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A T 1 1 r-z : 5 


THK.j:ti : l ^.^■.' 






CianiUltli anu SHIUU 

VOL. IV.— A.D. 1617-1648. 






I -AC 

Eateni, accrarding to Act of Congress, in the jear one thousand ei^t bnndred 
and Eix^-one, bj 


In iha Cktk't Office of the District Conrt of the Sonthem Dkaia of Kew Torli. 



Only tliree sections of.the present Tolume of Gieseler's Church 
History have ever before been published in an English transla- 
tion. These were contained in the Fifth Volume of the Edin- 
burgh edition, and are here given in a revised version, extending 
to page 133 of this volume. The history of the Reformation, in 
its general as well as in its religious bearings, was one of the fa- 
vorite objects of Dr. Gieseler's indefatigable researches. In no 
part of his great work is he more thorough ; in none is the value 
of his labors more generally recognized. Dr. Redepenuing, the 
editor of the later volumes, says " that the crown of his labors in 
chnrch history is found in his exposition of the doctrinal develop- 
ment in the period of the Reformation to the Peace of West- 
phalia." Certainly in no part of his work does he add more to 
the desiderata of our English literature. Neander's history does 
not reach to the Reformation ; our popular histories of the Refor- 
mation do not introduce ns to the sources. Though the account 
of the English and Scotch Reformation is comparatively meagre, 
yet this can easily be supplied from other accessible works. 

The present volume contains the whole history of the Reforma- 
tion to the Peace of Westphalia. The history of the Roman Cath- 
olic Chnrch during the same period will be given in the Fifth 
Volume, which will also comprise the history of the whole Church 
from 1646 to the present times, as published by Redepenning from 
Dr. G-ieseler's notes. 

Apart from its precise and condensed statement of facts and re- 
sults, the chief value of this work to the student is perhaps to be 



fonnd in its accurate citations from the original aathorities. To 
retain this characteristio even in the translation seemed to be in- 
dispensable. But as many of the notes ere in German, and as 
the bulk of the volume would be too much enlarged hy giving 
both the G-erman and a translation, the plan has been adopted of 
inclosing in brackets a condensed statement of the main points, 
which may prove sufficient for the general reader. 

As to the value of this history, the verdict is unanimous among 
all German, English, and American scholars, of every ecclesias- 
tical denomination. It is an indispensable help and guide to all 
interested in such investigations. It is so thorough and exact, 
that it is itself an authority. It b so impartial, that even when 
we differ from its judgments it gives us the data by which we 
may fortify our dissent. And it fosters in every student the love 
of historic truth and the spirit of Christiaa charity. 

H.B. S. 

UtnoH Tbeolooicai. SBimtABT, 

NtiD York, Ftbmarg 2u, 1861. 






A.D. 151T-ie4B. 






S 1. G«Tmui RefomiatioQ to 1524 ]g 

UiiTttn Luther 16 

John TetMl . . 1 21 

JohnEck 27 

Cudioal C«iet«n 30 

^Philip HcluiethoD 83 

The Elector of Saxon; 84 

CvlaUdt and ttie Leipsic Dispntstion 86 

Lather'e Appeal to the Noble* 42 

De CepUviUle BabjIonicA 47 

Boll of CoDdemnalioa '. Gl 

IHet of Worms ^ U 

Cerlitidt *nd the Fdie Propbeti 61 

HidriuiTi ea 

CltmBDtTII. and Cardinal CuDpeeeio TO 

Eilent of G«nnaD Refonn 71 

i 2. BeftmuHon Id Siriuerland to 1G26 76 

Dliich Zwinglo 76 

Bernherdia Samnn at ZtUich 81 

ZOtlch IXipuUUon (Faber) 88 

Appenzell 96 

Heme (Sebaitian Meyer).....: 97 

Baale (Caidto and Hedio) 98 

Oecolampadina and Farel 99 

§ 3. Ctmtioreralea {irejndlcial to the Refonoation 

Lather agalnit George of SaxoDj- and Hentj Tin. of England 100 

Lather n. Eraimna 101 

On the Lord's Sapper (Carlitadt) 107 

Peasant*' War.. 


S *. Germui RefonnsUoa to 1680 

PhUipof Heue 


Rome Ukcu 

Svnod of Homberg 


Conferenco of Marburg 

Diet of Angsbnrg 

g 6. ConUniutba, totbflPeueofKiiniiibci:&jDl7l3,l(>32 

Tho Emparor and tboEleclar 

Augsburg Confeision 

Confoiaio Tetnpolituiti 

Smslcild Leigne 

Peace of Koremberg 

S 6. Swtsi KaformaUoo to tbe SKODd Feue, Nor., t&Sl 

StniEgle tn Basle (OMolampadiiu) 

Burgher BlghU 

Battle of Cappel 

g 7. GenoaaRcfiHiDMJoDtotlMBactwofUMDietofBatiibaa, JdIjtSB, IMl., 

Laodgnve Philip 

TreBt7 of Cadu 


Smslcald Articlee 

The Holj Leegna 

BatUbon Interim 

§6. ContiaoaUoD, totbeCloMofHieSiiialcildWu', 1M7 

IHet of Spires, IMS 

Henuuia of Cologne 

Council of Trent, summoned 

Luther's Death 

Duke Haurice 

g 9. ContiaDatioD, to the Beligloiu Peace of Angiburg, Sept 2S, 155G 

Angaborg Interim 

Farmnla BeformBtlonli 

Leipaic Interim 201 

Coondl of Trent, assembling SOS 

Treaty of Pasun * 206 

Peace of Angsbnrg 807 

S 10. TheSirlu RefonnatioQ to 165S SOS 

German Switierland (Bollinger and Hrconiiu) S09 

The Catholic Cantuu 211 

French Siritzeriind (WDUam Parel, at Geneva) 218 

JohnCalTln 2U 

ItalUn Switzerland 217 

g 11. SelatlonsoftheTwoiRell^oasPartieBlnGennanr, toieie 218 

Ferdinand I. 219 

Maximilian II 221 

Bndolph II 224 

The Reformed Calendar 22fi 

Colloqaj at BaUsbon 826 

Jollcb-aevea 281 

512. The Thlr^ Yeara- War 288 

FrederidiV. 238 

Treaty of Lobeck 2M 

QiutavnsAdolphsa 236 


Peace of We«t[Jialia 837 

S IS. Ecdeaiuticel AOUn Id SwiUerlaad, to IMS 240 

Cluilee Bomnnea Ml 

Francis of Sale* S42 

TbeGtuoni 348 


S 14. Bohemia uiil UoraTia 243 

Calixtinea and BobeiDlan Brethreii !44 

OmJeMlon of FaUh 2« 

Bohemia plundered 349 

i 1ft. Poland, PnusU, and Uvonla 250 

Albert of Bnmdenimrg 2S1 

SigiiniaDd Aagost 2S1 

OoUhard Settler 258 

8}^od of Sendomlr 25* 

Paz Dissidentinm 2SS 

Jemita in PoUnd 26S 

Cooference of Tfaoni 257 

] 1& Hangar; and Tranij^lrania 257 

Hnngaiiana in THtlenbe^ 258 

Hattliiaa Deny 2B9 

Iiabella 260 

Unitarians 281 

Jeiaits 268 

Gabriel Bethlen 284 

Trea^oflini 265 

S 17. Denmarfc, Norwaj, and Iceland S66 

Chri»ti«ill 288 

Fraderickl 287 

John Bogenhagen 268 

Chriatian III. of ITorwa; 269 

9 18. Sweden 269 

<Haf and Lawrence Petanon 270 

Erich XIV., John in. 278 

S 19. Itoly 276 

Antonio Brneloll 277 

Angnstinianlam 278 

Fenara, Tenice, Haple*. 27D 

Ochino, Peter Har^ 280 

Paleario's Del Benefida dl Chriato 281 

InqoisitloD 284 

Index libromm Prohilutormn 286 

5 M. flpalD 388 

Serllle and TalladoUd 289 

De Talero, CaialU 290 

E^aniEniinaa 291 

Baitholomeir de Cairania . . 


g SI. Pr»n« 298 

Kihop Bii^oiut 2M 

Prmdil 296 

K«rgiiret of TUtvnn 296 

C«lvin'« Pmfccfl B98 

Confesalon of Faith, 1669 299 

§ 22. CaDliDUBtion, to tbs Edict of KiDtes 800 

Catherine it' Medici 800 

llugneaota 800 

Charlea IX 802 

Night of St. Bartholomew 804 

Hanry IV 806 

g 23. CoDtinuatian, to the Peace of Westphalia '. 306 

LoaiiXIll 807 

Dulto ds Rohan 808 

§ 24. The Netherlandi S09 

The First MutjTS '. 

JUria, Stadthoider 

Sect of Free Spirit 

Bishop GraoTella 814 

The Beggar* and Uargaret 

Union of Utrecht 817 

William of Orange 

I 26. Scotland 

Patrick Hamilton 818 

John Knos , , 819 

Haiy Smart 820 

JameeVL 821 



§ as. Under Henry VIII B28 

Adsertio VII. Sacramentonun 8S3 

Tyndal's Hew Testament , 824 

Cranraer 826 

Head ofthe English Church 828 

Thomas Cromirell 827 

Exoommatilcation B29 

§ 27. Under Edward VI. and Mary 880 

Homilies, Liturgy, and For^-two Articles 831 

Rennion with Borne. 83S 

§ 28. Under Eliabtth . ; . , 884 

Act of Uniformity 834 

Archbishop Parker S36 

Thirt3'-Kine Article* 386 

Mary Stnart esecnkd 337 

PnriUns 389 

Bobert Brown 340 

g 29. Under James L and Ofaarlei 1 841 

Gunpowder Plot 843 

Sunday SpoH*. 34S 


El^acopacf in ScotUnd . . 

Archbishop I^nd 

Oliver Cromwell 




§ 80. Anabtptiits and ADtitriniUriBiii 851 

Denck, HeUer, SarreU* Ml 

Cbriitiu David 86! 

Mclchior UoffinBDD, Cuopuiiu S&S 

J 8L UpIUriuis 854 

luliao HnmuiUti S6S 

Servetoa bnmed S6T 

lulltu Sodnai 858 

VBlentiuns GenEilis 860 

BludnU, Peter Statoriui 861 

PnodsSUacaro 803 

Polish UniUilima 863 

C»t«Ehbm of Cracow 864 

Faiutiu Sodnns 866 

Racovian Catcchjam 867 

UnitiriaDa in Tnuuy Iranla 868 

Fraacia Davidii 869 

TheAdorantei 869 

JuDiU 870 

§ 82. The UaDDonlUs 871 

UcDDo KmoTis 878 

Waterlandera, Flemings 876 

S 83. ScbwBDckftld 878 





S 84. First SbacdngoftbeSfitem of Doctrinei in the Lotberan Church 886 

Lnther's Doctrinal Views 885 

Predestination 387 

Joitiftcation by Faith 889 

I The Holy Scriptorea 891 

"■ Uelanctbon's Artidea for the Saxon Visitors 896 

An^nomlan Controversy 897 

Confession of Faith 899 

3 85. First Shaping of the Doctrinal Sptem In the Swiss CboRh 400 

Zwingls 400 

Tba Lord's Supper 407 


Krat Helretic Confeuion 411 

John C«lTln *12 

ConscTuiu Tlgnriniu 416 

Bolaec 418 

Theodore Beu 419 

airin'i Death 481 

Heidelberg Cstechiam 421 

Second Helvetic Confeuion tiS 

ConfeBaio Belgic*, Confeatio Okllieina 42S 

§ SS. MeUnctlian'9 Theological Relationa to Lnthn- 428. 

Loci Cammnnea Tlcolo^d 424 

Neceeurianiam 4SB 

Lord'a Supper 428 

NlehoUsTon Amsdorf 429 

Caapar Cruciger 430 

Aagabnrg Viriata 43! 

Cologne Project 438 

Wittenberg Beformatlon Article* 434 

{ S7. ControTenyoftbePhilippiatsandStrictLathenna.totbeDeathofMeUncthoa 4>1> 

MatthiM Flacius nijricua 486 

AdUphoristic ControTcray 457 

ibjoriatic CoDlTDTeriy 438 

CaWlDiatic ControTcray 4*0 

Crypto-Cal>-iniata 441 

Synergiadc Controversy 444 

\ TUemann Heaahnaina 447 

■* Melancthon'a Vieire 461 

John Breni 461 

A Commnnioatlo Idionutnm 4B2 

Metanctbon'a Death 468 

3 Se. ContinnatioD,totbeFal1orCi7pto-CBlTiDtamintheDeMarateorS>xonT,16T4 454 

Ubiquity of Chilafa Body 464 

Fladni on Original Sn 456 

Biemen Controversies (Hardenber^ 456 

Elector Angnst and Caspar Fencer 457 

Conference at Allenbnrg 468 

AbjnratloD of Flacianlam 460 

John Saliger and Transnbstantiadon 462 

Andreae for Peace 466 

Conaeniraa Dresdensia 466 

Wittenberg on lie Lord'a Sapper ..; 468 

§ 89. Odsndric Controveray 469 

Andreas Oalander 470 

Jnatiflcation (Staph}-liis) 472 

JohnFnnck 477 

Francia Stancaras 480 

j 40. Bedactionofthe Furmola Concordiae 491 

Andreae'a EffoHa 481 

Snabian Confession, Uaolbronn Formula 482 

Torgan Book 488 

Be^en Convention and Book 48S 

Formula (ohscrfbed 489 

Formula not ODiToiBaUy accepted 490 


Electonl Saxonj, AnliaU 


John ^giimnnd, Elector of Brandenburg 

J 42. Puul SCatementa of the Lntheran Doctrine GOI 

Samael Hub«r and Aegidins Uaanini 602 

Gieiaenand TObiogen ; KciiotlBtB and Crj^Usts 503 

3 43. Calvinism in Che Netherlands: Arminiaa Contnn'ers]- 505 

James Armioina and Francii Gomanis 507 

Simon Epiaeopiiu and John Uftenbogaert 608 

BemoDsCrants and CoDtra-RemonBtnuiIs C09 


) 44. Hiatory of the Remonatnints, conUnned 

The CollegianU (RhyDabnr^ers) 

Remonatrant Pecnliiritiea 

( 45. Tha DoctrineofPredeatloatlon after the Synod of Dart 

French Baformed Church SIS 



§ 46. Conatltntion and GoTemment of the ETangelloal Chorchei 518 

Lnlher'a Principles. Zwingle 518 

Saperintendenta 625 

Lnther and the Joilala 527 

Government bjr Princes SSS 

Dennurlc and Sireden .' 688 

Swiss Cantons 683 

Calvin and Geneva 536 

The Fnncfa Reformed Church 638 

Hetherlanda 689 

§ 47. The Order of Public Worship 689 

Lather and Ziringle 640 

Lather's Wridngi on the Subject 641 

Reformed ChoTcb of ZOrich 647 

Baele, Geneva 649 


% 48. History of Theology 651 

The Scriptures. Aristotelian Philosophy 662 

BamoB. Descartes 664 

Lotheran Divines 555 

Reformed Tfaeologiana 567 

French Bebrmed Chnrdi 560 

S 49. Religions Edncation of the People 561 

Universities and Academlea 661 


viii CONTENTS. . 

Oatecbedcal Instmction 66S 

PolemicB and PretcUng 66S 

Cbarch DiaeipliBe K65 

Wilchcraft 6Cu 

<; 50. ConnlcT-workings of Hjiticiun and of Pncticd ChriitUnl^ in Uh Latherui 

Cbnich £6G 

Pancelsai. Wcigel 669 

Jacob Bobme 667 

Job. Talent. Andrese. Roiicrueiani 670 

John Arnd. John Goriurd 673 

fi 61. Attempts at Union 6711 

Erasmua, Ciwander 67S 

Da Dominia fiVs 

LathennB BDd Befonned 679 

John Dot; G83 

3 62, George Caliztu Ml 








I, Sctmtt/br tkt Sittorf iifholh CbuMrUt : Jo. Sldduti (hii ttmOj nsins wu PhOlipp- 
■oa of SIMk in tiM CDon^ of Huidflrtclwid, ProfiiiMr of I^w at SCrubarg, t US6) 
De Statu Rdigiooia «t Beipnblicie, Cirolo T. Cubub, Commintaiil. Ubb. xxri. 
ArgEntor. 1G65. fol.' ; be^ edition, mnllia annotitloaibiu illoBtrata a Chr. Car. Am- 
Ende. Fmuxt. mS IL 1786, P. iil. 8 ( in French, with notei b? P. F. la Conrayar, I 
la HajTB. 1T6T. S toU. 4 ; in Oennui irith the notee of Courajer and othen, original 
docamentsaadapre&icebjJ. 9, 8emIer(b7F.A.Stroth). HaUe, ITTl. 4 Bde. 8. [An 
Engtiah tranaUtianof thia work, by BobDii,wu pablished at Loadon, 1689.] 

S^tplmaitary Worit: Abr. SeDl(sd(ProfeiaoT at Heidelberg, afterward preachetat Em- 
den, f 1635) Annaltnn) ErangElii, paeaim per Enropam decimo sexto Salatia partaa 
Secnlo Tcnovati, Decai T. et li. (th>m IG16 to 1536, the other decadea were deetntyad 
at the conqneit of Pragne). Meldelb. 1618. 8, reprinted in T. d. Hardt, Hiet. liter. Bb- 
fbrmaCioiili. P. T. Dan. Osrdet (Profesaor at Grfioingeo, f 1765) Introdactio in Hilt. 
Evangelli laec xri. paaalm per Earopam renovatl. Gmning. 1744-S2. Toml iv. 4. 
Totliia la to be added Ids collediDn of Iracta and original docamcDt*: Scrininm Anti- 
quarium, a. HiMeltanea Qroniogana nova ad Hlat. Refoimatiouia eccleBLuticam prae- 
dpae ipectantia, lb. 1748-63. Toml riii. 4. E. B. Hagonbach TorleauDgen Ql>er 
Wesen o. Geich. d. Beform. in DentachUnd o. d. Schweii. 4 Th. Lelpi. 1834-89. 8 ; 
new edition, 1862 aq. H. N. Clatuen pqinl&re VortriKa Qber die Beformation. Ldp- 
dg. 1837. 8. [J. H. Herle D'Aablgn£, Hiatory of the Qraat BeformatloD in GennaDf, 
Swltierlaad, etc ; G. 8. New Tork, 1848 sq.] 

■ Ai to Uk fliat two editlona aoe AmEnde, In Schelhom'a Ergfllilichkeiten ana der 
Klrchenhisl. ii. Litarator. Bd. i. «. 414, 6GS. Againat Sleidan ; Simian Fontaine, Hla- 
loira Catholiqne de noatre Terns tonchant I'eUt de la Beligion Clir«tienae, contre I'lUat. 
de J. Slddan. Antverp. 1668. B: BoTeH PontanI (Carmelite at Bmuela) Vera Narratio 
Benun, abanDoIGOOiuuiaeBdannnml659,inBepabl. Christiana memarabilinm. Colon. 
15S9. fbl. : Lanr. Snrli (Carthusian at Cologne, t 15TS) Commeotarlu* Snrit Baram In 
Ortw Ocatarom, ab ann. 1500 naqne 1566. Colon. 1GC7. 8. 
TOL. IV. 1 


10 FODETH PEBIOD— DIV. I.— A.D. iel7-lS18. 

ReroniiBtioiit-Almuiach hennBgeg. v. Prledr. Kej-Kt. 8. Jahrgg. ErfUrt, 1817. 19. 
21, in 19. 
II. Upon the Hutorg of At Gtrman Reformation. Sources: G«. SpoIsUDi (properlf 
Burckart, of Spelt, !n the buhopric of EichsUdt, canit pieacber of Saxonj-, aftenrsrd 
Snperintendent it AlUnbarg, uid hutoriographer of Saxonj', f 1G15>) Aanalet Befot- 
Dutionb or .Yearbooks of the Reformation of Lutber, pnblbhed from bia Aatograph 
by K. S. C3-prian. Leipaick, 171S. S. (cf. Spilatini Annalei a mense Aug. IfilS nique 
ad flnem fere 1GS6, In Uenckenli Scriptt, Benun Germ. t. ii. p. 689 SB., bat not printed 
accurBtel}-, nor complete ) >ee Teeaenmeyer in Vater'a Archiv, 1826, a. 78 ; also, Spala- 
tini Tilae aliquot Electorum et Dnenm Soxonlae, in Menckenii Scriptt. Berum Ger- 
manic, t.ii. p. 1067, SB.).—Frld. M}rco[di (or Hekiun, SaperintendeDtstGoUia, f 1646') 
Hist. Refonnationia a.d. 15I3-1MS, bom the aathor'a autograph, and illustrated nitli 
a prebce bf E. S- CjtiriaDi.a second impresaian, Leipaick, 1TI8. e.-.Pbll. Melancb- 
tlionis Hi«t. Vilae Hart. Lutherl, preface to Latbeil C^p. Lat. Yitemberg, t. il. 1S46, 
often tsaued separatelj^, t. g. by Cbr. A. Hetunann, OottingBe, 1711. 4. hj J. Cbr. G. 
Augnsti,* translated by F. Th. Zimmenaan, vitb ootea hy Villers, and a preface bj 
Planck, seconded. GatlJngen, 181S. 8. — Jo. Mathesii (pastor In Joachimstbal, f 1568) 
Hiatorien von D. Martin Luther'a Anfang, Lebren, Leben, atandhatl BckSntnias aeinea 
Glaubens nnd Staiben (in tventj'-eeven Bennona), 1E6£. 4, often pablished c. g. Fraok- 
" fort and Leipsick, 1724. 8., in eitracla by L, A. T. Arnlni. Berlin, 1817. 8.— Jonch. 
Camerorii (Prof. In Leipaick, f 1674) Da Phil. MelanchthoDis Ortu, totins vltaa cur- 
riculo et moito, impUcata renim memorabilium temporis illins bominnmque mentlone 
atqae indicia, cum expiiaitioais seria cobaerentlam narratlo diligens et accarata. Upa. 
1566. 8 ; pnbliahed aereial tiniea ; recenanit, notas, documenta, bibliotbccam librontm 
Melanchth. aliaque addidit G, Th. Strobel. Halae, 1777. 8. On the aditlon by An. 
gaati, see note 4. 

UoalUe to the Beforaution : Jo. Cochlaei (Canon snccearivelj at Frankfort, Uay- 
ence, Tlenna, Bredaa, 1 1&52) Commentariji de Actls.«t Scriptis llarL Lutherl, cbn>- 
nographice ex ordine ab anno Dom. 1617 naqne ad annum 1£47 inclusive fideliter eon- 
BcripU. MogunL 1649. fol., alao Paria, 166G, Colon. 1568. 8. 
Original DoenmeMi i TaL E. LOseher voUatAndige Kerormationa-Acta and Docnmenta. 
3 toml (for the yean 1617-1619). Leipi. 1730-29. 4.— Docnmente snr Befonnations- 
blstorie, in German, in Welch's edition of Lntber'a Works, Th. 15-17. 
ne Worti of the Befbrmat: Luther's works! the THttenberg edition eonaisti of IS 
volomes in German (1639-69) and 7 in Latin (1946-58). The Jena edition b printed 
accurately after the ■Dtogrophs, with the exception of the lirst part of the German 
works, 8 volumes In Oemum (l&Ni-6e) and 4 in Latin (1666-68), jind two supple- 
mentary Tolumea by Aarifaber, Eialeben, 1664-66. The Altenborg edition eontaint 
only the German works, by John Christfrled Seggltarlus, 10 vols. 1661-61. A sup- 
plementary Tolame to all cailier editions, by J. O. Zeidler, Halle, 1702. The Leipaick 
ediUon, 29 roll. 1729-40. fol. The most complete edition ia that of Halk, by J. G. 
Welch, 24 Thlo. 1740-60. 4. In the last two editions the Latin works are found only 
in B German translation.' [A new edition by Rochman v. Innlscher, 66 vols. 8. Er- 
langm, 1826-65.] Of special value Is Dr. M. Lnther's Briefe, Sendschrelben n. Be- 
deuken, herausgeg. von Dr. W. M. L. de Wette. Berlin, 1826-66. 6 Th. 8. 

Phil. Helancbthonis Opera (tbeol. ed. Casp. Fencer) WtUeb. 4 Partes, 1562-64. 
Conallia theologica ed. Christ. Pezellna. Heustadli, IGOO. 8. Chi'iatllche BerathscUa- 
gtugen und Bedcnken — in lentacher Sprach gestellet, zusammengebiacht dorch Christ. 

' Ristoria Vltae Oe. Spalatini eiposlta ab Qir. Schlegeiio. Jenae, 1693. 4. 

* Karratio de Frid. Myconio primo dioeceaeos Gotbanaa Superinlendente, scrips. C. H. 
G. Lommatrscb. Annacbergae, 1825. 8. 

• Phil. Mel. de Tita Mart. Luth. Narrntlo, et Yita Phil. Mel. ab Joach. Camerario 
conacrlpU, ed. D. J. Chr. Gu. Angusti, Tratlal. 1819. 8. 

' Upon tbe editiona of Lutber's works, see Walch in the Halle ediUon. Th. 24. B. 6S2 fT. 



Penliom, EatuUdt a. d. Hardt, 1600. 8. Tbs b«st edition b Pli. Hel. EpiitoUe, Prae- 
btioiiM, CoTuilla, JadleU, Schcdae Academicac. voll. xit. (1S11-&T), or, Corpiu 
Befbrinatortim ed. C 6. Bntichntlder, poit BreUchneidenim ed. H. £. BiodMil, vol. 
L—zXT. Halit, 1884-67. 4. 

There ■!« uMfnl docnmenla in illustralian of tlie earlisi bistoiy ot the BcfotnutiDn, 
contribnMd from tbe originab by E. S. Cyprian, at the end of W. E. Tentiel'* HUtor. 
BerichtToinAiifiuigiiDderrtenFDrtjiuigderBefann.LatbaTi. Leipxig, 1718. 2 Th. S. 
— J. E. Kapp kleine NachleM einiger eui ErUntemng der BefbimatiODtgeicliichta 
nQtilicber Uricanden. Lripi., 1727 ff. 4 Th. 8.— Dr. Tb. G. Nendecket'e ITrkandea aas 
der BefomuUiDnaidt. Caaiel, 18S6. 8. Aim hii nerkw. AkteuatQcke aw den Zci- 
talter der RefaniuiUin]. 2 AbtheH. Hanberg, 1888. 8. 

inaorUai Woria: Tit Lnd. a Seekendorf {privy conncilor in Saiony, afterward in 
BrandeDborg, f at HttUe, 1692) Commentariiu HiMoriciu et Apalogeticua de lAthei- 
uuimo. libb. iii ed. 2. Lip*., 1694. Tol. (written agaiiut the Hiil«ire de LaUucaniunc 
of L. Uaimbonrg, the Jeniit, Farii, ISBO. 4).— Chrlit. Aug. Sallg ((Vrectoi tn Wolf- 
enbottel) VoUtluidige Hi^toide iei Angsb. Confeuion u. denelben ApologiB (UlT- 
IS6S). Halle, 1730-86. S Th. 4.— G. J. Planck Qeicb. der Eatatehung, der Veruider- 
nageii n. dar Bildnag qnsen prote«t. Lehtbcgriffs bia eut ^nftlhrnng der Concordieo- 
fbnnel. Leipiig, 1781-1800. 6 Bde. 8 C^ lecond edldon of volomea 1-8. 1791-98).— 
C. L. Woltnunn leta oat tram a political point of view in hie Geich. der Befona. in 
Denttchlud. 3 Hi. Altona, ISOH-Ob. Email 8.— Ch. W. Spieker Gtuh. Dr. Hurt. Lo- 
ther'a n. dot dorch Uin bewirkten Kirchenverbeuenmg in Dentachland. Bd. 1 (to 1521). 
BerliQ, 1818. 8. — K. A. Ueniel Neiiere Geecb. d. Denticbea v. d. BeformaliOD bb nir 
Bindeucte. Bd. 1-8. Brealan, 1626-39. 8.— Ph. HarhelDeke Geach. der tentubea Bef- 
ormatian, 4 Th. Berlin, 18IC-84. 8 (a second edition of PaiU 1 and 2, 1831).— L. Ranks 
dentscbe GoKbichte im Zeitalter der Befonnation, E Bde. Bedio, 1889-43. {Trani- 
lated by Sarah Autin. Load. 1844. PhU. 1844.] 

Esui lur I'esprit et I'influence de la BerarmatJon de Lnllier par Ch. Vlllen. Paris, 
1604 j translatad into German by E. F. Kramer, with a Prefacv and teverel TreatiHa 
by Hsnltg, 2 Abth^ (21* Aud. Hamburg, 1828. 8). [Traoaloted into English by S. 
Uiller, IS. Phil. 1838.] 

HL IIpoittiieBi$UiryefthtSifomationinB<ntitrl<md. Acconnti by coDtemporary writ- 
era : (1.) By Beformers : Berah. Weisa (baiter of Zurich, perished at Cappel, 1631) 
32). Talerins Aushelm (pb jiician end historian of Bern) BemerCbronik bis 1G26 (pub- 
lished by Stieclin and Wysa. Bern, 1825-38. 8. 6 Bde.) from volome 5, a. 868 on. 
Henry Buillngar (Antistei of the Choich of Znrich, f 1575) Beformatlonsgeschichte 
(to 1S32), pnbl Isbed by J. J. Hottinger and H. H. Vageli. 8 Bde. FranenlUd, 1888-40. 
Ia^8. (2.) By Catholics: Job. Salat (clerk of the conrtat Lacanie) Bescbrdlong 
T<m Anfkng n. Urspnmg Lother. n. Zwii^ischer Secten t. 1516-1536 (extant in nian- 
aKript,partisatitbrDagboat,andA)lIofcalDnuues; see POsali'a Beytrige, iL 8L Schn. 
ler-s Ualdreicb Zwingll, fdoteit. s. xix.). Valentin Techndi (Pastor In Glaras, f 1656) 
Knrze Hiilor. Beachreibnng der in Eriegs- u. Frledensieilen yerloffsnen Soehen n. 
Hindeln lu Glarus d. in einer Hdgsnossenscbafl, down to 1628, very impartial (in 
manoscript; see Egedioa Tscbudi's Lsben n. Schrlften von Bd. Fnchs. St. Gollen, 
1806. lb. 2. s. 83 J Schnlar as above, a. xziv. 4S). Egidina Tachndi (nu^trale 
at Glana, f 15T2) Chronik. Tbe part which relates to this period, extant only in 
mannacript, b > rich collection of orlginBl docnmant* (eea Bd. Fnciu. n. s. Th. 2. a. 

i. Oeeolampadii et H. Zwinglii EpUtotanim libb, iv. com praef. Tbeod. Bibliandri 
et ntrinsqae vita et obitn, S. Grsiiaeo, W. Capitone et Osw. Myconio luctoribui. SaAX, 
1586. fol. The Tila Zwinglii by Oswald Hyoonina (seboolmaater at Lucerne and Zu- 
rich, from 1B81 preacher at Basle, f 1652), is printed aeperstely m StSudlins n. Ttachir- 
ner's^Archiv. mj- Eirchengesch. Bd. I. St. 2. a. 1. Important supplementary facts are 
copti^ed In that patt of the Korratla veriisima dvilu Helvetiorum belli (Capellani) 


12 FOOSTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1517-1M8, 

per nodnm dklogt, >b Oavaldo M;fcoiuo congeata, vhich it printed in the (b«ve wo'k, 
i. 88»q, 

Originai DoeumaiU: ths worki of tha SeTonnera, Ulr. Zwinglii Opera. Tarid, 1544. 1 
Toll. fol. The flnt complete edition of ZwingU'e worka U by M. Schnler and J. Schul- 
thesa, 8 Tola. 8. ZQricfa, 18S8-4!. 1! Tola. [roll, i., ii., the German wih'Bu, Tola. iiL- 
TuJ., the original latin worka, and the German traneUtedJ. Jo. Calvtni [Opera Tfasol. 
la fol. Genev. 1656] Opera AmaUl. 1667 as. 9 Toll. ttol. [CalTin'a Worka, tranaUted 
and pabliihed in Edinbnrgb, 184S aq. in GS Tolumea.] 

Mbcellanea llgarina. 8 Tbelle. ZOricIi, 1722-21. 8. J. Conr. FOiall (tttuarar of the 
Chapter at Wlnterthnr, ^ 177G) Bejtrags eut Erlliatemng der Eirchen-Ketormations- 
gcach. dea SchweizerUndes. Zorich, 1711-6S. G Th. 8. Ejosd. Ejdatolae ab Gccledse 
Helvetjcae Reformatoribus yel ad eoa Scriptae, llgnri, 174S. 8. J. J. Simler (Censor 
of zorich, 1 173G} Samml. alter and nenar Cikonden znr Beleachtang der Sirchen- 
geach. Tomemlich des SchmiEerlaDdaa. ZQiich, 1787. 3 Bde. 8 (thia giTea onlf a 
small part of what ia contained in the great mannscript-colleetion of ^mmlet In the 
town-library of Zurich i see Labenagesch. Oecolampads Ton 8. Beaa. Yorr. a. iii.). 

HitUtheal Workt : J. H. HotOngeri (Profeaaor at Zurich, t 1667) HlaL Ecclea. (P. Ix. 
HanoTiae et Tlgnri 1666, u. 8.) F. t. sq. J. J. HoUinger (Prot in Zfirlch, 1 17SG) Hel- 
vetlache Etichengeichichtea (4 Th. ZOricb. 1708 ff. 4.), Th. 3. Abrah. Etnchat (Preaeb- 
o' and Prot^Hor St Lansanae), Uiat. de la Keformation delaSoiaae. Geneve, 1737 aq. 6 
ToU. IS. Lodw. Win. (paator at MUnchaitdorf near Zorioh, \ 1816) Seoere Helvetiiche 
Kirchengeachicble, 2 Tolamea were pnbliahed, Zurich, 1813. 181S. 8 (the lecond by 
Uelch. Eirchhofer, pastor at Stein, on the Rhine, cornea down to 1523). Sal. Heaa. 
(paetor of St. Peter'a in Zurich) nnpmng. Gang a. Falgen der doTcb ZwingU in Zo- 
rich bewirkten GlaubenarerbeaaemngnndKircheDrefbrni. Zurich, IBIS. 4. J. t. UdI. 
Icn n. Rob. Glata Blotzbeim'a Geachichten Schweiieriacher Etdgenoaaeoachaft, con- 
tinued by J. J. Hottinger. 6lh vol. ftom page 237 iq. and Ttb toI. (Zurich, ISSG D. 
1839) reaches down to 1531. 

LebenabeacnreiboDg M. Ulrich Zwingli's von J. C. Heaa, from the French, with a 
literary and biatorical Appendix, by Leonh. Uateri, Profeaaor at Zorich, 1811. 8 (Nach- 
triige by Uatfiri in Standlln'a n. Tzschimer's Archiv. fQr Kirchengeach. Bd. 1. St. 2. u. 
Ed. 2. St. 8). Huldreich Zwingli, Geschichte seiner Bildnng mm Reformator dea 
YBterlandes,vonJ.M. Schnler, Ptarrerza Bfizberg im Canton Aargan. Ste An«g. Zu- 
rich a. Leipzig, 1819. S.— Jae. llcbler Dlsa. de Indole Sacromm Emendationia a Zwin- 
glio inadtatae rite dijndicanda. Traj. ad Bhannm, 1S37. 8.— Biographien berDhmter 
■cbweizer. Reformatoren. Bd. 1. Lebensgeach. D. Joh. Oekolampada (by Sal. Hess). 
Zarich, 1T93. 8.— Lebensgeschichle H. Heinr. Bailingen, Antiates der Kirche Zorich, 
Ton Sal. Eeai. ZOrich. 1838, two Tolamea published, 8.— Bertold Haller, Oder die 
Reformatioa Ton Bern, Ton M. Eirchhofer. Zorich, 1838. 8.~IlaB LebeD Wilh. Farei'a 
ansden Qnellen beatbeitet. t. U. Ebi:hhafer. 2 Bde. Zorich, 1831. S3. 8.— Dm Leben 
Joh. Calvla'a dea groSMn Refbtmator*, mit Benatinng der handichrilU. Crkandea, 
Tomehmlich der Oenfer and ZOrichcr Bibliothdc, entwoifbi, oebst einem Anhang 
bisher ongBdraekter Briefto n. anderer Balege Ton Paul Henry, Fred, zn Berlin, S Bde. 
Hamburg, 1S9G-44. 8. [Translatw! by H. Stabbing, excepting the Appendix, 2. 8. 
Lend. 1814.] 

[Sio^nipiltM of lit Be/omtTt, TUae qnatnor Keformatanun ; Lntheri a Melanchthooe, 
Helanchthonis a Camerario, Zwinglii a Hyconio, CalTinl a Theodore Bezaconacriptae, 
juBcttm ediUe. Barol. 1841.- -D. Schenkel, Die Refomutoren nnd die Beformatlca, 8. 
iM&a: See below. 

Mtlateiihtm. Ala Praecc^tor Germaniae, A. H. Nlemeyer, Hal. ISIT ; Facina, 1882 ; 

Oalla, Charakteristik Meianchthona, Halle, 21e Anfl. 1845; Uatthea, AlCenb. 1841; 

Uelanchtlion'aLebeniiTidWirkcn, Altenb. 1841; C. F. Ledderhnse, Life of Mel. fhim 

German, by G.F. Erotel, New York, 1854; Ufe by Dr. Cox, Lond. 1815, Bat. 1SB5. 

Caluia. Beza's Ijfe of C, translated l>y Gibson, Phil. 1636 ; Life by Waterman, 



Load. 1813 ; Lj- T. Smjth, FhU. ISSS. Bib. Sacn, vols. li. iiL, by Prof. Robbios ; 
Kitlo'l Jaornal, vali. iii. and vli. ; Pr«ab. Qauterly, Dec. 18&4 ; Princeton Bev. xs. ; 
Nortb BrIUab, zlit. CalTln'i lift, witb E^lncU from hia CorcMpoDdenee, bj Thai. 
H. Dyer, Loud, uid New York. Calrin's ComspDndence, edited by Bonner, tniu- 
Isted, two Tola. iBnied,Ei^b.l8S6-5T. DeuUcbor Kircben^ond, Pbil., Juli a. Ang. 
1857. M. H. Hug, La France Prolcitante, article on Calvin. The life of Calx-in, 
by Andin, Par. !. 8., tranal. LoitiaiiUe, la Ttoman CsUiallc and iaTidioon. 

Zmagit, lifa and Tunea, tranalated from the German of G. G. HotUager, by Bev. 
T. C. Porter, Harrisb. 1856. Dm Theol. Sjilem Z.'a, D. E. Zeller, Tubingsn, 1663. 
G. W. BBder, d. Schweiier, Hef., Hnldr, Zw., St Gatlen, 1856. C. Slgwart, D. Cbar- 
aklar d. llieal. Syit. Zwingli's, mit Rackaicbaft anf Picna Minndula, 1856. ZeUer, 
Cbankter da. Zwinglischen Lehrbegriffs, Theol. Jahrb. 1S6T. Jnger In Stud. u. Eiit. 
1856. T. "ncUoT, H. Zivingli, de KerkhervomieT, rtrecht, 1857. Ufe, by Prof. Bob- 
tiins, in Bib. Sacra, voU. vUi. and ix. Heu's life of Z., tranal. by Lucy Aiken, Load. 

Baa. Lobes Beiu'ii, von Schloeser, 1809. Banm Thcodor Bezu nscb handschrilU. 
Qoellen, Bd. i. 184S ; Bd. ti 1853. Farel, by Schmidt, Strasb. 1834. Vint, bj- Jaqoo- 
Dont, Straib. 1836. 

Under the anperintendenee of Prof. Hagenbach there is now in the coorse of pnblica- 
tioD a setie* of valnmea on the Lives and Writings of the Fonnden of the Beformed 
Chtircb ; the Srat, on Zvingle, la bj Cbriitoffel ; the aecond, by Uageobach, will be 
onOecoUmpadliuaDd Myconlni; the others are, Capilo and Bneer, by Baam ; Calvin, 
by Stahelin ; Bollinger and Leo Jnd, by PealofoEzi ; Beia. by Baum ; Peter Uartyr, b}~ 
Schmidt ; Olevianna and Dniniu, by SOdhoff ; Farel, Tiret, etc., by other authors.] 
[Adaitional Worb oa A» General Uitlofy of lie Rfformatioa. Thnanns (De Thon) Bis- 
toriamm ani Temporis libri 138 (154G-164T), Fcf. 1635. 5 fol., T fol., cum Conlinna^one, 
Londiui, 1733. Beaniobre, Hiat. de la Reform. 4. 8. 17S5. Bobertgon's Histoiyof the 
Emperor Charles V., numerous edidoos. Neudecker, Gescb. d. Reformation, 1517-S3, 
I41Z. 1843, and hia Gesch. d. Protestantiatnns, 1844, 2 Bde. Buchboli, Ferdinand I., 
WuD, 183S-38, 9 Bde. C. A. Meniel, Geschichte Dentsvblanda, 1! Bde. 1836 sq. J. 
D«lliiiger (Bom. Cath.), Die BeformatioD, etc., Ratisbon, 3. 8. 1846-48, 2d ed., 1851. 
UailUrd's History of the Beformation, 8., New Tork, Guericke, Geschichte d. Rof. 
(bom his General Hiilor%), Beri. 1856. TrA. Blani, D. BebnDBtioiuweTk in der Pblx, 
8., Spejer, 1846. K. T.Ketm, D. Schwabriacha Bef. Gesch. bis 1631. 8. 186S. E. F. 
Gilpke, Kirchengesch. d. Schweiz. 1 Theil., Bern, 1856. GObel, Geschichte ds. Chrisl- 
lichen Icbens in d. Rhainlachen Weslphal. Eirche, S. 8. 1863. F. W. Hasseokamp, 
Heasiche KircheDgeacblchts, 3 Bile. 8. 1852. H. Stebbing, History of BefonnaliDn, 3. 
18.1836. G. W«daington,Hi8for3-of Ref.,3,8., Lond. 1841. Charles Hardwick, Hi*- 
torr of the Cbarch during the Refarmation, &, Cambr. 18S6. H. .Soames, Hiatoi7 of 
tbe BeformaiiDD, 4, 8. 1826.^ 

! I. 


The corruption of tbe Church, and the necessity of a Reforma- 
tioD, bad been long felt and strongly u^ed, though understood and 
stated with very different degrees of precision. The people were 
made indignant by the immorality of tbe clergy, complained of eo- 


14 FOUBTH PEKIOD.— DIV. I^A.D. 1817-1648. 

olesiastioat oppiession, suspected many a pious deception, and felt 
the emptiness of what the Church offered them in the name of re- 
li^on. Princes and hishops saw that theii rights were contemned 
by the Papacy, and that manifold disorders bad crept into the 
Church ; and they desired an ahohtion of these evils by a Refor- 
mation in Head and Members. A few persons of deeper pene- 
tration saw that the real ground of the cormption was in &e per- 
version of doctrine by means of human ordinances, and hence 
wished to have the doctrines brought back to their proper Bibhcal 

The Papacy repelled all these various demands, for it feared that 
every concession would be a confession of past errors, and that ite 
power would thus be undermined. After it had overcome the vio- 
lent pressure of the secular and ecclesiastical aristocracy, in the 
fifteenth century, for a reform in head and members, it was able 
so to turn against each other the different powers that were hos- 
tile to itself that they were mutually held in oheot. But its firm- 
est hold was still upon the common people ; for although popular 
enthu^asm for the Church had long since vanished, and though 
there was no lack of discontent on many points, yet the masses 
still quieted their religious needs by the mechanical system of the 
Church, The Pope was to thorn not only the centre of the Church, 
out of which there could be no salvation, but also the highest pos- 
sessor of all those ecclesiastical rewards and penalties which would 
be perpetuated in the world to come. Henoq, a struggle against 
the papacy, carried to extremities, still threatened such en arous- 
ing of the masses as might well inspire terror even among the 

The time, however, could no longer be distant when the nations 
would bo compelled to free themselves from the insoaring influence 
of Rome ; for the revival of thought and learning, begun-with giant 
strides, must gradually penetrate the popular mind. But here a 
new danger threatened. Philosophicat culture could not be direct- 
ly diffused among the people ; but only its most general and intel- 
ligible results. These results, however, without a knowledge of 
their grounds and reasons, could only generate a spirit disposed to 
deny every thing, and which would be likely to attack not merely 
ecclesiastical abuses, but even religious truth itself. In oppositini 
to this negative spirit a fanatical enthusiasm would naturally be 



evoked.' Only a well-timed and genaiDe reformatioD, overthiow- 
ing error by the qaiokemng influence of truth in the hearts o£ the 
people, oould at the some time break in pieces the traditional yoke 
of spiritual bondage and shield from the impending perils. Those 
elementary principles of morality and religion whioh are near to 
every heart, and the oontrast between them and the existing eocle- 
3iasti<»8m, must be brought! to distinct consoiousness among the 
people ; and then enthusiasm for the newly •discovered truth woold 
he kindled at the same time with hostility to the long-endored 
deception. From the nature of the case such intelligent and quick- 
ening influenoes could make their way to the heart only by de- 
grees. The whole truth, suddenly presented, would have blinded 
and not enlightened. Accordingly, no Reformation could hope for 
success which did not begin with opposition to those errors and 
abuses that could be directly demonstrated to a^ that have moral 
and religioDS feelings, and then advance step by step irom truth 
to tmtti, so that the people might follow with conviction and en- 
thusiasm. Hence, it would be a great advantage if the Reformer 
himself had advanced only by slow degrees in his own perception 
of the truth, so that he might always be in a condition to proclaim 
all the truth known by himself, without weakening the efleot of 
his enthusiastio influence upon the people, by calculating how 
much should be g^ven to them. For only enthusiasm can rouse 
enthusiasm : without this no one could hope to succeed in opposi- 
tion to the formidable oolosaus of the Papacy. Only an enthusiast- 

> Luthn'a adTJcs to dia elector John dnrlug the diet it Spirei in April, 1539 (Latber'a 
Lettan, by da Wctte, ili. 489) : " Since neb atnuaa were ao imnfifenbif maor and great, 
and wan not changed by tbou who on^t in jnilica to lUTe done it, tliej began to £U1 
down of UienuelnB areiy when in Geman lands, and ttae clergy to be despiied on ac- 
count of tben. Bat wtion, be^ei tliia, mUkSIFal writers tried to def^d und retain 
tbem, and yet codld not hring fimnxd an}- thing righteoiu, they raade the evil bo mnch 
the wone that the clergy were ereiy where held to be nnlearaed, incapable, and even 
hnitful people, and th^ canee and defaue derided. This &lling down and peiinblng 
or abuses was already in Ml sweep in many parts before Lather's doctrine came ; for 
lU tlie world was eo tired of the ahnsas of the clergy and hostile to them, that it was to 
be fear«d that there woold be a lamentable perdition in the Oeiman land if Lather's doc- 
trine did not come into it, so that the people might be Initracted in the &lth of Chriat 
and obedience to the anthorities. For they would not eodnn tbe abuses any longer, and 
would hsTe a change ri^t off, if the clorgy wanld not yield or slop, so that there shoold 
be no resistance. It would have been a disorderly, stonny, and periloos mutation or 
change (as the Unnzer began it) if a staadfost doctrine had not come n between, and 
without doubt all religion would hare fsUea to pieces, and Christians become pure 

Diciiiized by Google 

16 FOCBTO PERIOD,— DIV. I— A.D. lBI7-lS*e. 

io, world-despising piety oould give adequate courage and strength 
to the man who waa to enkindle such a movement ; hnt clear in- 
sight and thorough knowledge would he necessary to guard his 
enthusiasm from fanatioism, and to give internal ateadrastness and 
pennaneuce to his work. 

Uartin Luther,^ horn at Eisleben on the 10th of November, 1483, 
became, in consequence of peculiar providences, a monk in the 
monastery of the Augustine Eremites at Erfurt (1505). He waa 
early led to Augustinism and the study of the Bible^ by a profound 

• Dc9 kI. Zcugen GoUes D. U. Lnther'B merkwOrdige tebeaa-DmiUDde von F. B. 
Keil. 4 Tb. Leipzig, 17A4. 4. Lnlber'a Leben mit elner knrun RefoniutiDiuge*chicbl> 
Deutwhliuids u. dcr litCTBtur T. G. H. A. Ukert. S Th. Goth*, 1617. 8. Mutia Luther'a 

Uben von GnsUv Pfizw. Stattgut, 1836. 8. [Blognphies by Stang, Stnttg. leSG-SS; 
LedderhoM, Speier, I8S6; H. G«lnr, 1B48 ; E. JOrgeng, Lather's Leben, 1483 to 1517, 
Lips. 1846 aq. 3. 8. U. Hearer, L.'s Lelwn, *iu den QncIIen, Dread. 3. a 1S49-&2. Mai^ 
tin Lnther, illoatnted Life, by G. KOnig and H. Gelwr, namburg, 1851, translated, 
London and New York, am. 4. 1867. DoUinger'i Sketcli, ISGI, tnnslated. Load. 1861, 
is polemical and SomMi Catholic. Audio's Life, 3. B., Paris, translated, Phil 1841, is a 
collection of all the calamnlea against the Befonner. Biographiea of Luther in Engliah, 
by Bower; J. E, Riddle, Lond. 1837; J. Scolt, New York, 1883 ; BCchelefs life, trans- 
lated from tha French, New York, 1846 ; Life by Heniy Woidey, 3. 8., Lond. 1SM-6T. 
lite of Lather by Dr. Seara, Phila. Archdeacon Han's Defense of Lother agaiuat Bit 
Wm.namilton, in tbo Notes to hiaBGssion of the Comforter, and separately, 1866.] 

> Uelanehthon in TIta Lutheri ed. Henmann, p. 7 : Oecaalo antem Ingnidiendi llind 
vitae genns, qnod pietati et atadiia docbrlnae de Deo exialimavit ease coavenlentiaa, haao 
fuit, nt Ipse narrobat, et ut molli norant: laepo earn cogitantem attentius da in Del, 
Bat de mirandis poenaram exempUs, sntato tanti terrores concatiebant, at paene eianl- 
niaretnr. — Etsi doctrinam in seholis nsitatam qaotidia diacebat, et Sententiarioa legebat, 
ot in disputilionibus publlcia labj-rinCbos aliis inextricablies iliseita maltis admirantibus 
explicabat, tamenqala in eo vitae gencronon famam ingenii, aed alimenla pletatis qoae- 
lebat, haec atadla tanqnam parerga tnctabat, et facile arrlplebat illas ichDiastlcas metb- 
odoa. Inlerea fontea doctrlnae coeleatls avide legebat Ipse, scilicet scripta Prophetiea et 
Aposlolica, ut mentem eoam do Dei volontate eradiret, et flrmis teatimoniis aleret ttmo- 
rem et fldem. Hoc atadiom at magis eipetetet, illii sols doloriboa et pavoiiboa morS' 
batot. £t senls cnjosdam aermanibna In Aognatinlano collegia Erfordiaa aaapa a« oon- 
flnnatam esse aarrabat, col cam constamatiDaea anaa exponeret, andlvit enm de fide 
multa dlsserentem, seqoe dedactam ajebat ad aymbolam, in qao didtur : atdo rtmiuia- 
nen pttcatimm. Hone articnlnm sic Ule intarpretatas erat, non solum In genera cre- 
dendnm ease, allqnibua remilti, nt et daemonea credimt, Davidi ant Pelni remltti, sad 
numdatam Dei eaae, at ^ngoli hominea nobis remitti peccata credamai. Et banc inter- 
pRtalionem confirmatam dlcebat Bonardl dido, monstratBrnqna locam In condone da 
Annon^stlone, abi haec aant verba : Mtd adde — ut endat tt jloc, ipuid ptr ipiuin jMOCOta 
iS/i donantur. Hoc at tudnuHuuin, quod prrkAtt Spiritai ntnctai in cords luo, dictiu : 
dinlaaa tttnt tibi piceala tua. SiceaimaratrttiiirApoMtoba,ffraiaju4tificari hommanptr 
fiitm, Hac ae voce non solam conflnnatom ease Lathems dicebat, aed conunonefactam 
esse de lota Panli aententio, qai toties incalcat hoc dlctam : fde juttificanair. De quo 
cam maltoram exposltlones legisset, tunc et ex hnjns sennonibua et o laae mentis cmi- 
Bolatione animadrertisse interpretationnm, quae tunc in nianlbna erant, vanltatem. Pan- 
latim Icgenti et conftrenti dicta et exempla in Propheds et Apoatolia tecllata, et qnoCidl. 
ana invocatione excltantl Gdem, plna locis accessit. Tnnc et Anguatini llbrot legere 



teligioos spirit, which could not be aatisfied by the meohanioal 
system of the Charoh. Traosfeired in 1508 to the Aogastioe 
cloister at Wittenbeig, he devoted himself, in the newly-foanded 
UniTersify (1503), first as bachelor,* &om 1512 as doctor, with 
special zeal to pronioto the study of the Bible.' He met with 

Coepit, ahi ct in Ptaimomm aiairatiaie, et In libro da ipirilu tt lUera mnltu penplcnu 
BeDtantUa Teptrit, qnu eonSnn^aDt haDC ds Sde doctrinam ct conaolatlaneni, quae In 
ipaini pccton ueanu ent. N«c tamcn prorsng rcliquit SenleiiCurioa ; GBbrielem (Blel) 
et CamerBcenHin (Petnu de AllUco) puna >d Tcrbam memoriter nciUre potcrat. Ha 
mnltainqne legit acripts Occam. Bnjiu acnmen antehrebat Thomae ct Scolo. DUi- 
gCDtar st Get*oD«m legcrat. Sed omnia AngiislJDl moaamenta ct lacp* legvnt, et op. 
dm« mamlDent. Hoc accrrimnm itudiom Inchoavit Erflndiae, In cojiu nrbla callegio 
Augoatlnlano comiDorBtai c>t anooa qnatiiDr. 

* Uelancbtban contumes, p. 11 : Eo aatem tempore qnia reTerendn* Ttr SIaD[dcins 
(Jolm of Stanpiti, ProTiacial of the Aogiutliies, and ProfBiior at Wittenberg), qui ex- 
ordia Aeademiae Wittebergensis adJaTcrat, atadinm theologlcnm in recenti Aeodemia 
excitare cnplebat cum ingeniam et cradltlonem Lntheri consideraaaet, tradnclt earn 
Wittebergam anno HDVIIT., com Jam ■gont annom riceiimnm aexlum. Hie inter 
qnotidlana exercitla scholae et conclonnm magia eliam Incera ejna ingeniam coeplt. 
Camqae <nm attanle andicrant viti aaplentea, Doclor Haltinus Melleratadlna et alii, 
■aepe dixit Mellcritaditu, tantam eaM Tim ingenil in hoc viro, nt plane praeaagiret, 
mntatunim cIn vnlgare doctilnae geniu, quod tunc in scholia onicnm tradebatnr. Hie 
primnm IMalecticen et Phjaicsn Ariatotelia enanavit: inteiaa tamen innm illnd gbidi- 
nm legeodl icripta theolo^ca Don omitteni. On tlie I7th Uarcli, 1609, Lnther wrote to 
John Braan at Einnach ; aea Lnther'a Lettere, collceted bj de Wette, Th. L a. fi : Sum 
Itaqae none ]abent« tcI permlttente Deo Wittenbergoe. Qaod ^ atatnm meom noese 
deaidcrea, bene habttoIM gratlj^niai qnod riolcntom eat itndinm maxime pbiloaophiae, 
qnam ego ab Initio libeudadme mntarim Iheologta, ea Inqnam theologla, quae nndenm 
iiDcia et mednllam tritid et medollam oaainm acmtatnr. Howerer, eren then he gave 
himself np to Uieological itndlea. Be la enrolled nndsr Uia Beelor meal. TlrlcUmon- 
tanna, ann. IMS, thni : Fr. Uartinni Lader de Uanafeld, admlinu max ISW d. 9 Mart 
Baccalaunas tanqnam ad Biblla ; lee Sennsrti Athen. Titamberg. p. G7. 

' Lnthei'a oatli on taking hie Doctor'i degree la in the IJber Decauonun Facnlt. theol. 
Acad. Titebergensia, ed. C. E. Foenlemann. lipa. I8S8. 8. p. IM. Lather's glosses on 
the aUeged Imperial edict of IGSl (Walch's edition of hla Worki, Thdl. zri. s. S061): 
"Bot I, Doclof Martin, am thereto called and fttrced, that I mnst become Doctor wilh- 
ODt mj thanks bwn pore obedience : then I had to take the Doctor's office, and swear 
and TOW b}- my lieat beloved Holy Scriptnre, to preach and teach it truly and pnrely. 
In Inch teaching the Papacy fell in my way, and would keep me from it ; therenpon 
matters hare gone with it al we all see, and shall go on worse and worse, and it aliall 
not be able to realat me." Mathesiiu, *. 17: "With this regolar and pnblie call, mada 
la him by an established DnWendty, in the name and by the order of bit High Imperial 
Kajeityandof the See of Borne, after the conniel and decrae of bis preceptori and legal 
clerical mperion, and by tlie gracions promotlan and anthority of his elector and liege 
■old, and also by hie solemn oath which he made to God, to the Holy Scriptures, and 
b> the UnlTeraity of Wittenberg, Luther did often comfort and rapport himself in great 
atraita and slnigglet, when the derll and the world would have made him anxloni and 
tbarftil as to who had commanded him, and how he was to answer for it, that he had 
started anch a commotion in the whole of Christendom. Then, I say, he would recall and 
nmfbrt hinuelf with his orderly doctorate and pnblic calling and solemn oatb, on aceonnt 
of which he had conCinaed on nnterriOed in lile (truly Qod's) canie in the name of Christ 
nith honoc and nuieh aceeptanoe, and with tlie help of God honestly carried It forward. " 
VOL. IV. 2 

Di'diiized by Google 

X8 FOtJBTH PEBIOD^DIT. I.— A.D. 16IT-1«48. 

great success as a teaofaer. fiy him and like-minded fellow-labor* 
ers the theological stodies of Wittenberg were turned from Aris- 
totle and the schoolmen to Augustine and the Holy Soriptnres. 
Rejecting the whole system of holiness by works, he made the 
doctrine that man's salvation is only through faith in Christ to be 
bis living centre." Sach a praoticol and scriptural tendency had 
* At Wittenberg an iTcnion to scholutidim wu ayowed from the very (Int. That 
Martin PoUehiai of Melleret*dt, irho had been active In tha foondation of the Cnlren. 
it]-, and then lectnred than hunael^ declared the labtilliei of the ichoalmm to be nn- 
profltible; and, OD the other hand, inaiited on the Importance of philology for theology ; 
on thii point he got into a controverej' with WImplna at Leipiic, in 15DB : eee Uech- 
a's ReTonnatlanaicta, L 87. Melanchtbon, in Tita Lntheri, p. 12 : Postea (after he wm 
made Doctor) enamre Eplstolam ad BomaDoa ooe;Jt, deinde Pialmoa. Haee scripta 
slo IlloatraTit, at poet longam et obscnrsm noctem nova doctiinae lax orirl videretnr 
omniom pionun et pmdentam jodicto. Hie monatrarit legis et Evangelii discrlmen ! 
bic refatavit errorem, qui tone in adiolis et coQcionibni regnabat, qni docet, mereri 
homiDes Temiwionem peccaComm proprlig opsriboi, et homines coram Deo jutoi aua 
dlaclplina, nt PhariBoei docnenmt. Bevocavit igitor I^hema hominam mentea ad fili- 
Dm Dei, et, nt Baptiata, monntraTit ngnnm Dei, qui tullt peccata nostn, ostendit gratia 
propter Alinm Dei remltti peccata, et qnidem oportere Id benefleinm fide acclpl. nioa- 
travit et caeteraa partea doctrinae ecclcstaaticRe. Characteristic remalna of Lather^ 
WTitingi in this period are extant ; in two letters to Spalatin, of 1510 and 1G14 (de Wette 
Hi. 1. 1. 7 and 13), he declares decidedly in bvor of Benchlin ag^ngt tha divinea of Co- 
logne. There are also Letters to John Lange, prior of tha Angnatinaa at Erfiut, Sth Fab. 
1616 (de Wetta, i. a. 16): HItto has literas, mi Pftter, ad eiimlum D. Jodocnm hena- 
censeni, plenaa — bl«apheraiamni et maledictionnni contra Aristotelem, PorphjTinm, 
Sententlarios, perdlta acllIcBt stndia nostri asecnll. — Nihil ita ardet animns, qoam hls- 
trionem Ulnm, qui tam vere graeca larva Ecdesiam lusit, mulda revelare, ignominiam- 
queejos cnnctla oatendere, al otlomeaset. Habeo in manibna commentarioloa inprimnm 
Phj-aicomm, qniboa fabnlam Aiistaei denno agere atatni, in menm iatnm Protea, illaso- 
rem TafBrrimom Ingenionim, ita nt nisi caro tidaaat Ariatoteles, vara diabolam cam ta- 
isse non pnderet aaaarara. Pars etncis meae vtl maxima eat, quod vidcre cogor, fratram 
optima ingecia bonla stndila nata in istii coenis vitam agere et oparam perdere : nee oes- 
sant Unlversllates bono« libroi cremaje et damnara, raranm maioa dictara, imo somnl- 
ara. To Oeorga Spenlehi, Angnstinian at Hemmingen, Teh Apr. 1516 (tbid. a. 17) : Far- 
vet nostra aetata tentatio praeaumtlonis in multis, at lis praecipne, qni Joatl et bonl 
ease omnlbns viiibns stodent : ignorantes jnstitlam Dai, qnaa in Chiisto eat nobla e&^ 
siaaime et gratis donata, qnoemnt In sa Ipsla tam dio oparui bene, donee habeant fldo- 
ciam standi coram Deo, velnti virtntibns et meritls ornati, qnod eat Impoaalbile fled, 
Fnisti tn apnd nos In hac opinione, imo errore, hi at ego ; sed et none qnoqne pngBO 
contra Ipsnm errorem, sed nondnm eipngnavl. Igitur, mi dnlcla tTatcr, dim Christon 
et banc cractfiznm, diece el cantare etde te ipso despenuu dicere el : "ta, Domine Jean, 
as JusUtta mea, ego antem snm peccatam tnnm ) tn aaannuiati meam, et dedtatl mihl 
tonm : asanmsati qnod non area, et dediiti mihi qnod non eram." Cave ne allqnando 
ad tantam puritatem aainraa, at paccator tibi vlderi nolia, Imo ease. Cbriatas enim nas 
nisi in peccatoribna habitat. — Kon nisi in illo, par fldacialem desperatlanem tni et opa- 
ram taomm, picem invanlaa. Compare the Sermon agalnat tha Opinion and Imagin*- 
tlon of the Holiaesa and Hsrit of Qood Works, and another Bennon npon tboaa Qnat 
9lna and Crimea irhich are the conaeqoence of aDch an imaglnar]' hollneaa, preached on 
the lIHh and llth Sundays after Trinity, 1616, In Walch'a Ed. Th. 10, «. 1646 ff. Among 
the tbeaes— Da Tiribni ct Totuntata Homtnis sine Glratla contra doctrinam Sophiitanm, 
which Bartholom. Betnhardi maintained in 1GI6, Ltitber pmlding at tha ^ipntaUon, 



often before existed in the Chorbh in mlenoe and qoietnees. So 

(given bait In LflschBT'i RelbniuUoiuicta, Th. 1. 1. 82G ff.) tn tba loUoriag : Homo, 
Dai gntla •xclnu,' pnaciptc sjiu »rTars naqiuqiuEii poMat, naqns m v«l de congmo, 
Ttl ds condigDO ad gntUm Del pnqianre, ud meauvio ntb peccUo nuntt.— Tolnn- 
Uj hominlB bIdb gntU non at Uban, Md Htra, lint nan Invits.— Homo, qoindo bcit. 
quod in w (rt, psecit, com n«c rdle, ant cogitua ex h ipso poniL— Com Jiutilia Bde- 
llom dt in Dan abacondiU, peccatom tcto eorom nunifestnin in u Ipda, vsnim est non- 
ni^ JnrtiN dunnul, atqne maretrlccs ct paceatima ulvui (vli. u la itaovn by the ez- 
pUnatiiini which follow, Jiuto* h. e. itbl nihil impntintaa peccad, justos in nulis luifi 
damnarl ; meratricai, vel ilbi rapotuitea peccats, in ocnlls iiiii mcreCricea at peccatoraa, 
Deo tamen conGtaatai anam impiatatem, ab]i» pro bac remittenda tempore opportono 
oranlee, In enndem, nan h ipsog, ipaTantes, ulvari) — Cum credenU omnia sunt poisU 
billa anctare Chriito, lapantitioinm aat, hnmano arbltrioaliii uncQi aliadapnlari am- 
ilia. With regard to theM theaaa, Lather writaa lo John Lange, 1516 (de Wette, i. B8), 
and relatM, among other thinga : Ego aane graviiu ofitadi omnea, qaod negavi Ubmm 
de vara at blaa poenltentla «aae b. AagnBtinl (compare vol. U. p. 611, Kota i). E«t enim 
Inanluaatrani at inaptlaaimna, et nihQ ah Aagnatini emditione at Mnaa remotioa. Qood 
enim QraUaniia «t Hagiater aententiamia plnrima ex Ulo ceperint, at conacientiaram 
nan medicinam, aad eamlfldnam conflaveiint, aciebam. At llloa Implacabililer oStm- 
dit, praeelpoa DocUtfvm CarlBtadiorn, qnod haec scienH negare andeam. He aasailed the 
aehoolmen itiil mote openly in tha theaei in dereOH of Augniljnlaniam (of the 4tb Sept 
lfil7; aea Cyprian, in Tenttera Bericht vom. Anf. nnd aratea Fortgange der Reform, a, 
!7S)i cf. the Jena aditian of his l^Un works, i. p. 9 ; Ldacher'a RaformatiDnaacCa, L a. 
(89. E. g. T. DIcere, qaod Aagoatloas contra haeretlcos exceuive loqnatnr, est dicere, 
Angustinam feia ablqne mentitam eaae. Contra dlctnin commnne (compare above vol. 
L p. 837, Note 4). IV. Teritas Itaqne est, quod homo arbor mala factas, non potest nisi 
malnm vella et fkcere. V. Falaltaa est, qaod appetitna liber poteit In atmrnqoe oppogi- 
tonm; imo neo liber led captivna est Contra commonem. TI. Faliitos eat, qaod 
Tolnntas pouit ae canforman dictamini recio natnrBliter. Contra Scotnm et Oabrieleni 
(Blel.). ^TTT Optima et Inlallildlis ad gratiam praeparatlo et nnloa dlspositio est 
aetema Del elactlo et praedeitinaUo. TICTC , Ex pute aatem hominis nihil nisi indis- 
poutio, imo tebellio gratiae gratiam praecadit. ZLI. Tota fere Ariatotdls ethica peaai- 
DU> gratiae IhImIi— Contra ScbolastiooB. XLIIL Emr est dicere : alna Aiiilotele non 
fit theologns. Cvntra dlctam commnne. ZUV. Imo thaologos non St, nid id fiat 
sine Arietotele. LL Dablnm eat Tahemena, an aenlentja Ariitotalla alt apnd Latinoa. 
LXXyil. Omn« opns legis tine gratia Dei fbria apparet bonam, sad intna eat peccatom. 
Contra Scholaaticas. In conclnsion ; In hia nihil dicere Toliunna, nee dtiiBse nos cf«- 
dimna, qaod rit non catholicaa Ecclaalaa, at cathollcis doctoribns consentananm. Thos 
Lotbat conld not be altogether satisfied with Eraamns. Ha writaa to Spalatin Che 19tb 
Oct 1516 (de Wette, 1. 89) ; Qoae me in Erssmo, homina emditlaaimo, movent, haec 
nnt, qnod in Apoatolo Interpretando JaatiUam openim, sen legla, aan propriam (ita enim 
appallat Apoatolns) intalllglt eanmonlalea illaa et flgnralel obaerranUaa i delnde de peo- 
esto originali (qnod ntiqne admitdc) non plana velit Apoatolom loqttl cap. T. ad Roms- 
n03.— Ego sane In hoc disaentira ab Eiumo non dnbito, qnod ABgaatino in aeriptoris 
Inlerpretandla tantnm poithabao Ble iuiiymum , quantum Ipse Angnatinnm in omnibna 
Hieronjmo poathabet Non qnod profeaaioata meoa itadio ad b. Aagnstinnm proban- 
dam trahar, qni apnd me, anteqnam In Ubros ejna inddlssem, ne tantillam qoldam t^ 
voria habnit: led qnod video b. Hieronymam velnt dedlta opera ad hiatorlcos aenaos 
Inoedere. To John Unge, Irt March, 1617 (de Wetla, I. 5!) : Eiasmnm nortrum lego, 
et hidlaa decrascit mihl animai erga enm: placet qnidem, qnod tarn religiosoa qnam 
sacerdolaa non mlnns eonitantai qnam emdite argnit et damnat InTeleratae hqjas et 
vatenusaa insdtiae ; sad Umeo, ne ChiistBm et gratiam Dd non aatia promoreat, in qna 
ninlto est qnam Stapnlenali Ignorantior : hnmana ptaevalent in so plna qnam divina — 
Vdao, qnod non Ideo qnisplam ttt Chrladanu vera aajriens, qnia Graacns ait et Hebtaa- 



long as it was not direoUy assailed in its inmost sanctuary, and 
could hold iast to an ideal ohuroh instead of the real, it also over- 
looked the defects of Uie latter, or excused them on the ground of 
human imperfection.'' Thus Luther also held fast to the Church, 

lu, qaando et b. ffiaronjinaa qniaque liDgais monoglonon ABgaatiDiim non adaiqaavit, 
licet Enumo iliUr ^t louge Tiinm. Sed *Iiad wt judicium ejus, qui arbitrio homiDia 
qohdIIiII tribait, allad ejiu, qal preeter gratiam dUuI novit. In contrut with tliia, he 
tarned to tlie HTStici. In 1516 he edited the OeuiK^e Titologle, lod Mya in Uia prefice 
(LOscher's ReformatioDaacta, I. SOD): "This noble little book, poor and naadorned aa 
it is In words and human wiadom, ii thenfbre all the more rich and beyond price in 
skill and dirine irisdom. And, sUlI to boast my old folly, I have Dot come across ■ 
book, next to the Scriptures and St. Anilln, trom which I have learned and shall learn 
more sbont God, Christ, maa, and ail things. And now I have jost fonnd oat that It 
is true that certain very teamed theologians among as WltlenbergiaDS talk abnaively 
aboat it, as though we had got hold of lome new thing, joat as 'J there had not been 
people befoi? ua and elsewhere. There hare indeed been auch, but Ood'a anger on ac- 
count of our sins liaa not let us be wortby to sea or hear them. For it is clear as day 
that auch matters hare not been treated of in the UniversitleB for a long time, and ao it 
has come to pass that God's Word has not only been pat onder the bench, bat well-nigh 
perished from dust and moths." He held that tiiis work was an extract &om Tanler, 
and accordingly sent it to Spalatin, on the 11th Dec., 1516, with the worda <de TTette, 1. 
16) : Si te delectat poram, tolidsm, antiquae simiiiiman theolo^am legere, in gennan- 
Ica lingua efl\ium : sermonea Johannis Tauleri, praadicatoriae profesrionls, libl com. 
parare potea, ci^us totius velut epilomen ecce liic tibi mitto. Kequa enim ego tcI in 
latina, vel in nostra lingua theoiogiam lidi aalnbtiareni Tel enm Evangello consoasn- 
tionm. His coUeagoe Cariatadt entirely agreed with him. Ha, too, tirou^t forward, 
on the ISth of April, J417, 152 theses in defense of Augnstinianlsm (see his Utter to 
Spalatin, in LCscher's Reformationsacten, i. 816), about which Lather wrote on the 6th 
May, ISIT, to Christ. Scheurl, a jnriat at Nuremberg (de Wette, i. 65) : Sunt, nial bllor, 
haec Jam non Ciceronls paradoxa, aed Caroistadii nostri, iiao aancti Augnatini, Cicero* 
Dianis tanto mirabiiloria et digniora, qnanti} Augoitinas, imo Chriatoa, Cicerone dignlor 
est Arguent Butem ista paradoxa omnium eorum vel uegligentlam, vel ignorantiam, 
qaibuacunque fuerlnt visa magis paradoxa quam orthodoza: n« dicam de iia, qui ea 
potins cacodoza impudent! tameritate jodicabunt, qnontam nee Angualinuni, nee Paul- 
am legunt, aut ita iegunt, ut non Inlaliigant, seque et aiioa aecum negligant. — Benedic- 
tus Deua, qui rorsum Jubet de tenebria spiendeacert lumen ] — Lather, too, could write 
to John Lange, 18th Hay, IGIT (de Wetta, i. 57): Theolo^ nostra et s. Augustlans 
prospere procednnt et regnant in nostra Univerattate Deo operante : Arisloteles descen- 
dit paulatim, inclinatos ad minam props faturam aampitaraam : mire tastldiantur lec- 
tionea sententlariae, nee est, nt qtds sibi aaditores spetare possit, nisi theoiogiam banc, 
id est bibliam, ant s. Angustinnm, alinmva eccleaiasUcaB aoctoriutis doctorem Tellt 

' Luther's journey to Borne, which he made in IGIO, on botiness relating to his order, 
is remarkable in this respect (tee Biovina, Ann. 1517, no. 7). Here he met, among the 
clergy, with the most undisguised infidelity, of wldch he relates remarkable instances 
in his work on the Wimtebnetie (Walch, xiz. 1609) ; in Mathesiui, p. IS. Tet his con- 
fidence In the Church was not hereby shaken ; see Ills Appendix to the Commtntary 
on the llTtb Psalm (Welch, T. 1S46) ; " I, too, at Borne, was like a dead sdnt, nmning 
through all the churches and ciypts, tietieving all the lies that were told, with all their 
stench. I alto offered one mass or ten of them at Some, and was, hestdei, very sorty 
that my tktber and mother were ttiU llrlDg. For I should have been very glad to have 
released them from purgatory with my masses and other excellent works and praytra." 
Later, Indeed, this experience waa very important to him, ud ha often said at Us ta- 



without snBpeotiag the fnadamental diffetenoe between hia point 
of view and tlie eoclesiastioal f bat at the same time bis iDward 
religions life and faith became as firm as a rook ; aod thus he was 
prepared, oomiting all outward things as naught, to enoounter ev- 
ery danger and every onset in the service of that gracious truth 
which he had come to know. 

At this time the Dominican, John Tetzel,* a sub-comniissary 
of the elector Albert of Mayence, began to proclaim the Indulgence 
issued by the Pope to promote the building of the Church of St. 
Peter's."* This indulgence was prohibited in the Saxon territory, 

bl* : "be would not Ukt m Uiinuuid florina iiutekd of having uen Rome." S«« Uithp- 
uos, n. ■- Compan tha Namtio da Prolectione M. Lntberl in nrb«m Komsm, in U. 
Drsuari HisUrIb Lotbiri. Lips. 1698. 8. 

< Latberl Pt—t id T. 1. 0pp. written In 1545 (alu) before T. I. Jen. Ut.) : ScUt 
Oector), me foina eliqouido Honacham et Pej^tam Inuniuimnm, cnm ietim unum 
(tbe RefonDatJMi) iggreenu anm, ita ebrinm, imo ralimeranm in dogmatibiu Papas, uC 
paratiuimna flierim. amnei, ai potnlaaem, occidere, ant occidenlibna cooperari et con- 
■entire, qui Papa* tsI una sjUaba obedientiam detracCannt. — Non eram its glaciea et 
fHgna ipanm in dafendenda Papato, aicat fait Eccioi et enl aimilea, qai miM Terins prop- 
tar annm Tentrein Pipam defendera Tidebantar, qnam quad urio rem agerenL — Ego 
eerie rem agebam, at qui diem axtnnmm hoiribjlilar timnl et taman lalvna fieri ex iu- 
timii mednllis cupiebam. 

* Aboat bim bm toL il. p. 402, Note !6 ; alio, Ood. HechtU TIta Jo. Teiellii. Qaaes- 
toria Sacri. Titembergae, 1717. 8. Jac. Vogel da* Leben dee pApitl. Gnadenpradlgen 
Oder Ablaaeknman Job. Tetiela. Leipug, 1717,- !te Aofl. 1T27. 8. J. E. Kappeu'a 
Scbanplati dea tetieliscbeii Ablaealcranu and dee darwider atieitenden kI. D. H. Ld- 
ttisil. Ste Aofl. Leipi. 1720. 8. Alao J. E. Kappen'a Sammiang einiger tarn pApatl. 
Ablau Qbertiaapt, sOBdarlich abar id dar im Anfange der Retbrm. hiavon gdtibrteo 
Streltig^^t gehCiHgBD Scbrlften. Leipi. 1731. 8. LOacher'a Refonnationaacta, i. S«7 ff. 
Waleh'g Anag. von Luther'a Weriteo, xv, 318 ff. 

'° Tbe Initmctio Snmmaria of tba elector Albert to the mb-commiaaariea appointed 
for the traffic in thia iodalgence, printed in 4to, la reprinted in Kappen's Saniml. einiger 
loin ptpall- Ablaaa gehoiiger Scbriften, t. 9S, and in Gerdeui Introd. in Ulct. Erang. 
Benorati. t. 1. Uonim. p, SS. Here are flrat given — qoatnar prtncipalaa gratiae per 
ballim apoetolicam coneeaaae, to wit, plenarla remiuio amnion) peccatommi confiaa- 
liooale plenum maximii et relevantlnimii et prim [uaaditia faenltatibaa ; participatlo 
omDiam bononim opemm Eccleiiaa nniTenaluj pro animabna in porgatono exiatenti- 
bna planaria omninm peccatonuu remiuio. Tben follow ttvta /acaUatti, which, how- 
ever, maat be porchaaed eeparateij-: Totomm omnlam commBtatio; diapenaatio etconb 
podtio cam almoniacia at irregularibna ; facnllaa componendi anper male ablatia ipcartia, 
vel etiam certia in aliqnibna casibni ; diapeniandl cum eii, qoi ante aetatem legitimam 
aine diapenaatiODe ad ordinea aacroa aunt promoti ; dispeneandi com bia qnl in gradn 
prohlbilo eonaanguinitatia et afflnitatia coutnxenmt ; componendi cum lojntte occn- 
pantibua bma Eccledamm vel Hnnaaterlamm ; apprabendendi et de Jure aueqaaodi 
ad nanm fabrieaa Basilicaa PrincijHi Apoitoionim in rn-ba omnia bona, rea et pecuniae, 
quae bactenna relicta annt et durante octennio relinqnentnr pro male abiatonun reatiti^ 
(Jane In qnacunqae nitima voluntate quibuacunque inoertiB, Ecdeaila aut pile locia et 
penonia— Kmilitar applicat Papa dlctaa bbiicae omnia bona, quae per aliqnoa injoite 
datfauDtnr. Sed llli, qnlbna Ilia bona reititnenda eeaant sliqna ratione, non poiaunt ilia 
rapaMr«. Tetlel, teo, iaened an Inatractio Sonunaria (br the parochial clergy, how Uwr 


22 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1U7— 161S. 

but Tetzel preached in the border lands, and ofTered it for sale with 
tinfaeard-of eza^erationfi and incredible shamelessness in Jiiter- 
book and Zerbst, neai Wittenberg." Luther soon detected, in the 

mre to work ia behalf of the ludolgence ; Avgnients of this may be seta in LOachcr's 
SefoimBtionuctcn, L tli. Tba sobjoiaed urmoni, which he gure the parochial clergj- 
119 patterns, are eximplcB of bla Btf te of preachiDg, e. g., p. 41S : CapiaUa lilena salvi 
coDdactoa a rjcario Domini noBtii jeau Christi, qnibns mcdlantlbDa poterids animam a 
manibns iaimlcomm llberare, et ad felicia regno, mediants contrilloae coDfoaaioDeqne, 
tatam et aeciiratn sine aliqas poena pni-gitorii perducere. Sciant, qaod [n bii lilerii 
impTcasa ct acnlpta anut omnia mtuisteria Chiiiti pagsionis ibi extenti- Animadvertant, 
qnod pro qnolibet peccato moitali oportet per aeptem anno* post conl^uionero et contri- 
tionem poenitere, vel in bac vita vel pnigatoria : qnot peccata mortalia commiUnntur 
in die, qnot in bebdomada, qnot in mense, qnot in anno, qnot toto tempore vltae I Fere 
Infinlta aunt, et infli^Cam poenam habent aubire in ardentibos pocnii porgatorii. Et 
cum his literia confbasionalibns poleritia semel in vita, in omniboa caelbna, qoaluor en- 
cepUa sedi apoatolicae reserratta, habere plenariam omoinm poenamm usque tunc debi' 
tanim ; deinde toto tempore vitae poleritis, qnandocnnque vultis confiteri, in eaaibos 
Papae Don reierra^, etiam babere similem remiaalonein, et postea la articnlo morUs 
plenariam omnium poenartun et peccatomm iodulgentiam, et habere participattonem 
omniiun bonarani ipiritualiiun, quae ttant in militante Eccleeia et in membria ejus. 
Nonne cognoscitis, quod si contingat aliqnem Ire Romam, vel ad alias periculosas par- 
tes, mittant pecunlas suas in banco, et ille pro quoUbet centum dat quinque ant sex aut 
decern, Dt Romae vel alibi cum lileiis dicli band securas rehabeat : et Toa non vultis [«a 
qaarta parte floreni recipere has literas, quarum viitnte non pecunlaa, aed animam divi- 
nam et inunortalem tutam et secnram docere polestis ad patriam Paradisi ? 

" Lntber speskaof tbisin the Praefalio quoted in note 8, more at length in bis nork 
against Hans Want, 15il (Walcb's Edition, ivii., 1703) : " It came to pass in the ;eaT 
when thej urate 17, that a preaching liiar, John Tetzel by name, a boisterous fellow, 
whom Duke Frederick had fbrmerly saved from being drowned in a sack at Innspntck, 
for Maximilian bad condemned him to be drowned in the Inn (for bis great virtue's 
sake, yon may well believe). And Duke Frederick let him be reminded of this when he 
bcgBn to plagne tu so at Wittenberg ; be, too, fKely confessed it. This same Tetzel now 
carried tiie indulgence about, and sold grace for gold, as dear or cheap as he could, with 
all his might. At tbat Ume I was a preacher Just here in the cloister, and a f ouug Doc- 
tor right from the forge, glowing and cheerfol in the Holy Scriptnres. When now much 
people ran oat (h>m Wittenberg to jQterbock and Zerbst, etc., and I (so true as mr 
Lord Jesnshaa redeemed me) did not know what this indidgence waa, nor did anybody 
else ; then I began to pnach gently, that they might do much better — that there was a 
more sure way of being saved than by the indulgence. I had already preached jnat ao, 
here at the castle, against the indulgence, and so got poor (avor with Duke Frederick ; 
for bis cbariCable foundation here was very dear to him" (it possessed, in fact, a liberal 
indulgence). "Now, to come to the right causes of the Lalheran teaching, I let every 
thing go on aa It went. In tbe mean while ft came to me that this Tetzel had been 
preaching abominable and terrible articles, of which I will now mention some, vii. : 
That he bad snch grace and power bom the Pope, tbat even if one were to deflower and 
impregnate tbe Holy Virgin Uaiy herself, the mother of God, he could forgive it, if the 
same would but pot in the chest what was meet (see Lntheri Theses, 76). Item ; that 
tbe red croea of indulgence, with tbe Pope's armj, set up in the chorcb, was as poweifljl 
aa the cross of Christ (Thes. 79). Item ; if St. Peter were now here he wonld not have 
greater grace or power than he himself bad (Thes. TT). Item ; be wonld not change 
places in heaven with St. Peter ; for be bad saved more aouli with the indnlgence than 
SC Peter with hia sermons. Item ; when any body pat gold into the cbest for a sonl in 
purgatory, aa (oon aa tbs penny fell to the bottom and clinked the aoul Immediately 



confessional, 4^e pemicioos resolts that ensued; he first preached 
against the indulgence ;*^ then on the 31st of October, 1517, he 
affixed to the door of the castle church ninety-five theses against 
this tra£Bo," and sent them to the oeighboring bishops with a 
went up to heann (The*. 27). Item ; the grace of the indiilgeQce mi [he very grace 
by irliicii man ia reoonciled with God (Thea. S3). Item; itwaauotaeceaaorf tohaTeaor- 
mw DDT anSering nor peaancs for ain, if one bought tha indalgeno or the lettera of In- 
dulgance (thia is to b« limited, according to Ttiei. 35) ; and lie alio trafficked for fMtire 
ling. He drova the whole thing at a hoiijble rate ; all waa to be done bj money. " In 
hie letter to the Elector of May eucs, Blat Oct., 1517, Luther saya that the propoaitioiu 
which h* appowB in Tbeees 8S and 36 am fouod, word for word, ia TstMl'a printed In- 
ttmctJDDa (see De Wette, L G9). 

" Eailisi sermons by Lather on the subject, from manOscriptB, see in LAacher, L 739. 

' ' Dispatatia D. Mart. Lutheri theologi pro declaratloiie virtolia indulgenCiaruii], aflar 
the original in V. d. Hardt, HiaL Liter. Beform. P. iv. p. 16. LSachu's ReTonnaUons- 
acten, L 436. The moat remarkable theaea are; 1. DDminoa et nugiater noaler Jesui 
Chriatna dictndo : jxfcuMMHm agite, etc, onmem vitam fldelinm poeailentiaai ease to- 
luit. &. Papa non vnlt nac poteat nllaa poenaa ranuCtere pneter eaa, qnaa arbilrio tcI 
■uo rel canonum impoanit. 6. Papa non potest remittere ullam calpam, niai deciarando 
et approbando remiuam a Deo (aa Petma Lomb. tau^t. Vol. iL g S3, note 2, p. 610) : 
aut certe remittendo casos reaervatoa aibi, quibua contemtis culpa proraos remaneret. 
8. Canonea poenitentialeB aoinm Tiveotibus aunt imposid, nihilque morituria secundum 
eoadem debet impooi (aa Card. Hoatleoaia maintained, ToL iL § SI, note IT, p. 632, and 
John GeraoD, Tol. iii. ^ U7, note 11, p. 896). 11. Ziaaaia ilia de mutanda poena caoo- 
nica in poenam porgatorii videntur certe donnientlbus Episcopb seminata. 21. Errant 
itaqna indnlgentiarum conuniuarii, qiu dicont, per Papae indulgentlaa hominem al> 
omni poena lolvi et salvarL 27. Hominem praedicaat, qui statim, at jactua nummua 
in ciatam tionierit, arolan dicont animam. S2. Damnabontur in astemam cum euij 
magiatria, qui per Utataa Teoianun secnroa aesa credtmt de soa aalate. B9. Carendi 
iimt nimis, qui dicnnt, venioa illaa Papae donnm esse illud Del Inaestimabile, quo it- 
condliatur homo Deo. 8[>. Non Chriatiana pnedicant, qoi docent, quod ndemtaris ani- 
nuM Tel confessiooalia non sit neceaaaiia contritio. S6. QoiUbet Chriatianoa rere com- 
pBoclDa babet remiaaionem pienariam a poena at culpa, etiam aine literia veniarum sibi 
debitam. 88. Bendsdo tamen et participatio Papae nulla modo eat contcmneoda quia, 
ut dixl, est declaratio remiaslooia divinae. S9. Difflcillimom est etiam doctissimia theo. 
logis, simiU extollere Teoiarum largitatem at contrition!* Teritatam coram popnle. 43. 
Docendi sunt Giristianl, quod dans paaperi, ant mutuans egenti melius bcit, qnam al 
Tenlos redimeret. 49. Doceadi sunt Chriatiani, quod veniae Papae snot utiles, si non 
In eas confidant : aed nocentiaaimae, ai timorem Dei per eaa amittant. 50. Docendi sunt 
CbriatianI, quod, «1 Papa noaaet exactionea -renialinm pTaedicatorum, nuJlet basillcam 
B. Petri in cineres ire, qnam aedificari cute et oeaibus orinm soarnm. 66. Thesauri Ec- 
elesiae, nnde Papa dat indnlgentlas, neqns satis nominati annC, neqae cogniti apod popn- 
lam Ghristi (as Dorandus a B. Porciano in Sent. Lib. iv. Dist. 20, Qu. S). 57. Tempo- 
rales certe non esse patat, quod non tam fhcile eoa proftrndont, aed tantummodo colli- 
gant mnlti concionatorum. 68. Nee aunt merita Christi at sanctorum, quia haec semper 
line Papa dperantar gratiam hominii interioris, et cruoem, mortem, infemnmqne exte- 
rioris. 62. Vemi thesanma Ecclesiae est sacroaanctam Evangeliiun gloiiae et gratiae 
Dei- 69. Tenentnr Eplacopi et Cnrati veniarum ^toatolicamm commissarios cum omnl 
leverentia admittere. 70. i9ed magis tenentnr omnibus ocnlis intendere, omnibus anrt- 
bu« advertere, ne pro commiadone Papae aua illi somiila praedicenL 71. Contra venia- 
rum apoatolicamm veritatem qui loquitur, sit ilia anathema et maledictns. 72. Qui 
Taro contra libidinem ac Ucenttam Teiboram coneionatoiiB Teniarum cuiam aglt, ait 
£Ue banedictna. 76. Opinaii, Tsniaa papalei lauta* esae, nt mItub possint bomlneio. 

DiciiiizJby Google 

24 FOORTH PESIOD— DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-1648. 

petition foi the abolition of the eviL'* Littie acquainted with the 
worldly part of the church, he thoaght that to tmmask and assail 
the imposture would be all that was neoessaiy for its abolition.'" 

etUmei quia per impooiUle Dd gaiutriceni vJoluMt, «>t iiuudre. 76. DIcimiu conlra, 
qood vmiu papalea nee minimam TCDlaliiim peecaKinim toUere poasint, quo&d cnlpim. 
77. Quod didtur, nee n a. Petnu tnodo Papa euet; majoreg gntias donue pouet, eat 
bUephemia lu a. Fetnlin at Papam. 79. Dicere, crocem annja papalibna Insigniter 
■rectain craci Christi uqulvaleie, bUaphemia etU 60. Balionem reddent Epiacopi, 
Cnrati et Iheologi, qui Ulu aermonea to populom apai^ tinunt. 81. Fadt Ivec licen' 
tiosa venianuD pnedleatio, nt nee reverentiun Pipae tscUe lit, etlam doctia viris, redi- 
men a caltunniiB ant certe arpiUa qnaeationibna laicorum, S2. Scilicet, car Papa ddd 
evacnat porgatorlum proplai aanctiulmtra caritatem, et anminaDi ammamia neceuits- 
tem, at cansam omninm Jnatiuimani, b< inflnitaa animaa redimit propter peconlani fu- 
nestiaBimam ad atractnrain basilicae, ut cansam iBviuimam ? (aa Abelud held ; aee 
Vol. ii. I 84, note 1, p. 515. Compare Snmma Aateaana. part iii. § 130, note 12, p. 167.) 
83. Item; cui peimaaent ezeqaiae et aoniversariadefonctomni, et non reddit aat recipi 
pennittit beneficla pro illia inatitnta, cnm jam ut injuria pro redemptis orare ? 90. Ilaac 
scrDpuIoiisBima laicomm argnmentaiola poteatate compeaeent, nee reddita ratianedilo- 
ere, est Ecdealam et Papam hoatibna ridendoi exponere, et lofelicea Chriatianoa facer*. 
94. Eihortandi aunt ChriBliaul, nt capnt aanin Cbristam per poenas, mortes, iafemoaqa* 
Mqoi eludeant: 96. Ac aic ma^ par mnltai bibulatlonea intrare caelum, quam per »e- 
cnritatem pacia, confidant. HIa sermon on Indalgence and Grace iraa probably pnb- 
liahed immediHlelj afterward (aee LatiMri Piaef. ad T. I. 0pp. ; edidi diipatatiouia 
acbedulom eimiil et germanicam conoionem de indnlgentiia ; Tetael alio mention* it at 
the end of hia aecond diapotation, printed In 1517 (aee Loacber'a KeformationBBeten, i. 
522), ao that it can not, aa haa been often tlion^t, belong to the year 1G18), in which 
atill furtber progreaa maj- be recognized (in L6«cber, i. 469). He here dedarea that the 
commoD division of repentance into contrition, confeaaion, and aatialiKtion "can hard- 
Ij, or rather not at all, be fonnd to lie grounded in the Holf Scriptnrea, or in Uie old 
Mcred Christian teacheraj" "that it can not be proved bj any Scripture, that dirine 
joatice deaira or demands anSering or aatiafactlan ^m the ainner, but onlj' hia heart]' 
and true repentance and conversion, with Iho purpose, henceforward, u> bear the croaa 
of Christ, and (o practice the above-named works (impoeed, too, by no one). — Thongh 
the Christian Chorch were to-day to determine and declare that indulgence takea awaj 
more than tlie works of satisfaction, yet it were a thousand timea beUar that no Chtia- 
tian man bay or doslra the indulgence, but ratlier do the works and anflkr tlie pain. — In- 
dulgence is permitted for the sake of imperfect and lazy CliriBtians, -who will not eier- 
ciae themaelvea tioldly in good worka, or are unwilling to saflbr. For indulgence doea 
not demand of any body to be better, bat snOers or permits their imperftetion. Hence 
men ahonld not apeak against indulgence ; but nobody should speak fbr IL" 

>* Luther Bgainat Hana Wnrat, u. a. : " Then I wrote a letter with the Pnpoiiiiontt 
to the bishop of Magdebnrg, warned and prayed that he would pat a attf to Tetael and 
keep auch untoward things Horn being preached, aince great diagnat might come tnaa 
them ; and that to do ao was iwfitting him as an archbishop. TUa same letter I can 
now publish, but no reply was made to me. In like manner I also wrot* to th« tdahop 
of Brandenburg, aa my Ordinanu, in whom I had a veiy gracious l^hop. Therenpon 
he answered me that I attacked the power of the church, and would make myadf 
trouble ; he advised me to Ut the matter go. I con veiy well think that both of them 
Ibouf^t that the Pop« would be much too mighty for snch a poor beggar aa myself." 
The Letter to Albert, Archbishop of Mayence and Hagdeborg, of Oct. 31, IGIT, is in De 
Wetle, i. 67, 

'* Lutheri Praaf. ad T. I. 0pp. ; In Ua certus mihi videbar, me habitonmi patronnm 
Papam, cqjus Sducia turn fortiter nitebar, qui in ania dscretia clariaaime damnat quaes- 



Althongh in his theses he only attacked the Thotnist doctrine of 
iodulgeoces, whioh had indeed of late beoome almost universal, 
and did not go beyond the positions of many of the scholastics ; yet 
the theses at oooe excited the most marked attention," and roosed 
especially the opposition of the Dominioana ; for the spirit of this or- 
der had beoome peouUarly sensitive oa account of some recent ha- 
miUations," and they now felt themselves injured in the persons of 

toruiD (iU Tocat tDdDlgentiuiix prkedlcatoraB) Immodealdam. Compsre abore, Vol. U. 
i 84, NoU 11, p. 620. 

" Luther agmiDst Hull Wnnt : " Tboi mj Propoutioai against Tetzel irsnt forth. — 
In fourteen days they ran atraiglit through Gennuij ; for all the world was complua- 
hig of the ludnlgsnca, eapeoiallj Tetiel's u-ticlei. And lince all the bUhapB and doe- 
ton kept atill and no on* wonld bell the cats (far the herei^-maatera of the Preaching 
Order had diiTcn all the world to tarroi by their 6re^ and Tetiel himwif bad alao noD- 
pliuaed some prioti who had reaisted hi* ilumeleM preaching), then Luther began to 
be proclaimed aa a doctor — that at lait one had come who woold lay hold of the matter. 
Thi* tkine I did not like, for (as 1 liaTS aald) I did not myself know what thii indniguioe 
waa, and the song might get pitched too hi|{h for my voice." 

" ParticDlarly by the (lit« of Savonarola (Vol. iiLglSS, Note 6, p,456-e>, the events 
utBem(ibid. S14£, Not«20,p. S89>,andby theetiU-corviviDgcontroveraywith Reucb- 
lin (j IM, Kate S6 mj., p. 408). On acconnt of the constant Jsalonsy of the Mendicant 
Ordws against each other, evii-miaded or remote persona wonld be vary likely to con- 
jeclnre that anch Jealonsy was the source of Luther's theses. Thus Jerome Emsar, in 
the work, A Tenatioae Aegocerotis Aaserlio, Nov. 1GI9. 1., in LOscher's ReformaUons- 
acten, iii. 707, says : Qoid si ipae qaoqne vaittfim, inciplamque dinnart, puenun hune 
(theTheMs) — alinm haboisse patrem: quod nihil scilicet quaesti ez indulgentUs tibi ant 
tnis etiam acceaserit, quod Tecellio ac snU potios, qoam tnae farinae hominibus negoti- 
um datum dtp Haec enim nan vane ima^or, sod suspicioais Istlns tn mlbi aneam 
praestitisti, qui mild ubi in Cancellaria Princfpis Ecchinrn, Caroiostadinm ac te, lemotis 
vbitris, obaecraasem, nt propter honorem Del abstinaretia ■ convlcils et parvulomm of- 
fenuone, respondisti satis theolof^ce, canaani hane neque propter Denm esse coeptam, 
neque propter Deum flniri oportere. Tbia evpression of Luther's, often misnied bj the 
Catholics, evidently refers to the Leipsic disputation, as Luther alwayi said that that 
waa occaaioDed by Eck'a deain for bme. — Alphonins Taldesios also suggests this jeal- 
oisy of the Order in hii letter to Peter Martyr, dd. Bmssels, Slst Aug. 1520 (Petri Hai^ 
tyiia £|Matolae. Anutelod., IffTO. p. 380) : prosiiiit monachns AugustlDensis, cui nomen 
Maitinus Lutberus 9axo, et bujna tragoediae auctor, et Dominicani/orloMw invidia mo- 
tns, Dounnllos articnlos typis ezcnsos emliit, caet. The conjecture was soon repeated 
ai a certainty bj Luther's enemlea; aee Joh. Pabri, Christl. Unlerrichtnng Qber etliche 
Puncten der TUitation, Dresden, USS. i., Eap. 2, where, addressing Lather, he aaya 
that he bad issued his Theses " because thou wast not nude a commissioner of the In- 
dulgencea." Cochlanu at Uit, In 1549, makes oat of it the fallowing story (Vita Ln- 
iheri, ann. 1517). The Etector Albert had first wished to employ the Augnstinian 
mouki to preach the indulgence, nisi Jo. Tetielius ftater Ordiois Praedicatomm magls 
Idoneua qnibnsdam visas tbisset. — Id vera quam aegerrime tolerunt (hitr« Angostini- 
ani, in primia Joannes Stanidtius, — et Martinua Lotherus, — veiut praedpni duo giegis 
nii arietes. — Principi (Frederick the Wise) familiarias irulnnavit « Staupltins, instillans 
ejua pectori tk«qneates indulgentiarum abusui, et quaestorum atque eommissarionun 
Mandala, quod illi per avaritiam veniarum et gratlamm pretaztn expilarent Oermani- 
am, et quaererent quae ana aunt, non quae Jesu Chrisll. Luthents vero ardentioris na. 
inise, magisque injnrianun impatlens, arrepto calamo— scripait, caeL TUs was bA«i- 


20 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. lfiI7-JM8. 

St. Thomas and Tetzel both at once. Tetzel immediately assailed 
Luther with oomiter theses, for the defense of which he obtained 
the degree of doctor at Frankfort on the Oder.'" Sylvester Frie- 

ward often repeated by maoy Catholic anthon. On the other hand, PaJlaTicini, HEst, 
CoDC. Trid. lib. i. t. 8, bean wittaeat that it ma not to the AngoMinu, bnt to the Minor- 
ites, that the rending of thia indulgence was flnt introaled; and in hannonj vith Ihij 
Fred, Myconius relalaa, in his History of the Reformation, p. 16 sq,, that the Pope had 
first appointed Uie ArchUihop of Mayence and the guardian of the monaalery of bare- 
fiioted friaiB at Uayence, aa chief commisaariea of the indalgenee: "but the goardinn 
and the barefoot Order had no liking for the aSkir," partly beeaun the indnlgencB 
was already held in contempt bj' the people In consequence of Tetael'i coarw proceed- 
ings, partly becaose the fiiars thought they bad enoaf^ M do in beg^g thtii own 
bread. On tide acconnt a convention of Franciscans was held at Weimar, where Uy- 
conina was then parish prieet, to consult upon measarea for getting rid of the commie- 
lioD, and the goardian contrived to manage so that tlie Archbisliop of Hayence nnder- 
took it alone. Hence It is evideat that at Ibst dme the traffic In indulgences conld not 
well be an object of rivalry for two monastic ordera, At Iha same time with this fidse. 
hood epmng np another, of which Luther makes mention in hla letter to Spaletin, t&th 
Febr., 1S18 (de WatU, i. 32) : Princtf^ nostri UlnstrisMmi esse totam, qnod ego ago, 
tanquam inductus ab eo ad invidiam Archlepiscopi Magdebnrgensls ; Duke Henry, in 
his Re}oinder to the Elector of Saxony, 1640, repeats this (Welch's edition of Luther's 
works, zvii. 1623) ; see, in reply, LatJier against Haas WnrsC (Ibid. 1701 ff.). It ia e\-i- 
dent that a vulgar feeling of hostility tried very early to hnnt np low motivea for Lu- 
ther's course : one conjectured this, another that j and it was only after some time tlut 
the conjecture dared present Itself as a certainly. On the other hood, one of Lather's 
moat Eealaua foes, I^nrentius Sarins. Carthusian at Cologne, t 1578, testifies, in hit 
Comm. Rerum sue Tempore in Orbe gesCarnm, ad ana. 1617 ; Id ipsis hojns tragoedlae 
Iniliis tIbus est Luthems etiam plerisqne viris gnvibaa et eruditia con peiaiino lelo mo- 
Teri, planeqne niliU spectare Blind, quam Ecdeaiia reformationem, cujns quldam de- 
formes abusus non pamm male habebint bonos omnes. 

" There are two Bitputatiima, one for (he degree of liceatiale, tha other for that of 
doctor, both were printed as early as 1617, and In fact were composed by Conr. Wioi- 
Idna (aee Leacber, U. 8), in LOscher, t. 508 S. Tbe theory of indulgence laid down in 
I>isp. I. starts from the position tliat the Satufaaio is a necessary part of repentance. 
Tbes. b: Haec aatlsfacUo (mm Dens delictum absque nltiona non patiatur) per poensm 
tit, vel aequivalens in acceptione divina : 6. qnae rel a Presbyteria imponitor, arbitiio 
vel canone, Tel nonnumquamajnstitiadivinaexigiturhic vel in pnrgatorio diasolvenda. 
11. Hsnc poenam ob peccata cootrita et confeasa impositom potest Papa per Indulgen- 
tiaa penitos relaxare, 12. rive haec sit ah eo, vel auerdotis arbitrio, vel canone imporita, 
vel etiam jnstitiadlvlnaexigenda; cnl contrndicere est enare. IS. Sed licet per iadul- 
gentias omnis poena in diapositJs remittatur, qnae est pro peccatia deblta, nt eomm est 
vindicativa : U, errat tamen, qui ob id totli pntet poenam, quae eat medicativi et prae- 
■ervatlvB, com contra banc Jubileufl noD ordinetnr. The deep^noted immoratity of the 
system of penance at this period is nnvailed in Tbes. 80 : minima contrido, quae potest 
in fine vitae contingere, SI. snfficit ad peccatomm remissionem, ac poenae aetemae in 
temporalem mntaUonem. Here also Tetzel del^nds many of his obnoxious ststementa ; 
thus 64 : Non esse Chrfstianam dogma, quod redemptori pro amicia confessionalla vel 
puTgandis JaUleam, posaint faaec facem abeqae contritione, error: and, 99-lOl, even 
the sbameleas aaaertian — si quia per impossiblle Dei genitricem semper virginem violas- 
aet. Disp. IL On the power of the Pope, Tbea, S : DocendJ snnt Chrlatiani, qnod Papa 
jurisdictionia aucloritate superior tota oniversali Ecclesla et ConcUio, quodque statotis 
anU humlUler sit obedlendnm. 4. Docendi sunt Cbriatiani, quod Papa ea, qoaa fldel 
aunt, tolua bahet determluare, qaodqne sacrae acriptnraa (ensn* ipse aoctoiitative, et 



rias, magister sancti palatii at Rome, wrote against him with 
equal violenoe.^^ Dr. John Eck, Tice-chanoellor of the University 
ofIngolstadt,QmtedhimBelfwiththem,aBdwrote Ode/isct against ' 
Luther's Theses.** The matter and the manner of these attacks 
oonld not discourage a Luther ; they only enkindled in him a no> 
ble indignation against the hypocritical lies which were conjured 
up in defense of the soul-destroying imposturo.^* Just in propor- 

nolliu tlioi, pro ana nntn. intdpnUtnr, et qaod allomiii omnift dicta rel op«ra lubet 
vol approbue, aot rcprobue. S. Doceud) rant ChriaUaiil, qaod Judiciom Papae in iit, 
qnaa aimt fidei, et ad bmnansni ulutem oeceuaria, emre poteat miiiime. 12. Docendi 
lOBt Cbriatiaai, qaod clavw Eccleatae non murersali Ecclesiae, — aed Fetro et Papae, et 
in eia ompiboa eonim racGeiaoribDg et aolToraia Praelatii ftttttiis per derivatianem eonun 
in ipaoa, auat callalae. 13. Docendi anot Chriitiani, qnod pleniaainiani indulgentiani 
HOD CoBciliam genenle, nee Praela^ alii EccUaiaB dntnl vel diajnnctlm dare poaannt, 
•ed Boloi Papa, qni est ipanana unlfenalu Eccleaiae. IT. Docendi aunt Chriatiani, 
quod Eccleala molta tenet nt catholicaa veritatea, qnas tamen aicat nee in cuone bib- 
liae, it* nee a doctoribu antlqaioribiu pannntDT. Tatiel alto wrote b BeAitation of Ln- 
tfaer's Sermon on iDdolgeaea and Grace, in Loacher, L 484. Wilcb, sviii. 538. 

>' Dialogna In praeaiunptuOHs M. Latheii Condosionea de Potestat* Papae (it ap- 
peared in December, 151T), in Latheri 0pp. Tom, Jenena. Lat. L IC; in Lfiacher, ii. 12 rr. 
Cbancteriatic of the work are the following poaitjona, in LOacher, p. 11 : Eccleaia oni- 
Tcmlta Tirtoaliter eat Eccleaia Romana — Ecdesia Romana — Tirtoaliter eat Pontifex 
innunoa. P. 31 : VeniaeaiTeiBdalgentiaeanctoritataScriptaTae Dabianoninnotaere,aed 
BDctoritate EeclesEae Romanae, Bomanonunqne PontiGcnm, qaat major at. P. 22 : Qnan- 
tnm ad indnlgeutiaa attinet, Papa habet claTem joriadlctionia ■ecDudnm Sacctoe etiam 
bi PBrgBtariam applicative : aniniaa tsmen a debito aen reatn poenaimn non ibaolTit, 
■ed eia trHnut, onde poenam rel dsbitnm wl vant, applicani et a4]iciena eia satiafactioneci 
Chiiati Tel iKomm. — Prsedicatar. aninuun, qnae in Furgatorio detinetnr, adstmene evo- 
Ure in eo inatanti, in quo plane factum est illud, gratia cojna plena Tenia dalm', pnta 
dejectna eat aurena in pelvim, rion hominem, aed meram et catholicam verilatem prae- 
dioat. Henoe Eraamna, in liia Beaponaio Ngrroaa ad Albertiun Ham, conld write with 
jnitice (.in t. d. Hardt, Hirt. Liter. Beform. L p. 179): Borlpglt Piieriaa :— aed ita, ot 
canuun indulgenliariun facerit deteriorem. 

" According to Eck'a aaaertioa, in a letter to Carlatadt of the £8th Ma}-, IG18 (^n Ldscli. 
er, ii. Gt), in wUch 1m trie* to paci^ the Wittenbeigiana, be had oulj- compoaed tbem 
(or prirate nae at the request of hii dioceun, tbe biahop of Eichat&dt (in fact it iraa hia 
dnt;r, on becoming a canon, Co give the biahop adTice when required ; aee tlie papal boll, 
in Mederi Annal. Ingolst. Iv. 26), and the; had been puBlished agaiiut hia will. Luther 
pnblished tbem with hia jlitenict. In Aagnat,lf>18; and so the; are foncd, Tom. Jeo. Lat. 
1. p. 31, in LOacher, iii. S33. But before thla, CarUtadt, in hia Academic DiipnCalionB, 
fW>m May to Joly, 1618, bad already drawn np a aeries of Theaea against the Obelud; see 
LAacher, ii. 62 ff. Agalnat thia woric Eck published a Defenaio, to which Carlatadt re- 
plied in August, 1618, withaDefenaioadT. Jo. EckiiMoDomachiamC"!'')'':''^!'''^'^)- 

" Againat Tetial'a refntatioD, be wrote in June, 1618 (aee the letter to Lang in de 
Wette, I. Iii) : Ficy heit dea Sermons pftpatl. Ablasa n. Gnade belangend, In LSscher, 
L 626, and Walcb, iTiiL 664 ; aKainat Prlerias in Angnat, Besponaio ad Sflv.'Prierio- 
tis Dulaf^m, in Tom. L Lat. Jen. p. 44 ; in Loacher, IL S90. His prindpal work, bow- 
ever, at thia time, was the Beaolutionea Diapntationnm de Tirtnte IndnlgenUamni, 
which had been already in Hay aent in manuacript to the Bisbop of Brandenburg and 
the Pope, and appeared in print at tbe beginning of AngiuL Tom, i, I«t Jen. p. 7S ; 
LiKher, iL 183. 


28 PODETH PERIOD,— DIV. I,— A.D. 1S17-J648. 

tiou as he saw that his enemies could only bring against him an 
exolnsire human authority, it also became clear to him that the 
real source of the corruption was in the intermingling of human 
opinions with divine truth ; and thus he was led to enforce the 
principle, that only the Holy Scriptures offer a firm founda- 
tion to faith, and that the doctrine and state of the Church must 
be judged by them alone.^ The Dominicans accused him in 

» Tbe Kapoiuio ad Prierat, in LOschar, ii. B9D, first Uj-g dawn the prfnclplea fh>m 
which Luther started ; Secandain eat illad b. AngnstiDi kd Eiaronjinnni : ego soils eia 
WfriMf fiu anonici appttiamtur, hatic hoaorom d«ferre did[clj at nullum Kriptorem eoram 
emuse finnissime credom. Caeteros aatem, ijiuntilibet doctrina sanctitateqae polleuit, 
noo Ideo yeram «s«e CTBdo, qou ill! sic raatenmL^Fa perpetno pro vcrbonun texin non 
nUi nada Tcrba ponis, aut salaa opniiiHiu d. Thomae mihl none demnm decantas ; qui 
oeqne nt ta nndia rertiii incedit, sine Scriptnra, sine Pab-ibns, sine canonibns, daniqne 
sloe nllis rationibns. Ideoqae meo jure, I. a. Christiana libertata, Ee et ilium limal re- 
Jicio et nego. P. 4O0 : Et at aulmom menm scias, mihi videtur id in graTissimnm Eccle- 
siae lodibriiun vergece, si ea doceamus, de quibns nnllam prorsns ratioaem reddere pos- 
suniai. Nee satis ibi esse eredo etiam fkctmn Ecclesiae, — quia lam Papa gvon ConcHi- 
nm poted erran; at habes Panormitanam egre(^ baec tractantem (see Toi. i). § 136, 
Note 6, p. B2!). Saolutioa. eondut. 26 (LCscher, ii. 248) : Me nihil niOTet, qaid placeat 
vd diBplioeat snmmo Pontiflci : homo est sicutet caeteri: molti faerant siunmi Panlid> 
cea, qnlbns non solum errores et vitia sed etiam portenta placaemat. Reipontio, p. 403 : 
Theologia ilia tchoUuluxt exnlem nobis fecit veram at sinceram theologiam. Nam ridas, 
quod peipeCuo hoc dialogo nihil agu, nisi quod reiisto et redarguo scholasticam Cheolo- 
giam, 1. e. falsam Scriplorae et Sacramentornm intalligentiam. JtenJui. amd, £5, p. 
336 : Deinde adversaries meoe etiam roga, at ferant dolorem meum, quo cmdor, doni 
aadio ea pratdUari in Eccleata ChriaU, {sos mm^oin (cripta tt tlatnta nmf, qnandD 
Sanctis olim Patrlbns legimos viiom esse pericnlosiasimam, aliquid oltn praescrlptnm 
caeleste docerl, at inqoit Bilarias. Concl. 68, p. 28S : Pins Irecentis annis tot Daiversi- 
tatea, tot in illis aeudsdma ingenia, tot ingeniomm peitlnaclaslma stadia in nno Arit- 
totda laborant, et tamen adhnc noa solnm Aiistatelem uon intelllgont, Temm etiam ei- 
rorem et fictam intelligenUam per nniversain pene Ecclesiam spargnnt, qoanqoam si 
cUam Intelligerent enm, niliU egregiae sapientiae adepti essent. Ctmii. 8, p. 20S : Bl 
canoaespoeDitentialumanent mortoii, eademrationeetcaeteriomnes. Celebtent ergo, 
agant festa, et]ejania, at vlgilias, dicant horss csnonicaa, nan comedant ova, lac, car- 
nes certls diebos, sed tautum places, ftnctus, legumlna, induant veales pullas vel Candi- 
das pro alia onera gn.viaam^qiah\aiHmcpremitKrnueraiUa,iAi»t 
libernina, Ecdaia Ciriiti (after Augnitin. ad Januar, ; see Vol. L § 106, Note 2, p. 155). 
Cond. 26, p. 238 : Cam nostro saecalo alnt tarn lelosi haeretlcae pravitatii inqai^torea, 
at ChrisUanisaime catholicoa vi coaentar ad haererim adigere, oportanam fnerit super 
singulis Bjllabis protestaii. Nam quid allad feeerint Johamtet Piau Miramdidanvt, 
Lattrmtiai VaUa, Pttnu Kavamat, Jokaimei FuoJui, et novlndme diebas btis Johaimet 
SeiuMm atqae Jaeciut StapiJeaiiM, at innti cogeientor et bene santleado mala sentire, 
nan facile viderim, nisi qaod omiwrint Ibrto protestationem aaper singulis, at dixi, syl- 
Ubls ; Ifutta of hodit in Ealaia puervrun et ejfoemtnatortifn tgnamu. With regard to 
indulgence Lather wrote as early as the 15th Febr. to Spalatia (da WettA, i. 9Z) : dna 
tamen dicsm ; primum tlbl soli et amlcls nostris, donee res publicetnr : mlU in indnl- 
gentiis hodle videri nan esse niii animsmm Ulnitooem, et nihil prorsus ndles esse, nisi 
atertentibaa et pfgrii In via ChrlaU. ECsi hanc sententiam non l«aet nosier Carolstadi- 
us, ceitDm eat tamen mihl, qaod eas nihil dacit. Thai also CoikI. 4S, p. 270; Teniae 
Bunt de nnmero eomm, quae lieent, non auUm coram, qnae expedinnt. Cond- *&■ p. 



ITS: Quod aatam dixi: «nnt utilei, InteUtgo, non anmibDa, iioo tbUH homii^ et ster- 
taotibiu openriis, eo quod mslins tit, illi> eu remitti pocDU, qium nt ftrrent InvlM. 
CnmcL GO, I. c. mdnlgendBe eat Tili»liDDm bonnin ommain boDomm EccIchm, q«g nbl 
vQiuimij Eecloiln dcmuidum, deinde nee msritoiinm, nee ntile, led plenunque nocen- 
tiuimam, ^ HOD dnt dniorBti. A^untt the doctrine of the Tbeunnu, Concl. bS, t. g. 
p. STG: nallos Sanctorom in hac vlt> infflcltDter implerlt muidat& Dei, ergo idhil pn>r- 
nu facsrant nipeTabandui*, qiure Dec kd indtdgentlu kliqnid diitribaendum nliqqe- 
niaL Comd. 36, p. S40 ; Procedit ejiu lomDinm ex Uborio» ilU et matUi artt coaJUmdi, 
imo desperandi et perdendi uiiniu, q<u baetuqaa docU mmiu uencm numerue, t. e. 
'*"g"1' peceata diacntere, calligara, atque poodenue >d Ctdeadim contritiaDein. Quod 
mm fecerimiu, fit at rgfticgmns tcI coacupiacentlu vel odU, pneteritflnun memori*, et 
dom coDterlmoT de preeteritii, nova peccemiu ; ant oerte si Bat opUma eontritio, lit tan- 
tanunodo violenta, tiiitia, meieqne factitta, de metn poenarnro rimiilata dnutazat. Sio 
enim dacemnr paccata conlerj, L e. ad Impoa^ile, vel ad pejna, conui. Cnm vera eon- 
tritio ait inciplenda ■ benignitata et beneflciia Dei, praesertiiii a TQlaeribiu CbriiU, nt 
homo ad loi ingratitDdlaeni primo Teniat ei intnitn dtvinae bonitatis, et ex ilia la odi- 
nm sui ac ainorem benignitaUs Dei. CohcI. 7, p. 199 : Tlieologi recentiores — Sacnmen- 
turn poeaiteaUac dc tractant et decent, at popolns diacat, per ruu ctmlritioaa et tatu- 
Jiictumet coitfidere, n peeeata taa poite delere, Qoaa Taniuima praetninptio Dibil allad 
potent effleeni, qoam at ctim luemorrholua Evangelic*, cannunpta in medicot tota snb- 
Btantia, pejna et pejni habeant. FIdee primo in Cbriitom, gntaitnm remiadonii lar^ 
toTciD, docenda erat, et desperatla pnipriae coatritionii et laUibctioDU pennsdenda, at 
■tc Sdncta et gandio cordis de miaerlcordia Chriati flnnatl, tandem hilaiiter odirent pac- 
catom, et contererentor, et aatlibcerent. Conel. 12, p. 268 : Si papula* doceator pii^>ter 
poanantm evaaionem contribaere (ad Ikbricam Eccl. t. Petri), — tunc daram est, quod 
Don propter Denin contribnant, et erit timer poeitanim, ani poena idolim (onnt, eta tie 
tacrijieaitt. C<mcl. E2, p. !88: iSotu tncognila rtt eit Etmgdam Dei m naita parte Ea- 
daiae: ideo paolo latins de illo dicendam, nibil eoim rsUqnit In mnnda Cbriatoa praeter 
aolnin ErangeliDm. — Eat aatem Ceofl^eliun aecandom Apoalolam Rom, I. sermo de filio 
Dei incarnalo, sobia sine mentli in aalnlem et pacem donalo. Eat Tarbnm aalatia, rer- 
bnm gratiae, rerbam solatii, vertium gandli, tox apoui et iponsoe, verlnun bannm, 

Terbnm pacis Zei vero eat reibum perdltioaia, Terbnm irae, rerbnm tristitiae, Terimm 

doloris, vox jndicis et rel, verbnm Inqnietadinis, verbam maledicU. Kam eacunduin 
Apoalolam lex ait Ttitua peccatl, et lex ilam oparatar. Eat lex oiortis. Ex lege enlm 
nlliil babamna, niil aialam coaicientiam, inquletum cor, pavidnm pectaa a Cicie pecca- 
toram Doitninini, quae lex oitendit, neo tollit, nee nos toUere poeaamas. Sic itaque 
captia, ac tristibaa, omnbioqae deaperaUa Tenit lax Evangelii et diclt: nollte Umere: — 
acce agnaa Dei, ecce qui tollit peecata mondl, ecee qui aolaa im[det legeoi pro vobia. — 
Hoc snaviaiiinani naoclnm cam audierit conscieDtia peceatrix, reviviscit, — jam nee 
mortem — tbrmidat, neqns intbniam. Ideo qui peetiat adiac tment, iwHiJuin aadicenuU 
nnrtim, mc nxna Efamgela, led nscein petiiu Motif. Ex hoc Itaqae Evangelio nascl- 
tar vera gloria Dei, dum docemar, non noatria operibna, aed gntia miaereotia Dei In 
Clnlato impletam legem et impleri; dod operando sed credenda, non Deo aliqnid oSb- 
landa sed ex Cbrislo omnia acdpieado et participando. He denied tbe secular power 
aBweUaathelntalliblli^DrthePope; aee Cbncl. 80, p. 297 ; Id ego nhemenCer admiror, 
qalaaam illam glaaum Invenerit prima*, qnod duo gtadii itgnlflcent unum spiritoaiem 
(aoQ nt Apoatolns vocit, ecil. gladium Spiritoi, rerbnm Dei), aliam materialem, nt aic 
PoDtifleam ntnqae poteittte arautom nobis non patrem amabilam, sed qnaa! tjiannam 
fimnidabilem faciant, dum nihil niai potestatam ondiqae In eo videmns. On the ether 
head, he still aaj-a, in Coacl. 69, p. 290 ; Aactoritetl papali in omniboi cum reverentla 
eiedandnm est Qni enim potesUti reilstlt, reaistit Dei ordinationl. He atill believed 
lo pargatoiT also, CokI. 16, p. 315 ; Qoae ideo dice, ne Pigfaardtu haeieticna (the Bohe- 
laian bretbnfi) in me lild videator obtinniue, pargatorinm non eaae, quia locum ejos 
Igaotam eaae confiteor. — Milii ceitisalmnm sat, purgatoriam asae. Lfiacher, p. S04, is 
wnng in. tlfln'''"e that aa he wrote he advanced in knowledge, and that io Conct. 18, p. 


80 BOUETH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1B17-1648. 

Romo.^ Leo X., who r^aided the whole matter as a mere quar- 
rel of monks,^ did indeed permit Luther to be summoned to re- 
spond ;" bat, oat of consideration for Frederick the Wise, Elector 
of Saxony, whom he wished to gaia over to his views in the ap> 
proaohing election of a King of Rome, he was easily induced to 
commission his oardiaol legate Gajetan, at Augsburg, to bring the 
new heretio to submission.^ However, this legate, before whom 
Lather made his appearance at Aagsbuig, in October, 1518, was not 
able to subdue the humble monk either by kindness or by threats." 

S26, be denies pnrgatoiy ; he onlj: uja, that the nuumu allggsd hy Its &dvsnw[iei for 
the itatement, pnrgmtorinm hod eua menndi iDcnm, dliprored all pi]rgitoTy.~-C«Kl. 
89, p. 601 : Eajeiia iiidigei r^omafimH, qaod Don eat nnini homiDli Pontificis, nee mal' 
tonun Cirdinalimn officlnni, aicut prabtTit uCramque noviegimom Concilium, kA toliiu 
orbiB, imo mUds Dei. Tempm ■Qlam bujus reformetioola oovit >olna Ule, qui condiilit 

" Hocbstntan, in hia Apologia >d Sanctlu. Leonem Pipam X. ac D. Uutimiliannm 
Imp. Colon, IGIB. 4. made mentioD of Lather also in hii vty (Me Lalheri Scheda con- 
tra Hochstntanom, Jol. 1G18), T. i. lat. Jen. f. lie. LOecher, 11. SZ3 : BangninBiii an* 
Ilngna ad caedem «t ftvtemain perniciem anheUns, moaet optimnm PoDtlBcem Leoaem 
X., ot non againo et ChriaUano, led leonlno et fUHall animo eiorgat. 

'* According to the account of tho conleDiporarj- Matteo Bandello, Blihop of Agen 
(Novelle. Lucca, 1564 tt. Tb. B, in tbo pretace to the SGth Xovella), Leo at first replied to 
tboaa irho instigated liim to more earnest proceeiUngs against Luther, che Fra Martino 
foaaa nn b^Iliadmo Ingegno, e che coteete erano invidie fralescbe. On the other hand, 
so earl}' aa Non. Febr., IGIS, he wrote to Galiiiel Tenetus, wiien he appointed him to 
be Promagiater Ord. AugnaUnianonun Eremit. (see P. Bemhi Epistoiae Nomine I.eonis 
X. acriptae lib. ivi. no. 18, p. 879) ; Volo te earn cnram ansclpere, ut Martlnum Lu- 
tberum, tuae aocietatla aacerdotem, quem scire la eilatimo in Germauia noTos res mo> 
Ilri, nova dogmata nostris populis tradere, qnlbua atantnr, ah increpto, ai potea, reTocas 
aDCtoritatc ea, qnam tibi prafectuca dat. — Id si celeriter feceria, non Grit pnto diffldle 
modo oatam flammam extingacre. Parra enim omnia atque sorgentla pauinm magnos 
Tebemetitesque impetos non snatinent. Sin difibrea, et nulom rlrea stunpssrit, vereor 
no, com Tellmos adhiben incendio remadia, non pOMtmus. 

*• LOscher, IL 809 ff., ST2 ffl 

>* The papal brief to Cajetan of the STth Aug. T. I. Lat. Jen. f. 181, Loacher, tL 437. 
Tlie commla^on ran : Handamns, at — dictnm Lnthemm haereUcum — ad peraonaliter 
coram te comparendnm, invocato ad hoc tam cariaslml in Cluisto filii noatri Haximili- 
aai Bom. Imp. electi, qnam reliqaomm Oennaniae Principimi — brachlo cogaa atque 
cotnpellaa, et eo In potestate tna redacto, eum lub fldeli cnstodia retlneas, donee a nobis 
allad habnetis in mandatia, ut coram noMa et Sede apostoUca atatatnr. Ac qaodsl coram 
te sponta ad petendom de bojnamodi temerttate veniam Tenerlt, et ad cor revenns poe- 
nitentiae signa ostenderit, tibi eum ad nnilatem aanctae nutria Ecclesiae — bealgne tcd- 
plendi concodimna facultatem. 

" Seporta of the proceodiaga at Angabnrg may be found : 1. In Luther's letters writ- 
ten Itam Augsburg to Spalatin and Carlaladt, in de Wette, L 141 ff. 2. Uore in detail 
in his letter to the Elector Fredericic 19. Not. ibid. 174. 0. His Acta apnd Dom. Lega- 
tum Apoitolicum Thorn. Cajetanum Augnstae, ann. IfilS, in Octobri, uanallj called Acta 
Augnitans, published in 1518 (aa to three diflbrent editiona of theae, see flederer'a Ab- 
handlung, 3tes StQcli. a. 863), in T. i. Lat Jen. fol. 186. 4. There la a longer report of 
the prooeedin^ of Dr. MarUa Lather with Thomas C^etw Oj Spalatin] in the flist 



Instead tlieroof, the monk appealed a Papa rum bene informato ad 
melius informandum ;^ and afterward, when the whole doctrine 
of indulgence, as it had been developed np to the present time, 
was oonfinned by a bull from Rome,^ he issued an appeal from 
the Pope to a general oounoil {at Wittenberg, 28th Nov., 1518).* 
Sympathy with the bold champion had for a long time manifested 
itself only in tones of fear and warning :'> gradually some approv- 
ing voices now dared to speak with boldness, espet^ally among the 
humanists,^ and bis ooUeagues and fellow -01112608 at Witten- 

part of ths Jena sditian of Lather'i Oennui workg, fol. 108, b. ff. Tbtn li ■ coUecUon 
o( all the nporti and acts in Luther'* works b; Walch, xy. 686 ff. 

** Tbe appeal of the 16tfa Oct T. i. Jen. p. 188; in LSMher, iL <S4. 

» Of the 9th Nov. T. 1. Jen. f. 203, b. ; in Ltecher, U. 498. On the other hand, In 
HotUngeri Hist Eccl. esec. xrl T. iU. p. IM, it bean the date Cal. Jan., ISIB. LnUwr 
i* not mentioned fn it ; It la onlj directed agstnat the eTTore which had tieen (pread 
abroad, aobmiSu Sdiffunit, in German j about the Indulgence ; Ihtt no one maj be able 
ia future to pretend — [gaorantlam doctrinae Bom. Ecclealae circa hnjoamodi indnlgen- 
tiaa — it take* the ground — Romannm Pontiflcem — poteitate clavinm, qoanim eat aperire 
tollendo Ulina in Chriatlfidellboi Impedimenta, cnipam scil. et poenam pro acttuIiboB 
peccatia debitam, culpam qnidem mediinte aicramento poenitcaUae, poenam vero teill* 
porilem pro actoalibos peccatia secondnm diTinam Jnalitiam debitam mediante eccleal- 
aatiea Indnlgentia, poaae pro ratlanatibaa eaniia concedere eUdem Chriitiddelibna,— elTa 
in bac vita sint, sire in Purgatorio, ludnlgentiaa ex auperabandantia meritonun Jem 
Cbriiti et Sanctomm, ac tam pro vivia (jnam pro defunclie — Ibeaannim meritomm Jetn 
Chriitti et Sanclonun diapenaare, per modBin abgoloUonis indulgentiam ipaam confsne, 
vel per modom infn^gii 111am transterre consneviase. Ac propterea omnes tam tIto* 
qnam defliuctoa, qui veraciler omnes Indnlgentiaa bojoamodi oonaecnti foerint, a tanta 
tempoiali poena secnndam divinam JoatidBm pro peccaUs aula actoalibna debita ItbErari, 
quanta conceaaae et acqoialtae IndnlgeDtlae aeqoivalet 

" T, I. Jen. p. a05, b. ; LOacher, U. 506, 

" LnthernLUee, in Ub commentBTyon Psalm cxviii.9 On Walcb, V. ITIS) : "When 
I first aauQed tfae indulgence, and all the Torld opened their tyti and began to imap 
Ine that it vaa done with too high a hand, my prior and anb-prlor came to me, alaimel 
at the lend outcry, and were >ore aft^d, and prB;«d me not to bring shame on the 
Order ; tor the other Ordera, especial] j the Preachers, were alreadj- leaping for joy, ttut 
thej- were not alone in disgrace, bnt tliat the Angvetinea also moit now bum and bear 
reproach. Then I answered, dear Fathen, if this matter Is not begun in Ciod's name, It 
will qoicUf fill to the gronnd ; bat if it is began In Hla name, leave it in Hia turnds." 
StaapUa wrote fiom Salzborg to Lather, Uth Sept IGIB, when he was sanunooed l« 
Aageborg (Loscber, it. 4iS) : fpid hodie praeter cracem te maneat non video quicqoam. 
In fbrlbui, ni fallor, est sententia, ne qids inconsulto FOntlflea scrntetor Scrlptnras, ad 
iDvenieadum ee quod atique Chiistns ut Geret Josslt Paoeos babes patronos, et nliaam 
non sint occniti propter metom adversariomm. Placet mihi, ut 'nttambergun ad tem- 
pua dcseras, meqne accedas, at timol vivamos morlamurque. 

" That the homaniats were the natural allies of Lather, appears from the ([dstle of 
baauna l» LaOai, dd. SO Hajl, 1619, which also Ulustnlea bis own pecnllar attitude 
toward the BefonnatiOQ (Erasml Eplstt T. I. Ep. 4JT) : NoUo sennooe conieqni qneam, 
qnas Iragoediaa hie excltarint tni libetli ; ne adhue qoldem ex anlmls istonun levelU 
potest falsisrima sns^dcio, qna putant tuas Incnbntlaaes meis auxlliis esse scriptaa, me- 
qne hQjtw (actionia, nt vocant, veulliferam ease. Ezistimabant qnidam sibi detain kik 


88 FODETH PERIOD^DIV. I.— A.D. 1817-ie«. 

berg.^ In the yonDg MelanothoD, who was gained for Witteti' 

Bam, qiu et bonu litem opprlmenat, qua* eipiulitet odemnt, veltit ofiecturaB m«j«s- 
titi tbeologicu, qium multi plans Taciont qium ChriaCum. — Habes In AnglU, qui de 
toil KTiptis optima BsatUnt, et annt hi mudmL Stmt «t hie, qnanun at exlmliu qnl- 
dam, qni tuia favent. Ego me qnod lic«t integmm aervo, quo magis prosim Itoiua literia 
refioresceatibiu. Et mibi videtur, plug proflci dvlll modeatin, qnsro Impeta. Sic Cbris- 
tna orbem in (nam dicionem perdniit; sic Psuliu Jodaioim legam abrogavlt, omnia tra- 
hena ad altegoriam. Hagia gxpedit ciaman in «oa, qui Pontilicam aactontat* abutan- 
tur, qoam in ipwn Pontifica: Idem de Begibu fitciundnm cenaeo. Scboluc aoc tarn 
aaperaanda« mnt, qnam ad atndia ma^ aobria revocandae. De rtbiu receptioriboa, 
qoam at tnUto poaaint ex animia revelll, diaputandnin eat argnmentia denaia et efflcaci- 
ijos potina qoam aaaeTsrandnm. Qaofondam virnlentaa contentionea magia conducit 
conleroDero qoam Tofellere. UUqas caTondum, at quid airoganter ant factioae loqaa- 
mor, bciamnava : aic arbiCror gratam eaae ajnritoi Chriati. Interea aerrandoa animoa, 
ne Tel in, vel odio, vel gloria comunpator: nam haec in medio pletatia atadlo aolet 
inaidiari. Haec Qon admoneo at faciaa, aed nt quod facia perpetao faciaa. In a letter 
of tbe Ulb April, 1519, in which be dedicatee hja Titaa Caejarnro to tbe elector Freder- 
ick the Wlae, Eraamoaalso (ttTora Lnthei in tbe Interests of the hamaDlata ; aee tbla let- 
ter in fall, T. i. Jen. f, 211 : Hnic tam odioao negotio, praesertim apnd muliercnlaa et 
Indoctam plebeeolam, miscnenmt hominea callidi triam linguamm, eloqaentiae, polilj- 
orisque Uteratnrae mantionem, qoaal ant Lnthenu bis praealdils Sderet, aut ex bisca 
fontibna haareua naacerentur. — Latberna mibi tam igaoCoa eat, qoam col ignotiasiionB, 
nt anapectns esse non qaeam, quasi faream amico. Bnt still, he says, tbe qneation em- 
bracea Cbeological opinions whicb had not jet been reftated, and for irbicb be on^t not 
to be pronounced a beretic and persecnted. Siqnidqoid in Scbolis receptnm eat, oracu- 
lum haberi volant, cur Inter ae Scbolastlci disaentinnt? — Ad haec nan raro depreben- 
dnntor damnare in receatium Ubris, qnod in Aagnstino ant Geiaone naa damnaat : quasi 
Teritaa cnm anctoie mtitetur. Eos, qoiboa favent, aic legnnt, nt <miniB toiqnontes, nl- 
bilnoB excnsent ; qnibus Infbn^ annt, aic legnnt, ut nihilnon calumnientnr. — Caeteram, 
at tnae CelBitudlnla eat, ChiisUaiiam leligionem pletnte tua protegere, ita prndentiae 
est, non commitlsrs, at qnisqnam Innoceni, t< jnaliUae praeride sub praetextn piatatia 
aliqnomm impietati dedatur. Volt idem Leo Pontlfex, cni nihil ma^ eat cordi, qnam 
at\Dta ait inDOCenlla.— Carta bic video lihros Ulina ab optlmia qnibusqne cupidiasime 
lag], qnamqnam mlhl nondum vacavU evotvere. Frederick tbe Wise replied to this on 
the 14th of Hsf (I'C. f. 313); Non damnarl ab eruditis caoaam Lntbeianam, et Doctoiia 
Martini Incabratlones ob optimis qnibnsqae latic CDpldisaime legi laetamnr. Eoqne ma- 
^a, quad plerlque bononun et eiuditonun In noitris qnoqne regionibus et Frlncipatibns, 
nednm extemls, bominia tam *itam et mores, qnam eraditionem miro consenan laadaQl. 
Quod enim liactenns In Saionibna nostiia degit, non tam homlni, qnam cauaao dedimns. 
Nihil minus unquam cooatl, qnam at dlgnos praemlia poena premeret. Neqne Deo om- 
nipoteate Invaute committemna, nt nMira culpa Innocens quls[dam sua quaerentjum 
Impietati dedatuc 

'* Carlstadt was tbe flnt to come forward in bebalf of Lather ; see Note 20. Lsther 
wrote to Jodocna, profesaor at Erfurt, on tbe 19th Hay, 1&18, in de Wette, I. 108 : 3ds 
ingenia eonim, qui apnd nos snnt, pnla Carlatadil, Amsdorfii, D. Hieronfmi (Schnrf), 
D. Wolfgang! (Stehlen), ntriusqne Feldklrcben, denlqne D. Petri Lupin! (Radhemins). 
At 11 omnea conslanter macom aentiunt, imo tota Unlverritas, excepto uno ferme Ucen- 
, tiato Sebastiano. Bed et Princeps, et Epiacopus ordinarina noster, delnde multl alii 
Praelatl ; et qnotqnot rant Ingeniori cItcs, Jam ano ore dicnut, sesa prina non navine 
nee andivlsae Chriatom et ETangetium. The imirei^ty also Intereeded for blm on 
tbe 2Gth SepL, Ifilg, on account of his summons to Borne, in two letters, to the Pope 
and to the Pope'* Chamberlain, Cbules of UUtltc. T. 1. Jen. f. 183; In Ldscher, II. 



berg in ISIS," ha foimd his trnest helper in the great work," to 
which he was destined, without as yet himself suspecting it. By 
bis laminons and edifying works he made the subject of contro- 
versy intelligible to a larger oirole ; by his moral and religious ap- 
peals, in the spirit of the Augustinian system, he was able to 
quicken the sense of inward piety," in opposition to the deadeniog 
doctrine of holiness by works ; and thus he was constantly gaining 
the heart of the G-erman people. Indignation against Roman im- 
posture increased ; universal attention and sympathy were direct- 
ed toward the bold champion of the trutii." 

'* Ha entered upon bis office on the !9tl> of Angnat with in ormtlon ; see Uscher, ii. 387. 

" Lathei writes thoat him, Pnef. in T. i. Opp. IMS : Eodem anno jam 3tL Phil. Me- 
liinGthoa a Principe Friderico Tocatiu hue fnent ad doceiuU* litleru graecu, baud da. 
bit, nt halwnin Bocium laboris In tbeologia. Kun qaid openttiu >lt Deminua per hoc 
organnm, noD in literia tantam, >ed in Uisologia, aatia teitantor e]n» epera, etianui [ra«- 
catur Satan et omnei •qaamae cjni. 

" HiaSermoa en tbe Sacrament of Penance i» especially remarkable (Nd»., 1518); in 
Welch,!. 1464 1 in Ubicher, a &IZ ; ForUrhriat, a. 515. '■ All is at odcb given in (Utb, 
wbicb alone makes the aacraments affect what they sigmfy, and every thing to be trns 
which tiia priest says ; for as thou believest ao it la ioaa to thee. Without this faith 
alt sbsolntion, all sacrameata are rain ; yea, they do more hurt than good." — 3. [>IT ; 
"Ninthly; it follows, besides, that in the sacrament of penance and the for^veneaa of 
sins, a Pope, a bishop, does no more than the homblest priest ; yea, where there ia no 
priest, erery Cliristian may do as mnch, thon^ a woman or ■ child. For if any Guia- 
tian can Bay to thee, God forgive thee thy gins in tha name of Christ, etc., and if ihou 
csnst bnt seiie the word with a firm Eutb, as thon^ Ood spake it to thee, thoa art in 
Ibis (iitb certainly absolved."— S.G2I: " In the sixteenth place ; that no one may again 
aecnse me of forbidding good works, I say, with all earnestness, that men should be 
penitent and aorrowfal, ahanld confess and do good works. Bat tl>ls I defend as much 
as I can, that we hold the faith to be the chief good in the aacramsnt, and the inheiit- 
snce whereby we obtain God's grace ; and, accordia^y, that we are to do much good 
only fbr the ^ory of God and the welfkre of onr nei^tiorB, and not becanae we rely 
apon it as sofflcient to pay the debt of tin ; for God glvea his grace freely and graUa, 
and SD we ongbt, bi retom, to serve him fively and gratia."— S. GS4 : "Accordingly 
there belong to atirlcnlai conftsdon no sins bat those which are paUicly accomited 
mortal sins, and which wslgh down and alarm the conscience at the Ume ; for if we are 
to confess all tins we most confess at every inatant, becanae we are never without ain 
ia this life, even oar good works are not pure and without sin." — "And even if one does 
not go to conttoion at all, it might still be uaeAil for him often to bear of absolntion 
and the work of God, for Qm sake of the same tUth, that he may thua brm a habit of 
believing in the forgiveness of sin." — 3. G2I: "The priest has enou^ signaand reasons 
for absolving, whon be sees that absolution is earnestly desired &om him." 

*' Alphonsos Valdesins writes upon this jwrfod, from Bruaaels, 81st Aug., 1620, to 
Peter Uartyr (Petri Martyris Epistt, Amatelod. 1670, p. 880) : Intumnemnt dudiun 
Germanonim anlmi, vldentes Bomanensinm mores plus qnam proCmoa, coeperantqne 
da excntiendo Som.PontiflclsJngaclam perconicnlos agere. Qaotsctam est, at, qnam 
primnm Lalheri scripts in vnlgom prodiere, mlrum qnanto applauau ab omnibus tua- 
ctpta sint. Ibi Germanl gettite, et convicia in Bomauensaa Jactare, petereque nt gene- 
rails ChriatianDmm omnium cooventus indicaretur, in quo excuisla his, quae Luthsros 
•cribebat, aliua ordo in rebua Eccleaiaa statuetetur. Qnod ntinam Gictnm fuiiset t Te- 
tamsD dum Ponlifbx Jua auum mordlcua tuetnr, dam timet Chrisdanorum conven- 
VOL. IV. 3 

:dbv Google 

84 FODETH PEBIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

The Elector of Saxony was just now of too great importance to 
the Pope, in a political point of view, to be alienated from him for 
the sake of en insignificant monk. Leo X. sent to him his cham- 
berlain, Charles of Miltitz, with the golden rose,^ to win him to 
his views in the election of the King of Rome, and to come to an 
understanding on the affair of Luther. Miltitz, upon his arrival 
in Crennany (Deo., 1518), soon saw' that nothing could here be ef- 
fectod by force ;^* still less when, after the death of Maximilian I., 
the 12th Jan., 1519, the Elector of Saxony became Regent of the 
empire in Northern Germany. He accordingly tried to flatter Lu- 
ther by kbdness, and thus aotnally obtained, not indeed the de- 
sired recantation, but a promise to be silent if his opponents were 
silent, and an open declaration of obedience to the See of Rome.*' 

turn, dum (nt libera loqnar) plus apod enm valet prirktnm commodam in genertiti aj- 
nodo torte pericUUtnram, qnim CbristlanI popoli mIdi, dam cnpit Lnthsrana icripta 
nondum diicaiu e medio tollen ; L«g«tani > lalera (Cajelan) ad Caeaaram Uaxiniilii- 
nam mittlt, uet. Wol^. Fabritiaa Capito wroU to Lather, 18th Feb., 1G19 (in Scalteti 
Annal. Reform, ad h. a.) : HelTetia «t Rheaana ngla ad Oceannm tuque solidoi smEcoa 
favet Latherio, eoaqne poteatteslmoa, aeqae omnina alienoa a bonla stadlis. Cardmalla 
Sednnsiula, Comea ds Gerotaeck, Epiacopua qaidam eraditua ac primae honestatis, alii- 
qae ei aoatrii con panel com nnper audlerant te periclitari, Don taatam EBmtum, aed 
etiam tnta loca pollicebantar, quibna sot latere, aut aperta degera posse*. Cam peregre 
conatitatnm Tama praedicaret et enmma reram diScoItate laborare, fttenmt, qui per ma 
■ubmittera nitebantur aumtom, et eBbmluaaent utiqae. On the 14th Feb., 1518, ^ban, 
the bookaeller at Baale, vroU to Lather (T. 1. Jen. fol. 867. b.), that he had sent nnmer- 
ona copies of his worki to France, Spain, Itely , Brabant, and England ; yendnntnr Pa- 
ri^iia, lagantUT etiam a 9orbonicis et probantar, qaemadmodam amicl noatrl certiores 
no9 reddldenmL Dixenint UlIi: doetiaainii qaidam, se Jam pridem talem libertatem de- 
tideraaae in hla, qui aacraa lllaraa tractant. — Hie (in Baala) nt quisqne eat optimoa, ita 
tni maxima eat atndioana. Epiacopos noetar Imprimis tlbl favet, ^ns item SafTraganeni 
Tripolitanoa Episcapna. The Cardinal of Sltten nid, after reading Lntber'a worka: 
" Luther ta vera ea Inther" (lauKi; i. e., clear} ; and, "IMapntet Ecciaa qnantnm velit, 
Lutbema veritatem acrlbit," 

" Upon MilHU'a procoedlngii, tee Mscber, li. B62 ; iii. 6, 92 ; Waleh, xv. 808. 

" Latheras ad Jo. Sj-lvlnm, dd. 2. Fabr., 161B (do Wette, i. 216) : Carolaa de SmtiU 
miaaos ad Principem nostrum armatos plna70>poato1ieia Brevibaa, In hoc acilicet dstia, 
Ut me vivnm ac vinctam perdnceret in Hierusalem bomlcidam lllam Bomam ; sed per 
vlam a Domino proatratos, 1. a. moltitndine mihi faventlum tarritna, juita quod cnrio- 
aisslme nbiqne da mei opinione exploraverat, mntavit violendsm in bcnevolentiam fal- 
iacluime Bimnlatam, agena mecnmnmlCisaaaeTarbia, atpro honore Eccleatae Romanaa 
rerocareni maa dicta. In the Praef. ad 0pp. T. i. 1545, he aUtes, that Millitz had him- 
self said to him : " 8i halierem !6 millia armatonim, non conflderem te poaee a me Bo- 
mam perdaci. Exploravi enlm per lotam Iter anlmoa hominam, quid de t< aentirent: 
ecca ubi unaoi pro Papa atare invenl, trea pro te eoclra Papam atabant." 

