 

of the globe. P. 90,000,000. 
Agen (Aw'-zheng), a town in the S. 

of France. P. 14,091. 
Ag^-gers-huus, a large province in. 

the S, of Norway. P. 90,216. . 

Digitized by 




Jffineotirt (Ad'-jin-kort), a Tillage 

in the N. of France. P. 500. 
A'-gra^ a province of Ganffetio Hin- 
dostan.— Also the capital of the 
province. P. 70,000. 
A'^ffrantf a strong town of Austrian 

Croatia. P. 17,000. 
Ah-me-da-baet, a city of Central 

Hindostan. P. 100,000. 
Ail'-sa^ a rocky islet off the W. coast 

of Scotland. 
Ain^ a department in the E. of 

France. P. 367,362. 

Ai-as'-o-Iuc, a village of Asia Minor, 

near the site of ancient Ephesus. 

Air'-drie, a town of Scotland, with 

great coal and iron works. P. 


Aitne (Ain), a department in the 

N. of France. P. 557,422. 

Ais ( Aiz), a city in the S. of France, 

celebrated for its hot springs. P. 


Aix-la-ChapeUe (Ai-la-sha-pel'), a 

city of Rhenish Prussia. P. 39,000. 

A-jcui'-d-o, the capital of Corsica. 

P. n,300. 
A'-jan^ a district on the eastern 

coast of Africa. 
Aj'-mere, a province of Gangetic 
Hindostan.— Also the capitiu of 
the province. P. 25,000. 
A h'-er-man^ a seaport of Bessarabia 

in Russia. P. 13,000. 
Ak-his' sar^ a town of Anatolia, 

Turkey in Asia. P. 7500. 
A /-a-6a'-fiuz,oneof the UnitedStates 

of N. America. P. 590,756. 
AV-aitf a town of France, at the foot 

of the Cevennes. P. 16,983. 
AF-andf a aonp of islands in the 
Baltic, belonging to Russia. P. 
At-as'-ka^ a peninsula on the S. W. 

coast of Russian America. 
AUbi^-ni-a, a province of Turkey in 

Al'-ba-nv^ a city of the state of 
New York, United States. P. 
AV-hanU Head, St^ a cape on the S. 

coast of England. 
AV'harCa^ Sty a town of Herts, in 

England. P. 6497. 
Al-bar'-ra-oin, a town of Spain, on 

the Guadalaviar. P. 2200. 
Albe-marle' Sounds in^. Carolina^ 

United States. 
AUben'-mt^ a seaport of the Sardi- 
nian States. P. 4000. 

Al'hu-e-ra^ a village of Estrema^ 

dura, in Spain. 
AT-by^ a town in the S. of France, 

on the Tarn. P. 12,452. 
Al-cantafra, a town of Estrema- 

dura, Spain. P. 3400. 
Aid' 'bo-rough^ a seaport in the E. of 

England. P. 1557. 
At-der-ney^ a British island in the 

English Channel. P. 1030. 
Al-en-^on, a town in the N. W. of 

France, on the Sarthe. P. 13,533. 
^-/«n-/d'-M, a province of Portugal. 

P. 276,590. 
A-lep'-pOf a great trading city of 

Syria. P. 60,000. 
Al-ess-an'-dri-a^ a strong town of 

Piedmont, in Italy, on the Tanaro. 

P. 36,000. 
Al-e-u'-H-an Islands^ a range in the 

N. Pacific, stretchingfrom Kamts- 

chatka to Alaska. P. 6000. 
A'leT-an'dri-a, the principal sea- 

?ort and ancient capital of Egypt. 
\ 40,000. 

Al-gaf^-ve, a province of Portugal. 
P. 130.329. 

Al-ge-zi'ta, the ancient Metopota* 
mia, a province of Turkey in Asia. 

All Sainf^ Bag, a noble bay on the 
coast of Bahia, Brazil. 

Algien (Al-geers'), a country of 
jBarbary, N. Africa, now subjeet 
to France. P. 2,000,000.— Also 
the capital. P. 30,000. 

Al'po'-a, a bay on the S. E. coast of 
Africa, where is a British ooUm^. 

Al'-i-eant, a seaport of Valencia, in 
Spain. P. 25,000. 

Alk-maar', a strong town of Hol- 
land. P. 9500. 

Al'la ha-bad\ a province of Gan- 
getic Hindostan. — Also the capi- 
tal of the province. P. 65,000. 

Al'-len, Lough, an expanse of the 
river Shannon, in Ireland. 

Al'-li-er, a central departmeni of 
France. P. 329,540. 

Al'-lo-a, a seaport of Scotland, on 
the Frith of Forth. P. 5434. 

Al-man'-za^ a town in the £. of 
Spain. P. 5000. 

Al-mei''da, a strong frontier town 
in the £. of Portugal. P. 6000. 

Al-me'-ri'a^ a seaport in the S. of 
Spain. P. 19,000. 

Alnwick (An'-nik), a town of Nor- 
thumberland. P. 6626. 

Al'-ostf a town of E. Flandera, in 
Belgium. P. 15,000. 


zed by Google 



A^9 the highest range of moun- 
tains in Europe, separating Italy 
from Switzerland, &c. 
AlpsJIpper and Lower, two frontier 
aepartments in the S. E. of France. 
P. 133,100 and 156,675. 
Al-sace\ a former province of 

France, on the E. 
Al-sen, an island of Denmark, in 

the Little Belt. P. 15,000. 
Al-taV-an Mountains, a vast range 
in the S. of Siberia, containing 
rich mines. 
AV'ten, a river in the N. of Norway. 
AV'ten-burg, a small duchy of Ger- 
many. P. 128,819.— Also the 
capital of the duchy. P. 12,600. 
At'-ten-gaard, a town of Finmark, 

in Norway. P. 2000. 
Al'to-na, a seaport of Holstein, on 

the Elbe. P. 27,000. 
AV'Uyrf, a town of Switzerland, on 

the Reuss. P. 1700. 
A '-mak, a small island of Denmark, 

in the Baltic. 
Am-al'-Ji, a town of Naples: P. 3500. 
A-ma'-si-a, a town of Asia Minor. 

P. 25,000. 
Am'-€t-«on, a river of S. America, 
the largest in the world. l 

Am' 'her g, a town of Bavaria. P. 

