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Colloquial Japanese 











TOKYO, Japan 


The basis of this book is the first volume of the series of 
I^hrb^cher des Seminars fur OrUntalische Sfrachen, publish- 
ed at Berlin in 1 890. Its author, Df. Lange, before his appoint- 
ment at Berlin, had been for a number of years instructor in 
the German language at the Daigaku Yobimon (Preparatory 
School to the University) in Tokyo. Since that time all his 
energies have been devoted to the task of making his country- 
tnen acquainted with the Japanese language and literature. 

My own experience as a missionary student of the lan- 
guage having proved the value of this work I prepared an 
English edition which was printed at Sendai, 1901-1903. 
After I undertook the task Dr. Lange sent me copious notes 
of corrections and additions gathered during his ten years* ex- 
perience as a teacher. Justice to him requires me to state that 
I used the material thus graciously placed at my disposal with 
a very free hand, for several reasons. In the first place Dr, 
Lange had prepared his book with the needs of a German 
student in view, and while the needs of an English-speaking 
student are in the main the same, there are many cases in 
which an explanation intended for the one will not help the 
other. Secondly, Dr. Lange's notes were in many instances 
ttiere suggestions, very fruitful indeed, but not fully developed. 
And, finally, I felt that I had one advantage over the original 
author in that I had used his text-book when I first learned 
ray Japanese, and was thus in a position to test it as he could 
not. My subsequent experience in the use of the language had 
revealed omissions not so apparent to the author liimself. 
Accordingly it was my aim to recast all the material in such a 
way as to make it most helpful to the English-speaking student. 
This book is not a translation and Dr. Lange is not responsible 
for any errors that it may contain. 


If I had been permitted to remain in Japan I might have 
undertaken a complete reconstruction of the work ; but that is 
out of the question for the present. A call for a second edition 
having come unexpectedly soon, I have had time only for a 
superficial revision, with constant reference to the second 
German edition, which appeared at Berlin in the early part of 
this year. The new Lehri^ich contains eight hundred pages, 
of which the last two hundred are devoted to an entirely new 
German-Japanese vocabulary. Since students now have access 
to a very satisfactory English-Japanese dictionary it, does not 
seem necessary to include such a feature in the English edition. 
The improvements in the body of the new German edition 
were largely anticipated by the former English edition, in the 
preparation of which, as has been stated. Dr. Lange generously 
co-operated with me. Accordingly, in the main, the arrange-' 
ment and the paging remain as before. The selections at the 
end have been somewhat increased. 

The aim of the book is pedagogical rather than scientific ; 
hence the combination of system and no-system and the num- 
erous repetitions. The pedagogical principle has been applied, 
for example, in the study of words. When it seems likely to 
aid the memory of the student to indicate the origin of a word, 
this is done ; but when the etymology is disputed or apt to be 
confusing, nothing is said about it and the student must learn 
the word as a whole. The repetitions in most cases are not 
accidental but designed. For the student must pass through 
three stages to become master of an idiom- First, he needs to 
be thoroughly convinced that there is such an idiom ; secondly, 
he must learn how to use it, and, thirdly, afler he has entirely, 
forgotten its existence he needs to be reminded that he cannot 
get along very well without it. 

A truly scientific grammar of the colloquial is yet to be 
written. But in one respect this work may claim to be scienti- 
fic : it has been the constant aim of Dr. Lange, and of myself, 
to set forth the language as it is actually spoken by the Japan^ 


€se themselves, not as we would speak it. The sentences have 
all been taken from the mouths of Japanese and repeatedly 
reviewed and criticized by competent Japanese. The senten- 
ces to be translated from English into Japanese were first writ- 
ten out in Japanese and then translated into English with a 
view to retranslation. 

Dr. Lange acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Tsurutard 
Senga and Mr. Tsuji Takahira, who assisted him with his two 
editions respectively. In the preparation of the former English 
edition, at every step I leaned heavily on my colleagues and 
friends Messrs. Tadashi Igarashi, Jiro Maeda and Iwae Irie. 
The proofs of the present edition have been read by Mr. J. L 
Cowen and reviewed by Prof. Isao Matsuda, Thanks are 
also due to Rev. H. K. Miller and Mr. Cowen for invaluable 

Christopher Noss 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 
-. November, 1906. 



The Japanese language. 

Sinico- Japanese ... . 

Words derived from western languages 

The standard colloquial 

Practical hints , 

Helps for further study ., 

Orthography and Pronunciation 
The ideographic script ... .- 
j\.i*ftit ••• ••• ••• •■• •« 

Romctji ••• •«• 



^xCcent ••• ••• ••• .■• •• 

The Noun 

Number and gender 

Wa and ga 

Subordinate subjects 

XyO .*• ••• ... •.. .•• •■ 

lyZ ••• ••• ••• ... ••• •! 

I V o ••• .*• ■*•. ... ..• •• 

N^o substituted for ga 

Compounds, VIII , IX 


Predicate Adjectives 

The Pronoun 




" Same ", " such " ... 



''Every", ''other" 
Translation of relatives 
"Self", "one another" 

The Numeral 

Native forms and combinations, XXL, XXII. 

Chinese forms and units 

x^aies ••• ••• ... .•• ••• ••» ••« ... 


... IX 
... XIII 
... XIII 
... XV 
... XVI 

... XIX 

... XIX 




XXX » 
















Numeratives, XXVI— XXVIII,. 
v^rciiiicLls ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• • 

The Adjective 


In compounds 

Compound adjectives 

Forms with na • 

Forms with no 

Adjectival clauses 

Forms derived from verbs ••• . 
Substantivized adjectives ... . 


First Class — The Tenses ... . 
Conditional and imperative 

Negative tenses 

Negative conditional and imperative 
Subordinative, XLIIL, XLIV. 
Negative subordinative 
Desiderative and alternative 

Second Class 

R group 

Verbs in eru and irn ... 

Honorific verbs in r//... 


^ group 

Masu^ Mosu 

%^Urim ... ••• ••• ••• 

/iT group 

Oku, itadaku 

J^lirtm «•■ ••• ••• ..• 

(r group • 

B and A^ group 

Vowel group 

Morau, Shitnau 




Idiomatic uses of the indicative 

Uses of the stem 

Compounds, LXVL— LXIX. 

Honorifics ... 

The Adverb 

Derived from ordinary adjectives 

»• ••• 

»•• ••• 

• ••• 

>•• ••• 

>• ••• 

»• • ••• 

»« ••• 

>•• ••• 

• ••• « 

• ••• 

»• ••• 

»• ••• 

»• ••• 

!•• ••• 

• • •• 4 

• • ••• 

• ••• 4 

• • ••• 

• ••• 

1 •• •• • 

• ••• « 

• • • •• 

• ■ •• 

• •• 

• ••• 

• ••• 

» .. ■ . • 

• ••• 

• • •«• 

• ••• « 

• • ••• 

• ••• 

• •• •• • 

• •«« 

• •• • 

• • ••• 

• ••• > 

• • • • 

.• ••• 

• •• • 

• . •• • 

1 • • • • . 

• ••• 

• ••• 

• • •• 

••• •• • 

»• • • • 

t •• ••• 

• ••• 

>•• ••• 

• ••• 

>•• ••■ 

• ••• a 

«• ••• 

• ••• 

... ••• 

• ••• 

»•• ••• 

• ••• 

• • ••• 

• ••• * 

»•• •• • 

»• ••• 4 

• • • • • 

• • • • 1 

• • •• • 








21 1 







Forms with ni 

Forms with to 


Substantives as adverbs... 
Subordinatives as adverbs 
Ordinary adverbs 

The Postposition 

Postpositions proper, LXXVIII.— LXXIX. 
Substantives as postpositions 
Subordinatives as postpositions 

The Conjunction 

Conjunctions proper 

Substantives as conjunctions... 

The Interjection — Appellations 

OVNTAX •■• .•• ••• ••• 



YuME no Goke 

Address by Marquis Ito 
Vocabulary- index of Japanese Words 
Vocabulary to The English Exercises 
Grammaticai Index .. 


The abbreviations will hardly require explanation, except 
the letter (c)^ which indicates that a word is of Chinese 

Marks of parenthesis ( ) indicate explanations or para- 
phrases ; square brackets [ ] indicate English words which 
are not to be translated into Japanese. 

• •• • 

•• 319 

• •• • 

•• 325 

• •• • 

•• 330 

. •• • 

•• 337 

• •• • 

•• 3'M 

• •• • 

•• 349 

• •• • 

.. 362 

• •• • 

•• 383 

• •• • 

.. 390 

• •• • 

•• 395 

• •• • 

.. 406 

• •• . 

•• 4H 

... . 

.. 424 


.. 427 

... . 

• • 434 

• a • • 

.. 444 


.. 452 

• •• . 

.. 461 

• • . . 

.. 466 

• •• 

.. 555 

• •• 

.. 586 


The Japanese Language 

The Japanese Language is the mother-tongue of about 
59,000,000 persons. In Japan proper, excluding the recent 
accessions to the Empire, such as Taiwan (Formosa), the 
native population is linguistically homogeneous, with the ex- 
ception of a few remnants of the aborigines. Even the Ainu, 
of whom about 18,000 may still he found in Hokkaido and 
Sa^halien, are being rapidly assimilated. 

The relation of the Japanese to other languages has not yet 
been satisfactorily determined. The attempt to discover an 
affinity with the Aryan languages * has, it must be said, not 
been successful ; for the words that are identical or even similar 
are too few to justify the inference of a common origin. The 
same criticism is applicable to the attempt to establish a relation 
with the Semitic languages.^ A comparison of Japanese 
roots with those of certain Altaic languages, such as the 
Mongolian, Tungusic, Manchurian, Turkish, etc., does not 
bring us any nearer to the solution of the problem. ^ Neverthe- 
less Japanese is usually regarded as belonging to this great 
£^roup of Altaic languages, for the reason that it has iri 
common with them the characteristic known as agglutination. 
That is, in Japanese, as in all agglutinative tongues, inflection 
in the ordinary sense is replaced by a loose attachment of par- 
ticles to the stem as suffixes, while the stem itself remains com- 
paratively unaffected. But it must be noted that the colloquial 
as compared with the classical Japanese seems to be in a state 
of transition from the agglutinative to the inflectional stage. 
In regard to syntax also the Japanese is very much like some 
of the languages that belong to the Altaic group, e. g., the 


With Chinese the Japanese language proper has no relation 
whatever. In the former, words are properly monosyllabic and 
frequently end in consonants; in the latter they are mostly 

ft See Transactions of the Asiatic Society Japan, VoU II., p. 199 If. 
b Japan Evangelist, October, 1906. 

C Gruniel, Enhvurf eimr vergieii /lenden Granwtatik dtr altaischen Sprachen^ 
Leipzig, 1895. 


polysyllabic, the syllables being uniformly composed of a vowet 
or of a simple consonant followed by a vowel. ■ The syntax 
too is utterly different 

Yet Chinese is of great importance in the study of Japanese, 
even of greater importance than Latin is in the study of 
English. Through the study of Chinese literature and the 
Buddhistic scriptures (which came to Japan in the form of 
Chinese translations), the importation of the Chinese arts 
and sciences, and the adoption of the ideographic script, it has- 
come to pass that a great mass of Chinese words and expres- 
sions has found entrance into the Japanese language, in nu- 
merous cases even supplanting the native terms. 

Accordingly modern Japanese is a mixture of native elements- 
and words borrowed from the Chinese and possesses a rich vo- 
cabulary. For many ideas there are both Japanese and Chi- 
nese terms. Of the latter the greater number are not under- 
stood except in educated circles. Many, however, have become 
thoroughly naturalized ; e. g., sen-taku laundry. ^ In many 
instances the Chinese expressions have supplanted the native. 
Thus, for example, the modern peasant calls thunder rai (c)- 
rather than katni-naru The dictionaries are full of classical 
native words which are understood only by those who make 
their study a specialty. 

The common use of words derived from the Chinese is due 
not simply to the natural liking for foreign terms, but much 
more to the fact that the demand for new words expressing 
new conceptions is most easily and conveniently met by form- 
ing compounds from the Chinese. These are often remarkable 
for conciseness. ** Telegraph " is den-shin^ from den lightning 
and shin tidings. Marconi has no sooner perfected his great 

a The only exception is n* Bat in genuine Japanese words, like $hinan 
(classical future of sHnu to die), the n is derived from mtu All other words 
ending in n are either imported from other languages or of onomatopoetic 

b It rarely happens, however, that foreign terms are regularly inflecled 
like genuine Japanese words. The rule is to regard them as substantives, 
adding suf-tt (to do) to form verbs, na or no to form adjectives and ni to form 
adverbs. Sometimes a single word may serve all these purposes; e. g., tekirid- 
suitability, tekito sum be suitable, tekifo na suitable, tekUd ni suitably. But we 
also have such regular verbs as tekitau, tekitatte oppose, from teki-tai ; rydru^ 
ryotie cook, from f-yd-ri; skikeru, shikette be stormy, from shi-ke ; guchiru^ 
guchitie be silly (rare), from gu-chi: taijiru, faiji/e subdue (rare), from fai-ji, and 
the adjective At'dot, from Mdd. Some nouns, like uma horse and «</« cash» 
hive been so transfcrined that few suspect their Chinese origin. 


invention than the Japanese have a new word ready for the 
dictionary; namely, mu-sen-den'shin {mu-sen without tine). 
" Automobile " is ji-da-sha (self move vehicle). ** Concrete " 
is yurkei (having form) ; " abstract," tnu-kei. The exigencies 
of our own time have called forth an immense number of new 
scientific and philosophical terms which the dictionary-makers 
have been quite unable fully to compile. 

In order to speak correctly it is often important to know 
whether a word is of Japanese or of Chinese origin especially 
in using the honorifics and the numerals. ^ This distinction 
will be easy to make after a little practice. The Chinese 
vocables are very short. Monosyllables containing a long 
vowel or ending in n are generally of Chinese origin. These 
vocables usually occur not singly but in compounds, mostl}'^ 
of two components. There are, however, a few hybrid com- 
pounds (Ch. IX ) like our own " automobile." 

The pronunciation of the words taken from the Chinese is 
very different from that now in vogue in China. *> Originally 
derived from certain Chinese dialects, it has apparently suffered 
great phonetic changes in the course of time, so that the Chi- 
nese cannot underi>tand it at all. The classical pronunciation 
now taken as the standard by educated people is the kan-on 
(lit. sound of Kati). Kan or Han was the name of the dynas- 
ties that reigned in the north from B. C. 206 to A. D. 264. ^ 
But many older words, especially those connected with Bud- 
dhism, are pronounced according to the go-on. Go or Wu^ at 
the time when Chinese literature was introduced into Japan, 
about A. D. 300, was one of the three Chinese states and in- 
cluded the provinces south of Shanghai. More modem sounds 
are known as id-on^ To or Tang having been the dynasty 
reigning from 618 to 913. Excepting proper names, there are 
very few words that follow the toon^ the most common being 
an-don lamp (old style), cho-chin lantern, fu-ton cushion, tern- 
bin balance, fu-shin building operations, etc 

a Another c«s« in point is that of the word tiki (diflerent from the tekCi 
above), used in formal speech as a suffix to nouns derived from the Cliinese. 
The rule is that before a Chinese word no particle is needed, but before a native 
word no must be added ; •. g., from ri-sd ideal and nin gen man, risd-tekiningen 
ideal man, but risb-teki no kuni ideal country. 

b See Lange, EinfUhrung in die japanische Schri/t, p. 70 ff and Cliamhcr- 
lain, •* Introduction to the Study of Japanese Writing," p. 372 ff. 

c Kan often means «« China" in general, but, like almost all Chinese words> 
occnrs only in compounds; e. g., kango Chinese words kan-ji Chinese charac- 
ters, kntn bun (for jkan-bun) Chinese composition, etc. See also p. X22a. 



In a few words, such as nan south, the pronunciation has 
not varied. But in Mei-ji enlightened rule, myd-nichi to-mor- 
row (wiVArday) 2Xi^ Min the* Ming dynasty, the same wofd 
has three different pronunciations. So the character shan in 
Shan-hat Shanghai is sho xnkan-on and/^J in goon. Practically 
only the kanon and goon need be taken into the account, and 
the student need not trouble himself much about the differences 
l^etwben them. Usually the goon is distinguished from the 
kanon by association with old Buddhistic terms. Compare : 








man, person 



















koey oto 

voice, sound 



yuku^ okonau 

go, perform 




















word, speech 
























moon, month 





Not infrequently one word may be pronounced in both ways 
'without changing the sense ; e. g„ lo-kyd or To-kei (east capi- 
tal). In most cases usage allows only one or the other. Thus 
we say sai-kyd west capital, i. e., Ky5to, but sei-nan southwest 
(lit west south); myo-ji family name (lit. name character), 
but set-met the full name (family name and personal name) ; 
^e-kwai surgeon (lit. external branch physician), but gwai-koku 
foreign country ; bimbo-nin pauper, but gwaikoku-jin foreigner. 

The tones or accents of the Chinese are disregarded, except 
in the composition of Chinese verses. This fact and phonetic 
decay have brought it to pass that ten, twenty or thirty 
characters may have exactly the same sound. This is the 

a The Japanese equivalent of an ideogram as d stinguished from Hie Chin- 
«ie sound {on) is called koe^ ktm (c) explanation, ur yomi reading. 


most distressing feature of the spokeri Japanese language. 
Men of the same set or clique have no difficulty in understand- 
ing their own technical terms, but to the uninitiated, even 
though they be well educated, rare Chinese compounds convey 
no sense until the speaker by writing in the air or by explana- 
tion indicates what the ideograms are. 

Words Derived from Western Languages 

in comparison with the Chinese the number of words im- 
ported from the European languages is small. Thus we have 
from the Spanish and Portuguese biidoro {vidrio) glass (mod- 
ern glass, garasti), kasuUira {castilla) sponge cake, kompeito 
{confeitd) candy ; from the French, shaboH {savofi) soap, skap- 
po \chapeau) hat; from the Dutch, kohii {koffif) coffee, don- 
taku {zondag) holiday,; from the German, chi/usu {Typhus), 
iorahomu {^Trachoma) granular eyelids, etc. Many words. 
have lately come in from the English ; e, g., baiorin violin, 
doto boat, bura5hi\y[yis\i^ dokko doc\^,furafuni flannel, /w/^^Jra 
football, haikara (lit. high collar) a f6reignized Japanese, 
hankechi handkerchief, inki ink, iruifiinetshon illumination, 
katsuretsu cutlet, matchi match, naifu knife, peiji page, potnto 
switch (on a railway), rampu lamp, ramune lemonade, sandu- 
ichi sandwich, shatsu shirt, shichu stew, sutekki stick, suieishon 
station, tonnetu tunnel, .etc. From the English through the 
French : bifuteki {bi/teck) beefsteak. Buranketto blanket has- 
beccme ketto. * 

The Standard Colloquial 

In English there is now only a slight difference between the- 
language of an essay and that of everyday conversation. In 
Japanese, the written language and the spoken language have 
for centuries been developing separately. Scholars absorbed 
in the study of the ideograms and the literary style associated 
with them, have been quite indifferent to their mother-tongue 
proper. Even now it is hard to find a Japanese with any sense 
of colloquial etymology or grammar. When asked about the 
origin and significance of a word your informant proceeds to 
discuss the ideograms used to write it' Ask him about the 
conjugation of a verb, and he gives you paradigms from the 

a There are also a few Japanese words in Europe in languages; e. g., the 
Spanish Hombo^ ixGxxahjidbu screen, moxaj[p. r45a), kimono, riksha, jajitsu, etc. 


dassical grammar which have little or no application to the 
matter in hand. The Japanese have scarcely begun to make 
a serious scientific study of their own conversational language. 
On the other hand, of the few who are interested, some reveal 
their inherited prejudice against soku-go (vulgar language) by 
limiting its province to the small talk of everyday life. The 
student cannot be too wary in accepting Japanese opinions 
about the colloquial. But it goes without saying that in the 
language actually employed by the Japanese of the present 
day our authoritative guide must be found. 

It can no longer be said that the colloquial of Tokyo is 
normative. Toky5 too has its dialectical peculiarities. We 
shall not go far wrong if we regard as the standard the langu- 
age spoken in the higher educational institutions of the Empire. 
There is here a constant circulation and intermingling of teach- 
ers and students from all parts of the country, and it is here 
that the process of crystallization is going on most rapidly. 
This language of the schools, which will naturally be the lan- 
guage of the future, is being influenced both by the literary lan- 
guage and by English and other foreign languages. No 
obstacle should be placed in the way of the gradual assimilation 
of any needed material from the comparatively more terse and 
expressive literary language. The ideal of the Gem-bun-it- chi- 
kwai {gen speech, bun literature, //-^/// union, /^rc/^;» association) 
necessarily involves the modification of the colloquial, which 
in its present condition does very well for story- telling, but 
for other literary purposes is rather a clumsy instrument. 
Again, Japanese is being modified by the influence of English 
much as European languages have been influenced by Latin. 
The student will soon perceive that the speech of a Japanese 
versed in English is much clearer to him than that of a Japan- 
ese of the old school, even when both arc speaking to their 
own people. As nearly all Japanese students are learning 
English or some other European tongue, the inference is 

The development of the language has been most rapid 
around the centers Kydto and Tokyd. The most peculiar 
dialects are those of the northern and western extremities of 
Japan proper. 

Thus, for instance, in Tdkyo one may say. IVatakushi ni 
kudasaran ka. (Won't you give it to me?), while in the 
dialect of Satsuma this becomes. A^i tavmwan ka. The/e 
dialects in many points preserve more of the classical language 
than the standard colloquial. For example, the people o( the 


the north say yogambii (it may be good), from yokaru-beshi, 
thus preserving the classical beshi. 

In the ports there is a good deal of pidgin- Japanese {Yoko- 
hama-kotobd)^ which is to be avoided ; e. g., peke=datfie bad, 
spoiled. The student ought also to be on his guard against 
the slang of the laboring classes. 

Practical Hints 

It would be well for the student before he begins work on 
this book to go through a briefer course of the nature of a 
primer. To get a general idea of the genius of the language 
it is well at the outset to read rapidly a book like Chamberlain's 
" Handbook of Colloquial Japanese/' not stopping to master 
the details. Imbrie's " English- Japanese Etymology " will be 
found helpful later on. 

During the first year it will be a saving of time to employ 
as a teacher one who has a good knowledge of English. The 
teacher should be instructed when reading the Japanese 
sentences to vary them as much as possible. The ^tudent 
after translating into English should retranslate into Japanese. 
He will then be well prepared to take up the second set of 
exercises. If the teaclier knows no English, have a friend 
instruct him how to proceed. Read to him the Japanese 
sentences one by one and have him criticise the pronunciation. 
Let him then ask simple questions which require the student 
to give the substance of the sentence in his replies. Let the 
teacher repeat each answer, correcting it as he does so. Don't 
let him ask questions about the grammar or definitions of 
words. Then translate the English sentences and ask the 
teacher to correct the translations in the same way. In transla- 
tion it should be the aim of the student to render the ideas of 
the original in as brief a form as possible, translation \\ ord for 
word being quite out of the question in nearly all cases. 
When learning words the student should try to form in his 
mind a vivid conception of the actual thing or act or relation 
expressed by it, without reference to English equivalents. 
Tlie measure of one's progress is the degree in which the 
untranslatable elements of the language are mastered. 

One peculiarity of the Japanese must be kept constantly 
in mind, namely, the persistent consciousness of the relative 
rank of the speaker and the person addressed as shown in the 
choice of words and grammatical forms. For the same idea 
there may be two sets of expressions, one used when the 


subject is 4 despised person or one's humble self, the other be- 
ing reserved for use when the subject is a person for whom 
one wishes to show re5pect or when it is necessary to guard 
one's own dignity in dealing with an inferior. It is not easy 
even for a native to observe the proper distinctions without 
being either rude or excessively polite. The Japanese are 
extraordinarily polite to foreigners, and foreigners are expect- 
ed to speak a little more politely than a native would under 
the same circumstances. 

No progress is possible without the perpetration of ridiculous 
mistakes, and the time, when one is still obviously ** green " is 
the most opportune time for mistakes. The people aj;e natu- 
rally generous and indulgent to newcomers. So the beginner 
is advised, whatever may have been his previous habit, to 
make it a rule to chatter about any and everything under the 
sun to anybody that will listen. As soon as he comes to feel 
sensitive about mistakes progress will be very difficult. 

Helps for Further Study 

. The student who has mastered this text-book should be fa- 
miliar with the grammatical structure of the colloquial and be 
Well acquainted with about five thousand words. It is not 
practicable, even if it were desirable, to include more in a book 
of this character. In the selection the aim has been to gather 
a fully representative vocabulary of words that are in common 
use. Of the common terms, for every one that has been taken 
one or two have been left. The terminology of one's special 
business or profession will be learned almost without effort. 
But if one aspires to be able to converse freely on any subject 
of common interest, at least double the number of words con- 
tained here will be needed. A vocabulary grows only by prac- 
tice, but practice is dependent on observation, and to prepare 
one's self for exact observation printed books are indispensable. 
It is a common experience that an entirely strange word just 
learned from a book may be heard several times within a few 
hours afterwards. 

Colloquial literature consists mostly of stories and speeches 
of various kinds. There are a few collections of extracts iu 
roviaji^ of which the best are : Lloyd, Colloquial Texts ; 
Y\2M\./jap anise he s Lesebitck, Berlin, 1891 ; Benkydka no Tonto^ 
Hongkong, 1892, the little monthly periodical Yachigusa 
published in Tokyo, 1898-9, and the similar publication Romaji 
begun in 1905. 


In choosing books written in the Japanese script the begin- 
ner should avoid those in which the kana are small or badly 
printed. Before he undertakes to read poorly printed books or 
newspapers it is necessary thoroughly to master the katia by 
the use of the children's first two or three readers or other col- 
loquial books in which the characters are printed large, if they 
can be found. The exercises and conversations in MacCauley's 
*• Introductory Course in Japanese " satisfy this requirement, 
but unfortunately the hiragana are written from left to right, 
an unusual arrangement not easy even for Japanese to read. 

Of the numerous conversation books Muramatsu's Mei^i 
Kwaiwahen is especially commended. Many of the expressions 
in Satow's Kwaiwahen have become antiquated, particularly 
those having references to travel in the interior. 

Highly to be recommended, though the printing of the kaua 
leaves much to be desired, are the Mukashi-banashi (ancient 
taUs) and Otogi-banashi (entertaining tales) of Mr. I way a. 
In order to. accustom the student to the stj'le of these tales, one 
of them in romanized form has been included among the 
selections at the end of this book. Mr. Iwaya, whose twm de 
pluvte is Sazanami, also edits an interesting periodical called 
Shd7un Sekai (Young Folks' World). 

Novels will also be very helpful. Older stories such as those 
of Encho are not so well adapted to the needs of the student 
as those dealing with present conditions. For students who 
are interested in the conflict between old and new ideas in 
modern Japan the novels of Mr. Tokutomi {Hototogisu, Omoiide 
no Ki, Kuroshio) are recommended. 

in almost any newspaper colloquial material may be found 
in the form of interviews, reports of addresses, etc., and the 
volume of literature written in the style of lectures is constant y 
increasing. But the student will need to remember that to make 
a genuine colloquial sentence more is required than to end it 
writh de am, de arivtasu or de gozaimasu (beware of " co!- 
loquialized " books 1) ; also that a man may be a fine literary 
writer and yet have a wretched style in speaking. The style 
of the interesting old sermons of which we have had samples 
in Shingaku Michi no Hanashi, or Kyuo Dowa, is of course 


In the study of colloquial grammar* beginnings have been 
made by Matsushita, Nikon Kokugo Bun ten, Tokyo, 1901 ; 
Maeha, Nihongoten, Tokyo, 1901 ; Kanai, Nihon Zokugo Bun- 
ten^ Tokyo, 1901 ; Ishikawa, Hanashikotoba no Kisoku^ Tokyo, 
1901 ; Irie, Nikon Zokugo Buinporon, Sendai, 1902. Excepting 
the first and the last named, these books are themselves ex- 
saniplcs of the literary use of the colloquial. In the literature 
of the Gembun-itchi movement, such as Yamada's Btinrei and 
Sakai's Futiubnn^ both published in Tokyo, 1901, may be 
found illustrations of the colloquial as adapted for use in 
letters, documents, etc , and interesting discussions concerning 
colloquial style. 

Brinkley's Japanese-English Dictionary is fuller and in many 
ways more satisfactory than its predecessor, Hepburn's. It 
is an invaluable treasury to those who have to depend on 
rjinaji. The student may profitably supplement it by one or 
more of the native go-ju-on dictionaries, Otsuki*s Genkai^=^ 
Kotoba no Umi {gen v;ord, kai sea), Tokyo, 1891 ; Mozumi's 
Nikon Daijirin (dai grcsit, ji word, r/// forest), Tokyo, 1894, 
or Ochiai's Kotoba no Izumi {izuvti fountain), Tokyo, 1899. 
Of these the first is said to be the most scholarly ; the last, 
most comprehensive. Some students will be especially in- 
terested in ChurchhiU's Dictionary of Military Terms and 
Expressions. The English- Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken 
Language, compiled originally by Satow and Ishibashi, third 
edition by Hampden and Parlett, Yokohama, 1904, is 

Chief among the desiderata is a new edition of Gubbins' 
Dictionary — a complete classified dictionary of Sinico, Japanese 
compounds on the plan of that still valued work. 

a In this book the usual division of thc>parts of speech has been followed. 
In a scientific grammar this would probably have to be somewhat modified: 
Qlder grammars of the literary language divide all words into three classes . 
(i), tai-gen including nouns, pronouns numerals, interjections; (2) yo-gen=s 
hiUaraku koicba (working words), including (he verbs and adjectives, which are 
inflected, and (3) teniwoha^ f r( m te^ ni, 7t'o, ha (==7rrt), including particles and 

©rtbofirapbi? anb pronunciation 

The Ideographic Script 

As has been remarked, the Japanese have adopted the Chi- 
nese ideographic script, in which the characters are symbols 
not of sounds, but of ideas. They are like our Arabic numer* 
^Is and mathematical signs, which are variously read in differ* 
ent languages, but have the same sense everywhere. To read 
Japanese texts readily one must master between four and five 
thousand characters. To accomplish this two or three years are 
required, even in the case of a bright student. But the attempt 
should be made. Every one who aspires to become so pro- 
ficient as to be able to understand anything said in his pres- 
ence and to express himself freely on any subject, must mas* 
ter the Chinese elements in the language. Generally the eas- 
iest way to do this is to learn the ideograms, and the easiest 
way to learn the ideograms is to learn how to write them. Thei 
attempt to learn to write beautifully like a native would be in 
most cases a waste of time, if not an impossible task, but at 
least the order of the strokes should be mastered. 

But in the order of time the first and most important task 
is to get a firm hold on the grammatical structure and principal 
idioms of the language. The student who is ambitious to 
'• master " the language is therefore advised to " divide, " that 
is, to devote his first year to the study of the colloquial an4 
postpone the study of the literary language and the characters 
to the second year. ^ Printed helps of two kinds will be avail- 
able, those in kana, the native syllabary, and those in romaji^ 
the reman i zed form. 


The Japanese began at a very early date to use the ideograms 
plionetically, that is, to indicate sounds without regard to the 
proper sense of the characters. They called them kana^ from 
kari-na borrowed name. This use of the ideograms continues 
to this day in the case of proper names. Thus America is 
written A-vie-ri-ka (5E:^5pJjD) ^^^e characters meaning 

a Those who read The German will be pleased with Dr. Langc's Uebtwgt- 
und l^se-huch zum Studium der japanischen Sthtifi^ Berlin 1904. The selections 
it contains are exclasivley colloquial. 


respectively : next, rice, gain, add. * In the same way the ideo- 
gram for " root/' called in Japanese ntt is often substituted for 
the homonymous character ne^ (ini-m) meaning ** peak," as in 
Hako-m and words like ya-ne roof {ya house). 

Through this phonetic use of the Chinese ideograms there came 
into existence about A. D. 900 two syllabaries called kata-kana 
and hira-kana. A kata-kana {kata side) is written squarely, 
being in most cases a side or portion of a common character 
having the sound represented by it ; e. g., T {a) from p^, A 
(/) from ^, ^ (w) from ^, i$ {ka) from jjJD. The katakana 
are now used only in formal documents, in writing foreign 
names and interjections, in telegrams, etc. The hira-gana 
(Jtira) level, ordinary) are characters written cursively and, in 
most cases, very much simplified ; e. g., h W from ^, V (0 
from J£l, 9 («) from ^, t^ {kii) from 'JIJD. Formerly there 
was a great variety of them, but in our own limes the employ- 
ment of movable types in printing and the policy of the 
Educational Department have had the effect of practically- 
reducing the number in common use to 48, one for each sound. 

In the following table we give the hiragana arranged in the 
order of the goju on " the fift>' sounds." Under each hira- 
gana is given the corresponding katakana and under that the 
equivalent in Roman letters. 

The columns are read in order beginning with the right : a, 
/, w, ^, o : ka, ki, kUf key ko, etc. Most dictionaries now follow 
this order, the n being sometimes regarded as a variant of mu. 
It is to be observed that there is no yh ye, or ivu. To make 
the scheme complete the corresponding syllables from the first 
column are sometimes put into the vacant places. \Vi, we, wo 
are scarcely distinguished in pronunciation from *, e^ o. It is 
also to be noted that the Japanese do not say si, ti, tu, hu, but 
shi, chi^ tsu, fu. The table is of great importance for the 
conjugation of the verb. (See next page). 

From the syllables in whicli the consonant is su»d correspon- 
ing sonants are derived : from tlic k column, ga, gi, gn, ge, go 
{if V ^* ^ ^)\ from the j column, sn, ji, zu, 2e, zo {^ ^ 
:^ ^ y*); from the / colutnn, da.ji, zu, de, do (^ "f tf r 
K). Such change in the sound is called nigori (lit turbidness. 

• The extreme of arbitrariness is reached in the case of ?ome pr per names 
that have been bodily imported from China, where the modern pronunciation 
approximates original sound. But the Japanese conventional pronunciation 
is pretty far off sometimes j e. g.. New York is written |g||^ ; Im-iku, Here the 
ideograms give neither sense nor sound. 








































• & 















































































































impurity). The h column by nigori becomes da^ bi^ bu, be^ bo 
{^^^ "b* :7* -^ ^) ; by what is called han-nigori {han half), pa^ 
pit P^i P^9 P^ (-^^ ^* ^* ^ *')• I^ Japanese writing the marks 
of nigori are often omitted. 

There is another arrangement of the syllabary called iroha ; 
/ ro ha ni bo hi to chi ri nu rti xvo 

wa ka yo ta re so tsu ne na ra inu 

u wi no o ku yo ma ke fu ko e te 
a sa ki yu me mi shi we. hi mo se su 
This is in the form of a stanza of poetry giving expression to 
Buddhistic sentiment : 

Iro wa nioedo chirinuru wo; 

waga yo tare zo tsune naramu. 

Ui no okuyama kyo koete, 

asaki yume mishi, el mo sezu. 
Though the blossoms (hues) are fragrant they fall away ; 
In this our world who will abide alway ? 


To-day I crossed the very mountain-recesses of mutability ; 
And saw a shallow dream, nor was I intoxicated thereby. 

Though these comparatively easy syllabaries have been 
in existence a thousand years, they have not supplanted 
the ideograms, but play only a minor role beside them. The 
Japanese syntax being so different from the Chinese, 
in ordinary Japanese composition the hiragana are interspers- 
ed among the characters to indicate modifiers, particles, 
terminations, etc. 

Such composition is called kana-vtajiri^ from viajiru be 
mixed. Further, for the benefit of the uneducated, hiragana 
may be written to the right of the ideograms to indicate the pro- 
nunciation. This is called kana-tsuki^ from tsuku be attaciied. 
It is thus possible to read most Japanese books without a 
knowledge of the ideograms. The traditional spelling corre- 
sponds to an ancient pronunciation which has been con- 
siderably modified in the course of time. In the case of 
native words the syllables of the h column have been most 

kaharu be chan^ijed is pronounced kawaru 

kahi shellfish „ „ kai 

ifu say „ „ tu 

make before „ „ viae 

ho ho check „ „ ho 

But it is in the pronunciation of the Chinese words that 
the greatest changes have occurred. Thus tou^ tau, taju are 
all pronounced to (not to speak of towo and toho in the case of 
native words) ; kiyau, kiyou, keu and kefu (see the iroha above) 
are all pronounced kyo, Tokyo in kana is spelled toukiyau. 
The Japanese have been so indifferent to this traditional spell- 
ing that even among educated people hardly one in ten knows 
how to spell correctly. There has been a natural tendency 
to choose the briefest forms, as keu for kyd^ sen for sho^ teu for 
chjf etc. Tiic Department of Education three years ago issued 
a regulation to the effect tiiat sounds like to should invariably 
be written to — ; sounds like kyo^ ki yo — , etc. This reform 
makes the kana spelling of the Chinese words almost as 
simple and phonetic as romaju * 

a For example, even in the reformed kana the following must be written 
alike but pronounced differently: kiyd will wear and kyd to-day; katsute 
X^reviously and katie onc*s own convenience. 



The system of romanization adopted for this book is identi- 
cal with that followed by all the romaji dectionaries. A fair 
degree of uniformity has been secured through the efforts 
of the Roma-ji-kwai (Ji letter, kwai association), a society 
organized by Japanese and foreigners in 1885 for the purpose 
of effecting a substitution of the Roman script for the Chinese. » 

A committee appointed by the Educational Department to 
investigate the question of romanization submitted a tentative 
report in 1900. The system recommended differs very little 
from that now in use. The chief innovations are the substitu- 
tion of JI for sJii and sya, syuy syo for sha, shu^ sho, following 
the analogy of kya^ kyu, kyo etc. Further, the Committee 
would write ci^ ca, cu^ co for chi^ cha, chu^ cho^ following 
presumably the analogy of Italian. The changes proposed 
have not been adopted in this book for the reason that the 
Educational Department has not yet reached a final decision 
in the matter, and it would be very inconvenient for the 
student to have in this book a system different from that 
followed by the dictionaries.^ 

In October^ iQ^Si a new organization was formed, the 
A' viaji-kiroine-hivai^ which publishes a monthly entitled 
Romaji. Both of the above forms of transliteration appear on 
the pages of this periodical : one writer spells shashinjutsu 
(photography) and another syasinzitu ! 

a While much of the Japanese literature, being intended for the eyes, is 
hanUy intelligible without the ideograms, it is quite reasonable to expect that 
£ny conyersation commonly understood through the ear should be intelligible 
when reduced to writing by means of an adequate phonetic system. But the 
full realization of the ideal of the Romnjikivai must wait until the teachers, 
preachers and public speakers of Japan have by a process of natural selection 
evolved a vocabulary at once intelligible to their hearers and adequate to ex* 
press thought on every subject, that is, until the spoken language becomes as 
satisfactory a medium of expression as the present written language is. Forces 
now at work in Japan will bring this about before very long. 

b See Kwampo (OfFiCial Gazette), 5, Nov., 1900. The innovations proposed 
are comparatively unimportant. Others will be referred to incidentally. There 
are questions connected with romanization which press for an oOicial solution 
and in most cases the suggestions of the Committee are excellent. Its report 
deals largely with the question of the division of words. For instance, the 
Committee would write oagari nasai mase for o ni^ari nasainmse. In regard to 
this question great confusion now prevails. See also suggestions by Mr. 
Fojioka in his Romaji Tebiki, S :inkoronsha, T6k)6, 1906. 


Rdvuxji is designed to represent phonetically the standard 
pronunciation of the present day. In reading romaji the 
general principle to be observed is that thk vowels are 
pronounced as in german ; the consonants, as in 


As might naturally be inferred, in the case of English- 
speaking people it is the vowels rather than the consonants 
that arc hard to pronounce.*^ In English the vowels are 
largely sacrificed to the accent In Japanese the reverse is 
true, that is, the vowels govern the accent. What we call the 
long and short sounds of the vowels in English are really 
different sounds. In Japanese a short vowel has the same 
sound exactly as the corresponding long vowel, differing only 
as an eighth note In music differs from a quarter. ^ 
The sounds of the (long) vov/els are : 

a like a in father (a) 

f „ i „ pique (e) 

ti ,, u ,, rude (60) 

e „ e „ prey (a) 

o „ o „ hope (0) 
Long Vowkls. — The long vowels are written 7i {aa), it 
(i), u {uu), ei (?), o {ou).^ There are practically no diph- 
thongs. An is ordinarily pronounced and written d ; iu, yu ; 

a A vowel is called bo-in (molher sound); a consonant, shi-in (child sound). 

b There are exceptions. For a sound very much like the English short 
«a" see ky<itio» Before a double consonant cr n followed by a consonant 
there is a natural tendency to modify vowels so as to resemble the English 
short vowels. 

c /> occurs almost exclusively at the end of adjectives, being a contraction 
oiiki or uhi. Theoretically there is a difference between ? (chosen by the 
Roniaji Committee) and «', but practically they are not distinguished and we 
write uniformly ei. In the same way o might be written ou ; and this is done 
in the case of a verb like yon " {;et drunk.*' Verbs uoiformly end in w. Ac- 
cordingly we write kau *« buy," ralhei than kbt though the combination a n is 
in the case of a Chinese word always written o, For the same reason we write 
kuu eat, rather than kli. The combination iu in the Case of a Chinese word 
is written yu the rule having been that u (or fu) following a syllable ending 
in i makes a long sound, while yu following such a syllable makes a short 
one. (Thusj>ii^i< results in ^^//, hvXshiu makes j^A-- in the reformed ^^xbi 
written $bi yu—). But in the case of the verb iu *'-say " we depart from the 
rule, since the stem is commonly pronounced «- We should, however, write 
yun if the slcn» were pronounced j///j. 


^^f yo ; ou^ o. The combinations at, oi and ui come nearest 
to being diphthongs.* For the purpose of this discussion n is 
practically a vowel. In singing it may form a syllable b}*' it- 
self. It follows that an, in^ hm, en, on, kau, kin, kun, etc., 
are long sounds. 

If one wishes to speak intelligibly, it is a matter of prime 
importance to distinguish long and short sounds. It is 
especially important to distinguish q from o. Next in import- 
ance is the distinction between u and «. Compare : 

oi nephew oi many 

tori bird tori thoroughfare 

koko here kb-ko filial piety 

koto thing, affair ko to high class 

toki time td-ki registration 

ho hei infantry ho-hei artillery 

yo-san estimate yo-san sericulture 

kvki stalk kU'ki atmosphere 

yuki snow yu- ki coura ge 

To the Japanese ear the words in the one column are utterly 
different from those in the other. There are a few cases in 
which the length of a vowel is a matter of indifference. A 
final o is often shortened ; e. g., so shite so doing, may be pro- 
nounced so shite ; katappb one of the pair, katappo ; hontb 
reality, honto ; benkyo diligence, benkyo^ More rarely o may 
be shortened in other positions ; e. g., iinoto younger sister 
may be pronounced imoto. Final short vowels are sometimes 
lengthened ; e. g., sore jd, for sore j'a if that's the case. The 
o in yoku, well, may be lengthened. 

Short Vowels — The following points deserve notice : 

U in shn zxidju is often pronounced /, especially in Tokyo : 
e. g., shujin master becomes shi^in ; bi-jutsu fine arts, bijitsu. 
This is to be avoided as a corruption.^ But the substitution 
oi i for yu is not always bad; e. g., rku for yuku go, kawi ii 
for kami yui hair dresser (p. 830a). 

Initial u followed by ma is practically silent, uma horse be- 

a In the nortbcrn provinces and vulgarly in Tokyo at is pronounced like 
li; e. g^ Sojn neifor Sbja nai Thai's not so. In Tokyo ae and a are often 
pronounced like tff and oi; e. g., kaeru return, kairu ; koe voice, koi. We 
might add to the diphthongs an in kau as commonly pronounced in TdkyA^ 
In western Japan kau is id. 

b In northern Japan people often reverse 1 and n saying, for instance, 
stiiftu or even sHkeus for sukoshi a little. 


ing pronounced vima (p. lib). 

E in early romaji texts was generally written ye. This 
spelling has been retained in the case of only two words, ye 
" to " and yen the unit of currency. The Romaji Committee 
would practically reverse this rule and write e for the post- 
position ye, but ye in other cases. The fact is that the pro- 
nunciation depends on the sound tliat precedes. The y is 
especially prominent when the preceding word ends in a vowel 
or n ; e. g., hei shi military service {heiyeki), meneki exemption 
fiom the service {inenyeki\ The sound of yen is not /«, as 
many foreigners pronounce it, nor is the y as distinct as in 

O is sometimes corrupted so as to sound like // .• e. g., hitotsu 
" one " becomes Attufsu ; asonde amusing one's self, asunde ; 
kom-ban this evening, kutnban. This pronunciation should be 
avoided. On the other hand in some dialects o is substituted 
for u; in Niigata ihu-jin, master, becomes shofin, Voi 
** good " is commonly pronounced //. 

As has been said, wo is practically pronounced o. It is so 
written except in the case of the particle wo (the Romaji com- 
mittee would write this also o), the pronunciation of which, 
like that of ye, depends on what goes before. The student 
must be on his guard in pronouncing a word like sh:o salt, \a 
kana written shi ho. The w is hardly audible, but if the student 
is not careful he is apt to say shiyo, i. e., sho. In the same 
way ki-oku memory must be carefully distinguished from 
kiyoku purely and kyoku office. 

When two vowels are brought together in compounds a / or 
w naturally creeps in ; c. g., ba-ai Cd^sc, becomes bayai or bazvai. 
The Romaji Committee in such a case would write y after i 
or e, and w after u ox o ; e. g., tsukiyau, for tsuki-au associate ; 
Hvieyawaseru, for umeawaseru make up a deficiency ; guwai 
for gu ai adjustment ; owaski, for o as hi money. The Com- 
mittee recommended that a list of such words be made, which 
is an excellent suggestion. 

Quiescent Vowels. — Words like kyoku, ryoku, etc., derived 
from the Chinese, were originally monosyllabic, though written 
with three kana: ki yo ku, rl yo kit. Accordingly in romaniz- 
ing certain combinations the Romajikwai treated / as silent ; 
^- g'» ^y^ (^^ "* ^^w ^' y^ — ),etc. Many Japanese would go 
further and write, for example, kyok, ryok. In native words 
there are many other cases in which the weak vowels i and 
u are practically inaudible, but the Romajikwai did not ven- 
ture to extend its principle to them, probably on account of the 


extreme difficulty of makincj rules to cover all cases. Not only 
does the pronuncialion vary according to locality, individual 
idiosyncrasy, etc., but even the same word may be pronounced 
differently by the same person, depending on the nature of 
the context. Compare, for instance, nakuti " there being 
none " and nak'te njo '* though there are none." The addition 
of vio brings upon na and // a strong accent with the result 
that the u in ku disappears. A silent i or u is very apt to 
occur when ki^ ku, s/ti, su, chi, tsu, hiy or /// precede any 
syllable of the k s, t, and w series, especially when that 
syllable is accented. Final su ordinarily loses the vowel and 
becomes ss, and the vowel in final tsu, shi and chi is barely 
audible. English -speaking people are apt to go to extremes 
in clipping final vowels. The Rumaji Committee has recom- 
mended that a table be made of words in which there are silent 
vowels. It would write taski for iasuki (cord to tie back the 
sleeves), dongri for dongtiri acorn, etc. The Japanese certain- 
ly do say taski^ not tasuki. It is, however, impossible to decide 
all the cases without being more or less arbitrary. The plan 
of this book is to follow the spelling of the dictionaries, except 
in the Exercises, where apostrophes are used to indicate silent 
vowels. * Experience proves that this system is a valuable aid 
to correct pronunciation. But to avoid abuse we have been 
conservative. There are, for example, so many people who 
pronounce every vowel in watakushi that we do not feel justi- 
fied ill eliding the «, as the Committee does. 


These will give the English-speaking student little trouble. 

G when it does not stand at the beginning of a word is com- 
monly pronounced like *' ng " in " singing " : Nagasaki, like 
Nangasaki ; uguisu bush-warbler, like unguisu ; ^^^^ basket 
or cage, like kango (to be distinguished carefully from kango 
Chinese word). This may explain the presence of the n in the 
names of the provinces Bingo and Bun go {Bi-go, Bu-go) In 

a Dr. Lange himself prefers to use the apostrophes throughout. The 
coinpiler of the English Edition has ventured to disagree with him in regard 
to this one point, on the ground that so long as the matter i^ not oPicially 
determined, great inconvenience in the use of dictionaries will result from 
any alteration of the present spelling. It seems, however, certain ihat ihc 
Japanese when they onCe take the matter in hand will elide more Vs and u^s 
than Dr. Lange or any other foreigner has thoujlit of doing. The spelling 
will in turn react on the ]>roniincialion 


western Japan, however, g is pronounced exactly as in " ago/' 
See p. 69a. 

5" before i becomes sk. In some parts of western Japan, as 
in the vicinity of Osaka and in Kyushu, s in the syllable se is 
pronounced like '* h " or, more exactly, like the German 
*' ch "; e. g., omahen for cviasen (dialectical) there is not. la 
T5ky6 se may become shi ; hence the change of se-au carry 
on the back (se back, on carry) to shoxi, 

Ji is formed by nigori from shi or chi. In the province of 
Tosa the two sounds are distinguished, the former/ being like 
" z " in •' azure " and the latter like *' g " in " age." In some 
places the former sound prevails, but in most parts of the 
country both s? and ^* are pronounced/f as in " jig." 

Zu too should have two sounds, zu and dzu (often written 
so), from su and tsu^ but the distinction is not generally 
observed and one or the other prevails. 

Z before 1 becomes ch ; before //, is. 

iVis pronounced •* ng " before sounds of the k series ; before 
sounds of the h{b,p) and in series it becomes m: son-kei 
respect ; son-gai damage ; sambyaku three hundred, from san 
three and hyaku hundred ; sem-vton specialty, from sen special 
and vton gate, department. The Rdmaji Committee in such 
cases would not change the n to /;/• 

In some compounds the distinction between a final n and 
an initial n must be carefully observed. Compare gen-an 
original motion and ge-nan manservant 

H before 1 in Tokyo and elsewhere is pronounced like sh^ 
as in hito person. The student will do well to avoid this 

F\s not quite the same as the English " f," being formed by 
the two lips, not by the lower lip and the upper teeth. The 
study of foreign languages has, however, a tendency to make 
the / more like the English. The nigoried form olfu is bu^ 
not VH. There is no v in Japanese. In the h series a labial 
sound,/ or^ not A, characterized the syllables originally, and 
in some provinces there are still traces of this ancient pro- 

M before u has frequently been altered to ^ : e. g., eramu^ 
erabn choose ; samushii, sabishii lonely. 

Y {^n, yu yo) occurs largely in combination with other 
consonants. One must carefully distinguish viyo and viiyo^ 
kyoku and kiyoku^ etc. In parts of northern Japan y when not 
combined with another consonant is commonly corrupted to » 
ox J. 


R IS not quite the same as the English " r/* especially in the 
syllable rL The tip of the tongue is held more closely to the 
upper gum. In many places, as in Satsuma, r sounds like d. 
It is extremely difficult for the Japanese to distinguish the 
English " I *' and the English *' r," their own r being an inter- 
mediate sound. The vulgar sometimes trill r; e. g., berrabo 

JF after i or i sometimes becomes/; e. g., sorya, from sore 
Ufa as for that. IVti and 2vo occur largely in Ciunese words 
combined with k and ^; e. g., kwa-ji conflagration, gwai-koku 
foreign country. In some parts the distinction between kwa 
and ka, etc., is carefully observed, but is neglected in Tokyo. 
The reformed kana and the Committee's romaji ignore it 
But the w is retained in this book, for reasons already indi- 

There is no need of •• q " or *' x," the former being represent- 
ed by. kw and the latter by ks. 

DuBLE Consonants. — While the consonants in themselves 
are not so difficult, the student will need to be especially 
careful to distinguish single and double consonants. The 
double consonants are kk^ ss (ss/i), it {tck, Us), ;/«, pfi, fptm. 
The best way to get them is to give a strong accent to the 
preceding syllable and then for a moment hold the vocal 
organs in the position required to pronounce the cf»nsonant in 
question. The second of the two will then sound distinct from 
the first. Distinguish carefully pairs like : 

ika cuttle- fish ikka how many days? 

dasu put forth dassu (ru) escape from 

i'sAd clothes ts-shd one's whole life 

kita [he] came kiUa [he] cut 

i-ehi position it-chi union 

afia hole anna such 

avta nun am-ina shampooer 

Consonants which are single in the literary language are 
frequently doubled in the colloquial ; e. g., minna for viina all, 
onnaji for onaji same, viiitsu for mitsu three, amniari for 
amari too^ bakkari for bakari only, totta for toda merely, 
utassugu for ma-sugu straight (adverb). 

Excepting nn and mm, the first of two double consonants is 
in kana represented by tsu, Gakko school, from gaku and kTy, 
may be written either gakuko or gtifsnvD. The compound 
Aattattu development is sometimes pronounced hatsudatiu. 


Nigori, — In a comp >uiid^ the first consonant of the second 
member is liable to the change called litter i : [hair). ^^ 

shiraga gray hair {shira^shiro stem of shiroi white, kami 

yakizakana baked fish {yaki stem o{ yaku roast, sakana fish). 

shinjin piety {shin faith, shin heart). 

jinja Shinto temple (//// god, ska shrine). 

pandam yeast (pari bread, tune seed). [p^^ck), 

kwanzuvii canned goods {kwan can, tsuine stem of ismu^ru 

tokidoki at times (toki time). 

chikajika soon {chikai near). 

sakurabana cherry blossom (sakiira^ hand), 

shinjinbukai pious (shinjin piety, fukai deep). 
Since the kana for wa in native words is ha^ this may also by 
nigori become ba ; e. g., wo zva becomes woba, Nigori is less 
common in Chinese than in native words, and less common in 
compound verbs than in compound nouns. There is a great 
deal of fluctuation in the usage, euphony being the only guide. 
Thus we say O-hashi Great Bridge,, but Megmie-bashi Eyeglass 
Bridge (so named from its shape) ; either O-saka or O-zaka 
Great Slope ; an-nai-sha or annaija guide ; sai-han-sha or 
saibanjo court of justice. ^ In some instances the two forms 
have different senses ; e.g., chosha an elder or a superior, 
choja a wealthy person, ISfigori is not limited to compounds. 
The first consonants of some words which are commonly 
attached loosely to other words suffer nigori \ e.g., bakarl 
only, from kakiiru consider. Kiri *' only " may also be pro- 
nounced giri ; kurai '*' about," gurai. Mutsukashii " difficult '* 
is often pronouned miizukashii. 

Han-nigori^ that is, the change of h or / to ^, occurs 
frequently in compounds from the Chinese when the first 
member ends in n. Thus fun be stirred and hatiu be aroused 
make Jumpatsu enthusiasm ; man be full and fukti stomach, 
inavipuku satiety. From the native words oniou think and 
hakaru consider we have omompakaru cogitate. 

a The vowels sufTer little or no change in composition. A final e in (he first 
member of a compound is often changed to a. Thus from kane metal and mono 
thing we have kanamono hardware (but with hako box, kanebako money box); 
from zake liquor and^^ house (p. 16), sakaya liquor dealer (but with nomi stem 
of nomti drink, sakenomi drunkard). 

b In western Japan people sny shirage from ke\ which also means hair. 

c There are two sounds to the Chinese character for « god," shin and jin. 
Compare shingaku theology, from gaku learning, and jin-ja Shinto shrine. 
The Japanese, by the way, say Shiftdd, not Shinto. 


A preceding syllable coalescing with h or / may result in 
pp : kiri stem of kiru cut and fu (c) token make klppii ticket ; 
ietsu iron and ho barrel, ieppd gun. For other examples see 
p. 69 ff. Of native origin is hip par u bring along, for hiki- 
haru. An h between vowels tends to become // : e.g., akep- 
panasu from akehanasu leave open ; mappira, from via-hira 
earnestly. The adverbs yohodo very and yahari still are also 
pronounced yoppodo and yappari. 


As has been intimated, if the student will take care of the 
vowels, the accents will generally take care of themselves. 
Among the vowels there is as it were an order of precedence. 
First there are the long sounds, then a^ then o and e, and 
finally u and i. The stronger tend to draw the accent away 
from the weaker. Alteniate syllables seem to pair off in the 
contest, the stronger pair winning. A combination tending to 
make a vowel quiescent may also affect the accent. When a 
difference between the vowels does not interfere, a word of 
three or four syllables is naturally accented on the first and 
iJiird ; e.g., anata you, hanahada very. The a before the 
causative ending seru or the potential ending reru is always 
accented. When a word is a compound, that fact naturally 
affects accents. ^ In general it is to be remembered that accent 
is not so strong as in English. It is one of the disadvantages 
of romaji that since the words look somewhat like English 
words the student is apt to give them English accents. To 
correct this tendency the student who wishes to acquire a 
natural pronunciation should do a great deal of reading aloud 
from the Japanese script under a Japanese teacher of the old 
school, if one can be found who is not afraid to criticise. 

Kiru — It is essential to good pronunciation to observe the 
kiri (lit cutting), or ku-giri {ku phrase), that is, not to pause 
in such a way as to cut off particles, etc., from preceding words 
to which they belong. 

a In western Japan homonynins are often distinguished by means of the 
accent. For example, hana flower has a marked accent on the first syllable 
as compared with hana nose. In the same way they distinguish hashi chop- 
stick, hashi end, hashi bridge; kaki oyster, kaki persimmon and kaki fence; 
kami hair, kami paper and kami god, etc. The Japanese themselves are so 
mnch in doubt about these accents that the student can well aflford to neglect 



The Japanese language has, properly speaking, no article,^ 
no plural, and no gender. 

1. There is an equivalent of the English ** a certain/' namely, 
am (lit. existing) : am onna a certain woman. More recently 
this am has come to be used also with plurals in the sense of 
" some." To the English article in its generic sense, as in ** the 
cat " or ** a cat " (speaking generally), corresponds the Japanese 
idiom : neko to iu mono what is called cat {^neko cat, to particle 
of quotation, iu say, mofio thing). - 

2. When there is need of bringing out the idea of plurality^ 
the suffixes ra}^ domo (from iomo companion), jA« (c) or shu 
crowd, tachi (c) or dachi all, and gata (from kata side), may 
be employed. These are, with the exception of the first, used 
only with words denoting persons. The last is the most polite : 

Hyakusho peasant ; hyakushddomo peasants. 
Ko child ; kodomo children.^ 
Akindo merchant ; akindoshJi merchants. 
Onna woman ; onnashu women (of servants girls, etc.). 
Oya parent ; oyatachi parents. 
Fu-jin (c) lady ; fujingata ladies. 
Many words may be made plural by doubling : 

Kuni country ; kuniguni countries. 

Hito person ; hiiobito people. 

Tokoro, sho (c) place ; tokorodokoro, shosho various places* 

The plural may also be expressed by means of words used 
as prefixes meaning " many," ** all," etc. 

Bankoku all countries, from bait myriad. 

Shokoku various countries (or provinces) from sho many» 

a JiisM^mtiski true-name-word, or simply meishu 

b The sufiFtX ra is in the colloquial used mostly with pronouns. The ideo- 
gram used to represent it is td *< class." Both ra and to may also have the sense 
of «ctc." 

c The wordA kodomo child, wakautA young fellow Tfrom ivakai young), and 
twnodachi friend,* have come to be used also in a singular sense. To make the 
plaral sense of kodomo distinct, still another suffix must be added: kodomora 
JkodoniosfOt, kodomoiacki. ; t '. 2 ! . ,' '. !"* 

2 The Noun. [i 

3. In the case of animals the masculine and feminine gen- 
ders may be expressed by means of theprefixes {pti) and me 
{inen) ; or, more commonly, by <fsu and inesu wth the genitive 
particle no\ 

Inu dog ; oinu {inu no Aiy) ; mginu (tnu no mesu). 

Tori fowl ; ondori cock ; mendori hen. 
Bttt it is to be observed that the Japanese usually l«ave the 
distinction unexpressed. For instance : 

Tcfri ga nakimashita. The (or, a) cock crowed. 
Here it is not necessary to say specifically ondori. 

s ^^> 


^' aitndo trader, shopkeeper. - - inu dog. 

>, hyakuslio peasant. -- •iitsum fox. 

^chichi father. - • neko cat. 

ihaha mother- ^ ^nezumi rat, mouse.* ' -r 

»4?/(?>&^ man, male. sktJka deer. 

monna woman, female. r uina (proncd. mma) horse. 

*oya parent. ^ * usagi hare, rabbit. 

i ko, kodomo child. * Mshi ox, cow. 

^ tomodachi W\enA. , /^nr bird, fowl. 

When nouns are joined by the conjunction "and" or enu- 
merated in a series which is brought to a conclusion, to " and '* 
or mo "too" is affixed to each ( — ««^— f;/e?=both — and). 
When the series is not closed, that is, when only a few speci- 
mens of a possible list are given, ^^i or dano is affixed to each. 
Ya is always, and tOy except in formal speech, usually, omitted 
after the last word. However the asyndetic construction is 
ttot uncommon in Japanese ; e.g., oya ko parent and child. 


Inu to neko, Oya to kodomo, SKka ya usagi y a iitsune. 
Otoko mo onna mo, Ojika to mejika (from sKkd), Chichi haha, 
Hyak'sho to akindo, Omma to mefnma (from nma), Onna 
mo kodomo vio. Uma dano, ushi dano, inu dano. Kitsune ya 
usagi y a nezumi, Ondori to mendori, Oushi mo meushi mo. 

a. Regardfcd as a variety of rat. Mice may be distinguished as Jkaisuka- 
nezumi 20 days' rat). White mice are nanhn-^nezumi. Comp. tutnkm-usagi 

white rabbit. 

Uf Wk AND Go. S 

^Ia the loUowmg expresfiions no i^gn«f tfneidural 4s pequiped.) : 
Bcithlkther and'tmofJEier, A cat and a mouse. £)ogi8aQd- 

:foxes. Horses and (j^a) dogs and cats. Parente and jfrien^. 

Sbof^feeepars and peasants. 


Relations like the cases in European 4anguagies.aTe expressed 
by means of the particles ^a (Nominative), mo (Genitive), ni 
(Dative), and wo (Accusative). Furtlier, v4mt we caill the 
subject in English is often distinguished by the particle w^. 
But this particle is also attached to tbe word that becomes in 
English the grammatical object ; and it may be added to the 
particles no, ni, mo, 4t, and to other wofds. To explain fully 
and systematically the uses of ma and its relation to ga would 
only confuse the beginner at this stage. Reserving more 
particular rules for later occasions, we shall now endeavor to 
state the main principles from which they are derived. 

1. C/i simply marks out the subject, excluding other things, 
while w4 indicates that an important predicate \9 to follow. 

Kore ga waruu This (not the others) is bad (warui is bad). 

Kore wa warui. TJiis is bad. 
The former sentence answers the question, Which is bad ? The 
latter is a rejply to the question, What sort of a thing is this ? 

Who came ? Dare ga kimashita ka. 
Tar5 came. Tard ga kiffM$k^. 

Where is Taro ? Tard wa doko ni intasu ka. : 
^ Taro just came. Tard W0 tadmina iimashiia. 

It is a safe rule not to use wa when there is no occasion to 
think of two or more possible predicates. Hence in subordinate 
clauses the subject almost invariably requires ^tf, 

Taro ga kimashita toki ni yuki ga Jutte imashiia. 
Snow was falling when {toki ni) Taro can^e. 

2. W^hen subjects only are contrasted ga is affixed to both. 
When predi«tes are contrasted so as to put a word in one 
sentence in antithesis to a word in another, both require wa. 

Zen wa (good) nase (do) ; aku wa (evil) nasu na (do not). 
Do good and not evil. 

Note that wa, not wo, is attached here to what we should Cctll' 

4 The Noun. £ir 

the object. Logically zin and aku are subjects; It is a corol- 
lary of the above rule that wa may properly be used with the 
emphatic word in a negative sentence. 

The foreigner often finds it hard to tell whether he ought to- 
use wa or ga with the subject. There are cases in which wa 
only may be used, and other cases in which £^a only is permis- 
sible ; but often it depends on the point of view which is to be 
chosen. Sometimes in the same sentence either may be used 
with practically no difference in the sense. It may be in place 
also to warn the beginner that the usage is subject to consider-* 
able variations in the dialects* 


^^Aim duck (domestic). •*/?/«/ swift, early. 

, Aato dove, pigeon. . osoi slow, late. . 

ikarasu crow, raven. kuroi black. 

H kiji pheasant (green). shiroi white. 

' nizva yard, gaiden. osoroshii frightful, terrible.- 

niwa-tori barnyard fowl. umai (pron. vimqi) deHcioU3, . 
I siizume sparrow. agreeable to the taste.^ 

«/j«r» crane. utsukushii pretty, beautiful. 

uguisu bush-warbler. wakai young. 

' ko-uma, komma colt.* '^ warui bad. 

'^O'Ushi calf. nyoi good. 
echiisai small. kono this (here). 

r okii large. ano that (yonder).<^ 

Adjectives similar to the above, ending in i, may be used* 
attributively, in which case they precede the noun: They may 
also follow the noun as predicates, requiring no verb. It 
should be remembered, however, that the simple adjective is- 
thus used only in familiar talk. See Ch. XI. 


Sh'ka ya kitsune wa hayaiA Kono kiji wa umai, an^- 

a Not to be confounded with koma^ which now denotes a full grown male- 

b Women usually say oishiu 

c Kono and ano are used before nouns like adjectives. 

d When several words are joined by io or ya, wa or ga is added only to- 
the last. 

Ill] Wa AND Ga 5^ 

^hiru ma umai,^ ' Shiroi inu. Ana utsukushii onna. Ano 
taaiai onna wa utsukushii. Kono hato wa shiroi ; ano niivd- 
.tori wa kuroi, Kono nezumi wa okii ; ano nezumi wd chiisai. 
Ano uma wa hayai, Tsuru wa shiroi ; karai wa kuroi. Ano 
.tori wa chiisai. Kono koushi wa okii. Shiroi nezumi wa 
utsukushii, Kono us hi w a osoi. Hayai uma wa yoi, Kono 
-omma mo memma mo kuroi. Ano inu wa osoroshii. Uguis* 
7va chiisai. Komma dano koushi dano wa utsukushii. 

This calf is small. That horse b swift. This duck is young. 
This ox is slow. This black cat is large. That colt is beauti- 
ful. That white dove. Sparrows are small. That fowl is 
large. Cranes are beautiful. This large hen. Both pheasants 
-and pigeons are delicious. That horse is small. Doves are 
beautiful. Those calves are large. Duck is delicious. This 
horse is bad. This dog is black ; that dog is white. A white 
-dove is beautiful. Cranes are large. 


Wa does not designate a particular case. As we have inti- 
mated, it serves to isolate a word or expression, to make it con- 
spicuous. Often it may be translated, '* In regard to." It is 
used with especial frequency after words denoting time 
juid place. 

Konnichi wa (to-day) yoi o tenki desu. 

It is fine weather to-day. 

Konnichi wa implies at least a faint contrast with other times : 
else wa would not be used. Compare : 

Konnichi kacrimashita. HeVeturned to-day. 
Konnichi wa kaerimasen. He does not return to-day. 

The second sentence implies, " he may return later." After 
-a word with wa beginning the sentence the grammatical subject 
naturally requires ga^ unless a second contrast is emphasized. 

Koko wa samusa ga tsuyoi. Here the cold is severe (strong). 
In case we wished to contrast the cold and the wind, it 
would be : . . * 

Koko wa samusa wa tsuyoku nai keredomo, kaze wa tsuyoi. 

Here the cold is not severe, but the wind is high. 

a Wa or ga is usually omitted when mo is used. 

4 TflE Noun ([rM 

A sentence like ** The fox has ^ long tait," becomes : 

KiCsune wa o ga nagai. 
Hore we observe that the subject with wa is grsLmmatictflly 
disconnected irofft the sentence, while the predicate nagai (^<csti^ 
takes the subordinate subject o (tail) with ga. 

Nikon wayama ga oi. Japan i& mountainous. 

Literally : In regard t6 JapaUr moontains are many. Gram- 
matically /af;f/7^<7 di is a complete sentence, but the expression 
simply fills the place of an adjectifve. Many simitar expressions 
Jhave become idiomatic. The adjectives most commoftl^ modi- 
Jied by subjects with ga in this Way are /^i and Its (Opposite 
warui : 

kokoro-nn^ki ga ytPi feeling is good^comforrtable. 

• gin-ki ga yai vitdtlity b gaod^tf vigorous, vivacious, lively. 

' tsU'go ga yoi circumstanced ar» good a convenient 
yo-jin ga yoi caution is good = careful. 
kuchi ga warui mouth is bad s= sarcastic, 
i'ji ga warui temper is bftda«illr-i)Atured. <f 

sei ga takai stature is high=tall. , f- ' 

sei ga hikui stature is lorw^s short* , <•' 

ki ga mijikai spirit is short s= quick-tempered, r. o ' 
yoku gafukai deare is deep= avaricious. 

In ca^ an antithesis is invoi^ved/ki may^ of course, beccmie W€^\ 


ashi foot, leg. bo elephant 
atama head (ladies' word : kito person, man. 

otsumuri, o tsumu). kata side (polite for kito), 

kana nose, snout Nikon-jin a Japanese 

kao face. (polite : Nikon fid o kata). 

ke fur. Siiyo'jin, Sei yd no o kata 

fcoi voice. Westerner, European. 

kucki mouth. ki spirit, humor. 
kucki-baski bill (of a bird), sei stature. 

from kaski bill. gen-ki vitality, liveliness. 

mimi ear. i-^i disposition, temper, ob- 

o or skippo {skiri-o) tail. stinacy. 

tora tiger, yo-jin caution. 

usagi-uma donkey. anata you (polite). 

kikui low. nagai long. 

mijikai short takai high. 

a] No 


Ano hito wa iji ga warui.. Ano hyai'sho wa genki ga yoL 
Nihonjin wa ui ga hikuL Ssiyojiu wa sti ga takaL Ano 
onna wa ki ga fnijikai. Us/d wm atama ga okii. Tsuru wa 
ashi ga nagai. Tor a wa ke ga utsukushii. Uguis* wa koe ga 
yoi (sings beautifully). Karas* wa koe ga waruL Ano otoka 
wa set ga takai.^ Zo wa hana ga nagai, Ahiru wa koe ga 
warui. Zo wa o ga mijikau Usagi wa mimi ga nagai ;^ 
usagi-uma mo mimi ga nagai. Ano kiio wa ktuhi ga warui^ 
Komma ya komski wa ashi ga nagai, Tsuru wa ku€kikashi 
ga nagai. Ano akindo wa ydjin ga zvarui, 

He^ is sarcastic. This child h^ a pretty faoe. Rats have 
long tails. Foxes and {ya) dogs are swift of foot ; horses too- 
are swift of foot This dog has short ears ; [his] tail also is 
short. This hare has black fur. Both doves and crows have 
short bills. He has short legs. She is careful. He is slow o£ 
foot. The duck has short legs. 


Tlie particle 710 with a noun corresponds to the genitive case,, 
and is rendered sometimes by the English possessive, and 
sometimes by the preposition " of" : 

Tori no koe a bird's cry. 

Nikon no tin-ski the Emperor of Japan. 

Notice that the limiting noun together with no always precedes 
the word which it limits. This is one instance of the general 
rule tliat all modifiers precede the principal or governing word. 

In the classical style ga performs the same function as no : 

Kimi ga yo the lord's (Emperor's) reign. 

a Ano oioko (that fellow) and ane onna are not elegant. Ano kata 7va seiga 
iakai is better. Still more polite : Ano kaia too o seiga takZ gozaimasu. 
b Ano hiio^ ano kain, etc., may mean either «* he " or " she." 

"8 The Noun [iv 

As in other languages, the genitive may be explicative or 

Otoko no ko boy. 

Niwatorino tnesu hen. ^ 

San-^in (three persons) no kodomo three children. 
Musashi no kuni the country of Musashi. 


ko young, offspring, egg (in-, sake^ shake salmon. 

the last sense, of fish only), ^tai sea-bream. 
iama ball. --iara cod, haddock. 

tama-go q%%. ^unagi eel. 

karadaho^Y^ ^«/tf pig (domestic). 

mi meat (of fish), fruit, nut 7iiku (c) flesh, meat. 
sakana fish. akai red. 

ntt eye. niazui unsavory, disagreeble 

"—hire fin. to the taste. 

^^^hirame flounder, flatfish* tsuyoi strong, violent 

^koi carp. ^ mada still, yet. 

^kujira whale. - ^""^^ keredomo, keredo but* 

— maguro tunny. 


Tomodachi no kodomo, Sakana no hire, Tai no atama wa 
ckii. Maguro no mi wa akai. Tara no mi wa shiroi ; unagi 7io 
mi mo shiroi. Koi no kuchi wa tsuyoi. Kujira no ko)^ Ano 
kito no karada wa okii. Tai no hire wa akai. Shake no ko 
wa mazui. Tsuru no tamago wa okii ; suzume no taniago wa 
^hiisai. Koushi no niku wa umai. Kono buta no niku wa 
mazui. Ano otoko no ko wa iji ga warui. Kono uma no ashi 
wa shiroi keredomo, atama wa kuroi. Ano Seiyo no o kaia wa 
genki ga yoi, Zd no mimi wa okii keredomo, me wa chiisai. 
Hyak'sho no uma wa osoi. 

The tggs of this fish are large. The fur of this tiger is 
beautiful. The child {wa) of that Japanese is quick-tempered. 

a Shikashi has a stronger adversative sense, while ga is weaker. 

b In speaking of very common, animals briefer forms are usual: koffWia^ 
■koushi, koneko, koinu, etc. Kittens and pups arc also called nekogo and inukors^ 
Note that ko-fori m^^LUS little bird, not young bird (see Ch. VIII). 

v] Ni 9 

The eggs of this fowl are small. Veal is delicious. The don- 
key's ears are long. Whale's meat is unsavory. Pork is white. 
The whale has a strong tail. These kittens are pretty. . His 
children (children of that man) are still young. This fish's 
fins are white. This dog's fur is black. This mouse's fur is 
white. This white harems eyes are red. The head of the ox 
is large. The ^ycs of the flounder are small. The eggs of the 
carp are delicious. The head of the tai is delicious. 


Ni following a noun correspondends to the dative case. 

Ano kodomo wa haha ni nite iru {jmasti). 
That child resembles [its] mother. 

The Japanese idiom resembles the Latin in another particular : 
Ushi ni tsuno ga aru {arimasu). 
To oxen are horns, i. e., Oxen have horns. 

When a comparison is involved, wa may be added to ni\ or 
we may say simply ; Ushi wa tsuno ga aru. Oxen have horns. 
The construction with ni is preferred when there is a close re- 
lation between the objects, and especially when the parts of a 
person or thing are named. 

Ningen ni te ga aru {arimasu). Men have hands. 

Watakushi ni wa imoto ga nai {arimasen).^ 

I have no [younger] sister. 
As a postposition ni has various other uses which will be ex- 
plained in Ch. LXXVIII. 

We add a few explanations concerning the use of verbs. In 
Japanese the verb always stands at the end of the sentence. 
In «/// /r« " are resembling" nitt is the subordinative of the 
verb niru " to resemble," and iru means " is " or " are." Iru^ 
when it stands alone, that is, not with subordinative, differs 
from aru in being used only when the subject is a person or 
some other living thing. The short forms iru and aru are used 
only in speaking familiarly, as to members of one's own family 
or to intimate friends. In polite speech, whether to those of 
higher rank than ourselves, or to strangers, even if they be of 

a Ni is not required m : Anata wa kasa ga arimasu ka. Have you 
n umbrella? 

lo The Noun fv 

lower rank, we mast add to the concluding verb at least the 
suffixes mi9SM (preset), mask3 (future or probable), maskHa 
(past). These are added to the stem of the verb. 
ari-mdsu ari-masko arinnasJUta 

i-masu i-masho i-masAifa 

is, are will or may be was, were. 

There are two classes of verbs. la the one class the form used 
at the end of the sentence, the conclusive form, is derived by 
adding ru to the stem. In the other class the conclusive form 
substitutes u for the i of the stem. In the vocabularies verbs 
of the former class are distinguished by the use of the hyphen, 
thus : i-ru, ni-ru. In Hepburn's Dictionary verbs are arranged 
according to their stems, as i, art; in Brinkley's, accordiog ta 
their conclusive forms, as iru, aru. 

Vocabulary. ^ 

abura fat, oil, blubber. '-momt flea. 

ha tooth. ^ ebi shrimp, f 

hane feather^ wing. dkami w^. 

hart needle, sting. saru monkey. 

hige beard. ni-ru resemble. 

tsume nail, claw, hoof. i-ru be (of living things), 
Jsuno horn, feeler. live. 

koke or uroko scale (of fish), aru be (in existence or in 

•^Hushi insect, worm, bug. one's possession). 

^cho, cho-cko butterfly. nai not existent, not pos- 

- hachi bee. seased (polite : ariinasen). 

hat house-fly. yoku well, frequently. 

^ka mosquito. taku-san much, many, in 

•^ kirigirisu cricket. great quantity.* 


Hat ni wa hane ga aru {arimas*) ; ka ni mo hane ga aru 
{arimas*), Nomi ni wa hane wa ^ nai {arimasen)S Hachi ni wa 
hari ga arukeredovio, cho ni wa{hari ga) nai, Buta ni chiisai 

a Taku and san are the Chinese equivalents of sawa marsh and yama 

b The uui after hane implies, of course, a contrast : It is not by the use of 
wings that the flea moves. 

c In the following sentences the student should change familiar forms 
to polite. 

yi] tVa ir 

ski/f0 g^ OffTH.' K0i fti wa uroio ga am, Ushi ni i^a tstm&mo' 
tsume mo am.^ Kirigiri^ ni wa kane mo am^ Neko ni wa 
hige ga aru, Kono kodomo- tva yoku (very much) Aa^ ni nite 
imas\ Saru wa hito ni nite iru. Okctmi wa inwm niie iru. 
Ano inu wa kitsun^ fti ntte iru, Kono piushi ni wa hari ga aru: 

This bird is like a sparrow. That dog is like a wolf. Birds 
have bills. Both horses (»/ mo)^ and deer have hoofs. The cat 
has claws. This horse* resembles a donkey. Deer have 
horns. This monkey has a tail. He resembles a monkey. 
This cat has no taiL This calf (i) has no horns (3) yet (2}. 
This child resembles its fath^ {fliicbi-oyd) very miich* Tliis 
child (i) has no teeth (3) yet (2)u^ Hogs have a gr«at deal of 
fat {tai'san aru). 


JVo, originally a particle of exclamation, de^gnate^the direct 
object When several objects are connected by ** and/' wo is 
affixed to the latt only. When ma is used, wo is generally 
omitted in the colloquial. 


Aa leaf. ^ sagi heron.. 

Jkana flower, ^fombo dragon-fiy. 

ii tree, wood. ^u cormorant. 

kuwa no ki mulberry tree, - shiM lion. 

matsu no ki pine tree. kai-ko silk-worm.^ 

sakura no ki cherry tree. kuda-mono fruit. 

utne ^ no ki plum tree. koku-motsu cereal. 

ue-ru plant. ya-sai^ yasai-mono vegetable- 

'- j4e-ki-ya gardener.^ ^ nin-gen human being. 

kusa grass, weeds^ ryo-shi fisherman, 

— setni cicada. kure-ru give (not polite). 

a That is, besides the legs by which it springs. 

b Unta, umai, ume are prononnced with the w silent. But in umi sea the it 
is pronounced and accented. 

c From ue-ru to plant, ki ixte^ya house or tradesman. 

d From kau keep (animals) and ke young. 

li The Noun [vi 

JfUU (£u) esX, devour ckd-dai^ please give ihe'I 

tabe^ eat (elegant). should like to have. 

ioru take; catch. ' , ni in, by, at, to. 

tie*- no. ka interrogative particle. 


' Uma mo us At tw Ksa wo kuu{kuimas'). Ningen wa nikii 
ya kokumotsu ya yasdi wo taberu {tabemas'). U wa sakana 
wo,torU'{^, loc). Shiski mo tora mo ningen no niku wo kuu. 
Anohito waonna no ko ni hann wo kureta^ {kuremasKtd). Ano 
uekiya ga kono ume no ki to sakura no ki wo uetaA Kodomo 
wa chocho ya tombo wo torn, Otoko no ko wa tombo wo toru 
keredomo, onna no ko wa chocho wo toru. Kaiko wa kuwa no 
ha wo kuu. Ano kudamono wo chddai, Ryoshi ga sakana wo 
tak*san totta {torimash'td).^ Sakura no hana wo totta kodomo 
wa niwa ni imai' ka. 

The gardener planted a pine tree. Birds eat insects. Fishes 
diso eat insects. Herons and {yd) cranes eat fish. I should 
like to have those cherry blossoms. The gardener gave the 
girl a flower. Did you plant this pine tree ? No, the gardener 
planted [it]. The Japanese eat cereals {yd), fish and vegetables. 
Bush-warblers eat worms. Children often {yoku) catch but- 
terflies. The mother gave the child some fruit. The cat catches 
mice. The farmer planted, mulberry trees. Foxes catch 
chickens. Deer eat grass. I should like to have those plum 
blossoms. That child often {yoku) catches cicadas. 

a This tie clifTers from the English *' no" in that it denotes not so much an 
objective contradiction as a mere difiference of opinion. It amounts to : You 
are under a false impression. 

b From two Chinese words meaning to put on the top of the head, i. e., 
receive respectfully. 

c The familiar past tense is formed by adding ta to the stem. 

d Ca indicates that emphasis rests on ano. The man that planted (he trees 
is that gardener, not some one else. If still more emphasis were needed, we 
might say : Kono ki wo ueta hito xua ano uekiya dcsu. 

c When brief mention is made of a single instance tUe simple subject com- 
monly requires ga, while 7va is used in general statements. The student should 
observe this distinction in the exercises to be translated into Japanese. 



The predicative expressions given in Ch III. may also be 
used attributively by substituting no for ga : 

O taku nojochu tva genki no it {yoi) onna desu. 

Your maidservant (lit. m. of your house) fa a lively woman. 

Sti no takai hito desu. [He or shej fa a tall person. 

Such expressions occur frequently in Japanese and may be 
variously translated : 

Atama no okii sakana. A fish with a large head. 

Otii atama no sakana would be very wrong. Nor would it 
be euphonious to repeat a noun, thus : Ano onna wa genki no 
a onna desu. 

The reason why no may be substituted for ga is that ga was 
originally a genitive particle. See Ch. IV. As such ga is still 
used in the literary language and occurs in many proper names ; 

Ume-ga-tani pjum- valley. Tsuru-ga-oka crane-hill. 

/ The" verb " is " or " are " after a predicate noun becomes de 
I aru (contracted tp dcL), de arimasu (contracted to desu)^ de 
i gozarimasu (or de gozaimasu), the last being most polite and 
H;^ first most familiar. Notice the difference between : 

JiaUu nil ii gn unmasu.' There are pine trees. 

Matsu no ki desu (for de arimasu). They are pine trees. 

.>■ Vocabulary. 

^ayu^ai trout. "^^ ran orchid. 

-- iwashi sardine. ;^ un luck {un ga yoi lucky). 

^ nisAin herring. ^ yokiK lust, passion, avarice. 

kaeru frog. *fionjd (lit. root-nature) dis- 

kawa river. position. 

nagare current, stream. kyd-shi teacher. 

nioi odor, fragrance. sei-to pupil, scholar. 

take bamboo. sencho captain of a ship. 

tokoro place. x, ski-kwan officer. 

^^a mountain. o 5^*'--''« I native of Yezo. 

sumo wresthng. -' A Atnu J 

sumd-iari wrestler.^ koko this place, here. 

ken region, vicinity. fukai deep. 

14 The fiJotar [viii 

5/ many, numerous. noru (with «/) ride, be on, 

sukujiai, sukenai a few,j6carfie.* mount, get aboard. 