*' At a peraonat Interview at Altenbnrg in the first i»yi of January, 1519, BUItita 
and Lather came to an agreement, aa the latter reporta to the Elector [da Wette, 1. 309) ; 
" In the first place, that tbere be a general inhibition laid upon both parties, and that 
they be both forbidden to preach, write, or act about theae mattera any fbrther. Sac- 
ondlx, that the aaid Charles [of Hiltlti] will shortly take occaalan to write to the holy 



Under existing eiroamstanoes Miltitz thought he might well be 
satisfied with sach a result in this rexatioos matter. At Leipsic 
he so sternly rebuked John Tetzei, the real author of the difficulty, 
for his shameless proceedings, that he died of chagrin.*' Luther 
made the promised declarations,*^ and the whole matter seemed to 
bp at an end. 

Dr. Eck started it again. To close in triumph a controversy 

Father, Iha Pope, ibont all matten, u ha has fonnd them ; and then sea to it tbat hia 
papal holinesa coomiiision goiae learned bbhop, perhaps, to look into tlie matter and 
point oat the aitlclea Thich areemmeous, and wUch I giioDld revoke. And then, irhea 
I am tan^t the error, I ahotild and will recant it willingij, and not weaken the honor 
and power of the bolj Boman Chnrch." Besides this, Latiier had proposed, hi a some- 
what earlier letter to the Elector (de Wette, i. s. 308) : " In the next place, I woold write 
to his holinesa the Pope, snboiit in til hamilitj, confess how I bare been too hot and 
too sharp, yet did not meao to come too near to the holy Roman Chnrch, but to show 
the reason why I, ai a tme child of the Church, had opposed the scandalous preaching 
from wlijch had grown atich great acom, reports, dishonor, and offense among the people 
igamit the Roman Church. In the tiiird place, I was willing to publish a paper to 
warn eveiy cne to follow the Roman Chnrch, to be obedient and reverential, and to on- 
demtand my writings not to the disgrace but to the honor of the hoi; Roman Chnrch ; 
and also confess that 1 had brought the truth out with too great leal, and perhaps im. 
seasonably." He writes to Christopliar Seheurl on the 13tb January, at the same time 
infonning him of this agreement (Ibid. s. 212); Ego, qoantBm in me est, nee timeo nee 
eapio proCelari caasam. Sunt adhnc mnlts, quae Romanam lemam movere possunt, 
quae libens premam (not promam), at permittant. Sin Dens non volet, ut permittant, 
flet volostaa Domini Uiltlti in general demeaned hioiself rather as a German than ai 
aBoman, and thai gained the confidence of Luther. The Romans afterward complained 
ofhim(seeIastnictioHnntiodataann. 1636, in Ranke FQrsten a. Tolksr v. SQd-Eoropa. 
IT. S90) : Id tantum buctoa reportavit, quod aaepe, pertnrbatua vino, ea eflbtire de Pon- 
tifice et Romana curia a Sasonibus indacebator, non modo quae (acta arant, sed quae 
ipsl e malae in nos mentis affecta imaginabantnr et optabant j et ea omnia scriptis ex- 
dpientes postea in convantn Tormatiensi nobis publico coram tota Germanla axproba- 

" Untiti had, at the very first, sammoned Tetze] to Mm at Altenbnrg ; but he ex- 
cosed bimsetF in a letter. Slat Dec, tS18 (published by Cyprian in Tentzel's Bericht v. 
Anf. d. Reform, i. 371, in Lftscher, ii. B67): "Sa solt mich soicher Arbeit und Reiss 
nkht verdriessen, Ew. Erwird lu wQltatiren, wenn ich mich one meins Lebens Nach- 
theil dorfrt ans Leipzick begeben. Wann Uartiaus Luther, Augnstiner, hat die Hach- 
tigen nicht allein scbier In alien leutsclien linden, sondem aueh in den KiSuigreichea 
In Beliem, Ungam nnd Polen also wider mich erregt und tiewegt, daas ich nirgent sicher 
bin." Uiltitz heard more particnlars of Tetiel's Impostures and other disgraceful pro- 
ceedings, and in January, 1519, called liim to a strict account for them. (See Hiititz 
Schreibenau Pfeffinger,inCyprian,ibid.s.S80; LSacher, ill. 20.) Lnthems, Praef. ad 
T. L 0pp. 1G4G: Vocaverat ^tiUna) antem ad ee Jobaunem Tetzelium,— et verbis 
miuisqne pontSficiis Ita fTe^t bominem. hactenas terrlbilem conctis, et Imperlarritnm 
clamalorem, nt inde conlatiesceret, et tandem aegiitudlne animi conficeretor. Quem 
ego, ubi hoc resclvi, ante obitum liteiia benigniter scrlptli consolatua sum, oc lusai anl- 
mo l>ono esse, nee me! msmoriam metueret. Sed conscientia at indignatione Papae 
forte ocenbuit. 

** He pnblished in February : UnleTricht auf. ellicba Artikel, 10 ibm von setnen Ab- 
gOunera aufgelegt uud mgemessen worden (in Loscher, Ui 84 ; Walch, zv. StZ). Hi> 
letter to the Pope ia dat«d the 8d of March, In de Wette, L 238. 


86 FODBTH PERIOD— DIV. I.— A.D. 1517-1648. 

raised by Ids Obelisks," this renowned disputant** challenged Lu- 
tlier's colleague, Andreas Bodenstein, from his hirth>place sumamed 
Carlsiadt, to a disputation at Leipsic," and also contrived to en- 
tangle Luther in it** In this disputation, which lasted from the 

*' Sh above. Note 20. 

** Upon LIb former diapntationi held at Bolog;iu uid Vienna, see lUederaT'i Ifach. 
richlen, Bd. 9. a. 47, 178, !SS. 

*' This Diaputatlon between Eck and Luther bad been already concerted at Angi- 
bnrg, and Lutber informa him, ISth Nov., ISIB (de Wette, L 171), that Cailatadt agreed 
to it. 

" By 18 Theaes, which Eck pnbliahed in JannaTj, 1519 0n Ldaeher, lU. 210), t« which 
Luther repUed in 13 othen. Iliid. !1S. Compare, Lnther to SpalaUn, 7th Febr. (de 
Wette, 1. 232) : Ecciaa noatar— glorias edidit achedulam, dlapnUtnnii contra CarlaUdi- 
um Lipaiaa post Fascba, Et homo insulaa obliquitale, aqae jam din in me conceptae 
Invidiae saUsfacturus, in me et mea nilt acripta, aliam Dominans concertatorem, aliqm 
antem Invadens tractatorem. On the 13th of March he apologiied to the Elector, mJ' 
ing, that nnder theie drcimistances he could Dot coDtider hii promige to BTtlUti to keep 
ailence aa binding (de Wette, t. 237). In his ISth Tbesla Eck broached an enlirelf new 
mbject; Bomam Eccleaiam dod Msae aupenoiem aliii Eccleaiia ante tempora Sylvea- 
tri, negamaa. Sed turn, qui sedem Ixatiaaimt Petri habuit et fidem, aucceaaorem Petri 
el Vicarinm Christ! generalera aemper agnovimua. Luther opposed to thia the countec- 
theais (as he writea to Spalatln in May, de Wette, i. 561 : haec liii. propositio mihi est 
cxtorta per Eccium; ziiL, as in the followiag letter, should hen be read instead of 
xii,) t Homanam Eccleaiam esse omnibaa aliia saperiorem, proliatur ei fiigidiasimla 
Bom. PonUficum decrelJs, intra quadringentos innoa natis, contra quae aunt historiae 
approbatae mille et centom anDorum, textaa scriptnrae dlviiiafl, et decretum Nlcaeni 
Concilii omnium aacratiaaimi. There are aonie remarkable declaratioDi of Lnther at 
this period. He writes to Scbearl, 20th Febr. (de Wette, i, 230) : Eccina noster, hncaaqna 
Insaniam laam in me pulehre diaaimulana, taadem manifestavit. Tide, quid ait homo. 
Scd Deus in medio Deorum : Ipae Dovit, qnid ex ea tragoedia deducere voIneriL Nee 
Eccius >ibi, nee ego mibi in hac qnleqnam serviemas. Dei coDaillum agi mihl videtur. 
Saepiai dixi, huciuqae latam toe a tne; nunc (ofldcm itria in Somaaam Potiiifiefm rt 
arrogantitm Romanam agtnlar. To lAOge in the aame strain, 7th Febr. (jbii. 217). 
To Spalatin, Gtb March (ibid. 236) ; Kunqnam ftiit in anlmo, at ab Apostolica aede Ro- 
mana voiuerim deiciscere : deoiqne earn contsutaa, at omnium vocetor ant etiam sit 
Domlnaa. Qnld hoc ad me ! qol aciam etiam Turcam boDorandam et ferendam pote»- 
tatia gratia. Qnia certna sum, dod nisi Tolente Deo (ot Petrus sit) ullam poleatatem 
consiBtere : »ed hoc ago pro flde mea iD Christum, at verbum ejas non pro libito trahant 
BlJlue coQtaminent. Dimittaat Diibi deetflta Bomana EvaDgelium alncemm, et omnia 
alia raplant : prorsna pilnm dod morebo. To tbe aame, I3th March Obid. SB9) : Terse et 
decreta Pontificnm, pro mea dlapntatlone, et (is aurem tibi loqnor) nesdo, an Papa sit 
AnliduiatDB ipse vel spostolua ejos : adeo miaers corrumpitur et crncifigitDr Christus, 
i. e. Veritas, ab eo Id decretla. Dlacmcior minun ia modnm, sic illudi populum Chriati, 
specie legam et Cbriitiioi nominis. Aliqnando tibi coptam fhciam aonotalioniim mea- decreta, ut et to videas, quid sit leges condere postposita Scriptars ex aSectu 
ambitae tyrannidla: ut taceam, qoae alia Bomana curia Anticbristi opera aimillima 
czondat. Nascitur mibi indies magta ac magia aubaidinm et praesidium pro ssciis Ute- 
ris. One result of these atadlea was the Rtioliitio taper Propotitloae xiiL de Pateilatt 
Papae, which Luther had already prepared in May, though probably ha did not have it 
printed till after the dispuUtlou at Leipeic, in T. 1. Jen. fol. 295 b. (in Lfischer, ill. 12^. 
In May he wrote to Spalatin (de Wette, i. 260) : Malta ego premo, et caoia Principis et 
Dniverdtatia noatrae cohibeo, quae, ai alibi essem, evomerem in vastatricem Scriptnrae 
et Ecde«fH Bomam, melius Babylonem. Hon potest Scriptorae et Eccleaiae Veritas 


CHAP. I.— GERMAN REFORMATION. | 1. 1518. 37 

27th June to the 16th July, 1519,*^ Carlstodt maintained against 
Eok the Augustinian doctrine of free-wiU. Luttier vbs forced 
into a dispute upon the primacy of the Pope ; and, in tliis connec- 
tion, Eok having charged him with holding Hussite opinions, he 
was led to make the declaratioit, which excited great surprise, that 
several of Hass's doctrines had been unjustly condemned.^^ Eok 
was superior to his opponents in controversial skill, and thus seem- 
ed to those present to have got t^e victory.*^ But the correspond- 
enoe, in which this disputation was continued for some time lon- 
ger,** tamed the public judgment again to the side of the "Witton- 

tnetui, mi Spilatine, niit hue bclna otfendatur. Non ergo sperei me quietum sc sal- 
TDm futurum, nial TelU «t ma penitus th«li>gisin inlcmuttere. Sine orgs amicM putsra 
ma iuiSDire. Rea ista linem noo acclptet (>i «x Deo est), nisi nicat Chriatum iliscipali 
<t noti ani, its et me derellnqnaat omncs amici mel, et sola ait veritaa, quae ealvet u 
dextera ana, noD mea, non tua, Don ulliui taomitib : et banc horam all initio spectari. 

*' There are contemporary occodnta of tliii in letlera from Melsncthon to Oecolampa- 
dioa, Eck to HocbBtraten, Joh. CellariDi to Capito, all writlon in laly; trotu Luther to 
9p>l>tin, from Amidorf to the same, both in Augost ; from Peter Mogellaniu to Julius 
Pflog, in DBcember. From Ang^nit there b tlie account of John Rubeus. favorable to 
Eck. All Ihege ar« in lecher, iii. 215 ff. The I^tin minuCei, irTitten down during the 
diipotalion, form the principal antfaority ; beat given in Loscber, Iii. 29! ff. 

*■ Acta Diap., bor. 3. d. 5 Jnl,, in Laacber, iii. SeO: Ccrtnm est, inter artlculos Jo- 
hannls Hius vel Boliemomm multoa e«ae plane Chriatianisaimoa et evaugelicoa, quoa 
non posalt nniveraalia Eccleiia damnare, relnt eit ille et aimilia, qaod lantum at una 
Ectlaia imicenalit. Haec enim agcntlbna impiiaaiinia adolaloribiis iniqueeitdamnata. 
—Delude ille : non est de necatttate iatutit creden liom^ Ecctetiain age alia jupmorciA. 

•* Lazier to SpaUtin on the 20th July (de Wette, i. 9S7j LSicher, iii. SSG): Et iU 
nihil fenne in lata diaputatione tractatam eat saltern digne praeter prapoaitionem meam 
decimam tertian. Interim tamen Ille (Ecclna) placet, trinmphat et regnat, sed donee 
edideiimiia no9 noatm. Nam qala male diaputatum eat, edam reaolntlones denuo. 

" In July, Eck pnbliahed in reply to Melancthoa's report, which waa addreaaed to 
Oecolampadins, hia — Eirsuttlio Eckii ad ta, guaefaito tibi PA, Melanrhlhon Grammaliaa 
Witttub. laptr Tieoloffica Dupulalume IJpiica adicripiii (in LOscher, iii. 591), wbere- 
npoa Helancthon immediately followed with a Df/mtio (Ibid. G9<!). Luther laaued in 
Anguat bia Saolalioiiei laptr PropotilioHibut luu Liptia* duptUalU !y. i. Jen. fol. 279; in 
LSacber, iii. 733). Againit tbeae Eck drew up an Eiparijalia in October, to which Lu- 
ther replied in November, with an F.putoia aper Eipurgaluma Ecciaaa (T. i. Jen. fol. 
358, b. 1 m Luacher, iii. 605 ; de Wette, I. 3u4). Tho FraDciacana at Juterbock had al- 
ready drawn 11 prDpoailioaa from Lather's worka as heretical in April, and denounced 
them to tbe biabop of Brandenburg Qa Luacher, ill. 116). Eck publiahed these in Au' 
gnst with notes ; in reply, appeared, in September, Contra naSigtum Jo. Echii JudictBm 
iuprr aliquot Articalii a Fratrtbur Jaibuadam ei impoaitis if, iMtheri Deftntio (T. i. Jen. 
fol. 211, b. ; in LOacher, iii. B56). Luther met with great favor among the Bohemiana. 
Two of the atraquiat clergy at Prague— Rosdlalowin and Padaachka—wrote to him in 
JolylettenofcoDgratnlatioaandeDCOurBgement^, 1. Jen. fol. SGBj la Lfiscber, iii. C49), 
which he received in October (see Lutber'a letter to StaupitK, M Oct., de Wette, i. 811). 
Boedialowln writes e. g. quod olim Johannea Haas In Bohemia fiicnit, hoc tn Hnrtine 
ea In Sazonia. Quid Igitnr tibi opus I VIgila et contbrtare in Domino, delude cave ab 
homlnibus. Neque animo concidas, ai te baereticum, al excommonlcatum audiea, ma. 
DDor snblnde, quid Chriatus pasena, quid Apoatoll, quid omnea hodla patiantur, qui pie 
Tolent vivere in Christo. It vraa probably to tbe beater of these letters that Lgther gave 


38 FOUBTH PEBIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 161T-16t8. 

bergers, altiiongli Eok already pionounoed them heretics uoder 
the BBme of Lutherans. 

This diapatation was the real training school of the Reformer. 
To prepare himself for it, and to oontioue it in writing, Luther 
was obliged to make investigations, into which, with his practical 
religious tendencies, he would probably not have been led under 
other circumstances :" here, too, Uelanothon now faithfully aid- 
ed him with his extensive learning and clear penetration/^ In 

hl9 writiDga to be carried to Bohemia (Lnlher to SpaUtla, 15th Oct., de WetU, i. 350). 
la th« mesa time Jeninifl Emeer, In a letter, printed in Angnst, to Job. Zick, adminis- 
trator of the diocese of Prague, De dispntatione Lipeicensi qaaatum ad Boemos obiter 
deflexa eat (T. i. Jen. fol. SiB ; in Lecher, iii. 660), had tried to rob the Bohemiana of their 
jof , \tj nuintaining that Lnther, olthongh he agreed witb tbcm in several points, would 
■till have nothing to da with tbeia as ichumatics. Lather answered him in Sept., in 
his Ad Atgeceroletn Emteriamim (referring to Emser'a armorial bearings, wUcb were 
-printed on the title-paga of his book, the forepart of a eapricom) M. Luiheri Retpeniii) 
(T. i. Jen. foL 850 ; Lfischer, iii. 668). Eraser wrote a reply in Xovember : A venatione 
LaCeriana AegocerotiB A^sertio, in LAscher, iii. 691. 

" Lothenu de CaptiviCate Babylonica Ecctesiac (Oct, 1520), In the letter of dedica- 
tion (T. li. Jen. tol. £69) ; Velini, nolim, cogor Indies eruditior fieri, tot tantieque magis- 
trii ccrlatim me urgentibus et exercentibus. De indutgentiis ante duos annoa seripsi, 
sed sic, at me nunc minim la modutn poeniteat editi libelli. Haerebam enim id tempo- 
ris magna qoadam saperslitione Romanae tyrannidia: unde et indulgenCias non penltua 
rejiciendai esse ceniebam, quas tanto hominum consensu cernebam comprobari. flee 
mimm, quia aolns tnm volrebam im$ aaxum. At postea benedcio Sylrestri et FVatnmi 
adjntna, qol strenne ilia* talati sunt, iat«Uexi, eas aliud non esse, qaam meras adnla- 
lomm Romanomm impoatoras, qoibus et Gdem Del et pecuniaa hominum perderent. 
Atque utinam a bibliopolls queam impetrare, et omnibus, qui legenint, persuadere, ut 
unireraos libellos mco* de indolgentils exurant, et pro omnibus, quae de eis scripsi, 
banc proposltionem apprehendant ; Indulgtritiae tiaii adulaiorum Romanoruin nfqaiUar. 
Posthaec Eccioa et Emaerus cum conjuratla saisde primatn Papae me erudire coepcrunt. 
Atque bic etiam, na hominlbua tam docUa ingratua aim, confiteor, me valde promovisse 
corum opera. Nempe cam Papatum negaasem dlvini, admisi ease hnmani juris. Sed 
at andivi et legi eablilissimas subtilitates istomm Trossolorum, qoibas snum idolum fabre 
Btstuunt (eat enim mihi Ingeniam in his rebus doq nsqucquaqae iadocile) : scio nunc et 
certoa sum, Papaium ewe rtgnum Babylimu et poteatiam f/imrod rotutfi ceaalarit. Pro- 
inde et hie, ut amicis mets omnia prosperrime cedant, oro librarios, oro lectorea, at iii, 
quae super hae re edidl, ezustis, banc propositionem leneant : PaptUai tat robusta cna- 
f (0 Romani EpiKopi. 

" Uelancthonla contra J. Ecklnm DeTensio (Aug., 1619). 0pp. ed. Bretschneider, I. 
113: Pnto non lemers fieri, ricnbl aententiis S. Patrea variant, quemadmodnm solet, ut 
jadice Scriptura Teci)Hantur; non ipsoram, nempe varlantibus judiciis, Scriptura vim 
patlatar. Qnandoqnidem anas aliqnia et simplex Scriptarae aenana est, ut et coelestis 
Veritas simpliciasima est, qaem coUatis Scripturis e filo dncCuque orationis licet assequi. 
In hoc enim jatiemur philosophari In Scriptoria divinis, ut bominum sententias decrela- 
qne ad ipiaa ceu ad Lydiitm lapidem exlgamus. Sooa after he drew up these Theses^ 
among others (see his letter to Hess of Febr. 1G20, 1. c. p. 138): Quod Catholicum prac- 
ter artlculoa, qnoa Scriptura probat, non ait necesse alios credere. Delude coociiioruni 
anctoritatem Scripturae aactoritate vinci. E quibaa fit, cltra faaereais crimen non credl 
Trail saubstantiati one m aut Characterem ant aimllia. And in hia letter to Bess he adds : 



this way Luther gained so thorough an insight into the errors and 
oorrnption of the Romas Cbtiroli^^ that he gradually began to see 

bmunu decTMls anctoriuti ucntram literaram dcrogui, neqne conhrri mode, B«d tt 
■DUferri hununa divioia : uticoloa fidd did Jun non iDodii> qoaa £3. Patrum conciliU 
dccteta sunt, ant PonUflcu BMkzemnt, aed et quidquid ThoDui, qaidquid Scotiu »rga- 
tantnr, et in iil noD modo incerta molta pro certll defend), »ed et male Chriatiana pro 
pus tradi. 

" Contra nuJIgnnm Jo. Eckli Jndiciam Latberi Deftnalo (Id Sept., 1&19) IV. (in 
Ldicber, lii. 877) : Dictum eat, amma hodie et mervalitmet nuuuin prvrnu nihil tut, 
■Kn iaqatai OBOtitiat, Don ino rltio, aed BomaneBaiam tfrannorum. laipadentissiiiuL 
«liim aTaritia eat Bomanae Curiae : ai dederia peconiaia, UDonea et omnia venalia hu- 
bea. V. at VI. (p. 879) : Cotuilia ivatigdiea Boniunl lapra, itd infra pratttpla,b. r, coa- 
■llia annt qoaedam Tiae et compendia facilioi et (blicina implendl msndata Dei. — Paci- 
Uoa enim cootinet, qid Tidnna ant Tirgo eat, aeparalna a acxn, qaam eopulaliu cum 
aezu, qui concnplacentiae aliqnid cedlt. VII. (p. S80) ; Con/tirio ilia, gnat nunc agilur 
DixtilW in oupen, nulla polittjure dieino pmbari, nee iCa flebat primiCaa, Md publics 

ilia, qnam Chriatoa Hatth. 18 docet Non tamen damno iitam oecnltam, uiii quod do- 

leo, ipsam eaae in camiScioani qaacdam redactam, ut cogantnr bomlDcs confiteri, et 
acTnpaloa been da iis, in qulbns nullum eat peccatom, auC veniale taatum. — Non est in 
Ecdeaia negotlum, quod aeqae ut iatad conlbaaionia et poeailentiae indigeat reforma- 
tione. Nam bic omnea leges, qoaeatus, Tis, tjTannia, error, poricula. et inHnita mala 
omolom animamm et totioa Ecclesiae graaaantor pleno impctu, quod Pootiflcaa pamm 
cnrant, et aophiatla animamm lortoribua relinqnuoL VIII. (p. 681) ; Neque enim Ko- 
Buna Curia alia re ma^ nocoit Eccleaiae Chriati, qnam mallitudine tt varittaU Ugtim 
nonifli, quae mibi videntur eiae noviuima et onminm nuxima peraecutio, ut in qua 
irrelitae cooacieatiaa peroant iirecuperabiliter, at turjussimum quaesCum sileam, qui 
legibna iatia alitur. XV. (p. 887): Valde vellem icire, ex qao loco ScriptoraB tradita 
titpnUtloM Papae Sanctoi canetuMondif Deinde, quae neceaiitaa Sancloa canoniaandi? 
Tandem, qnaa Dtilitu Soncto* canoniaandi ? Sermon on Iht VauraiU SaeroTntni of Iha 
ts/jF and (PUB Body of Ciritt, printed at tlie end of November ; iu Lflscher, iii. 90! ; 
Walch, xix. 522 : " But It aeema to me to be good, Ibat Ibe Cburch should again ordain, 
in a general cooncil, tbat [cbe aacrament at (be Lord's Supper] be given to all men in 
lalliformt, aa it la to the prieata. Not becauae one form ia not cnou^, if ao be tbeie ia 
CDOogh deaice for it In tlie vaj' of faith alone ; but bccau» it ia fitting and aeemlf tbat 
the ahape and form or ^gn of tbe sacrament be not cut up into pieces, but given whol- 
ly ; Just as I hsTC said about baptiam, tbat it ia more luitable to dip into tbe water than 
to pour it on, on acconnt of tbe whoiencaa and completeneaa of the sign. Beaides, thii 
sacrament signifies a whole purification, an undivided feiiowthip of the aainta (as we 
ahall hear), which ia illy and inaptly signified by a piece or part of the sacrament. And 
then, l«o, there is not ao great danger about (he cup, as is thought, liecause the people 
seldom go to this sacrament, and specially because Christ, who well knew all future 
dangera, did jet institute both forms for the use of all his Cbristians.'^ On account of 
tbia passage Duke George complained to the Elector about Luther, tiiaC he taugbt jual 
like a Hussite, and bad fellowship with the Unasitea ; dd. 27th Dec, 1519 ; in Loscher, 
iii. 920. The blahop □fUUnia, by a prescript of the S4th Jan., 1520, prohibited thia Ser- 
mon, and charged hia dergy to defend the luage of the Church (T. L Jen. tol. 460 b.). 
Against thia Lather wrote, iu Februaij, Antuori aafdea Ztddtl, 10 vnter da OffriaU zu 
Bloipen Sitgtt aaigtgangen [Walch, xix. 564), and toward the end ofthej-ear 1520 pab. 
lialied an enlarged Ijitin edition; Ad Schedulam Inhibitionls tub Nomine Epiacopi Mis. 
nensia editam anper Sermone de Sacramento EucliaiisUae D. Mart. Lutheri Beaponsio 
CT. i. Jen. fbl. 460). Meanwhile Luther was going astray about PttTyatori/, also ; aec 
his letter to %ialatiD of the 7tb Nor., 1519 (de Wetta, i. 3G7) : Breviter, quonquam ego 
Kio, purgatorium eoae apud noa, neacio taraen, ti spud omnea Cbriitianot tit. Hoc 
ceitnip est, nemiuem eaae baereticoDi, qui doo credit ease purgatorium, oec eat articulns 


40 rODBTH PERIOD.-brV. I.— A.D. 1617-16*8. 

the necessity of separating himself from it.^* He felt biniself caD- 
ed as a soldier of G-od to fight against the wiles and deceit of the 
devil, by which the Church was corrupted." With this position, 
which he intrepidly maintained, he gained that unconquerable 
courage, that rock-like trust, and that joyful confidence, with 
which, henceforth, he steadfastly pursued his aim through ev- 
ery danger. 

After Charles Y. had been elected Emperor by the influence of 
Frederick the "Wise, contrary to the Pope's wish (38th June, 1519), 
the Curia had nothing to restrain it from proceeding in Luther's 
cose. Accordingly, when Eok went to Rome in 1530, to act there 
with the help of the Dominicans, Luther might with certainty ex- 
pect a bull of excommunication. Yet Frederick the Wise, sup- 
ported also by the opinion of Erasmus,"* was still detennined to 

fidei, cnm Graeci UBad noo credeatd nanqiuni lint habili ob hM pro lucreticb, nial 
apad noTletimos haeretJcsntitumoa hsereticuitM. H« hod alio given Dp th« doctrine 
of HKn mcmmento,- he irrote to Sp»latln ob the 18th Dae, 1519 (de Welte, L S7e)i De 
■Ilia sacrameutis non eat, qood to Tsl olio* homiDnm ex ms speret aat expsctct nlBmn 
seimoaem, donee doceir, ex quo loco quesm ilia probare. Sua enim ultnm mlhi nli- 
qaam est BacramentDm, quod ucramentum Bit, nisi uU expreasa detni promiaslo ditiaa, 
quae fidem exerceat, cam line verbo promittentis at fide iiucipientis nihil pouit nobis 
eaie cnm Deo negotii. Quae autem de aacramentia UUi aeplem bbnlati Uli aont, alio 
tempore andles. 

'* At first he deceived himaelf on this point, bj making a distineSon between the 
Roman Church and the Soman Cnria ; compare hia Letter of Dedication to Radhemiae 
and Carbtadt, prefixed to the Comm. in Ep. ad Gatatai, Sept, 1519 (T. i. Jen. 369, in 
de Wette, i. 333) : Qnare et ego hornm ttaeologomm laicornm (Principnm Gennaniae) 
axemplo pnlcherrimo longiaaime, latladme, profnndiaaime, distingno Inter Komanam 
Ecdesiam at Komsnam Curiam. Ulam Bcio puriaatmnm eaae thalamam Chriati, ma- 
(rem Eccleiianim, domioam mnodi, aed apirltn, i. e. vitiorom, non reram mundi, apon- 
aam Chriatl, (iliam Dei, terrorem infiiinl. — Haec vera ex fractlbaa aoia cognoscitnr. 
^on qaod magni tBclmdnm ait, res nDrtraa et jura diripi, mm fixnm ut in coelo, Chri»- 
tianOB in bac vita preainram, MimbrottM et robustoa venalORs pati : — aed qaod omnibna 
lachijmia ut mlseria major, haec a fratribna et patiibni in fratms et filioa fieri, — quae a 
Tnrca vix flerent. — Ifallo modo ergo Romanae Eedaiae Foulert lictt : at Romanae Cbthm 
huge majore pirlale irttMrrmf Brgtt, Principa et quiamqut ponenl, ^an ipiii T\ircU. 

" LuthertotheCbTlatlanNobleaorthe German nation, 1520 (Walcb,x398): "We 
mnst be anre that in thia matter we are not dealing with men but with the princea of 
hell, irho DiB^ indeed fill the world with war and bloodahed, but who can not in this 
yraj be overcome. Wa moit laj' hold of the matter, renonncing pb^rsical force, with 
humble tmat in God, and with earnest pnyti aeek help of God, and lieep before our 
ejet nothing tint the calamitiea and needa of anSbring Christendom.— Wherever men 
have not acted in the fear of God, and with hnmtlitj, the Fopes and Homana have been 
able, with the devil'e help, to entangle kings with each other ; and this the]- maf now 
do again, if we go on without God'i help in onrown atrength and skill." 

" Compare note 32, above. Eraamui wrote fi-om Loaviin, lat Nor,, 1519, to Albert, 
Elector of Mayence, a letter, uhi, aa Luther expreaaes himself to John Lange, leth Jan., 
1520 (de Wette, i. 896), egregie me tutatnr, ita tamen Dt nihil minua qnam me tnturi 
videatuT, gicnt aolet pro dexteritate ana. Thla letter wai aoon after pabliihed, much to 



protect the most honored teacher of his new nniversity" ogaiost 

the clugriii or Ensmiu, nndoabudlj: hy TTtiich of Huttea, who then lived it the ccmrt 
of H«rt)Dce ; it ia in Ibe Lejrdea eiUtioa of the Open Enami, T. iiL T. I. p. G16. H« 
describea in strong featnrea the camiptioDS or the Church, and then proceeds: Haec, 
opinor, moventnt uiimum Lntheri, at pTimnin aadent se qaorandam Intolerabill impn- 
dcDtiie oppooere. Quid enim sliud suspieer da eo, qui nee bonorei smbit, nee peconi- 
■m capit? De uticulia, quoa objicinnt Luthero, in prseKntis non dispute, tantom da 
modo et occasione diepato. Ausna est Lathems de induIgeDtiis dabitsre, sed de qnlboa 
■111 prinsnimis impudenter BaMTenrennt : — aninu eat immoderathu loqni de potestats 
Ronuni Pontificia, aed de qua isti nimii immodent« prini icripaennt : — ansiu est Tho- 
mae deireta conlemnere, aed qoae Dominicanl pene praefernnt Erangeliis : anans est in 
materia confeadcnis aerupnloa aliqnoa diacatere, aed in qna monachi rise fine illaqneaot 
hominiun conaekeotiaa ; antna est ex parte negligere acholastica decnta, sed qnlbui ilU 
nimlam tribnant, et in quibna ipsi nihilominaa inter ae dJasenttnnt, postremo qnae lub- 
inde mutant, pro veteribna resciaais indncentes nova. DiacraciabBt hoe plaa mentea, 
cam andirent in scholia ten nnllam termonem de doctriua evangelica ; sacros illos ab 
Eccleaia Jam olim probatoa anctarea baberi pro antiqaatia ; immo in aacris concioolbua 
minimum andiri de Chriato j de potestate Pontificia, de opfaionibna recentinm ttn om- 
nia; totam oradonem Jam palam qnaealam, adulationem, ambltionem, ac fticnm praa 
se ferre. Hia imputandnm opinor, etiamsi qnae intemperantios acripait Lathenii. He 
then speaks earneatlf againat the propensit}' of theologians to denounce right off a* 
hereaj wfaaterer la pecnllar. 

" Compare the Chronicon Citicenae of the contemporar}: Panlns Langns, Benedictine 
in the monaateiy of Bosao, in Pistoiii Scriptt. Rerum Gennanic I. 188: Wilabergae 
anno qno baee acribo dominicae Incamationla IGSO ob florentisalmum ac Eamatisaimnm 
thMilogiaa et omnigenae sapienliae stndium fbmntnr mitle qningenliqae stndeDtes exr 
iitere, fama eruditisaimanun riromm HirtEnl Lutherl Auguatinensis, et Andreae Cin>> 
lottadii Arehidlaconl, — necnon Philip^ Helanchtbonis rhetaris, sacraeqne theosophiae 
Baccalaiirei, graece et latins peritiaairal, allecli et adunati. Et memoniti qnidem Inle- 
eerrimi, doctissimiqne duo UU bierophantea, Martinna nt Inminare maJDs, Andreas ot 
Inmlnare minus hnjoa Acsdemiae, theologlae atndinm et diTtni verbl tritlcnm absque 
omnl palearnm Le. aecnlaris phlloeophiae afUogiamommTe mixtnra pnriasime tiactant, 
et edoccot aaenm acilptaram, et potiaaimiun CbrisH Evangellam, Panlnm Apostolnm 
habenles ptn aichetjpo et ftindamento, cnm Ipso lllerarnm stadia timorem Dei, et cunc- 
tamm Tirtatnm semina verbo, ezempio et calamo in discipnloram pectora apargenlea. 
Neqne enim in hac almlfioa sapienliae palaestra fiitaas ills Peripateticoram prineepa 
Aristotelea, vel impina Porphyrins, ant certe ille blaaphemoa Arerroes, et similea ortho- 
■lozae fidei spretoiea et irrisoree cathedram ulUm habent vel audlentiam. Frederick 
the Wise rolled to Yalentine v. Tentleben at Rome, who liad written to him of the nn- 
favorable opinion there prevailing about him, on the lat of April, 1G!0 (T. ii. Jeii. fol. 
156), that he woold not decide about the truth of the Latheran doctrines, but that Ln- 
Iber bad offered to give account of himself, and to receive inatmctioD. AdGrmant mnl- 
ti, D. Hart. Lntbenim^nTltum ad has controversias de Papain descendisae, videllcBt 

eo pertraclum a D. Eckio Et cam nunc Germania floreat Ingeniis, et multis doctrina 

et SBfdentia praestantlbns viria, — eamqne etlam nunc rolgo Diici aapere ineipiant, et 
studio eognoacendae Scriptnrae teneantar: maltl judicant valde metnendam eaae, ai 
neglectia aeqaiaaimia conditlonibus a D. Lutbero oblatis, ^ne legltima cogsltione, tan- 
tarn eccleriaatlcia cenaoria feriatar, ne hae contentionea et certamina multo magis czas- 
perentur, uC postea non Ita (acile ad otinm et compoattlonea rea dedncl poeset. Kara 
Lulieri dortrina ila Jam pauim is ptnrimomm onjinu m Grrmania tt aliii iKfita mdiett 
<yi(, Dt ai non leris ac flrmis a^gumentla et peraplcnla testimoniia Scriptone revlncatnr, 
sed lolo ecdedasticae potestads larron ad earn opprlmendom procedatnr, non TJdeatnr 
na sic abitnra, qidn In Qermanla acerrimaa offeoaiones et horriblles ac exiUalea tnmnl- 
actlaaimnm domlniim Pontillcem, nee alils qaldqnam 


42 EOOETH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1M8. 

unjust violenoe. But Luther hod alread; fouod very decided 
friends in other parts of his G-ermao faUierland ;^^ several knights 
offered him refuge, and protection against persecution/" Thus 
he was put in possession of external facilities for pubUshtng hif^ 
present convictions about the state of the Church, and its relation 
to Christian truth. This he did, fearless of ooosequenoes, in th<; 
work An den Chrhtlichen Adel deutscker Nation von des Christ- 
lichen Standes Besserung (June, 1520),^° with particular refer* 

" Jo. BoUhemoa Abalemius, doctor and canoD mt ConeUnce, wrote to Lather, 3d 
March, I&20 (Job. t. Batzheim uud ■. Fnunde, vod K. Walchacr. ScbsnuoMU, I83G. 
B. 107) : Poatqum orbi. Mat saltem potion orbls parti, h. e. boiila et van Chriitiuiis 
■miciu fkclus en, meoa quoque amlciu oris, velii, nolia. Qnae scribii, its mibl proban- 
tur, ut nulla promde re gaudeam, ac tato moo propiUo, qao fkctum, nt boo tempors vi- 
varem, qao non humanae solum literae, wd et divlnae.pri»tinDm nitorem recaperaut, 
caet. Caapar Hedio, preacber at Baale, 23d June, 1620 (Kappea'a Nacblcae, U.4S3)-. 
Video, doctrioam taam ex Deo esie, cuiuime vir, disnoWi noa potest, in die) efficacior, 
quotldie multoa lucrifacit Cbristo, abduciC a vitiist assent versa pietati. — Libellis ver- 
nacnlia plnrimum prodea, biace cnim vulgi judicium formatur, qui>d certa saquax est et 
tractabile, agnoacit fucuni, capit admoneri, Intelligit beneficium, quae eat gratitBdinia 
para. Ceasandum ergo non est, u aZmp, tei tolls viribna conandum, uC jngum Christi 
fkcile et commodum nobis rcdeat. Tu dux esto, nos indivulsl mllites arimua, A modo 
nostra opera qulppiam posait prodesae, aive in coaciooibas pablicli, qmbus praeanm 
Jam, ananans EvaDgeliam Matlhaei, aive in piivatii colloqalia cirium Boailienaiiuii, 
daniqae ia Uteria amicorum. In June, 1620, Hntteu, too, broke oSThis feudal depend- 
ence upon tbe elector Albert, by which he had been hitherto debarred from declaring 
blmseir opeolj for Lutbar. He now orgsd him on with fiery letten (the flrat letter of 
the 4th June, USD, in Butlan'a Werke, von UOuch, ill. GTS), issued several worki In 
dehnse of Lather, and to make Rome odloua, and began (htm this tine fbrth to publish 
German works in (hia spirit, to work upon the people ; these were in part translatians 
of hia own Latin works (these last are collected in HOnch'a edition, Th. G). Banke's 
deuteche Gesch. im Zeitaller d. fief. L 416. However, Huttan's violent vicwa did not 
suit Luther. He wrote to Spalatin, sending at the same time Hutten's letters and woriis, 
16lh Jan., 1&31 (de Wette, i. 643) : Qold Huttenns peUt, vides. Nollem vi et caede pro 
Evangelio certari : ita scrips! ad boroinem. Verbo victua cat mnndna, verbo servsta eat 
Ecclesio, etiam verbo reparabitnr. 

*' As early as Jannsry. 1620, Frani von Sicklngen Invited Lather to go to him j see 
Hutten'a Letter to Mclancthon, 20th Jan. (in Kappen'a NaoUese, ii. 425; MOnch, iii. 
3ST) : At nunc scribere Lathero ipse beros jubet, si quid fn causa sua patiator adverai, 
nee melius aliunde remedium sit, ad ee nt venial, efftelomm pro eo quod possiL — Lu- 
thermn amat Franciscua, primnm quia bonns sibl at ceteris videtar, et ob id inviius 
illis, deinde quia eum ex Comitibus de Solmis qnidam commendavit Uteris. Afterward 
Slckingen repealed this invitsclon in a letter of his own to Lntber, Sd Nov., 1520 (in 
Welch, XV. 1948). The FranconiaD knight, Sylvester vcn Schaumburg, offered Lnther 
protection in a letter, 11th June, 1520 (Welch, xv. 1942), and exhorted him not to take 
refuge with the Bohemians : " For I, and a handled nobles besides, whom I will call 
upon (so God please), will hooorably hold to yon, and protect yon from danger against 
your opponents, so long as your good iatenttoni shall remain oncoodemned and nnre- 
fuled by a general ChrlaUan coancil and aasemblage, or by ansospecled and intelligent 
Judges, or dll yOD shall be belter instnicted." F. von Sickingen'a Tfaaten, Plane, 
Fieondeund Ansgang, darch E. Mdnch (Stuttg. n. TQldngen. S Bde. 1827-29. 8.), 1. 16C. 
Ton Bucholtz Gesch. d. Begierung PenUnand L, Bde. ii. (^len., 18S1), a. 77. 

*° Welch, X. 29G. Introduction. " Grace and strength titaa God be with yon. Uoit 


CHAP. I.— GERMAN BEFOBMATIOX. § 1. 1620. 43 

enoe to the extenial constitutioa of the Church. la October, 

MCCDe uid moaC graciona dear Lordat It is not tma men forwardneu and preiump- 
tioo that iDcb a poor maa as m jwlf nadertakea to addreu j-oui high dignities; the dii- 
tnas and appreuiDD that weigh upon all claim or Chiiatendam, eapecially Germany, 
hare mored not only me, but every man, ofUimea to cry aloud and implore help, and 
now also force me to cry out and call, if ao be God will give to any one the apirit hi 
reach out hia hand to the anfl^ring nation. By Conncila some remedy has often been 
attempted ; bat these have been dexteroiuly thwarted by the craft of certain men, and 
have been growing worse and worse, which knavery and wickedneu I now mean, God 
helping me, to bring to li^t, so that, tieiug known, there can no longer be sach hin- 
drance and scandal. God hu now given to na a ruler of young and noble blood, so that 
many hearts an aroused to great and good ^pee. Therewith it is seemly that we do 
our part also, and wisely nae the time and grace." Then, after a waming to begin the 
work, not In reliance upon onr own power or reason, but only with humble trust in 
God, he proiwedB; "The Romanists, with great dexlerily, have drawn around them 
three walla, with which they have hitherto protected thcmselveB so that no one could 
possibly reform tham, and thus the whole of Christendom is grievously prostrate. Firit, 
when pressed with the secular power, they have taken the position and declared that 
the secular anthority has no right over them, but that, on the contrary, the spiritual is 
above the secular. Secoadli/, when any one would rebuke them with the Holy Scrip- 
ture, they have replied that it belongs to nobody but the Pope to interpret the Scripture. 
HurJlji, if threatened with a Council, they have feigned that no one bat the Pope can 
call a Council." Against the /'int If oA : the distinction between the ipiritnal and sec- 
ular order is naught : " for all Chriitiant are trviy of At ipirilaai order, and there is 
among them no difference bnt that of office alone, as Paul says, 1 Cor. xii., that we are 
all together one body, yet every member has his own work, so that he may servo the 
others. — By baptism we are all together consecrated to be priests, as St. Peter, 1 Pel. 
iL, says. — Hence the bishop's consecration is nothing more than this, that out of a num- 
ber, who all have like power, he takes one in the place and pemon of the whole com- 
nnni^, and commands him to administer this power for the rest — In tike iminner, tboio 
who are now called spiritual have no further nor worthier distinction from otliet Chris- 
tians, excepting that they have to do with the Word of God and the Sacrament, that is 
their work and office. So, too, the secular authority bos the sword and the rod in its 
hand, to punish the evil and to defend the righteous. It ought to carry out its office, 
free and unhindered, through tbe whole body of Christendom, without regard to any 
one, let it strike Pope, bishops, priests, monks, nuns, or whatever Uiey be." Against 
the Stcood WaU: "Christ says, John vi., that all Christians shall be taught of God. 
That it lOMj come to pass that the Pope and his followers are evil, and not trne Chris- 
tians, and not taught of Ood so as to have right miderstanding ; on the other hand, 
some humble man may have the right understanding ; why should he not then be fol- 
lowed ? Has not the Pope often erred ? Who can help Christendom when the Pope 
em, if we may not believe in one who has the Scriptura on his side more than in him?" 
— " The Third Wail will (all down of itself when these first two fall. For wbers the 
Pope acts against Scripture we are bound to stand by the Scripture, to punish and com- 
pel liim. after the woti] of Christ, Hstth. xvili. : if thy brother sin against thee, tell it 
to the Church. — If I ought, then, to accuse him before the Church, I must bring the 
Church together.— Even that most bmous Conncil of Nice was neither called nor con- 
Bnned by the Bish<^ of Bome, but by the Emperor Constantino ; and after him many 
other emperors have done the very same thing, and yet these have been most Christian 
Councils. — Thererore, when necessity demands it, and the Pope is oS^nsive to Christen- 
dom, whoever can flntdo it is bound, es a trne memtwr of the whole t>ody, to see to it, 
that there be a truly free Council ; and nobody can do this so well as the secnlar sword. 
— What it to be dimuitd in Iho Caandii. — In the first place, it is detestable and terrible 
to see, how the highest personage in Christendom, who boasts that he is Christ's Tlear 
and St. Peter'a successor, lives in such worldly pomp that no king, no empcrot, can In 


44 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. L— A,D, lSlT-1648. 

tlua corns ap v!th him and be tike him. — In tbs second place, of wbat nae to Chrliteo- 
dom are those folkg who are called cardinals ? Thia I will ay to thee, Italy and Ger- 
many have many ricli claiaUn, finindatioDa, titts, and parialiea; these coold not Iuts 
been brought under Rome without making cardinals, and giving to Ihem bishoprics, 
cloisters, and pTelaclei ; and thua the service of God has been prostrated.— But I adTlss 
that fever cardlDala be made, or that the Pope support them from his own posssnlons ; 
twelve would be more than enough, and each one of tbem sheuld have an annoal in- 
come of a thousand guilders — lathe third place, if the one-hnndredth |>art of the Pope's 
conit were allowed to remain, and ninety-nine parta were abolished, it would still be 
large enough to give answer in matters of the faith." 

After a picture of the manifold oppres^ons of the Cburcb by the Pope there follows 
advice for the reformatioa of the stale Christianity. "1. That everj- prince, noble, and 
city, forbid anew their own subjects to pay annates to Rome, and even abolish them. 
2. Since the Pope, with bis Roman practices, commendams, adjutoria, mserrations, gra> 
tlas expectatlvae, pope's money, incorporatian, union, penshms, psJIs, chanceiy-mles, 
and such devices, draws to himself all Oennan foundations without authority or right, 
and grants or sells tbem In strangers at Rome, who do nothing tor tbem in Germany, 
and tbns robs tbe ordinaries of their due, and makes the bishops ciphers and puppets; 
Ibeiefore tbe Christian nobles ought to ntist bim, as tbe common enemy and destroyer 
of Christendom, and restore to the ordinaries their rights and office. — 3. That an impe- 
rial decree be issued, that no bithc^'t paU, or con^rraofun of any other dignity be brought 
from Rome ; but that the order of the moat holy and most famona Council of Nice be 
again established, tn which it is delennined that a bishop shall be instituted by the two 
bishops nearest to him, or by tbe archbishop. Still, that the Pope may not complain 
that he is robbed of his Bupremacy, it should be decreed, that when the primates or 
archbishops can not settle a matter, or wbere a quarrel arises between them, it abovld 
then be brought befbre the Pope. — (. That it be decreed that no secular cause be carried 
to Rome, but that all such be left to the secular power. — For the Pope's office ought to 
be this, that he be the most learned of all in Holy Scripture, and in truth, not in name 
only, the most [HODB, and regulate all matters which concern the&ith and holy living of 
Christiana. Besidee, the shameful extortion of officials in nil beneficea must be forUd- 
den ; so that they may concern IhemsetTcs only about matters of Aiith and good morals ; 
and leave' to the secular judges all thst relates to money, goods, tbe body, or honor. — 
b. That no more reservations be valid, and no Sets be held at Borne.— 6. That the Cattu 
Raerrati be also aboliahed.— 7. That tbe Roman See should abolish the Qgida, and 
lessen tbe swarm of vermin at Rome, to tbe end that the Pope's people may be supported 
from tbe Pope's own possessions — i. That the oppresidve and hateful oaths which bisbopa 
are forced to take to tbe Pope should be done away with. — 9. That tbe Pope should baTO 
no power over tbe Emperor, except to andnt and crown him at tbe altar, as a bishop 
crowns a kiug : and that tbe devilish etiquette be no longer allowed, that the Emperor 
sbonid kiss the Pope's feet, or sit at his feet, or, as is said, bold his stirntp, or the rein of 
bis paifry, wbcn be mounts on horseback : much less swear allegiance and true homagu 
to the Pope, as the Popes have had the effrontery to demand, as though they had ri^tlo 
do so. — It was the devil who invented such arrogant, haughty, wanton demands of the 
Pope, that in due time ho might bring in Antichrist, and exalt the Pope above God, as 
many already do and have don& — 10. That the Pope be content to withdraw his band 
ftma the dish, and not assume tbe title to the kbgdom of Kaplea and tbe Sicilies.- 11. 
That there be no more Idseing of tbe Pope's (Mt. It is an micbriitian, yea, an anti- 
chrlstlaa act, for a poor sinful man to let bis (bot be kissed by one who is a hundred- 
fold better than himself. — It is also an odious piece of the ssme scandalons pride for 
the Pope to allow himself to be borne aloft by men, Uke an idol, with unheard-of pomp. 
•—What Cbristian heart csu or abould behold with pleasure, how the Pope, when he 
wishes to communicate, sits still as a gracious lord, and has the sacrament reached to 
him with a golden reed by a kneeling, bending, cardinal (see Vol. !, Part 3, $ £1, Kol« 
6), as though tbe Holy Sacrament were not worthy that a Pope, a poor, stinking sinner, 
■honld rise up and do honor to hia God.— IS. Tlat pllgrinugei to Rome b« abolMMd, or 


CHAF. I.— GBRUAN REFORUATIOtf. 3 I. 1620. 45 

that DD ODe, of Us own notion 01 devotion, be allcrwed to go on Om pilgrimage, vith- 
ODt first luTing a anfficient and honsat cause, Tecogniied by his pastor, bis ci^-niten, or 
Lii liege-lonl. I do not say this because pilgrinugea are wicked, bat they are not ad- 
(isabls at this time. For at Rome will be seen no good example, but only vain hin- 
dnoces. — And if this reason be not enongh there is one still mare excellent, viz., tbat 
simple men are thus led into false ima^jiatiaus. For tbey tbink that such a pilgrimage 
u a good work of great price, which is not the truth.— 13. Next, we come to the great 
moltitDdM who promiM much and perform little. Be not angry, dear auutare, I mean 
it well in tmUi, it la the hitter and sweet tmth — and it is this, that no mere Uendicant 
monsjteriea be allowed to be boilt God help na, there are by far (00 many of them 
eTcn now : would to God thejr were all abolished or collected into two or three places. 
It has done no good, sod never can do good, for men to run vagabond about the coun- 
try. So it is mj' advice, that ten of them, at aa many as are wanted, abould be thrown 
together and made into one, which being auffidently provided, would have no occasion 
to beg. And that their preaching and confessing be dbpcnsed with, except they be re- 
qnesled'and deairedby bishops and parish-priests, a church or rulers. From such preach- 
ing and confeiaing nothing has grown but mere haired and envy between priests and 
frian, and great trouble and hindrances (o the common people. Besides this, the great 
number of aecta and divisions in each order must be done away with. The Pope, too, 
most be forbidden to inatitnte or confirm any more such orders; yea, even commanded 
to do away with aoms, and rednce their number. It is, in my opiuion, needful, that 
ftoandatioDS and religions bouses be reconstituted as they were at first by the apostles, 
and a long lime afterward, when they were all free for every one t« remain there as long 
aa he pleased. 14. We see alao how the priesthood have fallen. Many a poor priest is 
burdened with wife and children, and a heavy conscience, and no one attempts to help 
him, if anch help be poaalble. Let Pope and bishop proceed aa they please, destroy as 
they will, I will deliver my conscience, and open my mouth freely, though Pope or 
biahop or any one else take ofi^nse. I let alone Pope, bishops, foundations, prieala, and 
monks, whom God has not instituted. If they have laid burdens on themselves, let 
them bear them. I will speak of the office ot Pastor, which God has instituted, to mlo 
■ community with preaching and sacraments. liberty should be granted to pastors by 
a Christian conncil to mirry sod avoid peril of sin. For as God himself has not bonnd 
them, man may not and ought not to do so. There is many a pious pastor on whom 
DO man can lay any other reproach than that ha is living scandalously with a vomaD. 
Both of them, however, hare fixed In their mind that they will always abide with each 
otlier in true wedded troth. If they can do this with a safe conscience, although per- 
hapa in public they will have to bear acaudnl, in the sight of God they are certainly 
married. And here I say that if they are thus minded, and so live as quite to deliver 
their consciences, let him take her as his wedded wife, keep her, and live boiKirably 
with her as a husband, witbont regarding whether the Pope approve or disapprove, 
whether it be against spiritual or carnal lav. The salvation of thy aoul is of mote value 
than tyrannical, orbitTsr}-, wanton laws, which are not neceaaary for holiness, nor com- 
manded by God." 16. Thia ia againat reservationi of the beads of many cloisten, aa a 
mult of which their subordinates could receive of them absolution only in cases of mor- 
tal ain. In consequence they often did not make confession at all. 16, "It would 
alao be neceasaty to aboliah anniversaries, celebrations, and masses for souls, or at least 
dlminiah them, for we see plainly that nothing bat ridicule results from them, and that 
tbsy are only kept for money, eating, and drinking. 17. Certain penalties and punish- 
ments of ecclesiastical law must also be abolished, especially the interdict, which, witb- 
ont doubt, was Invented by the evil spirit Eicommuuicatioa mnit only be nsed where 
Scripture appcunts It to be n*ed, that Is, against those who do not hold the true laith, or 
live ia open sin, not for temporal posaeaalons. The other pains and penalties, sospen- 
aion, irr^ularity, aggravation, re-aggravation, deposition, lightnings, thnnder, cnrung, 
damning, and what more of snch inventions there may be, should all be buried tea ella 
deep in the groimd, that even the name and ncollection ot them may no longer be upon 
the earth. 18. That all festivals be abolished, and only Sunday retained. But if it la 


46 FDDBTH PERIOD.— Dir. I.— A.D. 1617-1818. 

ilaind to kMp the ftitlTals of our bd; and the great uinti, they ihonld all b« tniu- 
ferred to Sunday, or only obscrrad in tba momiiig at mau, bo that aftcnraid ths whole 
day may b« a work dajr. The reaaoa ii, that as the aboM is now kept ap irith drioklD^ 
playing, idlenesi, and all kinds of lia, ire anger God mora npon the hoi; day« than on 
the othara. And first of all, the consecration of the ohorobes should be wholly giren 
Dp, slnM they are nothing dse bat pot-hooae days, fain, and pUy^dsyi. IS: That the 
degree of reUtlonsUp within which marriage is forbidden sboold l>e altered, as in the 
cue of BpoDSOTship, to tliB third and ronrth degree: so that, where the Pope of Borne 
can dispense for monay and sell bis dispensations scandalonslj, arery priest may dis- 
pense gratis and for the good of sools. Yea, would to God, tliat all which roust be 
booght at Boms, tha ume might be dona and granted by any priest wlthoot payment, 
as, for Instance, Indolgence, Indnlgence-brief, bntter-bilef, masaJjrief ; with tha conlU- 
slonalia and wlialaver more of trickery there be at Rome. Ukewise, tliat Aula should 
bo tyee to every man's choice, and food of all kinds allowed, as the Qoipel preecribea. 
SO. That the OBtljing chapels and field churches should be tereled to the ground, since 
it i* to them that the new pilgrimages go. 21. It is one of the greatest needs that all 
mendicancy be abolished in Cbriatendom ; eTery town can sapport it* own poor. 11. 
It ihonld also be coDsidered, that the nnmber of masses in cathedral and monastic foun- 
dations are not only of little nse, bnt arouse God's great anger ; so it were profitable to 
foond DO more of them, bnt to discontinae many of those already insUtnlad. Neither 
most It any more be the case that one pemon posseaa more than one preAirment or ben- 
ejlce. 23. The (Vatemities, also indutgeaces, Indulgence-brfotii, bntlar-litnlh, roass-brieb, 
dispenaatlans, and whatever there be of this kind, ihoald all be drowned and aixdished. 
My friend, thou hast entered at thy baptism upon a brotherhood with Christ, ill the an- 
geli, saints, and Cluistlsn men on earth ; hold this ftst, and carry it out, and yon will 
have enough of fraternities. Especlall; all papal embassies, with their fscnlties which 
they sell to us for great sums, shall be chased ont of German land, for they are msnifest 
iricketj. As they are here, they take money and make onri^teons gains right, dissolve 
oaths, vowi, and compacts, break, and teach men to break, troth and Eaith pledged be- 
tween man and man, and say that the Pope has power to do Uiis. If there were no other 
wicked device to prove that the Pope is the real antichrist, tliis alone wonld be enong^ 
to prove It. S4. It is high time that, once for all, with leal and ginceiitj, we take up 
the csnie of the Bohemians, and nnita onrsclvea with them, and them with as. In the 
Srst place, we must boneatly caafess the tmth, that John Hnsi and Jerome of Prague 
were burned to death at Constance in defiance of the Papal, Christian, Imperial saA- 
condnct and word of honor, and ID it was done against the commandment of Ood. I 
will not hen Judge John Uuss's articles, nor flght about his erron, though my under- 
standing has never yet foond any thing emmeons In him. I will only saj- this, that 
were he a heretic, as wicked as ever he could lie, he was still bnmed onrighteonsly and 
against the law of God, and the BobemUns should not be compelled to approve such a 
deed. Heretics should be conquered with Scrlptare, as the ancient fathers used to do, 
not with fire. If tlie art of convincing heretics by fire were the right one, dwn the ex- 
ecutioners would be the most learned doctors upon earth." Pious and pmdent bishop* 
and learned men should be sent to Bohemia, to inform themselves as to the belief of the 
people, and attempt a union of all eecta. The Bohemians ahonld then at once dect an 
Archbishop of Prague, who shonld see to It that they walk uprightly in the bith and 
word of God, wlthont wUlilng to Impose npon them all Soman doctrines and usagsa. 
"If I knew tliat the Picards held no error in the sacrament of the altar, except that they 
believed bread and wine were truly and naturally present, and yet under these the true 
body and blood of Christ, I would not refuse them, but suRtr them to coma nnder tlw 
Bishop of Prague. For it Is not an article of taith, that bread and wine are not essen- 
tially and nataraily prennt in the sacrament; this is a &ncy of St. Thomas and the 
Pope ; but it Is an article of the faith, that In the natural bread and wine the Indj and 
hlood of Cbrltt are truly present. Thns the opinions of both sides should be tolerated 
until thej agree ; meanwhile there Is no danger in your believing that bread either la 
ur is not present. For we must tolente many customs and ordinances which are not 



1530, he issaed his Praeludium De Captivitate Babylonica 
Ecclesiae, npon the Catholic dootrine of the sacraments." 

injarioDB to ths Cilth. But if Ihcj think otherwlH, I wanld rather have them itay out 
till they ■abocribe the trath. The temporal poucssloni irhlch belonged to the Charch 
nhcmld not b« demanded again with orerniiich atrlctness. 25, The Dniveraitlea also re- 
quire a right strict refbrm. Whit an the luiiTertmea, except rfgnMOtia fphdienm rl 
gnucae gloriae, where a free life is led, a little holy writ and Cbrlitiaa bith tangfat, 
H'hcR the blind, heathenish toaster, Aristotle, alone holds sway, more even than Christ ? 
For this miMnble man teaches In his best book, De Arnaui, that the aonl Is mortal with 
ibe bodj-, though many penona have bried with vain words to rescue him bom this re- 
proach. In like manner his Ethics Is more directly opposed to the grace of Qod and 
Chciitlan Tlrtoe than any other book, bnt still Itia reckoned as one of the beiL I could 
well endore that Aristotle'a books on Logic, Rhetoric, and Poetrj' be ret^ned, or that 
abridgmenta of them be nsed with adrantage to exerciie young men In speaking and 
pnaching well. But the comments and divisions most bo done away ; and as Cicero's 
Ithetorica Is without comment and diTisiona, so shonld Arlatntle's Logic be read uniformly 
without each large commenta. Bat now neither (peaking nor preaching is taught from 
it, and nothiog comes from it but dlaputations and wearineaa. I would let the physicians 
reform their own facultlBS ; the Jurists and theologians 1 take into my own hands, and 
I say to the former, it were good if eccleaiostieal taw, from the drat letter to the laat, 
mra thotougfaly razed to the ground, especially the decretals. As to the secular law, 
God help ua,«bat a wilderness It has become! althon^ it is much better and more In- 
(;enioai and more honeat than eecleitastical law, still, far Iso much has been made of 

it Hy friends, the theologians, have kept out of toil and labor, let the Bible alone, 

and read the Sealtntiat. I think the Sententiae should be the beginning for young di- 
v:nes, and the Bible remain for the doctors : bat the order Is invertod, the Bible ii the 
'Ant book introduced ifilh the bachelor'a degree, and the Senlentiae the laat, which 
■bide with the doctorate for ever.— The number of booki must be dimlnlabed, and the 
l«st read. For many books do not make a man learned, nor much reading; bnt good 
oneo, and often read, however little Ihey be, make a man learned In Scripture and plona 
withal.--Befon all things else, in the higher and lower schools, the chlelbst and com- 
moneat reading shonld bo the Holy Scriptures, and for young boys tho Goepel. And 
would to Ood ertoy town bad, besides, a giila' Kbool, in which the m^dens might hear 
the Gospel one hour in erery day." SO. The Pope haa unjustly deprived the Greek em. 
peroT of the Soman Empire, and granted It to the Germans, bnt only to bring them un- 
der his yoke. " So let the Pope give up Roma, and all he boa of the Empire, leave onr 
country (Tee from bis intolerable treoiure-seeklng and extortion, give He bach our free- 
dom, power, goods, honor, body and soul, and let there be an Empire, snch as an Em- 
pire should be, to the end that ho may make good bis words and prol^aioDs. " ST. On 
secular tronsgressiona ; against too costly clothing, excess in foreign spices, asni^. glut- 
tony and drunkenness, common brothels. — Concluiim: "1 see vorj- well that I have 
aung In a high strain, proposed much that will seem impoesible, assailed many things 
too sharply j bat what should I do ? I am bonnd to speak [ if I bad the power I would 
act thus. 1 had rather the world were angry with me than God; man can never do 
more than take away my lifo. Until now I had oRbred peace to my enemies ; but, aa I 
see, God has coupellad ma tbrough tliem to open my mouth wider and wider. — Althon^ 
I also know, as my canae is just, that It must be condemned on earth, and only justified 
by Christ In heaven.— Therefore let it be leatously gone Into, be they pope, bishops, 
priests, monks, or learned men ; they are the right people to persecnta the truth as they 
always have done. God grant us all a Christian understanding, and especially to the 
Christian nobles of the German nation, a true splrltnal eonrage to do the best for the 
poor chuTchea. Amen." 

" T. ii. Jen. fol. !C9 as. Vd. 260, b. Prfndplo neganda. mihi snnt*<pt«n aaeraiBtnla, 
et tantoin Iria pro tempore ponenda, bapUsmua, poenltentla, panis, et haec omnia ea>« 


4S roCRTH PEEIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 15U-1648. 

p«r Gonunam Curiam nobia In miserabilem capliviUUm dacts, Eccletlimqtw iiu lota 
lib«rUI« apalutam. Qumqiuni, A oid acdptnnte loqui velim, non niii oaQm ucra- 
mentam habeun, et tria ilgni Hcnmcntslla. Fol. 3G2, b. Conclndo ilsqae, ne|;art 
uCrann^ tptatm lilcii, esM imidam et t}Tsnnicnin, nec in nana dIUds Angeli, ncdum 
Papas et Concilil cujiucDnque. — Prima err/o capliniiru bnjtu Sacramenti eat quoad ^jut 
substantlam aeu Inlegritatcm, quam nobis afaalulit Rontana tyrannis. Non quod pec- 
cent in Christum, qui una apeele utuntur ; — scd quod illi peccant, qui hoc arliitrio voUii- 
libus at! prabibent utramque dari : culpa non est in loicis led sacerdotibui. — Itaque non 
hoc ago, nt ii rapiatur utraqne speciei, quasi necessitate praccepli id earn cogamur, ae<l 
conacieatiam lustmo, nt patlatur quisqae tyrannidem Romanam, ecieni aibl raptam per 
vim Jul luam In Sacrameato propter peccatum suum. Tsntnm hoc rolo, ne qnla Roma- 
nam tj-rannldem j usCifioet, quasi reels fecerit, unam speciem laicia prohibens, sed del«s- 
temur earn, nec consentiamna ei. Tamen fcramus earn non aliter, ac si apud Tnrcani 

mitlor estt quod ad conscieotiam ipectat, sed quam multo omnium periculosissimum 
sit tangere, nedum damnare. Uic Viglepbista, et icxcentia nomioibus baereticus era. 
Qaid turn 7 Poilquam Romanaa Epiacopua Epiacopaa esse deaiit, et tjrannna factus est, 
non formido ejoi univena d«creta, cujus scio non ease poteatalem, articulos novoa fidei 
condendl, nec Concilil quidcm generslis. Dedit mibi quondam, cum theologjam scho- 
laiticam hanrirem, occasionem co^tandi D. Cardlnalis Cameracenaia libra SeuleDtiarum 
IT. acntisume dispulana, mnlto probabiliua esse, et minua auperduorum miraculorum 
poni, ai in altari Tcrvs pinia verumque vlnum, non aotem sola accidentia eaiie adstme- 
Tentur, nisi Ecclesia doterminaaset contrarinm. Poslea videna, quae easet Ecclesia, quae 
hoc detcrminaasct, nempe Thomiatica h. s. AriatMelica, andacior factus aam, etqui inlet 
aaxum et aacrum haerebam, tandem stabilivi conscientiam meam sententla priara, ease 
Tldelicet Tsmm panem vsrumque vinnm, in qnibaa Chrisli vera cam vorasque aanguis 
non sliter nec minus ut, quam illi sub accidentibua auis ponunl. Quod feci, quia vidi 
Thomlstanim opinionea, aive probentur a Papa, aive a ConcUio, manere opinioues, nec 
Bsri articuloa fldel, etiamsl Angelua de coelo aliud etatneret. Nam quod aine Scripturla 
RsaaritDr, aut revelatione prohala, Djuaari licet, credi non est neceue. — Permitto itaque, 
qui Tolet, Dtramqne opinionem tenere; boc solum nunc ago, nt scnipuloa conscientia- 
ram de medio tollam, ne quia se lenm haereseos metuat, si in altari venim panem ve- 
Tnmqae vinnm eiae credideril. Sed liberum esse eibi sciat, citra pericolum saluUa alter- 
ntram imaglnari, opinari et credere, cam ut hie nulla necessltas Sdei. Ego tamen meam 
nnnt prosequor senUntlam. — Est autem meae sententiae ratio magna imprimis ilia, 
quod vertu diemU non N( ntta fadmda ett, — sed qnantnm fieri potest, in almplisalma 
slgniflcatioae servanda snnl, et nisi manlfeata drcumstonUa cogat, extra grammaticam 
et propriam accipienda non aunt, ne detur adveraarlls occaalo, nnlvenam Scripturam 
elndendi.^-Fol. SG4, b. Tertia fuptjci^u ejuadem Bacramenti est longe Impiissimog ille 
abnsna, quo fsctnm est, at Ibre nihil sit bodie in Ecclesia nceptius ac magis pereuaanm, 
qnam Jfistan) UK opiithowmttiaerijicitim. Qni abusus deinde inandsvit inflnitoa alioa 
abnsns, donsc fids sicramenti penitus eitincta meraa nnndinaa, canponationes et quacs- 
tnarioa qnosdam coDtracCaa s divlno Sacramento fecerint. Hinc psrticlpalioues, fl'atcr- 
nltatei, snffTa^, merita, anniversaria, memoriae, et id gcnns negotiorum in Eccleila 
Tenduntar, smuntur, paclacnntor, componuntur; pendetque in his uuiveraa alimonb 
aaeerdotum et monachonun — Fol. S65, h. Eat Itaqus Uisaa secundum subatantiam 
Buam propria nihil aliud, qnam verba ChristI praedicta: Accipilt tl tnandaailt, etc., ac 
■i dicat : ecce o homo peccatoi et damnatua, ex meru giatnitaque charitale, qua dlligo 
le, aic volente miaericordiarum Patre, Ms verbis promitio tibi, ante omne meritum et 
votum tunm, remisaionem omnium peccatomm tnomm, et vllam aetemam. Et nt cer- 
tisumus de hae mea promiaaione irrcTocablli lis. corpus menm tradam, et sangulnem 
fondam, morte lp«a banc promisalonem coDSrmatunu, et utntmqus tibi Id aignum et 
memorials ejnsdem promiulonia relictnma. Qood cum ftvqnentaveris, mel memor sit, 
banc meam Is ta charitatem et largitatem praedlcss et landea, et gratlas agas. Ex qui- 
bns vldea, ad Mlsaam digns habendam aliud non reqmri, quam Jtjem, quae hole promla- 
sloni fideliter nltatar, Cliriitum la bis suls verbia veracem credat, et sibi baec ii 


CHAP. I.— OERUAH BEFORUATION. 5 1. 1620. 49 

bODa ana douala dod dublMt. Ad banc Gdem niai ceqaetDT tm, iponte dulciuimiu 
■Atetu eontii, quo dUaMtat et impIngiutDt ([nHtiu homiDii Qitec eat eAaril!iu, per 
Spiritnm UDCtom ia fide Cluuli donata), ut ia Chiutom, tam imigata et beaiganni lee- 
Utorem, raplatar, fiatqne penitiu alioi et novtu homo — Qoin quod deplorsmaa, in bac 
eaptiTitatc omDl ttudio cavetnr hodie, oe verba ilia Chriati ulltu laiciu andiat, quasi 
■acfatiora, qnatn ut vnlgo tradi debeant — Neqns enim Dene aliter cum homlnibiu na- 
qiiBiii egit, aut agit, qnatn ttrbo promittioiiu. Buraiu nee ooa cum Deo nnqoam agere 
aliur pouamna qnamjEib ■> wrftaai pmnunnui ejna. Opera iUe nibil cnrat, aec eia 
indlget. — Fol. 268. Unde manlfeatiu et impioi emr eit, JfiMon pro peaxUit, pro tatU. 
faetiiM&m, pro deftiiKti*, out gnfruKUKfui iitranUitihui mu out aiionaa afferrt ttn op- 
plicart. Qood facillime JntelUgia ewe eTidentiasime vernm, s) Bnniler teoeaj, Hiaaam 
eaaa promiarionem dlvliiaD), quae nnlll prodaBie, ddIU applieari, nnlli inffragari, nulli 
commoiucaii poteat, nid ipd credenti aoli propria flde. — Fol. STO, b. De Sacmmaito 
iaptinu. Ubi virtntem baptiami in parvulia not potuit SalBD extingneie, prasTsli^ 
taman, ut in mnnlbiu adullia extingueret, nt jam fere Demo ut, qoi aeae baptUatam ra- 
cordetnr, nadiua glorletui, tot repertii aliia liia remitUndonini peccatontm et in coelum 
veniendi. Pnebnit bii opinlonlboi occaiionem rerbnm tllnd periculosnm divi Hleio- 
Bjmi, aire male positam, aiTo male intellectnm, quo poeniCentiam appdlat aecUDdam 
poat nanfraginm tabulam, quasi baptiimoa dod ^t poenitentla. Uinc anlm, ulil la pec- 
catom lapat fnerint, da prima tabula aen nave daaperantea velnt amisaa, secundae tan- 
ton inciplnnt nit! et fldera labntae L e. poenilentiae. Hinc nata ennt vot«nim, rell^o- 
mun, Dperam, aatia&ctionnm, peregrinationnm, indulgentianun, aectarum infiaila Ilia 
onen, et de iia maria ilia lilironun, qnaestionom, opinionnm, traditionnm humonaium, 
qooa IMna mon^ua Jam non capit, ut incomparabiliter pejus habeat Eccleaiam Del ea 
tjTannli, qnara unquam haboit STUagogam aut ollam nationem >ub coclo. — Fol. 272, b. 
Baptiimua neminem jnaUGcat, nee Dili prodail, aed ddee in verbum promiaaionis, cnl 
additoTbaptismna.— F(il.276,b. Nunquam fit baptiamtig Ercitns, donee desperana redire 
•d aalolem nolneris : aberran quldsm poteris ad tempoa a algno, aed doq ideo liritnin 
■It signum. Ita aemel ea baptiaataa aacramentaliter, aed aemper baptiiandna Sde ; sem- 
per moriandum, samparque vinuidnni. Baptiamua totum eorpna abaorboit, et nuana 
■didlt: Ita tea baptismi tolam vitam toam com corpora et anima absorbere debet, et 

reddtra In novissimo die Indntam atola clarltatia at Immortalitatia Hanc gloriam Uber- 

tatis noatrae, et hanc scientiaro baptiami eaae hodie captiram, cni poaanmoa reftrre ac- 
ccptam, qnam noi tfTannldi Bomanl PondBdi 1 — Ipae aolom id agit, nt aula decrees et 
Jnribaa opprimat, et in potestatia anaa tyrannidein captivoa illaqueet. Obsecro, qno 
jnre— Papa inpei noa conatitnit legee? Quia dadit ei poteatatem captiTandae bnjut 
noatrae Ubertalia per baptismnm nobis donalae } tJnmu, at diil, nobis in tota vita 
agendnm eat propoaitom, nt baptiaemur L e. mortificemur et viTamos per fidem Chriati, 
qnam et nntca doictam oportmt, maxUne a anmmo Pasture. At nunc, tacita flde, inftni- 
IJB legibna opamm et oeremonianun extincta eit £ccleala, ablata Tirtos et aciantla bap- 
tiami, Impadita fldaa ChiiatL IHco itaqne : «jus Pi^ia, iwfH* Epiitxpia, neque iMmi 
ioaaautM ioief^ imnu qrUo&M amititiuitdaa it^er OuvliaBttm iJHninetn,<tmtdfiil tjtU' 
Am eomtauu: qiddqnid aliler fit, lyrannico ajujita fit. Idea oratlones, jejnnia, donati- 
onea, et qnaacnnqne tandem Papa In unlvenia aula dacraUa, lam mulds quam iniqnis, 
statoit el ezlgit, prorsn* nullo jure eil^t st atatnit, peccatque in libertatem Eccleelae 
totiea, quoties ^quid tiorunt attantaveriL — Fol. 271, b. Unum hie addo, quod ntinam 

baptlamo, et obscaret acientiam Ilbartatis Christianae opinio ilia votorum plus nlmio 
edebila. Ut interim taceam tntanda etiam eaqne inflidta paricula animanun, qnaa to- 

vendl lata libido, tnoontnltaqne temaritaa qnotidla auget Fol. !7fi. Ego sane noa pro- 

hibnarin nee repngnanrim, ei quia piivaUm arbltrio ano quippiam vellt Tovere, n* *ala 
panUna coatamiam ant damnain, aed poblicom vitae genua hinc atatni et conOrmari, 
omidna diainaaerim. YA. ST6, b. Quan conanio primnm magnaUbns Eccleaianmi, ot 
otuifai Ma Tota >an Titaa rotajioram tollaat, rel non prabent et eztolknL— Nnlll ana- 
VOL. IV. 4 


50 FODBTH PEMOD.— DIV. I^A.D. 1617-I6W. 

deo, Imo omnlbiu ditnudeo iD^wnm cojiucniiqiM ntiglinilB ant gaccrdDtU, nkl >it ea 
■ciaolU pnaiDDiiitiu, ot intdligat, open qnuitnmlibat Mcn et urliui reli^oaonun et 
Mcerdotom In ocnlia Dei franm nihil diatara >b operibos rtudci In agio l»borantia, aaC 
rnDtlsrii in domo sua eunntig ; aed aola fld« omnia apod «nm menaoiarl — Ex his duoa 
inaignM ciTDns Bonuii Pontificta cognoadmiu. Prior, qood dispenaat In votig, ficit- 
qne id, quasi aoloa prae omnibus Chriitiania habeat auctoritsUiii. — Si enim votam di>- 
penaari polcet, qndibet fratcr cntn proximo, et [pae aecum diapenaare poteit.— Poaterior, 
qnod rnraoa decenlt, inatrimoniam dlrimi, ai alter altaro etiam iarito momaterinm in- 
{^rediator aondam conanmmato matrimonio. Fol, 2TS, b. De Saeramenlo potniientiae .- 
Primnm hajaa SacramenM ct caplale maliun eat, qnod Saciamcctam ipaum In tAtom 
Bbolev«nmt, ne vestigio qnidem ejm relleto. Nam cum et Ipium, alent et alia duo, 
consUt verbo promlnioola divlnae et fide noatn, atnunqne aubTerternnt Kam verbnm 
promiaaioi^, nbi Cbrlatoa dlcit Hatth. xti., Qaodamqae Ugaverit. etc., — qulbni proTO- 
catnr fidea poeniUntlnm pro ivmlaalone peccatoram Impetranda, anas tj-rannidi apta- 
Terunt. tjnlvenis enim aula libVii, atadila, KimooibDi noa hoc egerunt, nt docennt, 
quid CbristUnii In hia vsrbla pTomiiBnm eas«t, quid crederv debersnt, et quantom con- 
solationia haberent, aed qoam late, longs, proftinde ipai polentia et Tlolentia tjranniaa- 
rcDt. — Hon boc contenta Babj'lonla nostra fldem qnoqae adeo entinxit, at Impadenli 
fronte earn negaret neceaaariam eaae in Sacramento lain, imo anticbrittica impietate do- 
Oniret, haereatm eaae, «l Hdcm necesaariam quia etaa asaereret.— Olilllerilin itaqae ac 
subveraia, promiaaione et iide, videanma, qnid anbetitnerint in locum earuni. Tree par- 
tea dedernnt poenitenUao, coatritionem, cant^aaionem, aatistadioaem, aed sic, at In ain* 
gnlia ai quid boni Incaaet tollerent, et in eladem qnoque snsm libidinem at tjTinoidem 
conBtiCaerent. He repeats here what he had already taught in the Senionon Indnlgence 
and Grace (aee Note 13, above), in the Resolutiones DIsput. Concl, !G. 7 (Note 22), and 
the Sermon on tbe Sacrament of Penance (Note 86). Then he tnuta, oue aAer another, 
of the other Sacraments, and shows tbat tbey are not founded on the Word of God, but 
are inventions of men. With regard to marriage he Inveighs, tol. 280, against arbitrarj- 
impediments to roairiage, and, fol. 281, against separation without diaaotution of the 
insniage. Fol. 284, de Sacramento Extremae Unctiouls. With regard to the principal 
paaaage In support of it, James v. 14: Egoautem dica, ai napiam deliralnm eat, lioc loco 
praecipue deliratam eaL Omltto enim, qnod banc epiatolam non ease Apostoli Jacobi, 
ncc apoatolleo spiritu dignam, muIU valde probablliter aaserant, licet coniuetudine anc- 
toritalem, cujaacunque sit, obiinnerlM Tamen ai etlam esaet Apostoli Jacobi, dicerem, 
non licere Apostolum sua anclorilate aBCramentnm Inatitnere, 1. e., divlnam promiisio- 
nem cum adjuncto signo dare. Hoc enim ad Christum solum pertinebat. — Knsqnam 
autem Icgitnr in Evangelio tmetionis Istitta extremae sacramenlnm. Sed mlsaa fada- 
mus, et isia Apeatoll, sive qniaqae foerlt epistolae auctor, ipsa videamns verba, et simnl 
videbimus, qnam nihil «a observaverint, qui sacramenta anxerunt.— Cur faciant ipsi 
GXtremam et singnlaram unctlonem ex ea, qnam Apostolus volnlt ease generalem ?— Ab- 
solute dldt: a> Tttit iiijtrmatur, oon dlcit: a qaii fsoriftir.— Apostolus in hoc ungl et 
orari praeelpit, nt Infirmus aanetur et allcvtetur :— itll contra dicunt, non eaae dandsm 
unctionem, niri diaceaauris h. e. at non aanentur et aUevientnr. — Ullerina ai nnctio iaia 
aacramentnm est, debet sine dubio ease, nt dicunt, efficax siguum ejua, quod algnat et 
promittit. At saultalem et reatltutjonem Infirmi promlttit: — quia autcm non videt,hane 
promlssionem in panels, imo nnllla impleij? — Qnare banc nnedonsm eaudem ego esse 
arbitror, quae Hard vl de Apostoli* acribitur: tt un^efrunX oleo muUot atgTf>lot, ^tmo- 
bant: rftum sdlicet qnendam prlmitivae Ecelealae, quo miracnia fidebant super inflr- 
mis, qui Jamdudnm defldt. — Jacobus — promissionem sanitalia et remiasionia peceatorum 
non trihnit unctloni, sed orationl Add. — Prorsus non eat dubium, si hodie quoqne talis 
oratio lient super iDflnnom, i. e. a senioribus. graviorihua et Sanctis viria, plena fide, 
sanari quotquot vellemna. Fides enim quid non posset ?~Fol. 28S, b. Sunt praelerea 
nonnnlla alia, quae Inter sacramenta videantor ceuseri posse, nampe omnia ilia, qulbui 
facta est promiaaio divlna, qualla sunt oratio, verbnm, cms — Proprie tamen ea aacra- 
ments vocari vlsnm est, quae aonexis aignis promises aunt Caelera, quia signla alllgata 
oon sunt, nuda promiaaa sant. Quo fit, nt, al rigrde loqni vidnmua, tantun dno sint in £e 



The ball of oondemaation^^ against Luther, prepared in Rome, 

duU. Dei Mcmnenta, Biptumiu et PuiU, ci 
et pmniHioDtim ramiuiDiiisp«<:ut4)nim Tidu 
ego bit dDobaa Bcccnsai, sigDO vuibili et divinitna inatitato caret, etilind nonesM dixl. 
qium Tiun ac reditum ad baptiimam. Concliuion, Fol. 286: Audltam andio, panUs 
cue deauD in me bnllss et dinu papiiUcaa, qoibna ad reTocationem urgear, aflt haBreticua 
declarer. Qoaa si Tera aunt, hnnc iibellnm role partem eua reracBtJoaia meae futurai, ne 
eium tyraimideii) fhiatra Inflatam qaerantnr. Beliqnam partam propediem ediCiinit turn 
taiflm GhHatcf propitio, qualem hactenua nun videiit nee aadierit Romaoa aedea, obedS- 
eatiain meam abimde laatatunu in nomine Domini noitri Jean Cbriati, Amen. 

" The bull Xxurgt, Domiae, In Raynaldiu Ado. 1&20, no. 61, and elaewbere. At the 
end of tlii« fear Hntlai pabliahed It with aome biting cammenta ; tluf ina; be fOnnd, 
with tbe bnl], in Tol. i. Jan. fol. 171 ; and in Hattan'a Werke, edited b7 UOnch, iv. 1. 
Luther'i woiki, from which 11 articlei ware condemned aa heretical, were to be bnmed ; 
Luther and liii adherents were to recant witliln 60 daya, or eke anfiiar aceording to tlia 
sxiiting laws Bgainat heretics. Compare the letter of a Boman, of Jan., 1621, in Ried». 
rei's Nachiiclilen nir Klrchen- Grelehrten- n. BDcbergeachichte, i. 17B : Sciaa, nsmlnem 
RomiM esse, A aallam aapiat, qnl dod certo cettiiu aciat, et cognoecat, Hartinnm in pin- 
rimta veritatem dioere : venim boni ob tyrauaidla metam dlsaimnlant, mali rero, quia 
Tsritatem andire oogontar, Insaninnl. Inde illomm orilor indignatio paiiler et metna, 
valde enim timent, ne rea latlus aerpaL Haec causa fuit, cnr Bulla tam atroz emana- 
verit, mnlds bonis et pmdentihna viris reclamantibaa, qui snadebant, matarioa eonau- 
leadnm, et Hartino potios modeatia et rationibui, quam delaatatiooibus occurrendtun 
esse.^^Sed vicit Indlgnalio et metna: asaerebont enim factionia ejosce priacipea, non 
decere Bom. Pont. nnicnlqoB viliailmo homnncolo rationem reddere debere, eed potius 
coDtra pertinacea ri ntendnm esse, na ceteri quoque aimilia anderent. Addaeebant Jo. 
Una et dlacipnlnm ejus Hieronymom, qnomui poenam multos a aimill hncnsque temeri- 
tale deterroisse ajebaut Nlai igitnc Uartinus eadem via coereeretnr, procnl dabio mul- 
loa umilia atuaros. Pnere antem eoniiiti bajua prindpaUorai Cardinalii D^tsaui, 
parum Uermauia favena, quia, ot ipse pntabat, Don tam honorifice, at decebat, ab lis 
inKeptusotmaaeratai faiiaet. — Compettom igitnr sa habere dicebat, nlii Igne et gladio 
Germaai compeicerentm', omnino jagum Rom. Eccleslaa eicnaiuroa. Accedebat Sjl- 
T«ter itie Prietias, et tola Piaedicatomm (kctlo, praeclpne Capnionis inimld, qdi niml- 
am Fontificia bonitalem incnsabant, asaerentea, ai pridem Caimlonia atuibna via ragali 
obviaaset, nanqnam Hartinnm talia Aiisaa aoaorom, hacqae occaslone icntentiam con- 
tra libellom Capoionia extoraemnt, qnamria panlo ante Ponti&x qnoadam exhaitatns 
Aiiiaet, ot Talmnt imiHimeTcnt, ac ideo privilegila exomaaeet. — Colonlensea qDoqne ac 
LoTauienaea, nee non pleriqne ilii thaologl Germani clancolnm qaotidie canaam eollici- 
tabant, omnimodain vlctoriam promittentea, ntl tantum Romana aigna (h. e. bnllae 
pinmbataa lerribiles) falsiasent, aed et Ptindpes qnoadam Geimanoa talla qaoqne pro- 
coraaie dicont — Saper omnia rero mercator ills Fuckems, qni ploiimnm ob pecnalas 
Bomse poleit, ncpota qnem nnmomm regsm vocare aolent, Ponliflcem et anae fkctioais 
homioes exacerbavlt, non tantnm invidia doctns, aed etiam de qnaeita ano ac beneflci- 
nrom meicatora solllcitna, plorlmornm PrincipoiD favorem PontiJcl promltlaua, nbi 
lim conln Haitlnmn intentaret, ac ejnsce rvi canaa Ecitium ilium suum Bomam miiit, 
non ineptnn Curiae Bom. ioitmnMDtnm, si tamalentia abesaet i nam temeritate, auda- 
cia, mendaciis, almnlatione, adnlatione et caalerU Titiia Curiae apCis egregie polUt. 
Tenmi sola obatabat ebrietas, ItaUs, nt ncsd, perqnam odloaa, sed et banc favor et po- 
lenlia Fnckeri conciliavit, et In virtntem convartlt, nee dshiere, qni llli applanderent, 
nil magia Oemianoa temnlentoa, quam temnlentum decere legatum, aaierentes, tenieii- 
tatemque temeritate retondandam ease dlcentei. Comque caUegasibt qnaererettir si mi- 
ll), ad Aleandmm tandem dsTsntam est, egre^Bm profecto Oratomm par. et causae 
puqnam coDTeniana, Impudentiaqae, temeritate et vilae flagitiia simile. Nemo enim 
boniu, imo nemo aanae mentis Gennanaa nationis tale onoa soacepiaaet, et ai qui erau^ 
qui fbrsitan libanter auscepisssnt, timoie tamen et peticuU magnUndlna detembantor. 


52 FOUKTH PEEIOD— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

15th Jane, 1530, appeared more like an instrumeDt of personal 
hatred, since Dr. Bck was intrusted with its publication,^^ and 
arbitrarily extended its application to several friends of Luther 
mentioned by name.** In Geimany the bull was reoeired with 
olmoet universal antipathy, in some places with open resistance.^^ 

Fuit impadimento snb initiiun Aleandro geanj Jadiicmo, sed et illnd cam ebrietalv 
Eckli companMtain fuit.— Omnea igitor ngrvos PoDtifei cum sais intendct, ut Lathe- 
ram pcrdst, M «]a> doctrinun, tuqatm Bom. CoHh, uon Quutunu, pemicioaim ex- 
tiligiat, et, ni 6dlar, in ra^D irto TUtro conveuta (Diet of Wonu) oil potliu, qum dp 
Latbaro, tnctabitnr, qni nobu plos obMM -ridetoi, qum Turcoa. SoUieitibitoi' igitur 
■elal Caeauli mini*, preclbni, bUnditliiqae ficUi. SolUcitabontai' Garnuni Undibas 
miU«nuD, moaoribiu et ptamluii. — Qood si mlnoi hiwc snccedent, Coeureia depooe- 
mu, popoliM ft lobjeetione dabita libenbimoi ; aliam, qui luibia pUcet, in locom saum 
■llgemtu, HdltioBem later Genoaiioa, qaemadmodam nunc later Hiapinoa, eonciubi- 
moi ; Gsllam, Aaglnm et onuws tecna Begea ad anoa coavocabimaa, ac nihil pneter- 
miUflmiu, qaod anlecaMores noalil eontn Caeearai et liegaa noa infeliciUr &cere con- 
mBTatnnt: Cantam at ToCi compol«a eradera vsleunos, nihil penai apod noa erit, non 
Chriatoa, neqoa Gdes, pietaa, boaestoa, probilag, dummoda Q-raiuiiB nostra ait salra. 

" See Waleh, xv., ISib. J. B. Biederer'a Bejtrag la den Refonuatlonbnrknnden 
betr. die H&ndel, waleha D. Eck bef Pullicatioa der pfipstl. Balle wider dea ael. D. 
Lathor i. J. I6S0 eireget tut, ftoa grSaateatheila ungedrackten Naohrichtea beraoggegO' 
ben. Alldor^ 176S. i (under the new title Geachichte der dorch Pobl. d. pipatl. Bulla 
wider D. M. L. L J. IbW erregten Uarohen. AltdorT a. KUmberg, 1776. 4). Supple- 
mentary matter ma^ be foaud ia Biederer'a Ifacbrichleu, i. 167, 318, 138, ii, M, 179, 
SSI. On the hangbtiDaaa of Eck'a demeanoraee — Eraami Beaponsio Nerrou ad Albert- 
am Pinm, ana. 1S39, in r. d. UardC, Hilt. lit. Befcvm. i. 16f) ; Plna invidiae conflsTit 
pontifldo aominl C*}etani libellDi, nimia officloae icriptiu, qnam Lutberi conTicia. Nee 
parum oSbelt ejoa opuioni liirkmiiirriupvpai ilie (Eck), tarn insolenter ae garena, doctli 
ac magia (maffmif) etiam mini(«n«, et omnia aula famia cemplens. IMzit apad ma: 
Pomtiftx AneUMu. M ibtet, to< omUa taepe dgedl,/adU d^icitt tru ptdienlotoi gram- 
natiitiu. Idem alita dixit : I^mltftsc polttt dkm Cattari Canio : ta « eardo. Utmm 
hoc eat toeri pontificil nominia dignitatem, an uniatre piaedicando In odlom pertrahere ? 
Hajna coUega (Jerome Aleander) dixit apnd me : i<M mMKienuu ifian diieem Ftdari- 
am; idqoe pronns m vnlta, quo adent tetiid Utaratorea poena minari Tirgaa. Even 
PallaTicbd, Hiat. Cene. Trid. lib. 1, cap. ^ blamea tbe cboiee of Eck for tbs publica- 
tion of the bull. 

** To Caibl*dt and Doladoa in Wittemberg, John Sflriua Egnnns, paalor in Zwidt- 
■o, Bemhaid Adehnann t. AAelalannafaldeo, canon of Augabnrg, Bilibald PiAhumei 
and Laxanu ^en^er at Nurenberg. 

" Coanpaie HlltiU'a letter to the elactur Frederick, Leipaick, on the Wedneadaj^ after 
MichaalmM, 1620 (at the end of Teatiel'a Hist. Barlcht v. d. Bet Lutheri, heramgeg. 
T. Cypiian Th. 1. a. 489) : " Ertrab mich ken Ldpak au reiten, alio tmA ich Doctorem 
Echiam mit einam greaaoni Oeachlvj and Pochea, underiicM nicfat, hat ifan za Gaat, la 
etbhren, waa aeln FOrnehman and Wille wire. Ha traugt Boga nod leichtftartig, hob 
an voD aeinen BetUileD ca redan, wle be Doctorem Hartlnom lemeo wulde, wit aibm 
ajAUen Woitm aaget, daaa he hitt die babeetliche Balle n Hetaaen am XXIten Tage 
Sept., IB Henborg am XXT., an Biandanbaig am XXIX. pablidren nnd antchlagen 
laaaen. — mcbt angeaeken daa Qalelt mid aeine Bulle habea gute ftmnme Kinder its) 
die UiohaalU an 10 Orten aogeMhlagea, welchaa ich Ew. CSiuif. Gn. oeh ein Coida 
luacbicka, and dornelnn gednrat, daaa Scblns hat moaaen toa Cloater sum Paulem ^e- 
gen, nod daif lich nicbt adunvi laaien. — Sia haben ein lied Ton ihm gemacht, nnd 
tingau of der Oaaaen- He let lioeh Iwkcaimalt, der Hntb and daa Pocben iat ihm ge- 
leget, man aciiribt Uun alle Tage ainti briff in Cloater, and aagcn itun Laltiea nnd Gota 



The elector Fiederiek the Wise, to whom it waa presented at Co- 
logaa in the begioniDg of November,^^ oonfinned by an interview 
with Erasmus," persisted in hia demand for an impartial investi- 

■b. Ea nad och Qber 50 Sti>d«Dt«ii von Wittenberg do, die tich UDnnii machna nf ibn. 
— Ich lub Echio gewget, dau lie Unrecht getbeo tut, die Bulla lu publiciien, dieweil« 
die Sacbe in einer gOtlichen fiiedlicben Handlnng mit ihm geMAodeD j auUt billig mic 
TOT gucbiiebeD liftben, ma icli in der Sichen gelundelt hatt, la fontaien. Scbweig ha 
■lille, nnd anofttle, dua ilim laddobey iat. Icb kuuu £w. Cbaif. Gd. nicliC scbreiben, 
vie gmuain nun wider ilm iat. Ich liab graM Sarg, der Salvoconduct wird nicht hel- 
ten, he wird derscliUgen." Soon after he irrou (ibid. e. 153) : " Eckiua isC zu Leipzig 
entmnneii In der Naclit nf FWibnrg in, uad die Stadtkoeclit EO Lelpiig reiten mit den 
Bnllen im I^nd um." At Erfort n handbill appeared (aen Riederer'a £Une Qbcrsua atJ- 
tone ReformatiooaDrliiinde, intimaCio Erphnrdiana pro M. Luther AltkorT, 1761, alao in 
the Keoa Beytriga tod thaolog. SaclieD, 17G1, >. 520) : Caaduium est, optiail lectotaa, 
longs poit consilia impiaet bseretica >b impiis qoibnadam Scribiiet Pliarifatris—coatra 
11- Lnthemm, theologam ocatiasimum ; ita ut jam ioapiraata diabolo aliigeadiie eint iit^ 
»a publico conspecWi, qtiboi praefati Laciferlani Dondi etlam excommunicando die- 
tnm Hartlnom oltra Tartar* detrndsre conanlnr. Noa varo almae Uaiveraitatia IXafpa' 
tri, Baccalaoiii, iheologicae leritatia protbaaorea— dacemns at proBtemor praeaentinm 
tenora, Martinam — bene et proraui chriiUana hociuqae " 

omaai et lingnti, noatrae dictae UniTeraitatia gramialea, q 
— cooiargite, aglte acimomai In verbo Chriiti, delbadeado, pugilea re 
immo maniboa pcdibnaqne rAbidiatimii illius Uartini i^aedicti obtractatoribna — repug- 
nata. Vanun qno paeto rapngnandam ut, anlniadverllte. Quam primnm tsTannic* 
ilia et plaa qnam diaboEca excommDnlcatiD papiatica, licet jnjnatiaiinia, adveniu Inoo- 
centem Ma'tiTntm et ejni adhMtantea valria noatria affiza faerit, tormatim — accediu, 
haa ipaaa daemoniatiou exoanunitnicatiaaea In Tpinini*" particulaa dilacerantes, diacer- 
[ata, in altigiaaimii veritatii lelatorem, ChriMum Inqnam, t^nfidenWa. — Inaupor ot Bx- 
hortanmr in domino Jean Chtiato, — qnateaua illam in^nam et haareticam, Eccians &c- 
Uoue excogitatam bnllam Papiaticam — vaiiia depiogatia coloriboa etiam nominatini 
icriptii pentringatis : — decerasDtea, omnea illos inaectandoa, qui maxima dacti impn- 
dantia— de pablico aaggesta damaront Lathenim haeretlaaDi ton, Uuaaitammqna or- 
roiia prolMtatmeni, uli nuintltiu eit Impius Ecciua, at Aognatinaa Alfaldianns, Phud- 
aaeomm docea, caeL Et-en the tlsivenity of Ingoldstadt lieaitalad about the publicatioo 
of tbs boll, and lUd not adopt it till after repeated aammona from £ck ; see Jj^inter'a 
GsMh. d. Evangel. Lehra in Baletn (MQachan, 1809), i. 54 tF. Many biahopa likewiae, 
and among them aapeclally tba biahop of Freiaingsn, made difGcultiea form long time; 
ibid. B. 56. 

" On tba negotiationa of the two papal legates, Marinoa Caraeciolaa and Jeroma 
Aleandar, with tbe Elector, compare tha account of the ej-A-witoeas, HenriciZntpluuii- 
cnaia Brevia Commemoratio remm Colonia gaitarum in canaa Lulherl, 1S20, in T. ii. 
Jen. p. 814 b. (compare on thia point Frick, in Seckendorfi Bistorie dea Lathorthuma, 
>. 280, 290, 310), and Spalalioi Annalss BefarmationiB, edited by Cyprian, a. 11 u. 

*' With regard lo thia, aee the Aonalea, p. 28 aa., of tlia eye-witaeai Spalatin. Erna- 
mnx, being aaked for tiia opinion by tbe Elector, declared : lAitherua peccavit in duobns, 
uampe quod tatigit corooani Pontiflda et vanlrea monachonim. Eraamua gave Spalatin ' 
■ome Axataata on the point; and .soon aaked fbr them back agun; but not loog after 
Ihey appeared in print (T. iL Jen. fol- S14) i Fona lei nulua eat, odium booanun litara- 
rom, et affectnlio tyrannidta. Modna agandi Auiti reapondet clamarlbna, coojuratlmd- 
bna, aeeibia odiia, vinilentia aciiptia. Peraonaf , per qoaa rea a^tur, aoBpectae. — Qnod 
Fontificia Cacilitate qnidam abntontnr, notum eat. — Rea ad roqua diaciimen spactat, 
qoam qaidam oxiatimant. Bullae aaevitia pioboa omuea oflbndit, ut Indigna miliaiimo 
Cbiiati vicario. — Uttberna ridetnr omnibna aequia aeqnnm petere, cam o&rat ae diapu- 
tationi pabUcae, at labmittat ae jndlcibus non Boapactia.— Lulheraa nihil ambit, ideo 


Si FOtJBTH PEEIOD— DIV. 1.— A.D. 1617-16*8. 

gatioD. Uiltitz's fresh attempt at recoDoiliation ia LichteoLerg 
(lltb October, 1520),^ only resulted in Luther's sending to the 
Pope a letter full of hitter truth,*^ together with his work De Li- 
bertate Christiana, in which he unfolded with lofty enthusiasm the 

igillo c. 

seripMnint contn Lathemm, improbuitar etiam ■ theologii, qui sliu LathBro adver- 
untDT. Unndiu Bitit veriutcm ovangelicsm et tutili quDdam dedderio Tidetnr hue 
(ern. Code forte adeo noD oportet odlow raiisti. Aboat the iimB time (not 1GI9) Enu- 
miu gave tba Emperor aod MTenl peer* of the raelm an Opinion upon Lnther'i csh 
(t. d. Hudt, Hist. lit. BcC 1. 104), in vhich he aleo propoHs Imputia] BrbitrBton 
from diSbrent luttont, or ■ general coimcll for tlie settlement of the queatlon. Thin 
Opinion, in conieqneoM of a manmKript obserration of Tadlanna, hai been attributed 
by man; writen to Zwingle (Ziringli'a Leben v. Usieri, g. Sib; Win Keaere Helvet. 
Kiichengeschich. L 186), and ii arcoiding]]- adopted into Zringlll 0pp. ed. Schuler et 
Scbulthess, iii. 1 : however, this ia ceHoinl}- an error. The vbalfl style is that of Eru- 
mna : it agrees wilb Ma propoools clKwhera (compare Eiaiml Ep. ad Pen^ngenun, d. 
' 9. Not., 1620, Ed. Lngd. iii. 1, 690, Note M, below) : at the eonclnsion, the anthor Bays 
he had written — it ■ommb princlpibos et protanie et eccleBlastida iDvitatas, which agrecB 
onlj vilh the view that Erannoa ia the writer. The conjecture, in ZTinglii 0pp. 1. c. p. 
S, 1b eqnallj erroneons, that Iha Apologia Chrigtl Dom. noilri pro U. Luthero ad arbcm 
Bomam, which likewise belonga to thii period (see Eapp's Kacblese, ii. 4S0), is also to 
be attribnted to Zwingle, becaose it ia foond in one edition appended to that Ccntilitm. 
It ii b; Hutten (Kapp, ibid. b. 497). 

■■ See on this point Uiltiti's letter to the Elector of the 14th October, published by 
Cj^rian, appended to Tentzal's Hist. Bericht, s. 449 { in Walch, xv. 949 1 and Lather's let- 
ter to ^alattn, in de Wotte, i. 496. 

** After the confarenos with Uiltlta, dated back to the 6th September, ds Welte, I. 
497. Among other things : Qnare, (qitlmo Leo, hi« me Uteris rogo expnrgatum admlttas, 
tiUqne penaodeaa, nu nihil nnqoam de persraia toa matt co^tasse : deinde me talem 
esse, qnl tibl optima velhn conUngere in aetemnm. — Sedem antem tnam, qnae Cnria 
Romana dicitnr, qnam neqne tu neqne nllus bomlniim potest negire corrnptiorem esse 
qnavis Babykne et Sodoma, sane deleatatus sum, indigaeqne tuli, gub too nomine «t 
praetexln Somanae Eccleriae Indl Cbristl popnlum : atqne ita restiti, reabtamqnc, dom 
■piritns Sdet in me Tiierit — Facta est e Bom. Eccleiia, quondam omninm ganctiEsima, 
apelnnca lationnm UcenUosisdma, lupanar omninm impnden(iselmnm, regnom peccati, 
mortis et inf^m), nt ad malitiom qood accedat, jam cogltari non possit, ne AntichiiBtDS 
qnidem al veneriL Interim to, Leo, sicnt agniu In medio Inpornm sades, Bicnt Daniel in 
medio leomim, et cum Esechlele inter scorpiones habitas. Quid his monstrii nnos op- 
ponaa ? Adde tibi eraditissimos et opthnoa Cardinslcs trsB ant qnatoor, quid hi inter 
tantos 7 ante veneno omnibus perenndnm vobis, quam de rtmedlo statnere praesnmere- 
t\s. Actum est da Romana Cnria, pervenit In earn Ira Dei usque In Gnem. — Pslinodlam 
at canam, b. P., non est quod alios praesnmat, nisi mallt adhuc majore turbine caueam 
involTcre. Dehide leges InterpreCandi verbl Del non patior, cum oporteat t-erijnm Dei 
' esse non alligatom, quod tibertatem doeet omnium allorum. His duiriius sal vis nihil est, 
quod non facere et pati posslm, ac libentissiuw vellm. Contentlones odi, ncminem pro- 
vocabo, sed provocari mraus nolo : proTocatns autem Cbrlslo magistro elingula non en>. 
Poterit enim T, B. brevi et facili rerbo. contendoiubus islis ad ee vocatis et extinctis, 
silentiom et pacem utrinque mandaic, Id qnod semper audiie deaiderari. When Hlltits 
■ copy of this Utter to WiUb. Pirkheimer, he wrote to hhn (Erfurt, Friday after 
a,15ao, InRlederer'sNaduichlan, i.l70): " Es gebet ab«r uns GeiBtlicben, Gott 

reias wo es nans will ; mir lat noch liab, dass ich nlcht also hart ferbunden bin geistlich 

u werden, dass ich noch mag znmcktreten." 



long forgotten fundameDtal doctrines of ChristiBoity.'"' Bat as 
Ihe publication of the bull was still continued, he declared it to be 
a work of antichrist,^' renewed his ^peal to a general council, 
and at length on the 10th December, 1530,^ formally abjured the 

" T. L Jen. fbl. 435, b. (Lotlier had previoiulj pobliahed, in 16!0, m. ahoitsr edition of 
the work in German, " Sermon von der Ftvybeit einei ChruUnnen*ctien,"in Wilch, six. 
1306): Conatat, nullam prorru rornm exteroanim, qaocnnqae cennanter nomine, ali- 
qnid habere momentl ad Jastitlam ant libeitatam Chrittianam ; — animam poaae omnibiu 
rebni caren exoeplo verbo Dei, liofl quo nullii promu rebai eat Uli conialandum. — 
Qaaerea aDlem ; quodnam eat verbnm hoc, ant qna art« ntendiun eat eo, com tam multa 
tint verba Dd? Batpmideo: Apostolni Panlna Rom. i. id expUcat, >cll. Erangellnm 
Dei da Fllio ano incamato, paaao, reausdtato, et glariBcata per Spiritnm sanctificatarem. 
— FIdea aola eat aahitaria et efflcax nana verbi Dd. — Teram hue (idea anbaiatere pronui 
Doa poteat cnm operiboa, b. e. ai per opera, quaecunqne aant, aimul juadfleari praeaumoa. 
— Qoare cujniUbet Cbiiatiani prima cnra esaa debet, nt poaita opemm opinione aolam 
Sdem magla ac magli roboreL — Haec eat Chriatiana ilia libertai, Qdea noatra, quae facil, 
non nt otioai limui, ant mate vlvamna, >ed ne cniqoam opn> sit lege ant operiboa ad 
Juititiam et aalntem. Haec prima fidel rirtoa eato, alteram quoqae Tideaoiaa. Fidei 
enim at hoc officinm eat, nt enm, cni credit, omnium piiasima et aomnia colat opinlone. — 
Tertia ftdei gratia ineomporabilla est haec, qnod anlmani copnlat cum Chrlsto, sicut apon- 
aam ennt aponao. — Seqnilor et omnia eonun oimmania flerl tam bona qium mala : Set, 

nt Cbriiti aint peccata, mora et infemna, animae van gratia, vita et sajna Bona opera 

non bdonl bonnm virum, aed bonna vir fadt bona opera ; ita nt aemper oporteat ipsam 
aobatantiam sen peraooam ease bonam ante omnia opera bona, et opera bona aeqni «t pro- 
Teaire ex l>ona persona. 

'■ At Ont Luther declared that the gennineneiaof the bnlliraa Incredible, ia hie work, 
"Ton don nensn Eckiicben Bnllen and LQgen," in Waldi, it. 1674. Hen he aajs, irith 
reference to Hnaa, a. 1683: "I say, in the first place, thai, Dnfortanalelj, at the time of 
the Leipdck dispntatlon I had not read John Hnss ; otherwise, Ishonld have maintained 
not wme, bnt ail the articles, irhlcb were condemned at Conitance t JnsC as I do now 
hold them, baling read that moat wise, noble Christian boi^ of John Huis, the like of 
which has not t>een written in tbnr handred years, and whicb has now through the divine 
favor been pnt in print, to testiQ' to the truth, and to pnt to open shame all those who 
have condenmed it. It is not John Hais'a articiea, bat ChriBt'a, Paul's, and Augustine's, 
proved in the atnngest way, and irrefragablj eetaUtahed, as all muat eonf^ who read 
it. Ah [ would to God that I too were worthy (br the sake of sach articles to be bnmed, 
torn aaander, pemcntad in the most shameless way, that Doctor LUgener Qiti) bimaelf 
could invent, and that, If it coat a thonaand necks, they mnat all come to iu" Early in 
Kovemlier af^ieared the work Adveraua execrabiieni Antichristi Bnllam. T. ii, Jen. fol. 
286, b. i tn January, 1&!I : Aaaertio omninm Articulomm H. Lutberi per Bnllam Leonis 
Z. aovininuun damnatoram, T. il. Jen. fol. 292, whicb last he soon afterward published 
in German also: " Gnmd nnd Unadi aller Artikel, so, dorch die rOmische Bulle unrecbl' 
lich verdamint worden," in Walcb, xv. 1762 (he gives hia opinion on this point agwnat 
SpaIatin,ZlBtJannary, indaWett«,I.M5: venucalaAsaertiomeUoreat, qaamsltlatina). 

'* On the ITth November, 1G20, T. IL Jen. fill. 257. First be repeats the tbrmer Appeal 
(■ee note 80), then be renews it by appealing — ad fatoram Concilimn a praedicto Leone, 
piimnm tanqaam ab iniquo, temerario, tyrannicoqne jndice, in hoc quod me uon convic- 
tum nee oatenaia can^ ant inftirmationibua mera potastate Judicat. Secundo tanqnam 
ab erroneo, indnrato, per Bcripturas sanetaa damnato Iweretico et apostata, in hoc quod 
mihi mandat fidem catboUcam In Sacramentia necesBariam abnegare. Tertio tanqnam 
■b hoate, adveraario, Antichristo, oppresHre toUns aacrae Scriptnrae, in hoe qnod pro- 
prlia, nerij, nndiaque rerUa sola agit contra verba divinae Scriptnrae siU adUocta. 


56 FODETH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1S17-1M8. 

papacy by publicly bomiiig the bxiU, together with the papal law- 
booka^^ A new boll of the 3d January, 1531,^* pronounced upon 
Lather and his adherents sentence of exoommunioation, with the 
penalties against heretics, and laid the interdict upon their places 
of residence ; and the papal legate Aleander, at the diet of 'Worms, 
called upon the secular arm to execute the decree.*' But so 
greatly were circumstances altered by the powerful commotion 
that prevailed, that the diet determined first to hear the man who 
had already been condemned by the Pope, and at the same time 
drew up one hundred and one grievances against the Roman 
See." Lather proceeded with the Emperor's escort" to 'Worms,'" 
welcomed every where on the way with high honor and sym- 
pathy; here he testified before the Emperor and the Empire, 
18th April, 1521, that he could not recant.'* His heaven-sent 

nugiitjatiu totiw G«nnuiUe, velint pro redinundA catbotica Tsritate, — pro libertiits at 
Jure logilimt Concllli, mihi meaeqoe appcllitiaiii adluciere, Papu incredilHlem iauni- 
un avenuj, tjmnnidi ejiu impiiiimae mUtere, ant nlUm quieacere, et LuUoe cjumnadi 
ezecutionem omlttero et diffeire, donee legitiino TOcatnB^ per Hequoa Judicea audltiia, et 
ScripturU digniaqne docnmenlis eoDTictiu fuero. See Carlitadt'a Appeal of the IStb 
October, 1620, in tlie Unacbaldige NaidirichCen, 1719, i. iff. 

" See Esustlania Antichriituiianim Decretaliam Acta, T. ii. Jen. foL 820. He threir 
the bull into tbe fire with the wwds : qnia tu conlnrbaatl aaitctiun Domini, Ideoqns la 
cootnrliet Igaa aelaniiu. And be declared to hia bearen on tbe next day at hia lecton 
— niii Into oorda diaaeatiatii a ngno Papali, uon pot«atia assequi veitramm aubnanun 
aalalem. Soon atlit appeared I^tber'a work : Quare Pontifici* Bomani et diadpulomin 
ejus libti a Doctore U. Luthero combniti unt, Latia and Geiman, T. ii. Jen. fol. 316, h. 
Walch, XV. 1927. 

'* In Biovina ad h. a. Pbff Hiit Theol. literarU, T. IL p. &5. Qeideaii HiaL Betbim., 
t. ii. Hannm. p. 15. 

" Aa to the pnviotia negotiations between the Emperor and the Pope, aee Ranhe'a 
dentKlie Geach. iro Zeitaller d. Bed i. 470. About Aleandei and liia baEnd of the Ger- 
nuna.aea tlie acconnta of the contempomy, Jacobus Ziegler, in Scbelboniii Amoenltatei 
BiaU Eed. et liter., Ii. B51. Hia apeech before the diet of the Empire ia atvidged In 
Seclundorf , Comm. de Lutfaeranlamo, p. 149) compare especially the Oeachlchteder Nnn- 
datur Hier. Aleander'i anf dem Belchatage an Worma ISil, in MUntera Venoiachla Bejv 
trage lor Kirebengaachiehle,Cap<Db., ITSB; s.4Sa'., with extracts from Aleander'a dis- 
patches to Home. 

'• In Kapp-B Nacbleae, tii. 310. Walcb, sv. 2068. 

" In tbe imperial letter, T. ii. Jen. fal. 411, b., to the great mortification of the nuncio, 
Lnthei was addraised : Eonoratiilis, dilects, devote. 

" The letten in wliieb he declared his readineii to go to Worms fumish noble ex^ 
amples of hia beaTen-aent conra^ la da Wette, 1. 631, 548, £73 ff. I^om Francfoit he 
wrote to Spalatin, who was then at Worms, 14th ApiU, s. 586: Veuimos, mi Spalatloa. 
etsi DOQ nnomorbo me Satan impedire moiitns sit. Tola enim hacvlaab Iienaeo usque 
hue langni (compare Hj^xinii Hist. Reform., published by Cyprian, a. tS), et adhno 
langneo, Incognitii mihl anithac modis. Sed et mandatom Cand] (tlie Interim dea«a 
BgainattheiisDaofLutber'sbookB)eneinlerToremmeleTii^tuminte11igo. TemmCliTis- 
tns virlt, et intrablmua Wormatiam invitls omnibus pcrtis inferni et potestatibna aMs. 

■• Acta Rev. Patri* D. H. LtUheri cocam S. Caesarea HajesUte, Prlnclplbus Electors 



courage made a deep impression: bnt the established order of 
things was too powerfbl : after be had been dismissed in safety, 
the ban of the empire^ followed against him and bis adherents on 

boa, et Imperii Ordinibiu in Comitiia PriDdpnin Woniullao, T. U. Jen. tol. Ill, b., in 
Gennui of the aame date, Walch, xv. S297. Besidcn, there are two accoaats bj cy«-wit- 
DcMee ; by l*t, ^nn^er ; see Spen^eriana, collected by H. U. li»jm, KCmberg, 1S30. 
16, 1. IS B., and Spalatin's Amulen, t. 88 ff. Compare also Luther'i own accimnt in the 
Table Tillc, Wolch, zsii. 2036. There U nothing extraardinary in the fact that Lother, 
irheu ancondltioaallf required to reroke the contents of hia worlu, uked for a time of 
consideratioa till the daj followinK. He wu not prepared for lach a demand, hot oolj 
Ibr an inveMIgatiou and defense at hii portion ; the Imperial letter of ■amiDOiiB lead : 
conclnsimns propter doctrinam et libroa — aba le ediloa scratininm de te lameiiB. B«t it 
U dear that he coald not tinconditioDally aet aside the recantation nnexpectedlf reqnired 
«f hifn, as to the wliole contents of his works, wliich contained among other things many 
personalities ; and so lie natnrallj percdred the neceeeity of earnestly deliberating 
vbether he coold recall Mnne single statements. His ansirer on the next day was (Acta 
tbt. 410) : Rogo, Serenlasima Hajeataa Testra et Dominatioaes Teatrae dignentor anl- 
mom advertere, libros meos non ease omnei ejoadem generfa. Stmt enim aliqnl, 
in qnibos pietatem fidei et momm adeo simpliciter et evangelice traetaTi, nt Ipsimet 
adversarii cogantnr eos conftterl ntlles, Innoxios, et plane dignoe lectjooe ChriHiaoa. 
Si itaqne boa revocam Inclpenim, obsecro qnld facerem, nisi quod nana ex omnilHu 
mortalibns earn veritatam damnaiem, qoam amlel et inimiei pariler conlitentBT? Al- 
teram genns est, quod In Papatnm et doctrinam Papiitaram Invehitor, tanqoam In 
eos, qui snia et doctrinis et exemplls pesslmta orbem Cfariatiaiiam ntroqaa malo, et 
apiritns et corporis, vaatarcrint. Si igitnr et hoa revocavero, nihil aliud praasHterD, 
qnam at tyrannidi robor adjecero, et tantae impietati Jsnl non fenestras, aed valvaa •pe- 
rnero: — praeaertim aiJacCalnm fnerit, id a me factnm anctoritate Serenissimoe Majaala- 
tia Testrae, totinsqne Romanl Imperii. Tertinm genns eomro eat, qnoa in allqnoa privx- 
loe et idngalares (at vocant) personas scripal, eos adlicet, qui et lyrannidam BoBaaam 
tnerl et pietatem a me doctam lalMfactare moUli snnt. In boa eoudteor me foiaae aeer* 
blorem, qnam pro rellgione ant protosione deceat. Neqne enim me sanctum ollqaen 
fado, neque da vita mea, led de doctrina Christi diapato. NeqDe boa revocaie integm 
eat mlU, qood ea rerocatioae ttemm fntoram sit, nt tyrannia et impletas meo patrocl^ 
regnent et saaviant in popnlam Dei violeotine, qnam nnqnam regnaverint Ihea he 
demanded an examination of his doctrine : paraUasimns enim em, al edoetas fOaro, 
quemcanqm errorem revocare, eroqne primus, qui libellos mece In ignem projldam. 
When It was now in^cated to bim that here there would be no dlapnUtton, but that b« 
bad only to declare simply whether he would recant or not ; he replied : Quando ergo 
Ser. Hajealos Teatrs, Domlnationeaqne Vestme rimplex responsum petont, dabo illod 
neqne corantnm, neqns dentatnm, in hanc modam : Niii convictoa fuero teatimonlit 
Scriptnrarom, ant ratione evidente (nam neque Fapae, neque ConeUila aolis credo, com 
coostet eos erraase saeinas, et sibi ipsis contiadixiaae) ; victas sum Seriptnrls a me ad- 
duetia, captaqae est conscientia in verbis Dei, revocare neque poeenm, neqoe vole qid>l> 
qoam, com contra conscientiam ogere neque tatnni sit neque integmm. Hu tttAe ut, 
icil iaiHi iMtt Bwfen, Gott W/ntr, Anat." 

** Foreign princes also were Importunate fbr the anppreMlim of the lAtheran heresy ; 
see the letter of Emmanuel, king of Portngal, to the Elector Frederick, dd. XI. KaL 
Haji, 1631, edited by Qj-piion in Tentael'a Hlst.'-BeTkht, Th. S. : E13, and the letter of 
Henrj-, king of England, to the Emperor, SOth Hay, IfiSl. ibid., s. SK. One principal 
motive nai the league concloded on the 8tb of Hay between the Emperor and tba Pope 
agabut FVance, the 16th article of which waa directed against the new heresy ; see Da- 
monl, Iv. iii. ; Sappl. p. 98. The so-called edict of Worms (to be seen, in German, ia 
Welch, XV. 2SU; In Latin, in Qerderil Eist. Reform. II. Uonum., p. Bi). dated the aili 
of Mlj, bnt not actually iaaued till the 36th (see the Emperor's letter with which the 


58 FOUBTH PKEIOD.-DIV. I.— A.I>. 1617-16*8. 

the 26th of Key. To protect him against it, the Elector had him 
seized on his journey home, and secretly conveyed to the Wart- 
bnrg.^' But divine Providence took his cause more effectually 
under its protection : it crippled the execution of the sentence of 
extermination, by the war in which the Emperor was immediate- 
ly entangled witii France. Only in the dominions of the Emper- 
or, his brother Ferdinand, the Elector of Brandenburg, the Duko 

odict Tra sent to ths princes in Neadecker'n Urknndeo ans der RefomiatioDBEeit, >, 1), 
wu drawn np by Aleuder (PalUvkiai, lili. i. c. S8. MOnter'a B«)-trage zar K. G. s. 
101). Much discontent was caused |[ Kome by tbe obtervance of the sareH:ondac(. 
Compare what wai aaid by Franc. Vettori, who wu very intimate with Leo X. (Ranke'H 
FOraten u. Volktr vod Sudeuropa im leten n. ITlen Jahrb. Bd. 2, a. ST) : Carld, el excu- 
si di uon potcr procedere piu oltre riipetlo al ulrocoudotto, ma la veriti fu che conosi- 
cendo, clie il Papa temera mollo di qaetts dottrina di Lathero, lo voile tcnere con qnc^ 
to n«DO. Alpiomat I'aUuiUf wriles to Peter Hartjr from Worms, ISlh May, 1521, sftcr 
a ahort account of the foregoing events (Petri Hartj-rig Epiatolae Ametelod. 1670, p. 412) : 
Habea hnjus tra^piediae ot quidam volunC finem, ut cgiKnet mihi persuadeo, non fincm 
■ed initiuBi. Nam video Gcrmanorum animog graviler in aedem Romanam concitatos, 
noc video Caeuria edict* ma^i ponderia apnd eos futura, qaum post editJonem Lutheri 
librl passim per vicoa et plateas impnna veadantur. Hinc facile conjcctare poteria, quid 
absente Caeaare futornm ait. Eraamoe, on the other hand, wrote to Peter Barbirins, 
S6th June, 1&21 (Lib. zv. Ep. i) ; Lutheri tragoedia peracta est apud nos, atque ntinsm 
nnnqnam prodisaet in theatnun : lantnm liac vereator qnldam, ne cnpide ritata Scylla 
deferunuT in Charybdlm, et hac vlcloria quidam crudeliiis abutantur, qoam expediat 
ru ChrlBtianae. 

*■ Luther to Spalatln 11th May, in da Wette, ii. 5. Spalatin'a Aonalee, a. 50. Mat. 
theslas' Third Sermon, at the end. Many believed that Luther had lieea murdered by 
the Pope's creatures, and the nnncios at Worms were inconsequence in danger of death. 
Pallaidcini, i. Sfl, 4. Hunter's Bej'trage lur S. G. s. 100. Compare the outpouring of 
Albert Daritf, who had heard at Antwerp of Luther's disappearance, in the Journal of 
Ma Tour in Murr'a Jonmal lui Konstgeschichte u. lor allgcm. Literatnr, Th. 7, a. BS : 
He had heard of ten horsemen, "who traitorously bore away that pious man enlightened 
with the Holy S|drit, sold Into their bauds. For he waa a follower of tbe trae Christian 
faith; whether he stiil lives or they liave murdered him, Iknovr noti jret be has snHkred 
for the sake of Christian truth, and because be censured ths unchritt^n papacy, which 
is striving against the liberty of Christ with Its heavy ImposlUou of human ordinances; 
and also because we are thereby robbed aad despoiled of the IVuit of onr Uood and 
aweat, which Is so sbameftiUy consumed by idle penons, while the thirsty aud sick 
Uboran die of hunger; and especlaUy it ia moat painful to me, that perhapa God will 
suR^ na to remain nnder their falsa and blind doctrine, which however was devised 
and imposed by the men whom they call fathen; and thus the precious word may be in 
many pointa falsely Interpreted, or not at all held. Ah, God of heaven, have mercy 
uponual Lord Jesus Christ, pray for thy people ; delivernaindueseasonl OGod,!: 
I^itlier dead ! who will hcncefiirtli deliver to us the holy gospel so clearly ? O God, bo» 
much would ba have been able to write for na in ten or twenty years! O all ye pious 
Quiitian men, help me to bewail dnly this man Inspired by God, and pray God to send 
na another enlightened man! O Erasmus ot Rotterdam, where wilt thon remain? See 
what tbe unrighleoos tyranny of worldly might, the power of darkness, can do I Hear, 
thon soldier of Christ ! ride forth with Christ the Lord ; defend tbe truth ; win tbe crown 
of martyrdom ; thou art already an old man. Thave beard say of Ibee, tliat thou hast still 
allowed Ihyselftwo years in which thon mayest yet be fit to do something-4sy them out 
weU, Cn the advancement of the Gospel and true Christian faith," etc. 



of Bavaria, the Duke George of Saxony, and certain eoolesiaatical 
princes was the edict of Worms carried into execution, so as to 
furnish martyrs for the new doctrine, and thereby increase the 
enthusiasm in its favor. In the other G-erman countries the edict 
was not observed, partly because the princes were favorably in- 
clined to Luther's cause, partly because they were withheld by 
fear of rebellion.'^ At Wittenberg the alteration of the constitu< 
tion of the church, according to the new principles, was forthwith 
commenced," and Melancthon gave to the new church the first 

" Ttaere were dlitarbiDCU •Diong the stndenti of Erfart agunat certun pHeits, vho 
bad declared JobDDT«coiuti>,m friend of Lutber.ta be tinder ban; >ee Lnther'i letten to 
SpaUtin and Hetancthan, in Hb^ (de Wette, ii. S-T), and Strobel'i Neue Beylrikge, iv. 
1. 16 ff. At ConaUDce the citiiena hindered the eicecuCioD of the edict of n'orma by 
threata; leeJohn of Botiheim upd nine Fieonde, bj K. Walchner, Schaffhanaen, 1S36, 
■. SS, 110. 

" The brethren of LnUier'a order, the Aneaatines, besan the work in October; aee 
John Aoiifaber's raport, the fint part of it, about Eialeben, a. ITS ; Welch, XV. 2335. 
The Elector considered the abolition of the mais to be precipilale, and conitituted a com- 
miiaion of inquiry (lee the Acts in T. ii. Jen. foL 471 ss. Sechendorf, p. 914, moat fully 
is Helancthonis Opp. ed. Bretachnelder, i. 466 as.). Ueauwhile, in November, 1G31, ap- 
peared Lnlher's works on the Abuse of the Hasa (Walch, xiil. 1304), and hia Judicium 
da Votis HonaatieiB (T. tL Jen. fol. 477, b.) ; in the last, after long beslUtion on the 
point (aee the coireapondence with Helancthon ttom the firat of Angnat, 1531, onward. 
la de Wette, ii. B4 fT.), he demonatrBlea the invtliditj of monaatic vowa. Then follaned 
Sfnodi Aagastinianomni (ttoae of Miania and Thnringia, which met at Wittenberg at 
the end of the fear 1521) De libertete Monachonim Sententia (T. ii. Jen. fol. 470, b.) : 
Prime, permittimuB omnlbaa rel menere in iDonaatica, Tel daerere aioiKUticfn; qoaodo 
qot in Chrlato annt, nee Jadaei, nee Qraecl, see Uonachi, nee Laid sBnt, et Tqtam con- 
tra ETangeUnm, noa TOtam, led impietas eat. Seeando, qola Chriatiana llbeitaa Spiri- 
taa llbeitaa eit, que nee in eaca, nee in habito poeila eat ; placet, nt interim mite tt ml- 
gati* rMmt JfoaocAontat itfanfur, qui in noitrb congregatlonibna vimnt, nt omnibua 
omnia fiamna Panll exemplo, 1 Cor. ix. Tertio, aed Ita m«ieraiHip Mreimmtiu, tnmnten- 
do, tom ahrogando, necnbi vel fides eajasqaam laedatnr, vel in earitetem peccetoi. 
ITon eat enim regnnm Dei eaca et potns, aed justltia, pax et gandinm in Sphrito aancto. 
Qiurta, nundidtaitm Interdicimns, qoam lotlea vetoit Scriptnn, 1 Thei. ili. cum iSaitia 
oftrtmUt >»amJucen< |H>nen mun. Interdicimns et Jfufii eotieu, qnando et ab omnl 
specie mala abatinere noa Apoetolns volult, Qulnto, quantum fieri potest, in Congrega- 
tionibna noalria del^mUur qta not apM' od iIoeeiMlum verhiaa Da, pnbUce aot privatim : 
rtiiqui netrnn pomtymtrAa cptra nuHuiaria, quae forma fult Tetenim Monasterionmi., qnia moderati ceremonias et ritua omnei pro rations temponun ac peraonarnm 
viaom est, volnmns, nt Soperioribna euis pareant fhtres ex caritate, ut aine acandalo 
privatim et ptiblice agamns, et per omnia hoc praeatemns, ne blatphemetor bonom noa- 
tnun. Amen. , Aa these decreea gave oStanae to many, a chapter assembled at Grimma, 
at Whitaontide, 1522, issued an explanaUon and justification of them ; see in Kapp'a 
Nachleae, IL 636. Hanj prieata in Saxonj enlsred the married atate. So did a certain 
Jame* Seidler, who waa thrown into priaon Ibr thia reason by command of Duke (leorge j 
tlie Witlenbergera interceded for him with the Kahop of Uiania (letters of the 18th 
Jidj, 1531, in Kapp'a Nachleae, ii. 464, and in FhiL Uelaactbonia Opp. ed. Bretw:hnei- 
der, i. 418). Carlstadt wrote De Coelibatn, Monachatu et Vlduitate (Preface, 29th Jime, 
IBSl, 4.), to prove the non-obligatian ofprieet'a cellbaej' and monaatic vows. The mar- 
liage of Bartholomew Bemhardi of Feldkicch, provoat at Kemberg, made the detpeat 


50 TOUKTH PEKIOD.— DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-1648. 

systematio eitpositioa of its dootruies, in his Looi Cotiunimes 
Rerum Theologioaram." 

loipreB^oii. Compare Lnther to Uelsnctbint, ild. Kth Hny, 16S1, In de Wetts, 11 9. 
ne has, In consequence, be«D often emneoiul}' coneidered as the lint married pastor. See 
J. G. Kapp, EpistoU.- Barth. Bern. Feldkirchiug, PBelanun,qni tempore BerormatlanU 
■nstriniaaiiim Inietuat, Dentiquam, ut vulgo creditur, primui. Bamth. I79S. 4. Ttie 
Elector Albert, ai archbishop of Magdeburg, visbed to call him to account for this. 
Feldktrch replied witb an Apologia Paatoria Oembergensie, qui naper soae Ecdesiae con- 
senao uxorem dozit, 1623. 6. probably composed bj Helancthon (alto T. ii. Jen. fbl. 
438, b. Malancthonis 0pp. ed. Bretschneider, i. 421. On this point, see Teesenmeyer 
in tlie Theol. Scndieo u. Krit. ISSl. [. liS). But ehortly befora Lntber had written to 
tba Elector Albert, aboat tlie revival of the abuse of indulgences in Halle, and about 
the married priests : this letter, together with the Elector's uuwer, shows bow tbe moral 
Etrengtb of tbe two parliea bore an inverse proportion to their external power. How- 
ever Lather, la obedience lo the will of his liege lord, still withheld Us work " Wider 
den Abgott au Halle," which was lead; for the press ; he wrote to the Elector, lat 
December, 1531 (de Wette, IL 112), among other things: " Tour Electoral Grace: they 
hare now again let up the Idol in Halle, that tahea awa]- from the poor, simple ChrlBtiana 
their money and souls — Tour Electoral Grace perhaps thinks, that 1 have now given up 
my plans, and will now take care of in}'self, and that my mouth has been shut up by his 
Imperial If ajesty. — Your Electoral Grace will be mindful of the bf^inning, what a terri- 
ble fire has grown ont of the small, despised spark, when all the world was so aura 
about it, and thought tliat the one poor beggar was immeasurably too small (br the 
Pope, and undertook impossibilities. But God has taken up the cause ; He haa (pven 
the Pope with aU his followers enough to do; agunst and above thethonghia of all tbe 
world He has carried the matter to a point trma which the Pope will hardly bring It 
back ag^n ; it will grow worse with him daily, so that the work of God may herein be 
clearly recognized. The same God lives stUl — let no one doubt it now, and he haa the 
■kill to withstand a Cardiual of Uayancs, though four emperors were to stand by him. 
Qe ha* also especial pleasure in br«akiDg the lofty cedars, and abasing the bao^ty 
hardened J>haraohs. But let not your Electoral Grace think that Lnther Is dead j he 
will gloiy freely and joyously in the God who has humbled the Pope, and be^ a game 
with the Cardinal of Hayence that he did not much ezpccL Join together, dear fiiahops, 
yon may remain lordlings, However ye shall neither silence nor deafen this spirit | an 
ovBrthrow shall befall you trom it, which ye now little look for, so I would have you 

Then he makea the two demaoda to abolish the idol, and to leave in peace the priests 
who had entered into the married stale. 

"To this I request and await a elndghtforward, speedy answer ttma your Electoral 
Grace, within fonrteen days, for after these fourteen days my book against the Idol at 
Halle will be publiahed, unless a plain answer be made me." 

The Doctor answered on the Slst December (Walch, zix. 6S)t "Dear Sir Doctor, 1 
have received and read your letter — and taken it alt favorably and in good part; but in 
this matter, if I am not wholly mistaken, the cause which has moved you to write thus 
haa been long sioca entirely done away witb. I wHl conduct and show myself. If God 
will, as become* a pious priest and Christian prince, so far as God shall give me grace, 
■trengtb, and ondentanding : for which I pray truly, and will have prayers oBkred for 
me. For 1 can do nothing of my own self, and confess that I stsmd in need of the grace 
of Qod : I can not deny that I am a poor sinful miui, who may sin and err, and daily do 

" Three similar editieiu appeared in 1&21, one in 4to, two In Svo. This first ediUon 
was reprinted in U. v. d. Hardt, Hist. Lit Reform., p. iv. p, 28 seq. denuo ed. J, Chr. On. 
August!. Lips. 1S21. 8. G. Tli. Btrobel's Ijtterargeschichte von Ph. U. Locis Tbeolof^ 
cia, Alldorf a. NOmberg, 1776. 8. 



It was not wonderful that the new and unaccustomed freedom 
made many men giddy. In Wittenberg a party arose &om the 
beginning of December, which wished, like the Taborites, to re. 
store suddenly and by force the original simplicity of divine wor- 
ship. A body of students and citizens began to hinder the cele- 
bration of mass and the chanting of hours, end threatened the 
barefooted friars.^ Not bng after Carlstadt joined in these pro- 
ceedings.'' But in the last days of December some fanatics from 
Zwickau increased this party, and brought into circulation the 
doctrines of an internal word, of a visible kingdom of Christ upon 
earth, and the rejection of infant baptism.^ Only the Reformer 

" See the letters of tha Senate of the Audemj to tha Elector, of the 3d and 6th De- 
cember, ia Uelancbtb. 0pp. ed. Breliehneider. 1. 487 leq. : when tlto the acta which 
fdlow art given moat completely. 

** Carlstadt gave notice od Ihs Snnday bafore Chriatmaa, in the Cathedral Church 
(Bietaehneidar, L Sl^ : " dasi er auT daa kOnftlge Feat clicamdaionii daminl—oCfea- 
bwUchen oommuiiicireii jedennana, wer da voile (and ao wjtboat confssilon), aub ntra- 
qne apecie pania et vini, nnd davor eia kori Sonnon than, ond wolle ichlechti aprechen 
die CooaecratioD, nnd die andern . . . (aamelj, the other portlona of the Hasi aerr- 
ice) alle aoaaea laiaen. Solle auch nicht willcna aejn Easel, Alben oder Chomick id 
genannter Heas aunuiehea." 

*' Compare on thli pront Spalatin'a accaont in Schneider's Bibllothek der Kirchen- 
geaeh. II. iii., partly reprinted also In Bretachneider, L &33 aeq. On tbe farmer pro- 
ceedingi in Zwickao, aee Leben, Sehriften, and Lehren Thomae MOntiera, Ton StrobeL 
NOmberg, 1765, a. 12 ff. HUdebrand Arcbiv merkir. Crknnden a. Nacbrichten fiir die 
Parochialgeachlchle. J^hrg. 1833, a. 1. On the whole aubjeet, J. Haat Geach. der Wie- 
dertAnfer. Uuniter, 1886. 8. a.!0. HelanctbongiTeathefaUowingaccDDiittothe Elect. 
oral Commiuariea t. Elnsiedeln and SpalaUn at licbtenberg (Schneider, U- 117 ; Brel- 
acboeider, L 533) : " Ea aaind In die Jo. ETsngelistae (S7 Dec.) m mit tv Wittenberg 
konien Clava Storck mit awejen seiner Gesellen, mir aogeieigt, vie aich ettich Emp^ 
rung erhoben in Zwickati, and aonderlich von vegen bapttami parvulomm and fidel 
allenae, and sich auf Doctorem Hartinnm beniftn. Hah damach Inionderheit gehOit 
einen unler den dreien, genannt Harcna Thomae, der mir gatagC, wie daaa er, dergteichen 
aneb Storclc, aonderllche and gewlaae and offenbare Geaprich mit Oott babe, doch ayn- 
dert anch nicht predigo, dean wo nnd waa ihm Gott hetaae [" Helonctban vaa ao dis- 
conoerted tliat he wrote ta the Elector on the same day (Bretachneider, 1. MS) : Non 
fgnorat Cela. Y., qoam moltaa variae et perlcnlosae dlaaentioaea da verbo IM in nrbe 
C. T. Zvlccavia ezcltatae aint. Sont et Qlic in vincnla conjectt, qnl neacio quae nora- 
mot. Ex honim motnnm anctoribn* hac adTolamnt trea riri, dno laniScea, Uteriram 
rndea, lilaratai terUua eat. Andiri eoa. lOra annt, qoae de aeae predicant ; mlaaoa se 
dara tdcb Dei ad doceodnm, eaae ubi cam Deo l^millaiia coUoqnia, videre fntnrs, bra- 
Titer, viroa aaae propheticoa et apostoUcos. Qoibos ego quomodo eommorear, Don &clla 
dixorim. Magnia ratloolbaa addacor certe, nt coutemni eoa Dolim. Kam esae In th 
qdritna qnosdam mnltia argnmentia adpant, sed de qolbna Jndicare praeter ifartimim 
nemo facile poaait, Proiada cum vertator hie eTaogelli pericnlum, ecclaaiae ^oria et 
pajt, modia onmibna effldendam eat, nt his homialbua Marimi copla flat. Ad honcenlni 
proTOcant. At hia inlerriew with tlie Electoral Commiaaaries on the Ut Jannaiy, Me- 
Uocthon was mora aeir.poaasaied. Haaaya(Schndder, il. 119; Bretachn, L 684) : "Hkb 
bat nicht aonderlich bewegt, was sie von gOttllchsn Osaprtchen aagen, und dergteichen. 
Dens aolcbea In aoinam Wertll itebat, nod ulchta daran gelegen, andera deoD, daai dareb 


62 FOURTH PEHIOD^DIV. L— A.D. 1617-1648. 

himself, id whom discretion, enthusiasm, and energy were united 
Bolcben Scbeia weitere BeBchvemngen mSchten TorgenommeD werdm. Dieae QuM- 
tlones ■berdc bKptlnao hsben mich melnes BedQnkens billlg b«wegt." (A little before: 
" Ea luben Angmtinua and derselbigea Zeit viele andere niebr vie) dupatirt ds bapUsmo 
ptrmlanuii, und wanig aiugeiicfatet," etc.) On the day folloviag, tlie Elector bad an 
iuUmatioD coavey ed to HeUncthon and Amadorf by tba CammuiaHes, that it wai ad- 
Tiiable the}: ihaald not mix yiiib tbs people ; for it " wire zn be»rg«iiL, ihr Totgeben 
win tnebl sine VerfDhnuig, denn em Beatand ia Wahrheit, veil lie von den Danpt- 
lachern der Empdrnng nnd Anfcnbr in Zwickan Be]-n aoUten, und la fDrcbten, — eie 
mOcbleD in Wittenberg anch Empbnuig anrichten." Among tba articlet tbna a^tated 
atZvickan iraa the baptism of inbnt children : "als nSmlicb, dasi etUcba iweifeln, ob 
der Glaubs der Patfaen dem Kind in der Tauf behOlHich ; etiicbe vermeintcn, ahne den 
Glanben aellg in werden. EtUche geben an, ale win die gOttllcbe Schrift nr Lehre 
der MenKben nnkrUVg : denn der Henich mOut allein doicb den Geiit gelemet wer- 
den. Denn bStt Gatt den Henschen mit Gescbrift wollen gelemt haben, ao hatt er tins 
Tom Himmel herab eia Biblien gesandC. Item fQr die Todten wire nicbt in bitten, nod 
andere gransame Unart, die dec Stadt Zwickau elnen ubchriatlicben Plckardiichen Na- 
men macbten." Upon this Uelancthan declared (till more compowdlj; "dassandem 
Artikel von der Tauf der Kinder nichia aonderlicheg liege, nnd dau beaser iej-, dan man 
davon nicht welter handle, denn da» man Tiel davoa iweifele:" thla onlj was anspi- 
cioDs, "dasa die Lent in Empaning genelgt, und in Wittenberg atieh Aafmhr mAcb- 
ten emgen." Moreover, the Elector, at the request of Helanctbon, promised tbat these 
persons, If they did not begin a rebellion, should not be put down bj force. Thna the 
prophets of Zwickan, Damely, the two clotb-weaven, Nicholas Storch and Harcoi Tho- 
mae, and two students, Marcos StQbaer and Uartin Cellarias, now coutlnaed to work 
nt Wittenberg, and won over Carlatidt especially to their side : who also bad been mar- 
ried In Janusrj-, 1622 (aee the announcement of his marriage, €th Jan., in Brelschael- 
der, i, 638). As to their doctrines, see Camerarins De Vita Melanchth. ed. Slrobel, p. 
IB. Tbey rejected the esiatiog Church, and said, "ex ilia discedendo banc instltai 
oporten. EC qnibus hoc persnaderetor et |dacetet, eoa denuo baptismo InlliandDa eiae. 
— Xiliil recta et deblto modo fieri gerique nspiam perhlbebant, quod snmma rerum easet 
penes maloa.^-Atque decroTisae Denm extingnere iatad genus et sufficere alterum inno- 
cenlia justiciaque et aanctiCale praeditnm. Ad cujos exordium atque Encrementa doce- 
bant neceasariam eaae cnram et diligenCiam in procrcanda eobide. £t ideo nemlaem 
dncen axorem deliere, ex qua non aciret ae liberoa pio«, et grabM ael«nio Deo, et ad 
commnoionem regni coeleatis electoa losceptDmm esie. Id antem non aliter quam Ipso 
Deo patelaciente sciri poaae. _ Ecjactabaturpraecipnumdoniun Dei In illiacoetibusprae- 
dictionis eventuum ftitnrorum, et arcanorum Judicii, cujus eiimlae et salntaris ni in 
vcritate nomen eat graecum Prophetia. Compertnm antem est, mul^s horum per qni«- 
tem somnl mirabilia visa, et species quasdam TlgUanUbus etiim aliqulbus, sed pauds, 
oblatas esse. Cognitum stlam est, (bisse in coetn isto foeminas vatirlnantea. — Et hoc 
erst In legibns istomm, ne quia in otio libernll bonis artdbna et litaris operam darel, tien 
aliimde sdentiae cognitioniaqne facnltatem qnaereret, quam ab aetemi Del benignitite, 
cul adjumentis humanls nihil esset opus. According (o the Zeitung am WiUttJierg, 
written in the middle of January (Strobel'a Miacellanecn, v. IZT), Marcua Slnbner aaid : 
"Martin ia right on moat ptdnts, but not on all: Another will come after him with a 
loftier spirit, etc. Item, the Turks will aoon take poeses^on of Germany. Item, alt 
priests shall be slain if they now take wivea. Item, in a abort time— about five, NZ, or 
aeven yeara — there ahall be such a change In the world that no ungodly or alnfnl man 
shall remain alive, etc. Then shall there be one way, one baptism, oue faith. The bap- 
tism of infants, aa now administered, before they have reason, is no baptlem." At Wit- 
tenberg the aect worked directly only In secret (minus libera et apeite, CVmuror.), in a 
wider sphere only indirectly by the preachers devoted to their cause, CarlsCadt, and the 
former Benedictine, Gabriel IXdymus, who advanced with rapid strides. With regard 
lo these disturbances compare tbe Ztittmg aat Witttnbtrs, quoted above. Something 

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in such an extraordinary manner,*' could protect his work from 
was DOW conceded to the innoTations, bnt the Innovatori proceeded still futlwr ; tet 
Beyer's Schrelberi in Eiouedel ^. 26. Jan. (Bretschn. i. 540) ; " I would h»Te yon know 
tlist tbe Univerri^- and the tawn-council have agreed apon the way in which mass should 
be celebrated In the pariah cborch to which we all belong. Hnit, the bj-oiQ will be sang 
with the Iitlrmt, Gleria, el tn (errs, epistles, gospel, and Sanchu ; then comes the ser- 
mon, and sflerwaTd tbe mass, as our God and Lord Jesoa initltnted it at the Laat Snpper. 
The priest speaks the words of consecration aloud in German, and tdmoniabea tbe peo- 
IiIb that to every one who teeii tbe bnrden of sin, and tbirat* Ibr the grace of God, the 
liody and blood of the Lord will be administered. When the people have commoidca- 
(cd, the Affiuu Dei, Carmeti, and Benedicamai Donine are song. The canon baa been 
rererBed. For the fntnre we will tolerate no beggar, be he monk or no monk. The 
poor shall be provided for from the common pune — They will not endure images in 
tbarcb, and In time will remove them ; atrong pojieages of Scriplnre are bronghl agunit 
them." Carlstadt and Didytnoa conllnaally preached against the adberenta of the old 
cusloma (Bretachn. i. 648); (bey tanght, for Instance (p. 548), "dass die Gemeine wobl 
Macht habe, in Kachlassigkeit der Oberbeit ans einem Hitlelden and liebe Ichts (etwas) 
rorzQnebmen," and thereby etf^cted (p. S50), that In tbe beginning of Febmary the Im- 
ages were suddenly carried ofT, cnt to pieces, and bnmed. Carlatadt made yet further 
iilterationa in the celebralJan of the Lord's Snpper, wherenpon, in lbs parish chnrch (p. 
5S3), " einer sast, der andre bo, ohne Ordnnug and Messgewand Mess gehalten haben." 
This occasioned freih inveaUgations and threats, and orders from tbe Elector ; mean- 
while the InnovatlonB wore partially aobmllted .to. Tbe Conncil gave notice, on tha 
12th Febr. (p. 6S3) : " Der Bllde halben haben wir bescblossen anf dem Batbhaus, daaa 
sie sollendnrcb die Obrlgkcit, welchcr allein es anstehet, eignetnnd gebtkhrel, abgetban 
werden." On the contrary, in the Mass (p. 5M), tbe "Weise, Kleidung, nnd Gesang" 
Kcre to remain al before. Carlatadt now promised (p. 657) that he would refkvin from 
this Btyle of pieaching for the future. Didymus left Wittenberg. Still, great disuaion 
remuned (p. 660). This picture is fliled np by tbe account of M. 3ebut. Froschel, 
who came to Wittenberg in 15S2, m the Dedication to (he Elector Angaatos of his tract 
on the Priesthood, Witten. 1566. i (Fortges. Sammlung v. alten u. neoen theol. Sachen, 
1T31, B. 691). Be charges Carlatadt, DidymtiB, and U. George More, the master of tbe 
bo]^' school, with baving ndned tbe boys' school, and says they would gladly have 
made an end of the University also. "These three men give out that no one should 
Rlodj, or keep school, or confer degrees, for Chrint has forbidden all this In Matt, xxiil. 
with these words : Be ye not called Rabbi, or msBtera ; in consequence of this many 
men of fine ingenia at tbe same time left this place and forsook their studies, who might 
have been useful to their country and coontrymen.— Dr. Carletadt went round to tbe 
boDses of the eltiEens, and asked them bow they understood 'this or that paaaage in this 
or that prophet. And when the simple people wondered at his question, and said to 
him; Sir Doctor, how comes It that you learned men and doctors in holy Scripture thus 
ask na foot, illiterate, anieamed folk such qaestions I ye should raLher tell ns tbe mean- 
ing! IhenCarBtadtanSwered them, that God had hidden it from sach, as the Lord Jesus 
himself says, in Uktt. zi. and Lake ic : I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and 
esrth, because Tfaou haM bid theae things bom tbe wise and prudent, and hast revealed 
them nnto babes. Besides, these three persona began not only to (ear down the schools, 
bnt also tbe chnrches and Images In chnrches, caetlng tbe images out of the churches; 
and they gave oat that no learned nun should be received or allowed as preacher or 
priest in the churches, bat laymen and handcraftsmen, who were only able to read, aa I 
have known many auch persons wbom they wished to call totbia office." 

