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i-niNTr[> nv 

milTTBirODDI AXI1 ril.. •irw-llllEUi'T H^fAIlll 





«• rais*4jMr *t id* i/t3i»u> k-huui. nr uKi>iti>* luu vanct 
r»i r»i>MBi« or raiHtuMil it rxivuMrrt I'OLLXua, UMit«« 


LONGMANS. G It K K N, A N J> C 0. 


All rltkli rtHrit4 

163 » 


It is some years since a complete textbook of Chemical Pliysiology has 
sppeared in the Eoglish language, and the rapid strides that have been 
nude in this department of science appear to me to justify the produc- 
tion of a new work on the subject It is with the object of filling this 
gap in our literature that I have written this book. 

I have selected the title Chemical Physiology in preference to that 
of Physiological Chemistry, as the subjects are treated rather from the 
point of view of their function in the body, than from that of their 
chemical relationships to one another ; hence the book deals with a 
department of Physiology more than with a department of Chemistry. 

I have added the words ' and Pathology ' to the title, as I have 
endeavoured to include the chief facts in relation to the blood, urine, 
and tissues which have a chemico-pathological bearing. I am in hopes 
that the book may be not only useful to students of physiology, and 
those pursuing original investigations in chemical physiology, but also 
to the student of practical medicine and the medical practitioner. 

In the preparation of this volume I have received much help from 
a large number of friends, among whom I would especially mention 
Prof. ScuAFER, to whom I owe a number of valuable suggestions 
and references ; Dr. Sidney Martin, who read my manuscript of the 
chapters on proteids, foods, diet, and pathological urines, and made 
both corrections and suggestions ; Dr. MacMunn, who kindly read the 
proofs of the sections relating to the pigments of the bile and urine, 
and Dr. K. N. WoLrsKDEN, who generously placed in my hands the 
iDBDuscript of a number of valuable tables relating to the ui-ine ; these 
have formed the basis of the tables given on pp. 713 to 713, 716 to 
719, 745 to 746, and 784 to 785. 

The books and original monographs that have been consulted have 
been very numerous. I believe it will be found that in all cases 1 have 



It b MMne yeunt sine*.' a rom]>lol« textbook of Chemical Pbysiology liaa 

^ptMwl in tbe English LtuguBge, and the npid stridirA tlmt have been 

aBd«ia this ilvpartiDent of Boience appear tonie tojuHtif}- Uiv ])i'o<luu- 

Una at ■ new work on the subject. It u with ttic object of tilling thin 

pf tti our Utetuturti that T hnvn written thin book. 

^ I have M:1cct«d the title Chcinica) Physiology in prefprmce to that 

H «( Pbynological Cboinistry, as the snhjects are treated rather from the 

puinl of view of their fuiiotioo in tlie body, than b-oiu that of their 

dkenuc*! reIatioiitihip»i (o one another ; heuce the book deals with a 

ji Jipirtweut of Phyhiolopy more Uiaii with a dii|Hu-Luienl of ClieuiUtry. 

■ I have added the words ' and Pathology ' to the title, an t liave 
ntdcMvottred to incliub^ tlie ehief facta in relation tn the blood, urine, 
and tUHDCa which havi? a thrniieo-patholoipoal bvnrin^'. I oin in IiopuK 
Ibat tho book may he not only uneful to xtudrnta of physiology-, and 
tbasB pamiiiig ongina] jn%*<»tigntinnK in cbninical phyniitlojuy, but alio 
lo iba slu<if>nl of practical nieilicino and the rooiiical practitioner. 

■ In tlte prt^ntlion of tJiia Tolum« I have rpceivrd much help from 
B« larg* numlier of friendii, among whnni 1 would v«pecinlly mention 
^mProt. SciiArKK, to whom 1 owe a num>>er of valuable suggettiotia 

and refrrvncv; Dr. 8i»XKr Mahhx, who read loy manuscript of the 
rhapt^ra on prot«ids, foods, diet, and jxitliolo^iL-al urines, and made 
btAb CT*rT*ttjoii« and iiii},-ge«tJonit ; Dr. MacMuss, who kindly n.aid the 
pntofa of tlie aectioiw mlating to the pigments of the bile niid urine. 
Dr. R. N. WoLriEMiKN. wlm gonerounly placed in my haDda the 
iiMcript of n numlicrof valuable tables rvlatiu{( lo the uHne ; these 
»Te fomMd th«i basis of the tahlva given on pp. 712 to 713. 716 to 
rifi, T45 to 746, and 784 to 785. 

Tl>e ItooJcs and original monographs thnt have been consulted have 
hcsin vfTt nuioerous- I lielieve ii. will he found that in ill cu»^ I Uav« 



It >• wnw jmn nnw ■ cotn|>1i;to t«xtbook of ChvtoicaJ Vliyaology hu 
■ffft Tn l in t)i9 KnglUh Ungungn, «nd the rapid stri<tea that bitve beeu 
■ftdr in Uii« ilxpnnmcnt of wjence npp««r to me to juatifjr the produc- 
ttoa <4 ■ n«w work on tJi« snhject. It U with tlie ol>ju<:t of tUMtig thia 
pip in cMir Utcntiire that I luivu writU-'n tliijt book. 

I baTv selected thu title Chi-inicul Phjr*io1o^ in prcfervnce to tlinl 
•4 PhvMological ChemitAry, as tbc subjccta are lrcnt«d mthvr from the 
ftiiitX at virw of thoir function in the body, than from that of their 
chiwticA] rnlntioo*Jups to one Another ; hcim> ihe book deals with » 
tUptrtuWDt of Vhysioiogj more tlian with a departiia-iil of Cheiuistry. 

I Im*« Kddtd the words ' Ai>d Pathology ' to the title, as I hare 
endMraBred to include the chief facts in relation to the blood, urine, 
ftsd tiMraes vhich hare m ohemiL-n-iuithologicul )teannj{. I am in liopei 
liMt the book mky lie iiot only uiuoful to atudenU of pliysiology, and 
tlMM pamiing origiiml invwtiKntions in clieaiico] phvsiulo}^, hut also 
to thr •Indent of praoticnl medicine ami tli«i niiiliL'nl [>ractitionor. 

In til* prefmnilion of tliio volun)(^ I hare rectivtwl luuoli help froui 
* laf:g'> fiumlwr of friendii, nDiong whom I wouhl i-MimcJAtty lut^ntion 
Prof. SriMPKii, Uj whom I owe a num1>er of valuablr euggesliozu 
Mid raftrcacos ; Dr. Bidnkt Mautix, who nod my ma,nu»oripi of tfaa 
rhjiptif* (in pmtfidn. foods, dii-t, and pnthologicAl urinfis, imd made 
biitb ciimx-lioM and suggcatioiis ; Dr. MacMu.nx, who kindly rimd tb« 
ptnotm oS the aKtions relatiuc to t)ie pigcients of the bilo nnd urine, 
kimI Dr. It N. ^VoLPUtDEX, wliu jji^nerously placed in my hands the 
muiuuTipt of a niiniherof tiiluahle iiibles relating to the urine ; these 
h«T« formed the budia of the ta.blti« given on pp. 71S to 713, 716 to 
719, 7ia to 746, and 7Ai to 78A. 

The tnHik* awl origiiud nionogmphs that h*T« been oonauUed have 
vrrr nuin^muL 1 Iwliitve it will he found that in all uutca I liav* 

' \ 



tr » MOM jvu» ancf • complete textbook of CheiuicAl Fbysiolog}' hw 
■ppifTid in the Engtisli Uiiguaj^ and the rapid atridt^ Ihat have been 
■aido in this departuebt of »ci«uce iippenr to me to JuBtifj' llie jirodui:- 
iMa nf » n«w work on tlto «ubjocL It i» with Hit- objocl of filling thw 
pp in nur ({(^nttaixt tbiit I hnvn writt^tn thix boolc. 

1 hftve Mil«ct«d tbd titld Chemical Pliy nology in profnvnco to that 
at Phynological Chemistry, as tbe suhjecte are trCMtcd rnthcir from the 
poant dt view of tbeir function in the body, than froiii thnt of thdr 
ckviickl reUtionshipa to one another ; beuce ihc book denls with a 
JepMrtanent at PhytkAogy more than with a dcparLuitint of Clieuiialry. 
I hare added tbe words '«nd Patholo^' to the title, as I have 
•BdMvoiiml to induile the chief facts in relation to tlie blood, uriue, 
tad liaeoM vhidi bnvL' a cbemico- pathological beanii}[. I am iu hopes 
Ihat the book may ho not only nnnful to students of ]ihytiio!ogy, and 
tfaoae pimving original invettigiitinnN in chemical jiliysiuln^, but alao 
la lb* student of prncticol mt-dicin" and tb« mnlicnJ practitioner. 

Id the preparation of thiH vuluiue I have rtccivrd much lielp from 
a l«rge nombcr of frirniU, among wlioin 1 would i-»pccinlly meutiou 
Pro6 Scilj^rui, to vhoni I nvre a number of valuabli; suggentioua 
and i gfw noM; Dr. ilinxtr Maxtim, who rcaul my manunuript of the 
<-lMpl«n on proteids foods, diet, nnd pnthologic«l urines, and made 
huth ctMTPctious and flii;;geations ; Or. MAcMrNX, who kindly mul the 
pniofs of the sectiotia rvlatiiift to tlie pigiii<.-iit« of thfi bile and arine, 
and Dr. B. N. Wolhudks, who gi-nemusly placed in ray hands the 
aaaoacript of a number of valunlitc talilva ivlating to the urine ; these 
hMr« fominl UieliEuiiji of the tables given on pp. 712 W 713, 716 to 
719, 745 to 746, and 784 to 78.'>. 

The books nnd original monographs that have been consulted have 
been verr ouaeroua. I >>«lieve it will be found that in all caws 1 have 





:emical physiology 



W. D. HALLIBUItTOX, M.D., Kik:, M.R.C.P. 

rtHmBwiui nr riirninjutt *r xmoV crti.i.iuiii, uivinih 





-4/1 rli/kll rtlfft" 

» ' ' \ 


It is some years since a complete textbook of CHemic&l Fiiysiology has 
appeared in the English language, and the rapid strides that have been 
made in this department of ecience appear to me to justify the produc- 
tion of a new work on the subject It is with the object of filling this 
gap in our literature that I have written this book. 

I have selected the title Chemical Physiology in preference to that 
of Physiological Chemistry, as the subjects are treated rather from the 
point of view of their function in the body, than from that of their 
chemical relationships to one another ; hence the book deals with a 
department of Physiology more than with a department of Chemistry. 

I have added the words ' and Pathology ' to the title, as I have 
endeavoured to include the chief facts in relation to the blood, urine, 
and tissues which have a chemico-pathological bearing. I am in hopes 
that the book may be not only useful to students of physiology, and 
those panning original investigations in chemical physiology, but also 
to the student of practical medicine and the medical practitioner. 

In the preparation of this volume I have received much help from 
a large number of friends, among whom t would especially mention 
Prof. SciiAPER, to whom I owe a number of valuable suggestions 
and references ; Dr. Sidney Martin, who read my manuscript of the 
chapters on proteids, foods, diet, and pathological urines, and made 
both corrections and suggestions ; Dr. MacMunn, who kindly read the 
proofs of the sections relating to the pigments of the bile and urine, 
and Dr. R. N. 'Wolveudkh, who generously placed in my hands the 
manuscript of a number of valuable tables relating to tlie urine ; these 
have formed the basis of the tables given on pp. 712 to 713, 716 to 
719. 74.5 to 746, and 784 to 785. 

The t>ooks and original monographs that have been oomiulted have 
been very numerous. 1 Helicve it will be found that in all cases I have 


given my authority for any stateuents I have made, anil 1 take this 
opportunity of thanking all those who have unwittingly, by their 
researches and writings, thus aided me in the production of this 

The illuiiti-ations are also culled from various sources, and I have 
to thank the following authors and publishers for the loan of blocks, 
or for permission to use certain illustrations ; Dr. DuPR^, Prof. M. 
Foster, Mr. A. W. Gekrard, Mr. C. E. Gkoves, Prof. McKendrick, 
Prof, SchAfeb, Dr. Schcnck, Mr. F. Suttoh ; the Council of the 
Chemical Society ; Messrs. Churchill, Messrs. Encelmann of Leipzig, 
Messrs. Macmillan, Messrs. Vieweg and Son of Brunswick, and Mr. 

The duty of reading the proof sheets hiis been greatly lightened fur 
me by my friend Mr. C. J. Martin, B.Sc, Demonstrator of Physiology 
in King's Colle^, who read the final revises, and I have to thank him 
for many valuable suggestions and alterations. 


KlN(i's COLLEUB : 

OctohfT 1, 1890. 








(jravimetric and TOlumetric onalfEls 7 

Fihration 10 

WAfbiDg precipitates 10 

Uiring 11 

Cooling after (Irjing II 

Incineration 12 

Kvaporation 12 

Boiling 12 

DistillalioD 13 

Dialjiis 13 

Determination of 8[>ccilic gravity 15 

Determination o( reaction. Alkali raelrj, acidinietry 16 

The centrifugal machine 17 

Dctenuination of relation of Bolids and water in an; substance ... 18 



Inlroiluclor; 19 

Tf!>i™ for nitrogen 13 

Ti-rts for sulphur 19 

Te»i:i for phosphoroB 20 

y-.iantilative analyniB of substances consisting of carbon and hydrogen, or of 

carbon, hjifrogen, and ojtygeu 20 

I )rrernii nation of the carbon aiid hyilrogen in nitragenou!^ substances . 21 

Iieitruinalion of the nitrogen in organic componnds 22 



Analjsis ot oi^soic compounda couUining sulpbor 24 

Eitimalion of phosphonii in organic Bubitancea 25 

UeterDiinatiDu of iron in oigauio Bubstances 25 

To dedaoe empirical fonnulge from peruentage compositions . . . 26 



Metboda of collecting material iutciicted for gas analysis . . . 38 

The extraction of tbe gasea from the nmtetiuU under invesMKation 30 

Analysis of 1h<^ gases S'i 



The roicnwcope 36 

Polarisation of light, and polariserH 36 

Kelation betwt«n circular polari Nation and oliKtiiical uunstitutiuii . H 

The spectroscope 4G 

The speclrophotometer fill 

The spectropolarimetcr 53 

rwi' CHEMICAL coiSurrrrKNTs of the ohcanism 




ISOKItASIl' (■0)I1^CMI» 

Water S« 

Kydnigi'M peroiidt, sulphuri-tli'dlirdni);!'!!, aiiiinunla 69 

Acids 60 

^alls at 



The pnraflin* and Iheir derivatives (alcohols, acids, fats, &c.) ... 64 
Aronintic r4>rTi|M>uiid.'* . . . ^ .»,.,, .74 

Nitrnttenrjus or^'atjic couiiiouiids (umido-HC'Ul:^, bile-acidx, uric acid 
l^up, kc.) SO 




iDtrodnclory 93 

l>extru9e ... 9* 

LenOcHe il9 

Galactose 100 

IncKiile 100 

Can? Bu^r 101 

Laotooe 102 

Maltose 103 

Starch lOJ 

r>e»iriQ 105 

GlycogeD 106 

(Mlolo^ 107 

Gums and other carliobydrutiiM 108 

Glucosides 109 

(iljcarunic acid 109 



Intn>duct(lT7 HI 

Composition and coostilDtion ot Ihe proteic|j4 112 

Tests 117 

QuantitalivG estiniation IIG 

CUi<.siGuatioD I'JT 

Prriteids as poisons 137 

Tallies illustiating' methods of testing fur proti^ida 139 



The iill)iiDiiiii)id> 143 

Tne feriiient« 146 

The pignients .... 116 



Introductory 151 

DnorFsnised leniienl? 168 

Organised fennentu 16] 



Introdnctory 169 

Methods of separation of ptomainps 1 7n 

General properties of the iinimal Hlkaluids 177 

Ennmeration of the animal alkaloids 177 


AnaljeU of orgsoic eomponnda containing sulphoi 34 

EatimaCion of phosphorus in oiganic mbatances 25 

PttermioBtion of iron in organic substonceB 25 

To dedaoe empirical formulie from percentatte compositions ... 26 



Methods of collecting material ioteailed for gas analysiK .... 38 

The eitraction of the gases from the materials onder investiKation . . SO 

AnaljEls of the gases 32 



The microscope 36 

Polarisation of light, and polariserM 36 

Relation betweeo ciccular potarisatioii and clieiiiiual cunstitution . 44 

The spectroscope 45 

The ipectrophotometer no 

The spectropolari meter 53 






Water 68 

Hydrogtn peroxide, sulphuretted hydrugeii, aiiinioniB Gtt 

Acids 60 

Balls 60 



The paraffins and Iheir derivatives (alcohols, acids, fatt, Ac.) . • . 64 

Aromatic compounds 74 

Nitrogenou!; organic compounds (umido -acids, bile-acid^, uric acid 

group, kc.) . , 80 




Intioduclor; 92 

UeitroM ... 94 

IjCTnloHe "9 

Oslactow 10(1 

iDoaite 100 

Cwie sagar 101 

Lactate 102 

MaltoM lOS 

SUrch 104 

DeilriD lOE 

Gljcof^n lOS 

CelloloBe 107 

Gnnu >nd other uarbofaydrateji 108 

Glucoaidtd 109 

LI I vcarunic add 109 



IntToductoTj Ill 

Composition and const kution of the p rote ills 113 

Tests 117 

Qnaotitativc estimation 126 

Cla-iMliiaition 127 

Prot«ida aa poiKoox 137 

Tallies illuatrating methods uf testing for proteiilH 139 



The itltiimiiii'iiiU 143 

The ferments 146 

The pigiueiitH .... 146 



InlTodurtory ISl 

TJnor^aiii«e(l leniientn ItiR 

OrvDiiiseil termfTitu IGl 



Introdattory 169 

Method* of nejeiration nf ptoniaincK I7S 

(ii'iicrat propcrtien of the iininial alknlniils 1"7 

RnnmeiHticin of the animal alluiloid* IT' 


PART nr 




rntrodBCtorj- 183 

Protoplawnic movement ISO 

Physical and uhemical properties of protoplasm 190 

The DDcleus at rest and during division 194 

Fnuctions of cells SOS 

Functions of the nucleus 207 

ComparisoD of animal with vegetable cells ... ... 208 

Appendix— chloraphf 11 211 



iDtroductorj 217 

Coagulation of the blood 221 

The plmma 227 

TheBerum 230 

Fibrin 231 

Fibrinogen 234 

Serum-globulin 236 

Fibrin -ferment 2;i9 

Historical account of the theories of coagulation 242 

Kerum-albumin 245 

Kztractive« of the phuma and serum 261 

Inorganic constituents of the plasma and iserum '^H 

White blood -corpuscles or leucocytes 257 

Blood-tablet H 261 

Bed btood -corpuscles 262 

HffimoglobiD 267 

Compounds of haimoglobin 274 

Estimation of liicmoglobin 282 

ConipoHition of biiiiuoglobin 286 

Tests for blood 295 



Introductory 297 

The blood in ansmiu '^dS 

Conditions in which the coagulation \» abnormal 305 

The blood in inflammation '.ifHi 

Parasites in llie blood 3<>8 

The blood in d<»eB»e» of various orimns 31 1 

Hicmoglobin crystals in scplit riisea60> ^lu 





Introductory 3t6 

The blood of echinoderma 318 

The blood of worma 3I» 

tbeDiooyanio 321 

The blood of motlnsci 32B 

The blood of cmstacea H21 

Tti« blood of ararhiiiilu XiS 

The blood of insects 3S8 



Inlrudactory . . 3:11 

Lymph 3H3 

Chyle 336 

Lymph in sproiis cavities in hi-alth 338 

Dropsical fluids 33'J 

I'eritoiii'al fluid :tiB 

I'leuml fluid .316 

I'tricanliuJ Muid 347 

Hydrfoele Huici 3iB 

Tbi- tliiiil of KtibcutaneouH CEdi-ma il4U 

Thi' aqaKoufl hnraour 350 

IVriljiuph and cndolymph 351 

S_nniviii 351 

Till' fluid in ovarian cysts 3B2 

Thi' fluid in bydmncpliruttia 353 

Tlie fluid ill hydatid uy^ts 3S1 

Thi; HiuniittiL- Uiiid 354 

ti-n'l)ro-Bpin»l Huii) ^(55 

I'uH :!(il 



lilt rmt net ori' .... 

Tlir Kii»'s of re^pinitiiin 

■J be pifjw of tbf blijod 

1 >-iSuc rcp pi rat ill II 

'I )■•' ykL-n- of lyiupli, cliylc, iind siiuilur lluidh 
■ 'uLitieiius ri'vplnilioii . . . . . 
h'<elal rc^pirLtiirji ..... 

lt(-^}IinlIion ill fl>lii'K ..... 






Introdnclory 398 

HicroHcopic etudy of niusCDlur Hbrea 399 

Chemical composiCioD ot muscle 40S 

MoBcle-pIasraa and tnuscle-serain 406 

Pigments ot miucle il7 

Extrsctlvea of mascle (creatine, glfuogen, lactic acid, lie.) .... 4IS 

Inotgsnic constituentg ot loascle 427 

Owes of niascle 428 

Contraction of nmscle (Eammar;) 431 

Effects of muHcalar contraction on the uriae 436 

Appendix— Electrical organs ..... ... 440 



Introductorj 141 

PATement epithelium 443 

ColDDUiar epithelium 443 

CilUt«d epltbeUum 443 

Uucu« 141 

Secreting epithelium 448 

Compoaad eplthelia 461 

Keratin 453 

MiilaDiD 4S3 

Turaoin 4G4 

Skeletins (ehitin, convliiolin, Lc.) 464 

Tunicin 456 

The retimi 456 



Introductory 466 

The cells of connective-tissue 470 

The white Sbrcs ; collagen and gelatin 470 

The elantic fibres; elastin ■173 

The ground Bubstance ; mucin 47,"> 

Cartilage ; chondrin 481 

Cartilage of invertebrate ttnimaN 185 

Hjalins and byalogens 486 

Adipose tissue (fat) 4H7 

Bone 193 

Dentine, enamel, and other calcareous and skeletal stnic(tirr> . 4!>.'i 

The fat of marrow 49fi 




Intiodnclorr 497 

Pigments of melanotic Eiircomata 4!)!> 

MTXoBdema BOl 

Goat GOf< 

Bicketi 610 

If ollities OKsinm. oc oateomalacia 612 

Brittle boti«« 613 

Caries and necroaii Bl:) 



Introductorv 614 

Geneial coraposilion of DerroaH structures 616 

The prot«id9 of nerrons tismie 62:1 

The phosphorised conatitneota of ncrvnuH tiasuc (lecithin, pr<itHK"ii) 52i 

Choleat«rin Gfll 

Cerebrina 633 



Introdnctorr G?I6 

The liver (coni]>nsition, pmleida, glfct^en, &c.) 63<> 

The spleen 6GSI 

The IfEDphsiic glands G6S 

The thymus 666 

The Diyroid and BoprareDal body 667 

The paDcreas and saliratr glands 6fi8 

The kidneys 669 

Thelanfts 660 

Tbe testis 661 

The ovary 564 

The eye 664 

The r«r, the skin 666 







Introdoctory Si;!l 

The pmiimatc priocipleK of fund lilill 

Milk :.12 

K(»B 6SI3 

Meat BiMi 

Vegetable foods ii!t7 

Accesitories to food (alcohol, ten, rotfen, &.<:.) i'M 









The pbysiol^'j- of aolivary secn-lion 

The «riii:liirp ot the cpIIh thai iworete SHliva 

The uoiiiposition ot nativa 

The avlion of KBliva 




Thy physLolop- of thi' jwerction of pnslric juicJ; . 

Tho slruclart: of uiid change? in the i*1Ib iJiiit Booretc ijastric juii 

The composiliun of gastric juice 

The action of jtiislric jiiici' 

I! 1 11 









Iiitnxliictiiry 6.14 

L'omp<«ition of panrrentic Juice tifiB 

Th>.- aocion of pancreatic juice on foods G.^li 


SUL-cUfl F.NTKRIIUH lifrl 


Iii:iiv]ii.-tOr>- (JfiH 

Tlie !i«t-r^t ion of bile fi68 

T1:<' i-luiTarten> of bile and it^ cotmtitueats . ., fiH 

Tliv ii-e?: un<l fiite of bile.iD the intcsliae ■ ^l> 

Abn'trrnal nnil patholo^eal condiiions in bile-formal ion .... i)t)8 

Tiie wcntion of the gall-bliuMcr BWa 

Tlie invertebrate liver (i!Hl 










Til'- kirtiipy . TfKi 

(iLiieral characleni of urine 711 



Introductory 720 

Vna TJl 


Uric Boltl ^27 

Xwithine "6 

Hjpozanthine, );iiaiiiiie, allaDtuia 736 

OiKluric acid, crealiuine, thiocysnic "87 



Hippnric acid ^"8 

Aromatic compounds of glycnronio acid 7*0 

Aromatic oxyacida T*0 

Ethereal sulphates ^*0 



Komal urobilin Ti" 

Pathological urubilin TW 

Urohtematoporphyrin 760 

Other orinary pigmentB "•' 



Oxalic and other acids 7B4 

Carbohydrate! ^** 

Fermenta ''5' 

Mucin ^^ 

C/Dureoic, nrocaiiic, kryptcphanic acids, &c 758 

TBK isoRnANii; coNSTiTtrr-NTa of orihe 

The chloride* ^** 

The sulphates T«0 

The carbonates aod phoupbates T«l 

Other inorganic subetannpa 764 



Introductory "85 

Drags in the nrinc 795 

Urinary depoail 766 

Urinary calculi 'T3 

Blood anil bl^rttd-piguipnl in urine 776 

Bile In nrine TT8 

Proloida i" ite urine (80 

The orinp in diabelea ■. ■ ■ ■ ■ ^^^ 

Olycuronic acid in the urine 793 


FaU in tbe arllie '9G 

Alcaptoniuia T96 

Alkaloids in the urine Tn6 

The (liato-reiiclian in urine 797 



Sstiiuntion o( tho total solida 798 

„ ncidity 798 

„ „ chlorides SDO 

,. „ ]>hOHphates 802 

„ sulphates 803 

„ carbonic acid .... 80* 

,. „ potash and sodii 805 

„ lime . . 806 

., .. magnesia 806 

„ ammonia 806 

„ total nitrogen 807 

„ „ uric acid 807 

,. „ hippuric acid 809 

„ oxalic acid 809 

„ urea 810 

„ 4 creatinine . ■ 813 

., „ sngat 8U 

„ „ jjroteidK 81B 

„ fat ... 817 

_ .. phcno 817 



Theweat 818 

XhtjcbDin 8S2 

Cwnmen, tcan". Ire 823 






1SDK.»: . . . . 853 


Va. villi: 

1. BurettcH and Htiinil Sutton T 

!. Sproiigel's fllter-imiiip GiekleidUa 9 

3. Hot-water funnel GtchUidUn 10 

4. Hot-air oven OiehUidlfH 1 1 

B. An exsiccator OtchieidUn II 

6. DialjMtr fJteUeidlet 13 

7. Dialyger 13 

8. Sndoamomcler Hermann It 

9. Urinometer .VoKendriek 16 

10. Qeisaler's Kpecilic gravity bottle IS 

11. Centrifugal loaclimc IT 

12. Method of testing fat sul[)l I or yrcieniui 20 

13. Tube for collecting blood over mercaiy 29 

H. Diagram ot Pfliigcr'3 iminp 81 

IG. Vacuum BusV for nniscli^ 32 

IS, Lunge's nitrometer 3t 

IT. Diagrams to illiwtrate itnlariscd light :)7 

18. „ „ „ 37 

19. ., .. ,. „ 3B 

20. „ „ .. 39 

21. .. M ., id 

22. Soleil's (Hiccliarimcti'r 41 

23. Diagram of Sole il's Kneel lari meter VeKeitdriek i2 

24. Laurent's polariracter 43 

26. Diagram ot asj mmctric carbon atoms 4G 

26. Diagram of Bpeutroscnpe 47 

27. Figure of spectroscope and accessories .... .VcKmdrick 48 

28. Direct vision prism liKhleidUn 49 

29. Scale of nnve-letigttis tlmtileidlen 60 

30. SpoctropnUri meter of von Fleischl 53 

31. Qljcocine crystals Frty 82 

32. Leucine ccj-staU Prry 83 

33. Tyrosine crystals Frey 83 

84. Creatine crrstali Frry 84 

36. Creatinine crj'stals Frey R6 

36. Taurine crystals Frry 86 

ST. Cystin crystals Friy 86 

88. Sodium glycoobolale crystals Freij 87 

39. Cholalic acid crj-stals Frty 87 


Ho. rAOK 

40. Allantolu orystole Pnf 90 

II. Dextrose cryatsls .FVey 94 

42. Inosite citbIsU JVvy 101 

43. MUk-su^r ci7Btats Frey 10! 

44. Apparatus foe heat-coagulation 119 

46. The resting nucleus 196 

46. Tbe resting nucleus . . 19S 

47. Karjokinesis 199 

48. KaTTokineds 200 

4t(. Metakinesi:) :!01 

AO. Daughter nuclei 202 

£1. Absorption Hpectrum of chlorophyll Schuneh 216 

E>2. Fibrin-Glamcnts and blood tablets I^haftr 221 

C3. Abaotption spectrum of semai lutein ....... 254 

Hi. Gowcr's biemacftomcter £03 

&5. Effect of reagents on red corpuscles . Quaint A natemg 264 

S«. Oxyhtemoglobin crystals , . . QKain'n Anatomy 270 

S", Diagram of liemgona! crjstals 271 

68. Diagrams of nbsorption spectra of h!Fmog:1obin and oxyhiemo- 

globin liolUn 276 

59. Abtwrption spectra of liicmoglobin and derivatives .... 277 

fiO. Gower's liasmoglobi no meter 283 

fil. Hamin crj-stals Prfyer 291 

<r2, HKiuatoidin crystals Frcy 293 

C3. Cliarcofs crystals Zenier 303 

6i. Begnanli and licisui's respiration apparatus 367 

4k>. Pcttenkofcr's rciipinition apparatus 868 

Cfi. Diagram to lUustrulc absorjition of carbonic acid by water . Bolir 388 

AT. Diagram to illustrate absorption of carbonic acid by haemoglobin Bohr 3S9 

Gf-. ilu-iciiliir fibre of water-beetle Xeliand 401 

69. Muscular fibre of wator-beelle .Sehafrr 401 

TO. Absorpliiin spectrum of myohiemaiin 418 

7J . Groblet cells A'fcin 44B 

72. Alveoli of sr-rous gland . . . Laagley 460 

73. Pigmented epitholiiini of retina ^ar Srhultie 4.^8 

71. A rod and n cone Max Sehaltie 480 

7.^. AIiKorption sjx'ciru of retinal pigments 463 

-a. Fat-cel!s Sckii/n 488 

T7. Calcium c^irbonale crystals from an otolith .... Frey 496 

71*. Ctirpiira aiuylacea Frey 496 

79. ChdlestiTin crystjils Frey B31 

Sfi. HeiKilii- colls with glycogenic deposit .... Jlridenhaia B*0 

M. Cclliiliircuiistitwnts of colostmro .... Uridtnliain CT4 

82. Al'i'Oli of >or<nis ;rlanil I^ngley 620 

83. MiK'Oue coll.': Langley 621 

84- A !iimi>li' lardiac eland LangUy 631 

85. Alveoli of juuicreas KShiie and Lea 655 

8(>. I>iagrsiii ot iiitostinal fistula 664 

87. Origin of bili> i analiculi within liver-cells . . . Kitpfftr 670 

88. AbMJrptioii sjMictra of bile-pigments 6S6 



S9. Villus of rftt killed during fat absorption 

90. Mncous membruie of frog's intestine during fnl HbHotption 

91. CijBtala of urea .... 

92. CrTstals of nitrate and oxalate of urea 

93. Cijelala of uric acid 

94. Cryatals of acid sodium urate 
S6. Crystals of acid amiiionium ucate .. 

96. Cijatals of hippunc add 

97. Absorption spectra of urinary pignienis 

98. Crystals of calcium oxalate . 

99. Crystals of triple pbospbate , 

100. Dnpr^'s urea apparatus . 

101. GeiTard's urea apparatus . ^ 

102. Genarrt's percentage glycosomeler . 


104. Dulong's Calorimeter 












On p. 86, the formula for Cystin is wrongly ^vea. It sliould be CglTiVSO^ 
Its formula and constitution are correctly given on pp. 768. 769. 

On p. 303, the formula for Speimiae (Charcot's crystals) is incorrectly given. 
It shonld be C,H,N. This is given oorrectly on p. 663. 





The methola of annlyBia of, and modes of examining the substances of 
which the boily is compose*! vary a. good deal from those ordinarily 
eniployeil in chemistry. An examination of a lii'ing tissue by purely 
chemical means is weli-nigh impossible, as the reagents used will be 
almost certain to destroy the life of the tissue in (juestion. Hence 
Bime of the methods adopted by the physiologist differ markedly from 
those of the chemist : for instance, he may experiment upon hiniself or 
uptn animals, giving certain foo«ls or drugs by the moutji, and examin- 
ing the result in the alimentary caikal or their effect on the urine and 
other excretions ; again, he may attempt to imitate after death the con- 
ditions which obtain during life, and so conduct experiments upon 
femient action, the changes in cells, and so on. The physiologist has 
to 'leal I'ery largely with an important class of substances known as 
albuminous or proteid ; these re(|uire certain special methods of investi- 
(.rstion which are but rarely used in the work of ordinary chemistry ; 
Hnd then tlie physiologist avails himself of certain physical appai-atus, 
such as the sjjecti'oacope, polariscope, Ac, which give niaterial help in 
the elucidation of chemical problems. 

The reader must consult some special lx>ok on analytical chemistry 
lor full details respecting analytical methi^ls. The present chapters 
(Part I.) form a mei* sketch of the chief operations performed in 
ehemicHl investigation, those specially available for physiological work 
being dwelt on rather more fully. 


The weights and measures usually ejiiplnyerl in science are those of 
the metric syst«ni ; but, as the practical physician still uses very largely 
English grains and ounces, we give here both systems. 


(Eii^liBh System.) 

1 grain = I)'064h ^nimnie 

1 ounce ■437-5 grains - 2s-34!lrt yriiiiiUiM 

1 lb.- 16 01. - 7,000 grains - 4.-.I1 .■•Jifl „ 



77t« reaynnta chiefly empluyed are distilled water, physiological 
saline solution (0'6 per cent. NaCl), alcohol, ether, glycerine, the 
mineral acids, acetic, oxalic and tannic acids, potash, soda, ammonia, 
lime water, baryta wat«r, silver nitrat«, barium chloride, lead acetat«, 
copper sulphate, mercuric chloride, sodium chloride, carbonate and sul- 
phate, magnesium sulphate, the (»irbonate, chloride, molybdate, oxalate, 
sulphide and sulphate of nminonium, &c. &c. 

Normal Solutions used in analysis are of such a strength that 1 litre 
at 15° C. contains the hydrogen equivalent of the reagent in grammes. 
A normal solution of hydrochloric ncid, for instance, will contain 
(H:=1 + CI=35'5=36-5) 365 grammes of the acid in a litre of water. 
Or in the case of caustic soda, NaHO (Na=23fH=H-0=16), 
40 granimea must be present in the litre. In the case of a bivalent 
substance the equivalent is half the atomic or molecular weight ; thus 
a normal solution of oxalic acid which is dilwisic (CjHjO, + HjO = l26) 
contains C3 instead of 126 );rammes {lissolve<l in the litre. 

Decinormul solutions are i'^, and centin<irmal solutions yin of the 
strength of normal solutions. 

Empirical Staminrd Solutioiig are generally constructe<l so that 
1 c.c. correspimds to 0-01 gramme (1 centigramme) of the substance tn 
be estimate<l. 

The Appfiniliis necessary consists c)f the ordinary appliances of thn 
chemical lftlH>ratory : test-tubes, beakers, flasks, funnels, filters, dishes 
anil crucibles, stirring rods, pestle and moi-tar, wash-bottles, retorts, 
pipett«s, blow-pipe, balance, air and water-baths, exsiccators, mea- 
sures, iko., and in addition certain forms of apparatus which are more 
fully described in subsequent chaptei's, such as microscope, spectrosciijw, 
polarimeter, diolyser, apparatus for gas analysis and for combustions, 
specific gravity bottles, urinometers, &c. ic. In a^tdition, apparatus 
for the manufacture of carbonic acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, and other 
gases, is oftei' needed. 

A.vjr.rrirAi. MKTiions 


lurttlKTntc aiuUvMH, or ijuuntitntivp Hualysis by weight, con «iita in 
••>|mntting out the wnslituviite of any coiiipouud Ui n pura Ktati-, iir ia 
Ibe foriD of some iww compouud of known L-ouipositton, und ncciirii(«l7 
wei>;hiiig the prodDcU; 

VuIuuK^tric pi-oc«<a«««i«, na a rule, mitre <(uicklj? pcrfotmrxl, aud 
iu soliniittinu tli» sulittiuiov to be (wthiinted tocertHUi chai'acter- 
ic rvactUuu, ciujiluyinf; f<ir inich niuitions solutions of known 8ti«n^h, 
bihI fruiu IIk I'olunii! of solution npcc-wiiiry for the 
production of Huch imrtion di^tcnuining tho 
"wsight ft tlH' uilwtAncc to be p«tiinnt«d. 

Vcilnni<;tric nmilf sia cons^uently dttpcnds on 
tlw following conditions for its succeiisful prac- 
tice : — 

1. A (iolution of the reagent', tlic chemiod 
power of wliich ia accurately known, 
cKllnl the * stiin<lftixl solution.' 

2. A graduated veeael from wldch portions 
of it may be accurately delivered, culled 
the burette (%. 1). 

3. The rencttou produwd by tlie t«it aiilu- 
ttou with nny givrn sulmUnci? niUHt Utht-r 
\>y itaelf, or by on indiciilor, \ye tucli tlmt 
its tenuiuAtton in unmiHt.-Uciibl<t to tliu 
cyev and thereby the cjuantity of tlxt nub- 
itance witli wbicti it ia ci>mbiii<:<l accu- 
rately determ!ne<l. 

Hie gnat ndvanii^e uf volumetric pr<xH--KiK:it 

U that the mbatance to Iir «stimnLnI nec<1 not 

be iaolaled in a pure comlition, but the rcnction 

cbuaeu in generally one wtiioh is not inti.-rf(! with by the preaenoe 

(rf otlter MiliatHi>cv«.' 

itupione, fur inKtanoc, one roquirtK to know the amount of ph<M- 
' Hi* klwM inUudaeUTy MntancM <u^ token nlmoil Terbntlm Irom SnttMi'a 

Flfl. 1. -Tno iTirr, 


pboric itcid in tW nrine : a tneasnred amoatit of ariiie is rtn'lered acid 
MmI Imile^ and to it is added frum & burette, a solution of kr.i'wn 
!<tmigth of nmniniD acetate (which for accur&cy has bc<-& [reWi-o^ly 
litrBt«iP with a standard solution of sodium phosphate) : the res^uh of 
this ii th* formalion i>f a compound i>f the uraniiuo with the ph< sphoric 
aciil, and this compound, called uranium phosphate, is insuluhlr in hot 
add urine, and so a precipitAte occurs. The precipitate, «bich is 
yellowish -white in colour, continues to form until all [ihosphoric acid 
is combined- When the precipitate ceases t.> form, one kni-rs tliat 
there Li no more phos^oric aciil in solution, and if one ad<is in"rp 
uranium acetate it "ill Jie left nncombine"! and free, ttoes objtT^t 
then is Ui a'id jast sufficient of the staniiani 5i.iluti>.>n to precij.iiate all 
the phiisphoric acid. The rolume of urine ■•ri^'innllv taken is known, 
the strength of the standard solution is known, and the amount nf tlic 
standan) Eolation that has been used can lie asferiaii'.ed by rendinL' the 
burette.* It is, however, <liflicnlt to determine by the eye when pre- 
cipitation is finished : :.a indicator is therefore uf*"l to detect any 
excess nf the uranium salt; this is done by testing a di\>p of the 
mixture with a drop of potassium femicyanide (in » white porcelain 
plate or testin);-&lab ; this gives a reddish -bniwn precijiitate wiili anv 
uranium salt not combined with phie-phoric acid. The ipjic^rTtnct- 'if 
Hoch a briiwn precipitate indicates the en<l of the reaction. 

As an example, su]:<po$e tJie amount of urine taken was .'<0 c.c, and 
the amount of standard sulntlon required for the appearance of the 
terminal reaction 24 cc He standard uranium si>lutii.>n useil is of 
tnd) a strength that I cc. will exactly precipitate O-OO.i gramme of 
phosphoric acid. '24 cc. will precipitate 24 times 0-005=01 2 grainnit->. 
This is the amount of phosphoric acid in 50 cc of urine : tlie ami-unt 
in 100 cc of urine ""ill therefore be twice as great— cc 0"24 per cent. 

His is an operation which can be completed in a few minutes. 
whereas if it had lieen necessary to separate out the pho»phiiric acid in 
a pure condition and weigh it, the processes would have exten<)ed oitr 
several days. 

There are, howei-er, certain substances to which a \olumetiic 
method cannot be applied, and it is then necessary to use the gravi- 

^ A titTibt^ Polatiop iH cn« of vbicb the stren^i h^h iw*f'D brciiral4-lv fjiuud hv 
experiment- When t, polution ix djrect«td u> he titnted. the invLnm>: is lUitT it j^ u- ]>t 
qtLuitJtAtivel; l«Bted lor the unonnt of pure EnbflluMie it rontuDS hy tlii- help of b;taii6HT(1 
or prevkoanly titrated ftolatioDL 

' It ifi umuJ to Dol« the pofiition of the lowenl poml of the ron'ei^ F^urfuee .rtjenisi -(■'.* 
of Uu fluid in A burette. Sometimes mcrnntry if ohtnined hy Dhittf k ^'Ijk^s 5'iikl bliic-li 
rise* uid falli iriLh the fluid in the 1-iuvtte williniit mrerin): ; thi- hn^ u liiinzoiiinl litx- 
dr»wn on it. mnd the ooincideuce of thia hite rhh the gTvdoUion mark in, tin- burette ib 
•ooepted u the tme rekding. 

t^ ]i '. — — ,-,..^ .-, -^ ... - ,-. — _ - ^-^fiiil nopaiu 111 tiir fla^ ^ Lntu vrbtcb dllntltao li 

fmimn L TW au(i / iuUoalv tlic iimnn. uul ili< cMna u'lt ncuUBc ll» nW at tai 

d{j«tAt«. Aniuuf; tlie uuuiy prwipiiauU uf proteitU, alcohol in on tliu 
wImiIb thv tiKHt ouuvmi«ii(, A known volatile of urine is i^vnpiimtf*! 
tu a anwU] bulk, oiixt if nlkjJiiw! U n-ii'li-nsl I'liinlly acid : about Utu 
tJuus tbr niiuiunl of iiloohol U :til<ti-cl, iiixl tlit- inixltire boiltd- Th« 
precipitate' In atllixicd on a' (IrtiKl nnd wcijflietl fUt«r. Thn 
ljIiw omxI maiit nth«r mntttin mi mtli, ur the umouitt of haIi (t.«. 
tniflfinil coDBtituimt«J tnuMt lie ktwiwii. 



TliP pivcipitftM i« then thoroughly waahetl with iiU-oKol mid ether 
to remove all the othi>r coi)i«titu<'nb( of the urtni- ; thir filti-r, with thv. 
precipitate I'll it, is dried at 110° C, ciioW in iin oxsicmtor, nnd ngKin 
weighed. The inci-euAe in weight is th« iintount of alhitminous subKlAtice 
ill the volume i>f urini- ()ri(pually taken. Protpid, however, cftrrieM 
down with it n certain ani<itint of axh : lliix in in^tinrnt^'d us foUciw* : 
A cTOciblo is dried snd u'ei;,'hed ; in tliJK the tiltfir nnd jiivcipiuitc are 
carefully hnmt, tmtiJ &sb utily reninins, AlI(>wBni:!e being lunde for the 
osli of the fdter. thin amount of asli lUUBt be deduotwi from that of the 
prot«id previounl^v found. 


T1i« lUler flioniil ti« amallcr than the funnel Into wlilcb it li Inw-rtal, nnd 
gcncrnllT nhriukl bt; nioiitenfid with wuier before bdng used. Filtration mny be 
hotlcnnl hy tlic iiKu of libbcU Hllors : liot liiinicit nlm tiller mnra (juivkly than 
oolil. Filtnitioii under pruuurv may hv iicogiiii)>lislic<l by ualiig uno of llii; many 
foiiu* of filter puaip of tvhith fuii' U lii-rp ri^ire>] (fi(r- 3)' 

lu nriivr to kM'|) » litjuiil li«l iluriiw 
liltnitioii, ihi- "fliiuiTy uia»* ftiiinci i» Bii- 
clokiil 111 n bnllow i:»ppG7 fiiniid tilled 
nifhlioi water (fig. 3), 

In Ihc tnac of fine prcL^jpitntf i, n smnll 
jHirtion of tlie preci))il<ii« ninynt fiwi jiiua 
(lirtiiiitli IhH lilter ; stnio, llowv^*e^, tlic 

lAttriT |)U«(VI llf l.>lll ]IU]n.T bin.'UIIII?' I>lll|^||^1, 

luiillimiNirttnnt.ivlilclilimi ii-iMiulihioimti, 
tniiit bo reiurneil in lli(< filter. 

With volumlniiiiis ■'"■■'"'i oi wetiitln»ii> 
depiMit* Ihe ]te|)>n vt Ihv ifrunu^r juirt 
of tlic prccipilnic ninv be nceonipliiheil 
by lillerin^ IhroiU).-!] muallu or linen. 
Pn^ipiiutw ore now ult«n eolktted 
oik ajIbWxi* Itlleiii: thuNe nif reiulil; lUHiIe by iN'rlonilin^' Ibe buKoin uf u 
plMinUB criicjbto wlili finp \i<i\ve uiitl fillin)r up Itii- bolluni uf the cniciblu uiUi 
finely divided nfboston. Tlwy iin> niiviiiiinKi''""B. «* tlwy win Ix.- i-iiBiJy ilriod 
ami weighed, uepcmuvncnt.aud whcrrolrx-lnvrtiton UnvceMMr? an- fnirrruma~li. 

tm. %, BwUuiul Tint lit Imt wntR tunuil. 


I'ni;ipilatn> nmy be wasbeilcD the filter; tt is best to mwa wiLi>h-bolll4^Mid 
can' iiiii><l he t^kpii Ihnt tJH> wiwii'Liijiii'l jvnctmtm lu every juurt of Ibe pr<ct])l- 
lnl<^ wlilch niiiy be Kcnlly iIIkIiiiIxuI for tlic piirixiw.' with « gbist rod, 

Wailiing by docniiinilon li only nppllv-abln l>i |iri>ei|<Tljitm tlial are huivr and 
oubridc readily ; the pmripiTale ii weJl mixnl with llii- wiihIi- liquid unci iillowsd 
(u vMtle ; t lie wnab-liquid in Iheii jxiiireil. lyphonal, or pl|wlle<l olt. more liquid 
ftd'lvl, and tlie pmi-eNi repralvd ai »fti^n w ncccumry. 

* StiDpU tomi* el fillar ptuup can aon he purcliMMl for t («w ahmingi, m>i1 eta be 
•ItacJwd to tnj ordiuiuy WB(iir-tii|i. 




^ wnlrr-ovon At Ihe teinpHiitiurv of lOd*, OT, lirrtlcr itlU, oc air-lmlh W ta 
gber, •ttd llip u>ti>|Httut im' kcjil wii>*«-iin liy n jw* rrpiilrtluT, mny bf u»cd 
fiIIrT-[iAi-i't> niiit uT^Kiiili- »"!in.inwT (TfiHtTnllr. Crui-IWw mny be 

I i*l4 \\\-\- r ■Till ■-;-|i ^-j' n^.iilii'Or ii>i. ( ■ ; ^-IlU-IiUoiI. | 

[hr aniJ ((nickly (tiled l>y liL-tiliatr (heiu witlj ti)ii)i> for n ti-w MM^ondn Ju a 
Bnwrri Ifaimv- 

A Ba*k t* drlcal bj' v,-aniuii|i: it iiiii) l)ii''i knelcinK |.tii> uir fruni ttiu tiilcrior witli 

■ V^t kIx" «■'■« (Upl>ins iol" i^- 


Bnl>*<MAc»> mtot iiiil bo wciifhiil hot. nihcm'lac nlr chttcdu nrc *vt np vliii^b 
dlMorti ■ iMiciitf- balimuv- Thry miul ntil be nlloiKvil to iIit Iji ibn all*, or tliev 
^BBIwciNllr If bjirruacopic) lifCoimj 
BMiiM nftain- Th«v m« leirticrally 
ooobal 111 iin ewJtcalor - h c.IiimiI «!«*■ 
*raci (.uniiiliinig n tray of i-iiliihiiilc 
■t-l.I, Ac Ssorv 4. 

A liltur \t nriiAUy lUtownl ti) coal 
M»l Is weiBiii'l biivTn?ii two u-a(cb> 
fba«-> rlii'tnl (L4[<'thiir. »r Id n rlim 
W ■! lila»* boitlp. The 

t> ' . li-Kl»«'*-b(inrt'rT. lIltiM 

1* -(r;, iiiul I'rulcil bi-fun.- ncitfliiiiK. 
In •■) vxalomtar. Afli-r <n:iiehiii|£ any 
tolaUaiw ibnt biia Iimii ilrii»l. II t> 
•fain bealcil (■> t tO' (nr iii>mi- lu>iir*, 
msIhI »ii>I «ol|t!>nl iw before: tlic 
|mDM« builiK ii^pratol until Iwo n...».-Ancul™t«r, ,U-^ii;..iii,.,. , 

nite mrtiiblugi ffive Ibe (ame nnmll—ihnt. I*, till ibcie b nu more luw of 


wi'ij^ht fnmi cTaporaticiu ot wwcr, TbU (■ cnllcd weigbiu^ to «m»liiiit "wight, 
BKikualurs may bv tu»d lor cirring lit mcuo nl a low lompi-mluni wich »ub- 
slantim as nould bu injuruil ■>>* the niiplicatiao of bml. la audi mtion ll«i (•.•|i iif 
till.- bull JKr <>[ iLt- fXficciilur U guiiiilitUiI bj- ii liibo Tu an uir-piimti, TIii.'IuIh) 
bIici'iIU U' lltt"! witb n t<tiT])-twk. Tlie hit i» IbuM esliunxlvl itilbi-r by nn 
unllDary nii-piiuip oi \n- a wni^r nir-piuiip ■.■inii^iructnl nn the *amc {irindplc m( 
that Blrcswly dfispribctl (dg. 2). Wlirn ibn vntmim it lu Miinpleic nj pmnible Ibu 
slup-covk jum !ibuul<l bo ctoMxl luid tbu pump vim bi- ■Iducbi.-it. 
Muialuii- nipiilly {.uif-xts uS troni tbc inbstnncu vbluli Is tu b» ib'iml, and la 
ilbtorlwil bv ihc milliliiirif acid. 


The mbitnncfl to bo IncUictatal iiin«t be diy nnd tniHi col loucli \he »iil«i ut 
the oriKibtu muiv than in sbauliitdx nvumsiry. h cruuilili' of kiinwii wnlght l« 
■ phic«<il iipKu u trl»n]|l«< MM a BniMOii ntttiw siii'l iit Km lii'nl<il iccy caullnmly, 
or thn rnutnnt* arc npt lo fnilh niiil be pnrtinlly Irat. Tbc heal » gnulttolly 
lDrrcn»rvl, nnil uUlninluly ilin Hnnin U nltowc^il to niirruiind Iho criivibK wLii'h 
■buuld be liked. The proon*. whlob U a 1uii|( i>ui.' irilb iKiivelnin rmi^iblcn. Is 
alli>w«i] ID coiilinuo liU 1hi< a»b is wlillt^. when It iii:<y li«< i:«nl«'l nnd wrltfliod. 
ItMo'n iDHliud is Ivtivr Ihao Chi- pKionliiiK, ami li- lUi follow*:— 
Tlio ilry iiiboiHiicu Ik t'urvtiilly ciirliotiiiioil la ii crnclbln oth a Duuseii Dnme. 
After coaling tlic conlrjua nrc hnntal with illii|ilU<l n-uk-r ngniii unit ii|[»!n to 
diiHolvc lU] soluUu noils. Tliu hoi iiqucniu vilnit^ts an? :>ni) lUlcm) 
Ibniiigb B Miiall lillur of knuwii aBh." llin Euxulnblu iimtim. itinpihii with (his 
Mimll lil(>-i (iKi ilriwl at 111)* ami IkuIiciI iiC n veiK biml ; ibi-'O Ibc rvsWui- is 
wliJt4.> tha crnclbic U niiil wi-iglind : lliU f^^■^r^. *a\Araex\Qg the weitrhl* at 
Ihni;«iicib1c«nd Bller iwb, the wciubt ot tbc uinoluhlc miIIa. Ki<hi.-r io ihi> miiii«] 
crucible or in ti iw|)iuiito ooi: the iiqu-Kius ciintct is cviiiuralcd lu dri iiv''. <lrl4ii 
ut 110'. aud igniluil at u red bunt : tbv L-rucible U Ibt-ii (xnjlnt nnd m-lgbrd; the 
iiicriDwi; in wuiyhi. \» tlu- nuiuuut ot uiluble t-iilt*. 


Thfl iwuaI teinpcraltm! employed Is 100°. wbii-b Li most easily obtained with 
n •ntor-batb ; (or Itinci idnpcmtDrcK, a tratcr-bnlh is k<-|» at » i;uiialuiit tmii- 
pirtiitiirc by a gns rcgabiior. 

Klbc-reil or nloaboliu tiolotiops niuat nuvL-r be utapaiatiHl tjvm* nahc<l flnmft, 
but ovtT a wat(T-bath. Iii hi-iitiiitE )claM8 tV7w1> it )t> atho inlvjunble i« intcrpoM 
u flat irui jilatv, <>r a piriH' uf vrlm ■tniix'. or nilNoioK i-^anltMinrd, or a Nuid-batb 
botirevii thotfbuv and tliellauir. 


Tb« binllng [>o!d1 uf a liquid i^ Ihat Utmpvnilun- nl which Uio llqniil UiMniM 
DO bottei*. but ai whi-.'b any tnrtFirr Iicai i* iiriol tip Iti oiiDvi-nlnK Uir bi|nld 
TCpow. It lbf< 11-|uid, liiiw«vnr. be ntiiTlomN) In a vo»i't h> thai n-> vnjiour 
Rseftpe, iti iciupisniiiii; will cnQilime to ritr, llotiM> li U pduibb to 
iiqneou-n folutloos above lOtT' C. by rjicdoilog ihciD lo lenlnl tnlH« or a IVpl: 
digc'tcT, aiu) phtciog theae ID tt liquid KucJi oa oit, wlilch bofls ul a hiiflier lea- 
IWtMure Iban waiur. 

■ Thcwhot ■91tt*ma]rbeBM(«<ained tiyitieiMntinic.Hy, ISMinlUiailcn.tnicfaing 
the aali, aaJ obtMiiinft tlw kVMage by divMtnit tijr 19. 



KamrtimM ODO wqnimt to boat ii liquiil for a loii); time viihout lu hudeir 
tuneit (if ilk Imlk; » Ii>ok frlHtia tiititi or a ociDil^nnifi is then nnui'hntl hy a mrk 
v'.ih a \nM In li to ilia riock ot tho (iRHk, the vii;iiiur c^iiiIuiih-s iu the tube ilnti 
:nt l>ack tnio tlw IkuA. 


^im- tiibiMDOMarn mnvb niont ix-lalile—ihat Iti, Uillnt n lowtr iFinpFnitiirp 
tfian iMliT*. AHnuuA^ In takPii ai tliU In wpiitiiic oni'li tmlmtiiiian by n 
)irTHi:M itf illntUUllon. 

A ilbtUbliciii iipfBiriiloK cuiuinls RupDlinUr of a boiti^r nnl n coniliTiiMTr. Tb» 
boUcr am; be a llaak or b tuIotI cIukciI «r]lb u corii Ihruuxb wfair}i n liibi> pntMii ; 
Uu! t>lj« leaita i(i the v><iiili>ii''<'r, wtildli in Ihc furiii ci>inmuiily iiipiil (LIcIiIk'*) 
eonHliiln of t> h>i>K lul« damiiiniltul l>y uTi oiitt-c tiitii- ; cold water U iiuuic lo 
cftraUl# Iwtw***! tlic two Inbn. Rml Ibiw llir" VHpi.iir mliieh I)umh-b nlong the 
iniiirt iiilir U coodcatdl, niid llir fliii'l no [uriiied ix oolliftiHl nt \t* fur i-iiil. 

A tbiTiiionw«« i» ii«"l into (III- rt'tott through Ihc cnrk M iln t>uniiii!I: 
tnuiluniil diiit illation nninixl* in riillroliiig Ibc lubslancc* In Mpunte vcnwl* 
tint liistil uv(v at ilillvrciii liii»)iFnitiirv(i. 


U & wilBikin <■( nlbntainont. ^lutiiioiiii, or mairUAKlnniM nubiiiiinoei, mlkCd 
vitti wiliini nii'l rrjiinlliiif •iiIibI;iiii:i'p hv )i1iiiM>d in u dlaljrwr, in ilinlUcd wnt«. 
Il will br finiiul (hii; ttiv crinitilliiio >ii1i«tiuii.i;B ptuft Ihruiwh Ihr jMirrlmient nicoi- 
bmw! iMo till- wntcr. u'liilv tliv jirDt«:fd or Kvlutioous ^ubelllIll'<.■l■ rvmaiu in tbi- 
AalTscr. Hie «iibiiuiici-> wbicb |>m« ilirongli meiulinuieii in this woj- luc 

m A~lH*lrmr, TV kmi -t<«"»r «r llir WD Jar ■»■ 
pu^M iu *ii(«f !■ iIrIjUi c-vrtc^l aUli |AivliiWill 
BUrr. Tkr ftild lu tH 'Uilxcil [• rlKwl irtlliln llll* 
1 III t " I HT«tf IdMi TM> Kit lui#(lw.|iMI]h-l mHM 

tnu ;. -In uiti 9(iiBi at •lli)>Kt' 
tlw •nl-aunn t^ be illntrwil 
UiUmI wlinin llw nlw«l 
IHWiiN mv^mnb/^ la tbm 

tobliif UmAilcof pttfrlimflDi 

llMmxUj ct^MalllMiblv, lunl WRre Icttncil crgttaltmiU lir TIioidu Otaham. Tli« 
■ntMIMicBa «IifaJi nit' iiullHiu'lI'lc arc tCMicmlly non-cTTiitiilUiie (a ■trlklnir <Ticcp- 



tion t" t.lii» nil*, howuwr, !• hMEDOKlobln). ond mni l«nniy| ealMil* hy Ornluiiii. 
The iU«incIloii in twiinmllv »iatoil to be doe lo Ihr Lirfrr nin- of llin iti<i|(<ciili]« oZ 
collolil mutt-Tuils. rviiiteriiifT Ihniu nnnbtc to pws through Iho ranmbnintt. 

The furnu ot <ltnlv»or cmplni-ed atv d^'pictal in Itic noFompiibyliiii flmiTM. 

That in fijf. 7 i» tlip inoro convcnipiit. a* bj 
■»<• It t!iriii>r siirfncv in «x|«<m-iI Iu thr ootii 
i)t m-.tlirr. nnd mi lh<t time iii><:tta«ij fur iliSuiuoit 

In 'Unlyninjf to i^ei rl(l of >aIIi> frum nrnnnSc 
mnliTrial. lu lonK n linic a* four to tnvtn Anj* 
ii jpravtnWy nrOBWirv; dlffemil iwlta miy » 
KiKirl •lull na to the tiilr lit n-bic:h ibiiT poM 
OU1. T^i- distitlnl wiitpr in Ihr outrr Tn»«l 
■liuitM lie chnii;fi.Hl ft<iC|iiCTit)^ ; or. bcKc^ nlll, 
II KtTvniU 1st WiitM niiiniiu! from thr Inp (hi 
b* hi-lil wjritiiiiiullr ll.miiiit ft.r thmr to ft 
rtni-«. nni! then <ll>llllnl imtiT I* \\*«i\ for 
lAft (rW ilfiTi at thi* iipFiHliim ; Ihi* hIiuh 
be uoiitiiinnl in n, \nty:r vomcI. riuI chai 
tin* or four tini« n rinT. 

OucaMun-iIlT urn- ilial;*!'L-» into <j|hpr !ic|iilili> 
thiin wiitcr ; e.g. in Hnrcraft'i in(.-tbail of oli< 
lualinic nnw in V>]i.>ih1 nnd similui liqnlds. unc 
diatrnw bito iilcnbol. 

IMcIng iliatlKcil n-nrnr as a Mandnnl. Ih» 
Tate oih) tunonnl of diffnilbility nuir lie nit-A- 
Hiuvil by un cnilaniiinnMM. Ii will bo fonnd 
Tliitl it coiieliiiiC relutiuu exiats botv-cen the 

1 BTln-l-t """"ratu.! ->;'»'•" woiitlit iif WHiurwhkb iitiMet In one •lin-vlioD, 

•■.i^fwibEitoiuirr ill' ' ''" nnd thai r>( Kill, wblcb [AXK* ill lbi> other. 

a:;!lS;Jroill>ri;t.l::* : TI-- -eight of ««.« n«H««nr ^ r^laco by 

un owtr coiicrivtRi CI .ii>i'>,.u. dlSmlon oni* uninrmo of ibn i|iui>|t«i| aiib- 

;limiirta:S^"";sls'w:Hr*r''' •"««^- '• "•"-■^i ih<- '«*«»,-«,> /v"*"'*-*' "f 

thiii niilKinDrc. nttlrh tn lis (nrri drpnndii <iii^^h 
(III! tMtnrn of Ihv RUbatanci' itn>l its conctniinillaii. Tbr followiiiK mblo ^n^^H 

itedlutn ohlorlilo . 
tolliini xiilphato. 
PnlBwiuin imliihiilr 
Magnotnra lulphntc . 
Copper lulpkBtv . 

Thns i f^nunmif* ot wnt^ imiild jkuh Ihrjinxh the mombr.ine litio ihimi'tnmio- 
meter tor I jfrAmtni' "t >wi<lliim cblorldc. 11 fcr 1 gmmmv ot tinKiini lutphal^, 
Biul » an. VumKt\ai'i» ni'iinlln' namoiU occun, i.*- more oS tfa<! imlitUiner' [im*m 
out of (ho MUHwniTlor than vwxr.t piim In ; (his i( thi.' nuu vith nd'l*. The mto 
ot omoai* illC^■A'•1l vnih the t^oiioitilnitioD ot the Hub»tan<M! with the lempnrntnra 
of did ll<|Til'ti> iiM'!. Thi>rc \s also no 'loubt thnl the niitnre of the metnbmne 
aflecl* <iimiit!i; action: rliSnviit viirii.-tii-> ot ili<n'l moinbtHriv ulli-ct Ihu rate of 
OunoaU; tbu otmoaiii Ih;it otiuiirn in living rneiutinuiiui U slxo uu doubt rery 
dillcrcitt ngva, \ml is » illlllcutt lubjrct lo ievoctignto ciporiinont*Dy. A 

rw- lI.~DulBKh*«^ fiiilmiuoIBPHT. A. 


!)ii1tihiirfc adil 
Canntle pota*b . 

. 200-S 




Uvinit meBtirniie u not Dxcil ur itobic, but U utiii'-l»iitly iiiirWrKoiiiK jifocvrkm o[ 
bBildinit >i)i ami brtnldog down.' Tbou the dlecniuiion wtinllKir i.lto fornuilJon of 
l7n|ili IB <lue Ut fiHnttiiiQ or diffiuton uf the hlfid pUinnn. tlin>iigh tliD tmWI 
•villi In* iKit JM [«ceivn1 a liuVutaaorf iiiihwn.' The qiii!»i»ii 1> mMI (nnber 
eovpUcMwl in Uie liiinc Ixvly bv tliu fiicl th»l the flujds on tlic Iwn niilea of any 
noBibauie ur<' aliMMl invariable' at lUlti^niiit ptvuuruii mul in aiUliUon It U 
poMtbU tluU tbure luar be nmc kind of ntlriictlii' 
InfMnce ncvrtnl by Ibt timua tbnniii-lvi'i. uiiulo- 
goi» to Uie whietiro aolivit}' of «ecrotiii; mIIh. 



Tka «|)TClllo Kmvity (^f tjijiiiils is lutuultr iuuei- 
UIuhI tiv n hjilronwUiT ; »iiit tlieix.- iiiMriinii'iits 
■ilaptcd for (be naigmot ([Hciliu xr*'''"*) >" >iHm: 
■dd tMilk, are icna«d urlnonnrlcrfi aiul iHOlutnMpii 

tlni wlx-ii ilie tpeeiflc frmvitr mntit lia ikti-r- 
tttlBMl wHh |tr«aiivr aoeuntoy. u imiiU light timk 
ol kfMwu w<tI{iIiI, <;«IIcc] a pyuuoinclrT nr ■pcclKr 
KTBvU; Imulr. U nni]ili'>yii<l. Thin ia ritt«*l willi a 
MopfMV. tlinM|{h nhlch a onpillarv ciidiiI |>iiH>eit. 

tm. fc— rrllmnrirr bHtliui Id nrtu lu a Inlliu; ir:Ms 

Via, lU.— tMitrisr". .(jB-lBt miTlty 
Initre. It It ■ Ilirlit nut. 6 ab 
■c«unit0 tlLurninii]r<#r : f laaEtilw 

rueicr I* liwrU'l lu t)is buiiin ; v 
ii«|> lo III mi (0 ilie 

' Inaraenit |i«iieT.IVol. Wajmonlli R»Ul'Wr((, .Wr,i,.r„.jrii, ml, 1, 1801), (i, IflB) brJnBi. 
r claaliy the dilTvruiioe u nKuJii ilifluniciu l«.twi-Mi Heiul nnd llvuiij mrnnliruica, 
TIw ntnlit— ha n)«rTiiiDnUi] with ku t1u< Oiiii ii( tli» true- Ji* ho [Hiinto oat, we 
tui* douMlaa in • IitIiik lueiiibrkne tu dxul wilh mi iibaorplivo (oroo il»)>«indeat Cn 
^i4t^il«iimin K^iril). uiil oompanble to thu nn'ruliin fareo ol a |[Lm(l o*jl. This U 
■icitad MtfiKiaUj to mulio omujain tiiliu plni'c nmni rtmlily iii oua diiuotiuii Uiaii in the 
otlHr; is tkA uae £d ihv fro^* tklii frvjiu witUcpiit in. 

■ A 4i>ciu*ion on Uim Mihjvi.-i will lu' f<iiiii<l in Fixtcr'a PhjitMogf, vol. li. n. tOS, 



nnil coDiJibc when flllnl a Ituown ncigbl nf wnter (SS-30 gnnuucs) at 16* C,^ 
Sume pTcnoaiPtpr* tin fltlpri with thwwomctcr*. iwcil ui the UanpcmtiiTP of thfl 
nJT, ^vhiiievcrit haiipcn* to be.und ibnit'uv weight of wttt^riiiit cnJoolatcd ttam 
the iiibk oD ji. I>. ' 

The bottle is liUed wHli tho liquid tlie djiecille graviljr of nkieh i« to li? ilvHir^ 
miiwil ; it Is w<.-iglie(L iiml the Hiwcilic gmviij' or ili^nsH j obtained bj the rurmuLi 

op. ST.°^,: nrithu wofg:hl of iho liquid, ir'vlhv »'<>i|(lii of tlio wiitvr. 

Tlie iv*iilt lit ihcii ohiHiiied ill coniiinriHim wiili wMor, whirli is tAtttriiiw anilyr 
In iiioillcnt work It itaUea [oiiml mmc oanvviiicnl to Inkc walnr nt UK)0; ii iirUi^ 
of h|>i'ci(lc RTavll; III30 iii«(uiii one which ii 1-V2 timfi hcnvjw iliua wiita linik tiv 






I'iltnui twpvTd. <ir n rimlnil lilrnuo xvliitl-in, uiw usually oinployei] lo ilctemditt 
whothc-r a labsbiiiei^ is iitmiini, aoI<l. or nllcjiliiw^. 

NcutTui Bul»lauc>.-k biiv« 110 •rffvci •>n i^lrhcr ml or liliia lltmiis, but !ii jitvneoca 
uf ur^nir luiiterinld u noiitml tolniioii hIII o(icd turn ildicnt^ glui^l bliti^ lilmiui 
|xi|H-r8 (njiitly ivil, anil ml ones fnlDtly bloc. 

Acid »i]tHinnc<» turn blui^ liliuu* ml. la the c:i*c ol voktib; ncld, tbn ral 
OolnuT pnui's off ns llic iiciil cvii|>or»l<'*. 

AllintiDc lubstaiK.i'H I imi itxl lioiiut liliir. At iiitritt II I* Iwu M vxiimiac the 
tnnsititiD ill oalour l>v mntii)chTi>nitill(! (toiliiiiii U^'ht): Iho nvl colour iipijuan 
coloiuloH. Ihi' hhio i> blackiiih. In inraitLriiig the nQi"iiiit ot iicidlti oa nlknlioilv 
ol a DoliiUon il in litrnio'l wiih n muiilnnl sutiiiion of ndd or Blkail ntviioclivulvt 
the indlcalor of the cn'l of the prvocu btiio^ the chiui^ in colour |>iihIiic«<:I in 
ihc llttnii*. It it. in fnct. :> t-imple cisiujiie of the vuto metric mc^thod. Jt4>cc3itl7. 
bowcrer. more duliaaleiiiiticul'irHlhiin liiinun have U-vn omploy«il, lUiiJ (hefoUov 
tail iuu li»t uf the ptiiidpal one*:— 

1. Melhvl iintnirc, 1 mumnKi iIIsmiIvixI In n llfto of mat^r. Tlii* it only 
n|j^ilieHblc 10 lElmiion with mineral luiiilfc; It Ik tiot nffi-cleii by carbanlo 
UI xnljih^rilric neids in the cold. It i* nii ailinimble iiidioaiut for aimnoniii 
aiul ii« Ktlts. The colour given i> pink nitb acid, TeiUiw wlili ntkati, 

i. riietuieetoIiiL 2 gnunineK iliswilveil in 1 lilnr ol nicuhol. Thc^ tohiilou U 
(lurk btcrwn ; it |rivM n ncsiO'lv |vroepllbl(i velluw with cnit^^Iic fxta or 
pulnnh : K'iili ikuiinnnEa njid thciiannnl nlknlinv cktbuiiutci u dnrk pink; 
viiili ihi' tilcnrlwnntes u InlghtM pink; and with ibe luinentl ai^li > 
iioliirn yellow. 

X. rhenaliiblbslciii, I grrdiuiue in 1 litT« of AO pi't eont. A hw 
drnpa of the iiulicfttur tihow im otiloiir \u the orvtituiry voliimc* gf iwiiMl 
cv ariil llijuiil*, the fnlnteii cxocnt of cimttio itlkalia givci • undrlaii 
ahuriKi.- lo pnrjilt^rml. It paantaet the u>iiantfl(HT of ^reut dcliokey. liut 
the dtiadTDDlagc of being iwclcn fa« Uio Utrotion of fr«« kmmOBin off lb* 

4. Itoniliv iLoiil, 3 gTMuniM lo I litle of SO per cent, sloohol. Its colour !■ 
[tile vellow uiinffeot*'! by sciilfc, 'jut turning to vlolct-tvi) wlili nlkali'. 
It is not reliable for ocjtwilc acid>. 

5. Larmoi'L Tklt Is (vnporwl rnmi retorcbi, and beham Ilka Utm' 

LMCmotil imiier la abo jircparcd. L^ictnulil. raiolic acid. phcDnoctolIn 



|4n)iilplitlialL-tii nTT cnpabTc of uliowint' chuivi- •>{ inAoax oiUi { of Iho 
qnjuilily of ftcid or aUali nt'U«»iiry in Ibu fan- of nu-tlirl umtige or 

Thr Bomud mlRiioiui nimt fr«>iii«nily uMeil Lit oM.iinailnii; ncMlty or ntknlSiitty 
Mf them <}€ Mxliiim c«rl«jtjsic (53 Knn*- N*!i,W, |n)r Uti^J, |"rtft><."iom curlioiiiJilu 
lOpnw. li,CO, jMir litr«'),Mil]ihiiiic MciJ (4!>|iriiiB, HjSO, jx'r liiro), otiilk ncUl 
<ari>»- trf <"iiI/l,-!H,l), or J£ imi>^ of Cjll,0, per lim), hj-diochbric sdd 
(Wlignn*, MCI per tilrc), cinttlc (.oclii or {iMatli (lOgrm*. Xalll), or .i(! grow. 
KBD pM Ittn). atiit ncisi-rKirniiil ■mmonin* {!*-5 gnoi. Nil, per Uire). 

MOii«- at fcnyof the moid ■ulationsciSL'tly [;«.■ llie wimo i-alomeof Any 
«(ikt alkiUInc Mliilians. cjotpt iu tlii- oase 'tf st'Uii- normal aiuiiiomia, which 
ni|rii<» coly tiiilt M e (jnanlity ittticid. 


He ie[«mkin of ^nwipltalcs loo line to litter off. of ci>ipiiio1ci from nnm. of 
cmafiMii mlik. Ac. lea., may be fat^ilitaltvl by subjecting llip Duid la theMictiun 
•(iwnMtsgal maohinr (nee figure). Tlu> lujiiiit i> pliiuei! iu tubnt iil thv luur^iQ 
tf*koriaiaitat ric-iiing 'It-r. norktil M a liijtii rati- o! -j'VvA by luiiuliiiicry (1000 




\ \ \ \ \ \\ 

«MM«*bi M MidKflfitllwl H* )ilii>nl icltlilu lliu •!■ will' liilHn whii'U !ai>ii ri-cllmllr 

wWtUir Ad li ■! nM: iibin ili> uiulilnrn '< "I r-Uiii itii-> ilv i>ui litt.< i\k doiiiuutiil 

)n*o)ntiiMa per lalniiic). Tho tubev fly into lh« lioriiontiil Hiraation, nnd tJio 
■»y {Mitldok wiiIp lo itii> tar ernJ of tht- lubt; the uppL-r Bni'l i.iin tbco lio 

^iltcaat«d ur pri(Ktt«l off. Tlir tlttx- Th» this tikkve vjirto «ilh Ihr tvluiKt ilrnsl- 
|jOf tlw iiiilMUncM lo be >it-|iBnu«i|. Serum xiiil bU««l uurpiiMles art iiinnlly 
■Ilia by Ibt* iMOli* iifttii nbntil 30 to 60 111 < mil o' w)i<lllli|r. 

■ Vat M panicabn m» nuiii|<«on, Chrm. .Vmrt, *ol. IT. pp. la, IM, ml, la, pp. 
II It*. * tt ii niuaie to nw norma] unmoiiiia. 




nrc giroresses ii«h1 (Specially in uotmection with the prol«ii1s under whicli Ibc; 
nre fully describeil. 


If tlie svilwlniK* is liqniii, a weighed quantity is c««ponited to dryness io a 
weighed cniuiblt^ or onpsule on a. water-bath, and the residue is then thoroughly 
dried lo consiant weight in an air-bath (110° C.)- K the anbetaace is solid it is 
finely ilividcd and weighed in a weighed crucible, then dried to constant weight 
nt lice. 

In each cnse the tnlal Ioks of weight is the amount of wal«r, the weiKlitof the 
residiic is the niuount of total aotids. These nonibets should be, tor convenience 
sake, cidciilated out as percentages. The relation of organic to inorganic solids 
may then be somewhat roughly determined by incinerating the residue ; the 
ash remaining after the burning of ihe organic subslAnce gives ihe weight of 
inorganic, the loss of weight on ignition that of the organic substances. 




The ultimate analysis of organic compounds has for its object the 
detenuination of the elements contained in them. A small number of 
orgsnic compounds consist of carbon and hydrogen, the greater number 
enntain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, most of the rest carbon, hydmgen, 
oiTgen, and nitrogen, andasmallnuniber sulphur, and a snialler number 
atili sulphur and phosphorus in addition. 

The same method of analysis applies to compounds whether they 
wnUin oxygen or not ; it is, however, necessary before commencing a 
quMtitative analysis that the operator shoultl know positively whether 
nitrogen, sulphur, or phosphorosi is present or absent. 


1. Bum the substance ; if it contains a tolerably large amount of 
nitrogen, the characteristic odour of burnt hair or feathers is given off. 
If the smell is distinctly perceptible no further test is necessary, but if 
not, ■ more delicate method must be adopted. 

2. The substance is mixed with potassium hydrate in powiler, or 
with soda-lime, and the mixture heated in a test-tube. If the substance 
contains nitrogen, ammonia will be evolved, which may be detected by 
tt( ralonr, reaction, and fuming with hydrochloric acid ; or the pi'oducts 
"f combustion may be conducted into dilute hydrochloric acid ; 
mporale the acid on the water-bath, dissolve the residue in water, 
mil the solution with platinum tetrachloride, evaporate nearly to 
'liyueBB, and treat the residue with alcohol. If the residue dissolves 
without leaving any double chloride of ammonium and platinum, the 
ralntance may be considered free from nitr(^eii. 


1. Solids are fused with about 12 parts of pui-e potassium hydrate 
ud S of potassium nitrate ; the mass is allowe^l to cool, dissolve<l in 
*Uer, acidified with hydrochloric acid, and teste<l for sulphates with 
bunm chloride. Care must be taken that the reagents used are free 
*"■ wUphoric acid. 


2. I,ii{uir)ii niv Irnalnl with fuming nitric nci'l, ■>■' n inixtu: 
nitric nHri and jMititKiiuiii chl'ii-alf, at tiii>t in ihv ciili), nod (iiuiUy viith 
l-h* ftpplicftt.iim of Iw»t ; the nolutiun is evaporated ncsrly Ut (trynceuy 
diluted, tillpi'ed. if necessary, tind then i«!il«d for sulptintes. 

3. The (ollowiiin test f>«rve8 to det«ct sulphur in organic coinpounda 
rj ill the unoxidi^ed Htalt> only. The suhstjince is boiled 

witli u Btruii^ oulutioti of pdUiHiiuiu hydinle. and eva|)or- 
ated newrly todiyuctu. Tli^T^udueiadunolvedinalitilfl 
Vfairr. iioured intu nHinuU fliiik A. thicli id then looBdj 
corked. TliniuKii the oirk n funnel tul>e c pnMW, wliioh 
inalUiwed t« dip intci the Huid at thi* l*i>tlom. A slip ol 
jwppr h, ni(iii>t<'ti(H) with leiul aoetktr iind then with ii ffW 
drops of HinnKiniuin carltonntv, is idUiw<sl to hnnjt cU>wa 
tiu^ nrck »f thi^ lhi»k ; <lilut<' sulphuric acid i> pourrd 
dowrn tho funmd ; if sulphui' is pmwnt thr dip of papir 
is turaftd hmwn fri>in llii! ndion of the kutphurcttnl 
hydrogen which is cvolvpil ; or llic sulphido of potAs- 

siiiin limy be drtrcted by a iwilution of load oxide i 

soda, which is turned black or bmwn- 



The methods 1 and 2 just describe<l io totting fur sulphur may alsQ 
be employed (or phuiiphurUH. The aululiuii »blaiiie<I is examined fur 
pbo>pbat«8, either by n mixture of magnesium sulphntv, luuniuniiim 
chloride and aninainiii, which jfivus u whiti- precipitate, or pn-frmhly 
by the yellow crvfitolline precipitut^ given by a nitric iicid «>luti<in iif 
ammoiiiuiu luolylidatt'. If luetlxHl 2 i.i usnl Itie greater part uf thq 
nitric acid muM he firet removed hy i>va|Hiniti(>n. 




The principle flrat proposed by Liebij^ for tlie aiuOyKiii <rf tbeM 
CompouutU was an follows. The KubHiance ia humt and cnrhoni*- acid! 
und water ««? formed ; llieste pruduetA at*- sefmnitpd fi-oni om- aitothwl 
and veijfhed ; th« curbun inudcuhitt^l fixiin tho wH^il of nnrlmnic acid, 
the hydrt^n from the Binuunl of wat<^r. If the stmi of the cnrhnn and. 
hydrogen ia equal lu lliat of thn uritcinul xubstaiur, lliat «nh>ttARc« 
cuiitnina nit oxy^-n ; if it ix Inw tlian the wei^'lit of the sulMtanei', ih« 
diflvrvtHM expr<!>M9i iJm amount uf oxy^n pivwDl. Melhud.i tui^i' bren. 
propuMtd for thcdirvct estimation of uxygea, bat the oxyf!«n la gauicmlly 
obtMii«d by diflorenoe. 



X\i» combiiiitioii IK nRVctm) cithrr by igniting the orgnnic HubstoDc^ 
mdi 0S5gMuit«i) Mibetsnctw that, pun rnwlily wttb their oiyg«n (copj>«r 
«aide, lMdchroDMt«^ Ac.)><"'in tl>e c.-uieof tliflioultly eouibufitibi*^ bodieH, 
bttoxjgeaia awi alxx Vuliililesubataiifi-BitHiuirestM^cial ]>i'M»iiti(m> 
damibed in detaU in works on nrKnnio HHiilysU.' 

Hie usimI ntetliod adopt«(l for aolM, i-eiidily combuBtible, non-volittile 
aMmicvs sach »]< fufptr <:ir etAi'ch in tliat uf coinbuiitiua with oxide uf 
tufftr. Tlie subaUnctt to be aiuilyiied is finely pulveriseil, drif<l, iind 
mti^bt»L A couibuatioii tube in ciircfully dried mid h«lf liUed with 
«intt (ixiale of cupper, ulijcb lia^ been inlilunlcly iiiixe<l wit>i tlie sub- 
itinint to be aiudya«), in n inordtr ; the tulio i$ then tiltrKl up with 
fan usiile uf ct^per, nnd u plug of coppi-r turnings ; tin? tub)- in l)i(<n 
muTOundixl with hot uuid and tlm lur Hiovfly punij>cd out fmm it, n 
alaim chlorMlo tuW bi>tng intirpciMil Ijctwi-cn the coinbuxtion tube 
ttil the uir pninp. Air is then ri*iubuittc<) thmugh the cnkiuni 
(Uiirirl« tub<> into tlic cnmbiMtion tuhr, Itvitig dried by the cnlciani 
<Uiriiln hji it [m.vurH in; the Lnltf. is n^in exiiiiuiittfl, fresh nirndmittod, 
ud iJle iipi-r*tinii ix^HwUid JO or V2 tiiuo« t-o enoire thf removal of 
•0 moisture which the oxide of copper mny have abiioi-bed during; the 
fnctn o( mixing. The chloride of «nlcium tube is then repUc«) by 
McAber which has been nccm^tely weighed, nnd to The fiir end of thiei 
•nulled ]>itJi>li bullw »tf tixml by iin indiii-rubber tubiv Tin- npjHirnlii- 
ikniA he perft^tly air tight ; tin? euinbu.'qtion tube »)ioidd be pl»c«d i£ 
■ fnnuMw NO tfant itn mouth projed.H 3 or 4 centiiuetTM beyond it ; 
Alt* nn mnny forms of combustion funince made. The oxide of 
*spp«', not mixed uith the huiwtaiice to be minlysed, ia haiiled tirnt ; 
vim Uwi in rt*i boL, the mixture is tJien he>it«d. The air U drit'en out, 
wl m> *Te the CHrbonic nct<i otn! water prtxIuctHl by ooinbuAtion ; the 
*iter In detntneil by th<! chloride of cnlciuni, thf cnrlionie aciil by the 
ptAih in the buUw; «nd llie increoH- uf weight in thoiwi piirtionK of Uhi 
^qtamtUK givm reNpcctively the weight nf wnter »nd (wrboiiic ucid. 


NrrnoGF.Nocs scbstakcks 

The Hnnie jcenenil method n employed, l>ut witliout raixlificntiun 
wimid give tiHi much e«»rl>on, «« the poljish bulbs would mtnin not only 
the c«rboni<; acial, twt aW tile niti-ou.i ncid, and n Kmall tgunntity of thn 
■nnc oxide formed. Thin dnfnct miiy he nvoided by tlic vxclmdve ti«o 
Hif iiiiilp uf t^iipjier ii» DxiiliidTig ngeiit, by n very intimnte nuxing of the 
uiliBtarinr wiiJi Un- oxide, by biiniing very slowly, *nd by selecting » 

> I hran (auad Frowniua IniwIaUd by P. P> ClroMH, K.R.S., • idMt nwlsl hand- 
Tn It I am IndabtDd lor iiiiuix (if itu' lualhod* glv«D tixnt. 



cutiibuRtiuii tube about I2--lfi cm. loDger tlian ukuaI, Itlliiijt tliia ui tli« 
ordiiiKf^ wiiy, but finishing with « Uxor Uyer about 9-1:1 cm. loiig of 
d(«ii liiio (■(i{>)>i>[- lumiriKu or n Hpinil of c<i{i|>«<i- wire or A<tl ; thu iii<-U] 
wlii'ii nil but acta by ili.'cotiiposiiig all o\ii)(^ of uitrogm into oxyi^n 
iritli vrhicb it ixniibiiiiii, nnd nitix>)tPit whioli pn&MB oti unaffected into 
the iitiniwpbiTc 


1. Dnnaa' Method. A lmi$ coinliuitinti tube, 70-80 cm. in k-ngtii, 
in Bcnl«il at lis far ctxl tiki.' ii iMltiilH'. Pure <lry bicarboniit« uf euila. 
U tint iutiVKlucwl »• lu U' form ii \ii,yvr \'2-\!i <:ui. lotif: : tbnt tlw 
weiyliiNl HiibstAuce ititiiimtrly niixc«) witli co]>p(ir oxtdt!, then t)i« oxide 
with wbicli tbp niortiii- in wliicb tlx- iiiixiiig vra^ [xrrfornK^I wiu rinaMi 
nut ; ibrn n liiyor nf jiuif oxiilci, nnil laHtly a layer of c'ljiix^r win-, fnil, 
or tuniingnnliout iricui.lon^'. I'tietube is placed on a fui-niivr, its ofxni 
end cliMt*i by a cork l.tirouf;li wlucli a lube pawes : the tubo ii> bent and 
Itadn tu It trough conlainiri}; iu«n.'ury. About G em. of llie far rnd of 
ttas tub« is thoD Iteotfsl, the rest being ]>i-otected by a «crcH-ii ; lliG bicnr- 
lM>n»t« ii deoompoaed luid the onrl>onic acid prupcU i)k> air boforv it, 
■?x|>elUiig it from tin- tube. After Huai« (inie the end uf thf tleli^'vr; 
ttilM.- ill <lip[>e<l undf-r I1h> tiiercury and a li^Ht-tube tilled with |)iita»li 
Kilotioii iiivertetl over it. If the jpi^ bubbli-a niv completely ubtwrlx^l 
bj tli« potjiaU, all air inuat hnv6 been t>x|ieUe<l fi-oin the tube ; if not, 
Uk evolmion tit rus in cimtinucd till thit> diviivl ]H>int h obtained. 
Tli« actual combuHtidi ii then ca>iiinifiicc<l. A ;ji-a(luau>d L-yliti(h-r 
bnlf lille<l witli inei-cury nml half with potaah it inverte<i over tliv 
dalivery tube. The ooiulHUktion tub)* U tiwkt^il, cUiinnienriuR with tlte 
oo]ip«r foil, and (rraduidly all the bumerH are liglitr<l till tliune urwIiT 
llw M-coiidliiilfnftbpbiciirl>oimleiirenlIin full bliiw. The whnl*- of th* 
ffthvn i-\olvc<l are driven on by the carbotiic aci<l bo eiolvtij, the (txiilea 
of iiit-rogeii ar« tvducvd by the inetnllic copper, and nitrogen in n iiuniit 
■tate alone collectc in llie cylinder, the carbiintc acid being abaoHitd bj 
the |)ot«Bb. TIte wvighl i if nitrogen ih (w leu luted froniit^ volume, oome- 
Lions to norniaj preature and teiujiemture beiiif; iniule, due reganl lieing 
paid alKi In the ten'ioti nf ;t()UP(iU)i v3]H>ur (»" further Ua6 AnalyAih). 

£. Method of Varrentrapp and Will.- Thi& iuet)i<Hl in foumled ott 
tiwaanieprtncipleaB tlie test foriiitruKenulreaily deitcribod(p. 19,i*«t S). 
^M avijfctanoe to beatuilysMl is reduced ti> the tlitesit [lowder, diinl and 
welglied. It is mixed with Mtladime. A ciimbiution tutie is tilled tw) 
that the mixture lien UrtwcFtt two ]<onii>ikii of pure Kulii-lime, and ia 
llien plugj^l ItHvciy with »sWsl(«, "iid linally with a cork w)iicli ia 


jjerfurBt«H, allowing the tube and a bulb apparatus contAiniiig hydro- 
ihloric acid to be put in connection with one another. The tube ia 
;Tiwln«Hy heated, commencing at the fore part and progressing slowly 
ruwxnU the closed end. The nitrogen present is all thus converted into 
uiDHinia which is absorbed by the hydrochlonc acid in the bulbs. Tlie 
uimonia present is estimated by adding platinic chloride an<l weighing 
tiie ammonium platinum chloride which is thus precipitated, 

3. KJflldfthl't Kethod. — The difficult and lengthy opei'atiuns invoked 
ill the two methods just described, and present also in the many 
ami ificat ions of them which chemista hnve propose*! from time to time, 
arf however now unnecessaf)', nn the simple and accurate method of 
K]*kUhl' has very largely replaced them. 

I take the following account of the method with the nioditicittions 
ptojiosed by Warington* from Sutton's Volumetric Analysis.* I have 
Birwlf frequently used the method, but it hardly needs now my 
tKtimony to its usefulness, as it has been so wi<lely pmiseil and so 
MDch adopted by others. 

From O'l to 1 gramnie of the dry powderei.1 substance is put into a 
Ik liling flask holding about 100-120 c.c. The acid use<lfor the destruc- 
iiMi vt the organic material is made by mixing 200 c.c. pure oil of * itriol, 
■'iOc.c. Nonlhausen oil of vitriol, and 2 grammes of phosphoric acid in 
ititkn; all these must of c<iurse be free from ammonia. 10-20 c.c. of 
thU mixture is poured over the substance in the flask and heated on 
»ii¥ gHUze over a small Bunsen flame. The temperature must be kept 
Wnw boiling ; with prolonged heating the organic matter is gradually 
'Iwtroyed, and the lii|uid Iweomes clear and quiet. Tlie nitrogen 
cnjiinnlly prevent is thus converted into ammonia, and this may be 
iBsttred by adding to the li<ioiil very minute pinche.s of pure potassium 
fmiiHnganate. A violent ci>mmotion takes place with every addition, 
Inl there is no fear of any ammonia being lost. The operation is ended 
»beti the mixture becomes permanently greenish, and moderate heat is 
nmtinuetl for a few minutes more. The flask is cooled, some water 
"idwl, and the contents washed out into a large flask of 700 c.c. capacity 
»ith as little water as possible. It is then made alkaline with excess 
I'f either pare caustic soda or potash solution (sp. gr. 1-3). A little 
iiiMallic zinc is added to prevent bumping during the subsequent distil- 
Lttion. The flask is then closed with a perfonite<l caoutchouc stopper, 
tliniQgh which passes an upright tube with two bulbs alrout an inch in 
liisiueter blown upon it ; these arrest and carry back any spray of soila 
fn)Ui the liquid. The tube aljove the bulbs is bent over and connected 
i<i II condenser, and the delivery end of the condenser leadsintna flask 

I Zril. Aiuil. Chrm. iiii. p. SUO. > (Vifiii, AVhs, lii. |i. Ufi. J pii. BM-70. 


contAJninga inmKUi-cKd excciw uf ■taitdniil iicicL' Th» mixiare in tliv 

fliuk i* tlwfi lUstillcH, the miiiiionin {MOitieti over into the iicid. The 

ituiouTit of iiciility ih then ()i<tri-iiiinmJ in the <ltBtil]itt« by tilmtinii with 

HlAiKlattl iiutMKh or irtxliL, iiielhyl orrtiig« lieiii){ UHi>d tin l)ii> iiirlicntor of 

llie en<l of tho renction. 

SMtmjJ': — SuppiNie O'lS gniiDine of n iiilroj^tiriM'i KiibstAiioe U 

ta)(e)i. treiiled with »dil, ticulrAliM?*! nhil l)ie hiuiduium (h^ttlUHi orpr 

•toil re<M.'ive<l by 100 e.c. of ii <li>cinontiiil ftoluttuti of hylrticliloric Hciil 

(slOv.f. noriiiAl iiciil). Tli« dUtilUte is ihvti litrutMt with dMiiioniMl 

MhU and it is found lliat. iJie iii-ulnil [>oInl ia rMii-ht-d when 60 c.c. ot the 

■iMinoruitil tKxU Iwvt- been iidded. The vihrr 10 c.i-. niunr Uierefore 

hiivi> liMM) neutnihueil by the ainuionia deriiiil fmiii tJic iiitro^enouv 

Kubslnnoe under lni-«Mignti<>ti. Thia40e.c. of ilocinorOMl acid k4c.& 

of Dorouil Hcid ^4 c.c. "t normiO miiiin<min ^t x 0017 sO-Ofil^ K^'inunv 

of oininonw. O'lA gminiii<- of tht- subsinnor- (lio'ofoi'*' yii-l'U 0-Ol>M 

graiuini> of luuDiunia. iind Itii* lunouiit cimtAinH OOlifi gninimv of 

nitro^n : 100 ^'lumne* i>f the suh^tAiirr v,-ill thprrfore contain 

IOOxO-056 ,. „ , ., 

— jjT =3r'3 ^mniin(*> I'f iiitTU};eQ. 


The tuetbod weliave dncrilm) for dt'ierniininh: lliconrlHinin sulphur 
free nulMtAncM wuuld ipve ti»i hiith it tr^ult wiih tub*iiinv<>s contitininf^ 
■ ihetHlphnmuHBcid fwrmiil i>nciind)U>>iiim would 1*o iibMtrbvil 
in llw ]x>tAah bullxi. (JiiriuK ri-comiDCiiili' Ijiiit ll)<> KulHtiince rontiLininjK 
the kulphur sboulil ht- burnt with ln>d chroninti' in » uombuiition tutx' 
60-80 cm. lon^', cnrr- licinjt tiilcrn ihnl t\ir iinti-rior 10-20 em. whidl 
c"»l«itiik pure liiul clin<ntnt«- v^ nt'vor hvuKvl iib»vo low- reilnew. Th« 
purv I«mI Mil rMAinH ihe Hulphurout acid |>rodiic«t) by conibuatiop, nnti 
tliun itvver contniuiiuilr* tli« puMHli in iIm bulli* heyoiiil. 

llyilrogen and nitn>|^n uru diitenuiiiei] by any of tlie luethoda 

As ranpanls the ntimntiifii vf the 8ui{iliur iuelf. tluit eleiaent in 
wmgbeil in tlw fumi of barium iiul|)liJile. iiii» which it nuy W Gonvert«d 
by iDKny netlto'U, the iniiiciple of which luu becti iilrauty tpvta under 
t«sU fw tulphur ( I nivl 2, |>p. IV, SO). 

If the kulntancr coDLniivi uxygni tbia in e^tinialc-d by difference. 

' Ob* tarn ^h« a|ipnMlma(cl) hau mmtk umnMiM i* vspattol: ia • fnrrtcid. lor 
InalMM. Uwi* i* n»»klBK hhikIiI) li p*r vvM. ol iiUioKni : MpfH* *t ffamnne of tkl* 
)• Uk**, Hv thimU oMbIb la mmd iiaiilMn 0O> (ruHin* i4 ii1UDi|bii rmn Uiu. wliich < 
bubU te ninratad iBdt IVI gnwmf el Mnnvnik. 1 t/t. "I nnrmal mrid cnrrpqimiil* !■> . 
VMIolkmoHaMi tlwralim U «A of n«nuJ Bcid >■! liw>i*. iif •ln->n"r«M] Hid. bUkIi \ 
I* oiM* olton •Kjilo;^. maU moubKw MT yraiuup •rt uaiiionu, sml UicrrfuiT Im ipiliD J 
B hIb qtaaMr (o Idi*. Dwiasniwl liyihw W ortc tai i» tk* tit 1 nipvU naa. I 



Tlie MUioiktion <it {t)i(i«{ih(irUB is cirei:tt^l in n ninniKT Kimilnr to that 
(^nJ)Jiiir : i.*, tli« nuliiitjiiicr is Dxidiseil either in the dry or wot wAjf, 
tod the [iltiHphuric ncid protlucnd is ilocemiint^l generally by weighing 
tbt prvcipitat(> cituxnl by ii mixture nf iimgiicjiiinii Kulphnto-, Aniinonium 
dliirirle, luul lUDiiioiiiii. 

Phaapboraw cnimot hi- r-Ktinintci) in nn orgnnio Ku1>stAiice bv iiicili- 
frtling nnil determining lh« jitmsphoric acid in the (i«li, f» ii!l the phos- 
jbon» u not otiivt^nl by tJiis nicatiE into phocphoric ncirl. 

In uialyning niuiiml tiuues, oitn hiui u> dcjil with suhntnnces, midi 
M prot«id«, t*i which Knii»ll (junDtitios of iniiierHl bodies uhetinntely 
■dbtns Mid Kre not renio^-nbl« by ony known tnenns befoi-e analyob. 
AtUr uwlysig one baa therefore to irK-Inemte, wcigli the ash. imA allow 
fcr Uiia iu 8ubm)n«nt f.-xlculation*. This iiietho<l i\iii, howevi-r, only bn 
■^■rdtd aa upproxiiuiite ; first, beciLuae lei-ULtti aidta like Modiuni 
tUsride are volatile to noine extent and [niss off : and, aewMiilly, brcaunr 
■ffo^bur or |rfio«f>liorua, or botb (aa iu nervous tisau«!(), ui-o i>rftwnt, » 
ttrtna Unount of lulphuric or [ihtinphorii.- acids riwpcotivftly ai?i; 
bmti iiurin;( ignition ; these mv wnigln-il witli the luh, though they 
katvTvallj licifn dnrivrd from thci »r]uiiidc sulistiincc ilsrif. 

H a HibMnncp (^nt^iiis pliotplintcs lui wdi aa phoiphoi-us in organic 
onUiMtinci, It Heparate portion in Iwlled with dilute hydrochloric acid, 
&Ut«iI, and the plio«phonis present as phcwphoi^'c acid «8tiniat«(l in 
tlw wluHon : ihia amount ia deducted froui the total i|uautity of 


Ib tionie few sulmlancea in the body, «'.</. liteuioglobtn, iron ia pre««ut 
in addition tu tbe otJier vleuienta we have mentioned. A weighed 
aaoont of ttie material is incinerated ; the aah dissotveU in hydrochloric 
»dA, and (he amount of fi-mc chloride au foruied iiscei-tained by one of 
Uw many volumetriL- jimceaaea now in uw-. The following is Oud»- 
naona raetbuil.' To tin- dilute ferric Kolution, whidi ahoutd not con- 
■aitt OMirv tluin O'l Ut 0-2 gtTHiinic Fi; in lOU t-.c, nor much free HC1, 
3 c.c> of p. I [n-r cent, tolution of eupnV Kidphatc am added, i c.c of 
Amecntrnte'l IICI, iin<l I c.c. of a 1 per cent, solution of pola>i»iutn 
MillifaDryanidc. Tlie mixture is slightly wannetl, and a siMudard solu- 
linn ••{ Mxliuni thir.oulphate (1 c.c. of a deciuonnal solution of which 
ntrrmpoiHlH to O'00-56 Pe) is run in from a buretli-, until tile jire\ioosly 
fixture 1>ecuiuea aa perfectly oulourless aa water. 

■ Xetl. Anil. Chim. vl. 1311, wiil ix. 143. 


The amount of iron in hiemuglobin is 0'4 per cent. Knowing this, 
liu^moglobin may be estimated quantitatively from the amount <>f iron 
present in the ash of an unknown ainount of the hienioglobin. 


From tLe percentage composition the empirical formula can be calculated, 
provided that the combining ueights of Ihe elemeats are tnown. The actual 
size of the molecule and Its const it utional formula are obtaiiie<l by other 

The way in which an enipirical formala is deduced may be most readily 
UeBcribed by giving examples. 

HmnpU I. Suppose starcli ban been subjected to elemeniarr arlalysi^ and it 
was found to contain 4444 carbon, G-IT hydrogen, and 4939 uiypeii [ler cent. 
Knowing that C=12, H = 1, nnd 0=16, wliat is the empirical fonuula for starch? 

Divide the percentage numbers by the combining weights of the elements, and 
we obtain 

Crm Ho-iv ^ivi 

which giiea us a rough guide to tlie formula ; from this we can see that the 
hydn^en atoms are twice as numerous as the oxygen atoms, and the carbon 
atoms are also rather more numerous than the oiygcn atoms. We must neit 
find some common factor which will convert the above numbers into whole 
numbers ; it is. however, generally impassible to do this exactly, and it will be 
found in the present instance that the number 163 is tlie smallest number which 
will give us approiimatclj whole numbers, vii. :— 

C'lVD Hir»j Ot-rt 

The nearest whole numbers to these being taken, the simplest empirical formula 
for starch is C,H„0,. 

BtampU2. When we are dealing with a substance containing more than lliree 
elements, the arithmetical processes become more complicatcil. The example I 
will choose is that of mucin obtained from tendons. Loebisch found that the 
percentage composition of this material whs C. 48 it; H,G'44; N.11-75; 8,081; 
O, 327. Divide each of these numbers by the combining weight of their 
respective element, and we obtain a guiding formula, viz. :— 

Cfoa "*-H ^OTffl ^D'ln^ O^-oi 

It will be found tlrnt the lowest coiuuion factor which will convert these numbers 
most approiiniatcly into whole numbers is 3y 75 ; this will give us— 

ClSlW HijjDj Ktt«t Son. OrtC4» 

or approximately, C,_ Hs, Ng SU^. The numl>ers do not correspond with equal 
exactness throughout ; this is especially noticeable with regard lo the oxygen. 
It must, however, be remembered that there are certain unavoidable small erroni 
of analysis which have always to be allowed for. Moreover, in this particular 
instance the correspondence Iwtween the percentage calculated from the formula 
and that obtained by analysis is closer than in many other cuaes. 

Such methods give na onlv ^» ~"i]irical totmola ; the tme molecular weight 


uiav be * times as great, and in substances in nhicb the molecular wcigLt can bo 
ik-crnaiucd by determiDation of vapour densily, Sic, the calculation is simplified. 
Bui »ith regard to the albuminous and starchy substances we have to deal with 
ii animal chemistry, these methods are not available. The constitutional formula 
i>l anr eabstauce, i.e. the way in which the atoms are united to one another, must 
l« iletetmined by other methods also. Here, ^ain, the substnnccs we have 
cbictlj to deal with in animal chemistry are those, in regard to the constitution 
.if «hich, we are almost entirely in tlie dark at pretient. 




TiiK gases with which the physiologist has to deal are those of the 
atmosphere, and those concerned in respiration, those present in the 
blooil anil other flaids,as well as those obtainable from the solid tissueM 
of the body. In the greater proportion of cases, a physiologist has tii 
investigate three gases or mixtures of these: viz.; — oxygen, nitrogen, 
ami carbonic acid. Small quantities of carbonic oxide are also pro- 
duced in the body, and in the alimentary canal, fermentation processes 
may give rise to hydrogen, marsh gas, and sulphuretted hydrogen. 
The readier is, however, referred to larger treatises dealing more especi- 
ally with gas analysis, for the methods of investigating these more 
rarely ')ccurring gases. 

In examining the gases obtainable from either fluid or solid animal 
tissues, the methods lulopted divide themselves naturally into three 
parts : — 

1. The collection of the blood or other tissue in a suitable manner. 

2. The extraction of the gases from this material. 

3. The analysis of the gases so obtained. 


a. Collection of blood. In some cases it is possible to lead the bliMxl 
direct from the blood-vessel of the animal, by a tube into the vacuum 
chamber of an air-pump. The gases can be then pumped from it forth- 
with. The vacuum cliamber can be weighe<l before and after the 
entniiice of bl<Kxl into it ; the increase of weight giving the weight of 
bhiod used. 

In other cases it is advisable to collect and measure the blood in a 
separate vessel before introducing it into the air-pump. It must then 
be collecteil over mercury, and the following apparatus, as described 
by danigee,' answers this purpose a<lmirably. A long graduntetl tube 
ab is fiUeil with mercury, and placed in connection with a resiTvoir of 

' Phyiiot. Chem. \,. isl. 


mtnuty c by an in(lin-rul>1iei- iuIji- ; the stopcock at a is cloa«d ; a 
McTow elnBtii: tubn limiing fi-t>ni ili<' Mocxl-vmsel U filled will ■ blood, 
tad slipfml over thi? itw vnA », nnd 
ibr th^XMck i* upwicd ; b t« iilwi oprii ; 
lb ucrcury will fnll and is mplncol by 

HIimI. Wlii-n Kutlicienc t>Iood ha* W'en 

colkctfld, tbr two niopcockfl arc cloMil ; 

the tube w rnkmsed from Mne ciniup and 

ha thf indin-rabbcr tubes at either 

nA, uhI inverted repeutedly. When 

Uood and lEWTCury are sbakeii tOf:«ther 

■ this way. fibrin »eniiiut«i tlm 

Houd in a vf>ry fuie aliLtt: of nuMiviiiioii. 

The tube is then liiid lu a. Iniu^fli coii- 

iJiiiuii}; ice, until tlif blntHl wiihin it i« 

mited for »Diily-<l-<. 

4. CtiUwilioii ()f oihiT tliiidK. FffTi? 

Ngaiu care he rxcrcixnl in nbtiiin- 

tUff tbeiD Ml fnwh lui pnMililo^ nnd fpfc 

bnai ftir by ciiIltNJtiiii; thi-m over hi»t- 

wrjf. Thff bloml-.trruni, for inntitiicc, 

miut bo nbtiunitd from blcHxl allowrH 

hi ctot over mercury ; the urine, bilo, 

«lim, ehylp, iic, arf obtained by 

imerting a cKnnuia into the duct or 

vneel, as t]i« case may be, and tliea 

Icmling the fluid tli«noe for oullecliun 

in aucne cui-h apparatus as that just 
daoribed fur bland. 

r. SbitbixlHuf AbtBitunKHulitlorguiiK. 
In till' aoalyHtJi uf thi* ffkSun i>[ n M>]i<l 
ut]pan, ■uvli lis uiUHvk', n i^i'eiit ilitliculty 
k net with al the outset ; for the 
huwoleM cumut bu tranhfenwl to the 
tMCatun, witltoul pn-luiiiiuu-y expoiun.- 
tu air or iiiiliRt-n:nt fluids. Tlwy iniiHt 
be a* apiwdiJy aa poMible fnieil from 
blood, anil plunK") inHtnntly into n 
Inrgp milanip of boiling salt Kolution ; 
ifavy will bu ctiagti1nti<il en mattK, and 
dip without nndi-r^ing thc! clian^ known aa rigor taarii*. Th« 
■stldatl tnasdo ix at onco ouvsred with a beaker f\\\f\ with tho hot 

'^■ — 

I'll. :s. 



saline solutiun, hiuI any gases th&t escape are at once collected. The 
temperature is then lowered, the niuscte is minced, and (still cou- 
tnined in suit solution) is introduced into the boiling dask attached 
to the air-puuip. In other cases the muscle is kept from underguiog 
rigor by being frozen. In other cases, again, the muscle is introduced 
quickly over mercury iato a vessel containing a known %-olume of air ; 
the changes in the composition of the gases in this closed chamlter can 
be subsequently in%'estignted. 


The materials which have been most often investigated are the 
blood an<I muscle. It will, therefore, be more convenient to speak of 
these two, the firet an instance of a liquid, the second of a solid tissue. 

The gases are estracted by means of a niercurial air-pump. 

The earliest forms of pump were made by Ludwig and his pupils, 
Setschenow ' and A. Schmidt.* The best-known pump la probnbly 
Pfliiger's ; but iniprovements have been intru<luce<l by Alvergniat and 

The principle of all these pumps may be explnineil by the diagram 
in tig. 14, ill which the parts of Pfliiger's pump are retlnced to their 
simplest elements. 

lU n large ghxts bulb filled with mercury ; frum its lower eml a ftraijthl jrlass 
tube, m. about 3 r«et Ion;, extend^ which it conoMriail by on iadia-rabber rube, 
H. with a tvaen'oil of mercury, ». which can be raiMil or lowered as required bv 
a ninple mechanicnl Brcangement. From the upper end of the bulb, ( .i rertical 
tube passes : above the staqicock, 1, this has n horiiontal bntnch, vbiob can be 
cli;E«d by the Mopcock. /. The vertical part U continued into tbe brw tnbe, 
which dips uQiler mercury in the trough, A. A stopcock.^', U placed on the coarse 
o( this tube. Beyond / the horiiontnl tube lea>l:> into a large double gla^ bulb, 
• 1; a meicorial |i:aiige. e, and a drring-lnbe, J. filled with piece; of pumice- 
stone Diuisteneil with sulphuric nciil being interposed. • is called the bl.iuil- 
bulb, and ihe bloot is brought into it by tbe tube, e ; ibe trases. a* Iher come -'tf. 
caose the blood to froth, arkd tbe buitt, t, is calleil the fnith-vhamtm'. as ii inier- 
cepls Ibe froth, i^eventing' it from pasnug inlo the real of the spparatu^ 

Tbe pump is uieil in the following way: I i» tilleil with mercury, the level in 
{ tad 9 being tba same ; k is c\oe*A : » is then lowereit, arnl when tl is 30 iiK-be^ 
lower than [he slopMick. i. tbe mercol? in { taili abo. Ieairin;j: that bnlb empcr : 
j being doseil anl/open, jl is [hen opened, and the air in m. h, J. Jcc- rushes into 
rhe Torricellian vacuum in I: /is chMed ai>dj opened : tbe reservoir. ». is nii'<v,l ; 
the mercurr in / rises aUo, pushing the air before it. and it bobbin^ out iiit» ihv 
;itmosphcte rbr\<U]fh the mercor^' (the lube, k, is not at itiis sl.igv in pi'^itinn). 
When ( is ful! nf m^'rcnry, t mz»\j are ooce more i-U**! anil » i» iujain li>a'i-ri.--l : 

< Ziitick. J. rat. Jfrrf. 3rd Mr. i. Ill 

» Ber. ■!. i. -Icht. GrtfUtek. J. ITui. Leip«( i-<if:i. \ii ,» 



«hcnl is thus rendered once more a vacuum, i and/ are opened and more of the 
airnmainiDg in o, b, d, &C., rushes into the vacuum ;/i9 closed,j is opened, and 
ihU air it expelled as before, Tlie pTocesR is repeated as oft«n as is necessary lo 
nke a, 4, d, Ik. as complete a vacuum aa indicated by the mercury in the 
gti^. r, as iri obtainable. 

a being now empty and the stopcock, /, closeil, blood is introduced by the 
tobe, c ; it froths and gives oR all its gaKen, especially if heated to 40°'45° C. In 

Fill. U.—mijriira of Paugfi'i Pump. 

ibc auv nf Hcruin, ncid to be addol lo disengage the more ttrmly combineil 
'S'lmiiLc iiciii.' The bulb, I, is once niore rendcretl a vacuum and k and / are 
"VntA.j being cIomnI ; the gas from a and b ruRlics iiilo the bulb, (, being 
'Iridl an it pasxes through rf ; / is ihcn cioBol and J opened ; the reservoir, o, in 
"^iwl. .-uiil na (he mercury in I rises simultaneously, it pushes the gnses inio the 

' Pbonphoric acid is UHUiilly employeil. 



Vni. It. 

oyliwle*. A, which i« filled with roirn-un' luid invwltil over the end of the brat 
tube. Thijjni-oMii be Hubniqurntlv nnnlysed. By nllcrnntely ruisiiiR mid lowerintr 
o Mill rvfcnliiliiiK llip tflupuookx in tht- iminiivr iitrciidy discribud. all the gna (reda 
ilin qiinntlly nt blood nAtd tmi bi- <illiiii:it«if ux|K'U(><1 liitu A. 

TliL- liii'ifi- iiuiDlwrot <ii-i[.>u<K>ki> ami juinsin PSoevt'* 
piiniii (for nil the foii* can 1* wi-urad"!) midi-nt 
Icnkatfc npt lo cicour. A Kood gj^rnn- fur (Iwi Uip> 
will Im fuuod lo bo n miitum of tira pnrt* rv*- 
licp to oiii- o! whiti? wiis. AlversidntV ' pump lin* Ihn 
fulvHDlHgi.' tif ievet uajLtieKliimf. uiiil all «f tbeic nrc 
aarniuiidol br nmuury. whiiib cllpirtiially prnvnU 
lenknicf 1 it hno Ui^ dixiuIi'iinlaiK ut n rnthvr sniall 
balb In piiux of /, niul itiiM it 1> nmrr l»t»ur to ubtiun 
n vncunni. Dr. McKriiilrlck = hiu iiIh) •loHCriliCil imd 
fltpir^ n sninll nnd ciinrfn<<-nl |>uiii]i, 

In Ibr Invi!(i1.1)[aliaii of Ilin Kiixrii of ninwle Ibli 
form of tcreplnclt u*<--A i.i lufp fltfiired (Ak- IS] ; a i* il 
jctniiB biilb iiilu H'iiii'li till? iiiu!<gIi> (-uulainvd in boilol 
Milt nubitiuii IF pliiueil ; it l>tpnm>i.l I bit Ifuiline-Hiiiik, Btid 
h cnTnti'rl friHii till' fr(ii)i'diaiii)».-r, i, by a tabt- p«i- 
lidol Willi n •iiipcoolt. « in pi>rivirrtT«(l l)y pliitiDuiii 
wlr« which pnn be nttoi^hHl w n iMii.tfliy utid tliiT« 
■liiiinll tciil liilo ibe muji'lc to cnum? It lo fiiininvct if 
[»qnirrd ; 6 »crvM n lummd piifpii«i! b(9ililn> tbnt ol 
ftotli-phnnib« : n rPiigiMit. stic^li nt nn ni-id, iiwy be 
kejit in it during the jireliniiiuvi}- ciluiiLitlon of tlw 
BWMI* in A, iind then, by tilting tlic npiuiiatun. nu}* bi- braughl to plar <m t4>« 
miwcie ni. any giivii tnumunt. 


F»r ijiix nnalyxix iiii not' ui^atL-lv griuluiititl nn<l ratibrat^^ tuW 
whtcli is cloKil nl tlitt ujuwr i-tiil, «ml tUra invcrlt^ o»pr niprvury. 
is ns<^l. It is cnll<'(l ti cuili'inii-trr, mid it lias, pnA^ing tJii-ou^;!! t!i(> 
gliuw, two pinljnuni «'irp« which twii In- connpcrMul with an iuductioa 
coil, nnd lhi]H powerful spnrlcK cnn be produced in th« inMrior of tlw 
(u)>» in iNUiw wliere expli«ioii of gn.»c» ii nece88»ry. 

Satar. gnxev luny l>e estitunceit lUrnctly, tlnit is, th«y may be 

nbworlMnI \>y emrinia rea({eiiU, the diiuitiutiuii in iiilunui indicttting the 

quantity of giiit jirvscnt. •Some am dt^terniiiuil indin-ctly, thnt U, 

«XploiIing llicni with othrr K"!Wti, iitid tiifniiiriiig tlir ({iinntiti«« of the 

product*. The gases which »m csitiianU-)! diiT<;tly are (I) tlioae Uki- 

hydrochlorif ncid which are nliKorlH-d cither l>y crystal] isnl <io(]ic 

phoophftte Of paijiii8iuiu livdrote ; ('J) those libe cfirbunic uvid uul 

ttulphut'ouHacid whtcli ire (tb>>or1>pil liy potassitim liydrute and nut l>y uidic 

plionpitale ; mid (3) those wliich iire absorbed by ti«ilhcr «f them- iwo 

' Bert, Le^om nr la n^ratim. Paria. IWO. 
* Brit. lied. JofTn. Aug. l», Dm«. 


mgents, bnt by others specially adapted to meet the cose in question; 
b this class of gases are oxygen, carbonic oxide, nitric oxide, and 
BMtij gaseoUH hydrocarbons with the exception of marsh gas. The 
gues estimated indirectly are hydrogen, nitrogen, marsh gas, carbonic 
oude, and several others. As an instance of this last class, hydrogen 
imy be 8elect«d ; a know-n volume of oxygen is mixed with it in the 
radiometer, and exploded ; water is formed which condenses, the 
remsining oxygen is estimated directly ; , the loss of oxygen after 
eiploeion must be that quantity which has combined with hydrogen ; 
and knowing the proportion of hydrogen and oxygen in water, the 
hydrogen can be thus ascertained. 

As has been stated already, the physiologist has to deal chiefly with 
three gases : oxygen, carbonic acid, and nitrogen. The first two can be 
estimated directly by absorption, the residue is nitrogen. 

The tube containing the gases is made to stand in a well-shaped 
pneumatic trough filled with mercury, and by the aid of a pipette 
lamed np at the end, about half a cubic centimetre of strong solution 
of oiustic potash (sp. gr. 1'2) is introduced ; when absorption is com- 
plete, and this can be hastened by alternately raising and lowering 
Ibe tube in the mercury, the loss of volume gives the quantity of 
arbonic acid previously present About half a c.c. of strong pyrogalHc 
Kid (1 of acid to 8 of water) is then introduced ; by this reagent the 
("ijgen is absorbed ; and the residue is nitrogen. 

Greater accuracy, however, is obtainetl by using solid instead of 
UqDid reagents. The solid is ma<le into the form of a bullet, which 
can be introduced by a platinum wire through the mercury into the 
Biiiture of gases, and withdrawn when no further diminution of volume 
takes place. Thus, bullets of caustic potash are useil for absorbing 
tarbonic acid ; for oxygen, phosphorus was formerly used, but now 
l^infT-mAcIii balls niiiistened with a freshly prepared alkaline solution 
it potassium pyrogallate are more generally employed. As a rule 
these solid substances must be left some hours in the gas before 
»Wrption is complete. 

Using liquid reagents I have found that the principal tube of 
land's nitrometer gives very accurate results, and the way I have 
iKen accustomed to use it is as follows : 

The apparatus consists of an accunitely gmdmited tube n, which 
taper* at its upper end, and then again widens into the tube h ; in this 
narrow neck is a stop-cock, which is perforated by holes in such a way 
that in one p<isitiim {iee A) a and h are put into conimunicatiim with 
*H another ; and in another position («•'« B) b is put into comnmnica- 




tion with the air, or with any other vessel by means of an india-rubber 
tube d. 

a is filled up to the stop-cock with mercury, and placed in a trough 
containing mercury. The whole apparatus can be raised and towered 
by a rack and pinion arrangement, such as one uses to raise and tower 

the tube of a microscope. The 
stop-cock c is placed intermediate 
in position between A and B, 
so that n is in communication 
neither with b nor </. The gas 
to be analysed is then introduced 
into the tube a in one of two 
ways : either througli the mer- 
cury at the lower opening of the 
tube ; or by placing the interior 
of n into communication with a 
vessel containing the gases, by 
means of a tightly fitting india- 
rubber tube (I, the stop-cock tieing 
placed in the position B ; at a 
given moment, a clip is removed 
from the tube cl, and the gases 
pass into a, the mercury falling 
in that tube until it has the same 
tevet outside and inside. The 
clip is then replace*!, tlie stop-cock once more put in a neutral position, 
and the volume of gas read oS*. The whole tube is now raised so that 
the mercury within it stands at a higher level tlian that outside. 
AlMut Iialf a c.c. of strong potash solution is put into the tut)e (, the 
stop-cock turned into the position A, and the potash trickles throng 
into the tube a ; this absorbs the carbonic acid, the apparatus is then 
adjusted so that the mercury within ami without a is at the same level ; 
and the remaining giutes read off. The oxygen is then absorbed by 
running in pyrogallic acid solution in the same way, and the residual 
nitrogen read off over mercury, or better over water ; in the latt«r 
case, the gas is read off in the moist state and the water within and 
without the tube a must be at the same level. 


Fill. 16. 

In onltT to get results which ure comparable nitli one another, the alteration 
in the volume ot gnse» produced by temperature, iMirometric pressure, and if 
moist, by tension of aqueous vapour must be alwiivH allowed tor, and the volume 
corrected to standard pressure (760 mm.} of mercury .Timd^iiaiidard lemperaiure 
(0° C.)- The following formula serves for cocrcctmn; volumes oF gases : 


V = the correct volume. 

V "tbe volume ol)servc<i. 

B -beight of barometer (wbicli should in very ncciirate 

work be also correcteti for temperature). 
( -temperature in il^rees cuntignule. 
T —tension of oqucouB viipour in niiUinictres of uietcury 

at t° (*•(? table, p. 5). 

Tb«, v,= Vx(B-T) 

If IIk; (Tas i>i cirv, then 

The Dumber O00366.> is the coefficient of expansion of ^ii.-'i!!'- 
The number 760 * (1 + 0036(i5() U obtained from tables, and the calculntions 
stf oiurli simpliHed Uy the use of lognrithnis : tliiis, 

l(^ V -log V -^ log (B -T)- li« [76U X C I + » Olf366i()]. 
>*, (or rlry gn»e>i, 

logV'-logV + logB-log [7e0x(lt0-«O36fi5()].' 

^ Vr- F. Suttur, N'orvjcli, will forward a copy of theuu tablen, pri»tt;rl separately for 
'tbcatoij uhe, tu any one d«Biririg them, ou receipt of thu ncceahiLry a4i1tei»a. 







This instruwent U of \alue 
too amnll to )ic seen, iiuich 
psrf'irliiiiij; i-lieiiiicjil rwictioim 
siinietiueei convenient to do so 
reiiuit witli the microBcupt?. 
chemical. A fiiuiitiiir instance 
for blood, which c<>nHtits in tlic 

in obsert-ations on crystalk which ure ' 
less nieatiured. by the nftkiil eye. lu 

with wiiiiU quontitien of mnt^-riiil. it is 

on H miortjscope ^icle, nnil ohsei^-e the] 
Such openitioiis are dexifcniitod luicro- 

o( a niiciLi-cheiuicat rMulinn is the t«it] 

f(inaiiti(in of lut-miii crystaU. 


Tf lui object, Huch II- a blaek 'lot on n piece of n-hit« pofWi 
looked at thmugli a t-rvatiil iif Icelimd a-ynr, twii )>lnck ilots will 
seen ; and if llie cryKtid \» nitAt^iil, unu black dot will move round tJie 
other, which remains et-ntionnry. That is, rays <if light enteriiift such 
» crystal iirc uplit into two mys, which travel tbn)ugh the ci-yiii*! wiUi 
different velocities, nnd conseqiiently on'^ i» more rBfrHcteil than tli* 
other. One ray travels just as it would throu^^h glass : tJiis is llin 
orttinary ray^ the ray which gives the Mt/itionary image ; llie other r»y 
(jivHi the movable Innv^- when the ciystal is mtaKid ; the nnlituin' 
luiTK of refraction do not apply to it, and it is called the txtraorilinarif 
niy. Both ray* au-: of r.c[ual brilliancy. In on« dtroctinn, howewr, 
that of tlic optic axis of the crynljil, n my of light is truisDiitied 
without douhli? rpfriicti<)n. 

Ordinary light, «ieor(ling to the wave theory, is due to vibrations 
occurring in all pUncs transtcnM-ly to the dirMtJon of the propaj^atjou 
of the wave. Light is snid in be plane polnrisod when the vibratiuiu 
iJiko place all in one plane The two rays produced by doublip 
refraction nre both polarised, one in one plaiie. the other in n pbuie 
«l risht angles to this one. Doubly i*fiiiclinK bodien are called 
anUotrojroiis ; singly refracting bodies, imi/ro/iMiii. Tlic (-Ifrct of 
polnriwttion may be veiy roughly illustnited by n n>odrl. 

If a striti;: Iw stretched «s in tlie figure, and tlien toucli«d with 
titv liDgftr, it can be miMle tii vibrato, and tJiv vibrations will be free to 



axur from nbove down, or from aide to side, or in any intermodiate 
[wition. If, however, a disc with a vertica! slit be pUced on the 
tiiarw of the string, the vibrations will be all obliged to take place in 
» Tertical plane, any side to side movement being stopped by the edges 
<if thoslit.' 

Light can be polarised not only by the action of crystals, but by 
r^ection from a surface at an angle which varies for different 

¥m. IT. 

jubsunces (glass 54° 35', water 52° ■15', diamond 68°, quartz 07° 33', 
ke.). ft is also found that certain non -crystalline substances, like 
niucle, cilia, itc, are doubly refracting. 

Hie Vicol't Priint is the polariser usually employed in polariscopes; 
it consists of a rhombohedrou of Iceland spnr divided into two by a 
Kction through its obtuse angles. The cut surfaces are polished and 
cemented together in their former position with cimada balsam. By 
this means the ordinary ray is totally reflected through the Canada 
balMm ; the extraordinary ray passes on and emerges in a direction 
pwallel to the entering ray. In this polarised ray there is nothing to 
lender its peculiar condition visible to the naked eye ; but if the eye 
i» ftided by a second nieol's prism, which is called the ajuilyger, it is 
pcdhle to detect the fact that it is polarised. 

This may be again illustrated by reference to our model (fig. 18). 

ria. 18. 

Suppose that tlie string is made to vibrate, and that the waves 
tnvel in the direction of the arrow. From the ti.xed point c to the 

' Koch d model U. of amns, imperfect; it tloex iml, tor inatance, repreaaiii the 
■plittiog of Um nj into two ; and moreover the polurisation t&kes p]ace on each side of 
■kiilit; «b«rcM in regud to light, it i> obIj the raj-a on one tide ot a poluiwr, vii. 
IW Uut hkTS paaaed throogb it, which ftre poluiaad. 



disc fl, the string is ilieoreticaUy free to Tibrste in anr plane ;' but 
after passing through the vertical slit in a, the Wbrations must all be 
vertical also : if a secund similar disc 6 be placed further on, the 
vibrations will also pass on freely to the other extremity of the string 
</, if as in tbe figure (fig. IS) the sht in 6 be also placed verti- 
cally. If, however, A 1>e so placed that its slit is burizontal (fig. 19), the 
vibration.s will be extinguished on reaching b, and the mitring between b 
and d will be motionless. 

Tl .. IS. 

r here represents a suuree uf light, and the vibrations of the string 
the undulations which by the uicol's prism a are polarised so as tu 
occur in one plane only ; if the second nicol or tbc aiialvserb is parallel 
to the first, tbe vibrations will pass on to the eye, which is represented 
by '/; but if the planes of the two nicub are at right angles, the 
vibrations allowed to pass through the first are extinguished by the 
sevond. «nd so nu light reaches the eye. In interme<liate positions, 6 
will allow only some of the light to pass through it. It must be clearly 
understood that a nieol's prism contains no iioiual slits, but the 
arrangement of its molecules is such, that their aeiicn on the particles 
of tetber may lie i-ompared to the action of sHt.i in a diaphragm to 
vibrations of more tangible mHterials than tether. 

The Polarisiag Kicroscope consists of an ordinaiy microscope with 
certain addition.^ : below the stage is the piilarisiiig nicol ; in the 
eve-piece is the analysing nicol ; the eye-piece is so arranged that it 
can be rotated : thus the directions of the two nicols can be made 
parallel and then the tiehl is bright ; or crossed, and then tbe field 
is dark. The stage of the microscope is arranged, so that it also can 
l>e rotute^l. 

Tlie polarising microsci>pe is used to detect lioubly refracting 
substances. Let the two nicols l>e crossed, so that the field is dark ; 
interpose between the two, that is, place upon the stage of the 
microscope, a doubly refracting pl»te <if which the principal plane is 
parallel to the first prism or politriser ; the ray from the first prism 
is unaffected by tbe plate, but will be extu)guishe<l by the second ; the 

> The imperlectioQ of the modet has bven ulretdt eipUincd. 


field therefore still remains dark. If the plate ia pamllel to the second 

nirol the field is also dark; but in any intemiediat* position, the lifjht 

will \)f transmitted by the second nicol. In other words, if between 

two crossed nicols, which consequently appear dark, a substance be 

interposed which in certain positions causes the darkness to give place 

to illumination, that substance is doubly refractive. How this takes 

place may be explained as follows :— 

Jjet N]Ni (lig. 20) represent the direction of the principal plane of 

the first nicol, and N^Nj that of the second. They are at right angles, 

and s<> the ray transmitted by 

the first, will be extinguished by 

the second. Let PP represent the 

principal plane of the interposed 

doubly refractive plate. The 

extraordinary ray transmitted by 

NiN, vibrates in the plane N |N „ 

and falls obliquely on the plate 

PP ; it is by this plate itself split 

into two rays, an ordinary and an 

extraordinary one, at right angles 

t" one another, one ^^brating in 

the plane PP, the other in the 

pUneP'P'. These tworaysnieet 

the second nicol, which can only transmit vibrations in the plane NjN,. 

The vibrations in PP can be resolved into a ^-ibration in KiNj and a 

\ibration in NjNj, the former is extinguished, the latter transmitted. 

Similarly the vibration in P'P' can be resfilved into two sub-raya in 

SiN| and XjNi respectively, the latter only being transmitted. The 

illumination is thus due to two sub-rays, one of tlie vibrations in PP, 

the 'ithcr of those in P'P' which have been made to vibrate in NjN,. 

Now, although these two sub-raya vibrate in the same plane, they 
are of difierent velocities ; hence the phases of^the vibrations do not 
Liiincirlc, and thus the phenomena of interference are obtained. If 
we have two sets of vibrations fused, the crest cif one wave may 
coincide with the crest of the other, in this case the wave will be 
hi;,'her ; or the crest of one may coincide with the hollow of the other; 
tliat is, the undulation would lie extinguished ; in other intermediate 
cnsen, the movement would be interfered with, either helpetl or hindered 
more or less. Interference in the case of many kinds of doubly 
rvfracting substances (Iceland spar ia in this an excepti<in) shows itself 
in the extinction of certain rays of the white light, and the light seen 
through the second nicol is white light minug the extinguished rays ; 



tboM cixtingiiish«<l Mid thow trnnxniittrd will togetber fomi whit« 
light, anil uro thus complemcntery. Monjover, the lays ratinguishcd 
in one ]>i>kition of tlie plat* will be trnn«iiitt»-cl hi one at right 
iinglcs jviid »iw verim : Uius a crystal liliovi-ing tlicw! [ibrnouieiui of 
pteochrMiialiitin'ii.H it !» termed, will tnuuuuit one colour in one pvtutitMi, 
nnd tlw comjileuifnlttfy colour in a jHwiliou ut right angles tu th« fimi; 
hloft and yellow, and red imd ;{re«'U, nre tlie pairs of uolourv uiukI 
fre<|ueMtly seen in ilita way. 

Tht? subject of double rcfracttun and polarisation of li(,'hl will be 
discuaaed in cert^uu siieoinl aspeutii in connection with ha-iuo;,'l<>luii 
orydtiils mid untnole. 

Rotation of the plane of Polarisation.— Cei-tain cryKtnln audi as 
those of qUATtz, and certain Uuidn auch us the essence <>f turpentine, 
iiniitoe't, ^., and solutionx of ceiiain auhsUiices like nuf^r, and 
aliiuniiii, have thv ituurr of rotatinj; tli» pluiiii of polariM^d light to (he 
risht or li-ft. The polariKiition of light that in piiKlucwl by a <|uart£ 
crystal ia difTi-rciit from tlint ptvnIuc<iI by a rbombuhedrwn irf Iceliuid 
xpar. The lifcht that |mw«'k thmugh thi^ lattrr in plane poUriMnI ; (he 
light that passcjt tlirough the fornH-r ((juartx) in cin-ulai'ly polarisnl ; 
i.e. tli« two sub-rays arc miwlo up of vibmt ion* which ow-ur not in a 
phuw, but are cur^wl, Tho two rays ure circularly poUriwid in 
oppcKitit'diri'otion*, on« describing cii-clrs lo the left, the other to tlie 
ri^ht ; thcsi- unite on issuing from the (|unrti plate ; and the net rtsult 
is a plnno'polarisod ray with the plane rot«tt-d to right or left according 
as the right circularly polarised ray or the left pi'oce<ilfil tlirftUfjh (hu 
quartz^wirb the greater velocity. There iire two kincU of noartz, onp 
which rotates the phuie to the right (dextro rotatory), thu otlier to th* 
left (IinvofOtatory). 

Gordon' explains tliia by th« following mecluiuical illustration, 
Onliikary light [may be repre8ent«d by a wheel travelling in the 
direction of its asle, and tlie vibntions coiujioiing it exccute«l along 
any or]2«ll *>liy* spokes (u). If the vibrations all take plant iu the 

Flu. n. 

MiDO dimction, i.e. aUuig one spoJc«, and the spoke oppoute to it (h), 
the Ugbt is said t» 1>« jJanr pularised. The two spotieH as they tmvel 



iba|m tha tliivctton of che Arrow will tntce out a pLkiw («m figure 21) 
tftirtm A And b'. If this |H>lArise<l beam hv nHuI« to Uurcl now 
llnub u K^lution of t>U(;itr, tlw net rtwult i^ thnt the plnnc »> tnuH''l 
<MI i» la~isi«l or rviUit«<l ; the two s|iolceH. hs in bti', do not trni;c out n 
fiu*^ but w« niu&t cuiiaidt^r ibut tbey rot»t« as tiwy tmv«l «tr>iig, lu 
lbM|{b guided by a spiral or M^rrw threail vut on tli" axis, so t hnl after 

■ tntafa) dlMiinoii tlio vihrntioits tnlcr pliux- ui in b" ; later in b", and 
« Qo. TliLt eflV-el mi })olAn»i.-<l light ts duf to the uauleculen in wilutioii, 
•■il tbe uuuunt of rotHlion will <lrpi-ii<l on the nireuglh of (ho solution, 
inlun Uii' ItiDgth of thp cnlunin of thn iH>lutioii through which the 
%kt pasam ; ur ill the chh- of i quiirtz plntt? on iln lliicknMs. 

U « pU(e of <|aarti \tf iiiicrpiJiwil Ih-Iwmmi two tiicots, the light will 
bM tw extln)(ui«liwl in any position of tlii^ prUins. hut will |Hi88 thiuugh 
■wioua ci>li)im ns rotation in rontinni'il. Tli<- rotation jirailaoetl f<>[- 
(fiCmnt kimLiitf light betn^tljITerent, whit<' Uu^ii isiipUt intuitavKriou^ 
tanititiient colours ; and the an^le of i-otnlinn that causes iilc)i i-oluur 
>r is coiibtunt fur a given thickness of ((Uiirtz plate, hvliiii 
tim re<l and greatest for the violet. Thwe facts nrL- made ii»» 

in tlie oonstructiou of jfotiirinii-ti-rs. PuUriinetem nn- instriimi.>nt« 
for ilftennining ilie Mtrengtii of xotutions of sugai-. albumin, Ac, by th« 
4iRction and amounl of rotation tliiiy jinidui^e i>ti the piano of |>oUriitiHl 
%hi They nrr. often called «accliariin«tcrK, rut they ure specially useful 
b the Hiinution of suij;ar. 

Sol«il'a Stceharimetor.— Tbis instrument (•»■ %. 32} consista of 

■ tocot's ))rii>tn <f, culled tbe polariser ; tbe polariv<d my jwsites next 

I fur I 

Ita. tl.—Mta'm HuclKrluicliB. 

tlno^i a qnartx plate (6) 3-7'> thick, otut half (J in fig. 23] of 
*tucb iii mode of dextrorotatory, tlui other hitlf {y in fig. 23) of lirvo- 
routory qoai^ 

Thu light then pa«Mithi'oughtlu!tubRo(jntiuiiingtlii;K(>]utionpliu:ivi 
in tlu> portion of tln^ <tott«d line in lig. 22, ttu-n through a qiiartjs pliit<- 
«at perjHHidicularly to ita axis (^ in fig. 23), thvn through an arr^ingi- 
■Mnt (mUkI a oompoufttor (r in fig. 2-1), then through a ncwid utcol 
(a) Galled the analywr, and lastly through a tvlc«copr (L in lig. 23). 



The foiupcnfintor i!">finiitla of two ijuarti prisiDi) (KR, fig. 23) oul 
IKtrprndiculjirly In the axis, but of conlmn- rotaUOD to the plnte just in 
front of them. Th«*e »rp wedg^-shaped and itlide over one nnoUier, 
the sharp end of one Iwing over tltc blunt end of the other. By a 
snrew the wedges inity be moved from oue another, and thiu ditniniafaes 
the t.hickne>« of cjiinrtx interposed ; if moveni towards one Another ibe 
amount of ijiinrtx inlerposed is increased . 

Tlie efl(?(^ I'f the qnartzplate(rf, jf) next to the polariiier (r in Gj;, 23) 
is to give ihe polarised light n violet tint when the twu lucols itr^ 



( n 



Fid. 91.— Utasnin of nptical ■rT'iiccmnili In Saldl'i Rvi^luuiniftar. 

imrnllel to one another. But if the uiools are not jukmllol, or if the 
jilikTW of iht- jMihirijiPiI tijiht Itaa been rotjtifi] liv » soliitinn in tin; tahr-, 
OIK- liulf the lii'ld will thiitige in colour to tht- vt^i nnil, t)ie ollw-r to the 
violet i^nd i>f the ijxMrlruin, )>e(!»UM! the two huht^K of the ijaMrtx ntt in 
the «]i])OBitp way. 

TIic instrument in tintt adjuKtivl with Uie until pitiuut tor nt zero, nnd 
the niti'l* ]iiirJ].llc'l. ttt thixt the whole lield is of <nic rolniii-. Ilie tube 
L<ontAinin),' the Koliitinn in llittn inlerpoMil ; nnc| if tlie solution it 
vpticnlly iiMdive tlii; field ix Htill unifonnly viotct. Ititt if the sohitton 
is (!extrorot«t<)Ty thr two hnlvw will have cUlTerent tints, a certain 
thidsnwwof the compensating t|Ui*rtx plate which is bevorot^tory must Iw 
interpowd to make the tint of two lialves of the 6eld etjUjil a^iu ; tl>e 
thictcnsH EO inteq^ose*! can Ix* rf>Ad off in iimnunts corre^jMuiditig Ui 
degrees of « circli' l>_v means of a v.-rnier and scale (E in fig. 23) wurkod 
by the screir whifh moves the compensator. If the Holutioii ix Inrvo- 
rotatory, the screw must be turned in the 'ipposile itirecttOQ. 

Zeiu't Polarimettr is in principle much tlie same asSdeira ; \}m: chii-f 
diffeivnfp is that the I'otation proiluced by the solution U corn'ctMl not 
byai^nari'Zcomprnsator, but by actually n>tiiting tbeuualyiierin thcMutie 
tlincctioti, the nmonat of rotation being directly read off in degnws of n 

IrAUrent') Folarimttcr is a more valuable instiunieut. Inatiiid of 
tiKing <layUght, or the light< of a lamp, nioaochroiualic U^bl (geiienllj 
the sotliuni flntni^ [>riHiiiccd by voliiti Using conimon salt in a cnhmrleM 



■;^tuae] in (■ni[>Ii>y(^l ; thu iiniouiit. of rotnlion vixnM for rlifTiTRnt 
mkkn ; mwl now »ll oW>rv«tionii «rp rceonled as IinWng been takiMi 
«ilh light corresponding to the D or sodium lin«< of the spectrum. The 
^■(■tinls of the instrument are ns Ttofore. n polarizer, a tube for the 
nhtioB, Hnd an Hnaly>Ner. The poUri^eil light< before ptuising uito 
tht totutiou traveraes a qunrtz platf, which however cox-era only half 



i II, ii - La iri'iNt'* J ^'JfiiirEiii.-r 

■isini,' through it b_v hiilf a 
halves of the lielH iippear 

ni rrtnhlit the p«ri of ili' r 
In the 0° pusiiiuii ili' 
Kctually illuniinateil ; in tmy otJier [lotsitiun, or if rotation has been 
prociooed hy tlw solution wht^ii Hip nicola Imve Iwen set at wro, the two 
halve* ap]i««ir une)]UHlIy illuiiiiimli-tl. This is oui-i-ectetl by uieitiis of a 
rot<iti<m of the JMialyser, thai win be jueosureil in dt^proes by a scale 
fttlAcltwl l'> it. 

Specific Sotatory power i>f noy kuImV«^*' >* ^^^ ainuuiil of roUtion 
in (lc|fnH» uf ft drck of the plnn« of polnrineil light produced by 


1 gmnme of the substance dissolved in J cc. ot liquid examined in a 
colonin I decimetre long. 

If a=rotation obaetved. 

v=weigtit in gnunmes of the substance per cubic centimetre. 
/:=length of the tube in decimetres. 
(n)(,^spectfic rotation for light with WKve-length corresponding 
to the D line (sodiom flame) 

theu («)"=+ i^'. 

In this formula + indicates that the substance is dextrorotatory ; 
— that it is hevorotatory. 

If on the other hand (u)p is known, and we wish to tind the value 
of te ; then 

tc=±- _? I 

The specific rotator^' powers of a few of the more important optically 
active substances found in the body are as foUuws : — 

Dtxinirotntury Lancurutatory 

Sucrose. (,.),.= + TSf' Le^Tilose . . („)„=-106' 

Dextrose . = + SS-O" Egg albumin. . . = - 33-5° 

Lactose . . =+ 59-3° Serum-albumin . . =- SC-O^" 

Dextrine. = + 1 38-8' Gelatin . . = - 1 30° 

Glycocholic acid = + 290' Chon<lrin (alkaline 

Cholalic acid . =+ SSO" solution). . . ss-tiia-S" 

Sodium taurocbolate = + 24-5° 


The first woit in tliis direction was performed by Fsstcur,' and it was his 
publications on this subjet-t that brought him into prominence. He foond that 
racemic acid, which is optically inactive, oan be decomposed into two isomeridcs, 
one of which is common tartnric acid which is dextrorotatory, and the other 
tartaric acid differing from the common variety in being lievorotalorj-. The saJts 
of tartaric acid ti^unUy exhibit hemihedial faces, while those of racemic acid are 
holohedrnl. Pa.->teur found that, although nil the tartrate crygtiils were hemi- 
hedrai, the bcmihedral faces were situate<l un some cri'stals to the right, and on 
others to the left hand of the observer, so that one formed, as it were, the reflected 
iraageof the other. These crystals were sepnrate'l, purified by revr^'stallisation.and 

^ Ab eolation may cause coadflnaation of volume, the denBity (rf) or specific gnvitj 
oi the solation Bhonld be ilso taken: then Ms- ± '. . unrl icat — ' , , 

' Ann. Chim.} hit. tM\ iiviii. M. Coinplei mid. mvi, 36; xixrii. 1S3. 
Poggendorff't Annalen, liii. 1ST ; ic. 40S, SOI. 


JbMe which exhibited deitro-hemihediy possessed deMrorotatoiT power, whilst 
tbeotberB were hevorotatoty. Pasteur' further showed that if the mould jwiMiNvn 
jltMom be grown in a solution of mcemic acid, deitro-tartaric ncid first dis- 
ippean, and the Itevo-acid alone remaiuB. The subject remained in this condition 
(ur raanT Tears ; it was, however, conjectured that probably there is some mole- 
cular condition corresponding to the naked eye crystalline appearances which 
pmlDcei the opposite optical effects of varioos substances. What this molecular 
nnictiire was, was pointed out independently by two observers— Le Bel* in Paris, 
iodVan't Hoff* in Holland — who published their researches within a fewdajs of 
each other. They pointed out that all optically active bodies contain one or more 
Bi«riiiiiietric carbon atoms, i.e. one or more atoms of carbon connected with 
f"iir dissimilar groups of atoms, an in the following examples :— 


H-©-CH, H-@-OH 

I T 


Amjl «1™llol Malic Htid 

The question, however, remained— do all substances contiiiniiip: such atoms 
nate the plane of polarised light? It was foun<l that they do not; this is 
eiphinBi by Le Bel by hupposing that these, like mcemic acid, arc compounds 
of two molecules— one dexiro-, the other laivo-rotatory ; that this was the case 


A A 


Fill. IS. 

■w liemonstraled hy growing moulds, tlio fermenting action of wliioh is (o 
«fBralc the Iwo mtilecvilcs in question. Then the other question— how is it that 
Iw" isomeriiles, which in chemical eharacteristics, in graphic »b well as empirical 
fonaiila, are precisely alike, differ in opticid properties ? — is explained ingeniously 
^! Van't Hi)ff. He compares the carbon atoni to u tetrahedron with its four dis- 
'imilir groups. A, B, C, D, at t!ie four comers. The tno telrahedra reprcpented 
in if. 25 appear at first sigh! precisely alike ; bat if one be siipcr-iiuposed on the 
other, C in one and D in the other could never be made to oniiici'le. This rliffer- 
fira cannot be represented in any other graphic manner, and probably reprKsents 
'he difference in tbe way the atoms are groape<l in the molecule of right- and 
left-haniled substances respectively. 


When a. my of light p&sses from one meUiuni such as air into 
&not)ier such an water or glass, it is Wnt out of its original course, or as 
it is termed refractetl. The ratio of the sine of tlie angle of incidence 
t"i that of the angle of refraction in called the refractive index. Wiien 
while light is pasfinl tliruugh a gliiHS prism or a triangular bottle con- 
taining a liubstjtnce like carbon bisulphide witli a, high refractive 

I Compt. TcHtL li. IMI. ' Tlvll. Soc. Chiiii. (ij xxii. 887. 

3 La chimir ilaiu re4paec. 



index, it un<)i.-i';;iwa two beiitHu^, one ftt ouch »urfiici: <>f tlic prism ; 
the whole my U however not eijually bent, but it 'u. .iplit into its 
<Mnslitupitt I'oloui'^ wUieh may be jOloweil to fall on ii wi-ncn ; tbp rwi 
mys will lie f mm) nt otiR i*ml <i( « niutinuou.i IbuhI ui (^lnor, the ^^oItfl 
rnys *t the othrr ; <>i'!i:i;;[-, ydUnw, ^ruen, blun nnil in<lig<i beiiij; the 
cnloura which ure inu-miHliiiti' in the nrilci* iininori. This b^unl uf 
coloum in tj-rnn^il n upretmm. T)i(! ntinlniK' it uii instniico of h apeo- 
truni pivii)ufc<l in niitui'i- by thp sun's niys piuajtiy nt n certain ntlf^ 
rUrouj^h dniiis of w.iIlt. A jipi'ctixisutijM- is an in»trum«Dt provided 
vith a prieni nr priiutu In i-niibic us to obtnin » spectrum nrLilicinlly. 
In the spectrum lln" i-i-"! riiys nm the Icnst, the violet raya ihi- luiitt, 
I'cCiungible. If th<> «pi'cti-uiti pro<hi«;il liy one pi-i«m be iiniu«li«tnly 
passed through a spcond prism liJce the firW, but iiiverte«l, the eolimn-d 
roye are reunited, and build up n white thv emer^in^ from Uie second 

The different colours are due t<> vibi'ntions oi iether ii£ dilTfTent 
rates of rapiility ; the wave-length of red light ia jjreuter Uuin that irf 
yellow, iluil of yellow than that of gi-een, and no on, violet hiivin); the 
idiortent wuve-len;,'lh. Tlit- wave-lenglh of the [■ay chuni^es in diflriviit 
media, anti thus the velocity of propa;;ntIon varitv> ; the \-ioict is the 
mtHit, the red the Icsut, retarded ; the violet is thux bent the most, the 
mil the leant : liencf, ui'itieB the diNperuun which reiult* in the forma- 
tion (if the Kjiectruni. 

In Addition to tlie vikible rayii, othei' rayn at either end arc present 
which cnii \m <li-tuclp<l by their efiects, though n<»t by the eye. These 
pays ftre calli^ n'.ijJcctively the ultni-reil and the ultra-violet. The 
ultra-nxl ray* are tliose in which heaiin;; etTeetJi preponderate, ti» 
ultra-violet nxo rays of clie«ii:;al activity, i.e. jimthice such chemioal 
change* AM thoKe on which the ai-t of phut^i^'raphy ilc[H'n<ls ; the visible 
rays have heating, and choiuicul effectn also, hut io a aulior<lin»t« 

Tlie epeclrum of sunlight is interrupted by noinerous dark linnt 
enmn^C it vertically, edited Fmunhofcr's tinei*. Tliey are ]ierfectly 
constant in [xnition. and serve as landmarks in the spectrum : the 
more prominent are lettered ; A, U, ami C are in t]ie red, D in tb^H 
yellow, E and F in the green, O in the indigo, and K in Un; violet. 
Tile 1 (in thi- red) and li lines (in tlie -jieen) are aW well marked. 
Tlnse Unci ore due to the presence of certain ^ulistancrs volatilised ii 
the sohir atmosphere- If the tight from burning siMliutn or its con 
pounds be examined speetroscopicidly, it will Ix^ found to give a brijchl 
yellow line, i)r r.ilher two bia^jlit yellow Hurt, wry eloKe to^-etlier ; 
in in fad a true moncicbromutic light. T'otassiuni gi\es two brij 


red lioea, and one violet line, and the other elements when incandes- 
ceot give characteristic lines, but none so simple as eodium. If now 
ik flume of a lamp be examined, it will be found tu give a continuous 
ipecinim, like the solar spectrum in the arrangement of its colours, 
\iai unlike it in tlie absence of dark lines ; but if the light from the 
km|) be made to pass through sodium vapour (produced by burning 
lialt ill an ordinary spirit flame) before it reaches the spectroscope, the 
bright yellow light will be found absent, and in its place a dark line, 
i>r rather two dark lines close together, occupying the same position as 
lite two bright lines of the sodium spectrum. The so«lium vapour thus 
nUorbs the same rays as those which it itself produces at' n high«:'r 
temperature. Thus the D line as we term it in the solar spectrum is 
(Ine to the i)resence of sodium vapour in the solar atmosphere. The 
utherdark lines are also all due to the absence of certain rays, absorbed 
by the presence of such substances as hydrogen, calcium, barium, iron, 
W,, in a volatile condition in the sun's atmosphere ; it being a general 
rule that the vapour of any material will absorb and retain light, the 
pfriod of vibration of which is identical with that which it itself emits 
■hen in a state of incandescence. 

The Spectroscope cuniiists of a tube A called the collimator, with a 
slil at the end S, and a convex lens at the end L ; the latter makes the 

Fii^. ac. 

fsys of light passing through the slit from the source of light parallel : 
they £aU on the prism, are refracted, and then the spectrum so formed 
is focnsaed by the telescope T. The dispeision of the colours, and so 
the length of the spectrum, may be increased by using a train of prisms 
in place of P, the second prism being so placed na to receive the rays 
refracted from the first, the third those from the second, and so on. 
There are in addition various accessories to the instrument : e.g.]mo8t 
qtectroBcopes have a third tube which carries a small transparent scale 



of u■itvl^'le^gthR ; this U itluminMtc<:l nnd is focuseM by the t«I« 
Qvrcrally nlxo n etnnll ■vctniiKiiInr priani is pliiceil in froiit ••( ||ie lower 
jMtrt cif tlie Klit nt ti ; ihe lolnr lii,'hl is focus«^ oii to lliU, nri<] we tlitix 
)iAv« two «p«ctra, one »f tlie oaiulle flttine or of the HubBtutioe umler 
exAminntion below, anil the «oInr spectrum nViovi> wIiil-Ii cmi W com- 
{lared with it, ami listly ;ui inm^ nf ilit- ^cn\i* by which thf pottitiini 
<(f any line or hftiu] cm be reu'l off iti wavt-leiiKths. 

If we now iiit«rpose between the >uuri» of liKhl un<l th«? slit 1 
piece of coloureil i^liiwi H, or « nwlution of a colouml tnilwtjinee eoa^ 
tAine<I in a veaitel with ptiinllel Mt^a (tbtt hunnii((fiic(>[H- of TTiTTiiann, tig. 
27, F), t)ie Bpectruni will hn founil to \>e no Icin^r con tin urn in, but inter- 


'>'^^ \ 


Ui<"Jtlivrlrlfht>«iirl; 1^ ipl<-imL" '" 'l^irivn ; C, t^tmn at 

rninWiimUon of primtt-. Ii. liii«. !■ r ■ ■ -..i.-: I', mvi irtlh 

IW^HH iHinA tide* fur Ti4'li1iu^Tlui4L»''i'^>u --LiL [If-' QmL >Mv 1w»e.^»i1>« nwtflM 1. Iiuij; npf^cfo*. 
Koiltf LirptlW tvi eXKIIitiituif iilii'ii lajcr fil flui'h H. Afic^iM bariitfr ; If, cv>Ell^^lkf r Ittr t^iafOt- 
tnUiii tw Hiibt from II "ii \'"- -lit. iFrosi > pliniofnirii i-ikrn hi ]>r. lUvltuuu. [noa 
HcKHxlriflli-a ■ Pli>*bi^ac;.'> 

rupted by « number of 'liirk bands coii-cspinding X" the lighl nlwitWI 
by tbe coloured meilium. Thus oxylni'iini^l'ibin (;tvi>H two pcrfcotlj 
vharactvriBtic bands between the 1) «iid £ liuWi hwuioglobin ^vin^ 
only one ; nn<l other reil nolatiuns, thou{{li to the lultMl i>y4i mmilfir to 
oxyhit-iniiulobin, wiU ;;ive charnctn-istic bnnds Iti tithcr positionB. 
Od(iropliytl again ^"ivi^ four wl'II niarkcil blinds, <-«ptvinlly one in U>e 
ml. Thr Ktudy at the nlnorption ipmrtni of aninial and vei^tahk 
pignicntx U fiill of intumtt, niiil liiu Iirwn futliiwed with tii<!«t vnliuible 
results Ip" fiirthfr chloniphyll, lm-iiii>j;!obiu, bili-, iirini-, .tc). 

A convfiticnt fomi of .inuill B]Ht;troncopc is iht? lUrrct viirion gpectro- 

MO/v, in which by un nrmtmftnrtit of alUsmattnji; pnsnts of erown luxl 

I Hint gins?, plftCDil n« m lig. 2K, lh« Mpuctniin i« obwned by tbf 



tjr in tlifi mmc linv ak the tulii^ funiiHhed witb the slit : indeed alit 
nd pricnu arc botji coDtnin<!irI in one tuW. 