Tai wa atama no Hii snkana dts\ Nishin wa io np oi 
sdkana des\ Anotawa kuchi no warui hito des\^ Umegatani 
wa karada-np oiiii'ntJtari des\ senck3 wa yojin no yoi 
hito des\ Nikon ni wa •koi^d no warui uma ^a oi. Tsuru 
wa kuchitashi no nagai tori des\ Ahiru wa ashi no mijikai 
tori des\ O Take san^ wa iji tto warui ko da, O no nagai 
saru mo arm ski,"^ o no ni^ikai saru ^ mo aru. Ano sk'kwan 
wa konjo no .warui uma ni notte imas* (is riding)^ Ano kyoski 
wa ki no mijikai kito dts\ Koko wa sVka no oiyama da 
Fujikawa^ tva nagare no kayai kawa des, Tamagawa 8 %va 
ayu no oi kawa des\ Kono ken wa ka no oi tokoro des\ 

That European is qulck-tfimpered. Some butterfli^ have 
long, while othfifd have short fei:k«3 (tlwtre are butterftifis .with 
long feelers and there are al30 tho3e with short feelers). Mr. 
Shimada is a cautious person. Odate is a tall wrestler. Sar- 
dines are oily fish. That pupil is an ill-natured child. Japan 
is a mountainous country. That farmer is an .avaricious follow" 
That sea-captain is tmlucky. Orchids are sweet-scented flowers 
(flowers of good odor). Here {koko wd) frogs are numerous. 
The Ainu have long beards. Among {ni wa) Japanese long- 
bearded men are scarce. fShe] is a sarcastic woman. 

a Notice that ^» and sukunai cannot be used attributively like the English 
<* many " and " few," except when limited by a noun with no \ c. g., hone no oi 
sakana a bony fish {hone bone). 

b It would be more polite to say: Anata wa o kuchi no taar/^.o ha/a de 

c The name o~f a girl. Sama or san is added to names of persons or to 
titles of important personages, such as temhi sama Emperor, danna san master 
of the house. In the case of girls o is always prefixed unless there are more 
than two syllables. Sama is also used in certain polite phrases, such as o kage 
sama I owe my good fortune to you (hage shadow), go kuro sama 1 have caused 
you much trouble. 

d Notice the circumstantiality of the expression. Shi is a disjunctive 
particle that marks the transition from one coordinate clause to anotlier. In 
classical language the simple stem of the verb is used in such a position. 
Thus ari might be substituted in the above for am shi, Shi makes the tra^sU 
tion more distinct. ; 

e Instead of repeating saru^ wc may say o no mijikai no mo aru. 

i A rivei near Mount Fuji. g A river near Tokyo. 

vm] Compounds 1 5 


Japaaese refiembles Geroiaa in the facility widi which com- 
pound nouns may be formed. Compounds dcrivted from the 
Chinese are espedally numerous. 

1. The components may themselves be nouns: 

sakana-ichi fish-market. 
oya-yuH parent-finger, thumb. 
sot^'gawa outside, ucki-gmva inside. 
uri-zane-gao melon-seed-&ce, i. e., beautiful face. 

The following are of Qiinese origin : 

kwa-ji fire-affair, confiagratioiL 
ba-sJia horse-vehicle, wagon or carriage. 
tetsU'do tron-way, railroad. 
. iUn-ki lightning-spirit, electricity. 
ietsudo'basha street car. 
denki-Utsudd electric railroad. 

2. One of the components may be an adjective : • - 

ao-mono green things, vegetables, from aou 
waka-danna young master, from wakau 

Numerous compounds are formed by the use of the prefixes 
3 great and ko small (in a few proper names o) : 

o-kaze great wind, typhoon, 

o-mizu great water, flood, 

o-atari great hit (in the theater or speculation). 

o-mugi barley, ko-mugi wheat. 

ko-yubi little finger. 

ko-zutsumi parcel, from tsutsumi bundle. 

ko-zd little priest, apprentice, errand-boy * 

Jio-goto little word, i. e., complaint, from koto word. 

O-miya great shrine. 

O-yama little mountain. 

But it nMJSt not be presumed that such compounds may be 
formed at will, nor that a word forming a compound with one. 
of the two prefixes may form one with the other also. 

a Boys in former times had the hnir closely croppcrl or shaved, like ])ricsls. 

1 6 The Noun [viii 

3. One of the components may be' a verb. In genuine Chi- 
nese compounds an object-noun follows the verb that governs 
it, but in the case of pure Japanese words the object-noun 
precedes. This distinction, of course, does not apply where the 
verb is intransitive or where the noun is the principal com- 
ponent and the verb has the nature of a modifier. 

hi'tsuke incendiary, from hi fire and tsuke-ru apply; but 
isuke-bi incendiary fire. 

mono-morai beggar (more commonly kojiki\ from mona 
thing and /;i^m« receive ; hut. morai-Mono gift. 

mono-oki storeroom, from oku put ; oki-mono an ornament 

kept in the toko-no-ma (alcove of a room). 
tate-kata style of building, from tati-ru build and kata mode ; 

or taie-yo, bom yd manner.* 

sei'shi manufacture of paper, from sei make and shi paper. 
sha-shin photograph, from ska to copy and shin truth. 
ji-shin earthquake, from ji earth and shin (intr.) to quake. 

Some nouns occurring in compounds are rarely, if ever, used 
alone ; e. g., ya house, firm, tradesman. The Chinese 6a 
(house) is in Japanese similarly used, but only of persons. 

kusuri'-ya druggist. 

tonya {toi-ya) wholesale store, from ton inquire. 
kenchiku'ka architect, from ken-chiku building operations. 
fuhei'ka grumbler, from fu-hei dissatisfaction. 
iai'shok-ka gourmand, from iai great, shoku eat. 


aida interval. cho street, town. 

kono-aika, konaida recently, hon book. [horses. 

hi fire. ba-sha any vehicle drawn by 

ichi market. gwai-koku foreign country. 

kusuri drug, medicine. ji-shin earthquake. 

mono thing, person. ken-kwa quarrel. 

ura rear, lining. : kin-jo vicinity, neighborhood. 

a Shi-kata and shi-yd are similarly formed from the stem of the verb su9-u 
to do. Ihese words are daily used by every one who speaks Japanese, 
Shikata ga nai, or Shiyd ganai. There is no help for it (no way of doing). 

viii] Compounds 17 

iki'sha railway train (lit. sopiothaX^ 

steam-vehicle). tate-ru build, erect 

kwa-ji conflagration. Uuke-ru apply, 

mei'butsu noted product * yuku^ iku go. 

sha-shin photograph. wakaru be clear, be under- 
tetsu'do railroad. stood.^ 

watakusfti self, I. vto already, now, still.^ 

doko where ? (comp. koko), yube last night. 

aoi blue, green. zui-bun a good deal. 

chikai near. ye to, toward.* 

tot far, distant sayo as you say, yes. 


Mo niwatoriga nakUnasKta. Nihotnbashi ^ nt (si) sakanaichi 
ga am {arimas'). Kanda ni (in) aomonoichi ga aru, Kono 
kisha wa doko ye ikimas'kaS^ Hei^ Takasaki * ye ikimas\ 
Berrin ni wa tetsudobas/ia ga du Yube kinjo ni kwajiga atta 
{ariniash* to). Zuibun okii kwaji de atta {desk to). Bet^rin ni wa 

a From mei name, fame, and bttfstt=ffiono (same as motm in kokumoisu). 
The word is appUed to a product which is characteristic of a given locality 
and so comes to be associated with its name. 

b Corresponds to ano^ kono, Kono may be called the pronominal adjective 
of the first person, sotto^ of the second, and ano, of the third. See Ch. XIV. 

c This verb is properly intransitive and impersonal* Watakushi wa 
wakarimasu. I understand. Wakarimaten, I don't know. In some localities 
xvakarimasen also means: I cannot agree; it won't do ; it is impossible. 

d The beginner may find it difficult to distinguish md and mada. The 
latter is commonly associated with negative ideas and may be used alone in 
the sense of '* not yet." Mada samtsi. It is still cold, it is not yet warm. Afo 
means ^ still " only in such expressions as nic hi/otsn still one, one more. 

e Words like this, corresponding to our prepositions, follow their nouns 
and should be called postpositions. See Chap. LX XVIII. 

f The name of a bridge in Tokyo (Aas/ii bridge). In the next sentence 
/Canda is the name of a district in the same city, from kamt god and /a paddy- 

g When an interrogative sentence is formed with a word like doko, the 
subject (or object) of the English sentence often takes 70a, Ka may be omitted 
when inter roga t ive jpronouns or adverbs are used. 

h //>! or hat is a mere interjection meaning that the speaker is attentive 
to the words which have been addressed to him. Sayd is used in the same 
way, when reflection is necessary before an answer can be given. 

i A town on the Nakasendd, one of the great highways of Japan. 

1 8 The Noun [vih 

oki: kwaji ga s'kunai*' Yub4 no kwaji wa tskebi de atta kere- 
domOt sono hi wo ts^keta mono wa ^ mada wakarimasen. Ko- 
naida o-jishin ga arimasVta. Doits' (Germany) ni wa jt'sAin 
ga skunai keredomo, Nihon ni wa jishin ga oi. Anata no 
shashin wo chodai. Kono shashin zva anata ni yoku nite tmas\ 
Kwaji wa toi ka, lie^ chikai, Kono kinjo ni honya wa ari- 
masen ka, Kono kinjo ni wa arimasen keredomo, ura no did 
ni wa arimas\ Ano honya wa takai. Chiisai jishin wa oi 
keredomOy okii jishin wa s*kunai. Ano hito wa doko ye ikimas^ 
ka, Oji ^ ye ikimas\ Kono kinjo ni sakanaichi ga not ka. 
Arimasen keredomo, aomonoichi wa arimas\ Tokyo ni wa 
kwaji ga oi, Edo no meibuisu wa kwaji to kenkwa da. 
Kwaji wa Edo no hanaA 

Is there a drug store {ga) in this vicinity ? Where (2) does 
this horse-car (i) go ? [It] goes to Asak'sa.® In T5kyo (niwa) 
there are few horse-cars (horse-cars are few). The conflagration 
(of) last night was trifling (chiisakatta), but the earthquake 
was severe (dkikatta)J In Japan tliere are still few railroads. 
Are you going (do you go) to America? I do not yet know. 
This house is well built (manner of building is good). She is 
a foreigner (gwaikokujin),^ Where (2) are you (i) going? ^» 
I am going to the bookseller's. The gardener is planting (uete 
iinas') flowers. Does this photograph resemble me {watakushi 
7ii) ? Yes, it is a good likeness (well resembles you). There 
are many bookstores in New York, 

a \i kwaji were followed by iva^ the natural amplication would be that 
small fires were not infrequent. 

b Hi wo tsukeUi mono X.\\^ person who started the tire. Verbs» like adjec- 
tives, modify nouns, there being no relative pronoun in Japanese. 

c A village near Tokyo. 

d A proverb, suggested by the frequency ofconflagrations in Edo (old name 
of T5ky6). The meaning is that conflagrations ^re the finest sights m T5ky?%. 
Notice that the verb «• to be ** is often omitted in proverbs, for the sake of 

e Tlie name of a district in TOkyO, from asai thin and knsa grass. 

f Adjectives, like verbs, may be conjugated. 

g This term, like Seiyojin, is practically 1 united to the European races. 

h In speaking of another's going, oide dtsu is more ^>olite than ikimasti 

ix] Compounds 19 


1 . There are also compounds in which Chinese and Japanese 
words occur together : 

jo'bukuro envelope, from jo (c) letter Sii\d/u^uro sack. 
ju-bako set of lacquered boxes, from J« (c) pile up and hako. 
itioio-kin capital, principal, from moto basis and kin (c) money. 
yu'to hot water vessel, from yu hot water and ij (c) tub. 

Such mixed words are called jttbako-yomi ox yuto-yomu Vo- 
mi means reading, of the pronunciation of the Chinese ideo- 
grams. If both characters in jUbako were given the Chinese 
sound, they would read jju-so ; if Japanese, kasane-bako. So 
yuid is often read yu-oke and motokin, gwan-kin (c). 

2. In many compounds the words retain their proper meaning 
and in translation must be separated by " and " : 

sai'shi (c) wife and child (ren), family. 

d-fuku (c) or iki'kaeri going and returning, 

jd'ge (c) above and below (also ui-shitd)^ up and down. 

3. In some cases there have been changes in the sound : 
akyudOf akindo merchant, from aki (nai) trade and Aito, 
nakddo a go-between (in marriage), from naka middle and hito. 


ie house. ne-dan price. 

uchi interior, house. - jn-bako set of lacqered boxes. 

yado lodging, house. jozu skilful.^ 

yado-ya hotel. - - heta unskilful. 

tonari next house, neighbor.- yen circle, dollar (two shil- 
mise shop, store. - lings or 50 cents). 

kami paper. dai-ku carpenter. - 

kuisu shoe. ryo-ri cooking. 

shina^ shina-mono wares. ryori-ya restaurant. 

shitate-ya tailor. -- [letter), sai-shi wife and child(ren). 

jo-bukuro envelope (of a to-btitsu foreign goods. 

a J^u, heta and many other words used as adjectives arc really nouns. When 
used as predicates they must be followed by desu \ile goz'iimam\ ByTtki deiu \% 
illness, i. c., is ill. Bimbo desu is poverty, i. e., is jwor. 

20 The Noun [ix 

kiP'Pu ticket, kuru (stem : kt) come. 

o-fuku going and returning, morau receive. 

qfuku'gippu excursion ticket, tsure-ru take along. 

are that one (person or thing), f/rx^ sell. 

kore this one „ ku^sai please give me, 

dare who ? tada, tatta only, merely. 

ikura how much ? made until, as far as. 

ichi (c) one. de at, with, by means of.* 


Kono akindo no shinamono wa yasuu Watakushi no tonart 
wa tobutsuya des\ Ano ryoriya wa yoi ka, warui ka. Are 
wa it ryoriya da. Kono yadoya no ryori wa yoi, Kono kinjo 
ni yadoya ga tak'san arivias, li shashinya wa s'kunai^ Dai- 
ku wa ie wo tatemas\ Kono sKtateya wa jozu des\ Kutsu- 
ya ga kimas/ita, Doko de jobukuro wo urimas ka. Kamiya 
de urimas\ Yokohama made no (to) of 'kugippu (wo kudasai), 
Kore wa of'kugippu des ka, Ano kutsuya wa heta des\ Ano 
Nihonjin wa saishi wo tsurete Moroppa ye ikimas\ Konoju- 
bako wa utsukushii, Kore wa utsukushii jubako des. Nihotn- 
bashi no kinjo ni wa akindo ga tak'san orimas\^^ Kono ju- 
bako wa ikura des' ka. Kono jubako wa nedan ga yasui, tatta 
ichi yen des\ Kono yadoya no iatekata wa ii. Kono yadoya wa 
ii tatekata des\ Yube tonari no uchi ni kwaji ga arimasKta. 
Ts*kebi de atta ka. Sayd, mada wakarimasen. Kono sha- 
shinya wa jozu des\ Kono kinjo ni wa ryoriya mo arimasu shi, 
yadoya mo arimas\ Ano sKtateya wa yasiii keredomo, heta 
des*. Ano kamiya no jobukuro wa warui. Dare gd^ kita ka. 
SKtateya ga kimasKta. 

a /?^ is a postposition. In the sense of " at " or '' in " de differs from ni in 
that it is used to indicate the scene of an action, while ni simply marks the 
place where a thing or person exists. Tdkyo ni tomodachi i:^a arimasti. I have- 
a friend in Tokyo, but 'I*dkyd de tomodachi ni aimashi/n. I met a friend iir 

b Ortt or it-^i must be used in saying that a person or a living thing is in 
such and such a place. Hut ; mise ^a fakusun arimasu. It is, however, per- 
missible to use am even of a living thing when it is in question whether such 
a thing exists or not. So it is correct to say : Kono kinjo ni o isha san wa 
eritnasen ka. Is there no physician in this vicinity? But here orimasen would 
be more natural. 

c An interrogative pronoun as subject always requires ga, never wa. The 
subject of the answer also requires ga. 

x] Derivatives 21 

This shoemaker is dear, but [he] is skilful. My tailor's house 
{ucht) is distant My neighbor {tonari) is a photographer. 
I low much (2) are these envelopes (i)? These envelopes are 
cheap. Taking wife and children along he goes abroad (to 
foreign countries). The peasant is selling {utU imas*) grain. 
The gardener is planting flowers. [I] received his photograph. 
Are Siese lacquered boxes dear or cheap ? [They] are dear. 
Who has come ? The shoemaker has come. Please give me 
[some] envelopes. In this vicinity (I) there are many (3) 
dealers in foreign goods (2). In this vicinity there are no hotels, 
but there are many restaurants. My tailor is skilful, but the 
shoemaker is unskilful. At this shop do [they] sell paper also ? 
Last night at the hotel next door {tonari no) there was a fire. 
That fire was due to incendiarism. This photographer is skil- 
ful. In {ni wa) Berlin (1) there are many (3) good restau- 
rants (2). Excursion tickets are cheap. 


I. Nouns may be formed from adjective-stems by means of 
suffixes, such as sa and ;;//. 

atsu-sa heat, thickness from atsui. 

saimi'sa cold (of weather) „ samut, 

tsumetiX'Sa cold (of thing's) „ isumetau 

taka-sa height „ takai, 

fuka-sa depth „ fukau 

oki'Sa size „ okii large. 

', uma-vii deliciousness, sweet taste „ uvtau 

yowa-mi weakness „ yoivau 

Nouns ending in mi often denote a certain degree of the 
quality expressed by the adjective. 

niga-mi bitterish taste from nigai, 
kuro-mi blackish color „ knroi, 

shiro-mi whitish color „ shiroi. 

aka-mi reddish tinge „ akai. 

In aka'ini\^2Si meat, or red wood in the heart of a tree, shiro^ 
frti white of an ^gg, or white wood, and ki-mi yolk, from kii * 

More usually called ki-iroi, from ire color. 


The Noun 


yellow, mi is the noun meaning meat^ substance. 

2. Many nouns are stems of verbs or compounds into whicli 
such stems enter. They may be abstract, or concrete, or both. 

itami pain, from itamu ache, be hurt. 

kurushimi distress, from kurushiinu grieve.* 

oboe memory, from oboe-rii remember. 

hanashi talk, story, from hanasu speak. 

hasami shears, from hasainu place or hold a thing between 

two other things, as with chopsticks. 
hitO'goroshi murder, murderer, from korosu kill (comp, p« i6). 
hana-mi viewing the flowers, from mi-ru see. 
yuki-mi viewing the snow, tsuki-mi viewing the moon. 


toshi year. 
haru spring. 
natsu summer. 
aki autumn. 
fuyu winter. 
tsfiki moon, month. 
eda branch. 
hasami shears. 
ido well. 
mizu water. 
yu^ o yu hot water. 
yuki snow. 

kurai, gurai^ grade. ^ ' 
do (c) degree (in measure- 
r/ = 3900 meters or 2.44 miles. 
kimi you (used by students). 

nani^ nan what ? 

dono which ? (adjectival like 

ni (c) two. 
san (c) three. 
iu (c) ten. 
atsui hot 
samui cold, cliilly (of the 

tsumetai cold (of things, air, 

water, etc.). 
hidoicxyxoH^ dreadful. 
O'ide coming, going, being 

in a place (polite 2, 3). 
kiru cut. 

korosu (stem: koroshi^ \Si\. 
mi-ru see. 

a From the adjectives itai and kurushii we have also iiasa and kurttshisa. 
These are more abstract, denoting rather the degree of pain or distress than 
the sensation itself. 

b Enters into such combinations as tchi yen gurai about one yen, kono kurai 
or kore kurai about this much. Whether to pronounce ktirai or gttrai is a 
matter of individual choice. Remember that kitrai or gttrai always follows 
the word which it modifies. 

x] Derivatives 23 

oboe-ru learn, remember. kotoshi this year. 

dochi{rd), dotchi^ which ? nakanaka, contrary to expec- 
(of the two), where ? tation, very. 


Kotoshi no atsusa wa na kanaka hidoi, Kono kawa nof'kasa 
iva dono kurai dis* ka. ^' Konofuyu no sainusa wa hidoL Yu 
rva nan do gurai atsui ka, San jit do des\ Kono yarn a 710 
takasa wa dono kurai des' ka. Mada dono kurai des ka 
ivakarimasen, Nihonjin wa ham yoku hanami ni ikimas\ 
Nihonjin wafuyu yukimi ni ikintasS Kawa no misu to ido 
no mizu wa dochira ga tsuinetai kaA Natsu wa ido no tniztt 
ga tsumetai, IVatakuski wa oboe ga warui, Kodouio wa 
nakanaka oboe ga ii. Uekiya ga hasaini de ki no eda wo kitte 
imas\ Kono ietsudj no nagasa wa dono kurai des' Aa. 
Niju ri des*. Hitogoroshi wa hidoi mon da. Aki wa tsuki- 
mi ga yoi, Anata doko ye oide des' ka. Hanami ni tkimas\ 

The cold (of) this year is very severe (strong). About how 
much is the cjepth of this well? Thirty meters {ineiior*).^ 
How high is this tree ? Twenty meters. This year {wa) do 
you go to see the flowers ? The water of this well is very cold. 
You have a good memory {Kimi wa memory is good). About 
how much is the length of this river? Thirty ri. Last night 
in Yokohama there was a murder. This year (f) there are 
many (3) incendiary fires (2). Where are you going ? [I] am 
going to take a look at the snow. In summer the moonlight- views 
on the Sumida ^ are fine (good). In autumn the moonlight- views 
of Oji are fine. The cold in (of) Germany is very severe. 
The heat on (of) the Indian Ocean (Indo-yo) is dreadful. 

a The original sense of this word is, " which direction V Ana/a wa dochira 
ye oide desu ka. Which way are you going? 

b It is also correct to say dono kttnai arinuisu ka. Or we say, Kono kaioa 
wa dono kurai fukni ka, where kurai is used adverbially. 

c In these two sentences ham and /i/yu arc used like adverbs. When given 
the emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence they naturally take rva. 

d Notice the peculiar manner of expression. In such sentences the Japan- 
ese does not require a comparative form of the adjective. 

e It is {desu), or, There are {arimasu\ thirty meters. 

f Sumidagatva is the name of a river that empties into TSkyo Bay at Tokyfi. 

24 The Noun [xi 


A sentence in which the predicate is an adjective ending in 
I, if the sentence is affirmative and of the present tense, needd 
no copula in familiar discourse : 

Natsu wa hi ga nagai. In summer tlie days are long. 

The copula must be used when the sentence is negative, or in 
a past or future tense. With forms of aru or nai the adjective 
takes the adverbial inflection by substituting the syllable ku f<y 
i. Such forms in ku coalesce with atta and aro in compounds 
like yokatta^ yokaro. 

Fuyu wa hi ga nagaku nai (arimasen). 
In winter the days are not long. 

Mibi wa samukatta {samuku arivtashitd). 
Last night it was cold. 

Sore wa yoroshikarJ {yoroshiku arimasho). 
That may do very well (be right). 

The most polite forms of the verb " to be " are gozarimasu, 
gozarimasen, gozarivtashita^ gozarimashoy usually contracted 
to gozaimasu^ etc. When any of these forms of the verb are used 
the k in the adverbial form of the adjective is elided and con- 
traction occurs. Thus. 













Between the familiar forms like ii {yoi) and the very polite 
forms \Wq yd gozaimasu a middle way may be taken by using 
desu. Thus : // no desu^ ii ndesu, ii desu, and so forth. Gram- 
matically ii desu and the like are open to criticism, but among 
men it is becoming quite the fashion to add desu to adjectives 
in i. But one never says yoi de gozaimasu. 

The adverbial form in ku is also used before the verb naru 
become, natta {narimashita) became, nard or naru daro (nari-^ 
masho) may become, naranai (fiarimasen) does not become. 

a This chapter anticipates some points in the later and more complete 
discussion of adjectives, in order to enable the student to use them at once. 

xi] Pj^edicate Adjectives 25 


hi day. nunui sleepy. 

kaki oyster nurui tepid, not hot enough. 

meshi boiled rice, a meal yoroshii right, all right. 

(polite : gO'Zen or go-han, ari-gatai (lit. hard to be) rare, 
micki road. precious.^ 

w^l>^^/^1:^^?>&^ cigar, cigarette.* nam become. 

byd-ki illness. kesa this morning. 

Nihongo Japanese language, yo-kodo, yoppodo a good deal. 

atarashii hQsh^ new. ^/m-^^« gradually. 

/urui ancient, old. kon-nichi to-day. 

itai painful. saku-nen last year. 

>&///j//rt/dirty, mean, indecent. /^rr-A^;/ (lit. great change) ex- 
mutsukashii^ muzukashii dif- traordinarily, very. 

ficult. kara from, after, sincc.*^ 


M^ osoku natta {narimash'ta), Mada hayd gozaimas\ Mada 
osoku wa ^ gozaimasen. Sakunen wa watakushi no me ga tat- 
/un warukatta keredomo, koioshi wa yoku natta. Ma / yoroshu 
gozaimas\^ Kore kara dandan saviuku ^ narimas\ Konnichi 
iva o atsu go£aimas\ Watakushi wa nemuku natta. Anata 
tva o nemu gozaimas* ka. lie, nemu gozaimasen. Kotoshi wa 
hayaku samuku narimasKta, O ito gozaimas*ka, Watakushi 
wa ashi ga ito gozaimas\ Kono yu wa nuruku natta. Kono 
ido no mizu wa taihen tsumeto gozaimas\ Kono ie wa atara- 
shu gozaimas\ Watakushi no ie wa kitano gozaimas\^ Wata- 

a From mafrn roll, wrap. When necessary to make the distinction, a clgcr 
is called ha-makitabako and a cigarette, kami-tnakitabako. 

b As in arigaiai oshie precious doctrine (of religion), arlgatai koto something 
to be grateful for. Arigato gozaimaut. I thank you. 

c Kott kara henceforth. 

d /rrt makes <7j<?>J« emphatic z "It is anything but late." Compare in the 
last sentence takaku wa. With iva the uncontracted adverbial form is used, at 
least in TokyS. 

e Ma is an interjection expressing satisfaction. The expression is about 
equivalent to : " Never mind ; it*s all right." 

f In English the comparative is more natural. 

g An expression of humility before a stranger : " I have too jioor a house to 
entertain you properly. 

26 The Noun [xi 

kushi ga waru gozaimasK ta,^ Kesa vo meshi wa taihen 
mazukatta, Waiakushi no toinodachi no bydki wa taihen yoku 
narimasKta, Waiakushi no kao ga taUien akaku narimasKta. 
Konnichi wa michi ga ivarii gozainias\ Kore wa tako (dear) 
gozaimasho. Jie^ takaku wa gozaimasen. 

Mount Fuji^ has become white. My friend's illness has 
become serious (difficult). [In] autumn the days gradually 
become shorter (short) ; [in] spring the days gradually become 
longer (long). That child has grown f become) very large. 
To-day it is very warm. Thank yon. In {de wa) Japan oysters 
are not dear. My illness is gradually getting better (becoming 
good). This rice is very delicious. This book is quite {yohodo) 
an old one. My shoes have gotten bad. From this on {wa) 
the days {ga) gradually become shorter. The cold (oQ last 
year was very severe. The Japanese language is difficult. The 
earthquake (of) last evening was very severe. These cigars 
are cheap. Where {doko go) does it hurt (is painful) ? My 
feet hurt. Are you sleepy ? Yes, I have become very sleepy. 

a It was my mistake. Lit. I (and not another) was wrong. 

b Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan proper, between 3,700 and 3,Soo 
meters, or aboat x 2,000 feet, high. It is called Fuji san^ from $an (c) mountain, 
or Fuji noyatna. 



The words corresponding to our personal pronouns are really 
nouns. They accordingly take the particles wa, ga, no, ni, wo. 
The genitive case (with no) corresponds to our possessive 

In speaking to anotlier person one must use different words 
according to the real or sui^)osed rank of the one addressed. 
It is, however, usual to regard a stranger of presumably equal 
rank as one's superior, and a stranger of lower rank as one's 
equal As a general rule it is to be observed that personal 
pronouns are not used so much as in European languages and 
may be omitted when the context makes it clear which person 
is meant. This is especially tnie of pronouns of the third 
person ; but those of the first and second person, watakushi and 
anatay are often used in polite conversation even in cases where 
tlieir absence would not involve ambiguity.^ 

I. The pronouns of the first person are : 

watakushi , watashi polite. 

ses'sha (lit. rude person) used by gentlemen of the old 

boku (lit. servant) used familiarly by men, as students, etc. 
ore, oira {pro) vulgar. 
U'inae (lit. this side, from te hand, side, and mae front, 

presence) humble. 

Watakushi may be further contracted into washi, but this is 
vulgar. With watakushi, etc., wa tends to lose the sound of 
w, thus ; watashia or watasha. On is derived from onore self ; 
0ira from the plural onorcra. The classical pronoun of the 
first person, ware, and the possessive waga (as in waga kuni) 
are not used in conversation, but occur in speeches. <^ 

a Dai-meushi representative-name-word. 

b In sentences like "I will go too" personal pronouns must, of course, be 
translated : Watakushi mo vtah-imasho, 

c Compare the proverb waga ta ye vtizu 100 hiku to draw water to one's own 
paddy-field, i.e., " to look out for number one." Ware really means self, and 
in some dialects is used of the second or third person. 

28 The Pronoi:n [xii 

2. The pronouns of the second person are : 

anata sama, anata formal, polite. 

o-mae sau, omae polite toward inferiors. 

kifui (lit. lord) corresponding to boku. 

ki'Sama (from it honorable) used in addressing one of the 

lower classes. 
te-mae contemptuous. 

Anata is derived from ano kata that side, that person. It is 
still used occasionally in the third person. Compare the 
German Er as formerly used of the second person. Sonata is 
impolite. In law courts kisanta is not permitted ; but judges 
use sono ho (from hj (c) side), which in ordinary speech would 
be contemptuous. 

With anata and other pronouns of the second person wa is 
often omitted. Anata do nasaimashita ka. What is the 
matter (lit. How have you done)? At times anata stands 
apart from the construction like a vocative or an interjection. 

Notice that many of these pronouns which according to their 
etymology ought to be polite have in practice become familiar 
or vulgar. The classical nan]i is never used in the colloquial. 
Foreigners should use anata generally, and in speaking to their 
own servants or to coolies omae. 

3. For pronouns of the third person such expressions as the 
following may be used : 

ano o kata, ano kata. 

ano o kito, ano hito. 

ano otokOy ano onna^ ano ko less polite. 

are that one there. 

aitsu {ano yatsu)^^ koitsu, soitsu vulgar. 

Of course, kono or sono may be substituted for ano in the 
above. The classical kare^ is often heard in public addresses. 
Other expressions for he, she, it, they, are inuko yonder side 
and saki front, which frequently take de or de wa. 

4. Plural pronouns are formed by the use of the suffixes gata^ 
tachi, domo and ra, or by doubling : 

a Yaisu is coming to be used more and more in the sense of mono thing ox- 

b Compare kare-kore this or that, about. 

xn] Personal Pronouns 29 

(i) watakushidovio, ^ washira. 

(2) anatagata. 

amaesangata, omaetachi, owaera. 

(3) ano katagata, 

ano hitobito, ano hitotachi. 

Waga hat our company, is a familiar expression for " we," 
" us/' among students. Sometimes it is used in a singular 


(Include the lists of personal pronouns.) 

6aka fool, dunce. shokti-gyo occupation, trade. 

fude writing-brush. donata who ? (more polite 

ifuika country (opp. of city). than dare). 

>birfw»//» wheel, vehicle, riksha. ikutsu how many? how old? 

kuruma-hiki "j luitachi twenty years old. 

kuruma-ya > riksha-man. utosu (stem : nioshi) say, call 

ska-fuic) j (polite 1,3). 

mesAi'/su^ai serv3Lnt. oshie-ru, ^Gu»-<JL> 

na name. suru (stem : sht) do. 

7/<v-«v/i^ name (of person only), ikanai {ikimasiu) it does not 

yd business. go, it won't do (German : es 

gak'ko school. gecht nicht 

go-fuku dry goods. ikenai {ikevtaseti) it cannot go, 

i'Sha physician. it's of no use.** 

^-n^f household, wife. kyo^^konnichiXxy'&xy. 

oku san madam, wife of one nara if. 

in good social standing. sore nara {sonnard) if so, then. 

sen-set master, teacher (a to that (at the end of a quo- 
term of respect). tation). 

sko-bai mercantile business, hai^ hei I have heard you, yes, 
trade. all right 

a One may hear ware-ware occasionally. 

b There' is practicaUy no difference between ikoftai and iienai. The latter 
is more common. These words may be used like adjectifes, as in ikanai yatsu, 
'Jtenm hiio. 

The Pkonoix Txii 


Anata wa doko no o kata de gozaivtas* ka.^ IVatakuski wa 
Tokei^ no mono de gozaimas\ Washi no uchi no ineshitsukai 
wa iniika no mon' da. Kiini no sense i wa oshiekata ga jjzu 
des' ka. SayOy taihen jZzu da. Sore nara boku mo ik3.^ Ano 
ko wa do/^o ye ikimas* ka. Gakkj ye ikimas*. Boku no sensei 
wa kyo hanami ni ikimas\ Omae wa taihen osoi. Are wa 
doko no akindo des ka. Hai, 1 'okohama no akindo des\ Ano 
hito wa we ga warui. Koits' wa baka da. Omae no uchi wa 
doko ka. Hai/^ watakushi iva Tanaka san no kurumahiki de 
gozaivias\ Ano o kata wa zvatakushi no sensei de gozaifftas\ 
Anata no go s/iokugyo wa nan de gozaimas* ka. IVatakushi 
wa gof'kuya de gozaimas*, Kiini wa doko ye iku ka, hoku 
wa yukimi ni iku. Anata (7va) donata de gozaimas* ka.^ 
Watakushi wa Watanabe Naoyoshi^ de gozaimas\ Anata na 
ok' san wa o ikutsu de gozaimas kaX Kanai wa sanju de 
gozaimas\ IVatakushidomo no kuni ni wa tak'san yama ga 
gozaimas\ Anatagata no kuni wa saviu gozaimas' ka Sayo^ 
taihen samu gozaimas. Omaera wa ii sfiobai wo shite iru^ ^ 
washira no shobai wa ikenai. Vube watakushi no uchi ye 
givaikokujin ga kimash'ta ; sono gwaikokujin wa akinda 
desh'ia. Ano hitotachi wa doko ye ikimas' ka. Sayo, Kawa- 
saki i ye ikimas\ Ano ko wa ii ko da. Kore wa kimi no hon 
da. Kisavia nan no yo da, Ano o kata wa isha de gozaimas* ^ 

Where is he from (man of where is he)? [He] is from Choshu 

a Corresponds to our " Where arc you from?" One may also say, Anaia n^ 
kuni wa dcchira de gozaimasu ka. 

b /Cei is an alternative pronunciation of kyd^ the ideogram for capitaL 

c 1 too will go (to him). 

d Hai or //«' often occurs in Japanese where we should not expect " yes " in 

e Or, O ttamae tva nan to oss/iaimasn ka. Assuming previous acquaintance s 
Dona/a de irasshaimashUa ka. 

f Watanabe is the surname {myo-ji)\ Naoyoshi, the given name («/»). The 
surname comes first in Japanese. 

g Or, O ikttfsu ni o nari nasaimasu ka. jVam here does not mean ** to 
become " in an objective sense. Compare the English, " How much docs it 
come to?*' 

h Shite is the subordinative of snru to do. S/idfiai wo sttf-n to do business. 

i The name of a station between Tokyo and Yokohama celebrated for its 
temple of Kobo Daiski {^Daishi sama . 


(a man of Choshu).* My wife is from the country {inaka no 
ittond). My horse is still young {toshi ga wakai). Your {kimi 
no) riksha-man is very slow. Where (2) is he (i) going ? [He] 
is going for a bath {yu nt). Who (2) is that gentleman (i) ? 
[He] is my teacher. What is your name, please (Who are 
you)? My name is Omori.^ Are you {kimi i) going to see 
the flowers to-day (2) ? I too will go. You {temae) are a fool. 
Who are you {pniae san) ? I am Mr. Matsubara's servant. To 
what school (school of where) are you (i) going? In our 
country there are few railways, but in your country {p kunt) 
there are many. How old {p ikutsu 2) are you (i) ? I am 
twenty. Is that your writing-brush ? No, [it] belongs to the 
teacher (is the teacher's). His servant is from Tdkyo (a man 
of Tokyo). 


In connection with the pronoun of the second person it is 
desirable to call attention to a peculiarity of the Japanese 
language which must be well understood if one is to speak 
properly. In polite, conversation with a person (addressed a^ 
anatd) one must be careful to avoid undue familiarity in refer- 
ring to things which belong, or stand in any important relation, 
to the one addressed. Respect is indicated by prefixing to 
nouns of Japanese origin o (from on^ still used in very formal 
speech) and go (rarely gyd) to Chinese words. 

Anata no me wa ikaga de gozaivtasu ka. 

How are your eyes ? 

Nan no go yd de gozaimasu ka (lit. Business of what is it ?). 

What are your commands ? What do you wish ? 

The same rule is observed in speaking respectfully of a third 
person. Thus to a servant at the door : 

a The name of a province at the western extremity of the main island. The 
original name is Nagato " long gate." Cho is the Chinese for " long," and shn 
is •* country," 

b Omori fo rndshiniasu. To is n, particle indicating a quotation, and is some- 
times translated by "that" but sometimes is untranslatable. Mairu to mdshi- 
masu, [fie] says that he is going. Kore wa fuut to m^kimasu ia. What is 
this called ? For another use of mdstt see p. 55 f and p. 95 c. 

32 The Pronoun [xiii 

Danna sama wa o uchi desu ka.^ 
Is Mr. — (the master) at home ? 

The prefixes o and go may also be attached to adjectives, 
adverbs, numerals and verbs. Attention will be called to such 
instances later. 

These prefixes have become inseparable parts of certain 
compounds : 

gO'sho palace (of the Emperor). 

go-Ben^ gO'han cooked rice, meal. 

o tama-ya ancestral shrine, sepulcher (of princes). 

o ashi, o washi money. 

hiya cold drinking water (woman's word). 

o naka abdomen, stomach. 

o shiroi face powder. 

With certain words these honorifics are invariably used by 
women and children, though men may dispense with them. 

go ho-bi reward. o kwa-shi cake. 

o bon tray. o yu warm water. 

o cha tea (but cha no kt). o ten-ki weather. 

o hi fire o ten-to or tento sama sun. 

o kome rice. o tsuki savia moon. 

Another prefix expressing respect, /;//, occurs occasionally in 
compounds like : 

mi'kado Emperor (obsolete), from kado gate. 

mi'kotonori imperial rescript. 

vii-ya shrine, imperial prince, from ya house. 

In ^ f;//^wAf, a woman's expression, we find both honorifics. 
Women may even be heard to say o mi o tsuki {o tsuki soup 
made of viiso), o mi o hachi (p hacfu a vessel to hold cooked 
rice, from hachi bowl). 

Rules for the use of honorifics are impossible : one must 
simply observe the usage. Some words whose Chinese origin 
is forgotten take o instead of go, like o c/ia, o titifo sama. 
Also : 

a A more complete expression is o uchi de (^if ) irasshaimasu ka, Irassharu 
Is polite for iru. If Chinese words are used, this becomes : go zaitaku ddsu Jka, 
zni being the equivalent of am or int. 


a dai-ji (lit important matter).^ o ret thanks. ^^ 

o ka-gen state of health.^ o se-ji civility, flattery. 

o ni'kai second floor, upstairs, o taku house. 

Again, go may be used with a Japanese word ; e.g., with 
fnottomo reasonableness,** nengoro cordiality, or with the ad- 
verb yukkuri to leisurely. * 

With some words either o or go may be used : 

o tan-jo-bi or go tanjcbi birthday. 

o s/ioku-gyo or go shokugyo occupation. 

Some words are never used with honorifics, as j^«-j^/ teacher^ 
shitsu-rei impoliteness or shik-kei disrespect (student's word). 
But : go bu-rei rudeness. 

Sometimes euphony forbids the use of an honorific. Thus 
we never hear o oku san. In some instances only special words 
may be used with o and go. Thus we say not o atama, but o 

In some cases it is usual to add the honorifics even when 
speaking to inferiors, as in Go ku-rd Thanks for your trouble 
(^Oki ni go kuro de atia). 


kami (sama) god. {o) matsuri local religious fes- 

ffii-ya soma rnnrperial prince, ttvah 

{o) mi-ya shrine. {o) tsumuri head. 

danna (san) master. {p)ya-shiki mansion (including 

o tama-ya ancestral shrine, grounds). 

sepulcher (of a person of (6) koine rice. .!• 

high rank). (oki time. ^>^ -^ * 

o hiya cold drinking water {o) ton tray, 

(women's word). {p) cha tea. - 

a O tUnji ni nasaL Take good care of yourself (lit. Make it an importanJ 

b From i6n increase and ^^/« decrease. Bat ki^gen temper, state of healtli, 

c O reiroxj be my thanks to another or another's thanks to me. O rtitvo 
Moskiageiai I wish to offer [youj my thanks. O reinado ni w^t eyobimosift. 
Thanks ar« unnecessary (lit. It does not extend to thanks and the like). 

d G^ m9ii9mo dt gounvttau. You are qaice rigbt. 

e Go yttkkuxinoioi. Don't be in & hurry to- leave. 

34 iwE Pronoun [xiii 

(p) taku residence, house. mairu polite for iku, kuru{^i^^), 

(p) se-ji civility, flattery. motsu (stem : vtochi) liave, 

(^) ten-ki weather.^ hi )]d. 

gO'sho imperial palace. inotte koi bring (lit. lia\nng 

i^go) cki'SJ treaty feast.*' [ii | come !).« 

^ift'pj a distant place. oide nasam polite for iku^ 

^/-r« beautiful, pretty, clean. kuru (2, 3). 

^6»-^/7/ immense, magnificent, choito, chotio just a moment. 

rippa splendid.^ kom-ban this evening. 

ippai a cup-ful, one vessel- ichi-ban number one, most. 

ful. tai-sj exceedingly, very. 

deki-ru issue, result, be pro- ikaga how ? 

duced, accomplished.^ oi hello ! say ! 


Danna sama / uekiya ga mairiinasli ta. So ka : nan no yd 
de kita ka, Oi, Gons ke /K chotto koi ( oide), Hei, danna sama^ 
nan no go yj de gozaimas ka, Cha wo motte koi, Gosho wa 
€nipj de gozaimas* ka, lie, kono kinjo de gozaimas\ Toku- 
gaw^ke no^^ o tamaya wa doko de gozaimas* ka. Tokyo de wcu 

a O tenki desu. It is fine weather. 

b When a person comes by invitation to a dinner he says: Konnichi wa go 
€hisd de gozaitnasu. On taking his leave: Go chUo ni narimashita ox Go cMso 

c Kirei, kodai, rippa, belong to the class of adjectives, mostly of Chinese 
derivation, which are really nouns, requiring in the attributive position the 
sufiix na, and in the predicative position taking desu [de gozaimasii). The first 
two are a]jt to mislead the foreigner because they end in /. Beware of saying : 
Jtodai yashiki or Kono hana wa kirei. 

d Dekimasu it can be done, one can do it. 

e Koi is too rude a word for a beginner to use acceptably even in command- 
ing servants. It is better to say : Motte oide ftasai, Oide nasai is tlie imperative 
of oide nasaru, 

f In addressing any one, the name is sufficient. A vocative particle is not 
needed. Yo is often used after the divine Name in piayer, and jn by men in 
calling their wives, and by parents in calling their children, by name. 

g A name commonly given to men-servants. 

h In compounds ke means house, family, lokitgawa is the name of a family 
whose representaii\es held the position oi shogun from 1603 until the abolitiou 
of the feudal system. . ^ 


Shiba to Ueno ni arimas\^ Nikko no o tamaya wa tippa de 
gozaimas y^ O matsuri ni wa hito ga kami sama ni inairimas\ 
Katnban no o tsuki sama wa kirei des\ Konnichi iva ii o tenki 
de gozaifnas\ ItHbe o tonari de go ckisD ni natta (was enter- 
tained). Kyo no go zen wa mazui, Kyoto no o shiroi wa iu 
Kono o shiroi wa nioi ga ii. Kore .wa doko no o cha de gozai- 
inas ka. Uji no^ o clia de gozaimas\ O hiya wo ippai chodai^ 
O yu ga atsu gozaimas' ka, Kono o bon wa kirei de go9aimas\ 
Kono sakana wa taisj oishu gojsaimas\ Kotoshi wa o konie 
ga yoku dekimasKta. Anata no o taku wa dockira de g02aimas\ 
ka, Watakushi no taku wa Shiba de gdzaimas\^ Ano akindo 
wa o seji ga ii. 

Sir {danna san), Mr. Tanaka's rikshaman has come. What 
does he want (on what business came) ? The imperial palace 
at (of) Kyoto is not at all (de wa naiY magnificent. Sir, 
what are your commands (what business is it) ? Bring [some] 
rice igozen). The sepulchers of the Tokugawa family are in 
the vicinity of [my] home. Then is your residence in Shiba > 
No, it is [in] Ueno. To-day the weather is bad. Are you 
going to see the flowers to-day? If the weather is fine {tenki 
ga yokerebd), I will go. Both the rice and the fish are delicious 
to-day (i). The tea of Uji is the best. Give me a cup (2) of 
tea (i). Is that cold or hot water (Is it cold water ; is it hot 
water) ? At (ni wa) the Kanda festival fish is dear. Is your 
residence far [from here] ? No, it is [in] this vicinity. How 
{2) is your head (i) ? How much (2) is this tobacco (i) ? It is 
only one yen. That prince's mansion is magnificent. 

a The wa after de implies that there are also sepulchers in olher places. 
Shiba and Ueno are names of parks in Tokyo. 

b Nikko is a place north of T5ky6, the site of the mausolea of the first and 
third shoguns. 

c A place south of Ky5to celebrated for its tea. 

d !>£ here does not mean " in '*. Tt marks Shiba as a predicate noun. TJt. 
In regard to my house — it is Shiba. Compare : Attnia no taku iva kono kinjo 
desu ka» It would also be correct to say: Shiba ni arimasu or kono kinjo ni 

e iVa is generally attached to de in a negative sentence. De wa is often- 
conlracicd to/Vi. Sojanai^ That isn't so. 

36 The Pronoun [xiv 


The demonstrative pronouns are : 

kono^^ono^ ano adjectival. 
kore, sore, are substantival. 

Kono and kore haye refi^renqe to persons or things connected 
with the speaker ; sono and sore, to those connected with the 
person addressed ; ano and are to those which are removed 
from both. Kono, sono, kore, sore, may also have reference to 
persons or things that have just been the subject of conversation. 

Kono, sono, ano are often equivalent to kore no, etc. 

Kane no kawari ni instead of money. 

Sono kawari ni instead of that. 

Hako no uchi ni inside the box. 

Sono uchi ni inside that (also, within a short time). 

Kono nochi {kono go) after this, hereafter. 
Kore, sore, are are used with words like, kurat, dake, kodo, 
though we might expect kono^ etc. Thus : kore gurai {kono 
gurai is also proper), kore dake, kore bodo this much, to this 
extent. But kono hodo means " recently." 
Kore, sore, are may denote a place or a time : 

Kore kara from this pointy henceforth, next. 

Kore made until now.* 

Sore kara uchi ye kaerimashita. 

After that I returned home. 

Are kara Tokyo made kisha de inairimashita. 

Thence to Tokyd I went by train. 

In the compounds ko-naida, ko-toshi we have the demonstra- 
tive pronoun. But in kon-nen this year, kon-getsu this month, 
kon-nichi to-day, kon-ya to-night, etc., we have the Chinese 
equivalent of ima. 


(Include demonstrative pronouns.) 

pan (Latin : panis) bread. June ship, boat. 
pen pen. hachi pot, bowl. ^ ^ 

— . ^ 

a In these examples >&<>^^, here or ima, now, might be substituted for i0/if« 
^uch words as koka and ima ought rcaUy to be included iq a oomplete list of 




hi^bacfU Bre box. 
kotatsu quilt-warmer.* 
dai-jin minister of state. 
dd-butsu anitiial. 
dJbutsu-en zoological 

ji'sho dictionary. 

Ci> V mikan mandarin ordngc. 

" • soko that place, there. 
attakaiy atatakai warm. 
in-ru put into. 
iru is or are required, 

iri-yo n^^^ (noun).^ 
kcavaru be changed, sub- 

kawnri a substitute. 

ktutii returii. ^'^^ 

inawdtu turn,-^' round, travel 
about. ^ 

yasumu rest, retire, sleep. 

yetsumi vacation. 

kon-getSH this month. 

karo period of tirne.*^ 

kono'goro recently. 

saku-jitsu yesterday. 

fyi'dan {nt) usually, gener- 

iai-gai^ iai-tei for the most 
part, almost^ 

main again. 

skikashi but (See p. 8a). 


Kore wa nan de gozaimais ka. Sore wa s'tobu de gozaiinas\ 
Nikon ni mo gozaimas* ka, 4Taigai Nikon ni wa gozaimasen 
ga, sono kawari ni hibachi to kotatsu ga gozaimas, Anata, 
kono fude wa o iriyj de gozaimas ka. lie, sono fude wa iri- 
masen ga, ano Jude wa irimas\ Sakujitsu watakushi iva 
djbutsuen ye mairimasfita. Sore kara dako ye oide nasai- 
mash'ta ka. Sore kara rydriya ye mairimasK ta, Kore wa 
anata no o uvia de gefzaiinas* ka. fie, tomodachi no des\ 
Oiy Take / cha wo motte oide, sore kara hi wo irete okure. "^ 
Kimi, kore kara doko ye iku ka, Kore kara uchi ye kaeru. 
Mata sono uchi ni inairimashj. Konoaida Itaria ni hidoi 

a A hibachi Vi a pot or box tilled with ashes upon wliich charcoal is burned. 
A kotiUSH is th« same arranged so that it can be covered with a quilt and used 
for warming the feet and hands. 

b Sore wa iriyd dtstt. That is needed. 

c Used like kurai (See p. 22b). Itsu goro about when *t 

d ilAi//^/'<n would be impolite. Tnstead of the simple imperative one may 
also use the subordinative with the imperative of kure-ru give, with or without 
the honorific o, thus : motfi kite (<?) kure. More polite than kure is kuda^ai, the 
impel alive oi kudasaru. 


.38 The Pronoun [xy 

jiskin ga arimaslita ; sono toki ni Nikon ni mo zuiburi okii 
jishi?i ga arimasKta. Kore wa warui jisko des\ Konogora- 
TV a taihni it tenki de gozaimas. Kongetsu iva gakko ga 
yasuifti des\^ Kotoshi no natsu no atsusa wa nakanaka k.ida 
gozaimas'. Are wa Kishu no mikambune)^ . 

Recently a Japanese minister of state went to Germany. 
Then he went (0 mawari ninarimasKtd) to Russia.*^ Recently 
the weatfier has been (is) Jba^, Where (2) are you goingf next 
(r) ? Next I am going home. Is that a good pen ? No, [itj 
is a bad one. Then give [me] that writing-brush. Do the 
Japanese generally , eat bread? No", instead of that they, eat 
rice Xmeshi\ To-day the school takes a vacation (it is a rest). 
Is this a good school ? Yes, [it] is a very good one. Do yott 
rieed (a iriyd des* kd) this dictionary ? No, I don't heed it. 
Then please give [it] to me. Spring (of) this year is quite 
warm. Is there a zoological garden in Tokyo (i)? Yes, there 
is {aru koto wa ariinas'), but there are few (2) animals (i). 
This month {wa) the Japanese go a great deal {yoku) to see 
the flowers. Next I am going for a bath \yu). This flower 
is pretty; but [its] odor is bad. Is that a German {Doits' noy 
ship ? No, it is a French {Frans* no) ship. 


*' The same " is to be rendered onaji (adverbial form : onaji- 

. Sore wa onaji koto desuA 
That amounts to the same thing (is the same thing). 

With some Chinese words compounds are formed by means 
o{ dj, the Chinese equivalent o{ onaji. 

a Notice the manner of expression. 

h A7/ or A"i-j//« (Compare Clioshu p. 31a) is the name of a province on the^ 
coast between Tokyo and Osaka, nearer the latter city. This sentence is taken 
from a popular song. Mikambune is compounded of mikan zn^/utts, 

c TI1C stem of the verb treated as a noun, with the honorific prefixed, is 
used with *itisaru or ni nam when speakint; respectfully of others, as above. 

d Onaji viono would be concrete, meaning the identical object, or, inexactly, 
an object of the same class. Onaii koto (often pronounced ofwsK koto) lueans'.er the same iifea. 

xv] "Same" *'Such" 3ft 

dd'koku^onaji kuniHie same province. 
d3'dJ=onajt viic At the S3ime road, 
do-n^n^onaji tosht the same year.* 
dj'i, dJ-setsu the same opinion. 
dJ-j^j the same manner. 
do-kyu'sei (lit. same class pupil) a classmate. 
•' As " in " die same as " is to be rendered to. 

Kore wa are to onaji mono desu. 
This is the same as that, or, 

JKore mo are mo onaji mono desu. 
This and that are the same. 

IVatakushi mo anata to dosetsu desu. 
I too am of the same opinion with you. 

/' Such *' may be variously rendered : » * 

JkJ iUy kayo na, ko iu yo na, kono yd na, konm^ 
so iu, sayo na, so iu yd na, sotio yo na, sorni^^ 
a iu, a iu yd na, ano yd na, anna. 

The contracted forms konna^ sonna, anna used attributively are 
oilen contemptuous. With ni they arc also used adverbially 
in the sense of *' so ". 

Sonna ni mutsukashiku arimasen. 
It is not so difficult [as all that]. 

Here so may be substituted for sonna nu 


(Include words meaning " such ") 

koto thing, aflfair (abstract). ji (c) character, ideogram^ 

kotoba word, language, dia- letter, word. 

Icct. koku (c) country (only ia 

> \ie- garni letter, epistle. composition). 

«"T "tvake sense, reason, cause. neri (c) year. 

d'j (c) road (only in com- satsu (c) card, note, paper 

position). money. 

a In I he Fcnsc of " the same age " onaji ioshi is contracted to oitaidoshi, 

b A^ iuyb would be literally : tluis say manner. Ka is the ndjeciival sitfix^ 

Compare kcdai fia yashiki or kirei na hnna, 

c Ko has reference usually to what is to follow in the course of the- 

conversation; so, 'o wiiat precedes 

40 The Pronoun [xv 

yd (c) manner.* suios-ki a little. 

i-mi meaning, purpoiL iro-iro no, iroiro na^ iroupia 

sho-sei, gaku'sei student. various, from iro color. 

sfio^kin specie. chigau differ, 

Xwaikoku-go foreign Ian- itasu do (polite i. 3). 

guages> iu say. 

chiku-shj beast. oru be (of a living thing), 

Shina China. dwell.** 

onaji, dj (c) same. tsukau use, employ. 

vtezurashii uncommon, an- yomu read, 

gular. ima now. 

nikui detestable (in com- /«///ii;« seldom (with negative 
position : difficult). verbs). 

kochi^ kotchi^ kochira in this ko^ sd, a thus, in that man- 
direction, here.^ ner. 

viina, minna all, all together, ga but (See p. 8a). 


Nihonjin wa Skinajtn to onaji jt wo ts^kaimas' keredomo, 
yomiyo ga chigaimas\ Kono tegami wa anata no to onaji toki 
ni kimasKta. Satsu wa ima sh'jkin to onaji koto des\ Sore 
wa kore to onaji nedan de gozaimas\ Kono koto wa ko iu 
wake des\,, Kono kotoba wa ko iu imi des\.. Ko iu 
snutsukashii ji toa taihen oboenikui,^ So iu shinamono wa 
Nikon de wa mezurashu gozaimas , Sakujitsu wa onaji hito 
ga ni do^ kimasKta. Watakushi wa ano o kata to ddnen de 
gozaimas\ Kore wa are to onaji hon des ka, lie, chigaimas\ 

a Much used in such expressions as : Ant kodomo %va iji ga rva^ui yo desu. 
That chUd seems to be ill-natured. 

b Compare Nihon-go Japanese Language, and zoku-go colloquial. 

C Compare docki^ do/chiy dochira (p. 23a]. Similarly : sochi^ sotchi, sockira ; 
<ich%^ atchi, achira. The ra here is the same as the sign of the plural. These 
words are like nouns and may be used with postpositions. Kochira yt oide 
nasai. Come this way. Achi kochi here and there. 

d Oru is synonymous with iru. See Ch. V. 

e By adding nikui to the stems of verbs many compound adjectives like this 
are formed. The opposite of nikui or katai [gatai) is yasui or yoi. Thus: 
oboe-gataiy oboe-yasiU^ wakari-yasui, wakari-yoi, etc. 

i Twice. See Ch. X., Vocabulary. 

xv] •* Same" "Such'* 41 

Gwaikokugogakko no sensei wa minna Nihonjin des^ ka. lie, 
chigaimas ; Shinajin ya Nihonjin ya Fransjin ya Doitsjin 
ya iroiro no kuni no hito ga orimas\^ Kofio yama n4> taknsa 
wa Fujisan to onaji koto des\ Go djdj itaskimashj}^ A iu 
yd na shinamono wa nedan ga takai ka, lii^ so de wa ari- 
masen ; yasu gozaimasho. Kd iu yj na okii uma wa Nihon ni 
orintasen, Kono shosei wa ano shosei to damn d4s\ Nikon no 
uguis* wa Seiyo no to onaji fioto des' ka, lie^ s'koshi ckigai- 
fnas\ Sj iu kami wa kotchi ni nai, Anna warui ningen wa 
tnezuraskii. Sensei! Kyoto no kyj wa Tokyj no kyo to onaji 
koto des' ka,^ Sayd, onaji koto des\ Inu ckik*sk5 dJyo no 
itash'kata des'A 

This character means the same (is the same meaning) as 
that character. Nihon and Nippon {to wd) are the same thing. 
Edo and Tokyo are the same place. He (i)camc by the same 
ship (3) as you (2).« The length is different, but the price is 
the same. That character has this {kj iu) meaning. Such a 
word is very hard to remember. There are many such difficult 
characters. Cold (3) as severe (2) as this (i) is rare. In {ni 
wa) Japan (i) there are few (5) such (2) high (3) houses (4). 
That farmer is a man (mono) of the same province as I. This 
tree is [of J the same height as that tree. In {de wa) Japan 
such fish are cheap. My children and [myj neighbor's (tonari 
no) children are of the same age. Those children are uncom- 
monly ill-natured (Such ill-natured children are uncommon). 
Satkyo is the same thing as Kydto/ but the meaning of the 
names is different 

a In some such cases either aru or iru {oru) may be used. It depends on 
whether one thinks more of the place or of the person. 

b Or O tomo (»ew) Uashimas/w^ ot Go dohan iiashimoikb, from hart (c) to ac- 

c Is the kyo in Kyoio the same as the kyo in Tokyo'*. 

d It's a beastly way of acting. In imi chikuslio we have an instance of the 
asyndetic construction. With words like doyo the particle to is often omitted. 

e " Ship" is in Chinese ien. Accordingly : do-aen, 

f .SVh->^0 west capital, in distinction from Td-kyo east capital. In Xyb/o, 
the ideoc^ram kyd is the same — capital — and fo is likewise capital or a chit f 
city. CoTDpare fo kioni city, metropolis. 

42 The Pronoun [xvi 


The following serve as interrogative pronouns {gimon-dai- 

dare who? 

donata who? (polite). 

nani^ nan what? 

dore which ? (substantival). 

dono which ? (adjectival). 

dochi, dotchi, dochira which ? (of the two, or of a very 

limited number), where ? 
do iu, dj iu yd na, dono yd na, donna of what kind ? what 
sort of... ? 
A plural is foroied by doubling. Thus : dare dare, dore 
dore, nani riani.^ 

The substantival forms take the same particles {^-a, no, «/, 
tvo, de, etc.) as nouns. Observe that ga, not wa, occurs usually 
with interrogative pronouns.^ 

Dare ga inairimashita ka. Who came ? 

Kore wa dare no mono desu ka. Whose is this ? 

In this last mono may be omitted. 

Nani may be used like an adjective. 

y/ Kant hiio {nanidito, nampito) de gozaiviasho ka. 

What sort of a man may he be ? 
Nan nin arimasu ka. 
How many persons are there ? 

Nan da ka, nan desu ka is frequently used as an expletive. 

The Japanese often say '* bow ?" where we should say 

. a JDokovihexd ard //jwwhcn? might willi propriety be included in 
this lisf, as they are parsed just like nouns or pronouns. 

b These words are closely joined in pronounciation and an almost inaudible 
n creeps in : darettdare, dorertdore. But the two parts arc kepi distinct in ihe 
exclamation : Z?<7;v fl^<?/r \\here is it? This last is oftcii a mere interjection 
expressing surprise. 

c In N'ani wa do vaHmashifa ka How about that matter ? we have an apparent 
exception ; but f//7«« here is really used indefinitely, like our •* what-cht-you- 
call-it" referring to a thing or person wh( se name is momentarily forgotten 
by the speaker. We have a real exception in IJhre li-a kife date wa kunasen 
Aa Who came and who did not come ? 

xvij Interrogatives 43 

Do itashimasho ka What shall I do ? But : 

Omae wa nani wo shite iru ka What are you doing ? 
Dore^ like nani, may in certain connections be used like an 
adjective. Thus: dore garai, dore dake, dore fiodo are equiva- 
lent to dono gurai, etc., " how much ?*' See Ch. XIV. ^ 

Instead of //((^;i^ we find doko no or dochira no, when the ^^\ 

place or source is the object of inquiry. 

Omae wa doko no gakko ye ikimasu ka. 
To what school are j'ou going ? 
Z?J i«, ^<7«/i^, etc., inquire after the xiature of a thing. Dj ^ 

shita (lit. how did ?) is used in the same. way. Observe^ further v- 

the very frequent idiom nan to iu (lit. vvhat say?) which 
inquireis after the name, but in many cases is practically syn- 
onymous with dj iu. 

Are wa do iu {do shita) hito desu ka. 
What kind of a man is he ? 

{Kono sakana wa nan to iimasu ka. 
Kore wa nan to iu sakana desu ka. 
What do you call this fish ? or, What fish is this ? 

Which day ? (of the month) is nan nichi or ikka^ from iku 
how many.* 


(Include interrogative pronouns) 

ika cuttle-fish. te-narai practicing penmaii- 

iro color. ship. 

kasa umbrella. dai-gakko, dai-gaku univer- 

kura storehouse. sity. 

kane metal gaku-nton learning. 

me- gone spectacles. h.-ritsu law, statute. 

tate-ntono building. kwa-shi sweetmeats, cakes. 

dj'gu utensils, furniture. mohi-teki object, purpose. 

Turn djgu second-hand fur- suteishon railway station. 

niture, curio. tJka tenth day. 

te hand. migi the right. 

narau learn, practice. aoi green, blue, pale. 

a The Japanese in making engagements name the day of llie month ratlicr 
than the day of the week. 

44 The PfiONOun £xvi 

tame advantage ( — no tame mise-ru show,* 

ni for). go ran nasaru dee polite 
uchi within ( — no uchi ni 2, 3). 

among). mochii-ru use. 


Kono kotoba zva do iu imi des* ka. Kono iafniwa nam ni 
mochiimas' ka. Kore wa tenarai ni mochiimas\ Anaia awr 
doko no steiskon ye oide nasaimas' ka. Hat watakushi wa 
Shimbashi no s'teiskon ye mairimas\ Kono furudogu no uchi 
de^ dore ga ichiban ii ka. Konojubako ga ichiban ii. Kore 
wa dj iu tokoro de gozaimas ka. Kore wa TukyDfuchD^ de 
gozaimas, Nani wo go ran ni iremasho ka. Megane wo 
misete kudasai. Do iu megane wo go ran ni iremaslio ka, Aoi 
no wo'^ misete kudasai, Doko no Jurudoguya ga ichiban ti ka. 
Kono tatemono wa nan des' ka. Kore wa kura des\ Kono 
uchi ni nani ga irete arimas' ka* Kono uchi ni ie no 
ga irete arimas\^ Dare ga kita ka. Anata no o tomodacki 
ga oide ^tasaimasKta, Kore wa donata no kasa de gozaima^ 
ka, Kore wa watakushi no de gozaimas\ Kyo wa nan no o 
matsuri des* ka. Kyo wa Kompira sama * no o matsuri de 
gozaimas'. Konnichi wa nan nichi de gozaimas* ka. Kon- 
nichi wa toka de gozaimas'. Anata wa nan no mok'teki de 
Seiyo ye oide nasaimas' ka. Gakumon no tame ni mairimas*. 
Nan no gakumon de gozaimas* ka. Horitsu de gozaitnas*. 
Doko no daigaku ye oide nasaimas* ka. Berrin no daigakm 

a More polke ngo ran ni treru (lit. put into Ihe honorable look). Another 
polite expiession \s\ome ni kakeru (lit. bang on bonorable eyes). 

b Notice that here de is used rather than ni. Compare: Kifno fu rudfgu na 
uchi ni katana ga ariniasu ka. 

c Tb« city-hall of Tokyo. Ordinary prefcclurcs arc called ken, bnt tbose 
which include the three great cities^ Tokyo, Osaka and Kyoto, are calWd^/w. 
CJio (c) means office. Compare kencho. 

d The gieen ones. Aeino is equivalent to aoi tnono, aoi dun, or fin vnlgar 
parlance, aoi yatstt. 

c Dd^u 1V0 ireta oru would mean that some one is putting them into theih»r^ 
\i\sX do^it ga irete am meani ihat they have been put into the kura and are 
there. The former denote) action ; the latter, a state. Equivalent to ireU attt 
is hai//e oru they are inside (entering). 

f Name of a god. See Murray's Hand-book, I,ist oi Gods. 

xvn] Ini-kkkogatives 45 

ye mainmas^* Kore wa nan to tu saknna dts' ha, Kore tun 
ika des\ Dotchi no as hi ga warui ka. Migi no ashiga wanti- 
sh4^kugjd wa nan des' ka. 

What (2) flower is that(i)? Those are cherry blossoms, 
Who has come (came) ? A European has come. Whose (2) 
is this book (i)? [It] is the master's book. Show me an 
umbrella. What kind of an umbrella shall I show you ? What 
(2) meaning has (is) this character (i) ? Whose (2) is this 
dictionary (0? It is my friend's. Which university is the 
best? Which restaurant is the cheapest? To what (what 
called) place are you going ? I am going to Yokkaichi.* Who 
(2) put that (i) into the lacquered boxes? What do hares eat? 
To which bookseller are you going? What kind of (2) meat 
is that(i)? It is venison, Which flowers did the gardener 
plant? [On] what day (of the month) is the festival of Kom- 
pira? The festival of Kompira is [on] the tenth. [Of] what 
color is the cormorant ? The color of the cormorant is black. 
What bird is that ? That is a heron. For what (2) do they 
use these larquered boxes (i) ? They put cakes into [themj. 


Interrogative pronouns may be made indefinite {/ufd-dai- 
meisM) by adding the particles ka, mo, de mo. Thus : 

N. dare ka dare vto dare de mo 

G. dare ka no dare no — mo dare no — dt mo 

D. dare ka ni dare ni m(^ dare ni de mo 

A. dare ka (wo) dare (wo) mo dare de mo 

Dare ka is vague and means *' some one/' "somebody ;'* in 
questionS| ** any one," " anybody." Dare mo is comprehensive : 
"any one," "every one." It is mostly used with negative 
expressions, in which case it must be translated " no one." 
Dare de mo is likewise universal, but it individualizes (" any 
one you please "), and is more commonly used with affirmative 

a A harbor on the coast of the province of Jm» 

b Conpara ; Vara m mo iikimas^n* He inquires (Ut. hears) of no one. 
/Xnv tti kuii mo am kanashi dem. Such is the story, ask whom yon will. 

46 The Pronoun [xvii 

Dare ka kimaihita ka» Has any one come ? 

Dare mo kimasen. No one has come (comes). 

Dare de mo kite yoroshii. Any one at all may come. 

Dare de mo koraremasetu Not a single one can come* 

Dare mo shitte imasu. Every one knows it. 

Dare de mo shitte imasUn 

Every one (though he be a fool) knows it. 
Donata ka, etc., would be more polite. 

Similar forms may be derived from nani, dore, dochira^ doko, 
itsu^ ikura, dono-r, donna — .* They are very common in the 

Dore ka motte kimashj ka f Shall I bring one of them ? 

Dore mo motte kite kudasai. Bring them every one, please. 

Dore de mo motte kite kudasai. Bring any one of them, please. 

Itsu mo no t^ri gakko ye ikimashita, 

I went to school as usuaU 

Itsu de mo yd gozaimasu. Any time will do. 

Donna hon ni mo machigai ga arimasu. 

Every book has its mistakes. 

Are wa donna hon de mo yomimasu. 

He reads any book. 

Donna kimono de mo yoroshii. Any clothes will do. 
The last sentence is equivalent to : Donna kimono wo kite mo 
yoroskii. The particle mo with the subordinative of the verb 
bas concessive force, as will be explained more fully later. 
The fuller form of de mo is de atta mo, from am. 

But notice that the de in de mo often has the sense of at, 
with, etc. 

Do ^0 no gakko de mo kono hon wo mochiite orimasu. 
They use this book in every school. 

For de mo we may substitute to mo in certain connections.^ 
Nan to iimashita ka. What did he say ? 
Nan to mo iimasen. He said nothing at all. 

a Compare do ^a somehow or other, do mo in every way, no matter how one 
tries (an exceedingly common expletive), do de mo anyway you please; also 
do ka l-o ka in one way or another, i.e., with difficulty. Dd ka ki Jka dtkir 
mashita. We did manage to get it done. 

b This to mo and tomo together in the emphatic ry^kd tonto, both, mre not to 
be confounded. 

vxii] Indefinites 47 

It is interesting to compare : 

Nani mo nau There's nothing. 

Nani de mo nai. It's nothing at all. 

Nan to mo nau It makes no diflference to me. 

For ka, zo may be substituted, and thus nan zo is equivalent 
to nani ka,^ 

In certain idioms nani without any particle may be used as 
an indefinite pronoun. Thus : nani kara nani made ** the whole 
businefjs." Notice also the veiy emphatic nani mo ka (ni) mo 
everything (with emphasis on " every ") and nan de mo ka (n) 
de mo, 

A common expression for " a certain person " is dare sore. 
This is used to designate a person in a supposed case, or one 
whose name it is inconvenient to give, and is equivalent to 
our ** blank " or " Mr. So-and-so." It corresponds to the more 
literary form nanigashiy or nan no taregashi \soregashi). 

" Somebody " may be rendered simply by hito, *' Something ** 
is similarly rendered by mono, 

Hito to hanashi wo shite orimashita. 

Was speaking with somebody. 

Mono wo in to say something. 
With adjectives '* something " is to be rendered by mono (con- 
crete) and koto (abstract). 

Kuroi mono something black. 

Nani ka warui koto something bad, bad behavior. 


kami, kami no ke\\^\t o{ \kiQ. mura village, district, town- 
head, ship. 

o kami san wife, mistress of tokei clock, watch.^ 

the house.^^ uta song, poem.<^ 

a Compare do-zo which is used like do-ka in the sense of " please " Do-mo is 
Ihe more pulite. 

b This term designates married women among the lower classes. It is 
especially common among merchants and laborers, 

c A watch may be distinguished as Invai-chu-dokei (kivai-^hu pocket within). 

d To compose a poem is i$/a wo yonm. 

4^ The Fbonoun [xvii 

uta yomi poet. go xmfi desu you know 
gaku-sha scholar, learned (polite 2,3) 

man. shiru know. 

^^', " shim-bun newspaper.^ wasure-ru forget. 

>^ '. ' .katappj {kata, ho) one side, ton-tsugu transmLt, announce 

one of a pair. (a visitor). 

ryd'hj two sides, both. ki (c) spirit 

otnoshiroi interesting. iru enter. 

yasui easy. ki ni iru be liked. 

kome-ru praise. yaku (c) office, function. 

kari-ru borrow, rent. tatsu (stem : tachi) stand. 

kasu (stem ; kashi) lend, rent, yaku ni tatsu be useful. 

zonzuru (stem : zonji) think, bakari \ 1 . ^ . *. k 

know (polite 1.3) dak, } only, just, about** 


Dare ka koi {oide^S- Dare ka no kasa wo karimaskd. 
Watakushi wa dare ka ni kasa wo kashiviasKta keredotno 
dare ni kasKta ka wakarimasen. Oi, Gonske / dare ka kita 
ka. lie, dare mo mairimasen,^ Sono shimbun ni nan zo omo- 
shiroi koto ga gozaimas' ka. lie, nani mo omoshiroi koto wa 
gozaitnasen, Anata wa kono koto ga dekivtas' ka,^ Sore wa 
dare de mo dekimas*. Dare ka kita ; dare ka toritsugiwo shiroS 

a A newspaper is more properly called shimbun-shi, from shi pnpcr. 

b Notice that bakati ?<t\^ dnke follow llie words which they modify, ga and 
7r'(7 be! ng usually omitted Dake differs iiova haknri in Ibat it sets the limit 
more definitely. It hi yen bakari 2\ioyx\. one yen. Jchi yen dake not more than 
one yen. l^ut they are frequently interchangeable. 

c The mnstcr of the house may say k<n to his own servants; but the lady of 
the hou&e may not. 

d Here, as is quite common in negative sentences, the present stands for 
the past. Notice that the servant Gonske in his reply uses not kuru^ but the 
l)olitc verb mairu. 

e The original meaning of dekiru is «* come forth ",." be produced." It is to 
lie translated variously, depending on the context. Ano hito wa dekinau He 
can't do it. Dekiiuasu n,ir,i if jwssible. Afo shiiaku ga dekimashi/a. The 
prepasat Ions ar* now complete, everything is ready. The person is properly 
put in the dative case. ira/akMski ni twi ktmnshi ga dekimasen, [Tt] is im- 
|K)SMbU for me to s|x^ak. 

f Shitxi is the hnpcrative oi swru to do.. ThiB is rode and familiar like *w. 

xvii] Indefinites 49 

Watakttshi wa kono ucbi de (among these people) donata mo 
zonjimasen. Kono kotoba wa dare de mo mochiimas* ka. lie^ 
utayomi bakari mochiimas\ Kono uchi de (among these 
things) dore ka o ki ni irimas* ka. lie, dore mo ki ni irimasen, 
Kore wa dare de mo ki ni irimas\ Dochira no ashi ga itai 
ka, Ryohd tomo itai, Anata no o me wa dochira mo waru 
goeaimas* ka. //>, katappd bakari {dake) waru gozaimas\ 
Kono tokei wa nan no yaku ni mo tachimasen. Watakushi 
wa nani ka tabefai,^ Nani ga yd gozaimas ka. Nan de mo 
yoroshii. Nihonjin wa dare de mo kami no ke ga kuroi. 
Anata wa sono hon wo dare kara moraimasKta ka. Tonari no 
uchi no hito kara moraimasKta. Dare mo wakaranai hito wa 

I wfll borrow some one's writing-brush. I loaned the 
dictionary to some one, but have forgotten to whom I loaned it. 
Has anybody come ? Yes, the neighbor's wife, (tonari^ no 
kami sari) has come. Is there anything new {meznrasJiii) ? 
In this newspaper there is nothing new. That pupil knows 
nothing. Is that difficult (a difficult. thing)? No, it is easy : 
any one can [do it]. Do you know any one (2) among these 
people (i)? Yes, I know all (mina sama wo zonjite imas'). 
Does every one (2) use this dictionary (i) ? Only scholars use 
[it]. Among these curios which do you like ? I like them all. 
Every one praises the ancestral shrines at Nikko. Which [of 
the two] is better? Either will do (is good). This servant is 
not worth anything. There is a school in every village. 
This dictionary is not worth anything. 


In cases where .we use such pronominal words as ** every," 
*' all/' "many," "other," etc., in Japanese the tendency is to 
use adverbial forms. 

" Every one," if referring to persons, may be rendered by 
mei'tnei, or mem-men, from mei name and men face, or by 
tende ni. 

a This is the desiderative form of the verb tabe-ru. It means, I want to eat, 
^ have an appetite for... 

50 The Pronoun [xvin 

With words denoting time •' every " becomes mat (c) : 

vtai-nichi {mai-jitsu) every day. 

viai-asa, mai-ban every morning, every evening. 

mai-nen {mai-tosht) every year. 

But with words denoting place the construction explained in 
the previous chapter is used : 

Doko no mura ni mo in every village. 

For a rarer idiom see ^oto ni, p. 321, 

" All " is mina (minna) or nokorazu. These words, like 
meimei, etc., are commonly used adverbially, and immediately 
precede the verb. In some constructions they are to be trans- 
lated " wholly " or " entirely." Nokorazu is properly the 
negative subordi native of the verb nokoru meaning ** not (none) 
being left." Mi$ui sama {san^ much used in speakkig of a 
company, is truly pronominal. 

" Many " is oi and " few " is sukunai ; but these words, as 
has been said before, can be used only in the predicative 
position. The idea of " many " may be expressed in a different 
way by the use of the adverb oku numerously : 

Hitobito ga oku atsumarimashita. 
Many people assembled. 

¥oY oku we may substitute o-zei (limited to persons), takusan, 
or tanto (persons and things). These words are really nouns 
used adverbially. From these are derived the adjectival oku 
no, ozei no, takusan no or takusan na. 

" Another '* is Aoka no, ta (c) no, betsu (c) no, betsu na. 
Thus : hoka no isha, ta no isha, betsu no isha another physician. 
But the Japanese often use the adverbial form hoka ni where 
we use the adjective. The same idea is expressed by mo with 
a numeral : mo hitotsu no hanashi another story. " The other " 

is often muko no the opposite one. The one the other 

is katappd katappo (from kata one of two, hj side). 

Instead of hoka no hito one may say simply hito : 

Kore wa hito no mono desu. 

This belongs to another person. "" 

To Chinese words ta or betsu is prefixed without no, as in 
ta-nin another person (not a relative), ta-ken another prefecture 
bes-shitsu another room. 


" Every 

Other " 


A peculiar expression is, Hoka de wa {de fm) arima^en ga 

I just want to say that (lit. It is nothing else whatsever ; 

but ). This is used in broaching the subject about which 

one wishes more particularly to speak. 


macki street, town (=^A^).* 

tori passage, thoroughfare, 

sakari bloom, prime, culmi- 
nation. ^ 

shima island. jL^ 

dkorgane coppSn 

ken prefecture, 

(p) kyaku {sari) guest, cus- 
tomer, passenger. 

tetsu iron. 4i.' 

bim-bo pov«ty. 

bimbo-nin poor person. 

byd-m hospital. <%, • ^ 

byd-nin sick person, patient. 

hei'tai^ hii-sotsu soldier. 

kanji Chinese character. 

^ze^/i-j8r^» volcano. Jvlii 

onsen hot spiing. 

ru-su absence {rusu desu is 
not at home. 

ta other. 

han, ham-bun half. 

niei-inei every one, severally. 

o-zei a great number. 

chiru scatter, disperse, wither 

and fall. 
irassharu be, come, go (polite 

itadaku receive with respctt 

(used by a guest). 
kau buy. 

shimau finish, close. 
yake-ru be burned. 
o agari nasai please eat, drink 

(polite 2). 
nokorazu none being left, all. 
naka inside ( — no naka Hi 

naka ni among them. 
tama ni occasionally, once in 



Binibonin (ni) ko {go) tak'san (/rn*).^ Tak^san o agon 
naiai. Mo skoshi o agari nasai, Arigatd, mo tak*san {de 
gosaimas*),^ Nilum no kodomo wa mina gakko ye ikimas* ka. 
SayJ, taitei mina gakko ye mairimas\ Yube fUf o kyaku wa 

a Tn the sense of town chS is used only in composition, lis in chd^nai vriihXn 
the town. Technically the government determines the application of tlie 
\Kim machi or chd \n the sense of town; but ix>pularly it is applied to any 
collection of houses which includes merchants'- shops. 

b The shorter form is a proverb : Bimfwnn ko dakusan, 

c This is the expression generally used in declining to eat Or drink more.' 

52 The Pronoun [xviir 

ozei de irasshaimasKta ka, Sayo^ tak'san de gozaimasktta, 
Kono byain ni wa itsu mo bydnin ga ozeiimas\ Doits* ni wa 
heitai ga tak'san orimas*. Mukojima no sakura wa ima sakari 
desu ga, Ueno wa mina chitte skhnaimasK ta,^ Mina san! 
konnichi wa,^ Kanji no uchi ni wa oboeyasui no mo arimasu 
ski oboenikui no mo arimas\ Nikon ni wa shima ga tai*san 
arimas\ S^motori wa taitei karada ga okii ga, tama ni wa 
chiisai no mo arimas\ Nihombashiddri no ie. wa mina yake- 
niashta ka. Tie, hambun gurai yaketnasKta. Nikon ni wa 
akagani ga oi keredomo, koka no kane wa s'kunaiS- Ano kito 
vfa mainen onsen ye ikimas\ IVatakuski wa maitoski saiski 
too tsurete kanami ni ikimas\ Mina uchi ni imasKta ka, lie, 
mina rusu de gozaimash* ta, Toski no icki ni wa kito ga 
tneimei kai ni ikimas'A Anata no o tomodacki wa go doken 
MO Jiito des' ka. He, taken no kito des\ 

To-day [I] have eaten a great deal. To-day the patient ate 
a little. Please have a litde more meat Thank you, I have 
enough. I have forgotten almost everything. Was the school 
entirely burned ? « No, about half was burned. My neighbor 
has a great deal of company to-day.^ In this hotel there are 
many guests. In this town there . are many sick people, but 
lew hospitals. The cherry blossoms have all fallen already. I 
wish you all good morning {p kayo gozaimas*). As (4) the 
weather (2) is fine (3) to-day (i) all (5) are going to see the 

m Mukojima is a place near Tokyo celebrated for its cherry-blossoms. 
Skkitau to finish is often attached to the subordinative of a verb, as in this 
■cotcnce. ChitU shimaimashita j(lit. falling they ended) they have fallen and 
are all at an end. 

b Mma san is vocative. Konnichi wa is a common greeting like our, « How 
do yoa do 7" It is eliptical for : Komnichi wa yoi o tenki desu, or the like. 

c Since there is a contrast between akagane and hoka no kane^ we should 
expect wa with both ; but the former takes ^ because wa precedes. It would 
abo be correct to say akagant wa» 

d Toski no ichi is a street-fair held toward the end of the year. Here one 
buys things needed for the New Year's celebrations. JCai ni iku to go to buy. 
When the nature of the purchases to be made is not stated, one may say in- 
definitely, kaimono ni iku. 

c A common expression for this is : Gakko ga ntaru^yaki deskiia ka» 

f Either ionari ni kyaku ga dnei orimasu or Hei kyakti ga orimasu {imasu) will 
dob Using desu, the sentence becomes tonari no kyaku wa ozei desu. 

xix] Relatives 53 

flowers. There (naia ni zvdj are wotds [that are] hard to 
ieam but this [one] is easy to learn. On this island there are 
many volcanoes. The Japanese are almost all short of stature, 
but once in a while there is a tall one. Was your house 
entirely burned ? * Yes, even {made mo) the storehouse was 
burned. In England {Eikoku) there is much iron. Recently 
many Japanese have been (are) going to Germany. 


. There are in Japanese no relative pronouns (kwankei-dai- 
meishi). Where we use a relative clause the Japanese simply 
prefix the verb of the relative clause to the noun or pronoun 
which in English would be the antecedent. As has been 
intimated before (p. t8 b), Japanese verbs may be used 
just like adjectives. In the translations of the following 
examples notice the different cases of the relative pronoun. 

Yaketa ie the house that was burned. 

Yam no yaketa ie the house whose roof was burned* 

Uekiya no ueta ki the tree that the gardener planted. 

Shiranai bito a man whom I do not know. 

Suzuki to iu hito a man whom [they] call Suzuki. 

Na no aru hito a man who has a name (reputation). 

Fune wo koshiraeru tokoro a place at which they build ships. 

Mi no naru ki a tree on which fruit is produced. 

But by changing the voice we may obtain similar adjectival 
constractions in English, thus : the tree planted by the gardener, 
an imknown man, a man named Suzuki, a fruit-bearing tree, 
etc. In Japanese the use of the passive is limited to a few 
special cases. For this reason English passive participles and 
relative clauses with passive verbs are usually to be rendered 
by active verbs in Japanese. 

Notice that the subject of the relative clause takes no. We 
have here the same substitution of no for ga as in the examples 
given in Ch. VII. In longer clauses ga also may be used. 

a The question may be rendered more elegantly go zen-sho deshiia ka, tenshd 
being the Chinese equivalent of ntartiyake. In the answer we observe % 
|)ecaliar use of made in the sense of '* even." 

54 The Pronoun [xix 

When the English antecedant is indefinite or the indefinite 
re:lative " what " occurs, the. Japanese uses an attributive verb 
with mono or koto. Motto asviS^ also of persons synonymously 
with hito. In certain connections no may also be sufastitutoi 
for mono or koto,^ 

Horitsu wo okasu mono one who violates the law. 
Ktnj mita koto what [1] saw yesterday. 
Anata no ossharu no wa go mottomo desu. 
What you say is quite true. 