" Compare bis Judgment about the fanatics, addressed to Helancthoa, ISth Jan., 
Ij22 (de Wette, ii. I!5) : Tenio ad Prophetas, ac primom non probo tuam timlditatem, 
rum et majori tarn splritu quam eruditlone polleas, qnam ego. Ac primnm, com teati- 
monium perhibeant de se Ipals, non statim audlendi sunt ; sed Jaxta consilium Joannls, 
ppiritoa probaadi. HabeUs conaHlam Gamalielis diff^rendl : nUiil cnim adhnc audio ab 


$4 FOURTH PEBIOD.— DIV. L— A.D. 1617-16M. 

sinking into a destructive fanatioism. He Buddeuly came forth 
from his seclusion, in March, 1522 ;^ his powerful preaching 
frightened away the false prophets, and quieted men's minds.*" 

tig dici et fieri, qaod 8*tan4a Don quest praeitore vel aemalari. Then followa idvice u 
to how the prophet! were to be examined, uid ■ defease of infant baptiim and tb« An- 
gnatiniui docuine that the fidei atuna of the iponsora arailed for the children. He 
writes to Spalatin on the ITth Jan. (}, c. 135): Ta qooqae cnrn, ne Princepi noster ma- 
nna cmentet in propbetis illis novis Cjgnaeia. There is also a fragment of a letter to 
the men of Wittenberg, probably in Febr. (not Dec, 16S1, aa in de Wette, ii. 118): 
" They have introdnced these changea in the maw and images, attacked the uerament, 
and other things which are of no account, and have l«t faith and love go; jaatai thoagh 
all the world hereabout had grsat nndaratanding In these matters, which is not the faet; 
and M they have brought It abont, that many pions people bare been stirred np to do what 
is really the devil's woik. II would indeed be a good thing to be^ such changes, if 
we could all together have the needful faith, and if they suited the whole Church in such 
mewnre that no one should take offenu at them. But this can never be. Vfa can not 
all be as learned as Caiistadl. Therefore we most yield to the weak ; otherwise thon, 
who art strong, wilt mn far ; and the weak, who con not follow thee at like paco, will 
be nm down. God has given l« yon the Word in its pnrity, and shown great grace to 
them at Wittenberg. Tet I do not descry among yon any love at all," etc. 

** On the journey be wrote to the Elector, who had warned him against it (Helanchth. 
EplsL ed. Bretachndder, I. GSS), on the Gth March (de Wetle, U. IBS), f^om Born% e. g^ : 
" Thia I know full well about myself, if matters stood so at Leipsick as at '^ttenberg, 
I would ride thither, though (j-onr Electoral grace will pardon my foolish speech) for 
ninedajni long it were to rain onlyDnke Georges, and eachof them were nine-fold mora 
ftirlons than this one is. — This is written to yonr Electoral grace to the intent that yonr 
Electoral grace may know that I go to Wittenberg nndsr br higher protection than 
that of the Elector. I have no IntentioQ of demanding protectiDn from yonr Electoral 
grace. Tea, I take it I have mOre power to protect yonr Electoral grace than yon bava 
to protect me. Besides, if I knew that your Electoral grace could and wonld protect 
me, I would not come. No sword either can or ought to guide and aid this cause : G!od 
alone mnst provide, without human caro or help. Accordin^y, whoever has most &ith 
will be here of most use. Since 1 now perceive that your Electoral grace is still very 
weak in faith, I ean by no means regard yonr Electoral highness aa the man who is able 
to shield or save me. As your Electoral grace desires to know what you should do In thia 
cause, especially as yon think yon have dene Ikr too little ; I answer with oil subjec- 
tioa; yonr Electoral grace has done for too much, and yon ought to do nothing at all. 
For Qod neither can nor will endure your or my plana and proceedings. He will have 
it left U) himself i this and nothing else : yonr Electoral grace may decide accordingly. 
— In respect to men yonr Electoral grace should thus conduct yourself ; you should, as 
on Elector, be obedient to the supreme authority, and allow his imperial majesty to rule 
in your Electoral grace's towns and dominions, over persona and proper^-, as la doe, 
according to the order of the Em^dre, and neither oppose, nor resist, nor deaini to offer 
anyreoiatanceor hinderance to the authorities, if they wish to arrest ct kill me. For no 
one may break with or resist the powers that be excepting Him alone who has ordained 
them; to act otherwise is rebellion, and against the will of God," etc. On Luther's 
meeting at an inn in Jena with some Swiss traveling to Wittemberg, see the true-hearted 
account of one of them, John Kcssler, in the original in J. J. fiemet's Joh. Kesalerge- 
nannt Ahenarina, Burger und Reformator in St Gallen. St. Gallen, 1SS6. 8. s. 27. 

** Luther arrived at Wittenberg on Friday the Tth of March, and preached every day 
from the Sunday FimoeaBit to JienHunsre (3th — 16th March) agalnat the imprudent in- 
novations: "Acht Sermon D. H. L. von ihm geprediget ta Wittenberg in der Fasten, 
darin kHizlich begriefen von den Ucesen, Kldniasen, beyderiey Gestalt des Sacramenta, 
voQ den Spelsen imd helmlichen Belcht," in two dlfierent editions, Walcb, xz. 1 ff., and 



Soon after he offered to his German fatherland the precious fruit 
placke^ in his retirement at the Wartburg, his Translation of the 
New Testament," whioh gave to every man of the people the 
means of arriving at certainty in his faith, and of being able to 
give a reason for it.'* 

6! ff. Luther mole to OMpit GOttd, prior of the ADgastines at Bileben, 30th lUrcti 
(deVetla.ii. 177); Ego CirDlitadinm offhadl, quod ordiiutioiiM ■nu cuuvi, licet doc- 
tiiium non damauiiii, alii qood dUpIlect in golia cenmonU* et exteniii ficiebus Ubo- 
ruM earn, dejecta interim Ten doctriiu ChristUna h. e. fide et eharllale. N*m aoB 
inepla doceadi ratione eo papulam perdaierat, nt leie Chriitiuium arl^lriretur per haa 
m nihili, ei utmjne apede commUDicaret, u tangent (receive the ucnment with the 
band), al aon conSleretur, si imaginea fyangeret. Froachel (aee Note 87), Fortg. Samm]. 
rSl, a. 6d4: "Aa Dr. CarlaUdt now lair ttiat hia (irojecta wen defaaled, he went away 
from the city of Wittenberg to * vill*^ called Segren, not far olT; then he bought bim 
■ UxtD, and became a peaiant ; and the other peastnia called him Xabtr EHdtn (neigh- 
bor Andnaa).— Kaber Enden did not endnn thia veiy long ; it soon became too much 
tot him ; and be crept back again to the Croaa (pna Xntdi). So, likewiae, did the other 
two, FraEer Gabriel agd M. Hon," et£. At flrat Lather reftued to aee the propheta of 
ZwJckan; at length he admitted Harctu StQbner, Martin Cellarini, and a third to hia 
preaence (Camerarina in TIta Helancbth. g 15): Andlvit Lnthems placlde nanantem 
Uarcnni ana. Cnm dicendi finem feclatet, nihil contra ilia adeo abiarda et (utilla dia- 
aerandnni ntoa Lathami hoe mode monnit: viderent, qaid agerent. A'Aileonmi, quae 
coammomutitt, taerit tHerit mli, eenmailaqia an cngitatiomim cunaaarvn, oat etion 
fitliaeu ti/rauitdtMi tpbitia dtlirat it pemicioiat mbjtctumet, Ibl Cellarius et voce et 
geatlbna veaania, cam et aolam pediboa, et propodtam menmlam manlboa (erlnt, ei- 
claman et tndlgnari, anaom eaae Lnthemni aoapicari tale aliqoid de divino homine. 
At Hares* paulo ndatior, at aelaa, inqnit, Luthere, me apiiitn Dei praeditnni eiae. ego, 
qnid in animo tno eoncaperia, aum indicatnraa, idqas est: (e imdpert miiiitari od Aoec, 
«< waaiii. doetri»a» Mroio eaae mdai. Cam Lattieraa, at ipse poatsa dixit, iatam dedita 
open aeatantiam eogitaadoeaiet compleioa: mcreptt It Deiu, Satana. Post liaec ploi 
verborum tkelendiun Lnthema non patavit, et "■!"»"''■« glorianlesqne eoa dimliit. — Eo 
dla oppido illi axceaaemnt, at Chembei^o — literaa plenai maledlctia et execratlonlbtu 
ad LJithenun miNTont. Compan Luther's short account of thii hiterview, given to 
Spalatin and l^nge, 12th April (de Wetle, U. 179, 181). Nicholas Storch also afterward 
appeared before him ; see Lnthet to Spalatin, 4th Sept., Ibil (1. c. 246). 

" The fint edition appeared in September, lfi22, tlie aacoDd as earl^ u December, and 
■0 everx year original editions and nprinta. In 16SS followed the flnt part of the Old 
Tcelament, the Books of Hoaea ; in 1S24 the second part, tbo rest of the Matoricalbooka; 
and the third part, Job, the Psalter, and the writingi of Salomon ; in 1632 the foarth 
part, the Prophets, aome of which had been befon pablished by themaelveB. The fint 
entire edition of the Bible, with the Apocrypha, appeared in 1634. Compare O. W. Pan- 
cer's Eutwnrf elner rollstandigen Oescb. der Dentschcn Bibelabeisetiong Luther's. 2l« 
Aofl. Kikmberg, 1791. 8. LUcke'a kangebsste Geach. d. Lather. Blbelubenetiung, in 
the Zeitachrift Ha gehildete Christen der evangel. Kirche, Bias Heft (Elberfeld, 1828), 
1. 1. E. A. Weldemann'a Oeaeh. der Deutachen Bibelnbenetinng Lnther'a. Loipiig, 
1884. 8. D. H. BcboU'a Gaaeh, der Dealechen BibelObenetaung D. M. Lallter'a, n. dar 
(brtdaaerade Werth deraelben, Lelpdg, 1836. 8 (rgl. Jen. A. L. Z. Uarx, ISSfi, a. 321). 
Orotesend aber D. U. Lather's Yerdleasts am die Aoabildang der hoehtaalacheo Schrlft- 
spcacbe in tlie Abhandlnngan de* Frankftirter Oelehrtcn-Tereliis fOr teatsche Sprachn. 
BL 1 (Fnnkf., IB18), a. 24 ff. 

** Cochlaena, De Actia et ScripUs M. Latheri ad aon. 1633, fol. 60, b. : mlrom In mo- 
dnn mnltlplicabatar per chalcographoa aovnm Teatamentom Lutbari, nt atiam sutore*. 
tt nuUerea, et quilibet Idiotae, qni thentonieaa Utaraa atcnaqae didicerant, uoTum illnd 
VOL. TV. 5 

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86 FOUBTH PERIOD.— Dir. I.— A.D. 1G17-IC48. 

Hadrian VI., a pious and strict man,"' who mounted the papal 

TMUmentatn, Unqum fantem omni* reriuUa, avIdisBime legerent, quicanqne Lutho- 
nuii enint, Uladqna ueps lagaodo nMmorUe coinmsiidarcnt, Id bIdq ucam porUnlo 
codicem. Ex quo tanUin intra piacoi menua «IbI doctrinun urogabuit, ul aoa aalum 
com Uicii pwtU cathalicu, Teniin ettom cam ucerdotlbiu et moascfaii, itqae kdeo 
ctUm cum Miglitris et B>cra« ttaeologiae Doetoribni dlipuUre de fide et Eraagtlio Dan 
imbocerent. Qoln Imroo r«pertae nint Tnnlicrculu, qnte prapouUa the nutis ediliaqaa 
libelliB theatonleli boms (taerbit altro piuTocue, et quldem procicla^nui iniultantca, 
ignorutlunque Impropenuit«* et contemptni lubentea virtM, noD moda laicoa alqae prU 
vatoa bomines, venun edam qnosllbet DDctoces et licentUtoa totin* facnltatii theologU 
cae, tc lotss etiun Unlvenllatei, id qnod de AtgaU, nobUi qnadam mulien, comperloin 
habetur (compare Lipowsky Argtda v. Grnmbacli gab. Freiien t. SUqflbn. MOncben, 
1811. 4., de Wetta, iL 6I>S). — Cum igitor mobile vnlgqa nbiqua magii inteatam ^t at 
aridnm ad rea novaa late diralgandu, quam ad lea coiuaetai In ana itatu conaerraa- 
du; factom eat, ut torba Lalberana-longe ploi operae impenderit dlicendiisacria lite- 
r)s Ita traiuUtis, quam Impendit popnlua Catholicornm, nbi Idicl earn cnnin patiasima 
in aacerdotea et Monacbm r^)iciebant. Unde cooti^t nonDonqnam, a lalcLs Lotheranii 
plnrea ■criptnna locoa ez teuipora citari in collaqaUa, qoam cltaivatur a preabytaiu et 
Konachia catbolleii. At jam dudam perauaaerat Lathemg tnrbis tnii, atillii lUclit ha. 
bandam esae fldam, niai qnse ex aacria llteria profairantur. Idclrco reputsbancar Catho- 
lici ab illia ignart icriptnrsnun, etiamai ernditiaeiml esaent theologl. Qninetiam palam 
nliqnando coram moldtudine contradicebant eia Laid aliqui, tanqaam mera pro couci- 
one dixeiint mendacia ant figmeota hominum. Accedebant at alia Incommoda. Nam 
cum antiqui theologi multii retro annia peritiam linguamm at poUtioraa lilcraa neglcx- 
iBBcnt ; LDtbenu mox ab initio per Pbilippum Uelanethonen, et per Zningtiam, Oeco- 
lampadiomque et Bacenun (aateqnam ab eo in noDDollia artlcolia diaientire coepiataut) 
totam vare juventutem, eloqnentiae litaria liDgnammqua atadio dedltam, ac ingenio ax 
ncatia et expoHtia Eraami Roterdamt opnacnlia pnlcberrtma excoltam, in partem anam 
traxlt. JdTanaa vero et ingenio alacrea, at labomm patientea mox in aacria lileiia (qui- 
bus Lathema nnicam tribiiebat lenaam, et enm aolummodo Uteralem) iCa profecenmt 
literaliter, at Tel XXX annonun theologi tam promptl In dtandii acriptnrae loda non 
viderentor, quam erant illL Qui et de perilia lingnamm et de at}-U elegantia auperbl- 
entaa, mox qnoalibet veteris farinae theologna non aotum conlemnere, Temm atiam pro- 
vocare coeperont, maxima, qnando ad populmn rerba faciehant. Qaod at qaii novlta- 
tibna eoram eontradlceret, max praetendebant lectionem graecam vel hebraicam, ant 
aliqnem ex Tetoitiaiimia anctoriboa, et conieadm plenia GoDvitiDnim plaoatria invehe* 
bantor in graecamni et hebralcaram llCeraram ignaroa theologoa, quoa odioae lopbiataa, 
aalnos, poraoa, animalia ventila, at inatilia pondera teme vocitabant, aaperaddentea 
etiam ronchoa et CBchlnnaa immodastjaalme. Ac onum Latbennn, velat Temm tbeolo- 
gum popnlo cotnmandanEaa, ajna adTaraarfoa velnt ignaroi, immo boataa TeriCatia, et ob 
alimooiam glbt praeclaam ant Immtoatam Lalbero invldenteB, inrldioaiaaima tradnce- 

" He badtaoght the fallibility of tbe Pope la hia Comm. in libr. qnartnm SentenUa- 
nmi (reprinted, Bomaa, 1S23, fol.). t^iaeti. dt lacra ctHffim. certnm eat, qaod (Ponti- 
hx) poult errare in iia, qnae tangnnt Bdem, hsereaiia pec aoam detcrminationem aut 
decretalem aaserendo: On the other hand, Lalher'a doctrinea appeared prapoaterona to 
him, the atrict acholaatic theologian, and go be aaid with regard to Lutbar'a propoalllana 
condemned by the tbeologiana of LooTain, in a letter which ha wrote to them while ytit 
cardinal (C. Bnrmannt Badrlanna VI. aire Analacta hlitorica de Hadr. VI. 1>aj, ad. 
Rhen., 17ST. 4. p. 44T) : qni aane tam mdaa ac palpabUea haareaea mihi praa aa ferra 
TidentDT, Dt ne dladpolna qnidam theologlaa, ac prima ejoa limlna ingraaaoa, Ita labl 
merito patuiaaet.— Ulror valde, qnod bomo tam maQlfeale, tunqoe pertinaciter in Gd« 
errana, et anaa haereaes lomniaqoe difFnndena, impnno erran, et alioa in peniciosiasl. 
moa errorea tiahare impua* alnltar. Hence ha muat coma to the opinion that the radreai 
of external aboiea in tlie Church would pnt an end to Lnther'a aucceae. Thia Judgment 



throne after Leo X. {t lat Deo., 1521), thought that the more plain- 
ly he acknowledged and promised to redress tiie defects that had 
crept into the external oooatitution of the Chnrch, so much the 
. more decidedly he might venture to claim the execution of the 
existing law of heresy against Luther's deviations in doctrine. 
Bnt the public declarations which, for thia purpose, he caused to 
be made at the Diet of Nnremhei^ (Deo., 1522),** only resulted in 

would ncceaurily be strcagUieiitd b7 the letter ot Wilibild Pirkheinier addressed to him 
(I^rcUiBTineri 0pp., rd. Conr. KUlerhnsIiu, p. 87S ; GerdesU Hist. Evangclil leaorati, 
i. Honam. p. ITO), accaTding to which the arrogance and deceitftilaeu of the Dominl- 
cini, sad their hatred of the humanists, mre the cease of all the evils. LudovlcBB Vi- 
veg, In a tbrmsl opinlan (0pp. IL B34 ; BnmunDiu, p. 466), recomniended the new Pope 
to call a general eonncil, to do away with all the coofusioo prevailing in Europe. Ha- 
drian's correspondence with Erasmus is worthj of especial notice (Bdtmannns, p. 193 
acq., bnt here the letters are not all given ; see Danz Analecta Critics de Hadiiano TI. 
P- ii., Jense, 1814. 1. p. 9). He challengss him to write against Lather. Enumos de- 
clines this as useless ; be complains that he has been erroneonsly considered as the orig- 
inator of the here>r j he expresses his aversion to it, bnt points out the perverse methods 
of Luther's adversaries (Barmannns, p. 601 : centum locos colligam ex Psolinis epiito^ 
111 qui eoagmiint cam his quae damnata snnt In Lntheri Ubiis), and renews bis former 
pTOpoaal (gee Nolo GT) to let the question l>e adjnated by Impartial arbitrators from diC- 
ftrent nations. Psul Sai^i (Qistoire dn Conclle da Trsnt, tradnila par Couraj^r, L 41 
leq.) gives an aecount of the Pope's deliberadona with the cardinals as to the meoins to 
be adopted, thnn a diaiy of Francis Chieregati (p. U) ; bnt it is not probable that Car- 
dinal Cajetan, who had written on indulgence aihort time before intbe sense ofTbomBs 
Aqninas, would bave advised him to declare, according to the earlier do<:trine, that 
Indolgence availed only for the remission of chnrch-penaltles. See PallaTleiui, lib. ii. 

** The legate, f^ancis Chleregati, first had a ahorter form of Instmctions read bebr« 
the Diet, wUhent delivering it in writing ; in the beginning of the jreai I6SS he first pro- 
duced the second, with express declarations about refonn ; many persons were thus led 
to the apiniDD that it had been first composed in Noramberg (see the account of the 
Saxon envoy Hans von der Flanniti to the Elector, in Luther's works. Star Dentacher 
Jen. Theil, BL 306 b). It was sent after him, as soon as It was manifest that the pab- 
lic Ibeling in Clermany required more eflective declarations. These last Instmctions 
Lnther soon after publislud in German with comments (Slddan, lib. iv. inlL), in the 
original in Eaynald. ann. 1632, No. 64, and Ooldast Constitatt. Imperial. ]. 460. After 
setting forth Uie reasons with which the legate was to urge the princes to suppress the 
Lutheran heresy, it proceeds ; Item dices, nos Ingenue Eiterl, quod Dens banc perseco- 
tionem Eccleslsa suae intbm permittit propter peceata hominum, maxima sacerdotum 
et Eccleaiae Plaelatomm. — Sclmos, In hac saacta sede sliqaotjam annig mnlla abonu- 
nanda fslsse, abusns in spiritualibns, excessns In mandsUs, et omnia denlqae In pei^ 
versam mntata : nee mirum, sl aegritado a eapite in membra a snmmis Poatificibus in 
alios iaf(>riores Frelatos descenderit. Omnes nos, 1. e. Praelali et ecclesiaitici decllna- 
vimns nnusquisque in viae snas, nee ftait jam dlu, qui faceret bonnm, non fait nsque ad 
Dnum : qoamobreni necesse est, ut omnes demos gloriam Deo, et bnmiliemus anima* 
nostras ei, videatqae unrnqniaqoe nostrnm nnde ceciderlt, et se polias quilibet jndlcet, 
qaam a Deo in virga faroria soi Judlcari velit. Qua in re quod ad nos attinet, pollice- 
beris no* omnem operam adhiUturos, nt primnm Curia haac, node forte hoc malum pro- 
ceasit, reformetnr ; at sicnt inde coitnptlo in omnes infetiores emannvit, Ita etiam ab 

eadem ssnitsi et refbnnatio omnlnm emonet Qoanquam nemo mirari debebit, st non 

slaUm omnia enata el abiuns omnes per nos emendates viderit : invateratua njmiam 


eg FOURTH PEBIOD— DIV, I,— A.D. 1517-1618. 

a new and importunate demand for the redress of the oft-repeated 
grievanoes of the German nation." For the first attempts at reform 

morbita eat, nee implex, aedTariiu et ntultiplexj pedetentim in ejna cnra procedendum 
ttt, et piiiu gnviorlbiu magiaqne pericnliMis occurrendnm, ne omnia pariter rerormari 
volenles S>mnla perturbemiu — Qood kulem ultimta Uteria ania scribia, queibM ftaiasc 
Priueipea iatoa, quod C<racor4atia eornm per tunc aedem derogatnm ail; dices, noa dc 
hia, quae ante noa facta raere, cnlpari nee poMC, nee dobere, Dobiaqne Fjoamodi Uerosa- 
tionea, etUm dnm in minoribni eaaemiu, aemper dlaplicniBe. Proinde nobis ceTtiaaiinani 
aeotentiam esH, etiamsi ipai nan reqoirereat, Ulia noatri PonUflcatas tempore penltoa ab- 
i^ere, partim, utunionique ]ua aaam aerrenina, partim qnia aeqnitaa et bnmanitu ex- 
poBcit, nt inclftim nationem noitrani nan aolum non ofltedamua, aed atiam pecoliarea 
ei favorea Impendomns. De proceadbua Tero, quoa a Rota avDCari, et ad partea remltti 
poatulnQt, dices, noa copera ela in hoc gratiScari quantum honeite paaainma ; aed prop- 
ter sbaentiani audltornm ab ariw pestU gratia, non poaae noa de qnalilate et habltudino 
Ipaornin proceaauam ad praesena informari ; rererala voro illla— Tacturoa In grtUam dlc- 
tornm Principuin quidquld rationablllter poterimoa.— Item qals intelleximua, in Gtr- 
mania eaae mnltos bonoe et doctai viros pauperea, aliqna otiam pneclara ingeala, qiue 
ex indignilate apostolicarum proTisloaum, hiatriDnibua et stabnUriia potioa qoam viris 
doctia fieri aolitsrom, a, aedia hujus devotloae arersa ; capimua, ut inqniraa, qoiQatn llli 
alnt, eoramqufl nomina ad noa tranamiltafl, at ocenrrentfl beneJiclorum GermanlcortuEi 
vaeatione, Uloa proprio mota proridere posaimna. Scimaa entm, quantum Dai bonori, 
et aniinanim aatuti ac aedlflcati<»ii ohfueiit, qnod jam dia beneScia ecclealaitlca, maxi- 
me euram et re|^men animanim habcntia, data fuerant hominibua indlgnia. iWkhei- 
mer wrote on thii point to Eraamna (Stcobel'a Vermischla Bej-trage lur Geach. d. Litc- 
ratur NQmberg, 1776, a. 165) : PolUcelur multa, quae utinam velit, et quum Telit, poaait, 
et qunm posait, re exequatur, quod multis imposiibile videtnr. In the letter to tbo 
German princes, which tbe legate brought with him (Rsynald, 1522, no. 60, and Ln- 
theri 0pp. T. ii. Jen. lat. fol. 536, b.), be complains that the edict of Worms waa not 
obterved, and exhorta them to cany it into" execution, with a reference to the treatment 
of earlier herellca, e. g. Uniia at Constance, In order to produce a greater impresaion, 
he anggeata the political dangers of the Lutheran hereay : An putatia, alio tendere Iatoa 
iniquitatis lUioa, quam nt libertatia nonune omni obedientia aublata, quod cutqne libn- 
erit fkciendi licentiam Indncant? An ulliua penai jnaaa et legea veatrai babitoroa ere- 
ditia, qui aacros canones et Patmm decieta — non aolum Tilipendont, sed etiam dlabolica 
nine tacerare et comburere non Terentur ? An denlque vealrla oervicibua paiantoa, qnl 
non langendos Cbristoa Domini coutemerare, eaedere, trucldore anal mint ? In tdb, in 
Testti* na, domoa, uxorea, Kberoa, diliones, dominatus, templa, quae colitis, haec mise- 
randa calamitaa tendit, nial mature obviam eatis I At the aamo time he addressed a 
violent letter to tbe Elector Frederick (Ra3-nald, 1. c, na. 78 aa.) ; and, besides this, let- 
ter* to the town-coundla of Bamberg (which Latber published with notes, T. il. Jen. 
tat fol. &3S, b.), of Bnslaa (see Fibiger's eingeriaaenea Latbertham), of Conatonce 
(Foaali'a Beytrsge lur Befonnationageseh. iv. S33), to Heniy, Duke of HeckleDborg 
(Riedeier's Nochiiehten, It. 202), and andoubtedly otbers to tbe separate EaUtea which 
have not been divulged. 

" The answer of the Estates to the Pope may be Been In Latin in Goldoat Conatitott 
Imperial, i. 452, in German in F. Hortleder Von den Ursochen dea Dentacben Erieges, 
i. 9, and Walch, xt. 2560 (compare Ranke, Dentacbe Geacb. Im Zeitalter d. Bef. ii. 52 
S.) : Quod aedia Apoatolicae aententja in Luthemm lata, simnlqne Sacrae Caeaareae Mo- 
Jestatis edictum non sit debitae execuUoni demandatam, non sine maximla, wgentissi- 
mlaqne ratlonibus, utpnta ne p^ora inde caosargntnr, etc., bactenna proetermisaom est. 
Uojori namqne popult parti jam pridem peranaaum eat, et modo Lutbennis libris ac 
dogmatibus popolorum o;^d aic informata, ut jam pro comperto habeant, NaUoni Ger- 
nunicae a Curia Bomana per certos abnsua multa et magna graTamina et incommoda 
illat* eue : ob id, d pro executione Apoatolicae sedis sentcntiae, vel ImparatorlM Ua- 



in Rome, Hadrian earned hatred, resistanoe, and an early death 
(14th Sept, 1523).'* Hia successor, Clement TIL, immediately 

ti qnidpiam acetbiui attentatnm «sut, mox pDpularii maUitDdo eibi fa 
aninia concepi«et, ■* bI t»lU fiebimt pro evertenda avgngelica veriUta 
nalis atnaibiu unpietstibniqae. Uade iadabie nibil al 

qDam gnvlBsimi tumultoa popnlarea, inl«iitinac|na bella iperanda euent, qDemadmodam 
ex maltii ac variia reniia argiDmeDUa Principes aliiquc Ordiaei jam plaae didicere at 
eagnoTcre. Oportimiaribiu iCaque remediis bin malis, in bac potissimam tempamm 
difficoltate, Buccomndnm ea*e aziitinuuiU Then the Pope'a promieea vera bighly 
pralwd. Nam ni>i utiosmodi aboaiu et gravamiao, timulque cerii Articuli, jiioi laica- 
larea Prindpa juxta haec ^eeiaiiier detignatoa scrjptit erhibdntnC, Adclitcr refonncntur, 
Tera pax et nmcDrdia inter ecdBiaiticoi aaecularesqaa Oidines, hujimjiie tumtiltua et 
erronim extiipatio per GerDiuaiam minima tperanda ctt. Tbeu they pray for the abo- 
licioa of Che anoatea, ■aserting, Principeg Geimaniaa in aaluEinnem Annatarum ad «li- 
qaot annua aedi Apoatolleae solvendarnm ea lege ac conditione consenuoe, ut ilia in 
oppngnatiouem perfidUaimi Tnrcae, et defetuinnein lidei Catholicae convertereDtor. Bat 
that time had long aince paiKd, and tbii puipoH waa never regarded. They propoae, 
aa the beat meaoa of allaj'lng all diitnrbances, qDod Beatltndo Pontificis, accedenla ad 
baec Sacrae Caesareas Uajeitatii consensu, libemm Cbriatiannm Conciliiun ad iDcnm 
coDvenientem in Natione Germanica, qoanto ocjna et celerius qaoad fieri possit, videlicet 
Tel in Argentoratum, vet Hoguntiam, Caloniam Agrippinam, ret ad civilalem HeleO' 
■eni,velalinm convenienlem locnm In Gennania indiceret; nee ultra nnioi anni apatium 
(li ponibile foret) tiaec ConcUii eoaTOcatia et deiignaUo dlfferretnr, et qnod in tali Con- 
olio ela qni intereau deberent Eccleiiaaticl vel lalcalla ordioia, noD obatandbna quibna- 
cnnqne jaramentii et obligiClonibui, libera liceret loqui et couaulere pro gloria aiunmi 
Dei, et lalule aninuram, proque repablica Chriatiana, abaqne aUquo impediments ; 
qninimo quilibet ad haec debaat es» obnoxioa, elc. Till ttaiacoald be bronght aboat, n 
check ■boold be placed npOD innovating letCara and aermona. The legale, in bis reply 
(Goldaat, 1. c. 4&6), ezpreesed himself as much diasatisfied with this answer, bnl he re- 
ceived a cart dlimisBal (1. c. 456): Qoamvia Principes, et reliqni ordioes German icao ni- 
tlonis itcnun pro verbis verba dare potniaaent, quum tamen alils migia neceiaariia oc- 
cnpall esaent, PontUiciDm oratonm priori respon^one contentnm esie Jassernnt ; donee 
gravamina natioma Geraianicae aommo Fontiflci transmiass rorent, ac inda manifeitnm 
Aent, nnm verba ejus tam blanda, facia etiam deliita aecntura assent. In tha compoat- 
tion of the Gratamma, those of Wornis (lee Note 7G) were the groond-work ; these were 
nnly to be hnnght into a more convenient form. The}' were to have been given U> Ihe 
legale, aa is expressly atatad In the prebce (hi Georgi, p. 366) { and tlds would have 
been dona, si non praeter omnium exapectationem abitionem anam liinc tantopere malu- 
raasat, ac inopinato Ita deeessisset (see the Peroratlo in Ueor^^, p. 600) j so they had to 
ba aant after Um. Veesanmej-er (Kirchenhiat. Archir, 1SS4, iii. 87) erroneously asserta 
tbe contrary; for the statement in the Peroratio, which is not the work of the Grat editor, 
but of tba Estates, certainly outweighs all other testimony. See these Gravamina In 
Goldoat, L c 4fi6; i. F. Georgli Imperatorum Natjonia Germ. Gravamina adv. Sedam 
Romanam, Francof. et Lips., 1736. 4. p. 366. On the many I^tln and German editions 
of tham, see H. G. Fronci De GrsTaminibos Norimbetgenalbua ab ErroHbos LiberaUs 
Epiat. ad J. £. Eapplum, Upa., 1731. 4. 

" Tbe judgment of the Roman clergy with regard to these concessions made to tha 
Germans has been preserved in Pallavlcini's Hist. Cone. Trident, lib. iL c. 6, g 6 : Est pa- 
riter veritati consentanea ea ratio, qoam Snavia asseiit a Soderlno Cardlnale prepositam 
Fontifiei : emeadationam DaCaiiae, aliommque eccleaiasticoruRi Romaa Hagistratnum, 
liaeretlcDrum couveruoni parum ease conduclbilem. — Qiiln ex eo qnod ipsorum causa 
amendatum fbiasat, plausum anctoritatamque apad populos sibl comparaturos fuilse. — 
Atqae ita experimento compertum esse, modcntis concessiouibus iratnm qnidem popn- 
Inm qnandoque plaoari posse, perdnellem non posse: adeoqne perduellionls incendinn 


70 FOUBTH PERIOD.— DIV. I— A.D. 1517-16*8. 

returned to the old papal ways, and demanded, throagh his cardinal 
legate, Campeggio, at the Diet of Nuremberg (Jan., 1524), the ud- 
coodittonal suppression of the heresy." The legate only obtained 
an unsatisfactory decree for the observance of the edict of Worms, 
as far as was possible,*^ and now endeavored, by negotiations with 
the separate Estates and with individuab, to obtain somewhat 

nan ni^ vcl Uimiia gela, v«l laugnuiii plnvia reatingui. With regud toUw initinC' 
tioni of ttn legate. Cap. 7, f 9: Hujoamodi muidau, alcut apetto declarant Adriaui 
probitatem, — ita apad pleroBqne majomn in eo pradentiam circumapectiotiemqne deai- 
derabant. j 10: Experienlia compertam eit, non modo Booianum Fonti&caliim, — led 
regimen modid Ordinia religiosi, qnantuniTii umplids ac fonnae aeveriorie, mclioa regi 
a qnodam praedtto mrdiacii probitate com ezimia pmdentU conjuncta, quam a aanctU 
Dionia modlcae pnidentlaa compote. Quapropler ut ipea aanctUas id eubditii conaeive- 
tor, non tantitm in aanctitate, qnam in pmdentia momeati e>t. 

" WEien Campeggio was required t« make a dBclaration at the Diet will) regard to the 
Gravamina, ha replied (Sleidannt, lib. iv. ed. Am Eade, p. 236) : la coaventn Wonna- 
ciae Caeaaiia exiiase mandatom ejui tei, de commuai ipnorum cooaitio promulgatum : — 
libi igitar Tiderl, priusquam aliud decematnr, de modo execationia dellbenodum use. 
— Quantum ad ipaomm poatulata pertinet, an edita liat, ut Bomam deferantnr, omnlno 
ae neacire : trla aolnm exemplaria hiiase perlata Bonuun ad quoedam privadm : ex iia 
nnnm albl coatigiaae : Ponttflci autem et Cardinalium aenatui non poeae persuader!, hsec 
a Pijniiipiboa ita fuiaie decnta, >ed exIiUmare, piivaloi hominea odio reipublicae Bo- 
manae in Ineem emiiiiie ; onllam etiam ejus rei h mondatam habere; neqne tamen 
hoo^c accipiendum esn, quasi de eo poteatatem non habeat agendi: >ed in iia poetula- 
lia ease molta, qnae et Pontificia den^ent auctoritati, et liaereaim redoleant, et a ae 
tractari nan pouint : alia vera, quae Don adveraentur PantificI, qoseque nitimtur aeqni- 
tale, non ae reciuarB,'quDminua de iia et cognoacat et agst: aed tameo sibi rideri, mo- 
deiatiua mnlto poasa propoui, si quid erga Fontiflcem habeant. Pirkhdmer nairatas 
that tliia Campeggio, then at Nuremberg, cheated a poor mathematician out of a 
book and a globe, and refuaed to make him an}' indemnification becanae he waa a 
Lutheran ; see Strobel'a Yermiichte BejtrAge inr Gesch. der literatnr, NUmberg, 176S, 


*■ The flnid decree of the Diet, 18th April, 1G!4, in LUnig*! BaichaarcUv P. Gen. cant. 
1, p. 44G ; Walch, xr. !674 : the Emperor bad exp«;tad that tfaa Matea weald, with re- 
gard to the edict of Worms, " gehoraaoilich gelebt and nachkcmmen aefn, daira das- 
aeibe gehacdliabt habea, und aber solcbea nicht besclielien, davon gemelner Chriaten- 
lieU dentaeher Nation nicht kleiae Beachwemng eifolgt." On the repealed demand of 
the Emperor, the Ealatsa determined, "demaelben unserm Mandat gehoraamlieh, vie 
tie alch desa achnldlg erkeunen, ao vlel ihnen mSf^cb, cu geleben, gemaaa En lulten 
nod Dachiukammen." Libela were to be dlieoatinued, a general council aaaembled a» 
tooD as poaaible, an abstract ot the now doctrinea, "waa darln diapntirilch gcfunden," 
to be prepared for its ose; meanwhile, "das h. Evangelium und Qoltcs Wort oach rech- 
tem wabren Ventand u. Aaalegnng der von gemetner Kirehen angenommeneu Lehrern 
ohn Anthihr a. Aergerniss gepredigt n. gelehrt" But maasniea were to be taken with 
regard to the Oravamioa at the next diet. But the electoral envoy, and the deputies 
of the cooats aad nobility, proteWed against this decree (Me the docomenta In Walch. 
XV. £696). The Pope reroonatrated against lU ludeSniteneaa to the Emperor, and to 
the Einga of Fimnce and England (aee letteri of the IBIh, 17tfa, and 3ti Haf, in Ray- 
Dild, 1634, no. IG aa.). The Emperor accanlingly, in an edict ft«o] Bnrgoa, IGth Jnly 
(Cyprian'a Kfltal. Drknnden appended to Tentisl'a Heriebt, lli. 3, a. 8M). reftued the 
demand fbr a council, and reqnind, "pel vermeldung Criminis lacsaa Majeatati*, no- 
atx a. des Eeicba Acht □. Aberacbt" the observance of the edict of Worma. 



more.^ He actually saoceeded 30 far as to unite several of the 
Estates at Batisbon (July, 1524), in ooncluding a league for the 
axeoatiou of the edict of Worms, and in leoeiving from the legate 
a decree against isolated abuses, as if this was the reformation of 
the Church that was to satisfy the universal expectation. '"^ How> 
ever, the time for deception was past; even zealous Catholic prin- 
ces were ashamed of supporting this sham reform ; and it soon 
became the laughing-stook of the people.*"' 

Hadrian's honest concessions and fruitless efTorts, as well as the 
opposite policy of his successor, only increased the conviction that 
a reformation of the Church was necessary, but could never be 
expected £ront Rome. Hence there was a more decided return 
to those eccleaastical reforms which had already been success- 
fully b^un. In almost every part of Gennany they had their 
champions. Popular authors, such as Hans Sachs at Nurem- 
berg,"'' John Eberlinof G-iinzburg,'"' Michael Stiefelfrora Essling- 

" Ha dealred b^kcUIIj to draw OTcr HcUncthoB to hia aide. When, in April and 
Haj-, ba Tiaitcd hia bttierlaDd, tbe Palatinal«, tti« legate aeot bii secretar}', Fredariek 
Hanaaa, to biin, 10 win Um by Urge promliea. Helancthon slonUy refuaed ever;- ovsr- 
t«n (••« the accooDt of Camerarioa, who waa preaeot at lbs time, Vita Helsnchtli. § 26, 
ed. Strobel, p. 98). Ualancthoa waa thereby induced to aend tbe cftrdinal a letter, 
which haa becoine known mider the title De DocErina D. LntbeH ad Amicnm qneodun 
(Ud. Epiatt., ad. BralwliDeider, L WT), and b<«lna with the Iroponant remark : Fallitnr 
mnndoa, cmn nnam hoc agl a Lathero jodioat, at pablicae oaeremonlae aboleantnr. — 
Vanun noo de cainmouila dimicat Lntherai, majrn qaoddun docet, qoid Inlerslt Inter 
hominam juititiam et Dei joatitiam. The legale alio tried to win Metanctboo by 
maaua of Eraama* ; aee Eraaml Ep. ad Ual. poitr. Nonaa Sept., 1626, in Bcetachneider, 

'" Ruike'a Deotache Qaacb. im Zeitaltar d. Bef. B. 168. Tbeae were tbe Arcbdnke 
Ferdinand, tbe Dnka of Bavaria, tlie Arohbhhop of Saiibnrg, the Biahopa of Trent, 
Batiabon, Bamberg, Spina, Straabnrg, Augatmrs, Constance, E^e, Fteiaingen, Paaaao, 
and Breada. Tbe Doenmenta ot the League are in Walch, xr. S699 ; beat in StrobelV 
UfcelbneeD, iL 118. Tlie Conatitatio ad remoreDdoa Abnaiu et Ordinatio ad Vitam 
Qeri refnrmmdam, wlikb t>eloBga to It, iaaned by Campegglo, may l» Men In the Faa. 
eievlna Bamm Expatandamm et f^i^endaiun, ed. E. Brown, p. ISS. Ooldaatl Con- 
atUt. Imparial. UL 478. 

'" Etcd the lealona Catholic OrtnlntiaQratlaaaaya of it in hliFaadcolna I.e.: qnaa 
aicnti panca complectitor, its etiam a panda eat recepta. I^mpoona agalnit It are men- 
ticnad in Strobei'a HiacdlanMn, li. 1S4, where alao some extracts an given from one 
ot tbtm, "Absai Oder Fahdacbiitt dea bdliachen FOnlen Lodbra, DocIbt Uartin Ln. 
Uur jetit angesandt." 

■" For initance, by liia WiUfbersitelU /faduigai, prob^y In 15S8. Diapntidon 
swiacben einem Chorfaerren n. Schnlunaclier, dsrin daa Wort Gottei a. ein ncht chriit- 
licb Weaen vetfochUn wild; 1GS4. Dialog von den Sehduwerken dar Gelatlloben n. 
ifareaOalabden: I5I1. See Bans Sacha, fiefSrderer dar Beformation, von Teeaenineyer, 
bi tbe Klrcbeohiat. Archiv, 18i6. ill. »9. 

'*■ In 1581 Im left the Fhtnclaciui monasteiy at Dim, and labored in many places aa 
a preacher of reform. To tha onmber of hia works, which are dlatiognlalied tta their 


72 FODBTH PEEIOD.— DIV. 1.— A.D. 16n-l«4S. 

en,''^ and others,"** reoommended them. In many partsof oorthem 
G^ermaoy, aad the adjacent oonntries, they obtained the ascend- 
anoy: in East Friesland from 1519;'°* in some towns of Fome- 
rania,"" and of Livonia,'" and in Silesia,"* from 1532; in Prus- 
sia"" and Mecklenburg'" from 1523; in Denmark and Sweden 

mOdiiesa, belong eipecisUf the 16 Bandlgmmwil. Strobel's Nachricht v. Job. £b. v. 
G. Lcbea u. ScbrUten Im Alulorf. literar. Mosenm, i. 868. EigfaMra worki of his an 
hero enumerated. Ui> work on the Beformation of the Clerical Order ie repiioted la 
Strobel'* HiacelluieeD, 11. 207. 

"* An AogmtlDiaD monk at Enliag; be nrote a poem, "Vod der Cbriitfflmiigeii, 
nchtgegrfiadteD Lebre D. M. Lntber'a," and was drawa into a correipondBDce about it 
with Thomas Hnmer at Straiburg. Be left bis nionaeteiy In 1G23, worked as an evan- 
gelical preacher in tamy placet, wrote macb in the cbqm of the Reformation, bat de- 
genersted at length into Apocalj-ptic dreams, f 15G7 at Jena; see the Nachricbt von M. 
Stiefel's Leben a. SchrifteD, In Strobel'B Neue Beytrage, i. 1. 

*'* Thos Keltenbscb, a barefooted tnar, wrote, "Pnctica practicirt aosder h. Bibel, 
1623. 4." See Altdorfisches lileiar. Hasenm, ii. 61. In the fear 1621 appeand : " Ain 
germon gepredigt vom Pauren iq Werdt bey NQmberg von dem tnyea WUlen det 
Menschen, aoch von Anrufting der Heiligen," composed by DiepoW Peringer, a peasant 
from the district of Ulmt who had preached publicly at Kitaingen and NOnmberg, and 
was probably alio the author of the following works; "Dea Christ). Pauren getreoen 
Ratb," and " Aia schCne Aoslegung Qber daa gdttlich Gebst Tster Unaer, del nns Qott 
lelbat geleret bat. Das tut betracht ein aimer Bauer, u. ■. w. ;" see Riederer'a Nachrich- 
ten, iL Tl.— Uti Bychsaer'a (Urhanua Begins) Ge8prU:h awiscben einem Pbffeo U. We- 
ber ; probably to the sums author belongs also tlie dialogue between a barefooted fHai 
and a spoon-maker. Both dialogues have been erroneonily attributed lo Hani Sacbi j 
see Teesenmeyei, in the KlrcbeDbist. Archiv, 1826, ili. 271.— Ain achSner Dialogoa Ton 
einem Lonzknecbt u. PredigermOnicb dnrch Wolfgang Zlerer von Salzburg} see Tee- 
■enmeyer in Illgen'i Zeitachritt f. d. hist. Tbeologie, ii. 2, 267. 

' " Gitlenoann's Reformationsgescbicbte t. OatfHesIond, in the Eirchenhist. Arcbiv, 
1824, iii. 33. 

'" It was propagated In Traptow, &om 1630, by Bogenhagen, penecaled in 1G21; 
see Johonnea Bogenhagen, by ^eti, Lelpz., 1829, s. 43 ff. Illgen's Zeitaebr. f. d. hist. 
Theol. V. i, £80; and the same work, new series, I. ill. 189. Stettin recdred two preach- 
era ^m Wittenberg, Seckendorf, i. SID, b. Christian Ketelhodt preached at Stralsund 
from 1(13! ; in April, 1523, a general storm againat images *naued ; see Sostrowen's Le- 
ben, edited by Uohnike, i. 36 ; Job. Berckmann's Stralsuodiecbe CbroDlk, edited by 
Uohnike n. Zobei (Stialannd, 1S33), a. S3, 269. D. C. F. Fabridua, Die AchI n. Vieraig 
Oder ; die Einfnhnmg der KirGbenverbeasemDg in SCralsoad. Slralsund, 1887. 8. — (t. 
Uedem's) Qeach. der EinfUbning der evangel. Lehra im Heriogth. Pommem. Greifa- 
wald, 1S37. 8. J. G. L. Eosegaiten, Da Lucia Evaogelicae in Pomerania exorientia Ad- 
TOTBariis. Gryphiaw., 1B80, 4. 

'" See S 16, Note 6, below. 

'" Bresloa set the example ; it was followed by Frederick II., Duke of liegaitl, and 
George, Margcave of BrandeDburg, as Doka of Jigemdorf i aee Eosenberg'a Befoim. 
Geach. v. Sehlesien. BreaUii, 1767. 

■■• See S 16, Kola B, below. 

■■■ Pint at Boatock, in 1G23, by Joachim Scbl&ter (U. Joachim SchlUter enter evang. 
Prediger lu Boatoclc, ein Beitng zar BeformaUonsgeacli. geachr. dorch Nicolanm Gry. 
sen 1693, nea henusgegeben v. E. F. L. Aradt, LObeck, 1832. 8), at Wiamar, by Hen- 
ry HoUens, in 1631, Seckendorf, i. 295, a. Sculteti Annalea Evongelii Renovati, ad 
ang. 1634. D. SohiMer'a Kirdlienhist. dee evang. Meklenburg. Rostock, 1~8B, 3 



the nnmber of adherents was already coDsiderable. Reform met 
with special saooess among the people in the free towns. Thus, 
by the deoision of the citizens, it prevailed at Francfort on the 
Kayne,'" in Swabiatt Halle,'" and in Uagdeburg in 1523,"* in 
1524 in XJlm,'" Strasbuig,"* Bremen,'" and Nuremberg,"* Very 
few Were the towns in whioh it did not stir up a hazardous strag- 
gle that endangered the old oonstitutioa of the Chuich."* 

*" It had been pruchcd tben ever aince 1521, and been protected hy certaia noble- 
men in the Deighborhood. On Ihe 6th March, 1523, the Senate bad to iuoe an order to 
all the clergj to preach the word of God pure and clear, Seckendorf, I. US, J. B. Rlt- 
ter'i Erang. Denkmahl der Stadt Frankf. a. H., od. anarohrl. Dericbt der daadbit ei^ 
gangenen EircheDTeTonn. Frankf., 17!6. 4. 

■■■ By John Breni, who here became paalor in 1632, and dliconllaned mati in 16SS, 
Seckendorf; 1. S43. 

"* The ciUxena asnmUed on the 28d Jnne, 1B2S, with aeven preachera, in the An- 
gosUnian monaiCeij, and drew np articlet for the Conncil, in which tliey demanded a 
nformation. Then tbej prevailed on Nic. Amsdorf to ondertake the airangement of 
ecclalaitical nutlen, Seckendorf, i. 946. G. 3. RGIger'a Magdebnrg. Refonnations- 
geacliichte. Ste Aufl. Blagdebnrg, 1793. S. 

■ » TloD^ the Franciacans, John Eberlin (see Note 103), Henry of Kettenbacb (we 
TeetenoMj^r'a Bejtiftge ita Qesch. der Literatur a. Beform., Him, 1T92, s. 79), and 
John Diepholt had preached the ReformatloD before thle tune, it obtained greater con- 
■iitency in 16!1, when Connd Sam was called in at the reqneit of the townimen. In 
the ume year the Senate began ita regolationi for reform, by a command to the clergy 
either to dlamlse their conenblnei or to marTj- them j we Seckendorf, 1. 943.— The Ref. 
annation prevailed at EeiII>ronD aleo by meani of Bernhard Lacbmann, 1G21, who wai 
luitor there ; aee C. Jiger'B Mitthellongen lor Schvtb. n. Frink. Reformationigeach. 
Ud. 1 (Stuttgart, ISSS), a. 80 ff. In Kanf beuera the aignal for the [ntrodnction of reform 
wa> given by a tinman, 8th Bept., 1634, who Intermpted the priest in a sermoa of ex- 
travagant commeDdation of t)ie Virgin Mary with the worda " PfafT, do iDgat" (Prieat, 
thoaliaat)i aee Wagenseil'a Beitrag lar GeM:h. der Reform. Lclpi. 1830, a. 3. 

'■* The eSbrta tor reform, which had been early nndertaken, received a decided char- 
acter ttma the year 1&23, when Caapar Hedio came to Straiborg as preacher at the ca- 
thedral, Wolfgang Fabrldna Capllo aa proroit of Ihe foundatjon of St. Tbomaa, and 
Martin Bnctr. The alteration In divine aerrice waa commenced in 1834, with the approv- 
al of the Senate; see A. Jnog'aBelErage m der Geacb. d. Reformation. 3t« Abth. Geich. 
der Bebnnat. der Einzhe hi Streabnrg n. dem Qaaue. Straeb. n. Leipz., IgSO. 8. 

1 > ' Benry of Zdtphea preachedtha reformation here from 1633-34 In tlie Anachaiii- 
kirehe; John TImann lh>m 1634, in the chorch of St. Martin. In 1G3G the maaa waa ev- 
er; where abollahed ; see Pratje, Bremen a. Terdiache Bibliothek, B. 1, St. 3, a. 1; H. 
W. Rotermnnd vom Anfange der Reforin«tioD im Eriatitte Bremen n. Stifte Terden. 
LQnabnrg, 1136. 

"■ Job. MoUner'a Beformationageaeli. der fVeyen Reichatadt NQmberg. KDmberg, 
1770. B. The two provoeta, George Bealer at St. Sebald, and Hector POmar at St. I^n- 
rence'a, Ihe Angnatine prior, Woll^g Yolprecht, and Andrew Oeiander, n-om 1623 
preacher at St. Lawrence'a, began, from the year 1623, to preach the BeCinnation; and 
the Coimcil protected thim, notwithatandlng the icmonatrancea of the papal legate, and 
the Rmpemr'a atadtholder, at the Dieta of Knremberg, la 1G3S and 1624; aee A]tdor> 
dichea Uterar. Hnaenm, ii. 2S. In the year 1634 they aboliabed the maaa and other 
poplih oaagee, and the aenleDcapronoonocd againit them by the Kahop of Bamberg re- 
mained withoat raault ; aee Strobel'a Hiacellaneen, 111. 46. 

'" For • cliaraeteilatic acconnl of thla straggle, aee Ambrose Blarer'a apology to the 


74 FODBTH PERIOD.— DIT. 1.— A.D. 1617-1618. 

town-CDuncil of ConaUncs, a.d. 16SS (in FdEili'a Beytr&ge mr BefonniUoDsgeicb. iv. 
19B). He ahova hair Luther's doctrine woa perrerted bj his enemieai "They tay Lu- 
ther rajecla all ODtvard good works which God haa commanded, but at the same Ume 
tbej pass over in ulenca hia faithful teaching, that all good sod fmitfiil irotk* moat 
proceed ftom the ground of ■ belieTing lieart: thoa he would first make the root and 
the tree good, so that the fTnita ma^ Dot be hung upon It froo) without, but put fortli 
from within. They dso pieteud Chat he hicnlcatea carnal enjox'''^'''*! ■■'^ teacbea that 
men should fast do more, and that accordinglf he rejecta all appointed days and sea- 
sons ; bat the; maliclonal}' conceal the fact that he exhotta na eamesllj' tA iaSj chas- 
tening and mtralnt of the flesh. — Further, tbej- object that, according to Luther'a doc- 
trine, man Deed not pray, merel}' becanae he condemns rain repetition, aa Christ himself 
condemned such Lp-service j^owerer, they omit to say tiiat he teaches ua to pray 
without ceasing, with elevation and napiration of Che aonl toward God. — They report 
that Luther teaches carnal wantonness, because he wisbea to put some check upon the 
wide.«preBd, scandaloua impurity of the clergy by pecmiaiion to many, and to assist 
well-meaning priests, who, through buhftilneis, are unable to advise tbenuelves, and 
who would yet be willingly helped in the becoming manner allowed by Christ and hU 
apostles I but they pass over in silence that he forbids all impurity, while we still have 
to this day, as our ecclesiastical anperiors and spiritual advisers, men who live in open 
fornication, acandal, and crime. — Further still, they cry out that Luther wonld do away 
with all authority, because, forsooth, he will not endunt the cruel rule of certain tyrants 
who undertake, with unhallowed boldness, to eocraacfa upon the aovereignly of God the 
Lord, since they try to extend their power over our souls and consdences ) j-et they do 
not Bay that, according to Luther'a docMne, we are not only aubject to authority, but 
alao are boiuid to suB^ and endure with Cluistian patience even their iniane and cruel 
government, reserving only the freedom of the bodI and conscience.— Besides, they al- 
lege the discord and distarbauoe which this doctrine baa roused in the world, and do not 
consider that the word of God from the first has caused disunion and conflicts between 
the believers in truth and falsehood. — Then we have to consider, aa Chrittiana, that, as 
the Church was at first begun and built up by the persecnti(m and bloodshed of the 
bithful, now too, since it has been brought to mln and lamentable disorder in almost 
all points, it can not be reconstitnted, and re-established in its ancient digni^ without 
great disturbance and revolt. — They also pretend tbat Luther rejecta all divhie oma- 
menta, Cables, coffins, lamps, tapers, organs, masa-vestments, etc. ; but they conceal the 
fact that be so earnestly exhorts ns to keep in repdr and to adorn the living templea of 
God, as Paul says, namely, the poor, that they may not anSbr tnm want and neceasitj-. 
— In like manner, they complain that this doctrine tends to the disgrace and Che leasen- 
lug of the honor of the immaculate and ever-^ore Virgin Mary, and Other of God's aainta ; 
because jnlgrimages, outlying chapels, tapei^bomiug, aud such proceedings, an not 
allowed to b« of much avail ; but they do not say that we ore taught true reverence for 
Bunta, namely, to recognize, praise, and adore the grace Of Ood in His aainCa, and thus 
to strengthen opr haarta in confidence and hope, that Be will grant unto ua the same 
paternal grace aa to them, because they are our brethren, and, in fine, so direct us in 
their footsteps that we may follow the example of their faith and virtuous living. They 
wUl imbitter thia honey of onrs by aaying,that Luther is so hos^, quarrelsome, and 
bitter, that he attacks, reproaclies, and reviles his adversariM, and amonf them even 
the great noblea and princea, ecclealasUcal and temporal, with such wanton boldness 
that be quite forgeta l^rotherly love and Chrlatian courte^. Of a truth be has often 
mispleaaad dm In this respect ; I would adviae no one now to ImitaCa him In tills p^dut. 
At the earns time, I have not, on this acconnt, rejected his good, Christian doctrine, nel- 
ther will 1 pronounce aeutence upon his person in this matter j because I do not nnder- 
stand his spirit and the secret judgment of God, since by this fault many people ore 
deterred from his doctrina; but I also bear in mind that he is not fighting his own 
cause, bat for the word of God j on this account much may be forgiven him, and all 
ascribed to a lealoua Indignation for God. — lastly, they endeavor to make this doctrine 
tntphdous and reproachful, by saying that for more than a thousand years there has 



From the time that the brave Swiss merceaaries bad so often 
decided tbe foitones of war on tbe battle-fields of nortbern Italy, 
the Pope and tbe kingdom of France bad been tbe chief rivals in 
tbe attempt to obtain adherents in the tlurteen cantons.' Pen- 
sions were given by both parties to win men of inHuence. Tbe 
Pope employed his spiritual power, also, for the same purpose ; and 
allowed great forbearance and concessions about ecclesiastical mat- 
teis, indulgences, and choicb-lMnefioes. The direct result of the 
ooDstantly increasing enlistment in foreign service was a deplora< 
hie demoralization ; for the mercenaries, on their return to their 
&thfirland, brought back licentiousness, wanton levity, and all 
sorts of crimes.^ At the same time, the clerical order was degraded 
by the uoprinoipled distribution of church-patronage.^ But rev- 
erence toward Rome also rapidly decreased, now that men so 
cflen came to know her near at hand, and fbmid such frequent 
oanse of complaint against her.* Accordingly, the Swiss G-overn- 
ments were constantly assuming a more independent bearing 

bean a genenl agreement la tbe nndsntandiiig of Holy Scriptnre ; and that the hol]- 
tUben and teaehen bsTe been quite nnanlmosi in tlili ; bnt now eooHa Lutber, over- 
Ibnnri every tbing, and will have a prlvaU meaning after bli oirn bead, to tbatall past 
opinloiu together an quite woitUna. In aiiswvr to thia, it-4s oneagb te aay tbat be, 
■bore all otbar men, haa Ki rMtridcd hia nndemtandlng, according to the exbortaUon of 
Paul, and ftoicad it Into rabjection to the word of Cbiiat, tbat hg wldom decide* bj hU 
own opinion, bnt by comparing and explaining Scriptnn witb Scriptom, wbich is the 
hi^Mt art In conuDBDting.— Beddea, it la not true that ancient or modern taaehera have 
hitberto been agreed in handling Scrlptnie, for in a tbw da}-a I could compiU a large book 
nfartfclet fai wfaldi they have been entirely at variance and discordant. — Agalnjt Lntlwr 
only, who ha* polotod ont and laid hia hand on the real nicer and crime of the Chorch, 
tbey niae the cry of mnrder; they can not endnn hia writinga, they endeaTOr to make iiis 
doctrine loathsome to all men, they pervert his words, they attribate to him many nnfaeard- 
of berealfs, «> that every thing pnposteniaa widch la now anng or said of God and the 
•ainia, all vicioaa books and hsreaie*, are burdened npcm Lnlher andtheLntheranB,''etc. 
' Compare J. v. UOller'g Schireltiergeechichle, Th. S, Abth. S, by Bobeft Glntx-Blota- 
beim (ZOrkb, ISld), a. US g. Vfin, NgoerB Helvet. Kircbeng. 1. SI ff. 

■ Aiiabalm> Bernar Chronik, vi. SI, in the year 1691 : " WIe dann vornacb blabar alle 
Debennlas, Ueppl^uit nnd Aendmng der ffitten In ^ tchleohte, tapfere Eydgenoia- 
aobaft na ftemden Eriegen gebncbl 1st worden, alto Ist aach eu dlser Zyt beschehen, 
etc." BnlUnger'B Kefbrmationsgeiicblcfate, i. 4. OInttBlotaheim, s. 604. Wirt, L 18. 
MklaBa Uanoet von Qifkael*«n. Stntt^ n. TObingen, 1837, s. ST. Compare the poem 
"Deralta n. der nene lUdgencate," Ibid. a. 461. 

■ Olnte-raotabeim, a. SOI. HMtinger, contlnned by Mollet and Gloti-Blotaheim, t1- 
S8L Qranetaas, a. 16. 

* Qruneiacn, a. 36. Aikdielm, v. 481. Whan a papal legate appeimd before the Diet 
at GUris, in Jan., 1530: " Da erUagten slch die Eydgenossen, ibre Pension wwd Duen 


76 FOURTH PERIOD.-DIV. 1— A.D. 1617-1618. 

toward the Fope, as theylieoaniQ certain that circumstances im- 
posed upon him the necessity of courting their favor.' Thus the 
evil of foreign enlistment, which was perpetually denounced by 
patriots as the ruin of Switzerland,* brought with it its own cure, 
by helping to prepare the way for an ecclesiastical reformation. 

The point of light in Switzerland was Basle. At its universi^, 
among many divines stiffly attached to the old order of things, 
Thomas Wyttenbaoh of BieF had been teaching firom 1505, and 
Wol^ang Fabricius Capito, a native of Alsatia, from 1513 to 
1520," and opening to their hearers many clear views of particular 
doctrines. Bat Erasmus especially, who in 1516 was for a time 
domesticated at Basle, gathered round him a circle of enthusiastic 
admirers of ancient learning, and of enlightened religious views.' 

To this circle Ulrich Zwinglo joined himself. He was bom on 

miC nQvur, unirdlmr MOnz nnd za Cnzft beiablt, ■nderi dann der Band nj-ite. Anch 
so wire uQt le doldea, dias >io von Curtusnen bebubt wnrdint, daw dea Bibils Gardi- 
knecht PfrOnden erwncblnt uud dig verkoiiftiDt; Item, and daudle nraOrklcn PrieaUr 
nm Diebilahl, Todtscbtag, KeUeiy, etc., dem BischoTen tiberKcbco, osgalaHBui oder en- 
trunnen wieder Meas hieltint, nnd andere prieaUrllcher W&rdi^eit Aompter uhtlnt. 
Ihnen aOllte lugelaaacn werden, ifilkhe le itrafen und abiawj-acn. Antwott dsr Legat, 
na mude Bcaaeniag and FOraehnng bcacfaehea, aOlltint Bin Z}-C Gcduld haben, nod ge- 
tueln AjiligeD der hell. Kilchen bedeakeD." 

* When tha Pope, in 161S, required 13,000 men at anna from the conMeratea for an 
expedition agoinat the Turk*, they declaied themselTcs ready on conditioD (Anabelm, 
r. 341): "So irir nit nf ain aOlltan, bia ander Cbrialiiche 1 unten, Herrea nnd Stlnd, 
die ana Torgslui, vt tind, ond wider den TOrken tiebent." They promiaed 10,000 men, 
and added: "Wo babatUche Heiligkelt aoch mch bedorfe, wSllint wir ihr of ibra Gefal- 
lon noch 2000 FfaBbn oa nnicrer Eidgenoasschaft aocb nachlaaaen, daaa die anch aOllint 
liehen, damit die Zahl der 12,000 erfDlIt werde." 

* Thna many peraoDS adriaed, u eailj a< tbe Diet of Loceme, ta 1496 1 " Allei frem- 
den Hemn mllsaiB ta gebn," Gluta-Blotiheim, a. 66. At Bems, tbe Carthusian, Fnni 
Eolb, rrom 1613 preacher at the VlaienieD'HOnater, waa rei^ zealoui againat foreign en- 
liatinent, and left the town ^m cbagrin at the ill ancceaa of hi* aennana ; *M the B«> 
formatoren Bema im XVI. Jahrb., by G. J. Kuhn. Bern, 1626, a. SU ff. 

' With ngaid to him, aee Kabn, a. 47 ff. 

■ Abont tiim, aee Jong's Geaeh. d. Seform. d. Kirche la Straaabnrg, B. 1, i. 86 ff. 

■ To thla drcle of Erasmiaoa, wliich la also known from Zwiagle'a earlltr conespond- 
enee, belonged Capito, Beatna Bhenanna, Heorlcnj Glareanoa, the Frandacau, Conrad 
Pellkanaa, Oawald Hycoaioa in Basle, Joachim Vadiantu, profeaaor at Vienna, from 
1618 at bla native (own of St. Gall, Wilb. Neaen at Basis, afterward at Paris, Job. v. 
Botihelm, canon of Constance (aee J. t. B. n. seine Frennde von K. Walchner, Sdhaf- 
haasen, 1886. 8). Tbe extent to which progress In theology had been made among 
Umn men, even at an early data, la ahown in the narrative of John Fabiitioi Honlanna 
(f 1666), Id his Ameral oration on Pellicanns ; according to which he and Cajuto, as 
earij as 1612, had come to an nnderstanding at a prirata canfermca in Brachial npen 
the ammalum (raMuisfanttdfioRit, and, wiih SL Atignatine, received the braad u 
Ssmbolan eorporit (bh Miscellanea Tigurina, iii. 431 sa. Gerdesli Hist. Evangelii Re- 
novati, i. Ill as.); altbongb thb later acconnt of It ia evidently colom] by opposition 
I* tbe Lotbsran opinion. 



the first of January, 1484, at Wildhans, in iha oonnty of Toggan* 
burg, and educated at the universities of Vienna and Basle : at 
the latter place he received from "Wyttenbach'" hia first impulse 
in the study of divinity. From 1506, when he was elected by 
the commonity of G-lorus to be their pastor," he devoted himself 
to a zealous study of the Latin classics and fathers of the Church." 

netn omnibus Utim lecnli doctiuimii homiidbiu iDiracDloetitupori,BtphMnlx qnidam 
hibitos sit. Qdd pncc«ptors Zaingliiu et ego nno eodemqae tcmport clrc* a.d. 1E0&, 
BuUeoc Utmii apcnm naTinUs formati tumus, nee •olom in CDltloiibiu ditciplinia, 
qoonim cnt ullentiulmiu, aed In scrtptnntrum qnoqno veritata. Ut enlm homo ille 
pnater dugularcni cloqaentiam acuto ent ingenia, miilti quae posteris temporibag ab 
aliii prodlta nmt, pTovidebat ac praeuglebat, utde indalgcnUia Papiaticls etaliii reboa, 
qoibua RomaDni Pontiftix itultam mniidDin aliqaot jam wcnlla dsmentaTerat. Ex hoc 
hansiniDS quidqnid aobla fait aoUdae arndilionU, alqug hoc lotnm ei debemus. Qaam 
tigo a tanto viro acmlna quaedam vene ntiguinU ZningHano pectori injccta esaant, et 
calear additnm, quo ad lectionem literarnm, rejsctlB nngis aopUnUcia, exdcaretnr, ad 
Graacanicamm liHranun atndimn itatim accinctna Hart« ano profecit, etc. 2wln^e, in 
hi* ntlegcn u. Ornnd der SchluaaRden 1533, in the CglegaDgdes XVIII. Artikels (Werke 
T. Scbolet a. Scholtheaa. Bd. 1, a. 2M) 1 Duin Ich Torhln (tot Lather) von dem AbUaa 
bericht was, wie ea sin Bgtnig nnd Farba wir, na einer Dlapntation, die Doctor Thomai 
W}^nil»ch TOD Bial, mln Herr n. gellebler trover Lehrar, vor etiraa Zjten te Baael 
gehalten hatte, irlevol in minem Abweaen." In Ibe Arnica txtgttU ad JLufAfmm, 1(>2T 
(0pp. ed. BchiJer et Schnltbeaa, ilL 544), he had alreadj' learned ^m W}-tteafaach — 
aoliin Chriatl morteiii pretlam ease remitaionis peccatDnim. Rod. Qoaltenu (Zwiagle'a 
Bon-ln-liv, preacher at Zurich, f 15BG), in Praef. ad Prlorem Partem Homilianun in 
Hatthaeam (MiMsII. Hipir. lU. 109), aays ot Wrttenbach: Noa aolnm bonanim liters- 
nun et lEberalinm artlniD atadla inatauravit, aed mnltoa, quoqne Fapiatlcae doctrinaa 
artjcnloa de Sacramentia, indulgentiia, rods monaiticla publics damnabet, et jaidoribu 
dicere aolebat, non procal utiene tempoa, quo theologiam acholaiticam aboleri, et doc- 
trlnam Eedeiiae reterem, ab ortbodoxia patriboa et aeriptiirB aacra traditam, instanraii 
oporteaL On the other band, Zvlngle vrim to Wj-ttenbacb on the 15th Jnne, 15!9 
(0pp. viL 397) : Qood qnererii, fknatra te aetatem (am (nam, qnam uoatimni, In Sapfai»- 
tanun nu^ detririaae, non injuria facia: qiianqnam nihil eat, cnr noatra caoaa turberit. 
Dedimns haec Jam olim temporum iniqnitati ; veraiD poenitendo nihil efficlmua, quam 
qnod alii* exemplo inmna, qui paalo aunt ingeaio magla ingenuo, ne Illi diatiua qtiam 
par ait liii liaenant, a qnibni noa eaee arulaoa, ut vehementer giodemni, ita non paruni 
dolet, aero nimla amlaoa. 

" Tlie Popa'a presentation to thia cure of Henry Goldli, of one of the SnttUniLes of 
Znridi, who already held asTeralbeDeBces.wai not regarded; and tn IBIS the Pope p^d 
blm an annual aum by way of indemnity (Scholer'aBoldr.Zwingli, a. 30, S02). This la 
at onceangxaiDpls of the Pope'a arbitrary dealing and of hia conceaaioni to SirltEerland. 

>* The letters written by him and to him at thia time are an indication of the char- 
acter of Ilia studies j they are entirely taken Dp with aabjects of Interest to the circle ot 
hnmaniats, with qqestions of taste and style, literary LutelligsDce, and aacb pointa. John 
Dingnaner wrote to him on the 6th of December, 1SI4 (0pp. *tl. I. 9), as— Apolllneoe 
lyrae moderatotl, noatraeqne tempestatis Ciceroni indnbitato. With. ITeseu, 27th April, 
1517 (0pp. vii. !1), writes to him : Tanta est tna emdltlo candorqne, ut Inter eztremM 
sortls hMnines alnt merito coonomerandi, qui te non eiJmium mirentur Musaram slmot 
et ChtiiU aaeardotem. Zwingle wrote flrst to &asmus in 1514, and received a very 
friendly answer (Opp. vii. 10) ; bow hl^y he prized it li shown by his letter to bim, 
!9Ui April, 1516 (L c 13) : Tu nobis amasioa ille es, col ni confibalaU ^mns, aomnnm 


78 FOUKTH PEHIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1G17-I«4S. 

As an eloquent preacher, he inveighed against the corrupt morals 
of bis day ;" in 1510 he did the same in satirical and allegorical 
writings.'* Nevertheless, he was still quite devoted to the Pope ; 
he received from him a pension aa an infloentisl preadter;" and 
regarded the support wUoh the Swiss rendered to the Pt^ as a 
dutiful protection of tlie Holy See." But afterward he was led 
back more and more to the Holy Scriptures as the only source of 
Christianity : in 1513 he began to learn G-reek, and engaged with 
zeal in the study of the New Testament." Thus his sermons, from 

non caplmu. — Nm penictl mi (e llineiis — idM tantam abean at poenilMt, ut magnom 
etiam fedue nomen nos existinicmiu, aon alia re migis glDri>nt«s, qnun EiumDm Ti- 
diiiM, viram de literia Scripturseque aacras arcanli meritlaalmiua, qnique Dri hominDm- 
que Ita caiitatc flagfrat, nt qnidqidd Ut«rie impenditar, aibi <mpendl paUit, pro quo Item 
omnea bene precari oporteat, nt earn Deni O. H. inco1ntne<n aervet, ut aanctae literae a 
barbarie »ophlini»H»qne per enm vindicstas in perfeclionm aelatera grandcacant, na 
tenellae adhnc lanto patn orbaa ingratios dDriasqne edncaatnr. E^ aniiD--pro toa 
Isthac In uairenoa benefleieatla, aero licet, tibi dndum quod Socrati Aaacbinea (qoao- 
qaam Impanm) danavi (via., mj^f). 

" Hjumlni, De ZwingUi Tlta, i 11, in Stftudlln'i a. Tzachlmer'a ArcliiT f. Klrcheng. i. 
ii. 8 : ConKredi coepit Jnita ChrisU nonnam cum flagitiii qaibniqae pemicioeiadmla, anta 
omnia tunen mm pensimibua (sic appellamm mnnen Prindpnm, quae certia milite) 
paraodi belUque coufldendi gratia dabaotur hominibua), eo qood eai ez(tirpai«, et pa> 
triam rcfonnare ad aanctjtatem prietinam proiini liaberet in votia. Nam videbat, turn 
demom docbrinae coeleati locam faturuni, nU fone malornm eieet exhanstna omBiom. 
Compare bi> If airatiD veriislma civilig Helveti(»nm Belli, ibid. a. 41. 

** The LoiynnM (Woika, U. IL 343), agalnit tiie manifold erran to irbich fotdgn 
landa lead men ; Fiielgrdicht turn (khtm mid eOiektit nierta (Ibid. s. 257), agaiurt tor- 
dgn enlistment and peuslona. 

1* Sea Note 43, below. 

>* Tbla appears fnim bia Belatio de QesUs Inter Qalloa et HelTetios ad Raveunam, 
PapUm, aliiaqne locii (in Fnberi Remm Qerm. Scriptt. ed. Struvii, Ui. 187 m.), *.D, 
1612 : e. g., hnnc itaque Chriadanorum mataris (the Cburcb (tf Rome) atatam Intnentet 
confoederati, malo pericnloHiqas exemplo futomm exiaClmant, ai cuillbet I^annomn) 
(oa the King of France) pro rabie commonem Chiiatifldeliam matrem tmpane permlttant 
inceMere, eedolo raptim liabitia conrentibua atienue acciaaa Ecclealae Italiaeque n» 
reaarcin ttatnunt. The Pope is tohimfrcaltwiiiiiuCAruh'tticiiruu, thecoudactof Levrla 
XIL tovard him, and his intention — Anljpapam, ut ijont, Cacodaemooia ingtinctu cre- 
are, an altogether to be condemned. 

" Zwbigll Uslegeu der ScUosaredeu Im J. 1538 dea ZTIII. Art. (Works, i. !M); 
"For who aUiTed me np to preach the Goepel, and to expound an entiie Evangeliat? 
Did Lnther do tliis ? I Iwd began to preach before I had ever heard of Lather's name, 
ODd ten Tears before (so in 1513) I had tiegan to team Greek irith this end in view, that 
I might draw tlie doctrine of Christ from the original." (With this agrees ZwingUi Ep. 
ad Job. Tadiannm, SSd Febr., 161S, Opp. vii, 9: Graecae, latinae. ignama, anlmnm ap- 
plicnt Qnan boni console, n* olenm laborque pereant j et in manna post Chiysolorae 
Isagogen quid inmsndam P Ita enim graecis atudere deatinavl, at qni me praeter 
Deum amoreat nesdam, non gloriae,— eed sacratisairaarnm llteranun ergo.) See also 
his easay Von der Klarbdt dos Worts Gottea. 16W. (Works, L TB) : " In mj- j-onnger 
days I advanced aa far as any of my contemporariei In hnman lore ; and wlien, aeven 
or eight year* ago (1G14-Ifi), I felt moved to devote mysdr to Holy Scripture, pbilos^ 
phy and theoIoQ' atrova to entangle me in Iheil dispntea. But at last I thongbt within 



the year 1516, Bssamed a thoroughly simple and biblical form.'^ 
He b^an to disoero many ecolesiastioal errors aad abuses ;'* bnt 
he did not yet openly assail thera.^" When, however, a large part 
of the confederates allowed themselves to be won over to the side 
of France, and Swiss began to fight against Swiss in foreign 
lands,'^ he then raised his voice against pensions and foreign en- 
listment. As he thereby inonrred the hatred of the French party, 
he accepted the invitation of the adminifitrator, Diebcdd von Ge- 
roldseck, who was devoted to learning, to reside at Einsiedeln 
ia 1516,*^ where, in close interconrse with several congenial spir- 

mj-Mlf (sulded by Bcriptnre uid the Woid of God), Than mut luva sU thla, and iBoni 
the mauling of God plainlj (rom HU own almpla word. Than I wt to work, prayed to 
God for Hii light, and Seiiptim began to be much pluner to me, whan I raad the plain 
text, than If I bad read nany comnienCi and expoaitloni." 

'• Zi>iiigliUalegaaderScblaureden,16i3; Hilegong das XVIII. Ait. (Worka, L !63) : 
"Befon an}' oae in em neigbborhood knew tny thing of Lother'a name, I began to 
preach the Ooipel of Chriit, in the year 1616 1 ao that I neTtr went up inlo tha pslpit 
withont taking tar my text the word which had been read as the goapel tha aame morn- 
ing at man, and explaining it from holy writ atone. Hoch aa I adhered, at tha begin- 
ning of this period, to the ancienli, ai purer and plainer teachan, I wai netertheleia 
iliuppointed with them at Umea. Aa Ihat hoDorabie gentleman, Diebold of Geroldieck, 
Warden of Einiiedeln, may perhaps ramamber how I adriiad him many timea to read 
Jerome with all diligence, and added, the time will aooa come, if God will, when neither 
Jenima nor any otlier writer will have much authority among Chrigtians, bnt Holy Scrip- 
tan alone." 

" E. g., Zwingti Dilegnng dee XX. Art. 1623 (Worka, L 298): " Eight or nine yeara 
ago (l&M or 1616) I read • comfortable fiction written on tbe Lord Jesoa by the leamed 
Eraamna of Bottodam, in which Jeaoa complains that men do not seek all good things 
from Him, wheieaa He ia a fountajn of all good. Then I thought, if thia be tha caae, 
why do we aeek help ttom the creatnn ? I began to aearcb in Scripture and the worka 
of the Falbara, whetlnr I could And there any certain information with regard to prayer 
to aaiuta. In abort, 1 (otind nothing of It in the Bible at all ; among tbe ancienta I foDud 
it in aome, and not in othen. However, it did not maoh move ma if they did teach 
prayer to aaintai for they always atoad on tradiUra alone. And when I read the 
Scriptnrea which they quoted for this purpose in the original, these had no inch mean- 
ing as they wished to thmst upon them ; and the more I considered this doctrine or opin- 
ion, the IsM aathority I found for it in Scripture, but rather more and more against it." 

'° Myconiua, $ 13 : Inlerea gratiam evangellcam ita promnlgabat, ut de Eodesiae 
Romanae abusu nihil, vel admodom parce commemoisret. Tdetut, veritatem eogui- 
tara In cordibns auditonim agere aunm offioinm : nam veris perceptis et Intellectla hand 
difficnlter lalsa cognoscimns. Qnamvis nec per tempos tarn licnerit alitor : prins enim 
Veritas in tanta hominum protervitite et malitla penitns foissat amiasa, qnam abuane 
rciigionia tnblattu. Accoidlngly, when, in the year 1522, Zwtngle preached once more 
at Glarus, he acknowledged that he had fonneiiy recommended many doctrines of men, 
and exhorted hia hearers to hold bst the Word of God alone (according to the mann- 
Kript history of the Beformation by Werner Steiner, who was present at tlie time ; gtven 
ill J. J. Hettinger's Helvet. Eircbeng., iii. 91). 

" Ansbelm, v. 219, 22&i Glnli-Btotsheim, s. 4S6. 

" ZwingUna ad Jo. Tadiannm, dd. 18. Jan., 1617 (0pp. vii. S4) : Locum mntavimw, 
uon cnpidinis ant cupiditatis mot! stimnlis, venim Gallornm technis, et nunc Eremi sn- 
mna. He remained atill on the Ixst terms with the govenuneut. Id. ad Slap/tnan, 


80 FOUETH PERIOD.-DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-16*8. 

its,^ he coDtianed his studies after the method of Erasmus," and 
gained new light in theology. His sennons continued to be dis- 
tinguished only for their simple, Scriptural style. Although he 
had quietly helped to put an end to certain abtises,^^ still he 
did not yet assail the doctrine of the Church.'" Tme, Zwingle 
and his friends reoognized more and more clearly the necessity of 
a Reformation in the Church f but Uke their master, Erasmus, 
they stilt hoped that this might be effected by the eoclesia&tioal 
authorities.^ Zwingle himself took some steps with this end in 
view, which were of course completely unsuccessful.^^ 

1623 (I. c. p. 337) ; Apad meos Dominm CIsroDU tanls cam pace et bcUitata vcnatni 
■am, ut nanqium ■liquid litis iaterceuerit, Btqae adeo tanU cam gratia dlscewl, at 
nihi Pnebeadam duos huhds prorogaverint, spe dacti, me revennram «s>«. 

" Besides tbe admitustnlar Geralduck, chiefly with the papal chsplaiD, Frani Zink, 
John Oochslin ; Me Scholer, a. 17G t. 

** One memorUl of tbeie atadiea is Zniagle's copy of the Epistles of St. Paul In Greek, 
preaerved in the toon-libraiy at Zurich : it was made from Erasmus's edition of 1G16, 
and finished at Elnaiedeln in Uay, 1G17, with marginal notes from the Fathers of the 
OiDTch and Erasmus. See BolliDger, 1. 8 ; Uycanios De Vita Zwinglil, § 10 (Arcbir, I. 
iLT>) Scboler, B. 308. 

" The inscription over the entrance of the monasterr — hie est plena remlssio Dinniom 
peccatonm * culpa et a paena — waa removed. Zwingle and Oechslia wen sent by the 
administnkt']r to the convent of Fahr, to introduce among (he nans the reading mT tlie 
New Testament In Germsn, instead of llie chanting of matins, and to releaae those who 
wished to depart ; Uess's Life of Zwfaigla, translated by Udsri, s.&9 f ; Schnler, e. 180. 
— On the other hud, Zwingle'a sermon, on the daj of the commemoration of angeU, 
mentioned tiy Bullinger, 1. 81, in which he inveighs againat the worship of saint*, pQ- 
grimages, and vows, does not belong to this dale, as Hess (Usterl, s. 61 ff.) ; Win, L 
142) and others maintain ; but to the year 1532, in which Zwingle and Leo Judae preach- 
ed at fjnsiedeltt on the commemoralion of angels ; see Anaheim, vi 97 f. : Schuier, s. 
357. As the feast of the Blessing of Angels was only celebrated every seventh year, it 
conid not have taken place daring Zwingle's residence at Einsiedeln. 

■* Salat, in his mannsciipt acconnt (in Schuier, s. 3f>7), says : " Er fing an xn riittclo, 
doch so listiglich, dasi er nicht in begrelfen war, daza man sich keines andem, danu 
dem Christenglanben gem&ss und gleich versehen hatte." Compare Note 18. 

*' Capito ad Bollingerum, 1636 (ex MS. in J. H. Hotthtgeri Hist. Eccl. ssec. zrl. p. 
il. p. 307) : Anteqnam Lalhems in laeem emerserat, Zuingllui et ego inter nos commu- 
nicavimns de FontiAce dejiciendo, etiam dum tile yitam degeret in Eremitorio. Nam 
ntriqne ex Erasmi consnetndiae, et lections bononun anctorum qoalectinque Jndicium 
tnm anboleacebat. Compare Beatns Rhenanos ad Zwiogllum, d. 6. Dec., 1&18 (0pp. 
Til. 1, 67}, complainta on the stste of the Church ; Sacerdotes — ethnicam ant judaicam 
doctrinam decent. Dsvoigo sacerdotam loquor. Neqne enlm me latfit, te tuique dmi' 
lea pniiuimam Christi philosophiam ex ipsia fontibus popalo proponere, non Scoticia ant 
Gabrielicii interpretationibus depravatam, sad ab Augastino, Ambrosio, Cj'prlaao, Hie- 
ronymo germane et sincere exposltam — Dtinam tui similes mnltos haberct Helvetia I 
Bic tandem facile posset, nt meliores mores nostrates indueieat. 

" Cf. Capltoids Epist. ad Christoph. Utcnbeminm, Episc. BasiteeoMm, pRDxed to 
Jo.GichtoiraelElnc1dltoriumEcclesiasticam. Basil., 1617. Reprinted in Gerdesii HJsL 
Evang. BenoT. 1. Honnm. p. 123. In this letter of dedication ttte neceesitj of counter- 
acting the Immorality and Ignorance of the clergy waa inculcated upon the bishops. 

" Bnlllnger, i. 10. Zwbigla's Antwnrt an Valentin Conqiar., 1626 (Works, iL L ?).' 

D,c,lzed byGoOglc 


In the year 1518, when a trader in indnigenoes, the Fraooiscan, 
Bernhardm Samson, made his appearance also in Switzerland, and 
surpassed all in «firontery,^° Zwingle, as well as many others, 
raised his voice against this abuse.^' This, however, was the 
less sarprising, since even the Bishop of Constance regarded this 
trader in indolgenoes as an iatrader.^ Zwingle remained in 
such high favor with the papal legate that he appointed him pa- 
pat chaplain.^ 

On the first of January, 1519, Zwingle entered upon the office 
of Leut'priest in the great minster at Zurich ; and in order to 
spread abroad a knowledge of pure, Soriptaral doctrine, he at 
onoe abandoned the customary mode of preaching from the pas- 
sages of Scripture assigned for each service, and explained in 
his sermons entire books, first the G-ospel of St. Matthew, in 
r^alar order. Al&ough he andertook his work independently,^ 

"S^tTtus ■go(h>iice in ISIT), at EUiuledela, uid >flerv>rd at Zoricli, I often proved 
to Un Lord Cudiual von SitUn, in plain langoajje, and laillfied throaghout with stniDg 
panagaa of Hoi]' Scripture, that thg antlre pepacj' had a bad roundation. Ths noble 
gentJemaD, Diebold tod Qeroldaeck, Hutsr Frani Ziugg, Doctor Hichael Sander, irho 
■re all three itill living, often heard me. And tlia aforeeaid cardinal often anivered 
me to the fallowing effect : If God help ma to recover my anthoritj (for he »u M tiiat 
time ont of flivoT with the Pope, and the popelinge, tlut la, the cardinals, who alwaya 
breed popea], I wonJi) e«e to it that the arrogance and Iklaehaod which the Bishop of 
Bame employ* ahonld be brought to li^t and refbimed. He baa often since then con- 
vened with ma on doctrine and on Hoi j Sciiptnre, bnt alwaj^ to the effect that he rec- 
ogniied what was Uiat and diaapproved it. But there is no need here to record bow he 
has condacted himBelf aince that time." 

" HOUerl Scbwaitxtrguch., continned by Hottlnger, vi. 287. Ha was so well satis- 
fied with Bern, that, npon his taking leave, be granted plenaiy indulgence to all per- 
sons present, who repealed the Paternoster and Ave Haria npon their knees ; those who 
went three times ronnd the chorch pnq-ing, he aunred that they would deliver any 
■onl they desired oat oT purgatory. At length, after all had repeated the Paternoster 
and Ave Haria five timea for the sonls in porgBtory, "syhrey er Inti Jatun diss Angen- 
bUeks dnd aller Bemenn Saelen, wo nnd wie joch abgeecheiden, alle mit enandcre ns 
dar hdUisehen Pyn des FigfQra in die bimraeUche FVOud des Himmalrycha nfgetahren." 
So say* the eye-witness, Anaheim, v. B36 f., on the year IfilB. 

" Hottinger, Hist. Zed. aaee. zvi P. iiL p. 182, and J. J. Hettinger, Helvet. Kirch- 
eng. ili. 29, oaly state in general terms, withont naming their anthoritles, that when 
Samson sold the indnlgenee in Switierland, Zwin^e preached against him at EInaiedeln. 

■* See Fabrl Epiat., Note S8, below. 

" He appidntod him AeeaUtmt CaptUawu. The document, dated 1st 9epL, 1G18, is In 
Hettfaiger, aaec svf. P. IL p. 276. 

)• BnUInger, L IS. Zwin^i Uslegmig des ZVIIL Art. 1523 (Works, i. 2U) : "When 
I began to preach at Znricb, in the year 19, 1 gave notice before ths honorable dean and 
chapter that I wished, if God ao willed it, to preach npon the Qospel written by St. 
Matthew, withont any glosses of man, and not to be led Into error or controversy. At 
the beginning of this year none of as knew any thing abont Lather, except that eome 
work jipon indulgence had been isaoed by him ; tbla tangfat me but little, fbr I bad b«- 
Atra leaned aboat the Indulgence, that it wa* a deceit and impoetnra, from a diipota- 
TOL. IV. — 6 


82 FOURTH PERIOD.—DIT. I.— A.D. 1517-lSie. 

yet, as Luther's mighty voioe, wasiog louder and louder, just dow 
began to peaetrate Switzerland also, arousing the slumbering end 
encouraging the backward,^ the agreement between the two men 
was soon recognized ; and abroad, the later and feebler movement 
of Zwingle was understood to have arisen from the earUer and 
more powerful impulse of Luther.^* The universal excitement 

Uon vhich Doctor Thomu Wft«inlwch of Bid, my mMter and trnlf-belaved lescher, 
had held some time ago at fi<iale, allMit iD my sbaenc*. So Luther's n-ork, pnblUhed 
Kt tlie same time, had helped me bnt little in toy aermona on Matthew. Bat all penooa 
wholoDgedforthcWordof OodreMirted to theM umons in iDch niuDl>en, without In- 
lennisaioD, that I woDdered at It m^aeir. How I will thna apeak with the eneroiea of 
the doctrine of Christ. Who charges me with beings Lutheran? When Lntlier'a book 
on the Lord's Prayer came out, aa [ had ahortly befbre commented upon thia prayer In 
St. Matthew, I know well there were miny piona persons who auspected erroneonsly 
that t had written the book, and prefixed Lather's name to iL Who, then, can charge 
me with t>eing a Lutheran 7" The order in which he proceeded with the other books of 
the New Teitament, and his reaaona for it, may be seen in his Arehetelea, 1SI2 (0pp. 
iii. IS). t 

'* Luther's work* went fh>m Baale throngh Switzerland. According to Ftaben's and 
Capito's Letters to Luther in Febi., 1519 (see j 1, Note 8T),the Cardinal von Slten, and 
the Administrator of Elnaicdetn, Herr von Geroldaeck, were well-disposed toward him 
already at that time. At Constance they were well known after Luther's conference 
wifh Cajetan at Augsburg (Oct., 151B) ; see FQaaii's Beytrago, iv. 174. 

" In Bern, for inatance, where Luther was well known as a reformer before Zwingle 
began to reform; seeBeatoa Rbenan. ad Zaingl. dd. Basil., 26. Dec., IBIS (0pp. vii. 
61) : Nudins tertius hue a Bemensibna miaans est bibliopola, qui multum hie Luthera- 
Rornm exemplarium commit et illo deportavit. Gaadeo, mi Zuingli, veliementer, quo- 
lies video mundnm reslpiseere, et abjectia mataeologomm aomniis soHdam consectari 
doctrinam. Idem a meia monidpibua factum eit. Quo magis mEroc 'Hmregienaiam 
ncgllgenliam, qui moniti per Te facers ceasent, quod alii sna iponta capessant. Neque 
enim credera poasum, Te illos non monuiase, aut rem non auccepiaae apnd eos, qui tibi 
in Jndicando [oimas tribannt. (But Zwingle did not come to Zarich till the 27th Dec.) 
Auslielm, Berner Cfaninik, v. S73, on the year 1517, spealu of Luther's first appearance 
ai tlie "Urbab n. Anfang der wnnderbaren ErnQirening des hail. Evangeliums," and 
descril>es, vi. 101, the reformation of the Church as " dorch den Luther angericht und 
von Zwingli gestarkt." On the year 1519 he relates, v. 368 ; " At the very beginning 
of this year the steadfast Ulrich Zwingle brongbt a great acceeuon of strength to the 
strong Luther. After preaching three years at Qnsiedeln on the Goapela appointed to 
ba read in the masa-service, according to the style and method of the early teacheri of 
the Church, lie vras now appointed to t« a people's priest, and preacher at the great 
minster of Zurich, a worthy conAiderale of the afore-mentioned place. After llrat ob- 
taining the permission of his dean and chapter, he began to preach npon the Gospel of 
St. Matthew from ^ripture only, and earnestly to exhort his people to hear, read, re- 
ceive, and believe the Word of God only, as the immovable foondatlon of onr salvation 
and hollneu. He began and carried on this blessed nndertaking with such great suc- 
cssi, that there, aa at Wittenberg, a wonderfully large conconrse of people came to bear 
the Word of God; and an opinion prevailed that Luther and Zwingle, far apart aa they 
were, and only known to each other by hearsay, preached a doctrine learned from each 
other, and were in fact united together. But thereupon the divine truth itaetf clearly 
showed and proved, that where the Word of God wai expounded in purity and accord- 
ing to Hit Spirit, It woald be every where consilUnl, and every where produce the same 
doctrine, blth, and IhUt." 



roused liy Luther could not be without effect upoa Zwiogle also. 
Trae, he remained essentially iaithful to his principle of over- 
throwing falsehood not by direot attack, but by proclaiming Uie 
opposite truths." Still, so many weighty questions were brought 
by Luther before the public, that Zwiogle could not avoid ex- 
pressing his opinion on these points. Of his pubho tninbtry it is 
only known, that when Samson came at this time to Zurich, he 
preached zealously against Indulgences,^ and censured the cor- 
ruptions of the clergy and monks. Kany private expressions of 
his may have contribated to the opinion which soon prevailed in 
Ztiriob, that he was a Lutheran at heart" The monks first at- 

" ZwIiigU Dilegimg du XX. Art. 162S (Worlu, i. 368) ; " I luva not dons u mine 
■ow do ; when tbe; bagin to preub, tbej fint prij for ibe iatarcMilan of ulnU ; and 
If OHO object to Uiis, tiiey t»y : Hive not the preachen been showing yoa, flrgt of a]], 
tbat the fklw goda are not goda bat Idola ? Hence, since I find that men relj npon the 
interceaaian of aainta, and that there ii no ground fbr this practice, ifaall I not fint show 
them tut ? I anawer, No, there is another abape to this matter, and one that can not 
be well meainred In this way. I have taken the matter thus Id hand ; I bare faithfully 
tangfat and pointed out Christ Jesiu, that people sbonld teak ereiy good thing tmia 
Uim, and have recoorae to Him in every need. I have thoa made the grace of God an 
abject of lave to men, and have certainly proved and eiperienoed that Qod will work 
with Hta word. I have also yielded to ignorant persona, after often apeaklng with them, 
if they maintain thdr point obstinately; Well, well, you bring your prayers to the 
saints; I will bring mine to God alone. Let us see which of ns takes the better conrse. 
And I have thns fed them with milk, until some of them, who were formerly strongly 
against me, afterward became strong in the came of God done. So I advlieall persona 
at this time who preach the Word of God tbat they should duly preach aalvation front 
the plain and tne Word of God. Thoa tnitt in God alone will Bniely Increase, and the 
deceitfolness of false hopes fall to the gioand. " 

" In the early months of 1619. Samaon was rejected In Zurich ; Bollinger, i. 17 ; 
UuUer-Hottiuger, vL 290. The papal letters of SOth Apr., 1619, are in Hottinger, saec. 
xvi. P. iil. p. 177 BS. The vicar-general, John Faber, who governed the diocese at Con- 
stance in place of the feeble Biihop Ha^ v. I^ndenberg, wrote on this snbject to Zwin- 
^e, 7th Jnoe, 1£19 (0pp. vil. T9) : Quid ad fratrem indnlgeatiariam coelipotentem atti- 
net, mens mihi genius praesagUt huno eventnm: neqos enim tarn fligidos circa prae- 
cordia sanguis obstitit, ot tsm portentosaa veniaa a seds apoetolica nonquam profectas 
crederem. Quid alind ^usmodi venlamm licitatorea eSkxmlea agunt, qnam nt ecclesU 
paa^m vel a ChristjaDis irrideatur? 

" Zwiuf^i Dslagong des XTIII. Art. 1623 (Works, 1. !56) : " The papists, by a silly 
trick, heap mch names upon me and others ; they say. Ton most be a Lutheran ; yoB 
preach just as Lnthet writes. I answer them, I preach quite as mnoh like what Paul 
wrote; why do ye not rather receive me as a disciple of Paul? Tea, I preach the word 
of Christ, wherefbre do ye not receive me as a OirisUan ? Thus it is nothing but non- 
senaa. Lnthet is, aa seems to me, an excellent champion Ibr Giod, who has searched 
ont the meaning of Scripture with greater earnestness than any one on earth has done 
for a thoQiand yean : and no one baa equaled him in the manly, steadfast courage with 
wbleb he has aasailed the Pope of Bome, so long as the Papacy haa existed, not to say 
anght apOnst the others. Bat wboM is such a deed ? Is it of Qod or of Luther F Ask 
Lntbo' himself; I well know he will say of God. Why, then, do you ascribe other meo'a 
doctrine to LuUier, when ha ascribes hU own to God P Again, I will not bear the name 


81 FODBTH PERIOD.-DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-1648. 

taoked him ;*" then several canons of hia cathedral oomplained 
that he denied the divine right of tithes, and in the exercise of his 
spiritual office did not keep sufficiently in view Ihe increase of 
the revenue of the chapter:*' his adversaries could not as yet 
charge him with heresies. In order to avoid dispute, the city 
council chained all their olergy to preach only the doctrine of the 
Holy Scriptures.*' The l^ate, then at Znrich, did indeed see the 
impending danger, and tried to win Zwingle. Bat the latter gave 
up his Koman pension ia 1530, and declared tiiat nothing should 
hinder him ftom preaching the Gospel.*^ The legate pressed ea. 

of Lather, because I bAve read rerj- little of hia docIiiDe, and have often ■tnditnisl}' kept 
aloof Crom hia writings on purpose to BaUs^ the papista. But what I have read of Ua 
wrilingi (ao br aa conccma dogmaa, doctrine, opinloni, and Ibe Benie of Scriptnre, for 
I have nothing to do with his qoaneb) ia generally ao well fortified and gmoiided in 
the Word of God, that it ia not potoble for an j creatore lo refate them." 

•° BeatQB Rbenaniu ad Zuin^inm, d. 7. Ha]., 1519 (0pp. viL 71) : non panlo gratins 
fait, qnod ore uobia retntlt Simon nosier, pergere te videlicet in ■aaeiendo Chriatianls- 
mo, qnem partlm impietaa nianifbsta, partim fallaz anpentitlo nan isde modo, aed ubl- 
vji gentlnm, indignia media coniporoanmt. Et qoanqnam, at non cant aeranlalione 
virtas, obiticpant qoldam, tamen a proposito tno, qnod initanter urgea, adbnc nemo ta 
rctrahera potoit. Inqna re conitantLsm tnam adminri aabit, qna nobia apoatolicE illiug 
aecoU vinun repraeaentas. Obgnnninnt qnidam, rident, miDantur, petnlantar laees- 
aant ; at ta vers Qiriatiaiia patientia anfl^ omnia. Clareaaai ad Zningl., d. 7. Jnn., 
1G19 (1. c. p. 78), audio, neado qoaa contentioDea esae tibi com monachia, bomlnlbas, 
a qaibaa pins quam ab aspldum veaeno carendnm eat. Obeue poamnt, prodease paucia 

" 'Wire, L 176. The principal da^ of the Lait-priau wai tbe Increaie and manage- 
ment of the revenaa ; Schnler, a. 327. 

" Bulllnger, L $2. The report of the Council of Zurich to their sabjecta, 1524, in 
Fttesli's Bajtrigo, ii. 237 : " Onr preacbera liave, however, for four or five yeaia preach- 
ed among ns the half goapela and the Word of God ; at firat, aa ye say, their doctrine 
aeemed eCrange and new, alnce it waa nnlike that tau^t ua by oar forefatlierB. For 
this reaaoQ there have been among ua, both prieata and lajiinen, ten-fold distoent opin- 
iona, and in eonseqnencs dlTinmia aptong up, principall)- among those who went little 
to hear aennona. Accwdin^y, betim we Icnew or hurd of Luther'a doctrine, wa laaned 
a public charge to all LntfrieiU, parochial clergy, and preachers in our city and can- 
ton. Chat they ahoutd all be (tee (aa even the papal law allowed) lo preach the holy 
goapela and apiatlea of the Apoatlea, in conformi^ with the Spirit of God, and the di- 
vine Scrlptorea of the Old and New Teatament, and whataoever they conld cIW and 
prove from Scriptnie ; bnt that they should be silent about other Inddental innovatioDa 
and ordiiuuices. Tbe greater port of the preaclisra, to the best of onr Inlief, have bith- 
fnlly done this," 

" ZwingU Dalegung des XXXVII. Ari, 1533 (Worka, i. SM) : " Bnt that the expedi- 
tion to the Pope (the reinforcement granted by the Zurlchera In 1521) happened in con- 
sequBucB of my eSbrta, can not be laid to my charge with truth by any man. For at 
the very time I was at open ennuty with the papist*, uid they liad broken with me in 
this wise : Three whole yean bettore this time I bad preached the gospel of Christ with 
earnestness { thereapon the Pope's cardinals, the bishops, and legates, of whom the city 
was never free at that time, often exhorted me with professions of friendship, with en- 
treaties, wilb threats, with promises of great gifts and benefices. However, I would 
not yield to them, but TMigned under my own hand, in the year IBSO, a penuon of 6lty 



gerly for the bunung of Lnthet's works," bat did not venture ei- 
ther to attack the cooncil fbi ita decree or Zwingle for his sermons. 
He thought he had attaiaed hia principal object when Zurich 
steadfastly refused to join the league/^ which all the rest of the 
cantons ooocluded with France oa the 5th May, 1531 : but Zwin- 
gle had greatly contributed to this result by his sermons against 
foreign enlistment in general.*' 

As Zwingle, in his sermons, distinguished, with growing clear- 
ness, between the ordinances of man in the Church and the divine 
teaching of Holy Writ, he was first entangled in a controversy in 
1522. He had designated the rule of fasting as a human ordi- 
nance : several citizens broke the rule, and were called to answer 
for so doing." When qneationed by the cooncil, under the direc- 
tion of Zwingle, the clergy censured the transgression as capri- 
cious, but peisisted in the statement tliat the rule was an ordi- 
nance of man.*^ The Bishop of Constance accordingly sent a 
ootnmission to Zurich to command the observance of the ceremo- 
nies (Apr., 1522). However, the council took Zwingle's part, and 
demanded more satisfactory orders from the bi^op.*" This event 

Boring, which thejpsid me oimuallj (they were now read}' to gire me ■ hundred florins, 
bat I wonld not receire theoi), Hhicli I had refilled in the year 1517, bat l^m which 
lliej would not releue me tor three years after." Zwingle's Reply to Vat. Compsr 
(Works, ii. 1, 6): "Antoniui pBccios [the papal legate] held a parley with me for the 
Ibnrth time at Zurich, with great promiie ; to whom I spoke right out about the matter 
and ita bearings, and tbat I would, with the help of Ood, cany out the doctrine of the 
Gospel, and with it would wealcen the papacj-, etc. ; but all tliis did not help the l^a^ 

** Especially at Uu Diet of Baden, 1520 ; ace Mjeomus ad Zningl., d. 2. Nov., 1620 
(0pp. rii. 153). 

•* Auhelm, vL 25 ff. ; MuUer-Hottinger, vi. 86 ff. 

" Zwingle's Pioni Exhortation to the Confederates of Schwyi, to beware of Foreign 
Lords, 1522 (Works, ii. ii. 386), contains, as Bulllngor (i. i2) asserts, what he had before 
spoken from the pulpit and elsewhere on this subject; see HOiler-Hottinger, vi. 30. 
With regard to Zwingle's sermons against pensions In 1S21 and 1626, sea Bullinger, 

*' Bullinger, i. 69. The mlnntes of the inqolry are in HOller-Hottinger, vL 496. 
Compare Wire, 1. 217. 

" Win, L S19. 

*' Zuin^ii Epist ad Eraemum Fabriciam de Actis Legotionis ad Tigurlnoa missae, 
diebus vii. viii. ix. Aprilis UDXXII (0pp. iii. 7 ss.). The bishop's vicar-general, at the 
head of the embassy, said before the council; Quosdam doctiinas novaa irritabiles ac 
seditiosas docere, germanice mderadrtig and aufrii/iry tthran nempe nihil prseceptio- 
num hnnuDaram serrori oportere, nihil ceremoDiamm. Quae doctrina si vicerit, fatn- 
ram, ut non mode ciriles leges sed et Christiana fides abolestoi. Cum tamen ceremo- 
uiaa sint velnti manadacticH- ad virtutea. Immo Tirtutnm batem esse, nn Urtprunff, 
— ceromonias. Qaadragesimam item doceri non serrari oportere! in liao enim urbe 
sosos esse qoosdam sese a reliqnis Clulstiaais separare, et a Chrittiaaa eodeua.— Games 


86 FOURTH PEEIOD.— DIV. 1.— A.D. 1617-16M. 

occasioned Zwingle's fiist reforming work, " Von Erkiesen und 
Freyheit der Spj/sen."^ 

The adhereats of the old order of things now gave more atten- 
tion to the matter. In Hay, 1522, the Bishop of Constance issued 
a pastoral letter' to warn against innovations,^' and the Diet of 
Lucerne forbade all preaching likely to cause disquiet/' On the 
other imnd, Zwingle, in the name of several like-minded ecclesi- 
astics, defended the free preaching of the Gospel, in a friendly pe- 
tition and exhortation addressed to the Diet 13th July,'^ and in 

enimeoa in qaadregesuna edi«i« Don ^netotiiu rsipuhlicHe Cbilstlanae scmdalo. Quod 
tametti literae cvangclicae aperte non permitUnt, *udere tamen eosdem aanrere ex 
EvsDgelicU «t Apoitollcis aeriptis sibi licere; contrs MQCtornm patmm decreU et con- 
cilia, contra denique Tettigtiuimani morem eos fecisae, qaem, nisi ex apiritu aancto Bax- 
isset, tanto tempore serrare DnnqoaiD potuiaaemua, etc. Thongh he tbereapoD refused 
to bear Zwjngle, and even asserted that he had spoken nothing against him ; nevertbe- 
lesB he was allowed to respond. First he refatod the charge that the preaching of the 
Gospel led to aedidon. Tlgnmm enim magis, quam ullum Helvetiurum pagum, paea- 
toin et quietum esae, id qnod omnea boni civea acceptnm Ibrreat Evangello. Quod de- 
inde objectom sit, anilaa hnmanaa nee praeceptiones nee ceremonias eerrari oporteie 
doceri ; iugenae agnoscun, ceremonianim justam partem ae pncceptionam me capers 
abelitam esse, quod praecepta slot magna parte talia, quae etiam Petrna in Actis neget 
fori poase.— Imo ceremoniaa hand qnicqnatn alind agere, qoam et Cbristo et ejus fldeli- 
bus OS oblinere, spiritna doclrinim aholera, ab Invislbilibnaad elementa mnadl avocare, 
quod tamen brevibns did neqneat et eipUcari — Carnibns esse qnoadam ausos Tesci 
minlme males, qni nee inQcientnr; >ed quandoquldem dlvina lege a camibus non ait 
eis inlerdictnm, in Ustimoniiun fidcE potius edlase quam in nllius contnmeliam. Quod 
hiac pateat; nam mox, at docli tint a nobis, rationem scandal! haberi debaisse, desti- 
lorunt, ande nee ista tegalione opoa fuiase, remittente soa sponte male, si mode malum 
est. Hoc tamen Tehemenler noa admirari, quod, dnm annum Jam XVI. in dioecesi Con- 
atanlieosl eraDgelizem, baeteans tamen non resclTerim, allquo misiaae ConaUntienaea 
tarn Bplendidam legationem, quae scrntaretur qaonam pacta Evangelieum negotium !□- 
deceret. Then he malntdned that fasUng was not commanded bf Qod, and ao must bo 
left free. The council deteimined to reqneat the bishop (POatti, ii. 14) that be — "ver- 
acbaS^n wolle, es aej bey p&pstlicher Heiligkeit, bey den Cardinlilen, BiscbSt^n, Coo- 
cilicn, Oder aonat rechlen, Chrlatlichen, gelehrtea Leaten, damit man eine Erlanlening 
und Bescbeid gebe, wie and welcher Gestalten man aich in solchem Falle halten aolle, 
dardurch wider die Satznagen Christi nicht gehandelt werde." The people were to be 
exhorted, " dsss hlnfQro niemand in der Faato ohne merkliche Uruch Fleisch ease, son- 
dem daaa man ein ErlSntemog kraft des mit U. G. Herm von Costniti Batschaft ge- 
machten Abacheida erwarte." 

" Works, i. 1. 

" Ballinger, L TS. SobasUan Meyer, barefooted Aiar at Berne, published the paa- 
tomlofthe !d Hay, with same bitter remarks ; extracts from it in Wira, i. 962. Enbn's 
Eefbrmaloren Bems, t. 100 (ct. Heyer ad Zningl. d. II. Nov., I6S3, 0pp. vll. 243). A 
similar letter of 24lh Hay reacbed the chapter at Zurich; printed in Zwingle'a /Irctefc- 
la COpp. iiL 33). Tlere is a letter to the conncil of Zurich, in May also, in FOaali, iv. 

•> Ansbelm, vi. 99. " On the next day, the 20th of May, a decree was pMaed that everi* 
place ahonid charge ila clergy to abatain fVom all auch preaching aa would cause diecon- 
tent, diacord, and error aa to the Christian faith to grow up among the common people." 

" " Ein mndlicb BItt und Ermahnung etlleher Priestar der Elidgencasenacbatt, daas 


CHAP. I.— SWISS BEFOBMATION. $ 2. 2UEICH.— 1621.16W. 87 

the Apologeticus Arcketeles, directed to the Bishop of Constance 
in August.^ As the celibaoy of the clergy had led to the grossest 
abases in Switzerland, Zwlngle and his friends, in that friendly 
petition to the diet, and in a private petition to the Bishop of Con- 
stance (dated Einsiedeln, 2d July), prayed, first of all, for the ab- 
olition of this ordinance of man.^^ However, no answer was giv- 
en ; on the contrary, the diet and the bishop began to persecute 
several of the clergy who had made themselves too oonspicaous.^° 
The moat calumnious reports about Zwingle were disseminated in 
the neighboring cantons f in the three monasteries of Zurich, the 
resorts of the adherents of the old faith, sermons were preached 
against hira incessantly.*" Since the efTorts of the council to re- 
store peace remained without saooess, it yielded to Zwingle's wish 

miD du bedlg Evuigeliom predigsD nit jibichLihfl, noch Unwillen darob empfuh, ob 
die Predigenden Aergernnss la venaj'dea >ii:b ebelicb vennablind." Werke, I. 80. 

'* ApologEtleiu ArcfaeUlea ippellatne, qaa respondetar piraeneai a Rev. Dam. Con- 
ituidsDii id Suutnm Pnepoeitnrse Tigarinae, qaem Capitulum vocant, miaiae. 0pp. 
ill. S6. 

" SnpplicsUo quoroadam apud Helvetioe Erangelistoram ad R. D. Haganem EpUc. 
CcnUtuiUeiueii], ne ae iodaci patiatnr, at qnidquam in prseJndiclaDi EriDgelii promol- 
Bet, neTi Kntationu scandalam ultra ferat, aed Preabyterig uons ducera pennltut, 
aut Mltem ad eanim nnpda> connivgat (0pp. iii. 17], aigned hy Baltbasar Trachiel, 
paMor at Wdningen, in the Grabchaft Baden ; Georgs Chatj-beiu (SC&bell), Zwingle's 
anittaot ; Werner Sleinsr of Zng ; Lea Jadae, Lent-prieat at Einstedeln ; Eraimas Pa- 
briciui (Schmid), prebendary at Zatieb ; Simon Stnmpf, pastor at Hflngg, near Zniicb i 
Jddocni Eilchmeyer, prebeodary at Lacemej Hnldieich Pittoris (Pdetor), pastor at 
Utter, on the Greifensae ; Gajpar Hegandar (GroBsman), preacher at the Hoiidtal of Zu- 
ricli ; John Faber (Scbmid), chaplain at Zaricb ; Holdreleh Zwingls. 

*• The diet at Baden (Sor., 1622} delivered over the pastor Weiu to tin bithop; 
BnUiager, 1. 80; Anehelm, vl. 99; Wir^, i. 315; Compare ibid. a. 3S1 It. 

*'' Tbai he heard from Jacob Stapler in Chnr, a foreign penalooary ; see Jac. Salan- 
dranioa ad ZuingL d. 26. Ang., 1522 (0pp. vii. 220) ; ElTativit neseio quid de temii 
libetia libi adscriptis et Inaolitia nocturnls moribos. Item qaod et ta pensionem nan 
modo a Sanctii^mo, sed et a Gallo comprobare vellet (ai urgeretor) accepigtie. Prae- 
tereadixisse inter concionanduin: Ave Maria dicere esset dicere: Gott grdaa dich Gret- 
tin, etc. — Nod credia, quot sao impudentiuimo on alienarit alias tibi faventiaalmoa. 
Objicitnr illico nobis, nt aeis, hi, hi sunt mores Evangeliconun, A aimilar story was 
cbrcnlated in Schvj-i ; see Balth. Stapfer to Zwingle, 19tli Oct., 1522 Q. c. p. 936), and 
Zvingle'a anawer, p. 337. Compare Zwingle's Entachaldigang etlielier Huldr. Zwingli 
KQgelegler Artiklen, doch onwarlich, an die edlen, atrengen, (t^mmen, wyaen gmeiaer 
Eidgenottschaft Bathabotea in der Stadt Bern v. Sten Jal., 1523 (Werke, ii. ii. 999), and 
his £infi}:iuigB ondknne Underrlcbtung, wie man aich tot LOgen bDten and bewahren 
soil, of the 26th Jnne, 1524 C>bid. »■ S2S). 

" Bemh. Weiss in Fossli, iv. SS : '* Desbilb predigten die Honchen in der Stadt ■!• 
lenthalben von den Heiligea :^eswegen redten ibnen etwana die Uita darein, dann 
Tide Lenta batten neae TeatsniMittr, nnd varen der Sache wol berichtet." Thus even 
Leo Jndae intemtptad the prior of tiie Aagnitines, p. 44. Aa early as the 2!d July, 
1522, the monks irere cenanred bjthe conncll for tbelr *' nDgeaehlckle Predlgtes" on the 
niata, a. 11. Compare Zoingl. ad Oecolaropadiam, d. 8. Jan., 1627. 


88 FOUBTH PEBIOD.-DIV. L^A.D. 1617-16*8. 

of publicly meeting these calunmies and attacks, and ordered a 
religioos oonferenoe between the two parties for the 29th Jan., 
1523, in which they were to adduce their doctrines, and support 
them from the Holy Soriptuies alone.** 

The same political reasons which had led the Pope to overlook 
other arbitrary acts of the Swiss in church matters?" induced him 
to take no notice of these great inorementa Zorich was the only 
canton which steadfastly refosed the league with France,*' and 
still, in 1521, granted soldiers to the Pope ;*^ while the rest of the 
cantons supported France, and treated the papal legate in Switz- 
erland with hostility.*^ Hadrian accordingly overlooked what 
scarcely could be overlooked any longer ; and at the very time in 
which this oonference was threatening the existing ecclesiastical 
order,** no less in its form than in the results to be expected from 
it, he sent Zwingle a flattering letter, to induce him to employ his 
influence to retain the powerful canton on the Pope's side. 

For the disputation to be held on the 39th Jan., 1523, Zwingle 

'• See Bollinger, i. S4. 

" Anibelm, vi. 201, on tbe ytn 1GS3: Berne milnUined il> rl^t to daol irith tbe 
clergy in secnlsr cams, "lieu each, imuigeaelien der Geutlichen hOchsta IVj-helt miil 
Barm, einen Ffafl^a nm Diabatahl and FrSTel enthaBpten." Then wu as little oppoal- 
tion on Ihe side of the clergy, that the people tboDght the Pope had granted the confed- 

" See note 45. 

" Bulliiiger,i.5I. Ualler-HotUnger, vi. 51 fT. A catonmr wai raised ogaiDst ZwiH' 
gle at thiB time (Ualegnng dea XXXVII. Art. Worfci, i. S56), that, ont of coaiideratian 
for his peiuion from tbe Pope, he had " za demwlUgen Ecemig ein Dig zntlioa nod 
niternatlich gewebit:" in reply he auerted, "es beslndt ilch, dui ichso stark liabge- 
vehrt, ale ich ]e gbelnem Ejiegea nnd Ufbrechea gewebrt hab." Bullinger, L fil, hai 
preserved eome of his declantions. 

" Win, U. 240. Even, the aafe-coodnct of tbe legale EoDins «u resclndad hy tba 
diet of 152!, and he could only remain irich safety at Zurich. 

•• Dated 23d Jan., 1&23, in Bullinger, i. 83; in Zuinglli Opp. Tii. 26S: Bemittimos— 
Enniom, Eplscopum Veralanoni, ad latam inrictam, nobisqua et bnic aanctae eedi cou- 
jnnctisBimam nationem, ot de maxluils reboi — com ills agat. IJcet autem ei dederi- 
mns In mandBtis, at ea commoniler cum omnibus <t pnbUce tractet : tamen cum de tu 
■jgregia Tirtnte spectaUter nobis sit cognitum, nosqus devotionem tuam arctius amemna 
oc dUigsmus, ac peculiarem gaandam in ta fidem babeamns, mandavimus udem Epis- 
ct^, — Dt tibi aeparatim nostras literal redderet, nostramque erga te opUmam Tolnnta- 
tem declararet. Hortamur Itsqae devotionem tuam in Domino, Dt et llli omnem fidem 
babeat, et quo no* aaimo od Iionorea tnoa et commoda tendimus, oodem tn In nastria — 
rebus procedaa, de quo gratiam apnd nos inTtniea non mediocram. Hyconina 1. c. adds 
to this : Non ad hnnc aolum Papa scripsarat, vemm etiam ad eximium D. n«DC. Zing- 
gium (sas Note S3), nt sibi et sedi aposlolicae Tinim Inoi&csret. Dnmqoe rogitarem 
a Francisco, quid pro illo pollicltns easat Papa ; lerio respondit : omni» oerta ptaalet 
aedem Papslem. 



bad broogbt together the dootrines he had preached in sixty>seven 
artioles ;'^ and he so defended them on that dajr against the Vioar- 

" Ballinger, L 86; Zmnglc'a Wotlu, i. IGS. Artidu: "L All penons wb« mj 
tliat tbe Gupel abould not b« preached without the panniiaion of the Chnrch an in er- 
ror, asd briog reproach opon God. II. The aom of the Qoapel I* thU, that oar Lord 
CbruC Jnui, the tme Son of God, hai made knoira to ni the will of Hia Father in Heav- 
en, and bf Hi* innocence btt delivared ^m death and recondlad God. III. HenM 
Chriit i* tbe onlj nj lo holineaa for all who have been, are now, or ever ahall ba. tV. 
WhoaoeTBT Mekt or sbowi anj- other door ia in error, jea, he ia a murderer of aoDla and 
a thief. T. Theiefon all penona who esteem any other doctrine aqoal 'to, or hi^MT 
than, tbe Goapel, an in wror, and Icnow not what the Qoipel ia. TI. For Christ Jem* 
ia the Leader and tbe Captain promiaed and granted by God to all mankind. Til. Hut 
H« li tbe sUmal aalvation and tbe head of all believere, who an Hi* body, bnt without 
Hun this body ii dead and powerleaa. Till. Whence it rollDwi, fint, thu all who live 
in the Head an memben and children of God ; and thia ia tba Church or eommnnion 
of aainta, the bride of Chriat, Eccleala Catholica. IX. Secondly, that at tlie nember* 
of tbe body can do nothing witboat the guidance of the head, ao in the i>ody of Chriat 
no man can do aiqr thing well wtUiout Ciiriit hia Head. XI. Hence we aee that the 
ordinancH of the clergy, as to tlieir |Mmp, their wealth, their ranks, their tlttea, their 
laws, an one cansa of all diaorder ; tor thus they agree not with the Head. XIL Tbw 
they age not for tbe take of tlio Head (for to effect thia ia the object of our latior by 
God'a grace) j but becauae men will can no man tot. tlieir itorming, hut render wme 
obedience to tbe Head. XIII. Whan he ia redwmed by Christ, man leama the will of 
God clearly and plainly, and is drawn to Him by His Spirit, and changed into Hia 
likeness. XIV. Tlierafan all Chriatlan men should use their utmost diligence that tbe 
Goipel of Chriat alone be every where preached. XV. For in tkith in Hiir stands onr 
nlvation ; in unbelief, oar condemnation ; for all truth ia plain in Him. XTI. Han 
learaa in the Gospel that human doctrine and bumaa ordinancea are not profitable for 
ulntian. — Ondtt Popt. XTIl. That Christ is tbe one only eternal Higb-prieit; hence 
it Ibllawi that thi^ who have ^ven out that they an hlgb-prieita leaiat and Impugn 
tbe honor and the power of Christ. — Oa At Man. XVIII. That Chtiat, who once oSer- 
ed Dp tiimMlf, ia bnver an abiding and sufficient sacrifice foe tbe sinaof all belierers; 
benoe it may be concluded that tbe masa is not a sacrifice, but only the menualal of the 
sacriSce, and an aaiorance of the redemption which Christ haa shown ns. XtX. That 
Chiiit ia tbe one only Mediator between God and ns. — On At liieretttiim of Sainti. XX. 
That God will give na all thing* in His name ; hence it ibllowt that hencafiKth we 
need no alher mediation than His. XXL That wben we piay tor one another upon 
earth, we really pray that we trust all things will be granted us through Christ only. — 
On Good Worit. XXII. Christ is our lighleonaness ; hence we conclude that onr works 
are M br good aa they are the work of Chriat ; bnt so br aa they an onr own, neither 
right nor good. —On At Pn^pertg of At CUrgt. XXUL That Chriat condemna the 
wealth and pomp of this worid ; henca we must Infer that they who amas* wealth in 
Hia name are a reproach to Him, and make Him a cloak for their own avarice and wan- 
tonness.— Oa ProUiUum of Food. XXIT. That no Chriatian is bound to works which 
God has not commanded ; any food may be eaten at any time ; hence we team that the 
Kit and Atiaaimtf (lettara of dispensation) is a Boman trick— <M Fitut-dof and Pit- 
qrimagtt. XXV. That time and [dace an subject to Christian men, not men lo tliem ; 
benca it may be known that tbey who Impose times and places upon Chriatians rob 
Ibem of their beedom.— C}a CowU, Clathiiig, and Sign: XXYI. That God bates nothing 
mon than hypocrisy ; so He lias taught us that all that is done for appearance' sake be- 
fon mea is mere hypocrisy and penrarsion ; hence oowls, aigna, shaven crowns, etc., 
fill to tbe grouni).--^ Order* cwd:8<c(i. XXVII. That all Chriltian men an brethren 
ofChiiatandof each other J they should boast themselves of no earthly father ; beuc* 
sU orders, sects, clnbt bU to the ground.— {M (t« JforKi^ o/Chign. XXVHL That 


90 PODETH PERIOD,— DIV, I,— A.D. 1S17-164S. 

General, Faber, that the counoil chained him to persevere in his 
course, and all their preachers to preach the pure G-ospel in the same 

■11 which God tuu alloired or i^ot forbidden is right ; aecordinglf, nuniage is becoming 
in all men. XXIX. Ilut all persons called spiritual sin if, when they are coQTlneed that 
God has denied them the gift of cantioencs, ihey da not protect thsmselveg bj marriage. 
— Oit Voai of OhaitUs. XXX. That they who tow chastity undertake loo much, like 
fools or childreD ; hence it maf be inferred why they who ta^e anch vowa are insolent 
toward pious men. — On ExeonBuatieation. XXXt. Ilmt no one man cao cscommoni- 
cata another, but the Church, that is, the cammuni^ in wluch the person to be ■xconi' 
municated lives, together with the guardian, that is, the pastor. XXXII. That man 
■lone is to be excommunicBled who is ■ notorious sinner. — On Vajutt Poueuiotu. 
XXXIII. That nnjost property should not be granted to temples, monasteries, monks, 
priests, nnna, bat be given to the poor, nnlees it can be returned to its rightfol owner. 
— (M the Supreme Foaer. XXXIV. The power called spiritual has no groonde for its 
pomp in the doctrine of ChriiL XXXV. But the secular power has strength and con- 
firmation from the doctrine and example of Christ. XXXVI. All rigbts and protection 
claimed by the so-called spiritual state belong to the secular authorities, if they will act 
as Christians. XXXVII. Also all Ghristtans, without exccptioii, are bound to obey them. 
XXXVIII. So long as they require nothing which God has forbidden. XLII. If Ihej- 
act imlaithrally and break the rule of Christ, Ihey may be deposed by the will of God. 
—On Prayer, XUV. True worshipers call npon God in spirit and in tmUi, without cry. 
ing oat before men. XLV. Hypocrites do their works that they may be seen of men, 
receiving their reward also in this life. XLVI. So it must needs follow that church- 
music or crying aloud, without devoUoo and only for money, is either seeking of fame 
ttotn men or for gain.— On Ofetua. XLYII. A man should rather snffer death in the 
body than iDJue or disgrace a Christian mas. XLVIII, If a man. Item stupidity or 
Ignorance, injore himself without cause, he most not be left sick or snRerlng, but 
be restored to strength, lest he take that for sin which is not sin. XLIX. I know no 
greater injury than not to allow the clergj- to have wedded wives, bat to let them 
have concubines for money. How great a scandal ! — On Fergirtnea of Sin. L. God 
forgives sin only through Jesus Christ, Uis Son, our Lord. LI. Whosoever attributes 
this power to the creature deprives God of His honor, and ascribes it to one who is not 
God ; this is Teal idoUtiy. LII. Therefore confession, wliether made to the priest or to 
one's neighlnr, should not be set forth as the forgiveness of sin, but only aa a request 
for counsel. LIII. Penances imposed by homan authority (except in cases of eicom- 
municaUon) do not take away sin ; they are only imposed by way of menace. LIV. 
Christ has borne all our sorrows and troubles : whosoever, Uierefore, altribntes to works 
of penance that which belongs to Christ alone, em and reproaches bis God. LV. Who- 
soever pretends to remit even one sin for the penitent man, stands not In the place of 
God, or of Peter, but of the devil. LVT. Whosoever remits any sin for money only Is 
a companion of Simon and Balaam, and an especial emissary of the devil. — On Purga- 
lory. LVII. The true Holy Scripture knows nothing of Purgatory after this llfb. LVIII. 
The sentence of departed spirits is known to God alone. LIX. And Jnst aa Ood has 
allowed as to know less upon this subject, so we should imdertake to know lees. LX. 
I do not condemn a man if he call earnestly upon God to show His grace toward the 
dead ; yet to fix a time for this grace (seven years for a deadly sin), and to He for 
the sake of gain, is not human, bat devilish. — On tit PriaAoed. LXI. Holy Scrlpturo 
knows nothing of the <Aaracler (ordination-grace) which priesia claim in these lost 
times. LXn. It acknowledges also no priests bnt such as preach the Word of God. 
LXm. It commands that due honorahonld be shown them; liut is, that they should be 
supplied with food for the body.— On Ike Abolition a/Abuta. LXIT. All who acknowl. 
edge their error should not be made to pay tiir it, bnt be permitted to die in peace ; and 
thus the Chorch property be placed on a Christian tboting. LXT. As for those who re- 
fuse to acknowledge, God irill surely deal with them. So men should emplt^ no ftorce 



manDQr." By this dispatation, by the explanation of his artioles, 
soon after (in July) published by Zwrngle,"'' and by the preaiduDg 
of Zwingle, and his &iend, Leo Judae, who came to Zahch in the 
beginning of 1523 as Leut-priest at St Peter's,^^ men's minds 
were mors and more won over to the Refonnation ; and many 
wished to see it carried out in praotice.^^ For them it was not 
enough that the council allowed nuns to leave their convents {17th 
June),^" that several of the clergy married withoat hinderance,^' 
upon their penons; unless It happen that thej conduct thenuelves *o pervenelj' aa to 
be DO longer eudarablD. LXTI. All eccteuaatical digmluiea ehoold humble tbemnlves, 
and Kt Dp ODiy the croaa of Chiiat, not their chests : elae the^ will periih, for I warn 
jrou, the axe lieth at the root of the tree. LXVII. It any man derirs to confer with 
me Qpon tribntea and tithes, upon unbaptjzed children, apon confirmatiaii, I bold my- 
self ready to answer him. Let no one here undertake to contend with sophiatiy or ha- 
man trifling, bat come to Scripture, have it lor the J ndge (foraa canes) 1 Scriptnrs 
breathes the Spirit of God ; thereby let him discover the truth ; or if It be, as I hope, 
dlscDTered, lePhiln hold it. Amen. God grant it. 

•• BuUinger. I. 97. H. Erhard Hegcawald gave an accannt of this diepntation soon 
after it took place (as Zwingle'* Works, L 105). As John Faber, the Ticar-general of 
Constance, who had tmn present, considered hinueif injured by this account, he forth- 
with issued a counter-report, "Yla wariich Underrichtung" (Wire, ii. 16): bat sevcD 
yoong men of Zurich replied to this with a satirical refutatioD, "Das Gyrenrapfea" 
(Geyermpfen plucking tlie vulture). Win, ii. 50. Besides this, John Salat, historian at 
lucerne, published a "Historical Account" of this conference, drawn entirely from He- 
genwild's report, a partisan reprCMntation on the Catholic side (in FOhU'i Beytrage, 
IL 81). The decree of the coaneii, published on the very day of the conference (Zwin- 
gle's Works, L 143 f. ; Ansheim, ri. 196 f.), since no one rose up against Zwingle to re- 
ftite liim, or convict him of llie heresy Isid to liii cliargB, ran thus: "That Uaiter TJI- 
tich Zwingle shall proceed, and henceforth as before preach the Holy Gospel and the 
true divine Scripture to the best of bis power, nntll he be better infonned. Also-let all 
other Leut-prittU, parochial clergymen, and preacheiv in llieir city, country, and district, 
□either accept nor preach any other doctrine tluui what may be proved firim the Holy 
Gospel and the rest of the true divine Scriptures; likewise they most not revile one an- 
other in any sort, call each other heretics, or by any other reproacliiti] name. WImso- 
ever oppose and are not satisfied with this decision, must be regarded at persooe wtK> 
err and know tliat tliey are wrong." 

*' Calegen und GrOnd der Schiusareden oder Artikel, in Zw. Werke, i. 169. 

" He was elected on the Sunday before Whitsuntide, 1G22, but did not enter spoil 
his office till Candlemas, 1S2S ; Bnliingcr, L 76 ; Hiscellanea Tignrina, lii. SO. 

** Compare the complaints of the chaplain Widmer at Zurich, an adherent of tha 
ancient order, to Henry Galdli at Borne, 28th June, 1628 (Win, IL 87). The state of 
things in Zorich Is sac h "thatwe priests hardly know how br wo are safe in the city; 
not to mention wiien ws go ont banting with falcons, or ventnre in tlie country among 
the peasants. Besides, singing, mass-reading, and the rest of the aerrice of God in use 
hitherto, is so sorely despised, and openly regarded by the common people as idolatry 
and a ■ool.deBtroyiiig exhitdtion, and denonnced in the pulpit as an evident imposture, 
that I fear, as the Pope, cardinals, and the bishop leave us to shift for ourselves, we 
shall have t« nnonnce the feith and ail divine serrice in a short time, or else allow oar- 
selves to be put to death by the eommoD people." 

" FOssU's Beytrige, ii. 26 ; ir. 47. A nun had been already married in Angast, and 
demanded lestitution of the property which she had brought to the convent, ii. SS. 

" First Wilh. TUnbli, pastor at Wytikon, SSth Apr., 1628 ; see Bemh. Wdiss In FOmH, 


92 FOUBTH PEBIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1S18. 

that a G-ermaD baptismal service was introduoed in the city (lOtJi 
Ang.},''^ and that the cathedral chapter, at its own request, teceived 
new and suitable ordinances (19th Sept.).'^ They wished to abol- 
ish all the idolatrous parts of divine service which had till now re* 
mained anchanged, especially images and masses, and according- 
ly they soon began, on their own motion, to demolish images and 
lie apparatus of superstition.''* 

These ooonrrenoes made, for the most part, an evil impression 
upon the rest of the confederacy. They were in part terrified by 
the prospect of a schism in the Church ; in part they concluded, 
from certain exaggerated rumors, that all civic order was destroyed 
in Zurich ;''* and they dreaded the power of this example. In Lu- 
cerne,^^ Freiburg, and Zug, there was violent exasperation against 
the Reformation, from a stiif adherence to the old order of things ;" 
the Bernese aristooraoy opposed the attempts at ecclesiastical in- 
novation, out of regard for their own authority .^^ Although in 

iv. 45. H« WM followed b; othoB, uxd among them by Leo Jodae, 19th Sept, 1533, 
aodZw!ii^(i,2dAt>r., 1624. BnlliDger, i. 108. 

" Weisa In PQiili, iv. 47. Thii biptitmil service li in Zwingle'i Worki, ii u. S24. 

" Bullinger, L IIS. The ChristJui Conitiration u also in Fuagll, i. 1. 

'• In September, 1623, Lawrence HochrQtinei broke in pieces the uend Unip in tlie 
cathednd cbnreh ; soon after the ume thing -wu dona in Beveral chapels (see the exun- 
inatisn In HMler'Hottinger, vi. 498) : but the crerthnnr of n great crucifix by the colh 
bier, Nicholas Hottinger, at the end of Septamber, attracted the most atteation. Compate 
eepa;ia]l7 FlUill, U. 83 ; Win, ii. 124 ; Muller-HotUnger, tL 887, 4£0. 

'* The Berneaa envoj, Oaspar of HQliuen, aaid, at the diet id Berne, Jnlf , 15!S (F<^>^ 
11, il. S6> : " Dear confbderatae, beware in time leat the Lutheran cauaa, and thej who 
are embarked in it, gain the upper hand ; for their preachers have brsoglit their citj 
(Zurich) to inch a atala, that if the Dobles themselTea wished to retrace their steps 
tbej- could not do so. Hatlera are come to such a pilch that a man is not aafa In his 
own bouse. It is necessarr that a man should take otbet men to his house to protect 
him with arms bom all mischance ; the cause has advanced so fkr that their peasants 
in the country will ptj neither tribute nor tithe, and there is such a division in this citr 
and the whole canton that the like has never bean seen before." Compare the Utter of 
the Council of Znrich to that of Constance, DonnersL nach Othmar (Noveiober), 162B, 
in FOsall, V. 71 : " It haa been reported to us that certain godless persons, enentles to 
the evangaLcal doctrine, have stated befoie you that disquiet prevails among ns in 
conseqnenca of preaching, so that all nudu ore expecting a rebellion ; and that we aie 
repenting that we have so Mly received the evangelical doctrine." Ail this is on. 
true, " since, by the graoe of Qod and His divine doctrine, there has never been, for a 
long time, greater peace and friendship between the lower and hl^er orders than at the 
present day." 

" At Lucerne, during a diet, tlie people bnmed Zwiogte In effigy, Febr., US3 ; Huller- 
Hottlnger, vi. 481 

" HaUer-Hottinger, vL 894, 410, 418. 

" According to Anshelm, vL 199, it was the vicar^general, Faber, who, In connection 
with tha rest of the prelates, "hss made enemies and opposers of the evangelical doc- 
trine, yea, even tyrants, oat of by no means the least of the eonfsdsrate nobles, as, fiir 



other oaotons the B«foiniatioa had many &ieads, even among the 
rnlera, yet the voices of these powerful oaatons swayed the diets, 
and from them, as well as from the Bishop of ConBtanoe,'^ proola- 
mations were issned against all eoclesiastioal imiovations.^ 

As, however, iha general voice of Zurich was expressed with 
inoreasiDg preponderance for the advance of the Reformation, the 
council oared the less for these warnings ; in fact, it made prep- 
ataticms for a new oonference on the 26th of October upon images 
and the mass."' No champion was found for thsm ; but so gross 
an ignorance was then discovered among the clergy, that the coun- 
cil determined to leave the old order of things for a while undis- 
turbed, un^ soffioient instruction had been imparted." Zwingle, 
the Abbot Von Cappel, and Conrad Sohmid, commander of the 
Knights of St John at Kusnaoht, were to preach for this purpose 
in the country districts ; and, besides this, Zwingle was to com- 
pose his Christian Introduction,^ which was then published with 
the assent of the council, in order to explain more AiUy the mean- 

insUcni, BaatUn von SttUn >t Bcme, irho tonaaily ■wen tavMblt and friendly to the 
Ooepel, and ((Taeioai lorda. The prieats and mooka, eapaeUUj the bUhopa, raigod the 
Ery 1 lie itorm Ihlla now upon oa ; It will fall next npoa the noblea. Yaar free lift, 
yonr tribute and tithe, will all be deapoiled. Let ua atand tt^ether againat these rebell- 
ioiu bcretka. By aneh outcry aa thla, raised day by day, many powerful and wealthy 
noblea were datemd from sven llilening to, marh more ftom accepting, the Word of 
God : that which waa dlrine and evangelical tbey called dcTitlih and iafiunal." 

** PaatoraloftbelMhJuly, I6S3, in Simler, i. 709 (in German In FDitli, iv. ISSj. 

** Anahelra, tI SOO. "After the araremeatiDDed meeting (at Zurich, in January), 
when the |dMU Zwingle went fbrth into the country to preacb and Inilmct tbe dergy, 
and erery where in the oonfMeiaey tba Woid of God inereaaed ; then the conlbderatas 
paiaed a deone, in July at Berne, and in antnmn at Laeeme, that all the foUowen <£ 
Luther and Zwingle sbonld be strictly warched out and poniahed ; and that Zwingle 
■hould be artrated if be came Into their dominions ; in order that they might support 
the Bishop of Constanoe against his disobedient clergy, aa they had been eameatly ex- 
horted to do." (Compare Lud. Tschndli Epist. ad Znlnglinm, die Joris poat Hargare- 
taa, 1&2S. 0pp. vii. BD!.) The biahop had remimatratad to the ^t at Benie against 
the dlaobadienee of his dargy, and leedved thla annrar at the diet of Locerne ; it may 
be seen in FnaaU, !▼. IH. 

" BiUttnger, I. US. All the Swiu bishop* and emtona were invited to thSi confer- 
ence, bat only Schafhanaan and St. Oall sent dalegates. Tbe mionlM of tbg eont^ 
enoa were publlahed at once by Lewla Eetier (u Zwingla'i WotIcb, L *M) : tram these, 
again, Salat derived his historical accoont, compoaed in the aame ipirtt ai that of the 
fint diapntation (Note 66) j see FOatli, ill. 1. 

*' Zwingle reoomnwnded ttili conrse during the confarence— eee his Woika, I. 681 f. ; 
as ^d the oommander, Conrad Schmid, ibid. a. b83 ff. On theae decieee, nude tmme. 
dialely aflor the eonference, see Zalnj^ns ad Tadiannm, d. II. Nor. (0pp. viL SIS); 
BnlUnger, L 1S6. 

" "Elne knrxeCbrlstenUcheTnlgitnng:'' prefixed tolt i« a mandate of tbe council 
of 17th Nov. i in Zwlngle's WoAa, L 6*1. 


94 POOBTH PEBIOD.— DIT. L— A.D. 1617-1648. 

ing and the object of the RefoimatioQ. All oxoess of zeal, wheth- 
er ia behalf of the old or the new, was held in check ; and all ex- 
cesses and illegal demonstratioDS were ohastised." On the other 
band, concesdons were gradoaUy made to the pressure for reform : 
in Deoetnber the shrined plctnres in the churches were ebut up, 
and every priest was left free to celebrate mass or not as he chose.^ 
Even a solemn embassy from the diet to Znricb (in Febr., 1524) 
could no longer impose any restraint,^ much less the Pope's re- 
fusal to pay arrears of debt till after the abolitloa of the innova- 
tions." After the council thought they had waited long enon^, 
on Whitsunday, in 1524, a more thorough reform of the Church 
was begun by the destruction of images.^ One afler^another alt 

"* Proofs of thia nuj he seen in the deciaiona of tbe coancil, FOuli, ii. 81 ff. 

" The verdict of tbe council of the 19th Dec. (Ballinger, i. IBS ; FOatli, ii 47, Kota ; 
ZiriDgle'a Warka, i. 668) vaa that all the prieata should appear before the coandl on tba 
S8th of December, and in caae thej had an; thing to allege against the last dispatation, 
there to bring it forward. The pictnre tablet* irere to be shat up, and images were to 
be DO longer carried abont. AftenrBrd the decree againat the masa and prohibiting all 
aapereioni was read lo the priests in presence of the conncil, the 28(h December (see the 
decree in FOuli, ii. 43 ff. ; Zwingle's Works, i. 681): at tbe aame time, it wu determined 
to send to the bishops of Chnr, Couatance, and Basle, to tbe DnlTerti^ of Baale, and 
the other cantons, the Introdnction pubUshed by the coondl, "that if they were then 
■till inclined to conform thnr opinions to Scripture, they night do so, and retnm ni m 
tsieaiiy answer. Thus answers might be obtained, and it would be aeen what progreta 
was made in the matter, in order that at Whitanntide it might be taken in hand onca 
more, and a condouon arrived at pleaaing to tiod and to tho furtberance of Hii holy 

** BuUinger, 1. 167. Anshelm, vi. 237. The imprcaeion made by this embuay waa 
weakened by the bet that their instnictiona did not agree; see HQUep-Hottinger, tL 
471. The Znrichers gave their answer on ihe Slat of Hsicb in print (tbe conclosion and 
dUearein Anshelm, vi. 927; tbe whole ia In the Bericbt an die Unletthanen, FOaali,!!. 
S8I-361) : but this made (ha confederates less fiivorable than befoie to tbe innovations ; 
Anaheim, vi. 230. 

" See Win, I. 41, and tbe investigationa prefixed to Zvringle'a Jadgment on these 
tnnaactions, 1S26, in Zw. Werke, ii. il. 387. The Pope'a maulfistaes were slwa}-8 of 
tbe BUne import aa tbe brief lo the Znriebers, 11th Dec., 1S2£ (1. <:. p. 890): Qnod *i Id, 
quod Deni avertat, In his noris et implis erroribu* petatare propo^tnm Tobla haberetis, 
quomodo poasemas non mlam erga vos ati liberalitale, aed pecnnias nllas, etiamsl maz- 
ime vobla debitae euent, josle et pie peraolversP Cum allenis a flde rectai, nee qnaa 
ipBonm qnidem patria et avita bona aunt, illis jure ralinqni debeant. 