Hm ICieroipcctrotcOpe ix n upc^trnsecipc littcil into tin- 'icuUir dnd 
«i( nuVmncope, inslca'l of ihe *jp-pi*ci'. Tln-n- iiri- nli^lit viiriutioiui 
h Ui» inBtniDieiils constnicwd by Itrowning. Hilp^r, nnil ZniHi. Th« 




h liTttcl-i^k 

PM.M.-AmiLi|(meiiliiI )'ruri» In >llm]i ndnn Spntinwnpr. 

which {MSBM Up ^lirnugh thn inicroscnpe tulx-, pusses Ihroogl) » 
ruion spectrxM^ipc ; the sppirTruin an formed ie conipiirixl with n 
from BoUr light u-hifh oiitci's hv iv slit in tl.e side i>f the 
it, and is th«n by n nnnll nwtiinKului' piuMii sent up iiIku 
thp tdbo of Ihi.' micriMpecTlrosciip! ; und tiii>llv in illiuiiiniitf^l 
Mri» ii EocttKed trith thme, nn in thf onliiuin' speirtrosi^iijic. 

Tlip nu«ro»p«;lr')«<?>ipc in i>f x'aluc in pxnniining viMvlniiieopipnlly 
undl ipuuitiuea of solutioim ; snmll i'HIn ttn- cnntjiining tlie IJuid tu he 
nuDined are made from nhort pincM of l>ari>iii4-tnr tuhing; ccmeiitHl u> 
■icpsttipe ^lideii. Id esmninin^' nijoeoii^ extrjieU nf ljl«o<! staius "ii 
pumeiits, very oft«a ooly a xmnil v«luiue of licjuid cnn be Dbiikine*.! ; 
in order to idcDtUy the bloml pi^f^nt xpectHHii-opicnlly, nn« must here 
hiw rvvoun« tu the micrrwpecli-oscnpe. 

Tht iiixtnuut^nl i* also u««f<il in rxninining cilourcd microaoopic 
cryMftU, cir coluutv^l pi>rtioiiH of mici-(>»c>pic or^uisniB. l)i-. Hue 
Mam Hhn auuli- mnch ui«e of the micros]>ecli-usc<>pe lu llus (lii-(!t:tion. 
H^wloptA llw foliiiwinfi niechul : a binofular miL'i'uM.'i)|>(- in tjikiMi ; the 
ininuipwtroscoi""' '* P**^ '" ''"' i'''"-''" "^ *""" eyt'-pit^f-'- liy rwuik of 
tfar sthn" oy^t-pirci^, tlm purtioii <•£ ti>witi« ur crvHtnl caui he ncciirntely 
bniaed ; its «lMiuq>lion xpectnini in thrD mwh riD looking dovni the 
T^ctrfBrtopi? ill tUo oI.h«r tixhi'. 

TIm uhM>rpiii>u U-imU whicli form the clinn(>.-t«riKtic fontnreft uf 
Mm) •wl ittii*:t animal liijiiiiU do nut admit of linving t.lieir timtt* 
4rtermuipd witlt the ii;im« pr«<ciMon a« is prnviible in the cn>ie of Prnun- 
ifJa'* linM ; lh«ir jionilion In wave*li>ii^lhs is ii><u»l1y det«ruiiniHl in 
■iUioiith* nf ■ luillruiiTtii-. tnnt«ii<l of teii-niiUi'.iitliAv The »lx«u tit 
•hwifptiuo Ijkh'Io nri! inor<.-uvi'r it(iniotiiii«ii no ill-(lefin«d, uud vary hi 



much wiUi till? (.1)11 evil t ration uf Ute nulutiuu, tbiit often their oeiilre U 
givrn, iflHtciul ut tUr [MuJtioii uf tiivir ettitca. 

PHn(4!iI tiliitik tiiiigiK (AJiiitlar t<i tijf. :^9) lu'couipnitv aniue of Zt^isa* 
instTuanjiiUt, iiini com.--q)on<I cxnclly U> tiw uralu of thp »puctn)«M;t)[je. 
It 18 thus cAsy t<i «Irnw n ilini^nni of any given Kptrctrnin. The (ilnn-rvpr 

Be D E F G 


1 7 





I I 

Fill. )».— rtfrtli- n( WtTr-I«n(t]i>. 

cjoinienete by tmuainn the D ur scmUuiii liii^ tu coincide «A«ctly with 
that [lurt of tin- «-idi' wliich t-\] jit-mi ■> its wnvr-biigtli, tlw( in to say, 
with th« ilivisiim .'.{<y iif tin? seiili- (this vxpn'ucii tiw fnct that the 
wRviv!*ngtJi iisiwlly (Inmtcil by th>? Grcfk letter A is .'89 miUloiithi 
of A iiiillinielre). fliiviiig doii? this, ihi.' mcale is ii«t accumtvly fur nil 
otJior poiuttt. 

The usual iiietho<l of (letprniining^'Uis, nnuiely by inlerjxi 
Intion cuire*, is thus ilcicribfil by MncMunn : — ' 

A yivx ot [itiivr riiliul iriln -ii'iuii- i[ii.')i(.-« ;i[ii1 li-ulhn, obiaiiiable from Lettt' 
Jc Co., has a »(»l4< uf wave-IeiiKi'i* mliNl <-ir iilmi); ilii- ri^lir-liaiiil ed^-, niul tlu^ 
(■[ipcr Kljro »i rlKlit ai)fr1»> to lKi> tin* a n-nK- euiTf»[»>iiiliin( in itit scale of IJu.- 
ItiilTuaicnt iiutrki-d on li. Tliir vnluc of tbc Kiiiunliof rr Ilni>)i C4i Iht- k'iiIp ut tlip 
«p«ctroH:opc U olturrc'l, nnd by a rpfprcoputo Ant;rt(ilm'» nuinbera, tlii-ir viJiir in 
»iiYt>-li;Dgtb» : ' Iht-y mftliPTi miirlcHl in tlicir iimix-r i>lui'c» mi IhcuJULlvwirh ilota. 
A uurtc i» tticii •Ir»<'ii] lhi\>»]fli i1ii'.*i' itiui'k*n* nriirnriulv ai possible. Wlionit bawl 
9t liri^lit liufi tia>> lo Ih- iim[>|H>il out, nil lluit N ihx-vhsiit in tu Inltc iu rwuitnit m> 
ilio (calc i ilicQ knnmiift bctncou »-tint line* it i> |>1hoiii1i wo GiuJ il> position on 
ihc curve oppc»ltc nhich ic> wnrc-lcogtli ii in-iolnl on the rinltt-liaiiil cidp.-. 


Tlic »]>ei1i«pho(«nii-inc: HK-tliciii for«nimatinp ilic cDnn^nirnllon of ixiluuml 
wlutiou) wn» originiiUy [iinjiopril b.v tluiuun iitiil Bo»coc,' in 1SB7. In 1878 
Vkrordl' iui«iiti-<1 a n|>t'i-lrupholuiiMvr, liut it is Uiitiin* wlio ilcHnitcly lauu- 
"lucwJ llie iii*triiini-iii into phynlologlcnl m«iliod». 

■ Tin SjHttnMCoiH/ ill Uttlitine, p. S3. 

' Augolii'ie'* u^cnktluii* of llio uravp-lontitlui of the pniiclpa] Pnunliofcr lum u* 
Mfultuwk in isiIliiHiUia u( iMulUiiuotn : A. TOO'*: 'i. >la-J; B. IIMV;; V. H.V11: D, Mlrt; 
£,HH-il: b.A17Ji I'.KteO: U.U0-7i ll,.3Un-H; Ui,autni. itfir&m-A'^ivr Ir •pti-'ty 
aalain: UjimU, 1S6S.) ' FoggandDiCn .inialtn, <rol. ci. f. 'iM 

^ccirutn nnd {uf qHani. chew. Auaiytr^lw 
* lElUiurr J»Hni- /- jmiktM VhemM, ktI. i i^ . 


A cerj excellent general account of the Epectrophotometer and its npplica- 
lioD.* in phvsiological chemiatiy is given b; Lambling ' in a paper, which the 
tuiilFt is advised to consult. The method consists essenliallv in measuriEig the 
diminntion in intensity which a beam of light undergoes in its passage through 
arulonred solatton, and in deducing the concentration of the solution from sach 
a iiifas Bremen t. Given two rays of equal initial intensity, one ot which ia per- 
erivsl rtirectly by the observer.and the other after its passage through a coloured 
- ikiion, vbai one has to do is to measure the relative intensity of the two rays. 
Bdi such observations must be made not with white light, which is mixed light, 
)jDt Kith homogeneous light ; in other words, the mys from a particular part ot 
ihr tpfclrum ; hence the term spectroplioloraetry. 

The amount of absorptioQ varies for the same substance and the same region 
fit The Bpectrum with the concentration and tliicknc?? of the layer of liquid 
tiamined. A double layer ot the liquid would proiluce the same etfect in iibsotb- 
in^Iighl as a single layer of a liquid twice as concentrated. 

rbc(|uantity of light absorbed, however, does not in:;reasc directly with the 
ibickntss or concentration of the coloured liquid. Sujipose a luminous ray ol 
inifnsity e<jiial to 1 passing through a layer of coloured liquid of one unit's 

thickness, its intensity ia redaccd to ; when, however, this ray of diminished 

intensity passes through another similar layer, its intensity U diminished 

lit n ' - - . and after passing through m similar lavers to — , 

» It h' ' 11" 

Tie co-rJ^eifHt <•/ eitinetion (Bunsen) e of a coloured solutionis the inverse ot a 
number cipressiog the thickness of the layer of that solution which is necessary 
I'l wince the intensity ot the light to one tenth ot its initial intensity. We have 
llready seen if I' = final intensity, 1 - initial intensity, and hi = thickness of Layer, 

From Bhich we sec that "" = p- (Kquation 1). 

'■onTerlint; these into I<^rithi»s : — 

« log n= — li/ 

TlK^ft'tim.- log n = — -°?— (Equation 2). 

Em liy tlie definition ot the coefficient of extinction : — 


!■= ' andm--'. 

Tlien-fon- «" = n* and p-"' 

If Ke |«it theiie values of »■ and-:, in equation 1 wc gi't 

„. = !() 

WUcb in terms of lugarithms is ;— 

log M = log 10=1 

' Arch, ill- Ph'jsiiiluijir; iHHM. ji. 1. 




IhorofoK UifC H u t. 

Putting tIiT8 thIuc uf lojt ti Into «(|iiftUon S.v/tifHI . 

Ion r 

Aii<l if ni^miil.T. »= -loii r. 

Id ntlier wonla, ihn i^n.^nti^limt at exltncllon I* obinlncil tit- tnkins llii; neiin- 
t.lfv lii^nrlthni of the fmrt.ioii whlc^li rii]>rc*cnt» llu' fliial Inlpnvllr of tUr Iwhi. 
Suppose, for fnsliini'c. ibnt n solution of oxyhirnici(rlol>lii oliwrvwl In B Injtt 
t ccntlnictRi Iliick ri'iluvixl thi- lumiaou^ intcnilty in tha rejtion of ttir B KiDil lo 
U-22S of the OTigimil. Ihco • - - lo^ Oi^S 

Sufipow tluU C, C, C" . . . npnaoDl the ropn-llTR {^iticmtnittoDi of * 

»ei{(B of acJulioiiK. and t, •'. t" . . , Ihe cmrrapoiiiliiig <io.«Adcntii «f 

C C C" 
uxtioolion, Itieu; — "1"-= - ■ ■ *A. 

Tills couMiuit A t-na ht- ensily mcnsurcd In n Koliilioii of kiiowa airvnph : It I* 
calKvl llio abwn't'vn power : 


TbvrettitifC-A'. In nllior words, the concnnttatlon of the iialiitlon {nuiuhrr o( 
gnm« in 1 u.v. of Holiititui) cnn )» uiccrtniood 1>t mitltlplTins the co-ollolMit of 
extldCtioD by tbc omti.ini A. 

Till' mrlbod cnn olio In- upplkil to tiiixiiires of two oilourlag mntlrrs In iota- 
l[on— ^.j. lncmoKlohin lunl onyhitmoglobiii— providwi ihnt the codeIhdI A U knoim 
for both ■ubntiiaoes in Inu regions of llivAppLtrimi. The co-i'Slciont of irxtlDclloB 
in tbo unii' two ivuSuiis in 1I1011 drl^^ruiiDLsi lir otiM.-rviition. The forimilBU ikiimi- 
what eompliofltwl . iiriil ihe mviiinlr slrt'^uly n-ferrtrl lu idusI be consulieil for ihn 
matter, us well as tnt oiIrt lolsri'MintE >»ii;)n«ll4iie robttuglottie examiiialiinii of 
ulher aniiiiiil piifiiiniitJi, n* of Iho bllo, urllie, to:., hf niean* of lh« ajwutiopliMo- 
metrit.' methtxl. 

Ttiu rorumof »p«<^ropboti>niRlcr that hnve bnen liitvnicl to> itii> itMermSn*- 
tSuii of co-ctfleii-jii* of extinelion nre very nuiuerous. t lelcci tor ikscrlptluii iMxt 
iuvoittwl hf Glombrook. iintl i1esc'ril«^ bj- Or. Shc^dnii Lea in the 'JonTnal of 
PhytloIotiT,'' In [irinciple it is Ibe simie ns Htifuer'i, but diffon from It. In Ikat 
the llftht fmni both sourcf? in poliiilwl, wbereHs in Hfltnei'* inntmraant Ibe liHbt 
from iinly one souror is pubtriH'd, Tlie li^tit, then, from <«di ot two notirees is 
pohuitcd by a tiiool's priftru. Hiiil then iillowixl 10 pniut lhn>uf;h a iliie«t viiicm 
priiiu. wlierebT tvo nilJiLcni «iiper)-iiutl siiectni tire oblatiiM), antt tbesr am 
obwmd through ar\ fj*.]^!. ■(■<■, In whleh I1 nn nnnlrolnif blcot. This eye<piec» 
can be rotAtOil on il* ml*, Ihr nmuimt of rotntlon bcloK mMumti^l by a pointot 
wMoh mOTW over a clreh- (ilvlileil Into iIc-ktoi'*. The (p«c(j» aro furl bee oba«r*ed 
ihraujih a i>Hm-iw illt In Ibe eyepiece, to that only n imall ptoon of tlie speolrvni 
is sven, tbi- ]mrl, in fncl. for which one is mulcinj; ibc ileli^ii I nation. Set llm 
poiiilrit "f the cyp-iiiKc nt i)\ iiivX IlifiiTolatc one of the pnlnriiifrg nioolt tilitll 
ih* »pcpiniin fonuKil by Iht liglil juitwin;: ihroiiifh il l* «cU|*i«1 : nm- le* llie- 
[<itiiier Bt SW, Hiul Tointc tho olliri polniihln^; nlfol till Ihv wiconii 
i«U|i*e(I. Ilieii lei the jiomiet Id x'uie inl^cnuedialc |Nit<ittoii in k . 1 
ppKtra utv of equal brlghtiW'u. Xow let the ■olulion of the |i4kiii«uI uf BBkniiini 

' Vo1.r,p.W9. 



nvadmioa C lie iiitro<liic«l uti tliu path o{ tli« li^'Iit whkili fonna «De of the 
iftBt. In arAui to produu* <v|iuility of ibe afuctn the puinter of Ihu vyi'-picfle 
ai-1 be n>lnl4«l IntA m tinit poiStiuii. 

]ii«i( t be the oa^le throngb nhich the ey o-piwo whr rnt«tciirti»aO°iDordur 
l> pojooe the original ojunlit; of thn B|>i>i;tra. lunl ^ Ira the nnitle of rotalien 
Rfilral to pKiduoe uqunliljr when the abiwrbliiK KiibafAiicc Im lnI«r]M8«(l, our 

loinia OvA« b«ooinc* C'=2A\aa — • 

"mil «• 

8i|pow, noir, that tlie Huna bn ilonn with n solution of known CDDCRRlmliou. 
C.ndthiU •" be the nngla of rcilAtloc r«(juireil lo proiluoe etjunlicv when thi!> 
■Men b laterpOMil in the pnlh aS the light from onu iiounw, then 0' = 1IA log 

„ C log t«n <— log ion f . ... ,. ^ LI 

^«*^ i? "log tw. «-loe tm. #■' ^'^'" *'""'' "l"**"™ C cmi be c^.u- 


Thii iMtmmeQt iji one. in which • ■pMtroitcoiti' :uu] [wlarisin^ appunluA mc 
«— hlnaj fur tliu pnrpOBe ol ilelonninin^ Ui« ooiiceoiralion of volitlioiis at sub- 
■MMi which rotMfl the [daoe of i>ol«ri*ed llR'it. It was itivcntetl bv K. v, 
TUKhI,fcff th«««la*L)onor illal>«(ic i»i|^ in urine, 1l* chief ndvAnlago it, tbnt 
■0 dlfflonll)' artwii of fwmlng a jnijgniRnt, a* lo ihc idcniiljr of two oolonriKl 
•wboM, ai Ib Sotnll'* (acchRrlmnt«r, or of two shndnii of the «aiii« ooloor, at tn 
l«Rnt^ ImnraiBcnt. Thn llahi. cnioi^ nt the righi-himd ond of tha inMnimant, 

C.fitlCHEPT Wi£N 


Fill. ■a.-MpMtnfiaWliDrtn ol ran ri'lirhl. 

b pckriiod h^ Ih4i nlool'ii piiam K, and than ptuwca through two qiiartt plntca, ec, 
fboetl hivJKiatally owr oo« another. One of thuc plutw is dsxiTo-, th« otha 
y»mA»iary, and tliey ant of «ach a thialtnuw (***S mm.) llmi the green rajB 
bMVMR tbr E Mill t line* of the ipwtmiu we olrcoluly poLirined through nn 
uittaof W, Ibeuno ««I puning off thningh the upper iiaartt lu tho l«ft. tho 

I n. fadlviliM ufoonl of ihii lutnuiKint ia tkken tmni Dr. McKandridi'* Fhyiiolags. 





THEcheDiical constituents of theanimalbody are exceedingly numerous; 
ih«T consist of chemical elements, of inorganic compounds, and lastly 
of tirgKaic compounds. The organic compounds are the most numerous ; 
MMue of them have a simple structure, but the greater number are very 

The elamenti found in the body are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, 
oxygen, sulphur, phoaphorus, fluorine, chlorine, silicon, sodium, potas- 
sium, calcium, magnesium, lithium, iron, and occasionally manganese, 
Clipper, and lead. 

Of these very few occur in the free state ; oxygen (to a small 
extent) and nitrogen are found dissolved in the bloo<l. Hydrogen is 
bnnd in the alimentary canal. Particles of carbon breathed in with 
the air may be found in the tissues of the lung. With some few 
ficeptions such as these, the elements enumerated above are found 
combined with one another to form what are called compounds. 

The compounds, ov as they are sometimes termed in physiology, the 
prozioute principles, found in the body are <iivided into (1) mineral or 
uungftnic compounds, and (2) organic cunipounds or compoundi of 

The inorganic compoundi present are water, peroxide of hydrogen, 
niphuretted hydrogen, ammonia, various acids, and numerous salts 
(ndJam chloride, calcium phosphate, &.Q.). 

tile Ol^mnio compound! present are the various groups of alcohols 
ud organic acide, and their coropounrls such as the fats ; various de- 
lirativea of ammonia, for instance ftmi<ies, amines, ±c. ; the aromatic 
Wies, and lastly the proteids, albuminoids, pigments, ferments, carbo- 
kjdtsteH, and gincosides. 






Water (onna about 58'5 per cent, o! the weight of the body ; it ocean 
in differeat proportions at diflerent ages, the proportion becoming 
smaller as life advances. In an infant the amount present is 664 per 
cent. (Bischoff). 

The following table from Beaunis ' gives the proportion of water in 
various solids and fluids of the body, in parts per 1000. 

Grey matter of brain 
Vitreous liiimour 

Enamel 2 

Dentine 100 

Bone 4SS 

Fat 2a9 

Elastic tissue . , 196 

Cartilage 550 

. 693 

. 697 

. 700 

. 720 

. 750 

. 757 

. 758 

. 770 

. 796 

Kidneys 827 


Spinal conl 

White matter of brain 





Thymus . 

Connective tissue 

Bile . 


Liquor sanguinis 




G.-istric joice 

Intestinal juice 


Aqueous humour 

Ci'rcbro-spinal fluiJ 
[ Saliva 
I Sweat 


Aji adult takes into the body in tlie form of food (solid and liquid) 
about 3,500 cc. of water per diem. A small quantity is formed ia the 
body from the combination of hydrogen and oxygen, and thus a larger 
quantity is excreted than is actually taken in. On the average, the 
daily excretions contain about :j,600 cc. of water. 

A diminution of the quantity of water leads to the sensation known 
as tliirst ; in frogs, when they have lost 30 per cent, of their weight of 
water, death ensues. 

A great increase in the quantity of water is harmful, as it increosM 
tissue waste, and carries off a lai^ amount of the sdida, eiqwcially tha 
saline solids of the body, in sc4ati(m. 


Injection of water into the circulation in large quantities causes 
death, as it dissolves the htenioglobin from the corpuscles and so 
interferes with respiratory functions (Picot).' 

In starving animals (pigeons) the relation of water to solids only 
ihoirs important changes when the total body weight is diminished by 
U per cent, and the animal has taken no solid or liquid food for 133 
boors. The relation in some organs (heart, kidneys, thoracic muscles, 
ttimentary tract, blood, brain, and lungs) even then undergoes little 
or no change ; in others (thigh muscles, and bones) the water is 
increased ; and in a third category (spleen, pancreas, liver) the water 
K diminished (Lukjanow).' 


C. Wurater * uses paper soaked with a solution of tetramethylpara- 

phenylenediamine as a delicate test for active oxygen, a blue-violet 

coloar being formed. The development of this colour by means of 

certain tissues, and fluids of the body (skin, sweat, itc), is believed to 

be due to the evolution of active oxygen from peroxide of hydrogen, 

present in those parts. Peroxide of hydrogen coagulates albumin, and 

Wnniter considers it possible that its presence may explain such 

phenomena as the coagulation of the blood and of muscle ; and by its 

KtioD on the hemoglobin of the blood various other pigments, such as 

dwe© of the skin and hair, may be produced. In want of further 

proofs of theae and other functions assigned to peroxide of hydrogen, 

«e must accept all such conclusions with the greatest possible reserve. 


This gas occurs free in the alimentary canal, being formed by 
patrefactive processes which occur there. 


This also is formed in small quantities during these putrefactive 
proceaaes. It, however, soon enters into combinations to form siilts 
w organic compounds. Ammonia also occurs in urine, especially if it 
hM been allowed to undergo putrefaction within or without the body. 

The mineral salts and organic compounds in which ammonia occurs 
*B W d—pribed under other headings. 

■ twiul. IBTt, p. S3. ■' Zeit.}ih:jiiol. Chca . x\\\. SiV. 

■iehit deuUch. Chem. Gnelhcb. lix. HIM ; ix. 2GS, 109^1. 




Fi-ee hydrocbloric acid Mcoun ui tho ga*tric juice. Free Buipham 
acid 111 the so-called saliva of certain gasteroptids {DaUuin gnlit-ti, d:c.).' 

The Kcids fuuiid iu tlie Ixxly are, as b. rule, not Irve, but coitibinecl 
with iHMeB to form salts (olilorides, sulphates, kc). 

Free i-urboiitc acid itt fiiuii<l Ln auall (]UantJtieii diasolTed in the 
duid niid »i>lid ti^iifi of tlic bodv. 



Thr chief sidta found, iiri< thii chloridn* of Mtliuiii and [loliuiBiiim, 
the »ut[ihiitcti (if thi- FAuu: inetAlfi, plutsphntes of Ntxliuiii, potauium. 
calcium, and ma^iiesium, imd the cnrbonntrs of -indium and calcium. 

Botiv find similar tiwucs like dentine and niinnirl aw uhiKll}- rich in 
calcium salts pspeciallj- the phosphate, 

Otli«r solid tissues, exci'pt tlie lungs, are espcdnUy rinh in potassium 
salt*. Iu fluid-i (milk excepteil) the most ahundnnt salt is sodium 

£iiunic.rAtii)Tin of the various saline constituents will l>n giv«ti ulien 
wc con«d<'r tho Huids, tiwuos, and organs thvniselvcs. The fnllovriuj; 
gcnin'itl tables, however, compiled by Beaunis" may appropriately be 
<luotcd here. The figures give percentage quantities of mineral mAtter* 
in the ash. 

Sodium cUitride 




Fi>rrl<.- iKitlc 
Olilurine . 1 
Fltttirine . 
Photpliotic hold 
Cuiboaio „ 


Bnin Lmr L«bm> 6ftea 

MrtrA UlrliminiD C.Mhnldl OMliumw 




6 47 — 





1 — 1 

















1 1S3 

































1 O'lX 



i »17 

I Bocdektr, Pogg. Aln. tdL idli. p. lilt, lotim. praki. Num. rot. IsiiL p. 170. 
TwtMvi bmI 3e Ldco. Compt. rrnJ. vol. lir. pp. GT7. 71!l. Th(i* Ihrse obsfmn bund 
(rom ti tD 3'G per Mint, of ttvv aulphuric iu4d in thl> TvmAikAblo wcnitioD, 

* I iim indwbMil li)r ttw mtiimiii-'ci la theu t»LUii to Dr. MvKuixInck'ii Trttbtiak On 
FhytinUig^. Tim ■ubMK|Ui>Tit rrniukH an tliu iiiJii idiisl ulu lira Tnry UrHul; ■ ritamt 
tram Uw Mm* woik. 



ritu . . . 










Imlpi . 









SoHiuDi chloride 









PuUUbiam „ 

- — 



















4 80 










26 40 

Majrnesia . 





I '34 




Frrrii- oxiile 









Phr«]ih'iri<; iicW 









Snlpliiirit; „ 








Cartx-iiii; „ 







Silicic.- „ 








Sodium Chloride and Fotamnm Chloride. —Frobitbiy 300 granmies 
uky be takeo as an average amount of sodium cbloride (comiuon salt) 
b the adult human body. It is a most important food, and from 
l-'>-20 gminmes are daily excreted in the urine, an<l amnller amounts in 
the sweat and faef^s. If potassium chloride be Hubstitute<l in the food 
for the sodium salt, disturbances arise from deticieikcy of the latter. The 
tinnes, however, retain common salt very tenaciously, so that during 
1 dietary devoid of salt, it disappears slowly from the urine. 

During its passage through the body, it facilitates the absorption of 
pnneid food, and increases tissue metabolism. Probably a small 
irnuant is decomposed yielding its chlorine to potitssiuiii, the chloride 
of which meUl is indispensable to tissues like muscle. The following 
uMe giies the relative amounts of the two salts in parts per 1000. 





Blooil . . . . 



Pnncrentic juion (friini 

Blooil coipDscles . 



tem|Hirnry listiilii) 



FUnna .... 



Gastric jiiict , 

1 ■■<-■ 




Bile . . . . 



CbTle .... 



Milh . . . . 



PmcrKitii: jnicc (from 

Drine . . , . 



penuaDcnt Gstuta) 



Other Boditim and Potaninm Salts — Bungt- found that tJie soda 
Slits are more abundant in embryonic an<! e;irly life tbiiii in adult life. 
Tbis is illustrated by the following table ; — 





Riilibit's (labrvii 

2- 183 


tilt, 2;nliiy-cild 



Rabbit, LKliivyold 



I'lV. 1 ■■ .. 

. i.'tHW 


Kittiii, 1 dav „ 

. '2i;r,ii 


.\(lllll lll'IIISl' 

. ] -71)11 

3 3MI 

CU, ID (Uni 

. 2-2sr, 



This fact is probAbly due to the larger aiuount of cnrtUage (rich in 
so:Ih salts), and the sinaller amount of muscle (rich in potash salts) in 
early life, as conipare<I u-ith the lulult condition.* 

Sodium phosphate (NajPO,), acid sodium phosphate (Na^FO^), 
and acid pirtassium phosphate (K^HPO^) are found in the urine, the 
latt«r salts causing the acidity of that secretion. Phosphates of sodinm 
and potassium also occur in the bluod and tissues. Solium carbonate 
(NajCOj) and bicarl>onate (XaHCOj) occur in the fi>od, but are chiefly 
formed from tlie sidts of vejjetable acids (tartaric, citric, A'c). They 
occur in the bli)oil, and carry the carhmiic acid from the tissues to tho 

Sixliuni su!ph-ite (NajSO,) and put)is.siuni sulphate (KjSO^) exist 
in small quantities in the body ; they are pirtly introduce<l with the 
foiK.l, but cjiiefly formed by the oxidation of pi'oteids an<l other organic 
substances conlaitiing sulphur. 

Ammonimn Salta.--— Minute traces of aminoiiiuiii chloride are found 
in the urine ; ammonium uarlmnate is foriiiod from ui-ea in decom- 
}M>sing urine. Tlif urine of reptiles, und birds is largely composed of 
ammonium urati'. Hmall i]uantitit's of this salt, and also of ammonio 
mn<rnesic pliosjilmte, arc found in liuman urine. 

Calcinm Salts. — AlH>ut threi-'juarters of the bital lutnero) solids 
ill the bofly consist nf calcium phosphate, CHa(PO,)j: this is becaujte 
of the j^-rcat prcjMiiidi'nnice of this sidt in iMme. Other calcium salt* 
rifi-urriiig in Imioc, dciiline, anrl enamel are tlie ciirlMinnte, sulpliate and 
fluoride. Calcium ]>lios]>hate, unite and oxalate are found in the 
urine, ^lost tissues cuntaiii small (|unntities of the phosphate and 
carbonate. E;.'g shells, the shells of crustiicta, rural, and otoliths 
consist cliietly of oarlxamte of lime. 

Hagneiium Salts. -Magnesium jihosphate (^[g»(POJ,) occurs 
in the tissues, along with the calcium jihospliates (Caj(PO,)j and 
CaH,(Pt>,)i), l>ut in smaller amount. It nccurs also in the urine; 
ammcinio-niagni'.siuni or trij)le phosphate (Sl[,MgjP(), + 6H,0) is 
also often found in <leiomposin^' nrine. Maj^nesium pidmitnte and 
steanite are found in the fiiies. 

Iron is an impfirtant canst it ueiit ni the bli>iKl-pi;;ment. The blood 
i>f an aclult contidns :1 grammes of iron. Sm.dl •|uiintities are found 
in other liipiids iif the Ui<\y (chyle, lymjih. liile. milk, urine, gastric 
juii-e): it ii alwi mntiiiniil in the black ]>igm<'nt of ihe skin and hair, 
anil of nu'liiiiiitie .tircimiata. A sujall <|Uaiilily nf ferric sulphide is 
fouml ill the fieei's. anil sninll .[uanlities of iron aii> found in both liver 
and spleen. 

' Hiiif.'*-. /' '', fhyiwl- t'hrm. viii. \i'.*:\. 


Other Xetall. — Copper is found in two proximate principles, 
bsmocyanin, the blue pigment of tlie blood of nmny invertebrates 
(Crustacea, cuttle fishes, scorpions, ttc), and in the pigment turacin of 
birds' feathers. Small quantities of this metal, and also of aluminium, 
miDganeseand lead, may occur accidentally in other parts, being taken in 
Tiih the food, and not excreted at once with the fwces, but deposited 
ift some tissue or organ. Drugs and poisons (mercury, arsenic, &<:.) may 
be similarly deposited. 

SUieon. — A minute quantity of silica exists in the blood, urine, 
lia&et, hair, and other parts. 

Pbofphatw. — The amount of phosphoric acid given in analyses of 
ihe ash of animal structures is not alwiiyH correct, since a certain 
qnantity is obtained during the process nf incineration from the 
ilecom position of organic compi>iinda, which like lecithin contain 

The phosphoric acid which occurs in mineral compounds in tlie 
liody is derived partly from the food, and partly from the metabolism 
of lecithin and nuclein. It unites with soda, potash, lime and 
magnesia to form the various phosphates already alluded to. An adult 
man eliminates by the kidneys 2-o~3 ■.'> grammes of phosphoric acid 
daily. Camivora eliminate phosphates chiefly by the kidneys, herbivora 
chiefly with the fsBces. 

CarbonstM.— The presence of carboniitcs in the ash of animal 
iMtterB is partly denied from the decomposition of organic compounds. 
Alkaline carbonates and bicarlwnates are however found in blood, 
urine, lymph, saliva, &c. 

SulpbatH. — These also may lie partly formed during the process 
of incineration from proteids, and other organic compounds containing 
sulphur. The sulphuric acid in the urine is partly combined its 
oniinary sulphates, partly as ethereal sulphates. It is derived to a 
"null extent from the foo<l, but chiefly from the metabolism of proteids, 
the amount of sulphuric acid anil ui-ea in the urine running parallel 
«ith one another. 




It WHS at one time supposed thnt tlic oi^aiu'c compounds di( 
the iiiorKu>>ic> i" tin.- f:iL't tltnt it was not possible for tlie chetnttl 
milk* tlwm iirtilki'illy (roiii llieif elements, Many of the orjini 
cnii.ititui-iits of tlie body liuvp however bw-u produotxl in tht; \nh 
iiiKM.' thiit time,' 

Orgiuilc fOui|>i)un(ls itre now reRHrded ll^ the compounils 
this definition would however iadudf cjirbcmiitcji, which wphnvenlrw 
coiisidertxl witli intirgnnic suhstimccit. Buhorbmmer dtstcrilic* orgii 
chemisUy, as the chemistry nf thi) hyilrocarlton* anil their derirntiv 

Carbon is ii tetrad element; it* atom io weight is I'i (11 SIT). 

Jit! Inbond 
Is of mrlii 


Tlie simplest hy(h-ociir1>on kiiowu is lum-sh gas or tnwAati 
formula is <'H ,. Tliia js the first meml>er of the serieG ktiown 
paraffins. Tile pnrntKns difiev from one umither by CU,: (he 
tuember t>f the series, rtlimif, has the formula CjH^ : the ihini, 
ttud so on, Tlie typical formula for the series h therefore C,H 
The touresl members of the aeries are <,'aseouH. the next fluid. Mid 
higher members form the Holid or hai-d jMrutliiis. 

By re]i|jicing ati H of tlip hydrofurliiin by hydmxyt (OH), a « 
ponnd of till! ttature of n hy<lrate is formed. In the cose of ui«Um 
the forniul-L for Llii.t hydrate will be CH^.OH ; in the caw «rf*etlii 
C^H.vOII ; aiitl Ml on thruu;;houl (he iterie*. These hydratM <li 
from the nielnllio hydmtv-t, likf polaMium hydrate (K.OU) or bi^ 
hydrate (NaOH), by the fact th^t the hydroxyl is combined, nota 
.'I metal, but with n group of atoms called a radicle : !n (lie ciuw 
melhuue with CU, which is called trntliy! : in the caai- of t^tiane w 
(."jH, vfhidi is fjtiled P//iy/. and lo throughout the aerieo. Tlieseor;^ 
hydrat«a are called nlc'iht<U, the Ural m'Oi'/He, (he xceund Hht/lie 
common alcohol, :iud so on. 

Tliere aiv, us we aliall see, other sei-ies of nh-ohoU in additina 
tho»>^ derived fixjui thi& paraltiu scries. Tliis lint and Kimplest 

■ Tliu (jfiUiais of ttiM bjr WohUr iii Vetlf wai Ilia Ant •■•[• In ililt ili 



tl tlcohok are known as the vioitalontio aleo/wle ; that is, they coutain 
odIj one hydroxy! group, and the radicle (methyl, ethyl, &c.) is 
tlierefore monovateat, like the metals hydrogen, sodium, potassium, &c. 
Another group of substances called etlters are derived from the 
tieobola by treating them with dehydrating agents ; thus : — 


Hliyl KiGofiAl ethyl etber 

The ethers of the nionatoniic alcohol are seen to be analogous to the 
Slides of the monad metals (H^O, Na^O, itc). 

By oKidatiiin of the alcohols, two atoms of hydrogen are removed, 
ud another group of substances called aliUhydes uve obtained ; thus : 

(CjHj)0H + 0=CH3.C0H + H,0 

ethyl alcohol n\iy\ aMirLyilc 

On further oxidation still, the two atoms of hydrogen removed, to 
form the aldehyde, are replaced by one atom of oxygen' ; thus ; — 


etii.vl sMehj-au oi-i'tli: lu-hl 

In this way, an aeid is ultimately formed from the alcohol, and 
the aeries of acids derived from the series of monatoraic alcohols are 
DKHii^kasic'' ; they constitute what is known as the fatty acid series. 
These acids combined with metallic bases like soda or potash form 
Mmpounds known as »oap» ; when combine<l with organic bases, such 
M glycerine, they form what are known eAfatt. 

The following table represents in a compact way the different 
dssses of compounds derive<l from this gioup of paraffins. 


CH, (iDRllUU ) 

(-'■H, (pfDtHne} 
C,l<„ ipentiiiF I 

r,iH„ (heclwunf) 




CK, ImMhrl) 
l',]l, l|iniiijl) 
(',)<„ (HUiyll 

C„H^+,HO I C.H.,C 


(',»,, .HI) 



(■H,Oj- tnnuio 
C.H.d.- Htttlc 
t',H ,u,— iflvj tUinic 
C.H.O,- butlTic 
''.H,.0. -vniertBiiio 

— (■,.H^,l).-iiil initio 

'"..11 ™", -"twrlu 



It is welt known that there art; alc<ilii>ls having the snme percent- 
age (.-ompos it ion, but which differ in tbeir products of oxidaticm. t'^r 

' Thi* pmductiDri of ucelic ntid frcmi ulou1ii>l m UHiiuUy cfTt-t'tn'iI l>y aTi or^'aiiiwil 
hnmt called haetcrium accli, 

' MoooImuuc mflUiB that uiic iLtojii nl llie liyiln^^'ii it n-iAn-^''H\'\i} by a itinmul iiietiiE 
OLa^JSwifOthw ' ^-vAwd TAdiola,ia Uu latter ouw^ fonniiii; what ie known U4 U4.-uMipouiiU 




<>xam[>]i', there are two propyl oIooIioIh both wiUi the formula CjH,0 j 
cm-, vicJiJitiKon (i\i(liiti<>:i, iic&bove shown, jiiiitlilwhydeiind lli«ii^rt«piuiuc 
acid ; ihcMrcnml, yielding »»iilis1jinat cjiUi-d «ii-f/»iic, the first of shuniii- 
Icgious si-ricK iif «(>iniH)iiti<l): cnllotl /trtnnrit. Thi.-> is fxjiliuiiecl as (uUdw* : 
Primary prt»j)yl Alcohol {the onp which yinlilK lui iiUI<?liyde) iiintjiiDii 
a nioiiatomip grmip of ntimis CJIj.Oll ; the other, <ir spci-niUry pr»pyl 
alcohol. contninsnilUiomicgroupCll.OH. In nxiiliition of thf primury 
Alcohol, U] is tWDoveil ftnin the group CIlj.OH ; in iixidntion of tfct 
seooiidary Alcohol, HU is removed from tlie gniup CH.OH. Thus : - 


Primiuy pro^'l alunbul 

tn1flRo«i1tmt« prodiwD 



pru|j;l ulilHiyde 

|<ni|iiuuic aeiil 




jimpri kc^oni> ot 

nic kpt^me whcu fiinber 
nxldiicfl pnnnot pre 
«iivr,:icl<l t-i^jivui' ihc 
Kiviiii C.OH if Biint' 
ins- It yields CO^ 
U,U. luid noMic avlil 

In like mnnnm' we have four butyl nlcoholK, and th« numlier uf 
highor nlcoholH, which nvc theiireti cully poKKlhlc, incrcMM rupidly a» wf 
flfceii<) tho Kcjklc. 

Compounds like this huvinfi the «Aine eropiricnl fomtulH aii'1 
moloculnr weight, hut dilfcriiig in ocrtAin react iomi antl phyaicnl 
properties owing to the clIRcrcncc in their cheniicnl constitution, an- 
ealled iMimerie. SuhMancM havuig the gaiiie percentage ounipoiutiun, 
but (lifTereiit molecular weights, are cHJle<l poltpiierie. Thus ftldehyHe 
{CgH,0) and parahlebyde (CtUi^O,) are polyinvric : an are lactJe Rcirl 
(CjHf.O,) and dextrose (CJI„OJ. 

Till- group of hydrncarljoiis wliioh we hare just considered fttniM 
a homnlogouN neriea with the gitnrral formula C.R^ m aiid tfar 
lowest t<trni t>f tbue M-ries is tho sitnplcjil hydriM-Jirbiiii knon-ii, Diilnely, 
niethnn<t or ninmh gas. Thcji- are in addition tn these pitniUiiiH, ti<rw- 
ever, other scricn of noTi-snttirntivl hydi^icni'lMiiii^ cnch of which niay W 
tJie iNwis of a group of cheD)icHl Hub^tanccs. 'flie general fomiulae for 
tliese scries of par.nffiii& are C.ll),, C„H,, ^C.H., „C,lIj. sit^*H(.. , 
■tod BO forlli. ^H 

Tlie nerieti of paraitinx iilarti»|f wiUi melliane (CH,) fonus the lHflB| 
of the ordinary oioiiatoinic aleahoLt, aud the corresjHuiiling fatty acids, 

Th« werira of pHTiiflinii with the gvueral formula C.U^ BtJirtu with 


tibtae, ethylene or olefiant gas CjH^, and forms the basis of a series of 
iMioU, which are called glycols. Theses like the first series of alcohols, 
ire hydrates, i.e. compounds of hydroxy! with organic riulicles, only 
in the case of the glycols there ure two molecules of hydroxyl united to 
ilir nulicle instead of one as in the moniitomic alcohols. In other 
■ords, the glycols are diatomic alcohols. 

Louked at in another way, a luonatomic alcohol may be regarded as 
built on the type of one molecule of water, in which one atom of 
iTiirugen is replaced by the radicle. Thus : — 


vritfr mi'Lliy] nloohol 

A diatoniic alcohol is built on the type of two molecules of water in 
»liich HH is replaced by the radicle. 

H.OH „ „ (OH 

H.OH ^^"' ,0H 

vAler tiliyl ({lyrol 

We compared the mimatomic alcohols to the hydrates of the monad 
mHals, like sodium hydrate (Nfi.OH) or pot^tssiiini hydrate (K.OH), 
We may compare the diatoniic alcuhols or (glycols to the hydrates of 

tlie dyad metjils, like calcium hydrate Cii - j-, „ or magnesium hydrate 

» OH 


From the glycohi' or diatomic alcohols, acids are obtained by oxida- 
tiijn; H, is removed, and replaced by ; an .icid is formed which is 
ailed glycolic acid,' and is the first of a series of acids simihirly derived 
from the series of alcohols. 

But the glycols, as we have seen, are diatomic, and so the operation 
wi be repeated, and another H.j remove"! and replaced by (.1. This 
!a\ti us a second series of ncid.i of which oxiilic acid is tint first memljer. 

The following table repw^sents in a compact way the ilifferent 
tUoifes of cimipounds deriveil fmm the hydrocarbons with geni-ral 
("rtnula C,H,.. 

Hj-Ip^^uIaii .IIci>Ini1 iilJAtoutk^) 

{ lltt »l blihlL- ii' > f r 1 1 1 li|^L< ^ I 

[I"ir,iiji-»r1«iiik ml 1; 
'.H.i-.l«n- I'.n.'niii, ctliOHL'-iIJJ-'vil C,!!,!!, kLviviUu ., l'.F[,'i. iilHllr lU-i^l 

' .11. Iini*'"*' *\n.ill^*t, iiiiti-ni' ,. *'jr.". "\vUir>T[.' ., ; "".ir„ri, hlu-tIziIc 

,H ,irrtvli-rii' <'-\t,.tt\"t, HliJ*li:ikC ,. i',ir,,/f_j vuli'nr-Lu'li': „ 1 *\ri.<'. n>-ri>lr*rtiirl<- 1 

I or ijliirHrli' I " 

' H liP'Tiii- ('.FI,.IHO|, Iwioiii' ., l',l[„ii,leui'li; .. ('Jl,.i>,|ik- 

' <ltyi.iil ihqhI be urcfnlly diit(iii|,-uiKlittl [mm nii cnlirvl)' iliffrre it ailiKtHiiti- uitb ii 
■fm.ltr naiiu", nljconiU, <it (rlytmine. Irlyinlit ncicl in uIhu niniiliir i i iiamii bat verj: 
"W-iviii in nutun: from Klycm'l>''lic aciil. imu »[ llie uiiil* ol tlia t.ilB. 




The next group of hydrocarbonB on our list consists of thoae witi 
tiie general fonnula C,Ht,_f. This is illustrated by the compoum 
called acetylene, which bos the formula C,Hj. The fourth eeria 
(C,H,,_j) ia illustrated by terebinthene CioHi^ ; the fifth (C.H,..^) i 
illuBtnited by benzene C^K^ ; the sixth series (C.Hi^^g) by cimuuneoi 
CgHj, &c. The differences between the bentene derivative* and thi 
rest are so marked that they are classed as aromatic compmmdt. 

In a similar way there are other groups of altohols ; the next aeria 
is that of the triatoniic alcohols, that is, those like glycerine or glyoera 
built oil the type of three molecules of water : i.e. a radicle is united b 
three molecules of hydrosyL C3Hj(H0)j is tho fommla for glycerine 
Tetratomic alcohols are instanced by erythrite C,Hs(HO;j ; am 
hexatomic alcohols by mannite CfiHafHO)^. 

Tliese different families of alcohols may be contrasted with ooi 
another in the following tabular way :— 




On tjiic of 

1 nicil, wiitiT 





Oh tj-jie (if 

2 luol. wnttT 








Etlivl rIvi-oI j 


On t)-])i3 of 

3 tiiul. wator 






C,H,^ OH 

I Oil 



On tj-pe of 

i niol. water 




f,„ JOH 
^'"' I OH 


On tvpe of 

6 mol. wMn 










Friitii fill these alcohols, miuiy diffen-nt series of acids are derived 
It ivmild, h<i«('\(r, lead us tiHi ftir Ui ;;ive taliW of all the derivativa 
iif thii hitrln'i' iiki ilmls. The sk t- 1 th driven iif the (general plan of thi 
hiiiii(iliK;'>us si'i'ii'H <lenviil fiiitti iniiiinbiiiiic ami diatomic alcohol.<t mus 
suftiii'. \Vi' liiivi', Imwi'VPi-, incifly \<i ri'|>i';it the piiicess in a somewhft 
more coiiijiliciiictl Ui'v for the hi^hct' iikoliols. Tlius from the triatoiuii 


tkobols ft seriee of acids commencing with glyceric and tartromc acids 

The earbohfdrat«s (starches, sngars) are derivatives of tfae hexa- 
Vmic alcohol, mannite. 

We have seen how in some of the simpler organic compounds poly 
Drnsmand isomerism may occur. They occur, aa one would naturally 
npKt, to a far greater extent in the substances with more complex 

There is, lastly, a series of substances in which the carbon' of the 
hvdrocarbon is non-saturated ; thus the formula for altyl alcohol is 

H l" 

in which it is evident two atomicities are unsatisfied. Related to such 

alci'hiils are the acids of the acrylic series, in the same manner as the 

feiity acids are related to the monatoinio alcohols. Thus ; — 

Alcoliol Acid 

C,H4o C^HjO^Q 

Hi Hi 

CjHjiQ i CjHaOi^. 

H ) ' Hf 

Ctllfl ilcnliol] [ncrjllc wld] 

The acids having the general formula C!,H,,_,0] are 

C3H40^ Acrylic acid 
CjHgOj Crotonic „ 
C,,HbO, Angelic „ 

C|siH,,Oa Oleic „ 

Having thus described the general theniical characteristics of these 
gnmps of hydrocarbons with their derivatives, we pass on to enumerate 
the members of those groups that occur in the body. 

flfdrOCarboDf. — Jtet/ume (CH^) is the only memlier of this series 
fuund in the body. It occurs mixed with other gases in the intestinal 

Alcoboll.^£'(A^^ic alcohol is a constituent of the fermented liquors 
utcd as beverages. It may, however, be formed in small quantities by 
a process of fermentation occurring in the intestinal canal. Thus it 
may be found in small quantities in the urine even when it is absent 
from the food.' 

ChaUtletin (C,gH,;,.HO) is a monntomic alcohiil, and though not one 

■ W. H. Fold, Tran*. Internal, itcrl. Cunijrcm, WaKhingtoii, 1M7, val, iii, p. 39S. 



ol the series be^-iniiUiji: wUli un-lhyl imd etiiyl «lcuhob, it U coiivwiieiit- 
to include it in tliin plm-e. It eryHtiiUiieH ettlier withuut v-ai«r (frmi 
anliydroud etlwrl or wiUi one iuoUH:ult! n( wuli-r of cryiiUilliBattuu (frviin 
u luixturc of (LtcoliMl nn<l wntcr). It cweurx in blotxl cnrpunclta, nerruuA 
tiuuen, auii liite. 

Phf-nol ur cartHtlic iiuiil (CgH^.OB) may aIho be n-Kurdcd ns an 
alculiul ; it is found in muiiII quiint itii'X UKunlly iti c<>iul>iiuiti>in an on 
ntlii-rciil sitlpliatii in firci'-H nnd iiHik' ; it niny, however, be taixm 
cotiv<!iit«ntly (.'Inssi^l with tho nnmiatic subHtances. 

(ilyoerinf. in found in wmhination with fatty acida to form fnw. 
It ix lilicratod fiinii tJie itiXn during digestion, and may thus Im 
found frao in the alimontary canal. It niHy there be further dpconi* 
posed into various acids, especially propionio aoid, or after absorption 
nay nudei^fo complete combustion, foiming carbonic ucid and witicr. 
lleneke considers that the phosplioric acid liberated from tlie phoit- 
pbatee of the food unites with it, l« form Klycei'o-|)hoBphoric add which 
is a, stage in the nynthitam of It^ciihin. Th<! rt^Ution of jtlyceriue to tho 
KlyixiKei) of till! iiver will be fully dittcunsMl ui cunncction with that 

CrUfl alcohol (C|«Hjj)HO IN ftiund conibinwl with palmitic acid 
in upemmorti. 

Ctrroltfl akoM (Cj|H(,s)HO In contained in Chine** wax. 
Mtiinj/l alcohol (C9Dng,)II0 is found in beeswAx. 
Various other alcohols, or compounds of them, are foand m Tarious 
vegetablo oil" and other products, 

Aldehydes and Kctonea, — Acetwf: may be found in the btoorl owl 
urine iik miuule quualities even in heallli. This is increased in certain 
diaeoMS, especially diubelem. There in, however, some uncertAinty as 
to whether it occurs in the free condition, and the question will be fully 
discussed under Dial>ele^ 

Tha oarhohtfdraU* tim <]iirivntivm tjif mftiinit«. The ^uoohm u* 
nIdrJiydcs of thnr, alcohol, and th« oth<-r ^lups oE cnrbiihyd rales 
(siMichnroses and nmyloces) are derired from the glucoam. 

Fatty acidl.^/'ormtc ociV,— Tliis has been described as pronont in 
sjunll quantities iu spleen, pancrean, ihj'uius, muscle, and brain. In 
leuoocythiemia, it is said to be alsii found in the blood, urine, sweat, 
and marrow. 

As its name implies, it is obUiined ftiiin the bodies of ants. It i* 
the substancp also wtiicli ^civt-s, iii nil pmlmbility, tlie ML'id nwction to 
the blood of certain innrciH. It iji a colourliiw liquMi uf strong odour. 
Il voUttilaes at 100" C. withuut residue. 

Aoelie and may ho pntsciit in cmnll c^uantiti*!* in bile and sweat. 



n die slomach au<l mttsotini.* aa thu I'L-sult of fonnrntntivo chftngcs. It 
u Ue dii«l ucid ciinlnitusl in vinr^tnr. It hnii n chtii^ctorislic odour, a 
wj HHir tostr ; it is v»lntit« withiwC residue. It (onna truriB[>nri.-iit 
npuit which mnU nt WC. 

frofionie nvid nccars oocaMonftlly in BWmt, iit fernientiti}( dinbetio 
inin.iii Ihp Wood in lencooytiiwDiiu. mid iti iha vomit in oumm of 
(tubra. ll vol»iilifM--> M U2° C. ; its oiloiir U likn tbit <>f ncirtic Mad. 
Sulifrie aeiti is fuuii<l in the swiiit, (wees, uriiic. lincnniiwming orgnnic 
«in«r, ut tile it|)utuiii in ^inj^mnc ut tiitt lunK> •!'<-■ Tt occurs with 
littirueid, and U a further nU^ge in what is knoivn an the laclic acid 
bramutiuii. ll v<>iiiiili.-.<-!> ut IGO'C. 

Butyric aciil comltiiivd witJi ^lyctirine tu furm n fiit wr glyceride is 
UMUned iu inilk. 

Valrriattie acwf. Ritim- litis ncid or ilx iDitnioiiium snlt is found 
io deoutapituiije nrKaniL- niuttc-r ; it lUfiy iiUri Ix- t'lnind in tiiB urine niid 
bcM in eortain di>«ai>c« (smnLI-jxix, typhuK, ncutc: yellow atrophy of 
ife livfr). It volntilisos nt 175" C. 

Capmie atiifl may be occasionally found in sveat, and in iiewn ; it 
itnn as a giy^:l^ride in butter. It volatilises at 202° C. 

Caprjftie aeitl (CH|(,0^: crystalliaeB iit IS'C.) aiid tupru- aeid 
CjtH^Ot ; fusible nt 70° C.) may ucour in minuti' quiiiitititw in 
nabinaliun with iily'^'^rini? in butter. 

P^milif and tUnrie tieirU are niuuh hiKhoi' in th« iwrieH, and thtwv, 
hlellM pnrttffins fmri) which they are derived, nru nolid at the ordinary 
aliHiqJioric ti-tnpcmture, TIh-v iim fouiid c(ind>iiii-«l with glycerine, 
lO (onn thr chii-f Holid fats of ndipoGp tissue, mid niiu) occur in the 
fat 4if milk (crenm). Phltnitic acid is occnaonnlly met with in pus 
taterelK, uid the sputum in ifan^rrene of the lung. Combined with 
niafnd baaen to fonu soajio, they art! fminil in «niall quantities during 
lltt iii|;»tion uf fatu in the nlimi-ntary canal, and also in the blood and 

Aoid« related to the Olycolc— (u) The GlycAie add *»rtM. — Tlie 
B^A meuilKT of thr gmup, parhonic acid. dtlTei'a from the others in 
Huff dihiuJc. Tlttr next, glycolie aeid, Aatn nut occur iu th« body, but 
in of iiil«fvat OK glycncine can be (hirJved fi-iiTD it, by thn aubstituUon of 
XHj fi>r mil' of llw hydrowls it contnini'. Ltfiir acid, oi which tln•r^^ 
an" thrrv iMmieridea, occui-h in ninny tissues t>f the Ixiily, and as a 
nsalt of feriDeneativc chaiiKM in :uilk. It vitl be more fully described 
miler mUBcle. It may occur in the urine after extirpation of the liver. 
Ojytuiyric acid ffnitrrmUy occurs in dinlietjc uniie. £rN^i>ficuf is related 
U tkf subntiiocn leucin, n result of tb* deooini>(«ition of proteida. 

{k) nU Oxttlie acid thrift.— Oxalic acid occurs in the urine as 



oxalate of lime, where it is deposited its octAhedrnI or dumli-bell ciysl 
Iw reUtioDB to urea and uric acid will be <ti8cus««<i under uriutk 
Sticcinw acid has b^eii detectpH in the urine, after fo<xl contaiiitiiK 
malic iivii] or a^jui'agine lias been taken. 8tuall quantities have been 
(liKCOvereil in ^leen, thyuius, thyroid, hydrocele fluid, ic. Traont 
of thia ncid (and also of glycerine) are formed during; tlie alciibulic 
ff^rmtfiitalivii of dextrose by means of yeast. Succinic acid (C',H,0,) 
IK clcMcly relattMl in coiiipiisitiou to thi-ee acids coiitaintHl in many 
Tegittable fotids, vix. malic acid (C,.H^Oi), tartaric iu:i<i (C1H4CI4), and 
citrHc acid (CnH,f):). 

Acids oftheAcryiie Series. - ifo-ytciwiV itself (CjHiOj^Uobtainied 
by the oxiiintiim of iieroli-iii (0,II,U), tJie aldehyde of allyl alcohol. 
Acrolein is also proiluccd by the removal of two molecules of w«t««' 
from ;;lyceriue (CaU,0j-2H(0-CaH,0). 

Criitonie ac'xti occurs in crot«u oil. 

Angelic add occurs in eroton oil, and an};elica root, Iib al()i-lt}ile 
occurs in essential ciil of chamomile. 

Erunir iKitt (C^,H,(0,_,), a liiffh term of the aeiie*, i» found in rnpe- 
sirod tiil. 

OU<ic nrid (C|,H(|0,) is more iiuportunl Ui the [ihyxiologist, as it 
occurs not only in vc^tablc oils (almond oil, olive oil, Ac.) but niso in 
the glyceride ohin, an important constituent oi the fat of adipose tisBM, 
and of milk. 

Amido-acids. — Those am acids derived from the fatty acids, by 
replacing on« or more hydrogvn atoms by the radicle amidogen (NU,). 
This important group of s.iibstan(N;M, which inclndce leuciue, tyroaioe^ 
glycocinf^ taurine, ci'eatino, ix,, will be more conveiuentjy dealt wiUi 
in connection with the niti'ogenoui^ proximate pnncijtles of tbu lK>dy. 

TllQ Fata. — The fat of mlipiKiH Uiwue is a mixtuiv of tJio glyceric 
ellirrs, or glyceridtn of palniitjc, ntearic, and oleic acids variously mixed 

In cream thinv are in addition Kinall i]uanlitie» of glyceridv of 
fatty acids tower in the nitric*. 

Their chemical chaiMicteristics will be more fully desoribed in «xn- 
nection with adipose tissue and milk. 

ISmnll quantities of fat are, however, found in other ]»rta. The 
tabic on the ne.vt [m^ from Uoi'up-ltesanez ^v«a tli« percentage of 
fat in the organs and tluids of the human body. 

Moleschott found that in a man 30 yearti uf age, weigliing 64 tilo- 
jfnuuiuea, about 2'.'< ])(;r rmt. of the body weight wa^ ootupoeed of fat 
Tturduch giviw ati avcrngc of 'y per cent. It need hardly be said tint 
it I'arics iromeniK^Iy. 



. O-OOl 

CartilHge . 



Bone .... 



Crj'atalline lens . 



Liver .... 






Hair .... 



Brain .... 



Bgg . . . . 






Adipose tiiisue 






Vancof hnmoni 
Ellin . 

Ijqur amnii 


Bik . . 

Xilk . . 

Tripalinitin C,H((O.C,6Hj,0)3 and trUtearin CsH(,{O.C,gHj60)3 
ire the Bolid faU of the body, they are held in solution ftt the body 
Iwnpersture by triolein C^in^^O.Ci^ii^fij^. Trimaryarin is a mixture 
rf the two first-named fats. Tribultfrin C3Hi(O.C,H,0)3 is found 
io butter. Trivalerin C,Hj(O.C5H90)3 exist* in the oil of marine 
iniioala like the seal. Tricaproin 0^11 jfO.CgH ,,0)3, fricaprylin 
C,H,(0.C,H,.,O)j, and iricaprin CjHitO.CioH^O), are fouad in 
uilk and butt«r. 

In the decomposition of fat, we may find propionic, acetic, and 
funnic acid, which are absent from the fat in the fresh condition. 
This occurs when a fat becomes rancid, and is doubtless produced also 
W the action of putrefactive organisms in the alimentary canal. This 
M r«aUy a process of oxidation : the way in which n lower term of the 
Kries is thus produced may be illustrated by the following equations ; — ■ 

C,H^Oj+0,=C,H«0, + CO,-t-H,0 

[itntU' tu'li]] [trirrulc u'lil] 

CH,Os+0=CO, + HjO 

[fnrniEc ih'lil] 

Lrcithin. — This substance (CjjHgjNPO;,) is a wax-like material, 
'hich can be separated from tlie nervnus tissues and blood cor- 
pMcles. According to some observers it occurs in nervous tissues 
in combination with a nitrogenous glucoside cnlleil cerebrin to form 

When boiled with an acid or alkali, lecithin yields glycero-phos- 
phoric acid, stearic acid, and an alkaloid calle<l neurine or choline. 

Lecithin is abundantly found also in the tieeds of many plants.' 

■ Schalie uid Steiger, SSeit. pliyiiol. Chem. liii. SOS. 



We have already seen how several different substances may exist, 
having the Bame fonuula. Isomerism, as this is termed, is due to 
differences in the atomic constitution of the molecules. 

Take the substance known as ethyl chloride : this has the formula 

CjHjCI, and can be represented graphically only under one possible 

form : — 

H H 

I I 

H— C — C— CI 


ri H 

But in the case of a substance having the formula CjH,0, there 
are two possible arrnngenientii of atoms : — 

H H H H 

H— C— C-OH ami H— C— 0— C-H 

11 ! I 

H H H H 

and as a matter of fact the two sultstarices, ethyl alcohol and methyl 
ether, actually exist. 

Or take the case of propyl chloride : again we have two, and only 
two, possible aiTangementij of atoms, and actually the two isomeiidcs 

have been found to exist, 

H H H H H H 

I ' ' III 

H— C— C— C— CI and H— C— C— C-H 


[ortliopr>ii>yl pliEorl'li-] [i»iimpy] chlnriilp] 

In the cose of compounds containing more than three atoms of 
carb<in, the isomerides possible are more numerous, and those that 
actually exist are also more numerous. It does not, however, neces- 
sarily follow that actuitl compounds exist, corresponding to all the 
possible combinations, and a laf rif HmiUilion is still wanting 

One of the most striking of these instances is that of benzeae ; this 
substance has the formula CcH^ ; there are more than thirty possible 
arrangeiuents in which the atoms might lie strung together, and yet 

' Mi'Kendrick'it Phgsiolugy, vol. i. p. r>l. 


ijoIj one benzene exists, Kekule' represents the constitution of 
benwne thus : — 




C— H 

H— C C— H 


^ .i 

tliat is, the six atoms of carbon do not form an open chain as in the 

sobslances of which the graphic formulas have just been given, but a 
doted ring (the benzene ring). In this ring every two neighbouring 
Cs are united alternately by a eiogle aod. a double bond, and the 
(oarth combining power of each C is satisfied by the H. 

This substance benzene is the foundation of the aromatic group, 
•hich contains very numerous members. These can be derived by 
wbetituting one or more atoms of hydrogen, by more or less compli- 
Mted radicles. If for instance one atom of hydrogen be replaced by 
Mie of chlorine, we obtain chlor- benzene, a substance of great stability. 
If one atom of hydrogen be replaced by hydroxyl (HO), an alcohol-Uke 
nbstance, I'henol is obtained ; but it is distinguished from the alcohols 
ID the same way that chlor-benzene is distinguished from the alcoholic 
chlorides ; viz. the OH is more strongly attached than it is in the 

One of the hydrogen atoms is also replaceable by NOj (the radicle 
of nitric acid), to fonu nitro-benzene (CtHjNOa), or by anii<logen NH^ 
(to form an lido-benzene or aniline, C^HiNH,), and thus nitrogenous 
aromatic compounds are obtained. Or, again, hydrogen may be replaced 
by radicles containing carbon, and so substances containing more than 6 
Atoms of carbon are added to the group ; for uistance 1, 2, 3 or more 
atoms of Ihe hydrogen are replaceable by methyl, and we get the 
following series : — 

Benzene ..... C«H^ 

ifethyl -benzene (Toluene) 
I) i - meth y 1 - be nzene 
Tri- m ethyl -be nzene 
Tetra- methyl -benzene . 


I Liebig's AnnalfH, toL cxxxtIi. p. 100. 



Aj^uin A similAr series in ohtiiinalilc witfi ethyl, iiiul nil tlie oUier 
nlcohol radicles ; stilt further coinpliciitiiiii in pnxluced by regilovin^ 
Rome H'a with one, ntiil soim- witli nnothir kinil, of nulicle: and even 
inure ooinplicatitl ctinipnuiidB Ihun thww can W muthed, becam* tbi? 
atunis of liyilroj[eii in the methyl, ctliyl, Ac, nrc rvplitcmble l>y othrr 
«Iem(»its, or other milides. 

In wlditioii to nil this, isntnerisni has to hn rpclconin) n'ttli. If wn 
n-jireneiit tint iii(>l(!Ciite nf Iwnicue hy u hcxiijfon. at the ciimeni of 
which tlie uarhmi atonic are plitced, it is seen tliiit thnw isuineric 
di-tiiethyl-benzentui onn exist; id which the two ini^iyl groupo have 
tlie jMMiitiotia indicated by the lij^ui^a : 

a. 1 Mid '2. Ortho-d >• methyl -ben Ken e. »/\i 

h. 1 itnd 3. Mctn-di-tnefliyl-I>eiiKen«. | j 

e. 1 und 4. P«ni-di-mpi.hyl-lienicne, '\/ 

No oUier ciu>ck of i»oin«ricin nre hnrr piindble; a* 1 aim] 6 is 
ideRtit-'ul with I iiml '2 ; nnd I iind H with I and 'A. 

Oiii5 more nxnmplc of this kind of ieomprism niny bo given : 

pyrocah-chin or cutdchol Hm the formula ^('I«^qH ' *'^ '^'^ auou 
of hydrogen in lienr«n« An rcpUoed by hydroxyl. This substane* 
stMidK to pheiiiil, lis ethenp glycol doc» lo rthyl -alcohol ; it is « diatomic 
phenol. Hut thti hydroxyls may have difierent positiooB, aa the 
methylK in tho example jast ^veu, and thus we hare two isoDieride* 
of pyro-cntcchiD, which are known as reeorcin Mid hydroqitinone 

We may now take ofrlalim the members of this iraportAiit family, 
which are interesting to the physiologist, either liecause they occor tn 
the body, or nrc woeful as drugs or reagents. 

I'Atnol or (Jcrbulie (iciii C^Hj.OH is a white crystalline stibxtiuioe, 
fusing ftt iS^C., boiling at 184°, and forming the chief countiluent of the 
heavy coal oils. Perchtoride of iron gives with it a deep violet colour. 
A chip of fir or deal moistened witli phenol atid then with dilute 
Lydiuchloric aoid and expuaod to the li^'ht turns a deep grvenudi blue. 
Plienol reduccit mIvlt nitrate. Wlieii hiHitvil with nitric acid, In* 
nitrophenol CgH,(NOj)^OTI, commordy called picric acid, is formed. 
All aqu«iiu» xulutioi) of phenol gives with bromine water a yelkw- 
iah crystalline precipitate of tri-bromo-phenol (C«II]Br3.01I). Tliti 
reaction may be ii^ed for the (|uantitatire determination of phenol. 
Phenol gives in adilition the followijig colour reactions : 

a. A blue or greenish colour, on adding a quarter of ita Tolume of 
ammoiua and a few dixips of potaasium chlori<teh 


b. A blue colour in presence of a little aniline and an alkaline Bolu- 
tioD of sodium hypochloritfl. 

f. An iotenae red colour with Millon's reagent. 

d. A brown colour changing to green and blue on adding fuming 
nitric acid, or a 6 per cent, solution of potaastum nitrite in strong 
(dphnric acid. 

Phenol occurs normally in the urine, sweat', and fteces in small 
quantities, but especially after medical or surgical treatment with 
carbolic acid or other drugs containing a benzene nucleus. It is 
KkloQ) present in the free state, but usually as phenol sulphate of 
putasaium (CgHjtO.SOiK). The dark colour of the urine in cHrtxtluria 
is due to one or both of the two isomerides, pyrocatechin and hydro- 
chinon. On exposure to the air (oxidation) in an alkaline urine these 
raUtonces turn dark brown. Phenol is formed by the activity of the 
piDcreatic ferment and putrefactive organisms on proteids in the intes- 
tinf. That normally in the urine is absorbed from the intestine. 

Pyroeattehin w Caiec/iol Cf,il^(Ofl)J. — This occurs in small 
i]iiantities as a conjugated -sulphate in the urine. It is a crystalline 
nbatance, which turns brown on oxidation in alkaline solutions, and 
green on admixture with ferric chloride. It was called alcapton by 
Boiieker, when he found it in abnormally large quantities in certain 
urines. It must be carefully distinguished from sugar, as it reduces 
alkahne solutions of copper salts like Fehling's solution. It occurs 
in the cerebro- spinal fluid. It is one of the products of the decom- 
pocition of proteids. 

Cremtt C,H,(HO). — This is a derivative of toluene or methyl- 
beiuene (C^Hg). It is contained in crude carbolic acid. It Iwils at 
20O''C. It also is a pnnluct of the decomposition of proteids, and so 
ti found in the f»ces, and a small quantity passes into the uriiit- n,s 
onol sulphate of potassium. 

.Benxyf alcohol has the formula CsHjCH,i^. ^^^ -.l.lehvde is 

CjH.vCOH, i.e. the alcohol nii'nH* Hj ; aral an acid in formed by i-eplac- 
ing the H.j by O. The aldehyde is known as oil of Ijitter iiliiKiiids, and 
is the result of the dec(mi posit ion of the anivgibiliii contained in the 
ainionil. Tlie acid is call"! l/en::oie act'/ C;H„Oj. Tliis occurs in llii? 
urine, esjicfially of herbivom, combinwl with ;;lyi.'ocini; or Hmiilo-acetic 
wid (U;H/),.XHi) to fonn hippuric 'ici'l (CsHjXOj). The ra.lidt- of 
benzoic acid is (atlle"! Ii'-nzi-ijl (C,H,-,0). 

,Sii/lci//'r or O-rt/himiyl ijroufi. The njeiiilteri of this jrriiup ari' 
closi'lv connected with the Icnzoyl firoup : thfv are benzoyl c"jii[M.uiids 
ill which an atom "f bydni-^'tn is replaced by liydroxyl (HOj, 



TliB formula for stilic^lie aeid is C-HbO,. If two atonu of 
hytlrog«D in tliu b« ri^ptuced hy h,V(Irox,vl< a Nubstuiure ui obtained 
with the fon»u]a CfHtOj, which \a unlled gnilie acid. Thin »cid 
ia geaerAlly obt»iiie<l from iiui-K"Uii. On heating it »))1it« up Mfi 
COj and fi/rvgtdlU acid (InAiyiUaxylhvnxttnv CiHj(OH),), 

Tri-jnfthylhrnz'-n'^ C„H,(CH,)., is thr stjiitinKiKiint <>f Uie 
aroiniilic 0(>m[Hiuii'lti uuitiunin^ nine ntumx of cirb'm. Tlii.- inosl 
iiuptirtniil inpiiiberx of thu ^oup nro anrthot, th« ohi<^f cimstituvnt t/i 
nnini- oi!; anitninif ifid, wliicrh oxistx in t.he bnlKniiis ofTolii nml P«ra; 
cuntnrin, found in ToiiIoi-Imiiii, iinil Kwcpt RCPiit«() ^oku-j^ : ttfroiiiv 

CsHjIj, J, i\f-a \no U''*P<^^>'ctof the dcoompasilinn «f nlbuminoiu 

SuWJlnc'l^9l, }itur, born, Slc.; >t i£ found fttso in ttiP corliiiiml insM. 
B«ing nti nmidn-iickl, it will be mon? fully dcscribofl with that 

T/tytnol, an importAnt atitiseptjc, eotitaiiied in oil of tbjrnWi t* « 
derirative of t«trA-iu«thyl-b&niL«iic. 

Aromatie oxy-nctth. — Twu of theao, hydi-opumcuiuaric acid and 
pafRcisypUenyl acetic acid, iii-e found in the urine in combination with 
polAs&ium in small ({UAutiti^vh They apparently are derivwJ from th« 
decomposition that takes place in pmleida in the intestine ; tyroBiiw b 
probably an intennediate pnHluct (Buuninnn).' 

C^„NO, + H,= C,H,„0, +NH, 


£li5«|n>p«J-«nnB4hff h1>I] 


= C.H.O, +H,0 

Tbs XndiffO Gronp. - Sulwtimci'.i liclonging tr> thiH group iirr fimnrl 
not only in <b<' ^cgi'lnhlc kingdom, but iil«i in nninialx. Tlw pnrv 
«ulouriiifi tiukttcr obtjuninl frnm crudo cuiinnii.-rcial priHiuct w called 
indigtitiu or iiidi'if'-fttu-: C.MjNO. Thin by tlir action of rralndnf; 
a^nls iN-comea indiyogen or iiidifff'-u'/iif'; C^HnNO. On oxidatiin a 
biKly nOled i*iUin ia formed, CII^NO,. When indl^-whitc ia. b»t«d 
tvilb xinc and wiiter it yieliU indofr C,I1;N; Hnd when i«n1in is ju.-led 
on by [>f.laiih, it yieUU aniline {C,IIjNOy+ IKUH =(.'(11, X + 2K,t 

Tliin Ijwt i-nnction shows that tho indigo grtnip of subsUnc 
contains the brnnmr group of atonis^ 

Tlje pareiil of all tliirse nubslancea in plnntit is n coknirli 

ZeU. fiiftial. Clitm . vol. *. p. 138 



■htamn aMed in/iKan C,aHj,NO,^ TndimT) is a gliicnitidc ; when 
MhI vitti imilit, it *pliU into inHigii-bliic, iiiid a HUgiir-likf lEubKUtnce 
dMtndiicludn. C„.H„NO,i + -JH,0=C.n,N(> + 3(C„U,flOo), 

IiniU(»o| [linllK.i.lilLii'] [ti.ilKluclii; 

[TbcBtiuting-piiint of iheimUgo series frnni n chemical point of view 
Wf poKK froni indole la indigo-blue hy ^ucccs&ive oxiiUlioiin, 
oH frocD iiHligo-blno to indole by Buccessivp reductioDs. A f<dl list of 
tk- rarioiw intrrmclinie products with their fonuulie is as follows ; — 

Indt.k' C.HiX 
Diox-indole C'slliNOj 
iMtjd* CtH«NO, 

Iwitiw C.H^NO, 
Indigo- white C,H^JIO 

Ttie fonutdit for indole ia thu* i-epreeencod gntphically by Baoyi-r 
•nd EuiDtvrliag :— 



(H thiH group, two members nre found in the body, vi^. iudole 
(fnnii which indigo is obtainable) And «l<atole, a denvntiTc of indole-. 

tu'lofr C|I[,N in an oily fluid, which cryel^tUiseB when mixed n'itit 
«*ler ; the cryetabi niek At A'2"C. It has a ftecnl odour nnd h rendily 
(iihiUe in Rtcohol and t-lher. Il pves a red prccipilute wilh dilutf' 
fmning aitric »cid. This prccipiutti- ia sulublif in uK-ntiol, hikI (lie 
akdiotiio Holutioii, mixnt willj hvilnxhlonc Add, colours fir-wood cliwrj- 
ml, tJiauKUiR aft*r a while tti dirty limwn rwl (Itwycr). 

It in > |>ru<luct of the diH^onifMuilion of pnit^itU, und in formed 
(niiu Ihui* !iiili«taiiL'i>B during their sliiy in thf ioii-stinf. It pruwcs 
*■■; portly with t]ir fiew* ; piirt is nhwirhml, nnd linnlly excrnted 
«iili the urinr u* nn nthcrml Hulphutc 

IndigiL — lt tho uritic (rspivinlly in (listuiKcs wherr iniich piilre- 
facUim oiXDr* in the nliinrntary tvinid, or itftjT thcnilniinixtmtion of 
t**t«iD drugs — creowtto, Iwnzoic nidehj-do, tui-pentinp. ire.) Iw boiled 
•all a Urge ijtMBtily of strong hydrochloric nnd n few drops of nitrie 
■od, ■ rioli.ft'red colour appe-nrs, duo to the fonontion of indigo-blue 
•nd indigu-roH. Th^-re nre also other n(elhoil« cniphiyc*! for demon - 
■tntiug llw fitcl that, on oxidation, indigo niny l)c ohtAinwl froni the 
mill*. The parent substonoe in the urine is called iiu/iran, but thin 
I nnat not be confounded with the indican of vrgetnblcH. Ve|^ia|,|t- 
I fBdicHii in n gluojsidfl. The indicun <if urine ik imlo\yl->:ulphiii<- of 
foUwiuni, luid in d^trEved fn>ui (ho indole of the interline. Its fonnulit 
■ C,HjN80,K (te. the nidiele of potiusiunt Hulphate, KSOj, pltm 


indoxyl, C,IT«NO). This AuUuiioe (low not uppnrvutly occur in t>i# 
sweat, nr tm\y in tmocH ; itit ptw>«nin> hiw, tiuuovcr, been stMteii to 
hnve boen drmuiuitrnltid in cnoe* uf cAroiHtrfrtwin, or vokiuitxl nwiwt 
(Bitio, Hofmimii). 

SlfiU'le C,IIhN » RiQtlij'l itidi>l«, CiHt(CII})N. Le. indola !n 
wbioh itn H in r«|>Iii«ocl h}- incthyl, CHi- When pure it ucvunt in 
den(j>t« aliiiiirig plnt«s, hiiviii); n fii-col odour, hikI melting at 94°C. 
Fuming nitric ncid givvn with its Mihitjon* n whitv, cloudy pnvijiitnttt, 
thus diMtiiiKuialiin;; it from indole. From itt> bydriK-hlonL- iu:iil solntiou. 
it iit thn<«ii down, mi the nddition of piorii- A«id, in the furm nf red 
n«vdlc>. Whvti ]>nwiiL in the urint*, it Ki^'"> ^ vio|p|-nx) colour with 
■truaig hydroclili'ric uuid niul chloride of linii?. 

Skatu]« likr intkilft i» tortncd in the idimeiitary onnni from prolvitU ;' 
mosl' i" cxarWit ji^r return ; a aniiill quantilv is nliMirU-d, ni»l tliuilly 
excrotf^l in tht' urim- nnd Awcut. AlM«qilion r.f n Urge qunhiiij of 
indole, skntnle, d:«., priKluoei diiiturlHinoes u( the nvrmus systetn; ami 
mtoiy of ttir unplciuadit Byinptonis of constipetion iiiny nriae from tlii« 

In the urine akntiilp ix found, tik« ittdol4^ in the form of an 
t^livrenl Milphiilf. The nume of Uilt cimipounil is Hl(At<>x)'l lulphato 
of potoeiuin (CJI,NSO|K). It hu Ivmi sunni»e>I thnt this nubntAncv 
may, like tliv ootTwponihnx imloxyl oonipnund, i^\w rine lu a pinnnem. 
UeMer' fiuda, however, Una the uniount of ili« ao-cnllcd iikatohi- 
pii;ni«nt it not proportional to the Mnioaiit of the akntoxyi nulpliurie 
acid ; and lie frUg|{<viU that ttu> cliromogwn ot tlu.' pifpnent ia » 
coMibi nation <>f nknlusyl with glycurotiic o^rtd. 

Skatoxyl-poUiMiuiii-HulplMtc U kIho p«v)ieut in the *we«l (Ka«t),* 


A few nitnieeiM>ui> orKunic eonipnindx havp already boon dotcrilwd ; 
we h»»i' t" d'uil ;h>w iiiiin- i'n)iirciBl1y with th«' orgitnic derivativM of 

Anlnw.- Anunin^ isaoompuund oniiui>nta,uhiuh can Iwolitiuned 
by rrpUcnitft »ih- or more atooM td the hydr<i);<-ii in ainiunnia (NHj) 
by alciihiil mdirks. Of these oidyoii)> haalxvn diiicrihei) in llie IxMly — 
irimriliyt'ii'iirv N(CIIj)j, which iii?c«r« nuniially in human urine, and i» 
found in i(iiani>. doconi[i>»tni; fish, and dMoanpiMiiig ptrittitU gi'iienllj. 
It u- Iho RulMluHf lo which ttio dwn«ct«rv>tic unell of ibJi in due. It 

> Kual l>i>< >l 'IviP )'• ItOivCT (Srr. H. ilmUr*. lirm. Om. >oL «W. |h Tti|, uxl 
!(«ckiit\ "■••'''( V».(. in,. IK7", Xo. II), 



i ■sol;' fluid, aUwiffly «]lciiliuo, miIuIiIo in alcohn}, other, nnd wnt«r. 

yitfiMi/laminf (CnUaN) is n prixlucl. irf tin- nxiiintkin of proteins, 
Md iMphtlialpo« (Cinll^l tiiut lKM!n dctcctwil Ity lloppu-Si-ylcr in the 

llHJy* arc> dorivntirpN of ncidx whiolt hnvc i<xchntiC''il IIk' liydntsjrl 
tIIU)«f the acid for amiditgeii (NH,). t'i-<vi {(;<>N»1I,) U ft lypiotl 
■Mber of tb« group. Ky »unKt it i% re^irdcd jin the diRiuide of 
wboaieacid. Hydrogen cnrboimtfl hnn ihp fomudft 00(011)^: replace 
Ab kj^roxyls by amidogeii, and wo get OlNilj)^. From another 
pirn of view it may be regnitled as being built iu the type of two 
MttculoB ot (naiuouia, in which two hydrogen atoms are replave<l by 



Jl CO=0ON,H, 


[t ii diua cariMinid*. 

Una id isomnic with ummouium cynnnte (NH,)CXO, fnim which 
it WM first prepdrrd nynthi-licidly by Wnhlcr (1838). When am- 
iiwilliii cyanate is hrnti'd in lUO'^C, the iit^inx rcuirraiigd thcmselrM 
lo (una nrtMv. Il cnay also bo prepnrrnl by tho fiction of ainnioiiia un 
^a4^M,y^ chhirid.- (C50Cl, + 4NHj=UON,H, + 2NH.Cl). 

By utiilintt wilb water, urea foiTiiH iinirnoniiiiii cnrlxinale. This it 
liow under tlu- iiillut-iice of a specific oi-gnni*ed ferment (mieracocniig 
unv) in decimiiXKiiiK wnne (CON,H, + ■2H.jO=(NH,),CO,). 

Urtn IK nirt wilh in nearly all the «olid« and duidn of the body, 
but chiefly in thi' urine ; about 30 ^^niitiines (600 };raii>H) are on the 
Mtfngo excreted by tJie kidneys of uu adult daily. Uruu in the chief 
omI imxiuct «f th« metnbittiua ut the iiitniftenoja conxtitucnta of 

&«t/urie a^d is urtw in which one atiiiu of hydmgen is replaced 
lijr tiut nwliele of oxalic acid (La. oxulic luail niintu HO). 

Ihe Amido-Acids mv <r(>iiipoun<ls wbiclx show partly the character 
at M) acid, atMl pnnly tbnt of a wmk lui»p. Tln-y nuiy be con»iidcre<( 
m amnMniiaat iu which one or inon- atttins of iiydnigf-n are replaced by 
ndkkM of an acM. thus reaenihling alkalni<k; or, nn the other Imnd, 
■1 acids in which one or more hydroieen aton» of the acid radicle nm 
nplaceil by nnii<lu^ii (NH,). The principal are as follows : — 

(«) (ilift'ocitt^. —This in also known «§ glycine, glycoooll, and amido- 
Mftieacid, the Uu-mtnitiuiied Dune expresMng ita conAtitutiou. The 
fennuU for act'tic ncid it C}H,0] ; if one atom of hydm^en bo n- 




* \ J Ijrjtuilric j)riftiii«, soUiIjI* h 

y^ pi f^ otlK^roriiliNiliiil. TJik lUjut 

/• — s. W \\ Wlicn lifJttp'! cm pinlii 

\ ) I \ \\ coloHi-lew rpKiiJtip, wliirli, ■ 

^^ (» _— \J drop of cnUKtic kimIh soiu 


placed by NH„ wo obuin C%ll,(XH,)0,=0,H;,NOj, which U (bt 
forniula for glyniicitin 'ir «miilu-Ac*tic ni-iil. Jl liii< hfcn nliMiiiRl 
synih«ticAlly by the nctioii of iiionoelilonicetic awl on aniruonm 

(CaH,C10,+NU,=HCl + C,U,(NH,)(.>,), 
In ii ])UrL> Htnte t;Iye^>eiiie ciyxtnllU^s iu rboiD' 
brihiilric j)riftiii«, soUible iu water, but iwl ia 
IK iu|uci>iia jiolulion i* MuL 
liiiuin foil, it l«ni«i 
, on wnniiing will: a 
Jrop lit cnUKtic kimIh solution, forms an oilj 
drop which niiis iihout without touching th» 
yj ^^ surface of the platinum. (Schcrer's test.) 

/ff i j Q When heatwl in n gUss tube open nt both 
"^ ends, it sublimes, and a smell of nmylamine 

P«i.Jl,-«l)ic«ln-Brj«U^ jg ^^gp off 

Glyixicine ia found in oombiuntiiin in glycocholic ocid (one of 
the ImIb jwida), snd in liippunc acid (in the uiino). It ia a product ri 
dncomjiunitidii uf pruteids, ajid uUo of gelatin, mucin, and otlwr 
nlbuTuinoi'l.i. It uccurs Ire* in Bm»ll (luantiiie* in the intestine m • 
rcKull of ilii' dcooinpiisition of tlit? bih- tlmi ocl-um liiere. It \t 
piwlwibty liirgi'ly fwil)sorlie«las5uehH Part may W trnnKformed intouroL 

(U) l^urittr (CglligNOj) is nniidn-cugnYiic nciil, i.e. c«pnMC noil 
(C(H,,0,) in which an H is rrplnccd by NHj : nr, according to f)a», 
oxy-<Miproic or Iiiucic add (CcHijOj), in which hydroxyl (HO) b f«- 
placod by NH^ 

Lrucino forms yellowish 'brown upheres consiHting of maasea ot 
neMlle-Nhapcd cryfttnU, soluble in wnter and sli;;Iitly iH>1ubli- in slcoliol, 
but insoluble in ether. By heat it ia d(!uijni|K>.sinl into carlntnic- acid and 
aiuyl&iuine {C(HisNO^=COj+C,H,|.NH,) ; by hydriodio add into 
capmic add iiml ammonia (C„H,sK0, + Hi=C,,n,,0j4-SH,) ; vilJi 
Kulphuric .-ii'id it yii-ldH umiiiimiii nml vnlrriaiiii' iicid ; with pobuwium 
pL'rinan^uiiiilc. u\alic iicid. carbonic ncid, vnli^rianic ncid and nnnwmio. 
Probably Kiniilar itiN^-iitnponitioni occin- in ihr IkmIv. Frobobly olsn 
k'Ucini- is one of tlie inli'rnK'<liale pnKluctx in the formation of nrcio. 

lA'ucini' i.i luosi important iM pnc»f the chief dccninpoKit ion producU 
of prutcids, and i« formcnl whpn protcid* are decompowpd with strong 
«ci<U or atkoliii, or untlergo putrefaction, and within the body by Ibf 
actirity of ciTtain fi'mn-nts, pspcoinlly of one »eci«t«d by the patu)r«u 
callfHl trypKin. It is found in small ijuantities as aconstituetit of many 
organN and tissues, particularly of the ])nncivK8. In certain e»M», 
however (K]ili'fn, thymus, Ac,), it uppenrs to be formed by iiont-morttm 
clwngtw, nnd not to be a conxtitui^nl of the hcudtby living Uw 




Flo. il.—Ltuitae nitUlt. 

■9 bt wtmroltMJ (itiiii an oi^n by making a watery fxtnust ; thia in 
iMVlifled and filtered to 
*te Miy proi«id; to the 
(llnt« )iM»c l«ad Hcetat« U 
<dM| Mid Bgftiii it in filttTed ; 
«xc«sofleB() is reiuuvM] frum 
ttir tiltraieby a xtrFain nf lul- 
{•Urrftwl hydruip^n. Thi'kiu) 
uilpUde is filtered off, the 
ftirate ii ov»]i(irutc<1 to n 
9ini|>, uni] exiractr<) with hot 
«kuhol. The alcoholic cxtrnct 
ii BVii|inFated, utid the nKidu«> 
' bkacdnc 

(() FyrwwV C,H|,NOjis 
J mtoAo ■ oxy ■ pbeuyl - propionic 

Prripivnit:' add has the formuln Cjll,)0.^. AniJ'lo- propionic acid 
[ (",H,(SH^O, is aUo called w/nwimt. Oxypht^nyl-pmpionic acid in prij- 
[pkniracid in which ojie H is i-eplfi«ed by iisyjilK-nyl (CtH,.OH), Le. 
C,n,(CtH,.0H)O, ; if aiu.lh*r H in iliis l«? n-pIiuHil hy NHj wo get 
Ic,H.(NH,HC*H,OH}Ojs=C,HhNO„ uliich )» uinidi>'.«yplienyl-pro- 
I pimic acid or tyroninc 

To *r]nmt« tyrvuino from 

alhumiitinis HuhI, tlio fluid 

Ml ttn ImiiIixI nnd tlir |>n'<^ipi- 

>biH) pmifiil lilicrp<l ofT. Thi' 

fltni* u cvnpontiH to n thii-d 

tt tl» volume on th*- wjitpr- 

Wtji, prrcipitatix) with lead 

■CFtati' anil filtered, a Jdroain of 

'. . 1 Titxl liydmge" ** pflwinl 

. ' 111- filtmti-, anil tlif ■'■ml 

<al)>tiuk' wi (irpctpatatwl, lilton^l 

Uw filtral« io evaporated, 

wrntmh oi tynMine nepn- 

TyruuiitfCryitAlliswiD ak'nder 
amIlBH, often in groups, itUi;htly 
ahle in wnter, but in>Hilu)>le 


Km. «.— Tym-lnp trjiUlt. 

dtwh'tl and ether. On uxid<itioD It yiLddi In'tizoic nkl«hy(l«, hydro- 
['Wttie, hmsoic^ OMtic, furntie, and carbonic aciiU. 




Teal*, i. Heat in a wiitcb-gloHt irith conc<M)trHt«I mlphurie aral; 
coul : ftdH itnttiT lunl a fi-w pi«ici»i of clialk ; thci-o will he an eflemt- 
cencei ; filter ; erapomtc to n mdaU bulk ; add « few drope tA i- 
neulra] solution of ferric chloride ; n vii^l^t colour is pruduonl (Pim)k* 
ii. Milion's reagent gi%-ea a red Eohitioii, the liiit of which detipaum 
hentinf (HotHnann).* Tyrosiii* in geiierolly found along with teuiaM^ 
and like it re»ult« from the dccoiii position uf prot^ida. 

(d) Antido-valmanic acid (CjUnNO,) ia a [ifudncl of dMXHnpni- 
tioii of pi'i)t«ids, but it only occurs in mitall quantiliea lit cuRiparnoo 
with li-uuiiie And tyrosine. 

(«) SarconJK C,U;NO, is methyl -glycootue, i.v. uniidnacotk add 
in which one 11 is replaced by methyl C,H,(CH,)(NH,)0,. It i< Mt 
^tu■l<l ill the body, but iii « product of decuDipoMtton of crmtiiu!. 

(/) Cr«i(»w* CtHsNjO,. Sari;o«iiie(CjHtNO,)uiiiU'dlocywiMDid» 
CN.NH, givfs crwttine. When cn-alint! is buihil with Iwiryta miter,it 
tnkcs lip wnt«r Mid yinlds Harcmuiv and unui 

(C«H„N,O,+ U,0=C3ll,NO, + C0X,H,>. 

[onulnrl [■imodni-] iomi) 

Creatine crjxtfllHw^n with ntn; iiiolocuU- of water of cr)-iitaliii>tHg 
in colourless rhomlMihiKlric jiri.itiix, solubtr in wnter, ainiost iiwuIbIiIp 

in lllcolllll. Till! BqilOOUH Mllutiuu IK DI-UlRii 

On oxidntion it yields uivthyl-nmniitic 
(CjHjNj), oxnlic «cid »nd mrlxitiic ndd. 

CrcNtino has been found in tlm minclM. 
nervitx, blood, liquor aniuii niul inEtis. 

Th<! ([UCfltion a& to whntln-r It is mi iiii"-! 
ni«dint« product la Uui formation of urn 
is anseltled (see biubcIr). No doubt a givd 
deaJ is traiisfomiMl into craitinine, whic4i 
leaves the body by tlm urtDe. 
(jf) Cnwto'ittW C^HjNjO is ciealiiie wiiini» H,0. It can befonM<l 
by heating the latter with hoilinj* watt-r for n long time ; or mow 
readily Vjy heating it with hydiochh)rii; iicitl. When cnvilinina is 
hvaied wilh Iwiryta water it yields metbyUij-dnntoin (C,H,N.O,) aiul 
ammonia (C,H,N,0+lI,O=C,H«N,O, + NH,). It oryooaiiMS ia 
larye eolourlew prisms soluble in wiit«r and akobol, but hIiik- 
butoluble in ethm. It has analknlini- tnxte and reaction. Siilkimni: 
hiM, however, recently stated th&t the grrMtco- part of thia alkalinJtj 
ia due to ndborent lUipuritii-'S. — Tt»U. i. With linc-chloridn it pv^ 
diaracteriatic crytilallinc! precipitate (gi'oupB of finu nowlleji). Tli 

' Jiui. Cktm. Pliarm, voJ. Ixiiu. p. SW. 

4 IbiJ. nil, liiiiil. p. let. Ste »Ut< l„ M'-i-r if-i-i. rol. eiiiiL p. UK 

Pla.ti.- CRatlnsorriUU. 



f(osist8 of s combiimtion .of ziac-cfaloride with creatinine 

(C,K,NjO.ZnCl]). This test is used for the quantitative estimation of 

RHtinine. ii. A solution of creatinine, 

isin urine, acidulated by nitric acid gives 

witb pboephomolybdic acid a yellow 

oTttalline precipitate soluble in hot 

nitrie acid. iii. It reduces an alkaline 

lulaiion of cnpric hydrate such as 

Fehling's solution 

(A) Tnurine C,H,NSOj is amido- 
iaetbiunic acid. Isethionic acid is sul- 
I^UMUs acid in which an atom of 
kdn^'en ia replaced by the inonatomic 
ridicle oxy-ethylene (CjH^.OH). If 
thphvdmxyl of this radicle be replaced 
IivXH,we obtain taurine. The fol- nc. 36.-crMtiiiiiieorystai». 

lci»ing formuUe will assist in the understanding of this relationship : 

H2SO3, Sulphurous acid. 
H(C,Hj.OH)SOj, Isethionic acid. 
H(CjH^.NH,)S03=CiHjXS03, Taurine. 

Taurine is artificially prepared by heating ammonium isethionabe 
(C.HjSSO,) which parts with HjO and so yields taurine. 

Cyanic acid with taurine forms taui-o-carbamic acid, in which form 
Uurine is partially excreted in the urine 

(CNHO -t-CjHjNSOj^CjH^N.SO,. 

Taurine is probably partially disintegiiited into simpler substances, 
uul it has been conjectured 
tfaitt the alkalis of the bile may 
■ct upon it, and thus give rise 
b> smue of the sulphates in the 
irine. Taurine crystallises in 
culimrless six ■ sided prisms, 
Kjuhle in water, but insoluble 
m ticuhol and in ether. 

It occurs in the body in 
combination as tauro - cbulic 
tcidin the bile. A small quan- 
titj of it occurs free in the 
bees from the decomposition 
<t this Kcid that occurs in the 

Fiii. JG.— Tiinriiit grj'tiiU. a, [lutc ; b, impure. 

intestine ; the greater amount that 




Imvw Uiv body, juixM-s intu thv uriTi» in llit! uiiiiiner juai niCDtioncd* 
Rvlwbly the grmtor (|imiitity of ibc murine fomitxl iti the iiiUistiiiA 
ia rwbiorbod n« ™ch. Smnll ijnuiititinK of tniirinc huve Immmi iu-)iaral«d 
bom livor, i»iu«lo. urine (of ox), fttui splc«rn (of certnin fiiihei). 

(•'} CyR'iw C\H}NSO| it nmido-lnctic ncid in which oiie H is 
r^laced by U8. 

Ijictic tuiid :— C'jHflO;. 
Amido-Iaflticacid :— C.,Hi(NH,)Oj. 
Cj-ndne :— C^,(HS)(NH,)0a=CjH;NSO^ 

If hmtod on « lilver mirfiwe it gives a l>!nflc siiot of nilvi-r mlptiii)». 

It crjrstAlliws in tin- hi-xB^^vniJ «j/ston> ritlier ns coloiirlosA brxngoiutl 

plates or rhauibohr^lm. Tlio cr]?Rt«la arv insoluble in u-nUr. ulcohol, 

^ mid (>ttior, but soluble in ttlkftlis, niinomi nciil*, 

unci oxalic nt.-id. 

It in fouiiil as « ooiuUtuent o( a nrf form 

of urinary calruluK. Itn nri^nu is unknown, btit 

^NS O cyrtinuriaappearB tobeheivditary. On*si"o«orr 

\^^ /-\ 1 I ../C^ to tbe air lti*«e oalouli turn gnva ; titey form 

only in aoid urine owing to th«ir solubility in 

alkaline fluids. 

Aocording to iVL-eiit otwerVHtions by Oold- 
msnn and Bnnmnnn,' cystine ia a nunual i-otiktilu«nt of urine, but is 
proMnt in very minutv ((UHntilies.* 

(J) AapitrlU lor tupnrn^in'u') ari'f C,H;NO, h aundo-tucviuie acid. 
It is obtainod from the subat^knce uiMnij^inc (C,H|N,0,) in plant« ; 
and is « product of tho deoowpoailion of prot«id<. 

(i') fjivlamic (i>r fflHttiminic) acid C^H^O^ !* ivBiidogluiaric 
ncid, Lo. nn nini<l(M.-oni pound of tbe ruu« aeriw to wUdi succinic lurirl 
belongs (tbe oxalic acid aeries, tee p. 67). This is also a pnxlact of 
tlie decoin position of prot«idsL 

(/) Citrbamie nei<l CH,NO, is oniiflo- formic iwid. It is not luiovrn 
in tbe fr«e state ; its ninmoninin salt \* a product of the decoi]i|)0&ition 
of proteids. 

The Bile Acid*.— The bile contains thii sodium lalts of complex 
amido-aoitU culled Ihe bile acidk. The two acids fonnd in liunuin bile 
are ({lycooholJo a«i<l and taurocholic ncid. 

Gtjfmohotie tKid Ci^HtiNOg is cspedoUy abuudjint in t)i« bile of 
berbivora, and in man its anoant is increased by a vegetable diet. By 

> Zrtl.pirrial. Orm. lU. tS4. 

• DiUiiiiw iPnrt. Mo§. Soe. roL sItIL IMMi, p. I1hi ttttf* Ih^l ilii> tcnuOkai m 
■JlllUi BMJ NMlt Itatu Um actiTity of ■ loniU-liln ortuiimn iii Uw oniia. 

n* a:, (^fiilu nyrttl^ 



^wtion of dilute acids or ttlknlis nnd nlso in th« int««tine it tak^ np 
rud itplitA inio glycocin? ami cIioIhIic ncid. 

^1t forms brilliant on1oaric« ofvdlpA flolublc in wntcr nnil alcohol, 
Wi KG* in eihtr. Its Umtv in first ewcmt nnd aftcrwnnls bitt«r. The 
tloMic solution is d^xtrurotatorv (a)i,= + 29°. 

ni« gtgcoeholaU trf titia C^oKjjNaNO,, ia the compound tbut 
«tflti in tlic l>il*. It iT>'8t*llise« in Bt«llate needles, soluble in w;it<r 

Tin. U.'»(rilmB(ll]n>:l>ulit<. 

FlO. I)>-Clinlillr Aold. 

udklcohol, liut ni>t in i-tln^r. (i.)u=+,2fi-"''. Gli/toefw'atr. oj potash 
«cw» lu ihv bile of ocrliiin li.-Ji-'s. 

Tauniehutie aciJ C,^H (jNt);^ ix Mpociiill}- abundant in the bile oE 
wnivoTK. By the action of liydrntiu^; nwgents nnd in the intc«tinc it 
iiilecompOB»l iiito taurine and cbolnlio acid. 

C„II«SO,8 + H,O=C„H„0, + C,H;XO,S: 

It forms silky ncodlr*, xolubln in wnUu' and ulcohol. and ttitemely 
lilMr. (a)t.= + -4"5''. A'oJiiim laiirfKholaU CjtU.jNaNO.S ia the 
egMpOUod that occurs in tlm htti-, cxct-pt in certain iMwx where the 
pobioiun mIi 'w> found, 

CMalic (tn- fMif) n?WC,,H,n''i dorived fmni the biie acids, forma 
Wge^ ulutuiix, di-liijueiMfont ciyiiUU, slightly soluble in water, and readily 
■olatilc in alcohol and etbor. (u)D= + 35^ Doilcd with aotdH or 
IwMted lu 200". it lose* eitlter one molecule of wnlci- to funn oliuloidic 
acid, or two (o form dyslysin (Cttflj^Oj). LatschinotT liaa recently 
■Mignm] to vhoblic acid llie formula. C,jll„0„ but Myliun' bus kIiuwh 
tint tliR cunecl formula in uitliout doubt that originally asaigned to it 
by Scivckfr C,,U,oO,. 

Cholsie aeid it an acid which hax been iicparnted from ox-bilc by 

1 BrT.d,JmlnJi.rlirm.Grtca.iix.WV.!lCm; xi. IMifl. 


I>it«i:hiiioQ'. ' It occwr* in rwo forms : nnhjrdmus C,gH„0„ »nd liTdiHwl 
C,,H,jO, + IJHiO. Tlie latlor is cRtled det.xy-ehoHc mriil V>y Mjliua,' 

FfUie aeid. — Thi> cholnlic acid ifim liutuim liUe iliffei-s in aouieof iu 
ruiKitiona nnd solubilities frou) thnl obtained from ox-bi]e(HHiuni&rsteii),' 
Bii/wr' calls it authrupo-cbolalic acid uiid astUKiis to it tli« furamla 
Ci.HjjOj. Schottfii* dUKge8t«d th*t thu diffei-ence waa due to ao 
oiliiiixtunr willi L-liolfic aci'L Hi*, lniwi?vt;r, subst^quciitly {ounil thin wi* 
not the ciiAf, but tliiit anutlit'r iitiil isjirrawiit wiiti t'omiula C,,H,„0|, in 
which tbc name fcllic udid is given. It ix duo U> luhiiistuiv with feUic 
acid that cliolidic ncid fn>iii liunian Hie appear!! to be (tillerent [ivm 
thnt obtfiininl from citliiT xoiirct-K. 

Uyo-ifti/roi:liolu- atui kt/o-Uinrorholv.- acid» combined with soda (imii 
tbe bil« salts of pigs bilo. In theiie ncids clir>lalic avid is r«place<:l Vv ■ 
nearly relatfld acid called hvo'cholalic acid [C^^WiJii,). The hyii' 
glj'cocbolatA ia mure abundant llian the hyu-taurocliolato. an<l haft beta 
separat«d by Jolin" into two varieties a and ,!, the former of u-hich i« 
precipitable by Mxliuni iiulp)iate. t)ie latter not. In Uie )>U« of ibt 
;;ouae cbulalic acid is replaooil by vhrtu'-clmhilic acid (Cj;H,,0,). 

PelUnkojrri Il':acfuin. — If a thin fdiu of bile be spreswi on • 
pimelniii diMb, a drop of oolutiun of cane su^r, and a drop of Btn>ug 
Kulphurie ucid lie added, alieautiful pur|>l(!C(dciur isdi'volopcMl, especudly 
on tlie appUciition of b<-at. This ti-st i» given by idl tlit- acids and nits 
finind in thf bile. The ri\tcti(>n is due to tho foi'inntioiiof fiirfurahlrhyilc 
fiMm the Ku^ar and sal |iliiirie acid ; the Fiirfuialdehydp forms a coloured 
c.impound witJi cholalic acid. It i« by no mfans distinctivo of liile 
acitU, however, as Mylius' and Udrsnszky* have ahown. f)f thr 
numerous organic subsMnciw which give the colour or a \«ry Minilar 
one, one only, u-nnphthol, gjvea it mot* readily than the bile acid*. 
The MpeelixiHCopic np|ieiim»DC8 differ. h<'«ever, in many instancM, In 
the case of the isdiiur prmlocod by bile tlieni is a bniid belweim D 
and R and aiuither at F. 

The Hrio Acid Oronp. («) rric<Kif/CjH,S,Oj.--Tljen' is much 
divcriiity of opinion nilh regard to the ehemiad nature ol this Kob- 
stanoe ; the dif)V■^l^^t views helil «ti thiH point, and also its relatjoiujiip 
to urea, aiwl to other snhstnncrK of a similar nature (allanloin, altoXKn, 
xanthine, ifcc.) aill be loore nppropriatply discas»c<d in connection with 
tl»e physiological uscw of thes« bodies (ree Urine). 

' lUt. xii. am. 

* Zrit. phytiol. Cftrm. U. VM: UL 1 
" Ibid. li. 417. 

■ Ber. cl. deulick. fllein. Grtrll. lliii UUUU. 
» MaltTt Jakmb. IKTa. p. BW, 

* Ibui. \i. -JflB. 
' Ibid, xi tn. 

* Ibid. xii. SSS. L'llHiiaky ben- ffin* n ll*t of 16 or^iuiiF nbawncH tlinl fit* lbs 
(arivimliliilijde ntcticoi. 


tan ari« ocitl cryxtnlliMK in oluurlcaa rhcmilMC pIiit«B or pt-isum. 
Whia oMamcil tnaa uriiic it U nmn: or loss tiii<;iK) with f iftiiienl, and 
HMnnDM iBiinjr crystalline forniK (<!\iiiib-VM?m whoUlinip*, Ac). It is 
Tttot tanU- tw Nm«ll. It 18 insolwWe in fllcoh"! niul in etlitr; it 
nquires for iU aolution ir>,000 pnrt.c of old Aiid l.i^UU nf hot water. 
I binlatMDs givo only » feeble itcid reAction. 

!i is Diit found in the ftve condition in tho nrine, except in cniuM • 
&t»tm (gtftvtA, ch1cuIu») ; but it is combined with Imiw* to ft>mi untt(aL'i| 
! Ik ackt is dibuuic 

ThpBnuxintexprctwl per diem by nn lulultftvcmpwOii t« I gmnmW', ' 
' M in amount i» rniswl l>y much iinimnl foo<), iind l>y wnnt of ■■xt^i'viBa. 
I'nKfl occur »l9o in the blood, nnd an ehnlky clepniHlii in nnd Hiimnd 
ihr ortilaK™ ■>' gouty perwins. Tho «>lid urino of l>ird.i uiid rv{itil«A 
««uitU alntotil entirely of aretes. Trnces of uric ni-id imvit )M-<;n 
KfuntM) fraiD rarUnis tissues, kidiieyis spWn, lungK, bruin nnd 

VroltM of »adittm. — The neutral mU CjTljNiOjKBg fonnn nodular 

ON, •nd th^ at'id wh Cjlla^ i' ^jN"* '* «*«'d1y ainorjihous in iiririi! ; 

|4b^ birm tliv dv)>osit in uriii« ci^iitiiiouiy enlM lithntr^. Tlii- chiilky 

ldt|)wita in j^t are chieHy oompused of tlie acid Knit, which i« bluin 


VmUt of i>ola*eium comiBjHindin^c '" the*® (leldom occur. 
Jeut ammonium ttrale CjH,lf,Oi(NH,) {ueutrill "oilt unknown) 
gtobalnr (N>Uc«lioiift of cryHtuU ; it In finiud in the dejioMt in 
taline urine, luul in tli« eliiirf CMnijiiiiiunt of the tixcrmnent of reptiles 
Aeut taleium urau (CjH]N,Oj)jCh oocnn in the form of fine 
Beedle* in urinnr)' MNlimonU, cnlculi, nnd in K"i>ty depuitilii. 

Aevt IMiuw ur-itf CiHjS,0,I,i is tho most Huhdilc siilt of uric' 
»cid. heiice the use nf lithin n* n <Inig In avr-x of gouty diiithesi:!. 

Jfur^dt UM. — Kvnpoiitto to drynewi with nitrio neid ; the retiiduo 
u mldiah yellow, awl becomes reddish puii>le on the addition of 
jounii'tuB, nn<l biuiiili violet with &oda or ])ota«1i. 

(A) .V>r»rAiNe CjH.N^O, differs from uric acid by cnntnintiig one 
jiita of "xygun le«t. It ia « pnU> yellow, amorphous powd«r, innoluhto 
111 nleolHtl tic «lher, ooluble ill oold w»ter. When ernpomtpd to drym-** 
ritlt nitric ncitl, > yclluwisb reiidm? remains which turnn rc«l with 
Muitic potjuh, luul r^iddiiih violiit on bein^ h«ite<l. 

Xiuithintt occuw miminlly tn minute i]uantitiea \n the urine, nnd 
been obtained from many orgnns «adt lu |i>incre«8, spleen, liver, 
, uul thytnuK. 

■ Tlw iiiuvtiuii i>l luulnrxln will Iw illnuuuvd nuilur * Cilaav' 



Urinary calculi, consisting of xjtnthine, vnrying in uie from 
pen to a pigeon's pgg, occnsionally fui'ni. 

(f) tfyjmxtinlhiiir f'jTr,N'jO (liffcm from xnntliine Ijy cont»iiim;j<'iip 
ivtoin €)f (ixjgcTi less. U gciHj-flUy occurs with xunthine. Il Im* Ijwh 
doHcribofl in the spleeit, pancr^iu, muscles, Urer, Dmrruw, bluml, mi 
urioT, In IpiiCdcythirmin Un ijuantlty in llie bloud and urin^ is ii| 
CTMLwd. In iM;i)t<> ypUow ntropJiy, the »niount in liver ri-n-s. 

(d) Adt-nitm CjIl^Nj can be obl^^iMeil from Hw uucl«[ of crili. On 
heating it with sulpliuiic aoiil NH is repliiced by O, an<) hyiiciximthiiw 
thu§ formwi : CjlIjNj + HjOsCtHjN.O + XH,. B.ith xulittanca 

[wlenliiuj lli.viioijuill.lnul 

coutnin u itftcliclQ CiHjN, cjiUwl adenyl (Koaael '), A<)cintn« is. 
crystalline substnuce ; the orystals contain three unileculea of w»l«ref 

(■r) Guanine O.^H^X^O has lieen found ui tlie 1iv«r and paDorau, 
ill ;{uiin(i, in t}in cxcrcintnit of sjiidrnt, and in tint skin of ninny re[)ti 
and ti.-'lips. It l>enrs the same relntioii to xanthine that iidenin^ iI'M I 
hypox«Dthiiie(CiII)X^O+HvO=C,,H,N,0, + NHs), It is amorphous, 

iKiuuiluf] [mnthlnr] 

inoolubtp in water, alcohol, and rthcr, hut readily soluble in acide mid 
alknlih. The crygtals of t'hloi'nlfi of gimninc arr chrtrnctenKtic. 

(/) Altantoin C,H,,N,0,, ix found in the amniotic and allnntilic 

Huids and in tho urino of neo- 
(Mini animal f!. It crystal I isw in 
c<>liiiirle»> prii-mA which arc solu- 
ble in water. Hy the action of 
dilute nitric acid it takes njt 
water and splits into uUuniuric 
acid (C;lI|oNuO^)and urea. 

((/) Otrninr CjHgHfii whiiA 
lia« been tiepjiraieil from muscle, 
is a crystulliiie substance, the 
oryntalH cuntAiiiiiiij one luolwule 
ir..K«-xii«Ho.n«,T--^ of water of crystallisation. U 

is soluble in warm water, inn>lublc in akuhol and ether. It may be 
cooudemil sun n cunipijund of hypoxanthine nn<i acetic tivid : 








other Nitrogenous Acidt- (a) Inminic or Inotic wfrfCioHnNiO,,. 

< Zril. phytiol. Vhrm. liii. !09. NjrjKiiiuithinii ia ulvnyl ondj* ;~ kdoniBi >• adta^ 


Ad unciystallisable substance of doubtful nature, which has been 
ifeMfibed as a constituent of muscle juice. 

(i) Cryplophanie aeid C|oH|gN,0|Q an amorphous acid said to 
exist in small quantities iti human urine (Thudicbum).' 

(c) Suipho-cyanie acid CNHS united to potassium or sodium to 
form a eulpho-cyauide (CNKS) is found in saliva, and occasionally 
ileo in urine, milk, and blood. It gives a red colour with ferric 
(bioride, due to the formation of sulpho- cyanide of iron, 

(rf) Cynurenie aeid CjoHh^j^s ^ found in dog's urine.' It is a 
liecompoBition product of proteids, but is apparently not derived from 
lie putrefaction, which occurs in those substances in the alimentary 
canal (Baumann).' On heating its crystals, wliich contain two 
molecules of water of crj-staitisation, to 250° a base called cynurin 
C|,H|,SjOj is obtained.* By means of certain reagents Kretschy * 
attained chinolin G^H^N from it. 

(<) Urocnnie acid C^'H^ fi^-^i^fi was found in the urine of a 
dog in which the urea was diminished. At 212° C. it breaks up into 
ariwuic acid, water, and a base urocanin CnHioN^^O (Jaffe).* 

' imrn. Chem. Soc. (3) viii. 18a. 

' HofmciBt«r, Zrit.phytioi. Chem. i. 67. ' Zeit. phytiul. Chem. i. 128. 

' Schmiedeburg and SchaltMn, Ann. Chem. Fharm, cUiv. p, 155. 

' Ber. d. deuttch. chem. Cetelhrh. nil. 1C78. • Hid. viii. p. 811. 





The carbohydrates form a most important group of organic anb' 
stancea. They are fouiwl chiefly in vegetable tissues ; a few are found 
in the animal organism ; many of the vegetable carbohydrates are nsed 
as food for animals, and bo they are of importance in a consideration ot 
aniinal physiology. 

The carbohydrates may be conveniently detined as compounds of 
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the two last named elements being in 
the proportion in which they occur in water. 

They may be for the greater part arranged into three groups, 
according to their empirical formulie. The names and formulce of 
these groups, and the most important members of each, are as follows ; — 

L Glm^oM 

■i. ^ti-pp-^ff^s nt SoKiitun^v^ 

3. Amvlnv^ 



"((.■„ rf„0^) 

+ Deitrosc 

+ Cane sugar 

+ Starch 

— Lev 11 lust! 

+ Liictciso 

- Glitii^eii 

+ (i;iliic.-toso 

\ + Mrtltuse 

T Dextrin 1 


+ Mclitiise 


— Sorbin 

+ Muliiitose 


— Euciiliu 

+ Mvcosi" 

Tunic ill 


Syiia nth rose 


The + and - sign in the above list indicate that the subiitances 
to which they are prefixed arc dextro- and he vo- rotatory respectively, 
as regards polarised light. The fonnulre given above are merely 
empirical ; and there is no doubt that the ([uantity n in the starch 
group is variable and often large. Invest igntion.s relating tit the mole- 
cular weiglits of the difTorcnt carbohyilratos liii\-e yielded vei-y unsatis- 
factory results.' The most recent wmk in ibis directioji is that of 
Brown and Morris.* The mctluKl these observers iKlopted was devised 
by Riioult,' and is the outcome of his elab<irate investigation into the 
laws governing the freezing-point of very dilute solutions. Briefly 

' MoHOuliis and Meyer' I-BhH Soe. Chim. lit \\\\. 370] attempted to drtennine Ihe 
retative »i£e oi tlie moleculuA liy obnerviiig their rut^- of dtfTiiuion. 

' Traiij. Chriit. Sue. 1N»H, p. (110. 

s Ann. Chem. Pliyi. IHtW, lisHi, 1SM5, 1B8G. Cvriqiles renii. 01, 1517; 101, lOSfl; lOS, 



lUwi, the law is as follows : — When certain quantities of the same 
mbslnnce are successively diasoived in n solvent, on which it has no 
cbemical action, there is a progressive lowering of the freezing-point of 
the solation, which is proportional to the weight of the' substance dis- 
Bilr«l in a constant weight of the solvent. It is unnecessary here to 
(kscrihe the actual methods employed, and will be sufficient to quote 
tk principal results obtained by Brown and Morris. 


Fonnala ot ^folecuL? 

UolecBltr Wtlglit 

Deitnjse' C,Hi,0, 180 

Cue sugar before inversion . . ' C„HgO„ 342 

CSiie sugar after inversion . I C,H,jO, 180 

Malt.i5e» I C|.jH30„ 342 

Arabinose <'iRioOi ' 'SO 

SaiBiiose C„H,jO„.BH„0 1594 

Ci!a«ose (\H„0, 180 

Inulin 1*CC»H O,;) 1980 

fcttrin (C„H,0„), , 180O 

MuWe March . . .1 B(C„H,0„), l 9000 

S(areli .It was foonti impossible to npplj' the 

I method satisfactorilytostareh; anum- 
ber of fiiirly concordant results, how- 
ever, pointed to a moleciilnr weight of 
' 20,000 to 30,000. 

The carbohydrates are not however simple compounds of carbon 
with water ; their reactions and derivation products show that their 
molecular structure is more complicated : they are in fact derivatives 
of the hexatomic alcohol, mannite. The glucoses may be regarded as 
the aldehydes of mannite ; they contain in their rational formula the 
characteristic aldehyde group COH. Thus : — 



(CH.OH) '-=CfiH„OG (CH.0H)4 







The Bucroses are condensed glucoses, i.e. they are formed by the 
combination of two molecules of a glucose with the loss of one mole- 
cule of water (CsHuOg-fCsHuOfc- HjO=C,3H;,0,i). Thenmylosea 
may be regarded as the anhydrides of the gluctses {CcHi^Og— HjO 

I ThiH cotifimiH Kiliuii'B DbservatioD that deitiose b.ii[) levulose yiuld hyilroiy-ociiLi 
contuniD^ Keven atom^ of carbon. 

' Ciuii augftr ant) rnaltoBe are thas isonieric, not pulyineric, Tlif iliffercnce in their 
|MTi[«rI[es muBC thcreloro be due to ditTt-ruDcc of Ihe uxningement of tho alonm in their 



By ondation of th« sugnrs by nienns of nitric Add, an ncii 
obtiuned ; thnt is, the H,^ rcmovml from the nlw)liol (mininiu-) to fnimi 
ihe «ldehyd« (glucose) i» replaewl by (). TIio foniiuln of tlic nciti w 
obtained ie therefore CglluOr ; thin in iiiooiibn«ic, iui<l otllixl iniLnDitic 
Acid. On repenting the process, that in, replnoiug nnothpr II, by C, 
we obtaiii &ri ncid with tli@ fonuuln C„H|oO,; tliis ia ilil*n»ic ; of thu 
Uiere nra two isomeiidee, one called muciv acid, which is slighth 
■oluble in water, the other saccharic ncid, which is i-eadily solnble in 
waler. On oxidation some sugars yield otie, §onie the other, »cid ; bf I 
(urtb«r «xid«lion, tarUiric aeid, theu ujalic acid, and Unally carbonic | 
jtcid luiil water, are obtained. The most iiuporWut carliobydrstes tnsy 
now be desci-ilied cue by one. 


This carbohydrnte c-xists in fruits, honfv, imd in sntjt\) <|itnnlitmin 
Uw blood, and in tiuniennis tissius, or^^iins, nnd liuirls of tJic Itody. It 
is the form of sugar foiiml in tfai> iirine in tbe dUrnsc known «« dia- 
betes. It is fomi«d by thp hydrntinn of lacrnbcrs of iho nmylose and 
saccharose group ; hucU us in brought about by iHiiliiig w-itk dilute 
sulphuric acid. 

Dextrose is soluble in hot nnd colt) u-ater, ?)nd in alcohol. It' 
Hilt so swwl an cane sugnr. It cryntAllises fmni an a(|uw>uii nulution in 

white spheroidal mn88es, uud inna olcobol 

0-1 X \ in trauspai-ent »iiUydo.ui» pristiw. It* 

\ \ Bolutiiuis rotate the ray of poliiriM^I light 

(^-f^, — • ^ \ (o the ri.uht : (a)„= +.^6'' (H..ii[>fS«-ylw> 

Httvte)! with ivlkitli, dfXtiXKH; gir<!*J 
brown or ynlUtw oitliMir due tt) the fo 
tiuii of ijlucic and moliL-uic iu.-m)ii.' 

Xitriu acid oxidisn il<-xtrofie to 
ulumu ociii. 

In alknlinn Kolntions, dextrnR' mtt 
stiltA i)f silver, liixinulli, tnrrcury 
coppPT ; in thtf cum: of Ihr lirst tliriH-, thn nii'tal is precipitate*) ; copric 
nru rttloc™! to nuprou* c»inp»undH, with the separation of capr 
nxid«. In tl>c pnwcnor uCsinnionia, d«xtn»« is predpilnted by tteut 
or basic lend noetato. 

> Talluu (jiTM (•J^- t ja-I°. PVnk inlory Hilutluus DUf iiuUrn(i> 101". 

* Thm acid* an of dMibttuI ooaipouliau. lu IValti' DiitioHara thr ttoniak lor 
Kiocv si^iJ II girra kt C:|H^„. uid for moUaic >cld *■ C„n,J^^. In BnUeim't D^ 
[••atary Uic widt lunued >ra itDlod to be jclydc uid <C,,llj,()i|> ■»! ii ihirniiiif add 



Pw. tL^tkitma* trjat^ 



[MitniNC fonnt c<>nip(iiinrl:( with cprtntti ncitU imd Im-im (eg, 
fnoAi. limu) : tliwc »n> cnlkul gliiooKut^n. 

linkr [he influence of yeast, tlextiiiee is convei'ted into alcohol 
uflnriMoic acid (CBUiiOt=2C,IIcO+2CO)).' Il umy »lso uiutoi'^u 
il* krtie itoid fernifuUlion, under the influence ol certain bacterial 

Khun au^ar m liealed to 200", « browu aubslaiioe called cumDiel in 
itnni Tliix hiui \ir*a si>)Kirat«d loto three luMUeH o[ cumpU'x forinulw 
ul doaUfuI twturc (wr ' Wulto' Diet.'). 

Sngftr is bIiu) tunn-d brown liy the a^ition of Hulphuric or hydii>- 
tUnrir Acid. Thiit i> jmrtly due Ui clinrriti;;. A number of other 
nlaluwtK, c&ll«<l ImniouA sulbl.-uiccH by HoppU'St^ylcr, Iiiivr nlsn Itoen 
■f*nt«d. TIi<!»- brt>wii jiriKluc^ta arc Hinitlur Ut ninny priMluccd in 
ttntablc grovrthn niitundly, in ]i«tt, Jte., nnd nrr^ of complex nntitre 
ml dimbtf ul mtnpntution. Thi^y hnvo rc<;fi\-(!d various nain<w (humiii, 
riatD, tdinic nci't, phlobnphnne, tAnnin'ml, hytnntomclAnic acid, &e.), 
Anong the df-ompHsition prnductx of thttsc gubittancM are formic 
tai, |»)rrocaH>chin, awl protucJit*chuic acid.' 

Tbe origin, rAlv, »nd d«stination of dextrose in the body, nnd other 
jlijniDtagicAl |vmbtciDs conn^s^ied with its presence, vjll be more con- 
nmitnti^r dowribetl with the various tiiwues nnd fluids in which it 
«teon {tr* liver, muscle, blood, urine, dinl>etes, food, di;;etrtion). 

Tetta forDextroM. — 1. rn/mwrV teW.*— Add a few drops of dilute 
n{nu xulfilattn Holulion to a solution of dextrose and caustic ]iotiiaJi 
« IuIk in i-xeew. Thi- result i^ n di.'ep blue nolution ; tJie priNHpitatn 
it impric bydrntn wliich is t<irin('d lirintt soluble in tlie presence of 
dntroae. Heat ihtf tiolutiim ; a little brinw tho Ixii ling -point a re<l 
fncqiiUtte of cgprntiK <>xi<le, or n yellow i>recipitjiliO of cuprous hydrate, 
it EanuM). Tliis reiluct.ion in due to the formation of glucic and 
■■(■Mic adds which, having a xtning aRinity for oxygen, take it from 
tlw cuprie compnaml. 

2, frhliny'f tt»t. Tlie principle of this («rt is the some a» that of 
iW preceding. Prliling's Hilution is thus prepnrwl :— Solution A. 
MffiolTft 36'G4 grammes of copper sulphate in TiOO c,o, of wntor. Sidu- 
tina B. DtMolve IT5 grunmra of K'xiio-potjissiuni tai-ti^te (RocUi^ni' 
«ha) iu 100 t.c of a solution of caustic soda, having a specific Kravity 

I SadI ijHwithinol clfrerinu «iil ■uwinip niui) uv slw lonncil. auil wr* rtv*nl(d 
^PmImk u dcrin-d hum thi. tagTii an "liich the j»iwt urU (Ann. Cliim. Pht/i. |») 
ttUL JL 9Uti. V. Cdfannkf I Zdf. phyn'ol. Chmi. liii, p, T>HU). hcnrivDr, xUts* that lira 
{■jOMiDS cMtalBlr. asd pnbthli llu- ■cirniniii wlrl, it di^iTcd Ironi tlia kUlitUnc* at Uio 
J<Ml itmM. f*ub»U]r (ram Uiu iHsilliin it cnnlainn. 

' A (all Ataatftioa ol faamon* ■nbilancH* nUI lie lonnd in • pspn bf SnpptSt-jiet, 
tiit./ifritoLCkfm. iK. ««. ' .inn. Chem. Pharm. uiix. (1811) ji. geo. 



of 1*34, find (1ilat« with wat«r to 500 e.c. Theee solutions shoaU bo 
kept in well-etoppered botlles, and before osiii^ e<|ual volunuiH of Awi4 
B mixed together. The result is a ditik blue nulution, Uie KurhiJI* 
salt holding the oupric hTdmle in soluiion. The buIuUoo ^mubl tw 
freshly uiAde, bec&use tartwric acid tends to become iMiiverled into in 
isotni'i-ide, i-uii^emic odd ; and rac^mit.- add ilnelf retlucea cupric <alU 
like su^ir. One Hhoukl always atuwrtniti tiial it is itW-nt hy IwilJng 
the PehliiiK's Hilutiuii, which nli'iuld rtTRutiti unnllereil by lliiK litat- 
nii'iit. On lidding a, littk- siilulion of sugar and iMijIiug, u ml prwipi' 
tat« <>f th« cuprous osidfl or hydmte ixicurs. 

3. lioUgrf'a lftO—Xi\kf! 5 <;r»iiiuies of buxic nitmt«i of biniiulli, 
!} gmniuM« of tiirUiric ncid, and 30 c.c. of ilistill«il wat<>r. To tliif wld 
tlnwly, and witli uonstunt stirring, sunin strong oaustio Mxla aoloiiiov 
until II cl<vir xiilution is (tlitaini<fl. To n littlo uf this add Borae (ulatitii 
of di>xtroK>.', mid Ixiil. A bUck prfoipibitj^ of niettillic bismath wpMtltt. 
Or the t««t may bo p«rfomipH »» fnllowK : — The Nululion of dexltowii 
mixed with an equal vi:iluiue of snHiuni carbonate solution (1 part to3«f 
waU-i-) ; a few frsf^iienU of bismuth siibnitriite added, and Uie niiinnt 
tioilt^. A ;trcy or black precipitate of nit'tiilliu bismuth la ihruuni ildwn. 

■t. Silerr lf*f.— Atld auiuioiiia in excess to a little slmng iu>tuti<in of 
mlver nilniti' ; add some dextrose and lioil, inrtalltc sJtv(T ik iloptaatd 
as n mirmr nt the Imttuni of tlie tube. AldRhydo iui(I tnrUvic acid 
bt'hnvn like sugnr in tliis lest. 

S. JHoorrf Uitt.^—Hfnt the solution of dcxtrouc with n Molullon ol 
.4MUtia pMwh. Thn mixLun^ Ix-conicx ydlow, and, on L-x[in)>ure to tbt 
■ift brawn trt>m iltc. fornmlinn of mdniisic .tnd glucic o^sidij, 

ft. I*ierie aeid tf*t — Hnat thi' solution of dextroHe with a few drOl» 
of solution of pioric acid, and heat. Add a little caustic potash, and ft 
brown-nyl Hotution is obtninol. 

7. /iii/Ji/o-enrmtW trjit. A solutiim of <)uxliTMio is rendered fotnllf 
blue with indigo-carmine, and faintly alkalinn with sotlium carbooale. 
It is then heated to boiling without agitation ; it turns vioUit, Uien 
yellow, but if it is shakrn the blue colour it rtistored. 

8. fernwiJ/tfierii IrM. — .\ test-tulKi ik half tilled with solution uf 
dextrose and a little dried Oemiait yo-ast added. Invert the IuIm! oto- 
inemiry, and leave it in * warm place for H hours. The sujU^r will 
undergo fermentation ; carbonic add gns nrviiinulates in iJn^ tulx--, and 
the liqnid gives the twrln for alcohol. A rontrol experiment xboald liv 
made with yeast and water in another tost-tube, as a small jdeht of 
oarboiiie acid ix often ohiaineil from impurities in tlie yeast. 

■ BStMw./nnrn.^HnJU. CA*m.lxx. ns6Tf, p. »3. XjrliUKbT, Ztil. fhptioL Ct~tm. 
v8l, (imi, I-. ITE. 

* Hatns Ltmctt, 1M4, ii. ; UoUar, ArtM./. mikr. Cirm. roL i. IMi, p. an. 



9. 7%e Ph«H)flhffdraHtu U*t. — ThU test is Hppli««l i» teslinj; For 
■ml* q<Mntiti«s of deittriise, especially lu urin*. Add a pinch i>f 
mliiiin noMttl^ an<l a Utile solution of phenyl by drsane hydrochloride 
loRsolDlioii ^li dexlnoe ; a yellow pn!cipilnte of phc^nyl^liicnsiizone 
<i7ft«li occumuK hoth aiunly and in bundles fonns in ii few ininutc« 
if ill* mixture U lce]>t in thft wiiler bath at 100° C. ; and in n dilute 
mIkmi <if dt'Xtnieie tlie«k should lie smrchiil for micrmtinpicfiMy 

IQl Tk'. fiaefJiarimfttr Unt.—A solution of dextrose rot«it*« the pl&ne 
</j<ilnri«Ni lif(lit t<> ttw) right. 

In t^ifting for dextrose, n« mnny tests should be tried ns poKsibh;, 
tiuuiy other subttAnc^x give certain of the nbovo teats ; for exumple, 
ndnoe copper salts, or rotate the pUne of poUrised light. Tho bf«t 
tern »i]| be found those numbered 2, 3, f*. 9 And 10 ; and the beat of 
•II is 8. 

QuBtitatiTe detenninatioD of Dextrose. — 1 . //y tfit Sneeharimfier. 
Thit instrument in a polnri meter, and the iiisirunieMn used and 
WtliudN wluptMl are the same as that employed ui pclarunetric pro- 
MM gmmtlly (*rr pi>, 40, 53). 

1 The Frrmentutian prowM. — When mixed with yeiut aliout 
M prr «-nt. of Uie dexlruM- in solution is converteil inlu mrlionio 
■al and nlcoliol. Small quantities of nmyl alcohol, ^-lycirini; and 
ncdnic odd are formed al the same time. The dextrose iiriginully in 
Mhtion iiuty l>e «stini«tcd eiUier from the loss uf wi-ighl of the 
({fsraluB from the cvolutinu of the yfi^ »r from the ^in in wright of 
I slworjilion tidM! t-oittainin^ cnuxtie [Mitush ei>iiiiet^ttHl with the i?scnpe 
I pf^ and which al»orbs the ciirlxmie acid. 1 jMirt of OO]^2'04S 
|Wla ai stij-ar, 

Sir William Kolwrts devimil n simpler process, esfieciiilly nppliciibte 

I nngar in urine, in which tin- nugnr prewnt is eslimatt^i from the kjaa 

rfifadfic f;T»vity ft solution undirrgoc) during fcrmieRtntioD. Th« 

i^riiic grsvity of the solution is nvcumtely taken : ycnst is ndded and 

•tliY rcinatnitig 24 hours in a warm place the xpei-ilii: gravity is Aj^aii) 

Tbo number of decrees of density lost indicntes the Duiulier of 

1 at ragnr per ounoe ; ami the percenljige is obtained by multi]>ly- 

[ing UiF (legTWS of deuMty by a constaut factor. This constant factni- is 

lanKilini; tci WurmSluller 0-33; acconliii^ t'l Maiiassem 0219. Thus 

la a nrinit whose spccitic gravity liefure fenueiitation ia lOlO, and 

ItfifTwanla 1010, the di-grers of den^ty lost = 50. and acconlingly 

[Wsmiiis of sugar ure present |H'r ounce, or .TO xO'23^6-9 per cent. 

TluB RuitlKid. however, is found practiciilly to give very itinccuratc 

- ZtU. klim. Mt4. si. >0, ww alao note <ai |>. lift 




twnilts. Tlie rcMsun of this i«, that n conHtant factor is ad itupo>- 
sibility, and. in fact, incivasM na the perveiitage of sugar dimiuiahai. 
For the niathpiuaticnl demonstration of (hit tact m« Bndde (Pfluger'a 
Areliir, xl 137). 

3, Fthiintj» ww-Z/wm/.— 10 c.c, of Fehling's mixture (ttt p. 95) cor- 
respoiidB to 00.^ (^mme of sugar. 

Till' ».>lutlc»i u> Ik- t<-sttil Mhould nut cmitiuii uiuro than iilKMit 0*5 
per cmt. of dextiiwe. It will lie found necvsKnrjr t*» dilut4- otrong >oln- 
ti(>ns,i«nd most diabetic urines,' with ^ iiitw* the lunountof vmter : ihti 
ntUfit be nllowed for in the sHhseiincnt mleiilittion. 

Tlie solution of dextniHe i>i plnctvl in a hurelte ; Hnd 10 cc. of 
Fehling'ti mixture diluted with 4(1 c.c. of wnt4>r, in a white porcelahi, 
dlah. The Fehlinj^'H uiixture is kept cnTistanlty Ixiilini;, and tlie fni]{ar 
U run into it from the boiwlte ki'<><' <">)'>'. The cuprous oxide is thrown 
down iu( a rc<1 prt^cijiitiito, nnd the Mui- colour of the Milutiou f,'«lA \ttt 
iukI IvM, nn<) finally diMippwini. Wlnin the blue colour has ^nv, the 
bur«tt« in reiul, and tlie (Quantity nf ooliition (if sugar usnI, is th«t 
which contains KUtHciciit KU)j^r to roducc lUc.c.of tVhliiiff's mixtnrtv 
in. <H>S gruntite of >nigar. 

Buppoae 9-S c.c. of the solution rrtlucml 10 c.c. of Pchtinfc's inixtuit> 

{=0-OKgnunmesugar)i then tliepercentngc of sugar = " = a . 

=0'i)'26 ; and if the solution, or Hw uriui^ luwl be«n previously diluted 
10 tiroes, tJiv pifm'iilnKi* ni di^xtrONe in the orijjpnul i»>luliou=sO'ft2l> x 10 

In order t» iiuurv act^umcy it in nlwayn wUHiuible to nuikc a N.-cunil 
ohMrration, unng ibr tirst only ns an indivntinri, nnd procwding more 
cnotiously. lieginnen often lind it difficult to ilrtormine exactly the 
point at which X\w blu« colour ha* complet^'ly disappfftirxL In &udi 
a dilrniRia, a littlf of lli(> lnil fluid Kbould Ih- <|utckly filtered through M 
tlii«k filter paper, the tilu«t<^ ndduUti.'il « ith acetic acid, and n drop of 
potusic fmmcyanidai added. If copper is jirMrnt a hmwn colour or 
pmipitat4> is (malncrd ; in thin <-ntr. more of ih« ta^ffir solutiua muirt 
btwldod, and the opotntinn conlinurd until thi- Hlltrrrd hoi fluid give* 
no reaction for copper. Pluckier* recomiueitd* tluit a stiiall quantity 
of calcium chloride should be adde<l Iiefon- tittt-rinfc, in orikr to pn>v«nt 
tlw RM-clia nival (usponnon of lini-ly ilividnt cuprou* oxide iu the 
solution, and Ha)C<'tiuuin' hax point«<I out that in tin' ca«p of urine, it 
is neccuary to t««t the fint two <lrap« of thu Ultt«t4( ; fur 1^ the time 

• It tti* aria* U aBniBiBiMu, Uu albumin nut \m Knl Mpanlwd bf acUnlatiiw wtik 
AJImU antir acM. loUlag. and lltMln(. 

1 Xttt.rhlUfA. (n«n. ll. Sai. > Vf*fft ,lrr*rc xlU. Ml. 


it airi <trop comos tlirougb, oicidatioii of the cupmua oxtde has 
nltu place, «nd cupric oxide is in aolutiou. Such nipitl rcoxidatioii 
tm DOi ooonr bowewi- in soluliona of puit; dt^xtrosi'. Xagemaaii 
•r atattfti (bat hy thta ueUiod aa jfouil resulls nro obtained aa 
AUilui'a method,' wliioh U oiic for doUTiuiuing tho ivniount of 
(cfptT in Ibe precipitate. 

la aakltig Ibnc ilMcrmiiuUoiis In uniic. It niui^t in: iHirnr 1» mlnil llmt utber 
whhnnM may tm pnwniit irltU'Ji ivi1<ioi> nlkntSnc tnhillomi <if oopjicr sails, suub 
aakuld,iirtaHi^n«, pyror', unci iTumpmmds of gl^nronlc actili Nonu 
tJ Iheac nibitaiioe*, hmrcrel, give tin- fiTuivDliitioD tust. 

• OUier MHheiU. — Eiint>r'!> luvtIiiHt' i> ii voiitiiiclriu ouo, fn vliich a Htaailnrtl 
.jiiL:,f. ii( alksliott Diumtric L-jauiite In iiiioil. (10 gnininiM of im^rcurio 07iuiS<le, 
'<la {■■t nji. ||[». I'M) 100 cc mndn op to ■ Hire witb wator; *0 c.o. cor- 
^,.,1... Ill i> 1 jiniiuiwof Engfar). The lolution in kept hnl, augnr Aulutiou run 
• boB a bnmiio. nod mdalUo meircuTy In dcpontcd. The eail iit the reuutioii U 
Uttkwiice nf tanmvrj in the Salt) j this ii uacrlaincd by planing n ilroit' ■>( Itiu 
itar Mqwmataat Quid oo a piece d( Qiieliltcr-puinT.atiilFXpoiiug It In the vajiuur 
WwuMalsin wlpbidc; when the ilruji niiuauiit uiiblaukeQcd meRitty li nbt^nl. 

Haohaici'B umUioiI u vvr; Bimiliu; ilioolaadAnl noliiiiuii is lurreurii- Imlld* 
UfmuiBta^ pMaMiom Iwlidu 3f> tcr.iinnint, i^niuttc potajili kO xnitiiiiKv, wucrr to 
HMcjC.; Wc.c. comwpoinU toOISiinuiime of mgiu. TIip isnil iif ihc rrsuition 
b Mntnaliitpl Ijy lofiaiw of <lmp« ot a unlntioD of slitnonui ehli^ile Hii]ier- 
anatari wttl) nxiutic aoda, placed on u pun^eUin dish ; a.t lung n.i Ihc nicrcnric 
afl u pniaMit, tbo addition ol B dropuf Ihcctiuir niip<?ruatant flaidsivuc wilhoiw 
•(Ihst ilropa a brown colour, or prey |>rvc!)'iTatv. 

T4f«iV ndliod i» a iwloriiiictrii- oiie, and detmnds on the iuti.-n«!ly of the 
itaiiilUuu tmMliiL-o'l by Ixiilim; the iK>tattnn »t iJnxiroie witii omivHu potnih. 
1U< 1* onntouwl witb a ataniliird ri>1iicl»n nimilorly trmliML 

Diu GonrEn Jotinwm ha* al>n devi(e<l a co1uriin?tiic method. <l<-;Miii<lliit' on 
Ofdfiab of (be tint pmluceil by boitiiig ii nululiuii »t liextrose irltb CAiiMiu 
|WmTi iuhI a uiinRUed auliition uf picric a^rid, im coiiijinred ritli the tint of a 

Vvij'* will OerTanl'M nietboiif an inodltlGatlomi ol FohUiiii'*, ami bcinir 
MfMibiUj' applluHble to urino, will ba dcfcrlbcd ander tluU boait (m« Chapter 


When cane sugar U trenUxi with dilub- minera) add«, it ui)dei^(w« 
> pro(«a« known «a invereioi), i.e. it lakm up watfr, and id cotiv<-rtod 
bit" a niixtuni of equal parts of doxtroso and levuloBe. f^imilar 
hydration changes are produced bjr formenta, such aa the invert 
bmwiit of the IntestiiuU Juice. 

Lemiloae baa been <li>icovered in blood, urine, and niuKcle. It la 
iarry«t«llinbl«, very imluble in water and in alcohol ; it givea thti 
wiie U-sU aa ilcjttroite, except that it has a powerful lirvoratatory 
Wiun on iwtoriawl light. (")»= — 106*. 

■ Ztit. aMxL Clum. vel. xxiL p. Ms. * Janal. d. C'htm. toL cliv. p. Ut. 

100 Tire CHEMICAL coxsTrnrENTs op ttte oroasism 

We liave seisn Ifiat liextrose is regunlpi) as nii itldetijilo ; by non 
lernlose U rojipinlMl as the corrfispondiiig ketone. 

Purr levulosn ninj' lio ohtnincl hy ncutl'AliKitig with limi> [be 
mixture of glucoses obtained by the nctioii of sulphuric ncid on c&ne 
nig&r. The levutoso limo compound ia n, solid, while Uwt of dmtnMe 
in lii]tiid. l(y decomposing the lime compound with oxalic acid, pare 
levulose is obtained, 


Galactose is formed by tho action of ililuto mineral axUt, or 
invcrliiig fL-nneiits, on luctosi^ or milk sugar. It in dextrorotatorj. 
{1)1,= + PS-S". Nitrit! acid oxidises it to mucic acid. Galactose it 
directly frnncntable with yeast ; it also reduces Fehling's solution. 


Inosite is a glucose which is found in muHi'lo, ki<lncy, liv«r, di 
tissues, and st^veral other organs of tlie lioily. It hit* also bcfia 
mt«d in nnvU quantilius from the blood, traces exist in most diab 
orinnt, in the urinn of certain cases of Bright's disease, and ace 
to ChoettA,' tinllois,' and Kiilz,^ in iiorniat urine too. 

It is also obtained from pens, beans, lentils, potato, aspar 
dandelion, foxglove, and many other plants. 

I'tYpnrtUioti, ^Vroa benns. A watery extract is evaporated 
syrup, and precipitated with alcohol -. the precipitate is dissolved^ 
water, and tlio in^sito allowed to crystallise out. 

From muscle or other tissues.* An aqueous extract is treed fr 
albumin by acidulatioii, boiling and filtering : from phosphates by ' 
addition of Iwiryta water and filtering. Tlie filtrate in oonci-ntntleH, 
and cmatiiio cryNtallisi'H out. The mother liijuor is boiled with four 
times its volume of alcohol, an<l the precipitate so formed is removed. 
Tiie clear liquid is set aside for twenty-four hours, and crystals of 
iiiiiatt« often separate ; if not, ether is added, and the mixture sltaken, 
iuoaite llieu separates in lustixtus leallets. It is purified by recrystal- 

From urine:. Take several litres of urine, and add neuti-al then basic 
IomI «eeUl«. Collect the pi-ecipitat* produced by the latter ; deoom- 
potc it with sulpbui-tftUxl liydrogun ; filter ; eva|itirut« the fiUnit« to a 
^rup, anil Jitld nk'ohol and vther. luustte crystallise.-( out, 

/'cngrwrfw.— It forms large ooluurlnta uiimoclinlc pristni^ elUa 

• As. Cbrm. I'hann. icii. p. «fll. * Dr fiKMHT^, ThttU, Psrt*. Ufll. 
» Cmltalil. /. iltd. Wii. 1«S. p. Has, 

* BosMmt, Aim, Ohtm. Phaim. vol csvii. p. US;. 




(Nfcd in rosettes. Tlic crj!iUl!i contain two molecules of v,-nt«r of 
ajilallintioii. It luu « iwtwt tantc, is soluble iu wft:i^r, Iml not in 
«b«lBle aJmhol, or fithtr. 

It ii precipitnleil by n niixtuii- of hioiic tiriwl scetate and ammonia, 
ll it npabli- of tli« luetic ncid fi'miuntatian ' but uot of tho Alcoholic 
In wldttotw hnvB mi nction <m [mlnr- 
initi^t; it dot* not mJuco mctnlllc 
obtM ; it gives no change oE colour 
•kii botlecl with c-aUBtic potash, 
ariiker ia it decompOMM:! hy weak 

Trtto.— (1) Evapmit* a little of 
in nlution w^ilh u liltlr nitric acid 
napfaitinuni (ItKb ; tmut thonuidun 
*itli • Uttin omtnonin imd c^tcium 
fUtride^ and i>va{ioriit« to dryncjui at 
kgutle hM(. A bright reil or violet 
otor ii pnKloocd. Thix tiut only huc- 
onlx with pura ttolutlonK (SchiMrr).' 

(3) Add a little nicrcTirio nitrate 
fmcUin <lixh ; a j-ellow prccipitiiti? 
Olljr, it will becooM rod; on cooling tlu^ colour vaniitlie«. 
ftwne^ and sugar mast be absent (tiallois). 

CSfMftfwfiViii.^Froiu a study of lUt 'nitm-sub^titution and oilier 
ndnets, Maqueune' concludea tbut the graphic formutn far iti(»ilo 


tn a solution of incudtr, on a 
i« produced. On buiting this 





I tlic> clawed cluiin 

«y be thus ivpreaontcd. It is in other words 
hiulomic nlcohi^l w-itli six secondary alauhol 
nvft arraitgifl in a ring ; thi-'* Nyninu-lricnl 
■utraction (■scludiog any poHxT to rotntc 
rJariial light According to the theory of Le 
W ami Van 't Iloft' {iw* p. 4."i). It is not an 

ivdc, nor an soetone, nor a polyphenol, thouglj 
an nromatic structure. 


Thi* mgnr is geitentlly distribnlMl tbrouj,diout the n-grtablp king- 
M in the JH)c«a of plants and fruits, cupt^ciidly thn sugar cftno, be«t< 
ni4, maDiyw, anti augur niaplc It i« n nabstanoR of great importance 

' iavdiait to VUgBt {Ann. Clum. Pkarm. rul. dx. f. 888) Ih* Tikrialy ot bdd lannad 

' J»». Chtm. PMarm. rot. UiKi. p. 831. 

* Co«^f, raaA tJ». (imTf, «a, 9PT, )7ln, ISW. 



n> ■ fo'Kl ; iiflor nhuniliinl iiixCHtioii iff ciiin- ^uji^nr, tnicm may )»■ foutnl 
in tJic l>l<iQ(l nnil urine, liut l.lip (trruter pnrt tinil<'rgiir« iiiv^nsii.'ti. 

Puro cnnp GUgnr hulilK cuprit- h^'dratc in iwlutioii in nn nlkulino 
liqaiil, i.e. with Troniintr's lr«t it givfs ii liluc- wlution. But no 
nSuctioii occurs on boiling;.' It cr}'Klfllti>t«6 in iiionoctinio prismi. 
Aqueotu solutions ii-e tU-xtroi-otutory. (a)t,= + 73-8°. By Utiling 
irith w&ter. or morp nwdily by bailing n-ith dilute minenil acid;^, or 
by nieHiis of inrerting feri[i(>nis, it unrlergtMS inversion, i.e. it takee up 
water unci xplita into il«xtroae und le\-ulo<ie. 


[wiD BitwiJ [dntniw) [tmlav} 

Willi yfuist, conv nugnr is fimt in^t-rtv^ l>y inmiu of a >]M>cial 
8<ritibl« fvrriirnt pivNluced by the yeast veil, ami tlii^n tliuvis nnulcholie 
fenucntntiun of the j,'luvo»eii su fonued. \itric Kciil oxiiliscackiirHUgiir 
to atoohnric ncid. 

Cnn« sugnr nioy bo MtimAtml in the fullovring wny :'-Tnkv 40 c<^ 
ot the §oluli<in »f cAnc HUgar ; odil 1 l-.c. of u '25 per cent. s»)utjun of 
•tulpliuric acid, nnd biiil fur bnlf-nii-hnur. Cnrv muM \>v tiilcrn ixit 
to Alar thv fiugnr. Bring the «uluti(in of cugnr lu its original voluiiw 
by Adding trfttcr. PUoo it in the burott<-. Mid run it into boiling 
Fehliog'a »tution, as in tli« iwliuiiition of dextrose. It tuny Ite 
pec cMM y to add exiTw of Mxla or {HiNuili to iho Fehling'« solution, so 
that the «ulpburic a«i<l in the nugar ■•ilution may ite fully iieutmliMyt. 
Every 95 |i«rt« of glucose found coi'rD>>]K>ii(ls to 100 piki-tii uf catia 


l^ctow or milk ungnr occurs in Riilh. It lint alwi txrii (Irncrilieil 
na ooonrring in the urine of woiurn in tlic ivirly days of Inctatiun or 

aft«r wmntng. 

It cryHtnlliHTH in rhotnbic prinun, whirfi 
contniii m molecule of vat«r of i.TyBt»lll<M- 
iton. It is soluble in six parts of cold, 
and 3^ pnrtsof hot. water. It is thus much 
leas Miluble l)i.-«n cnne su^r or dextni**^ 
It hu only a faint sweet tnste. Ai|U«ous 
ROlutionsare dextrorwtntory, (u)(,^ + S9-3". 
It in innoluble in nloiiliol and in elliei'. 
HoIutiijnH of IncloM) mluce PeliHngc miluliiiii, but less powerfully 
tlMD dextnise. If it required seven part* of n solution of dextrose to 

■ Meat ■paciBCBaalc<uunurraliU»DoMU:u(«atsln(rtlmfuniu(4*iiXM'Hini]iuiiUrM^ 
■ad ikM* oDM • ^mU uDoont (4 rtdwtloii. 


tm. «!.— UUk •mw ni'MU. 


mince a giTen quantity of Fehling's solution, it would require teu 
parU of a solution of lactose of the same strength to reduce the same 
qoantity of Fehliug's solution. 

By boiling with water, or more readily by boiling with dilute acids, 
iir by means uf inverting femients, &a in ttie alimentary canal, it takes 
np wnter and is converted into a glucose called galactose : 

C„H,Ai + H,0=3C6H„Os 

With yeast, lactose is Unit inverted to galactose, mid witli this the alco- 
holic fermentation takes place ; but this occurs slowly. With the lactic 
■cid organism, that which brings about the souring of milk, the lactic 
■cid fermentation is pn.)duced ; this may also occur us the result of 
the action of putrefactive bacteria, e.g. in the iiliuientary cana). 'J lie 
luetic acid fermentation consists of the two stages represented by the 
fuUowing equations :- 

(1). 0,,H„O,, + H3O=4C,H6O3 

(2). 2C,H^03=C,,HgO,+l'CO,^JH, 

(liu-'tk' ui;l><] [tiui..ila iu.-;il] 

Nitric acid oxi<Iise.s lactose to niucic acid. 

To dfltrrt laettiHf. in ;in7^. ^Acidulate slightly with acetic acid, boil, 
filter, and test the filtrate with Fehling's solution, or by Bottger's 
bismuth test. 

To pre/.ttre lacUisf /riim milk. — Acidulate with acetic acid to pi'e- 
ripitate the casein and fat ; filter ; boil again to precipitate albuniiu 
and tilter again ; evapomte the filtrate to a small bulk ; set aside to 
crystallise ; the crystals may be purified by reorystalHsation. 


Maltose is the end product of the action of malt-diastase on starch, 
and can also be formed as an intermediate product in the action of 
dilute Butphuric acid ou the same substance. It also appears to be the 
chief sugar formed from starch by ihe diastatic ferments contained in 
the saliva (ptyaliu) and pancreatic juice (aniylopsin). 

Maltose can be obtaiueil in the form of acicular crystals ; aqueous 
nlutions are strongly dextrorotatory. (a)„= + 150°. Solutions of 
maltose re<luce alkaline solutions of copper, bismuth and other metal- 
lic salts ; but its reducing power us measured by Fehling's solution is 
one tliird loss than that of dextrose. 

By prolonged boiling with water, or more readily by boiling with a 



dilute minernl ticid, or by idcaiis of an inverting fmnMint, «uch m 
occurs in the iiilestinnl juice, it is convertpil into dextrow. 

C„H„Oj, + H,0=2C^,,0, 

tniHliaM] [•bnnat] 

It undeigoet readily the nlroholic fermentutJon. 


Starch U w«l«ily ilitlu»ed through all pnrt* of the vegetable world. 
It occurs in nnture in the f 'Hd of tuicroBcojiic granulfv ; tlif-W- vary in 
appcnmnce and sixc ncconliiig (o tli«ir 6oiirc«, but cnch crmniBtji of a 
C4Mitni1 spot iirouM<l whith are more or less pnmlle'l ritigK of ■torch 
proper or gnintitoso, nUertialing wirh layers of c«llulo«r. A variply of 
granuloee it present in aiimll inuKunt, wlikh fpvcs tt red colour with 
iodine ; it b oUled erythro-gninulniiv (Bmckt-). 

It IB neai'ly iuwiuble in cold w«t«r. When boiled with wator, tlie 
grftiiule« burnt, njid .in ini|>L>rfr<ct o|<ii1<'iH-cnt soluliim is formed. If 
concentrate, this gi'liilinTMv on ci>otin^. It is nitu iniiuluhle in alcolid 
and in ether. Tt ix a colloid Rulwtance : tliat JK, it dooa not pwu throufch 
aniinni mi'iubranis, or vr^tnlile parchment. 

'/'airii. (i) Willi iiHlim- it givnt n liluc colour, which tlixappiMn 
huating, the lodidv of iitarch lioing diMooial^d at a high t^-tupi-rature 
(in couling it rcapiionni. In perfonning tliic h^t, ran- niunt >«' tiikon 
not to apply hi-at f<>r ■«» long a lime, or all the iodiiu- is ilri^ien oH' 
and nmarqui^ntly ni> blue colour reappearftou cooling. 

(2) Tannic acid givcM a y«lkiw preci]>itnte, which itissolvM oD 

(3) Solutions of March are dcxtrunvtatun-. («)q= + 21i>''. 
IhcomiM.,ilu>w.- At 200" C. tli-y rtarch. at 160' C. wduUona of^^ 

■tardi, an cliangMl tiiio duvtrin. Prolonged licatiu^ chuiigtu it intfl^H 
doxtnwe. It u rapidly convi^wl into di-xlrtB* by hiwiting ii willi^^ 
dilate nioeral acitU. Ii may In iIuh uar be iwtimati'd (|imnti(Alivfly, 
90 parts "f tJte dextroife ao fonuod corn-Nponding to 11)0 parts of 
March. &y llie aotinri of diaatatir fcnuriita,' maltoM- U. m we haW 
seen, the chief end pi-oducl ; lMrr<> aU> ih-xtrin i» aii inti.-nnodiale rt*go. 
Wben Marrh i% ciinMTtcd intii ilrxtroav by iho action of acids, tlie 
foDowing dtualioti rc]>m«iit»-whnt occurs :-— 

SC,l!,.0, + H.O = C<II,A + C.H.oO, + C^H„0. 