We have observed in the examples given above that the 
indicative form of the verb, like the participle in English, is 
used adjectively. Hence many of our adjectives must be trans- 
lated' by the use of verbs. Further, in relative clauses, as in 
dependent clauses generally, the present often stands for other 
tenses. Thus: 

Am hi Furubekki to iu gwaikoku no o kata ni aimasAita, 
Gne day I met a foreign gentleman named Verbeck. 

Here there is no occasion to change aru and tti to the past 
tense. Indeed they have practically become adjectives. 

The idiom to iu often serves to turn a whole sentence into 
a relative clause, in which case it is not translated. 

Ano kata ga kondo Kotogakkj ni kita to iu Seiyojtn desu ka. 
Is that the foreigner that came to the Higher School recently ?" 

As in the German, long and involved clauses may be used 
to modify nouns. Sometimes a noun may be directly limited 
by a succession of attributive verbs ; but such multiplication of 
coordinate relative clauses is to be avoided. It is, however, 
quite natural to attach two or more verbs to one noun if all 
but the last are subordinatives. 

Ima ume no ki ni tomatte naite iru tori wa uguisu desu. 
The bird that is sitting^ (now) on the plum-tree and singing, 
is a bush-warbler. 

a This use of koio with an attributive verb b to be distinguished from 
another, more abstract, use of the same construction, as in : Aru koio wa arug^ 

(lit. As far as existing is concerned, it exist but ) There is such a thin«:, 

bat Tabeia koto ga aru I have eaten it before. Kiiia koto ga {^ma) nM\ 

have never heard it. Notice that mono also may be lu^d in an abstract sense,, 
as in Do shiia nioti desho. What is the matter ? 

xix] Relatives 55 


kako box, case. nawake-ru be lazy, neglect. 

mi fruit, nut shaberu chatter, talk. 

l^» oni demon, deviL suku like> 
' '^sho'gakkd elementary school.* suU-ru cast away, discard, 

koto-shogakko secondary forsake. 

school. tasukeru help, save. 

bun-ten grammar. todoku t eac h , a r rive (of t h i ngs). 

tokU'hon reader. uvtu give birth to {famago 

kei'ken experience. wo utnu lay eggs). 

yU-bin mail, post amari exceedingly, too, so 

mant imitation (•— «^ mane very. 

wo suru imitate). saki ni, sakki before* a short 

hanasu speak. while ago. 

kaesU' return (tr.). kind yesterday. 

kare-ru wither, perisji. ototoi day before yesterday.^ 

koshirae-ru make, fabricate, dozo please, I beg you, /j^ i^^A 

fiaku cry, sing (of birds) pray ! 


Oi/ sakki kita hito wa dare (da) ka. Hai, doguya de 
gozaimas\ Sakujitsu yaketa^ ie wa donata no ie de gozai- 
maiKta ka. Kind yaketa ie wa gakko de gozaimas*. More 
wa dono shogakko de mo mochiiru hon des ka, lie, koto 
shpgakko bakari de mochiiru hon des\ Mi no naru kiwa 
hana kara shireru (Proverb).* Anata ni (kara) kari mosKta ^ 


a There are two grades in the elementary schools, called y^'-Tl^ ordinary and 
ko-r? advanced. Originally there were three classes of schools, namely, jAa- 
gakAd^ from shd small, chU^gakkd, from chU middle, and dai-gakkd, from dSn 
great. The schools that train graduates of chugakk^ for ordinary professions 
and prepare them for daigakkb are called simply koio-gakkd, 

b Atuita %va sunid ga suki desu ka. Are you fond of [Japanese] wrestling? 
Atio kodomo wa i no hon ga dai suki desu. That child is very fond of picture- 
books. Sumo wo snkimasu, i no Hon wo sukimasti, etc., would sound strange, but 
ntkimasen is not uncommon. 

c The Chinese equivalents for kino^ and ofoi^ are saku^jUsu and issakujitsu, 

d Attribntive verbs like Wk\&yak€ia need not take the polite ending ma$u. 
If the verb at the end of a sentence or principal clause is in the polite form, it 
makes the whole polite. 

e Shireru is the potential or passive form and means here ** is known." 

f O kari moshita is a very polite equivalent of kariia* 

56 The Pronoun [xix 

hon wa kore de gozaimas' ka, Sayo^ son di gozaifnas\ 
Konogoro tateta ie wa ylibe yakete shtmaimasKta. Soko ni 
am mono no uchi ni o ki ni iru mono wa gozaimasen ka. 
Waiakushi wa amari shaberu hito wo s'kimasen, Kore wa 
yoku (a great deal) naku tori da. Kore wa yoku tamago wo 
umu tori des\ Kono seito no uchi ni namakeru hito ga di. 
IVatakushi ga oiotoi yubinbako ye ireta tegami ga todokimasen. * 
U no mane wo sum karas' (Proverb).^ Sono bunten wo 
koshiraeta hito wa dare des' ka. Ano sensei wa keiken no aru 
hito des\ Are wa keiken no nai hito des* kara, sonna mutsu- 
kashii koto wa dekimasen. Zuibun na no aru gak'sha des\ 
S'teru kami (ga) areba (if there are) tas'keru kami mo aru 
(Proverb). Wakam koto wa wakarimas*. IVakaranai koto 
wa nai. IVatakushi wa mada maguro no mi wo tabeta koto 
ga arimasen, Ezojtn wo mita koto ga arimasen, Sakunen 
niwa ni^ ueta clia no ki wa mina karete shimaimasK ta. 

The man that came awhile ago is a merchant <^ Those that 
were burned yesterday were all old houses. Please give me 
the umbrella that I forgot yesterday. In Japan (i) there are 
few (5) persons (4) that do not know (shiranai 3) the Chinese 
characters (2). Among (4) the Europeans (3) that live (2) in 
Japan (i)are there many (8) persons (7) that speak (6) Japanese 
(5) ? Among the Europeans that live in Japan there are few 
persons that know {shitte om) the Chinese characters. Please 
return the dictionary that I loaned to you. Please bring the 
newspaper that came day before yesterday. This is not to be 
put in there (not a thing that one puts in there soko ye). 
Where {doko ni 5) is (6) the box (4) into which you (i) put (3) 
the cigars (2) ? Children that do not resemble {ninu) their 
parents [are] children of the devil (Proverb). There is no 
remedy (medicine) that one may apply {ts'keru) to fools 

a The present tense is often used, as here, where we should expect the past. 

b Such a predicate as shinde shimau dies, perishes, may be supplied. Com> 
pare our proverb : Cobbler, stick to your last 1 

. c We say nhva ni, not niwa de, because niiva is rather the indirect object 
tlian the scene of the action. 

d The subject takes wa when the predicate is a noun. 

e Tlie verb tsukeru is used because the reference is to a plaster {kd-yakiij. 
To administer medicine internally is kusuriwo nomaseru (cause to drink). 

xxj "Self" "One Another" 57 


The word "self" has several equivalents in the literary 
l^.nguage, but in the colloquial is usually rendered by ji-dun, 
from y/ self and bun part, or by the rather more literary form 

/i-shin, (rota skin body or self. In *'I myself," "you your- 
self," etc., '' myself." "yourself," etc, are to be rendered by 

jibun de (iara), usually put in the adverbial position.^ hi 
speaking respectfully to or of a person the honorific ^o is 

Jibun no mono wo jibun de kowashimaskita. 

He himself broke his own things. 

Go Jibun de oide nasaimaskita. He came himself. 
Jibun kara nanotte demaskita. 

He introduced himself (telling hb name came forward). 

Jibun may also be used as a simple personal pronoun, taking 
' the particles wa, ga^ no, ni, wo and various postpositions. 
There are also plural forms, such as jibuntacki, jibundomo, 

Jibun wa Tokyo ye itU kazoku wa Kamakura ni nokoskite 

He himself will go Qxt. going) to Tokyo and leave (lit 
leaving will put) his family in Kamakura. 

Jibuntacki ga warui n' de arimasen ka. 

Are not they themselves in the wrong ? 

These examples might also be construed in the first person, 
according to the context. 

Notice the use oiji in expressions derived from the Chinese, 
such as : 

Ji-bun no dekiru koto woji-man skite iru. 

He prides himself on his ability (man pride). 
Ji'Sastu suru to kill one's self, from satsu kill. 
Ji'goji'toku (lit self-act self-get). 

A man's sin brings its own punishment. 
The following idioms should also be noted in this connection : 

Karada wo arau to wash one's self. 

s It is an unsettled question among Japanese grammarians whether adverbs 
or adverbial expressions should always immediately precede the verb or not. 
Ordinarily /r<^M» de is placed between the verb and its object, but in some cases 
it more naturally precedes the objecL 

58 The Pkonoun [xx 

Kimono wo kiru to dress one's self. 

Koshi wo kakeru to seat one's self (on a cliair or other 
raised object). 

Mi wo kakusu to hide one's self.* 

Mi-nagi wo sum to drown one's self, from nage-ru to cast 

Ware (mi) W4f tifasureru to forget one's self. 

The mi which occurs in the last few examples enters into the 
very common idiom vii^no-ue (lit. upon self) which means: 
one's personal fortunes, " fate." 

Mi-no-ue-banashi wo Sum to talk about one's own future. 
" One another," ** mutually," is rendered by the adverbial 
tagai ni. In addition there may be added to the stem of the 
verb the auxiliary au to meet. 

Tagai ni tasuke-au. They help one another. 
Tagai nihorerau. They fall in love with each otlien 
Notice the use of the Chinese do-shi^ from ^^ same,, together, 
and shi man, ia : Tomodachi doshi de fianashi wo sun^ (lit. 
Friends among themselves speaking do). They hold a conver- 
sation just among theniselves as friends. 


Aara abdomen, stomach. su (c) drawing, plan, map. 

iiusa war. bun-slid composition, sen- 
samurai one of the former tence. 

military class, knight. bun-tai style. 

tsukai messenger, envoy. g^'jo maid servant. 

oyaji father.^ ji-bun^ji-skin self. 

ki-niono clothes. kyc-dai brother.<= 

tabe-mono food. ten-ski sama the Emperor. 

mi'so a kind of sauce. de-ru come forth, go out 

a The idiom mi wo kakusu is commonly used of a debtor hiding from his 
creditors, or of a hermit. « To hide one's self" is more commonly expressed 
by the passive verb kakure-ru to be hidden. 

b Oyaji may be used contemptuously of any old man. It may also be used 
in speaking humbly of one*s own father. In speaking of the father of a second 
person, use the polite Chinese equivalent.of oyaji, ge shim-pu {sama). The most 
suitable term for ordinary purposes is chic/u ox chicht-oya, 

c From kydot >&W elder brother, and dai or tei younger brother. As a col- 
lective term kyd-dai oiKezi. includes sisters like the German Geschwister^ 

xx] '* Self " ** One Another " 59 

au meet (Aifo ni au) meet a yo.bosu send.* 
•person). iji-satsu suru cotatcXtsmddc. 

ki ga an agree, becongeniaL ato di after (following a past 

hiku pull, draw {zu wo hiku verb), 
draw a plan). tagai ni mutually, recipro- 

hon-ru fall in love. cally. 

karu write, draw. is-sho ni in the same place, 

naosu mend, heal, correct togetfier ( — to issho ni "^xiiri). 

nuu (nu) sew. mukashi in ancient time3. 

shinuru^ shinu (stem : shini) to when, if (with a verb in the 
die. present tense). 


Ano oyaji wajibun no iodotno wo koroskimasK ta, Watakushi 
wa niwa no ki wo taitei minajibun de uemasKta, Ikeda san 
ga jibun de kimasKta ka. fie, tskai wo yokoshimasK ta, 
Anata wa kono bunshd wo go jibun de o kaki nasaimasKta ka. 
Jibun no ntwa ni^ dekita hana zvo Jibun de motte kimasKta. 
Ano hito wajibun no ie ni hi wo ts kemasKta. Kono kodomo 
ga jibun de konoji wo kakimasht' ta. Ano onna wajibun no 
kimono wo minajibun de nuinias , O Some to Hisamats* wa 
tagai ni horeaimash* ta,^ IVatakushi wa ano hito to tagai ni ki 
ga aimas\ Mukashi Nihon no samurai wa warui koto wo 
suru to 9 jibun de hara wo kirimash*taA Jibun ga tabemono wo 
koshiraeru to, umaku nai ga ; hito ga koshiraeru to^ umai. 

He i^a) killed his own father. Who planted these flowers? 
I {go) myself planted [them]. I myself will go to {ye) the 
physician. Did he write this composition himself? Yes, but 
some one probably corrected {naosKta deshd 3) the style (i) a 
little (2). It occasionally happened {koto mo arimas') in ancient 
times [that] the Japanese Emperors themselves went {oide ni 

a. Yokosu is used only of sending persons or things to the speaker's owu 
house or to the house in which he is at the time. The general term for 
"send" is okuru^ or todoke-ru for things, and for persons tmkawasu. 

b It is usual to say niwa ni dekita {tsukutta) imo pototoes raised in the 
garden, but uchi de dekita {koskiraeta) pan bread made at home, home-made 

c These are the hero and heroine of a drama, O Some being the woman's 

d More elegantly : seppuku shimashita^ from setsu=^ru zxaA fukuz=zhafa. 

6p The Pronoun [xx 

naUa) to war. That woman killed her own children. That 
gentleman himself drew the plans of his own house. Did that 
pupil write these characters himself? No, the teacher wrote 
(o kaki ni narimasKtd) [them]. That woman sews her own 
clothes. People of the same country {do-koku) help one 
another. That child is congenial to his brothers. Gompachi 
a;id Komurasaki fell in love with each other. Shibata Katsuie^ 
died together with his wife and children. After (4) Shibata (1) 
killed (3) his wife and children (2), he killed himself. Did the 
maidservant go out shopping {kaimofto ni) ? No» the mistress 
herself went People in (of) the country make [their] wm^ 

a Lord of Echizcn,— died 1583. 

b In this case uehi de may be better than jibun de. The adjective ** home- 
made *' becomes in Japanese iesei #»?. hand-made (a case Qlyutb-yami\ as in tttei 
nojdbukur9 home-made envelopes. 



The Japanese language has two series of numerals. One 
consists of native Japanese words ; the other is borrowed from 
the Chinese. The native Japanese numerals in common use 
are : 

hitctsu one mutsu six 

futatsu two nanatsu seven 

mitsu three yatsu eight 

yotsu four kokonotsu nine 

ttsutsu five to ten 

Those of two syllables are commonly pronounced with stress 
on the / .* mittsUf yottsUy muUsu, yattsu 

These numerals are used only for things/ not for persons. 
They usually follow the noun. In case they precede the noun^ 
they naturally take the particle no, 

Tokei futatsu^ futatsu no tokei two clocks.'^ 

Mo hitotsu kotoba ga arimasu. There is one more word. 

In telling the age of a child these numerals may be used 
alone, the word for " year " being understood, 

Hitotsu may also be used as a kind of expletive in the sense 
of our " once." 

Hitotsu yatte go ran nasat. Try it once (lit. one doing see). 
The native numerals above *' ten " are mostly obsolete, but 
some of them still occur in certain connections. Thus the old 
word for " twenty " appears in hatachi twenty years old and 
hatsuka twenty days or the twentieth day. " Thirty," " forty,"" 
etc., would be tni-so, yo-so, i-so, mu-so, etc. Of these, miso is 
still used in misoka the last day of the month according to the 
old calendar. Momo one hundred occurs in the classical momo 
i^5^ one hundred years. Ya-o eight hundred appears in the 
familiar yao-ya greengrocer ; chi one thousand, in Chi-shima 
thousand isles (the Kuriles), and yorozu a myriad, in yorozuya 
dealer in miscellaneous articles, jack-of-all-trades. 

a Sushi nttinber-word. 

b Futaisu no lokeimovXA. suggest that there are hut two. 


The Numeral 


(Include the numerals up to " ten,") 

ojii san (Jiji, jijii) grand- 
father, old gentleman. 

ba san {baba, baba) grand- 
mother, old lady. 

otottsan ifoio) papa. 

okka san (kakd) mamma. 

am older brother. 

ane older sister. 

otjto younger brother. 

imjto younger sister. 

musuko son, boy. 

viusume daughter, girl. 

heya room, apartment 

mado window. 

tansu bureau, chest of 

hiki'dashi drawer. 

kago basket, cage. 

kaki persimmon. 

tsubaki camelia. 

tsubomi flower bud. 

iro-ha syllabary. 

chu (c)ssnaJia middle. 

fnanju a kind of cake. 

isUrei (lit. common practice) 

saku-ya last night. 

zutsu apiece. 

hajime-ru commence (tr.). 

hajime beginning. 

hanashi speech, conversation, 

hairu enter {haitte oru be 

osowaru be taught, learn. 

ochi-ru fall* 

sage-ru let hang, suspend 
carry (of watches, deco- 
rations, etc.). 

wakare-ru be divided, part. 

yose-ru cause to approach, 
bring together, add. 


Anata no o inioto san wa o ikutsu ni o nari nasaimas* ka. ^ 
Watakushi no inioto wa miUsu de gozaiinas\ Tonari no inu- 
sume wa ikutsu des^ ka. To des\ Watakushi no otdto wa 
kokonotsu des\ Ano hito wa tokei wo /*tatsu sagete ifnas\ 
Watakushi wa tamago wo yottsu tabemasKta, Doits' no kodo- 
mo wa kokonots kara chugakko ni hairu koto ga dekimas\ ^ 

a The verbs ocHru to faU down (of things in general) and chiru (of blossoms 
and leaves) should not be confused. The subordinatives are respectively ochiU 
and chUte, Kote also that we szy/uru, not ccMru, of things which fall front 
above, like rain, snow or volcanic ash. 

b O nari nasan* is more polite than narimasu, 

c Entering is possible, i.e. can enter. Our *' can " is often to be translated 
by the use of thb idiom. 

xxi] Native Forms 63 

F'tats* to mitts' wo yoseru to, itsutsu ni narimas\^ Kino no 
kwaji de kuraga/*tatsu yakemasKta. Kono tans' wa hikidashi 
ga yottsu arimas\ ^ O cha {wo) hitotsu o agari nasai, Mei- 
tnei tamago wof'tatsu zutsu tabemasKta. O jii san ga uchi 
no kodotno ni manju wo hitotsu zutsu kurgniasKta. Kono heya 
ni wa tnado ga mittsu arimas\ Watakushi wa niittsu no toki 
ni (at the age of three) okka san ni (by) iroka wo osowatta. 
Muttsu ni naru toki {ni) tenarai wo hajimtinasKta. Wata-- 
kushi no kajime no ko wa (oldest child) kokonotsu no toki ni 
shinimasKta. Mikan wo hitotsu chodai. Kono kago no naka 
ni wa mikan ga to haitte imas'S Kono tsubaki ni wa tsubomi 
ga itsutsu arimasKta ga, mina ochite shimaimasK ta. O hana- 
shi gaf'tatsu ni wakaremasKta.^ 

How old is your older sister ? My older sister is ten. In 
this room there are two windows. Bring me two eggs. 
American children go to school at (kara) the age (time) of 
six. I learn ten words every day. [MyJ older brother's son 
died at the age (time) of eight At (de) last evening's fire six 
storehouses were burned. A foreign bureau usually has three 
drawers. This child at the age of two could not yet talk 
(hanashi ga dekimasen desKtd). How old is this child ? It is 
five. Please give me a (one) persimmon. Please give me one 
more. How much (3) are ten {to de 2) [of] these oranges (i) ? 
That camellia has seven buds. 


In combination with certain words, mostly of native origin, 
the numerals ending in tsu (and ikutsu) lose that termination, 
while to becomes to, thus : hito tsuki, futa tsuki, mi tsuki, etc., 
kokono tsuki, to tsuki from tsuki month. Some of these words 

a In Japanese one always says, not «is five," nor "makes five/' but -be- 
comes five." 

b Notice that arimasu without de is used in such enumerations. 

c In ^combination with the subordinative of a verb, iru or oru nmst be used 
♦Ten when the subject is not a living thing. 

d [They] could not agree (lit. talk divided into two). 


The Numeral 


ban evening, night. 

bin bottle. 

hako box. 

iro color, kind. 

kudari (lit. descent) line 

(of a page). 
kumi set, class, company. 

ma room. 

maku (lit. curtain) act (at a 

tabi\\m& {/uta tabi di second 

iokoro place. 
tori kind. * 

III hito-e single, futa-e double, ya-e eight-fold, double (of 
flowers) the e is not a separable word. Some of the words in 
the list here given may occur also with Chinese numerals, as in 
ichi bin one bottle, roku tabi six times. 

Note also : hito-suji ni earnestly, from suji line, hito-kuchi ni 
at one mouthful, in a word, hito-me ni at a glance, ^ hito-omoi 
ni at the impulse of the moment {pmoi thought), hito ashi one 
step, hito iki pne breath. Distinguish : 

futa-go twins. 

futatsu ni naru kodomo a child two years old. 
futari no kodomo two children. 

" Triplets "is mitsu-go, ^ Distinguish also : 

mi kumi three sets. 
mitsu'gumi a set of three pieces. 

Certain numerals are combined with ka (old word for day) 
as follows: 











































a HUo (dri di wa not It's nnasaal. HUo (iri is much used as an adverb 
meaning " in tht main." Ano Hon wa hiio toriyomimashita I have read the book 
in a general way (or, once through). 

b Hito-me de wi^arittiashiia I perceived it iminediately. Yama kara machi 
tvo hita-me ni mi-orasu to lake a view of a town from a mountain (rni-orcsrs to 
look down). 

c Mitsugo has another meaning in the proverb : MUsugo no tamaikU hyaku 
made The soul of a child three years old [remains the same] until ^ 
becomes] a hundred years old. 

xxii] In Combination 65 

kokonoka nine days, the ninth day 

tbka ten days, the tenth day 

hatsuka twenty days, the twentieth day 
One day, or the first day, is ichi nichi (c). The last day of the 
month according to the old calendar is inisoka ; and the last 
day of the last month, b-inisoka : but the thirtieth is now 
usually called sanju nichi (c). Distinguish : 

itsuka five days, the fifth day. 

itsu ka at some time. 

ikka, from iku ka, how many days, which day ? (of the 

In counting persons the following forms derived from native 
numerals may be used : 

kitori one person ; hitori de alone. * 
ftitari two persons ; futari de two together. 
yottati four persons. 
ikutari how many persons ? 

To these the honorific o is often prefixed. For other numbers 
the Chinese san nin, go nin, etc., are used. The form niitari is 
obsolete in the colloquial. One may also say : ichi nin, ni nin 
iku nin ; but not shi nin for four persons, because shi-nin means 
also a dead person, from shi death. 

Notice that in such combinations as chaxvan hito kuvti, 
kodomo futariy the nouns chawan and kodomo take the particles 
ga, wo, etc. Words like hito kumi and futari usually do not 
take ga or wo. 

In rapid counting the native numbers are abbreviated to /«', 
/«, mi, yo, itsu, mu, nana, ya, kono (or koko), to. 


(Include lists beginning with hitori and Jutsukd). 

bin bottle. mago grandchild. 

kumi set, suit, class. hitojini violent death, loss of 

ma room. lite {Jiito man, shinn die). 

/«^/ time (of repeated occur- yake-jini burning to death. *^ 
rences). sake rice-beer, alcoholic liquor* 

a HiiorioccvLXS in compounds like hiton-musuko an only son, hitori-mae a 
portion for one person. Cozen wo hUori-mae motte kite kudasai. Bring a meal 
for one. 

b Compare further kOf^oe-jitii freezing to death, from kogoe-ru freeze, uchi-jini 
death in battle^ from utsu smite, fight. The corresponding verbs are yake-jitti 
iurUf kogoe-jini 9uru and ucki-jini suru. 

66 The Numeral [xxii 

saka-zuki wine cup. sho-yu soy, a kind of sauce. 

ki.iu chrysanthemum. aisurae-ru order (goods). 

wan howl, kakaru be hung, amount to, 

c ha- wan tea cup 'HEalce (of time). 

sen-cha infusion of tea. tatsu (stem : tacht) set out, 
ban (c) evening, night. * start ( — wn) tatSu leave). • 

nichi^jitsu (c) day (only in iazune-ru inquire, visit. 

compounds). tame-ru (tr.) stop, lodge, en- 
geisu, gwatsu (c) month tertain (a guest or visitor). 

(only in compounds). tomaru (intr.) stop, lodge, be 
shd'gwatsu the first month. entertained («i tamaru), 

kon-rei wedding. utagau doubt, suspect. 

tan-jo birth. itsu when ? 

tanjo-bi birth-day. mae front ( — no mae ni before). 

ayavie sweet flag. oyoso about, approximately. 


Nana tabi tazunete hito wo utagae. ^ Senchajawan no hito 
kumi wa ikutsu des* ka/^ Itsuts' ka to des\ IVataiushi wa 
jubako wo f'ta kunti atsuraemasK ta ga, mada dekimasen. 
Kino no kwaji ni {de) hitojiniga ariinaslita ka, Sayo, kodomo 
ga hitori shinimasK ta. Shdgwatsu ni wa taitei mitsugumi no 
sakazuki wo mochiimas' keredomo, konrei no toki ni wa koko- 
notsu gunii wo mocIUimas\ Muika no ayame toka no kiku. ^ 
Anata o hitori des' ka. Sayo, inina rusu des\ '^Yokohama kara 
Honkon made iku ni wa taitei nanuka kakariinas\ Berfin de 

a "Last evening," "this evening," and "to-morrow evening" become 
respectively saku-ian, kont-ban Jind myo-ban. In these ^<7 may be substituted for 

ban. Compare Ihe following list of Chinese compounds, all of which are in 
common use : 

Last This Next 

saku-jittu kon-nicM myd-nichi 

sen-getsu kon-getsu rai-getsu 

saku-nen {Jky^neti) konnefi myo-nen [rai-nen) 

b Utagae is the imperative of utagau. The meaning of the proverb is : After 
you have looked for [the lost article] seven times, suspect [a thief]. 

c This proverb alludes to the third and fifth of the five great festivals, which 
are called ^(0f^/&>h^ At the third festival, which occurs on the fifth day of 
the fifth month (old style), it is customary to decorate the house with sweet 
fl : .and at the fifth fe&iivsil, on the ninth of the ninth month, chrysantheiuuxns 
arc cxhilntcd. The proverb has reference to things that come too late to be 
•>f aiy use. 

xxiii] Chinese Forms 67 

Nikon no shoyu wa ikura shimas^ ka. * Sayo, hita bin ga ichi 
ytn gurai shimax.\ Sore wayohodo tako goBaimas\ Sakuban 
ikutari kyaku ga arimasKta ka, Yottari arimash* ia,^ 
Anata wa itsu Shina ye tachimas ka. Kongetsu no yoka ni 
Yokohama karafune ga dew as* kara^ its*ka ni koko wo tatte 
Thkyo ni hito ban tontariinas\ 

It takes about twenty days to go from Japan to America. <^ 
He has four grandchildren.- When is your birthday (go tanjo 
bi)f My birthday is [on] the seventh of this month. [My] 
father's birthday is on the fourth of next month. Please keep 
me one night. Do you need {o iriyo des* ka) one room or 
[is it] two ? I need three rooms. When do you start ? I start 
on the fourth or {kd) fifth of this month. At the great fire 
[okwafi) (of) recently four men and (ni) ^ four women lost their 
lives (yake-jini shimasKtd), 


The Chinese numerals are : 

ichi one ju shi fourteen 

ni two ju go fifteen 

sail three ju roku sixteen 

shi four ju shichi seventeen 

go five ju hachi eighteen 

roku six ju ku nineteen 

shichi seven niju twenty 

hachi eight niju ichi twenty-one 

ku nine sanju thirty 

ju ten shiju forty 

jii ichi eleven goj^ fifty 

ju ni twelve rokuju sixty 

ju san thirteen shichi ju seventy 

a From luru to do. Compare our How mdcU does it make ? 

b Not ffrimashita or tmashita. The point is that we have guests. The 
/{iiestion does not ask where they are. . " . 

c One may also say ; Yokohama io Sanf ramhi^ ko no aida wa hatsuka gurai 

d'M* is the postposition. Ih this connection . it- means "in addition to," 
«l)cside5;' and may be translated simply "a^d", . , •.■.,• 

68 The Numeral [xxiii 

hachiju eighty ni sen two thousand 

kuju ninety sanzen three thousand 

hyaku hundred hassen eight thousand 

ni hyaku two hundred ichi vian ten thousand • 

sambyaku three hundred ni man twenty thousand 

shi hyaku four hundred sainman thirty thousand 

go hyaku five hundred ju man hundred thousand 

roppyaku six hundred fu go man hui\di ed and fifty 

shichi hyaku seven hundred '" thousand 

happyaku eight hundred hyaku man million 

ku hyaku nine hundred semman ten million 

sen (issen) thousand ichi oku hundred million 
sen ichi thousand and one 

Some people pronounce shichi as thought it were written 
hie hi; in combination ku may be pronounced kyii. 

The most common terms used in measurements and their 
equivalents, are here inserted for the sake of convenience. 

The Japanese foot-rule is called sashi, or mofio-sashi, from 
sasu to point, measure. The ordinary kane-zashi, so called 
because carpenters' rules are made of kane metal, takes as a 
unit the jA^^w, which is equivalent to 11.93 inches or .30303 
meter. ^ 

\o bu =s I sun 
10 sun =1 shaku 
6 shaku =1 ken=^2 yards almost 
60 ken = I c/id 
36 cho =1 f7 = 2.44 miles 

For surfaces the unit is the isubo, — one ken (six 5^<7^«) square. 

30 isubo = I se (se-bu) 

10 se =1 fan {tam-bu) 

10 tan =1 cho {cho-bu)^ 2.4$ acres 

a An alternative proDunciation for man is dan; but dan is used, not in thef 
exact s«fise of <* ten thousand," but only in an indefinite sense like our 
" myriad.** Notice the familiar expressions ban-nai {sat year) Live forever 
Hurrah! se/nban arigatb^ Sfmban go kuro^ many thanks! Compare also & vitfcr- 
ichi ten thousand to one, i.e., by a bare chance, bamban certainly. 

b Tlj,c kttjira tnshi^ so called because it was originally ma<le of whale-bone, 
is longer \tj one fourth and is used for measuring dry goods. Both the kan*- 
tashi and the knjirazashi are now usikally made of bamboo. 

xxiii] Chinese Forms 69 

For capacity the unit is the sAd, equivalent to 1.804 liter^ 
r.588 English quart, 1.906 American fluid quart, or 1.638 
American dry quart. 

10 sAaiu (sdii) = i ^<5 » lO sAd=s 
logo =1 sho 10 to =1 koku 

For weight the unit is the moin-nte ^ =.13275 ounce or 3.75 
frrams. After multiples of ju and hyaku it is usual to say 
simply me. One pound avoirdupois is about 120 me. 

J 60 me =1 iiu. 

IQOO mom-me =c ktvan (^am'me) = S^ pounds 

For money the unit is the jfen, equal to about 50 American 

I Qj'in == I sen 100 sen = i ^en 

For ** hour/' " minute," " second," the terms are ji, fun, 

These terms are all of Chinese origin except tsubo and se^ 
which take the Japanese numerals, thus : hito se.futa se^ mi se^ 

In asking for the number or amount of any of these units, 
prefix nan, or ihi. This iku is ikutsu, which has lost the 
ending tsu, like the Japanese numerals. But in cases where iku 
and ichi are liable to be confused, nan is better. 

Up to " ten " the Chinese numerals are used almost exclu- 
sively with words of Chinese origin. Beyond " ten " they are 
used also with words of Japanese origin. Thusr/fi ichi tsubo, 
JU ni tsubo, etc. They always precede the nouns which they 
limit. In some combinations euphonic changes occur. 

Icki (itsu) unites with words beginning with k (/), s (s/i), t 
i^ch) and k : 

ichi hen becomes ippen one time, once 

• ichi fun 



ichi sun 



ichi sho 



ichi tan 



ichi cho 



ichi kin 



a TWx^ go differs Uoxtigo five not only in the length of the vowel but also in 
^hc sound of the^, which is more nasal in the cnse of ,i,'v5 {ngo). 

b Here mi is the word for "eye." In this connect irn it refers ta the 
jiotches on Ihc scale, and hence means the measure of weight. 

7o The Numeral £xxiii 

Bui v/^ say : icAi J^ahi (of rice).. Ikkoku^ ox ikkakoku^ Tnean> 
"one couotry;!* • . ' 

Ju produces similar changes : jippen^ jiPP^^t jissun^ jissho^ 
jittan^jitchd^jikkin, ' 

San (as also man and nafi) naturally causes nigori in the 
succeeding consonants : sarnben, sampun^ sanziin, sandan, 
sangin. Since both shj and chj through nigori become./^?, it 
is customary to distinguish them thus : sanjo for san shj but 
san cho. 

Roku (as also hyaku), coalesces %vith h (/), as in roppen^ 
roppun. Hachi is irregular : .^: 

hachi hen, but happy aku, 
hassun, hassen^ etc. 
hasshd, hasshaku, etc. 
hattan, hatto, 
hachi kin, but hakkakoku eight countries. 

If hachi hen, hachi kin, were contracted to happen, hahiin,ihey 
could hardly be distinguished from hyappen, hyakkin. 

Business men to avoid mistakes generally \3&^,nana instead 
o{ shichi. 

For similar reasons jA; is displaced by yo in the following 
combinations : 

yo ban number four. yo mat (or shi mat) four flat 

yo dai four generations. things. (See Ch. XXVI.) 

yo dai for vehicles. yo nen four years. 

yo do (out times, or degrees. ;k^ nin {yo mei) four persons. 

yoj'i four o'clock. yo ri, 

y^fi {fi^ lO shaku). yo {n) tin, 

yojo four mats. yon sen (or shi sen; yo yen. 

Notice : ichi nichi {jitsu) a whole day, maru ichi nen a 
whole year, ichiji for awhile, ittan once {tan morning). * 

Small approximate numbers like our ** two or three," " three 
or four," etc., are expressed asyndctically : 

Ni san nen two or three years. 

a This last is used only in cases where we employ " once " with the perfect 

' \.Gv\sc tis \x\ If/nn s/io-chi shi/a kofo wa kcsshi/e i-yakti {^vo) ifashitnasen. Having 

once agreed to a thing, I will never break my promise. Compare ichijiiw Ana 

hiio 7.7/ ichiji{7i<n) kivai-sha no yakti-in deskila. lie was at one time an officiaL 

in the company. 

xxiii] Chinese ForAs jt- 

Put a koto mi koto two or three words, a brief speech. 

Shi go nin four or five persons. 

Nana yatsu no kodoffto a cliild seven or eight years old. 


(Include Chinese numerals, and tables of units.) 

atai value. mon-ji^ ntoji letter, character^ 

dote dyke, road on an em- idiogram. 

bankment. ryo-chi domain, estate. 

kazu number. shi-ho four sides, square. 

tori kind, manner. sho-gun commander-in-chief, 

^rt/6tf-^/j liquor-dealer, liquor- "tycoon." 

store. shu-rui kind, species. 

me-kata weight. so-ba market price. 

sashiy mono-sashi foot-rule. io-fu bean-curd. 

to grade, class. rasha woolen cloth. 

jo^ chUf ge upper, middle, ataru strike ( — ni ataru to be 

lower. * equivalent to). ^ 

vjo over (following a num- make-ru be defeated, come 

ber). down on the price. 

i'ka under. yoru depend ( — ni yoru de- 

7d=^\o shaku, . pend on). 

du^\ ryd {p\d com). ben-kyo suru study, be dili- 

dai-myj feudal lord. ^ gent. 

//w^w lot (of ground). hodo=bakari (See pp. 36, 

jin-ko population (of a coun- 43). 

try or town). hotondo almost. 

nin-zu number of people (in issho-kemmei ni with all one's 

a smaller social unit). might. 

a The vtotAs jd-fdf,chu-td, ka-fo i/m being an alternative reading of the 
character f^e') in the sense of "first class," "medium," ** low class," are consiant- 
ly used, with variety of applications Recently, liowever, the ofiicials liave 
changed the names of the classes of railwny passengers to itfZ*^ fii-/Of snn-td. 

b Dai-myo means literally ** great name." This title was given to a feudal 
lord whose estate yielded him an income of at least iQOfiOO koku office a year< 
The dnimyosnow belong, to the ktva-%oku (nobility). Remember that kohi with 
man suffers nigoH, thus : ni mangoku. , 

C Walakushi no oi ni ataHmasu [He] is my nephew. In a sentence like this 
ni atarimasu has practically the same sense as de aryiftnsH. 

d Lit. one life risk life. The suhordinative of nant^ itatfe^ is usually added : 
Isshokemtuei ni nitU hataraku to work with all one's might. 


J2 The Numeral [xxiii 


Icki ri wa sanjU roku cho des\ luho wa roku jikken des\ 
Ikken wa rokshaku des\ Issfiaku wa jissun des\ Sakaya 
ni san ri^ tqfuya ni ichi ri. • Ichi ri wa iku ineitor {nam- 
meitor') ni atarimas' ka. Ichi ri wa sanzen ku hyaku ni ju 
shichi meitor' ni aiarimas\ Icki meitor wa sanjaku sansun ni 
atarimas\ Jimen hito tsubo no okisa wa dono kurai ka, Hito 
tsubo no okisa wa rok* shaku shiho des\ ^ Sambyaku tsubo wa 
ittambu des' ; jittambu wa itchobu des ; itc/tjbu wa oyoso icki 
hek'tar to onaji gurai des\ ^ Mukashi no ichi bu wa iwa no 
ichi yen no atai ga arimas\ Ima no sob a niyoru to, ^ ichi dor 
wa (dollar) oyoso ni yen ni atarimas\ Yokohama ye no df^ku- 
gippu wa ikura des ka, Joto wa ichi yen gojissen, chuto wa 
kujissen des'; katj no of kugippu wa arimasen, Jisshaku wo 
ichi jo to moshimas*. Nihon ni wa inono^ashi ga ni shurui 
{f'ta tZri) arimas ; hitots* wa kujirazashi to vioshi, « mj hitots^ 
wa kanezashi to moshimas'; kujirazashi wa san jU shichi 
sanchimeitor han ni atari^ kanezashi wa san ju sanchimeitor* 
ni atarimas\ Ichi koku wa hyaku hachi jit rittor ni atari-- 
mas', Ichi koku wajitto, itto wa jisshj^ isshd wa ju go des\ 
Ichi rittor wa oyoso go gj han ni atar Unas', Nippon nojinko 
wa shi sen go hyaku man nin des\ Tokyo no sdba de wa 
konogoro kome ga isshj ni jissen des\ Ikkin wa roppyaku 
g'ram ni atarivias', Shjgun wa happy aku mangoku no ryjchi 
ga arimash* ta, Ikkwamme wa semmomme des\ Jkkwamnie 
wa sanzen shichi hyaku go jd grant' ni atarimas', Kurumaya 
san / Ueno made ikura ka, ne. Hei, ni jissen de mairimashj. 
Sore wa takai,jn go sen ni make nasai. ^ Kono uchi wa ninzu 
ga di kara, isuki nishJyu ga hasshj gurai irimas' . Voshiwara 
ye^ iku dote lua hatchj arimas', A no ok' san wa isshj-kemmei 
ni Eigo wo benkyj shte orimas'. 

a This saying refers to a lonely place in the country. Td/u is one of the 
>most imporlaot articles of food among the Jn panose. 

b The scientific term for square foot is heiho-shaku ; for cubic foot ripfd^ 

c Such pleonasms as we have here with oyoso and £^urai in the same sentence 
are not infrequent. 

d Lit. if one depends on the present market price, i.e., at the present rate 
of exchange. 

e Afos/ii and a/ari are the stems of the verbs mdsu and a/aru. See p. 14 d. 

f This is less polite than o make fiasai. 

g The name of a district in Tokyo, Uomyoshi good, lucky, and hara wiKler- 

xxiu] Chinese Forms 73 

It is (aru) 8 ri from Yokohama to Enoshima.^ Eight ri are 
(m ataru) how many miles {iku fnatV) ? Eight ri are almost 
twenty miles. How {dare gurai) high is Mount Fuji? The 
height of Mount Fuji b about 3,700 meters. How far {dono 
gurai) is it from here to Totsuka ? ^ From here (i) to Totsuka 
(2) it is.(/ifj!r 6), I should say {ma 3), about (5) 10 chj (4), 
About how much do you weigh (In regard to the weight of 
your body, about how many kin are there) ? <^ I weigh {arti) 
20 kwan. Twenty kwan are how many pounds {pondo)? 
Twenty kwan are about 165 pounds. The height of this house 
is three /J, The population of Japan is about fifty millions. 
That daimyo had an income of {totie imasKta) 20,000 koku [of 
rice]. Rice now costs {shiinas* 4) about (3) fifteen yen (2) per 
koku{i). Hello, kurumaya! how much is it to Enoshima? 
It's one yen and fifty sen. Four to are how many liters ? Four 
to are 72 liters. How long is this cloth ? By kanezashi this 
cloth measures {aru) about three jo six shaku. Three jo six 
shaku are about ten yards {yar'do). The number of the kata- 
kana is 48 characters (7V). One mile is 14 cho [and| 45 ken^ 
The length of the river Tenryu*^ is about 60 n*/ 60 ri are 146 J 


I. The Japanese calendar has been made to correspond to 
our Gregorian calendar in every respect except that the Jap- 
anese reckon years, not from the birth of Christ, but by periods 
{nen-go). It used to be customary to create a new period 
whenever a great event occurred ; but at the time of the 
Restoration it was decided that henceforth nengo should cor- 
respond to the reigns of the Emperors. The first year of 
the present period, Mei-ji, was 1868. Hence, to find the 
year of Meiji one must subtract 1867 from the Christian 
year. The year 1906 thus becomes : AUiji san ju ku nen. 

a A romantic little rocky island near Yokohama. The ^, meaning bay, is 
identical with the e in £do (bay-gate). 

b A place near Yokohama (lit. gate-mound). 

c In old Japan such a question could hardly be asked, as people had a 
snperstitioas dread of weighing themselves. 

d The Tenryugawa rises in Lake Suwa in the province of Shinano and flows 
through the province of TSlomi. 


74 The Numeral ^ y [xxiy 

The first year o a period is called gwan*nen ; thus the year 
1868 is Meiji gwannen. 

As a mere matter of interest, we add a list of the period^ 
between 1830 and 1868, together with the years of the Christian 
era to which their first years correspond : 

Tem-po 1830 Man- en i860 

Ko-kwa 1844 Bun-kyu 1861 

Ka-ei 1848 Gen-ji 1864 

An-sei 1854 Kei-o 1865 

When giving a year of the Christian era use the word sei- 
refei " western calendar." Thas the year 1888 is called seireki 
sen happyaku hachiju hachi nen, 

A person's age may be stated by adding sai, another word 
for *' year," to the number. Thus : issai, san sat, hassaiyjissai. 
But in the colloquial it is usual to employ the simple numeral 
without sai. In stating the age of a child below ten the 
Japanese numerals are preferred. But in giving the ages. of 
animals sai is commonly used. A horse five years old is called, 
not itsutsu ni nam uma, but ^o sai ko, Ko here is the same 
as the word meaning '* child." 

2. The names of the months are formed from the Chinese 
numerals and gwatsu. The reading getsu is less common, 
except in the case of ichi getsu January. Another name for 
this month is sho-gwatsu, from slid right. (Compare slio-go 

" One month " is ikkagetsu, from ichi ka getsu ; ** two 
months," nikagetsu^ etc. This ka, which is the same as the ka 
in ikkakoku, is much used in such enum<?ration, being placed 
between the numeral and the noun. It means *' a piece " or 
" unit." 

3. In specifying the day of the month, nichi (jitsu) is used 
with the Chinese numerals, except in those cases where forms 
]Akc futsuka, mikka, etc., are still available. So the *' i8th of 
January " is ichi getsu noju hachi nichi. Notice that the 14th 
and 24th are Z2}\^^ ju yokka and ni ju yokka. The old name 
for the lirst day of the month is tsuitachi, from tsuki moon or 
month and taisu rise, because in the old calendar the month 
began with the new moon. The 1st of January is called 
gwan-jitsu, \ 

In dates the order is the exact reverse of the English. The 
*' 3rd of November, 1852 " becomes ; sen happyaku go ja ninen 
;u ichi gwatsu mikka. i 

xxiv] Dates 75 

We add a table of the days of the month. 

ichi nichi {jitsu) ) . pi roku nichi i6th 

tsuitachi } ju shichi nichi 17th 

fuUuka 2nd ju tiachi nichi i8th 

mikka 3rd ja ku nichi 19th 

yokka 4th hatsuka 20th 

itsuka 5th niju ichi nichi 21st 

muika 6th niju ni nichi 22nd 

nanuka {nanokd) 7th w^'/^ J^w «/^/// 23 rd 

yoka 8th w^*^ yokka 24th 

kokonoka 9th wO*' ^^ «/VA/ 25th 

/!5>^^j lOth «//« roku nichi 26th 

y« /^A/ nichi nth «0« shichi nichi 27th 

y i «/ w/VA/ 1 2th niju hachi nichi 28th 

Ju san nichi 1 3 th »/y« ku nichi 29th 

ju yokka 14th sanju nichi 30th 

yii jf^ »iVA/ 15 th san jit ichi nichi 31st 

4. As has been intimated before, the Japanese do not think 
so much of the days of the week as we do. The names of the 
week-days all have the suffix ^i?-^/, from/5 (c) light, luminary 
and Ax day. They are : nichi-yobi, g^etsu-yjbi^ kwa-yobi, sui-yobi, 
i^LaJhi-yobi^Mn-yobi, ^-yubi. The prefixes mean, respectively, 
sun/ moon, fire, water, wood, metal, earth, — the names of the 
seven planets {shichi-yo). Final bi is often omitted : nichi-yj,. 
g£tsu-yj^ etc. "One week" is isshu, from shn revolution, 
•* Which day?" (of the week) is nani yJbi, 

5. Hours of the day are indicated by adding /» (time) to the 
Chinese numerals : ichiji^ ^iji, ^^^ji» yoji^ etc. The word 
fun (minute) combines with the numerals thus : ippun, ni /un, 
sanipuny shifun, roppun, hachi fun, jippmu 

ichijija go fun sugi a quarter past one. 
ichiji han half past one. 
nijiju go fun mae a quarter of two. 
Nanji (ttandoki) desu ka. What time is it? 
Kisha IV a nanji ni demasu ka, 

[At] what time does the train leave ? 
In stating the length of time in hours add kan : ichiji kan, ni 
ft kan, yoji kan, nan ji kan, etc. This kan is tlie Chinese 
equivalent of aida interval. 

76 The Numeral [xxiv 

The same idiom may be used in stating the lengdi of time 
in years, months, or days, thus; roku nen kan (also rokkanen 
kan)y rokkagitsu kan, muika kan, etc. Notice also : 

Sanganichi no aida wa doko de mo zmi * wo tabemasu. 

For three days (after New Year's) zoni is eaten everywhere. 


(Include nances of week-days.) 

hi sun. sei-reki European calendar 

hiru noon, day-time. (of the Christian year). . 

yoru night. kyii-reki old calendar. 

de-bana iirst infusion (of tea), shin-reki new calendar (of 

bon^ bommatsuri festival of months). 

the dead.^ go-zen^hiru-inae forenoon. 

kan {c)^aida interval. go- go^ hiru sugi afternoon. 

id (c) prince (following the mei-nichi anniversary of a 

name). ^ death. 

sai (c) year (especially of age), tsugi no the next. 

Ui (c) emperor (following the aruku walk. 

name). hajimaru begin (intr.). 

bancha course tea. kakure-ru be hidden. 

kei-ko study, practice {keiko nasaru do (polite 2,3). 

sum to study, recite). oki-ru arise from sleep, awake. 

nen-gj period. umare-ru be born. 

i'shin renovation, reforma- hajimete for the first time. 

tion. shika only, merely (with a 

go is-shin the Restoration. negative verb. 

kas-sen battle./ sugi past, after (stem of sugi- 

gun-zei military force, army. ru to pass by, exceed. 


Oni mo ju hachi ; banchajno deb ana (Proverb) ^^ Dai issei 

a Zo-niy from & (c) miscellaneous and ni-ru to boil, is a kind of sonp. 

b Also called bon. The festival is celebrated on the 14th, 15th and i6th 
of the 7lh month (old style). It begins properly on the evening of the X3th. 

c This is now the highest of the five shaku, i.e., degrees of nobility. These 
are /'d prince, i^d (different character) marquis, haku count, shi viscount, dam 
baron. ltd kd Marquis Ito- Okuma haku Count Okuma. 

d Even a devil when in the bloom of youtii is beautiful and attractive ; even 
if the tea is of a poor grade, the first infusion has an excellent taste. Instead 
of jn hachi, some say jti shichi. 

XX iv] Dates 77 

XVirherift Ui wa sen shichi hyaku. ku jU shichi mn vo san 
gwatsu nij'u ni nichi ni go tanjd ni narimasfCta ; so sh*te sen 
kappyaku hachi ju hachi nen no san gwatsu kokonoka ni & 
kakure ni narimasKta ; sore des kara kuju {ssai ni d nari 
nasaimasK ta. ^ PerWi to iu Amerika no ts kai wa Kaei roku 
nen roku gwatsu no tnikka ni hajimete Nikon ye kimasfita^ 
Sono toki wa kyureki desKta kara, shinreki ni naos to, shichi 
g^vatsu no nanuka ni atariinas\ Kaei to iu nengo wa sen 
kappyaku shiju hachi nen kara sen kappyaku go ju yo nen 
fnade desKta kara, Kaei roku nen wa sen kappyaku gojn san 
nen ni atarimas\ Kono tsugi no kisha wa yojijii go Jun sugi 
ni demos'. Shimbashi ^ kara Ueno made aruku to, ichiji kan 
hodo kakarimas\ Anata wa mainichi keiko wo nasaimas ka, 
SayJ^ mainichi ni ji kan zutsu keiko wo itashimas\ ^ Anata 
n0 senses wa nanji ni olde ni narimas] ka. IVatakushi na 
sensei wa ban no shichi ji han ni mairimas\ Sen kappyaku 
shichi ju nen ni F'rans' to Doits* no ik'sa ga arimasKta ; sono 
ik'sa wa shichikagetsu kakarimasK ta, Sono ik'sa no yo nen 
inae ni Os*toria to P'rosha no ik*sa ga arimasKta ; sono ik'sa 
via tatta nafiuka sKka kakarimasen desKta. Anata wa nanji 
ni okimas'ka. Fuyu wa shichi' ji ni okimas. Sen roppyaku 
nen noju gwatsu ni Sekigahara no ^ kassen ga arimasKta^ 

a I?aiiss€ilVir*Aer^m* Ui is Vifilhelml, For <fai issei see Cli. XXIX. Tei 
means " sovereign." «« King " is >tTw or d(sama). The Emperor of Japan is 
called ttn-ski heaven-son or tenhdy from tend heaven-king. Mikado is obsolete 
in the colloquiaL The general term for *' emperor" is kvbd-tei. In speak Ini; 
of exalted personages, go tanjd ni nam is equivalent to o umare nasartiy and o 
kmkatrt ni naru Xo shini naiam. Notice that with words denoting time tlie 
pestpositiony if needed at all, must be m. What was said about the disiinction 
between ni and de (p. 20 a) applies to places only. 

b The name of a bridge in Tokyo. ^It is a case oi jubal'o-yomi, skin being the 
Chinese for ** new." At Shimbashi is the terminal station of the railway 
between T5ky5 and Yokohama. 

c With surUf wo is commonly omitted ; but with the more formal itastt, 
anless the object is slated, it is better to use ivo, Keiko %vo may be contracted to 

d The name of a village on the Nakasendd, For the ga see p. 13. Seki 
■leans a barrier between two feudal fiefs, a place where travellers in former 
tianes had to show their passports, while kara means wilderness. Sekis^nharn 
was the scene of a great battle in which leyasu, the founder of the last line o^ 
s1i€>gHns, won a decisive victory over his enemies. 

78 The Numeral [xxiv 

^eyas^ ko no gunzei wa shichi man go sen nin deskiakeredomo; 
Mitsunari no gunzei wajU samman nin desKta. Sanju shichi - 
fien bakari irae ni Tokyo ni djishin ga arimasKta; sono toki ni 
hito gaju m %n shi sen nin hodo shinda so des.' 

Taikj sama^ died, according to (^/) the European calendar, 
\\\ the year 1 598. When {toki ni) Taiko died his child {ho no) 
Ilideyori was six years old. The Restoration began in (from) 
the' year 1868. At that time the Emperor was {de irasshai- 
inasKtd) seventeen years old. ^^ At what hour do you usually 
retire {0 yasuini nasaimas kd) ? I usually retire at eleven^ 
o'clock. The train for Kobe {Kobe ye iku kisha) leaves at ten 
o'clock. What time is it now {ino) ? It is probably {desho) 
about {goro) four o'clock. Now {konogoro) the sun rises {deni) 
at about eight o'clock. The festival of Suitengu is [on] the $& 
of January. The festival of Kompira is on the lOth of January. 
The anniversary of the death of Gongen saina^ is the 17th of 
April. lyeyasu was bom in 1542. The festival of the dead 
begins on (from) the 13th of the 7th month. The summer 
vacation of the university continues (is) seventy days. I study 
Geiman one hour every day. At what hour does your teacher 
come ? He comes [in the] morning at eight o'clock. Nobii- 
naga died at the age of \de'\ 48 years. This year is the 39th 
[year] of Meiji. What day (of the week) is to-day ? ^ ^. 

a Tai-kd in ancient times designated a retired kwam-paku (prime minister); 
It is especially the title of Hideyoshi, who, though a man of low birth, attained 
to the position of ^7e;am!/ay&f/. •'' 

b Irasshaivtashita is a contraction of irassharimashUa, as nasaimashita i« of 
nasariniashiia ^n^ gozaimashiia oi gozarimashiia. As the Emperar was bofn iik 
1852, he really was fifteen or sixteen years of age at the time of the RcstoVa- 
tion. But the Japanese count the year of one's birth as a whole year and dfier'' 
the next New Year's day say that the child is in his second year or -two years 
old. In speaking of a persbn's age seventeen years counted in the Japanese 
fashion \% kazoe-doshi de ju shichi {kazoe-ru reckon, /as hi y cat). In other con- 
nections, as in answering the question how many years one has been in Xhgs 
country, say de-iri ju shichi neti or ashi kake ju shichi ntn (ashi wo ^ahe/ntta 
straddle). Exactly seventeen years is maruj'u shichi nen {niaru circle). . . .;; ,,. 

c Gcn-gen is a Buddhistic word meaning ''temporary manifestation/' \.c^yT^^ 
incarnation of Bjuddha. In Tokyo this title is applied with especial frequeney- 
to leyasu, who is called especially Thsho-gongen {fd eait, shd illumine). 





The four arithmetical processes, — addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication and division are called collectively ka-gen-ja-jo. 

^^« = /«^« subtract. y<7=«/^irw divide. 
2! ni 31 wo kuwaeru to^ 52 ni narimasu. 
31 kara 17 wo kiku to, 14 ni narimasu. 
19 ni 3 wo kakeru to, 57 ni narimasu, 
2.QO wo 5 de waru to, 40 ni narimasu. 

The verb yose-ru " bring together *' may be substituted for 
kuwaeru, thus : 

21/^31 wo yoseru to, 52 ni narimasu. 

In the multiplication table {ku-ku) a few euphonic changes 
occur. It is here added, merely for purposes of reference. 

ni nin ga ski 
ni san ga roku 
ni shi ga hachi 
nigojii {to) 
ni roku noju ni 
ni sJiichi noju shi 
ni ha noju roku 
ni kujU hachi 

<a zan ga 9 
san shi no 12 
san go no 1 5 
sadu roku, 18 
san shichi, 21 
sampa, 24 
san ku, 27 

shi ku, 36 ' 

go go, 25 
go roku, 30 
go shichi, 35 
go ha, 40 
gokku, 45 

roku roku, 36 
roku shichi, 42 
roku ha, 48 
rokku, 54 

shichi shichi, 49 
shichi hachi {ha), 56 
shichi ku, 63 

shi shi no 16 
shi go, 20 
shi roku, 24 
shi shichi, 28 
jAi ha, \2 

happa, 64 
hakku, 72 

ku ku, 8 1 

8o The Numeral [xxv 

Notice the change of san to sabu in sabu roku and compare 
Sabu-ro^ a common personal name (lit. three man). The 
sound n is often interchangeable with mu and this again with 

Fractions are expressed by means of bu portion, which before 
no is pronounced bun : 

sambun no ni two thirds. 

hachi bun no san three eights. 

Percentage is expressed by the units wari and bu^ (or shii) : 
ichi wari go bu 1 5 9^ . ' ^^ 

Once, twice, etc., are rendered by means of do^ hen, or iabL 
In the same sense kwai " turn " is often used, but this is not 
strictly colloquial. 

icAi do, ippen, hito tabi once. 

san do, samben^ mi tabi three times. 

yo do, shi hen, yo tabi four times. 

jii do^jippen^ to tabi ten times. 

Mainichi ni do zutsu twice every day. 

Hi ni san do zutsu three times a day. 

Double, treble, etc., are rendered by the aid of the compound 
id-bait or simply bai. 

ni sJbai twice as many (much). 

sanzjbai (safnbai) three times as many. 

hassjbai {hachi bai) eight times as many. 

Ichi ryu mantbai one grain [produces] a myriad fold. 
The word bai alone means ni sobai. 


asa tt\on\\ng. so-bai-^fold. 

imo potato. * zen (c) while (in composi- 

arukDru alcohol. tion). 

bu unit of interest, one an-shd memorizing, 

per cent. mon-dai theme, subject under 

bUy bun fraction. discussion, problem. 

hen unit for times. kifiri } . . 

, . J . , if interest on money. 

bat double. rt-so^u) ^ 

a The word ir/io has a wider scope than our * potato," including, as it docs, 
a number of edible roots. The common (Irish) potato \s jagaiatn-imo, ox jaga- 
imo, from the name of the island of Java. The sweet potato is satsuma-imo, 
from the name of the famous province at the southern extremity oi Japan. 




ryo'ji^ chi-ryo medical treat- 
ment {rydji suru to treat 

shokurji vciQsX {shokuji suru 
take a meal). 

kuwae-ru add. 

hiku subtract, deduct. 

kake-ru hang (tr.). apply, 

warn split, divide. 

wari ten per cent. 
Jue-ru increase (intr.). 
fukumu contain. 
kubaru distribute. 
bikkuri suru be astonished 

bydki ni kakaru have au 

attack of sickness. 
yori^ yori mo than, as (in 



Sore tvo md ichi do yonde^ kudasai, Kono sake wa ichi 
wari ni bu arukof^ wo Jukunde imas\ Kono shimbun wa asa 
to ban ni ^ (vtainicki ni do zutsti^)kubarimas\ Kono bydki ni 
kakaru kih wa taitei hyaku nin no nchi de nijir nin wa 
skinimas*. Konogoro Doits' de wa kinri ga yaskuie taitei 
sambu han ka ski bu gurai des\ Nikon de wa kinri ga takai 
kara, ni wari no risoku wo toru hito mo arimas\ tiachi bun 
no ichi ni hachi bun no go wo kuwaeru to, ski bun no san ni 
narimas\ Ni kuju hachi. Kusuri ku sobai, ^ Ni do bik- 
kuri, ^ Kyushu no okisa wa Shikoku no bai des\ « Awaji- 
shima no okisa wa oyoso Iki no shi bai gurai des\ Watakushi 
tt'rt sono mondai wo san do yonda kara, mo ansho ga deki- 
masKta. ^ Roku ha shiju hachi, Shina wa Doits yori oyoso 
ju hassobai gurai dkii. Kono bunshD wa samben yonda keredo- 
mo, mada imiga wakariifiasen. Jagatara imo wa shichi wari 
go bu mizu wo fukunde iru. 

a KtiM^/ is the subordi native of the verb yomn to read {ioi yomute). The 
past tense is yonda (for yomitd). 

b The postposition is added only to the last word, like wa. See p. 4d. 

c The reference is to the large profits of the drug business. Notice the 

d Supply shimashiia or itashimashita. This is a common expression fot : [I] 
'fas greatly astonished. 

e Kyu'ihu (lit. nine countries) and Shi-koktt (lit. four provinces) are the 
names of the two great islands south of the main island {Hon-db or llon-do) of 
japan. In the following sentence we have the names of smaller island.*!. 

f Lit. The committing to memory has been accomplished. The meaning 
is : I know it now. 


82 The Numeral [xxvi 

The Japanese generally eat three times a day {hi ni). The 
American envoy Perry came to Japan twice. The students of 
the School for Foreign Languages recite {keiko wo suru) twice 
every day. The population of Kyushu is double [that] of 
Shikoku. One sen is the hundredth part of a yen. One sun 
is the tenth part of a shaku. This sake contains 159J [of J 
alcohol. 99—32=67. One minute is the sixtieth part of an 
hour. The physician {^a) has treated this patient four times. 
Mount Fuji is three times as high as Oyama. Asia is four and 
a half times as large as Europe. 17x3 = 51. My {uchino) 
hares have within one year multiplied (become) five fold. The 
number of soldiers in (of) Germany is about one hundredth of 
the whole population. This book seller sells at a reduction of 
(deducting) ten per cent. * The population of this town has 
within twenty years increased {Juete kimasKta) (to) four fold ; 
twenty years ago there were 30,000 persons («/«), but now 
(«//3:) [they J have become 120,000 (persons). 


In counting objects it is usual to make use of so-called nu- 
meral auxiliaries or numeratives, which designate the nature 
of the unit. 

Hako skichi ko seven boxes. ^ 

This ko^ by the way, is an alternative pronunciation of tlie 
character read ka in iikagetsu. Words of this kind are rare 
in English^ but there are analogies in such expressions as " two 
suits of clothes " or *' three head of cattie." 

In the colloquial most of the numeratives are of Chinese 
origin, but there are a few native words still in use : 
Kami hito hashira one god, from hashira post. 
Hato Juta tsugai two pairs of pigeons. 
Koya mi mane three shanties, from mune ridge (of roof). 
Zashiki yo ma four rooms, from ma space. 
Tansu itsu sao five bureaus, from sao pole. ^ 

a As zvari is of the nature of an auxiliary, wo is not required, 
b Nana hako would be rather *« seren boxfuls.'* 

c Japanese bureaus have handles at both ends near the top, arranged so 
that they may be suspended from a pole and thus easily carried. 


Obi mu suji six girdles, from suji line. 

Yofiiku nana kumi seven suits of (European) clothes, from 
ii^mu to join. 

Kimono y a kasam eight suits of (Japanese) clothes, from 
kasane-ru to lay one over another. 

Yoroi kokono soroi nine sets of armor, from sorou to be in 
order, be a complete set. 

Notice that the numeral with its auxiliary takes the same 
position in a sentence as a simple numeral, that is, it follows 
its noun. Analogous to futatsu no tokei is hito hashira no 
kafni ; but such reversal of the order is allowable only in 
certain cases. Moreover, in the examples given above the 
use of the simple numerals hitotsu, futatsu ^ etc., would not be 
In this and the two following chapters a list of the most 
common numeratives is given. 

1 . For objects that arc long in proportion to their width — 
sticks, trees, pencils, rolled or folded documents, needles, teeth, 
folding fans {pgi)^ swords, * and the like : hon. 

ippon^ sambon, shihon, roppon, kachi hon^jippon^ hyappon^ 
nambony iku Hon. 

2. For objects that are broad and flat — paper, clothes, rugs, 
boards, dishes, coins and the like : mai. 

ichi mai, samtnai, yo mat or ski ma$, roku mai^ kachi mat, 
ju maif hyaku mai, nammai, iku mai. 

Note also hammai half a sheet, as in a Japanese book. 

3. For animals of all kinds : kiki. 

ippiki, sambikiy shi hiki, roppiki^ hachi hiki, jippiki, 
hyappiki^ ftambikit iku hiki. 
For larger quadrupeds fJ (head) may also be used. For birds 
the specific term is wa, 

ichi wa (Jppa). samba^ shi wa, roppa^ hachi wa,jippa^ 
hyappa, namba, iku wa. 
There is also a specific term for fishes — bi (tail) — but this is 
not common in the colloquial and would sound pedantic. In 
counting fishes mai and hon are often used, according to the 

ft The specific numcrative for swords v&furi: katana hi/o/uri, etc. 

84 The Numeral [xxvi 

4. For persons : nin (man). 

ichi fiin {httori), tii nin, {futari), san nin, yo nin {yoUari), 
roku nin^ hachi nin, jU nin^ nan nin, iku nin {ikutari). 
A rather classical and yet not uncommon synonym is viei 


. -4. 
(irashi\^^^^^ \ ^^ ji-bun (lit. time-part) time.c '; 


arashi\ ) ^^ y/-*«^; (lit. time 

o-kazeY^'''^'^ \A\ {o)yaku-nin\ 

hashira post, pillar, "^x shim-viotsu present. "^ 

ho bashira mast. skj-sen merchant vessel. 

kanzashi {kami, saski) hair- nai-chi interior of a country. 

pin. J ^ ^ zak-kyo mixed residence. * 

^ -^iW «£? ^/paulownia. '^y^t: a:^^-r« lift up, give (polite 

encage, pen. " " 1,3).^ 

- ' osu, mesu male,^female. ^ - karu, katte to hunt. 6 

tako octopus X.^ [j ' » kari-inu hunting dog. 

matchi match, b * " " » ' '-; karyudo hunter. ^» 

cho-men note book, account kau, katte keep (animals). 

book, record. kiru wear, put on (clothes). 

chu-mon order (for goods). noinu, nonde drink, smoke. 

han-shi white native paper oru, otte break. 

(about lox 13 in.). ore-ru be broken. 

a The wood of the kiri tree is highly prized, being used to make bureaus, 
clogs, etc. 

b The native word for ** match " is suri isuke-gi (lit. rub kindle-wood). 

c Synonymous with toki. At the end of a clause toki ni or jibun ni is 
equivalent to " when." 

d A now common synonymn for shunrnotsu is okuri mono. Another common 
term, miyage, denotes, strictly speaking, a present brought by a person on 
his return from a journey. 

e Naichi-zakkyo was a very familiar word in 1899, when the new treaties 
went into operation. Nai-chi, or fiai-koku, is the opposite oi g7val~koktt. Com 
pare nai-gwaijin natives and foreigners. 

f Agemasu I give it to you. Ag^ru may be added to the subordinatives ol 
verbs that denote actions done for the benefit of the person addressed. Shi9u~ 
bitn woyonde aggffiasu. [I will] read the newspaper for you. 

g Henceforth in the vocabularies subordinatives of difficult verbs will be 
indicated in this way. The familiar past tense may then be formed by sub- 
stituting a for e. 

h Compare akyudo (p. 19). 


tasukaru, tasukaite be saved, ne ga tsuku take root. 

escape with one's life. tsuru, tsutte hang (tr.), catch 
tatakau, tatakatte to fight. (fish) with hook and line. 

iatakai a fight, battle, war. uchi-jini suru die in battle. 

ne root. sonzuru, sonjite be injured. * 

tsuku^ tsutte stick, adhere. zai-ryu suru reside. 


Anata wa mainkhi hainaki (p. 25 a) wo nambon zutsu o 
fionti nasaima^ ka, Watakushi wa mainichi go hon zutsi^ 
nomimas\ Watakushi no toviodachi wa mainichi jippon zutsu 
nomivtas\ Konaida wa sakana wo jippiki tstte kiinasKta, ^* 
Kyo wa samui kara, kimono wo mj ichi mai kimasho. Yube 
uchi no neko ga nezumi wo sambiki torimash'ta, Tombo ni wa 
hane ga yo mai arimas\ Kono shosen wa hobashira ga sambon 
arimasKta ; ippon wa arashi de oremasKta, Sono tatakai de 
sh^kwan ga go ju nin uchijini shimashta. Dozo hanshi wo 
ni mai kudasai ; watakushi wa ichi mai. mo motte imasen 
kara, ^ Fude wo ippon kasKte agemastio. Ano karyudo wa 
kariinu wo sambiki motte imas\ Ano basha wa mtJdachi^^ 
des\ Tako ni wa ashi ga hoc hi hon aru. Sono fude wa ikura 
ka. Hai, ippon go sen de gozaimas' ; shikashi jippon kai 
nasareba (\{ }'ou buy) shiju go sen ni makete agemashj, Kono 
uchi ni kami ga iku mai haitte imas ka. Kono gakko ni 
Doits* go wo keiko suru shosei ga ju yo nin arimas\ Mate hi 
(wo) ippon cfiddai, Kono hako no uchi ni mate hi g a ni hon 
arimas' keredomo^ kusuri ga tsuite imasen, Ano hito no bydki 
wo san nin n<risha ga rydji shimasK ta keredomo, tas' karimasen 
deskta,^ Hiram e wo ni mai shimmotsu ni moraimasKta. 

a From son injury, loss, and suru. Compare tonsuru (p. 48). l»ut " to lose," 
as in business, is son suru, 

b Lit. having caught with hook and line, I came. The verb I'uru is used 
like j^/////7i^ (p. 52,1) as an auxiliary. Kimasho, in the next sentence, is from 

c Such inversion of the natural order may be allowed when the clause with 
kara is not too long. With a negative verb ichi mai mo is analogous to dare 
MO, fianitfio, etc. (Ch. XVII). Afoife is the subordinative of the verb t/iofsn, 

d From ni two, (o head (of horses) and iachi, stem of fa^u to stand. Compare 
nitiimbiki, used of a riksha drawn by two men. 

e By adding deshiia to a negative verb a negative past tense may be formed. 
A future may be formed similarly by adding deshd. 

86 The Numeral [xxvi 

Toriya ni kiji wo satrtba chuiHon sKte kite o kun ! Kono kumi 
ni wa seito ga nammei arimas* ka. Naichi-takkyo ni natta 
jibun ni Nihon ni zairyU sh*te oru Seiyojin wa ski sen go hyaku 
ni ju ni nin desKte, » sono uchi Doits' jin wa ski hyaku liachi 
jii ichi nin de gozaimaslita. 

In this box there are (Jiaitte iinas') a hundred matches. 
Five cigars, please ! He smokes six cigars every day. The 
number of leaves {kami-kaxu) in (of) this note-book is thirty. 
When (Jibun ni 4) I (i) was {ptta 3) in Tokyo (2) the number 
of Germans [there] all told (mina de) was forty. This official 
keeps three norses. That merchantman has two masts ; one 
{wa) was injured in {de) the recent storm. Lately the fisher- 
men {go) have not caught a single (even one) fish. I planted 
five kiri trees in my garden and {ga) all have taken root nicely 
(well). In {de wa) tliis war 50,000 soldiers were killed. As I 
have two writing-brushes, I will lend you one. There are in 
this box a hundred cigars ; each (one) costs {shimas*) six sen. 
What is this bridge called? It is called Sammai-bas/u,^ In 
the Zoological Garden there are over {ijd mo) a hundred 
monkeys. In this cage there are two lions ; both {nihiki ioino) 
are males. This dog has five pups {ko). Two hair-pins, please! 
There are two birds in that cage. The population of Yoko- 
hama is about 200,000. 


5* For places and lots (of ground) : sho (place) with ka 
(Compare ikkagetsu p. 74). 

ikkasko, sangasho, shikasho, rokkas/io, hakkasho.jikkasho^ 
nangasho. ^ 

For houses, shops, and also temples ken (eaves) is commonly 

ikken, sangen, ski ken, rokken, hachi ken.jikken, nangen. 

a The subordinative of desu. 

b A narrow bridge near Ucno in Tokyo, Originally made of three boards. 
Sakura Sogor5 on the occasion when he handed his petition to the Shogan 
(for which offense he suffered the penalty of crucifixion) hid Under this bridge. 

c It is better not to say iku-ka-sho. With ntuncrativcs that begin with k^ 
ihi is to be avoided, for the obvious reason that confusion with ichi is likely to 


The unit here is not necessarily one building, but rather the 
building or group of buildings occupied by one household ^ 

6. For ships ; so (boat). 

isso, sanzd, shi so^ roku sOy hasso^jisso^ nanzj^ iku so. 

7. For vehicles : dai (a stand, base). ** Four vehicles " is>^ 
dai. Specifically for heavy wagons and coaches, etc., ryo (pair 
of wheels) may be used. For rikshas the commonest term is 
did (to hold a handle). ^ 

itcAdy san cAj, shi c/id, roku c/ij^ hatchjy nan chd, iku cho. 

8. For chairs : kyaku (leg). 

ikkyaku, san kyaku, shi kyaku, rokkyaku, hakkyaku, 
jikkyaku^ nan kyaku. 

9. For books : satsu (ticket, label, list). 

issatsu, san saisu. kassatsu, jissaisu^ etc. 

Rather more classical is k^van (roll), which in composition with 
numerals is modified like ken. For complete sets of volumes 
the numerative is du (department, group). 

10. For letters and documents : tsu {=fdri p. 64a). 

iUsa, san tsu, hattsu,jiUsUy etc. 

But most people use hon rather than isu. One letter may also 
be designated ifpuj from /u seal. 


/Vif chair. ^^ appearance {, desu it is 

kuni country. said that), 

minato harbour. des-so villa. 

ni'gurutna cart. gun-kan war vessel. 

chin (c) hire, fare. ho-yu friend. 

ka^ ke {c) = ie house, family ke-ga wound. 

(in composition). ko-en public garden, park. 

^/« (c) convenience, opportu- kwai-sha corporation, com- 

nity to send a message, pany. 

mail {}nyu'bin), kwa-zoku noble, the nobility. 

a One honsehold or family is called ikka^ from ka (c) house. *'The whole 
family " is ikka not {nai interior) or ikkorzoku {zoku kindred). The alternative 
pronanciation {ke) of the same character is affixed to proper names to designate 
families, especially those of high rank ; e. g., Tokugawa-ke, 

b Ckd is used for tools also : nokogiri Uchb one saw, ko-gniana m eki tvro pen- 

88 The Numeral [xxvn 

kwo-kyo the Emperor's resi^ ha-sen suru be wrecked (of a 

deiice. ship. 

nen-shi beginning of the omou, omotte think ( omou 

year. ^ I think that). 

shd'Setsu, shosetsubon, novel, osou^ osotte attack. 

romance. soroii, sorotte be uniform, com- 
zo- sen-jo shipyard, dockyard plete. ^ 

(lit. make-ship-place). iari-ru be enough. 
hyakkwazenshocyzXo'^Q^xd.,^ toruy totte pass through, pass 
jibiki dictionary. ^ by. 

Igifisu England. tsubure-ru be broken, crushed. 

Moko Mongolia. tsuku, tsuite arrive. 

ato no the remaining, the yatou, yatotte hire (a person). 

other. yobu, yonde call. 

koware-ru be broken, wreck- mata moreover. 

ed. tada-ima just now, presently. 


Per'ri to iu Amerika no ts'kai wa hajimete Nihon ye kita ^ 
toki ni gunkan wo shi so motte kimasKta, Roppyaku 7un 
gurai mae ni Mokojtn ga Nihon ye ^ ni do osotte kimasKta ; 
hajimete kita toki ni wafune wo shi hyaku gojisso motte ki, 
ni do me ni (the second time) kita toki ni wa nisanzen so motte 
kita so des\ Konaida no kwaji de ie ga nangen yakemasKta 
ka. Roppyakken yaketa so des\ Kuruma wo itcho yonde 
kou 8 Jchininnori de gozaimas ka, nininnori de gozaimas* ka, 
Mata ichinimbiki de gozaimas^ ka, ninimbiki de gozaimas' ka. 

a Nenshi ni iku to go to tender New Year's congratulations. The word 
nettshi is used now exclusively in this sense of New Year's congratulations : — 
properly nenshi no shugi, or nen-ga, from ga (c) to congratulate. 

b From hyaku hundred, hwa branch of study, zen complete sho book. 

c This is synonymous with the comparatively new word ji sho. It is a case 
oi jubako-yomi, Ji wo hiku to look up a word [in a dictionary]. 

d O kyakt* san ga sordmashiia. The guests are all here. 

c Instead of the past tense the present kunt might also be used here : kuru 
tokini^X. the time of his coming. Notice the frequent idiom tnotte kuru, motte 
iku. When the object is a person, tsurete must be substituted for motie. 

f Ye here is to be construed with kimashita. 

g Yonde koi call and come ! In English we should say ** Go and calll" In 
the reply notice the double de gotaimasu ka. One might also substitute yonde 
kintasho ka (with wo^ for de gotaimasu ka. 


nori no^ ichinimbiki de a, Tadaima Yokohama n^ minato ni 
gunkan ga nanBd tsuite imas* ka. Tadaima wa gunkan ga 
sanzD tsuite imas ; ^ isso wa Doits no gtmkan de ^ ato no ni so 
wa Igiris no gunkan deshj to omoimas\ Kono jibiki wa 
hassatsu arimas\ Gyokuhen ^ to iu jibiki waju ni satsu des\ 
Kokijiten to iu jibiki wa nij'u ski satsu des\ Are wa nan to 
iu hon des ka. Are wa Motoori Norinaga no kaita Kojikiden ^ 
des\ Sorotte imas' ka, lie, ni sats' tarimasen (are lacking). 
Ano bashagwaisha wa basha wo nijn dai motte imas\ Kon- 
nicki wa kwokyo no inae wo torn toki ni ^ rippa na basha wo 
hachi ryo mimash'ta Konaida Doits' kara tegami ga ni tsu 
kimashta. Ittsu wa Amerika no bin de ki, mo ittsil wa In do wo 
tjtte kimash'ta, Ueno ni wa ryoriya ga ni ken arimas\ Ikken 
wa Nihonryori wo shi, mo ikken wa Seiyoryori wo shimas\ 
Sana hyakkwazensho wa ichi bu nan satsu des* ka, Niju shi 
satsu des\ Kono s hose tsu waju go satsu mono des\ Mi to to 
Owari to Kishu wa mukashi go san to moshimash'ta. 6 Mino 
to iu kuni ni wa Meiji niju yo nen no fuyu ni djishin ga atte^ 
tsubureta ie gaju mangen, shinda hito ga go sen nin, sore kara 
keganin ga ichi man nin mo arimasKta to iu osoroshii koto ga 

Over twenty ships were wrecked ^ in {de) the storm recently. 
In the harbor of Nagasaki there are {tsuite imas) now three 
Russian men-of-war. This village has only {sh*ka arimasen) 
twenty houses. That nobleman has three villas ; one (2) of 
them (i) was burned recently. What book is that? It is the 

a This »« is explicative. See p. 8. 

b The subordinative oif an intransitive verb with iru or oru may denote a 
state which is the result of the action expressed by the verb. Compare /mi/Za 

c De here is equivalent to de atte or deshi/e. 

d The name of a dictionary of Chinese ideograms, Uom gyoku=itama }iiVie\ 
and ^^n book. The largest dictionary in common use is called Kokijiten, 
hoH is the name of a Chinese period {nengo) vmdiji-fen synonymous withyi j^<?. 
Compare " Century Dictionary." 

e The Kojiki (lit. old affair record) is Japan's oldest historical work, dating 
fiom the beginning of the VIII. Century. Motoori, the most famous of 
Japanese grammarians, published the text, with commentary, in a book called 

1 As I lassecl by the palace (lit. at the time of passing the front). 

g The names in this sentence may also stand asyndetically. The princes 
of these provinces were related to the shdgitn. It was provided that, if he had 
no heir, he might choose a successor from one of their families. 

Of a ship we say koivare ru, yabure-rn, or ha-sen sum. Of a person ; haun 
«' ««. This ha is the Chinese equivalent o\ yabure-ru to break. 

90 The Numeral [xxviii 

book called Taiheiki. * How many volumes are there ? There 
are about fifteen volumes, I think. How much is the hire 
{yatoi chiri) of one riksha (for) one day? It is two yen. 
Engage (call) two carts. This company has a hundred street- 
cars. About how many houses do you visit {mawaru) at New 
Year's {nenshi ni)? I visit about twenty. I went to the 
houses of two or three friends, but they were all out. The 
house of Shimazu held Satsuma and Osumi until the Restora- 
tion. At the shipyard of Yokosuka ^ [they] are now construct- 
ing {koskiraeru) two men-of-war. How many parks are there 
in Tokyo ? There are three. One chair is (was) broken. 


11. For vesselfuls, bucketfuls, cupfuls : hat {=^sakazuki), 

ippait sainbai^ shi hai^ roppai^ hachi hai^jippai^ nambai, 

iku hat. ^ 

For medicine, tobacco, or tea, the unit is fuku {kusuri wa 

fuku suru to take medicine), which undergoes the same changes 

as hai. ^ Fuku b also used for kake-mono (hanging scrolls or 

pictures), but the ideogram in this case is different 

12. For pairs of stockings, pantaloons and shoes : soku (foot). 

issoku^ sanzoku^ hassoku.jissoku. 

For pairs of other things /j«/ (to correspond) is used, as in 
kwa-bin ittsui a pair of vases. But a pair of animals is hito 
tsugai, from tsugai couple (See p. 82). 


ma^aida interval. biiru beer. 

chichi milk. « kohii coffee. 

a The Tai-hei-ki {y\t, great peace-record) is a famous historical work, re* 
counting the events of the XIV. Century. 

b A naval station on the coast of Sagami, just within the entrance to Tokyo 

c Ipfai desu. It is full. 

d O cha wo ippai {p agari nasai) Have a cup of tea 1 The numeral ive fuku 
is used for tea mostly in connection with the ceremonial cha tto-yu. 

e Cow's milk is usually called gyU-^yu, Gyu=ushi; nyU=schictiu 




toso spiced sake. ^ 

budd grape. 

budo-shu wine. 

sakt-nomi drinker, toper. 

iabi [Japanese] sock. 

kutsu'iabi [European] sock, 
stocking, b 

gita, ashida wooden clog. ^ 

wara straw. 

Tvaraji straw sandal. ^ 

naga-gutsu boot. 

hana-iki vase {ike-ru to 
keep alive). 

kwa-bin vase (lit. flower- 

sgv-fu the government 

kitsui intense, strong (of 
liquors, odors etc.), tight 
(of shoes). 

kai dense, strong (of tea, 

skio salt 

karat acrid. 

iya na disagreeable. 

kiraUt kiratti dislike. ^ 

ne-ru go to bed, sleep. 

nemutu^ nemutte sleep, slum- 

mmu-ki drowsiness. 

yaUf yotte be intoxicated, s 

same-ru become sober, come 
to one's senses. ^ 

nodo throat. 

kawaku, kawaite dry (intr.). 

no€U> ga kawaku be thirsty. 

hanasu separate. 

vieshi-agaru take (food or 
drink— polite 2, 3). 

nigi-ru flee. 

ure'vu be able to sell. 

yakut yaiti burn (tr.). 

yaki-mono pottery. 

dai'bu very, pretty. 

yo'doshi the whole night 

tabi fit, tambi ni (after a 
verb) as often as, when- 


Dozo mizu wo ippai kudasai ; watakushi wa shiokarai mono 
'WOO iabemasKta kara, daibu nodo ga kawaite kitnasKta. O 

ft Toso is drunk only at New Year's. 

b Called also kutsu'shita, from shiia nnder. 

c Gtia is the generic term. Ashida are very high clogs used in rainy 

d This word l« derived from xvara and ktUsu, thus : watagutsuy waranttt, 
nfaranji, tvdtajL 

e Skio-karai is the more elegant word of the two. 

f •« I dislike it " is tisually kirai disu. Sake ga dai kirai desu, I dislike 
sake very much. Compare suJki dtsu (p. 55b). Iya desu is equivalent to kirai 

g Sake niyau to be intoxicated with sake, Funt niyou to be seasick. 
h Mega sameru to wake up. Nemuke ga sament to recover from drowsiness. 
Yaiga sameru to get sober after intoxication. 