" A commjaaion of the clergy had been already obliged to draw up a propoaal about 
the images and the masa (Bollinger, I. 162; Zwingle'a Worka, i. I>72). The coondl 
agreed upon tbie, hut reaolved (Bullinger, i. 172) " that at tbia time a beginning ahonld 
be made with imagea, and they shonld be done away with ; with regard to the masa 
they would wait a short time, and see meanwhile what meaiurea coold be conveniently 
taken, even if the matter of the images should be mismanaged, as It waa natural for tba 
nainformed and (he confederates to fall into error," But with regard to images, an or- 
der of the council waa issued on the Uth June, 1534, to the provincial anlhoritiea (Land- 
v«gle)(Bn]linger, 1. 173; FOssli, i. 142) : It had determined " to do away with image* 
and idols wbereaoever they were held in honor;" no fbrcawM to be nwd, Imt it ma 



the objects and usages of supeistitioa quickly disappeared f^ the 
monasteries were suppressed, and changed into schools and alins- 
honses.^ The oounoil secured the assent of its sobjeots by a pub- 
lic invitation to declare their opiuioa upon these proceedings ;*' and 
it had now less to fear &om the threatening aspect of some of the 
cantons, since the otiiera, especially Berne, entered into more friend- 
ly relations with it.** The transformation in public worship at 

desind, "that If a pulih lud set ap ImageB and plctaraa by common consent at Iti 
own axpcnic, it mt^t remoTB tbam, if the majority of th« pariihionera desired it to be 
done, but on condiUon that It ghonld ba doDe in the presence of the p*«tor and persons 
of good repute appointed for the purpose bj the commonit;-, nith decency and without 
tumult. If, howBTer, any one had pat up images at hla own expenie, he might take 
them into his own hands witfaoat hinderance." A conuniadoa mu appointed at onee in 
Zorich to lemore the images (FUuli, ii. 60) : the worlt was begno on the 2l>th of June, 
and was quietly Baiahed In thirteen days (Bemh. Weiss In FOtali, W. 49). Compars 
Zwingle's aecoont in hii anawer to Valentine Compai. 15S6 ^orks, il. i. &S). 

*> The ftait of Corpns Christl waa abolithed (Fiiasti, IL 69) ; a list of all that was 
done away with in 1&!4 is given by Bollinger, i. 160; Bemh. Weisa in Fuaeli, W. 67; 
Anshelni, vL SiG : " In Hay, this year, the honorable city of Zurich has quite abolish- 
ed and done away with the popiab maas, obserraoce of times, sainta, hymns and prayen 
for the dead, all idols and images, together with the decorations and Uie services which 
belonged to them. It has also tinried its pstion saints, St. Felix and St. Begnla, with 
the bones of the reat of its dead. Next fell the popish confbsaional, anointing and con- 
secration, monaatic roles and vows. In their stead the holy sacraments of Baptism and 
the Sapper of our Lord and llaater Jeaoa Christ, were ordered to be celebrated with pi- 
c^, according to their first Inatitntioo, and in the German iangnsge, that all might nn- 
deratand. Daily preaching was also eatsbtished, common prayer, public eonfeidon, 
teaclung and Inattnction In Holy Writ in fboi langoages. The poot and needy ihre 
proTJded for with alms, holy matrimony waa allowed to all estates, open ain and licen- 
tioasneaa strictly forbidden and pnnisbed, and a public account of these transactions 
printed and made accessible to us all." 

" The abbees of FranenmOnster snirendered her convent to the cooncil on the SOtfa 
Nor., with the reservation of a pension ; FOsali, IL 74, 77. By tin advice of Zwio^ 
(Works, ii. ii. S27), the Aoguatinea, Dominicana, and Franciscans were all placed to- 
gether in the Franciacan monaatery 00 the 3d Dec. ; thoae Uiat wished to learn a trade 
received back the property they bad broo^t In ; the reat were to die oat. FOaall, ii. 
76, 78 j iv. 79. With regard to the appropriation of monastic property, see HolIer-Hot* 
linger, vii.Tl. On the 20th Dee,, 1624, Zwioglagave up the higher and lower jnrisdic- 
lioD of the prebendal stalls at the great minster, but he reserved ita proper^ for the ea- 
Ubiiahmtnt of schools (Works, Ii. ii. 342). 

*■ The Bericht des Bathes in Zurich an ibre Unterthauen, waa aich die Zeit hero fOi 
Verindemngen in der Keligion lagetragen biben (of the 7th July, 1624 ; aee MOller- 
Hottinger, vj. 478 A.) ; in Bolliager, L 177. Fnsali, il. 228. The anawere, all approv- 
ing, are in Foaali, ill. IDS. 

" After Zurich had begun the Beformation, Schafbaosen and Appeniell openly 
Joined Its party. The moat ardent of their opponents, Schwj-tz, Crl, UnCarwsldea, Lu- 
cerne, Fryborg, and Zng, entered into a leagoe at Baden on the ISth of Jone, "with all 
their power, so help them God, to stand by tlie old faith, and banish the new ; also to 
have no fellowship with its adherent) ;" see Anaheim, vi. 33L The three' states above 
mentioned were not sommoned to the diet at Zag OD the 11th July ; however, threaten- 
ing aa this diet certainly was, Zurich still received (Tom Berne distinct asaoranees of 
friendly feeling; see Mollar-Hattinger, vii. 48, St. tiall, Baale, and Solothiun Joined 


96 FOOETH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A,D. 1617-16*8. 

Zorioh was completed by the celebration, on llBundy- Thursday, 
13th April, 1525, of the Lord's Supper again in ita original sim- 
plioity in the great minster.*' This same year produced, for tbo 
establishment of the Reformation among the learned, Zwingle's 
work, De Vera et Falsa Religione;** and for the instruction of 
the common people, the first part of the Zurich translation of the 
Bible, which the clergy of Ztuich composed in Swias-G-erman.^ 

Beyond the canton of Zurich the Refbnnation, for the present, 
was only carried out in Appenzell and the town of Miihlhausen. 
The free Appenzellers, to whom, since the year 1533, Walter Kla- 
rer, pastor at Hundweil, had preached the CU>spel, after a violent 
straggle, granted to erery parish the right of deciding for itself 
(1534). Out of the eight parishes of the canton, six at once came 
over to the Reformation, and began to change their Church con- 
stitution, undeterred by any considerations.^ Miihlhausen was 

with Berne "fimooth m the ttrong Beer (Berne) had delmnloed, in tecotduica -with 
the hopea and eSbrte of the tix cutime, Zoricb miut be ceii«i(3er«d a leuar Tmtsr, and 
miut defend her tned not againit tha Word of God, but agalnit Bra and sMeL" An 
embaeqr to the tbree reforming canUma waa reaolred uponj but Benie apoke in tlie 
name i^ the ten diatricta much more mildly than Lnceme in the name of tile aix ; An- 
aheim, vi.28S. MaUer-HotUnger, vii 60. Zurich Justified her conduct again in a print- 
ed Utter (of the 4th iamuiy, 162S, Bnllinger, i. SSB. HlUler-Hottinger, viL 74) : see 
this in FQaal), i. 293. 

" The joutli iM«i*ed the commnnion on Maandj-Hiiitiday, tlie mlddle^ged on 
Good Friday, the aged on Easter Sondaj ; aee Bernli. Weiss In FussU, fv. 64. Anaheim, 
v\. 824. Bnllinger, i. SSS. The liturgy oied on the occasian may lie seen in Zwingle'a 
Worka, ii. li. 23S. Why Zwingle delayed so long may be seen in Anshelm, vi. 208, on 
the year 1523 : Luther and Zvingle had demonstrated the exceptionable authority of 
the canon, and the propriety of adminlsteriiig the Lord's Supper under both kinds and 
in the Tolgar tongns. " The I^therana had instltnted a German moss, with German 
psalms and hymns, and certain ancient ceremonies, vith a view to tlie introduction of 
a new or altered papacy. But Zwingle endeaTored to restore the first conatitation of 
the Church, and abolish erery ordinance of man. Wth this view he would neither in- 
troduce a German mass nor churcb-mnslc, but waited until he could firmly establish the 
Lord's Sapper with the preaching of the pure Word of God, without any mass or devised 
ceremonies, according to (he simple Institution and usage of the Lord and the apostles ; 
wliich he soon afterward eSbeted." 

" 0pp. lil. 146. 

** SeealistoftheediUonsinSimlBr'sSammlang, II. B81. As early as 1634 the New 
Tettament was printed at Zurich after Luther's translation ; in 1G26 tlia historical books 
of the (Hd Testament, according to Luther's tranalalion, altered In soma places ; in 1629 
the prophets, Hagiographa, and Apooypha, wara printed In ■ new translation, upon 
whlchLeoJodae and Caspar Groaamann were chiefly employed. Tie first complete edi- 
tion of the Zurich Kble waa iasuad in 16SI. See Eottinger's Helvat. Eircbengesch., 
iU. 224. 

** See the historical account by the reformer Walter KUrer, by what occurred in the 
canton of Appenaell in the time of tlie bleased Reformatioii, written in IMG, In Kmler's 
SMnmlung, L 608. Win, i. G14, il. SB7. Uollet-Hottinger, tU. 144. 



won over to tlie Reformaticm by TJlrioh of Hatten, and reshaped 
ite fonns of worship as early aa 1523. Still a party of adherents 
of the ancient order, who reUed upon Hie ooofederaoy for support, 
imposed upon the ooauoil the neoessity of caution.*' 

In Beroe,'" by the fiery, barefooted friar, Sebastian Meyer, and 
the more prodent priest, Berohthold Haller, a broad foundation 
was early prepared ibr the Reformation, and favored by the goT> 
emroent i" Niktaua Manuel, in hia ooruival-farce of 1522, could 
unmask, without restraint, the crimes of the papacy and the cler- 
gy.'"' But the events at Zorioh in the year 1523 made ih» rul- 
ing nobles suspicions of the Reformation as a source of disorder ;"' 
and the government endeavored t» uphold its influence by an in. 
termediate position between the parties. The preaching of the 
Gospel was, indeed, freely conceded i"^ but every attack upon ec- 

" Hitthiu Gnf. Qtteb. ia Stadt MBhUuiuan, Star Tlien. HI« G«ich. d«r Krchsn- 
TarbeucntDK m MohUuDaeo. StnibnTg, 1618. B. 

** Cnmpan Talerini Anihelm'* Bemer Cbronik, ri. 101 ff. Die Refomutorea Bema 
Im XVI. Jahr. Nach dam Barnerachen Haoaolaum nrngearbBitet too G. J. Euhn. 
Barn, 18SS. BaHold HaOer odar dia Bafomiatloa ran Bam, tod Hali:tiiiir Kiicbbofbr. 
Zurich, 1828. 6. 

" Thoa the conndl decidad in ttvor of the paator, Qeorga Bnutoer, wbo waa acciued 
bj hia dean of praaching araDgelical doctrine In ISS3 (aaa Ajuhalm, t1. 103) ; and an- 
other contemporary accoimt In Simler, i. 461; Knhn,a. 253 fF. j and aoon after pooUhed 
a dtlien who had uoued SebutUn Uejer of JieiMj ; Anaheim, yi. 108. 

"' Then were three which were pnblici J acted in the stiaeU ; Anaheim, L 107 1 "One, 
called the Todta^retttr, tonchlng all Che abniea of the papacy, on the piieata' Faaitackt ; 
another, on the oonlrut between the character of Jeaoi ChHit and (hat of hia Xbcalled 
Ticar, the Pope of Borne, on the old FaatiaiAL Between tbeae, on Asb-Wedneaday, the 
Boman Indnlgence, with the SoAam/iad, waa dragged throng all the itreata and ridl- 
enled. Bf thii atnnge exhibition, which had nerar before been thonght profane, • 
great nation una indnced to conaider and diatingniah between Chriatian freedom and 
papal bondaga. Among all the eTangelical pnblicationa there la aearcelj a book ao oft- 
en printed and 10 widely spread aa these farces." They were printed at Zoiich, 152S, 
Berne, 1540 ; bnt they had almoit entirely disappeared, and accordingly were published 
again : Das Tennera der Stadt Bern Niklioi Monnel Faitnachtapiele. Bern, 1886. 8 ; 
also Id Nldana Uanoel, von Dr. C. GrOneiaen. Stnttg. n. TuUngen, 1887. 8. a. 330. 

"■ Compare Kote 78, above. 

>** The mandate of IGth Jnne, 1523, ia In Anaheim, tL 204 : " That yon and all per- 
Mna wbo nndertaka and nse the olEce of preaching, preach nothing else bnt the Holy 
Gospel and the free lore of God, openly and withont eaneaalment, and in like manner 
what yon can deftod and prove ttma the tnie Holy Scriptnre, the fonr Erangelists, 
PanI, the Propheta, and the Bible— in abort, from the Old and New Testament ; and so- 
tirely delist bom all other doctrine, oontroreny, and nnprofltable trifling not agreeing 
with tba Holy Gospels and Scrlptnrea above mantioiied, whether they be written 01 pub- 
lished by Ijither or other doctors." Anshelm, vL S07, remarks thereon : Whan the no- 
bles, of whom the lesser council was composed, "wbo tbonghtthat by this nlrlHJ^ ^t ^l t]ie 
dectrina of Lnther, Zwin{^ and their adherents, wonld be exdnded, saw and bewd 
that Ibe new doctrine and preaching ware only atrengthened thereby : then tb^ mad, 
and began to seek with all their might to hinder the observance of their inan<tatft. whiA 
VOL. IV. — 7. 


98 FOnitTH PERIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

clesiastical usages, and all ccoitroversy, were forbidden and punish- 
ed with severe penalties.*" Thus Sebastian Meyer, the preacher 
of the Dominicans, was obliged to leave the city on acconnt of 
his contioveraiBl sermons, as was also his adversary .'°* Haller, on 
the other hand, and those of like opinions, were allowed to preach 
the simple Crospel, though the government of Benie, vnth the Catb- 
olio cantons, remonstrated against the alterations which had taken 
place in Zurioh. 

The governments of the lesser cantons, which were more or less 
inclined to the Reformation, followed this example of the powerful 
Berne. But they were obliged to be satisfied with hindering any 
violent eoolesiastieal alterations, while they overlooked other in- 
fringements of the old order, in consonance with the views pre- 
vailing among their subjeots. 

Biel, where Thomas Wyttenbach preached the G-ospel, follow- 
ing the example of Berne, dismissed eight married priests, and 
Wyttenbach among them, from their ofBces. But in 1535 the 
citizens carried through tiie free preaching of the Gospel, and pro- 
cared the restoration of WyttenWch.'" 

In Basle, '^ Wollgang Fabricius Capito and G-aspar Hedio were 
the first preachers of the Gospel. When they departed, as early 
as 1530, others came in their place, especially John Oeoolampa- 
dius, in 1533, as professor of divinity, and assistant minister at 
St. Martina. The cathedral and the university were against the 
Reformation : but the more it spread among the people so much 
the more were the authorities inclined toward it, although oat of 

thcf daied not ruciad ttota feu of their felloir-lDwiumeD and the commimltr. How- 
ever, the gnata council mklnUined tbe maadete inTiolate." 

■°> S«e the mendaU of the Thunda; after 8L Mark's day, 1633, Id FOiall, U. S7I, In 
which that of the ISth Jane wai confirmed ; "yel with this addition, that prieata who 
had maiTied wivo, or hereafter ihonld many, ware to forfeit and lose their beneficei. 
In like manner, that all peraoni who apoke aboaivel j or conCemptDOOBlj of the Mother 
of God and the a^ntt, or ate flesh and other forbidden food on faat daj-g, or otherwiee 
practiced or preached from the pulpit anch onheard-ofdutoaui, miut expect paniihment 
ftum tu." 

"* 1524. Anaheim, Vl. 24S. Enbn, 121 ff. Anabelm'i own wife wu pnntabed. In 
1B23, for eaTing, "Oar La^]' wu a woman like henelf; requiring die grace of bar Son 
Jenu Chrlat — else ahe coold not be laved ;" and Anaheim had ao moch to aollfer In coo- 
leqnence that he left Bame ; see Anaheim, t1. 309. 

'" Bnllinger, t. l&G. Nachricht Ton der Kirchenreformation in Biel in FOaali, U. 266 
ff. Wj-tlanbach'a Leben, in Kuhn, a. 6S ff. 

'" ChriiUWnrsteiaeDaCprofeaaor at Basle, tl68B)BaBlerChTaDik. Baale, 15S0. fol. ; 
from Book viL cap. 11 onward. Ocha Oeachlchte Ton Baael, Bd. 6, 1. 129 ff. Labeut> 
geacUchte D. Job. Oecolampeda (Ton Sal. Heai). Zarich, 1703. 8. 



consideration for the other caatons, and a pradent r^aid for internal 
peace, all that they did in a publio way was to grant it toleration. 
In 1524 tltey iesned an ordinance to the same effect as the Bernese 
mandate of 15th June, 1523 :"" yet they appointed disputations 
for Oecolampadius, 30th Angnst, 1523,"** for William Farel, and 
Stephen Stiir, Leut'priest of Liestal, 15th and 16th February, 
1524 ;"'' and conceded to Oecolampadins thoee conditions as to 
reform nnder which he accepted tiie ministry of St. llartiits in 

So, too, in Sohafhaosen the Reftmnation was favorably intro- 
duced by Sebastian Hofmeister, a barefooted friar, after 1533,*" 
and in St 0aU by two laymen, Joachim Vadianns and John Kess- 
ler,'" tbongh aa yet unable to come into full activity. 

■" 8w tbii in WnraleiwD, book vil., up. 13 (compare Note 102, aboTc). 

"* Erumiu ad Znlaglinia, d. 81 Aug., 1G3S. Opp. vii. 808. 'OecdUmpadlni pro- 
poiasnt, qnaedun diapntue, Jamqae schedos prodidenL Jouiu eat In aliod lempna 
proroKart. Kane peimUsnm eat diapnUre, qnom volet. P. 810. OecoUmpodiiu beri 
diipuUvJt, diipnUtuTiu de&DO proximo dmmnico. He bad prepared four conclnding 
addreiaea to refute the fDllawing chargea commonlj brongbt ig^st the Heformation : 
1. TbtX Ita adherenia deapieed all teachen; 2. That the new doctrines abrogated ill 
good irorksi 8. Tbat tfae? taugbt men to despUe tbe Minla; 4. That they alloired no 
TaMity to human lawa. See Wiri, ii 860. ThtM theaea he defonded on two Sunday 

'" BothoftbeaemenwerareftiMdpeniiiaakiDbythennivertity; theConncileranUd 
it; aee tbe mandate in FOsali, It. H3. Farel'a tbiiteen tbeae* Impagn the falae, and 
point out tbe tnie way of aalTatlon ; aee FOaili, iv. 246. Tbe Life o[ Oecolampadiiu, bj- 
a Hew, a. 77. Tbe life of W. Farel, by Kirchbofer, I 91. StOr, -who bad marTie4, de- 
fended the marriage of prieata in Sve tbeaee. Bnllinger, L 163. FUaiU, ii. 161. 

'" Hie condition waa, according to Wonteiaen, tU. 13, " that be ahovld be free irith 
regaid to Che Word of God, to leach what it t«achea, and condemn what it condemna : 
alao, that he ahoold be relsaaed from the pt^ilah ceremonke, which be aald were nnprof- 
itable to the people ; and one deacon only ahoold be allowed liim, of whose belp be 
migfat avail himself in the adminiitraUon of the holy lacrameata, etc. Hiiu mncb was 
conceded to him by the patrona, and afterward aanetioned by the CooncU ; bat on the 
Dddentanding that he ehonld introdace no important innovation wlthont previotuly In- 
tormingEhcm. WbenDr. Hansachain COecolampadiiu) addreaaed blmself totheChiircb 
lerviee, he charged his deacon to baptlae children inlalligtbly in tlie German langnage. 
Tbey administered the Lord'a Sapper in both kinda, with tbe knowledge of the Council. 
He tanght diat the maai waa no aacrifloe for the sina of the Itving and dead, or for tboia 
wbo wen stQl in pnrgalery ; bnt that fbll (brgivenoaa of their aina waa obtained once 
for all, by tbe passion and death of our Savionr Ghriat, foe all believBra. He warned 
the people agalnit conaecnited water, aalt, palma, tapers, wahra, and aoch tbiags. He 
proved ttaat it was against Qod to attrlbnta any virtue to theaa tUngi, and beyond God's 
eommaod to drcamacribe the freedom of tbe Holy QAmtt with ancb ordinaDces, This 
prodoced so great an effect that tbe cbaplaina of Imponant cburcbe* diacontinned then 
ougea, and by degrees proceaaians with croiaea, carrying tbe aauMnent, and cerem> 
nita of the kind, were aboliahed, together with the maaa." 

"■ liibofSebastlan Wagner, called Hofmeister, by Mdcb. Eirnbhofer, Zurich, 1808. 
Hia SehafbaiueriBcbe JabrbOcber, from 1619 to 1629. Scbafhauaen, 3ta Aofi,, 1S8B. 8. 
'■ ■■■ The principal aonrce la tbe Chronicle of Seaahr, aztant In maonKript, a<M<iAa 




It vas nataral tltat the new-bom freedoni, following the slav- 
ery of a thonsand years, should bring in its train not only constant 
warfiure against Hie old principles, bat also many conflicting de- 
velopments, and even errors and abuses : hence came manifold 
struggles ; but this, too, gave en appearance of truth to the accu- 
sation of its adversaries, iiiat the Reforaiation led to endless revolt 
against all existing institutions. First of all, the fearless vehe- 
mence with which Luther treated even the monarchs who opposed 
themselves to the Oospel, contributed to strengthen this charge; 
and though they opposed him in a sphere where their authority 
ought not to prevail, yet it still seemed to threaten mischief to 
the truth.' 

George, Duke of Saxony, had most frequently to endure Lu- 
ther's violent indignation, for his persecution of the Reformation.' 
Better deserved was the reply of Lather to Henry Till., King of 
England, who bad ventured to come right into the region of the- 
ology in his Adsertio Sept«m Saoramentorum adversos llartinum 
Lutherum, 1521, in order to win from the Pope the title of a De- 
fensor Fidei. Luther's rejoinder. Contra Henrionm, regem An- 
giiae, 1533,^ was oDuolosive, although it for overstepped eU bounds 
of reverence and courtesy. But Luther's controversy vrith Eras- 
mus, and the entire separation of the latter from the caase of the 
Eeformation, were much more injurious than these other contests. 

Erasmus, who has been very freqoently otmsidered the real au- 
thor of the Reformation, did, indeed, accompany its first steps with 

(tee EMiIir -von Bomet, s. 9, 80, 118), of which the old hlitoiy of the BefDmuliaD In 
St. Gali, in SinOai'i SuDmlnnE, L 116 K, ii in abridgnient. IIiIb^ t. Atz, QerchicbtMl 
deBCuitoni8t.GaUaD,Bd.i(St. Qdhn, 1611), a. 477 ff. Job. Kenler, genumt Atha- 
narins, BOrger imd Baformitor m. St. Q^ by J. J. Baniet. St Gallan, 1826. 8. 

' Compare Lnther'a work tm the 3ecnLu> Antbori^, how Ikr k man U bonnd to rsndai 
otedUnce to It, 1628, In Wilcb'a edition, x. 4SG. 

* f^rit, when George damaadad of Lnther, In eooaeqaence of his letter to Htftmnth 
T. Knnbetg, March, IStt (de Wctte, IL 161), irhetber he acknowledged it ai hia (Wakh, 
zlx.698);aTer7atTar«aiu»u<rftlaB3dJaD., 1623(deWette, ii.£84). Compara, with 
legard to all Lnther'a qnairela with George, Wilch, xix., UaU Einlelt., *. 38. Qeorg 
n. Lnther, edtr Ehraniettimg dea Heiwgt Oeoig v. Snduen, yon U. A. M. Sclinlce. 
Lriprig, 1881. 8. --- 

* Walch, zlx., bitt. UnUt, 1. 1 ff. 



sympathy ; but at tike same time, he took good care that his own 
ease and good onderstanding with his dignified eoclesiastioal pa- 
trons ^oold not be disturbed, and that ttie progress of leamiug, 
whioh wa9 more to him than bU things else, ^ould not be viewed 
with anspioion by the poweriuL* After the Reformation seized 
npon the minds of men as an overpowering impulse, and did not, 
as he would have it, merely cause them to smile with friendly in- 
telligenoe upon their former errors ; and after the edict of Worms 
had not only pronounced the ban upon all Luther's adherents, but 
had also made them outlaws, he shrank back in af&ight, and 
looked forward with fear and anxiety to endless tumults. Thus 
he faebnged to the Refiwmation by his convictions, but was kept 
on the side of the old Cbnrch by calcnlation and fear. He thus 
fell into an untenable intermediate position, in which he endeav- 
ored, by a doable-tongned policy, to allay the sospioioD with which 
he was regarded by both parties, and to satisfy the demands inces- 
santly made npon him, by the adherents both of the old and of the 
new fiiith, to declare himself decidedly on their side.* Zwicgle 

* Sea S I, KotM SJ, 6S, 67 ; ef. &utai Ep. ad Lwtwm Z. dd. 18. Sept., U!0 (0pp. cd. 
Lagd. UL I, GTS) : Eau vidBO, qui quo nugii commaniretit factJoium aoun, coiutl iimt 
canuni boiuniiii litenunm, OBMm Beachliul, meamqiia cunam cnm LDibcri eaiua 
conjDDgna, cam bia nibil lit inlai le commoDe- — Lutbenun ooa Dovi, nao librM iUiu 
nnqiuuD legi, nisi forts decern ant dnodacim pagelloa euqne cirptlm. Ex. hia, qoae 
tnin dagiutaTJ, viana eat mihi probe compoaitoa ad mjattcaa litcru Vetinim moi« ax- 
plmBiodu, qiuuido aoatn haac aetia Immodica indnlgebat aTgntls magia qoain neceua- 
rlii qoutioDibDa. — Feme pTimu omaiDin odDTaCiu snin pericnJnni ease, ne rei aziret 
in tomnltam, a quo tic abborml aamper nt Demo msgia. Proiode mlnia etiam egi cnm 
Joanne Frobenio l)7)ogTapba, ne qoid operom illiiu axcoderet. He writea more in de. 
tail in Ep. ad Campe^um Card. dd. 6. Dec, 1620 (I. c. p. Mi), In which he aeeiu eap»> 
rialij to joatiff bia letter to Lather (S 1, Note 32). P. 596 ia eharactaristlc : Siqaidem 
nt reritati nnnqnam faa eat adTeraarl, ita celare Doannnqsatn expadit Id loco. Samper 
antau plnrimBia nfert,qnain in tBmpO(«,qnain conuDoda at atlsnpeiale earn profana. 
Qnaedam inter ae bteatur tbeologi, qoae vnlgo non ezpediat efifarrL P. 601: Si con 
mpti moTM Bomaoaa cnrlae postulant iogena aliqnod ac praeaana remediam, oerte menm 
aut md rimilinin non eat banc provindam aibi aomera. Malo hnnc, qoalia qnalia eat, 
ID atatiuD, qoam noroa excitari tomultna, qui laapennmero raKont in 

* Eraami ^. ad Pttr. Bariirivm dd. 13. Aug., 1G31 (1. c. p. 666) : Qoddi Lntherana 
tragoadia aamper in pajna gjiaoerat, mire qnldam conatl annt ma llli admiicera.— Dti> 
nam tarn immnnia eaaem ab omnibua vitiii, q&am Mun ab boc alianna negotio. — Uilii 
nne ad«o eat biTiaa dlacordia, nt reritaa etiam diiplioeat aedltioaa. — Si tibi narrem, a 
qniboj, et qiilbna madia soliciCatoa aim, nt adjongerer negotio Iftbarano, qnibua tecb- 
nia qoidam cotiad alnt ma pellicere, qoibui odiia qnidam hue me conati aint prapellere, 
torn demom intalilgerea, qoam mihi dlapUceaot diaaidia.--Non Ignorabam, qaam perti- 
nacibna odiia ma inaectaraanr qoidam apnd noa odio bonamm literarnm. Perapicifr 
bun aaae tntiaa in aluram facUonem laaiidBrB. At mihi atat, lemparqae atabit aenten- 
tia, Tel mainbratim diaeerpl potina, quam foven diacordiam, praecipne in neggtio fidei. 


102 FODBTH PERIOD.— DIT. L^A.D. 1617-16*8. 

and the rest of the Swiss were foibearing, from their old deferenoe ; 

— lo hU utlcDllB, qm damntintaT in Lntherl lihric, nibil video qnod Uli macnm conve- 
Dial, Did forte qnod > me modents sooque loca dictum eat, Ule didt imnodice.— Si hoc 
eat congToere, congnet vinam aceto. Sad dices : hactcDni Don ecripciati qnicqnam ad. 
verau* Luthernm. Id quo minoa ftecerim, dno praecipue fDenmt In caoaa, otii penuia, 

ut impeKtiae propilae conacientia Si pinni eat nocere caosae Lqtheri, foiiaaiis magls 

ill] nocni, quam qoisquam eomm qui odioaisirima reclamaroDt, qniqne hamincnt convi- 
liosiBramis llbellis protcideniDt. Prhnnm, violentnm illam ac e«ditioaBm acribendi 
modum conaUinlcr — impnibBTl. Non deatiti — deborlari plaiimos, nt ab ea facCione leie 
abBtinerent. Ifullia gtudiis adducl potui, ut vel paulalDm ipse mcmet admiBCsrem. 
Haec, opinor, plaa fngenint virea Bjoa factioals qnam qnoniadiin tmnnltiu. — Nat ego 
praedanim interim operae pretiom fero, qui ntrinqne lapidor? Apnd nostioa faliiaal. 
mo titula tndncoT Lntheranni, apod Germanoa male audio, ut Latberaase ractionis ad- 
TBreirioe. Ad Paul. Bombatiam, dd. 23. Sept., IGSl (p. 664) ; Qnondaua bactenna llbrii 
editis cum LaUwri) pngnarim, piniimae sunt cauaae, qiuB bic hod eat neceaae penense- 
re : aed ilia praecipoa fuit, quod milU pronua defait otium tegeodi, quae scrlpsit Luthe- 
na. — mi Bombau, prodive dictn est: ecribe adveraas Lntlieram. Sed ad hoe pluri- 
bna nbns est a|)DB, quam ad plaostrum fabricandum, nt inqnit Heaiodua. Video, qnam 
Tsria, qnam moroaa sint hominam jndicia. — Egi diligenter cum Hieronymo Aleandra, 
daret mihi facnltatam legeodi quae scripait Lutberna. Nam hodie Sjcophantarum et 
Coiyeaeorum plena annt omnia. Petnegavit »e id poaae, niii nominatim impetriTet a 
snmmo PoDtidce. Primum igitnr hoc mihi velim impetres Brevi qnopiam. Ad Epitc. 
Paltntimim, dd. 21. Apr., Ifi22 (p. 713) ; Sunt ialhic, qui reclamante Ipaarum coaacienlja 
me bciant Latheraniun, niminim illud agentea, ut me snia odlii voleatem nolentem 
pTotrndant in cutra Latheri. Ma vera ab Ecdeaiae catbolicae conaortio nee mora dia- 

trahet, nee vita Nori PoQtJGcia docta pnidentia, et provida einceritaa, aimulque divi- 

Dua quidam noatri Caeaarig animiu me in aummam s|>em Tocat, fore ut haac pestis sio 
tollatur. ne qnando poaait TeviTiaeera. Id fiet, si radices ampuleDtnr, node hoc moli 
toCies lepullulat. Qnamm una est odium Romanoe Curiae, cujus avariUa ac tfrannia 
jam coeperat ease inlolenbilia. Et aliquot humanae coastituUones, qnibua Chriitiani 
populi libertas gravari yidebstur. His omuibus citra tumultnm orbis Caeearis auctori- 
tas et novi PontiScia integritaa facile medebitur. Compile hia coireapondence with 
Pope Hadrian TI., J 1, Note 93, above. With this may be compared bis Utter to Zwln- 
gle, dd. 31. Aug,, 1523 (Zwiogli 0pp. viL i. 308) ; Luthems proponit qaaedam aenlgmata 
in speciem abanrda: omnia opera sanctorum ease peccata, quae indigna iguoscantur 
Dei miserieordia ; liberum arbitrium esse nomen inane; sola fide justifcarij hominem 
props nihil ad rem facere. De hia contendere, quomodo velit intetligi Lolherns, nou 
video qnem tToctam adferat. Ddnde video io plerisque ei addicts miiam pervieaciim, 
et ID Lotberi scriptis qoantniD maledicentlae, aaepe praetsr rem I lata me cogunt buI>- 
dnbiUra de spirita Ulorum, qnem ob cmuam, cuijatto, velim esse sinceram. — Ego So- 
rentiaBimam regionem (Brabant) reliqn], «e mucerer negotio Pharitaico; nam alia lego 
non licniBBet illic vivere. — Satis admonui ^iacopoa, aaUa Principes vel la libello de 
Principe, homo nullius aucCoritatis. Quid ms.vellea facere praelarea? Etiamal vitam 
ccptemnerem, non video, quid eaaet insuper faciendum. Tu Id DODDullia disaeDtis a 
Lnthero. Diasentit et Oecolampadius. An ergo propter illina doctrinam objiclam me 
meoaque librea periculia ? Omnia recaaavi, quae milii hoc nomine oH^bantnr, nt ad- 
versua ilium scriberera, A Fontifice, a Caeaare, a Re^buB et Principibna, a doctlsumls 
etiam et cariaaimis amicia hue proiocor. Et tamen certnm est, me non scriliere, aut iU 
acribere, vi mea HTipUo non tit placUura Pharitaeit. — Lutherua acrlpsit ad Oecolampadi- 
uiD, mihi non mnltom esse tribuendum in ils, quae aunt Spiritoa. Telim hoc ex te dis- 
cera, doctiBBime Zwin^i, quia sit ills Spiritoa. jVon videor tnihifire omnia docuiue, 
quat diKtt LmAenu, niai quod non tarn atrociter, qnodqne al>sUDni a quibnsdam aenig- 
matibns et paradoxis. Eraamoa von Battardam v. S. Hess, ii. TT. Leben des Erasmus 
von A. MoUer, s. 282. 



bat with Luther, who had always remained far removed from the 
staod'point of Erasmus,* and whose whole personal oharacter stood 
in decided opposition to the Erosroian refinement and indecision,' 
he was soon broaght into open variance." The ungenerous con- 
duot of Erasmus toward Hutten at Basle, in 1522, and the con- 
troversy which thenoe arose, in which his relation to the Reforma- 
tion was the principal subject of discussion,' estranged him entirely 

* Compire j 1, NdU 6. 

' Lothenu ad Spalatinnm, dd. 9. Sept., 1621 (de WetU, ii. 4D): Neqa« Capiloais, 
nt^ne ErumI Jadiciom me UnUllnm movet : niliil •lieoiuii opinions sni apnd me fui- 
Dnt ; qoin et hoc Teritos nim, ns quuido mihl cdid alternCra negotiam fient, quindo 
Ennuam ■ cognitions gnitiae loDgiDqaiiro caw Tiderem, qui nan ad crucem, Kd ad 
paeon ipectct in omniboa acriptia. Hinc omnia pntat civiliter at Innevoleatia qaadam 
hamBoltatia tnctanda genndaqne ; aed banc nan curat Behemotb, neqne bine qaicqaam 
Moe emendst. Meminl, me, dnm In praeTatione ana in K. T. de ae Ipao diceret : gloriam 
belle contemnit diriatianna, In corde meo cogjtaaae : O Emsme, bllsrla, timeo. Magna 
tee vHt gloriam eontemnara, caat. 

■ Zwinglina ad B. Khenanam, d, 85. Maj. 16W (Opp. vit L 193): Accepimna paucii 
ante dleboa, dnaUnm inter Enamom alqne Lnthernm fatnmm ; propendent mim omnia 
ad diaaldiam: atlmularl hone a Wlltembergeiuibna, nl adulatoram allqaando prodat; 
□lom a Romanenubna, nt haereticam aibi dsmnoalasiniDm eitingnat. Quae na qnan- 
tom mali datnrs ait Cbriatiania, conjaetara non opna baliea. — Scis enim, qnaulae ab 
ntrinaqDe parte sUmt cofHae, qoantaqae ^t Dtrioaqae vel pagnandi via, vel eladeadi 
■olertia. He praya RheDanna to join with PGlllcanua in mediating between Eraamut 
and Luther. He himaelt waa witb Enamni at Boile about thia time, probably with 
aimilai viewa ; eee the letter of Uyconltti to Zwingle, 1. e. p. 193, 199. 

* In a letter to Eraamua oT IBth Aug., 1520 (pnbliahad by Hagenbach in the Stadien 
a. Eiitiken fin U33 ; Hell 3, a. 6S8), Batten already eensnrea Ma poaillanimoDS con- 
dnct with lelbience to Lnthar. Wban ha came to Baale In Nor., 1622, after the fall of 
Sickingan, Enumns declined to receive him, to iviM hia remonatrancea, and that bo 
might not be remarked opon for aaaodatlng with him. Eraamos related this occnrrenc!! 
nntrathfully in an Eplet ad Marc. Laniinnm, dd. L Febr., 162S (Opp. lii. i. 760), and 
at the aame time anlend at length npon hla position with regard to the evangelical 
par^ and the reasona for it. Hutten'a mortification now roae to indignation, and his 
Expoatnlatio cum Eraamo (July, 1G2S — Hatten's works by HOnch, iv. S43) overwhelm- 
ed him with reproaches for his nnworthy condnct, which Eraimns did not lucceed In 
obliterating with hia Spongia adv. Hnttenicaa Adsper^nes (MOnch, iv. 103; Erasroi 
Opp. ed. Logd. z. 1S3I). At the same time, Eraamos tried, in an nngenerons manner, 
to make the knight an object of anapicion to the Council of Zurich, where he lived, as 
one who bad nothing to lose, and acted only tcom love of mischief and fVivollty ^o a 
letter of the 10th Aug., 16S3, in Hess's life of Erasmns, ii. 672; MQnch, iv. 397), and 
petitioned the ma^trates of Strasbnrg to punish hla printer (dd. 27. Mart, and 23. Aug., 
1524 ; Opp. 111. L '93, 804). Here, again, be showed himself to be donble^ongned, for 
to both these evangelical towns he alleged the interests of tbe Grospel aa the reason: to 
Zurich,—" But this I write that he may not abnae your goodneaa in hvor of a licenttona 
and artogut style of writing, which li highly injurious to the cansa of the Gospel, to 
liberal arts, even to common morality." To Strasburg; veneror pletatem vestram, qood 
(kvstla Evangelio, pro qno pmvehendo ego jam tot annistantomexlunrlolBborum,tan> 
tnmqne snitineo invidiae. — Certe Evangelico negotio non parum obfueHt, si videsiit 
homines, per oceaslonem EvangelU Beipublicae dlsclpUnam fieri deteriorem. — Pro oieo 
erga bonaa literas eterga rem Evangellcsm sfTeetn alnceris^mo visum est hoc admonere. 
Ea rea vebemenlu dlspllcnlt lp«i etiam Lotbaro et HeUnchtbool, qui intelligunt unllaa 


104 FOURTH PEBIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1B17-164B. 

from its adherents."' Prom this time Erssmus complains inces- 
santly of the hostility of the Evangelicals." The haughty style 

homineB mogU officers negada ETUigelico, qnam tales. — Pro Evingelio prorehendo 
pluiimnm Ubomm et ioTidiae sostinni. Onmis ncnsaTi quae mihl Principsa obtole- 
ront, at Kriberem kdveraiu Lnthenun, Imo mea mslai perdere, qnam ad affectus qno- 
mndam tGribere contra meam coDKiaDtiam. Tantnm iati foederi (the Evangelical 
Church) noloi dare nomea, qunm multu aliis ds canals, tnin ob hoc, qnod qoaedam in 
llbria Latheri noD iDtelligerem, qoaedam omnlna Don pKibamn, praewrdm ciun in ista 
canjaratione Tiderem quosdam ea>e, qoonim morea et molimina mihi viderentur longla- 
^me abease a apiritn Evangelico. Nollua naqium a me laeaoa eat, vel qoia taTotit La. 
Ihero, vel quia psmm fkrerit. Tbua irrote Eraamos In Aaput, 1524, altbongh aa earl}- 
as September Ma work against Lntbet bad appeared. Ctanpare Ulrich r. Batten gegen 
Desid. Erumoa D. D. Er. gegen U. v. B. zwtj StreitachiUl«n, dbenetit, mit den uS~ 
tiiigen Notiwn Toveben n. beortbeilt von D. J. J. Stela. Aaran, 1813. Ulrich t. 
HuCten Ton Wagenieil, Nornberg, 182S, ■. 129. Entten'a Werks von MQnch, iv. SK. 
Eiasinns Leben t. Heis, iL 116. Erasmoa Leben von UOller, a. 807. [Ijlricb von Hnt- 
ten, von Dr. Dui. Fr. StraoBB. S TUe. Leipz., 186S.] 

>* la defense of Hntten and the fiefomiBtlaD against the Sptmgui, as Hntten bad died 
bafon Eta publication, on tbe laland of Ufaan, in the Lake of Zurich, in Aug., 1523, Otto 
of Bninfels vrote at StraabiiTg his Ad Spongiam Eraaml pro Hntteno Respond (Hut- 
ten'a Worlca bf MQncb, iv. 497), and Erasmus Albenia his Jndicinm de Spongia Eraaml 
(I. c. p. G6S). Luther gave liii opinion with regard to this controveraj (lo Hansmann, 
lat Oct. 1538, de Wetle, iL 411): Equldem Huttuinm noUem eipoatulaase, multo mi- 
nus Erasmnm esterdsse. SI lioe est spongia abstergere, rogo, quid eat nuledicere et 
convidarl 7 Prorsns thiatia sperat Eraamns sna riiMorlca ^c omnibna Ingenlia abntt, 
qoa^ nemo sit, imo qoasi panel aint, qni aentlant, qnid alat Erasmoa. — Incredibilem et 
nomlnis et auctoritatis Jactniam fecit boo llbro. Lather's opinion opon Erasmoa in 
general (to Oecolampsdlus, iOth Jan., 15S3, de Watte, U. 852) : Quid Erasmaa b renm 
spiritaalinm judlcio sentlst, ant simnlet, teetantnr ejas libelli abnnde, tam primi quam 
novisaiml. Ego etsi acnleoe ejas allcalri santjo, tamen quia slmalat, ae non esse bostem 
palsm, aimolo et ego, me non intelligere astutiaa anas, quanqnam penltlns intelligatnr, 
qoam ipse credat. Ipse tbcit ad qnod ordinatus fait. lingoas Introdnxit, «t a aacrile- 
gis atodila revocavlt. Forte et ipse cum Mose in campeatribos Moab moiietnr ; nam ad 
meliors atndia (qaod ad pieCatem pertiaet) non provehit. Vellemque mirom in modam, 
ubstiners ipanm a tractandis Scripturia Sanctis et paiKphrasibus aula, quod non sit pu 
istia officils, et lectores frnstra occnpat et morator in Scriptoria disceudia. SaUs fecit, 
quod malom ostcndit : at bonum oalendara (ut video) et in larram prtmilsaiDnis docere 
non potest. Sed qnid ego da Eraamo tam mnlla? niu nt illius nomine et anetoritata 
nihil movearla, stqoe adeo gandeaa, si q<dd ei displlcere sentias in le iata acripturaram, 
at qui Tel non possit, vel non vellt de lis recte jndicara, stent paene totus Jam orbis in- 
eipit da eo sentlre. Erasmns was much vexed at this letter, a eight of which he soon 
obtained ; see tils letter to Zwiogle, Slat Aug., Note 5, above. 

■■ Ep. ad StaBitl. Turaman Ep. Ottmwxnttm, dd. SI. Hart., IGSS (0pp. UL L 766): 
Snnt, qoi me impudentisBtme etiam in sola Caesarta traduxartnt nt Lntberannm. Hie 
I^emnnt In me LntheranI, quod ab eo dtssendam, menmqne nomen in publlcis profesii' 
onibas sola lacerant, iibelloa insuper denCatos minitaiittir. Ad Syinttlrvm iVuroMm, 
1528 (I. c. 777) : Aleander nihil non facit adverauB Lothemm, at li pemoeaea rem om- 
nem, solns Eraamog ploa freglt vires et animoa illius factiocia, quam omnia Aleandri 
moltmlna. — td an Tobia isthic [Annas'] persnasnm ait, oescio: certe Latherani hk 
intelligont, qoi mihi ani impnlBDt, qnod lllia non aneoedlt, Jamqoe dentatls Ubellli 
in me debaeehtntor Unqnam in adveraariam, et vers sum. Ad Jo. Caidtim, 1524 
(I. c. 796) : Ignoras, quantum malimm hie snstineam a Lutberanis. Ego pnto, mor. 
tern eaae levkirem hla qnaa patlor,— LotberMil In nemlnem ms^ ftemnnt, qoam In 



in which Lather offered him peaoe'^ ooald only have the effect, 
apoQ this ambitioaa niBD, of giving Euiditional weight to the re- 
quest which rsaohed him at the same time fiom En^nd, that 
he would take revenge upon Luther for his attack upon the royal 
author.'^ And so, to assail the formidable Lothei in the weakest 

" In April, 15!4 (de Wetu, iL 498). £. g., Nihil uosor, quod alienlorem U erg& dm 
habaeiia, qno nugis euet tlbi Intagn et ulva canik ta> coaUk hocCea meoa Papiitaa. 
Deniqne Don segre tali uliaodiun, qood editia Ubellii in aliquot locii pro illorum gnti> 
GspUDiU, ant faron mitigkudo, nos acorbiiuciils momorderii «c pentriuxaris. Qoando 
enini riddmns, nimdani eau tibl * Damiuo d&tun eain fortitiidliism vol et ■nwoni, at 
nooitria Uii* OMtiia Uban M Bdenter occnnu DobiBcnm, nee ii aamiu, qol ■ l« axigei* 
■ndeuiiu id, qaod Tim et modnin tnam eapent. Quia ImbeciUitatem tD^m et men- 
■uruQ dooi Dei In te lolersTimni et veaerati gnnim. — Sic hactenn* itilain cohibol, ut- 
ouaqne pungerea me, cohibjturumqaa etiam acripsi in Uteris ad emlcoe, qoae tibi qoo- 
que lectae aunt, donee palam prodina. Nam ntconqne non Doblaeum ispiaa et plan- 
qae pieUtia capita vel Impie vel almulanter danmee ant inipendaa, partinaclam lamen 
tibi tribnere non pomm neqoe toIo. Nunc aatsni quid faciam? ntrlnque raa axacer- 
batisaima egt. Ego optarem (si posaem fieri mediator) at et illl deainerent te impetere 
tantii animia, ainenntqae aenectatcm toam Ciun pace In IkKoino obdomUiv. Id aane 
bceient mea qnidem wntentio, il rotionem baberent tnae imbeclllllalia, et magnitudl- 
nem eanias, qnas maddlani tDiim dadum flgreass eal, perpenderent : praeMrtlin com 
t, nt pamii ilt n " " ~ 

etiain aummis tiribna oppngnaret, nedom a aliqnando aparglt acnleo* et deotu tantum. 
Runoa ai tu, mi Eraame, illorum inflrmitatem cogltafea, at a figiiria itlia rhetoricae tnae 
■aliia et amaria abaCineraa, etai omnino neqoe poaaea neque auderea aoatra aaaerere, In- 
tacta tameo dimlttarea et tna tractang. Eraaiana anairend on tbe 6th Hay (Portg. 
Samnlnng TOn alien a. neueo theolog. Sachen, 1726, a. M6) : Nee tlbi concede, ut ma- 
gii ex aniioo l»ne caplai ETangeUeae ainceritatl, qnam ego, cnjna id gratia nitdl non 
perpetior, at liactanni omnium venor occaaionem, nt Evangellnm Sat oDinibaa «ini< 
mane. Caeteram qnod tn lml>e<dllllalam voces ant Ignorantiam, paitim oonatantlB est, 
partim Judicium. Taa quaedam legena valde pertiineeco, ne i]na arte delndat Satanas 
animom tnnm : ruraum alia aic non capio, at Tcllm banc metum menm eaae falsnin. 
Nolim pTofll«ri, qnod ^lae mlhi nondam permaal, mnlto minna qnod nondam aaseqnor. 
Haclanua rectins conaulai negotio Erangetioo, qnam multi qni se jactaot Evangelii do- 
mina. Video, per banc oecaBlouem exoriri multoa perdltoa at eaditiaeoa ; Tideo peMO- 
mirs bonaa lileraa ac diaciplinaa ; Tidao diicindi amicitiaa, et vereor, na cruentoa ezori- 
ator tnmnltna. Si tnua animus alncema eat, precor nt Cbriatns bene fortunetqnod agis: 
oe nnlls Tea coimmpet, nt seiena prodam Erangelinni hnmania affectlhna. Nihil ad- 
huG in le icrip^ bcturua id magno Pilncipnm apptausn, nisi vidiaaem hoc abeqne Jac- 
tura Evangelii non futnrom ; tantnm eos repnil, qui conabantnr omnlbna modls Princi- 
plbua paaaim penuadere, mihl tecum foedns eue,et mihi tecum per omnia con renlrs, et 
in librii meia ceae qnicqald tn doceres ; haec opinio viz eUam nunc potest ex illivnm 
animis ravalli. Quid scribas In me, non magnopere laboro: ai mnndnm apectam, nihil 

mihi accidere poaaet fellcios Si puiCns as omniboi reddere rationem de ea, quae In te 

est, fide, qoare aegre feras, b1 quis discendl gratia tecum diaputet ? Foitaase Eraamn* 
KTibena in ta magia proftierit Evangelio, qnam qnidam atolidi sciibentea pro t«, coeC. 

" Enamoa ad Hier. Emseram, Note 17, belov. He iraa chiefiy inflaenced bj- a t«. 
port which iraa spread al»ont liim bj* certain perama in England, that be bod soma 
share in Lntber'a vorfc against Henry Till. (Cntbert Tonstallua ad Erum. dd. 7. Jul., 
1G23, 0pp. iii. i. 771). With what fear Eraamna undertook the work, and hoir highly 
be estimated his compliance with tbe King's viah, may be aean in hia Ep. ad Henricam 
Regem AngliM, dd. 4. Sept., IGSS (1. e. p. 77S) : Uolior atlqaid advarana nova dogmata, 
■ed oen sn^m cdera, oM raUeta Oermania, na cadam, prinaqnam dweeodam in arenam. 


106 FOURTH PERIOD.-DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-16*8. 

part of his theological system, he wrote his work Do Libero Ar- 
bitrio, in September, 1524.'* Lather replied with his asual bit- 
terness in the work De Servo Arbitrio (Deo., 1525)." Erasmns 
repaid, in like coin, in lus Hyperaspistes (1526).'* Thus the re- 
Downed Erasmus'^ now passed over into the ranks of the enemies 

'* Opp. ed. Lngd. U. 1215. See the doable-tongued exprutiani with which be >c. 
companied it, EnumiiB mi Hearicmn Angl. Begem, dd. €. Sept., 1524 (I. c p. SIS) ; Qnid 
Don audeBm tiue fellciasimae MsJeatatiBftinuanspiciis? Jactt eat alei, exiit in Iscem 
libeling De Libero Arbitrio, andax, mihi crede, facinoe, nt nunc res habent Gemuuiiae. 
Exepecto lapidationem, et lam dddc aliquot rabioti libelU provolanut in cipat ineiiin. 
Sed coiuolabor meipium eiemplo M^eitatls taae, cnl Don parcit jstorom immanilaa. 
Decretiun erat et alioqai facere ad quod per literaa bortaria, et religione ChristUnae Ju- 
Tandae immori, led tameo alacrior id faciam, poateaqnam taa Hajestas cnireati, qaod 
^unt, calcar addere dignata eat. Ad. MelancbUionem eod. die (1. c. p. 813) : Uirabetia, 
cor eniUeHm libetlom De Lil>ero Arbitrio- SuBtinebam triplex agmea inimicoram. 
Theologi et bonanim literanun oiores nnllDin non movebant lapidem, nt parderent 
Eiasmnm. Hi Honaicbia onmibns pennaserant, me jaratUeimnm ma Lathero. lU- 
qne amici, Tideotea me periditari, apem praebaere Pontifici et PriDcipiboa, fan nt alU 
qold edeiem In Lathenm. Earn apem et Ipaa pro lempore aloi. Et interim bU non 
exapectalo llbello coeperant me libeltia Uceaure. Nihil Igitor reatabat, niii nt ederem 
quod BcripseTam : alioqiii et Uanarchas habnlssem Infenaoi, qnibnt viins Maeem dediaae 
verba. — Poetremo qnoniam epiatola Lntheri (Kot. 12) jam eat in manibus, qna polUcetOT 
ae coUbitorani calamnm in me li conqnieacam ) viderer ex pacta non edwe. Ad haeo 
qui Bomae profltentor litaraa etbnicaa, Ipal JSvmwtipdi, mira fnmuntln nu, invidentea, 
ntapparet, Germania. Itaqne si nihil edidiaaem, praebuiaaem anaamet theolagis, et Ho 
nachia, etillis BomanenBiboa Ggulis, — utTacilina penaaderentPontificlbaBacManarchia 
quad persnodere conabnntnr ; postrema hoi fiuioBoi Erangelicoa habnlaaem iniqnlorea. 
Nam Ipee ram traclavi modeatiaaime. Et tamen qnod acribo, non scribo advarani animi 
sententiam, qnanqnam ab hac qnoqae llbenter diaceiimnu, nbi pennadebitdr qnod rectioa 
est. Manj persona took offenaa at Luther's atrong Augnatiniaiiiim. I^eorge, Doke at 
Saxony, In a letter to the King of England, dd. 7. Id. Ma]. UiSS, deiignated aa Luther's 
fbndamental error (Seckendorf, Comm. de Lather, i. 277), qnod bonomm et malonun 
neceesitat«m a Deo pendere atatoat, errore ns Ethnicia qoidem tolerando, qno omnia 
bnmanae rationia vie, omne coiuilinm, Joa denique omne, quod vel pimeminm bouia, vet 
poenam malis decemit, toUatur. 

>■ T. Witenb. u. 467) Jen. Ui. 160. 

" Opp. ed Lugd. X. 1249. 

" Alto the effect of hiacontiOTenial worlc ha writes, ad JBC.Sadoletain,d. SS. Febr., 
152G (Opp. iiL L 854) : non pancoa rerocavl a facliane damnata, at jam paarim reddnn- 
tur lilerae, quiboe declarant ae peranaioa libello Dt Uhtre Ariitrio ab hoc Lnlheri dog- 
mate deeciviaae. On the other hand, ad Hier. Enuer, 1627 (1. c. p. 1056) : Quid mea 
diatriba civilius? Quid proftclt tamen, nisi qnod Lntheranos excitavlt ad majorem in- 
aanlam I Id non ignama Aitnmm, tamen morem geait Regi et Card. Angliae, Pontlflci 
et doctia aliquot amicia, non tacena Interim qnid eaaet aeqanturam. Eraamni did not 
by any means latiety Lntber's violent enemiea. Albertna Hns, Prineepa Carpenaia, 
repealed in a letter to him, wluch bad grown into a pamphlet (v. d. Hardt, Hiit. LJter. 
Beform. i. 114 aa.), in 1626, the old accnaatioa, that he was in truth the original anlhor 
of the Reformation, and was bound to a continual warfitre againat Lnlhei, p. 127: Quid 
ineum poeaea, modo vellas,declaraati libello tuo De IJbero Arbitrio, qno Lothemm non 
exaptaa, non pertuibaa modo, >ed proslomis, enecal. — Qnod si idem praeBtileris dog- 
malibna in caeleris, Jam qdd erit, qnod snapicaH poaiint homines, olio pacto cdnvenire 
tibi cum Lathero. Si anlem ptBetetieris, hoe edito libello potina aDBjudonem adanxlati. 
Pntabunt enim mnltl, si aequo in caeteiis diaseo^aia, paritai caeten te fuisae lefalalD- 

,db, Google 


of t2ie Reformation, althongh he did not cease to recommend con- 
ciliatory measures toward it.'^ 

The controversy about the Lord's Supper, and the division it 
made between the Saxon and Swiss reformers, was a much more 
grievoos blow to the Reformation. Carlstadt, who had already, 
from the year 1531, played a principal part in the disturbances at 
Wittenberg, gave occasion for it In the beginning of 1534 bo 
forced himself into Orlamand as pastor ;'* and here, with a war- 
fitre against pictures and images which oansed much commotion, 
he began what he considered a thorou^ reformation, as Luther 
seemed to him entangled in many errors, especially about the 
Lord's Supper.*" In Sept, 1534, he- was obUged to leave Orla- 
mand, and from Basle poured forth his indignation against Luther, 
whom he considered his perseoator, in a series of works against 
his doctrine of the Lord's Supper." 

nm, que iQcntia proban ndearii, hoc nno UDtam in^tTobalo. On Um eontrorvnj 
of thii princa with Enuniu, we Heu'i Ute of ErMioaa, f. 843.— Following Enumna, 
his decided Mendi wpantid entinly fnun the BefomutioD, e. g., John of Botibdm, 
Cinon of Contract (see J. v. B. bj- K. Wilchnar. Schiffhaiuen, 183e, >. 66 ST.). 

'* Compire Enimi Coniilinm Snwtni Baul. in Negotio Lntbenno, datam a.d. 152u 
On Ensmni Leben by Han, il. &T7, in Gernutn, in Wnnlcisen's Basler Cbrontk, B. vij. 
op. 13), e. g.. Si Tlgminii peniiaderi po«lt, at imoginoa, fonnam Hiwaa — nponenmt, 
donee ez publico orbit conailio itatneictnr super hla, ralde pertineret ad lotins Helve- 
tiae oonconliani. El tamen li id noii poe^t peranaderi, nolim liic gtalia mOTcri bellnm, 
•ed ezpectare potlna occulonem. De anmptlone EDcheriatiae, si id {do aBbcta petatnr 
ex conKDin re^onia tribal verbla, impetnbltnr a PontiSce, cnjna aactoiitaa certe ad 
hoc Talebtt hie, nt exdodat leditionem dvilom. De eio carnia idem untio. K rogetor 
Ponlirex pobUra vutrae reglonla nomine, nihil erlt ^fflcnltatia. 

>* Lather a^nit the BimmliKhe PnpheUn, In Walch, zx. 227. 

** He defended his boiateroiu principlea of Reform in ■ letter addieaeed to the rseord' 
erof Joachlcutbal: "Ob man gemacb&hren, and dea Ergerntlwen dar Scliwachen Tec- 
■cbonan eoU in Sichen, to Qottia Willan angehan, 1624. 4." (reprinted Id FOjeli's Be}-- 
trlga, 1. G7). How far the Inbabltantg of Orlamand vere led on by him U shown by 
their letter to Lotber, in wliieh they invite lilm to a personal confines Qa Walch, xr. 
i^BS), e. g., " Ton deapise all penona who, at the command of God, deatroy damb idols 
and heatheniah Images, to which jon oppose ooly a powerless, worldly-wise, and Incon- 
dslent aigament, drawn tram yonr own bnin, and not founded on Scriptnre. But the 
Ikct that yon so publicly cenmre and revila ns, who are members of Christ grafted in 
bytlie Father, unheard and nnconvlcted, proTca that you yoanelf are no member of this 
biieChriBE,thB 9onofaod,"etc. Accordingly, in Augoat, 1524, Luther traveled to Jena 
and Orlamand by the dealre of the Elector; compare the account "was aich D. Andr. 
Bodenslein v. Carlstadt mit D. H. Lnther beredt in Jena, und wie aie wider elnander 
in ichreiben sich entachlossea liaben. Item die Handlnng D. U. Ijither'a mit dem 
Bath und der Oemeinde der Stadt Orlamnnde, am Tage Bartbolomid daielbat gescbehen" 
(by Hart. Beinhard, preacher In Jena), 1624. 4., In Welch, xv. 2422 and 2436. 

" Andreas Bodenstein'a sonit Carlstadt genannt Leben ageachichte v. J. C. Foaslin, 
RucC a. Leipz. 1T7S, ■. 82. A fbll list of Carlstadt'a wridngs is Id Biederar'a Abhand- 
tongen, a. 478. The works which relate to the doctrine of the Lord's Sapper are printed 
la Waleh't cditiim of Lather's Worka, xz. 188, ST8, 2862. 


106 fOUKTH PEBIOD.— DI7. L— A.D. U17-1S48. 

Lutlter had, in former times, 'wavered with regard to this doc- 
trine.^ But as he adopted, for his general gnide and limit in his 
reform of the Chuioh, the plain word of Holy Scriptnie and the 
practical demands of religion, so, on the other hand, he rejected 
all intermixture of merely speonlative reason. Aooordingly, he 
had restricted himself on this soljeot to the rejection of the opus 
operaium and of transubstantoatioo, beoaose both of these dogmas 
were injarious to religion ; bat he had maintained the real pres- 
ence of the Body and Blood of Christ, against which exoeptioD 
coald be taken only on grounds of reason." When the view of 
the Lord's Supper, as a memorial rite, was first maintained against 
him, with an evident wresting of the words of institution,^* by 

" LathertotbsChn>UuustS(n«biirg,lStliI>ec.,IG34CdaWette,ii.G7T): "Icoo- 
tett that if Dr. Culitadt, mr uij one clw, coold iavt infonned m« flvc jtai aga Uut 
there vsa aotliiiig in tba Sacruuent but bread and wine, be irtnild hare dooe me a gnat 
Mrrice. I bave here, indeed, snflbred atich bard attacka, and been so wrung and wound- 
ed, that I WDold gladl}' bave eacaped trom it, for J saw plainly that 1 could tbm bsv* 
dealt tbe Papacy the beaneat cuff. I have alao bad two men write to me on thia lob- 
ject more akilUUl}' than Dr. Carlstadt, witbont tortnring tin Word ao mncb mUbt their 
own Qottona. Bat I am bound — I can not escape ; the text ie loo strong tliere, and will 
not bear to be twisted oat of its tneaniDg with words." As early as bis work on the 
Adoration of the Sacisment, addressed to the Bobemiao brethren in IfiiS (Waleh, xix. 
1G9S), Lather refuted all tbe different opinions whicb were afterward brought forward 
in tlie Sactamentaiian Cootroversy, vii. ; L That bread signifies the body ; 2. That ■ 
partieipatioQ of tlie ipirttDal body takes place ; i. The doctrine of traninbstantiation ; 
1. That tbe Sacrament is a eaciifice and good work. "The third error la, that do bread 
remains in the Sacrament, but only tbe Sgure of bread. But this error has not much 
force, it it lie only allowed that the body and blood of Christ are there with the Word. 
Althou^ the papists have fought stoutly, and still Bgbt, for thia new article of theirs, 
though they reproach every man as a heretic who does not bold with them as ncMSsary 
truth this roonltiah dream, upheld by Thomas Aqniqaa and sandioDed by Popes, tliat 
DO bread remains. But since they pleas this point ao strongly, of tbeii own wanlm 
will, without Scripture, we '•till only mtintjin^ jn oppoeition to and defiance of them, 
that actual bread and wine remain, togethar with the body and blood of Cbriit, and will 
gladly lie reproached as beietiBs before such dieamy ChristianB and undisguised sopb- 
ists, for the Oospel calls the Sacrament bread ; thus, the bread is the body of Christ. By 
this we stand; tiuly It b enough fiir as against all •ophiatical dmms, that that should 
be bread which Scripture calls broad." 

" According U Petms da Alliace Card. Camcmcensis ; tee De Captivitale Babyleoi- 
cs, 1 1, Note Gl, above. 

H According to Albr. Hardenberg (f 1ST4) in the TiU Wessell (pr«flxed to Weasd 
0pp. ed. Oronlng; Job. Wessel, by Ullmann, a. 326), Carlstadt had dnwn his doctrine 
of the Lord's Sapper (h>m a woi^ I^ Eaeharislia, which Henry Bodius, pnodent of tlie 
House of Brethten at Utrecht, bad received firom Cornelius Hoolns (Hoen), a distliH 
guished jurist in Holland, and Imngfat to Wittenberg and then to Zurich ; tliis Was aft- 
erward Bometimea considered a work of Weasel's, and aometlmeB was eud to be about 
two hnndred years old. Ullmann's Job. Weasel, a. 8S6, muat ba corrvctad here by Ger- 
des. Hist. Ev. Renovati I. Honam. p. £38. It will be proved in Note 37, below, that 
tliil work WBi brought to Wittenberg In the year 1G3L Hardenberg, in his account, er. 
ratMOOsly lotrodnces at this time the erents at Jena In liiL But Caiistadt had not 



Carlstadt, who stood in closa cnnnectioa with the Anabaptists, at 
that time rising again into notice, and who was also oarried away 
by many superstitious views, Luther was ready to see in this doc- 
trine, as well as in the rejection of in&nt baptism, only the pride 
of reason going beyond Soriptnre ;^ and he resisted both opinicwis 
as belonging to the same order of fonaticism. 

On the other hand, Carlstadt's oonoeption of the Lord's Sup- 
per corresponded well with the tendency of the theologians of 
the school of Erasmus to understand and explun Soriptuie in 
harmony with leascKi.^ Zwingle had long cherished tiiie doc- 
trine in secret." Erasmus himself was clearly inclined toward 

drnrn tnm tUc work hii murelem •zpluiition of On words af Inttitation, coirespoDd- 
lugMntaaAthlyirlthtbMt tatbaCiOiail iMtmOaamtra Catharot, 3): "Est 
ths bn*d, Bir this mj- bodj' Is the bodj which shsU be ^vea for j-on." Horearei', in 
1521, Csiiatadt still maintained the real praeence; sea his wcrk "Ton Anbetnng n. 
Khierbietong der Zeicben dM N. T. I. Not., 1&2V (Unsch. Kachr. 1718, s. 177). Baeer 
writes very truly to Boniface Wolfbsrdt, and the men of Augsburg, A.D, lti37 (from 
Zanchii 0pp. in Qardesli Bcrinlam v. SS7) : Hoe ego, fratres, ingrone dlco, at coram 
Domina lie aentia, opUndnia piis, nt nihil nnqoam contn Lathernm de EochaiJatla 
scriptam eiiaL — Jam in splritnalem maodacationem pomerat omnia, corporalem ultra 
admodmn exteaosbat, Sdnciom in extemnm opni aabmoTeiat : obi aulem Carolostadi- 
ns viram commovit, sicnt penDasarat sibi, Carolostadinm relle extcmDm verbnm et 
Bacramenta penitos e medio lollere, Ita totos erst In eyehendis istls, sicnt nihil in eo 
Don Tsbemens: indeqae fsctam, nt noa Ipsl, «t nostri Oecolampadina et ZwingUos 

" Lother to the ChriatiaDS at Strasbnrg, IGth Dec., U21 (de Wette, tL 678): "Tea, 
if even at tUs day tt might happen tliat a man prove with sound argnmenti, that man 
bread and wine were present, there would be no need to aasail me with so much wrath. 
I am, alas, all too mnch Inclined to this view, to much of the old Adam do I feel with- 
in. Bat Carlstadt's fknatlcism od this snbject is so fkr from convincing me tliat ny 
opinion is only strengthened thereby. And if I bad not entertained it before, I shonid 
bare conclnded at once, ftnm sach lame and fooliah trickery, wtthont any Scripture, 
Cnmded only upon reason and reflection, that hit view conid not be tme." 

** Helancbthon ad Cameraiinm, dd. SB. Jul., U29 (Mel. 0pp. ed. Bretsehnetder, L 
1083), WTltee of Eraamos, whom lie calls Fotbiuai (JloStwit Oesiderins) : Viie qnan- 
bim jodidi sit nostrls inimlda: illom amsnt, qui inaltoram dogmatmn semina in snis 
libris *pai^ qnae fortasse longe graviores tnmultns aliqnando excltatora fnetaot, nial 
Lothems exoitns asset, ac sCndia bomlonm alio traxisset. Tota ilia tragoedia *cpi 
iiJnau jn^uami ab Ipso nata viderl potest. Qoam non Iniquns esse vlderi aiicnbi pot- 
alt Alio et illins Gtctioni, qoam nos hie conalantitslme ImprobaTlmns. Qnae Ulen in 
libris est magnopere dlgna riro Chrittlano da jnstificatioDa, de jnn HaglslratDnm?— 
Bed toUant enm, qnt non Dornnt. 

" Capita and Peliicsnos at etrlj at ISl! ; aee 5 !, Note 9- Aceordiag to the later 
Swiss historians (e. g., Hess In his life of Zwingle, translated by Ustsri, t. 31, and 
Holdr. Zwin^ t^ Scbnler, s. 24) Zwingle read, while at Olams, Satramn on the Lotd'a 
Snpper, and WycliUb's worlcs ; according to S. Hesa (Sammlangea *at Beleuchtnng der 
KiTchen-n.ReibrmatioasgesGh.d. Schweis. Hoftl. Zorlch, 1811, s. SO), also the works 
of Peter Waldo (P) : bowsTer, I find no proof of tbia. This doctrine of the Lotd'a Snp- 
per first appears in hia works, in the Utter to Wyttenbaeh, 16th June, USB (Opp- vU L 


110 FOTIBTH PEBIOD.— DIT. I.-A.D. UI7-1618. 

it :^ thus Catlstadt found much Bgreement with his dootrioe ia 
southern G-ermony ai>d Switzerland, though not with his marvel- 
ous interpretation of the words of institution. Capito and Bucer, 
at StrasbuTg, showed themselves munistakably influenced by it.^ 

297) ; but here Zwio^e lufoldi it u & lecret : Ez bli omnibiu, pnto, WDteatiani iio»- 
tram, doctUaime pneceptor, capis, noa qaod aUimnanc Its doceam : vereor enlm, oe 
pord Id noa canvusl dlnunperBiit turn doctrliuiii, tnm doctorem : non quod taaU &ciain 
tamnltnoum tunc vltam, Bed ue, quod recte sancteqoe docerl poterit, dmn intempeadrs- 
docentar, damai qaiddam aut tamnltna ChrUCo daret. Befoni the pnblic at large, at 
that time, he only deiiied transnbilantiatioD, In his explacation of th« Article* (Jnly, 
1533), and taoght that the bodr and blood are received bj- faith onlj (Ualegsng itt 
XVm. Aitikeli, In Z«. Worka, I 251).— HaweTer, In 1S21, tbe work Uaned b; Come- 
lioa Honlni (see tfote 24) bad already fallen into his hands and won his aaient; eee 
Lad. I^vateri Hist, de Origins et Progressn Controverslae SacrameiitBriaa de Coena 
Domlid. Tlgnri, 1664, p. 1, b. Faetnin qaoqag est, nt Joanoea Rhodlaa et Georglni 
Saganos, pii et docti viii, Tignmm venireat, nt de Encharistia cnm Zwingli conferrent 
Qoi cnm ejna aententiam andlTisaent, dlsalmolantea anam; gratlaa egentnt Deo, qnod 
a tanto errore llberaCi esaent, atqne Honll Batavl epistolani prolnlemnt, in qna e>( in 
verbla inatitntionla Coenae Domlnlcae per tignificai explicatnr, qoie inteipretatio Zirin- 
glio GommodisuDiaTidebatnr. Id the jear 1625 Zwingle published thiairork; Epistola 
ChriBtiaaa admodmn ab annis qoataor ad qnendain, apnd qnem omne jadic[nm aaciae 
Bcripldiaa (Bit (Lnlhei), <* BatavU mlaaa, aed apreta, loage alitor tractans coeuem do- 
rainicam, quam hactenua, tractata eat, per Hoonium Batavum; reprinted in Cierdeail 
IlisL Et. Ben. I. UoDUTn. p. 281. Helanchthoni* Eplat. ad Aqnilam, dd. 12. Oct., 1629 
(Bretschneider, it. 970), la alao worthy of noUce ; Cinglios mihi confeasna est (in UaN 
Lurg), se ez Etasmi acriptla prinrnm baaalaae opinlonem suam de Coena Domini. 

" Erasmns ad Uich. Budun Episc. Ungonensem, dd. 3. Oct., 1525 (0pp. ill. i. S92) : 
Exortnm est nomm dogma, in Eacharistia nihil eaae praeter panem et vintim. Id at 
tit diffidllimnm reftllere, fedt Jo. Oeeolanpadius, qid tot leatimoniia, tot argnmentii 
eun epinionem commnoiit, nt aediici posae Tldeantor etiam electi. Ad Bilib. Pirkbet- , 
mer, dd. 6. Jnn., 1G26 (p. 941) : Uihi non displiceiet Oecolaropadii aententia, niai ob- 
(Uiet eonaenana Eccleaiae. Nee enlm video qiddagat corpns inaanalbUe, necutilitatem 
allatnmin si aentiretur, modo adait in STmboUa gratia spiiitaalia. Et Camen ab Eccle- 
aiaa conaenan non posaom diacedere, nee nnqnani discecai. Ad enod., dd. 80. Jul., 1626, 
p. 9iS : Pellican, vho iiad cdidb to Zurich earl j in 1526 aa profeaaor of Hebrew, aaanred 
his friendi In thia place of Eraamoa's agreement with them in the doctrine of the Loid'a 
Supper 1 and the three letlera in which Erasmus reproaehea him for so dcung (p. 968 aa,) 
-were not calculated to leftate this asanrance ; compare Eraimoa'a Life by Hess, ii. 264. 
In the aanie year Leo Jadae, In a work pablished qnder a false name, aought to proTS 
tbe aame Eact tnm the eariier works of Erasmoa; aee Bollinger, i. 852 ; Heaa, Ii. 371. 
Tbe words wluch Houinger contribatea from hia mannscript are chaiacteristie of thi* 
anther's melhodofsilencinghimaelf and others with aophiinu (cootinQation of MOller^ 
Scbweizergeach. viL 131) : Finge, in Eucharistia non ease aubatantlam corporia dominl- 
d, tamen Dena illiuD errorem aulli poterit Impotare. Qnum eum adoramua in Encba- 
liatia, semper aabest tacita eueptio, si lllic rent eat. Nobis enim non constat, an ao- 
cerdoa rite eonaecraTerit. 

" Tbej- pTODonnced the eoatnimsy onimportant, as it on]y related to tbe s|riritnat 
participation of Cbriatj see Capito'a Urtheil, was man halten a. antworten anil von der 
Spaltnng iwischen H. Lather n. A. Carlstadt, in Lnther'a Werke by Welch, zx. 446 ; 
and Bucer's Grand a. Uraacb ns gOttl. Schrift, der Heuemngen wegen an dem Hacht* 
male dea Heria la Straabnrg Torgenommen, Ibid, a, 458 : both works belong to the 
year 1624. At the aame time, tbe preachen of Straabnrg wrote to Lather to draw him 
ioto an ezplanation upon the conlTOTeny, dated 23d Not., 1624, In Eapp's 7~ " 



Zwingle declared himself in favor of it in b letter te Uatthew Al- 
bems, preacher at Rentlingen ; at first, indeed, only in coofidenoe,^ 
but soon after also in pnblio.^' To refate Carbtadt, Luther wrote 
against the Celestial Prophets in 1525 f* Bogenhagen's work, Con- 
tra Novtira Errorem de Sacramento Corporis et Sangninis Chris- 
ti,^ was directed against Zwingle. Carktedt, oppressed by want, 
and the snspioion of being oonoemed in the Peasante* RebellioQ,^ 
soon yielded oaoe more, and returned repentant to Saxony f^ bnt 
the controversy awajiened by him was oontinned by hoth parties 
in a violent series of vrorks. Zwingle defended his doctrine in sev- 
eral works i" Oeoolampadins joined him f but he met with oppo- 
Dente in the Swabian preachers, led by John Brentz and Erhaid 
gchnepf.^ Lather himself first appeared against the Swiss party 

640. Ha >niwered bj- his latter to tlia CbrUtUn* M Stnuborg, 15th Dm., in de Wette, 
ii. 674. 

" Dd. leth Mar., ISO. 0pp. iii. SS9. Ha ugaea trma Jaba vi for a muidautio 
RpiritiuUa : at. In the words of initltatiaD, meuia i^mjiatt. Tba utziatj nith which 
lie apposes the pnblic^Uoa of his opinion is nnmistakkble, p. 693 : Nos enlm nontnt pio- 
reriniDS, noa at censeamoa. Res enim tam eatardoa, at, nisi dominna dederit InCellec- 
tum, fnutn dictnri limns, qnicquld tandem addnzerimns. And in eonclnaion : Adjnio 
ts per CbristuDi J«alQ, qoi jadicatnnu est vivos et mortnoe, nt banc episCoIam nalli 
honiinnm commnnices, quam ei, qnem constat rincenun esse in fide ejoadem domini 
noitii. The letter was flist printed at ZQiich in March, 1S!6. 

" la the Comm. de Vera et Falsa Religione, March, 15!fi (0pp. Iii. 145; the chap- 
ter " Von dem Naditmsl Cbristi" was pabUahed at tlia same time in a Qermaa tranala. 
lioQ also), and the Sabndiam s. Coronia de Eucharislia, Aug., U26 0- c- P- BIS). Com- 
pare Bnilinger, i. 3Gt. 

" Waloh, XX. 186. 

'' It appeared at the aame time in German alao ; in Walch, xz. 641. 

** Probably wilhoat reason. An invitation from UQaur lo join in hia rebeUioD, sent 
ftom Altatadt to Orlamnnd, vraa rerosed from this place in a letter imdoabtedly com- 
posed bj Cailatadt ; KeUOnxer'sIifbbyStrotwI.s.TT. Afterirard Carlstadt'a rasidence 
at Sotfaenbarg, on the Tanber, famished an occasion oraccuaing him of co-operation in 
the Peaaant War ; see Kapp's If achlese, iv. 661. Ha defitnded himself in the " Eotschul- 
dignng D. A. Carlstadt's des blschen Nameos de^ Anfmbr, ao ihm iat mit Unrecht aof- 
^legt," which Lather edited at his reqneat in Wittenberg, 1626, nith a pTcfnce (this 
msj: ba sean in Walch, zv. 2468). Compare FQssli, Leben Carlatadt'a, s. 92 ; Leben 
Mtoiar'* ron Strobel, a. 76. 

" Walch, CT. J466, 

" Especially "EineklaretrndeTrichtnngTomXachtmalChristJ;" 152S. Werke, iL 

" Do gennina verbomm Domini, hoc est corpus menm, jnita vetustiaaimos aac- 
tores exposltlone, lib. 1615. 8 (alao in FfaSi Acta et Scripta pnbl. Eccl. Wirtember- 
gicae, p. 41). He aonght ta prove a trope In t]ie word corput; Hoc eat flgnra corporis 

" dariadmomm vironun, qui anno ISK Halaa Snevomm eonvenenint, gjngramma 
ct piameteraditumanperverUaeaenaedomlnicaeadJo. Oecolampa<Unm, dd.31. Oct., 
I52G, commonly called Syngramma Soavicnm (composed by Breni; see Walch, zx.. 
Hist. QnUt, B. 04), also in P&ff, 1. c p. 153. 



in a PreEaoe^ in the year 1526, and thus a warfare was enkin- 
dled which brought into the bitterest opposition the reformers of 
both parties, who onght to have been nnited by the closest bonds 
in their common aim and common danger. The Swiss doctrine 
of the Lord's Sapper also found support beyond the bounds of 
Switzerland,*" especially in southern G-ermany, Strasburg,*' and 
Ulro.*' Nevertheless, as these Churches remained in oonnection 
with the Church of Saxony, they were obliged to take an equivo- 
oal position. 

The Reformation, however, was moat injured in public opinion 
by the Anabaptist disturbances and the Feasant War, whidi also 
broke out at tiie same time. 

The first beginnings of these evils are to be sought in the dis- 
turbances at Zwiokau in 1531. Thomas Miinzer,*' who, as pas- 
tor at Zwiokau, had a la^ share in these disturbances, and was 
in consequence deposed, after a vain attempt to gain support 
among the Bohemians," had betaken himself to Altstadt, in Thu- 
ringia, with a view to advance far beyond the beginning made at 
Wittenbe^, and there establish the kingdom of God upon earth 
in equality and community of goods, compelling, if necessary, the 
pnnces to submission by force.*' When these disturbances began 

" PieGzed ta Agricola'i TnuuUlion of tlie SwkUan Sfngmoma Into Gennao ; <se 
Uie Pre&ca In Wtlcb, xx. 72L 

** For iiuUn<:«, In Eut Frieiluid, where George Aportann*, tba first emngellul 
prescber at Emden, unmedialelr sdopted thb doctrine ; Me SUtenntnn, in TaUr'i Eircb- 
enhist. Archiv, 1824, Ui. 36, 43. 

" See Note 29. 

*■ Where Conrad Sam (aep $ 1, Note IIG) declared himself on Zwingle'i >ide; Me 
Wejninuiia, Die Bdrger in Ulm, der Zwingluchen Conftuion aagethau, in Stendel'a 
Tobinger Zeitachritl Ki Theologie, I8S0, L 143. 

*■ HUtorie Thoniaa HOniei'i too FhiL Melaachthim (Luther's Werke roa Wslcta, 
zvL 199). Leben, SchrifUn n. Lehren Thomaa MOntzar's yon G. Th. Slrobel. NOrnb. 
n. Altdorf, 1796. 8. Thomas Mmuer von L. v. Bacako, in Woltmaon's Zdtschiitt, Ge> 
■chkhte n. PoUtik, 1640, ii. L Hast, Oesch. der Wiedertanfer Monster, 1S3S, s. 68. Old 
mystic writings, as for instance the prophecies of the Abbot Joachim and Taoler's works, 
had prodaced a strong eflect upon him, Strobe], a. 7 ff. A contemporary writas of him 
(Tentiel'B Hist. Beilcht t. Cyprian, iL 334): "Thoma* MOnier and his followers were 
carried away by a misondenCanding of Tanler'a doctrine of the spirit and gnnmd of llie 
Bool, for he lead him constantly." 

I* See (he IntimatJo, published at Pragne, In Strobel, a. 19. 

** Disregard of the written Word of God, the dead letter, is the chanctetisUo of his 
doctrine ; man most hear the everlasliDg Word of the Father speak from within him : 
God alters bis holy Word, that is, his only begotten Son, into the iatnoat sonl : by this 
incamatioa of Christ nun are at once entirely deified by God, and even la thia liii^ aa 
it were, translated into heaven. On the other hand, he invai^ agaioat the tnere bilh 
of tha lips, and tmit in oatward baptism: fkilh is not given to thiiM only who have 



to attract more attention, Sfiinzer was obliged to leave Altstadt 
ia 1524,** and withdrew beyond Naiemberg to Waldshnt, on tlie 
borders of Switzerland, where he had already formed ooanections 
by letter." In Switzerland there were also many persons who 
longed for a speedier and more tborongh reformation of the 
Church,*' and who particularly insisted upon tiie rejection of infant 
baptism, about which Zwingle had for some time been in doubt.*' 

been sprinkled with mter. Strobe], s. 13, 154, IG9. Ia his hiitorjr of the AiutbaptiiU, 
Bnllioger thoaalatsiHUBcar's doctrine (;?asili'BBeytTlge,r. 186): "All pnachera who 
pnached the Gotpel at thii time aie not >ent of God, neitlier do they pr«ach the trne 
Word of God ; bnt they are only learned in Scriptnre, and preacli the dead letter 
of ScriptDTB. Scriptare and the eztemal word of God are not the nai tme Word of 
God, for this ia internal and heavenly, and proceeda immediately trom and out of the 
month of God. A man most be tangbt b}' thia Word Mim within, and not by Scripture 
and preaching. Ha alao held baptiam with water in little esteem ; be even maintained 
that infant baptism was not of God ; accoidingl; we most tie baptized with a apiritnal and 
more real baptism ; noTertheless he did not, in the beginning of his aaabaptism, have 
himself rebaptiied, lomethiag hindered this. His disciples began to rebapllie before 
him. He was also baptized with his own blood, i. e., pot to death. He also said it was 
false that Christ had made satisfkction for ns, as the wealc learners of SeriptorB maintained. 
The marrla^ and mantage-bed of Che nnbelieTing and carnal was no nadefiled bed, bat 
wboredAD aod a devilish brothel. He taaght that God revealed Hi* will (n dreams ; he 
hlmaelf attached gnat impOTtance to dreama, and gave oat that they ware the raggea- 
Uims of the Holy Spirit. Accordinglj, he and hla followers were called the Heavenly 
Prophets, and Spiritoaliats or Geitlltr." • He set np at Altstadt a league fbr the eetab- 
llihment of tlie kingdom of God upon earth ; lie deatroyed a reioit of pilgrima in the 
neighborhood, and summoned the nobles to J<dn hia side, else the award dionld be taken 
away tnun them. Strebel, *. 46, 4S, Gl. 

•■ MQnzar pnblisbed at Naremberg,in replj,hia libel upon Luther, "Honhvamraachle 
Sehutirads imd Antwort wider das gelstlose santUebende Flds^ in Wittenberg, welches 
mlt erkUrter Weyaie dorch den Diepstal der heil. Schrift die erbermdllcbe Chiislenhait 
alao gana jtmerlicben beaadelt hat." 1. Sttobel, a. 64, 16S. 

*' Especially witb Conrad Onbel. Oa hla letter to Honter at Altatadt, on tba Gib 
Sept., 1534, see Zwingk'i Worka, IL i. 874. [On Qrebel, ••« Beberie, Die Anftnge des 
Anabaptlsmo* in der Schweii, In JahrbOcher t DeotsclM Iheolo^ Bd. lii., 1858, s. 

" Orebel partknlaTly ; Zwingle's Works, 11. 1. S78. At the teamd conftonice at Zu- 
rich, 26th Oct, 1533, Conrad Orebel, Simon Stnmpf, and Balthasar Hnbmeyer came 
forward with anch like demands ; see the Acta in Zwingle's Works, I. 628, G30. Win. 
ii. 163. AH these, and also the tknatical iconoclaiti, Nielaa Hottinger, and others ($ !, 
Note 14), afterward became Anabaptists. The village of Zolllkan, when, as early as 
Whitaimtide, 1624, images and alUui were destroyed in the church (Fi^sall, 11. 58), att- 
erward became a piucipal reudence of the Anabaptist*. 

*' Hnbmeyer reproached Zwingle with having denied Inftnt baptism in I62S, in a 
conference with him ; see Ittssli's Beytrlge, i. !62, Anm. In hla ezpoeitlon of the arti- 
cles. Art. XVIII. (Works, L 289), Zwingle says, hi fact: "Though I well know that 
children were baptised from ancient times till now, this was not, however, so common 
aain our own day; bnt tbej were publicly instructed K^etherin the wordof aalvation. 
Andif they hadaflrmblth in their heart and confessed It with thdr mouth, they were 
bsptiMd." Zwingle also coatttimt. In ISiS, in the work " Vom Touf, vom Wledertou^ 
and vom Elcdeitoaf " (Werke, 11. 1. 34fi) : '■ I was so tar led away by eiTor as to think 
that 1( waa much more becomijig for children not to be baptiied till they wen com* to 
VOL. FV. — 8 


114 FOmtTH PEEIOD.— DIT. I.-A.D. 1617-16*8. 

UiiDZer now oonnected his other &aatical doctrines with this 
view, whifdi they had in common ; Waldshut became the head- 
qoartere of fanatics,"* who soon spread from this place over the 
whole of Switzerland. Unfortunately, at this very time the great 
insurrection of the peasants^' hroke out in southern G-ermany, and 
encouraged the Anabaptists to violent measures. 

Even before the Reformation severe oppression had more than 
once driven the peasantry to revolt.'' The refosal to instate evan- 
gelical preachers now became in many places a new cause of dis- 
content, and misunderstanding of evangelical liberty gave to it a 
religions character. After some isolated outbreaks in the year 
1524, the peasants of the Abbot of Kempten rose, upon the first of 
Januory, 1525 ; and in a short time this insurrection of the peas- 
antry spread throughout Swabia, Franconia, and Alsace. The 
XII. Articles in which the peasants stated their demands, and 
tried to prove them from the &ospel,^' favored the inference of 

> good age." William RiiBbli, pastor at Wj-tj-kon, nu thrown laUt priaop in Angiut, 
1524, tbr denying Infknt baptism in his sermons (Filssli, ii. 64). 

" At this time the anicepUbiliCj' to fanaticism iras still flirtber increased bj- extern*] 
oppreision. This town had called Baltbasar Hnhmeyer to be iU pattur, agiiost the will 
of the Austrian govemment ; and when it proposed to eject him by force, the cidzens of 
Waldshut called upon the reformed Swiss to reader aid to the threatened Gospel, and 
several inhabitants of Zurich went thither in defiaDce of the prohibition of the Cooncil. 
BuUinger, i. !23; Uoller-HoUinger, rii. 10. Thus a nnmerons and sosceptible circle 
of disciples to Httnier's gospel of the free spirit was farmed in this place. Anabap^m 
was a ■econdary doctrine to Mdnier (see Bnlllnger, Note 4&), aod was first developed 
as a party sign in this circle. 

" There is a list of works on the subject la Strobel's Beytrage znr literatnr, ii. 48. 
Especially Petti Gnodalii Seditio repentina vulgi, praecipue Rusticornm anno 1625 ex- 
orta. Basil., 1580. S., also in SchardiiScriptLRer. Germ. ii. 1031. G. Sartorini, Qeich. 
dea Deutscben Banemkrieges. Berlin, 1796. 8. Materialien lur Gesch. des Banem- 
kriega, 3 Uefemngen. Chemnits, lTBI-94. F. F. Oecbsle, BeitrSge inr Gesch. das Bau- 
ernkrieges b den Schwsbisch-Frankischen Grenzlanden. Heilbronn, 1830. W. Wacha- 
mqth der DeolsclH Bauemkrieg, in his Daratellnngen aua der Gesch. des Refofmations- 
Zeitalters, Th. 1, Uef. I. Leipzig, 1834. 8. Das Breisgaif im Bauerakriege, in Schrei- 
ber's TaschcDbucb f. Geschichte u. Alterthum in SQddentscMand. Freiburg, 1839, a. 
233. Ranke's Deutsche Gesch. Im Zeitalter der Ref. ii. 182. 

*' Oeciisle, s. T4 ff. Wachsmuth's Aufstande ond Eriege der Banem im Hittelalter, 
in Ranmer's Hist. Tasclienbuch, Jabrg. 6. 1834, a. 281. Banke's Dentsche Gesch. im 
Zeitaller der Reform, i. 214. In the year 1476, in the district of WOnhurg ; in 1492, the 
peasants oftheAbbot of Kempten, and in the Netherlands j in 1493 in Alsace; after 160!, 
the Bondschuh, in the diocese of Spires; in 1513, the Anne Koni in Wirtcmberg; in 1614 
in the diooesB of Angsbnrg and in Carintbia ; in 1617 in the Windisehe Hark. 

" "The Reasonable and Just ArtJcles of the entire Peasantiy and subjects of tlie 
ecdeaiastical and secular lOTereigntles, by whom they think themselreB oppressed" (re- 
printed in Strobel's Beytrage, ii. 7 ; Oechsle, s. 246) : I. " First, it is our humble petition 
and desire, also our will and opinion, that for the future we ahoold have power and an- 
iborily; a whole conuounity should choose and appoints pastor. Also, that we sbosld 



evil-di^xised persons, who said that the whole insoneotion was 
the irait of the Befoimatioii ; although it had found the ferment- 
have power to deposs him if hs conduct bimaelf improperly. The pastor tlms chosen 
■hDuld preach na the Holy Gospel pure and plain, without taj addition, or doctrine, or 
ordinaueo of man. II. Secondly, aa the right tithe is appointed la the Old TeMamem, 
and fnUBed in the Heir, we are wiUing to pay a fitir tithe of com. Yet, u ia fitting, 
the Vfiai of God aajs plainly that, with a view to giving it to God, and dietribntit);; it 
to Hla people, it U required to be given to a paator. We will that for the fntare our 
CboTcb-provoet, whomsoever the eommtuiity may apptnnt, ahall gather and receive thia 
tithe ; from out of thia he shall give to a paator, provided be be elected by an entire 
community, a decent and anffictent maintenance ; the reaidne ahall be distributed to 
the poor, resident in the same place. With regard to any further iceidoe, it ihoold be 
kept In hand, in case any one should have to leave tlie conntry tnsm poverty, so that 
provision may be made ttaia tUa snperflolty that no land-tax may be laid apon the poor. 
Alio, in case one or more villages have sold ont their tithee, and have Ihoa put them- 
Mlve* in the portion of one entire village, there aboald be no inJuMice in conseqaence 1 
but we will that the inm should tie repaid in dne time with proper intenst But if a 
tithe owner haa not bought hit right ttoia the village itaelf, bat his torefathera have 
appropiiatedthetithe to themselves, the people will not, ODgfat not, and are not to make 
any further payment. Small tithe we will not pay at all, for Ood the Lord haa made 
cattle ftve for all men. III. Thb^y, hitherto It hai been the custom for men to hold 
uj as their own people, which is a pitiable caae, considering that Christ has delivered 
and redeemed us with bis preciotia blood shed tbr ds, the peasant as much as the prince. 
Accordin^y, it is consistent with Scripture that we ahonld be tne, and ifUb t« be so. 
Not that we wiah to be abaolutely free and under no *nthorit)> ; bnt we lake it for grant- 
ed that yon wlU either willingly release us from serE^, as true and real Chriatiani, or 
prove to DS thim the Gospel that we are serA. TV.. In the linirth place, It has been the 
custom hitherto that no poor nian shonld have power, or lie allowed to touch venison, 
wild fowl, or fish in Sowing water, which seems to as qolle anseemly and unbrolherly, 
but also selfish and not agreeable to the Word of God. In some places, also, the author- 
ilies will have us preserve the game to onr own annoyance and great loss ; the unrea- 
soning animals destroy tbr no pnrpeee our crops, which Ood suffers to grow fat the use 
of man, and we must remain quiet ; this ia neither godly nor neighborly. For when 
Ood created man he gave him dominion over all animals, over the fowl of the air and 
the fish in the water. Aecetdingly, it is our desire, if a man holds possession of waters, 
that he should prove, from satisfactory documenta, that his right has been unwittingly 
acqoired by purchase, we do not desire to take it from him by tarct ; bnt whosoever 
can not prodnee inch evidence shonld surrender his claim to the commnidty with a good 
grace. T. In the fifth place, we an aggrieved in the matter of wood-cutting. For onr 
nobles have apprt^riated all the woods to themaelves alone ; and if the poor man re- 
quires wood, he must buy it far two [neces of money. It is our opinion with regard to a 
wood which has fallen into the lianda of lords spiritual or temporal not by purchase, 
that it shonld be reaasigned to an entire community, and slionld be free in seemly wise 
to the whole communis, that every man shonld be allowed to take to his house what 
he requires for Ore-wood. Also, if a man require wood for carpenter's purposes, he shonld 
have it, but with the consent of a person appointed by the community ftor the purpose. 
TI. In the sixth, a mitigation of feudal services. Til. In the eerenth, of other services. 
TIIL Lowering of rent* was demanded. IX. " In the ninth place, we an annoyed with 
a great evil in the constant making of new laws, so that we are not punished according 
to the ease, bnt sometimes from great Ul-will, eometimes from good-wUl. It is onr 
oidnion that we shonld be dealt with according to tlie old written law, with reference 
to the case, and Dot by hvor. X In the tenth place, we are aggrieved by the appropri- 
ation of meadows, and likewise of com land, which at one tlnM belonged to a comigu- 
nity; these we will take again Into onr own hands, except It be that the land baa 


11 (J FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-16*8. 

ation already at weak, and only influeoced ita external character. 
Luther, to whom the peasants appealed, recognized, in his exhort- 
ation to peace, the justice of many of their complaints, that he 
might impress upon them more vividly the injustice of rebellion." 

been riglitfiillf pnrchued. XI. In tha eleT«tith plM«, we will enUnly Bbcdiih the eoft- 
tom called Tedfati (riglit of heriot), neTer again ttidiire it, nor kIIow that widow* and 
orpbaDB thould be thiu Bbamefnlly robbed, againat God's will, jnalice, and ligbt, aa faas 
been done in manj placea, and b; peraoni who aboold shield and protect tbem ; they 
lisva disgraced and deapoUed na, and if thtj have bad but little antboritf to do so, ibey 
haTB asBumed it ; God will auffer this no more, bnt it ahall be quite done away wilb, 
and for the future no man Bhall be tiound to give eitfaer little or mncb. Conebahn : 
ia the twelfth place, it is our eoualuaion and final reaolDliim, that if one or more of tbe 
articles here let forth ia not in sgreemsnt with the Word of God, we will recede tfaere- 
from, if it be nude plain to us on Scriplonl graonds. Oi if an article ba now conceded 
to us, and hereaft«r it be diaco*ered to be nnjust, from that hour it ahall be dead and 
onll, and have no more force. likewise, if more articles of complaint be trul; diacover- 
ed from Scripture, we will also reserve the right of reaolTingupiRi theae." ChHatepher 
Schappeller, pastor of Mammingea, was long considered the aathor of these articles ; 
see, on ihe other hand, Scbelhorn'a ReformatioDsgesch. der Stadt Memmingen, s. 80: 
it was probably John Beuglin, matin-priest in one of the Tillagea dependent on Ibe im- 
perial town of UeberUngen ; aee Stnibel'i Beytrige, ii. 76. Besides tbeee, particular 
districts alleged their own grievances ; aee Oechsle, s. 355, S5S, 494. In Hellbronn the 
very dregs of the peasant!; concerted an aniline of a new coDBtitalion for the German 
unsure COechala, s. 163, 283), in which the so-called Reformation of Frederick UL (see 
vol. iii. p. 349, g 139, Note 14) was taken for the gronud-work. 

>* Lntlier'B exhortatioa to peace on the Twelve Articles of the Paasauta of Swabia. 
Hay, 15S5 (Walcb, xv. 56). E. g„ To Ht Prtneet ami Lonlt .- " In the first place, we 
have no one on earth to thank for ihia nnadnsed rebellion but yon, ye nobles and gen- 
tlemen, especially you ye blind biahopa, mad prieats and monks, who harden yonrselvea 
to this very day, and never cease raging and alorming against the Holy Gospel, thongfa 
ye know U ia right, and can not gainsay it. Besides, in tlie exercise of yonr secular 
power ye do nothing else but tax and assess, to support year pomp and pride, till the 
poor man neither can nor may any longer bear it. Well, then, as ye are the canse of 
such wrath from God, undoubtedly it will come upon yon also, unless ye mend your- 
selves in time. For this ye should know, dear sirs, God hath so made things that man 
neither can nor will long endure ^is nudneas of yoora. Te must cluinge and yield to 
God's Word. If }-e will not do thia in a friendly and willing manner, ye will have to do 
it in a compnlsory and destructive manner. If Uhh peasants don't carry this out, oth- 
ers moBl — But to the end that ye may sin more, and be ahipTrreoked without mercy, cer- 
tain persona go about to lay tha blame on the Gospel, Baying that this is the frnit of my 
taacbing. Well, well, revile as ye will, dear maalan, ye wiah not to luiow what I have 
taught, and what is the Gospel. But there is One at the door who will teach you ri^t 
soon, unless ye mend your ways. Ye and all men moat Inar me witness that I have 
taught with all qnietnees, striven with all leal against rebellion, restrained and exhort- 
ed your subjects with all diligence to render obedience and honor due, even to yonr 
tyrannical and Insane dominion ; so that thia rebellion can not liave Issued fh>m me. 
Bnt (be propheta of murder, wbo are as much enemies to me as to you, are come upon 
this people, and have gone in and out among them for more than three yean, and no 
one baa checked and resisted them to much aa I alone. So God means now to pimisb 
you, and lets Che devil ronse this mad people against you by bis tUse pmphets, perhaps 
He wiila that I Blioold no more have power to widistand. What can I or my Gospel 
do, which to this day has not only borne your persecutions, murders, and ravings, but 
ba* always prayed for you, and helped to protect and administer yonr dominion among 



His appeal was in vain. The sappression, however, of tlie iosnr- 

tbe common people 7 One may ;«t eoaiuel yon, dear mutan, tlut for GodV uke ye 
will yield a little to this indigiutioD. — Coiuider well beforebuid, far ye know not what 
God will do, leat > apark go rorth and kindle thronghont Germaiiy a Are which no nua 
can pat onL^They have aet forth twelve articlei.among which are aoroe so remarkable 
and jost that, before God and the world, they claim ;-onr concewion, and verify Pulm 
CTii. Ter.40. they poar contempt upon priaces.^rofAepuuanfrjf.' Hitherto, dearWendB, 
ye have atated nothing more than what I confeai, alas ! to be all too trne and certain, 
that the princes and gentry, by forbidding to preach the Guapel, and by oppressing the 
people BO intolerably, have tight well deserred that God should cast them dowa from 
(heir throne. — NevartheleiB, ye must eoasider well, that ye lake yoarcauM in band with 
agoodconscienceand with jostles.— Firstly, dear brethren, }-b take the name of God In 
your months, and call yourselTei a Christian league or assodalian, and set forth that ye 
will act and proceed accordinK to diirine righL — But, In the second place, it ia easy to 
prore that ye are persons who take the name of God in vain and profane it. For here 
BtandsGod'aword, spoken by the mouth of Christ, Uatt.xxvi.S2: ' They that take the 
sword shall perish by the sword.' Thla means nothing else than that no one ^all resist 
authority at hl> own will ; bat aa Faul saya. Bom. xiiL 1, ' Let every soul be snbject tn 
the higher powers' (with fear and reverence). — In the third place. Yea, say ye, the high- 
er powers are too wicked and Insufferatile ; for they will not allow ui tlie Gospel, and 
oppnss oa with all bittemeas in our temporal coacems, and so destroy as body and mhiL 
I answer, the fact that the government is wicked and unjnst is do eKcnae tor faction and 
rebellion. For to punish wickedness belongs not to everj' man, bnttothe secnlor power, 
wMcb canicB the sword, as Panl saya. Bom. nil. 4, and I^ler, 1st Eplst. li. U, that It 
is ordained of God for the punishment of eril'.doen. Bo, loo, the natural and universal 
law lays down that no man shall be Us own Judge. — With this divine law agnea, and 
Uosea aaya. Dent, xxxii. 3S (Bom. zli. 19), ' Vengeanoe is mine, I will repay, aallh the 
I^ird.' True, the government does wrong in thwarting the Goepel, and oppreaalng yon 
in your earthly poaaessioos. Bat ye do much more wrong. In that ye not only hinder 
the Word of God, but trample it under fiiot, and seize npon His Mithorlty and rigfata, 
and set up yonnelvea above God. From Him the government derives its power and 
aalhotity, yea, aU that it has Hence there ia an eaay answer to all your arttclea. Al- 
though they might be all naturally just and eqidtable, still ye hare forgotten Christian 
justice, in that ye have not carried and won them before God in patience and prayer ; 
but have undertaken, arbitrarily and impatiently, to put force npon the government and 
extort them by violence i which ia contrary to the laws of yonr countiy and to natoral 
Jostioe. Also, it is not a tme profession of yonrs, that ye teach and live according ta 
the GospeL No ons of your articles teachea any part of die Gospel ; all aim at the pres- 
ervation of yoor persona and property. — Exkortation addnutd U> botit Aa Cmentme»t and 
lit PetuaMrj: Since, then, dear sirs, there is notlung of Christianity on sitber aide, 
and no Chriatian question Ci at Isane between yoo, but both aides, peers and peasanta, 
have to do with qnestioiu of bealheoish or secular rt^t and wrong, and with earthly 
possesions, and moreover ye have sinned agaluit God on both aides, and lie under Hii 
wrath, as ye have heard ; so listen, for God's sake, to words of counsel, and dedde the 
question with right and not with might, nor with flgfating, to the end that ye may not 
bring endless bloodshed upon German lands. — llierefore, it Is my Uthfnl advice that 
certain counts and gentlemen be choacn tmn among the nobles, and certain councilors 
(turn the towns, that the question may be discoased and settled in friendly wise i that 
ye nobles abate something of yoor atnbbom pride, which ye will have to concede at 
length, whether ye will or noj and relax a little of yoor tynnny and oppreasion, that 
the poor man also may have air and space to breathe In. Again, ye peasants, be ye 
also instmcted, eorrender and give up certain articles which ask too much and reach too 
hi0 ; in order that this question, if it oan not be proceeded with on Christian gnnuda, 
may thus, at any rate, be settled In accordance with human joatlce and politr." 


IjJ fOCSTH tTSlOD^-mv. L— A.D. l3i:-l«4S. 

rectioti, which he hiioaelf ocnr demanded," was in a diort time 
accomplidied, bat for the most part with fri^itfiil cmetty. This 
agitation extended into Sw i tzeriand also : in the dominions of Zu- 
rich, Basle, and Schafhansen, peasants came before their ralers 
with importanate donands, hnt they were soon redoced to sub- 
minion by roeaanres of forbeaiance." 

In this great incnrrection of the peasants no traces of Anabap- 
tist &naticism were seen, altboogh Utinzer had some part in its 
commencement" Bnt the Anabaptists in seTeral places were 
thereby eocoaraged to adopt violent roeasores in order to carry 
oat their fanatical plans. Early in 1525 Thomas Hiinzer made 
his a|^>earanoe again in Thnringia, where, snj^rted by bis for- 
mer allies," he usurped aathori^ at Htihlhaosea in the character 
of a prophet, to bring about a com[dete reformation of Church and 
State, and endeavored to spread his authority in the vioioity by 
desolation and pillage." Bat the revolt was once more subdaed 

" Latber'i work igiinit tbe Bobbiog and Hardering Peusntiy, in Wilch, zvi. 91 : 
" Tba peiuDM luTe btearrMl Um goilt of dreadful tin, In three irsj-i, against God and 
man, for wblcb tbey baTs dcMTred death m bodj and hkiI num;* timeg otbt. Firat, 
Uuy hara twom trutli and fealty to tbeir goTemineiit, bnt have trantODly broken theii 
allegiance. Second, thtj ba*e commenced a rebellioa, and rob and plnnder religioiu 
hooiKt and caatlea whidi are not theii own. Thiidlj, the}- cloak meh bideons and 
dreadfal aim aa ttaeaa witb tlie GoapeL So now the goremnwDt sboald pieaa onwatd 
conrageotulj, and wage thi* war with a good conacience, while a pnlie beats in their 
relna.— Therefora, dear maatera, come hillier to deliver, hither to the leacue, have pitr 
on the poor folk, ttab, imite, throttle who can. If yon periah in the work— well ii it 
foryoit, amora bleaaed death jou will nerer have hereafter." Aa thli violent esny waa 
considered bj many aa unehriatian and too aerere, Ijither defended it in an official lel- 
tar to Ca«p. Holler, Chancellor of Hana&eld. in Walch, iri. 99. 

** Anihelm, vi. SOS. Ballinger, i. S65. Holler-HotUnger, tU. 14 tt. 

*'' Uannr'a ConfeHlon, In Walch, xvi. 155 ; " la the Qegan and Began near Baale, 
fae bad >et forth from the Scriptar^ certUn article* upon government, and aAerward 
deduced farther articles from them ; they would gladly have had him on their aide, bnt 
he declined their aStr, Ho had stirred np do Insurrection a, for they had been alreadjr 
arooaed. Oecolsmpadina and Hngefeldns had appointed ■ place to preach to the people, 
so he had preached ; that where there were nnbdleving govemors, tha people also were 
unbellevera ; which might be pleaded in jnstiflcatlon." 

** Aa early aa the 14(h Aag., 1GS4, Lather warned the conncil and commnnity of 
Uahlhanien agalnit HQnier (de Wette, II. 686). 

" Uelanctbon'a Historie Thomae Honiera, b. Walch, xvl. 30* ff. Strobel's Leben 
UOnaers, s. 71 ff. HQnaer said, on his trial by tortnni (see his Confestlon, in Walch. 
ktI. ISi): " Ha had stirred op this rebellion in orderthat Christendom might be brought 
to an eqnsUty, aod that the princes and gentry, who woald not stand by the Gospel, 
and Join their leagae, when Invilad to da so fhitemally, ahoald be banished and put to 
danlh.-'Their article was, omnia almnl commnnla, 1. e., all things ahonld be common, 
and djstrlbullon ahonld be mads to every man according to hia need aa apportnnity 
aarved. And vhataoevar doke, connt, or lord would not do this, after being summoned 
to do 10, hii head should be cut alT, or be ahonld be hnng." Compare UOnaer'a letter 



at the battle of Frankenhaosen, 15tli May, 1535, and liere also 
was followed by a orael revaoge. 

At the same tinie, Miinzer's residence at Waldshut bore griev- 
oos fruit for the Swiss nation. Anabaptism developed itself with 
manifold evils first in &e territory of Zuriot,™ afterward it espe- 

to tba minin of Uaoifeld (In Wildi, xri. 150) : E. g., " Let not yoaz swotd cool in 
blood ; fitrgB Pinkepuik od tba tayU of Nimrod (1. «,, thi wicked nobleg) ; cut bit 
tower to the graiind ; it li not pocaible, >o long u they live, thit yt ahoold lie free froni 
the fgar of man. The Word of God can not be ipoken to jon whili the7 rule over ym. 
Ont onl on J while je have the day, God goea befora j-on, follow," etc. He alwaTi 
■Igned hia name T^omat MBnUer millt Mi twonl 0/ Gidton. 

** Tbs hot-headed party Snt betook tbemielvea eecretlj to Zwia^a and Leo Jndae 
(■M Zwingle'l Anaaage vor den Kachglngeni, d. i. Cntennchongarichleni, In FOaall, I. 
328. And hia account In the vrark Vom Tonf, vom Wiedertonf d. vom Klndertoof, 
Works, il. I. !S1, and In the Qenchaa contra Catabaptiataa, 0pp. ilL 362). It waa Si- 
mon Stnmpf, Qrebel, and Felix Hani who Invited them " to conatitnta a pecnllar Cburcb, 
in which ahoDld be a Chriitiaa people, living with all innocence, cleaving cloee to the 
Gospel, bnrdened neither with taxea, nor oanry, nor any thing of the kind." On thti 
occajdon theae expretaiona w«re oaed: "It were nothing unless the priests were potto 
death; Cliriatians were neither bound to paj- taxes nortitheaj all things most be com- 
mon ; there neither conld nor ahoold be any aueh penans in the Chnrch except tboae 
who knew tbat they were without sin." When they were foiled in this attempt, tbey 
first began to impogn infimt baptism j Zwin^Il Elenehns, p. 363. On this point thty 
had several conferences with Zwingle ; tJicy appeared to yield, bnt soon after actually 
commenced rebaptizing : Zwin^ias, I. c, states this fa^ with the remark, niliil per om- 
nem de iufkntinm baptismo pngnam de catabapUsmo propoaoiue ; videri bone catabap- 
tiamnm aoditiosomm hominnDi oho relnti tesseram. At Snt, then, the qneation wai 
only as to the fact whether ioiaiit lupUsm was agreeable to the command i^Chriil, not 
whether it was valid when once performed. Baltbasar Hubmeyer's letter to Gecolam- 
padins of Jan., 1625, designates tbii as the position of the question (Epistolae Oecolam- 
padii et Zwinglli, at the beginning of lib. li.). Rubmeyer thus states bis way of pro- 
ceeding at this time in Waldshnt : Loco baptismatis ego cnro cenvenire Eccleeiam, in- 
ducena infantolum, ac lingua vernacnla inteipretor Evangeiinm ; OUati not parvali 
MaUM. xlx. Subinde imposlto nomine orat tola Ecclesia flexis geoibiu pro parmlo. — 
Si vero sunt parentea adhnc indrmi, qni volnat omnibus nervis baptiiarl prolem ; banc 
baptiio. In opere iuArmus sum com infirmiuscnlis ad tempus, dum erudlantnr melius, 
sed in verbo non cede illis in minimo apicolo. Afterward those fanatics at Zurich, more 
then ever exasperated by their conferences with Zwingli, proceeded to entire denial of 
inlant baptiam, and so to rebaptialng, Zwingti Von d. Prcdigtamt, Works, il. i. SOG: 
" They Ont came from Zorich." The first men who allowed himself to be baptized by 
Utebel In Zurich waa George Blsnrock (Fussli, li- S38); afterward many personi were 
baptised by Blanrock and Mom in Zollikon, where John BrOdIi was ndnlster (ibid. a. 
166), and now the bnaticiim of the party broke Ont openly. Zwinglii Elenchus (Opp. 
iL S64) ; Hagnia examinibus In ortiem advolant, posits lana, salice aut resle cincti, in 
foro atque tiiviis, ut ipsi jactabant, prophctantes. De antlqno drscone, quem ma vole- 
bant, deque e]ua eajdtibua, qalbus reliquoa verbi symmystaa, onmia implebant. Juslt 
tlam atqae innocentiam omnibua conunendabant, ab eis pemgre niminun profbctnri ; 
conunnuia se habere jam omnia et gloiiabantar, et aliis, nl idem tecerint, oltima com- 
mlnabantur. Per plateaa Vat, Vat, poitentoea, Vaa Tigurol clamabant Quidam Jo- 
nam imitati adhuc quadraginta dlerum induciaa nrbi dabant. In Lent, t52G, BrAdJi 
and William fiSnbli being driten from ZoUikon, betook themselvei to Schafhauaenj 
the latter afterward want to Waldshnt (see BrOdli's letter, in Fjlssli, i. SIT f.) : here be 
bepn to rebaptlu, and canted with him Hnbmeyar, who wu Mill wavMi&g, ao that be 


120 FODBTH PEKIOD.— DIT. L— A.D. 1617-16*8. 

cially attacked St. G-all,^' but it also slTeoted otiier oantoos. Tha 
anthorities proceeded at firat with great leniency. An attempt 
was made to reclaim the erring by writings,"^ and several relig- 
ions conferences.^' As, however, civil order oontinued to be threat- 
ened,^* they passed from mild to severe measures, and at length 

ne baptized bimsalf, and on £aator'dAf baptized ibont SOO men (Hubmej^r'a Aiuuge, 
in FCiBBli, Ui. 241). At tbe end of March, 1625, Grebel came ta St. Gall, and hera hod 
found numeroas duclplee (AltB Befonnationsgeach. t. St. Galleu, in Slmmler. i. 129). 

•' See Alt. Ref. geecb. v. St. Gallen, in Simler, ibid. Tbeir ezceiies (see i. 141 ff., 
BuUinger, i. 323) at length proceeded ao far that Thomas Scbugger stmclc off tbe head 
of his brother Leonard, as by the command of Uod ; see J. F. Franz, Die ichwarmer- 
iicben Grioelacenen der St. Galler Wiedertftufer. Ebnat im ToggenbnrKi 1S24. 8. 

** Zitingle espedsll}' dedicated hij work Vom Touf, vom Wiedertoii(| and vom Kin- 
dertoof, of the 2;th May, 1SS5, to the commtinit)- of St. Gall (Worka, it i. 280). Hnb- 
meyer wrote in auawer Von dem christl. Tanf der Gt&ubigen. Tben followed: Ueber 
Doctor Baltliaiar'a ToutbDclilin walirlufle grQndte Antwnrt dnich Huldi. Zwinglin, in 
Nov., 1526 (Werke, ii. i. 837), 

" At Zurich, an the 17th Jan., ZniDgl. >d Tadianam, dd. 19. Jan. (0pp. vii. BBS; 
Bollinger, i. 238), on the 20th March (BulUnger, i. 239), on the 6th to the Btb Kor., 
1G2S (Bollinger, 1. 294 ; Muller.Hottinger, vii. 34 ; Zwingle'a Worki, ii. 1. 840). At 
Bule on Wbit-Mondaf, 1S2& (Simler, i. 492). 

<* On the doctrinal viewa of the Anabaptiita, see Bollinger, in Ttkadl, t. 131. Zwin- 
glii in CaUU>aptiatuiltD Strophaa Elenchua, 1527 (0pp. ilL 857). "The Auabaptiata 
maintain that thej are the oolf troa Cbnidi, wetl-pleaaing to God and tile communis 
of Christ, and teach that the; who ace receiTed by rebapUsm into tfaelr commnnitjr 
ebonld bare no commonion with the Evangelical or an; other Chnreb. In the so-called 
Evangelical ChBrch something of the Qoapel la preached, bat do one menda therein, 
and all the people ate impenitent, and held faat in un and vice. So the dellciency is 
not only in the lay folk, hot also in tlie Chureh officers, both as regards tbur person 
and their office. As regards their penons, becansa they have not been ri^tlj and 
duly called to tbeii office ; because thej have not those qoalities which Paul reqnires 
in a bishop, 1 Tim. iii. i further, becaose they do not teach others ; lastly, becanse tliey 
receive stipends and benefices and do no work tor them, and so are beily.preacbers. 
Also, there is a great deficiency as regards ttaeit office, in the matter of doctrine and ad- 
ministratioa of tbe sacraments. In nutter of doctrine, becaoae It depends upon the 
preaching of one i whereas Paul says, that if a revelation be made to one who is sitting 
b]', the first speaker shall hold his peace, and eaStr the otfaer who sits by to speak. 
The preachers do not stajid by the Word of God alone, but fix ■ meaning on Scripture, 
whereas Scripture may not be explained by any private interpretation. The serraona 
or tbe preachers are much too restricted ; for they teach Christ hath ma4e satistkctlaa 
for sin, and man is justified before God byfUth and not by works, whereas In this wick- 
ed world man sbonld practice nothing more than good works. Thns, also, the preach- 
ers teach, that it is not poaaible for man to keep the law, whereaa the whole of Seriptare 
commands ns to keep the law. The charity according to which alt posseaaions should 
be held in common is not ri^tly tangbt by the preachers, inasmuch as they "'»'"'»'" 
that a Christian man may have property and be rich, whereas chari^ has all thinga in 
common with the brethren. Also, the preachara intermingle the Old and New Teata- 
ments, whereas the Old Testament is done away, and is no more binding on Christiaiis. 
— It is not tme, aa tbe preachers say, that souls, after the death of the body, go atrai^t 
to heaven, (tor they sleep till the last day (Zwinglins,L c. p.4S8i Cotabaptistae dooent 
mortuos dormire et corpore et animis usqne in diem jndicii, propterea qnod dormiecdi 
verbo ignoraot Hebraeoa pro morieodl verba nti). Ilie preachers yield too much to the 
governing powers, of which Christian i have no need, as they only entail snaWiig. A 



to capital ponishmuit." Thus the pablio distnibanoes weTe soon 
ChrialUn may not be ■ rnler. TliB gtrrgnnnsnt ahoald Dot, and must not, interiim with 
nli^on and matten of &ith. Chrittiani resut no poiTer, accordin^f thej reqoire do 
tribnnal. A Chrbtiaii mdie* use of no court Chrutitmi put no man to deatb. Their 
punishment is not with ImpriAonmeat and the sword, but otAj by eicliuion. No ono 
should be compellad tA believe by any tone or conatraint, nor any one put to death 
Tor the faitb. ChriBtians defend not themielTes, bo they wage no vara, and do not obey 
the goreniiqent in this point. The CbristlaD's conversation is Yea, yea, and Nay, nay; 
oaths are uofnl and nnJosL Moreorer, the offica of the prea«ben Is deficient in tbe 
administtation of the Sacraments ; for tltey baptlie inbnts, *iiereas inbnt-baptlim is 
of the Pope and the devil. AnabaptUm, on the contrary, is the only true Ctirlstian 
baptism, as being administered to persons irho make confiMnoD, repent, and to such 
as are Instmcled and capable of understanding. The preachers make no distinction, 
sod do not keep sinners away ^m the Lord's Supper, and employ no ezcommanlcadou" 
0B Zsrlngl. I. c. p. 690: EscommuDicsri debent omnes, qui, poatesqoam — In nnum 
Christl corpus baptiiatj snnt, — cadnnt In peccatam — Debent ergo Imjuamodi admoneri 
bis in occalto ; tertio pablice pro eccleda debent corrigi jtula praeceptam DominL Hoc 
autam Oeri debet jozta ordinatlonem— divinl spiritus ante ftactionem panls, nt omnes 
nnanimiler — unum panem fnmgere atque edere possimns, at de nno eaiice bibere). — 
Tbey natoralty disowned tlie naiue of Anabaptlets, as they dedsred Inbnt-baptism in- 
valid ; tliey nither called thii Anti-baptism (FOssli, iii. 229). But tbey wished to re- 
stote tin iacrainanti in gvneral to their original institation ; seethe Confession of George 
Blauroek (Fossli, L KM) : " 1 am the introducer of BapUsm and tbe Lord's Supper, to- 
gether with my elect bretliren in Christ, Conrad Grebel and Felix Hani. Accordin^y, 
the Pope, withUi faction, is a thief and murderer; in like manner Luther, with his fso. 
tioD, is a thief and mntderer; Zwing^e, also, and Leo Judae, with their fsction, are 
thieves and mnrderers." With regard to the elements of the Lord's Supper, they held 
the ZwingUan ofdnion (sea Balthasar Habmeya- ad Oecolampad. in Jo. Oecol. et Hold, 
Zwin^ii EpistoU. lib. li. iolt. ; Jac Eanta, in FUssIL, v. 1£D}. But they otlen celebiated 
it in UUb own booses, imitating more exactly the Sapper as it was instituted (FQsall, J. 
267, ii. tSi IT.). But theii doctrine ot the Spirit was of principal importance ; ZwingL 
1. c. p. 43fi: nhi nbi Inbet, scriptntam negant et B[aritum snum JactanL Qans Denk 
had collected soDn soppoaed contradictions in Holy Writ, which conld only be recon- 
ciled by tbe Holy Gliost (in Fasslt, v. 189} : so much tbe more extraordinary was tbs 
litanlinterpretstionwhiehtbeyputopon some passages otScriptnrei those, Ibr Instance, 
on oaths, the sleep of death, cto. Tfaa belief in a Snal restoration was also widely spresd 
among them; ZwingL 1. c. p. 136: tam Dannonem qnam Iminos omnes lieari: this 
Hans Denk Ungbt at St. Gall (Slmler, L 139). Tbe insane doctrines of the Anabaptists 
of St. Gall were censured even by Orebel and Ham ; see Franz, Schwftrmur. Graoelsoo- 
nen, s. 8S. Many of tbeir doctrines bring vividly to mind tbose of the sect of tbe TctD 
Sflrit, e. g., that God works all in tlie regenerate, that they have no occasion to pray 
(Smkr, L U3; compare vol. iii. p. 174, N. S). FOaslt (Kirchen n. Kelaarhistorie der 
mlltlam Zeit, ilL 365) regards tlie Anabaptista in general as a continoation and revival 
of the sects ^ tbe Middle Ages: he Is hardly right In so general a concloslDn. The first 
impolse was probably received tlvm Bohemia; the bnatics of Zwickau were a revival 
of the Tsboiitas. Tlie manifold erroneous doctrines were tbe natural remit of the doc- 
trlna of the Inner light, behind which the Inst of the fiesb sooai concealed itself. Soma 
few of tbe earlier aacta may have become connectad with them, but only SBcb as would 
coalesce with the new system. 

" Immediately aflar the Snt confbrenca (see Kate CS), In Jannary, IGSC, a decree of 
the Council was Usued at ZOrioli, that aU persons shonld have tbeir children baptised 
or leave the canton CFOsali, i. 189). Soon afterward the principal authors of distnrbance 
«tn thrown Into prison C'bid. s. SOS anm.) ; thq: soooMded in bieaklng ont of their 
prison, and now announced that, like the Apostles, they had been set f^ by an sngel 
(FOasli, i. U», Anm., UL 35Z). In Hands, 1636, an order was passed at Zfiiich that aU 


122 FOtlKTH PER10D.-DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-16*8. 

suppressed : nevertheless, the Anabaptists from this time forth 
maintained themselves in concealment, spread in all directions, 
and endeavored with great zeal to make secret proselytes. An- 
abaptism was every where punished with death ;*• but its victims 
bequeathed to the &itliful an encouraging history of martyrdom,'^' 
rather than an intimidating example. 

All these events were eagerly seized upon by the enemies of the 
Reformation as so many proofs of the fact that it taught men to 
reject all authority, and thus incited to disobedience and rebellion 
against the temporal as well as the spiritual powers, while it de- 
prived faith of all sure guidance, and led to endless dissensions 
and all sorts of fanaticism.^ 

p«naiu wbo prscUced ADabsptUm ihonld M drowned (FOsall, i. 270, Anm.). The other 
■Utae bI>o vhicb wars ioclined to the Befonnitioa followed this example. Abachied 
dsr Stidte Zurich, Bern, a. St. Gillen, Sept., 1BS7, ip Simler, i. 449. Felix Mem wii 
droiraed at ZOricb in 1637 ; George BUuroek whipped out of the coantry (BulliDger, 
1. B8I ; Fu«tli, IT. 259, 2B6) ; Habmeyer wm bomed to de*tb >t Vienna in 1629 (Scbel- 
bom Acta Hiatorico-Ecclesiaatlea, Ulm, 1738, p. 150. H. Scbreiher'a Tucbenboch far 
Geschichte n. Altenbnm in Saddenticbluid. Freibsr^ im Breiggan, 18S9, >. 1). 

** The ordinsncea of tha Gemmn ampire ; Ibo first pMud by the Ket of Spina, in 
April, 1629, in Poebiner Jas Ecclas. Pnrteatantiaai, it. 1109 u. 

" Theaa were adorned with miracles, described and published, e. g., the Roconnt of 
the execution of certain Anabaptists at Ratbenbnrg, on the Neekar, in 1627 { Id FOaali, 
ii. 874. Compare Teeaenmerer, in Vater's KJrcbeatust. Archiv. 183G, k. 468. 

" Erasmi Hyperospiates, lib. i. (0pp. x. 1266): Habemna fhictnm tni apiritna, rei 
Utqoe ad cmentam atragem progrtaaa eat, et metuimns atrodoro, nJ Dens propiliatua 

aTBrterit Non ognoada bosce eedidoaos, opinor, aed illl te agnoacont, et jam compar- 

tumeat, mnltce, qui se jactabant Evaagelii nomine, faiaae aeditionia cmdelisalinae in- 
stigatorea. Quonun conatna al BOGcesaiaset, fortaaaia extitisaent qui probarent, qnod 
nunc ra mole gesta detestaDtnr. Tu quidem libello bi agrlcolaa aaeviaaima snspdonem 
■bs te depulisti, nee tamen efficia, quo minus eredant homlDes, per ttioe libelloa, prae- 
sertim geroianice acriptoa, in oleatos et rtsoi, in Monacboa, in Eplacopoa, pro libertate 
eTBD^lIca contra tj-ronnidem hnmanan, hlsce tamuUlbua fuiase datam occa^onem. 
Nondnm tam mole da te aentio, Lulbere, nt exiatimem, te hue deatlnaase tua concilia. 
Bed tamen Jam pridem com banc fabnlam ordireris, e calami bii violentia cepi Gaqjec- 
tnram, rem hoc exituram. CochUena ad ann. 1628, fol. 64 b. Nulla unqnam factio 
ftalt ila sedltiosB, peatilens, neforia, quae aic retlgionem omnem tollere, leges omnea 
obmere, mores omoes iHinos comunpere, reepnblicas omnea evertere macbinata sit, ut 
nimc ista conjuratio Lntberana, qnae et aoen omnia profanat, et profana contaminat. 
Qnae tta ChrisCnm praedicat, nt ejus Sacramenta coBcnlcet ; ita Dei buccioat gratiam, 
utarbitrli libartalem deatruat; ita fidam extolUt, ut operibiu bonis datrahat, et Invehat 
peccandl llcantlam ; ita mlaerioorduun aublerat, nt Justitiam deprimat; et malomm 
omnium caniamJneTitahUem non in Denm aliqoem malum, quod Hanichael eallcm 
commenU aunt, aed in nnicum illnni rere bonnm rejiciat. Qui cnm ad hunc modum 
Impie diTina tractarit,ve]nt acoelo dejectna serpena, Tinu fl{l\uiditla terras, [n Ecclesia 
conimoTet dissansionem, legea omnea abrogat, Hagiitratoa omne* enerrat, lalcos in sa- 
cerdotea concitat, ntrosque odTersns PonUflcem, popnloa adversua Priocipes : nee aliud 
plane molltur, qnam nt (quod omen aTertant Super!) Germaniae prlmnm popnlns tan- 
qnom pro Ubertata bellam jndlcat Prooeribns, deinde ut Cbriatiani contra Chriatianos, 
tpeclontlbaa «t irrideatitnu Christi hoatibDi, pro Chrlatl fide ac mllglone depugnenL 




The opponenis of the ReformatioD, stimulated hy these disturb- 
ances, of which we have given a narratioa, were disposed to threat- 
en its yiolent suppressioD ; and the oiroumstanoes of the times 
seemed to favor this intention. The Emperor, at the battle of 
Pavia, Febr. 24, 1525, had made a prisoner of his violent oppo> 
nent, Fiaacis I. ; every tiling indicated that he wonld now. tnm 
his power against the Reformation.' In the Peace of Madrid, 
14th Jan., 1526, both princes expressly avowed this pnrpose.^ 
Several powerful Q-erman princes were also ready to act in con- 
cert with them, and had already held consultations in Dessau, 
July, 1525, with this object in view.' 

Thai Dakc George, in a lettot U> the landgniTe Philip, throw* the irhole blame ot ths 
Peasuita' Inanrrection upon the preacherg sloae, "who hftve preached the lAtheno 
Gospel so loud and clear, Chat no one conlil help pereeiviog it miut bear lacb fhilt M ia 
DOW befare our eyn" (fee Rommel'i Philip der QroumatUge, it 88). Philip replied to 
thii charge In 1528 (ibid. i. 85) ; " Yonr highneig write) tbat the rebellion hai risen 
from LatherauLim ; with tliia T can not agtee \ there ia no occuion to prove, as every 
oue knowa well, where the rebellian arose. Thus, I have pnniehed no Lntheran witji 
the sword, but wicked, rebellious persont, who do not hold Lather's doctrine. This ia 
shown by hii manifohl works. The Qoapel, which most now be called t-ather's doc- 
trine, teacbea no rebellion to the peaaanta, but peace and obedience to all men. Ac- 
cording!]-, among those people and in those regions which adhere to the Gospel called 
Lutheran, there is less Tobellion, in some places none at all, than In tbosa which peise- 
cnte the Gospel." This defense is valid even in relation to the p^lezities of onr own 

■ The Emperor commissioned the Bishop of Strssbnrg for saathern CtermaDj, Duke 
HeniT ofBruaawick for northern Germany, to open the mattar to the zealoos Catholic 
estates j see the InMraction, dated Seville, 33d March, 1526, hi Bommel'a Philipp d. 
GroMmBthige, iiL 13, In Neudecker's Urkunden, s. 10 ; cf. Seckendorf, u. 44. He in- 
tends to retom from Spain, throngh Rome, Ut German]', so that " we may root ont and 
•stirpata snch unchristian, evil, licentious doctrines and errors, and restore and estab- 
llib the Holj Empire in nnitjr." Compare Ma Letter to hla brother Ferdliund, 36th 
March, t6!fi, in Ton Bncbolti's Gesch. der Begterang Ferdinand L, it 369. 

■ J. Dmaont (^rpt Utaverut Diphnali^ue du DrmI dti Gau, iv. I. 39S. In the intro- 
duction Iho object of the peace is given thus : pour pouvolr convertir les amies com- 
tonnes do tons Roys, Princes et Polenlats Chrestiens i la repulsion et mine desdits mes- 
creants infldeles, et extirpation des ernurs da la Secte Lutherienne, et des autres Sectei 
leprouvees. Thej agree. No. xxvl. p. 405, that they will entreat the Pope to call a 
general congress of all princes, pour dresser tons les ma;eas convenables pour les^la 
Turcs et Infldeles qne centre lesdits Heretiques alienei du greme de la saincte Eglise. 
Baumer's Oeach. Europa's seit dem Ende des funfiehntea Jahrb. 1. 810 ff. 

- ' George of Barony, Erich and Henry of Bnmawick, Joachim of Brandenburg, Albert 
of Hayence ; Stektudmf, ii. 43 ; Luther to J. Brljraann, 16tli Aug., 1525 (in de Wette, 
111.32); Bomniel, t. 1ST ; il. 9S. 


124 FOURTH PEEIOD.— DIT. I^A.D. Ifil7-16«. 

, The progress of the Reformation, however, was not restrained 
by these dangers. In Saxony, Frederick the Wise, who had only 
permitted, but not aided, the new order of things, died, the 5th 
Hay, 1535 ; his brother and successor, John the Steadfast, came 
forward at ODoe as a zealous adherent and defender of die Refor< 
mation.* Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, also declared for it ;^ and 
Albert of Brandenburg, Q-rand Master of the C^erman Order, who 
had for a long time been inclined to it, came out, as the secular 
Duke of Prussia, opoily in its favor, after the larger part of the 
population of that land, and its two bishops also— the first exam- 
ple of the kind — ^had confessed the new doctrine.' 

Philip of Hesse, a young, energetio, and keen prince, at once 
endeavored to form a league of the evangelical princes against the 
imminent dangers ;^ hot the most perilous time was aheady passed 
when the League of Torgau, 4th May, 1536, came into being for 
defense and protection against their opponents.* 

* Lathei ordalaed tin Gnt eruigelical ptcuher ua tiie 14th Hay, 1G!S (3«ckendorf, 
ii. 29), and rouried Catheriin von Bon the 13th Jane, l&SS. (On aome couUmporuie- 
ODi writing* *ssin«t this rnvrugs, sea VeeMiDineyet, id Vatci's Kirebeahiit, AtcMt, 
I82G, a. 167 ; agunit laUr olnnmles, we Walch'g Q«gcb. d. ul. Fnn Cith. von Bmm, 
ateAufl., H&lU,lTfi2; 2tar Theil., 1764 1 and Oiewler'a Eutj, in the Zaitaehrift f. gc 
bUdeM Chriitcn, Haft i. a. 1050 '^•> Hector, in I&2B, enj<4ned npmi fantma holding 
office, and !4th Jane, 1626, upon paCrona usong the nobility, to lay batiire their paro- 
chial derg)' Lather'a Oomuu) roau for abaaivuica, and in cue tiiay could not them- 
■elvea preach, to recommend to them Lnther'a church pcwtiliB ; Sockendorf, iL 48. 

> Philip vBB Gnt made more tailj acqnunled with Luther's doctrine b; Melanctbon, 
whom be mat upon a Joomej in May, 16S4 (S 1, Note 69). See Camenrioa, De Tit* 
HeUnchthoDli, ed. Strobel, p.M. For hia further inatmction UeUncthon wrote "Ka 
Kuner Begriff d. emeulan Chriall. Lehr, an den dnrcbl. Furaten I^ndgr. in Heasen," 
1S24 ; in Lada, Epitome Benovatae EccleaiaaUcae Doctifoae, in Helanch. Opera, ed. 
BretachDeidsT, i. 703. In March, 1625, the Landgrare alnadj declared to the Sector 
of Saxony "that ha iroold rather loie body and lifK, land and pmple, than yield God'a 
Word." See Fliilipp d. GmMmQthlge, I«ndgr. van Haaaen, by Cbr. von Bomrael, toI. 
I, Biography ; 3, Note* ; 8, Docnmentt. (Heaaen, IS80. CC Bd. i. a. 130 £ ; Bd. ii ■. 
90 ff. 

• Seebelow.SU, Notes. 
' Bommel, LISS; lil. 10. 

■ Handlongen u. Anaachreiben ran den Uraaehoi daa Tentachen Erieg* Kaiser Csrla 
T. wider die Schmalkaldiwdiaa Bundes-Oberate Anno 1546 n. 1647, by F. Hortleder 
(Frankf. 1617 ; 2te Aoig., Gotha, 1S4G, S Halle, fol.). Th. 1, Boch viii. cap. 2 ; Lnther^ 
Werke, by Waloh, xvL &26. To Uiia compact, oonolnded at Gotha the end of Fahr., 
1626, and raffled at Torgau, 4th Hay (BankeV Dentache Geach. im Zeil*lter d. Bef., ii. 
S60), only the Elector John and the Landgrave were parttea. It reads, that it ii " leider 
effentlich am Tag, was -rial und mancherley Praktiken aine Zeit haro, aooderlich von 
den Gciatiichen, nnd Uicen Anh&ngam im heil. Beich gesuchtond ftlrgeDOnuaen eeynd 
worden, daaialliig beS. gSttllch Wort wiedenunb m verdmcken, la Tertilgen, nnd gani- 
Uch ana der Meoacliea Henen nnd Gewlasen, ao ei mOglich geweat wan, ■□ Taitien." 
Hence tbcy bind themaelvea " allein lU Scbutt nnd BMtnng der Unaem,— ^laaa wir 



For the stepe taken by the Emperor against the Reformatioii 
were now hindered by a new war with King Francis I. (who had 
been too deeply humbled), in allianoe with the Italian princes, the 
Pope at tlieir head, who were in peril from the imperial prepooder^ 
onoe — La Satnte Ligue of Cc^nao, 23d Hay, 1536.* Not only 
did the Emperor need all his forces for this new war, but forbear- 
ance toward the evangelical party would now appear to him to be 
a matter of policy, in order to hold the Pope in dieok." Besides 
this, there was danger firom the Turkish invasion of ihe borders 
of Germany ; the King's brother-in-law, Louis, King of Hunga- 

Leib nnd Gat, Lud and Leate, nnd allea VermOgea bej einsnder m ntien, such elDer 
dem andenii, d«r dartlbet ■ngagrlSbu, Qberiogen, oArx bBschwgrt woUte werden, anfl 
Btirkite, lo wil immcl Termogen, aof miBei eigm Eoslen und Schaden Eiuiebeii, nod 
la HOir nnd Rettang kommeu vollen." To this Torgia league vera added, in Magde- 
burg, 12th Jnne, 1GS8, Philip, Otbo, Emst, and ftaacU, Dukaa of Branswick-LonebnTg, 
Henrf, Duke of HecUenbiirg, Wol^ Prince of Anhalt, Uvblurd and Albert, CoonU of 
Manifeld (Honleder. in the work Tefbired to above, cap. 8, Walch, xvL 632), and, on 
the 14th June, the dly of Magdeburg (Hortleder, cap. i and S, Walcb, xti. 533). Al- 
bert, Daks of Pmuia, jtnned the leagne b; a speciaJ compact irith the Elector, dat«d 
Konigsberg, 29th Sept., Vt26\ Hortleder, cap. 6, Walcb, xri CSS. 

* Banmer'i Oeteh. Enropaa ceit dem Ende dee ISten Jahrh. L SIS. The original doc- 
Dnnnt On Doniont, It. 1. 461) ^Te« aa the object of thl* league, that a— vers et atabilia 
pax inter Chrietianoa principea maj- be attained ; the adhesion of tha Emperor, too, la 
to he demanded, thoagh on condition that be give up tha tnlU at Ua Ticlorlea ; atber- 
vise he ii to be forced (a thia, and tiesidaa to lose Naplea. 

" On the relation of the Emperor with the Pope, compare their correapondenee ; 
Banke'a Dentacha Geich. im Zeitalter d. Ref. ii. 834 ; the letter of the Pope to the Em- 
peror, 23d Jnne, delivered 20th Ang. (in Baynald. 1GS6, No. 11, in ftall ; in Jnd. le Plat 
Honomenta ad Hiit. Cone. Trid. spectanlia, iL 210), and the answer of the latter, I8th 
Sept., 1&26 (Brown kpf. ad Faacicnlnm Remm Expetendamm et Fngiendamm, p. 684, 
In 1b Flat ]. c. p. 247), boast respectively of their own services, and reproach each the 
other. The Emperor, among other things, accnses the Pope tbns : Galliae Rex pioflte- 
tnr palam, qood abi te solicitatos, snteqoam ex Hispanlie domnm rediret, Dovnm foe- 
das iuieiit, et indicio cognovl te aolvisse ilium a jnrisjurandi vinculo quo mihi tenetur. 
Deinde bellum intuliati priua qnam litsraa, quibna illnd deoaocias, mihi assent reddltae, 
et 00 apectasti, qnomodo non solum Italia lota me depelleres, vemm eliam ab Imperii 
dignltate dejlceres. — Sed vide, quanta ait nl indignitas. Heia a regnis atqoe ptovinciia 
plus emolnmenti atqae annnaa pecuniae Romam defertnr, qnam ex reliqnii popolls om- 
nibus. Id demonitrari potest ax illis Gennaniae principnm poatnlatis, quando de ouria 
Romana graviter conqaesti, remediom adliiberi volebant: ego autam pro mea in Eecle- 
•1am Bomaoam obiervaatia qnerimoniam illomm tunc posthabui, etc. A prolix apolo- 
gy of tha Emperar to the P<^>a, 17th Sept, in Baynald. 1526, No. 22-43, in which lie at 
laat demands a general conncil to decide their diapntea. He also wrote for this purpose 
to the cardinals, 6th Oct. (Rajnald. 1626, No. 45 sa. ; Brown, p. 687) : hortamur,— ut 
qoae da indictiene concilii a Fontiflce petimna, eo negenCe, ant pins aequo diflkrente, 
ves debito ordine procedentea praeatare noa differatis. All the docnmenta relating to 
Ihia matter were published together : Frodivo Carolo. — Imp. — ApologeUd libri duo ex 
Hispaniis allati cum aliia nonnalUa. Mognnt., 1&2T. 4. (cf. Schelhom Amoenitates 
Hist. Eccl. et Liter., iL 8TS), Mprinted in Goldaati Politicis impeilalibns, Part xx. sec. 
viiL r. 863, and Fart zxii. ••«. L f. 9B1. (V. Banke, Furstan n. TOlkar von Sddennpa, 


' 136 FOURTH PERIOD^DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

ry and Bohemia, was already pressed to extremity, and the ein< 
pire could reader him aid only as it was at peace within itself. 

Under these circnmstanoea the Diet of Spires" lost the threat- 
ening aspect which it at first wore, in proportion as the time for it 
diew on. The Emperor himself could not be present ; his brother, 
the Archduke Ferdinand, opened it on the 25th June, 1526; and 
the evaogelioat princes were bo fiill of good courage, that they here, 
for the first time at a diet, came forward openly aa adherents of 
the new Churoh.^^ Though some sharp controversy ensued be- 
tween the two parties, yet the imperial interests so forcibly de- 
manded the maintenance of peace, that the Recess of the diet, 27th 
Aug., 1526, put oS the decision to a general council, and in the 
mean time each estate was instructed as to its observance of the 
Edict of Worms," 

The entanglement of the opponents of the Reformation in other 
quEirters now procured for the Reformers some years of quiet prog- 
ress. After Louis, King of Hungary and Bohemia, had fallen at 
Mohacz, 29th Aug., 1536, the Archduke Ferdinand was forced to 
defend his claim to the succession in Hungary against the Count 
Von Zips and the Turks; and his election in Oct, 1526, as King 

■ ■ The AcU in Walch, xvi. 243. Teeienmejer, Die TerhudluDgen suf d. BdchsUg 
ca SpeyM im Jtbn 1&S6, die Religion betraSbad, io Tater'i AtcUt, 1B26, i. St; cf. 
Banke'a Dealscbe a«*ch., iL SM. 

" See Spkladni Annalei, in My eonii ScripU. Rennn Genu., ii. 658. 

" In Walcb, xvi. 266: ." Und entlicb, nachdem K*7eerlicher HsjcaUt Inatmctioa 
Tameiunlich aiudrUckt and Inhllt, dasa anf dieaem Beicbitag in Sachen, den hell. 
CliriBtl. Glanlwn, — ancb die Ceremonien — belangend, keine Nenening oder DeUrmlna- 
tion beicbeben — aollen : und dann ermeasen und enrogeo, dasa der Zwieapalt nicbt dis 
geringile Ucsach eey der Torgegang«nen EmpOnuig dee gemeinen Uannea, duxn allea 
Unfriedeni, ao rich jeUnnder in Dentacher Natien erhilt :— demnacb, und damit in aol. 
chem ein eiahelligBr gleicbmOaslgcr Yerstand tn dem Chriitlicben Glanben gemacbt, 
Bocb Fried nnd Elnlgkeit In DeuUcber Nation iwiacben alien Btlnden gepSantt und 
etlialten werde ; ao balien wir — rolcbea nlcbt — besaer — m beachehen — befiaden mfigen, 
dann dorch ein frey Genenlconcilinm, Oder aofa wenlgata Nationalversammlimg, welcba 
In einero Jahi oder anderthalben anfa Ungat in Dentacben landen Torgenommen «ei- 
den aoll. DamJt dann solcbea alio mm rarderlicbsten Fortgang erlange, ao balwn wir 
—tine treBentliche Botachaft— zu Kala. MaJeatAt abgettartiget,— daaa Ihie Kaia. Majea- 
tAt die acbwera Laat DenUcher Tfation, aoichaa Zwieapalts nnd Mlaabellnng halben, 
gnUiglichen bebenigcn nnd bedenken, aicb tnm fBrderllchaten In eigenet Peraon be- 
rana in DenCscbe Nation veTfQgen, Einaebena baben nnd Tencbaffien w(jlte, damlt angn- 
leigt General coDcilinm, oder mm wenigaUn dne National veraammlong in beatlmmter 
Zeit — Torgenommen irerdsn mScble. — Demnacb faaben wir — nns jetio — elnmOtbigiich 
rerglichen nnd vereiniget, mltlleneit dea ConcUIl, oder aber National Tersammlong, 
nichtadealowenlger mlt unsern Unterthanen, ein jegllcher in Sachen, eodas Edict, dnrch 
Kaiacrl. HajeaUt, auf dem Relehatag m Wonna gehalten, Bnagangen, belangen mOcb- 
ten, fQr aicb alao CQ leb«n, id regieran, and en halten, irie dn jeder solcbea gegen Oott 
and Kiiaerl. MaJ. bo^t and verbant in TetantwalteD." 



of Bohemia, by putting him at vatiaoce with the Dalies of Bava- 
ria, separated the most violent enemies of the Gospel.'* The Em- 
peror was at work in Italy, and his conflict with the Pope reach- 
ed its highest pit«h, when the latt«r had no sooner made than he 
faithlessly broke his promise, forced npon him by the Colonnas, 
to abandon the league, Sept., 1526.'* An imperial army took Rome 
by storm,*^ May 6, 1536, and for several months the Pope was a 

Thus, in these years, the stroggle against the B«fDnnation was 
continned only in some Catholic states by the persecution of in- 
dividual confessors, making the new Church illustrious and strong 
through martyrdom." The evangelical princes remained undis- 
turbed, and were able to unfold and develop in a fitting order the 
new ecclesiastical institutions of their countries. 

The bold Philip of Hesse led the way, in the Synod of Homberg, 
Oct. 21, ld26, in jastifying the Reformation and appointing a 
Church order;'^ also by announcing that an evangelical oniversity 

" TbeM higtal; importsDt nUUons between AusCrU aod Biraria were fint tally 
Ulnstrated from the srcliiTes io A. 3. Stampr« BsSem's paUtLiche Geach., Bd. i. Abthei- 
lnng <. (MDncheD, I81S. 8.) b. SI ff. ; Ruke'i Deotactn Gaach. im Z«lulter d. Bebnn., 

" Eteumer's Oeach. Earopu wit d. Ende dss ISten Jahrh., i. SIS ; Reobe, ii. 872. 