' lUn aUnh )* In* muli]} ulHt tm tijtmnuinA* lliui Itftlvd aliuvli.and Uio itiijehM 
b<HS lUhfMrt rl»*b nty mwli la dlcrcUMllj, 



If noie starch solution he boiled with dilute niincrnl acids, or be 

«M en bjr <)iait«tic tennent*, the Milutimi will becuiue clt-ni- from tii« 

ImiiMB tit a polj'mmiln of starch, ciillitil koIuIi!^ stiircli or umiduliii ; 

ttiilike Hit original solution ^ivck n Uuc colour with iudiiiL* ; a-i the 

4(Cmo pragTvMi^ thp blu<- colour Iiccoiuok 1i*ss and ]<•&<> intense, thcui 

ttittd with n ml tint tn form violcl, nli'l thru re|>!ncc<l \iy tbo r«d tint 

livto tbn jirpM-nct! of a form of dextrin edited orj-throdi-xtrin. If the 

h^ai he trsteH with Fchling's solution, reduction will kIiow tlie pre- 

MMcoT dextrosn or ninttiiv. I)eJ(trin nnd sugnr nrn [iroduccnl simul- 

Uaniutiy (an' iitKivi?: wjuntion). Testing the liquid u littlo Inter, the 

n&rtioD u-ith 1-Vhling will Iw found much more ahundunt, nnd testing 

•Hi iodine llwro will Iwt no colourntion : this is due to the conversion 

if trTtlmj-dexIrin into sug«r. If nlcohol he ndcUtl, a. precipitAtc is 

fnioetd ; this eouaistA of a form of dextrin wliich (fives no colour 

"vh iodiue, and which h toiiMetjuently called acliroo-destriu. It is 

womieil ultluiJtldv into i>u;pBr also, hut with jii'ealer difliculty than 

inTjlhro dtxtrin. 

Tlie (oniiati<iii of innltuw from Hturuh idk^' Iw represented hy tha 
fetaviiig i^uation (Brown nnd Slorrin) :— 

llJ(CsH,A).+*.HvO=4„0.,H„0„ + (C„H„0,„). 


bnxtrin IK tho nnine given to the intennediiitc products in tho 
7<lratinn of starcli, and Bnicke distinguL^ies two varieties : crythro- 
Qtnn, which gives a red'hrowii colour with iodine, nnd achroo-dcxtjin, 
*hA doc* not. It is said t-o oci-ur in small qunntities in hlood, muscle, 

I liver ; al&o occHsioiially iu diabetic urine (Iteichardt).' 

Daxtiin iii rendilj* tiotuble in water, but iii&oluble in alcoliol and 
i*x. It is jfamiuy and miiorpliuus. It does not reduce Fehling's 
ifatien, nor does it fernieul with yeual. It ha& h strong de\trorot:itory 
ttimi. (a),,^-|- 138'88°. ity Iijdritiiig tigenciea it is converted into 

Dnttrin gives the snnie, or a vi-ry similar, colour with iodine as 
rMgmt douH. It mny bu distinguiKlicil from ;rb'c<>geii by the want 

>fn]e<ic«Dc« of ita RolutionK, luid by its not iH-ing ])r«c'ipituble by 
>c oertatd of Irnd. It in, however, prccipitabb- by iiasic acetate of 
'tad nmntoniH. 

tWtrin given aUoa very similar colour t-o tbnt given by erj'lhm- 
UxloM. ITiat dextrin and ert-Uiro granulo«o are not ideiitieal is 
"n bj their having a different afhnity for iodine, If a small 

■ Beichkrilt, Zeil. Anal. CAon. IMS. 



({uanUty of iuiline Lh^ adilfil to a mixture of ttnxtriti and starch, ai 
hmwn sulutiuti i» Itrxt fonii^il ; thU oit thii iiHdition uf inoiv iodiiw 
becoiiiPii violi't friHii the fornintion of the blue iolitli- of jttareli. It »m 
the othrr haiii! « smnll (nidntity of io<liiie be «cl<k'rl to n mixture of 
nrvtiro-gi-.iimlrui'- niirt starili, a bluo solution is fonnnl fir»( ; thli on 
ilie addition of nioi'e iodine liecotiies t'iolet froiu the fornintioii of tlit 
red iodide of erjllno-Kranuluai?. All Uietie iodides uiiderijo dissocidtioii 
at a bigli t4!iii{)eiuCurr-. tliut i.-i, the uolour diMippeiirs on lieatlng, ud 
n->i[>])ear5 i>s the li(|uid cools. 

In llic< IVC.-VIIC work of Brown uni] Morris on Ihe iiioleciilAT <nei)(Mi 

carln-hj-dciitii*. remllif liave Ijwii ubliiiiiivl whiub show tliAt lliv fonnnlioii oT 
dextrin is n niocf I'miiplrx |>nH'r'>h ilinti liat hc%'.n hitherto i-otiali]trcd. H*} 
lucign to ■ >iib»tniici> fonned In aac^ *In){n tn tlic rmclion (tnntlo-doxlriii) tlii 
formiUn C,^„0,,(i:',JI.^O„),. which luay be rcguded «• cmMitnlitl u( m 
itniib)) or maltate vrou;>. iu oimbiiialion with ux amjflln or dcxtiin poujv. It* 
luoleculai wei^'lit miild uti tins nuppo'itiun be SIdfl. 

I'TfiTijiitaliim of CuUmii Curboliyilnttei bi/ S»tt».— Tlie u» of neotnil wit* i« 
the pr<'i.-t|iH«liniMiriil ■'.•imr.iti'iti iif [imtwi.U i^ al».. (i.piilkvilili- i'> oolloiJ oibi^ 
hf/Intti'M. Potil' liuii <ri:iiiuneil i< ri»)iitr(Tr of thvM<>, niiil flii<!i iliiil >><iikk', liln (» 
itrnhfc, nic not piivliiilnbli- bynBtumtlnjttlieir solutions with nwitinl HitsialhtH 
liltugam inignniiitli, nre piMijiiiiite'l bv siitumtion wilh rmnioniiim siiljihil'i 
»u(l uthiTH sfpLJiL. like lolubk' alnrch luid dextrin, iirc iircvipitiiled by talunl^ 
with «i.Hlium iiii1|fhut<r. iiiutnx-'^tiiiui MiljihHtc, iiud uiuiuoiiiuiu Biil|fliuie. 

I havw iiii'*oir fiiiiiHl tlial j<lyooi(eii i* |i«nii|'ilat*id bj- aiilnnittot W* 
nmmoniaiK xuti>li»ln luid lUfiKiiMiuiu tmlphale, but tiot nt oil or «uly vaj i 
bjr sodiuQi chloridL-. 


Oljrvogen or miiiual nturtli is fotind in tbu liver, uitutclo, pla««aUi 
whit« blixxl eiii-|>uKeles, eurtiliijie otdls, iind in embryonic lutsM 
geuerull}'. It hits alsn been found in sume speciTueiiii uf diabetic uttn* 
(Leulxj).' Tt is a siibstntiee of greiit ]ihysi<ilogic»l itii|>urta»c«. "On 
melhods of preparing it and ostimnting its quantity, togctJwr ■ith ■ 
dijtcuaion of its funelions, will be given under liver and innsclc^l^ 
two ttMniCN in which it occurs in the udult in the tinMilent iijuantity. 

Glyoogisn is ii white, tji$tete»i, odourless powdur, soluble in w»Wf< 
forming ii densely (i[>uk'Hcent volution. It is inm>lublo in lUcoliol wd 
in etlicr. It is ^t|■^lIlJi[ly dextmroUitory ; (a)p= + 2ir. With TrowiW''* 
tfit it gives n bluii Nolution, but no nnluetioti ncconi on l>oiltng. 

Olycogrn gives with iiMline ii port-wino rod colour; tliia envly 
dt«tiaguisbr's it fmni »liirch. Thi? colour disapprarK on hmting, ob^ 
ronppenre as the liijuid cools. Thp colour which dextrin givw •iw 
iodiuo ia roiy siniilAr, but dextrin forms » clear, not an op>loMn>*> 

■ Mril. phi/iiol. cheat, dt. IGl. 

' Viixhow't Arttii*, xiL iz>3> M- 


nhtioii witli water, and is not precipitated by basic lead acetate, as is 

Prolonged boiling with water or boiling with dilute mineral acids 
MiiTerts gly«^n into dextrose, The ferments of the salivary glands, 
of the pancreas, aad glycerine extracts of liver and other organs change 
(IjOTgen into maltose, intermediate products of the nature of dextrin 
b«ng formed in each case, as with starch. During the processes of 
Brtsbolism that occur normally in the liver, glycogen is not only stored 
ip in the cells, but a certain amount of the stored glycogen is trans- 
fbmwd into sugar and leaves the liver by the hepatic vein. The form 
otiogar so formed is not maltose but dextrose. 


This is the colourless material which composes the cell-walls and 
■flody fibre of plants ' ; it may be obtained in the pure state from 
cotton or linen fibre hy boiling out intpurities with alkali, alcohol, and 

It is insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether, but dissolves in an 
uunoniacal solution of cupric oxide. From this solvent it may be 
KcoTered in an unchanged form. 

By the action of strong sulphuric acid, cellulose ia converted either 
into an insoluble substance which colours blue with iodine, or into a 
wlnble fiub«tance of the nature of dextrin. A useful material called 
t^Blable parchment is prepared by dipping sheets of paper into strong 
ntlphuric acid. By boiling with dilute sulphuric acid cellulose is con- 
ftrted into dextrose. The varioua digestive ferments have little or no 
Ktion on cellulose. 

Celluloid is, however, not confine<l to vegetable tissues. It is the 
chief constituent of the test or outer investment of the Tunicates, and 
inometimes called tunicin. Schafer* found that the obtainable 
him the mantles of the PyrosomitUe, Salpidie, and Fhallusia mam- 
niliris has the same elementary composition as vegetable cellulose, 
ud has also identical properties ; for instance, it dissolves in cupram- 
Booia, and is converted by nitric acid into an explosive nitrate soluble 
in ether (gun-cotton). 

According to Berthelot * tunicin differs from cellulose in being less 
(wily convertible into dextrose by the action of dilute sulphuric acid. 

' Th» different varietie* ol celluloso will be tonnd dcBcribeil in Walli' Did. of Chem. 

' AHmal. Cheat. Fharm. cli. Sia. 

' Antt. de CheiB. at de Phyt. Str. 8, tome G6, p. 159. 


Tti« »kia of tha Bilk-Tonn is ctnted to contAin c«Ilutoso {Dc Luce*).' 
Tlift inncilo^noiu inventing mfttrix or loocjtinin which xurrouiKU 

tho colonieji or oooial cIuBters formed 1)y the protoDOOn Ophrifdiuta 

vimtVe i« also conijiuoed of cellulose (Hitlliburlun).* 

Virohow' found cctluliHM> in du^nii>mt«Kl hutuati spleen, and in 

cerUin parU "f thi^ hmiii, und niorc^ recently Fi-ttuiid' bu found it iu 

tiiG bluuil and tiwucs in cases uf phthisis. 


Oum araUt, Ibv iiottiml nuilutinn frou acvi-ml >]NwiM uf a«iw;l*> consMa 
oht«Bv at tlw patftMiuiu nnil calduui coicponiul* of arohin, or imbb nold 


AnUo fonni n thick atlcky sol utUm with wnltrr; It U liuuluble tn nlciih^l .iinl 
iacttMC. With ocippor*n]phnhi a thick Bctatln'mii prcclpltnic Ih funiiol, nliich 
)■ n conipoimil of auprio oxide nnil tho f^iii. Thi> U iiuolubli' in caiialiu to^ 
and Ib not reduced ou boiling. M'ilb latria cliluri<lc a similai tliick prauipHau I* 

Wlian bol1»i1 with i1Uut« tulphiirie soid. arabla .vMiU a cTjutiilUiiv nogm 
oaUodanilibiow: thU Iin» the MiH'|itiiiiiul foriiitilu C,H„0,. Ii i» rtmnirl.v dmtni- 
rotatofj. iwlucv* alkallca miliititmH of ciiprli^ hvdmK' (E'oliIinK'it wlolioii), but 
will not nDdcrgo Ihu aloohollo f«mii-iitNtli)n. Arnbin U oxldUcd bf nitric add Iu 
■nadc acid. 

DnrtriH or HritiA fum.—See p. lOO, 

Amimal ; hhi.— Tlib »uli«tan<<v mt.« iliKMnvml by Lnnilwnitr, nnd l« n oaD> 
MlliMait uf iDuctD. It bat IniiK l>i«ii kiiomi ihnt irhnn mucin It- bullpil wiib dllut* 
•nlpburla Dcid ll jrlold* a tcduclot; bnl niiti-raicutabln *itjtiii (C,U,Ji\). Tbl* *ug*i 
miDM from Ibc anliB«l gnin whicli if ptuwnl In ntuc-in In runibtnnlion wiili a 
pnilvid. Aainialgani iiitick<r, (pvi>>gc-tntiiioiiiipm-ipitB(ciiirilb«o|>[<<'raDd ituo 
■olu. and liaa tb« aaniu rnipJTltad formiilii, (C^fli.OJ, a< ivpitnhlc ^uin. PuUrr 
pantcuUra rapudliiK (u prapailiM ami phTclologlcal iinjionanc* will b« ftnmd 
uwln nnoin, conMwi inc tbano, cutnago, lie 

Animal 4f*iram, (C.B^O^)^ n iniQi-IIke mbitnncc •pcrrlvd lir the ■%kici>n«vnl 
fajiii^fAMrt, n gall-pTodnciiii,' loiuw that nitaoki elms, (a)]! •■ * ISCi'CLicticruuuia).' 


MelifvM, from •acaltiilin Bianna. Iltliiiu»r, fnm larvh nwoua. Mjftoit V 
trtkalei^. tima cru^it. 

Tlirar nM all mcroaa; tboy luv ilralrvrMalotv, and Aa nut rcduiM alkaline 

SgnaMhrvtr i> alto a tacTOK: It i> found in Ibc rout* of nitain plant*, ti hai 
no aMlon ou petoflMd Ugbt. 

dkrUa, fma •athlc acid. SiflliU. frocn t)i» lM(«tlii«« of Uio linc-ldi nad 
akiU«. JAncoJia, aiWng tram tb« fttrocntntiiin of maliinw. 

DnM tlm* ({IneoHa an naarir aHinl in thvli pmfwrtM* to Innalta. 

fnulia ll a WvorcUIOTT mtlohydralF fmin') In ihr mr<t of certain ptaMa 
togiibaii nltb (TiuuithrMv. In Ibr juuv •ial" It fnnap riuraricrinlic cfTviaUnn 

) Camfl. r—d. UU p. IM: )dU p. M. 

• F)l*frT-tArt»tv,%LtU. 

• Qm—t.J. lKf.Srifwa.Jslj. UN 


fftenlca. When boiled with dilute acids it jields leTutose. Its fonnnla is 

Xtfittote, a CTTStaUine caibobvdrate which can be separated from molasMs. 
la formula it CuH^„ ; the erystala contain five molecules of water of 

Datmu, C,H„0,, a gummy substance occurring in unripe beetroot 

lidmiit, (C,H,,0^,, occnrg in the intercellular substance of Iceland moss and 

AtiWKjr^MMCZooaniytuiD : Biitschli), (C^,,0,)„, occurs in the form of granules 
mmbling starch in the infusorion, Euglena riridu, and in all gregarinfe.' 

Pinfalaetiii and other insolnble carbohydrates in the cell membrane of seeds 
■Uch occur there with cellulose, differ from it in being insoluble in ammoniacal 
nlukios of copper oxide (Schuize).* 


Ibe rabstances constituting this class occur in many plants, and a. few are 
(nail in animals also. They yield on decomposition a carbohydrate, generally 
i^icow. together with other substances. 

iuffialim in bitter almonds may be taken as an example. In the bruised 
tiaeoA a ferment called emulsin or synnptosc prodaccs from it bitter almond oil, 
Ijtocjuiic acid, and glucose : — 

C.H„NO„ + 2H,0 - C,H,0 + HON + 2C.H„0, 
[unrrUIliO CbviliidcDT [hydmovHale [glucDie] 

i>aniojt] ulJ] 

Ibc following equations represent the decompositions of a few other important 
ngttabl« glocosides : — 

C„H,.0, + H/) = C,H.O, + C.H„0. 

[Hllsin] [Hllganlnl [glucoH] 

C„H„0„ + 1H,0 = 3C,H,0. + C^„0. 

[unuLu] [xiUUo HCiil] [glgcoK] 

C,.H„KNS,0,. = |}80. + ofH,}** + °'^"°' 

(potuatum £hyQmHeii [oU of f glDcoie] 

□ijranatt] putaumni miuurit] 


Amontt other important vegetable glucosides are digitiilin, ruberjlhric acid 
(■hicli vielits aliukrin). irrmiferin (which yicMs vanilin), luid indican' (which 
jitlili inili){n, nw p. TS). 

Th« aninuil gluco'iidc?' nrc : (1) mucin, wliich jiclds n proteid imd animal 
pun; (2) corcbrin (we m-rvous tissues); (3) chitin (tee epitheli^il structures); 
(4)caniuiuc acid (kj pigtuciils). 


(ihcnTiitiic aci'l is a siilisUincc which occurs under certain circumslnnces in 
Min'-aiiilfniin the fact lti;(t it nitiitcs iioliriHed light Id the rigiit ({o)|) = + 19), 
Mill rt-lncis alknlinc mjlutiniis of cfijij^r olido, is ;i])( to Iks mistaken for duxtrosi-. 

' Mrtth.f. Ckrin. TrfhicJogi'-. IHTS, 7W. 

' S.n|w., Ciimjil. rriul. I'ii, IJH. ' Ht. ihiitirk. chem, Geiell. iiu. 1192. 

* Thi' iniliciui <if nhuv it, liawt.'VL'r, not * gluuoKide, ice gi, 71). 


IM fMiiinla Is C,H,,Ot. nnd it \» uo iloubt reUlwl to th« «ujliuh}'iln(o 
Wtwnpnrvlt UiiotCT?MHlllni\biil. iuniihvTlriiln.r.H.O^ rnmiaeoUmriowselialR 
crr*ialL It rednDei not »ii1v FoliUxigV lolntinn, Ina .ilio given Mtixcr'* Urav! 
loJt. It docs not. however, uiiilergo tlie alcoholic fnmentiitian, and <«ii bj lU 
(iican» be ensilv ttL-ticgiiWic'l from sugnr. It h insoluble in fXhet. but nt^ 
(nliible in wuti^r and hot alt^oliol. cirratiiilining uut fiMin tbe liittor oa oDoling. ti 
In pruuipitabli^ Truru :iii h'jik'Oijk •.uIiiLiOTi by harfin wiittrr iia na tiuH>Iu1ile bujU 
(wmpciiiD'l. 'nii'ii>;)i ri'lnU"! In iin c«i>iiio»iii<>ii k> iii'itrly (o tlii^ cjirl»hyilral(K h 
ylelda wUli nr<>n, cliiciiiii]H>s>tioi< jioMliictt whtch nro nri^iiiatio. Huirh :ij> onlimiDv 
bmuyl nUolioI (Jntl'o).' Il oc^^nr* In the urine In the fonii of thv )ii>tiii«iiiii]j oil 
(C,H/),K). It 1» foimil tliere nfter the ndiiiinirtnilioa of <!Rrtnlii 'IniHn (chioial 
uid but^rlalilonil,' tiitrobpiiio!.' oitho-iiilro luluul.* i-nmphor,' tec). It ulu Mtm 
in the uiiae ufler uhlorotunu Diirc-jniB. iiud in Iht purikt<1ii; nvcrvliuu thnt tab* 
pUiii; on s(<ction ut t1i« natH uurvnt,' PutaMliitn ^clvcuronnti:. like dextnur.p'M 
with plrnirlbTilratiiii' L.vtlrui;bltirl<lv a or>'>ilii1tiui.> iirvn'ipilHlr. 

Broiuini^ (Niiiii'vKti glreuronSu iU^><1 iiilo MichurJc Bcid. Ihtir' nlioiriiv UM 
preMiuM- in llif fonuer iioid of an nldclivdc im"i|>, :iii<l »il»i li» dor4> n-luii« U 
tleitrOBi' (TliStirtol(l(-r),' Solimlpilelmrg and Mwyi'r' ixiimider that ilaiiMrtrunllM 
ilMClriMe iu tlw body ; Killsi* lia* tnitgt»trt\ thiu Ii aiay url^inaui from inl|a 


lUnchl ('Zeit. phyiiol. Cii«ni,' liv, 3*7) tUitn in rctcraaee to ih* |t ii j l 
hrdmiDC! t(vt for augar, uiore cnpcuiiijly in orine. that it I* at tTiMvMtV U 
the fi^nuniTiitian and pulari meter Ie«t4. The inixlnre should, hi)we*pr, iMili 
in the wutor-butb ut letul an liour bcfotv vryntiiU an- 1uokt>d for. The fine briitf 
yel'iiw nuvllen of iibeiiylKliicoeiuotio (meUtne -point StH° (.'.>. citlier tiath or h 
stark, aio Ititm ciu>ily ilixtlnifiilfhAbk from ibe hriiVMilnh luiiorpliixia |it«cij4ul( 
( mo] ) I n(cp»t'>t iniy^) which |{'ycti'^ni''ao'(lK<>'c<' " the mixture Ik- Intltilb 
vmter-baib Tor a ihortoT time than lui hoar, the glyoiironie nold Gomponnil (mm' 
i* crystidlino n^d, and in liaUc lo be miiiakcn f»r iibenflglaeomkoov. 

In mldtticoi to dexln>«e. tlirev other ni^nirs huvu been deacrltMd la !!*■■ 
nrini* :— (I) Ln*utu^p (Ziminer, ' DeutHOh. lued. Wooh.'iL 339 1 SciPitnn. 'CoiitnlL 
riihI. WlM.' uli. 733); t)ii« liiu Iwen fDund ouly So diabetica mixed •uk 
dnxtmoe. from which li 1« i)liiiltiKnii-habli>: only by the polarimet«r: (!) rKT*— 
(Rofroeiiier, ■ZT:tt. pbyalol. Chc-iu.' i. 101); ihia Ih fonnd tii the urine 9f fodltaf 
women : the cryBlnis of phenjllucfOEiuione. formed by thn iKiion of pbMfl- 
hydrazine, arp I^n liiiim wider than tliuie of phrnylgtuooiAXoDc, aod intill •> XHfs 
(!l) UkltURt'. found ill diHl>i>ti(' iirinx by L<- Nobol, tH*fi a prcelpltB>« of pl:Mjt 
iiwttOMUonc wliioli ni-eiira In vcllow tablok lueittag at 81= C. 

) Ztil.phywro!. Ohtm. U. 47. 

' Mnarulnii mid *. Mcrinjt. PJfilgirr't AMi: xx. M. 

' T. MiTiiiH> t'cniralbl. iferf. IIVm. 197S, No, S&. 

* JaIFu. lor. fit- 

* Scbmieduborg and Uoycr. Zn'l. pkytio!. Chm. in. tSS. 

■ Aihdawn. Bril. Utd. Joum. to), i. 1800, p. ITl. 

* Jter. <{#H(irA. Chrm. GtiflUch, lii. p. Ulls. 

* Zcit, phytiol. Chrnu iil. p. tHT. 

■ Zeii. Biol. mil. p. 17G, Tn tliii pupor will lia (iiuid a moUiod of fttf^'t 
Klycaronlc acid Iroax punwc (a yallow nabBtmii-'K i>rnlmb1y obtuiwd trom th* oriw^ 
gatneU wholuvn w»1«ti ccrtiLiii Iruit*); wc tixn Tliicrleldci, Znt. phenol. Cktn. uVA 



The protei'ls are the most important substances thnt occur in animal 
and vegetable organisms ; none of the plienomeiia characteristic uf 
life occur without their presence. They are invariablf and constant 
constituents of protoplasm. 

The term proteids was originally given to tlie»e substances by 
Mulder (irpuiTtLav, pre-eminence), and tlie name is a convenient one in 
which to include all the heterogeneous members of tlie group. It must 
not be supposed that in adopting Mulder's nunieuclature we in any 
■way accept ilulder's theory of the constitutiim of proteids, which will 
be referred to later. 

The expressions ' proteid ' and ' albuniinous substance ' are 
sjnonymous. The word 'albumin ' is restricted now to a definite clas» 
rf proteids. The word 'albuminoid ' should be restricted to a class of 
compounds (gelatin, mucin, &~c.), which, although having certain re- 
semblances to the proteids, diSer from them in many important points, 
^le words albuminate, albumose, albumid, d'c, are applied to certain 
derivntive^i of the proteids ; these terms should always be most care- 
fully used, as their similarity to one another is apt to give lise to 

The following short description of the proteids must serve in lieu of 
a logical definition ; for althr>ugh tlie proteids are the most important 
of a\\ organic substances, they are those nbout which we have the least 

'Proteids are highly complex and (for the most part) ua cry stall isable 
compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur, occur- 
ring in a solid viscous condition, or in solution in nearly all the solids 
ind litjuids of the organism. The different members of the group 
present differences in physical and to a certain extent even in chemical 
properties. They all possess, however, certain common chemical in- 
actions, and are united by a close genetic relationship (Gamgee).' 

' Fhunol. Cliem. p. 4. 



Per oeiit. 

Cerabro-tpiriftl Itqufil . 

. 009 

AqnMQS hnmour , 

. 014 


. 0'70 

InttMlDBl Jiilon . 

. 0'»E 

Llqoor pericardii 

. !-3fi 

Lymph . . . 

. !*e 

riinoieal ic juiuv ■ 

. 333 


. 301 

Milk .... 

. sat 

TTie followins table from florup-Uesanea' exhibits the proportion o/ 
prot«i(b contained in the Utjuids and solids of the body :— 

Chyle *<« 

Blood I9'M 

S|i!nalcord. . . Ui 

Gr&m g-es 

Livor ..... Il« 

Tli.vinus , , . . ISn 

MuhcIu .... lA'ie 

Tunica tmsHa it iut«rie« ■ (I'll 

Crj-itnlllnn Irnx . . . St» 

The proteid uotititituentA of tlict animal body &re d«riT«d tnm 
Te(p(tables, either iHroctly, i>i' imlin^ctly thrmtgh the body of imothdr 
animnt. 8ynt,hi*tic proi'Ri^sds do occur in ilie nnimal body, but V> > 
much greater ext«nt in vegetables. Upre the prot«idB ar« Ixjilt up 
from sitaploT uonipouads derived ultimntHy from the soil and tbt 
ntTitoRphorv. In oiitmals the protcicis nre tir&t converted ioto aulwtanai 
cnllrd [KpttHiPi, in which fonn they nre illwoi'bwl ; the peptones arP ir- 
donvwrted into protitidii -limiUr to thoiic originally iiiji^ated, anil th«e 
prot«id8 are assimiUitcd, that is, hocome part of the living orp-aiiiwn. 
During life, however, thcrp is not only a process of buildins "1' f'^'S 
on, but also a process of hreakijif; down, Uie two constituting whut a 
known as metaboUsra. The result of the ditttrucUvn ninlnbolina of 
proteids is the fonnstion of various oxides, ciirbonic acid «n<l wtter, 
and certain not fully oxidised product* (urea, uric acid, Ac) wbi^ 
<rnntaiit the nitrogen of the original protuid. 


The variouH proteids differ a good deal in (^ewentory L-onipoUtta 
HoppcSeyler girea the following percHOtages : — 

C H N S O 

From .ll-S S'J 15-2 03 20-9 
To 515 7-3 170 2-0 23-5 

From figures of thtit kind various obsorvors bavo ntt«cnptetl U) 
eonitruet an empirical formida fur cirtain typical proteids, efig-albuniia 
being the one nsuttlly 8clcct4.'d- Thus Licberkiihn assigned to atbuDiiu 
thn formula C,,^,,,N||lO}l^^ : l/>ev.'*giveslh« samofonuula ; llamnck' 
gives C,n,Il,).jS„0<A ; Schutwabersei-* Cj4uH,n,K«jO,,Sj, and the 

I Lmw uid Bukomy, DiV themitch* KraftqatUr im ttbtnitn Pmtnflannit, Us 
) ZeU.fltvtioi. Cham. t. SOT. ' BtiU. Soc Chim. reli. iiin- aad txir. 

RanlU wliich niv ftqunlly conflicting liavo bt^oii obtaiiic^d in attempts 
touMitein Um^ molrrular woight of albumin. ljeberkul>ii. iu 1^53, 
•Utoipted to establish it hy nnftlyslng tbe copper compound I'esultiiig 
bm tii» action of a soluble copper snit on a «>olulton of e;^!> ulbumtD. 
'I1ii»<i)mpoiii)(l has rince then beeu analysed bj- nix ilitlvreiit iuvesti^- 
tm uul fouitd to ooiitaiii froin 1-0 to 6-2 (wr c«nt. of CuO. Thaj 
:i<I I'onitcd w tlius oii« which containii no dt^finitv quantity of 
ur Utere tuujr be iieveral copjier albuniimitps in llu! mixture. 
Oatt«ti(l»n tuiil Wliitt^li0UK»' liuvu botii with f^' nlliuiitiu luicl myosiu I 
wjuullv i-nrii»file rt'Hultii with ollwr iiiAliils. Tln-rcfon-, nithoiigh 
iKoli-cuUr wcijflit of albumin i.t tiiidoubtr'illy very high, n<) accurate! 

tVRirntit liavii lU yrt Inrpn mntlc. 
Still more- con t rail intory aail niutuiilly dcstructivB tli«ori«s havo 
l«ea foniiMl with n';Enrd to n-.tinnni foniiiiUi! for the. prntridt. Tho ' 
Bul mpthod witicit ii cht-mist follows in attempting to (li«ovrr thfl 
natitutinn of any substance is first to obscno the wny in wliioh it | 
jicwmpnwa under cortain circuomtanccs (onalysis), and tlicn U poRnhloj 
111 ap thp originRi matj^rial from tiio simpler <ompoun(U s»' 
I (uyntlieius). I It th* case of th*- pn:>t<i(k thnv hnvr Ikm-u many r 
alions of the natura of analysis, but syothfsjs has not yet bccni 
I, Th* various theui-ies that have Iwen formeH all dcp<'ntl on 
tssuUh of lht> ile<-i)m{)Ofiitiun of pniteids. iinil here we meet withJ 
difficult ie*i. First, )H:^cauM■ tht- pruKluct.^ of (WoiiipoBiti'in are so 
lUB ; bccundly, because uiuUt (liirL-i'ing,' circuiustaiices they aro so 
: awl, Uiiniiy, lieiniiiBn ixiall pn>bahiiity Uvin;,' proteid dil1in« in 
liou from tlie non-living proUrid, with Hhicli neccMaril/J 
ex|ie-rimenl« havn to lio luiiilc. JtlirUibuliain is a very dif-J 
It ]vn>ce9ii in it» rawults from thow! of experimental cbcini*t>y,.| 
khre ifoiax into the theories ttiemsnlviii it will he necessary to give a 
btdllin |>rcNlucUi of deconiponicion which result from diHercnt trest- 
Bit of albumin. fl 

(I) In thf body. Carbonic agid, wator, urea arc the chief final ™ 
CJIycocine, leucine, uric acid, *c,, nrc pmljably iutermediaie 
Carboliydtat«8 (glycogen) and fats may id&o originate bom 



(1) Action of b«t. The oily liijuid (Dippcl * oil) obwined by dry 
contains aiumonlacal salts of the fatty ucida. nminee, aud 
^ comiioaiMb. 
(S) Potrcfactiiin. Ammonia, ainmoniiim snlphirf*, c«rbn»ic acid, 
I St>aif/rom tht Lai. Phftiol. Chrm. YaI* VHir. U. 89. 




volntilo fnttjr ncid*, Inctio a«ii), nnd Mnidn-ncidi (l«ucina, ^mNintt, ±c}. 
Indoli* ntitl «ka(f>l(t. 

(i) Avti'm iif xtrimg minoml AcicU And CBaKtJc alk >)■)>. Tlie chief 
prwlucU uv Irucinc, tymniu-, iup*rtic u:i<l, And ^lutmiiio acid. 

(6) Airl-ion of lutryU water in scnlcd lubes. (S" f iii-tlior IJchubceo- 
Iwrgfr'fi thoorv. next futgi-) 

(fi) Action! ufuxidiMitigagDiiU. WiUi nitric kcidaj-dluirsabstiinM 
collwl xaiittioprntviv add in Krat fnrni«i). A« llie ounatltutlini d 
albumiu tUt^lf Ik uiilthown, clint "f its L'oni|>tiundA ia inucli tiii«« invDlved 
in oIrh-uHU'. Ill a|iir>.' uf tliiH. vaHuuh iiuluLinc«<i hiivc lieeu pre^uinMl 
IK (Jl■^ i-wult i>f the Bcliuu tif nitric lu-id »ii iilbuiuiti, niul iiaium triuitnt- 
alUuiiiin, hftJrtisylrinilroalbuiiiin, li«kiiitru- and liexaniiilo-albumin 
iiu1|>houii! Kcids,' Ac, wiUi fonuulw liAve bevn i;i^'<^" tu iIh-iu. It need 
lianlly lie uiit lii'W i.-xoeedi»xl7 uucertiiia a]l lliu is, and tbut rliircwnt 
Rnnljrrt* givi> dilfeix-ut results. By uxidattuni wiiti [miouiuDi |>ennu)- 
j;uiat«, Mnly' ulMAiniod a MibaUnoe bi whi«h he gnve Hue name 0x7- 
pititosulphonic iicid. ThMte auliatUMMW nn ftirilHT oxidniinn brrak np 
into niD|)I(ir oxiipiiuiifU like tluMC nlrvndv MiuUMmit^-d (fatty ocidd. 
amidt^ocids, nroiuulia tindiiw}. 

Fruui nwulln suoh us thene. in wliiub wo ten thnt niuidfss iirooialie 
subetjtni.'v*, ami fnlly derivaiiveii uiv tli<' most uliundant, CSitutier* 
ociDdu(k« tbnt tlic ililTi^rvnl pruteida ditl'er in thr armn^'puiont. relntiun, 
prDpi<rtii>n, ami in ii>iue cues areii in the nnturv i>f llteir ovntiun<il 

Wo I'lin tiuw (Aiu un tu ciinxidrr brii-l)}' llip tiiriouii tbciirit-a tlinr 
haw bcfn hM with rvgnnl tii the cumtitution <'f t)i« pmtcid nu^lcvul'- 

o. MttUty'* (A^cwy.— Muliter* uhwrrt-d that by the acdoo -^t 
flgntJc poitoth. «utiihiir wiu( rHDavml fr»ai u pf<itfi<). ainl Im- cnllinl ilf 
jfilphnr-frw rauduc /irof^i'n, «nd ucribrd Ui it tl»' finiiulu Cj^ll ^N ,(>, ^ 
He c«tiAid«rcd tliut thndiffvrent prot*ida vc4v mmbiDntiocu of * |>r<>b>iii 
with (liffmnt nniiwnt* i-f solphur. Lipliig and utlivn |H>int«<l out that 
cIh* wanuinj; of a imitvid with )Hit*Hh reniovok n<it only milphur, bui 
dUo ammonia : ami pi-mi though the retiduL- i;ivf 1 nofurtlM-roohnirwiib 
tuud >a]t«, it ktill ntlaini) lomc 8u}[>liur. It ia thus piwtiblo to B|Mak d 
two taraa of tulphur in pmtfiil, tliat which in Iwiaaly om) that which 
U finnly cooibin**!.'' Kurtlier inv«sligiition baa deorir »hiiwn thai 

■ !■-*«, J, /'r. llm Itioi.lMk 

• On/rviM lonJ ITut. ItwS, ltd. Jiulf't Jukfpth. tliH. 19. 

• rbima'' 4i/ifk/i^urV ,1 fit fkjftt'J. i. H^ 

• Jan. CAfo. /'Aflnm In. Itll. 

• D«Mln.Uj. /nf- i^f-o'- C***- »li- *« A. Krtfv, PfUf^, Arthif. ili 
U4. U tU lall» papor •ID U b«nd «n iBtawrilBI M«lw o( WimrtlaM M lu U» 
«*7 la vWdi IbWB ivo (ofiua u( imifkmt w« ewhUwd. 



■p^Knii ' in All nrtiliciAl priKluci, vnrjr mu(^h like wlint wc itiiw caII 

■Ibli^Hiumin. Thciiol« rcmiuintof thisthi-orj-m.w I'vtnnt U the word 


<L SrhiUi^r^irfgt^t tlttory.—SMM* wn* thc first who uttcitipt«<d to 
ft >n insight into Ui« molocuUr constitution of the proteids by 
BMtiny tbciD in avaied talic^ with linrytn wnt<'r nt n high temperature 
brouny hours. He found thutthe nitrog'^n wiw, differently combined, 
pn iiehtg eoBlly diapUceftble uod part held firmly. Sebtitiuiilierger * 
Mb MrriMi oil tvHeurL'lit^a iii the atttiie direction. Ht.- fuuiid tlmt th« 
ptdoctd of d*i:ooi|)onitiun iire ttiuuioiiia and carbonic acid iu Ui« siime 
Mill u would nwutt if ui«a were treated iu the aanie way ; nthttr 
nhiit |>rxK]ucla (pyrrole, indole, xcetie acid, Jec), uiid ii 6\t^i n-siduc 
whieb UiL< suliittwicvs uiost ubund&utly proM-nt v.i-n: Utuciuc Mid 
frntne — tlut hitter L-onULiniu}; the uroniulic nidit.-li!. Other Kiibstnncm 
■In nf tins luituri! of iiinido'Orids wnre found. These ainido-acida ho 
•huifin into two groups tlic Itmnincs, <ir ninido-itcicU of the acetic 
(C,li,,iNO,), and Iwiwinr-si, or Huiido-iicidii of the ncrylic aeries 
t^>H^.|NO|). Both leucines and Icucoincs are produc(<d by Ute 
ifliuing up of bodioa of tlio formula C_ily„NjO, (in=10 or 12), which 
Kirft aweel tasie and ar« therefore calk>d ghico-proteiiis. Alhuuiin in 
RpodKl MA u ureidi^ or coiiipouud of urea ; the uvva. ih cuuibined with 
|fan>-|in>teiiu and the gluco-proteitia &plit up on liydnitiuti into ataido- 
WiIl TJie liitrogeit in iIiuh iiftirr hydration coinhinril as NUj 
twiiln^'ii) ; iu the pratiiid itM^lf thi* nitrngcii is probably present as 
^H (inidogen). 
e. fjlujfcr'» lArt^ri/. — ,\lt\u>\ig\i tli« diKtinction between liviojij and 
linng prolriil* w«-i emiihiuiscd by Jolm Fletcher^ in 1837, it 
^ not until I.Hi r> thiit EUi tnti'lligibli^ theory to expUin Kuch iliirerence 
*w*itvancvd by Pflu((cr.* Thc non-living prot«ids, sucli aa m-e coii- 
iBBtd in white of egg, arc stable and indifl'ot-eat to neutral oxyji.'en ; 
^t olivn these proCeids are nssimilntod, that is, become p^irt of u 11 ting 
fdl. the molecules of proieid live by bi'p»ttiiiig oxygen : not iiececuuirily 

'Jfm from without, as frogs ke]>l in chambers free froni u.ty^'cn will 
■Winae to live Cor inany hourx. TIic nsaimilatton of a proleid in 
>*lably due to the formation of ether-tike coinbiiia lions betwc4ui thu 
Mwale* of living proteid and the iiuiueric inoleculei> u{ the food 

' PfifiT't Arrii*, n. SM. 

' Bkfl, Sof- Cliim. tot*, uiji. uirt niv. ; ^Hniiliu rf« Chim. rt Ph)/i. (E| ivi. SHtl; 
**) • Ui^ MtMliar ot (Mpara in Uio Compl. rtnd. In n trcrnt paper. Ci^injrl. muf. 
"' Wl, Um facBiok (or ■Ibimiin prro ia *imtl?r thui thou adopted in lii> naitiitr wurk i 
*>-(,^X^^ Moid noMiUf OUI [C. S. iM. umj he lia> ■acoMdod iu iirepuiiig 
^^n* fTallwUcadly. 

' Mianta of Fhntulusy, Eiliiiliiutli, IHST, * Pfligir't Arehiv, x. tSl. 

I 8 



protwl, wal«r being oUnunnU-d, thi* prooctw <if ]K>lyia«rin>i producing 
iKTgfi and heavy bur still simple inol('cul««- In litis proeeas Uk nitrogen 
of the nou-liviiig protcid IcAvrs the hydrog<>n with which it w;ia coni- 
binwl ill Uie form of nmidogea (NH,), and enters iulo combj nit lion 
with OArboii to tonu the more luislnble subatanoe cjauogen (CN), W© 
thus Tiod uric acid, oreutine, guntiine, drc, us produoU of pirutoid nii-c«- 
boUaw, whilo noue of Huclt L-yatiogeii-cuntaining bodies «re ol>tjiitiable 
from non-livin|{ |>rot«ids. 

(/. Ltiev?» lU«aiTf.—T\M reaeitrclMH of Locw und Bolcomy ' ha^-o 
tnkt-n t}i« aune direotion aa t&OM of PfliittiT. that is, lliov nr<- at- 
tempts to trxpUiii tbu itiatiiiction Iftrtw^-n living and d«ad pro1»plR<ni, 
living prutO]iliui[ii or prutvid in ihv cells of varioux al^- liM i)u> 
property of reducing Hilvi-r from a weak iilkiiliiu> Kolution of Kilvor 
nitntc ; dead itmU'id has no «irh ■■Hirt, mid nninial protoplasm it so 
quickly killtv) by ailvor nitinto that it also dors not ^i\v the rmicliou. 
The conclusion snived mt is tlint somothiug of the nature of oji 
aldeby<le ocourti in living protoplasni. Formic nldehyde in probably 
formed in plaul'i by the union of carbon and water ; if this vt umt*Hl 
to nmnioiiin, as|)artio ahlehyde U formed, thus :— 

4CH0H + NH,=NU,.CH.C0H 

i +2H,0 


By polfnterioatMn of Mpnrtic aldeli^de, we hai** — 



li& by furttivr polyni<'rv«tion in tli« pniACiioit of a tiidpliur coinpouiul 
and liydrogwo, we get 6C„H„N,0, + H.jrt + fiH5=0;jH,„N,^„ 
-fSIJjO, which reproMot* tho oMD|KuiiUon of onlinnry albumin. Urn 
weak point uf tho tfaoocy i« that the nldohydc of a«partic acid is 
unknown to chemists ; do doubt it is a most nnstabli^ sulMtance. If 
NUcli an aMi-hyde group does oxist in living prot«i<), the ii»t(ibility of 
pToUiidB JA expli(«ble, bec«Di>e molecular movements wouhl be oon- 
Ktontly (K-currinK in the aldehyde grou]). 

t. l^ithitti'd ihrory. — Ijntliaia ' considers li>ing ]trvl.eid to bo eoRi- 
pCM>d of a chain "f cyanolcoholi, or cyonhydrioM as Uiey are SOBi*- 
tUBM iMiurd, unitod Ut a benxcne nui-luuit. 

< £«*. til 

' BtU. MtJ. Joam. ml. I. ISM, p. (MS. 



Cjumk6h(AB are uibotAiiceii obtained by tlio union of an aldehyde 
wh Ifdroeyanic acid, tlius:^ 


(*lh*lil(lij(le] pi)iln«jj»ale [r>wiBlh)rll'J iIl-oIioI! 

hM alcohol in tnkcn as an iuxtance in the above flquntionx, but many 
tOur alcotiolx »jw couside<red ro form similai- cyan-derivntivrji, and 
llMtara iinit«d to on« another and to beiizen^ to form a pi-otWd. 

IV theory is a satisfactory one, iiiaHuiUL-h as it includes tlie hypo- 
ii»3«» both of PfluK^r and Lww. Ijiitlmui, moreovi'r, shows cshaiu- 
Vnlj tAai tJie rariou.-i prodiints of th«? disiiititgrutiiin of albumlu can 
■fe bo obtained l»y lim con den sat ion and iiitniinoU-culiir change* that 
<ittt «yan»Iooholit, wbich iiii! esc'««]inK!j- iiuKUble bodies, undergo. 
linabUity and |>roaencHn to undnr^> intni molecular cliange« are two 
pTfcrliiB common to living protiiids and to cyannlcohoLt. 

la an elnltorate and painstaking manner T^bhain nmreover adapts 
bit ibMry to explain certain morbid processes ; In; shows how, by a 
nuTaagvment of ntomn difierent fiom thiit oncurring in nortual 
BtUbolinn, «xc«n of sngnr inny be pro<iuccd in dinbrtra, bxcbib of 
■iikcid in gout, and certAin ptomaiuex ' in other coniplnints. 

U'e can now leave these tlieoiietioal consideratious and pH«f on to 
Wftidrr matters of greater prattical inti-rrat. 


SolibUitif*. — Ail proteids are insoluble in alcohol and in tether. 
Star are isotuble in water, others insoluble. Many of the Inltrr aiv 
*iliUe in weak saline dilutions, Some nre iimohible. others soluble, in 
WMStrated aaUne solutions, it ia on tbeae viirying solubilitios that 
pHuda aw ulataified. 

AD proteidH ai« soluble witli the aid of heiit in concentrntnl 
Mwal and aoettc ai:idit und cuuHtio alkulis. Such treatment, how- 
**«r. deoouipi^ea «!■ well us diaaulves lli« proteid. Proteids «ro alao 
Kiiilile in gantrio and [nmcreutic; jutctu. but hen- again they in;der>,'o a 
<WSCC, bving oonvcrti^il into a varii-ty of pnitciil.i calltv] p(.'|iton<-H. 

ntal-nooffulali/m.- -Sliuiy of the pniti'iils whii-li aro Kolubti' in water 
* laline solutions nri> n;ndpred injtolahic when thoo" nolution* are 
^•tal Tl»c solidifying of whit* of egg undei' such circuinflnnti-K in a 
kvliw nurUDGV of heat-coagulation. 11 eat -coagulation must be very 

■ La>»tei, vol ij. I)W«. p. Ul. 


«are(n% dUtiu^tuUlictl (mm ttnntat coiigulatiim— » proceat by meuis 
of which n ftnnrnt converts a previously iwlubli; into an lusoluble 
protoid ; an i:i>binc(U of frnncmt coagultitinn Ui*.' forinittioii of fibrin in 
■hetl blood nndur tlif influrncc of libriii-fprmr'Ut, or of ii curd of cA.->L-iii 
ill luilk under the influisnm of rennet, DUiy bn tnktm. 

Till' ti-ropi'mture at which a protcid i-iitorn into the condition of » 
hpnt'Con^niliiui i* fairly coiiHttiiii. and iiiiiy Iw pmplojTid ii* oin- of the 
moATis of nsccrioining whikt prot«iil is present in n given solnt^on. 'I'ho 
tcmperAtore varies soniewlial willi the reaution of tho Kolution,' with 
th« qusEility oikI iiAtui'e of tbo wilts nUo present,' and, under c«riain 
cirounuttAnces, es]>ec:iiilly in nn alkaline wilution with the coiiceiitmtinn 
of tlw solution.* 

UtUen u Holution U very cmti-'entraceil the L-onCained protcid ts not 
ooagulated by hent in an oJkalinc solution, as it. is converted into 
alkilll-albuuiin ; if the ({uantity of alkali is, however, very ftiiiall. ttii; 
tenipenture of heat-ooajKulnlioa in rntsed, A neutral ualution lHvonM>« 
alkaline ftft«r thi- lu-puration of a heat -ciMguluiD, pud this alkaliiiitT 
(prodnccd no doubt by an idtnratiim in the Nilts related to tiie pro- 
tfii\) inny hinder t}ie mapilatioo of the reniaiiung proteid to the 

It ia g«-nera11y odviiable to hniv the aolutiou very faiuUy add ; a 
weak (olntion of acetic noid {'2 pei' ci^nt.) may bo employed (or the 
pnrpoee of aciilification. Acid-olbuniin dot» not form bo reudity »» 
•Ikali-albutniu, and tlio preornce of a uniull amount of acid rendcnt 
oncier tin; ifpnmtion of th« (.'oagulutivd proteid into flovouli, which can 
be tlien rcmovcfl by lillrnttoa. An cxccm of acid lowers tlie teinperu- 
turc of co>)^latjon, or it mny convi-rt the prot«id into ucid -album in lutd 
so prevent ooagulatdon altogether. 

TIm (iiDplest method of ascertaining tfae t«n)petsturo ct li«-»t- 
coogalation is to place enough of tlio Kolution in n t4>Kt-tube to ootor 
the bulb of a tlieriDOineter. The t<«t*tul>c, the cont«nt« of which 
should be kept cooatontly atirred by (he themiomctter, i« tlien placed 
in a flask eonlaitiing watvr and situated over a Bunnrn burner. Aa 
the temperature risa tlie i>o)nt at which lloceuli separate should lie 
carefully no4ed ; a few de^;ree« Mow this |N>i»t the liquid bei-oniea 
thick and ofxtlescenL A fomi of double water-buth ooiudsiinK of two 
bcskenonu within tliv other i« rocoiamendcd by Uaingee,* and Schiifer' 

' lUUbttfleB, jMrn. DfPk^tuA. r. IW. 
■ LtehHOtv, XntjAgntii. Vh*m. ilu. U*. 

* lUrnnh. Uril- Vft Jimm. rol, i. IWU, p. IBf. ' nirnol. Otm. p. IS. 

* la u]r o«i> Korh 1 hmia (oaiwi ««1«i> liMunf^Aum la Ika nam of O^togea't 
mpfntiit, aixl luiv tlsnlon ntail StUkt't. A dnciipUon (4 >l will b* (sand iii iiix 
papvr ill Uiu Jwru. i'kftM. i«l. t. p. IH> 



bt IntmUid u very ooiiveiiit^nt form uf ruuniiis A'at^r-lmtli. the 
hf (nlure at wkk-li can bf! cusil}- chungcil (ire &g. 44). 

FkKlienal liciii-coiiguUticin tiiuy he Muu-tiinv* umkI for thu sejuLru- 
IM ti pntAd» fiYMU one niiotlii'i'. riiip|MiK» one liiitl a (ulutii>u o£ 
tlmaifitn uid twrum- globulin togcthf-r, thi? solution fnintly iu:iclitie<l is 
iui"i In the w^mperAture of SS^ C. and at tiint point the fibrinogen la 
jTirijitutfd : this ia 61t«re(l off; the filtrate ib once uioro raised to 


. ':ij.r.^i;fc- 


^ li t* t><|iua<ltjr auiDrWiLl tuoihvrr the tlMnaflflUfttr liiUb; 1^1* I* i^ta'^pbl In tlr'> rK-ek uF lh« 
**y. B« "i>I«r iiiUri iti.- a«'k 1>) ili» Mbfaand ■■>*■• t>» lii« iiii.ufi. Tl>r nnior .'.uiim 
^■Ib* Uf T wl tjk imnnnt t>r T"kuli>iC thrnnffh tb^ mil nl mfiJhv fniilaJiir^) tTi h cinpiwr 
■Hal tJI#4 «Ub l*lUi*r iTtur : llip niciri? *]<<*ly ITio **tfr pfti«** Ih* Unilpr tlnr* ki |prcf»mp; 
4i|UaQd 1V>* of vaur <&u be rvrulDl«d Xiy the tA]>- fu ttu- Aiftirv lUt ti'>rir vl ITir icMi'lt-' f4B 
rM In ibW til ibDW <1» i-m nf tuliliiit wllliln II. 

VJoordPT tOMC^rtain whfttJutr any liliritKix<-'Ti r^mainn in xotution : if 
n t&e hnkt-enuKuluBi occurring at thiit triniirrntiiri! is an<ni morD 
Ulmd off and the tillrntc again miKod toTtG^. Whi-ti alt Otv tihriiiuKt-'ii 
■) nunovod, Rcruiu-globulin ahmt: n-mninn in Kiliitiuii, wbit.'li is pri.-- 
<^ftit«d on mixing tlic tcmiwmturn to 75^ tivrutu-albuiuiii ' and egg- 
ifciiiiii * have alira by this moans bwn ciach diff<!rciitint4.'d into wvcral 

Tha prot«i>ls witich arv congulatnd by li(!iitin;{ tbeir salutioiia come 
'■^ two clasMs— tJH! nlfiiiminr, wliich nm :H)Iubl(.> in water and iu 
■Mk«liit« HolutioiL^, and the ji'i)Ai(/iti^, which an! insoluble in watitr 
■■dnUbie in weak saline solutions. 

lb Uotpemtores of coagulation of soaic of ttiv principal protddx 
■AMbllowa : — 

' BiUibinaii, Jourw, of Phgtiol. T lEH. 

' Cmm tad Bomid, rraRui.r ilu Utborafairr tb i^un frf^trie^, Li^Kr. U. IT<h 




;^l,iHTimtB . 

78" C. 



^Mtf-l^niolii a 


SiTuu (clubuliii 


.. a ■ 

' 1° 

0«ll-^otiUltn . 


- y ■ 


H.vodiinire^i ■ 


CcU-albutiiiri . 


Mvft-Klotiiilin . 




VlUrllin .... 


Ludallmtuin . 




IIiiiiuncYuiln . 


Inili^Htifiilit'/.—TyiB proUlda (with the oKcq^on of th« pejiUwes) 
iMlonjf lo cite clus of Hubstnnccit culkd taUoidt by ThomM Unhnm. 
Tint U^ tb^y pia wlUi <liflicult7, or not at nil tlimugh tininutl nirnt- 
bmtieii. In the cunstruction of ilinlyscrs vpgoUblv pnix-hmnit \% n-ry 
lnr)^ly ua«>il. Prot«i<U ninv thua W seimmti^d from (lifliisiblr 
{crgrlilloul) »iihttiini.-«& like anlU), but thi? provi^>o> U n Micnowluit 
lMliouon«. TI)elonnB<if diftly&er ua«l have l>een alneJiilj- di'scriUod 
(p. 13). Take win« wruiu, jiIiki) it in a di«l,vi»er, und reiirw t]te water 
OuUtdi'fn'Huently. .Some thymol crystiils shoulrl be adilml to thettcruin 
to prevent llit <icc«riwi(« of putn.'fii<:lion. The siiltn iiinl eHnnti«» 
[WM out through tti« ntetubrnne into the «at«T, and chi> proivida alon« 
rfiiiain within. TIhi albutuin is stiU in wluti'm, but tlx^ g)<>buUn U 
|invipit»tMl lu the uills wtiioh held it in sulutiun liiivi> diiruaed out. 

It is however, foa»d iiii]>J8iiibl« e\Lii wiUi thr iiion |>i»l»n^eil 
dialyn* to nntirelj remove atl lliv nits which nilhen- to ii [irolciii ; no 
okiK i* thin ailhiTviKM' t)iat niic is incliniil tii brlii'w thnt it it ratlter 
ii>f the nnturt? of IrBn-chciiurnl union. Mowrrvi-rmri-fully a pn>ti-id may 
bttTO Imwii puritic^l. it alwayK tcnvm oii iguitiuii » small quantity of uali, 
the ourapOtitioD of which runes in different camb, i-hloridM and 
photphates of Ihe Alhidine metAl« simI of cnkium beih); (he pivdo^niiiaiit 

The temi colloid does not n0c«8unty imply tl»t tlie ■uhMAnoes In 
qoMtioo arc not cryxtAllual)!^ ; for (onic nf ili« vi-KrialJe prot^iib hav« 
been crytMiiMfd, attd F. HofuM-iitrr' tlatf* llut by canrfully ovmpo- 
rating a aolution of pvro cgg-albtimin hnlf snturatvd with aunnooitun 
aulpbato, bo lias mcmadnl iu otitaining tlwt «ib«t«xi«i- in a ctyctal- 
tlao oondition. 

Atliort on fnJnrimfl tighl. — All the proteids are Iwvorotatory. If 
p«re am) in laltilion tbey may be identllScd and eMimated by meMU 
of their spedll« luitton on polartaod %ht («m p. 41). 

T!m^ ■]i«ci8o roUtJODB (for the yellow lino V>) of MOae of the priiK-ipal 
proteida an u blkw* :— 

I XHr.jAtthL 



/lloppi-Seylfi'. , -Sii* 

ISUikf- . . . • -60» 

j'Hui.jip-seyter. . ,' — W** 

. Scbclicn' .... -ucioar* 

.| H«jis -SDTiC 

fUnps HvmuuDci*. . -iiii" 

lU^lbomiii . . . , Eiuu -«>£3° 

^racclB (ptapared [nm myoaiQ). Hop|if-Si-yler , -T2'' 
i(dttMli«d ta U^SO, tolu- 

■) llopiio-Sojlor . —80* 

ttXbatBKHa*. . . . I KaiiQA and Cliitt«Dil«n' ., — T0°to60' 

Cthur rraeliont, —a. Xnnlh'tpmlfic rrai'liottK. — Add » few drops of 
'^tmf nitrut iicid ; a white )ny^ipiUt« may or may not Ite produced 
unrding to tl>p c^noentmtioii aiid iifitiirr of tlio proteid. Peptones 
»al tertnin vnrirtic* of nlbuiDOs« give, no precipitnte ; otlier proteids do, 
nalntbo solution is very weak. Boil : tbc precipitate or Ufjuid, na llit- 
«M» mmj be, turns yellow. Prolonged boiUii;- always dlanulves some of 
*1« jowipitated proifid ; those alliumoseB, wliich are ]iii-cipilJiIiIo by 
r^flii: iidd, readily dLHolve on lieittiii^. Cool ; llic liijuid reiualnii 
J, except ill Uie vane of the albuuioses : in their ease, tJie 
cipit«t4> reappear*. Add aiiiiuonin, the yellow !ii|uid w preolpilale 
biw orange. It is this ntlouralion whifh i^ tht' eain'iiliul piirt of iJie 
'^■ctmi. It h tlie n)04t delicate tent fur proteids w-e jiOMiru. 

*. iim<Mt'» i-f«rti««.— One part hy iiei|;;ht of nieri-'uij and two of 

■*nm nttri« acid (iip. gr. 1 -4) are mixed and K^^otly warmed till the 

imnry ia iUsBulve*!, TJie solution L* diluted with twiei- it« hidk of wat<'r, 

■a* (ke oopious jrrvcipitat^^ lliat fonmt is allnwed to settli-. Tht- cWr 

Wftrnalanl fluid i* MilUm'* nngent. Add a frw drops of this Knliitioii 

I* a nlution of |>rot<!iiil; n, white pi-ecipitnic in pmdii<^c<l, which <>ii 

Mtiag beconieit of a bi'it^k-red colour. 'I'hix d(H-.s not occur in the 

pwnu* of MBliuiii chloride. Milloii'i. rfagunt procipiUttfa many in- 

VpnicBilta ; bat th« precipiuto of tlioie <loe3 not turn n^I on Ixiiling. 

'. A^mkirvic^' i-MMfwn. — Add excM8 of fjlaciitl acptic and then 

titrated Hutphuric aciti : a. violet colour with feebh- Huorfwoenc^e 

loced. Tliiii teat is by no uieanH a certain one, and is git'en by 

•""iDwc* and peptones lu eoiiceiitrated sululions oidy. 

4 jCM^wmunitV rtiKtion.'' — If albumin is extracted with alcoliol 

' Wl./. C\em. a- /'harm. la«M. p. TBT- 

■lf«l,-,7«Ant.t, xL17. 

' ^■pr'i arcAic, lil. STH. fhna. Csntralbl. 1876, «», Bll.SM. 

' IH^ Jalirt*b. X*. Iftl. * UoTDiaui, 2«tt.|d|i*M. Ohern. li. MS. 

* 'M. AM. u. n. ' Oliam. Crmtralbt. ISST, ii. 600. 



nnd «»-Jim] witli other, it ^ivoa u iltiep vitdrt colour vhen li«al«il witli 
conccdtmUftl liyilrouhtoric iwid. 

f. Puilroiniki'f rwielioN. — Adtl a Iw drop* vf n dilut4; solution of 
cnpper »ulph»t«, n {irvcipitAt« Is produced of copper nlhuniiniit^ :' <tdd 
0XCMII of MOlutioii of cnuxtiu pot[Uih or noda, a violft Kitution \a ih« 
Ti!«alt.. H Ainmniiiii bo urnrl iniit«iul. n lilup Koiution is t.hp waolf. 

In tlio riar of tlic iilbuinoses and poptoncs, liowcvcr, tlio n-sall U a 
nne-rc<l xolutioit with potAKh and n reddiih-riolet solution witli nninioaiA. 
This i» tcrmwl thu hiurrf ri^iction. In perfonning this tput great unn* 
lauat bo tiikcit to ndd very little copper aulpb&ti> : excea of copper 
wilphato givM a reddish -violeC colour, which it is very diTlktilt to 
diatiiagimh froTu that »ivea hy ordinary protaids. This test i* oftvu 
performed in thf pre^L-iiw of exuMs of ueutra] aidta ; b» the cu* o£ 
nia^iiesiuiii tiulphdtv, |>uta!ih i>r siNhi give* a pr^cipiutc of luagiMisia 
which iiiuat Ite allowed to settle befurv th« pink or i iol^l solutiiii end 
be seen ; sodium chh'rido di*« mil iutorfem with tJie ro)K-tioii : when 
mnnioniuiu sulphitu' is prMM>iil, a largo exeesa of soda or potash iuuat> 
hu addi>d befure the ouloor ■|>]>eam. 

The terua hturrt naction a jfiveu becau-ie the reddidi- violet solutiou 
i* rery like that ^-iveii under aimiUr Ireutmeiit by the suhebuice caUed 
biuret. Biui-ui in furuiwl fiMni urea by li«atiiig it, uaiaoniii is ipven 
olf, nnd biuret rvmaius: — 

3CON,H, - NH,=C,0,N,H, 

[um} (■uiB-iiij lilnni] 

Biurol yioMi on decoin(Hisitii>n compounds eontwiiing ryano^on. 
For tiuil<itioe, tiy lii-at it is split itiUi luiimoiiin nnd ryanurio aciil 
(1'N),1I}<V Miurvt, cyitnuric «cid, uric Ncid, xnntliinp, hy|HiuuithiiMr, 
>nrvunii«, hydrocywiio n^iiil, all gjirv a simiUr reacttiin to tha 
pniti'ids. It is prolwblv tJMt the biuret reaction of pnrteids may btt 
due to n cynix^D radiclK* In lltealtove li«t, cynnuric noid moatnrarlj 
naembtes ordinary prut«iila (albuRiiiu and gUibulins) in the coUnita 
givnn, and {leptiMMA a»*l albuiuoses ^ive llie aaiup colours nx hydro- 
^anic acid. The cywiogi'n in ulbuiuin antl pcg'tunv ia piiilnbly dif- 
(■raitly i'l'Uibiiirtl, civrrvfHinding to tlie ^imilnr dilIorei)cc« in ^auuric 
and hydrocyanic aadk rea|>ecliTely. 

* UummU. Pnt.B-g. Sot. imo. QoMia (In (Wm « «Mdbf IM* !■ oUtli aickri 1^ 
fktim U trnflnyai tliil««4 al » op|T ■■lffc«il« KhM mIiAm* uhI uuairnis (n« M 
lafcf «tUi alliuHliw Mid glniallat, ■ fWIm ndntu' >tah |>|4«m* uid dtamiMn. Xtdnl 
^Ifhtt* Mil fateik w HaU p>* • yrlim mlout ailh *lb<UNlM Mul |Miiiliin. ■■ (mac* 
odli«r with «l^iiwi 1 1 ■lul |>rt.Ni«. l(Ma ayua U>* HM*nni w* tha mmt aMk 



MktitMU't Oittrratiea* on the Calaiir Itnutviiu of Profeidt ' 
TbtoUawUig in aii uboTrai't ut ttaU'iwski's ialurvvtiiijr obetrvnti'itM on thia 

i j/tn of tits pmipid kioI«cqI« i> Hrotiiiicici tM& it I» to Iho pteavuuu uf 
awMiiu ndlcles ilut ihi- princifKil enloiii nuunic4i« of t.Ue protcida uro dn«. 

IWaraituulc >ub>(*nc«i> <!crlvoiI fii>iii pc(-irliU on pDirafftctlon tnll Uito thro 

Rnipvf. Th« [ibaiUl (ttonp,— TbiM iuiJu<lml.vroaiue,tlioumit]Stiub;<ljroxy- 
•aJLlAtnol and cn!(i>1. 

imdpmp. Till! phcnjil Bn>np.— TliU Include* pbwivl-nMlic «0(l pMi^ 

Krttrmf. Tlie Ui<)nlcgKinp,or which indnle.akatale. nnrliikiitolcciirbaxjlle 
clda*tlie nuBt impuruuit mumbi^n. 

ndbcTHU Ihrev group* nxlht profiiriiicil In thr iimtj'id mnli'culfr. or ulinihar 
M vikeala noittjiiBi oiilr udr nntmntli? gciinp. nnil Ihn oilii^Tt tire ivi>lly ilnrivcnl 
IxilUioiwai ilccoiDpc»ilJon(lInlv), maiicni Xtile b u sniation of the quulion 
wilpiwl ■ niinirty, on <rhicli of tin- j^upt do tlii? culour itOrCtloaw d^Mnd f 
Bat m«tiiia> wvto Uied wttb eucli uf Ibe BubsUnccB eaumerutcd, wiUi the 

1 Miihu't SmtIIihi. - KUUni- Cimthift* thni thf tcnciloa is dui' 1» tynului!.* 
0. NwHt cmwidcrii ibnt It U dun to ihntc hL-meiic dcrivntivm ia whicb 
■<ilj aae atom of livdmiccn U n^plcm-d bv hrdrnxvl. SuIkowKki c<<inlir[iu.->l 
liiUine's obHcTvation. Tbo Tcnctiaii iti qucsiiuii is ^iveu oiilr by tli0 kuIi- 
WuicoB ill Uie Arvl ^ronp just vDuiniTati^d, 
"l Xutk^pr^ne Bfuetim. — Tlii* iltipvii'U nitlionl dipnbt on ttio forrafttion of 
ntif>-diirivntl*i^, liut Ihi? trinitru-ulljutulo, ami o»7[riniIri>-nlbiimln of LBw 
vc doubifol ch(<Tiiii7ii1 i>iilt«. 

Tk JVbertMiccii of Ihi' Iti<t iiTonp i[ii'c thr reaction sttungljr.* 

Ikw) in the Ibinl group give it, but not no well. 

TVdw in llie Bccuod \fioa\i do not give it nt idL 

Silkovtbi (vi.-innnii'uiU (hut. Ihc^ LiitPDMlf ul Ibt- tint mny bu usvd to 
4et4nnliM> appniximalvly ihi^ Hrmiunt of papt-oiic in n mtltillnn. 
Bt Utmkietrlc: IUafiiaii.—1bi* In ^\tn only by sulielAiifes in Ihn Third 
(tnilok) gfiKip, and eipiwlnlljr bf slutoln cnrboxylic ncld. Tlie lulditlon 
of a miuinani quantity of potiuslam nitrite inteosilL-.i ilic ooloiur. :u it 
doM aim wHIi ■ ftutuli^u ot prvMeids. A fnrlliM lutdiTiun iil tint ludl 
lunw UiB pnrpl« c»li'ur lo rod. 
1* iMietmiiKii't tUttetloH it nnt given \>) imy of the «ntHiinnca< 

ftfipitanU c/ j/ntleiil*. — Prot*i(N are precijiiUilwl by a Imjp' 
"■ibtr of rea^uta ; th« [>e[it(inua unci uUiuinutes nrv exue]>Uoiui in 
"■b; euea, but tli»/ will W cunsiileni) ;iepiimt4?ty afterwonl*. 

1 Mkiuit oanltnnaliiiii iil this vie* o( Kllhiiu'i ha* beMi n«)intlf « by 
^^^■inU in amjiuicliini «illi CliittcDilen tZri4. Biol. »»ii. *atl), cprtoin iirnliiolt ot 
^V^aMBliiiHil iuitipr:i!ui.-l>. Tiury jicid <m turUwi Ifvatmrnl willi diuHtirn jniom 
^j^kam Irruufiw. Chi •lHiiini|»«ii2 than) tiltli (ulpburio acid, nn trroinno in obtMD- 
'*■ tWf aUodonol iiiin Uilliin'n rriwlinii. 

(•■IiUUmi IdUwh uiiiiulit lulnlAUcvt entuuersled by 8*ikcf«iki, Icuoiue pTM Ibo 


Solutions »t thv pniteid" ttro precipiUiUcI liv tbo followinic :— 

I. i^trong iDincTMl e^itU, (M^pfcmlly itilrip, in<*Uiph(«|>h<>ric.' nnd 
I^oBpiiotungcUc Acids. 

3. Acetic acid nnd potAssium forrocynnidr. 

3, ActHic ur oKiilic acid, nod oxcess <jt certain ticutrAl sn1t« likp 
sodium sulphate, stxliuui cliluri<Ie, or iiuigneBiuiu liulpLnte. 

4. Salts of tlie hcavv uietftls : bAHic lead aoetatv, mercuric clilorida, 
vivvt iiitntte, cuji{)er sulphate, ferric chloride or acet«t«, potjtsaio- 
uiercuric iodide, sodium tuti^tate, Jcc. Tbe precipit»t«8 ctmsist of ihn 
proteid iii comljinatioii wiili the laetAl to fonn an albuiniiiitie. ITn! 
ratiouiil [orniulii- (or hucIi conipouuds are liowever hul kunwD, and 
prolnbljr vary with iliflerviit proportiuos of luetullia saJts ami pniteid. 
On tlw reniuvml of tbe tuetal hy a atrvuni of sulphuretted hvdroi^i, 
the pnttdd is reonverehle in lui uiicbn[i([«d fonn. 

A. Bjr tannin ; or hy tanuiii and sixliuiu cliloriile toother. 

6. By iotuntliiiTi witit ninmoniuiu ^ujpliai^, or audio- tun^eumn 
•alplmtu, or i>ot«AsiuiD nc«tat«, or potaiwlum eurl>oni\te. 

7. ]iy jiicric aciil. Thia text i:t often used fio- detecting albumin in 

8. By alcohol ; «-xccpt in iht prawuoc at frov nlknli, when tli* 
protcidit itro slightly Hituhtn in hut nlcohol. 

Il ia o(te» of great iniportAuce to remove all tbe pruteid^ whifh a 
Mtpihl cmttAlns, m> as to proceed u* th« detection of other BulntitDces. 
Tlw following aro the iMvt availabW methods : — 

1. Jtraeket nw/Aorf.*— Tbi» oonsists iu acidulatioK (he lli|uid with 
liydmchloric ncid, and tbeii a'ldiiif! to it a solution uf p»Ui«io-merotu{c 
iodide, mode by MtnnttinK vith mercuric ioditk' a boiling ftolution of 
potiMKic iudidb 

2. Oiri/riutnkn'it mf.lko'i.* -Tim noluticin ii mixed with hftif ita 
volninf of a Htlution of common Hall ; wid tannin in nli^'hl excesii, und 
11m) |>nit«ti<l)i am mtircly prncipitAtcd. 

•i. If'if'iivitHr'i mffluyl. - To Dm li<)ui<l n-ndcred faintly b«M and 
hp»t«d to Uiilin^, nnd from which all Uiv prot«id( Mpnrablv hy tiwr* 
lioilin)j| lutvf* boon rcRinvnl, n wilutinn «f frrric a<-i-tntt*, modi* by «Ata- 
nttii;; awtic acid with ivwiilly prccipiUiu-d ferric hydrate, is added. 
After boiling for a fow minutes and liltoring, a solnUon U nbtaioed, 

< Th* p«««|iiUU wttli maU|ihiMfJ)nrle mrtt rMflUUca cliMdjr th* phoaphariiHid aw- 
OIlMMl tt »tl aMlal called uaebui iImW>huui, Brr. iL Jnif. eArm. OM*U(dt uL 

> tViemtr Akad. Brr. 1«TI. * .V. Kif/trt. Pkurm. %%H. AIT. 


■Udi MHitMiU neitlier protviclK nor iron. Thiu mctliwl doen not 

^. K'ta't mriht't.^ — The solution U satuiuted witli aiiiuKinium 
niphtt* ; aJ] prot^ds but pepiotirs nrc preciptt«t«d, und amy bu 

3. Ay tif<oAt>f. — If the solution in Alkaline, it is rendered fsinUy 
Kid "itli acetic iuim). and several timeit its vulunie of alMiolut« uluoliol 
■IdaL After tweutjf-four lioura il ia fi]t«r«i : llie filtratv ia pruteid-free, 

<i. Ay hoilini/.^lii vnu^ ciuies the prot^ids urv precipilatilu by 
BBply limlin({, iiftrr fainllv ufidulutiii}; tJit- solution. Thi« is tlii? cn.i« 
it III- protftida pn-si-iit belong to the album i it ur Kl'^'iuHn ij;niup, and 
bA U nnudljr tha ohm: with klbuiuinouH urine. 

T\i» wordit coa^tittJon nn<I pn^dpitntion Mrn xomrtimps ii««d ^yoony- 
Biwi^, Imt in ponni?ction with the pi-iit<"id*, tlio two slmuld be care- 
'dljr tUitiiif^uislMM]. Tho t«mi ciMguIntion in ukihI for pitK-eM thnt 
ttm «licn iin tcuoluble proteid (coAj^latod proteid) in fui-iui-d fniiD 
* Mhible one by llie Hctton of heat'. Tlii» should be calltnl ht:iit-toagn- 
''*•»«. Tli« same worti is useil when a. feniiciit like rennet i-uuki-ji th<! 
tM pnitvMl ill milk Ut beuoiue au iusirluble cunl ; u, ttimilsr fL-nnRiit 
MliiB im-unt in blood -clou in }{■ This should be tenued./VrmMi/-iMryfu- 
Wiwt. Thir t*mi t-oapulntioii is also »itpU«l when » priH-ipitnt« pro- 
ivaA l>]r tbn addition of i> niitjent to a aulution uf albumin is au 
unJuliln one. Such precipititta are jiroduced by tho mineral acids, 
fiiric add, buiniii, and tmlta of the heavy metals. Rut thrm ni« other 
tnctpitanta of prut«i<bi, in which the pivctpitated pr<>tri<l is readily 
•dalile in suitable i-eagente. and continues to show its ty]>icnl charac- 
tntwH. Suck pnwipitation is not cuagulation. .Such prraipitjttes are 
(fMhued by mturation with v&rious neutral salts, aminoniam sulphat«. 
vdio-niagnRsium sulphate, A'c. It is possible that in thcac c^itsrs a 
Mifmiid of the proteii) and tho salt is formed, but nn i-xcncdingly 
ka» eoaipnund.* Certain proteida (globullpH) una inoro msily prcci- 
(*tkt«il by thi* niiTtlioil than others. Tlie gtobuliiui fur iiislAnfi; nro 
(ndpitateil by mtumtin); with nui^netiiuiM HulphulR or Hodiuin 
diWidp ; tkow art; Knit*, which do not preoijiitatv nlbumiiix at all. 

Tlift precipitation producnl by alcohol is pinruliar, in that after a 
tet U tiecoDivs a rongulation. Pri>t«'i<l fniihly prpcipitntod by alcohol 
■ mdily aolublo in watvr, or «liii« ni«dja ; but aftfT it ha& been 

' Znl. Bw(. ii.u_ !. 

' Otk« <i4k>i<li ptMHi the Mm* prnparty (K(il«ltn, alKnih, Ac.], IVxIblj In vatMin 
■"•UttpMMla on iralrr-kUnalinic pow<ir iK«*u', Pjliiijiir'i Arthiv, ill. ItOI). Fur Uik 
Mkaif akfianwiilmof noDtnl aalla on fnytmiS.* trr l/arn'Oh, Artk. trprr. Palli. wiul 
" ■ nit. L Hobnoiatar, iUir. >t7, KHUilmrtaii, Jeum- Pli^tioL i. ITS. 


120 niK ciiEMii-Ai. riissTrnKvrs ov niP. oroaxism 

allowed to ttnnd some vreok* uncirr iilooliut, it IxxMura luon' nnd pion> 
iii8o1ublc. Albuiiiiiis &TV thit ]>rotriila which lav most raMlily rCDckrad 
iiisnlulilt bjr iJiia tnethud, llien (^IcbuHne ; albumoM« nnil |H']>tonps mr* 
ajijiiirejilly never reii<iei*d insoluble by tlip ncUnn of nl<^>lti>l. This 
&tet la of rnlue in the ft^ianitiiin of Dime ]>rot«idt> from oUwre. 


The iiiellioiU thiit )mv« b^cn intnxiuci-H to (l«t«rniinr tbo total 
niiMMint of [n-otdids in solotioii an very iiuniomuii, ftnd tuny lie clnani- 
fled into (jnivimctric, w nieihorlsof wpi^hinif; dt-nsiniclnc. by vstimittion 
of Hpociflc gravity ; and tiutly nit'tiioiU dept-nding on the (|uaiitily of 
tdtroften obtainabUi after cnnibiistioii. Tht< clilTcrpnt nictlioilN for efitt* 
niatiiif; particular kinds of [iroteids will tie dettlt with, when we siieak 
of tlio (iroieids iheinstdvea in the ti«iuei where they occur (acr tuore 
]iftrticuluriy blotKl). 

I. (I'irffrHmJtn'K nutAw/,— Th« preoipilate )>n>dac«d liy MNliiita 
chloridi' and tannin {«m p. 124) is ooUeotnl ou n wetxiied filtiv, 
waahril with wiiter till frev from utlt, nnil then uith iHiitin); aloobol 
till fret' from tann'n. It ix dri<il at 110' and wcij^hiMl. The ainnaut 
of ufa is aK«rt«iiKvl after iucinrraktiim and doductwL (In «p]>lying 
this BMthiid bi urine, uric n«id inutt limt hi- wpanited by mUliiig 
■crtic acid ami leaving the liijuid in tbi; cold ti'inn Wurs ; ih^n tillering 
ofl tJie uric n«id orj'stnia,) 

i. I'rreifiiliilitiH kff "tnJknt.'—An ntxtmtnly WMghed or iDHuored 
qtiantivy <'f tli« ttoluliun i« mixed with five tiineft ttA rojuine ij aloolMi), 
and aet aside fi>r smnc Imura ; the precifMlate is c^>llect«>l on » wei;;hed 
filter, wksImhI with }uA a1ci>tiiil and eliier, dried, weighed, «ti<l Ilia aah 
Baliaei|Hriitly deducted. Suhmtdt ' reoimnieixla the same inetluxl, but 
first ueutmltMK the n»1uU<in if uece>«aiy witli ncvtic ociij, and aftor 
tw<'nty-four hours boils the li^iuid with tlw pn>cipit»te in it : it ii> then 
cujleoted, waalieH, dried, and wctghe<l as before^ 

3, I'rrfifilnli'rn t/y Ait*. — Tlie im-cipitale {>r<.<lui-r«) by liailing • 
kiwiwii unniuiit of a dibits' uilution nf pn>tcii|, faintly aitilitUvl, niaj tm 
ooUecled, waahed, aixl wciglin) as before : bat tliia will only pve 
Aocimte reaulta, when the imly prtiteida pmtent ore albumins ami 

I. DfHnmrttif nrwAi"/. - -llptlxab bav« been (leviaed for tlw quan- 
titative Mtimatioii of |>rutetiti in wlotion by ncwia of tnaltiplyiiig tbe 
JoM ol flpvclfic gravity whioli sadi MjJutiona uiwlergo tin ranMivKl of tJw 

■ U(v|»«n^- BrnmUmOt. ^ 111. 

• jya#rr'«Jfi*w^al.ia(M««l»U-aMji<krkabw^Jf«A(r,UT1,MU. 



fn^Ml by a Mnutant factor, unttrr th« DiistnfaeD notion tliat the l<ws 
tD<laiuity U directly proportional to the amount of proteid reuio\'Ml.' 
V* lave alrviuly a^ea tlutt the nietUod is n fallacious uiw in tht- ciml' 
ij<l«xtras« (p. 97), The aujtpi»*(l fmiBUnt fiii-t»i- is from it* vi;ry 
wtun-a ruriubk- <m«, Bn<i n Biiuple nl^flji'iiji^iil lieiUMnstrution of tliia 
•iS Iw Eiiund in a jwper by Hupiierl ami Zahor.' Ziihor' finds, how- 
*(iT. tlml with urini? it yii-Iili v«ry^i«nl pr.irtii-al rrsulln. For ctinicnl 
»i«i, tlu- spi-cilie (jravily iHestiniated hy a unnoineU-r. inurkrd to ftiar 
|iiMM u( d«3ninlii, 1>efun' ttiid after thf- iii^piinitidn vf tin; albumin, by 
mau of licit) ill cation (if nwinsary) ami boiling. The iippr<>xiniiit« 
prtmitage of ulbuiuin is the Uhh uf apemlic gravity inullijilicil liy lOU. 
S. ififApc/Jf i« lodiVA rt nxlnig'ii ntinmtinn i* maiir. — Ritthnllsen 
^pilHlea thfi pi^eiiU from solution with copper Kulphatc, cor.ects 
tb pc«ctpitnt«, anil cnlculntcrs the nnK>unt of proteid in it. by the 
OHiiiit of nitrogen (>btAiuabIp in n conil>ii«tioi), -Sobolien * tias teate^l 
t^ii tuethod, uiiing copper Kulphnt-c, lend ncetate, photipboinolyhdii- 
uii Miinin and other precipitaiits. Tannin gave on the whole the- 
t<«t reui1t«. The nitrogen in the precipilnte prfxlueed by tJtnnin iK 
otiiiutMi by Kjeldahl's method (kw p. l.*D), (iiid niuliiplit-d by ti-.^T to 
•ttaia the total pix>t«id. Tlie method is Hl»t«d to |iriKluc<! It-ju tirror 
llm the mme luelhoda invulvin); th« niuhinji;, drying, nirighing, 
ad itidn«Ta(ion of pn>ti>td pn-uipilatc-t. A very Kiniilnr method is 
■Itfiln] by Kiinig and Kincb,* who give thi- multiplier on IS'SS. 


Thir protHdjt may he divided int<i animal prntrids and vegetable 
fntcids acrording to thrir origin. There appfan to bo no etisentiat 
Mnmcv between th<yie tw" i-lii*«», and each can ho subalivided i» 
tk mne HMnner into groups. The di.itinetion, h<iwcvor, it a cou- 
■BMit one oD which to form the iNuio of n clastiti cation. 

A. *«itiin»l Proteids.— Claw. ]. Alhumin*. -These are proleids 
*U^ai« Bt^uble in water, in diluU^ salino nolutior^, and in saturnted 
■Jntiutu o( mdium chloride and uiagncKium i^id))lmte. They arc^ how- 
*tv, precipitated by saturating tlteir Kolutinnx with ammoniuiiii hu1> 
|A*k. Tlieir aolutioiis are coagulated by bent, usually at 70"-73''C. 

«. 8«ruin -albumin. Not precipitated by ether. 

^ Kgh'-nlliunun. Precipitated by eth<;r. 

<■ Oellalbuiuin. 

' Bootudl. Zrtt. AmU. C*™. WTO, IW; 16TI, 1«. 


* Xril. Anil. Chm. nvii. »L 


in blood }>Iuaiiift. 

d. Uiucle-ailiumin. 
«. LncttUbninin. 
Clft8S '2. C/diM^in*.— These nrv prntirids whicli are iiiimlable 

wiUvr, salubltf tti (lilutt! sulini- solutions, nnd insoluble in ronoeiitnU'd 
imlutionK of tHKltuiu clilori<l(?, nM^iii-stuiu sulphnt«, i^miuoniuai tyul|jliAte, 
nni] citrtaiii utiii-r iii-utriil sntts. Tlx^ir solutioiiM nip ]>recipitntty| by 
heut ; tlio tciiiiwrutun- tif lii-iit-c<ia;^ulati'>ii v/iryiii^' coiiMitf^rablj-. 

a. FiliriiiogiMi. 

4. Soruiii-globulin (pnmglobiiliii) 

c Globin ; the protcitl conBtitoont of bn-inoglohtn. 

</■ Myosinogpn, myi ■globulin. Ac, in mtiacle. 

?. Cry»t«lliii : ill the crystalline lens, 

/. Vit«Uin ; in yolk of ogg. not preci[<iUbl(? by sodium cUloride. 

Cla§8 S. AfbnuiitifiUs or df^ricfii aUrumin*. — Tliene aw prol 
derived &om either nibumins or globulins by tlie nctioii ai weak 
or »lk&lis. If » little solution of egx-albumin be wnrniiHl Kt WV. far 
10-lS utnuteii vfith a. few drops of 0-1 per oenl, mlpliurio •cid. or 
0-| percent. cauitJi' jiotaAlj, il will \>e fnuml to have lost its lypioJ 
properties imd to Iiave lK<en converted iiito acid- alba iniii or a^otonii. 
nnd nlkiUi' album in rt-!ipcctively. 

'rbr idbuniinnten are insoluble in pure water, and in neatral aoluiiinu 
containing- nii salt. They nit? solublt) in iiL-id cir ulkaJiiK- solutioos. or in 
weak mlinc Holutiona. They an- pn-'iripitatf-d liku globutini by isiWiri- 
tion with nnutrnl units (siKliunt cldoride, nia^i^ium Kulpliut«, ammoiuaiii 
EUlpbat«). Their solutions nro not mngiilatixl )>y best. 

'(. Synlonin or ncid-nlbumin, Piwipitnfoil by n«atnklising it* 
flolntion even in Uicprt««nccof alkaline pho«phut«s ; the neutraiMlim 
precipittit^ dii^solves in excess of alknli. 

h. Alkali-albuDiin. Precipitnted >>y nnutmlising it« solatiou. If 
alkaline pliosp)iat«e ana present, excoss of ncid must be ad<ted to can*' 
lirecipttntioii, tho alkaline pho^plintcs being con%'erted into aO^ 
phonphalF^, before tile acid attack* the protiiids. Alkali-atlniiwB 
contain! relatively less sniphur than syntonin. Some of tJM anlphur >* 
removed by the »lkali used to make nlknli -album in ; what la l«ift •* 
more tinnly eumbined and is not blackened by an alkaline Im^ 
■oluttnn. A very insnluVxIe variety of Alksli-albuDiiii {probably <• 
compound contuintn;; a lai-^-e (quantity of alkali) nay be fomxtl b^ 
Adding Ntroiig jHitasli to undtluteil white of i?^^. The resulting jell^ 
ia called Liebrrkuhn's jelly. ^_ 

e, Caseinogi-n. Tlie chief proleid constilucut of milk. ^| 
Class 4. I'roUfm:t, Tbeso are interinediatp produeta in the hydnt" 

lion of proteids ; the tituit pniducta are called f.cptoncs. 'llioy ar* 

TllE PRoTlflim 


in UtP body by Uic octiim of tlin ^fiutric and piincixMitic jutcM ; 

•f uMjr hK mhto (omiMl nriitk'uilly by lioiilin;; with wiitvr, iv more 

ly liy dilutv uiiiivml add^ ur siipi'rliuatctl ntiaiiu.' They corrc- 

ipOttd Vt iii« prii|i«!jituiie tit Scliniidt-Mulii^-iin, nml lo tlit^ A-pujilont of 

Uramer. Tlwy hnvv lioen cbietly workod nt lny Kiihno nod CliiltciulMi, 

*ttd will b« oiore fully rvfcrm) to in connoction with digestion. Tli«y 

«rv But c(Mj{ul«tnl liy bwt ; tlioy m« prcdpitatod but not coagulatei) 

p. 13d) by kliMbol ; tlioy *ll giw the biurct-nMction (row-red colour 

atactic potiudi nnd ctipper 6iilphat«), and Are precipitatted by uJtriu 

. th« prvcipitatn Iwing solubli^ on li<:nting uiid i-otippoaring when the 


They nay be sub-divideil into ulbuiuu^us, k'o'><i1*'HC"> vitelloKs, 

Tayvtinoaet, &c., according ■» tht' uri^iiAl pmtL-iil (nita whicli 

arv fonn^. Li nlbumin, glnbulin, vitcUin, ciuoin, myuxin, &c., 

ivoly. The idbunnncs may !»■ tiikrn nx iin inxUinoi' of tliv class. 

Ail tfa« other group* nuiy be aubdividrd in the n,ni|! way. 

Tb» albuUMMM are of (wo viu-icti«!](, hmii ■iiHiHttumeM, tlioxu wliich 
convtrUd by fnrt)i«r digcvttivo activity int't bcmiprptouc, and 
paf»-a»/ftMMafM, tbiHe which am convt-rti'ditimiliirly into anti-peptone. 
AcWMdiQiC to thiar lolnbilitics, nlbumiisrs niT divided intn : — 

«. Proto-albuoiOBW. Solublv in cold and hot wnter und in anline 
«4stkiti> ; pn^cipitAl'ol like glnhuliiiN by xatiirntion «-itb todinni 
dlk*ndi> or mat^iwiun) sulphate. 

h. Hofpru-albumoife. Insoluble in water ; soluble itiO'iVIn per cHiC. 
•adixiD (Jiloridfl solutions in the cold, but pivcipiinltt) by hentin^' to 66°, 
■ TIhi |«vei{dtAt« is, howei'er, not a lie»l*coaguluiii. tis it ifiu! II y dissolves 
^H> dilfll« acid lie alkali. Uetero-albunioso is pitiripitntNl by dialysing 
^^■M th«? salt (ram its solutions. Like tho nthcr idbuinoses, il is 
^||Bi|iit«tei<l by alcohol, but, unliko Llieui, is jxirtly convcrtcid into an 
JKinlnlili pnHact calli-d dys-a]buim<rie, Het«ni- album use, like proto- 
ilbaiatmc, '*» preaipilated by uturation with salts. I'raCo- nod botera- 
dbonoM* nru oftirn called tlie |)rimary albumoses, as Uiey arc Uie Urat 
indiiclA 'd the hjdrut^on of prtit^idn. 

r. IVutmci-albuinu**^. Soluble in cold and hot wat«r. It is not 
f««ripitaleil from ita nolutiunK by aatumtiiifc witli sodium chloride or 
M*|^eMum ■ulpluit^, litit it Li by animoninin «ulpluilF. It ih nut precipi- 
ltM<l b« coppiT HulpliAtn, and only gives the nitric iicid nuictinn »■ 
•btfNct«ristiei)f n]buni<i»i-s in the prnu-nceof fsctut»of salt. It is thus in 

!<*aM«ial'« (JEm''. BM. zrri. M) ha* nwiitly luuuil thai Uin •IliiuiMar loraiHl hy 
U* Mlwa »f •iipulmiUil alMBi iliBani iii a bw minor rcadionv iMu tboac lonnsil \-y 
4> V 1^ (adrle, □• ha* aiiplied ibn duiou aluiU-atliiiiuuu la II. 



iU ^Cl^k>:'ti^nK ntuircr to peptcme, tlinii the otlirr nlbunMin-K ; it in nn inUr- 
in«dint« stage in the cunrersioii of thp prinmry nlhumontm into ppptniK 

ClsKS .'', I'rptnnra.'- — TliPKc nn; the finnl prnilurt* of thp hyilratioii 
of proteids, If hvHrBtinn goiw further thf pcplcmc is q>lil into simplvr 
siibslanoE>s ftiid rc'iiitiins no longer » proteid. Theynre soluble in wtit«ir> 
am Dot L-ottKutated by lie»t. and nre not precipitated by nitric add, 
copper sulphate, nrniDoniaui sulphate, and »v ninnbct-of other precipitanU 
of protoids. Tbey are |>i*cipitftte(lbuliiotcfjiisiiiatwlbvalo<)iiol, Thuj 
nre also completely precipit/tted by tannin, pota«<io-oiercuric iotlidt^ 
plidHjihciuolybilic acid, plioH[)hoti]ii!,>stic an<l. and picric acid. 

Tlipy K'*'" <ho biuret reiii^lioii (riwe-retl colour with n tr»c« nf citpptt 
Dulphnto and caustic ]iotiuti or sciila). 

&ved from excnu of «ilt by dinlyKi*. pr^cipitntj-d by nlecfhol and (IrKd, 
hiaaee and froths with evolution of h«nt on being ilinsolvpd in wnt«r. 
Its taste is gODiowhat cheesy hot not unpleftsant. 'Die l>iU«r t(ute of 
ai'tificially digested food h due to some product not yet sepanttcd, iMtin 
pioteidn and iilbunio§«« being alnio%l tm^teless. 

Peptones are divided into 

a. Heniipeptoiie. The form of peptone whiih by llie further ucttun 
of pancnuitic Juice It split into simpler proflucts, such as leucin« wid 

h. Antipoptone. The form of peptone wbicli Ss not dcoornjxiiinl in 
tliis way. It moruiiver yields no tyrosine on tiwutinent with salphuric 
■citl, and iloes nut ^ive ^tillon's reliction. 

Itcth fornit^ of ]H.-])tone are reiuUly ilifiuHibli- throii)th nniinsl 
tnoRibmnes ; alhuniiHen are only slightly <lifrusihli-. Ttic utility of tiM 
fonantioii of ditTusibte .'^ubitaiice-i during dige.ition ix ohviouK. 

The tabic »n thct next {Hiiie L'ontra.ittt the chi«f n-oction.s of the albs- 
mosM Jind peptonn. 

Class 6. (-""ffttliil-ril ProlfkU.— {a) Proteid in which ctMgulattoa 
has been producw! by heat. Insoluble in water, weak acids, wid alkalis. 
Soluble after prolongftl Imiling with <-onccntrnt49d inineral acids. 
Soluble in gastric niid pJincrcatiu juiccn giving riwi to peptones. 

{6) Prot«id8 in which coagulation bos Ijccn producod by fenoeats. 
i. Fibrin. Svr bloo<I. 
ji. Myosin. Hrr muscle. 
iiL Oa«ein. Srr milk, 
iv. Anti-albutnid. A com]iitrativ«ly insoluble by-product 
formed in gastric digestion. 

■ Bm KUhne laH, C1iilt«nd«n. Ztit JNoT. nii. UB. 




' rnMd 

1 Rstind 
Hot ud Coldaiillue 
Cold Bolntlans 








Vtm t^. 10% 

or UgBO. 










lat«d iu 






cnld : pre- 

(Biuret rw- 


cipitate illi- 




h»t BTid 

reapppan i 


on rooting ' 


ImwIaMe : 

Sol able : 






LtM precl'' pftrttv |pre- 




pllAtB) b; 'i clpluted. 

di&lyils j bat not co- 

from 0k1 Ine 1 ftffulmal on 


livtiiip to 




X"t precl- 


This re- : Noi pri- 





bctlL>ii only ' cipirnLc?il 

oceuni ill t 
pieseEio^ of 

eiCf'M of 


Kot pieci- Kot pre- 

:Tt)iUKH . . . 

So'ulile i Soluble 

Not precl- 

Sot ptTd- 




1 pluted ; ciplliit«il 

B. Vegetable Proteida. — The amount of proteid matter in plants 

■ ka than in animals. Proteida occur either dissolved in the juices 
of pUnts, or in the solid form composing the protoplasm in the plant 
rDi, or oft«u deposited in the form of granules (aleuivsne grains). 
Ttgrtsble proteids do not differ in their essential obanict^iistics from 
•mmal proteids, but unlike most animal proteids they have frequently 
bm obtained in a crystalline form. 

Much error and confusion has crept into our knowledge of vegetable 
pntcids from the researches of Ritthausen. He used caustic alkalis 

■ t means of extracting the proteids from the vegetable tissues, and 
mueqnently converted the native proteids, globulin, albumin, Jic, 
bto alkali- albumin. It is necessary to remember that the substances 
kgamin, conglutin, ice, which he thus obtained are artificial products, 
»d do not represent what is present in the plant tissues theinseives. 

The vegetable proteids may be subdivided into the same six 
duvs as the animal proteids. 

Class 1. Alhuming.—'Tiie term vegetable -album in is often useil 
■TDonvmously with vegetable proteid ; it should be properly restricted 
<■ ID animals to those forms of proteid which are solultle in water and 
cagnlahle by heat. The greater part of tlie proteid coiigulabte by 
Wt in the juices and seeds of plants is of the nature of globulin, not 
(Ifanmin. !*'mall quantities of a true albuniin have been descriljed by 
Jlartin' in the juice of the papaw fruit, and by Green' in thi- 

> /f(«™. Phj/iiol. »i. 88S. ' Prac. Boij. Soc. xl. 3H. 



latex of »ev«nU cooutohuuc-jielcluig pluiU d( tbe natuml <ml«ra 
Afioeyti^it niitl SnpotatMir. 

CIjuh 2. Globutiiu, — TlivGo nre hy fur the most nimnilnnt ]>rc>t<-i(t9 
[incftnt in pLuits. This vi«w, wbioli tia.-i rvcinvetl Ihn poururful support 
of Hoppc-S^fijler,' who s[ieiiks <>f tli« pnitvitbin tiu<Is, yining olioots nml 
sootls, ax yliibuliiis, is contrury to thai '4 Rittluinsfii, who on tha 
ground of t-oncordfttic* in cliMnwitury niinlyKrn, rcjpird* vegpwlile jif»- 
tcidaiwcoDMStingof lc)icumiii nnd utiicr nllied ■ulwtcini.'cs, whioh hnre 
boon shiiwn to bn nrtiticinl ptwlucta producoit \ty the nustic «lkaU 
wed in their prrpnmticm.* 

Tlie enrli(«t obnprvfttions of rnluv on thU migeot are tlit«e c4 
Weyl.' IIi> compnred the c(iiiipi>.isit<ion' iind reactions of animal 
aiid vef^tuble jwotoidH, be showed (but tbe two cIoHtea wero pntcticalljr 
id«ritioiLl. Ho did uot find iiiiy ulbuiuiiiB, Aiid exi>mii)iil tli*' pnitrids 
extracted by »dt ftolutiou from oats, luiiize, pvtut, iniulnrd, Pnm nuts. 
iic, which cacuuHte'l cbielly of pluut-vjtelUii. A iiecond prot4-)d, also a 
globulin cfdtud plant inyooin, was found in nhtut, point, •mU, wliit« 
iDUntArd, iui<t swwt alinonds. No alknli -album in (plant' casein or 
legumin of Rittbnoaon) wii* pruBUiit in any of tho pliints rxtuuineO. 

Tlie vit«llin occurring in ptnnts is nftt-n orvBtnltino. and a nuiit' 
of observations liave Ixxii niailc by dit1nr«nt iilis<TVors on this v 
tijcd alhuiuiii, as it is often iiicortvotly called by thein. 

Tlie pri>t«idb orcnrrin); in idpuinnv grains bare been tJic »u1>j<>ct 
niBsU-rly reBeartbea by Vine*' ; he found niudi ;il[>bulin tbi-iv. Tlio 
prut«ida of the papaw fruit, Abrun prrenlorint* wluMit and other Hours' 
have Im-n iuveHtij^ated by Martin ; tliu change that occurs in 
prvccM uf gi.Tiuinatiou of »ec(U has been the mibjci.*t of a raearch 
Green* who liits idao invnli^tnlwl tbe prot^Mii in latex. Theae 
searctuis may bo briudy Kumtiuiri>cil us follown : — 

Vbu^ JnrmtifaHmu aa Alemnae Graimi,- -thtt ii\a>aont untune tit ibc 
(Pa^iitti ^.) ^iwtaln an olbDPMMc, oail vegetable mTona; of tbo cnaiur vil iitani 
(Ilieiim tmmm.) aa aDHmKno. a r^ubntln f Motiible iii ntumlvd (oriiuBi rliliiri<1>- 
•olulion (nqmaSa), aixl a i^iullii •ihiMr In llui »liilMn (rilcltln): »t hino 
Inpiii. ctilefly oiTfUJiuid vhelHa. Kimilnr crninllnlili were r<i«iul in many »ilm- 
plaat*. Hie (olbwlBK cbw U k M iwi of alcnnmc rmln* U gli-cn :— 
1. Tlmnaolablsltiwalv. Ubamim. 


> ItllUiBiwn drtfflHU hM ri*** tM ttfta. C^ntr. IMTT, SflT, Ui, 

• For oniniMtiiilTe t\»m»n\».rf uniil)**^ c* A. Brillnn. .V. Jt«f>, Ptann. ni im urf 

* Pnr. Itpy. Am-. mUL US 1 nt.a>C[ cnl.n- 
' Bnf . tfMl. /Mm. i«L iL IRM p^ IM. 

• mA. ibl. UI. 

* JVm- Jhy. Sor. iti. (in. 



1 now lulnhle In 10 per n«nt. XaCL, 

s, Oniini) (Hlhaiil ciT*lnllDdi)i. S<>tiibU^ in >nTiiraloil VnCU 
t Qrain* with frvatnlloiiis. .'Mulilr in Miiiirnlci) Sn(;l. 

I TlKnr iMttbtlt; sulabli- in 10 per pent. SnCl, Konie of ihcic an rryttalloltl, 
F iBMilulflr. Mimi' Mitiihlc in uiliimliHl NuCl loliitiiinf. 

Mutti'i fttr*tlifMliou4 aa Papain. — Tbu pioloidiiprneuit lire:— 

1, X gloliului tcry like Mmm-|rlobuIfD. 

t Allinuiii. (A)mulr ntlmk.! ti, p. 131), 

1 .Ulmuiueni ot tvo k>e<U i with onn of whlirh (a-pliylnlbuir;cMc) a ferment 

([■ijailn). In nature xezy like the tfTpaln of flm pnnrrcntic ]iiic«, ia 


Mutl^i Mamafiiiju on U'Am< /Ti'ur.— T1i«< flour itself I'untnuui tvo pro- 

ngetahla njwln ami in iillxitiini'O, When miit'il willi <ll>'lltc^r, thaas 

ncrtaitt chMtigt*, and arc riirivi:tt«<l iiili> tbc iiu.o1ii!iti; |>rutd<l (-a|]«l 

lUffteV OtiMma/iiHii on ^h>ii« (Jequirity)- — Wnrdee nnd Wndrtcll' hnvc given 
:Mae 'abtfn * lo Ihc poiMinuiin in-icciplc uf }e:|nirity : this pliuit in hhkI iu> it 
hf t* ivadBM oonjaiiotiiilln when ap|ilicd lucnlly la tlii^ err*. It in not MB 
ikibiL bni it pmwii). 'I'liu jiroi*ii)i> Hre Ittn in ii'iiiiln-r —a gliibuliii (nMvmbling 
i^f^nlialln) nitxl nn «lhuiuci-<.'. JSotli prwI^iiiU liavu a iwlxcinou* nrliou, wlilch 
4»&Tij*d at a hi)th iiTinpenniiw.' 

Srm'i Jitrrttif^titHu tf La(fit.--la Ajiocyarte nnd Snpoincem (he protcld* 
ttnalbauMvmand im alb'iniiti. In ibc muiibot (Bupburbiuccic) a globulin, 
At eoiDRioD Inttnui- ((Viinimita;) ati nlbiioiune. 

Ve can now pom <m to ooiMwlsr the chief mpmborf of Iho gloliulin 
nXfiucvucTing it) pUnt^. 
t*) PiMit-vitvIlln (p1iyto-vit«1IiiO- This protaid is like atiim&l 
hwilin, n globulin tiotubli! in naturtit4Hl soUilion of sudiuui ohlorid^ 
ii miiguUl«d by heat nl aluxit 'A'C. lu tlift vtilk of the e'ltgti ot 
VUia fi^MH, tUiH auLiAtaiioe tma a !g(>nii-i^rystiil1iiii> furin, but in lite 
HmiM ffraina of many pliiutu it is distini-tly cry* in] line, or fan be 
•uW to oryHt&lliHe. Tlii.i in thus tii'- purest prott-id known, but t-veii 
l*vn on ij^itidii na asli t^oiixisling chiefly nf alknline phospbutut. 
W-jitary nnnlyii* girm 0, SSt.l ; H, 7-13; N, 18-1 ; S, 0-M; 

tW ittaBmntiofw of Vines have shown thnt thp crystaltiiK- prot«-i<]« 
^'(iiwIiUt from aleurone gmins differ in solubilities nnd cry«tallin« 
■i WhI tJiUs there is probably more ilian one ery stall isnblo protcid. 

TU tMoirtuf an the chief ohtervuiiuiu uuido mi tlm subjitct ut i-.ry*iaUine 

■•W»Hr inilvif la : — 

>■%,* In ISGS, mu the tm to diMcnw a ciytlaUlne pratald In plant*. 

■ Xim.htuiliarXatim6fAbr«tPoitan,Ct)i!atta,l«ai. 

* lUKiD, Bril. Ued. Jo-rit. xti. ii. IMW, p. IM. 

* JhKaii. Zf.Uttnf, latS, p. Ml. 



&tH*rhki>.' b}- cxtraclSii^ Pant nuts willi wiiter nl 50°, fllUrlnit lU"! tt«ponitii^ 
M the Miniti trnijMimturo, oliEAitiiul ii crnlnlKiiu pinit-Ut rtwiiluc. 

WrtI' Uli-nlillud Ihu pTolnUI a> vlicUiii, iiiiil limad It In ■ notubor i>F gtliar 

' Soliuiicdi^bFrg' obuioed a crTstalUne coinpouod of tiiis pnilriil villi imKiwriL 
Oiiibti-r' ]in-[un-i) Ibc sUDie couijiouml lunl noutlicr. nlno lti ^liillilw, with tiBe[ 
llic nmlcciilni ini^ht oulL'uIntpd rmiii Ihi- flnl in .WSI. that fioiii ttiv accooil 88lt. 
OrdblerV inethotl of pruptiTint; tin- viirlliii crfiUtlH i» [odktolnv tbo |inM«|il fnNB 
]iiuu]ilcin*Mcl«ln»olutS(mor»(iilitiiii clitrn-ltta at 40*; ouci)allnK<lu'l'4<i''l<vT' Uw 
ciytitALt (Triiuliir oclnhiHlni) «i-t>iinkli. KiUhMumTii.* ndnptlnjt thi- wimi' mi^bod, 
oLtnlsu'l vryitliiU (i>c(ikli(^ni «ni) rhamblc ilwlcculiclm) tn>m cX]iTt«c<1 
Mk*. cuiitnr oil •'■XMlt, luii) thr ochx)* of (mtinu*i imflenm. 

Draohnul' intnidiicn) nDoibcrr iiicthocl, which roucutcd in cxumeting lb« 
Cliiuupkili} wilb vnlcr. onil ilialysicg Ibu vitnkct into alcobol ; the mtvr ili 
into Uio nk'uliiil. Iiiiiiiii; uniM* of riiicr<iM.'L>|>iu or.vntHld Sn Ihv ■Uiily-«T. 

ViiMH r»<iit<l tliftt Ibv naluml itrifUilli'liU iiuticlduil Id ibi> tirounil ■iil»i 
of Um) aloaroQo Krnliui vcrv brxii^nnl r!i<>iiil)»lii.>c][n In (wriiiln [iliuiti. luul 
IMnfaodm In othcn. 

(&) Ptniit-mvoMii. This likr luiiiiinl uiyotun ikt 56*C. 
It also liico tlir niyonJiiogc^n <>f muscular liiduti U converted into H nitm 
in*olul>)p ftulistnnce hy u ferruiMit action ; tliU aulMtonce bi cklld 
Klateii-liliriii invl form* tho basis of gluten («w fartfavr, next page). 

(e) Vi'golnblp-paragl'iliuliiia.' This cIms of protoitU cooguUlitig 
at 79* and precipitated by snttintion with sodium cblon'do irtts Itnt 
(leauriltMl by Martin ; one of thrao proteid* occurs in papaw jtucc, 
aitotJicr in latex, unotber in abru* seeds. 

Clnss 'i. AfbnminaUt. — Acid-albuniin or >jrti(oDiQ am) nlkoU- 
nlbuniin ni« fonned reudity hy tli« action of acidt aitd alkalis 
r«flpoctiv«lj on tbo native globuliim of plauta. Plant- myosin lilce 
ontuud myosin is esijecinUy readily CMivenlMe into tbesi* albuminateL 

o. Legutnin, or vegetable casein. Tbo t«rru le^umiti nppean to 
hftve b«eti UKil synunyiuously fur vef[etal>le proteid by the inrlier 
innMigalora,* It ha« bevn tlio itulijccl uf laborious pxaiuinution by 
RittbauMn.' We nowr knoir ifant il ix Hiiuply nlknli-albiiRiin f<irme(l 
from the native globulins by the c«ustic |>otJub tuml in extracting it 
from thp plant. 

h. Conglntin is Um liFgutnin o1>tainable frotn aliuonds an<l lapine«. 
It in umrc glutinous and inoni anlnble in acetic aelil, and richrr in 
nitrogoii than onlinuy legninin (Riittiauun)." 

> Jnvnt. prakt. Ctuam. Iniv. ISC * Cnr. lit. 

> Znt. f)>iniol. akm. I. 9». * Jcunt. prtld. Chtm. nnj. IDS: 

> /(uiT. p. IHI. * IkiJ. 19) lu. Ml. 
' Hutia. IVtT. Pkyiiot. Sot. tMT. p. 1. 

■~^ BMhef. A', allgmrlm. J. J, Chrm. ■>. A. G/Aira, ii. OtOi). {ifi. Ull, MK. Odim* 
and CAlHHin. LdtUjt. anil tdlisn, tlaa ttaaiiiwd Uii* mlHtaiir*. 

* Zril./. Itria |tl<v. G«^U1; il. IWl J. /ir. rAon. da. M, Tt^ llM. VTS. 

"> J.yr. CItrm. (ti nn. 440. 


Cku 4, FroUotef. — Previous to Vines's observations these were 
^iok«ii of as vegetable peptones. Vines recognised that the aleurone 
grains did not contain true peptone, but a substance wliich he spoke of 
u hemi-nlbuuioGe. Two albumoses of doubtful nature are described 
hj Gieeo in latex. 

TTie following albuinoses in plants have been more fully described 

B. a'Phyt-albumose. Very like proto-albumose, and probably ideti- 
lia! with Vines's hemi-albumose. Found in papnw juice, wheat- 
lour, a^rux. Associiited in papaw juice with the ferment papain. 

4. f!-Phyt-albumose. Very like hetero-albumose. Found in papaw 

■■. Inmluble phyt-albumose. A constituent of gluten. 

((. Vit«lloses.< Intermediate products in the hydration of \iteiUn 
uulo^us to albuinoses, and subdivided like them into anti-, hemi-, 
piwo-, hetero-, dys-, and deutero-vitellose. 

Class 5. FfptoifM. — True peptone does not apj)ear to be found 
Wire iu plants. It is fonnetl from vegetable as from animal proteids 
Inbjdntion processes, such as is brought about by boiling with dilute 
nunal acids, or treatment with gastric or pancreatic juices. The 
inlMioediate products are proteoses. 

I^pain like pancreatic juice acting on animal proteids converts 
(^ in an alkaline medium into proteoses, and tinally peptone ; acting 
M vegetable protei{ls, it stops short at the proteoses, no true peptone 
^nug formed. Leucine and tyrosine are, however, found in the tissues 
of tbe plant (Martin).* Probably circulating proteid in the plant 
"nntts of albuinoses. 

Class 6. Coaifulntfil firiiti-uln. — a. Proteids in which coagulati<ui 
nu been produced by heat, Albuuiin and globulin of vegetable origin, 
&c the same sul>stances of animal origin, are converted at a high 
ttinperetnre into an insoluble heat-coflgulum. 

t. Proteids in which coagulation has been produced by a ferment- 

I Gluten (the sticky constituent of dough which may be washed free 
W itnrch by kneading in a stream of wrtter) is prolmbjy formed by a 
'(niiPnt-action from the proteids pre-exiatent in flour. This is sup- 
F"n«d liy the fact that washing flour with water at a low temperature 
l-^'O lioes not lead to the formation of gluten. The ferment has, 
"Wever, not been separated.^ 

' NfiuneinltT. Zeil. Iliol. iiiii. 402. * Joiirn. I'hi/iiul. v. iHI; si. 8311, 

JnhEDiincn lAnn. Agrniivm. Itv, iW, Abtl. J. Chi-m. Hor. IKHII, p. -JUSj lius 
'''uod ceiuiD beta which tell aguiut the feiment theory. 



Boiling wntjT or iiUnilml oxtmrts fmm gtutnn a xtioky KuliitMH 
c&ll«d insoluble iiliyt-fillnunosc by Martin, rtkI cnrrcsjMinding to t» 
tfubstAncE'^ called gliarlin anil niiice^iiii by KitthnUBcn.' Tlifi iiuolnhl 
non-9ticky residue is called gluleii'fibrin. 

We Imvfl already <iecn that llie |frot«i(Ls in the flour it«elf (kn(l 
w^btbtu-iiiyo^iii. and {2) a soluble albunios«. Frobablf th«y hm (b 
{irecuntor^ oi Kluten, jiccoicUhk to ihi- fullontnf; Bcheine (Martin):— j 

Gl t« _/f"""'f'-*'l'"!i prwuraor, mjfOMii. 

~ I Insoluble iilbuiucisc precursor, soluble n I but 

ii. Anli-ulbuiiiid. Hiiti-vit4<ll)iL •1*<-'.. are substaDcea of 
tiv<'ly tiisoiubit! naliiir forine<l <lunii;j thfl tuirlier stiigM «l ?^itA 

F'irmntinn of ami chnnyra in tlif j-mtfiJn in /ifnnlt. — Thr t'onniUm 
dE protcitU in pintitjc \* uti<l()iilit<-clly » .tyntlicticiil pi'oi.-i«s, tin- olniiniC 
DDcl sJinpln coinpouiids, wiiicli an- combined tngpthcr to fonii thetn 
being ultiniiLtoly tkrivi-d from tlif soil ntnt nil*. Ati exception to itii 
rti]« oc«ure in the carnivorous pUiils, and in parasitic (•lsnt«, whid 
livo upon the niaterinls formed by other plantiv In the carnirorro 
plants' (Drossera, L>ioiiitn, ibc.) a juice is secreted which hu tb 
[wwer of converting into pepti>iies the pi-oteid matter in the flies un 
other small creatures caught by the iii.ints. 

Uaiiy nttro^'enous Ixi&es are foiniit in plants, such as aspangitt 
leucine, tyrosine, adenine. &c. It is posUble that tliese sulietanMsUl 
not always pro(iuile of the breukiuK down of prot«i<ls, a» llieyaMh 
animals, but in curtain cusl-s, m nny rat«, an- sta^ in the liutlJini 
up of the proteidti. 

Thus aBpam;,'iii(! is pr»bubly furiniHl by thi! uniun of inan^ 
niLrO);<!» ompouiid.-i with malic iii'id within thr plant, Ihr iniilic set 
b(*in{t dfrivwl from thi? ciirlwhydniti-s,* wlitdi aii- furawtd by thennio 
of carbon and wntci- uitih'r the inlluen<re of chlorophyll, ilut asA 
certain other circa mstiincw it has l>rfn shown that asjMmgino an* 
from thedi-ciimpiisitinii of protridEi.' A large number of ol>»rrvnti'icu^ < 
tlieMe nili-ogciiouK 1uuh-n, and tho changru thity unitnrgo in grmiinattV 
IiAVe been made by E. Schube,'^ but comparativHy fow on the diatil 
Ihat the proteids undergo. We have in plants certain reservdis 

■ Oiemit. Ixiiv. IBi, tsi. Foi mrlicc obumUatu tat fclutan. Ht Booduf 
Cofpl. rrwl. iIt. DOJ: TiuJdci. Gi^/riuilt fiiiea tti BrHf/naMU. ill. SO). Set CArm. liiiv. 1I1U, 

* Stf Danrin. Camivurom Planli, Article 'Cmiu*. Ptu>l«' in Sittfthf, fi 
(P. r.*d(l«). 

* HllUpr. Lamlw. Vmuc>u. Statt. liww. H3S, 

* E. SehulSF and E. Ka—H. niid. iiiti, 1. 

* Xaiaerou* paper* ia Xdl. phyriol. Chcin. Set «(ii«rlallT IS, MX. 

TIIE rHi-VrElD!* 


riul : iJiin JK especially seen ia the cotyledons ; tliin food 
I ti> hv Avnilnblo for the needs of the plants musl be couvwrtod 
mUi ■ vlsUr form. Starch, for iustniice, ia converted mio u soluble* 
npr, in ntottt ouwit by the tictivity of an or^'niiiserl feruienl. ^g. in 
■dt; UiF protoitU muiit he siuiilarly dmiiKed, ciliicr into an Itt1lum(Ul^, 
fq<«M:,or K^nble nitraj^eQoiui base (aapuriLgiiii', ItfudiK.-, tbc), iNrforc 
km he curried by the aap to othiT parln of tli« ]>lniii. Romp- 
Bnuot' 8tat«d ibat tlie changMi in tli« mimrve prat4>i<) niuti^rinU 
■hung g^rmiiiiitiini are pmbulily ilue tu tin- nctioii of n fi-rmciit, nnd 
ita^ this was dispuiMl by KniutJi,' iubscniicnt i-xpi-ritnt-nwrs nro 
■(Mil tiiM the fermeut theury <if Oorup- Hesnin^x is prohnbly eorrcct, 
Oimi* conuiLers lliat th« iiilniKMi twwU tr«m thn fcccd to t.tii- growing 
yunu ill the fiinii of ■inidra, iicit in that of pcptnor-fi or other pri.>t«ids. 
Hiftin tin tb« <»th«r bund Is incbn<fl to l>clicvo that the circulating 
MNfpin to oiiirlly rontninrd in onp or more soluble pmt^ids of the 

Onn of tlw itost known ferments that effect these chnn(,i?s is papain 
«|»|HyotiD, ol)4ain«hIe from the juic« of the papaw plant (Wurti, 
wtia) ; but as the subject is uiure Investi^ted, It Ijecoiues more and 
Rr* strikingly ileniotintrali^l thiii juipiiin i^ no ^iii^le iiiiitjinoe of a 
pu*id -splitting frrnicnt (icc-iirring in plant tinauiH, but tliat nivh 
fciwnta are pntctiually ulii<|utt(ius.* 


AlbaminouR aubftanoea form a mi»t im{>ortaut elemeiit of food, but 
niimly within the last few years that the fact has been eatablisJied 
itti there are tertain pioteids which, vrhcn tntroducwl into tliu cJrcu- 
lilini, are poinunoua. Tlii* fact, retnarkablt! an it in in itxi^f, l>ecto)nea 
liptaier signiGoincr whm it ix conMilcn-d ihat th« i>oUonou« proteida 
Iniot dhctinguixhablc by any vcll-mnrkcil rhitniioal or pliynical prc»- 
pcrtin from thn non-poisonous or fooil protddK. 

TIm nKMt importjiDt of the vegetable protcid poixona ar<i :— 

I. TIiMe contained in the seeds of jequirity. allusion to which has 
•liMd; bwn r&ad« (p. 133). 

HThe pnit«id uaoc-jnt^-d with or idt'ntical with papain * 
Lupino- toxin (t), from fiifilnim lultua.'' 

' BrmUr deutth. rAm. (>«. 1974, |l )4TH. 
. ' lilt. OiMfl. Sot. Joan. lATH. p. TOU. > I'rof. livi). Son. xM. tM. 

I '^ TUhIIoh Dyvr'i PnudvuIUI AddipH. Mvclion D, Bnt. .Iiidt. ItUW (BftUi 
*^l-. iIm nuan, Betan. Ztilung, IIWU, p. IHT. EtloobotKM and BotDulitiir 

•*tr,u. ii4i>K. p. am 

' lUfiB, Itrtt. Ut^l. Jannt. toI. ii. laSO, p. ISi. 
' "limtiri Jairb. ISaa. edt. 10. 


Tke vaotX unporUnt ot the uninial prot«i<l poiwnsnr* : — 

1. Snake pnnnn. Biictcria iiad allcnioids art' liere ttbsaiit,' and the 
pmt^ds obtnincd in k pure i-onditiou ant as [loUaiHiuit na tlt« ori^nnl 
v«nom. Fuyn-r, Brunton, Wnir-Mitcticll, WolfiMiden, Rucliardi, and 
otheni, iii-c unnniiiious on thiH point. The poixon hot b«en exjtDiined 
in the cobra, vi[>pr, crotiiluH, cupperliend, tnocaniti, iind ttu' anai« result 
arriVMl at in nil raises 

WolfendcD.' who lias «xi>niiued the venom of tlio cobrn Mid viprr 
according to the uiost rvcunl uietho<is of tepiiratitif; proteids finds in 
the foniier (1) kI"^>uI'"> (-) albuuiin, aiul (3) sjrtitoniu ; and in lb* 
Utler(l) globu]i», <2) alliumiii, and (3) au albuuooe. All tbciBe an 
poisonous. The ohiff sym|>totn jiroctuct-d ia a&phyxiik 

'2. The proteids in the -wiuin o( ct?i-liiiii tialiw (oong«r eel, muni-Da, 

3, Prot«id poiHoiiH found in certuin apidera.* 

t. Frot«i<tit fornittl during; niitiirnl digestion in t^ Uoinnch and 
•mail intestines— nl hum (ur-ii iind |>rptonpx. 

0. W«oldridg«'fi tiMue-Bltrinogcnt which ]>r«ducc iiitravuctUAr 
rangulatioti of th» hlood. 

6, Fibriu'fcrnient. 

The poiaououH proUiidt numbered {, .\ and it will be more fuUv 
disounod in conuection wiUi the blooil. 

Poiaonoua proiwds pniduci'd \<y Imctrrinl uctivitv will be refertwi to 
under FermentAtiun (Cliapv XII and Xlf I). 

In the (olluwtiig table ibu-tin^ coiu|iares tlie activity of loiite of tbe 
moat important |>rot«id |toimni)i :— 

fktal Amc 
Vvaiini nf I'riiiiiMni iiililor* . ■ 0-[1021 fniiuai« per kilo uf t>u<l;i weight 

TenuBK^I AiuimlUnii](«iiiialE«' . (KKMU „ „ 

TODOBotoobm* .... O-CpXTTII .. „ 

A\tn* palnoB :— 

Olotiulin (fOl 

AltiiinoM QiX „ H 

Feptk'ulbuiuusM^ . . . . 0>S „ M 

' 111 mmu- »•» alkalxlda *n> pmani, tnt llv) Mr iiuii-|aiiHiiii.iii* uii*» Itiuitirt}. 
' Juurn, i'AyiivI, lii, HUT. HalmnnB lo utiurt wriun nil! b* luwul Imr*, Ihrtulirio 
meU Ol Uflli lAmtptI, i. 9»ll In tbenrn In bo <ioa«Kl«taiil. 

* HOMO^ J/aV* JaK'rtl>fn<lit. tviu. M. 

* Kitbttt. A'('(i>upiA. lUr Itarpaltr XMnr/tmth. OnM. inai fttutfaMfd IM 
OrlrmlU./. J. iinf. IIVh. iruM, |i. Ml. 

* Pne. ItfV ■'*'*. >WI. IDS. • Poiilank, qODtoJ in Uarr. mnMrr. U. It. 
' B*l>Brt nr U|*twl Ctmiahtitm on SnkliP PiiaiBiIng, Amttntl, Unl. Journ. IMS, 

S<t. tt, ^ lUI. 

* ViBHut' HiolwnU, Liiiuimarlit of Snak^poif^m LUeraturr. 

* mUiUw. Jvfn,. 0/ }-kfnoi. Ilwft, 




The following tables present in a compact form the chief analj'tical 
Bethods of separfttiDg and identifying the most important proteids 
vhcD in solution : — 

Tablk 1.^0ne proteid only present 

a. With small portions of the solution ascertain the presence of a 
pntcid by the xanthoproteic, Milton's, and other tests. 
h. Determine the reaction of the solution. 

If acid 
Twt for acid-albu- 
nun. This does not 
Mtgalate on boiling, 
Midgivesa precipitate 
CO neat ralisat ion, dis- 
Klring again in excess 

If alkaline 

Test for alkali-albu- 
min. This does not 
coagulate on boiling, 
and gives a precipitate 
on neutralisation, dis- 
solving in excess of 

If caseinogen is 
present test with ren- 
net — nee milk. 

If nenlral 
Acid and alkali - 
albumin must be ab- 
sent, unless neutral 
salt ia present. They 
do not coagulate on 
boiling, and are pre- 
cipitated by satura- 
tion with MgSO^ like 
globulins. For casein- 
ogen see milk. 

c. Faintly acidify (if necessary) and boil. There may be a heat- 
wagulum or there may not. 
H the proteid is coagulated by heat. The proteid is then either an 



which may be identitied as follows with fresh portions of the 
solution : — 


I. Gives no precipitate on 
Wnmtion with MgSOj. 

•- Ascertain t«mperatureoflieat- 

3. Heruiri- albumin is not, egg- 
Mbamin is, precipitated by ether. 


1. Is precipitated by saturation 
with MgSO,. 

2. Ascertain temperature of heat- 

3. Certain globulins (fibrinogen, 
myosinogen, &c.) behave in a, 
characteristic manner to certain 



If the prot«id is not cooguluted br heat. Tlif. proU»<j is tiwn m 



1. BidT^re 

2. Sa precK- 
pttul« with ni- 
tric ncid. 

3. No pnwi 
pitnt<- on wita - 
rntion wifcl 
All o/ji-rr pro- 
itiiiM are prv- 
eipiUtled hf 



Aci<l or nlkuli 1. Rtiimt ri^iiction. 

Albumin, or ?. Chfirnctmiitic renction with 

CMfinogcn. nitric: itcid. 

See b. 3. 8nturftt« with NttCI or MgSO,. 

If a, pTvapitatn fnlls ii pri- No precipitate. 

nuiry nIhiimoKi' iii pn-Bciit. Submit Dmtcro-nlbutnoge 

the solution to (lijilysis. i i« present ; this 

N'o ppeci- A pnxipitAtp giws no precipi- 

pi tat« occurs, falls. Hetcro-nlbu- tat« with CuSO,, 

prota.Albii' niosc is present. Uivea clmraoteris- 

niow \* pre- This is nlso preci- lio nitric add te- 

«nt. jpitated by warming action only in pre- 

to G5", which pre- nencR ot exct«a of 

cipitutc is soluble salt Givrxaprcci- 

In weak acid or j pitate by utunii- 

«])cAli. ing witti Ani^SO^. 

Table W.— S<^pitmtinn o/ protrut* whrn mor'tlmn one itimolutio»f. 

•I. If liin Kniution is ticid or alkaline t«st for ncid- albumin »oi 
albali-ulbtiinin ; if piesent, neutrnlise and filter off th« ]>recipit4t«d 
prateid. (N.K.-^Wcnk Kolutions of globulins nro sometiinM precip- 
tatei) by u Munll ijunntity nf iHlutp acid— w serum 'Ovie in ; to »vuid 
error, it is therefore best to pi'oeecd also oa directed under f, next l*!'-) 

h. Noutmliso solution if necessary (acid- or alkali-albumin liaTinf 
lip«n rmmovpH). Saturate with magnesium sulphate. (Sodium (iloridf 
pro<luces a less eonipleto pi-ecipitutiou of many pi-oteida.) 

The precipitate ooosi«te of cit,OBt;i.l!tB. 

Wash precipitiitr with wituriitcd solution of MgSO,. wxl d: 
by addiim water ; the salt adherent to tlie [iroteid renden it 
Remove exceia of suit by dialysU. 

L Add librin fi-nncnt. ii. Add myoitin ferment. 

Fibriiio^'cn is convrrtc4 into , Myosinogcu Is coiiTerted i"'^ 
fibrin. I myosin. 

iii. Heat nnothi>r portion to 60°. Fihrinngi-n anil myo»inog8D ■•* 
precipitated J tilttir. The liltnit<?contJ»in*: — 


Precipitated at 63°. 


Has no tibrinoplnstic 



PoKSWBCS ebrinopUfri" 


Proci|Mt«ted at 7&*. 



Hie flltntte contains the 

Ditlyw tkvray cxcl^«Il of wilt. Suturale vritli uuiiuotiiuru sulphato ; 
mhtlte [ireci|i)tut«(l nltiuniiiut 'with luituruled eulutioii uf iiiumoniuin 
■l|i)«le ; diiexilvc the |in:cipiUit4- by uililiiiK water ; uxuntH of Halt 
otj igUD be rcRH>^'«d, if nncrvn^ty, by cliiilytiis. A solution of pure 
tSbmia is thas otitAioed. Add cthc-r, c^-olbuuiiii is i>rcripitBti>d, 
Mnm-albuiuiD reniftiiis in aolution. 

ViTCLLrx (k globulin), which is very imperfectly prwipitated by 
all, nuiy be mixed witii the albumins. If ao, it uill lie pi'ecipitated by 
lUnis. (For cryHtailiue vit«!liii gre p. 133.) 

c SligUtly Aoiilify die mIuIioh aitd lK>tl ; Uie lObuuiiii and filobulin 
nt OMguLatwl : tiltvr off the- pn^cipitntc, untl n^tiiii test for nvid- 
tlbwnm and nlkuli-.'ilbumiii. 8ur a. 

lULt llL — ToMparaU the /rmi/fulaliltl proteida (aWumitu and gtabu- 
lin4)/rom the uttn-coagutabl'! (albtimoaeit and peptontt) 

a. Siitamtv with niniiionium xulpliuti-. All pnitvidx nrv precipi- 
MhI liat peptitnvii ; filtirr <>tf thu pmcipitntis ; tlii; p<<ptnnr« am iii thp 

I. B<iil (nftcr andific'itinn). ThiK prticipitiiti'x iho nibunUDH mid 
lUbnlinK ; filter. '^M^ filtmtti contiiinH tin- iilhuinosm and poptmies, 
'fcUt iwiy Ikj mpHrnU^l an in Tnblo IV. This motliud is only applic- 
•U-toconn^itnit^l :u>Iiitions, an Hiiiall qu»ntiti(?s of pniuiiry albauoBus 
■naft to tie fomir'l by the hylrating action of the acidified liut water 
Iwa ^be nlhmninK Kn<l globulins. 

(. Add leu (iiac« its volume of alcohid to the soliitiiai. Thin pii>- 
(i|4Ut«B all thf prowida. Lwive tiae prL-cipIUilt! uink-r .iUmiIuIc ntoihiil 
ivtllaa-vi one— bettw two or llirei- iiiontlis. Pimr ofl .luiwrnntant 
fieabiA, i-vjjx*™ie the rwit of tlit- ale<)h()l at 40" C. Add water. 
H* tibnmiHm (except dyii-ulbuinone) uikI pcpUniiw <rnt<'r into Hiilutiou- 
AifHattr a* in Tabto IV. AlbutiiiiiK and >;lobuliii.< arc, ns n result of 
** fvoloDgnl action of alri>li'>l, in.->c>luble in watt-r or wtlinc Kolutions. 

d. Btturato with lui^caiuin nulp)ia(e. A pmcipitato in produced ; 
Oirt ihn .iC 

'"■. ]trnto^lbummo, and lifrt^iru* 
"^vnnn?. Sopanito tlicHc an in 

Th« iillratcr i^ontain;i nibtiiriiii. 
vitcllin, ilrutcnvnlliiiinose, aiit) 
IJCptonc, Scjiai-nte as in 6 and e. 
For tin- scparalioQ of TitelUii, 
pr(!<-ipitato it by dialysis as in 
Tabl« JI. 

TTra CHuancAL cowsmnTESTs df the oHoAyissi 

TaRLK IV. — Snparation nf priAndu wh^n more than one i» in toltUio 
globwlitit, ntbitmint, and alhitmiJuUet bein^ almant. 

The sotutiou will conUin prot«oiic« (itlbnni(wra) nnd peplonea. 
Fuintlj" Hcidify with acetic ncid, and fully .iiiturnt« with «nimoniiiiii 
suJplinte. A precipitate is priiductKl, lilt«r thin off. 

The [irecipitat* coii&iHtA of 


WiuJi the preeipilJilf- with mtui-iiti^) aola- 
lion of AbIjSO,. R^isxolve tlie precipiuie 
bv adding water. Ri-ndi-r l\w oOutinn iuintly 
iidd witli acetic lutid. 8iiturn(c with iMliiini 
oliloride, and filler off the pn5cipitftt4'. 

The pn>cjpitiit« j The lijtrute con- 
ooiuitits of primary tatns d«vt^ro ■ aUiu- 



atbumiiiKt. Wjvnhthe 
precipiUitcwith witu- 
mtcvl w>tutioii of 
KiiCI, and n^liHHiJve 
it hy luldiiig u'liirr. 
Dinlyxp the solutiim. 

lUltro - ijfbwiioir 
in prcoipitnt^yl ; the 
precipitate is col- 
lected, mielied, and 
dried ; or may lie 
first ivdiMolvcd aiid 
thoD pi«dpitAtefI by 

Protv - albumom 
retuuiiiH in tHilutitm 
and ina}' hf. prccipi- 
taied l)j- nlcdbnl, 
waahvd, and drinl. 

mosi; which nmy be 
procipilaled hy satu- 
ration with aiuniu- 
niuni sulphate ur 
evapomted tonftinall 
Itulk >uid precipiUit^Nl 
by alcuhnl, waah<'d 
with idcohol and 
other, anil ciried. 

The filtrntn cinitJuiia 


To sepiuntc then] 
a pure .itAie, )'\-mi; 
the Hulutiim to n siiiall 
bulk, filtirr off the cryn- 
talv of ainiminiutn »al- 
phnte wbtrli M?]iumt«, 
and Uir n'lniiindcr of Ibo 
salt by aqticouK Iwryto, 
and the ln*t InuiMi by 
bftriuni ciirWnatv. Pre- 
cipitntd the <txce»» of 
barytA by dihitv >ul- 
pharic acid ; 6It«T off 
tho bnnnni salpkite 
thus precipilatt^l. To 
the tiltiHte add exc«as 
of alcohol ; this {ir«cipi- 
tates the pejitonen ; re- 
diasulre tbeiu in a ainnD 
quantity of water, and 
lepreeipilulf by |iha»- 
pli'i-iiingstic acid ; wiuh 
the pr«ctpitat« with 
alcohol and ether, aiM) 





TnE term albuminoid is usol by some chemists synonymously with 
protoid. It is however best to restrict the nnnie to a group of sub- 
stkQceB -n-liich, although similar to the prot«icls in many particulars, 
dififer from thera in certain other points. No doubt in most coses they 
originate from proteids. They are especially abundant in the connective 
tisBuea and in epithelium, and they will bs fully desciilted in connection 
with these tissues. 

1 . Coflntjfn. — The substance of which the white fibres of connec- 
tive tissue are composed. It is probably the anhydride of gelatin. 

'2. Ossein. — The collagen from bone. 

3, frefatin. — The substance proiluced by boiling collagen with water. 
Soluble in hot, insoluble in cold water. It is not precipitated by 
acetic acid and ferrocyanide of potassium. It contains no sulphur. 
(a>»= — 1 30=. 

By hydrating agents, such as heating with superheated steam, 
treatment with gaatric juice, ic, it is converted into {leptune-like 
sobstances, intermediate bodies analogous to the proteoses being {orme<l. 
Salkowski' gives the following diffei-eQces Ijetween i>roteid- peptone, 
gelatin, and gelatin -peptone. 


Adatukievricz' reaction 
Addition of an equalj 
xolnme of concentrated ; 
H.,S04 ) 

Millon's reaction 
Xanthoproteic reaction 

dark brown 

retldish pp. 
deep orange 





lemon -yelliiw 


lemon -yellow 

4, Cfiondrigen.—The organic basis of hyaline cartilage ; it is a 
mixture of collagen and mucinoid substances. 

> Berlin, klin. It'ur/i. iws, No. a. 

my. ciiKiiicii. c-nNSTrrrEXTM o\' tke "BOaswm 

5. CKomlrin. — The sutwtAnM obtniniil>li! fmui chmidrigi-ti Uy boitiog. 
It is II mixture of gelatin ivaA inucinoiil xubittiLnoiiM. 

6. }tutin. — A widely distributed mibslnncv occurring in epitiwlial 
struatureH (mucus, mucous glnnd«, g^iblrt oellx, cvniruI-tobBtanm of 
epIUieliuiu), in coimc-Uvc tissuea (cliiof constituent of llie ][rtKind- 
ftulfSlADce) ; it foiiiiH tho cliief constituent of lli« bodiw uf ccrteio in- 
vert«bra1ea lik« the snail ; it is found in electrical Of;puis, in ajmovin, 
in certain forms of »alivi>. and in bile. Tlie gfTMter part of tbo &liinjr 
BulMtance in bile is tiowevi-r » uucl«oalbumin. 

The uiuvin oltUiinable frmn liiflbrent sources rarin ui oaiupanitJun 
lUid n!iiution«. There are probably aevvral Diucins. Th«y nil a^n^ in 
|.ti« (uilowing [Mtntd. 

(a) Phyncal i.'hiiracl«r. Viitcid, Hliiny, l^nacioun. 

(6) Prccipitability from Bolutjoas by acetic acid ; thi'y nrr in- 
■alnble in «xanti of rJict renj(ent. They all dtswtvc in dihitn nlkaliit. 

ie) Tbey aiv all ^liicMidM : compuuiuls uf a proteid (proluibly vnnnble. 
bat guncrally a );lobu1in) with animal ^ui, vrhkh by truiluu-nt with 
dilute Kulphurio ncid cnn bn hydratod Inton ivdncing, but noH-fvrment- 
abia sugar. 

7. Ci>Uoid-tuh»lntiee.—T\a% ucctin in tho tliyruid giand, and in 
cortein fonoN of Uunour, e>pecially tbnte oonnccted witli thw thyroid 
(goitre) or wit]i tbo ovary {trr ovarian cyst*), Acotic neid cnutcs it to 
»well, but d(i<« iKft prci-ipitati- it, otherwinx it memblos mucin. 

V: }t'l-"lt'Um%H or jtrH'tvmuiein '» ttiv loiuu M OoDoUi BulwtaBcO 
(an- ovarian lluiil). 

9. I'araUiumin vk met allm mill in loose camlriiiat(<i«i witli pttitffid 

10. Aorr/iKwiM.— This Rubstance occurs in that fovm nf dognkomiioa 
mU«(l waxy or albuminoid degei>enitiuti. It speeially offecU sumU 
blood vMsels, but it may alsit involve tbo tissue-eleuietilit of organa liko 
th« liver, siilcvn, pantrreas, Ac. This form iif (lfK«iii.-nitii>n ovcun 
n]«c«allj in i^oMwof cliruiiic piu-fonuattun. The ports nflecl<vl beoume 
brownifth-t«d, as glyciig<-n does on tli« oddtliiin *i ilJlline^ and biuiiJi ur 
viuU-t •111 ibe addition ><f sulphuric ik-kI and i<ali]M!. It wros tburofwra 
*up]t<Mnl at oiM* time bi In- iif tiie tialuiv of a corboliydnitr, and was 
oollcil amyloid subslaooe by Virohow. Ki-kuli'' luu, bou-eii-er, thown 
tlui it is niirojenuus, oud is prubably an i»l«rra«diato strp botwmm 
albamimiUBmalti-r cni tbeo«i4> lianil aimI fai and cbtile«t«rui on tlio oIImt. 
It i» itui»lubl«' in wstor, iilci>l)i>l nml "tlK-r. l>ilute aeetM acid lias no 
•Abel on it.Oxou|)tl)iatllMi«tro«iga(iil cnososlt loswoU. It is insuluUo 

■ KiAub aud PriadnAdi, FifvA«r'* jlrrJktr, *vi 

Hl &« •!« Kllkiw. ITaJ^'* 



{d tfttliae c*rbonAt«t, but diasdivea in strong alkalia. UDtU (juile 
MMtljr it wsskkoaUtMt to lH.<iiisolul>l« in t;tiati-ic juice; butulthougli 
BHWWil opMi with tUHicuhy, fpiatric juice docs ullimatcty dinsolvn it 

II. SlatliiK — This Li Um aulMtonvu of which the yellow fihrcit nl 
oaHMive tiwue arr (.y>in|Huc<). It is ii very iiisntulile riinti-riiLl. The 
MMltOMiM uf niUNCulur lihrvx nnd cerUuD;tuiMit nicmbi-Bitcs nre 
•mj liniUr.* 

Oi (l^Mtion, ehutoam {suhitbuices anitlo^uk to th» prrjtcoses) nre 

It JTueMn. — The vhicrf constituent of cpll-imolci. A similar sub- 
UioMttakri fntin<I in milk, aiuI yolk of pgg. I(» physical characters 
■■* wmrwhAt likp niiiciti ; it however cnntninK ahooitnnce of plios- 


^B A (alwtniici* very simtlAr ui nuclt^in hnu been miule artificially by 
^^HbgDietAphfUtphoric acid to albumin. Nuclein and the chromaliii 
• iifloiugiirt* «re probably identical. (AVr Tlic NuclcM, Chap. XIV), 
IS. I'lattin. — Another highly pho«phori»ed substance found in 
'■d'i sod cell-proloplasni. 

1(. jruf/ro-o/&tiiniW.— Com pounds of proteids (^iieiierally Kl^bulins) 
•ilb nnclein. 

Thtuc are oonntituent* of cell protojilunui. hikI an< jierhap* i<Iei)ticiiJ 
*l(b the pliuttin of micmacopi-itJ^ Tlie uiui.'in-likr auhnbtnce in bile is 

• wdeo-Albumin. 
15. Sprrnvitin ia the intioin-like nubstjiiiee in neiuen. It however 

tdden fmm muctii in bi'injt M>tuhle in eoteeas i>f iicutic acid. Possibly 
t tbo may he a nticleo-alhumin. 

IK. J/^n^ttw oik/ Itffttlogrmi. A gn>up »f xubKtancea veiy like llie 
laaOM, chieSy found in invertebrnte connective timucs (Krukeubcrg. 

Chapter XXII). 

17. K^ralin. — Horny material. Sw Chapter XXI. 

18. BUiilin. — A stage in the foi'matiim uf keratin. 

19. Skdetina.—A name given by Kruketiber^ to a number ofin- 
!e epithelial prcviucts found chiefly in hivertebi^tes. Thn group 

dodm rhitin, cone/Min, corn^in, apvs/ii', Jihrijin, aiui »ilk (Sev 
»pLer XXI>. 

• Ciem. C*ntnilU. IMT. ^ 190. 

• Cntals Bilaoi lUftuvnou ImTo Iwm tfcenll^ pciintri] out Ly Ewnlil, Xnl. Biot, 


■ af«bMwmU, Ztit. lAfiol. Clitm. ri. KM. ChitttmiloD uid Hut, XtU. Oiet. 




Tht) ffirtiieat!* hjio sal»tnnc(« which pnKluo' cliniuical chiiiign in 
uthrr lutMtMncfH, without nppiireiitJy und<'rj|;oitig nny eliaii^ ue k 
Icwit withniit fm-ining any coiiaUluent part of the linnl prrjducts. 

The fpnn^tilA itre <lis-idt<(.l into two great groups. 

1. Tlie oi-gaiiiMMl fi^nntrnta : that iii tu8a>-, living orguiianw. YtaML 
luiil bact«i-ia may be oit«d as iniitunoea. 

'2. EiuytiH!^ »r unorgnnim^l frrniiMiti. Clieniioal princJplH excraUd 
either )>y (irxuiii.vrvl fcniK^ntji, i>r tho prtxluct of the activity of otbcr 
living cpllis n.g. thraw wf the (•Ijinils of tho Ktoimich, ptiricrcuu, 4c. Th« 
difTnimt mrtJiotU in which Kuclt feimcnU tiiny originitto within 
oellx itro briftfly describocl uuder ' secreting epiihcliuni ' (Chap. XXI). 

The feniietilH, whether they oouaist of liviitg orgnnifiiiis or not, m« 
«Xiieedin){Iy unbtable nibatanoes, and Uius rosomble what we know it 
the cuHe in hU protopbuni which is bviof;, EMpeoially in th« p(ut«it) von* 
atilucniH uf pruUipliuin. It ia nii <loubt this vltv Inambility, and tli* 
iiittiiniok-cular chntijc's with whtdi it is ajuuciatcd, that (imftir oa 
frrtnrntK their iipocinl jmwor iif pnnluoinft inoWulnr nBrningrai<-nta at 
tbu Kubttancos with which they conic in contact. 

Tho Actual fprmnntu arp nulittancw whirb cludn tlie gr««p of thi> 
iOTcntigntor to a grvnt extent. Tht'y howovrr np]>««r tu be eithi-r 
prot^idx, or subMAnoe» nenily related to liitt proteids. In the case uf 
certAiii fennent«, hoTever, it has been mjtunlly deinonstmltd thitt ihry 
are prot«ida, e.g. tibrin-feruient,' [>epsi»,* and niftit diiuitam!.' Intltr 
COM of dimttjue Loew haa alau deuionatnited the inlenuttiii^ fn>.-t that, 
Ulce « living proUld, it oontaina an uldeliyde nuliule. Schiitxenbef jt^cr'a* 
aiwIyaJH of ywat iihowH thiit this substance yieldii in addition to inor- 
giinic aalta and guui (nrabiii), anuuiberuf amido-nciiLs (l<-ucini\ lyroaine^ 
gtuiniiie, lice.), Huoh as nrv always obtaiiuible fruni pntteida. 


Tlui pigniffiita fonn a cliunof HubntJiDoni of the greatest iinportAnfleu 
IIm) {Mlrrly thrmicnl pigincnta luivn licrn thn xtibjevt of pnin«(aking 
raMMrvIi, and tlii* has bcrn followed, topecially in the cow of tlio aniliiw) 
dye*, with important iiidimtrial rraulta. 

Bnt ill" pigRinntii occuiring in nntur<- have receivnt, if tuit soant 
attendun, at any ntt« n Comi of attention that luia nut resulted in 
intimate acquaintanw.^ oikI >ii mntiy casca tlie field ia attll a blank. 

■ lUUniOflaa. Jowm. Pk^^M. n. Of. 
* O. LoMT. J. pr. CAtm. Ill nzrii. 101. 

• CvwjD/. rrnd. luiiii. <M. 


IWAwiilaJ ooiwtitntion nf the unlinnry rnj^Uililn t\ya», of wlitch lug- 
mud k a AMniUiir exnin[>t(% m unknown. Still more i* our i^nnmnco 
(ppBn-nt wUrd KUi-li substAncuN nn; oMrKriAtiHl with pnit^Mclit, ok in niuoy 
tf ilir niiut iinp»rtnnt of thr pigments botii in pliintK ((-'hliiruph^ll), itnd 
ui LninisU (hirini>glot)in). 

VuT<- an- vant lielij» of research — such, for instAnc«, (is the pigments 
iJfraiihtTii, of likiii^t. eggs, butt«i-Rie»' wiii^, flowers, &c. — ot which lli« 
fiitgtH only just touched, but thi> re^uttH iiiv so meugifre that it will bo 
MkHMfil to inentiou th« few diBJoiiited fayts ihiit have been aacer- 

tie function of pigmeuta iH itlao uiust impuiUut : iii cerUiu cuam 
ikpiliKet b Httnctive ; in c«rUuii ulht-rs protective ; lu ullici^ tgiuui 
il»«f wrviM in the tunctiiiiu of rt«piruti»n, vision, &c. 

T\» iiicTvoHiiijc UM of the K[MKrtrc»uc)pti in tim investijj^ution «f the 
mnl pi^nimU will ui> <!oubL in tiinn In- by rt-sultK Himilnr 
bihete which followed thi^ invention of the microsuupe in anatomy, or 
<i litt triMcofW! in SAtrunoni}'. 

Botring in mini) our pmmt (leticii'ticirx, the following groups of 
MMrnt* mn}' be incntioiii«] : 

I. Th' Rfupiratortf or i'roUid I'ii/iii^nU. — Thean pigments »r© 
pToteids or affioouit«d with proteids. Some perfom) the function 
CHrien of oxygen ; recoivin^ it from the »ii-. ami cnrryiug it to Uie 
Ihihb. These are the pignienta of the blood (Iwiiioglobin, htnno- 
yuan, Ac). Some perform the function of receiving the oxy^n from 
\tiaod. and holding it until the tissue eleiuentii are in need of it. 
art! tlie tustuhieuiatina. Other*, agdiu, have relation to the 
ubooic «dil ; llie«e are the chroniophylls, the most important of whiuh 
(Uorciphytl ; It occurs in the majority of plants, and in a few 

(>) IlMnoglobin. Thn ml pigment ikf the bl<Kxi is remurkabtc for 
■Btaiaing iron, for being fuwociAtud with a pruteid, iind therefore non- 
stable, but yet ia cryatAlline. 

(l) H«mocTABin (a blue pigment cnntnining ropixT), chlorocniorin 
dimn ptgmetil containing iron), and others t<ike tiw plncp of hnriao- 
(Wtn in many invertebrates. 

ifl Iks hlHt^dueniatina. Thcne alxo contain iron. KfyohirniAtin, 
Ik watt iiDpurtant member of the group, occurs in mmtcle, aud will 
^ l^nixl fully <ln!u:ribed iu Chap. XX. 
(d) Chlo^phyll ; *« end of Chap. XIV, 

I. Tkf d^rimtlinrs of H'riiuigUAiin.^&Kay derivativw o! haimo- 
"'■teui be artificially ptikIucihI by the notion of reagents ; sonn' of 
iC^g. metltKnM^lobin, hicniat4>|.K)rphyriti, Jto., itomelimeeiuoour in tlie 



body &s the rrault of similar decoinpositioiLS to thofle producnd in th 
Iftborntory. Othprs, e.g. hwitiiii, Are never founil in the body. 

Tlie pigmentn uucurriiig in other purts of the body ara miMtl] 
dorivetl friiiii hfL'TnogUibin. 

Thua tlie piKiii«-nts of the bile (bilirubin, Jcc.\ of the mine (nrobilttt, 
ico.), of Ui(! fn'ci'% (st^i'cnliilin, Ac), uniloubttilly (iiki" their ultimate 
origin from hinooglobiii, aud it is possible thnt tlic Hiuroe at Uic \mUt-, 
hirmntinif w the same. 1 

The pignient-s of the bile, mine, and fwces have however no ip«i«l 
function, «ntl appear to be merely the chnnnels for the pxcrntioa li 
'eflete' blood pigment. ^H 

3. T/ir Lifiorhn)m-rM. — Tliese are the fatty pigments. The toBP. 
lutein (Tbudichuui') wna at imi' time given to the Ri-oup. Tliey wo 
exceedingly numerous. The ohief inembtirs of thu group are M 
follows : — 

(1) Tlie yellow pigment of the corpus luteum : lutein. 
(3) The yellow pigment of fat, butter, yolk of egg. «nd 

(3) Cnrrotin, the colouring matter of the carrot nud U>ta»ta,7 
lipoclimine whicli ha« been more fully examined tlian insny of tul 
others. It, like all the rest, oiHiHiala of oarboit, hydR;«en, snd oxygen. ! 
Its formula in O, ,11,^0 (Uusemitnn *}. 

(4) Tetronerythrin. The name wiut fimt gi%-«n by Wunn' to th* 
rod pigment round the eyes uf onrtitin binls. Mi^rejlciiwjiki* has siii« 
fomtd it in 104 Hpociea iif aniniids, Imth vcrti-brntc nnd Jn^fTlebral* 
It is the red jiig:ni-nt ooL'urrinK in the shell, hinod, nnd hypodeito ol 
the lobHt<T and ullint LTustnccia. It ha« been the subject of Ktody bjr 
MacTktunn.^ niy«Tlf,'' »n<] otherti. tt pmliably hns no cuch ree^nmUirT 
activity na Mrn-jltowski iumjiint*. nnil probably the word as used tyi 
Merejkdwnici may includ't Hf^vcrnl dintinct reddiwh lipochronies. 

(>t) The chruniophnntiK. The pigments of the retiont ouneti. 

(6) Visual purple; the pigment of the re4Ju»l rods k Mti 
lipochrome or closely allied to one. 

(7) Xanthopliyll tuid other yellow piginenUt occurring in lM*e>t 
flowers, and fruit. 

' Ctnltnlhl. mull. Wii*. rii. 1. 

' Hawiiiiutii. Licbtg'i AnnaUn, vxTii. 300, AnuiDil. Compt. mul. ni. lilt! o^ 
lUti iciTD* th* tormula C^Hku but w no olhn wloorod bydnxaition i* known, ehvmM 
pnlwblj aonlaiiw ni]r|[Bii. 

» Xril. irui. Xml. mi, 6«ll. • C<rrtipt. rtnd. wiii. 10*1, 

* i'roe. Birmingham Philotui-h, Soc, iu. Ml, PrM. Bof. Soe. ItiM, f, IT. 

* Joum. riiyn'nl. >i. m. 



tk fipochronies are cbum«t4!riii<.'<) : — 

()) By aojubtliticK in nthcr, nlcnhnl, benzenes turp4intin«, &q., Kka 

(2) By oertnin coloar rmutionx : n given or bluo coloui* witli iralino, 
trvilh niphurio acid, or wilti tlii^Mo two rMigcntx togcthi^r ; a green 
(otMU- «iUi nitric *ci(I. 

fJ) By Jifaiu>rpti<>n lutnds toward* tbe Tiolel end of tbe spectrum. 

ft) By being bleuclied (uftt-r vni-yin|> periods) bj light. For the 
hui^ of this on lb<! subject of tiBJon tee Chap. XXI. 

t Th< Jlffaniiui.- -Thv blnck piginentii of the b<xiy am niimvroua; 

Ruigia is (lonbtfai ; some, like Iiohninnn,' looking npcm thtnn iitt 
itiva of liaimoglobin, nnd others, e.g. NliicIci, rogiinl thniii as 
Int bum iron and oontAiniug sulphur, s» thnt they cunnot ho 
riramivegi of himiatin. Some, e.g. Krukenlwrg, regard tfiwu iw 
RnpoKioii (U'rivHtivcn of lipiichiionies. It is prolwible Unit thero are 
•ksiI nirjiinins, that some coniAin iron, and wme do not. Tlicy ar« 
4 liitnMma sabctancea (Uirachf eld "). They will be found described 

MuMction with itie tiasnes where Uiey occur. 

{«) Piuein, the black pigment of the retina, 

(t) The black ptgue^L of Ihc iikin uud luiir. 

(r) The bUck pigment of mfliniotic smivomuUi. 