92 The Numeral [xxviii 

cha wo ippai ikaga de gozaimas^ ka, ^ Arigatj gozaimas\ 
Watakushi wa chiisai sakazuki de sake wo iada ski hai bakari 
nomiffiash'ta, shikashi sake ga taihen ni Isuyokatta kara, daibu 
yoiinasKta, ^ Watakushi wa nemuku nam iambi ni koi cha 
wo nisambai nomu to^ nemuke ga samemas\ Tabako wo 
ippuku meshiagarimasen ka, ^ Arigato, zvatakushi wa tabako 
ga kirai de gozaimas\ IVaraji wa issoku ikura deska, Issoku 
issen go rin de gozaimas\ Sonnara ni sokii kaimasho, Sono 
hanaike wa hitotsu ikura ka, Kono hanaike wa ittsui dei 
kara^ hitotsu hanasKte wa ^ uremasen. lya iya savtbai, nige 
nige go hai. « Watakushi ga kuni ye kaerimas' toki Nihon no 
seifu kara hanaike wo ittsui moraintash' ta ga, sono hanaike wa 
Satsumayaki ^ de gozaimasfita, Sakiiban koi cha wo ski hai 
nofida kara, yoddshi neraremasen desKta. s Watakushi wa 
nagaguts* wo ni soku koshiraete moraitai ga, *^ issoku ikura 
des' ka. Sayo^ issoku go yen de gozaimas\ Issakujitsu no 
ban wa biir' wo roppai nonda keredomo, s'koshi mo yoimasen 

A cup of tea, please ! I bought five pairs [of] socks. How 
much were they a pair ? They cost {shimasKta) 75 sen a pair. 
Give me two pairs of clogs. 1 drink three glasses [of] milk 
every morning. Have another {rno) cup of coffee ! As this 
wine is pretty strong, if [a man] drinks {nomeba) but (jno) 
three glasses, he will become intoxicated. That man is {de) a 

a How about a cup of tea ? The reply arigato gozaimasu does not imply 
refusal. In decliniog to drink one may say, Mo o cha wa itadakimasen. One 
may also use the poliie phrase, O kamai kudasaru na (negative imperative) 
Never mind 1 

b Or, yotte kiniashita got into the condition of intoxication, or (without 
daibu\yoiU ihimaimashita. 

c Meskiagaru is synomous with agerUf but is a little more elegant. 

d The subordinative with wa has a conditional sense and is usually followed 
by a negative verb or a verb with a negative significance. So shite wa ikauti 
{So shicha ihenai) [You] must not do so. " Must not " is usually to be rendered 
in this way. 

e This saying refers to men who like sake, but wish to be coaxed to drink. 
While they refuse tliey drink three cups, and while they run away they drink 

f A kind of pottery, the glazed surface of which is artistically cracked. 

g Nerareru is the potential form of the verb fieru. Neraremasen can't sleep. 

h Moraitai is the desiderative of verb tnorau and means ** should like to 
receive." Koshiraete moraitai. [I] desire to have made. This use of the 
subordinative with moraitai or (more politely) itadakitai is a very common 

xxix] Ordinals 93 

sot {deakenomi) ; he drinks a sho every day. Please have a 
whiflF (ippuku) of tobacco ! I have three pairs of boots ; but 
one pair has become useless {yaku ni tatanaku narimasKUx), 
Won't you have a cup of toso f He is an extraordinary {taihen 
fta) drinker; in just a little while {chotio no ma ni) he diank 
ten glasses of beer. He drinks two or three cups of coflfee 
every morning. 


Ordinals {junjo- sushi) are formed by the prefix dai (c) 
•' order " or by the suffixes ^rt/i (c) ** number," me (p. 69b) or 
bainme. Both dai and ban may be used with one and the 
same numeral, as xn dai hyaku nijU go ban the 125th. With 
the native numerals me only is used. With the numeral 
auxiliaries me is the most common. 

Dai ichi^ koto-gakko The First Higher School. 
Ichi ban no kisha (ichibangisha) the first train. 
Ni bamme no kane the second bell. 
Yo bamme no ko the fourth child. , 
Shi kemme no uchi the fourth house. 
Mittsume no tama the third bullet. 
San dome {sambemme) the third time. 

But, as examples given in previoas lessons show, the Japan- 
ese language in many cases where the English requires ordi- 
nals uses simple cardinals, or substitutes other expressions. 

Meiji niju nen the 20th year of Meiji. 
Tokugawake san dai no shjgun (dai=^yo generation). 
The third shogun of the Tokugawa line. 
Ed'war'd* shichi sei {sei=yo generation). 
Edward the Seventh. 

The student may recall that the first day of January is 
gwan-jitsUj from gwan origin. The first edition of a book {dai 
ippan) is called sho-han^ from sho (c) beginning ; the second 

a In the colloquial dai ichi is used mostly to denote superiority, as in se-kai 
4iai ichi no iti-ji-ka tj^e foremost statesman in the world (i^ kai world). 

94 The Numeral [xxix 

edition sai-han from sat {c)ssfuUL tabi a second time. In 
numbering a set of two volumes the words jo and ge or ka 
(p. 71a) are used. When there arc three volumes tiiey may 
be numbered ^^, chu^ ge. • 


ifi) hina (san) doll, puppet. ^ keisaisu police. ' 

nobori flag. ^ keisatsu-sho police station. 

han plate (for print), edition, ki-soku regulation, rule. 

sho'/tan first edition. kun-sho decoration, order. 

sai^han second edition. sai-sho beginning {saisho na 

shuppan publication. ^ the first). 

jo (c) article, item. sik-ku one of five holidays. K 

sigare son (polite i). iai-seUu na important 

c/ij-nan oldest son. ayamaru, ayamatte 

chj-jo oldest daughter. machigau, machigatteS 

soryo heir, oldest child. ayamari fgj.-Q- 

yoshi adopted child. « machigai ) 

ban-chi street number. iwau, iwatte celebrate. 

den-wa telephone. iwai^bi holiday. 


a When volames of a book are subdivided, the portions are designated thus s 
ichi {oT m)MOjdfiTSi (or second) volume, first part, Mi (or m) no^e first (or 
second] volume, second part. 

b The general term for ** dolls " is nin-gyd, from nin person and ^d form. 
The term hina or hina-ningyd denotes properly the dolls which are formally 
arranged and displayed at the girls' festival on the 3rd day of the 3rd month. 
But even ordinary playing with dolls is called hina-€i9oHt from asobu to play, 
while a puppet-show is called ningyd^hibai, from shi^ai drama. 

c National flags and standards are called haia or kok-ku Nobori are^ 
vertically long and are fastened both at the top and on one side. They may 
be seen at temples and theatres, and are also displayed at the boys' festival 
on the 5th day of the 5th month. 

d Shuppan sum to publish. Shuppan ni naru to be published (of a book). 

e To adopt isySshini sum or yishi nimorau. An adopted daughter may 
also be called >'^^. 

f Policemen or patrolmen a,Te/unsa; the police stations on the streets are 
ho^an (sho), 

g Thego-sehku are : the New Year's ficstival on the 7th of the xst month ; 
the girls' festival, on the 3rd of the 3rd ; the boys* festival, on the 5th of the 
5th ; the star festival, on the 7th of the 7th ; and the chrysanthemum festival, 
on the 9th of the 9tb. See p. 66 c 

h The latter is more common in the coUoqnial. ^ 


Ordinals 95 

okosu^ okoshite raise, rouse, yamt-ru stop (tr.), give up. 

wakeu asu^ ashita to-morrow. 

sumu. sunde K^^,j .^^ ue above (-«« ue ni on. 
sumau^ sumatte) upon, 

sumai residence. shita below ( — no shiia ni 
isumoru, tsumotte estimate. under), 

tsuinori estimate, intention. * 


Yoritamo wa ^ Yoshtiowo no sambamme no ko dis\ Ano o 
ko san wa anata no go sDryj des ka. lie, are wa watakushi 
no ni bamme no ko des*. Chotto tazune inZshimas' ; ^ keisais'- 
shc wa doko de gozaimas ka, Sayo^ koko kara san geinme 
des\ Kimi no wakaranai tokoro wa nammaime des* ka. Ju 
ni tnaime des\ Sore wa nan to tu hon des ka, Kore wa 
Wakan-sansai'Zue ^ des\ Sore xva nan satsume des* ka, Kore 
wa nijissatsume des\ Ano kata wa Nikon no santo kunsh ' wo 
sageie iinasu\ Anata no taku wa doko de gozaimas* ka. 
Ginza ni c/iome no goju ni banchi de gozaimas\ * Kiriya^ to 

a This is often attached to verbs, as in Asu Tokyo ye iku tmviori <Usu, It is 
[my] intention to go to Tokyo to morrow. But isunwri often denotes simply 
one's opinion of one*s self : Ano hito wa gakusha tia tsumori de ariwasu. He 
thinks he is a scholar. Here na is a contraction of naru (originally ni aru) 
the literary eqaivalent of ds aru. One may also say gakusha no tsumori de orti, 

b Yoritomo of the Minamoto family (Gen-Ji) conquered the Taira family 
{Hei'ke) about the end of the XH. Century, and was the first shognn in whose 
family the ofiice became hereditary. 

c Afosumittin% *'to say/' but often, as in this case, it is a mere auxiliary 
attached to the stem of a verb. It is used principally in the first person when 
the object of the verb is a person of higher rank or a stranger of the same rank 
aa the spealser. The honoriAc may pot be omitted in this construction. 

d The name of a celebrated encyclopedia : wa Japan, ion China, san sat 
three powen, i. e., heaveo, earth and man, mu drawing, e picture. 

e CMSsssmachi means primarily a group of houses lining a throughfare. The 
same ideogram {ehb) means alio 60 ken. In the above it means a section of a 
loog street, often, but not necessarily, marked off by means of prominent 
cross-streets {yoko-ckd or yoko^macki). These sections may have difierent 
names or may be diatingnished as iUbdme^ni Mme, etc. GsH'ta (lit* silver seat, 
L e., mint) Ss the Baflie of a portion of the principal street of Tokyo. 

f Paalownia-honte. Naines of mercantile &naB are ionnod in this way by 
the nseof yti. Merchants often take the name of the province from which 
they came ; e.g., Mtkawa^A, Omir-ya. 

96 The Numeral [xxix 

iu Jurudoguya wa Ginza san chome da, Naporeon issei wa 
sen happy aku nijU ichi nen no go gwatsu its^ka ni o kakure ni 
narimasHta. lemits^ ko wa Tokugawake san dai no shogun 
des\ Anata wa ittd ni norimas' ka^ nito ni norimas* ka. 
Watakushi wa nito ni noru isumori des* keredomo, anata 
ga ittd ni o nori nasareba^ watakushi mo go issho ni nori- 
mas/io, Kono jibiki wa saihan desu ga, shohan no ayamari 
ga naosKte arimasen, * Hajimete o me ni kakarimasK ta, ^ 
Kotoshi ni natte kara ^ Hirokdji no kwaji wa kore de sambem- 
me des\ Anata no jibiki wo kasKte kudasai, Jo des ka, 
chu des' ka, Chu wo kasKte kudasai, Nikon ni go sekku to 
iu iwaibi ga arimas* ; sono ucki {de) dai ni wa kina no sekku 
de, dai san wa nobori no sekku des\ AsKta no asa wa ichiban 
no kisha de Yokohama ye iku tsumori des' kara, hayaku 
okosKte kudasai. Ano teibur' no ^ ue ni notte oru jibiki no go 
satsume wo motte oide, Sh'ta kara sambamme no ji wa 
machigatte imas\ 

Is this {kono o ko wa) your oldest child ? No, [it] is [my] third 
child ; [my] oldest son has gone to Europe. My oldest child is 
a girl {onna). I have adopted a friend's second child. The fifth 
house from here is a primary school. Our {ucki no) telephone 
is No. 249. That regulation is written {kaite arimas*) on the 
twentieth page {mai) of this book. Please lend me the twelfth 
volume of Gyokuben. That gentleman has received a Japanese 
decoration of the fourth class. That photographer's residence 
is [on] Japan Bridge St., Third Section, No. 25. Keiki 
was the fifteenth shogun of the Tokugawa line ; after he gave 
up the office of shogun « he lived (was living) in Shizuoka. 

a See p. 44 e. 

b This phrase is used when one is first introduced to a person. Hajitne- 
rnasAi/e ^ould be stiU more polite than Jiajwiete. Ome ni kakeru is the most 
polite expression for " to meet," (lit. be hung on honorable eyes. Comp. p. 

c Since the year began (lit. from becoming this year). With subordinatives 
of verbs kara means " after," ** since." Iliro-koji (broad lane] is the name of a 
street. Notice the peculiar use of kore de ** with this." 

d The word tsttkue applies only to the low native tables. 

e " After he gave up the office of iJwgun " is rendered skdgun-shoku 7V0 yanitie 
kara, Ihvi shoku means " occupation," "office" (in shoku-gy^y But in the 
colloquial one may say simply sfwgun xuoyamete kara, Shizuoka is the principal 
city of the province of Suruga, on the Tokyo and Osaka. 

XX ix] Ordinals 97 

The second shogun of the Tokugawa line is called {to moshimas') 
Hidetada. Jimmu Tenno was (is) the first Emperor of Japan. » 
Takauji is the first shogun of the Ashikaga line. To-morrow 
I shall go to Yokohama by {di) the second train. Will you go 
first or second class (Is it first class, is it second class, by which 
do you go) ? This bool^ is about Japan (In this book Japan's 
affairs are written) ; the first volume [appeared] six years ago ; 
the second volume was published two years ago. Among these 
regulations the third article is the most important. Wilhelm L 
is the grandfather of Die present {itna no) EmpencKT of Grermany. 
What edition {namfan) is this dictionary? It is the third 

a ''The first Emperor" lA.saisho (or hajimete) no tenshi oi daiichidaino 



In classical Japanese genuine adjectives are inflected by 
means of the three terminations ki^ ku and shi^ as in the follow- 
ing example : 

. Kono chiisaki ki wa hana mo uisukushiku mi mo amashi. 
The blossom of this little tree is beautiful and its fruit is 

The attributive form ended in ki ; the predicative, in shi. In 
the colloquial both these terminations have been reduced to i. 
But shi still appears la^osAi " good," *' all right !" and nashi^ 
*' there is none," while in formal speeches the ending ki is 
lieard quite often. The form in ku is now commonly used as 
an adverb and is called the adverbial form. But in the example 
given above utsukushiku is evidently predicative and may 
properly be called the connective form as contrasted with 
amashiy which is conclusive, i.e., ends the sentence. Compare : 
O no nagai saru mo art, o no mijikaino mo am (p. I4d) where 
ari is connective and aru is conclusive. Such use of the form 
in ku would now sound oratorical. In ordinary conversation 
wo should say : Kono chiisai ki wa hana mo utsukushii shi 
mi mo amai, or, Kono chiisai ki wa hana mo utsukushikute mi 
mo amai. The classical terminations occur with especial 
frequency in proverbs. 

It has been remarked (pp. 4, 24) that a predicate adjective 
ending in i needs no copula in familiar discourse, if the 
sentence is affirmative and in the present tense ; and that atta 
and aro may be united with the adverbial form of the adjective 
in compounds like yokatta^ yokaro. We now add a paradigm 
of these and similar inflections produced by combination with 
forms of aru to be : 

a Keiyosfii, from l-ei-yd figure (of speech), metaphor. 

b Notice also the peculiar idiom nashi ni in : Kane nashi ni wa ttan* mo 
dekimasen. One can't do anything without money. 

xxx} Inflections 99 

Present yoi is good. 

Past yokatta was good. 

Probable, or Future yokarj probably is good, will be good. 

Conditional yokereba * if [it] is good, if [itj should 

be good. 
Probable Past yokattaro probably was (might have 

been) good. 
Past Conditional yokattaraipd) if [it] has (had) been 

Alternative yokattari being at times good. 

Yoi dard, yoi desho may be substituted for yokaro ; yoi nara 
{da), iox yokereba ; yokatia daro, yokatta desho, hr yokattaro ; 
yokatta nara(ba), for yokattara{ba). 

A concessive form — yokeredo{nio) " though [it] is good "; — 
might have been included in this list, but it is practically 
obsolete as far as the colloquial is concerned. It is now 
replaced by yoi keredomd, it kedo, etc., adding keredomo (p. 8a)^ 
keredo, or ke{n)do to the simple present form. 

The form yokereba is derived from areba (as also yokeredo 
from aredo). It may be further contracted to yokereba, yokerya', 
O tenki ga yokereba undokwai wa omoshirokaro. 
If the weather is fine, the sports (excursion) will likely be 

O tenki ga yokattara undokwai wa motto omoshirokattdrdl 

If the weather had been fine, the sports might have been 

more interesting. ' ■ 

The past conditional is past only with reference to the ' verji 
of the apodosis. Often yokattara is practically synonymou^ 
with yokereba. 

Kagen ga yokattara kanarazu mairimashj. 

If [I] feel well, [I] will surely come. ' 

Alternative forms are used most commonly in pairs, and 
often with shite, thus : 

O tenki wa yokattari warukattari ikko sadamarimasen, ^ 

The weather, being now favorable and again unfavorable, 

is not at all settled (lit. one direction is not determined). 

a One may also ^?iy yoku{rn)ba, but this inflection cannot be applied to other, 
adjectives except nai and desideratives like tabetai. ^ 

icx> The- Adjective [xxx 

Ano hito wa kigen gayokattari warukattari {shite) chodo 
kodomo no yd disu. 

Sometimes he is in a good humor and sometimes not, — 
just like a child. 

Atsukattari samukattari skitt Aomarimasu. 

There being so much variation of heat and cold, one does 
not know what to do (lit. is perplexed). 
The word nai " not existent " is also inflected like an adjective* 

nai is not (none). 

nakaita was not (none). 

nakaro probably is not (none), will not be, will be none. 

nakereba ^ if it is not, if it should not be, etc. 

nakattaro probably was not, might not have been. 

nakattara{bd) if it has (had) not been. 

nakattari at times not being. 
By joining these with the adverbial form of an adjective a 
paradigm of negative inflections may be formed, thus : yoku 
nai, yoku nakatta, yoku nakaro, yoku nakereba, etc. In the 
same manner negative verbs may be inflected : wakaranai is 
not to be understood, wakaranakatta, wakaranakaro^ waka- 
ranakereba^ etc But wakaranai dard is more common than 
wakaranakaro. So also destderatives like tabetai ** desire to 
€!at " may be inflected. Details will be g^iven under the head 
of "The Verb." 

In polite discourse, especially at the end of a sentence or 
principal clause, instead of the plain forms given above, the 
contracted adverbial form with gozaimasu (p. 24) is required* 
In this case many adjectives take the honorific 0:^ 

O atsu gozaimasu. It is warm. 

O isogashu gosaimaskd. You are probably busy. 

Observe that naku is not contracted to no except in certain 
dialects : it is customary to say not tid gozaimasu but gozai- 
masen. But tabetai becomes tabeto gozaimasu. 

It has already been remarked (p. 24) that there is a tendency 
to say ii desu^ omoshiroi desu,yoku naidesu, etc., thus avoiding 

a Also naku{m)ta^ as in O fya d§ nakuba If [you] do not dislike [it^ 
b The honorific o may be prefixed to yoroshikereba also : O yoroshikereba if 
you like; likewise to yokereba ; hut, if one wishes to speak politely, in this 
connect ion ^^r0»>(it is better than yoL O yb goMtmasu nara{ba\ is perfectly 

xxx] Inflections ioi 

the familiarity of the plain adjective on the one hand, and the 
stiff formality of gozaimasu on the other. But it deskita is 
never heard Yet it n' deshita is not uncommon. Whatever 
may be said about the past and present tenses, expressions like 
// deshj are indisputably correct. Thus : 

Mutsukashii disho is probably difficult 

Yoku nai desho is probably not good. 

As regards politeness these are intermediate between mutsuka^ 
shikari and mutsukashii gozaitnasbd, yoku nakaro and yd 

The subordinative is obtained by adding ie to the adverlnal 
form ; c.^.^yasukute, {romyasui, itakute, from itai, omoskiroku" 
te, from omoshiroi ; so also nakute^ wakaranakute^ tab$takute. 
These are often pronounced yasukuUe, iiakutU, omoshirokutie^ 

This form has several uses. 

(i.) When one subject has two predicate adjectives the first 
is subordinated to the second. 

Washinion no inachi wa kirokute kirei desu. 
The streets of Washington are broad and clean. 

(2.) A clause with a predicate adjective may be subordinated 
to another clause. In this case the former describes a circum- 
stance or condition, which is usually at the same time a cause. 

Ashi ga itakuU deranmasen. 

As my feet hurt, I can't go out 

KurakuU askimoio ga miemasen. 

It is so dark that I cannot see where I am going {askimoio 

that which is about the feet). 
Samukute skiyo ga nai. 
It is unbearably cold (lit being cold, there is no way of 


To state the cause explicitly, one must say itai kara^ etc. To 
state tlie result explicitly, hodo may be added : Kurakute 
askimoio ga miinai Itodo desu, 

(3.) Of two clauses involving a contrast the first may be 
subordinated to the second. 

Shim-mai wa umakute ko-mai wa mazuL 

New rice is delicious, [but] old rice is unpalatable. 

I02 The Adjective [xxx 

(4.) When wa is added to the subordinatiye it is made 
emphatic. In most cases it then has a conditional, sense and is 
often followed by a negative word like ikemasin or narimasen 
or by a verb like komatimasu " [am] perplexed." The te wa 
is commonly contracted to cha. 

Omokucha ikemasen It mustn't be heavy. 
Nakucka nariinasen [I] must have [it]. 

These forms may also be pronounced omokutcka, nakuicha, 

(5.) The addition of mo to the subordinative gives it a con* 
fcessive sense. 

yasukute mo though it may be cheap. 

itakute mo though it may hurt. 

dkute mo {pku to mo^ oku mo) at the greatest. 

Sukunakute mo {sukunaku to mo, sukunaku mo) at least. 


hima leisure, ayashii doubtful, suspicious. 

hokofi dust. himojii hungry. * 

fwshi star. hisashii long continued {hisa- 

kokoro heart, mind. shiku for a long time). 
moto bottom, foot ( — no moto isogashii ), 

ni under). sewashii \ "^^* 

ashi-moto what is under or kurai dark. 

about one's feet. nigai bitter. 

ko-duriif ho'kake-bune sail- okashii ridiculous, funny. 

boat 4>tonashii quiet, well-behaved. 

furu'hon second-hand book, semai narrow. 

bozu priest. suzushii cool. 

kesa priest's scarf. yakamashii noisy, clamorous. 

i (c) stomach. yasui cheap. 

^^?^«-rJ jockey, horse-dealer, kokoro yasuHd^rnxWdLV, intimate. 

dettd groom, hostler. hikaeru to be moderate. 

kuki air, atmosphere. komaru, komatte be perplexed, 
za-shiki apartment, room (in embarrassed. 

a hotel). mie-ru be visible, seen. 

a The usual expression for *«to,be hungry" is hara ga .hetta {Jierwiashiia) 
from heru to diminish, or, especially among women and children, o iiaka gn 
nut fa (jukiffMshita), from suku to be empty, thinned out. 

xxx] Inflections 163 

negau^ negatte desire, request, jitsu (c) ni ) truly, really, 

tamafu be able to endure. inakoto ni j indeed, 

yosu stop (tr.), give up. kyli (c) ni \ .^^^^1^ 

sam-po sum take a walk. niwaka ni ) ^* 

de-kake-ru go out (from one's shi-jU from beginning to end, 

house). constantly, always. 

sampo ni de-ru (dekake-ru) naze why ? (with ka at the 

go out for a walk. end of the sentence). 

r^iV/^ a little. ddkam some way or other, 
chitto mo not in the least please ! (p. 47a). 

(with a negative word). domo an expletive (p. 46a). 

oi'oi {ni) gradually. 


Kono hon wa wakariyas^ kute omoskiro gozaimas\ Nodo ga 
itakuie hanashi ga dekimasen, Kono ji wa mutsukasK kute 
cboeniku gozaimas. Kono zasKki ni wa hito ga oi kara, kuki 
ga warui, Tdk'te mo arukimashd. Bimbo hima nashi.^ 
Takak'te mo kaimas/io, OkasKkute tamarimasen,^ IVata- 
kushi wa nemukute tamarimasen, Yas*kute mo kaimasen. 
DomOf samukuU tamarimasen. Ji ga yok'te mo dunshj ga 
warui, Kimi wa okasfCku nai ka, lie^ chitto mo okask ku 
fioi. Naze sonna ni yakamashii ka, Uchi no kodoino wa 
otonasKku nakute makofo ni komarimas\ Watakushi wa 
^ogasKkute s*koshi mo hima ga gozaimasen. Domo, nomi ga 
okute komarimas\ Domo kurakute miemasen. Hoshi ga 
mienaku narimasK ta, Sensei no oshietaji wa kazu ga okute 
komarimas\ Anata wa o kuniye kaerito gozaimasen ka, lie, 
Toky^ wa omoshiroi tokoro des' kara^ kuni ye wa^ kaerito 
iosadinasen. Himojii toki no mazui motto nashi, ^ Hima no 
«^ t^ki ni wa tabako ga nomitaku narimas\ ^ Ano kata wa 
tnichi ga chikak'te mo shiju basha ni norimas\ Itto basha ni 
^iorimasho ka, ni to ni norimashd ka, Ni to basha wa 

* The language of proverbs approaches the literary style, and particles are 
nsed sparingly. Bimbe=bimho^uu 

b It is too funny : one can't help laughing. 
c This «/<! marks the antithesis between T5ky5 and kuni, 
d « Hunger is the best sauce.*' The words matui mono nashi, expressing the 
idea of zest or relish, arc treated here like a substantive. 

* Notice that here ^tf occurs, whereas we naturally expect w<7. The latter 
•Iso would be coirect. 

I04 The Adjective [xxx 

kitanakute noreinaun. Tokyo no tjri wa semai tokoro ga oi. 
Natsu no hi wa nagakute asa no koto wo (what happened in 
the morning) wasuremas\ Yas'kereba kaimaskd ; takaktreba 
yoshimasfto. Daibu o atsuku narimasKta. Oioi o samuku 
^larimasK ta. Hisask'ku o me ni kakarimasen deslita, * Haji- 
mete o me ni kakarimash* ta ; doka, o kokoroyasku negai- 
mas\ ^ YorosKku negaimas'.^ Kono Juruhon wa uru hito ga 
dkute kau hito ga s'kunai kara, yasu gozaimas\ Bettj to 
bakuro wa hito no warui ^ mono ga o gosaiinas\ Ryo-yaku 
{=:yoi kusuri) wa huhi ni nigashi (Proverb). Ji ga viutsu- 
kasK kucha ikemasen. O kega ga nakiUte yo gozaimaih* ta. « 
Bozu ga nikukerya kesa made nikui (Proverb). Yoku mo 
nakereba waruku mo nai. ^ Kotoba okereba shina s^kunashi 
(Proverb), g 

To-day it has become very cool ; until {made wa) yesterday, 
there being no wind, ^ it was quite hot. It has suddenly 

a This is the usual formula on meeting a friend after a long separation. 
Frequently only the first word of the sentence is used. For Imashiku we may 
substitute shibaraku, 

b Here also we have a very common phrase. More fully expressed it would 
be kokoroyasuku o majiwari (or tsuki-ai) wo nej^aimasu, or o kokoroyasuku shi/e 
kudnsaru yd ni ntgaimasu (lit. I desire that you will please do familiarly) I 
hope we may become well acquainted. iCudasaru to condescend is the verb 
from which the imperative kudatai is derived (p. 37d). In shiie kudasaru yd ni 
ntgaimasu we have a still higher degree of politeness tlian in shiie kudasai. 

c Fully expressed this would be something like yoroskiku nasttUe kudasaru 
yd ni fiegttimasu (lit. I desire that you will do favorably) Please deal kindly 
with me. Nnsatte or fias'tte is the subordinative of nasaru, the polite equiva- 
lent of J«r« to do, from which the imperative nasai is derived. In Sa/d san ni 
yoroshiku negaimas the word " to say " is understood: Said san ni yoroshiku itte 
kudasaru yd ni negaimasu (lit. I desire that you will please speak favorably to 
Mr. Sat6) Please remember me kindly to Mr. Sat5. Itte is the subordinative of 
iu to say. One may aay more briefly, Sa(d san ni yorosJiiku Hit kudasai or 
simply Safd san ni yoroshiku, or, if the circumstances make the meaning plaia, 
yoroshiku negaimasu, 

d Bito is often used as here in the sense of character. 

e It was fortunate that you were not hurt. 

f In this sentence the conditional inflection is used simply in lieu of a 
connective » It is neither good nor bad. 

g Many words, little sense. The original meaning of sMna (p. 19) is 

h This may be translated kate ga nakute or kau ga arimasen diskiia kmra. 
Best, perhaps, would be kaae ga nai no de, which conveys the idea, of cause 
more distinctly than the first and not so expressly as the seoojid. The 
Japanese naturally prefer a hazy expression, and kara indicates the relation 
of cause and eflect with a degree of precision not required in fiuch a senienco. 

xxx] Inflections J05 

become cold. The weather is doubtful to-day. The dust is so 
dreadful ihidQt) that [one] can't go aut {deraremaseti). The 
fishermen's boats are not out {jcUu imaseii)^ because the wind 
was [too] strpng. The sailboats do not go out, because there 
is no wind. The wind being strong, the dust is dreadful. As 
this beer is bitter, I cannot drink it {nomemasen). Even though 
the water (/«) is tepid, it's all right This book is hard to 
understand and not interesting. As my throat is sore {itai)^ 
I cannot smoke. He smokes even though his throat is sore. 
In {wd) this room the air is good, because there are few 
persons [in it]. These characters are small and hard to read. 
These characters, though small, are easy to read. [I] eat (sun 
eating) moderately . {hikaeU), because [toy] stomach is bad. 
Really it is unendurably hot (being hot it b not endurable). 
As [I] have no time [I] cannot go out for a walk. Though it 
is dark, I can see where I am going (what is under the feet 
can be seen). It is so dark that the way has become indistinct 
(jvakaranai) The characters which the master [has] taught 
[oie] are hard to remember, even though the number is small 
(few). I wish to return to my own country {kuni ye\ I have 
become thirsty for a glass of water. 


In the classical language the attributive form of the adjective 
may be used as a noun, a word like hito^ mono^ kata or ho (c) 
being understood ; e.g., tadashiki righteousness, from tadashi 
(coll. tadashit). Such a form in ki sometimes occurs in 
speeches, as in the phrase hanahadashiki ni itatte wa '* in an 
extreme case " (lit. reaching to extreme). Compare jfosAi 
ashi^ good and evil, i.e., qualities, characteristics. 

In the following instances adjectives in the colloquial form 
are used as substantive : 

Atsui samui heat and cold. 

a jUhivi coBtnicted from Ashishi, the literaty equivalent of warui. Ex- 
cepting askisAi, adjectives whose stems end in sM are inflected thus : yoroshtki^ 
^»re$hiku^ yomhu Notice that in Brinklcy's Dictionary adject ives are ar- 
ranged according to their conclusive forms, but not consistently. 

io6 The Adjective [xxxi 

Amai mo karat mo shitte oru. 

He is a man of insight (lit knows both sweet and bitter). 

Kane no aru nai mo shiranai de iru, ^ 

He doesn't know whether he has money or not 
The stem of an adjective may be used as a noun : 

taka the amount, from takai high. 

ara offal (of fish), from arai coarse. ^ 

shiro the white, from shiroi, 

kuro the black (of dogs or of the stones used in playing 
go^ a game like checkers). 
Notice the expression omoshiro fiambun half in jest 
The stem may also occur in compounds. 

(i.) It may be united with another adjective : 
/uru'kusai tntQ, antiquated, obsolete, from /S/rwi old and 

kusai (lit. malodorous). 
lioso-nagai slim, from hosoi slender and nagai long. 
usU'gurai dimly lighted, gloomy, from usui thin and kurai 


(2.) The stem may be combined with the verb sugirti to 
exceed : taka-sugiru it is too high (dear). It is usual pleonas- 
tically to prefix amari, thus : 

Amari atsusugimasu. It is too hot. 

(3.) The stem may enter into combination with a noun 
(Compare p. 15) : 

aka-nasu tomato, from akai red and nasu egg-plant. 
kuro'shio the Japan Current, from kuroi black, dark and 

shio salt, brine, tide, current. ^ 
shira-uwo name of a small white fish, from shira= shiro 

and uwo fish. 
usu'cka a drink made of a small quantity of very strong 
tea (in cha-no-yu). 

The drink made by taking a larger quantity of weaker tea is 
koi cha, not ko-cha. 

a One way of making the negative subordinative of a verb is to add de to a 
negative form. Thus shiranai de iru corresponds to the positive shit/e tru. 

b Ara also means "defect": ara wo iu to criticise. Ara ga wakarimasen 
No defect is perceptible. 

c The character used in this connection is not the one commonly used for 
salt, but ushio^ signifying the water of the ocean. 


In Compounds 


To this dass belong compounds with so " appearance:" * 7<?- 
sd desu. It seems far. Compare : Tot so desu. It is said to 
be far. So na (or da) so desu So it is said (For na compare 
p. 95a) From yoi and nai are derived the irregular forms jfosaso 
desu it seems good and nasaso desu there seems to be none, or 
(with an adjective) it does not seem. Notice kawai-so desu is 
pitiable or kawai-so na hito desu is a pitiable case (person), 
from kawaii lovely. 


higashi east 

nishi west. 

fntnami south. 

kita north. ^ 

akari light. 

akari-tori an opening in the 

wall or roof for lighting a 

room {torti to take). 
ante rain. 
katawa cripple. 
nasu^ nasubi egg-plant 
aka-nasu tomato. 
uri melon. 
H7V0 fish.c 
hitce'Viono unlined garment 

(Jiiioe p. 64). 
aivase lined garment {awase- 

ru to join). 

wata cotton. 

wata-ire padded garment 
lid direction, side, region. 
ro-ka corridor. 
ryo'shin {^fuia-oya)^zxexi\s. 
un-do movement, exercise. 
abunai dangerous. 
hosoi\}ck\v\, narrow, fine. 
kashikoi clever, shrewd. 
kusai malodorous, offensive. 
Usui thin, rare, light (of color). 
kawaii lovely, charming. 
kawaiso na pitiable. 
furu-kusai trite. 
hoso-nagai slender. 
luru, Jutte fall down from 

ame ga Juru it rains. 

a The idea of "to seem" may also be expressed by yd desu with an attri- 
bntive adjective or verb. 

Kioaji wa fH yd desu. The fire seems distant. 
Chikaiyd de taihen toi yd desu. It seems near, but is very far. 
Mo o mezame ni natta yd desu. He seems now to be awake. 
b The points of the compass are here given in the Japanese order. The 
four points are called collectively td-zai-namboku, from /5, sai^ nan, hoku (c). 

c Uwo is the classical word. Etymologically snka-tia means fish as food, 
bnt it is now applied also to living fish. 

io8 The Adjectives [xxxi 

naku-naru. nakunaite dis- suberu^ subette slide. 

appear {nakutuitta is lost, kori ice. 

dead). » kori-suberi skating. 

sugi-ru pass by, exceed. isuke-ru soak, pickle. ^ 

taku, taite kindle, heat, cook. moUo more. 


Kono hey a wa mado ga s^kunakute usuguraL Ano Igiris^jin 
wa taihen hosonagai kaia des . Tenki wa yosaso des\ Kono 
hon wa amari otnoshiroku nasaso des\ Kwaj'i wa tdi so des*. 
Yu ga amari atsusugiru kara, mizu wo ippaiirete moraitau^ 
Kono ni san nichi wa hitoemono wo kite wa ^ suzushisugiru yd 
des\ Kono roka wa akaritori ga nakute usugurai, Kyo wa 
amari sujsusAisugimas' kara^ awase wo kimaslto, Kotoshi no 
haru wa amari attakasugimas\ Korisuberi wa omoskiroso 
des' keredomo^ abunai ka to omoiinas\ ® Sore wa nak'te mo 
yosaso des\ Kono kimono wa yosugimas\ Kyo wa taihen 
samuso desu\ Shirouri wa misozuke ni suru to, ^ taisd umd 
gozaimas\ Shirauwo wa chiisai sakana no na des' ; iro ga 
yuki no yd ni shiroi^ kara shirauwo to iimas\ Ano katawa 
wa hitori de arukemasen ^ kara, kawaiso des\ Nihon de wa 
akanasu ga yoku dekimasen. Kono tsukemono wa umaso des*. 
lie, skio ga karakute maeu gozaimas\ Sono hanashi wa 
Juruk*sai, Kono hen wa kuroshio ga kuru kara, taihen attaka 
des\ i Higashi'kaze de amari attakasugiru kara, ame ga 

a Lit. become not existent. With suru a corresponding active verb may be 
formed : Ky Often kodomo wo san nin nakushimaskita. Last year [I] lost three 

b From the stem of this verb may be formed such nouns as tsuke-mono 
pickle, shio-znke salt pickle, kasu-zuke {kasu the dregs of sake)^ miso-zuke, etc 

c See p. 92h. 

d Here kite wa has a conditional sense. Compare omokuie 7va, etc (p. 102). 

e Ka simply helps to express doubt and is not to be translated. 

f Translate : If you pickle white cucumbers in miso (lit. make into miso 

g Translate : white as snow (lit. while after the manner of snow). 

h Jlitori de arukemasen cannot walk alone. From verbs of the first class 
described on page 10 the potential form may be derived by substituting rare- 
ru for ;•//, thus : derare-m, from dem. In the case of a verb of the other class^ 
substitute e-ru or are-ru for the u of the conclusive form, thus : aruke-ru, or 
jtrukare-ru, from aruku. 

i For altaka desu see Ch. XX XI II. 

xxxii] Compound Forms 109 

Juru ka mo shiremasen. * Mada watairt wo kitu ni wa hayd 
gozaimas\ Kono hon wa omoshitoku nai so des\ 

That Chtnaman is slender. It seems cold, but anyhow {sore 
de mo) [I] will go out for exercise. [That] was a dreadful 
storm last night, but to-day the weather seems fine (good). 
This book is interesting, it is said. Because the cold ^ at (of) 
Boston is too severe (strong), I will go south (jninami no /id 
ye). Because the bath {yu) is too tepid, I wish you would 
heat it more. « Skating seems difficult. She is very clever, it 
is said. It does not seem cold to-day. That child, both 
parents being dead {nakunatte\ is to be pitied {kawaiso). This 
tai is too dear at {de wd) one yen. The pupils will forget 
everything (all), because the summer vacation is too long. 


An adjective may be derived from a noun by adding rqshii. 
This usually means ** having the appearance of," but frequently 
it denotes a real quality, like our suffixes '* ish," " ly," etc. 

yakusha-rashii resembling an actor. 

shosei-rashii resembling a student. 

otona-rashii resembling an adult. 

honto rashii sounding like the truth, plausible. 

uso rashii sounding like a lie. 

so^rashii apparently so. 

baka-rashU foolish, looking like a fooL 

kodo.rtorashU childish, looking like a child. 

otoko-rashii manly. 

This rashii mzY even be added to verbs; e.g., kimatta- rashii 
apparently decided, from kimatta it has been decided. It 
may be added to the stem of an adjective ; e.g., niku-rashii^ 
from nikui detestable, kawai-rashii^ from kawaii charming, 

ft It may perhaps rain (lit. It may rain? — one cannot know). This /-/i »w 
sHr-emasen, like ka to omaimasu, is much used to round off sentences. In the 
lbciB«r the ka is strongly accented. 

b Use here wa. Grammatically "the cold" is, at least In English, in a 
dependent clause, but it is the logical subject. 

e Moiio taite moraiiai. With iaku,furo ni hi wo is understood [fi*ro bath). 
T6 liMtt the watei^is yu wo ntakasu {wakasu cAOSe to boll). One may also say 
/mtn^ wo wakasti or furv wo iate-ru. 

no The Adjective [xxxii 

beloved. If there is any difference in the sense, kawai-rashii 
is more objective than kawaii. 

The suffix gamashii also denotes a resenriblance, or a quality- 
described by the word to which it is attached : 

tanin-gamashii behaving like a stranger, distant. 
katte- gamashii apparently inconsiderate, from katte 

one's own convenience. 
sashi-de-gamashii intruding, impertinent. 
shitte-iru-gamashii pretending to know. 

These words are used in a bad sense. Thus ianin-gamashii 
is an epithet applied to one who really is a relative or was a. 
friend, but acts as though he were not (for ta-nin see p. 50). 
The word katte-gamashii is a term applied apologetically to 
one's own conduct : 

Amari kattegamashii koto zvo moshiagemasu ga 

Excuse the presumption, but 

Kisatna sonna shitUirugamashii koto wo iu mofi ja nai. 
You have no business to be talking about things you don't 

An adjective may be a compound derived Irom a noun and 
an adjective : 

na-dakai famous, from na name and iakai high. 
shio-karai salty, from shio salt and karai acrid. 
shinjin-dukai pious, from shin-jin piety and Jukai deep. 
aburakkoi fatty, from abura fat and koi dense, thick. 
te-arai violent, from te hand and arai rough. 

Notice especially the frequent use in compounds of the 
adjective kusai malodorous, offensive. It indicates that the* 
idea expressed by the word with which it is combined is dis-; 
tasteful or disgusting : 

mendj-kusai, mendokusai vexatious, from mendj trouble. 
inaka-kusai rustic, from inaka country. 
jijii'kusai, from j'ijii old man. 

seiyo' kusai (an epithet applied to unwelcome importations^ 
from western countries). 

Attention has already been called (p. 40 e) to the formatipa 
of adjectives from the stem of a verb and yasui {yoi) or nikui' 
(katai) : 

xxxii] Compound Forms ii; 

oboi-yasui {yoi) easy to remember. 
wakari-yasui iyoi) easy to understand. 
wakari-nikui hard to understand. 
kokoroe-gatai hard to perceive, strange. 

The following are similarly formed : 

machi'doi long in coming, from viatsu to wait and idi far. 

mawari'doi circuitous, from mawaru to go around. 

kiki-gurushii disagreeable to hear. 

mi'gurushii ugly. 
The verbal auxiliary ^^>&* {beku^ ^^jAi),» which occurs fre- 
quently in the literary language (e.g., yuku beshi may go, or, 
should go) is sometimes heard in the colloquial, especially 
before hazu. This noun hazu (** fitness ") often follows a 
verb, meaning in such a connection " ought." 

Kore kara wa aitaka ni naru hazu desu. 
It ought to grow warmer from this time on. 

Kodoino wa oya no iu koto wo kiku beki hazu da. 
Children ought to obey their parents (lit. hear what the 
parents say). 

Notice that beki is suffixed to the conclusive form of verbs^ 
not the stem. But in the case of verbs whose stem ends in e 
it may be attached either to the stem or to the conclusive form 
thus : age-biki or ageru beki (classical : agu-beki). • 


hazu fitness {hazu desu ko-gi lecture. 

ought). men-do trouble. 

kugi nail. ^^ T nin-gyo doll (p. 94b). 

otona adult*^ o-sho Buddhist priest. ^ 

{p) tera Buddhist temple. se-kai world. 

uso lie. shin-jin piety. 

yatsu fellow (contemptuous), shU-ha, shu sect. , 

thing (p. 28a). yaku'Sha actor. . 

a Compare the adverbial expression naru heku as much as possible, as in : 
j^^aru beku hayaku koshh-aeti agemasu. [I] will make it for you as soon as 

b This is the respectful term as compared with bo%Uy which now has a tinge 
of contempt. 

1 1 7 The Adjective [xxxii 

wa-gakusha 7one versed in tsuku^ tsuiU strike, thrust, 
koku-gakusha) native classi- utter. 

cal literature. ^ uso wo tsuku (iu) lie. 

hofi'to no, honto no true, real, shin-satsu suru examine med- 
hon-td ni really. ically. 

mawari'doi roundabout, asoko, asuko there. 

tedious. > nochi ni after, afterwards. « 

na-dakai t^mo^xs.^ toki-doki at times, now and 
niku-rashii odious. then. 

isogu, isoide hurry. tabi-tabt at times, often. 

kiku^ kiite hear, inqmre. naru beku \ 

matsu, matte wait. fiaru take {(take) f p^g^jy^ d 

machi'ddi long delayed. dekiru dake y^ 


Sonna bakarashii {baka no) koto wo iu na. « Ano hito wa 
shoseirasku gozaimas\ Sono hanashi wa honforashu gozai- 
masKta ga, nochi ni kiitara, ^ uso de gozaimash' ta. Bis mat' k^ 
ko wa sekai ni nadakai hito des\ Sugawara no Michizane 
wa g taihen nadakai gak'sha desKta. Misozuke to iu mono 
wa taihen shiokarai, IVatakushi wa hiru ni shiokarai mono 
wo tabemasKta kara, taiso nodoga kawaite kimasKta, Asko 
ni ifu no wa ^ kawairashii ii ko des\ Ano kwanri wa gaku- 
sharashii. Kono bunsho wa taiso mawaridoku kaite arimas\ 
O machido sama desKta, ^ Okyaku ga sakki kara irasshatte 

a A contrast with kan^gakusha (Chinese scholars) is implied. 

b Equivalent to this is na no aru or yu-mei na from the Chinese yftssam 
and m€i=na, 

c Like aio de (p. 59) this may be used as a conjunction, but only after a past 
verb. When it is used as a conjunction, ni may be omitted. Both aio de and 
nochi ni are used also as adverbs. The former is rather more common ia the 
colloquial than the latter. 

d With adverbs these are synonymous. But standing alone naru beku {wa) 
or naru dake means ** if at all possible," while dekiru dake means ^ as much as 
possible." Naru beku [dake) mairimashd. Dekiru dake iiashimasUd. 

c Negative imperative from iu to say. ^' 

f Past conditional from kiku to hear, inquire. 

g Died a thousand years ago (903). The no between the family-name and 
the given name may be omitted : it is the rule to omit it in all modern names. - 

h This no is equivalent to mono. 

i A frequent apology : Pardon me for keeping you waiting. 


Compound Forms 1 1 5 

niachidoku omoUe irassharu desho, Kono bydin de wa mat- 
nichi fiadakai isha ga f'tari byonin wo shinsatsu shimiis\ 
Watakushi wa Berrin ni orimasJi ta jibun ni nadakai daigakti 
no sensei no^ kogi wo kikiinasKta, Kanji wo narau no wa^ 
mendjk' sai, Ano hito wa hontorashii uso wo ts*kimas\ Ana 
Seiyojin no kao wa Nihonjinrashii, Ano f*tari no tomodachi 
wa taihen naka ga yd gozaimas* ka. SorashU gozaimas\ 
Monto-shu wa skinjinbukai ho des\ ^ Kono hako no naka ni 
kugi ga tak'san aru {beki) hazu des\ Itna no gakko ni wa 
bdzuk*sai sensei wa naku narimasKta, Naru beku isoide 
koshiraete kudasai. Honto ni nikurashii yatsu da yo. 

Motoori was a famous Japanese scholar. That gentleman 
looks like an official. The story seemed false, but it was true. 
Koya san ^ in (of) Kishu is a famous Buddhist temple. That 
old lady is pious and often goes {inairu) to the Buddhist 
temple. This is a lovely doll. How {do sKte) have yoa 
become so {sonna ni) thirsty ? Because {kara des*) I have 
eaten some very salty herring. That old gentleman is childish. 
He says many {yoku) foolish things. That man looks like an 
actor. It is such a bother (vexatious 3) to write {no wa 2) 
letters (i). The Japanese do not eat very {amari) fatty foods. 
That girl is like an adult. Kobo Dais hi was a very famous 
Buddhist priest. 


A great many words that are really substantives are used 
as adjectives. In the attributive position they take suffix na, 
a contraction of naru {ni aru^de aru); in the predicative 
position they take da, desii^ de gozaimasu (See p. 34c). The 
particles ni and de may also be affixed. The form with ;// is 

a Either: a famous university professor, or, a professor of a famous univer- 

b This no is equivalent to koto. 

c The Mon-to (mon gate, i, e., school, to followers) sect is commooly called 
SAin (truth) sect. Lilce Protestant Christians, it emphasizes salvation by faith 
rather than by works. Its founder was Shinran Shonin. See Murray's Hand- 
book, List of Celebrated Personages. In this sentence hi, side, with shinfitt- 
^//>f'/7f gives the sense of comparatively pious, — pious as compared With other 

d Foaadftdby KdbA Daiiku who spent hl»last days there. 

114 '1'^^ Adjective [xxxjh 

adverbial ; that Mrtfh <iJSf >Corre^>olids to the subordinative. 

To this class belong matty words endihg In ^a, sucli as : 

a^raia na dear, evident. 

nigiy^ka "na throaged» bustling, lively. 

:shiBKfca na quiet, -calm, slow. 

The steins ciK a few adjectives in i are comWfted with na 
(ni, de, desu) in the same manner : 

attaka na warm attakai, 

komaka na fine, minute, from komakai, 

yawaraka na soft, tender, from yawarakai, 

makka na deep red, from makkai {ma real, akai red). 

oki na gretit, from okii. 

chiisn na small, from ckiisai. 

okas hi na ridiculous, from okashii. 

But it is to be observed that the last three are not combined 

with ni^ de, desu, except in the caise of the adverb oki ni 

greatly, very. The Tegular inflections of tlie forms in i are 
used instead. 

Other words of native origin are likewise made to serve as 
adjectives ; 

daka na foolish. 

iya na disagreeable. 

sakan na flourishing, prosperous. 

suki na agreeable, favorite. 

mono'Zuki na cufious, meddlesome. 

Most of the adjectives of this class are compounds derived 
from the Chinese : 

cho-hj na convenient, useful, valuable. 
kek-ko na grand, splendid, capital. 
nyu'Wa na gentle, amiable. 
ri'kj na clever, smart. 
shikkei na disrespectful, rude. 
shin-setsu na kind, careful. 
sh'-jiki na honest, artless. 
fu-sh.jiki na dishonest. 
taisj na large, magnificent. * 
takU'San na many. 
zan-nen na regrettable. 

a It would not be an order^to say fhisb destu 

jcxioif] FoKMS WITH Na 115 

Simple Chinese woixb may also be tt9ed in dns way: 

hen na strange/ peculiar, dubious. 

myo na strange, wonderful, adrmrable. 
To the same class belong yd na (Compare kayo na, etc., p, 

Anata no yd $ia hito a person like you. 

Instead of no yd na one may say mita yd na {mi-ru see), often 
contracted to wtM na : 

Bjzu {wo) mita yd na hito a man looking Bke a priest 
Kuma {^o) mitai na otoko a fellow looking like a bear. 

Observe also sd na^ which is added to the stems of adjectives 
.and verbs : 

Kashiko-sd na {rikd-sd na) hito a clever-looking person. 

Ame gafuri'Sd iUsu. It seems to be raining. 

Ame gafuri-s3 na fnon* desu. We shall likely have rain. 

Deki'Sd na vion* desu. It seems practicable. 
The effect of adding mofi in the last two sentences is to bring 
out the subjective aspect of the idea, suggesting the hope that 
it will rain or that the plan may be accomplished. 


(Include the adjectives given above) 

^tji taste, shiru'ko a dish mide of mochiy 

Jnji wistaria. an and sugar. 

isJti stone. te-nugui towel {nuguu wipe). 

{p) kayu gruel made of rice, den-shin telegraph. ^ 

kaze vrwiA, ge-nan ) .,, , ,,^ 

, A- A }• manservant " boy. ^ 

sara sky. skimobe ) ^ 

soroban abacus. gi-ji-dj legislative assembly 

takara treasure, wealth. hall. 

zeni coins, cash, change. * hen-ji reply. 

Juru-mai behavior. ke-shiki, ked-sJioku scenery. 

a. ^#ni originally denoted various kinds of coins which to, feudal times were 
made of iron or bronze and Imd a hole in the center. 

b £>en-shm .may also mean a telegraphic dispatch, but a telegram is more 
commonly called dtm-po, 

c 'Wikh gfwm compaae gt-jo, SUma-de (as also sAifrto rue), firom s/n»H^=i{e 
(c) or sAi/Of is rather a classical wofd. 


The Adjective 


ken-chiku building ( — suru 
to build). 

kok'kwai diet, parliament, 

?//«-^i temper of the people. 

//^7^//i^/7^///V ashamed, shame- 
ful. » 

karui light (of weight). 

oshii prized, regrettable. 

owaru end, finish. 

atsumam assemble (intr.). 
kuzusu tear down (a house), 

change (money). 
nagame-ru gaze at. 
nage-ru throw, fling. 

odoru dance. 

suzvaru sit.*' 

yaru send, give, do.^ 

hima wo yaru discharge, dis- 
miss (with ni). 

tabi {wd) suru journey. 

yoru approach ( — ni yoru call 

toku, toite loose, disentangle,, 

ioki-akasu explain. 

bd-saki wo kiru take a per- 
centage. ^ 

zan-ji a little while. 
to with. 


Kyo wa shizuka na hi des* ; kaze mo nani mo arimasen, * Oi- 
oi attaka ni narimas\ Konnichi wa attaka des* kara, awase 
wo kirn as ho. Sfiogwatsu wa nigiyaka des. Asak'sa no Kwan- 
non wa ^ nigiyaka na tokoro des* ; mainichi iak'san na hito ga 

a Like our English word "fearful," hazukaskii may be either objective 
(dreadful, shameful) or subjective (afraid, ashamed). But, while in English 
the context makes it plain wliich sense is intended, the Japanese seem to be 
hardly aware of the distinction. 

b This properly means sitting in Japanese fashion. " To sit on a chair", is 
tsu ni koshiwo kake-ni (p. 58}. To unbend ihe limbs and stretch them out on 
the floor as foreigners generally do is hiza wo kuzusu (/liza knee). 

c The polite word for " to give " is age-ru ; but yaru is the more suitable 
word to use toward one's servants or children. In the sense of "to do"; 
Anata wa tadaima nani wo ya4te oide nasaitnasu ka. What are you doing now ? 
See also example on p. 6z. 

d From bo a pole used by coolies, or the bar of a balance, and saki tip. The 
peculiar expression " to cut the tip of the stick " is used of a chief coolie taking 
a percentage of the wages of those whom he employs, or of a servant who slyly 
takes a commission on purchases that he makes for his master, or, what 
amounts to the same thing, accepts a bribe from a tradesman. 

e There is no wind nor any thing [to disturb the tranquility of the day]. 

f A famous temple of the Buddhist divinity Kwannon. 

xxxiii] Forms with Na 117 

demas\ Taisj kekkb na toket de gozaimas\ Shdjiki de riko 
na shiinobe wa ie no takara des\ ^ Ano kata wa riko na hito 
des^ keredomo.fuslidjiki des\ Betto wa taitei fuslijjiki na mono 
des\ Denshin ya denwa to iu mono xva chjJtj na mono dts ; 
Jsanji no aida ni tot tokoro ni iru hito to (ni) mo hanashi wo 
suru koto ga dekimas, Anata no genan wa shdjiki des' ka. 
Sayo^ taihen shdjiki de chitto mo bosaki wo kirimasen. ShJjiki 
na bakuro wa skunai ; shdjiki na betto mo skunai, Ano kyoshi 
tva tailien ni shinsetsu de, mata oshieru no mojozu des\ ^ Ano 
hito wa kogi ga saislio heta desKta ga, konogoro wajjzu ni 
narimasKta. Sonna baka na koto wo suru na. c Sakura no 
hana wa nakanaka ktrei des keredomo, oshii koto ni wa ^ jiki 
ni chitte shimaimas\ Watakushi wa zannen na koto wo itashi- 
mash'ta. Ano onna wa nyuwa de riko des\ Sore wa hyak*- 
shj no yj na furumai des*. Ano hito wa iya na kao wo sKte 
imas\ Anata wa odori ga o s*ki des* ka. Dai s'ki des* 
Meredomo, heta des\ ^ O shiruko wa onna no s'ki na mono des\ 
Tetsudo wa hayaku tabi ga dekite chJij na mon des\ Sato 
'wa shikkei na hito des*. Naze des* ka. Watakushi ga tegami 
tvo yarimasKte mo ^ henji wo yokosKte kuremasen. Kono bun- 
shj no imi iva akiraka ni narimasKta ka. Sayo, sensei ga 
shinsetsu ni toki akasKte kuremasKta kara, yoku wakari^ 
fnasVta. Sake ni yotte kao ga makka ni natta. Osaka wa 
taiso sakan na tokoro des*. Kono f*tari no ko wa uri wo 
f*taisu ni watta yd des*. 8 Yawaraka na tenugui wo vtotte koi, 
kore de wa ikenai kara. ** Kono gakkd ni wa soroban no taiso 

a In this semi-proverbial expression one may substitute for shimobe its 
^Thinese equivalent hoku. 

b The idiom is ordinally kogi ga jdzu d^su, os/iiern no gajdzu desn, or kogi ga 
Aeia desu, oshieru no ga heta desu. 

c Negative imperative from suru to do. 

d Oshii koto standing alone would mean " How afleciing ! " With ni wa this 
ejaculation becomes an adverbial phrase. 

c JDaisuki very fond, from <//i/ (c) great (p. 55b). The opposile is dii kirai 
(p. 9i«). 

f Y&nmashi/e mo though (one) sends. Compare yatukute mo, etc. (p. 102). 

g Compare the German " They resemble each other as one egg is like 
another," or the English ** They are as like ns two peas." In such sentences 
x*D is to be translated **a8 if," "as though;" watta yd desu as though one 

h Compare kore de wa ikenai "^MXi ofnokute wa ikenai (p. 102). Compare also 
Sc/^ de a *l hat will do. Futatsu de takusan desu. Two are enough. 

ii8 The Adjeciive [xxxiii 

jdzu na sensei ga ttritnas*. K^kwai^gijUi^ no kenchiku wet 
iaisd na mon des\ Kore wa nmasa na mikan da. Kyj wa 
samusd na tenki des\ Do ka shiyo ga ariso na mon des*, * 
Kano han wafurui yd des*. Tokyd no kito wa monozuki des*; 
tada kawa ni iski wa nageta bakari de mo sugn ni hito ga 
tak'sanyotU kimas: kochira no ninki mo so des'; tada dare ka 
sora wo nagameta bakari de mo hito ga sugu ni atsumatte 
kimas\ O Kiyo san wa kaankaskiso ni suwatte irasshaimas\ 
Anata no o ko san wa o riko des* kara^ gakumon ga yoku <^ 
deki nasaimasho. ^ 

This poem seems difficitlt The shrines of Nikko are very 
grand ; the scenery also is grand. Kaga was a great daimyo. ^ 
Sick persons for the most part {yoku) eat gruel or soft rice. In 
{wa) spring there are many calm days. To-day, since the 
weather seems fine (good), we will go to Kameido ^ to see 
the wistaria blossoms {fuj'i wo mi ni). From this time on it 
tyill grow (grows) gradually warmer (warm). Cut that up fine 
{komaka fii). This salt pickle has a peculiar taste {myd na aji 
ga shimas'). Have you [any] small change? Yes {hai\ I 
have. Then please change this large bill. Having received 
from you {itadakimasli te) recently a valuable gift (thing), I 
thank you very much {pki ni). The teacher explained toki- 
akasKte kuremasKta) this carefully, but I do not yet understand 
[it]. The last day of the festival of the dead (See p. 76b) Is^ 
very lively. Since it is a warm day there are many who go to 
Mukojima to see the blossoms. Why {do iu wake de) did you 
dismiss your boy ? Because he was a dishonest fellow. Skil- 
ful tailors are dear. Don't say such foolish things. What 
kind of wood is the wood of the kiri (tree) ? It is light and 
soft. This dictionary seems bad. Those vases seem to be 
expensive (high). He seems to be a clever person. « He has 
a face like a monkey's. 

a There ought to be a way of xnanagiDg it somehow {do ka), 

b Notice the polite form of dekimasho. One may even hear o art nasaru for 

c The daimyo of Kaga, a province on the coast of tlie Sea of Japan, held a 
iicf which yielded annually an income of more than a million kol'u of rice. 

d Kame-id9 " tortoise-well " is the site of a famous shrine in honour of 
Sugawara Michizane near Tokyo. 

e Translate Hko na yd desu or rikoso desu. So in the sense of "appearance " 
is imme<Uately affixed to adjectives of the class described in the chapter ; ri&a 
na {da) so desu would means : " lie is said to be clever." 

XXX I v] Forms with No 119 


Many adjectives are formed, by means of the particle no : 

hidari no the left. 

migi HOi the right. 

uf no the upper. 

s/ii^ no the lower. 

tsugi no the next {kono tsugi no next to tWs). 

viakoto no true. 

moto no original. 

mukaski no ancient. 

nama 7io raw, uncooked. 

nami no common, ordinary. 

atari-mae no usual, ordinary. 

Adjectival expressions denoting time, place or material^ 
formed by adding no to substantives, are especially numerous : 

konogoro no recent. 
asoko no yonder. 
Nikon no Japanese. 
Amerika no American. ^ 
ki no wooden. 
kane no metallic. 

The stems of common adjectives are occasionally used with 
the postjx)sition no : 

Aka no niishi {go sen) rice cooked with red beans.- 
Shiro no kinu-ito white silk thread. 

The stems of verbs may be turned into adjectives in the same 
way. Notice especially compounds with tate. ^ 

owari no, shimai no the last, 

kane-mochi no rich. 

ki tate no just arrived, from kuru to come. 

kumi'tate no fresh (of water), from kumu to draw (water), 

iaki tate no fresh (of cooked rice) from taku to cook (rice). 

umi'tate no fresh (of eggs), from umu to lay. 

a In some connections the 110 may be omitted, as in Nikon seifu the Japanese 
Goveraoient, DoUsu iei the German Emperor (but Dvitsu no tenshi), 

b Observe also viizu shirazH no tatiin a stranger whom 1 never saw and don'k 

120 The Adjective [xxxiv 

Technical adjectives like "scientific," "botanical," etc., are 
formed by the addition oijo (c)=ue above, i.e., concerning 
{compare the German u^er). For example, gakuinon-jo means 
what pertains to learning; 

gakuntonjd kara iu naraba to speak scientifically. 

gakumoujo no scientific. 

shoku-butsU'gaku-jo no botanical shoku = ue-ru, butsu 

dd-btitsu-gaku-jd no zoological. 

i-gaku-jo no medical. 

Most of the words which with no form adjectives, as de- 
scribed above, may be ased as nouns : 

IVatakushi wa niku no nama wo konomimasen, ^ 

I do not like raw meat. 

Kanemochi wa shiwai. The rich are stingy. 

The adverbial form, the subordinative and the predicative 
form are derived by adding «/, de and da {desu), respectively. 

With some words either no or na may be used : 

hadaka no or hadaka na naked. 
kanemochi no or kanemochi na rich. 
wazuka no or wazuka na little, trifling. 


(Include the adjectives given above) 

hashi bridge. kara-kaue bronze {kara 

kane money. China). 

shiro castle. sajiada-mushi tape-worm. 

eri collar. shachi-hoko grampus. ^ 

kara collar (European). e picture. 

mono-goto affairs. ki^i gold. ^ 
kagami mirror {kage reflec- gin silver. 

tion, mi-ru see). so statue. 

a Colloquially the word nama is much used in the sense of "hard cash/' 
being equivalent io gen-kin ready money. 

b The term shachihoko also denotes an architectural ornament, a conven- 
tionalized grampus, placed on the end of the ridge of a roof. 

c Kin is the Chinese equivalent of kane metal or money. In the sense of 
** money " or ** metal " kin is used only in comi>osition. On the other hand, 
kane is never used in the sense of " gold." 

XXXIV Forms with No 121 

dai-butsu large statue of mimi ga kikoenai be quite 

Buddha. deaf. 

en-zetsu address, oration. mivii ga toi be somewhat 
/U'Zoku manners and customs. deaf. 
gyu-niku beef (com. p. gee), kumu, kuvdi draw (water). 

5^/>/-^/f/ property. sasu stick, thrust, wear (in 
erai great, eminent. the hair, girdle, etc.). 

ji-yu na free. sashi-tsukae ga aru there is a 
Ju'jiyu na restricted. » hindrance, [I] have an en- 

kennon na dangerous, risky. ^ gagement. 

agaru, agatte go up. ^ sewa assistance (comp. siwa- 
arau^ aratte wash. ^ shii. 

dasu put forth, bring out. — no sewa wo suru assist, 
kikoe-ru can hear^ can be take care of. 

heard, sound. 


Atarashii kara wo dashimasfio ka, lie^ kind no kara de it, « 
Ano hito wa kanemochi des' ka. fie, atarimae no shindai d€s\ 
Ano shosei wa kasHkoi des* ka. lie, atarimae des\ Nama no 
niku wo taberu to, yoku sanadamushi ga dekinias\ Kodomo 
tva oya no ^ sewa wo suru no ga atarimae da. Nihonjin wa 
yoku nama no sakana wo tabemas*, g Jzanagi to iu kaini sama 
ga ^» umi de kao wo o arai nasatta toki ni hidari no me 
kara Amaieras* to iu hi no kami sama ga o de nasatte inigi 
no o me kara Tsukiyomi to iu tsuki no kami sama ga de 

a Fujiyu is commonly pronounced/f(/'f<. The \90Tiijiyu in the Japanese mind 
generally signifies the possession of ample means, ^nd fujiyu, accord ii gly, 
means the lack of facilities or conveniences. 

b Probably a corruption of ken-nan, from ken peril and nan distress. 

c This is the polite word to use in speaking of going to or entering into a 
person's house. 

d Notice that verbs whose stems end in r*' or i preceded by a vowel do not 
add ru in the conclusive form but substitute u for i (p. zo), like agat-n and 
arau, have subordinates in tte, 

c One may also say kind no de ii, 

i This is the objective genitive. 

g Nttmazaka9ia is fresh fish as contrasted with salted or dried fish. 

h Tlie language used in speaking of the gods is extremely polite. Izanagi 
and Izanami are the two deities who, according to Japanese mythology, created 
Japan and its people, yitnaierasu is derived from ame heaven and Urasu to 
illumine; Tsukiyomi, from tsnki vsxoo\\,yo night and mi-ru to see. 

T22 The Adjective [xxxiv 

nasatta. Noma no tamagp wo miitsu motti kiU ktidasai. 
Kore wa umitaie no tamago des' ka. Sayo^ umiiaU de gozai- 
mas\ Igiris'jin no tanie ni koshiraeta Eiwa-jisho ga nakute 
makoto ni fujiyu des\ * Nihon no onna wa yoku gin no 
kanzashi wo sasbimas*. Ano hito wa kwazoku des' ka. lie^ 
nami no hito des.' Takitate no gozen di nakereba oisKku 
arimasem. O miya no uchi ni wa kane no kagami ga tatete 
arimas\ Ano kata wa ikura kane wo motte itnas* ka. Hyaku 
man yen motte iru so des\ Erai kanemochi des" ne f Y^roppa 
de wa kiri no ki wo shokubutsugakujo no na de '* Paulownia 
imperial is " to iinias\ Kono e wa mukashi no fiizoku ga kaite 
arimas\ Uchi no gejo wa kitate ni wa monogoto ga yoku 
wakafimasen desKta. Kurumaya wa mac hi no naka wo 
hadaka de aruite wa ikemasen. ^ Kore wa kumitate no mizu 
des ka. Sayoy tadaima kunda bakari des\ IVazuka na koto 
de kenkwa wo sh'ta. Ano shosei wa kanemochi na isha no 
tokoro ye yoshi ni ikimasKta. 

I do not know the medical name (wd) of this disease {byjki\ 
I am very fond of {dai ski des') raw beef. The earthquake 
(of) last evening was dreadful. The address (of) just now was 
very interesting. The Daibutsf* of Kamakura<^ is a bronze 
statue ; its height is about fifty feet. On the tower {ten-shn) of 
the castle of Nagoya there are two golden sfiachihoko. Do 
you know the zoological name of this fish ? The original 
name of Kyushu was (called) Tsukushi. That happened long 
ago (is an ancient aflfair). Shall I bring to-day's newspaper? 
No, please bring yesterday's. Does your left hand hurt, [or] 
is it the right hand ? His right ear is deaf. Fresh eggs are 
delicious. The Japanese government hires many {yoku) 

a /rf-7£/rt English- Japanese. The chief nations of the world arc designated 
by single ideograms, thus : 

Nichi or Wa Japan Ei England Doku Germany 

Shin^ Kan ox 2d China Bet America Futsu France 

^a// Corea AVw Holland ^V Russia 

Of these Shiv^ Kan (Corea), £"/, Bei^ Futsts^ and Ko arc coilibincd wilh ^«»/tx</ 
Shinkoku^ Ei-koku, etc. IVa kafi-sansat-aue p. 95d). Nis-shtJi sen- so the war 
between Japan and China. Doku-futSH sen-sd the Franco- German war JVuAi- 
ei do-mei the Anglo- Japanese alliance, Ko-shin gin-kd the Russo>ChineEc Bank, 
b. Aftiite is a subordinative from aruku to walk. Notice that this verb may 
take an object. For aruiie rca ikemasen see p. iiyh. 

Kamakura is near Yokohama. Yoritomo made it his capital in 1192. 

xxxv3 Adjectival Claxjses 123 

foreigners. In (m wa) Japan there are maoy wooden bridg^es 
(tva), but stone bridges are still scarce. Kext Saturday (ni 
wa) I have an engagement ; so I will come to your house on 
Friday. ^ The last day of the year is called o^missJka. It is 
risky to eat {taberu no «/») raw medt. Is tiiat the botanical 


As has been intimated previously (pp. 6, 13), the functions 
of an adjective may be performed by short clauses, such as 
j^atna ga at mountainous, hichi ga warui sarcastic, etc., which 
in the attributive position become yavta no bi, knchi no wurniy 
etc. Such expressions are very common in Japanese : 

ishi no di stony. 

machigai no di inaccurate (opp. nai), 
jin-io no di populous (opp. sukunai). 
otoko-buri no ii handsome (of a man — opp, warui). 
kao {ki-ryo) no ii beautiful (of a woman — „ 

shiawase no ii (or shiawase no) fortunate „ 

uu no ii lucky „ 

befi, benzetsu no ii eloquent „ 

ben-ri no ii (or benri no) convenient, useful „ 

tsu'go no ii convenient, suitable „ 

Jto^jin no ii cautious „ 

kon-jd no ii good-natured „ 

i'ji no warui ill-natured, obstinate 
gen-ki no ii (or genki no) vigorous (opp. nai). 
ashi no hayai swift (of an animal). 
nagare no hayai swift (of a river). 

ki no hayai impulsive, not considering the consequences, 
ki no noroi phlegmatic {iioroi sluggish). 
ki no nagai patient. 
ki no mijikai irritable. 
ki no tsuyoi determined to win, courageous. 
ki no yowai easily yielding, cowardly {yowai weak). 

n. The polite Icrin to be used here is agam. But if a common word is uaed^ 
it must be ikn^ not kuru. Foreigners often puzzle the Japanese by using knm 
in 'sucli cases. 

124 The Adjective [xxxv 

ki no okii bold, enterprising, magnanimous. 

ki no chiisai cautious, circumspect, pusillanimous. 

set no iakai tall (opp. hikui). 

kiri nofukai foggy {kiri fog). 

yoku no /ukai ay^Liiclovs (opp. nai). 

nii no chikai near-sighted. 

mimi no tat deaf. 
So also instead of na-dakai (p. i lO), one may say na no 
iakai ; instead of shinjin-bukai^ shinjin no Jukai. 

The opposites of some of the expressions given above may 
be formed by means oifu (du) or /;/w— negative prefixes derived 
from the Chinese : 

Ju-shiawase na unfortunate. 

Ju'un na unlucky. 
fu'benri na inconvenient. * 

JU'tsugo na inconvenient, improper, wrong. 

bu'kiryd {fu-kiryo) na homely. 

bu-ydjin ( fu-yofin) na careless, unsafe. 

vm-yoku na unselfish 

KZom^^T^ Ju'shojiki na dishonest (p. w/^), fu-shinseisu na lui- 
kind, bu-rei na impolite (p. 33c), inubyo na healthy. ^ 


(Include the list given above) 

yi/«a a fish resembling a carp, hatake a plot of cultivated 
hakama loose trousers, divid- ground, field, garden. * 
ed skirt. ^ iwa rock. 

a " Inconvenient " is more commonly fuben na. But fu-ben na (different 
■character) might also mean " not eloquent," though the more common word is 
iotsuben na from ioisu (c) to stammer. 

b From yd need (in iri-yo) is derived fu-yo or vtu-yo unnec^sssary. The 
latter also serves as a sort of negative imperative, as in the notice posted ap 
in the Hongwanji Temple in Tokyo : Iliru-ne muyo. Midday naps forbidden ! 
Another negative prefix, w;, means " not yet : " mi-jukii not yet ripe. Compare 
Ju-skinja unbeliever and mi-shinja one not yet a believer. 

c Worn by gentleman in full dress. There are special names forcertain 
vaiieties, such as uma-nori~bakama used formely by samurai when riding on 
horseback, naga-bakama the trailing kind used at court, etc. The hakama 
in vogue among school girl are simply plaited skirts. 

d A plot kept under water for the cultivation of rice, etc., is called to. 


AojEctivAL Clauses 


se shoal. 

haya-se rapfds. 

sode sleeve. 

soko bottom. 

sumi charcoal. 

to door. 

mawari surroundings ( — no 
mawari ni around). 

sato exterior ( — no soto ni 
outside of). 

korgaki postal card. 

fnisu-UMt) , . 

Jto'Sui(c)) *^*'^- 

{o)lera'Mairi visiting a (Bud- 
dhist) temple. 

toshi-yori aged person ( — no 

kai'gan sea-shore, bund. 

yo-Juku European clothes. 

sei'ji political affairs. 

seiji-ka politician, statesman. 

ia-dait /J- w^^</^r/ lighthouse. 

Chosen Corea. 

aku^ aite open (intr.). 

ana hole. 

ana ga aku a hole is made. 

hakuy haile wear (shoes, trou- 
sers, etc.). 

hatarakti, hataraite work. * 

nagare-ru flow, be carried 
along by a current. 

shime- ru shut. 

shirase-ru inform. 

tanonm, tanonde ask, engage, 
rely upon. ^ 

ii'tsuke-ru command. 

osu push, press. 

oshi-age-ru push up. 

sei'batsu sum punish (rebels), 
make war upon. 

zen-kwai suru fully recover 
(from sickness). 

hi {kwa-Ji) wo dasu start a 

koto ni especially. 

hi'j'd ni extraordinarily. 


Hida wa yatna no oi kuni da kara^ jinko ga s^kunai. Nihon 
no kawa tea taigai nagare ga hayai kara, dki na ishi ga 
nagareti kimas\ Anata no go tsugo no yoi toki ni inairi- 
fnasho, ^ Dozo go tsugo no yoi toki wo shiraseie kudasai. 
J\/ihon no mawari no umi wa hij'J ni sakana ga oi. Sato san 
Ttfa ki no mijikai hito des' kara, tomodachi ga s^kuno gozai- 
fnas\ Shinjin nof'kai hito wa yoku teramairiwo shimas\ 

a This word is also used like make-ru^ to be defeated, in the sense of <' to 
come down on the price," but without an object : Ni jissen makete agemasu. I 
will deduct twenty sen. Hachi jissen made hataraite agemasu, I will make (sell) 
it for the low price of eighty sen, 

b The idiom is : hito ni koto wo tanomu to call upon a person for assistance, 
to ask a favor of one. O tanomi mdshiniasu. Please do me the favor. This 
phrase may be used by a caller to attract the attention of some one in tlie 

c Lit. at your co n ven i ent time, x. e., whenever it suits you. 

126 The Abjective fiocxy 

Ajiata no o ani sou wa go zenkwai nasaimasKta Jka, //>, 
skoshi yoku natte kara^^ yojin ga warukute ha^ku soto ye 
demnshUa kara^ main waruku narimasKta, Sh-k0 to iu mono 
wa ^ taihen ^nkt no hayai mon' des\ Ano kata wa toMy^ri 
des* keredomo, geitki ga yj gozaimas\ Nikon no kaigan wa 
iwaga oi kara^ seifu de^ ioinyodai wo iak'san ^attmasKia, 
StHchj wayojiu no it hito deii /utra^ skumJba nifum wo y^re 
to^ tits' kimash'ta keredomo, kiri ga fketkute tjmyodai no 
nkari ga miemasen dedita^ Jsara^ jfune wo iwm ni osktage- 
masKta ; shikashi June no soko ni ana ga akimasen desKta 
no wn shiwase no it koto desMta. Nikon wa ki no oi kuni des* 
kara, yoku sumi wo ts'iaimas\ Ki no s'kunai kuni wa mizu 
ga s'kunaL Taiko wa ki no okii hito desKta kara, Ch sen 
made mo ^ seibatsu shimasKia, i^*ku wa s&de ga mijikakute 
hakama wo hakeittasen karet^ hataraku^ tame niQ benri no ii 
mon' des* (halaraku ni benri des*). ItJ ko wa daiseijika de 
benzetsu mo ii. To wo skiinenaide nete wa buyojin des*. 

The bed {soko) of this river is stony. Postal cards are con- 
venient things. The French are impulsive, but the Germans 
are phlegmatic. Both Yamato and Kishu are mountainous 
countries. Mountainous places are sparsely populated (popula- 
tion is scarce). As the Fuji River is swift, tliere are many 
rapids. The ILake of Dmi {wa or ni wa) is full of fish ; large 
carp and {ya) /una (2), are especially (i) numerous (many 
(3). '^ He is obstinate and doesn't do what one asks of him 

a Translate : after recovering somewhat fp, 96c), 
b The idiom to iu mono wa corresponds to oirr article " the " (p. i). 
c We sboald say : " the government has erected.'' The Japanese idiom is : 
**^on the part of the government [they] have erect«d." When speaking of 
%vhat is done societies, corporations, etc., this is the asual construction. 

d Imperative iromyaru to send \fune wo yam to move a ship forward. In 
Japanese, quotations are usually given in the form of direct discourse, the 
dependence of the phrase on the principal verb beii^ denoted simply by the 
particle to. In the case of imperatives a phrase may be changed into indirect 
discourse by the use oi yd ni: shizuka ni fune ^vo yart* yd ni iiisakemashiin. 
(comp. p. zo4bc). A polite ct^mmand quoted by the person 10 whom ii was 
addressed is commonly -changed into the im^polite form : Dete km to moski' 
fnashiia tie said I should come oat. 

e See p. 850. 

f See p. 53a. 

g Translate : "for wot king.** When the pos' position tame is added to 
vexibs, no is not xsquirc I. 

h Omino ^osui or Biiva-kOjirorci hirtm Oie name of. a musical uistrtnneDt 
which it resembles in form and ko=Nnsuu/fii, is the largest body of fresh 
water in Japan. It is situated near Xy5to. 

xxxvij Forms Derived from Verbs 127 

tanonda koto). These seatences are 93 inaccurate that cor- 
rection is impossible (mistakes bein|^ many [one] can not 
mend). The maidservant through carelessness (being careless) 
started a conflagration. She is homely, but her character is 
good {hito ^a it). The Bridge of Seta is a very famous 
bridge. ■ 


In the chapter on relative pronouns (p. 53) it has been 
obser\'ed that in Japanese a verb may modify a noun like an 
adjective. It follows that many English adjectives are re- 
presented in Japanese by verbal expressions : 

deki'TU possible, feasible (opp. dekinai). ^ 

namake-rut na%nakete iru lazy. 

wakaru intelligent. 

btn-kyd sum (shite iru) diligent (opp. Ju-benkyj na). 

Expressions like gaku-mo7i gn am may perform the office of 
an attributive adjective by changing the ga to no ^ (Compare 
the previous chapter) : 

kagifi no aru limited, from kagiri limit 
tsumi no am guilty, from tsuim crime, sin, 
sai no aru talented, from sai ability. 
jivi-4>d no aru popular, homjim-dJ popularity. 

These may be turned into their opposites by substituting nai 
for aru. 

Observe also the following combinations : 

kusuri ni naru curative, nutrious. 

tame ni naru beneficial, advantageous. 

doku vi naru poisonous, noxious, from doku (c) poison. 

gat ni naru injurious, from gai injury. 

m. A bridge over the Lake ol Omi at the point where it empties its waters 
into the river called (at the lower end of its course) Yudogawa. 

b With the tid\^xh yoku^ dekirit also meons "capab^.c" \ yoku dekim hito an 
able rsi'isi^ ongaku no yoku dekirti hito a man well versed in music, a capable 
musxciasi. Bnt yoku deki/t im means ** well made ** (of a thing). 

c The f$o is omitted in some cases, thas : tai'iM aru Ai/otLw ambitious person, 
/uif§S€fni aru kt/if -Si discnctpcnoiiy gi-ri am kyodai a step-brother or brother 
in laWf frOTn gi-ri right, obligation. • 

J 28 The ADjECTivi: £xxxvi 

vie ni tatsu {jnedatsu) conspicuous. 
yaku ni tatsu useful. 

Most of the verbs that serve as adjectives, if denoting a 
condition, are used in the past tense when attributive, and in 
the form of the subordinative with t-ru or oru when predicative 
(p. 89b): 

aita vacant, from aku open (intr.). 

hiraketa civilized, from hirake-ru be opened. 

Jutotta fleshy, stout, {xoxwfutcru become stout. 

yaseta lean, emaciated, from yase-ru become lean, 

ikita live, alive, from iki-ru survive, 

skinda dead, from shiriu die. ^ 

kawatta different, from kawaru be changed. 

kumotta cloudy, from kumoru be clouded. 

shareta stylish, witty, from share-ru be elegant. 

sorotta complete, from sorou be uniform. 

yogoreta dirty, ixova yogore-ru be soiled. 

iki-sugita conceited, from iku go and sugi-ru exceed. 

komi-iUa complicated, from koinu be crowded, and iru 

tri'ktmda complicated, from iru enter and kuinu knit 

together. ^ 
ochi-tsuita calm, composed, sane, from ochi-ru fall and 

tsuku arrive. 
wakari'kitta obvious, from wakaru and kiru cut, finish. 
ippai haitta full, from ippai (p. 90c) and XfrtiV* enter. 
ki 710 kiita smart, from ki spirit and kiku be efficacious. ^ 
nen no itta thoughtful, painstaking, from nen thought,: 

attention and iru enter. 
assari shita plain, simple. 
hakkiri shita clear, distinct. 
shikkari shita substantial, trustworthy. ^ 
sube-sube shita smooth, slippery, from suberu slide. 

a Shinde iru may be used only of persons or animals which are in the 
presence of the speaker. In other cases << he is dead" must be translated 

b KomiUia is rather more common than irikunda. 

c Qova^TiS^ I Kusuri ga stigu kikimashiia. The medicine acted immediately. 
Kono pompu wa kikanaku nariniaskUa, This pump doesn't work any more. 

d The beginner may be puzzled by the similiarity between hakkiri t» 
distinctly, shikkari to substantially, shikiri ni persistently, sukkari entirely, 
**tf^>ft»/if htccrmgh, etc. 


Forms Derived from Verbs 


The predicative forms are aite irti (oru), ki ga kiiU iru (oru), 
etc. But some expressions of this class cannot be used predi- 
catively : 

fat shita great, important, serious. 

tonda surprising, extraordinary, great, from tobu^ fly spring. 


(Include the adjectival expressions given above) 

kabe plastered wall. * 
kaki fence, enclosure. 
ishi'gaki stone wall. 
kemuri smoke. 
botan peony (shrub). 
machi a pasty food made by 

pounding a special kind 

of rice {mochi-gome) in a 

bota-mochi a ball of rice 

which has been boiled and 

then brayed in a mortar. 
ki-chigai lunatic {ki spirit, 

chigau differ). 
ko-zukai errand-boy, servant 

{ko small, tsukau use). 
shi'golo work, task. 
{o)rei bow, thanks, present 
an-shin peace of mind. 
Ju-anshin uneasiness. 
mei-waku annoyance. 
shoku-motsu ( = tab e- mono) 

food, victuals. 
ieishu^ tei-shi master of a 

house, landlord (of a 

hotel), husband. 
mu-tina unreasonable, absurd 

hare-ru clear off (of the sky). 
katsugu, katsuide carry on the 

^^-A^/ sticks holding cut paper 

used in Shintd shrines as 

symbols of divinity. 
gofiei'katsugi a superstituous 

konare-ru ?. j. ^ j 

tsuzuku, tsuzuite continue, 
hold out (intr.). 