■* HyconU Hiit. BefonD., a. 81 ; Rinmer, L S22 i Kanke, ii. S92. 

" KiDg Ferdinud'i nuodale agaiait the Lnthcrane, dated OTen, Aug. 30, 15S7 (ia 

Wilcb, xvi. 483) At Hnnicli, ■ minister, George Wagoer (Carpentarint), waa bamed, 

Feb. S, 153T. Special allenlion was aroneed by the execation af Leonhard KAaer (La- 
ther call* him Kaiter), Ang. 18, IGST, by order of the Biihap of Pauan ; Me HUneh'a 
Verm. hiat. Schrlften, ii. 1 ; cf. Lather'a Letter of CoaaolaUon to the prisoner, Uaj 30 (da 
Wetle, iii. 179). Hie aiticles for which he ni CDndeinaed are in Spalatini Annates, p. 
97 ; cf. Winter's Geicb. d. Efang. Lehre, in Baiera, i. 235. Even the fiimoui Bavuiul 
historian. ATentinaa, was forced to paaa aome time in piiaoD in 1SS9 ; Ibid. a. SG9.— Adolph 
Clarenbach and Peter E1]Weden were executed in Cologne, SepL 38, 1&39. The hiatoiy 
of their martTrdom wal also pnbliahed in 1539 1 aee J. A, Kanne, Zwei Beitrige inr 
Geach. d. Finiteniiss in d. Beformallonazeit. Frankf. a. H., 1833, a. S9j Hohnike, in 
lltgen'a Zellachiift f. d. hiat. Theologle, Bd. r. St i. a. 248— In Eapp'a KscbUae, i. SO, 
msj- be aeen how the lonis of Eiailedel were peisecoted by Duke George. — Eiizabetli, 
apoDie of the Elector Joachim I. of Brandenburg, was obliged to Bee to Saxony (Seck- 
endorf, IL 133), bdag aeverely treated on account of the confeaaioa of the Goapel. Lu- 
ther'a pnbiie Letter to the Elector, Oct. 6, 1538 (de Wette, iii. 383), to permit the ex. 
polled Wolf HornDDg to recoTor his family and poaaeesions. — George Winkler, preacher 
in Halle, for distribating the Lord'a Sqpper nnder both forma, was cited to Aschafitan- 
burg by the Elector of Uayence, and mardered on his Jouniey back, in Haj, 1637. Ln- 
tber pBblished an epistle : Troetunge an die Christen in Halle Ober Herr Georgen ilirea 
Predigera Tod, 1537. i-, in Welch, x. 2260. Later he apoke to them words of comfort 
on account of their being denied the receiving of the Lord'a Snpper in both forms, April 
36, 1528 (de Wette, iiL 806). 

' ' Kathschlag Helanchthona Dber ElnrichCung dea Ootteadienttea an den Landgra&n, 
Sept., 1526 (0pp. ed. Bretachneider, L 818). Francis Lambert, formerly a Fnnciscaa 


128 FOUETH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. Ifil7-1M8. 

would he founded in Karburg, which was actually opeood July 1, 
1537.'* Iromadiately afterward the government of the electorate 
of Saxony undertook the oi^nization of its ecclesiastical affairs, 
which hod until then been left to the congregations alone, and ooo- 
sequently been in a state of entire confusion f a general Church 
Visitation was appointed, 1337 to 1529, and a suitable order of 
worship established.^' The same tiling was done by the Margrave, 
G-eorge of Anspaoh and Bayreuth, in concert with the imperial 
city of Nuiemberg, in aoooFdonoe witii the Articles of Visitation 

in Avignon, defended before the Synod, Paindoui *d eccleiioram refomatioDem in S^ 
DOdo HeiiUa ab eo propoaiU et uieru (republished in Scnlleti Annal. Evan, ad ann. 
1636, in T. d. Haidt, v. 66) ; hit doctrine npon tlie sacharist, TU. viii., is clearlf incUnail 
to the Zwinglian view. Conf. Franc. Lamberti Epist. ad Colonienies, Colloqoii ann. 
I6S6, Hombergi in HassEa habit! HleUiriim ezponena. Erphord., IS27 (repHnted in tbe 
Unacbnld. Nachricbt«n, 1711, a. SO, and enm Adnot. U. C. DrandiL Gleiiac, 1780. 4.). 
Tha Chnrcli otder ben agreed apoa appeand tinder the title Reformatio Ecclesianim 
Hassiae jnzta. certissimam Bermonnm Dei regulam ordlnita In veil. Sfnodo— Hombei^ 
celebrsU (in F. C. 8chminei[« Uonnm. Ha«a., U. &S8). Rommel's Pliitipp d. Giow- 
mQtUge, i. I4S, iL 103. 

" Lk Wachler De Originibus, Progressn, Incrementia et Uatationibiu, qnas Acad. 
Harbnrg. experta «at, spec. i. Harburgi, 1809. i. W. Jnati, GmndsDge dnar Oesch. 
der Univ. in Uarborg, in the periodical, DieVoneit, 1826, a. 1 (also reprinted upanto- 
\j, Horborg, 1827. 8.). D- a Coelln Progr. Becolitof Uemoiia Profcisomm theologlae 
Uarbnrgenainm Philippo Uagnanimo regnante. Vntiilav., 1827. 4. 

>• Luther to Spalstin, Febr., 1639 (de Wette, iil. iU) : WMTnnu eat nUqna faciM 
Eccleaiaram, maticis nihU diacentibiu, nihil ecienUbns, nihU onntibns, niUl aj 

dam sit EpiscoponuD papitticonun administrationeni conaidentro. In hia Cre&ce te the 
Shorter Cstechism (Walch, x. 1>: "This Gateddim, or snm of Christian doctrine In 
such a short and iimple form, 1 have been foToed and jmased to make by the lanenla* 
ble need I foand when I was of late a visitor. Help, O Ood 1 for hoir manj sad thlnga 
have I seen I the common people, eapeciaUj in the villages, Icnowlng nothing at all 
about Christian docttine, and manjr a pastor itbollj nnfit to teach them ; and j-et they 
are all called Christiana, hare been bapUied, and reccivedthe holy sacraments: they can 
ndther repeat the Lord's Prayer, nor the Creed, nor the Ten Commandments ; Ibey live 
on like the dear cattle, and imthinking airiiia ; and yet, now that the Gocpel baa come 
to them, they have learned ri^t skilUnlly hair to mianse all their freedom. ye bish- 
ops t bow will ye ever anawar for it to Clirist, for having let the people wander away so 
shamelessly, and for having never one moment made proof of your office?" Secken* 
dorf, il. 103, cites from tha records of the Tiaitation in the district of Altanbnrg, where 
. there were about one hnadred paaton: later Illarum paatorea non nisi qustnor invenU 
sunt a Tlsitatoribns, qui miaaaa adhoe veteri ritu celebrarent. Tiginti fere rudes et tn> 
eptl, mnltique concnblnaiii et potatoree deprehensi snuL Erhatdoa Matthias Hainae 
in aede parocliiaU evangelico mora dooebat, in flilali, qoam Tocaot, miaalficabat. La- 
ther Bccordiogty, ftom an eariy date, appealed to the Elector Jolm to ngnlate the eecle- 
riastieal order. Slit Oct., 1636, in de Wette, iU. B9, SOth Nov., 1636, a. 61, 3Sd Nov., 
16S6, s. 186 ; the two last epistles enforce the need of a visitatiim of the ChaidKt. 

" Several documents about this visiution are in Kapp'a Hachleae, L 171 ; cf. Seck- 
endorf, il. 100 ; A. O. BoMnberg's hist. Abhandlmig von der eisten Kirohanviillation In 
der Evangelischen Kirche. Breslan, 1764. 4. 



agreed upon in tha oonvention at Schwabach, June 14, 1538.°* 
In the cities of Brunswiok^' end Haniburgf* the ecclesiastical 
afbirs were set in order by John Bugenhagen, 1528, called from 
Wittenberg for this pnrpoee. Of the Saxon Visitation we have 
the imperiahable fruits in Melanothon's Instructions to the Vis- 
itors, addressed to the pastors in the electorato of Saxony,^ and 
containing a summary of doctrine, an order of Church govern- 
ment, and principles of education, published before the Visitation, 
1527 ; and in Lather's two Catechisms,^ occasioned by the re- 
sults of these investigations, 1529. 

In other countries the Reformation pressed forward without 
oessatioD. Among its most important victories was its introduc- 
tion into Sweden by Gustavns Wasa, at the Diet of Weatetas, 
1527, and the concession to it by Frederick I. of Denmark of equal 
rights with the old Church, at the Diet of Odense, in 1527. 

The evangelical Church, having thus become more fully devel- 
oped within, and more widely extended without, was in a condi> 
tion to encountor the perils by which it was still menaced. The 
account given to the Landgrave, by Otto von Paoh, of a Catholic 

" J. W. T. d. lith, Erliaternng der BefoniMtioiuliutorie v. ISii-iS iiu dem hocb- 
tana. Braudenborg-OnolEbiichudiea Arcblv. Schwnbach, ITgS, a. m ff. L«bena- 
beubnibung Luui Spmgtsn t. D. Q. Huuidoil Hiiniberg, 1741, ». 48 ff. Tb« 
tv«Dly-Uire« Viiltatioik-Artldei of Schwabach, probablj' writlan by A. OtUoder, ap- 
peared Dnder the title " TiaitAClo dcr Pbnbar aof dem Land, IBSS," and an nprintad 
Id t. d. Uth, ■. M7 B. 

'* Fh. J. Behtme;er'a der berOhmUn Stadt Bnnntchweig KlrcheohUtoTle, iii. 69. 
C. G. H. L«nti Bmuiacbveig's Kirchenrefomutian im lEtea Jahrb. Wolfenbdttel a. 
Leipilg, 1838, s. 97 ff. Jahumea Bngenhagen, von J. H. Zietc Lelpiig, 1829, a. S5 ff. 
Tbe Cborch^idsr tor Bninawick, drawn up by Bngenbagm, appeared io law Gennan 
at Willenberg in 1528, and in high Gvtdbo at Bninawick in IfiSI. 

** Stephan Kempe'i (preacher, f lMO)walirhaft«r Bericbt die KirehenaacheD in Ham- 
burg ram Anf. dea EvaogeUi betr. hcranageg. Ton Stnnch. Hamburg, 1828. 8. Stap' 
horat'a Hamburg. Klrchengeichichte, Tb. S. F. HilnUr't Klrcheageacb. von Duiemarfc 
n. Norwegen, iU. 666. Zieti, a. IW ff. Ueber die BunborgUche Eiicbeaerdnnng, 
Qeti, a. 114. 

" Tint pnbliabed In iMin : Articnii, de qoibna ^emnt per Tlritatorea in regions 
Sozoniae, WitUnb., Ili27. 8. Than in German, revised bj Luther, and with a preface 
bj him, under the title "Dntenicbt der Visitatom an die Pbrherm im KorfOralen- 
tbnmi an Sachaen." Wittenbnrg, 1528. 4., in Welch, 1. 1909. Cf. C!hnraichei»che Tisl- 
Utlona-Artlkel vom Jahre 1537 nnd 1538, in both Latin and German, pabllahed, with 
a hiatorical IntmdncLon, hj G. Th. Strobel. Altdorf, 1777. 8. 

■■ In Welch, X. 1. That the Larger Catechism waa compoaed before tbe ShDiter ap- 
peara from tlia aixth lermon of Hatheiina (a. 148), aa alao from the fact that the Larger 
ia referred to In the Pteface to the latter. Both were written by Luther in German ; 
bnt they were tranatatad into latin in 1529— the Shorter by Job. Lonloer, tbe larger by 
Tine. Opaopoena. Cbr. F. Illgeti, Comm, Ir. ; BecoUtnr fflemoria ntriuaque Catecluami 
LUberi. Leipa., 183»-30. 4. 
VOL. IV. — 9 


180 FODBTH PEEIOD.— DIV. L~A.D. I617-I6«. 

league secretly iianied at Breslau,^^ Hay 13, 1527, had at least 
the effect of preserving the vigilanoe of the evangelical princes, 
and making their Catholio opponents oantiocis.^^ Bat the real dan- 
ger began after the Emperor had decisively gained the upper hand 
in Italy. The imperial propositions for the diet that sat at Spires,^ 
March, 1529, and the hostile attitude of the Catholio estates at 
this diet, proclaimed the renewal of the former struggle. The 
direct attack was, however, postponed nntil the Emperor could 
bring to an end his foreign war. In the mean time, the plan of 
the Catholics was to shut up their foe in fixed bounds ; this they 
did by the majority of Catholic votes in the final decree of the 
diet, forbidding all further internal development, as well as external 
propagation of the new doctrine.^" Against this decree the evan- 

" A> is alleged, by King Ferdinuicl, the Eleelora of Hi^ence and BrandenbDrg, the 
Archbbtiop of Salzburg, the Blahopi of Bamberg and Warzbu^, Oeorge, Doke of Sax- 
ony, and the dnkes of Bararia. Tbe document li in SpalaUo's Aniula, a. 103 b. ; Hart- 
leder, Tb. i. Bnch S, cap. i. ; Walcb, x*i 444. Bat all ttacM piincea deoied, in the moat 
uneqnivocal terms, the existence of this league : let their paLIic Declaration in Horl- 
Icder, cap. S ff. ; Wolcb, xrl. 464 ; cf. Nendecker'e Urknaden, a. 26, 60, and his Actcn- 
atacke, L 29. On tbe contemporaneons literature, aee the Alldocflscba liter. Museum, 
Bd. L St. 1. a. 43. Tbe original document of the league could hardlj have been invent- 
ed by Pack ; It was probably ■ project drawn up by a counselor of Fardinaud. Luther 
to Job. Hose (do Watte, Ul. SGI) : Dacia Georgii Proceiea plane fatentnr, foiase foedu* 
hoc noa omniDO chimoeram, aed lltaraa et exemplnm prae maniboa habeti, rpmd none 
vcllent falsa Princlpnm nomine et sigiUo flctum Tideri. Ronunera Phllipp der Groas- 
milthige, i. 210 ; ii. SOS. 

" The LandgTBTc, ot tbe head of an army, forced the Bishops of Bamberg and Worz- 
bnrg and the Elector of Mayence, Jane, 1528, to pledges of peace and Indemnitj' for tbe 
costs of the war. At the sania ^me, the Elector of Mayeace, in the Camp at Hitakirch- 
en, June 11, 1G38, was forced to renounce ecclesiastical Jurisdiction In Saxony and Hesse 
to the tlm« of peara In religious afbira. See the agreement in C. Ph. Kopp, heasische 
Gerichtsrerfasanng, Th. 1, a. 107 ; No. 40 in the Beylagt. 

" HIslorie von der evangel. StAnde Protestation a. AppellaUoo wider a. ron dem 
Jteichsabscfated in Speyer 1529, dann der daraof erfolgten Legation inSpaDienan Eayt. 
Uaj. Karla Y., wie anch (eroer dem tu Augspnrg Qbergebenen GlBubensbekanntnlas, 
ans FbrsCl. Sicbs. Arcbiv-ActJs u. bewUirten Bistoricis verfasact, and mit denen dam 
geharigen Docnmentis illoatriret von J. J. Ubllcr. Jena, 1705. 4. A. Jung's Gesch. 
des Reichstags an Spayer, i. d. J. 1629 (the first division of his Beytrlige lu der Gesch. 
der Beformatlon), Slrassborg n. Leipzig, 1830, mit einem Anbooge meist ungedruckter 
Actenstlicke. The most Important docnments are alra In Wolch, xyi. 816 S. 

" In Walcb, xrL 828. It waa first determuied to pray the Emperor to call ■ general 
conncil, or at least a national aasemblr, within tbe space of a year; then tt proceeds 
upon the final decree of the Diet of Sgores (see Koto IB), as follows : " Nacbdem — der- 
selbige Artikel bey vielen in ^iesem Hissventand und zn Entschnldignug allerley 
eracbrecklichen nenen Lehren imd Secteu setthero gciogen und ausgelegt hat werden 
wollen, damit dann solches abgeschnitten, und welterm Ab&II, Unfried, Zwietracht and 
Unrath Torkommen werde : so haben wlr une— enlBcbloisen, dass diejenige, so bey ob- 
gedachlam Kala. Edict (von Worms) bis anhero blioben, nun hinfllro each bey domsel- 
ben Edict bis lu dem kfiaftigen Concillo verharren, imd ihre DnUrthaneo danu haltan 


CHAP. l.-^£RMAK KEFOBMATION. 3 4.1527. 131 

gelioEil estates piesented a Protest, April 19, 1539, and in addition, 
on the 23d of April, an Appeal ;^' iu this way they for the first 
time came forward as Protestants against their opponents. 

lolleD and wolIeD. UdiI aber bey den andem SUnden, bey deaoD die andere Lebrc 
entsUnden, nod lam Theil ohne merklkhen Anfrahr, Beicbwerd and Genhrde nicbt 
■bgawendt irerdeD mOgen: so loU binfOro alio NenenuiK bis zu kDnftigem ConcUio, fj 
viel moglich Dud meoschtich, verhQtet irerdea. Und Bonderlich soil etlichei Lcbre nol 
Sectea, so viel die dun bocbwOrdigen Sacnmeat Aea -wabren FnmldchDanu nnd Blnt^ 
aasers HerniJean Guisti eatgeKBu,bey den Standen des heil.Baiebs Dentacbei Notion 
nicbt angeaommen, nocb hinfllro in predigen gestattet odei zagtloBsen : dGSgloichen 
■dIIsd dia AomUr du bail. Hau idcbt abgeChao, anch nlemand an den Orten, da die 
ond^ta Lahre entatanden nnd geballen viid, die Uesa eq hdren verboten, TeiUndert, 
noch daza odar davon gednmgcn verden." AuabBptIsm is thsa furbiddco on penalty 

" Tba great fTUtrumcatum Appdltaiimii, in irblch are also coctpriaed the eailier re- 
monalraaces of the evangelical estalea nnd tbeir Appeal ; in MQller, 8. G2: Walch, xvi. 
SM ; Jung, Actanatilcke, i. Ixxix. Tbey demand Ibat tbe earlier decision of tbe em- 
pire, tn 162S, remain in force, alnce otherwiie peace could baldly be maintained : they 
c&n not Jnatify the obaervanca of tbe Edict of Worms and tbe maintenance of tbe mas», 
for if they did they would condema tbalr own doctrines ; thongh they are ready t« rcQ' 
der obedience to Ibe Emperor in all obligMory motten, " so seynd docb dieses solche 
Sicben,— die Qotlos Ehna and Dnier jedai Seelen Hell und Seli^it angeben nnd be- 
treOto, darin wir an* Oattai Befahl, noBer Gawiuen halben, danselben onaem Herm 
nqd Gott — tot altera anznseben veipfliobt and scbnldig eeyeo, der nnzweifentlichen 
ZuTeraclit, Ew. K6aigl. Dorclilanchtjgkeit, lialiden, and ibr die andem werdet nna — 
darin franndlich — entschuldiget hallen, dass wir mit — eucb — in dem nicht einig aeyn. 
noch in aolchem dem mehrem, wie etllchemalen anf diesem Keichatag hat roT^emndt 
verden wollen, geborcben, in Bedacbt and Ajuehen, dass wIr aolches rermOg des vori- 
gen ^Myriicbeo Beichsabschied, der soDdertich in dem angeiogenon Artiktl lanter 
darthat, dass solchar Artlkel dvrch nne einmutbiga Yerciuigmig (nod nicbt allein den 
mebreien Tbeil) also bescbloasan warden; danim aacb eia solehsr elnmQtbiger Be- 
•ehlius von Ebrbarkolt, BUllgkeiC nnd Bachtavegen anders nichts, dann viedemtn 
dnich eine unhellige BewUligang ge&ndart verdea soil, kann nnd mag, snsamt dem, 
dass anch ehae dia in den Socben, Gottes Ebre nnd anserer Seden Keit und Seligfcelt 
beUngend, ein Jeglicber for Ncb salbit vor Gott stehen and Becbenscbaft geben muss ; 
alio dass nicb des Orta kelner anf des andem minders oder mehnn macben odcr b«- 
icblieHen entacbnldlgen icann j nnd aoa andem redllcben, negrOndeten, gnten Drsachen 
in than nicht scholdig seyn." Against tba rapadiitlon of the Ziringlian docCrina of tbe 
Eocharist, by the final decrae of the diet, Luther and Melioctbon bad notblog to object 
(sea their Jndgmenl, in Walch, zvi. 864) : however, tbe Landgrave, with Melancthan's 
concnrrence (tee Kommel, i. !34 ; Melanch. ad Camerariom, d. IT. Uaj., ed. Bratscbnei- 
der, L 1067 sq.), brought about also a protett against the iasning of any incb decision 
by the diet; eepecially becanae tfaoae " ao dieeclbe Sachs berUbrea, niche erfordert nocb 
vcrhort worden slnd t nnd ist wabrlicb wobl m bewegen and in betracbten, wann sol- 
che schirara and wichtlge Artikel anaHrhalb des kOnftigen Conellii vorgcnommen, oder 
darin ohne DOthdOrftig nnd gebbhrllcb VerbOre aller der, so die Sacb bcnihrt, ein Kr- 
kenntniss Oder Ordnnng an macben untersUnden, in was Glimpf nnd Uaricbtigkeit 
lolches Kals. Uaj. — dob and andam Standen des Reiehs gekebrt and venrtanden werden 
ffltchte." The appeal la made "zn and vordia Bdmiscbe Sail, nnd chiistl. MaJ. nn- 
serm allergnadigaten Hem, and dazn an nnd fUr das nicbst kQnftig frcy cbrietlich 
gemein Concilinm, — vor nnser Kationalcnsaininenkoinmen, nnd dana einen Jeden die- 
ter Sachen beqnemen nnparlheyischen and cbrlatKchen Richter." The Protest and 


132 FOORTH PERIOD.— DIV. L— A.D. 1S17-1648. 

Soon after thia the Emperor concluded a treaty with the Pope 
at Barcelona, June 39, 1529, and with France the Peace of Cam- 
bray, Aug. 5, 1529. The Protestants could now discern the ap- 
proach of misfortune in the conditions made at Barcelona,'* and 
in the way in which their embassadors were received at Piacen- 
za,^ in September, 1529. 

The Landgrave Philip now addressed himself earnestly to the 
work of forming a league of defense among all the states adhering 
to the Reformation — a measure urgently demanded by the circum- 
stances of the times.^ His efforts, however, were wrecked by the 
hesitation of the Lutheran theologians, to whom a league with 
the Saoramentarians appeared altogether objeotionahle.^ All in 

of Anlult. Fourteen cities of tbo empire acceded to it : Straaborg, Nuremberg, Utm, 
CoDBtance, Liodau, Hemmingeu, Kem|ilen, Noidlingen, Heilbronn, Bentlingen, lama, 
St, GaU, Weissanbnrg, and Windshaini, 

" Dnmont Corpa Unirerael Diplomatiqiie, iv. 1, 6 : Qaoni saDCtiaaimo Domino nos- 
tra cnra eliam major remm spiriCnaliam et putonlia officii, qnam temporallnm cue 
debeat ; — multi aulem siorti aint, qui et de fida catbolica male seutiant, et a religioiK 
doctrinaqne Cliriatlana omnino dcTiaTerint, alioeque in enndem errorem dedncere go. 
neator; nee minus Caeaareae M^estali cordi ait, nt lioic peatifero morbo eongmum 
anCidotum praeparari posilt: ideo actum eititit, at canventnm, qnod Caeaar, ac lere- 
nlsiimuj Hnugariae Bex, ejua fraler, bia melloribna ac congmentioribna modia et formia 
qnibns fieri potatit, ac cam ea qua decet deiterltate et indaatria omnem operam posai- 
bilem adhibebunt in hujuimodi erroribna, ai (aa ait, aedacdia, ermutiamque animla alll- 
clendia, at ad recto* Cluiitianae religionia tramitea redeant, ipeamque religionem, et 
fldem, apostolicamque aedem verbo aut facto laedere seu pertarbare nou praesumant 
In qua re Ipae eliam aanctisaimna Dominua noater aalubribua illia epiritualibua antidotis 
commiaio f(regi, ovibnaqoe errantibns, tanquam commouia pastor et pater conanlena, 
omnem poHibilem medelam pariler adhibere conabitnr. Qnod ai paatoria Tocem non 
Bodiverint, Caeiariaque mandata neglexeriut, et in biaca arTDribita obatiiiati et pertinaces 
pennanaerint ; tam Caesar, quam Ser. Hungariae et Boamiae Bai contra illos eomm 
poleatatb vim diatriogeat, illatamque Chriato injniiam pro viribui olcisceDtm ; cnra- 
bitqne >ua Sanctitaa, ut caeteri Chrlatianl Priucipea, et potlaalma qui id faediu ingradi 
Tolent, tam aancto opeii etiam pro viribua aaaiataat. Bat in the Introdaetlao to the 
traatiaa it is aald, tbat all princes vere to be inTiled to take part in the aame. In the 
PeaceofCambra}' the Tcea^ of Madrid waacoaarmed, ao fkr aa it vaa not thenbj dta- 
tincUy aonullad, and conaequently the posltiona cited abore in Note !. 

" Uldler, 1. 113 ff. Walch, zvi MS B. 

'* Diets at Bothaeh (tat June), Salfeld, and ScblaU ; asa UCIIer, a. 338. 

" Compare Lather's Epistle to the EIocUt John, SSd Ma)-, 1629 (de Wette, iiL 454), 
and hia opinion in faror of the Confention of Bothaeh (Holler, a, 230, with the conclu- 
sion, there wanting, in de Wette, lii. 46£). In the last ha aays : " Znm andem lata 
fShrlicfa dea Landgrafen halben, weit es «n unmhiger Mann ist. Mocht er abetmal, 
wla er jenei Mai thit, atwaa anfohen, Stift, Kloaler atnrmen ohn unaem WQIan : ao 
mnaaten wir binnach, und mitthnn oder mitgethan [haben] alies, was er tliiiL — Zom 
Tiarten iats nncbiiatlich der Eetterey halben wider daa SacraiDent: denn iriraie nicht 
konnen im Bund haben, wir mnsaten aolche Eatzarvj mit helhn atirken nnd verthet- 
dingeu, und weuu aie vertheidingt wurden, aoUlen ale woh] Argei werden, denn Torhin." 
To the objection that they were atill one In all mattan, excepting that single point : 
" Es fat Bllm viel an dem einigen.— Er lit nicht wenlger eiu Uncbriat, wer einen Ard- 


. CHAP, r.— GERMAN EEFOKMATION. S 4. 1529. 133 

vain were the urgent representations^ of the Landgrave ; in Uke 
manner, the Conference of Marbarg, which he brought about be- 
tween the Swiss and Saxon theologians, Oct. 1, 1539," failed in 

kel IlDgaet, denn Anna Oder del etnot. — Spricht mm abecmil ; diescr Bond betredb 
nkht <Ue Lehre, aODdern mII wider &a>Berlicfa GewiJt, die man wider Recht fbrDimmt, 
dieweil jene Bich anf ErkenntniK erbietea ; Antwort: Da< halt nicht; denn nun welis, 
dasa UM der Wideitheil did keiner Ursache viUsn angnifen will, denn nnt der Lehre 
villea. Dram lasat elcha nicht ^ftubeq, dau wlr widor anncbt Uewalt solctieD Bund 
machen. Und dasa sie aich auf Erke&Dtnlsa erUeUn, hilft (ma Dichta } dann wirwieSED 
nnd halun, dasa sie Carecht liaben, aad mapn aolcha nicbt mit ibnen in Zweifcl Oder 
Erkenntniss aetzen, daram wir aiclit mlt gutem Gewiuen ktmnen mit ibn handeln, wir 
mosaten aolcli iltr Erblelcn anf Erkenotnira auch t»willigen nnd beatatigen, and alao 
gleicb mil iha *oa nnaerm gewisNU Erkeoatniss anf ibren Zweifel oiler ungewisscn 
Wahn fallen. Daa wire denn mehr, dean halb wo nicbt gar nnaern Glaaben verliug. 
net." In a LetMr to the Landgrave, in Angn«t Qd Nendecker'a Urkundcn, a. Ill), Lu- 
ther cannaela againat a war with the Emperor, aa nnjntt, precipitoot, and perilous. 

" Compare hia Epistle to the Eleetor, July, 1629, in Mtdler, a. 268 ; Walcb, xfi. 645 ; 
" Ea lat anch vonnothen, dsia wir nns nicbt to liederlich Ton einander trennen laaaen. 
eb Bchon unaere Gelehrten am I^btet oder aonat diapnUilicber Sacben wUlen, daraa 
docb unaer Olanbe oder Seligkeit nicht gelegen, iweihellig aejnd. Denn ao das, wOrde 
ea alio Jshre nene Zwieapolt gebiren ; denn Je von Tagen in Tagen nnd Jahren lu 
Jahren viel nnaSthiger nnd disputirlicher Zweynngs in der Schrift bin nnd wieder lich 
iwiacbeo den Gelehrten begeben. Und darzn teja aaiere Gelehrten der Sachen, die 
Hanptartikel, den Glanben and onaere Seligkeit belangende, einig, Wenn nun hier- 
Ober wir una von elnondar trennen laaaen, ao nnaere Gelelirten iweihellig warden : wio 
oft bitten denn euer Llebe and wir ona von einander thnn mOasen," etc. The land- 
grave penonallj waa nDdcniably inclined to the doctrine of Zwingle, as was also hie 
admirable theologian, Franeia Lamliert ; aee Note IS. 

" The Epbtle of Invitation to this conference ia In Honnm. Haasiaca, t, lii. ; Ano- 
lecta Haas. Coll. X. ; Nendecker'a Urkundcn, s. 95, Lnther replied to the Landgrave. 
tbe23dDf Jane, that he would come, bat had no hope of aucEeaa (de Wette, lli. 473, aft- 
er the original in Kendccker, a. 93). So, too, Helaucthon (who, even on the 141h Uay, 
adviied tbe electoral prince to refuse them permiaaion to go ; ed. Bretachneider, 1. 10G4), 
cf. hia Epistle to tbe Landgrave, I. c. p. lOTT (after the original In Kendecker, a. 90). 
The Opimai on tbe conference, usually ascribed to Luther, is by Melancthon ; see de 
Wette, ilL 475 ; Bretachneider, i, 1055 aq—BeporU oioH* He Marburg Conferaiet from 
lie Lulitraa tide ; Uelancthon, in German, to the reigning Elector (or rather to the 
electoni prince; ace Elederer's Nachrichten, ii. 109), ed. Bretachneider, i. 1098; and 
to Dnfce Henry of Saxony , I. c. p. 110! ; Justus Jonas to Ketffenstein, Latin., 1. c. p. 
109S ; Jo. Brentias to Schradinos, Latin., In Pfaffil AcU et ScripU pnbl. Eccleaiao Wir- 
lemberpcae, p. 203; Andreas Osiander to the Council of Nuremberg, in German, in 
Riederer'a Nachrichten, ii. 110 ; by an unknown person, who, however, was present at 
the conference, in Wigandua de Sacramentariismo, p. 424 : Jivia the Reformed tide b}- 
Budolphns Collinos, professor in Zorich, la Uospiniani Hist. Sacramantaria, ii. 74; 
Zwingle's kOrzerer Bericht, ibid. 77; Occolainpadii Epist. ad Hallemm, ibid. 88. The 
fullest account Is in Heinr. Bollinger'a Reformationsgev^., ii. 223 (alio in FOsall'a Bey- 
trage, lii. 150). Cf. Hoapinianna, Lc. Bommel, Phllipp d. Graesm. i. 247 ; ii. 21B. On 
tbe resnlt of the conference, see Luther's Letters to Nic. Gerbellins, hia wife, and Agric- 
oLi, Oct. 4 and 12 (de Wetle, lii. 611), and to J. Frobat, Jnne 1, 1630 (de Wette, !v. 26). 
In the last he savs : Multls veni vertos (Sacramenlaru) promisaront, ee velle nobiecam 
ealenus dicere, Chriati corpus reracitar esse in coeoa praesens, at spirituajiter tantnm, 
ut eoB fratres dignaremar appellare, et simutare its concordiam ; hcM qnod Zwiaglius 
palam lachrymana coram Landgravio et ordiaibna rogabst, dlcens In haoc verba ; Ea 
^d kelne Lent auf E>den, mlt deoen ich lieber woUt eins seyn, denn mlt den Willen- 


iSi FODBTH PEWOD— DIT. L— A.D. 16l7-J64a 

effecting the desired result ; the fiileen articles there compared^" 
seemed so very unsatisfactory to the adherents of Luther, that, on 
the requisition of the Elector, Luther and the theolo^ans who 
adopted his views felt themselves obliged to offset them by other 
articles containing the pure doctrine in full.^^ Subscription to 

I c^rgem. Sammii atadio et cunUntiona egemnt, at TidsreatnT nobiMam concordu, ita 
lit banc Tocem nanqasm ex me pouent tern: ru Aabttii aliiim gnnttm qaam not. 
Ardebant toti, qiiatiM hsec andiebuit. Taadam id coDoeaaimoa, at articalo ultimo po- 
uilor, nC fratrea qoidem non eaaent, led bunm cl>aritsl< Dostra, quae etiam hoatl debe- 
tur. nan apoliarentni. Its indignjarime aOecti nmt, qnod fntria nomcn dod poUentnt 
obtinere, aed pro haereticia diacedere ccgeimtiir, tamen aic, at pacam interim habere- 
mua mutois acriptis, ai torts Dcna illia aponerit cor. Helanchthon ad Agricolam, dd. 
13. Oct., 1529 (ed. Brataclmeidcr, L llOS) : Hagnopere conlcnilenuit, at a nobia fratrea 
F.pp«l1arentnr. Vids eornm aCaltitlaiD I Cnm damnent noa, CDpioDt tamcn a nobia tn- 
Irea babcri! Noa naloinina eis hac in re aaseDtiri. Tbe chancteristics of the tboologi- 
ans who were present, ■» given by Jnatna Jonaa, are Intttnadag (l- e. p. 1097): In Zicin- 
ijlio Bgrente qulddan cat et anogantulam ; in Otec^ampadic mira bonitaa nato-aa et de- 
mentia j in Eedumt non minor bomanltaa et liberalitaa ingenii ; in Bucen> calllditas 
vnlpiDB, perverse imitate pmdoatiam et acnmen. Docti nut omaes, nihil dnbium eat, 
prae quiboa Fspiatas noa annt advoruuil liabendl. Sed Zicitu/tiiu iratia Mnaia et in^ita 
Ilincrva videtur Teraatns in literia. 

" They were drawn np by Latber; eeo Oaiander, In Rioderer, IL 120. They were 
subscribed, OcL 3, by the theologians theie present, and immediately pablished in bct- 
tral places by Zwlngle (FOssli's Beytrige, iii 179), by Oaiander (Weber'a Geach. d. 
Aagsb. Confessiaa, 1. 9); on another old edition, aee FortgesetzEe Sammlnng v. alten 
u. Denen tbeol. Sachen., IT43, s. 165. It is remarkable tliat the reprinta of these Uar- 
burg Articles in the ediUona of Lnthei's Works (Walch, xvii. 2357), and those aflenrard 
iisoed by the Lutherans (ChytrSns, Seckendoi^ etc.), contain only fourteen articlea ; 
the I4tb, upon infant baptism, being omitted. The last article reads : " Wir gliuben 
und halten alle Ton dem Abendmahl nnsers lleben flerm Jem Chriati, daea nun beyda 
Gestalt nach der Einsetznng branchen soil ; dass aach die Hesse nicht ein Werk 1st, 
d.-imit einer dem andem, todt and lebandig, Gnade erlange \ daas anch daa Sacrament 
dea Altars sey ein Sacrament des wahren Leibea und Blutes Jesa Christl, and die geiat- 
licbe Niosanng desselbigon Leibea and Blutea einem jeglicbca Chriaten vornebmlich 
voanothen. DcsgUichen den Brauch dea Sacmments, wie daa Wort von Gott dem AIl- 
maebtigea gegeben nnd geordnet sey, damit die scbwachen Gewiasen zom Glunben und 
L!obe in bewei^n durch den helUgen GeUt. tTnd wiewol aber wlr nns, ob der wshre 
Leih and Bint Cbristi leiblicb Im Brot and Wdn sey, dlese Zeit nicht verglfchen habeo, 
Eo soli docb ein Tbcil gegen den andem chrlatliche Liebe, sofcme Jedea Gewiasen Im- 
memiehr leiden kann, eireigen, and beyda Tbcit Gott den AllmilchtigeD fleiaaig bitten, 
dasa er una dnrch aeinen Geist in dem rechten Teratond beitHtigen wolle. Amen." 

" That inch articlea were laid before tbem is preaappoaed in the Saxoa-BraDdenbarg 
iaBtmitioaB for the Schwabach ConvenUon, see in MOller, a. 282. That the Sehwabach 
Articles were drawn op in Harborg by the theologlaQS, aee in Riedeiei's Kacbrichten. 
i. 4S. Attho CooTention in Marbnrg tbey were only preaented in writing; in lliSO they 
nppeared in print, bat without Lather's kaowlcdge, under the title, " Die Bekentnus 
U. Lutber'a aaf dea itzigen angestelltea Belchatag ta Aagaburg einzalegen, in 17 Artl- 
kel vetfnsaet. Cobarg, 4;" tbey were violently attacked by the Catholics, and then 
imbllshed by Lather himself with a pre&ce. la this preface (Walch, xri. T7S) be says : 
"Wahr lata, dass Ich solche Artikel habe stellen helfen (dcnn sie sind nicht von mir 
nllcia gestellet), nicht nm der Paplsten wUlen, noeh auf dlesem Ralchstog cinzolegen. 
Die wissen aber wobl drum, am welcher willen ^e gestellet eind. HUta mich auch 
nicht veraehen, doaa aie eollten an Tag kommon, vletweniger dasa ale mlt aolchem lllel 



the latter was demanded at the Sohwabaoh ConventioD, Oct 16, 
1539, as a necessary oondition of partioipaticm in the league (the 
Schaabach Ariicles). And then, although the cities of the Ober- 
land, attached to the views of Zwingle, at once receded from the 
Degotiations,*" yet those parties who remained could not camo to 
any agreement among themselves.** 

The summons issued by the Emperor at Bologna, January 21, 
1530, for the assembling of a diet at Augsburg, referred, indeed, 
to the religious dissensions In a mild and conciliatory tone." But 
as &e Emperor, at his coronation in Bologna,*^ Pebr. 34, 1530, 

nater munem Namsn lolltaii nnagelieii.* Then Schwvbach uticlos were aTterward 
sometiiiies coDfooaded with the Schwabach TuiUtioD-articlea of 1528 (Kola 22), until 
Tod der litli pabliahed the Utter. That tbou Sereateen Articles, pablUhed in 1S30, 
are tha Schwabaeb, wu UUcovered by FUck (Seckeodorfa Anifuhrl. Hlatoric der Lu- 
Ihertbnmi, i. 968}i cf. Weber's Gesch. der Angsb. Confession, i. 10 S., wbeta there is an 
exact reprint of Ihase articles in the appeadiz. These SeventMn Schwabach Articles 
(alsoinWalch,zvi. 681) ore a recasting of the-Fifteen Marburg Aiticlea, marked b)- the 
addition of iha peenliarltiu of Lutheranism ; hence the two series of articles ofI«n agna 
varball)-. Tha doctrine of the Lord's Supper (Art. X) is thus siveni "That the true 
body and blood of Christ are trolj present in the bread and wine, according to the ward 
of Christ, this ia mj body, this is my blood, and ii not bread and vine onlf, as the op- 
posite party now alleges." 

*' See the final decree at Schwabach, in the Appendix to Weber's Geich. d. Angib. 
Confession, Th, 1. . 

«> The theologiaaa of Wittenberg now advised against all reiistance to the Emperor; 
ice Luther'i Sedeiim to the Elector John, Nov. 18, 1529 (de Wette, iii. 636), and March 
6, U30 Cibid. B. 660) ; the protocol of the ConTentioa at Snulcald, in SCrobel's Uiscel- 
laneen, Iv. iii. ; the decree of Dec S, in Hiiller, a. 8S3, Walch, zvl. 690 ; the proceed- 
ings at the Ket of NnreDiberg, Jan. 6, 15S0, in MolUr, s. 386, Walch, xtL 6B6. Stras. 
bnrg, however, Jan. G, cancladad a defensive league with ZOrich, Bern, and Bails ; 
Sleidanns, lib. vil. ed. Am Ende, p. S92. 

** From Ferdinand'a Epistle, addt«sMd to the Emperor just before (in Buchalz'a Gcscb. 
d. Begiening Ferdinand I., iii. 132), it is evident that both of the bratbors wero well in- 
dined to strictneis, and were restrained only by drcnmstancea. Ferdinand, in fact, 
was afraid that if Charles did not soon come the princea would elect a new king of 
Soma. Tha imperial sammona is la Holler, s. 412 ; Walch, xtL 747 ; FSntermann's 
Urknndsnbuch lu dar Oisch. das Reichstags an Angsbnrg, 1. 1. The diet was convened 
to coonsel about raalstance to the Turks : " flirter wie dar Itrung and Zwicipalt halbeu 
in dcm heil. Glaubtin nnd dar ehilatl. Beligion gahandelt nod beacbloisen wsrdon mug 
nnd solle : und damit solctta dester bcaser and heUiamlicher geschehcn mugs, die Zwic- 
trachten hinialegan, Wlderwillen la lassen, vergangne Irrsal onserm Seligmocher zu 
ergeban, nnd Flelss anzokehren, alls eina jeglicben Gtutbedanken, Opinion mid Hemung 
iwischea nns selbs in Liebe nnd Gutlichkeit lu horen, lo. verstehen, und za erwegen, 
die xo einer einigen ohriatlichen Warheit la brengen nnd an vergleichen, allea ao to 
beides TlieiJea nit recht ist aasgelegt oder gehandelt abinthnn, durch nos alle ain eiai- 
ga imd wabre Eeligion aazuoelmien nnd in batten: imd wie wlr alle nntar einem Chris- 
to sayn and streiten, also alle in einer Gemeinscbaft, Eircben nnd Knigkeit lu leben." 

*' This was preceded, on the 2!d of Febmory, by the crowning with the iron crown- 
There is an exact description of all the SDlBmnides of the coronation, by the papal Mas- 
ter oT Ceremonies, in Baynald. ISSO, So. 7 sq. Ct B. C. Agrippa De duplici OorooB< 
tioM Caroli T., in Sdianlil Scriptt. Benun Germ., IL 26G. 


136 FOURTH PEEIOD.— DIV. I.-A.D. I617-I648. 

lud negotiated very earnestly with the Pope on this matter, and 
OS the wishes of the latter wero not unknown, the Frotestanta had 
sufficient reason to fear the issue." In order, however, in accord- 

<* Cf. Ontio de CongreasQ Bananlenti Carol! Imp. eC dementia Pont, in Ph. Me- 
lanchthonis Ontianum t. v., p. 87. The Onitioni of the Pope uidof the Emperor there 
given are not authentic Id fbrm. The narrstor Ufa : nee tbto existimetii hanc naiTk- 
tionem fiagi, — sed vere insUtntam eaae haoc delitieraUonem, adhnc multi nomnt, qui 
JnterTaerunC, qni et sententiae aummam et verba qnaedam noatris amida narranint. 
Qua de re senteDtiae aamnam fidellter recitubo, etiamsi verba Dnmia refeire nan pos- 
sum.— Coelealinua (Hist. Comit, 1530 Aoguatae celebrat., i. 10) has incorporated both 
of tbeae oraUona, preceded by that of the imperial chancellor, Mcrcorinoa Gattinan, 
referred to in the Oratio of (he Emperor aa having been previooal;' dellrered ; bat he adda 
to it the remark: qnamvis orationia ejus eiemplnm deiideratnr, non eat tamon nolua 
obscomm et ignotam, haec ipaina proecipna capita ftiisae, et clarieaimnm rinim In haoc 
f^ aeatentlam verba feclsse. Accordingly, all three of the orationa are rhetorical am- 
pliAcaUons of the material) ; and It is theroTore remarkable that HCiller, a. 402, and 
Walch, xvi, 734, give them aa the onea actaally delivered at Bologna. According to 
other testimoniea, a fonnal loogoe vras concluded at Bologna, of the folloiring piir]>ort 
(fYaoc. Guicciardinoa lib. xix. p. 908) : Caeaar et Ferdinendus, ut haeretici in viam Iv- 
dacantUT omnem operun danto, ct Pontifex sacra remedia adhibeto : qnod u pertinacea 
peratiterint, Caeaar et Ferdiuandus eos annis cognnto, et Pontifex, nt caeteri cbriaUanl 
Principea ipsoa pro virlbus javent, openim date. On the ciicnnutancea, see Andr. If 
roceni Hist. Ten ~ - ... 

mandam, sed potius ad convellendam retigionem concilium postulare viderentm-. Quae 
rea Clementcm permovebat, Qe tarn facile Csesari Germanorum nomine condllnm po- 
tent! asaentiretur, vcritus ne illo ad labefactandam et penitus conTellendam pondflciae 
niajeatatis auctoritatem abulerentnr. Qoociica nonnnnquam moras nectebat. — Vemm 
quo minnj probare concUinm Pontifex videbatnr, eo magia Gennani, qni se Proteatanlea 
vocabont, Inatare ac fla^ptare, ne Clemena majors in dies increments auscitdenti mala 
nrmia occurrendtim ease >lbl in animnm induceret. Qua de re non modo graviter cum 
Imperatore egit, pecuDiaeque vim obtolit, vemm ea ae mente esse, Beipublicae (Vene- 
tae) Oralori signilicaTit, cunctosqui Chriatianos Prlocipea ad pinm pro avila religione 
bcllum susciplendum impellendea censere : quae graTissims in re Senatns ail aenlentia, 
cxqniiere, consiliom ab illius pnidentlB pelere. Senatas, qoi a hello atqoe armis ab- 
Elinendnm arbitrabatur, do jactata din Christiana repnhlica hac tempeatate in majotea 
procellas ac tnrbines incident, PonliliciB egregiam mentem extoUebat : — caetemm ad 
aleam belli niu necesaitate adactoa descendere miniroe probare. — Tanta in re Tel Sena- 
tva anetoritaite vel ralioDibus permatos Pontifex belli consilia abjecttj cum praesertfan 
ea temporum condiUo eaaet, at patina in eommonem hostemi arma vertenda, quam in 
propiia viscera saeviendnni asset, cum indjoa SolinunnDm ingentibns copiis in Panno- 
niam leversuram, Viennam oppugnataram minor affoiret : neqne Caesar ab iisdem con- 
ailiis abhorrebat, potiusqne coocordiae raUonea inveniri, quam armia deeenu cnplebat, 
in id aummopere intenCns, nt Ferdinandum fratiem proceram aui&agiia BomaDorum Be- 
gem crearet : qoodrca religionis eaoaam In futumm concilium dlMolit. No wonder that 
enapiciouB reports of these negotiationa came into Germany. That, May 17, 1&30, in a 
letter of Geoi^ Curio, there came fWim Venice to tba Elector of Saionj the tidings 
(Coeleatini HisL Comitionun ann. 1530 AugnaUe celebrstomm t. fol. 42, verao ff.), 
Italos in eo toloa ease, omnesqne ansa actionea et conatos tantum eo dirigere, nt Oer- 
mania vl et annia opprimatnr, fimditos deleatur et eradicetnr. Snmorem illic qnoqne 
aurrexisse, Komannm ImperMorem coiijanctis cum Pontiflce Tiribna et foedere facto 
IiUlheranoa ilico oppresaomm, ac nisi pameriot, vi et armis coactamm eass. That the 
Roman Cnria did, in fact, not ceiae advising the Emperor to violent meaaurea is proved 
hj the Inatmctlona which the papal legate, Campeggio, haoded to him at the IKet of 



anOfl with the summons, to he prepared witli an exhibition and 
defense of the new doctrines, the Elector not only asked from his 
theoli^ans their opinions tn writing (The Torgaa Articles),^ bnt 
also took with him to the diet the theolc^ans, Spalatin, Melanc- 
thou, Justas Jonas, end Agricola, while Luther, being outlawed, 
was obliged to remain behind in Coburg, the nearest Saxon city. 
Thus the Elector, on the 3d of Hay, entered into the city of Aogs- 
burg, where an naosnally large number of persons were present 
at the diet, in which, as it appeared, a final decision was to be 
made upon the religious matters so long kept in suspense. 



I. On tie Bulaiy of tit Diet iff Augtbtirg. Docdmento call«ct«d in HBller's Hiatone v. 
ata Eranget. SUDda Proto>tatioD (se« g 4, Note 39), in Walcb, xri. 841 If. Dr. K. E. 
FOntemanD'B UrkondenbDch zd der Getcb. des BaiehaUgeB xa Augtborg tm J. 1530, 
! Bde. Halle, 1833-85. 8. On ■ codex in the fonner unJTenily librarf of Helmatsdt : 
Acta in ComitiiB AQgnstcnii anno 1630, aee Henke et Brnna Annolei litanril, uin. 
1784, vol. iL p. 97, 

II. CenttB^oraneottt Beporit. Keporta of theembaeudoraof Narembergpreaent atthe 
diet, pnbliibed in part in Strobel'a HiacellanBen IKarariaGben lahalta, ii. 1, iil. 193) 

Augiburg (Ssnke, FiUvten a. Tolker Ton Sud-Eoropa im IGten n. I7ten Jahr., ii, ilL and 
It. S66). The EmpeTor waa exborted to unite witli the Cktbolic eatates, to work opinat 
Uie ProteaUnU, it first with promlxa aod tbreats, and then by vialence, and. after ttaiir 

inppnaaian, to estabibh an InquUition B}- conflscaUona mone]- enough might be 

gained for the mr with the Tnrka. 

•' Latter of the Elector to Lather, 3aaaa, Bagechsgen, and Melanciboo, Mar. 14, 1530 (in 
Fantemann's Uikondeabacb n d. Qeach. dea Raichatagg zn Augabnrg im J. 1530, i. 40) ; 
A high necenitj demanda "d&aa wir aller der Aitikel halben, darnm ^ch angcEeigter 
Ziriespalt, beide im Olanben, and anch In andem luaeerlichen Kirchenbriocben nnd 
Caremonlen erheldet, edib ftarderlicbalan dennasaen get^aat werden, damit wir tot An- 
fjngaolchea Belehitaga beatlndiglich nnd gmndlich entschloasen sejn, ob oderwelcher 
Gestalt, ancfa wie wait wir and andere Stinde, to die reine Lehre bey ihoen angenom- 
men and iDgelaaaen, mlt Gott, Gewiaaen nnd gntem Fng, anch ohn tieairerllch Erger- 
□ia* Handlnng leiden magen nndkonnen." The theologians were to hand <n tbeiiopin- 
iona at Torgaa to the Elector on tlie Sunday Oeali. — Fonnerly it waa generally taken 
for granted that. In conaoqaenco of this demand, the S^waback ArtUla were a^in pre- 
sented, and that on this aecannt they were aiso called Torgaa Artklti. Only Bertram 
(UaiL Anaeige, 17S6, ■. 447) and Weber (Owch. d. Aogsb, Confeaa., i. 16) oppoaed this 
view, and rigiitiy ; for the hijonctkiiu of the Eiectoi would not liave been aatiafled by 
the Schwabaeh Anjcias, which gave a repreHntatlon of the Christian (aith in oppo^on 
to the Zwln^ians. FOrstemaim (in the work cited tiefore, i. 66) has published SflTeral 
writlOD sammaries of doctrine (reprinted in Helaucth. Eptatol. ed. Bretachneider, Iv. 
073) by theologians of thia period, which he holds to be the Ariiculi Torgavieatei. Ac- 
cording to Bretachndder, p. 981, the artiaili twn concedoMli were the firat of theie (a. 
93), and the last eight are lost 



compute in diffisreat parti of Helancbth. Epistt. ed. Bretachaeider, IL 60 m., nud in 
D. C. nkemcher'i Gesch. des RelchRtagt zn Angabnrg, 1530. NOmberg, IS30. B. 
Baporti of the enbusador* of Uailbronn, TJIm, utd EiaUDgen, ara nud in Dr. C. 
ftafTs Uesch. dei Eelcbataga in Augsburg, 1£30. StoUgirt, IBSO. 8. Immedialtly 
aftei the diet appeared, with the imperial privilege, the CstboHc repreeeatatlon : Pro 
Beligjone Cbriatiana Rei Gestae in Comitiii Augnatae Vlndelicomm habitu. IbSO. 4. 
(reprinted in Cn>rian> Hiat. der Aogibnrg. CoDfeaalon, Appeodix, >■ 86). To refute 
it, the Saxon ciiancelloT, Dr. Gregorioj Brllck, wrote ■ Hiatoiy of the Diet, vhicli 
baa only recently been pnbliabed in FCnlemann'a Arcbiv f. d. Oeach. der kirchl. Rc- 
farmatlon, Bd. i. Heft 1. Halle, 18S1. S. Spalatin'a Anoslen, edited bf CnirUn, a. 
in. Later Worhi. Hiatoria dor Adgab. Coofeasion dnrcli Dav. CbjtrBeDm (Prof, in 
Rostock). Reetock, 1676. 4. Nawllch vermelm. Roelock, 1676. 4(Latin, bi-Hatth. 
Bitter, preacher in Frankfort a. M., 1578). Hiat. Comltionuo anna 1530 Anguatae 
ceiebralomifl, in qoatnor Tamos distribnto, per Georg, Coeleatiaom (provoat in COIn, ' 
on the Spree). Prancof. cla Viadmm, 1677 M. Both worka contain man; documents. 
Chr. Aog. Salig's Htat. der Angaburg. Confea^on, Th. i. s. 153-381. Planck'a Geacb. 
del Protest. LebrbegriK, iii. i. 1-178. [Wiber, Gescb. d. AQgib. Conf. Fraolif., 
lTS3-«4. 8. F6ratomann, Urknndenbuch, S. 8. Halle, 1836. A. G. Rudelbacb, Die 
Angab. ConL 1830 and IS4I. Other histories for the Jabileo of 1630, bj- Hammer- 
acbmidt, Scbott, FShenscber, Facioa, etc. Cf. Sartorius, Die Angsb. Conf. Editions 
bj Twealan, 1816 ; Winer, 1826 ; Uttmana, 1830 ; Francke, 1646 ; Holler, 1848. An 
English translation, with Introduction and Notee, by Rev. W. H. Teaie. Leeds, 1842. 
8. Compare, also, Eeppe, BekeantniuBchriften d. Altprot. Kirche Denlacbland, 8. 

As the Emperor was slowly joumeying from Italy to Augsburg, 
where the princes were awaiting his coining, the most violent op- 
ponents of the Protestants, Dake Creorge of Saxony end Elector 
Joachim of Brandenbarg, went to meet him, that they might en- 
list him more fully against the Breformation.' His hostility was 
made manifest, even before his arrival, in the reproadies he ad- 
dressed to the Elector of Saxony f and, on the very day of his ar- 
rival, in his exhortation to the Protestant princes to take part in 
the procession of Corpus Christi on the next day.^ Their determ- 
ined bearing, however, soon convinced him that nothing was to 
be gained by fear and threats. 

Uelanothon had made use of his six weeks of leisure, after his 
arrival in Augsbuig, in completing a ConfeasioD, on the boeis of 

■ Spalatin'a Annala, a. 132 ; Seckendorf, ii. 166, s. 

* Comp. Brack's Geacbicbte, in Fantemann'a Arcbiv, i i. 23 £ The Instroctions of 
the Emperor, Haj 26, to the Connta of Nassau and Nnenar, sent to tha Elector, in Forste- 
mann'a Urknndenboch, i. 220 ; they contain reproaches aboat his (the Elector's) non- 
obacrvance of the Edict of Worms, a anmmoni to Munich, and a demand that tha Prol- 
eatant sermons in Augebnrg be anspended. — The anaver of the Elector, ibid. a. 224. 
— Immediately after his arrival in Angsbnrg, the Emperor commanded that do preach- 
ers sfaonld speak in public but those appointed by himself ; see the Report on this point, 
Ibid. 1. 267. The report of the Nuremberg embassadors, in Melanchth. Opera, ed. Bret- 
acbneider, il. 113 ; that of Brenz, ibid. a. Ill ; Spalatin, a. 138 ; Brack, a. 38 ff. 

■ Brllck, *. 2S. Coelestinna, L fol. 80, verso as. 



the Schwabach and Torgau Articles, in which the doctrines and 
principles of the new Charch were so exhibited as to be intelligi- 
ble to all, and yet in a conciliatory spirit.* - Eeligious matters 

* Tbe Schvabacb Articlea are tlra baais of tin flnt put of the Confoaaion, containbig 
the articles on the faith ; tlie Torgau, of the ncood part, on abous. Tbe Confeaaion, 
In its llist draft, completed u early a< Haj- II (see Hie Eteclot'a Letter to Luther of this 
date, in FfirBlemaan'a UrkiuideDbucb, I. 190): "Nacbdem Uir mid andere anser Ge- 
lehrtCD CD Wittenberg auf nnser geniuliga Qeainnea mid Begehr die Artigkel, an der 
Beligion balbeD streitig seind, in Verieichnna bracbt, ata woUen wir each nicbt bergen, 
duAB itit allbie Uag. Fli. Helaochtboii dieaelbea neiter abenehen und in doen Ftinn 
geiog?D bat, die «lc cuch hiebey abersenden. Und iit utuer genidigs Degehrea, Ibr 
iTollet diaselbea Artigkel trailer zu abersehen und n liewegea nnbeschwcrt teyn, und 
in> ea encb dennaiaeD gefallig oder Ichtwu darvon odec darzuzasetzen bedachtel, daa 
irolletalao daraebenToradcben." Lntheranawered, IStb.Hay (de Wette, iv. IT); "Ich 
hab U, PbiLppaen Apologia aberleeen ; die gef Allet mil Cut vohl, and irelaa ulcbta dran 
ED beaaeni, noch uideni, mrde aicb aach niclit achicken ; denn ich so eantl mid leise 
nicbt tretcn ban." The Emperor's arrival being delajed, Helancthon naed the time In 
making a more carefU revision of the different articlea. Mel. ad Lutbernm, dd. 22. 
Jfaj. (ed. BretachnFldei, IL €0) : In Apologia qnotidie mnlla motamiu ; locnm de votls, 
qnia erat exilior instil, exemi, BnppoBlta alia diipntatione eadem de re panlo nberiorc. 
Kddc de poteBtaU clsvium dispnto. The Confeaaion was fint presented in Zalin, and 
onlj in the name of the Elector. It was thus commnnicatBd to tbe delegates of tlie cities 
on tbe 91st of Uay ; tlie Nuremberg embasBadon sent to the Conndl of Nuremberg on 
theSdof Jiuw(Uel. Opp.ed.Bretacbiieider, 11. S8), " Abschrift dee aichsiscben Kath- 
•chlags (that Is, of tbe Saxon propoaali abont Ihe Confea^on to be banded in) lutein. 
Itch, uod ist die Torrede Oder f^gang dorbeL Aber es mangelt hlDten an einem Ani- 
kel Oder aireieo, aamt dem Beschlnss, daran die lacbiiscben Theologi noch machen. — 
So dann solcfaer Bathachlag ins Tentsche gobracbt, wild der £. W. anch imTerhalteD 
blciben." The Confeaiion was then, b; the desire of the Protestant princes and cities, 
made in tbe name of all of them, translated into Qerman, and In this fbrm commnnl- 
calsd, Jane 11, to tbe delegates of the cities (£z tliario, in CTprian's Hist, der Aagibnrg. 
Coufesaion, s. S49). This Gernxna Gonfeasion wai tbe one sent bj the Noremberg em- 
baaaadora, June 16 (Bretachneider, IL 106) : It had not the ptvfkee nor the conclusion ; 
bnt the snictea on Faith and Wotka were added, wblcb are not in the above I^tin cop}-. 
These embassadors reported, Uth Jane (1. c. p. 112) : " Der Beschlnss — ist noch nicht 
gemachl. Denn wie slch Philippna Helanchthon vemehmen lisst, wild vielleicht die 
Sach aa keioer so weitlaafligen Handlang getangen, sondem noch enger eingerogen and 
kdraer gelaast nnd gehandelt werden." The aecretar}' of the Emperor, Alphonaua Val- 
desios, Iwd begtm negtttationa with Uelancthon (MeL ad Camerariom, Jnne 19, In 
Bretachneider, II. 119; theKorembergBeport, June SI, ibid., p. 122) Spalatin'a Report, 
in Waleh, xtL 912), in order to ascertain more exactly what the Lotberana wished ; and 
baddemandedof him to write down for Ihe Enq)eror"tlu articles which the Latherani 
desired to have, in the ahortaat manner. " Whether MeUnctbon handed in any thing 
in reply, and what It waa. Is imcertaln. At any rate. It b not tbe essay given by Coelw- 
tnof, fol. 93, b., with tbe conjectore, even then dispnted by Cbytraeos, that it was com- 
posed for that occadon. CTMb easay Is teprlnled and eommentad on In the work : Ph. 
Helancthon'a Unterscbied der Erangel. and Paplstiseben Lebre, edited by StrobeL 
Komberg, I78S. a.) These negottadana ondonbudly delayed the completion of tha 
Angibarg Conftaalon. So that when, on Wednesday, Jane 22, the Proleatant prince) 
were called upon to hand in their ConieBBion on the 24th, no clean copy of it was on 
hand, and they at first asked for delay (Brack, a. 60 f.). The Gwvuai Confeaaion, after 
Uelancthon had made changes In It np to the very last moment (Nuremberg Report. 
S6tb Jane, In Bretachneider, il. 129 : " Oemeldta Unteiricbt, so viel die Glaubensartikel 
belaoget, ist In der Bobetani Cut dem gemiaa, wie wir ea R W. tot nigeachickt, alleia 

:dbv Google 

140 FOURTH PEEIOD^DIV. 1.— A.D. 1617-16*8, 

were the first subject brought before the diet; and the work of 
Melaoothoo, the Augsburg Confession, was read in G-erman in 
the session of the diet on the 25tii of June, 1530, and handed to 
the Emperor in both German and Latin.^ By this Confession 

duB ae noch in etllcben StAcken gebeaurt, nnd allentlulb aufs gUnip^hBU gemachl 
— lat"), yrta «ngroBsed and laid before tbe Proteitaot eetitea (I. c. p. 127 ; ex diarie. In 
OrprlBn, a. S60). The Latin Confesaion appeua to bsTe been lunded in ia HeUncthoa'a 
writing (Weber'a Otacb. d. Augeb. Confeu., L Gl>. Of the German Conftaekn, tbe 
proper original one, there appeare to have been, on tbe S&th of Jnne, oply the draft pre- 
eenled to the Emperor ; tbe copy made for I^nremberg was not jnt flniabed (tbe Nnrem- 
berg Report, Jane 25, in Bretechaeider, ii. 129). Since tlnee copiM, now, and the otben 
intended for Ibe Proteal«nt eatales, were made from Melancthon's draft, Id itself hardly 
legible, and made mora Illegible liy many alteration!, It ia not anrprising tbat tbe copiei 
■till extant, whicb the estates took vith tbem on their return liome, deviate here and 
there from one anotber.^Tbe Cootbaaifm was subscribed by tbe Elector, John of Sax- 
ony, George, Margrave of Brandenburg, Ernst, Dolce of LCinebarg, Philip, landgrave 
of Heue, Wolfgang, Prince of Anhalt, and the two citiei, Naremberg and ReaUingen. 
Cf. EelJaer's Symbolilt der Lutber. Kircbe. Hamburg, 18S7, a. IGS. 

' On the reading of this by the Saxon duncellar. Dr. Bayer, see Spalatl&'a Annalen, 
s. 134 S, ; BrOck, s. 66. The Emperor gave the German copy, aa the antlientic one, to 
the Elector of ^jence for the imperial arcUvesj tbe Latin be retained. The latter, 
wiUi all the oii^nal acta of the diet, cuna afterward to the Cooncil of Trent, and was 
not returned CWeber'a Geieh. d. Angsb. Confeaa. i. 23S} ; if it is stiU ezlaot, it fs proba- 
bly to be'foond only in Borne. Tbe Latin copy was kept by the Emperor, and depodled 
In his archives at Bnusels, where, according to tlie tsaliinony of aereral witnaasei, it 
was still to be Anmd, 1660-68 (Weber, i. 76 ffl). The Emperor reqoaited that the evan- 
gelical estates should not have tbe Coofbasion printed williont hia knowledge (Brflck, s. 
{•6). Editions of it were, however, at once Isanad in aeveral places (six German and one 
Latin are known ; see Weber, i. 368) ; and as these were luade from copies of earlier 
drafts, and were incorrect, Helancthon pnbliabed an edition in 1630, dnrlng tbe session 
of the diet, in both German and Latin, in V^ttenberg (Prat/. None emittimns probe 
et diligenter deacrlptam confteaionem ex exemplarl bonae fidei) ; it was issued In 1681, 
in 4lo, with the Apology annexed. Tbe subsequent editions by Helancthon are altered ; 
bat the Snt one luu been often lUnce reprinted aa the authentic copy (Weber, ii. iS). 
But tlie ■triclar LotheraDs miatmsted even this flret edition of Helincthen. Tlie Elecl- 
Dt Joacbim II., of Srandenburg, therefore caused a comparison la be made l>y Coelesti- 
nns, 1666, with the alleged original In the imperial archives in Hayence (Weber, i. 109) ; 
and tlie Elector Angnet, of Saxony, had an attested copy of ib made in 1676. This is 
tlie source of the German text in tbe 6brpua BrandmburgiaiPt, and in the Concordia ; 
but the alleged original was only ■ poor copy, put In tbe place of tbe original, which 
did not come back from Trent ; yet it was coniidered to be the original work (Weber, 
L 187, 162, 1S7). Afterward even tbia copy wu lost, and the German edition of Me- 
lanctbon of 1640, also found in the Acts of tbe Empire, has been held to be the original. 
The Ihicbess of Weimar, In 1787, received a copy of this, and Weber poblistied an edi- 
tion, Weimar, 1781, which he erroneonaty thon^t to be the Augsburg Coofeulon after 
the ori^nai copy in the imperial archives. He found many opponents, especially Pan< 
ler and Bertram ; was convinced of his miatake, and made It good by hts Eritische Ge- 
ichichte der Angsb. Conf^ion ans arcblvalischen Nachricbten, ! Theile. TVankf. a. 
H., 1788-84. a— Aa to the Latin text, Coelestine's allegation, in bis Hist. Com., ii. 169, 
tbat Us edition wu after the orlgind In the imperial archives, ia incorrect (Weber, i 
86, 70) ; tbe text of tbe first edition of Helancthon Is adopted in tbe Concordia.— Tkui 
. a German text, moat nearly conformed to the original, is to be got from tbe finrt edition 
by Helancthon, and each copies of it as ato still extant, made at the diet for )he Prot- 

Diciiiized by Google 

CHAP. I^~GEB3iAS BEFOEUU.TION. g 0. 1530. Jjl 

Beveral of the estates of the diet may have received a more correot 
conception of the Refbrmatios ;' the ecclesiastical abuses, which 
it censures, were acknowledged by many ; but, as a matter of 
course, it did not do away with the ohjeotion taken by the oppo^ 
nents of the ReibnnatioD to the separatioa of the hierarchy from the 
Chorch, and to the Angastinian theolc^ of the reformers.' The 
Emperor, who expected more advantage irom rapid and deoisire 
action than from delates, had a Confutation' prepared by the 
Catholic theologians, the chief of whom were John Bck, Conrad 
Wimpina, and John Coohlaeus. After this had been read, on the 

MUnt estates. For tho I^tla text, tbe flnt edition bj Meloncthon la the diAj mm baiii. 
FdrsIemiQD, in hig Urhandanhach, hu pablished the Gennui ConfflaiioB mfter (he lec- 
ond Anaboch H3. (I- 369) i the LeCio, afler MeUndhon's fint edition Q. 442), irith va- 
liona readings from the beat USS. Kellner'i Symbolik d. Lntb. Eiiche, a. S26. 

* Spalatin's Aonalen, a. I4D; Duke WillUm of Bavaria afterward uid, "The}' had 
told liini Dothing beforeband about this matter and doctrine." Brucfc, s. 69 : Many of 
tbe nobles declared tliat tbej "bad beard ver7 different repreaeotationg of the aSUrs 
of tbe Elector, tbe princei, and the cities, from those gathered from the pablic reading 
of the ConftoiioD." 

^ Helanchthon ad Luthemni, dd. 27. Jun. (ed. BretschDeider, ii. 145): SubleTamur 
■antendis Uoguntini, Angnstanl et Bnmsvigii, aeque lii Talde pugnant. Bavarl etd 
dicebanUir facti audita confessione placabilioras, tomen a Georgia et Joochuno non dla- 
sentiunt. Hi Bunt duces, el quidem scenimi, alterios partis. Jostos Jonas ad Lothe- 
rom fere 29. Jon. (1. c. p. 154) ; Dicitur Eplscopos AaguitanuB (Christopb t. Stadlon. 
Cr. on him, Altdorfiiches literor. MoseuD), i. 103, BIO ; ZapT, Chr. v. SUdion, Zurich, 
1T99) in priratia coltoquiis hnjusmodi edidiste vocem : ilia qaat rtdlttta latU, Mra nnf, 
nut ptira veribu, nos ^isniinuf in^tErtorf.— 3a1(iburgensis (Hatthlns lang, cardinal) 
dicitur in privato colloqaio hone vocem edidisH: velUm uiramque apedem, conjugium 
litem ette; nlUm mufom rtfonnatam au<; vtlUm HberiaUm m cOiiiel aiiit traditionSnu 
ttm, et Mum ardmem tie tiare ; ted quod unus MaiuKhui debtat tu>i re/bntare oranes, Aoc 
ex turban paetm, lute noit at/trtndun. When Melonctboa spoke about hia conscience, 
be Bud to him ; " Was Coascieni, der Kaiser wird ttmturtatioiteni reijmbticae nicht lei- 
den." According to Lnther'a Wamlag to bis dear Germans (Walch, xtL 1988), tbe 
same cardinal alio said to Uelancthon: "Ach waswollt Ihrdoch an una Plkffen reloN 
minn ; irir Ffkffen sind nie gnt gewest." In the futtber de1it>erstloDa of the committaa 
of the Catholic princes, thej were irarned bj- the ffisbop of Augsburg, Aug. S (see Spa- 
latin's Kacbricbt in Walch, xvi. 1655), "doas sic daranf aehen sollten, mid wider Kecht 
nlcbts handelo, dano as sey ]a wohr, dass die Lutberiacbea wider keiuen Artikel dee 
Gtaabens halten ; damm soli man auf Uitlel und Wege trachtan mm Friedender Kirch- 
en. " Hewasiiolsntlyoppasedby tbe Archbishop of Salibnrg and the Elector of Bran- 
denburg, to that the ilector of Ibyeuce had to reconcile them. 

.* Tbe Gist draft of it was bonded in to the Emperor June 13, wlio, however, demanded 
■ ahorter and milder form (Cochlaeus de actis Lntharl, fol. 327, b. ; Spalstin, s. 148). 
Of thia Brat draft, which bad 280 pages (according to Spalatin). John Cochlaeus baa 
glren the sections on tbe first four articles of the Augsburg Confession in his Fbllippl- 
coe qnatuoT in Apotogiom Meloncbtbonis, Ups. 1534. 4 (republished ia Strobel's Bef- 
trige, L 418). A later rerision Is in Fonnula ConfutaUonia Aug. Conf. cum Latina tnm 
Oereuuuca, ed. Ctir. Q. HQller. lips. 1808. 8. In the form in which It was read it ma;- 
be found in Andraaa Fabricli Harmonia Aug. Confess. Colon. 1573. fol. ; in OelesUni 
Bist Comit Aug. celebnt, iU. 1 ; and in Chjtrael HisL A. C, p. 173. KdUiier, a. 


142 FODBTH PERIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1517-I61S. 

3d of Aagost, he wanted to look apoo the whole ofTair as coa- 
eluded.^- In the mean time, however, (he sadden departure of the 
LandgraTd Philip,'" Aug. 6, gave him additional evidence that the 
new &ith was already too deeply rooted to be set aside by state- 
oraft No less nnadvisable did it seem to make use of toice ; for, 
in contrast with the fresh enthusiasm of the Protestants, the Gath- 
olio party was lame : partly beoaose the Protestant complaints 
about eoclesiastical abuses were quite generally confessed to be 
justified ; partly by the doubt whether they could be sure of the 
support of their subjeots in a religions war ; and in part from their 
mistrust of the Emperor," and the fear that his power would, in 
the end, be enlarged by a domestic war. Accordingly, upon the 
demand of the Catholic part of the diet, a smaller commission 
was appointed to seek a reconciliation." The negotiations were 
begun with the best will on the 16tb August, the Protestant Con- 
fession being the point of departure. The Catholic divines, Eok, 
"Wimpina, and Cochlaeus, as well as the Protestants, Uelancthon, 
Brenz, and Schnepf, showed themselves very ready to accommo- 
date their dogmatic formulas in the discussions upon the twenty- 
one doctrinal articles — the first part of the Confession ; so that at 
last there were only three questions on which they could not anite.'^ 

* On (III! negotiaUoiu, em Brllck, s, 71, and tnm hira in Moller'a Htst. r. d. evingel. 
StUnde Protestation, s. 698. Walch, xvl. ISSl. — Huidlnngsn des weicem AniscbnsMS 
der Catbol. FOntea mit den Proteatantcn, mn dieeelben lur Machglsbigkeit in bewe- 
gen scit dem 6[en Aug. : Brack, s. 77; Hallcr, a. 706; Wilch, xtI. 1^. Tie Elector 
Joachim of Brundenbiirg, who wu the most actiTs in tbii caminlttee, is reported U) 
have said (Spulalin, s. llil) ; " Wo dieser CbnrfQnt eq Sachnn — derneuen Lntherischen 
Lehra nichtirOrde alietehen, so wOrden Kafa.Haj. ibm and ibren AnhSngem nach Din- 
den and Lenten, Leib u. Leben, Ebre n. Gut, anch Weibern n. Elndeni zntrachteD." 
The aamo la told bj- Coclestinni, iii. S6, itbo doCB not give the name of the speaker. 

" Brilcfc, s. 79 ff. MOller, e. 709. Walcb, svl. 1G52. Rommel'a Phfltpp d. Gron. 
natbige, 1.269; u. 246. 

" The beight to which this oppmitlon had riaen on tbo part of tba dukea of BaraTiai, 
wbo supported John tod Zapolia, and trere opposed to the Election of I^rdlnand as King 
of Rome, is shown hy a scene in the diet, in which the Emperor and Duke William of 
BaToria were the actors, aa related by Btnmpf in hli Baiems politliche Gescbichle, I. L 
67. On their doabta nbont tbeir anbjecta, sea tlie declaration of the Bavarian dnkes to 
the Emperor, 1523, in Stampf, i. 102. 

" The reporter tbeaetranaactioni ia In Brflck, a. 69 fF., MolIcr, a. 741. The acta are 
given most tally in Walcb, ni. 1656, FSratemann'a Urkondenbacb, li. il9. 

" See Spolatin'a account in Walcb, xvi. 1668; the minute of the evangelical party, 
aa to the ortidea in which they agreed, ibid., a. 16TS; the report of the Catholics, ibid., 
a. 1714 ; remarks ef the Proteatanta on the latter, a. 17S0. On the articlea IT., T., and 
TI., on Jostidcation by Faith, the Catholics repeated the poslUona already advanced In 
tbeir Confatatlon : opera noatra ex ae nnllina aunt meriti, sed gratia Dei fodt Ilia digna 
csnvita actcna: — Sdeapsrit bones tTnctna, fides Bine opeiibns mortna est; quod vcro 



Id the negotiatioDs upon the second part of the Confession the 
Protestants made advanoea on several points: much of the old 
order in government and asages, the power of the bishops," cere- 
monies, fasts, and festivals, as human ordinances, they declared 
themselves ready to restore,'* and they also promised to spare the 
cloisters ; on the other hand, they could not consent to a restriotion 
of the permission to celebrate the Lord's Sapper under botli forms,'* 

jtu^iutionem toll Qdei trlbnnDt, as dUmetro pagoat com Evaogtllca Tgiitat«, open 
nod axdudeale. H«ace they were nmdy, BCGordlng to tbcir report (1. 171S), to teach 
"that we become ]ait through fthb. Bat not alone through &ltfa; for gncb ■ doctrine 
In not found maj where in tlia Holy Seripturea, but rather the opporita. On thi» account 
it n-u at leDEth agiead that the word lola should not be lued 1 but it shonld be tenght 
that jDstiflotioli, or the ftorgiTaneu of gins, comee thniDgh grace (per graliam gratom 
ruclCDtcm), and throogh faith In us, and through tba Word and Mcrunenta, u inatro- 
menta." This was, in tact, the formula of union ; but the Prote>taot«, in Iheir Bamarki 
(9. ITSO), contradict the gronnd ben ginn for not using the word nii; tluy DulntaiD 
that their opponanta bad alio conceded that the forgiTcueu of sin> na not through 
works or merits but tbrough faith and grace, to which they would have ths sacraments 
added; IhereBpon the Proteatants had let tlie word tola drop, because dny did not wish 
by it to exclude grace and sacramenti, but only works. The dlfl^rcnce came out again 
diiUnctly in the twantielb article. Tbey agreed " that good works must be dona ; that 
lliey are neceaiaiy ; and that when they procwd tnm faith they ara well pleaiing to 
God, and that Qod, according to his promise, will reward them. Bat whether our good 
works sra merilorloua, and how br we ma}* rely upon tbem, they were not able to agree." 
So. loo, they did not ftilly come together on tba twelfth arUcla -. the Protestanta, Indeed, 
conceded the three porta of tepantaDCe. t'iz,, contrltio, confesilo, satiifactio; "yet in 
the matter [of confession] we must look to the absolution, and beliera that sin is fiir- 
ylvennson account of Christ's merits ;" as to satisfaction, they agreed "that sin is not 
forgiven on account of it, so far as concerns its guilt. Bnt they were not united on the 
point, whether the satistsction was necessary to the forgiTeneSB of sins, so far as the 
punishment is concerned." In fine, upon the twenty-first article thsy agreed, " that all 
saints and angels in bearon pray to God for us ; and again, that we thould celebrate the 
memoi; and reallvals of the saints, in which we pray to God that the intOTcession of the 
saints may be of service to us." liey disagreed al>ont the invocation of tbs saints ; tfao 
Protestants held It to be " a doubtful and dangerous thing," and would not consent to 
it ; " flnt, becinas the Holy 8criptat« did not command it ; secondly, because great aud 
perilous abusee spring from it." 

■* The Protestants, however, made this addition, s. 1688, 1739: "Docb damlt ungo- 
billlgt der oSantllohan Missbr&nche, dass die BiscbCfe nieht Fieisa haben, daaa man 
recbt prsdige, dass dis Sacramento enstlich n. christlich gehandsit warden, dass tdch. 
tige Lauto oldlnirt warden, dass dla Priestar ein illchtlg Leben l&hren, dass man den 
Danu In vielen 3achen mieebmncht," u. s. w. 

'* Brftek, s. 96. The opinion of the evangelical part was: "wenn alleln die Lehre 
von dem bibstlschen Theil gelitten, aneh nit nottig gemscbt wolit werden, daa Oott 
nit swini^leh odor nottig in Voratrickung n. Fahung der Gewisasn haben wolll ; was 
eie alsdann in ausserlicben Dlngen thun sollten b. konnlen, das ane Vorlegnng der 
Lehre u. de« danbens in Ainigkeit dienstlicb, dea an Ihnen keln Mangel sein sdlt, 
aUas in tragen n. in dalden, op ea wol nit nottig, noch ale daaselb scbnldig w&ren, 
alliin nm Liab u. Elntracht willen." 

" The Catholics would only concede (s. 1710) that the pastors, with the papal per- 
mission, "allein ibrcn PCurkindam, und alleln an denen Orton, da es bis hieher atliche 
Jahr In Branch gawest, das Sacrament — nnter beyder Geetalt dsnen, so as begehfsn. 


144 FOUBTH PERIOD.— DrV. 1.— A.D. 1617-1618. . 

nor to the restricted marriage of priests ;" dot woald they re-estah* 
lish the canoQ for masses and the private masses, with which was 
connected the doctrine of purgatory.'" The restoration of the 
episcopal authority had also, for the Protestants, a very suspicious 
«de. It was to be anticipated that the episcopate, dependent on 
Rome, which was not at all bound by these negotiations,'^ would 

4iuUieiIen ;" under conditions tliat coDfaasion precode, and tlikt in the celebration it be 
Mnght, " dau die EmpDthnng des Sscramenls nnter beyder Geatalt rcn Gott nicbt mu- 
ItOcklicb geboten aey, — da«a der guue Chrigtni gteich lOwol nnter ejner Geslalt, als 
unter beyden, gegenwSrtig aej und empfingen ««rda ;— and dau eie ihren UntertliB- 
jen, ao es unter einer Qestolt allaiu begdiren, onwegerlich relchen, od«r reichen lauen" 
(as in tbe Compactata oT Prague ; aee Tot. iii. p. 411, Note 31). The Protestanta, on 
the other hand, declared («. 1CS5) that, vhile they held to coBfeiaion, yet that thej did 
not conaider tbe particnlar enumeration of aim (s. 1731) to be neceaeaiy; and that vhila 
they could excuse the Church for tbe reception of tbe Enchariat under ona form, in view 
of post usage, ytt they could not teach that it was not wrong to racdve It In one form. 

" The Catholics aaid (a. 1T2I) that, although tbe prieata, on acconnt of their vowi 
and Gonsecratjon, coald not lawfully be raanied, yet they would bear with priests now 
married until a council should convene, but only in places where the marriage of priests 
was tbe custom. And Airier, before the meeting of this council no more sbonld be 
married ; and whoever wiahed to ^ve op his estate of marriage should be allowed to do 
so i and, in place of the married priests, anmarried ones sbonld be Instated as soon aa 
paaslble. It abould also be proposed to the council to decide " whether it were not welt 
faencefortb to concede that nuirled men might be admitted to tbe priesthood and or. 
daioed, in tbe way In whicb it was long aince a usage in the first Church for aome ban. 
dredyeara." The ProteaCants rejected these limitations, because the marriage of priests 
was to he held to be Christian and right. 8. 1733 : " Had ha* appointed thia meaua and 
medicine, for them to use who can not refrain. Hence he templi Qod who bal not tbe 
giflof cbasti^ and yet does not avBil himself of God's ordinance." 

" 8. 1722 : " Damit nicht eiu Wortgesftnk von den Worteo hoftia, oblatio, saolificl- 
am, odor Opferelcherhebe," the Catholics made the distinction, "daas Christus in dem 
Osterlammiein im A. T. flgOrlicb geopferti nnd dass nachmals denelbe Christna am 
Stamme des Creuzea gelitlen, aich selbst Gott dem Taler eln wahrhatUg Opfer filr die 
Sonde der Hentcben anfgeopfert ; aber Jetxond im Opier der Hease werde er myiteri. 
aliter et repraesentative, d. 1. sacramentlich n. wiedergedichtlicher Welse, la der Kirch- 
en tilglieh geopfert, znr Erinnernng nnd Gedlchtniaa des Lddens und Sterbena Chriati, 
einmal am Crenz vollzogen." The Protestanta declared themselves ready to make use 
<of the customary ceremonies and eccleriasUcal apparel ; but they would only allow of 
the public maiaea, "darlnuen etlichen aua dem Volke, so luvor verhSret, das Sacra- 
ment christlich gcreicbt wird. Die Privatmease aber, welche aie dieser Heynnng ge- 
balten, doss sie andern Vergeboug der SOnden ex open operato damit verdleneten, rer- 
werffen wir, dean es ist oScabar, dosa solche Application wider die Gerechtigkelt des 
Glanbeua streitet. Dean Bo die Mesae, auf dieae Meynung appliciit, Vergebnng der 
SOnden ex opere operate verdienet, folget, dasa die Gerechtigkeit nlcht ans dem Glan- 
bea, sondem aus den Werkeu komme. Item, ao jetzt erst in der Messe das Opt^ fOr 
die Sonde geacbiehet, wozo bat denu der Tod CbiiaU gedieut, oder lat das Leiden u. 
Sterben Cbrlatl nlcht genagiam lu Beiahlnng anaerer SUnde ? — Item Christus spricht : 
daa thnt lu meinem Gedichtnias.— We kanu aber den Todlen solcb Sacrament nHlaUcb 
■eyn, dJeweil in ihnen dai Ged^cbtnlss ChrislJ dorcb die Priealer nicht kann erweckt 

" PallaTtcini Hist. Cone. Trid., i!L 4, B: Tbe Cardinal Csmpeg^ in a report to 
Rome, gave five chief demands of tbe Protestants : tbe Lord's Supper under both Ibrm^ ; 
tba marriage of priests ; tbe omissioa of the canon in the mass ; tbe retaialDg of the con- 



soon endeavor to effect a complete return to the old state of tliiDgs. 
Those controversial points in which the Catholio party appeared te 
have yielded were rather evaded than settled ; the general ex- 
pressions of union were such as to allow afterward of a Catholic 
interpretation, which oonld easily be enforced as their true sense 
by the ecclesiastical anthority. Hence the Protestant statesmen 
took the ground, that there should either he no concession, or at 
least that the restoration of the papal and episcopal power was in- 
admissible.^ Kelanclhon, whose anxious fears'' undoubtedly had 

Sfcitcd ebnrch prepectf ; and tha alUng of ft conncIL In & Conaatorj, July G, it iras 
dstermined to yield iMiing. 

" Philip of Haua to his embuudon in Angibnrg, 99Ui Aug. (in Helanchlh. Op|i. 
ed. Bnit«chn«idcr, il. 326) : " Ich ksBD b«i mb nit btflnden, dua solche Uittcl, sId tey- 
cn kBch von Papi>t«a oder Evangsliicben TorguchUgen, umuuhmeD scpi. Denn ra 
Hjn Hlttel einm Betrags in bcfahrui, nnd le}-]! «Ileui tlittet tQi die Papistcn, denn lie 
wisMna nit mit Gennlt la dunpfen, nehnum lie nnn Liit doin. Uod damm Snmm* 
Ssmmanim iit meinfl Mdnang, blelbt bei meiner Vcmlchnisi, die ich ench mit meiner 
Hand gBben lub. 80 iber die Fspliten in ihren Landcn woUtcD die Prediger do lau- 
t«ni leinen Eruigell! ralaucD, nnd det Pfkffen £he n. Kloalcrpemmea Ehe nit Terbio- 
tSD, inch dia Todlenbitt d. Heiligea Anrnfen umt dem Cuon bllea Isaen ; ao irire 
ihaen in uidem Dingen Tiel am Uebe villsn nuhzniuien. Din Predig dea ETangeUi 
wOuIb wofal mit dn Zait anannten. — Denn wu iat alch Qnloi in reminthea, dieirdl 
lie dea TeoMa Be^meat nit TerUieeu, nnd doch die Wabrbeit erkennen, and ana gem 
nnue FMibeit imd Lebra In CliriBto binden mllten. Da ist nit Zeit Welchena, aondem 
alBhen bia In den Tod bet dar Wabrhelt. Tiel weniger Iat der Biacbdfa, Jurisdiction lu- 
mlaaaen, dlamil ale daa ETangelinm in ihren Landen nit an predigen noch za tralbun 
geatatten woUen. Denn da vOrde ala fain Naireiupiel ana verden, ao die lollten Ex- 
aminalorea tlber chrietllche Predlger leya, die aelha Id der Lebn und Leben Calphas, 
Aniua, n. Pilatos wirea. — Eaona nit gut werden, mnsi mana Gott beTeblen. Wllligt 
abw der Chniffint in etwaa, eo nAgt ihn an mich briogea. Zeigt den Stidtan dieae 
mrine Handadirift, and sagt Umen, dasa aie nicht WeibK aejen, aondern Mfainer. Ea 
bat kelne Koth, Oott Iat auT murer Selten. Wer aich gun Archlen irill, der fDrchta 
•ich. In keinem Wege Terwilligt, daaa man die ZwingUachen mit Gewalt dSmpfb, noch 
veijsge nnd Uwrziehe. Denn Chriitos bat una nicht berofen ia vertreiben, aondern lu 
heilen. Qceift dem remlLnnigeD, weltwelaen, venagten, ich darf nit wob] nieliT aagen, 
Philippo in die WOrfel." BrOck, a. 116, aaya, the evangelical party often declared to 
the Catholica, "daaa dulii wed voiitnnde, waa mit aolchen Fnrallgen gemeint vurde. 
Nemlich daaa man dieeem Theil eiliciier Gednldong halben daa Hani achmieren wollle, 
damit itinen der Soma dea Unkraata wiedenim beybracht nnd ontar den Walien ge- 
iticuet wnide, doch mit dem Schein, Ua aof ein CoDcQlain, irelcha daniach, vie die 
BibBt«, Cardinil, nod BiaclioTe ta Concillen Lnat a. Willan hitten,— mit FDnrendnng 
gnaasr forge&lleDer Sachen n. QeachUtm, damacb alao ron dner Zdt tai andem or- 
■trecken, daa* cndliolien nlchta danna trnrda." Melanehthan ad Lntbenun, dd. £9. 
Aug. (ed. Bretscboelder, II. Si8) ; Talda reprefaendimur a noatria, qnod jnrisdictionem 
nddimna ^nacopla. Nam vnlgoa aianefactum libertati, at ssmel excnaao jngo Epiaco- 
porem, aegre patltnr aibi roraai Imponl ilia Vetera onara ; et maxime odemnt illam do- 
minatlODOn civitatca imperii. Do doctrlna Teligionia nihil laborsnt; tanbun de regno 
et libertata almt aoUiciti. 

" Helanchtbon ad Lnthemm, dd. SG. Jnn. (ad. Bretachneider, 11. 12S) : acerbiaalmaa 

ao miaaniaiaa cntM, in qniboa hie Teraamnr. — Brentlna aiiidebat haee icribentl, ana - 

laciymaiu. Ad Vitnm Theadotum, eod. die 0- c. p. 1!6) ; Hie cc ' 

VOL. IV. — 10 


146 FODETM PEBIOD— DIT. I.-A.D. 1617-1M8. 

a great effect upon the negotiatiotis,^ was blamed by many for bis 

tempos ia lacr^-mU ac luetn. Ad CuDeratiani, dd. 26. Jan. (p. 140): AnimoB eat oc- 
cnpatiu mnlta miserriiniB cnria, non propter caussm noatram, wd propter DOBtTDnim' 
hominnm iacariam. De me vols te bono animo etst, qnia cammeada ma Deo, dXXo 
Sav/iairrai' ti eiercEt dos, de quo non posenm nlai coram loqoL Hie letton (o Lutber 
and Veit IKetrlcb, 36th and STlb June. Jonas ad Lulberum fere 29. Jud., p. 1G7 : Ad 
Philippam vellem dares qaam creberrimas lll«ras ; ndrabili enlm trittitia est, qna non- 
nunquam ob publicaiD caoaam afflcitor. Osiander ad Unckinm, dd. 4. Jul. p. 168: 
Pbilippus mnltis laboribna, rlgiUis, curU inaceratuB et exhanstaa nonnnnquam melan- 
chulka qoadam triatitia et qnaai desperationa vezator, Dulla exlante cauea, quae not- 
tros pleroeqae Talde dejecit. 

** How far Helanctbon went for tbe sake oT peace ta ahown by hia negotlatioaa with 
the papal legato, Campegpo. Ha wrote to him, July 6 (Bratachneidar, li. p. 170) : Dog- 
ma nnllnm habemns diTeraam ab Eccle^ Romana.— Parati aamns obedire Eccleslae 
Komanae, modo ut ilia pro saa clemSDtia, qua semper erga omnea gentes usa eat, pauca 
qnaedam tcI dlaaimiilet, vel relaxet, quae Jam mntare ne qaidem si vclimna qaeimna. 
— Nullam ob rem aliam plus odii sustinemiu in Germanla, quam qoia Ecclesiae Koma- 
nae dogmata eamina conitantia defendimua. The 7th Jul., p. 173: Paucla rebus vel 
eondonatla, vel dtaiimulatia posset conatitui Concordia, videlicet ai Doetria atraque ape- 
cies Coenae Domini permittetetur, ai conjugiu aacerdotnm et monachomm tolerarentur. 
Hoc ai sperte concedi non videretur utile, tamen praetextn aliqno dlaeimulari pouent, 
videlicet qna res extrahatnr, donee S}-nodus convocetur. In the aame spirit were com- 
poaed the propositiona which he aent to the legate, Aug. 4 (1- C' P- US}. When he here 
uniformly aaaerts that the Protestant doctrine is the old and genuine doctrine of the Ro- 
man Church, he can not Intend to mislead any one abottt the nature of this doctrine, ao 
far ai it was contained in the Confession which waa Juat about to be presented. Tip to 
the time of the Council of Trent ■ great varictj of opinion was tolerated in the Catholic 
Chnrch, especially in tlie doctrinea Od anlhropology and sotcriology now contested ; and 
that strict AngusUnianism which the Piotestaats insisted upon bad hy no means been 
formally rejected. Even the Cardinal Campeggio ia reported to have aaid that the di- 
. viaion in respect to doctrine was, for the moat part, only a dispute about words (Sallg, 
i. 2ST). In order, now, to make the Proteatant estates Inclined to union, the theolo- 
gians who acted in tbe sense of Melanctbon declared to them (aea their Opinion, Aug. 
£5, in Bretschneider, ii. 2S1) that the doctrine shonld remain free, the Lord'a Supper be 
under both forms, that private masses abould bo rejected, and the marriage of priests 
retained ; bat that in all other eccleilsstical ordinances coneea^ona could be made. 
Especially did they use all means to make the princes Inclined to the restoratioo of the 
epiacopal ioriadiction. S. 2S3 : " Die Ordnnng dase dis BlachoOb fiber die Priester ala 

nents in der L&nge nicht warten ; ist Ibnen aneh olcht mOgtich i dazu kostet cs 
ale viel, so dagegen die Bbchottb ihre GQter darum haben, daas sie aolch Amt auaiich- 
ten. Anch gebfihrt nna nicht, dieeo Ordnung, dass Bischoffe fiber Priester Bind, welcbe 
von Anfang In der Kirche gewesen, ohna grosee und dringende Ursache lerrdaaen. 
Denn es ist anch Tor Gott fshrlicb, PollUen ladem und lerrelssen. Dann wiewohl der 
Papst ein Antichrist iat, eo mogen wir dodi imter ihm aeyn, wie die Jnden snter Pha- 
rao In Egj-pten, and hemach nnlcr Caipha, so una dennoch rechte Lehre Iny gelaasen 
wird." Helancbthon ad Camerar., dd. 31. Aug. (I. c. p. 384) : Aegre patitmtur civltatea 
reduci in nrbes illam Episcoporum domlnntionem. Et sspiunt, sed quo ore eiiplemus 
eis, si nobis penulserint doctrinem t Quid ? Quod omnia qnae largiti sumua, habent 
ejustaodi excepUones, ut hoc metuam, ne Eptacopi exlatiment offerri pifurra irrt dX^I- 
nati: sed quid potuimus alludf Qaanquam, ut ego quod seotio dicam, ntinam, atlnam 
posaim non qaidem dominatlonem confinnare, sed adminietratlonem reatitnera Ei^aca- 
porum? Video eniin,qnBlem slmui hatdturi Ecdesiam, diaaolatawaXmlnecclesiastica. 
Video poatea multo intolsrabiliorem (iitnram t}:raanldcm, qosm antea nnqnam ftait. 



concessions ; some even viewed him as a traitor to the commoa 
cause." But Luther, who fi-om Cobui^ was oonstaatly sending 

" Saeb Itk* reparla *rar« dlaaemioated very earl]-. Boaelliiu writes to him from 
Tenlca u ioan at July 6 (ed. Bietichaaider, ii. 227), that ha hud heard, t« UiTqii fac- 
tum Cardlnali Campe^o, — taqne tnaqae omnia jndiciii «t aapienUae PoutiScu maximi 
■objecitM ; in the ■cmewa]', Aug. 1, p. 218, ■ndexhortghlm toateadfaatneiia. The ne- 
gotiatiooi for nnion afterward gav« occaiion for miitnut ; aee I^ndgrare PliUip to La- 
ther, Aug. 34,(iii Xendecker'a UrkDnden, a, IGS): "wir aelieD ea darror an, daaa aich 
(tie Sach >d eeltaam ingetragen haben, leis Philippl Helanchthonla El^mulhigkeit 
Schold. Sie haben aich anch in ihren Qbergeben Aiticnla m vid begeben." Tbe Nti- 
rcmborgera were particolajlj diaplBowd with Helancthon ; »e the latter of the Nurem- 
berg embaaudor, Hieronfmna Banmglrtner, to Lazama Spengler, lath Sept. (Lebena- 
beachr. I«uri Spenglen v. Haoadorff, a. T2): "FhiUppaa lat kindiicher, denn eln Kind 
Rorden. — I>ie andem aichnachen Tfaeologi dorfen wider den PhilippDiD nit oflbntljch 
reden, denn er den Sopf dennaaaen geatrecket, daaa er nealich gegen den LDnebnrgi- 
aehen Canilei geaagt: " Wer aagen darf, daaa die nachat nbergebne Mittel nit chrisl- 
lich, der 10^, all ein BOiwicht.'' On Sept. 15 (a. 75) new complunta about "the the- 
ologiana ranning abont and nnchrlatian doings." The7 treated aecretlj with the oppo- 
nenta, made onchriatlan propoaala, which conld not be folfllled, la order, aa it aeemed, 
to maintain peace, andafterwari to do wliat thej- pleaaed. "Uffdieaem Beichatag kein 
Uenach bia nlT beatigen Tag dem Evangelio mehi Sclutdeni gethan, dann Pfailippna. 
Er iat anch in aolche Yflnnraaenhelt geratfaen, daaa er nit allein aiemand will hflreu 
anderat davon reden nnd rattien, aonder anch mit nngnchicliten Flnehen n. Schelten 
iKranafahrt, damlt er jedennaiin erachreck, and mlt aelner Eatlmation nnd Aactoritet 
dimpfe." Spengler la therefore aaked to write to Lather. That ha bad done tbia before 
appean trota tnther'i anawer, Ang. !S (de Wette, iv. 158) ; be alao wrote abont it to 
George Vogler, Chancellor of tie Uargrare of Brandenbnrg (Voeaenmeyer'a kleine Bey. 
trlge mr Qeach. dea Beichatagi m Angabnrg, 1580. NOmberf^ 18S0. 16. a. S2 ff.y 
Wenc. Link now wrote on thia Bcconnt again to Lather; aea hia reply, SOIh Sept., la 
de Wette, iv. 1ST. Uelanchthon ad Luthenim, dd. L SepL (ed. Bretachneider, ii. BS6) : 
Hon credaa, qaanto in odio aim Noricia, et neecio qniboa alila, propter reatitatom Epii- 
COpla jnriadictionem. Ila de ano regno, non de Erangelio dimicant aocii noatri. Bom- 
gartnema acripait, ma, ai qaanta maxima pecnnia volniaaem a Romano FontiSce con- 
dnctna eaaem, non potniase meliorem rationem aaacipere reetitnendae dominationia Pon- 
tiflciae, qnam banc eaaejudicent homioea, qaam Inatltolmna. Ego nollom adhnc artl- 
cnlnm deaerni, aatabjecl, qni ad doctrinam pertineat; tantmn atomachantor de politida 
rebaa, qaaa non eat noatram eripere Epiacopla. — On the other hand, Uelancthon waa alao 
accoaad afterward of falae dealing by the oppooeott; aeeCoeblaei Pbilipp.i. (we abore. 
Sou 8) p. 10 (In Rapiald. 1580, Ko. 84) : Plajia Intalligit Tna Majeatoa, hominem ia- 
tam blaudiloqnentia hjpocriaiqne ana mlplna improbina egiiae Angnitae In comitila, 
qnam apertU convlciia et amamlentlia egit procnl deliteacena et abaens Lalherna. Bio 
enim conaneto more convilisbBtar, pleblaqoe odlnm in clerom excitabat inatar leonia 
m^entia ftroclene ; Hie vero inatar draconia inaidiantia ftandea intendeni, non plebem, 
•ed magnatea hjpocriai ana circnmreiure aatagebat. — Cnmqae noa aliquando qnerere- 
mnr Angnitae aaper vialentla et leditioala librls Lnthari, qnoa unnm poet alimn mittabat 
UInc eo qooqne tempore, quo oohta non parra erat apea tollendae diacordiae, Pbilippus 
blandina reapondebat, non attendendnm eaie qnid Lnlhenia acrlberet, aed quid Princt- 
pea Lalheraai Caeaari proponerenC, quid facere, quid agnoaeere rellent. Qoam aubdole 
rero egerit cam Legato nemo melina novit quam Legatna Ipae. Qal lacbiymia piimnm 
preeiboaqne illioa non aatia fidena, Jnaalt ilium peUtionem anam In acriptia tradere : nee 
tomen omnem per hoc vnlpecnlae l^adem prseoBTere potult. Didlcit enim panlo poit, 
illi nihil Bdendnm eaae, poateaquam audivit, Ulnm — in odinm theologonun, qnibna re- 
apondendl negotinm commiaerat Hqjeataa Tua, — jaotitaaae, Legatum ea admiaiaae, in 
qnibna maligne adTenarentor theologi. — Tanta eat ntrinaqoa impndentla, ut et Philip- 


148 FOURTH PEMOD^DIV. I.-A.D. lfil7-184S. 

bb advioe and judgment, did not misunderstand liis troe compan- 
ion. Although he bad from the beginning seen with a clear eye 
the danger of these negotiations, and had demanded an uncondi- 
tional peace instead of any attempts at union,** he still acknowl- 
edged that what Melancthon yielded was in itself ellowable,^^ 

piu LuUivto buo diierit prirBtim, et Lutlienu publice scripierit, Legatum illam dixisse, 
■dmitti quidem potae Lutberi dDCtriaam. Md Don oportere, ne farta ab Bliia quoqne lu- 
tionlbui approbetur. Qtum impndaiu vera ait mendaciaiii iitad, Majegtas Tu» probe 
novlt, cast. 

'* Lather'i Eputle la the Cardinal Archbisbop of Ment, 6th Julj, with the wcond 
Psalm (at ance printed and aeiit U> Angibarg), in de Wette, iv. T£ : " Hie bitte icb nu 
Bufa unterthanigBt, well keine Hoffnang da ist, diss vir del Lehre eioi werden, £. K. 
F. G. wollleo wmt aodera dahin aibelteo, duet jeoea Thsil Friede halte, and glaaiie 
ITU e* iralle, nnd laiM luu anch glsaben diesa Wabrbeit, die itzt fur ihren AngeD be- 
kanot, nnd UDtadolig ertundsD iat. M*d weiu ja vohl, dau man NiemaDd bdU noch 
kann inm Glauben cwingen, tteliet anch veder ini KaiBers noch Papat Gewalt ; denn 
BQcb GotC Klbt, der nber alls Gewalt iat, hat nocb nie keinen Menachen n^t Gewalt 
inm Glauben wollen dringen: was ontenleheD aich denn Balcha lelne elenden armen 
Creatoren, nicht alteia inm Glanben, aondeni anch lu dem, was sio Mlba flir fulachc 
Lugen halten mOaaenj 711 zwinganF — Will nber weder Frieda noch fjDigkcit folgen, 
. weder Gainatielii Kath noch der Apoatel luid der jQden Exempel helfen : lO lau bhren, 
waa nicht bleiben will, nnd aCime, vers nicht laseen will ; er wird Zoms u. tJnfriedes, 
daniach er riaget, iibrig gnng finden." And now bo expounds the !d Pealm, " Wbj 
do the beathon rage," in Ita bearing) on preaent events ; a noble monnment of bis cour- 
age above all evtbl}^ fears. — How much Lntber was opposed to the negotiationa fbr 
union, see in his Letter to Uelaaetbon, !6th Aug. (llnd., a. 146) ; Quid ego minna un- 
quam speravt, et quid adbnc minna opio, qoam ut de doclrinae concordia tractctnr ? 
Quasi vero nos Papam dejicere possimuB, aut quasi aalvo Papata nostra doctiina satva 
esse pDBsit !— ScEd Tos Evangelium semper ezcipere in istispactis : sed metao, ne poalea 
perfidoB aut incooBtantei Iniimulent, >l nan Bervemus, quae volaeiiiit. Ipai eniin noatru 
eoncesaioues large, largius, lar^ssime acclpient ; snas vere stricte, strlctiua, atticUsume 
dabnut. Summa, mibi in totum diapllcet trtdatna de doctrinae concordia, ut quae 
plane sit impoaaibills, niai Papa velit Papatnm saum aboleri. Satis erat, noa reddidisse 
rationem fidei, et peters pacem. 

** Excepting that for a short time he seems, through the complaints of tbe Nurem- 
bergers (above. Note SS), to have feared that Melauctbon might be misled by tbe crafty 
artsof the opposite part}- to field too much J but he was convinced that what was against 
the Gdspel would at once be repelled by bim anew. Sea his Letters, Aug. 28, to Spala- 
tin (de Watte, iv. 1£>5) : Jam in inaldiis versati cansun noetram, Ipsi videUs. — Ipai quae- 
runt, ut domiuautur fldei et conscientiia, et arte ista vos avocaro volant a verbo, quod 
latis video, Tenun nihil metno, qoia N insidtia pergent, impingent ipai in noatraa io^ 
diss. Nam nbi boe unom tenoeritia, tob nihil contra Evangelinm canceaauros ease, aut 
Concesuaee, quid tum aunt illoram insidlae ? — Et esto, aliquld maniCcata (quod noo faci- 
etisChriito fkventc) contra Evangelium coucesseritia, et ita iaaaccom aliquem aqnilam 
istam conduserint: veniet, ne dubita, reolet Lathams, banc aqnilam liberatorus mag- 
nifice. Ita vivit Cbristns, verum hoc erlL To Melancthon (a. 156) : Ego in tam crasaia 
inndiis forte nimia secnma sum, aciena, voa uibil posao ibi eoaimittere, nisi forte pecca- 
tum in personas noatras, ut perfidi et mconatantes aiguamur. Sed qaid poatoa J Cauaae 
coDStantia et veritate facile corrigatur. Qnsmqnam nolim hoc contingent, tamcD sic 
loqnor, ut si qua contingent, non esaet deaperandum. Nam ai vim evaeerlmna, paca 
oblenta, ddos ac lapaoa nDStTOi facile emendabimua, qnouiam ragnat aaper noa miseri- 
cordia ejos. (TUb laat Bentance has often been perverted b; tbe Catholic polemica of 
the ruder sort, at though Lather here coofesscd that be bad made uao of Jo/i; while be 



and defended him against unjast aconsations,^ and sooglit to in- 
spire the timid with his own cheerful conrage.^^ However, those 
articles, whioh we have ^ken of above as those in which they 
could not agree, were ao important to both parties that the pro- 
jected anion £uled on acooant of them ; and even the n^;otiations 
of a still smaller committee, from Aug. 34 to 29, led to no result^" 
On July 11 the four cities exoladed from the Protestant league, 
Strasbnrg, Constoace, Memmingen, and Lindau, also handed in a 
Confession of their own — the Confessio TetrapoUlana,^ which 

auniftiUf ipuks only of the iota tt laptOiia into which Blelaoclbon mlgbt ba Lrought 
by the tiuidioc of tin opponents; see GiBseler'a £»■}■: Etwa* Qber den Reichstsg in 
Aogibnrg, im Jahre 1630. Hunbarg, 1821. 8.} Compara the letters of the ume date 
to Joitni Jonu Miii Lazanu Speogler, 1. 157 tt. — Yet here thnngboat ve Bud ooly gen- 
eral ctntloD ind uiKietj, but not dI*approbation of what had. basn alrud; done. Where 
Lalliei lud occuion to apeak upon the debated points he vhoD}- ngnoc* in theoty with 
Uelancthon, bat holdi that union could not be eSfacled. Tliiu lie wrote npon an Opin- 
ion of Helancthoa'a abont the Pope (Uelanchtli. Open, ed. Bretacbnelder, il. 818): 
" Wena der Papat lolcha wnllt dngaben, ao acht icli, wfr Lnlliertachen wolltan aeina 
Ehr u. Oberkeit bmar helfbn achfitian nnd handhaben, denn der Kalaer leibat a- alle 
WelL Denn wir kflnnteoa thnn ohne Schwerd, mit Gottea Wort nod Knit, wtlcha der 
Eaiaet mit der Fauat, ohne Oottea Kraft, endlich nicht ahalten kina." Compara La- 
ther'g Bedenken Ton den Compoeltlonamitteln (Spalatln'a Anaalen, a. 370 \ WaJcb, xvi. 
1700). It la thera aiid abont the joriadiction : "Ea lat eluvergeblich Ding, dan man 
von der Jnrladictian handett : denn wo aie una nicht leiden, nnd nichta nachlaiaen, lOD- 
demttracks Immerhin rsrdammen wollen ; ao kfinnea wirkcdnerJnriBdlctlon voQ ihnsn 
gewarten, olm dei Bfeialers Huuen (the executioner). Wol lata wahr, wo aie nnaero 
lelua woUten leUan, n. nicht mehr Tsifolgen, » wollten wir Ihnsn keinen Abbtncb 
than an iluer Joriadiction, Digoitit, oder wis aie ea nennen. Denn wir liagahreu txj- 
lich idcht Biacbof, noch Cardinal m aejn, aondero ollein guta Chdsten, die aoUen arm 

" LathertoHeUDCthon,llthSept (deWetta,iT. leg): Obaecm te, mi Philippe, ne 
te maceres ex ilianun Indiciia, qnivel dicantTcl icribnnt, voaniminm ceatina Papiatia. 
Oportet enim bz noatria eaaa inSima*, qnonun morn <t inArmitataa (bra*, nlai Tell* 
ICom. 16 Panlnm coatamnere. Jnrladictionem Eiriscopia redditam ipii non aatis inielU- 
gnnt, nee attandnnt ciicmnatantiaa aiJieotas. Atqne ntinam Epiacopi earn acceidaaant 
tub iatii eonditlonifana : aad ipii habant nana in (nam ram. Ad Wenoeal. Unk, dd. SO. 1 
Sept, 1. c. p. 166. 

" Aa to the Elector and other compwuona In the bitfa who were aeliTe at Aagabnrg, 
ct. hia lettera written from Coborg to Aogaborg. Eapedally did ha inspire tlie heart* 
of hi* foUowera with hia own boldneu bj the heroio aong: EimefaU Barg iti muer 
Gott, which wBi compoaed at thia time at Cobnrg, according to the teatimonr of hi* 
cantemponuiea, Hieronfmn* Weller, Sleidaiuu O'ber xvi., anb flne), Chftraeiu (9>z. 
onia, ad annnm 1580) ; see Rlederer'a Treatlae on the Introdnition of the Gennan Song 
1 ito the Erangelical Lntberan Chnreh, pabllalied at Nnrembarg, I7G9, a. 306 ff. 

" BrOck, a. 105. Holler, a. 800. Walch, xvi. 1788. FAratemann, ii. 190. 

" In German and UUn bj Hut. Bncer, with the aid of Wolfg. Fabtidna Capito and 
Ciipar Hedlo, written In Angabnrg daring the diet ; aee Oottl. Wenudorff Hiat Con- 
feu. Tetrap. Witeb., 16M; ed. W, 17S1. 4. J. H. Fei'a Ka*. de Yaria Confeuionl* 
Tetrapolitaoae Fortnna praeeertim in civilate lindarienaL Qatting., 1765. 4. J. O, 
Schelbom Amoenltatt. liter. t1. 305. Dan. Oerdea Scrininm Antlqnarinm, t. IBS. The 
Confkauon tn Latin in the Corpn* at Syntagma ConAaaionem fldel, OmeTae, 1613. 4., 


150 FOOBTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.-^D. 1617-1648. 

in like manner was responded to, Oo^ 17, by a Confutation.™ 
The Confession sent in by Zwiagle made the most unfavorable 
impression,^' and was answered by Eck in the most reckless 
style.*" ' 

Tlie Protestants demanded a conncil ; the Emperor acceded to 
the demand, but wished that, provisionaUy, the old eoolesiastioal 
ordinances should be re-established.'^ After threats and negotia- 
tions^ had been tried in vain, the final decree of the diet was 
drawn up in the sense of the Catholic majority, without allowing 
the Proteatant rejoinders to be heard, or the Apology for the Con- 
fession,^ drawn up by Kelancthon, to be received. 

ii. 215 ; in Angiuti Corpu librornm Symbolic, qui in EccIs^m RefDrm&tornm ancturi- 
tstem pabiicuD obtinoenint, Elberfeld, 1627, p. 327 sa. { and in Niemej-er Collrctio 
CoBfeatioDnm in Ecdesiis ReromuUi publiotamin, Lips., 1840, p. 740 m. The article 
tm the Lord's Snpper, which done occa»ODed the BepBrsdon, ii here presented amblen- 
onsl]' in Cap. 18 : (Chriatna) non minus bodle, qnam in noviaainiB itla coens, omnibus, 
qui inter illiua diacipnlos ex ■nimo nomen dederont, com hinc coensm, ut ipse instiluiC, 
repetont, venm snum corpus vemmque saam ungnlnem vere edendum et bitiendum 
in cibam potumque anioisrum, qoo lllae <d aetenum vitun alantnr, dan per sacra- 
menU dignatar.— Praecipna Tero diligentia popnli animos noatri Ecclesiastae sb omni 
turn contentione, turn saperracaneB et corioBu disqaisidone sd illud nvocant, quod ao- 
lum prodest, solumque a Christo seiraloie nostra Bpectatam esl, nempe at ipso paatl, 
in ipso et per Ipsum vivamus Titam Deo placiUm,— «niiuqiie inter doi omues unua pa- 
nls, unum corpus, qui de nno pane in sacra coena participamus. 

" The Confutation written by Faber, Eck, and Cochl&ut, wai first published by 
Miiller, FemiBla Conrutationis Angnat. Confessionls, Lips., 1808, p. 191. On the dis- 
cuasioQB at and after the readin)^ aee Sleldanus, lib. vii., ed. Am Ende, p. 429. Tie 
StrBBbarg divines prepared a '' Tindicalian and Defense in writing" against the Confa- 
tatlon, which was published with the Canfeseio Tetrapolltana in 1631. 

" Ad Carolnm Bom. Imp. tiermaniae Comitia Angustae celebrantem fidd Hnldrychi 
ZwingUi Ratio, Tigorl, 1&30. 4,, in Niemeyer, p. 16. It was dated July 4, and was 
immediately aent in print to Angaborg (Hesi'a life of Zwinglc, in Dsleri's translation, 
9. GSl). Bncer and Cspito wrote about it to Zwingle ; Ton confcssio qnosdam ofTendit, 
St pottsaimnm duobns tools : altera cam dicls, quoadain respectare ad ollaa Aegyptiacas 
(the Lutherans in the doctrine of the Lord'a Supper), quod urit Lntheranos, altero cum 
scribis, pedatum et mitiatum genos EpiBcopomm Id ease in Ecclesia, quod gibbi et stru- 
Dista in corpore (Mailer's Schweizergescb. continned hy HotUnger, vil. 816). Melinc- 
thon to Luther, 14th Jnly (cd. Bretachneider, ii. 193) : Zwingllns mllit hue confessionem 
impressam ^is. Dicas almpUelter mente captnm ease. Cf. Salig's Qesch. der Angib. 
Conf., i. 881. 

" Bepulsio Articniomm Zwinglii Caes. Ut^estati oblatornm. Aag., '^nd., 1530. 4., 
nilten in three days, and dated July 17 (Besa-Dsteri, a. 634). In reply : Ad illostris- 
rimos Germaniae Principes Angnstae congregatos, de ConTitiis Eccii, Epist. Hnld. Zwin- 
glii, TtgnH, 1S30. 1. ; published 27th Aug. (Hess-Ustari, s. 638). 

" See these negotiations fh>m Sept. 7,inBrOck,s.lS&; Moller, s. 84S ; Walch, xvi. 

'* Hegotlationi for peace between Georg v. Trncbsess and the Baden chancellor, H<- 
eron. Tebos, BrOck, a. 155; Holler, a. 866; Walch, xvi. IBIS; Fdntemann's Uikuo- 
denbncb, ii. 41 S. 

" When, on Sept. 22, the first decree of the diet, concerning tbo faith On Walch, xvi. 



The final decree of Uie diet, published Nov. 19, allowed to the 
Ffotestants time for consideration until April 15, 1531 ; and inti- 
mated forcible measures if this period should pass without their 
yielding.^ Although, from the bearing of the strongest Catholic 

1S48; Funtemaon, IL 474), iru re«<] in psblic <>m tb« uconnt in Bruck, a. IgSj snd 
In Fdratenuan, from the Acti of the Uargrarate of Brandenbnrg, !!. 4TB), Dr. Brfick. 
in the name of tlie Proteatanta, contradicted the aaaertlon that their doctrine had lieen 
■nfficientlf refuted, and handed in the Apoloffg. The Emperor, jiut on the point of n- 
cfliTing It, iru led to refiiM ite reception b; a llgn bom his brother (BrQck, i. 184 ; 
Spalatln'g Annali, ■. 197). The Apology, In ita ahortar fonn, aa it vaa to hare been 
presented at Angabnrg, la aitant in tiro Latin Tflceaalona ; the one ia in Cbytraena, p. 
SS7 ; the other In FOratemann, ii. 4S3; in Oerman, by the latter, a. 630. Melancthon 
therenpon roviaed it, and pnbliahed it with the Conlbeaioa in Wittenberg, I53I. 4. (aboTe, 
Note G) : thia reviaioQ waa aftenrard received In the a}'mbolical booka ; K&llner'a Sym- 
bolik, a. 419. 

" The decree ia la Moller, a. 997 ; Walcb, xii. I9S6. After an IntrodncUon on the 
object of tbe diet, tlu Brat topi«a iDtrodnced are the rellglona dJaaenaiooa and the read- 
ing of the Angaburg Confesaion, " Und wiewol wir nich gehabtem beatandigea Rath 
treSllcher Theologen n. SchrtftgelehrteD ana vielen Nitiooen aolch ihr Bekenntnias mit 
dam Evsngelio a. heilLger Schrift mit gntem Gmnd wideriegen n. ableinen lasaen : ao 
bat docb aolcbea ao viei nicht veifangen, daaa aie licb mit ana, GmrfOnteo, Flirsten, 
a. andera gemeinen StAnden in alien Artikein veigllchen hltt«n." Hence It iraa de- 
creed: "dasa sle aich nriachen hie u. dam nOchatkOntTigen IGteo Tagdeg Honata Apri- 
lia bedanken aollten, oh ale aich der nnTsiglichenen Artikel halben mit dor chrJatlichen 
Kircbeo, pipatlicher lleUigkeit, una a. den andem ChnrfOrtten, FOraten n. gemdncn 
Stinden dea heil. Beicha, aucb andem chrbitlichen Haaptem a. Gliedem der gemeinen 
Cbiiatenbeit, milleneit der Erfirtorang cinea nlchatktlnftigen ConcUil Dacbmala beken- 
nen und vereinigen wollen, odar nlcbt Dnd daas ale noa ihrer GemQtba nnter ihren 
Inaiegeln vor Aoagang obgemeldta (taDfiebnten Tagea Teratiadlgen : mlttlerweil woll- 
ten vil mu daranf ancb bedenken, naa nna in thnn gebohren wolla, n. atadann ihoen 
nnaere Hej-nnng gleichfalla erOffnen." In tbe mean time, the Proteatant princes were 
not to allow any thiog new on matters of faith to be printed in th^ lands, to entice 
none to join their sect, to allow tbe free nse of their chnrches and worship to those of 
their Bubjecta that adhered to the old faith, and to work, in common with tbe Catholic 
princes, against the Sacramentariana and the Anabaptlata. Since no eoondl had for a 
long time been held, and "yet very many abuaea and caoaea of complaint may for a 
long time liave been penetrmting into Onr common Chriatlani ty,*^ thenforv tliB Emperor 
promiaea, " bey pfipatl. Heiligksit, n. alien chriatl. KSnigen a. Potentaten » vlel zu 
veifQgen, daaa za chriatl. Bafbrmation ein gemein chriatlicb Concilium inDerlulb 6 Uo- 
naten, den ntchaten nacb Endang dieaea onsera Relchataga, an gelegene Halatadt aoa- 
geadirieben, n. das nun fOrderlichiten n. anfa lingste in einem Jahre nach aolcbem 
Ansscbniben gclmlten soil warden." In fine, the Protestant priccea were to restore tbe 
deapoiled cloisters and otlier apiritnalldea "ohne alle hGttel n. mm forderllchsten." 
" Es haben aber der Cborf. v. Sachaen u. seine Hitverwandten obgemeldt aolchen nn- 
sem gnsdigen Abscliled nicht annehmen wollen, aondem abgeacblagen, nnd daranf nun 
Thell von hinnen vsrrflckt." Next abont the Conftaaio TetrapoUtana. Since the four 
eltlea of tbe empire "im Glanben aich von — der gemeinen Chriatenhelt abfjtsondert, 
mid die achwere Irrsal wider daa hocbwQrdlge Sacrament, dergleichen der Bildstiknnnng 
n. anderer Saehen untenogen, — *o batien wir — daranf ein Gegonbericbt in dem Evnn- 
gelio n. hcU. Schrift gegrflndet, Uimi verfaaaen, den wir ihnen-^IAntlich haben tUrlc- 
sen, ale daranf gnSdiglich erinnem— laasen, diew^ ^e ob aolcher nnaer Confntttion 
ihren frraal kllrlicb vermerkten,— daaa ale von demaelben granumlicben Trrthiun ab. 
atOnden." Tbe co^fy of the Confatatiaa asked for by the dtie* had indeed been refliaed i 
bat yet the repetition of the pablic reading of it bad been enjoined, and the demtnd re- 


152 FOURTH PERIOD.— Drv. I.-A.D. 1617-16*8. 

powers, it might have beea inferred that these threats could hard- 
ly be carried into execution," yet the Protestants saw the nepes- 
aity of putting themselves into a condition for defense. The 
doubts previously entertained as to the lawfulness of a league of 
defense against the Emperor were set aside.^* At a congress in 

Deired, "dasa sie solchem nnwm Begehran nacbmsli Slatt thnn vnUteD: daon wo 
solche chrlstenliche Ermahniuig a. Eiiniiening bey ihneii nicbt lUtUubea iroIlM, — so 
hOanUn dieselbe Tier Scltdt gedenben, diaa Wir vemnscbt werden, an* in den S)ichcn 
ID erzeigeD nnd id verbalteu, wle Uni ala rCmiicbem cbriall. Saiier, obersten Toigt n. 
Scbinabem der b. ebriBtl. Kirchen voa Amta wegeo unserm Gewiaaen iwch gebubrt, vie 
vonnali in der ConfaUUan gemelt ist. Aber auf lolch uud derglelchen unBer gnadigst 
Erionern n. BcgehreD aund die Gewndten der berCbrten Tier Sc^te snf ihrer Mej-nung 
beatuiden." On the other hand, the Emperoi and the other ealates bad united in re- 
maining by the old f^th, and rejecting all the erron and noFeltiea thai bad pressed in. 
Aa examplsa of anch mere alleged the doctrinea, that in the aacrament of the altar the 
body and blood of Qiriat were not eaaentially, but in figure, preaent j that every one is 
boand to receive It under both ferms ; that the msaa ia blaaphemy toward God ; fiutbor 
changes in the maia, and abolition of feaata and foal-daya ; rejection of intant liaptiam, 
which olhera alao allow to be performed by laymen ; despising confinDstion and extreme 
unclion ; destruction of imagea ; the doctrine that lher« is no free-will, bnt that all is 
by necessity; that there should be do magislralea among Christians; that mere faith 
saves, withoDt love and good works; demolition of clmaten, churches, and allars; al>- 
oUtion of ceicmonies ; doing away of preaching in the Uendicants' cloisters ; peraona 
compelled by Diagistrates and lords to hear, not tbe old, but the new pieacbere ; confis- 
cation of eccleaiastical poasesiuons ; arbitrary procednres about the cloisleis ; dismission 
andinstitutionof preachers, and abolition of the jurlidlction of bishops. It is plain that 
tbis confused mixture, in which tha proper views of tbe Proteatanta are placed along- 
side of errors which they vehemently oppoaed, would natnrally arouse tbwT indig- 

" In the last general aaaembly of the princes, Sept. S3, the Elector Joachim, bi tha 
name of the Emperor and the Catholic estates, did, in fact, deliver a menacing addrvsa 
(BrOck, s. 190 ; compare FOrstemami'a Archiv, ii. 607), in which the Protestant doctrine 
is declared ontright to be heretical and fuUy refuted; and then followed the menace, 
that if the Protestant estates would not accept the decree, the Catholic " alch lu Kals. 
H«j- Bla eehorssma Fnrsten de* Ttflichs Torpflicht, ihre Leib u. Gut a. allea Tormogen 
dannseticn, dsmlt dieser Sachea gehollbn mochl werden, wie dann auch Kais. H«]. ibn- 
en hinwiedcF troitliche Znsagang gethan, all ihr Vormngen daTzusetcen, Kunigreich a. 
I^nds, auch aus dem heil. Rolch lut lu liehen, bis dieaer Handel lum Ende bracht 
wards," etc. ; and there ia do manner of doubt that this tbrest, avowed In the preaenea 
of all the Catholic priucea, aa Joachim afterward declared (BrOck, a. SOS), was determ- 
ined upon by all the Catholie estalea ; and yet Hayence, Treves, the Falalinale, Duke 
George of Brunswick, and Louis of Bavaria, hastened at once to assare the Elector that 
this b}' no means expressed their aentimenta, and that they were very fkr from intending 
a war of aggression (Brilck,!. 308 ff.; Spalatin, a. 198). 

" Opinion of the Joiist* of WitUnbei^ Welch, x. 666 ; When a judge goes on with 
a process; after an appeal has been taken, he may be resisted by force. So, too, with 
one who decides beyond the bounds of his Jorisdictlon, and beyond his judicial powera. 
Hence, in such a case, tbe same holds good of the Emperor. The Opinion of the theo- 
logians rests on that of the juriatj (ibid., B. 660 AT.) : "weil das Evangelium bestitiget 
welttiche leiblicfae Reglmente, so soil aich eln jeglicher Ffirst gegen seinen Herm oder 
Kaiaer halten vermOge denelbigeu natOrlicben and wettlichen Regiments nnd Ordnnn- 
gen,"abont which tbe jurists are just tha persona to be beard. Against unjust violence, 
oven when it proceeds &om tha Emperor, the rtilels themselves are bound to protect 



Smaloatd, to whidi were also admitted the fonr cities that held 
' to the Zwingliaa vie'ws, a protest was adopted against the purpose 
of the Emperor to have his brother Ferdinand chosen King of 
Rome ; the Emperor was petitioned to prevent the ordinances for 
restitution hy the imperial exchequer and the highest court of 
judicature ; and it was determined to send a written jostification 
of their positions to the other Christian kings.^* At a new assem- 
blage, filarch 29, 1531, the Smalcald League for six years was 
formed for mutual defense.*" The Leagne was still further 
strengthened- hy an alliance at Saalfeld, Oct. 24, 1531, with the 
dukes of Bavaria, in opposition to the election of Ferdinand as 
King of Rome ;*' and also in union with Bavaria, at the cloister 
Soheyern, May 26, 1532, hy forming anotlier treaty with France*' 
and with Denmark." 

Under these circnmstanoes the Emperor did not dare to carry 
into execution the threats of the final decree of Augsburg. The 
necessity of rest and peace became, however, still more imperative 
in consequence of the irruption of Soliman, in the spring of 1532, 
into Hungary and Austria with an immense armament.** The 
electors of Mayence and of the Palatinate undertook to mediate ; 
negotiations were set on foot at Schweinfurt, and afterward at 
Nuremberg.*' The confederates of the Smalcald League at length 
assented to Luther's proposal to restrict the peace to those who at 

their nibjceti. Comptfe Lother'i Letters to Wenceal. Link, l&tb Jan., 1G31, in de Wetle, 
W. 212, and to Lu. ^ngler, IGth Febr., 1631, ibid., a. 221. 

■* AbMliiad del erslea CoDventa zn ScluiulcsldeD t. SI Dec. 1S30 in Hortleder t. d. 
Uruchen dee Deutachen Kreigs, Tb. 1, Bnch B, cap. T. Walch, zvi. 2143. PioteaUlioa 
gfgBD die WfthI Ferdinanda t. 24 Dec. in Sleiduiai, lib. rli., ed. Am Ende, p. 412. In 
apile of tlufl, Ferdliund iraj chosen bj tile Callialic electoral princes in Cologne, and 
cromed tn Aix-U^h>peUe, Jan., 1531, la plain vioUtion of tbe Golden Bull, and 
oT tbe imperial capttnlaUon about electiooa ; lee Bommel's Fhilipp d. GrosomQtluge, 


** Doenments In Hortleder, i. 8, 6. Waleh, xri. 21T0. The first coofedentea were 
the Elector John, the Dnliei Philip, Ernst, and Fiani, of Branswick-LCniebnrg, Land- 
grave Philip of Hesse, PHnce Wolfgang of Aohalt, Counts Gebhardt and Albrecbt, of 
ManifUd, and the cities oTStrashiug, Lln), Constance, I{eutliDgeit,MemminBen, Lindan, 
Biberach, Iwnl, Lflbeck, Hagdeborg, and Bremen. Rommel, i. 296 ; it. 263. 

*' Stnmpfs BdeiDS polit. Gescbichle, i. 69. Urkondenbacb in denelben, I. 16, t. 
Bacholta's Geech. der Begienmg Ferdiaands I., Bd. iv. (Wien, 1^), a. 161. 

** Uemoiies et N^gociations de GuilL dn Bella]- (tnoBlates en Francois par I'abb^ 
CI. Fr. Lambert. Paris, 1763, 7 voU. in 12), lir. Iv. StampT, i. 03. Crkandeobnch, L 
26. BommeI,I.Se8; iLSde, 

•■ Rommel, i.!gS; 11.267. Stamps L 93, 97. 

** Banmer's Oesch. Enropa's acli dem Ende de« foubehnten Johih. i. 488. 

" Woleh, xTi. 2183. Bommel, 1. 2»9 j ii. 272. 


154 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. J617-1W8. 

that time confessed the principles of the Reformation ;*' and thus 
tiie Religious Peace of Nuremberg was brought about, July 23, ■ 
1532. This provided that rehgious matters should remain in the 
same state in which they then were, until they could be settled 
by a cx>unail or a new diet*^ It is true that only an imperfect 
state of peace was thus attained ; yet a period of quiet develop- 

" Lntber'a Jadgment on the qneitioD, vhetber it shonld be inii«(«d upon thit ttmte 
Bhould alao be inclnd«d in tba peice who ihoiild in future cmfeig tbe Angibiirg Con- 
tewion ; In de Wette, iv. S69, ST2, 380. His Utter oT June iS to the Elector, i. BBS i to 
tba electoral prince, ». 384. He remu-ka, in oppodtion, ■. 872 ; " Wir wiUigen hiemit 
nieht, deu den Andern dw Evingeliiun (oil Terboten Oder gETrebret verdea, londern 
mcben elnen leitUchen Frieden fur una, salten □. konnen aucb mit Recht nicht anderc 
Oberkeit ivringen, dau ale die Ihren eicbem eollten uaiera GefalleDB. — Wenn i*it nu 
mit (Kandlichen Sncben n. Vennabnen nicht konnen erhaltcn, due der Kiitet die 
Seinen sicbem eoll, eo konnen wir nicbt inebr tbun, u. aind entacbuldlgt. — Zam vierten, 
so ist ]s ein jeder Christ scbuldig, daa Evsngelium Buf eigen Fihr m glinben n. la be- 
kennen.— Zum ftinflen, qnod tibi non vis fieri, Blterl ni feceris :— Nn woUte keine Ober- 
keit diesea Tbeila, dui ondere Nebenfurstcn aie ztiingen salllen, mit ibren Uaterthi- 
nea m michen was sie woUten." To the elector, a. 382 1 " Furwabr, iro Eaiaerl. Uaj. 
aolcbe Artikel bewilliget, wie wir aie itit — rerindert ; ao hat seine Kalieil. Ma], gong 
gethan, a. wird binfQrder beyde Schdld n. Unglimpf unser aej-n. Denn Gott grOaaet 
niis gnadiglich ; danken wir ibm nicbt, bo weiden wir oiu bOcUich veraGndigcD, dazu 
aneh kein GlOck haben. Demoach bitte ich E. K. F. 0. allemiiterthludgit, £. K. P. G. 
wollten mit Ernst einsn guten, borten Brief binana den UaBera tcbreiben, n. trenlich 
vennabnen, aie wolltca docb aacb anaehen, wie Tiel n. gnSdig die Kaia. Maj. aae nach- 

*' Id Hortleder, 1. 1, 10. Welch, xvi. 2210. In this are omitted tbe preTiena denunda 
of tbe Catbolic party (a. 3ISB),that beyond the Angabnrg Confteaion there ahotUd be no 
fdrther innovations, and that the Protestants abonid not stand by tbe Zwinj^iana and 
Anabaptists. Tbe^ Protestant demand, tbst the peace shonld also extend to their fbtnre 
ulbea In tbe faitb, was. In fact, completely set asMe by tbe explicit enumeration of the 
estates comprised in thia peace. Besides the general statements abont the peace, and 
tbe obligation of tbe Proteatanis to aid against tbe ToAs, tbe fallowing article ia the 
only one of Importance : " Dain hat die B6m. Eais. Maj. zd mebrer n. besliindlger Er- 
haltong BoUbes obgemeldten gemeinen Friedens gnldigllch bewilliget u. logeaagt, daaa 
Ibte Maj. alle Becbtfertigrmgen in Saehen den Glanben belangend, ao dorcb Dire UaJ. 
Fiscal, n. andere wider den ChnrtOrsten an Sachsen n. Ibre Zogewandten angefangen 
warden, oder noch angefangen warden mOchten, elnstellen wolle bia m DBchatkttnJU- 
gem Concillo, Oder ao das Concilium nicbt gebolten, duccb die Stinde in andere Wega 
darein geaeben werdea," Against Rommel, 1. Sll, it is to Ije noted that thia assurance 
la also adopted, word for word, in tbe Imperial coDflrmation of the peace, Aug. 2(Walch, 
xtI. 3238) ; it did not belong In the mandate of Aug. 8, aluce thia only preacrikiea to the 
estates what tbey are required to do in conaeqnence of the peace. The landgrave Philip 
would not, for a long time, recede fhnn the demand to Inclnde the Aitnre confessors of 
theBefarniBlion(Rommel, i. 805; U. 274; ili. 45 f. ; and the Judgment of the Hessian 
divines, in Nendecker's Crknnden, a. 19E^, and (bond also other objections to tbe treaty. 
Thna he justly thought that tbe assnrunce, as given above, was too indefinitely expiesa- 
ed, and would have preferred to bare said, " daaa in Saehen, den Glanben and Religion, 
n. was doraoa flenast, u. dem anbangt, belangend, mit alien gerlcbtllchen Processen, 
ExecuUoD, 0. Handlnngen, so von dem Kaiaerlicben Flacal oder aof jemanda Anhalten 
fOrgenommen seyn oder werden mOchlen, atillgaatanden werden mOase" (Schmidt's Ge- 
cept tbs peace, bnt snb- 


CHAP. I.— SWISS REFORMATION, g 6. 1S26. 155 

ment 'was again insured to the Reformation. 7he enhanoemeiit 
of the moral power of the Smaloald confederates was also a no less 
valuable result of this peace ; for the oouoessions thus made to 
them, after such definite threats, would necessarily heighten their 
own self-reliance and the respect felt for them by others.*^ Im- 
mediately after the conclusion of this peace occurred the death of 
the Elector John the Steadfast, Aug. 16, 1533; he was succeeded 
by his son, John Frederick. 



Job. via Holler and Robert Glnti BlaUbeim's Geacbichlen SchveizerUcher Eidgenos- 
aoDicbtft, Gontinned b; J. J. Hottioger, Bd. tU. ZOrich, 1B29. [Oilier worki ; ko 
above, p. 11, 12.] 

■When Zurich came to a decisive separation from the Roman 
Church almost all the other confederates seemed ready to unite 
in forcing it to recede &om its innovations; but the views and 
aims of the several cantons were so different that they coald not 
work together with earnestness. The decrees of the Biet of Lu- 
cerne, Jan. 28, 1525,' were intended to reitiedy the universally- 
acknowledged defects in ohuroh government and dis6ipline, and 

** This prace bu been freqnentlf blamed witbaiit anfflcientlf conaideriiig that tbe 
pMrioiu condition of tbe Bmalcald leagnen was very oppreastve, aa, in their nncertaln- 
ty about tlie fntare, tbey must oliraj-B b« prepared for irar; and tben, too, tbere vers 
•0 man J who look part in it that unbroken anion wai not to be expected (Luther to tfao 
electoral prince, Febr. 13, in de Wetle, It. S38 : " Zudem eebgn aach Jetit R F. Q., wis 
hate D. gewiaa die StUte a. Verliundntw lulten, due et nichta anderg let, denn prftch- 
Uge Gedanken n. kOstllcha AnacblAge, welcbe faat trSetlicb scheinen, well keine Noth 
vortundaD iat ; aber wena ea inm Tieffen kSmt, ao wird ea atles in Waster, nnd ist nle- 
aand dahdmen ; so sindt sicb denn keln BOrger noeh Stadt, die nin cInA FOralen wll- 
len >ein Leib n. Gat wagen will*^ i and, besides, the Emperor could not concede anj- 
tblng more witbont alienstlDg his tmeat adberenla. King Ferdinand s^d he woald not 
mt nndl tbe Lntheran sect was abolished, " even if ha were to go a begging" (Secken- 
dorf, iiL 3T) ; and be gave a report as earl; as March, with taan, to the papal legates, 
aboot tbe secret negotiationa for peace tlut were going on (Pallavidni, Hist. Cone. Tri- 
dent, iii. 9, S). The Elector Joachim of Brandenbnrg said ha wonld " ittber lose land 
and people, die and rot," than conaent to peace with the evangelicals (Sedendorf, nbi 
sopra). lie papal eubasaadDn, as soon as they beard of the negotlatlona fbr peace, 
fauiated (PallaTicioi, 1. c. | 6): baereticU Indaciaa qnoris tnodo laxari, idem ease ac 
opportnnitatem' lie largiri snae polentlaa conltrmandae, qua magla inanpenbiles Tedd». 
nntnr. Even France and Bavaria represented to the Pope that anch a peace wonld be 
disgneefnl (PallavicinI, L e. J 7), which ia sLki a proof of what the Protestants might 
aspect from these alUea as soon as tbe political circnmataneos cban^. 

■ Sea tbcM In Bnllingar, i. SIS ; eztruts in MDller-Hottinger, vii. 169. 


X56 FOUBTH PERIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1517-1&18. 

thtts to satisfy the longing for a reformation without lendiDg the 
Church. But they did not go into effect ; to some they seemed 
too insignificant, to others too presumptuous ; thus the discussions 
about them only served to bring out in bold relief tlie internal di^ 
vision between the zealous CathoUo cantons and those that were 
wavering.^ In proportion as the former held fast to the old order 
of things, avowed their hatred of Ziirioh, and endeavored, in their 
domain, to extirpate with fire and sword all the seeds of the Ret 
ormation ; in the same degree were the latter repelled by them, 
and made more inclined to the side of the Reformation, for they 
felt deeply the necessity of eoolesiastical reforms, while at the 
same time they were unwilling to have domestio peace disturbed 
by them.^ The Catholic cantons now acceded to the proposal of 
Dr. Eck to demolish the itmovations by a disputation,* and, after 
long conferences, brought this about at Baden, May 19, 1526.* 
Zwingte himself could not appear there without endangering his 
life ;^ in his st«ad Oecolampadius took the lead of the Reformed 

> Bnlllager, i. 338. SAlat On HdUeT-HottingeT, vU. 161) : ■'AUo leifielend die Ort 
ilcr Artiklen lulb, mublend viel b«B<mdres ; wena dau die Zoricher merkUnd, wurden 
sle iUilz aod handfeat in ihiem Fumemmsn," etc 

' Bern endeaTored, by an embasay, Nov. 29, 1&3S, to indnco Zoricb to reaton tbs 
iDiai for the aalie of peace (see Bnllioger, i. 398): " So fern man denn die Hcaa vieder. 
urn ana&bme, wcrde man nf die Bilder n. andere Ceremoniec wealg netieii. Oder dau 
Zoiich jocb Dm ao Tiel wlche, daas ^ ein Meaa dea Tagi ia itir Stadt halleo luund." 
Zurich letiDte den AnOsg ab, aea ibid. But noir that the atrict Catholic cantona preaeed, 
in Bene, for the exclusion of ZOricb fmin the aeagiana, Benie pnbliahed a public decla- 
ration, Jan. SI, I53S (Fosali, U. 802), that, though lt< mediatioD had been fluitleas, it 
would not aeparate either from Zurich or the other confedentel) but would tmlj bold 
to the league it had aworn t« keep. Clandioa Uaj-, in Berne, wrote, Dec. 19, 1G36, t« 
Zwlngle (Zwinglii 0pp., viL 1, 4S1) : Ansp[cia bona. Certnm hsbeo, Testroa dondnog, 
qui hie fuemnt, uottros Ingenuoa socios ease, et candlde quoque dimisaos, id quod Voliii 
referent. YiderunC volnntatem, qua in civitatem hoaeatam Tigurinam aS^cti eanmacDni 
spe, unicltiani inter noa in dies auctum iri. Teatri legatl facile cogoitnm babent, qna 
Diente major pan apnd noa adhuc ait 

* Eck hod alreadj olfoti to do thia in a letter to the diet, Ang. IS, 1G34, which Zwln- 
(^le St once pnbliihed with a reply; *ee Zwin^'a Werke, ii. ii. G99, where the further 
correapondence la ako given. Ct Bollinger, 1. 331. 

* The invitation came, March 38, trtaa a diet in Lnceme ; BuBhigGr, I. 337 ; UfiUer* 
Ilottinger, vii 80 ; the letter of Invitation to the Biahop of Conalanee, aee in Eapp't 
Nacbleae, iii. 8G2. 

* Hia brother-in-law, Leonhard TVemp, member of the great council, warned him, Bt 
ibe end of March (Zwin^ 0pp., vU. ^) : " HOtet eucb bey Leib n. Lel<en, dasa ihr 
nicht gen Badgn kommetl denn ea wQrde an eucb kein Gleit nlcht getuillen. Und 
rlaa welaa icb ; dartun ao hutet Eucb I der Mumer, der BUerabnb, iat in Laiem Offbnt- 
lich an die Kanzel geatanden, n. hat mit lanter SUmm Ik. aufgehabtem Am geredet : 
Zwingli, icb Big dir ab an Leib u. an Gut ; n. will dlch nnterrlchten, daas du ein Ter- 
fOhrer dea armen Chrlatenvolka bist, eK." Zwingle, on tbia account, reftiHd the in- 
vitation j we Ein frOndlictMi Oeaclirift an gmein Eidganosien, Slat April (Zwin^'i 


CHAP. L—SWISS REFOBUATION. g 6. 1616. 157 

theologians. Id this Catholio region it seemed as though the nu- 
merous Catholio party, appearing with great pomp, would dazzle 
the eyes and intimidate the heart by its confident hearing ; but 
the quiet and firm rejoinder of Oeoolampadias made a deep impres- 
sion upon the wavering,^ and the result of the diq;mtation, though 
the CathoUoa boasted of victory, was decidedly favcHBble to the 
Beformation. The G-risons had not taken any part in the discus- 
sion ; nor did it prevent them, in the summer of 1536, from grant- 
ing entire religious freedom.^ This favorable issue was most ap- 
parent in Berne. After the Reformed party, in the election of the 
council, 23d April, 1537, bad got the preponderance in the govern- 
ment,' the popular favor toward the Reformation was expressed 
without restraint. The cooncil appointed a new dispatation at 
Berne, for Jan. 6, 1528, whic^ was numerously attended,'" and 

Werks, [I. ii. 424} ; the raren hwlils placea did indeed tend to liim b ufe-condact to 
ZOrich (aee ibid., a. 409); Zvin^e, in replj, *B>tD recoanted tlie reuoni why he could 
Dot come b> Baden, but dedued hinuelf vwy reidj to diipnta in » gsfe pliwe (ibid., 

' ProtocoU were written ont b7 fire CstboIIo Kaibea, irhioli wen mftarmrd for • long 
tine kept back b^ the Cuholie party. Tbe Bnt Mport appeared from the Befonned 
tide, (Vddi minutes made at home after each aeHion by Thoa. von Hoffisn, eitj clerk of 
Bern: "Wahrhatbge Handlong der IHipntatiOD In Obern Baden" (StTuburg, 1636); 
tbit was attacked by the Catholic party aa false (lee HottiugBr's Helvet. Kirchengeicb., 
UL 3S8). Thomaa HiUiner next pnblubed the protocol made by Hans Haber, dark at 
Lucerne, after comparisun with the other fonr : " Die Duputacion Tor den XII. Orten 
einer lobl. Eidgenoaaenech-ft — von iregen der Sini^^t in chriatl. Glaabea — bewhe- 
hen,— and m Baden — geh..1ten. Lnxein, 1G3T. i." (Comp. Yeeaenmeyer'a BeytcAge 
mr Geach. der Literatur a. Befornution. Clm, 179!, e. 68.) The tour other protocola 
are now in Zorich ; s conpariaon of them proves that this edition b corT«t (Uoller- 
Hottinger, viL 84). HnmBi also pabliahed a Latin edition: Canaa Helvetica ortho- 
doxae fideL Diipnutio Helvetlonun In Baden anperiori, etc Lacemaa, 1628. 4. (See 
Altdorfiacbea Literar. Uiueam, L 64i.) On the dlspnCadon, se« BaUingo', i. 348 1 L«. 
benigesch. Oecolampada von S. Hess, s. 181 ; MOIler-Hottinger, vii. 88. Two aatirical 
poems on this confblenoe against Eck and Faber, one by UauDsl ; see in NicUns Uan- 
nel von GrOneisen, i. 408, comp. s. 216 ; BolUager, L Si7. 