(rf) Other black tiixUM^DU in iltfft^itrnt parU of iheanininl kingdom, 
Iff. UiON deacribed by Krukeubcrg in the atems of Uorgonieltc and tho 
Ml of mollusca. 

y Ittdigo pijfnunt*.~Sn pi 78. 

i. ff*imau4 niAWaNOM.— S'(v p. 95. Thnuj a* a rule are not 
■itngmoiia and of mrliohydralc origin, but certain mvnibera of tho 
gm«p un atjtted by Uilrin.uky' to be nitrogcnouH ; and the dark 
kbur tJiat occurs in trenting urine with niinenil aciiln i* considered by 
•in to lie due to such n hunious Hubetnnce fonned fmui tho aojall 
•■(•at irf carbohydrate present nominlly in urine and una. Tho dark 
■^MT of bones' nrine ia stated to bo chiefly due to a hunioum substance 
tifwd from some constituent of the fodder ; as ia atw the dark colour 
'' ^ urina after tbe adniinistratioii of carbolic acid. 
' Uitettlanttntt pigmfnU, 

' BamOwk phptial. Ch<nn. p. I«(t, ' ZtiL phytiol. Chrm. xiii. lOT. 

' IW. li an ; Kit. St. Thin piKiiiont in probnl'ty tlmt dwiwtlbMl lij muij abwrVMS 

^'k itiBuwit ■>!!»■» (I*naiiiit'i> fsllnw rvun, Ki^hiirliti|i'> miikh iryl oxide, Hallti's nrrilO* 

'■>. IMiBui-i inilirubiii, Holmnit'ii |iitn"">>t '"»'> uniiK. Hail*;'* Ujobwltlstln, Uutict'* 

ynttifif, ThodH-Jiiim'* umpitliiii, unimKluiui and omiduiUo acid, BoUcr** 

, ial mrnti vUnn), 



oocura only wLeu the or^tLiiiHins nre growing, »nd stops whpit tite 
dcgudnriB tirv remotetl or killMl. 

^tis vitaliBtii; llieui-y at feniieulAtioii beooince e»pociiilly iiDportwit 
to the {diytioloKiiit aiid patholu^'i^t when it{i[)lied to diBease. Tlie 
*f(«rmcheor]r,'iuit isturroed.expliuiiii tli« infection s or jtymotic diao c M 
by coti.iidenDj; lliut thu i-lmuxe in the >yBt«in i< of tli« nature ut 
ftimirtntittiion, nnd hku llio other fennentutiititn we hav« mentiuuad, 
produced b; particular fornia uf hactm-iuiD ; lh« Uranalereiioe of tbo 
bftctniii or their Kpurt'!! fntm one pi^rxiii tn another cotu>titutin;{ 
infciotion. Thin theory hiis not Ik?i-ii fully vi-rili'-d for every iii(<.-ciiuiu 
diflOiMO by thn dUcovciry (if a xpi^cilic minmlio ■ many alilv invtslijjpttan^ 
howerer. constdnr it likt'Iy that tim pittho^nio gnruM t4 tbcAc malOiilieB 
will be discovered, im in the oanon of splenic forer, aud r«lapiung fnvor, 
aitd a few others in which th« specific tmoteriuoi Iim beon alri'ndy 

ITinre is, however, another class of ohc-inical trnnoformHtionif, wtuch 
difltr very considerabl}' from all Ui which we have hitherto nlhiihtl. 
They, however, rntenible these fvriiit'nlntiuna in the fact th«t thr}* mvur 
independently of any apparent chaii^ in Uie agenta that pnKlaoa 
theni- Tlie a^^nts that produce them are not living organiuDs, bat 
diutiiical Bubsljincei*, the result iif the ai^tivity of livinn cells. Aa 
inatnnoea of Uiia olaas of chemical ImimformHtionB, the following maj 
be token : the (.'haujje of Htaruh into au^r by the ptyalin of tlie saliva, 
the cfaao^ of proteidfi into peptones by the p«[Kiin of tlie gastric jnior. 
the diaage «f flbriiin^'eii intii fibrin, when blood ia cJied, ix. ic 
Thttt ehantten are alnii iiu'ludoi uiid«i' thr term fonneutat^on.' 

Fermentations may tlierefnre be divided into two cluoat : fint, 
thnw' bn>uifht about by tli*- orxniiiiuMl forment* (tornltr, bacteria, kc), 
and, Mi«<>ndly, thoM- brought nlxiut by the unoTignniawl ferments 
(pepsin. diiMt«*e, Jk.). Each of thdse clnMc« may be again nibilivideili 
aecording to tlio nature of the dieniical change produvod. 

Previfwt to WW, the action of yeast woa regarded iw a catalytio 
one (BeneliiM) ; that in %•< >u>y. the iiiHuence of its mere proaonoB 
cnasea a sepamtion of the constituents of sugar, jnst aj platinam 
Unvk caasM pemxido <4 hydrogen to give up an atom of ita onygcn. 
A iiKKtifiiratJon of this tbtory wan proposed by UeUg in li^4ri ; hv gave 
the oi'(i;anuims luaocinted witli the change a seoondary position, hold- 
ing tliat they produced subatanoos of a chemical nature which were tlie 
tme fermcnu : and he considered that tlie molocuUr \-it>mlions of 
theee fej-incnt> ctiauxl a rmrmngHBMtt of the atoms of the iiabttaaoe 

> fllwriilan Lm auiiKnU tiir mm ayimiljnu lor tli» niiilj of lonnnitoliaii |/mn, 

tfttfllULlMKKp^ntt. I'll W ItiiliiiiMiminHillliiiN ) ■Iiiriiii tt f Till 

id. mi. p. I U) nuDjr j*nn ttpr fur tk> aftuia prewiiw. 




It lutf been knnwn since very andont times that sweet juicea of 
traitc. mora particiilnrljr of tlio grape, cnti bo mnrfo to undergo c«rtaiD 
«b»n^e%, tlt>e rvsnlt of which is, that the juice is no loiigvr n tweet 
ianocwKis liiguid, but pceseases intoxicnting properties. i>uring the 
VMJiuiaooe of tliiii chivnge the cleKr fluid becomes lurbid, and its surface 
ii savored by bubblen or (roth. This latter iitienomenoii attrftcling 
■pad* I attention, the name feiiueiitation ' was given to the process. 
W« now know thai t)i« vbatige con&ifit« in the traimformAtiou of the 
, latMUinee sugar into other luutemla, of whiuh the mottt abundant 
■kJeolM^ lli« bodjr poMeuing the intoxicuiting pro|ii.>rli<;!i, uiid cnx- 
■ »vi(l. tbi' evolution of which onu.-K'ii the fruthin|;. The turbidity of 
I lii|uitl lA cauaed by tlie ]>reiictic« of iiuuierous unicelluhti- orguniiinis, 

y»»)' which tncrwu-H! rapidly by u proceas uf buddin;;. 
Tliis forin of fimnunlAtion in now usually cnlltH] tlic nicoholtc 
brBifMitation, for it hna botin found thiit otlii^r ch<-riiiciLl chan^irn »f the 
mtam nMlorf niay propi-rly be includes! under thr gcnt'ral U-nn fcmien- 
tuinn. As iiubinci'j^ of thnv, thi- nouritig nt' milk, the trirnKforniniiim 
M arvm into nmnioniuni cnrlionati*, liic may Ifc cilnil. The coTiipIPLX 
I of HiARgrs which nro occciiiiiumietl by the formntion of malodorous 
and which aro known ah pii (refaction, come also into the luinie 
tmugpey. In nil these instAnces the transform tition is a<.-eoiiipiiuied by 
Ike |>n«ence of iinit'ellular orgsiii^iiiB, wliich correapoiid to ihu Itnttiie 
i4 thv Alcoholic fermentAtiori ; for intiTjiiice, in putrefyiiiK material, 
^mriaaa kindit of bacteria, undergoing mpid growth hkiI inu]tiplii»l)on, 
win l>« tliicovcretl. It wiw for a long tiim' ii matter "f doubt, whether 
ifadM) urgniiic gruwllu were the cauie, or result, ur on iiccidcutal con- 
sitont, of the fcrmcntntive procnu. But it is now nlmo«t univur- 
[|]r acknowUvlgrd thnt tho nrgniiixniii am the cnusc of t)i(- fermenta- 
It hn* Iwcii shown thnt thn growth of such organisms ia nccoiD- 
jpmiMl with the fmn nutation in qiipntiou, that such fermentation 

■ Frnm frrrert. Xa bolt 

■ A liat of • UrvD BUiubar af funKt {SafchundiyaB* onfmltiBv 8, elll|iiKiidei». UuMr, 
W|iMlmii«. d:e.) ■Ueti axclta iha ftlt'obolii: (nrineiitalloii will bn found In & pnpoc \sj 

B«l. Unlmtifh. a. d. Altiihalguhrunf/iyiU* ; *bc tSio licliutick. J. prakl. CAmn. 



occora only when th« MrKuniBius are gruwuig, uiid stopi wli«ii tlie 
Orgnnuuiit iire removed or kUkvl. 

This viiAliatiu ilieory of furitKintiiLiuti beootuea tnp«cutty itii|>i>rti>nt 
til tliL' phyucilogisl nncl pntliolnijiijl when upplieU to diwqi&e. The 
'gmn l)im>ry,'nsit ia tttruiMJ, Rxpliiins th« infvi-tious or lymolic diiMMa 
by considering thnt tlio chnnge in tbn system i* «■( tlie luilurr of 
f«nii<^ntntioD, wid lilct* tho other fermentntion* wp have UH-i>ti>in«il, 
produoM lijr particular formn uf bacU^rium ; thn tmiiHfi-r»ni.-« of th« 
bnct^rin nr thrir spore* from on» person ti> nnotltrr con-Nti Luting 
infection. Thi« theory ha* not been fully vcrifind (or ovrry infrctiow 
diaeoee by tlic discovpiy of n •specific niicrolw ; many nblp Invpstijpuors 
however, ooiisid^r it likely tJiat tlie puUiogeuic germs of tlicsc maUdios 
will lie discovered, aa in the eaMk of splenic fever, &ii<l relapAing fover. 
mid a fe<r others ill whicli Uie speoillc biicteriain has been slrMtdy 

There is, however, nnolher class of cht-tuictil traiisformntionB, which 
differ very coimidembly froin nil Ui which we h«ve hitherto nlladed. 
Tlioy, however, reu-mble thi-ae foruinn tat ions in the fiiyt, ibul they ocour 
iiidepeiiiletilly of any nppuretit uluin;;!- in the iLj^entH thiit jfrodoeo 
them. The a([mits thitl pr-oliicc thi-m nrv not Itttng or^&uifcou, but 
chvmictil suhHtAncea, the r«tuli uf the activity of living cells. As 
inaUnocK of thiH cIivm of cheuiioiil tninsfomutioiis, the folloviti^ vaty 
b« taken : the change of aUirch into sugnr by the ptyalin uf the nalira, 
the ohnnge of proLelds iaU> pe]>b>ni>M by tlie |tq>*iii of the gsstric Juice, 
the cliAn^ of SbriTiuf^ii inUt fibrin, when blood in tiheil, ikc Ach 
Thi-w duutges are nUi> includ'^il under the twnn fcmirntntion.' 

FnTix-n tat ions utay thert-fniv bo divided into two ckuiai'!) : fir»t, 
thoae brought i>tN>ut by lh« nri|[ani««d feriiimt* (/orute, inrfcrt'i, Ac.)^ 
uid, secondly, thow tmiHght itUiut by Uie unorganised ferments 
(pepsin, diiMlAse, die.). EmuU of tlie«e clawMw m»y be again nubdividMt, 
Mcoonling to the naturvi of the dieiuiciil duii^ce produceii. 

Previous to }t*3t^, the action of veaHt was re«pirded a» a catalytic 

one (BonceliuH) ; tliiit in to taty, the influence of its turre pretence 

oMtMB a sepAralioD of tlie coitkUtuenta of lugar, Jusl as pUlinnm 

black rauMS peroxide of Itytlruften to gjre up an ntout of its oxygtii. 

A inMliHcation of thix t.Iteory was proposed by Liebig in IH4X ; he ga*s 

the orgaiiisavi associated wjth the change a secondary position, liolil* 

ing that they produoed sabstancm of a chemical natare which werv th* 

true ferments; and he conHidcrol iliat the moloctilar Tibmtioits of 

thus« fcniieiito caused a ru»rrau;;enient of the ntunw uf tiie subsbuic* 

■ SbBriiUn I«> tii in wl* lh« tnm cpnolrilii tar llili Tarlely dl llu»«>t«lici» iJomm, 
«/ ehftiet. iKVft, [I SftlV 91* W. RnlMrta niioruUd Uw Una vniponM {Prvc. ttog.Sat. 
V«L KXXi. f. Its) nuuij jrawa »ta tc* Ih* auua [Trnrrmin 



tMliqpiiig CerBicntAtiou. He compared this action to tfa* dMompori- 
tin of M«tic luid uito aoetotie tmi carbonic acid prodnoed hy hcnt, or 
AedangBof cyanoK^u<liNfeaIvei)in water into oxamtde, prod uoci by the 
tftntiaaa of a trace of al<le)lJ-<3e^ This action m al8<) cnniparnbl^^ to 
Ibt action of th« uni>nc»<ii--^ fprun-ntn, in wliioli tin- livin;? cells, for 

■rtif rtir iitniilni li, ] liii i i i In mil il MilHtiiiii I'linji jii, fhr nrfirn 

■|itt i* pnNluciiig tivf U:rau!nUitWt! chau^i^ «! iLlhumin into peptone 

In errtain caiu» lliii vinw of Li»l>i)c hiu bwn juaiilled ; soluble 
f— Uhi h»vt beon Bepamt4Kl fi-nm the or^uuisinii, njiit tliesL* have the 
■WMtioB wfant tho org«nt«mH arv ub«cnt lu whmt thfy are present. 
Iksymit iwIIb, in iwMition to cAUsing thi? alcoholic fcrawiDtiitioii, pr»- 
■1m ibo «n intTrting ferment, thnt in, n ferment whii^h trai^aforuui 
OM ngor into glacoM<: this f«rm«nt can lie rtuwlily wpnmtcd from 
Utnr^niiinu (B»rtb,' Donath,' Lea,* Ac). The alkulino fcnncntrt- 
of urine, in which urea ia converted into aiunioniuni corbonnto, is 
it about hy an orsaninni vary similar to jcaet, And to it tho nAnio 
Hrtft has be«n fpveu. Hei<e, ax^iii. a soluble ferment irith tho 
power has been separated from Uit! cells [Mnsculus,* Lea). But 
Um greater nainber of cuam, att«jii]its to aeparate sudi soluble 
■iiaical tumenta hnvti Ij^t-ii unsuL-CRMful , uml thus nttention htw bwn 
mnoentnted «ii tlic lii'itngici^l .lidf! ^f tht! prubleni. In the case 
i( the alcubolio f^rmnn tuition, Ha^lrnlinltz, Mituchcrlicb, and others, 
tknred Uuit if the yi^ivtt cflls wore pr«vent<il from puxnin^ into «. fer- 
watshle lic|iiHl by the intirjxisition of an organic inrmliraiii\ feruien- 
litiaadiil not «nsur. That the organiRnm themselves an; oWJutely 
Mnaaanr, I* also shown by experiments with the btfilfw itntAracu, 
>kip«cific microbe of anthrax or splenic fever. A cultivation of tliu 
WUna inocuhitcd into an aiiiniAl causes the death of thnt nnimal by 
^Me fever ; but if tho bacilli W first carefully tiltcrccl ofl' from the 
nllivation Huid, tho tiltrate is innocuous.* 

U, Iioworer, it be frcply wlmitted that the orpaniwns tln-niwtlveii 
in tii0 caaae of tj>e fermentation, the question slill renmins how do 
Ihtf act t Do ih«y live on the fermentable matter, and then cxorulo 
*^ wn nail tlte products of fertiienlation t This view is not tcuable, 
'lOc of tbo immense volume of the substances in which Ihny prO' 
'-«dianges ; Pastmir consiaiers that of the sugar acted upon by yeast 
^onaper oont^ is taketi up by tJie yeaat itself. Another view, which 

'^.i.iUuitei.elien.Gite!l.llfn,p.t7t ' I6iij. 1HT3, p, THE. 

''■vm.o/J^nal, ti. ISB, • Compr.Ten.i.imii.»SS. I'flOffr'iAnJiir.iu.'Hi. 

"MnA ^xfnimmittt Lhe fultnrv fluid oiuj.loycd Iisa boou butf-ttia «t il tiaulihr 

■■■» Kara nvml Hptruni-nLii [by WoaldTidge. lUiikin. und Uutin bsre ilunm 

ad il Iht laiilli ba thrown lu > fiaul rich Ui ^mloula, Uiry ^iwlucv s poiaen. a n^otiau 

* **'A oMM anthiu («m p. losj. 


U probably more coiTcct, ik timt Uio orgnninms produce, ray muoh ni 
.Ltctitg tiuppnNi>ii, n Kolublr fi^rmont, which iicLi oo tho fcmivnt*bl^ 
mnttor. Ttii« viow, wliich hiui n'criv(«i tho powerful Mipport of Hoppc- 
Hpyler, is nt oncci confitintod with th<^ ilttficultics nlrnndy monttoaod, 
the cbief of which is the inabiHtj* of vnrioiu pbM>rvr<nt to Mfwnito 
ouch soluble ferments from the orgnnianix. It in, bovpi'vr, nlwnji 
unsafe, when results of experiments on any subject mv negittjvc, to 
ftsiume that our knowledge upon tliat subject ia complete Mid fiiMt]. 
Tbe innbillty uf obsurvi-rH lu the pttAt to perform nn ex[)eriuieiil lOfty 
be fraiu lock of means or of knowledge : and it i» pussible that the 
presence of soluble fenneiitii in places wliere their existenct^ hiu been 
hitherto denied, inny be d«inonittrat«d in the future. 

Tlio «v[Ninitinn of tlir invcrrliiigfr-nncnt fnmi j'c«iit, and of the urea- 
fnmiriit from tho tnrula vrr/r, is a step whit^h niiiy )« the lirxt in n scries 
of discoveries, Sbnridan Lea in his rxpi-rimcnts. indrml, pointed ogt « 
pohtiblo expUnntion of tho negative rraiilts of prex-ious inresti^tors. 
BotJi the oreafeniient nnd the inverting ferment wore obtMned by 
prsoipitatioD of the cells witli alcohol, and subse<]uent extinction of tb* 
nlottiolic precipitate with water, but neither is present to tlie fluid sur- 
rounding thecelk ilurinf; the progress of the clisjige wliich they prodnoe. 
This in probably due to tlie fact that fennenbi, being »on dillbuble, 
tn unable to paM from the protoplaun of the torubi, tlirough its 
.lurroundinx inve.ttRiejit of celluloRO. 

It luut alruwly Im-n sumiisal that forments ftre of the nature of 
the living priit<-i<U (p. H6) ; like other protciiU iht-y an? imlidusible ; 
this rvndily accnUntH for the fact tliey are not iliscoventble (lutiiidi' tJte 
mII wall; Knd like all living things tlieir prupertitM tluring life nrn 
dilTrn-nt from thot" after dentil ; lliis mndily accounts for thn fact that, 
with n few eawplions, they an' not discoverable insidii the i-nll w«ll, 
after th« cell Itait been killed by alcohol. The f«w excoptions nr« probably 
those wliich are more robust, an it withEtnnd th«actioD of aloohol bettor. 

If t]us hypothesis l>e admitted, nn<l mail it is replaced by m better 
it tntut be admitted, the difiorenco between organised and unorganiaed 
ferment action is Uiis : an orKknUed ferment is one which do«« not 
leftve the living cell during the jirogress of the fermentation ; mi on- 
orgiiiiised ferment is one whieli is nhi.-d out fixmi the cells, nnd then 
exert* its activity. Proliably the clieniicNl nature ul the fement is in 
the two amm tli« nine, or nearly the nroe. 

If it In- mtmitml thiil the ferments an> proteid in nsrttm, or somo- 
thing ciniiely akin to proteitt, and it lie also renieuiliered how imper- 
fect our knowledge of llic pn)t«>iibt is, it Duty leein a task from which 
one would shrink, to Attempt to explain any furllivr how tJie fcnnent« 



«(. IIm fcRDent actions howi^vn- caii«iit very lu^lj in the truns- 
(■nnOB of wnt<!r, or of ovygrii ; nnd wr liappily huve in thi! aimpter 
npn* of dtMnistr}*, cxmnplm of nction which «cein to \>e wiulogouM to 
<rial w« call fennent iictioii in the vaguer regions of organic chmniiitiy, 

Ike most strikini; of the phenoni(>na of formentfttion arc thpxo : — 

(I) A eniall amount of the feniieiit< produces n chnnge in nn over- 
«MlDUi|;l}' Ittrge quantity of material. Tliis ia even more puzzling in 
tl» aw of tli« anoi^nintsMl tbau in that of the orgttnisoil fenn«Dt§. 
AoCRlle prick, if ihe point of tliat needle in infected with the bwiUvs 
uAnei; will tuuao the »niinivl so inoculated to die of splenic fever. 
Tb* fBOCuUt«(l bacilli Iwve the power of rapid multiplication, and so 
iqilly poison Oi« whole of Ihe blood. A wimute fragment of rennet 
^Miue curdling tJirouKhout a hii^e volume of milk. There is here, 
brenr, no such pov,-«r uf w-'lf-Diultiplicatioii. 

f3) T)m! femicnt Itarlf takis no appitreut part in lUe change pro- 
Jictd, but, after having pmducnl it« action, «an be used again to 
ffOdnuB the same action in another hiiuh of tiiiilrritil. 

Hie ribmtion tlioory of l^cliig in onl;k' U^ a certain extent an 
Ofluulion of tbcM phenomena ;' the cliungeM taking placo among Ura 
■Ub* caD)|>oKiiig tho molecules of the frrmntt product: vilimtions, 
•Itidi, acting on the molecules of tho substance with which thn fennont 
MMt in contiMit, set up there umilar molecular vibrations Knd 

T^iiS ia quite comparalite to what is taking place around us evny 
■hjia B social captietty. An irritablequick'tenipered individual enters 
• mai filled with pleasant people. The influence of his presence 
■M csoaes the whole a^semblv to become changed, and t>a<l temper 
to nile supreme. Tlie analogy to the case of a feiTuent is com- 
lletKd by (lie fact that the aullior of the change is himself unaltered, 
•DJiscspableof produdng the aanie action on anoUier mass of material. 

Tbi* liomely cotnpaiinoii however helps us very little ; it lendv u« 
IbIo the regions of psychology, where the problems are even more iTom- 
fhoUad than in physiology. It will bo of greater help to Hnd com- 
pliKfo in siinpler chemical reactions which are well understood. 

Talt* Ibe case of the ordinary way iu which oxygen is made. If 
V kcata potassium chlorate (KCtOj), the oxygen comes off, an<l 
ft*WtiimclUor«le (KCI) is left behind. If, however, a little manganese 
'node be mixed with Ihe chlorate in the first instance, the oxygen 

' It'tmmiA Ihaorj' mom twumtly vlvtuiml fWalW />ir(ii»uiry, ISM^ vol. ii- |i. 6W) 
"tUtt* (axjaMM fmiM the riiiU>i:ii!iii Uiiigwntiinw ut tliu drnximpAHnit iii'ilncalen to 
'"pMlalwIiieh Itiaii moWuliix nqiiilikriimi ■> <ln>ln>T«il : lliaiiilac.'iiin[Uiiili«ii in |in>- 
*Mb) nuTsngauunl «t mttffj, ni>t Ii; uiv mcmus €xt Avcmim uf tho uDOunt jimiwit 



oooiM off much more ensiljr, but Llie iuiuignnc«« dioxi<)e U unnltervH at 
Ui« eoi] of the esperiment, anil this it (|uito iMiii]iuruble to what occurs 
in tlie i.'iiiH! uf A fL-rment. 

Tiik« unothiT exuapl« ; in tfao manufiicturo o( oitiiniu^ oU tiS 
vitriol, sulphurous acid, »ttnospheric air, luid steani orv brought into 
oouttcl witli ono another in a large leaden cliambor. Tbcw thrao 
subatAncfs nlon« would suffice to form sulphurio Acid (ijO, + O -t- H,0 
=11,80,), but tlio iMtion would be a uIuw uiiv, Tli« combinatiou is 
hastened by the preaenoe uf » amall <[UAutily of nitrous acid (N,Oi). 
Tlie sulphurous acid (H|,SO,) conibiniw with tliL- nitrous a«id, and U 
theit decomposed into sulphuric acid (H,SO,} and nitric oxide (N,0,). 
H,SO, + N,0, = H^SO. + N,0, 

ttuliiti imiii KM) (Bltmuulil] liuliikuno viJ] [dutaotMi) 

TIte lutrio oxide l«ft combines inittiuitly with oxygen, to form 
nitrous acid a)(»in, which in turn undergoes die aane decomposition 
with sulphurous acid. Thu« ihu nitric oxide Km as an oxygen 
carrier, luid as it U cotitiriually bt-iny recovered, iind itself taking no 
pari in tfat! comjKieition of the tiiml pnxtuct (sulphuric acid), » mdmII 
(juantity will liist nn ind«Bnit>> time, nnd nlwnyR \w ready to perfortn 
the mino oflifc. Hi-n^ npiiri it plftyn the part of a fenocnt. 

Take anothiir rxnnipU-, tlii« titno frotu organic cheraiatiy ; naiualy 
tho action of sulphuric acid in the manufacture of ether from alcohol. 
If ono distils togothrr alcohol nnd sulphuric add, ether nnd water will 
h« (bund in tho distJIIali-, nnd tho sulphuric acid apparently unchanged 
in tlie retort; and tbo sninc quantity of sulphuric acid ran \>r< used 
over and oror again, to brmk op an iudetiiiit« quantity of aloohoL 
Now if the action of tlie sulphuric acid hiut not been uiiden,tood, ns it 
was not until comparatively recent times, the reaction would have l>wn 
still looked upon as puixliiig, nnd described as catalytic. Wo dc^ 
however, understand how sulphuric ooid acts. 

Tlio first reaction that takai place may be deiw>t«<d In this way. 
We start with alcohol and sulphuric acid :— 

_IIB80, sul|Aurio acid, 
OiT(C>H,) alcohol. 

Wli«ti tliese ooine lof.'ellivr, thw vertical line rrprrscnta the pt<o- 
ducta of iJieir intenctiou ; they uplit into 


wnM 1lijHi ) iln>f Hil|itaU 

wati<r, which comM over in Uie distillate, and eUiyl-hytlro^u sulphate. 
Tlio etliyl-hydn>g«n stdphnte raoola with more alcoliol, anil, the 



nrtitti liiM! agnin intticnting the way in which th« Rtoms are re- 
trnnnd, we have 

CjHjO I H 

rtbvr uUlihiirlu K't-I 

nJfinirK add, a^in ivady to be split np ns }>efore, nnd etlmr, w)iich 
(btili over. In tliU rcnrt.ion th<' sulphuric acid nets a* prohnbly 
imMSUdo ill fenu^ntation. Appnrcutly thi>y nre unchnng^ nt the 
ful of the mwrtiou ; probably tlioy have Act«d in sonii? such way as 
tfat nitric oxide or the sulphuric ficid do in thi> pxnDiples just given. 
Pnhbly they piny the part of an oxygen carrier, or ft water carrier, 
ad tbeo in the later stages of the reaction are deprived of their estrn 
nfgwor water, and thus appear thesante as before the reaction begun. 

luliy, an exftiuple may be tiikeii from phyaiology itself ; Uio 
mmple b that of Die actiou of hivmogloliiii ; it <:umea to the lungs in 
lfc« TBuous blood, is converted there into oxyhitmoglobin, tuk«ii the 
Kjffa to the tisHues, and returns us it started, in the condition to net 
•xrsnd over again as nn <ixygKn currier. 

Ihix artion of hmnoglnbin is not gc^nerally culled ft fermonl iictioD. 
klit sppcars to m^ to l»o dcitrly in tho same category of phenomena. 
fffilo not call it a ferment action, because we understand it; when 
Hsttain to a similar accurate understanding of the action of pepsin, 
*b4 of Utflteria, we shall probably ceaae tci call them ferment actions, 
Mdraerve tbn-t tenu for what we do not understand as a, convenient 
d«k for ifiTioraiico. The action of sulphuric acid in etlierlGcatioii is 
as lob^r cloaked under the similar term eiir/tlj/gin. There aeeiiu no 
HMMi why in the future we may not attain to as accurate knowledge 
tttkceniin^ ferment actions as chemists have arrived at in connection 
■id) wuiy formerly so-called catalytic phenomena. 

We liave tliuit a series of occurrences in chemistry, starting with 
tbtiimpli- catalytic prooeaaas of inorganic chemiKtry, uiid I'uding with 
thr fsnncnt procosaes of phyidological cheuiistry, probubly (liflerin^ 
ofiijim the complexity of the lubstAncfs taking port in tlieni. Ferment 
Sftivitj is « manifi-slation of protoplitsm in a living condition : luid I 
n^ptd it as poiuiihlc that, by working out fi-rinent actions in the light 
of tlie sbnpler catalytic actions, we shall nbtnin nn insight into the 
'-xi^bwstion ot otl>er still more complex vital actions, 

A slep to tlie better knowledge of fermenting processes has been 
■•Je by floppe-Seyler,' who has pointed out that the oxidation in 
*hif|| ilie octieu often nppurently consists in not a direct one, but 
"*••» of the nMure of reduction. 

' Tin bibI fBtsal Ftpioilinii o! H<>p|ir-3<'>lt-r'* riaw* in tliiH direction KOI be foniid 


TlmB in the Inntic and alcoliolic femtentation, and in put r«f Action, 
there is a liberation of hydrogen, and t)ui tiasceiit hydrogen combitiea 
with an »toiii of oxygen from onlinary oxys^" (Oj) t« form water 
(H,+Oj=H,0 + 0). The imscetit oxygen (O) thuH Uhcmt«il. uxidiiM 
any oxidiiuible subHumci' pre(ii>ut, or it may uuite with hydrogeu to 
form waU-T, or oxy),tMi to fiina uxuue (O,). But if on tlie other h«nd 
thr najTcvnt )iydroK*^n ine«tx with no fret- oxygen, it takra the oxygea 
tnni organic subtituncc^ that is, reduces thera. TIiuk in putn-fying 
li<iuidx, oxidation may be proueeding in tlio upper portion!; wlierc \hcn 
U free aocesui of atmospheric oxygen, and reductiion in tho lowor layers 
where fn-e oxyK''n '* al>*fnt. 

It Li probable thnt tjome of the changes occurring during the 
nutrition of living cells are similar to these fermentations. The 
noseont hjrdn^n liberatoa nascent oxygen, which then oxidises oxid>»- 
ftble matenal. The following hypothetical formula would represent 
wh&t occurs ; supposing n is oxidissble material, then 
HH+0,+ »=sH,0 + Oi.. 


These suhstAncTs can be oxtmct^^l from the <^II« in which they 
occur hy wnlxr, Hilute ftcids or nikniis, salt solution, or glyceHt>e. 
They are prccipitnteil from such extnicts, or from the secretions jti 
which they occur, byidcohol, oi' by saturation with ammonium sulphate,' 
or hy lend acetate. T!ie precipitate so obtAined is proteid in nature,* 
or eloselj allied to proteit). Un drying this precipitjite a colourle«s. 
tasteleM^ amoiphous powdvr is obtained. 

Tbeae ferment* may be arranged, according to their auUoD, into the 
following classes :— 

1. Proteolytic : thiMe which change prot«id* into [ic]>tones. Tliis is 
probably a process uf hydration, as it oan be also brou^t about by 
other liydraling agencies, such as boilitig with dilute mineral acids, or 
Bupcrhcati-d steam. 

Kxamples : pepMii, trypain, pfl[iain. 

S. Amylolytic : Umbv which cliangc amyloaes (starob, gl/eogn] 
into sugant. Tliis also is a hydnitiou. 

Examples : ptyalin, smylopaia, diastase. 

3. Steatolytic : thoM^ which .tplit fats into fatty acids and glycerine. 

Bzaiaples : fe.nncnt* in pancreatic juicr and bile. 

■ Knwkoff. J. Auu CWm, Sue. 1S»T, p. dft. 

< KltaurnUi] uialjH* liavn bsMi audnOt Tanoiu tonnanU ij Gthmiilt. 8chla«lMig«r, 
Hillii't. Aiul cdlien. Much tlis laniD rvanlU tiai* Ixaa Uianbj (4>Uiii*d m id llw ■ 
at pmlaliU. 



(. Inmnivo : those which convert cane sugnr into glucosih 

Eumples ; invertin of intestinal jnic^ and of jr«n«t coII«. 

\ Emulsin ' or synaptnse : a ferment vbich converU glucosides 

iK^gdalia, aaliciu. •!:(:.) into glucose, iind otht-r compoundfl. Myro»iii 

it a ray siDiihir femi«nt> 
(L OoDgulative. Kxamples : tibrin ferment, myosin fennent, rennet, 

fimaA front n'tllmnia riHUjvJuna whicb ticts like rennet (Leu). A 

mnH-lik« femeot is obtained from certain other plants,' and wrtuiii 

Tba* ara otlivr fermentations, such m the conversion of glucose 
iBtoitiMinit«, or of glyccrino and mannite into alcohol \>y th« action of 
[■ ttrfy i u g nitroLTcnoas or^nic niuttrr, which havi; hceii d«»cril)«d, bat 
«Udi ue of liulc importrtiicn to the physiologist, 

Ito prweding oiajisili cation is found to be very useful from a 
fbjwilogical Btandpoint. In many instnncesthe same chemical change, 
vbcii in all caw« appears to be of tiie nutttre of hydrolysis, may be 
ifcttj by ibe action of oitlinary chemical rcageii<«.. such an diluti- 
MMaI acids, or caustic alkalis. lloppe-Seyler ' has accordingly 
dwiied (eruienU froui a chemical standpoint as follows : — 

M. Ariuste tthitih ael Hk* dilutri mineral aeitU nt 100° C:—^ 

L Oaog* of nljiivh oa glvco^'ii into dpxtriu and grupv sugar.' 

[rtwrlil [dntnni [(luaiw] 

Ohuge at cane taigM into d^xirow aii<l luvulow (invenrioo). 
C„H,0„ * H.O - CH„0, + C.H„0. 

U. Gbia^ of vRrlon* bnnMl-iclQCflftrlRii Into Knipix, and siinpW bcnml-dcrlvn- 
"''ib; Uic action of emnUUi (nsr p. 100). 

(•klkU] [•UCU] takllEvuln) 

*>■ DtoeanpMhlon ftf •ulplmr .ontniiiiriK ylucoeidoa into nigsr.milphuric add, 
^4<it inartard, bj the nctlnn of iinTiulii.* 

Exami>l«: C„H,.NS,0„K-C,H„0. + HK80.+C.H,NS 

[IMMalum [(DOTr) [liiilnimu, [ulJat 


' KbiIuu hu |ffc{iu«l ia ■ lery iium ccmdition by Aim. hiiUiiiiiU {Inaug. Din. 
"*i>trK. l^Tl I. He jound ttut it Iwd the (ollGnrins pocL'flntii^ mmiioBilioii; C,<H'TO; 
l*"; S, Ul«: 8. !■»; O, SSTO. 

' tj. nilcliahH. black pappr, An- S'iKi Wali^ Dirtionaty, vol. ii. (IWS), p. SIB. 

■ «iiacl«B, Jwirn. v/Chmi. Sor. 1*M8, ji. 787. 

* Hfiiot. CA«m. IIHHII, i>. IIH. 

' Iht abvn lonaula w Huii|«>.Sfj-l«r'ii altai Hnnalui, Btowh uiil Muni* nito ■ 
■fc<Ml[MUuii (IM |>- lOtl. 

'lBtti»ibcivc0iu>>ion Itii'pr'wmi in apiiiinMitlf not ono ol lifdrotriit, bui it Hemi . 

THE cnsmcAL (XHwrrrrESTs op the organism 

K FfrwrmU ir*u4 tui IHe cmmttic oOaiu at « JkifJur te«y«rwnr». l irm ut t- 
Mr* mf»mijbmtir» : — 


b. VeeomirMkiaa ol uifilo-ooMponad* wUh abaarptioa o( water. 
(1) COK^H.i-n^-CNajyCO, 

(J> (\tt,NO,H 


;uana>] [(liiMla 

(() Tint deoompo^ion nf praulda and altomi&oidti (jcrtatia. dioadrin. M.) 
failD londiM, iTraalae, JEc, braogbt Mbont hf ibs piuumiitc fsmxtit— Ujptia. 

Il will be seen, on k'^'I^X thmu^ thiite enomamtinns of dw 
Dnor^niacd fmoeutx tbnt tli« grvat«r number of tlioan occurring in 
Mtiinds ftre fmuid in the klimentAij auiai, and arc oonctraed in th* 
digextion of food. Thty oU act beat at a little orcr ib« tetapsrkture of 
tlje l>odj (10* C), tli«ir aclivily ix bindi^red bj a ]ow«r t«tnpCTatiire, 
ftod th«'; aT*i doctrojcd by a hifch tctaperatarf. In « dry atate pepsin 
KDd tripsin may be heated to 170* vithoat harm,' bat in a noiflt 
state a leinp«Tatar« below lOO' C* U atifficient to d««lroj tlinn. 

All fermentative pnicetsea rniniro tlM prawncv of a certmn amoont 
of water. Prro acid is harmful, except in a few caaea, v.g. gantrio 
difHeatiou. The caustic nlkalia aUo when preaettt in inon- tlinn reij 
minute praportioM hinder fermentatioo ; as alKt di> sUta of tlut bcary 
uwtuls, and ether, and chlorofonn iii some caaes. 

Quit<! Rniall jierce'iita^ of neutral ulta (nich as O'OOI per cent, of 
th« sulptiatv of sodium, potaninin, aminuninm, or niagnciiinni, 0*02 of 
Tarioas oratva, 0-01 of sodium chloride or phosphate) hare a rot^ 
oonnderablo inhibib>ry efivct when purv aolntion* <^ pepain or ttyMln 
are used (Naaan,* Hcidenluun,' A. Schniidt,* K. Stadolmann '). 

Bert and 1{<%nard state that oi^njaiid fermenta are killed bj 

pndwlib on (wUm iarwiiptinw Uut Iha fomola of mfivaie mod aaj W lliililllliil. M^ 
liU Oia In wit chaaga will b> tomd to be alH one ol bTdroljni* fWifl Mid Kan*, 
lMln^iAmi>attn,axf.V»\ »jhjAt<iftlt,m»tBi*itt Uin SnUen c< Ihi iIimwiIi rf 

widar.lallvndbjdatoiniatliMiiiiUKim^lwftodBcU. -•' — '-iiiniii illilli^iil«t«<l 

bam kf^mtMoi. io wbbeb then- ii no nicli Mk^nnil lUeouitiadtiaa. 
> R^v*, CAal Cmtralblaii. ml, p. US. 

■ n* aUiai UatJ-aOmt •* whitb the acOublc fonuniiU uw aw trej aj tarim viU Uie 
ii£tnM fm i jwmn th*TNi(« oI(uq«UD» ii ■pprDiiuintolv uy-TfC. 

■ ffitgi*'! Jn*. xi. « Zh'if. K. * Hid. vii. * Ziif. AM. m. AM. 


pnnitof hydro^i, miiI unorganUnl fernienta not. SobiitoEeub«rK<Tr 
ladDunas BUt« tUal harnx <1<-Htrn,vs the itctivity of the unorguniHet), 
tot ntt th*t of Uu! oripuxiund, ferment*. 


HiiT-Luii^kc showe<l that 1>oUe<l •27'fipe-jiiice introduced into the 
. I'rncf-lliui vacuum uf a iMrometer reDi»iiied free from ferin«iitHtiv« 
tkiD^ for tia tnd«fiuile time, but thnt ou the lulmission of & bubble of 
air,linBenutioti8oou couiiDenced, HchwHiin (liS38) ^owed that, if th« 
hib(de««re iulniitt«<l 10 ibe vacuum through 11 red-bot lu)ie, fi^ruien- 
titim did not occur. This experiment denioiiBtraUid clearly Uiat, whut- 
■mrtl was to the air iliat caused feniieiitalion, it was dentroyed b^-heat. 
In UiB lune y*ar SchwaDii ii()iiitc<l <iul th« vegctablp imturtt of tlin 
jmtl eelU whirh ti»d be*n seen by Leeuweuhoek so long ago ac 1680 ; 
tt^un >howe(l too tliat tliey {;rew in suci'hiirine f^lutioiix, and for 
de fint time it waa asaertMl that fi^nui-iitatiuii di^piiidod on tho nrtion 
ff liriag thingK. Tn tbf aeveiiltwuth oeiilury Stahl biul rrnmrktid that 
CmMatjition and jiutrefaclion were eatentially the suiuc ; thix, how- 
Tsr. wa« not verifie.1 until Sehvfaiio demoiistmted (!) tJiat if air were 
"«liii!nd from boil*-'! putriyiribb' fluids. tlKtydid not putntfy; (!!)that if 
4ir si-n- 4ilbse<ju<-iitly admittiKl, [lutrf^faction »ocin set in ; (3) that if the 
•trW beenpnvioaKlypacMd throujthn^d-hottuboit, noputrofactjonoft- 
tamd; (^) that tbeptttw^inKfluidKalwayn tmntjiincd bacterial growtlis; 
(*)(li»tocrUiin SB hstanew which wf now call aiitijjfptics, such a* corrosive 
vMbute, which drtrtjxiy orjcanic lift-, put a «top to putrefaction, pre- 
waMf by destroying the biict«ria. 

Tbtra were many other obM-rvntionx made-, all tending to th<! winie 
ad, nuMly, that it was not air, but unmcthin^ in the air, that cjiu«isI 
hub fmnraitation uxl (intrefa«lion ; aiiionj; tbesft iniLV br mentioned 
te el Hofinann, who Hhowed that cuttoii wool will Gltitr off fi-om the 
<irtk material in question: and that of Mitscherlich, who sliowed that 
^M loMs ita power nfti-r Ltiorou>;h tiltratiun and removal of the yea^t 

In 1887 Pasteur «li«wpit ihut tNxch pitrtioutar kind of fermentation 
■H owneetvd with the gniwth anil dfvi-lopmtmt of a special organiain; 
4M organisin pmducinf: th« alcoholic;, aiiijlh<T the Inotic, auolher the 
■Mtea (enoentMion, and «> on. By introducing the method of culti- 
Wing orptoinns in certain apouial fluidn particularly adapted to the 
*UU of one kiikl. and only im<i kind, nf urgunism, he was able to 
Mpuale difibreot ori^nistns from one anothr^r, and thu» to investigate) 
lk» individual properties, by inoculatinj; them into prevJouHly xterilised 
P<nMibie or femMntable fiuida, or into the body of certain animals. 


Tiux method hns in the liaiuls nf othi^r iuviwti^torc (Kocli, Kkln,^) 
been much clnborated, atid bnclcrifilogy is now n »ci«nco in tlidf. 
Tlio mpthcxl of pure cultivations has Attained to « groat pitch of pv- 
fectioD, and by it orgiuiisins which ure apparently the xntn^ to ttiv 
DiicroBcope can be divided into different kinds, according to thnr 
maimer of f;i'uwtli and Uieir physioloi^ical eflecU. Tlie v&tuo of thr 
method lias i>e«ii of moat value in connection with the microbM of 

The gcoeml principlm uf llic inetlioi) muy bo briefly BunmuuiiHsd hurt, bul fi* 
fuU puKiuuiitTs [hv ruudt^r in rcfnrDd tu any of tho ci<H.'11c<iit workn on ttio >i\bjKi 
cow Jill 111 isliuil. 

'I'ho incllani In nhlch lucloria are to bo tiTOwn mn; tio (rlclmr nolid or liqnU. 
Good lligald modln arc xCcrilltnil iiitlk. wmm or lirdrocnln nntd.or n boatllaamil* 
by boilitig fiOO gnuiUDcx o( hprt In n. lUrn of wntrr for 4C mitiiitM: tU>b 
rendtTod nlkslinc by corboontcof wxtn. Hltriixl, unil *t«rltiitcd by cijioauRMIte 
teiD|«ratiir« of 100' C. for iibaut im hour on three lOcMssiicdnya.' Konr cqlUff' 
Uquidit are rimpla: thus Patlr«r'i fiuid \» I pnrt umnioniuiD tiLttralc. I'l \<Ma 
can* •iigar, and the n^ of I pint uf yout in 100 parts of witter. Ci'it't tmd '-« 
0-6 Kr«i. putAMiiioi pliospliHtt^. O'S irrm. inagiieiiiuui •ulplixle, CinS c^Vdua 
phoKphnte, anil 1 (rrm. auiiuonitim turtnilu in 100 gtian. of *at«r. 

iiiaatig iicilld mnUn. wlilch kre niON tuitablH tor pure cnltivntloiw, tbo foDiX'- 
ing may bo moetioned : — 

II- 1'h«i cut fHrfaoi? ota boilnl polato or boiled white of tgg M^riliMd liytcaw 
wvhril wiih a xolalioii oF corrosivi- iiiibliuukle. 

h. Mnai )ulci>. lo n llirr of wliicli in Hdded 10 irnns of nomniorclnl prpcoti 
S ^lait. of todioin obloilde. and ilto Kniiii. of pure KoInilD. Th<i mutort » 
bealei], uiudv sligihtly nllialiiic with sodiam carbonBtc, flUcrcd bot into Mt-ulNi 
(lerlllMHl b; dinunntinuous lie&tiiig, and the tube* plugged wllb mvriUu»d wUm 

t. Tnilend of t^dnlln in Iho Alirrt'e. atrnr-ittcnr (propnrcd from Mttwaod) miT ht 
need. This {icluliniwi' at a hlKhrr innipnntcar* than gi-Ltllnc. and oo U imUVit 
for tb« oulttvation of organiinua which grow only at trmpcruturcA appnw<ut( 
that of the bwly. 

'f. Blood seruiu made flim by lieKtine lo 66' C, fur an hour, TbisualMUtaid 
by mSsitm; it tu 66° C. for two huurt diiii.v fur «i|cht day*. 

All inatrnniuutn uM*d In expuriiaeDtatSuD iniwl be si«rlliaed — motallfc IMn- 
tnnnlA by rbu BiiiMen Uaine, glue* instrnnieDtfi fay pbtclng them la Mi 4MI 
nt Itlfi a. 

To inoGUlalc a now tab« or flank with n dollnltc orfpuiism that hiw beta irn«- 
ini; previously in a culture lobe : pusli the point of u fmtily drawn out oapiltaV 
pipctto (lirouirli tbi- oottoii woul plii)! unlil it leuciien the ctillure Huid oi mtiil : a 
■mall (Itop >»<;eiids liie liibo of the pipeltu. Withdraw llio jiipelle sad ainlbtttf 

I Thia 'dinoniitiiiuiiiiii itnrili-uticm,' a« jl » oalM, ••« inlradoead by Tj nihil 

(Floating UalUr in thr Air, Itwl), whn {niind II mare »Hlr»ii Hub pnloofri 

hMtlng. The fwaaiiii in lliit lb* Hpnm noiil biuit mndl mot* jwirvrfully than Ilia 
fnlty grown baotvria; th« •gmm nut kill"!! Iiy tUn llrit lieatidK gcciaiaate bofae* Ui* 
—eond bolUng ■hau thay im kilM, irliili' mmw wUidi tniiy not hat* (p*— '-n'-r' viU 
haro dona « by tha tinio nf tli« tliitd lH>itiiiH< 



fmit M lata tlw mMatat M dw bottom ot tbo Mcoad tabs— llut wtiioh It to b« 
tMf w h t wl, Ttw {npi<ic U wilbdrnim,iuid the tiib« placed In mi iooabkior At Ihu 
lam aA wtiieh the laicra-ciTgnnisiii ^rain boat, 
r MfaumUoa of ot^xiubiib mnv he eltcotvrl bjr oiio of Ibrce moCbode:^ 

I IDcb's mctltoi) of fntclionol cultiinlion- 

3 Uam's >ni1 Kif^iV dflmion method. i 

[S. Koch's nn-lboil of plaleoiiltltalicui. I 

I. nmrttonal cnttlvniloa. — If a tnco of culture (laid oantaining tovsnil 

' be inociilalcd into a mHm of aeir tubra oontninin^ different nonrubtng 

. it irfll tw toniul Aft« 34 to 48 lionr* tliat probably oni> «peoii!s iu cnoh 

rate — i.*-. iIm mi« tint ktow* bt«t In tliai inirilcular niedliini »ml iit tbat 

fBiUcnlAr Icmpvratw*— will b«v« IncnuiMd tniomtoiiKlv, amt t.liHl tlic iithuni bnre 

Mad* Utsi0 or no p tey wi i. tnocubita a now oiiUiim Iiibp wttlm irnce iif thloL-ultivo- 

Ma ; ti»« cbvncm nrtr tlial van liiocTilato ona Idnd ot CTtpiiiUiu obly, rli. tbi< inott 

»fc«nil«pt : bill, to be DorlAin. iho pti>cc« sbould. nflar £( lioun, be ivpiMili:td. ajiil 

If ai«wi ■itny r>ci»-at«l agnin. The onkcd eye a|ip«iirniiccs of tbi- oultlvnl.lnn, 

mhwi>lliill. nr liiiopfaAlion of tbo ineiltiim. Ilii- rL-rriLiitiiiri of ii ]A<lliati'. mfclii* 

SppMkraticc, niul mtinir olbcT cumlitinris, mxiD biiliuntv wboii a ili-uivd 

• ■ | n» i ; U!» !■ ofatiiiiicd. 

S. Tb« moituK] uf illluticin.'Tbe original ouIIqtu flald oontniuiiig wvotnl 

Ik t j r ei ttly diliiti-il iritb alorili? (nit itultitiiiji, or boiiiu othur iodlf- 

flalil: *llb droplit' at Uiih n«w tubMi »re limculntcd. It In probultla 

iiwins "> tbo irmnt (Ulmlon. (ho dropti-I atn\ ccuitiilnn onlr nuo or]puilRn. 

IM* aluuto* Is liutnaml by rcpcotiti); Lbo pniccu wveml tlinei in iiicccmkai. 

Tikb nirtti~' mny be ntj imteoitfuUy comblniil <Htb ibnt iif fniotioDiil miltarc. 

1. FIaIc tfiillimUoii,— A IfBl'lulw of •[rrilv iiulrilivo |,i!liilini- is lii^ni^lii-d by 

pBAl* hval. ami iho«uIiiit<l irilb n Inicf of thii Iwctarliil iiiUtiitv. oitbi-r by ;i 

ii|fn>ij pli'di'* or by die pntnt of a |UY'ilont1y nvor-boiitnd und cixftiril iilutlnniu 

«k* i tlila 19 wtII nlxod niid c]ipodlil(iiii.1y iHiiiml Into a MoriUwd *hnllriw f[1aM 

juk >.^t c4iv>>tc<l with nnollicr ebim dliJii butli urellicn ploicod undi-ni bcU-jnr. 

' iiiT of wbk'b in kept muist by n jAvcc of wet bluttiiip-|uip<-r.iitid ihe wbolu 

') nt n iiiilablii tciiijK.-mtim'. In ii fuw <liiyH i<iu:h ■iH'uii.'> of buulirriimi 

I B M?pamt« Mdimy. dliTi^riiiK i" '')''»l»'- uclum, >iizc. nml ifviii^ral apjii-ai- 

— . - :ri>tii thtr <>ibpn>. By roliioculnlioii <>( gelatine tDbci trout ilio^ ]iiir« tub- 

^ttafaw uf tlio illflDront (pcclca can bo obtained. 

llMliaoatiotiiof tbcse Torlotu metboils aru luod for the Inoculation of oatrlent 
with blood. iii)oe>.nnd tlua« of nuiiuolv, niid in Ihe cxoniinntloQ of 
' mmI nir foe mlvro.orfpuiia)u>.' 

' IniKr bnnch of ttio »dMicc iit biii'i<'ili>Ioj(y U tliftt Tvliitinn; to tb» 
gplc pTKpttMitiu and nwtliod* ot nlolnlnx of mkro-oi>:ni>i*iiiA. wliii'li liaa 
' «MiotM«I » Knot doffTce of istKboratJon. 

Kcro-Org'animu may be oiaaBilic'l in many different wajra, 

Tlir-y mMV Iki ola^ilinl uiorplwlogicnily ; they all belong to otift of 

I lW It>wr«t (^>upK nf fungi called tlie SrliKomyceUn, Tbey uro ilevoid of 

'lUMvplijrll, mill tDuttii>ly u-tuitlly by 6Maion, but in aotne (iiinny biicilli) 

tf* iinjiMiin of upon- fnrmutioa. Tlie yeiiat cells, which uru caiindembly 

FW (nil |nnlriilv« ko SUit't Mivra-OrnatiUTnt und DUtaac. 




\a.Ti!fiT than most other globular forms, multiplj umully bj bndd 
Thi forniB aaaumed by baeterin! growths are : — - 

(a) (ilobulnr; tennwl micrococcus. 

{h) R(Ml-like; or Imeiilos. 

(n) PiluiDi'jitciiis ; cither siiiglo fikniento, or composed ot bacb 
remaining nttAchrd aftvr iliviBioii (LuptotJirix). 

(<l) SpirnI ; tmned vibrio, or if the niiiaoiiity ut v«ry 

(?) Plates or tablets form eil by the irrogulnr branching of «ll»,1 
branchoa roniaiiiing attachod (Kurriiin). 

As n rultt u microbe retAiiis the Mime form Kener»tioD after f 
but occmtiunuUy, aa iii cladothrix, a micrococcus form may beoomo rodrj 
likn or filnuieiitoua at another stajte (pleomorphism). Dense 
Komntiwes occur in wbich lh« bacteria become fixed in a instriz i 
thdr own Bwollen, contiguous cell wulln, lutil putt into a restjng Mn 
as a so-called ziioglaa. 

Another clii^KificatJon of Uiese Krowtlis may be made according (^ 
whi-thcr tin- orgjuiisins are ai'robio, or Hnat-rfjlrie. In ItMJl 
observed that, th<i butyric acid ferment con liv« and multiply tl^ 
saline fluid containing sugar unci calcium laclAt« in the ahK<!nc« of (nu 
oxygen (nnni'ivihic) ; on the other hand, other growths like the hoeteitl 
aceti roijuire oxygen (ai-mhic). In a mixture of bacteria Engdn 
showed that sumo species gather close to a bubble (A air, ot]i«n< 
near it when it has lost some of its oxygen, and others ke«p away I 
it altogether. Most fermentative organisms are ca)iable howewffl 
oBsumiug two conditions : one aerobic, tlieotlier anaerobic ; it uint 
cases in the latter condition that an orgiuiiaiu carries on the work of) 
meiitatioti, as it Iias to remove oxygen from the fermentable mat 

A third claa^ttication may be miule on th» basis of theeCreots • 
bjr the growths of the micro- organ isms : — 

(it) Thoae aanuciated with known ctiemical processes ; sucb Mi| 
ycojit plant, the bacterium lactis, the bact4?rium aceli, the mie 
urcv, dec. 

(//) ThoM ositocititcd with the putrefaction of organic matter; 1 
are various forniK of micrococcus, bacterium tflrmo^ bacterium Mb 
(the Hay bacillus), &v. 

(e) Those chiefly remarkable for pi-oductng colour ; auch a* ■ 
toritim nibtaetns, the peach-coloured bacterium, B. fyneynnHm of 
milk, B. trrnffijiotJWi of green pus, the micrveoeetu prvdigioma of i 
broad, ajid many others. 

(if) Tlioae which produce diteoso when grown within the liviBgl 



if ; Among thraw nu»y bo lUMitionod the bftcillun anthiuciii of uplpnic 

th/B spirillttm of nJoiwitig fuvor, ttnciUt in variou* forma of 

1 in fowU' cbokrn. th« commn bncilhiK of Auntie chol«rs, 

njr suspected growth* in vnrious zyniotic disooncs, ns smsllpox. 

btl)«riM^ soiurlet fov«r, typhoid, leprosy, mbios, iic. (.SV0 alao 

ittv XVt, Blood in IKscue.) 

A» is seen from the pnwwliiig list, a cbeinicol clasuficatiou la at 

It impossible ; iji a few eiuHst, sd in tlie slooholic fernientnLion, 

ladic fernu'ntutioii, or the acotiu fenuentatioo, Jjc, the dcoani- 

fantioo can be rvpnuipiite^l by itieaii« of a cliciniciil equation : in other 

mam tho substaims prodii<;e(l niAy be id en ti fits), but the cheraio&l 

dmompoeitiouB by which they are brou!;fat iikta exiateiice are unknown; 

dua is particularly the oaite when we liuve lo deal witli proteida. In 

i BtiU, particulai'ly in diseiMo germs, ovon the products ot 

itation are atill unknown.. The recent discovery of tlie im- 

Ifmtanoe of animal aUcaloidB (plaiunioeB and Jcuconiiiincs) has led in 

aett to Itke discovery that it is these subetnnccs which are 

tcbmnioal poisona to lon^; aou^ht after. In other cases the potsona 

I proCcid in nature. 

Tliv fullowing clasufication of the aotion of organised fermenta 

Mmxding to their clieuiical action, is a completion of Hoppe-Seyler's 

•mo^Tnftnt, part of which ban alreudy been given in couueutiou with 

tte at>orgKnt»ol fermentu (p. 11(9). 

t, ftt mmti vtJi-A irtaiijrr UHAjfrfriiJM iitii hi/drotft or eiraie Dydnilj/nh : — 
«. Fc«B>mta actiai; like dilute laiiiBtuI miIiIa nl lOO". 11io»c sp|)Oiir tu tw all 

S. I^imsenu sctloK Uke cnuitlc alknlii At n blKluT tuiopcmture. 

t DvoampiMitiiiii of fjiUi iaiu ){lrc«ri[ii' aiiil fiilty uciib. Thiit appwn to 
occDT tivrt onl}: villi the Qiiorgiiiiijw>l luinorentii: rurmurit, )nit nine 
itnrintc |<niivf.vTlioii, [imniiintily try thf notion uf baricrlit. 
a. Pa c oinpo ai tiup ot niinild-uonipoanrlH witb sbwirpliaii of ivat«r. 
Tbr r«BmaBiplMnlr«iidyfrivi.'ti (p. ltiO]ar«bniuj(falnhoatnl*iibyputrafiictlTe 
bMshmi tha dacciinpuidtlLui of iinu l>v tbi* iii. uipiir. tbrongh tha tBtormcdin* 
»iif a ■oluUe foTBHitil ; Iho duuniiiixMitimi at bliipimc uaid. liiurtiaholio said 
[t»j tfljiMcliiilic add tDon alnn-ly) by putn'fnutiic butrlLTia ; itnd lli<< tliiMimposi- 
k« of pctitelds nnd al)iiiininoi<l!> iiitu luuuinir. tynniiie. i:v,, U brought bIkiiiI. net 
i^j by ttx? nnvnrani>«>l fi-niipiit Iry]»tii, bHt alxo by jMilrcfnctlvo baoUrin, nicll 
(i>r limiiiiio?. In On- iiiti-->tiiiiil uMinl. 

U. /V rwt^ntat ii>»t in irAicA there U trttm/rtntoi of oxggeH ^ntm tie Aj/drageti to 

I «(<MM. 

a. TbvlacUo aoid fcnnL-utnlion. The dt^composftloii of niilk-tUfar, inotllo, 
b4 i4bvr oarbobydnius, into Inotk- ii<!i<l. rik> f<'r>iii'iit Ih sModated wltli the 

of a niicro^rgaiiuirii - [III' bnrteriiim laflit. But otiicc fuDifl — <t.K< tfao 
1 of pemieiUitMt — will bring about Iho mmo result {tea dIm Milk). 



b. The hWIioIic fonuutilalloii.' 

Thn mniifiTtvTioe of tli« oxygen fioni the hirdregen U ibe cnibon atom* i» ibiu 
deploud lij Hnppo-Hcyler : — 







Hjrdrcgiui iiarboQat«. 



H:rdniKen onrlNwtM. 

CO!! CH^OH / 

[Gm|>v SuK»r] COtOH), 

V. Htuiy maiat ot painfullon cotuc under IhiH hew)' : — 

i. Of )iliiiplnUiQii|nuiIoooiD)>oan(1s: 

BwDiplM: (t) (OHO^^ii-^H^-C)kC<^-»CO,+SH, 

luriMW] nrtniiMB] 

(2) (C,H,0,),Cn*l£,0-C:(iCO,*CO,+KrH. 

H. Of Oifiinlo cmn]>ouniJi : — 

(I) (C,H,0,l,0«,-t-H,0-CaCO,*3CO,+tH,*£C,H,0,v:!« 

(2) «<',H„iJ.+»H,0-3iiC0, + SiiCH, 

(8) Ootdnm mnlate jrlolds mrbonalc and kutntc ot lima. 

(4) Oljvctln* witli oalolntu curtioiuileiioil imtrvfvinjK AlirinTlriil*! on «xeln- 
•ion of oxygMi, do olcoliol, tint liiityrie, butj-rv-iicctiu, ad'1 iuooLdIo aoUU : jviv 
bMj lactlo iMid Is flnt. toniinl, whiuli U tlion ■IcooiupQi'wl Into cvbouln luiil 
IM1I71I0 Mill*; IliL- butyro-fuwUc iwild oriMs fnua rvilDotion; the t«nn«tIoii <)( 
MiMinic »oid U difficult to undentnnd. 

(A) fiMoidii an oavlly dcoompMCd br pntrcfactirc oipiniiMnB. IiisoliiMa 
protaMt, Ilk*) flbria, are flnt •liiwilvcil. fomiitig u tolution of ^Inbulin. SoImIIoim 
of pTOt«ld ajiptor tu iiDilergv &nt, a uluiiig« Likv tlint jirioiliicctl l>y dt)[OMlon with 
ib« roTmnikin of nlbnmoMa and poptutiN Tban aallfloHiciil* (IoucIm^ tjrwdof^ Jm.), 
taUj *cl<l«, aiiuiuMita. oubamlci add. amlnM, Mul In c«f1«ln ouo* Indole Miil 
■lotlolc, nn fonocil. 

Another i-l«Mltollon ot tmnoiit* luu bam made MUMnHng ■• tht; poodwM 
»oid bodiM(accUoaot<lfToni nlouhol. UctloiicidfroinM)gn(.licO.<iTha«i«prodnDto 
((traa fioin nnmoni*, |itiMiuila« from prol«ld*). Suoli claatifloatloiu nn nu w 
NiTlIj tiicamiilrir. tiiit Hoiipp-Spjlor^ )■ W|iMda]ly lucful as >hiin-iiigr wbot tlH 
hd«U ot n •cioiitiSu cheiuicnl nrniiitr^mcM fhould bt. In sdililiiiu lu ibcM fonna 
af fomifrnialion ih* lift xiaiy Iw n>iii|ilo1c(l bir ihf nicmtlon of :— 

I. Th> acutun* (piiurtiliitluti; ■)»< <>oni'(TntI(in of nk-obol InM MMlo acM 

I Othv alodials lfn%fl. Inilyl. iir-S iD*f bv fTidimd nnilM' inJUbla amdMiaB* 

* Thna aaMt ham Won Ftaiaiiwd by Hn|i|iF-t<iytrr by iDiting iW Mibdiafkat in 

■pnlinn with ■null ^*n(ll>a* aI MnrM mad ; lli» ga«M tbal omnr oil an onllactad aarf 




*fi,-CjBfif*B,0'), brought about b? tlie mTotxterRik aoeil aod lh« 

V SMtjing nrtpmltmn irhirh oncurrJiiH in the salt convert . immon la Intn iiltric 
inI lAiNi aci'lii Hill) iH> !i!Hii to Ihn fomuiilim of nllm in nnturc (Wnriniftaii).' 
1 Mphiir tfccierln (Winognulsky),' i.e. bnctorin. which iii the pn^wncn of free 

^Jihlfl Wll|illli1ii oiitlliKinilphur. fumiing sutpliTiric iicid. 8omu uf t hesf btiotorin 
■rnkarbM! otbcn prwlucc ]ii|imi-iit' siiuli u- the H, nibc^L'viiH (LniilcuetcT), 
■Udt pn rf aoe« lliv ohrumophvlt cAltuil biu^tt-riojiiirpiiciii. Tlii^ huulvrium ie 
oIM B. phc4<im«trioiuu by Ifn^cliiiAnn, on nccouiit o( iW batutTioiir tu iliffereot 
(m ti lb» qwctdiBi. 

i HieUiin whlnh proclu™ ptomninw. The origin of an alkjJoid (nnurini!) 
taMthin U ei^ly iinclenluod. Bitici! the cuDHtituttoii of lecithin is knon'n. 
UotUn, wUeb u of very wi<l(»-iiri.-H<i ou(;um'iii:>! in the boitv. in n ooioponnd 
il toninB (• poiaoDous ntluiluiO) with 'li-tt'uryl-KlyiM-'ixi-iihuF-pliurio &i'it]. There 
li >— «rtr no itoubt Ihal Imctorin iiin}' [•nxlii'''.' Rlkitlnldii fioiii jirotoliln, A 
ItHMital eiplanaiion of how thin laay oocut hat tx^n Ki'cn by l^tlhum.'on 
IbKffMlliontlint hliith«M7ottheGDnititiiticiii»f nlbamin (fivp. illi)i* camat. 

TV growth «n<] development, «iid tlie aasociAted femieut.iveiiclivity, 
<f wpaiMd fenD«nt« itre Influunced by various [jhyeical and chtimical 

Tmif«raittn.—Th«y grow Iiwt iit 3S'-40' ; but <1itr<'n»it tirgninNiDii 
Qiy eooHderably with regnrd to their optiminn t^'n. Boiling 
iilbmwit bnctcri&I f^rawths ; the spores of tiacilli nre Miid howevor tu 
but wtthitoiMl a tetnperature of even 110°C. A tempcrntiii-e n gixMl 
imi betow UiiUn^ 60°-70', kills most microbos, Ou the othrr hand a 
Ur iMDporrtore-TS^. (Mekeiw'),-70' for 20 hours (Pictet and 
W^), — 63° ttyr 100 hours (McKendnok and Culetnun'') stops th« 
Mlirity of ihv orgnniamB, but flotn not kill lhi*m : t-tr after thawing 
bj nume work again. 

ITater. — A o^rtsiii amouitt uf muUtiii'e is necussary fur their 
■lin^ ; bat eponx niky be drint, and will remain dormant for 
and years, riMuniing activity whf-n iiiuiHtened. 

Lifhi. — Certain sponw ar» killi-il by bnUiatit nuiiBliine;. Other 
fanot are mora active in ctirtJun regionn of tlie spectrum than in 
Am (Ho^lmutn'). 

Clenrirat rM^jwnfK — Thiw Icadx ux to nllud« to what ■« miw a Urgo 
lad importuit branch of ccmmercini industry and nKHliiMl nn<I xurgical 
liee^ known asantisepsis. The mo»t piowerful anti*i!ptio, tboso that 

tiie iMCtttia and bo prevent putrefaction And fermrntation, are cor- 

irr lablinuitc, carbxlic add, tjuiiiine, chlorine, and mineral acids. In 

• Jucnt. CIttm. Soe. mlt, iiiiii. iiiv. ilv. tad li, Cnrtdiii 'iriti»iiiimKii)i[<i»r lo bava 
I apioaila alkct, iha radadioii <it nitntv* to torm nniuiDiiiH i Fraiikluxl, Ihiil. liii. 

• BbMiL Ztilomf. ItM, No. 8I-8T. * hanM. IxaH, vol. ii. {i. TAl. 

• Camyl. ntd. ba. <U. '• IbnI. ic^viil. T4T. 

' Pne. Bi>f- In^. at. Brilaiit, ItM. ' Fflliffn't xlii. IM. 



the proservntjon of food-stu%, sitgnr, sftlt, spirit, rinegar, borax, ix„ 
froijUcMitly Ufwd : nn<l cold>ers are now very g«<aeralt_v employMc: 
A rcmnrknble fact concerning ihs ferin«nt» i§, thnt thei suljetMic^ 
they pro<hico in tiine put a ^top to their activity ; thus the a]coh.< 
produced, by yeast, the phenol, cresol, Ac, produced by putrefactw 
or^niiiisni^, are tliemselven aiitiseptios, wlikh ultiinat«l7 kill tka 
urgiLiiinniH tliat produce tliem. 



Thorn hui been do inicrn-arKiuiliini that bnii ntcoirod *o mncb ationtla 
the bRflUus anthrairU, bat It it only wllbtn th« but fow Dionlhj thai no hS^ 
Dbtuiced bq;' nocuiul^ kcowlcidgcoC the poUon* whtcb it producai. Wooldridp' 
was the Iir9t tu ^bow that it ibt buoilli are growii in a oultnK lluiil oonUlnltf < 
protviil (,)iv UMil an H]kiil\iieMi1iitiuii ut ti>»u(<<11l)rtuu|C*''>)>'^>*u''"t*tioe ia ptodaMl 
whiuli.if jiii.)('i]|»U"l iiiUi iiiiiiiiHlx. iiKuU-rx iJivm iiunjuni.- toaiitLrax. Kankin'thci 
ili'imiiii'tnitcii Ihikl a aiEinU Ar-te ot an albuiii,>]tc iimliicM hv tho acllTili nUt 
bncllll If cnpahln of prolpi'iinu nntinnls (mm tbn <\i%vn>i: Dr. S. Martin' hit tpa 
Ibi! liBppy uli^B of gTDwiD^ Ibe baeilli in rolationa of pnre alkali ■altiuimn. KhIb* 
to hod It cbomioal poltou on the part of most pruTioim inveBti^ton baa iluabiiM 
uriscii fruui iii» tact IhaL tbi>y havii uiup)uiri!il iutuuuiis lilw bMf-tMi, nliicii 
uonlaiu bardly any pr^jiolil, and hi an- v»ry ililti'iviiT fcnin lb« bloodi In wbditiw 
jITOwth nf the nilrrolic Icodn to the death of the animal. Afl«T flltorlog ofl >tt 
bac.llll the flllmlc u-a* found to contain l«iclne and iTroiinc. an alkaloid mi 
thivc protcids, prutu> and d(^iit«ro-albuiDU!te. suui a trucu ot pepIuDc. Tb« alkaloM 
forma nita. which itere prvpaiul in a cryiialliiLc forni. The albamott tn: 
atronglj ulkalinu ; tliry aru Dot bo toxiu a>> Ibu alkaloid, and Martin suinrot) ilal 
the aJkaJuid ia iti a nasi-i-tit (;i>nditiun in the albtiiiioxc aioluculu. TIih M-rnptoia 
proilncoil by thn alkalnld am Ukn thoMr prodacnd by tbo ba<dU<M: aftci d«lJi> 
hottcvcrr, thn orfputa at the animal arvt <|al[r tnv tram bacilli. Kmin tbcN't' 
snkTc.lic* WD can oonoladc that tli« bncillii< prodnccs two mtntaiicts. one of MA 
la activcl; puiaonouw. and another which in small diwcs U piotvctivp. To f 
Uraa whiah ate now boing cilctisiTcly empluyod. thU microbe prodooH a UtM 
or poison, u&il a nurtiinr or prutwtivu iirinciplv. 8Dch a supiHwilioo iiDdedM 
tliv practicn of vnccinatlon and fitbcr (ormH at prol«ctlvo inocnlalinn. Ild<rt 
DOt, however, appear to be a ncecuuuy part of thU hypothenia ibat the tosine M* 
th« vBColnc thnuld he distinct sulntaticea. In oeitain oaacs. It may bo thal^ 
do»m of the former act as Ibe latter. 

The pioduulton of poitiunouB proteidB by luuilcrial aclivilr bas abio i 
attcDlion 111 Uarniany. Tbui> Bric%«r and Frinkul ' liat* iiivi«liK:>l(<d [«ltii.-t)allT 
Lofflero bacilliio of ilipbtlnTia, ifnil have obtaluai) a proidil wtijcli, wlton ta)eow 
Into rabbit', produces diphtheritic irniptoma. Thlt and ■IniUnr prototilt obiaJM" 
from other hacicrial prowlh* they desj^nic toxallmoiiit*. Thcj". bowevrr. apprtl 
to he albuuioses ralhur than albumins. Brie^>r and Kraiikcl bai'e ovFrlookad ibl 
potaibility that tlivn^ |Kiisoiioiiit prolvidt may ooutain »a alkaloid idasaly b(MM 
to them, or in a naHCf^nt oonditlon within llicir luolecMlex. 


■ Proe.ltog.Soe.xB.m: Areh./.Anal.ti.P)ii/iiol.,plitfiol.Aitk.lem,a 

> Bril. Utd. J. Oct. U, Ii<a». Hmakia hu alw foand Ibat olliar pioMMa (aap«U|> 
0*11 globtdia) ham the power ot killing asriain palbcyenic nunro-orgaainu {Prov. Jbfi 
Sue. Uaj SU, imO). 

> PnK. Boj. 8oc. Hsy 33, IMO. * Btritn. klin. WetAemchrifl, A|nl tM 



TnvKAptomaint (irT<7i/iu= corpse) wiis originally «mploye(I to designftto 
tkic prodncto of putrefaction wliicli give th« reactions of vegetable 
ilUoKts, and twv« more or less of a poieonous autioii. It was sub- 
lifMntly fouEKl that similar alkaloids are foi-med during the lile of 
organiaas ; theae are toitued leucoinainea (A(v'Kui^^vrhIt« of 

; ; Um vord signifies tlial they are derived from protaida). 

The term alkaloid waa at one time applied to any organic liuae. It 
Htov luualiy restricted to orf^itoic buses whicli are of vegetable origin, 
Hd produce niarkird toxicological ejects ; thus, such substance* aa 
■tlgrfadiiite, wpara^ine, kuciiic, atiil otJinr niiiido-acids are not classed 

kikaloida, though in ninny of thc-ir properties th«y arc basic. All 
lb( alkaloidH contain nitrogen, and all, nxcii^t coniine, nicotini-, and 
ipvtniMi, contain oxygen. These three aJkntoids aro volatile, the 
Hbtnoiv fined. Tho commonest and best known of tlic tixed alkaloids 
in Monilin« from aconit<% atropine from belladonna, strychnine and 
BMJM from nux vomica, quinine and cinchonJne from cinchona bark, 
Mcphine and codeine from opioin, tlieine from tea and coffee, theo- 
bnine from ooooa, 

Cheoucalty, ti>eae substances are compound ammunloa — tliat ia, 
MBCidaa iu which one, iwo, or tlirt-e ■.iiuivalentn of hydrogen ar» 
H|hsed by mdiciea. Tbey are thuK uniilugoux to the a.miti<!s. 

MetliyUmine ta amuunia iu which onn H ia raplaued by methyl ; 
■%iaBiui« by ethyl. 

(H ,H ,H 


N H 


N H 


Bm one or both of the two remaining Il's may be also replaced by 
■wAjrl, elbyl, propyl, iic, and tlius we oblain di-mcthylamine, di- 
OltjluniiM, di- propylamine, iic., and tri-methylamiue, tri-ethylamine, 
>»-|ao|>ylu&in«, ke,, e.g. : — 

H (OH, 









Th« Tngntnble allcaloiiU nre of HtmUiU' slructure ; thns coniin« ii 
siiiiDOnia in wlii''ti two ntomii of byilrogisi km ropliiotxl l>v t)i<! mdtcle 
C,Hf, and nicotinir it iimmoniii in which nil three atom* atw rcplAc«l 
by tiiB triAtomic rndiclc CnH;. 

(H ,C,H, 

N H S C,H,=C,H,.K 2N(C.H,)=C,„H„N, 

tH Ih 

Tn the it1kn1o!<l« which contAin oxygen the mme proceu may be 
repeatml iit a morci compliciitMl initnner. 

It if iinportant to noM that the vngetablo iklknlci<la Aro aiDmcmM, 
Dot Aininoniunn b(«M— that in, they combini; wiUi HCl without climin- 
aUoD of wHt«r m nmnKHiia tltnu ; thus : — 

N H| + HCl = N IIj.Ha = NH.C! 

tuninoiiU] [lifilraclilnrv Mid] (iinnDmlani vhlnrlilr] 

C„H,,XO, + HCl = C„H„NO,.HCl = C,.H„SO,Cl 

Bome of tJie chief renctioiiH of the aHuloidu nre : — 

1, Alknline nuction. 

2. Initolublo in vmter. Soluhlo in AcitU vrMi the foraudioD of 
cntnpoundH, pn-cipitnt^'d from mich oompouiuli by ammoiiiu. 

S. Some allul<>i<ln nrv dextro-, aoiiie InTro-rot*tory. 

4. 8orliuui ph(Hiphoui<>1yb(Ut« ndded iv itoluLionit acidified witb 
nitric Add givM m yvllowish precipitut*.'. 

5. PotAMto-Diwrcuric i™lid« (MnyrrV niilutjon) ' producwi floccnUmt 
yelli/wiith whit9p(vcipitAt«-ii iimolubk in acIiU tuid diluti- iilknlis, slightly 
Mltibl« in «xo«<ai of the mgpnt, «tasily soluble in Aloohol. And geoonlly 
«l»o in ether. 

6. PtAMMno-hamatitoas, pi>tn«<io'Ca'liDic, pot*aBio-pl«tinie, And 
poUukin-Aurlc iodides til bo prccipitAto nlkaloidH. 

7. Picric acid precipitsliM luntiy nikaloids. 
S. Tannin |>recipitut«s most AlkAloi<la. 

9. PUtinio ditoride, aunc cldoride, and many other rMgent« An 
■lao employed to precipitate alkidoids ; individual oiembera of the 
(.Toop ditTerinii in precipitability tona tlie ramAJnder. 

10. CertAin colour reiictiom are employed to Identify many alk*- 
lolda, e.g. ralpburie A«id pvta a blood-red colour with thebaine, 
crimMm with veratriiio ; nitrio a«id uaually produces a yellow aulatioa, 
but morphine and bniclne giro red ; dilohiie wiiUvr and ammoniA give 

■ IB-( giMBidrw <f roarrarie ehlnUa, uid 4S*e gtmnuom poUuliim ioilida fti Htr*. 



> pten Milonr vrltli (luiniiie, ntd witli narwine, and amagi» with 
laroiline, itc, 

11. iLtny alknlolds may Ix^ iclcnlifi^d by Ui« t«iuper!iture at v/Uich 
•:\rj raUunci^ bimI tfao microscopic chnrocUtr of t)i« sublimate. 

12. Hbrj (>th«ni nro \tttiX idrnti6e<l Xry Uieir phj-eiotogicnl actiuii, 
'.; eanvnUiniiK prixlucnd hy Ktiyclininr, the pnculinr tAstu iwiiMLtiotiii 
iradnenl by itc»nitiii«, 4c, 

He oocnrrenoe and iinportjin«t of alkaloldtO sutrntaiicm in the 
»niiDal body were fir»t limuglit into pmniinencis by a uiurtlKr trial in 
Unun, in vrhtcli a unrvnnt wm ncctisKl of poisoning his master with the 
^Ikiloid d^lpliinino. Tli«f fkccusr^ wiis itcc|uittrcl liecnuEe the litlcAloid 
■■liinMl from th« corpKC, thoiigli giving innny of thp reactions of 
■■■pbiniJH', difr^nil frtim tlclphininc in rrrtain othpr niictiiins of which 
tM muat importiint wns its scvlton on tho fnig's heart ; ctrlphinine 
Imp ihm friig'H h<»rt t<> a Ktnndfitill in (tinoColc : the nlknlnid nblAined 
ftiai the ciirpw; xtoppod the hwirt in systJ^lp. Tlii- tiupstion wn* then 
libn up )iy n nnmlwr of ItnlJAn invr.stigatorv, of whom tli« m<i«t 
(■winentwaK Fmncmco 8rlmi nf Ittihignn. Thix inv4wtigntor cibtAim^d 
hm ompses which hnd iindorgonn putrrfnctivn chnngr*, nnd it1iu> from 
nrioin kindx ol putn-fying protcid (albumin, peptone, casein, Ac), a 
BObfr of alkaloifUl irabstancea closely rMnnbling the vegetable allia- 
UU both in rmciions and physiological effects, H« found some which, 
Bkc atropine, dilat^l tlip pupil and acceleratAl the hwkrt : otherti, lilcft 
Mqthine, muHcaritie. strychiii'i. Jcc, in tlieir pliysiulogjcaJ eOec-ts, and 
*ka in Bocie of their chemical reactions and oi>li:iur teats. 

After Selnii's discovenes, othnr murder trials brought luto {nxnai- 
■Mwe tlie sabjpi't (>f the mdnveric alkaloids in other countries ; in 
Umlan a criminal named LaiiiHou wa8 accused uf uiurddriug a young 
■W with aconitine ; the defence unancceasfuUy set up was that the 
*b«h)id found in the body of Ida victim waa not a vegeta-bli! alkaloid 
« kO, Imt one of tlie ptomajnu pniduced by putrefactive prucetuMi 
•JlT d«Atli. 

The inibJM:t, however, han not mrrcly n miilicolrgal intrtrrat, for 
■ hu beitn (lentonstmted that nlknliiids exist in difTcmnt forms of 
fMnfyii^ food. 

Is G«rawny mawigm made with bad ment hnvc been known to 
I^DM 0jMcb)(nic« of A Rprious disorder, which we now know have been 
fwluMd by those cadaveric alknJuidit. 

Ctrtaio forms of stide milk and cheese hare caused more or less 
*)dMpnMl oatbrealu of eerioua morbid symptoms in those who have 



consuned these ni-t-tcloa of lUet. A ptomuiie luimed tynitoxi«on by 
Dr. Vnugbnn ' lin« l>eoii ae^inrtttcd from bad chc«se. 

Poisoning by raiiasols au<l oLher foiin§ of slieU Hsh i« nUu clun to thn 
prawnce in them of ua siiiiaol alkuluid (niytitotaxinp). 

Of 6quftl importance and interest to the physiciHti nro th« poi«i>nii 
produced by bai-t^rU In different Corma cf diiusLse. Schmidt,' I'nnain,* 
anil others SL-iiunitfd froui sepUo fluids a subslunoe wliicb waa cmllod 
Hepfin ; it was found to corrogpoiid closely in ila leocljons U.t Uw lUka- 
loids ; tliU WHS, tiuwever, Iwfore ttio i;vn«ral impurtaiicxi of the ptomuiuw 
««« fully reL-o;(ni!ie(). On i»jeot:ng this innterial into the circulntion, 
ByiDpti'mii n!(u.iul>liii}( tluiiw of Mipticmmia wuru pixiduced. The con- 
olu^on was dniwn, iuv\ proluihly I'orrvctly drawn, that this ui&teriiU 
vrss the subitancu phhIucihI by bucti^rin in onlitikry Keptio pniceMes, 
mid that it is Ihc rod toxic iigi-nt in cumx nf bliHHl-puiaooing. Since 
Uit<n other ptinnoincit hnvo ticcn rvptinitisl by mort* exact methoaU from 
pare cultivAtions cS vertnin [uilhogenic bacteria, notably two luuned 
putn>«cin(! and cndiirnrin^' by Ilrio^r : (h«M W Wpi«ially abundant 
in rullivntitiJiH of Kudi's i-oiniaa or cholera IwoiUus ; sululanceH «iuiil»r 
to thfwo arc probably tln> true cheniiral poiNons in cbolnm.* There 
n Ktill a large field open to inve:«tigntors in thi» diroctiiui, hut enough 
has tieeo giv«n in the way of instances to indicate the overwhelming 
itti|iort»iice of the nubject to the pathohigifit. These ptomainos, then, 
are i)roduce(l frou aniual subntancea by the inttuence of bactvria. The 
next quflstiotia whieb arise are^ froni what ore tJie ptomaines fonncd, 
naA how du the bacteria produce them I Une of tl>e most important of 
the ptomaines is neurine; this ih a decomposition piodnol of lonthin 
and doubtte&i ariitea from Die lecithin cantiiiDwl in iierve^ mnsc)*^ 
blood, and other part^ of the body after death ; aim) in eftgs, milk, 
and cbeeae, and other (orms ot foud. It Li, however, fully proved 
that ordinary pniteidn will aUo, under the influence of certain iHWteriftl 
growths, produce neurine, putreaciue, ciMlaveriue, us welt as the sinipler 
buMut, Mich aa metbylamine, ethylamiue, and aiamoui*. Tlt« queetJon, 
how tti« bact4-ru> lUi it } is « more diflicult ninth-r to answer. Tbn 
opocition uf lodthin produced by these oifpinised fertueuts is uo 

abt similar to ibat brouxltt about by onlinary clwmicsl nagcots ; 
we caitudt describe the deoouipi»itii>i) of pmteids until wo knuw 
ihoir ouonpueJtiun. The diflerent viewa uuw held ab w iJw constitution 

* Z«W.]iAy*M. CItrm. x. 140. ■ InMf. DUt. Dorfal. IMP. 

* Vtr*)to\ft Arrhii; IMS. lul. »>ii. p. 940 ; k1& xxriiL nil. wii! nltim. 

* Th* prohalilhlr ttel I'liulsrn M c*a>ad by an alksli^il mu Bnl imuud nut liy t^uilM' 
RrvnUo (AnI. jIm. tt'porli, 1871); ha dnlsiail >l Iroiu Um aUBUant j ot Ua (^* ••t 
clioloM Slid slfcsWil (ninanfiat) pilaonliiK. Citilaiiirlu* uid pulifrips ■» oai iiiarknilj 



^itt jaM«i(I will each tnvolvo a separate theory as lo bow nii alkaloid 
jtf he fonDMl (rtwn it. It Bi»y, however, be regarded an nettled iJiat 
onl BlkalMdjt, whrtlter i>f the ptuuiaiiie or l«ucomaine aenea, are 
pn4D0«i] MHtiirDbicnlljr (/>•? p. 164). 

Thn priority of d<»onhing nti ulknlniilnl tiubstuno; in nnimnU ix 
duDcd by Ditprd «n<i Denco Jonm. Th^wp ohsTTiTs in the y«ir 1866 
dwriM an alkaloidiil subitance, which they nrfiarnt^rl from tha solid 
tadbqaiil tiaeuea of animals, and thoy named it ' Animal Quinoidine.' ' 
Ik bunoar ia alito claimed for a chemist who worked at Stettin, uamed 
luquanlt,* who iteacribMl mi alktloid obtainerl fivim a corpse, to which 
htjive tbe iuun« 'aeptictn,' and which he found was Huuilitr iii itii 
KttM to enonne. The w<irk of Paiiuiu, Hclimiedebprtt, Bt-ntmann, and 
UnUt oa aepKiii Hilk been idiwiuly alluded M. Tlu"^ were nil uioii: 
tr In* fittfingt in tin- clark until the ra.'vtt'r linnd of Srhni * plnccd the 
Mltrr on a ntiufnctory Iwuis ; it wim be, too, ^^'h<l invcnU^ th<> 
■KJ 'ptomnino.* Th» detailti of metli<>(l» iif M'juirnlion and of anolysiK 
Ibit, as OKUal, Ijcen left Ui n nmltitude of Gi^nnati worki-m, bnt Briogcr 
lUaih hcnd and Khonldi-ra aIkivd all the rut. Id France the subject has 
iea taken up by Gautier, who haa produced numerous memoirs on 

BrifKer was tho first to oblAin from the uncrystAlliuble extraou 
•ad tyrupy producta of prvvioui; investigators pure mat«riala in n 
cijitaUina form, lie found it neeeasary to adopt conaiderublc mixlili- 
ittina of tlie Staa-Otto proccM, which i§ the best for the extraction of 
tt» ngeUble alkaloids. The pure crystalline alkaloiib were not only 
ilp w 3 liyhim,bat in many cases their constitution was worked out als<h 
BtfiwMl that (h« bases tsolaled from putrefactive mixturcji wnn> Ws 
pbuKiiu tlinn those pnHlucerl by p.%thoge[iia lukctcriji. Thwc latter 
IMWi inclnih! audi nulBtanees aa typhutuxine (from otses »f typhoid 
fcnt),tctjinim!*^frum cuaea of tetanus), and aweral otliura ; on account 
trfthrir powrrfnl poiwnoua properties BrieRer liaa »rjianitr<l tliem from 
■'" -ilher ptnmnini'S, and adia them lorinf*. 

ll kax Imm^h recoKiiiMwl that it in very difficult to draw the limits of 
•V vard ptontntnp ; the proilucta of metalioliNm of bnct«^ria are not, in 
EWtU. different from those of the higher organisms ; thus choline, 
"•■iirinw, creatinine, Ac, atri nnrmal priMlucts occurring in, or separable 
In*, healthy animal tisnHS. Onutier ha* inrenU^l the word leuaanattte 

* Pnr. Boy. Sae. it. n. Utit. f. Chrm. ISM, p. 84R. 
' Sitsckudl in J/oMAita't Bandi. 4. grr. Med. it 00. 
' VnUck. chrm. G.irll. iL (OS. 
' Fm U» litli»l us BttIL Sot. Chim. li. 0. 

' Pi* Itao lut pufpr mi toUnin* frmn i, owe of tet<u)uii,>M Britgor, Berlin. HUit. 
■FMinwIkr^, Um, No. IT. 


for the basic products produced in the tissues of Uvio([ lUiliiiiJi bj 
metaboUo proceases, while he reserves the word ptoiiuuue for iIiom 
formed by putrefai-tion ufter death. It must, htiwerur, Im natumlnni 
thiit nituiy leucouiuiiii-a ar« powerful poisons. 

If ptomaines mid leuconiJiiucs iire to include all Imwm produonil in 
aninuUn. Uie nimpUr suhBtitncti, like metliyluininn, trimTrtlij^lnminr, ic, 
must nil conn- under either one <ir the other liewliiig. This is cspcdHl^ 
iiec«8sary, sinot? tt hiui lieen shown tliat prabahly thn dinniin<«, like 
putr(;scinii' und ciidiiviMinc,^ iire d<.Tivi;tl by oxidation from t|b 
moniimini^s,^ H 

Such, (hirn, is n skcti-li of thi- ptonminee, in which their iiupi>n«DC* 
hiu lieen inclicutnd liy a fnw i^xainpl(«. The subject is yet in lis 
infancy, and many mom fncts rauRt be collected before positive geunl 
(Mini-] unions can bo drawn. Without at all wisbinK to L-iinimiae titai 
iniporutnce, it i«, however, necessury to insist on one point, ami tint it 
that aU poisons produced by bacteria are not neoesaarily pUtmafaMli 
that aJl mysterious symptoms in oiiscure cooipluntii cannot 1>e as <m|| 
attributed to leucoitiiLtrjes. ^ 

Tliere ia always a tendency after any ({""eiit diston-ry is made to 
attribut<> U> it wider iniporltmce than it i-willy possesses. We liav« 
many inxtutioas nf thin in patholo^ ; the doutrine of th« solidislx, which 
t^otully ftxcludi'd humoraiiam, was an outjfniwlh <if Schwann'x gTMt 
gonora ligation wp call th« cell theory. Similarly tli<-rr- can ho littlo 
doubt that uiidor tha influoncn of the g^trm tbrory many proaoalUf 
OODClusiODs w«ro jumped at, cnno^ming th« association of organ i^ma with 
diaeaae. Ptomaines are now dixplikcing somewhat the microbe, which 
was formerly regai'ded mk all-import^int, hut this muEt not ho pushed too 
fur. The discovery of ptomainttx is compltrmcntal, not antAffOuistic, 

' Potr««clno (CjEIijSj) it fhi-miuiillii Irtrnmt-tliyli-'i'^iliuiiinv (flrr. rf^KtxA. (Acoi. 
aurtl. xxi. 3B38). 

> CadnTotiiio (C»HitNg| ia p«ntBinvth]^lnn*diiiinina II«ilenburs, llail.tix.9iK). Tm 
other JxIkAliiidn iuuti*il noaridine itiii] aaprino hava been (Fiwmt*!! by ltn«|(nr, vfalck im 
iBOmorio witli uttdftvorino. 

* A lull uplAoatlon will b* found in an bttrcftiiiii ]>apM by Bmumob ml 
V. Cdnuiwh; (Xnl. pkt/iiol. Chfm. xiii. 9011). Tlicw olitonFT* ihow that Uw two 
duninwii wliivh me loiuirl in ^holttn. uiit in jiaru ircilttvaHnnii nf t)i>- rhnlm biciDm, u* 
kIm (nuiicl in the uiinc and AfkP" nf jmtivnt* iiolI?riiii[ trniii nuliiiiirin, ■ mndilk* 
■ppsmutly I'orj diffcroat (rnm rlmlrrn. Knnnitl tirilix if Inxii;, bill lliiii ■* pinitiBbljr iif 
to ItiH itiuriiuiic polufiaili mlU in it lStiulth>4(nii, Zait. klin. UrJ. tt. put* E Mid fi, 
nnt til my oilialoid. Ptomiunea him nvvirluiitit tlii'w c»i»i nf cixtiixuu mm dMCfflMtl) 
been MlibliK'torilr dpmoiii.lnitntl to niint vitli-r in winniO iir p>ilJiiil<i|iii^ aitnci. Ibo*^ 
thpon-lii-Jilly Uu'li tmunco Ihcrg in ]K"t<ibli>, lor t>ii' ptiimuixu liinni-d by pntnbctiali 
in Chv iiituntlua nili;lit couoriiably tw puitly rT<iliiii>tliiid mid Ihrui vim-ltd in thn bjIiw. 
Ponrlivt iC'impt, rcrul. irnii, ISIHI) lia> utivUil Ihnt niinnii] nriiiaa oontain jKominatf 
kikkloidai hit uwthodi mid naulia trr, bmevvr, (uU at UMimuit, HlUtler liu (eaad 
(IMmioM in Uw tatno in catoi of paniicioiu anvmio- 


totkgenn tlieor^. W« maiit reincinti<>r that there nrptnany poweifut 
mt vhicb are nol itlkuloida ut all. Stiuki! jmisou is a. ntrilcing 
BpJe oE this ; tl ia a poisnnuus protuwl indistiiigutshiihtrr front other 
I by ita reacUona. Tlii> prwluota nf iligpstiim pnwluenil noniialiy 
I iht aliment&rj c&Dal (nlbumose^ unci pnptoneH) nre niso powerful 
ReceuUy it bu« liee:i Eurinised that thn bacillus AnthraoU 
rinOM * ]ioiw>noua nlbumust!, whioli nlsn has thi? power of conforruig 
DtuamuDity froiu ihe iiltucks of the hiivillus.' Not doubt the 
fmuiaaa proLeids, aa well ns tlie pt^imiiines, will hare to be very largely 
RCkDned with iu the invt'sligiitionx of thn poisons of dJveoMe. 


Ik But oHittind o[ aiiy Impurf.iiiiuv fur Ibc «.-puni<ii)D of alkoluicli from 
tpA mistiiTa wiui prapoHcil l>y Ktao," subcwiu^itiUy iu<.«lilitcl liy Otio,' utnl uow 
^■■s •• tli« 8ui»-OIUi proCfj*. Otln-r iiivtlitxlx lm»* bpun iiilroJiit«l bj 
DafHitatS,* Soniietiidicin,' Solntl.' oiid BHcKi^r.' Tli^ liut-naiiiuil ubsvntfr'n 
WWn* i> npcciiilly afliipled for Ibc mipllfntion of |ito(njiinM. 

fit Slat-Utlit prueeti.' — The subitAQci! lo be opcmtc^ on, if MiUd, In lln«ly 
•JiMol.Md rapeaMdIy (U);«iiUm1 (or lUiLDy lioun «-ith frtuhqiuintltlRi of rccltOtxl 
SMI it a (*nip«nure of SS" C. Li<|Uiil(y an- xIbu (rtalitl with twice clicir 
"toi of ^Irit. Tbn roridiw In finally <IEi(i)t.Ui(l al 38' C, with B{iitil tuintlr 
"MM with nccClc ncitl ; It In than anoe or twice mora (|i|tiMC«iil wiUi luiiicidificil 
4^ fk Mkioliolii: liqaldn obiAlnml before nolilitlcntlnn nrc mixiirl to^utlier. 
irioiidlyaiii) monicntiirily mlnocl to TO^CcooIliI. nnil fUttrrud ; tliom obtalowj 
ti inil if lor the luc of ofrtio itcld urc mixed together anil ximilarly tfented- 
hl Iht two Il<iiiidt>. Ihe umitidiGvil and tbe acidilkil, aru not mixed with one 
^■kr tin later, Eaeli infiuiuo in tlidii voiicviiLtuMiI Iu n syrupy coniitteiicy at 

• N^BnUord of 36' C. To Hi* fcynip nboul. ;t() c.c. of alwolnlv aluuliul arvadded. 
tAcmmaBt tUninn and ffrlDdinii In n raortnr. Thn alcohol It [iiiiiroil ulF fnim 
^ pncy nuiMi, and r^htced by i^iiconxolvti portlnot of in c-c. of hIoi.iIiuI. so lung 
^■iMkrerti imparted to it. Tlic nloohoUc extract* ore mixed, llUoritd. and \W 
wMeoaoeatnUiy) an b«fore nl X&° C. Wobun^ n^nin n >yrupy rvildiic'. lioth 
■^ tbo iwacidiSol and Ibu auidiGcil uriicinal eitratit<: t'u<ih in filiated witli 
**>«, flli«T«il, an>l the (Tllnliti mixed. They «li<iiild iiuw iiicusiin.- IS-SO cc. 
IWibputlally noinnUU«d with «ada, but, ntlll fiiiiitly iii.'\d, in pl.ii-cd into a wU- 
*^temA tube Thb liquid ooncaitii all the nlkalnidx pronnitt In the origliwl 
■•"i*!, aad ia free from protwdn. This miueous liquid (A) ia now covered 
niivlco its rolBniv uf ether, uud the whole ia mjivd by gsutly aud repealiidJy 
*MRii« Ibc Inbu. Tbu etiivr Is allowed to wjiaratv, and is pIputtM olT. A 
'^^ntifllr of Mh'i it ItiKii \iwA, and (he oxtmcllon wilb vclier t«pmlvd ntitU 

* ■•* diopa oo GVnpomllcin Inive Do rcnduc; four or lli>c oxtiactloD* jpinoraUy 
'^■t- Bnefa Btheroal colnlion ia woahcd by shokiiw it with i c.c. of water to 

' Sl«^ l.i'bitj'i Annaltn, liiiir. 870, 
* I>tii4(TiiiloirlI, Oi^fhll ehr'it. Ermit, V. OifU IWO. 
Bt«*MMlM«n, IMa^i A nn, cv. ti. 
' l)bd, Jinm. (-/ Cftmn. So™*,, lOTI, p. 98. 
' I>nVTi th* Plomame. put i. IHnK ; put it. IXNS ; pan iii, lAM. 
* Uantttdbt Or.Slttvmm.Wallt' Oiel. rol i. IWVi. .4r(. -Alkkloida poiunoUH,'* 



wfatoh n drop i)( milphurio actd hn» boon ndded; Uicj ars tlica mlxtd. imd OB 
«va|NRkClon iiiny \iravc iin oil;' iwidoe. irbiolt sliould be raserrcd for (aitiier cx> 
lunliuvlion. The bulk of the alkaloiib, howcvor, rt-uiaia inKiluble In ctlicr. Hm 
Mid llifuid (A) (ikttvr wiwbing with ctbor), luid the iioiiliilat«<I wvitar n«ed ia 
WAahiog tbu pthi>r psliacto, are iiiixrti, inndc nikRlInc with M>dluin MtrboiutUhniid 
(abainl«d, onoo with a mixliirv itt cblnrofnrni luid ntlici (1 : K), nnil mbtcqanMlf 
tbnw or font liium with t>tli«r alone. Thn*« mnu:^* nro •uccnMdiclT waabid 
with wuUr. thou ncidohkMd «al«ff. un<l hwllv wntoi nicain. Tlir nlknlolik «(* 
Ibiirt (Srvt. litwniKd hy (he nlkftil, Ihi^ii dlMolvcd hi Iho olhd-olilotDfonn, Umm 
m^iii ■.■onvcrMul Into *al|>hiit^. wlitoh, bping iniolublo In ctboc und cblarolcmi, 
|«Mt into Ihn acid >ialiit]oiii>. Impnritlo* biding lell behind to the ether. Tlie add 
llqulil and the finnl wnuli wntcr rur mixed, nashrd with ether, once more made 
nl1ullnc.jiiidnfnu>"'itmcTcd with cblorufonu'Ctbcr and other, Tbew extracts an 
WTubdl irith water, nuide luirely alkiilim- with wdiom CHrboDiitv, fllteml, %iid Ihe 
fillmte* cvii]K>nilcd Ut diyncxi lielow S8''C. Thin iiiiiy t* thvti <l»!*'l nl lOO*. 
cwilo"! and Wfltthtrl, Ih* wriirht bvitiK ihnt of thp tolnl alknlold*. If n valatilc 
alkaloid i« |iiiuu-nt. the uMldun will Vie oily ; whethirr timw nro |in»rfll dioiihl be 
di«onv(>r(>d by lint rTn|H>mllnii o few p.c urilj. tf tliey do nocur, the ritmota 
niui't bn ncldl fled with liydroolilorioaolil, luidthea an evaporaLion (he n(«i-*o1«tJIa 
hrdrwhtoridei an- left. The free nll(&kili(« nbtaliKHl in (h» tint inoliuiee areoon* 
mUd Into faydroohloridoa. dlnolted in wiii«t. mid then wiismteil and lestpd for 
aoooidbiK la their TnitotM pro|>«1i«n. They are btvl MrpnTsliil liv ihr uw of 
different Mlvfinta (p«lDl«niD «t1iar, b«naon*. oliloioforai, aloohol, to.}. In whlcb 
•ooie are and ■ome not aolnblo. 

Britffrr'i iiu4haJ. — Tha mSM of piil.n-frlng nintKrla! la hollod nrilh vaur, 
HIIMml, and tfao flltiato pradpltAtnl witli nubneetntn nt leoiL TbI* pTTcljilIaIr )■ 
Otarad olt; a atmin of hydrat^n !<n1phide ia puKd throngb the filirnie. and iho 
lead nlphld)) nepuated bf itltnilioii. The Dtnt« la ovapomted to a thin lyrnp, 
and ttita U extnieteil with ainyl ale«bi>l. He txtisct i^i repmtnlly treated with 
water, and ihen c(inon>tmt(<(l. tb<-n made ttranglyacdd with sulphuric acid, attd 
rqiMtodly nhalccn with rthi>r. whirh ri'iiiove* <iiy-ac!da. Freed rrum ether it to 
«*«pnnted lo n qniutor of ll» biilk, and lliua volntlte fatty aciiLi are driven off. 
Th* (ulphnrla acid la pn<rlplIiUed by bnryla. and the precipllale itvnored hf 
fillrnllon ; tbo exoow of bnT7M b pi^dpltnled by a ilrctun of caibonic acM, and 
Ihtii i> nlno rtmoved by lUtmllon. The llold I* warmed for Minie tJnM oa th» 
watcr-tnth, eoulnl, and precipitated with mercuric chloride. The prrcipltnte la 
well waAhed and dvcompMed by lalphiiretted hydrogen; the tnercartc luljihlda 
la fillered off. and the liltrnte eocicenl rated. iDorftantc (ababuuvu cryvtaltUc onl 
OnU whioh are filtered off an>l wafaheil wllli abaolote nleohol. Siilseqaently kMf 
■iMdlMfumiiOf OT)[anloiMtni«, wtileh an Mduble In water and dilate aloohal.bni 
iBKdubla tn abMtma alcohol, ather, bani*t>o, uid elilonrfanD. Thtae anbslMiot* 
ooBifat of the ptouiaiiwi, and tltny an than ■wparated by tmetloMl pmlplutiaa 
will) Uie cUooldee of phitinun or p>ld. Bonmaitn and r. Odruuikjr hkva 
•epiuale'l cwlaveilna and pnirtMilao by the different aolubUltlea In etiief and 
ftlcohol of tliolr bcoaoyl-oonponnda.' 

In aomo of lib reaearabea Drieger tuu duitcnnd the ptoceduro by pnaipitaUiv 
the pnlTid llutib aflcf boIUng aad muring dircutly with mercuric cbLorlde, i^e. 
(lie Hnt pr»C)pitatinn. that witli lead acetate. i> omilicd. An ineroorio obloride 
dM« MOt pnvipltule all alkaloid*, bntli preolpitnte luid liltmtc mmt be toaiuliiad. 



Tk tnitMt like the vegetable alkaloids may be divided into two groups : 
tWiritich do, and those which do not contain oiygen. Those which do noi 
tootiin oijgen are the ptomaines proper, and, like the non -oxygenated vegel&ble 
ilbloid^are liquid, volatile, and odorous. The oxygenated alkaloidsare crj'gtttl- 
linrind fixed. 

Tbey all have ma alkaline reaction. 

TCej ire oiiditnble and nnittable, especially under the influence of an excess 
i' niDcnl acid, which colours them red, and then coni'erta them into a resinous 

Tlieli chloroplali nates and chloroaimtes vary much in solubility. 

rhncacid precipitates most o[ them, the colour of the precipitate usually 
being pale yellow. 

TinniD, mercuric chloride, Sic. also produce Insoluble precipitates as a rule. 

Fhosphomolybilic acid precipitates all the .ilkaloids. 

Tin ptomaines arc energetic reducing agents, decomposing chromic aci<l, 
iodic Kid, ami silver nitrate. With ferricyanide of potassium and ferric chloride 
ilir;irivt Pruiisiiin blue. This was at one lime considered to be cbaracteristio of 
tliF ■cima] alkaloids, but it has been found that many vegetable alkaloids give 
ie ame test, anil a few of the animal nlltaloids (especially those containing 
•orpn— Brieger) do not give it. There is, so far as is at present known, no cla^K 
nnian by whicli the alkaloids of animal can be separated from those of 
'iKHible origin. 


Tl« animal alkaloiils which up to the present have been obtalneil in a pure 
"nditioB may be arranged as follows : — 

1. NoD-ozjgenont ptomaines — 

Bydro-<M)lli(line Saprinc 

ColllOinc Cadaverine 

Parvolinc Putrescine 

Keuridine Mydaleinf 

i. Oxygenous ptumainus— 

Nentiue Mytilotoxinc 

Clioline Tetaninc 

Muscarine Typhotoxinc 

3. l.ei]i;ainaiDCs of the iirjc acid group - 

Caniinc .'^urcinc or Hyi>oxanthine 

Adenine Xantiiinc 

Quaninc I'suudu-xanthine 

t- Uucomainex of the creatinine group— 

Creatinine ('niMi-iTeatinine 

Xaot ho-creat inine Auiplii.creatinini! 



I. Til* non-osjfanoa* PtMnunainrclliiiil'liuiA volntllc. The |iroiiprt)c> of the 
duel membiTi of ihe frrouparv: ~ 

B. UtrraliHr.CftluS. Til i ■ wiu lint *e|i>r»t«d frooi ihe putrid Berh of the 
maclKml vul hMw. [i i« iin oflr tow. of a jdlow oolonr, boiling a liitlv iielow 
200* C. Ill) ohlortnnnii* nnil (ililoropUllnnM h»rt b«ni propsiril. Thu>« ml* 
ciTitalllnc. kod Ibo lutlcr In ih» niorf Intolabl* ut the two <0*ntinr am) KUnl). 

b. Uyilro-eotMinf, (\\\„'ii (boillng-iMitiit ■•Mi'' C). Mi'l CoViiliitr, r,II„N: 
tlie fint-nuDiwl uf iliusp Ira other boo dsnvod from tlio ituiie «i>ar<!L> k* tlie 
])ivcodin);. Ilw lultcr from tbu |)uiri-ii«l praduou of ox puionaw atui gvla- 
tin« (N't'iiclci. OBnllpt). Nvnaici C'liwiilm cutlidiue to Iw Uu-phenvl-rUij'lainiM^ 

C.H,- Cllc . TliMT llirM bHM« are all IiIkIiIt to^dc. 

o. .ViTHrlA*r. C,ll„Np in a coiiilujil prodtwl of die piitrcraction of pratfUk 
]!■ hTilrochloriilo, platlno-chloriili-. nnd nuro'clilorld* liavo Iimh ccrttalliiod tuA 
nQplvdnl. but Ihf tTtie bow li *o nnxntilc thnl 11 hai Dtnrj bwn iiljufaoil |niitL 
A ■olntioo of tiHlliiin liyiltnic tireokt up tlic bjdrochlorido of tiBurMlD* Into 
dimeUirlaminc and trimctbylaiaine (Urlvictr), 

■1. SapriHt, C,tl„N,. lbL>ii)c)> isumcrie with tli« prL>cixlin([. iDffer* trum it \m 
the »uhibili(i<>< of iia mil*, iiiiil |iri.>bA>'1.v aino in c-Iii-tiiitia] conflStnliiin. 

«. Gutareriif. <.\II„>,, a llilril lk>in«Tlrio. tt«'ii«nillT apiN-ar* lot* In •■nlimuy 
putrcrtU'Ilvu proM'»iis but r*»<li1y in cuIIivKtlon* of Ibv ch-ilrra bnrltliio Mid 
PlnUcr-PfloT vibrio, lt> <-tie[iilcal cunnlilntlon tiai boiui mirktil out hy 
Iwlenbetg.' orho liw fouud ibut il lielonm to tlir f^roup of dianiioti. au'l thai II 
in po^lIl■^1et)l]'k■Dr'<t^lltJlinl^ It him n •ppmiatic wluur, aitil lioil* nt US. 128* C> 

t. pKlrttriHf. C,ll„Np IK iilw> a •liAminv. bvinj- t«trB-m(i|lijiImc iliamitw. It 
t> umiallr touitd aoooiuiituiflng <»dnvorin«, buT niaka* ll> nppKnmiii.i- raitm taitc. 
TliL- cliii't work on this lUMniDC hiu bwo done by Brioticr.' DieXUh^Ii.* iiml lu 
aouUtullon wn< dl«OTer«d bjr BaumaiiD and v. tldnumk^.' lliuteiiirAiliMalnM 
alao are found in the tiooea and nrin* In t»*«» of cj-otlnuriei (Rrfvger atti 
ff1t4'*'"(r**' ' BAnmann, uoil i'. U<lr»n>]iky*), 

Tbej lure both pulMns, but iimi vitiilcnc •loi'S bqiI tlia lymptonui ihey proilM* 
mi* vet)* (tnillar li> luiiiii- of thoM' of rliolmi (h'>'i'»orrbuiii'» aiirl ncoruH*),* tiot 
the miwCulaT cnuupa and oiher iiromiomi lyniptoms of ibat iliimwi- ore probftU; 
pnNliii-«il by olhor polaoiioiu nlkaloltla (l«x!n«^ oa Briogcr mmlil rail the») not 
ytt- (vpuraUid. 

Olh«r ikiImboiu alkaloids brlcn^ng to thia group hare not jrot becB fnltjr 
oiunlMd : ihai n tao eaniwl mj/jMlfiur wa» dMorllMd by Bri^w, nad tUi pn» 
fc«bly !• alio • diamin* ; il !■ iiuirknlljr toxic* 

t. TlM osyftDOW rtomabiM may in many obmb b* otitaIn«d fnon htaUltjr 
tbauM : i>n<l tlwv arc »>■<• loinird from rhunc liitUM on tti« ocruncBr* of putr^ 

■ bwktiHli, B*r. 4. Offtl. («. Ull. 
• .trth. palh. ,liMf. nf. |<ut H. 

> tlrr, ilralvti. fkrM. tin. lii. UU>. Tbi mIcbmI (oimola Haifiwil In («^rit1aa 
by RnvKPt wh C',HitN(- 

' iWltn. *(ifi ll'n-fc. IWT, Xu. 4L 

• IM. 111. WM 

• M*il- j>Ar(^<<- Chtm. ilti. Ml. 
1 Par >r"i|*"">* *" '' H'l>n'i|t>'''Hl*(Ji. m^il. Worhntrk. lit. So. tl. tMwoorHuib 

it»Wi J-'"—'' I'<"T. Ml Frhlnaan udOravIt*. rinAvir'* ^rrA. Fi^ ]. 

' 8w Artvlx* l>) l<au-l«T ftniMm on Faoi and PodHS, fVar^riMHr, ToL URT. A«|. 

tWrl- M><l (>•'<- )'*■''• 


ttetiaa. Tbor mmy tbos be in many cases leucomaines a-i well. It ia very 
•I'liibtfiil if th^ exist in a, free state in healthy tiBKues ; probably they are fiirineil 
l>r the aolioD of tbe reagents used oa unalyais, e.g. tbe neiirine ia dariied from 
>.ittun {irr Chap, XXIV). 

a. A>«rtiM, C,H„yO, U triinethjrl -vinyl ainiDoniaai hydroxide. Thu is • 
frrnpj- base sjid stronKly alkaline ; its chloroplatinate crystallises readily. It 
i- a oonstant [nndact of cadaveric putrefaction, iluc) a. more pon'crfill toxic agent 
Ihaa tbe allcMloid choline found witb it. 

b. f^MJM^, C,H,j{IO, ( = neiinne-i- water), is triruetliyloxyethylene-ammooinm 
knliuxiite. Tbis sub»>tHiice is very similar in its |)ro|>erties to neorine. A fall 
Hccoont of it H-ill be found in (he chapter on tbe nervous tissueH. Clioliiie is 
generally also called nenrine, but Brieger restricts the latter word to the closely 
nhted alkaloid just described. 

e. JfvsivHiir, C,H„NO„ was discovered by Schmiedeberg iinrl Koppe' in the 
[uisuDOus iDuahroon -agarinu vtutcariiu. SchmieilebeTg Hnd Hamack- niso 
■ilitai&Ml it from choline by the ozidistng action of nitric acid — 2 ntoiiis of the 
ii^TOfcen ot the choline being removed by tlie nitric acid from tbe cboline; 
muscarine is tbns nmilar in constitution to the nldcliydes. ttrieger Ims found tlie 
■Bine sabstance in putrid lish. 

n>eae three eabrttances are nil powerful poisons ; ncurine am) choline acting 
like came on the end-piatcs ; muscarine on the muscular tissue itself, es|ieoially 
vt tbe he*rt. All three are antiu;onistic to atropine so far as relates to its action 
•o the heart and glan<inlar system. 

A. fr'«rfi«iii«, C,H|,NOp was obtained by Brieger, mixed with muscarine from 
pntictring cod-fish. It is, however, le^n toxic than niusi'jirino. 

e. Mj/tilotoxiiu, C,U,,NOp is tbe active agent in mussel- poisoning (Brieger). 

f. Typluitoiine, C,H„NO„ is an alkaloid obtMncd from pure cultures of the 
typhoid iiHcilluB, and is r^arded by Brieger na the chemical jtoison in typhoid 

g. TeUmiv, C„H„N,0,, is the suppuseil toxinc in rases of tetanus (Brieger). 

3. twMOdwinw of the nxie acid gronp.— Tlie siibstnouea enomecaCed onder 
■his heading have l)een already described with the uric acid group (tec p. 90), 
■ith tbe exception of ihe last named, pseuiloxan chine, to which (iauticr ascribes 
the fonnubi C,HjN,0, 

4. LeaaoBBiaes of ths CrsstiniiiB franp.— Of these creatinine has bi?cn 
JeKribed in connection with creatine, one of theaniicio-aci'la(«cc p. M). Xaniho- 
matiniiie, C,H,^,0, cntsocreatinine, C,H,N,0, amphicrentinine, r'^,^,(),, are 
base* which have been separated from muscle, together with {iseudoxaaihine 
by Gantier. They are all poisonous. 

Dim iiHtcariii, Leipzig, 1868. ' Arrb. rxp. I'alh. ii. Pharmali. vi. 1(11. 





The cell is the structural unit of living things. It coiisi^itti of a miiss 
of nuterinl which has a jelly-like consistency, and po&sesses the powers 
of iiK>%'ement, asGimilHtioii and the like, which are known as vital. 
Tliia living substance, or organic basis cif life, is known as protoplamii. 
Within the protoplasm nre minute granules of various kinds, and an 
important structure of mure solid consistency, known as the nurlfux. 
Outside the protoplasm there is in some cases, especially in vegetable 
cells, an investing membrane, known as the i-ell-v:iill. The cell-wall, 
however, is not essential, and in animal cells is generally a})sent. 

The lowest animals with which we are acquainted consist of single 
celbs and are called unicellular. 

The lowest plants are also unicellular. 

The highest animals and plants are also originally unicellular ; the 
hamaii ovum is, for instance, a typical cell. The development ab <ii:<> 
is termed the life-history of an organism (ontogeny), and this develop- 
ment is, according tij the Darwinian hypothesis, in its essential features 
similar to the historical development (phylogeny) of the higher or- 
ganisDiK from simpler and ultimately from unicellular forms, which has 
occupied untold ages in the past, 

Physiolitgy may be described as the science which treats of the 
functions of protoplasm and its modifications. Some of these function.-^ 
can l>e accounted for by chemical laws ; this constitutes the depart- 
ment of the science known as Chemical Physiology, or Physiological 
ChemLstry ; other functions are physical manifestations ; the greater 
oar advance of knowledge of protoplasm beciimes, the more does it 
become evident that all vital phtinoniena may be cla.ssed under one or 
other of these two heads ; the unexplained resiilue we must classify lis 
vital, using that word simply for want of a better, and not as implying 
any l»elief in the existence of a special or vital force. 

If we take a single animal cell, either a unicellular organism like an 
Ainceba. or a white blood corpuscle, which is an instance of a cell re- 
taining its primitive structure in the ikIuU form of higher animals, we 
lind that it has the following properties : 




I. I'tifrr 1}/' aifivrmrnt—The Bliape of Uie ecH is cotitinuatly ch. 
ing, prucvtuea lii'inc ■•xb>n(lM] ttud wit)i(liiiwii. M»veiueiit mar 
namotimeii aiiimrently [.pnniAiieooH, liut iiaually it is «\ciu>{t by tb« i 
flu('nu(i of ext*nml agctiLicK Ih?bI, foi«igii partii'l«8. Ac. The«« tftet. 
lire t*'riii«l utimufi, »nii tliH piwor of resinni<liiig t« n .iliiiiuluB bjr 
truRtion ijc ktiown ns irriinhifihf. 

i. i'lHiT 11/ nKtimilnlinn, that is, of uliHorbing A*9u\ tnntter, 
converting it hy chemical changvn into n |HLii nf itm-lf, i.o. inbi 
plnsin or living mnttor. 

3. J'oierr itf ijrtiiPth \ this fnllowK frnni the joiit. 

■I. i'owrr iif frerrtion ; or thp^lnljoratioii fmin [irotopJAxni of ne> 
SubstftnccK : tbJK is wvn in tlir formation of vnt-noles, l)ut tn a ^rnxn- 
oitent in the higher animals, wheiv certain cells ■" organs nllel 
secreting glands, nro set apart &peeially, for the fom)ation of [as&Ay 
elaborate materials, known as enxyniea or fennents. Some secntiuB 
■re merely ilisciiarged from tlie cdU as wa^te products; UiM' an 
knowu M exeretioiiB. 

5, Poat^ <if Ttjurrxiuriiaii, or tb« giving oS of lifini; thiiiKa hi 
to Uieniselv«8 ; In the Himplest ooiidition this U lirougfat about 
btiii'/iiu/ — tile (letnehnioiit of nnnut^ ]uir1itlpii of pi-otofiluAni nhielif,' 
into Bilult i'ellii ; or hyjiKnii'ii, due to tin- sjilitting of llie «*ll, iin-liiili"i 
it* nucleus, into two, eiieli daughter cnll growing into an adult, vhidi 
in ilA turn nndiTgoiMi ti similur division. 

In the development of n hi){htfr nnimni fnnii a ningl« cell, onxOHi 
there i«, afti-r ftirti ligation, first 11 divixion of tlint wll into two, f*^ 
of whieli again divideji, so that four, iin<l tlivn hj- n similar )ir>C** 
eight, nixtecii, and ho on, cidla nre fornieil. The uidln ko formed do att 
1)Mnine HetAohcd front onr another, hut reinoin iidhirent, k<> (Itnt > Vii^ 
mass of simple celU, each like the original, is foniwHi. 'Riew bntim" 
ftrnmged in the fonn of a little sphere, nt fimt solid, nn<l then eniiUif 
iDg liquid shed out from the cdU : n littl* Ut«r it will Iw foonil th*' 
tlie layers of crIIs are tlirei- di"ep : the outeimost layer is termed di» 
Fpibfii*! or 'cloilrnii, llie inueniii>«t the Ki//i>MiiM or •■nrfritUnii, oT 
rnliHirriii, uhile the middle oiie is the nirmihlntl or inraMifrm. From thW 
tJiree layera all the tiasuiw and organs of Ilie luiult are formed . ^ 
rpidermis and nervous system frinn ihf epihliist : the lining niKnilir»t"' 
of the nlimcntury and respiratory ui\ itirs, with the etdlii of the i\\iff* 
tivv glanili, from the hypoblaHt, an<l the nwt t>f tlifl body from !'■' 

Ill the further development of the adult fnjtn tin- three 
t>inbi-yi>nic layers, tJtere is not mei-ely sulidiviAion of the mils, bui i^ 
■.-elU ill i.'ertaiii parts beeonie luodiHed or altered from their priiiiirit* 

from iin= 

THE rP.U. 



I— Irli c ti : •nni* liemuit^ hollnw uid lulheroiit to one another to fonu 
Uoad «n4rU : otlwni liMHuoa cto)i|'iit«(l and tttre&il-like, tu form 
MBtcnUr fitwmt ; in other purta Uk cells become mcwlilied cliemiavlly, as 
is tkfe homjr Uycni nf the tri>ideriiitii, or die luufiti-yielHiiii; celiH of 
itlinry k^ikIe. Iii other juirts, nn in tlie coimrclive tiiisu£«, the calls 
hmv Inwffiiir s(r|«iratMl hy an in(4>n«lluli)r BubHltinte, iii which Hbres 
uaT forrn. nr in wtiitb, as in lioiie, ualosreouii matter muy hu deposited, 
Thw arv ntertrly inst«nc«i of th« i-nriMti<>ii» that ui»y •h;cui-. Ju tlie 
<hs|ilm thiit fiJluw thin, the wverni tiuufu ami ori^iti.-> s>i foriiied, wit] 
W l*ken ■'rwr/iiit. For lln- ]trr«orit wi- hiivn inorr rs]Hx<ially tii ilenl 
with till* Mnu^turv of tlH> primitivp cnll. C'hcmicnl in\'i-stigAtioii tif 
•aril an ntiject U fmuKht with ilitttciiltinK, mid iiiiist in niaiiy ciLses hr 
(vrfiirmed on ii iiiicnwropii- slide ; in ci^rtnin ottuM- im«<'>, howevi^r, lut 
whll poa celU, livrr uellii, Ac, it i* jHMdblc to i>l>taiii Inrgi- cnUectionn 
*i csUk, and Umi) the mdliuils of niiicro-chrmiiitry ciin ho apjilint. 

TIh> n-ll thniiry is aiHiiriAtfd in grciiti'Kt minsarp witli tin- nnuic <if 
TlinMliir Svliwiinn ; Hiid I traiiKUti' h'-rc tht^ fi>lliiW]ng wntiiniMT* fnini 
iW life •■( that scientist written hy Loi.n Froileriw| "f Uf-ge.' 

'PtwioustiiSchwmnn's time, it was known that in animals thcrR 
»•»»■ f 3ciiinph' ••( i-rpiin« fonni^d of cells. Mtillf r h«il ilcKiTihi-d them in 
lb* <|iiiiBl eiinl ; IlenliT had studind tlipni in tlir cpidorniii ; Metile an<] 
Purltbijo in gluwls ; Ehrenlierg and Vali?nlin in nerve centres, ibe. 
Ifatt these WM« isolatoil facta, and indeed ct'rtnin mtetinU buktil upon 
ihmn as exoftptioiiK. N" "n" liml yet tliniight I'f carrying inti> the 
^iidiaii) <if animal histoh.igy the general iiiiMiin« ileiived from the 
inivti^<<<ipie stwly i4 vegetAlile slructure&. Schwittin bus lumaelf tuld 
tk> aocMleiit which g»vc hiui the tliiit idea in Wm ^I'eat di&cuvery. 

"■One lUy 1 was diiiijiK with M. Sihleidrii, the illuHlrioaii 
1st, *nil he mu telliiif; me t>f Lin- iniporliinl part played by the 
B*cle(is iti the ilevelopnieiit «f vej^table crilo. 1 sudilenly reiueinbei'ed 
havtni; ni>ti<.-ed n niluilar apfH-anince in tin* i-i-IIk of tin* spiusl cord, and 
UieMMie m->iii<--iit I gT»Ap(>(t thf iiupiirtiince nf lirin); iibli? lit hIiow ibat 
this naoteus plays a jmrt, Miuilar to that oliserved in plants.'' 

■The' two KcientiitK iimticditLtely ri'imired lo tin- anatomii-nl theatre 
f«" e»uiiiite the nuclei in <|Ucstion, and Schlfiilen i-ect^iiscd their 
rwfect reSi-inbinnce to vegetabirt nuclei. 

' " Since that tnoiuent,'' Schwann conLitiui<«, " all tny elTorts tended to 
try lo pravir the pn>-es)i>tetice of the nucleuH in the cell. 

'"Onee arrived at a satisfactory conclusion cuiict?niing ihe CbIU of 
the ^luU cord, and iif curtilaK<^ thtf orison <>f tin-- olementnry parts of 
etlwr tliMies bjr the g«iDe Diode nf dervlupuit-nt, that is to say, by lueeiu 

■ Uhgr, IMM. 



of c«IU, wu no loii^^r a n)fttt«r uf doubt to iiir, ftiid further AWrmtia 
hiit> entirely cunlinneil thin vtei*. The inirro«co{)c- has «lii>wii m<^ ilint 
all tlie vurird f<iriii-> in th« iminuil tiaaues lU-e iKithiiiK l)ut tmn^foi-iiicd 
tf\\», tliiii tinUormityof tvxtui'oitt founil tlin>u;{hout theiuiimiil Linj^iJotu, 
Mild LliMtn c»iii>(i[acintrt h i-iOtulnr ciri|{in is cotmmm to nil livin;; tliiuK^ 
All iiif work hn* iitit)i(iri»><I mi- t» npplv to niiiamlK U to plnnta the 
doctrim* of thf iudividiuility of (-rilii."' 

Tlio first niKttvr in vonnoctioii wirh wIIh llint n-e >luill Ink*- up » 
one which in not ittrictly ii chenticid <>»•■. liiit <>iif which out lu-virtln-lrwt 
noi Im> oiiiit.iod ill II c'liiaiderolion of the phyiiit>Uigy of i-iAls ; thin it tli» 
phfMology of pi'utoplasmic niovvuieut. 


This atwtion U vory Inrgply ait ftlutrai:t uf EnK#liiiAuu'a HrticW on 
thisBUhJect in ilcriniiHii'f [[ATidwortfrbuch di^r PhyHioloyie.' 

The uiuveiiieiit of livin;; pnitoplnsin iiiuaL lie cliiiu«d with niuBCulAr 
■111) cilUry nioverii«nl| with whioli it is clcoely conii«ctvd hy iiumeriina 
tmiiMtiomil foi-iii«, n*. pheiiomeiin of ooitt-nivtility. 

Till- Hpet-'iid i-)i>iinct«r of ]>i-otopljuiii)o t»ov«ni«nt Hm in this, lli«t 
the p»rticl«B of the cmiiractile iii&hs ninvf^, not in rolntion to nny fix«il 
piimtioTi of i>(|Utlibnuii], but hh do tin- Uiovitih.' particles of n fluid. 

TninutioiiA) fiii'iiia of mnvfiupnl U-'twrcii thi> nnd thf hi)[hly 
MilfrMl nnd UiniU'd ciiiiii-sctioii of a muiich- occur, and of tJiese tb* 
fnllowiij;; ure iristuDotu : the niOVnnit'Dta of the tiMitocIv* of adnctw,* 
till- iu|n-rticiiil s4iroud« of spoiifto*,* the «nihrthelinl c(<IU nf young blotiil 
ciipilUries,' lh« pi^CDM'nt c^U of iini|iliibian» nnd ropttlt»,' '^"^ tnnoy 

TIh' oldcM dfBcription of a protuplaKniic tnov«nicnt U that by von 
KiM'iihof (Moiuttlich iH-niun^f. lii«i<(TtcDb<iluEti4[ung, :tt«r Tb, p. 621. 
Niirnherjt. l"ri;i) of » fi-«-»hvnK^ Ainu'bn. 

Twfiity years hiter midc Corti's (Lucca, 1771) dewriptioii of the- 
rotation nf the cell tap in Cliitm. In the e«rly part of the prearat cen- 
tury the wide dititributioti uf this phctioiiien<iii in v«^tnbl4« wns deiuaa- 
■tnledby M«>'«r,*K.Oni«ti.' Amiciatidotbpre. Thrn cnme DuJanUnft' 
ilvMiriptian of th" movpnifnla of (hr tudy ■uhiitniicc of ttvrlniii rliiKopod 

■ TiKiiilaind 1,5 A- li tl-nin»v I), ttf. tf^att. JminutI Virr. Sn. nl*. MU. 
' Irfrlorklikli. IUwtgmitfm^hr%M rf. Xfllrm. ^ MO. HmIws, imih 

* Mlrlcki^, tl'ii-nrr Sitt^nftl., J, Unit-. Hriirv. CI. Iiilt. ■•. >!>, |NIT, aaJ oUim. 

■ (1. fMUIIU. Orilnjtr lor ttfu-njtnukranr. fL al-aik I^FMs. ImC 

* IImmiiI, Crmt. /, «nl. ll'iHnit. leiHI, Nn, (. p- Ml 

* 111 Vklliuwna, titr. ' la Tmil»K«i>li*. inn. 

■ DhII, ilf In HH-. Jn m' iMf. it Fimmrr, tMi, Vn. B. Jnn. hi. im/, lit. Iiid ^r. 
]■. lit l>4U. It, |i. Ul. tML 

THE CEU. 187' 

miBwU. This substance be termed tareode. Tbe movement of wbite- 
Uood corpuscles was first observed by Wbarton Jones in 1S46.' V. 
McU* gsve the Ti&iaK jtrotoplasnt to the motile substance in plant cells, 
udCohn* first advuiced the suggestion that this and sArcode were 
idntical. The sctu&l identity of animal and vegetable protoplasm was 
more clearly proved by Max Schultze/ de Bary," Haeckel,* Kuhne' 
uid others ; and a more complete knowledge concerning its movement 
Itu been afforded by Nageli, Briicke, nnd Heidenhain. The wandering 
d imcEboid cells in animal tissues was brought into general notice' 
bj V. Recklinghausen,^ and the importance of this in physiological and 
pitbological process was shown by Strieker and Cohnheim, 

Thft moTemenU of naked protoplasm may be distinguished into^ 
three types — amwboid, streaming, and gliding. Amoeboid vutvevie.nt 
■lioirg itself in the protrusion and retraction of conical and at first 
^erally hyaline processes, into which the granules from the interior 
(treani in and out. The processes may rauiify and even form networkN. 
If tlie processes fasten themselves to fixed bodies, they can by shoiten- 
ing draw the rest of the protoplasm after them, and so produce a 
moTement of translation. These movements may be readily -seen in 
*hite blood corpuscles, in many unicellular animals, in numeivjus ova 
(hjttrs, sponges, 4c.), in connective tissue cells, and in the plaKnio- 
dinm of myxomycetes, where the movements are visible to the naked 
«je. Streatning movement occurs in many protozoa (Heliozoa, Radio- 
l*ri», Ad.). Out of the protoplasmic body long thin threads uf proto- 
pl»Mi spring, and upon their surface a great number of fine granules 
in sctive streaming movement are seen, the main substance of the- 
thnads themselves often showing no movement, or only slow changes of 
'onn. Gliding movement : in this case, extremely thin layers of proto- 
l^wm devoid of granules move along outside a firm cpII wall, ami by 
"wsiiKof this movement the whole borly progresses nver a firm sub- 
•IMCM in a gliding or creeping manner. Tbe rapidity of the move- 
went seldom exceeds 0'04 nmi. in a second- This form of movement 
" »etl seen in the diatoms. 

The movement! of celli bonnded by Ann inte^rnments.- This case 
Hthiefly realised in vegetable cells, and botanists distinguish two 
•wieties : (I) Circulatioti, in wliich contractile protoplasmic tin'eads 

' ProT. Boy. Sor. IMfi- • Ilul. X.itinig. p. 7a, Ifilli. 

• .Vo™ Aria Lrop. Can. iiii. 2. p. UOfi. IHSCI. 

' -irrh./. Anat. «, Phyiiol. 1S6H. p. 880; imil, \: 1. 

' 2'il.f. Ilia. Zovl. X, p, «M. 

' Dw Railiitlarien, BerUn, ISOa. Zril. u-iit. y.iiuL sv, p. :il'>, ,tr>, 

' fu/rn. i. iliit Priilnplatma, L«ipzij(. INIH. Anli. ). .iiml. u, I'l.nti'-I. IKV.i, p. .Wl. 

' A'eh. f. frith. Anat. Iiviii. -p. IflT, Iwlll. 


THE 'ns«rR« AMI) iiIUiAXS (ir tHK 1»>1'V 

stmtdi inwards from llie ot-U whU, truvfrsiui; lint wll sgiicp. wliidi i 
lillrii with lluiil ; tlii-si' (lirtsuU ihvidi-, fusr, finn shiwt* hiiiI jfpjiitniUy 
exhibit Ktr)-niiiiii;{ ;n'utiules. Thfac iiiorcmi>iit% nn> wrll wwn in U)0 
stnminnl linirx I'rom Trndrscnntia ; mid in tlie atiiniAl kingdoias in 
N<K-tiluca, tj^iitnpIcK of inedu^a-, gill libi-ex of DrikncliiowRiit, Ike, 
(2) /{"fiifi"ii -. liiTi' tlip fimtopliism lining' tlic ct-tl wn\U n.)t«t«( u ■. 
connecUfl mnw rinind the iiiUrrior of ihe cell, genemlly following 
Aonttant trovks nut) with nn even velocitv ; e^ilorophyll gr&ius, crvstklK, 
nuclei. Ac, tin* cniried with iL Tliia is well Keen in niuiiy vej^tdhlc 
twUf like V'alliMiiorin, anil here uloo unuat he claiuHKl ttit! rotntion of t^ 
«ndoplasRi of I'araiiiii-ciuiii and Vorticella. 

General conditions of protoplaamic moTement («) Tr-mpemt 

—iy\ivnkiii-4 ^i'iici-a.ll_v, the muv^'UieiiL i-eintri liclow 0''C. mid alwive JCC 
Withiu these limits tlie velocity of the uioveiiitfiit iticreuaea wtth tlw 
ti*tuiM-'riiture. Tlie uptimum ipuiperuture i.i jreiwrnllj' a («w dKfirMS 
bcJoiv the umxiiiium tern pern tu re I'uuipiitihin witli uiiivt'riimt. Whea 
wnrniixl to thi: ninximum, naked i^-tU U'cnmrr Kphi>ri<-al. W'hrn *nb- 
sequi^ntljr coolpil tin; protopWni docs imt rcMiiiic movement, n« tha 
contain^ prntcidii have Ihtii coa^cuUted by the hcati And tbo proto- 
plasm is dead. When pi-otoplaKm enters EUihlenly into tt*nt-riffor, &s by 
a jet of »l<<am playing iipnii it, it han no time to change itii form, bub 
reiuaioB in the position it ha<l the Diomenr before death. A low t«m- 
{wiTttture on the other hand, though it Htopu uioveuieiit, don not kiJI iht 
prutopla^UL ; ^\t<a after HotiMl freexiiiK, |>ii>ti)pln&)u will wheu thawed 
rexutue movement. Kiihne loweretl Tnidt-ic»iiUa ha)r& to — 14*Cforlive 
minutes, and after i-areful thawini; the tJirvadii were a^jaiii fouiul in 
active litrefttiLiiiK niovemi^nl. Animal life in lU aimpl«sl farm auenu to 
witlitttuiid ({'■""■i i''>'d without ajipHit-iit injury : thus McKnndrick and 
Culeninn' e.xjioned bacterial apoi-es to a tttmpcraturc of — J^3° for 
hours, without succeeding in kilHnK th«ui. 

(It) Imhilnliiin irnlrr acln like a de;{ree of teni{wrature. Tlitfro B a 
innxinnim (omr tlO jmr cent.) an>l a uuiiimum (iHrlnw 60 prr ctitiUj for 
th« aiDOunt of contMn«l imlnbition water nt uhicli morcmontit Kt<^ 
When the maximum is ^rodunlly approached, the protophwiiiic man 
becomeii spherical ; removal of the excesH of wst4r utth indifferent snb- 
sttncen like MiUne solutioim oft«ii cntiso the movemeutA to be ninduoed 
after even some uiinuteis of vnlrr-ri-jm: The withdtawal of wntrx pro- 
duces a. teni|ii>riiry or pei-iiianeut tlrif-ritfor. Lonur or^imixnis like 
sporen, (•iii;y!itMl aliKi'lia-, itc, may be dried «iid kept fj)r yi-nrn in thi* 
condition ; after that time on the upplicatioii of moiiture they rfU 

■ yroc. Roffal Imtil. of Gnat Britain. Uay SO. 1HH1. 




(r) fVyjrrji. — WitlufntwHl of oxygtMi ultiiiin(«ly procluces death, 
UtinaMdut irvefroantxygt^ii, ^iittopltsuik- cnoveDient «^lcotltitluefo^ 
lo■» hottTtt. the i^elU ){"'>"K """ t'urljoiiio anliydridf?. The oxyuMi pcP' 
TMOilr t«k(!ii into till* i-cll if in u atnte i>f luune (.-mi 1)11 nation ; when liow- 
nirthi* vtomgc oxygi-ii in ■.•xhiiuntin! the ccU ilien. 

fj) i'r/immi.— A nliiilit exut^s!! ot ucid, and a rntlittr lurgor quantity 
•f tBuli, cauiw* * TL-wjition »f protoplikMiiii.- jiiuveinciit, whicli cuii be^ 
mnlonictec) for n tin»r hy n^utnilisation. A vrn,- wi-jik iilkali 
■<wiUtM (he movpon-iit. C'nrlionic neid gim, vtlicr, and i'hUir»form 
npMir ttop it, Vrratrini' (Kuhne) and qiiinini- (liinx) ' act similarly, 

(') Artifii-iul tiiiHul'ifioii, — The following! may Le useil as stiiuuli 
Mnrnvmi-tit : weak eleetrieal i-iirrents, nr Kiidtien nlteratioiis of tern- 
ptnltirf, witJiin the temperature range of contractility ; iu the caw of 
MMl C1-II.1. U}ilii doM nut act ae a stiiiiuhis : in otlii^i' chains it does ; fur 
MUiicn thf Pehiiuysft movea actix-ely in tlie dark . and bi?funies splicriojd 
•kn KxpnM'd to light : ptiint vetln vuntainitiK cliloroiihyll urn incist sun- 
Wfblil* to the inltueiii-'i- <>f lijcht. MM^hiinioul itimuli liki! ]irp.ssii)]B:, 
kmsn^ tCAting, ^tf., <>'>d chcmimlHtiinuli likii iimnioniu vapnur, various 
Rnogths of saline salutinns, Jrc, may alsu lie rm ployed ; as a rule, 
WwtT B T, ill chemtC4ti ttimuIatioD, orrfswiry pliennnieni* lilco slirinkiiiyv 
mAin^. or t.>a*f;ula(ioii interrupt and n.nnk th'- eHert of the excitation. 

IhMKtieal conclmioni. -Protoplasm nxist he repiai-ded as nii 
•;pqpdi- of c.vo«M«lin;;ly minut«. contractile, excitable form -element*, 
ud (Iw ntot tttnent &■ a «hote U tbe reault of the ohangM in form of 
4e» vury unuill l^)empntI'. The nature and eauite <if tlie chiuifCCK in 
AtBiifthe lattrr Ti-niainK pruviiiionMlly undcterniinrd. 

With regaH t" thHr fonn w« may take it fur giimtrd that when ia 
»«<wlitkjn '<f ntaxitnal fxritjitinn thi-y arc almost sjiherical. and when 
Mndteil ate generally elimgntrd •>■- thniwMiki'. 

Ik iDedtanical behaviour of nakerl pri>tj>plaNTn teaches ua tJiat Ui*' 
rtMitt» in form niuAt lake place with a fnrcr: which exceeils. aa a rule, 
iW Um* which the okmeiits. if they were Hiiid, uruuld put fiirtli, in 
■nhr ti> amunip a sphrric») fimn, 

Tliccr contnu-tilr ■.■IciuL-iita may he called ' Inouigniuta.' Pn>l«l>]y 
lit; are {Hwitirc uniaxial lUmbly refraciinj^' 

Tlii> M<-tive AK well an the jHtnit'n phenomena of pn>t>ipliiiimic nixve 
■«nl oiRijiel ns further t" make tbi? aiwumptiun thai llie inotagrnaia 
i' |n>lv|'laim ar« not lik« thwc of muKcli-x and cilia arranged En n 
nhtiirfy firm manner with th«ir axe* in imr definite dii-ectjun, but 
in luli'unl t>>gether lumrcly and arc capiilili' of moving uitc agaimtt 

' Anh. mtkr. Anal. iii. f. Haa. tMIT. 

* CmitfM4ilitil iiHil l)0|>imlbi»i'luiini- /'/'''^••t'' Arch. li. INTO. 



the fitiier in all direcliima ; fttill tlie pwjmibilily <if n teiiipimry or 
iiitviiiMit griiiipiiig iif K gn•lt^<^^ <]>r Iiwh numbrr of inoCugiiwbi into 
'diHiniti^lj' nhajH^cl Ini^r mnrntat {fibres, nrlworku, in»mbnLn««, &c.) i'^M 
t'X eluded. ^1 

As n ifNison for tlip priwibility of ftlt«mtioii of nrraiigiMntmt of tht 
proloplfuiuic pertioles, and in coiiiiectiun with the prevniling yivwii 
concornirt^ lli^ molecular '•tructure of i)r^-iiiiis«d maHsett, wr miut 
assume tlie <-.vint«iioe of a ciipftbility foi- tliL* imbibitiuii uf important 
qufinlitieH of wjit*r lietwiwu tin- iuotugniaui, wid llir larK«r iiuuuHi w 
.iuolAK:mK •{'"'"I*- The motilttj', a» ^Irmdy tiliovrii, ini-r«auui or diio- 
.inisbeB \rith tlic c|uaiitity of this wat«r. 


Hugidiiiaim ' deacribea conlcuclile proluplaMu ar> « liornoKriio 
tmnspiircul. jilmii«t itlwnys c(ili>iirlcss mna*, witli n hi^liLT 
iiidi!\ than wul4>r, but tower tliun oil. In sumr «u>m vrher>! it hu I 
fortn of nr Uiiii luyvm with « pivMtiHng movmittDt in our. diracti 
it is doubly r«fnu-ting, and nt in musirlm mid i-ilin with n unglo poali 
jixis, the opucAl iixiK ooincidc^ with the diivctioii of tli« movement. 

Different portioiiK i>f the snme pt'otoplasmic nuias may hitve dij 
rafTiictive power*. »nd during movements (Jie refnietive power uf 
name {lortioii changes to a conM<lfi-Hbie extent. 

Fiutoptaviii is semifluid, doe^ not tiiix. )>ut anrelU up witli vktrr J 
la cohesive and extonslbk. Thuu;;l) the superficial layers of mauy i 
are llrnier than the inteiior, a distinct membrane is ab»ent m ■ nlfrf 
-ajiini*] oells. 

Prot«iplaam, almost without exvii>tioD, contains granuhw which | 
R passive rOle in mov«uient. The •pwiuies are alhuniinouK, fiatty, i 
ill some tuses iuorgaitii: (e.^. etilcium i*arbuiiat« in urrtiuti Mysa 
inodia) in nature. Ufl^in tlie exttiiur portioiu of ttic cell (oxnptftaiii)srt 
fm^ fn>in ^runules, while they unr prennnt in Inrgir qnaiitities in \ 
iiitj^nifll i-etfioits {endophiAUj ). Tlie irri'^ular .thuking, danciDf; luom 
■of thrM! pnrticles, calleil th<! ' Browninn niovrrment,' 'must not 
Diistiiki^i for vital iiiovcnicnt*. 

In addition to ;titiiiulc», protoplasnt in veg«i«ble cell* nlwnyx, i 
•animal cells nft«n,oxhibitM vacuoles or spaG«a tilled with a wattnyliqu 
These all- {^lobular in rpstln-f pr>>l<>t>ltiMii, but mny become drawn 
diiriiix ininement. The same hold^ jpMxl for gas huhblfls,* wliich oniu^ 
•ocoaaioually in protc^htHu. 

' Qunrl, J, yir. Sfiencr, nly. 378. 
' KiiiTplniiuin, I'fi'jn'* Atrktt; it. 80?. 





PnittipUHii it) Hen*>mll^ vreakly alkaliiM' (pnilMlily Hu* tn hlkii)in« 
p^Mphatmi) or lu-titral ; in .KtlmtiHut MyrfirMm it u( mlwitvx dintUK-tl/ 
alkkJin^. Aft«r rlMklli nr aftnr |tn)loi>i,itl nctin'ty, efWn *ncl iirgum 
■ItiiniOjt Inn^ i)uanlitiir« (if ci-IIh Ihviiiih' ncid ; ibp noid prvduccid ta 
aot Bwrcly cariMMiit- «ci<l, but ua u rule lactic acid in iMlditiun. 

PmttipUMii voiitaiiM 80-M9 |)er t.'cnt. >if wrKt4^ ; l'>-^0 |>crcOnt.<if 

n>v mIMi imaent an- ubiclly j>mt<-i<lN, hut in ndditioii Htnall qvan- 
titJMi <4 fat, carbi>ltydnit(« liki> t[lyctiK«n and iiionte, and inorgaDic 
tHitk, m|irrwlly' ■■( |H>tjLMiium, an.' {ii-cduiit. Lecithin in nlco fi-etjiK'iitJy 
pf^H-iiI, and oft«n fsnnt'iila or i-nzyiuts run Im? irparati-:! fmni thp <«ll§. 

Thv fortiitioK i" * brief r/ntiiif >i( ihc ktiowti fiiuta cunci'i'niiig the 
rtrortnrv (>f (imtoftliuiu : recent rtweurcli«» IhiIIi in nniinal mid vtn^- 
uU« hi>ti4iqO' hnve. huwever, amjilitiiMl uur kiii)wli-(j|^ in ct^rtain 
pwticulark, niiil (.<ertaiD ii«w beruu iuiw \>txt\ inlrtjilucr*) ti> FSpreiui 
Bfrt*fn nw uul deAnito tkoU. W« will llx-refara nftxt take up tlie 
piintM tliat roiuiro to be niot« fully dralt «-itli. 

Jl* ttniclnrr nf I'rtitoiitniim : m iV Anmn^iuniiit /— Accord in<{ Ui 
Um> olMrrvatiiini iif Heitxniann, Fnmiiin, Klein, Cnmoy. and othera, 
(1n> Oi>U-|in>to]>l»ain {or rylo/Jiium an it i* iifu-n iwllrd. tn distinguiiJi it 
from tW Huflm-pfiuHt or nutwtnnc^ of the nucleus) ia ronipoMecl "f. a 
fap artwork, rrticviun*, or apongnwork of tibrils, with u umro fluid 
»aimal in iu intAnticm. TluMe nbnervcin consider that Uic ^niriulM 
ofcwrTc) in protopliwm mv cbivlly the opticnl sootioTis or uruuitiK p'>inta 
i4 the fibril* ; at tho wuik- time trni^ gmnuiro oi* inieromime* may oorur 
in tbr inter»liti*l Buii). 

t>th«' liiitologiata (Hchitfor, ItabI, Jce.), while not denyinK tlint such 
a rMkuluin titay aoiuc1im<« occur, ya^t uiinndfi' that it is. u* in the 
Antcba. ofton nbtmiC 'DinpriitopWinof ci*]UiKofti>n hij{hly \scunlat.i-il ; 
it often ctmtaiiH ro(l« (a* in cnrtiU^^c cpIIk), nr hufi a MriiktMl apppunrncc 
<•> in cl^)la of llie duds of tho talivary el'>ii<ls)- In oilier cases i^piin 
tbv ftppnumnce of a, nHicuInm app^irc only Bft«i- treatment with certain 
nsfp^to, and uiay be ii kind of coagulation producwl by tjioue renji^iiiK. 

Cam»y b«li«ri4 Uiat thR tvUculuDi coitxists largely of a. &ub!^tanco 
•oallrd fJa»tin, whirh wf kIibII dmcribe more fully In ooTinKtion vith 
iW noclvoa, wlwiT it is hIh>j found. 

Tbf folloirinK lerois for these two (Ufleretit {lurlion* of pitKoplaotii 
ar« oMd by diflt-r^nt observers : — 

Tbf n-tiinilum in called : 

ProtapluMiui by KuplTer ' (including ako graimlcw). 

* SiUwnf^. it. ■mJJ> jiAyi. Xlour J. k. Bogr. Akail. UuHeMtn, IWS, vol. li £Uiyr. 



Cytohy&loplititlua by tjlnubur]{M'. 
Subktuntia opaca by L^yttig. 
Mitom by FlemininK. 

The iiiler-retioular, ttioiv Huid AulMtniice is cvJIed : 

PftntplfiHiiia by KuiiSor. 
Cyloohylemii by SlrtiKburgrr. 
Suli&tiititiit liynliiiii hy Leyil))^. 
Piirauiitum by FleinmiiiK- 

Stnubur^r furUier clialiiit:uUlii« in ilii.' i-yiocliylt.-tiiK : 

Fliwmocbymii, ibf portions rich in proteid*. 
CyltMhyiiio, l)i(i mure wnWry Hap in tlw racii4j>ft. 

Sohwitrtx,' who \ml% I'xumiiml pnitopluiii and nuch'i itncrn- 
chL-niic-iilly, ili^HL'rilieti tin- (ollowint; coiiititueriU in cell proto|ilii«iti nr 

1. Ploxtin, iLHtk'ky, tbmiiily miiAO wliii;b misi^ )>rpti<: ami iry|i|ic 
(iicMtioti ; ntiil in iiinoluble in vom-t'iitnitoil potaauuiu bydrati- mmI 
Mxlium cbloritli- iolutii>i>x (I in 10). He furlJicr dialiiiKUubun lirlwr^n 
cytopliutiti (tbr pl*sliii of I'vtopbutiuj, iitid chluro]>Uatiii {n tiinitur sub- 
Kbiitoo found in cblorophyll xmiiu). 

2. Uicnitiouins the xruiiulea uf tb» pnitopbutni : inafilnblo in wnlrr. 
'riiiftie luny be uhtwiit. 

3. Tbc iti«t4-riaU diuolvis) in the ntouolat, wliich in pliiiit etlU art- 
always pmcnt. This fluiil is slktivl tu Ih> NOiovtitiica luiid, lotnH'unru 
■IkwliiM. Tbe conU-nU of VBCunl<!>. will bf di«fmtst!d mon> fully In trr 


Pow hiMologisbi dxny UmI ]>iiit<>pliu>iii oftm >Jiaw« reticitluiu mid 
euchyleiun, to wlopl L'arnoy'fl tvnufi. TbiHvii-u-of tlie i>trgctut«of <t'IIii 
ii upeoUly int«renting to the pliyiiologiAt, im id lIi« c«IIi> wliicb Ix-coiuc 
mnmlar l)bt«a,tJi« retictiluBi taitM> ••n n<li>Hnitv urraii);i-iiiiiii,<lil1<rn.-iii 
frotn tlw irT«^Ur dispuait^oD it lui* in )>rimitive celK Tlli^ urikrliiuv* 
of amngmieDt ia aconnpaiiiMl by tli» onteied and Ap«K-inliKed tuovvntrat 
ttuuwn nn niUMuUrcutitnotion. 

It U, iHiweviT, MM-MMiry f'ffuiinl a^^iiAt the itwutuptioii thni tli» 
rrttcvluni is Bnn, for it b only atigbtly low fluid thnn the viiobyltniM. 

Th' I'foiridt of J'rolt/pliiiiiii.^-T\>f iiugett vlimiicnl coDHlituvtil Mnd 
tJ>r only CKiialaiit one in |iro(of>liii>in is pn)t«iil ninlti-r. Variwus 
tlifXM^n til iiccount fi>r Itw diffcmic** Ix-twciii living nnd noti-livitig 
|Mxit«t<lfi lukvv bfvn already ilmlc witU {p. 1 l-'i). 



lu Um cub of the lytapb cells occuri-Ing in lyiiigJiaUc kI'UI'K 'i»<l 
(f tbt lii-er cells. I*r[if ouuiws of cells, vei-v little altered in ilTuctiiri- 
hn piiuitivt- eellK. nui W obtaiiitHi ; liere lli« inetlmU of iniu:n>- 
AimtUj ur uf>]iHcnbIe. Tbe«e ftml uther casas will bn more fully 
Naa4R»d in connvction with thnin timucit, but for tli« prtuonc it 
wKjim hrre stated th»t ns n frrnnml rule tho prnt^iilt of cytopluiu 

(I) Kwieo-albninins ; compounds of a pbosphorisod ^ubstAnoe witti 
a |lWid. TliUaubstance is pi'ol>abty idoDticnl with thesubstnnce cullt^l 
plmin by tbone wbo lutve empl'tyecl tbe niethocls of micro- cbeiiiinlry. 

(i) Olubulios : one iu unall Amount with & heat-coa,;^lu,ticiii t<^nl- 
{wnwreuf alxKit W^.; unother(cell f(lol>uliu) in lnrKer amount, which 
mnablftf ■pnim-^ubtiliii in its (nmt-COn;^Iiition (eiiipenilure (7S'f'.). 

(3) An >ll>umin in iini)dl (|UAUtitii-n rfXHiiiUiii;; neruiii idbutnin in 
il*<AftnK-t«n ; thiK. howe\-rT, in ofti^ii aiNmit. 

(4) Albamaws «nH pcptonrw in snijill qunntity, nnd ^nentlly 
pnlaetid as a rMult of /Hut-nuirUm chnngm, i>r <>t' rctm^rvsKive chan;,'es 
<iccarniig wilhui the bnly, as in th« dcgvnpmtivu chnn^cn thnt occur in 

TV eonleitis t(f FnotoUg. — A vacuole is a. globular cavity coii- 
tiioing a wateiy Suid. Vacuoles appear to hr- a1wny« present in 
^^tfRtable e^ht : in animiil cells they also frequent ly occur. 

Il «nioel)ulHr orj^niama like the amielm, solid purtiolen whon 
■mntd) are Mirnnuwled witJi liituid ; tliia liquid may be taken in with 
tWnliil, butxeneruily il is poured out by the cell amuml tbi> solid, 
■ni »ffM<arH to play the role of n di;,'e)>tant. Otlier vacaoltjit, nuoh n* 
ttttuuttactiie vacuule of lii« umu-biL, iire excretory. 