— ni ki wo tsuke-ru pay at- 
tention to, take care of. 

nige-dasu escape. 

batsu (c), bachi punishment. 

bos sum punish. 

basserare-ru bassare-ru be 

shi'kata {shiyo) ga nai can't 
be helped (p. i6a). 

i'Zen previously. ^ 

i'go afterwards. 

betsu ni specially. 

chika-goro lately. 

imasara no longer, no more 
(with a negative word). 

a Kabe means properly a wall of a house. A wall around a garden is hn 
(c), or do-bei, from do (c) earth. A high board fence is iia-hei^ from ita board. 
A fence is kaki or kaki-ne\ a hedge, iki-gaki, 

b ZtnTsszmae ; gozssnochi. Compare i-jl and i-ka p. 71. The 1 indicates com- 

I30 The Adjective [xxxvi 


Kore IV a trssari sKta e des** Nihon ?io tabemono wa assart 
slitamonoga o gozaimas\^ Yaseta hito wa hayaku aruke- 
mas', Ano yadoya no teishu wa taihenf'totta hito des\ Ano 
kozukai wa ki no kiita otoko des\ Ano hito wa tsumi ga aru 
ka nai ka maia hakkiri sKte iinasen, Goheikatsugi wa taigai 
kyoiku no nai hito des\ Ano kata wa taiJien nen no itta hito 
des^ ; hito no uchi ni yobaremas' to, ^ aio de sugti ni rei ni 
ikimas\ Are wa taihen nen no itta hito des kara, sj inachi- 
gatta koto wa arimas'mai. ^ Kido wa taiso jimbo ga ari- 
inasKta. ^ Nihon ni wa ivta jimbo no aru daijin ga s'kunai, 
Bis'mar'k' ko wa izen jimbj ga nakatta. KonQ mushi wa 
kaiko no gai ni narimas*. Sake wa karada no doku ni nari- 
mas', Hiraketa kuni de wa yoku kodotno no kyoiku ni ki wo 
ts^kemas\ Aita kuchi ni botamochi, ^ Chichi wa kusuri ni 
narimas\ Aita hey a ga arimas* ka. Chikagoro wa ikaga de 
gozaimas' ka, Arigato^ betsu ni kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. ^ 
Sore wa nen no itta shigoto des\ Yogoreta kuis* wo haite 
imas' kara, agarimasen. ChugakkJ no Eigo-kyoshi ni wa 
yoku dekifu hito ga s'kunakute komarimas\ Kagiri no aru 
karada des' kara, so wa tsuzukimasen, A mart medatsu kimono 
wo kite wa narimasen. B Kd iu komiitta koto wa gwaikokugo 
de wa hanashinikui. Sono hito wa sakunen kichigai ni natta 
ga^ tadaima de wa ochitsuite oru sj des\ IVakaru ningen 
ttaraba sonna muri na koto wo iwanai ^^ hazu da. Imasara 
sonna wakarikitta koto wo iwanak'te mo yoroshii. Tonda 

a 'Ry assart sh* (a e is understood a sketch, not highly colored. By assati 
sKta labenwno is understood the opposite of rich food. 

b Yobarem is the passive of yobu to call or invite. (O) rH ni iku to go to 
offer thanks; in this case, to make a party call. See p. 33c. 

c Negative probable form of arimasu, 

d Kido was a samurai of ChSshii who distinguished himself in connection 
with the Restoration of x86S. 

c The meaning is : an unexpected piece of luck, a windfall. 

f Translate : there has been no special change. One may also say ka^wtfi 
ffto gotaimasen. It is polite to inquire: O ka^vari mo gozaimasen ka. Arc you 
in good health ? 

g Equivalent to kite wa itkemasen (p. X22b). 

h Iwanai is the familiar negative form of iu to say. For wakarti, loaka/Za 
or mono no 7vakatta might be substituted. 

xxx\T Forms Derived from Verbs 131 

meiwaku wo itashwiash'ta, Anna iktsugita yats' wa shikata 
ga nai. 

The physician says it is not (there is not) a serious matter. 
Now {jma wa) it is cloudy, but later {nocbi ni wa) it may 
clear off. Is this novel complete? [I] loaned just (dake) one 
volume to a friend. Is that bottle empty ? No, its full. The 
walls of the castle are very substantial. Since the door of the 
cage is open, the birds may escape. Wrestlers are usually 
fleshy. This duck is very lean. Simple foods are easy to 
digest. Have you any room (Is there still a vacant room)?^ 
Yes, all are vacant. That student is talented, but he is a lazy 
fellow {nainaki-mono). Eels are slippery fish. A guilty man 
is always uneasy. He is a very trustworthy person. ^ Though 
{no ni) innocent, he was punished. Smoke is injurious to the 
eyes. Unlearned people don't use this word. He is diligent 
(b€nkyo wa shimasu), but he is not talented. This food is 
poisonous^ it is said. Our (uchi no) maidservant is smart, but 
dishonest. The fish dealer was selling live sardines. A 
distinct answer is not yet possible. Mrs. Nakamura is very 


A substantive may be formed from any adjective or adjec- 
tival expression by adding the particle no : 

Chiisai no ga nakereba okii no wo kaimasho. 

If you have no small one, I will buy a large one, or. 

If you have no small ones, I will buy large ones. 

To such substantival forms the particles wa^ ga, mo, no^ ni, 
7VO de^ etc., may be added. An adjective formed by means of 
no, like hidari no (p. 119), may without an additional no take 
these particles and be treated as a substantive. Thus lyoroshii 
no wa, suki na no way machigai no oi no wa, doku ni naru no 
'Way but nama no wa* No wa may be contracted to na. No 

a Instead of aita heytt, one may also say aki-ma. 

b The common expression. Are wa nakanaka shikkari-mono dtsu, has a rather 
slangy flavor. 

132 The Adjective [xjocvii 

vo occurs in Chiisai no no koto desu I mean the small one. 

These substantival forms may denote a concrete object, the 
no being eqivalent to mono, especially before da^ desu^ etc. 
Taiken takai no desu. It is a very expensive article. 
When a contrast is involved, ho side is substituted for no : 
Kore wa takai ho desu. This is the more expensive. 
Before da^ desu, etc., no is usually contracted : 
Taihen takai n' desu. It's a very expensive one. 
Takai n'ja {^de wa) nai n desu. It's not an expensive 

Taiso rippa na «' desu. It's a very fine one. 

Often there is no difference in the sense between a simple 
predicate adjective and tlie adjective followed by nda {ndesu), 
which simply serves to round off the sentence. Thus there is 
no appreciable difference between Mo it and ATo it n da {desu) 
That'll do (polite : Mo yoroshu gozaimasii). 

In many cases the substantival forms are to be translated by 
means of abstract nouns : 

Samui no wa ii ga, atsui no ni wa komarivtasu, 
[1] don't mind the cold, but find the heat oppressive. 

The particle ni following a substantivized adjective gives it 
a concessive sense, unless the particle is directly dependent on 
the verb : 

Samui no ni itsumo no tori sampo shite imasu. 
In spite of the cold, he is taking a walk, as usual. 
Kodomo no riko na fio ni odorokimashita. 
[I] was astonished at the cleverness of the child. * 

The no may be omitted ; samui ni, riko na ni. 

The particle de following a substantivized adjective may 
indicate a cause or reason (p, I04h). 

Kyo wa amari samui no de sampo ni dekakemasen. 

Since it is too cold to-day, I shall not go out for a walk. 
By saying samui to iu no de the speaker may avoid asserting 
explicitly that it is really too cold to take a walk. Compare : 

Samui kara to itte sampo ni dekakemasen. 

Pleading that it is too cold, he does not go out for a walk. 

a The ni in rikd na no ni odorokiwashta and in (Usui no nikomarimasu is pro- 
bably related to the ni used to denote the agent with a passive verb, as in 
iknsei ni (or kara) shikarareta was scolded hy the teacher [ihikaru to scold). 




The de does not indicate a cause in a sentetice like : 

Yasui no de yoroshii. A cheap one will do (p. i i/h). 

The following idiom must be accepted without explanation ; 

AUui 710 atsuku nai no Ule {=to itte) yakeso deshita. 
Talk about heat I It seemed as if I were burning. 

liai no itaku nai no 'tU shinu ka to omotta. 
I was in such pain — I thought I was dying. 


ase perspiration. » 

£^omi dirt, dust, rubbish. 

gomi {hokori) ga tatsu dust 

haski chopsticks. 

itoma^hivta leisure. 

oki the open sea. 

sugata form, figure. 

urushi lacquer. 

ushiro rear ( — no ushiro ni 

kado gate (in mi-kado), 

kado-matsu two pine trees 
placed one on each side of 
the gate at New Year's. 

kokoro-atari clew. 

kokoro- atari ga aru [1] hap- 
pen to know. 

iuoino thigh. 

luomo'hiki [Japanese] close- 
fitting trousers. 

zubon [European] trousers. 

zubon-shita drawers. 

shibai theater, drama. ^ 

ue-ki'bachi flower-pot 

sai-ku artificers* work. ^ 

zas'ski magazine, journal. 

kan-dan-kei thermometer (lit. 

shabon soap (French savon). 

atsui thick. 

omoi heavy, grave. 

vtarni round. 

ski kakn na square. 

haru stretch, extend (intr.). 

kori ga haru ice forms. 

itaru reach (ni itaru extend 

itatte veiy. 

nuru paint. 

nuri-mono lacquered ware. 

odorokii^ odoroiti be astonish- 

toke-ru be loosed, be solved, 
melted, thawed. 

yotvaru be weak, debilitated. 

a •* To perspire," the subject being understood, is ase ^a deni ; with a sub- 
ject, ase wo dasu or ase wo kaku, 

b Form shiba grass and ir-u to sit. Theatrical performances used to be 
held in the open air and actors were called kawara-kojiki^ from katvara 
{kawa, hara) dry river bed and kojiki beggar. 

c From this are derived such words as gw^zaikn {shirokane-zaiku) silver^ 
ware, soge-naikti ivoi y-ware, urushi taiku lacquered ware, etc. 

134 The Adjective [xxxyii 


Kandankei wa choho na man' des ; sugu ni atsui no to samut 
no ga ivakarimas\ Kono kadomats' wa chiisai ; oki na no wa 
nai ka, Atarashii zubon wo motte kite o kure ; furui no wa 
kunimaya ni yatte yoroshii. Kono shinamono wa warui ; it 
no wa nai ka. Gozaimas keredoiuo^ ^ itatte tako gozaimas\ 
Tokei ni wa (p. 30b) skim bun ga tak'san arimas* keredomo 
yoi no wa s'knno {s'keno) gozaimas. Hashi (no ucAi) ni wa 
vuxrui no vto arimasu ski, shikaku no mo ^' arimas\ Kore to 
onaji yd na no wa gozaimasen ka. Gozaimas\ Ko atsui no 
ni, anata wa ase ga chitto vio demasen ka, Anata wajozu na 
isha wo go zonji de gozaimasen ka. So des fie, keta na no wo 
ikutari mo sh'tte ifnas* keredomo, jozu na no wa kitori mo 
skirimasen, Miya no uchi ni wa oki na no mo arimasu ski, 
chiisa na no mo arimas\ Ano onna wa ushiro kara miru to, 
sugaia ga taiso yoi keredomo ; viae kara miru to, kao no ivarui 
no ni wa odorokimas\ ^ Michi ga toi no ni komarimas\ Kono 
bybki wa omoku nai no ni, ano isha wa omoi yj fii iimas'A 
Ano shibai wa omoshiroku nai no ni, ano kito wa omoshiroi yd 
ni iimas\ Omoshiroi no ni, omoskiroku nai yd ni iimas\ 
Ko samui no ni, yoku oide nasaimasUta, ^ Samui no de 
kori ga harimasKta, Tenki ga ii no de kCri ga tokemasKta, 
Okt no kurai no {kurai k )) ni shirako ga mieru ; are wa 
Kisku no mikambune. ^ Tabetm no ni, tabetaku nai yd ni iu, 
Akai ho ni nasaimas' ka, aoi ho ni nasaimas ka.^ Oil 
skabon ga nakunatta kara, hitots^ katte kite moraitai, Akat 
no tvo katte inairimaskl ka, shiroi no wo katte mairimasho 

a In a reply ;lic verb of <i question is repeated : O u^akart dishita ka, 
Wakariniashita, Did you understand? Yes. Expressions like A/i, ^<i}, x<iydy 
sayo de gosaimasu, sd desu ne, etc., may precede the reply, but aie really 
noncommittal (p. I7h). But so desu implies very definite assent. 

b Notice that tta is omitted as if the adjective belonged to the same class 
as hidari no, 

c The ni here, as also in the following sentence, is dependent on the verb. 

d Translate : " talks as if it were a grave case." 

c Yoku oide nasaimashUa ox yoku irasshaunashita (lit. you have well come) 
is a common expression csed in welcoming a visitor. 

f See p. 38b. Shira ho white sail. 

g The idiom ni sum [Uasn^ uasam) often means ** to decide upon." 

xxxvii] Substantivized 1 35 

ka, Ataraskii Huts' ivo o haki nasaimas* ka^ furui no wa 
o haki nasaivtas ka* Tenki ga yokereba^ ataraskii no wo 
hakJ. a 

Shall I bring the old garment {kimono) or shall it be {nt 
itashimasho) the new one ? Bring the new one. The paper 
that I bought lately was too light (thin) ; haven't you zxiy 
heavier?^ Among magazines there are both good ones and 
bad ones. It being so hot, everybody is debilitated. How 
much are these fish ? The large ones are {de) one yen ; the 
small ones (are) fifty sen. The wind being strong, dust rises. 
Among lacquered wares there are cheap articles and also ex- 
pensive ones. As our {^ichi no) manservant is d shonest I 
dismissed him ; don't you happen to know {p kokoroatari wa 
g^ozaimas^mai ka) some honest fellow ? Just now I don't 
happen to know any. Really {domo) honest ones are scarce. 
The one sitting on the left side of Mr. Ito is {de) Mr. Tsuzuki ; 
[the one on] the right side is Mr. Furuya. As for the flower- 
pots, shall I buy large ones, or shall they be small ones ? 
Small ones will do {de yoroshii). How about a cup of tea? 
Do you like it {0 s'ki des ka) strong or weak ? ^ 


There are no inflections corresponding to our degrees of 

The comparative degree ^ may be expressed by means of 
such words as motto^ via sukoshi, mo chitto, mo is-so {so laycr)^ 
nao^ nao sara, etc. 

Motto yoroshii no wa gosaiviasen ka. 
Have you no better ones ? 

Sore mo ii ga, are wa nao ii. 
This will do, but that is still better. 

a The word Aa/td is the plain or familiar future of /ta/ru. It is not polite, 
being used in speaking to a servant. 

b Mc//0 aisui. For the comparative degree see the following chapter. 

c In this case we have a contrast, not of predicates, but of subjects and 
must, accordingljr, use^/i, not «V7. If willing to accept the tea, one may say: 
ippai chodai itashimasu ; if not. Doze, o kamai kudasam na, 

d HikakU'ky^, from hukakii comparison and kyu degree. The superlatire 
is saijo-kyu {sai^srj/iotUmo, jos=iue\ 

136 The Adjective [xxxvin 

Sometimes the word ho side conveys the idea of comparison : 
Dochira ga ki 7ti irimasu ka ; nagai Ad desuka, mijikai 

ho desu ka. 
Which do you like better, the longer or the shorter ? 
Jkusa no nai hj ga ii. It is better not to have war. 
If the object which serves as the standard of comparison is 
stated, as when we use '* than," the adjective does not require 
any modifier to indicate the comparative degree. " Than " is 
to be rendered hy yori^yori mo, or y art w a. This yori is the 
literary equivalent of kara " from " (Compare the Latin abla- 
tive as used with comparatives) : 

Chosen wa Itaria yori okii {hiroi\ 
Korea is larger than Italy. 

Watakushi no zaisan wa ano hito no yori mo sukunai. 
My property is less than his. 

Anata wa ano kata yori mo kanji wo yokei go zonji de 
gozaimasu. You know more characters than he. 

In the last example yo-kei is an adverb meaning " in excess." 
Notice : Nani yori ii, [It] is better than any [other]. Nothing 
could be better (for nani see p. 47). One may also say : Sore 
wa nani yori desu. 

When there is a choice between two evils, mashi, from masu 
to increase, may be used ; 

Kojio sake wa warui keredomo, viizu yori wa mashi desu. 
This sake is bad, but still preferable to water. 
Isso {no koto) shinda hj ga mashi desu. 
It were better to die. 

No sign of the comparative is required in such sentences as : 

Dandan {pioi, masumasu) okiku narimasu, 

[It] is gradually growing larger. 

Dochira ga yj gozaimasu ka. Which is better ? 
•* The more the better " and similar expressions may be 
translated by the use of hodo following the adjective or verb : 

Oi hodo yoroshii. The more the better. 

Ano musume wa mireda, miru hodo kirei desu. 

The more I look at that girl, the prettier she seems, (lit. 

If I look at that girl, to the degree that I look she is 


The superlative is expressed by means of ichi-ban or mottomo 

xxxviii] Comparison 1 3 7 

before the adjective. Notice also other idioms : 

Hitnaraya-san tva sekai-ju de ^ ichiban takai yama desu. 
The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. 
Nihon-ichi no kosui the largest lake in Japan. 
Tokyd^ju de no bijin the most beautiful woman in Tokyo. 
Kwanto-kitU no ^ kanemochi the richest man in Kwanto. 

•* Most/' " mostly " is to be rendered by the adverbs tai-gai^ 
iai-Ui^ o-kata, oku wa^ or by the adjectivcd expressions taigai 
nOf taitei no. 


f/fir/ir cereals like barley and ina-zuma^ inorbikari light- 
wheat (p. 15). ning.<^ 

nakaba middle. mon^rin. ^ 

nashi pear. ba-ai occasion, case. ^ 
ni^ ni-motsu baggage, freight, dan- go [Japanese] dumpling. 

ringo apple. K^'^on^ ron debate, argument 

sara plate, saucer. hantai opposition, the reverse. 

taki waterfall. kwogo (sama) Empress. 

tij'i lineage, family-name. riku-gnn army. 

uisuwa vessel, utensil. sek-kyo ) .• 

f . 1 ^ f- \ sermon. * 

tvasht eagle. sep-pj j 

yamai disease. sho-ko evidence, proof. 

ine rice plants. shippo-yaki cloisonne. 8 

isuma consort, wife. Butsu Buddha. 

a JUs^kwssuchu Compare kono uchi de among these things As a suffix ^m 
isemphalic, so that f/>(ar^« means not simply ''in the world," but '< in the 
whole world." 

b Kwan=:seki{y^,'ii^)\fd=.higasku Tlie provinces along the coast east of 
the harrier at Hakone, including Tokyo and Yokohama and extending to 
Shirakawa, are called Ktvantd. Kitte is the subordinative of kiru to cut, finish 
{cova^, wakarukiita '^, TiA). For »« with the subordinative compare hnjimete 
^ (P- 97a> 

c Lightning occurs most frequently when the rice is earing. It was 
formerly supposed to have the effect of fertilizing the rice-plants. 

d The nion was formerly one tenth of a nW, being a perforated coin made 
of iron whCe the rin was made of copper. 

e Pronounced by some bayai or bawau 

f Seppd^ from 5ttsu=.toku explain and ho law, is a Buddhistic term. As 
slang seppi sum is also used in the sense of '* to scold," <' read a lecture." 

g Ytotdl shippd {shichi ho) ^ Buddhistic word' meaning "seven jewels" and 
yaJiu t o bu T n- Com pa re yakt- v. cno. 

13^ The Adjective [xxxviii 

Buk'kyd^ Butsu-doi Buppj masu increase (tr: and intn). 

Buddhism. mashi desu is better. 

Bukkyj'to a Buddhist. nozomu^ nozonde hope for, 
Kirisuto-kyd'to a Christia&^. * wish for. 

haba breadth. oku^ cite put, place, employ 
hiroi broad, spacious. (a servant). 

haba ga hiroi is wide (opp. motsu, matte 1 ast, endure. 

semai). sodatsu, sodatte grow up, he 
kanashii sad. reared. 

kowai fearfu 1 , ter ribl e. ko koro-mochi ga yoi\ 

/tf/Zi?/ highly prized, honor- koko-chi ga yoi w i ii 

able, precious. ki-mochi ga yoi ^ ^ ^^ 

«fwj«« annoying. ki-bun ga yoi ) 

jc'bu na strong, robust, myd-chd \ ^^ morrow 

healthy, b myo-asa f 

, . -^ . -^ > morning 

yo'kei na excessive. asu no asa L r ^ ? 

yo'kei nim excess, too much, ashita no asa J ^P* '' 



Ka wa hat yori mo urusai dis\ Kane no utsutva tva ki no 
utsuwa yori mo nagaku mochimas\ Anata wa Nihonryori 
yori mo Seiyoryori ga o ski desho, Nihonjin wa Seiyojin 
yori mo sei ga hiku gozaimas*. Bukkyo wa Yasokyd yori mo 
furu gozaimas\ Koiio baai ni wa wo to iu fi wo tskeru ho ga 
tsutei des\ Motto shizuka ni (slowly) yonde kudasai. Washi 
zva ichiban hayai tori des\ Karigi yori araigi (Proverb). ^ 
Hana yori dango (Proverb). Sakura wa Nihonjin no ithiban 
s'ki na hana des\ Ron yori shjko (Proverb). Kojiki wa 
Nihon no ichiban furui rek'shi des\ Nihon no kwogo sama 
wa tenshi sama yori ftats toshi ga o ue de gozaimas\ ^ Fuji 

a The word Yaso-kyo, from Yaso, which is the Japanese sound of the 
ideograms that stand for " Jesus " in the Chinese, was once universally current 
as a designation of Christianity. But the Christians themselves now say 
y>j«, not Yaso, The latter has an indelible tinge of contempt and is be- 
coming more and more a vulgarism. 

b Dai-johu {desuy It's all right ; without fail. 

c From ki clothing (in kt-mono), kan-t'u to borrow and arau to wash. 

d •'Older " may also be expressed by the idiom toshi ga di; " younger," by 
toshi ^a sukunai. 

XXXVI iij Comparison 139 

no yama wa Nihon no ichiban takai yama des keredomo, 
S'wittsur no ichiban takai yama yoH wa hikui. Kono jisho 
iva warui keredomo, nai yori wa mashi dis\ Baka yori 
k&umi mono nashi (Proverb). Chichi no yamai wa yoku 
narimasho to isha ga inoshimasKta keredo^ dandan waruku 
nativias, /do waf 'kai hodo mizu ga ii. Myoasa wa mo 
chitio hayaku okosh'ie o kure. Kono shippjyaki no sara ga 
fnd s*koshi yaskereba, kaimasfw. Inu wa nek o yori vio yaku 
ni tachimas\ Kono uma no uchi de dochira ga yd gozaivias 
ka. Sayo de gozaimas\ kono hj wa wakakute hay 3 gosaimasn 
shit ano ho wa dkikute jobu de gozaimas' ga, dochira wo yd 
£Ozaimas\ Yuki ga furu hodo mugi ga yoku dekiiuas\ Kj iu 
baai ni wa ga no ho ga isUrei des\ Sampo wa yoru yori hiru 
fio hj ga yoroshu gozaimas\ Tegamiwoyaruyoriaite hanash'ia 
Jij ga yd gozaimasho, ^ Ju ni gwatsu no nijii tchi nichi wa 
t'chinenju de ichiban hi ga mijikau Sore wa naniyori kanashu 
gozaimas\ Kueba kuu hodo umaku naru, Tokyo no nigiyaka 
na ko o wa Nihon ichi des\ Ontake-san wa Nihon de Nibamme 
n^ {takai) yama des\^ Uji yori sodachHYxow^rh), Omotta 
jori mutsukashiu Undo sureba, sum hodo kokochi ga ii. 

Please speak a little louder (with a little greater voice). 
Mount Ontake is lower than Mount Fuji. Kyoto is older than 
Tokyo. There are more Buddhists than Christians in Japan. 
1 wish to employ (okitni) a manservant. Do you desire (o 
vozonii des' ka) a married {kanai no am) one, or (is it) an 
unmarried one? A married one would be better (is good). 
Japanese horses are smaller than American horses. Which is 
more extensive, Washington or Tokyo (as for Washington and 
Tokyo, which of the two is broader) ? (The side of) Tdkyo is 
more extensive. It is said that the waterfall of Nachi is the 
highest (waterfall^ in Japan {Nihon-ju de).^ This riksiia is 
poor (bad), but better than none. In Japan the hot season 

a Notice iXx^tyori may h« attached to a verb immediately. Aitf is the 
subonlinative of att to meet. For hanashiia the present tense might be 
substiiuted. Compare: Kiku yori hayaku kake-dashiviashita. Scarcely had he 
heard it when he ran out (lit. he ran out sooner than he heaid it). 

b Mount Ontake lies between the provinces of Hida and Shinano. 

c Nachi is in the province of Kishti. The largest cataract is several 
hundred feel high : the Japanese estimate it at from 8oo to xooo feet. 

140 The Adjective [xxxviii 

extends (it is hottest) from the middle of July to {made go) the 
middle of August The tat is the most highly prized fish in 
Japan. The Lake of Omi is Japan's largest lake ; [its] length 
[is] eighteen ri ; its width at (de) the broadest place is seven 
ri, and {tnata) its depth at the deepest place is about three 
hundred feet (thirty y^;). There is nothing swifter than light- 
ning. In Japan the number of men is greater tha [that of 
the] women, but in Germany it is the reverse. The population 
of Kyoto is less than [that of] Osaka. In travelling (/^*^' w^ 
suru ni wa) the less baggage the better. I can not give 
{yararemaseti) even a mon more {yokei wa) than this. Won't 
you have (agaru) a little more? The shorter the sermon the 
better. Japan is larger than England. It is said that Germany 
has the best army (as for the army, Germany is best). The 
deepest place in (of) the ocean is over (tjo mo ani) 8,000 
meters. Which is the stronger of these cigars? This one 
(side) is the stronger. I like pears better than apples. This 
grammar is poor, but better than none. Sake is stronger than 



I. The Japanese verb differs in many respects from the 

(i.) There are no inflections to distinguish number or person. 
l^oth must be determined from the context Ordinarily pro- 
nouns are used only when perspicuity requires them (p. 27). 
13ut in polite conversation the first and second persons are 
often plainly indicated by the nature of the verb or auxiliary 
used, a humble verb like itasu being used only in the first (or 
third) person, while the corresponding honorific verb nasaru is 
used only in the second (or third) person. 

(2.) The Japanese language having no negative adverb 
corresponding to " not/' negation is expressed by special 

(3.) Peculiar to the Japanese verb are the subordinative 
form ^ ending in // (negative zu), the alternative form ^ in tari 
(dart), and the desiderative form in tat. 

(4-) The use of the passive is much more limited than in 
Knglish. It may not be used except when the subject is a 
living thing. 

(5.) By means of certain terminations derivative verbs may 
be formed. There are potential forms indicating ability or 
possibility, and also causative forms. 

(6.) There is nothing corresponding to our infinitive, which 
is variously rendered. ** To cat *' is taberu koto wa or taberu 
fio wa. •* Go to see " is mi vi iku. Veibs arc named by their 
present form. 

a Do-shit from do (c) to move, act. 

b This may be a clumsy word, but its meaning is plain. The other terms 
proposed, •* participle " (Aston) and " gerund " (Chamberlain), are not cal- 
culated to enlighten a beginner. The subordinative is not an adjective like a 
participle ; much less is it a " past " participle, for it may also indicate an act 
simnltaneons with that of the principal verb. The subordinative is not a 
nonn like a gerund. Moreover the Latin gerund never indicates an act 
completed with reference to the principal verb, while the subordinative is 
never future with reference to the principal word of the sentence. 

c Called also « fi equentat ive " in other grammars. 

142 The Verb [xxxix 

2. There are two classes of verbs. In the first the stem 
remains unchanged ; in the second the final vowel of the stem 
(p. lo) undergoes changes in conjugation. There are also a 
few irregular verbs. 

Stems of verbs of the first class end in e or i ; those of the 
second class end always in /, which in conjugation may be 
changed to «, e or ». 

To derive the stem from the present form in the case of verbs 
ending in ^-r« or i-tUy like taberii eat, mi-ru see, drop r». 
In the case of verbs of the second class, like kau buy, substitute 
i for // / kai. * One must be careful not to mistake the verbs 
described in Ch. XLVIIL, which, ending in eru and iru^ ap- 
parently belong to the first class, but really belong to the 
second, like shaberu chatter, hairu enter, whose stems are 
shaberiy hairi. A few verbs have forms of both classes ; like 
aki-ru or aku be surfeited, kari-ru or karu borrow, iari-ru or 
iaru be enough. Distinguish further : 

kae-ru change. kaeru {kaeri) return. 

i-ru be, dwell. tru {iri) enter, be needed. 

he-ru pass through. keru {heri) decrease (intr.). 

ne-ru sleep. tieru {neri) soften, train. 

3. Stems of verbs may be used as substantives (Ch. LXV.). 

It must be remembered that in polite conversation with one s 
equals or superiors ^ the plain forms of the conjugations now 
to be' studied are not used >yhen the verb occupies an import- 
ant position (pp. 10, 55d). Ordinarily politeness requires that 
masu be added to the stem. In the second (or third) person 
the honorific o may be prefixed and nasaru {nasaimasu) or ni 
naru {narimasu) added : o kaki nasaimashita {ni narimashitd) 
you (or he) wrote. Similarly itasu or mosu may be used with 
the stem to denote the first person when the act effects other 

a In the cases of verbs ending in su and fsu the stems end respectively in 
shi and chiy thus : machi, from mafsu wait ; haftas/ti, from hanasti speak. 

b Servants in the bouse of a friend, clerks in a store, employees in a hotel, 
etc., are to be addressed politely. Even in speaking to one*s own servants, 
riksha-men, coolies, etc., the tendency is to soften the forms of speech. The 
plain forms seem destined, like the German </«, to become characteristic oC 
conversation among intimates. 

xxxix] TiiK Tenses 143 

persons : o susume itashimashita I exhorted, at moshimashita 
I met* 

But in speaking to intimate friends or to inferiors these 
embellishments may be dispensed with. Men are more free in 
this respect than women. In monolog^ues, proverbs, etc., the 
plain forms only are used (See also p. I26d). 

4. The tenses of verbs of the first class are inflected thus : 

Present tabe-ru eat ^ mi-ru see 

Past tabe-ta ate, have eaten mi-ia saw, have seen 

Future or J ^ , _ .„ . - mi 

P habl \ ^^^^'y^9 ^^'"^ ^^t mt-yo will see • 

Probable Past tabeta-ro probably ate, mita-ro probably saw, 
might have eaten might have seen 

5. A few explanations concerning the uses of these tenses 
may be helpful. 

(i.) The present {gen-zai) is used (a) in general statements, 
in which case it may be rendered " is wont to," etc. ; (b) 
instead of the future when one means to speak of an event as 
certain to occur; (c) instead of thj past in narratives (the 
historical present) and in dependent clauses (p. 88e). 

(2.) The past {kwa-ko) is to be translated as a pluperfect in 
such phrases as meshi wo tabeta ato de {nochi ni) after he had 
eaten. It sometimes stands for our present : arimashita there 
it is (when one has been looking for a thing), kimashita there 
he comes. This is especially the case when the present de- 
notes a process : 

Sugu ni dekimasu. It will soon be done. 
Mo dekimaskiia. It is now done. 

(3.) Taberu daro {desho) and tabeta daro {desho) are common 
periphrastic forms, used chiefly in the third person. Tabeyd 
is future rather than probable, and is used only in the first 
person, except in questions or dependent clauses : 

a What is here said about the use of itasu with the stems of verbs does not 
apply necessarily to its more common use with Chinese compounds ; ben-kyo 
itaskwMshita I (or he) studied. 

b For brevity's sake the first person only is given in the translation. The 
verb taberu is properly transitive and requires an object. In the first (or 
third) person it is a polite word ; but in the second (or third) agaru or nuihi- 
agaru is better. 

144 The Verb [xxxtx 

Aho Seiydjin wa sashimi wo tabeyo ka. 

[Do you think] that European would eat sashimi? 

To the future or probable forms such adverbs as a-kata or 
td'bun " probably " may be added. Often to omou is added : 

Kane wo ginko ye azukeyo to omoimasu. 

I will deposit my money in the bank. 
Notice that in dependent clauses the plain forms without such 
auxiliaries as masu, etc., may be used even in polite conversa- 
tion if tlie principal verb is polite. 

6. In classical Japanese the attributive termination of verbs 
which in colloquial end in e-ru, or i-ru (except mi-ru, ni-ru) is 
uru^ and the conclusive is «, thus : akuru^ aku from ake-rti to 
open. Forms in uru are heard not infrequently : 

Akufu hi gakko wo yasumimashita. 

The next day (lit. opening day) I stayed away from school. 

Similarly the classical past ending tari (attributive taru) and 
the future n occur sporadically in the colloquial (p. i8o). 


dorobo robber. hai ashes. 

kame, kame no ko tortoise, hai-fuki spittoon (made usual- 

turtle. ly of a section of bamboo). 

ko (c) shell, armor. hi-moto origin of conflagra- 

kame no k J 7. . . inn tion. 

j;-jL2.- > tortoise-shell, a . j /• *. \ 

bek-ko J nam to sound (intr,). 

kushi comb. kami-nari thunder {kami 

me, ko-no-me {^ki no me) god). 

bud. kami-nari ga ochi-ru light- 
tana shelf. ning strikes. 

hoH'dana bookshelf. kara shell, hull. 

hombako bookcase (closed kaki-gara oyster-shell. 

box with shelves). oshi-ire closet. ^ 

toko, ne-doko bed. samisen, shamisen three-string- 
asa-meshi ) . , ^ . ed musical instrument. 

asa-han \ ^ bachi plectrum, drumstick. 

a The term kanu no ko denotes the shell on the back of a tortoise or turtle • 
bel'kd is the material obtained from the shell of a species of turtle called 

b A clo5et with shelves, a cupboard, is to dana (door-shelf). 

^ k 

xxxix] Thk Tenses 145 

ja (c) serpeht (large)* koi-ru bark, hdwl. 

//^^f snake. sui-ru set, place. 

fid dramatic performance with kyu wo sue-ru apply the 

chorus, lyric dranr>a. moxa. * 

futon wadded bedquilt, com- tameru accumulate, save 

forter, cushion. (money, etc.). 

ya-gH bedding. kata-zuke-m lay aside, put ii> 
gin-ko bank. order, dispose of. 

sho-kin specie. saku. suite bloom. 

yakusho office. oinoi-dasu^ omoidashite call to 
so-ge ivory. mind, recall. 

yubin-sen^ yusen mail-ship, kana wo ike-ru keep a flower 
ake-ru open (tr.). alive, put a flower into » 

yo=^yoru night vase. 

yo ga akf-ra dsLy dsiwiis, o-kata ) for the most part,. 

azuke-ru entrust, deposit. ia dun \ probably. 

kiitabire-ru ) . / .. 1 sendatte recently. 
tsukart^ru \ ^e fatigued. 


IVashi wa kutabireta kara, sugu ni neyj. ^ Omae wa kesa 
niindoki hi okita ka. Hon wa tansu ye ireru mon* ja {=^de 
wa) nai ; hoinbako ye ireru mon da, Kurumahiki wa mo 
fneski wo tabetaro, Soko no teibtir* no ue ni aru mono wo 
doko ye katazukeyd ka. F'ton wo oshiire ni ireyo, Ktmi wa 
tameta kane wo doko no ginko ye azuketa ka. Sayo, Yoko- 
hama Shokin Ginko ye azuketa. Danna wa mo yak'sho ye 
deta ka, Shikkari (certainly) shiranai (p. I30h) ketedomo, 
okaia detaro, Anaia zva ika to iu sakana wo inita koto ga 
arimas' ka. Sayj, mitii bakari de wa naku tabeta koto mo 

ft The English word •'nioxa" derived from the Jnpancse tnogusn^ which 
designates ft preparation of the dried and pulverized leaves of ihe yomoi^n^ a 
species of Artemisia. PhySicianft of the old school {kam-fb-i Chinese-method- 
physician) apply small p^jitions of mogusa to the skin and then set fiie^ to it. 
'J his sort of cauiery is called kyU. 

b It may be necessary to remind the student once lAore that the use of a 
verb in its simple form as « fiftai predicate is permissible only in conversation 
between those who are on terms of intimacy. But in the following excrcii^^^es 
it nay be treU to iMe tti« plain iorms U»ff tb« sake of pvactice. t 

146 The Verb [xxxix 

£;ozaiinas\ * Naze kono ki ga kareta ka. Uekaia ga wartii 
kara^ karetaro, Kyo wa nani wo kiyo ka ; awase wo kiyo 
ka, hitoemono wo kiyo ka. Mo shickiji da kara, okiyj. Mo 
Jtachi ji sugi da kara^ danna ga okitarX Anata wa Nihon- 
ryori wo tabeta koto ga arimas' ka, Sayu, ni san do tabeta 
koto ga arimas' keredomOf umaku wa gozaimasen desh'ta. Ki- 
no taisj kutabinta kara, asa kara ban made ichi nichi neta. 
Tana kata botamochi ga ochiru yd na koto wa metta ni arima- 
sen,^ HaiJ'ki kara ja ga deta,^ Uso kara deta vmkoto 
-(Proverb). Kaweido no ike no uchi ni wa koi mo kame no ko 
fno tak'san iru. Mo attaka ni nam kara, konome ga jiki ni 
-deru daro, Nihonjin wa taigai hayaku okifu. Kono kushi 
zva bekkj de dekite iru. ^ Ki de dekita kushi mo aru desho. Mo 
meshiga dekita ka, Okata dekitaro. Kind no keiko yegak'sei 
ga ikutari deta ka, Shikkari oboenai ga, okata roku nin gurai 
wa detaro, Avierika noyubinsen ga mo safcki minato wo deta, ^ 
Konaida atsuraeta kutsu ga dekita ka. Sayd kutsuya ga sakki 
inotte kimash'ta, Nani yd ga dekita ka, ^ Inu ga hoeta kara, 
dorobo ga nigeta. No wo mita koto ga arimas' ka, Sayd, ni 
safi do mita koto ga gozaimas. Ume no hana no hanashi wo 
sum tOy sugu ni uguis* wo omoidas\ S Uguis wa ume no hana 
no saku koto ni nakihajimerii. Kami sama ni iva mat asa 
nkari wo ageru, Konaida tonari no niwa no ki ni kaminari ga 
ochita ga shikashi kega wa nakatta, ** Yo ga <. ieru to, karas* 
ga nakimas\ Kotoshi zva samui kara, ki no me no deru no 
ga osoL » 

a For mUa hakari de wa naku one may substitute mita no wa mockiroft tto 
koto [fnochi-ron without dispute, of course). The latter is somewhat supercili- 
ous. . ba^aii de wa na/:itnio=mt only — but also — . 

b May be said to one who does not work, hoping to get rich through some 
lucky accident. 

c A prover» apropos when one has been treated to an exaggerated story. 
FoTja, utna may be substituted. 

d Dekite int or dekita (in the next sentence) corresponds to the English «* is 
made of." For de one may substitute kara. In dekite iru tlic second i is almost 
silent : dekite*':/, 

e The diftcrence between wo deru and kara dtru {dete kuru)\% slight, as 
between ihe Knglish *• leave" and «*come out of." 

f Said wliin one has been called : What is it ? 

g Ihe n\:uisu is usually associated with plum-blossoms in art and poetry. 

h No one was hurt. Comp. kega {ivo) sum to hurt one's self, kega-nin an 
injured person. 

i Ox ^ deyo gn osoi {^. it-x). 

xxxix] The Tenses 147 

The riksha-man appearing {miete) to be very tired (that he 
was very tired), went to bed early. Why did you get up so 
late ? To-morrow {wa) I will get up early, as I am going on 
a journey {tain ni deru). Who put this into the bookcase ? 
This is not to be put into the bookcase ; it is to be put up 
(agete okti) on the bookshelf. I will put the bedding * into the 
closet presently. The foreigners living («V») in Japan now 
number about \hodo da) 10,000, it is said. In this cage there 
were three birds until recently {konaida made). Recently 
2,000 houses were burned in Tokyo, it is said. Where did the 
fire originate (was the origin of the fire) ? It started {deta) 
from Oyster Shell Street {Kakigarachj), it is said. That {sono) 
region, is often {yokti) burned, isn't it {ne) ? Have you ever 
seen a Japanese monkey ? Yes, I have seen two or three. 
The flowers which you put [into the vase] immediately spoiled 
{ikenaku nattd). The Japanese usually go to bed early. This 
is made of tortoise-shell. Breakfast is probably ready. The 
maidservant went out {soto ye) some time ago {sakkt). He is 
a very forgetful person (a person who forgets things well).*' 
Japanese often apply the moxa. To whom did you {kimt\ 
entrust the money ? On New Year's Eve {Dmisoka no yoru) 
in (of) 1874 I saw the burning {yake-ru no wo) of the temple 
called Zojoji. c The plectrum of a j/j:;«/j/« is usually made of 


Conditional tabe reba if [I] eat, mi-reba if [I] see, 

if I IJ should cat if [ 1 1 should see 

Past '* tabe'iara{ba) mi-taraifia) 

if [IJ have (bad) eaten if |IJ have (had) seen 

Imperative tabe eat ! ;/// see ! 

tabe-ro mi-ro 

(o) tabe na {p) mi na 

o tabe yo mi yo 

a l^xiher ya-git ox ioko. 

b This may he translated >'<7^« mono-ivasure wo suru hito. If the sense is 
that h€ forgets not facts, but things, such as a umbrellas, etc., {wasure-mcno)^ it 
roust be wasure-mono wo sunt hito. Compare ntono-morai and moral- monOy etc., 
p. x6. 

c A temple of the Jodo sect, wilh mausolea of some of the shoguns, in 
Shiba, Tokyo. 

148 The Vlrb [xi 

I. In ordinary conversation periphrastic conditional forms 
like taberu nara {ba) are rather more common than tabereba 
etc. * But tabitara (ba) is not so often displaced by tabeUi 
naraba. Another substitute for these forms is taberu to. 
Notice that to is used only with the present tense. Mosht or 
moshi mo also may be prefixed to a conditional clause. 

(i.) For the use of the conditional (ka-tei-hd) fortns compare 
p. 99. It is sometimes a matter of indifference whether tabere- 
ba or tabetafa {ba) be used. In some cas:s the past conditional 
occurs where we should expect the other form : 

Watakushi wa yoru yokei tabereba {tabetara)^ ntr are- 
mas en. 
If I eat too much iri the evening, I cannot sleep. 
Taikutsu shitara, hon wo yomimasho. 
If time hangs heavy (.it. tedium have done), we shall read. 

at nas'ttara, so itte oite kudasai. 
If you meet him, please tell him so. 
Go sen ga dekitara, sugu ni tabemasho. 
In dinner is ready, I will eat at once. 

In the last sentence dekireba would mean : "if it is possible '* 
(to prepare a dinner). 

(2.) A conditional inflection may be used in lieu of a connec- 
tive, especially when the principal verb is in a past tense : 

Nochi ni kiitara, uso de gozaiinashita, 

1 inquired afterwards and it proved to be (was) a lie. 

Kesa no yjsu de wa ame ga ftiru ka to omottara sukkart 

By the looks [of the sky] this morning I judged that it 

would rain, but it cleared off entirely. 

Observe the peculiar use of the conditional in : 

Uketamaivareba go bydki de atta so desu. 

I hear that you have been sick. 

(lit. If I hear, you were sick, it is said.) 

Tokyo mo kawar^da kawaru mon da. 

How Tokyo has changed ! 

(lit. Tokyo, too, if it changes, changes.) 

a The conditional clause may be made somewhat indefinite by using the 
probable form : Sono k7oa5hi wo tabeyd mott^ nara, okica san ni shikararemasu 
yo. You will be scolded by your mother, if you eat I fiat cake (to a child). 

xl] Conditional and Imperative 149 

Akunin mo ateba zennin mo am, 

Tl}ere are good men as well as bad men (comp. p. I04f ). 

It is a peculiarity of the Japanese language that a conditional 
clause may ii)clude an interrogative word : 

Do oshiemashiiara yQnfshu gozaimasho. 

How shall I explain it to thefn ? 

(lit. if how I h^ve taught, will it be well ?) 
(3). In a sentence containing a conditional clause, ga^ no ni, 
or mono wo may be added to the principal verb or adjective. 
These have an adversative or concessive sense and, if the 
ellipsis were filled out, would introduce a statement of a 
qqntrary fact, a declaratipn of doubt concerning the possibility 
of fulfilling the conditioni or an expression of regret : 

Tabako wo yamenba ii ga. 

It would be well for him to give up tobacco. 

(lit. if be should give up tobacco good, but...) 
fhe expression no ni suggests more strongly the idea of the 
hopelessness of the situation. Accordingly no ni is rarely used 
with the first person. The no in no ni may be dispensed with 
after ii and yokatta, and is usually omitted after the probable 
forms yokaro and yokaltaro. 

Mo sukoski hayaku dekaketara yokatta {yokattaro) ni. 

He ought to have started a little earlier. 
In this sentence by substituting >'tf^<i^c; we get the sense, ** he 
ought now to be on the way," (but has not yet started). 

By means of ga or mono wo {mono ni) * following ii or 
yokatta one may render optative expressions beginning with 
" If only ", " Would that,'* '* 1 wish that," etc. : 

Mo suko$hi yoku koshiraereba ii ga. 

If only he would make [it] a little better ! 

Ami ga banreba ii ga. If only it would clear off! 

Togam$r$ba ii ga. If he woyld only warn [him] ! 

Togametara yokatta ga. if he had only warned [him] ! 

Mo sukoski hayaku dekaketara yokatta ga. 

If we had only started a little earlier ! 

Shineba yokatta monq wo. Would that [I] had died ! 
The last is rather a classical expression. 

a Compare also th* use of mono ivo with a verb in the past tense : Yw ttshiU 
yafia vtotto ivo. Would that I had forgiven him ! 

150 The Verb [xl 

2. In the case of verbs of the first class the plain imperative 
{inei-ni-ho) is identical with the stem. The honorific o may 
be prefixed ; e.g., o kure (p. 37d). There is a tendency to 
make the fi.^al vowel long : tabeii mii. Imperatives like tabere 
and inirty formed after the analogy of verbs of the second 
class, also occur. When ro is added the honorific is inadmissi- 
ble. The particles/^ and na are not pronounced like regular 
suffixes, the stem of the verb being strongly emphasized, while 
the particle comes in after a very slight pause as a distinct but 
unaccented word. The forms o ta-bi na and tabe yo are used 
mostly by women. Occasionally men may be heard to say 
tabe na, * 

But in general the plain imperative forms characterize the 
speech of the lower classes, or of men who have lost their 
temper, or of those who choose to speak to their inferiors 
peremptorily. What has been said in the previous chapter 
about the use of plain forms of speech among intimate friends 
does not apply to the imperatives. They are used in quota- 
tions concerning one's self (p. I26d) and in military commands :. 
Ki wo tsuke. Attention ! The forms in ro, especially, have 
an angry or gruff tone. A father may say to a 
child who has through disobedience met with a calamity : 
Sore miro. The form in ro occurs also in proverbs : 

Narau yori narero (or nare). Practice rather than study. 

Among comrades tamae, from tamau, an honorific auxiliary,, 
is added to the stem : 

To zvo shime tainae. Shut the door ! 

The form {p) shime nasai is scarcely more polite than {p) . 
shime na, assuming that the act is to be done for the benefit of 
another. But the case is different when the request is -made 
in the interest of the person addressed : O kake nasai. Take 
a seat ! But shime nastte kudasai is under any circumstances 
sufficiently polite. 

As in English, a request or suggestion may be expressed in 
the form of a question : To wo shimenai ka ; shimerii n ja nai 
ka. Note also: To zvo shimeru ga ii ; shime La hj ga ii ; 

a 01)serve that kitre na is vulgarly contracted to knnnn. Compare sonnara^ 
{ro;n sore nara. 

xl] Conditional and Imperative 151 

shinier eba it ; ^ shimetara yokard ; shimetara do desu ka. Such 
expres^io^s are rude or familiar. To wo shiwe nasttara yd 
gozaimashj is quite elegant. 

The subordinative enters into a great variety of imperative 
expressions. We add a partial list, placing the least polite 
first : 

shinieti it shimete via ti 

shimete kun^ shimete kurenu ka 

shimete moraitm 

shimete o kunnasai {p kure ?iasai) 

shimete kudasai shimete kudasaimasen ka 

shimete itadakitai shimete cho-dai 

shimete itadakitai man* desu tie 

shimete itadakimashj 

shimete itadakaremasho ka 

shimete itadakitj gozaimasu 

The subordinative alone may also be used elliptically as a 
substitute for the imperative; e.g., Katazukete, Take that 
away ! 


kinu silk. tsuri-rampu hanging lamp. 

kuse habit, propensity. gaku hanging tablet, framed 

omocha toy. picture. 

sh:ba turf, lawn. ambai disposition, temper,. 

yoso another place, abroad. manner, state of health. 

amado wooden sliding doors gwai-tj overcoat. 

on the outside of a house, kendo this time, next time. 

closed at night or in time nen-gen term of years (lit. 

of rain {ame), year-limit). 

ini-hon sample. seki-tan coal {seki^ishi, tan 

mizu'ire a small vessel hold- =sumi). 

ing water for use in writing, sho-ji sliding doors or sashes- 

o-mizu flood, covered with paper. 

a To wo shimereba ii and To tvo shimeru ftara it difTer slightly. The former 
means: *' You may shut Ihe door;" the latter cannot be used as a substitute 
for the imperative. 

b Women say o kure. 

f52 The Verb [xi 

shi'taku preparations. n^t-m become loag, grow, be 

tai'kutsu tedium, ennui. extendeii^ be postponed. 

y:'shoku western food. umM-ru bury, fill in {yu n ' 

hoshii desiring, * mhu wo). 

sosokiashii hasty, heedless, kube-ru put into (a fire) 

ju-bun na sufficient ^i g^ knre-ru the sun sets, the 

mushimushi atsui sultry. day closes. 

kae-ru change, exchange akari wo tsuke-ru light a 

(with to or ni\ lamp. 

kie-ru be extinguished, van- — ni inizu wo kakt^ru water. 

ish. o fttiski uaiaru (polite 2, 3) 

mazi-ru mix (tr.). use, eat, wear, ride {uma 

nare-ru become accue^med ni). 

(with ni), become tame. 


Oi^ Chokicbi ! sono shiba ni viizu wo kakero {kakete kure). 
Yu ga atsusugiru kara, mizu wo ippai uinero {umete kjure)^ 
Hi ga kuretara, akari wo o ts ke yo (ts'kete kure), Ima 
sugu ni amado wo o shiim yo {shimete o kure), ZasKki no 
uchiga ^ mushimushi atsui kara, shoji wo akete kurero {kure). 
Kodonio ga yoso y4 detara, omocha wo katazuke {katazukete 
^ iure). Kondo kara {kore kard) motto ki wo ts'ke yo {fskete 
o kure). SKta ni iro {pre). ^ Kimiwa asKta no asa nanj'i 
ni okiru ka. Yo ga aketarfl, okiyo, Okitara^ sugu ni gozen 
wo tabeyo, Gozen ga dekiiaraba, sugu ni miHte koi, Kuruma 
no sh'taku ga dekitara, dekakeyo. Kuruma no sKtaku ga 
hayaku dekireba ii ga, Mochi wo hitotsu o kure. Omae motto 
ki wo ts'ketata yokatta ni ; aviari sosokkashii koto wo sh*ta. 
Mj s*koshi makete kure. Mo chitto maketara do daro. 
Motto hayaku gwaikokugo no keiko wo hajimetara yokatta ni. 

a Kodojiio wa omocha ga koshikute natie iniasu. The child cries for (desiring) 
the toy. The particle 7vo is also used with hoshii, but less commonly, except 
with the derivative verb hoshigaru : omocha wo hoshigatie. 

b Lit. the interior of the room. 

c From im or oru, «• Down with you !" was the ory of those who in feudal 
times had charge of the train of a daimyo or other person of high rank. The 
people on the street were then expected to prostrate themselves to the ground, 
as the procession went by. 

xlJ Conditional and Imperative 153 

KJore wa dd iu afnlai ni oskietara yj gozaUnasho. Komban 
tsuki ga dereba it ga. Konna ni samui no nara, motto atsui 
kimono wo kitara yokatta ni. Kono tsuriramp' ga Q(hitara 
tnihen des\ * Yuki ga toketara^ omizu ga diru ka mo shir€' 
nai. ^ Hayaku gozen wo koshirae {JioshiraeU kurt). 
Taikutsu da kara^ kisha ga hayaku dereba ii ga, ^ Kutabire- 
tara^ yamemashd, Ano hito ga^ bunten wo koshiraefeba 
{koshiraetard) yo gozaimashd. Michi wo tazunetara yokatta ni. 
Gwaikokujin ga Nikon no shokumotsu ni naretara yd gozai- 
f/iashX Kono tori ga naretara omoshirokaro. S^koshi 
narereba {uaretard), sugu ni dekima^, Kyoshi %va skosei wo 
nagaku oshiereba, oshieru hodo jozu ni narimas\ ^ Kono 
tegaini wo yubinbako ye irete kudasai. Kinu no mihon wo 
misete chodai, Kane ga dekireba, dekiru hodo hosh*ku naru, 

I wish he would give up tobacco. How {do sh'te) shall I get 
rid of this habit {if how I have stopped this habit, will it be 
good) ? Put a little water into this mizuire. This sake is too 
strong : mix [it with] a little water. This book is defective 
(bad) : exchange it for a good one. As it is very cold, you 
might put on a little more coal (if you have put on a little 
more coal, it will be well). Shut the door tight (shikkari to). 
If {moshi) you go out, put on [your] overcoat. To-morrow 
when the day dawns (if the day has dawned) I will start on a 
journey {tabi ni deru), Gret up earlier to-morrow than [you 
did] this morning. When you get up, open the amado at once. 
If only we had started out earlier 1 ^ It will be well to inquire 
(if we have inquired) the way. I wish breakfast could be 
served {^dekiru) soon. Put {tsukeru) this beggage upon the 
horse. It will be well to begin the study of English as early 
as possible. If only (they) had put (Jreru) this sick person into 

a Taihen desu it will be terrible {tdi-htn great change^. This phrase is 
often used as an expression of consternation. 

b Omizu ga deru there is (will be) a flood. By ka mo shirenai (see p. 790.1) 
one may often render the English " may," "likely." 

c Taikutsu da {desu) it is wearisome, [I] am tired. 

d Notice that the particle is^/r, not iva (comp. p. 190b): He would be the 
man to write a grammar. 

e Compare p. 136. 

f Instead of Ihe past conditional, one may also use the past tense with ho 
(p. 136). 


The Verb 


the hospital ! If that picture falls (past), it will be a terrible 
smash {taiheti). Hang the picture on the wall. I wish I could 
become accustomed to foreign food. When you awake (p. 91 g 
— ■F)ast), get up at once. It will probably be suflficient if you 
sleep (past) from ten p.m. ^yorii) to six a. m. {asa). I wish 
the term of years were longer (became Jong). 


The negative indicative forms are 



tabe-nu, tabe-n 

do not eat 



tabe-n an da 

did not eat 

have not eaten 

Future or 




will hardly eat 





probably did not eat 

might not have eaten 


minu, mi-n 

do not see 



did not see 

have not seen 



will liardly see 



probably did not see 

might not have seen 

The form tabenai is more common than iabenu. As has 
been observed before (p. 100), the form ending in nai may be 
inflected, the adverbial form in fiaku being used with especial 
frequency before nam to become ; e.g., mienaku nam to be- 
come invisible. Compare nakunaru, p. 108a. 

In some provinces tabenanda is more common than tabena- 
katta, but the latter is the usual form in most parts of the 

For the future or probable tense taberumai also occurs. 
Tabenakarj and such periphrastic forms as tabenai darJ^ tabe- 
nakatta daro^ etc., like the corresponding positive forms, arc 
used chiefly in the third person and denote a mere conjecture. 
The form in mai differs from the corresponding positive form 
\\\ yd in that it is not so strongly predictive an^l may be used 

xLi] Negative 155 

in the third person. Thus in reply to the question Ano Seiyth 
jin wa Sashimi wo tabeyo ka one may say, Tdbemai ; but if the 
reply were positive, it would be, Taberu darJ, not, Tabeyo, * 

The present is often used as a substitute for the past : 

Neia ka nenai ka wakarimasen. 

1 don't know whether I slept or not. 

Kesa no shimbun wa mada mimasen. 

I have not yet seen this morning's newspaper. 

Notice the use of negative verbs with mae, uchi and kagiri: 

Shimbun wo minai mae ni shitte imashita, 

I knew it before I saw the newspapers. 

Minai uchi wa wakarimasen, I can't judge until I see it. 

Minai kagiri wa shinfiraremasen. 

I can't believe that unless 1 see it. 
Observe further that with mae and uchi when a fact is stated^ 
ni is used ; but when the predicate is negative, wa is the 
correct particle. Kagiri always refers to a future or supposed 
The classical negative ending zu (attributive, nu or zarii) : 

Chu'shin ni (ji) kun ni tsukaezu. 
A loyal subject serves not two lords. 


shiroi face-powder. yamu, yande cease (intr.). 

konoha^ki no ha leaf. amado wo tate-ru shut up 
fuda card, label, placard. the house, ** put up the 

sho-Juda price-mark, from shutters." 

shj (c) right, true, real. makase-ru commit, entrust, 
ya-kxvai evening party. leave. ^ 

yo-kb travelling abroad. ^ koioro ni makase-nu not act- 
ryo-kb travelling. ing as one wishes, contrary 

ryokb-ken passport to one's preferences (of 

ha^eshii violent. things). 

gebi-ru be vulgar. — wo tabi suru travel throu^jh. 

//^irrw sprout, grow. shuppan suru sail {shutsu = 
same-ru become cool. de-ru, han = ho). 

a But tabeyd ijia) to omoimaui or tabemasho may be used of the third person* 
b Compare yofttku^ yo-shokUf etc. Yd means ocean ; Sei-yo^ western ocean. 
K»=yuku to go. Ill the next word ryo=4abi suru, 
c O makase mdthimasn, I give you carfe blanche. 

156 The Verb fxLi 


Nihon de wa amari ningen no 20 wo koshiraete tatenai,^ 
Konna koto wa mutsukasJi kute dekiinai. Sono kotoba wo 
mochiinai koto wa nai keredomo^ metta ni mochiinai, Ni- 
motsu ga uma kara ockinai yd nl ki wo tsukero. Kono hon 
wa go satsu ni naru hasu da ga, mada issatsu sh*ka denau ** 
Tak'san maketa kara, m'J makemaL S^koshi mo maken ka, 
Kfsa no shiinbun Wo mtta ka* lift mada minai. Sakujitsu 
wa kazi ga hagf^h^ kuts jnne ga dfn^katta keredomo, konnichi 
wa kaze ga yanda kara, mina defarX Yubinsen ga saktijifsu 
^huppfln shfta ka- Kasfe ga isuyflkaita kara, denakattaro. 
Hibachi no ki ga kienai yj ni ki wo is^ kete o knre. IVatakushi 
^wa mainichi sampo ni deru ga, sakujitsu wa amari tenki ga 
warui no de denakatia. Doits jtn wa F'rans no ik'sa de wa 
ichi do mo makenakatta. Kono byjnin wa mada okin^i Ip 
^a ii to isha ^a mo^himasKta. Nikon ni wa chitto mo niku 
wo tab en hi to ga arimas\ Kurakute nani mo mienai. Kipp^ 
no nai hito wa irenai (admit) s'j des\ Sono hito wa Tokei ni 
wa mo imai, Mutsukashii mono, dekinai hazu da. Hito no 
kuchi ni to wo tateru koto ga dekinai. ^ Uri no tane ni 
nasubi wa haenu (Proverb.) Izen wa yoku Nihongo de 
hanashi ga dekita keredomo, mina wasureta kara, mj kanashi 
g^a dekimai. Dekinai koto wa nai keredomo, mutsukasJi kard. 
Mo kisha ga deta ka. Mada demai, ^ Atsuraeta yof^ku ga 
mada dekinai. Nihon de wa niju san shi wo sugita onna wa 
amari shiroi wo ts'kenai. Samui no ni naze hibachi ni hi 
wo ^ irenai ka. Sakurazumi wa ^ takai kara, katj no hitQ wa 
mochiiru koto ga dekinai. Kane ga tak'san nakereba yJkj ga 
{yokb sum koto ga) dekinai. Kokoro ni makasen' mpno wa 
kodakara. s 

^ When the subordioative is jclosely connected with a negative verb the 
negative terminal ion affects it also. 

I> To be translated by means of the perfect tense. 

c The usual form of tJie proverb is : HUo no kti(hi ni io iva iaitraretMi 
(p. loSh). 

d To be translated as if it were a probable past. 

e Here //* means live coals. 

f Originally charcoal from the town of Sfkura cast of Tokyo. Theterm has 
come to mean " first class charcoal." 

g This expression fits into ihe mouth of a childless person. Childreu (Xv») 
are treasures {takara) which coonoi be obtained by every one who wants 

xu Negative 157 

That will hardly be feasible, as it is too difficult. This 
character (wa) is seldom used (one seldom uses). The leaves 
of the trees have not yet fallen (pr.). Of (wa) this dictionary 
but {sA'^a) five volumes havd as yet been issued (pr.) ; 
altogether (mina de) there are to be twenty volumes. As the 
price-mark is attached {tsuite iru)^ he will hardly deduct 
[anything]. Take care that the bath (/«) does not become 
cool. He is still sleeping, not yet having become sober. ^ In 
(de wa) a quarrel he is seldom beaten by any one {kito m). 
Until I see it, I cannot judge whether it is good or bad. There 
are (not being is not) wolves in {/it mo) Japan, but {ga) there 
are hot many {tak*5an wa inai). Before {izen ni wa) the 32nd 
year of Meij Europeans could not dwell (zakkyo suru) m the 
interior. At that time {jidun) also they could Hot travel 
through the interior without {nak'te wa) a passport. In the 
interior of Japan there are places {tokoro mo aru) where [the 
people] seldom eat fish. As he did not live in Japan a long 
time {nagaku), he probably cannot speak Japanese. ^ Why 
haven't you shut up the house (pr.) ? It seems that of {wa) this 
dictionary just one volume is lacking (is not enough). 1 have 
not seen (pr.) this play {shibat), but they say its very interest- 
ing. Of this camellia as yet not one blossom has fallen (pr). 
It is his intention {tsumori de iru p. 95a) to give up sake, but 
he will hardly be able [to do so]. This word has gone out 
of use (become not used), because it is too vulgar {gebiie iru). 
The ship is already out of sight (has become invisible.) Is 
Siam {Sham) a civilized or an uncivilized country ? The snow 
has not yet thawed (pr.). Having gone {deru) to an evening 
party last night, I was up (did not sleep) the whole night. 
The leaves of the bamboo do not fall even in winter (/«7« ni 
natte mo). 

a 3ce pp. 8ig and 104I1. 

b One may say simply : Nipfongo wa de/nmai. If the person spoken of is 
"lill living in Japan, use the present louse ; mai has not been living. 


The Verb 




Negative Past 


tabe fCkereba 
tabe neba 
if 1 1] do not eat 
if [I] should not eat 
tabe-nakattara {bd) 
tabe-nandara (ba) 
if [I] have not eaten 
if [1] had not eaten 
tabe-ru na 
o tabe de nai yo 
don't eat ! 


vti'tC kereba 


mi- neb a 

if [I] do not see 

if [1] should not see 

mi-nakattara (bd) 

mi-nandara {ba) 

if [1] have not seen 

if [I] had not seen 

mi'TU na 

o mi de nai yo 

don't look ! 

Tabenai nara (pa) * may be substituted for tabenakereba ; 
tabenakatta nara {ba) for tabenakattara. Instead of the 
conditional forms tabenai to may be used. 

By means of the conditional with natanai {narimasen) or 
ikenai {ikemasen) ^ the English " ought " or '* miist " may be 
rendered : 

Minakereba narimasen, [I] must see it. 
There is scarcely any difference between naranai and ikenai. 
The former conveys the sense of obligation, while the latter 
rather suggests the inconvenient consequences that will follow 
in case the condition is not fulfilled. 

Taberu na corresponds to the positive tabero ; o tabe de naC 
yOt to tube yo. But a student may say to another, To wo 
shimeru na (or shime tamau na), though he would hardly say 
shimero. Other periphrastic forms are : 

a The negative probable form is occasionally found in this position : tabe-- 
nakard man^ nara (Comp. p. 148a). 

b For ikenai see p. 29b. Naranai it does not become. Do mo narana I 
can*t manage it in any way. Compare : Fushigi de naranai. It is loo strange 
(lit. being marvelous, it does not become). From what is said above it appears 
that there is really no equivalent for "ought" or "must" in Japanese. 
Compare also the use of beki and haiu (p. izi). 

xLii] Negative Conditional and Imperative 159 

To wo shiineru moti ja nai 
(0) shime nasaru na 
shimenai {fio) ga it 
shimete kureru na 
shimenaide moraitai 

shimete kudasafu na 
shhnenakute mo ii 
shimenaide (p) kure 
shimenaide kudasai 
shimete kudasaimasu na^ etc. 

For shimenaide see p. io6a. A distinction may be drawn 
between {p) shime nasaru na and shimete kureru na. The 
former implies that the speaker makes the request in behalf of 
the person addressed or of others ; the latter, that the speaker 
himself is the one for whose benefit the act is to be done. 
Compare what is said about o shime nasai (p. 1 50). 


kizu wound, scar. * 

nae young plant, seedling 

rice, etc.). 
ya-ne roof. 
yane-ya roofer. 
ki-no'ko mushroom. 
ku district, ward. 
yaku, hon-yaku translation. 
do-sj storehouse, ''godown " 

{do earth, zo^kurd), 
ji'kan period of time, time, 

hour {ji^toki, ka^i^aidd), 
fo-chu maidservant (more 

polite than ge-jo). 
ki'chu mourning. 
ko-yaku medicinal plaster. 
matsuri'bi > festival day, 
sai'jitsu (c) ) holyday. 
sh>sho certificate. 
akarui light, clear. 

kuwashii minute, detailed, 

well versed. 
awase-ru cause to meet, join, 


, [ fix, decide. *» 

sadame-ru ) * 

okure-ru be late. 

shirabe-ru inquire, investi- 

iodoke-ru deliver (p. Sga), 
report officially. 

yashinau nourish, support. 

yashinai ni naru nutritious. 

hiki'koworu stay at home 
(on account of mourning or 

ue-tsuke-ru plant. 

moshi, moshi mo if (with 
conditional form, to or toki 

a A f2M is more concrete than ^tga. Thus one may say: 7e ni khu ga artt^ 
out n-.t Te ni kega ga am. To wound a person is kizu 7vo tsuA-e-rtt ; to he 
arou tided, lega (tw) sum, 
, b Kimertt is more common in the colloquial ihnn sndaweru. 

!6o The Verb [xlii 

kesskite positively, never ze-hi (ni) by all means, neces- 

(with a negative word). sarily. » 

7ftarf4 de entirely. 


Kono ban a wa mizu wo kakenakereba karemasho, Kono 
kinoko wa doku da kara, kessh'te o tabe de nai yo. Kono 
bydnin wa yashinai ni varu mono wo tabenaketeba ytntrarima- 
shj, Oviae hayaku yastnnu kafit, hnyaku okinakefeba ikenai. 
JVatakushi no iokei wa okureta kafa^ awnsenakereba uari- 
1/iasen. ^ Mada akarui kara, aifiado wo shimeti kureru na. 
JVikkJ wo minakereba^ kekko to in na. ^ Jibiki de ininakereba <^ 
wakarimasen, Kono ji wa shijii sono imi de mockiinakereba 
narimasen ka, lie shiju sono imi de mockiinakereba naranai 
to iu koto wa arimasen. ® Kano sh sho wa yaku wo ts'kena- 
kereba, gwaikokujin ni wa wakarimasen. ^ Ningen wa zehi 
nikti wo tabenakereba naranai koto wa nai, Tabako wa doku 
des kara^ yamenakereba narimasen. Kono sakana wo shio ni 
o ts'ke de nai yo. g Moshi hayaku dozj no to wo shimenakatta- 
ra, maru de yak eta deshj, Yaneya ga ano toki ni ki wo 
tskenakattara, ochita des/u. Moshi mado wo akenakaltara, 
tori ga nigenakatUird. Konnichi wa saijitsu des kara^ ii 
kimono wo kinakereba narimasen, Kore wo motto kuwasfi ku 
shirabenakereba narimasen, Samui kara, mado wo akete 

.1 From zs (c) good and its opposite hi. One may say also s uhi tonio {ionto 

b Compare : Tokei ga susnttde imasu. The clock i$ fast (susumu adyance). 
7bJtet ga atte imasu* The clock is just fight {au meet). To set the clock is 
/okei wo aiunse-rtif — aivasern being the causative of au. 

o Nikkoy from nichi sun and fnvd light, is famous all over Japdn not only for 
Its beautiful scenery, but also for its magnificent temples. Kekkbio iu na don't 
say "splrndid." You have no right to use the word ^^^^^d until the temples 
and gates of Nikko have taught you its meaning. 

d Jtbiki de miru look up in a dictionary. Jibiki iw> hiite miru (p. 88c) is the 
usual idiom. 

e Here io iu before kofo may be omitted. The accumulation of many 
negative words in one sentence is more common than in English. 

f C)l)scrve that tvakaru and dekirii arc really impersonal (pp. lyd, 34d) 
verbs and that the subject of the English sentence accordingly takes the 
postposition />/'. 

g Distingush —shio ni /w/'^/« to pickle in salt (p. zbSb) and — ni jA/V; wo 
tsuke-t-u to put salt on. 

xLii] Negative Conditional and Imperative i6i 

kurtru na. Kono kuse wo yamenai to ikenai. Kodomo ga 
umareru to^ ku-yak^sho ni todokinakereba nariinasen, Kichu 
dei kara^ hikikomotte inakereba narimasen. 

Don't open this bottle. Don't cat too much (yokei). You 
must water this flower {ni or ni zva), every day. If you don't 
water this camellia {wa or ni wa) every day, the flowers will 
fall oflf {ochi-ru). If [we] don't eat that {sore wa\ it will spoil 
(become bad). If 1 don't inquire * of some one {kiio ni), I 
shall not understand. If I had not put a plaster on the wound 
(wa\ it might have become worse (bad) As I get up early, 
i must go to bed early. Don't go out {soto ye) while I am 
absent (in the time of my absence). The maidservant must go 
out to buy things (p. 5 2d). *^ The farmers must now {kore 
kard) plant their [rice] seedlings. Since somebody has come, 
i must get up. If the window is not shut (one does not shut 
the window), the dust will enter {haitte kuru). At nine 
o'clock c I must go to the district-ofl^ce. It will be (pr.) in- 
convenient {futsug'S), if the clothes are not done by New 
Year's. ^ If [they] had not stopped the train at that time, 
there might have been considerable {zuibun) loss of life. 
When (fiom when) must I begin my studies {keiko) ? Must [1] 
fix the hours of study at once {vtojiki ni)? I hope there arc 
no mosquitoes. • 

a The most common expression for ** inquire" in the coUoqnial is Hi/^ 

h In sentences like this and the one following, wa must be used with the 
^object, because logically it is the subject of the whole sentence, and not 
merelj of the conditional clause. 

c The precise equivalent of " at nine o'clock " is i'uji ni. Of a performance 
which begins at nine we may say Aujikara, Kisha ga ku jini td-chaku 
ihtnuuu. The train arrives at nine o'clock. Kn ji kara mutsu-kivai wo 
hirokimasu. We will open the lccture>meeting at nine o'clock. 

d " By New Year's " is to be rendered : shinnen made ni. Distinguish : Ban 
madt kon woyomimasu, I will read the book [continuously] until this evening. 
Ban made ni kon wo yomimasu, I shall have read the book by this evening. 

e This is to be translated like the examples in Ch. XL. : If there are no 
mosquitoes, good, but... Sentences beginning with "I hope" "I fear," etc., 
most always be paraphrased in some such manner : O kega dt mo nakereba ii 
(^). 1 hope you are not hurt. Wakatta isttmoH desu, I hope 1 understand. 
Mayaku naoshitai mono deiu. I hope I shall soon be well. Funt ni yowana- 
hreha i*{gn)f I fear I shall be seasick. Ximi 7oa kondo no shiken ni rakudai 
iuru ka mo ikirenai, I fear you will fail in the examination. Sometimes the 
simple probable or future form of the verb suffices : Dekimaslib {to cmoimasii). 
1 hope it may be accomplished. Dekimammai {to omoimasn), I fear it mny 
not lie accomplished. 

i62 The Verb [xlhi 


The positive subordinative of the verb, as of the adjective, 
ends in te ; e. g., tabe te, mi-te. * 

1. It is a peculiarity of the Japanese colloquial that of two 
sentences which in English would naturally be coordinate one 
is subordinated to the other by means of te : ^^ 

Mado wo shimete kimasho ka. 

Shall I go and shut the window ? (p. 88g). 

Tokiwa wa ^ kodomo wo san nin tsurete nigemashita. 

Tokiwa took the three children and fled. 
The second sentence may also be translated : Tokiwa fled with 
the three children. 

2. Subordinatives are frequently to be translated by means 
of adverbs or adverbial expressions ; e. g., nen wo irete care- 
fully, hajimete for the first time, sore ni hiki-kaete on the 

3. Often in cases where the English employs a simple verb 
the Japanese combines the verb in the form of the subordinative 
with another verb. 

tsurete kuru bring (a person or domestic animal). 

tsurete yuku take (a person or domestic animal). 

dete kuru come out (making one's exit come). 

kurabete miru compare (comparing see). 

tavtete oku save (saving put). 

karete shimau die (withering finish — of a plani). 

oshieie ageru inform (a superior). 

oshiete kureru {kudasaru) instruct (an inferior). 

oshiete yaru teach (brusque). 

Sanzan shikatte yarimashita, [I] scolded [him] severely. 

4. The subordinative with iru or oru denotes continued or 
unfinished action, especially action that is in progress at some 
definite time : 

a This U combined with ni, mi, bi of stems of verbs of the second class be- 
comes nde ; shinde, from shinu, die ; yonde, from yomu read ; yonde, from yobu 

b in the classical language the stem performs the same function as the 
subordinative in the colloquial. This usage appears in. the speech of the 
learned, in orations and in long stories. 

c Tokiwa was a famous beauty, concubine of Yoshitomo and mother of 


Gosen wo tabete orimasu. He is (now) eating. 

Gozen wo tabete imashita. He was eating (at the time). 

In this construction iru or oru is a mere auxiliary and may be 
used also of inanimate things (p. 63c). ^ Notice contractions 
like kiiteru or kiitoru am listening, or inquiring, /^/irf^r« or 
yondoru am reading, or calling. In kiite iru the i is elided ; in 
kiite oru^ the e. 

5. The subordinative with iru or oru may denote a condition 
that is the result of an action and may in some cases be trans- 
lated by means of the perfect tense. 

Ochite iru. It is down (having fallen). 

Kite irt4. He is here (having come). 

Dete iru. He is out (having gone out). 

Yofuku wo kite imasu. 

He is wearing foreign clothes (having put them on). 

Megane ivo kakete imasu. 

He is weaiing glasses (having put them on). 

Shin J a ni natte orivtasu. 

He is a believer (having become one). 

But in the case of transitive verb=? aru is more commonly 
used with the subordinative to express a condition, the com- 
pleted act rather than the agent being the object of attention. 

Irete aru. They are inside {^haitte iru), 

Tomete aru, I have a note of it {tome'ru make a note of). 

Kaite aru. It stands written. 

Isu wa koshiraete arimasu. 

The chairs are finished. I have made the chairs. 

Daidokoro ni mizu ga (wo) hiite aru. 

Water is brought (in pipes) to the kitchen. 

6. If a or yoroshii follows a subordinative, the idea of 
permission or acquiescence is conveyed : 

Kyj asobi ni dete iu 

You may take a vacation to-day (go out to play). 

a Students of the English language have revived an oljsoletc idiom in order 
to translate progressive forms like " I am going," etc., using tsutstt aru with the 
stem of the verb: iki tsutsii am is going. This construction is not infrequently 
heard in speeches, etc. The subordinative of an intransitive verb may be 
progressive or perfect, as explained above ; but i^i isu/su aru is free from 


The Verb 


7. The postposition kara may follow the subordinative (p. 
96c), giving the clause a temporal meaning. In the following 
sentence kara may also be omitted : 

KoHfia koto wa umarete kara hajivtete da. 
It is the first time since I was born that I have seen such 
a thing. 

8. The subordinative may be used elliptically ; 
Yoku ki wo tsukete. Take good care ! 
Cha wo ireie. Make the tea ! 

Yunie bakkari mite {yoku yasumimasen), 
I did nothing but dream. 

Kotice also shitte no tori as you know. 


Juchi rim, border. 

kata shoulder. 

saka slope, ascent. 

su vinegar. 

tako kite. 

tako u*o age-ru fly a kite. 

ato track, trace. 

ashi-ato foot-print. 

hiru'ineshi ) noonday meal, 

Airu-han ) luncheon, tiffin. 

kawi= ue above. 

shiino^shita below. 

kane-ire, zeni-ire purse. 

zoku outlaw, rebel, robber. 

dai^ dai'ka price. * 

dai'kon large radish (lit. 
great root). 

hyj-tan gourd (used mostly 
for carrying small quan- 
tities o{ sake when travel- 
ling), flask. 

sa-tj sugar. 

tokU'i customer. 

kei-ho criminal law, criminal 

zai-nin { = tsumi'bito) crim- 

ko-cho head of a school. ^ 

sha-rei honorarium, fee. 

s/iO'ifiotsu book. ^ 

rem-pei military drill. 

ryo-sen fishing boat. 

kan-goku^ kangokU'slio prison. 

givai-viu-shd Department of 
Foreign Affairs. 

nai'inu-sJio Department of the 
Interior, Home Office. 

shi'hd'sko Department of 

sen no former. 

sen ni formerly. 

kesu extinguish, erase. 

a Dai substtlule, ka value. Dai Ib more concrete than nedan, 

b From >fd school (in ^A>&>&t>) and ^/^ senior. Cho enters into a great many 

compounds ;e %.^ifi-chd superintendent of a hospital (Jfyo-in), shuchd mayor 

of a city, son-chb head of a village, ckb'-chd burgess, sen-cho captain of a ship, etc. 

c From shc-=kakti write and mofsu=mono thinj;. But kaki-mono, meaning:^ 

document, is not synonomous with sha-viofsn 


hi'keshi ) ^ ^ ki-kae-ru change (clothes). 

shj'Oa-Ju 5 osore-ru fear. 

^i7j» cross (a momitaia or osore-iru [am] very much 

river). obliged (lit. am in dread). 

moe-ru burn (intr.). yuru swing, shake (tr.). 

stme-ru attack, assault. ji-shin ga yurt$ (or suru) there 

tome-ru make a note of. is an earthquake. 

wake-ru divide. me-gane wo kaki ru put on 

isutome-ru be dilgeiit. spectacles. 
— ni isuiomeni be employed ie-gaviiwo fuzuru seal a letter. 

in. yatto with difficulty, at last. 


S'koshi wakete kure, Kore wa havibun wakete agemasho 
(p. 84f ). Hara ga warui kara, {inono wd) hikaete tabenakereba 
narimasen to isha ga iimasKta, O mi ni kakemashj k4i 
(p. 44a). Djzo misete kudasai. /ma wa kogi no jikan dake 
kimete oite^ ato de sharei no koto wo kimemasJto. Odawara 
no shiro wa ^ Ilideyoshi ga shichikagetsu hodo semeie yatto 
ochimasUta, Ano hito wa itsu mo ras/ia no kimono ivo kite 
imas\ Mo o kyaku ga mina-kite orimas' ka, Hitori ka f'tari 
sKka kite imasen, Kono gakko no kyoshi wa kochj wo ireie 
(including) shichi nin des\ Sakuban gozen wo tabete ita toki 
nijishin ga yurimasICta kara, sugu ni to wo akete soto ye 
nigemasKta. Soketsu to iu Skinajin wa tori no ashiato wo 
mite hajimeteji wo koshiraeta to iu hanashi ga arimas\ Kono 
shimbun wo mite kara (initard) sampo ni demas/u, Keihj wo 
shirabete minakereba sono bats' wa wakarimasen, Kohii ni 
satd wo irete agentas/ij ka, lie, satd tea itadakimasen. Akete 
misete kure. Danna wa doko ni imas* ka, /ma o yu kara 
deie kimono wo kikaete irasshaimas\ Tegami wa dekite imas\ 
shikashi mada fijite arimasen. Naporeon issei wa Koska de 
viakete kara ni san nin no tomo wo tsurete F' rafts ye nigete 
kimasKta. Soko ni ochite iru shomots' wo katatukete ktire. 

a The subordinative of aku, used here as an auxiliary (Ch. LV.). Vake is 
of I en equivalent to " only ** (p. 48b). 

b Odawara, on the Td-kai-do (east-sea-road) between Tokyo and Ilakone, 
was in the XVI* Century the castle-town of the llojo family. Ochirn may be 
used, like the English " fall," of the surrender of a cistle or fort. 

1 66 The Verb [xliii 

Nihonjin wa kaki wo (oysters) su to shoyu ni tskete iabemas\ 
Ano zainin wa kangok'sho wo dete kara iihito ninariinash' ta, 
Jfyjtan wo kata ni kakete fianami ni ikimasKta. Ano sensei 
ni Doiisugo %vo oshiete moraimasJi ta. O tokui sama des' kara^ 
chitto makete agemas/w. Kaneire wo wasurete kite koviarimas\ 
Ckiisai kodomo ni wa e wo misete oshiemas\ Ano kata wa 
doko no yak'sho ni tstomtte irasshaimas ka. Sen ni wa 
naimusho ni ts'tomete imash'ta ga ima wa gwaimusho ni 
ts'tontete imqs\ Kimbuchi no (gold- rimmed) inegane wo 
kakete imas\ Mukashi wa kami-shimo wo^ kite 7iZ> wo 
mimasKta. Dozo^ ichido tazunete mite kudasai. Dokka ni 
tovteie ariinas\ Ichiban o shimai no shbgun wa konogoro 
made ikite irasshaiinasJi ta ; ima mo ikite irassharu ka do ka 
zonjimasen. Go jti no saka wo kosVie imas\^ Osore- 
irimash'te gozaimas . ^ 

The Japanese eat a great deal of {yoku) daikon, pickling it 
in salt (p. i6og). Shall 1 ^\vq you half? The fishing boats 
are all out at sea. After this I will eat moderately. He wears 
poor (bad) clothes when he is at work [shigoto wo sum). Arc 
the pupils all here ? [There] are five who {^lo ga) have not 
yet come. To (jii wa) publish the book yen 500 are required 
\kakaru), ^ including the cost of the paper {kami-dai). The 
master has eaten lunch and is resting {yasunde irass/iaimas*). 
Shall I open the door for you? Please open [it |. In Japan 
tea is drunk with milk and sugar (do they drink tea putting 
into [it] milk and sugar) ? After the rebel army {zo bu-gun) 
was defeated in Oshu, it fled (fleeing went) to Yezo. Is the 
gardener here ? Yes, he is watering the flowers in the garden. 
That official is employed at the Department of Justice. He is 
not like his older brother. Taiko's face resembled a monkey's, 
it is said. The soldiers are all out for drill. The children (of 

a Katni-shimc, composed of kaia-ginu (shoulder-garment) and fiakama^ was 
formerly genllemen*s full dress. 

b Is past fifty years of age (lit. has crossed the summit of fifty), 
c This is the extremely polite form of osoreiriniashita : I am quite em- 
barrassed by your kindness. 

d Observe that kakarn is used in stating the amount of time, labor or 
expense required for an undertaking. But in simply stating the price of a 
thing one says. Go hyaku yen shitnastt. 


the house) are now flying kites. Bring the camellia blossoms 
lying (having fallen) there. Is the fire still burning? The 
firemen came after the fire was extinguished. It is (written) 
in (fit wa) the newspaper, but it is false {uso\ 


The subordinative followed by tva generally * has a condi- 
tional sense (p. 102) : 

Keiko wo yamete wa do desu. 

How would it be if we gave up the study ? 
If then a negative word like naranai ox ikenai^ \s added, 
the whole phrase is to be translated by means of ** must not " 
(pp. 92d, i3C^): 

Ima keiko wo yamete wa naritnasen. 

You must not give up the study now. 

Akete mite wa ikemasen. You must not open it. 
As in the case of adjectives, te wa may be contracted to 
cha ; but such contractions are avoided in polite or formal 

Followed by mo the subordinative has a concessive sense 
and must be translated by means of " even though,*' ** even 
if" (p. ii/f). If ^^r^j///V or a similar expression follows, the 
sentence has a permissive sense like the English " may.*' Such 
a sentence is often a polite command. 

So nasUte mo yoroshu gozaimasu. 

There is no objection to your doing so. 

Nete mo yoroshu gozaimasu ka. May I go to bed ? 
For the subordinative with mo the past tense with 'tte {to 
itte^ tote) may be substituted : 

Dare ni kikaseta 'tte honto to omoi wa shinai. 

No matter to whom you tell it, no one will think it true. 
Kikase-ru is the causative of kiku to hear. Kikaseta *tte is 
equivalent to kikasete mo. Omoi wa shinai^ often pronounced 
ontoya shinai, is a very emphatic way of saying omowafiai. 

a The rule docs not apply to sentences like the following : Kimatte v*a 
imasen. It is not decided. There is no rule to that effect. Kombnn tuatakushi 
no ucM ye iomatte wa kuremai ka. Would he (you) not stay at my house 
to-night ? 

b When reference is made to one's relations with other persons, iumanai 
is inexcusable, from sumu to be ended, settled, composed, may be used : Omae 
senna ni namakett iU ivn totfsan ni sumanai %o. It is unfdial to your father 
to be so idle. 