Amf'hle-side, a town in the N. W. 

of England. P. 1281. 
Am-bo^^na, one of the Molucca or 
Spice Islands, in the Indian Ar- 
chipelago. P. 45,000. 
Ame'-land, an island on the N. of 
^ Holland. P. 3000. 
A-mer'-i'caj an extensive continent, 
discovered by Columbus nearly 
360 years ago, hence called the 
New World. It is divided into 
North and South America. P. 
A'-mers-fortf a town of Holland. 

P. 90(M}. 
Amf'herst, a seaport in the E. Pen- 
insula, belonging to Britain. P. 
A^-mi-ens, a city in the N. of France. 

P. 46,096. 
A-mi-ran'-th Isles, a group in the 

Indian Ocean. 
A-mor^-go, an island of the Grecian 

Archipelago. P. 2500. 
A'-mogfj a seaport in the E. of 

China. P. 200,000. 
Am-rif-sir, a city of Lahore, Hin- 
ddstan. P.40,00a 

Am-ster-dam', the capital of Hol- 
land. P. 220,000. 
A-mur' or Sa-ga'-li-en, a river of 

Chinese Tartary, which falls into 

the Sea of Okhotsk. 
A'-nahy a town of Turkey in Acda, 

on the Euphrates. 
An-a-to'-li-a, a large province of 

Turkey in Asia, 'nearly corres- 
ponding with the Asia Minor of 

the ancients. 
An-co'-rui, a seaport on the Adriatic, 

in the States of the Church. P. 

An-da-lu'-si-a, a province in the S. 

of Spain. 
^n' -da-man Islands, a ran^ of 

islands in the Bay of Bengal. 
An'-des or Cor-dil'-le-ras, a chain of 

lofty mountains in S. America. 
An'-dov-er^ a town in the S. of Eng- 
land. P. 4921. 
An'-drewsy St, an ancient city of 

Scotland, on the £. coast of Fife. 

P. 4449. 
An'-dro, an island of Greece, in the 

Archipelago. P. 15,000. 
An-du'-jar,9,io'wn in the S. of Spain, 

on the Guadalquivir. P. 10,000. 
A-ne-qa'-da, one of the Virgin Isles, 

in the W. Indies. P. 250. 
An'-gers, b, city of France, near the 

junction of the Mayeune and 

Loire. P. 40,628. 
An'-gle-sea, an island and county of 

N. Wales. P. 50,891. 
An-go'-la, a kingdom of Western 

An-go'-ra, a city of Anatolia, in 

Asiatic Turkey. P. 40,000. 
An-gor^-nou, a town of Bornou, in 

Central Africa. P. 30,000. 
An-gov-leme', a city of France, on 

the Charente. P. 18,482. 
Angoumois ( Awng goom'-waa), a 

former province of France. 
An-guil'-la, one of the Leeward 

Islands, West Indies. P. 3000. 
Angus ( Ang'-gns), a county of Scot- 
land. — See Forfar, county of. 
Anholt (An'-olt), an island of Den- 
mark, in the Cattegat. 
Anjou ( Awng-zhoo), a former pro- 
vince in the N. W. of France. 
An'-ko-ber, a town of Abyssinia. 
Ann, a caj)e in the N. £. of the 

United States. 
An' -nam, — See Cochin China, 
An* -nan. a town in the S. of Seot- 
knd. P. 3321. 

Digitized by 




Anrnap'-o-lis^ a town of Maryland, 

in the United States. P. 2800. 
A n'-ne-ctfi a town ot Savoy, in the 

Sardinian States. P. 5700. 
An'-8p€u;hf a town of Bavaria. P. 

Anstrulher (commonly An'-ster), 
Easter and Wester, two small 
towns in Fifeshire. P. 1446. 
An-te-qne'-ra^ a town in the S. of 

Spain. P. 20,000. 
An-tibeaf, a seaport in the S. of 

France. P. 6000. 
An-ti-cos'-ti^ an island of British 
America, in the Gulf of St Law- 
An-tV-gu-a, a British island in the 

West Indies. P. 36,000. 
An-tU'-fes, Great and Littie, a name 
applied to the West Indian 
An'-ti-ochf formerly the metropolis 

of Syria. P. 10,000. 
An-H-pa'-ro8y a small island in the 

Grecian Archipelago. P. 500. 
An-to'-ni-Of a cape of La Plata, 

Soath America. 
^n-/o'-nt-o, Stf one of the Cape 

Verde Islands. 
An'-trim, a county in the N. £. of 
Ireland. P. 344,799.— Also a 
town in the county. P. 2645. 
Ani'-werp, a province in the N.'of 
Belgium. P. 406,368.— Also the 
capital of the province, on the 
Scheldt. P. 75,362. 
Ap'-en-nineSt a chain of mountains 

extending through Italy. 

Ap-pa-la'-chi-an or Al-le-gha'-ny 

Mountains^ a chain of mountains 

in the £. of the United States. 

Ap-pen'-zell, a canton in the N. E. 

of Switzerland. P. 50,876— Also 

the capital of the canton. P. 1400. 

Ap'-ple-by, a town in the N. W. of 

England. P. 2519. 
A-ra-bi-a, a large country in the 

S. W. of Asia. P. 10,000,000. 
A-ra'-bi-an Sea, that part of the 
Indian Ocean between Arabia 
and Hindostan. 
A r-a-can\ a province of the Eastern 
Peninsula, belonging to Britain. 
— Also the capital of the pro- 
vince. P. 10,000. 
A'-ral, an inland sea or lake of 
Western Tartary, to the E. of the 
Ar-afi^ru -ex, a town of Spain, on 
theTagus. P. 5000. 

i Ar^-at or -4 r-fljr'-e*, a river of Arme- 
nia, which joins the Kur. 

' Ar'-a-rat, a celebrated mountain of 
Armenia, 17,359 feet high. 

Ar'broath\ a seaport in the £^ of 

I Scotland. P..U,568. 

Ar-ca'-di-<ii a seaport of Greece. P. 

Arch'-an-ffel, a large province in the 
N. of Russia.— Also the capital 
of the province. P. 17,000. 

Ar-chi-pet-a-go, or jE-ge'-an Sea^ 
between Europe and Asia Minor. 