8d(plinnnn found that blue Utinus ^rui'ifi wli«n iiLjte*t<^ by 
■■vh* and othrr pnitocuui iH-cnme Tvd aftt^r u liiui-. A. (!. liourne' 
■RHto thnt thin tuny ho dur U> an acid scarctt^ in an attitnipt to 
^^M thu particUM. If vorticelln- tjikn in aniline blue, thv prot.o]>lasm 
'mnmb filled witli blw v«cooIm, tlm cont^ntu of which are (fradually 
*Wfacd, tbe pigDMtnt reappearing of a diHcront tint in the contractile 
ItutMory) vacuole. Kobafer and l^kstein ' found that blue lituiuK 
innilka taken in hv while blood coi-pusclea remain unchanged in 

MtKGreeniniod* lias maile a very exhaustive 6tudy of the procmws 
<' digeation in RUin>]iod>, specially in uniurbiL and actinoaphi^-rium, 
*ilk tliR Collowin); n-Hull« : — 

■ Qnarl. Jimra. Uicn/ii: Sritnee, xtW. 377, Icx>l-iiota. 

* (ftutiii't Amtt. val. ii. p. 5, 

> Anim.t/i'Ayn'eJ.Tii. S£K: ihi. SiiH. 



(1) The ingestion ot *oIid mntter u proniiscuoiui in uiKBba ; tliiit 
is, niltritiuui luid innatritiou* pnrticlrs ntc tnk<^ in wiUi pqiuil r^dinraii. 
Ac.-tiniuL]>lin.Ti(ini, on thn <*th«r hand, rarol}r ingraU tnnutritiAUS pnr- 

(2) Thf nutritious piirlicliw atv in liotti nnimitls dignstcid by fluid 
pourad oat amund thvn. This fluid hiu no action on tlis cuticle of 
WgKdrma, on odtuloxo, on •iili<r[-QUK coU- vails, on fnt, or on start-Ii. It ib 
colourlflM ; it digv«t« protirid matter, eNpecially uiicoaguIat«d |>roteid. 
It ohangM chlorophyll to a durk-hrawu oolmur (e^woiiUJy tn amcBtia). 
It ha« no action on litniun or carmine portiolea oecIditntiUly inclooed 
with nutritious matter, and in tlioi'efore ii«utr»l in runctioii. Innutri- 
ttouH matter doc* not heoome >urround«d by this fluid. 

(3) The secretiaoi is more active in octtTiasjilijcrium Uiou in ammba. 
(■() Kjfvtioii i* performml nt thn hin<li-r etu\ of thr ntna>ha, oilhcr 

by mtnTiB of a viuniole, or oftni (for inKt«nci% when nlgir aiv tiikcn in) 
without one. In avtinosphrerium an <Mcretoiy vacuole is almys prwent. 
(■'>) Th« timii lietwMn ingestion and ejection is difficult lo deter* 
niini^ Mid rarios wrilh tbe SiM Hid dtgettibility of the itigesta fn>m 
3-4 days in amoeba, from 1^ to 8 lioura in actinasplueriUDi. 


A Inrge amount of original work lio* during Iho lost twenty y^tn 
been cai-ried out, tearing on tho stracturo and changM that occur in 
the nucleos o( ttVs. 

The exittenoe o( the nnoleui was diseovereil by Robert Brown in 
ve|[etaUe oelb in tlie year 1821, and in oniniaJ cells by Tli. Schwann 
nenrly twenty ymrs later. It was at fint docrilied as a more aolid 
Htructuni in Oiv intrrior of the proluplaam or vitellus of the cell, con- 
taining in its iiiti-riar, onr or sori^rul atill more tolid pitrticli« cnllei) 
nucleoli. We now know that tlu: nueleun couaists <if a ajMngowork of 
fibrils, pennmting which is a nionr liquid substance, thn nuclear 
DMtm. 'Dio portjclre cnlled nucleoli mity bo thiekened portiofis of 
these libriLt, or they may float free in the nuclear nwitnx. This is 
unlvenally true (or all nadel, but thnm structures vnry in idse and 
•hape in dilTcrent o-IU of the body. .Spi-ntaneoiu changes in form may 
ooour in nuclei li)M>nitMl by tJi« rupture of oella (Strieker, Fleminiii);, 
Klein), which lutve ijeon compared tu tlie amwboid movement* of 

lIustologiotK diiitin)(ui»h Wween the 'rMling' or nou-divlding 
nucleus and the 'dividing' nucleus. When cells divide, tlie nuclegs 
first undergoea Mrtain well-marked and deAnite changes ; Uw librillor 

THE CEI-I. 196 

miterul is arranged into definite patterns (skeins, Btara, rosettes/itc); 
tfcae separate into two groups which forni the foundation of the 
dinghter naclu. The name given to this series of changes is karyokineais 
wteri/omiloM. The division of the cell protoplasm follows that of the 

Until comparatively recently, the chemical structure of the nucleus 
mnnknown; it was spoken of vaguely as being composed of 'germinal 
nitter'; but now, thanks to the labours of Miescher, Zacharias, 
Eosael, and otiierB, we know of certain definite chemical substances 
in the nucleos, such as nuclein, plastin, and adenin. Other subtitances 
IwTe tlio been described, but as their existence rests chiefiy on niicro- 
themical reactions, one must be cautious at present in regarding them 
w distinct chemical units. 

The Resting Nncleu 

The resting nucleus consists (eee fig. 45) of : — 

(1) An outer investing membrane ; the nuclear membrane. 

("2) A network of fibrils throughout its substance ; the nuclear 

(3) Nucleoli. 

(t) The more liquid material in the meshes of the network ; ths 
zideti sap or nuclear matrix. 

^m. «.— Wngniin nf IvnInK iinclsnu. 1. Nudoar iiiniiliraiio. !. Xnrlfar network. 
I. Srt-knota. 4. Kucleiiliu. ». NuclMr mairii. (AftiT Wulilsycr.) 

These different parts must be taken one by one : — 
The nuclear ngtiwirk. — This consists of fibres thick in parts, thin in 
*iwr parts, arranged according to most observers irregularly. Balblani 
<Ktcribes this network in the chironomus larva as being composed of a 




dngle, mucli IwUtrcl threml. FlfUiiiiinj; IjafiiMiOBtr^-fT, lOiowii tluil tlu» 
is lij tio DiMinK a wid<ui|iri'jii) oot-'urr^in.w ; and sonw reffnnl it >till 
(li>ut>tful ulietlier the nuninrousk thn-ods wliicli are pn«ent, <lo or do 
iiiit niiat>U)iiios«'. 

Ritlil ' L'oiiaiders tlint even in tlie rv>tiiig iiuoleiu. the fibres havo m 
rogulkr arrait)(etueiit ; he disliiiguisliM lK-t«"'n iiriin/iry und 6««<-'oiiiUr\ 
fibre* ; tlie priiuiirj- are the tliickor ones, which mn froin'oiio KxpAct of 
the mickuf, oaIImI tlia polar field, w}ier« thcj- loop niund and p»it 
fmiii Oiic nnoUlcr ; tli«y spread over, )uid throughout ()i« nu(;ll^Ufi in » 


I'll.. tt.-S«ti*BiB nl milur iiurlnii (anrr lu>ili, I', fiilm urn. A. Aiidpalu hibl. T1h> Iffl- 
ImikI IBIt nf <■•• nculv •hniit |injn*>7 Qlinr* 1 1. I > •■Illy ; llw rl||l>l-l>4iHl Mfl irf (lir flmin •>•'*• 
tl>r lirllilHri' hltT>« ir, riuQIIIiKIV^I InliiMII ■•■■tuliLfilMV'irlVUr^ l*J- ifCiili'ltrt 0lin^ V. f, ?hf4- 
kntU; LXiirlMliii. 

nutiittiriK «i>yt *iul At lh« opposite end'of iho niKlcnit, or rtntiitJar 
fi'hl, l\wy nre free uid show iiu Hjiectal nrrnngoiimil. 'flioj' «n> 
ih-picUil ill the left-hand half of lij-. Xd. Tlic Mvondsnr- tihrrs uv 
fliHT, iiikI h]' ootinectinK tlie [Ji-iinary libnw form tlif nntwoi-k, tm w(> 
linra mlnail/ dt«cribi'd it, and thus miuU-r it very dtflicult to id^-titifj* 
the priiiinry libmi in the noting nucli-us. 

Dilat« adds (awtic, foniiic, Jtv.) rvndi-r tli« wimlv ntlcleaM tiXMv 
sppUT-nt : vnirr i:auitiM it t» swnjl. Ncnrly nil stuiniiif: reaftentri (ikM 
camiiiicv logwood, Mifrnniii. ilcc.) colour i1m> network und nucleoli v«fy 
lut#iisely, whilp tbf inter6l>ri1)ar imlwtsiice renoina tinraloured, ur ts 
onl}' coloured fsintly. Fnmi this ilifTen-iicv in bi'luiviuur to utaiiiB, 
neiiiBiiiig (Iittingui*li«s in the nucleus iM-twrrn rht^muilif und afitm- 
mat if KuhstAiices. 

■ Xtiyh. JiiMi. \. (lasft), )•. nit. 


Tbe chromatic substance, or chromEitiii, includes the network and 
the nncleoU ; and is, as E. Zacbnriaa ' has shown, identical with 

Tbe achromatic substance is the interfibrillar material ; during 
kuyokineais, part of this becomes arranged into a spindle-shaped 
coDection of fibres. 

PGtEner' uses these terms more fully as follows :— 

Chromatin = substance of the nuclear network. 
Prochromatiu (later, pseudo-chromatin) = nucleoli. 
Achromatin = nuclear matrix. 
Parachromatin = spindle Hgure. 

Schwartz' uses the following tenns : — ■ 

Chromatin = the nuclear network. 

Linin ^ the spindle figure. 

Paralinin ^ Bleniining's achromatin (proljably a globulin). 

Pyrenin ^ nucleoli. 

Aniphipyrenin ^ nuclear membrane. 

Thette names are given, not from the chemical properties, but chiefly 
from the microscopic appearances of the structures in question. 

A very important step in our knowledge of the chromatic fibres 
■^ the discovery of Balbiani and Pfitzner, that they are made up of a 
iniuber of granules or discs (their form is still uncertain) regularly 
wnuiged in single or multiple rows, Carnoy * believes that the tila- 
>Benl« though chiefly composed of nuclein have an outer shell of plastin, 
ui observation confirmed by van Bambeke.*' 

Tim nucleoli present many diibculties ; the chief doubtful point con- 
'Wiioff them is their relationship to the network. Flemming and 
Pfitzner regard them as different from the network, and not connected 
•*> it ; others (Klein*) consider them as merely thickened portions of 
the network, and composed of the same material. No doubt such 
UDcleoK (net-knottf in figs. 4.'i and 46) do occur. But in addition there 
»I^r to be true nucleiili in Plemming's sense -rounded bo<lies free in 
the meshes of the network, floating in the nuclear matriK, and behaving 
<lifferently to reagents. 

Zacharias states that they consist of a shell of plastin, an<l their. 
interior of proteid matter ; they are apparently not composed of nuclein 

' Haliia. Zeiiiitig. IHMl. 1M83, ISSS, IHH7. ' Mnrph. Jalirb. vii, IHBl, p. 3Sa 

' l)ir morpkal. u, rhfiii. XutanimouFi!, il, Frvloji, Breslau, 1HS7. 
' to CelluU, voIm, i. and ii. ' Arch, ile Biol. viii. 1SB7, p, S4ff. 

' li»arf. J. Mie. Science, iviii, Jolj ISTS; %\x. p. la.). 



Ogiita,' Lukj(uiAw,< wid Stolttikow' dutiiiguisli nucleoli into kano- 
■omos plwaDOM>iiic«,' mid hynloionMw, Aconrding to thoir behanour 
to eosine, nigrosinc, safraiuni?, nnd other stMiifi. I>uring evil divUioo 
Ute nuclei duaoUe in tht^ nuclear matrix. 

The niteJnir ntatrit h not ft iuni[ile witt«Tj' fluid, bat in ricli Id 
proteidii. Various renKeiits cause ihe upfiearaiio*! in it o( a tint- i)rwi- 
pitale, wliieli uiie tnunt ^uaiil iiKainst luokiiiK upon us u structuiv. 
Oftmoy liika ftppiireutly falleu into tliiit «rror, wli«n ho dcsoriW ■ &>» 
network of plastin in tlie itudeu- matrix. 

TVf rcft-'/nir ui^itifiiiiiu' in refCftrded by wnne m tho opticAl k]>[ic<u-- 
MM* pre«eiit«d by the lerniiimtion of the nucl«wr iittn-ork ; but most 
obserren ajcreo Uiat u true nKsnibraan in prevent. Thin i* acbronurtte 
{Fkniniing, HtnutburjciT, Plitzncr) ; it is formiNl from the cell prato- 
pUnii ((yto[iln.Mii) which lic« ocxt the nucleus, nnd is sonietinios tinned 
the iniii-r *'i-U iiicmbtTUic. 

The Dividing Nuolena 

It liaa been known hiiiL-e 1821 (Pi^ost and Duniu) tJwit cells 
multiply by the bubdivision of exUtiiif; celts, v. Molil, Remikk, nnd 
Virvhow aliowwl tUal siioiiljnieous goiiei-nlion of cells does not ooour, 
the lutter summiug up the situutioii in the nun- cliu^ml phreae, 
'oiuiii.t c<-llula k celluliv." Ainoug tlif^ eurliitit who wntched the cooi- 
pli-tv prociw* of villi divLMun in nuuuliiu nnd while blood cor[iaiictc!S 
■uhW tho niicrtwcupe wi>rc Strirker, Klinii, Scholi'', Hnnvicr, uid 
WftMeyer. Keinak'N twheni*- of divUaon wok vn-y MriipU: : lu' KtJited 
that fint the nucieolos, then the na<^l«<is, nnd InMly tlin cO'll xplit into 
two portA, nnd so formol two dnui^hter iwlls. 

DifKH iiucleai' AubdivtHion {>> la K4>innk) i§ <*I1mI by Fli'inniiiig 
amffarfiV, udtstiiixui^i«d from Uie milotif or Jt-iiryr/iniVnfiV nuhlivition of 
tlw Mune nutbor. In ll>e Inttvr there is n biKlily chnnM:t«ri<it4c ai-nui^- 
HMnt of fibrrs in the form of lixured, whii:li replace iJto nuokuK : tlii^ 
itcpamtn intii two pnrto, nnd from euch of ihme pitrts n dnuglit«r 
nudoiu is foi-mcd, mid the dirbjon of tin- cell pnitoplnom follows. The 
iDoro osrafnlly tli>K cnars of DOciftllDd direct cell division are cuintined 
tJw fewer do they appeiir to Ih-. Therr nn- certaitdy varintiuiis in 
diflVretit CAMH, luiil, w* Cnm»y tnrx, no stA^- sreuia to !« nbMilutely 
MWnttal : Mme nuclei, for iiistnocts »n very poor in dironiattii ; and 
tiie diflerenccw thnt d<> exi>4 ure oidy of dcjcn-i', not nf kiniL 

Tho chief chnraclerinlioH of d dividin).! naclouo (the ehromatio 

t Anlk./.PhfwiiJ.u.Amal.l'htmot.AUM.Um. > iU.^. I«B7. ^ «a 

• lbi.l. 1*7. f. L 

4 Til" f^uiiiKwiiiot lUW ■Lktnl |a imndiiir uut Irnra llw bUcIpi hi cnUjai ct^* la lonn 
|MMmWilUk)MW<|. • .InA./.jMfJM. <(iMf.nJI.«l(IM6f. 


TtiB crxi. 


meiau' fifmrc, tlw n«lii-iMiiatie spindle, and ibe cytast«nt) wont first 
dMfibtd br A. •Schcit'ider, ' itiul aubsequently redi&covered by Bulsi-htt* 
■d PnL* 'i'ho n«in«i In'ri/fkimmti wan applied to tlie serie>». of changeig 
Vf ScbkidiN-.' 8inc« theii our knowlerlge of the process lias been 


tn*wni >*f 

•)*«(. a, TltVdf i1'» nniMvun (rud IU0 (ailjiruiB- 

.Ikt^r uoffii ilfiD*^ vkrtm ; ihr <i1irTmi«4JG Tnop* ■■« 

_. _j ■pllKInic Iniirilmllnnllr !ol.i iMrr; llw pplinllp iiHicUni up 

(■tbrnd by nunieroas iiirenti^tors but wtpodnlly l>y Stnanburgw,* 
"■■faig,' E. V, Bonodeii,' and uiote recently by Kiihl.* 

A fill nccnuntof hnryokioesis is obtioUKly out of pliic^ in this work, 
nltbMvfora thcr follo«-ing brief account lAft»r\Vnlilpyc>r}'J must aulKco, 

'•VuUn. n. PUUielmiiilluni,' JaJirtHifb iFn- ObrrkfuiitieH Gtt./Sr KaXur. Mfut 
'xlliiiulr. IHT*. 

■ XtU.f. ««. ZaoX. Wn. xxT. mi. ^ Arch, dt Zoal. W. (IdT^. 

* CMnttW. ■»«/. IFtti. IHT»,i>-ilK Cuniiir'i tarm It CylodittrMM. 

■ StaabarfW, jrnlfttZit.ity ■>. ZrlUUrilung. HrI wdit. IMHU. Km uml 2<!»(A^lll(H7, 
UK JoMifHw A'afinv, Nov. I, liBWI. .IrrA. niir. Anal- xxi. <TR: iiiii.iUd. 

* n*niiiiiii(, /tiifl SiiAifiiu/, /in-u m. P.rttlhnlnag, la-ipiiit. IWi. HrrA. 111117. AiuU. 
>i.l-.inii. Ill; tx'n. lUlanrfaMi nix. HIW. Hiol- Cmlralbl. Hi. Ml. ArrJl./.Auat.u. 
AfM^ •)■"•' .li^<^. 1IW.WII. Z«ol.An*evrT,tlfM.n<i.iia. 

' E. tu Bfcmbo. B»ll. <irad. rmi dr Rrij/iijnf. IMO, Inli, 1S7S. ISTH. lASI, laHT. 

' Waridi. JuArl.. I. 'iU 

' An uMlkBl ■Dmniiir])' of ihv prrunt itate ot mir lini)wtM]4t« ni lhi« imixartenl 
1<Miiii aill be lomid In WuMi^tr'n paprr ' Uelipt K»n'<ikin»wii.' .Ire*, miir. AniU. 
Ofti. nia (Min !>•» Iw«n Irmi.lnln! by Or. B«i>Uiiin '(i'lott. J. Uitnn. Srtnwv, »n 


THE TlsurKM ASD OHflAXs of THE W>1>Y 

Th» procwiS ninr he rfiTirfed into th* following stKgeo :— 

I. The iVHting iiucleuii. 

a, Th« Hk«>in or s^iretn stA^ ; the nucleoli dinsolve, aim! th« nudear 
lUAtrix then liocoines more stainable ; tlie Heeoiidnry fibi-et> (Rabl)dB- 
apfxmr, iiml iho primary loops running fi-ouj polar to »ntipolar regjont 
r^nitiiii (Egs. 47 n and (r), 

3. Eiuih loop aplit^ loii^-itudinally mtij two siKtvr threads, aiul tbc 
iichroiiiatic spindle ' upfivnni {&g. 47 c and '/). The ilireotiiiu ol the *iit 
of thi- Bpmdic whi-n it tint appwirs U i>ft^'ii diffi-reut from lliat il 
sulm-ijui'iitly tAkrs up. Strasburgor ci>nsMli»« it is fonued of cjto- 



■.- -J 

nioCfl|>liv"t ur* r*JU)1> KrrniiMT<l l<- larni 4 (^ia*!^ <1u TIi<r clicvniAllc BbR* ll^ic^^^ 
bniRUilliuiIIy 'v"t iThTn i*i> .iM.rili'1-i.N «< iri«™|iM 4rnni).l ih» i^iHMratlka iftidk. •" 
■ tIix tivm lJi« iUd; t,Iioui uni; lulcuT ilut uuulnu. I ARM WkHoja.) 

pliuin whicii baa intruded into the nucleun (in aoiDe cftA*a thnw)^ 
pores in the nuclnar ni*ndjmne). Onrnoy thinfcii the diiwnlvMl nucleoli 
coiiti'ihute to its foriiintioji ; Fleiiiiiiing, thnt it i» fimnwl from Ik 
achromatic nubctnncii ; Plutncr, tlint it may hnv« n <)uubk orijiiiit Lft 
from both nchroniatic substnncf and cj'toplniitn. 

4. Thn cqtiatori*] iit»)i<- ; mnniuter. Tho nu<-lonK hna now two 
poles — those of tli« spindle. Tlic spindle terminHtcw in two pohr 
corpusclfta.* Th« naclMir mvtnbmne is lost, wid thus «ytoplasiB and 

> Tlia iiiinillii nr liKi;ii>li<r n Iwllvr in«l»d in r(|trUl>l« tliui in •nisHil aelln, H •• 
Mnuiiiiiiilly nylinilrinl in Uxnii*, tl in )■■■( liUlp oflnitvd b; atainii. il la nrfimj ■«*■ 
■ppitTiil liy ililittc luHtl*. l>iit n-nililj diinrilt-m in iLrlifltfiiil Ka^tnT joioe. 

' Tlinr lu* iKnninH-'l o( iiiiclviii uid VK latrlly d(«iv«d fnMn <7l«filaaD \Kt 
Thrji ■!• ibinit ia pLuit c*U(. 



iradmr luntrix become contiiiunuH ; the cvtopliiKiii KoparmtM into n 
<jFar and n ifnnulur rotif, niid the ifnmulcil iimiiiKi' ttirinsclvtw niiluilly 
fram thif pnlor cnrjiaiu-lni (<-j-tjuiI«T«). ' Tlii^ Hii'nriiiitio tilimt iiink to 
iliB M]tuit(>r ot Uio HjiitKlle, iind nrningi> I.)i4<uim:i|vi>» to b* to ]irojeol 
horisTMitally fnnii it (ivr 6]i. iH a and A). 

.'t. MKakinni*. Tli^ msI^t tlinMiIi Bcpiimtc, one going towards 
on^ pnlr, tlip othnr to the other polp of the "pindle (Hg. 49) ; oii« set 
of autvr thmub form one Haaghter nucleus, tlie otlier the olJker. 






TM>M.-IUn>^iM<o- ripHBIInii nf ilim llnin I <VMaliliii'>l<)"iieH<t umrtnii Imanl fme^dli 
1^ "^ruttf fir« f v, llfnt*lfti> arr vpit ; itiiil l^ii' frpjirhii^ii'p Tmirr cvrh jwlp 1* IlLv 

R. DvAittM', or dauglit«r Ktiir %injty ; tlii* ttiLgn occun when the two 
^•tsof tiKtrr IhmnitK nrc NC)iHnit4Hl, lu in tig. Iil<-. 'llic til>i'iU vcljich still 
anitr tlicui nn^ rv^ntnl by v. Ilmrdrn nit ilttl'cri'iit from th« Hpinille, 
wfairh gndunlly <liiiaji|H-»n> ; StniKliurger LflicvrK tlic^ir itr<' the npindle 
fibres nUmg which tliecliroinntic fiUnienlKKhift- Each daughter nucleus 
tken goes hackwnrdB tlirough lh« wtine series of diiuigctt ; the dyiiitter 
k foUowod t>y tlM> 

T. Dikpirein or daughter skeiu stuge (upper pirt of Ag. r>0). The new 
nnrlesr nn-inbr>nif IjeginH to form in this st4tge itt the itnti)iolAr ivgion, 
aixl tJic ]Milar ciirjiuscle itiiui(i|H!iir^ Tliu (.■ell iL«eU then divides ; tlut 
c«U inciabrani' bcinu formed in plunta by thickenings or bnota in the 
I recion of wich apiiidl<? fibre; these thickenings conlesce. 
ciilleil dvrnmUinomes, lUid axe absent In nniiniUcetU. 

^^. The reeling daughter nuclei: when the i.'ytii]>1aBni luit> divided, 
(i»» rrniainc of tl»c spindle dt*a]>|>t-iir!i, the clirnnintic tibren become more 
Iwitte'l, loar thnr otiual ndibre, nnd luioonie c-onnected by M'c»n<Wy 
films, n* is uliown in the lower nuch'ui (tigun^ *iO). 

I jUnvrkllnl uiinoiTji Hii<Hii»luiiiiu. 



In ttic vga i-pIIh t>t wrtoin anlBuUn wli«n diriding (t^g. AscanB 
HMg^ocophaliix, v. llpncilc^n), thv chronintiu lilamotiU are bal Hllle 

niArked ; the whole or tintrly th^ vrhol» 
of thli grannleB of Ui« cell prolopluAiti are 
amui^ed iit a nulial way round Uie ex- 
trpmities of the Bpiodle. At meh end of 
the it])indl« is a |>olitr corpiuula, aiid a 
spliericoJ Qiiua of protoplasm wlticli acto *» 
All niUiKtioti tjjirr* mrrouiidii it. 

I^h uttnuttiou tphere ooiiststn of 
protopl&stii nrraiigMl in two lonM. Tlie 
oytasters, as jtuiivridly Kwn >u luryo- 
kinesis, mv pmlmbty duo \t> a lew highljr 
di;v«loped fionditioii of t\\f. annio st*tO Ot 
t)iii:j^ V, Itcnpdfn cbIU th« polar ror- 
pusclu tlie cratml corpujtcle, and hv bo- 
littvcN that it iit in the contniJ ootpum'Ia 

JCanntlan*>.au4lUiifn. Tlir , . . ' 

of <UtM"i> u( uiB ml |in>i.i- Mid it« mirroiindiiiK attraction splirf 
iJmt WD mu»t Heek tho cita»» of sub> 
divinon, not in tlio nucleiM. 

\V« must next procvei) bo e-xamiiM> 



no, M.— JCi 

librr of 

ptiMA I* flBtn. Thr iiftth* iiiLi'Iouf 

■ijni ilUlWit Ihr trnmlii* fif il^t «|4ji<iJIr. 

IiluiifliltftMri). Th< r. 
» rurtlii* ■'ItKumL : i 

^»J2!;^"Tl.'■'X-;^VUl"l;:'« f'- irop^rtic* <>f th« various ^hf-miaX 
SKT^^rrX.u^^.-.'Ii^':?. «.brt«nc.-« found in tl» n»ole«is, ««.y 
(ni>iiiK.i>.rtMi»»i.u... of ^hioh hftv.. Ijwii nllud«l to in th» 

longolng Mcouiit of its »tnicttirt>. 


Dr. L(iad«-r llrunlnn ' w»e the first to iiiveatixale the <!hem[<ia) 
cotnporilion of ci.-ll' nuclei. He wpuivted the nuclei from tlii> rwT 
cOTjtUMiles iif \iM%. \>y slinking thnn with a mixture of etJwr anil 
water ; Um* iindiKKolvnl nuch-i HiHitnt iit tli« jnnction of tiM two liquids. 
Brunton desi-ri)H-d tJw nuch-i as c^iuislin^ of a inudndike suViataiice. 
PIAsE*, however, found oii wnnlysisthalit wafiiiutiaacin, hb it contained 
a hijfb percentage of plmsphoruii, an element nlinent froto mucin. He> 
toosiderwd it to br itU-nlical vitli the '•ulMtaiH.v iii>|.iarate<l >iv Mitv-u.'her' 
from pun corpaHcJen, aiwl torn>ed by him nucleln. Tlie metlioal ailopt«J 
bj SlMwcher wms \a' subject the pu& to fpwtric di;^tion ; the nnelein 
abme remaiiied undisMilveal. 

I^ler MieM-lier* prefiared n unulir sii1aUiuo< from thv ■pvmatoioa 

t Jouni. ff Anal . ittiA Pli^iai. aiul HriiM. Iil. Ul. 
.> Hon^Sf'/lfT'i Uf^LVhnM. Vilrf,<iei,»nf>-H. Ilstt it. llSTt). «IMl 
* tUJ. p. »U. * Vrrti^nJI. >lfr u,il. ISn Aurf, il tl*Tt|, lUH L 

THE CF.U, 20S 

i diflerent animals and from the yolk of hens' eggs, Hoppe-Seyler, ' 

Rowel,* and Loew' from yeast, F16sz* from tlie liver, von Jaksch' and 

Geo^t^an' from the brain, Lubavin^ from cow's luilk, and Worm- 

Xnller* from yolk of egg. In fact, wherever nuclei are present, a 

nbftauce is found which is rich in phosphorus, soluble in weak alkalis, 

■nlDble in weak acids and in artificial gastric juice, and with the 

tticky character of mucin to a certain extent. A similar bo<ly is also 

faond in the substances, like milk and yolk of egg, which form the food 

oi the young animal This substance is tenue<l nuclein. 

Kaclein is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur^ 
plusphiHiis, and oxygen. Elementary analyses of nuclein from dif- 
fmnt sources yield very discordant results. The following examples 
Hj be quoted : — 

j ftonPiulHoppe^ylo') From ^iwrtiiptoifiH r^r Fruiii ITuTimn Broiii 

I Salmon fMli^ii'lHT} Iv, Jjikwli)- 

C 49-58 36-n 50-6 

H 7-10 .Vl.-i 7-6 

N 1502 130» 1.11H 

P 2-2B S-.Ml 1-89 

The nuclein from spermatozon differs fnun other nucleins in con- 
tuing no sulphur. Miescher's formula for it is 0]gH,gN,F,O]]. 
^OD Uiese results we must concludi^, either tliat nuclein is not a 
(kamical unit, but a mixture of organic phosphorus compounds with pro- 
Cedi or proteid-tike substances (Worm-Miiller), or more probably that - 
■wrsl varieties of nuclein exist (Hoppe-Seyler).' Miescher himself 
foond ^t some nucleins were more insoluble in alkalis than others.. 
Kowl '• confirms Hoppe-Seyler's view of the case, for he finds that 
« beating yolk-nuctein and milk-nuclein with weak acids, no basen 
rich in nitrogen like guanine and hypoxanthine are formed, whereas 
tA bases are obtainable from cellnuclei. Yolk-nuclein and egg- 
■Bclrin contain iron, cell-nuclei do not. A compound of nuclein with 
iron, called hepatin, is also found in the liver (Zaleski)." 

An intermediate product between nuclein iind hypoxanthine is called 
•dcMtiM (CjHjNj + .'^HjO) by Kossel," its discoverer. It crystallises 
Q the rhombic system, forms compounds with I>ases, acids, and salts. 
On heating it with sulphuric acid, NH is rephiced by 0, and 

1 Ifci/. Chfui. T^at^rt, iv. fiOO. ' Zrit. jitiij&liiL Chein. \i\. iv. 

' Ffiigrr't Arcliir, vol. xxii. (I8W). * Ibiil. vii. 

• Ibiil. liii. • Zrit.plii/tliil. ('Iii-m. i. 

' B". (/. •lrHt4l-li. rhfm. GftlUth. X. 2337. » Vjlngir, Arehir. viii. 1S74. 

' Phi/ihl. Chrmir, p. B5. i° Zril. pliijiiol. CIifhi. x. ais. 

'I ll'hi. X.4SS. 

" Brr. il. dcvttrh. rhrm. Getrll. u. 8860. Xril. phij'M- Clicin. >iii. 8»r., 4a;!. 



hjrpoxuitfune ix thou forniNl (C,H,N^ + H,0=C,H,N,0+MIjK 
Both adeniiw nn'l hypoxnntliiii>^ contjiin a ni<!ivl« 0^11, X] callti 
adeoyl. {S« aim p. 90.) 

AcIeniDc is obtAinnhlp from botJi niiitnn) imd %'pgi^taW* tiaeow 
which are rich in cells ; itcimiiot heolrtniiiwl, oronh-iii KmntI ijtuLuliti«i 
froiu iiiudcle. It rtppears that nm^culRr fibrcw which hnvi- NbI lie 
iiiorph<>lo;;ical i-'hai-act^iTalics of ceils to a great extmt, h»vf i«* 
auai« u( the cli«uical ilistitictions uf cells ; hut iii those tissuw the wlh 
of wliidi rtitaitt tlii'ii- "lijfinal chamc-ler, Iiyi>t>!t«nthine and xnnUiine 
occur, nnt uiiconiliiiicd. hut in union with ullier gtx>U|ia of nUims 
fjipccinlly witli phoHphi>ric acid taui prot«idH lui jMTt of M still ma* 
C(>nipt<-x union, imi.-lciTi. Tin- word diffi^i-im tin lion can thuK be ujiplui 
not (inly iii « ntorphologiciil, but also in « chcmicftl spniip to o^ll*. 

Artijieial /itvjianilion fif'n'ifMn. — laebemiitiin' believw th«i iaucWii 
is ft coiuponm) uf ulbuiuin willt metiiphusjihoiic ucid. He linils tHtl 
tii« cMiuposiiidii aud reiictioiiH of thv prccipitute ublAuie<i by ndiiinf 
thtx Rciit to 11 soluliun "f iilliUiitin cannot be iliatiu;;iii&li«d from iJiO" 
at ntiolcin. Pohl,* h(iwi--vri-, has shown that althMu^'h this xul»tAn« 
nesetiibtn nuclHn in itn nutuliilitioK, it ditTrrx from trtu; nuclriu (ie- At 
nuclnin frooi nuclei) in the fnct that Kabstiincns of the nrio iwrid gnnf 
{xskath'me and hrp«>XRiithinc} am not obtainable from it on dwwS- 


nda HubAtanee we hftx'e nerii in iltni-rilied as foi-inins an init«r kI 
to tho nucleuli, and to the chromatic (ilaiui*niK ; ii is aUo pmti'nl in 
4)]rtapliu<Di. Ita existeiicK n»ts Ut a largo extent un nticni' 
ertlmce. It !» vrrv Iik«' nuclein, t>ut Lt inon--inw>Iubt<f. 'Hw! (art 
it I* a iltlferrnl suli^taiKi- fnun nii(iU)in nipportH Llut KtatnnHmt ilial ImI 
hern nlnsuly madi? ux tn thp presence of s«rv«ral organic 
compound* in iho niickniD. 

E. ZnchnrisK* ihiin (Ie»ci-ibe8 tlw inicro-cbemical differencos bM' 
nuctHn and plai^lin. After artificial ^stric digestion two sn 
tlMt cell rvnii^^in MndigcHtvd ; one confined to the nuclcuB ia chn 
tt4!nlly bright and shniply defined. It has u special alfiitity for cei 
pi^uriilft, and is in fad clii\>niatin or nnclein. The i>l)i«r suIistuNH^ 
occurring tuith tii the nucleus and ihi' c^toplaam, and nlMi in yclk- 
Bphei-es, appHtrn after tivatntnit with jjiaiitrio Jnion ill-<lclined and 
swulleii. Tlawgh Kmdim by nctdii and other raagmts (solatioiu nfl 

■ nmV*'"4. linfirA. r£™. rJa. ni. BW. 
' UriU jtlijfiiij. i.'hrm, tiii. U9. 
a ButeM. Xritnng, imT, p. SKI. 


•niiaui chlooi)<>. Mtdiam li>>lmt4>, Ac), it is t«r)' ifiwluble. It Udiei- 
«lin| \jy <»t)ceiiii»U-i1 l>_v(lr>>cliloriu iiciil : it is aUo much lanrc 
Mrfalilp in Mlkiilis tluii niK'U'ln, kiuI m stiiled Ui witlislAiid pitiicmtic 

The torm pUiUin wraa 6rat a|i|>]ied to tlib «a1»tan<« by Rvinkr and 
(-•■Uf ; it >{)jie*ra l«> l» iilcnticiil witli Miewlipr'n iiuuiluttlc! 
-- j-nn. Like ntickin, it ooiiuiiu plnHphunis (K«iukv).* Ijitw' by 
limiinQ it with nikalki hii* ai?p«ratpii n pmtt'id fmin iu Thr«t> fncto 
tU ' : ii<l witli tW tiy|Bit)i«-sift tliiil pliutiii ii. n tiuclrA-iilbuiDio j 

•wi ' ri'""* '" '"' vnrivtii'K iif I'UKtin. ju.-'t iu tlifiv imr \'nneties of 

Meiriii. Hdiwnrti ii)it«ka of tlint in llit> ci-11 pmtii|)Uiitn m c^o* 
fiattiii, iumI lluit in chlnriiipliyll ftniiiiK ni> clilomiiliisliii. He, hnu*pTi>i-, 
Wk tb«- If nn pbutiii in ii ililfciTnt »-tiM* fmiii Znt'hiiriius nnniely, iia iv 
M»r f(ir (t>r wbiile i<i thir protviil tnatU'r iif the pr<itt^*liu>iii, Atiil iiol fur 
«aj tpiviNl onnittitiivnt of it. Ilr ir^ntf^ thr reticulum Men in the cell 
n M> nppoKtwnw tluv t<i tlui aotinn 'if i-mgniti^ in fnct, n kind of 
HW^iiUliiiii 1 in thU opintun he dlltors frinn Camov (»-^ p. 191). 

ItehwMrtz ilcficritie^ the phisiimlii- tiuh^liiituni of the chlorophyll 
inin* ftd aiiuialinK <>f Iwo protoidH ; onv thi> diiorupiiiAlin lueiitiimnl 
ttttirr, wliirh >■ nut tliKi'Btihk' by pepsin tmr by trypsin ; iIht <iIJht he 
taih mvtMviii. Tlti3 in nuily ()if£«i>t«<l by hiitli Ih^ni- fi-niK'iitK, wid 
4walroii kft*^ KWi-iling iu vnry ww*k hydrocldnrtu ndd (1:1000), 

- -Tlii* ■«• M [«(>ti'li| propar«d tntia uncial by K'HMiI '; It Urkiiif* to 

.i( [imltrlil* knnwn na albmnraMni |irD|v|>i>i[iii. Ai> Koui'l cxtrncttvl 

H (TBS tl>* nocli-i by iii«.iiM lit •llli>ti> livilriH'hIoHo iwM. llierc [•. linu^ivr. but 

tSW >1>al>I tliiit it it 111! iirlifiiUl t'tuluct |iTi>diii.-oiI Itvm Ihn native pnili-i'ln of 

tm oaelem by niMii* •>( the nmi^t mfildyrd. 


T<> Uw lanntoumt llic Miigli* vtfg ixti, or Llu< iiiiiorllulnr orgftnuin, it 

in fxtremely simple tihjrct. Tu thi- |>IiyMii|r>giKt oti the nthcr luind 

•sipbcity »f Ktrvclurc mnMui nn incmiari) dif&cillty in undi-rnUudiiig 

(snctiun- In t'le bighrr animnlN CEttiiin ci'lU urn net apiii-l s]i«.-ially to 

^viucni "HP futicttiin, ucrtoin other l'cIIh 1i> [ifrfiinii antith^r ; mmip fur 

|^^^ninc«> nri' c>iiic«riie«l iu uiUKculnr mntntcti'in, uthers in i-LulH>nttin;; 

' »<T«tinna. utbers in ruproducti'm. nnd mi furllt. But in nudi im itniinfit 
•■ i)i# nnKrlw itU th««e functionii — ninwni«Di, wcitttinn, digestion. 
4n*<i«>ti, Will inultipliciitiun— an- |iri'f>irnu>tl hy imi* coll. Ih itie 
^hitr tniiiUiU lJti.< vsriuub fu tuitions arc unmvelled fruiii one anutber. 

I rnt*n. an* J. holmtt. Lai. Caiv. Gvltiugeii, Ifwl. 

> Ibid. tHSl. I Bol. Xril. MM. 



hut ill the hiiiii'Ini, liwikinR: lit itit iippnmttly liinplc stnictun!, It 
difficult! W renHio llin jHiti-ntiiilitif-s of nnd lh<^ VRi-iPtir nf fiincli'na 
inextricably likDilod in tho h'ttle ntius of living jolly. 

In the f«i'tili»v() ovum of one of the higher animnis we hnvc a no 
leRS wonderful potentiality : though of so simple n Btnu'ture, nwA n 
Diinuli^ ill volume, it posaesae« not only poweis of iimhiplicntiuii, but 
ulso puwerd of <Iii-ecliii){ the uri-tingement and subsequent elmnge^iii 
till! cpHs so produced lo fonn the complicated (ir>,'iiiiM of the adult. la 
Addition tti thiK, thtr ntTsprinK rfspmhltw tli*> parent in ap])earaiice, and 
oft«n in sul^liu- ([ualitii'n, sudi as inxtinct, niftntiil rliajMHiitioti, and evffl 
in tendencies to crrtain diseases likn gout, Nyphili4, Jx. ; all thtw 
pntiMitinJitics must havn lipt-n pnimit in the nrtginat ovum from w!it<A 
the rcKt of thn body wax fomn^l, 

Whilo ft cell is alive, it is always undi^rgoing certain chi-iiiiiiil 
i^iangcs. I>uring assimilation it is building up it« own uibsunco fmm 
Other material, which i* cnlli-d fond. (>ii the other hand it is nndergDlng 
retrogressive mewmorphosiii, mtd this is especially increai^ed doring 
actinly. Tlie destructive chemical changes in a iuuacIear«foriiiiftsiW 
uore niu'ked during it« contnwtion tlinn when it a not coutnet' 
ins. Tlie chief di-stnictive ohaiigtts that occur are of the natiireaf 
oxidation. Carlfon unites with 'ixrgeti, and carbonic acid a p""^ 
off ; hydrogen unites with oxygen to fonn water ; nitrogen b bural (M 
in th<- (onu of imperfectly oxidised Bubstain'm, of nvhich tin- diii-f »n 
nmn (CON,H,) and uiio acid (0,H,N,Oj) ; but oth«r MilKtancts lib 
xanthine, liyjio.xiinthine. creatijie, A'c, are iil«o foruTol, and wiD t* 
j^nrmlly found in minute ijuantitiiNi in organs composed of odl*l 
sulphur piuutu olF in th« form of nulplialf.i. ThpMt combustion cbtnfK 
repmmt a trauKfurmntiint of enertty : the jxitcntial energy ot ehaaaei 
afbnity is tTunsfonnnl, and irxhibit.t il.sclf [Mrtly as heat, partij tf 
electrical c1tnngi% partly in the fiinn of mechanical work. 

Tiie series <if changes lM-;^'inning with assimilation and ewt!n){ with 
i^eretion is what is know^ lUi tnrtaboU»m ; the cell in continualljr 
building up either its own substance, or materiala like ;iIyo<>grn, fw- 
ninntx, fat. .Vc. within its substance' : then, on tlie other hand, it b 
oMitinually undergoing a downiwiird disintegrative prooesK. Adoptinf 
iiMikeira iionieDcIatnre. coiistnictive meCaboliain may Im termed ono- 
holi»m, d«atructive metabolism katabadtm. 

In tlie .lucceeding chapters we nhaU be dealing with tlie sjiecul 
functions of ciTlain K^mupa of cells : we Hhall then linrn to speak of the 
{unctions of the cells of tJie blood, uf iJie li^'er, and of other orgaiw ; uf 

> SnbaUiicn bamcA vitlijli ccSi. glfMigvii, ilalcli, (at, eonlvnl* of mnnif, ««., hn 
oftca l«iw<d ttll-eoitlailt. 

THE CEU, 207 

nacalar fibres (which are in origin cells), and of secreting cells. In 
M chapter on ferme&tation, the peculiar activity of those unicellular 
Tganisms known as yeofits and bacteria has already been specially 
Inlt with. 


The difierent views that are held with regard to the functions of 
ibe nncleus are for the moat part hypothetical. The nucleus probably 
aercisea in some way a directing or controlling influence on the 
cytoplasm, this being especially brought out by the part it plays during 
nil division ; the nucleus divides first, the cytoplasm follows suit. The 
<jtuters and radiating lines in the protoplasm around the poles of the 
ipndle remind one forcibly of the effect produced by placing a magnet 
is the midst of Bome iron filings, the radiating position of the metallic 
fafpnents aroaod the poles of the magnet indicating the direction of 
'At lines of force. Though it is dangerous to carry such comparisons 
toohr, the similar lines in the cytoplasm perhaps indicn.t« the lines of 
the ittractive force exerted by the poles of the spindle or of the closely 
iBied attraction spheres of v. Beneden. 

The nucleoli are believed to be collections of reserve material which 
tBUxs into solution when knryokinesis begins, and perhaps contribute 
to the formation of either the achromatic or chromatic fibres. The 
udear matrix becomes more stainable after the nucleoli have entered 
iato (olution, and Strasburger attaches great importance to the stain- 
>Ue nuclear matrix, and believes that in vegetable cells it takes part 
■A the formation of the new cell membrane. 

Another function attributed to the nucleus is that of exercising a 

tnUolling influence on the nutritive or metabolic changes of the cell. 

fif certain fluids a vegetable cell can he broken up within its cell wall 

into manes of Strasburger found that in Fv.naria, the 

lUarophyll corpuscles in the fragments of cells so obtained which were 

vitiiout a nncleiis, were unable to form starch. Klebs found that in 

lluients of another plant Spirof/yra, when broken up in this way 

{plMmolysed), a formation of starch goes on in masses nf protoplasm 

dotitnte of a nucleus, but this is easily explaine<l by supposing with 

ftnsburger that the little bright bodies called pyrenoids physiologi- 

eaily replace the nucleus in this connection. 

One of the most interesting of modern theories regarding hereclity 
a that of Weismann, who speaks of the living substance transmitted 
from one generation to anotlier as the gemi-plaania. He further 
>elieve8 that the germ-plasma is situated in the nucleus of the repro- 
Inctive cells. 



Both aitiui»t niid vvf^Uible c«lU are (iiiiiiiHaiMt iif nucl^AtMl musi 
i>f pnituplitHiii, but pxhOiil ]>(>iiiU of ilitrcri.tici- in Htructurc, n( vhich th 
inmt iitrikin;( i* tlin pn«<!nc<' <tt a cull wnll in tufwt v^i>Mi)>Ie irella ' aa 
it« Abfeviico in iniiat Hnim«l cvllx ; th<- uitiount of VAcuifUtJon is nb 
g«Demll)' gmttiT ia vi^gi-tnhlr crll.v [loih ntiiiiial and \eKfft*h\e pro 
toplasiD brcnthcn oxy^-n nnd givi>» <>tt' pnxluctti uf uxiilittiuu, lib 
carbonic acid. ThU pnxwMt is bowvi-er, in tbe light countvrtwlal ta 
most viigctflbl'- ocIU by t.lw" ftcti^"itJ- of the grt-en i>i)(iiioiit i:lii«)Tiiplii'IL 

Piiint« containing chlorophyll ntjuii'e tiimpiv L-hvuiioal Kutwl«MM 
as food. Ox}'gi>ii, trnora of iminionin, ^nd, under th« iufluenee d 
BOnKgliT', cnrhonic aciil iiix- alwoibrd fn>ni the ntinosphere. WaWc, 
ammonia nml it« Milts, nitniti-K nni) oOkt silt« nre taken up lif ti» 
nvte irum tJie soil. 

Cxrbon is obtained hy the deconipo^tion of carbonic add ; Uiitv 
ImiUKht about in the li^ht by Uie ageing of the cldorophyll. Vttf 
and other ptiintA ileviid of chlorophyll obtain it by dc-coinpiMing oo- 
|)oun(U in which cailxm 18 combined with hydrogwi. 

HydrogiMi U obtained from wat«r. 

OxygMi IK obtain«d froiu llic air. 

Nitniiti^n from iinnuoniii and its >nlt* by lownr [J&nia, from titnSit 
hy the highnr plants. 

Sulphur i* nbt«i]ivd from Kulpliau<*, 

PhoHphoruK i* obtaini-d from pb(«phat«8. 

Potaf»iain. mnfcneNum, >(ndium, calcium, irou, ice, from ntiM* 
Hidta ill the «oil. 

From the»>« simple niatvriaU the plant buildn up complex nitn^ 
l^uiou.t and iion- nitrogenous Uwlieg. Sjiitlients U in fcict dtaraSt*^ 
tstic of all pUnte runtiuning chlorophyll, but analytic proccMM *!** 

Tlw fomiatioii ^4 iion-nilix>);'eni>u?> tiuWjincts, nuch n« siaich, 1* 
diret^y coitnrctMl with tli<- action <>f ehloruphyll under the stimnlotof 
light. Kratu found tliat siarcjt gt^na apptwrMl in thv cbbmyhjU 
corpuKcIca <>( .S/n'n-^yAi within five miiiut«H afi«- vxpcwurp lo bn|^ 
minlight, within I wo liourit in diHbte diiytiji;lit ; iu t'unaria tlH7 
slower in npjM-arinf;,* 

It IS pn>bnblc tlttl clilorophyll acta by cauMiig the ttnion oS Sf* 

< Cmnfotad clwiy of t«Ualo«. ranBaJwtln uul uUiM iiuBlobl* cariialijdialM ■• 
kiw pra*ral (wr |>. IMJ. 

TUB CRU. 1^^^ 209 

rack! and water 1o matte fomiic nldeltyde, tMcyi^cen Irtang climiniittNl, 


Bf polfmeriMtJon and dphydmtion the aldehyde beoomea starch, 

6CU,0=C,H„O^ (Srape sugar) 
CeH„06-H,0=CrtH,oO, (starch)- 

CUbloM, labs non-iiilrfiKenbUH aL-ids, aod pitni^nous Mulutjineea 
VIk Mfjmaf^ i«aoini>, {iruteids, •tc, are liuUt up pri>)»tbly b}* similar 
iintlieticnl pmcraMK, tuit till*!- )uive not yet Ihh'ti workud out. 

Ttii" (tnorgy tlrnt «tinhlps the plant orll t*ido thiswurk is undoiibt<nily 
Itr radiant pnrri,>y nf liglit, and nitirn c.s^tecinlly itf tbom- riiyit idixoT'lind 
If tbr chlorophyll. Wlipn exnTnined spectrnswipieally a Kulution of 
AWniibyl] <)ira jn^'ii Uvtf ptf^senU cui-tiun ubxrirption bniitlK (lig. Til). 
Ii » tha light of juKt thc»c fiarts of the spectium that in wiMit active in 
Ifc* dowmpijKitlon of carbonic acitl ; IUp pnnition of thn ninxiinuni 
nmfjot light coin cidfw with the maxinium of absorjition (l^mgley). 
ItyhiiKiiii ha« lOiown that Imcteria placed with n liUmcnt f>f CMo- 
M*M«n the solar spectrum under ihr inicmxcope, collect around the 
Uneat in tfa« refnonit of the chlocopliyll linndK, that ix, in the regiotm 
*itn mual oxji^en iH being evolved.' A green plant kept in thirk- 
Mt aMn dies, owing Vo ib^ not being able to obtain carlxinaeeous 
yji MMnewhat elevated teniprratnrc in cwcntiiil to the life nf all 
Li{[iit liaa apparently uo influence on ihe true re^piraliun 
((■king in uxygen and giving off carbonic acid) performed by the plant 

h thnw Kyntlietical pixict«»t» the kinetic energy of the sun's rajs is 
itoml Dp and bccoauw pot^^nltaL 

Energy la, of coudm', <>x]X!nde<l during planl-lifo, but in lees amount 
thn il u stiffrd. Tliis !(t(>ml i-nfir;^' h nuAui liberated ils heit in the 

' Hon rvniilly Knyi'Iiiiiuiii ^l'/tBfeI'l Arthin, xlJL IMI has ilcmmialntix! Die mno 
WtbwwdMr waj. A H""' "* ^pi'^flf'" *■* ilioi)tit«d ia • tlinp of ililuUvl nx blood 
TifalJ illliiuwlj I iliiiii "I lx}>ln>tl<<n. In odd ininntc b ilirrct KiiiiliKiit, in fiftocn 
MWw ia iliApM dafliKl'l, Cli» Uiixl in tli>' iiol);liboatliuod o( the ipriiy tirnuiif. uttrriol, 
■InbnMd |o it* t*iuiu> tint in tliu dmk, II ■ ii|wrtruin wm proj«if I un<1(-r Iho 
P^IWlWI, tki (knRr to 111' iirt«Ttiil Uiit uhuiiviI m Uic nnEhboolhuod of thow ptitt 
4 lb ■prat If^MC oiTf iiti- (iKrtH of Urn HiiCL^Irum wli^re tbc abaoriitiijn tianda of 
•""T^jll irr -'I"'*"'. *-! — ""l lullw aei^hliiiurliuo'l o( tlipClias. Then nrr otlm pin. 
a^ abkli tdft* a linrilar fCff^ I" rliloruf^^ll. tf*- doooiiipoa* carbonic acid; oiicof tlicoo 
• laEl«ia.IiiuTaria. a rvd |i<Hii»iiit produ«<d by (lie uU<ity of crituu b*fl«ria (Ra^ 
iMkaitn) dI the •uli'liailau-lniia v1aA» fWinogiadiJt]-. Hotan. Zett. imT. no, Ul-HT). 
1W t^nmU ttr all t>-niiHi) cluonioiilijlli: Lbcjt act witb regard to tlir iiKvlrum 
«kNi wHlumfi* aanlUarir |u cli]uro|>hyll. 


TirE TiasiTRrt .*Nn ORGANS Ol' THE BODV 

ofiiiljustiiiii of fufl, or iia lii-'Ht mid luotiuii in thn lioilieii uf linn; 

The (iiiiinnl c<-l!, »n thi- fitliRr bAnil, r<M:i'iv(!« its ntirrgy in uiilv 
a eniAll iiH-Astin.' from tliii sun'* hpnt, Kut tliii grentvr Anuianl i* 
receivMl in the form nf v«g<;tAl>k food, i.v. of the subsUtnms fnminl 
by sjmtlieticni pifX'Mws iluring plant life. In the cftse of wirnimmni 
oniiuHls, the supply iif vogptabk fofxl is nn indirect, one tlir*iugli tlr 
body of AHitther iinimul. The complex food stuffs eitJier directly or 
inrliroctly nnter into the comjioKition of the c*Il protoplusin, nnd »tv 
there burnt off as simpler products (oirlxtnic Mcid. witter, urcn, &rX 
Durinii this destructive nietnlmlisKi, kinetic energy (lient. nioliofl, 
olectiicity. &t.) ia libertLtMl. The itniuial cell iitores u i;»rtain Amuunt 
of piitentiitl iMiei^r, but this in lesn than thitt wliieli la t^xpendnl. In 
othei' nurds, llif <v)nditi"ii7s of tht? groeu phint oell in suidi;,'|jt ait 
revpiiUHi. In j^ri't^n pintit iTidtx in thi? dnrk, iind in pUnt wll* wilWot 
chlorophyll, the vital prorcMtrs rescRiblo thiiM! of animAl citIIk. In tliM* 
except ionid nniiim Ik, thi? cells <if which i-nntnin chlnrophyll fc.g. A.W"i 
viritiia), their lichuviour in Miniiffht is like ihnl of pUnt ciclU tlii'V 
decompntr ciirlxinic ndd, libi^rntv nxy^n, iind store the cnrlmn. 

8[H-nkin^ K^icridly. the plant is ehieAy concerned in synthesis, anJ 
ao furninhci jK)ti'nti«l energy l*i the untinnJ, The nninMl libewle* lhi« 
iLS kin<-tic energy, which, however, is not retrnnsfonneil into poicntiiJ 
ener^ for the pUnt. Tlie plant receives now supplies of enenty ftoD) 


Mun N my*. 

Tn ii mrnnt paper PHiipT* has pointeil init timt this niTitnvit roll"' 
But lie pushed loo f«r. The cell pix>t4>plium itself iittM in th« *»i!w any 
In bulli nnintid nnd pUnt ci^ls, bronthinf; oxygen nnd K>^>ng out cir- 
Imtnc lu-ul, wnter, nnd nmido-coinpoundrt. Synthi-lic piiicc.wx art 
undoah>tr<lly nnwre highly developed in plimt-i ooiitiuuin^ chl<miphyll> 
tnit they ni« present also in niiiuMl calls. Tlin formation nf hippftc 
iwid from beiuoic arid and glycuciuo, or »iJ ptJirrml sulphnt** fnini 
pbencd and Hutphuriu Mid, iin> typical inHtiincNi of synth«v« uocDrrinjt 
in uninul crJIs. He n\nit xIiowk that syntliors mu>t oci^ur In dir 
i«tiogn!sd\-D nurtaiuorphiors thnt lend to the ftimiKtlon of uric ncid 
it* oingrncn from ]>niti!idii, in th« formation of ^t from prulejil 
frwm carbohytlmli-*, mid in tin- f<irnmtion of carbuhydnilt-ii (j.'Iywij.ns'T 
from piroteids. Thi-si- chnnicitl openitions performed by iIk- livinjf**'^ 
cannot b« imitAt«d in Mm lalxirntury or explnined by any kni>«" 
chemical 1>tw>i ; tbe^nc is no doubt, nt first, mii ex<«ni«tVL< bnwkinu down 
of the complex mole>-u1<-s nnd then the cells bnihl up eniircly 'i''" 

< Tlio tc»||<un« wouiil ol the coll jirocnw* in ncr luxrlf t*km froni McKtnJiu*'* 


materiala again, (if h ciimplex iiiiture fixiiik the simple carbon compouudu 
10 liberated. 

The close resemblance lietweeii idiiiii.-il iind vegftikble cells is further 
shown by the fact that many lower plnnts (bacteria, moulds, &c.) not 
only flonrisb in solutions of albumin and sujfiir, but actually shed out 
ferments to convert proteid into pept<me, and starch into sugar, to aid 
absorption. They breathe oxyjten, pnxluce carbonic acid, amido< 
derivatives, and, without the iii<l nf sunlight, fat, carbohydrate, and 

Nageli ' has shown that these fungi will iiHsimilate carl)on from 
compounds in which it is cumbined with hydrogen (amines, &c.), 
but not friHn those in which it is combined with nitrogen (cyanogen, 

The question whether light hau any influence in accelerating the 
chemical processes in animals, was answered in the affirmative by 
3Ioleschiitt * and v. Platen.* Speck * and Loeb * hu\e, however, shown 
that light of itself does not cause the increased production of car- 
bonic acid, hut acts reflexly througji the nervous system, especially 
through the retina, whereby inci"ei»se<l muscular niuvenients occur, anil 
K> an increase in the chemical processes takes place. Ixieb took 
leindiipteiTius Inr^'a: in the chrysjilis stage wjien movements are absent, 
and founil that oxidation processes were practicidly equal in those 
expuse<l to light and those kept in the <lark. 


The term chhimphyll was inventeil by Pelletier and Cavcnton ; ' 
it is the substance or mixture rjf substances to which the green colour 
of leaves and Other vegetalile organs is due. 

It is an exceedingly unstable biKly, and most attempts to isolate it 
have faile<l, because in the pmcesKCs adopte<l fur the puiTsise decom- 
pnaition has l>een brtiught about. Berzelius, Mulder, and Freniy eniployeil 
strong mineral acids to extract it friuii leaves, undei' the mistaken im- 
pression that it WHS a stable IxHly, but solutions of chlorophyll are 
destroyed by the action i>f air and sunlight, much nnn-e than by 
strong acids. 

' Sil:unfftb. Bair. Akail. Wi'<t. IsTi). 

> H'lVii. ,ar,]. Wachenteh. lnHB. » FflHycr'a Arckii; \i. 273, 

' Arih. /, i-j-p. Path. II. Fharmak. lii, ■'■ Pjlugrr's Ardiiv, ilii. 8113. 

• Tb>f fijltnwiiiK Bcconnt of the themiBtry of tlilnropliyll in niniost eiilirfly un BbBtnu t 
•A ■ p»p*r by Dr. Hchnnck on that aobject in the Annala nf Botany, vol. iii, pp. 05-1211. 
' AnnaJi-ti lie ehiinit et Ot phytiqnr, ix. Irtl. 

I' -i 



(i«uii«r' obtaJTiwI n Ki>1utic>n <>f ohlriniphvll by Uu' nuA «■( ncutnJ 
HdU'onbi, likn ulciihol »nrl etiici-, ni)il Alnttxl he o)>tninnl gri'im crjrxtMlft 
which he oimniiii^i-wl to ho c<>mjxiw?d nf tho pur* pigiuent, l>iit Umdwii' 
iliii not iincct'i^l in nhininiii); th«>tn. Hhiihcm «mploy«>'l cnUHtic mkIam 
H MnlTont ; tins unptiiiiticn tho fnt which ACcompAiUM thf chlurophjll. 
Ayolhiw ptgini-nt is lYrnnncd from the mixture hy light pelrolmias 
iiiifl then th<i chkirophyll is (IUm>Iv«cI out by « mixture of Alcohol •ad 
pth<-r. On vvsponting the liolveiit, <lfii'k j;reieii Bphtero-crystals <4 
' ohlorophyU-greeD ' are lefL TIieBe crystAU can, how«ver, haitUjr ht 
composed of pure chJompUyll. an tJiey are nasilj- soluble iu wsier, ■ 
iiiecliuiii ill which chlinvijihyU Is insoluble; «n(l in n Uter i:iiiiiiiiuiiiaali(a 
HniiHeii hiumelf )i.-Ls iuliiiitu-<l tluil his cryMUild ctinluin niiKliuin. 

In riftw uf tlie (]if)ioulty found in iitnliUing chluni|>hyll, uur knoo- 
Inlgu of its chi^inirnl iin<l ]>hyniciil [irojwrties is inMieimrily hmitni. 
It is iiiiuituhlc in water, nnil isoluble in suhsTaiiceji which, like iilmlwl. 
ctluT, ciirlHin (lisiilphiHe ant! chloroform, dii^iiolve fnts. Thiu^ Eolutiun* 
show B gri'eii colour with n red fluorescence. 

Ijpoctroticiipicftlly ii nolutioii Hhuwn four diHtinct bands and tv9 
indistinct' baudtt. The two Intl^r. dintiu^fuinhcil us IhuiiIs V aii'l VI. 
aw situutiNi ad is aeen in Ggure 51 ml IIil- bluo end of the upeclruiu, 
Jind lire only vi::tible by sunli};lit in dilute HilutionK. Some o\imivert 
foiinider tluit tliesp nrt- mil trui- t'hloni|)liytl linndH, but Ix-loin W * 
yellow ooKmriiiK nialter which lU'cotiipunieH oldorophyll, "lui «hicl> 
tti ghIUnI xiiuthophyll. Kriiun' nnd Rnchsu^' hnve piirtixlly Micc<«lt<l 
in w|Hr!iUn>t iht; two pij^iin'nta. 

Elcitii'iitary niiidyi^cf of <!hloro]>liyll have yiQl(U)i) inoMt diMviiiUut 
nMutttt ; two of the Intiut drteniitnntiims tliAt h*v« tifteti iniuli' wlU 
nerve to illustrate this stntontenl. 




789" per ceut. 

&t-i$ pvr cenl. 


9-MO „ 

10-63 „ 


fl5 „ 

-1-l:i „ 

Ash . 

1-7.1 „ 

Oxygen is also present ; when bnnit, chtorophyll Wves an ash wll<^ 
eoiitains phospltates of calcium and nutgnesiuni and « little ferricoxiil'^- 
Tiw iiali luia un ncid reaction due to acid phospluite. The pbunpli^i'^ 
niAy be derit'e<l from ]>hc«pboru« in the chlorophyll, or in an impMrity ; 
thi'i-e is p(|uiil doubt with regitrd to the irau. whether or not ii is ivn*- 

> C«npt. rmd. 1x»a. iiei. 

' Arhfilen A. Bnl. tmt. Wtrthiirg, iji. isa iliiiI Oa. 

* Uur AVnlHul rf. VMvtOfAtltfirbH^fff, Slutmwt, IMS. 


tkined in the chlorophyll molecule. Most observers agree in regarding 
chlorophyll aa a substance, the molecules of which are in a, state of un- 
■tkUe eqnilibrium. 

Dteontpatition f>rodueU of cidorojihyll. — Hoppe-Seyler' eiLtractetl 
htA groAB with boiling absolute alcohol ; the extract on being hUowihI 
to lUnd, deposited crystals which were purilied by recrystftlliaation : 
the subatance so obtained, he termed cMorophyllan. It melts at ] 10*^. 
tot black liquid, which on farther heating bums with a luminous 
hmt. It is easily soluble in ether, light petroleum, benzol, and 
diloroform. Its solutions show the characteristic tii-st band of chloro- 
pkjll, but the remaining bands differ from those seen in fresh plant 
alncts. Hence tt is probably a decomposition product of chlorophyll, 
lis percentage composition is C, 73-34: ; H, 9-72 ; N, 568 ; P, 138 ; 
H^ 0'34. On treatment with hot alouhulic potash, it yields a black 
nrttatline acid {chlorophanic acid), glycero-phosphoric acid, ami 
onrine. Hence choruphyllan is probably a lecithin. 

By the combined action of ether and hydrochloric acid Preiuy* 
ntiUined two pigments from chlorophyll, n yellow and a blue. The 
jdW pigment dissolved in the ethereal fluid, the blue one in the acid 
Wow it. The names pkyllitxantkiti''. and /i/it/llof.yaiiiif. were respec- 
tivdy given to these colouring matters. Schunck confirms Fremy'a 
ninib in the main, and gives a full account of the chemical, physical, 
ud ipectroecopic appearances of these two substances in the memoir 
Jready referred to. Phyllocyanine is in contrast to chlorophyll very 
*Uble; it is a weak base, and forms compounds with zinc, copper and 
Mkr metals. 

Phylloxan thine is nuire dithcult to purify than phyllocyanine. It 
mast be carefully distinguished from xantliDphyll, to be described later. 

Whether phylloxan thine is converted into phyllocyanine by the 
<«itinued action of the acid, oi' whether the two pigments are fonned 
"niependently, but in succession, from chloriiphyll, or whether lastly 
tie two owe their foniiation to two distinct suljstjinces which together 
•"Mtitute ordinary chlorophyll, must l>e still con8idere<l doubtful. 

Alkalis cause a decomp<«iti<>n or change in the chlorophyll; Han- 
tn'i chlorophyll-green is a product of this kind, and Schunck has 
olitaiiied a crystalline product lie teniis phyVoimniin. Alkali Jirst 
wnwrls chlorophyll into a substance of which chlorophyll-green is the 
wdioiQ compound ; on decompi«ition with acids tliis yields phyllotaonin, 

' 'iril. yhytiol. Ckem. iii. SSU; iv, 19H; v. 75. 

' Compta rtiul. I. (00; li. IHR; liiiiv. flNS. On the nubjecl of tho ilecom- 
P>>>tioii ol chlomphyll by Kcidii we hIho Filhol. Ihid. Ixvi. I'ilH; liiii. 013 (wlio 
**Tibn 4 black cryKtiiltine iiabpttince). Ruhh^II unil Lupnuk, Jonnt, Cheui. Sue, ^H. 
3U [lhi> dekia enpecinUy with HpectroHCUpiu apiwariinceHl. 



wliioh in A iiitwont stittc in c<>nt«et with ulcuhul himI etlwr nwlvrgaeM 
flherificntinn. It hiw the foUowringpoi-criita^- u>n)|N»)Uii» : C, ft6'49; 
11, 6-.W ; N. -.iM ; O. l':ifil. Scliui.ik hii- further iln»criU-U mhui:- m- 
h-re«ting cx[)<>riiiiPiiU im them'tion nf iiiiiUiio un chIi>iTi|ihyll. 

Sttluiliimff (KTiimiranyint/ •■/i/'iiV'/iAy//.— BurzcJiUB* suppiMi^l ihnl iha 
yHldw colour uf nutaii^ii lerti'«H vim, fi>riiie<I fitmi chhinijilif II iit cnn- 
>iH|ii0»ci> of chMiij^ra iiiiluc«il by t-uUI ; hi' leiiiial it XAiitliii|iliyl). 
KiviUH eiKl«Miri)Uit><l ti.i nhiiu l\m\ ■•nliniirv cliiiiii)}>)iyll t-> » iiiixlurr (if 
tnii py>iiieii(ii— a hluUli one, ■:yriti(ij>hyll, hiu] a yelluwbli oiili, x>iiilhi>- 
plijll ; and titeiv U riknI i-cwMin tn iiuti|MW iluic tii« xniithnjiliyll of 
nutuitiii Uiit'HH in tui-rp|y lli* yelliin pijjiiiirwt l*ft iifwr Uie fiKliiif; of 
111*- lilun Ir ii, hiiwi'vvi-, rloulitful if (hi- vdlhiw coluuriug iiiiittvr of 
rtinUkt*) li^Hvrs, of grMni 1«avo«, luid cif kuttimn loivai ia tltc ioiiiiv. 
StokiM* M'[Mnitixl tuo^iixi-ii ntifl Iwn yellow pigmniU. Tncliin^h atlls 
th<'y"llaw|>ijjniPiit of ■•tiiiliili- li'iivr* ctiulin, nmliu-jiaratiwit wi4li*ly frrim 
IW xniilh'>|>hy]U, ui which Vv ilncnW tivi-. 8c)iunck luu fnund tbn 
yellow pi^ncnt of fmUxl Iwtvf* t<i wmsUl uf twn dwUiiot ycUnw oilour- 
iiig nisUvrs. diflcriiig in M>liihilit.iM mid in KpvctmKiiiitc n|>)>MkrantMt. 
()f hII thwio substniicpA xiw "tdy, fhrifiaifJit)!! (Hiirtwik, ihv i'rylJ»n>- 
phyll uf Itougnrel), Imm licrii obtAinccI in tt [luix- sUU-. Lmv«» «■¥ vx- 
trnct«d vith boiling alcohol ; tli« «Jitmc1 on standing <lcf)asit« red 
erystsls, mixod with fat mid i-hloruphyll : (he di;posit i* diMsoJv«d in 
olilorofonn, filtvml, and iiK-<>hnl »d<l<^l to tlu- Altrat^. vrystak «gun 
fomi on standing, and may he ohiaittn) pun- hy rvpmtiiig the prooMa 
wienl timoA. Solutions of lhi« sul»^tanoe sliow (wo tMinilK at tlic bJao 
^nd of the spectrum, voinciititig very tienrlv with iMindu V and VI of 
(h<' ofilinaiy L-hlomphyll sjjM-lruni, Om- ciiher lantlwiphyll. at lea»t, 
iiiitl pToliubl} the renuiinder fpve no i>pMlrow:opii- bando. 

It u perhitpa one of the xnD(hoi>hylU to which » due the glucooe 
itAction ohoerved by Sdiunck ' after treatiric chlorophyll MIut■■>Il^ witfa 
odd*. *inoetli« nitittt«iice is t« a tC^t vxtt^it rcntovu] by Ofpuiin}- Ll>e 
wtutiotui witli carbon dijialjihittc, liMiiit oftcrvanlH found tn tJte brown- 
iidi-ycllow Ii>(uirl, Tbwe *ulwtitiiv<'s iiiuHt idl lie mrffully ilistin;;ui»li4M) 
from phylloxanthinis ■ product of dpuomiMxiitioti of true chlorO|>liyll. 

C'lil'rnif>it/U m rtiitiiwi/*-- Tlio c|u«uition at to the rxistcncp of 
chlorophyll in animals hu lM<m much drlintnl. In atteio|<ting a 
nolut^on of lhi» <|umtioti. Ih«' tirrt cnxir onv muKt ^•uard agninnt i« tlial 
of looking ugioii i>very gnvn pigiix'tit u* chloniphyll. In B"ttftliit 
rtrufin (a ^-eiihyrean worm), the colour ih nut iluetochUiropliyll atoll, but 
loaoomewhat simiUrpixment called Itonellcin by 8orby.' In I'hjfUortm-n 

• Jin. if' Plitrv. ui. Ml. 

* tUd. uitI. isa. 

> Ptuf. Aoy- Aw. ilii It*. 

* ft^mrl, J. MitTOt. fin. IDTI. p. lU. 


lirHu (OM of iho polychirte *orni«), P. GfJdw ' failpri to net «ny 
rraluiMs of oxygC4t on eipraniijt it to ^unlii^lil. Tim rt^nson U that 
tUgiMD |u),'iurut ])re§ent, U not chloiopliyll (SlncMunn),' In ullior 
«iei the foraulion of i-hloro|)hyll is riiie to pftrasitic iilpt. fxiHiing 
■itliia Uiv uituutl orgnDtKiu, and is tliorcforo not tlio dii-evl ]>i-ocluct 
tl die ktt«r. Tliere arv cases, however, such as IlyHnt viHdU and 
SfimfUtafinriaiilU, in which chloi'opliyll <Ir>cH oxist in the celU of lh<- 
HiBak Uiemiidvc* (lU.v lAukestei). MiicMunn ulu) luw found it in 
Kuml M* wntvr .iijoiiht^* and in the elytra of cantbaritles biirtlpK.' 
PhMmi* has found it in thi.* liluuU of niuiiy l>utti-rlli<^ nnd ntntlis, 
*bn it IN |>in>Mlily di-rivnl ilirc^'tly fi'uni th« fuod, ami i« apparently 
kidionlosB. MacMunn'* lias fouml a chlitrojihyll in .■ui-callcl livern of 
«ai7 iimrtohraies whU-li lie ti-nun cnti'n)i-hWi)j>liyll, ami which he 
tffuAn a» bein^' renpiralorj* in funcliim. 

AB C D E V C. 


na fl_- liiwrT>i . il Mill Ha 'l(clT4iI\f>- I cMjinn'T" If- "roiii/ wilntlnft, 

UiThr ■feBf \. .'jidi Hi |lv> tJim ivh) uf iW q}ii*'traiii, iJl w^Jm^jji tjg 

Ktafvf4i.1fi. llilD. r. ProOuk'f ^d^diKMl In unitiiiir |»l>^l c^^dnlit 

—» w*igT ■i^jgl. Lieu f^UJ; ikLiI. u^ u> imtftnir plriFtuLvinin wUIi arlpl, rl- t-jlij. L f uji>prnrn<k 
tf IW ir*«idrii|. f11«« 4b(VT^ llinirv I* fmru l>r. Miuiiink'^ arrU-lp ('tilnr(ipti\tl In U'axd' t>lo- 

XrtUfoT eklBn>fii^U.~0\A»M\ the pigmctnt in xoliitian und cmapnre 

iU »tttor)>ti>in «pecirmn wild tlmt of (.■hlordjiliyll. Add bydrnchWifl 

Mvlia Urj^ amount, mid allow thi- laixtun- tn fltand mxiic days ; liltor 

'ftlndarlc di*poiiit, (liiwrilvi- soniir of it in ■■thrr, and ooiu]>ai'e th« 

' fr*fe. Boy. ftw. Eita. xi. (lMl-9>. 

' htm. ifoniiK Bto\. An. ISMI. |>, M. ' Jimm. Phytiol. !i. I, 

' Bni. Atfof. Ilrit. two), Tl<» riMifinnii ihr orliriniil ulahmumt ol Pnckliiiitto" 
•"■••(•IlfiJ in i|n">l>'»< !'}• Kriilwiib»rit Mill Clmtilard. 
* h«. Bvjf. S™-, l««, tin li;i7 • iWrf. Miv. ST* 



upectmm «-ith that of phyllocyanin (wf tig. 51, iii.) ; duwolve tlie mt in 
hot alkiili ; add excws of ncetic acid ; a precipitMto is pmduond ; thik* 
Bp wilh ether to dissolvp ihia, allow it lo stand for wi%'«ntl «ln« ; 
compare tlie spectniiu with that iu tig. ."il, r. 

If these spectra are seen and identified, the colouring miti 
under ex a mi nation is certainly chloriiphyll. 

FnueliiMui ii/vhlon-phyU, — 8choni;k eonclutles his memoir on chlo 
phyll liy nmny inl«restitig su^gestinnn iia to it» clii'tuioal cou«litDliai 
T hrrn tiicrvly nirntion "ini- of thi^p. Ho coiiHich-m that earlwnic . 
IK iini- of thr constituents of tho mi>lrsculi^ ))ut thiil it is held 
liMMtfly thnn in nn ordiniiry rjirlMinnt*", niul yet in a it(ai« of gr 
condcniatiim than it would be in n mi^rc wnlery »i>lution. It b 
in n favciurnblf condition for tranKfcr to tho aKvimtlatinfi; pliunw, wbi^ 
elWt" it* d*HM>m position with elimination of cixygrn, and the chlo 
phyll wotild then be in a vtate to take up frewh quantities of curlxitiic 
acid, acting therefore as a carrier of curtMnio acid in the plant, jn>t n 
hiemo}{lo)iin aervw* to conv*y oxvitfin in the unininJ eciinoniy. 

Clil<)ro)>hyll ia always pnni-nt in vc^i'tJiblf cells ui which 
forniutiun of orKaiuc mailer fniia (uirl>i>nic acid anti water, 
eliuiination of I'xygpn, is gfrtnj; r>n. Pjinwitic plants likt' funxi oh 
tiieir nutrimnit rciwly formnil from (ithrr orj^iniKnic or ilr-cnying or 
ninll>T. They ciinlnin nn chlorophyll, and do not dwonipouft 00|M 
Hthw ])lnntK do in the light. riant« grown in rUrkn«i8« fnim ««»ii»fl'' 
tnbt-rs contain no chlorophyll, and die when the food tnaterial itoifl 
in Ihn tii?d nr tuber in enliauMted. The uppearance of chk>rn|ihTli in 
rt iota In) plants on exponure to liKht indicates the «inimeiiceti»i"nl "f 
aKKimilation. It is therefore certain that ehloii>phyll plays somi' [*n 
in tin- process of Hasiuiilattun, hul how it acta in luuwiling the | 
is unknown. 

In the ;{reen L-elU of pluntH, the chlorophyll in found nKHictal«d ' 
ppoteid maases which it pnnmmtt-Ji «iid tingpx gn-cn, fnrniing the i 
called chlorophyll corpu.iclr.i or grmnilcii, and prolinhly thi" pimfwof 
decionipiwin;; (.'nrli'iiiiL- jicid and wntcr with i-voluliiin of ovygwi reUl||H 
in ihc! I'hluropliyll corpiut^lc nitlicr thnn in the pigment simply. ^1 

Juin<-lh- ' cnnKidcrs that chlorophyll asaists in the tf«n»piratiaii of 
water from the leaves of plants. 

■ Ci/mpt. rmuf. Hoe. StoL ISSS, p. 0. 



tat blood forms a very convenient starting-point for a conHidemtion 
rf the chemiatrjr of the elementary tissues. Using the word tissue in 
the wnse of texture, some would, perhaps, hesitate to include the blood 
■odn' that head ; but using the word in the sense of elementary prin- 
flplf, there seems but little reason why we should not include the blood 
vith qtithelinm, muscle, &c., among the tissues. Many of the other 
tines, such as moscle, are composed of a semi-fluid material, and there 
SRlnit few parts of the body that do not contain a large percentage of 
'nter ; blood is certainly the most fluid of the tissues, but floating in its 
Md matrix are a large number of more solid particles, or blood cor- 
imcles, which are analogous to the cellular elements of the other tissues. 
Rm »a embryonic point of view, the blood is most nearly allied to the 
pwpof connective tissues : it is developed in connection with certain 
BMoblsstic cells in situations where connective tissues are in process 
uftOTnation, and its cellular elements are throughout life reinforced by 
the multiplication of cells which are situated also in various connective 
owie structures {lymphoid tissue, marrow of bone). 

IV blood is not only distinguished from other tissues by its greater 
fcidity, but also by the fact that throughout life it is in continual 
■wetDent. This movement constitutes what is culled the circulatiiai 
« the blood. Speaking generally, the functions i)f the blootl consist in 
■"Uii'tering to the needs of the other tissues. It receives oxygen from 
•wurand conveys it to the tissues nnd organs generally ; it receives 
"Mrient niat«rial from the alimentary canal, and this also it carries t«» 
•"Test of the body. In return, it receives from the other tissues the 
Wncts of their combustion, and conveys them to organs such as the 
™'H>tnd kidneys, where they are Anally got n<l of or excreted. 

The blood thus conies into relation with all the organs, and plays an 
""portnnt part in respiration, nutrition, and Jii all the other functions 

'1 thflse animals in which there is but little or no differentiation of 
""iMinn, there is no circulating fluid to bring the different parts int<i 
"'stMiii with one another, and at the other extreme of the animal 
™?lfiTn, where we find the greatest ci)niplexity, it is there also that wo 



find tbc biuotl ill its nuHit hij|(hly ilrrvnUipeil condition. We shall & 
nioKt ciinvitniont tii tnlcn tlif cnnsideration of the blood in verlebnTw 
(init, Jinil itwvi' tlint of the iliffV-rriit invertebi-ate claAsee for k subm^oMit 
chnptiT. Tiiis orcW will bo the Ijeel, first, Ijecviuse our kDiJwldJ],«af 
rpi-tehiivto hloocl in inure complete, and, s«coud)y, frum tJ>e puiut li 
view of hninnn phygidlo^y and pntholuKy >t i» ft more pmoiical 

Colimr. — In lei'l^briilpi the bluiHl in ii suinrwliiit >'iiH>UE nnil. to tie 
iinkitl t>ye, homo^nmuH ml liijutiL Ttii^ tint viiri^u ncciittliny tu lb 
Bt«U- of uxyjfeimtion nf tlii^ [liji^mt hirmujclolun, t<> which tli« coloar«t 
i\\t! bliKHl ia ilup. Till' IiIihkI whidi Wvi-x thn lunpi or, in aqwUie 
nniraiils, thr \p\\^ is of it l>right sriirlct hne, whili.' that in the vpAiBit 
veins in pnrplitih. In contact with the «ir a loose combiiiHtion oAd 
oxyh«nii>g)ol>in ix formed which i« soirlet, and in tiie tiNiuM tlw 
0]cyg«n iM in gmit iiKutunif givi?n up, »nd the l)loi>'l retuminj; to Ut 
hetirt hiw thp dnrlcor purplish tint of hieuioglobin. 

In tinl)' iwd verlT^hr»t>'i>iiJinalt,' ,lm/iAi"^nj.or(hfIiiiiL-i^1i;t.Hnil Zf/i 
niiutlivr MDiiIl ()pli, ll>a l>lu"l cniiiliiiciH nu ltH'iiio|cloliili. iiml i>< t'ol'-iirlcw. 

MicrOHCOpiO invrjitigiitian of vrrtrtbratn bIcHid shows thnt it in iiot * 
hunio^n^iuii ri-il li(|ui<l, but ttiAt. it eimkiKU i>f n ntmrly cnloudM 
lii|Util, the fJiwtnii or lii{iiitr uniif/iiiiiiit, holding in suspenson iuff 
Tiumbun* of «olid luxiies -tlip corpwBcleJi. These corpnwle* are of i«» 
kinds— the coloure*! «nd the colonrle**. It is in the forinpr, t*» 
coloureil or re<l CH)rpuscleH, thil thi? pigment htemoglobin is containML 

Tlic iiliipma, )M>wt-MT. 'I<i(>n in niniiy cum-m ciiiibviii n pijcnicnil in «alulioiL*r 
|)viliii|i« FtiotTi Ihiin oncv Tiiw>« will Vmi tniAU-d i>f iii I'lniiii^cTion with thewMB. 

SjMicific gravily. Roy * luw intrcKluce<l n roKtlwHl for ascertiunin^ 
tho Mpcicifiu gnivity of living btooil. A <Jn)p of bloixl from ihr finp* 
is roceived into a loixtnre of gtycerim' nnd wntcr of known sjih:^ 
gntvity. If the linip tondn to riw or Hinic it is. niuiunie'I thnt it 
lower or high**r specifie gmvity thnn the fluid in u-iuch ii is pi 
Bjr liAving reMly to hand a number of such stnnditrd solutioni' 
glycerine and water of different specific gravities, it is not difficult \o 
find one iu which the bltMxl neither mes nor sintu, and, ua iu 
gravily in known, the &i)ecific (j'^^'y "^ tf"' blood under ex« 
ia alHO lucerliiitiw!. The nvcntgii n^iecific ^■'■■vily of huBwui blood Ibo* 
found ia lOGO. 

Llojd JoiMUi' flndi ihiit with n little pmotico tlii* iiruc*^)^!^ can bn ixn*^ 
flut vtiy qobkly, and from the ouuniiintioii of u laripi nniubar of cmoc owwl w^^f 

' Liuiktiitcr, PnK. floy. Set. vni. iri. IBI* p. 71, *t tr^. 

' Roy, Prve. Pbfftiol. Soc. l*M. 

'■ F~ L. Jmiro. /ewru. (/i>AyiiW. vol. Hii. (IfORhpi, I.' 


Oit then ia a 'diunial variation ' in the rpccitic griLvity of the blood, consisting 
d 1 fall during the daf tuui n rise during the ni)fht. The i^pecilic gravity of tha 
)iini \e higher in the male thnn in the female ; and that during pregnnccy, after 
oociKiOrattei the ingestion of food, there is a fall. In a passively congested 
put ibe qieciSc giavit; of the blood is high. 

Tin ipeciSc gravity of deQbrinated blood varies considerably, the nveisge 
(ot hunaa blood being lOnfi (Beequerel and Rodier)' ; for dog's blood, 1060- 
(l-SSgei)') for rabbit's blood, 10*2 to 1052 (Gschlcidlen).' 

The specific gravity falls in aniemia and wasting diseases generally. It aUo 
lilb tifter haimorrhage. 

Tilt Bpecitic gravity of defibrinatcd blood may be ascertained by the use of 
ttw bfdrometer, or more correctly by HOtual weighing (_$ee p. 15). 

Seacliun. — The reaction of vertebrate blood is always alkiiline. 
lliii IB du« to the alkaline salts which are present. 

^le demonstration of the alkalinity of the blood is very simple. A 
in^ of blood is placed on the smooth, faintly reddened surface of a 
piere of dry, ghizec) litmus paper,* and after a few seconds is wipenl off 
»itb a piece of clean linen nig mui.stene'l with water. The place where 
tbebliiixl has been standing is murke<l out a,s a well-defined blue patch 

The manntacture of glaied littnus paper of the kind just alluded to renders 
UMcessary the somewhat elaborale methods Htlopfed by older observera to 
kmonsirale the alkalinity of the blood. Thus Kiihm-" placeil the blooil in asmall 
i«ivier sii^jicNdeil in a walch-Kla,»s full of water; siiiue of ihe salts pass into the 
■Iter, the alkalinity of which can he then slimvn. Liebreicli' recolnmcuiled 
pwrai'labc of plaster of Tans coloured hv neutral litmus instt-ad uf liimus paper, 
wl Zonti" used litmus paper previously m<iiflteneil with a atning Bohition of 
•JiiioDi sulphate or sodium cliloride. 

The alkalinity of plasma or of serum, where there is no dillionltj arisitif; from 
fe [ireience of a mass of lieeply eoloureil corpuscles, can lie iihmvs deniunstmteil 
'jtb*iuei>f ordinary litmus pa]>cr. <irof litmus Kolution. 

Tatte and orfowr.^The Baits present in tlt*> blood give it a saline 

Bluod has also a slight but peculiar i*douriIependentun the presence 
« ffiinate quantities of volatile fatty acids. This odour, known as the 
■''i'"" miujiiinin, differs in different nnimuls. Tt may Iw further 

' BmioMel uhI Budier, Itecherchet sur Irs alttralluiis ilii sang, Paris, IMil. Traiti 
^'^mtrpathologique, Puris, IBJH, p, 11. 
' MiiKM. pfliigrr-i Arehiv. i. 75, 

GtliWdlBn, quoted in Oam|fee'» PhytioUjgieal Clinniilrg, p. an. 

'«li u UH prepiired by Messrs. Townnon & Mercer, Bishopniriite Street. 

*'■ A. Hchiifer, Journal of Phijaiologff, vol. iii. 

"Uhn*, Virehow'i Arehiv, vol. iiilii. Ilsn.'i), p. »,'.. 
I Iwbreith, Brrirhir d. deatvlitH rheia. (in. lu Ji'rliii, IWJM, p. 4a, 

'^""ti. Ceatralbl./. d. meii. Wiuenieli. IH07, iio, 81, 



•developed 1>y luldinj; Ut the 1>I<nk1 a mixlarr »f m|iuil parts of solplitirfe 
ACJil Hiwl vintfr. 

Quanfil*f i-f Mmiil in iff IikIi/. — This itvi'ii))(eH j^ t" i\ *>f lliu Urtjii 
l»cly weight. Tli« newt nwurntc inei.hod of Mtituntin)t iJm- totnl 
ntninint nf 1>Iik>(I in thr Unly i* Wplekor'n.' It iiwy be brw-lly flr- 
KcrilK'd im fulUjwn ; A Mniill i|Uiiiili<'y of WikmI in rwntivnl frwai i1i«t 
nniuiul by ^Tne><n;tioii, (lefibHiuitocl, iiieiuiured. imil lUlainl t«> kn<>»ii 
extent* t4> Kei-ve iw stdticlnrdn of cuiiipHriMD. The MiinuO in t)ien bird 
tJt tlnith ; the btiKiH id HHlbriiiiiteil. Tlie ve^i'Is lire tvexl whaIwI "ut 
wjlh wiilrr or Milin*' Milulinn, thi- wn«hiiit;H ixldt^ to the bluxl ; U»>Uy. 
tlw wholo niiimal U liikely minced wilti water nr saliite Miltitiun. tlir 
extnict U filtered mid luMed t4i tlit.' diluteil lituid prevtuunly nbtMiMnl, 
aiid the whole is in^oui-pd, Tbn ootour of the mixture ia then otiti- 
pnred with the Htamliird 8oliitiuiib iiiiule fmui the few cubic LViituuetmH 
of bliNid which were lirst reinovvd, uiiltl one in discovered which hiu 
the Mkiue tiut mi the nilxtun*. Tli« nmount of bUmil in the omw- 
BpoudiiiK Biniiditiil iMilution ln-inK knowii, thr! totnl ([luuitity in tJio 
uuuuiI'b bi^ly out in [Juil wiiy be uisily cidciihitctL 


Within ■ feu- uiiiiutea ™ltpr the lilnnl Im* tiiwn *Inxl it liecnmm 
vJMouB, nii<l ibeii rapidly lu^ into ii Milid real jelly. The fiimmtiaui tif 
the Jelly bepiis <>» the mrbice of the liquid imd on the Mtm u( thn 
vwwl in which it ta i-ontnined ; thin nipidly spreads through tin- whi'I" 
mlntiince »f tlx' li<|ui(L In n fvw niinntm nfL(-r ihia, dro[n of n miitv 
or le«> faintly Btntw-Milnured li(|uiil npptMr upon the upfwr MirfiMW nf 
the Jelly ; thrao IjecMun Inn^er nnd ran Ii^Umt ; the jelly nhrinkK 
fn>iii the hmIm nf the ooHlAiniu); vnurl, morn dnid txiUect*, nnd ulti- 
nintely the cli>L lt<jnta in n liijiiid. The Hppunrwtoe of th)« l>i)ui«I, which 
is cnlled jirnfHi, i* due to the idinnkiii); of one of the conuiliientM of lira 
clot, cxtlMl^^'n. ninl ihe pmceM of Khrinkini; niny )pi on for twelra to 
tweiitV'four hours. We am thus dutinfruiiji two sfepci in tlte cmjinU- 
tioci of the blood : — 

1. Ttie ittA^e (if Jellyini;. 

2. Tlte «hriidcnj(e nf tli« dot, nnd thn conMqtimt ex[irw«ion of tlie 

Willi ibe mkra«oo|M> iuotv dotailM cnn be tnnde 'Mit than with the 
tMked eye. Filnnu'nta of 6brin nn> M'en funiiinf; n itetwork ; iiMnjr ol 
thne mdtnti' from «inidl clump* of blinal tAlilet*. Tlte**- hliiod t«blate 

V V^b«, rifwA. /. OBf. Mfd. ard mhm. *oL (■. f>. Ill, Sn alw nnhldinm. 


(Bbtpliittclien of Bizzozero) are minute colourless discs which occur in 
(jring blood, which disintegrate when blood is shed and which taker 
IwdupB, Kome part in the formation of fibrin. 

The fibrin filaments are exceedingly fine nnd straight ; they en- 
Ungle the blood corpuscles, and Inter, when they have contracted, the 
Umd corpuscles to which they are attached are pulled out of shape 

A cODTBDient method for dcmonstmtiag the fibrin network is a^ follows 
(!«)iilcr)> :— 

PUte a drop of blood from the finger on to a slide, ami cover it and put it 
■ride fir a quarter of an hour to coagulate. Then allow a drop of a solution of 
tou-csmiine or logwood to run under the cover-glass. This <1ci:olorises the red 
copntclcs, and stains Che nuclei of the white corpuscles, the tibrin liiflmi^tits, end. 
lieblood tablets. The preparation may be rendered a peruinnent one by allowing 
idnpot dilnle glycerine to diffuse into the flnid, and cementing; the cover-glass 
iSh gold-size. 

fKrlJ— Fibrin ai&inentq and blw-1 tablets. A, network of flbrfn nliowii after wasbtng Bway tUi* 
vriwdH lnt3i ft prepuftituD u1 blvm] tbHt h>A been Alluweil to oIml. Hnny ol tbe fllnmeut* 
bbiiefmnj xroftll cipmibi oi blocl tnhletr^; B. Utoiu O^i^i UIo'nI rnrpiiKl«fl wl t>Iood Ckblcta 

Microscopic exaniination thus shows that tibrin is fonned from the 
liloDd plasma, and that the clot consists of fibrin with the blood 
f^ip^iKlei entangled in its mesheis. Fibrin can also be obtained from 
plwM when the corpuscles have been removed from it, as will be 
nplamed fully later on. Serum is plasmii tiiinicii fibi'in. The relation 
'f pluma, serum, ami clot can be seen at a glance in the following 
"iMDe of the coiustituenta uf the blixxl : — 

] Serum 
(Plasma (Fibrin 

^'*'«' ired 1 

* Corpu-scles ^^^^^^ lCl"t or Ciiissamentum 

I bliNMl-tablete ) 

•t Way Iw roughly state*] tluit in 100 parts by weight of blood 60-C5 
[•fts dMiKLSt of plasma and the remaining 3.1-40 of corpuscles. 

' lUrvier, Trailf Iffhiiiqiir trhUliilii'iii-. ]> ail, 

' Sthifer, Ettenliah uf Hittnli-mi. ami wliL l«H7, p. 7. 


Ha/ri^itg ef ewigulation.— The followinfc table given the ftrerage tlDi« after 
the shedding of the blood tliat coagulation commeDced (Nasne) ;^- 

Blood of fowl begins to coai^latc in 1^ minute 

•> P'g i> It <t I to 1} minute 

„ sheep „ „ „ J to IJ „ 

rabbit „ „ „ J to 1} „ 

„ <1c^ ., ., t, 1 To 3 minutes 

„ man .. ,. „ 3 to 4 ., 

„ borHC ami 01 „ „ 5 to 13 „ 

111 man. solid ifi cat ion is completed in 9 to II minuto«. but mther smmer in 
the onsf of women. 

lit i;nld-b1oiHled animuK viKipilation In ralhcr slower thnn iu mainiiKilK. the 
resulting clot is smidl after il Ims shnmk, and Ihequniilily of peruiu formeilii 
correspond inrlj- large. In birds, not only is ci>Bfrulntion verj- rapid, bnt the clot 
is )iroportionftt«ly large, and the jield of sennii smiiU. 

The yield of serum from sheep's hkiod is grcalcr than from that of other oommon 
niiimmals. When lai^e ijnantilies of scriini aru needed, tt i.t tlierefore liesi lo 
ase the blond of this animal. 

The hnffy irnat, orCruntn pliltH/iifira. — If the blood coagulate-i slowly, 
ns (liifs that iif t!ie hoi'se, i>r thiit. olitainwl from persons sufTeriiig fn>ni 
ucut*' iTiflatniimtory (liswLSPs like piieuinoiiiit, the corpuscles will hiive 
timi'tiinink liefore tlip foriiiatiiiti nf fibrin has begun. Tlie red cwr- 
puscles Iwinj; liPfivicr than the white sink more rapidly, nnd thus the 
upper stnitiim of the clot ocmsistK chiefly i)f fibrin and white corpuscles. 
It is, thoi-efore, nut so iwl ns the lower portions of the clot, and it, is 
teriiiiil Ihe biitfy t'oat. The biiffy coiit is ■renitridly cupped ; this is 
beciiust' the tibrin contracts iiioiV! in the centTf thun iit the sides, where 
it ailheres to tin: interioi' of the containiu;; vessel, the compirative 
alisi-iice of eoiiiiiscles iwvleniif; iiioni evident also the shrinking which 
ia MO ehanifteristic of fibrin. 

Ill ciniHtioiis of iiiiH'iiiia and chlorosis the fiiriiiiitiuii cif a luilfv tiial lias bi'en 
iiImi observni in tlif >liiil lili""l. This does imt -win tii be due In I'lKiciiiiition 
iH-inir very slow, hiil ralhi-r in- the ~iilMdeiiee of Ihe ri^ rorpiisi'les l)i>inj; v^ry 
(jiiiik nil iiriimiit 'if the nw >|icei(ii |Tnivitj- nf the pliisiiia. 

AiintliiT phcnniiienon may alsn In' snmel iiiie* nlwrveil in bloisl and similar 
fJiiiil- (hat clnl slnwly, Clniliii;; cicciirs. anil ii IhiUi. ap|wiri'ii1ly serum, is 
(Kjiieeii'il nut ; bill it is nni sitiiiii. as in ii slu.rt tinii' it uNii clots : (he iiniii is, in 
foil, jpla-iimi. in whiih ihu jir ,■-■-> of (ibrin fnnnatinn has either not yet iH'enrre'l 
or h:is niily |iiii(ially taken place. 

Other •■/ill iiyn iiri-iini/«iii;/hu/ eiHii/ii/iititni. 

1. In ti'mjMTature ; thei-e is u sliftht ri,se in temjierature. 
■_'. Tn reaction ; the alkalinity <liniinishes. 

.1, 111 electiiciil ["itoiitial, HiTniinin states the coayulated pitrts 
are iiepitive to the n on -ciuij;n lilted jnrts. 

4, The amount of oxygen in the Moiid is 'limiiiiHhed. The interior 

« THE BLOOD 223 

«l 1 blood-clot will be always found flark in comparison with the 
Htfrior. This seems to be becnuse the still living bl(X>d cells are 
miter^ing chemical changes, and derive the necessary oxygen from 
tlw nxfhfemc^lobin, which consequently becomes reduced and dark. 
S. The tension of carbonic acid in the blood rises.' 
fi. Traces of ammonia are stated by Richnrdson tii be given off, 
uil this he erroneously supposed to be the cause of the coagulation. 
Bst blood collected over mercury co(igulntes, and in this case there is 
DO Mmpe of ammonia. 

Thf coat/iiiat ittn of the blnml is hatitened by the following means :— 
I. A temperature a little above that of the body (Hewson).' 
1. Contact with foreign matter ; thus threa<ls, wire, Ac, introduced 
bto the living blood vessels wilt cause a clot to foi m, starting from the 
oliicct introduced. The diseased wall of a l>lood vessel acts in the 
Mme way, so also docs filirin already deposited on the vascular wall. 
Vhen blood is she<t, it clyta first iu those parts situated next to the 
wllnf the ressel in which it is contained. 

3. Agitation ; this really is the same thing as i-epeated contact with 
feragn matter. 

4. Dilution with not more than twice its volujiie of water. 

5. The addition of minute quantitie.s of neuttfil salts, such as 
•wlinia chloride. Calcium salts are necessary f<)r the efficient fomiation 
rf fibrin, and for the activity of the fibrin ferment (Oreen,^ Ringer*). 

The cnm/v^ation nf Oik bhnd in hindevfl nr jire.vHl-'il by the follow- 
•"gniMns : — 

i. A low temperature ; when blood is received int«) a vessel cooled 
17 w* to 0°C., the bloiKl remains uncongulated for iin hour or more. 

Ihvv' stated that blooti cjiii be froien and tliaweii scvoiiil tiiiifs in siictession 
*ilbm;t losing itn pi)wcr of coagulating. There ia ptobiilily, lio«o\er, a small 
T'^ilt of librin fornieil with every thawing; ni)f sutficicril In cause jellying 
'Wrtont the majis of blixrf. With plasma from which the grenter number of 
*n'"*:leii have bi«n separated, it is easy to demonstrate thi.-i, af the few shreds 
«Sl*iii which are formed can be re»dily seen in such jjlaHmn, while they are 
"*™reil by the opacity of blood. Their form.ition is probably ilue to the effect 
"f "» (Tvstala o[ ice breaking up a certain number of white corpuscle.'^, and so 
"•rating a quantity of fibrin ferment, which causes 11, foniialion of fibrin when 
"•Irapfratnre i* KUfticiently mined.* 

-■ The addition of a sufficient quantity of neutral salt. Hewsm 
**ploj«d sodiura sulphate for this purpose. Magnesium sulphate is 

' Sttmburg. PflSger'i Archiv, vi. 6S. 

""mo's Works edited by OalliTer, Sydenham 9oc. fxincion, IMIl. 
' (i^en, /num. 0/ Phyiioi. »iii. 8B1. * Proc. Fliijtiol. Si:c. Feb. IMOO. 

I '*•■ John Dary. Anal, and Phytioi. Reiearchee. London, 185B, 

Hriliborton, Prac. Bog- Soc. vol. ijiv. (18HB), p. 266, 



ttlso now Iftrgclv employed. Sodium clilori«le% potassium nitrate, &ixt 
H^vernl other suits act luniilarly. When Uood U received iiito aji 
iippruximately equal volume of mitumted i>oluti'>ii of mkUuui tnUpliat^ 
iir of a 10 pereeiil. solutiim of >««li(mi chlori<le, ur uiu> a <)tuut«i-u( Um 
viiluniK cif li siLtunitccI Hulutjou «( lUHf^iiesiuui Aid))lint«, cua^^Utioa uiay 
be indefinitely |Hwt[miieii. When, however, such a niixtun' of hlixxl 
und ttalt ia (lilutiMl t-ousidendily with wntrr, o<N<;cul'>li'") i^H-tueut. n.< Uw 
inhibilury influetiL-c, whii^h the ttTinx (nit luilutiiin exMled mi tbs 
foriiuitiuii of libriii. iit reimned. 

3. Contnot with living vascular walU. Aft^-r deaili th<- bUud rnniaiK 
fluid in thi' MnidlRr vi-asitk fi>r ninny h»nr>>. Briickn (Itj'iT) kcpc llw 
blood Huid in t.ho intprioi- nf « titrtuisc'a heart (removwl frciiii the 
for eight day*. A mwrn iionvenipnt vuswl is the jugular vein ei i 
nnininl tike tho horse. If the vein lie ligature<l in two plaues, so m 
inchidc » ijuanlity of blixMl within it, umi then ren>ored frum 
auiina], thi> Itloo'l will remain fluid for hours or even days. pr«' 
tliat tlie veB«e] be hun^' in a cool place, iirid llwt (he iniiier 
of the vein ]>reM^rves its iiile;{i-ily for that time. If llie vein be 
and the uiiiteiilH W allaneil lu oaiiie iiitu cmtavt with furei^jn niai 
ciiMiIulation will eimuein a ffW minuten. This experiment, uf ten 
of an tJie 'liviiiK tetit-iabe exp(^^illleIll,' luut be«n employed in 
rfsearL-Ii™ of Huiitrr.' Hewm«i,' Llst^^i-' niii! Freilericij.' If llie A-aiSe 
lijiHturtf l»! appliwi antiu^ptically, and the vesBfl be allowed t« reiuwn 
ill the liody, the wound heals, and tlte includeil hlood-ouluuin will be 
found uncoa^Utitl niontljH afterwards (Bauiti^urten."' SenftJulwu *)■ 
Blood. howFV<>r, whicli isca|w% from IJic vp^m.-Ik into tiw^ tiMUva VHS 


•t. Injection of pej>l<in(^ into th<- cii'cululiiin. If a ih<rtajn ([uanlitf 
ef comnieiroinl jieptone, such as Wittc's or (frubler's, be injected into llw 
<rirculnti')n, ami the iiiiinia] then killed by bleedin-;, the bl<x>d will Iw 
found to have loat the property of coa^latin^ (SchniHit-Muli>vini,' 
Fano"), The blood becomes normal again about tJir«e hour» after tb« 
injeetion. The dose for a dog is O'^l gmin of peptone for every kilognuii 
of body wei){lit. In rabbits peptone ban no auch eflect in hiudering 
conflation. Follitser" has shown that this property of ito-callm) pep- 
tnnp is iftiilly due to th« albuiiiosea of which commercial preparatMD* 
of ' pi-jitone ' cbirlly conwst, and especially to one of these called ketcTO- 
albuinose, Pure prptono hoa litthi or no nuck effect. He lia* «b» 

' ItmiUr, Worii. vol. iii. p. -Jll. ' H-wwiii. WvHa, p. M. 

* lattm. Proc. Hon- i'oc, vol. lii. IIIWI*, p- "'*■ 

* Frwili>tii>|. Ittchtrelut rur In fontlitulinit ifu pliuwim tint^urn, Gniul, UTM. 

* ('.i/iHAriHri PiilioloyB. Sfw 8jrd. Srw. IWW. [1. irj. • tVirJuni-'* ^rrl. liitiL 
' Ihiliiitull-MaUieini, Du Doit fleynwirf't Arth.f. Aaal. nnrf f'Ajro'nJ. W79. 

* FuiB, IbiA. IWl. p. BTT. ' PoUilMr, Jtwni. </ ^ftpAuL til 

THE BI/>ni» 


thftt tlie«eaJbuni<Me8deUy the coaguktion of the blood oftnr it ts 
Tliey «Uo i-attae a siiuilar deUy in tlie dottukg cit diluln xiilt<!<l 
V«rio<is dJuUtic fvrineiiU tiijevt«d into the blood Hlreaia 
in Um aanie way (Salvioli'). 

In all tbt»» oaMS the pi'oaeiici- of pejitone, dther frvo or when 

into tli« bliHxl atj«ftii), poiisibly in a looRc-ly oombiiied condition,^ 

b) all proliability by inhibitiii)i; tlir activity of Uic iibrin-fttrnicnt. 

inhibitory inHurticc can b<- roinovod 1^ pawung a Htroam of 

acid through the blood. 

5, OontAct with oil. When blood ie surrounded by fluid, of a surface- 
diffMVnt from its own. and whieli does not mix with it, its 

itioD is mucli delayed. Thm Freuiid found that if he atueared a 
rMsel with raaeliiie, and i-urefully rt- oeived blood into it tlirouich a 
cannula in direct voinmu mention with thn nrti-ry of an nnimni, 
amid by cort-ring thn blond nn nlitnim^d with n layc^r nf Hijiiid 
k*M'p it from coogalnting forBcvnrnl hour*. H aye raft ' obtain«>d 
Udilar nwolt by allowing blorHl to clrop thr»u;|(h a liLycr of liquid 
on to gn-nMil mica plnU™. 1 i iiycml't iind (.'urlirr* rnodvi-d 
directly from the tingnr tip into a tall aylindritiul vi-mi^l lilh'd 
•itb eastor oil, which ia vory riscid. Tho drops sink nlowly through 
fccil, and by occasionally inverting the vessel, the blood may he kept 
MfBing in contact with its ends for a considerable time. Tlie 
■fanwcopie chara<Tt«rB of uucoaKuIated blood may be examined on a 
paced slide, if great care be taken to prevent tlie blood from coining 
hcMttact witlt anytliinjt solid or uiigrea^ie<l after it ia shed. 

6. Addition of auinll ijuantities of caustic alkalia or annnonia. In 
Am cbmm the reagrnt axed in, however, ko ntn>ng <ut to altor very 
n>uler»bly the tiatuml condition of the conxtituonta of the bloo<l. 

*. Addition of nci'tic aind or cxcwas of carlionic acid. Therr! in here 
■pin the oiijoction to thi; usx^ nf u utrong acid like ncRtIc acid, which 
Itidily onnrtrrtx globulinR likr librinogeji into acid-albumin. Paflnog 
attrrsm of carl)0nic acid through tho blood nft«r dilution precipitatea 

Bbrinogen, an<l so of counte prevcnt« the formation of tibrin. Th« 
i|<wnticy of carbonic acid in venoas as compared with arterial 

' B^nnutoo. iV»r. Jfey. !he. lot. lUv. Iltwsl. p. W!4. 
' adtisL, CtntraOl./. d. med. Witt. 1S8S, p. UIS. 

* n ii 411Kciill to Soil 'pcptAna ' *tUr ItiJwUon into the blood, pnliap* bcvanw It 
Ifc M HMumiMm coouiJim. Iialil in toiobinalluii by thu wliiti^ cotpuKlc*. Ncnnielitcr 
■■■■ bH«ni, iUhmtd ttwl iklTiir ■ uliorb linui lliiwr ouliiiUiicct IilILudioh* and pciilonci) 
**>>^»M4 by tlw kkliujii. *u tbtj niiwl bu pivumt u Hieh in tbc blood, oronlj very 
IMilffanUatd lot s lUiiu M luMt. FuithiT roniark* cm tin- inrwnco and lat« of 
i« UiK blom! H ill bi> f(«n<l la tha Cbaptor od A)>»rptiou. 
' Ibrvklt. iV». /foy. .S<H-. KMn. ialf, IWT. 
* H^mtft and Ca^Unr, Arif. Urd. Joarii. lot. U. (IWM;, p. VUI. 



blood iH tu>i<l to be Ute cnate of tbe slower congubttioii ohscnnl iu the 

8. HeaLinK blooal Ui SCC. iiuiUMluitoi)- it is witlidntwii fniwi Uio 
hody itl*o prcvoiitA luty fiiniiaLioii »f filfriii, as Um tanpei-aUin- mcMitionwid 
in auflicicntly hi^i Co iMUse a heat-cok^uui at tl>e proldd libriiio}:«it, tbe 
6Wiii prcciirnDr. 

9. Tbu addition of lui (Kiiiiil voluni« of n O'A por cvni. naJuUau of 
o*nBMig»r dolnya tli« moculntion of IiIoikI for about *n l>our(J. Slullnr'^ 
Tho ikddiLtnn of otbiT vintoui subatAaces, aucfa u i^'klbumui or 
glycerine;, Ium the wMiin dTrcL. 

10. The ndditioci of much wntvr to the blood dolaya its «o- 

11. A wHtery extnurt of the- medicinal and cotnnxni loeoh prevents 
tlie coaijulutioii of the blood (lltiircnift'). Thiii is tiitereatiii;; iu vi«w 
of tJic ilithculty uft«(i experieuofNl in <.-otitrollii)K hA-aioi-Hia^'e from Iceob 
bit4« 1 tl)i< wcivtion froiu ihit leech rridnttlj pn-viTola llw fonnKtiaa 
of s clot, which (wutlly pi>rfi>nux ibu }inrt of n plu^ in sm»ll wounds t4 
thi> lei nil. 

VJ. itloorl u-hich nnturnllj' dots tlonlv or liol iit id), 

{n) 7^(^ blood nf<'in)>rvi< fowU do» not ooagakUilwforatiw IStlier 
1 4tb dAj of inculation.' 

(ti) In >qtrtain laorhid •.-"iiditiotifi the blood sImo dot* ahnrly (an 
L^tAptor XVI). 

So for then we bave deftcribed Um nslcfd eye snd niicrortcopie 
phenomena of ooai^latioii : we lia\-e <-nniiicnitnl the rsrioiu couditioia 
whicii hanten or delay cloLtitix ; nc biivi! arriviHl at tbe oondordon that 
ths osnntisi tact in th<' pnicms in the iwpiiratian of thembitauoe librin 
frocu the plsiona, and it lins Iiopd inciden tally utentioned that tlie 
fnnustion of lihrin i« due to the actirity of an organised fmnrnt ' called 
the lilirin-figniinnt. 

It will hn aiiw convenient to take up tlte aahataaces libnn, plnoM, 
and neniai, and cli*cu<« their propL-rties more folly. Afier we ha*« 
•oeadcred al grrator length the pro|)ertiea of tbe coosUtueols vl tJw 
pfaMan. it will W easier to understand tbe tlieoi^ of tlte cu»e of iho 
cosf^latioit which Is now gonenlly buid, aiwl the groutidn u|Hin which it 

< J. MlllI«(.flspvMUor/'>.1i»Mf.n,UT.SMi 

• IU)riWt. Pn». PlhyiM. Mir. 1M4, |i, is. 

1 Tlr<>< hw 'UIhI UoI Ih* t.loni iit nrtain i lii'lf ii art cM for MlnT hi'mn altmr 
hclnc ttvti: bol iilliar nlmmm h*t* not lomd may sutli 4>lay la Um (B>|:uUI>aii la* 
ftfirit. i/ rkifioL yk, na). 

* Vj ui iiwi«v«bI«4 tnmmt >• nwaal ■ tlioiiiokl afaU wUeIi pndaea* raiuit 
cWacM la Um niAtorub with vUck H «an*a iBtocoalaol, vtUiiHit tUdf ii*d>«|«liMI •"? 
thsag*. Th«(ann<>tsui>>d tmMNlkaprlMl<>lfcoMwU«h,llk«7«artMiltartMla, 
wnuiu of li>tnf oibmdIhu. 


mtB. The theoiy is that of Hammarsten, and may l>e briefly stated 
ufoUowB ; — 

Whftt the blood i» within the veggf fn, on^ vf the cnufliluents of plcuma, 
ipnttid of the fftobiUin clang called fibrinogen, escintg in a soluble/orm. 
What lie blood w gked, fibrinogen is converted into the eontjiaratively 
iiuolvbl« mthjtlaaee fibrin. This chmufe. in brought about by the activitj/ 
<^a ipecial unorganiged/erment called thefibrin-femient. This ferment 
it** not exist in healthy blood contained in healthy blood vessels, but 
B (Hw of the products nf the disintegration of the wlilte corpuscles and 
pobably also of the blood tablets, that uccurK when the blood leaves 
the vessels, or comes into contact with foreign matter. 

The PlBUua or Liquor Sangniius 

^e hquid in which the corpuscles float can be obtained by employ- 
ing one or other of the methods already described for preventing the 
Uood from coagulating. The corpuscles have a higher specific gravity 
thu the plasma ; they therefore sink, and the supernatant plasma can 
In removed fay a pipette or siplion. It may then be more thoroughly 
iJMred from corpuscles by the use of a centrifugal machine (gee p. 17).' 

The following are the forms of ptasuia that may be obtained :— - 

n. Pure plamna. — This may be obtained from horse's veins by what 
kg already been described as the living t«st-tube experiment. The 
fluma removed from the top of the vein clots slowly, at the tempem- 
tiretif the air (usually in 15-30 minutes) ; that deeper down, nearer 
to the coipnBcnlar sediment, itself contains more corpuscles, and coagn- 
htei more rapidly. In all cases the plasma coagulates more quickly at 
(tanperature of 40° C. The process of clotting consists of the same 
rttgM as the clotting of blood already described ; the clot itself con- 
bM of pure fibrin, or fibrin with only a slight admixture of corpuscles. 

i. Cooled plajnna.- — This is another form of pure plasma. Blood is 
•Bowed to fiovr into the middle compartment of a vessel containing 
4ne concentric chambers, the inner and outer of which are filled with 
ice(Bnidon Sanderson).' 

The corposcles settle ; the plasma can be removed, and it is found 
toponets the same characters as those already mentioned. 

€. Tranvadation fiuidg, — Pericardial and hydrocele fiuids, and 
■bular tiansudationa into serous cavities, resemble pure plasma very 
tWiy in composition. As a rule, however, they do not coagulate 
^nataneously ; but aft«r the addition of fibrin-ferment (or liquids lite 
•wnni which contain fibrin -ferment) they always yield fibrin. In cases, 

' b the rane ol pure plums, tha tnbea during wntrifiignlUiiig must be krpt i-ool 1iy 
^'^l^^K tbflm in \mr^tr tubea filled with powdered icv, 
' Hamlboot/or the Phyiiological Lab. p. 188. 



however, in which the Beroos mc is infismed, as in pericarditis, the 
fluid is found to contain a large nvunber of white coTpnsclea ; it then 
clots after removal from the body withoat the addition of any fennent 

d. Sa/teil jJcuma. — This may be obtained l^ mixing the blood 
immediately when shed with the necessary amount of strong uHm 
aolution (p. 224). This is found better than Hewson's ori^nsl method, is 
which he stirred the blood with the solid salt (aoditun snlphate). Hm 
c<Kpascles settle somewhat slowly in the c«se of the blood of oxen and 
sheep, but more mpidly in that of the horee. After twenty-foor honii' 
standing, a good supply of salt«d plasma can be generally obtained 
readily. This settling can, however, always be hastened by the ceotri- 
fnge. In sodium sulphate plasma, a few strands of fibrin may Bometinm 
form, but as a rule it remains many days unaltered. On diluting it with 
four or six times its volume of water, coagulation ensues slowly; fibril 
often not appearing for many hours, but always more quickly at a tcn- 
peiature of 40° C. and always within a few minutes after adding Gbrin- 
(ennent. Sodium chloride plasma acts similarly. lUagnesium snlplkite 
plasma is preferred by some workers, because, when diluted simply with 
water, it clota more slowly than other forms of satt«d plasma, or aotatHam 
not at all. It, however, never fails to clot rapidly with fibrin-fenoenti 
on this account it is generally employed as a test for this ferment 

Salted plasma when diluted with water, without the addition <d 
fibrin -ferment, clote because the dilution renders the proportion ol Mh 
present, insufficient to inhibit the activity of the ferment ; the fennent 
is present in small quantities, either from the presence of some ftr 
corpuscles not removed by the process of ceiitrifugalising, or becuM 
some of these corpuscles have already under^ue disintegration. 

Diluted magnesium sulphate plasma is least prone to undei^ tUi 
alow spontaneous clotting, because the proportion of salt used hH 
precipitated some of the precurwr of fibrin, fibrinogen, and perfa^i 
other globulins as well ; this precipitate is a llocca lent- one, and settiv 
with the corpuscles to the bottom of the vessel. Xlie proportioav 
this salt usually employed is that recommended by Hammarsten,' foor 
parts of blood tu one of saturate*! solution of magnesium solphit'' 
Magnesium sulphate plasma therefore possesses the disadvantage d 
not containing all the pruteid matter uf the original plasma ; a miW 
disadvantage in its use is that it i.4 often stained with hiemoglobin.' 

' Hunmttr>tPii, Prlugrr'a Arrliif. liv. 220. 

- Hiunlinr^pr iHnl. Hifl. iivi. tl4l has kIiohh th&l when blood ig miud iriUi "'' 
itolutioniv of diflt^n'iit foiKYiitnitioiip, therv ia fur t^M-h AiUt a c«rt«ui coocebtralioti "i^ 
no hn'moglobih i^ i)is»ol^fHl out (rom tlie C4r|>u*>cle?i. while & eiULne acJaiKv f^ '^ 
concratimtion betoiiie~ liiiytd uilli Oie pigment. The luevi ot tl>e«e two limil'P''' 

niK HM10D 


T\i» proc«M of clottiii); in nil tliesv fonnti of snlteil pUnim InuU b> 
iJw fomiAtJoii of fibi-iii, aitil ultiimittrly to ihe «xpresaioii of ii tiiixtun 
tttrnia ftnd bbIiim (luiil, whirli luay tie catted saltetl sonim. 

'. Si/nif*/ ftiuniii. — TliU iiiJiy be iibtjiitii-tl by filu-rin); titood in 
vhidi t)i« cottf;uUliuii lus be«ri <teUyE<d, by mixing il. w)it>n ihfd with 
it* own vtrinine of « O'A por cent, solution of ouic nugiir. It ooagulatai 
IB fnun 30 to SO tuinute*. 

/ I'rpiatw [Jiuma.—Thu tuny W obtiuiie<l by contrifugnlixiiig 
ppptonn blond, tbc pTvpnntlioi) of which bos been already (l«8cribod. 
Tbf inliibilory inilueiu-« of tlw poptoiio in r«mon>d by pHMing throu^ 
tfce pWnui n •trrnini of t^rbottin Mid gm ' (Fano), or by tho addittoa 
«f Imthiti (WooMri'lge), On cooling tbix form of plasma Ui O'C. ft 
pral«id preoipiute coinantiiiK of rounded ^nutuleti ocmin (Wool- 
ilridice), Svth » preoipiiato produL-ed by cooling in not olitiiined in 
punt iJaunn, nor in nailed ploiniui. 

If. Bilr mil ptiitHfi. — Tliia form of plttHUiA obtHineil by niixing blood 
umI * (wrtnin propturtkm of bilo salts has beon uted by Xoock uid 
tWBVHn-llinini^bctjtrnui.* Tlivwa obMrvera lind Ihat with thiic form of 
pfaanm tlt<- aLi-elemling influvnco of ddbII i^nantiticn of lucithiti nnd of 
a»nyo<lM-rorg«nH' subKlancM f^ly«icinc, tiricncid, Ac.) on I'ongutiition 
<an \m <Imioii«tntt«d. Conclasiona bttsnl, howoTor, on foi'm* of ]>liutnKi 
vbeiv ttimi Iiah been ui adtnixturo with compkx orf;ani<.- suhfitances, 
Ek« bil« Kilt* or oommpreinl peptone, ahoti Id 1>e recoired with ciiutton, 
■>up(:orl«d by corrolioMtive sxperiiueiita witli pure plusmu. 

A. /.fcfr /Jatimt. TtiiH fonu of pliuoia is obtained from blood in 
rhiHt coaguUtion liaa )>een pr«>i-ente<l by mixitift it witl) extract of 

General Characters and Composition of the Plasma 

Tho planiiM ix alkalinn in ivartion, and ycllnwiBh in colour; in tho 

I iif mnii, ita cpeciGc gnivity varirii hRtwnrn 102l> »nd 1029.* Like 

I Uood it dobt, and the proc«Ws of clotting Iwula to tli« furmation of 

UMlical iritli iht tMtonfe mnlllrioiiU at 4a Trira (PriD2>hrini*H JakrL uiM. 

kit. III Urfl iv.l 

1b nviiii^ikMi vllh Uiiii »r(!inn of ^Mbunii' u-iil tlioulil bitnotvil lliat IdhoiUB* 
(JrrAx- /. I'livtU.I.Anoi.: i'Ayrwil. Afjlh. IhhiJ. fi. ril ha* (ounil ll»l 'fw|>lan« blood* 
««al«M* 0*1? "tirmt hall Ihn imniiAl iiuiuitil): ii( lliia jfiii; tliit aij|[ro h nthcr liii:har in 
i^anDil bi |>rf4>'n« l>lncd than in nnitnol blo»l. Bohi {Cntli-alU.f. I'A^tioI. lWW,no.ll) 
Ab4* IIui in ■ lioi: into Hrliii'h piliier )>ppto>if> oiflwcii loliuioii hua been injected, Iho OOt- 
f«t O^CMblBir KP-) III lb* r]|nrr<( air )• luaclj ■hmlllUhMl. 

• ffMnyiiriif />»r>r^rKin>, l>ur|'*'' l"*^ ■"■' i*''*'^■ 

* 0*mttr. /'IrfovlOirH'uJ ITMtmnlif, p. Ut, flitiitlnr. Oiimir afifli^it/* A l<i 

£>fif, 1B71, lul L p. «n). C. (Minlilt I trr»a.m^te, jv 1171 f:iin tlie ■pccllla 
of lH«IUir iilainM Hllm hicliitr, iia. lOSt. 


fibrin ; this procesB can be hindered or hastened by the same agencies 
as have already been mentioned in the case of blood. 

The plasma consists largely of water ; the solids, dissolved in it, tall 
into three classes : proteida, extractives, nnd inorganic saltH. 

Gaingee ' gives the following table, deduced from the observations of 
C. Schmidt and Lehmann, which shows the relations of these sub- 
stances to one another in liDtnan liquor sanguinis. 

1,000 parts of blood yield ' "^^''^- P^*^ °^ corpuscles 
*^ -^ 1 486-98 parts of plasma 

1,000 parts of plasma contain ; 

Water 902-90 

Solids 9710 

Proteids—l. yield of fibril! .... 40r. 

2. other proteids .... 78-84 

Extractives, including fat .... ri-66 

Inorganic salts ...... ^f-S.I 

In round numbers it may be stated that the plasma contains 10 per 
cent, of solids, of which about K per cent, are proteid in nature. - 

Besides these solidx, the plasma ha.s dissolved in it certain gases 
(oxygen, carbonic iicid, and nitrogen), the consideration of which will 
be taken with respiration. 

Qeneral Characters of ths Semin 

Serum may l>e obtained by either of tlie following metliods: — 

1, By allowing plasma to coagulate; the clot is filtered off; the 
filtrate is serum. 

2. By allowing blood to coagulate. This is the method more 
nsually employed. Tlie fluid squeezed out by the contraction of the 
clot is serum, which may be removed by a giipette or siphon ; and then, 
completely freed from corpust-lcs by the u.-^e of the centrifugal machine^ 

The serum Itna the same i-olour and, approximately, the same specific 
gravity as the plasma. It is rather more idkiiline than the plasma 
frotii which it has separated. It however does not clot spontan- 
eously. I n other words, the e^tsential difference between it and 
plasma i?^ thiit in serum tlie fibrin -yielding constituent of the plasma 
(fibrinogen) hits iM-eu removed in the form of hbrin. Serum also 
contains tin; <Iisimf'gi-ation prmlucts of white corjiuscles and blood 
tablets, of which the two most im]>ortnnt are globulin and fibrin 

I llrtiuvv.'. tl'it!. [■. las. 


Serun ooutiuiiB the Bome three classes of constituents as the plasma, 
TIL proteida, extractiveB, and salts. The extractives and salts are 
Ik mate in the two liquids. The proteids are different, as is shown 
b tfie following table : — 




Kbrinc^en fsubsequently changed to fibrin) 
Serum-globulin ..... 
SenuD -albumin 

Serum -globulin 

We have now to take up these different proteids one by one. The 
ibria-feTment has been included among the proteids for reasons which 
liU be fully dealt with later on. 


The microscopic characters of fibrin have been already described. 
A nipply of fibrin in sufficient quantity for chemical investigation 
117 be obtained 

(1) By allowing plasma to copulate. 

(3) By allowing lymph to coagulate. The amount of fibrin formed 
frm lymph is 0-4 to 8 per 1,000. 

(3) By inducing coagulation in fluids which contain fibrinogen ; 
aefafor instance as hydrocele fluid, pericardial fluid, and exudations 
iUo other serous sacs. This may be done by adding fibriii' ferment to 
nd) fluids. 

(*) By the addition of fibrin-fennent to solutions of pure fibrinogen. 

(5) By whipping freshly-drawn blood with a bunch of twigs ; the 
flm adheres to the twigs, and entangles but few corpuscles ; it may 
IW be washed by a stream of running wiiter. This is the usual method 
bf which fibrin is obtained. The amount of flhrin formed froni human 
Wood is 2-2 to 4 per 1,000. 

Fibrin in a white stringy solid when fre^sh ; when dried it becomes 
ptjiah in appearance. It is extensible and elastic; and it is owing 
Ib the retractility of its fibres that a blood clot cuntructs. 

It ii exceedingly difficult to prepare fibrin free from white blood 
Mrpnicles ;' and certain constituents of those corpu.scles are nearly 
•Iwys adherent to it. Even after prolonged washing with water, 
"tre is always a considerable quantity of fibrin-ferment adherent 
to it. 

' A utringy Bubstance Duyb« obtnined trom wliit* lorpniw^leH whirli iK not true fibrin. 



Tt niny Im^ purifiocl by rqxmUKi i-xtmctjon with iilcohol mm) stliar. 
It has tlu'ti tho following oloninntMry coinpocition : ' V, nS'68 ; H, 6'M3 ; 
N, 16-»l : S, M ; 0, 22--l^ per cmt. Fibrin is a giroteid. thoogfa it ia 
not ncuirly no solubla in neul-nU liquiiis as most proteida ure. 

Like iiiitHy other orgiiiiic Buhstanoes fibrin deconiposM solutioiu of 
hydrii- peroxide. 

It U noluble with difliculty in ii 6 p«r oent. Kolution of |)oU«iiiui)i 
u[tmt« ; in fi-1 fi {ler cuit, Holmimi* of Kudiuin cliloride ; In S-10 per 
c<-nt. soluUons of nugnMiiun nilphiitc ; luid in Hiiniliu- biiIuI ionii of other 
neuiiikl (tft]ta, audi u* eoditun mlphiit« nnd auimomum Hii])>hat«. Th£i 
occurs moflt rendCly at n tempvmturr of 10° C. 

Deal* (loicrilicil ilirr^i viiTi«t|p* uf lll>rlti; (I) ntiriiia unncrAlo modlK*; (3) 
flbrine cODortIc ^■lol>ulinc: imit <:■) flluinn concrete pntv. HiuiuiuuMeo ha* 
n-jimlcil llicM cibH-rvnTioiu of DvDii.vii), in ihc nuun.punQrniii liiaconclimoitf :■ 
IliD flnt varirtj' U that ulHuiotKl bora mtcriol blofxl, dtkI i> onlinaij mnin; 
Uiu MQond varintj U ih« Kliniy nub^taniX' wlili^li lonu wlieo s 10 |«r coot. 
MlBttaiiot«0(Ilumclilori(leiaiuli})Hlion'rUlii vtuiuitM of fibrin ;Hb,<n fsd, not 
true Sbdn si sll. biits iiuclco-nlbiuiiln which iwclU ii|>«ilh KidiumclilorldOiSAd 
wbidi b contained In whito blood torpuactii, nnd vhicJi wc thsll luve to desoribo 
tsUf witli the whiiv corpuipla ; ilu> funii of flbtin (■o-oslled) b obMined wlica* 
ever white oar)"'*''" "' t'"* eorjiiuolca uro iitcwnt in cxocw. Hie thinl variety 
of flbrin i» llnl which (otdii in irmoiL-< bluud. and tliis dinelim mure mwlilj ia 
MItM wluilun* Elinn Ui«t ublaincd rroni viterial blouil. 

The substAnce wbi<^h goes into solution when Bbrin b dbsolred lo 
ssliiie solulioDS is undoubtedi}* i> proteiil of the j^lobulin diw*. Tt is 
GOiigutstecI by heal, it is preoipttat^^d from ii* unlntionH by Mtunitiag 
thom witli msjtnesiuui niljihutc, iitid aiito by dialjruing aw«y the aslt 
trtaa tooh aolutiont. This fclobulin, hau-ov«r, cannot be reoOBTwiad 
into fibrin by the addition of fihrinferment. The Icnipfrntutr of boat 
i-oiLXuUtioii ia 60' l>^'' in a Mxlium chloride «olntion ; 7:i'-t A* tn • 
ina;;iieiiiuiu mlplMtn solattoi). 

If patrcAiotian is not pn<v«DU)il Iiy Um sdditton of a fsw 
erystels of thynMd or souw otIi«r iintiseptie, Uien> is > niotv mpid 
ud thorougli solutjon of tlie fibrin. Indeed, «ofne obsen-era have 
■apposed thst librin never diHsolvea in saline solutions, except by the 
prOi'mH of pntrefnctiofl. i^kowtJti ' luts sliown tiiat a fenuent, thtt 
tvuult of 1iec1«riiU life, can be actually sepnrsted fnim tlte microbe*; 
tliis ncu npnn fibrin like trypsin, producing lir>t globalina, Umo 
■Ibumoaes, smi finally |>«plones. 

Weak hydroclilorio ncid (0"J per cmt.) vnuses librin to swell up into 

■ Huniiuntoi, t'/lng^r'i if rrAre^ isli. 4M. 
> K4llii><nAi. ZHUtir. Kiuf. hv. M. 

THE liLOOD 288 

1 tnnsparent jelly. Stronger acids dissolve it in time with tiie fornia- 
tjaa of acid-albumin or syntonin, and albumoses. 

Digestive fermenta act readily on fibrin, so that fibrin is a convenient 
nbituice to nse when demonstrating the activity of the digestive 
juM. Pepsin in an acid solution, and trypsin (from the pancreas) in 
in alkaline solution, cause first a splitting of the fibrin into two 
gMmlina, one coagulating at 56°, the other at 75° C. ; then the 
formation of albumoses and peptones. 

Ttie eobject of the solubilities of fibrin bus been worktHl at by numerous 
npmmmtalJBtB. Tbe foUoning is a r$3am£ of the ilifferent views that have 

Ibe naearcbes of Denis and of Uammarsten have been already referred to. 
Giitier' (1874) speaks of tbe proteid which goes into solution as an albumin. 
Boifc-SejIeT * bos shown that it is a globulin, but considers tbat putrefaction 
pkjnin important part in Ihe process of solution. Otto* also states that the snb- 
iince in solution is of the natore of paraglobulin (now more commonly knonn 
■ ■enun-globulin). Green' has (carefully preventing putrefaction) demonstrated 
flat the globulin in solution is not eiactlr like either of the two globulins of the 
jlum (fibrinogen and serum -globulin), but that it is in reality a mixture of two 
■nr globulins — one soluble, the oilier in-^luble in 1 per cent, sodium chloride 

I' iaie shown that the discrepanidcs in the beat-coagnlation temperature, 
• soled by various obacrvera, are due to the different salts used for dissolving 

Tbe Holobilities of (ibrin have been discussed from another point of view, viz. 
■•■•onrce of fibrin-ferment, by Gamgee' and by I,ea and Green.' 

Tbe solubilities of fibrin in digestive fiuidn have been a subject of investigation 
iiiU recent researches on digestion (Kiihne and Chittenden, ice. Sec, nee Digestion). 
It Bsj, however, be here conveniently mentioned tbat the splitting of fibrin 
i^tKo iflobulins, which is itntecedent to the formation of digestive products 
piper (albumoses and peptones), was discovered in the cose of gastric digestion 
l» £. Hasebroek.' and in that of pancreatic digestion by A. Herrmann." These 
■KDM formed in the digestion of other proteids, nor in fibrin whicb has been 
fnioosly boilcil or coagulated by alcohol. 

Entiiiiatioti iif ^brai.— 'Ibe amount of fibrin in blood may be 
••Mrtained in tbe following way : 

The fibrin is obtained by whipping a known quantity of blood ; it 
ttwell washed and knea^led under a tap, and finally with distilled water 

' *«ulirr, Cii'iifiln rrnihii, 1K71, vol. ii. p. 3^7. 
' lIuTft-Sejler. Plnjuio!. Chem. p. 417. 
' Otto, Xeil. pkfftiol. Chrm. viii. I3». 
' liiwn, Juiirn. uf Physiiil. viii. B73. 

' ll i« puiitiblK that fHi« of them- lUKy ri'nult from llii- niiliitioii of tlif fibrin ilKplf, and 
""itWrtmrn thnt of the entungied white mrpUKclps. 
_ Hillibnrton, Juitrn. u/ Phi/iiol. viii. 1*9; ix. 'iSi. 
■ (Jungee, Jbid. ii. HS. " unil tireen, Ibid. iv. 3«0. 

K. HiiHi-brot^k, Zri/ncJir. phijiiul. Vhem. \i. AiH. 

■*• Hennunn, Ibid. p. SOS. 



iind iilcoliol ; it b then collected, dried, nnd wcighod on ii liltcTof krin* 
weight. lastly it it ini:iiicniW) «n<) tint wMglit »f tlin lu)! iWuotciil 

In li<|uii]K tike pcricnnliiil tluid, wliich ilo xmt nungulnUi ii|>i)n- 
t*iieiousl)-, 11 Hninll ijunntity of Miruoi or of nii active solution of liiirin- 
fennent must he added, and then the libriD coUectod, wtuhML ftatl 
weighed ftftor cOftguln-tioii has occurred. 

Id l)lood which hiut nlnuidj'' eoiiguUted, tlte washing of llw 
tree froiu coqiusoles is a locig and troulilesome process. 

I» wukiiig cumpAmtive experiments of ihtt uiuauiil u( ShriB iu t 
liquids, say in two specimens of pericardial fluid, iniit«nd of 
Uk- liliriu it may be slainei] with canuine, anil then su1>Je<;UNl to tht 
ncttoii (if e(|ual amounts of artificial gastric juice at 40* C. Thu librin 
(IiKsolveB and ttitt caruiiiie passeii into solution. The U([uid Dioxt dMfdjr 
coloun«l i.H llml nhitli had the most fibrin ill it. The reUtivi- aumUfH 
of librin in tbr two liquids muy then Iw iuu^<^rtuinud hy finding out li>)* 
much it is ncn-KMry to dilut« the morr deeply coloun'd one until it hu 
the sump tint n« tin? wtbf.r. 

7'fit jibrin j'a-lort. - A. 8chiniHt considered that tibriii was fonaoJ 
aaa union of fibrinogen and tibrino-ploslin (now called sr-runi glnbolia]^ 
and that this union was accomplisheil by the aetinty of the Sfa* 
fi-riui*nt. The two substances fibrinogen and ' tibriuo-platitin' ■f 
thnrt*f()r» Uruied tlio fibrin factors. 

HiuuuiaTHtuii lias, howuver. hIiowh thnl Schmidt's Glmno-pUMiiL 
t«kw nu [Mrt in tlit- furmation of librin, but iJint fibrinogen in tbr only 
fibrin foi-ttir, or fibrin pivnursor in the plaxnia. 

The term fibrin factor might very conveniently be dropped all*" 
getlicr, OK tb« nord fibrinogen has precisely the same menning. 


Thin may b« prepared fmm plasma in the following ways : 

1. The plostna is diluted with 15 times its volunne of cold wsic> 
and a stream nf carbonic acid gas pn>^>•e)l through it ; a pnecipttalf <^ 
Merum- globulin is obtained, and filtered off : the plai^ma is tiicn furtlw' 
dilut«d and again a r^tream of ciiHK>nic acid paxsed through it ; a furtn^ 
precipitate occurs which con^iats of fibrinogen. Thi.i in 8cliiiii<)t ■> 
method ; it is, liuwever. one wliieh (UUsob unly an incomplelt 
imperfect Be{>arati<m of fibrinogen from the plftEona. 

2. HaHmiar?ilen'» mrtJicid depend* un a prO])erf y in which til»rino 
diffi'rs from Hi-rum-glolmlin, in lieing iNimpletcIy pre<eipilntcd froiii 
MOlutioiu^ by half iuiturBtii>n with WKlium ehloridr, i.e. by mixing "*^ 
solution with an e<[UHl quantity of saturated lotulion of bodiumchlor 


The precipitate so obtained is washed with a hiilf-satumted solution of 
tlte salt, then dissolved in a 6-P per cent, solution of the same Rait, 
■nd again precipitat«d hj half saturation. These operations should be 
performed rapidly, as prolonged contact with a half -saturated solution 
of sodiom chloride renders the precipitate uf fibrinogen ver^r insoluble. 
^K precipitate finally obtained is apparently soluble in water j but it is 
taabled to dissolve in water by meaos of the aalt ndhering to it. By this 
metlKMl fibrinogen may be prepared, not only from pla.sma and lymph, 
but also from exudation fluids such as pericardial iind hydrocele fluids. 
Rbrino^n so obtained is found to have the propertieH characteristic 
of globalina, viz. insolubility in pure water, .solubility in water con- 
faining oxygen, and in weak solutions of neutral .saltK. It Ik precipitated 
tiom such solutions by dialysing away the salt, or by increasing the 
concentration of the salt beyond a certain point, in the case of sodium 
chloride up to half saturation, i.e. about 18 per cent. 
The characteristic properties of fibrinogen are ; 

1. In the presence of minute quantities of certain salts of which 
ndinm chloride and calcium sulphate seem to )>e the most important, 
tbe addition of fibrin-ferment causes the fonnation of fibrin. Without 
such addition, a solution of fibrinogen prepiti-ed by Hammursten's 
metihod will remain uncoagulated indefinitely. 

2. It enters into the condition of a characterintically sticky heat- 
eoagnlnm at the very low temperature of 56° C. This is true, not only 
with Tf^rd to solutions of pure fibrinogen ; but that a heat-coagulura 
b formed at the same temperature in pure plasma obtained by the 
living test-tube experiment in a very striking proof that fibrinogen is 
present as such in the blood.' This was first shown by Hewson,' and 
the fact was subsequently rediscovered by Fredericq.^ 

Hammarsten * showed that in the formation of fibrin from pure 
fibrinogen, as well as during the process of heat -coagulation, not only 
ii there a formation of a solid clot, but simultiineousiy a small quantity 
of a prot«id (a globulin coagulating at a temperature of 65° C.) enters 
into solation, which is probably a decomjKisitiun product of the 
fibrinogen molecule. 

^ Thi« fact cannot, liowever^ be repai-ded bk iih^y>Uitu pr<H>f tlint fibriiio|fen iw prepent 
■■ mch in the circulating blood. Injvt^liou of tihriii-fenuf'iit into thC' circulation does not 
Mm ■■ill J GUiBe intrAVHHcular ctoitiug; it ia tlien-fort' popsjlile tlitit certain counter, 
acting Agencies prevent fibrin beift^ formed in healtlLV circulating bliwd, or tbat the fibrin 
wbm formed ia imniediatelf redii4uolve<l. Wooldrjd>;i' BUi>|H>He4 that in th« circulating 
blood & precursor of Hamman*t^u^M fibrinitgen iri |ire>ieiit, and tliat thiit is readily changed 
into fibrinogen vhen tbe blood ia iibed. 

' Hflwun, Works edited by Gulliter, p. 20. 

^ Fredericq, liecberchfn $i'r lit ciiti-tfi/ution ilii pfnaliin BailgMin, GunJ, ltl7J:l. 
' * Hammarsten, FfUgtr'a Archie, \\i\. IMI). 


3. The fact that half- saturation with sodium chloride will com- 
pletely precipitate fibrinogen from its solutions is important, as it 
enables us to separate it from seruni- globulin, to which it is so similar 
in many particulars. 

4. The fact that it is necessiiry to dilute plasma to a greater extent 
than in the case of serum-globulin, in order to precipitate it by a streun 
of carbonic acid, is also characteristic. 

5. Its specitic rotatory power for yellow (i.e. sodium) light is 4S' 
(HeiTniB.nii '). The opalescent character of solations uf fibrinogen, 
however, rentiers polarinietric observations difficult, 

6. Its percentage elementary composition is as follows : C, S3'93 ; 
H, 6-9 ; N, 1616 ; S, |-2ri ; 0, :i2 :>6 (Hammarsten ») ; i.e. there is a 
slightly higher percentage of carlKin, hydrogen, and oxygen than in 
the fibrins which is fomiwi from it 

Sstimatioii. — The quantity of fibrinogen in a solution may be 
approximately estimated by weighing the washed and subsequently 
dried fibrin obtained by the addition of fibrin-ferment, or by similarly 
drying and weighing the precipitate caused hy heating the sl^htlj 
actdifi*^ solution to S6° C. 

Senun -globulin 

Tliis substiince was formerly called tibi-i no-plastic substAnce by 
Schmidt,^ and [uiraglobulin l>y Xiiline.^ The name serum-globnlin 
was given to it by Weyl-' Thf sei-uni -casein of Panum * baa also been 
sliown to be the sjinie suliHtance. 

It may be prepared from bliMxl pliisma or exudation fluids (e.g. 
pericardial or hydrocele fluid) after they have been heated to 56° C. 
and the heat-congutum of fibrinogen, which is formed at that t«mpera- 
ture, removed by filtration. It is most frequently prepared from blood 

The following are the various methods that have l>een adopted for 
the preparation of serum -globulin :— 

1. The serum is diluted with fiftt-i-ti times its bulk of water, and a 
stream of carbonic acid ptssed thmugh it. The precipitate is collected 
and washed with ^ water that I'lmliiins no oxygen dissolved in it 

1*. The .serum is .similarly diluteil, and a few drops of 3 per cent, 

' tlt-rmiHnn, Xi-ilnrti. phyaittl. Chrni- ni. r>OM, 
- TliimTTiHrpI*-!!. PJfiigrr'ii Arcbiv, xnW. 4W>. 

^ \. Stlimicll, Arch./, ii. Fhi/niul. IMl!!, p. .'ilS. mid ItWa, p. 43(1. 
' W. Kiiliiii', I.-hrhiirli il. pli'/'i"^. Diem. Ii^ipii^, p. I7J. Tliis iimiir in iilim Dii«d by 
Hmiimnrntim, Vfiniirr't Arrh. ivii. 4iai »iiii. a.l. 

* Weyl, Zriltch-f. pliifni-il, Chriii. i. 77. ' I'lUium, Arrkiv f. palhul. Anat. it. 

THE BLOdD 287 

MBtie MJd Added. There is n sninl) precipitnte stoluble in excess of the 
■ad; a small precipitate in also produced by acetic acid after the 
nmoval of the precipitate produced by car)x>nic acid ; hence it was 
npfxaed to be something different from serum -globulin and was called 
MUn-cuein (Panum). Hammarsten has, however, shown that both 
IImm methods produce but a very small precipitation of the globulin 
if Beram, and that Fanum'a precipitate consists of the same substance 
HSdtaidt's. There is no special serum-casein, or alkali -albumin in 
unDa! blood. 

3. Here dilution with ten U> twenty times its volume of water will 
c«n a small precipitation of the globulin from serum. In other words, 
gUnlins require a certain proportion of salts for their solution ; this 
uj be lessened by dilution, and hence the precipitation observed. 

4. The same result is brought about by dialysing away the salts 
(«Kp. 120). The precipitation, however, is never complete. 

5. Saturation with neutral salts. There are many salts that pro- 
duce precipitation of the globulin.' Hammarsten was the first t« point 
M that magnesium sulphate is the beat to use for the purpose ; it 
Acta an absolutely complete precipitation of the globulin, and is for 
thii rtasoR preferable to sodium chloride,^ which was employed origin- 
>lljby Denis, and subsequently by Schmidt. It precipitntes none of 
theaenmi-albumin. Saturation with ammonium sulphate or potassium 
•Mate precipitates all the proteids of the blood. It is stated by 
Kander* that ha If- saturation with ammonium sulphate precipitates 
(Blf the serum-globulin. 

In all saturation experiments, the liquid should be approximately 
nntial to start with. Liquids like serum are, however, sufficiently 
BMr to the neutral point for the purpose, but in certain abnormal urines 
*h(re globulin may be present, it is necessary to neutralise their acid 
•wetdon before saturation. In order to ensure complete saturation 
>t the temperature of the aii-, it is necessary to thoroughly shake the 
luUare of salt and serum for two oi- three hours ; this may be done 
■Mrt readily by a motor of some kind. The precipitate is collected on 
* filter and washed with a saturated solution of the salt used. When 
P»ler purity i« required, the precipitJite may be redissoivetl by adding 
"•"tilled water ; the water is able to dissolve the globulin by means of 
™ »lt adhering to it, and then it cjui be re precipitated by saturation. 

f Of ■ fuller Hccoant t>[ the action ol viLrioug suits ire Halliburton, Jbiirn. o/Plii/iiiil. 
•^'*.etteq.; Lewitbt J. far ejeprrint. P'lth- w. Phnrmatol. xxn\ 1 ; Hofmeiatar, Hid, 


^fii! iccounl of llie solubilitietiol Herum-globuliii in solationx oF nod ium chloride 
" "lantot Blrength will be found in I'fiiigrr'i Areliiv, iviiii, 80 (Hammarsten). 
^ ^ttadKi, Arch. f. exp. Path. H. Pharmiikot. ii. 111. 


In M>ltitioDN uontitiniDg «l IwKt 1 per oont. ol glvtMili]) it nmy Im 
■t«t«ctiKl l)j thp riim; <>f [inMipitiiU: thnt iiccur* i>t tbo junction of the 
Iwii liquiilx, when tin- <j>luliwi 'm puuri'd on to the KUrfiun; nf « 
saLiii'nU-d Miluiioit of iiiiiKii'viiuni Kiilphntr^ 

Maii}' nf th«> (tiNliitcti^'i* cJmivivtcrK (if thw f{l(>l>ulin Imto iiecasiuiriljr 
iMen de«icrib«<<) iii thp foi'ejtiiiiig purHgmpha rDlnting to ita pn^Minttuu. 
To llMwe iiiuy 1« ik)(I«I the fullowiti); ; — 

It cnsKUlatfS mi [itsttiii;* U> 75** C, Ueonuiiujf ojnli'MiviiI i> fpw ilit- 
gnmt bolow ihikt |iuiut. ha sjjeciBt- rotatot; pmver for luKltuiu ligliL ia 

7%0 etliimisiiitt <>/* ir-rfiH-'ifubttlin <|uiintit*Uviily niAy bo <«]Tii(] iwl- 
u foUmn, in f^uch li<)U>iU im M'Vtiiii. T1m< iwi-uui ik Mtunitm] witli 
mngnmtun unli^to luid fillorod, tho pracipituta hang ctillwtid oii n 
Alter of knovrn nsli wtiidi tins brrn prcvioUHljr drifd nod w«i){b<Nl. Tim 
pmipitiito iH wiwhed with n siu.unit<id Holuiioii of longnnititii siil[iiat<\ 
nnti thill tW lilter with ili4 Bdherpnt proripilntv is <li-i«d ut I'JO'CL 
Tliift t«inpenitui-e in u tow buun r«iKl«ra t]t<> globoliu in&oluble ; tL« 
mlt in tlit^n wa»ti(?il iiwny witb water. It is subtteqaently washed witii 
alcubol iind oUivi-, drietl, w«>i);liMl, iticioeralcd, nn<l tlie amount of a«b 
ded tided. 

Bitiiiinlionn uf nnniRi-jcUitnitin made prevtoiui lo lliuimianitei)'* 
reeoftrcfaca hj intaiw of Uk- i«r1»>ni« ncid or dialvaia BMtbuda arc iiiui-ii 
loo low and nre pnotjcnlljr valuelM*. 

Anirvw* ly* MruMi-p/oAu/tn.-- Tito Uttol globulin in ifan mtuiu u 
gRHtor thitn (hut in lb« pliunia, lint thti gnfitcr pnrt in nnduulAnlly 
pr»«xi>t))nt ill ihf |iliuuiin. Holimiclt cunuidvii-d at one tiinr that it 
wu drrivitl uhuoot i-iitiifly ftiun ibc dininti^-givtiiin of the whit« 
oorpuM'l4«, tliat uccnn wirrn i1m> blooil is shed. It is now geixvnlly 
adiiiillm) tliul a miall, but a wry ■ouUI, 9aiuil4iy of tho globulin 
is fbnned by uich dixiiidti.'nitivn. Thix may 1« tcmiwl t^I I -globulin, 
and ia doanly alliMl to, or jnxilmlily idmiUml witli, the fibrin-fement. 
I«a(ly, Home of the Klo'xilin i« dnived from l!i« deconipnaition of 
tho fibrinof^n iixiImtuIp when o<Ngu1ati«« iiocurs {t/.e p. 235). Tliia 
anxnid f-lobiibu of llnniiiiantteti ilili«ni aonievhat in ita toIuWIitiw 
(roiD the iiertua -globulin pr«-exiBt«Dt in the pIuAinn, and luay tie 
MfiaratMl from it ljy fraetiuna] itatunttion with Hidiuni chloride. Tbe 
^obolin of u.-ruiii tlina oucuuU (if a mixture uf tluve globulinii, all 
olo^dy alliwi in llifir pnipi^TtieA loone another; rJuMH-an*:-- 

I. Tho gtobuUn pre-exubBnt in the Uood plosina ; thin may be 
tnrmcd ptanM-gltluiin. 

i. The globulin omiiig frotn the di*int4<gnitJon of tlx.- ourfweel* 

t The globoHn uri.iin^ Emm the 9q>litting i>f tli« filirinoffeii dioImiiIo 

Tlif laxt two an- present in nnnll «nil vnriaMn ({unutitim ; it is 
■MrprMMioe llmt renders the elcTupnttry nniilysiK of sonira- globulin 
« iliffiMitt. Tlifl AvM-a^ percentA^ compo^itioi) is itx follows ; 
C.S*-| : H. 7-01 : N, 158r>; S, II 1 ; O, 23-33. Hut thwe. -ventges 
«« Ufcm from |ire)«rati«tix in whicli thp cnrboii varies from '>3'3 to 
IfSif A difference of iieHrly 1 per ceiit.), and the iiitii>geu from ]6'2S 
U 15*01 (a alifleroitoo of 0*64 per cent.). Such diSei-encea ciuinot be 
niguded an coming wttliin thv tiiiilt of experinieiitHl erri>rH, aud iii 
bftaSurd hd ud<litiiit;al pnxif thiit tJie ;;tobiiliu of serum hiui u ditWeut 
oMposition ill diOerent seniui*, or. i« other worda, ia a mixture of two 
oru»in- iflobulina (H&miiiai'steu '). 

Tbt^ seruiii-^ilobulin of miiiiub cxudatiuuH upjtmra tulw pure pkuinia- 
^obtdin, or nt Imxt it contiiinN no i.-i?ll'f(lcibuH:i. 

The Fibrin-fennent 

-i. BuchiuiAii * aptly conpiiri'd thn Action of tb» wliite oi>rpuHvl<w in 
wioring oon^cnlntion to thnt of ivnni't iit t-unlliiig nitllc. Hr thux 
MlUpalw] to n <M-rtnin exti<nt the tiKKlcni llieorv thiit the clotting (if 
U»il is dur, l« the iictivily of « ferment. TTic tibrin- ferment, im it is 
albd, wiut dixcovcml by A. Sehmiilt,* nnd he prcjiimid if. in tJi« follow- 
i^iray from hctuoi : the serum is mixod with ten tn fifwwn limes its 
WUciif Bbsolale Mlcohot : by this iiientiB the proTeid» Are precipitated, 
H 11 ftltjo the fermviit ; tbe pmripitiite ia l«ft for bix to ei);ht week* 
tuW the aloutiol, by which timn tbe pron-ids are rendered iiuuiluble ; 
'" precipitate is colUiTtj'd, wiuJicH "itli iibsiibite ii!c.>h')l, ih-iisl in nit 
ttaccaior nvrr sulphurii: axM\, Mid iMiivdrn-^l. Tlif ffi-omni nun Ims 
VIntiMl by nmina of wivter fmm thin powder. A xnlulion of tltc 
vnmt an prrpired will cniiM' Ibe clottiiLu; of pcrii^nrilinl mid similnr 
••l(0]«blc llniiU or of solutions of fibrinogen, «nd will hasten the 
"Epilation of dilute salted plasniH. or of pure pJAAnia obtAine<l by tho 
t^^erimeDtd nlretuly deacnlwd, auch jih tht! Itviti^ test-tube i-xperiment. 

T]ii> circuliit iiiK blood t'ontiuiiB iio fiTment ; tf attempts be ntade to 
P'*!'!"'' it fniiii bloiid received <ltrect fnini tbe bliMid x-eaaeiK of » living 
vHaaX into iib«i>lut« alcithol, thu mult will bn ii m-gatii-e imc* Tho 

' BtBBanAm, Pfafrt't Arrhitr, ma, iX9. iWi. 

BttfiuiHi, XahuI. Krd. OacrHr, iviii. BO. 
' ^-^hnML, Pfiaftt'i Arebiv,^i. tls. 