1 68 The Verb [xuv 


Classical concessive forms, like mi-redo iino) though he sees, 
mi-taredo (wo) though he saw, occur now and then. 

kabura turnip. mud<j ua vain, of no use. 

nishiki brocade. fu-yo na not needed, useless. 

isuzure rags. asobu, asonde play, amuse 
sumi India ink. one's self. 

it/?fvz-^^jrt; [Japanese] unibrel- asobi ni deru go out for rec- 

la. * rcation. 

komori hdit. hashini, hase-ru go fast, run.* 

kdviori'gasa [European] uni- kamau heed, mind. 

brella. katsu, katte win a victory 
ri reason, principle, right. ( — /// katsu defeat). 

nik'kt diary. noseru place on top ( — n 
nikki fit tsuke-ru note in a — wo noseru), 

diary. nure-ru get wet 

taku-an^ fakuan-zuke pickled bisshori nitre- ru get wet to the 

daikon. ^ skin. 

yakU'Soku agreement, cove- oriru descent, alight. 

nant. sage-ru opi). age-ru. 

tagae-ru alter. taviaerii bj accumulated (of 
yakusoku wo tagae-ru break inoucy). 

a promise. uderu cook by boiling in 
Rdina~ji Roman characters. water. ^ 

suppai sour (of taste). — wo abi-ru bathe in. 

/j«;//rtrrt;/rtr/ worthless, foolish. — no ma ni an be in time for. ^ 

a Karn=To (p. 122a) is prefixed to the names of articles formerly imported 
from abroad ; e, g., kara-kane bronze, karnkami wall paper, or screens made of 
the same. 

b From Taku-an the name of a priest who is said to have invented this now 
indispensable article of diet. Pickles in j^eneral are called [0) ko-kd, from kd 
(c) fragrant. 

c Synonymous with hashiru is kake-ru^ but the latter is used of animals or 
men only. 

d To cook in skdyu is ni-ru; e.g., saktina wo niru. To cook rice is meshi 
7£'^ /rt^"/// to boil water is >'w tvo wakasu. Jfakas/t is the causative of ivakti.' 
Yu ga ivai/e imasu. The water is boiling. 

e Lit. meet tlie lime. Kisha 110 ma ni au catch the train. The expression 
is also used in the more general sense of " to be sufficient " : Kon dt ma ni 
aimasho. This will probably be sufficient ; causative : A'ore dt ma ni awasc- 
mas ho. We will make this do. 



Kona kabura wa udete moyawaraka ni nariinas^mau Sonna 
Uumaranai koto wo nikki ni ts'kete zva {ts^kechd) ikeniasen, 
Omae kyo wa kutabiretara^ sugu ni nete mo ii. Fuyo na mono 
iva sUete mo yj gozmrnas* ; iriyo na mono wa sUtte wa K^sUecha) 
narimasen. ^ Sonna muda na koto wa wasurete mo yd gozai- 
mas*. Mb uchi ni yd ga nai kara, omae kaimono ni dete mo 
ii. Kimono wa ima sugu ni atsuraete mo shogwatsu made ni 
wa dekimas mai {jfiogwatsu noma uiwa aimas*mai). Kore 
wa itsu tabete mo umai des\ *' Mo kodomo ga iisutsu ni 
narimashUa kara, tenarai no keiko wo hajimete wa do de 
gozaimas ka, Omae nijikan ka san jikan wa asobi ni dete 
mo ii. Shokuji no sh^taku ga dekiiara^ sugu ni tabete vu yu 
gozaimas*. Soko ni am mono wo tansu no hikidashi ni irete 
mo tana ni nosete mo ii. Seiyorydri wo tabete tva (tabec/ia) 
ikaga des\ Mo {mo) chitto makete wa {makecha) do des\ 
Kowarete mo kamaimasen. ^ Ron ni makete mo ri ni katsu 
(Proverb). ^ Mukashi samurai wa shibai wo mite wa {mini 
koto wa) narimasen deslita ; shikashi no wa mite mo yd 
gozaimasKta. Kyd wa atsui kara, kawa no mizu wo abite xva 
[abic/id) do des\ letsudobasha no hashitte iru uchi ni orite wa 
(firichd) abunai des\ Kono hey a no kiiki ga warui kara, mado 
wo akete mo yd gozaimas' ka. Sayo, akete mo yoroshii. Kono 
gaku wa skoshi sagete mo agete mo dochira de mo yoroshii. * 
Sono uchi no mono wo mite mo ii ka. Sayd^ mite mo yd 
gozaimas'. Tsuzure ivo kite mo kokoro tva nisKki (Proverb). 
Sensei ga nani wo oshiete mo shosei ni wa omoshiroku nai des\ 
Dare ga oshiete mo kamaimasen. Kore wa nete mo okite mo 
{samete mo) wasureraremasen. 

a By means of (his negative expression one may translate the English 
«* keep " or ** preserve." 

b Ifsu tabeie mo every time I eat it. Similar constructions occur frequently : 
nani %oo tabete mo no matter what I eat, dare ^a kite mo no matter who comes, 
do kangaete mo thinking it over in every ix>5Sible way. Compare the last two 
sentences in the exercises, also p. 45b. 

c The verb kamau generally occurs in the negative form. Kamaimasen- 
I don't mind; it makes no difference. KamatK^nnai hd ga yokatta. It might 
have been better not to pay any attention to it. Dozo o kamai naku. Please 
do not trouble yourself. 

d With katiu, ni is ordinarily used to denote the object : teki-gun ni katsu to 
defeat the enemy. But here it is exactly equivalent to the English «* in." 

c Sageiti to hang lower; ni;ertt to han^ higher. 

I70 The Verb [xliv 

How would it be if we made (koshtraeru) an English- 
Japanese dictionary in (of) Rovtajif Even if we made such a 
dictionary {wa i), there would probably be few buyers (people 
who buy would be few). As it has become late, may 1 go to 
bed ? Since these pickles have become sour, you may throw 
them away {/teni). Since I still need that {wa i), you must 
not throw it away. One must not break a promise. As there 
is nothing more to do i^yo ga nai), you may go to bed. Even 
if he gives up sa^f, he will hardly save anything (money will 
hardly accumulate). As it has become too late, it will be (is) 
of no use even if it is finished {dekite kuru). How would it be 
if we put [himj into {ireru) the hospital ? May I stay {ifti) here 
or shall 1 go elsewhere Qioka ye deru)'> He will (docs) not 
give up tobacco, though he knows {shitte iru) that it injures 
him (da^u ni nam koto). How would it be if we changed 
rikshas here ? If dinner is not yet ready, we may cat after- 
wards {nochi ni). How would it be to go out for recreation ? 
This plate will hardly break even though it falls. Sumi is 
useful even if it is broken. I will take an umbrella : it is 
unpleasant {komaru) to get (if one get) wet through and 
through, a As the weather is doubtful, you must not forget 
[your J umbrella. Though I sleep well at night, when I awake 
1 feel as if I had not slept {tienai yd na kimochi ga shimas'). 


Negative Subor- tabe-zu {shite) mi-zu {shite) 

dinative tabe-zu ni mi-zu ni 

tabe-naide {-nde) mi-naide {-nde) 

tabe ' nakute mi-nakute 

For the uses of these forms compare the preceding chapters. 

I. In the literary language zu is the termination of the 
negative conclusive, as well as of the connective or inconclu- 
sive, form of verbs : 

Atiirazu to iedomo tokarazu {toku, arazu). 

Though it did not hit [the mark], it is not far [from it]. 

a When one has actually been wet, one may say : nurete komaru. But "uhe 
added to nurete Indicates a general supposition. 

xLv] Negative Subordinative 171 

This use occurs in proverbs and other sentences adopted from 
the classical language. But in the colloquial the iJist predica- 
tive verb in a series of coordinate negative clauses must take 
one of the endings given in Ch. XLI , or, if itself subordinated, 

Chikagoro wa him a ga nakute hito wo miviau koto mo 
dekizu sampo sum koto mo dekinaide komatte imasu, 

I have had a hard time of it lately because for lack of 
time I can neither visit people nor go out for a walk. 

In formal addresses shite may be added to the form in zu. ^ 
But in general the use of this smacks of the literary style. In 
the colloquial the forms in zu ni and naide are more commonly 
used to indicate the subordination of a clause. 

2. The form in zu {ni) may be used adverbially : 

nokorazu all, none being left (p. 50). 

iarazu closely, from tatu be enough. 

mono mo iwazu silently, from iu to say. 

omowazn shirazu unintentionally, unawares, from omou 

think, shiru know. 
inuko inizu ni blindly, from muko what is in front of one. 

Compare shirazu shirazu no aida before [I] knew it. 

3. As in the case of the positive subordinative, iru or om 
may be added to denote continuance or a condition. Only the 
forms in zu ni and naide may be so u.sed : 

Tabezu ni oru ) have eaten nothing, or, 

Tabenaide oru ) continue to eat nothing. 

Suki na mono datte mo tabenaide orimas\ 

He refrains from eating even things of which he is fond. 

4. By the addition of wa the negative subordinative acquires 
a conditional sense : 

Tabezu ni wa oraremasen. [1] cannot exist without eating. 
Such words as naranai and ikenai (p. 158) may follow only 
the forms in naide wa and nakute wa. ^ In Tokyo the latter 
is preferred : 

Tabete minakute wa wakarivtasen. I must first taste it. 

a Compare the use of shit* with kara : soreda Aap-a shiU since that is the 

b May be contracted to nakucha {nakutcha\ as alto naidt wa to naija. In 
the next example also otU iva may be contracted lo otcha ; tie 7va to icha. 

172 The Verb [xlv 

While naranai^ etc.,- cannot follow tabexu ni wa immediately, 
one may say : 

Mono wo tabezu ni otte {ite) wa narifnasen, 

[You] must not continue to fast. 

(lit. must not be without eating something). 

5. The particle vto gives the negative subordinative a conces- 
sive sense. The idiom is tabesn to mo, not tabezu ni mo. * One 
may also say, tabenaide mo^ tabenakute mo : 

Minakute.^tno ii. It is not necessary to sec it. 

(lit. it is good though [I] do not sec.) 

Sore wa iwazu to mo shiteta^ koto desu. 

It is unnecessary to speak of it. 

(lit. though none says it, it is a thing that one could 

Mono mo iwazu mata tabe mo shinaide mo {shinai no ?ii) 

nodo ga itj gozaimasu. 
My throat hurts even when I neither speak nor eat. 

Shinaide is the negative subordinative from siiru to do. For 
the sake of emphasis suru is often used with the stem of a verb, 
as here. 


oto sound, noise. yoroi armor. 

oto ga suru there is a sound, te-hon model, pattern, copy. 

oto wo saseru make a sound, yu-ineshi ) supper, even'ng 

tatami a thick mat (3 ft. x 6) yu-hau \ meal. 

made of straw and cover- kun (c)^kimin\aistcr, Iord.*= 

ed with finer matting. bun-seki analysis (chemical). 

yome bride, young wife. chi-rl geography. 

yome ivotoru {morau) marry, reki-shi history. 

a Idioms like tabezu ni de mo are sometimes heard. V'abenu ni mo may occur 
in such a sentence as : MasaA'a tabezu ni mo oraremasen kara, konna tsnmaranni 
mono de mo tabete imasu. Hecause it is quite impossible to exist without eating 
at all, I cat even such wrelclicd stuff as this. The word masaka is used 
commonly before suppositions which are absur<i or not likely to be fulfillod. 

b Compare p. 55e and the list p. 128. 

c Kun may be added, like san^ to the HurM.ime nf a man, when the speaker 
is on terms of ^jood fellowship with him. 

XLv] Negative Subordixative 173 

jt-ken affair, case. shitatame-ru write (a letter or 

Arai'sho square script. » document). 

sihsho cursive style. utUie-ru accuse ( — wo saiban- 

Afraid retainer (of a noble), sho ni\ 

a savinrai (in relation to — «^' w^^/-r/^ make an apology 

his lord). to. 

kk'fuku hunger. sankei suru go for worship (to 

kufuku ni nam get hungry. a shrine or temple). 

kyu'byo sudden illness. kokoro-mi-ru try, tempt. 

yakU'Shu drug. iori-shirabe-ru investigate. 

yo-ji bu iness. karuta wo torn play cards. 
/r»-»<7i guidance, knowledge. *^ kane (jseni) wo kake-ru slake 

annai-ja {annai-shd) guide. money. 

evibi'fuku swallow-tailed mtkata wo kakeru determine 

coat. ^ the weight. 

5/7/-^/f;/ judgment (at a court — ni sawaru come into con- 

of justice). flict with. 

saiban-sho courthouse. — no ki ni sawaru offend. 

kjfti na sudden, urgent ai-kawarazu without chang- 

kake-ru run (p. i68c). ing, as always. 
;ftf/-rw pass over, cross (=>*^ J//), kitchiri (Jo) exactly, precisely. 


Michi wa wakarimas' kara, annaija wo tsurezu ni iku 
tsutnori dgs\ Ravtp* ni hi Wo is^kenaide oke, ^ Omae kore 
kara yoku ki wo ts^kenak'te zva {t$ kenaknchd) ikenai. Omae 
inaiasa rokuji ni okinak'te wa {pkinakuchd) naranai. IVata- 
kushi wa kuji s'koshi mae ni denak'te wa narimasen. Kiini 
iva Tanaka kun no ki ni sawaru koto wo itta (past from m) 

^ The iai-sho, from km model and sho^r^kaku^ is tlic unabridged form of tlie 
character. Sd^sko is derived from so grass. An intermediate style is called 

b Go atmai iiashimashd I will show you the way. Go atmai de gozaitnasho. 
Yoa probably know. Go annai no tori as you know. 

c A literal translation : ^;« swallow, ^i tail, /mX*#4 garment. A frock coat is 
c^ied by its English nzrat fWokk^ kdto ; a common sack coat is se-biro {jfe back, 
kiroi broad). 

d Oku with the negative subordinativc may be translated by means of 
** leave " and a passive participle : tsukenaidt okti to leave anlightcd. In this 
omncction the form in tti ni may also be used. 

174 The Verb [xlv 

kara, wabinaide wa ikemasen. Sonna ui kakezu to mo it ; 
kisha no deru toki made ni wa viada yohodo ^ aida ga arimas^, 
Kesa gozen wo tabezu ni devias/i'ta kara^ domo, kuf^ku ni 
natte tavtarimasen, Kokorominaide wa {kokorominaija)^ 
wakarimasen, Sonna warui koto wa sensei ni todokenak'te 
wa narimasen. Todokete mo todokenak' te mo do de mo 
kamaimasen. Vome wo torn to, kuyak'sho ye todokenak'te wa 
narimasen. Sono hako no mekata wa kakete minak'te mo 
wakarimas\ Sonna koto wo saibansho ye uttaezu to mo 
yokatta ni. Ima wa kimenak'te mo yj gozaimas\ Kono 
tegami wa kyu na yjj'i de tva nai kara, ima sKtatamezu to mo 
a n* des\ Kono yak' shu wa nan' des' ka, Sayo, bunseki sKie 
minak'te wa wakarimasen, Kono bawai niwa, wa to iuji wo 
tskezu to mo ii «' des\^ Tehon wo mizu ni o kaki nasai. 
Kaisho to sdsbo rydho tomo oboenak'te wa narimasen, Kicku 
no aida wa chitto mo soto ye dezu, niku mo sakana mo tabezu^ 
mdta ie no uchi de takai (loud) oio wo saseru koto mo dekima- 
sen. Dozo aikawarimasezu. ^ Tabe mo shinaide tabeta yd na 
koto wo iimas\ 

One must take care that {yd ni) the fire of the pipe (tobacco) 
does not fall on (ni) the mats. Within {uc/ii ni) one year I 
must learn at the least about {hodo) a thousand Chinese char- 
acters. As I went to bed last night without supper, I am 
faint with hunger (becoming hungry cannot endure) this morn- 
ing. As I must go out at five o'clock, we will begin our lesson 
{keiko) precisely at four. When (to) [a man] adopts a person 
(receives an adopted son), he must report to the district-office. 
Must I wear a swallowtail to go there ? You need not wear 
a swallowtail. I cannot teach history without teaching geog- 

a Theyo in yohodo b not derived {lova yoi, but is the Chinese equivalent of 

b ^nsicvidi oi liol'oromiru one may also say: yatU mini f rom ^^ rM to do (p. 
1 1 6c). 

c Translate : In this case wa is not needed. For bawai see p. I37e« 

d Some such phrase as ^ >&^//-i Mt negaimasu I desire [that you will treat 
me] in a friendly manner, is understood. The phrase is used on various 
occasions. In offering New Year's congratulations it is used in the form : DHe, 
konnen mo aikazuarimasezu, I hope wc shall be good friends this year also. 
The ai politely preBxed to verbs in formal speech has lost its original meaning 
of « mutually." Compare /72-/f/7r//^^/'M rca if possible (p. zz 2d). 


Negative Subordimative 


raphy. That Japanese intended to investigate our police sys- 
tem (the matter of the police of this place) for two years, but 
on account of {de) the sudden illness of his father he returned 
to [hisj country without investigating [it]. This case must be 
brought before {uttaeru) the court. As the hot water has be- 
come tepid, you need not put in (umrru) any cold water. 
Without seeing the copy I cannot write. Sanetomo, disregard- 
ing {kikazu ni) what his retainer said, went for worship to the 
[temple of J Hachiraan of Kainakura without wearing armor 
under his garments ; consequently he was murdered (korosare 
ru).^ Please leave the window unopened as dust is rising outside 
{soto ni) just now. Without crossing the mountain, we will 
go this way {kochira no michi wo yuku). We left it undecid- 
ed. We played cards without staking [any] money. 


Negative " 
Negative " 


wish to eat 

tabe-taku nai 

do not wish to eat 

tab e- tat i 

at times eating 




at times not eating 


wish to see 

mi'taku nai 

do not wish to see 


at time3 seeing 




at times not seeing 

I. As has been observed before (p. 100), the desiderative 
is an adjective and may be inflected as such : 

Tabetaku narimashita. I have become desirous to eat ^^ 
Tabetakute komarimasu. I am very anxious to eat. 
Tabetakereba, tabete mo ii. You may eat, if you wish. 
The adverbial ending taku becomes to before gozaimasu (p. 

a Sanetomo, son of Yoritomo, was appointed shOgun in 1203, and in 12x9 
was murdered by his nephew Kagyo. Hachiman is the name of the god of 
war. For Kamakura see p. X22C. 

b The word « hungry " is hardly a correct translation for tabitm, " I have 
become hungry/* literaUy translated into Japanese is, Himojikti narimashita^ 
or, Kitfuku ni narimashita. The idea of '* hungry " and the idea of tahetai 
ufually coincide, hut not always. See the last of the English sentences. 

176 The Vkrb [xrAi 

100). To the form in tai may be added mono desu^ no desu, 
or simply desu. By adding to otnoimasu {to omotte iviasu) the 
speaker may avoid expressing his wish too bluntly or com- 
mitting himself too definitely. 

It is to be noted carefully that the desiderative cannot bo 
used of the third person except (a) when to iu or no desu is 
added ; (b) when a derivative verb is formed by adding garu 
to the desiderative stem (comp. hoshigam p. 1 5 2a) ; or (c) 
when one speaks in behalf of another and in his presence : 

Mairitai to itte orimasu. He says he wants to go. 

Kono kodomo wa Amerika ye ikitai ?io desu. 

This boy wants to go to America. 

IVatakushi no otZto wa Avterika ye ikitagatie iru ga ; 

tsurete itte kudasaru koto tva dekimasuniai ka. 
My younger brother is desirous to go to America ; could 
you not take him with you? 
The word which is the object in the English sentence may 
take ga in Japanese (p. I03e) : Gozen ga tabetai mon desu. 
In this case the peisonal subject takes wa. Desideratives may 
also be used attributively with the nouns which are their 

2. The alternative is used when acts or states occur by turns 
(comp. p. 99) : 

Heya wo haitari fuitari shite oriinashita. 

[IJ was sweeping and wiping [the floors of] the rooms. 
Alternatives may be translated by means of "at times — at 
times," "now — again," or^ in some cases, simply by "and." 
They cannot be inflected and ordinarily are not used except 
with forms of suru to do. Notice the following elliptical 
construction . 

Sore wa negattari kanattari desu. 

It is just what I want (lit. desiring, obtaining). 


oboe memory. hatsu-yume first dream of the 

yuine dream. year. ^ 

a This hatsu is the equivalent of sho, in shohan (p. 93), much used as a 
prefix in the sense of * first." It must not be confused with the Chinese haim 
to start, originate. 

XLvi] Dksidekative and Alternative 177 

kake-vtono a picture or writ- seiya-zukuri no built in Euro- 

ing in the form of a roll pean style, 

which may be opened aisume-ru gather, assemble^ 

and hung on a wall. collect 

^T^-^i/ adjustment, condition. * koto-suke-ruxxsQ an opportunity 
hen-kwa change, grammali- to despatch anything, send 

cal inflection. word. 

dJ'sAi no Aen-^wa conjugation, sashi-age ru lift up, give (more- 
ji-dai age, epoch. formal than ageru), 

ji dai no aru antique. hent^ hette decreabc ; hara ga 

kwa-dan flower-bed. — become hungry. 

mivi'pj civil law, civil code, goku (c) very. 
nadOf nazo, nanzo et cetera. ^ saki hodo a little while ago. 
/jtt>('»A» make, build (a house), iotetno by no means (with a 

raise (a crop). negative word). ^ 


Watakushiwa Nihon no mono wo s* koshi atsumetj gozawias\ 
Donna mono des' ka, Sayoyjidai no aru kakemono nazo ga ya 
gozaimas, Matsubara san ni kotozuketai koto ga arimas\ 
Anata wa issho ni oide nasaru o hima ga gozaimasen ka, Ta- 
daima te garni wo sJitatametj gozaitnas' kara^ o a to kara ^ 
inairimashj, Watakushi wa P*rosha no mimpj no koto ga 
torishirabetj gozaimas* ga, ii hon wo go zonji de arimasen ka. 
Nihongo wa sonfia ni keiko wo yametari hajimetari sKte wa 
oboeraremasen (p. io8h). Kyo wa tenki des' kara, asobi ni 
detaku narimaskta. Mizu wo abiru to, mono wo tabetaku na- 
rimas\ « Doka, Nihon ye itte mttai mon des\ ^ Sfioji wa 

a Aniado wa guai ga waruu The sliding doors do not fit well into their 
grooves. Waiakushi toa ionogoro gttai ga warui. I have been under the 
weather lately. 

b These words are attached to a noun immediately, and precede such 
particles as wa, ga, etc. 

c Kesshite is used of a firm resolution or of a statement for which the speaker 
makes himself personally responsible: Kesshite sonna koto wa arimasen, 1 
assure you there will be nothing of the kind. Totemo is not so positive and 
indicates merely that there arc serious diflSculties in the way : Totemo tamkari^ 
ntasumai. There is almost no chance of his recovery. 

d O ato kara afterwards, after you. 

e Mono is indefinite (p. 47). Mono wo tabetaku naru become hungry. 

f /)AI»(liL somehow or otber) here wrvc* to express the fervor of the 
desire and may be translated ** very much." Itte miiai wish to visit (lit. go and 

178 The Verb [xlvi 

sonna ni shiju aketari shimetari sKte iru io^ guai ga warukn 
narimas*. Atsui to, mizuga^ abitaku narim/is\ Kyo wa sHoshi 
kibun ga wariikute sainpo ni detaku wa arimasen. Sakihodo 
kimnslCta shosei wa anata ni go hon wp kari moshitai to 
iUe imasKta Anata no yj ni kanji no kakiyo wo oboetai 
mono des^ keredomo^ totemo oboeru koto wa dekimas'mai. Are 
wa netari okitari sKte imas\ Hito wo sonna ni agetari 
sagttari slite wa ikemasen. ^ Komban no hatsuyume ni wa 
Fuji no yama no yume de mo mitai mon* des\ ^ Niwa no 
sakura ga sakimasKta kara% oide wo negatte ^ ippai sashi- 
agetai mon dis\ Anata ni sashiagetai mono ga arimas\ 
Kwadan ni botan wo ippon uetai mon des\ DJmo, bunsfu wo 
kaite mitak'te mo, ii kangae ga demasen kara, yoshimashj. 
DomOt shibai ga mitakute tamarimasen. 

Often when {to) I hear [of] the beauty {ii koto) of Japanese 
scenery I become desirous to go and see jitj. The room will 
become (becomes) very cold, if you continue {suru) opening 
and shutting the door. I wish to show you [some] Japanese 
photographs. 1 wish to learn to write (kaku koto wo) Chinese 
characters; don't you know [of ] a good teacher? 1 wish to 
borrow {o kari mSsu) a little money; will you please loan me 
£some]? 1 should like to learn the conjugation of Japanese 
verbs. As 1 have [some] leisure to-day, I wish to out for a 
little recreation {chotto asobi ni), [Our] neighbor wishes to 
build a house in European style, but probably [his] money 
does not yet suffice for that {sore ni wa). I should like to eat 
Japanese food (cooking) once. He wants to learn Chinese 
characters, but his memory is bad and he immediately for^^ets 
(forgetting finishes) the characters he has learned {osowatta). 
Look ! yonder a ship is at times visible and at times out ot 

a litx^ agtru tiii^ sagiru have the derived senses of ** extol" and "* dis- 
parage ". 

b It is considered a sign of good luck to dream of Mount Fuji on the night 
of the second of January. — no yume wo ntiru to dream of (lit. see a dream of). 
Ha ga nnketa yume no tttimashfia, I dreamed that I lost a tooth (a tooth was 
extracted). Notice that de mo may be added to nouns as weU as pro- 
nouns (Ch. XVII.), making the sense indefinite : a dream of Kujt or a dream 
of that kind. Compare the sentence p. Z72A. The hawk (//7/(*<7) and the egg- 
plant {nasubi) are alsu favorable omens in a haimyume. Hence the proverb : 
Uhi^ Fuji ; ni, taka ; san, nasubu 

c Ouie JVC negaimasu. Please come to see me (lit. I beg your presence). 
wo is understood with ifpau 


The R Group 


sight (hidden). As I wish to get off (descend), stop 
{tomeru) / a He wants to visit Germany. He wants to borrow 
a graiUmar of {ni) you. I should like to study and learn 
Japanese, but I haven't much (amari) leisure. The children 
want to fly kites. As I have become hungry (stomach has 
decreased), I want to eat (p. 143b). 


Verbs of the second class (p. 142) may be divided into 
groups, according to the consonants which precede the u of 
the present tense. To the first group belong verbs in ru. 

I. Paradigm of torn (stem ^ori) to take : 



toranai, toran («) 
toranakatta, — nanda 

toranai darj^ toran daro 
toranakaitaro^ — nandarD 
toranakatta daro 
c toranakereba ^ (toranakubd) 

toranai nara (ba) 
toranaiattara, — nandara {ba) 
toranakatta nara {ba) 
torn na 
o tori de nai yo 

torazu {shite)t torazu ni 
torannidfy torande 
tontaku nai 

toranakattari^ ^ — nandari 

a If the kurumahiki ii standing with the shafts in his hands, one may say : 
oreshiii kurt^ from droiu to let down. 

b Forms like ^rannkard (comp. tabenakard p. 154) are sometimes heard, but 
the propriety of including them in d paradigm is disputed. 

c Toraba, as also the negattytf tcranakuba^ is a cla'Ssical form. 

d Forms like toranakereba nr^ TariOUsly contracted : toranakereba^ forand- 
kerya (emphatic : toranakeryti\ torankya toranya. 





Future or 



torn daro 

Probable Past 


totta daro 


toreba {toraba) 

torn nara {ba) 


tottara {ba) 

totta nara {ba) 



{0) tori na 

tori {yo) 







i8o The Verb [xlvh 

2. The characteristic vowels are i, a, € and u, 

I The forms iotte^ tottari, totta are derived by elision and 
assimilation from the stem tori and te, tari^ ta. The ending ia 
is a contraction of the classical tarii (attributive) or /^r/ (con- 
clusive). Such uncontracted forms as toriU and totitaru (in 
the attributive position) are sometimes heard in speeches and 
occur in proverbs. Observe that the / of the stem does not 
suffer elision in the desiderative. 

A The form iord is a contraction of toram (u), "which in 
the classical language becomes to ran. ^ Such forms as /oran 
creep into speeches, especially with to sum : shinan to suru 
hiio a man about to die. Observe that the vowel of the stem 
in changed to a in the positive future and in all the negative 
forms except the future and the imperative. The classical 
negative forms torazu, toranu (attributive), and toraji (future) 
would also come under this head. 

E In the positive imperative and conditional the vowel of 
the stem is changed to e : tore, toreba. Here would belong the 
classical concessive toredomo\ which, however, rarely occurs 
in the coUoqu'aL 

U In the negative imperative and future, as in the positive 
present, the vowel becomes u : toru na, toriunau 

3. The verbs aru to be and naru to become <^ are included 
in this group. 

There are many verbs ending in am which are passive or 
intransitive {ji-d3shi) and correspond to transitive verbs (ta- 
doski) in e-ru, both being in most cases represented by the 
same ideogram. ^ 

agaru go up, take (food, etc). ageru lift up, give. 

aiant strike, meet (p. 71c). aterti apply, hit, guess* 

atsumaru assemble. atsumeru gather. 

asukaru take charge of (p 184b). azukeru entrust 

hajimaru begin (intr.). hajimeru begin (tr.). 

kakaru be hung. kakerti hang. 

a From verbs of the first class similar forms may be derived : taben^ min^ 
b But it must not be supposed that this is a general rule or that the list 

here given is complete. See interesting tables in Imbrie's Etymology p. 2*jfL 
c This naru must be distinguished from the naru derived from m am (Ch 

XXXIII ; c. g.,JiduM no kerai naru cMkshin a true liegeman, being his own 



The R Group 


magaru be bent, turn, 
masaru be mixed. 
osamaru be governed, pacified. 
osamaru be paid (of taxes). 
sagaru descend, return. 
shizumaru become calm. 
tamaru be accumulated. 
tasufcaru be saved, recover. 
tomaru stop, be entertained. 
ivakaru be divided, understood. 
kawaru be changed, vary. 

mageru bend. 
mazeru mix. 
osamaru govern, pacify. 
osameru pay (taxes). 
sageru take down, suspend, 
shizumeru tranquillize. ^ 
tameru accumulate. 
tasukeru save, help. 
tomeru stop, entertain. 
wakeru divide. 
kaeru change. 
sueru set. 

suwaru sit (in native manner). 

In some cases forms in aru are contractions of potential or 
honorific forms (see also Ch. XLIX.). 

makaru be able to come down on the price, from make- 

uasaru do, from nasareru. 
kudasaru bestow, from kudasareru. 
irassharu be, come, go, from iraserateru. 
vssbaru say, from ostrareru. 


(Include the verbs given above.) 

saku produce, yield, crop. 

haka grave. 

ita board. 

w/ body, self (p. $8). shi wo tsukuru compose a 

namida tears. 

shita tongue. 

bo pole, cli;b, beam. 

riku land (opp. sea). 

riku ni agaru ti land. 

a These vt rbs sliould not be confused with sktMumu sink, be immersed, and 
the corresponding transitive shuume-ru, 

b The term shi is now general and is applied to all foreign and to modern 
Japanese poetry, but in old Japan f//» was understood to mean Chinese verses. 
In the sense of poetry the word ufa is limited to verses written in the old 
•native style, but in the sense of song il is universally applicable. 

shi poem. ^ 

shi wo tsukuru 

rei politeness. 
bu-rei rudeness. 
sen-do sailor, boatman. 
tei'haku anchoring. 


The Verb 


yu-dan negligence, inattention. 
tei'shorba^suitishon station. 
sho (c) many, several (p. i). 
amaru be in excess. 
damarn be silent. 
horu dig, carve, 
kusam decay, be malodorous. 
naoru be repaired, cured 

(comp. naosu), 
ni-ru boil, cook (p. i68d). 
— ;// noborn ascend. 
okoru arise, break out, get 

sawagu, sawaidi be noisy, 

shikaru scold. 
taru^tari-ru be enough (p. 

tomu be rich. 
iomi riches, lottery. 
tomi ni ataru win in a lottery. 
wataru cross. 

tsumoru be piled up^ accumu- 

yoru twist 

kc-y^ri {kaini^ yori) paper 
twisted into a string. 

hone bone* 

hone wo oru exert one s self 
(lit. break bones). 

hone- on eflFort. 

deki-agaru be finished. 

tsuki-ataru come up against, 
go straight toward. 

has hi wo kake-ru build a 

— wake ni (wrt) ikanai may 

kare-kore about (p. 28b). 

san-san (ni) recklessly, harsh- 
ly, severely. 

sek-kaku with special pains^ 

to-chu de on the way. 


Daviatte iru hito wa yudan ga dekinai,^ Bunshj wa 
ts*kuru fit wa imi ga wakaranaku naranaide narudake 
inijikaku in yd ni ki wo ts kenakereba narimasen. Kono kin 
wa gin ga mazatte imas* kara, shiromi-gnkatte ifnas\ ^ Taiso 
yowatta. IVatakushi wa ik^sa ga okoreba {okottara), sugu ni 
kuni ye kaeranakereba narimasen, Ano hito wa naze okori- 
mash'ta ka, Domo, komarifnas* ; ki ni iran koto ga areba, 
sugu ni okoriinas\ Anata sugu (ni) o kaeri ni narimas ka, lie^ 

a More fully expressed : Vvdnn siiru koto ga dekinai. One must be wary in 
dealing with a taciturn man. Many sentences of this kind end in the 
negative imperative >'//</«« suru iia. 

I) Mas a white tinge, from shiromi (p. 21 ) and kakaru. One may also say : 
shiionti ga kaiU imasu the white tinge prevails, from katsu to conquer. 

xLvii] The R Group . 183 

skoshi mawatti kaerimas\ Jibun no mi no osamaran hito ga 
iak*san arimas\ Tokyo no mono wa san gwatsu noju go uichi 
ni awe ga furu to^ Umewaka no namida da to iimas\ * 
Mukashi wa tabi wo sum hito ga ^^ren-dai** to iu ita ni b3 
wo ni hon ts^keta mono ni notU Oigawa wo^ watatta ga^ 
konogoro wa hashi ga kakatte imas\ Nihon ni wa hashi no^ 
hakatte oran kawa ga tak'san arimas\ IVatakushi no 
tomodachi wa ioc/m de kane ga nakunatta kara, komatta 
tegami wo yokoshimasK ta. Tadqima wa ShimbasK kara Ueno 
made tetsudo ga kakatte orimas, Ikura hone wo otte yatte 
f/to, hayaku dekiagarimasen. B,n no Shokaku to iu hito wa ^ 
ashi ga jobu de shokoku wo mawatta sj des' ; sore da kara 
sKte^ ima de mo yoku shokoku wo mawaru hito ga waraji wq^ 
sono hito no so ni kakemas\ Fuji san ni nobotta koto ga arimas* 
ka. Sayo, nobotta koto ga arimas\ JSlobori wa nan j'ikan 
kakarlmash^ ta ka. Sayo, karekore hachijikan kakarimasK ta. 
Kono sakana wa doku da kara^ o agari de nai yo, Ni san 
nichi no aida Nihongo wo hanasanai to, slita ga mawaranaku 
nariinas\ Watakusht ga kuni ye kaeru toki, Honkon ni June 
ga teihaku shimasKta kara, riku nt agatte hito ban yadoya ni 
iomarlmasKta ; shikashi hidoku atsui no de, yodoshi nemasen 
deskta. Alukashi wa Tenryugawa wo fune de watatta ga^ 
ima wa hashi ga dekite orimas\ Ante ga futtari yuki ga 
Juttari sh'te komarimas, Koyori wa kami wo y otte koshiraeta 
mono des. K *satte mo tai (Proverb). Kono taki wa urn no 
ho ni mawatte mtru koto ^a dekimas kara, Uramigataki to 
mDskimas\ ^ Tomi ni atatte kanemochi ni naritai mon des*^ 
IVakaita ka wakaranai ka wakarimasen. Mina wa zvakart- 
viasen.^ Wakatte mo wakaranai kao %vo sh'te iwasKta. 

a Umewaka is the name of a child who was kidnapped from a noble family 
in Kyolo and died at MukSjima in T6ky5. At a little temple erected there \\\ 
its honor a memorial service is held on the 15th of March every year. 

b This river, which forms the boundary between the provinces of Siiruga 
and TotSmi, must be crossed by travellers on the 'l5kaido, the highway 
between Ky6l5 and T6ky5, 

c A. hermit and priest of the seventh century, round whose name many 
legends cluster. 

d A waterfall in the neighborhood of Nikko. 

c I do not understand ALL, L e., there are parts that I do not understand. 
Mina tvakarinmsen. It is all dark to me. 

184 The Verb [xlvii 

S*teru kami ga areba tas'kem kami mo aru,^ Soreja.kono 
shtnamono wo o azukari itasKte okimashX^ Sekkaku des' 
Jdara, go chiso m azukarimasho {narimasko). Ano kichigai 
wa anna ni sawaide oru keredomo, jiki ni shizumaru yo. 
Teishaba ye mairimasuru ni wa^ dj i tiara yorosku gozai- 
masho {ka). Sayo^ soko wo tsukiataite hidari no ho ye ma- 
gareba^ machigai naku s'teishon ye oide nasaru koto ga deki- 
fnas\ Kakari no hito wa mo sagarimash* ta, ^ 

Names of things vary according to (depending on) locality 
{place). Be silent 1« l\i{niwa) Nikko (r) there is (8) also 
the grave (7) of the horse (6) on which leyasu (2) rode ($) 
at {ni) the battle (4) of Sekigahara (3). The teacher got 
angry and scolded the pupils severely. Please hand {torn) me 
that dictionary. Did you {kimi 2) compose (3) this Chinese 
poem {wa i)? The daimyds* mansions which were in Tokyo 
for tlie most part have been changed (being changed have 
finished) to offices. Please help {tas'kete yaru) him. ^ If you 
go (trassharu — past cond.) to Ikao, S your malady {go byjki) 
may (p. 109a) be cured. If there were no (are not) unsavory 
things, the flavor {umami mo) of delicious things would hardly 
be appreciated (understood). In Japan crops are poor (baJ) 
if rain does not fall abundantly {tak*san) from May to {ni 

a This proverb fits into I he moulh of one who wishes to comfort himself or 
another in time of distress. 

b Notice that auukaru in the sense of " to take charge of" takes wo. In 
the next sentence it means "to participate in" and takes ///. In the latter 
sense azukarn is not used so much in the colloquial, and smacks of the 
epistolary style. 

c For euphony's sake the ending masu here becomes masuf-u^ bat masu also 
-would be correct. 

d The man in charge has left the ofSce. Here we have another very 
common use of kakaru in the form of its stem. Kakari no hito may also mean 
all the officials in a department. As a suffix ^/7^aW forms many compounds ; 
e. g., Invaiket- kakari treasurer, from kivai-kei finance. The verb sat^'aru is used 
of men leaving an ofF.ce at the close of the day's work or of pupils returning 
home from school, the office or school being regarded as an exalted place. 

e The imperative oi damaru is of course not polite. To be xx>lite one must 
say : Chotio kiiie kudasai, 

f The verb tasukeru is used in a case of peril, distress or poverty. To help 
one to do a task is tetsudau, tetsudatte, 

g A famous summer resort, with hot springs, in the province of Kozuke 
-near Maebnshi. 

xLviii] Verbs in erti and iru 185 

kakete) June. When you went to Shinshu recently did you 
ascend Mount Asama ?^ I wished to make the ascent (ascend), 
but, as it was raining constantly, I returned without making the 
ascent. Though [wej dug never so {ikura) deep, we struck no 
water (water did not come forth). Since this (i) is not mine, 
[I] may not {wake ni wa ikimasen) give it to another {Jiito). 
This meat is not sufficiently cooked [iii-kata is not sufficient). 
Too many sailors run the ship aground (The sailors being 
numerous, the ship ascends the mountain.) ^ Excessive polite- 
ness (politeness being in excess) becomes rudeness (Proverb), 
Dust accumulating becomes a mountain (Proverb). This horse 
is not worth (does not become even) a vton. Can you not 
deduct {makaru) even a little ? Yes, I will deduct two sin 
{wa). What did you say ? 


There are a few verbs which, ending in eru or iru, are often 
mistaken for verbs of the first class. A partial list of them is 
here given « with the recommendation that the student as he 
goes over it pronounce the subordinative distinctly, thus ; asette^ 
chitte^ etc 

aseru hurry. kajiru gnaw. 

chiru scatter (p. 62a). keru kick. 
— ni fukeru be addicted to. kiru cut, divide. 

fuseru go to bed. mairu^iku, kuru (polite i, 3), 

hairu enter. majiru^viazaru be mixed. 

hashiru go fast, run. nejiru twist, screw. 

heru decrease. neru knead, soften, train. 

hineru twist. nigiru grasp. 

ijiru meddle with, tease, shaberu chatter. 
iru enter, be needed, set (of shikujiru fail, forfeit. 

heavenly bodies). shimeru be damp. 

iru parch, roast. shim know. 

kaeru return. suberu slide, slip. 

kagiru limit, be limited. tern shine (of the sun). 

a An active volcanu near Kaiuizawa. 
b Compare the English : " Many cooks spoil the broth." 
c Assamtng that this list is mastered, we will discontinue the use of the 
hyphen in verbs of the first class. 

1 86 The Verb [xlviii 


(Include the verbs given above) 

futa cover, lid. yashiro Shito shrine. 

luiyashi \ . ^ setsu opinion. 

mori ) kwqn goveri^ment office (in 
kataki foe. kwan-ri). 

kin slice, piece. ch'jjj ) gm^^^ji. 

kubi neck. ^ itadaki \ 

ip) musubi bail of rice used gi-shi loyal samurai. 

for lunch {fnusubu make raku-dai failure in examina- 

into a ball with the hands). tion. 

niji rainbow. sep-puku suicide by cutting 
niji ga tatsu {deru) a rain- the abdomen. ^ 

bow ai)pears. shu-jin master. 

nori paste made of starch, ken-so na precipitous. 

mucilage. shin-chiku no newly built. 

saki tip, point. abareru become fractious, 

sue end. kaku scratch. 

tokkuri a sake bottle. nusumu steal. 

harusame (harUy ame) spring okotaru be lazy, neglect. 

rain. oshiviu prize, deplore, be- 
mame bean. grudge. 

nankin-vtame peanuts, c hameru insert, fit. 
kana Japanese syllabic char- ate- hameru assign, adjust, 

acters. ^ apply. 

kaya mosquito net. « ate-hainuru be suited, appli- 
oskaberi {j-shaberi) chatterbox, cable. 

a A mori is smaller and denser than a hayaski* The term mon is specially 
applied to the grove surrounding a temple or shrine. 

b Not to be confused with the classical kobe head. 

c From the Dame of a Chinese city. Comp. nankin-netumi (p. 2a) 

d From karu borrow, na name. The syllabary is derived from certain 
Chinese characters. The hira-gana, from Jiira level, plain, are extremely 
simpliiie<l forms of the characters as wriilen cursively. The less familtar 
kaia-l'nna, from kaia side, ore fragmenis of the ciiaracters as written squarely. 

e Mule like a square tent and suspended by strings attached to the corners 
(and sides) of the lop. 

f From setsu^skiru^ fukii=iJiara. The wor.l " harikari *' found in some 
English dictionaries is a corruption of hara-kiri. Some »ay kap-puku 

[xLviii] Verbs in eru and iru 187 

sonaeru provide, furnish, offer, chjdo exactly, just. 

tatoeru compare by way of muyaini ni rec^clessly. 

illustration. sukiari {to) entirely. ^ 

iatoeba for example. • fetapera rapidly (of talk). 

ne-giru beat down the price ho-bj several directions, 

{ne price, kiru cut). everywhere. 

seme-iru enter forcibly. io-tei by no means, at all 
ho wo kakeru spread tlie sails. (with a negative verb). 

sd-ba wo yaru engage in spec- zo-sa naku without trouble, 

ulation. easily. 


Kono jibiki ni wa iranai ji ga tak'san arimas* ; tatoeba 
Manyoshu no^ kotoba nazo wa kessKie irimasen. Nihon no 
buns/io wa kanji ni kana ga majitte orimas\ Skijii shichi 
nin no gishi ga Kira KCzukenos'ke no yasKki ni semeiri, 
kataki no kvbi wo kitte bengakuji ye moite kite shujin no haka 
ye sonae, sore kara niina seppuku sh'te shinimasK Ui, ^ Kono 
sh'igoto wa ikura asette yatte mo kongeisu no sue no ma ni wa 
aimasmai. Mada htrugozen wo tabezu ni orivtas' kara, taisb 
hara ga hette mairimasKta, Konya wa hnyaku fuse tie 
fnycc/io hayaku okimashj, Kono daigaku no shosei no kazu 
g-a oioi hette kite machi no mono ga komatiinas\ Yoku 
shaberu hito wa oshaberi to mJshimas*. Hoka ye^ itte uchi 

a The verb tatoeru appears in th^ phrase, tatoete mireba. The regular 
conditional form in the colloquial would be tatoenba. The form tatoeba is 
1x>rrowed from the classical language. *• An example" is tatoe or rei. To 
•* give an example" is rei wo torn, hiku or ageru. Sore wa it rei de wa arimasen^ 
or, So9U> reiwa yoku atehamarimasen. That is not a good illustration. 

b Sappari is often synonymous with tukkari^ but lappari may also have the 
sense of "clearly." ^ee also p. I28d. 

c The name of the oldest anthology : man 10,000 or many, yo leaf, shn 

A This is the plot of the celebrated drama Chmhini^ttra {chn shin loyal 
subject), better known by the title "The Forty-seven J\ofiinsJ^ Ard-nin is a 
samurai without a master {ro wave, vagrant, nin man\ The Forty-seven are 
called also Ako no gishi. Al Sen-gaktt-ji \fo\ini^\n'moMT\i^\i\'\em^\ii) m Shibaj 
,X6kyo, WAS the grave of the daimyb of Akd the lord of the Fori y seven. 
X^ike-no—uke vras originaly an official title which later cnme into use as 
a given name. Compare Kwa-no suke^ PVakasa-no-suke, etc. In this sentence 
the ?tem is used for the subordi native, as is often the case in nnrrntivc* 
(p. 162b). 

e Ifokaye to others, outsiders, lite is from iku to g<». 

1 88 The Verb [xlviii 

tio koto wo shabette wa {shabetcha) tvarui yo. Ano chits at 
viustne wa perapera shabette imas\ Fujisan no chjjo ni wa 
Dki na ana ga aite intas* ; soko ni kenso na tokoro ga atte Oya 
Shirazu Ko Shirazu to moshimas* ; (nase naraba)^ moshi hito 
ga ayamatte soko ni suberiochiru to, oya wa ko wo ste ko wa 
oya wo s'tete okanakereba narlmasen kara, so iu na ga deki- 
maslita. Hi ga tettari ame ga Juttari sh'te tenki ga yoku 
kawatte komariinas\ Sakura no chiru no wo oshimanu hito 
wa arimasen. Harusame wa sakurabana no chiru no wo 
oshimu hito no namida ka mo shirenai {namida de mo 
arimashj ka).^ Ueno no hafia wa chitte shimaimasK ta ka. 
lie, ima chodo sakari des\ Kono tokkuri ni wa go gj hairanai. 
O me ga akaku narimasKta no wa do iu wake des* ka. 
Mushi ga haitte komarimasK ta, IVadoku nojibiki wo motte 
mairitai to omoimasK te hobo tazunemasKta keredomoy gozai- 
masen, Kono ie wa shinchiku des* kara, heya ga shiviette 
4>rimas^, Yoshitsune wa Kotomogawa no tatakai ni makete 
hara wo kitta to iu setsu mo ari, mata Eso ye nigeta to iu setsu 
mo aru, ^ MutsukasK kute atama ni hairimasen, Kono sakana 
^wo ikutsu ni kitte agemashj ka. SayJ, mi kire ni sKte 
kudasai. Ano gakusei wa asobi nifukette benkyd wo okotatie 
xmas' kara, rakudai sum deshd. Nihonjin wa kangaeru 
ioki ni kubi wo hinerimas' ga^ ^ Seiyojin wa atama wo kaku 
so des\ Gozen de nori wo nette kure. Baka to hi wa ijifu 
hodo okoru (Proverb). Irimame to iu mono wa mame wo iUe 
sat J ka sJuyu wo ts^keta mono de, mameiri to mo iimas\ O 
viusubi wo nigitte o kure. ^ Kono futa wa hidari no hd ni 
nejireba zjsa naku toremas\ ^ Kodomo ga yoku fusette 

a Naze naraba is elliptical for Nau ka to naraba if [you ask] «' why." An 
explanation is frequently introduced by this phrase or nau to iu ni. The 
expression Oya Shirazu Kb Shirazu often occurs as a designation of a dangerous 
place. The most noted place that bears this name is a rough part of the coast 
of Echigo. 

b A paraphrase of a poem in the anthology Kb-kiti-wa ka-shU {ko=zfurw\ 
kiii^zima, «;/7=Japan, ka=uta\ Namida ka is elliptical for namida da (desu) ka, 

c The Koromo is a small river in the north emptying into the Kitakami 
River near Ichinoseki. Yoshitsune was a famous hero of the XII. ccntnry 
(p. 162c). 

d •« To twist the neck " here means simply to incline the head to one side. 

e The balls of rice which so often serve as a simple lunch are also called 

f Translate: one can take it off (p. loSh) 

xLviii] Verbs in ^u and tru 189 

When the winter is extraordinarily cold (in an extra- 
ordinarily cold time of winter) there is skating (skating is 
possible) even at {de mo) Yokohama. If (jo) the sun shines 
while {ucki ni) it is raining (rains) a rainbow appears. You 
must not beat down the price so. He stole public funds 
{kwan-iin) and forfeited [his] office. He pretended not to 
know (was making a face that knows not). What {kotol ^ 
have just now said, not being limited to this word, is applica- 
ble to other words also. The gohei^ being (a thing) limited 
to [Shinto] shrines, is not [found] in [Buddhist J temples. 
Among these wares is there none that you like (entered your 
spirit) ? All are satisfactory (good), but as they are dear I 
will give them up. I do not yet quite understand (it dojs not 
yet entirely enter my head), What is ui those godowns ? In 
those godowns there are clothes, books, money and so forth ^ 
— various things. Shall I cut the tip of [your] agar ? Please 
do so (I request). The horse became fractious and kicked the 
groom. The cherry [blossoms | of Mukojima too have proba- 
bly fallen (falling finished) already. One must not cut [down] 
a forest recklessly. The ship runs about 15 kai-ri^ an (one) 
hour if one spreads the sails. Last night one mosquito got 
into (naJta ni hairu) the net and I couldn't sleep at all. The 
longer he is in (haitte oru) the school, the more indolent 
iju'benkyj) does he become. Rats have gnawed the book- 
case. He engaged in speculation and failed. Are these 
peanuts fresh roasted ? (p. 119 bottom). 


I. The polite verbs nasaru, kudasaru, and irassharu are 
used in the second (or third) pers*on both independently and as 
auxiliaries. Usually masu is added, and ari in nasarimasu, 
kudasarimasu^ irassharimasu is added, and ai. ^ So also are 

a The gokei (see Vocabulary p. 129), made of white paper or metal, is the 
characteristic decoration of a Shint5 shrine. Its significance is not clearly 
known : some say that it is a symbol of divinity or purity. 

b In soch a list conjunctions may be dispensed with. See p. 2, middle. 

c A Jkofri {Jkai=iumi sea) is a knot— about 1.15 miles. 

d In the same manner Msharimasu and goMarimasu are contracted. 

190 The VfiRB [xux 

in the imperatives nasare^ kudasan, and irasshitri is contract- 
ed to aL The imperative of inasu is mase or mashu Thus 
the imperatives of these verbs are nasai or nasaimashi^ kuda- 
sat or kudasaitnashit iraSshai or irasshaimashi. The rtf before 
//^, tte, ttariy etc., is commonly elided : nas'tta, nas*tie^ 
nasttari ; kudas*tta, kudas'ite, etc. ; irassKtta, etc. 

(i.) Nasaru is used independently. It is also used with 
Chinese compounds or with the stems of verbs as the polite 
equivalent of surd: 

Go katte ni nasai. 

Consult your own convenience. 

Naiti wa go kembutsu nasaru tsiimari desu ka. 

What do you intend to see ? 

Sukoshi o make nasai. Make the price a little lower. 

Oide^ nasaimashita. You (he) went, came, were. 

(2.) Kudasarti as an indepeildent verb means " grant con- 
descendingly." As an auxiliary ic is used with either the stem 
or the subordinative of a verb (but generally with the latter), 
and may be literally translated " condescend to ", " deign to " : 

Kono shashin wo kudasaimasen ka. 

Will you not be so good as to give me this photograph ? 

Go men kudasai. Please excuse me. I beg your pardon. 

O yomi {pv yonde) kudasai. Kindly read it. 

Shinsetsu ni oshiete kudasaimashiia. 

He was good enough to explain [it] carefully. 

Go ran nastte kudasai. Condescend to look at it. 

Constructions like yomi nastte kudasai are formal and 
polite. Familiarly one may substitute kureru for kudasaru^ 
but only with the simple subordinative, not with the stem : 
oshiete kuremashiia, 

(3.) Irassiiaru means "go", "come", **be". Irassharu 
and oide nasaru are practically synonymous. In speaking of 
persons de irassharu^ de aru (p. 78b). As an auxiliary 
itassharu is used with the subordinative of a verb and is the 
polite equivalent of tru or oru : 

a From the honoTific o and the stem of the classical itu^ the older fonrte of 
derti (p. 144, 6). Not ice that the honorific o or go iis r<equired iif the above 
-examples (p. 72f \ 

xLix] Honorific Verbs in ru 191 

Kyd sampo ni irasshatmasu ka. 

Will you go for a walk to-day ? 

Kochira no ho ye irassJuiu Come this way, please. » 

Go buji de trasshaimasu ka. Are you well ? 

Danna sama wa go zaitaku de irasshatmasu ka. 

Is the master at home ? 

Tokyj ni sumatte irassfMimasu. He resides in Tokyo. 

Itte irasshai is the polite equivalent of itte koi (lit. go and 
come) Go ! Good bye ! 

2. Negative forms of aru^ such as aranai, etc., are not 
used» being replaced by forms of nai (p. 100). The only 
exception is the future or probable arumai, which is used 
along with nakaro, nai ddro. In the classical language arazu 
^nai^ ni arazu=de nai. 

For de aru, de atta, de aro the- contractions da^ datta^ daro 
are usually employed; for de ariinasu, etc., desu^ deshita^ 
desh'f. The uncontracted de aru is heard only in speeches. 
The use olja as a contraction of de aru survives in Buddhist 
sermons and in some dialects. ^ 

The very formal equivalent of apu is gozarimasu, usually 
pronounced gozaimasu. The simple gozaru c (negative : goza- 
ranu) is rarely used in conversation, but may be heard in 

It should also be noted that such expressions as ni natie aru 
(P' 163, 5) are often used where we should expect aru. 


kane bell. kat-te one's own convenience. ^ 

a The simple imperative irasshai has been somewhat vulgarized by 
doorkeepers of places of amusement, etc. 

b The particles de 7va are also contracted to ja which occurs with special 
frequency in, ja nai /•«.• Cftoiio mi ni ikdja nai ka. Shan't we go to see it? 
So oszhaftnja arimasen Aa» You said so, did you not ? 

c Tliis word b detived from the honorific ^(t? and sa (c) scat. It is of course 
unusual to form verbs bjr adding m to Chinese elements, but there are 
analogous instances (Introduction, Xb) The native equivalent of f^ozaru is 
07vasu OT (nvasMmasu, an honorific verb used like cidf nasaru or inissharu. 
Another form of the same verb, omasu, is still used in the Kyoto dialect as an 
equivalent of aru : sp de otHtisu or so dosu^sso desu. If this is not the explana- 
tion of the origin oi gnaru^ it is at least an instructive analogy. 

d Comp. kaltei^amashii p, no. The adjective katte na means selfish, 
inconsiderate. In speaking to a person, go may b6 prefixed to katte. 

192 The Verb [xlix 

do-yd the dog days, hai-ken sum look at (polite i). 

jo'go one who is fond of s has kin wo toru take (or sit 

sake^ sot. for) a photograph. 

ge-ko one who prefers sweets dai-ji ni sum take good care 

to sake^ teetotaler. of (p. 33a). 
A^i-^j^5 consumption, phthisis, kangaeru think, reflect 

kern- buisu sight seeing. — no kangae wo kiku seek the 

ko'shi minister, ambassador. advice of. 

shitsu'tei discourtesy, im- hanahada very, very much. 

politeness. kaette on the contrary, rather. 

sb-shiki funeral. moto originally. 

s/iJ'du=^ayavie,^ yukkuri (to), yururi (id) lei- 

haku'butsu'kwan museum. surely (p 33e). 

on-sem-da 1 hot spring ikigake ni on the way (going). 

tO'ji-ba 3 sanitarium. kaerigake ni on the way back. 

watasu take across, hand machigai naku without fail, 

over (comp. wataru). surely. 


Doits* tei no go sosKki wo go ran nastta ka. Sayo miviastCta . 
Go ran nas*ttara, watakushi ni watasKte kudasai, O sashi- 
ts*kae ga ariniasen nara, dozo oide nas'tte kudasai. O kaeri- 
gake ni watakushi no uchi ni o yori 7ias'tte kudasai, ^ Nikon 
ni irassKtta toki ni nan no o skirabemono wo nasaimaskUa ka. ^ 
Watakuski no shashin ivo fotie kudasai, Sono kane ga naku- 
nattara, do nasaimas* ka. Mo skoski hayaku oide nasttara^ o 
ma ni aimash' taro ni, Horikiri no ^ kanaskjbu wo mi ni oide 
nararan ka . Ueno no kakubuts* kwan wo go kembutsu ni oide 
nasaimasen ka. Do o kangae nasaiinas" ka. Hitotsu o kangae 
nas'tte kudasai. Moto Berrin ni oide nas'tta Nikon no koshi 

a Ayatne is rather the classical word. Usage has, however, diflerentialed 
ayame and shobu, so that it i» not strictly correct to call them synonymous. 
But the usage is not consistent. The ayanie or skdbu of the proverb (pw 66c) 
is the sweet flag or calamus, whose blossom is inconspicuous. Varieties of the 
iris family which have showy flowers are called hana-shbbu or hana-ayame. 

b Hito no uchi (tokoro) ni [ye) yoru to call upon a person. 

c Skirabemono %vo suru to make an inrestigatioR. Comp. wusmremo mo nto 
furu p. 143^. 

d A garden in the vicinity of TokyS renowned for its exhibitions of irises. 

XLix] HoNORinc Verbs in ru 193 

iva kuni ni o kaeri nasatte^ Una wa tojiba ni irasshaimas\ 
Mo kane ga natta de wa arimasen ka. Muko no kuni no 
koioba ga o wakari nasaimasen kara (p. 1 1 8b), tocku de o 
kantari nas* tta desAo. Konaida oide no tokini oyak'soku ni 
narimasKta hon wo motte kite kudasaimasK ta ka. ^ Ano o 
kaia wa geko de irassharu kara, kwashi de mo sashiage- 
fttasko. ^ Anata wa kitchiri roku ji ni o oki nasaimaska, 
Sayo^ iokei ga nam to, sugu ni okimas\ Anata Nikon ye oide 
nasaru toki doko no fune ni notte irasshaimasK ta ka ; Ftans 
no June des* ka^ fgiris* no des* ka. lie, Doits* no fune ni 
norimashta. ^ Anata wa Kyoto ye irasKtta koto ga arimas 
ka, lie^ mada arimasen ; kondo no doyoyasumi ni kembutsu 
ni maim tsumori des\ Sekkaku o tazune kudasaimasK te 
hanahada osoreirimash* ta. ^ Sekkaku o daiji ni (nasaintas/u). 
Asak'sa no Kwannon sama wa * yoku negaigoto wo kiki 
niisaimas\ Ippuku meshiagari nasaimasen ka. Sekkaku Seiyo 
ye irassKta no ni, ^ sugu nihaibyo ni natte o shini nasaimaskta. 
Oide kudasaimas' no wajitsu ni arigatj gozaimas* keredomo, 
sore de wa kaette osoreiriinas\ K Go katte na koto wo ii nasaru 

Have you heard that {no wo) ihe temple of Koya san was 
burned at the beginning of last year ? You must not consult 
your own convenience too much {awari). It may be well to 
seek the advice of the teacher. Were you at home at the time 
of the earthquake, or were you out? Where was the master 

a Ofde no toki ni at the time of your presence, i. e., when jou. weie. Stems 
of verbs or noons are often used when we should expect an indicatiye verb, 
\\\ViA\ go tonji desu, go tonji no hiio,g0 zonji tio hazn desu. Compare: o tanomi 
no hon the book for which you asked me, sankei no hito the people who visit 
the temple. 

b By substituting de mo for wo the expression is made indefinite, it being 
impli«d that one might offer something else perhaps. 

c A> in this sentence means ** neither." 

d Tlie adverb /^i6>&47;&» indicates that there are difficulties (expenditure of 
time, money, etc.,) connected with the act. It maybe variously translated, 
according to the context ; sometimes it is untranslatable. In this sentence it 
may be rendered, ** you have taken the trouble ;" in the following sentence, 
« specially." Notice that oiottirimashila is used for the present tense (p. 143, 

c A well known Buddhist divinity. 
f The no ni means " although." Comp. p. 132. 

g Here osoreiritnasu means **I am distressed to have you do so.*' In a case 
of real loss or suffering one may say itamiirinmsu, from iiarmt ache. 

194 The Verb [i 

•{go shujin) when the fire broke out {deru or hajivtaru) ? If 
you were in my place {anata nara)^ what would (do) you do 
in this case (foJ^i)? Indeed '{honto ni) you must have been 
embarrassed. Did you go to the Museum yesterday ? Just 
ichottd) see whether what I have written is erroneous {machi- 
j^atte imas' ka do des' ka). When you have written [it] I 
will look [at it]. If you don't understand, pleass say {psshani) 
so. Come for a little chat {chitto o hanashi ni). Where are 
you goin^ next? I am going to see {haiken ni) the newly 
built Imperial Residence. I beg (p. 104b) that you will all (i) 
come without fail. Please give me (I beg) your reply when 
you have decided. Please rest leisurely. I am very sorry 
that I was away from home (I was indeed impolite, being away 
from home — rusu de)^ though («^ 7ii) you took the trouble to 
come [to see me]. 


To the second group belong verbs in tsu. The u of the 
present tense is hardly audible. 

Paradigm of viatsu (stem : viae hi) to wait, await : 



Present matsu 

matanai^ matan (u) 

Past matta 

matanakatta^ — nanda 

Future or vtatd 


Probable mtxtsH daro 

matanai daro^ matan daro 

Probable mattaro 

matanakattaro^ — nandaro 

Past matta daro 

matanakatta daro 

Conditional mateba (jnataba) 

matanakereba {matanakuba) 

matsu nara {ba) 


matanai nara {ba) 

Past Con- mattara {ba) 

matanakattar^f — nandara {bd) 

ditional matta nara (ba) 

matanakatta nara {ba) 

Imperative mate 

matsu na 

{0) machi na 

machi de naiyo 

machi {yo) 

l] The T Group 195 

Subordina- matte matazu {shite), matazu nt 

tive mattinaide, matafide 

Desiderative machitai vtachitaku nai 

Alternative mattari matanakattari^ — nandari 

The fact that the Japanese modify the sound of / before / 
and w, saying not //, tu, but chi, tsu, must be remembered in 
conjugating verbs of this class. With te^ tari, ta, etc., the chi 
of the stem naturally units to form tte, ttari, tta. 

The verbs belonging to this class are not numerous. Besides 
matsu we have : 

katsti win a victory ( — ni katsu defeat). 

kobotsu break, destroy, demolish. 

luotsu hold in the hand, have. 

motsu last, endure. 

sodaisu grow up, be reared 

tatsu stand, rise (from a seat), rise (of dust, waves, etc.), 
pass (of time), leave (a place). 

tatsti cut (paper, cloth, etc.), sunder, have nothing more to 
to do with. 

titsu strike, clap (hands), shoot, ^ play (a game of chance). 

butsu (vulgar) = «/?!/. 
The verbs wakatsu divide, distinguish, hanatsu separate, let 
loose, shoot, iamotsu have, defend, and ayamatsu err, belong 
properly to the written language. Their colloquial equivalents 
are zvakeru, hanasu, motsu and machigau. 


(Include the verbs given above) 

f/// blood. {p) miyage, miyage-viono a 

hibari skylark. present brought by the giver 

hototogisu cuckoo. ^ in person (p. 84d). 

a " To shoot with a gun " is (eppd de — wo ufsu, *< To fire a gun " is teppd wo 

b The cuckoo's cry impresses the Chinese and Japanese as being very 


The Verbs 


iono {savia) a respectful term 
designating a nobleman 
(as a former daimyo), 

hi'Uchi-gane steel for strik- 
ing fire. 

hi-uchi'ishi flint for striking 

kane bell. 

sute-gane a signal of three 
strokes preparatory to 
striking the hour. 

U-ma time spent on a task. 

ken a game played with the 
hands. * 

on (c) kindness, benefits. 

baku'chi gambling. ^ 

ban-jHyw.. 10,000 things) all 
things, in every respect. 

kihkwai repentance. 

kwan-gun Government army. 

zoku-gun rebel army. 

sen-so battle, war. 

sho-go noon. 

tai'hd cannon. 

{0) td-viyo a light offered to 
a god. 

zai'San property. 

ko-riy kori a traveller's trunk 
made of wicker ware, a pair 
of baskets one of which tel- 
escopes into the other. 

yanagi willow. 

yanagi'gori a kori made of 

yubin-kyoku post office. 

fu-nare na inexpert. ^ 

uchi'ju no all in the house 

(p. 137a). 

dai'jdbu na secure, all right 
(p. 138b). 

kinzuru^ kinjite prohibit. 

ogamu worship. 

oyobu reach. 

— ni oyobanai it is not ne- 
cessary to. ^ 

naku'suru lose (p. io8a). 

a From this Chinese word for "first." In the variety called is M-ken or 
j'an^ken three things are represented : f>//f stone, /!'/rvivf paper and A/waiwi shears. 
A stone may be wrapped in paper, i>aper may be cut by shears, and shears 
must yield to stones. The players extend their hands simultaneously, each 
representing one of these three things. Vox instance, if A makes the sign of 
the stone, he wins in case I> makes the sign of the shear, but has to yield to the 
paper. Another variety is mus/ti ken^ in which the characters are hehi snake,. 
kaern from and ftatnektiji s\vig. It seems that iho snake fears the slug. Still 
another kitsune-ken^ or fbhachi-keii^ in wliich appear .tA^Vvo (old word for ioti-chb 
head of a village), ieppo gun and ki/stme fox. The fox is regarded as having 
power to bewitch a man. «« To play ken " is ken wo tt/su. 

b Fiom the Chinese bakn a board used for games and uchi, the stem of 
11/sti •« To gamble *' is bakuchi 100 ufsu {buisu), A gambler is batuchp-uchi, 

c From the negative/^ (p. 124) and the stem of iMrem become accustomed. 
There are other instances of the combination of/rt with stems of native verbs : 
e. g.,fu-soroi not uniform, ///-/j«/t-^» not balanced, out of proportion. 

d Notice the very common plirase : Go shimpm ni wa oyobittuisen. You need 
not feel any concern about it. 

ij The T Group 197 

hori-mono wo sum carve, tsuide convenience, opportu- 

engrave. ^ nity. 

ho-ij sum be profligate. tsuiiie ni on occasion, by the 

shut'tatsu sum set out on a vvay, incidentally. 

journey, start. ^ yjyaku, yoyo, yoyixito.yatto fin- 

hatsu numerative for dis- ally, with difficulty, barely. 

charges of a gun. sas-soku very soon. 

ippatsu utsu to fire once. sho-shd a little. 

hajime {ni or wa or ni zva) Niagara at the same time, 

at first. while, though, c 


Mateba, nagai. "^ Kami sama no o tomyj wa hiuchiishi de 
utte agemas*, Kokwai saki ni tatazu. ^ Domo^ ha ga itakute 
iatte mo suwatte ite mo iraremasen, ^ Konaida o tanomi no 
fmshitsukai wo tsurete mairimas/ita ga, inaka no mon* des* 
kara^ shojiki des keredomo, banji Junare de yaku ni wa 
tachimasmai. S Seinan no ik'sa de wa ^* ktvangun ga hajime 
tabitabi maketa ga, nochi ni yoyaku kachimash'ta. Nthonjin 
'wa yoku ken wo uchimas / sono ken ni iroiro arimash'te ishiken 
ya mushiken ya kitsuneken ya tak'san shurui ga afimas\ 
Nihon de wa bakuchi zvo uts koto wo kinjite arimas\ Nikon- 
fin wa fc amis am a wo ogamu toki ni wa san do te wo uchimas\ 
Chi no deru hodo kodomo wo butte xva ikemasen, ^ Toki no 

a Hori-mono also has the sense of tattooing in its more elaborate forms, 
including figures of men and animals. Simple tattooing, sucli as that in vogue 
among Ainu women, is called ire-sumi, 

b This is a curious compound of the Chinese shut5u=.i{eru and the native 
verb tatiu to set out. 

c Nagara is used with stems of verbs or with Cliincse compounds. 

d One may also say : Matie iru to nagai mono desu. Ma/su mi wa tsurai 
(tsHrai afflicted, suffering). It is hard to wait (often of lovers). 

e Proverbs, as has been remarked before (p. 103a), arc expressed in classical 
forms. For tatazu see p. 171, top. The meaning is : Repentance unfortunately 
does not come soon enough to prevent the wrong. 

f See p. io8h. Oraremasen may be substitued for iraremasen, 

g Here de stands for de atte. For tanomi no see p. X93a. 

h Sei^=ssai west ; nan south (p. 107b). Seinan no ikitsa designates the Satsun\a 
rebellion of the year 1877. 

i Translate hodo « so that." Compare p. lOi (2). 

198 The Verb [l 

kaiie wa saki ni inittsu stegane wo utie sore kara kasu dakt 
uchimas* » Nihon de wa oki na kane wa bo de {jnotte) uchi- 
ina5\ Chat to mac hi nasai, Shdshu o machi kudasai. Koka 
de s*koski mate. O tema ga ioremasen nara, machitnaslw, ^ 
Kore wo o mochi nas^tte kudasai, c S'koshi matte A'ure, sugu 
7ii kaerti kara. Matasu ni uchi ye kaeru ho ga yokaro. Tatsu 
(go away) mae ni zehi anata no taku ni agarimasho, Itsu o 
tachi ni narimas ka, Nimotsu no sk taku ga dekitara, sassoku 
tachimas\ Kono yanagigCri wa mada mochimashj ka. Sayo, 
daijdbu des\ Konaida yak'soku no shashin wa moite matri- 
mash'ta. Chichi ga uchiju no mono ni miyage wo motte 
kaerimasKta, Tsuide ni kono tegami wo yubinkyoku ye motte 
aide {nasai). Hidari Jingoro wa ^ hidari no te de {motte) jozu 
ni horimono wo sKta so des\ Hototogis' wa tobi nagara 
nakimas* ga, hibari wa tachi nagara nakimas\ Oide no jibun 
ni chodo yoji wo utte imasKta. Ko wo motte shiru, oya no on 
(Proverb). * Moto wa ie wo motanai mono wa ichi nin mae no 
hito de nai to moshimasKta. ^ Ko wa sodachigatasK (Proverb). 

In ancient tinnies («//r) [people] kindled fire with steel and 
flint. I have brought the book which you asked for {p tanonii 
710)^ but [I fear] it will not be of any use. The Government 
army won at the battle of Ueno and the rebel army fled to 
Oshu. 6 Do you often play ken ? Through profligacy and 
gambling ^ he lost all (sukkari) his property. He struck him 

a After the subordinative such expressions as so/-^ kara and so s/ti/e often 
occur. They add nothing to the sense. In the following sentence moffc, which 
often follows de, is likewise pleonastic. 

b Tema ga fore nt. It takes time. To show respect, the speaker, a riksha- 
man, add o. 

c Translate : Please take this along. «* Please hold this" would be : Kore wo 
viotte ite kudasai. 

d A famous carver in wood (died X634). The critics say that the story of 
bis having been left-handed is a myth based on the fact that he came from 
tlic province of Ifida. 

e For the sake of emphasis the order is inverted. Oya no on is the object 
of shiru. 

f Ie means not " house,'* but " household." For ichi nin mae compare 
hitori-mae, p. 95a. 

g "Oshu designates the provinces at the northern end of the main island. 
Some think it is hardly fair to call the opponents of the Government at that 
time rebels. Historians use the term ib-gtin (/(J east), "Battle" is tatakai^ 
kassen, or sensd. 

h Use alternatives with shite. 


The S Group 


that blood flowed (comes out). In Toky5 at noon a gun is 
fired (they fire the gun once). Japanese eat (thtngs) with 
chopsticks. The lord of Owari held a fief yielding (of) 550,<xx:> 
^ahi. Has it struck eight o'clock ? Not yet, * but it will sooa 
strike. [We] have been waiting a half-hour (vio), but he has 
(does) not yet come (pres.). I will wait here until you return. 
It is not necessary to wait. He seems (yJ dfs*) to have 
money. Please hold this a moment. I have brought the 
photographs for which you asked recently. He brings the 
children gifts every time he comes. When will he leave for 
home {^uni ye) ? He wanted to leave at the end of this year, 
but as (po de) he has been taken (kakatta or natta) with 
consumption, he must return at once, it is said. Europeans 
living in Japan take plenty of food along when they travel 
(go) into the interior. May I take this along ? Shrewd people 
win by yielding (jnakete). When will you go into the 
country ? I intend to start after {tatte) two or three days. It 
will be a serious matter {taihen des*) if you break this plate. 


To the third group belong verbs in su. As in the case of 
verbs in tsu, the u is hardly audible. 

Paradigm oihanasu (stem hanashi) to speak, or, to separate : 





hanasanai, hanasan («) 



hanasanakatta, — nanda 

Future or 



Probable hanasu daro 

hatiasainai daro 

hanasan darJ 



hanasanakattaro^ — nandarJ 


hanashita daro 

hanasanakaita daro 



hanaso nakereba 




hanasu nara 


hanasanai nara {ba) 

a Instead of repeating the verb (negative present) with mada, one mo y say 
simply mada dtsu. 


The Verb 


Past Con- 


hanashitara (da) hanasanakattara (ta) 
hanashitanara (da) kanasanandara (ia) 

hanasaNakatta nara {id) 

Jianasu na 

o hanashi de not yo 




{d) hanashi na 

o hanashi {yd) 



hanasazu {shite), hanasazu ni 
hanasanaide, hanasande 
hanashitaku nai 
hanasanakattarif^- nandari 

Verbs of this group are very numerous. They are generally 
transitive. * In most cases the corresponding intransitives are 
derived from the same root. ^^ 

Many are synonymous with regular causatives : 
awasu^awaseru cause to meet, introduce, join, from au 

kawakasu^kawakaseru dry, desiccate, from kawaku^ 
narasu=^naraseru sound, ring, from naru resound. 

The transitive derived from waku boil is wakasu, never 
wakaseru. The form in su often differs in sense from that in 
seru. Thus chitasu means scatter, from chitu, while chiraseru 
means to see — fall down (poetically used of leaves and 
blossoms). So korobasu^ from korobu tumble, means roll, 
while korobaseru means cause to tumble. From meguru^^ 
mawaru go round, we have two verbs, megurasu revolve in the 
mind, used in the semi-classical compound omoimegurasu 
reflect, and meguraseru cause to go round. 

In some cases su is simply substituted for the ru of an 
intransitive verb ; 

amasu leave over. 

amaru be in excess. 

a One exception is ^/^M increase, which may be transitive or intransitive. 
Its conjugation is regular, while that of the auxiliary fnasu (see the next 
chapter) is somewhat irregular. The mashi of mashi desu (p, 136, middle) is 
the stem of this verb. 

b The following lists are by no means exhaustive. The words given are 
selected simply with a view to prepare the student for further observation. 
For the regular causatives sec Ch. LXI. 


The S Group 


kesu (/urasu) decrease. /teru decrease. 

hitasu immerse, soak. hitaru be immersed. 

kaesu{kayasu)s<&Vi6. back, repay, kaeru come or go back. 

kasu lend, rent. 
kaxvasu exchange. 
kudasu cause to descend. 
fnawasutam round, pass round. 
modosu send back, vomit. 
naosu mend, heal. 
nosu (nosfrii) place on, record, ftoru be on, ride. 
o^asu raise, start, begin. oi'ori4 arise, break out. 

f3su cause or allow to pass. /3ru pass through or by. 
tva/asu take across, hand over, wataru cross. 
The eru or tru of verbs of the first class may become asu ; 
iru often becomes osu : 

karn {kariru) borrow. 
kawaru change (intr.). 
kudarii descend. 
tnawaru go round. 
viodoni come or go back. 
naoru be mended, healed. 

chirakasu scatter about. 
dasu put out, give. 
fuyasu augment, multiply. 
kogasu scorch, burn. 
inakasu defeat, betxt down. 
narasu train, tame. * 
nigasu allow to escape. 
nurasu wet 
samasu cool. 

saw asu waken, recover from. 
to kasu dissolve, melt 
tsuiyasu spend, waste. 
nobasu extend, postpone. 
horobosu overthrow. 
hosu dry, ventilate. 
okosu waken. 
orosu let down. 
otosu drop, lose, omit, take. 

chirakerii be scattered about 
derti issue forth. 
Juerii increase. 
kogern be scorched. 
makeru yield, come down. 
nareru become accustomed. 
fiigeru escape. 
nureru get wet. 
sameru become cool. 
saineru become awake, sober. 
tokeru be dissolved, melted. 
tsuieru be spoiled, spent. 
nobiru be extended, postponed. 
horobiru be overthrown. 
hint dry, ebb. 
okiru get up. 
or iru descend, alight. 
ochiru fall (p. 165b). 

To some transilives in su correspond intransitives in reru. 
hanasu separate. hanareru be separated. 

hazusu displace, miss, avoid, hazureru be displaced, fail. 

a Besides narasu tame and ttatasu riiii^, we have als3 narasu from nam 
become or be produced (of fruit) and narasu level or grade (land"\. 

202 The Verb [li 

kakusu hide. kakureru be hidden. 

kobosu pour, spill. koboreru overflow. 

konasu pulverize, digest. konareru be digested. 

kowasu break, destroy. koivareru be broken. 

kuzusu tear down (p. ii6b). kuzureru go to pieces. 

nagasu let flow, forfeit. nagareru flow. 

taosu prostrate, kill. taoreru fall over (of tall things). 
tsubusu crush, rub off, destroy, tsubureru be broken, crushed. 

Finally it is to be noted that some transitives are formed by 
means of the termination kasu, which is often interchangeable 
with su or seru : 

hiyakasu^ » hiyasu cool, hieru become cool. 
jirakasuyjirasu tease, tantalize^ irovajireru be irritated. 
magirakasu, magirasu confuse, bamboozle, from magireru 

{magiru) be mixed up. 
nekasu, neseru put to sleep, from neru sleep. 


(Include the lists given above) 

/ukindLVCiQ of an edible plant, katsuo bonito. 

Petasites japonicus. fushi knot, knob (as on a tree). 

furi air, appearance. katsuo-bushi dried bonito. ^ 

kabi mold. tsuki-hi months and days, 

kabiru 7 ^^ ^^j^ times. 

kabi ga haeru ) ' kompeito (from the Spanish 

okofi origin, etymology. conjeitd) confection, candy. 

taka amount (usually a suffix fuku (c) luck, felicity. 

in the form dakd). ju (c) gun, rifle, arms. 

tsuisuji azalea. shiki (c) rite, ceremony. 

hinataswwwy place, sunshine, za (c) seat. 
fu-moto {Juvtu walk on, moio gu-chi silliness, twaddle. 

bottom) foot (of a hill or guchi wo kobosu grumble, 

mountain). stizo manufacture. 

kami-ire pocket-book. shin-fa believer. ^ 

a HiyakasH has also the meaning of '* to make a fool of" and is used 
especially of those who examine and price things ex[>osed for sale when they 
have no intention of buying. 

b Variously contracted to kaiiubushi, kaisuo ox fushi. 

c Buddhist believers are usually called shin-to. 

Lil TiiK 5 Group 203 

sui'kwa watermelon. yurusu set at liberty, pardon, 

zo'kin cloth for mopping permit 

floors. utsusu copy, 

ir^^-^tf colloquial, vulgarism. A/>^-i^^j« remove (residence).^ 

tanoshii delightful, happy. kiki-awaseru gather informa- 

hiyayaka na cool. tion, inquire about. 

taS'Sha na vigorous, profi- toshi-yotu become aged. 

cient. hanashite kikaserti tell (lit. 

inoru pray {^—wo inoru pray speaking cause to hear). 

for). kasa wo sasu hold up an uin- 

okuru pass (time), lead (a life), brella. 

damakasu, damasu deceive, hi-bana wo chirasu make tic 

impose upon. sparks fly. 

sasu propagate by means of o itoma mdsu take one's leave. 

c\xVL\ng^{sashi'ki wo suru), saiwai {ni) happily. 


IJiio nofuri mite waga furi naose (Proverb). ^ Watakushi 
^a soto ye detara, ramp' wo kesh'te kure. Moto wa Edo ye 
iku koto wo kudarti to mbsfite Kyoto ye iku koto wo noboru to 
^HoshimasH ta, Dozo, kiiruma wo tosh'te kudasau ^ Hikeshi 
toa kase ga tsuyokute hayaku hi wo kes' koto ga dekinakatta 
kara^ kinjo no ie wo kowasKta, Katsuobushi to iu mono wa 
katsuo no hosh^ta n des, ^ Aihon ni wa yama no Juinoto ni 
yoku " umagaeshi " to iu tokoro ga arimas' ; kono na no okori 
^va kore kara saki wa michi ga kenso de tJrenai (p. 108I1) 
kara, uma wo kaes' to iu koto des, Fuki no ha wo hosKte 
tabako ni mazete nomu hito mo arimas\ Soko ni wa hashi ga 
nai kara, fune de hito wo watashimas\ Kimi ga Doits' go wo 
tassha ni hatiaskte mo sotina mutsukashii koto wo jibun hitori 
de (alone) kikiawas koto wa dekimas'inai, Watakushi ga 
uuiru gozaimash' ta kara, o yurushi kudasai, Sono ue no gaku 

a The verb kotu cross is transitive, but this compound, like omoiviegnrosiiy 
is intransitive. 

b Waga (coznp. p. 27c) is, of course, not used in ordinary colloquial. Furi 
denotes matters of etiquette, clothes, etc. 

c When people stand in the way, one may say politely : Go men ttasai- 
£xcuse me ! Beg pardon I 

d The »' stands for no and is equivalent to mono. The no tifieT katsuo is 

204. The Verb [i.i 

7V0 orosKti misite kudasai, KangoVsho yor mo gakkj tu 
kane wo tsuiyas* ho ga yd goztiivtas\ Fuku no kami ni inoru 
yori kuchi wo herase (Proveib)** Kasa wo saskte kite via 
hisshori ituremasKia, Kariru toki no Jizogno, kaes' toki no 
Emmagao (^rowcth)^ Tsuisuji no eda iva sas/ite mo^ ts^ki- 
inas\ Soko ni aru is hi ua omoi kara korobasu yori hoka 
sh'kata ga nai. A no okii ki wo kiri-taosu no wa oshii koto 
des\ Omoimeguraseba ni ju go nen no mukashi Doits' de 
tan oshii tsukihi wo okutte orimasKta, Hiyantizii wa ikenai ; 
wakash'te nome. Tenrikyo no ho de wa kovtpeitj ni nani ka 
myo na kusuri wo irete shinja wo damakash' te oita sj des\ *^ 
Snikwa 7va mizu ni hiyashte taberu to^ oishh gozaimas* 
Karita kane wo komban made ni modosanak'te wa narimasen. 
Sono koto wa kesa no shivibun ni nosete arimas\ Omae pan 
wo sonna ni kogasKte do sh'ta no da, Amari yakamasKku 
sum to sekkaku nekasKta kodomo ga me wo sawashimas\ 
KUki ga warui kara, shdji wo hazush'tara yokaro. Toshiyoru 
to, guchi wo koboshimas*. Amari kodomo wo jirash't ewa iji 
ga waruku narimas\ Fune ni you to, tabeta mono wo modoshi- 
mas\ Orose^ju/^ 

I will now {mo or kore de) take leave for {wa) this evening 
(i). When you have finished copying this, please show [it to 
me]. This child at once breaks its toys. The French two 
hundred years ago took the castle at (of) Heidelberg. 'Wike 
care that {yd ni) you do not break these teacups. In the 
mountaineous regions {yamaguni) of Japan [people] eat a 
gi-eat deal of dried fish. Dried fish is called himono. Among 
the teachers of the Medical School there are many who speak 
Germ n freely. That old gentleman has often told me of old 
times {mukashi no koto). This bird, even though you set it 
free {hanasKte yarn), comes back again (returning comes). 

a The word *< mouths" meaus the number of children, servants, etc.» 
belonging to one's house. There arc seven fuku no katfti. They are often 
called shield fuku- jin (s/tw=.kami). 

b Jizd is a gracious buddha and has a kindly face. Enwta {soma), the prince 
of hell, has a fearful face. 

c Mo hcic has the sense of "though only." With tsukimasu is understood 

d Ten-H-ky'y (heaven-reason doctrine) a new religious sect very popular 
among the lower classes. It makes much of faith healing. Some newspapers 
have charged tlie priests with <lyly administering morphine to the believer*. 

e A military command. The e is pronounced Very K»ng : orosei. 

i,ii] TiiK S Group 20 e 

In (df wa) the ceremony of koicha they pass round the teacup. 
We will go to tease {hiyakashi ni) the shopkeepers (shops). 
Put the shoes out into the sunshine in order that {yd ni) they 
may not mold. Kashilionya means {to in koto des*) a shop 
that loans books. These trees are multiplied (one multiplies) 
by means of cuttings. Will you wear (;///j«)* the new gai- 
iiients or (shall it be) the old ones ? It seems to me that {yd ni 
^mou) I dropped my pocket-book somewhere on the way 
{jnichi de). He has three houses and rents (renting puts) two 
of them to others. You remove often. Please translate it 
(jiaosu) into the colloquial. Will it do to erase this character ? 
Correct that character without erasing it. Happily, as there 
was no wind, they extinguished the fire at once. In Japan 
they have what they call {to itidsh'te) doyo-boshi ; when the 
dcg'days come {tii naru) people air their clothes. He has 
often told us of Japan. It is said that there are seventy 
million people that speak German. In Japan there has been 
a great increase in the manufacture of beer {biir^ no seizbdaka 
increasing has come). In order to avoid (avoiding) conversa- 
tion he left his seat. They wet their sleeves with tears 
(Letting flow tears they wet their sleeves). Don't spend all 
the money, but save (not spending all the money leave over) 
some. Soak this zokin in hot water. We are annoyed 
{kofptarn) by the children scattering things about. They 
fou^t until the sparks flew (scattering sparks). You must not 
confuse your words so. Alexander overthrew the Persian 
Empire. As it is so hot that I can't drink it, please cool it. 