Ar'-coL the capital of the Camatic, 

Arc'-iic or Northern Ocean^ the 
N. Polar Sea. 

Ar-deche', a department in the S. K. 
of France. P. 379,614. 

Ar-dee', a town in the N. E. of Ire- 
hind. P. 3679. 

Ar-denne8\ a department in the N. 
of France, containing extensive 
forests. P. 326,823. 

Ard'-fert, a town in the N. W. of 
Ireland. P. 656. 

Ard-na-mur'-chan, the most west- 
erly point of Scotland. 

Ar^-drahy a town of Dahomey, W. 
Africa. P. 20,000. 

Ar-dros'san, a seaport on the W. 
coast of Scotland. P. 2141. , 

Ar-en'-dal, a seaport in the S. of 
Norway. P. 2000. 

Arequipa (A-re-kee'-pa), a city of 
Peru, on the Chile. P. 35,000. 

Ar'-go8f a seaport of the Morea, in 
Greece. P. 3000. 

Ar-gyiP, a mountainous county in 
tlie W. of Scotland. P. 97,371. 

Ar-i-ege^, a department in the S. of 
France. P. 270,535. 

Ar-kan'-sas, one of the United 
States, traversed by the river of 
the same name. P. 97,674. 

Aries (Arl), an ancient city in the 
S. of France. P. 21,188. 

Ar^'hn, a town of Luxemburg, be- 
longing to Belgium. P. 4180. 

Ark -low, a town in the E. of Ire- 
land, on the Avoca. P. 3264. 

Armagh ( Ar-mah')} a county in the 
N. fe. of Ireland. P. 235,393.- 
AIso the capital of the county. 
P. 10,245. 

Ar-me'-ni-a, a country of Asia, 
subject to the Turks, Persians, 
and Russians. 

Amheim ( Ar-neemO, a town of Hol- 
land, on the Rhine. P. 14,600. 

Digitized by 




Ar^-no, a river of Italy, which falls 

into the Mediterranean. 
Ar'-ra-gon, a province in the N. E. 
of Spain. , ' 

Ar'-raTif an island of Scotland, in 

the Frith of Clyde. P. 6241. 
Ar'-ran, North and South Isles of^ 
on the W. coast of Ireland. P. 
Ar'-ras, a strong town in the N. of 

France. P. 24,321. 
Ar^-ta, a town in the W. of Turkey 

in Europe. P. 7000. 
^r/oM ( Art'-waa), aformer province 

in the north of France. 
Ar^-un^U a town in the S. of Eng- 
land. P. 2583. 
As^-aph, St, an ancient city of N. 

Wales. P. 1701. 
A-scen^sion, an African island in 

the S. Atlantic. 
Ash-an-tee'i a kingdom of W. 

Africa. P. 3,000,000. 
A'-si-a, one of the four great divi- 
sions of the globe. P. 460,000,000. 
Asia-Minor. — See Anatolia, 
As-ke'-a-ton, a town of Ireland, on 

the Shannon. P. 1862. 
As-pern', a small town of Austria, 

two miles below Vienna. 
As-phal-ti''te3 or the Dead Sea, a 

celebrated lake of Palestine. 
As'-sam, a country of the Eastern 
Peninsula, belonging to Britain. 
P. 600,000. 
As' -sen, a town in the N. of Hol- 
land. P. 1800. 
As-sou'-an, a town in the S. of 

Egypt, on the Nile. 
As'Svmp'-tion, the capital of Pa- 
raguay, in South America. P. 
As'-ti, a town of the Sardinian 
States, on the Tanaro. P. 24,000. 
As-tor'-ga, a town in the N. W. of 

Spain. P. 4000. 
As-tra-bad\ a city in the N. of Per- 
sia. P. 40,000. 
As-tra-can\ a province in the S. E. 
of Russia.— Also the capital of 
the province, near the mouth of 
the Volga. P. 45,000. 
AS'iu'-ri-as, a province in the N. of 

Ath, a strong town in the S. of Bel- 
gium. P. 8380. 
A-tha-bas'-ca, a large lake of Brit- 
ish America. 
Aih'-boy, a town in the £. of Ire- 
land. P. 1826. 

Ath'-ens, a celebrated ancient city, 

the capital of Greece. P. 17,000. 

Ath-lone', a town of Ireland, on the 

Shannon. P. 6393. 
A'-thos, Mount, now Monte Santo, 
a high mountain of Macedonia, 
Turkey in Europe. 
A'thy'fiM county town of Kildare, 
Ireland, on the Barrow. P. 4698. 
Ai-lan'-tic Oc«in, extends from the 
E. shores of America to the W. 
coasts of Europe and Africa. 

At' -las, a chain of lofty mountains 
in N. Africa.' 

At'-tock, a town of N. Hindostan, 
on the Indus. 

At-too', one of the Aleutian islandi?, 
in the N. Pacific. 

Aube, an inland department of 
France. P. 261,881. 

Auch (Osh), a town in the S. of 
France. P. 9474. 

Auch-ter-arder, a town of Scot* 
laud, on the Erne. P. 2068. 

Auch-ter-much'-hi, a town of Fife, 
in Scotland. P. 2394. 

Auck'-land, a British settlement in 
New Zealand, on the Waitemata. 

AvAie, a department in the S. of 
France. P. 289,661. 

Augs'-burg,2iTL ancient city of Bava- 
ria, on the Lech. P. 36,000. 

Au-gus'-ta, a town of Georgia in the 
United States, on the Savannah* 
P. 6403. — Also a strong seaport 
on the E. coast of Sicily. P. 

Au'-gns-tine, St, a seaport of Flo- 
rida, United States. P. 2459. 

Aurillac (0-reel -yac), a town of 
Cantal in France. P. 9609. 

Au-run-ga-bad' , a province of Cen- 
tral Hindostan. — Also the capital 
of the province. P. 60,000. 

Aus'-ier-litZf a town of Moravia in 
Austria. P. 2000. 

Aus'-tin, the capital of Texas, 
United States. 

Au-stral-a'-si-a, a modem division 
of the globe, comprehending Au- 
stralia and the islands adjoining. 

Aus'-tral Islands, a group in the 
Pacific Ocean. 