' Tbi rtOanionl rnla upon Hchmlilt'ii iiuHinrlly. Sskowichi (InaHf. DU—rf. Docpal, 
II^^Aisg aiidir Kchaildt'a direction* hiu. lioHuvn, reiniil ft tnoaat fnnuat ta li*tDg 
^1^ ^ •) (MmII BDd wo Inurtlvo tliHit ^hmUt'ii oriKinitl itittement may lUIl b* eon- 




bcoonc a cduUiatrnt pnrt of Ibe fltirio (omi«<1. ilioutcli muofa of it r««DalM 
»dlionat to the fltirio. ua wull nji twio^ (IIuoIvinI in Ihp M-miii. 

Ilian ■(« (itli'-t u1<jliiili[i> whicli linvo tho uumi WTact upon th« (onnnlioti uf 
Klirin tluil c«ll-iilut)ulln link. Vai 1d»miiiu«, Uh' iiijxitinodsn of tnnarnlsr Utnw (■ 
on* »f tticM (aw Mii>c.1c>. 

I'hu ftildlllon of Uvlag aolUiiuoli na ycnil (vll^orplooa ot mnny tmlilkwnH; 
lo wieli llqiiiiU Ml hjrdrooele fluid or diluti^ uiltfd ptwanaoiUMB a tnfl'l fMioAlkia 
oE « oloi. In tlicMi cow*, it nciilirr ocU-globulin nor n70«UiogMi ti pn-Htit. in 
an prcibnbiUlj ilierewe aluikT iwRtabla globulina in ibe odl-pratoptium iriiidi 
Mt la the lame way, 

Hiitorioal aooouot of the theoriea of Ca&gulitioD 

Nenrlj' up to l)ie end of tho o);,'litpentli rentun iliv clot ««« 
nippooer) U> odiinUi <A uieraly lulliereiit ooi-pusoUiti. TliU vivw wob held 
in Briuiii bv Kcill, Jurin, 'Hiomiui Morpin. Joliii Cf"ik, AHiuthmtf, 
Chwjim-, lADgrisli, Bonlup, and <>tlien>; nnil mm ilie Oiiiiinonl tiy 
Lii»weaho«k, Biwrliauve, Van Swit-t«ii, H«ll«i-, and Marti«rr. IVtil, 
Qunnuiy, St-nuc, Buralll, and Davieit w«re tb« Murliatt to hnw ait id** 
of m eaagul>ble HubfttAnoe in nOditiuii tu tlin cvIK "I'l ttii:> wim fully 
nciigni*M] nnd |in>v6il Uy Hcwsdii (17T2), und tJiu);bt )>jr Fmrlj'cr iind 
tbci HunUn.' 

Thn rMUon tliat Ui« blood ctuifCDlntcK oul«i(U> tlin vchbIs Mid ngt 
during lifrwAH iu;cuaat«dfor iiidil1'<-nmtvrAyi> ; >uiuixou(iaid«radUwboo> 
ii;nil'>t^'^>'> "AH duR til thi> nctioii of the iiir on tho blood (Ib'rrlli, Luw«r) i 
olhera tlutt the blood wns iiinintAUcd in itM lugtiid ooiwtitKHi during life 
Ity ita coDtiimal iDovvmeiil ; nthvn^ agiun. that Littj!;ulntii>ii wn.n ilue tti 
tJx! tMoltnK of tbi- bliKxl on iu nnuovul front tho vumcU.' We bow- 
vwr now know, va thi^ contrar}^, tliat l>lou<l will olot even if coUectMl 
ovrr uicnrurf witliout coming in oonuel with th(> nir «t ml\, that 
■gitntion hncteni and cooling hindeni congulntion. lluntT considerad 
that coAgntadun wu ut act of lifv, and coiiiM'>.-U-d with Uu- %'italttv 
ol tlui blood — a vnffto stattunt^nt vhidi implies vny little ; bat, ■• 
UuUiver* pointed out, if it in a vi(nl net, it in niuivulont tu saying tlial 
we arc nbl« to piokh- thi- lifr of tin- blnnl for lioura or e^oii d*y\ 
nllhouf{h decompodtion ma}- have )>rguii in otJior pnrta of tbe botl}'. 

llewBou not miljr ihowiyj that ■ coitgulabU' EubttaiKX? w« now imll 
librin Mparatca fKND tlw |dauDa, vhidi he obtained hy Bkiuimiiiff it 
off from the lut&ce of blood which oooKulaled slowly. Init he aim 
(Ibioovered the (ai'tthat cold, uonlwrt willi living; TmMbi,nnd aduiixtnti' 
witli Mlt> arv a|{iMic»oii wliivli liindfir or prrvunt coagulation. In con- 
nection with the iuflnonco of tlw li\'{iig vonels oa con^laliiin, tlii< 

> ¥<M tlw ivIaiwMM la Uw wMUngs at Ikn* *aUwn (M IfvmDii'i K'livti, vilflal lij 
llallitH. Syl'itAMn Sot. |v tiiL H wv. 

• For ■ nxiW al Ihiw aMilvr ttm, I mii nidalil>*4 to <Umku. f^ftial. Cliw. 
f.i%. ° /fn-MD-t Work*, Mb Id, |l ii. 



ftttkr nramrdiM of Listvr, Fivdcricti, uiid l!ni<!l(i'< luivi: lieon alnuidy 
rAmd to [i-* p. '2'it). 

Audrew UuL'liAiutii ' WAS th(T noxt wlio wide iiot«woi'tihy inv^Ati^iL- 
liou into ihu subject. lU exi>>triui«iiti'd witli lluiU obtuliieil (rum tlie 
pmuilklMc Mid frmu tli« tuiiicu vitKi''"'!^ >" ^'>^ droiisioiU (^otulilion 
rf ttat Mtroua ntttabninc i-utlf-d liydroci^lfv T)ii-hi? liijuiiU du not 
N^ialite (pontancoiuily, but BuL-bnimn fctuml tbut, tin* addition of 
■MJI«hredsof ' w««)in(l blood i-lnl. ' muKed tltc fommtion of fibrillin 
ttra. Tbis power wns exhibited to a gi-iwt«r rxtcnt still l>y the 
'ha^omt'of It clot ; he thcraforo concluded that tlie jtower reaidi>d 
ittke wliite blood «orpuBcieH which nr« so nbundant in the bufly voat, 
ud Aeir Hrtioii he compared to the notion of rennet in curdling millc. 

Ihra aunr lliMii^^ wlio )uituriit<-d blood pUama with sodium 
(Uniilp, and thu* obtiiiiird n {imt^'id {Di'iijiituti'. ThiN jini-iiiitnti^ »'.i« 
miml wiib a sktiiiMtt^l Kolutioii of Kodium chlori<li- mid ro<li««olvi'd 
bf the wMition of water, tlio odhirnnt Milt niiihirin^ it soluble. This 
■htUQ reuaiDed liquid for a sliort time, but on lioingnllowcd to stand 
idM of librin whs pixKluced. Deiii* hud thati obtAined the precunior 
rf ibrin from lli« pta»ina, ttnd to it he gnvo the name fJii«ntine ; tb■:^ 
|MiU%trhicli w«re not pi-ei-i pita ted by the snit, he tilled xmW, or, lut 
WMvotll tliem, aeruui-alliutiiin. We now know that Denib' plasinine 
«Ma mixture of Kbrioogen, >4emin'globiilin, nod tibrin-femient. 

Alex. Sclmijdt' r«cogniM.-d tlierio throe xubstnnce'^ ; he, however, 
•tpfoMsc) that uU three were necessary for the formation of a dot. 
fVoJ tiir. tjuNtt iuipxlnnt i-xiH-riiiiunla on wliicti he Inu.«) thi* vi«'w 
■u that if iwruni whivb ontuttix Bennu-^lobuliii (or tibnno plnjEtii^ 
•rtrianm, mt he t^'nixxl It) and fenueiit Ite ndded to hydrooJe or 
tmcvdial flni<l, which he !kup)>oiiMl coiitAiiied llbriiiux>^n but no ^rrum- 
lUulin, tJie n^hult is the forniiitian of librin. He iiIko found that the 
•on tonim- globulin h« addmt to n coogulable litjuid ttio Inrger was the 
)i*U of librin from it.' 

'A. HbiImmwi,,1 ilftl. liaielte, rnA. (IMS), y. GO; ulto vol. 1. iinw wllw 
'Hh, f. HIT. TIhi UtUn |«|icr wai reprinloi bj- Dr. Uiriiijui' in [lie Juuni. of M^/l^i. 
"^ L rlfrpsj. Tbf JnHuvnco of XcaoKjtt* m brineinj; iiboiit coogulittioji ytt/t viry 
Inalibid DU b7 UuitrtfiuEU \CmUt. Ucd. Wiu. ISTI. p. TODJ. 
!>- ', Uimmrr mr U tuny, Intn. )l »1. 

■■■ ->aidl,.1rrib./..ln>if.<'.fAyii<,r.lHI11,p.BlS;Inn3,ii|i.43t(AiiJIW8, PflAgrt't 
•".'1. US. 

' I> Miimtlliwi BUb (iw qimlion wlioUior or u»t Uic (crmviil U ■ BlQlmlin, il ■■ 

\o iiuto tWl tliH |<ti>U'!il |DU*iil In Htrhniiill'ii (vnnciit wlulinnd, snil wliich 

Wm nmaatrml w •>■ im|<anl)f. w*a (oil- uljltli uiu |irvi.'itiiliiti1« hy ■ ntnwn nl 

viiii )■■ tiaa luuucl lluU HTnni miiini it> ulobnJIii liiu> vvrv lillln Inmrnl 

'.ititaUU po u M M mi mu^ !■ iliie m t)ie laul tliut lii^liuiidt'k oulKinii: aciil Bii<t3i<>il 


<a|ilM*ly |««ciiitliiti: ilii- eiobnlm. 




O, HuiiiiiiartiU-D ' nsctrtiiined tlit? (.'tiomi-'U-n of liWitiocfni, «i-ruTn- 
gbbutin, uid fi1)ri]t-fi!riiieiil with Knitter i-xucUiow, mnd Hbowi?d that 
acruiD- globulin, or pan^^Ioliulin. as hn t«rrac it, is not ncceuuity far 
tlw fonnution of tihrin, hut that tilirinfl)^i> in ihn only prrcunor in thv 
pliuiim of thi.1 librin in tho clot. He [Kiiiit«(l out tli«t ])pnmr<luil nnil 
hydrocolo Huido conuiii nliuiukncfr of serum -globulin, Aa wfll an tibrin- 
ogen, ftiul thciT'foiv the ndilition of seruni ckustw them* flBid* to nto^- 
latc, not in virtue of ttic iw>rutn-glolralin, )>ut of tlio fertnvnt it oonttua& 
He pointed out thiit sprum- globulin is very diHicult to iiepnmt« fracn 
femient, a buA wlitcli i* niwy to understand, a* w hot know tliut 
llio fDTiDent is probtthly itiielf a. globiiliu: tlie iidditioi) of up[nrei)tly 
pare seram 'globulin, prepared from «eriiiii, to liydrmrele fluid caukm tli» 
foriiiatioM of fibrin beoauae of iu lulniixture with femti-uL A pure 
■enun-globulin pn'pun-d from [loricnnliid or hj-rlrocrlc tluid hiw on 
the Othrr hand no filiriiu>pliu(tic activity. The most Ktriking proof, 
bowvvcT, of HiimwnrkteD'n theory in tlii* : that ft solution of llie 
{ermoDt ftddml to n autution of pure librioojp'n caum'* the formation of 

It abonlil tw nMntlontd tliiil Ilamnutnlrn dura not nqiBiit tho tcriiient m • 
gtobnUn, beoaujN h* b nblo lo pnrpnri! it Trom tiocM^ ■cr«m whdeh hiw »|Tfatmtl7 
been d«fitl*«d of all globulin bjr Kitanilian villi mnsnenviB anlphatA. HmtcIU' 
•Ddalw Hayom* bare trleil thlit niiriliui! wttli tbi- blout of otlici ^ntwnUi boi 
aHuDOCMf ally, and fnth* conn* of mi'-iwnwofk I have iloiicilicMinu-.aadamta 
wlih a iMvalivfi mail. In lUo cojio oI liorw's lU'ram, lioveivt, I lin>« foood lluu 
Hiuumonicn'* Miitciiiant li corTDot; ami tho rXfilaiuilloii H<ein« to be ilut (or 
■oiMt mwon or otlicr it i> cxct-odiiigly dKUcnll to |if«olpiiii(« bIi ilie glahnlln 
frvBi bonc'i bluod bjr Ifac luv ot this milt ; but nllur n|iciilcd Mturntionii onr 
^«D noiiOTc nil itip pJabnllo, and with ii nil fcnui^nt actlrtlj nbo. 

Tti* rvMordiM of CiaiDKrc, of Ijm nnd Orran, and of inyn^lf, into 
tite niitura of tho tibrin fnrmrnt havt- U-m alretuly alludvd U> (wr 
p. 341). To Unnt al» wo o«t the diMowry that the ptv^Mwc of 
onJciuBi solphntr is nwosMiry for tW pro]<rr luitioii of tbu f<-rB)«nt 
to tako ptove. Ila* ngoin rvmijid* ss of Huohaiiwi'a old com|wriiioii 
of llie <'tottug of blood to tho <iun)ling nf milk, where the pho-phni<' 
of L-ali'ttua IS A m'nr gnn non. 

Alihougli Hnmniarsleii did not ooiwidvr teruiii-gtobulin iMs.'cwsarv 
for llt4! (onuiition of Bbriii, he odmittod that its prewnM< was wlvnn- 
tngeouH ; it cnn, however, lie rv|<Lici<d by otlier protoid* liku nuein, or 
*Tcn by Mlt« liko otlduni chloride^ He i-onBtdert tlint M>ruRi-glo)>ulin 
powlbly acta like CMldum chloride in L-omhininie with tii« nlkaltiiit 

■ 0. llaniMtnIm, f^ay*^! Jri^iv. >it. til; itiL «lll: nili, W: ili. M>;i(k. IML 
» llv»n*, XluJitmfrnm tlif fk^tbJ, Lob. John* Uopiif Cnif. Oallimvr*, t,.\. u 
) Du tatg. VtlU, IWK 


orimiatea present in the blood, the pi'esence of which would otherwise 
iopede the Activity of the ferment. The supposed Ekction of calcium 
dloride in this respect may be represented by the formula, 

NajCOj + CftCla=2N.iCl + CaCOj. 

Of recent years an entirely oew tbeory was ndvanced by Clie late DT.Wooldridge, 
■hjcJi Buy be stated as follows :' —The coagulation of tbe blood is a pbenomenon 
etaliilly similHr to crystalli-'tatian ; in the plasma there are three confititupnti< 
(wccmed in coaptation, A, B, and C fibrinogen. A and B fibrinogen are com- 
joaniiot lecithin and proteid, anrl fibrin resiiltH from the transference of the 
Itdlbin from A'librinogen to B-fibrinogen. C-flbrinofren ir has hitherto been 
cdlcd fibrinogen; A-librinogcn is a substance wliich may be precipitated by 
onliiig 'peptone plasma,' and on the removal of this substance coagulation 
wwp with great diffiouU)-. The pvecipitjitc produced by cold consists of 
iDnded bodies resembling the blood tablets in appearance. He further found 
■huolher componnds of lecithin and proteiil, to wbicb be liaa extended the name 
«f£idiiogen, exist in the testis, thymus, and other organs, in the Hold of lymph 
^uds,in the stromata of red corpuscles, and in tlic serum of certain animals: 
tbcK nlntances may be extracted from the organs by water, and precipitated 
fna the nqueuui extract by acetic acid, and on reilissolving this in a saline 
Ndttinn, :iDd injecting it into the circulation of a living animal, intravascular 
tteliog Dccarx, wbicli results in the ileiith of the animaL The form of 
Briaigen that acts tbus, he looks upon as the precursor of A-Qbrinogcn. 
fjta these points of view the librin- ferment and the white corpuscles are looketl 
■poD u of secondary inijiort in causing coagulation, though it is admitted that 
tbrin-fetmcnl converts C-librinogen into fibrin. 

I htve elsewhere' given at some IcnKtIi tiiy reasons for not accepting this 
i1hu[t, anil this is not t]u: ]i\iu:e for debating a controversial subject. I will 
■"fljwy that I still consider Wooldridgo crri'd, first, in drawing cimclusintis 
hrai iibservatioiiB on iieptono phisma without corri.borating ihera by uxperinieiit." 
M pm plasma; and, secondly, in attributini^ to tiic cnrpuseular I'lemcnts a 
■'■vodsry rSile in the causation of clotting.' 

The latest theory of coagulatiiui is that of Frcund ; ' he considers thai, when 
tlwdiiiheil, earthy phospl^tes derived chii'fly fniin the coqutscks unite with 
BbttnogeQ and thus form fibnn. 


Seniin -albumin, or serine, is the proteid wliicli reinninK in solution 
*"« the separation of serum -globulin from the serum. Now that 
Hwuiuwiten's method has been adopted for the sepiration of serum- 

' Wooldridite, Liiilwig't FrtUchrifl, IHWI, p. 221, 
Jonrn. vf phtfaiol. ix. ^,70. Wooldriflfft *lefpn'le<l liii viewt* iu the numc iTounial, 

' Krliger (Zeii. Biol. uiv. 18D) uiil Huyuni {Dii ullig, Puris, 1MIU|, whu liiivr iilso 
"^^Bttf eununed Wootdriilge's viewn, are ujianimouK in rtgnrdiiig tlii: i:4»rpu>^clbH uh 
"^ iJDpDrtuit factors in fibrin- fonnation. 




fitoliulin. HI* know thiit It U mOf* altuiidnni (Ii»n IhwJ tipen pn^inu.ilv 
KtippiMul, and may in i-ertjiiii wniiiis iir |>tiT.»rni in i-vcn gtMilr'r nlmii- 
dnnoi' iJiiiti si-ruiii-nl)>uiiiiri. 

Svnim-iilliuitiiu utny lic [nvpnivd tn»n iM>niii) wrkicb hiut IxnTn fremi 
by K nil itimnl I'll '■ proc^MS from MTutii-icloliuliii in lh« following wnjr : 
Thf jirecipitntod ;^'toliutin is fiUcivl olT; tlir HItnktc, wliirh iit iilrtMdy 
»lurau'd with mii^iiDHiuni Kulplint4r. i* tlii-u NttumUNl with imdiutii 
sulphiitc ;' the n«ult u u ]>rrciiiitatioii nf HTuni-nlbuiiiiii in the fonu 
of tiiui rtnc-culi : thin in washpd with watpi' wtlumt«d with thp twosalte, 
und i* rtuflily koIuIiIc oh tho additinn of wntcr 

If Kodiuni lulphntn ia iidd«id to (cnim which lias not t>e«n IrvHlwl 
iritU ninjinMduui Kulphnti', ttiorr io littlp or no precipitate. Mug- 
RMuum Kuiphnto alon« pircipilAtM th« globulin ; itouhlei fulanitiou with 
the two salt* prt-Hjiitntpi; Ih>i)i thn pi-oti>ii)H of llie tei-uta. Thp ectpUiui 
tionof thUix tlutwlutn Kodimti Hulpimtv i§iuldpd tonui^tieaiuiii sutfiluitv, 
the douUe tTilphat« of iiiagiwsiiitii and Hodiuiti is fumieil. and thin iL 
is whicli precipitjibes the iteniiii albuDiin. The fornmU f'>r nia^wtium 
■ulpluttf in IllitSOf.'H,' > ; Ihnt of sodio-iuBKitMiun) Hulpltni'' i« 
HgSOv^i^i^*-*'^!^ '• ^"^^ !"< '^ molecule of tuiliuin >iat|iliitie tAknt 
tlie piftcv of one of the molecules of water of eryntallimtion of tJH> 
iDHgueoiuin ■nlpkute. 

Bodio-tRO^eainin su1p]ist« U o)>taini^[ ciininiorvially m k by-prorfud 
in the innnnfacturvnf R|iaoiii wilts. Batumi inn of RotalinnK of proteida. 
audi OS Brruiii, with thin nalt cauimt a •■miipli'ti.' pivcipitAtioii of all 
thu proleid* contnined thi-iviu. Likn Minmimiuiu Butphnt4i it does lUH 
pi«(.'ipit«l<> pnptoikw.' ^J 

Thii> method alfimb iu a iinsinii hy wliii'h wo tiiay nhuiii bmiuI^H 
illitiiniii (m- fivim otlxT pnit<«id« : it nmv l>e furlliT piirirtpd l>y ropr*- 
eipitatinK it from tJui solution with the double sulphate, and if no< vM »»y 
il way lie n|{M& dtsaolred oiid repriKipitatwI. Tli* ixUierent mU luajr 
Ix idtiinatt-ly reino^-ed hy diolynu. 

It in, however, itol pooGible bo nwiipletely remove the «lu from 
this or any Dtlter [xntejid. A smidl (|uiintity of luli (0*3 t<> O'A per i-vdI.) 
will alwmyo t-' nhtaiiied frotn t)i*r |Hire«t pn-pantioiiii, 

Anxut^'in anil Schmidt Nlatnl ihnt lh<>y olitniiMHl uTiim-idhiimin 
frag from iwli liy mwons of dinlyii*, and that tJiia pun- priKluvl did no' 
«oi^lat<> iHi liMiliim- No ont' Ii«h Im-ii ahlv lo onnlinii (hrnr px|)t<ri- 
.UMlitfl, and llui iiun'«M([uhition noliil hy ArotiMfin niitl Hdimidt wa* 

■ Solluai altnitv, usniiaila alum, snil jirtawliiB ioJib Mt ■imiUrlj, 
> 11* wliMii <d Kirfinin auliJiiitK Ut |«n|Ht>lii<t' Himin.«fli<iMiit !■■■ li*ra trarlwl mit 
% t)<ml> lU'ifrirr tii> (■■ •.!•.». |< HOI, WuIm*" iJmm. yf Pkftlot. ti!. iKtI. HI"* 

iUUburtiin. /!■■*■ »- 177 -» *-«. 



m til probabititj due to the Adherence of alkaline salts in small qnan- 

Smim-albumin gives the usual proteid tests ; it diOers from globulins 
in iti aolubility in water, and the fact that it is less readily precipitated 
b^ntimtion vith neutral salts. It differs froin egg-albumin in ita 
tftoAc rotatory power : * 

E^-albumin : Specific rotation for yellow light {a)„=— SSS". 

3enuD-albumin : Specific rotation for yellow light (a)i,=— 66°. 
Etber does not precipitate serum -albumin : it does precipitate egg~ 

Further investigation has shown that serum-albumin is not a. 
Bugle substance, but probably a mixture of several albumins. By 
factional heat-coagulatioa it is possible to separate it into three 
pfoteids, coagulating a at 73=, fi at 77°, and y at Si^C (see p. 118). 
Hm results of elementary analysis also lead to the game conclusion.* 

The following tables illustrate certain points in the comparative 
ehnnistry of serum and plasma. 

Table I 


oMiU in tike lllwHi-Scrnni 


Total Proteldt per 


Spram-GlobDliii 1 


Ku' . 

3-10 1 






W . 























1 83 









hog* . 




Itewt' , 




Bd' . 








' hnaitteio, P/ISgfT'i Artkiv, viii. 178. A. Hchmidt, Lvduig'i Fcslgabt, 1874, p. 9* J 
^fifrri ArchiB, ii. 1. Heynune, Ibid. ii. Sll. Winopiulull, IliiJ. ii. p. 605. Huitiiigs, 
'**'■ iu «9-2. H«aB, Ibiil. lii. 87»-410, 

' Bopfc-fteyler, Zdiieh.f. Chan. u. Pharm. 1804, p. 78T. 

Hullibnrton, Joum. of Pliyiiol. v. 15% 
'Kaaifi.Arfh./. cxp. Path. u. Pharmak, ii. 411. 
Thf total proteid* are GBtimated by weighing tlie prwipitftte prodaced by odiiing 
*"'*ol to th» neroin; the globalin is estimateil in another portion bjr HammarBteira 
""""i) (p. a8B) ; the dilTerenco between the two given the amount of albumin. 
Hunmanten, ' Ueber ilan Pamglobolin,' Pfiiigtr'i ArcJiiv, 1»7S. 
' ItallibDTtoii. Joum. of Phi/tiol vii, SSI. ' May, Ibiil. p. S19. 

HovfrllK, StutlUt from the Biol-. Lab. Johna Hophina Uitit: Baltimvre, lii. i9, 
^'oilciideii, Joum. of Phj/tiology, vit. S^. 



- - 



HiHt'CmguliKion T«iDj«ntnr« of 

Blood or 


.. — „ _ 








Man ... . 

56" C. 

73° C. 

73° C. 

1 77° C. 

85" C 

Monkey . . . 




, 77° 


Dog ... . 






Cnl . . . . 






Rabbit . . . 






Pig . . - . 






Horse . . . 






Ox ... . 






Sheep . - . 






Hen ... . 






Dove. . . . 






Mcwt . . . 





Toad .... 




Frog. . . . 






Liuinl , , . 




— . 


PlTCh . . . 




lloai'li . . . 






The iibovo tables give iiiei-ely illustrntive examples from the (Uffe- 
rent groups of the verteltrale kingdom. From them the following 
<.'OiiC'1usionH can be drawn : — 

1. The tcm[iernture of heiit-oojigulatHin of the two globulins iif the 
plasma (fibrinogen ami serum globulin) is exceedingly uniform through- 
out the vertebiiite kingdom. The small iiraouut of fibrinogen, as 
Juilgcd by the siriallness of (he clot in cold -blooded animals, has been 
already alluded to (p. :i22). 

'2. Tn wami-bliHKled animals, mammals iiiid birds, the serum-albumin 
can be di&'erenliat«d into three pmteids by a process of fractional heat- 
eoagulation. Inccrtfiin uiiguliit*K, however (horse, ox, sheep)ii>nly two 
varieties (/J and y) uf Kerum-iilliumin are present. 

■i. Ill I'lild-blixidetl animals, the pi'oteiilH differ from thiLse of warm- 
btiioded animals in the following pi>ints :- 

(fi) The percnitiige of total pmteids i.s smaller. 

(4) The serum- albumin is cs[>ecially dimiiiishe<l, not only absolutely 
but rt'latively to the serum-ghibulin prespiit. 

(c) The serum albumin is a single pmteid, corresponding to th&t 
called scrum-albumin n in the higher vertebrate's. 

^ Cnni|n]e<1 frctin rH]HirM by myirlf in tlu; Jitiirii. iif yhytioL v. 15U, uid rii. &iO\ 
ijuart. Jourii. of Mir, Scienci; iiriii. 1113. 



It hu been stated that during starvation the Bernm-aJbnmin diminisheH 
oat qnicklj than the ■emm-globulin ; in the case of snakes, Tiegel has said that 
iht ilbnmin altogether disappesil. Borckhardt slated that much the same occdts 
in dcgt. These obserTera did cot, however, employ the only exact means of 
otiDiting the proportion of globulin and albumin, which is Uammarsten's 
DigcetimD lulphate method. Howclls and Salvioli, who employed this method, 
ibani tliat the observations of Tiegel and Borckhardt were incorrect.' 

In concluding the subject of the proteids of the plasma and Berum, 
it msy be added that no proteoses (albumoses) or peptones are to be 
fooiul in normal blood, even in the portal circulation when abBorption 
is taking place. This subject will be discussed at greater length in the 
chipler on Absorption. 

The following scheme represents a method of separating the proteids 
<j the plasma or of simitar fluids : 

Ploxnin. Add an equal volume of saturated solution of sodium 
(bloride. A precipitate is produced. 


PrMipitate : consists 


Filtrate contains the remain- 
ing proteids. Saturate with 
magnesium sulphate ; a pre- 
cipitate is produced. Filter. 

Precipitate : consists of 


Filtrate contains SEttUH- 
ALBUMiN. Heat to i3°C, ; 

a precipitate is produced. 

Precipitate is a heat- 
coogulum of serum-albumin a 

Filtrate contains serum-albu- 
min ft and y. Heat to 77° 
C. ; a precipitate is produced. 

Precipitate is a heat-coagu- Filti-ate contains senim-albu- 
luni of serum-albumin /3 min y, which is precipitated at 

84° C. 

For reference to this ttubjevt nee Journal of Phfjaiologif, \\i. S22. 



Tl»e following is another method : — 

Allow eith*r spontaneous congulation to take place, or in 
the CHse of salted plasma, dilut« and a<ld fibrin -ferment. 
A clot forms, iind a liquid residue called serum can be 

filtered off. 


Liqui<) residue =serum. Saturate 
with muguesium sulphate ; a pre- 
cipitate forms. Filter. 


Filtrate contains skrum- 


The following iiiethod illustrates how by the use of various salts the 
pmtoids may be .separiiteil. 

Plasma. — Saturate with ammonium sulphate ; a precipi- 
tate forliiK. Filter. 

Pi-ecipitJite cimsists of I'KOTEIDS. 
Wiish with saturated solution of iiiii- 
moiiiuiii sulphate. RedisKolvethepre- 
C'i|iitJLt;e by the add it inn of water. All 
the protpids dissolvi-. Saturate this 
solution wilh iiiagnesium sulphate ; 
a precipitate fornis. Filter. 


Precipitate :=(tLOitL'i.iNK (plasmine — 
Denis) (=6brinoj(eii-*- serum-globulin). 
Wash this precipitate with saturated 
solution of uiaj^esium sulphate ; then 
add water, the globulins redissolvi- 
owing to the presence of adherent salt. 
Heat this solution to .Ifi^C. : the 
lihrinogeii is precipitate<l as a heat- 
ciNLfi^luin at riG% the seruni-ghibuliii 
ntinainin;,' in solution. Or add an 
etgual vciluine of saturated solution 
of NaCl : a pp. forms. Filter. 
iFiltrate i-ontidns siMXtni ^.dobulin. 

Filtrate con tains the 
other constituents of 
the pliusma. 

Fi It i-ate contains album IKS 
wliich may be precipitated 
and separated by frac- 
tional ) '.eat- coagulation. 
Or siLturate the solution 
with sodium sulphate ; a 
precipitate forms. This 
pHH^ipitat*' != albumins, 
which may be redissoived 
in water, and then separ- 
ated bv heat-coagulation. 

TirK Jll.mH> 



ff» iio»' i-omu t« tlic HpcMiiiI iiinitxp ii( orpinii- iiul>xtnnc('K in ihw 
'«■ AujEutniit. Thpy 'ii* wilW i-xtmctivr*. iH'cnui-p thi-v <■«!» he 
affad«il fnwii tlir viirioiiN licjuiiU of the Imcly by n-injcnt* like 
ifctbel and nthcr; thry nre |)n'M'iit nnly in iimnll i]iijintitic». The 
oincttTM of the serum nro tho uiitin iis thnwp of the pUsino. 

£lll*rrjrfrflc/t(y*. — T^1PM'consi^^ of nfutrii! /V*, iiixl rko/fftf/^u, mid 
fafouitity vary from O'i' to O'fi pwr c?tit. The fnt* «pp mm* abiiiiduiit 
rfttr* fntty iiimiI ; and nunutv fat globule*) caii then bo i«o(i;^niaed in 
dMieruin by t1i<> niicroscope. SotiK'time? this ie so ninrked that t)i« 
wmViokfl milky tike the chyle. The fnts preneiit are the ^rinie aii 
tine tn iuti|MM(c li->sui> {[lalniitin, Htearin, olcin). Riihrjf;' titated itmt 
vkiit luajiH caiiiKkt exist iii the blood, ns wns ut one time nupposed ; 
1« Htq)pe-S»!y!«r' liiia puiiit«d out errom ui RuUrt^'a aiialysm, nml 
bmd fnrtn ()O'i-0-| jw-r Cfiit. nf snaps in seriiiii. AlJOU^ oni- tpiitli of 
Ibrtbrmtl fTKtmut eunsi»ts of cluilt«tt!rin.' the fbemintry of which will 
Ivbinn with t]Mi ncrvcuit tissuix, and biht. Lrrithin ia itlw) iiresi-nt in 
■ill ^(Mntitien. "Dw chomistry <>f this Kulnlunnt- will ht- trtutccl of in 
muKtion with n(^-^ou« tixsiKs. 

Jitnytiou* rtmipmiwi*. - Uccn and urii; ii«id nrc found in small 
iwititiea in the blood ; the quantity of urea varyin;^ I>etween fy02 and 
^ per cont. in htinuin blood.* UreatiMe, XHiithint-, liypiixiui thine, 
•li^ hipparie acid urc fnund in still smnller <|uantitieii. In c«rtuin 
tmum tli*y ore incrBosed in iquaMtity, aud other nutwtancps lielouglii}; 
I* lbs mae <.-atcxory mny appear, e.^. leucine and tyriHiiut' in acute 
pfiw atropliy tit the liver. 

In ocrlain f'^i-ms of Drighl's disease the luiiount of ur«ii is muoh. 
Wmuad : and hi guat and allied affeutiona there iti an incrMue of the 
■rie idd. ft will be couvetiient here Us mention the way in which 
•"■•tWM aulntanct!* may be entimulML 

btimation rtfurm in fiinijfior Krrv'm lu/uit/r. HaycmitV iQcthiid is 
*> hr the hei^t, and niny l>e dfxcri1jt>d as fnllous : The bUiod is p1»<!i>d in 
*f>Rhnent 'pn|ierdia,lyser, and nut^idi? the di.'dyser isn vessel containing 
■Wbtf aloobol. Tlie urea i)iv>«e!t out in a fi-w houm into tJio alcohol, 
**im a <nlid QCMtguInm of coqiusolft* ami ;irtitfi(fii iusidf tin- dinly.-uT, 

' tag^. taifHv'i Arifittu. 1H7I. 

fl^f»-8c)leri Ztnt. phi/jial. f.'ArHi. vlii. (Hill. 
' 't>tf».lt«7b)r, Urd. Chem. CnUniifhttngni, p. US. 
' ' •mt§ i t, Pbfiiol. Chrm. p, ISB. 

C«wiiai>k>lwl phviMf to Dc. (>*iiiit«H. uid pDliliidMHl liy htm in hia Pliyilol^ 
**"**». ^IM. 



To this n litUo WHt«r is nddcxt, iLnH ilinlynit is allowed to ukc pbior iiiUi 
A fresli supply of nU'cJiul. Tln^t may b« ngnin n?p<wt«(l. Tin- jtl(H>h'>l 
id tlicii ftoiditit^l with oxniic aeid, ui<I evapornicd to ilrynMS. Tlie fat 
ftud pi{(uieut lire rvuiovtil from the reiudue hy pelrolouin iiftphthm 
tite oxklatv (i( urea reniiuiiiuR uitiUuHitvtvl ; this in ttisaolvKl iii wat«r, 
iirutr>iliai>d witli Imriuiii farlxniute, ernporated to iliyueu, «wl tJie ure» 
w I'xtractixl from lli« n^itiiliK' l>y Ixiiliiig nlfnhol. On evAjxiniting off 
the lUcubol, pure urui im left which ■uaj' tliea he vreigheil, or u 
i|nnntJt«tive ilolntnitiAticn iiiikU- \>y th« hvpnhi-iiiuiti! luetluxl (a» TTriiie). 

Kiriimalion nj' urie a--iit in hlmiil <ir nrmiu lujui'lt. ■ The following is 
tisjT^ids tiM-thoil.' Till- «r<rDio of till- Irluocl or n fluid of a blister is 
tInVxI, pnwili-ml, c-xlniL-tc<l with hut nlcohol, itod thi; nuidue digwit«d 
vritli ImiliDK iirnt4>r. The vrnt<>ry solution i» filtered iind concent rat**! ; 
itgivi!M the iMiiivxidi- tctt, and after tli" nthlition >>f ocr^tic acid, crjsUUs 
i>f uric acid form which can tiv colki-t'-d find wct^od. 

A very goiiH clinical inelhial in ca»<w of gout', voniiista in ptsctug ■ 
liiten tibre in the v»mi-ntroterl M-runi to whioh acetic acid hofi Iwen 
added. The ery»lal« c'llcot on the thrr-Ad, mid tliese can be recodified 
under tlie inicn««o]>«s iir by the niurexide l««t. 

Sui/ar. — DexlnAtf is jiresent in hdiaII i|uaiiliticv> in the blood, but 
nioiit iibnndnntly aft«T a htarchy meal in i1h.< |H>rtal L'ir4.'uliilii<fi. The 
lumital i|uuutity tti doK'n htoiil varieei fruiu O'l to 12 jwr lOUtl (Pniy,* 
V. MeriiiK*>. See;f«n* Ihu oIiqwu that tJie fonn of iitif^r in the likoidH 
Is dexLroM — not inaltoM, as some hara oupiiommI. ^H 

Sec)^* ttiit«8 the quantity of »u;,-»r in tin- blood hwiiug the liwr, 
tlial to, in tli« bepaljc vein, iii alirayi ^mnlcr thtui that iu the blood 
f[Oinfc to the liver eitlwr by tlie lie|>atic artery or by the portal vmn. 
lie ;tiw> the folhiwinK avera^ reoulu in the tiug fmn a lar)n nunbM- 
«t experinienta : 

Nixmial nmount of Mn|[Br in unnlioc oixl anerini blood 

Ol-O-lS perceni. 
„ (portAl blooil O'llK „ 

„ hepatic bhMNl 0-2» „ 

The followini: (our exjierimeiita [lerfoniied nn ixm-anaraUietiaed 
oiiiiiuiU (cldoftiforni and i-ther tiarco«i-> vitiminjc the nwulta aoMevtluit) 
illuatratv the Mine poiuL* 

• (iuTwI. Alt. -UiMt,' itayiraMi'* S/iIrm t/ JfnJiWm, toL L |i. MS; Ittd. CMr. 
Tnt«4. Kui'ii. |L ass. 

■ I. Mmnit. Arthh/. Atal. y. PkftM. IDTl, ji. nm. 

* Hiicileii, I'/lagft't Arfti,'-. il. HH-Ot. 

* MMipiii. /Iifj. C^ntraltL I«IM, p TIT. 

• S-tm. I^ftt't Ardkig. lb. m. 



PerwntBite of su;,'ftr 

PorUtl l.lo<«I 

Ht-patic 1>lood 








01 lit) 


Tli* sabjecl will be fully conwlprcd in wiin<!Ptitni wil.ti thn functions 
d tbt lirer, Rnd Absorption, and nUo in coiincctioii with the. disease 
*Ad dkbette, in whicli there is « gi-cRt fxccss of dpxtriisii in the 
Vnt, ntocb of which passes into the urine. It will be, however, 
nranieot Ut <tesi-nbe here tlie methods of estimatini^ sugar id the 
UNd One muat first ^'et rid of the proteids, Pavy precipitnteis 
Ibv by lW^di'^; sulpliute of soda and boilin>;. v. Mei-ing niei'ely 
ttrt« tbfl eenuu «itU fuur or five times its volume of wnter, boils, and 
A<i ailda a Utile dilute acetio acid : Uie la'at-coagulum which forms is 
4m filuTvd off, wnultwl, aii<l the wasJuiifjs added to tlie filtinte. In 
lbiltmt« in either case the sugar Is deUrmiued by means of Felilin^'a 
MhCMi (tee p. 98). 

ItgtHenL — The aerum ia difl'(-n>ntly tinKnl in different aninmls : 
4iii tkp ox, uluwp, and man hiivr wrum with a j'olUiw tinH** ; in birdx 
Una lifvprr onuigv ; in th(! monkey, lUig, cat, rabbii, und in piont i-old- 
Uteded nniinAU tho svniia ha* either a ftiint culour, nr U idraost 

Hamtnafstvn,' Mn^rMiinn' ami others have desm-ilicd this pigineut 
■tUmtMai with that of bile ; and th<!re is ni> <Iou)>t that this may ]ti^ 
4ieHe in certain aniniAlH, or nioi-e}' in cerlnin diseases which 
Wiocom pointed l>y the condition known as jaundice. 

TV miruial pigment of the seniin and plasma seems, liowei'ei', to 
Mag to ll>e claia of colourin;; matters known us lipochronies or fatty- 
One of Uw! !ir*t dnacrilied of iheae was found in the corpus 

it l>y 

Kntltwbvrg'a word Upoclin>m« soeiuw, howevt-r, U> denijjnate the ulaas 
■■Tilpnentit mum (.•<nTt?et!y. TItey am 9,olubl<r in the rcu^ccnts iji whicli 
ah am MJabln (ethi-r, alcohol, turjir-ntim-, Ac.) ; they givn mrrtnin 
''MctcristJc colour rnactionK (f.^'. a blut colour with iodine and 
''''lil''iric acid) ; they exhibit alworption j^cctra in which the bands 
*>UUuted towards tho violet end of the spticlrum. and they are 
■•iwhiH by light (ow p. }4»\. 

* Hiuainan4~ii. Jlat^'f JoAm^ivAr, ItrjH, p. 139. 
' Mu'MiiBii. Prnr. tlvy. S«r.. mi. -Jal. 

* TWRdiahaai, t'-nttraSbt. f. •>. tnid. lI'iMfatdi. lil. 1919, f. L 

Mem of lh<! ovary, and tlie name lutein was nWen to 
QBdif^am,* ami lias lUuce lieen extended to tlie whole 



Krukeiiberx' 1>8h cxtnotwl audi « lijiiidinjtuo »r 8«riim-luU'Jii fnna 
iix l>l>Ni)l liy muuiu of »inj;1 nluuhnl ; but I )mv« foond' tlint in the cmc 
nf ttirilsniKl lurtlri' liloorl. mil iwn- recently Ui Ui* c»w of mtiuiRwIiut 
IiIohI ^lll«^ tiiiliiiun' ethylii- itlcniiol or t-tlier «UI ilu "|UjiI1j' wf^U. 


II I I I I 11 


rri>.M.— Ih«rr«l"0<i<«rinim<4 tMwn-lni*ln, Tli«« I* • lars* aiantlun ■< U* lUtM pkI ni uv 
•fvrtniiB. *n«l III IliUtmi tldtt«r 4Hlin>4 ■!* lo Ih uwOa "Hit vLiti!lt trr iiji 4i^>r|rtWi» l4li4* 
iwiliiml III Ua lal- 

SenRi-lut4>in nhciwR two illilcfimHl ilMOrptioii Imii-li, our in tiii> 
i«Ki'm of Uu- t' liiK-, mill >mi' tH'lw-oi-ii Lli<- K hikI H liitm. ll iliffm 
from ibti lijKii-hroiurs, wliii'h wi- kKiiII cotae ncro«* in Uio rHiiM uwl 
nUewliiMA ill In-iiiit inuilulilr in tui-jii-iilintt. 


If iill thv iirftsnic iiifttMial tpnii«i<ln Mini c-'ttravtivaf) in tJic dry 
r««iitu«iif «itliur tin? [ilnsnui or thu iirruni W liunil «WKy, it iniiivnl a«li 
n'DuiiiL''. Tlinl Uiia wbs pre-pxiitviit in (Iip liiitiitl niiiti-^r inv(«tijt»(4aii, 
nixl nut simply |mK)uci-t] l>y tbtr itcnilion of thn ori^nic stilj>t«iM«^ (■ 
hlxiwii tiy liin fact tlmt mjiny of llu- *»lu mn lin iileiitilieil in tlir 
|i1hmdii iir wruni ilM-lf, <-■.{[■ on concpntnition iTyiMlu of naliuui 
rhloriilf form. The int-tliiNl nf invtwtiicntinic (Jm ininvnd cous1ita«nu 
of tiie lilood in t)i<- iitiullri-pil M'ruiii tin>> {■pimi rliii-fly iMJopMcl bj 
Prilimlii nuti (irrUoli,^ wlm linvf thowii llial nwinv prvvioiM olMsm^' 
timu wvro incorront or itwccanrftv which «ren> tMsed dmply ttpuo 
i-xainiiiJitioii of the nnh h'ft iiftiT ikiiiliuu, 

'DicKiItAof thi- Ii]"kI. liki- till- fxtnirlivr*, jHuu into tint M-nun when 
clolliii); oconr*. A ccrlaiii Kinnll (jUitiitity ia howevirr hvld by ilw- 
librin ; bimI ih tii tl>(> nup of et'raiD'ailiuiniii, it in tM>t poautibk ev«n nftir 
tliv nMMt |ir<'l<ing«(l tllalyHts U> «e|»mti' nil of rhia aalt from the fiVirin. 
TIm; mi-uui tbna cuntaina k diglitly Miutllrr pi^tw i)tA|{« of wUu than tbi- 

Aft will \m mm by cnnulting Ui€ fuUowinK I«)>Im, mxUuui clil»ridp 

• XraknlxTx, Sinuitflt. U.Jn*itti*n (hwilf«rA./. Iftif. ]tM. 
' IhtlltartM, Jown, nf PhftM- til. U4. 

* tMJut^t Jrtnl'n, IBTI uJ Hm. 

it Ji^ far the moM nlmntUnt salt presfitt ; it coitKt4tutc« between ^0 
ud IQ prr cent, of thi^ totAl anh. PotKSsium rhlorirlfi in present in 
■•rti fBuiitr amount. It constitutes about 4 per cent, of the totul otili, 
Sndinm carbonate {Na,COj) is. next to tli« chloride, tlie must 
flntiM ingredieut o( tli« usli left uft«i- i;;ititioit. lii the plasnin iind 
Kfwn, however, ihe eurlwiiut*: |)r*si!iil is probably sodium hyilrujftjn 
<MkNMt« or liicArliuiiiilt! of tKxifi, NuH('0,. 

Lt>tlvl)iirreuttphcupliiiU-s(if cnlciiiin, iiiiigiit«iun:,nmls<Hliuiu, ami n 
■nllMiiaimt of gtulpliut*; of pciUusium. It i», however, unorrliiin wlwthcr 
llttfk>M|ibatoi are uietJtplmspliAtes or orthopliosphnti-j. 'Die resvarchr^ 
d hilinuii nix) fti:rla<rh hnve xhown that tiip pliosphntct- in the asii arp 
pWtT in amount than those actimlly csiKtini; in the nerum ; this ih 
Waota certain c]U«ntity of pbosplioi'ic acid is fnnnrii from leeitJiiu 
■H wnilar organic conijioumU of tlit aeiuui which contain phuB- 
|h)nit,iluri»K the proce-« of inoine ration. 

^>< at tbr jiUiinu (C. ScJtiuiiU). lOOO piifta ot plUBiiiH ;ie)il : — 
llia«nil matliT ...... ksgo 

CWoirino 3i!<0 

SalpbiiTlonnhyilriclii (."(>,) . Oils 

PliiKpborl'' anliy<lrid>T (I ^O,) .... O'lKI 

PoMwiiun 0-3S3 

Swtiiun 3M] 

Calvinia flioBpliHlt- 0*311 

UainM-'Uiini plion}.>liulc 0'S33 

ni>|dHiriciinli}'lrJilo mill calcium toMruiit (I'ril>i*n<). ilMKI tcnuait of tucum 

I-luwplioric anliyilrlilo (1>,U,) . . 'JliU 

Calrduin oxidn (laO) il'II3 

M ^ DC MUM i la icnuii (ORtlneh). UHXi eram* ot M-ntm yi«1i1rrl -.^ 

(1) UagniTidDm .al<1<- (VpU) . 0035 

<2) .... .. ... OMT 

HrfAW*^ tnrftllfaKuH. — Tliu otkiiiiii- mnllrni of t1ii.> taVu^ tciiriiic of fmuii >ic 
r't'Mi nay be (Initily biitnt olT in a cruciblr, nntl the uli cinmini-d UL-curdint: to 
"» nrtludi of fiHMfMilr nanlyirii for lujirU nnd bnno. '['be |)CViiiortia[iB in wbteb 
U*« ocnr iiiTi! diUa fvr cnlcniliLlirig Ibu piubiibli? tiiiuinpr tu nliicb tlii^j' were 
^Ul ai Mlt> tn lb« fluid uniJer mviwIiK»li(iii. Ttiln itiot>)»i| iw, bi'W ever, far 
'■^■Kciinte.Ba certain •oliitiloouunHtui-iitituI llie a>-h.fiii:b »« atidiiiiti chloride, 
"I {anl^j Uat: anil in Ihe cuae of ilie |>lio><|>iiiiI«i> kit linvc *ecn ibal oTtier 
*»wt ur at wort In prwluce intiCL-iiTHcj . 

IViv'ii nelbinl DonaliilB in beullux the dry raoliliii- my uniitlon*l,v natll it U 
^'MJnri. nw ocmlrDtH lit Till- crucible nic thra nxtruclcd witli bat water nKals 
M iClia (0 mnAve all lAliilile vnlt*. The insoluble ciiidut- ii tbi-n if^iilcd, nnd 
'**ljfte III the residue ghtn lli« iiniount of the mnnlilueuln of Ibe anh Mbifrh 
'"^tcloble In vnlcr. Tlic «i-i);ht nf <bo(F which tire N>hiljle in waUr ran he 
'^ atcrtaUiai] bv I'vapoialiti^ tbo oateTr extroi:1» io <lryiieMv a^d i>rnitbi(; iho 



It will bo toand that tbo following mciliod of tUsttoTtng otirnaie tonttcr 1> far 
better th&n incinmitioii : Dvaiwmlo In rlrjncH. Biul IImd boM witfa fuiiun( nitnc 
ouid for nine lioiir* in * wst>.-(-bklli. mldlD^ mure actil from tine to lime till itU 
eflervstcCDOU «mm«. CliiftUy i;vii|i<.inil« to drrniN* : Uvu laliiic oMlttr mlf an- 
pnwint In llio mldiK'. 

PrtbniiD luiri Orrlncti bnvr iliowti llinl ctilrlnio, aaipieKliun, plimiplMrK' uM, 
HDil DDlplinrio ac'ui may bo ptcciplluted trvm •crum by the muno ouiitio'U ns in 
■qnciniu .lulniioiu. Tlic [-tiTipitatn niv rallecloil by ccntrlhii^Uditir, nnl lln-n 
n«^L><l b; duiaulution, Tliis niL-lliod i>f iliroot pr«dpitiitii>nalMuvoid>a]| tlitxe 
■onrow of rmiT tliat n-a<ilt frtxii the proocu of Ignition. 

Tif fillj/Holi'gifiil im/nirtaticf i^tkf invrganifi roHttifuriiU tftie blotj. — II !■ 
wfll kiioTni tttnt disiillcil water iif It like u polxiii i'> |>rot(>pIiiHiii ; fltb^s licpt in 
It (lie luiokly, alia (lop niofinfc. Khitc blond oorpuaclea bant. Tliui In pbyiio- 
logioa) iwBTob one conimouly ums a O'll pci cent, dilution of •odium chlorU* In 
ordBT (o kMp nmiclM, m-iri-M, iu:.. moliit (1i>riii|[ an eiptrrinii-iit. Dr. Kinder' bn* 
vlionn, b/ n lai)(»i ouiubvr i»f oLcfivntlotn on ti^li. tiuliKiU--, i-ilui, hk«lelal mntdr, 
but mura A^pwrfoUr la oonoection wlili tbo htiart, tbi- rclatliw inponuwL' anil 
aetloi) of tlio tllRaMDt dbIu of ttic blomt. Uitiuto qaaatitin of *uoli intU, locli 
«* occor, for Inrtancc, la rirer wntrr, ate (julto mfflcicnt to kcsp Oifa aliv^ fat 
wmIo>, which wout'l illc in dlttitlrd wnler (n n few bauiy. RtuDoekot* aail lili 
pupllB loalnlain (hnt tli« fmii'ii heart 'loon not f(>al on Its own anbiilBDoe, Imt 
tbolMMon a* nultillrti flui<H(<iit)idrnwn its cod i ructions slop. They ttain that 
Biilili only, whkh •ront^un imiui-albumiD viill lui-tain Ibe heart* cnntnwTtiUtr. 
Th^ ibowpil ibat a (rd pet cctil. anlixiuD of Mxliuni i^blorulo ■oon slop* ibabtArt, 
ami so it undoubttdly iloea. Mi.-ninowio«,* howevur. fioils that the disaolTvil »b 
of iii? blood iiiip|ior1i> Itiu hciirt'o MintraulUitT, and HIniter ba* •tiown ilul 
■ giood citculutlDg Ould foir ih(> hiuin may b* oompoundtd by niixlng null 
quantilSo* flf ouch Mil* at uoiiiiniiJly oi'cur In tlio blooi), ami ibnl wlih (lila Aulil 
^p liMrt aftrr remofnl will I'dnliniw to bent naruinlly as lonfc. or nearly a* lontr. 
■» H ilo» Willi ilolibKuuted blood. Tlie iiei:«a>ilT for litni' i«lt« i* Mprclnlti 
gN*t ; in fact flip vionv adJusion of jirotdd* i^nfmlly with aniall qnajilitli'* of 
mlnanl mntiiii U raibor >ut)ce*tiT« of oombiaatlim than rnvtr lalsiunD. Limir 
Milt adhvrc i^iawlally rloi^i-ly. and. In (net, sixim Indiipcnsalile for nuiny uf thr 
fuautkina ol tlit body, o( nliidi tbo heating of iho bean am) the contniiii^n 
of •kolatnl nvnlx are good (-xanijilo. Uli-oit tium wbkh the iftU* faavo bMli 
maovcdbydlalyus Icrcps tbo bean icoiim. hiililie itnciiiclsabnannBl,tt«eiMhUn( 
IliU fimdnced by a weak sulnlloo «l a limp sail : it in in fiid found Ibtkl dijily*U 
wlU tml muoic ihe lino froiu SFiuni-nlbuuiin. though it nanomlbi.' grenict jiait 
u( tlw ■odiuBi and potar«liiiB snltn. Sulin* kiIuIIoii* likr llinffpr'* clrralalln)c 
lluid oonuin Mlts vt all ihrrr aictnU ; ibry luiic Iwvn ampkiyttl for trna^tuilnp 
Into Ibp blood vivsrii iif jirrKins who hnre suffered scven'ly ftnn iMniovrhayti. 
Tlic feJloM'Init U ibeoMUiiHiiiuo t>[ Rin^iur's circnlating Uiwt.-^ 

100 cjt- (rf M i>'TK |«r cnnl. tolulion of scdlnrn elitorid*. 
1 cjo. of n 111 iHT oeiii. mhilloQ of caUoiuin cliloridc. 
t o.c. of n i> T& |M:r cvnl KJirtlon of poUwiiini elilurfilf . 
I cr. of ■ H) p*r Mai. tuiilltlrci of liioirlMUiBli' of rmln. 

* (^ tlHlw. J-wrn o/ J-kfuil. IB OMIl ii. SI, Wi >. Il"^ ll. Ml: lii. Il\ ttl , 
irllL It. W. 'J>* : >i.;u. 

* Mull**, Iw ftix. tlrwoiufi Anliir, Mil, ji- n<- KniKHlwt mkI Vihi OU. IhiJ. 
y. MHi MuliU', iNrf IHKJ. 

THE ItljliOli 


Tb foSovlnir l»», )ii»VT«r, Imcn moio feccntl.v prarnl bv Riiigi-r to act 
tin (ittuc tfaui thr a.litn4> : — 

IMc«. olnuTQ pMccct. loliitioii of sodium cbloriilo 

nUuiati't] with culuiam |ibo?pliHlL- 
1 OjO. of tt i'O per cent. (■iTul.ioa of puta^'hiiti cliloridc. 

M«Vt clrcii1*tlri)t ttulil oanlnlni n imcc of oomiaercinl ppplocc In acldllloD 
HlBfpak cMullliw'Di.i. U* compa*tlion ii nii follow^:— 

100 c^. of «ii[cr 
frS gnm of sodinio clilorUle 
<H)03 gt. at polii-"iiini h.vilniM 
(K)03 ITT. uf i>op1i>af. 
(Tit* CMamarclal |t«p(onc coatnlns Ihc neociNin- lime hiIm.) 


TV H'liile blond corjJitiiclcK tin- ty]>icii) aiiiinnl celU ; tlif^y consist of 
amor less ];ranul«r oiaMf-* of protoplu.-'m, mntairiin^ n niidfui; in tlie 
tSrtie. Tlieii- protoplmsm exhibits tnovfiinciits. whicli ore terniecl 
Moioid. &OUI tli«ir resell) bl a ncn to tbc ninvenii?ii|.s of the aiuo'liu. 
ilaBhwd mov^uit-nt vna first oWrved in white blood corpusden hy 
VWton Jonfik' ThiMte moveuenU can be most readily observed willi 
fc nicmeoope, while uanii » wunu sla^e the temperature of whii'h 
■ thout WC It i* by virtuo of .lui'li movomfnt-i Unit locomotion 
Wmm poosible to th«w (H>r}>uMTl<M ; this iimy Iciul to th«ir vmi^imtioii 
^M tko blood veiwlit, and wli«ti in tho tiKSues, they arc temieil 
■ufo-celb. Emigration tjtkf^ fiUmv. to a nmch grcjitor <<xteut lliaii 
Wrml in iitflamcd partx, and mnv go to such an nxtont a» to cause tlie 
naitiou of an nlwoeKs i-^- « collertion of pus or whit* blood corpuicle« 
Wftnikd ill a fluid like serum in coin position. 

Ii ii in virtue of Uteir aiuo-lxiid movenientfl, and powei- of a.iainiiliL- 
^n, ihat white blooti corpuscles are enabled to take up tiutritivo 
''(■ttimt froui the linin];; membrane of the alimentary canal. Pat 
I lor instunoe can be readily seen in these corpuscles at a vbrtAin 
I darinj; ftbwHrption. 

Vhiie blood coq>U!iol«B also diainti^jfrut*! reudiJy ; the cluiiigwi which 
■•w in tliem wImii Ui* blood ia shed have been ulremdy rt-ffrrcd to 
1^•IOy TImij rUo probably disintngratc in the la<:t«iiU or lymphatic 
"■••* «f the int««t4ne ; niid in no doin^, liberate tin; nutritious sub- 
*•*■• derived frooi the alinirntary canal. 

*Wte blood corpuscles are not ni-arly no numerous in the blood aa 
"* <*"• nd. Their numlxtr variM with agr. ses, period afl*r fmid 
**" '^poa from which the specimen of the blood in taktu. On an 
•"••g* in man there is one whiln corpuxck- to every 350 red one«, i.e. 
■ Whutoii JoiiiH, Fhil. Tratu. IMS. 


THE TISSCHS ASll MlKiAKS iip TlIK ll<>I>y 

nhout l\000 in «vi>ry cnbir iiiilliiDeU« of liloud. Tlievftiv tint cunttAiit 
to iiu^ liut in niAii t\tej iivoniyi' uliuut O'Ul tntllimeire (,t^n inoli) in 
(lUmoter ; tiify mi- wimevrlmt liir;;pr in llii? I'i»er verh^bralt? group*. 
TliMf Aii^ nlwiij-H fiiuoil ill jp'uKti^ nl-uiidiinM nii t)ie upper nnrfui! at * 
tili<(>([ clot tlmn ill t\)v lowr^- [uirU ii fact which ohovn tliul their vixvitiv 
t,'mrity is li-» tliaii tliiii of llif rwl o<>r]>usc'teB. 

Wliitc bloiid uorpu-Hdi^H art however found not au\j in lli« IiIimmI 
fitrmiii ; tJicj: nrc iil*it fnuml iti lyiiiphiitic vfsielv, whi-rc tln^y .an- rnllinl 
lytnpli crWt.; tom<.' of the l,viui>li vl>I1h are tin doubt i-iui|{nuil wliito 
blood roqiusclns but iinHt of tlictii nre derirMi froin lyiiijtiMlii' )[1«ii<Ik. 
The lymphiitic ||(lnud« an* cotlpciion.i uf lympli culln »mtAiiH-d in « 
ineBhwork of K riirititj^df oonnectiv4' tuiiac, culled rDtiform ttatop. It 
is licfin fnct (bnt tin- lymph ct-lls xiv foniml from ihc BFuliilivioi'iii of 
previoii.ily ■■xiKling iiJU. VThnii fully fiirtii'-'l l)i<-y work th<-ir uav \iy 
luuana of llw-ir ni<i<i-biiid niovi-meiits into thi? putli of t)ie lyiii|>li utrfwn 
AS it Koes through tlx' Irniphnticr ){lnud>. Lymphoid or ndrnniil tiuuts 
i.e. ItwTie tumilttr Ui thitt found in lyiupb»tic f[lnn<lx, exists in mnnr othpr 
parts, v.g. tli« thymiiK nnil tonxil*. the wOitnr/ glandu nnd it|2iiitnAti>d 
tlliind* of llie intestine, «iid the MAlpiyliian coqiunolfM of t)ir nploen ; 
it fomiB tlie greater [mrt of tltv cMirliin) of mmiip ina^tui^ membninifA ; 
»itd it ii foaiid ill iniiTtiMiopic patclten in tlte Iniitpi, liter, ami othnr 

MicTocli«tiniml reteai-ob is obviously the only inettiod of vlioniicnl 
reMutrrh Op^ri whra one wiiliea to irive«tij;»te the nhite i-ur|ni»olM in 
llie blood. For in»eroclieDii««l roi^iod* one liiu to olitnin a aupplv of 
lymph t*\U from Ktmctur<'* like lyinpluitie glands or Uie thyniiw ; or 
ofie iiwy u«e pus- In poH, however, tlie corpuMlo* 'ouinot bo regiudtd 
H normnl, nnd hjicK andi-rgmie oertAin retroj^mauve ohiingttk It 
•eema. howrerer, ijaite littitiinale to KU|>poi>e thiit Uh' white I'orptiacli'*, 
which ftre in origin lymph r^llii. memble tJiem in tlu>ir dn-niicnl 
properties. ' It will tm eonveniiiit tn t«ke llie tiuc-Uhis of thmr- corpiiwW 
lirst. and then to eonKidirr (lie ovl) body or protoplami. 

Tkf Ni'W'i'A- -Likeihe nocloi of cells goni-ntlly, tlie nocleus of the 
wtdte cnrpawlo nui he dMnonstratetl to consist of n network which 
otiiins fe«(li]y, and which in ckIIi^ ehroinntiii, «nd an nchronietic 
■ubstiince (i.e. n sutwtMM'e thni im not eoNly st*ine)l by UAitiiiig 
rea{[eDt») which Ihs hIbo b«e« otlled nucleoliyHloplum (Stnebgi^ger) 
mikI pnra>liain (tkhwrnrx). Hieae u») siinilnr terms, bowenjr, which 

■ WoDUnJcr in l>» Am* snil <l»lt InHofr* f tU>nl' pIhiki >■• I>rntn|iliiiH. Koj. C'ojl. 
nl KnmivBS IWS) )iiiiiiU4 uul tiTtUin ilillrn'Mira WIwhh Ij-iiijili oUa ■•d akita lilnoJ 
nv)Hiwlt>. !■ thtu ■■Riwiic* Dpjo nwcnktio*. Knrti JiAwni»« ilu mil, lHm>vt, albvi 
Uh |«mmiI m iu— »t. 


bic Um nlrvntly tiioii! fully !>xpliiiiinil (p. 19V), liav« laot1^ ot a 
M^Utgioil Lli«n u cluitriicJtl »igiitficttni!i', niicl do not prctntid to 
isMte the elirniival <!linrnct«'r]i of thn jsiilMitnncta. 

Ih* mnplicAtnl manner in wlii.-li the i-ompom-nt piirts of the 
>Klnu bnliAV* to iiticriochcinicN.1 rrn^cnte must mean llinl thft nucleus 
U* (»ni|iNc«t4>d chemical iinturv, wnd doubtless contains manj? im- 
nut Mil) dMtinct %u)>!itance8. 

Hiri'hipf rlicniicAl substance in the nucleus «f which we have otlier 
■ ■ wicrosoofncnl knowledge is iiucleiii. Mi>>8cher's' nnclein is con- 
by Znchitrias* to be identiral with t'lemniinf; s chromatin. 
■Vaclcin lielongs to the heterogeneous group of siibslances colled 
nnoMls, i.e. subsUuices which are not proteids, but which re> 
\r prot^tds in many iHiiuta. Ita phy^Uvil characters are like 
ol niucin : in coiitAiniiix u hi^'h ^H-rt'cntu^ of plirutplntrux, it how* 
liilK^m [n>iii mucin vp_ry ni.-irki'dly. lu inioltibilily in artificial 
Uric jnuw enabtM us to obtiiin it free fnnn lli<! investing prutcipliunn 
tb cnlla. Nuclciu hiu Iwttn obtuinnd from niaiiy varintirs of 
III. tnoi Kporroatoaon, from yolk of egg, milk, and also from cnrtnin 
tiiwies. From the di6ci'epiknci<:« in the pulili>ih<«l nnnlyi^s of 
Kobelanow (by Hoppe-ijeyler, Miescher, Worm- Miill«r, Luhnvia), 
either Uiat no deflnile chemical unit nnclein exists, or thtit 
I BBoldina are a uumeivtu daaa of organic phwiphorui; compounds ; 
■ latter cuucluaion sevms to barntouUe better with the results of 
nuilmniciil mv«Hti^utioii. Tlio investiKatiuns of Kossel,' in which 
baa iliown dutiiivt chMiii<-iil dilTerenceK in 'larioii!! ktndti of i.m^h^in, 
iruut tliia aainr vit^w of thr iravie (xrv p. 20.1). 

T^t rrll prx/lopfiuim. - ll«ra again niioroscopic ni(:tho<tK tnnch dh 
It protopbuia is not atwayn the uniform jelly we were ntiCR led to 
(pMe, but conniKts in many cii.M!K of » titie isirtwork or r'lifiiluin, 
■clnang in itA mtshirfi a niori- dHi<t materml or t^nchyli^nia (t.'amoy). 
illif white blood corpuschw the gninules m-iiu to 1>e entMnghHl with 

On ihi> ai>piic*t)on of dilute acetic acid, th<^ granuhw and reticulum 
>ak arouiid the nucleus. On the application of water, or more 
Mtkl; with dilute ]x;tAah, the protoplfuni kwcIIk. and tdtimntely the 
■rpc^te liorHtH and diNinte^Tiitex. Tlie partial diuippcArnnce of the 
unAcB when the Idofxl in !>htrd wai obKer\'ed by Haycrnft In accotnpany 
Aatdinjg <mt of the li I >rin- ferment, or rallier the formation of 
wa in the Mirrounding plannin. 
By Ikt UM of o«mic acid, fat granules, which are ntained black hy 

' *rtdtet, Boirpt-StpUr'* Mft CU-n. f 'nfrmx-A. Urfl iv. Ul. 

' lUiH. ZtilKHg, KMT. '^ K,iH*l, ZrtftrA. f. Kfiuiial. CAin. x. M8. 



this reaf^t, cuu be deuion&tmted to exist in the ccll-pm(4»i>lii«B, lit 
ill «^)>eoial abuiidanca in tlin w1itt« <'orpu«cle8 niid lyinpji c«lh a 
llie iutvstiiial ve»elit iluriii^ atn>ui'|ition. Thv same m ti'iM with r^w« 
tu j[lvcoijpu, wliifli cmi Im? <itrt#i-ti-(l uiicrocheiuiiaUy by a BolotWD «4 
iodine ill pobiiuiuui iixlidc; tiiinstiiins {[lytioifen u deep tuahoxaiiv uolonr. 
T^ioithin, rholistf'rin, nnd innrgiuitc^ mntter i-xist m sinatl t|tiaiitilit» 
in thf whiti- i-orpiiM^li'K, liiit llir ImIL' nf tlii^ pi-i)Iu|i1».>iii is uiidouUcdlf 
protpid in iintun^ ; and tlinugh our prrM-nt mcthMlK do not eoMtV 
to tay which protcidu ni-p i-ontnin«xl in the rrticoium, and whidi ialk^' 
enchylema. yet by wng p\t tnct^ of lymph rdls fi-oiit lympluttk gjub 
we cau at Imiit identify the prateid^ which are pr««ent.' They brk' 
follows : — I 

1. A mucin- like prot«id Uiuilar to that detwribed by MteMliw' ii ' 
j>UN aiid «iU«l hyaline aubsiaiite by Rovi(U. Tliis Hwelb u|i iMO • ' 
jelly-IikL- itub?it»n(.-c- whwi mixH with ■*> t« 10 per cent, solatiaintf' 
Mvliutii chloridf! or magnrxiuni aulphutv ; on pourttiK ><Kh u luixnut 
into wttti-r, thiN [>ri>tei<l rxti-niiK in (!(ih<s)\-« Htrln^.i through iJie mW, 
wbich soon contnict and flout on tiic ici[>. Thin .luiiKtaucti in, bowem;' 
rot inacin, as it ytdiU no rrdueinji sugar on lioitiiig it witli sutjiliori' 
Acid. It ia al^Ki not niic^kiii, an the nuclcj nrv not atlectcd in' th* 
rM^nts us«d ; it rc«<inihlu« globulins in it* KoluhilitiM ; it yiMt » 
oHhrich in phosphnruK - and on digestion witJ) artificial gni^tric jnicf H 
insoluble: n'sidu«i of the nature of niidein sepnrat«8 out. In all tie» 
points thix prottrid iwombloi tJie class of proleids naiuHi ' ii mfc * 
icltiuiitlnn ' hy itnnimarslen.' This ia the most abundant of tlte pnrtedi 
pre?«ut in the girotoplaain. It in |ki*obab!y idt^ntii^al with Keiiikti 
plaatin (««> II. 30.'i). 

2. Two filobu linn, Ttime are ol)t«inc<t by iliuolvin); Uie |>r(>t«M»(' 
the tymi)h ueUa in a liijuid jircjiaml l>y mixing a saturated -loluliaa <■ 
Kodiuni sulphate with nine tinK-.^ it'i volumi^ of dixtilled water. 1n> 
M>tution doe» not ■jaiisfl tlii^ swelling up of th« ttucleo-atbtuuia l>^ 
fodiuni chloriilo or ningnnsJuin sulphate solutions do. Tluuion taWr*'' 
ing thin eirtract with inngm^iiiuni Hulphnte a precipitate i» otitaiiu'' 
Thix ]>r«cipitAtr' cnniista nf the globulins, which may ix' wiudud. M* 
dissolvod, and then HoparaUvl by fractional hntl'Co^ulatKHi. IM] 
may h« eallod netl-ffluhuUn «, which coagulates at aboat SO' C- ; aP* 
etU-ytohtiitH, which coagulates at 73^ C. On filtering off the bt»* 
CtMgulum of oell-globutin a, which is (^eiierally only preaent in «u* 
qoantities, the ceil-globulin proper is alone left in soIbIkM), andj 

■ HrpoHi iif thr Brilith Attotmltoi. tiMT, fy IH. ■iid 1><»>. |v MO. B*|V«I| 
CgaunillM •ppoinlccl to inTe*tlc>te (he Ph}*iolagy ol the Linaiihstu: SytttVb 

■ MiMchn, Hofpf-Stsli^i V«j. Chem. Untrrni>-h. p. UV 
* HunmanMn, Ztitich. /. phsnoU CAfin, tii, 1C3. 


bu thr properties of fibrin-ferment. Reasons liave already' been 
gtren for considering the fibrin-fenuent and cell -globulin as identical 

3, Ad albumin. After tittering oS the globulins, the alliumin 
KDoim in solution. It coagulates at 7^° C. and resembles seruni- 
•ftnmin a in its properties. It is present in very small quantities, and 
■ly be provisionally termed cll-aJhumin. 

In concluding this account of the proteids of lymph cells, it may 
Iwadded that no substance like myosin or fibrin can be obtJiined from the 
eelli ; there is, however, a formation of sarkolactic acid ' after death as 
ID iDiucIe : and if the glandw be left, especially at tlie temperature of 
the body, for some hours after death, a process of self -digestion takes 
plue, the pepsin present in the glands, as it is in most tissues (Bi'iicke), 
hcmaing active when the reaction of the tissue becomes acid ; under 
tkne circumstances there is, in addition to the proteids already enu- 
lomted, a small and varying amount of pi-oteoses and peptones. 

The nucleo-albumin was mistaken by some of the earlier observers 
br myosin, from which it differs markedly. Some also have mistaken 
itfot Rbrin* ; the way in which it extends in strings when poured into 
ittr accounts for this ; these strings subsequently contract, and here 
indwd is a point of resemblance between it and fibrin. But here all 
Mnnblance stops. 


In addition to the white ami red corpuscles, a, number of colourless 
&M averaging '002 — 'OOrt millimetre diameter are also seen. They 
oiA u such in the circulating blood. By some they have been 
"pposed to be stages in the development of red corjiuscles ; some^ 
(onnder them to be masses of undifferentiated protoplasm, but their 
"rigin anrl destiny has never been explained. The action of inert 
"otidi upon them after the hlooil is shed is much the same as on white 
Wfld corpuscles. It causes them to become sticky, to run together, 
"< contour, change shape, and in many cases uiidergo complete dis- 
"•''gntion. Strands of fibrin .start fnmi collections of blood -plates, 
WpnibBblyone pnxluct at least of their disintegration is fibrin- ferment. 
In (pit* of the large amount of research from the histological stan<l- 

[t irtH HifHt-hler nlio Hliiiwed thiLL tlie variety M liictio ai-id fi>i'iiu-4] wllh iMrknIactk 
"nll^'ifWi. /. phi/iivl. Chtin.xi. Hi. HutlrnvMnu IChriii. ('•■nlrnlbl, IMMH, p. T.'.TI 
'**^ thai Iftctic »cid in A normul ('"ii«lit»i^iit of IiIihh). Rut SdlmiLon iVirrhott'^s Arrliiv, 
^■u,!(^f1iu hhr^wn thut fr>-KU IfliHxl t'lfiitHiim iii> lactic aoi<l. tint cm Htaiidiii)^ a miiiiII 
"""•ol ^wsnH» Tiudonl)t inmi cIiilit^ck of a ff'tniriiliitivv naluri' in lliu whiU''tnr|HH»cU'H. 

IVnH I'ftUw] it fibriiie ('cim-ri'tt; ^lubiiliai-. ^ViHjJdh<l|i;p a]K» ninikif cif it an filniii 
'"'■ Ihii Un/moniFt Arrh.f. ['hyii'ilni/ii; ISHl, p|i, ;tH7-411|. Hiimranr-lrii «8fl the 
'"llosluiw iM it in not tro« Hlmn Ui-c p. WM|. 

H^JiTuft, Journ. of Atinl. iiiui I'hijeiuL isii, iMW. 


I)Oill^ on tbCM^ tliiwl tiibliHt ( Blutiilitttolien of BiaonerT>'), we kiiow- 
virtuklly nuUiing of tlmo obmaicnllv. 

The torm hM'tanlobliiKU hits bMn iipptird liy sonH- to tlti- lii>>^l 
tnblvtK ; this U liabk' to ciiuko confusion, m tfap »n)o woril u ohmI for 
tlw iiuvlfRtwd rrcl ■•ori'ii«cIi-». wbit-b ot-cur in i-«rtAin slAtcvsixf tlM>fonun- 
tion of tin.' tiiiii-niii'liiirvd nvl iliw* nf VKrtvbrntm. 

1'liv blooH titbl<-tA nrr foiin<l only in innniitiints' tilood ; iii tisLro, binls 
md MDfibibiitii.i tbcv iin- iiliM-iit, luid ncmnling t" KlwrtU and Sohini- 
■nltWuli,'' and iiIhi Hayi-rii,' tbi'ir pbicr is tukvi) iti tbr«o gratl]« bjr 
(.■prtiiiik i»[>iiull«-->'lii>]ieil iiuolmtpd cullik Iaiwii* mi tlir iithor liuid 
repinl- tbi.- hfiiixlU- cell lis u variety of white bluod rv>q>iucle, and the 
bbxNl tableu of Riaiunuils a§ M»nettiin}{ peculliir ti> tbiit ftruuj> -. acavil- 
iti{; to him ttif v coniiii cbit-d.v of a ;;|(>buUu. iiixl li« ooialden Uvey 
play an iin[Hirtnnt |>arl in thi^ formation of fibrin. 


The ntl or n>IofirMl corpuacW gixi' IJie red appenrnnnt to thn blooiL 
They lire much inort- nuui<Tr>u% ibiin ttif wbite corjnuvUia^ thi^ri' t>«-in^ 
itlHiut '>,000,()()U jicr culiit- niillirni;tn> iti the buitinti ina1«i, nlxiut 
4,f>0U.U00 ill tlw fvniale. 

TAr nmrnrrMion of tiiv blood eoq>uacln tx rviwlily i-flintod by thi- 
lufiuiwyt'Hiii-ti-r of (rnwrm* TIii« iiiKtrunwnt vmiKiiit* of « gUuu itlidi< 
(tig. ■'■4 V). tlir i-rntiT of whitb ik tv\M intu ,'« luillinititro s>[Uiin-s anil 
siirroundwl by u gloiw riin ^ iiiilliiiieLre Ihidc. It is proi'idnl with 
nMOAuriiig |>ipottcs (A aivd B), • veswl (l>) for mixiii;; the bluod with 
n Aaliiie Mjlutinn (»uljibiii« uf imxU of sjieoitic gravity lOl-^),* a gliuit 
Htlrrer (E), *iiil a guanled timlli; (T). 

The mode of priXMinbii^ is extretitoly xiiniilf. 91^^ cubic mtlll- 
wotfr* of tJif< mIiup inlutiJMi hit iii><iuun<d out ti}- UMrun* 'if A, tuul 
then plocwl ill tlic mixing jnr ; 5 i.~abic milliinrtrcs nf t>|i>«d *tv thrn 
drawn from a punotun! in tbo lingnr by iiumi)?. of iIm- pi|xtli' It, 
mkI blown into the itoluiion. The two fluids tin wdl niispd by tli* 
ttim-r, anil a Huall <lro]i i>f thi^ diluttsl tnisture pUoed in th<- ifiitm 
of die oliilc C ; a i-vvrr ftl**" ** gently hiiil vu (to oa to toucb ibo drop, 
which thnK fonuK n layiT I iniu. thick between the tlide and cov^r 
ghuui), nod preonnl down I'V two brasn s)>ring>. In a fi-w ininutm the 
cotiiucImi luivv sunk to th« botloui uE the layer i>f fluid, and rmt oii 

> Uliaovtn. ViT*,.-,,: Ati*ir. ir. Ml. > VirHnm't ArtUunut WIK. 

* ll>7vni. />■ nnif, I'iih. IftKOL 

* ArrMiv/, ^i-|». /*«ifA. ii. /'ArtrvHitvi, lUt. 1^ 

* (hmnr*, t^mti, Dn |. IhTT. MuLhkm yCtimpt. rwnA. tVTVf and ilAfm fVm 
Mitft Wi* ImtftUtl irty MiiiiW ui«(ni>iM«U. 

* Tlivn' arr iiiaiti ••Mllar •alia* •■liitirm wliklt nay !<• iBiih-riid 

TMK HLcnii 


tifttiOMa. Tin- niimlwr on ton squaiVH is ttieii oouittwl, iitnl thi« 
«lti[fiei) Ity 1U,<M)0 gives the number in u cuhk uiUlitiK^tn- of blood. 
Tkaivfs^nuRibvr nf red corpuscles iii each square ought, tJicrpfore, 
I Eoiiiniul tiummi blood to be -I5~S0. 



r*..!*. Binupjiunieiuodtt.Uavit . iMailo b) Haattlrj A Co., iixAiidBlRCt.) 

.i/rt-irfr ymi'(/y.— (;. Srliniiflt giv« tbe Specific gravity of rM 
Und C(>r|Hi»c-lnx lis hOWl, Welckor afl l-10r>. 

5i<r^ aint *fs».— 'l'h«y y»ry in wj« and alructure in different 
PM|H of Dm v*irwbn»t« &ub-kingdoai. Id MiiiimialiiL. witli th« ex- 
Wl*iott ()f tli« C'limplidic, they ore biconcave, cirfulai- discft ; tlicy linvc 
M ducImu «xoept during embryonic life, and lh«y have » tondcTiry to 
na into rouleuux wlieo the blowd i* at r«!st, but if il is diKturl>od th*y 
■vadiljr Wcoine mepanited. In tlir (.'tmirl t.ribi' tbt-y have an elliptical 
WIIiiiB, Tli*ir »vit;i«p dinmntpr in ninninialK is "OOi-OOS luillimrlrf ' 
(lAii inctif, uih) abuut mu^-fnurth of that in thickness ; llien- nixi very 
^ht «uri«tion>> in <[iir(Mvnt clauca of inainntaU. In birds, reptiles^ 
■■■IiluliMnis nnd HaIm-k, tile red cor|>usi:l<^>i artt biconvex, oval discs, with 
^■odnu ; they arc largrst in the amphibia. 

Alum if ■■(VMinyiHi rragmlt.— 1ti>fi-r cauKtw Itin c«tfia*di» In nrell up, 
**t M Uw mane Ilmo diwolvr* an llie luanioaJDlitn, l<:iinng a ^tulmlnr ct>luuil«s 

Mr Wiiftea eauae* tbo natpurclei 1u akrink. llitx bccmii^ >rTliil.M ur 

' HiiiunRm wrilUn '-'■ii Ic linicit>-iiii1liin*ln>l>iinr'llN<uwnil<b "t ■ aitljnieln). 



cminlvd on Uir nirrni'p. The •I'lluii nt wator luiil nf mil •riluifon MifSfMti tlu> 
i-xtMniff of R iif uibniiM- >d> thf >iiriM<« of 111? itiqiuti'tv. Tliimirb whirh (■tDmi" 
lakes plnoc. 'Hk- (im^iiim. 1in> tin- rvil (^rpnw-Jd ii tliriiiliniiir I wu •i|>r« llii' 
'•utijtci lit ODluiuiuuns diMriiiaion. An wliiilmblr nimuiiiiri of ilii^ jMuilidii* hi'M 
liy lhi:nl(l«rwrili.-ni in jiitrii in (iflai|;iT'f ■ Phjuiiilogicnl Clwiii iti ry ' < |i. TS), Tl»- 
latlbtr bus hmi Ihiullj' (»iii|iruiiik«l br cmiaiitrrini: lliir Mnms l» t« ralhrt 
■Imiwt nt llip tinrfucv ibuli in Ilic iiiTfrrior. Tlir uulet ■Iciiai"' juirt (ilays Ibc iMn 
'if ■ iiiniitinieo iluhiiijc ounotic plicnnniftiu. 

ttitutP rtUm/'j ii> - I"" ''"■■'- |H<tEt>li} -ilxwly iIImkiIvo |]i* maiMKk*. 

IHl<itf «ni/i (1 prt cam. ai-mk- smtIiI) m« llkt vsleri awl la miclmiiMl reil 

Curinitcbii rrii'tiT The iiurlcai ilUlliiCt. 



• r 

8 I 

riK Ml- a-^ iii M rttr •IIHra* at vaUr « ■ iwl M*«l riMpdwl* : /. • i*d 

twjittttt (M 


TitHiii' 4i(ni>f CI1UM4 u ilLwIutrK* of bamiPKlobIn troiii lli« rincnu, lioi ilil* i> 
luiiiinllAl<'l,v alii-n>l jiiul iirccli'itated. ]t rtiuaiti* r«t a >tiijn Him- ii<tb<-irM Ii> 
till.- ■Irinuii ill the tntw u( n rcunil or im'^ulivr tlirbiile vf * brownltti lliitfv. oou>J 
liitiof; |irii)uil>l.v of lucmatin. 

Orraeie arid nets liiiiiUrly. liul Id nuclcatcul tvl curpavcla llii' <i»luiiriii~ 
mallLT i^ i^ulintly I'r it)ii>ll> ddlin-ti-d muqdiI Hu- micleu?. vttilrh mai Uiiii liu 
Mtnidnl tmtu I bo tvrpuxila. 

ytu-t'u*. Till' DUckuD of tlin&e nti citriiusclm in wlii<-h on« Dxlita, 
Ihui lli4t UKUiil n>ticiiUr utruirturt', niid (utuiats iii'cnnlitii; to I^uilrr 
Itrunloii ' mid PliW* of mickiti. DHilirinnlMl likioct frotii (]»■ bird 
WM trratnl uiih ten w twrlvi- tiiuM it* %'ultiiuc of !( jwr n<nt. xidiuiii 
<))llarid« wlutioci, mid tliv vnrputctiMi tqnintUMl liv ilcmiitation. On 
■liakitig th» corpuiiclM with a iiiixturi> of wati-r iitid <-thi^. tlic nurW 
aloiw rvniain undiMolvvd miMl lt*i«t nt the juiitiioti i>f tlic tmo li<|uub. 

Nticlein iiwy, howe\«r, also be |irp)«ied from fmI votpusvles hy 
Minclii'r'a iii«tbod, wliicli i-oiifeiaU in tuliji'itiii;; tbe corpuKlea to 
iirtilM-ial );iutri? iligiiitiuci. TIh.' nuvld alofit^ ri^iiutii) umligeetoil. 

Oriffin tf U«v4 nf/ruitln (m MiiHiu4iJj.--1bi>raUowinfr ii a brief ibiuiit of ItM 
i;lii«f n«c«rtaln«l (acta c^iOnniiag iho tiri^ of tbc (t«l iliaoi^:— 

la llie Ftiilirjii 1li» lint fonoad eoloiirpl blood mqwKlva am iuuidUiIiJ 
nndMinl ci-lla. Tlwaw aia ilevatopad wllliln cnitala ummiUimIIc c«lla wklob an 
nnliad to ftim a iM4w<«fc. Tba Diidtl iit ibo cvU* dDulUtilr. nnd anand aoao «f 

D.|iru<(i|>laani i-i4»iirtil bj Umcigkiblii b as^nvitHl. Flaallf Um nttwork la 
4lo««d uui anil Hllol nlib ItiiM ; ilia* cai<lUarka nn- |iruli>rnl ; (bv wk>iin<l 
DMlMlail |>unlfliu uf )>rv<u|ila<«n an •«< ttn wtthin tliaae a> llw ciatvyMile 

■ t.. Ilninliia. Jimrm. rf Anitt. uwl I'kifUul. ImI ivrM. tnL 111. ]•. D|. 
• I'luu. ll'-ppr-Srylrr't U'-l. ('>'■». i'ntm. Ilrft ». |i. UW. 
^ ^nriaijt't .Iniff . till. ti. 


Uud cnrpasclea. In later embryonic life these arc replaced bj the neual non- 
nde«itddi»c9, which are moulded within connective tissue cells as before, eicept 
tbU the cell noclei do not participate in the procefis. 

Stckated coloured rarposclea are not seen in the blood after birth; but they 
aatmue to be formed in the red marrow, and i[i some animals in the spleen also. 
Fnbablr the nucleus disappears from them, and the coloured protoplasm is 
omIW into a discoid shape. JIalassez, however, considers that the red discs are 
bmai bji process of biidtiinp from these cells, which he terms globuligenic colls.' 

Ibe ei'iricDce that the red corpuscles are derived from the while, or from the 
Mclti of the white corpuscles, or from the blood tablets, is insufficient. 

CtmjKiiliaK. — According to C. Schmidt, 1000 [larts of moist red corpuscles 

Water 6S8 parts. 

Solirfs / Organic .... 303-88 „ 
I Mineial .... 8'12 „ 

.Iccording to Hop]je-Sevler and Jfidell.' 100 jMirtsuf dried corpuscles contain ; — 

1 HiTiuah 


Vog'a ^louL 

CooB^'d Blood 



PlWeiils. . . , 





Btmottlobin . . 


'.H :io 








dolMtfrio. . . 





The mineral conslitiieuts of the reil corpuscles have been investigated hy 

C. Schmidt, and the following tables contrast those of the red corpuscles with 
»*»« of the plasma In man. 
lOfift parls of moist corpuscles yield : — 

Jlineral matter (exclusive of iron, wliic-h is contained 

in the luemoglobin) ...... N120 

Chlorine 1-686 

Snlphuric anhydride 11066 

Phosphorus penloxidc 1-1114 

Fotassium 3'3SS 

Sodium 1 0.12 

C»lciiim phosphate 1)114 

Ua^esinm phospliafc i>073 

"KW parti o( plasma yield i — 

Mineral matter 8'3oO 

Chlorine 3-')40 

Sulphuric anhydride OllJi 

Phonphoms penlonide 0'191 

Potaasiam 0323 

fckidium 3-341 

Calcium phosphate 0-31 1 

HagBesinia phoi-pliiite 0-21;2 

, ^^-fitmlrirli'i I'liyaiiilnyij, vol. ii. |i. 17"- 

"'>Pt>i-.Mej|fr oinl Jlidell, Hi-il. <:li.i,i. Viili-riarh. Hi'tl iii. p. 8SU, P. Mhuiikw 

'?''f/tiol. Clieiii, XIV. i^2t, jjivtrt llie |ierceiitiijfe of ItoitJnii in the red c:cir|mhfleH n» 

'■'* cholfrterin M 0-151. 

'HW THK TISslKt' -\M) DliliAKt' OK THE BOUV 

Tlic riMii:irkab)(! dilferenc:- in the dUtribuliun of i>otiis»iu[i] Hiid Bodiuiu bet'U 
ill tilt abovii diws HOI. boivevi-r, hold ftir luii-t luiiiijiils, as tlie tollowin^ talik- 
shows (Giiiiitrei-)' :— 


' K 

liUiHl (VII- 



iiitr ^Dinilnli^ 




Man . . 

. , 40-H!l 



5-1 SI 



Du- . . 

ti 07 






flit , . 

. . ifj 


■2-'.'.l 1 




tilji'i'|>, . 

. ., 14v7 

;iM 07 

37-iL 1 


38 '56 


(iii:it . . 

. . :(r4l 


;il-7a 1 



111 41 

Oxyi^eii i» cotitained in c<>iiil'iii]ili(iii vrith the 1ia-mo);IobiD to form oifhn.'iiio- 
gloliio. Till- curjiusi'Ics alw) UDiitiiiii ;i ci-rtaiu aiuuniit at cjirbonic iicid (w-r 

The chief constituent of the corpuscles is thus hieiuoglobin. 

According to Hoppe-Seyler '' lecithin exists as such in tlie re<l 
cor[)uscles ; earlier obsen-ers (Liebreicli, Herniiinn *) considered that it 
is jiresi'iit ill the form of a siilistauce culled pi-otn^'on ; of which lecithin 
is a dec'iiiiposition product. Protagoii is according to iloppe-B*'_vler a 
mere mixture of iecitliiii uud i-erebriri. (lanisee,' however, has more 
recently shown that protagonis a perfectly deliiiite pruximate principle, 
und piobalily exists in nervous tissue as such, though with regard to 
tl'e red corpuficles JIitpjHs-Seyler's view is now generally held. Lecithin 
and cliiilesterin luv extracted fi-oni the corpuscles by etiier. Tliey will 
Ix! moH! fully descrilied uuiier nervous tissue. 

'J'/f jimO-i'/n I'/' ill-- atroiiiii. — The liest method for pn'paring the 
Htronidtii of the corpuscles is tliiit of W'ooldridge ■' ; delibrinated blood 
is ceutrifugHliae<l i-epeutedly with il 1 [ht cent, solution of sodium 
chloride until the cor]>us(-les ure obtained free from adherent serum ; 
they ai-e then diss»lve<l in b or U times their volume of wat^r, and 
shaken with a little etlier to ait-MSt the solution : the white corpuscles 
Hre then allowed to sctth-, or may he sepiiniled by centrifugal isiug. 
From this solution the stroiniila an- precipitat«l by the addition of 
a fi!w drii]>s of II I jM-r cent, solution of iicid sodium sulphnti:-. The pre- 
cipitate is i-ollecteil, washed, and may l>e n-aitily dissolvetl in » ■'> 
[O'l' rent, dilution uf niapiesiuni sulphativ Kiihne," who used a rather 
diU'i'i-i-tit metliod of sejHLruting the stromata, found that their chief 
proU'i<l constituent was a tihri no -plastic globulin. This result I have 

1 ( iiim;;-... /'/,,,.,„/. <l,.,„. |.. 1*!. 

-^ llnp|H-.Si-\l.-r. Mftf. Chi-ui. i'nti ri^iirhuit-tFii, \Ml i. p. HI*. JiiJiOI. Ibid, iii- 'Af*i». 

^ Hrruiiiim, Aril'ir/. At„it, 1,. JViv-i../. Iwa!, ip. 3:1. 

' <l«inj;vi' »iu1 Hliink,-iih.prii,Ji'";'i. nl I'lit/thl. IxTl'. ^;um;.^1-, I'/iif^i,.!, Chrin. ]•.(«, 

' 1)11 iiius HiiiiHfiiil'x Arrliii- /. l'h;ii.i>i<. Iwl, |i. -["T. 

'■ J.ili'l.fih. I'. l!i;l. 

Tiu; bijood 

(vwting with Dr. Friend ') been able lo fully coDfirin. The chief 
inMtiil present is i-nll-^lotMliti, itiul liki; tiist obtuined from wtiite 
oqiiutleH it i* Ajijaurnittjr idirnticnl with fibriii-fi^niiciit ; tl)i>u^Ii 
fhstlmr Hit <«ll-gli>liutin of the rod cor]>UHclc« nonnully tiiktu nay 
MtiTtpart in producing uoagu I nt ion Appears to me to ho vwy <Ioul>t(ui ; 
il wij |)prhn)Hi do vi under certnin cii'cuiii«taiiceM, n(TOUtitiii|( for wluit 
UmIm tcnii* 'sCroiuM-lihrin.' Tli« straiuatn conTAin nUo • diiuhtftd 
Inn of cvll-AlbunuD : but the uucleo-nlbuiuiu descriljcd in white 
m^lui (p. 260) ia entirely absent (roiu ihi- red. 


UMDogloliiit is thu rt-d pigment of tlio I'ulouri^d eorpusi'lea. It is n 
nbttuice wliicti givai thi? nnirtiotu of > ]>roti:id, l>ul <tiiror!( frbui other 
|<«teids in containing the dement iron, iind in N'ing cryxtAllinble. 

It esirts in tiie blood in two conditions : in nrterin) blootl il is 
<raUuMl looaely with oxygen, and is called oxyhx-tiioglobtii ; tli« 
*lw oindition is the deoxygenated or reduced hnmoglobiii (oft«u 
oiled aitiipty luimoglobin) which occurs in veooui bluo<l, tliut Ik, ibe 
hkwl irhich is relurnios to the heart afl«r it has HU]>|>lied the tiwuett 
*kli oiygetL Hn-tiiofjluhiu is lima thv i>xy}{en carrier of the Iwdy, ancl 
llBiy be called u reajiirulory pi^inent. 

AufnUafink— RKicofllotiln U by Isr the moot widely diitribntcd of tlw 
Vfltatucj' )iigiDcDt«. It fHXmrx In apeclal ooipuwlc* In all vi-ttcbnt«> rxopjit 
ifUtmiu nad Lrylt^yhntut ilMokcMi^ty ; in ibv following cTii>fljice»i»'— 
'I^Uit, Citiract/tkaliu (Laakcsl«-r),' Ayut. CyjiAi (Ib^^anl nail lilaiicAnl),' 
^"t^aihrppms, Climltii, mi'J a nurinr panuutii.' CTiBlsocan (iiii'lrsLTibiil) (Vnn 
tarfMy*; In tlivfoUuwinir m»vt:lf,— Cliiritoiumiui (|jiiiki>lvr),' .Vu.v« dmtrititil 
IbcHaati]*; lo ilii rolk'wIiiK %tu<\\ui,t:^ I'tiiiwrhi*, .Irrvi.nnil .4i/ci ( LniikciiiT)'; 
a till IgllawinirclurUipii'l yntiuw^-iMmbrifUi, l.aiiibrieulut, Liimmdrtlut, Eiiaier. 
A^Hurafw, Xaii, XrffU, TrrtMta, tUgt^rn, I'ktrteiiuttfr, Cayitella, TuUfij; 
•WMa, EKeiylnteAni. and Apltjedife il-jiibi'slcr)' : in the fuUuwiii^|t>'|iliyiX'Hn 
*<*>)> — PhtfeKU, ThallOM-jaa, and l/amingia (LaQkolt-i)* ^ in lliu lit'iiii-nlnc 
*"* Will (l^nl*rK(<tr), nnd otlii-ii<i>[ llii> smar utii.-u (HiilnrvM}*! In the loediiB 
■*fWU u4 HiruiU (LAiik'^lcT) ; \u an »|.iiiiiriil wliinoil-im {Vottlagrt): und 
i* akMhiirian (Ilowi-ll).' In Ibn nbave cdi>i>>, Lowuvi'r, Irom tlu.- it»crl(1>rat« 
^Sdtiin. tltr ls0no$:U>b4U dooi uot uccar in ipcdal earpOMlci, liul U *tiuply in 
in tbe Uood plirnnK. ithkii Iia* IIku a mipfraioiy, in adiUliOD to lit* 

J-*ViuJ. ». Oft. ' Luikettft, iVoc, Roy. Woe. ni. Mi. p. 71. 

!i>-~i:.ii Aiml.auJ I'lifiiol. iL lit; I'jfitjitrT'i Jrrhir,h:tHi. 
:. Zool. Anlns. IMS, |i, 'JAM, 
I, /do/. Anins. IMS, o. Iin. uid bj G«iiit(ar, PAtrw'of. CJ>r'>. 

* KmIUbu, 'Akimal ChrmnitoloKX,' Broe. Birmutgham Fhllotc^ital Socieif, 
[■ an 
•'m/nm Ike J«lia$ llt,ptut» Vaiv.SaltiMuitr*lBiot.Lab.%wii.m.f.*>4. 



nutritive tiinclioiu. TLute miv, liowwcr, rigli^ ivvnttelinitfr nnlmaU tn «lili:h 
tbiit I* not llif aue. bat iMluiind oiir)iasol« rxit* lu fn TrrtrlxstM : Ibi'u' arv ttio 
Iwu riiAlliix». Kulm iwl Arua, iioil Ibc fiic wonsa, (tlyoTra, dptUlla, PliuronU, 
TlmltiiiM-mn, iinil llanimifi". mi'l Uir linlcithurtan Tlivuni^lln. 

IIa;iiii>f(]ol>iii •ii^.-iiii. nut i>ii)]r In tin- blorH-l, liiit II I- {irr««nt fn ocRaln siBicln, 
tvpccltllj till- rnl luii-r'W <if rwliMil*' : nnil il nlao r«cuni in thr mtMcJe* of ocnoln 
invrnchmm. I'Vi-n lii tiiatv at tlicwe In whitrli It la Bo( (iMWtit In tb» Mm) 
(Lookoti'r). (Sv Hnii-li!.) 

Uirmui-lritiin ucciit* iitnu in tlio nnvi' o^lbof A|<)iroi1il<>. (A^ Xerrr.) 
Hii-iij(i):liiliiu may iici'ur in tli« umiv siiil otWr lliijils wlictv it U uorainliv 
nlwtii. (.*!■ L'rlnp— Hirn)0(.'Ii>bliiuH».) 

PrrparalWH t,f »ryUiriani)Uiii\t i-rt/tUtlt /ran btotoL - Tlw follnwing 
will btt found Uie be&t tactJiod* for tho praimrntion of nxylMinui^ohfn 

1. I'l^RVirinnti-iI Mnciil in iiii\r<l with iU own voluiii" of <lisUll<*tl 
wntvr, um) tlin (tiluu^l lluiil Ik lu'utnd with otiv-tonrtli of it« voIuhhi nf 
nl<H>h<J. The iiiixtun> in fcnpt for 24 iinurs at a U>Ripnmtiir«> of 0*0. 
or below. Th« cryBtnIs w hich ii«pRi«t« aro disMlntl in ft lillli- wnn'r. 
a fonrtli of its volanii* of nUwIiol H(ld«<d, nnA tho iiiixtam agnin froarn. 
To obtAin a pure jirodDot ()i« process of TOcryHtalliwition tnnjr W 
wv«nil times re|>eiit«d. 

2. [>«fi)>riiuiteil tiloud U sluiken with ona-«ixl«<>nth of its volnme of 
etlier ; the cor]>uacIea diwol w, ui<l the btood Msuines m lat/f ■]>]Wftr*nce. 
After A jjerioH vnrj'init irwa two inioutes to tlirer dAVK a ihtd; nui^niA 
ol i-iystAlii hiL8 formed ; these are Hrsalied by ilerantAlion and centri- 
fttKidiMttion with '25 ]>(-r ix-nU alcohol. T)i«y uuty theii be reilibiolved and 
recry*titlliiiMl a» in I. Tliin nivthual i& by (ar the Dioat satififuctory one. 

3. ZinoflUtj'uwiiBiumonia inM4>iul of ether lodissolvp tltestromnta 
in l]>e ioT*fftinif iii<rtlKHt : this biw suhneqtiently to he neulmlised with 
faydrocliloric Aoid. 

4. 0«chlejdlen* obtjiins large crystnla trrno doj^'a Mood by nwlinj; 
tJie dnKlmiintiHl liquid, after it hns ttoo'l in tlin air for ^2^ lumrs in 
«a|>illarj' tulx-ii. Thriw uv krpt at 37' C for nonio lUjrn, and thrii 
tlu-ir cotitcnta an pourwl out into il wotch-glasK. (-'ryiitals tlu*!! (omi 
on »vn)<nnit«on. 

5. Ill tJio blood of some Animftk (rnt, gi)iiM«-|>ig, M|uirn>l), micn)- 
•OOjiio pn-)>anit)(iii]t of the crysteb may bo obtainml by siiD|>ty inixinR 
• dro]) of till- di'ttbi-iiiuKil blood with ii drop <4 wat«T on a clidn ; > 
MVtr-glnM is iIh-ii put on, and in a fvw titioatM the <.-or|)Uselr« ar* 

I TIm llni l«n inHluiila u* aeltvlnl tnan k iiumlivt iif iiwIlHob tlwitiibal b| ttaiBf*B 

M kl> y^tttoiiiytftl i"A<nii(ir)r, pfi.ra-"*. 

' iUnoaikj, Znl.fM^iaL Chm. %. la 

* Uwllkiilln. nfMotf. Jf •lAorfiJt. ■>. Ml. 


triidftfd colourless nnd th«n the oxyluvmoglobui crystallises out from 
tibt Kulutioa HO foroicd.' 

't. Mi^ra jifriiiiiii^ul j-'i-e^Mratioiir* luuy be made by Steui's * uic>Ui(kI, 
■tidi «iu>tKiii niiiiply 111 luouatiijg a, ilro|j of blood iu a dixif) uf Canudit 
tafcuD ou a KUd« awl cot ering it. In a few miauteB crystals furin. 

Cr^itola of reducetl fut-mogloltiii have lieeii (iit-jiari-d liy aiiiiilar 
Mlbodi to tliOAo already descrilx-d : bul oxyifpii must lie curt-fully 
udoJed during; the ext>erinipntii (Hufiier.* Neucki and Sielwr '). 

fOaod crT*bi]s ar« otitJiiiied wilh }f""^l''i' <lifli<;ulty tram the blow! 
4f wnekaiiiiols tluu) from ttiut of oUiurs. Prryer thu.t rlnssilks thesi- 
nriitiei of l>loorI ucconling to facility »f <iry.ita.lliHiitioii : 

L Vctv difficult ; calf, i>ig, [ligt^n, fiiyg,. 
i. Dil&cult : Diaii, njK-, rabbit, «her|>. 
3. Kuf : cat, dog. ntouse, hor»n. 
*. Vary easy : rat, guinoa-j>ig. 

Proni my own e\[ieniueiiU I aliould be inclined to (ml tlii? nioiiKc 
■ntbttecond cliuu, and add the squirrel tit the fourth cUuu in the ubnvc 

The RTTiitalii dtiTiT also in solubility in water and other reiigcwts, 
■okIi 1% id tlin itivirriM! ratio to their faoilily i>( cry»tulli>uitii>ii. 

TW oxyhiPiiiogl<»l>iu oryiitals from diiri're.iit aniinulK ditlVr slightly in 
'bHr f^rcviitAgv cnni[Mkuti<iu. 

Hw oxylunnioglohiii diffri'MilM) in tho amount of waMrof crystallisa- 
**« with which it cnmbinrn. 

Oxyhs>nH)!globi» ik by t h« action of uclds nnd alkiLlix decouijiosed, and 
* (nmi pignivnt culled hn-mntin foniiRd. Thi* n^ndiness with which 
'lut deoofnposition in brought about, nlxo ditlrrR in difTcreiit nnini^ls : 
^ in tti« btood of thn dog anil man it occurs cAsily, in that of 
■"•rtrivwrftus animals with ilitliculty (Kurbcr,* Kriigcr''), 

Lastly the blood ciystaU differ in form. As a rule they arc rhoiubio 

^bI Ob wvlrfcnit ihln (iroot>« mmll^ uf llio of qiuiiclufe Kjipvjir U> BVt iiitii iiuiliiU- Iiuxh^ii'- 
^^BWl ihi|«il I ij il«l tlii> 4|>|mHintly IK whHt Ptuyer iWlKd iiilnmliiliuUrrniilalHH 
^K Thin i% bflwimr, luil Itua crynMltiMitluii. but •iiiiply u. jvuti^l cmiiilioii nt the 
'*'*T"i>*W: l( mDj III tliii l-tood tuM faHn »Uoiih1 Io dry il laay t* wrll iim>ii. iriiiliT 
^"B MduHiiwnt nclkoi «l wat«). the rarpOitlD iwsUii, uid it* KXMiibluiac to a crjrttal 

' BMh, CftilnMt. f. •!. mrj. IFui. 1W<h So. W, and Virelme't Arehie, icvii. 

■ Bn^r, X*a. iihyiiel. Chem. it. >M. 

* Xocki uiil SibIh-i, Berielite drr driitteh. ehrtu. Otfell. i!i. IHB f^■>/. 

K iUi rii| iHni. Uttl. Joom. ii. l«8V. p. lwa| tlatM tlul (he trfvli^ii whutli U» 

^* <AMiqri Iran buiiuui hlnod bj^ addint: putrid MTUm to It an atwftyn nnngwanl of 

* )CMa, Immg. mum. Itorpnt. isou. • Kiiigor, Zeil. Hial. »ii. 8U. 




A. - 




priHiiix: ill tim Mjuinrl nnd liftDi>it«r ' liexagons*; nnd in tlio fniiD»i-{ 
wild ocrtftin liinU rhombic tetraheilm. 

Osyhwniogloliin crystala thus differ in tIm following point* : 

S ^ I. Reiutm«ss of crystaUbktia 

•i.. Solubility. 

:i. In jHTccntage rotnjiutal 
l^m^^^^ ((lightly), 

4. Amount of wuter of cr 

ft. ReailinPM to undergo deci 

position by uuiils or alkulix. ^ 

fi. Cryi>t»lliiie form. | 

In Kpito of tliiH, howorer, <i 
hirmoglobin is uuiven-sally tbi* 
in the following |>oiiit9 : 

1. H[i(H.'tr«scii[nc |>ro]iertim. 
'1. Tht.' cotiiiioundB it ionw. 
3. Tbe products of ducoiuf 
Pm.w, ()i)ii.'iiuii-i,.i.(ii,>i,.iiii.u»niinwi: Buoh ii« biematiR, hwmiii, Ac. 

m : J. ..,«i"-i : < ).«-«.. Tl„. „.„.n,|,i„„e™ «w. thn. d. 

than tlie ditTerencra. Let us aee if w<* t;nn arrivp nt any condu 
concpi-niiiK thf diflerenees which will explain the dittipulty of 
Iwini; apparently different okylia-nioglobint. 

We shall approiich the i|u(»ltoD Iwst by dealing at greater )A 
with tln> 

O'jitlatlni/ra/iJiji ••/ OtlfJi^moQlebin 
OxjtaeaiaffXohin rtytXnU vtffr rlr-t i1v».-!ll)iil Iit Itcialiprt' lu oocnnldir 
ulrrna of a jnTgnniit. (i'liin'S'l'iK : ''J' l.nv'llv' a" ofcurring in tho aliiDRntarr 
of llie Irrcb : and liv Ki-lllkni,' oMolncd from llic liluod ot tllc dog, pjlhoih 
olbcr imiiiinl*. KiiUikci toiuiilprwl tlie t^rjilals lo Li- of a moii' 
tiic)itli>d liirniBiin. Fuiiko* wiw, liowcvpr, xhv first to nuiitc comiilftc oUvrn 

' In the liamst«T ihombolivdni nn alKi hmnil. 

' BoiuionJii iZrriUrli. f. n-ut. Zi^l. lii. Iiuin, «;■ (hat th( blood 
o( Uie luoQte fttv •!»> hpit^cmAi. Tliii 1 limv tutl frwn «bU' to ixmUnn ; bul luiro 
with Kundc VatX Ibry urv tbriinbir, StiEl it ■■ |iowb)p tlut tlir; ma) fc* (ol 
iMtUfnin*!' RaI'k lurninitlibin in ■!<» •i>m>'liii>><>< >i'inK«ni>l whvn |>n|iaMd b; 
mcthoil. Tbi* -w** AnI i>oinltiil »iit 1" mp lir Dr. Mbrriiliui Imi Ure tntii* (nHj 
Joum.oi Uir. Heiftier, ixi'ia. IMDI. HUrni^r mitl Biiiltr-lprvbUinediDoaac* 
uybn-iiixKlnliiii i-tyilnl" fmni hmwi blonl (.iCnt. jubgiTiiif- CAnia. nit. ilM|. 

= lWUI»it. Mnllrrt Ari-hir, I«4M. p. HIT. 

• LvyOiit. ZriUr^U.f, utim. X'Hit- Rd. i. IkIM. (v UH. 
> KiiUtkn, Zmltrk.f. iplh. ifuuf. B>l. i. iHlu, ji «lit. 

• fc'UBku. ^trilxA. /. mi. JfoL N. F. Bil. i. IHAl. p. IKI; Bd. li. leW. 
p. -aw. I>t I'liijpiiiiM vtni* Ittnallt. thtt, Li/aiy, IHAI. 

tup; in,orii) 


ipns tlwm, and to recognise tbcir true nature. Kundc.' working at the same 
iiiK,inide extensive obsenatiooH from a uooiparatiri- point of view, and was the 
diKoferei of the exceptional form of the crystals in the ^inea-pig and squirrel. 
Sine tbeD, many investigntora have worked at the ^abject, notably Lehmann,' 
Bolktti'iDD I^ng,* and Pieyer,' nlio haa written an exhaustive treatise on the 

The tetraliedral blood crystals of the ^uinca-pif- were at one time supposed to 
Ifiong 10 the regnlar syatein, but it was von Lang who showed that they are in 
lak; dKimbic. 

A limiUr rjueiitioli might arise tvith rcjfard to tlie hexaf!:onal crystals of the 
^DJml and the hamster. May they not bv rhombic crystals which have what 



fi'-V. BD|ppwc A B'' n (a> to Ihs [lip bft'<nl jiljuii' -it i\ rliuiiibic I'lrit^^, rtiiit llie Angli- a li *' In 'mj 
W^iliDal«lT t£u". Il>c itnet- johikiiK A c^ a it Ih-Iii^' the iL^i-n. Tlifii If the tinglGtt i> a ii. it c h Iw 
!*||lintl,iriiihitwu l)y ili« tloIt«il JlnoH^ n 1)«-:(4U'>n ^\E]| be }>niiliii.'i?il jLIITeriiiK but little fri'iii n 
"Jolw heioenn. 

"■iBrtalngiits call a hexagonal habit' (_iee fitf. 67 a) ' or might they not be rhomliic 
'•iw cnnsisting of three parallelograms or six triangles (as shown in flg. 57 


la order lo settle this question it is necessary to examine the optical properties 
"' "le crj«tals. 

C'rvjials mav be divided, according to their uptical properties, into three 

I. iMropie. — Those in which there is no distinction of different directions as 
'^'wli' optical properties. This includes crystals belonging lo the regular 
*Ti'tnn. They haie but one refractive index, i.e. refraot light, like amorphous 
•^iM. .ingly. 

i. Vniarai. — Those in wliich the i>pttcal pro|>er[ies arc the same for all 
"Ttclioni equally inclined to one particular direction, called the optic axis, but 
*'>'7 SMarding to this inclination. This class includes crystals belonging to the 
""Miric Kyrtem (crystals with three rcctan(;iilar axes, two of them liL-ing tiiual) 
^xrt the hexagonal system. The optic a.tis corresponds with the princi|)al 
'^'J^llographic axis; that is, in the Cjise of a hexagon the axis perpendicular to 

' Kond*, Zeilich.f, rat. Meil. N, F. Bil. ii. iwr.a. p. ■>',r.. 
I*hm»nn, Her. il. k. i/ichi. Get. tl. Witifii. ItriS, p. 2a. 
' Rollrtt, SiUiiagiber. iL Wien. Akatl. Bd, nlvi. IBUa, p. 0.1. 
' ling, Ibiil. * Preyer, Die BliitknjilalU, Jenn, 1M71. 

^'ipper githnce in an inntanoe of tluHOci^urring in th« mineral kini^iloni. In one fi>i'in 
^^^■1 alio, crystals of the monoclinic nynt^in HiiMUlatJli|{ liexagonn srt fouiul. 


TJiK 'm 



.♦ </l 



priRUJB : in tLe M|iiirrel and linnistiT ' hexa^tis* ; and in thn guiiiM-pi 

nnil MMlttin binU rhoinUin tvtrnhiMli'ft. _ 

Oxy)iiutiiosluliin ur,vsinU thus differ in the following ]XMnU : f 

1. RonilincM of crjsuUtatioK. 

2. Soluhiliij-. 

3. In piTcoiilAge cotnpoatia 

1. Amount of wat«r of <Trjrt 

<*t. KciaiiiiiiPHB to undt'rgD df 
]H:i8itioii by acids or nlkalLi. 

C. CryHtalliiie fonii. 

Ill s]>ito of thii, tiowflT»r, Mt)ji 
liii-:noplo>nn is iinivc<rsall_r tlie 
in tilt- fill If. wing points : 

1. Sj)ectrosi70[)ii- projwrtirv 

2- Till' compounds it (oniiH. 

3. The products of docoiupiHitioK 

f 111, M '•t7l*in'iiil"Wn'T>-niiliicmrnlliod ! BUctl (IS hmuatiD, [iMuill, Ac. 

}. h^»ij lvirn»ij t^iu4 : 1'. fruiTi ili^ cul"™- 

'■'" '■ *■ -"'"^ '■ *• '•"""•■■ Tlie r^mbUuc*. «« thu. de 

thiin tlifi difPf'miti'x. IjCvt uk si?<- if we i-'oi) arrivo nt Miy cnndaiid 
uom-fniing the difiinvncpJi which will rxplnin tho ditficulty of ihrvi 
Iwini," uppumnttv iliffi'rrnt oxyh«'iDogt"bin». 

Wp ahnll approtLch the question Ixtst by doiling At groater kagCll 
with tUe 

Crgitatlngrttphjl of OrjfiiriiiofflaUii 
OiyhMoioglcibin vrjitaif were li»i ( tiy Itok'tivrt* «* occttnlng io ibf 
uliTiiB of a iirejrnaut t-'uiccn-jnt.': by l.cydij.-' ii? oocurrinff in tho KlimailMyMa*) 
of llir ImtIi 1 unil 1>T Kullikrr,' obiuiniTl fivm \bv IiUkkI of Uip dog, pTtbon. )■■■'' 
oilier iuiiniMlF'. Kullikcr ■.'uiuii<lT-n<l ()iu ctyiitidii tu Iw oompoonl of u mott <t1>*' 
niixlifiiil lui'iiwi [ii. Koakfi* wiu, bowuvvr, t^l^ firbl lo make c->«ipli-<i- ulntn*'"*' 

■ III Uii' liiuiiKtiii Fhombohailm «ra kino loaiul. ■ 

■ Uujniiinrkki \Xrillllk- f. iiru. Z'lnl. 111. lHfl3, aSSt >iiy* Dint UlB tllMd tt}^^ 
<jt Um iiiou^f liTv 4W1 hviaifiinAl- Tkiu I liAt^ rii^t bvni iiblv t«>4xjBflnii: but ha¥v F'*^*' 
ititlj Knnitv thitt llii*y *tv rliumljif- Still it i« ]Hw«ililK llmt llu>y mfly b« ^^1"^* 
■■•U4(iiiia1. KkI'i limnogluliiu t* itlui •iiiiiuUiiiiii Iii'ukoiiiiI wh*n |m|iu«l ^ M'^' 
■uuUiixl. 'Iliia will- Unl iHiiuliHl ['ul la iiiv li^ Dr. Slmriiliui Iito (or ibir* Inlly (fi*^ 
JiHirH^t*/ -1/ir, .Sru-JK^^. Kii^iij- lIMk], Hiifn*^ iiiiil ItiiUiirtivtiMiu&tdanotoeniw I 
ujliU'iiiiigliibiii i-rjaUli truni liur>i>'« Minit] \Zr^l.iiht/niil. Ch*m, riik. VW). 

> Helcliurl. ilvller'i ArtJUv, iHt^, p. 191. 
• LpjiIIk. Zfititb.f. ipiu. Xout. BA. I. iHin, i-. 11(1. 

> Rj^UikT, /.nUrh-f. writ. Zool. JM. L 1S4(I, p. 'iiMl. 
" Fniik*. XrilirM. /. nU. Med. H. F. Bd. i. IhM, [i. ItU ; Bd. ij. 10SS, p ' 

ji. tKH. lir luntrwinii prmr ti-nalit. Din. L'luiit, >>ul. 

THE ][l,OIH) 371 

opn IbcD, and to rece^ise their true natarc. Kunde,' working at the same 
lint, mide eitensivc obsen'ationB from a comparative point of view, and naa the 
fcortra- of Ihe exceptional form of the crystals in the jjuinca-pig and squirrel. 
^inx itim, man]' In vest iga ton have worked at the Kobjcct. notably Lehmann,' 
RoDhi,' vob Lang,* and Preyer,* wbo bft* written an exhaustive treatise on the 

Tie letrahedral blood crystals of the guinea-iiit; were at one time supposed to 
IwkiDg to the regular ayslem, bat it wns von Lang who showed that they are in 
n«llt7 iboiDbjc. 

A liniiliir question might arise willi regard wi the hexagoniil crystals of the 
-jniml snd the hamster. May they not be rhombic crystals which have what 

( •>- > 

\ / at; 6- Oi 


F*, 5iii[tp>« A nr II f-T> t*^ »>e ttip bfti^il plitue H>f n rlioiiibic |i])itp^ iinil lilt lui^Ec A ]t c til lie 
'PPntilnnlflly l?if*, Ibp llne^ joiiijn(r a <■. Ii i' i-cbin tlic ii?f<?». Then it the nuirlPH u mi, u r n im 
'TF''*™!, A0 aIkiwd by tiif -iottA^l hiiif^ a hpziriK'm will be jirmlui'i'it ililT<iriu)f btit llttli^ friMii a 
rijruUr hriiiKOD. 

""iffilnpatji call a hexngooal habit' (jfe lig. 57 a)' or might IheynOt be rhombic 
'■ins cnnainling of three parallelogRims or six (riiinglca (aa shown in fig. S7 
'•nd (■) ! 

Id order lo settle this question it is necessary U> ex.amine Ihe optical properties 
"f'W crystals. 

tn«e»lB may be cliviHed, according to tlieir optical properties, into throe 

1. /wtrapi^.^Those in which there is no distinction of dilfercnt directions as 
'^tuii optical properties. This includes crystals belonging lo tlie regular 
*.*«l*ni. They ha^e but one refractive index, i.e. refnict light, like amorphous 
*><*Iie», singly. 

!■ t'jti*™/.— Those in which the optical pro|«;rtics are the same; for all 
'lirKtioM eqaally inclined lo one iiarticutar dirix:tion, callul the optic axis, bat 
^"atj iccordiog to this inclination. This class includes crj-stals belonging lo the 
Qinwric ayatem (crystals with three reclaiiguhir axes, two of them biing equal) 
"■"l 111* hexagonal systein. The ojitic aiis corresponds with the princiiial 
cyrtillc^^pijic aiis; that is, in the cii.-ir nf a he-'Siigon the axis perpen< to 

' Kundp, Zfiltch.f. rat. Med. X. P. Bd. ii, IH.'ia, |i. ■IV: 
' l*lim«nn, Bm: tl. k. aiicha. (;?<. il. Winaeii. IHTi'i, p. aa. 
■ RolifK. Siliiiiuiibrr. d. Wien. .ikad. Bd, xhi. Iwa, p. (15, 
'*iM(i Ibiil. ' Pr*jer, Die lllidknjataHf, Jenn, 1H7]. 

^'^^pper (fiance \h an inatance of thin octurrin(f in tbi< mineral kiri^Eim. In one furni 
"n^* also, cryfltidft of the inonoclinic i^yntem siniulatinfj hexagona are foand. 



priiiiiK ; in lli« Hquirri^I hikI hnniklnr ' )icxi«gouB * ; nod iu llio Kitit»A\ 
iukI L-Ri-tuin liinis rboniliic tt^trnUodni. 

OxyliKMaogloliin (TJ'hUIs thus differ in the following points: 

1. Rtixdinc-n: of crjrst&ltiwt 

2. Koluliility, 
^^^» :yc^ I S. In [iprccntagB comii 

^^B / _:_! ■ - -, i.s'ightly). 

^^^^r if *■ Amount of •mlev of cryi 


^- ~ ~^_. -"i. R^ndiuess to undergo <tea 

^^L ^4 < -M^^ [lositiou by ncids or alkklU. _ 

^^1^, I 6. UrjAtalline form. I 

III spite of Uiia, how«rar, o 
Im-mo^lDbin is universally iW ai 
in thn following point* : 

1. Spectroscopic pro|)erti«t. 
:.'. The conipiounds it fonuB. 
'6. The products of decoiay 
Fk.m '><ji«»mnti(iWn'ty>Mi.Luuoiii\r'i; gucli ftji hieiiintin, hieintn, Ac, 

"•" ^ *• •""""' '■ *■ ''""^' The i*srn.l.l»nce, «,, th«. ,!«: 

thnn the diflVrefl<^es. Let us set) if «*c aiu urri%'<! ut any coixtlua 
orniMmitng tlin differences which will expLuii the ditKcuIt; of 
iK'ine ft}jp(ir<Mitly 'lifferpnt oxyhienioglobins. 

We &hnll np]>roiich the question best \ty d<wling at greater I 
with tJi« 

CryitiiUitgTnphy rf Orjthiriinylaliin 
Osyhitinioglobin oryaialu '"rre (lt»l (le^oriln-d by lii-icliiTt' «« ■ 
Utmis ot n prvgn.-iiit ffiiiofn-pii: ; by l.eyilic' »-'< ocuumDe iu lb« Dliiu<iilnry1 
of tlic l<t«li : iiti<l liv Kullikcr.' obiuincd fn>ta the MuckI (if tbi> dog. pyu>nvj 
otlirr iiiiimiil?. KullihiT rumiiilcrcd tliv ctyftalB Iu Iw couipoaed of u norv < 
■uwliliLil hivrmitSu. Kuokv* viae, howuvcr.l-bf tirM iv riuik'' c<)niFi1i.-tr ok 

' In Uiii litmntar rhnmtiohaitni *» hIm romul. 

■ Bojiuiownki iXnUrli, f. ulu. jfl.ol. lii. ISO». S38) wyn lli*l lliv hlool 

until Kiindf' that th*ty nrh rlirnntiifi. Htil) rl t> ]inHBiblri thuL tli"y mAy bv 
hvl*cinliiJ^ Rjit^B liii-niD|;lulfiii ■• &[hi Hiinaniuak lifiac*'"!^ irliifu pniKi>vl fc^ . 
Ill>lli»>l. ThU «iu Hnit puiiitMl out la iiiv bj Dr. Hlixiibui U« (an- mivr MIy I 
JtmrH-v/ iftr-. Sdrurr, »vtii- llHI)- Hiidiitr hmJ Biirlicltrr <4>litiii*d in ^ue <bip Ih 
(iiyliBoniiKliiliid u>'>Ult Inim lumc'> liliaul IZrH./ihi/hol. Chrm. riiLtlHf>. 

* Kaiclivit. afriHrt-'. Jr^-hir, Hull. p. 1(17. 
' I^ydlii. XtiUi>Ji./.u>iu.y.aul Bd. 1. J MB. p. 110. 
> Kijlilrr, XtiUrk.f. wi*a. Zool. Bil. i, IStD. p. itttt. 

• VUM^kr, Hfiitih. /. ml. Med. K. F. M. l, IMl, p. IM ; Bd. ti, IMt. ^ ' 
p. 3b(L Z>e t-in^rriitii trnir fi^iinlM. /)u>, Jj'p*i<r, I>IS1. 

THK HLiiori 271 

opw tbem, and U> recoffnise their true natnre. Kunile,' working at the same 
[lot, mdeeitcnsiTe observations from a comparative point of view, and was the 
dKowrcrof the exceptional form of the cryslals in the guinea-pig and Bijiiirrel. 
SiBct Ibeo, many investigators have worked at the suhjeot, notably Lchmann,' 
iWfeti.'ion Lang-,' and Preyei,* who has writien an eihaustive treatise on the 

Tbt tetnhedral btood crjstaLi of the gninea-pig were at one time anppused to 
l*kiiig to the regular system, but it was von Lang who showed that tiiey are in 
raiilv ibombic. 

A nimilar question might arise witli regard to the hexagonal crystals of the 
mnirrel aod the bamMer. May they not be rhombic cry^-tals which have what 


rpri. ;r. ^u]i|inAe .s ti c it (ay in iv tlic ba^'iil pIniLc 'if ll rlii>]iibic pliilp, Jiiiil llti^ luiglo a }i i' tl^ hfi 
WfroiiicKielT 1311°, t?ir tlD«" jniiilriK a c. p i> U-iun ilip nxetf. Tlieri tf the Hiiiflaii u a R, r> c u tie 
^I'lkwj, in HlHiwii by lb? ilatt^l Uiif s & Ii--iiki^mu \\i\l be iirorluvit] lUtCvriug but LEttlo fnnii n 

niiiifiiligiats call a hexagonal habit' {«« lig. 87 a) ' or might they not be rhombic 
'"iH' cnn*istin(5 of three parallelc^nims or six triangles (as shown in iig. i>7 


Inordpr to settle this question it is necessary to examine the optical properties 

tnatsls may be dividcil, according to their optical properties, into tiiree 

'■ iMropie. — Those in which there is no ilistinction of different direcliDna u.i 
"rati' optica! pro|)ertie3. This inclades crystals belonging to tlic regular 
'yrtftn. They haie bnt one refractive index, i.e. refract lighl. like amorphous 
'*4iM, cingly. 

J. l'»iaral. — Those in which the optical projierties are the same for all 
^netioM equally inclined to one particular direction, called the optic axis, but 
'^according to this inclination, lliis class includes crystals belonging to the 
"iiMtric syitein (crystals with three rectangular axes, two of them being equal) 
^ 'he lietagotial system. The optic axis corresponds with the principal 
"J't'llngraphio axis; that is, in ilie case of a hexagon the asis perpendiciihir to 

' Kdnds, ZcitKh.f. ral. Mcil. N, F. Bel. ii. iH:,% p. -ni:. 

' Lfhminn, lirr. d. k. tncha. Gcs. il. IVVneii. IhM, p. -I'l. 

' Rulleit, Sif!u7ig>brr. d. Wien. Akad. Bd. xlvi. lHi;-2, p. 00. 
^' >*«(;. ma. " Preypt, Die Bliitkryitallf, Jena, 1H71. 

/''^Wr ulanee is an inBtanreot tlua occurring in the niinenil kingclom. Iti utie fiinu 
•■"^ »l«o, crystaJii of the monoclinit iiyateiii niuiuUtiuK lieiiigonB are found. 



priuiiiK ; ill tJw nquii-rnl «ii<l liuniilei- ' )ie\.-t;ioiiii * ; iind in Itio i^tiincA-jiig 
And c«rUin birds rliombic t«|.r»)ie4li-n. 

OxyhienioglDbio crj'stalt thus cliflcir in th« foUoirinf; poinU t 

1. Ro<i<Une6s of crysulliitfttioii. 

2. KolaUIity. 
:i. In i>vrooiitAfp> eofopniitioti 


4. Amount of uratM- nf rrT<taI)i- 

\ Readiiiect Ut utidt^r^ dei'Otii- 
IHuitioD hy ncida or alknli*. 

0. CryxUllina form. 

Iti s}Ht« of tliis, however, itxy- 
luvtnnglohiti is MniTersnlly tli» ■unc 
in (lie fdlluttiu^ jioiiitA : 

1. S(*clr«co|.ii' j)^)^^!!!!'*. 
'.', Tti« coDipoundB il fonui. 

3. Tli» products of d«coiii]HiK4tioii, 
Il . .i.iu.-,..«.o.i.inrniii"ii; ttuoli ni> hn'timlin, hwmin, &C. 

' - - T . V, ffiiil4 Kit flUli^- 

■ '■ '"■"" " 'Dir ^r^cf•lI|lll*llC(^s nrrt thu* <lc«>|ier 

IhnD lJi« ilifTermi-'M. LpI us i»e if wo u»n nrrivo nt >iiy coiicIuhioii 
<N>iic«riiitig Oie diSnvncen trhicli will explkin th» ditlictilly of there 
(■eiii*; apjisreiitly dilTereDi oxylwinoKloljin*- 

We Kjiall approncli tii« ijnectioD ImsL by dealing «t gnat«r l«Dsth 
wilji tlw 

fliiluniu>|k>bln ■■rj-tiala vnf fli>i •I'vilbiil Iit Itdclii'n' ■• owmrritig in llw 
•li-ra* of • imxiukiii iiulata-i4ir ; hj l^yilly' ii> ownnlag In llic •lltucnian' raiwl 
Hi ttir liiiwti: luii) bv lUUIhcr.* olMalncd tmm Ibr blood of tbv dog, pTlbtm, nml 
uihrr aniuiil*. KiUlikM cctiiidorad llie c[7>lala Ui In oompoao) «f a inon' oi !»• 
inullllii) lin-tDiiliu. FiUlko* una, bowctcr. Ibr Dm lo imkr iWaiplL-lcQinrTiBliKn* 

■ Ib IhB hanMlcr rhonbobtilm an bIbb Inoml. 

• B*Juin<**l>> </nl«A. /. HUi. ^401. lii. INO^ WD) Mft UiBt Dm UuI crjMal* 
of III* ■><«» an- aUi lHiB|taa«l. Hi* I haia W4 hmi bUk kmviHrB: l-at lia» iKUnd 
•rlUi Kunrie thai \hrf Bt« rhnaUiK. Mill It n inHiblr llial Uiv; bu^ Iw H^^uim 
heiaieuiial. lUl'a li*niaiilDkin i< bI« annirtlMi** hctapjnal whan |ii*|<iuail li^ X4*l>i'> 
MtUted. Tilt* n* Ant |einlail nut U> mt bj l>r, ShvriiUa Lm |m» niiini (iillj ffuart. ' 
Jiawni. I-/ Afi<, Srif itt*. titlii. IW^ IIHtnai aiul RllrlirlariiUBhtMllBMwfawliniiX'iuBl 
iii}lwiiiii{l'iliiti i'r7<tal> tram lwn»'a blooil iXril. fJlyMul. CA*m. dli. IMI. 

■ n*^lwrt. M»tUr'A Ankir, IMP. ^. 1*7. 

* LnUIC- jM'*^- /- «»•' J>^«>' Bd-i. )kM. |v iin. 

■ KBWbv. XnltrM./. <ntm. Xml. Hil. L IBIii. t>. «1il. 

■ nwba. Xrtltli. /. ml. ifnl. N. r. lU. I, IMl. |<. IMi Dt. &. ISU. f^ fM Mut 
fi SUf. iAr nniyiioa* r*ii« ft'imlx. />im. I.ifa*i<r, IMI . 

THE HLonn 271 

ipon tfaen, and to recognise Iheir true nature. Knnde,' working at the same 
li», mideeilciKiiTeobservationi' from a comparative point of view, and was the 
<Uici>i«eriif the exceptional form of the crystals in the )ni>lira-piK l>nd Mjuirret. 
Simt th(D, many investigators have worked at the subject, notably Lehmann,' 
Boltat,"von Lang,' and Preyer,' who has written an eiiiaiistive treatise on the 

The tetnbedml blood crystals of the gninea-pig were at one time supposed to 
hfloog to the regular system, bat it wns von Lang ivlio showed that they are in 
mlitt [bombic. 

A nmilar question might arise wit)i re^rd to the liexagnnal crystals of the 
tqmnt] and the hanurter. Ma; they not be rhombic cry^^tals which h.ave what 

\ / <K-. 2. O. 


Fh;. ^7. Ki][i]AAo A H <' \i (ai to lie thp bn^nl ptmip <tf ti rliiriiiblc |itiLl4^, mini tUr iiTiglr A II 4' ti> 1>e 
lltrqilmtlflT 12u°« tlw ILuvH jnliilHK a c, ii ii l>fiii;£ rlic laen. TIipii if Hk jui^Icii II A n, n r II lie 
'^I'IwLb' ii1ii>wii by lli« <li>tt«il ^liiv^n hciHK4iii a'IN Ix: prf>lm:^l iLlfferJii^ but Huh friiin u 

niiKTali^gts call a hexagonal habit* (_>ee liK. ST a) ? or might they nOt bo rhombic 
i*iw cnininting of three parallelopnima or fix trinngleit (as shown in fijr. 37 

In order lo settle I hii question it is necessary lu examine the optical properlies 
"' "te crvBtaia. 
t'riBals may be divided, according to their optical properties, ititfl three 

1' iMra/rie. — Those in which there is no distinction of different directions as 
"wds optical pro[ierties. This includes crystals belonging to the regular 
'.'•I'in. Thej bai e bat one refractive index, i.e. lefract light, like amorphous 
■^iiei, siaKly, 

i- Vinaral. — Those in which the optical projierties are the same for all 
'liwwioiB equally inclined to one [larticular direction, called the optic axis, but 
'■T iccoidintr to thiR inclination. This class includes crystals belonging to the 
""oMiie Bygtem (crystals with three tectangiiliir axes, two of them being equal) 
""i 'Ke hexagonal system. The optic axis corresponds with the principal 
*'T"l»llo(traphic axis; that is, in the Ciisi' of n hesiitron the axis perpendicular to 

' Knnde, Zeitich.f. rat. Meil N. F. Bd. ii. m:>% p. 'i7ii. 
_' l*lini»nn, Brr. il. k. >ilchi. Gcs. il. Ifimcii. lH5a, p. a2. 
' R"lleK, Siltungaber. d. Wien. Akail. Bd. xlvi. IHtM, p. U5. 
I ^Jt. Ibid. * Preyer, Die JJliilkrj/tlaltf, Jena, 1«1. 

'-•'Ppet (iliince is an instance iif this occurring in tlie mineral kintfdom. In one (iirai 
°"'^* lino, cijataU of the monociinic nystem niinuUtiiig lienm^ns are lound. 



tluT 6iit inir(na». In the diriK'Iinii of thia dxls a mj* of Ugtit 1* ntncWd < 
and tn other diicetioeia donbly. 

3, Jliaral.—Thii includw the luiniiiiiing thrrr i}M«fni of eryiUb, 
Ulnwtric or rliombjo (thni- ti.-ctiiDi:iil&r iixoi ntl iineqtiiil). ttic inomeliol& ad 
thi! trialiiiic. In th«e Ihwu are alwiiys two <lirotlioiu> nluog whkli aaj^t 
»>ogiy iffruoU-d. 

Thii Ijvnt t.mi Of (o wtii>l)i«r a anl<MaTi('« b> <l[>ul>I}' tvfntclliri' ut no< U lU>^ It 
bvlweun crowi"! hiculs. wliivli t.Mn~i.vjii('iitI]' s]>|iiiir <l»(k, a hhIiMmioo lit llttt- 
|H)»tHl thHt uiiiki- ibu i1tU'kD«i«» k'vo I'law" to tlliniiinktlon, howrvcf Uvbh. llU 
HiiliHlaiii'o In <l<jiit>h' rofmctivR. Thlo hcIIoo la lirnanl the drpolorlMtlon ol fi> 
ray (iM- jj- UN). 

On aiibmlllliiti T.h«i miulnwl'* lilood cryctnlti to this tout, thtijr nn tmori M, 
rnnnludnik in Ihcclnik UnMof thp polan»iiiginln<wei>pi!ii!ipii th^'j* >n.-i 
vith the AppoTODt linjul jilnnc pcrjicndlcalitr to tbe axh of tba iustrtminil t 
rotated : nor when u ttunrtx plnta i# liuAtted. dn Ihcjr pntduoc any modiflealtu^ 
tile lint OB the stugir it tuinrd. 

HrtiL-c thr preniimption is, that Ihcy bL-loni; to tile liexa^Onal tf9M,\ 
tliomljii: cryslHlx of liL-znicoiiiil liab[l or ihombic Ivriox wimlrf pfodiMMnMd 
rofrnclioci vjbt>n t'XiiniiiiH'l in tliin wmj. 

tt. In giiDcmlly «i;itei1 IliHI blood (-ry»t3l* »r<> dOiObljr TcfMetlnK xnd 
chromfttio (}a. oihlbli llni* »» tho apper nlnnl U ratatcd). Wo wc !l b mchnV ' 
to make no exoeptino to thti- rule in the cat; of bexnf;oEkal plaie* wbcn lyinflit 

It U found that the hoxofronnl rrytiat* (roin BqniireVs binod uv loo wiaU •»! 
thin 1« allow of otio applying the odditioaal cnioial tn>t of the inUrtmoct 
fipin* Dceii ill cunverjfpiit polnriMn) li^ht. Ttii>tt ooinnaC of a orom aad (itds. 
whioli arc ainiiiielriL'Hl in unlaial iTVilJilr-, aiyitimt<Triciil tn blaxal crriutl*. 

W« htitt. however, in ilie caH^ of the humntvr tl>e oceurn'DM' of tbombebtdi*' 
nrysUbi thli conrirm> thv view tliat <lit> cryt>t«U am mo hanyoiM ■• <W 
rlii>inb«hedron IwIodk" t^ tbn iii'Xftgonol •Talam. 

It it foucil. bovrevcr. tlint after tiectrslnlliiins' iqiiIrTeI'<oxyhsiiMslnbiii«*|B' 
ttaim. their heug-onal coaititntion it brokea dava. and the ctT>talaobtsfaBd*M 
cithM rhombio priiim or a mlilnfo of the»e with rhowbio totrahcdm.' W 
luadii tis lo b«liMe that what«\-er the ditermee betweru the t«rio<iB loRU '' 
uiybwiiiOKtobin may Iw, it cauiiot Vw n very <l>Mp or «w«BtiaI oo». 

But« wo tb«ni to dnnl with n i:!!i><i nt )>olyniarphl«ia 1 Th* leniM diiuH)AlM 
and polymorph biin cannot. Ih' appliud to any untwlance which ctt»uUIIm* in t** 
or morn form*, nnlou itu^ compoalllon of tlint anlwlDnce be cxaetlr tbt Ma*!" 
all cntoL InalnDoea of dimorphi:-!!! in thcr mineral world atie earboti and nV 
amon^ the ejcmcrila, and >al aiuiuoiiiiic. potamtitui iodide, kc. among eiuu|iiMh 
Tbeoonditiana uimbichdiinarpliian'lependsare two : lirat, tem p ew tm e; a)M* fr 
the aolTCiit troui which the 8atnlan<^« crytiiiiliNiK. ](. n^ in t]|« qim of ■■V 
mlDeral miIih, Ih* com|Miindi' nri^ nnli«d with i31IIcr«nt proportimu of mi" * 
cryMalllMttoti. wo turn tn deal with different hydrotM. ant Iba aM b ao xa**^ 
true dSmorphlMn ; an Inatnooo of tbl« la autphatc of aodo. 

I Anfitbwr |i«mtjliiir rviitilt fff iwrryi'talliititix hwinnglnhiii luw l>^en fioiDWd > 
Kopffar anil innm r^iwntly hyl KriiifiiT iZnt. JftaL xkir. 47), Uutl i*^ tllat th» t 
«OvfHi^*f ^t of cjiyiiHiRinyl'ibiii ii(m«MiK afttf^r rHrryiLlAlIi>alinn- lb ^etomuhiof t 
Into amtiniit of oithiHrna|{1ol>iii l}y tliK h{HK:tn>plioUHn«tw (hv p. AO} iA ia hnA oalj "^ 
VMiTjiilKlli'H oni*. u MLi'h rvcynUUiiiiliii" >iu-r«a>Mi> tliv vrror ol aliamnUaii. 

* Halliburton. (t<iarl. Jiiurn. Mic- hVirnri. iirlii. 1HI. Soma mMffcablr b""* 
iHyhtf™(>lclel>in Vrrnljilri niv nlmt Hini*Liiiii-« (ililaiiiMl by diaaolvlac a tahMn f^ '^ 
hmtKiflobin of lariouH auiniidH nctil tlu'M t-nHtallihjnif. 



Tbe cMMT ■arm- lo mc to naxrow ilsrif dmrn Id thin in tlwcaaoof hiFmoglolrin ; 
dUwt ve Itaic tii'io a ouc of polytuuqiliinm, otilio crrainlUiiL' fumiBatediielotli* 
ODOibtaMUao with i^iylnft ptcq>0(11«ni> of wAltruf aii«(ntliitnt!oii. In llie alHtnoe 
i<» mloiwl tonaniM lot hwaogloliin. It WQuld bo unutlr to uHirm the tOrmeraf 
Ikoa l«v altenutivo. UooMver, tbc ct^idllloii' Ibat arc knovii to prodnoa 
dtnorplusm In iiiiB«i«K o^imij, iltlTiiruDccs of tciapcnitare and «( iiolvcni, hnvii 
i* iW caa> of luDiBOf latin no iDOneiice, 

If w« UiMi toll b*c>k on the Inttvr allcrtikiit*. theqtmiion nliloU ariwn U 
wiwIbT Ibttv w Boy tiKt* to »uppurl ll. Thi> MipbuiatioD llint llie tuying torto 
•foijbi^aeloUn ll due to VBiying <]iiimtili» of wntcr of crykMl1[>Hlioti may bv 
■ibanrlM opreuHl by inytcg Ibat wc have to Anal willi lii/frmit iyJrMtw 1/ 
—yla magtMiL. Tbia wonld oocount for tlic isr^ing salabiliilm of (li«*a Mib- 
Mlmi tn watMT and otbi-r ruaitcnt*, iiixl nt tbt> pume tine !■ not mcb nn eHcntial 
J rtit wo a B* to pr«Tvnt ibu uliiuf prup«Tii<n> ul Mjliiaincigloblu trata being 
nt*«rMlly Ui« muM. 

Temliiic 10 Ho|>pe-S«yk>^ rmmtcIim on llUa oubjaot of wiu«r of oryaulUtft- 
tkn. It U Mcn tbnt fu aiDOiint varlea cocioiilemblx. The following it IUk 

Voff» hvinogloblD 
OslncA-plf't „ 

S to I 


rin Ml cnrlicr popcr,* the mudo sutlior gtvM mtber AUtontnt pi^oantngea, tIi. 
br |*bwn-plc'>' Iuem>gl*>^'i> ^ 'or soowli hiciiiOKloblti T> and far K|ulmtralumnO' 
iIoUd S. C. Ihdit' biu niotc tcivrnt^y tuiOu obiervnUoEu on Ibc nnlor of ciy»tal> 
UadoM of dcs** hfHnoglobin. and na tin nvnii of ililnuen «ipuriRiBntii bn flnd« 
ihM tiaaatODBt tariM tiDOi C 3 I« 1'3 [4r c«nt. ji In ibiu rMn ttiat prcat t-aria- 
ttoM ooou la iha nnnibei* obtained b^ tboe cxin'iinivnt*.' Tli« imaoa tor 
Ikb larlatkM •(«)>• to bo the gtnat dlfflcnlty of obtaining luumoRlobin in u pnio 

Itaht, ftad Itlto powibly booBiiae tlie method adopted, which b llic raaw iw that 
■niad oat to limilni invottij^iona on inorTaoic Milta, 11 not applicable to micli 
K ooaiplex nnd inuL-h 1<b« Mable af)>iuiic auiu]>ouiuI ai bemoglobiu; in otbor 
word*. tW I«mpenlun ctCMnur to driro off tho nnter of cry Hall laatioc is aita 
Mffldaal to raw Milalii docoinpodtloii cbangts In tho plgnicQt. 
Ify tfpfriniPDia hme aJiown thnt iqoirrol'i <.>x^'h;umog1obbi will nodar certain 
ilnaiaitniiin cffitalliic In fomu other Uian ihu uinal beaa^aanl fnnn. A 
VKial eopetinwol in onler to im nlietliet tlii» i- dii« to union iritb dUti'ruiil 
awmta of water vf oryolaUisiitloD would baT« btcn fir>t 10 owariain tho lunouDt 
■< thia «*ter in tlia Iic^ofatuil CTy»t«lii, luid ihi>n in tho rhomMc ctrttnli obtolntil 
tf r«e>7«tallUadan. I have purfuroacd ilirca (uch axpcrlniKat*, but the multa 
an <«nAieling. and exhibit variationa aa gtvmt a* In Hohr*a eiperi- 
, M that it b impondblo to dmw maj oondiuaoot fnin ilieD), uoopi the 

1 PAynoIorurA* Ch*mir. p, 9TT. 

■ IfnL C)>*m. Cnlfmrl>f»fen, Halt 111. Vbttl. r- *TU. 

KalvalMkKeii -Olivn uii Co.). I MM. 

> Tlia HUiw diAfOllv ID obtaloIiiK Miuord&nl mntU i> Um etUinalinn of wattir of 
iMllMliaa va* IoukH by J. G. Olto, Pjlufri'i ArtA. ml. 910. 




De)t*'i*<-' orii' Ihat we vannut by onr picnnt methoda nt rMeaich nakcaj 
diHlntliT ilaK'uiont wrilj rvfpinl (<i the miter of raptlalluDlion of (ixjIiaaiHiciotd. 
Ktitd If It bo Umad uttlnintety that tll(^ 'lifTcreiiFu in rrftttHSat bM» a 
(UipcmdiiDt on Tnrjiug ninoiinlt of wxtar of c-tjxtnlll«alliin, tlie diSonUj h aif 
expUJncil Dp to D oerlaiD point. What i* Irfl unnx|>Jf)innl i« tlie Bslun ol ll> 
a^Dcy iluit oniii» tbc oxrluumoglobin of limine nnimnls to atitM>wttliac*iV* 
iinuxmi 'i1 wuitT of cryRluIliMlioii. and that of other uitmnla Ktlh * dibnrt 
araoiitit. Tliai adiih) •uch giiloiancu or »)!i'ri<.^y does «xi>c would soom to bt tfv 
Innvtlablft reiult of Ilu> rccrjitnllliatlon mptnliiirnis wlik^li linie been lehttA^ U 
may. howcvpr. lie iiiitcd ilint thii putt it not pinrrd lii' any oaiwtliaoni tl Ac 
BOnfll. Tli<? curjiosulvn of uul- auiinBl ui>y be? obtnlaotl (rrn from ti-nain lijooKi- 
fO^iaint.' and liitMi niiKin^ irith ttii- nerxiai ot womt OtIiPr nclniAl wiiOt tioti 
firyolal* Iiukt luiothHr form. Itiit. H is found on lubicqaRni nniialtlxUlts IW 
ilia i;iiu»c(eri*tic totia of tlie blouil crvntalB is cot allftrud thcivbr. OncMXtll 
FogKRii tluit It Ik iioin<; nniutltudnt of tb«> atrumn nbtch Mcrta tbe JiilliMfi h 

CumpuutuU of HirrnogMnn 

Hwiuogtiihin (otntu at iMist four comjioiindK with gtWM, vu. ; 
With oxygon : 1. Oxyhnmoglobio. 

With carbonic oxidti ; 3. Carbonic oxide faAiuiogloljiii. 
With nitric oxide : 4. Nitric oxide liit'inoKloltin. 

Thnm compounds ure isoitior]))i(»uK, thpy bnvn umilnr cr 
form* ; they nach i-otisisl ])robal)ty of n molfviilp of hinooglohin 
binfid with oni; of tho (pi,.* in qiic>tion. Th»:y jwtn with iho oomM 
g«8 som<"*-hat r«dily ; but. thry nn- nrmngpd in ord«r of stoluliifiB 
the above list, the least otnble tirsit. 

1, OityhirmwjIiJiin. — Tfii^ i« the compound which exists in mMU 
blood. Many "f >'8 j'ro|*iiic8 have Iteen alivady int^nttonid. H* 
ox^tm ItnkLHi to hiL-iuoKlobiu, which 't» rmuovcd by thr tiwurai tino^ 
which the blood circultttvo, timy \>^. called tk» nupimlory oxfff ¥ 
httnityfohtH, Tho ciix;uni>itanct« undt^r whkh hmiDOglobiD imwAm* 
with and parU from its ivspiratory oxygen in the body will beMf 
dcKcnbed under ' RespinttioQ.' But the same procesftoti luuy be imittt" 
oatJtide the body, ttsing either blood or pure solutions of lutwio(bl>^ 
The rf»|>ir»tory osys^o can be removed, for example, in th« ToerictUl* 
vncuutii of an air pump. Preyer ' estimated that 1 itraui of bnrinoglil^ 
will rombinn witJi I'27 cc.'of oxygeti, Hiifiicr* give* aln»oxt thfiV^ 
nuinlicr, vii. 1'2S c-c. of oxy^i. 

A. Schioi<H nt one tinw! conniderMl that tlie rwpiiutory ojryyt" ^ 

' < Dir BtHtiTjftiillr, p 1S4, 

• UawoMil ai D*C. ii-\ I moln prouun; cqalvkloni to t-BI cc. mnMurad *)''• 
■nd IM tudthneliM rniwn. 

* Hilfiiur. Zril. phgtiol. O&m. I. SIT. 



kmglotiin vtan ozonised, and thirrefore more ftetive t!;an nti)iOK|>henc 
v^fta. PAuj^r ' has «liowii that this is not tb^i ciiae. When dilutivl 
Und ia dmppml on a filter paper whit-h htm )<eeti tii(>isteiii-d wJUi 
B'wtim of guaiiieiira and then dried, a liluc riii-j; smnt-tinii-s forms nt 
tbtdlg^nf thr drop. In fact it nets its ostnnc ilo(^', whon lihcTHtiMJ, f<tr 
mnple, front }iydrof:en peruxidi-. But Plltigcr has shown thnl wheo 
Uooi i* pourtyl on filli-r pitpcr in thn way just di^scrib«<d. d^ooiitpnii-iti'iu 
(if tin) bn-TDO}i;liil)in iilnuist inxtAiitly o<?c-urs, htkI it is the pt'odueld of 
liwnn position which occiu-ion the i-enciion. 

We havo litill the i^pectroscopic ch&racten of oxylutCDOglobin to 

I&e vArioiin (unua id opi«.'tri)acopi' (mvc lu'i-ii iih'iMdy Hrs.Til>pd 
^17). It <vi!) Ih3 ■urtii-ii.-nt tlf^^ I') mpi-jit thnt th« Kp(xtrii8cape i8 
itutrunirtit which cnnblMi ux to telt thi> «)iour of n solution or 
tna^mrant sal«l»nc« nioi'<> iicciimtcly titnn wo i-nn with the uiiatded 
tiiin. Whtti- li^bl pBSsi^l thrnoyh th« coloured substance and then 
lliMgh a prisiD no longer gives a coatiniious spectrum, but certain 
|wt« nl it arc abnorherl, h«nco the appearance of dark tihadows or 
■iavcptioi) hands >n v.iriouH parit. of tha spectrum. Theso bands 
muB oonttant in position for the same aubstanoo, and tliuii fumlih 
■ <rillt a delicate t«et for that substance- We speak of the position 
Uw absorption bands, either by tii«ir neif;hbourlioo(l to ci^rliitn of 
U( bisck tines ( Frauiibofer's tines) of the solar spectrum; or more 
Mrant*]y Mill by measuring their position in wavedcnjilhit, Tli<; sign 
^^MotM wave-length ; in absorption spectra, the edip^u of tho bnniU 
MmMtiinesfioill defined, and vary in position with tlieconccntrntion 
•• tli8 liquid, that more often the position of the centre of lh<- iHind 
Mlwr tliAU lbi«t of its edges is given. X 500 meaits a wur«-Imgtli 
^ImI to SOO ntiUionths of a millimetre. 

Tie two next flgnres illustrate a method of represvntin^ ali- 
Hplkia Bpectm dia^rainiiiiitioMlly. Tlie Kolulion wasi (!XHmin«d in a 
on« ccntinKTtnt thick. Thn l>nse line has on it at tho proper 
tb*! chi^'f PmiiTihofc!!- lines, and alou]{ the right hand edges nro 
Uigt* of tho lunount of oxyhnmoglobin pi-cnrnt in I, of induced 
iu in 11. Tho width of thi; shadings at each level represeiita 
.'■■faiitiou and amount of ali^orptiou corresponding to the |)eroe»ta^'(«. 
Th» dwtttot eristic s|jeotrum of oxyhieinonlobtn ((Imt obacrvwl by 
'l«r) ia seen aa it nctiudly appears ihmugli the npi^roscope in 
Mitfigiuw (Rg. A9, ipHctruni 2). Tliero are two distinct absorption 
li«1ween tbn D aitd K Une« ; tiie oii« nrarc-it to O ftho a hand) 
DATTowcr, darker, and wilJi batt«r deliiietl edges lliun the oilier 

r 2 



(t)ic! /> liantl). Tho cAtitra of the a 1i(tii<l crirrrufxiiKU to A Gift, i 
biinti to A tjMH (QaiDgM '). As will !»• seen by lookitig at 
tolution of oxyh^emoKloljln of concentration grcnt^r thnn 0*6^ ' 
an<t less thnn O'^it per cent, gires one thick band overlapping 1 
and E, and «. stronger solutiitii Btill, only Ivts tiie rml light 
between the O and D lines. 

A solution whicl) gives the tvu characteristic bands mnst 
be adUute one. But, as before said, we am nble with *ncU txAt 


Kh f 


A Br V 


fl'U >***-— ''TinAtie niir^crilAttun* ol tlic uuuuiilul jib>ur|>fjrjiL ul litest hy Hjriiikimof 111 
flitltln, (lit ol limmrulitltiH. at 'iitl^ront atr-Ej^Lli*. I'Ur qtiaitiritf Iri'lliKUa tTii' ^kiiiniiif 
H/ju nS llic Bi-ntiifw ; Mir ilfnT«oii thf rlv'<t l->nlfT r^pi-** j-M^^rcilmrw" (hoUttit. 

oxylwnioglobin, or defibrinated blood will do Wjuaily well, to 
tliB niducllon of oxyhseiuoglobin whicli occurs in the body, 
linrt ]H>inted out by Professor Stokes.' who employed for tbe 
the n-duL-ing agent now Icnown as Stokes's ttAgeal. 

The following iim the iiieanH by «'hich we ciui dixpUoc tbo nq 
oxvgen in a solutton of oxyba:mu){!obiii ; — 

{I) By boiling it in the Torricellian vniruum of » nKirvurial ui 

(2) By patwing tlinxigih th« itolution n nnulml ga* such M 
hydrogen, or carbonic acid. 