' Conference at Danti, Jan. 1626. Bollinger, I. 316. Tie acts drawn np by Seb. 
Boftneialar, in FOasIi, 1. SS7; UOller-Hottinger, viL 148. In samnwr reli^ow (Medom 
was decreed ; the decrees In P. D. B. de Porta Hist. Beformationla Eccledamm Rhaeti. 
canun (Tomi it i Cnriae Saetomm et Undaviae, 1TT2-7G. 4.), i. L 146. 

• CI 3 2, Note 99. MoUer-Holtinger, vii. 102. Bertold Haller oder die Beformation 
von Bern, by Helch. Kiichbotbr, Zorich, 1828, s. 88. Tbe prevlona oooneil, on WUt- 
snntida Monday, IS26, had promiaed the seven cantons (see In Moller-Hottlnger, rS. 
4Mj comp. Bollinger, i. 861) tomnain by the old (kith, and to abolish the article, "eia 
}eden im Glanben an laasen, so ihn got dOokt." The preaching of the Gospel was at 
once made free (Handat in Ballinger, i. 390). 

" Handlnng Oder Acta gehaltaner IHspntatitmen Bern Im Ueclitland. ZOrich, Apr., 
1S28, in 8. and 1. Beprinled in Straabnrg, IS28. 4.; Bern, 1606.4. Extracts from these 
acts in Zwlngje'a Works by Scbnler it. Scbnlthess, iL i. 70. A short account is given by 
one who was present — Uartln Bncer praef, CommentaiU in Joonnam (nptinted in Seal. 


IJiS FODBTH FBBIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. iei7-1618. 

issued in Buoh a deoieive victory for the Reformation Uiat it was 
at ODoe introduoed by the authorities." This change on the part 
of the powerfat Berne decided the cantons that had until now been 
wavering. The revolution which followed was more violent in 
proportion to the unwilling delay which had been imposed upon 
the majority inclined to the Reformation by the political relations 
of the government St Gall signalized its change by banishing 
the obstinate opponents of the Reformation, and by its severe treat- 
ment of the steadfost Catholio nuns." In Basle the stm^le was 
renewed, on the part of the Reformers, with great zeal ;" until at 

teti Annale* Evang. renoTaH ann. 1538). That the Catholics themselvea acknoirledged 
their defeat ia ahovn by a letter ot Jaeobiu Honatterienala, a prieat of Solothoni, lo 
SisUmniid do Tnidgne, caDOD Id Maj-eoce, daUd Jaa. S9 (Scuttotna 1. c.)t Effecerant 
quidem fid! nobis servatoreB Bemae, at ii certe, apnd qnos hactenus aumma Tenim fnit, 
at et Epiacopl, qaibns est Ecclealae in Ularam dilione jorisdicUo, additia etiam mini*, 
ad snam dlapatationem Tocarentnr, aed nulla alia fpe, qaiin nt erndiloa illi addacereni, 
qal luereticoa confatarant. 3ed quid ! nemo illomm vol Ipas veait, vel erndlbu mtalt. 
— Venit poat aliquot diea Aogustlniaaiu qnidein frsler, Prorincialem salotabant, ae 
Traegeriitam dimbant, aed loqnentke aliqaid, ernditionie sc eloqneDtiae nihil in to de- 
preheDSum eet. Ubl enim scriptarao eiigebuntur, malDit abire, qnam diapntare. — Cla- 
modor allna, >ed noqiiaquain doctlor Dominicuter per die) aliquot atrepult ex icriptn- 
ris, sod quam feliciter, bice coojice. Probatunu Fontificem qnoque ease caput Eccle- 
aiae, addasit id a Fotro eum accepisse, qui ideofaisseta Domino vocatua Cephas, caput : 
■ic enim le legisse lOsbat In VocabularilB. Vide, quales babMmaa propngnatores : et 
adbuc minunnT, vnlgo nos contemni, et passim multoi a nobia deflcere F'-Sed Praela. 
tontm et Capitnli Bernenaium audi conatantiam. Cum, una snt altero excepto, nemo 
eomm non ogooBceret blaiphemos illoi haeredeorum articnlos, omnibua tameu subBciip. 
aamnt singnli, idque in capitnlo congregati : tantum quod isdoctae bestlaa nihil poesent 
haeietids objicere. SI cordati fniasent, vel medloerl dexCariUIe praedlti, ita valebat 
adhnc tkctio aoatra Bemae, ai nlliil aliod, ut in annum nsqoe potnlaaent diapntationem 
eztrahare. Sed bIc decet noa poenaa dare coutamptanim lltenrum, et negtectns atudlo- 
nm. Homm vero insannm cen^ium aequutl annt in ditione Bernatiuin nionachi et 
saeriflcl. — O tempora, o morea, o nostram aocordiam f Quam bdle potnisset hoc ma- 
lum CBveri, si etudiosonim qnam acortonun nostri E[Hacopi amantlon* eaient 1 — Qnld 
nunc faciant alii? ScDatnln qaoqoe Ba^lieniem acia metu plebia niae, quam incaatat 
Oecolampadiiu non tam erndltione quam bj^iocrlsi sua, nihil poase. Idem paolo poat 
nan veniet et aliia. Dnnm equidem timeo, paulo post Helvetioa aeque Pontlficis escna- 
aoroa Jngnm, atqne excniaemnt jam pridem Caesaris. Et ntinam Constantia et aliquot 
nrbea Imperil non sequantur exemplom I— Comp. Bullinger, i. S95 ; MOUeT'HottiDger, 
rii. 105 ; Bertold Haller t. Ktrchholfer, b. 69. 

■' Bullinger, i. 437. As early as Febr. 7 appeared in print, "Gemeln Befonnation 
n. Terbeaaerung der blaher gebrouchteD n. venrftndlen Qotadiensten d. Ceremonien, die 
nabent dem Wort Gottes dnrch menBchlich Untdunlien nach n. nach ingcpflanzet, u. 
doreh dOB BapstthumB Hnffen trotllch gebandhabet, aber dleser Zyt nsa Gniden Qottes 
n. Bericht ajna beil. Worts dnrch Schnltheiae, klein n. gross lUth dor Sudt Bem im 
Uechtland uagerQIet aind," in Bullmger, L 440 ; Mtlller-Botttnger, tII. 116 ; Kitcbbefer, 
a. 125. 

" or. 5 3, Note IIS, T. Ant Oesch. r. St- Qallen, li. G29 ; Eartmann'a Gesch. v. St. 
Qallen, a. SOS ; HUler-Hotlinger, tU. 119. 

>' Cr. §S, Note 110) BoIUi^, iL36j Och'i Oeachichte ron Baael, v. 607 ; HttUw 
Hettinger, tIL 122. 

Diciiiized by Google 

CHAP. I.— SWISS KEFOBMATIOK. § 6. 1629. 159 

length, Feb. 9, 1529, with Rrnis in their hands, they oonipelled the 
Catholio members of the government to resign, and commenced 
the general iotroduotion of tlie Reformation by the destruction of 
inures and pictures.'* Divine worship was at once established 
in the new order ;" the theolc^oal faculty was filled with new 
teachers ; and the cloisters were abolished. In 61ams the nnmer- 
ons adherents of the Eeformation began with violent measures 
immediately after the conference at Berne ; these were opposed 
by equal violence fi^m the other side ; civil war was imminent; 
but by a treaty (April 35, 1539), as previously in Appenzell, it 
was left free to every parish to decide for or against the' Reforma- 

Now that the imbittered Catbotio cantons renounced the league 
with their evangelical confederates," the Utter were forced to plan 
the means of defense. For this purpose Zurich and Constance 
made an alliance, 35th Dec, 1527, under the name Burgher 
Rights ;" Berne and St. Qall joined it in 1538 ; and in 1539, 
Biel, Muhlhansen, and Basle.'^ The most zealous of the Catholio 
cantons, Lucerne, Zug, Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, aroused a 
revolt of the Bernese upper lands against the Reformation; and 
Unterwalden even aided it.*** As this attempt was fruitless, the 
revolt being at once suppressed, those five cantons entered into 
negotiations with Austria, till now regarded as a hereditary foe, 
and concluded wil^ King Ferdinand a leagae, April, 1539, for the 
maintenance of the old faith.'' 

The common lordships, that is, those belonging to several can- 
tons, furnished uninterrupted occasions for dispute ; for in these, 
both of the religious parties, each supported by the cantons of its 

■* On ttieK occnmoceB, see OecoUmp&dU Ep. sd Ca[utoiieDi, dd. 13. Febr., in Hot- 
tinga S)st Bccl., ii. 1!. 

'* "Oidnnng, lo elae ehmms SUdt Bu«l den Iten Tig Aprili* in ihrer Stodt n. 
Lsadichift (nrhiit in bollen erkannt. Darin wis die verworftne MlsbT&aeha mlt irih- 
r«n OottcsdiCDit eraetict, ancb vie die Luterm chriatlicherTapIbTkeit iintraglicb,OaU 
CQ Lob ■bKutellet n. geatraft werden wUeo, Iwgriflbn iit, ala man tUilt 1GS9. 4. ;" la 
BsUinger, it. 8S. 

" MfiUer-HoMnger, vli. 188. 

" Alnady attbe Diet of Lnceme, IStfa Jiitj, 1G3S; lee Bnllinger, t. 363) MCilleT- 
HoUiDger, tU. 166. 

" Bnllinger, i. 4U. HUlep-Hottlnger, vil. 133 ; the docnmeut, g. 163. 

'• Bnllingei, U. S. M, 46, 63. Holler-Holtinger. vil. 323 ff. 

" Bnllinger, ii !1. MQUer-Hottinger, vil. 180. Kiclaiu Manuel von QrQneiBaii. 
Slottg. D. TDbiDgea, 1837, *. 111. 118 (f. 

" BoUingcr, ii. 48. llQllsr-Hattiniier, Tii. 326, die Uiknnde s., i. 469. 

:dbv Google 

160 FOUKTH PERIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1517-1648. 

own faith, were often in violent oontesf This state of things 
was worse than open war. To put an end to it, Ziirich, inspired 
by the fiery Zwingle,^ declared war against the five cantons ly 
which it had been so often injured; the oooasion being the send- 
ing of an armed force by Unterwalden into the free localities.^* 
The armies were already face to face when a peace was made by 
the mediation of tlie other cantons, which did not, indeed, corre- 
spond with the wishes of Zwjngle,^ though it was very favorable 
for Ziirich.^^ In consequence of it the Reformed party obtained 
the preponderance, and Schafhansen came decidedly upon the 
side of the Keformation, and joined the Christian Buigher Bights' 
league, Oct. 25, 1529.'" 

Ziirich tried to turn this state of things to advantage by estab- 
lishing the Beformation, yet not without arbitraiy measures, in 
permanent security. In the common lordships, where the ma- 
jority favored the Reform, it was now fully introduced by Zti- 

" HaUer-Hottinger, tU. 199. 

" ZwingUiu Bd Amicoa BerasnBW, dd. 30. H*j.- (MQller-Hattinga', tU. Z44, Id Zwln- 
glii '^u, anct. M/OHiio, in tbe Archiv f. Kirchengeacb. i. ii. 24): Quod tuctenoi ad 
Tos Bcripai, iUrum stqne <tsniili facio, nl conetuiteB sttis, iieqne b«Ilam metnalii. Nun 
ist> fAX, quant quidam tantopete nrgiait, bcllam eat, noa pax ; et beUam, cni noa Ineta- 
miu, pax eat, noD bellum. Nod eaim litlmos cqjasqiiam aangniaeifl, neqne eUam per 
tmnaltam haoriemus, aed io hoc anmna, ot oligarcUae nerri mccidaatDT. Id Dial fiat. 
Deque EvangelEi veritaa, Dsqnc ilUm mlniatii apnd do6 Id tnto enrnt. NlhH crudde 
cogitamizs : aed qoicqald a^moa, aniicnnt et patemnm oat. Salvars oupimDa qDaadam, 
qui per ignorontiaci percnDt, aervara Ubettatem gatagtmua. TtM igltnT Dolitc tactopere 
■bhaiTcn a conailiia Doatiia. Httion goDt ct aeqniora, qnam quidam spad roa dlctitant. 
Zoiogle had pnvioualj draim op a plaD for a campaign ; given in Eacher'a a. Hottia- 
gei'a ArcbiT f. acbweiierlache Geach. n. UUratDr, Bd. iL Helt 2 (Zoricb, IS30), a. S63. 
He himaelf aecompatiicd it armed ; see Bernh. Wetia, Beachreibnng der Glanbenalnde- 
nmgv in FOaali'a Beytilge, W. 102 : " Mr. Conrad Schmidt ma beatellt in predigen im 
Feld, daoD man wollle Ht. Ulrich Zvinglin nlcht In den Krieg laaaeD;— «ber er woUt 
iJcht blelben, soDdem aaas auf ein Bosa, and fOhrta cine faabadte HelparteD anf den 

» BnlliDger, ii. 156. MQlIer-HotUngeT, vii. !47. 

." SeeZwingle'aGntBchCenaDdieZOricher Begienog tiber daajenige, ma von den G 
Orten xa fordem aey, Itth June, in UDllet^HoUinger, viL 479. He inaialed that the 
6ve cantona ibould allow the free preaching of God'a Word, nnoonce the pcn^na, and 
pay tiie eoata of the war. 

•• HOUer-Hottinger, vii. S70 ; aee the docnment of the Saturday after John tbe Bap- 
tiat'a Fuat, 1619, in BoUinger, iL IS6, and in ^cbec'a n. Hottinger'a Archiv f. achwei*. 
Gescb. u. Landeaknnde, L L TB. An addi^onal letter, Sith SepU, in Bullinger, iL S13. 
The chief conditiona were, that the faith shoald ba fR« (that la, each government to de- 
cide ationt it), the leagne with King Ferdinand be abandoned, mntnal calonmiu avtrid- 
ed, and the coati of the war paid by the five cantona. Theienpon, in a general order, 
Oct. IS (ibid., a. 108X ^ calumny and abnae were tbrbidden, " with high and aevere 
penalty and diagrace." 

■' BoUinger, iL 222. Moller-Hotlinger, vii. 1» «., 286. 



rioh." The nowly-eleoted Abbot of St Gull waa not allowed by 
Ziirioh and Glarus to come into possession, although the two oth- 
er oantons that had the goardianship were in his &vor ; and they 
ohaoged the eoclesiastioal into a seoular endowment.^ Zwingle, 
to whom the oirounistaDoes of the times had now given the lead 
in Ztitioh politios, sought to form alliances ahioed against the peril 
that thieatened from the Emperor, who, having conquered his foes, 
now seemed on the pcdnt of taming his forces against the Refor- 
mation. ThoDgh the Conferenoe of Harhoi^ oonld not effect a 
oomplete union with the Oeiman Protestants, yet it was the 
means of forming a closer alUanoe of the Swiss with the Landgrave 
of Hesse ; and it alao resulted in the attempts, which were, how- 
ever, vain, to form leagues with Venice and France in oi^usition 
to the Emperor.'* Starasbnrg, repelled by the German Protests 
ants, joined the Ohristian Burgher Bights' league in January, 
1530.^ The Landgrave of Hesse was also received into it,*^ at 
least by Ziiiich and Basle, July 30 and Nov. 16, 1530. On the 
other hand, the Catholic cantons sent representatives to the Diet of 
Aogsbm^; and the distinguished reoepticn given to their embassa- 
dors by the Emperor, contrasted with the hostility which there 
prevailed against the Beibrmed cantons,^ was tiie occasion of ail 
sorts of reports about privy negotiations.^ Among the Catholics 
the hope of soon seeing the heresy brought to an end was visibly 
rising, and showed itself in calumnies and abuse of the Beibrm- 

Thus the previous state of fluotnation and nnoertainty recurred 
again. To put an end to it, Zwingle and Ziirich pressed their 

•* BnlHngm, li 2SI, S40, M7. MfiUw-HotHngw, tO. 2«B. 

** BDlIinger, ii. Ill, 144, Ml. HUler-Hottliigtr, tU. 29G. 

•■ 8m S *. NotB S7. 

» In HuboTE tlitn wu alao t, prlv>t« cwnapondanes bttwsan the landgrava and 
Zwingle, in which the umw wen given bi ti^Mt (HUler-HcMlaBBr, vlL SSS). Let- 
tan of Zvhi^B ao wriMm to the Landgnre are In Neadecker'a Drkunden, i. ISO ff. 
Bndolph Coliin was seot to Venice ; Bee his own report on hia audience beftire the Doge, 
Dae 28, 1529, and Zwingle'* retnarka in Eacher'a n. Hottioget'a Archiv t uhweiz. 
Geaob. n. Laodaeknnde, i. ii. 27S ; MOllai-HoC^ger, viL 803. On the negotiation* with 
F^anee, HttUei-Hottlnger, TiL Sll. 

" HCIler-Hottlnger, Til. 8U. Doenmenta in Eachar'a n. HotUager'a AtcUt, i. iU. 419. 

" Bolljj^Br, U. 2BB. HoUer^oCtlngar, Tii. aU. Bone ntOMl to tiko put i M* 
Kidaoa Uannd, by GrIbidaeB, a. 148. 

■• Haller-Hottingar, TiL 817. 

>• Ibid., I. 836. 

" BnUinger, i[. BBS. 
VOL. IV.— H 


162 POUBTH PERIOD— DIV. I— A.D. 1BI7-16*8. 

confederates to war, as the only means of briaging matters to a 
settled state. But the latter consented only to half measures ; that 
is, denying to the five Catholic cantons the free purchase of the 
necessaries of life.*^ Forced by necessity, these cantons seized 
their arms, and made an attack upon the territory of Zurich, un- 
prepared for the contest.^ The army brought against them in 
haste was defeated at Cappel, Oct 11, 1531 ; and many distin- 
guished Ziiriohers, among ^em Zwingle, here found their death. 
And thoQgh the armies of the allied Reformed cantons now came 
to their aid, yet they were not united ; the forces of the powerful 
Berne had no zeal. Ziirioh, on the 16th Nov., and Berne, Nov. 
34, 1531, were forced to conclude a humiliating peace. By this 
treaty both confessions of faith were indeed recognized and se- 
cured, but the Reformed cantons were obliged to pay indemnities, 
to abolish their league, and to recognize the Abbot of St. Gall.^* 


Although it was not to be expected that the Protestants, like 
the Catholics, would unconditionally conform to the decision of a 
council,' yet the Emperor ui^ntly entreated the Pope to summon 

" BnIliDgcr, U. 861, 888. HfUler-Hottlnger, tII. 843. 

" On llii* ach^alled Cappel W>r, the chief ■oorces are BnllingerV RefonnatiDiugvacli., 
iil. 116, and Aegid. Tachndi kaRe Beachrelbnag der fOof kBtholuchcn One— Kiiep 
wider ihre EldgenoaMn, nprlntwl in the Helvetia, Bd, ii. (Aarao n. Bern, 1SS6), *. IGS 
n.Kl. UOlleP-Hottinger, Til. 862 ff. 

" See the treaty with Zdrlcb, la Tuhndl, in the Helvetia, 11. 215 ; Ballisger, iil. »7, 
ia HolIer-HoCtiager, vil. 497, comp. 8. 427 1 the peace irilb Beme, in tin Helvetia, 11. 
836 J BuUlnger, Hi. !TOi The it^le oT the yay ftrat anicle wis Imniiliatiiig : "Zun 
enten sollent ti. friJUent vir, die von ZQjlch, Qni«r getrliwe liebe EidgenoMcn voa den 
T. Orteo — b; ihnin wahran. QngeEwyffletan, cbriatenlichen Glsnben — glniUch nnge- 

■rguirt u. nngediapatirtblybenlaaten Hinwiedeium go w Silent wir, von deaV. Ortut, 

unaer Eidgenouen tod Zorich a. lbr« eigne UiCverwandten by ihrem Glaaben aaeh 
liljben lawen." Almoat verballj the aame in tlM tnstty with Beme. 

' Lnther had maintained troia the beginning that cooncila could err: lee Reapooalo 
*d Prierat., §l,Kote2!; and his decUntion at Worma, § 1, Note 79. The ProteatanCi, 
in Ihelr appeals to a conncil, had alwaj-a demanded that it abonld be free, and decide 
according to the Scriptnrea. Tha more lacontmrerllble the tnith of their doctrine ap- 
peared to tlwin, Ills more miglit tbey expect it to be teci^nixed by inch a council. It 
waa then tbdr duty to make uaa of this meana, altboogh tbey did not therebr buid 
themaelvea to submit to every decision of a cooncil (cf. Lather De Captiv. Babyl., fol. 
273, b. S 1, Note 61 : neqoe Paps, neqae Episcopos, neqne nilaa homlnam habet jna onl- 
os ejlUbae cooatitaendae saper cbrlatiaonm bominem, niai Id fiat ejosdem conaenta). 



006 ; partly because he woald thus have mora faoUities for coerc- 
ing die reoosanis ; and in part beoaose it seemed as if, under pres- 
ent oiioumstanoes, the loug-deaiied reformof the Church in head 
and members might be expected from a general council But 
Clement VII., to meet the danger that seemed to threaten him,' 
proposed conditions which, it was apparent, the Protestants must 
reject' At the same time he again formed a closer alliance with 
the King of France, to find in him support against the Emperor.* 
In the mean time, the Smaloald leaguers, despite the peace of 
Noramberg, were disquieted by the courts in the matter of the 
confiscated charch property.* New entanglements were immi- 
nent. But a bold deed of the Landgrave Philip broke through 
these difficulties, and heightened in no slight degree the power 
and prestige of the leagae. For after he had for a long time , 
worked without success in the cause of the banished Dake XJIrich 

Hera belong the foUowiog dedanuioni of Lntber, Id an Opinion given tba middla td Sep- 
tember, 1530 (in Coelntiniu, !il. 78 b) : Conciliom eat pennittendmii jnn, tutqntln ins- 
dlam humaiiain. Hoc Beceaurlo tanemur facere, et ni^ beimiu, peccamns et delin- 
qainiu. Scriptnm est, dormieotibiis bomiiiibas Tenit inlmlclu, et inperseminavlt il- 
tanla, et carendiim aat, ne dormtamai, et lioamni crescere zizanla, id quod iaddion 
qnaeritiir. Opinion ^ven April or May, 1632 0>i de Wstte, iv. 874) : " Vom CoacJliDiii 
iat muglicb etiraa in eavlm; lo tatohn Zwdfel gnogBun cavirt dnrch diete Wort: Ein 
b^ chriatLch ConcUinm. Solten die Wort nicbt faelfen, eo wlrd der Ziuata anch we- 
nig lulfen, nach dem rainen Gottee Wort, etc. Demi ao die Tfatiooei wider niu ccmclo- 
dim, imden ale gleichwoU den Boha haben wollen, data aie nach dem relnen GotUa 
Wort ipreclien, etc." 
■ Banke, Foraten n. TOlker von 8ud-Enropa im 16ten o. 17taa Jahrli., li. 114. 

* In June, IGSB, a papal and imperial embaaaador appeared in thia tnMter before tba 
Elector of Saxonj. The Ar^aiti handed over bj the Nnncio to the Eleclor an !a Raj- 
nald., U33, No. 8; Walcb, xvL ZZ63. The jodgment of Luther and other divioea la in 
da Wettt, iv. *M. The anawer given by all the conhderatea at • diet In Smalcald, June 
30, in Walch, xri. 2381. Tbaj wet« oflbided bj the papal conditjona : that the conncU 
ihoold be held according to the naage of tha Chnrch; "that tlioae nho might be In the 
eonndl (honld pledge and bind themaelves to bold InTiolable and obaj tha de cr e ea of 
aaid eonndl ;" that it ahoiild be held in Hantoa, Bononia, or Flacantla, and not in Oei^ 
manj ; and that all the reat ahonld stand bj tha Pope agalntt tiiose who would not inb- 
mit to the council. 

* Banka, U. 118. According to Sarpi HIat. dn Coneile do Trente, tradnlts par le Con. 
rarer, i. 12S, the Pops pcnoaded the Siag of France, In their conftrenee at HarselUea, 
OeL, 158S, to work apon the Proteetanta bjroeana of the Landgrave, io that the eonndl 
mi^t be fmatraled. According to the raporta of embaasad<tfa it «aa then determined 
to lopport the Landgrave in the conqnest i^ WOrtamberg, ao aa to make diatubancea la 
Gennany; Banke, U. 121. 

' Thla waa owing to tba IndefinitAneaa of the tenna In the Niuemberg peace, which 
the Uodgrmva Philip bad ciiticfaed at tba Bnt (aee } b, Note 47). The oonrt maintained 
that atuaejMKKMoriiK and comptainta tbr readtntlon did not come nndar " maltcn con- 
cvming the fkltb ;" ace J. H. v. Harpprecht Stuktaarchlv de* Kala. n. b. B. R. Cammar- 
gMtchts coin, 4 TbeUe, 17e7-60. *.), P. V. | U6-1W ; . 


104 FOUBTH PSBIOO.— DIV. I.— A.D. U17-1U8. 

ofWiirtemberg,* he at last succeeded, Kay, 1534, in breaking op 
iiie Swabian league;' aided by money from France,' in Uay, 
1534, he brongbt Wiirtemberg in a few weeks in sabjeotion to its 
old ruler." King Ferdinand, who had been in possession, was 
obliged by the treaty of Cadan, June 39, 1534, to restore tlie land 
to Duke Ulrich ;"* the neighboring prinoes had been always op- 
posed to this increase of Ferdinand's power, and he now needed 
his £>roes elsewhere. Dake Ulrioh at onoe introduced the long- 
desired Befbrmation," and thus increased the power of the Prot- 
estants. In this treaty, ta>, Ferdinand was recognized by the 
Protestants as King of Borne, while he, on the other band, pledged 
to them security against the claims of the supreme jndioatories." 
Contemporaneous with these events was the revival in Hiinster 
of the Anabaptist madness, in a d^;ree surpassing all bounds ; a 
taikv, John Bookhold, of Leyden, was elevated to be King of Zion. 
Chiefly through aid of the Landgrave, promised by the treaty of 
Cadan, Uiinster was subdued, June 24, 1535.'' The consequence 

* Boininel'a Philipp der GraamQthigB, L B2S. 

' StompTi Balanu polU. Qeschkhte, I. UO ff. Drknndeabucfa, ■. 61. Bommel, i. B13 ; 

■ UMttnKOf UMlandgnvairiUi thflEingUBula Doc, In Jao., US4 j on dutnatf 
then MDcluded, (m Komnwl, L 835 ; ii. 298. 

• Bmddmi, i. an ff. 

" Bommd, L 871. Tba tnitj In Hnrtledir, L SS6. Walch, xri 2U1. 

■■ Ch. G. Zitm'i BerotButiniugMcIi. du Hanogtli. WQitamberg CTubingul, 1791), 
a. 82. Cb. F. Schaarrer'g Erl&atertuigen der WUrtamberg. Kirchan., BefannatJon^., a. 
Gelebrtengeschlcbtc (Toblngan, 1798), a. 88. Jnl. Hutmum'a Qttch. d. Bafonutlim 
in WOrumberg (StaUgut, IBSSX a. SS. 

" "Entlicb, da*a dar itieda n. StiUatuid, la ITQrnberg JQngit anlgtricht — id alia 
Wage aoll gahaltaat— .werdan. Dod nachdam eln HIaiTainaDd darin TorgEfcUao, ea hat 
dieEMi.lh].gDidi^idibewiUigt,dMBlbnEon.Ma].TDnwa«eDKaU.M«}. vencbaf' 
tea wdla, dua niit den Prooeiaen am KiUeri. Cammergaiicht, m Brli«Itii]ig mIcIim 
FlMiUndi, iridar dia, ao darin banannt aiyii, atUl geaUndBii, ancli d«M alia blahai 
genominene Proceaae wirklkh abgBMbaflt waidan, allaa oacb Last dtM^bea aofgaiieh- 
tatan FHedemtaQdea." 

" Bapont of «y«-w«IMeMnonUMMtn)tib1natHan«taT: 0-> Wdtrhaftlge HInorie, 
wia du BnuBelinm tn Unniter angebngea, a. dunaeh dnreh die Wiadart Infer Tar- 
itilnt, Wieder aol^eharet hat, dOnb Hanrictun Dortdnm Moaaitaclenaem (abont Um, 
■ea Hamalmaiuii Opera Qenaalc^ico-hiitarica da Waatphalia, p. 1256), witb a prdkca 
by BngenhagBD, 1586. i. ; rqirintad In the aacond pait at tha Wlttanbarg edition of 
Lather's Qennan Works, 1. 881; h;9eidaniu, Ilb.s.,uid many othai hiatoriana mad aa 
Ihaehieraiithari^. (!.) DiatrichT. HsmbnrgglanbigerAnieigTiHiduMniutariaobaa 
Anfrahr, Tantocknng, a. Jammer. USB, 1 Bogen, t. The author ma imprisoned four- 
Men weeki among tlia Anabaptlila, and doea not mantlan the capture of MOnjIar (>ee 
Fottgea. Sammlnog t. alten n. nenen thed. Sadiea, 173G, a. 719). (8.) There an sz- 
traau bom the US. report of an eye-Titneaa In D. J. Q. lisbknecht Dtap. da fra tamltala 
Hottendnm odar Oartenbrtkdam. Oieaaac, 1TS4. L («.) Anton Con^na (at that tima 
preacher In WituDhaoHn) Ada, Handlnngan, Legation, n. ScbtUten, ao dnroh dan 



of these disorders was the suppression in tiiat city of the Reforma- 
tioD, began with good promise of success. But the geneial inter- 
ests of Protestantism were not impaired ; for it was well under- 
stood that they were entirely distinct from the cause of Anabap- 

Clement VII. died Sept. 25, 1534. His successor, Paal III., 
seemed to eater more readily into the proposal Jbr the calling of 8 
ootmoil ; with this in view be began negotiations with the Prot- 
estants, through his Noncio, Peter Paul Vergerius. But since diey 
did not aocede to his proposals," and as in 1586 a new war broke 

Landgnfeu -r. Hunn In der HOnstarachen Sacha geachehen, item Geipr^h u. Diipu- 
txtiaa Antooii Corrini n. Jobanni Eymei mit dam Utuulenchen KOaig, ehe d<nn sie 
ger«ehtfBrtigt worden rind, gehaltan Im Jantur, 1536. Wittenberg, 1536 ; reprinted ia 
theThirdPutotthaWittenbcrgeditionof Luther's GeraunWorki,*. ass. ^usd. lib. 
De miMrabili HaautenenBiam AnubmpUitaram Obsidione, Excldio, memonbilibiu re- 
bua tcmpon obaidionti in nrbe geitii, fiegis, Ka[pperdDlliDgi, de Kreitiagi coofeuione 
et exjta raprlnted in Sciurdit ScrlpU. rar. Gent., U. 814. (5.) Henouin t. Eeraaen- 
broick (who, wben » bof , witoaaiMl tlie eventa ; he iru afterirud rector in Hamm, 
HQniter, Paderbam, and Werl) wrote Gnt in hexameten Belli Mooaaterieruu contrm 
AjubaptiMica Uonatra guli Deacriptio. Colon., 1545. 8. (reprinted in Gordeiii ScrinU 
nm auCiqaariam, ii. 377 a. 669), and then the ftdleat hutoc; of Uisae evmti : Hiitoria 
Belli Anabaptistaram Mona>t«rienBi>, 1568, for which he had to nUlbrmarh penecntion 
In HOnster. (See J. KGolg'B Gesehichtl. Nachrichteo liber d. Gymnaaiam xn UOnater. 
Hunster, 1831, a. 155. The original US. ia in the calhednl libniy in U&iuter; it la 
Kprinled, witli large omiaaiDns, amonnUng to mora than Ihne-lonnlu of the work, in 
Uenckenii Scriptt rar. Germ., iil. 1503; a complete bnt iuaecmaU tranitatian: G«- 
■chichte der Wiedertiniiu' la Munater In Westphalen, 17T1. 4. ; a German abridgment 
of the original : OriginalaclanltQcke inr wahren u. ToUstandigen Eenntnlu der UUn- 
(UrischeaWledertiuibrKeidiichte. Frankf. a. M., 1808. 8.)~Bj other coutemporariei : 
(1.) Canradi Hereabach (cDoacllormCleTejHiBt. AnabaptuticaBdEra>mam,ed. Tbood. 
StracUas. AnuKlod., 1637. 8. (!,) Lamberti Hortenaii(rectoraCIIa<rdeu, inHoUand) 
Tnmnltnnm AnabaptiiUconim lib. unon 1548 (in Schardii Script!, rer. Oerm., ii. 29B). 
(3.) Uenn. HamelnuDni (Generalinperint. in Oldenburg, f 1596) Hiat. Benati Evan* 
gelii, deinde Scbiamatam Anabaptistarum exortorum in nriie Uonaitoiensl in bia 0pp. 
Genealogico-hUtor. de Wsitphalia et Saxonia, ed. E. C. Waseerbach. LemgOT., 1711. 
4., p. 1175. (4.) Gerhard r. Eleinaorgen (Cologne connallor in Wsil, 1 1591) Kirchen- 
geKhichto von Weetphalen (publiahed Uontter, ITT9-80, 3 Th. 8.}, ii. 869.— The doc- 
ument* in Nioert's Baytrige in einem HOnaterachen L'rknndenbncbe, UOniter, 1933 ; 
and in hia MiinateiachB Urknndenaammlnng, Bd. 1, CoeafUd, 1836, and Appendix to Bd. 
3. — H. Jochmna Qeacb. der Kirchenreformstion lU MOnitM' D. ihrea Unterganga dorch 
die Wiedertlofer. Unniter, 1826. S. J. Haat'i Geach. d. Wiedertioier. UOnttar, 1886, 
». 274. 

'• ThaacMinWalch, xri. 3290; better, in different poru oTOpp. MeUochthonia, ed. 
Bittachneider, ii. 963, where waa But pnbliahed, in the Latin original, Ihe negotiation 
of the Legate with the Elector In Prague, p. 983, Yergerii Ep. ad Jo. Frider. p. 991, and 
Pi!ucipum Proteat. ad Vargerium, dd. Smalcaldiae, 31. Dec, 1585, p. 1018. In th* lut 
letter, by Helancthon, itia said ; ProptercommmieiiiEccleBiaaaalaCamattmeDdationem 
omnibuB rotia eipetimua generalem, piam, Chriitianam, et liberam ajnodnm. — Qnod 
vero ad loctun attioet, de quo expoaulatl, Mantoam plaoera Bom. Poatificl, conOdimoi, 
Invietiu. Imperatorem non diaceaanrum eaae ab iia dellbentlonibiu aMvantaam Impe> 
rll, in qnUHU Jam ludicalam eat, expedire, nt In Geimania habaator aynodna. — Delnd* 


166 FOUETH PEBIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1617-1848. 

out between the Emporor and France," the designs of the Pope ap- 
peared very eqnivooal, when, June 2, 1536, he actually summoned 
the oonnoil to meet in Mautua, May, 1537 ;" for, under these oir- 
cumstances, it was plain that it could not he assembled. 

In the mean time the Smaloald League had very much extended 
itself. After some hesitation the parties to it decided (Deo., 1535) 
that they were not prevented by the Peace of Nuremberg from re- 
ceiving new members," They were at once joined by the Dakes 
Ulrich of Wiirtemberg. Bamim aud Philip of Fomerania, the Count 
Palatine, Rupert of Zweybriicken (Bipont), the Princes George 
and Joachim of Anhalt, Count William of Nassau, aud many cities. 
After the Reformation had been generally accepted in Denmark, 
1536, this kingdom also joined the league, being formally received 
into it in 1538. 

"When the papal bull appeared, summoning the council, Luther 
was deputed to writo out articles'" defining the doctrinal views of 

opni eat Eccleuaa libera ajiioilo, at ad t&lem dob pniviKiTimiu. At antio tuA negit, 
menUoneni bcieniUm cue de Didinfl et forma cogniLionii, eamqns rem totim rerocat 
ad arbitrinm Rom. PoDtificia. Id noD eat liberam B}-Dodnin promEttere. — Cum aatmi 
lot pmejadiciia canum QoatrftiD Bam. Fontifex to^es improbaTerit, palam est adveiga- 
riiu. PorTD neqae IIImtb synodoa neqne legitina arit, ai adTersarlia permittetur cogni- 
tJD et judicimn, eamque ob caoaam flafptata et promUaa eat libera Spiodua, h. a. in qna 
commnni Jadicio Imperatoria, Begum, Poteatatonm, Piincipnm, ac Stataam deligaatur 
ex omnibDa ordinibua bomiaaa idonei hod partialea ad cognuacendaa et dijadieandaa haa 
contioventaa Joxta varbtun Del Primum snim ajnodi debeot eaae Jadicia aon taotam 
Pontifieom, aad atlam rellquae Ecclewaa, aicat et aacrae literae et Vetera eccleaiaatica 
exempla docaat, qoaa taatantnr, pioa Principea interfoiaae cof^iUoni in ajnodis. Eit- 
qus impadentia et tTnimis, Rom. PoDtificia anetoritatem in jndtciia dogmatum relif^o- 
nis antelbrre auctoritati nnlveniae Eccleslae. Qnare valera In aynodis aDtoritas Begum, 
Priadpnni, PateDtaCiinm, ac SCatnam debet, praeaertiii) in canals fidei, cam accaaaatar 
PcmtiflcDm vitia et arrorea, videlicet impii cultoa, praTa dogmata com Erangelio pag- 

" Raomer'a Oeach. Enropaa aeit dem Ende dea ninfialmten Jahib., i. 147. 

■■ Bnll Ad dominlci gregla coram, in Baj^ald., 16S6, No. 86. 

>' Sleidanoa, lib. ix., in fine. Seckaodorf, iii. 100. Bommel'a Pliilipp d. G., i. 4(W : 
ii. 869. 

" Latlier and MelaacUioD were not in iiiTor of Tweeting the coQncil (aae the Opinion 
in Melanchth. 0pp., ed. Bratachneider, iii. 121 a*., and Lather's Jndgment, Feb., 1S3T, 
in de Wetis, v. 61}. Hence thia commia^on to draw ap the articles. Lather wrote the 
articlea in German in Wttteaberg, and aent,tbcm, anbaciibed by the tlieolDglans tliGro 
preaent (>ee Spalatin'a Annalen, a. S97), to tlie Elector, Jan. 3, 1687 (aee the letter in 
de Wetle, v. ^S). The copj-, mitlen in Lnther'a own hand, is In the Heidelberg libra- 
ry; from it an talien the articlea aa publiabed by Uarbeineke in the Berlin Programme 
for the feaUval of the BoformatiDii, 1817 : Articuli qni dicantnr Smalcaldici e Palatino 
Codica US. aeenrale edlti et annotationibos eritids lllnatrati. The aame are alao in M. 
Meorer'a work, Der Tag ed Schmalkalden nnd die Scbmalk. Anikel. Leipxig, 1837, B. 
4S. The copy anbacribed by the theologians, and so made the ori^al, la bj- Spalatin, 
and preaarred in the Weimar archivea, Seckendorf^ iii. 152. Especially wortby of not* 


CHAP. I— GKEMAN EEPOEMATION. | 7. 1686. 167 

the Protestants, in view of the posaibility of their being presented 
to the council. These articles were adopted in an assembly of the 

It the Foaitb Articls of tbe Second Put, -when tbe PratcstAnt opinian reipectinK the 
Pope and papacy wu fint completely and dearljr avowed: "Dasa der Bipat nieht ur 
Jore dirino oder bob Gottea Wort das Hftnpt der ganien Christenheit (denn das gehGrct 
elnem allcin zn, der heiast Jeius Christoa), aondem alleln Biicbof oder Plarrer der 
KircheD in Sam, and deijenigen, so slch wlllEgllcb odar dnrch menachllche Creatur 
(i. e., civil anthoritieB) za ihm begeben habed, nicbt outer ihm, all elnem Hem, aon- 
dem neben jhm als Brnder a. OeselleD, Cbiittan m asin, vie aolches aucb die alten 
ConcQla a. die Zeit St. Cypriani wusen. Jetxt aber thnt kein Biichof den Bspst Bni- 
dei bstsaan, wie n der Zeit, londem mm Um aeinen allergnidigaten Herm heiaaen, 
ireana such ein KOnig oder Eaieer ware. Das wolUn, aollen, n. kAnnen wii aicht anf 
nnaer Geviasen nehmen ; irer es aber than irill, der (has ea oha una. Eieraos folget, 
dau alia dujenige, ao der Bapit aos HlchaT fklacfaer, freveler, lulerlicber Hngemaaalar 
Gewalt getban n, fOrgenommea hat, eitel teaSmach GeachkhC n. Geachirt geveat n. 
noch aey (ohn wae das Icibliche Regiment belanget, darUi Gott anch vol dorch einen 
lyranneD d. Baben liaat einem Yolk viel gnts geachahen) tar Terderhnng der gaozen 
Iwiligeo chriatlicben Kirchen (so vlel an ihm gelegen} n. za ventdren den enten Iliupt- 
artikel von der Erl5aiing Jean Chriatl. Denn da atehen alle seine BnlUn n. Bucher, 
darinnen er brullet, wie ein Ldwe (ala der Engel Apoc. 1! bildeC), due k^in Christ kon- 
ns aelig werden, er eel denn ihm geboraam (befoie, vol. ii., p. 351, § 69, Note as). — 3oea 
doch offenbarlich ist, daas die hdl. Kircha obn Bapst gewest mm irenigslen Qber fQnf- 
hnndert Jabren, n. bis aof diesen Tag die grieehieche n. viel anderer Spracben Kirchen 
noeh nie onter dem Bapst geweat n. noch nicht rind. So ieta, wie oft geaagt, ein Uen- 
■chengeticht, das nlcht geboten, otm Hot n. vergebllcb, denn die heillge ehiiatliclu 
Kirehe oha salch Hiopt wol b)et1>en kann, n. vol tieaser bliel>en wire. Dnd 1st anch 
daa Bapetnm kein Noti in der Circben ; denn es Qbet k^ cbrlstUch Ampt, a. mas also 
die Kirehe bleiben n. beslehen obn den Bapst. Dnd ich setie, daaa der Bapat wollle 
aieh dea begeben, daas er nicht jare divino oder ana Gottea Oebot der oberste ware, aon- 
dem damit die iSoigkeit der Cbristenheit wider <Ue Botten n. Eetierey dcsto beas er- 
hallenwOrde, mOsste man ein Hanpt baben, daran sich die andem sile hielten. Solchs 
Hinpt wQrde nna dnrcb Menschen erwililt n. stClnde in menschllcher Wahl a. Gewalt, 
daaselbe Hanpt in indera, m entaetaen, wle an Canstani das Conciiinm faat die Weise 
hielt mit den Bapsten, setzlen der drey ab n. wUklelen den viertea. Ich setze nun (sage 
Ich], daaa der Bapat und der Stnhl in Bom aolches begeben n. annehmen wollt, welclies 
dock unmOglich ist : denn er mOsste lein gani Begiment n. Stand Isseen nmbkehren n. 
■entdien mit alien selnen Bechten n. Btlchern. Snmma er ksnna nicht thim. Den- 
noch wire damit der Cbristenheit nlchts geboltiBn, n. wQrden viel mebr Rotten werden, 
denn mvor. Denn well man solcbem Hiapt nicht mOsate nntertban aein ans Gottea 
BefeU, Bondem ana menscbliebem gnten WtUen, wOrde es gar telchtlicb n. tialde ver- 
■cht, inJetEt kein Glied behajten. MQaata anch nicht tnunerdar an Bom oder andenn 
Ort« sein, aondem wo n. in welcher Kirchen Gott einen solcben Mann hitte gegeben, 
der tQcbtig dain ware. daa wollt ein weitlinftig wQst Wesen weiden. Danimb luuin 
die Kirehe nimmannehr basa n^eret n. srbslten werden, denn diss wir alle outer einem 
Hinpt Chriita leben, n. die Biachoffe alia gleich nai^ dem Ampt (ob aia wol nngleich 
nacb den Oabeo) fleissig maammenhalten in eintricbtlger Lehre, Glaaben, Sacramen- 
ten, Gebeten, u. Werken der liebe, etc., wie St. Hieronymus achreibt, daaa die Priesler 
m Alexandria simtlieh a. in gundn die KInben regierten (Tol. 1, % 80, NoL 1 { | S4, 
Sat 2), wie die Apoatel anch getfaan, n. henach sTIe BischoSb in der ganien Cbristen- 
heit, hie der Bapst seinen Kopf Qber alle erhnb. Dia StOck lelget gewaltiglieh, doss er 
der recble Endecbrist oder Widercfarist sey, der slch Qber n. wider Chriatiim geseit n. 
irbOhet hat, weil er will die Christen nlcht lassan lelig sein ohn seine Gewalt, welcbe 
docb nichls ist, von Oott nicht geordnet, noch geboten. Daaa heiast eigentlich Ober 
Gou D. wider GoH sich setien, wle St. Paulas sagt. Solchea thut dennoch der Torke 


168 FODBTH PEKIOD.— DIV. L— A.D. 1617-1618. 

league at Smoloald, Feb., 1537 (the Smalcakl Artioles)."* Bat 

nodi Tatter nicht, wie groin Fuode sie d«r Chriaten siiul, ■oodam Iumd gliabtn an 
CHiriBtam wet ds will, n. nehmen leiblirhen Zint n. Oehonun tod den Christen. Aber 
der BapM vill nIcht lamn gUnben, Bondern apricht : nun loUfl ilim gehoium seio; to 
warde man Klig. Du woUsn wir nicht thnn odet drabet steiben, id GotUs Nunen. 
Du koropt alia d>her, dua er jure dirino der obante hat gollen heUMD [iber dia chriit- 
liche Kircha. Darumb hat er lich mOBSCD Chiisto gleich d. bber Cliriitiim aatafln, uch 
das HiQpt, hernach einen Heirn der Kindien, zoletit ancb d«r ganicn Welt a. ichlecht 
dnen Iniiichea Gott (above, vol. liL, p. 64, Note 2 ; p. S39, Nolea) rOhmen lunn, bia 
er aach den Eugaln \m Himmalreich id gebieten sich untergtniid (Comp. vol. iii., 
§ lis, Not. 10). Und w«nD man noUncheidet dea Bapata hchm von der heiligen 
Scbritt, Oder da dagagen etellat n. halt, ao Gadt aicha, daaa dei Bapata Lehre, wo aie am 
aUerbeaten iat, ao iet oa ana dem kaiaerlichea beidniachen Bacbt gecommen, n. lehret 
WBimche Hindal n. Gerichte, wia aelna Decistalea aeygen. Daiuach lahret aie Cers- 
monien von Kirchen, Eleidero, Speiaen, Peraonen, n. dea Kinderapkla, Larven, n. Nar- 
Tcnuetka ohn Haaae. Aber in diaaem alien gar cichta von Chriato, GlaiJien, n. Gottea 
UabotCD. Zuletit lata nichia, denn eitel Tenfel, da er aelna Logen voa Meaaen, Feg' 
fener, EloMarey, elgen Wark n. Gotteadicnat (welchea denn daa rachte Bapatthnm iat) 
traibet, nbet u. irider Gott, vardampt, tfidtat n. plaget a]le Chiialen, ao aolchen aciiuii 
Grenel nicht Qber allea hebea n. ehren. Dammb ao wenig wir den Tenfel aelba tCr dnen 
Herren oder Gott anbelea kOnnea, ao wenig kOnnen irlr aach Hinen Apoitel, den Bapat 
Oder Endechriat, in aelnem Begiment lum Hanpt oder Herm ludeD. Dcdd LOgen n. 
Hord, Leib D. Seel in verderbau ewl|^cb, daa iat aeiu bapatlich Begiment eigentllch. 
Wie ieh daaselb ia Tielen BOcheni beweiset habe. 

"An dieaon vier Artlkeln werden aie genng en verdammen haben im Concilio. Dann 
ela nicht dag geiingste Gliedlein von der Artikel einem una laaaen kennen noch wollen. 
Dea mOasen wir gewiaa seln, a. una erwagea der HoSbung, Chriatiia nnser Here habe 
seinen Wideraachei angegriff^, n. werda nacbdmcken, beide mit seinem Geist n. Zn. 
kanft. Amen. Dean im Concilio tceidea wir nicht fDr dem Eaiaer, oder weltlicbei 
Oberkeit (wie in Angaporg), der ganz ein gn&digea Auaackreiben thU n. in der Gllte 
liesB die Sachen verhflren, aondem tOr dem Bapat d. dem Tenlel aelba warden wir da 
Btehen, der oicbts gedeakt ed liSren, aondem acfaleehta verdammen, morden, u. xnr Ab- 
gSttarey zd iwingen. Damm mOaaen wir hie nicht aeine FOaaa kOiaen, oder aagea : 
ihr aefd main gnidiger Heir ; aondem wie im Zacharia der Engel inm Teofel apracb : 
Strafe dicb Gott, Satan." Melancthoa anbacribed the article in the tbUowing manner: 
"Ich, PhlUppuB Melanchthon, halta dieae obgeatalH Artikel ancb tDr recht a. chiial- 
lieb. Vom Papst aber balte icb, ao er daa EvanEeliom woUte znlaaaen, daaa ihm nm 
Friedena nnd gemeiner Einigkeit willen deijenlgen Oirieten, ao anch nnter ibm Bind n. 
kOnftig aaj-n mSehten, Mine Snperioritit Unr die Biacbdfe, die eraonat hat, Jure hnma- 
no, ancli too una mznlaaaen aey." Comp. hi* deelarationa in Angibnrg, above, S 6, 
Note 3S. The Elector remarked npon It in hla anawer to Lather, 7tli Jan., in Secken- 
dorf, iii. IGS : " So wir aoa gntsr Meinnng n. nm Friedena willen, wie Hag. Philippoa 
Torgiebt, thn einen Herm blelben laaaen, der Ober mu, onaere maoholh, PfUrer n. Pte- 
diger in geUeten, aetilen wir nna aelbar in die Fatir n. Beitchwerung, wail er doch nloht 
raben wOrde und aeine Nachkommen, nna n. nnser allerMlts Nachkonmea gknatich in 
vertilgen n. anamTDttea, welches wir doch, well nna Qott daron l>efrB}-et n. erlOaet, gar 
nicht bedOrfen, aoUte anch wohl mit onaerer Klngheit (da wir eiomahl von aaineT Ba* 
byL GeHngnnaa dorch Gott tttj Eejn warden, nnd nna wieder in aolche Gedlirlicbkeit 
begilMn, alao Gott veranchtan) Ton Gott Qber nna Techinget warden, daa aonaten ohna 
alien Zweifel wohl bleiban wtri." 

'* Tliej were anbacribed bj' the theolo^ana, that Omy night, in caae of need, be at 
DDce naed in the conndL In the mean time, it ma tOiuid neceaaary to exponnd and 
prove their poaltion about the papal and epiacopal anthorit; in a treatlae to be pnblished 
by ilaelf; that thej might thna Jnatity their refoaal of the conncil. Tliia work wii writ- 
tan In Lstin by Helancthon, and llkewiie mbioribMl by the theolegian* (•«« Helano 


CHAP. I.— GERUAN BEFORUATION. g 7. 1687. 169 

still this very aeeembly utterly regeoted the invitation to the ooon- 
oil which was brought by Uie papal annoio and the imperial vioe- 
ohancellor, lleld."* This Tioe^hanoellor, hostile to the Protestants 
on other grounds, saw in tliis refusal a fno[ that the innovatioiis 
could be stayed only by the threat of violent measures ; aooordingly 
he began negotiations with the leading CathoUo estates, and sno- 
ceeded in bringing them into the Christian union, or the Holy 
League,^' Narembei^, June 10, 1538. Two leagues now stood 
in hostile array over against each other. Although they both de- 
clared that they were formed solely for defense, yet bo great was 
their mutual mistrast that war was prevented only by a truce.^ 
Though the Smalcald leaguei^ bad been disappointed in their 

thon'i Ep. ad Cunanrinin, IM Harcb, 1537, in Helanchtb. Ojip., ed. BreMcbneider, iiL 
Z9I, and at tbe end of Camenrloa da TIU Mel., ed. Strobel, p. 433) : iU title li De Pt>- 
teetale et Prini»ln Papae Trmctalm (in Bret«chnelder, ill. 271) ; it now form* ths Ap- 
pendix to the Snulold Artlcica (cf. H. J. Chr. Bertram's Geich. de> aymbol. An- 

tunga der Schmalkald. Artikel, edited by J. B. Riederer. Alldorf, 1771). S.) Tbe 

Smalcald Articles, in Germati, vera flrat pnbUahed bj LnCber, with a preface and im- 
pottant addlUona, and irith changes in the expressions ; " Artlkel so da hettcn voUea 
aidl^ Conellion in Uantna, oder wo ea witrde aejn, Oberantwortet werden, von nnseri 
Thelliwe^n. Dr. Hart. Lntber. WiUenberg, 16S8. 1." The Latin trauslatlon of Pe- 
tnu Generanna wbs first ismed at Wittenberg, 1511, Id 8td. Tbe treatise of Uelane- 
ihon, De Primatn Papaa, was But printed in Latin In a collection: Defbnaia Conjngil 
Sacerdotnm, etc. Argenioratl, 1640. 8. ; In the German translation, by Veil Dietrich, 
" Von dea BapMa Gewalt, Item von der BlschoSbn JoiisdictiDa, gestellet dnrcfa Hetrn 
I'm. Helanchtbon, tt. nrdentachet dnrch Titum Dietherich. Wituab., IMl. 4.— The 
Smalcald Articles bare paaied into the Concortlia (tbe Lutberen aymbols) : In German, 
after tha first edition of Lnther ; in Latin, not in the tranalatioa of Generaana, bat In 
the worse translation of Selnecker, mads for this purpose. Melancthon's work, De Po- 
teatats et Piimata Papae, as an Appendix, is in the Coneordia, in German, In tha trans- 
lation of Veit Dietericti, which waa fbr along time considered as the original ; in lAtin, 
it was given In tbs first and some latar editions of the Cencordia, after a translation fVom 
Teit Dieterich'a text, probably by Selnecker ; bnt fn most of the editions, particalarly 
In the Recbenberg, it is given In tb« ori^nal text. 

" See the acts in Hortleder, Tb. 1, Boch 1, cap. K-29. Walcb, xvL S426 tt. Cf. 
Sleidanos, lib. xL ; Seckendor^ iii. 143. Bericbt dea Cornelius Ettenim Ober die Belaa 
des Legaten Torstios, Biicb. t. Aix, In Ranmer's Hlat. Taachenbiiche f. 1839, a. SOS ff. 
The reftisal was specially Jnalifled on the groond ttiat the coaacll waa called against the 
newly-arisen heresies and emn, yet tiiat in the bnll on the Reformation of the city and 
the court of Rome, Sept. 23, 1636 On German in Walch, xvi. 2332), tbe extirpation of 
the Lotberan hereey waa given outright as tbe object of the cooDcil, so that the Protesl- 
anta were already held aa condemoed tiefore It met ; anotbar reason waa, that Hantna, 
and not a German city, was the place aelMt«d. 

" ThedDcnmenlalnHDrtieder,Th.LBacbS,cap.l4andl6. Walch, xvil. 4. Those 
that look part were the Emperor, King Ferdinand, the Elector of Hayence, the Abp. of 
3alibnrg, tbe dnkes of Bavaria, who, after tbe treaty of Cadan, became the most vio- 
lent foes of the Protestants, Doke George of Saxony, and Henry of Brantwick. Cf. 
3tnmpr> Balema Polit. QoschichU, 1. 207. 

" Tmce at Frankfort, April 19, 1633, tor fifteen montha; sea tbe docnments in Hort- 
leder, i. L cqi. SI ; Walch, xrll. tX. 


II70 FODBTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1848. 

prospect of allianoes with France and England — ^with the former 
by ^e personal influence of the Emperor with Francis I.,^ and 
with the latter by the theological obstinacy of Henry VIII. ;^ yet, 
on the other hand, they now entered into friendly relations with 
Switzerland. The four cities of the Oberland, although they had 
for a long time been members of the league,^ and had also, since 
1533, subscribed the Augsburg Confession,^' had still given occa- 
sion to new discussions^' by the doubts which weighed upon their 

" Dntil then tim King bad sought >n tllUnco with the Smslcald League, had feigned 
to be lealoos for the Refomutlaa and igreetneat with the German Refonnation in the 
essential principles (on the negotiitianB otthe French embassador, fidlaj. at Smolcald, 
■ee the docaments in Melanchth. Opera, ed. Bretschneider, iL 1009, 102S; cf. Secken- 
doif, ill. 104), and liad even desiied to have MelBDCthon come to him for a time; see 
Strobel Von Helancbthott's Rnf nsch Franlueich u.sdnem dahin geachichten Religions- 
bedenlien r. Jahr 153S. Ndmberg n. Alldorf, 1794. 8. Through the mediation of the 
Pope a truce was effected in Nizia, Jane 18, 1538, for ten ye»n, between the Emperor 
and the King ; immediately: afterward the two met in person at Aignes Mortee ; in con- 
sequence of this tbe negotiations with the embaanadors ct the Smalcald confederatet, 
then present with the King, took such a tnm that they were obliged to depart without 
effecting any thing 1 Seckendorf, ill. 17S iq. 

** Henij- also bad (153!>) proposed an alliance and doctrinal union, and expressed a 
wish to have Melancthon come to him (Mel. Opera, ed. Bretscbneider, U. 10S8 ; Seck- 
endorf, 111. 110). The theological discuseions between him and the embasudora of tbe 
league, sent to him in 1538, are in Boinet's Hist. Ref. Angllcanae (ed. Genev., IGBSfol.), 
Pars i. Add. p. 152. Cf.^Mkendorf, iii. 180. 

*' Bucer tried at that time to represent the dispute as a mere logomachy, and made 
in (hit sense proposals to Duke Ernest of LOneburg. On this LuUtar wrote to tbe Ut- 
ter, Feb. 1, I5SI (de Wette, iv. 219) : " Dass aber M. Bucenu fllrgibt, es stehe der Hader 
in Worten alleln : da wollte ich genie umb aterben, wenn es so wire :" yet Lnther was 
also inclined to peace ; see his letter Ad H. Bucenun, dd. 22. Jan., 1531 (iliid., s. 217): 
commendimuB caosam Deo, interim servantes pacis istiuJ qualiscnnqne et eoncordiiie 
ealenns firmntae, quod confitemur, corpus Domini vere adesse et exhibeii intui nnimae 
lideli. — Et Tolo te mihl crederc,_hoe nostmni dissidinm optare me compesd, etiamsi 
yita mea ter esset tmpendenda, quia Tidi, qoam sit necessaria nobis vestra sodetae, 
quanta tulerit et adhuc aO^rt incommoda Evangelio, its nt certns urn, omnes porta* 
infemi, totum Papatam, totnm Torcam, totum mondnm, totam camem, et qoicqaid 
malomm est, non potnlsse tantum nocere Evangelio, si Concordes eMtmtts. Sed quid 
bciam In eo, quod impossibile est fieri i 

" In what waf is set forth bj Bacer to the Angsbuigera in extenso, Ep. ad. Bonlbci- 
nm Wolfhardtum et Augustanoa (from Opp- Zanchii, in Gerdesil Scrininm, v. 322), 
viz.: LegaU nostrarum urbinm palam et diaertia verbis teatati sont, — ae idea praeter 
nostram Saxonicam quoqne Confesaionem et Apologiam redpere, qood tiaec rdpaa cum 
nostra congmaL 

" In 1534, Bucer, through the Landgrave (on whoee sgene7 in tUs aflUr, see Welch, 
XTiL.2S7B ; Rommel's Philip the Great, il. S43), at first proposed to the Wittenbergers a 
formula of coneord, which was not unacceptable to Luther. Melancthon answered tbe 
LandgraTe, ISth Sept., 1634 (Opp., ed. Bretacbneider, iL 788) : " Ich will anch fir meln 
Person J. F. G. nit bergen, daea Icli an dem onfttmdlichsn Schrejen nnd Schieibea aut 
unsenn Tbell nie GetUIen gehabt babe, londem alls Zeit daran Heraleld getragen babe 
und noeh tonge. Ich hUt such die Saeh gem m chiistlicher EInigkelt gearbell, wie E. 
F. 0. selb BUS etUchen Dmbst&nden abnebmen mCgen. Nachdem Ich abet so gn»M 
Hirtikdt befunden, darana ander mebr Bescfawenmg gefolget, hah Icbi anch mDasen 


CHAP. 1.— GERMAN HEFOBMATION. 5 7. 1636. 171 

doctrine of the Lord's Sapper. Id these conferences &.e Swiss 
delegates, yielding te Lather's overpowering personal inflnenoe, 
had adopted a strict Lutheran formula in the Conoordia Yiteber- 
gensis, 1536.'^ Yet Bucer still tried to conceal his weakness'' by 
explanations, to iodoce the Swiss to accede to this union.^ His 

Qott bcfeUcn." Melincthoa therenpon had ■ conft^ence with Bacer at Cauel, Jan., 
1535, tor which Luther provided him with instnictlang (de Wettc, It. 570) ; Luther waa 
not dbpleaaed with the Tesolt (••• bii Oplaloa, ibid., b. fiSB), rinc* Bncer Ilad pl^nljr 
confMsed " tliat the body of Chriit is tnilj and GMentiallj' offered, receired, and eaten 
In the EacharUt in the bread ;" he did indeed winh to deikr conclndlDg the Concordia, 
in Older to be aunnd of a general agreement on both aidei, but ha teatlAed to hi* wlIU 
ingneu to come to an agreement, both to ttie Angsbnrgen (Jul; SO, ibid., a. 612 and 
613), and in lettera to Strubnrg, Ulm, and Easlingen (Oct. 5, ibid., ■. 636 8.). 

** On the aaaembly of the theologlana in ^nttenberg, Haf, 1536, see the reporU of 
penona preaent, tIi. : EHd. Mjconliu ad Titum Dietrich (ed. Nicoi. Selneceer, 1581, In 
Wigaodna de SacrameBtarliimo, p. 351, end in Lommalcscb Narratio de Frid. Hfco- 
nio, p. S€, German in Walch, zrii. !53!) ; of Johannes Bemlumli, preacher in Frank- 
fort (in Ritter'i Frankfhrt. Dankmal, i. 346, in Walch, zrii. S54S) ; and of H. Bucer Qn 
Ilia Scripts Anglicana, Baiil,, 1GT7, fol. p. 6iS). The Concordia, by Uelsncthon, 8e^' 
endotf, iU. 182, at the end of Cameroriug de ^ta Melanchtb., ed. Strobel, p. IBl, 0pp. 
Helanchth., ed. BretEClineider, iii. 76 : I. Confitentnr jnxta Tertia Ireniel, conatare £u. 
cbariatiam dDBboi rebos, tenena et coelaatL Itaqne aentlnnt et decent, cnm pane at 
vinOTere et anbatantialiter adeaie, exhiberi et anmi corpoi Cliriati et eangoinem. II. Et 
qunqnam negant fieri tranaanbatantiationem, nee aentinnt fieri localem inclasionem in 
pane, ant dorabilem aUqoam conjonctlonem extra nanm Sacramentl : tamen eoncednnt 
aaeramentall nnione panem ease corpni Chriatl (corpna eaae cnm pane), h. e. aentlnnt 
poirMto pane limnl adesaa et vere exMtieri corpna ChriaU. Nam extra nanm, cnm aa- 
aerratnr in pizide, ant oatenditnr in proceasionibna, nt (it a Papistia, aentliint nan ad- 
eaae corpna Cliristi. III. Deinda banc tnaUtntionam Sacnmenti aentlnnt valere in Ec 
deua, nee pendere az dignltate miniatrl ant anmenlis. Qoare aicnt Panlna ait, edam 
indignoa mandncare, ita aentinnt porrigi Ten corpna et languinem Domini etiam indlg- 
uia, et indignoa aamera, nbi HTTantar verba et inatltaUo Christ Ideo enim propoaltnm 
eat, nt teitetnr lllis appUcari tieneflcia ChriaU (et fieri eoa membra Chriati), et ablnl lan* 
golne Cliriiti, qui agont poenitentlam, et erignnt ae fide in Chriatnm. 

" See ArUenli Concordiae com Explicatione Bncerl, in hii Scripta AngHcana, p. 665, 
In Bretacbneider, iii. 78. The etiief difficulty wai on Article IU., that alao the nnbelier- 
an receive the body and blood. On thi» ha wya : Omnino enlm tria genera hominnm 
aacramenta etunera poaannt. Qnidani qui omnia bic contemnnnt et rident, qui prorana 
impii aont, nee quicqnam Domino crednnt ; bl nihil qnam panem et Tinnm agnotennt 
et aentinnt, eoque nee amplina percipiont, qnia pervertnnt verba et Inatitntionem Domi- 
nL AlU Terbla bic Domini porrignilia corpna annm crednnt, eaqna fide aacnmentnm 
■ccipiunt, nt almnl rem aacramenti perdplant, nee tamen donnm hoc Del dlgne perpen< 
dnnt : hi ea indignltate reoa ae bcinnt eorpoHs et aangninia Domini, qnae tamen anmere 
volant et inmnnt, quia verba et inatitntionem Domini amplactnntar : nan mandncant 
antem tevera, nt Augiuttnna dicit, h. e. uon fmnntnr plana hoc dl>o Tiviflco, qnem in 
nentem non aadi demittimt Tartil annt, qnl nan eredtmt tanttun inaUtntioni Domini, 
et aecommodant ae illi aactajnento anmendo, aed aimni tItk fide omnia expendnnt, 
cooaiderant et ampUctnotor, indeqne Tirtntem et Jncnnffilatem bnjns cUd aalide par- 

** He had already endeaTored to induce the Swlaa to take part in the attempt* for 
nnlon ; aee Oawald Myconina Ton Kirchhofer, a. 171 ; Lebenageachichta BnlUngen von 
8. Hcaa, i. 185. The (brther^egotlaUona on tbe Wltteulwrg Concordia; aee in Kircb- 
hotto, a. 168; S. Heaa, e. 289. 


172 FODBTH FEBIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1617-164S. 

public deolarations about the matter^' were received by Luther 
with unwonted mildness (1537),'' and thus a seeming unity now 
took the place of the old divisions. Protestantism gained still more 
in G-ermany in consequence of the death of its two most violent 
opponents, Joachim I., Elector of Bnutdenburg (t 1535), and 
G-eorge, Doke of Saxony (t 1539). In the electorate of Branden- 
burg, Joachim II. immediately granted toleration to the Reforma- 
tion, and joined It himself in 1539, after the Bishop of Branden- 
bui^, Matthias von Jagow, had declared in its favor. The Elect- 
or's brother, also, Margrave John, ruler of the New-Mark, had be- 
come decidedly attached to tlte cause'^ as early as 1536. In the 
duchy of Saxony, Duke Henry introduced the Reformation imme- 
diately after his accession.^ Catholic prinoea also conceded relig- 

" In ft letter to Luther in which the; declared themaelvea read; for nnioii, presap- 
poglng th>t the Concordift was to be understood seeordiDg to Bneer'i declsntion, and 
CDOMqaently as agreung with their dactrinil vlewi ; Kinhhoftr, a. !89 ; S. Hess, a. 
25S. The whole letter, in Latin, In Hoaplnisni lllat Sacrameutaria, iL ISl. Bncer 
aljll tried to show to Lather that the Swiss diflbred onlj' In ezpresuon, not in doctrine 
(see the letter of Jan., 1SS7, in Hess, s. 290). 

" The letter of the Swiss was brought by Bucer to the Smalcald ConTentlaD in Feb., 
1S37, and handed to Lnthsr in Goths ; he could not replj' at once on account of sick- 
ness, but received it in a Mendly way (see Bacer's Bericht, In H«is, *. 371, and Lu- 
ther's latl«r to J. Meyer, Borgomeister of Basel, 17th Feb., 1637, in da Wette, v. 54). 
The fonnal answer of lAthsr to the Swiss, first on December 1st (de Wette, t. 8S): 
" Na ists wohl wahr, n. kann inch nicht anders sejn, dssa aolche grosse Zwietracht 
nicht kann so Islcht a. bald ofane Kits n. Nsrben gtheflet werden. Dean es werden 
beyde bey ench d. ons Etllchs scyit, welchen sokhs Concordia nlcbt geOlllg, sondsm 
verdftchUg seyn wird. Aber so wir in bey den Theilen, die win mlt Ernst melnen, wer- 
dea fleluig anhaltsD, wird dsr liebe Vster n. Qott wohl setn Qnadg geben, dass es bey 
den Andem mit der Zeit anch za Tod blot, n. das trUbe Wasser sich wtedemmb setrt. 
1st dcrhalben meia freundlich Bitte, E. £. wollten dun thnQ n. mlt Enist TCrschsfhn, 
dasa bey each n, den Enem die Schcder, so wider uu n. die Concordia plandeni, aich 
ihrea Scbreiens eatbalten, n. das Tolk elnfal^lich lehren.— Gleichwte sncli wIr allhler, 
bejrde in SchriAen a. Predlgten, nns gar still hslten n. ni&uigeB wider die Euren tn 
gchreien, damit wir aucb nicht Ilnach seyn, die Concoidia tu hindera ; welcbe wir ja 
TOO Herzen gem sehen, n. Gott gelobet, des Fschteos a. Schretens bliher gnog geweit, 
wo es h&tte sollen etwas ansricbten." 

" Nic. Lenthingeri (Brandenburg, historiographer, f 16IZ) Comm. de H«r«U* Brtn- 
denborgensi, lib. i*. (In Krmtiaii Scriptt de rebns Uarch. Brand., 1. 16!, 157). Secken- 
dorf, iiL 231; Dr. Ad. Holler's Qesch. d. Belbrm. In der Hark Bnndenburg. Betllo, 
1839. 8. Cbr. W. Spieker's Kirchen- n. EefbrmaUonsgesch. der Hsrk Brandenburg, 8 
Tbeile. Beriin, 1839 ff. JoL Schladebach der Debertrltt del SurfDrsten Joachim 11. 
inr Loth. Etrche am Iten Kot., 1539. Leipzig, 1840. 8. 

" In order to eiclDde btm tht gnccesslon his brother Benry, who was devoted to the 
Reformation, and to insure the govemment to his half-witted son Frederick, under a re- 
gency, George endeavored te appease the irrepressible desire of Ms subjects for a Befbr- 
mation by a servtce intenaedlate between the old and the new ; see In Seckendort; ill. 
208, tbe negotUtiona with the electoral and Hessian delegates. George Wicelins was 
•spedally bo^ in them ; in 1531 he bad gone bsck from the Lutheran to the CathoUo 



ioos freedom to tlieir sabjeots ; Qie Elector Lonis, in tbe Upper 
Palatinate,^ 1538 ; the Elector Albert of Uayence, in the Mogde- 
bnig and Halberstadt provinces,'^ 1539. 

The Emperor made one other attempt to effeot a religious union. 
A oonferenoe was Bommoned to Spires, assembled in Hagenao, 
Jane, 1540, and aotnally opened in Worms,^ Jan. 14, 1541. The 
prospects were at first auspiotons. The papal legate, Caspar Con- 
tarini, whose inBoenoe predominated with the OathoUo conferees, 
was inclined, on many points, to the Protestant doctrines ;^ other 
Catbolio tfaeol(^;iatis majiifested very pacific sentiments.^ When 
ibe Emperor, in April, opened a diet in Ratisbon, the oonferenoe 
was adjoumed thither,*" and ccntinned its disonssions, by imperial 
oommuid, upon a prqeot for union presented in writing, the Rat- 
isbon Interim." It resulted as befbie at Aogsburg ; .they quick* 

Chnrcb, but fbiud in both gnat defbct^, and hencs indeaTored to bfing ■boot A middia 
cooTM <SM Wical't Leben, in Strobd'i Bajtrlge, U. 8S1, 2G0, by Bienicker, la Tatar*! 
Kirchaohixt. Archir, I8S5, a. 82G, 366). Frederick, bomrer, died betbre GMTga; the 
latter died April 17, 1539. Tba BUbop of Mlmia, alio, dow neomnwDded mch a balf- 
ntormtlioa U> the new Duke Heiuy ; Julina t. Pflog and ^^oel were activa in project- 
tag It, bnt It mt not accepted; Seckendorl^ ill. S15. Henrjr provided at Mice tor an 
■xtaniive Chnt«li visitation, by which the Befomiation wai to be ganerall}' lotrodnced. 
Ths IiutnictiiHU of the viiitors are in Chr. F. Weiaae, Mowom der aicha. Geichichte, Bd. 
L (Ldpr., 17M) a. 210.— Cf. K. O. Hoftaiann's AiufDhrl, Bafonnatlonibiatorie der Stadt 
D. UniTeraltlt Leipiig. X«ipa., 17Sff. 8. Bering, Oeub. der 1639, Im ICaAgraflh. Udi- 
Mo B. dem thOrioK. KraiH srfolgtea EinfQbrong der Befamution. Leipaig, 18S9. 
Winer De Facnlutu theol. erangelioas in UoiTWsitate Lipaienti Originlbu (Leipalo 
programnie for tba oentennial celebration, I83S). 

" H. Altin^ Hilt. Eccleaiaa Palatioae, in tja Honamanta |d«taUt et litararta Fna- 
cof., ITOl. 4. p. 165. Dan. Parai Hist. Palatina, p. 347. 

" SpiJjitin'i Annalen, a. 491 ; [n Halle fint in IMl, Seekeadofi; lu. S78. Dreyhanpt'a 
Baachraibnng dsi Saalkrelni, L 207, 971. Knipp NarraUo de Jiuto Jona, In hi* Sinip- 
ta raril argnmeBti, ed. IL li. 622. 

" Spalatin'a Anoaleo, a. 4S1-4D1, S11-6S2. Helanchthonia ^iatt, «d. BrtUchnatder, 
W. ]. J. P. BoedenuDvColloq^oWormatienriexHai;. Ebneriano. Norimb., 1714. 4. 
K W. Herlog's Geech. der Eircbl. nnloniTersacbe adt der Befomutian bia aof nuMra 
Zeit, Bd. L (Uipi., 1836) a. M. 

" Comp. below S 19, Note 5 if. IS, 38, eapedally 24. Banke, PUnten n. VSlker von 
Sad.Earopa im leten n. 17ten Jahih. 11. 146, 151. 

** Ct Job. Cochlloa, then Dotnlurr in BmUn, Gotachtea Qber die Aapbnrgiicha 
ConAaaion n. die Anggbnrgiachen TerBleichihaiidlniigaa, in dam Hagenaoer Convent, 
tn Seckendort; iil. 284, and in Bajuldna, 1640, Ko. f 9. 

» Acta in Conveotn BaUibonan^ pnbliibed by Melancthon, Witeb., 1611. 1. Acta 
CoUoqaillnComitiiaBatiibonaahabitiparU.Bnceram. Algentor, IMI. 1. Hortlader, 
L 1, cap. S7. Walch, xvii. G96. The complete acta in Helanchthonia EpiitL, ad. Bret- 
■chneider, ir. 119. Cf. Spalatin'a Annalen, a. 611 

*' la the different eollectioiu of the actti In Brettdineider, W. 190; Leaidea in the 
Latm ori^nal, in J. E. Bieck'i Drayfluhea Interim. Leipi., 1721. 8., a. 2O0. The Eof 
peroT handed thia writing to the eitalei aa " alnen achrittlichen Begrlf, dnrcb etlicha 
gBl«bit« n. gottasArchUga Permun, wia Ihre Ua]. berlcbt woiden lit, ti 



ly oame together on merely specalattve formalas ;*' but as soon as 

genu. IhrerHa]. bcfaiUidet'' (Wslcb, zTii. 8fi8); OruiTella coDimnnieiUd it to the pa- 
pal IcgaU u iibrwn atufedim a piii doetiiqtie cirv in Btlgixi (Pallaviclni Hist Cone. 
ttii.. It. 14, 1). That the Colagne theologlui, John Cropper, iraa tbe aathor U declared 
bf UeluicthDn (Ep. ad Geor^nm Anbilt., in Bretachneider, it. 838), Eck (Strobera 
Bejtr., ii. MS), aod the papal Ugate, Contuenng (Pallavidm 1. c). B«iidB» him, Bncer 
and Wicelins have alaa been held to be the anlhora. The tnith in the matter ii proba- 
bly to be [ousd in Uelancthon'a Beport to the Elector, ed. Bretachneider, It. BT7 (cf. 
lUgen'a ZeitBchr. f. ffiat. Theel., il. i. 397). The book was written bj Gnpper, wiOi 
tbe lielp of ■ fomig ataleiman, Gerhard Tolcrack, emplojed onder GranTella ; It wa« 
then commnnlcated to Bncer and Capito, and much altered, eipedallj' from the aaggea- 
tiona of the former; it waa also ihown to the papal legate, Contarenna, who likewise 
made manji changea (les the Chancellor Bnrchatd'a letter to the Elector of Saxonj-, 
ISth Hay, in Bretacbneider, tv. 290 ; Pallavicini 1. c). Therenpon it was sent to tbe 
Elector of Brandenbnrg and the Landgrare of Heiae, who were gnined for the project 
of nnlon. The Sector aent It to Lather fbr Us opinion, wilb ■ letter, dated 4th Fabr. 
(Dretscbneider, iv. 93 ; cf. Nendecker'a merkw. ActanatQcke, i. 348). Be declared hlm- 
aelfnot wholly averse, but thonght that the Catholic lideconld not accede to these prop- 
ositions, and that, be^es, ttaera waa mnch which the Protestants should not accept. 
Tberenpon the Elector delivered the book to the Emperor, to be laid at the basis of die 
negotiations Itor union. Until then it bad been kept strletlf secret. 

■* The Emperor named, as the Catholic tbeologiana in the conference, Jot. von Pflog, 
John Cropper, and John Eck ; the Protestants, Uelanethoo, Bucer, and John PiiUrina ; 
the piesidenta were the Palgrave Frederick and Granvella. Tbe conference began 2Tth 
April ; to the 6th Hay they compond the articles (see lUgen's Zeltschr. I. Hist. Theol., 
ii. i. 804) De condiklane bomlnis anU lapsani, De libero arbitrio. Da original! peccato, 
and De jostificatioDe hominia. In the extant editioni of the Interim these articles are 
printed as they were adopted In the conference (see Bacer's Acta, In Hortleder, i. i. cap. 
37, No. 40 ff.). The extent to which the Catholics yielded is particularly seen in tbe 
article Da Jostlficatione ; — Flrma itaque est et sana doctrlna, per fldem vivam et effica- 
cem Jnstificail peccalorem. Nam per illam Deo gratl et accepti samaa propter Cfaria- 
tum. Vocamoi antem fiden Tivam motnm Spiritiu sancti, quo vere poenitonlea veteris 
yitae, eriguntnr ad Denm, et vere apprebendimt misericordiam in Christo promisiam, ni 
Jam Tere sentiant, qood remisslonem peccatonim et recondliationem propter meritnm 
Oiristi, gratoita Dei bonitate acceperant, et clamant ad Denm Abba paler, id qnod ta- 
men nnlll obUngit, nisi edam simnl infiindatiir chaiitos nnani volunutem, at volnntat 

sanata, qaemadmodam D. Angnstlniu ait, inciplat implen legem ECu antem ia qni 

Jnstiflcatnr, JnstitUm acclpit et habet per Chriitam edam inbaerentem, — qaare as. pb- 
tre$ Jnstiflcari etjam pro eo, qnod est inbaerentem jnttitiam accipere, luQtpBmnt: ta- 
men onima fldelis hnic non innititor, sed soli jnstitiie Chriiti nobis donatae, sine qna 
omnino nolla est nee esse potest jnstltla. Etsic fide in Christam jtutiflcamar, sen tepti- 
tamar )asti, i. e. accept!, per ipsins merita, non propter nostram dignitatem ant opera. 
Et propter inbaerentem jostltiam eo }nsti dicimnr, qnia qnae Jnsta annt operamnr, jnxta 
iUnd Johannis : qui faeU jvtlitiam, jattiit at. — Item Chriatiano euiqne debet esse com- 
pertnm, non In hoc datnm esse nobis hanc gratiam, et banc regenentionem, at in eo 
grada innovationiB nostrae, qnem primnm nacU snmns, otioei consistamns, sed cresca- 
mn* in ipaum per omnia, qui est caput. Ideoqne docendns est popolas, at det operam 
hnic angmento, qnod qnidem fit per bona opera, et interna et externa, a Deo mandata 
et commendata, qnibns Dens promisit propter Christum In plaribns locls Evangelii clare 
et manifbste mercedem. — Idsoque qoamvia baerediEas vitoe aeteroae proptor promlatio- 
nem debeatar renatis, etiam cum primnm In Chriitum reosti sunt ; nihilominns reddlt 
Dens ftiam bonis opsribus mercedem, non secnndom snbstantlam opemm, neqne secnn- 
Jnm qnod snnt a nobis, sed qaatenns in fide finnt, et snnt a Spiritn 9ancto, qni baUtat 
in nobis, concnrreate libero arbitrio, tanqaam paitiali agente. — Qal antem dlcnnt, sola 
/lUjailificaBmr, almol trader* debent doctrinan de poeoitenUa, de timore Del, de Jndi- 



they came apoa the external oonstitation and oidinances that re- 
lated to the authority of the Choroh, the division remained.*^ 
Meanwhile these n^otiations for pe^oe were suspected by both 
parties : Catholic princes declared they could not accept the four 
articles as compared ;** the Protestants feared deception and craft 

cio Dei, de booii operibos, nt lot> ramnUi praedicitlonia constat, ticat Chriitiu ioqnit: 
praedieantet poaiitailiam, et nmiitionan pecimlorum in ooniins ■KO, idqne o« h«ec lo- 
qaendl formals alitcr qnam prudictam <ut IntelllgBtnT. 

•* Cf- the Proteatuit coonter articles in Wslcb, xvU. T9S. Mebachtli. ^btt., «d. 
UretKhneider, iv. S18. 

** The dukea of BiTtria were oppoMd to the Canf«nnce fhnn the beginning, and d» 
mended tint thej' ahonld retott ta armi ; oomp. the repoit* of a Roman agent, Claadina, 
in Katiabon, to Cardinal FarneH, 4th March, IMl (Bajmald., Ibil, No. 8} : Nndioa ta^ 
tiuB Daces Barariae conveniue ad Caeaarem, Uliqne repetito Lntheraniami principlo, in 
meiDoriam nvocaaae omnea errore*, qui sdmiail (neruit tn dod eucindenda haeieai, 
nee tmmida vera religions, qna laber»ctals pariter Coewrene HajeMalis Imperiiqne anc- 
toritaa labefitctaretnc ; expmnereque qouita gtndjo — aeniper pantiatimi fberint — ad t1- 
tam ipatm p«rica]is abjldeadam pro dirino caltD aaaerendo (II) : — ae aaepioa illad In- 
cnlcanuit, nimia CacMreaa Majestatia clementia indnlgantiaque, quam Ipei etlam Lu- 
Ihenni negllgentlae et tnertiae vltio tribnebant, rem in praeseni diacrimen addaotam 
fuiiae. or tlie 1th April Q. c. No. i) : Dncea Bivariae in Comitiia In id incnhniaae, at 
bellam Latfaennis indiceretnr : aed Caaiarem ipaia ac Hogaatjno Cardlnali apaite da- 
nanUaase, H all lis contnliii omnino ■lienam, aiucipere nolle bellam, com ab aerario 
linparatna ait, ae il opibna tnatnietas eeaet, nolle eaa in Germanla sine alia atUitsta pro- 
fundere, eat eipeitnm, quantaa ope* eiigantor pro gerendo bello : eipeditionsm earn 
Uifficillimim fntonm, cam tarn Catholici qoam Latherani alnt Oermanl, ezcitom irl a 
Luthennia Turcica et GaUica aoxilta : pana etiam de Latberanla victoria non tamen 
forum anlmas In viam aalnUa tradoetom irt, alqne ita omne goiendl belli pro Rligione 
coDiilinm abjndaae. Of the 6tb April (I- c- I^o- 7) : Signifieavit TI Aprilia Cirdtnall 
Farnealo Clandloa tntemantiaa, Dacibaa Ba*arlae mazime aoapectam concordiae can 
Latherania actionem, ne religlonia caaaa prodator, atqoe OranTslUniun turn ab ipala, 
tnm a Uogontino in aoapicionem addaci, nee ipem boaun ex Bi comitiiB ipiia afftalgere, 
Cf. Wlntor'a Geach. dai eTangel. Lehre in Baiern, ii. 80, 9S. After the conference had 
Inen braken off, Hay 23, (he Catholic eatatea, chieflj the biahope, canaed a violent acconnt 
of the matter, in opposition to the union doeament and to the coUoqnj, to be drawn op, 
•ddresaad to the ItniperoT (in Spalatin, a. CSS) ; tliis, hoverer, na kept back, and a 
milder one presented, Jnty 2 (Bttcer's Acta, In Hortleder, !. 1, cap. 87, No. 39S), which 
proposed that the Empenir, with the papal legates, ahonld examine the work of the col- 
locutors, to aee if there was aaj thing in it against the Catholic doctrine. Eck was par- 
ticnlarly bna7 infnslag diatmat into the Catbolic eitatea ; at their meeting lie declared 
that he had never been pleased with "this insipid book," "in which he had fonnd so 
many errora and defects," Both the other Catholic collocntora complained of him fbr 
this, and showed that Eck had assented to all the artlclea compared ; and that tbey had 
also received from the Emperor a testimonial in praise of the regolsritj' of their pro- 
cedars (see Bncer, in Hortleder, a. a., Ho. 678).— fVoro the Catholic party reporta also 
went to Borne, aroosing an^ety : e. g., Tth J>me, in Baynaldas, 1641, No. !S : video 
mazimam pnsillanimitateni et stapiditalam in proceaaa hojoa negotii : nunc nihQ atten- 
tatnr, qnod posslt adveraariornm temerariam aadaclam deprimere. Bed contra, omnia 
qnae eia placent et od sDam rem bdnnt fieri permittontor et concedantar. Prtmo, Id 
hoc coUoqnio (sicnt prolixe acripsi Rev. Cardineli Fameaio) haboamnt pesaimoa anae 
sectae et pertlnaciorea, tam collocntores qaam asaistentea, et ex noitrls aaaialentoi Ihera 
fkcti f^ (kventas haereticis, U Pblngios et Groppenu, qui male conseneemnt, hominem 
seta fide jostiScari, de quomm lapaa Bacema impie triomphavil ;— ex colloqaentlbnt 

:dbv Google 

176 SODBTH PEBIOD— DIY. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

in respect to them." And so the conference was bronght to an 
end, without sncoess, on the 23d of May.** The Emperor, in or- 
der to obtoia qniok help against the Turks, was compelled, in the 
final decree of the diet, July 39, 1541, to renew the Peace of Nu- 
remberg, with an additional provision reiieving the Protestants 
on the points complained of about the operation of the imperial 
courts.*'' A declaration was also appended to satisfy them on oth- 

tuiQs donUXBt petitiu Thwlogiu (Eck) adhibitna nititit : JndicM vera fiien kici con- 
tn omaejtu iamagniun piaiiindidan]. The King of France, «bo, for polidc^ reuoni, 
tried to thwart tverj attempt at naion in Otmaay, also conipUiaed about the coDces- 
uonl of tbe legate in Ratiibon (Banke FOntea n. Talker, ii. 164). And to the legmtc 
now received an ordsr to accept no fonnnlaa that were not indohitablj Catholic (ibid., 
B. 167); and fas now adviied, nihil ampliaa da reliqaii omnibni agcudoni, aed remil- 
tanda Snnimo Pontiaci, et Apoalolicae Sedi (Ra3-Dald., 1641, Ho. 14, 16). 

*> The Elector of Saxony had from the SriC been very mnch diacontented that tbef 
had mado any other book than the Aogaborg Confeason the baaia of negotiation ; and 
he miitnuled the Elector of Brandeuborg, tbe LandgTave, and Bncer. Then, too, Im 
WBi diipleased with the article on JnatiAcadon, a« agiend upon, becanee it waa obacnre 
and ambignoDi (Seckendorf, iiL S66). Luther gtrengthened him in tide (do Wette, t. 
seS) : " E. K. F. G. haben recht genrtheill, daaa die Hotel der Tergiaichong ein w*ll- 
lAoftig n. geflickt Ding iat." Tbe Sector now sent Amedorf to Ratisbon to walcb Me- 
lanethon, and commanded the latter to yield nothing of Lather'i doctrine, and to make 
bU Uie rein) ta conditional npoD the assent of the utateg (Seckendorf, lii. Sfi«, 860). How- 
crer, these proviaions were needleaa ; for tlie union came to a dead itop oD tiie anbw- 
qnent artlclee abunt the Church, the Lord's Sopper, etc. Ths Elector Joachim of Bran- 
denburg, in conjunction with other Proteatant estates, now sent an impodng embassy 
to Luther (Princea John and George of Anlialt, Mattfaiai tou Schnlenbnrg, and Alex. 
Aleilos) to engage bim in tbo projecled Dnion (cf. Bretsehnelder, in Qlgen's Zeitschr. 
f. Hist. Tbeologie, it L !93 ; their repreaentationa In Walcb, xvli. 846). Lather raplied, 
I2tli Jbub (ibid., s. 846 ; de Wette, v. 366), that it was impossible to tBeet a union with 
the other par^ : " Denn ob es gluch Kaia. U^J. an& allerhshest u. gnftdigit enut a. 
gut meinet, so ist doch jensm Theil nicbt Ernst mit Gott u. nach der Wahrheit vertn- 
gen in wsidsn ; woUen aber Eais. H«j. viellelcht also ein Nasen drehen. Denn wo ea 
Emat wire, so wDrden sie die andem lehea Artikel nicbt lassen anvergUchen aeyn, all 
die wohl wisaea n. rerstahen, daas sie alia zehen gewalttglicb d. in bMW conaequentia 
ana dea vier Tvrglichenen, aondeilich aos dem Artikel der JustMcatioo, Tardampt dud. 
.^Wo aber-Eaia. Maj. auaachriebe Q. verachofie, dass die riar Artikel dnrcbans rein u. 
klar gepredigt, u. fOr christlich gehalten sdlten werdeu ;" if these four artiele* were 
thus agreed upon and preached the othen could remain fbl the preaent withont a de&- 
nlla deddon npon them ; for by tliese four tbs poison would b« extracted fh>m the rest, 
and they would fall to pieces of themselves. 

u The Emperor proposed to ths eststes, July 12 (Walch, zviL 913 ; Udanch. Ejdst, 
ed. Bretachnaider, iv. 610), to adopt tbe four articles as agreed upon, and to defer the 
rest to the cooncil i tha CathoUc princes refused (Brelachndder, Iv. 636), the Proteatanta 
were ready to accept If tha other party would bind itaelf tliereto (I. c. p. 691) ; but at 
(be same lame they declared at length, in a document drawn up by Melancthon, July 
la (Wolcb, xvil. seS), that they accepted those arliclu only in the sense in which they 
were laid down in the Aogsborg Confession and Apology. 

*' In Waldi, iviL 962. The action of the colloquy was to b« referred to a common 
CbriatiBn cooncil, to be bald in Oermany, and soon summoned. The Protaating; partjr 
were not to strive about and against tha articles that had been compared. " Danu ha- 
ben wir neben Pibetllcllel Hdligkdt Lagaten alien geiitlichen Pnlatu) anfgelegt n. 



er matters where there yvas daaht.*' And thus, at this diet, the 
Reformation had maoifestly made important progress toward a 
formal recognition.** 

bcrohlen, — onter ihaen n. den Ihien, to ihnen nntenrorfen lejrDd, cine christliche Ord- 
nung a. Kefomution rorzoDehinea n. ■ofiarichUn, die en (piter, gsbiilirlleher a. beil- 
ttmtr Admioistratian dsr Kirchen fflrdeilicli nnd dlcnlicb tay : >nch Qb«r Bolcber Ord- 
Quag u. Refonnatlan crnatlich n. atrenglidi in lultan, n. lich du*n nichts )rnn noch 
Terbindern Imud" (ccnnp. tbe admouitoT^ writing of the legite Contarenl about the 
Refomution, to the pnlatea, In Raynald., IMI, No. 39), " nnd MTod der Znrenieht, 
lolcha Ordnnng Q. Bsfomution wUte in endlicher chriatllcber Terglelehoiig der etni- 
tigen Religion etne Vorbereitnag, o. denclben eonder Zweiftl hoch dienitlich Kpi." 
The trace of Hnremberg wtt In be maiatalned till the end of > general eoandl or ■ na- 
UodbI coognet, " oder m der keinee aeinen Fortgangerreicht, aof u*cbatkbnftigen Bekhi^ 
tag." " Und wu betiifft die Acten nnd Proceaae, lo biiber in Beligion nnd andem gr- 
■chehen, an nnwrm Cammergerleht anh&nglg gemacht nnd ergsngen aejnd, derwegen 
biiher Strait gewesen, ob dieaelben in dem NOnibergischen Friedatond begrillbn aevn 
aollen oder nlcht : dieeeltien Acten u. ProeaM irollen wir in E^rtialtung Friedeot, Snbe, 
n. Einigkeit im heil. Reich Dentacber Nation, a. aoe nnaer Ealserlicben Hacht n. Toll- 
kommenbelt, so Ung bi* du gemeine oder Nallonalconcillnin, oder in dieser Sachen 
aina gemeine B^bavarumnlooB, vie dntebt, gahaltan »lid, anapandirt n. dugeateUt 

** In Walcb, xvil. 999. For example. It was decreed that the clergy of the Aagahnrg 
Confeaaion ahonld not ba deprired of tbelr revennaa anj- more than the Calhollci ; that, 
although the adherenta of the Angabnrg Canfeubm vera not to drair awsf the anhjects 
of any Catholic state, ^et, "if anyone wlahed to adopt their religion, he ehould notba 
depriTed of the liberty ;" that the offlcera of the Imperial court ahould be awam to ob- 
•erre thia decree and declaration ; and that the Angiburg decree, aa far aa reli^on iraa 
concerned, ahoold not be enforced ; that peraona presented for office In these courts should 
not be refused becaose they beloneed to the Angaburg Conftsaion, and that no one should 
be remoTed for this cause, 

*' The preponderance of the Proteatanti in Germany iraS ao decisive that the Elector 
of lUyence, at the diet, strongly dlasoaded the Pope, through the legate, fhim having 
the eoDudl held in this countryj see Raynald-, IMl, No. 27: nequaqnam convenire, 
Qt Concilium generala celebretnt In Germanla ob dimlnntionem auclorltatii sedis Apos- 
tollcae, et totins eeclaaiaaticf atatoa. Ne etiam pro arbltrlo ProteaCantinm omnia Sent, 
Gt qnia vim* haereticnm in ipsa Gennania viget. — Item In Qermaiiia anlmosiores et oh- 
atinati magi* in eomm pervenltate erant Protestantea. — Cbgere etIam polemnt Catho- 
llcoa ailutiaqne et artibna malls domare eoadem, vel etiam Ipsnm Caeaarem pro eomm 
more. — Etiam in Ipio ConelliD, al In Gennania fleret, torn per mala* practicaa, — turn 
etiam per publieia concionea, *I licebit, alioqain in atils privatis, a quo nan cenabunt 
Bub praetextu, verbum Domini non ease eelandam, — atadebant vim* sanm apargere, et 
■eetai ampliare. — Proplerea eon^derandum eat, quod, al Concilium fleret in Gennania, 
et Caeaar pro qaornndam arbitrio ad hoc indaceretnr, cogetetur SancUtas Pnntiflcia for- 
*an annuere qoaedam, quae odd esaeut concedenda, quloimo pro CaesaHa jnaau nrgeri 
posaet tniqne, at haec ana SancUtaa melioi perpendeie polerit — Nequaqnam etiam con- 
vealet, ut dimlsso sea auspenao general! Condlio celebretar Natiooale Gerroaulcum, ant 
alia imperiall* dieta, quia tone vere dubltandum est de achlamate, et Catholicl quidam 
prolaberentnr ad Proteatantea, caetsriqoe cogerentur dedoere, aut supprimeltntDf. 
TOL. ly.— 12 


fOUBTE PEBIOD^Dir. L— AJ>. 1SI7-1G18. 


While the Emperor Charles was weakened hy a second unfor- 
tunate campaign against Algiets (October and November, 1541), 
and was right afterward entangled in a new ooafiiot with France,* 
King Ferdinand, who needed the aid of the Protestants in his un- 
fortunate Turkish war,' was compelled, at a diet in Spires, Feb- 
ruary, 1542, to concede a prolongation of the religious peace.' 
Protestantism was constantly gaining new adherents, and its pre- 
ponderanoe in G-ermany became more apparent When the epis- 
copal chair of Naumhurg became vacant, Jan. 6, 1541, and Juhos 
von Pflng was elected to it by the cathedral chapter in the great- 
est haste, without the customary reference to the Elector of Sax- 
ony, &6 Elector annulled the choice, and raised Nicholas von 
Amsdorf to the bishopric, Jan. 1542, bat assumed for himself the 
secular government of the see.* When Dake Henry of Brunswick 
was about to carry into execution the ban of the imperial conrt 
against Goslar, withont regard to the imperial su^iension of it,' 
and even proceeded to make war upon the city of Brunswick, the 
Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse came suddenly to 
the aid of the two allied cities, took possession of the daohy, July, 
1642,* and declared that they would only pve it up to tixe sons 

' St^miSr* 0«ai!li. der DentsduB, Boch Tui. up. 29, >1. BanmeT'i Gcseli. Enropu 
mtd. 16t«o3»hTh.L497. 

■ Schmidt, ubi anpn, 

■ On the pronwdiDgi <^ this diet, aee Seekandoif, iti. SBi; Schmidt, Buch vilL cap. 
SO; the finil decraa In Wdch, ztII. 1<HM (sipeelallf 1067). 

* Documents In Hortieder, Th. 1, Bneh v. cap. 11 : among theae, at IStM, tha pnwf 
that the Saxon prinoei ware piincea of the land and hereditary protecMn of the thraa 
Saxon biihoprtci ; Spalatin'i Annalen, a. 656 ; Seckendorf, I. S8T. A coDlemporaneoaa 
report on the election introdnctlon Into the Ma of Nicbalaa v. Amidarf, from the archlTW 
of the citj of Nanmburg, ia in FOratemann'a Naua HlttheUnngBn dee thorin^ich. lich- 
■iichaQ Terebu, Bd. 3, Heft 2 (HaUe, 188G), a. 16(. 

* The ontlainy orGosIu"waB in the imperial declantion abootlha dscna of the IKet 
of Katiabon (| T, Note 48), In a Bpeelil article appended. 

* The earlier doenmenla and writings exchanged between the two parties, which soon 
Bunmed a Tiry rade and passionate tone, see in Hortleder, Th. i. Bach iv. cap. 1-M. 
Among them belong Lather's Writing against Hans Worst, IS41, In Walch, zTli. 164S 
(this title was giren becanse Henrj', in a wriUog against the Elector, had said that La- 
ther had called tha Elector Hannnirif). On the campaign, docnmenta In Hortleder, 
ibid., cap. 8G ff. Ct Spalatin's Annalen, a. 6S1-U, 67S-S0 ) Bonunel'a FhUlpp d. Qroatm., 
1. 461 ; il. 147. 



of the Doke ; they also iatroduced the RefonnatioD taere,^ and 
renooDced obedienoe to the imperial court when it took the part 
of the expelled Duke.^ At the same time the cities of Ratisbon' 
and Hildesheim,"' and the Palgrave Otto Henry of Nenhurg," de- 
clared openly for the Reformation ; in Cleves it was also favored 
by Dnke William, and spread with rapid strides." Even its most 
violent opponents and persecutors, King Ferdinand'^ and the Duke 
of Bavaria," had the mortificatioa of being asked by their landed 
proprietors to oonoede freedom of oonaoienoe ; and they were thus 
forced to recognize the iact that, in spite of their perseoatioos, the 
Reformation had stmok its roots deep among tiieir snbjeots. The 
adhesion of clerical piinoes also appeared about to become of deci- 
sive inSuence in favor of the Reformation. The Elector of Co- 
logne, Hermann," Count of Wied, was at first hostile to Protest* 
antism ; then, yielding in part, he endeavored to remove eoolesi- 
astioal abuses by a provincial council in Cok^e," 1536 ; but aft- 
er the religions conferences of Wonns and Ratisbon he became 
whoUy deoided for the Reformation, and invited Bnoer, in 1543, 

' Eapeciallj through Bagenhtgen ; >ee Lenti's Geich. d. E^nfDhTimg des evangel. 
BekBimtaU*e« im Henogth. Br>DiuchweiK-Wi>irenbl]tUI, ISBO, s. lOB ff. 

• The T^alDder, 4Ui Dec., 1542, la HorUeder, Th. i. Bach tIL cup. 31, In Walcb, xrU. 
SJ. Cf. Barthol. Sutrawen (then clerk irithe procnrelor of the conit) Leben, edited by 
Mohnike, L 137. 

> SpeUtJD'i Anaelen, i. 683. Seckendori^ iiL B9G. Getch. d. rarchenrefonn. la Be* 
geQsbnrg. Begenib., 1T93. 

" WbcD the nelgbboring Brunswick bed fillan into ProleiUnt bende. Ben, ten, 
Bagenbagen wu et the bead of the clergj- who introdnced the Befom. The Chnrch 
CDDBtltnlLon, 1644, bj Anton. Corvinoa; BngenhegaD, however, had eghaiejn it; Spa> 
Utln'a Annalen, i. 681 ; Hundmannl 0pp. Genea). Hiatorica de Weatphalia, p. 937 ; 
Seckendaif, ill. 397 ) Scblegd'i Kirehen- n. BeformaUonageach. v. Nord-Dentachland d. 
den Hannov. Staaten, il. 197. 

" By an edict ef 2id Jnne, 154J. Kenborg church order of IMS. Seckendorf^ iU. 
396. Stmrenl pfUdufae Kirchenblitorie, 1. !9. 

" William wai reigning nnce 1(89. Berg'a Befoimationigeachlebte der Under 
JCdlcb, Cleve, Bs^, Hark, Ravenlberg, n. LIppe, edited by Trosi. Hamm, 1326, a. 
65 a. 

'* PatitiDn of the ertatea of Lower AoitHa at the Diet of Fregne, IBth Dec., IMl, 
Petdlnand'i answer, and the repljt of the eatates ; In Spalatin's Annalea, a. 6B9 ; Ban- 
pedi'a Evangel. Oealerreich, L 86 ; Beilagen, a. 75. Cf. Ranpacb von den Sehickaalan 
der Evangel. Lnth. Beligioa tn SteTenneik, Klmtben, a. Grain, in mncUer*! Anecdota 
Hitt. Eccleaiaatica N'ovantiqna.'Stea n. 9laa Stock, a. 341. 

'• ^lalatin's Annalen, a. 688. 

'• On biro and hie Befonnatlon, ace Seckendorf, lU. 43fi ; Barg'a BaferniBtlntigeacb. 
der lAnder JUich, Clave, Berg, e. 64 ffi ; Beck'* Geach. der grifl. n. fOratl. Haoaer laen- 
bnrg, Bnnkel, Wled. Weimar, 18S6. 4., a. 154 ff. 

" Canonea provtocialis coacilii Colonienaia anb Bev. in Chriato patre Hemanno ce- 
labntnm anno 1536, Colon., 15BB, foL, drawn up by Oropper. 


180 FOURTH PEB10D.-DIV. I.-A-D. 1BI7-1M8. 

and Helanotbon," in 1543, -with other Protestant theologians, to 
aid hitn in introdooing it. The Reforming Constitation issued by 
him" met with great sympathy in the principality ; hot the ca. 
thedral chapter and the clergy of the city of Cologne pronounced 
against it with great violence, ^° and made complaint to Pope and 
Emperor. Following Hermann's example, the Bishop of Hiinster, 
Francis, Count of Waldeck, also began to attach himself to the 
Reformation,^" 1542. Less impression was made by another in- 
stance : after the death of the Catholic Bishop of Uerseburg, whose 
diocese was already very devoted to the Refbrmation, the Protest- 
ant prince, August of Saxony, brother of Dake Uaurice, was elect- 
ed bishop, and Prince George of Anhalt was attached to him as 
clerical administrator of the dioGese,^' 1544. 

The Catholic estates, sharply wounded by this progress of Prot- 
estantism, had long prevented the confirmation by the diet of the 
imperial declaration in the decree of Ratisbon; but this, too, was 
gained by the Protestants, after they had acceded to the declara- 
tion of war against Franco by the empire) in the imperial decree 
of the Diet of Spires, June, 1544.'^ 

" ZDrGeschicfaUdetCOlD. SeformBtioninaMeUDchthoD'a Briefen, la S[robel> Kcae 
BcTtrlge, T. 278. 

" " Von Gotlea Genaden unier, Ilennuuu Erxbitchofi m Cein a. Chorf. einMliges 
Bedenken, worsnf eine ehriitliche la dem Wort GoUes gegrOndte Befontistion un Lrhr, 
Brsuch dcr beil. SBCnmeDte, etc,, Lli auf else* freien — Concilii — VerbcMeroDg, brj de- 
nen, >o nneerer Seelaorga befohlen, amiuicbten lej-e." Bonn, 1&43, fol. Tbe book wm 
irritteo bj Bncer, Helanctbon and otben being conniltcd. The Motion on the Lord's 
Supper saj-B nothing of the SBXalial preience of the body of CbrisL It reads, " die Oe- 
roelDsclufl des Leibi d. Blutei uneera Hetm Jesa CbrisU, bef mlcher Gemtinichifl 
wir sein GedScbtnna halten eollen, — nff dou wlr Im Glsnben an ihne geatarket, nnd 
glnzlicher In ibm bUib«n u. leben, n. er in una,~IInd dieveil dloae Ubergebung Q. Ent- 
pfihnng de« Leiba n. Blolea Chriitl nnsera Herren ein falmliach Werk, a. Handel dea 
Glaabeni Ut, aoUen die Lent alle flelachlicbe Gedinken in dieier GeheinuiiUB anuchlt- 
gen, n. a. v," Lnther waa, on thla account, moch diaaattafied ndth thli work ; aee hla 
letter to Brack <de Wette, t. 708} : " £a tieibt lange viel Geachwitt Tom Nuti, F^cfat, 
D. Ehre dea Sacnmenta, aber tod der Sabatani mummelt es, daaa nun nleht >all ver- 
nebmen, nai ei darvon halte In allei Maese.—Snmma du Bach Ut den Schvftrmem 
nicht allein IddUch, soadem >Dcb trilstliGh, vielmehr fOr Ibre Lehre, ala IJii nnaere. 
Danun hab icb aein aatt, n. bin &ber die Musen nnloatig daranf, — Und iat anch abne 
' daa, wle der Biachof (Amadorf) leigt, alles nnd allea m Isng n. groes Geirlscbe, daaa 
ich du Elappermaol, den Baoer, hier wobl apure." Anudorf eant in a critldsm on tb* 
book, which excited Lnther atlil more ; Strobel'i Nene Beytr., ». 28fi. 

' > The controvert, see In Strobel, nbi aupra, i. 800 ff. 

*° Spalatin'a Anoalen, a. 68!. In the j-ear IMS he aolicited admiaaion Into the SmtL 
raid leagns, Seckendorf, Ul. US | uid in 1544 he made eameat attempta to introdnce die 
Heform, I. c. p. G18. 

•I Seckendorf, flL 4B7. 

" TheProleatanlaat the diet demanded BContlnaance of peace, and eqoal right* with 



But this was the highest point which they reached. The Em- 
peror, who was now able to carry on the war with France with 
new efficiency, forced his old opponent Francis to make the Peace 
of Crespy,^ Sept. 18, 1544, and now at length had his hands free, 
so that he could address himself with earnestness to the ecclesias- 
tical divisions in G-ermany. The Protestants could no longer look 
for protection from the accidental posture of affairs, but only from 
their own force. Unhappily this power had for a long time been 
enfeebled by divisions. Among the Smaloald leaguers, the cities 
complained of the arbitrary measures of the princes, in particular of 
the Elector and Landgrave ;" Duke Maurice of Saxony came into 
bostJlity with the Elector, and abandoned the league,^' 1M2 ; the 

tha other eiUtei. Kcgotiitioni with tbe Kcnperar, see Schmidt'i Geacb. d. Deotochen, 
Bach viii. cap. 33. Thi Anal decree, In Walcb, xrli. II9S. In tbis the Emperor at the 
fuime time promisee, since the holding of the coandl U verj uncert^n, to call immedk 
atelj "etaea andern gemeiaen Beichttag, vornehmllch voa der atreitigea Beligion n. 
was denelben anbangt ;" " anch mitUerwdl dorcb gelebrt«, gnte, ehr- u. friedliebende 
Personen cine cbrlgtiicbe Reformation TerfaaBen za Uusen. Glelchergesta]t mOgen die 
Stinde dnrch die Ihren auch Ibno, nnd aolch aller Theil Btdenken elsdann gemeinen 
Stinden vorlegea, uod mit ihnea aof franndliche n. chrittlicbe VergleichnoB bandeln, 
wie u. velchennaaMQ ce in dea etreitigeii Artjkeln der ReligioD bi> in wirklicher Er- 
langoDg u. VoUziehang eines Genemlconcilli, trie obetebt, im beil, Retch Deatacher 
Nation gehalCen, n. dadotch die Bcbwere eingeriseene Uiubr&nche gebeaiert, u. dia 
nachtheilige TreDDimg n. Spaltang der Religion, anch der SCinde daiaiia erfotgtei Hisa- 
tranen, Widemill, a. DnfreaQdachafl geringert— werde." The Pope reproached the 
Rmperor for this in a letter, 24th Aug., 1544 (PalUvicini, v. 6): Nos vero, fili, com a te 
indigna qoaedam deaeu in Conventu Splrensi ez Ipeis acUa animadveTterimDa, indigo 
niora vero deaignaU esae, — nolalmos >ane praetennitlere, qnin te, a Deo noliis honore 
etamoie Pilmogeniti eommendatam, hia noatrla literis da tantotaoet Eccleilae pericitlo 
admmeremni. The Emperor had tranegresBed the rule, at, qaotiei da bis quae ad re- 
ligionem pertinent disceptatur, a^iedem Apostolicam jndiciam referatar, nihil ills in- 
consnlta itatuatur. In Spires much bad been concluded, qaae mazime et pielatem laa- 
dant, et omnem legnm ordtoem confandont. Nam qiiod laicos de rebus spiritual ibns 
Jndicare vis posse (at a diet, sboald tbe council not be held), neqae laicos nodo, aed 
nnllo discrimine laico>, et damnatarum haeTesam assertores ; quod de bonis ecclesiasti' 
cia, et de eorum futniis controrersiis slaluis ; quod eoi, qui extra Ecclesiam aunt, el per 
edictam tunm pridem damna^, honoribui prisdnis in Jadidis ac tribunalibna reatitnia. 
— ^uid tandem horum cam divinis instilutionibos ac le^boa — conrenit? caet. Still 
more violent ia anotheV letter, not sent, in Rajnald., 1544, No. 7. 

" The documents In Damont Corps Univerael Diplomadqne, jr. ii. 279. Here it is da- 
dared again, que cette dile paix te fait et fonde pour 1e service de Dieu notie souvcraiD 
Crealeor, redaction de notre salnte foi et Religion en union chretienne, and both parties 
pledge themselves to do everj- Ibing poor procurer d'achcminer et conduire ladite reunion. 

** As eait; as 1540 tbe lakewarmncss was ■□ great that tbe Elector reassamed the 
lead only after long dela^, and onlj- for a }-ear ; Seckendorf, lil. 300. In the congress 
at Smalcald, 1543, the cities complained of the princes, and demanded that the embas- 
sadoTS of princes should be released from their oatb to their lords, and be Birom as coun- 
scion of the league ; ibid., p. 418. They were displeased with the expedition against 
Bmnawieki Ibid., p. 439. Cf. In general, p. 670. 

" Duke Ueniy died Ang. 18, 1541 ; Manrica abandoned the league Slst Jan., 1513, 


182 FOmtTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-16*8. 

Concordia with the Swiss oame to an end when Luther renewed 
the oppoflition to their doctrine of the Lord's Supper,^ 1544 ; and 
though the Elector Frederick, of the Palatinate, joined the Retbr- 
matiou^ in 1545, yet, following the example of the Elector of 
Brandenburg, he did not join the league.^^ 

The Pope now issued his summons for the council, so long an- 
nounced, to meet at Trent" in ]IIaroh, 1545; bat at the Diet of 
Worms, March, 1545, the Protestants refused to take part in it, 
since it was called by the Pope, and demanded that peace should 
not be made to depend on their participation in this council.^ 

bnt pledged himielf read; to defend the leligiDD In fotnre ■■ in the past ; Seckendorr, 
ill. 871. The LandgraTe, by desire of the couf^deratoa, repeatedlj tried to iadoce him 
to join them again (Ibid., p. 118}, bat reeeind the reply that the Dnke avoided (be 
leagae that be might not be entaOi^ed la matters which did not coocem the faith j Ibid., 
p. 428. liia bostUitj with the Elector was much increuedb}- the controversy about the 
■OTereignty ot the city of Wnnen, belonging to the bishopric of Misala. Both parties 
wen arrsj-ed In ernu against each other la April, l&42i Lnther, in a liolent letter, 
April 7, demanded peace (da Wette, v. i5S) ; the Landgtrnve speedily coming, acted aa 
mediator; Bommel's Pbilipp d. Grossm., i. 4G9; li. 141. 

" LuCber took for granted t^t the Swiss, in oontequence of the Concordia, wonld 
give up their Zwlngle and Oecolampadini, and therefore continued, wtthoat scruple, to 
attack these men for their errars (so in 1589, " Ton den Condllen a. Klrcheo," Walch, 
xvl. 2730) inlMl, "Tennahnong mm Gebet wider d.TDrken,''WBlch, XX. 2713), nib- 
detcned by Boilinger's representations; see Bollinger's Lebensgescb., by Hess, i. 8fi2, 
392. Then Luther renounced all fellowship with the ZOrichen, in a letter to the book- 
seller, Christopher Frohschauor, of ZOrich, who had sent him the ZQrleh Kbie. Thia 
leU«r was written Aug. 31, 1MB (de Wette, v. 587). He was atlU more aronaed by the 
publication of Zwlngle's works, edited by Bnd. Walther, 1543, prefaced witb a defense 
of his views; and he now wrote hi« "Kuises Bekenntniss vom AtiendmaU," 1614 
(Walch, XX. Slob), in which Zwingle and Oecolampadias were assailed in the most vio- 
lent faehion umurderert of souls and heretics: aee Bullinger'a Leben, by HeM, L ISO. 

>' Seckeudorf, lli. S16. Struven's FfUzische Elrcheahlstorie, s. 82. 

" In the negotiatjone on the matter, in I^Vankfart, Jan., 1546, he sought delay, that 
he might advise with his estates ; Seckendorf, iiJ. 617. When matters at once became 
more earnest he drew back wholly. 

" By the bull Idetare Hienuslem, of I9th Nov., 1541, in Liknig's (from tbe imperial 
archives) Spicil. Eccl. Cent., lil. p. 14, 

" SleldaoDS, lib. xvi., ed. Am Ende, !i. 373. Seckendorf, lil. M3. The Protestants 
declared (Sleidanuii, p. 677), religionl datam qnidem ease pacem^sdusque Concilium, se 
vera non agnoscere Concilium hoc Tridentlnum pro Icgitimo, quale sit Id Imperii comitlis 
promissum : et cor nou agnoscant, Jam antea aaepe demonstraue: pacem igitnr sili 
necessariam esse, quae non sit astrictaCoacilio pontlficlo, sed quae locum habeat, donee 
de te tola pie fuerit et chrisUanc tranisctum ; et quia pax vel eoniUtni vel esse Anna 
non poBstt, nisi juris administratio sit aequKbilU, et vero Spirensi conventu proximo de- 
cretom sit, quid in eo fleri oporteat, non in deratnroa, quo minus et decieto salisSit : 
haec ergjD duo capita si decidantnr, non se tccusare belli Turcicl deiiberetlonem. To 
justify their Rjection of the council the Saxon embassa'dors, by order of tbe Elector, 
diitributed among tbe imperial estates Luther's work, wrlttea in 15S9, "Von d. Con- 
ciliis n. Kirehen" (Walch, zvL 2615). But very soon after Luther's book, jnit publish- 
ed, "Wider daa PabsCthum eu Bom, vom Tenfel gestltt" (Watch, xvil. 1278), was also 
drcnlated in the diet, and embittered the Catholics ; Seckendorf; iU. 656. 'Theranpon, 



Seemingly yielding, the Emperor made proolamation, in the final 
deoiee, Aug. 4, 1545,^' that there would be new negotiations for 
oompTomiae at the next diet. Manifestly, the only object in view 
waa to gain time ; the Emperor needed this, that he might strike 
a soror blow f* and the Protestants, by their assent, only pro- 
claimed their conscious weakness from internal divisions. The 
Landgrave started the promising project of a closer alliance be- 
tween the two Saxonies and Hesse, to take the place of the inef- 
fectoal Smalcald league ; but the proposal was wrecked by the 
hostility of the Elector to Duke Manrioe." 

The religious oonferenoe promised by the Emperor waa opened 
at Ratisbon, Jan. 27, 1546, under far more un&rorable oiioum- 

by order of ths Elector, llelancttian vrota : Caatae, guare et ampUxaa tint tt re 
diieant doctriiiam, qaam profilentvr, Ectktiae juae amfetiionefa A ygaiiae txhAilam In. 
peratori leqainUtir! tt quart iniqait Judidbui ceOtctit in Synodo TridaUina, til roBaal, 
MM til adttatiatdum. Witsb., 1546. *. (In H«luichtb. Opp., *± Wlttcberg., Iv. TiS ; Id 
SeckeDdorf, iiL «03). 

" Walch, xrii. U64. According to tha dBmand of th« Emperor In the decree of Uie 
imperial Diet of Spine (Note 22), the Elector ciused a pnijeet for BefoniuUoii to be 
dnwn np by Helancthon ; tbii vu eUo approred by the SaxoQ and HfiMian dirinet 
(Witteoberglii^ Baformatloa, Id Cj^rian's BefbrnutioDB-Urkunden, ii. 410 ; Melaachth. 
0pp., ed. Bretechneider, v. GTS). Id this their oid rights were conceded to the bishops, 
provided tbrj were attached to the pure doctrine. At the present Council of Womu, 
boweTST, where this Reformation waa desired by Granvella, Borkbud, Chancellor of 
Electoril Saxony, only ventured to communicate a portion of the project, omitting what 
was laid of the restoration of the episcopal anthority ; Seckendorf, ilL 656. Bacer had 
banded In another project to the Elector ; extracts in Seckendorf, iir. 639. On the 
other hand, the Emperor bimeelf commissioned ViJentIn v. Tentlaben to write oat a 
project tot Befbrm, and probably communicated it to this diet ; extracts in Seckendorf, 
Ui. M7. 

" The papal legato, Alexander Faniesfl, at first had a cold reception from the Emper- 
or at Warms (PsllsTiclDt, lib. t. cap. IS). However, in tbc oonrse of the diet Uie Em- 
peror approached him more and more, and Famese deported, the beginning of Jnly, 
with the assurance, Caesarem expedition! catholici (bederis intentam Q. c. cap. 13, § 4). 
Immediately thereupon Andelotwas sent to Borne by the Emperor. He hsd to address 
the Pope thns 0- c. cap. 14), per reliquoa ejus anni menses—videri Carolo arma Pr9tes> 
tantibns inJeiri non posse, aed anam operam in annum proximom offeire. — Hac admlsia 
mora enpan se interim, ne Synodos hichoaretur, ant, nhi ea mors Pontificl nan proba- 
retor, dno poatnlare, altenun, nt, anteqnam apedretur, Caesar eommanefleret, qua pos- 
set illico Womutla diseedere et moleiUs Lnlheranarnm querimoniis ee snbdacers, alle- 
ram, nt abitineret eo tempore Synodos a dogmatum decisions, quae f|pm baereticos 
laeesseret, ad nltlonem extimnlaret, aed tontam genenlibua qnlbaadam atque noris 
diiciplloae legibns edendls as contlnaret. Posse niliilominus contlngere, nt ProUstan- 
tea, etiamsl de illis baberetnr ratio ad Concllil Initia, Airore percili, Id Catholicoa debac- 
diarentnr ; prdnde opus esse, prsesidium aliqnod, si quid accideret, paratnm habere. 
f)«o eo* ladartt, ts a Pmtifix foteert, vt per eun ttbi fai «i*et, m exila cotntltiinim 
4MU eoUeqtmm tt aliua commtum itidulffen per iieman iabendam, ia guo tpoudm sr 
i^tlijUi hamd yuUquam ■anani penaUiuntia orthodoxai nligioM ae Pentifidae mrto. 

" Beokendorf, iiL 670. Bommel's Philipp der GroasmOthige, L 620; li. 460. 


184 FODETH PEEIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1BI7-I6i8. 

BtBDces than the earlier ones.** For, as the Council of Trent had 
been already opened in Dec., 1545, and addressed itself forthwith 
to deciding about the Protestant doctrines, the Catholic members 
of the colloquy feared that any concessions would bring down upon 
themselves the same anathemas as the Protestants. Hence they 
delayed receiving the articles that had been previously debated ; 
and the debate on the doctrine of justification at once proved that 
they could here never come to an agreement. The Emperor now 
issued the mandate, that the colloquists should take oath to keep si- 
lence about the debate, even toward their princes. It must have 
been foreseen that the Protestant party could not accede to this con- 
dition ; and it seemed as if the Emperor wished in this way to 
oast upon the Protestants the apparent blame of nullifying this 
new attempt for peace. The Protestant members of the colloquy 
took their departure, and all pacific measures for union seemed to 
be exhausted. 

During this colloquy Luther died at Eisleben, Feb. 18, 1546." 
In his last years he had endured many sufferings ; and the divine 
favor now took him away from the terrors of that religious war 
which was inevitably drawing on. 

The Protestants were to be compelled to submit to the council.^^ 
As they delayed, and would not, in spite of the most urgent invi- 
tations, come to the diet at Ratisbon (April, 154()), where this 
point was to be especially pressed, the Emperor no longer conceal- 
ed his purpose of forcing them to obedience by resort to arms." 

" ActonimCDUoqiiiiRiUspoDeDBbiimmtveriuinuinUtio. Iiigolit.,lM6.4. ; prinU 
ed bj order ol tha Emperor (ks Unichold. Nachr., 1719, t. !06). Report of tbe Collo- 
qnj, hy G. Ma]or. Wittcnb., 1646. i. (ia Hortledflr, Th. i. Bach 1. cap. 40) ; bf H. 
Bucer. Strasbnrg, im. t. (in Hortleder, a. e. up. 11 ; in Waleh, xvil. 162B) ; of the 
HeMiaO embaiiy, with other documeDU, In Neadecker's merkw. AclenatQcke anB d. 
Zeitalter d. Reform. MUmberg, 1838, ti. 727. On the dismcliDatiaa to the cotloqo}- on 
the part of Manrice, Bishop of Eichsttdt, chosen President, and of the dokee of Bavaria, 
aeeWintet'sGeech.d. Evangel. Lehra in Baieni, il. 137. Cf. Heriag'* Geuh. der kiichl. 
UnionsversKche, Bd. t. (Leipz., 1636} a. 133. 

" Doctor Martin Lnther'a Lebensende, vcn Angenzengen beachiieben, edited bj- G> 
Chr. F. Mohnlke. Stralsand, 1S17. 8. 

" Cf. the eonfereneo of the Landgrave with the new Elector of Mayence, in Hoechat, 
F«b. 6, inNendeckei'imerkw. ActeDStDcken, ii.675i with tbe Emperor in S|urea,MaRh 
28, bi Slddanna, lib. xvli., ed. Am Ende, p. 442 it. 

" A coDclaereportonthisdiet, whichippeared atthe end of Jnne, 1M6; in Hortleder, 
Th. ii. Bach. iil. cap. 3. Tba imperial proposition wag, that the]- shonld conenlt abont 
tbe way in which perpetual peace and eqaal rights could be aecnred bj- reatoring tlie 
imperial court) and alao ag to the ineana of effectnal reaiitance to the Turk*. The 
tVoteatuts petitioned that the Emperor would " die atreitige Religion Sachen dorch 



That he might more surely subject the powerful Protestant party 
by dividiag it, he declared, June 17, that his sole purpose was to 
pnoish the Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave as disturbers of 
the peace of the land -j^ and this, too, although their arbitrary 
measures, which were the pretext for this course, had been long 
sinceforgiveD by him. But while he was thus warning the 
other Frotestaat estates not to be deceived by rumors of religions 
war, he himself secretly concluded a treaty with the Pope for tiie 
suppression of Protestantism,^^ Jane 26. The Pope, however, 

den Weg einei gemeineD cbristl. Concilii in TenUcIieT Nation la haltan, NatioailTcr- 
■ammluDg, Beicbateg, anf die von der Kaiserl. Uaj. vorgeschlagene n. bewilligte Foim 
dea Spejerifchen ReicfaBmbschiedes Anno 1M4 Hnfgericbt, crder dnrcb e[n cbristlicb Col- 
loqaium — ta chiisllicfaer Ererterang a. VergleictaDng bringen lusen," and ahoired, 
wb7 "dns jctiige Trienkcbe Conclllom kein solcb gemcin frty chriatUcb Concitlnm in 
Tcntacber Nation seyn kiinnte, wie es venbubiedet, nnd danaf ile die St^de der 
Aagspnrgiscben ConfetBion sich herafen n. appellirt bitten." "Aber das pipstlicb 
Theil hat Hine Antwort u. Bedenken allein auT dii jetxige Trientlsche Concilinm ge- 
Btellet, n. die Kaia. MaJ. enocbt n. gebcten, obgemslte Stinde, sich dem Schloai n. Dc- 
(ciminatiau dtsielbigen za nnlerwerfen, in vermSgen n. aniuhalten." When the Pnit- 
cutanti now heard of tha preparations for war bf the Emperor and the Pope, and aaked 
tbe Emperor abont them, he replied, Jane 16, "daia Ihre HaJ. bedacht ware, Yerord- 
nnng oder Befehl an thun in den ArUkeln, die Verglelcbnng, Frieden nnd Becht belang- 
end 1 nnd wer denietbigen nicbt wQrde geboraamen, gegen deme wollts aich Ihra M«]., 
wle ea aleh in ErhalCang Ihrsr Ma}. Autoilt&t gebCirt, in verbalt<a wiaaen." 

" Imperial Reacript ta tlis cities at the empire. Jane 17; In Hortleder, nbi anpra, 
and Waldi, xvli. 1817. The Emperor, It ii said, had nnlU then orerlooked nianj prao- 
tlcea for the aake of peace. Bat hli eflbrta for union had been in rain, "nicbt von we- 
gen Oder atu Ueb a. Znneigang, so dlesclbigen Terbindercr a. ZentSrer aolcber Ter- 
gleichong lu Dnaerer bellwirUgea and chriatl. Rell^on, oder der Ehren Gottea, die eie 
allein in cinem Deckmantel d. BeacbOni^ng ihrea uobilligen Vornebmena allentbalben 
vonrenden ; aondem vlelmebr om daaa ale alio aodere Stinde dea heil. Reicha — outer 
aolcbem Schein der Beliglon nnter alch bringen, n. alch ibrer GQter mit Gewalt nnter- 
ileben mSgen { wie sie denn ancb deraelbigtn nonmala einen gnten Tbeil an aich geio- 
tcen — haben — in bohem bescbwerllcben Nachthell — vieler annen verjagten Fartb^n, 
die aolcber entwandlen Goter balben weder Recbt noch Billigkeit von ibnen bekommen 
mAgen, diewail ale nnnmala die Sache ao fern getrieben, daaa aie weder Gericht noch 
Recbt tm bril. Beicbe, welcha ale lange vor dieaer Zeit, ae Tiel an Ihnen, gewaltigUch 
unterdrncket imd omgeetoaaea, in beaorgen baben." Now ttief even threaten the Emper- 
or with armi in tta^ bands, and acatter calumnlons books abont bira. This the Emper- 
or can no longer bear, and has at last Tesolved "endlicb enachloaaen, di« bemeldla nn- 
aero n. dea Beiehs ungHborsBmeo, nngetrenen nnd widerapenatigen Deranber n. Zeratflrer 
yemelnes Friedeus a. Rechta — in gebohTllchem tiebortam aninlulten, m weiaen, n. 
dordnrch gemelne Deatsche Nation in Friede u. Einlgkeit en aetzea." The Emperor 
makes thia annonncement to the cities, "damit Ihr deaa Wissen babi, n. ench so *Iel 
desto weniger abwenden, bereden odcr berichlsn lasset, ala ob wir elnes andem gesinnet 
u. bedacht wiren, denn daaa wlr bey nnsem Kaiserl. Worten n. Warden beballen, a. 
each deaa venicbert baben wollen, daaa noaer (remlltb a. Uej-nnng andera nicht gerlch- 
t«t ist, dann ihr hiebejr remommen babeL" He sent a like letter to Duke ttlrich v. 
WIrtemberg (see Sattler'a Geicb. *. Wlrtemberg, iii. 238) and to tha Elector Hermann 
oKMogDt, 7th Jal7 (Sloldanna, zril. ed. Am Ende, p. 488). 

)> ^Hie original in lUjuald., 1546, No. 94. Tbe Capita foedeiia: nt Caeiaiea Majeslaa 


186 FODETH PERIOD.— DI7. I^A.D. 1517-16*8. 

uuvailed this imperial cunning by issuing his demands for the sap- 
pression of the heretics on the basis of that treaty ;'" so that only 
those oould in future be deceived who were willing to be so. Tho 
Electors of tiie Palatinate*' and of Brandenburg kept quiet, anil 
Duke Uaurice even concluded a treaty with the Emperor," July 19. 

tn Domine Domini cum SDziliis Pontiiiciss Sanctita^ prosimo men»e Jnlii in expcdl- 
tiouem edncat omnes capias bdm snmmo virium molimiDe kdvenoi Prot«stanU*, et 
SmalCBldionos, omnesqua alioi haereticoB cnjuacunqae wcUe, et ad venm et Bntiquam 
religioaem.etobsequluED SedJB Apostollcae revoceotur, poButqnc CxMrek Hajeataa ten- 
ure omnea modes, si Atrte sine armorum vi ipso* ad RelEgkniem CitliaUcam tnducere 
poiait, t«mporeqae coDatituto, si rea e nDtentui non luccesserlt, cipe««antiir ■nua. Non 
poa^t Caesarea Hajestas cqm Protestaalibus et Smalcaldianla, vel aliii haeretids foedus 
nllum, ant coDcordiam in'ire, quod expeditlonem diasolrat, aut retardet, maxlmeque 
quipiHiun penoitters Daa poisit contra religionam catholicam, atque Ecclesiae lanctionis 
sine expieuo consenaa 8edia Apottolicae vel Legati Apostolici. Tbe Pope tral to givo 
300,000 ducata for the campaign, 1S,000 toot, and 500 horae ; li%granted to t1]« Emperor 
tiie lialf of all tbe clmrch revenues in Spain tai a }-ear, and allowed bim t« sell estates 
of Spanish doialcrs to tbe Bmouat of 500,000 crowns. All CatboUc princes were em- 
powered to take part in this treat}-- Tbe coDclnsioD runs : Ut eipeditionie conficiendas 
mense Junio proximo tempns deaignatum ezprimatur de mense Junio praeaentls anni 
1540, cum hate capita nulM ivUs dacripta ftierwt, licet coniisnata fum taent, ut omnia 
erroria acruputns exlmatur. 

•° On tbe 2d and 3d of Jaly in tbe Einga of Fyance and Poland, in Bapuld., 1546, 
No. 96, 9S ; to Teoice, ibid.. No. 101 ; to the Catbollc Gennan princes, ibid.. No. 102. 
Ttio letter to tbe Swiss was at once published and circalsted by the Elector and Land- 
grave, to prove that "onter dem Schein vennelnEea Dngehoreams nicht anden denn 
Auareutnag n. Terdrnckung Gottes alleiD seligmacheDden Worts, nnserer waliren chiistl. 
Beligion, aach dca Beicha Teutachei Nation FreiheiC u. Ubertit gemelnt sey " (Uortle- 
der, Th. ii. Buch iiL cap. 12). The Papal bull, July IG, in which aU the bitbrol ars 
called upon to support the Catholic ornu with prayer and fasting, was published : in 
German, with commenU ljy Anudorf, in Hortleder, cap. 10 ; in the Latin original in 
Uassorelli AcU Cone Trid., p. 85, appended to Salig's Uiatorie des Trid. Cone. iii. Tbe 
&nperor was very much diasatiified with these papal revelatione ; sea Pallavicini, lib. 
ix. cap. 3, S 6: QnerebatnT Caesar, Pontificem scriptis ad Helvetios et sd Galliae Be- 
gem iileris expedilioni obfnisse, cum per eas palam lieret, helium non ea aoia gratia 
soBceptom, ut Proteatanles ob contumaciam In Imperiun pieclerentnr, sed nt ad vete- 
rem religionem adigerentnr. Ad haec PooliTex: mirarl hi^uBcemodi qnerimooiam; 
cum enim Caeaore ipso pclante hse conditionea in sancilo foedeie falssent appoaitae, et 
Apostoiicoa Legatns cam tanto militum nomero contra fidei perduelles misans easct; 
quifUBm Temm rel conEilium ignorate poaset, liello prorsna politico aibi condcla ? 

*' When he Inquired about the canse oT the war he received the cnstomaiy answer, 
and then attempted a naeieas mediation ; Sleidanna, lib. xvit p. 483 bb. 

<* The treaty is given from the original in Pontins Heulems Bemm Anstriacanim, 
' lib. xiL c 6, p. 290; also in Weichselbanmec's Gaacb. Johann Friedrichs, s. 322. Ue- 
lanothon's jndldons judgment ainnt Maurice in a letter to Cameraiina, July 27 (ad. 
BretBcbneider, vi. 207) : Mnlta mihi in mentem veniunt cur rrv^i/iox'oi' vitarit: ou &■'■ 
Xu Ivtov Bopwpopot tlvat Twif trrpartjymir, wv Ttfa Ijvtnrra outcu ^vkoJcria- Et at vin- 
cerent, ne hoe quidem volet, ad homm arbitrinm constitni atatnm vel publicum, vel 
anae ditionia ; Touu/ra &i xal LiSufutQitvat Tva oi/ ioKii o&rt Aaatptir oSti irifitfiirroir, 
tin ik pikTirroir iriaTaxoa ippamu' ili ti atuppunlv. Erunt eerte alii eventns, quara 
hi ant illi pntant atqne aperant. Nam omaino ingens mutatio remm ImpendeL The 
two margraves of Brandenburg, John von EOstria and the fMvolous Albert of Bayimlh 
(Seckendorf, UL 662), went so far as to enter Into the Emperor's service ; Slddanua, lib. 



The Smalcald War*^ began with suoh miexpeoted energy on the 
pait of the League, -which had seemed to he almost dead, that the 
Emperor, who was taTryiog with a small army at Ratisbon, seemed 
to be in great peril. At the beginning of July he was confronted 
by a much superior army from the Wiitemberg highlands, led by 
the distingnbbed general, Sebastian Sohartlin von Enrtenbaoh, 
whioh was soon joined by Saxon and Hessian troops. But still 
nothing decisive ooourred. !Che arbitrary course of the Emperor, 
whioh reached its height in proclaiming the ban, July 20, against 
the Elector and the Landgrave,** and his purpose todestroy Protest- 
antism, which iurked behind, were very clearly set forth in the de- 
fensive writings of the Protestants ;*' but the majority of the Conn- 
oil of War still prevented all warlike undertakings. The Emperor 
was thus in a oondition to march to Ingolatadt, and there strength- 
en himself on all sides, until he was ready to make an attack. 
But now, in November, Maurice fell upon the Electorate of Sax- 
ony, the Elector hastened to the aid of his land, the allied army 

zrii. p. 461. Cr. the admonitorj- letters to tbo fonner hj the Elector of Bazony and the 
liindgmve, and bjr tali mother, the widowed Eleetoreie of Bnndeobnrg ; In Hortloder, 
Th. ii. BaehiU. cap. 14. The anawer of both the Hargravee, July S9; ibid., cap. 17.— 
Bavaria, UDtil dot Ttry Jealous of Auatria, was gained by the niarriage, io ]M6, of 
Prince Albert of Bararia with Anna, daughter of King Fenlinuid ; see Wlntei's Oesch. 
d. Eraog. Lebra in Baiem, Ii. 1S7. 

" Bat wwrcei.- (1.) FaTorable to the &nperor: Lud. do Arila, Span. General, Los 
Commentarios do la Gnerra del Einperador Carolos Y. contra los Protestantes de Ale- 
nisjiia, LaL, Antverp., I£fi0. Argentor., 16S0. 12. In Gennan, In Hortleder, Th. iL B. 
lil. cap. 81. (3.) For the Proteitaata : " Schmalkaldische Sriege «Dno 1546— angespon- 
nen, onprOnglichea beachiiebeii darch einen wolerfamsD n. dieses Erlegs selbit bey- 
wohnendeu Eriegimann (not Schiftlln), la Uencken BcriptU Bernm Genn., ill. 1361, 
•galnat Avlla. Heinr. Herckel, eeeretatj of 9t. Magdebnrg, Bericht Ton der alten Stadt 
Magdeburg Belagerang; En Hortleder, Ii. 1 v. 19. TUeman v, OOntarode, Heaaian cban- 
edh>r, Diarinm in Uogen Hlat CaptlvlCaUa Phmppt. FMncof., 1766. (8.) Uoderato In 
tone : Camerarij Hist. Belli Schmalcaldici in Freheri Scriptt. Bamm Gam., ed. Stmre, 
T. ill. LarabcTtns Hortenalas, rector at Nserden In Holland, De Bello Gennanlco, lib. 
Tii. 16SI) I in Scbsrdii Scrlptt Rer. Genn., ii., and at the end of Avila, Argent, 1680, 
especially nwid by Sleidanua. Cf. Bommd's Pbilipp dsr GroaamQthige, Ii. 48!. A col- 
lection of paMages in Helanethon'a letters abont this war, In Sbobel's Hene BeytrSge, 
L ii. I!5. Collection of different reports In Hortleder Vom Tentschen Krlege, Th. U. 
Bnchiii. ITorlxmljUntriicl.- HIberlin'sKeDestaTeatKAeBeichsReBchichte,!. Hen- 
sera NenereGeech.derDeDtscheo, Hi. 1. Rommel's Philipp d. Groegm., i. 622; 11.486. 
J. O. Jahn'a Geech. d. Schmalkaldiachen Kiieges. Leipdg, 18S7. 8. 

" Hortleder, Th. IL B. ili. cap. IS. 

** Compare eapecially the proof of their innoceneo by the Elector and Landgrave, 
Jnly 16, in Hortleder, il. iil. 11. A furtiier eUKment, Angoat, Ibid., cap. 15. Their 
letter renoimclng allegiance Io Um Emperor, Ang. 11, In Saatrowen*! Leben, ed. Hob- 
nike, f. 411. On their ontlawry by the Emperor, SepL S, in Hortleder, U. UL cap. 19 
and SO. 


188 FOCRTH PEBIOD.— DIV. 1.— A.D. Ifil7-1M8. 

separated, and the Protestant cause was lost. The states in the 
Upper Land prayed for grace, and received it with great sacrifices. 
Hermann, Elector of Cologne, bad been already deposed by a pa- 
pal decree of April 16, 1546,*^ but had thus far been spared by 
the Emperor ;*^ now, however, Charles convened the estates of 
Cologne, Jan. 24, 1547, and carried this decree into execution.*" 
The Elector of Saxony easily drove Duke Maurice from his do- 
main ; but in the spring the Emperor came upon him by surprise, 
' defeated him near Uiihlberg, in the Lochau forest, took him pris- 
oner,*' April 24, 1547, and compelled him, in the Wittenberg ca- 
pitulation, to give up his electoral dignity and the half of his do- 
minions to Duke Manrice. The Landgrave of Hesse, now stand- 
ing alone, submitted in Halle, June 19 ; and, although he thought 
himself secured by the previous negotiations of the Electors of 
Brandenburg and of Saxony, he too was kept in prison by the 

*' Bapialdtu, ana. IMG, No, 103. The decision ma Grat communiested to the Clup- 
t«r. Senate, and Univenitj' of Cologne in > brier, Jaly 3 ; ibid., So. KM. 

*' Cf. the Emperor'i letter to tlie Elector, Tth Jnlf , above, Nate 88. 

•< Sleidonus, lib. zviii. p. 675. Hitb«rlin's Neaeate Teutache Reichageacbichte, 1. 112. 

" That the Elector waa betrajed by hit Councilors is maiiiCiibed bj tbe lealona ad- 
herents of the Emeatinian line, Paul HQblpfort, la Uoitleder, ii. iU. 69, and the narra- 
tion In G. Arnold'a Kircheo- a. Ketzerhiatbrie, Schafhauten edition, ITW, Th. ii. a. 1006; 
thla narrative of the rellglona disputei Is lalsel]' ascribed u, RatcenbergFr ; it is bj a 
pasiionate fblloreT of Flaclos. The complaints against tbe Wittenlterg divines, eape- 
ciall]- Melancthon and Bngenhigen, as given in this last narration, that they had at 
once abandoned Uie old Elector in hie misfbrtoiies, are proved to be calamniet by Bn- 
genhagen'a work : " Wie e« una za Wittenberg in der Sladt in dem vergangenen tLriege 
ergangen 1517" (also in Hortleder, Th. ii. B. til cap. 73). CI. Fortgesetite Sammlnng 
TOD alien u. neuen tbeol. Sachen 1729, a. 293 S. 

" The Emperor demanded tlie onconditional submusiaii of the Landgrave \ tbe Elect- 
ors, however, desired that certain condldona ehouid be secretly granted tbem, and their 
couDciloia, with this in view, laid before the imperial councilors, June 2, certain arti- 
cles which begin thus (Bommel's Philipp d. Groesm., lit 235) : " Dei Landgraf CTpenl 
sich von neuem, er woUe sich in der Kals. H^J. Gnad n. Ungiud frey n. ohne aioicba 
Condition Oder Anhang trgeben. Doch ao setien meine genadlgite u. genadige Herren, 
det Chnif. V. Bnndenburg a. Hereog Moriz v. Sachaen, cu, dais fflr ihre Personen von 
MOthen eeyn word, einen Vcrstaad von Ir. Mej. m haben, dase ihm, dem Landgrafen, 
eolcbe Ergsbnng weder zn Lelbstrafnocb in ewlger [eintger] Gefenknius reicbcD." 
Here first occun tlie ezpression, which wag afterward a matter of dispute : on the side 
of the Emperor it was maintaiBed that the aaaonnce read "noch lu ewiger Genngniss," 
that is, IQ perpetual imprisonment ; on the other side, " noch eo eioEger Gefinguiss," 
that is, to some imprisonment. Nothing more Is extant of the fiirther secret negotia- 
tions ; they were probably for tba most part oral. So much is certain, that the Elector* 
believed they had insured the landgrave against any Imprisonment, far they wrote to 
him, June 4 (Ibid., B. 237): " Wlr venprecben E. L., dasa dieselbige dordnrch Qber die 
Artilui weder an Leibe noch Gnt«,iidtGetbnknnss,Bestricknng Oder Schmilemng Ibret 
I^ndea niclit solten beachwert werden." When Philip was taken prisoner in the abode 



Even in tiie midst of his victories, however, the Emperor was 
still at variaDoe with tbo Pope. Charles was ooovinoed that if 
the ecolesiastical abuses were aboliahad the Protestants might be 
easily reoonciled with the Church ; aod he was consequently dis- 
pleased that the Council of Trent, instead of beginning with a 
reformation, began with passing judgment upon the Protestant 
doctrines,^' Uma making it more difficult for the Protestants to 
appear there. The Pope oould not be favorable to a reform that 

of the Dake of Alba, tbe Klectara declared it to be a piece of tUUIqj, and the Electoi 
Joachim wanted to cot atf tlie head of tlie Biahop of Arras aa the dilef deceiver (Anal. 
Husinca, CoU. zL 236; Rommel, Ui. &10). It i< iDcoacelTable that the Electon could 
hare neglected bo wetgbljr a piriat In tbo negotiations, since the}- pladged tbemselves 
peraonall J to the landgrave that hs ihonld not be held a prisoner ; wa must, therefore, 
pre credit to the contemporary testlmon}', that the imperial councilors Bllowed them- 
selves to be deceived. And this deception is easily explained, if It be tme, according to 
the report of the vice^ibancEllor Held, that the Electors brought the negotialions with 
tha Bishop of Arraa to an end on the ISth June, just befoTB the final solemn act, and 
after they bad been drinlilng together very freely (v. Bucholti's Gesch. d. Regiernng 
Ferdinand's I., vLSfi). That the Emperor liad no share In the deception, and knew only 
of a promise that the imprisonment sbonid not be perpetual, appears trom his carrespond- 
enco at lUs lime with Ferdlnuid (v. Bucbolti, vt 68 f., G9). When, then, tha Emperor, 
at the Diet of Augsburg (Sept., 1M7}, endeavored to Jostlfy himself pnbUcly against the 
general opinion that the Landgrave had been betrayed, the two Electors replied (Hort' 
leder, Th. li. B. lit. cap. SI) : " Sie wQssten in dieser Sach die Kays. Moj. in nichten an 
besebaldigen, dui an VoUiiehnng der abgeredten Capitulation bey Ihrcr Us], einiger 
Mangel Jemals gewesen : gleichwol slnd in diesen Sacbea allerband Bey- n. Netien- 
Haadel furgefallen. anP.ngllch mlt der Bdm. Kays. Ha]., ehe and denn Ihre MaJ. ans 
dem Feldlager vor WiUumherg verruckt, imd tbigenda mit Kaya. Ha], Bithen, welche 
gam gehdm n. enge gescbehen. Und kOonte sich blerinnen noch wol ingetragea ha- 
ben, doss in Hangel n. Uuventand der Sprachen mit der Kayi. Uaj. Rithen allerband 
IDsventand erfolget seyn mOebte. Jedoch wire beyder Chnrfflrsten — Gemiith u. Uej. 
nimg nichl, sich deshalbea in einige DisputaUon einiolassen." They, however, giva 
the assurance that they did not imderstand there was any danger, and that with this 
coDTJction they had been able to secure the appearance of the Landgrave. Bat when 
Maurice, In 166!, declared against the Emperor, he asserted outright that he had heard 
him promise that the Landgrave should " not be subjected to imprisonment or loss of 
land" (Hortledar, Th. iL Bach v. cap. 4). That the imperial councilors used deception 
ia maintained porticnlarly in L. G. Mogen's Hiitorla Captivitatis Philippi Magnaniml. 
Francof., 1TG6. 8., and Rommel's Phllipp der Grossm., 1. 633; il.GOT; {11.236. On the 
other hand, the attempt is mode to deny it In M. G. Wemher, Kaiser Carls T. Ehrearet- 
tong u. Tertheidtgung wegeu der l>ey I^ndgraf Philippe Ergebung gebrauchten Worte : 
nlcht lum ewlgen Genn^piss. KOmberg, 1782, and Uencere Neaere Gesch. der Deutach- 
en, iU. 198. 