Au-stral'-i-a or New Holland, the 
largest island in the world, colo- 
nized by Britain. P. 220,000. • 

Atis'-tri-a, an archduchv of Ger- 
many, giving name to the Empire 
of Austria. Pop. of the latter, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Auiun, (O'-tenn^)) an ancient city 

in the E. of France. P. 10,689. 
Au^ergne^^ a former proTinoe of 


Auxerre^ (O-sare'), an inland city of 

France, on the Yonne. P. 12,464. 

A'-va^ the capital of the Birman 

Empire, on the Irrawady. Pop. 


Avetnet (A-ven'), a stron^^ town in 

the N. of France. P. 2961. 
A-ve^-r<m^ a department in the S. 

of France. P. 389,121. 

A vignon ( Av'-i-non), a former pro- 

Yince in the S.E. of France.— Also 

a city on the Rhone. P. 31,029. 

A'Vi^-ia, an inland town of Spain. 

P. 4000. 
A^'wm, the name of several rivers 

in England. 
Avranches (Av-ransh'), a town in 

the N. W. of France. P. 7561. 
Awe, Loch, a lake in the W. of 

AaZ-el^ a town of Zealand in Hol- 
Ax^-um, an ancient town of Abys- 
sinia. P. 4000. 
Arf-oa, a seaport of Asia Minor, on 

the bay of Iskenderoon. 
Aylesbury (Ails'-ber-ry), a town of 
Buckinghamshire, m England. 
P. 6429. 
Ayr, a maritime county in the W. of 
Scotland. P. 164,356. — Also 
the capital of the county. P. 
A-xer-H'-jan', a province in the N. 

of Persia. 
Aa^'Of, Sea of, in the S. of Russia, 
communicating with the Black 
Sea.— Also a strong town on the 
Don. P. 1200. 
A'zores^ a group of Islands in the 
Atlantic Ocean, belonging to 
Portugal. P. 250,000. 

BcLoi'-bec, the ancient Heliopolis, 

in Syria. P. 200. 
Ba-ba\ the ancient Lectum, a cape 

at the entrance of the Dardanelles. 
Bchbel-manf-deb, a famous strait at 

the entrance of the Red Sea. 
Back's River, British America, flows 

into the Northern Ocean. 
Badl-a-gry, 'a town of W. AMca, 

on the Gulf of Benin. 
Bad'-a-jos or Bad'-a-hos, a strong 

fortress of Spain, on the Guadi- 

ana. P. 13,000. 

Ba'-den, a grand-dachy of Ger- 
many. P. 1,335,200.— Also atown 
of the grand-dnchy. P. 4700. 
Baf-fin*s Bay, a large gulf between 

Greenland and North America. 
Bagdad (Bag'-dat), a celebrated 
city of Turkey in Asia, on the 
Tigris. P. 70,000. 
Bagneres^ (Ba-nare'),atown in the 
S. of France, on the Adour. P. 
Ba'ha'-mas, a group of islands in 

the West Indies. P. 25,000. 
Ba-har^, a province of Gangetic 

Ba-kV-a or St Salvador, a com- 
mercial city and seaport of Brazil. 
P. 150,000. 
Bahrein, (Baa'-rin) a group of fel- 
ands in the Persian Gulf, with a 
great pearl-fishery. P. 60,000. 
Bahr-el-axrek and Bahr-el-almd, 
the Blue and White Rivers, 
which, uniting in Sennaar, form 
■the river Nile. / 

Bai'-kal, a lake of £. Siberia. 
Bak'-te-gan, a salt lake in the S. of 

Ba'-ku, a seaport of Asiatic Rnasia, 

on the Caspian. P. 15,000. 
Ba'-la, a town in N. Wales. P. 1257. 
Bal-brig'-gan, a seaport in the coun- 
ty of Dublin, Irehind. P. 2959. 
Bal-frush', a town in the N. of 
Persia, near the Caspiai^. P. 
Bal-kan, the ancient Haemns, a 
chain of mountains traversing 
Turkey from E. to W. 
BaV'kash or Ten^-ghiz, a lake in 

Western Tartary. 
Balkh, an ancient city of Western 

Tartary. P. 2000. 
Bal'-li, an island in the Indian 

Archipelago, to the £. of Java. 
Ba/-/t'-na,atownof Mayo, Ireland. 

P. 7012. 
BaUli-naS'loe', a town in the W. of 

Ireland. P. 4934. 
Bal'lu-me'-na, a town in the N. E. 

of Ireland. P. 5549. 
Bal'ly-shan'-rum, a seaport in the 

N. W. of Ireland. P. 3513. 
BaV-tic, an inland sea of Northern 
Europe, communicating with the 
North Sea by the Cattegat and 
Skager Rack. 
BaV'ti-more, a seaport, the capital 
of Maryland, United States. P. 


zed by Google 



Bai'-4in^l(UM^ a town in the E. of 
Ireland. P. 1928. 

Bam-bar'-ra, a kin^om of Central 
Africa, alon^ the Niger. 

Bam'-berg^ a handsome town of Ba- 
varia. P. 21,000. 

Bait^'a-gher^ an inland town of Ire- 
land. P. 2827. 

Ban^'bridge, a town in the N. £. of 
Ireland. P. 3324. 

Banbury, (Ban'-ber-ry), a town of 
Oxfordshire, England. P. 3746. 

Ban'ca, an island on the N.*£. of Su- 
matra, celebrated for tin-mines. 

Ban' 'da Islands^ a group in the 
£. Archipelago, famous for the 
production of nutmegs. P. 5760. 

Ban' -da O-ri-en'-tal or U'-ru-guay, 
a conntrr of S. America, to the §. 
of Brazil. P. 150,000. 

Ban'-don^ a town in the S. of Ire- 
land,on the river Baudon. P.904d. 

Banff, (Bamf ), a county in the N. 
E. of Scotland. P. 4 9,679.— Also 
a seaport, the capital of the coun- 
ty. P. 5309. 

Ban-ga-lore'y a strong city of South- 
em Hindostan. P. 60,000. 

Ban^-gWi a town in the N. E. of 
Ireland. P. 3116. 

Ban'-gor, a town of N. Wales, near 
the Menai Straits. P. 5058. 

Ban'-kok^ a seapoft, the capital of 
Siam, in the Eastern Peninsula, 
P. 90,000. 

Bann^ a river in the N. of Ireland, 
falling into the sea belowColeraine. 