I. The auxiliary masn {masnru) is in some respects irregular ; 
Positive Negative 

Present intuu, vtasuru vtasen {u) 

Past mashita masen deskita 

masen {a) katta, — nanda 

a The verb mtsu has a wide range of meanings. The riksha-man says lo 
his passenger : {Jinrikisha m) o meshi nasaimashi. Please seat yourself in ihc 
riksha. Notice the use of fnesn in compounds: meshi ngeru eat or drink, 
ohmhi'MUSU think. 


The Verb 


Future or mas /id 

Probable masu desho 
Probable viashitaro 

Past mashita desho 

Conditional masureba 
masu (ru) nara {pa) 

Past Con- mashitara (bd) 
ditional mashita nara (pa) 

Imperative mase 

mashi, mashi na 
Subordina- mashite 


Alternative mashitari 


masen desho 

masen deshitaro 

masen (a) kattaro^ — nandara 

masen {a) katta desho 

masen nara {pa) 

masen (a) kereba 


mase neb a 

masen deshitara {ba) 

masen {a) kattara {ba) 

masenandara {ba) 

masen {a) katta nara {ba) 

masu na, masuru na 

masesu {shite), masesu ni 

masen {a) kattari, — nandari 

The conditional masureba, etc., and the negative imperative 
masuru na are derived from the longer form masuru^ which 
often occurs also in the present tense, especially in formal 

In the negative forms the characteristic vowel is e^ not /?. 
In the present tense the form in nai is wanting. 

The desiderative is wanting ; in its stead the desiderative of 
the plain verb with gozaimasu or omoimasu is used : — not 
hanashimashitat, but hanashito gozaimasu or hanashitai to 

2. This masu is used only as an auxiliary attached to the 
stems of other verbs. It indicates that the speaker wishes to 
be courteous. See p. 142, 3. It is quite proper to use masu 
in speaking to inferiors. But many foreigners make their 
speech too monotonous by using masu with all verbs indis- 
criminately. For variety's sake verbs in inconspicuous positions 
should ordinarily be plain. Further masu may be more readily 
omitted with verbs that are in themselves honorific than with 
common verbs. One must be more careful to add masu to 
verbs in the first person than in the third. The use of masu is 

Lii] Masu, mosic 207 

apt to be incongruous : (a) in a monologue or in repeating 
something previously said to the speaker ; (b) in a conversation 
where the speaker is boku and his hearer kimi ; (c) in clauses 
dependent on a verb which is plain. When moved with 
indignation or in the heat of debate the natural tendency is to 
use curt forms. 

3. In formal speech one uses as auxiliaries special verbs 
such as nasaru, kudasaru and ir as sham (Ch. XLIX.). The 
verb inosu * is also used as an auxiliary, chiefly in the first 
person, when the hearer is the direct or indirect object of the 
action. It follows the stem of a -verb, the honorific^ being 
prefixed : 

negai moshitai koto ga gozaiviasu, 

1 wish to ask a favor. 

O tanomi mosu. I request your assistance (p. i2Sb). ^ 
Alasu may be added to honorific verbs : nasaimasu, kudasai- 
viasu^ irasshaimasu^ o negai moshivtasu, etc. 


^«/^/-/^w/ registration (postal). ^^7;/ checker-board, chess- 

naka-ma company, associates, board (n ume rati ve for games 

cha-no-yu ceremonial tea. ^ of checkers or chess). 

((f) itoma-goi leave-taking. konia chessman. 

itomagol nt detu come for a setsu (c) season, period, time. 

parting call. en-ryo reserve {enryo suru feel 

go a game like checkers. diffident). 

go wo utsu play checkers. {.go) ^nryo naku without re- 
sho-gi chess. serve, frankly, 

skogi wo sasu play chess. /«yV« lady. 

a Mosu used as a principal verb means " say." As it implies respect for the 
person addressed, it cannot ordinarily be used in the second person. But a 
judge speaking as a representative of ihe Sovereign may say : Sono ho no mosu 
tokoro 7va {fndshi-taiiru tokoro wa, or nwihi-tate too) tatatiau What you say will 
not hold. A master may speak similarly to a servant. One may say to a 
Iriend : Sato san ni yoroshiku tiioskita to csshatU kudasai. Please say to Mr. 
Sato that I wished to be remembered. EUiptically one may szy t yoroshiku 
nmhiie ktidasai, 

b At the door of a house or at a telephone one nxay say simply moshi! 
wM^i/ to attract attention. The answer is hai or au In former times the 
reply to such a call was dore, 

c Thc^« is now written with the character for *^ hot water," but originally 
it Was probably a variant of ^, one reading of the character >67craf assembly. 


The \'erii 


ky^'gin comedy, drama, play. 

kydju professor. * 

kyuka holidays, vacation, 
leave of absence. 

sai-soku urging the fulfilment 
of an obligation, dun. 

shak'kin borrowing money, 

sd-dan consultation. 

yak'kat trouble, care (fbr 
another), assistance. 

— no yakkai ni naru be aid- 
by, be dependent on. ^ 

yo'su circumstances, condi- 
tion, appearance, gestures. 

kaburu, kamuru wear on the 

komuru receive from a supe- 

go men your permission 
(polite 2). 

go men wo koinurimaahite 
by your kind permission. 

sagasu search, inquire for. 

sumu come to an end, be 

sngosu (intrans. sugiru) pass 

toki (Jtima) wo tsubusu waste 

ukagau peep, spy, inquire, pay 
a call. 

kashikomaru respectfully ac- 
quiesce. ^ 

ukeru receive, accept. 

uke-au assure, guarantee. 

shinzuru, shinjite believe. 

shim-po suru make progress, 

mattaku entirely, truly. 

ino'haya already, soon, no 
more (with a negative verb). 

nani'bun by all means^ please !'^ 

nochi'gata after a little while. 

waza to (ni), wazawaza pur- 
posely, specially. 

a The general term for teacher is kyd shi or kyo'in. The terms kyd-yu and 
kyo-JH are official titles, the former being applied to those who are duly 
qnalihed to teach in ordinary Middle Schools, Normal Schools, etc., while the 
latter are of a higher grade. Those who have simply graduated from a 
university and have not taken the post-graduate studies necessary to secure the 
degree of haku-shi or hakase are called t^tikn-shi ; e. g., i^gakushi graduate in 
medicine, in ri-^/7>b«Mt graduate in natural sciences. The American A. B. is 
rendered Beikoku bun-gakuski {bMi letters). The degree of fiakushi being 
given only by the Government, our ** doctor '' cannot be translated hakushi 
wit I. out qualification. The German Ph. D. is Doitsti tetsugaku hakushi, 
Foreigners employed as teachers by the Government are c yatoi kyoshi. 
Missionaries are sen-kydski or den-kyoshi {sen proclaim, den transmit). 

h Go yakkai ni narimashita I om under obligations to you. A quaint ex< 
pression is : keisatsu no yakkai ni aani to be accommodated by the police (said 
of a criminal). 

c This verb is used chiefly in the form kashikonMi-imnshita, signifying that 
the speaker will do as he has been told. It may be rendered <• at your service " 
<»r ** with pleasure," 

d For nanibun m mo In every palt (Ch. XVII.). 

xiij Ma$u, masu 209 

iori just as, ju^ like, * zanmn ihagarn it is tpo bad^ 

go (c)=s»(;tcAi aitcr. but.,.(co«ip. p. 197c). 


Tabitabi shakkin no saisoiu wo ukeU komarimas\ Nani 
wo slite toki wo sugoshimasho ka. Anata wa shogi wo 
sashivias ka. Sayo, Siiyo no SiAogi nara dekimas' ga^ Nihon 
no wa sash'ia koto ga artmasen. Sore nara oshUU agemasho. 
Seiyd no s/iogi to chigawtas* ka. Sayo, s'koshi chigaimas ; 
koina moyokei (ni) arivias, Anata Nihon ni oide nasaimasICta 
toki ni go 7V0 uchiviasen desKta ka, Metta ni uchimasen 
desh^ta kara^ iaitei wasuremasKta. Ddzo, go wo oskiete 
kudasaimashi. Yorosku gozaimas' ; sono kawari (ni) kar'ta 
wo oskiete kudasaimasen ka. Yd gosaimas ; shikashi go no 
keiko wa amari kivia ga kakarimas' nara, yoshimas/to. Zan- 
nen nagara^ koko de o wakare moskimashj, llidinkyoku ye 
itte kono iegami wo kakitome ni sKte dasKte kudasaimasen ka, 
Hei, sassokn itashitnashd* Tadaima irassJita kyaku wo 
koko ye tsure ntdshivtas/ij ka, ^^ Sayo, koko ye tsure mosh'ti 
kure Myonichi wa inaka ye tachimas kara, itoviagoi ni 
dewashUa. Kore wo utsusKte kudasaimasen ka, Hanahada 
osoreirimas ga, so o hanashi nas'tte kudasaimashi, Kono 
shinamono wa daijobu des ka, Sayo, o ukeai inbshimas\ 
Sore "WO honto to omoitnas* {ni nasaitmas*) ka, lie, mattaku 
shinjiviaseu, Senjiisu o hanashi na^aimasKta tori des ka, 
Saydy o hanashi moshimasKta tJri de gozaivtas\ O kaeri ni 
nam made koko de o mac hi mjshite imasho. O nakama-iri 
wo itashimashUa kara, nanibuii yorosK ku negaimas\ Nihon 
no yds" WO mtu.asureba^ go isshin go wa nanigoto de mo (nan 
de mo) yohodo shimpo sKte orimas\ Sakunenju wa iroiro go 
yakkai ni narimaskie ; konnen mo aikaxvarimasezu, ^ Wata- 
kuski wa chanoyu wo naraito gozaimas* ga, yoi sensei wo 
sagas-lite kudasaiwasefi ka, Kask komarimasK ta ; kokoro- 

a Sono tdri like that. lisu mo no fori as always. Osskaimashita tdri (or ose 
f^ lv/-i ) 9fi yon %^x^. 

b Said by a servant. Instead of o (sure im9$m one may lajr also o OsJki mdsu. 

c Both expressions are elltptieal. Suoh phrases are apropos in offering New 
Veaf^ Ofiogratnlations. The iroira is advessbiftl : in various ways. Wilh 
aikawarimasetu is understood go iian-i wi (xalitna(ely) utgaimAxu, o.siioa samo mi 
nari'masu^ OT similar words, (p. l^ir^^. 

2IO The Verb [lii 

^tari ga gozaiina£ kara, tsuide ni kiite mimashj, Ano kaia 
wa mohaya niju nen mo Nikon ni irasshaimas kara, kotoba 
wa viani de Nihonjin no yd de gozaimashj. Go men wo 
komurimasliie o saki ye mairimasho, Sono uchi ni main 
irasshaimas hi, IVaJsaivaza ^ o tazune kudasaimasK te jitsu ni^ 
d:mo^ arigatj gozaimas\ Kondo mata o negai moshimaslio, ^ 
Omae nani wo sh'ie hima wo tsubusKta ka, OsoreirimasKta ; 
djmo, michi ga zvarukute sh'kata ga gozaimasen desh'ta. 

If you don't like (<? kirai nara) it, please say [so] frankly. 
Shall we play a game of checkers ? I have never played ; 
please teach me. If a person does not play often, he cannot 
{does not) become expert. I will call soon again. Having a 
{^matter forj consultation 1 visited him (visiting went), but, as 
he was sick {byoki de)j I returned without meeting him (awazu 
7ii), Japanese ladies go out {soto wo aruku) without wearing 
anything on [their] heads. What shall I offer (give) you ? 
As they say that a new play begins (from) to-day, I want to 
go to see it {kembutsu ni). When my work is done, I will go 
with you. If I am hindered (there is a hindrance) to-day, I 
will go to-morrow (asu ni itasu). If you send {dasu) a letter 
to Mr. Okubo, please remember me to him. As I am going to 
that neighbourhood later, I will call (calling go) there. This 
gentleman ^ having come in your absence {p rusu ni) for a 
parting call, returned asking to be remembered (saying ^<?r^- 
sh*ku). He was in Japan a year, but he doesn't know a bit of 
Japanese (Japanese is not even a little possible). As I have 
brought various samples, please look [at them]. If you 
understand (past cond.) that {to iu koto) sake (tva i) is injuri- 
ous, why don't you give it up? As the holidays are coming 
to a close {shimai ni nam), the professors of the university 
have probably returned. Since at present {kono setsu wa) I 
have not very much {amari) business, I will come for study 
{keiko ni agaru) every day. At what time shall I come ? 

. a Watawaza denolcs that the call was not made incidcn-laUy, but that the 
visitor bad come specially for the purpose of making this particular call 
Translate: look the trouble to* /?^/;/(7 is an interjection, : -. 

b Said by a merchant to his customer, as when goods asked for are not in' 
stock. An American would say: *' Call again !" 

c Said by a servant presenting a visitor*s card. - ' 




I. The verb suru (stem shi) is also irregular: 




Past . 


Future or 

shiyd, sb3 


suru daro 




shita daro 


sureba, surya 


suru nara {ba) 

Past Con- 

shitara {ba) 


shita nara {ba) 



se {yo\ sei 

\o) shi na 

o shi {yd) 









senai, sen («), shinai 
sen {a) katta^ senanda^ 

semai, shimai, sumai 
senai daro^ sen («) dard, etc. 
sen {a) kattaro^ senandaro 

sen {a) katta darjy shinakatta dard 
sen {a) kereba^ shinakereba 
seneba {sezuba) 
senai nara {ba\ etc. 
sen {a) kattara {ba) 
senandara {ba) 
shinakattara {ba) 
senakatta nara {ba)^ etc. 
suru na 
o shi de naiyo 

sezu {shite) 

sezu ni, shizu ni 

senaide, sende, shinaide 

senakute, shinakute 

shitaku nai 

sen {a) kattari, senandari 


The briefer form su appears in the literary language and in 
the adjectives su-beki thsit ought to be done (p. m), su-beka- 
razatu that ought not to be done (conclusive, swbekarazu). 

The only forms derived from suru are the conditional sureba 
and the negative imperative suru na. 

In the negative conjugation the characteristic vowel is e^ as 
in the case oi masu ; but suru differs {xovwinasu- in having a 

212 The Verb [uii 

form in nai. In compounds sanal also occurs: Nakusanai 
docs not \osc \ J ukusaf I ai is not ripe, ttkisanai does not suit. 
Semai is irregular. Sum at is rarely heard: So sumai go. 
Don't do so ! (You wouldn't do so.) 

2. Sometimes sum is to be rendered " make," as, for ex- 
ample, with the adverbial forms of adjectives : yoku sum make 
good, correct ; waruku sum make bad, spoil. * 

3. Notice also the following idioms : 

Do shimasko ka. What shall I do ? 

Dd skiU sano sara wo kowas/ita ka. 

How did you break that plate ? ^ 

Do shite mo dekifnasen. It is utterly impossible. 

Dd shita «' da. What have you done ? 

Doshita hito desu. What kind of a man is he? 

Do shita motC dard. What shall I (we) do? 

So shite (p. 198a), sj sum to, so shitara {da) and so shita 
tokoro ga ^ may mark a transition in a narrative, like our 
" then," " so," ** and," etc. So shite, or so shite is often used 
pleonastically alter a subordinative. See also p. 171a. 

4. The following are examples of the use of suru taking; an 
object with wo. 

Hen na kao wo shite tmasu. He makes a peculiar face. 
Shosei wo shite iru aida kane ga nakatta. 
While I was a student I had no money. 

Similarly many verbal expressions are derived from substan- 
tives. The wo may be omitted : 

ikusa wo suru make \v7\.v kushami wo sum {ga deru) 

tabi wo suru make a journey. sneeze. 

shitaku wo sum make prep- shigoto zvo sum work. 

arations. ^^g^ '^0 suru be wounded 

aAmbi wo suru {ga deru) yd^v^n. (p. 159a). 

a *< To make " in th« ordiMtry s^nae is kathitifierm or /tuJhtm, DistUigaish 
yojktksnru trnd'/diH m l'09/tirairu Qon struct WcU» Tvaruku suru and Jketa ni 
koshiraeru construct poorly. 

b When do shite is strongly emphasized it means rather «• why.** 
c The expression fvkt>rc ga here has the same i»naa as tlM coajwMtlra go* 
It somet'inies mean**' whan." 

LiiQ Suru 213 

Verbal stems are used in the same way, alone or in combi- 
nation : *T.>-y'' 

J^aJte wo suru wager, from kakeru (p. 1 73, Voc). 

seki wo suru cough, from seku. 

tsuri wo suru fish with liook and line. 

nui w^ suru embroider, nui-inono wo suru sew. 

shimbi^intOM w& sura make an investigation. 

mi-nage wo suru drown one s self (p, 58). 

te-natai w^ suru practice pemanship. 

5. It is by the use of suru that numerous Chinese compounds 
are made to serve as verbs. With these wo is more commonly 
omitted than with the expressions given above : 

an-nai suru guide, invite. san-jo suru make a call {san 

an-shd suru memorize, ^ mairu, jd=s agaru). 

^^7f--ij^5j?/fT/ study, be diligent shim- bo suru persevere. 
cko'dai suru=sitadaku.^ shitsu-mon suru ask a ques- 

i'ju suru emigrate. tion. 

jo-dan suru jest. shitsu-rei suru be impolite. 

ken-chiku suru build. slio-bi suru praise. 

ken-yaku suru economize, sho-chi suru be aware, con- 
kd-gyo suru perform (theat- sent. 

rical plays, etc.). shu-sen suru repair, 

— to ko-sai suru associate with, so-ji suru clean. 
— ni kwaU'kei suruhdiW^r^ldi' sotsu-gyd suru graduate (from 

tion with. a school). 

vian-zoku suru be satisfied, yo-jin suru take precautions. 

Almost all compounds of this kind are used also as substan- 
tives : go shdchi no tori as you know ; benkyo desu is diligent, 
etc. To some of them negative prefixes may be attached 
(p. 124). In this case suru may not be us^d \Ju-bffi.kyo desu ; 
fu-manzoku desu ; bu-ydjin desu^ etc. 

6. In some cases an object with no is made to limit the 
substantive : 

— no hanixshi wo suru speak of. 

— fio uwasa wo suru gossip about. 

a Both chbdai suru and itadaku have the sense to receive from a superior or 
from a person considered as such and are used of gifts, refreshments ofTercd to 
a Cue-t, cic. For a fuller discussion see Cli. LV. 

2T4 The Verb [liif 

— no jama wo sum be in the way of. 

— no samatage wo suru hinder, from samatagitu. 

— no. inane wo suru imitate, from maneru. 

— no sewa wo suru assist, take care of* 

— no tovio wo j«r« accompany. 

But in most cases the substantive unites with suru to form 
a true verbal expression, which may then take a direct object 
with wo (or indirect with nt) : 

gwaikoku wo tabi. suru travel in foreign countries. 

yome wo sewa suru secure a wife (for another). 

// wo kega suru (je ni kega wo suru) get a wound in the 

hashi wo shu-zen suru repair a bridge. 

gakko wo sotsji'gyj suru graduate from a school. 

benshi ni shitsunion suru ask the speaker a question. 

In some cases either construction is allowed. One may say 
shakkin no saisoku wo suru or shakkin wo saisoku suru ; but 
in the former case wo must not be omitted after saisoku, 
while in the latter it must not be used. 

7. With some monosyllabic words deiived from the Chinese 
suru coalesces : . 

bassuru punish, from baisu, 

kessuru decide, resolve upon, settle, from ketsu. * 
sassuru conjecture, sympathize with (sentiments, etc.). 
After n, or a long vowel, by nigori su becomes zu and shi^ 

anzufu be anxious, be concerned about. ^ 

kenzuru offer as a gift. *^ 

kinzuru prohibit, forbid. 

sonzuru be injured (p. 8sa). 

tenzuru change (tr. and intr.), remove (intr.). 

zonzuru think, know (polite i). 

a In keisu-gi, which denotes a resolution of a public assembly. From 
kessiti'u is derived the adverbial kesshite positively (p. 177c). 

b Amnrit, like sassunt, may not take a personal object : Watakushi no kokoro 
wo snsshite kudnsai. Sympathize with me. Oya 7va shiju kodomo no koto wo 
afijife irtt. Parents are always anxious about their children. 

c Ikkon kenjimashd. Have a cup ! (of sake). Ron, the numerative for cups 
of s.ihe^ is really a variant reading oi ken in kenzuru. 

Lin] Sum 215 

fusuru seal (a letter). 
vifizuru command, order. 

Since the stems of these verbs are anji, kenji kinji^ etc., they 
are in the colloquial frequently inflected as though they belong- 
ed to the first class : anj'iru, anjireba, etc. 

Observe also the euphonic changes in the following verbs. 
These are, however, more common in the literary style than in 
true colloquial: 

omonzuru esteem, from oinoku suru {pnioi heavy, impor- 

karonzuru despise, from karoku suru {karui light, insig- 
nificant — classical karoshi'), 

8. Many intransitive verbs are formed by adding suru ta 
adverbs. Most of the adverbs so used end in ri or belong ta 
the duplicatives, largely onomatpoetic, in which the language 
abounds (comp. p. 128, bottom and Ch. LXXIV.) : 

btkkiiri sum be astonished, frightened. 

bonyari {to) suru be vague, distracted, stupid. 

sappari {to) suru become clear (p. 187b). 

bisliibishi {mishimishi, gishigishi) suru creak (of timbers). 

chirachira suru flicker, flutter, become dim (of eyes). 

ukauka {to) suru be heedless, lazy. 

9. In some expressions suru is used just like aru : 

— no aji ga suru there is a taste of, taste like. 

— no nioi ga suru there is a smell of, smell like. 

— no oto {koe) ga suru there is a sound of, sound like, 
inabikari ga suru it lightens. 

— yj na kokoromochi {kimochi) ga suru feel as if. 
nagamochi ga suru last a long time. 

ji'shin ga suru {yuru) there is an earthquake. 
zu'tsu ga suru have a headache. 

10. The expression ;//* j//r« may mean "determine upon'* 
(p. I34g). The same idiom may also correspond to the English 
••make — of—". 

Kono buNshj zuo hon vi shite dashimcsho, 

1 will issue these essays in the form of a book. 

— %vo ydshi ni suru make an adopted son of, adopt. 

— wo yome ni suru make a wife of, take to wife. 

— wo kini suru take to heart, be concerned about. 

i?i6 The Verb [i.iii 

Kono go konna koto wo shinai yj ni ^^kimasko. 

1 will see to it that he does nething <^ the kind hereafter. 

With a verb Itt the ftilure tense id sum rneaits '* be about 
to," "intend to" (p. \iofiA). In ovher <t^%m To suru means 
'* regard as " ; /^ surebn may be translated ** taking it to be/' 
^* assuming th&t," "if": 

Amerikaye iko id skiti Yokohama made mairimathita. 
Intending to go America, I went to Yokohama. 
Kimi g^ iku mono to sttreba, kj iu b'am ni dd skru ka. 
If you were going, what would you do in such a case. 

The idioms ni shite {wd) and to shite (wa) are equivalent to 
the English " for " and •' as ** in some of their uses : 

Kodomo ni 4hite wa y^ku kaite arimasu. 

It is well written for a child. 

Anata wa daihy.shn to shite o hatuishi ni narimasu ka. 

Do you speak as a representative ? 

11. The formal, polite equivalents of suru arc itasu in the 
first (less frequently the third) person and nasaru in the second 
{less frequently the third) person. Accordingly do itashimashd 
ka is more formal and polite than do shimasho ka ; do nasai- 
tnashita ka, 

12. It has been stated (pp. 142, 3 and 190a) that the honorific 
should be prefixed to the stem of a verb with itasu or nasaru. 
The honorifics are naturally prefixed to any substantix'^ that 
denotes the action of a person for whom respect is^hown. 
Even in the case of the first person honorifics are in order when 
the act concerns a person for whom one wishes to show respect. 

tomo %vo suru 


go along. 

ojama „ 


sewa „ 

render assistance. 

oji-gi „ 

make a bow. 

go an-nai „ 

show the way. 

go chi-sd „ 

furnish entertainment. 

go ho-mdn „ 

pay a call. 

go sh 'kai „ 


go slto-tai „ 



When the personal object 


stated it may take ni (or no) 

Urii] Suru 2 1 7 

But shakai su>^i and sh Itai stffu take a direct iobjeCt with ^o. 
Observj also : * 

{Anafa "u^o) lio safi ui sWkni itaskhna\shb X'a, 

May 1 introduce you to Mr. Ito? 

{Anata to) go issko iiashiuiaskj, I will go with you. 


(Include the verbs in the above lists) 

kotO'gara nature of the thing, ^shu^kaH week. ^ 

matter, circumstances. ^ iri ga aru {oi) attendance is 

tori-t the characteristic por- large (at theaters, etc.) 

tal of a Shinto shrine. kauieru do at the same time 

uri'zane-gao oval face. ^ (two things), be unable to 

ko (c) fragrance, intense. do. « 

ben-shi speaker, orator. nok/ffu be left over (tr. no- 

bu-joku insult^ contempt. ko'iU^ 

kan-slio fire-bell, fire alarm, tataku f«:rike, beat, knock. 

JiS'tei court (of justice). ka^ wo hiku take cold. 

ki'kwai opportunity. — ni mukau^ no hj ye mukau 

kyo'in teacher. face. 

mei'sho noted place, place — ni tori-kakaru commence 

worth seeing. work on. 

o-rai going and coming, achi-kochi here and tliere. 

thoroughfare. chikai ucki (ni) within a short 

drai-dome closing a thor- short time, soon. 

oughfare {tomeru stop). ^ kitto surely. 

a The suffix gara denotes " kind,*' *' quality,** as in gara no ii shitia stufTof 
good quality, cloth of a good pattern, ie-gara f:o yoi hito a perton of good 
family, a person of quality. With Ji-setsn season gara forms an elliptical 
expression ijisetsn gara o daiji ni nasai. It being such a season, lake good care 
of your Iiealth. ITie following example illustrates the use of kotogara : Kotoba 
7va luakanmasH ga, koiogara ita wakarhmsen, I understand lade words, but 
don't kno^ what it is all about. 

b See p. 15. The word stwe denotes only such seeds as those of the melon 
or peach. The general colloquial word for •* seed" is tane, 

c A common notice on iht streets : " Closed ! " " No thoroughfare ! " 

d The week was used even in old times as a measure of time : hito maivari 
fttta niawariy etc. See Ch. XXIV. 

e In the second sense kaneru is added as a suffix to the j?t ems of verbs : 
mairikanemasH cannot go (or come). 

2i8 The Verb [liii 

shikiri ni persistently. i-rai since (following a noun or a 

Uui (m) at laist, finally. verb in the subordinate formj.j 

sen-jitsu the other day. oya exclamation of surprise. 


Do shiyo ka, Do shimasho ka. Do itashima$kd ka. Ko 
itas/itara yoroshu gozaimas/io. Kono hj wa sugu ni tori- 
kakaru koto ni itashiinashd. Ko sKte mimashj, Nihonjin wa 
Matsushiina no kesKki wo taihen shobi shinias\ ^ Shizuka ni 
shiro, ^^ Shimbo sJite kenyaku wo sureba, kitlo kane ga 
nokotimas\ Binshi / shitsumon sKiai koto ga aru. Oviae 
shimbo slite tstomero, Shiyj to omou koto wa sugu ni suru ga 
it, O jigi wo o ski yo,^ Mada wakarimasen kara, sensei ni 
shitsumon itashimashj. O tomo {wo) itashimashj, Dj itashi- 
mash'te, ^ Kake zvo itashiinaslio ka. Sakujitsu wa taihen na 
arashi de gozaimasKta ga, konnichi wa sappari itashittiash ta 
(sappari to haremasKtd). Makoto ni o jama \wo) itashi- 
mash'ta. ^ O jama wo itashimas' ka mo shiremasen. Senjitsu 
wa skitsurei iiashimasKta, ^ Dare ka to wo tataku oto ga 
suru ; dare ga kita ka akete mite kure, O saki ni chodai 
itashimas\ g Sakujits' kara hajimemashta kydgen wa ikka 
bakari kogyo shimas ka, Sayo sa, 7ii shukan gurai itas' so 
des' ; shikashi iri ga okereba, f*ta ts ki mo itashimaslio, 
Yasumichu (tii) ^* achikochi tabi shimasKta, Kono saki no 

a A group of numerous islets covered witli pines, in a corner of the Bay of 

b Here shiro is to be translated " be.'' Shhuka ni is to be parsed as an 
adverb. Politely one might say : O shizuka ni tinsainiaslii. 

c This may be said by a woman to her own child, 

d Often: Do itashimashiie ; sore ni rva oyobimasen. Why? Don't mention 
it. Do itashimashite is the usual response when pardon is asked, thanks are 
expressed, etc. The phrase is elliptical for something like: Db shiU so in o 
koioba wo ukern tteitchi ga a ri mas ho ha, 

e Pardon the interruption. Notice that o, not go, Js used with ja-ma^ a word 
probably of Chinese-Buddhistic origin (yVi evil, ma hindrance, spirit). 

f This expression is used when one meets a friend. The allusion is to a 
previous meeting. No honoritic is required with shitsuni (p. 33). Tlie wholt 
expression may be abbreviated to Senjilm r.v7. 

g In this manner a man may excuse himseU for beginning to eat before 

h For chu compare p. 1373.. Tionslale : during vacation. 


Suru 219 

kashi wa shuzen sKte imas* kara^^oraidome des*'; s^koshi 
mawaiie ikhnashd. Nani wa go ansha nas'tie irasshaimas 
ka, Konosakanawa myo na aji ga .skimas\ Konaida ano 
kata niniicki de aimasKta ga, minu furi wo sKte ikimasKta, ** 
Kono bunsJio wa bonyari sKie imas\ . Sugawara no Michizane 
wa do sKta hito des' ka. Sore kara teiijite. so iu imi ni nari- 
viasKta, ^ Nikon de wa urizanegao wo (p. 1 5) ichiban ii to 
sKte arifnas\ O tenki ni sKtai vion des\ ^ Oinae naze 
zasKki wo sofi shinai ka {zasKki no sofi wo shinaika). 
Konna ni kitanaku slite do shUa n* (mon*) des\ Aftata ga 
Tokyo ye oide ni narimasKtara, hobo no meisho ye (wo) ga 
annai itashimasho. Anata no ossharu koto wa honto to wa 
omowareviasen ; « shikashi vioshi honto to sureba taiken des\ 
Omae so shinakereba slide hi shinai zo. Jishin ga sum {yum) 
to\ ie ga bishibishi suru {iu). Kozukai ga ukauka sh'te ite 
komarimas*. Kono baai ni wa do sKte mo iva to iujiwo 
is' kenakereba narimasen (p. 1 74c). Skinajin ni sh*te wa yoku 
Eigo ga dekimas\ Tokyo ni sh*te wa hidoi oyuki de wa 
arimasen ka. Go jddan nas*ite kudasaru na. Go y of in nasal, 
Taihen bikkuri itashimasKta. Gakko na kyoin wa seij'i ni 
kwankei subekarazaru hazu da, Tanaka Shozo san wa hJtei 
de akubi wo sKta tame ni kwanri-bujoku no tsuini de basse- 
rareniasJC ta. Dare ka watashi no uwasa wo sKte iru to viiete 
kushaini ga dete naranai, ^ Chiisa na koto de mo karonjite wa 
naranai, g Kayd na kotogara wa hito no mina omonzurti 
tokoro des\ Sekkaku go shotai kudasaimasW ta ga, sltosh) 
sashits'kae ga gozaimas* kara, zannen nagara sanjo itash'- 

a Translate : the bridge ahead of us. Compare : kore kara saki no piichi the 
way we are going. Notice that shuzen suru can be construed either transitively 
or intransitively : They are repairing the bridge ahead of us, or, the bridge 
ahead of us is a- repairing. 

b With a preceding verb //<ri ivo shita may be translated ; " pretended that,* 
••acted as Ihough.' 

c In philology tenzuru is often used of changes in the meanings of words. 

d Lit. I should like to make good weather of=I hope the weather will he 
fine. Compare the peculiar expression: Ashita wa furasetaku nai. I hope it 
won't rain lo-morrow (lit. I don't want to make it rain). 

« I cannot think,— ^///£>7frt/vr« being the potential of omou. 

f For naraMAi compare : Fushigi de naranai (p. 158b}. The Japanese have 
a notion that when a man sneezes it is a sign that some one is talking about 

g Compare the Chinese saying : Issnn no i';xrd in karonzubefiarazH {issun » 
little bit, kivo'in light and shade, time). 

v23D The Verb [ltii 

kanemas\ Wwtakuski fto kokoro vio s*^o^hi wa ^assh'tie 
kudasai.^ Tkk&n ktnjitai iHtffi 4ts\ Gak^d «w s&Uugy3 
shinai utlii wa amari ttchl (ray Tiamily) nio stwa wo sum k0t9 
ga dekiniasen. Oya, kono zasKIsi tva kido'ku tatai'o no nioi 
ga shimas koto / Ano hito wa shiri mo shinaide sk'ita kao 
wo sUte imas\ Jibun hiiari no katigae de sKta koto de mo 
49rimas* mai. 

What I ought to do i don't know. What otight i to do ? 
1 intended to ask the speaker varJoos questions, but refraifted 
ijiikaeru). The number of Germans that have emigfrated to 
America since the year 1 850 is said to be four million. I will 
do it day after to-morrow, because to-morrow I have no time. 
Since my son cannot study {gakumon ga dekinai\ I will 
make a fafmer of him. Please do so. Europeans do not 
praise the scenery of MatSushima so much as f^yo ni wd^ the 
Japanese. It seems as if {^yo des') the fire alarm were sounding. 
Ascend the roof and see where {doko ga) the fire is. In my 
neighborhood they have built a primary school. As my eyes 
are dim I can't see anything. Since he associates a great deal 
with Japanese, he speaks {dekiru) the (Japanese) language 
^nqW {uifuiku). The interior of a [Buddhist] temple smells of 
incense. That child appears to have taken a cold and is 
constantly sneezing, is it not (ja nai ka) ? One must not 
cough in the face of (facing) a person. It is said that a womau 
drowned herself last night. No matter how {ikura—nio) well 
it is done, he is not satisfied. If I have time, I will visit IhimJ 
soon. Shall I introduce Mr. Goto to you? If [you] fail to 
{do not) decide things (jftonogoto) quickly and miss the oppor- 
tunity, it will finally become forever imposafiblc. In regard to 
this matter be not at all {kessh'te) anxious- In Japan it is 
forbidden to take {ireni) horses and vehicles within (jiaka ye) 
the portal of a shrine. I am troubled with (doing) headache 
this morning. 

a The sense is : Try to put yonTsclf in my place. Wntnktuhi tw lok^rB 
mo — don*t look .it the matler entirely from your own point of view; sukoshi 
xva — it is not reasonable to expect that you should enter into my feelings 


The A' Group 



To the fourth group belong verbs in Jht. 

I. Paradigm of iiku (stem kiki) to hear, or, to be efficacious 
(p. 128c): 





kikanai^ kikan («) 



kikanakatta, — nanda 

Future or 




kiku daro 

kikanai daro, kikan daro 



kikanakattaro, — nandaro 


kiita daro 

kikanakatta daro 


kikeba {kikabd) kikanakereda {kikanaknba) 

kiku nara {ba) 

kikanai nara {ba) 

Past Condi- 

kiitara {ba) 

kikanakattara, — nandara {bd} 


kiita nara {ba) 

kikanakatta nara {ba) 



kiku na 

{0) kiki na 

kiki de nai yo 

kiki l^yo) 

Subordinative kiiU 

kikazu {shit€\ kikasu nt 

kikanaide, kikande 




kikitaku nai 



kikanakattari. — nandari 


The double i in kiite, etc., arises from the elision of the k in 
kikit^ Compare the following : kaku, kakitt, kaite ; tsuku, 
tsukite tsuite ; maneku^ manekite, maneite ; oku, akiU, cite, 

2. The verb yuku or iku, to go^ is. somewhat irregular. 
Such forms as yuite, yuita, etc., are not in use. From iku are 
deiived, not iite^ iJta, but itte, itta, etc. * 

3. Some intransitive verbs of thia group correspond to 
transitive verbs in keru. Thus the expression hi ga tsukii 6re 
kindles corresponds to hi wo tsukeru ; ki ga tsuku be attentive, 
to ki wo tsukeru ; akai iro ga tsuite iru have a red color, to 

m ThtiBm mmt be carefatty distinguished ftom the corresponding forms of 
iru to enter, or to parch (p. 185). Also iu to say and yU to dress (the hair) 
take tbe same inflcctioiM ordinaHfy, though fW4r, iMtOf etc., are also coirent. 


The Verb 


akai iro wo isukeru to color red; ki ga ochi-tsuite iru the mind 
is composed, to ki wo ochitsukeru. Observe also : 

kuttsuku adhere firmly. 

aku open (intr.). 

muku face. 

katamuku incline, lean. 

todoku reach, arrive. 

tsuzuku continue, hold out. 

kuitukeru attach firmly, 
^z/^^m open (tr.). 
niukeru turn. 

katamukeru \i\z\\vi&, bend. 
todokeru deliver, report. 
tsuzukeru continue, keep up. 

But quite as often the relation b just the reverse, the verb 
in keru being a passive or intransitive form derived from the 
verb \\\ ku: 

hiraku open, begin, clear. » 
ktidaku break, crush. 
muku peel, skin. 
nuku draw, extract. 
saku tear, rip. 
toku melt, dissolve. 
toku loose, explain. 
yaku burn, roast, bake. 

hirakeru become civilized. 
kudakeru be broken, crushed. 
mukeru peel (intr.). 
nukeru be extracted, escape. 
sakerti be torn, ripped. 
tokeru be melted, thawed. 
iokeru be loosed, solved. 
yakeru be burned, baked. 

4. The suflfix-verb meku to resemble, appear, usually in the 
form ineite iru {oru\ deserves passing notice in this connection : 
kodomomeite iru is childish, hatumeite oru is spring-like, etc. 


(Include the verbs given above) 

don the noon signal given 
by firing a cannon. ^ 

fue flute, pipe. 

Jue wofuku play the flute. 

koto a large stringed musical 
instrument, harp. 

koto wo hiku play the koto. 

kuji lot. 

kuji zvo hiku draw lots. 

kire cloth. 

kurumi walnut, butternut. 

name kuji slug. 

ta rice field. 

tafte seed. 

waki side, side of the chest 

(including armpit). . . 
asa-gao morning-glory. 
hi-mazvari sunflower. , 

. a The verb hiraku is used intransitively of the opening of a doo^, the 
Ijloomlng of a flower, etc, 

b The inore elegant term isga^hd (go noon, .^5 cannon). 


The K Group 


;Jj--- I squirrel 

koiowaza proverb, maxim. 
ryo-gae-ya money changer. 

[ line (in writing). 

kawa side (in soto-gawa). 

en, en-gawa veranda. 

am-ma shampooer, blind 
person. * 

za-to blind minstrel, blind 

chu'bu paralysis. 

da-dai foundation, 

go-gaku linguistics, language 

ji'ko climate, weather. 

sei'ko success. 

setsU'bun the transition from 
one season to another, es- 
pecially the night when 
winter changes to spring, 
according to the old caleil- 
dar (lit. season dividing). 

tai-yj the sun. 

slid-kai-jd letter of introduc- 

kayui, kaii itchy. 

layasni easy to accomplish. 

ko'dai no of ancient times, 

ko-ban ancient gold coin, el- 
liptical in shape. ^ 

kata form, pattern, mold. 

nari form, shape, appearance. 

koban-nari no) „. ^. 1 

daku hold in the arms, em- 

fuku blow (tr. and intr.) ; kaz€ 
ga — a wind blows. 

Juku wipe. 

hibiku resound, sound. 

kamu chew, bite. 

inaku sow, scatter, sprinkle. 

maneku invite. 

mayou go astray. « 

mayoi-gOy mai-go lost child. 

okonau do, perform, practice. 

okonai conduct, behavior. 

shiku spread (mats, etc.), lay 
(a railroad). 

ugoku move, be influenced (tr. 

uzuku ache (like a tooth). 

mi-otosu overlook. 

— ni inotO'Zuku take as a 
basis, be based on. 

a From an grasp, ma rub. To shampoo or perform message is amtna wo sut'u 
or momii (rub). Professional shampooers are usually blind men or women. A 
shampoocr who is not blind is called vte-aki no amma. The amma piping 
shrilly in the streets to advertise his presence, especially at night, is a 
. characteristic feature of Japanese life. I n the Tokugawa era the Government 
organized the blind into guilds. Officially recognized blind minstrels or 
shampooers were called za-to (lit. scat-head, i. e. head minstrel). << Blind 
person '* is more exactly niojin / colloquial tne-kura ; classical me shiu 
•. b The a-ban (p. 15) was a larger coin equal to ten koban, 

c To lose the way is michi ni moyou, rarely michi wc mayou. One may a|so 
say : michi zvo machigaent. 

2^4 The Verb [liv 

ikifiurn wo suru act to no. tsune ni always. 

purpose, be in mischief. sorosoro slowly, softly, gradu- 
mdan, wo hiku reduce thf$ ally. 

price. kin-jitsu^ in a few days {kinr= 
jibiki wo hiku consult a die- chikai). 

tionary. isso {no kofo) rather, . 


IVatakushi wa kinjiisu Igiris' ye lachimas' kara, shokaijD 
WO kaite kudasaimasen k.a. Yoroshu go&aimas ; ni san tsu 
{ni samdon) kaite ageinasho. Samui kara, s'tobu ni ^ JU wo 
taite kure, IJei, tadaivia sugu ni takimas\ Ha ga uzuku 
kara, isha ni nuite vioraiinasho, Mushiken wo uts' toki ni, 
hebi to namtkuji ga deru to, namekuji ga kachiinas' ; naze 
naraba namekuji ga hebi ni kuttsuku to, hebi ga tokete shiinau 
kara da so des\ ^ Taihoritsurei to iu shomots' wa Nihon no 
keihd wo kaita ichiban furui hon des\ Makanu tane wa haenu 
(Proverb). Anofue wa turn desJk) ; amina san ga Jue wo fuite 
iruja nai ka, Owari no Seto to iu mura ni yakimono wo 
suru ie ga hachi jikken hodo aru so des\ ^ Anata no sensei wa 
walakushi ni mo oshiete kudasaru hima ga arimasho ka. Do 
sKte kofio takigi wa hi ga tskanai ka shira {=shiran), Ka- 
waite ofu kara, tsuku hazu da ga, ne. Kaii tokoro ni te no 
todokanai yd da, ^ Kono ie wa dodai ga warukute jishin ga 
yum to, taiso ugokimas\ Kono kyogen wa nani ni motozutte 
ts'kutta no des ka^ Kodai no rek'shi ni vtotozuite ts'kutta 
mon' des\ Maigofuda wa banchi to nainae wo kaite kodoino 
ni tskete aru kobannari no Juda des' ; sore da kara kodomo ga 

a Notice carefully the use of the postposition ni in th-is coniKsction. The 
stove ia, as it werci the indirect object. One imiy say also sfi^ntuo taku. Ki 
wo taku bur^. wood ; hence tnki-gi firewood. 

b. Compare p. ij88a. When an expl^anation begins, with nott nareba or s^re 
wa^it e^ndsi.'wk kara desiu 3«t when sore v;a introduces an explanation of a 
woi^/d^ ixUom oc prQv«rb, the sentence, may Qn<\ with t0 iif k^^ ttestd, 

c S€A> in the province of Owari: is famous^ for its manufacture of porcelain. 
Hence the general term for porcelain is seto^morUK 

d A prove i*h derived from the Chinese.: Hnku. kwa s9 y9 (lit, through shoe 
scratch itch). The . reference is tq annoying difficulty <. Of an agseeable 
«ll|*•^»^ec<^ Of; a oJ.Qver p«DB(^ one m^y. also ^a^^ :. Kiui Uik^r0m tt, ga tp^/:u yS 

Liv] The K Group 225 

miehi ni tnay^tte mp sugu ni sena mchi gn wi$katimas\ Nik&n 
na k^Uwaga ni Jidmn no ta ^ mtBu wa kiku to iu koto f^a 
gosatmrns^ (p. 27c). Ano kiio wa chnbu ni ket^M ivtas' kara^ 
te ashi gtt * kikanaku norinn^sK $a. Nihan no hey a ni wa 
iaiasni wo skiiU arimas\ Kuruma ni noru j^ofi wa issoamiia 
ho gayo go»aimas\ Jiko ga sorosoro ha¥umeiPt mairimasKta. 
Kono ringo wa knio yoku iro ga isuiti intas\ Gogaku no 
keiko wa sbijU tiuzuk^nakertha t&Umo sHMo shtmasen. Nih^n 
no it wa taigai u$inaini-muki des\ Ris* wa ^atai knrumi no 
kara wo tayas'ku kami-hudakimas* . Micht ni kHtt inichi ni 
toktu ^ Kaita mono ga shako da. 

These matches won't bum (fire does not kindle, because 
they are damp. Is the bath ready (has the hot water boiled)? 
Yes, it has been boiling (is boiling) for some time (since a little 
whUe ago). I will reduce the price as much as possible. You 
will hardly understand it if you do not consult (consulting see) 
a dictionary. Ebisu^ holds a tai under his arm {waki). Go 
to the money changer and inquire the rate of exchange (market 
price of the dollar). Please explain the reason for that (sono). 
Shall I peel the melon for you? When you go (travel) ta 
Europe, I will write you a letter of introduction. As it is 
raining to-day, the noon signal sounded louder {fndoku) than 
usual. On the evening of setsubun the master of the house 
scatters" roasted beans in every direction {hobo ni) and says : 
*• Luck {wa) in (uchi), demons out" This is what a girl tea 
years of age wrote; indeed it is well done (p. 127b). The 
shampooers walk [through] the streets at night blowing {/uki 
nagara) [their] Butes. You must wipe the veranda every day. 
On the paper slides of tobacco shops there is usually painted 
(written) a tobacco >eaf. This picture is one that Kano 
Motonobii ^ painted (wrote). * la Japan recently [they] have 

A For ie to ashi ga» With noc^s- Ihat ar« often paire<l in common Mag« the 
conjanction may be omitted : oya ko parent and child^ di/> lum mornta^ and 
evening, kanU hatokt gods and biiddiia„ naoU kau waves and wiodA, soAm sakama 
viands, kbfu^kd happiness and unhappin^ss, suru kcta nasu koto everything one 
docs {nasu being the classical equivalent of surtC), 

b The JapBOBsa rendering qf a €hines» proYerbk The> reference is to a 
display of ill-digested learning. 

C OM^of Miefcve»god*of lnck(Mt>/i^/*>h^?M). 

d The m&Ot famowaf the Kano Ikmtfy of pahrterw (X VT. Centirry). 

226 The Verb [liv 

built (laid) railroads in every direction* As there is now a 
railroad (laid) from Tokyo to Sendai, more people will be 
going to Matsushima (people that go to M. will be more) than 
before {maye yori). Please draw one of these lots. That 
blind minstrel plays the koto well. I have taken a cold and 
have a headache. The water of the Tama River is brought 
^p. 163, 5) to Toky5. Shall we walk or (shall we) ride ? We 
will walk, for if we go by kuruma we shall overlook many 
{yoku) things. In Berlin they sprinkle water on the streets 
twice a day. llease under-score (draw a line under) that. 
That man's behavior is childish. This cloth will be beautiful 
if you color it red. That house has leaned over very much 
{Jiidoku) on account of {de) last night's earthquake. The 
{flower of the) sunflower always faces in the direction of the 
sun. Please deliver this book to Mr. Sato^ The morning- 
glory opens early every morning. The chidrcn have been in 
mischief and torn the be ^k. I shall invite [some] friends to- 
morrow ; for it is my birt. day. 


The verbs oku aand itadaku are often used in combination 
with the subordinatives of other verbs. 

Oku to set, put, place, with a subordinative means " leave in 
that condition " : 

irete oku put it in (intending to leave it in). 

kane wo tamete oku lay money by {tameru accumulate). 

azukete oku deposit {azukeru entrust). 

utckatte oku let it alone {utcharu throw away). 

Sono mama ni shite okimashX I shall let it be as it is. 

Sono mama sutete okimashita. 

I let it be as it \^2J^ {suteru cast away). 

Shitaku shite okimashj, 

I will (make my preparations and) be ready. 

Rusui ni kahi wo oite ikimashj. ^ 

We will put the maidservant in charge of the house. 

a Oi/e oku is occasionally heard in the sense cf " to employ," bat UukatiM 
oku, yatctte oku^ tanonde oku^ etc., are more natural in this oonnection. 

Lv] Oku, itadaku ^27 

UU oku {itioku) koto ga am, I have something to tell you. 

When oku follows a negative subordinalive, it may be 
rendered by means of '* leave " with a passive participle pre- 
ceded by the negative prefix " un- " (p. 1 73d). 

Itadaku (or ckodai suru) '* to receive from above " with a 
subordinative indicates that the act denoted by the subordinat- 
ed verb is for the benefit of the speaker. It may be rendered 
in some cases by means of ** have " with the infinitive. But to 
bring out the deference expressed by itadaku a paraphrase is 
usually necessary : 

Anaia ni sore wo oshiete itadakito gozaiinasu. 

Please teach me that (I wish to have you teach me that). 
The verb inorau (p. 92h, Ch. LX.) is used in the same way, 
but //^^fo>fw is more respectful. For the use of these verbs in 
preferring requests compare also p. 151. 


mama original condition, sAidui aistringent, austere. 

natural preference. * sAiiu the juice of unripe per- 
sAiru juice, soup. ^ simmons. ^ 

taru keg, barrel. shibu-kaki unmellowed per- 
fuyu'gi [Japanese] winter simmons. 

clothing. ko-gaihwyXwg in small quan- 
fuyu'fuku [European] winter tities. 

clothing (comp. yd-fuku), uri-kai mercantile transac- 
hachi'Ue potted plants. tions, trade. 

maku to roll up. gwa (c) picture, drawing, 

maki-mono roll (picture or ka-hi^ge-jo maidservant. 

writing), kan-seki Chinese books. ^ 

a Shake ya rriasu wo nama no mama [de) taberu no ii*a kettnon desu. It is 
risky to eat salmon or masu raw. Nan no kangae mo naku kiita mama (nt) 
hanaihimaskita. Unthinkingly I said just what I had heard. Yo no naka no 
koto wa wartivare no omou mama ni wa naranu. The things of the world do 
not go according to our liking. These three sentences illustrate the most 
common uses of mama. 

b The honorific o is usually prefixed when ihiru is used in the sense of 
" sou p." Women say also {o mi) o Isuke (p. 32). 

c This is much used as a stain for wood or paper {shibu-kami). Shibu also 
denotes the astringent rind of a chestnut. 

d Compare ska-seki hooks, also pronounced shojaku. 

228 The Verb [lv 

ky^gefi fixed period. » — na kuki w^ sar^nu, — » wo 

dai'fuku-.cf0 day-book. ^ s0ra^hiAubi ni suru expose 

jU'Zaunin one guilty ot hei- the head of (a criminal). 

nous crime, felon (/«= sam pour into, drop upon. 

omoi ). aki' baniisu {akippanasu)^ ^ke- 

amaisvie^t. danaski {akeppanaski) ni 

Mo ga amai not salty suru leave open. 

enough. saru leave, depart from, get 

kibiskii strict, severe. rid of. 

yasashii gentle, easy. okizari ni sum abandon. 
{o) ki-no^oku na regrettable.*^ uke-tafmiwarH receive (a com- 

kana-majin no mixed with mand), hear (polite i). 

kana (of compositions writ- utcharu {uchi-yaru) throw 

ten in ideograms). ^ away, reject, let alone. 

hdru, horu throw. to kara long since. 

hotte oku^ hottoku let alone, to ni a long time ago. 

be indifferent. ichi nichi oki ni ) every other 

kan-sho suru interfere. kaku-jitsu (c) ni ) day. 

sarasu expose, bleach. — ni oite at, in regard to. 


To wo akeppanasKte {akiPP(inashi ni sKte) oke. Afado wa 
akezu ni okimasho ka. Kono kane wa kuni ye kaeru made wa 
iranai kara, Yokohama no ginko ye azukete oka. Kono sakana 
wa yaku mae ni nijikan ka sanjikan no aida shoyu ni iskete 
oku to, taihen umaku narimas\ Mo jUbun ni kanji wo narai- 
masKta kara, nani ka yasashii hon ga yomitai to omoimas* ; 
dozo, kanamajiri no hon wo sagasKte itadakaremasen ka. 
Kore wa arukor ni ts'kete oku to, k*sarimasen. Kore made 

a Distinguish the three homonymns ki-gtn temper, state health (p. 33b)» 
kigen era, as in kigen-un B. C. and kigen-go^ or simply k^en, A. D., and the 

b From dai great, fuku luck, wealth, and chi notebook (in ck^men). 
Another word is de-tri-chd or shutsu-nyU-ckd, The techntoal term is sm^id^ 
{sui=shutsu=dasu, (d or n9=osameru or irert$, bo book). A ledger is th tt ' c M 
[dai foundation). 

c Lit. poison of spirit. The phrase o JkmodoJhi detu is often Hied as an ex- 
press ion of sympathy or as an apology. 

d The classical equivalent of mauru is maju {maJtM^, which sometimes 
appears in the colloquial in the form mafieru. The intransitive verb, eorre- 
spending to manaru, is majiru (Ch. XLVIII.) 

Lv] Oku^ itadaku 229 

shoyu um k0gai (iii ) %Kt€ oriinatKtA ga^ kore kara wa tnru di 
totU okimashjk K0H0 mae (at the previous lesson) stnsH ni 
{kara) osowatta koto wa wakarimasen kara^ mo ichi do toki- 
akasKU iiadakivinshd. Seiju ga kore wo sono mavta ni koiU 
oite wa ikimasin. Sono vtdnia Hi sKte dke, Kigen wo 
sadamete kane wo ginfcd ye axukite oku to, risoitt ga takaku 
U*kimas\ Mybnichi tabi ni denlas* kara, kofHban o itotna wo 
fHdsKli dkimashd. Danna taifta ga o rusu nara, kakinokosKte 
ckiiai k&to ga arimai kara^ doBo pen to kavii wo kasKte 
Audasai. Hai, tadaima sugu ni dasKte sashiagemas, W ata- 
kushi wa Fukiage no o niwa wo ^ kaiken itaslitj gosaimas' 
kara^ d'jka go tsugo no yoi toki ni tsurete itte itadakaremas' mat 
ka, J^ gozaimas* ; ind ni san nichi taisu to^ haiken ni vuiiru 
>£; ni tomodachi to vio yak'soku sKte okiinasKla kara^ sono 
toki^ go issko ni mairimasko {^go issho i'asAimask.l), Kono 
nochi soHna koto wo skinaiyo ni kodomo ni kibisKku tits' kete 
^kimaskJ^ Uekiya san, kono niwa nd dogu wo katasukete 
o kure ; sonna ni chirakasKte oite wa {picha) komarintas\ 
SakujitSH sensei ni oshiete itadakimasK ta bakari des' kara, ^ 
kitto oboete imasho, O kinodoku des' ga^ itadaite okimasho. 
Kono o mi o is'ke wa chitto shio ga amai kara, skoshi shoyu 
'WO sashUe c/iodai, Kd iu baai ni (oite) wa sei/u ga kansho 
shinakereba naranai. Kono /leya wo soji (mo) shinaide itsu 
fnade mo utchatte oite wa ikenai. Soko made ni itasKte 
vkimaslid, ^ 

Because you left the door of the cage open, the bird has 
escaped (escaping finished). You must not leave the window 
open. Go to the storehouse and bring the box in which are 
the rolls ; then, (so sKte) when you have come out, shut it 
{shutting put) well. German fishermen, when they catch 
herring, at once pickle them in salt Daikon if pickled too 

a The name of a park in the old castle grounds, the present kwoffyo, in 
Tokyo. Haiken sum {hai^^ogamn^ ken^=miru) is used for miru^ especially in 
the first person, of objects belonging to the one addressed or to an exalted 
personage. In the latter ca«-c it nny be used in the second or third person 

b The postposition ni is understood. Compare aru hi one day, for aru hi 
tii^ kono Hocfti hereafter, for kono nochi ni» 

c Compare tadaima kunda bakari desu (p. 122, middle). After a past verb 
hakaH de^ hakan desn, may be translated **just." 

d The usual formula at the end of a lcs«on or lecture. 


The Verb 


long in salt becomes [too] salty. I wish you would change 
the hour for recitation {keiko ud), I wish to learn Japanese 
drawing {Nihongwa) ; please inquire for a good teacher. Shall 
I cut the branches of this pine tree a little ? No, leave it as it 
The account book in which shopkeepers record {fskeru) 


their transactions {urikaidakd) is called daifukucho, I wish 
you would take nie to the theater once. Abandoning wife and 
children, he went (going finished) to America. In Japan 
[they] formerly exposed the heads of felons. Put these potted 
plants out into the garden. I have made an agreement with 
a friend to {yd nt) read Chinese books together every other 
day. Command the maidservant that she do nothing like that 
hereafter (kono go). You must not leave the books scattered 
about like that. I have heard that you are good at checkers 
^go ga jdzti)\ please teach me a little (Jiitotsu). I ordered 
winter clothing long since, but it is not finished yet. I will 
come down to tzn yen (p. 125a). Even though one makes an 
agreement, difficulties {sashits kae) often occur {dekimas*). If 
you put unmellovved persimmons into rice, they become sweet. » 


I. The verb kuru (stem ki) is irregular : 





konai, kon («), kijiai 



kon {a) katta, konanda, kinakatta 

Future or 

koyd, kiyd 



kuru daro 

konai daro, kon daro 



kon {a) kattard, konandaro 


kita daro 

kon dattaro, konakatta daro 



konakereba {konakuba) 

kuru nara {da] 


konai nara {ba), kon nara {ba) 

Past Con- 

kitara {ba) 

konakattara {bd), konandara {bdy 


kita nara {ba) 

konakatta nara {ba) 

* One may also say : shihn ga nuktmastt. 

Lvi] Kuru 23.1 

Imperative km kuru na 

ki na kuru («*) de nai {yo) * 

Subordina- kite kozu (skitf), kozu ni 

tive konaide, konde 

Desiderative kitai kitaku nai 

Alternative kitari . konakattari, konandart 

kinakatiari, kinandari 
The briefer form ku appears in kubeki (compare su-beii). 
From kuru are derived the conditional kureba and the negative 
imperative kuru na. 

The ko in koyo^ koi (from koyo) and the negative forms is 

2. The imperative koi (pp. 34e, 37d, 48c) is peremptory. 
Familiarly one may say oidi, aide na, ^/d?>^^; politely, aide 
nasai^ irasskai, 

3. Polite equivalents of kit^asu are : for the first (or third) 
person, tnairu {mairimasu) or agaru ; for the second (or third) 
person, irassharu (irasshaimasu), oide nasaru^ oide ni naru. 

4. Kuru often follows the subordinatives of other verbs : 
dete kuru come out 

haitte kuru come in 
kaette kuru come back 
nagante kuru come floating 
hiite kuru decrease 
mashite kuru increase 

Sometimes kuru with a subordinative may be translated 
"begin "(p. 92): 

Avte ga JutU kimashita. It has begun to rain. 

Savtuku natte kimashita. It begins to be cold. 
For such expression as " Shall I go and shut the window ?'* 
** Go and buy it/' kuru with the subordinative is used (p. 88g) : 
Mado wo shimete k'unashj ka. Sore wo katte kite kure. 
Notice the frequent idiom : moUe (jsurete) kuru {mairu, etc. 

a Noiicc that the stem of the verb may not be used here as in other 

b A polite expression is Ji-san suru (Jiz=zfnofsu, saft^=sfjiairu) : Jisan i/ashi- 
tnashitn. I brought. Go jisan nasaimashita. You brought. 


The Verb 



iiri limit. * 

tsuchi earth. 

mono peach. 

tsubame, isubakura (from 
the classical tsubakurame) 
chimney swallow. 

akambj baby, infant ^ 

botchan^ {p) bo san boy (po- 

{p)jd san, JO chart girl (po- 

o iachin {katsu pound, iV 
boiled nz^^inochu 

katni wo yuu {tu) dress the 

kami yui^ kamii hair dres- 
ser. ^ 

mage cue, coifTurc. 

toko-ya barber-shop, barber. 

yabu grove, thicket. 

taka-yabu bamboo grove. 

kitte stamp, check. 

yubin-kitte^yubin-giite postage 

kure-gata evening, twilight. ^ 

take- no- ko bamboo sprouts 
(an article of food). 

gan (c) wild goose. 

deinpd telegram (p. 1 1 jb). 

dempj wo utsu (or kakeru or 
dasii) send a telegram. 

gwan-fitsu tlie first day of the 

ji^setsH season. 

%wai'jo circular letter. 

seH'taku washing, laundry 
( — sum wash). 

hai'tatsu distribution, deliv- 

yubin haitatsu \ ^^^,„ e 
- z. • t z { postman. ^ 

yubin-kubart ) ^ 

sen ryu brief witty poem. 

hatt'kiri, letter paper. ^ 

doro mud. 

a From kiru cut. Kiri may limit another word, following it iikft gura^^ 
bakan\ dake or kodo (pp. 2ab, 48b). It U more emphatic than any of them and 
often occurs in the expression Kore kiri shika m<ii (lit. this only — ^besides not). 

b Also aka san, or nkn chatty chan being the children's equivalent of smt. A 
baby may be called politely ckiisai no. The term hd is a designation common 
to priests, blind men and boys (p. 15 a) and as a suffix means '* fellow " : kurombd 
negro, Jktchimdd miser, asantbo a late sleeper. 

c Men do not now require the services of a kamiyni, since the custom of 
wearing the cue has been abandoned. A barber shop is called also ri-hatm-'Un 
(dress-hair-shop) or %atn patsu-ya {zan cut). 

d Also hi-gure^ from kureru Set (of the sun). The sunset itself is mthi- 
^o^su ; sunTisCf niss/tu/su or hi^node, Ban-gata and yu gaia are synonymous 
with ku re gat a. 

e In the post u£!)ce the technical term is shh^hai-nin {shu^suihttmiru^ hair=& 

f Tii< long narrow sheets called hankirt (or kankire) are usually pasted 
together to form aoontinuons roll called maki-gami. 

LVi] Kuru 233 

doTo-darAk^ no muddjr. * *^ wo noxokm fw hoha «x6epl- 

mn-jika no vtry tt^Jir. ing. 

A^rau clear aw^y, sweep> chig'^i diflerence, mistake, 

brush. — ni ipd) chigai {ga) nai 

koinnru bury. there is no doubt that, 

shimau put away. certainly. 

aio wo katasukeru, ato kaia- aratameru change, renew, re- 

euko ifvo) sum^ ato-jimai view. 

{wo) sum clear away umUam^te again^ 

things (as after a meal). ^ s/ippari clearly, >vhoUy, at all 

ine wo karu harvest the rice. (with a negative verb). 

dai'sho wo sasu wear the tsui unconsciously. 

two swords {dai great, ik-ko entirely, at all (with a 

s/id small). negative verb— comp. p. 99, 

noMoku remove, except. bottom). 


Viibinhaitatsu ga iiUtrat so itte Jkure. Yftdin wa kort kiri 
{dakt) s/iikti kimasen. Kamin ni sassoku kuru yd ni itte 
4^imasKia ga^ naze kimasen ka ivakarintasen, Tatso hara 
g;a hettt kimasKta ; nodo mo kawaite kimask'ta. Mo yubin 
£-a kiia ka, Sayo^ tadaima kimash'ta ; shikashi o kuni knra 
tva tegami ga kimasen : shivibun dake des\ Sugu ni yubin- 
kitte wo katU himaslw ka, Shokuji no ato wo katazukete 
shimattaray katte koi, Korio kimono wa dorodarake da kara^ 
yoku haratte koi, Ganu io iu Shinajin ga oyaji wo h'jmutte 
ita toki ni karas' ga tsnchi wo motte kita to iu hanoshi ga 
iirimas\ ^ Moso to iu Shinajin ga takayabu ni haitte naita 
toki ni takenoko ga yuki no skta kara dtte kita so des\ Inu 
^va neta kiri^ okite kotiai ; do sKta no da, Gwanjitsu ya^ 

a As a suffix darake is much used to form adjectives having Ihe perteral 
sense of slovenly or disagreeable : aka-Harake filthy, cM-darake bloody, kai- 
darake (hai ashes), kokori-darake dusty, kusa- darake (of a garden), ftiizu darake 
(of ft room), sumi^atake, yama-darake (of a country), shakkin-darake^ fu- 
shimaisu-darake^ from shimatsu good management, economy (lit. beginning and 

b Merely to take things back to the kitchen is c %en 7W> sageru, 
C 6'/iw« and -^^5 belong to the twenty-four Chinese heroes celebrated fof 
their filial piety^the fuju tbi kd (for kos/ti^UsiX child). 
d A7W is here equivalent to mama. 

234 The Verb [lvi 

kino no otti ga ret ni kuru to iu senryu ga ariinas\ * Anata 
keiko ye kitari konandari sKte wa ikemasen ; shiju konakereba 
narimasen, Konaida Osaka hen de arashi ga fuite ie ga 
tak'san tsubure, ^ hitojini mo atta to iu demfij ga kiinash'ta. 
Taisd osoku natta kara vid komai, lie^ kuru ni chigai nai. 
Hitori no o ba san ga kawa de sentaku wo sKte iia ioki ni dkt 
na tnomo ga nagarete kita kara sore wo uchi ye motie kite 
watte miru to^ oki na akambo ga dete kit a so des\ ^ A no set to 
wa konogoro ikko kimasen ga^ do shimash'ta. Konaida atta 
(from au meet) toki ni konnichi kara koyo to iimasKta, Kok- 
kivai no hirakeru no mo majika ni natte kimasJita, A no kata 
wa sakunen wa yoku kimas/ita ga^ konnen wa sappari konaku 

It was my intention (p. 95a) to bring [you] the book of 
which I spoke recently, but I quite (/j//i ) forgot it (forgetting 
came). The meaning of this word has gradually changed 
(changing came). Go and buy some {s^koshi) letter paper and 
envelopes. Let me know {shiraserti) when the barber conies 
(past cond.). I ordered him {itts*kete oku) to {yd ni) bring [it] 
at once ; why doesn't he bring it (prob.) ? Has the newspaper 
not yet come (pres.)? At present {tadaima de wa) much 
foreign rice {gwaikokumai) comes to Japan. In your absence 
{0 rusu ni) a circular letter came from the school : I told the 
messenger {mosKte yarn) to bring it again [in the] evening. I 
made (making put) an agreement that {yd ni) he should come 
this evening; why doesn't he come? This year the cold 
begins (it has become cold) early. In Japan when a person 
comes to tender New Year's congratulations (p. 88a), people 
serve {dasu) sake or mochi. Prince (p. 76c) lemitsu brought 
it about (^^ ««.y«r«) that, excepting Dutchmen {Oran^ajin), 
Europeans could no longer come to Japan. When Japanese 
first came to America, they still had (subord. of yuu) cues and 
wore (were wearing) the two swords. The season of rice 

a By ant is understood the creditor who comes on the last day of the year 
to collect money due him. Va is a kind of interjection. 

b Osaka hen de in the vicinity of Osaka, For arashi gafuku compare kate 
^a/uku. Tsubure is the inconclusive form of tsuburent and is here equivalent 
to isuburete, 

c This is the beginning of the famous talc of Momotard. For mcnno 7vo want 
compare take 100 7varu to split bamboo. 


The G Group 


harvest (when people harvest rice) has not yet come. In Japan 
when the swallows go away (return), the wild geese come. A 
girl (ojo san) has brought [some] beautiful flowers. I have 
brought the little boy a toy for («/) a present. Shall I send 
(sending come) a telegram ? 


To the fifth group belong verbs in ^u. 

Paradigm of nu^ (stem fiu^) to take off (an article ot 
clothing) : 

Positive Negative 

Present nujpi nuganat^ nugan (u) 

Past nuida nuganakatta^ — nanda 

Future or nugo nugumai 

Probable nugu daro nuganat dard, nugan daro 

Probable nuidaro nuganakattard^ — nandaro 

Past nuida daro nuganakatta darJ 

Conditional nugeda{fiugaba)nuganakereba {fiuganakuba) 
nugu nara {da) nuganeba 

nuganat nara (ba) 
Fast Con- nuidara (ba) nuganakattara^ — nandara {bd)f 

ditional nuida nara {ba) nuganakatta nara {ba) 
Imperative nuge nugu na 

{o) nugi na nugi de nai yo 

o nugi {yo) 
Subordinative nuide 

Desiderative nugitai 
Alternative nuidari 

nugazu {shite) t nugazu ni 
nuganaide, nugan de 
nugitaku nai 

nuganakattari^ — nandari 

In such forms as nuide ^ derived from nugite, the g is elided 
and by compensation for the loss of the nigori in g the / is 

The verbs of this group are not numerous. The most com- 
mon are : 

aogu fan. pisagu shut up, abstract. 

fusegu ward off. hagu patch together. 


The Verb 


hagn peel» strip offi ^ 

isogu hurry* 

kagu smclL 

kasigu toil, work diligently 

katsugu carry (on the shoul- 

kogu row, scull. 

matagu straddle, step oven 

nagu be calm (of windfi 
waves, etc.). 

cyogu swim. 

sinvagu be noisy, ekcited* 
S9gu cut obliquelyi slice ofE. 
S0sogU sprinkle (rather Gtdssk> 

suimgH^ ynsugn rinse {tnimm 

togu whet, grind, wash (rice). 
isugu join, graft tsugi-ki wo 

suni\ inherit. 
Uttgu pour. ^ 
tsunagu tie, hitch, moor. 
yurugu shake, quake, be looser 


(Include the above list) 

nio succession. 

— no ato wo isugu inherit 

the estate or office of. 
Aada naked body, skin. 
hada wo nugu expose the 

upper part of the body. 
kishi bank, shore. 
iui post, stake, pile. 
dgi folding fan. ^ 
shiri bottom, base. ^ 
^ta pariah. 
ko'gawa brook. 
ko gire small piece 

kurombo negro. 
se to-mono porcelain. 

i^as of 

kamoi upper groove, linteL 
shikii lower groove, threshold. 
shikumono rug, carpet 
toishi whetstone. 
tO'garashi cayenne pepper. 
ie-tsuke-kin, te-tsuke earnest 

money, bargain money. 
Bei tax, tariff. 
Ben good. 
aku evil. 
zennaku^ zen-aku good and 

genkwan, genka vestibule of a 

residence, main entrance. 
nofu agriculturist, farmer. 
tern-bin balance. 

a In the literary language the verb hagu miy also be intransitive { hence 
the derived form hngasu^ corrupted to ke^asu. These and the rare from ^egm 
arc all synonymous with hagu above. The colloquial intransitive is k^igtrm 
" be stripped off," also ** become bald. * 

b These verbs must not be cou fused with tsugeru tell. 

c From aogu. Fans that do not fold are called uchiwa, 

d The inside bottom of a nabt (pot for cooking) is soko; the ootsidct skiru 
It is not an elegant word, but there is no other. 

Lvii] The G Group 337 

ifftHUm-^ pole carried on sotm, smim shave. 

the shoulder with a bimlen kami-s&ri^ kami-auri razor. 

suspended from either end. tsumazuku stumble. 

£-m^gu pigments for paint- wareru be ^ptit, cracked 

ing. (tr. waru), 

nnnmme lemonade. mi ga nam firuit is produced^ 

asai shallow. bear fruit. 

hircu pick up, find. yoshi ni iku enter a family 

isamu be bold. as an adopted child. 


Zen tva isoge (Proverb). O cha wo isuide agfvtasho ia. 
jDoso, isuide kudasai. Sore wa ki ni take wo tsuida yd na 
hanashi des^, Ano hito no ato wa yoshi ga IsugimasK ta^ 
Natutake isoide koi, Narubeku isoide itashimashd. Ama- 
ri isQgu koto de mo nai kara. asKta iite mo yoroshii. * Sake 
wo isugu toki ni wa, migi no ie de tokkuri wo motte bidari no 
te wo sono shiri ni atemas\ Toishi wo katie kite kamisori wa 
toide koi, Mizu wo oyogu no wa ^ taihen karada no tavte ni 
narimas\ Kaeru wa yoku mizu wo oyogimas' ; sore da kara 
hito ga jozu ni mizu wo oyogu to, kaeru no yd da to iimas* 
Seiron (Ceylon) no minato de/une kara umi ni kane wo nageru 
to, kurombo ga kaertt no yd ni oyoide sugu ni hiroimas\ Muka- 
shi wa eta to iu mono ga atte shinda ushi ya uma no kawa wo 
haide imasKta. Ano onna wa kogire ivo haide kimono wo 
koshiraete imas\ Hada wo nuide soto wo aruku no wa keisa- 
tsu de^ kinjite nrimas* ga, kurmnahiki nado %va inaka-micht 
de hito no inai toki ni wa atsku nam to^ kimono wo nugimas\ 
Nihau W zas/iki ui wa tatami ga (wo) sAHU arimas* ka^a, 
geta wa geukwun ni nuide agarimas. Seiydjin mo kuti wo 
nutde agaranakereba narimasen, Fune wo \kogu koto no s'ki 
na hito ga kogu no wo suku hito ga) arimas\ Minato wo dete 
kat^a kaze ga naide kaganakereba natanaiatia kara, imisd oso- 

a 4tt^ ip this ieiit«nce is fioin iku, De m^ nui oorrcspends to the English 

"^It is ao| 9l fUl/' •* it is aot exactly." Kot9wm%a dt mo arimasen ga It is 

■ot exactly a proverb, but 

b MiMi$ wo ^tgu swim i« the water. Compaiw sc/o few aruku, 

c For kmaisu de compare p. 126c. 

24Q The Verbs [lviii 

isumu be packed. tsuweni pack. * 

yamu cease (as rain). ya$H€ru stop, give up. 

yasumu rest, retire. yasumeru caus^ to rest 

yuriinm be loose, moderate. yuruitieru loosen. 
varabu be in a row, be parallel, narabetu arrange. 
ukabu float. ukaberu launch.^ 

To some transitive verbs correspond passive forms in eru^ e. 
g., viomn I ub, momeru be rumpled, troubled. 

The stem of the verb shinu or shinuru die is shinL In the 
subordi native, the past, etc., it is conjugated like the above 
verbs : shindig shindaj, etc.. - In the present ru may be added to 
nu (compare viasuru^ suru), and in derived inflections there 
are longer and shorter forms. Thus the probable is sAittu dara 
or shinuru dard ; the conditional, shinureba or shineba ; the 
negative imperative, shinuru na or shinu na : adding beki we 
have shinu'beki or shinuru-beki. The other inflections are de- 
rived regularly from shinu ; e. g., shinitai^ shino {shinan)^ shi- 
nanai, shine, shinumai. The dialectical inuru, return, is inflect- 
ed like shinuru. 


(Include the above verbs.) 

kaji rudder, helm. hiia-gomi crowd. 

nami wave. yama-bushi hermit (/»i« lie 
tombi black kite. down, lodge). 

tsuna rope. ^ kanjiki snowshoe. 

yubi finger.^ toge mountain pass. 

haru-saki (lit. spring-front) an-shj hidden rock, reef, 

early spring, springtime, nin-Jin ginseng. 

a Compare tsumam be clogged, oppressed. These verbs must be distingaish- 
ed from tsumti pile up, to which corresponds the intransitiye tmmeru, 

b Kbk0't> fti ukanda it occurred [to me]. 

c Isuna means a strong rope, made usually of hemp (aw). Th« lighter 
rope made of straw is »<i7c/i ; if made of hemp, asanatva. Cord o:: twine is 
hoso-4tawa» String or thread is iio, 

d The thumb js oya-yudi, fVom oya parent ; the index finger, Mto^aski-yuH 
itoTCi hiio wo foiw^mX. ovX a person; the middle fmgtr, nrnka^yuH^ oi taka- 
//ii«»->^i{childrcn's word), from /<j>&ai/ the ring finger, kumri^yM^ 9^^J^v^ 
ta its use in applying saWe, or btm-saski-yuki (vovftQn!^ yf^^^ frpm ^«ft icf« 
SQ3U apply roB«« ^ tika Uttlv fiagafy k9^ttiki\ Tha gfaM t<»« 2» «ii« mi ty^ytu^i. 


The B and M Group 


bai'U the early summer rain, 
the rainy season. ■ 

cka-ya (lit tea* house) res- 
taurant, saloon. 

kg^skiki expression (of face), 

ki-kai machine, engine. 

kwo^Man mine. 

ina^ho magic. 

inahd wo tsukau practice 

nin-soku cooly. 

ri-sj ideal. 

sat' nan misfortune. 

Sei-sho Bible. 

sen-id stick of incense. 

skim-pat anxiety (p. i96d). 

Irelatives. ^ 

skin-rui ) 


shoku-nin workman, artisan. 

jo-ki steam. 

jdki'Sen, ki-sen steamboat. 

^o som-pu {samd) your fa- 
ther (more polite than o 

sasu point out, indicate. 

sashitaru special. 

sumanai inexcusable, rude 
(p. 167b). 
so-so na heedless. 

vtU'-jitsu no untrue, innocent. 

mujitsu no tsumi false accu- 

ainu braid, knit, crochet 

irabu^ eramu choose. 

kakobu carry transport. ^ 

kaeru be hatched (tr. iaesu). 

kazoeru count, number* 

koHomn like, be fond of, 

kukum bind. 

kubi wo kukuru hang one's 

kwnu weave, c knit together, 
fame, compose (type), 

vtusubu tie, bear (fruit), 
make (a contract). 

in wo musubu make (magi- 
cal) signs with the fingers. 

nomu drink, swallow. 

tSHinu pile up, load, accumu- 

kori'dasn dig out, unearth. 

kai'skaku sum borrow (po- 
lite 1). 

tada gratis, free of charge. 

zutto all the way, direct. 

ma-vio-naku in a moment, 
immediately, soon. 

yoku'jitsu the following day. 

a Lit. plum-rain, i. e.. rain that falls when plaras are maturing. The conven- 
tional <1ate for the rainy season is the last three weeks of Juae. The most 
common name for it is nyn 6ai {ny!i=^irt*), a word which originally neaot the 
1>cgliiniiig of the rainy season. Another word for ^am is /satytf, derived from 
tsnyu dew. 

b The latter is a little mora elegant than the former. The words rtd and 
zoku form collective nouns. Comp. kin-fui kitv-%oku metals. 

c Hakckti is also ueed intransitively in the sense of ** to make progress." 
lenkiga yd /«, db ihiii me shigeta ga hayaku fiakebirnmsu. The work naturally 
makes rapid progress when the weather is fmc. Nakanaka hakobi ga Uukima- 
tern, IVogresa la slow 

d To weave on a loom is 0/'//. 

^42 The Verb, [lviii 


Korjnde mo tada wa okinu.^ En no shokaku wa in wo 
sHusunde viaho wo is^katta so des\ IVatakushi zva sumanai 
koto ivo sKia, Watakushi wa soso na koto wo ttash'te makoto 
ni sumivtasen Kenkiva ga sunde do wo nigiru, ^ Kono uchi no 
ichiban yoi no wo erande kudasaiviaski, Nagahu keiko wo 
yasunde wa ikemasen, ^ Kono machi wa Nihombashid ri to 
narande oriinas\ Ninsoku ga sorou made ano chaya de s'ko- 
ski yasunde matrimashd, ^ Omae asonde {asunde) bakari ite 
wa ikemasen. Muika hataraite nanukame ni wa yasumana- 
kereba naranai to Seisho ni kaite tiriinas\ Gelsttyjbt ni mo 
asobu (yasumu) shokunin ga tak'san arimas\ Ryukyu (1^3- 
choo Islands) de wa onna ga hataraite otoko ga asonde imas\ 
Gomi wo tsunda fune zvo gomibune to mjshimas\ Ano hito 
wa iaiso sake ga ski des* keredomo, kane wo oshinde nomima- 
sen. Mo ame ga yamimash*ta ka. Ima yamiso na kesK ki 
des\ Kaze ga yandara^ aitaka ni naru desh'j. Go shimpai ni 
wa oyobimasen. Shinda ko no toshi wo kazoeru (Proverb). 
Fune ga anslij ni atatte soko ni ana ga aite kara, sugu ni shi- 
zumimasKta. Nihonjin wa matsu no ki wo taiso kononde yoku 
nizva ni uemas\ Tombi ga taka wo unda to iu no zva oya yo- 
ri erai ko ga dekiia to in ko'o des\ Isha wo tanonde agemashd 
ka. ^ liey sash* tarn koto de vto arimasen kara, tanomanaide mo 
yoroshu gozaimash . Jtbun hitori de dekiru motto nara^ hito 
wo tanomanai ho ga ii, Tonari no hito wo tanondara yokatta 
ni. Jokisen no kikai ga itamimasKta no de futska lu>do yo- 
kei minato ni tomaranakereba 7iarimasen desh'ta, Amma san 
ni hitotsu monde moraimash'ji Wada-toge ^ ken de wa Juji no 

a The proverb describes a very avaricious spirit. 

b The usual form of the proverb is : kenkxva sugiie no bbchigiri, Bo-chigirt 
and chigiri-ki are equivalents of bd. A club is of no use after the quarrel is over. 

c Observe that yasumu may take an object with wo where the English would 
require a preposition. 

d Yasunde mairimashb. I will rest and then go. But mairimasho is hardly 
to be taken so literally ; it may remain untranslated. 

e Isha 7V0 tattomu call a physician. But when there is a direct object denot- 
ing the thing requested, the person becomes the indirect object with ni 
(p. X25b.) 

f The Wada Pass is on the NakasendS just beyond Karuizawa. Yuki iio ue 
wa suberu. 