** Aa early as 1516 the Imperial embasaadora demanded tliat the Beformation should 
Brtt be token In band ; after an animated discussion the council concluded to take up 
dogmas and reforms together ; see Hiitoire dn Coucile da Treute, par P. Sarpi trad, par 
Coorayer, 1. !46; PalUvlcini, lib. vL c. T; Bayualdns, IMS, No. 10. When, however, 
the council was about to pass to tlie first dogmatic anathemas, the Imperial embassador, 
Pranda Toletanns, waa obliged, in Hay, 1646, atlll to {nterpoea earaest objections ; SarpI, 
1.290; Pallavicini, lib. vii. c. S: the Spanish prelates were on his aide, bat It waa tit 
vain (Raynald., 1646, No. 70). Agalnat the objections of the Emperor In this mattet 
the Pope tried to excuae himself in Febr., 1617 (Pallavidni, Ub. iz. c. 8, No. 8 u.). 


190 FOUETH PEEIOD.— DIV. L— A.D. lfil7-lS48. 

threatened important limitations upon his power, and watched 
with mistmst the inAuenoe of the Emperor npon the coonciL 
Hence he was not less terrified than were the Protestants hy 
the rapid vietories of the Emperor f^ for as long as Protestantism 
was not rooted out the imperial preponderance was not less dan- 
gerous to him than to the Protestante. He therefore again made 
a closer alliance with France,^' recalled his troops in Deo., 1546, 
and, while the Emperor was busy in Saxony, adjourned the ooonoU, 
March 11, 1547, on the pretext of the plague, from Trent to Bo- 
logna,^ where the imperial preponderance would make itself less 
felt. The Emperor was greatly enraged by these acts of the Pope. 
He could not so easily act in conformity with the intimation that 
Protestantism should be at once suppressed ;" for there were pow- 

" Sarpi, L S87. Buike, FOnten a. Tolker TOa SOd-Eoropa im 16taa n. 17taii J»bA. 
■ ii. 352. 

" That the King of Franee initigaled tbs Popa agBinat ths Emperor, while ba alio 
encouraged and aided the Praleitant states, appean Item the cormpondence of tbe 
King with hla embasudon, present with the Fope, the Elector, and the {jandgraTe, in 
the Lettres et Uemoitei d'estat des Soyt, Piiaces, Ambaisadeurs, et aatres Uiniatrei 
sous les regnei de Francis I., Henrf II., et Frantola II., raagees par U. QaiU. Bibier. 
H Paris, 1666, 2 Tomes fol. The Pope went into tbe matter so far that the French em- 
Ijoisador at Rome, du Mortier, umounced to bla Sing, in the Bpriag of 1M7 (RibieT, i. 
eST) ; Sa Salntete a — entendo, que le Due de Saxe ee tronve fort, dont elle a tel con- 
tentement, comme oelaf qui estime le commnn eonemj e«tre pat ces moTms retena 
d'ezecater >« entreprises : et CDnnoist-on bim qnll aenit utile BOB>.maiii d'entretenir 
cenx qui luy resUtent, disaot, que voos ne i^anijei fairs dipentt plus utile ; Saipi, 1. 
497; Ranke, ii. !60. 

** Aa early aa Juoe, 154S, a change of place was a^tated bj the legates at the coun- 
cil (Pallavleini, lib. viii. c. 6, c. 10, c. 16) ; bnt it was hindered by the threaU of the 
EmperOT, and apparcutlj abandoned. Tbos it is said in tbe papal work written to Justi- 
fy it, Febr., 1647 (Pallavicinl, lib. Ix. c. 8, Ho. 4) : tranelationem Concllii graviaaimla 
de caniis opportnnam slbl viaam : ab ea tamen anlmom BTertisse, non quidem ob ad- 
dnctas a Caeaare rationes, qulbus neutiqnam Bcqnieeoebat ; aed ob adTemm illioa anl- 
mnm, cnl se concordsm praeoptabat in lie etiam quae minns idonea ex aliia ntionlbiM 
eziatimassat Tbe death of some persons now gave tbe opportnid^ to feign a conta- 
gions dckness, which was also asserted to exist b; two pbysidans of the conndl, but 
denied hy tbe resident pbj^lciane of TVent. On the change of place of tbe cotmiU, aee 
3arpi, i. 48S ; Pallavidni, lib. ix. c. 3 ; Salig's HliL del TridenL Concilioma, L 6Sa. Ibe 
tnie reason, however, was tbe fear, atreadj avowed in a private letter by the Cardinal 
Cerviniis (Patlavicjni, viii. 6, b), qnaenam Caesaris armatl partes Imposterum fatarae 
esaent; nimlmm Concilia leges dare, eiaetne de dogmatifans dlspotandnm necne,.qnaTe 
ntioue de ea ipsa re agendnm j nee poaie repolum nddi. The Imperial bishopi pro- 
teated agi^nst the transference, and remained in Trent. 

" Cf. the papal Letter of Justification, Febr., 1547, in Pallavicinl, ix. 3, G : Buam 

Carolus roluntatem lignillcarat eipeditiouia contiunandae, donee Protestantee ad obae- 

■■ B pertraxisaet. — -■---- 



erfiil FroteataQt princes yet misubdned, and a still harder conflict 
was to be expeoted with the Protestant people. Nor did he wish 
to do this before the ecclesiastical reformation was eflected, which 
he viewed as the condition and price of victory. Therefore he 
ooold not abide the prorogation of the oounoil to an Italian city, 
where it seemed about to become wholly dependent on the Pope ; 
he protested against it, and demanded that the oonnoil should re- 
turn to Trent.** Tedious negotiations sprang np between the Em- 
peror and the Pope, and the activity of the council was interrupted 
for several years. 



As the coimcil, under these circumstances, was for a long time 
forced to remain inactive, the Emperor determined, on his own an- 
thority, to establish preliminary arrangements in tiie German em- 
pire, which might at first bring about an external, and thus open 
the way fcH- an internal, anion of the contending religions parties ; 
he also intended, by these provisions, to break the road for snch 
a general reform of the Church as he desired.' The point of 

** IXicairioiu bctwMO Om EmpeioT mA the Pop«, Supi, 1. BO! j PilUvidnl, 1. z, 
c. 6 n. Putlcaltrl^ the Mnding by the Emperor of the Card]D4l Hsdnuii, Bishop of 
Trent, to Borne, in Nov., IMTj the docnmente od ittn Bij^old., lUT, Nd.88; HaHene 
OoJIeet. Vet. Monom., vtU. 118! ; Buth. Sutroven Leben, by Uohnike, il. 178 ff. The 
imperW pnugt In Bologna, 16th Jan., IMS, in Biynald., IMS, No. 6 ; Sutran, il. !U ; 
and in the papal Coruiltory In Rome, S8d Jan., in Biynild., 1548, No. 19. 

' The idea MemB to hare been first started by the estates. At the Diet of AngsbOTg 
the Emperor declared to them tn hia Proportion, Sept. 1, 1M7 (aee Barthol. Sastrowen 
Hcrkommen, Qebnrt n. laaff eelnei gantzen Lebena, by O. Ohr. T. Mahnike, OrelG^ 
nU, I8U, Th. iL B. lOG), that he was detenninitd (o bring the nligiooa dirislon "to ■ 
■paedy canelnalon." Thereupon the Catholic eleclon leipmided (a. 117), that the Em- 
peror ahoold, in the mean Ume, until the doee and deelaion of the conncU, lie watchfnl 
to reMore peace and right in Germany. The evangelical electora demanded, on the 
other hand (9. 118), a mntnal and tree Chriatlan conncil, of which the Pope ahonld not 
bo the President, where the Protestanta mlj^t have a part In the conanltatjona and dA> 
dalona ; and that those articlea ahonld again be taken np which the Conncil of Tnnt 
had atrvady determined. The princea wlihed (s. 129 iq.) a eontinoation of tlie Conncil 
of Trent, hnt so lliat the aitielea then already decided might " again be taken in hand 
and the Protestanta snfflclently heard npon them." But as the and of the eonncEl might 
be long delayed, they pray that the Emperor " wonid at once see to it, and m^ntaln 
order in the mean time as tkr as he ooald, until, by the oSclal examination of thla com- 
moQ conncU, rell^oni mattera might be arranged and decided In ■ ChristUn way," so 
that peace should be Inaured. "Dio Emperor, In his address, Jan. 14, 1648, responded to 
this reqtnst (Sleidan., lib. xx., ed. Am Eode, ill. 98; the address Is in Soitrow, ii. 198); 
and a eommiaalon of the estates was appctnted to consult about the Interim, which bo- ' 


192 FOUKTH PERIOD.— DIV. L-^D. 1517-1648. 

■new from which he started was this : that the Protestants, after 
their obstinacy was broken, would be kept away froni the Church 

gin to act Feb. II (3«atroir, U. 29B aq.). Meanwhile, however, aome bisbope bad been 
privately at work in the affair, and bed gained over the Elector Joacbim II. of Bnnden' 
burg, who irBs deeply iavolved In it, and hi> coort preacher, Joba Agricola (Sietrow, 
11. 299, 804), Julius von P&ng, Bishop of Nanmbnrg, had previoiulf drsirD np a form- 
ula of union after the etjle of tbat of Batlsbon (lee S 7, Koto 42, above), and making 
OM of it (Pormnla aaeronm emendandoram in Comiliia Augagtanla aono lt>48 a Julio 
Pflngio compoiita et proposita, ed. U. Cbr. G. Moller. Upa., 1603. 8. Areola al>o 
aaja, 1662 : " Ich glaub das Inlerim war gemacht ehe wir nacb AngipoTK kamen ;" aee 
F^eiwUIigea Hebopf^r Bdtr. 29, a. 706). Of tbia, Porta I. and II., on doctrine and ec- 
clcslaatlcal usages, were laid at the bads of the Interim, and presented toUichael Held- 
ing, Kshop of Sidon, Salfragan of Hayence, and to Agiicolo, for examination. Tbe 
vain Agricola was so won ever bj the ready reception of his remarks, which, however, 
did not go very deeply into the matter, for he also was desiroos of tbe nnioa, that he 
wrote to Glstios, preacher io OiUm&Dde : non solum adfui compositionl, sed etiam prae- 
fid (Bieck'i Dreyfsches Interim, s. 25). They also tried to gain Bucer : toward the end 
of Jan. (Sleidon., iii. 94) be most come privately to Angsburg, at tbe invIUtlon of the 
Elector JoBchim; he delayed, however, subscribing (Ssstrow, ii. 310). The writing was 
□Dw laid before the Emperor by "some persons of high position and name" (tbe expret- 
sioas of tbe Emperor in the preface to the Interim ; the chief of them was the Elector 
Joacbim, see Saitrow, ii. S04 ; the others wete probably tbe hlihopa, who had originated 
the affair); be received it williagly, as the official commissioa had not come to any re- 
sult, and commnnicaled it first to eome of the estates, to give their opinion on it in pri- 
vate. Thus it came first, on tbe ITth March, to the Elector Maurice (tee Exposldo ea> 
rum, qnae thcologi Acad. Wittebergensis do rebus ad reli^onem pertinectibua monue- 
riat. Witeberg. 1669. 4. ; folio 0. 4. b). He sent it at once to hit theologiana, who con- 
■nlted upon It in Zwickau (Expositio, Q. 2 sq.), and tried to avoid the urgency of the 
Emperor that he should at once accept the luterim (Expositio, P. 2 iq.). Tbe divines 
assembled in Zwickau answered, AprU 14 (Expositio, R. 2), and aOerward sent in a atill 
fuller opinion, 24tb April (Expositio, 8.i); it was all unFavorable to the Inlerim. To 
the Pope it was first sent in behalf of the Emperor, April II, by Cardinal Sfondratna ; 
but the nuncio, dispatched in this affair, came t«o late with his comments; for he had 
audience before the Emperor (May 15) only on the day when tbe Interim was proclaim- 
ed, and after its publication (Pallavicini, lib. x. c. 17, Vo. 2 and 7). In conaequence 
of the manifold opinions sent in, tbe original Formula of Pfing had undergone many 
alterations, even after It bad bean communicated to the Elector Maurice; Expositio, Q. 
4. b: Notnm eat, libmm laterint in capite justificationia initio mbius cormptelanim ha- 
buiise, et post vel Malvcndam vel Dominicum qnendam a Solo, vel utrumque plorea 
inseruisse, da quo et in^ (X. 3) Principis Manritii scriptum ad Caesarem queritur: et 
nomlnars ex adversarila possemua, qui Philippo Melanthoni de Sotenais insertionibus 
confesal sunt. — (Melanthon) Ratieponenai simiiem Judicavit inter initia. — Et ex auctorl- 
bus libri primis nnns noetris narruvit, conailiam Imperatoris fulsie, ot caput de jostiS- 
catione lisdem verbis in librum Fniirim insereretar, qnibos in tractationibus Batisponen- 
sibns de hoc ah utraque parte convenisset, ut corruptelas crassiores a Magistris secondis 
extiUsse neceiae aiL Bokenntuuss u. Erklcning aata Interim durch der erbare StSdte 
Lubeck, Hamburg, LQaelmrg, etc., Snperintendenlen, Paaloren, etc. Uogdeburg, 1619. 
4. ; folio 4. b. " Zum dritten ist darin alias vermiscbet a. verwinet, gut u. bSse also 
tBsammengeraliret u. gekocht, dass bey ehiem gulen Wort stets ein tOckisch btss Wort 
hlniu gethan lat,— a. schelnet aos dem Interim, dasi das Buch von nnglaich gesinneton 
Ueistem geschrielHn o. lu Hauf getragen sey.— Eawird auch allenthalben gesagt, dais 
etiliche famemliche Interim-Heister sellist scllen Uagen, dass in dem Interim Vennde- 
rung gescheben sey, luid dass itit drinuen atebe, das aie weder geratben noch gewtlligt 
haben." Particularly was the Formula of Pfing changed so oa to agree with tbo decrees 



lesa by tiieir peculiar dootrioes tbao by ^e Catholic abases; and 
that here was a good opportunity, by doing away with these abuses 
beforehand, to compel the counoi), which would by-and-by begin 
to act agaiUf to take earaest steps in the reform so long desired in 
vain. In this sense he had a provisional ecclesiastical formula 
drawn up for the Protestants by the two Catholic bishops, Julius 
von Pflug and Michael Hetding, in conjunction with the court 
preacher of Brandenburg, John Agrioola.' According to this the 
Protestants were again to become subject to the Pope and the 
bishops, accommodate themselves to tlie Catholic doctrine, and 
have concessions made only on some matters of external order. 
This proviuonal arrangement received legal sanction at the Diet 
of Augsbuig, May 15, 1548 — the Interim Augustanum.' At 

oTTrent, ro tkr u they then ixUted ; Ke Huick'i Gescli. da ProtMt. Librbegriflk, B. 
ilL Tb. U. *• 4S2. AgricoU tnnilatcd tbe luteriin into Qcmun (Pnivilllgei lUbopthr 
BeitT., 29, a. 706). Tbh Qcrman text became the original ) tlie Latin (ae we now have 
it) ia translated from it ; and thus are to Im 'explained the numerons deviatlona of tbe 
Formnla of Pflng from the Latin Interim In tlie mode of statement, even where the sense 
Is the same. HBlIsr baa collected the* in Ihe preface to the Pangil Formnla, p. zlvUi. 
H]., end WTongl}' represents them as intentional alteratlona of the text. 

* At Ant It appeared as thongh this were to liold valid for boib parties ;,bDt the Catho- 
lic eitalei at once made pravision against It. The clerical electors took offense at the mar. 
riigs of tbe clerg;f and tbe Commnnlon nader tntb Ibrms ; tbe; missed the reidtation of 
the ecclesiastical proper^ ; and tbe^ demanded that the Interim ihonld applj onlj to 
the Protestants, and not to the Catholics (Sastrow, II. 32!). The Catholic princes ex- 
pressed themselves still more itronglj on the matter (ibid., s. BS7. The answer there 
given only In part ia found in ftall In a Latin translation in Haiteno Collect, viiL 1181), 
and piayed ; » Die Kals. Ma]. voUte die Cktliol. Stind mit scdlicher Zalaaratig n. Be- 
■chvening ibrer Geiriasan nntieladen lajuen ; diewell ancb soDderlich n. nurweiAnlidi 
tin gemeiner Anthibr n. ein gemeioer Abfaal von dem cbriatUchea Glanben darans er- 
folgen mOchte." Accordingly- the Emperor demanded of tbe estates, in the intiodne- 
tionto the Interim: " So bisber die Ordnnngen n. SatmngHn gemeiner chriatlichenEirch- 
ea gehalteo, — dan aia dieselben hinfllran aoch balCsD, a, dsrbey bestlodiglicb blelben, 
Terbtrren, n. darvoD nicht abweichen, nocb Verlnderimg fDmeiuDen. — Aber die andem 
Slinde, M Neoening (Urgenommen, enncben Ihr Eais. UaJ. anch gaoz genidlgUch n. 
erastlkb, daa sie antweders wldemm in gemdnen Stinden treten, n. slch mit ihnen In 
Haltnng gemeiner cbristtichen Eirchen Salcnngmi n. Cenmonlen aller Ding verglelcb- 
en, Oder aieh dixh mit Ihrer Lehr n. EirchenordnnDgen bemeltam RatbscbUg in all- 
weg gemlai halten, n. welter nit gieUen nodi achretten." The Deetor Uanrice, too, 
made complaint ahiint tbls to tbe Emperor, VUy ISth (Expodtlo Wlttebergensia, x. 
2, h}.' at first it was aaid lo bini, quad ah obrleqae partihoa iUa formnla recipi com- 
mani conaenxa deberet: Jetit aber bore er, quod ea non eommnnitei ntrisqne partibui, 
sed allerl tantnm ad lervaadnm imponaiTOtar. [A. Janaen de Jul. Pflngio ejnsqne 
sodis retbrmatlonis aetata et eccleslae concoidiae et Germaniae nultatls stqdloeis. BerL, 

■ "Der. BOm. Kals. HaJeaUt ErUlnuig wie ea der Beli^on halben im heiL Reich, 
Ins m Aoitrag de* gemeinen ConciU gehalten weiden loll, anf dem Belchatag in Angs- 
pnrg, dan XV. Haj- Im UDXLTIIL Jabr pobUciit n. eromiet, n. von gmaloen Bttodeu 
angenommen. Mit Kals. Ha]. pyeThalt, nit aaehintnicken, verbotaD." At tbe end: 
" Qetnickt EQ Angspnrg, dnrch PhU. DUMit" ^ (alao In the Sammlnng der Belchsab- 
VOI.. IV.^13 



the same diet, June 14, he oaoBed a Formula Beformationis to be 

tcUede, Frankf. a. H. I73T. fol. Tfa. ii. a. S60, uid in Brack, Du injUiin Inlerlni. 
Lelpi. I72I. 8., >. S66}. A Latia edition was pnbUabed at tiie sune dme: egtmanica 
latgna in lalinaia, qaam proxime fieri potuit vtna, tt ipimt Majalata juau Igpit txaaa, 
M aal ipH pnpoiitunii, out icriplo, quod labieqiiittir, icribentnim rarUtaU qaicqaam poiiil 
aiUivtldttraii. Odtrtm. i. II c«oUini tirsDty-aix MCtionB : LCIfMtaiU- 
fon lit /Wf.— II. 0/ Man ofler At f afl,— III. Of Redemption Arough ChriM our Lord.— 
IV. Of Julificatian. "Wer dod durcb dastheuer Blat Chrisd eil«Kt, u, ibm derTer- 
dienst des Leidens Chruti lugethsilt u. gegsben, der wild alsbUd gcrechtfertlgt, d. i. u 
fiudet TergebDdg •dner Simdea, wird ron der Schald der ewigen Verdimmnua erledigt, 
u. venienert durcb dea hell. Gdst,» aiueiaem UDgtrecfaten nird cr geiecbt. Duin 
da Uott nchtfertlget, bandelt er idcbt alldn miiuchlkher Wei> mit dem Menschen, slso 
dau er ihm alleln Teredbt, a. Mbeake ihme dia Sonde, u. entbinda iha vou der Schuld, 
londem et macbt Ibn aucb beuer.— Daan er Ihm Kineii heil. Geist mittheilet, der seia 
Hara reiuiget n. reUet dnrch die Liebe GottM, die in sein Herx anBgegoawD wIrd, daxs 
er dai, to gut u. leclit tst, begehre, u. wu er bagihret, mlt dem Weik TolibringB, dai M 
die rechla Art der eingegtbenen Gerachdgkeit. — Diaweil nan e[D Henscb, >i> Uag er bia 
anf Erdea Isbt, die VoUkomioeiibeit dleaer eingegebenen Gerecbtigkeit nicht mig eilan- 
gen, BO kOTQint uhb Cbristu* each diem Orti merklich a. gnUigat id Half,— also dau 
er aben, via er— die Gerechtigkeit des Menachao— gewirkt hat, ako mehret ei aie aaeh,— 
n. dnrcb den Verdieost eeinea tbeuren Blnti a. sainar Gerechligkeit (die gani Tollkom- 
ineD beatahet) erwirbl erdem Henachea Tergebimg." — T. Of the Fruit* and the Uietof 
JutifiaUwm.--\l. Of lie Wag by vihich Mm rtctiva Jailifia^on. ■' WIekoI Gott den 
Uenaehen gerecht macbt — obo aeinen Tardienst ; — doch liandelt der barmbeniga Gott 
nicht mit ainem Menachen >rie mlt eiaam todten BliKk, Bondem leacbC iho mit scinem 
Wlllen, warn ar in aeinen Jahran komint. Daim ein Eoleher empfthet dieaelban "WnbU 
thalea Chriati nicht, aa aaj- dann, diaa dnicb die Targebaode Gnad Gottea sein Heri u. 
Will bewegt verde, den SOnden fetnd sn warden. — Alsbald bewegtdieGnade Gottea dai 
Han En Qottdnicb Jesnm Christom, u.dicae Bewegangiat dea Glaubena, durch walcbea 
der Hanach obne Zweifel glanbt dar heiL SchriA. — War abo ^at>t, — der wird ■nfgeiicht, 
u. dnrch Bewegnng der Gnaden Gottea empfibet er da> Tertraoea n. die Haffnniig. — 
DlaserGlanb erlangtdie Gab del heil. Geiates, durcb welchen die Liebe Gottea anegegoa- 
aenwird in naaere Uerzea, welcbe, Hjaie torn Glanbenn. derHoffaang kommet, werdea 
wir aladann dnrch die eingegebene Geieditigkeit, die im Menacben lat, wahrhaftigUch 
gcrecbtfbrtigt. Dann dieae Gerechtigkeit baatehet durcb den Glaaben, die Hoffnong n. 
dia Liebe, aln wo man diswr Gatechtigkeit del SCDck elnes wollle eolitehen, ao wfuda 
aie gestlUnmelC and mangelbaftig Mj-D." — VIL Qf Lose and Good Worki. "Die liebe, 
die da ist daa Enda dea Gebota nnd die Tollkonunenbeit dea Geteties, ao bald aia In der 
Rechtfertigang eintriti, ao iat ale fi^cbtbar, a. beschlansaet in aich lelbst die Samcn aller 
guten Wark. — Dad wiewabl dIeae Werk demuasan gcatalt lejnd, dau tie Gott von una, 
ala for s^ Becht erfordem mficbte,— noch dannocb, dleweil aolcbe Wark aus dar Ueb 
berflieaaen, and Gott nach aeinem WoblgetkUea den Workenden Belohnungen allenoil- 
dcat lageaagt ; so begnadet er aia mit Vergaltang leitlicbcr Gotcr n. das cwigen Lebeoa. 
— IN'ocb eins mass man leraan, wiewabl die Werk, die von Gott gebotcn, nStliig aept car 
Seligkeie, — ao i«70d docb die Werke, welche tbei dieae GeboC gescheben, u. ehrlich n. 
gottoelig geliandelt warden, anch xa loben, anf daaa wir nicht wider den heil. Geiat 
eeyai, der dieaar viet in heil. Schrift lt^L"'-TIII. Of Trutt in lit Forgiwneu of Sim. 
" AUhie muas man aich wohl fUraeben, daas man die Menachen nicht alliiuicber macbe, 
n, daaa aie ibuen aelblt nicht alliDTiel vartraneD, anch durch AngaCi^ich Zweifein nicht in 
Verzweidung komman. Daram dieweil Paulua aagt, ob er gleich aich aelbit la nicht* 
echaldig weiai, aej er docb daram nicht gerwbtfartiget : ao kann ja dar Maotch gatu 
Mhwerlich von wegen aeiner Schwachbeit a. Unvermfigana obn ainigan Zwai&l glaoban, 
doea ihm die Sonde Tcrgebcn aind."— IX (>flie Ciurcit*. " Und wiewohl die Eirdia, ao- 
fem aie in aolchen Gliedem itehat, dio nacli der Uebe leben, aliein der Heiligea iat, U. de»- 
halben ooncbtbar, ao iat aie doch andi alchtbar, indem daaa aie Cluiatua leigt, da er 



kid before the G-erman bishops, according to whioh they 'were to 

tprjclit : wg ea 8cr Kirchen. Ztt dluer gehdnn dis Bischdre, die dn Yolk regiersn,-— dui- 
ID gehSroi tiich dia uidera DIaner.— Nim nynd in dieav Kirchen nicbt tUeiu dis H«il- 
igen, londeraanch die BOsen, lis Glieder denelbigen, wleinihl uafnchtbRr." — X. OflJu 
Sigiuaadffolao/TnmC^imAa.—Xt. 0/tlte Potnerand Aatlmrity o/lMe ClUircie: "Wl*. 
vohl di« Sduift, wia Christns aagt, nfcht kafgelOst weidan kuin, a. alio dMbalben on- 
btwegUdi, Q. grtaaer deno sUei Henachea Gewalt: >o iit doch bey d«r Kirchen illireg 
die HuJit gewesen, die wahren Sduiften tod dea blMhen za ichiiiden. — Alw iiat ais 
nnch Genit, die Sdirift aiiualegeii, n. sooderlich ma iiinen die Leiiren za naiuneii n. 
zn erktareo, "J"*"""' det lieil. Geitt bey ihr iat, u. teiut >ie in alle Walu-heit, *ia duiB 
der HeiT ChrisUu solcbes wtbst ingeaagt. — Uberdu liatdie Kirch eCliclie SaUongen von 
ChiiBCo a. den Aposlein danb die Hand der BlichoSen anonsbla iiieher gebniciil: vcl- 
char die semiaat, der lAngnet, dasa die Kirch ein Slol a. GnmdTeit tey der Walubeit. 
KeMTl^ lejnd die IQadertanf n. andere. So ist audi du gewtal, daai dia Kirch Macht 
babe la (tnrfbn, n. lu eieommoniciren. — 9o liat lie aocli Ciewalt (am Oerichtamug : 
dann wem da gabolut die Hacht ni Mnffen, dem niau anch die Hacbt dM GericUi- 
iwangi ngaaUUt werden. Uod «aan iveifelhaftige Fragen fOrfallen in der EiTsiwn, 
■0 hat da Hacbt, vob denen in nrtlieilan n. la acblianen, n. das dnicb ai 
ader Tenammlimg, and waa sie dann Im lielL Geirt recblmAnig Te> 
das lat lu aehlan, ala bM ee dec bell. Gelat aelbat geacbloaaen, « 
atabat Im CoDcillo *u JenuUem ; Ei gefUIt dem baiL Gaiat d. una."— XII. Q/iJuBtn. 
aiOto/IIUCIuirdia. — XIII. OftAthigitMBuiopa»d<iAa-Buiop4. " Und asf daaa dl* 
Kireh, die dnea Baopia d. L dea Harm Cbriati dniger Leib lei, detto letclUer in Einlgtot 
erhalten wQrde, frlewobl lie rial BiachaOb bat, welcbe das Volk, *d Cbtlat«B dnrdi saiB 
tliearea Bint annuben bat, ragiarm, a. das ana gdttllchen Bachtan, ao bat man doch 
elnen otienlsn Biscboff, der dan andem alien mit vdlem Gewalt fUrgaaltit iat, ftn^ !■"..>. 
a. TnnnoDg in Taihflten, n. das nacb der Praen^adv. n. FOnug, dar Petro veriiahas 
iat.— Wer nun dan Stnbl Petri Innen bat all oberatet BtK^olT, der aoU mil dam Baebt, 
damit ea Patms Ton Christo empfongen, da er epracb : ireide melne Scfaaft, die game 
Kirchen ragierm n. rerwalten, aber «r soil aeinen Gewalt, so er bat, gabraocben ofcht 
inr Zenumng, sondnn inr ^tMianng."— XIV. (If lit aa c rammti ua gaunl. .Aa to 
these, in the sabseqaent section, the Catbollc doctrine ia glvaneQtli«.~JCT. (ySoplMin.— 
Xn. QrCbajinMtfiM.— XTII. qflheaacramaUi^Paumet^X'llU. QfAtSaeramml 
o^fk Altar.— XIX. OfBolg P«<iM.— XX, Qflkt aaerameU o/Oniimatiem a/PnoU.-- 
XXL(ifl)u3aeramHUiifMarriagti.—'nai,XXlt.€>fAiSaa^e/lJtalfiut. "Olelob- 
wie nan Tor der Znknnft CbristI Qott deo Yltlam aiUdia gmviaaa OpAr gegaban fca«, 
dardnrcb ale die Gedlchtniiss dee grossen (^fhra, daa da nkOnftig erw art e Wn , In ihna 
Henen anragten ;— «lao hat Qott sdner Elrcben eb t^DM a. fcatleww* OpAi aeiim 
Lrib* n. Blata nntar Gatslt Bn>ts n. Wehis befoblen, dardamh wir nbn Dnteriaa* iit 
Gedlebtnnae seines Lribe n. Bhlts, daa (Or una TargoSMo let. In «n«enn Hsmn TWMtn- 
ten, Q. deo If nti dea blntlgen Opftre, la velchem er die OebaiUgtan in Eiriglratt lollhom- 
menKenuehtbat,BannsbricheeD.>— XXni. Of the St mm l i -mei ufaaiMtiit At Ja> 
TiJktofAtMaM,m>do/thtiTlia&rimtim,vkiiAitl}i»nmittirtd; alao, ihcrt ly. cyMe 
Prafiiigti>aa»U.-^SXn. Qf Of Stmtmbnmct of Ifa Dnd im CTriit.— XXV. Q/'Coab 
muntoii, tmdhM) itiiloba obtntd im At aonrifiet of At ITiw.— XXVL Of At Ctn- 
MOMU aad Vtaget n l*« SaeramtMi. Hera all the CathoUo wages, CaattnOa, and fiul* 
ars conflrmad. " Die Ceremonian darandem SacnuneBlan Milan gabranohl warden nt- 
m3g der alien Agandan, doch «o Ictils in denselUgan, daa an Abea^anbait Ursack gaban 
mOdile, eiagaaehllehan wire, das aoU naeh ■aUUcham Kath giib al i rl warden.— Uod «i»- 
wohl man mlt don Aposlet hallen mU, dM« der, BO ohn ein Vaib iat, flu die Ding sorga, 
dledaaHarmeeTnd,danmdi(aniw(kiMehanwlre,d«MderCteriiilTlal gsftatdanwDp- 
dca,dtB,wiaslaobDeWalber8ind,aaAw«hrhaft)gaKaBBddiailhiall>n] jadDchidiew^ 
[brer jatxa viel rind, die im Stand der Gala tlJd i en , dia Kiwh a ai l m tar verwaltan, n. an 
Tialen Ortsn Weibar geneamaD haban, die sia van Ihnan nleht laaaen iroUao ; ao aoll 
UarObajr dea gemeiaan ConciUl Baadwid n. Entrtaraiig anraitat vudan, dlamit doeb 


106 FOCBTH PEEIOD.— DIT. I^A.D. 1617-16«. 

sot aside the abases that hod pressed into the Gatholio Church/ 
By these measures he believed that he oonld bring th« two parties 
so near together that they would regard themselves as belonging 
to the same Church ; and that afterward, by a wise action of the 
counoil, they could readily be entirety united. At the same time, 
he also hoped in this way to call forth and prepare for the desired 
efficiency of the counoil in respect to reforms. Although these 
imperial arrangements about ecclesiastical afTairs were most unac- 
ceptable to the Pope,' and though he was strengthened in bis hos- 

die Terindsmng (wie jeut die Zeit n. Unf Mj^d) tof dlmnaht Dhiw schwere Zerr&ttooe 
nkbt gaachahca iD*g. Doch kami mui nicht Uugnen, wlewohl der. EheaUnd fOr Bioh 
■elbst ehrlich ist nach der SchriTt, duw doch der, ao keln Ebewdb iiimml,a. vahriiaftigt 
EeiuchbcU hftlt, buser tliae luch dcmlben ScbrifL Eben dlen He;niiDg hat ei auch 
■nitdem Gebraaeh der Euchaiutien nnter baj^er Gcitalt, irelcher sich aim Ihrer viel 
gBbranchsD, n. dtrea gewohot aeynd, die mSgea diewr Zeit ohne schwere Bewegang 
dsTOQ uicbt abgewendeC irerdea. Und dann das Keneiae CODcillniii, velchvm aich alle 
Stand des heil. Reictu nnterworfen haben, oimt Zweifel eln«n gotuellsen a. eifTerigeii 
Flein anwenden wird, dau in dieaem Fall vieler Leut Geviawn, u. iem Fiieden der 
KrcbsD nach Notbdurft Eoralhen verde. Demnacfa, velche den Gebrasch beider Ge- 
■talt vOT dieaer Zeit angeaammea balien, u. davon nicht abstehen woUen, die sollen hier- 
Qber gleich&Us dea gemelneD Concilll £rjlrteniag n. Eatachud enrarten. Doch aollen 
die, so den Gebiauch beider Gestalt haben, die Gewohnheit, die nan alt iai, nnler einer 
Gestait ni common iclren, nicht stnifen, ancb keiner den andem hierin anfechleo, bis 
MerQber von einem allgemeinen Concilio geecblossen irlrd." 

* The baaii of it leema to have been the third part of Pflng's Formnla sacronim emeDd. 
(see yole )), and Pflag himielf to be ttis anthor ; aee Holler'a Praef. to Pfingil Formula, 
p. XX. It appeared onder the title: Fomala Refomatwiai per Caet. Majeitaten Slati- 
hia ccctenruftru tn Corailiu Augialaiiu a4 delibframdum propoMita, tt ah oMdaii ut pad 
piJilicat eonndtreiU, tt per earn EetUaarmn oc Cteri ni ntiiitati oommodiia prouiderait, 
pnbata tl recepta: it was printed In 1MB in Aagsburg, Majence, Cologne, and other 
ptacea. With aome additioni, of the year 1553, In Qoldaatl Conatltl. Imp. li. 835, and 
in Andr. Braabni^et de Formnla KeformaUoniB Eccleslaatkae ab Imp, Carolo T. ann. 
1548 atatiboB eceles. obtata. Mogunt., I78S, p. 87 u. 

* Charaeteriatic of the opinion of Rome npon the Interim are the declaratlona of Car- 
dinal Famerc, that be could show aeren or eight hereries in It ; that the Emperor had 
given a aeandal to Cbriatandom, and might very well have attempted to da aomethhig 
batter (Ranlu, FQntea a. VOlker, 11. 26B). Another voice ftom the cnria, la Baj-nald., 
1548, 'So. ei: Cnm Caeaar improbet tnnalatioaem, et vellt cogere redire Tridentnm, 
oatandit nolle, CoDCiliom eaae Ubanim, ut ettam In pnblicatioos Interim videtnr credera 
Condlinm non esse legitimnm, nunqnam legldme oongiegatnm, cnm In eo contiDaantnr 
at diversa, et contraria decretia Concilii, at de lapan homlnis, et de Jnalificalione, at de 
anetoritate Papaa. Si enlm decreta Concilii de verbo ad vcrlmm in ItUeriiit inserniiaet, 
aubtieen* oomeo CoDcilii, et non accepta Qla ferena Concilio, cnlpandaa adhnc euet. 
& enim volebat ponere fidcam in mesaent alienam, quo nondna nnnqnam excnaantnr, 
etiamsl EvangaliDm ipinm pnbUeaHet, debebat prina atatnere, qnod decreta Concilii 
essent servanda, at hoc colore petere, nt ConciUam rediret Tildentam. Sed com ipse 
ImpQgnet Iliad bac ana Iklsa doctrina, dod video, qno Jure petat reditam Coaciln ad TrL 
dentum; qnam enim cnram vnlt habere Concilii non legitimi, et potloa Conciliaboll, 
quam Concilii? Angelua Uaaaarelloa, In bit Diuinm, glvei the imperial Befonnation 
with the addition, ita nt Jam unoaqniaqae videat, Imperatorem banc Carolnm nsnipaaaa 
albi omnem Juriadlctionem ecclesiaatlcatn : nam die XV. Hajl praeteriti praescripait mo- 



tility by the King of Franoe, who stood in fear of all attempts to 
establish aaity in the Crennan Empire,* yet, under the ciroum> 
stances, he was oompelled to avoid a total rupture with the Em- 
peror. Therefore, when the latter applied for the needful dispensa- 
tions for the Frot«staats who would accept the Interim,^ the Pope 
sent legates prepared, in the worst case, with all the powers desired 
by the Emperor, but who were at the same time warned to reveal 
only so much as they were oompelled to do by the exigencies.^ 

dam cradaiid) qnoad dagmata Sdei, nnnc aul«ni XIV. hnjui metuls formam vivendl 
quoad mona Gennuilu dedit. 

' The King wniM to the Pope through hU nancio (PilUvicinl. lib. x. cap. IT, No. 4), 
cam ea omnia >d christiAnam rempablicim opprimendam lendanot, ubi Pontifex ad ea 
pnieatuida (to the deaired diapcpsatioiu) animuin iadoziaHt, eitemplo revocatarnm ae 
BanDni* Oratoni et Piaeaulea: qaod si ilUcrfieret, patrociniitiinim ae Concilio et Apoa- 
toltcae aedi. 

' ThedemandaoftbeEmperor, inRijuald., 1518, No. 45. Tha moat important ireie, 
the Itb, dut diapenaatioDS ba given to tha married clergy ; and Tib, for commmiion un- 
der both fbimi. The ofanionsof the cirdioals (Martene Collecdo, vlil. 1180), and of the 
prealdenta of the council in Bologna (Rayoald. 1. c. No. 46). vers faromble ; Icaa 10 
were thoas of tha biahopa depnted to Rome by the cooncj] (1. c., No. 4B), who particu- 
Lulf inaiated that the married clergjr ahoold give up their offlcea. 

* On tha Slat Angoat three nnncioa weni elected for this object. Eaa vero facnltatea 
poatoiatae a Caeaara non ia effnaa amplitndine Intamontiis coocesaae aunt, ted jnatitia 
pro Dai cottu amplificaodo temperatae. — Com enim non iidem eatoa occnrterent ia 
onmiboa, qui solvi lege eccleaiaatica flaf^tabaat, ideo pro coram varietate diatlncla fuere 
tria dipIomaCa, quibns Jnaai anot Intemuatli in aacerdotum conjngiia, et commnnioue 
anb ntraqae q>ecie peniiitlendia,Jeiuaionimetl^riarumobaervantia reatiingenda, sacer- 
dotiomm vectigalibua coajiuigendia, nnimque obUtonun reatitnlioDe componcpdo eaae 
parciaumi, ac niai trea IntenAmtii mataa seatentiarum conaenaioiia eoDapirarcat (Bel- 
larmin. de Gericis, lib. i. c. 19, in Rajnald., 1548, No. 72). One of theae bulls, Bauf. 
didia Dau, gaira full powera for the diapeDaatiooa held to be abeolutely aecesaaiy, to 
which tbe legatea aab.delegatad many German biahopa (the initniawDt aQb-delegaUng, 
which contained the boll, ia In Martene CoUectio, viii. 1203, and in Saalrow, ii. 351 ; la 
Martene, at the end, there la alao a liat of tboae who were, and of thoM who were to be, 
aub-delegated. In thia ball la alao the diapenaation to the communion, tub utraqat; 
Praeterea iia, qui bactenna contra atatntnm Eccleaiae Commanionem aub otraqae apecia 
anmere praeanmaeriut, ai ut id eta concedatur bumllilcr devotionia cana* petierint, aub- 
latia a ae anCca aiagnlia erroriboa et haeieaibua, — beta prloa per eoa confeaaione in Ec- 
cleaiu coram catholico aacerdote, Umpore anmptionia euchaiiatiae aaerae, tantom aub 
ana quantum sab utraqaa specie, Torum videlicet Chrlati Domint nostri et iotegmm cor- 
pua conlinari, catlioiicam Ecclesiam non errare, qoae lacerdotibas celebrantiboa dum- 
taxat excepda, caeteroa tarn Uicos quam clericoa anb una, videlicet pania apecie, com- 
mnnicare itatuit, aub utraque apecie — ad eorum vitam, vel ad tempua de quo vobia vlda- 
bilnr, comaionicare valeant, >eparadm tamen loco et tempore, — etiam ooncedendl et 
indaJgendi (concedimas facuitateni). Here, too, authority waa convepd to obaolve the 
clergy for all kinda of irregularities, even for bigamy, if they ahoold be penitent, and 
the married would give up their wives. Tbe power, however, to allow married prieata to 
continne married, if they laid atide their clerical office, wu given to tbe legates in the 
bull Ad Diligenltm, and was not anb-delegated by them (In Flacii Bulla Antichristi de 
ntrahendo populo Dei in ferream AegypUacae serritatia fomacem. 1549. 3. ; Sastrow, 
il 683) ; Cum chariaaimaa in Chriato filina noaler Carolus Bom. Imp.—aobis aigoiilca- 
verit, qnod pro rutitnendU ad Ecclesiam iia, qui in ipsa Geimania ab eadem Ecclatbi 


198 TOOBTH PEEIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 16n-l«48. 

The imperial proposals for reformBtion were at once proolaimed 
at ooonoils by the Catliolio bishops,' and had just as little effect 
as Uie innamerable earlier ordinances for reform of the same kind. 
On the other hand, great difficulties were found in the acceptance 
of the Interim b^the Protestants. At the diet the Electors of the 
Palatinate ^od of Brandeaborg declared for it ; the Maigravo John 
von Ciiatrin and the Palgiave Wdlgang von Zweibriioken opposed 
it outright ; the other Protestant states answered evasively. In 
southern G-eimany the imperial preponderance compelled its ac- 
ceptance; the Duke of Wtirtembnrg oonformed,'** following the 
example of the E lector of the Palatine ;" the free cities were forced 
to yield ; the example of Constance intimidated others — it was 
deprived of its civil and ecclesiastical freedom for opposing.'^ On 
dncireruit, non tarn dUIb, qnam necemaTilun taat dlgnotcitnr, at com allqnibns clericu 
in Mcria ordlnibu constitntls, quod cum inulieribin, qiuu Unqoain axons retineat, re- 
nuuiert, auC legiUmnm matrimoniuni contreben poosint, de Apoitollcae nils bcnignl- 
tMe dUpenKlur ; Noi — Vobii, — nl — aliquos Cluricos ncnUraa tanUm — citra tamen 
altaris et alia BBCerdotum miniMeria ac (italm bsmificioniin cccleiiiBatlcartini, cnraqos 
Ipaoram ordiaora exerdtta >Dblati), — abaolvera, ac tarn eis, — qood intei » matrinunil- 
Dm legllime eontrabera, et ia oo, poatquam contractnm ftaerit, liclta Tomanere posrint, — 
misericoTdtter dispennn pouitia, plsnam ac libaram — COBcedimm polcstatem et heol- 
tatem. The thiri bull haa never been made pablic, and may h»»B referfed to the di». 
peniution of married prieata, ao that they mi^t rsniaia in the clerical office, or to com- 
pacta to be concluded with PnteatanU oO account of the ecclealaitical property conSscated 
by them. — Althon^ those nuDcioa received nich fall power aa early as Auguat 81, yet 
the Emperor lenC word to the blahops, of the date Bmasda, !8th Hay, 1649, that this indal- 
gence had bean cominanlcsted to him only a few days liefOTs ; the anb-del^atiog initm- 
Dienta are alio dated tin same time. That Imperial latter contains, among other things, 
this warning to the bishops (3astrow, ii. 686): "Und dieweil stch sacb befnndcn, dass 
htavor der Sachen nmb etvas zavlel beKiteiieB seyn tnocht, iadem daaa Elllche— aich 
•twBQ n^t mehrerm Ernst u. 3trenge ertoigt, dann Qelegenheit dieaer Zeit n. lAntbtf- 
tragHi u. erleiden konnUa : ob nun troll an wonschen, data all chrJatUehe Dlaetplln u. 
ZucbUn der alien Klrchen — allenlhalben eingefahrt — irerden mOchte, nlcht dFatDWeci- 
ger, diewei) die Saoh vonnals dermassen nberhand genommen, dass derea ebcn viol 
salnd, die auf ihrem gefiwston Sinn u. Unverstand — vast la befaarrea gedenken, n. sich 
davoa achwerlich abwenden lassen wollen ; so sollt anscrs Erachteaa der Sacben umb 
10 viel mehr dienlich a. hrtreglicb seyn, dass alien thalbea—aolcbe Maass n. Beschei' 
denhelt gehaltan wurde, damit diejenlgen, so sich abgesondert, wiederomb eu eiaem 
rechten chriatliehen Wesen u. Wandel mehr mit gutem Willen anterwiesen v. geleitet, 
dann dorch abenna»lg#n Eirist abicheucht gemacht watden." 

* In 1649 dloceuu councils were held for this object la Paderbom, Uayence, WOn- 
barg, Aagsburg, liege, and Treves; In tbe next year In Straabarg and Cologne, and 
provincial cooncils in Cologne, BUyenoe, Trevei, and Salaborf;. See Hartaheim ConcU. 
Germ. T. vi. ; Braaborger de Formnla Reformationis, p. 29 as. 

■> Sattler's Geacb. v. WDrtemberg, iU. STS. Zahn's Reformatlansgeschlchte v. Wnr- 
(ambai^, a. 189. Hartmann's Gesch. d. Reform, in WOrtemberg (Stattgart, 1686), a. 98. 

■ * Scniven'a PTaltiiche Eirchenhistorie, a. IG. 

■* Comp. Sleidanus, ed. Am Ende, lit. 1S8. Sally's Hiatorie der Aagsb. Confbssioti, 
1. 5BS. Augabnrg was first compelled; see Paul v. Stetten, Oeacb.v. Augsburg, s. W!^ 
On Nuramberg, see Carl Chriat. Hlrach, Gew:h. des Interim aa HOmberg. leipzi^ 1750 



tiie other hand, in northern Germany'' the Inteiiia eneountered 
the liveliest opposition;'* by the free cities, especially Uagdeburg, 

(cT. Hlederer'a Abhandlangen Biu d, Eirchen- BDcher. u. Ge!ehrten-Ge9chlchl«, SL i. a. 
99) ; Strubnrg, s«e ROhrlch'B G«acb. v. Stnsbtirg, liL 1 ; Ubn, >e« Uelcb. Adsmi Titae 
ttaaolagorma. Vita Mart. Fncht, p. llfi; Keatlingen, wo FOaing'a Belition vie ea mit 
der Befonnilion d. St. Reatlingen hergeg^ngen, s. 278; Eiufbenren, see WngenseilS 
Bdtnig mu Gesch. d. Rerorm. (Leipz., 1830), s. 16; Heilbronn, 9C« Jiger's Hitthcil.zur 
Schwab, a. Franfa. ReformstlonBgescbichte, I. S70. However, all changei were, for the 
most part, partial and external. One of the papal ligates wrote to Cardinal Pameae, 
dd. Uognnt., 1548 (Raynald. h. a.. No. 72), M peragtswa anpenorem Gennanlam noD 
line periculo; infectoa Lnlheiana las In perfldia obdnralsae, et pancos ad Reli|^onem 
catholicam rerenoa, apeeijae lennes eorum ia csatra Eccleaiae tradncendoram alTUlgere, 
niai Caea. Hajeatas magia atreansm operam ad Id contnlerlt ; jicta qnlifem sb ea fanda- 
mcDta Tedintegrasdae Terse relielaniB In omnibna tenia ipsl obnoxiia, ant in maxima 
eamm parte ; Eccleslailicog et Monachoa, qni polsi ab baereticia erant, anis bonii restl- 
toiue ; in Ecclegiia principitnu dao altaiia excitari JaiBiase,— et in lie quotidie dno aacra 
Celebrari, aed paacoa ila Inlereue; compresslB Imperio illiaa adveraarila Catholicoa in 
OmnibuB locis concionari paa»e, at qood majorii ponderia erat, non Interdixiue Lnttaen- 
noa a eoncionlbaa habcDdta, ac propterea Uloa majori qoam antes diUlgeatia ac furore 
habere condoaei, Impietatemqaa dlffnndere et coofirmare, cam fanoidarcDt db eztln- 

" Here the Interim wai accepted only by Erich II., Duke of Calenberg (Schlegel's 
KIrcbengeach. von Kord-Deutachland, 11. 172) ; Doke Heniy the j-onnger, of Bnmswick- 
Wolfnb&ICel, who waa reinatated In hli landa, endeavored to Inlrodnce Calhallciam en- 
tire (Ibid., a. 194). In East Frieiland Coonleia Anna lotrodaced a milder Interim, like 
that of electoral 3«zanf — the EaH Friiiaa Interim ; aee Gittermann'a RefomuttaDagescb. 
T. Onfrieiland, in Yater'a Kircbenhiator. Archiir f. 1BS5, Heft iL a. 149.— The cities of 
Hamburg, Ubeck, Bremen, LUneburg, Bmoawlck, Hanorer, Hildeiheim, GAttingcn, 
and Eimbeck, after matual coaanltations with llie Emperor, rejected the Interim (Rebt- 
meyei'a 3tadt BranQubweig. Klrcbenhiatorie, iil 186, and the Bejlageu, i. 81) — To 
the imperial reaciipt, 80th Jodl, IMS, by which tliej were called upon to accept it, the 
piincea of Aubalt responded with a demal (Beckmann'a Anhalt. Hiat., v. 144 ; vi. 93). 
The Count of Schwanbnrg and the Connts of UansBcId promiaed to malatain aa mnch 
of it aa waa poaalbie (fortges. Sammlnng v. alten a. neuen theolog. Sachen, 1721, a. 847, 
719). At a arnod at QalelMn, called Jan., IM9, by the Coimta of Manefield, Stollberg, 
Scbwaixbnrg, Hohenstdn, and RegensteiD, the Interim wai wholly r^ected (Bieck'i 
Dreyfachea Interim, a. 87). The Arcbbi^op of Hagdefanrg and Biahop of Halbentsdt, 
John Albert, did Indeed call together bis landed proprietota In Halle, Ang., 1U8, and 
demanded ila immediate introduction, bat withont aaceesa ; aee J. O. Eirehner'a Hach- 
ticht Ton den wegen dea Interima in Halle vorgehllenen Begsbenheiten. Halle, 1748. 
8. — The imprisoned Elector, John Fiederick, could notlw indaced to accept the Interim, 
either by threata or by aevere tmatment (see Job. FCnIct's ciutodia n. Ilberatio dee 
dorchl. Herm Job. Priedilch, etc., in Hortleder, Tom Dentscben Kriege, Th. it. Bach 
ilL cap. 88 ; Sleldaatu, lib. xx., ed. Am Ende, p. IIS ; comp. the nmarka of Uinckwiti 
in Scbelhom'a Ergfitdichkeiten, iil. lOfiT). Hia sona, alao challenged to accept, aasem. 
btcd their luperlntendents in Weimar, July 96, 1M8; theie declared against the Interim 
(seeder PndigerderjungenHemi. Job. FrtedrichenHetz.T, Sachsen SOhnen, chrjitllch 
Bedeoken aof das Interim, in Bieck's Dreyfaches Interim, a. 10!)! tbertapon it was 
also rejected by the princes (see Bieck, a. 71 ; cf. die Urkonden in Tentzel'a HIator. Be. 
rich! T. Cyprian, ii. 500).— The iraprlaoned Landgrave acted in a weaker way : be ac- 
commodated himaelf to the Interim, and alao exhorted his eons to accept it, yet It still 
fonnd no favor In Hesse (Slddantia, lib. xi. p. 118 ; Salig'i Hlalorie d. Angab. Confes- 
aion, i. 600; Rommel's Fhlllpp d. GrossmQthlge, ii. 630). 
'* The Grat worii against it was " Bedeoken anlh Interim des EhrwQrdigen it. Hoch- 


200 FOUBTH PEEIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. IfilT-1648. 

it was opposed and satirized in the most violent maDner ;'* even the 
Elector of Brandenburg was not able to introduce it into his iand.'^ 
The Elector Maurice, who at Augsbui^ had rejected .every defi- 
nite declaration, did, indeed, cause the Interim to be apparently 
accepted, aocording to the odvioe of bis divines, at a diet in Leip- 
stc, Deo. 22," bat with such alterations that the Lutheran doctrine 

gdahrtea Ileira Pbilippi Mdanchthonia Ifitcn Jan., 1648" (printed in Hsgdeburg by 
Andreas Kegel, rector in Eisleben, wilhout canseat of Helancthon; see Bieck, s. W): 
the fullest and moat respected was by the B&mburg Saperinlendeat, Joh. Aepings, " Be- 
kenntnisi n. Erkliruog aufs Interiia durch der StsdU Labeck, Hamburg, LQiieburg, 
etc., Superintondenten, Paalorn, u. Predigem, 1H9." i, Ijst of writings againrt the 
Inlerim, in Bieck, b. 123. DanUche BibUolhek, T. 15 ; vi. 168. Walchu Bibtioth. TheaL, 

'■ On the satirical poenu and the lo-called InterimstbaUr, ace Bieck. e. 138. 

'* Immediately after hi» return from the diet he appointed a conTention of the preach- 
ers in Berlin j the most of them refused the Inlciim (Nic. Leuthlnger de Marcbia Braa- 
denb., lib. vi., in Krausii Soriptores de rebus March. Bnnd. Francof. et Lips., 1T29. 8., 
p. 318). Agiicola now had to treat with individuals : Nic. Leuthinger, father of the his- 
torian, threw the Interim into the Are in his presence (N. Leuthinger Oratia de vita et 
obits patris, 1. c. p. 1432). Thereapon Joschim followed the example of the Elector 
Uaarice, introduced a modiUcstion of the Interim, and cBected a union with bun upon 
it in Jaterbock, Dec. 16, 1U8 (bi Hoitleder, Tta. IL Bach III. cap. 87). The Emperor ha 
manifestly tried to deceive in his letter of Jan. 11, 1519 (hi Schmidt's Neaere Gesch. d. 
Deutschen, Bnch i. cap. 12) : " Weil er die GemQther dea armen gemeioen Tolkes etwaa 
hart darwider verbittert n. angehetzt gefunden, $o babe er erstlich allgemach «nen At- 
tikel nach dem andem vorgenommen, die armen verfOhrten (}emlltlier berlcbten n. be- 
deulen, so dann ober es In aeinen linden diucken u. pabliciren, auch in seinem HoBager 
in alien Kirchen luMchten lassen, u. zu halten geboten. Nan atehe er auch noch in 
det tiglicbcn Arbeit u. Uebnng das iDlerim in indem Kirchen u. Stidten u. In seinem 
ganzen I^nd anzurichten, d. nach seinem hocbsten TermSgen darQber zn halten, finde 
auch bey seinen Unterthanen gate Folge n. (•ehorsam." About the convention at jQler- 
bock be writes, that ho had there pennaded the Elector Maurice and his fViends to ac- 
cept the Interim J only the Saxon theolof^ans bad some donbia about the canon; yet 
be hoped to set them sside. In fact notbing eflbclual was done bj Joachim to cany out 
the JQlerbock Interim, so that the Emperor reproached him abont it : but — satios duce- 
bat, iram Caesaris obsequii figmento prsecurrendam, quam negatione manifcsta eandem 
in patriam acrina incessendam armsudum (Leuthinger, 1. c. p. 93S). 

" Maurice called ■ convention of divines and a committee of the estates at Mlsnia, 
Jnly 1 (Expositio eomrn, quae tbeologi Acad. Wittenbergensia de nbns ad religionem 
perttoentibua monneiinL WiLeberg., 1559. 4. ; B1. Dd. 4), with the demand that they 
should so decide that the Emperor might see, vos et nos propensos esse ad obedlentism 

faciant, et pie et bona cnm conscdentia fieri possint (Expositio, Ee !}. The theolo^ans, 
in their Opinion, held fast to the Lntheran doctrines, and then declared, as to the cere- 
monies (Hb 3, b): si tn rebus litis adiaphoria bono consilio eonim, quibus gubematio 
Ecolealaram commUsa est, aliqoid deliberatum fuerit, quod ad concinnitalem aliquam 
ritDum, et ad bonsm diacipllnam faclat, in hoc concordiae et bono ordini non deerimaa. 
Nam de rebus per ee medils Don volumus quicqusm rixari, qnod ad externum attiuet 
uinm. Since, however, they foresaw only disturbances from all changes, they proposed, 
ab Imperatore simplicitei absque disputatione et contrariis arllculis peti, ut has Eccle- 
rUs In praesenti statu nanere sinat (IJ 2). Maurice rejected this as useless, and de. 
manded, na in Us, qnae lalva reritate — fieri possent, concedere recuaarenC (Um). Bat 



was easeatially retained, and the Catholic constitutions and usages 
were only allowed as adiaphora (Interim Lipsiense).'^ Yet this 
aa be was at the aame time eaniegtly entreated by the Emperor, tbe Siog of Rome, mi 
the Elector of Hayence (Mm !), be adl«d a eonterence of the Kahopg of UlsnU and 
HaumbarR with his theolD^aai Id Pegan, Aug. !S, to aee If tbey could not come to an 
agreement aboat the doctrinei, it tbej w«re promited the intnidnctiaa of the ceremonies 
conudered aa adiaphora, and tbe restltation of tbdr epiacopal aathorilf (Mm 4). Tba 
biahopa accepted a draft made by tbe dlviaea on JiutiScatian, with an Ingigniflcant 
alteration (Oo 6), and declared tbat it waa then, alight as the change wai, In agreement 
with the Interim (Pp !) ; fnrtiier they would not enter into the matter, eepeclally be- 
onaa they had no papal dispenastion aauctioning the laUrim. Thereupon Hanrice, at 
a diet at Torgan, Oct. 18, laid before the theologians called te It propoeitiona foramod- 
IScation of the Interim (Qq 3) ; they answered these In part, bnt requested time to ad- 
vise with other clergymea npon the matters which might be allowed as adiaphora. At 
the conTantion of theologians at MflnchMxUe, Nov. 16 (Vv B), the connaelors of tbs 
Prince agreed with the divines about the modificaUons to be made, and prepared a doc- 
nment (Yy 4, b), which was thereupon adapted in tbe project for union of the two Elect- 
on at jQterbock, Dee. 16 (see Note IG). This document, with an Introduction, and 
prefaced by the articles on Joitidcation agreed upon at Pegau, and with the addition of 
some eoncladicg words, was laid before the diet in Leipsic, Dec. 22 (Ccc 6), sanctioned 
by It, and then printed as the order of tht ditl. The Elector, on this basis, issued an 
ordinance on Public Worship. The above order was called by the Flaclans die Llpei- 
cum Interim majns; the ordinance, Upucnm Interim minus (Ddd 4. b. ; Bieck,s. 184, is 
incorrect on this point). 

'* See the Beschloss des Landtages zn Leipzig, In Black, s. 361 : " Uoser Bedetiken 
slahet daranf, dssB nun der ROmiscben Eala. Hajestftt, nnserm aJlergnUigatan Herm 
Geborsam Idste, a. slcb also verbalte, daaa Ibie MajeatSt u. mluuiiglich nnser aller Oe- 
matb za Bnhe, Frieden n. Einigkelt genelgt vermerken mfige. — Detnaelben nach beden- 
ken wir erstlich, diss alles, was die alten lehrer in den Adiaphoris d. i. In den Hlttet 
ilingeo, die man ohne Terletzungen gSttllcher Schiift halten mag, gehalten baben, u. 
bey dem andem Thdl noeh InkBnncb blieben ist, hinfort anch gdialten werde, n. daas 
man darlnne keiae Besehwenmge oder Wegemnge suche oder ttlrwende, diewell solcbes 
ohne Veiletiung gnter Gewissen wobl gescheben mag." Urst comes the article on Jnst- 
IGcation, as agreed upon at Pegau. — I. ffoa Man becomei jot b^ore God, " Wlewohl 
Gott den Menschen nlcht gereeht macht durch Terdienst eigener Werke ; — glelchwobl 
wQrket der barmhenige Gott nlcht also mitdemHenschen wis miteinem Plock, Bondem 
zcucht ibnalso, dasssein Wille aucb mit wUrkel, soer in verstindigen JahrcnUt. Denn 
ein solcher Hensch empfilbet die Wohltbaten Christi tilcht, wo nlcht dnrch rorgebende 
Gnade der Wille n. das Hera bewegt wird, daas er fOr Gottes Zom erschrecke, n. elnen 
Hissfallen babe an der Si^de. — Es hat aber Gott oicht allein seinen Zorn geoffenbaret, 
Boadem darbey hat er seine gnftdige Verbelasung, aemlich das Evangeliam von selnem 
Sohn gegeben, and Ist seln ewlger nnwaudelbarer Wille, — daas er gewlsilieh die 
Scinde vergeben will, will nns s^en beQ. Geist geben, annehmen, vemeneD, n. Erben 
ewlger Sellgkeit mschennm seines Sohns willen, nicht von wegen unserer Terdienst oder 
Wurdigkeit, so wlr in diesem Schreeken u. Rene wahrhaftlglicb glanben n. vertranen, 
<lass ons nm desselbigen Hittlers Willen gewiallch die Sonde vergeben werden.— Dieser 
Glanbe iat nlcht allein eine Erkenntoiss, wie es in den Teuteln 1st, oder in Henichen, 
die in bOaen Gewissen lebeD; sondem dieser Glanbe gUnbt samt andem Artikeln die 
Vergebang der Sonden, nimrat die Verheissong an, u. ist im Herien eln wabrhafUges 
Vertranen auf den Sohn Gottes, welches Trost u. Anmtling n. andere Tngeuden mit er- 
wecket — Und wird damm in^eich der hell. Oelst in nnser Heix gegeben, to wir also 

die gdttliche Verbelssnng mit GUuben faseeu, n. nns damit troeten a. sntHchten Und 

wOrket der heil. Gelst alsdann im Henen bestindigen Trost n. Leben, erWecket alle 
Dotbigo Tngenden, mehret den Glauben, die Zuversichl, Eafftinng, iQndet an die Liebe, 
tieibet in rechiei Annfnng u. n gnten Werkeo, ti. slnd dlese, die also Vergetmng der 


203 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-1648. 

mitigated loterini, whioh, however, came only from the Protest- 
ants, aroused even greater wrath among the strict Lutherans than 
SOndBQ D. den heiL Gaiat rmfUbea haben, al«Uim Erben der ewigen Seligtelt, am dte 
Heilindea Wlllen.— Uad wiewoU in meDMhlicher SchwachheEt noch viel Zneifeloi u. 
Zqtpelns bleibet, eo bat dock Gottdagegett teineVerhebsung gegeben, diu zo trCsten a. 
in lUrkeo, dua nit deo Zveifel uberwinden a. lu Golt Zuflucht btib«D mugen. L'nd 
dut St. Paulas spricht: idi bin tuir uicbta b«wiiut, slier danim bin idi nicht gencbti 
biemit lehret er nicbt, dau man zweifsin toll, sandeni will, daw wir beyde StOcke ge- 
wisilicb achlieneo sollen, daa Gewiuea aoU recbt atelun, n. dabey niasen, da« vkl tie- 
bnchsn is nna sejn, a. ob wir glelcb otane Sciiide nicht leben, daia wir doch GotI get^ig, 
n. einen gnidigen Gott habea tun aeinea Sobns willen. — GUichwabl moss man daxne- 
bea wisHD, daaa in diasem acbwacben Leben viel boaer Meignag im Ueoschen bleiben, 
n, er ohne 8(inde nicht lebel — Danun oligleicli eia neuer Gehcnam angefangen, u. 
die eingegebene Gerecbtigkeit Im Menscben bt, eo i»t doch iiicbt m gedenken, die 
PersoD babe damm. Vergebong del SOndeo, nod eey nun alao rein, dua aie iieina Ver- 
gebnug der Siinden u. keinen Mittler bedarf. — £s werden aucti die Tngenden a. gule 
Werk in aolcben Venohnetea Gerecbtigkeit genennet, wie abea von der eiDgegelieoeii 
Gerecbtigkeit gemeldet, docb nicbt in dieaem Veretande, daaa damm die Penan Ver- 
gebung der Siinde babe, oder daaa die Penon in Gottea Gericht ohne Sunde ee;, soo- 
dem daaa dei Menacb dnrch deu bell. Gelat emeuert, a. die Gerecbtigkeit mit dem Werk 
(oibringen kann, n. daaa Gott ihm diesen scbwachen sngefiuigenen Gehonam in dic- 
aer alendeo gebreehUchen Natar nm aeinea Sobna willea in den Glanbigen will ge- 
Cillen laaaen."— II. 0/ Good Wort4. "Weitet von goten Werken iat dieae Kegel ge> 
wlaa, dass dieae Werk gut und nOtbig aej-n, die Gott gebocen hat, lanta der zetaen Ge- 
bot, n. deraalben Erklirung in der Apoalel Schriften genagaatn ■oagedrliekt. — So jemand, 
der in Gotlea Gnaden geweaen iat, wider Gottes Gebot wiasentlicb haodelt, der bctrQbt 
den helligen Geial, n. rerleuret Gnade u. Gerecbtigkeit, u. fiillt In Gottes Zom, n. ao er 
nicht wiedarom bekehretwiid, falltei indie ewige Strafe. — So iat ancb die Wiedergebort 
n. ewigei Leben an ihr aetbat ein neoea Licbt, ist Gottesfarchl, Iat Liebe n- Frende la 
Gott a. andere Tngenden, wie der Sprucb aagt: Dieu iat das ewige Leben, daaa ^ dich 
wahrhalUgen Gott erkeniten, ti. micb Jeanm Chriatum. Wie nun dieaea wabrbaftige 
Erkennen in nna leuchtea muss, alao iat gewlaalich wahr, daaa dieae Tugenden, GUnbe, 
Llebe u. Ho^ung, a. andere In una aeyn mfiuen, u. zor Beligkeit nOtbig aepi— tJnd die- 
Weil die Tugenden n. gate Work Gott gelallen, vie geeagt ist, ao verdienen aie ancb 
Beldmong in dieaem Leben guatlicb D. zeitlich Dach Gottee Eath, n. mehr Belohnung 
im ewigen Leben vermSge gotdicher Verbeissung. Und wird biemit in keinem Wege 
beatatiget der Irrtbom, daaa die ewige Seligkeit durch WUrdigkeit UBaerer Werke ver- 
dienet werde. Item daaa wir ondem unsem Yoniienat mogen mittbeilen." So Ear tbe 
Pagan Arlidea.— in. Q^tAc AweramUuttoriryo/'titCbircjiu. " Waa die wnhre chriit- 
licba Eircba, die im heil. Geiatveraammelt, in GlanbeaaaeheD erkennet, ardnetn. lehret, 
daa soil man ancb lebren n. predigen, wie sie denn wider die beil. Scbilft nicbta ordncn 
Bcdl noch kann."— IV. Of lie Churdt Offietn. " Und daaa dem OberMan n. audein Bi- 
BchaSbn, die ihr biacbSflich Amt nach Gottea Betehl auartcbUD, n. daaaelbige in Erbauong, 
n. nklil znr Zentorung gebrauchen, untemrorftn a, gebonam sej^ alie audeie Kirctien- 
diener." — V. 0/ Soplum. — VI. CmjErmatRm. " Daaa die Fltmnng gelehiet n. gehalten 
werde, u. aondarlich die Jugend, die erwacbaeD, von ilirea Biacbofen, oder wem ei die- 
aelben befeblen, vethort ihrea Glaubena, — u. die Zuaage, die ibre Pathea in der Taufe 
ftir aia getbao — bekrafdgen, u. alao in ihrem Glauben vermillsla gotdicber Gnaden con- 
finnlret u. beatitigee warden mit Auflegnng der Uinde n. chriatl. Qebeten n. Cartmo- 
nien."— VII. Ptnaitct.~yill.—Iianmt UncUim. "Wiewobl in dieaen Landen die 
Oelung in vielen Jahren nicbt in Gebrancb geireaen, dieweil aber im Harc& n. Jacobo 
geacbrieben stabet, wie die Apoatel derer gebraucbt baben i — damm mag man binfiir- 
der aolcbe Oelnng nach der Apoitel Blanch balten, u. aber den Kranken ebriidiche Gebet 
n. TVoataprQcbe ana der heil. Schrift aprecben, n. daa Volk dea alao bericbten, damit 
man den recht^n Tantand bflb, u. allerAbergUabe n. Uisivantand vorkommen n. ver- 



did that of Augsbo^, and by meaos of the Interimistio CoiitrD> 
varsies made the first rapture in the new Church. 

Neither the prapoeal far Reformation nor the Interim attained 
the object the Emperor had in riew. The former was without 
effect; the latter was opposed by the Catholics as an ill-advised 
half measnie," and by the Protestants as the work of the devil.^" 

hOUt werde."— IX. Order of (MrA qfieeri.—X. Marriagi.—XI. Matt. "Dam die 
HeMS hinforder in die»n Luidaa mit Liutea, licbten n. GcfoaMa, GeBiDgeD, Klei- 
dnngen D.Ceremonien gehslICD verde." Tba uaiul Usta oT prayers formus and hjniDi 
follows ; bat. Instead ot the Canon, Consecration U introdoced. — XII. Imaga. — XIII. 
Staffing HI CJklirtAu. "Daas man die horu canooicaa, die gottseligen Paalm in dan 
Sliften, n. Stidten in dea Eirchen, da es vorhin gebalten iit, ainBe."— XIT. Fatitati. 
—XV. Eafinff of FUth. " Item dus man slch am Frejtage, SoanabeDd, ancb in der 
FaMen Flelschesaeni entbalU, a. dasa aolcbet ala cbie inuerliche OrdQUQg auf der 
Kais. Hijeatat Befehl gehaltea irerde."— XVI. THt Maimer of lift of the ChunA Offi- 
can. Miuiy dariatian* trma tba Atigsbnrg Interim are seen in that of Leipsic only In the 
omiasloD of definile stalementa. To these belongs what in Pagan was damanded of the 
biabops (Expailtia Nb 1 b) : De extrema onctione : na ipii qiildem Episcoid consecra- 
bnnt olanm, si ctnuideiaTerint, qiules sint consacratiMias et qoam absnidae. Ne one- 
TentoT Canone. Mec oneKntnr invoeatione Sanctornm. 

" Aooording to Slaidanna xxi.,p. iii. p. ISl, Robertns Episo. Abrlneenris [Antidohim ad 
Poatnlatads Interim. Lagd., IMS. 8.) wrote against il ; see the deecriptlon In (he Nene 
BcTtrige v. alien n. nenen Ihecd. Sachen, 1769, s. 43&, and tha geoaial of tha Dominicans, 
Fruciscns Romaeos, in Rome. Catholic deftnders, with the excepUoD of G. Wleelius's 
Apologia (Cologne, 1M9}, did not rentnre to appear In print: Pflng's Defense has onlj 
ree«ntlf been published (by Cbr. G. MOIler, in Stindlin'a n. Tiscbimei's Archir f. alls 
0. nana Kircheng. Bd. iv. St. 1, s. 104). 

** On the elTects of the Interim and of the Imperial ReformalJoil, see the Declaration 
of the States at the Diet of Angsbnrg, ISU (the acts of this diet In MS. In WolfenbDtel, 
•ae Salig. i. 668), in Schniidt'i Neneie Geach. d. DeDtschen, Bncb. L cap. 14. The spir- 
itual Electors declared ; " Wenn sie aoch— die Pr&dicanten, die lieh nicht nsch dem 
Interim f&gan wdlEen, absetiten, so fandan sie kaina andere; n.diekaUiol, GelsUichen 
ddvfteu tia *etniigB das Interim salbit nicht daan btanehea. Um die TOTgeaehriabene 
Baformatlon in daa Wark an ricblan, bitten sie Provincial- n. Diooesan-Synodea go- 
ballan : daas sie abar Ihren Zweck nicht ganz enelchet, sayaa allerhand beaaodere Ex. 
emtionem, Avyhetlen, Diapensationam, Indnlta n. ao^re Yarblndenngen Scbnld." 
"Sba secular Dedorai "Ihre Landsehaften n. Unterthanen widersetiten slch der Anf- 
lichtnog del Interim am so mehr, wail sie glanbten, es sey nicht allerdings der ScbiUt 
gemiss ; woUten ale onn Ernst tilrwandeD, so bittan sie sich Anfmhre, Rnmoren, D. 
also ihrvr Land a. Lent groaae ZerrOCtnng n. schverlich Verderben o. AbfsUs m be- 
fidiren." Xbe Princes : " IHe Unachen der NichtliefolgDng des Interim witen hanpt- 
•ichlicb dloee: man habeaof hohen v. Farticnlar-Schnlen Eowenlg Fursebnng getban, 
no die Jogend demselben gemisa zn nnterweisen ; da nun each die Pridlcanlen das 
ToUt nicht nm alleln nicht lar Haltang deasetben ermahntan, sondem aach SBbntlich 
dlagngan pradigten, so kfinne dtsselbo nicht dafDr aiDgBaomman warden. Ancb sayen 
dnrcb d*sselb« zwar die Commonion nntar beyden Gestalten n. die PriBStareben ge- 
■tattet : allein da dor Papst die Sacha uoch nicht formlicb gnt gehelssen, to knsaarten 
dch diejenjgen, dia dlaae EHoge Tariangeten, dar ganien Declaration. Nebst dem say 
Haogel an kath<discban Priestam, die im Stande w^ren, dan Lenten den hlnlanglicben 
Untarricht darOber sugeben: voraliem atier mOaitan alia Klrcbendienerordantlichge- 
waiht, ID def Verwaltong der Sacramenta fshig gemacbt, von der ordsntJlchen geistlicb- 
eu Obrigkeit gaaandat o. dan BischUan nnterworfen seyn. Der gemaine Uann werde aneh 
nicht wanig dmch etlicliei GeiitlicEiaa lalcbtfotiges a. Ugerlichea Laben, dass der kaiser- 


204 FOURTH PERIOD.— Drv. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

Ueenivhile it appeared as though some durable measures might 
soon follow these prelimiaery arraDgemeDts, when Julius III., 
after the death of Paul III., succeeded him in the papal see, and 
at once acceding to the desire of the Emperor, again called the 
council to meet at Trent,*' May 1, 1551 ; and this, too, in spite 
of the opposition of the King of France.'^ The latter, accordingly, 
at onoe greeted the reassembled council with a Protest (Sept 1, 
1S51) ;" while it seemed es though the whole of G-ermany, on the 
other hand, would have to submit to it. The Protestant princes, 
summoned by the Emperor to send to this council, received only 
general promises^ in reply to their demands ; the Emperor, at the 
same time, manifested such unusual earnestness,^' that it appear- 

lichen KeronDition ao venig geleht D. naehgegsngen ««id, diTOn kbgetudteii. IHe 
letite Hindemiu ny endlich, dug DnKeacfatet d«s kaigerlichcn VerboU so vide Schnucb- 
n. SchsadbDcUcin dBgegen geachriebcti, and unter dcm Talk iiugeBtreDt wlirdni." 

>' Tbe previDoi negotUtions in PalUvicini, lib. li. c. 8 bb. The Pope deminded u 
condition (1. c. c. 9, No. 3), ut in illii ComiUiB (in Angabnrg, 1S50) denuo sUbillret Cie- 
aai finniUr ProtestantioiD tubjectiimem per legidmu Ubulu ab ipiia ezhibendsm. DU 
id ob illig recuwntnr. Concilia ■mplins locnm noD eew ;— supereasa, ut in em CaeSU 
armoTDm vim exerceret. The Bulla ruamptionls, of 14lii Nov., 1650, tn the Caaooct 
at decreta Cone Trid. 

** See the coiropondenci in (he Lettiea et Uemoires d'eitat, pat Guil. Bibier (Parii, 
1666 fol.), T. ii. p. 276 u. 

" Kaynaldna, 1661, No. !S>8S. Cf. the acconnt oT the royal plenipotentiar}-, tha Bb> 
bot Jac. Amyot, in Jaiioci le Plat Moonment. ad hist. Cunc. IVid. epeetaut. collectio, 
iv. 249. 

" The same which the evaaBelical electora had already nude at the diet o( 154T (Sas- 
trmr, ii. 118; above, Mote 1} ware repeated b; the Elector Hsnrice; bat he wa» not 
llMened te (Slddanae, lib. xxiL P. iU. p. 210 ; Ras-naldua, 1660, No. IS). 

" Final decree of the diet, 18th Feb., 1661 (Nene Sammlung der Reichaftbschjvda 
Frankr. a. U. 1747, ii. 611); "Wir— wollen ana kaiaerlicher Macht u. Gewalt aUa die, 
ao an/ dem Concilio erichieaen, die haben AenderuDgen in der Religion f^irgenommen, 
Oder ancb andere, gnldiglich veraichert haben, daei etn jeder trej nngehindert dam 
koromen, daranf eracheinen, daajenige ao er za Bnhe und Slchemng seiner Cooieieni n. 
Gewisaena far gut nnd nothwendig acht, fOrbringen, n. wiedenun von daoucn bla In 
■ein Oewahnam trey aiclier abiiehen und kommen mfig. Za dem gedenken Wir im h. 
Reich Oder doch in dsr Nahe, ao viel imniBr mO^ch, in verharren, ob dem Concilio id 
hallen a. lu betBrdem, datnit daaaelbig la guter richtiger EndschaCt gehrecbt werde. — 
Wir ennchen, ermahnen, erinnem anch biemit Chnrfliriten, FQraten, n. St&nde dea beU. 
mcha, n. Bonderlicb die Prilaten geiallicha Stands, such dlejenlgen, bey denen aich dla 
Nenmng in der Religion erhaltan, dua aie aich anf der F&pstl. Uelllgkeit Anaschrelben 
in dem fOrgenommenen Concilio geachickt machen, nnd gefoast erscfaeinen, damit aie 
aich kOnftlglich nlcbt m beklagen, oder fBTiQwendeD, ala ob sie in dem Dbereilt, u. ihia 
Nothwendigkeit Rinnbria^en nicht mgelaaaen wiren. Dana wir an nnserm fleiaa 
nichla gedenken erwinden zn laaaea, anf daas — bemeldte Stknd, bej denen in der Reli- 
gion NeoeraDg fOrgeDommen, oder der AngipuTgiachen Confeaiian anbingig geweseo, 
nod deraelben Geaandten in aolcbem Concilio eracheioen mSgen, daas aie darzu, darin 
u. davon, bis vrieder an ihr Gewabraam geaichert o. vergleitet, aacfa nothdOrftiglich ge- 
hOrl, und die ganze Tractation a. Beschlnas gottseliglich n. cbristlich. alien AOect hin- 
tangeaetzt, nach gottllcher n. der alten V&ter heiL Geachrin lu Lehr (QrgeBommen, g^ 



ed as if the conquered party must abaodon all resistance. Joa- 
chim II., Elector of Brandenborg, who was trying to get the pa- 
pal oonfirmation of his son Frederick as Archbishop of Magdeburg 
and Bishop of Halberstadt, declared his submission to the council 
through his embassadors.^' The states of southern G-ermany and 
of electoral Saxony did, indeed, have confessions composed (Con- 
fessio Virtembergensis, Confessio Saxonioa^), so as to insist upon 
the Protestant doctrine j their embassadors were heard in a private 
congregation of the oooncil (Jan. 24, 1553), in which the Wir- 
i«mbergers handed in their Confession,^" while the Saxon envoys 
renewed the old demands of their lord.** From southern Germany 
oame also Protestant theologians,'" and Saxon divines journeyed 
to Trent to defend their doctrines.^' But in this way no deliver- 


>■ See the iocamtaU In BajnoldQa, 15£1, No. il ind 42. 

" Confessio doctrinae Bizoaicmin Ecclnlarnm Sj^odo Tridentinte obUta, or, in tbe 
original title, Repetitio confeuiooia Aogustanu antio 1661 Wlttebergui ecripta et aob- 
■ciiptione pnedpnonun doeloniin in eecleeiie et adiDlia confirmula Oetite Anegabe r. Jo. 
Qaodvultdeae BOrgeT. Lips., 1T23. 8.), vritten b; MeUnctbon ) gee Camerariiu De ^U 
HeliDcbthonb, | 90 j BOrger, la the introdoction to hli edition; Salig'a Historie der 
Angiparg. Conreealon, L 667. — Confei^ plae doctilnae, quo nomine iliaatr. Princ 
ChriMophoii Dads Wfrtenb. d. S4. m. Jan., 1663, congregationl TridenUnl Concilii pro- 
pouta est (last published In PGiSi Acta et scripta pablica Ecclesisa Wiitembergicae. 
Tobing., ITSO. 4. p. 276), written tiy Job. Brgntins ; see P&ff Uber commentariiis de 
aetii icriptisque pnbl. Ecd. Wlrtemb., Tubing., 1718, 4. p. 24 u. ; Salig, L 673. Both 
confessions wsra aUo pubUshsd with the Angsbnrg Confession : Con&ssiones fidel Cbris- 
tianaa tres. FrancDf. 16S3 and 1666. 4. 

" Sleidanna (irho cane aa the Stra^nrg ambaasador to Trent), lib. xxiil. P. lit. p. 
SS7, 31S ss. Tbe ads In Jnd. le Plat Monnm. ad hist Cone. Trident, apettant., iv. 417 ; 
f^tagma comm qnaa nomine DL Princ. Chriatopbori Dad* Wlittmberg. in STnodo 
Trident, per legato* ^ni acta tont. Ba(iL,16(S.S.Cnprintedln PlsffiiAcCaEccl. Wirt, 
p. MS). 

■* Heir AddruainBaTnald., 16SS, No.61, andlnuiBlatedfromamannactlpt inSalig'a 
Hiat des Trident. Condi., li. ISO. Tbef demanded that Airther dedsions aboold b« poat- 
poned until tbe arrival of the Saxon dlviaes, that Ibe decrees already mads ahonid be 
•gain irngbed, and that Uie bishops in tbe conndl shonld be released from their oatb 
inads to the Pope. Baports abont these audiences In Friderici Nauseas Ep. Ylennenais 
ad Re^em Fsrilnandam, dd. SO. Ian. in Planchii Aii«cdot> ad hist. Cone. Tiid. pert. nr. 
X. (Gettinger Osterprogrunm r. 1801) ; of tbe imporial embassadora to tbe Bishop of 
Arras, in tbs Lettres et U^oires de fyanQois de Yargaa, de Pierre de Malvenda et de 
qnelquea Sriqaes d'Espagoe toaebont le Candle de Trente, tndoita de I'Espagnol, par 
Hr. Midi. le Tassor, k Amfteidani, 1699. 8. p. 46S, 483, 487, 601. Tbe Utter show the 
great LnptMslon which was made bj the addrtaaea of the Proleatant embasaadon, and 
the ajnpatfay they found with many tdahops. 

■• ISth March, Sleldanoa, xxlii., ed. Am Volt, lil. p. 82S, wlt«n, too, thdi laitmc- 
tioni an girm. 

" Camerarina In TiU Helancblb., % 93. 


206 FODBTH FEBIOD.— DIT. L— A.D. 1617-lGia 

aDoe for Protestantism could be anticipated ; it came, nnexpect> 
ediy, &om another quarter. 

Tts Elector UBorioa, who had nntil then been wholly devoted 
to the Emperor, and had carried tbe ban into efieot against the 
refractory Uagdehni^,^ all of a sodden lifted op the standard for 
the oppressed Protestantism, the imperiled G«rmatt freedom, and 
the imprisoned Landgrave. In Haroh, 1552, he assailed the Em- 
peror, lying sick at Innspraok ; his army increased mi^ily as he 
advanced ; and the whole of Protestant G-ermony was gradnally 
uniting with him,^ while the King of France,^ his ally, assailed 
the imperial possessions in the Netherlands. As Uaorice did not 
atop for negotiations ihe Emperor was obhged to accept the Fas- 
saa Treaty,^ Ang. 3, 1553, whereby freedom was given to the 
two imprisoned princes, and a religions peace, insuring liberty of 
conscience, was guaranteed to the Protestants. 

The diet, at which the last point was to be concluded upon, 
was somewhat delayed, because the Emperor was kept in the 
Netherlands by the French war, and because the wild Margrave, 
Albert of Brandenburg, was filling all Gennany with commotion ;' 
to tlie latter Maurice fell a victim at Sicversbausen, July 9, 1553. 
Since many demands upon them might still be made by the Em. 
peior, the Protestants prepared for the negotiations by the conven- 
tion of theologians at Naumbui^," May, 1554. Meanwhile Fer- 
dinand was so hard pressed by the Turks, and the Emperor so 
constantly employed with the French, that the latter Wfis obliged 

" Tbs imperial baa, Jnlj 27, IMT. AH the irriUugi belougliig to thi> nuttM »« U 
Ilortleder Tom teDtsdien Kries^i Tb. IL BQeh i. How Magdebm^ was takan in Not., 
1651, >ea )Ud„ cap. 17 and 18. 

" Ilortleder, Tb. U. Bneh 6. Stefdaniu, Ub. xxir. 

" The League of Sth Oct., 1561, not ntiaed by the King till Jan., 1B52, 1q the B»- 
coeit dee Tratt«s da paix, ii. S68. 

" See It in Hortleder, Tb. li. Bach t. cap. 14 In the traaty itself all that i* laid of 
the Teligiona peace (>, that "loll die Kidg. Haj. — inneriulb einei halben Jahn ctoon 
gemeinea Reichatag halCen, daranf necbmali, anf iraa Wege, ala uemlich, unea General- 
oiler Natioaal-CoDcilil, CoUoqail oder geoieDier Belchirenaioniliuig dem Zvieapalte dei 
Religion abzaheKoD — gebondclt, n. also aolche Koiglieit der Beligion dorcb alia Stands 
del heit. Beicba samt Ibrer Maj. ordoatUchen Znthon aoU befSrdert werden." Bnt ■ 
concnrrent trea^ declared: "Da aber die Verglaichiuig anch dutch dereelben Wag 
keinen trOrde erfolgen, dau aladann nichta deato weniger obgeioeldter Fiiedftind bej- 
adnaa ErAften bis la endlichar Tergleichung beatahan n. bleilxn toll*." 

" Hortleder, Tb. il. Bach vi. 

" Camerariiu in Vila Helancbtb., § 98. Ada in HeL Dentadie Bedenk^, «. 877, aod 
in the Uniditad. Nachrichteo, 1714, a. 6il. 

:dbv Google 


to sacrifim bis views to the exigency.^^ Althcmgb he ooald not 
detennine to be present at the n^otiations which annihilated his 
plan of many years, yet he gave to his brother Ferdinand, in his 
place, unlimited powers. Under the presidency of tbe latter the 
Diet of Aagsbnrg was opened Feb. 5, 1555, and there, on Sept 
25, the Religions Peace ooncluded." Its general principles were, 
that the princes were guaranteed a free choice between the Cath- 
olic religion and the Angsbnrg Coniession, and that tbe religicm 
of the subjects should depend upon that of the princes."* The 

" The extent of tha prepoiid«ruiM of tbe PrateMaou t> u«ii in two worlu, whleli an 
manitatlj' utiricil hiTenUoDi ef the tlmei : I. Sendbrief rom Biuhof a. i. Q«i>Uicbeii 
VOD Kaln on d. pftpatl. Legatea In ADgibnrg, 1555 (in Schmldt-Phlnldck Bepertar. der 
Geieh. il SUatiTcrfiumng t. Daatactaland, Abtlwil. 5. Anbing, a. 41), concladtng with 
the propoul, " Due Ew. Hail. lUe 9ach dijifn lu richten bedicht, n. r, d. Lnlteiiechen 
dli BUeln erUngen n. ertiilten mOchte, dsmit >ie qdb, wie die Aposttd. Rfimbclia Kirch- 
en ror £e griechlache — gednldet, oder eber wie eie der Jaden S<riiagog leidat. — ilw anch 
lelden n. gednlden, a. ob ale achon eo gar mlt nni nit ittmrnten, jedocb luwerc GfUer, 
Plhinden o. Einkomroen verfolgen laesen wMlten." — II. ConiUinm trium Eplscapomm 
de ratlonestabUieDdae Ronuuwe Ecdealae Paulo III. datnm (in Wolfii LectL MemonbU., 
il. M9; Id firownli App. ad Fascic. Teram expelendanim et fngiendanmi, p. SU; the 
■amelsaddreaKd tojullus III., and dated 15BII). It la incredible how Brown, and eren 
the author of " Dte Kathol. Kircbs Scbleaiena," Altenbnrg, 18iR, a. 14, could have held 
It to be genuine. It needs not even tbe argamenta In le Plat Honnm. ad Hist. Ceoc. 
IVid. spect., ii. Ci95, bnt only the eimple nadingof tbe work, todeacry Ite irooj, which 
il, indeed, often very witty and to tba point. It ia here aaid, and tbia ie also (nrther 
proved at length in So. 1 : Qnod ad Gennaniam nnne atdnet, noa (nt Teram tibi &tea- 
ninr)nDllo pacto apevare poaaamoa, illam in tounfidem nnqosmeaae redituram. Qaara 
bortamar, nt omnam de ea apem abjlclaa, etc. 

** Chiialopfa Lehenmann De pace Rellgionia acta pnbUca et orlginaliaL. Fnnkftort, 
16S1. i. I. A. Hoeaaelt DIaa. admiranda aingolaris providentiae dtrlnae veatigia in *in- 
dlcanda per pacem Paaaavlenaeni et Angnstanam Socninun ETangelieonim libertate 
exponena, in hia Opnscul. ad Hiat Ecot., faac. iii. (Salae, 181T) p. 199. On tbe ifitit 
of this religions peace, aee Renlie'a Uagailn, lU. 596. 

** The iDatmineat Itself, in the farm of an ordinance of tba empln b; Sing Ferdi- 
nand, is in Lehenroann, a, 1S6. first a general state of peace is eatabllihed in the Oep- 
man empire. " Und damit solcher Pried, aaeh der spaltlgen Sellgion halben, — desto 
beaUUidigBT— eAalten warden mOchte ; so sollen die Kidserl. Hajeatat, Wir, anch Chor- 
(tirsten, FQnten, n. Stande dea hail. Belcbs kelnen Btand dea Beicbs von wegen der 
Angaporglaeben Confeaaion n. deraetblgen Lehr, Bellgiim n. Gtaabena halben mlt dar 
That gewaltlgerwelanbenlehen, beaehadlgen, vergewaltlgen, Oder iaandere Wege wider 
setne Coludeni, Wlaeen n. Willen Ton dleser Angspnrgiaehen Confeaaiona Betiglon, 
Glanben, KJiehengebniicheD, Ordnnngen a- Cennnanlea. ae ale anfgericbt, oder d<>c)i> 
mals anfrlchteo mochlen In Ihren FOrstenthnmben, Landen n. Herraehaftea trlngeo, 
Oder dnrch Handat, oder In elnlger andeier Oeatalt beacbweren oder Teraehten, soudem 
bey solcher Bcllglon, Glanben, Eirchengcbranchea, Ordnnngen n. Ceremonien, anch' 
ihren Haab, G&tem— rahlgllch n. friedlich bleiben laasen. Und soil die atrittige Be- 
iigion nit andarst dann dnrch ahriatllcfae, flcnndlicbe, triedUche HMel n. Wege an laa- 
helllgem chriatlichen Veratand n. Verglelchnng gebracht werdea. Allea bey Kaiaer- 
lichen a. KOniglichen Warden, Foiatlichen Ehien, wahren Worten u. Pon dea I^nd- 
friedena. Darsegen aoUen die Stande, ao der Aagspnrglsahen Conftelon varwandt die 
Ram. Eala. Maj. Una a. ChnrfDratan, FOnten u. andera dea hell. Bdcha Stande der 
alten SallgioD aahan^g— glelchergaatall bey Ihrer BdlgloB,-~anch Ihnn Haab, O&tcm 


208 FODRTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. I617-1W8. 

Catholics demanded an exception to ihe first principle in the case 
of the clerical princes ; the Protestants contended against the sec* 
ond point for a long time. Since they could not come to an agree- 
ment on these controverted matters, they at length, in order to 
have a peace, contented themselves with the Declarations of the 
Emperor about them.** 

^nnbcschirert bleibea— luaen.— Doch ttHlta Me indere, bo obgemeldCen beTdm Re- 
liginnen ulcht anhanglg, tn dlesem Fiisden nit gemeynt, Bondem gimllch ansgcschlof- 
een teya." On the cborch property canfiKst«d bj tbe Fnit« slants : "So aoUen such 
Bolcha eingeiogene Gater, irelche denjenigen, to dem Reich obn Mitteln Dntenrorfta n. 
RQchslande seynd, olt ingeharig, n. deren Poaies^D die Geiitlichen id Zelt des Pu- 
MoischeD Vertraga, oder seithero oit gehabt, in dieaen Fiiedatand mltbegriffen n. ein- 
geiogen sefn, n. bey der Verordnaog, irie as ein Jeder Stand miC Dbberdbrten dngezo- 
genea u. (llbeieit Tttrwendten Gatem gemacht, gelaasen werden. — DamiC auch obber- 
Ohrta beidertwiti Keligionsvemandte >o riel mehr in beitandigBm Frieden — bleiben ni(>- 
gen, 10 Boll die geiatlicha Jurisdiction— wider der AngBporglicben fonfeBgionavenrand- 
tcn Religion, Glanben, Beitelluag der Ministeriea, KlrcbengebrSucben, Ordnungan a. 
Camnanien, so aie ufgaricbt, oder nfrichten moohten, bii xa endlicber Vergleicbung der 
Reli^OD nicht exercirt, gebrancbt oder gelibt ireTden,~uad aluo — bla zu endlicber ehrlit- 
licber Yergleicbang der Religion dia geistlicha JoriBdiction ruhen, eiageilellt n. eui- 
pendirt aajii u. bleiben — Es soli anch kein Stand den andem, noch desselben tJnter- 
thanen zu aeiner Religion dringen, abpractictren, oder wider ibre Oberkeit in Scbnti a. 
Schirm nehmen, noch TeribeidingeB in kdoen Weg. — Wo abei oniare, aacb der Cbnr- 
Tunten, Fiirsten u. Sundo Unterthanen der alten Beli^on oder Aagapnrglachen Con- 
feinon anlungig, von aoicber ibrer Beligion wegen, ana naiam, anch der CbarfuRten, 
FOraten und Standen dea b. Reicbs Idnden — mit Ihren Welb u. Kindem an andere Ort 
deben, n. aich niedertbiui wollten, denen aoU aolcher Ab-n. Zniiig, aneb Yerkaaf^g 
ibrer Haab o. Giiter, gegen limlichen billigan Abtrag der Leibeigenaeluift n. Nacfa. 
stener, vie ea jedea Orta tod Alters anhero iibllchen harbracht u. gehalten wdiden ist, 
unverbindert manaigUeba, zngelassen n. bewilllgt, aneb an Ihten Ebren n. Pflicbtan 

allerdlng anentgolten aeja Und nachden elae Vergleichnng der BeligloD n- Glanbena- 

sacben durch ilmlichs n. gebiibrlicbe Wege gesacbt werden aoll, n. aber ohae bestin- 
dlgen Frieden za chriatlicber freondlicber Terglelehnng der Religion nicht wol m kom- 
men ; ao haben wir — dlesen Friedatand— bewilllgt, aolcben Frieden — bis m chriitlicber 
— Yeigleichnng — atSt, feat n. UDTerbruchlich zn halten, n. demaelban tranlicb nacbio- 
konuneo. Wo dann solcba Vergleichnng dnrcb die Wegs dei Ganeralconcilinma, Ha- 
tioiul-Vsiwninliing, Qilloqulen oder Beicb«hand1angen nicht etfolgen wuide, aoll ala* 
dann ntcbt destcweniger dieaer Frledatand In alien oberziblten Pancten a. Articnln bej 
Kraften bit zn endlieher Ver^eichnng der Reli^on n. Glanbeasaacben bealaban d. bld- 
ben. — Kacbdem aber in rielan Frej-- n. Beicba-St^ten die beeda Religionen, nemlich 
nnterealle Rell^on n. det Augspnrg. Conreasion-Terwandten Beligion, an Zuthero im 
Gang n. Gebranch gewaaen ; ao aollen dieaelbigan bintiiro aach bleiben, n. in denaelben 
Stadten gehalten werdsn, n. deraelben Frey- n. Reicha-Stadt Borger n. anden Einwob- 
ner, geistlicha n. weltllchs Standi, Medllcb a. mblg bey n. neben einander wohnen, n. 
kain Tfaell del Andem Religion, Klrchengebrinch oder Ceremonlen abintban, odar ibn 
darron ed dringen, nnteratehan." 

*' The Declaration In relation to Iba firat point, tba ao-called BeaarTatnm ecdewaati- 
cnm, waa adopted into the treaty itaalf : " Und Dichdem bey Vergteicbnng dieaes Frie- 
dana Stritt rurgefaUen, wo der OBiitlicben einer oder mebr von der alten Religion ab- 
traten wiirden, wia es der tod ihnen bis daaelbat bin bwessenen n. dngabablan Ertbi- 
Stnmb, Bistnmb, Pralatnni n. BeneScien halben getban werdan soil, welcha ^h aber 
beedeRaligtonaatiinde nit haben TergleichankOnnen; demnacb hab«n wir tn Krsftbocb- 
gedachter Bom. Eaya. M*]. ana gegvbancn ToUmacht n. Hrinialcllnng eridart owl 



§ 10. 

By the unfortunate Cappel War (1531) the reformed cantons 
not only lost their poUtioal saperiority, bnt also their two chief 
spiritaal leaders ; for Oeoolsmpadios died, Nov. 23, 1531, of his 
grief for these misfortunes and the death of Zwingle. Their places 
were, indeed, taken by men who worked in the same spirit : Hen- 
ry Bollinger' was the suooeasor of Zwingle, and the post of Oeco- 
lampadius was filled by Oswald Myconios ;^ but the relations of 
the cantons appeared to be altering in a way most nnpropitious 
to the Reformation. In Ziirioh and Berne many voices weio 
raised in opposition to the governments, and especially against the 
interference of the clei^ in political afTairs f and although there 

geutzl, thim t-ach tolchei hiemit wiuentlich, «1bo, iro eln Enbiiehof, Biichni; Pralit, 
odor oin aaderer geUtlichog SUnda, von aiuar alten Riligion abtreten wiirde, doM der* 
■elblg foin Enblgthmnb, KsCbiuiib, Pralatur, a. aadsra BmcflcU, >uch dunit >1U 
Fraoht u. Einkommro, lo cr davan gehabt, alibsld obn elnigs TenridBnmg n. Terxag, 
)edoch isiDon Ehnn obanBCiltbeillg, verluun, *ncb den Capltelo, a. donsn el von go> 
msbien R«bUn-^zaf^bart, eln Penon der ilcen Religion venrandt — tn vmblen n. zti 
t>niiien logilaucn sojrn — MilleD, jodoch kiiiiftig«r cbiutlicher, fnondlicher n. ondllcher 
Vergleicbuag dsr Reli^on nnvFrgniflicb." In relatioa to tbe Mcaod point King Fer- 
dinand dECided in an acconipanybg deem, Z4tb SepUmbei Ox Lebflnmann, >. 122) : 
"DsnderGcitUicbeaelgenBiUenchaft, St^ta. Conunnnen, welebelaDgoZaitn. Jahr 
hero del AngspnTgUchon Conlesiioa n. Betigloa anhanglg genun, n. donelbigen Be- 
ligion GUnben, KLrchsDgebrancIien, Ordonngen n. Caremonien offentlldi gebalten n. 
gebrancbt, n. bia ant bent date nocb alw haltca a. gebraachen, tod decoMlben ihrer 
Beligion, Ulaabeo, EircheDgebriiicben a. Ceiemonlen hinfijro dnrcb Jenund nlchC ge- 
dmngen, lODdem darbcy bis m obberubrter chiiMlicher n. andllcher Vergleicbuag der 
Religion unvsrgewaltigtgelauea warden aollen. Und anf dau lolcb miHr Declaration 
nmb 10 Tie] destow«nlger angefochten werden mdcht, haben gemelne ohriitlidie Stande 
— nns in nnlertbanigen £hren n. Ge&llen beviUiget, dus iU Derogation in gemeinem 
BeligiDnfrleden diaaei Reichstags (iohaltende, dau wider denielben Reli^onftiedcn 
k^e Declaration — nit gegeben, — aoch angenommen werden, lODdem nnkraftlg aejn 
■oil] — obberubrter unaer Eiklimag nnd Entachetd noabbriicikig, aber uuut bej ibien 
Wurden n. Krtflen bestehen a. gebu«en werden soil." 

■ Lebensgeschlehte U. Hefnr. Bullingers, Anilstes der ^rohe t. ZOrich, by Sal. Hess, 
! Bdo. ZOrich, 1SS8-29. 8. (tneomplete). 

■ Oswald Mjeonlna, Antlatei der Baal^rchen Kirche, by Melch. Elrchhofer. ZOrich, 
1818. 8. 

■ Bnllinger, iii. 354 : *' Tiel richtetend alch (rotiUch nff, ugtend, der TOffel hstU den' 
Zwingll Q. Tiel syaer Sehiyem hingefohrt ; mancb Bledennann babe schwygen miiuen 
n. habe nitt redan dor&n ; jetiond aber dfirfe ein Biedermann incb reden ; sy habend 
wol gedacht, die lydenloaan Pfkffen woident alto das Scblff Tertiihren, n. fiirohin masse 
e> ein .andecs warden. Man sabe dauocfat jetinnd wol, war dan recbten Glauben habe, 
and wetn Gott bygestanden sve. Ecllcb wdtand wsttan, man wnrda knnlich in ZOtych 
wladanim Uese lialien. EtUcb, die sich glychsnet hattand, ale warend ala getiuwe 

VOL. IV. 14 


210 FOnaXH PERIOD.— MV. L-A.D. 1617-1048. 

was, at the same time, a pnblio profession of attachment to the 
Reformation, yet the secret partisans of the old Chnrch began to 
work with new confidence.* To this were added divisions between 
the Reformed cantons. The peace, which the Ziiriohers were the 
first to enter into, was considered as treasonable to the faith ;' on 
the other hand, the conduct of the Bernese in the last war had 
been displeasing to the Ziirichers; and thus coldness and distrust 
stole in between the two great Reformed cantons.* The circum- 
stances became still more perplexing when the Anabaptists began 
to oome forward more boldly among the Reformed, and thus fur- 
nished, as it seemed, new evidence in favor of the Catholic com- 
plaints OS to the dangers of the Reformation ; nor would they let 
themselves be instructed by the public disputations^ that were 
hold with them, the most important of which was that at Zo- 

Frund Christl u. Bjnei EvaDgelU gfT^i wolltcnd dcu nit Nainen m«r habeD, stalllend 
sich vider die PfsBbn (all sy die Dampten), a. redtend gru^umer wider den Zwingll n. 
aynen Aohaag, dean die offen Find gewegen vorend." The oiiUontenIa In the canton 
of Zoricii met at Meilen, on Lobe Zurich, and gave to the CJouncil, Kov. 38, a wrillen 
■tatement of theirgrievaDces, invhich thej demanded (Tschudi in the Hclretia, ii. 337; 
comp. Bollinger, iii. !83) : " Dau Ihr — der heimlichen Katben, u. bBrvetloffener FtaSea 
Q. Scbwaben atiatandent (dana ana will liedunken, dase der heimlich Rath, auch die 
PfaSbn a. andere ufMihrische Schreyer nns nit wol erachosien habent), deesglychcn der 
Pfaflbtt in offantlichen u. heimlichen Rathen miiasig gangent, u. lich die PfaBen der 
wettlichaa Sacben gam u. gar nQt beladent in Stadt niKb uff dem Land, aonder daa 
Uottswort vethiindent, danu in geordnet aind. — Zam vierten, — daas ihr nun hinfur In 
iiwer Stadt Predikantea annemtnent, diefriedeam lyent, u. ulT Fried u. Ruh alellent, n. die 
uftiihriuhett Pfaffen, lo Uecb n. uns, die gem Fried o. Rah hsttent, offentlicb an der Kan- 
zel gottloient, biawegthaent, n. nff dem Land UDseren Predibanten aoUichee ancb sagent, 
daaa aie nna das Gotltwort Terkilndent tut beder Teitamenten, u. licb dio P&iS^d, itie 
oligemeldt, keiaer Heltlicben Sachen unterwindent noch beladent, in Stadt nochulTdeni 
Land, im Ratb nocb daniebeD, sondei Uech, unser Berren, lassent regieren, ala denn 
ciaer frommen Oberkelt aiutBht, n. Ibr keiaem Pfalfeu nun hinriir kcin Pfrund wfter 
verlycbent, denn Ton elnem Jahr mm aadem, o. auch nas uff dem Land mit ketnea 
Pfkif^ iiborsetcent, die einer Gem^Dd nit aDgmem ej'eDt." At UbI, however, the as- 
guraoce: " Ihr sollent gauzllch by aller Wahrbeit wiisun, dau Niemasd dea GemQta 
iat. Ton Gottswort in wycben,' n, i. w. Similar complatnla were made by the people 
of Reme to tbe Conocil j see tbe Schweizeriscber Geachicbtfoncher, Bd. 7. Heft 1. CBemc, 
18M)», 132: '■ Dee ersten.deawir all geroeinllchn-einbelligralig Bind worden.antref. 
rend das heilig gCttlich Wort, by demselllgen in beliben,— a. nachdem aladano dia 
Predicanlen in Stadt n. tand affdemCantzel vilnfTUffmhrn.Blutrer^eBaen geacbrti- 
wen, dardarcb gross Uneinigkeit cntalanden, sicb deaselhigen gar n. gani eu mOsiigeD, 
oDch der ScbmDtt n. Scheltworten aich gar n. gauz ahiethnn, sunder uns allenthslbeii 
nilt andere denn daa wabr, luter, eynig Gottswort nach Inhalt dea Bucbatabeiis on alien 
ihren ZusalE la rerkOnden." Comp. Maller-Uottinger, vii. 410 ff. 

• Ballinger-s Ubeo, by Uesa, i. 128. 

' Heaa, nbl sapra. 

■ Haller, by Kircbbofbr, a. ISO. 

^ In St. Gall,153i, Hotliager'aBel7et.Ein:heiigetcb,,UI.6G2i In Berne, IG36, Itdd., 



siDgeo,' July, 1533. The milder position which the Reformed 
assumed toward them,' in order to reboke the Catholic spirit of 
persecution, only served to make them bolder. 

The Catholic cantons at once made nse of the snperiority they 
bad gained. They restored by violence the Catholic Church in 
the free districts of Brerogarteu and Hellingen, Bappersohweil 
and Gaster." The conquered party and the Eeforraation were 
contemptnoosly assailed and lampooned." "When Zurich repelled 
the wide-spread report that it was about to return to the papacy'^ 
by the most decisive mandates'^ establiahing the Reformation, 
1-532, it was met by a breach of the articles of peace on the part 
of the Catholic cantons, and bad to submit to fresh huntiltation in 
the treaty of Einsiedeln, 1533.'* These mandates, however, re- 

■ Hadut, SiA de U BAbrm. d« U SoiMe, iv. 213. Einhholer, >. ITS. 

■ In Zorich, Beat, t. 209; In Berne, Bochtt, It. 220. 

" Bntllager'B BeformaHonageich., ill. 806. Hottlngei's Heir. EirchengsBch., lU. 600 
IT., ess. Bacfaat, ill. 168 u., GOO. 

" Hesi, i. 121. 

" BnlUDger, lii. SOS : icwaaeTeTy where nimoTed, "in fcurtwm wnidenuui inZOTTCb 
wiedennD Meis haltea, ond don Glouben der BomiKhen Kjlcheo offoeD." Cup. He- 
ginder Ep. >d BalUngenini, in Heu, i. 137. Berne made > formal demand on Zurich 
that it thonid publicly refute tbia ramor ; Kirchhofer, «. 175. 

" Camp. Heu, 1. 156 It. Hoat important was the mandate of Wednesday after Trin- 
ity, 1932, agsioet mass and pilgrimages, in Bullinger, iii. 81G: "Wiewol wir Tomaher 
Bas Gmnd bewihrter beiliger Uscbrltt — den Hlssbruch der Btpstisdien Mess a. Saera- 
manta, wie die bishar by der Bfimischea Kilchen, nit m Ueiner Scbmilernng and Vei^ 
UeinnDg des bitteren Lydens n. Sterbens Jasn Cbriitl, — bracht wordea, abgethan, nnd 
■natatt derKlbendenbegrlindten wahren Bmchdes Nachtamals dea Hemn — ingesetit; 
—and BO wir una aber nmb christenlicber Venchaaniig willen Qber die, so sich In dem 
Sacrament der Daokiagnng a. chriatenllcber Gemeinlamml von nni absundereat, n. 
nach Bdpitiacber WjM aodenwo nun Sacnment gond, noch bisher keiner nsseilichen 
Straf erlUert:— dans mit der Zyt, wo es gesUttet wnrde. Til UnrDwen, Spaltong n. 
AbaOnderDDg der GmOdten n. borgerlicher IVCndscbatten grUsslich an ertorgeri : — so 
geplettent wir hiemit vast emstlich, — dass tich meoklicb der Uoserea des Sacramenta 
der Danksagong n. Nachtmala Chiistl nach cbristenlicher n. nnsertr Ordnung, wIe ea 
die gottlich hnlig Gacbrift lehrt n. vennag, — gebroche. — Dann so Jemands sClllchs 
ttbereeben, lich In Empfahnng des Sacraments Ton nna sOnderen, n. also die Chiistenen 
Gemeindui Terachten wurde, den woUent wit onch ala eln abgetheilt nngehonam Glied 
— hallen, ihn nit by oder nnder ana gedolden, wandlen nocb wobnen laaeen, Kinder von 
Stadt nnd I^nd verwysen. — Dann wir mit gOCtlicher Gnad, Dnverfaindert der Trabsal 
a. Unfiub, so Oott Tielleicbt nnierer SOnden hilb fiber ons Terbjuigt, des styffea Kn- 
nea a. Gemiiths lind, dass wir by erkannter Wahiheit — troatlich belyben, n. in nnser 
Btadt n. Land weder die Hesa, bapitisclis Sacrament, noch Qtild dei ns Gottes Won oU 
Grand oder HandTeste hat, wiseen nocb getnlden, lender Golt a. der Wahrbeit Gstand, 
Lob, Ebr, n. Pttbb in die Ewigkeit geben." 

■• Bollinger, ilL 829, 367. Hesi, L 164. The ZOricben had, tbey aald, broken the 
Oeaty (BolUager, IlL 834, S89), for It pat them under obUgation not to meddle by dla- 
potation and argument wi^ tbe CatboUo fkiUi ; also by sending to the Calbolic cantons 
epistles and public doeamenlt, witli Mtl*, declaring that ZOiich bad the true, Indabit*- 


212 FOURTH PEBIOD^DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

moined in force in Zurich ;'' and in Berae, too, an oath to main- 
tain the Befbrmation was taken by the whole canton, Ifoverober, 

In the divided cantons the Catholic party was especially active. 
In Solothnrn, where the oity was reformed only in a small pro- 
portion, while the connbry was so by a largo majority, the Refor- 
mation was suppressed in 1533 with the aid of the GathoUc can- 
tons." Appenzell adhered to its fonner decrees.'* In G-lams the 
Cathoho service was restored only in some of the churches;'* in 
the city, Yalentin Tsohudi was able so far to allay the bitterness 
of the parties that he and other cle^ymen could officiate in both 

ble ChiistuHi futh (cf. above, NoU 39). At Einaledela the ZDiichera (April, 1568, Bnt 
llnger, iit. S41) were forced to contcu that thej had not thoagbt, in uiuing ths mui- 
date, that it would be to boatlla and hnrtfiil to the Five Cantons, and if thry liad cod- 
■idered this that they wonld not have Inncd it For tfaa fntiire they Koold be on iheir 
gnanl agalnit each mandatea aa woold do detriment to the confedency and the peace 
of the land. In the lecond place, the ZQrichen were to take in band and keep back the 
mudatea not j-et eentoat, aad wherever they had not j^t been procUtmed and read, 
not have this done. 

" Hesi, i. 166. 

■* Holler, hj Kirehhohr, a. SO!. 

" Hottinger'i Betv. Sin:heDgBaeh., UL eCS. Buchat, iv. H7. 

■' Hottinger, Ui. 644. 

■• Hottinger, 111. G44 ff. 

"> On thia Talenlln Tichadi, eee Scbnler'a Hnldiuch Zwingll, Geub. seiner Kldnus 
mm Reformator. St* Atug., s. 3U ff. His Erasmian tendsndei are apparent in his 
Letter to Zwlogle, 16th March, 1630 On Fneulini ^istolse ab Ecdesiae Helrel. BelOr- 
BUttoribiu vel ad soi scrtptae. Centor. L Tlgnri, 1743. 8., p. 63 es.) : Qeod vero haete- 
nos ugna tua seqni detrectarlm, non, chariuims bater, Papiaticae leges ne adeo detuiD- 
emnt, nac avanun llliid Jogani prostratnm commovlt, ut ejns me viudicem gubscribe- 
rem ; >ed longe periCDlaiiHlmam hoc bellom scleatia dace, regnantibni privatis conailiis, 
mudpere anbnua mans abbomlt. — Cante enim providendnm, ee, dam oorroaas veteres 
coIamnaB dejlcimne, tota damns ntanio impetn aegie concatiamr, piiDsqnam nova fuleim 
admoveaator. Video enbn, qnosdem neglecta chatitale tomnltuario ^pnine grassantea 
rel chrUctanae plus dstrimenti, qnam commodi conrebere, qnlbiu si con tandem per 
Dominnm eapistnun imponatnr, nt seciindiun Panlom idem omnea loqnamnr, nulla apes 
eat tblnrae gnietia. Caetenun cnm inter dno mala, qnod tolerabilina eligendom sit, licet 
snmme nutoam graria tncommoda, qoae evenire possnnt recloao ostio iqc uuniilat ; 
praesenti tanen mslo priot occnrrsndam. Video enim bujoa disaensioius praetcztn, 
qnam tarn partinaciUrde coitiee, relicto nncleo, ezdCavlmos, dam irtvpere neglectnm 
Del, deipectnm magistnlDnni, Tiolatiooem Jadiclonun, vitam qooqae lieentloaBin : nam 
tanto odio esaoerbatia anirob pent aeqnilas, chariUs extingoitar. — Qaid vera popnlo 
tim hoatiliter diviso oltra expectandtun qnam dsiolatio ? Pmplerea lalntl patriae pri- 
mnm consnlendom, ns libertss Unto labors parta, nostra ne^gentia amittatnr. — Palam 
hactenns leatatos snm, ChrlaUanlaniDm In omnlbns his oeremoniia non conststerei sed 
— illDd nnicnm a nobis reqniri, nt exostor yettia ille homo, ae charitste amplectamnr 
prozimnm. Hoc, bne ego dlrexl, ceremooisnun caoaam reaedlflcatae relinqnens charl- 
tati ; Qoa enim has antiqnatae me oommoTemnt, at aommorit noamrla vena in prlrata 
consilia. Qnod si aliter fieri ueqnit, TsIcanL Apod me pluTslebit publics qnles, qnam 



In German Switzerland the War of Cappel set bomuls to the 
EefbrmatioQ ; but in the Freaoh ooatons it now gained an effectu- 
al entrance. William Farel had been preaching the Gospel from 
1526 in the French parts of the cantons of Berae and Biel ;°' next 
he establ^hed tlie Kefbrmation in Neufchatel," 1530 ; but in Ge- 
neva he now found a much wider sphere for his energies. The 
dukes of Savoy, supported by the bishops of Geneva, had been long 
stru^ling for the possession of IJiis free city, surrounded on aU 
sides by the Savoy territory. By the luxurious manners of their 
court they had here gained adherents (the Mamelucs) in the same 
d^ee that they had corrupted the morals of the city. The Gene- 
vese who loved freedom (called Etdgnots, i. e,, confederates) made 
an alliance with the cantons of Berne and Freiburg, and with their 
help restored, in 1326,^^ the freedom of the city, which had beea 
almost lost. From Berne, too, the Eeformation made its way to 
Geneva in 1528, and it advanced in spite of the opposition of the 
Catholic Freiburg.^ There was first formed a seoret Reformed 
Church, which had to struggle with hard oppression and persecu- 
tion. At the suggestion of the Bemese a religious conference was 
held,^ Jan. 29, 1534, in which Farel defended the Breformation ; 
immediately afterward public worship was allowed to the Reform- 
ed. Freiburg now abandoned its alliance with Geneva ; the plots 
of Savoy became more perilous ; the city was put under the ban, 
and had to rely wholly upon the aid of Berne. The Reformation 
then advanoed with great rapidity, through tho zeal of the preach- 
ers Farel, Anton Froment, and Peter Viret. After another dispu- 

banim cnra, oM. Aa tba Catbidio now began to movs aaeir, Tscbudl quisled the 
people in GUnu. Bung muried, he did not leid mass ; bnt ha wu preont at it, and 
praeehed to botfa pmrtiei. So, b», his chsplaia, Huu Heer. In 1542 the Catholics in 
Linthil, who had no priesti, uked th« Befanued preacher, Bmnner, to preach to them, 
and to visit thoee that were lick. See HoUiDger's Eirchengeacb., iii. 648. 

" Bsdut, i. 391, 488; ii. 222; iii. 173. Das Leben Wilh. Fareli, by Melch. Kirch- 
hofer (2 Bde., ZOrich, 1831-S3. 8.), i. 67. Etudes siir Farel, th^ pai Cbailea Schmidt. 
Strub., 1B34. i. 

" Bochat, iiL 175 ; iy. 93. rarel, hj- Kirchhofer, L 109. 

" HUtoire da OBndrc, par Ur. Spon, M. angm. i Geneve, 1730. 8. T. i. HUt. de Ge- 
ntn, par Jean Picot (Gen^e, ISll. 8. 3 vols.). HisL de Gen., par A. Thoorel (Gen. 
18S3. 8.), T. i. [Lea Actes et Oeites Meiveilleax de la cit^ de Geneve ((Tom 1622), par 
Anthinne Fromment ; new edition by Gnstave RoTllliod, 1866. E. F. Gelpke, Kirchen- 
gescb. d. Scliweiz, L 1866. Hagenbach, TorleaoDgea, D'Aobigne, vol. \v. J. Gaberel, 
Hist, da I'E^iw de Geneve, 2 vols., published 1858. Comp. p. ID-li, abore.] 

•* Rncbat, it. 376 ; iU. 222 j W. 2M. 

" ThsAclewere printed in French, 1681; tn French and Latin, 1641, in 12. Extracts 
In Bnchat, t. 97. Fknl, bj Einhbofer, L 176. 


214 FOUKTH PEEIOD.-DIT. 1.— A.D. 1617-1M8. 

tation^ the papacy was abolished by the counotl, BDd the RefoT> 
matioQ adopted, Aug. 27, 1535." The next year the city gained 
its mc^t distinguished teaoher, John Calvin^^ (A^^^g) 1^36), who 
was destined to have such an efficient inHaence upon the devel- 
opment of all the Reformed Churches. After Berne had efTected 
the deUverance of G-eneva, hard pressed hy the Duke of Savoy, it 
also oonqnered the Pays da Vand,^* Fehr., 1536. Here, too, the 
friends of the Keformation made their appearance ; and a dispu- 
tation at Lausanne,^ Oct. 1, 1536, in which Fare], Yiret, and Cal- 
vin took part, was followed by a general adhesion to the Reforma- 
tion.^' Viret was left in Lausanne, to be its reformer ; and as 
early as 1537 an academy was there formed for the trainii^ of 
the clergy .^^ 

Though the Reformation, especially in consequence of the state 
of civil affairs, had gained so rapid a victory in Creneva, yet there 
were still in the city many who were secretly attached to the old 
Church ; and there were others, infected hy the corruption of mor- 
ab introduced nnder the Savoy rule, who hoped to obtain complete 
license by the acceptance of the Reformation.'^ When the preach- 
ers set themselves against this immorality by enforcing strict 
church discipline, a slight quarrel between them and the Bernese 
on church usages was made the occasion of getting rid of these 
troublesome disciplinarians: they were banished by a decree of 
the council in 1638." But their loss was soon so deeply felt that 

" Oa the 30tb Kty, 1535, Bnchat, v. ZTI. Fare), hy Eircbbofer, i. 187. 

" Bacbat, v. 800. 

".Calvin, in his Prai/aiio ad Ftatnuu, relatei that he WM tnTeling thraagh Genava, 
intending to spend ooly one nigbt there, ami it first witlulood the appeal* of Farel, do- 
nee Greaevae non tarn coDsilio vel hortatn, qnain formidabili Q. Farelli obtcitalione re- 
(entoB lum, ac si Dene TiolenUm mibi e coelo mannta InjieereU Qdo lemra perculins 
lUsceptDm Iter— omisi. Fare), by Einhhoter, i, 197. Das Leben Jobaan Calriiu, by 
Panl Heniy (Hambarg, 188S), I, 161, (Cf. above, pp. 10-12,] 

" Ruchat, V. 418, Tint, Refoimalenr it I^nianne, th^ par Henri Jaqntmol. 
Straaburg, 1836. t, 

" Farel'a Thews here, in Ruchat, v, 693. Aets, in Buchst, vi. 1. Farel, by Kirch- 
hofer, i. 199. 

" Measures of the Beraeae government to promote the BeTormatioa, Rnchat, vl. ttH. 
Edict, in which it was ordered to be btrodaced Sltb Dec, 1536, in Ruchat, vL 867, 

" Rochat, vi. M6, 

" Calviiuu: quad nihil aliad e»et ChtlsUaniamiu, qnam itatnamm everalo; Het- 
tinger's ffirchengesch., iii, 722. Stgiilrtt dt la Rtp. 4, Sqtl,, 1GS6 : Qudquei una d'en- 
tre lea princlpauz cltoj-ena, et tin grand nombre d'aatraa, ns ponvant point endnrei los 
ministres qui lea reprenoent de lenra vices, protestent derint Is Conaeil vosloir vtrre 
on liberty. Leben CalTlns, by Henr}-, i. 198. 

" Farel, by Eircbbofer, L 2S5. Honiy, I. 199. 



Calvin, in 1541, was called back firom Strasburg;" Farel remaia< 
ed in Neufohatel. Calvin bad to undergo many a bard conAict, 
especially witb a party of fanatical free • thinkers, Libertines, 
who called themselves Spirituels;^ bis life was at times in 

" Heurr, i. 389. 

" Who taanifeatly still belonged to tbs sect of the Tmt Spirit; aes tdI. ii. p. 690, 
Note; lli. p. 173. Cf. CalTini InMroctio tdv. tuMtiom et faiioHm Mctam UbertiDo- 
nim, qui h Spiritiules vocuit, written In 1M4 (EJjiud. TroctMai thealogici Amstelod., - 
1667, tol., p. 874). On the spreading or this sect it is there said, chap. It., that ■ Flem- 
ish man, Coppin, fh>Di Tssel, had first preached this doctrine for fifteen Jiears, and that 
then one Qnintin, from Hennegan, bad made himself still more bmous, and propagated 
tbs sect in France. Ant. Pecquet joined them, the Eame vho, two j'ears beTore, bad 
tarried some time in Genera. Cap. 7: peregrina et inaolentl ntnnttir lingna, qna sic 
comicantor, nt nibilo pins persplcnitatls inait, qusm in avium cantu. Non nego, quin 
atantot communibuB vocatialis, >ed ita Bignifiutionem eorum deformant, nt nema intcl- 
llgat — Id qnidem malitioM agtint, ut ptwaint claDCulnm velat ex inaidlli idiotas drcom- 
Tmira. Nemini enim rerelant abominadanDm laanun mj-Bterii, quae subillis Terborum 
tegumentis latent, praeterqnam ilg qui jam jurejnnndo sibi aitrictl sonL Cap. S : unna 
est ex praecipuis capitibns theologiae Ipsornm : art«m simDiandi, et aeea traDafomandt 
noase opoKere, quo bcllios hominlbna impouant. — Qnemadmodum nulla eat Ipaia rcligio 
coram idolis se prostemere, ita se omnibus supentitioalbna Paplatamm adhaerere almn- 
lanl, qood ex eamm apinione externa omnia in homlnia Christian) Ubertate poaita aant. 
Cap. 9: Semper hoc retlnent princlptnm: scriptaram ia naturali aeasu sao accepCam 
literam mortuam ease, atqne occidera, ideoqne misaam ease faciendam, nt ad Spiritua 
Tivificanlem venlamua. — Conantnr noa a Scripturii arertere, ut in imagination ibas aula 
Tagarl, ant potina extra Scriplorae fine* errare cogant ; at unusqaisqua lonuiia sua, et 
diaboli praeatiglas loco verld Del aequatnr. Cap. 10: Nolandnm est, eos nullum poaac 
allqua de re sermonem Inchoare, qnin nomen Spliitua tlatim ab eli proferstui: vlxquo 
Unas clansnias continoare possnnl, qnln snbinde repetant. — Nomen Spiritus ad omnia 
applicant, qnoCies ipsia commodum videtnr, nt omnUiuB madia rea auas agant. Cap. 11 ; 
Primnm hoc sUtuunt; Unicam ease tantam Splritum Del, qui ait ac vifat in omnibus 
creatnris. — Quum igltnr nnicnm tantum apiriCum sCatnunt, flngunt Augelos nihil alind, 
quam inapirationea ant motus, non creatcras eiaen^ praeditai esse. Animarnm noi- 
tramm loco ajont Doom Tirere in nobis, vegetan Corpora nostra, noa anatinere, atqoe 
Omnea Titales actionea efficere. Cap. 12; Diabolom, tnuodum et peccatum accipinnt 
pro imaginalione, qnae nihil est. Talemque huminem ease ajunt, quoad sit ia Ipaoram 
secta reformato*. — Decent non esse ampliua inhaerendum opinationi, quum aboUtam sit 
peccatnm : atultnmque esse, ac ai aliquidforet, de eo amplius laborare. Cap, IS; Poatea 
qoam nnicum Spiritum sno arbltratu finxerunt, destmctis atqne abolitia tum Angelonim, 
tnm IHabolomm, torn etiam animanun natoris, ajunt, aolum hnne Splritum efRcere om- 
nia. Qnintin aays ; Qand ego aal tu facimta, Deut tffiV. Quod eliam Dmt facit, ipti 
JacimuM. JVust m noiit eat. Cap. 15 ; Id praecipoe aibl proponunt, at sopiant consci- 
entias, quo omnl soUidtudias tbcoI homines, qnicqiud aese ofTeret, qnicquid appetierint, 
perpetrent. Cap. IE ; Poateaqoam aie frena laxamnt omnibus, at ainant unumqneniqns 
*lT«re ano arbitratn, hoc praetextn, qnod ae a Deo r^ ainant, ex eodem ptlndpio de- 
doeont, perpenun Beri, ai de re allqna jndlcelnr. Cop. 17 : (Dicunt) Christum mm obi- 
liae in cmce, aed tantnm opinationem. — In eo coostitaunt Tedem|itianem neatram, qnod 
Chriatna solum velut tjrpui ftiit, in qno contemplemnr ea, quae ad aalntem noslnun ns 
qoirit Scriptnra.— Qnnm ajunt Chrlatom aboleviaaa peccatum, senana eoram est, Chri*. 
tnm alraliclonem illam In persona sua repraesentaase. — Caetemm, nt Imaginantor, nemo 
noatrnm non eat Chrtatos: qnodqne In Ipso factum est, In omnibus effectnm dicnnt. 
(%. IS ; Fatentnr qnidem noblscnm, noa Del Alios ease non posse, nisl renati slmsa. 
Aa prima quidem Ikcie idem nobiacnm aentin vlderi posdiit, ai taotam rerb* apactan> 


216 FOUBTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

peril," antil his opponents were put down in an insnrrection set 
on foot by Ami Perrin, when they were finally subdued, 1555.'* 
By the iron firmness of Calvin the morals of G-eneva were wholly 
ohanged.^* Thus the city was indebted to the Reformation for 
its freedom, its order and honorable morals, and its growing pros- 
perity. The position and language of the city made it the centre 
of the Reformation for the Romanic countries ; those driven tlience 
here sought protection.*" On the other hand, companies of preach- 
ers were trained in G-eneva, and for other lands too, especially in 
the academy** founded in 1588. The French Reformed Church 
received tiience almost all its preachers.*^ Calvin had thus the 
opportunity of infiuecoing the development of many Reformed 

tor.— Sed qnnm ezplicsodDin est, quid per ea signiScore velint, aamU perrertunt.— 
Hocenim prindp[am Bomimt: nempe regeneraUouem eaae reatitutliniem iDDocentise, iu 
qoA Adam, anleqaun peccuset, constitatns erat. Hunc ■□teiD innaceiitUs EtBtmn lie 
ncdpiiuit; nihil dignoscere, aec iatcr slbam, qaod ajunt, ct nigram ilucemere, quia 
hoc Adae peccatnin fait, comtdere de (ructn eclenUBB boni et msli. Sic, ex eorom na- 
Motis, Tctereni Adsmam mortiflcua nitiil aliud est, quam nihil discernere qaa>[ maii 
cognitione gublata : ac poeroram more Daturalem Maium atqne iucliaatiDacia sequi. 
Cap. 19: Liberlalcm chiiatlanam delncepi ita ezteodunt, ut atatuuit, omnia homiiu sins 
Mreeptione licita ease. Totam legem abotera volant, iaqiueDtea, Dullam amplina cjua 
habendam ease raiionem, prepterea qaod In lib«rtatem auertt sbnoa. Cap. 20 : Panlaa 
admonet, nt nnniqaiaqae in ea TocatioDB, in qua vocatui eat, permaneat (1 C<ir.,TiL 20). 
— Infeilces isti BenUntiam haac STertunt, nt probent ac peraaadeaot omnibDa, unom- 
qnemqne aparlera natoralem inclInatloDem aeqaj, alqua lie agere et viiere, nt libcbit, 
aut o re ana eaaa vidabitor. — Tnm virla torn malieribuB permittnot tese qnlbnacuoqaa 
liaum fuerit, copnlare. Idqne matrimoninm apirituala Tocant, qnnm alter alteio coa- 
tcatus est. — Ajoot matrimoninm eUam BDlemni ritu initum coram homioibua eamals 
esse, niai apirilna Ipsi bena eanvenlant, atque ideo chriatiaDam bomiaem mioime ad id 
aditrictnni eaaa, aad id Bolnm inter Cbriatiaaoa Gnnoro esse deliere, in quo ntriqoa simnl 
cnm altero bena aaL Cop. 21 ; £andem in bona conftiaionem IndoenDt, commuoionem 
sandomm esse dicentei, ai nemo quicqnam poasideat tanqoam anum; aed nnnaqniaque, 
nodecnnqob nanciaci potaiit, ad *e rapiat. Cap. 22: Eidant >pem omnem, quam de 
reanrrectione faabemna, idqne jam notiia ereniase dicont, quod adbnc cxpeclamus. Si 
qnaeratar, qaomodo Id bitelllgant; nempe, inqniunt, nt homo aciat, anlmam snam spi. 
ritom immorbilem ease perpetno viventem in eaelis; ac Cbriatnm morte soa Dpinitio- 
nam aboleviaae, eaqaa raUona nobia restitoiase vitam, quae in eo est, ut noa minime 
mori cognoacamua. Henry, IL 398. 

" ThoB io the case of Jacob Groet, Spon'a Hiat. de Gen^e (edit, de 1730), it. 47. 
HeniT, ii. 439. Froceaa witli Phiiibcn Bertheiiar, see 1622. Spon, iL 69. Bullinger'a 
Leben too Hesa, ii. 97. 

" See CaMn'a Letter to BnUlnger, 15th June, 1666, In hi» Eplatoll., p. 163. Span, 
ii. 72 SB. TrechserB Michael Serrat u. seine Vorganger. Heidelberg, 1839, 1. 182. 

" Sea Farel'a declaralicm in 1667, in Farel'a Leben, by Kirehhofcr, ii. 126. 

•° Henry, IL 420. Beaae £p. ad Paalorea TIgar., dd. 17. Dec, 1568 (EJosd. EpistL 
Hanor., 1597, p, 153): in banc pollasimnm Eccleslam tamqaam in portum qoendam 
mulla naafragomm millia foemnt et ejects et tacapta. 

*• Spon, ii. 87. 

m ; Hottiager'a Kirch- 



Charofaes in other oountries, and of diifusiDg far and wide his 
ecolesiastiosl and dootrinal views ; so that he may be considered 
as the second founder of the Reformed Church. 

The Reformation spread by degrees also into the Italian Switz- 
erland. From 1512 the Twelve Cantons possessed in common 
the lordships of Lugano and Locarno ; the G-risons also had the 
exdnsive right to Veltlin and the lordships of Bormio and Chia- 
verma (Cleves). Scattered accounts of the Reformation had reach- 
ed these plaoes somewhat earlier. But when the Inquisition ap- 
pointed by Paul in., 154S, compelled the Italian adherents of the 
Reformation to quit their native land,*' many of them emigrated 
into these Swiss provinces, became preachers of the Reformation, 
and established Choiohes. But there were uninterrupted conflicts 
among them, partly because the Catholics were violently opposed 
to them, and in part because the Italian refugees held and preach- 
ed many peculiar doctrines. The Crrisona established religious 
freedom in their provinces in 1544, and also the equal rights of 
both Churches in 1557," without, however, being ^ble to deliver 
the Reformed from constant persecutions. Iq the lordships held 
ia common the Reformation was continually opposed by the Cath- 
olic cantons, and only feebly defended by the Reformed ; so that 
at last the little Church gathered in Locarno was obliged to wan- 
der forth in 1555 ; the members of it were settled for the most 
part in Ziirich." 

Switzerland was not involved in the great struggle which the 
Reformation aroused in Germany ; this was owing to the relations 
which the Catholic cantons held to France, then favorable to the 
G-erman Protestants. Thus both parties refrained from taking 
aay part in the Smalcald war, although the Pope had made a 
very earnest demand upon the Catholic cantons Uiat they should 
contend against the German heretics.*' At the reopening of the 

•' p. D. B. de Porta Hiit. Itofonnatioiiti Ecdedunni Bhuticumn, L U. 2G. Tbom. 
VCrle, Kiatmj of the Betormatioa in iMl/, p. 1S3. Perd. Uefer, die Evangel. Ge- 
ill«lDda Id Locarno, L 31. 

** D« Porta, L a. 49, W4. M'Crie, a. 296, 836, 888. Meyer's ETangel. Gemebide in 
Locarno, ii. 198 If. 

" Die ETUgsl. OemelodB in Locamo, Ilm Aniinuidarang oadi Ziiridi n. ihre w«l- 
Icrn Sehkluala, by Ferd. Meyer, 3 Bde. Zurich, ISSO. On tfae Tsiiooi lndnitri«l art* 
;Thlch tfaey tnuuplulsd to Zorich, eapeelally la relveCs and ailka, lea Mejer, Q. UO, 

" See 5 8. Note 40. BnUtnger, by Heu, L 47 J. 


218 FOURTH PEETOD—DIV. I.-^A-D. 1617-1M8. 

Council of Trent in 1551, the latter did not take any part in 
it on account of the protest of the French.*' There were, in- 
deed, constant difficulties between the Catholic and Reformed 
cantons ;*" but as both parties were about equaUy powerful, one 
sword held the other in the scabbard ; and they both, slight 
changes excepted, retained, from this time onward, the territories 
of which they had possession. 



The religious peace corresponded so entirely to the deep-felt 
necessities of G-ermany, that the disapproval of it, immediately 
expressed by Pope Paul TV., produced no effect.' And when the 
same passionate pontiff gave new vent to his rancor by opposing 
Charles in his delegation of the imperial throne to Ferdinand,* in 

*' Treaty with Fbuice, 1G49 ; BalliDgnr, by Eeaa, li. 9. Papal iaTiUtion to tin coon- 
cU, ibid., s. 80 ; rcfoaed, a. S4. 

*' Thni wben, 165f>, tba Catholic contoas demaiided that tbe evaagelical puty siunlil 
mnr to the contedencj In the naino of the uinla in tbe old Hay i BolUager, by Heai, S. 
!67; F. Heyei*! ErangeL Gemeinde in Locarno, il. tS: when the Catholic cantoni or- 
dered, iSK, that tbe Bible liaiuIatioDa aent oat trom Zurich ihoDld be expelled tnm 
their regiaii; Heyei's Gemeinde in Locarno, I. IGl ; 11. Sfi: and when, accordingly, in 
1U6, Biblea irere bnraed in Zng and Wallls ; BnUlDgcr, by Hew, il. 4DS, U6 1 Meyer, 
a. 61, 70. 

' Aa early ai Dec. 18, 1565, he wrote to Eing Ferdinand (Raynald., h. a. No. G!) ; 
Tidit Serenllaa Tm, quanta Koe et noatrl proximl Praedeceaaorea cnra et aoIlidtDdine 
— procnraTimni, ut Conventoa Angoataniu potlos religionia rebns inlactia diaedTcretur, 
qoam ad Beceaaum Teniretar tarn pemlckMnim, ^cntl et Nobia, et Tua Serenitate et 
Cathnllda omnlbiis Invitla tandem Tentam eet On the aame day ad Wolfgangnm Ep. 
PaiaaT., I. c. So. 53: qoid alienina a Ma catholica potnlt deliberaii, qoam qnaain Au- 
gnatao proziml eonventtia Receaan decretum fulaae acceplmna P Ferdinand waa com- 
pelled to liaten, at the begiiming of 1656, to atUI more earneat repreaentatirau tnm the 
nmieio of the Pope, Del&ina (we hia Beportin Pallavidni, lib. xUL c 14, No. 1): Bex 
rero cum aibi videretnr et in Ua concedendia, quae Catholicia officerent, ab aperta neces- 
ritate Ditmis ■ se nota procul att«ri, et In rebna ubl artiltraiiia yel maximnm Reli^oaia 
atDdlum ■ >e ftaiaae praeatitam, mpondit per commotloria animl aeoanm, qoam modera- 
tnm ejna ingeniDni fern conaneverat. Id etiam fortaaaia accidit, qaod jam apparerent 
in Paulo argamcnta animl male aSkcti in Anatriacam famlliam. 

* Ferdlnand'a npper chamberlain, Don Hartin Gnamaii, who waa to notify the Pope 
of It, waa Dot admitted aa an Impeiial embaaaador ; the Pope laid the affair before the 
cardinals, whoae opinion, u mideted, correaponded eatinly with hla Tiewa ; lliaaiii 
HIator. aolTemporia, lib. xxi. c, !; Raynaldna, 1558, No. 8. Comp. the reporta of Oir- 
dinal Dn Bellay on the procedure) in tbe conslaloriea, in Kilder Lettrea et M^moiiti 
d'Eatat, il. 6ZS, 759. The Pope— rememora la tranalation de I'emptre do Greca falta par 
Im Papea, el le FiirUege d'en taire election donn£ par lead. Papei i la Germanie,— U 
ne M tronvetolt point quHl ftat en la ptuaaanoe d'on Emparenr de reaigner I'Empira, ny 



1558, he only effected the formal lupture of the hoads by which 
the empire had until now been bound to the papacy.' It became 

■ox EtecUnn d'ucepter 1> rcrigiiBtioa, et inivant icelle fnirc Qoarelle electJon, ihcdd- 
ttiUnmtBui Prntificc—Itidigma at eUetut, cemme qui ■ Jui4 pliuicun Recei herettqaes : 
— iUm a tilt a«on cicieiit moavoir tan SIm tiaai (Maumiiiui) de fansaw doclriDea: 
item aoaffre da loDK-tsmpt preacher en u cour i la Lotherieiuie ; item a laUs^ vacqacr 
dix on dDoia via lea gnis Evuchei aaDg j nommer, poor en prendre lea /ruits, et co- 
pendant y a laiui falre anx Latheriena oe qalla ont voulo : Item a'ett ainrpe plmlenra 
Palaia et Chaateanx del EveMbei et Uonaataras : fitulemeDt a'est fait ^lire clandeatiao- 
meot, refiuant an Nonce da Pape aa auite, et a'eat Tait t\lta par heretiques, trgo dtpo. 
MuAa, tijam enet Imptralar. The Pope, aa In the reaignation of prelatei, miut Grat in- 
TCetiftate, aKJaMae rrmm nrM reiignandi, el w liberanA ajurxmaUo praeitilii Sedi Apot- 
lolKae,aqia> noHpotol te lolvere, nai ptr PoHlifictm vjlcaiur, FaU il euatfallu proceder 
et examiner tontes autrea chosea, et meamemenCrfe vUa, ou>riiii4et idoneitale Ferdinandi. 
mth this alao agrees the opinion of the cardinals, in Thnanna, aa cited above. They 
likeiriee add : ob id — Ferdlnando opBS cue poenitentla ; — Itaqae mitteodum ab ilia pro- 
cnrstoram cnm plenis mandatis, quibns dedaret, ae ila, quae Fraacofarti acta annt, at 
nnltiaa momenti, Teaaaciars, remqne omnem Fontiflcia arbitrio pertnittere, caet. Eren 
after Charifls T. had died, Sept. SI, 1668, the Pope said to the French embassador (ho 
bis Report to tlia King, SSth Dec., 1668, in Bibier, U. 777), quit est mort Emperenr, 
ajant est^ uerd par le Pape, aani I'snthorita da qael il oe poOTolt renooeer, ay ceder 
aa dignity ; et dlt davaotagii qne Ferdinand n'a encore antre qnalitj, que celle de Roj- 
des Romaini, obitant d'ans part la noliit^ de la renonciation dn defunt, el de I'antre 
qne rEmperenr mart, le Roy des Ronuina ne lay loecede pis indistinctement, mais 
qn^ fact qa'il Boit examind, et faue foy, comme it a'eat an precedent port^ en I'eatat de 
Boy des Romaim, poor eitra promen i rEmpire, on depoe^ de IsdiCe dignite de Roy des 
BoDislns, seloD qa'il se sera dignement, ou indignement port& Et par \i veat conclnre, 
qne I'Empini eat aDJonrd' hay vaqaant, et comme en paaunt ma toncha, que le ttu Papa 
Leon avoit en envie de fairs le fea Roy (Francis I.) EmpBRur. 