(3) By the use of r«lucing agents, 
(n) Stokes's reagent : & solution of ferrous snlplutte, to 1 

<^ii^ir1lf. tlif^ Mm takiTH titbi-r fr^ou CiAn;j;i,#^H na*4«uiymvn1a, Of Cnm tho 
Mri^MnaTi. aiiil pnbliiihwt iti UcK*n<tricJ['ft I'Aytwioyjf. 
' StokM. Proc. Hoy- -^w- !■■'■ SST- 

T2K BI/ioI) 

(i—r»nlnli1 —;-•■--■ fl. Miir'-i ' 
(a: Hsond hu'I. J> v-:-'Vl n:, . 

HM IWMllIn f'lll'Rsl •"UlTNui ' 

lat-tOs lOortt »"''. » si'-i^ " -I 

m, ll.lparuw u( •tkillUi' li-iTi I'.'. . 
It(l4 taM AK^ 'tl' : FiiDT'Ti )uii'i 
taSlllfaDUn ni ■ intlllnirur. I :,. 
•4pM«t IDiltaBnl banili mj ■ E»"i '■'>-' 

.^'.-.liln firl.- |i,i. 4 .lilt 1.1.,]. nr-l I I. • I'l. 

,■!■■ iiii iinih.i, i_;.'f-T.'. t, -.p-' i-imi .rt riL 
,' "iir-'hVI .1, ^i*-'rirni iir M<ftlp»uii'i;]ikMn 

' "' Illutr kOluikiiO- f\i'l InlnV A C(T-, Innii. i llll-t»). :. "imtrun. <.T 

- iinil iwii'i. ^ Ml.irr ; iMnl t»ir<l. a 

'iilliiH.' Ibn^nialtri, Ittijil fTriiii a AAt-}'! 

yinl liiri'l, A Siin-Jti;: xiniiiil linFii). i, 

I Hi rmfii], A 4 *7-!/^^ : Kitn^jl TuijihI, a '-^S' 

■ tiaiul. A«ii-'.iJ : t^wii.! hiiiiv J *?n-in'- 

.lpi-»Ti* inpAtiirikPLii*!)!* fftftp-r Mji/Hlliifiitl SI. 
■ ■ iii*it la ■ UfiT -mr tra^iiiuKtr tlriH^'l:. Tliw 
p ciuivntraOon n( ih» mlullom. 



tittle tnrtario or citric acid hns lie^^n Mlded, aiid tb«n anunooia tUI 
thi.- reaction i> atlcnltnr. Tliis I'l-itK^'iit rapidly diirkum in the air, ud 
moHt til- fri-slily mudp pvvry tim" it is umid. ^| 

(6) Iiifitcnd of fen-ous sulphate, stniinouh clilondif miiy bf iMed V 
the preparation of the forpgoing. Thin hnn the i«!vnnt«p' of not 
darkeiking, »« it absorbs oxygen. It however intist a1*o bo &l«i}i 
fmhiy prepared before using. 

(e) Ammonium sulphide. This on the whole is the most convmi^ 
reagent to use. tliouj;h it is soiiiewhal alower in ite action Uun 
two prts.'iMlini{ ; u little gentle wnriiitli will liowever battan 

Uains any of tliesf iiielh<xl!t the colour of oxyhmnoglobin < 
(u the [JurpHih tint of Ini-nio^lobiii, ivtid by tht? speetrosoops i 
bands are ni>w seen to be roplnced liy one, cuUt'd the y liand ; ' 
band in not ki> wi-tl detinf^ ns ettimr tlie u or tlu- y] band. It« | 
b^■t«rcl:n tlii- D nnil E lines is dmotiHl in fig. Ad (spt-ctruiii 3); 
dArl:i-!it nI)oiit A f>M. 

Uii dilation the band fadee rapidly, so that in n solutioD o( i 
concvnC ration that both bands of osyhi«iniO);lobin would bo 
distinct, tile single b.tnd of reduced ha'moglobin hns disappeared I 
\i«w. The <Jsyhii*iucj(;lotjiii bandii can be dtHtiiiguiahed in * 
which i^ontoiitH only one pitrt of Ui<! pigment lo 10,000 of watCTtJl 
rwa ill iii<:iri' dilutv solutions wliicfh are appiLTeuily colourlen, 
luuid in still vinblr. 

On jNimng oxygon through a solution of hn'nui^tobin, nr on Juilinf 
it up with thr air, oxyhfcnioglobin showing its two li«ndK, rcappwA 

S, M'^/tinnogttiliin.—'Tbh it R ooiupoun<l of buiDOglotMO "T* 
oxygen which can be produicd artiticinlly ; it nUo occum in the ix^l 
tinder cprtAin circuinstancr'*, p.g. in ccrtnin dt««u;ml conditioU it 
occurs in th« uiine (see HioDioglobinnrin), and after the ailtninistntioft 
of large dosM of pol«ssiun> or sodtnm chlorate it occurs in Ui« Mon'< 
and dentil is the ultimate rE<?ull. 

It iNny W derivwl iirtificially from » solution of oxylmtcofjlotan it* 
ib^ fnllowini; u-aj's : - 

(o) When a solution of oxyliieiiioglobiu is expoaad to tlw air i** 
sli.illi>w Uyers for some time, ft bf-i-omes add in retiction. bnmt »" 
colour, and exhibits the elmraL-teriiiiic s|iec1ruw of UKrthinnogloliio. 

(ft) On the addition of various uxidisin;; agents the launa otc&r* 
potasniuui pcmianganatp, |K)tiu^iuni ferrieyanide, niiriti? uf puUuBiii» 
nitrite of amyl,' Ac, act in lliis way. Hente the vi^w 

HafMB. Cempt. rmJ. ciL MS, gim k Ions liM of mK«ntk IImI art in tU* Wf- 



liaattd hy Sorby,' thnt ravthicTiioglobin in more highly oxygi?na,ted 
Iba o^hicniogloiHU ; that it is in f&ct a. pcr-oxyhirmc^lobiji. 

|(i 3l«(hMDq[lobJn way however be prepared by removing part (rf 
' oxygen of oxyhvmoglobiii by means of the mercuriitl air puiup, or 
uc ol palUdium mturated with liytIro>{eu. Hoppe-SeyW,' nrho 
Ambes Otv >bov« uielhuda, tJierefoi« reKai-da uiatiiu-moglobin ah a 
Rik<ixyhKiiM)f;lo)itn. ^Xniicbever view was held aa t<> its (.-onstitution, 
it *M •dinitted by alt thnt Ihu oxy^fMi of tiietb»moj;l<ibin i« mon 
Craly combined than thAt of oxyliiitmogli>biii. Still it ckd be removed 
Ij ndadn); agents^ The oxygen is however not removable by tfaa 
vfvnpt itor by « slreAiu of a ueutral gas like hydrogen. On adding 
VMOaiiun sulphide to a solutiou of methwnioglobin, the tirst cha:iga 
ii (0 oxjfawmoglobin, and then to reduced lijemojulobin ; th«ue chungtM 
an be wmtehed with tlie Hpectroscojie. 

Mut* rewntjy, however, Hiifner *uiU Ktlk' liave advanced a third 
Atuy cODoemintc Uiv coiulitution of uethu^moglobiii, iind tlmt ix that 
il MDtauui thi? snmi^ nuioiint of oxygt-n as oxyhiunoglohjn, only in a 
dMV ttMtv of GOtnbinntiiin. Thr^y arv nl>ti'! to iniiko this iiESi^ii>n from 
Mtnl aludyscB i' «nd tbrxc nnntysrs wen; |)Ossible, innstnuch tut they 
NMwdcd in obtAiniiig pore niRthirmaglobin ui a cryBtnllinn form. The 
Ml«d of obtaining these cryrtalii is an folIowK :•'' — Thrr<^ or four cubic 
ttatiBetiea of a conoentratod solution of f<>rricyanii]e of potnssiuiu ate 
i&ImI to a litre of coucenlraled solution of hK-nioglobin. A ijuarter of 
• litre of klcolio] in add«d, and the mixture frozen. After one or two 
^ifit txftaairt! tu this low temperature, abundant cryataU of )t brown 
tdcv, which (jive the absorption speclnun o£ nietliuuio^lobiu, uro de- 
pvled. Thvj w«r« obtjiined in this way from the htt^uioglnbin of the 
<hgp9> "^^ horw), and thi-ir form in the Kauie wt tliitt of t.)i<' oxyhivmo- 
IWbi ctyMftIs of thi- »ini<! nnimiili, i.n. rhombic prisnu. (inmgee" had 
fnyuwl tboso crystals from dog's blood nuiny years previously, but 
t^ ttve nature was not at that tiino recognised. His mHhod wu 
9tA the tune as llufner's, the chief difTMraice being thftt the nitrite of 
fW—liiiiii or aniyl was ciiiployed instcwl of ferrioyimide of potAeaium. 

^tderiiolu' luia also obtained (Jie«c crystals from dog's blood by the 
(mtcyamde raetiiod, and conlirma liufuers statemeut that they arc 

'Snrb}, Qudrf.J. J/ir SHmef, IHJil, j.. lOll, 

* tlnf-»Kjirt, Zeit. FMgnol. Ctlem. ii. ISO. 
'ZM.plkfhol Chnnv, lii. 

' nihir aDil KaU smplajnd tlie tpcctniihotainFtTiF mMhnd 1*1^*1; In Uinir woA, 

* 0. llUnot, ' Uebet kryitiiib'iiwh» UoUiilnuiKloblii vom Ilundu,' Ztil. yhftioL 

' A. CuBy. 'The adion ol N'itritM oa Blood,' Philo: Traru. laWi. ji. 5Mt. -t le^. 
' liiltk. /Sr 2NoL n. 410. JwlnrKahn now ii^pvM Bitb HIIfnM iiiid KliU with 
'Vi to lilt <ioi ii ficwtign ol iiirlli<ii>n>3||l"tiiii. 



rhombic pristnii. Uo ftlso tij^ures some crystals of iiiethwniq;ic^ 
obtftined by Hamcnarsten from the hone by the aame method, ' 
were regular li.v-iskled pliiten, and Hhowed no double refraoUoD it lyigl 
flat ; thpy therefore presunmbly Ifelon^^ to the hexaiTDnftl syst«n; i 
wen-tnore insoluble in water than tlie vrytiialfl o( do^a inetJixrna 

When one wishes, however, to obtain m suinll qiuiutity of 
for Dkioroacopic examination, the followiiiK &iiii|>Ii-* lUDiliod ina; 
etuployed.' A few c.c. of the (IcJibriDated btoixl of an nninuil (nt, 
guine«-pig, or ic|uirret) arc tak<^ii, and un p(|ual numlwr of 
nitrite of amyl oiildifL Tli<- mixturv ih vigoniURly slmken for » I 
or two. Tlie colour changps to thi? dark rhowlatc tint of met 
and Kpitclrtucopic observation shown tlie typical alttorption 
that compounct. A drop of this liquid is then placed ' on a : 
covered ; In a fpw i»tiiutr« crystjitx fctnn, which obscrvntion with 
spoctroacopi' shows to l>e compnsed of inetJitrmo^lobin. I'hr^ eiigtil 
Um cover-gloss may then bi^ sealed, n.n<l tjie crysi4ila keep nncbntgBi 
for Kpvcral months. 

'file cryxtaU ohtflined from g:uinca-pig's blood by tJiis prooen^ 
tetrahedro, wjiich <liRcr only in colour nni) spectroscopic app 
from (hose of oxyha?inogiobin from the same animal. 

The crystals obtained from squirrel's blood are perfectly 
hexagonal plates, which remains dark between ctywsed nicols. 

The cr.\-aials obtained from rat's blood are alio perfectly regnli' 
hexafconal plale«,* which remain dark between orosMd niools. Mid 
which uonsciiuently are precisdy similar to tliotM>of s(|uimd'H nwtl 
globiu. Tbia remarkable fact helps to slmw tlmi the iliirrntioe luAn 
the oxyliM-auiglobin of thetie two aoimab cuinot be a rcfy deep v 
CMM'ntinl one. 

The »]>octruni of inetlwiiu^lobiu aliowN tlinw ahHorpttou band>. on* 
in the red about half way br-twireii the C and D Un«<s, and two atl^| 
between the D and E Mmrs which roMtmble in position those oE M^' 
IneiBaglobin. but on careful measurement are found to be different.' A 
fourth iiidiiiinet band in Ihe blue has aUo been describe*! (jm fig. S'l 
Rpcctra !i aud C). On nddin;; amniotiia to a solution of met)iirmo|[lo 
the first two lurndt sliift a Utile tiiwaniK tlie violet end of th<* sr 

■ Bdlibntton, <tuaii. Jonrm. Hie. Srifiter, xKriu. Ml. 

■ Thia niiLil he 'Ion* iiiiMi'lHlili tltrr Ih* tormMion of th* eho(»1at«4Dkiand li 
ta m ■fcciut • qoiuwr el an botu Iha whole liquid art* into ■ pUtiniNu maa «l tta itf** 
ColoaT, hom whirli no rryitkla Mw idiUinaUa. 

> A lew (naa^rlfa and kmnt int<<nnKliiiU! lN4w«en IrungUa Mti fn|[llll ita»t^ 
ar« abo lovniL 

* Anki oDDf Idar* Uul thine bwidi arc Jna t» admixtan «ih i»»iiluan<liN» (£•'' 
j/kj/titL C^em. siv. Ml). 




lUl spectmiQ n ioin«t{ii)ee upoketi of as that of klkaline me^luemo 

3. CarbtnUe cxidf AtfiN0j)o6m,— This may be readily prepared hy 
I^mIiH ■ iririiiii o( cartMnio oxide gu' through blood, or through a 
wistlan of oxyWiiKiKlobiu. lis colour \s a peculiar i;h«rry-red. It» 
•lMsr|>tioit HfeciruDi (<M fig. IVO, 4) is very uiuch like thai uf oxylia>iiiQ- 
gloUD, but tho two bkndii arc slightly neairer Ui« violei end of ttie 
(faotmin ; Itie cvntrc of the n b&nd beiug \ 572, of Uio ,i luiid .\ ri34 
U 538 Bcconting to concmtrntin]) (Gamgee). 

CO-lunDoglobiin fomin crj'Ktnlii Hko thow of oxyhiuiDoglobin ; it is 
miBArknUe for its stability ; it is not aflectvd by reducing ng«ntA Uka 
•miKiniuni sulphide, and t.h<- carltunic oxide gan can only be driven off 
by puMti;: tiiniagfa it for n long time ft iitriwm of air i>r of a noutrsl 
^s, or by A strenm of nitric oxido gn* whicJi rcplnoss thn cnrhonic 
Mide Mxl forms oitric n\id«- hicmoglnhin. CO-hn-nioglobin kIrii rvsists 
patre&ctiou for n long time ( Hoppe-Seyler *), 

Cartiouic oxide is gireri off during tho imperfect coinlmMion of 
nrlioii, such as occurs iu charcoa] stoteK; this acta aa a powerful 
|Mison by couiliinijig with tlie hvmoglobin of the blood, aud tlius iuler- 
Irrtng wilh ttonnni rv»ptnitory procMate«. The colour i>f tho blood and 
itH rva*tvinor> t^i reducing agents in .ttich cn-tci are chanicteriatic. 
B<jp|>e-Seyl('r lias, howercr, another tejA which luui Iwcn 
ntflifiixl by HidkuwKln* as follon-x : The blond in i{uc«lion is dilut«d 
twenty tinvc ami to some of this in a te'tt-tulto nii oqual volume of 
•queoos soda of *.pocific gt-ut-ity I '34 i* added. In a few oecondx 00 
bhxM! twoniiies whitUli, then ml ; on standing rod Hocculi sepamte and 
nnally rite to th'^ fiurfaco of a faintly ntse-colnured lii.|uid. In tiomial 
UootI all tluiL U pruduceil bv the ndditioti of the alkali is » dirtj'bixjwn 
»j<Ntratioii (lui-iuatin). Working under Salkowski's direction Kata- 
yain» • has diacoverod a new test wluch may be bi-ielly stated a« fuilovrs : 
Tb" addition of acinic acid and amuioniuiu sulphide (with Aiilphur in 
utioti) to normal bloi,>il jiroducea a greenish -gi-ey or reddish green- 
colour ; to CO blood, ft beautiful clear rosc-recI is produced. This 
solution HhowN a sgiech-iim whiuh is a douMi- K[M'(--truni, indicating that 
tlierv is in solution CO-ha'moglobin ondsulphur-methmmoglobin (Hoppo- 

ler*), viz, one bond beiweon C and I>, and two others between I> 

■ Til' (■• ta»y \w i!>'i>FrM«l I'T Hiding lulidiiiric luid In naWe ooid or lonnni uiil in 
I ffvfort. iinil 4i'plpii|£ hr4t. 

' ItofiiT'St-ylii. Zrtt. plifnol. Clian. it 191. 
_a y^ Utik'TKiki. JbiJ. ai. V3T. 

K^tfT""'- fi'cAon-'f Arrtriv. IMfl. vol. niv. f > ^^' Itnlnrtaice* vill be laani in 
|pM|ior lo ollm tfltt* vhtrk tiAvc licwn ptopotvd fcir CO'liumoglofiiii- 
• FhifM. Chro'. p. SM. Tim <nni|K»lllon nf «ii1|<)iiir niotbiiiin"|;liibin !• not kiunni. 


uid C The tjiectrum aliowu by nonnnl blood aftM th<< iiit4liti«n of tliow 
reogeiiU ii iil*o n doubta ipeotnini, vix. of miliibur luethiMnoglotnii mid 
r«claeocl luPBtoglobin. In oth«rwoTx1s, in UMcAseof C(J-lta>uH»;lobiii 
tli« colour of tiwt compound oomjilebtljr mulu Uie olive-grai-u tiut. of 
nil)>liur-ia«tlMUB<^obiti, whicJi qiectnucopic obaervndon ahowi to be 

4. JirUrte oxiil* ^tmtogtoliiv. — When iiuiuioai* » added to blood, 
•Jid tli«n » Htrcam of iiiti-ic oicUln {Misted through it, thin cotupound b 
fornif^l (IffinoAnn >) ; it luaj' 1)0 olrtAinrd in • cryKUllioc fonu inuMr^ 
pbouc witli ox/- fuid OO-hiFiiiogloliiii ; it dso lua h similar ipuctnuu. 
It is won Diore stable than CO-hienioglobiu. 

OIliiT c>>CDpound> o! hiKiiii^cloblii liavo be^a dcMribn) : ooio wiUi aoel]rlc*« 
(C'ltl,), aDOlhcr wllli hv'lnicytuiic ncld (Hopp^-^Ur).' Dt. OauigM!* hu, bo«r- 
tmr, poiatod doi tha aatuUioMinj oUan of iho nidoaec vpom wMcli Un 
exiiUnoe of raoli oompoomU m ta. 

BeoHitlj' (X Bohr ba* advaood Uio Iboorr Ibat tuuuo^oWa fonu a oonpoiuid 
wlUi earbaiuo aoM. Tbo IiDjiottiuicc o! tbia diaoOTorr, tf eoiufimiMl. it t««7 irmi, 
aa'lllM<iiiafiioa wlUbediiouMedui tbeelmpterou RnpiniUoii (Chapur XI\). 

I Ettitnatioti i^ HmnogUAiH 

The following nipthodB may bo ndof>tod for the quontitatira r*tiina> 
tion of hii-moglobiii :^ 

1. By the 4uiioont of iron in tlie ablt. 

J. By colorimeuic mothods. 

3. By Kpcotmpbotociwtric methods. 

1. A w(>igh«t ijnnnUty of blood or Hubntaiicr vontAiniDg hmno- 
glolHii is evapomted to dryness, tli« rvHidue iit cnn-fully [nd»Ot*t<vl nt 
a dull ml heat, the luh exliiiu&tvd «ith hydixicldoiic iidd ti> obliuii 
forric obloridv. Tills i& reduced by the octiati of nietnllic line to fnrooa 
chloride, aiid the amount of tron in this determiiwd volniiietrirnliy with 
a BtAiidai-d Mlnttun of {Mititaaiuin [lerinAii^iiate {irr itlm p. I'fi). Dtj 
hmiioglolrtii contolDS 0'42 per cent, of irun. If />i=j>i>rventage amotint 
of iron ID the ^wcinicn under examlniition, the |)orceiitaf;e of hnmo- 

globin in Uiat apcciinen => 'iCti,- 

3. Standard aolulions of knovii atreugth are ]>ivpiire<l fnna crystala 

ll )• loirtiwd b; jaariac a (tteuD d lulphuntud li]rdtnc*a Uuaui;li • (■•luiion ol oi;. 
^■ la aill ii l tM . Tba p«wriih tint vbldi a(fwu« c« tW ntHwv ol mr^B ■ Wm dajr* sltw 
lUalli it^DcCvlhirdvnlvpMnl ol ia]|ibBnU«4 hjdfvcca.uij tli* oraw^oant (unanuiui 
o( •ulpliut'inDlhunnaclaUa. Srt ilw AnU (.ZHt.f)if/tM. Vhrim. iii. Uty. 

' Unmttm. Rnelurt ■•hI i>ii Jloii BiymemO'* Atrltn. ISM, p <W. 

' llon»4^lM. ifi*l. f Am. Unlentit. UMi ii. p. WT. 



gjlobin. The lilood to Iw invcitipttfid it diluu^l with water 
oar of tli« KUtidnrd nululton is imclicd. Knowing tbe 
MMKUtt <t blood and the mnQtint of dilution, the percentage of tiauuo- 
Khtbin is «aaily cnlraloUHl (Ifo)>|H>-Seyler). 

Tl)' tint of the imlutioDS must l>e ascectAined br exniiiining them in 
(VMcl* «ttli panillel ^des nnd of the «»ioe witith. A lineuuliuoineltir, 
u Mtcli K tcMel ix uiUed, is uhuiiUj couBtiruot«d so tliiit Uie nideft nra 
I mnllBCtro apMrl. Rajewiiky ' Mvd MaIacme' recoinnieiul tliontiindttrd 
vlotion to Iw initdc u]> of iiiurucarniiiiBto of uuninitiA, tbo tint iif 
wUoh eomtpondH to thut of mi oxjihinnogloliiu solution of known 

In FteiscliVH hienkoineter n wedge of red-tinted glus forms tlie 
asndiird of ooiu[nriM>u ; the wed^ ih urmuged tu sliili* utider ii hoio iii 
ft farus (dale, tJie thickniiiui of the gliuia \av\er obg«i'v.itiuii caji thai) be 
tvmkI niwl adjuitt^d ho us to t;ive a i'e<l tint ei^uiU to tlmt uf tlie blood 
■ndM' exuliiiniiUun, whivli is alwu^H ililuLvd to » cnrbiiu lixod i-xleiit. 

Uowen' turmoil obinonieUtr, liki.' Flniscbr* uixtruiimut, i» deai^ned 
br dinical u««. Thi* tt)>pRmtu8 consists of two glaxi Luboa, c uid b, of 


tt»e siie. D contAins glycerine jelly tinted with cnrmine to « 

st«n<liird oolour, viz. titat of normni blood diluted 100 times wi^ 
dttUHcl w»(er. Tlie finger is pricked and 20 eubio loillinietres of 
likiud An- inMUnred out by Uie cnpillary pi|>ett«, b. This iii blown out 
Into th« talw c niwl diluted with distilW wat«r, added drop by drop 
bwia the pi)>ott9 stopppr of l^c bottle, a, until thi> tint of the dilutinl 
Unod reachea the standard colour. I'he tube, c, is gruduated Into 
> Rtianky, Pfiagrt't ArchU, rkl 70. * MalnBti, Jnt. rfa PAyMof. leTT, p. I. 



100 parU. If the tint of tii« diluted blood U the Bam« u th« atandjird 
Then the tube in filled up to the gnulunlion 100, tlie <[unnt{ty of nxy- 
bmaoglobin in tlio lilood iN normttl. If it ha* to bn r)ilutr<l mora 
hii^ly, the ox^'liainoglobiii in in nxcrta ; if to n iuiwl)f>r fxtrint, it a 1ms 
th&D normoL If th« blood has, for iiwtnnce, to be dilatnl up to tlu 
gimdiution SO, th« amount of liwnioglobin in only hiUt wWt it ought 
to 1)6—^0 p«r cent, of t>ie normal, and so for other p«rc«ntag«8. 

Tlie instrument only yields a)>j>rouiuat« results, but ia CLxtremely 
useful in rltuical obaervatJoot.' 

3. The speotfophotometrtc method for the oictimntioD of eolourvd 
aolutionii hu been almuly dencribod (w p. 50). 

In conn<>ctiDii uitli tlie rstinistion of oxyhironoglohin it amy !•«> 
nddecl Uial th« region of the spectrum selected for pliotomc<tric monture- 
nonta i» thiit of the li band of absorption. This gnrt of the Kpeotniui 
in t^M case of oxyha>inc^lotiiti has been found to )ie tliAt ntont eMsily 
afifocted by clinnf^es in the concentration of tlie solution through irhieli 
the light ptissea. 

<JliLxel>rook'«>peetmphotOMietcrt^ in principle, tltemnieas Hiifner'a. 
Ijj;ht from each of two sourceN paui^ firtX through a Nicol'i priun by 
which it in jiulnriaed, tlion thiituuh a dirrvt vinon ]>rLHiu ; thun, two 
luljaceiit tuiM'iiiatnt sjicctra arri obtninrid, and llii-jti< nm hIimtvciI by an 
eyvpivco in which is an aiialyxin){ Nioid's prism, llii* ^yei'lfvi? can lie 
rotated, and tlM amount of roUtion mpiuurrd by a poiuh'r attachod to 
tfao uycpiero moring o\-er a gnduated circle. Tlw nicoli an ihmi 
adja>>ti->l in the way already describod, ^o that the two qieotrs appear of 
(Ktunl brightiicM. One may theit proceed to inbirposo tlis ooleorcd 
•oluUoQ and measure tlie anglca thruugh whidi it ia neoeatary to i-oUto 
tlw nicob, or, more simply, in tlie following way, as saiggaatoi by 
Dr. Sbcndaa Lea.* Ou the path of one beam of light is pkcod a 
•olution of known coiK-etitratimi, and on (he patb of the otiier, oiM of 
ttukuown concentration. If the Utter is of ^ivater concentration than 
tlie first, it may be diluted down till thi^ ctl'ii-t u|n>u the two sjioctm is 
tba same ; from tlie amoant of dilution necessary to produce thia >>Scot 
(ta coneeniration can be calcuhttvd. Or the anw: etTect can >« pro> 
dooetl by varying the thicknoaa of tlie layer of lli« fluid under obkorva- 
tion ; thii latter plan is found Ur Ix' perfectly finLxibti-, and is n|>]<licnbte 
also when the oonoeiitration of Uie unknown solution is \v** tluin tliat 
tt the known ; and Ur. Lea lias inivnted an instrument (abciiqitio- 
nater) «*ith iximllel sides, one i-f which ia movable, and mi the tliicknan 
of tlx' InyL'r of fluid in it ran \>b varied (o kitown PkU-nta. Take as an 
UostraliiiD the following esaniple, which reduces btitasini)ilonteleR»-tita 
• Oovwi, LaiuH, m li. IST)^ p. Ml ' MifTiaaii t.M, Jamnt. itf I'hgtioL r. tO. 



At idMIiikI of speclraphotoiiietry. The spectra were first e(|uiLliwnd, 

nd ■ UytT of a HtaiiJurd Bu)ulion of known voiicutitrution, C, wm 

mniiied hi a Inj'er ,''^ incli tliiuk. ll wtut fiiunil iii^ccKWiry to inter- 

pOK <« tbe patli of Ui» other licjiin of light, a tnjor ] j inch thick of 

tialBtiou of unkuowii coiK^ntmtioii, C, in order to make the epectm 

C 1.3 
«t«lDOt« equal. = -| , fruni which cquntion,C the uiiknowii quan- 

tH} t> cuilj cstculated. 

Preyer*!! methcx] U also a, sp(H;trophoUiiuetric one. A 0'8r> per ceut 
nhtioa of oxj'hir-moglnhiii (thickness of Inver bvinj; 1 cenlinieti'e) is 
il>t most (.-oncriitrntf^il Koluticn which allows the ^p^een light of the 
^tciniBi to pan through it {goc fig. 58, aign -• «-). Take a kitown 
UDBuit of the blood to bo investigated and dilute it with witter till it 
JM kltows tJie faintest ^hiule of green light to pass lhrau};h it. If />=: 
WMmc of btood taken, and H!=volume of water ftdded. then tJin per- 

«*ge of oxjfbteutoglobia in Uie blo<)d=?i — ^^+°', 

! npiwnd ln-n- a tnhlc of the results of analysis which I take from 
Pit'M, • Ific liiolkryetftlle,' p. 117. 

100 gruBS of healtliy humaii blood contain : — 

Iron ffn-mo^lotiitt 



t Muximuip 

t MinimniD 
Man Average (1 1 c<iH«} 
i Mastmnm 

0-0*8 grm. 
0057 „ 

00508 „ 
0-056 „ 
00C3 ,. 

1 1 -."jT grm. 
13-$0 „ 

1209 „ 
tS-4u „ 
150- „ 

tmo dat* given 1>y Matas«oz it enn W calculated that the aiuount 
cf luuno^obin in ndi human bloo>) corpuscle is appro xluia-tely 
N UfliontliK of a gninmi-. Tenous and arterial blood contain the same 
■Brant of liKtuoglobin (Kriiger).' Fictal blood ia of lower xpecifio 
{itTity tliAn Utat of adult*, and is eiipeciaUy dellcient iu hwuioglobin.' 

IttUrmlaatiati ff Ihf ' Actiritf of Bedwtion ' of ftryAo-mop^ofrtB.' 
Tin Umt c/ rrdaelivn '•! iiivboMiioglobin is <lL'tcniiiDMl li; Fiamimnj; the 
yuiiM of lb« blooil unijnr Ihc Uiumb nuil ; Ibv lint band can be nlwtiyn, iha 
■Mataometlmin. 'UMiDKi'itl'vll'f tli« direct >lsiou (gwcUrotDojw. If a liKiilure 

' /•--'. /Ji'f i>\[ C'i- KiUiirr Him klatM tfaot Magcutlon ot • pul tncraun (lia 
KWKU>u>tl !in'^:<i vloluii in thr UihhI dnm tNUlt; thai Uio b!wd of tho ■plniu 
'■■(•ricUi, ud dI Ibe Tcnal virio U |i(«nr, in Mild* *iid piKina fit thao wtofuJ blood. 
C<fiMN4nd83MrriiiKtonliVDf. Fhyni"!. Soc.lSiM.p. liii) have, by BdiUftnOt method, 

' SdMnacii^ /Mauf . l>i*f. DoTpBl, 1S8S. * lUnocqnc, ComptM rwi«Jt>i, cUL SIT. 



k tJed mind Mii> jihulaiui, Ihi> band* gndnallr dlaip|>aar. Tbo Udr of raituctlon 
M ibo Itmu ihoy lake lu illMpptar, nnd thl* in a he»tUi]r mail at tot ikivrags* 
TO wcocwU. 

TbnqimDltty uf hicao^lcibin io tlie blood la Ibeii dcleruiincil.' A bMilUij 
intui'4 blonil CMiitaius 1-1 [wr cciit.ofoijhiL-iDOitlobiti : fTOUtlilail UcaknlattiJlhM 
<> ; p«f e«t)l. i» rtituoed [icr tccond. Thl* lUAiitlty U taJtco •■ ilic suit *rtir(ty 

o/rrd,^ti^n: «.■! the nctiriir in olhw t>w-'»"*"''"'°*f^"'"y*'°^''H». 

tinw trf nduoiloa 

lItn'>o<|av * li.-U' (iMorlboi) the mriuioiix hi iho actf vliy ot rwlurtloa of t>»y. 

hiFliioglol'lii In Tirloii* illwaww. and nnilcr tin: liitliiniicu of virMu* drupi. [n 

typliold fcTcr,* tf-t icntnni'p, period* of lii«h tciu|»mtiiro wrre fiui*! Ii' <a1bci<to 

wilh iieriods uf ilimJDfibi-d nclivity uf rvdactioa. and vhca th« tvmpcmlui* «m 

rwlnood. ibc ncUvitjr of reilucUon iocmweil, and leoikd to RgMin ila niiniMl 


Tlie follon-iiig is the p«rcvHta);e eom|<o«ition of lutrinogloMn as 
ucertaiued bjr varioiis obaerviaB.' 













0. . . 









H. . . 




















21 HI 







8. . 





' frWI 




P.- . . 













Tbofw nn> tlitu miy coiind«r*l>l* tttMroiiaiicira botwmfi tbp Miftlyses 
of diflinvni obM-n-mi: wo hIiouUI. Iiowdw-r. nut I>o .jiuliti«d in con- 
duding fnjm t)i)- rrviiitn of eWiniititry iinnlvNtH tlint iIipiv nn* (liflVroat 
vnrietidH of luriiioftlotnii in (lIH^riTnt utiiinnU ; for if thv nonlyMM o( 
himiioglotHii fropi tbi^ utiiH' aiijiiinl \m vxtktnmxA Uwn* will Iw fonml 
ilisvre]Mitci<<a r(|uulljr m grent. 

A luon- just ooncluiion M«ma to bf tliiii tbi^ ui^thotU vi> at pr««mt 
adopt uv aW sgfficivull)- exiuit to ennbl« us to |>repBre n pure product. 

' RdiiiHiiwi dnrrilM • (fiKid IsnD «f Iwculowotw tta Ik* piupsw. Dr. i 

IIMlniBUUI v-iuV1 ■!■■ (^Uaflr Wftl. 

* OilH^M r^tfifatt, <«t. IM, 

■ lUDM>niw uiA U. Bamkiuin. /biJ. |i. IMS. 

* ncf4»K>]r|»r'< mib1)-im vdl Iw tnuad id lu n^tial. CAmi''. p-SIT: Ib^ of 
&(tahau'lt ud K-Hul I Ub troB a taU* m M<X>mlnik'a fAyooAiyy. |i IIh; IImb 
•f 7>tood>k)' III /nf. ^Ayn*'. CArm. t. I<^ and ol J«i|Ui>t, whn nnrtrfvl ZlaoA^y'a 
fiioUiKl, •» It'./ til «M. iiT. M>. UwUMlUn (i^d^'i .4II-A. i<v (ttl ooiixdcn (ImI 
UiB [kHjiliuiie fc-iil iif Wnl*' lisinoflobla ■• Ai* la ■Jimitiu* with nvcUa. Jiu|aH U 
iiivlbwl ki niil-kr It ■• aD rintiiil part uf Uio bwmi^lnhfa tn Hwtt. 




THE HU«>I) - 287 

A (vmprtniurr suffirii'nT to >ln' tlip hmtinoglobin thoirmghly (120' C.) 
caves, fur fxntiij'lr. >« partiMl disintvj^mtion of this un»tnbl« or^iio 

We know of no ratiunnl formula for hn-inogloliin. and, in view of 
th* dierordAiiro of tb«- above nnalyiM, it would seem Fuh to cnk'U- 
Imp an «tD{>inciil one. Preyer'ti formulii ia C^|,„H|ni,N,i,FeS,0,,, ; 
llufner'a. Ci;.,H,jPii,^F«iS,0,,a ; /{inoflAlcy'it, C;i,H||y,N,|,Fe8jOj4y 

ttwompittili'iH nf turmo^ahiju. — On llie iidditioD of «oid or alkali to 
* •nlocion of oxyhmnoglotHii. the colour changes to brown ; this in duo 
U> ySbib d«c»in[>os)tion of the Iwiuoglubin into a proteid, called Ghliin, 
and ft pigment whic^ contains all the iron, called Uaimalin. Coii- 
iddenble ducmnon hu taken plnCQ on tKe question njt to wItMJier 
tb«Mt two nabctJinacB ar« ntechanlciilly mixed togethor, or wh^cr they 
aiv ehvmtcnlly omibimHl. 

It w«* I>-liro«nD wli'i firrt brought forward the siipF>outtoii that 
iMHUOglolnii is not n c)i4-Rticnl unit, but consists of hiciiiatht merely 
mixed w-jth a cryMidlivible proteid. A seeming continuntion of tliii 
tbeory b&s Ifeen more recently advanced by Struve,' who foutid that by 
nottuof alcoholic Huimoiiia hirmatin can be extracted fronj tlit^ cry)i(Al>. 
ksrins Ihem polourleas. Agmmt tliis, however, it inu»t lie [HiinUvl 
oat that dtculiolio aiuuioiii« U a Htivu;; rbuj^ent, and ia able to effect 
BMin than n M|Minit.ion of two subiituDces ineehanicnlly niixod ; oreii 
olcobol by iiBElf pnxlueoi cliniii;cit in ha-iiioglobin ; llir jMimbii-tnnglobin 
cryatAl* of Xi'iioki uml Sielwr^ have lipen sliowii by Hi>p|n'-8oyler ' to 
ht m tnorr tyniKulation product' of oxyhtt-uioglobin brought about Iiv 
tha artt'rti "f Ah-nhol : tJi«Mi rryjitnU do not show ilnul'li^ refraction^ 
dul i". tboy hnvi* not thif constitutions of true rryntnls. but iire rut-rely 
proteid iiin^^i"; whicli, wh«ii coagutat«(!, retain the crryatullitie shapo 
they l»d previously. 

Another (frimiid upon which some bold that luenio-'lobin in not a 
ghemlcttl unit in tiM- •.■unlHctinK resulta of imaly.iU, i-spocially with 
rqford to the (|UJ*u(ity uf sulphur present. ZinolTnky ha«, bowm-rr, 
poiiitvd out that tJiis is dun to liad nielJiods <.1 prepamtion of the 
luMUOglubiii, and by his iiicllioH hn H-;ts nbk to prepare a number 
ot ^wotniAiis of biei])o;u!o)>iii in whicli thf niudyfiia gave i^onL-onlant 
fMUlto. Zitiod^y Iiolds the view, which is ttuw very general, that oxy- 
hmwglobiii it a clteuiical unit ; he also siAteK that its uioleoulc yieUlit 

* I bat* limji<l iJhI. prwa il tbv la«iini^loljtn Iw iln«fl iii u Titrtii-tJtjua tw.'uiVi, 
kllboaclia l*iuip>rKliirs nl Mi= C. U •uniWimlly lil|;h to Jrintrflrillvi'iiti'i.if <'tr>ut1julkin, 
ki ht *lb. .,kPti.^4iir.F ri'faiiH* Ui« fonrxitiou of hivtiintfti «iid mu biKkUililv irrebvid. 
.'if. C^m. Iwt, 
I -i.'laT, tlivh. wjMViw. J^ilh. v. fhannoJtrtf. IX. tiftl. 



on (tecQiiijKjaitioii 1 inoli-cult! of lucriiiatiii vriUi SI iitoniK of carbra, 
H in<»li»rul<!» »f glohin ivich with I ntom of sulphur and 339 of carbob 

(Ihihin. — This prnwid is dprivwl from the docompMition of Imtf- 
globin ; thi^ occurs under the influence of heaty wheu globiii UoonveilBl 
into 8 h«ai'Conguluiii ; by the influence of acids or alkalis, wheat it b 
converted into ticid and alkali -albuniiu ivspectively. Iti all tlueecMn 
bwmatin is »iniulUineou»ly liborated. On beating a aulutioii of mj- 
btMDOglobin a heat-cou(;ulum (onn» at C^'-'O'C. The tiacruli nnoft 
brownish colour, aa they caiTy down with theui aotuo of Uu> liKinalk. 
Under the influence of ucid or alkali both liteniatiu and the pro(««lp 
into solotion. 

The jirottiid ia a j^lobulin ; it ia precipitated from its solnticiDSb; 
Ktumting tliRin with niagnvKiuni mlphnte or sodium chloride. Oamgn' 
ogreM with Kidntc in conMdcring that j^lobin which was £ru dnoM 
by Pr^er is probably a mixture of proteid^ 

J/ariMlin ia a brownish pigment which exhibits differejil abaoiplin 
■peetn^ aocording a» to whvthor it is dissolved in an acid at »Ba£» 
"Vlli&aia. It is insolublo in wnt«r, alcohol, and other, easily sa)aU»B 
caustic alkalis and in alcohol acidulntcn! with sulphuric acid 

For spectroscopic examination nikalinf liteinatin may be prepuij 
in tJiB following ways : — 

1. Add Koin« xtron^ potnxh or soda to n solution of oxyli. 
or to tiome diluted dciihrinatcd )>loo<). The rate at wliidi 
poaitioii takes place varies in different animals ; t]i« same is aU»<k 
awe with acids [k^- p. 369). 

3. Rectified npjnt and ammonia, or rectified Bpirit and soda, »} 
be added to diluteil blood, or to a solution of oxyhiMnoglobtii, toA ^ 
mixture lilt^n^ ; tht? filtnttv shows tliK spoctrum of alkaliiiti hciMtiik 

3. Pure hn-maliii tuny Ih- diwolvi^l in caustic alkali. Aftsfc* 
btematin shows one ill-dclined alisorption \ya.nA overUppiii^ V, ku' 
extending fioaw distance towards Ui<t nil end of the spectnini (M6f. 
59, apectrun) t*). 

For spectroscopic observation acid hamuititt may be prepami b ll* 
following ways : — 

L. By adding a little glacial acetic acid to diluted bloorl orsolalin'i^ 
of oxyhannoglobiu. 

2. By shaking up th« acid liquid just prepared with etiieri tk* 
ethenal extract on standing floats above tlie watory liquid aad tO^ 
tains th« hu-onatiu dissolved in iu 

3. By diaaolviug pure hnmatin in acidifu^d spirit. Acid hamati'' 

Qia^nCf P^giloL CiMmittn/, f. 111. 



w«anetimec coUmI hMnatoin, or four-banded hiiiniittti. It aliowa four 
Iwidt — one in the red between the C and D lines, l)Ul r&lher nearer U»« 
C line than the soinvwhal omilar baud of uieLliwrnoglabtu ; one uarrow 
and Ealttt band ov«r th« I> line {tJiis in especiitlly faint when tho 
kmiatin iii prejMred by method 3 above) ; and two baud>i in the j^reen 
(fi(. 59, a|i««trum 7), 

Pnre hteuAtu ni»y be prepared in the following way* : — 

1. Crystak of hoMniu (bydrocliluride of ha-ninlin) are dtHaolved Id 
•Ulute poUAb : Uiis U ]iei]tralUe<l vritli •Ii1uti< hyilrm'hlorii^ «i;id, and 
hasiufttin in precipitated ttt a floeuulent brown precipitate, wliich la 
collected, w«sli«d with bulling n-nt«r, tuid dried (Hoppc-8ryW). 

2. Blood clot is extracted with rectified spirit containing pur6 
•nlphurio acid (I in IT) ; the solution ix tiitcrcd, diluted witli nn (kjuhI 
anMWit of water, and agitAted with chlorofiirm. The chloroform 
diwnlrw out th« luruiatin ; it in wiuhni with wat<T to remove tho 
add, uid th«i the chloroform is rvnporntfd ; the hn'iiintin remains 
aa A dark brown pigment which driea up to'a bluish-bWk powder 
(UaoUimn *)■ 

Th« fonnuln for hwmatin is CjiHjjNjKcOj, or, perhaps, twico 
tbu, C,.H,oN.Fe,0,n. 

It forms compounda witJi hydrochloric, hydrobromio, and bydriodto 

A compound with potaajdum cyanide h alw described. 

Hmuochrumogen is a reduction prixluct of hienifttin. 

Htrauitoporphyrin, hirmatolin, and hn.-mntoidin arc iron-frw pro- 
docta €it hientatin. 

TbMO dilTcrpnt nub^tnnceM must be t«lccn now one by on«. 

Hamothrrtmo'jtn. — Thix substance was culleil Igr Stoke* reduced 
bwiaatiti. It may bo n»dily prv{Htrvd for fl^icctroscopic olaervfttion 
by adding a few drops of Stokm's reagent or aminoniuni autjihide to a 
Mlutioii of alkaline htcmatin. 

Hoppc liieyler prepares it from rrdao^ hemoglobin in an apparatus 
front which cxygen is excluded, by tho action of nlcohol containing 
■ttlpfauric acid, or caustic potash in solution. This method is far 
BMc« dillicutt, and involves the use of special appnratu^. ^Vhiubever 
metlio<l is ado]>tcd, the 6nal result is the same : ttiat is to say, 
wlwthor wc Grtt decompose osybftmoglobin, And then add a. retlucing 
i^flnt ; or whether wo fint reduce tJie oxyhu:moglobin, and then 


■ BsfTt-bjiUr, Utd. Cham. Vnttrmeh. Uolt Iv. p^ SOS. 
• VmUumi, Jtmrn. </ Phttiot. vl. 9S. 



On oxidntion hwinochromogen yield* hn>inatin. Hop|>»-8«fle) 
represents tlie reaction as follow* : — 

2(0„H„N,FeO.) + 0,=C„H:,N.Fe,0„+2H,0 m 

In au aUtitliiie solution heemochroinogvn is oE n purplish coloor : it 
kIiows twu wt-ll- Diarknd Ifaiids, one midway between the D ftiul E 
lini^ Mi(l tim nther rather faiiit«r betweeu the E and b liii«G [mt 
fig. AS, siMwtrum 9). On vigorously tihaking up sudi a soluUou vHk 
th« nir, the bawls disnppt^ar, and the tiaxy aliadow-Uke abaorplion hul 
of nlkiJine hicuatin is arvn, 

Uup[K?-Scyler protccM aKaitml tbe n&mu ruduuHl ha^miitiii being nj^Gtl It 
haimoohiamogea. litunuitin U an oxicl[niHl pruduot of hemiiutitDmoj^o, bot An 
not oootain >o luucli ozyi^u as oijrhnmiQolirotuaipn, wlilcli iu all probability iiika 
oompuund thai contaiiu tli« it^spiintoTy oxy^ii in oiylia-inofclolita. Iliwilil 
oah be oblaiiiul [loiii vxy)ut>uit>^lgbin bj treuliti^ it witli acirU cir al^Ut. wJ 
(luriuK t.b[ii procvwi oiygKn i8 alMu)r1>e>t. i>rol>:ibIy unil!n|i; wilh Ili« praMidptft •( 
tli» lifKnioifloblD moloCDln.' Tln'.ivfiird. althoiigb lnumntin 1> an ozlrlallon prola:! 
of hwniochroinofiicri, lloppc-Strylc^r conoiilcre that hicinachroiiiofpirn to not a itdw- 
tlim prwluct of hicmatin. )Io a\ta oansldcrs It probable that hir.iaocliroiiMgw if 
n fcrro-oompouud, and hiFmaiin a fi?ni -com pound. 

Linofisior' bu propcwt'd n obnogo in Iht namps of thutu two nubctantci: I* 
aaggeiitK thnt biciuuclirouiuj^i'u shuuld be tallitd bit<uiatiu or mtuood hntmWhi. H^ 
thai what ha* liillmlo lw«ii unllwl lui^rnutiii nliould be named uiytunimthi. M | 
if Hoppe-Swylar'it view of r,b« rel»iioii b«tw#«D bsmatin Mtd tooiaclirMHCii j 
[owe oonwcl, thin new iiomnni>ln.tiire ol l.iiiovler'* Is, of conm, laarHmlwHrlft I 
Hoppn-Soyl"!' hnn raccntty *uc«ooil<^ la obtaining hninochromofM (■ * I 
rajMalllnc fonn by heating a lalutloa of hvinaglobln wUfa nodliun hjdnM b fl* 
abacnco of oivgen. By boatiog a solution of CO-hKUOglobln vrlth tha ■■* 
tsogciit, vryntals of CO-hiDUioobiomogcn am formed. UnoBiat had prvrfoa^T 
obtaiDiMl till! cArbunio oiidn aiu) nitric oiidv oompoundi of hicmoebnuDaglK-' 
Uvuiovliromuijuri i« thuH tlio Htuniic inuup iu hwinofflobiQ which imlt^fl 
ga»er. To roprcwnl It In anotlici wuy :- — 

Hrmuglobin ^ humooluomomn * gloluo (protcld). 
OsyliNiiiioKlobin ~ oiytkwmochniniogaii + irlobin. 
CO'htumoglobin-CO-hwiuochromogvn + globti]. 

Ilntnin. Thin -siibsUnca is the hydrochlori<l<> of hwiitatui ; <* 
crystnlliso* ttindily, ami so forms nii nunly *ppli«d test for blood. TW 
crystals^ may bi- jireparwl for mitrrospopic nxami nation, by boiling * 
drop of blood with a drop of glacial acetic acid on a j^laas elide : 0* 
ooolbi£, the CT7NtalK which arc triclinlc plat«s and pHuuK of a d*^ 

' LailmnHlniuiii [iioiutli. Oieni. till. lUA) Hiidn Uint siylu*aiO|[1cibia ia D'l ^Itjlb*'' 
■rtid wiluti'iii aliwrbii 1*1 pfrr w-dI, of 111 »ivi|jlil u( uiyftu. 

• CamjitH rtivl. civ. HUMS, ' 2nf . pJrynd. Ciem. cIIl CTI. 

< ThoH' •JiDw rJantctouUc nhurptiuii >|i«rtr« imninbling U»t ol tajiuUimi^Mm • 

* Sompliniu cBllud iJUii tiieii ilmiuvKrvr. Tniclimiuiu'ii trjttalm (Znl. f. iM(. if'^ 
Uea, *dL iii. p- m, iu>. p. 141). For i:r>Ht^(vni.pliy tet tagona, /. Bum. diH. ^ 
IBM, ^ VG. 



r -51 J i? 




Wni colodr, ofU>n in BtAr-shiL|>eil olunU^rx, nnd with lOuiidcd nng1« 
((« filj, •ppAraUMit. 

In Ui«i COM of an old blood xtnin, wh^n oue wia)i<w to npply tliia 
oai, it i« ni-c««nry to *<)d » «innll crystal of sudiuiii cliloriilr in iwWi- 
na to tlw gUcial avetit^ acid. Fn-sh 
UdoI contaiiu ■uflktenl lodiam 
lUtride in itself. 

Oi • larife wall-, hti-min majr be 
fnfared ill tfaa following ways :— 
t. K lolutlon of hatmntin in alcohol 
•adilied with Hulphuric acid is 
kued with a iiolution of sodium 
tUwide.' 2. rWilirinalwl blood is 
aiudwltli « laf]iiicv oxopSH of dilute 
n^lB ehlorid*^ ( 1 ■■> pnr cent.) boIu- 
)■■ ; tli« coqmDckJi uhnn tliey have 
■WM mm sxtnwtMl with ether : the et ln-rr^il fixtrac-t is evapomt«l to 
iTMM,UM) tlte tvddue heat«d with glaciAl acM'tic auid (Ho|>pL'-f!(!jrl«r). 

Ilvminsslui-niatin-f liHCl (Hoppe-Hoylor). Hvinia iti iuaolublu in 
wtw, «tii*r, chkntifortn, nlcolH)!, and in cold dilutu acHio or hydro- 
■Uiric acids. It iii Milubte in an nlcoholit! tolutiou of potuKHium <«r> 
WatP, in cauttic alkalis, and in IjoUing acotio ami hydnH^liloric- ndda. 
utcrjvtaU are decolounjted by alcoholic animoniu (Mlinlfwfl').* 

AnalogtMU compounds tit ha-min ar« fonncil with hydrobromic acid 
(HBrj and with hydrioflif acid (HI). Tlipy may h« called bromo- 
WMtin and iodohiematin t'eHpeetiv«ly, whil«< hn-min nmy bo t«nned 
'tlwpliMuuatin. The crystalline form and colour of all throv com- 
pwnd* are identical (Harris).' It lias been stated that thn pirrnni- 
■o of iodohmnatin cryKtala ta a more delicate te«t for blood ainina 
IW tWt nf chlnriihivinatin crystnlB (Bufalini).* 

I 7 

Fiu. BI. - Ibrmln DTTiitalii inBfiillM (Pnjn). 

iVxa-JkitBi'"'- — ' Vhen poUMlnm r.vanldefai add«d to an amnonhaat mIs- 
itecfpvn lumatin, or ta aiotailon nf oxjbKinaglobiii, abroad band otondfaiii 
^ !■ lo S ti MVn on fpoetnccoiila ^zninS nation. On aildinf; reducinK at^enta, 
■^Mtrna witb two ««ll-iiuirkpil abiur[rtion banilt is obtained. TbeM optical 
•■■iiu* ftK aupfioMd to ^«|iMul on the pnxlaction of a coniponriil whSuli linn 

I, Fkfiiol. Chtm. p. III. , 

a, /oun. Bait. Clum. Soe. IHM, p. MS. 
* *. D. EIani^ Bril. MtJ. Joum. tdL ii. Itwe. p. IM. 5m al» K. Biidilvl, CSttm. 

Mhllal, Jr«A, Pkarm. IS) iiiii. p. ONI. The invtlio<l coDtiala <a hMlinft the tijueouii 
I^IIMrflbc blnnl (Uin widi ■ drop of irylini' linclan »nil ■> lilllf uvtio icid on ■ kIu 
J^' ' CryMaA* lonn ia ]»1 imiiut«t. MAcMonn ohtAiced a crjmtAU^n^ coiujiAQnil nf 
^'"> "ah Riliiliafic arid. Itu the chomicot ooniiiiuuon ol UUa luUtonua »iUl 
' ^ U aDriMil out tJcHTH. Fhiftiol. ri. 14). 

D % 



bMii ilmlifDnlnd cj^ui-hinniatln. U'n im, li(i«<'var, morale tU(|ii*lDl«d idlb I 

Kpoi;lrnao:|ii<i clutmclpn o( the »uppntod coni|)oiiniJ.*' 

Iiiirm<ifu]mrii/ij/rin. — When liu-uintiti ja liMitwl wlih fnntiu; hj 
nUorio aeiil (o 160° C tli« iron is remott^d fruui it. lui » ferroiu ail^ 
a.uA iron-lrae bmnatin or liiniiiitojiorpliyriii in fonuwt. Hie not 
nvult i» nl)tuiii«il when hn'inntin is ilinxnlvpd in cnnoriitniteii nulphnrie 
add, Uiv Kotution Iwing i>f n [nirjiln-rril colour. For »])«ctTC«Mpc 
purpoM* only, hminntoporplijrrin may bn obtniupd by nilding * miill 
<|uuitity "f blood or oKyhiraiof^lobin solution to « \nrgo qtinntitj <t 
strong sulphuric ncid.' H>^niat.oport>tiyrin mny \x> prpcipitktvd fron lit 
acid solution by tbo addition of wdtor. This precipitate is tolntile is 
witter, And nlso in cnustic nlknli« ; the optical propert)«« of the wpiMW 
solution art! thr (Atnc ns tboi^i^ of the acid solution, viz. a brOAil <lirt 
liand » little to the right of 1>. and a. narrow fjiinter iMin'l to the l«(t<i 
D (fig, !>9, spectrum 10). When hien]ato[)0)'pliyriu is dissolved in tavslk 
alkalis, it appears to undergo some amount of decomposition (Gam^): 
tbe solution has a reddish brown tint, and the absorption spMtrao 
BbowB four bands (fig 59, spertruiu 11). 

Htunatoporphyriu h interesting as being not only an ariitiQ*! 
product of litvnioglobin, but a« also otcun-ing in tlie iiitc^tDtnt d 
certiun iiivertebnite animals, vix. star&eitvtt. iilugs, the oomuton Miffc 
womi, am! various sponji^es (ilacMunii)." Polyijcrythrin (Moiri^k 
n pigment of various actinin- and deep Ata jyoXypta, u also pffobsUf 
identinl with luvmatoporjihynn. It in uInu found in thp ff^pihfllt <^ 
■omn hintii. Vriihtmialoporphyrin is a, kind of hii-inutopor^-hyrinfoDDd 
in the urini) in certain diseases ; it will !«■ fully di-srrilicd undtrr Una"- 
fftrmatoporfAifroidin it a decomposition product nf lurmntopOTpliynB 
dwcribrxl liy le Nobel.* 

Th« foniiulu given by Hoppp-Koyler * to lueiuatopot^thyiin »* 
C«BllT,Nt<>|,; and tt« formntion from hmBatin may lie t)iu* 
sented {»e« further p. 29*):— 

Ca»H,o>'*Fe,0,o + 2H,SO,+0,=C„H7iN,0„+ 2FeS0, 
[latmulBj [inliiharfo nvlilj tl>'B'iup"'|Ay><o] [«l|><iua«(l 

> Cyui-livmntip bUI be fomid tnoiv fully daH-TiUil iii HugigiT-^jrlcr'i lted.i 
Ualrmrhunfirn. lIHt it. TIic ftUn* ifaurf (Ixwrijiliuii i Imti lakra fnini Oa 
Phfltinl. Chrm. p. llfi. 

* H»|i|i<>-Hi-y1ri bw obt«lneil hvuiiil"iii>[ii}iyriii hj thr ■clion eJ dmiocwI bjim^^^' 
Mid lIuMuiiii liy Uiv sclton of toilluiii uiuIkoiii en hwmstui, 

' UHcMunii. Q^iarl. Juuni-o/ Hit. Urirurr.lftr:-, ,7riiniaJ tf fH|iiri-rfiiD. T»li 
Mill Tiii- It lujkx ^ *diti thaX in c«rtit^ii «|#cii^ flf MHinim ■ pi|;tue»l vwij i 
|u>ifu>cUraiii(iH:oii. aud oonTarUbla Into hiiiiiiatujini^ili^in, is fmud (Phil. Tmm. I 

* CA«n. C<nlralbl. isn. p. SSS. 

* H«]>pv-B*rl*r tu* dMcrlbsd uiiilbar troii.fn* dHiraliT* ol hauiMUn, to «hirte 
givM th« inoiWaasI dsdio at hHinttallii | C«HnKaOt)- It ^iSfn bean h<iliiilii|fiT^T 
in IwiBB imohtlib la anlphnrlv Mid Mid raimlic •liuliii {P^ytial. Chenii*. ft SfT). 

THE BLtiOfi 





fftfmaltritUn.—tn old i>Iooil clols, sueb &« ooour in the Itmin after 
otKlus) bnaorrlMt^, in the interior of aneurtaius, and iu the cor^ion^ 
Utn of the ovary, ainalt rlt(»iib»h^rikl ur^iitalK of « briok-red colour 
w* olteo found, tc^tlter with an uuiiiri>hou!> dupojiil' of the midmi colour 
(mv fig. 62):. The iuini« liiematoidin witaf^iven to thuuiubiitiinn; by Vir- 
cboir.* It t» in soluble in vrslvr. iik-obDl,rl}u>r,iicetioncid,dilutF mincrnl 
»cid» *i>d slknlLi ; Mlnblv in cmi^ntmti.'d Kcids ami caustic nlkaliK. 

Wbon truLtcd nith fuming nitnc aciil, the crystaln give tlio saiiMi 
colour nwclion ii* tin- l>ilo |ti)(nH-nt docs ' (Gnictin's reaction). Ha-tDa- 
toadin it uii<loubmlly n dcrivntivc a( 
luraioglobin, and it is frM from iron : so 
aim ia bilirubin. tbi> pigtnpiit »f the littc ; 
oad Solkowidii* found hn-niiitoiilin to Ix^ 
iilmticol (-honiimll}' with bilirubin, It«r- 
wJios fontid in the gall-blntbltr crystals 
t4 bilirubin exactly siiitilar to tluise of 
bunacoidin. Pn-ycr, liowcrpi', stntes that 
tlw two salntantes dill«r <ipoctrosco[ii' 
oiUy ; solutiowi of bilirubin showing 
no bandv solutions of liivinntoidin 
•bowing one liatid lir'twei^ti b and K, aii'l a weiiker one botwoen F and 
0. Holui '* obtained eiiuilar renalts. Tbudichum * has pointed nut 
Uut Pn>yer and Holui mistook the lipochi'onie (lutein) in the covr't 
<muy for hiruifttoidin, and heuoe tlii-v concluded that it was not 
ifhuiticol wiih bUirubin. Neiilier Iia.'iim.loi<lin nor bilirubin shows bauds, 
hat biith |>oiucM II atroiif,' ulmorptive power for the violet end of the 

Ilitmotidmw id the name given by Keunmnii' to a i>ii[inent often 
oocorring in extra Viuatiuns nnd thrombi with hieniatoidin, but diflering 
froo) it in containing iron. 

So for, in ilocriblii^ tiie conipofiiiun bf liwuiHlin aiiil Itn dirivatlvea^ t kava 
feUowed Boppe-Sejler prettj ciou-lf. Uora recent]]'. Iiownvtr. iJm lubjNt of 
bcaaAln ■■>! ll« oUiM lias bean relumtiitaiDd by Konokl and Klitbcr.* and Uia 

I'M, n; - It* 01 ^!< I Mill eriMtU, 

' TIm uunrflicia* TUietT «u fin( ilvKTribed hj Roliin, Ann. Chen. PAonn, oiti 
m. Stc oUd 8tadeln. Ibid ciini. SW, 

> Vtfrkou'i Arth. il ynlhol. Awl. u, Fk^inol. i-ol. i. llntT), p. 3MI. 
■ ZtMi.Artli./.ftll'. Altai. Kiiii. WL Hnpt>*-'^3'1». i>'*'i. ttiv, 10. 

• Sdbootfei. Soypr-Seiilrr; Ifcvl. CAoin. UiHrrt. Halt iii. in, US. 

• Boln. Journ./, jirakl. Oirm. r. Hi 

* TliD^irhain. I'roc. Bod. '^"^ mi. SIS. Dr. llla«Munn kimlljr (anlihed nie will, tlili 
tuti tenrfel t4 th? lotvtfoinic irfDrtnictp*. 

' Tin-^ir'i Arrhiv. iti. Vi 

* Kwki Kiid Sitbcr, IttnrhU rf. irtawh. fhtm. OttelUehitft, mil. U6T, nUL tn. 
JTmaiU. Chrm 11. iia. 


oonoIiMoiu at which ibn' hare Mrivod ore on mtaiy poiol* difltireai Sum ' 
ot lloppo-ScrlcT' I to cttlnin o( these, hovie\<ft. much iinporUwoe cuoot 1 
fttUicliMl : for in»tiuioe, iiiiiil n« know a nitivunl luriuuliL fur bwuMtlD il 
bal little whetbtir io 11» i-iTiplrk-»l ronuulii llicroure n tw atom* morv <gim§nl 
Uf ona olvuent. lomrliiin oilier iiiAttcn, fur Instnnce, In ili* oorapofiitna rf 
hMoin, Ihftir viawa d«iniiiul ouiitlrmnlioii ; I Iiavb, tfanafoiv, Wklnad ibe dooiir 
tlon of Ihla mibcttuicc ns usmtlly given, und hen «dd * tteniud ol Ntueki Hri 
Siebcc'ir woik :— 

They a*cKbc to bioninlin the foncak C„H^,T<0, ; nnd th« void faamin b 
applied, not to the hydrochloride of hicmutiD. but to an anbydride ot h«:iiiitin,<if 
which thv fonnubk ii>C„H^N,FpOp Whut i a uaiiuUy called hn-'iniii (chhtrohxnaiie'i 
they cull hwiuiu-bydrochl'^ridiT. of which tht^ formula it C„H„N,K«0rH01. Tf:' 
b B cryslHUIne gi)b«tano(>, and io IUl pmiNinltoii tbct« olxerrcrt otDpIoj Uifi 
alcohol, >nd n molrc-nlo »f ntnyl nlcohol of crvulottlMilinn tt conitilnat vjib itt 
eryiitnis, Ihc fiiJI ((•imiila for which would therefore be C,^X,FcO,IIClC^J). 
ThU uotccute of ninvl lUcohol cad b« driven off by hentiog the ojitili 
to 130" C. 

HnmnloporphyriD niay be obtained by tlie action of ooneenlrnlcd ntpboM 
acid on tUttM bi^inatin (CBU„X,KuO,)orhw(uIii (C„H„X.rF(l,). I(«foni)(llil 
CbI^^\*^ii iuii^ 't^ foni^ailon uiay be reptiwcnivd hy ibie «>jiiitIoii: — 

C,H„N.FeO, + H,SO, - C^U^fi, * PuSO.^Ufi 

[hiNiAtiiiJ I«alpl>or1o n-i-ll tlkiitnittoi<orii1'>TlD^ 

Th*y aiitHiOciueiitly found ibnt wh«n hti:miii or hirnmlln i* boated 
uituml^d aolnilon of hydilc bronildn In glacial aontlo nestl ii la reailily oodk 
into hasmBtopoTphyrin, which abow* diScrcoc«a from tliw obtained In Ibe i 
way. It hiks tlie furmutn C,,)I„N]0,. It is tn>ulubl{' in water and dihilc i 
acid.all^lly »ohible in vlher, aniyl iilonhi'l, iinil ehlDivfrinii. »nd rtiadily i 
lu Hlcohol, d!lut« mlnoml ncidv, and soluilotu of (lie iilkalin. Il Is reddb 
In coloor, li Rmorphoua, and lnm>> br<>wn and bcoomcn umt^ ImoliiliUi a> )(■)** 
Its alkaline aoluiion shows Ihn four bonds |im-iousty ileM^boi), The hjJi* 
chloride (C|,U„K,0,.IU1) ctyvtalUsc^ in tutta i>t Decdlta,* the KKUnm ■>■ 
<CuD„NBN,0,-f K^) in nicroaoipic prinm*.' Thia mbMMtco IcconsidtEredtnt* 
]>tini hwmalopurpbyriii. ;iri'l lb» substHnct- [irepufrd by the tietion of wIiAbIii 
aciduo h«uiulia h i>rt)l>»l'ly Ir»anh]ilriil(><C„H^,0^3SCHllHlI,0,-lII/>). 

UaHnalopOTphyrlti ha* the nnie empirical foiuiuht an bilirxibJo, whldi H 
nwmblw til many of llH pmportle*. Tha tormHtinn of Hiirubin from I w * " * 
U nprMmted by Knncki and Sivbcr by the etjonlton :— 

''■H„S'.O.Ke+ 3H,0 ■- C^.K.O. + Fo 

(IwiiiUlii] [blllniiiin] 

Whon InimduMd Jelo ihe living subject hiemntopoiiihyrin ia partly 
to thn ririne. but the greater portion ia rclaioed, nnd I* probably ottUa 
(omatian of hwrnoglobin. 

TukiiiK a gBiwnil survey of the nubjrct, »-e are abl*, in 
ot oaiitt&diclorj' iisB«rtic>nB cm minor [>nintK, to draw a few 

' HoppT-HvrrlFr hm* Ji^i^w,] (he txperiinenU mf Xvneki mkI Kiicbttrtiiad 1 
hia 0*r1i Tiew* in tht Brrirhrr •!, Ji-NrtrA. fhem. Gnrlltih. iviu. Mil. 
I Flgvml in Archip/. ttf. Pal/i. n. J^tinrptakol. xxir. pttfe iv. 




TSors bmuds to be a group of !^on-f^^? d^rivfttives of htamatdnt 
ud not n single one. Soiu« of thrsr cun \io produced lurtiflddlji 
!«eh u hMDatOporphyrm with its anhydride, and hnKniAtolin ; MT- 

I'lUB dUims occur in the organism of certain lower cmimala tia Boch 
(hMMtoporpbyrin), anil certain others are formed daring the normal or 
^•kawmal difiiiiti^gnitioti of lia'tnoglobin that occurs in the course of 
'tfc» BUtnfocturv of bile and urine pigments (biUrubiu, urobilin ujid 

oroh«uaU>por|ihjrin) ; mid lastly one is formed in the disint^-gnktion 
'o( ^ blood pigment, tliat occur* in an old blood clot (hannatoidin), 
- ts spite, Iiowcvrr, of dirtlrn-ntes Iwtween tliese diiTerent forms of imn- 

int hmmaiin (in solubilitifR, opticnl diomcterB, &c.), one cnnnot holp 
ti/bf more gtru<-k with the resemblances between them. It therv- 
|[p appears possible that we may <!TontimIIy Hud wc are dcnling with 
■* munher of isomeric or polymeric substances, for in thrwt of them 

ilmidy (bilirubin, luematoporphyrin, and hrematoidin) the same empi- 
.nal formula baa bee<u described. 

I medico- legal cases it is often necesEary tA ascertain whether or 
rvd fluid or stain upon cltiljung Js ur Im not blood. 
e ttt>t« to be applied are microscopic, cheiuicHl, aud Ept'ctroBuopic 
tlierotctqnif re*(«.— The corpusclea of the blood should be sought 

iW. 1{ the blood Ik fairly frc^h it is possible to distingui-ih the human 
nd toipuseleH from the ri-rl corpuKclcH (if thotie animals in which thtiy 
' mnaclMtwd, or differ from them grtntly in size and shape. Bxceedingly 
<whi meaaunmeitts hav« shown that there are sniatl iiut very snnall 
^WutioBS ID the diameter of the human red corpuscles and thnxc of 
lW common mammals, but prnclically it is not possible to discriminnto 
) Mnen them. 

Cktmicai (««/j. — The old test with tincture of f;uaiacum and hydro- 
' ^farozide, the blood causing the reil tincture to become green, is 
J *wj Butrustworthy, an it is also given by many other organic auh- 
Muoo, such a« potatiips, certain fomut of filt«?ring paper, iic &o. The 
J *i)f tnslworthy cbe-niical tt^nt ix the formation of hnnniii crystals ; if 
4 ^only Has a piece of stained clothing to deal witli, this is boiW with 
I^HtsI acetic acid, and a sniall crystal of sodium chloride on a alido ; on 
I *M4iDg the crystals form as already described. 

SpttttvtMpie UHi. — If the blood is present in any (juantity, the 

?|>(al bands of oxyha-moglobin can lie readily seen through the xpoc- 

I '"Hope • these give place to the single band of hmmoglobin on tho 

MutioQ ot a reducing a^^t. One must be prepared, however, in the 

tf old utains for the presem-e of methttmoglobio, or of hiematin. 



In Kuch a case, and hUo when tim qtuuititjr of hicnioglobin is very 
atiiall, the iiiOBt readily obbuii«d spoctrutn is tli«t of hteinocbromo|{eu 
or redui.'ed litematiu. The stained fabric is cxtracMd with a small 
quunttty of wikt«r; a few drops of a reducing ageikl (freshly pre[«red 
•odium hypiMulphite is a good oiie to use),' and tbeii a (e«r drop* of 
coDnrntnted cuustJc soda solutiou to decooipose t]i« luemoglobin ; tli« 
■ptictniiii of hiL-tuoohrDmogen, or at any rat« the l)««t marlcul band of 
that MtliKtance (the one between D uid B), then apptMrs ; the mmn 
wave-longth of this band is X K07. Tliii lumd di»ap|)can on hnating 
to HO" C. nnd nuippuira on cooling ; it atiio diwippcnni whMi thiit coin- 
tion tsagitAtod with tho air, but tho substance so formed ix nlknlini' 
fasnnntin, which showv only a faint band, too £aint to be sntn in such 
wtuk solutions m we are considering. 

In case* wliero the stain hns become insoluble in water, it must be 
disKiIvod out with ammonia, and the solution redoond by Stokes's 
Ktigent i the typical band of hietnochromogen is then seen. This test 
is nppU<»bte even in cases whore no heemin crystiUs are obtainable. 

lu any pnrticuUr case it in adTtsable not to rvly upon one t«at 
onlyi but to try ev«ry arailablo meoita of detection at one's diipoasL 

■ RMainnimilad by LiiUMiiiu, Butl. Sor. CMia. illi. SVI. 



TllS caminon ^^spi-estion ' Tlie blood U the tif«' exprMses what \na 
tiU conpNrsUveljr recent yuira regarded u true liy aoientiatu, nnniyly 
tliAt the most importAiit of th« vital procctuiM take plnoe iu that Quid ; 
the cheooicftl •:l»nge« groujteil togcthor under mvtAbulism, wo iiow 
kwitr oooar not in thp 1>IinxI, hut in the tissues genomlly, the blood 
fonntng in grmt monsuro n ntenns of putting tlip other tissurn into 
WNnBiiinicMtion with those pftrl« where nutriment is obtoined, or ex- 
CTvtions diachargMl . 

Not only was tliis view held of Uie tuiporta-nce of tlie blood in the 
pittoeww of liMkltti, but in disease nlso it wns supposed to piny an 
eqaftllj l«adini; part^ This gnve rise to tho lioctrine of diiease called 
ttmnonil patiiolo)i;j ; And ita exponents were cnJIe^l hnmoralists ; tlie 
oppoDeuls of tbio excluEit-e view of disease arose about the miitdln of 
this centary, and were dubbed salidists or a ntl-bu moralists. The great 
■ttnoloa in starting the opposition to humoral doctrines was no doubt 
Sebwmnn's fp^at discovery of the )tU|jortajit piirt tliut the animal <vll 
pbys both in health aod discaae, And t)i« anti-hutuonLliaCs re;,'iu^Ied the 
life of tlie oTKuniiiiii aa the sum of the life of all the oonstjtueut cells 
at it« various orfpvns ; aimiUrly loo, dliordured conditious of the blood 
were con&iilerei] to be either secondary to changes in the other tissues, 
or If prinuuy, that thry ]>ro(Iuc«l their results by tJie uflecta such 
thaagta hnd on thn ntlitrr tixsues. 

In the prcsMit day. h«If n century since the promulgation of the 
oeil Ihwwy. physicians nro now hotter able t^ weigh thcso two counler- 
doctnnoK, llinn was possible in the first flush of a new and brilliftnl 
discovery, snti their relative importance con bo now more fairly 
■sttmated. It. is now well recognised thut nil dispiimn are not morbid 
COndittoiiH of the blood, and llmt unhealthy blood is often the rc.iult of 
dioorden elsewhere ; in the same way, bleeding b not resorted to m a 
pajMom for every ill ; but on the other hand it is also perfectly well 
KvofpiiMnl that in certain dLiunses the ilefeot is eitlier in the blood 
ttaslf, or ill the I ilontl- foiling organs ; and tliat in uiany diseases we 
hare rery distiiK-t evidence of the pre*ence of abnormal substances or 



poifons in tlic hlood itself ; gout is an iiisuukc« of tliis ; bat in tbe i 
dnvM of niiti-hunioralisui t'Ii« humontl nnture of gout wa« Btoutl)^ ( 
In the following brief de«criptio)i of the rarioos Altered 
cotulitiotM seen iu di^ea&e, it will be oonveoient to take firat 
oonditiouB ia which the priuary miochiej Heems to be in ibe I 
ttM^lf, mid Heoundly Uiosl' in which th« morbjil Htate of lh« blood^ 
part u( & general pul)iolo^cal condition, or scooixliiry to cbangoj 
other oi^ns. 


AniemiA Is n t«rni vrhiuh ooven n large nuRibm' of ciumw in wMd 
poomeis ill ont! or otlwr, or all tti« constitneiita of th« blooi), i» tlieM* 
constniit (■iindition. 

It mny be th« nwiilt of niiiiinrntM mid viuy vnrying cnnditiom , 
wh«n the blood-forming timio arc at fntilt, it may bn <:onsiilRn) t 
priiuar)' (UnwuiC of thi- blood itself ; but thdrc arw » large nnmbtr rf 
other ciwee in which tiiiirniin in the nrromjianimrnt of « gnierel ilill 
of debility or Eaalnutnlion, or seoondoiy to chronic a^ctioiuaic 

It may Ixt the rewult of excessive ha^iiorrhax« ; the blood 
b«cotaeii rapidly diluU^l wilVi iyinph, and tlius the corpuHcl** u« I 
numerous tliiui normal until freali one* are formed to replace 
that were loiit ; the total of solid* of the ptiutraa is alao dtmiiujdied^i 
tlte lyiu[>h ix amrtt wnti'ry thnn normal plnsmn. 

Not only hirmnrrhnge, but other dinrhnrges also, produce an i 
condition, hupIi an llir ditchargt^ from abnecum, cxceuire and i 
diarrhtr*, diKchargr of albuminous urinrr in Bright's diseaiw^ anj » 

On the other hand, the intake of nntrimeiit may be inauffictMit,' 
thus the whole body, including the blood, may be wasted. Inniliali 
food, uuHanil&rj conditions, i.e. insufficient air, light, an<l exeroif^l 
all potent (.auMis of anwmia. The wasted condition may not 1 
be the result of bad hygiene ; malnutrition may arise doni an in 
to take food, owing to obstruction in Uie ivaophagus, to diwascnKh' 
oatarrli, or tiic more serioua conrlition, cancer of the stomach, aad M 
nwny othrr morbid xtAtcs of thir alinx-ntnry organs. 

In chronic disciuirs grncrntly, in chronic l«wi or ntereurial ] 
ther« is niKO auooiatctl j> markeil nnirmic condition. 

Lutly we have those primary conditions of an»mia which ^ 
railed cbloroHtK, pernicious antemia, and It-uoocytJucmta. 

In annmia gnnmully it may be Ktatml thitt the most marked HTtrt' 
seen in a diminution of the nnmtier, siie, and colour of the red «^ 





jmm A tm, oft»a nti incrtftM kdtia) ac w«U as roUUv« of the whit« 
cefpmelw, and mi iiicn^nsn of WAtor niiH diniinuUon of the colkU of tht 
pUauw. Th» cbnngcs in the oorpuocl^s arc investigated cliniciklly bjr 
tiie BticrOBcopc, tiie Iwinocytonictvr, and hienioglobinometer ; wlule the 
duaj^ iti the pUwma require the more ooiupliciited tnethoda of nuaJvsi*, 
all of vhich luive htt-u deaciibed in the foregoioK oli»pi*r. 

In fAronif <iiuf»iicr the red curpuHcleft may he diiiiiniHhed to j, or 
iaextivna oum to ^, of the norm&l amount. In etituM of inotIi?rat« 
intcndty the amount of hirmoKlnhiii variea l«twL>en ^ and j, ftiid in 
cxtfvne OMM to it of the tiOMiial itiuount. In all chronic cnses the 
iiM*n dhtmrtpr of ihv rod corpuKclm fnlU to 7 /• or oven to fi /< ; there 
An abo «n anocually l^ritr numluT of ititinll nvl vorpuKchs (tlinnwter 
S-3 — 6 fi), and iilmo«t lu frmiurntly n cfrtain iiumbei' of anusnnlljr 
lw|^ cnrpoaclea (diMnetn- 10—12 f). Home of the amnllor corpuseln 
■MBn 14 tutve leu ooiDii«trit<:y tlian normal, and a»sume moditi(<d, often 
<ml abnpM.' In anwmic blood the clot ahows naualljr a bufly coat ; 
lUi doe« not iteem to 1*e due to the i-uagulatiuri beiii)^ very iiluw, but 
ntli«r to the aubaiileiioe of tlie red L-orpUHL-leei heinj; v«rj quick, on 
acooont of tl)« low ipflcilic gravity of the plusmii. 

CtJonmn in a condition of onarmia which occura alinott fixcludvfly in 
)unng wotneu, ikiid ia asso<uat«d with dii>urd(.'r nf th« inenKtrual function. 
IRmiv it iiit«nac aiuuniia, foiling mmrt rap-cinlly nn th« red coi-puKclea 
'whtrh HI* few and pnio ; this produiNii a pt-culiar grrcniKh pallor of 
d>r alcin, froni which t)u! di»-iui(i dpriTpa its name. CblorosiH also is 
that form of nnipmin in which th<t adminiKtmtion of iron causen the 
facKt elfecta. Oft«u after only a few days the corpuscles are iiic mined, 
» ted odour Iiaa returned to the cheeks, and all the other troiibloii hucIi 
■> |alpitatioii. breathleoHness, .tc, due to an inHufik-ient amount of 
hMOeglolMn, dtM]>(ienr. Tike followiii}; anulysL's give the onidition of 
ibv kkxHJ bcfwra and aft«r the m<.tliciiml uw of iron in two caMM 
{AadnJ and Gararrtit'). 



1 Cask 


' B'/iiT' IrvH 

Aj^ff Iran 

' Btfore Iriin 

Aflfre Iron 

Watetin 1,000 [Mirta 86ti-7 




Fibrin . . . 3-0 




Blood oorpuacln 46-4 




Sold) midud of terum 83'9 




' itmay ut lb* tiior* ImIii rnguiling tha imcpuai'Ii's in aiiniium 1 luvn bJiPn ftnin ll"> 
■JnilnUn vpltum* a< HajBta't mutk (ivnu in (lUHgiw'* Phjfriol. I'hrm. {i. ItH. Hnyciii, 
)ltt^rtl>t4 aur Fatiatttmlt nermale 4l fotholoffiqut iIh tanf, Vui*, JWft. Du taitg, 
IVu, tM«. 

' Anilnl and <!** um?, Aaittlft <lr ehiiiiU rl •!* ph^tiqvr, Ikiv. 91S. 


TitK ■nssi'Es Axn onoASS op the body 

ConKidi'mlilc doubt iiaii, howi^viT, ari-tiMi u bo whether the inm 
•dminiKti-ml jk lurtuiilly nlMorbRij ; thifre ure luany wlio beli«ve tiiat 
tlu! imn is absorhtHl ; on tli<- opjinxiti' h'kXo., Humbur^r iiiaoti^ uUien 
consitlers tlmt littl« nr noar- o( tlii^ incdicinal prrpnrnliflikN of iron it 
absorbed from the nlimentnry canal, but that iron is atisorbdcl otiij m 
tlie form of organic compounds, such as Are formed in the i^tbrtir 
procrsses of ptniit nnrl animal life. Die quantity of iron in the vtek 
body is only three grammes, and this quantity is taken nuuiy tinM* 
over during treatment. Bunge' ^xpUins tfa« osefulnena of inn is 
chlorosis by its fonuing iioti Hiilp)iid« in the iiiteslines, ra]>oviiig i 
tJiia way excess of sulphur fruin the body : in chloroaia tlwre an 
oeasive fernieiituti<m i)n>ceH.s(!s in the uliineiitAry iMiuil, itniJ 
quantities cif sulphuretted hydrogen an- formed, which deitroj 
organic compounds .>f inm thut form lin-moglobin (hiitnat'^iti) : 
ndininifitnition of iron ]iri'i'i?nt< this di-^truction of hii 
Lnndwehr^ points nut tituX such a theory, huwnvor, doi^ not «| 
tlio liniibitioii uf the disetue t<> tho feiniilc gbx, and th« {xtriod of 
ftdolejpL'i^iciv Hi' regards the dUuisc as one producod by nn *:: 
dffvrlnpinent nt this pnriod, of subslances containing anioul 
necessary for the nourishment of the enibryo, and which net inji 
on the luenioglohin molivul". If this is so, cidorotic people should 
little or no oArlwhydrnte food, fjandwehr further considers thftt i 
precipitntr-K the gum in the alimentiiry c&nni aa a jelly-like coa^! 
and thus excess of gum lenses the body vith the Uecm. 

Proijfvirirf fi'rrnKi&iiit antfmia. — By 8ome thtH diKeaw- bu 
refcarded as nimply an advanced fonn of ordinary nnipmia, tail 
rapid development, and iU uaiially fatal termination, as well as 
other peculiar nymptomii (nttiu-ki of jiyrexia, liability to 
hffiniorrha^^'e. Ac), y>\aicv iton a different footing from ordinary 
and incut clinical olncrvi-rs recognise it bs n distinct disease. 

Till? diKea«r was first dps.:ribpd by Drs, Willu and Addison, W 
since thi<ii numerous olv^ervers have added gre«l)y to our kuowle^p* 
its symptoms iin<l pathology. We liave here, however, only 10 i* 
with the changes in the blood, and the probable cause of those chaor^ 

The changes in the blood have been rery tltoroughly invcMtjiM* 
by Eichhorst,' and may be 'lunniiarised as follows : — 

1. The coloured coriiusclea are diminished in numbor, and to 
amount of hti'moglobin they contain. Thero is a great incraue in >o* 

■ Bungc^ii^l. Chtm. !x. tO. 
> twidnlu, Vfiagrt't ArMr, xl. !l. 

^ Thp quMtion of iiiiinia] «an\ tn J IW nUUan lo maeia and umlUi Miw ■ 
found dimniiiitJ m dctnil audit Ihu 1ie*iliii|| C!anii«c<at« TtnUH. 




imAer of the amall nA corpnsdH, mnny M wliich nn inM-Hhapm, and 
muiy of which «ni globuEur »nA not diK-oid. Th« iton-dUcoid cor- 
pwelea an- not, bowov«r. coniitnntly prmcnt.' C)ccii«ionftlI}r iiuclented 
coiowd eorposi'lM hMT« bntn <>b«crvnd (Byrom Urunwdl),* 
i. The colourlcm oorpusclos nrv aIui few in number. 
3. Tb* blood «hen xhed cringiilnt«s with ditticulty. 
Hw qnntioD uriMKi is this diacnsn duo to diminished foniintion oS 
the dements of tli« hlood, or to incmsed dtstrurtion of the samel In 
tfaoM CMMS wh«re nucleated r^ corpu>>cles hnvc Ikhmi found, it ban heen 
attamtA tltut the red ui Arrow is diseased, as in certain funnn otleucuoy- 
tlumiiB, whicli will be )rreseiitly uieiitioned. But tlie uiujurity uf cmust 
tbo« no diM^ow of the red marrow, and the usual \'iew hirld is thitt 
p*nitini>uii aniiitiiu is due lo excensive deBtructioii of thi.' ecilulnr 
iJBHii-pfai of tht! blood. Recent rt'oeiin-heB )iy l>r. W. Hund-r* Mid 
I>r. Slott ' on tlir jMtholii^'y of the ditteoHi- fully cuitfirtitu tliiK thnory ; 
I (|aat«< briefly Hunter's concluKions witli ru^'Krd to thn onturc of thfi 
Uood dcBtmction. It ia not uinply a diiaolutiuti of llic red oorpuiclea 
^ ia tlis grn«riU eimdation, nucli nii occun }ifrio<lic*)ly in paroxynnAl 
^■luHiKii^obiiitinn, or may be artiGoinlly iuduceil by the injection of dis- 
I tillR] watvr or pyrogallic acid ititu the circulation. Hn-mnglobinuna 
H ftlwnya Alwicnt in perniciouH aiui-min. In this rxktii'n the condition 
of Uif liver ts of the gr«at«at importance. The condition of tlie liver Is 
•a fojlows : (1) It ts axMCdingly rich in imn ; (2) there is excess of 
fiffinent within the liwr cells ; and (3) there ik fatty degenerution iu 
the vvtitrkl third of each lobule. A condition cloudy rewnibUnR Uiis, 
tbougb not M> inarkcil, w produced by the drug tcluylcndiaoiiue. It ia 
ifaertfore assumed that the agent, or agents, which induces the eKceaaiive 
dertradion of blootl in peniicious anieinia is one whose action on the 
Uood uid on the Uvercellsis tho same as that of toluylendiauiine. Thix 
new is ctrentttbened by tlie consideration that lh« form aasumcd by 
Um LaiociglotMa after its liberation from the corpuscles is. in cnws of 
pefsiciooa niunnlft, siniilar u> that asaumed by it after j>oisr>ning by 
toinylendiBinine. After poiHunioKby thiBdruguumeTnuKxniallglobulea 
j(tUowtsh colour occur in tlie urine, and thevc exactly resemble 
of pigment found in the ctmvoluti-d tubulea of the kidney 
In oertaEn casM of pemiciou* auieniia.' The urine contains exccns of 
irobOin (Uott). 

' rliil^'ii Sivmrt, JSril. ilnil. Juurn. rol, i. IB'B, p. to. 

• S4ta»«ryA Xt/d, Jum- iiiii. tiiH. 

■ Baatn- ImtH, rol. iL IBH^ {i. ntl. In llif* ptjmr wOi kIm b« foand R(ctrviic« lo 
li»i«iihi> <it <4lMn wlio Iwrn worlml nl Uio nubjtol. 

* IhU T«t. L lew, p. UO; vol. i. 1800, p, 3HT.; 

■ Ilaiitor doM Doi hDnvnir gir* mj praoh Uul Ibtw jretlmr globulai EOti*i*l ot 


TUE Tl.SSlE,-* .\S]> OltOASS OP THE 1«>DV 

With regard to the precise nature of th« poison geuerated, Hnntir 
iKi)[{[e8t« it Diay be of n cuulavcric nature, absorbed from tlie alitnentit; 
tmot. The reeoaroh is, however, apmrially valualili- in fixing tkr utA 
of the i)iHintej{nttio» of tlii! ourpUHclea in Uie [>ort«l circul«tioii, tnil 
it* tniporlMnt unm-jm, UiK splueit and liwr. (S^ nlwo Liwr, Splcm, 

ffirmor/liAinnria. Thin ik a condition in whicli th« luemnglolHO rf 
the red corpUKlee becomes di«ralv<>d in blood pliumn (hn'Tnoglobinn^), 
and paiHes into the urine, mostly in the condition of methfpmogiDbiii. 
Tliis condition will bo more fully described under Urine. 

Leucocythatmin, — Thp norninl proportion of white to red coi|iqkI(I 
in man is about 1 : 350. This proportion is, however, by no tnMU 
fixed ; it varies in dilTereut vessels, at difl^rent times of llie day, with 
difliBreut ages. There iire alao tcrtjiin coiidilionn m wluch the wbill 
oorpaaclea are increased, but still nut to bach a ^I'^At ext«nt u to p»- 
duoo the Hymptoma of whfit is oallod leuvucytbiemia. Thna In mui; 
(bnna of chronic iLnn-niiu, tlit> wliit« corpiuicles are iiligbUy nitcd it 
number abR(1lutl^ly UK well im rdativdy. During pre^ancy tbenil* 
similar condition, itnd in many inttammatnry aflnctiona it occnn slui 
The t«rm Inirnrt/toniii in ftpptted to this condition, whnrmu the md 
lencoeythannia is not nwtl until the proportion of whitn to r«l naAm 
1 : 30. In some cases, howevpr, the proportion may bo as highat 1 : i. 
or«ven, it iasaid, 1:3; and in these cases when the blood is sbedithai 
the uppearanoe of a mixture of blood and poa. 

The diseiise is usually aoeompanied wltJi jjreat hypertrofiliy of tt* 
xpler-n ; Bom«limes with a ^neral hypertrophy of the lymphatic fiJtD^ 
throughout the body ; it iw, however, c{uite potnible to huve » mygmi 
tncrriurt in th<- lir^t of the lyniphatir xluid* (lyinphadenoRui) vithnui 
any leueoi'ythninin. ' Tlicn: nm othrr camm a^n in which tjir "^ 
marrow is diseased (myelogenic leucocythmmia), and nuclMted r(d 
corpuscle* like those of tJic embryo are found in th« circuUtioo. 

It is poarible that in certain cases of leucocvthwmia and vi^ 
forms of intense annTnia the affection of the red marrow maj ta 
Mcondary rather tlian priniSiry. Thus Denys,* who has innatt^M^ 
the (onnatiou of red corpuscles in pigeons, finds that during nm^ 

hBungloblii or «ra dorivod trom it : thay mar indued be otUu taaai tn pxlactlj mo*' 
l(kbkB5v, ui^ gii'B nono of tbo n<iu7Lionft of li«moi;tobin. 

I In (Hu third of the catH of (Jilniiv ItueocjthiBniu ihe IjnphKUe gkall <■• 1^ 
«nlatgBl: undpi thr micnncopa nHtioniof tlic jtUndi kppoM OMIIMt, Umis la tanti <l* 
in«MM*<J tiif intcntitiiil toticutum ilut ofcdi* in lymphMtenoni^ Ovwmm,Bt f m li ^ 
S^ttrm of Jfrrf (riw, vol. t. p. dIUHI. 

■ Dear*. Lit ilrvtiirerlf la •norlleiln at tAeMtstvitraii*. JVamiiJ Ju Imim tt 'i'* 
tanalofnU pa<lmUiifiqiie tU I'anivmM 4lr Loutaiii. 



Vm, A— Clnrnit'f «>■••]* 


mMirtion the blood-fonuinf; structures degeueqrat«, atul &re repUoed bj 
• Kucua-like tjaane^ aiul tliat iioi>eifeotlj' fonixKl or tunbtyoiuc cor- 
P«kIm make tlieir wajr into thv gSBcnd oirouUtion. 

Not uul)' is the numbtir uf whit« corpuocloi incrcsuied, but tlie red 
■re dtminuilied itt numlivr. 

Elod^teil, octnhedraJ, colourlow cnmtnlK hnvo been stAted to 
■f«m» from Uio blood of leucocytlncrnic pationt^ sfter dwtCh by 
«v«nd obscrwra (Ch&rcot, Volpian, 8olkowj«ki, Zenker), and different 
n»ws bAVtt bf«a h«Id M to tJieir natura ; they 
h»rr be«n varioitslr connd«red to coiuiDt of pi-o- 
tnd, of tDudo, «ad of tlie j>ho§{ihale of a bnse 
villi tfae formula C,UjN {Scbfeioer '). These 
oTitala ar« UHuall j gpoketi of M Charcot's orystols.* 
Titej arc not, liowever, peculiar to leucocythn^iuia ; 
tli«j b»ve been fouiul nUu in enaxu of siiiiplo 
Muwnia. and in the Hputum >A lironohtal niitbinii 

Xanthine and hypoxaiitliinc! oouar in greater ahuiiditiicu in Icucivmic 
blood thaji in nonml blood ; these, no doubt, ore derivixl from tho 
whita corpoaclea, ac«(>nliiig to Knsaol* fmm the nudei of whit« cor- 
pMClw. Lactic acid, whi4:h hns )>oen also descri>>e<l. doubtless oW8a ito 
ari([in to tbv incrtuwed number of wliito corpuscles, which undergo 
chaages renilting in the fonnntion of thia ncid when tlie blood is 
■had. {S*m footnote 1, p. L>l3t.) 

f ge huwf and tioTup-Baancx* linve deacribod La Ihn blood in thl* dlMiiuu> 
a Mbdanoe wbicfa t« wlubU in hot water, and Mts IdIo n Jolly nlieo ftc aoluiion 
b eookd, ia bet, which t>rlinve* Uk« pilatln. 

AJditon't liurtur. — This is a distuisit wLtdi ii nmociutcd with great 
«B>tin]( and anntmiA ; the skin ia deeply bronmxl, and in typical anm 
thm wpcarenal capsules have been found (jMut morCnn) to bo diapa»ed. 
The («Ution between bronnng and suprarennl cnpsulm- diHomc is, liow- 
•nr, fajr no means constAnt, and by some ubsorvcre the changes occur- 
ring in the neighbouring semilunar ganglia are regarded iis tiiore 
ia^ortant than tliose in the supraretiols. 

* lAflitt)'* Annaten, exciv. es. 

' AlnU<toc»ial«ilhnl*tvuocairlU be lound In Uawen'i uttlulo In lifijnoldt't Syittm 

* M«H nmiUjr Maiiuii IBirUn. kltn, Woelunuch. No. ixii, IHaa) hiu dotcritxn) lh» 
Ma cvjifalft ia Uif vxpautAnUai of pbtlumcal ■ud iHroncJiitiL' |wli*iit'^ 

* KnMil, ZriUthf. f. fhymt Chem. rx. T-99. £m i\m Salotnoii, Arthiv /. Amit. 
. pkgiM. 1ST". |i. IWL 

* VaJy'* JaMt*ttt*Ultl, iv. lill 



}I«Teith«lasii, It la Iiit«reetitig bvra to udm UacMunn's' diaoonrr ot i 
ohromogen in tbe ineduUa o( the su|itax«ruLl ca^uIm of numsaU. Tka | 
partiiilly TernnTCd hj vathing oat the blond veMol* wtili tall polnlloi. , 
Mid owing nlM lo the (net it !> clucnbcTs eicrcton-, the hEmocbiaiEO 
adrennlg is prah&blf exetc-loiy luo. MiuiMiuiD further coa«iden OmX.' 
iuIkiuUs nre functioDlera. iu in AiliJitiOu** liisi-niio, the aelnbulim of 
{anil of •lUed piffmouta, l« wiiidi ho httn jcivun tho luuna liistoliKHMtfau) ti ] 
vcDtfii], and the iucomi<1ei«ly m«tAl)oll*»1 i>i|riiieiit* ciruiiUte In tbs blooii 
I«ad to staining ot the ikin and mucous Riontl>roi)Q«. 

Mtfxadtma.'^lii a few caB«« of this (lise&se iu mati, the iwl < 
puwlw, or the htMUOglobm, liavt been oliseived to be (liminwhaJ, 1 
in tbe grtAitr number of caws, uo ch&ractetisUu diangn fanro 
noted by cliiii<yil <>bst-rvt?rs, niid m the few ujst&iices in which ' 
has bc«n more fully eiiiiniinetl tbc only noteworthy Alt«rntioa 
th« fomintian of n bufiy cont on thit clot. 

In cortAin ttnimaU the dUease can Im prxxluccd experim«utal)]'l 
remoral of tli« thj-roid gtuml, nnd dif!<-n«c iT atrophy of the 
gland is th« cnuiu- of the disenso in the human subject alaoL 
auiiDAla (for instAneo, pig, donkey), however, do not exhibit the I 
syuiptuins of the dUeniw, and in these the blood and vemus 
are perfectly nomiiil. lint, on th« other hand, in motikcyE, 
exhiint the disease in a very characteristic manner, and ihow 
swelling of the connective ti&sue which wiU bo fully itcawribed ' 
that tissue, it is found that the blotjd ulno exhibits certain 
changes, viz. anieniui, slow eotiguliitiim with formation of a 
coat, ntii) preMMO! ot tunuU ({uuntiticii of muciti,* wliicfa incresN i 
the iliseiise becunieE fully developird. In dogs also, leucocyloit i 
anivmiii follow tlie extirpation of tlic Uiyroid. 

Kniinxtration of the corjiuEcleii in iJie thyroid vein and 
respectively hiitt nhown that tJiere i« a distinct aurpltis in tbe 
Teswi. i^hic vrouhl, therefore, Ix- inclined to concltKte that the 
WM concerned in thn forniation of corpuscles; and tluit this kq| 
is in part correct, in contimMid by the existc'uce iu nodules Ihroag 
tJie gland of a tissue resembling closely that of Uie HpkytD. and in ^"i" 
few cases removal of the gland has been followed by enlargenMat of 
tbe spleen. 

Tlie genera) ultenitiona throu;;hout thi- whole body seem, hawvnt, 
tp paint to llie function of t}ie ^liuid as concerned not so much in th> 
(Oftboration of tbe corpuKclen as of certain comtituenta ol the plMWn 

' Prot. Hog. S«r. mix. IIM. 
■ Ot Hi liwil ot ■ kubitMim mdilf prcciptt«bl« lif *cctic mM ami iimlMt <* 
«(otM of that rMtml. 



I ^ overgrowth of the connective tissues, and the Accumulation of 
IMttdDct ill the btood, liat e l«il aome observers to mipjiose 
I gUiM) ■■ CMic«rne<) in tlie Kejiurutioii at mucin from the hlood, 
I tlie eaui|iletion of it* tiitttubolism into ii!in[iler productii. 

ftalt M9COIISI of injznnliima, cllnlciil nnii <tx peri mental, will im (mind In tho 
I of * CoiBinitin? of ihc t'linkiil Society, piiblUlii-'d a* uii Appendix to 
Td. XXL o( the ClinJiml BocJety'ii Tmcsnotioni. 


We Ittve Already seen (p, 224) thikt the living vessels exerciae a 
ytvwfal KKtruiuiiig influence upon coagultition ; there ar«, however, 
Wttin |»thoW>gicgU proceaaes id which the blood iua,y co^Kutate vrittdii 
ftl TMMilii during life ; thin mny he from an niteratiou in it« chemical 
Mirtlution. an aftiT certain ikcute specillc diseasea, such as typhoid 
tmr, or after prr^iiancy (phlf^iniuiia itolenn) ; the nature of the chvoii- 
tli cbtugc* IN, however, not known ; in sutii« vtuum the intravascular 
M^pfaition iii>ooxteiixiv«Mi to cause «Ic»th,«ii|iecially when the blood in 
tt( fslaiotuuy rnMoU Ik nlli^ctnl ; in uther cikses where reciiv«ry ensues, 
ftinnlntion of tho clot is often rapid ; veaat-ls which one day can be 
Jth M hard cord> bcnoath thi? skin may tlie next day be qoite per- 
and »o tnxH^ of a clot can be felt.' In other caM» the intnivas- 
wdirooegalatiOD iii duo to tli^ iibMiqition or cxperimentid injection of 
■obstanoes into the circuliition. TItese nrr probably proteid 

artore. Tims in a woun<l in which the dj.'ichurgn is pent up, ttie 
■hwptioDof such exudation will in mild camw bringonariKrof tempura- 
tut wwing one form of surgical fovcr,' hnl in other ca^pu will aias-ti 
lalMnMolar coagulation. Thentatwrial which pro<tuccs tlicKe ^-oisotioun 
<fcti is probably the Ghrin -ferment ;' the nonual liody has the power 
ft Rsiiiting the action of t hi>t sub-itancp to a vi>i-y grtnt extent. A)^in, 
(Wiqeotiuo of xolutioiin of certain prot^iidi^ ohtainod from the thyuux, 
MHi^ and other organs, will in rabbits cause almost univeraal throm- 

' lU) oeeia* Aral in Uic cwitrv ol tho clot. Cw« Im<« bxen dsHTibed in irhldi a 
^ aMtal tkuuMl liaa been tcnmd Ihroug;]! the reiilre r>t thv clol. Tlia (irsciin uatui* 
^ <b OBiun ta which tho fibrin i* dlMolvcd i* nnknown . 

' Kiirhien'a Arvppry. ninth edit, odiu-d by MutrUH Brwli, vnl. i. ^l, ttt. It i>> hcnrnivr. 
T"*^ m IW mtf dI iiurulml diftrliiu^tv tlut Ibe fmi-r may Im ronanl by Oic abtorptiuii 
■•ftBkOM* lonned by tb« diuiit(vnt>"n "t ■">■ ''"H" '"''' Pu>l. 

' h^allim el flbriii'lmaaal into tli« nmuilntiim 1iu,< Unui nbuwii lu chum death (i-om 
■Mtwdu «h>UiaK. *iqi«oi«Ily of tli<' puliii »iuv kyxtum, by KilulbutK. Kiililrr, uid 
■4- Bnk** pkppt llnaujf, IHatrrt. Dutiml, 1»»0| will Im foiuiJ •uiuiiiiinHKl in J/.i/j'i 
•''•aliiiril*, ToL kI. IWl, wlion *1k> tlix ivlHnniini to utliur wurkn ini Ibio lubjcol 



boniK, a,ti<l iit <l<igK til'! clnttitig in Lvnlined almost nxcliedveW U I 
lioHiil ay»t«in (Wwilriridgp'). 

In atiil ADotliCT (rliiKi of ooscis iiitntvnxciilar cmigulntJon occnii> fna ' 
the iptroductioii of forrijrn iinrtipl™ into tho cii-MiliUion. Thn* Mt 
f» iiitrixluctfd for pxiwriim-ntdl piirpitwK from witjiout, nr tlin pJi«> "f 
«nil)oU from wliicli tliP dotting «tnrlji ninylip di'tiichod poortiomi of tiib 
from oth«r pui-t» of the circulation, dotAchod fi'aginei)t>i of v*get*tia 
from diHQAsed valvrw of tho h^art, lu After rheniiiatic fev«r, Ac 

Lnntly, a putiiolof^cnl condition of tlie viixcular lining may Ktl 
tiie suuiD way ax a foreign liody, niiil cau><ei clottiiij; in tlie vn 
oontviiU ; lliix change may im of th« naturo of intlaiiiniatioD (a 
pbtKl>!tts, Ac), or of doi>i?nerutioii (alLeroniA). uv » hreak in lh« < 
tiiiuity of lli« endothelial lining', Hucb oh ooviirti witiijn »n nncariiM 

ThiTt! tin: otliHr patholofi;iciil conditions in wliic-b lite blood niotf I 
TVfulily thiin normally ; for iii.itati<;i^ in disi^iiixiA of a [ivw-Biic or «B 
specific naturp {mc-n*l«s, «rnjall-p<tic, *mrli't fnvcr), (lie blood i» > 
coloured and ctol* with riiffiiridty, when nnnov«ri from th* hodyori 
death, and tho yield of lihrin is sninll, 

Bloo<l rich in fibrin -yielding ol«ni«nte oft«ii clota slowly. 
tuevti in rheuinatisiu, pneumonia, and other ncut^ iid^ammntory < 
ordt-rK. In all these eases the clot han tJi« huffy coat pr^no 

tn littiLiiiphilia. a congniital dincase diaracterined by a Uwdenc; 
iminodcMitc 1il(-ediiig>t, whether apontuneotu or tmuuiatic. it lia* 
BU[i|io->t^d that tJie ullection is due to Uw Wl; of fibrin-yietclins< 
tueiita in the blood. The blood, howe»er, clot* when sli«l i 
ap|«rentty normal. More probably Ihf fault lira in the hlorBl !■( 

In BKUrvyand in purpura Im'nmrrhnjficn no diminatinn in tliffl 
yielding elements of the Wood ha-i bwn found (BiwpHTcl and 
Buak) ; titere la a certain itniount of tinieoiin, but in )Mth tJiiwe dimA 
tut in lunnopliilia, there is Imt little donht thai the t«n<len<'y to li^^- 
rhii^e it the reault tif morbid changiM, not in tho blood, hat b tl^ 
blooil vtvuftU. 


Tho blood removed from pntiiutt* KufToring from a«nt« itiflai 
diHU^en (itni-ninonia, pleurisy, rhoumatic fever, erynipelas, ic.) 
moTe slowly than normal, and henoo tho Cunguluni shovn a bvf^***^ 
The amount of fibrin, which is normally in man 2-R pee 1,000, in»J '" 
crefueto OK much lu in per 1,000 in marked caaea. Tbta [m occomp*!''''* 

WdiiUrid];B, <.'raanauH Lttturt, Boaoi Stc lm& 



ui incrro") in th« uroount. of ^enim-glnbulm in lli« serum. Tii 
«tlier words, toth lIm* gWiuliti^ (tibrinogt'ii iind i^oruin ■globulin) iiro in 




ThCTV is alv> leuoooyt^iiit or in(.'n>&te of tlie wlute L-orpU8£lM, and so 
tliM* i» i»n incn'iuM' in tb* o-ll-sloliulin or librin-fL'fuieiit, which in pnrt, 
so Hoal>t, nccountn for ihn inorunnd iininunt of globulin iu thv Heruiu. 

Til*? incmutp of legcocytcs in n [mint whicli hiis l)iwn very fully 
workril oat by T. P. OiHtling.' Tt w« orijpnnlly olworvMl l>y Pi«rry 
in IS^T. nnd l/itrr by Virchow, Nnssi-, and Mftlnwrn. (ioitling found 
Uwt iIjc whit" «)q>u«cl«s wpro i>jNs:inlly incryftKwl in ituppurntivv 
tnlUiiiitMUatia, mom pflrtirnkrly when luwoiiipnnitMl by tnnHOn ; and 
tlmt wlirn tliii tpuvion vras ri-lipvi'd, as by opening the alxces^ the 
Itonx'ytiMuii dinuiiUhixl. M(> thoivfor«i suggo^tM that nbitorpticni of 
lmeo)']rt4^ ^ni the ii)Elani«d aran in tlie neighbour)i<iod of the absoata 
inll in [mrt (explain tlx! plH^noTiiciua observed. 

It irilt lie -ecu in iht- fore^'oio;; |iarn;;raph!( that rhevrnatitin is 
iacliicl^ with other fornix of iiillanniiatory dlisorder- There in tio 
«loubi. ItoweTvr, that rliduiiiHtiHiii li & ^peciflc di-«aB?, in which lollaia- 
mtioii t.i more prone to attnirk the jdinb* than any other |>art, ant) ia 
whirli ;« wry nipid d^ti-urtioii of the re<l rorpuuclm oireurK; in all 
(irabability, the diaeiMC is prodiK-ed by a sjiecial poinnn of ii chi^iniciil 
(L« nan-lnct^rial) naiun^. The liypotheaU h&H been advniiciil thnt 

\tftic »cid in the blood is the mntrfir/L morhi, but this iias IieviT Ih'Oii 

tatiafacCAi'ily demonstriilMi Althou^di wo have no poxitjvis knowlolgK 
ti the pouon, we at nny rate posMrHgi thn negatiro information that it 
b ivot urii' arid, and *o rh'-unititioni nn<l rhMinuitoid iirthritix am cndly 
4btini;m'dinlile frmn ij'i'il, wh>Ti' nndnulili-dly unitiuiu vtratf is the 
poinon ((Iarro<l). The pcrr^tntagc of uric acid In the Hcruni has in gout 
bfTO fminil tOTaryfnim l)'l>04 to 0-1 IS. OxaIi<.- nr4d hns Ixwn 
lowul ((iarrod). (For tlio inHhod of demonstmting the eniMi-iK-e of 
*xenrm of aric aciil in ){OUty blood, *ip p, 252.) 

I^tliMn's theory of tb« formation of urii; acid in gont* ia na foUowH: 
Tbe itlyoM-ine, instead of uM<trr)i;oinx its normal cliaiige into urea, 
combine* in the liver with (wn ninWolr* nf timii (derived fmro Iniotne 
and other auiMlu-Midii), ami formx tbn I'ompoimd 





thlch ia allied to biarot and allophanic ether. 

' ir*Jtm.CMn>ryfrnJ Tram. wl. lirfi. Il88e>, p, I8B. 
> I>aIKwr,1SH,vaLI.^MI; 1883, ml. I. [l 1190. 

X -l 

808 THJ: TissiEs and phoaxj* <ii-' THK BDDV 

Tbis Rulmtanod i« il«>by<lmted and forms 

wlllab,like< hycIiintoin,i« soluble in the blood, )uuu«s to the kidnqn,! 
tSum nuiUM with another inotocule of uren to form AmmoDilun wit^^j 

fjQjNH— CO j-jj 

^ 'NH I + CO -.„'=H,0+04H,N,0,NH. 

co!nh-ch, ^"' 

Inm] (MutuoaSiiiu iinu] 

which is excrotod : but n portion pasung into the general circalatio 
con\'«rted in th« l>lood into sodiuiu urate. 


Thp fihria rniiiyini* fiomiina U n nrnintoid worm found to ' 
blood and urine of patients sullering from diyluriii ; the n«nic of I 
disease is given to it on nocount of the chylc-liko condition of < 
oriOA. The diseuBc is also iii;conipiiiii<'d witli swcllingK undrr thes 
wpmoUy of the scrotum, coHtnining chylous Huid and mh 
dificharging tho same. The diseJisn aH«ct« inhalntnntu of India n^ 

ik> iB.r as has been ascertained, tho presence of tJie 
the only abnormal feAture of the blood ; nothing is known vt i 
changea in the composition of the blood which it may causv. 

The Bil/mnia Jimniitubia I>el»iig8 to tJie treuiatodo (lluk«) tuaif<t 
wi>riiiii. It i.i found in the blood of |iatient<i aulferinf; from a diMN 
ku<iu-ii as E^'yptian obloruMn,' an endeniic lut-niaturia oocuniiMT ■'' 
only in Egypt, but at the Cape, tlio Mauritiuit, and in dmith Amenta 
The |>nriki>it<' inhabits cliirfly the bninchcH of tliu jHrrtAl systi-ni, and (^ 
small vnnx of the jh^Ivik of thi! urvtvr, the uret«r, and bUddir. 1^ 
diseaw is uccompanjtrd with hn-maturiu (blood in the urine), and il '■ 
this constant drain that cauxrK thi^ anii-mic condition. 

The condition of the urinn in thfsn two dibrawK will he deMtrilit^ ■ 
a later chapter inf Pathological Urines). 

Theot- are the only two animal parasites whidi are known to< 
iu the blood : the reinalning parau'tes are vegetable in nature. 

Z>f>autie <iige«t»f*.—'The germ theory of disease teiwlies that 

■ Ej^yptina rtLliir«>-u in vtEiivlJinH*^ cHtiniiil mi) by tliq Bilhimio, IhU bjr • m 
1* MUMd by l«»rJi-Uko l>lH(liii|i> l>y iumuih ut UkuihukI* dI Uinb cMlona. 



tjat^ disnues, or Mnlv specifio tlisensea, as tlitiy are BOiii<!tiDi«a <%U«d, 
>ir pmloced by wrtiiin low forms nf vc^tablo lifn ciillnl )»tctcria, 
hdllb nierococd, &'<!,, iiml tlmir cmtagtiiusncss consists in tin' trans* 
Unni»<A tlteee bnoteria or ttieir sporfs from one person to Kuotliur. 
Ik eMwtant ooexJBtenot! of a bncterinl growth witli smiic <iE theiw 
t fan been provnl, l>ut in many other ca^es th<_' cxisI^ikM! of xiich 
M menAy & nmtt^-r of inference from ttie rvsi^uibluncR of thv 
dbcwe to other (liseases, in which th« c-xistcnce of a. specific hiict«riu« 
hai been prorm). The various bnrtorial growths are distinguiiihod 
Eran i«e nnothnr by thp sliap© ami sii^e of tlie Iwcteria thi?niHi?lv<\8, by 
tif »»y in which they gi'ow upon certain nutritive media (g^elatine^ 
■^■(^KT, btoocl-berum, >ui<l the like), mid by the Cact thtit when a 
pin- cultivation is introduced into an<>ther animal a certain set of 
Rjaptoms is invariiibly produced. 

hi ccrtAiii actitc cpt^ciHc disnases the seat of tho luoterial ([rowtli \* 
tW iiit«ttiae (cholera,' typhoid fever) ; in othen the tJiruat (diphtheria, 
i<.): in oUten Ui« skin, or lulx^utAneous tissueit (eryilpeUui, >tc.) ; in 
tfim tRttin, (>tti«r tir)j;ans may lie the jiointit Dpet'iiilly uttueked. 
Am an two diseastw in whicli the presence of such genua in the 
lias lufcM elmrly dpni on st rated, riK. the spirillum of n-lnpsiiig 
r, and thi^ Wdlluit anthraci* of Kplenio fever and mulignant pustule 

■'k iliarasc). 
Xolaria.- Tlw discovery of the liaciltus malariii- placivl ikgue luid 
TuioaM fornm of maUrin! (inti-mitttent) fever atiuinir the acute 
fNJIic tlini'AMii. This wn* n hacilluH found in the blood of malarial 
puitntu hy Klelff and C'rudf^li, but upon further inveati^^ation it wan 
^vai thnt it did not fulfil the different conditions which provo the 
^endenoe of a di»ca>e upon a micro-orgnnism. Thoee conditions, no 
WdowD by Kocli, are as follows :-^ 

I- The mi«i»H>rgani»iu must always be present in the anitnul 
>AnnfE (ron the disease in question. 

!. Thtr nticro or^uiism murt lie cultivat»fd for several successive 
PMntioos in Kuch a manner an to exelude other tiiicro-oTKautHniii nnd 
Nhr pouwna ; and on thi- introduction of tuch it pure uuHivation into 
ktndy ot a iHuilthy animal tiisccptilile to the diaeiLse, it produces the 
MUe in thnt animal. 

1 It U necenHnry that thn second animal xo affecttid should show in 
11* Udy the winie micro -or^n isms. 
The hacilliui malaria; an<l itevenil other micro-organisms discovered 

' n«HiK ia Uw atmiiiluil iruMUditioii* from Uif alimpntuy antti in i^liitlHru, llui 
I Wrmft nl*tivtly rir^h m viUd coiiKtitutnlv, find may in viVtrv c**t* cvrJi ba^v it 



ill malarinl blotxl from timv lu tinit- liitiv uot bt-m found lo fulfil 
tliwn coiulitions. ^lart-hinfnvn nnd Olli ' foutid lli»t till* rrd blood 
dtiKi r>f jKttifntit nifcclcd witli nmlnria coiitikiu [irvulinr lioincigii'iH'oiis 
liodw* [MWJ'psjMHi of nino'Wiit movrnionlA. Tin-y rail tlicni lur»i.i-iiliu- 
ttUM/iNni malariir, JfamMiRiro tlHtMi< planniodia iiK'luda |iigiiiFitt 
ttmiiuks it«siRii)iit«H fioni tlio pi^tnpnt nf the blood A\tx*, Blood'j 
L'utituiniiig tW pinsiiiodm is cnpiible of [•roduciuK iiitonuttt«tit fvve 
in laun nftcr iulmvenous liijeolioii, mid the blood corpuacl^a of tfal 
|wi:Mn HO lDfeou.>d iiKain <:oiitJiiii the pIiiHniodin. It is nnt, bovf^-iT,'' 
by Aiiv invoiu cvrtMii Uiut tbe lift-nii>-pUMii(Hliu[ii ix ihc <«u>n nf tlip 
dituniM'. The |ngiuanl jiroduc-nt iipp<irt<nlly from thif ml dims 
tbeR? [leculuu' bodies is block in colour, mid HccuniulnUn in nnd oroui: 
tli<- Huialler vmhcIb of Ui« brain, liver, s[>l(.>en, nnd innrmw of thf buam.* 
Thnv is consideriible ilaul>t. us lo llie iirecine luttun- of this pigmMill 
wid itn preteno*i in the blood is onlleal nielmia-niiii. In llio 
known lu lu-ute luberculoatK, mrlMiH-Diiiii aico aoinrtiincs oceun. 

I'hlkUit, Tlii* ii ftM»ocijiti*[l witli the ptvM-jic<< in tb* 1ud|[s of tho 
Lubrirciv liacilltii. Tlio vpry n'liiiirknhle nuitnnii'nt biut liMi] rrwntJy 
DMdo by H. Ktvund.* thnt the tissupK, {>u«, and blood of talforrolc 
pati4-nt« contain c«lluk>iw>. 

Sriitifirmia ami /'ytrmiti. — Th« vnrioit* fonuft of I>1o<mI |i<MtMjning 
kuDWD by these uninn itrc un doubt i.-ijly oiiUKcd by poiaon-t f>r'ni>ratod 
during puttvfitction, and this is » pruci-u whicli in cnu»ed by Uie 
notifity ftnd jirowtb of minx^-oq^nntuiia. Still, no gatisfiKtUin- «videno»' 
iif tlif c<yn>.lant pretteivoe of bnct«n<i in the bl<M>il Inn ever liwn 
advMiCLil in ninn. Kl«-in ' hna ocraMnnAlly found nitnuti' lacilli in ibf* 
blood v«iMeb of the rvrollun lynipliitltv itlnndii, nod Koch has firacribi^ 
■ MnDewhnt kinnllrr iMu-illuii in llw blomi of mici- trulWinK from » 
qwcitil form of wptidi'iniH, mid viiriouK kitidt of inirtDvocvi in r«>rt«{n 
pyn-tnk' jniK-ewaw in niipii «ik1 niltl>il«. 

Tlie ()UMti(tii hcri> ariM-tt, how do l>w.-le>ri.t proilwi- tiicir elfwtB t 
Id *• few KMaen, as In tlvum juKt c|uot«] from KlMn, Uiey seem to Mt 
neelMAiOAlly by blockin);; the veaaeli aud ao liiinleriuft tbe ciraubitUMi 
through lii<- inf<!c(Ml part ; but in by far tJic i;rMt«r number of caaes 
of 1il<ir>d ]ioi«mlnx >nd of i«rnt« H|wcilk' dJMaae tliey praduL« a (^beniicnl 
poi§Qn, in llie lutme wiiy ila yeiut prodtic«« iilc-utiol imd <-nr>Hinii- acid 
frun > Kilulion of *U)pir, and it U the prnicni.'*- iit Oii.-> poimn in tlio 
blood "trviiRi tliat CJtuMea Uie wii|pti|>n«d jceiiornl effinta tlirr>ui(hi)ut tlia 

• FbrltiinlU J. Xnl. N'ik xl iml. uJ hit. UM. 
■ AnalMI, VitvAmrl .l(vA. III. titt. 

* B. ffUmt, H'<.-n*r n.nJ. JaArA. 1NM<, p. vaC 
' Jftf*»«r|^nii*M aiirf llutatr, |i. IW. 





limif. Ono ot tlie ewlicot Huoceiuful I'lrvrU to ol>4&in iiucli n poiiion 
VIM ntMtv \>y pMium juid 8i.-lii»i<lt («w p. 173). A «ut>«Unuc caltod 
■iptiii (now known lo Ih* iiii[iiir)') wah MipiimtiHl froni putti^iri^ hlooH. 
uul witnii itijccted inlo tl>i^ l>looil sUvniii jiiijiIucimI the chiiniotcristic 
iTfiBptonia of Mpticaiuiia. Bince tlien it hu Ihwii disoavered th*t 
■larirm pglreliiiTtiou proi-esscs, Bubatuuces of the imlurv of nlknloids, 
caU«l ptoataiikM ntu) liiK.'oinnini^ss nnt formed. Th(>rr is no <louljt that 
in tnuijr c*«M it m poiooiiN of thiK naturo prodnotM) by bac^i-in that 
mut* tlw dtSMMta of whicli wv lutii; boon speaking («fv< more fully 
Cbapt^m- XJI and XIII). It must aim) lie rMueinberad tliiit iu oUier 
poison may Iw prntcid in nature (k^^ Cliapter X. Pi-uleitUaa 
(I. Ml). For«m>e points ■vspei.-ting li9ifiiio)-luliin cryilaU in 
winlic diMUKA arv p. 31S. 


Thn cliBiigvn which occur in the blood spondarily to diaeaM>6 uf ntJier 
iK^^na linvfi Ix-tnt in part already Hllad<<H to. hi dironic diseaBPs there 
is inrnriatiiy nnii-iuia, and in inHiininintory di»«a«e« the i-bamct«riattc 
riiwigQB alniady d^vKrribetl. In some (lii^GuiNcti of thi.' A>vtr-t and aIso of 
the /iiiiir* there is im]>orf(K-t acrnlion of the hlood leading to bluenou 
(c}'»tiaais)a( the parta most distant frmu the central circulatory or}(iuu. 
Luool pat«br< of ■.■yii'iONi* niuy occur bi'fiin' the (in.iut of ^nfirenf, and 
al«o in certain viiwxnotor all'cclionH (Knynaud's disicaae). 

In aff'Tti'ttw »/ iht liwr, in which tln-rc iit ohntruction in the hih> 
ilu0t>t fO tlwt. that (Wcl^'tion i-jinnni icct into tlin iiitmtini', liilo ]>iginnnt 
and hilo mltK enter tlw ■■in-ulation, Ktiiiii tho idcin and inucoux mrin- 
bruiw ysUow or, in marked ctuww, brown, and jiaxs into the- urine. In 
kOrue ca^rA jaun'tiet oivura wliL-n there is no stoppn;^ in the bile duct* ; 
thtk t» oalk-d ni>n-i>lHtruL'1iti? jiLUndti-e, or aonietime:^ blood Jaundice. 
In llwma roMK the bih' pignionli and n<>t the bile sall» occur in the 
oiroUlioii. Bor-rhnai'n and Mor){af;iii lone a^o euggcated that tlie 
>iunHicw in thi^ac latter amtm wn« iht? n^ault of km^^ikM anrrrt iwh, and 
lltr n<(kM<iiur'nt at'cumulnlion of the rltMni-nts uf the bile- in tlie lilood. 
Uih^ n«-id», however, arc nrvcr fouml in normiil blood, and although 
uwny luiTO enrdied for bilr pigmonta, no MLti»fMCtot7 eride»c<> of their 
OUiStant pnsfnce in the blnod has nvcr tm-n mlilui-nl ; Ihv liver, there- 
fore, is not cidi«rm"d nici-cly in exi'mling tin* ■>li>iiii-nta of the tnle frani 
tbK blood, twt it iMtually forms the acid* nml th« [nj^ifnt witliin ita 
own celhi. Extirpation of tlie liver, monwivrr, never leads to tho 
a^cuiDulation of the con»tituent« of the bile in the bluod. Tlir ex- 
ptanatiiai ori-{tii,ill)' jji^'en by FrerichB, and now very ironi-nilly a<.-eeplud, 
td tht way in whii-Ji niin-oliHtructivo jaundice is produced ix as follows : 



Under nonua.1 drcumgtances n vety little of th« hiU> povrod o<nt iata 
the mt«eline leaves the body with the f»cm ; by far tJie greater uooant 
is resolved into ampler constituents which are absorbed and r*nvi 
bock W the Uver t*» form » fresh supply nf bile ; but in L-«n«in isorW 
sUito the alisorliwl bile does not uiider^ Uie nontial mertMUiurplKHik 
hut circuliit«« in thn I>]ood .ttiiiiiin^ tJi4! tiuufth Th» tnorliid tittbs 
thnl oouduM! tA this result are :— 

1. CRrtniii poison K : e.g. thiKi; of yi'tlow f«ver, mlapxing fetw, 
pytcmin, Ac., snake |><>i«on, chloroform. 

3. Nervous Jufluenccs : e.g. ttuildmi fright, cimeuiMKMi of the bmin, 

.1. A d«ticient supply of oxygen, an in moiiio aai» of pn«ttnumiL 

4. An excessive secretion of bile, (^specially when coii}oinixl ailk 

More recent uivesti^tious into tlie pigments of the nrine hki* 
shown that all dark brown urines are not neoeaanrily coloured In 
bilirubin, even althouf;h stAioin;; of the tissues nay be pnsent aba 
Au exoesK of urobilin in the uriue produces a colour very like thst J 
JHumlictKl urinp, but it does not ;pve <;m«lli>'s colour (est for the Wl' 
pijinn'iitii. Wu luLvp aln^idy SBun thiit hiematoidiii is produrtd in 
<»ctmrnAatioiiK of bl<>o<l, and that hii-mat4>idin an<) bilirubin am idcn- 
ticnl ; morcovfr, nfti^ bliHKl hns iH-en KxtmvMiuitAd into tbr timnesia 
Inrgn qiinntity, thn urobilin of th« urine ix mucli incmuwd. Umliilin 
c«.n itr. ftrtiticially obtnincd from hieijio;{Uiliin, hiMnatin, and bilirubin Uj 
the action of mducin;u:n||{rmta(MncUunn '). pAtlioliigii;^! urobilindiffm 
■om«whnt from normal urobilin, but it is u product derived (wi 
hirmntin and not from the hilc pigments.* Wo have here, dMii 
instances of brown pigments atftining the tixsncs and uriue predoni 
in the blood and not derived directly from the bile, and thwn am*** 
first UKht look like jaundice. It is powible, tlutt on furtkw ia- 
vntigation it may Vie found that certain of the casev daMiribed * 
ii«i-Dbttructiv« jaundice are not due t« a Uv«r oJTection ai ^ 
but that the Imiwn pi^inent is produced in the Htagnant Uosi 
of cxtnLvamtionn, or under the influence of certain poisont b tbf 
blood Htream itwlf. As illustmtinK this latter puwibility, it nisj'w 
adduced that injection of th«< blood of one animal into the vessolsofsii 
animal of a ditTerent Njiecics oft<m produces a breaking up of d^ 
blood corpuKcliTK, and the appearance of dark brown pifftneut staiM^ 
tba tissuea nixl puainj; into the uriue - the so-calletl jaundwe of m*'? 

' The (ai«t^ug Moount ol non'^brtmctiv* JMindiM in taknn bom Dt. XnnU^lf 
wotk OB ik»DkeaiMi^lluLiiifr. ' Sm HvXpnibkk'n J*Ayi»b^ f I 

* HmHdiu, Pnc etfiol. Soc. Itm, p. n. 




born infuit* mIso i* otU-a produi'r<l lij- the forcible «x{>reaaion of the 
pUcvnUi imiHoitiiih'ly nftw delivpry ; this simkIh an nhnoniml nmount 
of blood itilo tlw circtilation, imil thcrphy may pntwibly cAU»e n, brcnlc- 
ilawa of stHne of ite ■.■orpusculur olemontii. The patliology of this 
disfMae is, bow«v»r, nt pmseiit very obscure. NouRinnn ' rvgnrdH it as 
a true hM-uixtoK^iioua Jftundice, luhile HallierBtaniiu * regards it hs 
in^togmogs. tiTj<liiig not only bile pij^ment but bile acids also in the 
urine and pvncnrdial fluidii. 

/ifiitli j'ninx ehfil'rmiij. Pntifitits stifTerinff froui jnaiidice are oftsn 
•ttAcked with (Icliriutn, (iiiiiit, convulsiotiH, and indicatiiinn of profound 
)in»tnitio» (tiir typhoid Ktiibc) : in this cuiiditiuii, death may occur. 
^«« caant nro )(i-ni!rally ccu>M i>f Iion-Dlislruirtivn jnundioe, ntid thvro 
i* nil doubt thnt sonio nltt^ration in the bloml produccj! rxi^itntion and 
finally pxbaOKtioi) of various nerve ccntrc-s. The »l^ltptolnB are com- 
■KMtly attriliuted to poisoning with bile, but Frarichs has repeatedly 
iajocCod bile into the circulation of dogs without producing ill results, 
wkI tlxw is ample proof to case>of obstructive jaundice, thnt tlio blood 
of huBMD beings may be saturated with bile for months, or even ymrs, 
•itlioat cerebral syinptoniD resulting. Dr. Austin Flint has statorl 
that tiie poison is ctiolesten'n, one of the cunatituents of the bile ; but 
tbe oasTC and cxpcrinientii just lueiHioned beiir juMt as strongly against 
tUa vievr as agniiist tiie somewhat tiiorp vague Ntatfinent that tiMi bile 
b the imtHMi. Murchixon ('J>iisi<lers thnt the causo <if drnth in cholipmia 
b the same ax that in uitpmin : the liver prrfomiK a largp amount of 
Utr wi»rk which in Hninhml in the kidney*, antl wlipni-ver ilie liver or 
kidneys slop norlc, urra mid its ant^cedrnts ciiviilat« in undue cjuantity 
ia tlK blood, and honce the ^nijitoins of poisoning, and, in serere cases, 
4 Ml h. One "tlicr )>ossibility suggest*^ itself to one, and thnt is that 
the cvnliral ■.ynipMnii' nro not iioccwuirily Ann t^) the jaundiiii, hui that 
ImkI) an the rwultA of a poiKon circulating in tho blood ; p(m»>ilily (in 
the atate spf«tfic diMasen and pyii'min) of a nnturo of nn alkaloid or 
poiaoMnis proteid produced by tlic vitnl gircH-ciKirs of pttrCain niicro- 

AnotJiCT diBca«e of thi> lifer which demands spei-ial mention is otttte 
yrU(Hd atr/jphy. ThiH disease rMulls in stoppuge uf the wiirk u[ the 
Ihfw owing to rapi<I fatty degeneration of that ortiiui. Thnrc is non- 
olmructive jiiundiLe, ami death occur* afl*r the <ii»fit of delirium, 
ciaivulaioRs, and deep c<nna. Very siimilar i^mptoinii and atrophy of 
ifaa liver iiccur tn pliusphorua jKHMining. A dislint^tion lietwiwn tlio 
♦»0 disorders is stat«d to hr tlie occurrcnci? of large f]uantitits of 

■ Neumann, Virriiotc'i Anlilv, i!S(t. & 

■ Fftmhirgirr ihaT. Wofheiut^T. ISM, No. 10. 



l«uciiui and tyroiiinc in the blouci and urina in acuta jreJIow i 
•od the »bs«nce of th(«r> Mglutnnoos in phosphorus jxiisomng {«• th 

IHof/firji mfftitun in n. diioMu in which the glycogeitic fuiwtim i 
thp liver is dcmngc). and of whic:h the con^vijuoiice is ao ncoumuliMl 
of dextrose in tlie Mond, much of whirli passes into i1m> uiin«. Nt 
btood contniiiB nlmut O'OW per ci'iit. of dextroec (Pavy ' ), lnii tluj ^ 
JDcreHee to O'l;, U-.1, r''4, ami in severe cases lo Ov^ and 0-(i in dia 

Diabetic ooma is a condition Aoniewhat rsHepibliu^' (be randitiun ja 
dvBoribed, aaoccurrint; iii cases of non-obatrui-ti re jaundice Sonwl 
poison firculiitin;; in tlie brain hertr ulsu the wndition, nnil ! 
i«]»o the nniwi-r to tIi(M|uciitiun' wbit in Ui<! poituni t UHnnrwnili 
taiatiustosy. It it certainly not tht sugar ; the ]i«H:nliar ndonr of I 
hnuth nnd urine nf thcji« ))itti<'iit.i hiLS led nuiii*! to KUjijHwe llut t 
i* tlic poiRon, and th<! conditinn ih s|Hiki<n of ac ucetonjemln.* Vf 
in fiict ohtajiiod R«(Ttonv in thu <lii[iillati' from th^ ariufl in mdij 

But a^in large dos«« of acstone do not produoe the sympuanH 
diabetic coma ; and thori- is no doubt that many patients bar* 
auetone eui«ll, and .ire far from being comatose: still the 
whenever the aniell is prment is always very grave.' 

Acetone does not ui all probability exist free i» the Uoal, I 
is derived from the splitting,' up of ethyl diaoetk aoti), to* an 

The fuTTOUIa which wouM repreaent it« formation in the bodyii i 
follows : — 



(■aCAIii'l {■Ii'nll-'l? ;■ 


The nrine of diabetics giv(« a red-brown colour with ferricch 
which diaappears on adding hy<lrochloric ncM. 'I'his is a reactun * 
ethyl diacetic acid, and tlint tbi* Hu1>stnnc(! is p(»l*b)y wltat it frwt*- 
isnipporUKl by the fact that Le Nobel' hiLS found not onlya^^toneUit 
also alooliol in the cKpirod air of diabetics. Cortttiu faot« have, bo** 

' I^tr, f>onalan Lttlurn, Bog. Colt, o/ Fbfiiiiriant. 187*1. 

* [tu|wti'>ii. Crnltalhl. f. A. mtd. Wia. tl>Tt. N'». Ail. 
^ A vHrj I'imiiiliiU lIikimhIoq ot lliio qnpalitiii nith nnl#« at «>in« hmilioia d •"" 

hiH Imii iinl>li-lt«l by >'■ JikkKli t t'rbrr Acrionirir, Birlin. tHM: nitwhwtU^ ^ 
t(Un<.u>n li>liii<Tii<it>liK»Uil*po<:iall}^i«iiotA«itoii<'Tii th' M'wot lint in llwnn>c. H*'<*'* 
Uial ttiftlvotif'B wilhuiit lu^UinunH uoTvr ha iv fulfil Krtic f^iim- ArvUmct kwircivr, <>cfV>* * 
Uur vriiu in fotiT*, caii«vi-, ^Iao^aUoii^ «jid ot1i?r condiLumi; aihI Mconkijcijc to K|^n" 
{ttuntf. DiwH. BnuUii. iMd : Coliu) «*n hi hvul^i in loull i|uuillij. 
Taiiiiian iZrit. ptiytioi. CMrm, »iv.) 

• be Nobel, CttUralil./. iL mtJ. Wifimui. ItlSI, No. gi. 

nm Bijooii ss xtutsMst 


^rrr, b««n tiMuccd vrbich t«tl spunxt tbia thcorj. T\n<y vil] !»• con- 
kiilnrpd ill connfCtton u*ttli cli»bi-tic arinc. 

A li)><i-Riic (f«t iit the blood) comlJUon undoubtt^iy occurs in tDunjr 
dklKtit* iinU«nU,' l>ut tlii* in not coiiKtnnt, ftcid lipiiinia luny oocur ia 
oUnt coiiiiitioiiK tlinn dtaU-t<!)i.^ In thi« coiiiiovtion it ma}- also be 
notfxl tliut in diaUrtMi M special form of uxvbutyi-iv nciil ociiirs in 
\lw arine (wv L'riiw-), and by some dinltetic coma has beuii attribut«d 
to the fonnacian of th« lowor f^tty ocidn iu ttie Uood (Mayer'). 

Hriijlit't difoM.- Thic is the only di»esM of the kJduey tluii d«- 
BHUMlii special intintion. In addition to lU ajuemiu condition tbtw« is 
a Ipvat iacmae in lli« aoiouutof uren in tlie btuod. \Mien tlw eliuiinn- 
tioauf urea iiidof«i.'tiveor it4^ sltuK«tb(.-r, •.ymplonis of puisoninif (cnn- 
rahiaiu, coma, iiv.) 9U[>6rvun«, and iirv said tu Iw due to Hir>i-mm {urc« 
ia th* bloocit ; but iw urtitioinl inji^ctton of uron into the cii'culatiou 
pralocm no unuiuio L'An\uliion«, wr nrr again ni«t with tho diffluulty, 
vhat Is tfa« poison I Frorictis' theory that, it is amivoniuin carbuuate is 
nov ijivoii up as iinti.iiahlo ; iin<l for tliv present we tire o)j]i;;ed to rest 
caDi«nl with Xhe \a,ffiv stau-uiont that it is some aubstance (or sub* 
■tanc«a) (wnstitiiting an inteniiediaifl atagi* in tlie foruiaUon of ureA 
wfaicb proJucu ilit> Hyiii]>tuiiitt. A ptotnaine has been sum|^1«I kf 
aoBW ; 11 |>niteii] (loiBou liy othen, but these are mere auggestiona not 
supported by eriHeni-e. 


If uoniiol blno<] IK drnirn from the lingri'. plncnrl on n KJiilc, and 
oivvml, no fonuation of crystals spptmra. If, however, n <lrop of putiid 
mmm ia addwl, crystals of rclmKul hvmiaglubin appmr in twenty-four 
to fortT-*if!li( li'iurs,' 'I'lie blotxl from eiisei of septicicmia eryslnljisfW 
villiooi tlie addiuoii of any «(.'rum. In cancrum oris, in jiyi>-mia (to a 
lMsde;rrce),andineryiupclus(espe(;ially if the blood is takf^n from the red 
pstclxv) till' immv Li observed. These pbetioinpiin art- prubiibly due to 
IbrimavnM- or fonnution of some fennent proftuceil either liy the growth 
tt hactsria. or in leucovythinuiu, when the same L'rystallitie lendeooyof 
ihe blood is pnMcntf by \hv diHinlcj|p«tJon of nniuial cellu. This ferment 
produoes lirst a ilmxidixin^ action on thi- »<(yliiEni<){j[lubiu. tJii-n its 
rxudation into the scrum, and laxtly crystnlliNition (C. J. Bond).'' 

' A nombpr ol nun OliiatmlinK cliia Hill \» (aund in lluoKes'i Phyttat. Ch*miiiry, 
If lll>-»Tl Hrr ului \. Jak.rli. Xn(./. H'n. Uid. »i- BOT, 

> I ^n mjwll ikiUh hI ibArkwl lijivniin iii <>i]<i <H*ar <tf Drijihl'* diuMLtn vlivn lliptv 
■M nu iliabrlfv. " Atfh.f. rrp. Path. >•. Pharuutkul . iii, I 111. 

* C\i|innHK ivdiaMprii that thi« i* rliATA^Cirihtir <■! luifiiAii bJvod, Clii- liTrxicI tl ulliur 
I Mlaal*T>i'l'i<"i:''*T'"''""'>!l'i'"»''n''t^*'!^''>'' !'ff^' Ju«rn, vol. a, iKWi. p. I!KI). PUilan. 

1 • Lanetl, »oi. ii. IcM?, i>t.. Will, S.IT. 






IirvBRTEBRATK Hnim&lii present in their vascular BjsMniH floitU *K4 
^ilifiVir greatly from one another, and from the blood of vertebrates 

TUa lowest xrouiia in the iiiitrii«] kingdom, the PixrtOBoa and II* 
C(rlent«ra, {)Oiea««s no eu'loui or Ijudy I'avity, and therefore no vsamlH 
syBt«ui ; Uiey obtain food and oxyg«n direct from Un.- water they in- 
habit ; in the case a{ tht? Curlent^-ni, the wat^r enters tiii? enteric a<»Iy 
freely. Many tle^^Riierute iLuiniaJa of higher groups, auoh ma the lap*' 
womi, have also tio vuKfular sysleni. Then lliere are other gTW(>> 
.aoch lu the eL-hinoili-nns (vrliicli possess tliL- well-knuwn water- vMtokf 
ayateiii), the aonpltnlous ittotluHi-'a (lam«llil>ntnc)iintn), and hif[li«r i> tt( 
series tlie TnniL'at«s, in which tlie circulnUiiK tfuid in prinnpally tt* 
M» irnt«r i>r frrsli wiLter in whit^h tlic a:iiinul liim ; but it i-<inlmnB& 
soIv<hI in it a cniain small i^uiinttty of organic xubstAnrn*, and IB il 
float a nu til tier of cclU tike tlu- whit« t^q>uscleG of vert«bnit« bloo^ 
Blood of thin natiirr iiiny In? cnllc-d Itijilrnhfinph. 

Ijutly tht-m «rf cprtnin group* of inv^-rtsbrntcji in which tbeUtnl 
is a highly orgnnixxl Ituid, ciintiiining in xolution niurh organic iuttwr> 
and in HUHpenaon numriYiUK corpandnt. Thvrc is, howorvr, in bmI 
■CMS* no tUatiiiction betwuicn blood and lymph, and hrnm thi« Twntf 
-of invortebrat* blood i« wanintimt-Ji called himf^ymph. Womui,n^ 
noUuacs, and arthrapodit poaapw tJiis variety of blood. 

The hydrolyuipfa of inrertebrat^is discharges only one half ti "^ 
functions of vertebrate blood, i»rrying nutriment to the tisMira*"' 
orgnns, and removing wast« products ;. the r^apimtory fuitction ojtl* 
blood is not repretteuted, the fjaseous exchanKea probably owornM 
direi-tly between the animal's tisanes and thn medium it inliabit^ 
In luemolyniph on the other hand it is found that tlinni in a iHU^ 
live and a inspiratory function taking platt-. Uxnioglobin ia pit^ 
ia the hiemoljnnph of many animals of the invertoltrata aubkin^ri-Hii*- 
and in many otht-m il ia r»-pla*;ed by other rt-spinHory piginrnt* ; ltii» 
there in the pink pi>,'nieiit hiFmerythrin, the iduc jiiginfiit hii'nMtcyajuu. 
And the green pigment chlorocruorin . But tJi«ra i> this diflemnof U 
1« not«d lietwwn thi- blood of vrrt«brnt«s and tliat of invetKbnrtw: 


in tbe fbrninr tliti ri'spimtory pigment u uoiitaiticH in 
let. {ihn cnloumd cnr{>iiKi;l<'«i), in ttie Inttrr tlii; pj^ncnt is- 
Jiaoltnl in tin? plnsmit ; the only corpuscU'ji pi'CMcnt being colourless 
«n. To thin nilc there arp, howevrr, a few pxceptions ; in some eight 
umrtelmtcfl corpuscles polourwl by hdniogloltiii, very like the red 
tta of nwinnutlii, have been found. 

In the blood of c«rt*)» groupx nf auioinU lanous oilier pigineiit» 
m fouid (oMorophyll, ti-troiicrytlirin, Ac.) which Imve no res)iiiatory 

yUay of theae variou* forms of invort«hrate blood clot when shed 
li* vert«)n-nl« klnoil do«t. At one time the dot ws considered to h» 
wrely n moxiiof adherent corpusdes, or plasniodium of wtls ((Sefldes ') ; 
k«t it hiM since been shown tliat. in ad<lition to th« cells, there is an 
intrrv(41uUrtubstAi)ceakin to fibrin which is separated from the plaKmn ; 
Wttl«Mt that in many instances this is the catie. It is impossible Ut 
kjiaiwn gpnentl lavs coiic«rDiii^ fluids, which difler so much as do the 
nrioiM forms of blood met witli among the invertebrates. 

It nu jast ilaic-j that in mnst Invcrlnbniic nninial* Ibi-ic if no diitinction 
ta«iw Mood anil lyinpli. Tlicro nrr. hnwcvrr. crnniii ciccptiotiK to thin lulo: 
Vrt bto Mv, ihwi' arc tMtrr in v-liiab the flui<l in the ciElom or body caritj' is- 
<MiN* from lliat in tli« imh-Is. The otelom luuy he tuiiil tu conluiii a Quid coui- 
|MkU« to Ibo tyuif'li of n-rt(.'br)itv!<. whi]i.> tha vniii-l-i conlalii the blood. Tbe 
V^Jior iKBlDinic lltiiil iit'viif drmilalcH in dcfiiiitv i-linnnviB or tviujihatlc veMols 
■ iniHii'brati-s, thnii^li ilje coelom in some van* may bvconie aiitxlivliletl Into- 
•WOiUrr t|acci or ■iTtii«m, 

bMOiifrasRt tho dintlndlon hpmi-di the two flnidt la pptfcpity diiliiiot : for 
■noMvaoyuDa may, in an tarth worm, ilelcrmint for fiiimclf. Ihni a drop of llie 
*A>rie flak) i» cnluurloMi. whilcr ttio blood Is nil- In oibct CBacs then* i» niiicli 
'■■(Ma •> (i> wbvllier or no tbo vci.ii't.-< comiminlcntr irith Iho cncloiii.* nail heauff 
vwhla* sriMii wbt^thetthu Muotl and tin- oElomio lluid arr or lire not idmtical. 
H k tein>r»T, |>Mi»ib1e tliat *'i»ri it comLuunioiilion dui'» i'iikI, tho twn lliildn 
WfU Mill be ilUT^roal from nnn nnoihnr ; foi ia vKrCnliratrji tli«r« It a connection 
^wa Ilia oaloo) (plonral anii jxrilonml rjitltlox) ami the blood Ttmculiu- 
T"*"" ria the (tomata and lynipbatin vcisi^lx. mid yel tlie lymph nnd Iho blood 
«• "Ibainct flniiLi. The following brief »liitcment o( ilie (aota in (omo of thv 
'■Wpal ponpi U. howKVcr. nil that »»■ lum- fpat-c for Iwru : — 

litlwChgMupwl»llm(*i"norloiibtt.hHt 1>!oiyIaadoi«lomii;nii!ilHr«il!i>ilnct:th* 
*M nsy b« Mid tm Phi^rntila, K!paii<^iiiiiii. and otli*r icephyrnaii wnnn*. With 
"Ml la lilt U«r-h«ii (Hirndln<«) tho vascular irntcm Is in nndonbtcd commimi- 
^Un with th(> C(£li>m : jitltt Ibtn-i^ Ix nt leant one dilleTt^ci! kct«-con tbe fluids in 
l^i*«<avllici>: crrtnitxloiire corpundc? found in tba dnuaea of Clep*iiw an4 

' IMIm. rror. Hug. Sat. lu. iM. 

' 4 obkIh HUUnumt of Uu> best wcor'uned taeU in lajjnrd to tbi* qne^on will bv 
'^B'tn 4 ftpia bj A. K. dliiplrii, Cambriilgp PhUMo/'hirjil Soe. Fropeni^ingi, ii. Ult'— 
** TIaa p^Ml •]» (Uten into a Kmoirhiit limiUr uialomical poiul. vl«. vliether 
"■iB^rtaiHy Mill neptitlilla la milftlB RRnip* open lli« aB« iato Iha otiior. 



I^dMMcIIa bt«t not found in tlip blood, [irobablf bmraiiK tlinj an too bm* I 
pntn llirotiKti till! miDinunicnlJiig dianiioU (Bnurnc).' In ibo iivnwntiio i 
tli(i«<nniimu|ipi!ar to diiln in origin fruta (hoie in tlicl«ccbiw.iiot bdof c 
Iml mrchi-KElomio (Lp. Ihe fnrni repivntJitig; tba rentDanl* of the arrkiral « 
ttr^mirntaliuri cuiitT — Hiibimlit*), luiil Ibervnp^XBn U (ni no coaniwIiaD htfmii 
them kikI the iiiKiilMr HyiiU^i. Anorhnr griMtp wporntuil a lonp ira^ trm Itae 
olBsom ['f wi^niiM, anil !□ whkli comrQontcntlnii)' viin iMtiwccn tbr luohr 
sjiteni iiiiil itin wcloni, )■ the Rchinodermnia. Ilimuinn aiiil Konlilor idunal 
tbi>lir>t [n SpainiiEldji.BD(t fcrriCTaiKl other Piviich cniunilbu ban tbovttlu 
ihr Haini! I> tni'^ tbroug:lioul the Eubinoderiiiato- 

It will lie now oonvetu«iit to take up the chief iiiviTtelmitr iihjk 
■one by one^ and to (letwribe the chaTucten of tbu blvoH as it ooeun b 


This is of the nntum of bytli-olyinph, i.«). n unti-iy fluid lwldii{ 
In soIntjOD kaIiho sulistiincps ((l<^riveil fmiii tlin xm w»tcr) and * TOT 
Sinall quantity of nlhuniinnua mnt^i'inL In It tlont numcrotis aiwrlMd 
corpu&ole^ THp followinif is n brinf drncription of tlie variodM J 
corpuscles found in the pcHvitcpml fluid of sea uirluns anil hit- 
tliuriaus (Ooddes'). 

1. Large ARH^boid cell^ vontRiiiing highly rafi'uctjujt sphernlei of ■ 
rich nialionnny- brown colour. On exposure to the air ibja lira"! 
a>lour Ijeeoiiiee dingy ; but in the Ta<;uuin of ii men-urial air-pumiii 
ni|>idly becomeH nonual i^piin. Tliere ut thus coiuidrmble ptofaakili? 
tliat ibin pi;;Qient luu a rtupiratory function. 

2. Leuiou-yelluo' aiuivlMiid twrpuKcli-x nro nlno found in certain tn 
iirchiiLti (Arlioriit, Donrridiirijf], but are cxtwedingly abundant ia ^ 
pi!riviKcenii fluid of the S)HitMii^mdMi. 

•1. In the intestinal vfu-irk of Hpatangus am<tboid cwiwd"^ 
varyiu;! much in aiwaud oontainiiig variously coloured f;)obulea|hn*a 
y«lli>w, ))urpl(% green, and blue), arc found Tlie iiaturu of tbnr Hi* 
meiite hna not Imhii ftilty worked out, but rhey are prolobl* lip*- 

Whm a drop of the perivisooral fluid is e.vaniiued inicnxtMpfaBUf- 
th9 cells at timt move freely and exliibit ainuboid iDov(.-nim(& Tk.' 
soon collect into irregular massos and shoot out lonj^ pruoiMC* *^ 
bind (he cells together. 

But the clot U not n mere planiiicKliuni ; ih^rrc is in lutHHiM * 
libriu-lihe luaterlnl ahicli separates from the plnhina. Thin ouuliw** 

' (^arl. J, J/inTMC. Stirrer, xbt, U9. 

' nfj. Kxti. 4i;. 

> 0«ld» ia Cunim'i PbgdaL Chtia. p. 1*1. 


like fibrin after its formation, but in many of its properties it is more 
like mucin than fibrin (Schafer'). 

In one echinoderm of the ophiurid class, hiemoglobin )ias been 
described as occurring dissolved in the blood plasma (Fottinger'), and 
in another {Thyonelia g'nuiuitn, a, holothurian) in nucleated o\-al 
bioonyex corpuscles (HowelP). 

HacMunn has made numerous obsei^ations on the brown colouring 
matter mentioned as being observed by Geddes in the corpuscles ; Mac- 
Monn * made » spectroscopic examination of the perivisceral fluid of the 
echinoderms, Stron;/i/JiicmitrolHe fivirlun, EchinuH mculenttia, and S/Jitera. 
The pigment was found to vary in tint very much, brown, yellow, and 
red, and it darkened in the air. He named the pigment echinochrome, 
and considers that it has a respiratory function, the darkening being 
doe to oxidation. In the fresh state it shows no distinct bands, but 
after the addition of a caustic alkali, or by solution in various solvents 
(water, glycerine, alcohol, ether, chloroform, itc), it shows bands which 
shift in position somewhat with the solvent used ; it may, however, 
"be roughly stated that there is one wide shawling covering E and 
another between b and F. The solubilities of the pigment are very 
remarkable ; it reminds one of a lipochrome, but difiers from other 
fatty pigments in being soluble in water. The evidence adduced as to 
ite respiratoi'y function does not seem to me to be absolutely con- 


The bl<K)d of worms is coloured in most cases by ha-moglobin dis- 
Bolved in the plasma, in a few cases contained in special corpuscles. In 
■other worms hremoglobin is replaced by chlorocruorin, in others still 
by hiemerythrin. 

The following is a list of the different worms arranged in their several classes 
in which these different pigments have been described r — 
A. H.eMOOLOBi.v. 

CAtirtopoda.' Lumbricus. Limnodril us. 

Eunice. Lumbricuius. 

Cirrhatnlns. Nais. 

Nereis. Chictfigast^r. 

' Schiter, Proc. Roij. Soc. i»»iv. 870. 

' See Lankesler, Zool. Aneriger, 1HM8, p. 416. 

* W. H. Howell, Studita from the Biol. Lab.Johnt Hopkiiu Univ. Balti7ruire,ii], HBl. 

• W»cVaTin,QuaTl.J. Microicopicnl Sciencf.Ocloher inS^. Cliarts of the abBorptioo 
^wctrA of echinoc}irome will be found with thin pm)er. 

' The obnervfttions fOnceming the presence of hfemoalobin in chstopods are all by 
T^nltester (Joiirn. of Anal, and Phgiiol. J WIS, vol. ii. p. Ill; Pfiiiger'i Archiv,iv.(l>mj, 
p. 815 ; Proc. Roy. Soe. xri. 71). 



T<>n-bf>1h. OlTOna. 

Tnhlfni, Caplell*. 

Arcn tenia. Eiicbrmctnuk, Aphrodite. 

Gffhyrfa. 1*)ii>rDiiis (Lanknlor). 

Thalliumna neptuni ([juik«at«r), 

Hiuniairia (Latikpitcr). 
ttfmrrliitm. I>>)ls (lAiikMMr). 

Oibcr KancTtEnca (Habrcclit,' 18TB). 
BirutKnra. NepbeliH (Lknktstn). 

Htniilo (IjitikMler). 
B. CiiumoonuoRix. 

CSatopeJa. SijihnnoBtomiiiii (Lnnk««tat). 


Chlomueinn (QiistrcfBgca).' 

Splrii(iT»i'tii» ( Krukpiibrrtr).' 

Drancbloinin:! (Kiukvnber^)!.* 
C Hjcutirriiux. 

Or^frea. Ptuucnlama (Schwnllw).* 

Sipunouluii (Krukeiibcrg}.' 

Pboruiiii* (KnikFiibcr^-.)* 

The worms in which Iwuiof^lobin ia present in spMUil 
an the following :^UIyccni, CKpitelU, Plioronia, ThaUwema, 
Haminxiov Ih aII other cases it is diasolvotl in Um) pWniA. 