Ban'-nock-bum. a village of Scot- 
land, near Stirling. P. 2206. 

Ban'-try Bay, a fine bay in the S. 
W. of Ireland. 

Bar-ba'-doesy a British island in the 
West Indies. P. 128,000. 

Bar^-ba-ryy the states of Morocco, 
Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli^ in 
Northern Africa. 

Bar-bu'-da, a small island in the 
West Indies, belonging to Bri- 
tain. P. 500. 

Bar'^ca, a country of N. Africa, 
now united to Tripoli. 

Bar-ce-lo'-noy a city and seaport in 
the E. of Spain. P. 120,000. 

Bard'-tey, a small island of North 
Wales. P. 90. 

Bareges (Ba-raij'), a village in the 
S. of France, fomed for its hot 
springs. P. 700. 

Bareil -ly, a city of Gangdtic Hin- 
dostan. P. 66,000. 

Bar'-fleur^ a eape, also a town in 
the N. W. of France. 

Ba'-rXy a seaport of Naples, on the 
Adriatic. P. 19,000. 

Bar-le-Duc, a town in the N. E, of 
France. P. 12,673. 

Bar' -men, a town of Rhenish 
Prussia. P. 29,000. 

Bar'-net, a town of Herts, in Eng- 
land. P. 2485. 

Bam'-sia-ple, a seaport of Massa- 
chusetts, United States, on a bay 
of the same name. P. 4300. 

Ba-ro'-da, a city of Guzerat, Hindos- 
tan. P. 100,000. 

Bar^-ra, one of the Hebrides or 
Western Islands of Scotland. P. 

Bar' -row. Point, the extreme N. W. 
point of N. America. 

Bar^-row Siraiis, on the N. W. of 
Baffin's Bay. 

Bar-tho'-h-mewy St,one of the West 
Indian Islands, belonging to Swe- 
den. P. 8000. 

Basle, Basel, or Bdle (Bahl), a can- 
ton in the N. W. of Switzerland. 
P. 65,400.~Also the capital of 

. the canton, on the Rhine. P. 

Bass, a rocky islet of Scotland, at 
the mouth of the Frith of Forth. 

Bas'-sa, a seaport of W. Africa. 

Bassora, (Bas'-ra), a seaport of 
Asiatic Turkey, on the Euphra- 
tes. P. 60,000. 

Bas'-ti-Oj a strong seaport of Cor- 
sica. P. 13,004. 

B<Ui-togne (ton), a town of Luxem- 
burg, belonging to iielgium. 

Ba-ial'-ha, a town of Portugal, with 
a magnificent monastery. P. 1600. 

Ba-ta-vi-^, the Dutch capital in 
the island of Java. P. 63,000. 

Ba'-tchi-an, one of the Moluccas, in 
the Indian Archipelago. 

Bath, a handsome city in the W. of 
England. P. 38,304. 

Bath -gate, a town in Linlithgow- 
shire, Scotland. P. 2809. 

Ba'-thurst, a town and British 
settlement in W. Africa. — Also a 
town of New South Wales, Aus- . 
tralia. P. 2000. 

Bat -tack. Mount, in the N. E. of 

Bauf'zen, a town of Saxony, on 
the Spree. P. 12,000. 

Ba-va'-ri-a, a kingdom of Ger- 
many. P. 4,504^74. 

Digitized by 




BajZ-a-xidt a city of Asiatic Turkey, 
near the foot of Mount Ararat. 
P. 30,000. 
Ba^'-etucieu), a town in the N. W. 

of France. P. 9106. 
Ba-yonne\ a strong seaport in the 

S. of France. P. 15,322. 
Bav-reuih', a town of Bavaria, on 

the Red Maine. P. 14,000. 
Beeush'-y Head, a promontory on 

the S. coast of England. 
Beam, (Bay-arn') a former pro- 
vince of France. 
Beau-caire' (Bo), a town of France 

on the Rhone. P. 9800. 
Beaumaris (Bo-ma'-ris), a seaport 
in the island of Anglesea, on the 
Menai Strait. P. 2680. 
^aur;at« (Bo-vay'), a thriving town 

in the N. of France. P. 12,356. 
Bed'-fordy an inland county of Eng- 
land. P. 107,936.-Also the cam- 
talofthe county, on the Ouse. P. 
£e^Aar9nt,(Be-gar'-mee), a kingdom 

of Central Africa. 
BeV-ring Straits, the narrow sea 
which separates Asia from North 
America.— Also a small island in. 
the N.Pacific. 
Bei^-ra, a province of Portugal. P. 

Be'-ja, a town of Portugal. P. 5500. 
Be-ja-pore' or Vi-si-a-pore', a pro- 
vince of CentralHindostan. — Also 
the ancient capital of the province. 
Bei-fast', a flourishing seaport in 
the N. E. of Ireland. P. 75,308. 
— Also a seaport of Maine, United 
States. P. 4186. 
Bel'-f&rdy a town in the N. of Eng- 

hind. P. 1157. 
Bel'-fort, a strong fortress in the 

N. E. of France. 
BeV-gi'Um, a kingdom between 
France and Holland. P. 4,335,000. 
Bel-grade\ a strong fortress of Tur- 
key, on the Danube. P. 20,000. 
Be-lize', a British settlement in the 
Bay of Honduras, North America. 
P. 10,000.— Also the capital of the 
colony. P. 4500. 
Belle-isle', (or Bel-eel'), an island on 
the W. coast of France. P. 3646.— 
Also an island and straits between 
Newfoundland and Labrador. 
Bel-lin-xo'-na, a town of Switzer- 
land, on the Ticino. P. 1600. 
Bel-lu'^no, a town in the E. of N. 
Italy. P. 11,000. 

Be4o<hchis-tan', a country of Asiaii 

to the S. of Afghanistan. 
Belt, Great and LUtle, two straits 
of Denmark, the former between 
Funen and Zealand, the latter be^ 
tween Funen and Jutland. . 
Bel'tur'-bet, an inland town of Ire- 
land, on the Erne. P. 2070. 
Be-lur' Tagh, a range of mountains 
in Asia, separating Western &om 
Chinese Tartary. 
Bel-ve-dere', a town of the Morea, 

in Greece. 

Ben-ares', a celebrated city of Hin- 

dostan,onthe Ganges. P. 200,000. 