' Already, by occasion of the coronatloD of Cbarles T., it was prored by the Ksbop 
of Qorck, Hieronymas Balboa, De CoronaClone, lib. ung., ad Carolnm V., Imp., Lngd., 
1630 (alio in Freheri Scriptt. Ber. Germ.), ex sola clectione Caeiarem Jaa pleniasimnm 
impersndi conseqnl, ex coronatiane nihil nori Jarii Caeaaribaa acoedere. Kow the leal- 
ons Catholic Vice.chanceiloT of tbe empire, Dr. George Siegmond Seld, addressed to 
the Emperor a most remarkable docnment aboat it (reprinted In Giddait'i Politiiche 
Beichihandala, Th. 6, e. IST). Id the introdactlon be rofen to the earlier preteniloni 
of Ibe Popei, and then conttnnes : " Jetinnd so das Beicb— anf Ew. MaJ. erwacbien, so 
bebt man den alten Terlegnen Zank wieder an, — u. bedenkt doch hergegen nicht, dan 
mtttleneit, von den Toijgen Bsbiten her, die Sicben welt ein mdere Geatalt gawonaen. 
Dann da man vormala den Rom. Stnhl pr nahend angebetet, n. fOr Gott gehalten, da 
wird dBTselbe Jetinnd von einem grossen Tbell der ChriitenheU verachtet; u. da man 
vramala den BftbatUcbea Binn nbler, dann den teitliehen Tod gefiirchtet, da lachet 
man Jetxonder deaselben ; a. da man vormals, was von Rom kommen, tOr gAttlich u. 
iwiUg gehalten, da 1st das romiiche Wenn n. Leben jetznnd der gauen Welt dermai- 
■en bekannt, due schiar mUnniglich, or sey wer er wolle, der atten oder nenen Kelipon, 
dalBr anaapeyeu" Then the author goes on to show that the Emperor is nnder obliga- 
tion to the Pope only as having the blgheat cure of aonla ; that the Emperor is to decide 
abont the election of the Pope, has the right U> call conncils, to beetow ecclesiastical 
baneflces, and to depoee godlesi Pop«a. On the other hand, the Pope has no riglita 
over the empin ; coronation 1^ him ta not necessary. Tliereapon he reftalea the accn- 
eatlon of the Pope against the Emperor, and reproaches the Pope with many nnieemly 
doings. He sdviies that the Pope ahonld be set ri^t, and, in case he will not yield, an 
appeal to s general conncil.— Both parties now let the matter drop. Psnl IT. died Ang. 
IS, 16e9; tba newly-elected Hna IT. declared at once, after consnltlng witii the eardi- 


St20 FOURTH PEEIOD— DIV. 1.— A.D. Isn-lSW. 

dear to all that a union of the two religious parties could bo lon- 
ger be expected. The Colloquy of Worms, appointed according to 
the condition of the treaty, 1557, was dissolved before it began/ 
The invitation to the Council of Trent, whose sessions were re- 
sumed, was definitively rejected by the Protestants.^ ■ Protestant- 
ism was so diffused, even in Austria and Bavaria, that the strict 
Catholic rulers of these countries, Emperor Ferdinand and Doke 
Albert, were compelled to make concessions by allowing the Eucha- 
rist under both forms, 1556 f in Silesia Ferdinand was compelled 
to see the Reformed not only holding their ground, but also spread- 
ing abroad larther and farther.'' Hod the ecclesiastical reserva- 
tions not existed Germany would have soon become wholly Prot- 
estant. The Protestant princes, however, did not allow themselves 
luJs, Ferdin*ndniii legibiu cnBtnm Impcratorein (RajTtsld., 16E>9, So. 13): but from 
thla time Uie papul oorooatlon of Uie Emperor irss no longer reqncaUd, aad no right of 
Cbe Pope over tba empire was aclcnonledgcd. 

* lU history, *(ter the mannscript actai in the Wolfenbuttel libraty, Is in Salis'ii EiM. 
d. Angsp. Conf^MioD, iU. 390 fF. Some of the dacamenti !□ Goldast's Polit. B^chshii^ 
delo, t. 740 ff. ; V. Bacholtz's Qeich. d. Regiening Ferdlnuidi I., >ii 3sa. 

* AddresMd to them by imperial and papal embaHadors, partjcmlarlf at the diet at 
Nanmbucg, 1^61 ; lee Salig, Ui. 6S4 ff., 691 ff. ; lee J. H. Gelbke der Naumborg. FDp- 
stenlBg. Leipzig, 17SB, a. 15 ff., and tba Acts. i. 78 ff., 119 ff. The fbitber expo^tion 
of the gnnmda of refusal there concluded followed, under the tllte " OrUiidllrlier Bericht 
u.wahrhafijg $rkl&nuig deren Unachea, warum die Chur- n. FOnten n. loiiitdle Stlnde 
der Augsp. Conf. ingethan daa Terdichtig, Termeint vom Papat Pio IV. verkSindigt Tri- 
cntiBch Coneilliun nit haben beaachen wOllen" (in Goldast's Retchghandlungta, i, 194, 
and hla Polit Reicbabkideln, a. lU), and it vai handed to the Emperor in Frankfort, 
1562, at the coronation of Ma:iimiliaii. These weie also farther carried oat in the work, 
publiahed 1564, in quarto, " StattUche AiufDhrang der Uraachen, etc. " (alio in Hortleder 
Tom tentMhen Kriega, Th. L Bd. i. cap. 47). 

■ Feidinand had issned a strict edict, Fabi. 20, 1554 (to be seen m Banpach's Erlao- 
(ertes Evangel. Oasterrdch, fi., appendix, s. 96), enjoining apon all hti nihlecta to ad- 
here to the old religion, and allowing the Lord's Snpper under only one Ibnn. Whan ha 
afterward aekad of tba states of Lower Aoatria aid agalost the Torks, they handed to him a 
aapplication, Jon. SI, 1566 (in Bsnpacb, i., appendix, p. 12), in which they asked for the 
freedom of the evangelical reli^on. Ferdinand, pressed by the exjgenciet, ^owed then 
the Encharist under both forma ; yet on Ihe condition that. In other leapecta, they dunild 
Gonfbrm to tho decrees and usage of the Soman Church (Ranpacb, 1. 47. Slddannt 
lib. xxvi., ed. Am Ende, p. 636). Thus, too, Albert of BsTaria (who had twice heud 
Cbe Protestant preacher Pfknser, samma cum attentione, on a Tisit to the PalgnTe la 
Xeobnrg, Strobel's Beytrftge, i. SIS), when be asked money of his states, by an edict of 
March SI, 1666, allowed (Sleidacus, 1. c. p. 544), nt ooenam Domim totam peiaipiaiit, 
eC diebos vetitis urgente necessitate caraes edant. 

' To the mediate princes of liegnita, Brieg, Oels and MUnsterberg, Teschen, Troppau 
and Jagemdoif, and the city of Brealan, which bad long since declared for the BefonoSi- 
Uon, Ferdinand silently granted the same rights, about ecclesiastical matters, which had 
been conceded to the princes and cities of the empire by the religious peace. But Prot- 
estantism also gained the upper hand among the knights and In the cities of the direct 
principalitiea. Thus, 1566 in Schwaidnits, 15G1 la Jauer ; McdmI'i Henara Geach. d. 
- " ■ r.!i4. 



to be restrained thereby from giviog to the benefices lying nearest 
them, and alieady gained to the Reformation, bishops or adminis- 
trators oat of their &mi]ies ;' at the same time, they constantly 
pressed at the diets for the complete abolition of such reservations, 
that is, for freedom of religion." These negotiations, and many other 
causes of complaint, were continnally receiving fresh stimulus at 
the diet by the oollision between the two religions parties ; but 
they were not attended with perilous consequences so long as the 
Emperor kept to an impartial medium. TIub impartiality was 
maintained as weU by the Emperor Ferdinand as by his son and 
suooessor, Maximilian II. (1564-76) ;>" although the latter was 
really inolined to the Reformation," and conceded to the Austrian 

■ ThsB tha mediala benaficu of Brandenburg h>d elceloni princea as admlnutniton : 
HATelboTg from 16SI ; Lebm, 166lt ; Bnndcnbiirg, 1S60. The aTchbishopric of Bran. 
denbnift bad 4twk]^ had Braudenbiirg princei at archbiihtipi, of whom Sfgismand iraa 
the first ETaogelkal, 1563 j Joaebim Fndeiick TefamBd tin beneflc« entlralf, 1666. 
Thtu, loo, Saxon princea wan deelgnatad to tha Saxon bUhoprica .- Kaomburg, 1661 ; 
Meneborg, 1665 ; Uimia, 1681 ; the chapters, la 1682, made a cor^uit that thej- would 
alwajs mnaln, with their Incnmbenta, attached to tha hain of the Elector j Camin, In 
iSS6, racalTed adminiWrators ftom the princely family of Pomenuiia ; Scbweiin, (Mm 
1616, and Batnabnrg, (him IC64, had bishops trom tba princei)- bonae of Mecklenburg ; 
Balberatadt, Bremen, lAbeck, Verden, Osnabnick, and MJnden received gradually evan- 
gelieal biahopa, espedallj &om the naighboring prinoaly funiliea, wichont, however, be- 
ing exclodTalj attached to anj one ; Eichhora'a denlaeha Staata- n. Bechtageachichte, 
4ta Anfl. ir. U9, 168. 

■ FIrat at the diet at Rsttabon, 1666 ; see B. O. Stravan's ansfOhrl. Hiatoiie der Bell- 
glooabeachwerden nriscben denen SAmiscb.oatllallscben u. Ey&ugBliKhen im laatichen 
Bcich (3 Tlwile. lAiiptlg, ITsa. S.), i. S75 ff. Hiberlin's oenaate tentudn Beichsge. 
■dalohte, liLlU ff. ' 

'• On tha cimee of Ferdinand I. and UisImiUaQ II., In Banke-s HiiL Pol. Zaittchrift, 
Bd. L (IS3S) a. S!8 ff. 

" Bis drat Inclination to it cams flrom the teacher of his yonth, Wolfg. Sevema) im 
Sanpacb's Evangel. Oeaterreicb, i. 81. Afterward hs engaged In a eonfidenthd owre- 
ipondence with Protestant princea and theolo^ns, and had an srsngelical coart preach- 
er, Joh. Sebastian Plkuaer (bis life in Strobel's Bajtrlge mr Utentnr, 1. 2fiT), whom, 
hewa v er, ha was obliged to dismias at the request of Uazlmllian (Raupach, I. 61 IT), 
bnt laeoDunended to his Intimate friend, Dnke Christopher of WOrtemberg (Schelhom's 
ErgOtalichkeilen, L 96), and tha Falgravs Wolfgang (Strobel's Beytrtga, L 803). In 
Borne M»»tniin»n ma eooaaqnently regarded as an apostate (see Nota 3). As he did 
not partes of the Catholic Eucharist for aeveral yeara, and would only communa tub 
utraque, this was one of the chief leasona why Ferdinand demanded anch a permiaricn 
bom the Pope (lilarae secnllores Ferd. I. Bom. Imp. pro obtlnenda Encharialia nib 
Dtraqoe in gratlam Haxlm. II. um. 16W miaaae ad Pinm IT. P. U., ed. J. A. Sdimld. 
Helnut., 1719. 4. ; laprintad in GerdBail Scrlnium antlquarinm, vii. 89). The relationB 
tietween father and son were now in anch tension that MailmJIian even feautd he 
should be compelled to flight; and for this event endeavored to aacnre a refnge with 
I^ederick II. of the Palatloata (Abnfa. Scultetl narratio apologetlca de cnrricnlo vttae. 
Emdaa, IflSfi. 4. p. g ) Strobel'a Bejtrige, i. 801 f.) and Philip of Heue (Bommel'a PUL 
d. QnMmOthiga, IL GT7 1). In ItSO Stanlslsoi Ho^na, Bishop of Ermeland, became 
the papal nnnclo at the Imperial contt, and sou^t to win the King back to Catfadlciam 


223 FOUBTH PEBIOD^DIT. 1.—Jl.D. 1G17-1U8. 

nobility the free exercise of religion in the ohurohes of whioh he 
held the patronage.'* 
In the latter years of this Emperor," however, a change in the 

(Buvioi, 1560, No. 6 M. ; RiyDaldos, 1S60, No. 16 u. ; Sdig'> Gesch. d. Trident Con- 
cili, ii. ITS, Note i comp. also Um Ittten Id P]-pri*iu Tabnluiam Eccl. Bom., p. Ill and 
129) : but that he vu decoived in hia aft-«xpressed hop« of niecew is provod by Uazi- 
■nllian'a later epiBtlea to DokeCbriatopher; gee bis CoirespondeDce fn Lo Bret'a Hagazln 
zum Qebranch der Slaaten- n. Kirchengucb., ix. 1. Tba chief Teaaon wbleh kept him 
fhun ff»ng over iraa found In the atate of political afiain, eapecbllj in Spain ; he alwsja 
remained a decided opponent of all peraecutlaa fiiT religioD (Baopach, 1. 148). Qimp. 
Haaa, Termistite Bey trige lur Geach. u. Literatnr, Martwrg, 1784, a. 1 ; v. BaehoUi'a 
(lesclL der Regiemng Ferdinanda I., viL 481. 

'* Alfintonlr verfaallf, and under condition of remaining tnieto the Angslinrg Con- 
feaaion, and iotradadng a cbarch order correaponding wltb it : witb tliii in Tiew, DaT. 
Cbj^rSna was called to Anatria (Rappach, i. 86). Ploi V. tent at onee a legate, Cardi- 
nal Commendon, to the Emperor, to procure a revocation of these concessions (Raupach, 
I. 98 ; il. 174, 192), and tbe latter was obliged to declare to him (Gabatius, de Viu FU 
v., Romae, IC05, p. 97), Pontlfieem omnibus execration ilus, eccledastlcisque poenis In 
cum anlnudvennram, ipaumque privatoram Imperatoria Majeatate, atiine cathoUcia 
Principibns In earn convocatis aovam Imperatorem creatumm, nisi ejusmodi decretnm, 
EJ factum esaet, illico lescidisset. The Emperor, however, gave that permission' in a 
fornul written asenrance, 14th Jan., 1671 (Raopacb, i. 125 ; U. 199). 

' ' The extent to which Protestantism bad until now maintained a preponderating ID- 
fluence over men's mind* maj' be seen in the remarkable document of the fkmous Gen- 
eral Lazanu Ton,Schwendi, I6T1: "Bedenken an Kaiser Maxim. II. von Begieningdea 
h. B4m. Belchs a. Freretellnng der Belit'Ion, " In Goldast's Polit. Beichshandeln, s. 96! 
ff. It ii there said, B. 968 : "Der Adei ist Tost dorchans Im Reich on ter Calhol. n. Ln- 
ther. Obrigkeiten der geonderten Religion zugethin, u. wo ale es nicht oSentlichen sepi 
durfen, so seind sle es doch heimllchea in UemQtheni, oder ist schon ein Theil der Bom. 
Boligion norh anhSngig, so lat ei docb ein kalt halb Werk, n. wenig Eifers dahinten, n. 
die Aiten, lo noch mit Andacht u. Eiter dahin geaeigt, die sterbeo ta^icb hinweg, die 
Jngend aber lunn man also nicht lugeben, sondetn da man ichon Fleiss daliey thut, so 
wills doch bey diesen Zeiten u. Exempeln n. Qemeinschaften nicht hallen. Zndem to 
reisst solche Terlnderang vnter den Geistlicben ebea so wol rin. Also Andt sich ant 
den Stiften an mehr Oertern, dais ein guter Theil der Thnmbhenen der Aagsbnrgiscben 
Confauion nicht beimlich lagetban seyn, u. dass die andem each Je lunger je melir neu- 
(nl n. kalt werien, o. dosa aich in Summa acbier Niemand nnter ihnen Tim aeinen Senif 
n. geistl. Stand recht anaebmcn will, sondem ist das meiat am die Niessnng der reitten 
PfrOnden n. das gut mbssig Leben id thun. So atebets mit dem gemeinen Hanne fast 
also dnrchaus, daaa er von dem alten Than u. Ceremonlen der Bom. Geistlichkelt olt 
mebr halt, dann so weit er von seiner Obrigkeit danu angehallen wird. Und slehet man 
fast nberall, wens die Predigt aos 1st, dass das Yolk ana der Kirchen laufL Item, dosa 
anch l^t nberall an den catholischen Oiten die Leute ihre sondere Lntheriadifl oder 
evangelische Bhcher habeu, daiinn aie lu Hana Uaea, u. einander selbet predigen n. 
lehieo. Item so findt man aua der Erfahrung, da man schon die geioderle Religion 
wleder abgestellt, a. die Catholische angericht, ais zo Coalani u. andem mehr, dass man 
doch anch dnrch sooder fleiiidges Zuthan der Geistlichen in so langea Jahren die G«- 
mOtber nicht wieder gewianeu, a. der Rom. Reli^on anhaogig machen kauu. So hat 
anch Botches bisber veder in Niederiand, ooch in Frankreich keineGewalt, Obneg, Strata 
Tyranncf mbgen inwegcn bringen, u. da man sich schon ein Zeitlang duckt oder leidt, 
go brennen doch inwcndig die Gemiither, u. narten u. hoflen anf ein liessere Zeit n. Ge- 
legenheit, u. wollen ehe das Aossent darlkber losetaen. So mangell es an den Uittein 
in solchem Werk nicht wenig bej dem Stnhl in Rom, dass er nAmlich kein chrtstliebe 
Bafnnnation wolle inlaaaen, u. ^sbt aich derfaalbon gegen der Welt ganz bless, als ob er 



state of affairs was broaght about by the increaaing inflaeace of 
the Jesuits in the Catholic countries of Germany.'* New life and 
greater unity were thus given to the opponents of the Reformation ; 
while the Protestanta were divided by violent conflicts, in conse- 
quence of many of their prinoea becoming oonnected with the Re- 
formed (Calvinistio) Church ; and they thus lost thoir command- 
ing position. By the activity of the Jesuits the Reformation was 
first snppressed in Bavaria." Next, in 1575, followed the Abbot'* 

nicht GotUi thie a. die Wthrhelt, candem nur lein eigen GeiU, GewalC, Ehr, SepaU- 
t'um u. VoTtheil nicbe. Dud Unft naUr andern anch dlsN grosH Ventocknng d. filiad- 
h«t dieMfalli bey Ihme fOr, dan CT gu dem timtn gemeiaen Hann die ebrlstllobe Ge- 
bet, a. die BOchei des Evuigelii, d. Gottei Wort in >einer Sprach an denen Orten, da et 
Gewalt a. Oberhand haben mag, nicht will mlaawD, Modern untsratehet, ihD bej Ver- 
Init del Leb«nR a, dea GnU dahlo la dringeD n. in iwingen, daw er (elnea lleben Gott 
in einer fremdea ^iracbe mnn aabetep, u. ircisa nicht, waa ar bittet, a. vermeint alu 
nachmala die Religiaa allein dorch Unwissenbeit, n. mlt insserlichei Andacbt, Zucht n. 
Ceremoaiau la erfaebcn n. wiedeiznbringan, da dotb dig Orandfeaten niuen cbriatl. 
Glanbens n. Heils nicbt anf uugeiUchen Zwang a. Kircbenditciplin, londeni auf der 
Ktkantnnsa n. VeitBaen an Gott atehel, a. Christoa telbst, n. seine Apoatel, u. ibre 
Xachfolgsr die Gebot and daa Wort Gottea In gemeinar Spricb alien VClkern verkiindi- 
gelu. gelebrt baben. Darnm aich* dann abennals bey Jetiiger Welt desto mehr trgera 
u. atosaen vird, n. lasit aich deato mehr ana«hen a. oiatbrnasgen, daaa die vontehende 
Verlndening nicbt am Ends, aondern noeb kiiaftigiich, wis in den vergangenen Jatirea 
fonscbreiten a. wUtken werde, n. data Gottea beimlich Uribeil, Straf a. FOnehnng mif 
lurlaafe." Comp. Eanke, Filrstm n. Volker *on SOd-Enrepa, iii. B. 

'* At Ant three Jeimits ware appoln^d proreaiora in Ingoisladt, viz., Jar, Salmcron, 
and Canirina, in 1549 (Wint«r'i Geach. d. Erang. Lehre in Balem, ii. 167) ; in 1667 a 
complete college waa opened there; I6S9 In Manich. In Vienna ttiej' tiad a Brm hold 
in 1661; in Cologne, IftMj in Traves, 1661. The Cardinal Otto, Bishop oT Augsburg, 
gave to them, in 1668, the inacitations for cdncation which he had fonnded — a seniinaT}', 
a gTmnaainin, and a nnlvendty at Dillingen ; comp. Banke, Fonten u. Tolker v. Sod- 
Enropa, liL !5. 

■> On the extent to which thia reached, aee Hiatoria Sac. Jean, P. I. (bj Orlandini) 
lib. xi. p. 2SB, and F. il. 0>y Saccbino) p. 821. In the year 1668, at the inaligation of 
the Jemiu, an Inqiuaition waa Inatltated, to conanlt (boat alt accnaed of Latheraniam 
in the light of tliirtj--one artlclea ; aee "Die abgMtlacfae Artikal geatellet von einem Uoncb 
in Bayern, etc, mit einer Itnreen Erinnemng PbU. Melanchthonla, 1568" (reprinted In 
the ForigM. Sammlnng v. alien n. neuen theol. Sacben, 1730, a. 405). Againit Iheae 
artlclea Melancthon alao wrote hia Responsionea ad Impioa artiealos Bavarlcae Inquisit)- 
onii. miteb., 1658. 4. (comp Strobel'a nene Bajtrsge mr lileratnr, iii. Ii. leT). Im 
the ]-ear 1661 aU public offlecn were obliged to taha oath to remain true to the Catholic 
Chnrch, according to thoaa arUciei. Then the aame oath waa impoKd on all aubjecta : 
thoae that would not take it mut aell tbeir property and foraaka the countiy. Jeniila 
were aent round to carry oat thia order (Sacchino, 1. c). The viaient acta wbioh enaned 
are dsacribed in tha work: "Zwey Tniat- n. Vennahaang-achriftea an die reijagtan 
Cbriatan ana dem Bayerland. Item ein Bathacblag Jaanuis Brentil," 1664. 4. (laa Schel- 
hom'a Ergotallchkellen, ii. !87). Of the extent to which Unnlchwaadepretaed, In conae- 
•juenceof (he emigration of many of ila thiif^ bnrgben, la deaciibed in the latter of the 
niigiatracy to the Daks, I4th Dec., 1670, in P. Ph. Wolfa Gucb. Mazimiliaoi I., and 
-■a Zdt, 1. 88, Note.— Banke, Farsten u. Vfiikor, ii. 87. 

■* Immediately after be had introdocedtltaJeaidta; HaberUn'aneaestel«QtacbeReieha- 
geacb., ix. 371 ; Buika, iii. 61. 


224 FOHRTH PERIOD.— DIT. I.— A.D. 1617-1648. 

of Fulda, and the electorate of Mayeooe at EioWeld," in spite 
of the opposing impeiial declaration about a religions peace ; even 
the existence of snob a treaty was denied.'^ Under the Em- 
peror Hudolph II. {1576-1612) this Catholic reaetion increased 
greatly ; for though he loved peace, yet he was wholly under the 
papal and Spanish influenoe, and he showed at oaoe his opposition 
te the Protestants by abolishing the evangelical worship in the 
hereditary Austrian cities (1578)." Bishop Julius of Wiirzborg, 
drove out all Frotestents'" in 1586 ,' other bishops and Catholic 
cities of the empire were aroused to similar aots.^' While in this 

■ ' WUch wu *lmo«t «holl}> ProtMUot. Here, too, Jeaoiu were the Mid of tbs re- 
MtlDOjUid erected at ones a college in Heiligeoatadt ; J. Wolrs fUchiteldiscbe Kitchen' 
gCBCtdchte. Gfittlngen, 1816. 4., i. ITG tt. 

» See §9, Kate 41. At first the Abbot oTFolda replied to bla Protastuit eQbJect<(iee 
Be*chwerde der Sudt Fald*, in Lehenmuin De Pace Beliglanu, Bnch it. cap. ix. s. 360) : 
"Detgleichen »src der Appendix n. Declaration dei Religioasfriedeoii uneifiDdltch a. 
in renira natma nit geweeen, werde etch aach weder In der MAntaiachen noch Caramer- 
geiichtt-Caszle; einig Orii^al oder BekrdftiKiing beflndeDi ao such acbon 10 Oiiglna- 
lia be; Ilonden, wCirden sie in Bechlen wenig gelten, dieireil der RellgionefHed dea Ap- 
pendlcis mlt keinem WCrtlein gedenkt, eondem inbilC, dssa kelne Declaration Ton Wur- 
den und krifdg aeya soil." When the eecnlar electors demanded, at the electloD of 
Badolph II., Oct. 15, 1575, that the Declaration aboald be meDtioned In the itipnlations, 
the clerical electon reeponded (Lebenmaon, !i. zr. s. 374), "dags lie der angeregten 
DedaiatioD halben vor der Zeit nichts, ale erst dju Jahrs tiebCrt, ihre BMb, to den Re- 
ligionsfciaden anno 1555 helfon beraUuchlagen u. schlleisen, «&ien Im I«ben n. bej 
Huden, a. hiUen alch idch toar *ol lu erinaem, was gestalt bemeldter Frieden abge- 
haodelt, aber iris es mit der Erklinmg ergangen, «*n ihnen verborgea." Thenoprai 
■ hard strife spnwg np ; but the Dectaratlon was not received Into the stipnlalioiu, and 
the secular electors satisfied tbemeelvot with gnardlug the righta of Prolestants by Prou 
estatlons. H&tierlin'i neueste Reichsgeschichte, ix, 841. 

" He couArmed to the uabllitjr, 1G77, the religions freedom secnred to them bj Hai- 
imlllaa (Raapich's Evangel. Oesterreich, iL S75). Meanwhile he had also allowed evan- 
gelical worship to Iw celebrated In the imperial cities ia bia own honsea ; vei^ many or 
the dliiens bad taken part in these services. Tbis was not forbidden ouder Maximilian! 
but it was now prohibited, at first In Vienna, where Maximilian had expresaly allowed 
such service in honees (Ranpacb, It 2SS; Appendix, p. HT); next Ihe pnihibiUan was 
made general (Ranpacb, i. 165 ; IL S02). Hie Fladan, Josoa Opitiua, evaogeUcal preach- 
vg la Tieuna, bad indeed cansed a great excitement by his violent lennons (Raiqiach, ii. 
285 t). Those who applied for citUenship were to be examined on articles like the Ba- 
Tarian (see Note 19), ta set themaelres right about their CathoUciim ; see Ranpacb, U. 
B07i Appendix, 1B7. 

" HaberlLn'i nenesle Bdchsguch., xiv. 613. Ranke, FunUn a. T<Jlker, UL 119. 

■> In Paderbom, when under ^hop Heinrich (1577-65), Proteatantism was widely 
diffused, his sacceesoT, Theodore von-f^ntenberg, founded at once a Jesuit college, and 
anpprused tbe Protestants ; they were wholly expelled in 161! (Bessen's Oew^ des 
Biath. Paderbom. Paderb,, 1620, Ii. 89 ; *. 137). In Hiinster, where there was still a 
large number who favored Protestantism, Bishop Ernest of Bavaria IntrodDced the Jv- 
Dits in 1588, and nppressed ProtestanUam (Geschicbte UOnsters, nach den QstUen b«- 
arbeltet, by Dr. H. A. Erhard, drittas Heft. Hunster, 1887). Salsbnrg was again made 
CathoUe by Archblthop Wolf Dietrich, after I58B (Gocking's Emlsmtionegeachlchte v. d. 



wey one of the imperial declarations about b rellgioas peace was 
wholly disregarded, the other deolaration^the so-called eoolesias- 
tical reservation — was, on the contrary r«tiforoed with great sttict- 
neaa when the Elector of Colt^e, G-eUiard Traohsess von Wald- 
burg, in 1583, went over to tiie Protestant Church ; nor was any 
attention paid to the appeal of the Protestant prinoes, who were 
also weakened by internal feuds.^ 

The tension between the two religions parties was stUl more 
heightened by the Reformed Calendar of Pope Oregory XIII. in 
1583 ;^ as the Catholics accepted it and the Protestants rejected 
it, there thoa sprung up mutual hostilities, which were renewed 
almost every day. Just occasion for solicitude was also given to 
the Protestants by many works that were pnblished, particularly 
of the Jesuits, which not only calumniated the Reformation, but 
also contested the validity of the religions peace." Nor were they 
less disturbed by the rumors of the plans of their opponents for the 
total sapjvessioQ of Protestantism." Some events occurred which 
increased this solicitude. Margrave Jacob of Baden-Hoohberg** 

■HI SilibDjg TortriabeaeB Lnthennera, i. 88) ; Bimbsrg bj- BUhop NeUhard, 1GP5 
(Jick'i Geacb. t. BuDbarg, 111. 199, 212). 

" G«bhard wu depoMd and pBt nndor tbe baa by iha Pupa, April 1, 15S3 ; and Er- 
nut of BaTaria put in hi* place by the cathedral chapter. Qebhard wu thenapOD ban- 
Uhed, eapecially through the BaTailan inflnencs. Cf. Mich, ab Itselt (Catholic priest 
•bont 1680 in Cologoe, then in Hamburg, f 1G97) Hlitoria Belli ColnUeiuii, Ubb. iv. 
Colon., 1684. 8. QariL v. Kleinaorgcn (conndlor of the electorate of CoIOKne in Werl, 
f 1591) Tagsbodi T. Gebhard Trachwu, or his Chnrch HIatcrf of Weatpbalia, Ster Theil. 
Monster, ITSO. 8. — Hiberlln'a Deneste Belchsgeachichla, xiii. Gebbard Truchseu t. 
Waldbnrg, by F. W. Bwrthold, in Baamcr'a Hiat. Tcschenbnch. Keue Folge, L CUipz., 

" HUMriln'>iieanlaBeu:htgaKh.,xit 640; z]lL441. 

** So espaoially the treadaa of Fraodsco* Borghardu (ratlier Andrau Ent«nlMrger), 
De Anbnumia, i «., vim IkcyateUang mehrirler Religion n. Glanben. UOnchso, IS86, 
*. ClSal>g'iGeKfa.d,Aii9P.Coi>r.,LTe8. SchrOckh'a Nenere Kirchengvgch., Iv. 338. 

*' Comp. tba Fneticsa Boduum do G«niuiiU Haaretlcis EzCIrpandis, Jan., 1673, by 
Cardinal Cliariea of Lothrtu^ la Eiealing'i Baweii dei Wahrbelt der ETaneelixb- 
LAbar. BeDgkn an den KimitgriAn der BdmiMb-Katbol. Klrcbs ihra Keliglan an ver- 
br«it«B. Ldpiig, 176S. &, i. 169.-^>b Stata Rell^ali in Gennania ooa^iom Romae 
aarfplBm, wrltton aoao after 1600, in Strobel'a BeytrSga nu literatnr, 1. 179. On the 
sttsmpts to bring Prolwlant princei into tlie Catholic Clmrah, tbt Elector Aognst of 
Saxony, Loola, Palgcan of Nenbnrg, miliam IV. of Hewe, sea Banke FOraten □. VOI- 
ker,ULlB8; Iv. SGI. 

■■ Induced by Plitoriui, hi* phyddan in ordinary, who had already gone over, and 
wbo stood in doae oonoci^ko with tbe Jeeolta. The excitement was increased by the 
coUoqttieB which tlieUaTgisra set en foot: one at Baden, Nov., 1689, between Piitorina 
and Ob Wftrtambarg dlrinaa, Andreaa, Heerbrandt, and Osiander (see Acta des Collo- 
qnii, atriscben den Wbitamb. Theologcn n. Dr. Jo. Pistorio n Baden gehalten. Tobin- 
gen, 1S90. 4.) ; andoneatfinmandmgeD, Jane, 1&30, between the StnsbargtfaeDlo^an, 
VOL. IV. — 15 


2Sfl FOURTH PEBIOD^DIV. I.— A.D. 1517-1M8. 

went over to the Catholio Charch in 1590, and at oiioe threBtened 
to suppress Protestantism in his territory.^' Archduke Ferdinand, 
a pupil of the Jesuits,™ since 1596 ruler of Steiermark, Carinthia, 
and Grain, drove all the Protestants out of his country in 1598.*' 
Maximilian, also trained by the Jesuits,^ Duke of Bavaria since 
1598, in order to gain the Palgrave of Neuburg for the Catholic 
interest,^' appointed a colloquy between the Jesuits and the Prot- 
estant theolc^ans at Ratisbon, 1601 ;" his object was not attain- 
ed, but the embittered feehng between the two parties was only 
the more intensified. The Catholic preponderance was next shown 
in a menacing way itt the affair of the imperial city, Donauwerth. 

P«ppii», OBii Zohender, court preaebar of the Uirgnve (Jo. Fuchtii UUt. CoUoqnii Em- 
nwndingeneia. Kostocbii, 1G94. B.)- 

*' lie bccBm'e a Catholic Ju\j B, 1590, on the 3d Angtut coinnunded his eruigelical 
pruchcr ftad school tBBcher to teavs tbe couDliy withiD a quarter of a ytai, and died 
AngUBt 17 ; irhercupoa his land fell to his two ProteBtant tinclcs ; Iluberliii, xv. S3£. 

" After tbe decease of his Tatherbe came under the gnvdUnsliip of Duke William V. 
of Bavaria, and bad atadieil, IGW) sq., Id iDgoIaUdt nndcr tbe dlrecUon of tbe Jeiuita; 
WolTi Geach. UaximiUaas I., i. 33. William conatanll]' impreseed npon him, orally 
and in irritiag, that the happinets and snccea* of hi) government depended upon hii 
leal for the Catholic religion, and that nothing but misfortana could result from a dif- 
ferent conrae ; Schmidt'i nenere Geich, d. Dentacben, Buch Ui. cap. 16. 

" F. Chr. KbevenbQilers, Count of Frankenbarg, Annales Ferdinandei (9ter Th. lio 
gcnsb. n. Wlen, 1G40, fcl. 12 Bde. Leipzig, 1T16 fT. fot.), Th. 5. Job. Keppler'i (tben 
in Stcxermark) Uben u. Wirlcen von Freih. v. Breitu^hwert. Stnttg., 1S31, a. 45 tt. G. 
K. Waldaa's Geach. A. Pratestanlen in Oeaterralcb, StejerrnarW, K&mtheu, n. Erain. 
Anspach, 1783, 3 Bde. 8. Partisan for the Catbolica li CAsar'a Staata- n. Keli^nlgewh. 
V. Stej-ermait, B. T. 

" On tbe spirit of his edticatiou, aee tbe Initractions of Duke William T. for the 
conrt maslera and preceptors of the prince, 168*, In Lor. Westenrinler'a Bevtr. lur va- 
terlind. Historie, iii. 140. F. Pb. WolTs Gascb. Maximilians I. u. seiner Zeit (Mfln- 
chcn, 1807 ff. i., Bde. B, incomplete), L 58. 

" Wolf, 1. MO ff. 

" The leading Catholic cotloqnista were Albert Hnoger, pro^cbancellor of Ingolatadt, 
and the Jeeults, Jac. GretMr and Adam Tanner; the Protealauls, Jac. Heilbrunntr, 
rourt-preacber at Neuburg, and Aegidlua Hunnias, professor In Wittenberg. The Cath- 
olic edition of the acts ; Actomm Calloqu. Raiisbonenaia de noma doctriuae catholioe 
et controversianiro religionis jndiee, ed. IT. Monacbil, 1602. 4. Tbe Protestant: Col- 
loqntnm de norms doctriuae et controversiamm religlonia jndiee Ratisbanae babitum 
mense Nov. anno 1601. Lavlngae, 1603. 4. Other writings, see in Walcbii Bill. Tbeol., 
ill. BS3. Struven's pflllt. Kircben historie, s. fiI2. moat complete In Senkenberg's Forts. 
V. Il&berlin, 1.86. Maximilian bad previonsl}- lent to the Palgrave eeveral calnmnions 
works against Lather, eapeciall; Conrad Andreae's (really by the Jesuit Conr. Vetter) 
I>cr unachnldige, demOtlilge, vabrlisfllge, etc., Lather. Ingolst., 1600. 4., in whicb 
Luther was charged witb tbo most horrible crimes, which bere seemed to be proved bj- 
hls own writings. When the Protestants accused tbe Jesuit of falslffing the possagts 
from Lnther, be said that he was readr to have corporal puikisbment Inflicted on him if 
this was proved ; accordinf^f , after tbe colloquy a conference was held. Id which tba 
cnlnmniator was shown to be guiltj- of what was charged, in the presciiee of Maximil- 
lan ; see Itellbruuner's Postcolloqnium Batiabonense. Lauingae, 1607. 4. Wolf, i. 499. 



This oity, wholly evangelical, because it would not allow to the 
Abbot of the Holy Cross (Zura heiligen Greuze) the revival of the 
public processions long since abolished, was laid under the impe- 
rial ban. Maximilian undertook to carry this decree into execu- 
tion, transformed the free city into a Bavarian appendage, and 
abolished all freedom of evangelical worship, 1607." 

All complaints of the Protestants were fruitless,'* The Em- 

" Sao the Report by Uliidi Groue, than Bpothecuy in Daaaowerth, in Winckler'a 
Anecdots Hutorico.ocdesiasticB NoTontiqaa, 1. 367 ; HUierlii], xiil.440; Wolfa Qucb. 
Uuimiliasi I., ii. 190. 

" The mntiul complunta of ths putiea may Mi-re as a buls for jndgiag about the 
circomttincu ; these were preaentcd at the Diet of Batlaboa, lfi94 (tee tbe Act* In Le- 
henmuui De Pace ReIigioni>, t 481 ; eztracta in Stcuven'a Diat. der Religionsbeachwer- 
den, i. 8T3). Tbe Protestanta, in theli ^ratomiwa, inaiated that tbe conditiooa of the 
Keli|[iaua Peace were Dot obaerved, "daaa sncb derselb wol mweileii la eioen andism 
Verstud will gexogen werdan, dana dann der Papat n. seine IwOgaten n. Nnntil, so bin 
u. wiederim Bdch mniiehen, luch Jetio noch be}' dieaer w threader BeichaTeraamtalang 
znr Stella eefn, nit wenig helfen. Denn es wird olfentlich anageben, dasa weil. Sfinig 
Ferdinand hochlfibtlchstem Gedachtnai ohne pipatlicben Conaena nicbt gebbhrt babe, 
cin ReligiDnfrieden Ewiacben den 8t&nden im Beich lu treflbn, dasa aucb denalb lilnger 
nicht, daon bii nacfa vollandetem Tridentlacbea Concilio kr&ftig sej^n soil : derhulbsQ 
cr Dumehr lein Endichaft omicbt, u. Itoger nit blndlicb leye. Dahero dann dia Anga- 
parg. Coafesaioa anscbnldig fDr ein verdampte Reltglan angeiogen, a. die darwider in 
dia Beich geichickte pipatlicbe Ball mit angedrabeter Executlen wiedemm offentlich 
angeschlagcn, aacb die im BeligionMeden anapendirto getitLcbe JariadictiDn wider mAn- 
niglichen wieder auliaricbten nnteratandeo werden will. Wie dann der Papst u. seioa 
Noncii ihre Jariediction dnreh die JestdCer ihrer im Beich angemastten Gewalt n. Bol- 
miasigkeit ao weit extecdlren, das* sie die andern an axcommunicinn a. degradiren, 
die Zeit a. Jabr xn Tcrftndern sich onteratehen, aucfa wol die Kaia. MaJ. dabin bewegen 
wallen, daas Ihre HaJ. kelnem geistllcben Stand seine Regalia leihea aoU, er babe dann 
des Papata CooGnDatioD uberselns Electioa oder Postnlition laroi erlangt, an wclcbem 
Eade er dann *ach die Joramenta a. Statnta anf den hoben n. andem StiAen, aucb Bit- 
ter. Q. lodcm Orden von Tag za Tag dermaasea gescbirfet n. geftodert, daaa den Evan- 
geliachen aJler Zntritt abgeachnitten wlrd.— Uberdieu wird fbi^geben, alg aollten die- 
Jenigen, welcbe Tor dem Beligionf^ieden nicbt anr Angsp. Confeailoa getreten, Jetio 
daaaelb nltfilnanebmen Macbt haben, a. derwegen keinem Stand, aondeilich den Relcb- 
atadten einige Baformatlan zn verstattea seii|. Derohalben ea bey elUcben Stadten da- 
hingebracht, daaa ale sicb vermlctelit Elds verfaanden n. lerenirt, bc}- der Jetiigen 
Romlacben Religion an bleiben, keinen erangeliiehen BtUger In Rath an ilehen, den 
Bjkrgem kein Exercitinm, wie flehendllcb anch von viel tansend Bargeni damm ange- 
ancbt wird, in veritatten, wie in der Stadt Coin geecbiebt, allda dia eTangelltcben Bur- 
ger mit nenen vom Balb angcricbteten flacaliacben Proceasen geplagt, getbOmet, nm 
Geld geatraft, n. den UbellbUom gleich gehalten werden.— Wis in glcichem aucb bey 
etlicben andem otierlandiaclten Stidten, ala zn Scfaw&bischen GmDnd, wie anch der 
Stadt Kaufbeom n. andem fast dergleicbea DDteratanden, da der fre}-e Lanf dea h. 
Evangelii wider die Reich a-Conidtutlonea geblndert, aucb prSJndicirlicbe Decreta D. 
Beacbeid ertheilt. — Ea befindeu aich anch die Evaagtl. Angsbnigischer Confession Tei^ 
wandte Stlnde in ibren n. Chriati Mitgliedem in dem wider den Religionsfileden nit 
wenig beachwert, dasa anstatt des ftejwllligen nngeiwnngenen AuiEDgs, an den Unter- 
thaneu an einer sondem WohlCbst im BellgionifHaden gegonnet, aie die Unlerthanen 
aunnitetaen o. dabej- mit allem Emat geiwangen werden, das Ibrig In aiaar sngen 
prafigirten Zeit, so Manchan DDmOglich, mit Unitatten zn rerktBteo, o. das Land wte 



peror Rudolph was indeed obliged, after he had been compelled to 

tnMltbiter IB nomea, n. da eich J* «iiwr ■ciner Gelegcntwit nach Id ein benacbbart 
evangel. Oil begiibt, wird Ibnn doch nit gnrtaUet, ut •eine TerUuene Statt oder Fdd- 
gbter (D gelun, n. die id banen, oder die gebaoelen Frncht ihnii Gefalleos einiBbaim- 
•cben, aondarn tbneii ihre GQter Docb dmo widei ihnn Willen, anch mm Theil nabe- 
wtuat deraelben Id gam giringen Wenh geseUC, niid ubeidiu die Nachiiteiii tod deo 
Unterthanea mit Gewalt gefordert a. eingenDmineii irerden, allei dsD ReichsardnnDgea 
n. der Billigkeit luwider. Wle dana auch diejenigea, velcbe achnn lur RomiicheD Re- 
ligion Ireten, lolcher barten Weia darbej an bleiben Terpflicht gemacht mrdeu, dau. 
irenn sie irleder XMi Angipnrg. ConfMaioii lieb begeben, die Obrigkeit aie ale Apoitataa 
n. UnebriataD mm faocbatao m atrabn Hacbt haben Mllteu, vie die FOTmulae juraudi, 
anch derwegen bin n. wiedei pDblidrte Maudata, dariD den EcangeliacbeD alter Handel 
be^ SCntf der Confiacation Ibrer Gotet verboteD, aniweUen. So will man anch der Re- 
ligloD halbcD Tertriebenen an andem OrteD Icein Sctaati gdnnen, D. die lie icbDtzen, 
verfolgen d. anfeindsn ; die Declaration dea Reli^onftiedena, *o welL Kaiser Ferdinand 
— gegeben, all nnkrUtlg auiehen a. denteo." The; also complained that tba evangel- 
ical Ushc^ bad no aeat in the conncila of tbe erapire ; that id the canrta the Catholics 
bad a rtrong party Dia}ori^ ; that the coondl of the imperial coort, conaiating almost 
entile!}' of Calbolies, bad caaei illegallf broagfat before it (comp. Banke, FOratea u. 
Volker, iil. 408) ; that tbe incomes irhlcb iboold come fltim Catholic countries lo cloit- 
tera oader evangelical swaj were kept back; that the evangelical par^ In Catholic 
territories were loaded with beavf pecnntar; penalties ; that Catholic priDcea forbade 
tbelr snb}»cta bn;iDg and selling in tba neighborlag evangelical ciUea, etc. The Cath- 
olics, on tbe other band, in tburrejcdnder, maintained, in respect to the Religions Peace, 
"dass sle denselben biaherD— africhtig, mit UDTerfolschlem Gewissen— gelialtcD, aoeh 
nit gemeint sajea, denselblgen in elnlge Dispntatioa, ErklSren, oder In was Namen des- 
scn Ver&ndeniag bedacbt werden koonte, — fOr sicb selbat m aieben, oder lieben in 

luasen Et lasaen sich ancb die kathol. Blinds wenig irren, wia ea biUig den andem 

Theit aoch so hoch nicfat anfecbten aoUt,— was von Ufbebung de* Rell^onfHedeDa, ob 
a. wie lang denelbig bestindlg seyn soli oder konne, dispntiret, bcaagt, odor beacbiie- 
ben wird. — Wie nlcbt wenigers anch ibnen gana n. gar kein Gebllena an dem onbe- 
scbeidenen Ansacbreien gescbiebt, wollen es anch wissender Ding imgeni verhangan, 
do sie die Katholisebe a. ibre Religion bin n. wieder nf der Gegentbeil Caculn nnveP- 
linmdt, anausgedinselt, n. llire habere Stand nnrericetiert, n. vor den rechten Anti* 
chriaten ohnaDsgeacbrien bleiben mtehten." The ipirttnal jorisdictioD waa anipended, 
tbey said, la ProtssUDt eonntiies, bnt not in the Catholic ; tbe latter >tm lereitntialljr 
acknowledged tbe Pope as tbe visttile head of the Chorcb. "Zn wslcbem Enda dann 
die p&pstl. Legaten n. Nnnlii ieiBwellen In daa b. Saich verordnet werden, ^xig der 
Inspection halben, damit bey der Eatbolischen Kirchen die nmertrenDte Eini^eit D. 
alte darliey betbracbte Ordnongen in beetindigem Wesen aihalCen warden, darObar sie 
anch bn Reich kein andan Terwaltnng haben, oder jemand der KalbollscfaeD ihnen et- 
waa welter dem h. Belch oder einigen desaelben Stand m Naehtheil UDinraniDen ge- 
melDt, a. wild ibnen mit keinen Fugen ingelegt, dass sle die Zeit u. Jahr zn verandeni 
nntersteben, sondem hat alleln die Papsd. Heillgkdt die Tage der Zabl halben, der 
Kirchen o. mathematischen Kothdnrft nacb, mit Wissen der Kala. Maj. n. asderer Po- 
tentaten (wie es JoUns Casar gethan, n. andere Idblicbe Ealter anch thnji wAllen) n- 
rflchgeiogen, n. also die Zeit oder Jahr, wie ea von den Ankltigem dcD SatboUschen 
fOi ein anticbristische Notam will gedentst n. nb^empft werden, keineswegs immtllirt 
Oder Teruidert." Tie Catbolio states were not required to reply to tbe attacks in re- 
spect to the nnndoB, becansa " in Betracbtnng anch dieserselU weniger n<t gadolt wer- 
den moss, dass ibre Sapaiintaadenten Ihrer Heinnng nach viel Ordnnng macben, n. 
bisweilen ibre Herm selbst a. der«n Datertbanen, nm deswillea sie den Kalholisehen 
CeremoDlen etwas nacbgeben n. verh&ngeD, oder andeter Ursachea halbon, excommo- 
ulcireo n. EDweilen dem BOsen gar merkenuen." Tbe regalia had beaa eonitaotly giv- 
en by tbe Emperor after the papal confirmaUon, Tbe CallMlIc il 



by tbe Scligioiu Faae« to eoneade >Dght to tha Enuigelicali. Id £raDg«liesI cldai no 
Catholic irss BDdBnd. A* to tha Declantion of the Emparot Fardinaad, " ao weiu 
nun doch vol was ea mit denelbaa fOr eln UejnaDg habe, n. lit in vialiiulaii, to wol 
much dnrch Ew. Kwla. Xaj. selbat eiklSrt irorden, diua man aidi eiuer solchen Declu*. 
don Id wani^ten nicht lu behelAn hitt, indam akh dann die katbcdiichen Standa id 
dan ansdrOcklichea Inhalt dea BaUgionfriedeai in |. Und tall aUa dot, etc., nocbmaln 
raferirn," in which all Dedaratlona against the Relifriona Poacs were di-clared to be 
invalid. That tlia right to a leat vm refuHd to some penont chosen biahopa, because 
thajr adherad to tha Augaborg Confeiaioa, wai in coaeequaaoe of the apiriiual reaerTa- 
tioas, etc. Besides tbia, (he Calholio states brougllt complaial* againat the Evangelical 
par^. " Znm Ereten, obwi^ gaaetzt n. geordnet, daas kein andere Relif^on ii. Glan- 
ben, dann die be;^ im h. Reich lagelaiseD n. geilnlilet warden aoile i ao isl docb offeo- 
bar am Tag, u. der Kais. Uaj. gar nnvecborgen, wie mancherley Secteii, u. iirige n. 
venlanmle Lahre mit dem Namen der A- C. sich jetit bekieideu, u. unter aolchem 
Schein olibDtUch in Kirchan n. Scbnlen gepiedigt n. gelehrt verdcn, so es doch der A. 
C. aowoU als der alten Kathol. Religion atracks iDwider. Ob eg aber nnn gcringcr 
Sehnlatrit n. DiipnlatiDnes, Oder Spallnngea in den UaQplirtlculn aeyn, referirt niau 
sich Korea halbea aof die kinc inda aaapngne Schriften n. BOcher, darlanen as vie] 
andoa last, n. die Gelehrten, ao davon ohne AScction tractiren, aeibat liekennen. Zum 
Andam, 1st nit die geringate Beschwemus* Katholiacher SeiUn, daas gegcn den Inhalt 
Beligionfrledens tob des andern Theils Predigem n. andam IHenein in Kircben, Schu- 
len D. la^lchen Schriften, von dan Harnchaften, n. dam gemslnen Volk der Katbol. 
Religion Tlelerlef imerflndliche Lehren n. Zalagan, ohne alien Gmnd ingelegt a. ufge- 
measen, nod gleich daranf tod Ihnen, den Angab. Coafeaalonaverwandlea — for ubgot' 
tischa Idololatraa u. Unchriaten anagernfen, dem Tllrken u. Fdndan verglichen, ja no- 
milder angegeben, anageacbrien n. Terdammt warden, welchs ja in andera nicbta dieneo 
mag, dann die GemOtlier aowol b»y dea h. Bdcha Standen, den Oberkeitaa, ala den Va- 
Unhanen an Terbittem, gegen einandar an verhetien, n. gefihrllche Uomhen au er. 
weeken. — Aoch nit ohne, daaa aelbig der Augsp. Couf. — nngleiche Lehren u. dcren 
Nachfolger sich anlknglich, die aie in linden, Stadten a. Commnnea einechlelfen, still 
etngeiogen, u. In politiachen Dingen der Oberkeit wlilfibrig erzeigen : ao giebt aber die 
Ertihmng, wenn aie durcb ihre Practiken dch atArken, lonehmen n. gewaltig werden, 
via nngeMflme ale anibrechen, waa Unmhe sis erweeken, was fllr gerihrllche, abecbeD- 
Uche Trannong, Zarrotlnng n. Verindemng dea Religion- n. Profan-Weaena, Verhindor- 
nng der Coromercien, Schmalerang des gemeinen Nutzea, llbenchwungliebe Theumng, 
Ufrahrangen, Iflntvergieaaen, Verderbung n. VerwOstang, Land u. Lent gefahrlicbe 
Terandemng der Oberkelten a. Regfmenten daraua lU gewarten seita, deasen allein 
die betiilble Niederland n. angrtnzende Ort nnr zn vkt ofTeubare Zengnnaa a. fast ge- 
fahrlicbe Ezempla sowol den Standen Angsb. Canf. all Katholiscber Religion teyn koun- 
ten. — Zom dritten 1st In dem Context dea Beligionfrledena aoidrQcklloh vertehen u. ge- 
oidnet, wann ein Ensbiacbof, PrUat, oder ein ander geiitlichen Standa von der alien 
Bali^onabtralenwQrde, daas er das Eribistham. Bisthnm, Fralatnrn. Benaflclum (far- 
behaltan aeinen Ehren) verlaasen, n. davon abtreten sollte. Dem aber an entgcgen. 
werden etUcbe anaehQllche Era- n. Bisthnm, Prfttatar u. Beneflcli, von den Angab. Con- 
fetsionverwandtan behalten, beaesaen a. genoesen, darlanen die Katholiache Religion 
abgetban, n. die Unterthanen an widriger Religion gerichtet, theili aacb geaCthigt.— 
Znm viertan wird im Bel. frieden bej dem §. Wtil oier der Stift a. Kloster halb dieser 
Unterachied gemacht, eratlich dase die Sclft n. KISeter dem Raieli ohn MIttel nnlerwor- 
fim, aie aeyen Tor oder nach dem Passaoischen Tertrag mit der TTiat occaplrt, den Ea> 
tboliaehen wieder reatituirt werden sollen. Waa aber die Stift, Slitter n. gelstl. GGter 
snUngt, die dem Belch nit ohne Uitlel unterworfen. vrird dleaer Dntenchled gemaeht, 
daaa diejenigen, so vorm PiManischen Tertrag verlndert, n. m milden n. in andem 
Sachen angewendet worden, alao bleiben mogen. Welcho aber za der Zait dea Paaaao- 
lacben Teitrags noch in ihrem Weaen entaeCct, n. doch bey der KaChol. Klrchen QOIer, 
dasadleMltwadarhej-kOnAigllch aucb gelassen weiden sollen. Nnn iat }a nnlan^iar, 
aandem off»ab«r d««a in vleUn dai A. C. varwandtsn Chnrfl q. FOrtteo, Grafen n. 


230 FOURTH PEBIOD.-DrV. I^A.D. Ifil7-iwe. 

Hnro Luiden, koeh Sudten viel KlrcbcD, Sdft, KlSMer, d. Gotutuiuser, u tor Zdt 
del PuMoiachan Vtrtngt nit voa Ihaco eingaiogen, Mmdern Qoch anveruidert bev der 
■lien Beljgiod — gewena, danun dieselb«D aDch — dtibej bitten loUen — getuwn werdcn. 
Dnd vd«et die Uidlgs ErfkhmnB aiu, vrle nnmllt an liden Orten mit den dammal nocli 
obrigeD Stiften, KirclKD, a. KlAgtern nmgaiigta, do die alle Religion verlwlen n. Kligv- 
ubaOt, die Kircben Terandeit, Altar Bbgcrissen, Buncbaft, Kleinodia, BrieC Siegel u. 
RagiBlerhiaveggeDammeD, der iiebeu Uelligen Reliquien, u. Corpon MartTniiD Cbriali 
I'eTnnehrl, die heillgen HostieD mit FOaeen getreten." Compliint wu abo nude that 
tbe Evangelical party forced jmtUm of their faith upon tile people initead of Catholic 
priestai demoliahed Catholic chnrcbea; deprived the Catholic clerg}- of their stipend* ; 
that in the Evangelical citiea of tbe Empire chorchea were taken from the Cathotio, and 
the Catholic reli^n oppreseed or aboliabed ; that the Catholic aubjecta of Evangelical 
princes were in man}- wa}-s luraaaed and puniehed for wonhipiDg in Catholic churcbci, 
etc. — To theae complilnta of the Catholics Iha EviDgelicai par^- responded at the Diet 
of lo38 (Lehenmann, I. 628 ; Strave, i. 896). To be particular!]' noted an tbe contra- 
dietary etatementi about two poiata in the treat}- for Beli^ooa Peace. Pint the}- apeak 
of tbe reaervationa about clerical (apiritaal) affaira: "£a wird aich in actii beflnden, 
dasa ann. 62 in AuMchlnng dea Paasaoiscbcn Vertraga dabin auadracklich lat verban- 
deltworden, waa Id damalen fDrgeachlagenen kClnlllgen Beligionfrieden gegea einem u. 
dem andem Theil bOndlich leyn, dastielb auch beydertheil a. aller StiLnd, n. oident- 
licben Zuthnn der Kaia. Uaj. beachlcwaen werden aollen, dcrwegen dieaer Vergleichnng 
zuwidernicbta bat konnen noch aollen nf dea einen Theila alieln Anbringen u. Begehren 
dem henuch ann. 65 ufgoricbten Rcligionrriedcn einverleibt Oder EUgesetit werden. Ob 
nun wol biaber filrgeben, u. noch iieetritten werden will, aia aoillcn die Evangel. Stande 
in aolcben Vorbehalt auch gewilligt, u. Huf damata Bum. Kon. Haj. tielfallige Hand- 
long denaelbcn ahnwidersprocben baben paeiiren Isnsen, to kann man doch Evangn- 
liacben Theila eln eotchea mit nichten gestijidig ae)-D i dieweil aus der Evangel. Chnr. 
B. Fiirsten Erklarung ann. 55 geicheben ausdrCicklich tu etkennen, nelcher Geetalt 
Ibre Churf. u. F. Gn. in ematlichatem dieten i-on ihnen unverwilligten Zoaati dea Tot- 
bebalta ana dem Religionfrioden — irieder lu cassiren begchrt, darbey rich anadrhcklich 
deiaen lezengt, daas aie Gewiaaena balben danun auch nicht lu willfahrcn, noch mit 
aolcher WilltRhruDg aich an beachweren wDaaten. Ea miiaaen ancb die Gegentbeil ge- 
Btandig aeyn, daaa seilhero bey alien Reicbaveraamlnngen cu Begeniburg a. Augsburg, 
etc., ann. 6C, 67, 6d, T6, aolcbcr ErUimng u. Protestationls — wiederbolt worden. Zn- 
dem ea der Evangeliachen Eracbten nacb wider ein^nder lanfen, u. nit in vergluchen 
aeja wilt, daas einem jeden, der aich in der Bellgion Augsb. Conf. begiebt, aolcbes an 
Ehren, Haab, u. Gotem annacbtbeilig aeyu, u. dsgegen, wenn einei im gelatl. Stand 
ana Uottea Eileuchtung von den rom, Hiabriuchen in der chriall. evangel Religion 
aich begiebt, aller aeiner Dignitaten n. Einkommcn slibald an Stnf de facto entaetit 
ae}-n aoli. Und dieweil aolcbes bey der ganicu Welt a. aller Poateritat audent nicht 
ala fQr ein besonder scbmUibafle ^acul u. Veidammang der Evang. ReL kann veralan- 
den werden, daas deraelben Bekenner nit allein keiner geistl. DignitU oder PrJilatur 
fahig, sonder auch die er invor gehabt durch Elnnebmungn. Erkanntnnsa evangeliacber 
Wabrbeit deren als nnwiirdig entsetit aej-n aollen, ao haben die Evangeliachen solcbem 
Vorbehalt aich hillig zn wideraetien gehabt: — derwegen sie aucb ohne Scben bekenneo, 
dasa sie aich bey eolcber Widersprechung dea oft angeregten Torbehalli cu bandbaben 
Kholdig eracblcn, u. ihrer cfaristl. Evangel. Religion Bolchem Scbimpf n. Spott ufin- 
tragen Gewiasenabalbeo nachzngeben nit wiasen, deiien aie anch bey anaehnlichen Eri- 
a. andem Stiften m mhiger Foaseeaion vtl q. goiaaaen werden. Und haben aich <Ue 
Rfimiache Religion averwandten der Profiination hslben gar nicht zu befahren; aonder 
uberdass sicb die Evang. StSnde — zu GcDfigen erboten, aoiche Stift vermOg ihrer enten 
Fundatlon aniweifcliche Intent zn ihrem rechtlicben Gebrauch, wahren Gotleadiensl, 
chrisllicher Anting der Jugend, n. id andem cbriatl. Ubnngen dawieder id richten, to 
wQrd' ihnen auch nit lawMer aeyn, noch femer aich tu verglelchen, die beaagte Profa- 
nation iDvorkommen : wenn alldn ale uf ihrer Seiten die Saohen dabin abrlchten, dasi 
ibnsn nicht grOtaere n. abachenlichere Profanation der geiitl. Stiftongen, Gefall d. £in- 



renoance Austria and Hongary in favor of his brother UatUiias,^^ 
to graat coDcessions by letters patent, July, 1609,'" to Bohemia, 
whieh alone remained to him ; and Archduke Iklatthlas was not 
only forced to restore to the Kvangelioal party in Austria and 
Hungary their impaired rights, but also to enlarge them, March, 
1609.** But these favors were merely wrung from them by thu 
circumstances of the times, and could not remove the distrust of 
the Protestants. 

Thus the Catholic and Protestant states in Germany were con- 
stantly assumii^ a still more hostile attitude. The antagonism 
was strengthened by the controversy as to the succession in Jiilich- 
Cleves. After the death of the last Duke, John William, March 
35, 1609, seven princes contended for the snccession; the elect- 
oral prince, John Sigismund, of Brandenburg, and Philip Louis, 
Count Palatinate of Neuburg, took possession of the province in 
oonsequenoe of the treaty of Dortmund, May 31, 1609,^' while the 

kommen, deren aia in allem UberSuu sitzeu, ihrcD selbeC geisllicbcn Kecbtea n. Canoni- 
biu iDwider mit Wabrhelt kouaen vDrgenickt werden." Secondlj', on tlio Coiffitcalion 
o/ti^EcelaitaticalEadoumtnU! "Da»itf wird kUrzllch geantwort, indtlle eua tota 
kge penpscta de aliqaa ejiu paitlcula Jadjcare. SiuUiiul der bnchitabllch Inbalt, u. 
auch dia Meinnngdes KeliiponfHedetii dea OrU also beacbaffen, daag e> den Angsb. Con- 
faiaiaiimrwaiidten nicbt allein diejenige gebtlicbe GbUr, bo bU lor Zeit des Possau- 
iicbcu Yertrag* scbcoi ingebabC, in HandBii lilaat, ■ondem aucb was dergUichen Gutcr 
in iimn Hemchaften a. GrsbieUn gelegen, u. keinem Reichsitanc! subjicirt, fardere eicb 
denn anzamassen, iLia Ihren KiicbeD' n. Scbnl-BnachodeTdergleicbeainildanSacbea 
m TCTwenden zngiebt. Dieweil dana in dem Beligtonrrieden kiar u. ausdrQcklich ver- 
■ehni, n. den Angab. ConfeaaioiuTBrwandlen StUiden nicbt wbniger ala den andern ZD- 
geluien, die evangel. Religion TennOg Angib. Confeaaion Id ibrer Obrigkeiten u. Ge- 
blatan uiEnTiEbten ; — ao baben die Gegsntheil lelcbt in eracblen, daaa ale zn Ecbaltnng 
billiger Gleiclibeit in Religionfrieden mit UnbiiUgbeiC Erangeliicber Oberkeit mit trey- 
em Wlllea der Ihrigen das aazDrichten in benebmen nnleratehen, darbej ale doch aicb 
■neh mil gnisMm Zwang begehren handinhabea, allea nat ibrer Rflmiacbeii Beli^^on 
im garinpten zuwtder, mit groaaer Terfolgnag— abznachaffen." 

" Sebmldt'a Nenere Geacb. der Deotacheii, Bach iii., cap. 13 und 17. 

» See below, 1 14, Note 23. 

" la Hongary, at hia coronation, NoTember 19, IGOS, he was obliged to concede eqnal 
tdigiooa fteedom to Catholioi and tbe adberenta ot tbe Angabnrg and Helvetic Coo- 
ftaaioDi. In Aiutria the eatatea had aaaembled with arms upon the Ena in Horn, and 
demanded the abolidon of the religiona oppreaaiocs as practiced nader Rndolph (svc 
Koto 18), and also, paitlcolarlf, rcligiooa beedom for tbe citLea and muket-pUces of 
the piinces of tbe land. By the mediation of the HontTian eatates the matter was at 
last idJDSted, and Hatthiaa gave the CapitulatUnt-Raolution of March 19, 1609 (in Rau- 
pach'i Evang. Oeatetreicb, I., Appendix, p. 52), in which Maximilian'a gnaranteea (Note 
U) were cooSrmed. In relation to the citiea and market-places there was only an oral 
promise given to the HoraviaQ embassadors; bnCtha free exerciseof Protestant worship 
waa confirmed to those cities on the Eos which eoold show that they had a right to it. 
Compare Baopach's Evang. Oerterreich, iv. 172 1 Schmidt, Bach iii. cap. 20 ; Haberlin, 
uU. 672. " BaberUn, xxiU, iii. 


2S2 FODBTH PEBIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1617-1818. 

Emperor favored the claims of electoral Saxony. A lai^e part of 
the Protestant states^' had already formed the Evangelical Union 
at Ahausen,*" May, 1608, with Frederick IV., Elector of the Pa. 
latinate, at their head ; and thb Union had entered into a league 
with France, February 11, 1610, at Hall, in Suabia.*' In oppc 
sittoQ to this was formed the Catholic Leagne,*^ under Duke Max- 
imilian of Bavaria, by the treaty of Munich, July 10, 1609. An 
agreement made between these two leaguea at Munich, October 
14, 1610, coold not long insure peace ;*' and after the Count Pal- 
atine, Wolfgang WiUiam of Neuburg, had become Catholic,** in 
order to obtain the whole province of Jiilioh, wiUi the help of the 

" TbsC is, the PslBtmate, Wtirtemberg, Baden, Heeee Cassel, and Anhalt, beaidea the 
comities and dtiei. Saxony, Heua Darmstadt, Bmnsirick, Pomennia, aDd Mecklen- 
burg did nut join, on acconnt of tlieit hatred lo CaJTUiiam, to which Mveral of llioee 
slates were attached ; and electoia! Saxon]- appioidmated very closely to the EmpenH', 
moved also b}- its jealous}- agunst the iead vhich the PalaUaate had among the Protest- 
ant sUtei. The extant of the embittered feelingof the Lntherana against the CalTioiitt 
maj- be seen in a formai opinioo of .fgidioB Honninii and David Seieis, two theologians 
of electoral Saxon}-, in which they coonseied Doke Frederick William, at that time the 
adminiatrator of the affaire of that atate, not to asaeat to Ihe Protestant grievaneea, aa 
drawn up and presented to the Diet of Ratisbon, 1694 (aee Note 84 ; the doenment is in 
Hsbeiiin, xii. p. xviii.), nnleaa " he wete allowed to add a proleatatiDn that this did not 
imply asaent to their Calvinislic doctrine." "Dieweil einnial Reichsknndig, was vor 
IiTthnm n. Crenel hlnter der Calvinischen Lehni stecken, u. wie dieaelbe dera alleln ae- 
iigmachenden Wort Gottes, anch der chrlatl. Angab. Conf. faandgreiAich inwider ; dau 
man demnach vielmehr ipso facto, als nnda proteslatione von ihnen in diesem Werk sich 
En fleporiren Bchuldig, ollenneist ana foigenden Grdnden a. Ursachen. Dann enllich 
ist mBiniiiglicb nnverirargen, wie Qott in seinem Wort befehlt, falsche Lehn n. deraeel- 
ben OtTbDilicbe Vertheidiger facto in fllehen, a. hi Glsnbenssachen anch ab onmi apede 
hajDsmodl consoraatlonis aich ta biiten. — Wle kfioste man anch mlt gntem (lewiaaen 
recht aagen, dass aich die CalTiniacha anb eodem script! titnlo tot Slaude der Angsb. 
Conf. dargeben, ao doch ais deraelben nlcht nor in elnem Oder iweenen, aondem per ao- 
cumulationem erremm nanmehr in 6 Oder 7 aiticn]ia offenbatlich snwider. — Dann oie 
die Papblen desto wentger den Religionafrieden en hsllen sich schuldig wetdea erkea- 
lien, dieweil man andero verworfene Secten in die gomeinscbaftlicbe Angsb. Conf. n. 
dendsTSuf tbndirten ReiiglonafHed ziefaen wollte, — Es wQrden anchdnrch dieien Actum 
die Sacramentirer In Hirer gottlosen Lehre treffihdi geatirkt werdmi," u. s. w. 

*' GrDndl. Nacbrichl Ton der Evangel. Union In Ph. £. 8|desa Archlviache Nebenar- 
beiten a. Nachricbten, Th. 1 (Halle, ITSS), a. 72. HAberlin, xxil. 6S7. 

•> Hfiberlin, xxili. 267. 

■■ The groond hod been already laid by the throe eeoleataidcil electoral princM is 
1606. Besides them and Bavaria, only blslu^ and abbots assented ; UMmtIui, xxU. 701 ; 
Wolrs Gesch. Maximilians I. n. aeinei Zeit, U. 4S1. 

" HiberliQ, xxiiL 823. Wolf, li. Sfll. 

" Straven'a Pfalz. ^rcbenhislorie, a. 632, Wolf, iiL 487. Some oontomporancons 
reports and docaments, see ia the Fortges. Sammlong von alten n. nenen theolog. Sachea 
for the year 1732, a. STB, and In Henke'S Uagaxin, ii. 178. It is mnarkable that the Jes- 
uit, Jac. Beibing, his court preacher, who composed > work in defense of thia change, 
went over to the Protestant Chnich In 1B31, uid then became pntfeasnr of theology in 
TabiDgen; Wolf; ill. 4N. 



Spaoiards and of the League, liie two parties took np arms and 
assamed a hostile attitade toward each other. 

$ 13. 


BUNtUn't nenera leatacha Reichsgeschichte, continued bf B. E. Freyb. t. Senkenbarg, 
Bd. 24-37. F. SchiUei> Gt»ch. dea 80 jihr. Sriegca. Leipi., 1791, S Th. (Werke, 
Bd. 14 n. 16), continiied by E. L. t. Woltmann. Uipi., 1809, 2 Tb. (also in the Snp- 
plementen m Schiller'i WeAeo. Leipzig, ISsa Bd. S u. 6). K. A.Menxel's Uescb. 
des 30 Jahr. Kriegea In DentschUnd (in his Nonere Geicb. der Deatsclian, Bd. 6-8). 
Dr. J. W. D. Kcbtar'a Ge«ti. d. 30 jlia. Kriegea ana Uilnnden n. andern QneUeD- 
•chriAen, B. 1. Leipzig, 1810. [Alft«d Uichial's Secret ttatory of the AostriAQ Uov- 
emment, and ita Sjatenutii: Peraaention of the ProteitinU. Load., 1869. Elizabeth 
Stoart, voD Dr. SOltl, 8 Bde. Hamb., 1840. tieichichta Kaiser Ferdioanda II., too 
F. von Hnther, L-ix. SchalTbanaeD, 18M-58. Gfritrer, GnaUv. Adolphoi. Chap- 
man, HlatDiy (^ Gnstavna Adolphna and tha Thirty Yean' Wat, Bva. Lond., 1856.] 

Bohemia cast the flaming brand into the combustible materials 
that had bwn gathered together. The Utraquists, irritated in 
many ways, though they formed the majority, at last revolted in 
1618. Upon the death of the Emperor Maximilian, which soon 
ensued, they would not recognize his successor, Ferdinand,* and 
gave their crown to Frederick V., the youthful electoral prinoe of 
the Palatinate. The support, however, which he received from 
his father-in-law, James I. of England, and from the Protestant 
Union, was insignificant. Ferdinand,' on the other hand, had pow- 
erful aid from Spain and the Catholic League ; and thus his general, 
Maximilian of Bavaria, after the battle of the White Mountain, 
October 39, 1630, in a short time overrun the whole kingdom. 
Ferdinand inflicted the severest punishments, and, with the help 
of the Jesnits, abolished Prot«stant worship in Bohemia^ and in 

■ Sea balow, $ 14, Notaa S4-.26. 

* Tba Pope tent to blm ■ ctnueerated dagger with tbe Jewiih formnla of tncantation 
— TetragrammatOD alpha et omega, agta. Sabaoth (Uiicellanea Dpi. xi. 41) ; a Tema^ 
able omen about Bome aa It then ma ! 

' His soul of this and the following re<brniBtioiu was Carl Caralb, papal nnaeio at 
Iba imperial court. (Tbe InatniclJonB giTen to bim, April 11, 16SI, an <n Himtei'a Tar- 
mlichta Bej^age inr Klrchengeacb. Kopenbagen, 1798, a. 1!7. Compata Banke, Flkr- 
ilan n. Tolker, it. 3BT.) Two Belationi by him an atUl extant i tbe one la a Latin 
manuBcript on hla work in Bohemia (fianhe, iiL 4S9; iv. 403); the other, printed in 
IaUd. eompriaea bia whole agsney as nnDdo: Car. Cara& Ep. ATerianl Commentaria 
do Germania aacra nstaorata anb anmmb PP. Gfegorio XT. at Urbano Till, recants 
Ang. et FiUs. Imp. Perdinando 11. Colon. Agripp. 1689. 8. (On a similar work t^Ca- 
nfs, in Italian and In maniwcript, see Banke, ir. 417.) At first, regard had to be paid 
to Saxraf , whidk had gWen &ltU<il help to tba Emperor, and the poMcntioa aeemed 


234 FOUBTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-164B. 

Austria.* The FiotesteDt Unioa was dissolved ;' the lands of the 
Palatinate vera seized, the Lower Palatinate by Spain, the Upper 
by Uaximilian, upon whom also, in 1632, was conferred the elect- 
oral authority belonging to the Palatinate.* The Catholic Church 
was every where re-established by force.^ In the pursuit of the 
troops of the Palatinate many other Gorman countries had been 
overrun and oppressed,^ and Crerman freedom seemed to be en' 
dangered ; on tiiis account the department of Lower Saxony le- 
sorted to arms, under the lead of King Christian of Denmark, 
1625. He was conquered by Tiily and Wallenstein, and Den- 
mark was forced to conclude the Treaty of Liibeck, May 12, 1629. 
With the increase of the imperial army it became more apparent 
that the purpose of the Emperor was to bring about the entire 
preponderance of the Catholic religion.* When the north of Oer- 

taln simed onljatUie Calvinists. TUedrciimetaDcesof thetimei are chBrscteristici]Iy 
eet forth in a prlvsta letter of the Imperml confesioi, the Jeaait Utrtin Beuinos, to tho 
conrt preacher of eleetflnl Saxony, Hoa von Hoencgg, March 17, 1621 (Fortgei. Samm- 
lung V. Alten n. Nenen theol. Sichen, 1747, i. SSS) : Nanc ieitor vellem amice ac fami- 
liariCer cam Bev, ac Hob. Dominatlone Vestra conferre, an dod expediret, ipaiu Uteras 
Uajeatatis penJtoi tollere >e abolere propter haa causaa: 1, qnia a gpiriCn CalvliiUtlco 
profictoa atiDt; !. quia magaa ex pane dederuat occaiioaem rebellionij 3, qaia joatii 
metneDdum eat, na novam rcbellioaem concitent, ni«i aboleonlur ; i, qnia ex earum 
aboUUane hdIIddi Set pra^ndiclncn ant aoatrae Bmnanie, lat Vestrae Augnatanae con- 
feeuonL Imo tarn noatra, qnam Yeatra Coafeaido magna pericolo Uberaliitnr, *i Com- 
mnni conKnan tollator illad idolnm rebellinm CalriaiaUrnm. Uaec piivadm propono. 
Si Rev. ac Nob. Domioatio Veatra non probat haa ralionea, non repngno. Si aatem pro- 
bat, qnod mihl eat gratiua, rogo, at pro sno In S. Caee. H«}eBtataai pio affbctn cooetnr 
DpUlDa modo Endocere Sereaiaaimam Electorem, nt in abrogallonem aeu aliolitionem de- 
tnentlasEme conaentiat, etc. Comp. beloir, § 14, Notes 27, 28. 

* Aocording-to hia voir, renewed at > pilgrimage In Haiia-Cell (Canfa, p. 103), he 
fint began, 1623, to forliid Protestant worahip in the Imperial dlie* (1. c, p. 162); in 
1324, to expel all Proteitant preachers, even thon at the estates, from Upper Aoallia 
(I. c., p. IBS). Alter an insarrectton of the peasants, which Ihenca enaoed, had been 
quelled, 1626, the nobility of Upper Austria vers eommaDded, 1627, either to become 
Catholic or to leave the cnnntr]- (p. 2S8). In the same year all theae regnlations were 
extended to Lower Austria (p. 320 sq.). Camp, tho Decrela, appended to Carafa, p. 174 
aq. Ranpach'sEvang. Oeaterreich, i. 274i iT.41E); Appendix, p. 237. 

* Hiberlin-Sonkeuberg, xxv. 43. 

* Ihld., B. 249. The vilaable Heidelberg Library was given to the Pope b; Uaxl- 
milian ; Leo AUatios carried it to Rome ; ibid., a. 279 ; Sanke, iv. 393. 

' Acta n. Actitata, welcher slch bey der in Chnr. n. Foratl. Pfali angnatelKea Refor- 
mation gebrauchet, 16S8. 4. StruTen'i pfaliische Kirchenhiatorie, s. G56. How the Up- 
per Palatinate was divided into atations by the Jeeoiti, and their dinnga therein, see Ca- 
ratk, p. 318 ; Kropff Hlat. Soc. Jesn In Germania superiori, iv. 27L 

■ Thus the department (circle) of Snabia (UUNrlin-SenkeDberg, Xxv. 168) ; then, alt- 
er 1ES3, the department (circle) of Lower Saxony, in which Tilly pursoed Count Emeit 
afUanaTeld and I>uke Christian of Brunawicki Ibid., p. 269, 866. 

* Already in 1626, in the Snabian circle, the Protestants were commanded to reitim 
the properly of the Cborch; Caiafi, p. 268; Struven'a BaligioDibeachwerden, i. GGl. 



many had abo come under the authority of the imperial hosts, the 
Edict of Restitutiou was issued, March 6, 1639, defining the Cath- 
olio position on all the contested questions in respect to the relig- 
ious peace. ^^ But when this was carried into execution its pro- 
vbions were further extended," bo as to allow of no doubt that it 
was intended to effect the entire exterminatjoii of Protestantism 
in Germany." 

Count John of Kamo-SieE^rt had previoasly eallioliciied his prorinee. In spits of all 
the rtctrialia esrlier giTen : Canfs, p. 234 ; Hftberlin-Senkenberg, xst. GIT. In 1628, 
in maDj-citleaof thscmpin, charohca were taken avay from the ProleetanU and given la 
the Catholics ; thui in Hall In Saabla. in Stnuburg, Uemniingcn, etc ; Kauf beacrn was 
nude wboll; Catholic (Wagenwil'a Beitrag zur Getch. der Re/ormatlon. Leipzig, 1S30, 
■.S9); and Hageuan; MeStmven's Religionabeichverden, 1. G75; Ilubcrlln-Senkentierg, 
XXV. 633. Comp. the Imperial deerns in CarBCa, Decreta, p. II m. 

'• In Londorp der ROm. K. Maj. u. des h. R R. Acta pnblica, lii. 1047. KhevenhQl- 
ler'a Annalea Ferd., xl. 43S ; in Latin in Camfa, app., p. 3. The Emperor here decided 
of his own BDthorit}- : 1. That the Protestant states had not had tbe right, after the Pas- 
esu treatj-, to appropiiile the eccleaiaalical benefice* which were under their lordsbip. 
2. Protealanta, in like manner, hod claimed poMesaion of archtrishaprlci and bishoprics, 
iu cootradlction to the proper eccloiiutical authoritica. B. Tbe declaratlDn of King Fer- 
dinand iraa invalid, according to which Protestant anbjects were to enjoy religions peace 
in tbe states under aplritual princes. In aocordanee with these decreea the conns trero 
to decide ; Imperial commissaries were to be aent into tbe empire to restore all churcli 
properly tbat bad been illegal!}' appropriated. Horeover, the rell^us peace was to 
arail onl; for the Catholics and the adiierents ef the nnaltered Aagsbnrg Confession ; 
all other sects wen to be no longer tolerated. All opposition to these decrees was to bo 
ponished with ban and forfeiture. The most distinguished imperial cotmcilon advised 
against this decree: thus Count Collalto (Kbereub Oiler, xi. 183}, and KhoTenhCillcr 
himself, who even believed tbat the Emperor liad been ndaled by tbe craft of Richelieu 
(zi. 4ST). Carafk, tbe papal nuncio, was espedallj active in thia matter; see Carsfii, 
p. S60 ! licet tot tantaeqae difficultates emerserint, quontae et a me et a mutti* aliis mi- 
Distrii multonun menainm labora snperatae sont, etc. 

" Thus tn Angsbnrg the Protestant service was wholly atwlished; see Hiberlin-Scn- 
kenberg, xzvi- SI. In WUrtemberg those fonndatlaiis and cloisters were sppmprialed 
which, at tbe time of the Interim, tiad only for a short time had Catholic occnpanis 1 
Sattter'a Oescb. von WOrtemberg, iv. 6.— Archdnko Leopold William, who was already 
Uaster of tha Teutonic Order, Bishop of Strasburg and Fassan, and Abbot of Mnrbach, 
■bo became Archbishop of Uagdelmrg and Bremen, Bishop of Halberatadt, and Abbot 
of Herafeldi Meazel, vii. ITl, 186. 

■> This fear was especially enhanced by the polemics of the Jesuits, now becoming 
wry violenL The most sensation was mads by a work like that of Bnrghard (S II, Note 
S4) : Fadi aatpoiitui — in Com. A ugtutat anno 1555 tdiia, gnan jurteoiuulli ^idan eiu 
(Aa/ici— fuocsftmiiiu iUuUrarutU Diliiigat, 1629. 4. ; Loreni Porer, tbe Jesuit, wa* re- 
puted to bo its author. This work, ttesides much polemical matter on doctrinal points, 
interpreted the provisions of the tvligions peace in a manner most nnfiavorable to Prot- 
estants. Cf. cap. vi. qu. 31 : Arpmtiitt jurt CMftavxiittat rtligioat tita, tanplit, mini- 
Mmii, renmoniit atantuF, quo CaiMUit Reap. Nequaqusm. Nam Catholicl ex antl- 
quisilma et immemoriali passessiime Jos acqnisilum habeat fldei, religionis, Ecclesiamm 
soamm; Omfeasionistae aatem sa novitsr intruserunti etcnm repelll non potsent, tole- 
rati snnt, etiam promiaslone facta propter necessitatem. I^tur Cetholld nihil a Conhs- 
aionistis acceperunt, sed Jure suo proprio ae pristino ntontnr: Conftesionistae antem, 
qnlbns nullum jus competit, ea aolnm detlnendo habent, quae ipsis ezpresse concaiM 


236 FOURTH PEKIOD.— DIV. I,— A,D. 1517-1618. 

Meanwhile the growing preponderanoe of the Spanish-Austrian 
power had long since awakened the jealousy of Franoe. In the 
struggle on the succession in Mantua, the Italian princes had join- 
ed themselves to France from feai of the Spanish dominion ; and 
thus even Pope Urban VIII. was led hy political entanglements 
to unite with France, and so, indirectly, with the Qcrman Prot- 
estants,'* In alliance with France," Gustavua Adolphus, King of 
Sweden, and the deliverer of the Protestants, appeared upon Ger- 
man soil, Juno 24, 1620. The sacking and barbarous treatment 
of Magdeburg by Tilly, May 10, 1631, brought the hesitating 
Protestant princes to a decision ; Hesse, Brandenberg, and Saxony 
joined with Sweden. Tilly was defeat^ at Leipeic, September 
7, 1631 ; Gostavus Adolphus marched through the Rhenish prov- 
inoes, penetrated into Savaria, freed the oppressed Protestants, 
and thus enlarged the hosts of his confederates. And although 
he fell, as a oonqueror in the battle of Liitzen, against Wallenstein, 
November 6, 1632 ; although the conflict af^rward raged for a 
long time with all the horrors of a religious war, and made a large 
part of Germany a desert j and although the fortunes of war Bome- 

fuerant Qnicqoid Butem conceasam Don rspeiitnr, prohlbltam ceiueri debet. — Coiiiw. 
sionisUe praeter snt contra Job ■ingnlari finuntui permiisiooe et iadalsenCia ipoii een- 
cesaa, nan una Catholkonun pnejndicio ac dsnmo. Tela iiiitain caaceasianai ttrictun 
interpretationcm tuibent. Qd. 87, p. 168 ; Beligionem cULuLicun in Imperio lenen, et 
snbdibM sdos ad eandem compdlare, commnnl jnn omnibiu eoDcesgnm est : at varo ca- 
thnlicun religlauem mntare, et novam aectam Lutbannam intTodacers, atqae sabdilo* 
ad eandeiD compellcre, generali legs prohibitum att, Ua ezeeplia, qnibni id iDdnlgentia 
penniMiun. Qn. 44 ; Tbs declantioa of King Feidinand in favor of the ProteitaQt sab- 
Jecta of the aplritnal electoTB was saireptitioas ; Snt produced at the Diet of Batisbon, 
1678. Cap. xi. qu. 67 : The pratestation of the Cardinal and Bishop of An^bnTg, Olio, 
against tbo niligioiu peace had the effect of making it invalid in the bishopric ol Angs- 
bDrg, and the episcopal JnrlsdiMion in this bishopric had not been at all BnipGaded. — 
The polemica which the Jeanita had been tbr a long time canying on againat Proteat- 
antjam and the retigiona peace (Salig's Oescb. d. Angib. Conf. 1. TST) now becama ver^ 
animated. B7 order of the Elector the L«piic theologians wrote : "Nothwcndlge Yer- 
theidigang d« bail. Rfim. Reicha Erangeliacher Chnrfllnten n. Stsnde AngaiiMt, nem- 
lich der waluea, reinen'-Aagap. Confesaion, n. des anf diesalbe gerlchtetea hochver- 
pooten Beligionfrieds," 16S8. 4. Willi this began a long aenea of qnarrelsoms writings, 
In Ihe titles of which this metaphor of the "apple of the eye" was repeated to salde^: 
"Brill anf den Evangel. Augapfel durch Andr. Fabricinm, 1629. 4. Svangeliaclien 
Angapfels Brillen-Bniier. Leipiig, 4. Ansbntier des genandt : Evangelischen Briilen- 
Bntzers. IMlUngan, 1B29. 4. Wet hat das Kalb ins Aug geschlagen t Dillingen, 1639. 
4. Dilling^ber KUber-Artat. 1629. 4., n. s. w." Comp. Meniel, vii. 194. 

" Banlte, FCrslen u. TBlker, iil. b& B. HennI, tU. 2S6. 

'* As earl}' as 16S9 there were negotiations abont it ; in .1630 it was regarded as estab- 
lished (Ranke, ill. 653), and Jan. IS, 1631, fonnallj abolished ; Uiberlin-Senkcnbefg, 
xzvl. 253. A. F. GfrCrer's Oeschlchte Gnitav Adolpbs, EonJe* t. Schwedeo, a. seiner 
ZeiL Stuttgart u. Leipzig, 1837. 8. 



times wavered, and Saxony separated herself from the confeder- 
ates by the Peace of Prague, Kay 30, 1635 ; yet stiJl the Protest- 
aot cause, supported as it was by Sweden, France, and the United 
Netherlands, attained at last a decided victory over the Imperial 
and Spanish arms. Negotiations for peace were hegun in 1645 
in Miiaster and Osnabriick ; the victories of Turenne and Wran- 
gel gave them urgency ; and they resulted at last ia the Peace 
of Westpkalia,^^ October 14, 1648. Proteatantiam in Germany 
obtained eqnal rights with the Catholic Church, and an import^ 
ant increase of power. In the north of Germany many foun- 
dations were secularized in favor of Protestant rulers ;'* of the 
Cathc^o princes, only Bavaria maintained Hie advantages it had 
acquired.'^ The Brcligious Peace was confirmed, and the contro- 
versies on particular points brought to a close by more exact state- 
ments and additions. In all affairs of the empire both religious 
parties were to have entirely equal rights.'" The right of refor- 

■• A. A. (AdmAilaml,BenedieUna,atluttiti]UrBubopofHiliIesIiaiin, f I668)Ar. 
cona pads Watphallcie. Franeof. 1698. i. (belt editloa : Adam Adami reUtio hiitorica 
ds pacMcBtiom Onmbrago-Hooaiterienti, cnn J. O. de Ueisni. Lipe., 1737. 1.) Joh. 
Qotlft-. T. Meiem (privy ocmncUor in Hanover, f 17U) Acta pads WntiJiallcae poblica. 
HanoTcr n. GflttingaD, 1734-86. S Theile, rol. A1k> ■ BagUUr, by 3. L. Walther. Got- 
tingrai, 1740. fol. — Tha tiro initnimenta of tbe peaco bsve been oRan pnbliahed : tn the 
Im^ origioal in J. J. SchmaiuMo'i Corpoa juris pablici S. R. Imp aeademicum, new 
edltka. Laips.,l>»l.e.,p.74lN. J. St. Patter's OeiitdesWeatphU.Friedeni. OotUo- 
gen, 1795. 8. B. S. Ffeib. v. Senkeoberg'a DaMellnng das OsnabrOck- a. Uiinateriaclien 
od. iogen. Weitphilucben Friedena. Fnnk£ ■. M., ISM. 8. 

'* Sweden Teadved Upper Pomeraiua and ROBen, a part of I^iwer Pomeranla, Bra- 
men, and Verden. To compensate foe ttteir claim* to these lands, Bnudenbnrg reoelTed 
the benedeea of Uagdebnrg, HalbentadC, Camiu, and Minden; Heeklenbnig had those 
of Sdiwerin and Batiebarg ; BmnswJck the aUtmoHva nuxtuia in Osnabriick and tbe 
dtdsten of Walkanried and OrOniagen ; Hesse Cusel recbired the abbey of Henftld. 

" Bavaria retained tha electoral (Ugnit; of tha PalatlnaU, tba Upper Palatinate, and 
the barony of Chalm ; and a new (the d^th) dectorate was eiwted for the Palatinate. 
Aflei the extiiiction of the Bavaiian boow this last electorate was to cease, and the Pa- 
lalinale line locceHt to the Bavarian dignity and possessions. 

■* After eonSnning the treaty of Paasau and the Angsbnig Religions Peace (Instmin. 
Paoia Osnabr., Art. V. J 1), It goes on : Quae vero de nonunllii in Articalls controversi* 
hao Tlansaetiona commiml paitinm pladto statute sunt, ea pro peipetna dictae Facit 
dMlarations, tam in Jodkiia, qnam ijibi obaervanda, habebuntur, donee per Dei grati- 
■m de Beli^oD* ipsa cenvcmerit, uen Mtala etjani* mm EccUriattici tea Poiilici, intra 
nt aini Imperitim, quocmqiu itmpon iiittrpotUa contradictione ti pn>U*atumt, gttat 
emmet mmut <( mkil vigor* ionm decbrandcr. In idiquLs omoibni anteni inter utrEua- 
qoe Beligionis Eleotorea, Prindpes, Statu omnei et dngulos dt aeqnalitaa exacta mn- 
tnaqne. According to j 61 and GS, the deputations and courts of the empire were to 
be eU»d by both parties, with an equal nnmber of memben. S B^- 1° cauii Beligiaiiia, 
onuubusqne aliis negotiis, aiii Status tanqoaniL mium corpus considerari nequcunt, nt 
etian Catholicis et Aognitanae CoDfesalanis Statlbus in duss partes euntlbn*, sola antl, 
cabOls compodtio lite* dlrimat, oon attenta votomm pluialltate. 

. DiclzedbyGoOgle 

238 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIT. I— A.D. 1517-lMS. 

mation in the states was confirmed in general tetme, thougli lim- 
ited so far as this — that the rights of each religious party in the 
domain of the other were to be defined according to the rule of 
January 1, 1624." All these regulations were likewise to hold 
equally good for the Reformed (Calvinists), who were now for 
the first time favorably acknowledged.** On the other hand, the 

" I. p. O., Art. V. I 2. According to 5 14, all bona ecckaoitUa inuttdiata an ta tkll 
to and remaia under the religioiu paitj which hail thero in poascMion Jirnury 1, 1624 ; 
and accordingly (in g 15) the JiurrmAim tctkHoMtiatm -waa to ba in force in fatnre. 
g S3. Qaot Capitnlara ant Canonici die I. Jan., anni 1624, uepiam rel AogniUnae Con- 
feuionla ret CathoUcl fHieront, totidem illlc ez atraqne religions enint semper, nee da- 
vi^dentibns nil! ejuadem rellgionSs congortes ■DrTJgentDr. — Exerdtlnm vero rellgionii In 
inixtis Eptacopatibns Ita reitltnatnr et pernuiiieat, oti et qnatenna id 1634 palam recep- 
lum permlaanmqne fiiit. | 26 and 26; aUo all the mediate church propertf irai to re- 
main with tbe rell^oaa paiij that had it In poaseaeion Jannoir 1, 1GS4. § 30. Qunnt 
Slalibaa immediaUa cam Jure Territorii et Saperloritada ex communl per totnm Imperi. 
um haetenua nritata praxi etiam jna raformandl exercitium Bellgionb competat, ac du- 
dum in Pace Religtoni* talinm Statuum anbditis, al a rdlgione Domini Territorii dia- 
■entiant, benelkloni emlgrandi conceaaam ; — conventam eat, hoc idem porro qnoqna ab 
Htrinaqne Religionla Statibus obserrari, nulliqne itatnl immedialo jns, qnod ipai rations 
territorii at anperioritatis In negotlo Beligionla cnnpetit, impedirl opurtere. % 31. Hoe 
lamennoD obstanta Stattnun CathoUcornia l^ndaaaaii, VanlU et Subdtti cbjoacDnqoa 
((eneria, qui live publicam aive privatom Aug. Conf. exercidum anno I6!4 qaacnnqas 
anni parte — babnemnt, retlneant id etiam inpoalenun una com annexU, qnatenna Ula 
dicto anno ezercneront, ant exercita fulase probats polenmL § 84. Plaenlt porro, nt 
iUi Catholicomm lubditl Angnstanae Conftaaionl addicti, at et Catholici Angnalanas 
Confeaiionia Statnom enbditi, qni anno 1634 pnblienm *el etiam privatum Rellglonia 
Huae exercitlnm nnlla anni parte habncxnnt, nac nan qni poet pacem palillcatam dein- 
cepa fntnra tempore diveraam a Territorii Domino Rellgionem pmfitebantur et amplec- 
tentnr, paticnter tolcrentnr, et conictentia libera doml devodoni snae aine Inqni^tione 
ant tutbationa privatim vacarc, in vlclnia tcto, nbi et qnoUea volnerint, poblico Rellgt- 
onla exercitio Inlereaae, vel llberoa anoa exteiia anae Religionla icholis, ant prlvatis domi 
praeceptotibna Inatmendoa commlttans non prohibeantnr. % 85. Siva autem Catholici 
■ii-eAugaatanaeConfeaaioniaftierintaabditi, nnllibi ob Religionem if eaptcatui habeantor, 
nac a mercatomm, opiflcam, Ant tribnnm comnmnione, — multo minoa pablicia coemite- 
riia, hODorere sepultame arceantnr. g 80. Qood ai vero anbditas, qni nn; pnblienm nee 
priTatnm snae RellglonU exercitlnin anno 1624 babuit, vet etiam qni post publicatam 
l>acem religionem mntabit, aoa sponte amlgrare Tolnerlt, ant a Terribirii Domino jnsaua 
fuerit, libemm el sit. ant retentia bonia ant alienada diaoedere, retenta per minlstroe ad- 
minbtrare, et qaotiea raUo id poatalat, ad rea aaaa inipiclendaa — libera et une literia 
commeatoa adire. { 37. Conventum autem eat, nt a Terriloriomm Domlnia iltii anbdi. 
tia, qui neqns pnbUcam, neque privatum exercitium religionia suae dicto anno habna- 
runt, — terminus non minor quinqnannio ; tilia vero, qni poat pieem publicatam Religio- 
nem mutant, non minor triennio, nisi tempns tnagia laxnm et apatiosnm impetrare poto- 
erint, ad emigrandnm praeflgatur. Aeear^n^f, the right of reformation, on tbe part 
of the princes, conld be applied (§ 80) onl]' in respect to the religion which had no pub- 
lic worship in 16S4 (% 31). If the prince tolerated It, It must be In aceordgnca with the 
proriaiona In S 84, 86 ; he might also force ita adherents to emigrate ; so $ 36. 37. 

** I. P. 0., Art. TIL § 1. All tbe righia reanlting from tbe present, as well as from 
the Religions Peace, were to be also conceded — lia qni Reformati vocantnr. Quoniam 
Taro controveniae Religionia, quae inter mode dictoa Protestaotca Tertnntar, hactenna 
non fMrant compositae, — adeoqne iUi duas parte* conatilunnt, ideo de Jure reformandl 



Emperor would not allow the peace to be extended to his heredi- 
tary lands ; only the mediate Silesian principalities had their pre- 
vioas religions rights confirmed to them.^' As a protest on the 
part of the Pope was of course to be anticipated, it was deprived 
of all influence beforehand,^* and so had no e0ect whatever when 
it actually came.^^ Although the Protestant oharches bad still to 

inter ntninqaa iU coaventam est, at at aliqaU PtiDeeps rel alios Terntorii Dominiu 
i-el klicnjos Ecdeatoa PatroDos postluc ad altertiu partis ucn tranilerit, aut Princlpa- 
tum, ant ditioDsni, nbi alteiitiB partii aacra exerddo poblico de praeseotl vigent, — nae- 
Iu9 herit, — ipil qnidetn ConcioQatorei aulicoa aoae CtmttwUatii citra inbditorum onm 
■ul pnejnciicinm lecam atqne in Residentia sua habere Ilceat. At (lU ei non sit, vel 
publicum Religionia eiercitiam, legta aut constltutioaas eccleaiaiticas fiactenna ibi re- 
csptaa immatare, Tel lempla, scholu, hiM[dUlia, aut eo pertineulfs ndiloa, peDsioDH, 
alipendia prioribua adimere, suoruinque eacrorum hoiaiaibos applicaie, vcl juris tairito- 
riilis, Episcopalis, Patronatns aliava qnocunqne praetcxtn lutiditis Uiuiitros alteriui 
ConfeiBliniia obtndcn, nlloinve alind impcdimeatoni aut prafjudicimn directs rel indi- 
recte •Iteriasiacria aflbrre. Et nt liaec couventloeo Gimiku obscrvelur, liceat boc mi;. 
talioDia coau ipiu commiuiitatibua prscjenlsre, vel quae pracscntandi jns non hatieiit, 
noKiinara idoneoi Schnlamm et EccleaUrnm Hiaiatcos, a publico loci Coniislario at 
lliuiMerio, el ejoadem cam praesentantibns vel noniiaaDdbus sunt rdigionla, tgI hoe 
•Icflcieale. eo loco, qnem Ipiae commiuiitates elcKeriut, examlnandas et Drdinindos, at- 
que a Prindpc vel Domino poatea aine recuaationB conflrmaados. 

>■ 1. P. O., Art. V. § 88. SUe^i etiam Principes Augoit. Conf. uddicd, Ducea acil. 
' in Briei;, IJegnlti, Miiasterberg et Oela, Itenique Clvitaa YntiBlavienils In libero suo- 
rum ante 1>eiinm obtentornm Jurinm et priHIegiomm, nccnon Aug. Onf. exercitio ex 
-gratia Caeaarva et Begii ipai* coaceaio maniitenebuDtnr. g 39. Qood vero ad Comitea, 
lUronea, Nobilea eommque aubdltoi in reliqnia Silcsiae Ducatibus. qui immedlala ad 
Cdmersin Regiam ipectant, tnm edam de praeaenti in AastriiL infeilori deeentes Coml- 
lea, Baronet et Mobiles attinet, qnamvls Caesareas MaJ. jua reformandi exercitiam Be- 
li^onia non mlnoa, qnam allia Regibua et Prindpibni compeUt ; tamen— ad Interren- 
tionem BegTBe UaJeaUtis Sneciae, et in gratiam intercedentlam Angoitanaa Conf, Sta- 
tuam pennittit, nt fjnamodi Comitea, Baronea at Nobiles, Ulorumqiui in praedictis SUe- 
atae Dncatibni aubditi ob profeaaiouem Ang. Conf. loco ant bonia cedere aut emigrare 
non teneantur, nee etiam prohibeantor dlctae Confcasionia exerciUum in locia vidoia 
extra lerrilorinm Crequsntare. j 40. Praeter haec aotem — Sacra Caea. MaJ. nllerioa 
pallicetar, ae illi*, qui ia bis Docatibns Ang. Conf. addicti tnnt, pro hnjoa Couf^ionia 
exercitio tres Eedesiai propriis eorum aninptlbaa extra dvltatea Scbwelnli, Jausr et ' 
tilogaviom props moenia — aetUficandaa — conceuuran. J II. Et cum de majors Bell- 
gionis libeitate at exercitio in supra dictia et nliqnia Caeaareae Ma], et Dotons Anatria- 
coe regnis et provincils coneedendo in prseaentl Tractato vane actnm sit. nee tamen ob 
CaesareauoniDi PlenipotaDtiariomm contradictiones couTenire potuerit; Regla Haj. Bn< 
ecias et Ang. Con£ Ordlnea facnllatem aibl rsierrant, eo nomine In proximia Comitlla 
anl alias apad Soum Caes. UaJ., pace tamen umper permatnnia et exclnsa omni vie- 
Isntia et hostititate, nlterlns reapecUve amice luterrsnlend) et demiase intercedendi. 

" I. P. 0., Art. V. g 1 ; aee above. Note 18. 

" Bj the boll, Zelo domas Dei, d. tB. Nov., 1648, pnbllgbed Bd Jan.. 1651 ; iu Dow- 
er's Hist. d. Bom. Pabtte. edidon oT Rambacb X, IL SI. 3ana cum intlmo doloria senan 
accepimns, quod per plurea pacia Otnibrugia — neenon alteriua picls Monoateril — ini(«' 
nun articidos gravlsaima Religioni cathollcae— iilata Aierunt praejadicia. Etenim pac> 
lunibna — inter alia bona eoclesiastica aliaqne ab haereticis occupata iilla eoniroque snc- 
■.'.-.•iHiribaa to perpetoam addicnntar ; haeretida Augnitanse, ntvocant, conreasionis Ube- 
nim suae baereseoa exenitlnm In plerlaqns locia permltcjtiir, et locamm pro aediOcaudli 


240 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. lfil7-lBi8. 

enoounter mnoli oppression and oraft, yet they attained, within 
oettain hmite, a legally impr^nable position, and adequate means 
to insote and defend their rights. 

$ 13. 


In the year 1624 the Swiss Reformed Church rejoiced in the 
oonourrence of several events of a favorable character. The prin^ 
cipality of Sax joined the Reformation ;' Savoy, in its treaty with 
Berne, was obliged to give pledges that it would not make any 
religious changes^ in the districts of Thonon, Temier, and G-ex, 
which it received back; the evangelicals of Glame, after many 
attacks, were also recognized by the Catholic cantons.^ In Swite- 
■d hone cffectom tampUi assigmtlD promittitiiT ; Ipalque cum ettliolicli >d pnbllu mn- 
nil al offidt, ac ad DDnDnlliM Arthieplacopattu, aliaaqne diipiitatei St benaficla ccclest- 
aaUca, pracamqne primarianun Ferdlnando In Imperatonm electo a praeTata Seds apm. 
Mlica concesaarBm particlpatlonem idmittiiDtar ; Anaatae, Jnra pallii, coiiflmatlanai, 
DifloKa papalea, at bqjasmodijitra etreaerraUonM in bonia ecclolaatida dietaa OtraAs- 
sionii Aogoitanae cxclndantnT; confirmattonos electioiiiiiii, wn poatulationmn pnaten- 
■ornm Arcbiepiicapornm, EpUcoponim ant PnclBtomm ejiudam Coufeidonli pctcitatl 
aaecQlarl attribnnntur ; pinres Arcbicpiscopattu, EidKi^atna, Honastsria,— «t alia bone- 
Sda at bona accleaiaitica Prioclpibiu haerelicis eonimqae haeredibiu, etjam mblau 
denominatione ecelaaiaatlca, [n fandum perpelaotn aab dignitatia MecolaTia tftolo conce- 
doDtor; contra pacam hqjtumodi ullamve ajni articnloin nHUajon oaaoniea val dvilla, 
— jnmnanta, ant concordata cam Romania Pontlflcibtu, dIUtc alia atatnta, aive pollUca, 
aiva aecleaUatica, decreta, dUpenwdonfls, abaolntionec, ant allu exceptiooea allagari, 
andiri, tcI admltti dcbere dbponitnr ; nnmenia aeptam ElactorBm Imperii olim apoato- 
lies auctoritata pnwflnitna, aina uoatto et sedli praabtaa beneplacito aDgetor, et octaru 
Electorataa in txvortm Caroll Lndovid, Conltii Palatini Bbani, luentid, iDstltaitari 
alUqns multa, quae pndet nftrre, orthodoxae icllgjonl sediqne pracfatae Bomanae, et 
tnfarioribiu Eccleaiis, caet«riaqnB praemiMia mmmopata prBCjndldalia et damnoaa de- 
cernnntur. Et qoanivU Yen. Fniter, Efdacopna Neritenanais, norier et 8«dii pnaUtm 
-Hnmciiu— faarit palam noatro— nomine proteatatna, ejosmodl artioulea eaaa Irritaa, 
nnllot; — ac notiaaimi jnria sit, qoamcnnqas tranaactianent aen paetloDam In raboi ec- 
cleaiaatlcla line pracfatae Sedia anctorilale fiictam nnllam naUinaqng niboria et momentt 
ezlatera: attamen quo e£Bcaciaa praemiaaornm tndamnitati conaoltom sit; — pnedictoi 
— ntriosqne pacia articoloa, caeteraqne In dictia inatmrnentia contenia— Ipso Jara nolla, 
Inralida, injosta, damnata — omnino falsse, esse et in perpetno fote; ntmiaemqne ad 
lUorom, — atiamai Jnramento Tallata tint, obaervatlonam teneii, — atqne perinda le d 
nunquam enansasant, pro non eztantibaa tt non bctia perpetoo baberi dabera, tmore 
eamndam praesentlnm decamimni et declanmns. E( nibilomlnna ad abnndantienm 
caBtalam — articiiloa praefatos aliaqne praemiasai — potaatatis ptanitndina pmitns damna- 
mtia, reprobamna, caasamua, annnllamiu, Tiribaaqae et effecto Tacnamni. 

■ HottlngcT's HeWet. Kircheogeach., ill. 887. 
' Hettinger, lit 899. 

■ Just aftar It bad been anggHlad to the canton. brthaCathoIlca to azpd all the Re- 
fonncd preachen, and to tolerate mdy CatfaoUe wonhlp ; Hettinger, iii. 880. 


CHAF. I.— SWISS BETOSUATIOIT. J 13. 16« TO 1G48. 241 

erlaod, however, as in GerBoaoy, a more decided Gatholia entag- 
oniam now began to show itaelf. After 1569 this new zea) was 
especially stinmlated by Charles Borromeo, Arohbishop of Milan 
(t 1584), who visited in person the Catholic cantons, and endeav- 
ored to unite them for the suppression of heresy ; his agency was 
particularly directed to the Italian part of Switzerland.* Through 
him the Jesuits, too, obtained foothold in Lucerne, 1574, and in 
Freiburg, 1586,' and here, as in G-ermany, opened an uninterrupt- 
ed war&re against the Reformation.* As, however, the Jesuits in 
the poor country districts did not find enough aid to propagate 
their plans, and as the old Swiss monks and clergy were too rude 
to be of much avail, Borromeo introdnoed the new order of the 
Capuchins, which soon^ became widely diffused, and appointed 
tiie most numerous and zeabus champions of Cathohoism that 
were to he found in Switzerland. Besides this, he founded in Mil- 
an the Collegium Helveticuw? in 1579, for the eduoatioo of mis- 
nonaries for Switzerland. At last, for condaoting these varions 
operations, ho procured the establishment of a standing nnnoio 
fbr Switzerland,' in 1579, By this means, as the Catholic can- 
tons soon afterward conceded to this nunoio spiritual jarisdiction"> 
(1580), the papal influence was unusually advanced. A new 
zeal took possession of the Swiss Catholics. Jacob Christoph, 
Bishop of Basle, made humself secure, in 1590, by a league with 
the Catliolie cantons,^' and then soon expelled all the Reformed 
worship from the places (Laufen and Zwingen) under his control." 
In 1586 the Catholic cantons pledged themselves by the G-olden 
or Bohomean League, to be steadfast in the Catholic faith, to 
hold by and protect eaoh other in the same,'^ and in 1587 made 

• Hottingu-, Ui. 900, 910. Do Porta Hist It>fbn>i.Ead.Bhut.,ii.l. HeTn'iBmi- 
(bL Ganuinda in Locarno, U. 361. 

• HotUngar, UL 907, S15. 

' In EMbarg they Mt np a printing-office tat thia purpose ; Hottlagar, UL 980. 

' TlieflnldaisteilnAltdoifinCri,I680; tlieii,1681,iaStai)iinUnt«nr*tdai; ISSfl, 
in Sehwyi; 1S88, in Lne«nM; U90, In ApptnuU; U9B, in Badtn, etc. Hotanger, 
Ui. S14. 

• HotUnger, iiL 911. 

• Hotdogtr, iii. 9IS. 

" Hottinger, ill. 9B5. VWaUAn do la Tk da Papa Hxto V., ttadolt da lltaUni da 
Orag. leti (il Parii, 1690), il. 49. 

" Hottinger, ilL 910. 

" Hottinger, iil. 918. 

" Hottingnr, iii 981. Tlw doenmeitt ii in LasAt^ BeKfanUnuig HglrMiieber Q*- 
Khichte, X. SSI. 

VOL. IV, — 16 

Diciiiized by Google 


a league with Spain, ia view of a possible religions war.** Aroused 
by them, the Catholics in Appenzell began to persecute their Re- 
formed bretlu«D ; and peace in this canton was only restored by 
giving up the outer district of Bhoden exclusively to the Reform* 
ed worship, and the centre to the Catholics, and afterward, in 1593, 
by conceding to both parts a separate central authority.'* French 
Switzerland was constantly threatened by Savoy with civil and 
ecclesiastical subjection. The chief ecclesiastical iostmmentatity 
in this matter was that of Francis of Sales, provost and, from 
1603, nominal Bishop of Oeneva, but having his seat In Annecy.'* 
He especially labored for the conversion of the Ueformed in the 
districts coded by Berne to Savoy ; and, as milder measnres did 
not prove sufficient, he influenced the Duke, in 1596, to suppress 
the Reformed worship by violence, setting aside the earlier treaty." 
In accordance with his advice, tiie Duke, in 1603, caused the city 
of G-eneva to be attacked by a fanatical multitude assembled by 
a jubilee-indulgence ; but this shameful plot did not succeed," and 
Qeneva afterward found protection against the schemes which 
were constantly set on foot for its destruction,'^ partly in the jeal- 
ous of France toward Spain and Savoy, partly in the aid of the 
Reformed cantons, especially Berne. Still mora perilous was the 
position of the Reformed in Italian Switzerland. The Canton 
of ihe Grisons, though the Reformed preponderated, was divided 
as to religion ; in its ItaUan portions, particularly in Veltlin, Ca- 
tholicism was greatly preponderant Besides this, its position be- 
tween Spanish Uilan and Austrian Tyrol made it of importance to 
these great powers, struggling for the supremacy in Italy. ' Thus 
it became the object of various ecclesiastical and political intrigues ; 
and in consequence, ecclesiastical and poUtical divisions were fo- 
mented and came into conflict. From Milan constant efforts were 
going forth to arouse a fanatical Catholicism in the Italian piinoi- 

■* The docmnmt ij In Domont Cotps IHptomatlqae, v. 1. 1G9. 

>• QottlDiter, ill. »48, 96!. 

>* La Vis d« 8. n«Di;<n( de 8>le», pw U. da Hinolltw. S Todisj. Ptrii H., b. 
i;«. 12. 

" Huwlller, i. 2S1. 

■' Thiuiiaa, lib. 119. Bpon's Hlit. de Gtnivt, H. B71. Hene* in Qeneva Oia anniul 
R»tiTal of think igiTtng cnlled L'Eieaiait. 

" To thli bdonged cspeclallf the plin oT Pope Gragoiy XV., to onlt* Pnnce ud 
8«va}-, In order to dettrcv Oentra <16I3, 1614). See Benke't FQntan and T«lker, \t. 



palities.^ The final result was a horri'ble massacre, by whii^ the 
Catholio inhabitants of Yletlin, in July, 1630, exterminated the 
Reformed living among them ; at the same time, they renounced 
allegiance to the authorities of the Canton of G-risooa.^' There- 
upon the Italian principalities were seized by Spain, while Austria 
took possession of those districts of the canton that bordered on 
the Tyrol, and there, too, in 1621, suppressed the Reformed wor- 
ship." But as in this way the important get^raphioal connec- 
tion between Oermany and Italy fell under the Spanish-Austrian 
power, France and Venice took up arms for the G-risons; and 
thus, though the Swiss took no direct part in t^ Thirty Year^ 
"War, there sprung up here a contemporary struggle closely con- 
nected with it. The Crermau part of the G-risons regained its old 
freedom ; but by the Treaty of Kilan, 1639, the cantos received 
back its Italian districts only under the condition that no other 
worship but the Catholio should be tolerated.^ The Ee£>niied 
were totally expelled from Wallis as early as 1636, after long per- 



§ 14. 


[ABbm OinStly, Bobmen o. Mabrcn fm Zdtalter dei Befonn., 2 Bde. Png., 18£T. 
Fraai Piluky, Bfihrneni Geschlebts, 8 Bde. IS&t. Tomeic, G«fehiehte BShmeiit. 
Peuheck, Ocub. iez UcgeDTefomuUon In BShmen. Dreid., ISU. Eliwtlt, Die 
■he s. nena Lahn d. Bbhm. n. Hibr. Bii3d«r. Dan^g, I7SS. He Befbrm&tlon «ad 
Autt-Bclbnnation In Bohemia, S vab. 8vo. LondoD. E. A. H alter, Funf BuGh«r Tom 
BttmlidMn Eriege.] 

" Th« rdlgloDi aqnalt^ conceded la I5ST (§ 10, Note 44) ma at once Tiolsntly op. 
poeed : era Da Porta, Hist. Kef. Eeetea. Rhaet. L, il. 380. Ai earlj u 1688 ■ plui br 
the eztlnctiDU of the Befonoad wu diieiuMd between the Catholics of Tletlln and the 
^luisb Gorernor of &Dlan. Botminea also had part In this ; see his letter to the nnit- 
elo Speuani, of Hay S4, IE04, In De Porta, 11. S8. Instigated and led by the priests, 
«a tnanirectlDn brcAe ont, wblob, howerer, C^ed of lis purpose, as the Beforaed were 
pTspued fiir lt{ lUd., p. SS. 

B BotUnger, UL 1017. De Porta, U. SS9. 

» De Port^ U. 4G1. HiberUn'* Nenola Ttsticht BeldugeKUcbte, xxr. ISl. 

» Da Porta, U. &a. 
" ~ " r, ULIOW. 


244 FODBTH PEBIOD— DrP. !.— A.D. 1617-16W. 

Luther's Kefonnation nowhere aroused more cordial sj^mpathy 
than in Bohemia. Both Calixtines and the Bohemian Brethren 
rejoiced in this new support in their contUot with Bome, and the 
latter also welcomed the doctrines with whioh, for the most part, 
they agreed. By tetters and messengers both parties soon greet- 
ed the Beforraer. 

Luther, however, still found much to criticise in the views of 
the Brethren,' and endeavored to set them ri^t by his treatise 
" On the Adoration of the Sacrament," 1 533.^ At first the Breth- 

< Luther first tpoke oat more it leDph nboat tba Bobemiuii in the eicplaiution of 
MHile aniclei of hit Hrmon od the Venerable SicruDcnt of the H0I7 Bod; of Chriit, in 
the baginning of the year 16S0 Cu> Walch, zix. 564). Here be takea tbe part of the 
Callxtiiiei, althoDgb atill holding Ibe commanion rtb una to be allowable ; but he de- 
clare! the PIcards, or Brethren, to be beretio, because, aa he had aeen In one of Ibdr 
booki, they " did not beliera that the Beah and blood of Chriit were truly present, be- 
ndei soma other heretical matters." To the same effect, in June, 1&20, in his Appeal to 
the Cbriitlaa Nobility of the Gennaa Nation, So. 34 (see $ 1, Note 60); jet he here 
■peaba of tike error of the Picards dnblonaly. Tberenpoa two depatiei of the Bietliren, 
John Botn and Mich. Weiss, came to him, in 1SS2 (Comenii Hist. Prat. Bohem. ed. 
Baddeus, p. S2), by whom he was bronght to a more bvorable view, and led to distin- 
gniah between their real ballef and its imperfect doctrinal exprenion ; see Ep. ad 8pa- 
latinnm, dd. 4. Jul., 1533 (ds Wette, ii. 317): Hcardi apnd me legatos habnemnt, de 
fide sua cansalentes : invent ferme omnia aana, nisi quod obscnra phrasl et barbara 
atnntuT pro Scriptorae phruL Deinda qnaa me morant, snnt, qnod parmlorum bip- 
tlamnm nuUloa Gdel ct tmctat assamnt, et tamsn eos bafitisant, et rebaptisant ad le 
Tenicntes ex aostrls; delnde septem sacramenta ponnnt. Nim caelibatna saeerdotalis 
inter em placet, cum non necessartum faciant, sed libenim. Adeo nosquam eat in orbe 
pnritos ETangelii. An et fidd et operam sanam babeant aententiam, nondum liqoet. 
Tilde enim dublto 1 ds Eocharlstia nihil blsnln Tideo, nid bllant verUs, sic nee de 
Baptism 0. 

■ LAtheT desired of tbe deputies (Note 1) that the Btetbtcn would express theb doc- 
trine about the Lard's Sapper in a more distinct ifianner in a special treatise. Tbere- 
npoD they sent to him tbeir Catechism, in a Latin translation prepared t>y their Senior, 
XJieas (in German in Ehwall's Die alte a. nene Lehre dar BShmischen and MUirisdisn 
BrOder. Danzig, IT66, s. 866). Luther first took exceptions to the position "that 
Clirtst Is not In tlie Sacrament independently and naturally, and that tbe Sacrament is 
not to be adored ;" and on this account he wrote his essay " Voni Anbeten de* Sacra- 
ments des hell. Lelchnama Jes. Chr. an die BrOder in Bohmen a. Mfthren, Waldensei 
genanot" On Walch, six. 169EI). He here acknowledges their excellence vith great 
regard and fHendshlp, but stataa to them fhukly the doctrinal points on which be still 
takes oflense. [TbcM nttt not only (1) to the Sacrament, but also (3) to their baThig 
cliildren bapliied in view of their ftitare fltilh ; (9) patticnlarty to tlieir doctrine about 
Sdth and works, that " to beliera in Qod means to follow God in love and good works ;" 
(4) lo their >e*en Sacraments ; (6) that they inusted that mlDiaters should lanaiD on- 
nwrried, and In case of marriage quit the office. Yet be concedea that nuny things may 
mean differently In Bohemian from what they seemed to do to him in Idtin. He also no* 
ommenda strongly the stndy of Qreak and Latin on the part of the miniiti]'.] S. 1634 : 
" Aufk erste, was Ich am Sacrament des Lelbea Christi an ench Fehl babe, iit gnng im- 
ben angeadgt (comp- § 8, Note 33). Wiewol wirs noch nicht in den Schwang biingen 
mAgen bey uns, dass wir so sittig n. christlich das Sacrament handetlen onter tieyder 
Geatalt, n. lolche Uebnng dar Lehrs n. Liebe n. iltligi Letian nnter ons an&lchtn, als 



ren felt repelled by Luther's views ;^ but at last tliey obauged 
mauy tbings after his bints, and be responded to this dociUty by 
publishing,* in 1533, the Confession which they had handed in to 

•nu TOO ench hAren. E> lit noch grDno mit nn>, n. gehet tangsam von lUtten: biltu 
aber (Qr una." 2. "Data ihi die juogea Kinder tluftt suf lukcinftigeii Glaubeo, den 
»e lemen aollea, weno aie zor Veraunft kommen, nicbt suf gegenwILrlii^D." Tbc cbil- 
dren, be held, were endowed with faith Ibrough the fuith of the Church. S. Their ex- 
pUoattotiof failh: " In Got! BlSnbcD «ay mit Uelie □. gutcn Werkea Uotteuachfolgeo." 
4. "Dan ihr noeh ans der papbtischea Kircho balit sietien Sucramenlc, bo doch die 
Schrift nicbt mebr dann dia zwey, die leaf u. den Tieeh dea Uemi, hat." h. That thej- 
their " Dlener Oder Pfleger, dje «ich bey nns Prieater n. P&ffen beiiaen," " eheloe zu Uci- 
Ikui anbielten." " Wieirol icli daa gsme gehurt babe, dut ihr niemand ivebret thclich 
za wenlea, aber das Predlgtamt mOsse ei lasaen."— " Daa Bind die StQclte, die biit an 
each twwusat nocfa etwaa nuuigela an der lautem Lehre des Evaaeelii, uoter welchen 
leh das ghlaate achte, daaa ich Tom Glaoben a. Werlien eizahlet habe. Denn iriewol 
ich nicbt veiaa, vb ibr recht oder nnracht haltet ; ao lehe ich doch wobl, daaa ibrs nicbt 
klOilich dargebeL— £a mag aber aucb wobl tain, wte die £nem aagen, dua euer Ding 
gai Tie! basa in eurer Bdmiichen Sprache lante, denn ihn lu Latein gebenkonnet: da- 
ram Tiellueht etliche StOcke andera von nna Tentanden verden, dean itira ballet. — 
Wenn iclia bej ench arlangen kflnnte, irollte ich bitten, dau ihr die Sprachen nicht aln 
veracbtet, aondem veil ihr natil kGnntet, eore Prediger o. gescbickte Knabaa altzamal 
UesMt gut Lateinlach, Qrlectiiacb u. EbirUsch lemen. Ich weiaa amb nrwabr, daaa war 
die Schrift predigen soil u. anilegeu, n. bat nicbt H&lf^ aua lAteiuIacbar, Griechlicher, 
D. Ebriiicber Sprache, u. aoll ea alleiii ana seiner Httttarapraehs tbun, der vird gar 
manchen aehfinen Fahlgriff tbun. — Hiemit befeble ich each Gottea Gaaden, n. bitte de- 
miUbiglicb, aaere Liebe wotte dieaa mein Scfaniben nlcht in Teracht anfoehroen, ala 
biilte ich enere Febl Liut gehabt an rUgen ; aondani weil ihr wijiaet, daaa man each fiir 
dia ftrgesten Kelaer b&lt, ich Zeagnisa get>e, wie gar viel nUiet ihr sej-d dem Erangelio, 
dann alls andere, die roir beluuint >iBd.~-Weii ich hdie, dais von Gottea Giiaden bey 
ench ao tan fainer, tOchtiger Unaserlicber Wandel laC, daaa maun nicht ao schwelgel, 
rtisst n. aanft, flucht n. •chHSiet, pranget ti. ogentUch Dbel tbnt, vie be; ana ; aondem 
ein jeglicber aicb atanar Arbeit nUiren innas,'-u. anch niamand darben lasiet : liaba ich 
mich nicht mAgmi snthalten, n. ana ehristlicber Pflicht ench anieigen, was mich dGokt. 
das nocb an enrem Innerlicben Wandel dea Glanbena n. der Lelira Mangel babe, welcbea 
ich gerae anfi alierlanlerste aehen a. hflren wollte. Dean vir, die -irir mitten hi Sodo- 
ma 1L Gomorra a. Babylonbi wohnen, nicbt seheii, vie irir mocbten einen aolchen fbi> 
nsn, zBchligen Wandel anawendig BDrichlen, Gott helfb nns denn bass; so baben vir 
doch die recbta, lautate Iabr« des Evangelii, ala dnen bellen liohtatar, mitten unter 
diesem varkabrten u. muchlaohtigen Geachlecbt der Fmstsmiss, den wir Jedennann mit- 
ttaeilen, n. wiedenun von Jedermann anch gebesaert werden vollten ; welchaa wir aucb 
von eucb gewartau. Die Gnade nnser* Hem Jean Christi ity mit each. Amen." 

■ In tbe yaar 1534 John Hera was again sent as a depn^ to Lntber, in order to in- 
qain into the Mmleiiastlcal order of the new cborch; bnt they separated nnaatlaGed 
(Comaaina, ad. Boddens, p. 22). Among tbe Brethren was publisheda Bohemian reply 
M Luther's ezceptiona (Extncts In Job. Hederici Examinatio Caidlnm Doctrinae Fra. 
tram. Francof. ad Od. 1S50, Svo | in German In CarpioVs BeU^ontantenuchnng d. 
Bdhm. 0. MUr. Bnider, a. 71S If.). 

* The original Conftealon, written in Bohemian, had been translated into German by 
Uichael Weiss, with eereral alterations fkvoring the Zwiuglian doctrine of the Lord's 
Sapper ; and thus it was first printed at ZDrich in 1632. The eldsra, diaaati^ed with 
Ihia, csoaed a new translation to be prepared, which waa iaaned at Wittenberg, 1531 : 
" Baehenscboft des Qlaabena, der Dienst n. Ceremonien der Bnider in BOfamen a. lUt>- 
ren, welche too etlichen Pickarden, n. Ton etiichen Waldensar genannt werden, sammt 
einer nQtalicben r«reds Dr. HaiUn LMhen" (tha Preface is also in Lnther's works, 


246 FOtJBTH PEBIOD^DIV. I.-A.D. 1617-16*8. 

Uie Margrave Qeoige of Brandeaborg in 1533 ; and in the Prefaoe 
he expressed mnoh regard for them, and showed great leniency 
toward their peculiar dogroatio formulas.' Thus he regained the 
confidence of the Brethren, and was often vbited and questioned 
hy them." Following the example of the German Protestants in 
Augsburg, flie Brethren also handed in a Confession of Faith' to 

by Walch, zit. S06). A new tmulatlon is tha Apologiii icrae doctrinae toram qui Tul- 
go sppelUotor Wkldeiuei tcI Plcardl, obUta D. Gcorgio March. Brand, none demnm 
mnltig In lodi incta et ncognita ■nno 1&3S. ViLebei^. 4. reprinted in Lfdii Waldensia, 
I., ii. S2. In the time bctwasn the flnt and tfaia rerisHl transUtian accarred tb* diacos- 
Dons of tbg Bnthren aboat Uie Ilmiia baptitmi of tfaoM who wcie conterted fttun 
Roma : thia rabapttim had bean until noir ■ costom with tbem, hot it wai iboiiihed. 
In the Apologia, in the Prebce, t !, and Pan IV. I>e Bapliinio aquae, f 77, then is ■ 
long diaeouioD of the reasons which liad prerionily led them to adopt rebaplitn, *nd 
for its present abolittcm. The fides Christi is, after f. IS, iUiui niaericordiae, nntri gri- 
tuitomiaerentis, habenda fidncia. Fol. S9: Socramenta qnemadmodam mnt res exter- 
nae lenailei et tenense, ita etiun ad extemos corporeosqne sensus perreUendoa, a qui- 
boa meoa et intellectns omnia reripiant, — institnta : qnamm qnidem qnaedam »b ipto 
Chriito, qnaedam Tero ab Ecdeda tradita snnt. — Qoae retn institnliniiis Christi snnt, 
haec apud noa modis omnibna praeitare, ac incomparabiliter magis ad rationem aalati* 
reqniri. That the trread and wine in the Lord's Snpper are tnil]- the bodj and tdood of 
Christ, is often Inaiated upon ; bnt it is further eiplained, f. IDl vena : Qnod ai quia ad- 
hue mentam noatram in iis rtquirat andinqne -relit, dicimui, credimus et auerimus, cor- 
pus Christi hie ease vete, epiiitnaiiter, efficaciter, sacramentaliter, sed non carporaliter, 
live aeniibiliter craporilms, led bene spiritibns ae mentibns noetris. 

' Lntherhere says that for along time ha cenld not nndera land the explanationi of lb* 
Brethren about their doctrine, became tbej made use of entirely different ejiprenjont. 
But after much diacoaaion with them about their doctrine of the Lord's Sapper, he had 
aaeertained that they agreed with him that In the Sacrament the true body and blood of 
Christ were recelTod. "Daich daaStOdie befknd, ward Ich gelinder gegen ihirmllian, 
weil sie doch aonat von der heil. Dreyfaltigkeit, von Christo, von dem ewigen Lebea, a. 
von alien Artlbnln d«a Glautiens nicbt anrecht iehreten noch hielten, tL beschloaa, wcil 
de nshe bey der Schrift geblleben, dam man aia gar onbiliig Ketaer geacholtan hitle, 
Bonderiicb bey den Papiaten." He pabltahed this book to pmmate agreement with the 
Brethren. " Dann wiewofal ich obgeoannter Bruder Weiie tm reden ulcht weias aliin- 
nehmen ; so will ich sie doch aoch wiederam nIcbt fibereilan, ooch to ebea twingen, 
nachmeinerWeiae in reden, aofem wir aonat dec Sacben elns werden n. liMbeD, bia dasx 
Gott welter aehicke nach aeinem Willen. Denn wdl aie ihn Lefare in nnoi aolehen 
Methodon oder Ordnung gefaaset haben, deagleichen weder der Papst uoeh alia die aeinen 
nicht haben i— ao haben doch wlr auf unienn Theil eine heller n. gewisser Welae, — von 
der Gnaden u. Vergebnng der SOnden tn reden, weU wlr die Werke a. Glanban ao rein 
n.richtig von einander schelden, n.einem jeglicbenaeia^genAtt n. Amt nuchreiljen. — 
Derhalben befahle Ich die* BOchleln zn lesen n. an nrtbellen alien fiommen druten, u. 
bitte, dasB sie mit una atleaammt beten woUen Gott nnaem Tatar um Eintrtehtigkelt 
der Lehre u. de* Glaubens : n. ob ]emand wbe, dem nicht gnug in dieaem Blkdilaui ge- 
achehea win, der wdlte daa anaehen, wte ^ aich dernQthigllch vhiatan, u. weun aie 
schon nicbta andera damit vei^nen, so lata doch billlg, dass man ne das inbrochen 
Rohr u. gtumnend Toeht seyn lane. Deou wlr alia aelbat an<ji noch nlchl ao gana u. 
voIikomoKn dnd." 

• Thus in ieS5 aome Brethren were with him ; aee hla letter to their Senior, Benedict 
Gfibe, April 18, 1685 (de Wette, iv. BM), alao 1588 and 1M2 ; aee Coroenins, ed. Bnddeua, 
p. 2a, 96. 

' ProMminin ConCMdonia aim. 16TS, in CanemtU HIM. Namtio de Ftalmnt Orthnd. 



King Ferdinand in 1533. However, they only acquired that si- 
lent toleration which had heea long conceded to them on acootint 
of tiie oiroumstanoea of the times. 

Among the Caliztines, too, the doctrine of Lntber soon gained 
an entrance.^ An assembly of the Estates in January, 1524, as- 
sented to articles which provided for the continuation of the ref- 
ormation begun by Huss, in the way set forth by Luther,* And 
the opposing party, which was strongest in Prague, effected the 
abolition of these articles, in July, 1524,*" and the renewal of the 
validity of the old compactata ; yet the number of the Lutheran 
Galixtines greatly increased, and the only difference between them 
and the Brethren consisted in their not adopting the strict church 
discipline of the latter." 

Thus, at the period of the Smaloald war, the largest part of Bo- 
hemia was attached to the Reformation. In the attack on the 
Elector of Saxony all these Utraqnlste likewise saw that their 
own &ith waa in peril. Hence their estetes denied to King Fer- 
dinand the aid of their troops ; they assembled of their own mo- 
tion, prepared en army, and united with the Elector.'^ After the 
defeat of the latter, they were also obliged to submit.'^ There- 

EcdHiii in Bohemia, p. STO : contbadoneni hano Ecdesiuiun niwtimnmi, reliquli pleaio- 
nm, Bohemica lin^cna a noatrii conMripCam anno 16BG, eihibaenmt Begi — Feidinando 
II. Domini, qui Ecdeaili nostris conjnDCli >iuit et In voa dilioiie locum nobia caneednnL 
QdI Rax et accepit et napondlt Dominonin noatronun legatii beoigoiasiiDC, aaqne cod- 
CbhIo mox typia exprassa Ix^cmin, et paulo poat Id linguam lalinam converga, u( Vite- 
bergae typia exprimeretoT. Confteido Fldai ae Bcligionis Baronnm ac Nobilium regni 
Bohamias Secen. ac lovkt. Ronanomm Bohemias, ate, Regi Tiennas Aoetrtae aub anno 
Dom. l&3fi, oblata. Witeberg, i. a. 4, vith a Preface b; Luther, reprinted in an Ap- 
poDdlx to Lydil Waldensia, loin, il (alio ia Niemejer, CoUectlo Confeuioanm in Ecele- 
•iia BefMnatia publicalanun, p. TTl). 

* Lettan of two Utraqoiit clergTinen to him, 1G19 ; aaa above, \ 1, Note EO. Luthet't 
Admonition to tha Babemian land aMembl]-, JqI^ 10, I52S, in da Wette, IL SS5. 

' See Libri da Caribni et 8«ditlantbiu in ComrauBitate Pragenal regiumte D. Ludovl- 
co Bege Hangarlae. Tbeaa make the aarenth book In 6. B. Pontani a BraitenbeTB Bo* 
bemla Pia. Francof. 1608, fol. p. »4. See Choae articlei, ibid. p. 98. 

" Tha conDler artielea aet for^ hj the magiatracy of Prigae ; lee in Bohemia 'Pia, p. 
108. On tJieae eontrarar^ea between the atdct Ctiaqiiiiti and the adherent* of the Oer- 
mao BeformatiDn, lee Von Bni^olti, Qeicli. der Begiernog Ferdinands I., iv. 4S9. 

" The en*afi of the Bntbrea, who came to Lather in 1613, related (Comeaiui, ed. 
Bnddena, p. 2S), qoomodo Hnaaitieaa par Bohemiam et Moraviam Eccleiiae paulatlm 
Id Latheraninnam tnnaeando, doctrinam qnldem ETaagelii recipiaat, in vitae tamati 
elniatianae atsdio nihil emendent. Bemque illiun detrimento cedere Ecde^ noBlria ' 
— dam liceatioal alibi qnoqna pnrnm ETangelium line diaciplinaa jugo haberi posse Jao* 
Untee, nt aa nol>fa nemo implina adjangat, aonnalli etiam recedant, efficiant. 

■< Ueniel'a nenera Genih. det DenUchen, ill 71 fll Too Bacboltt, Geach. der Be- 
glening Fetdinaodi I., t). Ul. 

•■ Meniel, iU. SU. Ton Baclulti, tL «H. 


248 FOUETH PEBIOD.-DIV. I.— A.D. J517-I6«. 

Upon Ferdinaiid (1547) gave orders that in the royBl domains in 
fiiture only Catholics and Utraqoi^ts, after ilie standard of tlie 
compactata, should be tolerated, but not the Fioards, or Brethren. 
Many of the latter now emigrated to Poland and Russia ; bat the 
lai^er part contrived to maintain their gronnd in Bohemia and 

The CalLxtineS) too, would not be brought back to the compac- 
tata, bat adhered in part to the Lutheran, in part to the Swbs 
Confession." Next, when the JesuiU, &om 1553, came into Bo- 
hemia taking the lead in fighting against the Reformation," they 
insisted that these compacts should be enforced ; while the Galix^ 
tines straggled, on the other hand, to have them done away. Max- 
imilian II. behaved very circumspectly toward the latter," but 
could not wholly protect them against the persecution of the Cath- 
olics, newly stimulated by the Jesuits.^" When, in 1575, the Ca- 
Uxtines and Brethren united,'' and handed to the King at the Diet, 

irieo-cbronolog. Ecclesiaram SlsToalcanua TnJ. 
■a PicMdi. qnl nee Hcm«n«e, att Bo- 
hamios, I. a. CallitiDu Ecclnlu mbjici velient, diTcnditis mis bonis intra diei 42 om- 
dbna regiis poBBeBuonibiu excedemiL ILli enim, qui in Aindifl degebant BtTonum et 
eqaestriB Ordinit Tiromm, neqiuqaun axtemiinall sant. I^chncr'i Entstetiung u. enta 
Schickuls der BrOdergemeinde (KOrnbetg, 18S2), t. 6i ff. Ton Bnclidti, vi. U2. 

'* Begenvobeiiu, p. TO. Snccedebant pomi CaliztinU in Bohemia et Uoratia noa 
Mliun LalLenni aire Aagiutanae Confeanonis, >ed atiam Helvetici aen Helveiicie Con- 
TcuioDia aocii. Lalhenni pauim, Helvetic! in ditionibni Kobiliom et civitatibna qni- 
bnsdam coetoa boos habebant. — UCrique loca et templa Calixtlnoram occupabint, et In 
pleriaqae litna eornm sitemiH sequebantaT. Omnee anlcm iati Evangelic), tarn l>a- 
tni, qiuun Caliztini, liqae poMaa alii Lutberaol, alii Helvetici, nominabantuT Tulgo aub 
Dtiaqne, nempe specie, coesa Domini ntentes, eoque titnlo a Pontificiia, qui aub niw, 

'• First 1652, CoUoqnl in Prag, BtJbinna EpiL rerum Bohem. lib. v. c. IS, p. 698. 

" Thna be conceded on the petition of the estates mi atra^t, that in the cooflrma- 
tlon of landed pririieges the compactata be omitted ; aee IHe andere Apologia der Stio^ 
da dea KOnigreiciu BOfaeimb, ao den Leib u. Bint unaers Harm n. Haitanda Jem Qiristi 
■Dtei beider Gestalt empfahen, ani der Bohm. Spnch in die Tentscbe Tsnetzt, ann. 1S19. 
4. (particolailj important on aecoimt of the 135 docnmenta appended, pp. 121-605), b. 

" See the docnmant on griaTonces of 1B76, In the Andaie Apolo^a, s. 136. 

" Alter the precedence of tliB Consenans Sendomiriensis, agreed apoD in 1570 be- 
tween the Brethren, the Lutharana, and the Eefonned in Poland. Comeaius, ed. Bnd- 
deni, p. 41 ; Anno 1575, celebravit Uanmilisnaa comitia Pragse, ordlneiqae Regni anb 
atraqne ifnctetismnm snb communi itnins confeaaionis taaaera inire permisit, thiatia id, 
qnanqum omni aian, tam Jeaoida qnam Faeudo-Qossitis impedlra tantantibna. Cum 
enim anppliclbos anii llbellis proteatationibnsqDe inter alia inaemiaaent, Ordines sab 
ntraqne non case in Me noanhnea, sed fbrera inter se Flccerdoe, CalTiaiatai, Lutbera- 
noa : Ordinal, at coasensam testari poasant, confessionis oommniiis eoaiciibeadae in 



for his assent, a oommon coafesBion,^ Uaximilian, in view of the 
opposition of the Catholio estates, did not Tectare to give more 
than an oral pledge.^' Under the goveniment of Radolph, which 
immediately followed (1576), the Jesuits obtained a preponderating 
inSnence. Kow the oompaotata alone were held to 1>e valid ; and 
there was much oppressioa of all that went beyond them, espe- 
cially of the Brethren.** By a letter patent, forced from the Em- 
peror by the ciroumstanoes (January, 1609), entire legal equali^ 
with the Catholics*^ was indeed given to all the adherents of the 
Confession of 1575; but still, even in the reign of the Emperor 
Matthias (from 1611) there were many violations of tiiat religious 

li, TetoTumque Bobemonim da religiooe facta ijnodica et comitUlU decreU. Qui An- 
gmUDUD coDfeadouem enot amplezi (migns ]ud Ordinam pan), obtulenuit undem 
conftadoium num, sicot at niim illi qui ex fratriboi erant. Confarabant argo in do- 
gnlis fidei artlcniia et Beasam, at loqocndl fannulM singulunm partluin, ezprimebuit- 
qus fannnUs talibna, qaibu qnoelibet pars aubacribere poaaet et vallet, id partlcnlarcs 
nlmi* anbtilaa at tcholuticai qnMcticDum diffkrenUu non daaeandaado. Comp. Ma 
Docomaiila in Z. Tbeobildna, HiudWnlu'ieg. NOrnberg, IfiSl, in tbe Appendix. 

" It WM originall? irritten in Bohemian, and published first In Genoan at Amberg, 
1609, 8td (aim in the Appeadix to Theobald), and in Latin at FVinkfort, 1619 (alK> in 
mameyar, Colleetio ConfeMionBni, p. S19). It ia called tha Bohemian, and alio the 
Angabnrg Confesiion, becaau held b^ thoae Id Bohemia who aj-mpatliized with tbe 
AnipbnTg Confenion. Sea KScber's Die drej letiten und Tomabmatea Glanbaiuba- 
kenntnlaae der Bahm. BrOder. Frankf. n. Leipz. 1741, 8to ; la the Hlatoiical Preface, 
p. TO. — Thll commoa Coiiftaston ahonid not be coBlbanded, ai ia oRen done, with one 
that «aa previoualy handed in to the Emperor by the Brethren ; for the Conftiatan 
given to King Ferdinand in 1686 (aee Note T) waa reviied in Bohemian fa 1G«, tlien 
tranilated into German and preiented to King Maximilian. Tfaereopon it waa rendered 
into laUn, proridad with a P^miam at the dale 1£72 by the clergy of the United 
Brattuen, and pnbliihed with an approving prelice b^ the theologjcal facolty of Witten- 
bag, la two editlona, one Latin and tho other German, at Wittenberg, 1573, Bvo. (Comp. 
the Froemiam to thlg edition ; also given in Camenrioa, p. 271.) Tlie Latin edition 
mar ■1*° t» tband in the Appendix to I^dii WaldenMa, il. 

" See tbe guranteo aboat their Conbadon of ll>e Eatitet mi atnqm, in the Atidert 
Apologia, a. 180. 

» Die ondere Apologia, a. 9. In poctienlar, the archtdifaop demwided that the prlaita 
ntt NtragM ahoold be eonaecrated by liim, and take a wholly Catbdic ordination yow 
(see thia In the Andara Apologia, a. liO), 

" Dot MaJaitUabrlef v. Jahr 1609, am eloer Bahm. Drknnde Dberaetit, mlt Anin. von 
Job. BorotL Q4rlis, 1803; comp. Schmidt'a Nenere OeKh. dar Deatschen, Boch Ui. 
cap. 21. HUarlin'a neneale tenlwhe Relchigeach., ud). 601. By this their own Con- 
aUtory waa guaranteed to tbs Utraqolata, the UnivoraitT ofPragna given %, tho choice 
ol dtfauortt aUowed, and the provliiona of the treaty of An^bnrg extended lo tham. 
" Ba aollen aoch wider den obbemaldeten nrrichteten BiligionifHeden, a. wider die Ton 
On* ihoen, den StAndan mi vtraqut, erlheilla feate Sicberung keine Befehle, n. nichta 
dergleiclien, was Ihnen irgend worin die gerlngate Terbiodemng oder einlge Abinder^ 
mig Tentraachen kSanta, wader von Una, Dniem Erben n. nachlblgeDden Kfinigen in 
BAelm, noch voa aonat jemandem an ^ ergelien, auch von ifacen nicht aDgvnommen 
werdeii. Wean abar anch dea etwaa erftilgen, odar von wem In 
dea modita, loU ea keine Enft habeo," etc. 


250 FO0BTH PERIOD— DIV. n.— A.D. 1S17-IMS. 

pledge.** At last the Archbishop of Prague and the Abbot of 
BraDoaa, by seizing the newly-built evangelical chardies, occa- 
sioned a general iDfinrTection(1618)." Hatthiasdied diiringtheso 
distarbances, and the Estates refased to acknowledge as king bis 
snoceseor, Ferdinand 11.,^ known to be a fanatical CatlioUc, and 
committed their crown to Frederick Y., the yoong Elector of the 
Palatinate. When he was defeated, and Bohemia plandered by 
the armies of Ferdinand, tlie land lost not only its civil, bnt also 
its ecclesiastical freedom. Under the direction of the Jesuits, the 
regulatioDS against all that were not Catholics became more strict 
from year to year," and ended in 1637 with a demand enforced 
upon all, either to become CathoUc or to quit the coontry. Ec- 
clesiastical commissions went from place to place, and saw to it 
that the order was enforced.^ Many yielded, at least externally, 
to the necessity ; great crowds wandered to Saxony, Poland, and 
Prussia ; but not a few were still enabled to maintain themselves 
in their fatherland, and to be true to their old laith, though with 
the greatest seoieoy.^^ 


In Poland,* where the Hussite opinions had already in former 

*• Seo Die andere Apblogic, a. 19. PcIkIV Gt»ch, dy Bfibmen ; Tng n. Wkn, Sle 
AdjL, 1782, Th. 2, a. 680. HFUxel't nenere Genh. der Denbchen, tL IfiV. 

" Die mndere Apologlfl, «. 38, 109. Henul, tI. 1M. 

" See S II, Ni>t« K ind 29. Coupue WoWk UudmilUn, jii. 664 ; tr. K4. 

" Dnder dinctiaa of tbe papal nuncio. Car. Ctzttt : at fint, flum Um of Saxanr, it 
Memed uthougb tbe peraecBtion of the Utraqnisti would be amfinHlto the Calviniiita; 
bat it loon became general : *ee § 12, Note 6. At firM, 1610, tlie Jeenlli were r eat o red ; 
1691, alt Calvinlatlc minister! vera expelled aaiebele<C7ara^a(;«nuiuaffaeraAaKtiir(i- 
(d, p. S8 : me pro moneris mel radone diligenler iostigBnle. Comp. (Le Dta-Oa In the Ap- 
pendix, p. 63, 83) ; 1622, the Uuiveraity of Fragoe vaa Duuined with Catholics (Pelid, ii. 
741) ; in tfitt of all the repreaentstiona of Saxony, at the repeatad upgencj of the nun- 
cio, the Lutheran preachera were expelled (Carafa, p. 184 aq.) ; 163S, the Emperar bim- 
lelf rame to Pngiie,and encouraged this woA of conTenioDCCanifa, p, IGSaq.); IGlt, 
decreea weroSsaoed that odIj- Catholica conld beconw dtiiaoa, and tnany (Can&, De- 
creta, p. 7B, 78). 

" The imperial Iiutniction, fai Carafa, Decreta, p. 86. Compare (J. A. ComeniS) Hi»- 
torla Peneqaationnni Ecdealae Bobemlcae, a. 1. 164S, IS. Pelzel, ii. 746 ff. 

■■ See Cannov'a Keliglonninlemiclnmg, a. 341. Especially in the Duchy of Fried- 
land, in tbe diitrlct of Waetinen, and under the banma of Zentin and Waldstein. 

■ Adtlaal BageBTolfcU (a ficUtlonj name J it was a Befonned preacher, Andreas Wcn- 
glersld), Systema hialntico-chronolof^cnm Eccledanm SUTonlcoruni Ultrajecti, 1669. 
4. Stanial. LaUenlecU, Eqnitia Poloni, Ulat. BafimiuUonli Polonicae. Eieiatadii, 1686. 



times, here and there, found some followers, the Lutheran Befor- 
mation also gained many adherents, in spite of all opposition, par- 
tionlarly in the cities and among the nobility. These were most 
numerous in the German cities of Polish Frusta. Elbingen de- 
olared for the Reformation as early as 1533 ; in Dantzio there 
was a violent attempt to make it predominant in 1535, which 
was sappressed by the King, wi