Cltluroeniorin.—1h\» nlsoisA pigiuMit UiagMlvnl in ihr plosBuiiitii 
offt graen colour: it« deoompositiun products, however, indical« tk>t it 
is a pljnnent of which hit^matiii fonuH the Ihuik tut in liHtuoglobilL K 
exkU ill two oonditiona, which have been iuiumI, hom th« anak^to 
ItM-niOKluhiu and oxyhn'moglobiii, cldorocruurin imd oxychlonxraom- 
Kot only doea liiis occur under the iiil!ueoc« of rtvpirMor; chaugMio 
tho bodj, but hy the ooliun of uxidinitig and rmlacing i^piau the h*^ 
BWtMDOrphcMU 0011 1>« pruducietl artiGciitlly. Oxjrchl<ironruoria tboo 
■psctroMCOpicnlly two tibsiir|itiiiii Imnds, onn U-twiyMt C and D, •■' 
the other botwcc-n D Mid E. Rwlucnl chh>mcruonH shows one bud 
hitvitm nmrlj* the Knrac pittttioti as thi- Gnt bnnil juit meatioMcL M 
it is not BO writ dctiniMl (Lfitikestvr* ). 

1 Qutitwl bf Ijuikat(«T. ifool. Amrtgrr, 1889, p. IIS. 
■ Qutn<fii|[M. iM UiungH, PAyi. Chtm. p. ISL 
1 rrry/. PAv*. StH^in*. W..I Abth. p. 91. 

• SihnllM. ' KlMiiani HttUulIimgau m HIiiKdogla iritUa. TUitn,' Artktwf. mikni- 
Amat. Baaa, B>t. r. Ifhw. \\ 34H. 

• F(«y<. PAya. Htudira. 1*^ KoUie. S" Abtfa. p. M. 13w mm* iwBHrjthni » 


• DneribRl iia hBrooglobin hj Lanhnter, 

' iMukariar, ./<wrn. o/ Anat. oiui i'AyaiVi/, toL li. p. Ill; vol. iii. p. tlH. HaOli* 
bM »Imi dmiId iuiiiu obnerrntioiM on tli' rhlorocraoiin o( )^ml»11ll i^mirl. J. jf w. Jimflii 
Oct. 1M>1V H« klsa Munlned the blond ul a tm* Serpuls, ami U»aiA thai IkaMghA* 
blcod iru nd il g*v« bwula umowlut Lke iIiuh' «I vhlucovruunii. IIk nrtitfitfT' It* 
|<lglii«nl to b« on* iiit«nnadul« bctvecu cbloKKruorin luid hiwmUin. 


THK l«.i«U> i>F ISVKRTKitltATK .\KlMALs 



Hirtttfr^hrin.-- Ijitikntti-T w(u thf <anX to iinticn that thft pinkish 
oorposcle^ <>( Siptincuitu wcm not <.'<>l<>iini*l hy himiogloltiii. Mt-hwalbe 
iumIv « MiniUr olMi>rvHlit>n in the casi'iif l'hnsi?n!omn, niitl Knikeiiberg 
U o( o)>intoii tliftt liu- pigment in iJui corpu»cl«s of Plioruiita U tho 
nm* «■ in tti<- twu wormii jiut niontioncil : h« gave tlic name ttn^men'- 
ihrin til tlw nsijgMuHod pigmi^nt, mut hn-inprrthrci),a>ii t« the reduced 
yiffafM wliii-li )iiu A purplinh tiiitv Tlip chnnge nccun-itig hk tlie remit 
«f axidntion and ilcoxialtttion nhows dmt proWbly this pigiiivnt b a 
rmpinttfirr pi^nieiit. It >;lii>w8 lui n\mfiT\>x'mi\ iMiids. am) ituea nut ylAA 
hntnin orystalft : but beynii'l ttiiK we kiRivr little or nolluiiK nliout it. 

Rusiiig from tlie pi^iuents to the other constituents uf ihe bkiod of 
wonns, we titid very little in ;ii preaent known. The cellular vleua-nl* 
niik to iho bottom o( the veattel in vrhifli the blotxl U receivnl, they 
perlMps Htk'k to each other a little, but there id im rt«l oiaitfulation. 

On lientiiix the ptiLaiua u heut-voiiKuluiu furiUH at 61' 66°C.. and 
filtering this off, tio {irot«iiI iv left tn uilution. Thi« im approximntely 
Uis cwiguUtion-temi^tiiture of liu-ninKli>biit ; the tuinie tfiii|icrHlure 
raBMa * hml-coutjiiluin in the UihhI of wumii contnining chlortH-i'ijorin. 
Ib thoae coutiiininx ha-incrylUriu thon- in in nildition n nucohiI protoid 
MMgalntioKUt TO'C (Kruk«n)ierg). 



Bef-Te pi'<H.-ee<t!iif; t<> (lesLTibi; the bltitxl of uolIuHCii aiiil nrthropocbj 
it will \tv here convenient to give a. general •leaorijitioii of n, rcspinttory 
proteid of a blue tint, wliich occurs in both ffruupn, and to which 
F^Iencq ' !t«ii siven iJie name hiemocyanin. 

The blue colour of Hut bloCMl of certain nnatb (Helix) wm noted by 
EniMn (li^lT); in Aalncux a« well uii Helix by CaruK^ {\m\) ; in 
Loti^pt, Eleilufir, Sejun, C'nnccr pagtiruH, htuI Helix ponintia by Hurler* 
(1847) ; this obx-rver lOmwod tlint th(r blue culoumtJon wiik the eflevt 
at c^KMuri' to the atiuo^phei'e ; and he showed iiNo the presence of 
fiopper otul a tnti-e <'f iron in the bhiud. t!euth' (1^.^2) a*certained 
that the UimkI of Limulus ohhuiiimI In a similar way a blue tint on 
npwure to tlie air, nnd thai it contained copper, and a mnall amount 
of Iron. Ridjuteau nnd Papillon'' (I^T^t) «h(iwed that in the crali and 

I Vtaalincq. 'l^ur I'onfiuilutlon ct la ph)i>io1o|{ip Aa ponlpe,' Gilrnil il» BulMim 
it FAia-Umi^ Bt/gale ilf Bflgit/af. U™* Si'nc. T, ilvi. So. II. li>TS. 

't^ra*,C.O^ Von deit Auuem I,eben$beAiiffwngfn iler H'f«»- uml kaU^iriutigen 
ntov. Lnpnc, IHSI. ff. *\ Ml. 

* tUrlNM, ' Ci-lwt ■!•■ bUno Dlut oioigaT wiibilliMcn ThHO*, VbA dsMan Kiipf*ri;e- 
\mit^ MUlrr-i Ankiv. IMT. p. IS H tr.]. 

■ Omik, F, 'Uflnt die AncliculwuliUicltlKlli' ile* llltiln ron Linulua Cjdoft, 
Jmiu/«i> ibr Chtmir «nrf Pharmatir. io\, luit. l^fiU. 

■ Ratatian and rapillon, Cvrnjitn rttUfi; Ixivll. IW. 



Octopus ttimilitr colour L'hiLii)|C«w iicairi«<). In )K74 fioriip-Ur^n 
iulc]e<] Ac4Tithii4S niiil Unin to thi' nhovn li«t of nnitiiaU •■•■iiu;Tii| 
CiipiNT in their l)In[i[l. 

Joljpt nii'l Hiijpiard' (IK"") wen* th« tint to ndvftnce thei 
that the blue colour was united to a proteid ; tliU w&a full^ «u 
out Ity Frwlerieij^ in tho fotldwing year (IS***). Sine* th*^n wur 1 
ledt;e coiiceTiiiii;; llie (lintriliutiuii of hmiiKWj'unin liii» fm-ii added uf 
Frwlwic<| liiiiiHidf, by Rny Liiriki'ntrr, nud by KruktmltctrK in m 
piijwrs. A full \\M lit idl Uip uiiiiniils in which it hue now 1 
described followK :— The list will Ik- miii tii HinsiKt r'hiody oS 
breuthinfc iinimuU. Init n f ew uir-bnnthing nniiOAU (mails, t 
pnsWHB lucnuicyutiiii ;itii«. 





















, Ouinpnih 




Thn projitTtirs of hnnnucyaniii nre n* follows ; — 
n. It givi'K tlio ordiimrj* priilt'id n-iuTtiiins. 
h. It ix ctiii^culiitMl by luut at 6.'i°~66'>C. The procns of 
congulnlinn ix liowovcr slow. 

c. Jt in n glnbulin ; it is incompletely precipitateil in <lilut« scJa 
by acetic aoiil, or n NtrNim of cArbonic neid. It iu aImi incMDp 
precipitated by dinlyning tlie salt out from via 8olut4<mii, nr by •. 
tioii with sodium chloride. It U completely preci^^tjitM) by f 
with iui>;;nesium sulphMte. 

d. It exists ill two conditions iidilIui^ous to Ihom nf hJnncf^>liK 
rii. oKyhii-niotyiuiin. »nd roluoed bifinocyunin, the former h»roj 
m blue colour, the latter belii^ uolourlcsK : th« hlood Wnne ■'■' 
bninchiul or iiulinoimry apparatus is blue; Uint in the veins bcolmHi* 
Reducing and oxidiBinh' a^nta produce the sunn cfaMl^^ in brt^ 
cvanin mnuvcd from tJie 1>lood. 

lilmid linn not, hoirimr, oonlun luHiKMjkniii. 

' Joljrirt ft R*i(i)iu\i Arth. de Ftpiiologir, ii-. MO, 
> Frodcricq, lor 

TltE BU>ni( OF lS\*Kn'rEH«.lTK AXlJlAlJi 


r. (>n apvctnwcDpk t-xaminAtioii oxyliMnocyimin fthnw* no tuiiids, 
hat only a catting off uf tioth ciuls <.if tht- •tpeetruin ; on retluotiun i\w 
■mnuiit of lOuuling isintich (liiDitii8lie<l, 

/. Il nlwrnys cuiitjitiiH a uiuill •)Uim(.lty of copper, wbloli *mdi« to 
take the pUu» lA the ituii of h>'iiio)(lol<in. 

We mo now p«8ft iin tii the rentainiiig invertvlimtti >,TAups. 


jMmMttraifhK — Tho blood of llie IJiiuuUibranoliii cumea ralhn' under the 
t— rtlrifl, h;dtul}'in|i)i thui bMnolympli. It i.i in must ouiu mtourlru ; It. contain* 
in Will "Hi euIoiu1*>* tyirpnaclM. On bdiijt iili*il it ilcp(«l<>. n i«l(-, Mnnll, colour- 
btv dot. C. 8elimldt> givn (he following iIaiii ooticcmlnK tJiu blood of Ibo 
Anoilou or (n*h-niiT miiBel :— 




99 )|Gpejr<««Lt. 



O-0<fi p«r cML 













T)>c t>lr») ol SuliMi and Aral ccnlnlo* fawmoKlul lin, Thia » pnw'llt i» (jwuial 
eutpiuclri. »"■! inji ill-tolvul in [fic pbumn x* ii [> in mi»l Invi'ft^lirnt'" (Ijiri- 

OiUlrufMlt. Tbi-H.- utiiii>nln i-mwiiB blood much liohcc In tollil OAMIllnt<nT> 
ibu LAflirillbmnchB, It ii^ in [.v:i. ii lin'iuolyiupli. Tliiii ii veil lllaitniled Iif 
tW feUowiiit; nnmber* at rt-tliiiati-d by HarlFF>- mid v. Uit-re' In Ihc caw ut Itio 
M»n Selbl iwiMlk.-— 

Waier . SG-IB* pot iwnt. I Oq^nin niliils . tWH per noit. 

8oIli)« . M'filS „ I InoTSiuifo «nUd> . It-li 

fljUBocl'iblD ti round In tliu blood of only one (nuiri>liol (I'lnnoHii--]. Tbi> 
llDod o( wti gn-itrupodn coDliiinn hwniouyimin : it v.h> in ihi-iv sniiuiili ibut (lie 
|« M» oW ut « bini- colour aod uf mppvr in tlie lilooil mu nnl thowa. ltii>U)Cli (lie 
(ittp H){iillk»nce of lhtH> tuait wns not m«tn'!»''d lill Inlvr. 1'hc hiftnolyuipli ot 
4l IibM two ijutrapoiiH, faidln iintl Cliitiin, coiilninv im IwniocyDnin. but hni< nn 
•myc colour. Il *how» no iitiuriitinn bniiilH (Kniki^nlivric). AvniD. io wmc few 
«M^ (Doris IMIiyo. Aply>lB.'>n'l I'l^urobniiiclinH) (be IiIuihI in ooluiirliyx, ixid 
MOtaln* ooly a lnic« »r Cflnblc atBaniccoi»lltu<-nli>; licrKie it tuiial lii i3ilM 
bnUolympb nUliiT Ibaa liiti»olyiTit<h (KrukcnbeiK). 

Ccot^tettiMi' Tbp only ol.wifiiiion* on Ibi- >p>>nti>iicnni ccaimlntlon of the 
•bMl IiIoihI {bieiaiilyni|ilO M*' HioM of Kmfeinibmv. wlio atalcv ibnl a jolly-like 
(■^(ulum (iimu. >ii>l (hi> rsfidly bMiomM daid iixniii. 

I'tfLal'iMitli — Htiv "■• liiivi- n lilglily «r)[an»al Iiii-tiu>tynip1i. Ii w»* in ibr 
MMid of IIm' iH,*IO]>nii ihal y(c<lnrlo{ nKuIr ibc diacovi-ry »( liivmncyMtlli. Tin' 

Muod i4 BiBiiy ulbi>T c*|ihnlo|x)di oonlains the iudc pisnicnt. 

■ Umiill. f-rAniiMni I'bjftHfl. CKm. ill. Unn. ' l/ulirr't Arclm, 1»I7. f. IIH 

* I tun btid Inn n|<poiiunitJra cil Kiuniiiini; [hv Uonl iiI A|>1;uil. unil I uui c«u&nu 
K/nkanlvrrv' k tj^hnntmi tiA% it k* nflfmrli*** aihI pHir in tirvunip (*<iu«titii«ntik In ooo 
>w> (f In (lllcuii: '"41 till- ivTi'niu'liM, tlinrr *!!• UK iirriIrl-1 Ml in •iilntlan: tn itnothn 
:li— > vh* ina-Trly * ti^iv, vbitli wa* |im'ipilAbl*i Irr ^jiturutiLiii villi muifiiptiuin *u]ph*U\ 
■■I vkiilii Ibrrrluir. KM iirobftbly '•! Um iiulnti- nl |[J<iliitlin. Sir iilw> t'artiol, Camyfri 

t 1 

With ivsnrd ■■> tlie iponiniieciuB uaievlatlon of th«M noidii. ibcrc It Mdal 
that » dot npldljr form* when tliu bluod U ahcil. TUi * contracts j a w fll it i 
f«« lionn, M|iiMtlDg; nDtcaniaU uuimuil uf scnini. The unty coquuoka Ik ly 
blood of t1i««e wiimBU nrc colonrlMt atiii«bolcl uies ; awl bolli FndMMq ■! 
Kiukniibvii^ lend Mijipori to Oi'ddcv'a tlieorr fit a plaeoiixliuiu. i.e. Ihal 
c«tuista n)«r«|v of odhtfcni cclU. Thn phcnciinfina of ^naicutation a« ■!■ 
howevrr, ar» >o cloaeljr similar to tlio*i: in tlio bloori of l.'riuitafdani ai^l 
Limnliuthal I am lucUnwI to bvUcvi- ihiii in cephokipoil fatood w« hjiTT(«ii 
CfusrMM) a rnnncnt «ctioti ooriTertiii^ tt prcvkiuji^ •utobla llbriiiaitcn ' " ~ 
mUwtMioc vcTf Uko fibrin. • • 


Th» bUioci t)t n f«w cmst&cntiis cimtains lui'nit^lolijn din 
tli« blood plasinn. These nrr u EdIIown :— 

DaphnU (LanIceMM), 

Cb(aroc>]ihaliu (E^nnkint^r). 

A)>a> (nitiiianl nnd ItliiDrbAtdJ. 

Lcrauitlkrnpii* (\'nii 11piic<1i.-ii). 

CbiTdta (Tmi Beneden). 

Cji'Tis (Begiuud and Blsnohstd), 

Jlarine jiaiuilio Ctu-iUiu«iiu (iin>liucr11i«<l){Van BeMtenV IIrn> Ik I 
gioUn b nid to be cootainwl in u sinwial nytum 9S wHMlt (liMiBct fnn >lil 
blood TOuel*. 

Th<! folliiwins; i* n brief sumiunry of the chi«f fftcts ascertniiied ifAi 
regnrd to th« hiuncilj-inpli ot tlit dt^capoJ cruslacea. 

Tbo blooH mn \ne Muily ubtnlnntl by ntftklnf,' outa in the ivntai 
ragion in tho auft inlrxuriK^nts bi^tween the ubdotutual iiPKiuenl<,«<i 
tjw clav. It ^'ii»bi-K iiut vpr}' nuultly, aui) fn>in n luTjgn lnbaGtTBM^ 
tutU a pint onn ns « ruin bo obtjiineit. 

Colour. -Tlie MihmI which can bi^ .iifii fliiw^iiK in thcvimtnl 
just ben«iA<J) the fiiin in thin n-gimi nppniin in lb<^ \'nMrl In bccoioV' 
IcM. The reddish tinge vhich is prewnt in some specimena vhea Ai 
bluud in druwn is iu> ainiilAr to th^ hue of sarfoundinff puit. tbal i 
uiniiot bo f>erc«ive<l thiwigh the transparent parta of the akiii. TW 
IJimkI whrn firil sliwi Is either nearly oiilourlma, *ir of a mldiJi toWw 
ttftm the prbienve in it of a red pigment presently U> ix tlissenbtd. 



kM nlwj nn i)|>iil>-n.<i-tit or milkv (ipp<-m-nncn from ilic pivseiiL-D of 
iMtDnx'Uii nnmlMiiil rt>rpuKcli'*. Thr< niilkiiieBS is more market) Id 
Muorl cnming from the diivr, than in that from the (nil of Oie same 
aaiBnal. Tins ih 'Iup tc tW cells 1«inij innre ftbundntit in Mnod from 
lb* fonner «itaatinii. Tliis iippcvuviiict^ is )'er hut mi iiueutArv. fur 
MMi^Wion I><?^ii6 tooccui' iiIri'wc itiHrjiiilAiii^QiLsly. Tliiit » eapeciall}' 
tbrcmw with the lutwteraiut rntylixh. In tJie ctuh coagulation la not 
sn npid, inn: U the uttiniMte clot sn firm tuul jelly-lika. 

Tti* bliJO<I After \>^ug A few moiueiit^ in contact witli the oxyit^ii of 
ifav atWMi^Jiere B<.-<iuiiv« im indig^'o blue tiuge ; but the ivaiLiii<.>ss with 
vbich thi« is«««D rnriet indifrweiilspeciu:^^. Tlteblue coluur b due 
lo lb** "Xj-i-ennti""!! of u {>nit«iil IhhIv whieii exintd in solution in tlie 
bkml j'lnaiiiiL : in the reduceil Htiitc it is i^oInurleHs ; in tlii> oxidiiietl 
tlitton it U liluo. Tlie iiunie lui'mocynnin wiu pven to it by 

Tlif vxriMtion in the colour uf tlie blood is owing to the atttuixturc 
«f th« tint duo to hiL-miioyniiiii with u vnry-iii;: nmount of a re<l 
«nIoarinfC lunttvr. Thin tal pigtin'iit hiu Ixwn noted «.i ovnirring in tho 
li by Jolyrt nnd Uogniin!,' nml in tin- lobster by Fm!(Tici[' ; but 
notliini; further hiia ninde out nlxml it by theni" obwrvei-s. Thi<i red 
|a;;K>ait. i» lite luime as that whiL'b exi»<i» Iiiri;eiy in the exoskeletoii 
ill tiie hyptilerm. It h&f' been called there tetroner^i'thrin, and is 
of u ctiUH of piifiix'nts known ns lutein* or li|uichrii]ne>.^ It unn bp 
veil out from the bluod by nlcohul ur ether. In ABlacuH and the 
kbrter tli« ml colour as n rule preilominat«a; but in Ncphrapti it iH 
l««aeat in vety biimII quAnutii^ 

Sfir<eijir (imriiif nnd Hfacfitin. — The tfjiedfio j|(m*ity of th«^ blc«d 
11 found to muy butween 10J5 nnd 10.%. It* rcMction is always 
hwtly alkaline. 

CuvMf'tHFNf'. — The blood con ta inn thn following claKw.i of bodiea : — 
(1) pr,4y«h. 

{'!) S'llt*. — TtitTie ntM-nible Ihonv of the wati^r in whid) the uiimaU 
Inr, hrinn more abunthint in Ma-w»ter than in fr<ith-wnt«.'r animals. 
Dn* itt-h in nl*o found to I'ontnin nnnll [(uiintitieK of ii^in and copgicr, 
ib« Uttnr la-ini; combinetl with the proteid Im-mocynnin (Knderic<)). 

' JoJjW ltB4 K*tEiiii^ *K«rhvtvli^ |>h)^inlQ^(|iiif4 pRir ^a n^-fiiratii^ dew AuiiiinQx 
lnHlllh ■ * ^r^hirr* air ph^rJjM/if, it, AtW, ]*iU-ia. lK77. 

' PmlMWi). ' N<-l' aur i<- ■■iii; itr I'llinnnnl.' Kjrlntil itt» JUKrftiu th I'luaMmi* 
It JM|(<yii«. *"* wriB, Iiimp sivii. Xii, (. A|iriL, IWy. 

* McnrpBiv^ki ICiniijilfi rrnJ. xriii. llfiW) hu* (ouri'l (lot |iijri»cl>t ili 101 ■pcclo 
4 ^yaul Jti lonsfciifr- it may liik>* a n<i|iimt'ir} Afticth likr iij»>ntrpj£lnbin fii nixfnint 
d Iw ilvvltrljnlHiii in llir iptl'L It. Iii3^«#vi*r, ix mil xff«vU*<l by i4i4i>iTijc *ir OHtiii'intf 
^■kt [.iV* "tbtr lljiAvliriiiiii'i il Mrwlio In ■>ii(i)i)[hl, but UiU IM«U> «i|IIh1Ij wvll in a 
Wwi M i Tlicro i* tw «iid<«» tlinl il !• napirmUrj. 



(3) Sxlraetur^.^- Amon^ tiu»: an; telroitcrytbrio in 
Amount, and fatty bodies, bIko iii vnrinbl<' quaiitiiy. Tliere u»i 
pf-rcL'titi(j^ of ur«vi. a fnct whicli Itiw Ix^ii iiotinl in the CMCCt tke< 
by RAbuteiiu niid rHiiillcm,' and Jalyvt and llrjfiiard,* uul i» I 
)ol>8t«r l>y myseit 

Tbe following tAbI« exhibits Ibe average percCnUKV propor 
Hivse uuunlilutiutit in the blood of four of thi'*>^ nntmaU. 




[ CnrftV 










1094 J 





' Other oFpmlo inntt*rv . 









Tliu forvgoing namlicn wore ihe avitnigtii obtmii«d from lb« tat»lpm «4 j 
blcHxt lit iLrpH miiiJiulH iu eutili caac. cxcttpc llml uf tti» nuptiro|a. In 
wcrf lliiw riiirniniii. Tlie jiroleiilBwoic SKtimalwl by jKreSpltniion wtthi 
tbo blood wo* nllofffil In (Imp dirvvt Into Hk'ohol ; Uio oonictt aODla ol Uw< 
wvll as of the bliKKl jilAKinn an.' llirivriin! iiioliiilmt in Iho fonffoing Dti 
ia wry ilifliciill to cutiniiito the nctiiiU dn' wdf;ht of Iho ooUa, bcoHOMC 
ucuiir* in> rupidly thnt it i> inipoi-ilbli? to obtain tliom fn« tiom Hut 
nitikCADcc tlHit JH torinmli stiil. by quic-k tiltvrini.'. lui app'^'^'n*'* t«mIi i 
artlviMl ill. mil tlia ciilla obtsiiii-d nearly tien ttum tDiriii ; lIiS* i 
«nl}' lie done in •■iihfn wlirri- a liirtii- iiriiuiiiil, i>[ UIoihI i»< i'«iadil7 obtnlocd. 
crab tbi.- pcrccnMgit wclxhi ut •Iritul c(<lli> wnti tuanit to b* <KII i and tal 
lobster O-JS. 

CoaguUuion. — By rec'civiiiB thr blooil imnuHlmtiily wlmo dvdIIiM 
very large quantititw of ii<-ittrn] Ealts likcmngnouuin xulpluitvoTwiiiM 
cbloriidt!, cna^utntion caii bo prevented.* It hiu been khown tlwiu* 
clol is not tlii'HO-cnllMt ploaniodium a^ described by Geddps, buiii J* 
t<» the funTintion of a Ijody, iibtiont iiidislin^shnblo froni the lilirini* 
vertcbriitc blood, in wbicb the eelU are vntangW, ftnil tlint its tan*- 
tion is due to a fenueutaclioii up<)n a proleid tihrinogoiious bwJj »luA 
exists in the blood plaaina. This ferment is derived fram the ■awM 
corpuscles of tbe bluod. A» in the caae in vortebrnbi, the tteram, (!>•> 
is, the tlaid portion l-ltat remaina when the clot is rrrnovnd, iliflW* run 
the pl««ma by not ooutniniuK the proteid fibrin f*ctw. Ha-iwx«** 
paHses into lli« ki'uiu. 

■ [Ubakttu uiit I'ltjiiUun, ' ObKvrvulicirin (ur quelqiw* liqibdea A» I'a 
PoiHont. del CnulMCifii. ol dm ('fi4uil(.|»idi^«.' Comfit. renJ. iliiii, ISL 

' Joljvt uid ItAgUMil. Arth. ■'< yhytiiitiigtr. U. MM. 

> Wittinc iJounud f. pnOt. Ch«mi*. Uilii. ISSI (Itim tfas (aOovtiis hwImI^ 
AstacDt : Watar Wm 8ftlU MS Orguk bodiM TM. 

* Dilation of ll> )ilMliMln irhioti Iho odii lw(* inbHjkJ. tpgi U i W rt* * 
•ddlUDD ol flbnn>tarvinil. iJi(«r> praducaa ocafUlMlMl. 


Corpuftl^. — When » drop of bluod fi'eah (rain the animal 'it reorivcd 

I on ft glkjui slide, covered, and exAinuitit with llie niifr«Hciipi', the. «ll» 

»fT *rrri in m cl^-ar planum. The blood obHb of cruataoca havn bcpn 

»il(acnli(Hl Mill Kgnml by Ilewwiii,' Carus,' Wharlou Jonr»,' Haeckd,' 
Lrtwrt Mill Bobiu,* &iid Viodiiea.'* Pale vt\U wiiti anui-boiil mow- 
nmta mmI Umg prooenaca aiv in nil uwcit described. There are, 
kvwerer, ui aiMitiou tuttntt which ciintnin grnniilnii of n jfellowigh-red 
colour (Uironerjrthrin) ; but tho*c nif not cunstantly prwcnt, and nro 
Bwst canity fogix) in tliusc specitiierig in whiuti the reddish hu« of the 
blood i» iBO«t marbeil. 

I When the drop of blood is exaiuiiicd as above deaoribed, the wIIb 
M firrt more freeJy. and eihibil auiiL-boid movementa. Tliey soon 
tumiig •tntionary aiKl collect toj[etber. They shoot out esceedinsly 
ka|; procvMes ; tlionu liolp to bind the li-Uh tci^^L-tber. But in addition 
tolliit, fibres uf fibrin witli U-m well dftintil uutLine can be cl«iaHy seen.' 
Sahs. — One other point niAV be taken up a little more fully, and 
tfai* ia one wliiuh Kti'di'ric'i " Una worked out. ([<■ luu sluiwn that the 
UBount of ihe inor^inio coniitituonlii uf the blood viiriL's with that in 
the h«l>it«t of the animal, a freNh-wntti- aiiima.1 like the ciuylish con- 
tehung leu than thote living in sea wi,t:<i'. This U illuatruled by tlie 

I Mil il SoIoUe alto ol Mval B4Ju!.lv mtXt nt tum 

CrayftiJi . 0*94 per cent. . . . (frtuh water) 

Cr»b . . 1-G5 „ , . 0-» percent 

. aOOI „ . . . S-40 

LoUUa- . . 3-040 „ .3-41 

M>jn . 337 „ . . . 3-9 „ 

ThK lanie was found to be title f<>r niolluncs. With re^nl to the 
*mMA timuw, ihcy wm- found to contain Icmi «iilt thnn llie blood, p.g. 
llki mosclea of the lob8l<T eontuineil 01 37 per cent, of solnblc mlts. 

■ tbnon, Wurin villteil bjr OoJIitiiT, S]/J. Sue. IHtU, p. i&t. 
' <'•»•. V. (>.. run ifi-H iiutumi LfbciKlfrinffniiifrm ilrr uriti- unil titU-Uiittfm 

nvrr, I#ri«i|t. 11194, I'p, M, Wl. 

' T. Wharton JmiiM, ''Dm lili>,>cl vurimiwl* cuiiii]di>rMl In lU lUlteranb pluiaa of 
And>Ft«B«il 111 Uia animnl •biidi.' ylt'l Tiaiit. IHIU, |>|i. 1K>, HI. 

• E. lim-kvl, • tVbut .lin UdwbIw do* Flu»«kreU«.' ilallei't Arrhir. 1B6T, p. 010. 

* Lct^fft and Itfbiii. ' Kiitv* Xnlit [ibcr kllcKiOiiellio T«rgL Aiiat. nledcnir TUutn.' 
Millrri Artl.,,: IHtd, |i. 131 

■ F. (iuMix, ' Oil Ibu I'xiJi'uifiiiMi ii! AuiiiUild 01l« iiiin PlumoUa. niul on UiB MV 
^M ('•i«4[iil>tiou ol tiivurtubniU Kluidii,' froe. Iloual fiot, lu. 161, inti-MO. 

' A liil! tuvDUntot miaUcvitu liluud wUI be Itniul In n paper by mjaelt, Juuni. o/ 
ntm/J. 1 1. 900. 

■ *C«v|a>*M>un aiiliiio dn muk dm aninmui mmioit,' Lihrr Jubflaini lU la tec. lie 
• 0aHj. iHb4.f.O. 




WJlbicganl lu tlic vcurpicn, tvc uiilv know Ibat ils liloorl contoiiu 
cpuiia. It U out of llie fuw nir-brwtlliing iiDimals that do (LutknU't*)- 

Liaiulu* tO«o (.'Oiilit!n» hHiruucyHiiin rii Jtbtiii(Luici.- : ' this is Htalul br HonOr 
to cosKiiliiiiv ni. R hitrli^T leiapentlnrp (80" C). nnd to (onii a (inn« onintuk 
'Jorv villi rci.p!rnti>TT oxvtr<^n tbnn Ibal nccurritig In eniMaoMii blood. Th» f» 
ecu <il >poiiiniicioa> rlntiin^c that opcun wboii tlic blood In *h<il out. m la ikt 
blood ol rrtistjiocn, be locventod by cold, or ndmixtiiro nilb a, vcrj larft* (nud 
of ncatml mIis. TIic dbrin fcnncd diiHag conKidnTlon rlamly mnntilr* Ital i4 
ronminnlinn blood. In « microscioipii! pfi-parntion of fresh blood h rin bcMnw 
bu distjnot Imiii Ibe oi-ll proi*»e» ; 1 uui ilLfn-foti- unable to ncwpt HimWbi 
vtiiUnienI thnt it is i-uuipoMd vulrlj- of vorpusole*. and luy ovn «spttinMk 
leiiii U) (irovu tliat tlioro it In luldttlaii n lornialSun ot llbiiii fiuin the i»t«in»i , 


Dipl*ra,~'Thc only obnorvmtionn tnn6o on the tlood of ihisclMltf 
insects relate to the pro«onc« of hii?ii)oglol]in in the blood plum rf 
two of these, viz. tlie l«rvii of cheitouoiuus (Lttnk ester),* ud lit 
common house fly (MuBt':i ilomestieu).' 

t.'-pi'Utpf«ra.~-A Urge numOer of obsermtjoris linve l(e«n mad* If 
Ponlton* «n the bU«Ki of moHis aiid liutt<>rflips. Tin- IJiiod a W 
mulily ubtuinulile frmn ihi! I'hni'KiilirH und cnlnrpillarK, hat it ii 
nppBrnntly the !(nini> throughout »1! the inetuuiorphoM's (4 tlwi tniWi 
Tile following i> a brief .lumiiiftry of thf rrciilt* olitninr*) :— 

(it) Rrart'utn. - Thi' lilotKi ijt dUtinolly ndd ; thin i« tlw only l(W« 
inxlnnce in the nnimiil kingtlom of the n(vumiii.-c of acid blood. Ik) 
iici<l is n Tolfitilc oni^ and more recent rxporintents bare led Foa 
conclude that it is fornuc ncid. 

(i) Cor/m^'/rn. — These are colourles8 mid aiua>ljoi(L 

(c) Colour, — This is^i-een in most catea ; it viirieii, lwwe>-er;i 
tlte f<xHl of the KniinaL The colour U da« to chlorophyll dmved fr* 
tlw food. TliB suinie pi;,in('ni occurs bi ol.lirr piirt* of the liody. h 
hiw apparently no rvijiiratory vnlue, nnd inili-i'd no ropimioiy piRiK*' 
Appennt to 1)(! pntMint. In those nniinnlR which live on brij^l'F 
«oloureil leAve.4 the hlood id t>right<?r thiin in those which tiiY OD Wf 
of B ftidl or yell<iwi»h -green colour. In tlio Utter c*»e On jdi", 

' [.anlHalar, Quart. JViMrw. of Kientf. Seimre. XJdr, ISl. 

' Thi- lout i«il«iil« ]*r wnl. ill iJi* binnil <iTeni«« (Mil, 

> HiiuvU-s Srviiirt /rom l^< ttiol. Lab. Johat Uirpiiut Cmtv. JWIi*** *■ 


< [.snknlFr, Joiiru. of Anat. niti Pk]ftiol. ii. III. 

^ UmitinnHl by lUa^ Hoan.' Antnul Cllioi»«MliiKr.'i'>'«e. iKrM>ii|fA<tiii i'M«ir'*"' 
fiof. iiL KM- 

* e. D. Poulton, Prat. Rctf. SiKiitg, 1SBS. p, DTO rJ irj. 




tuwit rrfcltl<ir(iiiliylI(x«nllu>pIij-H)iKpn'«-nt iiipxcrwiof t]i<- grepn 
or chloropti^ll projjpr. ^jwclrosi'^pic <'\itii)iiintioi> Btiou-s fiii'llter the 
rlocp rvUtion botweon the clilorophyll in the food And tliftt in the 


("/) /•ro/(-i(/j>. ^Tliete nre pif«p[it »nil can b* precipitated as a white 
h_v tlie additiod of iikohol. or hy hcat(65°-80*C,), Tliin (■euf^i^tit 

dt&solveAoutLlwxAiittiophyll. Saturation with mogneuuui Bulph&te 
also ipvea a fairly heavy precipitHt« ; it would lbu> uppear tliat 
^tnt^ulifis (crni n couiiMonLble i|uaiitity of the prateidti pn.<srnt. The 
rhloniphylL iiioreovM', doeti nut hIiow the great rendiiieHf. to deitoinpuw.' 
tluit pliint chlorophyll do^s. It hoA, therefore, been sufxe^t^d thut this 
(ratttT UaUlity inity be due to it union moreorlen iiitiuiat4:Wtwr>cnit 
umI on«^ »r >'(ht-r uf thf prat«-td co»&titiient« of the blood. 

(') t'otiyitlntion.-- Tlie blood clots ikfu-r a viiririblt- |>eriod of time, 
but getiemlly dorltt^ns imibout five injnuteii, ultimately formiiin a blnek 
■olid clot, which in due to oxidnlton. If fresh blood lie neiileil in u ^la» 
tnlie, it reinitius uiidott«d fur ii uinntli or inoi-e : if a HUiall qu&ntity of ur 
W it>c)ud(H) with the bloud, a thin bluck film forms uii it«i surfaci- And 
lb* action then ccMea: On removing this crust m new one forms on 
the aur&oi- cx[icac<) t« ihe air. This blai-k aubstwice Is the norniid 
clot, for the injured pliK'ea on larvit; whkli Imve heaJeil *re ■Ivmya 
liiack, untably the luirns of ■]>htnx Urvfe which have bi^en mh1)p<l oO 
l>y otbert of the *iinH> «[iFci«[. Tliix ■.■oaguktion i» not preventctl by 
ihv addition of tiMliiini sulplinti-. 

In tltiiKp nficcirt which havi- brown or colourlcst blood, thi>ro is also 
dferimun;; on oxidation. The darkening i* not duo to the action of 
uil oorurs eqiiAlly well In the <birk. 

These obacrvstions of I'oultonV sre of exceedingly great intei'est, 
«■ on so tnnny points the blood of them a.niDi«lB standi iu striking 
contrast to whitt occurs vlaewhere in the &niiiial kingdom. 

rr^Ierioj' liiu alru luiuli- ii tvvi olBtnatiotnu'D tlicmmcUood. Ileenuiiiood 
the Uood of ibe Inrra of Oryripn na»lc<!rni«. Thin U onlourlo*, ramtaim colour- 
Im» oorposottK. iiir™ a pii>ci{iiiiitr vritli todiuiD chloride or magncsiiiui nolplmte, 
Ucoa^lMcil by the lempFratiirti of W C, and oifonlnticoiiily mw;itlalt« wbea 
•IniI anil expoMnl (« lli» air, Tlie bron-iiiriij due Iu oxi>liiti<m. iilnodr mviitloQail, 
•a* obMtned bj Frodwlc|, und )tv, likv fiiutioii. rciciinU iliU |i1ivnnmt'iion as not 
it all aaalofoos la the I'olour clianuri iliio Itioxidallrui In olhor abimali, uf tlio 
mfkmtotf [Mgmctila which vie bnvo alrcn/ly fnllf roiuidcml : a* nhtro oner 
t«fin«l ortiiher nir-pamp uor Tcilncint; Bftcnt will rcnioi-o the bronii colour. It i* 
dHfly the colour of Uic doi funiiud. 

, tbev 


Emkenbeig' hu tUto noted the bUckeung of the blood of Insects wbs 
shed. He applies the term melawitU to the process. He fonud it to oca 
onlj in the blood of the lepidopten (bntterUies and moths), but tU«o in t 
certain coleopt«ra (beetles), nioagh be obaorred also the gi^en coloni 
blood in certain cbiyMks, he does not seem to have recognised thai 

' KrnkenlHrg, ' Ueber die HfdrophilUH Ijmphe, Arc' Verhanill,d.nat,-ine^ic.\ 
xu Had^berg, N.F. vol. iii. Helt I ; and ' Zor Kentnies der Serumf&rbatoSe,' StI 
berichte der Jcnaiichea Oeull.f. Medicin, 188S. 






Tert«t)mt« ikninuUs there [s, Id mlflilidti to the blood ve«ds, « sjr>t«in 

o( tcbmU iiii<i -Hjiiwea which in called the l}-ra[iU-vuscular system, or tlie 

IjniIiluLUc tyvtuiu. Tim fluid cotitaiiied ia this *ysti;iii i* cnlled t^i|^. 

Ou the luurne of niHiiv of tJi<i lytnplintic vrsst-lx nri- found mnswH of 

IfiDphoid or iwlcncjid Liiuu<% which niv cnlh'd lj'iii{ihalic iiocluliis luid 

lymphAlic glnnda. Lymph ix derived from tlic Mood plwinm ; as tho 

UoikI cireuUtt-nin the fimnllftr Tonrlx nod oni>illArii-«, a ccrtnin cjiiuitity 

of tJie pLuDM, or liquor Mitguinis difTuiios llirough thv thin wiilU of 

Am* WMok, nnd hnthos thiji tibsup (ileinents so thiit th^y are brought 

into very clutw rolntion with tlio uutrieut iluid. This oxuded fluid, or 

Ifi&plii contains hIsu a few white corpuBclea, which have einigriitod into 

tfaf tif«are from the lilood veasels. The lymph L'ollec[§ ia the con- 

tMVtiie iu»ue spnces, Acid fruDi Xhene pa!^8e8 into lymphatic ciipillfirieH, 

whidi l>y uniting fonu lar|*er vesaels acwomiwnyiui:! the veiiut, and these 

■U open into the large lymphatic trunk, or thoracic duct, which opeim 

inlu the vt-nous system at the junction of the Huholnviun and jugular 

Teiiuk During tliis oounte the vewiulK may i-ut^r nnn or mori< lyni]>hntio 

glanthi ; the lymphatic vftMud which Wve* the lymphatic ginnd (cfltTf ut 

lymphatic vessel) cutitain-s a greater iiunilK>r of cnlourleg* corpiii^c'le.i 

(lymph corpUHcleaJ than vnn pre.-M.-nt in tin- allVrciit lymphatic vcascls ; 

the lymplMtic nodules mid glandK iirc th<' pIiK'CK where thew i-nrpusclue 

are formed, antl by ama-Iioid movements they work thoir wny into the 

lymjih \mA\i, and are rari'ii'd on liret iTito tho lymphntii: cinMilntion, and 

ultimately into the stream, where they receive Uie name of white 

Uood cwpusclc*. The chemistry of these corpuscles wo have already 

raniidem! (p. 2r>T). The 1ii]uid in which these corpuscles float may Iw 

called the tymjJi plntma. It may Ixi hrieHy descrilicci as diluti^d IiIimmI 

plaatiM. TIk saline constituonte of lymph planuia and Moud plasma arc 

alike boUi as regards quality and iiuantity. The organic, and eHpecia]ly 

tlis pnMeid. ctmstitueritA are alike in kind iii both vtirieties of pUsma 

hoc are laueb Iiws abundant in lymph plasma thau in blood pla*ma 

The lympb, however, contaiua u suuiiiwliat larger proportion of the pro- 




rlucU of combustion of thn ti«su«R^ such m carbonic acid «ud urM, tl 
th« V>lonrl flof'S, 

During iligpstioii thi- lymphatic vrssfU of ih* iiit«stinr takp op 
certain of the product* of digr-j'tion, nntoiig olliors fnt in a finely ^liridcd 
condition. Tliis gives to xhf lymph in tliis nitoatiou :« milky appmr- 
ance, snd the vessels are consequently culled ftf/'iilf, »nd tlieir i?«nt«itii 
cUj/f«, JDuriiig the intervals between digestion the lactettls. bovi 
contAin ordinary lymph. 

Tlie serous cavities are in close relationship witli Uie rsiwQi 
system from the point of view of oinbryolog}'. Tliey may bo uoniiilNvd 
AS liirgv lyrn]>U npuce.i. and iluriii); he&lth tli»y oonUiiti a siuatl (|uanliiy 
<rf tluid which in lymph. Tlii^ name, sr-ruii> mfnibnine. i« ni>t aJtc^tJitr 
a good ■>np, as it siiggialA that thr duid th^y ctintain i.i WTruni. In iht 
seraus muinhnmcs an- niiunt'' liolo, or itoniata, which open into Inu- 
phatic vrssi-ls, and thus the tntcTior of sr^rouK mrnibrancii ami of tbr bluol 
vftscuUr Byutem are brought into conmiunicaUon with one anotbnr. 

Th<? synovijil cavities surrounding tlic joints, tlie corobrMpin*! 
cavity in the interior of the brain and spinnl con), and the •nt<fior 
chamber of the eye, contain soni9wha.t similar fluids, whic^ aiv c*11«d 
respectively, synovia, cerebroq>inal tlui<l, and aqneous humour. 

Under certain pathological conditions the amount of fluiJ in 
these different situations is increased, so producing th« various fonn* 
of dropsy. 

Till! oausM oi dnji»r maj' b« bricfl)' unmmariBea m follow*:— 

It amy be due \q : 

1. DiJturdvreri uuaililiona of iJie clrciilatlon- UbMlructlon lollie no* ot 
tlirmittli ttic lieail, »* In Ofriaiii vaWiihr illiWMOT 0( tbat orgaa' ; or tollie Hm c*( 
blood Ihruiiitli vifiiia or Ijiaphnlics, aa hy the piuaure of tanxiBTii •upvn Ibtm.^f^ 
by bindcTlnit tli« free rciam ot tiui'l (o iliv liuart. produoo tncicaiod imwrr ^-^ 
the uapilloiitw, oiiil r.o jncrea-'e'l i'xiiilaii<>n of tjiiiph. In tlip cas« of obsln(ti£i* 
in vdtu. thptlropsy amy hv loirnllnwl .>r otorv- or leisitsifai : for iiit*»iioi\«tl^ 
ID one fcDiiinl T«iu sill uuJ;cAti>eiln)piiv of one I-jhxt liatb, vliil* |nva«*>r^* 
■ be luiui cuvN iufFriot would caow drojiiy of nJl the lownr pan. uf Ui4 btd; I" 
lirarl •iiseuiu <ixo^y will alwaya In atori: or lc» i^ncnt. but tt. a ml* mulf"** 
ilSL'lf luoit in tlie loRrr iiari of tliw hoAy, when* thnto 1« tnoal ynvilf *" 

!. DUordiTTod conditions of the blood. The bcu examples of thh*»l!ii^''* 
dUuM, aed certain forau of antcmia where th« blood pluiina p*mm mcfe naAi'J 
than Donoal tluough tlic vascular valK 

3. DUordered conditluar ut the veswU. TliU uuium into ploy M{i«d>II,' '* 
inSanuna:! loD. Hvtr^ not unly rlom thu [iIu^shlii ■pa.m inoiv rexliljr ttua ti>f^ 
Ibrougb ihe retaelii, but the emigtaiioii of vliitecovpuMlM in uooli inauv^,*"* 

* ThveaOBaot drop*; iii hnjt 'li*MHV it, wcnnliBi; tn Wooldridffe, ptltlf >ln* I* ** 
■lUrad omditlon <4 tbr bloeil i.Hlirino«ni.p]i«aiiin|i*, Proe. Rog. Sut. i)v. BCW, I'M '' 
ifaii WaoIdriilK^ diJIon fruni aOirt nhttmn. 



I Mtpiuel** <D iiaaU naiiilMTni may juui ilirniieli ihir vl>hicI wall* bIm. TIi« 
(imtiMion of on abwon b tnBiUDiuntiou ailtmncnl to aiiuh an iiitcasi' dvgnc that 
the fill null wbitc cmpiuclc* are to duuiutuuk nri In fnmi wliat it knoivn an {ni.i. 

Tn dropsy c«u*cd in thtsn tlirue (liff«reiit ways the fluid i-ffuKed is 
(liAnwnt fnim nonnnl tyiii[>h. In pressura tlropiy the fluid is more 
wninry tlinn norni«t 1viii]>li: iii drupNV dan to «n iiicn^imt^l wntcry con- 
ditiitn of till- 1>IoikI thi.- i.'ltujti'd lynipli in *iiDilnrl7 nlti-ivd. In iiiflnni- 
niatofy dropsy not nnly arc the lymph I'oqiuHclc.t very tiuiiii'roiM, bgl 
thi^ solid coDiitituiMits of tJia lymph pliuma am more iil>uiiduiit tlinn 

It) nddttioii to nil theiu- foniiH of di'OgiKy, tlieiv arc furthi:r lucnliM-il 
<)ro|Bt<^ (lai- to the fonnntion of cm ilii^ iinti vynts in orgiin.i, T1h-m- 
•|MeM get lill<vl with fluid ; tJiiu wc hiiru tumount of Uie lurtntirnneN of 
lli« l>r*iti and s]>iiiitl i-oitl (riicniiigora-Ii-x) whit^h bMomo filled with 
c«rvl>ro-<ipiiiftI tliiiil, >-ystic iliM-iuH-K of tlicovnry, fAtlopiaii tu)>M, lcidn«ys, 
Jic^ hydatid tumourii of th«< livor nnd other orgaim, nnd the iimniotic 
Snid which Biirrounds the dnhryo, nmy he nUo iiiclud<<<l umler Hiih 


Such, then, \6 s ttuniinnry of thfr v»riou>i kinds of Huid we have now 
to lAk« up in detnil : tirst nonuni lyiiipli nnd chylei, nnd ihi.' L-oiitentd of 
tbt^ serouA, synovial, and cerebroBpinal c&vitiea in healtli and dltiiMM ; 
iMxi the luore dintuntly related fluids tU«t ot-cur in the iutvniH- of 

•in tuuioun ; nnd tuacly the suliject of pux. 


Smsll (]uaDtitic« of lymph for microMvipic&l iuvestigatiou uiay Ih.' 
oUaiued from Uie donal lymph Mtc of the frog, or from any u( tho 
lympliatica of the hixbei- imiiuals. Litr;**!!- quantitieH for uliemionl 
iDTMtigntion have bt-eu ohtiiined from the thoiucii- duct of nnnsthelined 
animaU. or In Uie auu: of larjie animaU like th*^ horoe from other InrgR 
lynpluilic (runlcH, for innlunL-i;. that aci>im|utnyiiiK 'he juf;ular vein ; 
ia man lyiuph hns hn-n ol>(nini>d fn>iu cnai's of lymphntiu flrtuln ; 
Beiuen aiul Didinhiitdt' oIiMTved the propi'rtiiM of the lymph olitAincd 
from uuch a listula i:i the thigh- 
Lymph, liki- plasma, uiof a faintly yollow colour, uitd lins ati nlkntine 
raaction ; itn •i>rcilii' gnivity varies lietwi-i-n lOlJ and 1022. On 
lukraacopic examinaticm it show* a numhtr »f am(i^l>oid cc-lls siniilar to 
vliilo blood carpu»cl(t« ; thia nunibrr varim in diffnrent parts of the 
lymphatic nyKtvni, ua hat aln-ady l>«en (lescTHlHid (p. '.VM). 

When kIiwI. the lyinph in from It 20 minuter vougulntea, yielding 
from 0-04 to 008 p«r cent, of fibrin (blood ptatma yields a larger 

I Anit. /. palM. Aiwt. id1. xxxTii. pp. BS uiil HI*. 


..) ; th(^ liqiiii) rnsiiluF 

IfB cNltnl lyr 

quantity, 0-22 04 p<T 
aeruiu. and like blocwl-xeruiii it contninK prnt<;icls (iwruin -globulin uid 
Meruiu-Ailiuinin), cxtmctirns, salts, nnd gn^es. The last tJiroe classMof 
ognstituents nrc Alio Himilftr to those occurHng in btood-senuiijthv pB^ 
ductiB of the combustion of the tissues, e.g. urea and carbonic acid, a^M 
however, more abundant in lymph than in blood, while the other oi^ganie 
oOQBtiluents are less abundant in lymph thtin in blo<Hl. 

When commercial peptone is ii^ected into the blood-atreMD of 
ficrtftin animals (e.g. the dog), the blond when shed does not co«guUt# : 
&e suTiie ift true for the lympli of tiuch aiiiniala.' 

Tb*? {oUowiiig table contrasts the composition of blood pLuuia wllh 
that of lymph ; — 

1,CXH> puna of bumiin bloa 


l.OUO puts of hnann Ifmft 

iKmtain :— * 

contain ,• — ' 

Wntor .... 



Solids .... 



(o) Pralslds— 


Fibrin . 



OlIiM protridf . 



<b) BxtfaetivMi . 



(e) TooTEiutio nils 



TliLS t«ble illtiHtratct numoricnily the various pcMtits which hsl 
been already mentioned, rspccinlly the great diminulton ui the orjin 
constituents of the lymph ns compared with pUanll^ u-liil« the iiu 
constituents are approximAtely tlie same in the two lluids. 

Not only are the inorga n it- count ituent« mjujiI inthn tvolbi'l 
but the fcitiie -^iJts are present in approximittvly i-()ual pmporti**!- 
KOdinin chloride in each being the tnost *bun<Lnnt ; thix is illuatral^H 
nuiueriontly in tht- next tjible. ^^ 

1,000 piirih of linmHii plnimn contnln 
(C. Schmidt) ;— 
NnCa .... C-Sl 
K«,PO,. . . . 0-JT 
Swtfl ..,.1-53 
KOI .... (l-iM 

KfiO (I-M 

CMPO.), . . . O-80 
Wg^l'O,), ... 0-22 

l.OOO pan* of human 1yiD| 


tllceun and Italmhsrdt) >— 










S0„P,O.*: hiH 


1 CaO 


1 MkO . . 


yvjo, . : 


umiublR- p fy 


I C V - 


< MgCO,lihw. 


I V»na. Du Hail Hftn-«-^'' •frcMg /. PhfilaL USl, fk. 101- 

• C. BrJimiill »iii! U*iliiii»nn. 

I Hnnnu Mxl D<lmhMttt. Tlie abnv* tsUa flM* UMMWnfH <rf Una Mnl;«n ^ 
total nliilH u* mltm li>* in Ukl* oxo : Oia nvdntga from atiua otMa (tn* tNn ""^ 
patU pw l.<MMI. 


SimiW tables might be quoted of analyseB of the lymph from other 
animals ; the chief points, however, are all sufficiently shown by the 
example given.' 

The next table illustrates the point already mentioned as to the 
greftter quantity of ureaia lymph as compared with the blood (Wurtz*). 



' DoK ; 0009 

I Cow I 0-OlSI 

Hvne — 

Ball — 

PfiTfientafTF of Urea 

0-01 n 



Observations have been made in dropsical fluids which show that 
the relation between the amount of serum-albumin and serum -globulin 
is rery constant in the same person or animal, and is the same approxi- 
mately in the blood-serum and in the effused tluids, though the total 
amount of proteids is much less in the effusions than in the serum. 

If a^percentAge of albumin 
and fi^percentage of globulin, 

Then " ia called the proteid quotient. 

The proteid quotient is also equal in the same animal in the serum, 
lymph, and chyle. Salvioli* has shown this to be the case in dogs. 
This is a somewhat important point ; it shows that there is no difference 
in the rate of diffusion of the two proteids in the living animal, for 
Gottwnit' found tliat globulin diffuses moreslowly than albumin through 
dead nnimid membranes. (Compare p. 1.^) 


Chyle is the name given to the fluid contents of the intestinal lym- 
phatics or laoteals during digestion. It may be briefly described as 
lymph pim certain materials (especially fat) which have passed into 
these vessels from the intestines. 

Microscopic examination shows that chyle contains lyniph cor- 
puscles and fftt globules in a minute stat« of subdivi.sion. 

' Tlie-ii' liililes will lie found in Hoppe-Seyler'" I'lii/aial. Chi-mir. pp. floa-B. 
' Wiirtz, Comj'lr' rrnilm, July 1M51I. I tillte thf table fnini Gnni|{ea'« P/n/tiol. Clirm 
p. 331. 

'■ Sslvioli, Dii lioia HrymoniVs Archiv f. Phutiol. IMHI, p. -im. 
* Zed. phyawl. Chum. iv. 43S. 



The following table, Boinewhiit Hbbraviatecl, K takoit from Ha 
Seylra-j' Uie numbers «rc pnrto por 1,000. 

0«>«i««,» *Ob,te.fft*- «'^^'^';'' ^J 

Water . . . . 



AlbiiiTihi Jc globallD 
Ii*at. ic^uirltiu, ohole- 


Kntlv A^iilii li tnaiia 

(tancos . . . 
MlnoraJ snlts . . , 








C6UII i 



Tlie iiiDftt striking fnct illuictmtcil by thiitnble utW greater Mno 
of wliiiti In uhyle ns oomparvd witb lynipli, itiid the tarxe jurmntafpi 
fnt, Zftwil"kJ found in dog? fwl purply on a fatly diet tlutt ihr (hjW 
iniglit contain an much n» I4-R per cent, of fat. Vur'tnit H*t titiw 
dix«Ktion of fat, the blood pliMTiiit iin<l seruu) hav« a milky appnnaV 
produced by Oie presence in thpm of excessivelj iuinut« fat filolMlia 

1,000 partd of the dry residue of iJie ctliereal extract of «hyl>< 
tained :'— 

ChalMlerIn . 



Pubmlic and slmria 

ytnt Sjietiiiiifit 

: £}'"■' 



The chyle also contHina a oertain proportioQ of aoap6 afaaoriieil 'n* 
thp aliineutaiy cnnal. Thin stutrni<-nt wjui originally innde by Ho| 
Sryler, and he still maintains' the corrpetnesK of his eariier oUier 
which liave been qucstionpd by Lebedcff, Ruhrig, ft»d Zawilaki- ^ 
8om* new experiments he has found in the seruni of Uie hone, M,*'^ 
dog. ^ percentage of falty acid* from HOaps raryiog from 0-<(4 Wfrl- 

' Phf/iiol. Chc"'', P- MB, ■ I.uJwif-M Aririttm, *1, 1(7. 

* Aut}«M b; Kiippe-Sej-ln. ' AnaJyiii hj Sdunldt. 
> Aoklrw* l>y R<>«. P'-il- Tmiu. IMS, v "H- The dijiU «u oUaini b* ' 

ilsnfttoMd oriminnl- 

* Noel pBkm. TlilK ■aalni* is nut luiiUiiiiKl in HopfmSrjlf^* tabU. Tl* ^W* 
WM obuincil tnim « patient *hem* thons'in ilunt liwl bem rnptoed b; t» (1>«i>'* ** 
MmoDr in tlu- navk tJoarn. of Phfftlvt. xi. )09). 

* Hopjw .1"7l"r, ffcj«io(. Chfa. p. WT. 

* Hoplw-S«ylBr, Utilieh./ phgtial, Chfin. viii. W8. 




In thi- cliyl*' h« has found (>-335 per ceiit. of soaps, and 0723 ;ier emit. 
o( 6»t. ^ 

Tlic incrm^ml percvutnge of proteida in the oliyle lu ti>iiijmri!il with 
the Ijrmpli illUBtrates tlie fitct tli»l Uii; liietmdn nrr nut nic^r^ly coiici-nic*) 
in the ■Ixorption of fatty, liut prcilmbly uIko vf nllituniitoaB food. In 
liie itonMoh Aitd iutt«1itio thu prottidt of t}i« focil any converted into 
peptooea, MibctanM* thut diSiue with iviKlintiEE throujjh living animal 
nvmbruiflii ; hut no peptone** (or prot«o«cK, the int<<nnrdinte pro- 
dacta [u the formation of peptonic) nro found in ihc trhylo ; dsrini; 
Uteir |i*«auige llirough the int«»tinnl w»ll, or iminwlintcly on cut«ring 
th*- lymph or bloo<I rtrrtim, tJicy iirc rcconvertwd into »lbumi» a.nd 
gliibulin, Schmidt- MuUivim ^ tii.-d thu thorsvii: duct in doK^, and found 
that prolcida wre tliU Absorb4<d ; ttiib, however, does not prove that 
the kcteaU are not iiormully concei-ned in the nbiorption of protdd ; it 
merely shovn that animalH thus tieated can continue to nkHuib protcid 
liy (be other path — the Uood votueU. 

'The inteatinAl Ij-mphaticH are lhu» conourni'it in the ubcorptiou of 
ht umI ct proteida ; tliey, however, itpparently tnlce hut littlu part in 
dw afaaorption ol carlNihydnit^ foixt ; Uie nriioiint nf nugnr in Ij'mph 
■m) dyle is ap|>roxii]iatvly the same as in tlip hli>o(l, atul no dulinitu 
iiumiiPl ooeun whr-n animals am ffiil on a starchy or Mirijlmrina diet 
(Brnuud, v. Hering'). Pmbably, .ia suf^ir is so easily dilfu«iblri. moxt 
of it pAaan into the morr; ijuiekly circiilHtiiig blood )itr(?nni anil if 
ouried off, frvKli (|UHntitioM of blood being then available to carry otT 
more. The blood vesaels, mon>ovBr, He ioimmliatuly W-neath the epi- 
tbelinto, and so th(? sugar never readies the more centrally hituated 
lacteal* of thi-- villi (Hi'iilmhiiin ^). By greutly inorrruiing the amount 
of mjpir in tJiv fo<id, howvver, Kumu ilou* piss iiitu the chyle-'' 

^}nn»titf Iff 6%/".— Kroni two CMies to irliicb the arouant of oliyle was 
iaaa«icr«l C. Seliml<lt ccaicluiiwl iliat for wary kllo)rian> o' bwly woigbt O-Ol kilo 
«l chyla «aa foruud In the 24 lumN, of wblch 034 ocnien troni th« allinentajy 
<MwU, aad i\>c nmnining O'ST coiujiita of (ho aornul lymph. [{u)<p(^-8t'ylar ' U 
taicliued to Uiink Uut Ibe praportkin detiviii from the intwlliiu in inaoli miallor. 

aWitftea* e/ CUsle.—Gviiig to tho niptnre of tlie laotmls or ol the ihorade 

* OUaiMd bom a cms ol riifliMiN aaeiM*, !.•- eNaiM ot ebjle late llie jieritonaal 

' m* to a ■lAt*ni»iil mad* b; namtmiiit olMi:n«ni: I Iiuvc conflrnied it* aaeinaty 
in •■ naaiiaaliaii at rlijla ootlvotMl tran the ihonulc doct ut Iwa iloga. 

* A* Btit RKy>i«mir> Aniir, ItiTT. p. UB. 

* I^ilrif'i Arbrilfu. lnT7. Arrh. / Awl- ■. PhftioL, PAjmoi. Mtll. 1871, |i- VtU. 
' H«lil«n)iain, P/liiyf^t Arch. iiuiii>l«inciitiil lalanu, ISM, p. TI. 
■ GnitMS. n-id. iliv. HOH. 
' PkfM, Chrmif, p. Ml. 


838 Tine Tissi'Es asd orgasr of the body 

daot, or tmlng to flstnloiu oonmmniuntJuDa b«tv«en Umm p*na and 
Tea Cli;rluri« *w Criue. 


The amount, of fluiil in these caWtio* U in health vpry sniAlt ; e> 
finds its way through the otoiuat^ into the l/mphntic vtvmU TV 
fluid is tuidoubtedly lyiuph~-that is, dilute blood pljuuon whid> I>t 
ttxuded froni the blood veuteU. lit dropsicnl conditions this Aniil ii 
niuch inci'eased, luid uur kuowlfd;{e of it^ pi-opertics is tklmoat entirrir 
derived (i-om a study of di-opaicid flui<la. If excess of duid accumnluM 
in two of theae c-avitiex Hiiuulluiu'iJUHly, tt^, for iustanoe, in tlie pm- 
toneuin and tlie pleura, fiimi ulh^nitiotia in conditloiu ot naraUr 
prosniri^ (e.g. heiiri dittease), it is found that the c^nupiisitioo of llie i"i> 
fliiicU dillers to a certain i-xtcnt. Oil this ^(ruuiid wt- hfttdtiwttlw 
Dormal lymph which moistens thv various kkfous eavitiw prolaUf 
tliffers in tliosi! difTurenl cuvities in the siime way. Thn diSeranoMiR 
quantitative oidy, not qufthtative. AfU'r death the perimxKn^ 
especially in some animals (e.g. the liorse), oft«u contAins a coondcr 
able quantity of liquid. This accumulation is accounted for by tb 
changejri in the circulation immediately preceding death- The ^W 
perioardti is s liquid which Lh intotvsting hiatorioilly, u no nunf 
experiments have been made with it in dwilin^ with the invtotigttwD 
of the camies of tlie cua^lutiuii of the bUiod {*ee p. 243). Tl* 
cixt'brii-spinid cavity is not a eenius cuvity, and the fluid is il 
ilifterH iniirkeilly from thrt lymph of the siirous caritien. It will I* 
dealt with tnpnmUily. 


Th« rnodm <>f causntion of dropsy haro beon already 
(p. S32). ThcMt fluids may nil be tersely described as lymph io< 
and more watery than luoal, except in inflammatory dropcy, 
the ci.dls and the solid constituents generally ore inci«ased. 

Nomenclature. — There are certain mimes given to the 
forms »f dropsy occurrinj; iu different situations: — 

Wdrma is the name given to the exoeesive exudation of fluid t^ 
the aubcutaiiMtUB tia.iuiw. 

Annlr* is the niira« given to a dropsy of the poritoneKl cavit 

Hydmeele is tho name given to a dropsy of the tunica 
the arrous membrane originally part of the peritoneum that sur 
the tcsliclix 




Bjfdrottiortac is the nnni« given t^o a dfipay of the pleim, 

UydroifTieaniiwtn %t> Ul&t of tilt- jierimrdiuiu. 

^M nAiiw« ti diwasAs cU»t ni'e iiillaiiiiiMtoi'y in nature tenuiuute in 
« Affix -i/M. Tbiu there U periciLtditis, peritotiitin, pleui-itiH (or 
Imrity). itc, aud in vertaiti BtaK«s of nil tliese diseaaea tlier^ is efTb^oo 

S«aeti(Ha. — Thin is in nil uiuies Alluliiie. 

Oohntr.— Tlii^ viirita tlirectl/ with the colour of tlie blood plasma 
a the (latipnt, anil witti did concentration uf tlit- efTuseil litjuid, but 
ftew U nlwHj-n a cprUiin amount of thi^ yt-IIowish-gceeii li|Mi(;hn)iua 
•fTum- lutein, nf. p. 253), which can he extracted by niejins of alccihul. 
^bcoific gravity.— Thin increas«K }inri paatu with the amount of 
fly cnnhtitiMtntt. Kf U88 ' has exanuDed a Ifirgi^ nuinhci- of these 
tldwm» ; he call" the fluids of inflnuitmitory dropsy, nxndntions, while 
<W dro|iiiical fluid^i (i.e. diluted lymph) he terms tranHudationa, and 
tt* tul lowing are the funeral cniicluBioiis lie draws with regard to 
ifmfic gi«%nty. 

fluida from c«Mc of peritonitis 1018 or hJglier'| 
„ „ pteurttis 1018 , 

„ „ in flam mat ion lOlS , 

o(»kin» ' 

„ „ hydrothurax 1015 or lower) 

„ „ (iM-'iten . 1DI2 „ .- Iraiisudatioiia 

„ „ injcnin . 1010 ,, I 

^ ^ QptgBlttiMl. "S o:i - i n flam m atory drotwical fluids do not congutate 
■^hnoo<nKly, or only with excerding clowned. When mixed with 
Ht^ or coDtaminatcd with blood, as they are apt to be in the process 
n taping, tl>ey, however, do cua^late. fonuiii;> Gbrio. 

Tlip reaion why they do not clot in that they contain cither very 
ft* cellular elamenbi or tbene may l>e ptactically abaenU The cbum of 
WcMigolatiou of th« blu<Nl. we have alrL-ady seen, ix the fonnation of 
fibrin- ferment fmni white oorpusoles and blood tabletn. Wlien, 
'■'nfore, blood or wrum or a aoiulion of ]>un' librin- ferment or oell- 
Bwnlin, or of unne other activn globulin like myosinognn (tw MukcIo), 
* *Ued to onf- at ilropsicnl fluid.s, the librinogen contained 
"•iwii i« conrertnl inl<> librin (iw Coagulation of the Rlood, p. S41}. 

Tlie inflnumntory fluidii or exudations are, however, difierent ; they 
''■■tun abandancc of whit« corpusclcx and invariably clot when shed. 

A ftnuB, Deuttfhft Arth, f, kUn. MptL ii^'iij- &n, HolTouuin lua lukdo «mll*r 
* kik M i* obtaiiiiHl bj hli>il«riti|[- 



Sometinie* they clot within the seroUB cavity, the fibrin ' ifticfaiiiji to 

UiK siiW (if tlie iiifiLiliran<>. 

Coutitne&ts. ThcKC nrr thn xuitif in kinci n* thn«« In l>lood pliLoa 
B, Protei'ij'.—Tht^e an? fibrin "gen, Kerum -global in, and mtiud- 


b. Extractirvs, — ThiH temi is used in the sense explained on p. 351. 
In vaiab c*aen chole«t«rin is found in itiHrked excess. Sugar MeauW 
be a fairly constAnt constitnenti. 

c. Suiu. — ThiMe arc alike not only in kind hut in actual amount l» 
tbutte ill the blood. 

The dittorent ilropMcal fluids ditfer from une another in Mhm tid- 
nexK in orgunii; coimtitueittg, enpeiially in prot^ids ; tlie plvnral Hotd ii 
richest in th»o Kulnliitices. then the pentoiieal, and lontly thp Huiicf 
miljcutaneous cedewa. These fact^ utay be illuatrutcd by tite folloaii^ 
tables ;— 

Otmpotilum tf rarhmi dm/itiral Jlniitt rrmored n/lef lUatlt frvm « etttif 

aUiinninHTia [C. ScApiidt)': — 

[d ■■»• iwl lOiM 

llrunl nolil 

Sollrio . 
OiBUifc . 









Ex(nuTiiT« and Sale* . , 

flvani nnia 






These examples >llu8trat« auffidmitly well the hct that tl b tk 
amount of protcids that totIm in tJiese difl*er«nt fluids, the otl* 
couatitaentB being fairly constant. 

Runebeeg* examined 77 eaw« of efRision* of different kind*; tfc» 
amount of total prot«ids varied from 0-06 to 2-fi8 per cent ; wfcil**' 

■ On* ntUa 1>nu> Ihtiiw vtrkndi of tibriii [-jiIlM i;mpli iii Uiu [.-.rl iiBiif>» n>«- 
' Th« Mtuin-itlliiiinui nf tlioH fluiit. |jk>< that ot wnua cw) hj In 
o«a|[aUU«n b* (Uflvrvntiatt^ into thn.i {iroli'iiln iim |l HT). 

* Qoolifd bj Kappe-Srjiv, Phj/tial. Chun: p. iwa. 

* Pkgtial. Chrmif, p. (m3. Al« in Arch./, path. Aiuil. ix. SHT. 

* RunAuv, Dttittrli. Arthin /. UiH. Mni. xtxr. *W. 


t of chloridefi, th« most abundniit natts, averiL^d 1'08, rm-ying 
per cwit. t-Iirouglmut the long series. 
Itnneberg' in tlirw ca^es (I., IT., III.), Aiid myself in oue cn-iA (IV.) 
rfbun disCAse examiueil ilroptiienl fluids rfiuuved sinmlbuieouslj' from 
iliflereut parla. The [ollowiiig nui»ln!rs givo tli« porcentagr of prot.eids 
IB Ike diSereiit fluids : — 



lUd from peri- 

MwnB . . . 
Thtd fiooi p«ri- 

tt ritoiB « • • 



Flaid from peri- 

toiiaum . . . 

(Ed«nuk niiid . . 

1 M 


Fluid from 

pleam ■ . 1'4t 
(Uilenui fluid 0-S3 

P. Hotfbiunn * exHrnised a SMies uf thirty uuscb (if luwitio tluid wt 
W like reUliuii betww*" tlie .■miiiunt uf twruin-jjlfitiuliu iinil seruin- 
•Itnniun. T)t« uinnuiit of libriimxi'ii in thetwt fluids is w siuiill, tliAt 
pnciically it may be neglected. He fuutid timt the f motion 

. . .. f which in callMl the nruti^id qnotiont, i> very vitruible. 

la tlovMi of the tliirty oinea bo wmi able to eatimate the proteid 

qtotient iu the blood- atrrum uf the ainie putieiita ; here, also, be found 

(IM Tarifttioitti, «jid the t|u<iti<>iil is geiienUly, both in blood and ut 

•flbdom, lower than noniml.' Tlie timst iiiterf.-*ting poiut, however, is 

*M the priitei<l qiiotit-nt in practically tlic same in the two fluiib, 

nuod ami eflTuxion, for thn winiv individual. We Imve seen provioiuily 

(> S35) that the protcid-ijuotiiiit of normdl lymph and chyle iu equal 

tviiuUof th« blood. This illtistrntes to us very foicibly tho diflerencoa 

''■tveco difi\iaion llirou^h a liTtDf; luenibrane and through ft dmd 

■ni^nsne. Senator, A. Schmidt, And Uottwnid, using dead inem- 

'*■>«, (oand that serum-globulin diffuses with gre«t«r ditticulty than 

*Wni ■Album in ; but liere we see that during life th«y (litfuso with 

*1ol npidity. 

TIhm rnulta l^ve lieen fully coi-roborat«d by Pigenud,* and I 
IWe (aet next pa^^e) the nuniben obtained by him in two coses of 

In nany cases during; the proj^resa of a dropsy it is found ntwcssary 
^ tkp ibe cavity scvenU timM ; it ia tlieu found that aucceimve 

' butNCg, thU. U(il. 1. 

' P. Tliiltlnana. AreK/. rtprr. Piilh. nml Pham. xtI. 1S8. 

tl npfmn dmibtfal Hhntlivr w« run nt prcMiit Hy witiit lliii ituniial pniUiil- 
I'BftilS II It Ih md» prrflHkl'liH llmt it rihlMtH vi<ry i^cniwiclr-riiliLtf t'urUIJiuiH in InmUli. 

J- J. I'igVBud, Ocv** nirititijj'fti ill tfrrtitc viofoloffett. Uortvr. Xhimrt. iMuiiait 
^i ft kUo ITo/s'l Jalrmiimrht f. Thitrahtmif, iri. 1T4- 


THK Tissi-Ks AND <i]tOASrt OF TlIK ltt»OV 

Catr I 


Tnlitl IVitM'L ptT mil 


fluunil n>iia 
Aioilie Quia 
4Edcma fluid 




tViw // 


1 TaUl FnucM \<a MiiL 

PnMtlQMilt 1 

1 Blcind-wrum 

IViinil iliiM 
1 Aaoiiic llaid 
1 (£d(ima fluid 





1 l» 

1-IIS J 
I-1SS 1 

dropsical transudations into th^ Mune <ac present gTOAt coiwUnejr^ 
conipoaition. Sometimes difierencea do occur ; tlieae diflbrenoM, 
also tJie differences m the proteid i'on(«nta of the lymph in the w 
Herutm luics, arf, no doubt, dependi^nt on atteratiotis uiiti differtucMJ 
the mi^clmnieal cimditioDR of presaure. 

Ill succeHBivo tappings, liowever, a diiTerence may arise tu i 
way, vix, a certain auiouot of iiiflauiniation may be ?iet up in the wn» 
iiK-nibi'niie itwlf ; aiid this uiay be the result of irritAtion prcxloccl ^ 
a sudden removnl of the fluid, or, more frequently, it la Uic mulM 
udng imperfectly cleansed inalruments for the operation. 

These different points will lie illuntrated liy furtlier Analytical • 
to be given under the various fluids which wp now procwd totakej 


This partakes of the (co^n^l ohunicter of dropdeal fluidi' 
have juitt bewi deeicribed. 

It ix nn alkaline fluid of a yellowish tint, and St. occasionally, «na 
wheo quitn fniih, Nnmcwhat opctlescent. ' It contains few or npf' 
puscles, and when n>movc<l does not coagulate spontaueoosly, woi^ 
very slowly, the proems sometimes Instiiig severa] days. 

Where peritonitis is prcseiU. however, volourteea eoqnuote i 
epithelium cells of tlie ijeritoiieum. and. in uuaes of canoer, < __ 

also ai« to be seen in abunihuiee ; the fluid ooagahiteji n^oxifxae^^ 
and u much richer in pmtcid-conttmtA tlian the 6ui(l nf ninplc divp?' 

' Tliiii opiiltfHmica ik xvA rvMMivtxI \n fUtriLtioii, and ni)crci«<^iMlljr mo [ivUe^''* 
libcwvntiiMeoanlbrit. > H. Qniiiiitiii. lin,l»rh. Arrh. /. ktin. IMLin-^ 


Somr luinljrsM hkv* already been Kivm of thf compotition of this 
fluid -, Uic following niujr now Ite odilud, lui they illiiHlmte more fully 
Mrtaia o*li«r pointa, wlii«h lony l>e i-on^-vnicntly stntod i» ihe form i)f 

k prxij^oatMNM, each of wliicb in fullovred l>y illitstnttive analyHsa. 

H 1. The fluid reinovMl fn>ni iIk- peritononl sac by succeMiva 

Uppiims remaina Euirly cunslant in <^)iD|>osition.' 

Out If 


U putt |M IIOO 

Irt Ttp|4np 

Siul Ta|i[4n( 

CUrluMlt ••( Unr . 

lit TuiiiliiK 

Jnd tViipIni 

•rwr DoaUi 

rnMida . . . . 
txtauUro . . . 









la SO 


9S3-ES ' 9SS-38 

17-17 ic-ii: 

J-73 (111 
1 Nt ass 
8-13 H'M 

3. The aiuoont of prot«idB is very viirinbl« ; thv prutciil qitoticnt i^ 
ako varialile iind a[>parencly does not vary with tlia cauBtr of tho dropay. 
This tnay be illoittratvrl liy tbp fullowing annJyiw wkctod from n turgor 
BUtub«r made by uywlf. 

Ow RscUoii 




AlhRDlIB ' 


1. CIcrtiMbofUnr . . 

S. ^phllitic diMttw of 1 M 









X. Cfnfaoci* of Uvnr 
1. Nca-lnllaauanuir}' 
Sh Heart dlMaw . 
C Start diMan' . 







3. In the same en**, bow(>ver, it is found iu succeMire tnppinga 
that the total proteid and ttie pruleid ijuoUent remain very constant. 

< Seborar, qontml tnnii nn|iiiO'S*]rfai'« Pft^iuit. Chtni. |i. MS. 

■ H<ifif»-S*jtn, tbid. p. noa. Otlun unalf*** iUutnlliiK Uiii point will Im alwi 

hiuul IwiflL 

' In UiMv »!>■ Uiu ■mnuut iit filihnc^n ia onl (ivi^n. ■& it iru ipr) miiiill. uiil il En 
••^hnl HiUi tl>* •mun-glnliiiliii. 1 un inilulital Ui Df. Kyiliiey ItlnifFr 4ind hialioniw 
phfilrteJI*Kl ttniT.Ci<t1-Hn>|<.hirall llia>« rikrionii lluicla rui'l niuiy othvr* In Iw dMOitvd 
htor IB In tl>w clut|it>>r. .S'a> bIu /tn(. JVnl. Journ. vul. ii. iniNI. p, IM. 

' TW uDovnt nf [iMi'iiU III imiiiU'Utiuii t1u;itii tinm linitrt ilioKtJW b (■nanJly 
pnliTlhm n ntlmr l>-ni» nl |iniiuiiri< ilru^ny. Till* Imi-U tome mpii-irt la WooUidlgo'* 
(hcorr, lliat ib> lilood ■* |«jtly ■! (Aull in inoh ckim (w^ lootnnlv. p. tnti). 


One (/ Sriflit't Ditrate tvmpUeated nfiA OrritaU of Ik* Lirtr 

FIiM t^ppblg 
Second „ 
IMtd „ 
ftonrUi „ 










4. EvGU ill those cttses wh«re, owing to nltrnitionH of ]ireaiim I 
amount <if pi-oleid cimiiges, ynt thv protcdd quotient (nlbumin : gli 
Ii») remains jinicticnlly un Altered. 

Ctuu ^ eirrhmU ef the lArer in a Bey Ihitten yMiv M* 

Dito uf Tipping 1 tlilal IVrMliI pn- imH. 



AofrnitSS, IBSft 

8q)Teiii1x<r :iO. ISSS .... 
KovcmbiT IS. 1S85 .... 
Dec^onibRr:!T, 18^:: .... 

821 G 

■ ■ (-5J3' 


5. Tile totn) proteids in the fluid in cnses of peritonitis is inc 
U cnmpnrcxl with tliat of simple pressure asinteB, 

Hunober^,' frum tiie exnmiiiatiou of 121 cmk^ urivea it 
following generul resultK : — 

In ckMMt of hydnemia (inolodinK iiaphritl>) tbo n»oitic Buid coDlaiiis 
H „ purtAl olntraction „ ., h 

m ■• Kenoral vciiohb cuutcmtion (liMtrt diwase) » 

•• ,. OMVim'iiuUicix p('riton[lis ,. „ 

For diagnostic purposes it may roughljr be «ai<) tli«t a hi^ f>^ 
oentage of prot«id ilenotes infiamniatioD ; a low percentage of 
ctrtaitdy denotes absence of inflammation. The relation of albumia I 
globulin (proteid-quatient) is o! no diagnoatio value, aa ft voii« ' 
tii« proteid quotiitnt nf the blood ; it is tberefora merelj uf tlMotT*i<*' 

Tliere is genemlly a Kinall peiveiitii^ of >uj;»r in tJio poHtto'*' 
fluid ns in lymph gttnernlly. Many ciuHn of cirrhasis of the livtf, !»*' 
over, ari! often associnted with a small amount of dialwtai,' wA ih* 

< 'tun lililiiiii U< llita, til' fibniioguii yrtut in IliD louitli tatiping Mlimatnl V •"" 
flMaJarmucii hkI Huuliiun Ui* llliriii loniiinl: il uiinualcd Ut 9OTS ftt t^l "* 
abOV« uutlykiM !■ jny Awn, 

' J- J. Pijc«<iiiiil, \fjtJy'ti Jithr^hirrichi, ivi- (7<. 

^ Ruiti'liivK, Strulm-h. Atrh. f. kUn. Mrd. iiiit. 1. S*r ■)•« Hnfmann jH W *** * 
Arrh, ix%iii, 'iMy) for a lfir)p> ndml>#r of aiinilAr iknAljutv. 

* Cabnt. * Dv la KlyiXHOn* dana Ih riu'ilVlmlmrlicai parUdle ca toUlr •!• • < 



nagnrin thti M*citic fluid is thus incrm«c(t. In on« ciuc i>f Kyphilhic 
eiirhoais of tho liver, in which T oxnniincil thn nucitic fluid, thero wm 
«) much as O-^^^I per cent, of sugnr prespnt. In n cnse of cirrhosis 
neorcM bv Mosi'stelli,' the perceatai^e of sugnr in the nscitic fluid 
WM 0*15 : tliiv fluid nUo ooutained & aiuall amount of nllAntoiii. 8ug»r 
WBi, however, ut tfaia last caae absent from the urines It h only when 
the ivRvQiuite of ni^^ in blood and lyitipU exceeds 03 per cent, that 
I^Ttuuri' eiuuM. 

Chyknt* rMriftv.— Th«m havn bneii )wv«riil caMex pubtiahiKl of diHCiuie 
(ftrting tile tliomcic duct, kiid causing ita rujiturt! ; tliis leuds to 
tlweitmviMattiin of tJi» cliyht into thu [xMitont'iil cnvit}*, nnd the fluid 
hjtIm raniovrd hy tApping. I hf^m mer^tlj' quob^ two cabob to lUus- 
kM this : Caw L' wm a ease publislied by Whitln, in which tuber- 
oloudisoHW led to the niptui-e of tiie duct in a boy of 13 ; Case TT.^ 
h |i«bUa)>ed by J, Stnuaa, and was a ease in which cancerous jfrowtJis 
kd to U>e rupture of the mewint^ric lacteaU, The analyeis in the fin* 
a» vu m»d« by ^ttattliow Hay, iu the second caae by Uuinochet. 

Cite T Cbw 7/ 




Qibtc Mganto maltoni .... 

Im. . 









Hav foutid II small percentnge of sugar iu tJie U()uid ; Guinochet 
imd neitJter sugiir nor peptone. 

in wnie cases of ascites, tlt« fluid though not chylous yet contfuns 
• krp exc«Bs of choleeterin, ciyatats of which are to be been floating 
*l(«t in tlie li>(ui<l ; in other cases, the poculiar muciu-like subalanoes 
{xnlbfimia and meC«Ibuni>ii (which nrv pretty cutuit«nt coniitituents 
*( ovtrian fluid, aitd will be described with that fluid) may b» fouud. 
In (till Aiiotlter cUss of cs^ea of luurite*, hii'morrhn^ may occur Into 
U> ptritoui-um, and a tii{uid more or Icmi st^iinod with blood or niti-'red 
''omI pi^itirnt 'lA nbtatnwl on poracRntcxiH (tnpping). 

PWil' lyvii. mrif. 14TS. I'd. IS, I^|>iiit% riiti rnftl, d» Farii, IV!S, p. IU. Quinrk*, 
fW. Ui^ Worhruirbrifl. ISTd, Nn. SR. 

' MonMlH.,yti«l.ChrmU,\at.10a. 

' BKruK Medical Join: lol, 1. 1SS5. [>. imw. 

* irtk. lU fAf**"'- ivili- "il. Aiunlwr sua i« n«iord*d bj- Mstriiu*> BrU. WM. 
*^r^ ml a. ISM. p. 107. 




The iluid lias Ui« utiiie fi^enentl diantct^riiiticK mt ]ierUone»l dniiL 
It OS n roll! contAinH mon^ proteidM tluin the p<>ritone(U (lui<L It doM 
mil i<e»(lU)' coAgulntc spoiiinni'ouiilj*, uiiltum plcuriiiy bn thi' mum ot tba 
exudation. A few nioi'i? unHlyticul clnin, in aijililitin to tlimc which 
)uv« been nUvody given, may be mldctl ns il lux tnit ions tu tli« folluvritiK 

(I) In hyttrotlioiia, tlir totAl porcratnp- of prot<^il is much lower 
tJinn ill c«^ii of p\tri.'Ai^y : tlio nniouat of lilintKigt'ii u (Htim*t«d \/j 
tlxi wi>ig1it of Gbriu foruted' U kUo less in the fluid of hydrothormx. 

Xl>i' fitloxiiig Dumbora ore obtained from lutalyieB of my own t— 


\trt nliL 



1. Plnil/Ujr (Krata) , 

2. Plcutiqr (acute) . 
St. PlourUj (aouio) . 

1. Ilvdrothonut 

(brlglit's dbDHa) 

CBri«)itV aboue) 
C HydivUionx 

(bean dbuMc) 











9-1 H 


(3) In hydrathonu, w in wdtos, tAe liquid r«roov»d by raweasnr" 
t*{^ings muaiiu Curly eonatiuat in compositioiL* 



Oi|anic «oIUs .... 
1 Inorguik wliddi ... 




Bugnr Meinii (o bo fauriy conttniitly preaent iit pl«uriti« fioid, ■« in 
other forma of lyinph. In 17 «|>evimnnB exAmioed by II. Gi«hhont' 
10 cantnined >mkll quMitittea of iingar. 

Exceptiuiuil forms of pleuritic elision ue tunietJmw found ; nni* 

' Id ilia out ol III* liqiiM ol kydrotiuni ibna maj ba lcnDi4 1>jr aiUinii laniiB- w 
Bhnii-I''rn«-iil tu Itiv lli|iiid, Th* flsiil la tkmiD idtnrin; olonljr wawnlilw tlial at 
lifilrMtWni IC. iXfiiU, ttulMin UM. ila .Vonf, ImU- 

' Tbii ■■uwpl* laUrtHl » aa analjai* lir C Hrkniult. It uiil 
rfL MCA «r Banw4)«|'lt<T'> Ph^:'l. Clirmif. 

* Xnlulinfl/, Uim. Ufd. «. MI. 

■dl W bviii) on 

^^^^^V LYUra .IKJ) AIJJEU FI.UU)N 847 ^^M 

• "***** *~^ u-itb okroiTioiiuitfluii or Korcomntoiiii tumoura, And the ^^^H 
lll> diM«cl«rij(ltG of tliix! gmnthK mny bv found in the plcurnl liquid, ^^^| 
t Mldition to the uanftl leac(Wjrt«M. In other coses liA'inorrtia<{e muy ^^^H 
(c«r into th« pleura. In one oasc of hiciuorrhagic pleurisy,' I fuutitl >. ^^^H 
trgt UBonntof Gholesteriii floftling uliout iua a-yslalllue form in Uie ^^^H 
K^piid. In Another cKse (not liu-niorrhn^ic] thi^re were Ini^ c«r])UR- ^^^H 
(fa* lik« Uiuge's iofiaiuniatory corpuscles '' in Jurge iiUBibers, in addi- ^^^B 
Inn la leuoocy tea. ^^^H 
Umm of ehyloud pltniriHy huve aUo been deecnlwd." ^^^H 


lUi fluid tK not BO nft^n riMnovcd froni thn humnn suhject in cues ^^^| 
4&auK whon it io prcsrnt in cxcf««, nn in other forras of dropsy, ^^^| 
hOBM oi the groatf-r dnngcr ntti'iiding the opemtion. ^^^H 

li i* Ktatod to contain a Inrgrr (|imutity of lihrinogen than other ^^^^ 
tniBudations, and Kuhne found that it contains 0-^79 to 2-468 per ^^^| 
ont. of proteids. ^^^| 

Dr. Friend him inude under uiy superititendence the followUi^ ^^^| 
W|f» ol the pGiiuttrdiul fluid uf tlut hunui xeuioved Jifter deaJli. ^^^| 

la f*^ P" '"vv 



i ftdwjwi (Mtimatod ■■ Abrin) 
; Iww^JobnUn ■ .... 










J 7-455 














It ii int*re«tiDg to not« thot U>e pericnrdinl fluUI a( the tort^nse^ 
*Uth [ hav): oXamined, exhibits precisely the mnie i-li»riicters nnc 
Hvptrtitu lis thftt of th« mamnialinn nniinnls. 

QiylouE offosions into tlio pf^ricardium may occur, as in the c-uw? ol 
'wQtliM- serous sacs; » cftse is recorded by K. Uasebroek,* and ti 
"■y be tueful to compare the aiialyiUH of the fluid he obtained with 

' IfaJftDr. Ringar'* chuTKu, I'lilv. Crull. Ha«)i. 
CmaaJiii lima ur lucir tiiiii-a tlm niiu of whiU blodJ corjiUMlai, eniitwiiinf 
**^na bl ItiKBmlu. 

* P« Oh uttlgraa of mm H* Koppf-H^lvr'it PAynuI. Oum. [i. tSfl. 
^Bl. fl-fmJ. (Umm. lii. Wa. 




those of non-chylous perfcnrdial fluid afi tvcoriled by previous oh 
The eliyloiia lluid witl lie aeeu to contain a greater amoant 
prot«i<lei anil i^x tract ive.t than orilin^ry pericardial fluid : mom tha 
fiO per cent, of tho extractives ooiwistod of fat. 

InpMUpa VKia 

1. Cliylo.iM'liwr- 

•tlnl mild 




IL (WaeliBSutM* 




Ml 71' 





nbrfn .... 



PnuddA . , , . 





Bstnwlivci . . , 


11' 7 


- 1 






This fluid with the preceding (pericardial duid) is intevwtiiig) 
torioally ; thc«e fluids having been very largely eiuployed in th« i 
of oxpuriments on the coagulation of the blood («>• p. 34^). Itl 
contained in the tunica vaginalis, origiiudly a part of tl>e pMrloQMK 
and is itself almost esuctly like thn peritoneal fluid. It reserablo li» 
peritoneal tluJd und other forniK of lyinjili in Kwclioa, tolonr, mJ 
coimtitueiitK. It docs not a* a rule clot spontjtneoudy, unlm miiM 
with bloo<I or Nuruui, or containing nn exceiss of louoocyttti from uUlu- 
niiition. Its spocifxT gravity variPS from 1016 to 1022 ; the miihuiI 
of protdid jirosi^nt uIho .vari<% very much. Tho following t* the tiM*> 
of 17 aiiaJysL-s inodo by linmmnrsten :* • 

VTutttr a^lS'SS |iiirt« i<«r 1000 

SoltilK 61-lQ ,. „ 

Flbri OStf „ 

Globulin W-BS 

Albuuiin ..... SSrVi „ . 

Klbex dtractirm , . , 4-08 . „ 

8ait» 9'2a „ „ 

NaOI ei» ,. ™ 

There are cases of hydrocele which differ from the otdinaiy llti 
■otue an- vincouji from llie presence i>f inetalbumirt and 
(»re Ovarian Fluid) ; 3»inie>9jntiiin e.xwss of dioleateriu ; and otlwn*'* 
chyloux. The ca«cs of diylou* hydrocrle arc iM>inottni» a»nculed «>** 

■ L*hTbi<fk.p.Ml. ' Arrh./.palM. .inat, tS. M. 

» PhjtM. CUfnie. o MB. 

* Quotctl rram HoppF'Sirfltr'fi Phfriot. Clwm'*, p. iMik ItTuimknten't orifJnall 
■ id Swrdith). Other uiftlffix by Hoppe.S«jlci nill br lounil <in Hid i 
> B. OsrlUaTd, Bull. (Of. ehim. xlil. 017. 


Kdtjrhiri* (diyloaa urine) ; and 

Uie b«'nuiUiaM>n FUaria .Sniij 

KX>yinph tutDour* and tumour 

VUic icrotum uul ita tiri^li>K>ur 

dwdiargo their coatootc from 

Othar cniwM of cUyloiu h; 

to bn produood liko chyloaK w 

exAtiiined •mo such cn«o ; i 

othervisa onlinnry hyilroc«lo 

Bnciety by Mr. 8. G. Shattoch 

^^P THE Fl.t;n} OF 

B TbinflnidiKpoorostof all t 
otiivnriM it rmcmbt™ tl»-ni ^ 
6oRi« atialvKit hav>- alrtv 
ptfiacMU tJwt wc hnvo dmwn 
knring iir« w>in« fistiination* 


riiinU / 

-. Tlllrd 

tiocid ill 
tbo surfi 
•citw by 
t was a 
, which 


lie drops 

L-ry cloM 

idy tHTPn 


of tll<! ]) 


tED FLl 

i iu prtx 

wiih eh 
cAsca of 
ICO of th 

may lio\ 

till* nip 
lluid o 
WBK *hc 

oiil fluid 


tfiven o 
1 it and 
rot«d c 



[uced by 
11 tli« b 
yle arc- 
p. akin.' 
wvver w^ 
tgn- oi 1 
wn to t 

I' 8 tKD 
s in prot 

f this 11 

oilier Bl 


;Hi> ^H 

the presence of ^^M 
uod (Nir« Uriiie^ ^^M 
very I'oniiunn in ^^H 
, and lliese may ^^M 

HUT, wlkich sMm ^^| 
airbeals. I have ^^H 
from a outc of ^^H 
tin Patholo^cul ^^M 

t-'id conntituAnte ; ^^H 

uid, in thn cma- ^^H 
ru<ii>n:< ; tlin fol- ^^H 
ts which 1 hiLVo ^^H 

(HotaiJlH ^^M 

■ "- 

1. U>n)l*c dropn; : Haid fnini 
Uici>i<ii»i in nQkW . . . 

& b)dtec<ln)fnT,niiot)iurcMs«: 
i«id olrfaiDed in tlie ntuD 

1 MititSi diMnw; 'lluta ro- 
movnl liT Routh'^yV irooar 
BDll ouuidU (lom kbllloi . 






niUIl D^-lliH ^1 

In all then caxM tbn fluid wliich drninod away first, con^latod ^^1 
■j)ODtnnnou«ly on KtAnditi^ ; this wits due ton shgbt ntlniixturi? vith ^^H 
UocmI. 'ITh' fluid collected nftcr IiHiiiorrlingP had cwwed did not 1 
MMgulatc fipontaneouRly, but on adding 1>!oo<l or Herutn to it, a small 1 
^|HU]tity of Bbriii was in all cas^s obtainalilo. 1 

A. RoMnbacb * lias made a. special im'estigntion whetlier huk'^i' i> ^^1 
pnMnt or not, and he Rude tlmt it is uesriy ooiistautly present in ^^M 
odenia fluid in «niull (|u&ntities. ^^M 

BlUter Jhtid. — Ttiis lluid ha^ the same reUtion to oxlenm BuEd, ax ^^M 

^^ tUaiynm ol mch fluiilt will bt Ii>udi] iri Ijoppo-ttcylar'* Pliguol. C'jknn. p|i. imti-a. ^^^| 

^B Tb* (■■• w** nnc l^iiiK'! \.y Kir Httxry Tliiiiii|win, un Tran*. Palh. .VonWj/, ^^H 

^En. ttO. itt. ttlMtlook uitcinni ina liii hu ■liii« men a vius itullar tu thiil wliit'li ^^H 

) •nalfiad lor kim. ^^H 

■ A. Bownbwli, Brmlamer •tritl. ZeU. INM. No. &. . ^^| 

i. 1 


thkt of peritiinitis or pli'uritix tt> tlut o( Minplo prvocatv dropatM ttito 
tho MTOUC eft%'ittM. It cvntHinH n Iiirgi- nnmber of UtucocytM, congu- 
{mXk spontknonaHly wlim dniwn, lias n )■!;(['"''' spoolfic gmvity (lOIS or 
BM>n), und » Iiiriccr jH-rwndijci-' of pn>t*icU, «• in Keen liv iMiting it* 
when it b(n!OTiii>!t nlmnirt lolid frain the heat-oOMgnluni prmluced. 

In CBSC« of g<'Ut. Mist^T Huid tike ttie blood pUsnin contuns cxcvu 
of ontea, and the t)i«thod of «xiuiiining it for uHl- add, lu uri^naLIf 
niggotod by Oki-iwI, lina b^ri alrMdy descrilted (p, 2S2). 


The HotMior chanibM- of the ej-e u eaBentitiUy n lymph apaoo. and 
the dtiid in it, the iwiueoUR humour, is eattvnliiUljr lyinpli ; twt lymph 
which eonluiu8 » very Biiiall [•roportion of ]>ratoi'l ooiutJtumtJi. Tlw 
BiiiMiDt of aqueous humour ih direvtly dejwndeiit on tlio btood premure 

I<ohiiM>yftr* analyiMl tli« aqueous buiwiur nf tlw calf, and tb« 
followring nr<! hia results In pnrt« I>vr 1000 : 

WaiiT »M'8r 

Ball<li IS-1» 

rmdd* 1-tl 

aunotlvw (21 

laofgaalo wUa T-70 

(Sodiant dilortik i 

Tli« aquMMu humour either doen not t<onguIat« spoolAnediiitly, ir 
clobi very alowly ; it conburw in h«alth no formed element*. A* in 
(ithn- forrati uf lymph, however, a clot of llbrio is formi'd on the addU 
tion of •eruoi. The proteidx iire the aame in Iciml as in blood phwu 
ftnd tyoipb fieD^rally, vix. tibrinogMi, saramfflobuliii, and neruM- 

Kuhn ' find* nmon^ tlM extractiies that a ntlucinx talstjtni-^ lik« 
■OfuiHcnnilontly pfvaeni in tJi« iiqueous humour of tho ox ami rabtiii ; 
lh(> pemntii^ of tJiia suIkUjuici- reclconod mi (kxtroee, preaent in tiM 
«i)oemu humnur of tho ox, ti 0'OM>'UI. Thin subaUnoe i> not ■upu', 
aa it wlU not undergo tha alcoholic frmwntation (Uruenhagen).* 

Crea bikI aaroolnctic aod (GrafOihngMi) are alao preannt in nuall 

■ CtHTTM. Pftdgit't Arthi; nl IM. 
' • Xn- (l<av|>-R«uk«i. /.rAHUxrA, 4ll> (dil )«•, p. Ml. 

* Pnwl and lUllOmrtcui. Orll. Am. BfporU, Itw, ^ IM. 

* Knhn, PfUfrr-t Arekir, %\L IM. 

* UnMhaiim, iM. aliii. 971. 




I UokI" of the iiib-rnnl *«r have lieeii exauiiiiMl by Dfthnhnrdt' 
In ishes. Perilympli contAinn 21 '2-2 |«'i- cent, of soliils ; it is rich in 
■UDcin tmd ill sodium chloride. Tli« f-ndotjiuph Ik uIi-Arcr, lem viscid ; 
it contniii.i 1-5 per cent, of eolidK, including n smitll quantity ot 



Th« Diiid in Kvtiovinl cnviiif.H anmnd joiiitn, in bum^ iheatliH o! 
(enJoaa, Jcf., iliRf'n from tlmt in aornuN ciiviti^H (I) In containing & 
gnatmr proportion nf solid*; (2) in containing n stiniy mucin-Uke 
«iii»tani.-v which <y>nfcni vi«cu(ity upon it. 

Tli« following &re thp uiitilfiuw thnt hum Itoen publiahod. 

In tmupiVm 

lt>iiciTliitroiii ' namui B^otU fMm twn I 
Scflcci' Chronic AouM 





PIVMM* \ la.a 

KstWBtIn*. tat. Ik. J " " 

J Wan*! mlu . . . IVd 















(NnCI G 34) 

Preridw found that nctive exeroiM dtminishM the amoont, and 
inenasM the concentration of aynoviti. 

Some doubt hoM niwn iw t<i whether the slimy subatAUce present 
m i^noTM ia really niuuin. In HHnimiireten's two cane!* there whb no 
tnw iRUcin. but the slimy aubstjince was found to be iiufli*o-idbuiuiii, 
tike thftt wliii'li L'liuites the aliuiineda of bile ; il oontaineil 'i per cent. 
id pliOspboruB. Landwehr'^ oti the other hand maintiiiiiK that the 
■Ihny subsUuce in synovia ih true mucin, i.e. a oonipound (ur mixture) 
<4 ■ proteid with n carliohydrate cnlltnl animal fcum. 

* DibnWfJt. Arlii-il J. Kirirr iiliniiit, luit. |i. loa. 

* Pmidu. K. W,kKiiui'i Uaiului-ttrib. ,1. Phijiiol. ill. 4na; 

* Hofft-JSryUi. fhytiiil. Cliem. p. 03!). In otiicr limllM MM* noppA-Sorler (ound 
Iml pa IIMIO ft intuiii. 

* "*"""— -I-"'. Ualy't Jiihtethrrieht. ill. tM; oi'i|{jnid papei in BwnJinb. 

* I^adwahr, Pfiigrt't Arthir, xxiii- 190. 




The fluid contnined in ovarian cysts has for it« h»as n trnnsotkcaodi 
from llie blood vesselB, M in the difTerent forms of drofw^ into aerwif . 
cavitiw ; it I*, however, generally viscoua, (rem tJiu [>n»aic« of ■ | 
mucinoid innteiial, which maskn Die oilier prot«id oonstituvnU of 

Ovnriiiii fluid U ulkaliiie ; it fs uftPii coloured with ii (W|i 
pignicnt, drrivwl in »ll pi-oliiibilily from hiemoglobin. and oft™ ■ 
excess of cliolpatt-riii, crystal* of wliicli uri- swii Houtiiig about. 

OcniQi ' Iiua e-vnniiDeil numerous sjiucimeto of fluid ublaiiMl 1 
varimiK foniiK i>f ovarian nyiiU, and hi" gvnriral analytical ooncli 
may be thus xummarixod : — 

Coi:iHd Cj/nloBHiUi <H Glirfi 

BpMlfle Onflif. 


nvMUj. iDflgdliig ■iiKln-lUK I 



only, above 




InI3caw«Uri-7E 6-8'T pons MailBiiim, 10^-3>; mil 

pads per IPOO per 1000 88 per 1000. Inoolythntc 
Jd 2 atsat lew irrrotcrlhan SO iwT IM 

tlian 2'>, and in Fibrin wait f<>nn«d o41 hie 

1 case uii>n> than thv Ihiid willi liloud. 

TS per 1000 ntnent. Xiicin-llkc 

al<r>i-» prcMM 

I'apillary Cfftt^mata.—i Cam* 
nit4 parts pci — 1t>2'G7 pari* f^^t KMn. b 

1000 uun> ttm muctn-llkv tai 

I I j was ptcMUl, Is ttw oIkH I 

Hydrops FdUiouli OraAflani.—i Coam 
. — I — I FIoiilcletraiMlwalriy. U* 

I^rorarial Cgstinnaia 

— [Sniall in qauntilv < 


'lt)-6-Il per 1000 l«-7porlit(X)|l-aporI«iXi. 

C\cMi valoij flalil. St«iHU| 
tiiliMaDW aW-at. (In OM < 
I had the opponanhv al< 

2 Cows 

>'•> uiadBaU i 

Fluid froM Filiro-t'yitir TuiHo\tr. — I Ctiac 

— ■ c3-0« on lOWl. of rtW I*! 

p«r !O0l> <xia*Uf k1 c* mnio. * 
I nonalndrr KVmiu-elobuUii '^ , 
I wnafNtbrnnin. Ko m"'*" [ 
MbManco ptntnl 

I Ovtam, ' Kvoialw Btuilior aim Orarimridvrwidikm, 4t^' Kaebcaun. U«- H"*^ 
JahnabcrMtt, UT. 4H. > J<mrHaX tif i>AvtiW«fv, V. US. 

I.V.M1'H A.N1> .U-IJED EXl'lDS 


'o here a luege tiuinbor of ftiiU\» froiii vitrioiui discvucfi of llie 
oniy and neighbouring origans ; nniJ w<> koc thiit the chief point of 
intnvst u the oouitaut presence of the macJikoitl iu»tci'ial iu colloid 
rnU, mid thift U rvganled l>y (lenint as liein;L,' <lia;jtioBtic of the i-olloid 
km at degiiMmtioii. It U not pretteiit in the iionnaJ uvnry, nar in 
e^kM of hrdru|i« i>f tlif gnuUiAn folliclea. Tii lIkmu ciui« <>f imcitca 
wluint ihr uiine niAlcrial oci^un, oulloid deguii'mlion i^ nUo prrsent. 

. This pi^-uliiir rupy, itliniy tiinl«riul wa.i l>}' Schnritr siiiil to t^DnsisC 
of two»ni'(s, whii'h hi- njunrcl iimtivlbuniin nnd pnmlbuinin. Both 
cut b» precipjtntod by nieHCiM of nli;ohi>l, nnd thv nioolioliu preci^iiLstv 
Is easily soluble in water. AleUilbunnn is t}ie nnme given to tho 
ropy Mtbetance, nnd |mrn1buinin to llif ftulmtancu wliiuh occurii in 
mIowleM ov&ri*n t^uids wliic-h hnvp a gtinimy consistency. 

Time substances hit%'e been inveDtigntod tiy llitnnnftrati'n,' whose 
mmlu nrv )>rief)y ui follows : — 

Af-loltrumin is siuijity colloid timterial. i.e. the substnnoo formed 
in ciillui<) de|;ent?ration. It luut the physicul cliuraclera nf oiuciii ; 

^ dxiniionlly, Itlce mucin, it yitil'Li n reducing suf^r on I toiling with dilute 
HilphuHc acid ; it, hovt-ver, is not mucin, aa it is not pn'i-ipiCid>lf by 

\ Moptit: iu.'id : tbu nnnir pnRudu-inucin is tlierafore •ugj(eit«cl. JWratbtimin 

[if innipty pM>udii- mucin in lou«e conihinution with a proteid. 

TlicM- fncrtx liAvr b<^^m fully cotilinucfd by Liuiilwvlir^ ; ho regnrds 
theHi sulisuni'« as liolonging dirtincily to tin- i-lnns of mucins; they 
euntAin a carbohydrate called iininiid gum. nnd it is this tvliich is 
eoaverted into a reducing frugar hv the nctiori of dilute aulphurio 

In <me cJtse of ovarinii fluid, irliicli I very fully exumini'd," thii fluid 
w«a ofwlMcent but not at nil viscous. On uddiu;i lux'tio acid tliciv 
an abundant precipitHte. On exaiuiuation, tlii* precipitate wa« 
band la canaiat of tru« oiuuin. 

THE FI>Uin IN HYDnosKriniosis 

^L band i 

^^^HTht! ureter of one Icidnt-y may beoomo bliickccl by » slonn or new 
^^^^wth i tliat kidney bncomL'-i funulionlmn, white tlm otbiT dum diruhle 
H worii. The fnuctionleiA kidney twconim miir<^ itnd more tilled with 
orinr', iKmi dibiti-K, till nltiiiintcly i\. litrge uic fontaiiiirig dilute urine 
is fiiTTDnl, and into it sumo protridii from the hluoil aUo pass. The 
trimtr; constituents in time are absorbed. The following detftila of 
■A «iia]y«» ^Oerum, 'oc, rit.) may serve as nu exnnipio : — 

' J/<iJ]r'a>fuAnw(«r>ivl>(, il. 11. On);iiiBl pa|i« in t<wi>dio1i. 
' A. lMBil»clir. Zat. phjitiut. VK<m. vii. ll", 
* Brit. Uril. JuiTo. vol. ii. IHW. !■. lUii. 

A A 



Specific gnivity, 1009. 

»))ias,:;o-iii per 1000. 

ProtM(l», 7-677 „ „ («eniro -globulin m\A •pniin-* 

Urea, uric «H(I, (fnuitinini^ nlMctit. ^| 

The fluid, in othiT w<)nU, irsemblw n scrons vtluKion. 
Cystic (ipgenoriition of the kidnoy mny occur from cnonr* wliickua 
not known, niid consisU. in t)io formation i>f 8n>all cynta througlmt tit: 
kidu«'y sulMtHiico ; llie contents of tliefie cysts arD w&tvry, tonMtiBa 
cuntitiii uriiinry con^ititueuts, sometiuievi are tiii^c«l with blooH, «l 
s(HiiHim«K. In. wheu &8B0<.'i&(«d with colloid disrase, are viscotis- 




The fluid wtiicli accumulates in the interior of the cTsta tormtd bj 
tlte purAsitv Tania rcMnocficcug in coluurltaii, lieulrul, ami soiuetima 
slightly opalwyent. It« speoilk K^^'ly >■ lOOG-1013 ; it caattia 
\-2 to ri per cent, of KolidK. TIn' ^uliiU ni*y hf cluaiAnA in tb i 
UMml wiiy inin )trot4riils, which lire vrry scTiiity, i-xtrnt-tivtii (amnaj 
which sugar and inoait*. mid tntcvw of unjn, orvatinn *nd «Kwaif»»l 
hftvcr l>pen doscriljcd), vuid snlte. 

Microscopicnily it is oft«n scrn to contMin h numlxT of tioe£!«<) 
from the eniliryos. If allowed to r-*wipr into tho poritoiiMil raritj, il i» i 
stated thai it sete up peritonitis ; in connection with thin point i> i 
may he noted (hat Mourson and tSohlagdenbaHtTcn ' luive fouml ■ i 
poitiouous piouiaiiH? iu the liijuirL ! 

If till; growth has involved orj^ans producin;; llie rujiluiv <tf I'W 
vckm-Ik, or bile vroarl*, the Iluid ohliiiiml will Iwt iiiixm) with lilooii w 
bile rmpootivrJy. In on« cum; which T vxaminvd the fluid oonmui'* 
littlt! olxo but hilc. 



The nuMt prohabln 8ug;,'estiou as to tlie ori^n of lh« amniotic fail 
during the nnrly uiuiillis of pregiuincy, it that it ia buiiply enwlw! fp« 
the tiwmns of tli« fulu!>- After the fonuatioti of the |iUt-r9ila, •*• 
chorionic vmn>U, a transudation of lynip}i takes place from tb« notcv' 
vessels into thn amniotic uavity.' In ijie later montlu of pngoa^ 
this liecitmes mixed with futtnl urine'* Tli« comjioiiitioii of th" '■*" 
correspondB to its doubh; origin ; it i-nntAinm in addition to wst"' 

' Ctm/it. mirf- Mv. 7»). 

' JunKblnth, 'BnUaii mr Iji>lin> toiu tYnvhtwauttT,* JiMOjf. DitttH. Bso^IMi 

> liUHtrm, Arrh./. Ggtulk. liL aoa. Pn«huwj>ill, tHJ. li. HIM. 


tjteida, are&, and thesaltB common to urine and blood. Its quantity 
iries between one and two pints. In some cases it is abnormally 
ull in quantity, in others (hydramnion) abnormally large. 

A comparison of normal amniotic fluid with that of hydramikion 
fts been made by Frochownik, who gives the following numbers : — 




AniDintlc KluUI 

Fluid of Mydramnlon 









1 S'2 




Stitg . 



In hydramnion the proteids are thus more abundant than normal. 
Seherer' and Weyl' found mucin in amniotic fluid. 


This b the name given to the fluid which is present in the cerebro- 
ipaii t^vity, that is, the ventricles of the brain, and the central canal 
ft (be spinal cord ; the same lluid is also present outeide the spinal 
turd in the subarachnoid and subdural cavities ; the communication 
Ww«en the fluid outeide and inside the central nervous system is by 
Mum of the foramen of Majendie, a hole which perforates the piece of 
}k mater which forms part of the roof of the fourth ventricle. 

By some previous observers the cerebro- spinal fluid has )>een 
nguded simply as an exudation from the blood, and has been classified 
*ith the fluids which iwcur in serous cavities. This is, however, in- 
Wrect because : — 

1. The arachnoid membrane is neither from the point of view <if 
<nbryolngy or structure a, serous membrane. 

2. The fluid is not a mere lymph moistening the pni'ts alreatly 
4>iimerat«d, but is normally present in suthcient quantity to exercise 
* nntiderabte amount of presBure. 

J. Chemical investigation of the fluid itself shows that it is very 
vferent from the fluids contained in serous membranes, and thus sup- 
PM it lent to the idea originally pmpounded by C. Schmidt, that the 
■tid should be classified mther with secretions than with trunsudn- 

The normal cerebro- spinal fluid is obtained in cases of fracture of 

' Seherer, Zeit./. iciia. Zool. i. 88. 

» Weyl, Arch. f. Anat. ii. I'hytiul. KW, \i. B4H. 



tliB liiute of die skM, where sometimes the fiuiJ escapes by the 
the HM-nibruDii lyiujiauj hna beeu also ruptui-ed by ttie itociUetit. 

Tn simif^ ciises of ('uii;^iiiliil deficiency of the vertebntl arvliea {: 
biliiU), a luuiour of t!ie uieuibiiiiies of the siiiiial cord (inentagocek) 
projticts through Uie opeuiii^. ami in tliU t!i« fioid accunmbil(«, »ai 
niiiy tx! n-iiioved by tapitiiij;. This fluid may be alao rex*nied (or it 
Iiaust Ihtit obtiiiiied by iho tii-st tti|>i>ing) ah normal ixmhn^fiml 

[|) t.hrt diKLfiKi' known lu hydroci^plinJus t'Xct'Ks »f tJi« iTfitlmt-ipnl 
Raid nccumulntc* within thv I'ontricli's of thr brain, in sckim aua» 
much HO thnt t\u: bi'iiin liooonicii n mcrr Knc rarrounding the iaL 
Hydrowplwlu* nmy tx- ctironi<^ or ncwU-. Chronic hydn)c«j)liftli> k 
due t^ an Accu[Dul>ition of the normal fluid ; it is often KssocMt«d *ilk 
prefisare ujmii, or obitructioi) in, the veius at the bnse of the ^ult'' 
ill these <■«««, the fluid is thrTrfon- c«rebro-spitinl fluid ptuA * tnM- 
udalion from the blood. In «cut« cases (tubercular iiienitigitvf tiff 
apeoiiie ({raviiy ri««. and the xolid constituents aIm> uicr«w»e, eqiecall' 
th(^ prot^iiU ; and in such canes the fluid reseniblf;^ the exudaliM, 
which ocirur in iuflamniations elsewhere. It i», however, nue fcr 
Said to Ixmiuiv purulent. 

In animal* unall <|uiintiti«a of the lluid may be obliuncd by 
of a »inall syringR fnmi l>cncmth iIip diirit mati-r. 

NwM'smrily tin- ^'(iter pi^rt of our knowledge of thw tluid from 
central nvi-rou* cavity in dfinvi-d from pathological case* wborrtk* 
is in fjccTM. 

Thp li(pii<i U itlways either neuind or tauitly alkalino, aad b> ■ 
specitit! gravity of about IOOT-8. 

(Wi/nr«i7i'im.— TIio foHawinK nnalrtn of thi- lluiil Final >pltui l>ilU« 
by nijBi-lf r— ' 

Cut I. FnuleM.l> 'ourf.Cfaa.liM.II 4v> 

Id ptrt* [■■«■ KOI In pubivr lUHl 

Waltr . . 

SoHdf . . 

ll>TM«til« . 

8alu. . . 



■Ilia I 



Tlie foihiwing nnalyAM of the fluid from auas of clironic by 

■ ■ ll<iwn <>( H|niia Bifiilu CiuitiiLillM,' vol. niii. ol Uw Clin. See. Tm» 
AiuIt<m wlit bi; toutid ill ilopfw.h'fyli't'ii i'Ayniil. Cittnir, p. noi. 



c«[>)in]uc ftit- (roii» C. Rohiuiilt. They uliow in L-iim|>artiiou with B|niui 
hilbl* tluid ntlwr a grvuter i|uai)t)tj^ <if ttuHcls, eH|NKiiillj' of |)r()tiailit. 




1 1«twU|«1QW 1 Cknl 


Owtl 1 

fe'' ' 




— — 


»B»I-I7 ' 


I l'3fi 

A tabiilnr itntoinrait, tmeh r» the preoedlnf;, Sota not show, liawcrer, 
tbai there U anvthing chm-nctirrixiic in tite fluid. It iti wheu we come 
(o oinniiiii' ihr- ^-xrrnuK conttitu<Mit« of tliv fliikl tJiat wi> Bin) Ww it 
tliflfTK fnmi thi- Huiils in serouD men. Tliciv diflV-n'ucfjt con.iiiit in the 
pMMnoe of crrtAJn peculinr proteids, luid of a Hulwtniice vrhicH reHuocs 
eopfou- »tlt( like isugttr. 

i'miriiix, Thi- prot«idB in noiinol cerobro-spinal fluid (reinovMl from 
CUM o( moningocele) are aa follows ; — 

(a) Fibrinogen is .tlMi?n(. Tliore is no hcntc.ongtiluin pr<Klu"wl by 
K l^mpcniture of SCC No Hhrin i>* formed on tliP addition of Kcrum 
erof tibrin-fenDent. 

(b) All the [)rot«id [>i'i:8eiit U jireciiiitalile l>y sntumtion with 
mgnesium sulphate. Serum -albutnin is thereforo nhN^nC. Hoppe- 
Seyler' (leecribea (Fie protrid w)iii-*h in present as a globulin. On re- 
divolving tht' prefijiitiite, tiowcvtrr, it is found on heating tho solution 
Uiittn reryam«ll lieut-coui^uluiii i.i found at75°C,»bui that the remain' 
iaf probeid cutiUHts of protvim^ii nr alttuiucMes, i.e. proteids like those 
irtticb are fnniii-d duritig digi-iilioti, int«rmndiate bodies in Uie fonuiitiou 
of pepkmc Tluire, hgwnvcr, ii]i|i(uirs to bn no pnitisolytic ferment, like 
[rpxin <ir try|iciii, presoTtt in the Huid. Thn monl chnrautrriativ pro- 
|icrciea of nlbuiiio«cfi nr« : — 

t. Tliey am not congu1iit<vl by licnt. 

ii. Thry nn prccipiiAlcd by niti-io acid in the fokl ; tlif j)redpitat« 
di|pp<Mn( on hnnting. and falls down again on t'oollng, 

tii. Ijkr* pdptoncs they jfive a pink colour with copjifr Kulphat« and 
tauatic {mtiuh ; "tlior Jirolcids ({ivi* a violet colour. 

Tbfl fonn of aibuinose mmt freijuent tn cerebrospinal Huid in [iroto- 
■II«iDi>w, i.r. onp which is f>ri-ei pi table by satumtitm with iiadiuni 
c&loriiti! or taagnnniim sid|tl]»le. In some few wises dputoro-a11)umo»c 
W Ix-cn found, i^. one which is not )>recipitable by tho nits just 

' Hi)|i|ic-8cylBr. I'h^tiol. OSriiiir, [■. WIIH. 

' 71il> l#in|itnilim u Uia muub iu Clmt kl uluih i>i'niiii>i{ln)iiiliu i( coACuUtcd, The 
^•M* iWH-nt B|-]>Hin lo ba ■Dmni.globuliii. Cvll-cluljulin (llbciii-tenuuiilj in obwnt. 



luentioned ; it in, however, pr<K;ipitnt<^il by «»turation with amine 
Kulphat«; ftnci in othor CAxe^ still fewer in nuiober, truo peptoao i* 
found. i.«. ft prottnd wliich u not prccipitnble by saturation with nn- 
moiiiiuu siilphAt«. 

TUe existence of albumos^s in cerebro-spinal fluid may be ^imi 
onotlier vay. A large excew of alcoLol is tuldetl to tb« fluid ; tliit 
procipitut«s all tbe ]>rut«ids ; and uft<-r a fi^w wl-cIch thn gMiulin it , 
miilcrvil insiituble iit vrAii-rby UK-iu.-tii>nof tbciUcohol. Thoalbatuo 
however, reniuiii still fitri-ly MiluVtlc.' 

In cn«es of chronic hydrocophalug, the Quid rtmovod by the 
tapping has the tiormal clinniftoristini of cerebro'spinal HumI. 
Quid removed by sulxie'judit tAppiiigs, however, rcMmblcs a 
tittuaudation from tlie blood : and if iDfl.aniiuatioD supervenes, tlii*l 
coiueii more marked. AlbumiMe can BtUl be aliowD lu be pment, I 
it is olHvured by the superabundance <rf tJiP otiier pruti^ids. Au in- 
CTMM in tbe amount of proteids in succeiwivo ta)>|>iiig!i dws 
iicccMUirily occur eatker iu spiuu biliiU or hydrooctpbAluii ; but in I 
lntt(^r disEiut^ an increase la very apt to occur, jirrbnpH ax n retail i 
irritation, pnidiiL'i-d by tbe mniMviil of ttm fluid ; tlir cjunntity ikmi 
tiowever, rL»c »> high u« it dors in cjuks of ncut's i.e. ir 
hydrocephalus. At thn suni« timn tbe roduciiig substAncc ftlio 1 
more abundant,. TIk' fulbiwin^ cose of chronic hj'drocepbalux 
hoy nix months old, under the cjir« of Mr. Parker.' and ol which 1 1 
th* opportunity of wxamining tbe Auid in three uiooeasive laff inft 
illuntratea this point very well. 





KialW If TvnMit pMial 

BclUdHC NbMi 

Firtt Tupping . 

Seootxl M 
ThWI _ 




Thi- 4umt ai in tbe 

tin) lAjjpiiitt 
I'mco of olbumiHoi 


faiiiy atmidai 


■ I bave eiuDiiuid n nnmber ol ■peeliDMu ot blood aad tnmaadallaa br > 
uiil Iir[ili)iiii. bill in all t«im with a uogativo rainlt >,FrBc. Plij/iivl. Stt.ltff-f' 

Sf* Hi"! J. I'hftioi. n\. », tx aaa), 

' EuV Iioiiilwi Hoai'iUl lor ChitdivD. 



In tbft fluid from n cMn of acuto hjdrocephalui,' the followln;; 

dMaibof the aiuilyvN ithow vi-r^- well tlic chnnw-teriatics of tlii» fluid :— 

Tbn fluiil wus dnor, alkntinvi, nn<l stmw-coloured : the colour waa 

[■ffxtractrd hv nioohn), And hiul the iiornial chnraoterUtJcs of htutii- 

' tut«ift. 

ProtOMla: tho {wrcriiio^ pTHent was Q-6<'i. The fluid cunUinMl 
m tmoll clot of lihrin. MitgDeuum sulphate produc(>d nn ubuiiduiit 
|if«cilHtiit« of sorutn-gloLiulifi ; soruin-nlbamiii remnitiiiif; iu solution. 
. ^le pr«srn«4' of BlbumoflM was (iu«^tioiiA))le. 

Reducing saljBt&iicp : pi'Evi«int in small i]Uaniicies, in other wiiiila, 

' tho fluid ill vosM of acute h^'drocnphnlus rpsoDihles ottier inllAiiitiiatory 

MtadMtiom in the higher percentAj^ of total proleida, and in tlw 

prcMiUoo of AhrinoKeii. miA «'hit« blood coi-puscles, which ■'autecl 

clotting wh«ii tho fluid was removed from the lx)dy. 

Redticittg »i£«r(iM(%.--It has lutiK lieeii known lliMt ci^rdlirD-iipiiial 
llaiil ountaina a kuImtAiicv which re<lucea ouppt^r s»lts in the* >ami- way 
*>(a)^ (loc*3~ BuiBij' found i1 in Iht- fluid nbtainnl fi'nm n pnt.irnt 
widi ft fniclur«i1 craiiiuio, uml in the wrHbro-Hpiiml fluid »f tli<r hone 
ftnd dog; hut allhouffh h# con-iidcred it van f(T»(« aUKor that wmi 
pnacnt, lie fiiunil he wus not ubl» to iiiduw alcoholic fennviitittion in 
it. Tumvr'^ lEiwuviTcd ili» siimn suliHlonci.' in npina bifida Hiiiil, but 
ha alv) found that the addition of piviluccd no furnicnlntion ; hc> 
nj|>clii(h«l ihat the rnlucLtim it brouj(ht al)uut, ncjt by a curlinhydrnte, 
Imt by M>R»r (h-rivativc of nlliuinin. Hincr thi^n ithn.% liwnnliunilnully 
ibown tlutt tho sulMtanco is not sugar ; it does not ■'educe biniiiuth 
■lU ; it does not mtAte the plane of [lolnriHcd light ; it doos nut fuiiu 
a c(7U»lline compound witli phcnylhyHrazini' ns sugar does. It in 
thai not sugar. Tlir nulMlancir is pynx-atnchin (c-iitcchnl) ; mid it may 
tw M'p«nU«d in the following wny ; alcohol is added to precipitate tliu 
prouids ; Hui alcoholic extmct i» <-vaporatod to dryncM, and lh« reHidue 
ilinolved in wator : noutrnl Ifvul nvetAti! is lulded to the aqueous 
utiithm i a precipitAle is fi>riiie<i, ihin is iiUK[>eiidn1 in distilleil water, 
Slid the lend sepnnitcd 1\v n strenni of milphureltefl hytlrogen. And 
Clt«r«(L The filtrate is shnken with L-ther : the etiicreal entnuit on 
mfontioa yiekb a cryrtidliiie deposit wliiih coiisista of pyrucai«chin. 
Tlib ii a nulMAnce of which the formula is C^UbO., ; it belong to tha 
annnaUc group of organic compourid>t. It la turned ^^reen by ferrio 
Hdoridt^ hrav'n by caustic alkalis ; it luu a pt^culiar pungent twtc and 

' 7\» iaiil n* wnl lii nic bf t>t. Pmrvv : il mu> mnoTMl > law ilnfii Man doMli 
tiw • kif S 111^111114 iilrl, in (Iw Hmiiilal [or Cliililrvn, <>r»iil Ormoiid htrvvL 

* B<ttl*t4t lit I'araiU'n'r Jr ni^ilfri4ui, I)w. lB6!i. 

* W. Tonn, Pmr. Kt<g. Sor. vol. ru. HMD. ii. «». 


>&OAN» Of 

«n ncid rcActioi). It w odooI cIii^ product* of docunip<»Jii<Mi of {ovln^ 
Atid occoMonftily in found in arine (wit p. 77). 

This substence ftpijearb to be a normHl coDstituent of corebro-Kiutul 
Hoid, tbou|{h mht^tlior in u fombin«l or an nnooiubined i-im* it *l 
I»«Bfint duubtful. Uopixi-Bir}-!i-r »ut«» Umt the redui-iu^' suIhUm* 
only ocvuni i(ft«r irriUition luw lieeii net up hy tapping ; bat Utii Jha 
uot ^]«ur to Ih' the ui.->e. I ]m\v iiev»r failed Ut find it in Bod 
removeil by ihi- lirvt tnjiping, though it may ooca.%ioivally Iw so 
tluil the fluid niuiit bo L-oncnntrntnl liefora ic cun be diitcor^raL 
itu1»e(|ucfit tuppingx it i.i alw»y> inori'jb<«<l in <|uantiiy. In cnt 
(Bral tapping) tliv iiiiiLntity (ivckoni.'d in liM-ins iif dextraw) <m 
piT ci-nt. ; in another can: (foiii-Lh TApping) ihi' jinrcrntt^ wuU'ltl. 

SnUt, — Citrl Si-hniidt rriiiiirkrd thnt hiK »nnlyM'j« <if llie iiiorgUK 
coiu>titu«nti« of cewbro-spinni f!iii<i showed an tinn^unl pnfondfniw 
of potaMiuoi MiitK. 1'h<; following arw tJte numlxin : 








f^". : 







Nata . 








Na^i . . 




; 1 DSOI 



Two of these canes cei-tainly show a rvmnrlcxbly high puratiiUjei 
potsAsiuni vbloride ; but subscqui'nt invvstignl^m have riotfouail 
this b a f[en«ral nil«. Yvon ' gives thv following nuniben ; llie i 
was removed fnnn » otwe of hydrocephAlus. 

NbCI :<i:i8 |Mr 1000 


CaO I>-II2 

P,0, ...... O-SfiS 

(30, tmoa 

troa iracnv 

Uasnctla «>'33H 

F. Miillor* in nnotWr cjur found that Uie inor);saic uJt* { 
were 8'8 per 10(H). The n>o«t abundant :«.lt piwxent was sodianteliV 
and the reUtion of NaCI lo KCl wmx 'JI-'> to 1. 

In my own experiments 1 soaght to obviate vnor in ta&kins <"''' 

I TvMi, Jount. de pharmaeie H de Atmir, *th Mriaa, toL nvi. (WTIh F *'^ 
' r. UKUcT, atiltkni. a. J. Wtnlmrg^ «-(. JCJuiU, 1. MT. 




>m on ttu- iHiliiM' ranstitucnuof this fluid Ityftvoiding indiiontion; 
ttwra is no tloubt tlint some ot tli« snlta, especially §odiiiDi cliloride, ptiGs 
off with tlio orgnnic matter durinf; the process of ignition. It is also 
w«tl to tnke ft Inrjje ([umitity ftf fluid »o thiit ermrs inny be tnintmUed. 
Tbs fullowinc uielhod mitylM* ■■ei.-i>riiim-nilMl fvr(kt«rniiningllK-r«'littioi) 
of aodinm and potiunuin in orgnnii^ )i(|ui(U. 

The lii^uid U Hrst «vn|H>rntGd U> dryniss, and the ofgMtlc initltor In 
dartroyet) bylicntinti u-itli fuming nitrii; nctd ; thn n'liiduo in cvKpnrntMl 
to drynctt two or three tiiupK on the wAb-r ImUi with hydrochloric ttdd, 
hi ocder to convrrt nil solium nnd potoiwium cnmpoiindit into chlorides; 
|4KM|>haU<9i, lime, and mngiiesiA are preirijiitatod hy mnking the liquid 
jutt nlkuline with tmrytn wnter, mid the precipitiite so formed ii 
filtered off. Cxci-sk of btiryta is then prooijiitated writh aiiinionium 
Mrbonitte, mhI filteiwl olT; the reHidue ts e\itpomted (o diynon on a 
wMfilwd pifttinum oftjiAule, and the iiicrense in w«i|*ht giveM the total 
cUorid^s ; Iheite ftre (UsbdIvuI in wiil«r. and pliitiiium i-hWide »dded ; 
tkis pre<ci|>itntM tlie potOAiium i^bloride, oiid frcmi the wei;;ht ot the 
pnvipitat« the potoMum chloride oaii be i-ak-uluted ; the <liireKnco 
between inial chlorides Aiid poUuuiium L-tdoride ffives the amount of 
•odium chloride. 

The followinjf nniut^ers were nlitainol In one annlyua of hydro- 
<«phalu.'> llutd : 300 r.r. nf tluid yii*ld>-il :!-TS:;.1 ^mmiiieH of chlorides, 
ie, O'OJ" [lor c<tiL 'Die weight nf ]>atwuium i-hlnride catcnlnied from 
the weiltht of the plntinum pi'ei:i]>itiite wits 0'OK.'i9 gmmine, or 0'03S 
peroent. Thfrrfore in H»0 poHs of ehloridfis 4'f<fl ooiwijited of potas- 
«iitin vhloride Mod 9^1-15 of «>>diuRi chloride. Thin in about the Nime 
proportion n» is present in blood, lymph, hikI tran)tui.lationH getii-ndly. 


Pu» i* the cmmy lluid whicli oceurs in alMccHses. We hive nlnwly 
■•••D Ik>w in i n flam nifit ion the nornint transudstions from the blood 
vmmIs becoDie tuereased in iLmouut, richer in uoUds, an<l in corpuscular 
tlaUMnta. The eniijjrution of thi-- white corpuscles may go on to meh ii 
gnkl extent iluit they crowd in ^^^at numbers in tiie exad«d liqaid ; 
b bet, this is the process known an suppumtimi or pus fonnation. 

Tli« uiicroscopioal np[>earuncK( of pus are s« follows : — It is u (d«sr 
fcid cruwded with leuciK-yteB, ohich have under};one more or less 
Atgeiientiie vhaiige ; fat gtobuK-a are also found which have lieen 
lihfjiiteil from leucocytes that have undergone fatty degenemtioii and 
>wnt. lu puK nlso one UKUnlly fniiU abundant micro-organisms (micro- 
coed and linct^'ria). Tlie eella of the pus an called pus-coq>ua(iles, the 



liquid in wliich thvy flout Uic [lus-.tttruio. The specific gimrity of , 
IS 1O3O-'1040, and its nwction is Alkitlinn. 

Ptu (vir/'Hw/""*,— Tliprc is tiorfoulil that thcJ4Ciimchi«fljwlut«l 
wrposcles which liave exinifil from thi- vrsseU ; some of thp oods 
probubly, however, derived fnitii the tissu<u in which the fonuatioD vt 
th(- iiIku'ewi is taking placp (connoctire tiwue corpusclva). The cellf d> 
nul AH a rule show any active nmrpboid moveiuent. They are : 
and HwuUen in itiaiiy cases with fat globules, their protopUstu hftfi^ 
undergone fatty degeneration. In some ctisee the pus cells )tav« i 
furtlicr (liniiileKDited. aiid may even linve nii acid reaction froBi 
fomintion of nuroo-Ui'tic acid. 

For clieniiiMil iiivejlixiition pus ci-IIb may be obiiiined by miiiq 
pnM with All t-(]iiul volume of dilute sodium Bul|>hat« solution (a MturalHi 
solution of thewilt diluted with nine times its volume of vtaUrr},»ai 
then liltTiring ; the puK corpusolcs nrtnain on tlic tiltirr, and arr. mubd 
with tome of the same saline Hululinn. 

The TnrioUH substanoos found in the pus crMn arc liko thoo ' 
ve h»ve aliYiady doiM^ribcd in tln^ white blood enrpuxcliiL 

T/t^ rn'c/fri consist of nuciein, a phcMplii>rixc<l albuminoid mbit 
It niny lie gepnmted from thr inviNiting proloplaxin by trMtin 
with ftrtifieial gastric juice ; the nuclei remain umliwwived. Tlie i 
of pU8 cells wad investignterl by Miiwcher,' nnd also by Hopps-! 
whoae somewhat conflictuig onnlyses c«rtAinly nee-m to deoete 
nudeiu is not a deBmt« chentical individual. The nucl«iu of puiw- 
pusvles in (Ia genirnil chann-ter» di>efl not appear to be different I 
tiial contuined in nuclei elst-whrre (p. 'iO'J), 

The prtttapliu'm cunsisto uf proteidB chiefly, but it alio coutsoi 
^'nriouii cxtnictivrH and a cerlnin small proportion of inorganic lallk 

The folhiwing tubular .■'taUiiiieut gives the reeultx of Hoppe-i^jli 
anklysrs in two »iimples of pun-cella. 

Uritanie eoiiti|llii«>il» In tOO pari* ot drisd pnK-cfltlsi — 




InMdublc subMancG* , 

ChulMlerin ..... 

8I-SS7 ' (»iK 




< Itipwhn, ' TTobor di* chainlwha ZuHumuuiiiwtiunit 3rt EitaneUm,' (lorff^ 
3t*J. Ch*m. VntirtMeiHHgfH, p. i41. 

> Hcqipp.8c;lcr. Utd. CAeni. Unlnrturhungrn, p. (UT. For ttu* l ufc ip w ' ' 
■ndftitcd tnCaniRf*. PKi/ih/I. Cbrm, p, ait. 


I InntjCMilr wimtltntM* in 100 parf< 't dricil piti-uorpusclu* :•— 

I NiiQ .... »i»S 

■ Cn/K),), O^OA 

I M&(t^'.). 01 IS 

■ ^'•)(l*i>i\ ■ . . . OKUI 

I K>, QKlli 

I Kb . ... 0H)08 

^k K ...... . tmcvn 

V ftvUiiiU. — My own olMftt-atioiiii cninddv with th<isp of SIies<:her aB 
ivganl* thp bIbitici! of tnyoKJu ((l«Kcribo<l by earlier ohservers). Tlie 
MWt Aliuiiditnt proti^id Is the snnic nudoo-iilhuinm alreutdv descHhed 
in tlif- white lilciod oorpusvlcs ; originnlly cnlltvl hyitliiip »iiil)sUtiice by 
Rnvidn, am) nteii nnitil by 3f ir-.ichcr (wr }>. 'ifiO). With Mxlium chlorida 
and ningnn-iuni »ul]>ltat« it awvIIk ay ioto n tliiny mtus, and heiioe one 
luu 1(1 UDC! HHtinm nulphntc in snpamling tlio pus-corpusclM &obi Uie pus- 
trrom. (Vll-gloliulin >nd cvll-nlbumin itrp alno ]>reHoiil in pua-celis as 
in whilw bi(KHl corpiiiwlos. Fibrin •feniicnt lia.'> Imh-u prcpaiiHl from {iua 

■ lif RauHcbenborh. ' In ndditioii to thtise, wliiuh aif the normal pruteid 
^kaBititHeiitx of l(Micocjrt«s there are often found in addition coiuiderahle 
^^Jfintit-ies of albuniosee nnd peptone prod uc^il no iluulit during the reiro- 

fi«mivc tortamorphosia of the corpun-'leti. It ti very protiabte that the 
feier whi<!h wwompaniw Buppurutite proL-e»i'« is oflen, at any rate in 
part, pmduced by the entrance of these substunci's into the ciifuhitioii.* 
The other ooiiBlitue Ilia of puseetlK hiivn lipcn iilniidy enumerated, 
tuX ihrrv It but litth- to Im athh^J cnucirnirig theni. Tlic largo ini;rcuue 
of &t and fatlik*- uul>Ktnnce« (lecithin, cholesterin, &ii.) should hp 
uo(<id ; thi- fntty dl'Kenl^^llti(>n, of which thi« is an indimtion. can nlicu 
!• aM-ii by tlu' nii(;rfMcoj)(' ; frr* fatly ttcids inny evcii be found in old 
(«•, forming cryEtallini< deposits. Glycogen can be often deaionstrat«(l 
b pns eofpiuclM. microchnniimtly by th« use uf ioditie which stoina it 
dnp brown (RaiiTier^). It ha<i alw been separated in considerable 
quantity from poscells (ijalotiion '). Tn conlaintog jjlycoKeti. pus-cells 
^m ttsMible white blood oorpuaolea. 

' * fiuiap. DlWrf. Dorpal. IBM, iSoly'i Jahmberichl, ilii, 181. 

* h, !*. Uartia. Bn} Mfl. Jonm. vi>l. ii. IWHJ, jl Mi. 'llin ori^ual (.Utruii-iiU con. 
•mWbn iI<( im-wow dI pFploiivK ill pn> Kvre miulc \ij Eicliwnld 'Vrrhi\n-{l, it, ]iAyl. 
•Htt Ot—IUri: WItnbnrK. IMI. p. S3S». «><! llofiiiuiitri <i!nl ]'hj/rKil. Chrm. ii. WE). 
Tk mMhuJ Hlupl«d by Ihiwi obtrnvni n« not. Iinvmivr, pcriwtly Inutwcirthjr. The 
■Jy «lliiW« nwUliid in Umt ftdnptc"! by Miitin. Tlic jfui nail [iliufd UTiilrr nms at 
•Ms! lor BBUy itdcIiii. dn«l. kiiil pitniclcil uiCh wutL-r. Albaincim «ni9 |wptniip( nSaae 
*iai Into Balatioa, the other proUiiU of the piu lutTijig hvtfu eonj^Lttcd by IIil- filoobod. 
Fteui HTdvnl of thecffc4:t«or the iDJerLioQ nf AlLumoven bnil puptonn in riLiun^ IliB 
Mr tmpcatonb ii^a. piudocioK fortr. tre OU and Collnuu', Journal of Vbynolasy, 

■ * Pnifnb a^if. 1877, p. 4S1. • DinttKb emul. Woehtimir. I8TT. No, «, 



Ain-orz-Kin.— This mA,r b* Mpu*tNt fnini t&« «oipiiKle> by tbe nao 
of tlip •:vntrifagnl mikctiitke ; or it nuijr he olitAined dQnted witli sodinm 
8ulpliBt<^ itnliitioti all«r Altering off tlie [lus corpusolcs in th« maniH^ 

Thi? paH-Rcnim is likn blood -eenitii in coinpoeition ; it diffitn from 
lyiupli iind utli«r fonus of exudation wliicli we iiave conaidervd in cini- 
toiuitig no llbriiio;;'^!), aiul cuniiCHiupiitly do libriri is (unnetl wUi^n tho 
pua is removed from the bodj. It is, however, jioBsible thai tihrin tony 
hetonavA within lheabM;eea,ftndbe>iub§e))ueiit1ydii)sulvMlniidnbMH'bMl; 
perliajs ill Home cHXtt tills leads to the 'inHi'tMulimi' of the )>us, fts in 
very aevere ciisei of [M^iourditia and t^Tiipyetun (purulent pleurisy). 

The protoids of pus-ieruiii are Kei-uni'K'<^buliii and seni in -Albumin ; 
the extnu'tivm and ult^ are like those in the blood aitd lymph f^aut- 
rally, except lliat lecithin B]>]>ear« to be uinre abumUknt, and leudne 
and tymtinc liine ln-eii found (Hop[>e-Seyler). 

Uoi>[i*^jier'( annly^i* of |mii-i>Gruiii nuiy be tabu1itlM]io(liebU9«iqgw||y^-~ 

lanuupaKui i>i 


nripuilc Millil* . . , , 

Olhrr otkbdIo in*lt«n 
Iniirgaiilc tolkl* . 





(NaCl 6-iS) 



71"! 1 


7 IT 
(NaCl S-»i) 

i'iifmrnl* in ;'»<.— When hi<^niorrbaK*^oocur» into an ahscetu ihfbloud 
ptgnicut more or le»i nltcn-d vill bu found, ftud in uLlter caiian bile pij;- 
incuts have been <)e«i.-ribed. Id otber uumw a^ii, pigments due to the 
itctivity of ci'i'Utn miorour^iniiiiu.'' an- found {cliroinOftenic Ixictcria) ; 
thui pyiicyanin i.« a blut- or mtIxT vtob-t pigment, pnnluoed by dhe 
growth of A bacilliu. It ia siilabl*^ in wat«r, lUcolxd, chlurofomi, and 
«iher, luid ciyitAlliMvi from cblomforni In jirimiis or nvlnngiiUr plat«^ 
Pyonuitbove i* a yellow pignwnt ■imilarly produiHil, and oft<-n a«ooia- 
panii-4 pyocyanin. When the two pigmntitA ar« togclh*ir, the ptu 
Appears grovn. PyoxanUiow differs from pyocyanin in its MilubilltMa, 
■ad may be separated fmiti the Ulter body by tJic a*" of rtJier in 
which it t>. the iiiorv uilubli!< (fordos,' l^ekir,* Fttz,' Kuni.' IUb<«'). 

' rv«>j>rM ""' ..1 ii iWKti, |<.!ll^ 

' .|«*.i/ ^ ~ >u.ll»l4t. p. ISL 

> li»ari,J '. .Jan |uO, jv lOH 

• JfiHM(tAr/l / ( Afinir, II. Ml. TbI* ft" C**** '^"' '•■alt* iif imlUtktius Uia 
taolana \tj \hr niurt rrrrnl aicltKdt. 

* Cw>p<. mtd. Svr. Jliut. 1»«. p. tSiL T^n •4hm plipawU |irriliK»l It b iuivIt nt 
l)w hMlllai* ill. r)^iH]raii»iii^ ft u* lun ibMrtbad ; aiaaaU* IkhIim u* |i*uliK«l •• wvIL 



l5 ti>p fnrp^iDg cliapt^re iijioii tho V>lorKl, lymph, nitd ftitiiilnr fluids^ 
little or tio nrfrri-nii" l)ii« lii-»'ii wnAri to their gniirouHcoiistitiiotitif. Tl>i»i 
iniiiiMoii wn ftow prociwd to iia|>|ily, jiiil^iig it to l>c> iiiorG canveti)«nt 
MiImJ wiili rJii' IiUmnI gantw in contx'ction with th(> futictiuuof respini- 

Tti«- rmjiimt'iryorgHiMCiiiiniic in ftir-hmnthiiiij niiiiniiUof lliv latix*, 
in M|uatic nnininlii of the gilU,' TIif I'r^irntory svsu-ni iUbii iucludes 
liw |ttMHj[Ri bjr whicli th» Air or the w&ter r««pecttve)v is mtrled to tlir 
IsBpi nr kiIIk. »i«I tJie niiiM-alnr (i|ipitratu» 1)y mmnx of wliicb tbo 
rscpimtor}' iii>ivein«iii8 ni« ex«outeiI, And ilies« in turn nre cuntrotlcd 
hj n nni-vnoK n^hiLiiiiini. 

Tlir lunipi cotiaiat oausiiliAlly of iiunici-oai little lioUovr uus, in the 
«bUs (4 which i» u cltwe |tlexaii of eajiilliin- hload ri^.-uti^lH. Thrso itir 
edli^ or Alrpnli, coiuinaiiioAte with the exti'mnl nir Iiy mcnim of the 
IraehMt. bmnohl, and broitchial tubc-s. Inspimtinti u duf In a, mnsctiUr 
(Airt th«t •nlnrgos the thomx, tlie clowd cnrity in which the InngB are 
ut«at«d : (fwinfftothfatmoaphericiirrwiumthcltingitlwcoaiedi&tendet]; 
the •inio«))ti«ric nir, liowcvnr, do<ut not uctiuOIy {Ktnvtmie beyoiid the 
Luger bronchial tulm : th<- gatoa which ^ into the smaller tubes 
ami air wlU do bo viM-y Ini-^ly by the proccBW of dilTusiod. Kxpirntiun 
h tmlinnrily broufjlit iibout by tho eUistlc relxiuiid of the lungti imd 
clwat wnlla, and is otdy a mu«culiir offoit when foiced ; but evrn the 
MMt rifiniTiiiH expiratory elTort <>■ unable to rxpel tin.- alveolar air. The 
■InoUr air and the blood in tho puImon«i-y (.■npilUrt(»> tire iM-[)aratcd 
b; iJie thin Lupillary wall, and an c^iually thin epil helium that lines 
Ui* aJvMilos. Tli« blood uhicli is vetioua in Ui« cajiillurieit [KirtK with 
ita I'xcaws of carbonic acid and watery vapour to the alvtular nir ; tbi» 
liy the procnw of ilifl'uition, atdetl by tlie expimtoi-y eir»rtM. poMes into 
Ihcaiinospherv. The bhiod at theMune titue reu-eitiw fioiu the alveolar 
air a »up|>ly of oxy);en which reudera it arterial. 

I [iifiii' |viuxu 1 TKiiiilirr of tri^oH' or sir-Iuliix ki-iil 'ipoii l<]r a iiiiirBl of cli!llii ; 
Ui^ fHiwIrnl* (ti all \*tl' "( tlur bwl; uid lUI'iilr H"- miulillo miriEpii, PdIdidiuuj 

aiHlb tatcrUbntM. 


To fish the supply uf oxygen is deri^'ed from tti« lur ditMlTcd in 
walpr. Tlie capillaries of the gilJa come iulo close ooaiUcl wilk lit 
w»t<T, wliit-h iiol only parts with some of iu ili»alvttl oxyffta, W 
rwi'ivRS fniiii llit- veiiuus blood llie products of conihuAtJoD, of whidi III 
most imporUint is otrbonic ncH. 

In th'^ iiitiTchiingD of gases that occurs in thn csMntial orgu il 
re^pimtioTi, iliftuKJim plays n crrtAin pai-t, but this is luded by ehoual 
procoRww ; for instance, thu union of oxygen with hmnoglolun. 

The intakf of oiygf-n niiii f.h*i output of carbonic acid an, lioweoi^ 
only |>art« of tho fimctiou known as respiratioD- The intake ctoxjf/it 
is the comniencenient, aud thcoutput of carbonic .it'id U the eiMLcJ^ 
series of changes. The iutcnuediate stepv lake place nil over lliv W^, 
fljid constitute what is kiiowu as tissue- respiration. Tlu; caanpnuii 
■oxyliH^moglobin is anly a loose one, and in llie ti»u(-ii it porli ■ill 
its oxygen supplying thein witJi this element. This oxygen iio« hue 
neeeunrily undergo iuiuiediale union with carlion to form oirlicisc 
aeid, and hydrogen to form water, but in many nutnt, na in muKJiv' 
liold in reserve bv tlie tiiaur itself. Ulliinately, Iuiw<!vit, the Vn 
oxides Just iiientiuned are formed ; they are the chief |wodDCfai oTn*- 
Inistiiin. There an.' othi*r jirodui-ts, such ivt th<! imperfectly Midi'' 
sobKtnnctui (urea, uric acid, ikc.} that jkuk into tlm urino. Tbev jav- 
dueta of C'lmbu.tticin puM into the venous bliXHl. nnd thegsKOUip^ 
dueta, ciirltonic acid, ni^d a portion of the water in the fbrai of vxpar ' 
find an <mtlet by the lungs. 

Huch if a brief account of the \-itrinuit Ht<-ps that constitute rwfm- 
Ijon. Tlieae wc huvi> now ti> dincUNs nni- by onr. 


methods of Investigation 

Thf mcthcKlv by means of wliicli iIkt changtn lu the air btut^ 
about ijy retpimtiun c7in br investigated, arc two ia number:— 

1. An miuiimI ia plncvil in a closed chamber; th« carbonk m' 
formcl is continually n-moved, ami the necessary oxygi-u i^iipjitoJ i* 
measured qunntiticx. This is the principle of llie inelhod of K( 
ami ItciMft. 

2. The nninuil is placed in a chaiubr-r through which si 
air is pa«sod, and ths change in the composition in tl>e air aft«r [ 
through tlw chamber is examined. This is the principle of the nwtb*' 
of rW-barling, ' and later of Pettenkofer. 

> Ann. CArui. Phnrm, iIt. SI(. 




7%/r m'lht/ii tif HrtjniiHll itii'l K'nirJ.' -Th« apJiumlUs I'OTI^iiiU of A 

\M i»r, K. in which i* [iLno<Hl ttir iiniiniil U> Im ex fieri hi en led on. TltU 
ia |J*W!it ill It i'yliiiiW,y-/(pr<iviiltn] witli ii tlnTinomi-U-r r), liv which l!ie 
tctnjieratan- (■«n Iw n>galiitc<l, or which cnn Iwcmpl-iyi-cl for L-nloriuictric 
exporiBMnto. A tnhe, b, lends into tlifi Iwll jur R, niul through it fuuLteK 
• known volnine of oxygen ; to alxtorh iiny tmci- of carlHinic ncid a, 
WmI oontiuniiig potash U phu«il on the coiirtn nf tht- tulin. Two 
tubes, d sod r, lead froia It, and »re unitetl hy cnoutchouc tu)H« with 
the jNitJu]) l)ull»>, which ciii\ be miu.'d or iJ«pn?«^?eil Alternately by the 
beun W. In ihiH wiiy ihey lupirate the Air from It, nnd tlio increase 

fNL M. - Bibiatr iif t'lr ll>--l'iml<in Ajinvruni 'if llfiniaoll nM llrl-rt. )(, irlnl-' (.-I •iiliiMl ; I,, f, 
imria«a< ttt iL |iFVVlilr<l iiUU n linrriwtttirirT.I • il kliJ r.niC tlilifra I'l uit'ifvlili- |n-(uU Ipullv^ 

IM (MlnMttiK Ui» AuuiLiiii ••! (> «ippll*il:/, amimifiw. 

fli might in tlie polti^h IiuUjb ititUcatca the amount of carWinic acid 
apjrad. The luanometcr / iiidiuiites the dtffereuce of presnure, if anjr, 
Mtsido uul itisidc K. 

Spvcinl niwliticul iiin.i of rexpinilinii »p[HLr»tusee im lliis tuimo 
prindplc h«vr \nKii intnHhii-ccl \>y Pliugi-r, Zittitx, Fiiikk'r, Oi^rtmann, 
Sdwli, and Btrt^iiow.' 

T%t melhod of' I'liir ninfrr.' ~ The iifijiumtu* iisnd consiitta of a 
cliafiihcr Z with iiict'ilhc wulU, prnviili'd wiili n door nn<l window. At 
« b Bu (i|>«nin;|t for lh<T lulniiMinn nf Kir, whitr n \nrgp doiihle-suction 
PMBp (PP|) continnnlly mnirwit the oir through the chamber. Thi? air 

' Jnn. Jr rtim. rt ilr phgL tift. :l. lol. ixvi. |k -JOli (1H49); <iil. Uii. (imW), 

* F'jl*trr'» Arrliir, ir. xt; lii. 9X; liv. ttH, Tk 

* San,'igvr. Alii-1.4. lVi4t.iWJ,t'A.'a.fp.W,W;ll»ttnLlt>.lS». Ann. 
V*m. l^arm. mn<i. Ml, U. p. I, IMS. 

\ into a vessel b tilled with pumice stone Mtuniled witli auJp 
ucid, in vrbtch It is diied ; it also jkissl-k t!ir»u;;li ii gun tii«l(>r C, «h 
mcHSurvA it^ ruluuie. Tlu! aii' is i'iujiUhI uutnnrds bjr lUtauut «f 
(roni tlie chief exit lube x, provided vritJi u nutntnntiter 3, « btmllf 
plncrd tuljo ii [utasni, conducting :i small secondary Klmun vhidi if 
chcmicnlly inve»tigiit«(). Tliis current iMKses ttin>ugb llw' nctics 
•ppnmtuxMM, (driviMi iik<! PP, h^-iiiibmnt i-nginn), bgton itsvafgM 
tJirough thv bulli K (tilltvl with Kulpliunc nci<l) ; the incre«iso in wd^ 
of this bull) givfu tlic umount of wnt«r>- ^-A|lou^. After MM, il [MM 
through the tube U lillod with IxtrytA wai«r which Uken up "^ 

n«,(i». Hf-ptrHiou A|ci»fulut lit .. i-.;^,.,- ...iinmlinloriiMMnHBHUiHiCalai."' 

In^^ -AWh iijAUtiriHtrr. y: fr,f«wbl '*M\ hujpiidrlr t,Q\i\\ C, gtaMufltcT; IMF^him; ikKV*^ 
i-urfT-Ti^ iTiiii 'h IhiI^i; mm^. KWiLnii Ap|dnitufl : ir.rH^DiMAr: K,Un«ai lif iHvvtf^vliiif ' 
(irlflrr- IE tut*r< JL / 

uirlioQic iicid. The quntitity of air which \as3f% through tJw sto»^ 
currant » is jjutly uieiuured by t)ie fiw inf^ter n. An scohMT 
Rtr«tni N enftbW the inrestiffstor to rxntninn the air before it MM* 
tli« chamber, tind is Hnniifced in tin- winie way as ». The iiwiC 
of wktcr an<l cjkrlwmc itcid in n, mi compareil with N, funtiifol^ 
data from wliicb oalcuIatiunH ore mibvoqnentlT mada. 

The cltief inveeti^tions mode by this meth