Ben-be'-cu'la,oiie of tne Hebrides, or 

W. Islands of Scotland. P. 2107. 

Ben-coo'-len, a seaport of Sumatra, 

E. Archipelago. P. 10,000. 
Ben Cru'-ach-anJBen Law'-ers,Ben 
Le''di,Ben Lo'-mond, Ben Mae- 
dhvf'i, Ben More, Ben Ne'^ms, 
Ben Voir'lich, Ben HV-wm, 
mountains of Scotland, cniefly 
portions of the Grampian range. 
Ben^-der, a strong town of Bessara- 
bia, Russia. P. 5000. 
Be-ne-ven'-to, a town in the king- 
dom of Naples, but belonging to 
the Papal States. P. 16,500. 
Ben-gaf, an extensive province of 

Gangetic Hindostan. 
Ben-gal', Bay of, that part of the 
Indian Ocean which separates 
Hindostan from the Eastern Pen- 
Ben-gu-e'-la, a country of Western 
Africa. — Bengttela,New,ihe Por- 
tuguese capital of the country. P. 
Be-nin', a kingdom of Africa. — Also 
the capital of the kingdom, on a 
branch of the Niger. P. 15,000. 
Be'-n&wm, a town of Ludamar, in 
' Central Africa. 
Be'-rar, a province of Central Hin- 
Ber-be'-ray a seaport of Adel, in £. 

Ber-bice', a district of British Gui- 
ana, in South America. P. 22,000. 
Ber^-ga-mo, a town of Austrian 
Italy. P. 32^000.— Also a town of 
Asia Minor, in Asiatic Turkey. 
Ber'-gen, a seaport of Norway. P. 
22,800.— Also the chief town of 
the Prussian island of Rugen. P. 
Ber-gen-op'Zoom\ a strong town of 
N.Brabant, in Holland. P. 6000. 

Digitized by 



Berks or Berk' shire, a county of 

England, to the S. of the Thames. 

P. 161,147. 
Ber4in\ a fine city^ the capital of 

Prussia, on the Spree. P. 330,000. 
Ber mu'-das or Somers* Islands, a 

group in the Atlantic, belonging 

to Britain. P. 9000. 
Berne, the chief canton of Switzer- 

hind. P. 408,000.— Also capital 

of the canton, on the Aar. P. 

Ber-nese' Alps, mountains of Swit- 
zerland, in the canton of Berne. 
Be-roo', a kingdom of Central 

Ber^-ri, a former province of France. 
Ber^'Vie or In-ver-her'-vie^ a town on 

the £. coast of Scotland. P. 864. 
Berwick (Ber'-rick) or the Merse, a 

county in the S. £. of Scotland. 

P. 34,438. 
Berwick (Ber'-rick), a fortified town 

of England, at the mouth of the 

Tweed. P. 8484. 
Ber^'fjoyn, a mountain of N. Wales. 
Be-san'-con, a strong town in the 

E. of France, on the Doubs. P. 

Bes-sa-ra'-bi-a, a province in the 

S. W. of Russia. 
Betf'lis, an ancient town of Turkey 

in Asia, near Lake Van. P. 

Beve'-land, North and South, two 

islands of Holland, at the mouth 

of the Scheldt. 
Bev'^erAey, a town in the N. E. of 

England, near the Hull. P. 8671. 
Be^-rout, a seaport of Syria, on a 

fine bay. P. 15,000. 
Beziers (Be-zi-er'), an ancient city 

in the S. of France. P. 17,442. 
Bi-af'ly-stock, a province in the S. 

W. of Russia. Also the capital 

of the province. P. fiOOO. 
Bi-elsk', a town in the S. W. of 

Russia. P. 2000. 
Blcf-qar, an inland town of Scot- 
land. P. 1395. 
Bif/^leS'Wade, a town of Bedford- 
shire, in England. P. 3807. 
Bi'hacz', a strong town of Croatia, 

Turkey in Europe. P. 3000. 
Bit-bo-a, a seaport, the capital of 

Biscay in Spain. P. 15,000. 
BU*-li'ton, a small island of the E. 

Archipelago. P. 3000. 
BU'-ston, a town in StafEbrdshire. 

P. 20,181. 


Bi-or'-ne-horg, a seaport of Finland 

in Russia. P. 4500. 
Bir, a town of Asiatic Turkey, on 

the Euphrates. P. 5000. 
Bit'-man Empire, an extensive 

country in the E. Peninsula. P. 

Bir^-ming-ham, a flourishing town 

of England, the chief seat of the 

hardware manufactures. P. 

Birr, see Parsonstotvn, 
Bis'-cay, a mountainous province in 

the N. of Spain. 
Bish'-op Auckf-land, a town in the 

N. of England, on the Wear. P. 

Bish'-pp's Castle, a town in the W. 

of England. P. 1510. 
Bitche, a strong frontier town in the 

N. E. of France. P. 3070. 
Black or Euj/'ine Sea, an internal 

sea in the S. of Europe, connected 

with the Sea of Marmora by the 

channel of Constantinople. 
Black'-burn, a manufacturing town 

of Lancashire, in England. P. 

Black* -wa-ter, a river in the S. of 

Ireland, which flows into Youghal 

Blair-A'-tholl, a town in the high- 
lands of Scotland, on the Tilt. 

P. of parish, 2231. 
Blair-gow'-rie, a town of Scotland, 

on the Ericht. P. 2242. 
Bla'-mont^ (mong), a town in the 

N. E. of France. P. 2625. 
Blanc, Mount (Blawng), in Savoy, 

the loftiest mountain of Europe, 

being 15,668 feet high. 
Blan'-€0, Cape, a promontory of W. 

Blen'-heim, a village of Bavaria, on 

the Danube. 
Blois (Blo'-aa), an ancient town of 

France on the Loire. P. 15,900. 
Bod'-min, the county town of Corn- 
wall. P. 4205. 
Bog, a river in the S. of Russia, 

falling into the Dniester. 
Bo-go-ta\ the capital of New Gra* 

nada, in S. America. P. 40,000. 
Bo-he'-mi-a, a kingdom of the Aus- 
trian Empire. P. 4,279,189. 
Bois'le-Duc (Bo'-aa-le-Deuk'), a 

strong fortress of N. Brabant, in 

Holland. P. 13,500. 
Bojador Cape (Bo-ya-dor'), a pro- 
montory of W. Africa. 

Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



Bok'-ha-ra, a kingdom of W. Tar- 

. tary, in Asia. P. 2,000,000.— 
Also the capital of the kingdom. 
P. 130,000. 

Bo-Hv'-i-a or Up-per Pe-ru\ a re- 
publican Btate of South America. 
P. 1,200,000. 

Bologna (Bo-lo'-na), an ancient city 
of Italy, in the Papal States. P. 

Bol'se^-na^ a lake of Italy, in the 
Papal States. 

BoU'wert, a town in the N. of Hol- 
land, near the Zuyder Zee. 

Bol'-Um, a manufacturing town 
of Lancashire, in England. P. 

Bom-ba^i a great seaport, the W. 
capital of British India. P. 

Bom'-melf an island on the W. of 

Bon, a celebrated cape of Tunis, in 
N. Africa. 

Bo'-na^ a seaport of Algiers. P. 

Bo'-na-vitt'ta, a town of Newfound- 

Bondou (Bon'-doo)y a kingdom of 
Central Africa. 

Bo-ni-faf-d'O^ a strait between Cor- 
sica and Sardinia. 

Bon'-in Islands, a cluster in the 
Pacific, to the S. of Japan. 

Bonn, a town of Prussia, on the 
Rhine. P. 14,000. 

Bon'-ny, a town of Upper Guinea, 
W.Africa. P. 20,000. 

Boom, a town in the proTince of 
Antwerp, Belgium. P. 7000. 

Boo'-tan, a country of Asia to the 
N. of Hindostan, between Bengal 
and Thibet. 

Boo'-thi-a, a gulf, and peninsula of 
N. America, discovered by Cap- 
tain Ross. 

Bordeaux (Bor-do')^ a flourishing 
city and seaport in the S. W. or 
France. P. 120,203. 

Bor-aoo^ a kingdom of Central 

Bof^'ne-o, an island of the E. 
Archipelago, and one of the 
largest on the globe, with rich 
mines of gold and diamonds. P. 

Born'-holm, a Danish island in the 
Baltic. P. 25,199. 

Bomou, (Bor'-noo), a kingdom in 
the interior of Africa.— Also the 

capital of the kingdom. P. 

Bo^o-di'-no, a town of Russia, near 
the Moskva. P. 6000. 

Bor-row-stoun-ness* or Bo'-nes/^ a 
seaport of Scotland, on the Fnth 
of Forth. P. 1790. 

Bos'-na-se-raV, the capital of Bos- 
nia, Turkey in Europe. P. 

Bos'-ni-a, a province of Turkey in 

Bos' -ton, a seaport in the E. of Eng- 
land. P. 12,942.— Also the chief 
city and seaport of M assachnsetts. 
United States. P. 93,383. 

Bos'-tporth, an inland town of Eng- 
land. P. 1135. 

Both'-ni-a, Gtiif of, a branch of the 
Baltic Sea, separating Sweden 
from Finland. 

Both'-ni-a, a province of Sweden. 

Bots^-en or Bol-saf-no, a town of the 
Tyrol, in Austria. P. 9000. 

Boulogne-iBoO'lone'), a seaport in 
the N. W. of France. P. 29,741. 

Bour^-bon, an island in the Indiui 
Ocean, belonging to France. P. 

Bour'-bon Vendee (Vang'-day), a 
town in the W. of France. P. 

Bourbonnais (Boor-bon'-ay), a for- 
mer province of France. 

Bourg^ a town in the E. of France. 
P. 10,300. 

Bourges, (Boorzh), an inland town 
of trance. P. 21,670. 

Bou'-ro, one of the Spice Islands in 
the E. Archipelago. 

Bous'-sa, a town of Borgoo, in Cen- 
tral Africa. P. 16,000. 

Bow' -fell, a mountain of Yorkshire, 
in England. 

Boyle, an inland town of Ireland. 
P. 3236. 

Boyne, a river in the E. of Ireland, 
falling into the sea below Dro- 

Bra-ban^. N., a province of Hol- 
land. P. 403,698.— &, a province 
of Belgium. P. 690,549. 

Bracdano ( Bra-chi-a'-no), a town 
ofthe Papal States; in Italy. P. 

Brad'-ford,^ manufacturing tovm of 
Yorkshire, England. P. 34,660. 
— Also a town of Wiltshire, on 
the Avon. P. 3836. 

Brae-maf^y a village of Aberdeen- 


zed by Google 



fhire, Scotland, on the Dee. P. 
of parish, 1712. 

Braf-ga^ an ancient city in the N. 
of Portugal. P. 14,500. 

Bra-gan'-xa, a town in the N. £. of 
Portugal. P. 4000. 

Brah-ma-poo^'tra or Bur-ham-poo'' 
ter, a river in the N. and E. of 
Hindostan, which foils into the 
Bay of Bengal. 

Bran'-den-burg^ a province of Prus- 
sia. Also a town of the province, 
on the Havel.— P. 13,000. 

Brtiz-il\ an extensive empire of 
South America. P. 6,000,000. 

Brechin (Bre'-hin), a town of For- 
farshire, in Scotland. P. 5903. 

Breck'-nock or Bre'-con, an inland 
county of S. Wales. P. 56,603. 
— Also the capital of the county, 
ontheUsk. P. 5701. 

Bref'da^ a strong fortress of Hol- 
land. P. 13,000. 

Bre'men, one of the free towns of 
Germany, on the Weser. P. 

Bren'-ner Mountains or Tyrokae 

. Alps, in S. of Austria. 

Bren'-ta, a river of Austrian Italy, 
falling into the Gulf of Venice. 

Brentfjord, a town of England, on 
the Thames. P. 7393. 

Bres'-ci^a, an ancient city of Aus- 
trian Italy. P. 35,000. 

Bres'-lau, a flourishing city in the 
S. E. of Prussia, on the Oder. 
P. 90,000. 

Bresif a strong sea(Port of France, 
on the Atlantic. P. 35,163. 

Bret-agne' or Brit'-tan-y, a former 
{>rovinco of France, in the W. 

Bri-an'-fon, a strong frontier town 
in the S. E. of France, on the 
Durance. P. 3277. 

Bridge' -iwrth, a town in the W. of 
England, on the Severn. P. 5770. 

Bridge' 'Wa-ter, a town in the S. W. 
of England, on the Parrot. P. 

Brid' 'ling-ton, or Bur' 'ling-ton, a 
town in the E. of England, on the 
bay of the same name. P. 5162. 

Brid^'port, a seaport in the S. of 
England. P. 4787. 

Briel (Bril), a seaport of Holland, 
in the island of Voorn. P. 4200. 

Brirenz', a lake of Berne, in Swit- 

Bri-^M', St, a town in the N. W. 
of France. P. 11,726. 

Brighf-on. a seaport of Sussex, in 

England. P. 46,661. 
Btindi'-si, a seaport of Naples, on 

the Adriatic. P. 8500. 
Bris'-bane, a river of New South 

Wales, Australia. 
Bris'-tol, a city and seaport in the 

W. of England, on the channel 

which bears its name. P. 122,296. 
Brit'-ain, the largest of the British 

islands, comprehending Eng- 
land, Wales, and Scotland, r. 

Brix'-en, a town of the Tyrol, in 

Austria. P. 3600. 
Brod'ick, a village on the E. coast 

of the island of Arran, Scotland. 

P. 163. 
Bro''dy, a town in the N. K of 

Gralicia, Austrian Empire. P. 

Brom''berg, a town of Posen, in the 

E. of Prussia. P. 8000. 
Brook' lyn, a town of the United 

states, on Long Island. P. 

Broom, Loch, an arm of the sea on 

the N. W. coast of Scotland. 
Bruaes (Bruge), the capital of W. 

Flanders, in Belgium. P. 43,000. 
Bru'-nh, the capital of the island of 

Borneo. P. 10,000. 
£rttn», a flourishing city, the capital 

of Moravia, Austrian Empire. 

P. 37,132. 
Bruns'-wick, a duchy in the N. of 

Germany. P. 267,565.— Also the 

capital of the duchy. P. 36,000. 
Brtut-sels, the capital of the king- 
dom of Belgium. P. 120,000. 
Buch'-an, Builers of, remarkable 

rocks on the E. coast of Scotland. 
Bu'cha rest, the capital of Wal- 

lachia, Turkey in Europe. P. 

BtbCK-ing-ham, a fertile midland 
I county of England. P. 155,983. 
! — Also the capital of the county. 
I P. 4054. 

\ Bu'-da or cy-fen, the capital of 
j Hungary, on the Danube. P. 

Burdak'-shan, a district of W. 

Tartary, celebrated for its ruby 

Bud'-weis, a town of Bohemia, in 

Austria, on the Moldau. P. 7400. 
Buen-Ayre (Bon'-aire), a Dutch 

island. West Indies. 
Bue'-not A^-res^ » maritime city, 

Digitized by LnOOQlC 



the capital of La Plata, in South 
America. P. 100,000. 

BuiUh (Beelth), a town of Breck- 
nockshire, S. Wales. P. 120a 

Bul-ffa^-ri-a, a province of Turkey 
in Europe. 

Bun'-gay, a town in the E. of Eng- 
land, on the Waveney. P. 4109. 

Bur'-qos^ a town in the N. of Spain. 
P. 12,000. 

Bur^-gun-dy, a former province of 
France, famous for its wine. 

Bur-ham-pore'^ a town of Central 
Hindostan, on the Taptee. 

Bur^-ling-ton, a town of Vermont, 
United States, on Lake Cham- 

flain. P. 4271.— Also a town of 
owa, United States. 
Burntisland (Bnrnt-i'-land), a sea- 
port of Scotland, on the Frith of 

Forth. P. 1859. 
Bur'- row Head, a cape in the S. of 

Bur'sa, or Bru'-sa, a town of Asia 

Minor, at the foot of Mount 

Olympus. P. 60,000. 
Bur'-ton, a town of England, on the 

Trent. P. 4863. 
Bury (Ber'-ry), a manufacturing 

town of Lancashire, England, on 

thelrwell. P. 20,710. 
Bury St Ed'-munds (Ber'-ry), a 

town in the £. of England. P. 

Buahire (Boo-sheer'), a seaport of 

Persia, on the Persian Gulf. P. 

Bute, a county of Scotland, con- 
sisting of islands in the Frith of 

Clyde. P. 15.740.— Also one of 

the islands. P. 9499. 
Bux'-ion, a town of Derbyshire, 

England. P. 1569. 

Ca^-bes, a seaport of Tunis, N. 

Africa, on a gulf of the same 

name. P. 20,000. 
Ca-bul'y a province in the N. of 

Afghanistan. — Also the capital of 

the province. P. 60,000. 
Ca'-der I'-dris, a mountain of N. 

Cad' ia, a city and seaport in the 

S. of Spain. P. 58,500. 
Cad'-sand, an island of Holland, at 

the mouth of the W. Scheldt. 
Caen (Kang), a town in the N. 

W. of France, on the Ome. P. 

Caermarihen (Car-mar'-then), a 

county of S. Wales. P. 106,326. 

— Also a seaport, the capital of 

the county. P. 9526. 
Caer-nar'-von^ a county of N.Wales. 

P. 81,093.— Also the capital of the 

county. P. 8001. 
Caer-ph%l'-ly, a town of S. Wales. 

P. 634. 
Caf-fa. a seaport of the Crimea, 

Russia in Europe. P. 6000. 
Caf-fra'-ri-a or Caf fre-land, the 

country of the Caffres, in S. 

Cag-li-a'-ri ((3a), the capital of the 

island of Sardinia. P. 27,000. 
Ca-haw'-ba, a town of Alabama, 

United States. 
Cahors (Ca-hor'), a town in the S. 

of France, on the Lot. P. 12,090. 
Caim-gorm'y a mountain in the N. 

of Scotland, famous for its rock- 
Cai'-ro, the capital of Egypt, and 

the largest city in Africa, on the 

Nile. P. 240,000. 
CaUh'-ness, a county in the N. of 

Scotland. P. 36,343. 
Cal-a'-bri-a, a mountainous province 

in the S. of Naples. 
Ca'-la%8 (or Cal-iayO, a seaport of 

France, on the Straits of Dover. 

P. 12,500. 
Cal-cut'-ta, a celebrated citjr of 

Hindostan, the capital of British 

India, on the Hoogly