Lviii] The B and M Group 243 

eda de anda kanjiki wo ts*kaimas' ; sono ura ni kire wo is' kete 
yoku yuki no ue zva suberimas\ Watakushi wa keiko no sun- 
da yokujitsu ni inaka ye tachimash ta, Seiyojin wa isTtreiy 
yubi zvo ku?ide Kami wo ogamimas^ ga^ Nihonjin wa te wo 
awasete {awas/iti) ogatnimas . Ano hito wa kawaisd ni mu- 
jiisu no tsuini de shinimas/ita. Hara wo kitte shine (shinde 
skimae), Anna warumono tva shinde mo dare mo kamaima- 
sen, Nochi ni ndru to 0:01 komivias kara, zutto mae no ho ye 
tsuffie kudasai, Hito-gomi no naka ye iku to, zutsu ga shimas*, 
Asagao no hana wa hi ga deru to, mamonaku shibonde shtmai- 
mas\ Hammok' (hammock) 710 tsuna ga ytirumimash'ta kara^ 
musiibi-naosanakucha abunai, Harusaki ni nareba dandan 
samusa mo yurumimas\ Risj no nai hito wa chjdo naini no 
ue ni ukande oru kaji no nai June no yo na mono des\ C hot- 
to konna kangae ga kokoro ni ukabimasK ta, Tonda go sainan 
de gozaimasK fa, ^ 

This part {tokoro) is very difficult ; I finally understood the 
meaning [only] after reading [it] repeatedly {tabitabi), I 
awoke after the earthquake was over. • You have made great 
progress (advanced much) in language study {gogaku ga). 
When the rainy season is over (sumu), [people] air [their) 
clothes ; this is called doyoboshi. In mushiken, when the snake 
and the frog appear {deru), the snake wins, because (naze to in 
ni) snakes swallow (swallowing finish) frogs. When a person 
dies the relatives [and] friends (kara) send sticks of incense. 
The yamabushi often make magical signs with [their] fingers. 
When I have finished reading the book that I borrowed of 
you recently, I will at once return it to you. The Japanese 
often read books with a loud voice. ^ This (koko) is a very 
beautiful place ; we will rest a little and [then] go [on]. That 
steamboat sank near (no kin-kai de) Japan. The copper dug 
out from this mine is carried by horses to (made) the Kitakami 
River and loaded (tsumi-komu) into boats. ^ The bird has 
laid eggs, but has not yet hatched them. In a Japanese proverb 

a In such a context yatnu is better than sumu, 

b Takai koe de, or, kot wo agete. There is a word for reading aloud, 
namely, ott-doku, 
c The verbs arc all active. 


The Verb 


they say : To drink ginseng and hang one's self. * I have a 
request to make of you (There is a matter about which I wish 
to request you). In Japan when [you] go to a person's house 
you call out with a loud (great) voice in the genkwan : " I re- 
quest ! " In a Turkish (^Tor*ko no) proverb they say : If lost 
things return (returning come), the dead father too returns. 
Have you read the Rongo f^ I am now reading [it]. She 
gave birth to a dead child. Is your father still living ?« No, 
fatlier (wa) died a long time ago. That sick person will prob- 
ably die soon ; for he drinks too much sa^e {saAe w/f nomt- 
sugiru). About {iota wd) a dead person [one] must not speak 
ill. If one sinks, one floats [again] (Proverb).^ 


To the seventh and last group belong verbs in which a vow- 
el precedes the u of the present tense. 

Paradigm of kau (stem kat) to buy, or to keep (animals) : 


kawanau ka%van{u) 
kawanakatta^ — nanda 

kawanai daro^ kawan daro 
kawanaktta daf& 

kawanakereba {kawanakubd) 
kawanai nara (ba) 
kawanakatiara {ba) 
kawanandara {bd) 
kawanakatta nara {ba) 

a The point is that ginseng is extremely expensive. By the time a man has 
consumed enough to eflfect a cure there will be nothing left in life but a hope- 
less struggle against poverty. 

b Known among ns us the Analects of Confucius. 

c Yetf polite : Go somfu sama wa mada go zommei de ifosthmmatu km, 

<l Compare the proverb, p. iS^a. 





katta, kota 

Future or 


Probable kau daro 


kattaro^ kotaro 


katia daro 

kota daro 


kaeba {kawaba) 

kau nara {ba) 

Past Condi- 

kattara {ba) 


kotara {ba) 

katta nara {ba) 

kota nara {ba) 


The Vowel Group 





{p) kat 9ia 
o kai {yo) 
katti^ koU 

kan na 

o kai di nai yo 

kawazu {shite)y kawazu ni 
kawanaide^ kawande 
Desiderative kaitai kaiiaku nai 

Alternative kattari^ kotari kawanakatiari^ — nandari 

The vowel preceding the w of the present tense may be a, o 
or «. Compare omou think, kuti or ku eat In the negative 
inflections the characteristic vowel a becomes wa. The 
positive subordinative, as also the past tense, etc., has two 
forms, omotte or omote, kutte or kuU, The forms with the long 
vowel, such as koie^ omote, kute^ are more common in Kwanzei^ 
the western provinces, than in Kwanto, But even in Tokyo a 
verb like tou ask is conjugated tote^ tota, not toite iottix. 

The only verb in which / precedes the u is iu say. It is 
conjugated itte or iuU^ itia or iuta, etc. The.forms ///^, itta 
are homonymous with the corresponding inflections of iku go 
and itu enter or irii parch (p. 221a). The verb yuu or yu 
bind (as, for example, the hair) is in Kwanto inflected just like 
iu say.^ 

The form iwaba (lit. if I say) has peculiar uses. It may 
sometimes be rendered " so to speak," " in a word,'* " for 
instance " ; in some cases it is untranslatable : 

Taioete iwaba to speak by way of illustration. 
Tennis wa iwaba Nikon no dakyu no yd na mono desu. 
Tennis is, one might say (for instance), like Japanese dakyu, 
Chanoyu wa iwaba hitotsu no nagnsami no yd ni mietna- 

su ga hontb wa seishin wo ochitsukerujutsu desu. 

Chanoyu seems like a kind of amusement, but in reality 

it is an art by which one composes the mind. 

Forms of iu enter into many idioms in which the original 

sense of •' say " has been obscured : — to iedomo " although " 

(p. 171, top) ; — to iu koto zva or — to in mono wa " the " (p. 126 

a Observe the pun in the saying: VoJ^u uite waruku iivaniru goke no kami, 
A widow is 111 spoken of when she does up her hair nicely. 

246 The Verb [lix 

b) ; — to ill no de •* on the ground that" (p. (32 bottom) ;» 
— to itte^ tote, Ute (p. 133 top, 167 bottom) ; — to iu to=to, etc. 
Samui *ttara uakatta. It was indescribably cold. 

To the seventh group belongs also the auxiliary tamau used 
by students, etc., to form an imperative (p. 150) : Oki tatnae. 
Get up ! If the action is requested for the benefit of the speaker 
kure tar'ae must be used : Kono tegami wo yubinbako ni irete 
kure tamae. Drop this letter into a mail box, will you ? 

This being the last chapter on the conjugation of the verb, 
it may be well to note a distinction in the classical language 
which occasionally influences the colloquial. In the classical 
there arc two forms of the conditional, — akeba and akureba, 
(akerebd)^ sugiba and svgureba {sugireba), iniba and mireba, 
tor aha and toreba^ etc., the former in each case being con- 
ditional in the proper sense and the latter temporal. In the 
colloquial the latter forms prevail and are used in both 

Besides the past conditional in tara {ba), one may rarely 
hear a form in tareba, ^ The two forms are commonly confus- 
ed, but properly the former is truly hypothetical while the 
latter indicates the connection of actual events or conditions : 
Kind hanami ni ittareba mb sakari ga sugite oriviashita. 
Yesterday I went to see the blossoms, but they were already 
past their prime. 


iitari=^hen vicinity, in tlie kan-jo reckoning, account, 

region of, about. bill. ^ 

hashi extremity, end, begin- ko-saku cultivation (of land). 

ning, margin, c nyu'yd-=irt'yd need. --. 

a TUu idiom is often a mere connective equivalent to r.o de (p. I04h.} 

b Compare nareba^ which is practically synonymous with nara {bny These 
forms, derived from nantT^^ni aru^=ae aru, must not be confused with the con- 
ditional of ttaru to become. 

c The end of a viachi or group of houses is hature, rarely hashi. 

d Kanjo ivo sum to rtckon, draw up accounts. Kanjo wo shite kudasai, or. 
Go kanjo tvo ne^aimasu. Please make out your bill, or, Please settle the 
account. This may be said by cither party to a transaction. To collect a 
bill is kanjo itv tora or inorau ; to pay a bill, kanjo wo harau. At hotels it has 
become the fashion with some to substitute hivaikei for kanjo : Go k^uaikei too 
ne^aitnasH. Please settle your bill. Kwaikei wo shite kudasai. What is 
the bin? 


The Vowel Group 


share witticism, pun. 
yami darkness. 
yo^ yo-no-naka world. 
ja-kd musk. 
iim-min people. 
jun-sa policeman. 

sho-nb camphor. 

doku'shin {doku=hitori^ shin 
=^mi) celibacy. ^ 

dokushivi'inoHo bachelor, wid- 
ower, spinster. 

habakaru be afraid, feel 
backward. ^ 

harau pay. 

kanau accord, suit, obtain 
(a wish). 

kawaigarti love ; be fond of. 

kayou go back and forth. 

kiiaru come (literary). 

kurau eat (literary). 

ninau, carry on the shoulder. 

kuiruy kuyuru repent of, feel 
remorse for. 

fftukuiru, mukuyuru requite. ^ 

ada injury, foe. 

nda wo mukuyuru {kaesu) 
take revenge. 

okasu violate (law), commit 

soroeru arrange in order, fur- 
nish (intr. sorou). 

— ni sou be joined to, go 
along with (tr, j^/rw add). 

tou ask, visit. ^ 

utau sing. 

warau laugh, smile. « 

tai suru^mukau face. 

— ni tai shite {mukatte) ia 
regard to, against. 

tori-yoseru procure, import. 

o se-j'i wo iu speak courte- 
ously, flatter. 

hidoi me ni au have a dread- 
ful experience. 

yahari, yappari still, not- 
withstanding, too. 

/rt/^/ although, even though. ^ 

matawa or. 

tf Ah! Oh! 

a A widow \^ yamome or go-l't {ftocht, ie), A widower is otoko-yamomo (classi- 
cal >'^///<7o). There is no special word for "old maid." In the rare cases when 
snch a word is needed yaffiome may be used : San ju no saka wo koshila no ni, 
niada yamotne {dokushin) de imastt ka. In spite of having turned thirty is she 
still single? 

b Sensei no mae wo habakaru be afraid of the teacher. Seken no temae wp 
kabakaru be afraid for one's reputation. A common apologetic expression is 
habakari nagara or habakari desu go. Excuse me for asking, but... 

c These two verbs (stems kni, fHukui) belong to the first class. There is 
danger of confusing them with the verbs described in the present chapter. 
Compare with the latter — ni muku or — ni mukan face, mnkem turn, send, 
mukaeru go to meet, summon. 

d In the sense of to «* ask " or * inquire " kiku (p. i6ia) or (in the case of a 
discussion) shitsumon guru is more common ; in the sense of to " visit," 
tazunefu or hbtnon ntru, 

e Classical: einu. To smile is more exactly hoho-emu : iu Chinese, ^/j^ 
siifu (light laugh). To deride a person is hiio [110 koto) wo warau, 

f With following mo. Compare moshi — nara if (p. 159 bottom). 

248 The Verb [lix 


HiU ni wa ioiU (sdig) fuirOf uvia ni wa notte miro. ^ Mago 
wo kawaigaru yori inu wo kae (Proverb), Nani kaidio omotU 
wasureU shimaimasKia, Warau kado ni wa Juku kitaru.^ 
Hi to ga machigatta koto wo itta toU {ittatU) warau no wa 
{waraiU wa) shitsurei des\ Ano hito wa yoku share wo Ufnai\ 
Sakujitsu itta no wa machigai desVta^ shikashi Kdski mo 
" Ayamatta aratamuru ni habakaru nakari " ^ to mosliimasK ta 
kara, naoshimas\ Ise no Yokkaichi kara Yokohama made 
jokisen ga kayohnas\ Nanibun {fiamburi) yorosh'ku negaimas\ 
A / shimatta, ^ Ano hito wa seji bakari itte ikenai hito dis\ 
Uso wo iu na. So itte yatte mo « yd gosaimasho, Mushi no 
kuzvanai yd ni kimono ni shono wo irete kufe. Furuhon wa 
yoku mushi ga kutte imas\ Kore to onaji shina ga nakeraba, 
s'koski chigatta no de mo ii kara^ katte kite kure, Kono hon 
ni wa Nichiren Shdnin ga ^ maho wo ts'katta to kaite arimas\ 
Sore wa takakute yoku nai ; kawanai hj ga yokatta ni. Son- 
na koto wa iwazu to mo ii des\ Maebashi atari de wa yoku 
kaiko wo katte imas\ K Nihon no yaviaguni de wa iaigai ushi 
wo ts' katte kdsaku shimas\ Kore made wa kana wo naratte 
orimash'ta ga^ sore wo yamete chitto kanji no ketko wo itashi- 
masho. Sore zva te de nutta mono ni chigai nai KessKte 

a A proverb : Dan' I judge by llrsl impressions. Compare: Sunieba miyako. 
If you live [in a place, it becomes like] a metropolis. Notice the rliyme in 
sotte^ tiotU. 

b In thii proverb kad^ stands by metonymy for u, 

c This saying is taken from the Kont^o. A'ds/ti is Confucius. In the classi- 
cal style a verb takes the attributive form (p. X44, 6) before a particle like ni. 
Habakaru {koio) nakare is the classical equivalent of habakaru na. 

d Lit. It is all over. This expression is used in the sense of *'It is too 
bad ! " Shimatta koto too shita. I made a mistake. 

€ Itte yam send word, give orders. 

f Nichi^t'$n (sun-lotus), the founder of the sect called by his name, lived in 
the Xlll. Century. S!ib-nin[shd=jb^uef mnz=kiio) is an honorary title appli- 
ed to priests. The Nichiren-skfi, is distinguished for its spirit of intolerance. 
It is called also Hokke-shft, from the name of its sacred book Hoke-kyd {kb law, 
ke ffcjwer, kyd canon). 

g Maebashi is an important town in Kbtiukt, JCotsuke is a contraction of 
A'aMi-tsU'ke=iup^T ke, this k4 being the old name of the country and tsu the 
classical genitive particle. Compare Shimotmke, Kdtsuke is commonly called 
Jo-shfi {;d=ue or katftiy shu country). Compare Chd-shU p. 31a. 

Lix] The Vowel Group 249 

hito no koto m iamni dt nai yo. Raimn no koto wo uba 

{ju to) oni ga waran (Proverb). Kono Hon ga go nyuyo nara, 
Tokyo ye ittt yatti toriyoseto agemaskd, Sakujitsu o me ni 
kaktyo to omoimash'ta ga^ tsui wasunmasKta, Tabitabi mo- 
skimasho to omoimasKta ga^ ima mado shimbo sKte datnatte 
bnasKta. Nikon de wa kessk'ti sonna koto wo i- wa (iiyd) 
shimasen. ^ Sd iwanai koto wa nai ga^ amari kitanai des" 
Mus^mt no uchi wa yoku shimada wo^ iimas ; yoino ni itto 
kara dt mo wakai uchi wa shimada wo yu mono ga arimas*. 
IVakaranai koto wa jibun de kangaete bakari iru yori hito ni 
tou bo ga «. Ash'ta boku mo issho ni ikitai kara^ matte ite 
kure tamae, Tatoi hito ga jibun ni tai sh*te donna tsumi wo 
okasKte mo ^ katte ni ada wo mukuiru koto wa ima no horitsu 
de yurushimasen. Bo hodo negatte hari hodo kanau, ^ Dare 
de mo umai mono wa kuitau Kore wa negattari kanattari 
des* (p. 1 76), Doku wo kurawaba sara made mo, « Nome ya / 
utae ya! issun saki wa yami no yononaka.^ Are wa yoku 
icarau hito des. Hankiri no hashi wo yoku sorou yd ni kitte 
kure. Niuae, jii I 

The Nakasendd road in some places follows the Kiso River 
(there are also places that go along the K. River). In Berlin 
you must pay tax if you keep a dog. Europeans say that the 
Japanese are a laughing people (people that laugh well). Even 
though you make mistakes (say things about which you erred), 
I (watakushi ni wa) still understand. You must not lie (say a 
lie). Put away the food so that the rats don't eat it. I in- 
tended to wear at once the clothes that I put here ; why did 
you put them away ? Tell the honest truth {hontJ no koto) 

a Sec p, 167, bottom. Some say ry** shwtasin. 

b A kind of W47^/. See Brinkley's Dictionary, p. 865. One may also say 
shimada m yR. 

c The combination /a/oi — tfonua — wc may be translated • no matter what." 
Compare ihe use of interrogntives in conditional clauses (p. 149, top). 

d The idea of the proverb is that the attainment always comes far short of 
the intention. 

e The proverb commends the courage of desperation. If you happen to eat 
poison, swallow it all ! In such a case there is no use in being cautious 
or scmpolous. 

f Such exprettions may be heard in a carousal. < I^t us cat and drink, fo3 
to-morrow we die." 

250 The Verb [lix 

without flattering. I never {kessKte) flatter. Don't talk fool- 
ishly (foolish things). ^ If you have (past cond. of ant) leisure 
at some other time {inatd)^ send word to that effect (so tell 
and send by {nt) some one. No matter how often I reckon, 
its always different. He makes a face as when {yd nd) Emma 
has eaten musk. ^ These clothes have been so eaten (active 
subord.) by moths {mushi) that they are useless. Though a 
bachelor,*^ he spends {tsukau) a great deal of money. That 
official keeps (is keeping) two horses. Is it better to learn 
kaisho or gyosho f You must learn both. I don't trouble 
myself {kainau) about {ni wd) other people's business. Don't 
talk too much {yokei na koto). Any way will suit me (How- 
ever it be, I don't mind). Since I have had no time to-day, I 
think I shall go to Yokohama to-morrow. In {de) the rain we 
got wet through and through and had a dreadful time of it. 
It is better not to use this word. It may be well to ask that 
policeman («/). Arrange (arranging put) the shoes in the 
entrance. Repenting of his crime he committed suicide. 


The verbs morau receive, and shimau finish, often follow the 
subordinatives, positive or negative, of other verbs. 

Morau is used just like itadaku (Ch. LV.), but is quite in- 
formal and its use should be avoided in speaking of what has 
been done or is to be done by the person addrejised, unless 
that person is a subordinate or a familiar friend : 

Mac hi ye iku nara, kono ie garni wo dashiU moraimasho. 
If you go down town, please mail this letter. 
Sono hako wo akenaide moraitai. Don't open that box. 
Common expressions are isha ni mite morau be examined 
by a physician, htto ni oshiete morau be instructed by a person. 
The latter, however, is used rather of casual exp'aiiation or in- 
formation than of regular instruction at a school. In speaking 

a One may say ironically: Baka ie. Some say ^aka ie {ftaku r baMn wo). 

b The god of hell is thought to look more farious than ever when he has 
eaten musk. 

c Translate : Dokushimmono no Ause tri. Compare . Gakusha tio km* m 
fiOHfia yasasHi koto de mo wakaranu. Though a scholar, he docs not under- 
stand even such a simple thing as this. 

Lx] Moraii, shimau 251 

of teaching in the ordinary sense of the vioxA osowaru or narau 
take the place of oshieie morau or the passive oshierareru : 

Nihongo wa dare ni osoivarimashita ka. 
By whom were you taught Japanese? 
Amerikajin ni butsnrigaku wo naratta. 
I studiei physics under an American. 

Shimau with a subordinative may sometimes be rendered 
by a word like " finally " or " completely " ; but generally it 
only adds emphasis and can not be translated. Its very com- 
mon use is due to the disposition of the Japanese to prefer 
compound verbal expressions to simple verbs. * 

NeU shiinaimashita. He has retired. 

Nokorazu tabete shiinaimashita. He has eaten it all. 

Shinde shimaimashita. He is dead. 

Kono Sashimi wa oku to, waruku narimasu kara^ tabete 

shimaimas/io. We will eat the sasAimi aM up, because 

it will spoil if we leave it. 
ITide kyaku ga atte toto dekakenaide shimattiz. 
Having company last evening, we at last failed to go out. 
In familiar conversation various contractions occur ; e. g., 
yatchimatta, or yatchatta, for yatte shimatta. 


dektmono, o deki sore, ulcer hi-buh ) sepulchral inscrip- 

boil. hi-mei ) tion, epitaph. 

ni'sukuri 7 , . Ao-ko domestic service. 

fii-gosAiraey^^^'^^^' kei-ba horse races. 

e-kaki painter, artist Aaku-ran-kwai exposition, 

te-cho notebook (smaller than fair. 
cltdmeri). ' ryd-ji consul 

dd-ri reason, truth, right. ryofi-kwan consulate. 

dori desu it is natural, proper, sho-gwa-kwai assembly of 
right. artists. ^ 

a It must be remembered that in Japanese verbs are not combined with 
prepositions as in European languages. To «' dig out » is horidasu ; lo •« drive 
in " uthikotnu : to " drink up " or " drink down " is nonde shimau. 

b From sho writing, g7va painting, kwai assembly. At such an assembly 
art.sts wrilc or paint free of charge for those who are admitted. 

252 The Verb [lx 

ho'So smallpox (lit pox-sores.) shi^taieru get ready, make 

ue^dosd 1 vaccination. "P ^^ clothes). 

shu'tj ) kafni wo karu cut the hair. 

ten-nen-to smallpox (lit na- seru hold an auction. 

tural smallpox). seri de uru sell by auction. 

ki'tai fta uncommon, extraor- seri-uri, seri auction. 

dinary, strange (p. 34c). tsumaru tokoro^ tsumari after 
manahu learn, study. all, in th^ end, finally. 

suu^ su suck, smoke (tobacco), fd-tj^ tjto at length, finally 
fia-isuiu, naxuku become at- (synonymous with tsui ni), 

tached. » 


Sono dikimono wo isfia ni mite vioraiiuash^ta ka, Hai^ mite 
moraimasKta^ shikashi nan de tno nai to moshimasK ta. ^ Wa- 
takushi wa meshitsukai wo oko to oinou ga, kanai no am mono 
de shojiki na hito wo sewa sh*te moraitai. Yof'ku wo hito 
kumi narubeku kayaku sKtatete mornitai. Ano ekaki ni e wo 
kaite moraiinasKta, Tamago wa k'satte shimatta mmo ; 
kairan no mo dori des\ ^ O jii san wa {sake ni) yotte skifnai- 
masKta. Ginko ni yd ga arimasVta kara, tomodachi ni tsurete 
kite moraimas/ita. Shogivakwai de ano hito ni nani ka hitots* 
kaite moraimasho. Gozen wo tabete shimattara, sugu ni deka- 
keru tsumori des* kara, ninsoku ga sorotte iru yd ni kiwo ts^kete 
kute, Tokaido ni mo tetsudo wo slUite sAimaimasVta. Ma- 
kitabako wo sashiagemasho ka, Atigatd ; koko ni nomi-kake 
ga ^ arimas* kara, kore wo stte shimaimashX Chdmen ni ts'ke- 
nai tOy sugu nt wasurett shimaimas\ Sore wa donata ni oshi- 
ete moraimasKta ka. Dare kara kiita no de mo arimasem ga. 

a From nareru and tsuA'u, Compare tiatsukashii homesick : Haha go. 
natsukashikute tamanniasen. I am dreadfully homesick for my mother. 

b A person may say of himself nan to mo nai: Kayukit mo nan to mo nai. 
I don't feel any itch or anything. To the question, Watakushi no tru wa 
akaku natu imashd ka. Is my eye red ? one may reply, lie, nan to mo nai yo^ 
I don't see any thing (p. 47, top). 

c That they do not hatch is natural, i. c , naturally they have failed to 
hatch. For dbri desu one may say also atanmae desu, 

d Translate: a partially smoked cigar. jVomi-kakeru begin to smolce. 
Compare fnt-i^kakcru begin to rain. 

Lx] Marau^ shiman 253 

h^H ni s3 kaiU arimasKta. Doits de wa kadomo ga fu ni sat 
ni norm tc^ ianarasu ni domi no ueboso wo sKu morawanakere- 
ha narimason. Itami ga hidoku nanba^ isha ni mite mora- 
wanakenba narimas^mai, Watakushi wa gwaitd wo sKtatete 
moraitai ; anata wa jozu na sKtateya wo go zonji de wa ari- 
tnasen ka. Watakushi wa keta des kara^ kanai ni nigoshirae 
wo sKte moraimasko. Nikon ni oru Seiyojin zva kuni ye kae- 
ru toki ni wa ie no dogu wo seri de utte skimaimas* {seriuri ni 
skimas*). Uchi no inn no ko wa waki ye yatte skimaimasfto. ^ 
Uikeski ga kita toki ni wa md ie ga mina yakete shimatte ita. 
Kono kon wo shimatte (put away) shimaimashd. Parii no ha- 
kurankwai ye itte taiken kane wo ts^katte shimaimasK ta. Ba- 
kuchi wo uttari keiba no kake wo sk'tari sVte taiso kane wo ts*- 
katte shimaimasKta. Takakute kawasu ni shimaimasK ta, 
Ame ga furi'kaketa kara, ikazu ni shimaimasK ta. Sonna koto 
wo sKte morau hasu de wa nakatta.^ Konaida omizu ga 
dete ichi man nin no hito ga sliinde shimaita so des\ Naka 
ni haitte kenkwa wo wakete shimaimasKta. 

She spent a lot of money on (making) clothes. With {de 
wa) this warm weather the ice will thaw. Finally I cured it 
myself {hitori de) without being examined by a physician. 
Did you have this wound (p. 1 59a) examined by a physician ? 
Yes, after I had had it examined he said that if it does not 
heal immediately, he must cut (cutting finish) [it], I wish you 
would secure {sewa suru) a servant who has never served 
{hdkd sKta koto no nai) in a foreigner's house. This picture 
I had painted (written) at a shogwakwai. He had his own 
epitaph written while {uchi ni) he was [yet] living; isn't it 
strange? If I drink about tliree glasses of beer I become en- 
tirely drunk. As I have business at {ni) the consulate but 
don't know the way yet, 1 will have a friend take me there. 
I wanted to sell these old books, but I finally failed to sell 
[them]. The pupils who study Chinese at the School for 
Foreign Languages are taught by a Chinese and a Japanese, 
in don't make a note of it in a notebook, I shall forget it 

a Waki ye yarn give away (lit. send to a side, send aside); ncki noinu 
oor dog. 

b I should not have been treated like that, or. It was not the understanding 
that 1 should be treated so. 

254 The V^erb [lx 

entirely (all). Under whom did you learn Japanese ? I was 
taught by an old {toshitoUa) Japanese scholar. He has become 
younger [looking], having cut off {sotU luorau or otosu) his 
beard. 1 want my hair cut. It is risky to {fio wa) get 
vaccinated by an inexpert physician. In Germany (i) the 
number of deaths (those who die) from {de) smallpox has 
considerably {yohodo) decreased since (kara 7) the regulation 
(5) was issued {derti 6) that (to iu 4) [people] must be vaccinat- 
ed (3) twice (2). When I returned (pres.) home (kuni ye), I 
sold my furniture at auction. It was my intention to give 
away all the pups, but at last, as they became attached to me 
{naisuita mofC de£ kard)^ I kept (ended in not giving) [them]. 
When I have finished writing (past cond.) this letter, I will go 
out a little for a walk. 


In Ch. LI. we gave various examples of irregular causatives. 
Regular causatives may be derived from any verb, excepting^ 
the auxiliary viasu. 

In the case of verbs of the first class saseru is added to the 
stem : 

tabe-sasem cause to eat, allow to eat, give to eat. 

In I he case of verbs of the second class the characteristic 
vowel becomes a {wd), as in the negative conjugation, and 
seru is added : ^ 

shiraseru, from skiru, let —know, inform. 
sumaseru, from sumu, cause — to come to an end, settle. 
mataseru, from viatsu, let — wait, make — stay. 
viotaseruy from motsu, have — hold, let — carry. ^ 
awaseru, from au, cause — to meet, join, add together. 
knwaseni, from kuu, cause — to eat, feed. 

Some verbs of the first class have also a form in seru^ besides 
the one in saseru : 

misaseru let — see. miseru show. 

abisaseru have — bathe (intr.). abiseru pour (water) over. 

a In Shinto and Christian prayers seshimeru and shimtruy may be substituted 
for sasem and seru; e. g., arashime tamae cause to be! In the classical 
language the common causative inflection has an honorific use; tasuJ^esase 
tamae save ! 

b Motasete yarn send (by a person). 

ixi] Cavsatives 255 

The shorter forms have, however, come to have special mean- 
ings and may properly be regarded as independent verbs. 

The causative of snru is saseru ; of kuru^ kosaseru ; of 
dekiru^ dekisaseru or dekasaseru, ^ 

The causatives are inflected like verbs of the first class ; but 
sometimes seru may become j», the conjugation following in 
part the paradigm of hanasu (Ch. LI.) ; e. g., tabesasn, tabesa- 
shite ^ tabesashita, for tabesaseru, tabesasete^ tabesaseia. 

The above examples show that causatives may be variously 
translated, using such words as " cause," " make/* •* have,'* 
** let," " allow," • see," etc. The meaning ranges all the way 
from the active agency expressed by '* cause a man to drown " 
to the passive attitude indicated by ** see a man drown." 

Jibuti wa oyogi zvo shiratiai mono desu kara, tasukeru koto 
mo dekinaide misumisu ano kodomo wo oboresasete shimai- 
mashita. As 1 don't know how to swim, 1 was unable to save 
the child and saw it drown right before my eyes. 

In the case of a causative derived from a transitive verb 
whose direct object is expressed or understood, the agent 
becomes the indirect object with ni ; otherwise the agent 
takes wo: 

Shafu ni niwa wo soft sasero. 

Have the rikshaman clean the garden. 

Hito wo warawaseru make a person laugh, 

Oya wo nakaseru cause the parents to weep. 
As in English, one may use language inexacdy ; e, g., ie wo 
tateru build a house, for ie wo tatesaseru have a house built, 
kimono wo koshiraem make clothes, for kimono wo koskiraesa- 
seru, etc. 


Juro bathtub, bath. na-ate )address 

^/-r/ partner, opponent (in a ate-na ) (of a letter). 

game). tama-tsuki playing billiards 
aka-gaeru a frog of a brown- (lit. ball striking). 

ish color. isuku construct (of earth, etc.). 

a There is also a transitive verb dekasu : Kare wo asu made ni dekashite 
hidasai. Please have this done by to-morrow. 

b This /tf, hand, is often used in the sense of person, as also its Chinese 
e(iuivalent shu ; e. g., rappa shu trumpeter, from rappa trumpet. 


The Verb 


isuki-yama artifical moun- 
tain, rockery.* 

sen-sui (c) artifical pond. 

hanashi'ka^xoiGsAovsaS. story- 

fu a kind of food made of 
wheat gluten. 

fu custom, manner, style, 

seki mat, seat, room. 

bappai {batsu, hai) a cup of 
sake drunk for a forfeit 

do-raku debauchery, profli- 

i'dyo dyspepsia. 

kai'do highway. 

kwa-so cremation. ^ 

man-zai strolling com'c dan- 
cer. <^ 

moH'jin disciple (lit. gate- 

shi'gat corpse. 

yui'gon instructions of a dy- 
ing person, verbal will. 

sei'hon book binding. 

siih&n-ya book binder. 

naffta-nurui tepid. 

kan epilepsy, irritability. 

kan no tsuyoi irritable, pee- 

karu cut, mow. 

kireru be used up. 

mora leak. 

tozuru^ tojirn bind (a book). 

haku^ haki'dasn vomit, spit. 

kuru reel. 

kuri-kaesu repeat 

teire suru repair, attend to 

fHtmbo {nafii kodo)^ikurtt, 

om'bin ni quietly, in a private 


Akambd ni skakwa no warni mono wo tabesastti {fabtsasKte) 
zva ikemasen. SAosei ni wa yonda tokoro wo tabitabi kurika- 
esasenakereba narimasen^ Byonin ni kusnri wo uotnasemash* - 
ta {jiomashimasKtd) ga, mina hakidashimasftta. Ano hito wa 
tamats^ki ga jdsu dis* tara, itsu de mo aiie ni kane wo dasa- 
semas\ Yonde kikasete agemaslw ka. ^ Dozo^ yondi kikase- 
te kudasai. O sashitsukae ga arimasK taraba, so shirase na- 
sUu kudasai, Kante no ko ya koi niju wo tabesasemas\ Ano 
manzai wa omoshiroi koto wo iite yoku hito wo warawasemas . 
Makita hito ni bappai wo nomasemas\ Danna sama ! tadaima 

a Compare Tsuki*ji (lit. made land), the name of the former foreign 
concession in T&kyd. 

1j From irMf fire and so burial (in so-shiki funeral). Interment is tnai-sJ 
(^f»ai=uaumeru inter). 

c l-'rom fnan 10,000, manjr, and sai year. Manzai go about at New YcarVs 
congratulating people and amusing them with their performances, for which 
they receive money. 

d Yonde kikasim read. Comp, hatwshife kika tell. 

Lxi] Causatives 257 

guya ga mairivia^lCta, Ivta shokujt wo hajimeta tokoro da 
kara, s'koslii inniasete oite kure. Nihonjin wa uma ni mame 
to niugi wo kuwasemas\ Kawaii ko ni wa tabi wo saseiro^ 
(Proverb). Kan no isuyoi kodovio ni wa aka^aeru wo iabe- 
sasemas\ Aniina uo yonde kata wo momase nagara kono 
machi no hanashi wo kiitara do des' ka, Dozo, sono hon wo- 
miseU kndasai, Kono kurumaya wayowaso deskara^ isogaserii 
no wa kawaisj des ; shikashi isogasenai to, kisha no ma ni 
aimas'mai. Kono hako wo sugu ni motte ikimashj ka, ato kara 
motte kosasftnasho ka. ^ Motte kosaseru fid ga yd gozaimasho. 
Koko ni hon nado wo chirakasKie oite mama dete ikimas" kara, 
hito wo hairasete wa ikemasen. Ano mus*ko wa djraku de oya 
wonakasemas\ Dosha to in bozu ga^ monjin ni yuigonwo 
shUe jibun no skigai wo yakasemasKta ; sore ga kwaso no haji- 
inari da to iimas\ Kore wa tsunietai mizu des* ka. lie, sort 
wa namanurui kara, o yoshi nasai ; ^ tadaima kumitate no wo 
motte kosasemasho. Kozukai ni o taku ye motasKte agemaskd. 
Furo ga mora kara, naosasKte kure. Oi, Matsu!^ kona 
tegavii wo sugu ni yUbinkyoku ye dash'te kite kure. Wata- 
kushi wa tadaima shokuji no sKtaku wo sKte imas' ga, 
kurumaya ni dasasete mo yoroshu gozaimas' ka. So ka, *= 
shikashi isogi no yd da kara, sugu ni ikash'te o kure, Uekiya 
ni tanonde niwa wo ts* kurasetara yokatta nu Mats* wa 
hisash^ku teire wo sasenai to, waruku narimas\ Mina awasete 
natuko ui narimas* ka. Ki wo kikasete hayaku kaerimasKta. ^ 
Tonda koto de o sawagase mdshiviasK ta. 6 KirasKte orimas*. ^ 
As this picture is very pretty, I will have it copied. I will 
have the bath heated (caus. of wakasu) once more. Feed to 

a A^o kara after us. Comp. p. X77d. A merchant would say to a customer : 
Moiashite agemas/to ka or O todoke vicshimastio ka. Shall I send it to you ? 

b The priest Dbsho lived in the VII. Century. No'.ice \.\\fi gas the logical 
subject being, not Dosho, but the origin of cremation. 

c O yoshi tiasai. Don't use it (lit. stop!) 

d A frequent abbreviation of such a name as Mafsntaro, Matsujird^ 
Mat sugar o, clc. 

e So ka, for so desu ka, is very familiar. 

f Compar.e ki no kiita (p. 128). This may be said of a visitor who has 
<^bscrvcd that his presence was embarrasiog and has cut his visit short. 

R Such an apology is in order when a fire or a similar occurrence in one's 
house has disturbed the neighbor. 

h Said by- a merchant when his stock of any article is exhausted {kireru). 

258 The Verb [lxi 

the horses the grass that the gardener has cut. Where do you 
have bookbinding done ? I have [books] bound at the book- 
binders on Onari'kaido^ * but they are not very skilful [there]. 
Formerly (inoto ivd) [they] made children read from the very 
first (hajime kara) difficult books like {yb no) the Daigaku^ ^ 
but now they have [them] read very easy (from very easy) 
books. As I cao't write Rovtaji, I will have our student^ write 
the address of this letter. Since the dog does not get well, we 
will poison (feed poison and kill) [himj. Shall I read to you 
what is (written) in the paper in regard to that matter ? If you 
are at leisure, let me [me] know. If you do not have the pupils 
write Chinese characters often they will forget [them] all. 
That story-teller says interesting things and makes people 
laugh. My horse seems very tired \^ I can't make [him] run 
fast. Have the barber wait a little. I will have my garden 
made (Jsukuru) in Japanese style (^Nihoft-fti). Then you must 
have a pond and rockery made (koshiraeru). Every day after 
{to) my preparation for (of) school is Bnished, my father makes 
me read two or three pages {inat) of the Daigaku. He has 
pupils translate English sentences {jEi-dun) into Japanese. ® 
This too is (becomes) a good exercise {keiko). How would it 
be to call a story-teller and have him give [us] a recitation ? ^ 
My watch is very fast; I must set [it] (p. f6ob). As he has 
dyspepsia, the physician said that we must not feed [him] 
anything but {no hokd) soft rice. Happily we seitled the thing 
in a private way. Please have this done by this evening. He 
sent it by the maid servant. We will have the hostler clean 
the garden. The Japanese feed hens rice. 

a The name of a street leading to Ucno Park in Tokyo. The shogun when 
he visited the graves of his ancestors used to pass through this street; hence 
the name Onan, nari being equivalent to aide in speaking of an Emperor or 
a shdgun. 

b From dai great, gaku lcarning,«-the name of a Chinese classic. 

c Students are often employed in return for lodging or board to perform 
such services as tending the door, etc. 

d Translate " be tirc<l " in the case of a horse tsuknreru^ not kufabireru. 

e "To translate" is yaku suru or naosu, ** To translate into Japanese" 
may be rendcrcil loa-yaku sttru, 

1 To give a recilaiion in thin case is iz-seki hanasn, seki being used as a 
nuraerative. In some cases seki and na are synonymous, but ichita means the 
\%hole company (ot a theatrical tioupc). Comp. i(M meh*\ p. 70. 

LXii] Passives 259 


The passive and the potential forms of Japanese verbs are 
usually the same, both having been formed originally by ad* 
ding the syllable e^ stem of eru (classical urUy u) to get.^ The 
identity of the two forms may be illustrat-d by means of the 
English sentence : " Silk sells well," which may be understood 
to mean either that much silk Is sold or that one can easily sell 
silk. The original Japanese idiom in both cases is ; ** Silk gets 
sale." Kinu wa yoku ureru (for uri^eru), ^ 

Attention has previously been called to intransitives in eru 
derived from transitive verbs, as hirakeru become civilized, 
from hiraku (p. 222), Such verbs may for the purposes of 
this chapter be classed as irregular. They are, like irregular 
verbs in any language, very much used, and for this reason are 
easy to memorize. 

It is to be observed, by the way, that verbs of this kind as 
passives may be predicated 01 inanimate things, while regular 
passives are naturally used when the subject is a person. ^ Some 
of them are also used in a passive potential sense ; e. g., 

toreru be taken, be obtainable, from torn, 
shireru be known, be evident, from shiru, 
ureru be sold, be salable, from urn. 
kaeru be bought, be purchasable, from kau. 
kikoeru be heard, be audible, from kiku. 
mi eru be seen, be visible, from miru. 

Generally they may also be used of a personal subject as active 

a The verb eru is not much used in the colloquial, being usually replaced 
by other verbs, such as morau, uktru^ komuru, tamaivaru, etc. It occurs in : 
Maia ori tvo ete ukagaimazhb, I will call again when I have on opportunity. 
Go sansei wo etaC to omoimasu, 1 desire your approval. 

b Compafe the adverb yamiioezu unavoidably, from yamu ivo ecu (lit. not 
gettmg stop). 

c In dealing with the Japanese language such a distinction must be made 
with some reserve. As has been hinted before (p. xi6a), the genius of the 
language does not demand the expression or even the clear conception of Ihe 
subject ol a sentence. Moreover as has been suggested, a sentence may have 
a double subject, a personal subject with 7c»n and a stlbordinate impersonal 
subject with ga. But what is said above is correct if we have in mind the liue 
subject of a passive verb, that is, the direct object of. the action deiioied 
by it. 

26o The Verb [lxti 

potentials in the senses "can get," "be in a position to 
know," etc.,* but as passives they cannot be used of a personal 
subject.^ The following examples illustrate the manner in 
which they are used : 

Yohodo teinaga tonmasu ka. Will much time be required? 

Tetsudd'kofu wa taiso kane ga toremasu. 

Railroad laborers earn a great deal of money. 

/ozu na ryoshi {nt) wa so iu sakana de mo toremasu. 

An expert fisherman can catch even such fish. 

Yoku shirete itu koto desu. It is a well known fact. 

Shimbun ni de mo kwokoku wo dasanakereba hi to nt shi- 

remasumai. If we do not advertise in a newspaper 

or something, it will hardly become public. 

Wat as hi ni wa totei so iu komakai koto wa shiremasumai, 

I am hardly in a position to know such details. ^ 

We will now confine our attention to the regular passive 

forms, used only when the subject is a pereon. In the case of 

verbs of the first class the passive is derived by adding rareru 

to the stem, i. e., substituting it for the ru of the present tense r 

iogame-rareru be blamed, from togame-ru. 
In the case of verbs of the second class the characteri.stic 
vowel becomes a (wa), as in the negative and causative forms, 
and rent is added : 

nusumareru be robbed, from nusumu, 

shikarareru be scolded, from shikaru. 

kirawareru be disliked, from kirau. 
There is no passive form of the suffix masu, 

a See the following chapter. When kikoeru and mUru are used as active 
potentials it is natural lor them to take a subordinate subject : minii ga kikoeru, 
me ga mient. The verb kikoetni may be used also of other than physical 
possibility : Sore wa, ddmo, kikoetuii koio desu. Really, that is unreasonable 

b The verb mieru in some of its senses is an exception. In the sense oi 
"to be present" it may be used of a person, though not of the speaker him- 
self : Sensei ga miemashiia ka. Has the teacher come ? /Chto o mie nasaimasen 
deshita^ nt. You didn't put in an appearance yesterday. In the sense of "to 
look " it may be used in any person : Taisit fukete miemasii deskd, I presume 
I look quite old. O ioshi Iiodo ni wa mtemasen. You don't look as old as you 
-are. The verb s/ureru may be used of the discovery of a criminal. 

c In these examples observe the tendency to use nt wa with the personal 
subject and to avoid making the thing an object with wo. The verbs are 
properly neither passives nor potentials, but intransitives. 

LXiiJ Passives 261 

The passive of suru is serareru or sareru : 
Shakkin wo saisoku sarete kojnarimasu. 
I am annoyed by being dunned for debts. 

The passive of such a verb as kinzuru or kinjiru (p. 214,7) is 
kinjirareru or kinzerareru^ not kinzareru. 

Passives may be derived from causatives ; e. g.^ awaserareru 
or awasareru, from awaseru or awasu cause to meet, introduce : 
Hidoi me ni awaserareta {awasaretd). 
He (or I) was caused to meet with a dreadful experience. 
Sakt wo ogoraserareta {pgorasareta). 
He (or I) was compelled to set up the sake. 
The passive of kuru^ come, is korareru. It is a peculiarity 
of the language that passives can be formed from intransitives : 
Kyaku ni korareta had visitors. 
Teishu ni shinareta lost her husband {shinu die). 
Ame ni furareta was rained upon {ame ga furu). 
These examples show also that the person or thing that 
would be the subject in the active construction takes the parti- 
cle ni (less commonly kara or no tame ni) in the passive. 
A passive verb may have an object : 
Suri ni kane wo toraremashita. 
He was robbed of his money by a pickpocket. 
Mune wo uchi-nukateta was shot through the breast. 
The passive is not used as much in Japanese as in English. 
As has been said above, regular passives cannot ordinarily be 
predicated of inanimate things. * An active verb often takes 
the place of an English passive : ^ 

Mada Tokyo wo Edo to injshimashita koro. 
When Toky5 was still called Edo. 

a This does not apply to the literary language : Waga koshikwan tva Shin- 
kan^hei-ni yakaretari. Our legation was burned by Chinese and Korean 
soldiers. A few exceptions are to be found also in genuine collociuial : Shiro 
£a toraremashita. A castle was taken. Knm ^a uraremashita. The country is 
betrayed (sold). Sono ki iva toto kirarete shimaimashila. That tree'was at last 
-cut down, letsu de tno entatp ni iva tokasarete shimaimasu. Even iron can be 
dissolved by hydrochloric acid. 

b Compare ihe examples on p. 53. In English the passive is often prefer- 
red to the active be-^ause it is unnecessary or inconvenient to name the agent, 
as in the case of the «mall boy who tells his mother: " My pants got torn." 
An active verb in Japanese requires no subject and in this respect may be 
quite as vague as a passive. 

262 The Verb [lxii 

Again. English passives are often represented by intransitive 
verbs or Chinese compounds. 

Va ni ataite uchijini shimaskita. 

He fell struck by an arrow 

Fune ga hasen shiviashita. The ship was wrecked (p. Sgh). 
An intransitive verb often differs in sense from the regqlar 
passive derived from the same stem. Thus, tasukaru means 
" escape with one's life," but tasukerareru means ** be saved " : 

Sendo wa tasukebune de tasukarimashita. 
The sailors escaped in a lifeboat. 
Tasukebune ni tasukeraremashifa. 
They were saved by a lifeboat. 

In some cases a verb like ukeru or komuru may perform 
the function of a passive inflection : hazukashivie (or bu-joku) 
wo ukeru be ms\i\tQd=i hasukashivierareru or bujoku sareru. 

yobi'dashi wo ukeru be summoned (by a court of justice). 
i-rai wo ukeru be requested. 
ko-geki zvo ukeru be attacked. 
ski- ken wo ukeru be examined. 
mes/it wo kopturu be called (Christian phrase). 
batsu wo komuru be punished. 
go vun wo komuru be excused, 
kan-kwa wo komuru be influenced. 
Some substantives like those with which suru is used to 
form active verbs may with ni nam convey a passive sense : 

{p) sewn ni naru^ {go) yakkal ni naru be assisted. 

inen-shoku ni naru be discharged. 

go chiso ni naru be entertained (polite I, 3). 
The verb omoivareru in the sense *' the thought occurs to 
me " may be construed either as a potential or as a passive. 
Compare '* methinks." It is also used as an ordinary passive : 

Ilito ni yoku omoivareru hito desu. 

Ho is a person well thought of by others. 


buyu, buto name of an in- hatago, hatago-sen, hatago^ 
sect with a very venomous ryo price of lodging, 
sting. hisashi a small roof over a 

fukuro bag, sack. door or window 




obiru gird on, wear in the 

obi girdle, belt, sash. 

taka hawk. 

awa-gasa rain umbrella. * 

asa-se shoal, ford (compare 

do-maki money belt {do 
trunk of body, inaku roll). 

ma-inushi viper. 

atno-ya the main house. 

shita-yovii rehearsal, prepa- 
ration (of a lesson). 

iabi-bito traveler. 

uru-doshi leap year, ^ 

waki'Zashi short sword. 

sue-ko, suikkOf bas-shi (c) 
the youngest child. 

shappo (Fr. chapeati) 

iof boshi 

rd, rb-ya prison (obsolescent). 

to party. 

jiyu-tj Liberal Party. 

doku-ja poisonous snake (of 
the larger kinds). 

gi-in member of a delibera- 
tive assembly. 

keti'Sa inspection. 


kensa wo ukeru be inspected. 

kun-sha sovereign (lit. lord^ 

md-ju wild beasts. 

ryu'gaku being abroad for 
purposes of study. 

sen-kyo election. 

shi'kei the death penalty. 

shu'gi congratulation, con- 
gratulatory gift. 

lai'sho general, commander. 

koku'ji'han political offense 
{kokusskuni, ji^koto, han 

kotowaru give notice, refuse, 

nikuwu hate. 

okuru send, escort (p. 59a). 

ou carry on the back. « 

sasu sting. 

shiiru force (a thing on a. 

soshiru slander. ^ 

nagasu banish. 

tamawaru bestow, receive. ® 

toraeru ) ^ 

tsukamaeru \ '^>^<=' "''^ 

ukanru be buoyant, light- 
hearted, giddy. ^ 

a In distinction from hi-gasa parasol, ihc latter being made of unoiled 

b Urudoshi properly denotes tbe leap year of the old lunar calendar, 
according to which every fifth year has thirteen months. This year may also 
be called urtimki no aru toshi. 

c From this are derived obnu carry (a child) on the back and the children's 
word ombu (ombo) suru. Note the contracted passive causative obusar-u be carri- 
ed on the back. Another synonymn is shou, from se^ou {sf back). 

d This verb (snbord. soshitte) belongs to the clasa described in Ch. XLVIII., 
but it was not included there because it occurs very rarely in the colloquial. 

e Derived from tamau. It may be used as a passive, or as an honorific 

f From uku float. One may also say /•• [^kokoro) ga uite imasu (ukiuki 
shi'e iniasii). 

264 The Verd [lxii 

kui'tsuku bite (of an animal sho sum sentence (a crimi- 

such as a dog or a snake). nal). 

atsukau, iori-atsukau man- shi-kei ni sho sunt condemn 

age, treat to death. 

yobi'kaesu call back, recall. — kai ga am it is worth 

ike-doru^ ike-dori ni sum while to (opp. nai). 

take alive. kwam-pi de at Government 

baka-su befool, bewitch. expense. 


IVatakushi wa Frans* to ik^sa ga okoUa toki zehi heikii ni 
nard to omoimasfi ta ga^ kensa wo ukeiara, avtari karada ga 
yowakute kotowaranmaslita, Inu /loneotie taka ni torarem. ^ 
Hisashi wo kastite omoya mo iorareru (Proverb). Mamushi 
ni kamareta kara, is ha ni mite viorawanakereba narimasen, 
Ryukyu ni zva dokuja ga tak^san orimas' ; kuits karetara, sugu 
ni sono tokoro wo kitte shimawanakereba narimasen, IVata- 
kushi wa inu ni ushi wo kamaremasKta kara, arukemasen, 
{arukaremasen), Kaze ni shappo wo toraren yd ni go yojin wo 
jiasai. Mujitsu fio tsumi de shikei ni sho serareta hito mo nai 
de wa nai, Oda Nobunaga wa Akechi Mitsushide to iu jibun 
no kerai de atta taisho ni korosaremash' ta *> Kodomo ga 
amari itazura wo sVte junsa ni sK kararemash* ta. Hanju to 
iu Shinajin wa haha no koto wo wamku itta no de oki na fiebi 
ni nomareta so des\ ^ Yoinu to iu Shinajin wa oyaji wo koro- 
sh'ta no de kaminari ni utarete shinda so des\ Shosei ga sake 
wo nonde ukarete uta wo utaimasUta, Nihonjin wa viukashi 
takoku ye iku koto wo kinjira^ete {kinzer arete) imasVta, Kun- 
shii kara wakizashi wo tamawatte seppuku wo moshits kerare- 
ta^ koto mo atta, Koyasan no bozu bakari wa Deshima 
ni^ hairu koto wo yurusarete imash'ta, Tonari ni ko ga 
umaremash'ta kara, shugi ni sakana wo okurimasho, Otoko 
no ko no umareta ie de wa sono toshi kara shichi nen no aida 
maitoshi go gwaisu no its^ka ni noboti wo taiemas\ Aits* wa 

a The object q{ iorareru in this proverb is to be supplied One labors ami 
another enjoys the fiuit. 

b Akechi murdered Nobunaga in 1582 in order to usurp the supreme power. 

c The stories of Ilanfu and Yomu are taken from the Da-ji-kyd (do-ji 01 
ji-do children, ky''=o$/ue). 

d ATbshi'isukeru:=iitsukeru command. 

e Deshima was under the old regime the Dutch Concession in Nagasaki, 
the only place in the Empire open to foreigners. 

Lxii] Passives 265 

dofobo wo sKte kangoku ye okuraremasKta. Ushi ni hikarete 
Zenkwojimairi,^ Ota ko ni oshierarete asase wo wataru 
(Proverb). Hito zvo koros^ to, kubi wo kirareinas\ Skina mo 
chikai uehi ni motto hirakeru daro to omowaremas\ Voskida 
Shoin wa^ gwaikoku ye iko to sh'ta tame ni toraerarete rdya ni 
ireraremasKta, Nikon no sei/u ni wa gwaikokujin ga tak*san 
yatowarete imas\ Ichi nen no uchi ni wa Nihongo no hanashi 
gajiyu ni dekimasho to owoimasKta ga, ima keiko wo hajimete 
miru to, totemo dekiso ni wa omowaremasen. Ber'rin de wa 
taiteijiyutJ no giin ga senkyo saremas'. Tabibito wa yoku kire 
de doviaki to iu nagai fukuro wo koshiraete, sore ni kane wo 
irete, tjtarenai yj ni obi no sKia ni shimete onmas\ Wataknshi 
tva konaida hachi ju yen nusumaremas/ita ; keisatsu ni todo- 
keta keredomo, kane ga kaerimasenakaita. Sensei ga taihen 
shosei ni yararemasK ta. ^ Domo, ame nijurarete komarimas. 
Nikum arete yo ni iru kai wa nakeredo, kawaigararete shinu 
{shinuru) yori mashi da. ^ Atama wo taiakaremas)i ta. Bu- 
to ni sasareru to, saisho wa nan to mo arimasen ga^ ni san 
nicki tatte itaku narima r'. Kya wa o kyaku ni ittara, ® sake 
wo shiirarete komarimas/ita, Watakushi mo kodomo no toki 
ni wa kitsune ni bakasareru koto wo osorete orimasKta. 
Sakuban tomatte yadoya de taihen hatagosen wo ioraremasIC ta. 

In the eleventh year oi Meiji Okubo Toshimichi was killed 
atKioizaka by Shimada Ichiro [and] others {yd), ^ I always get 

a Zm-k^oo-ji a famous temple of (he buddha Amida at Nagano la Shinano. 
Zenhvd or Yoshimi/su is the name of a person who brought the gold image of 
the boddha from Nanizva {Osaka). It is said that a woman pursuing an ox 
which had caught some of her wash on its horns unconsciously followed it so 
long a distance that she at last reached ZenJnvdji and had the joy of being 
able to worship Buddha there. The proverb is applicable to one who is 
gradually led to go a long distance or accomplish a great task without any 
intention of doing so at the start. 

b A scholar from Choshii who attempted to go abroad on one of Commodore 
Perry's ships in order to acquaint himself with western civilization. 

c The vethyaru is here used in the sense of ** tease " or •« humiliate." 

d Nakeredozrsnai keredonio (comp. yokeredo, p. 99). Similar forms may be 
derived from the past tense : yokatiaredo, nakattaredo. Verbs also may be 
inflected in the same way, substituting do for ba in the conditional, but the 
indicative with keredo {mo) is more commonly used. 

e Kyaku ni iku {yobareru) go as a guest, be invited out. 

f Uknbo was Home Minister. Ra after the name of Shimada Ichir5 is 
«qtiivtlcnt to nado, na%o. 

i66 The Verb [lxii 

scolded by the teacher because I am not prepared (don't make 
preparation and come). There is a saying {mds' koto) that if 
you sneeze once, you are praised (inconc.) by some one ; if twice 
(you do it), you are slandered (inconc.) by some one ; if thrice 
(you do it), you catch a cold. * A Japanese proverb says (In a 
Japanese proverb they say) that if you lie you will get your 
tongue pulled out (jtuku) by Emma after you die. There is 
ialso a proverb that says : To have your hand bitten by your pet 
dog {kai-inu). They say that one born in leap year is patient 
The number of people killed {kami-korosu) by wild beasts and 
poisonous snakes in British India {Bi-ryo Indo) in {chu ni) 
the year 1886 was (there were) 24,000, it is said. Yesterday 
I did not go to take my lesson {keiko ni) because I was invited 
out (called). He was sent (caused to be) abroad for study at 
the expense of the Government; but as he was. not diligent, 
he was recalled. The youngest child is loved most by its par- 
ents. There being a fire in the neighborhood last night, I was 
wakened by my servant When you are robbed of money by a 
thief, you must report [the fact] to the police. About 90 years 
ago the Russian captain Golownin was arrested by the Japanese 
and put into prison, but it is said that he was quite kindly treat- 
ed. As I have no umbrella I shall indeed be troubled if I am 
overtaken by rain (rained upon). In the war he was shot in 
tlie thigh. For {fio wake de) a political offense he was banished 
to Tsushima.^ Sugawara no Michizane was banished to 
Dazaifuc and died there. Taira no Munemori was captured 
alive at the battle of Dan no Ura*^ and sent to Kamakura. 
Being told that there was no one there, I was very much 


The regular potential, denoting possibility, is identical in 
form with the regular passive described in the previous chapter : 

a The pronouns, of course, are not to be translated. 

b A group of islands between Japan and Korea. 

c In Cbikuzeny the province on the south side of. the Straits of Shimono- 
seki. In ancient times Dazaifa was the residence of the governor of Kyushu. 

d Along the coast of Choshu, near Shimonoseki. It was in X185 ^^^ scene 
of a decisive naval battle l>etween the houses of Gen-Ji ^Armanwlo) and Hei-ke- 
( Taira), 

Lxiii] Potentials 267 

tabe-rareru be able to eat^ from tabt'fu. 

mi-rareru be able to see, from vii-m. 

urareru be able to selU from uru. 

tatareru be able to standi from tatsu. 

itadakarertt be able to receive, from itadaku. 

awareru be able to meet, from au, * 
Besides the form in {d)reru there is, in the case of verbs of 
the second class, *^ a shorter one in {e)ru derived by changing 
the characteristic vowel to e and adding ru. Thus from iku 
go we have ikareru or ikeru ; from iu say, iwareru or tern. ^ 
The longer form is preferable when the idea of being permitted 
to do a thing is to be expressed ; 

Kono tabako wa karakute nomemasen (or notnaremasen). 

This tobacco is so strong that I can't smoke it. 

Titsudobasha no naka de wa tabako wo nomaremasen 
(not nomemasen). One may not smoke in a street car. ^ 

The potentials of kuru and suru are also identical in form 
with the passives. But there is not much use for serareru 
{sareru), the construction with suru koto ga dekiru or simply 
dekiru taking its place. 

Anslio {suru koto) ga dekimasen. I can't memorize it. 
While uncontracted potential forms are inflected like verbs 
of the first class, contracted forms like makaru (p. i8i) and 
viokaru, from fnokeru gain, belong to the second. 

The subject of a potential verb is naturally a person (or ani- 
mal), because the idea of will is involved. In speaking of things 

a The most explicit and emphatic expression of potentiality is found in the 
idiom koio ga {wa) dekiru, 

b In some of the provinces verbs of the ftrst class too have two potential 
forms ; c. g., from oboeru remember, learn, oboe-raret-u and oboe-rent, 

c Kikoeru and mieru (p. 260b) are irregular. The form kikeru belongs to 
the verb kiku be efficacious (p. a2z). ltd wa kuchi ga kikeru mono da kara, ano 
mura de wa ibatte imasu. Ito, being eloquent, is carrying himself high in that 
township. In the sense of ** tolerable to the ear" kikeru may also serve as a 
potential of kiku hear x Piano wo are gurai hikeba, ma, kikeru sa, ne. 

d In previous treatises on the grammar of the colloquial the hne dbtii-ction 
between physical possibility and moral possibility, between ** can " and 
■* may/' has received more emphasis than the facts warrant. Very few Japan- 
ese are aware of the distinction. In this connection contrast : To/enio ikenia- 
sen. It will never do. Totemo ikaremasen, I can't possibly go. 

26S The Verb [lxiii 

the simple indicative is sufficient : Kore mo hairimasu. This 
too can go in. But one may also say : 

Ki ga sodatenai. Trees can't grow. 

Kisha ga ugokefiai (or hashirenat), 

Tlie train can't move (can't run). 

Fune ga susuuunai (or tdrenai). 

The boat can't advance (can't pass). 

Sonna koto ga ararewasho ka, Arareyo hazu ga nai. 

Can such a thinly be ? It can't be. * 

With a potential, as with a desiderative (p. 176, middleX 
the word which is the object in English may take ga instead 
of wo,^ 

Besides the passive and the potential uses of the longer forms 
in {a)reru there is an honorific use ; e. g., shinareru for shinu- 
ru, kinzerareru for kinzuru, korareru for kuru^ nasaru for nasu^ 
kudasaru for kudasu^ irassharu for irUt kuru, or yuku, etc. 
The last is from iraserareru, the honorific form of the causa- 
tive of iru, the causative also having had an honorific use. 
These honorific forms differ from the corresponding simple 
verbs only in being used of the acts of exalted personages or 
of those whom one wishes to honor. 


koshi loins. vwya fog. ^ 

kurai rank, title, throne. nazo riddle. 

kurai ni isuku {noboru) ascend nazo wo kakeru propound a 

the throne. riddle. 

a It would be useless to attempt to decide in every case whether the subject 
of the verb is the person or the thing. The Japanese themselves do not think 
•of such a distinction, especially when the verb is in the attributive position. 
Kono Jiochd iva yoku kireru. This kitchen-knife cuts well. A'ono fude tow 
^uibun kakeru. This writing-brush docs quite well. Kanari yoMieru hon destu 
It is quite a readable book. A"^ iu sakana de mo rydri no ikiyo ni yoiie too. 
fiakanaka kuemasu. Even such fish can be eaten if properly cooked (lit. 
depending on the cooking). 

h Note that while one may say : Tabako ga nomaremasen. ** I can't smoke 
tobacco," this phrase can never mean: *' Tobacco is not smoked." Compare r 
Yona ga sakana ni notnaremashita, Jonah was swallowed by a fish. 

c We may say kiri ga furit a mist falls, but with ntcya we may not use 
/nru, — only kakaru. Haze, such as appears in the spring, is kasumi A fog 
on the sea is in Hokkaido called gasu (Eng. " gas "). 




warabi fern, brake. 

se^ se-naka^ sena back, 

shiui-me the moment of 

te-gaia certificate, passport, 
check. * 

i5 flower stalk (of a vege- 

/5 ga taisu go to seed. 

chi-hd locality, province. 

chi'ji governor. 

^5X^. (>»»»<•»• 

go- bo burdock. 

hd-ctu> kitchen knife. 

ho'ken feudalism. 

ja-shin report to a superior 
{Jd^^ue^ shtn'=indsu). 

ke-byo feigned sickness. 

kworhei coin, specie. ^ 

kya-so competition. 

niku'gan the naked eye. 

roH'Setsu, ram-bun essay, ar- 

seki-sho barrier (p, //d). 

shin-kei nerves. 

tip'po gun. 

u-ten rainy weather. 

zap-pd miscellaneous news. 

I paradi 

e ground. 

cho-ren drill. 

did rem-ba 


ji-chi'sei self-government. 

de-iri no daiku the carpenter 
usually employed about the 
house. ^ 

yondokoronai unavoidable,, 
necessary. ^ 

kaku (c) ever)', all. 

kwa-bin ft a too keen, nervous. 

mokeru establish, make, gain,, 

motsureru be tangled, con- 

sum rub, polish. 

sureru be rubbed, worn. 

sumu be clear, distinct 

viimi wo sumashiie ktku listen 

sashi'komu poietrate into, 
enter (of light). 

tori'kiru take all, exhaust 

the supply of. « 
backi ga ataru suffer punish- 
ment (lit. punishment 

kasuka ni faintly, dimly. 

raku ni easily, happily. 


Ano hito wa kebyo wo U^kattara^ bachi ga attate honto ni 
okirannaku narimasfita, Anata wa kono shimdun wo raku ni 

a The modern technical word for * = passport" is ryokd-ntenjo or simply 
ryo ken. 

b Paper money is shi-hei^ from shi^=kami. Compare kin-k^ua gold coin, gin- 
kwa silver coin, do-kuta copper coin. 

c From deru go out and iru come in. Compare deiri no isha family physician. 

d Yandokoro is derived from yori-dokoro, that on "which one can rely, 

c The compound verbs will be treated in Ch. LXVI.— LXTX. 

2 70 The Verb [Lxrii 

yomemasho. ZaPpo wa yomemas^ kerfdoma, roptS€ts' wa yo- 
fnemasen. Mo ronsetsu mo yomeru yo ni narimash* ta, C/to- 
remba ye itte mo hito ga okute nani mo miemas^mai, Meinai 
koto wa artmas^mau Fusen ga dandan toku natte mo fiikugan 
lie 7va miemasen, YakaviasK kute kikoemasen, Shinkei ga 
kwabin ni natte neraremasen. Sakt wa yameraremas^ga, 
tabako wa yameraremnsen, Koko ni warabi ga tak^san 
arimas' : ikura totte mo torikiremasen, Tafc*san chbdai 
itashimasK ta ; mo itadakaremasen. Deiri no daiku no uchi 
ye itte sugu ni korarenai ka kiite kite kure, Danna sama, 
tadaima kaette mairimasKta ; daiku wa yondokoronai yd ga 
ntte sassoku wa mairemasen to moshimasK ta, A no hito no 
yamai wa mo naorimas'mai ka. Domo. ukeawaremasen. Se 
ni hara wa kaerarenu (Proverb). Kyo wa kase ga kawatte 
toki no kane ga kikoemasen. ^ Sore wa iwazu to mo shireta 
koto des\ Kakken no ^ chiji wa mina sono chilid nijichisei ga 
okonawaremas* ka^ okonawaremasen ka wo^ torishirabete 
naimu'daijin ni jo shin shinaketeba narimasen deih*ta. IVa- 
rui nazo to knkete nan to toku, Motsureta kami to toku ; kokoro 
wa, toku ni toknrenu. ^ Anata go ga utenias ka, S*koshi wa 
ntewas\ Kyoko to iu Shinajin 7va taiso bimb) sKte ite mo 
hidoku benkyo shimasKta ; abura ga kaenakatta kara, kabe ni 
ana wo akete ts*ki no akari wo sashikomasete hon wo yomima- 
sh'ta. Sensei ni shitsumon itashimash' ta ga, sensei ni mo waka- 
rimasen to mosaremasK ta. Go no s'ki na hito wa oya no ski- 
nime ni awarenai. So mo ienai koto wa nai kefedomo, metta 
ni iimasen, Shina no gakumon wa taiso komiita mono de 

a There are such bells in Bnddhist temples. Comp. p. 198, top. 

b Kakken, for kaku-ken all the prefectures, or rather every prefecture. The 
collective " all "-is rat Iter sho^ Comp. kakkoku every country, every province, 
kakkyokwai every church. 

c The particle ivo after ka malccfi the question dependent on torishiraheie. 

d In solving an English conundrum we usually have to explain why two 
t^iven things are similar, i. e., may be described by means of the same words. 
In a Japanese conundrum only one of the two things is named and the other 
must be found. The question here is: *<What is like a poor conundrum?'' 
The answer is: " Tangled hair." Kokoro means *« sense," "explanation." It 
is quite usual to prefix to a negative potential verb the iadicatiw of the Mime 
verb with ni. Literally toku ni tokartnu may be rendered : ** in explaining 
you can't explain," or "when you try to explain (untangle), you can't «x|>iain 
{untangle . 


Seiydjin ni wa koshi no viagaru made ^ naratU mo totevio cbo- 
eraremasen. Sono nedan de wa uraremasen, Teppo no oto 
ga kikoemas^ ; nan desho, Ima kane ga natte imas' ka. Mimi 
wo sumasUte kiku to, kaska ni kikoemas\ Konaida wa so ie- 
masin to iimasKta ga^ yoku shirabeU mimas/itara, yahari so 
mo iemas\ A no yama wo haraisagetara, zuibun inokari- 
viasho,^ Warawazu ni wa oraremasen. Ki no shire hu 
hito des\ 

You can't use hashi (wa) until you become accustomed [to 
them J. Europeans (;« wa) can't sit like (yd ni) Japanese. 
As I have written too much, my hand is so painful that it has 
now become impossible to write (p. loi, 2). The letters are 
wom so that one can't read them. I can't cut well with this 
knife. The Oigawa is so swift that one can't cross it by boat. 
When (foi'i ni wa) the weather is fine (/larete oru), the smoke 
of the volcano of Oshinia can be seen even from (kara de mo) 
Enoshima. He got so drunk last night that he couldn't walk. 
It was so foggy (p. 124 top) that Fuji could not be seen 
from the ship. This burdock has gone to seed and become 
inedible. He said (itU okii) that as he was busy he would proba- 
bly not be able to come. The former German Emperor (Doi- 
ts^ no sen-tei) died<^ immediately after (to) he ascended the 
throne. In the feudal age there were barriers at various places 
{achikochi) on (of) the highways (kaidd'suji)^ so that without 
(p. 98b) a passport one could not go through (tdru). Really, 
I can't believe that (wd). The inscription (letters) on this 
coin (wa) is worn off so that it is illegible. Until now people 
thought (were thinking) that that mountain was inaccessible (a 
place that one can't ascend). I can't buy at (de wa) that price, 
I could not start on account of (de) the rainy weather. Come 
down on the price a little more. Really, I can't come d>wn. 
As it is dreadfully smoky (smoke rises dreadfully), we can't 
stay (iru) here. In this neighborhood I can't make much 

a Until a man's bock is bent, i. c, until one becomes an aged man. 

b The verb harai-sageru is used of sales of gorernmcnt property; yama may 
denote a forest or a mine Mokaru is like the intransitive verbs described in 
the previous chapter ; it may be construed either as a passive or as a potential. 

c Use the honorific form of shinuru or nakunaru. Ore may also say 
kakure ni naru (p. 77a) ox go fio-gyo ni naru. The latter expression is proper- 
ly applicable only to a Japanese Emperor. 

2 72 The Verb [lxiii 

[money], as there are many people in (of) the same business and 
competition is severe {hageshit). The (sound of the) bells of 
Shiba can be heard faintly. At i^a) this hotel both Fuji and 
the sea can be seen, so that the scenery is fine. Even though 
you go, cannot guarantee that you will surely be employed by 
the Japanese Government. When (subord. wa) I am spoken 
to in that manner, I can't keep silent 


This chapter will treat of certain peculiar idiomatic uses of 
the indicative forms of verbs. *^ 

I. A verb, like an adjective, may be made a substantive by 
adding no. A substantivized verb may have either a concrete 
or an abstract sense. 

In the former case the no is equivalent to mono or koto. ^ 
Such particles as wa^ ga^ ni^ wo, mo, de may be added : ^ 

Sashidasu no wo te ni totte vtimashita, 

I took into my hands what was presented and examined it. 

Sakujitsu itta no zva machigai deshita. 

What I said yesterday was a mistake. 

Observe the idiom to iu no wa (or ga, etc.) *' what is called/' 
•* the expression," " the assertion that." ^ 

Ainu to iu no wa Ezo no dojin no koto desu. 

Tlie Ainu are the abDrigines of Ezo. 

Konna shigoto de kane wo mokeyo to iu no wa okashii fa 

arimasen ka. Isn't it ridiculous to talk about making 

money in such a business ? 

A substantivized verb usually has an abstract sense, denot- 
ing merely the idea of the action or state expressed by the verb. 
The no desu, ordinarily contracted to n' desu, which occurs so 

a Re-read the introductions to chapters XIX. and XXXVII. 

b In such expressions as Mi'a koto ga arimasen, I have not seen it, no may 
not be substituted for koto. Mita no ga arimasen would mean ** There is no one 
that has seen it." 

c In the literary style these particles miy be added immediately to the 
verb. See the second sentence in the Japanese exercises. 

d In defining a word or explaining a phrase to iu no 70a is often contracted 
to to 7i/a, bat ibis lias rather a literary flavor. 

Lxiv] Uses of the Indicative 273 

often at the conclusion of a sentence is in many instances a 
mere flourish. But no desu may also add something to the 
sense. Thus while Avie ga Jurintasho, fnru desho, and /utu ri 
desho do not differ appreciably, the expression furu no desho 
plainly implies that the statement is meant to be an explana- 
tion of a given condition of tlungSp as, for example, of an 
oppressive atmosphere. Note also : 

Kiku n^datta ni ; oshii koto wo shita. 
I should have heard it ; it's too bad ihat I missed it. 
Amerika ye iku ndesu. He is to go to America 
Amerika ye iku ndeshita. He was to go to America. 
Ano toki ni byoki de nakereba^ watakushi mo itta ndesu. 
At that time, if I had not been sick, I should have gone too. 

Here iUa n*desVta would indicate still more strongly that 
it had been definitely decided to go. But iita n desu may 
also be a mere circumlocution for itta he has gone. 
One may even hear such expressions as : 
So iu nja nai rida. It isn't so. It is a mistake. * 
Hoka ni shiyo ga nai n ja artnnai ja nai ka. 
There is no other way, don't you see. 
In familiar talk, especially among women, no may be used 
cUiptically for no desu or no desu ka, the accent showing 
whether the sentence is an assertion, a question or an 
exclamation : 

Kasa ga aru no. Have you an umbrella ? 
Aru no {yo), I have. 

After an indicative no ni may have an adversative sense 
(pp. 149 and I93f ). But no ni may also have other meanings, 
as in the following examples : 

Kobe ye iku no ni (zva), oyoso ichijikan hodo kakarimasu. 
It takes about one hour to go to Kobe. 
Naze to iu no niy me ga warukute ji ga yovienai kara desu. 
The reason is that my eyes are so bad that I cannot read. 
Watakushi ga (or no) omoiviasu no ni (wrt), go sliatei san 
no ho gao warui yo desu. In my opinion your younger 
brother seems to be in the wrong. 

a Taking id iu in the sense of « such/' this sentence may also be rendered : 
Thej are not of that kind. Compaie : So in {yd na) no ga oi. There arc many 
such. So hi Wja nai {yo) may also mean : You must not say so. The writer 
once beard a man scold a coolie like this : Kisama so iu koto wo iu nion^ja ttai 
)ttnai ka. Don't you know that it is unbecoming for you to talk like Ihai ? 

274 The \'erb [lxiv 

Sensei no iu no ni {wa)^ Doitsu ni mo tsuru ga oru to iu 
. koto desu. According to what my tcacjier says, there 
arc storks in Germany also. 
In these examples no may be omitted. 

2. In certain connections verbs may take wut ga, etc., with- 
out koto, mono, or no. In Aru koto wa arimasu the koto may 
be omitted. * 

Afott^ kurti ga it. You had better bring {itj (p. 150, bottom). 

Yomu ni (wa) taritnasen. It is not worth reading. 

Miru ni {wa) oyobimasen. It is not necessary to look at it, 

Koraet^ ni koraerarenu. cannot endure it (p. 27od). 

Kakusu ni kakusartnaL It cannot be hid. 

/// /// iwarenai kanashimi. Unutterable sorrow. 

Desu (rarely da) is often added to a predicate verb : 

So itte mo wakaru desu. Such an expression is understood. 

In the same \V2iy ja nai ka or de wa gozaimasen ka (p. 191b) 
may be used. One must not say Wakatta desu or Wakarii de- 
shita. But there is a growing tendency to use expressions like 
the former ; e. g., .S*^ itta desu. Deshita is regularly used with 
the negative of the auxiliary masu : So iimasen deshita. 

The student will note that some of the expressions given 
above are rather slangy. They are quoted for study, not 
for imitation. 


haji shame. ku-betsu distinction, differ- 

sono garden. ence, classification. 

miya-ko capital^ metropolis. ^ setsu-mei explanation, 

j^/i loss (p. 85 a). shu-ji {shti^narau) pen- 

ai'So hospitality, entertain- mans hip. 

ment. kyurko going in haste (/tJ= 

is-sho one's whole life. ^ yuku). 

it-tan one instance, once (p. res-sha train (on a railway). 

70a). kyuko-ressha express train. 

a Here if nohe substituted for koto the sense is changed to:. There are 
some that have [them]. Saishi no aru bozu mo aHmasu ka. Are .there also 
priests who have families? Aru no wa arimasu ga, amari tattobaremasen. 
There are some that have, but they are not very highly respected. 

b The ko is au old word denoting place. Compare the final syllable in 
kol'o, doko, etc 

c For isshd compare inhd-kemnui (p. 7ld). 

LXiv] Uses of the Indicative 275 

iwayuru so called (classical . asa-ne wo sum sleep late in 

for iwareru), the morning- 

rtr<?Ai;///7f7/ be altered, amend- — /// kanzuru be moved or 

ed (tr. aratavierti), affected by. 

kotaeru answer. —ni kan-shin (or kam-pukti) 

de-au meet on the way. surH feel admiration for. 

kaki'kaeru rewrite. kanshin {kampuku) desu is 

— ni sutninareru by long res- admirable, wonderful. 

idenc« become accustomed o-yd sum put into practice, 

to, come to feel at home in. apply, adapt 

ci'kakim pursue. 


Kanji wa narau no ni wa viiitsukasK kute sugii wasurete 
shifftaimas\ Tou wa ittan no hajip towanu wa issho no haji. ^ 
Arti.hito no moshimas^ ni wa, goku viukashi wa Ezojin ga 
Nihon zenkoku ni sunde ita to iu koto des\ ga. honto de gozai- 
VI as /id ka, ^ Sore wa honto de gozaimasfu ; Nihon no rek'shi ni 
vio kaite arimas kara, Shitoi kiji ga am to iu no lua hontj 
des ka. Sayo sa, honto des' ka, dj des' ka, zvakarimasen^ 
shikashi mukashi tenshi ni shiroi kiji wo kenjita hito ga atta to 
rek'shi ni kaite arimas\ Hon wa chirakasK ie oku no wa 
gak*sha no kuse des\ Sakujitsu ittano iva machigai desKta 
kara, konnichi naoshimasho. Vube Okut/ia san ni deaimash' ta 
no wa doko desKtakke. ^ Kono dekimono wo kirazu ni ufchatte 
oku to, Htwru no ga nagabikimas\ Anata no tokiakask te 
kudasaiviasKta no wa viada yoku tvakarhnaseii kara, vO ichi 

a Another form of this proverb: Kiku wa ittoki uo haji, shiianu wa tiuUsu- 
dai no haji {rnaisu end, dai generation). 

b Or : Am hUo no hanashi ni wa. Observe that while the words— »^ iu ni 
7t'rt, etc, at the beginning of a quotation seem to correspond to the English 
«• — say that," a verb of saying or an expression like to in koto desu is required 
to complete the sentence. Comp. p. 224b. 

c This iakke is a remnant of the classical tarikeri, an emphatic past termina- 
tion, Ano kcjiki wa kind tno kite intasUitakke, That beggar was around here 
yefilcrday loo. The so called past tense of a Japanese verb is not always 
definitely past (p. 143^ 5, 2); but the addition of kke helps to recall vividly a 
situation in the past. It is used only in familiar conversation. In a question 
kke indicates a conviction that the event occurred even though there is doubt 
about the exact circumstances. JCa may be added before shiran : Are wa niitd 
koto no ant yd na hito desu ga, doko de mimashiiakke ka shiran. He seems like 
a person that I have 5een before, but where was it that I saw him? 

276 Tin-: VERii Lxiv] 

do oskiete itadakito gozaimas\ Arataviatta toki ni {aratama- 
reda^ so iu n'des\^ Ye no kaivari ni Ni wo Wkau no wa 
viachigai da to itte mo hito ga ts*kau kara, sKkata ga nai, 
Watakushi wa asane wo sum no ga £ki des\ ** Suvteba 
vtiyako " to iu no wa do iu ivii des'ka. Sayo^ suminareta 
tokoro ga ichiban it to iu ivii des\ Kyukvressha de Osaka ye 
iku ni wa hanjikati liodo kakarimas\ Go zonji (ga) nai no 
des^ka. ^ Watakushi tva shijit isogashu gozaimasKte tadaima 
ni savipun no hivia wo mite ^ chot.'o o iazune mosKta tokoro de 
gozaimas\ Sekkaku o tazune kudasUia no ni, nan no aiso 
mo gozaimasende viakoio ni shitsurei de gozaimasKta. A, o 
isha sama wa rusu de atta ka, Sorya sekkaku itte kureta 
no ni kinodoku de atta ne, *^ Bis' mar* k* ko no kao wa e ni 
kaku no ni tsugo no ii kao des\ Yasumono wo kau no wa 
kaette son des\ « Doits kara Nihon ye riku de iku ni wa do 
iu /ii ni ittara yd gozaimaslw. Sensei, " sono " to iu no to, 
** niwa " to iu no to do iu yd ni chigaimas ka. ^ Amari taba- 
ko wo nomu no de bydki ni narimasKta, Amari toku made^ 
aruita no de taiso kntabiremasKta. Anata ga hayaku Nihongo 
7V0 oboe nasUfa no xva kanshin des\ Dorobb no nigeru no wo 
cikakeinasKta, ^ 

My son is too young (still a little small) to {tii tva) send (yaru) 
to school. It is healthy (becomes medicine of the body) to («^ 
wa) bathe in cold water. Even though a foreigner speaks 
incorrectly (uses mistaken words), it is impolite to laugh. My 

a In this sentence tifaiatnaiia toki ni means : when one is serious and formal^ 
i. e., not familiar. 

b Notice that when a positive sentence ending in da^ dtstt, etc., is turned into 
a negative, de may be dispensed with : O toakari ga nakatta kara since you 
did not understand (positive : xvakari deshiia), Dekisd mo nai. It does not 
seem practicable (positive : dekiso desu\ Ikaresd wo nai. It is not likely that I 
(or he) will be able to go. Mitd mo nai (for mitaku mo nai, contracted also to 
mitfotnonai). It's disgusting (lit. I don't want to see). Shinifomonai, I don't 
want to die. 

c Hima 700 mlU is for hima no am no wo miitt. 

<l Said by a man to his servant. So/ya==sore wa, 

e Yasui mono things bought at a low price. Yasti-tnono cheap stuff. There is 
a proverb : Yasu-mono-kai tto zeni-ushinai {ttshinau lose). For son desu one 
often says son ga ikimasit. 

i " What is the difference between sono and mwa ? " The Utter word is more 
common in the colloquial. 

g This adverb is used like a substantive. 

h In English we say the fleeing robber, not the fleeing of the robber. 

Lxiv] Uses of the Indicative 277 

tooth aches very niuch^ but I dislike {iya dis*) to have it 
extracted. Is this your first visit to Kyoto (is your coming to 
K, hajimete) ? To explain this minutely would take (takes) 
considerable time. To correct this is the same thing as to re- 
write [it] entirely. I don't go to Japanese houses (houses of 
Japanese) very much because it is such a bother to take off 
{nugti) my shoes. In my opinion it will be very difficult to 
adapt Romaji to the Japanese language. ^ Is it true that {to 
iunowa) there were [once] soczWcA jindai'inoji?^ What 
you said yesterday was a mistake {0 machigai). Did you 
understand what I said yesterday ? Formerly it took about a 
month to go from Edo to the middle provinces ; ^ but now if 
one goes by steamer, one can do it (go) in {de) 2\ days. To 
learn to write {kaki-kata) Chinese characters, how had I better 
begin (if in what manner I have begun will it be good) ? It 
will be well to engage a teacher of penmanship and learn to 
write {kaku no wo) large characters with a writing-brush. 
What is written in this book is almost all false (lies). For a 
congratulatory gift it is usual to send raw fish, but since raw 
fish spoils easily {wamku nariyasut) many send other things. 
What is the difference between wa and ga (What* they call wa 
and what they call ga^ what sort of distinction is there) ? It 
is easy to ask [questions), but difficult to answer |them]. ^ 


The uses of the stems of verbs with auxiliaries have been 
explained in previous chapters. Some other idiomatic uses of 
stems will now be described. 

I. Many substantives are originally stems of verbs; e. g., 
samurai, from samutau serve, tori thoroughfare, from toru pass 
through. Comp. pp. 22, top and 119, bottom. Deki ga ivarui. 

» A sentence beginning with — no oniou ni wa or — tto kangae de wa ends with 
an expression like y^ desu, 

b Characters, not Chinese, said to have been used in prehistoric times — in 
•' the age of the gods " (jin god, dai age). 

c The middle provinces {chh-goku) are the eight westernmost provinces of 
t^e main island, 

fl In the literary laugungc : Tou 7va yasukn^ Ao/nyuru wa kataihu 

278 The VtRB [lxv 

It is poorly done. Stems of verbs, as substantives, often take 
the place of English \'erbs, especially in formal conversation : 

O ianoini no hon the book for which you asked (p. 193a). 

dse no tori as you say (p. 209a). 

Go zonji no. tori as you kno.v. 

Go zonji de wa (or ga) ariwasen ka. 

Don't you know about it ? 

Go zonji no hazu desu. You ought to know. 

Oide no jibun ni when you (he) were here (were there, 
came, went, come, go). 

Oide zvo negaimasu, I beg you to come. 

Mo kaeri desu ka. Are you going home so soon ? * 

O wakari deshita ka. Did you understand ? 

Stems of verbs often occur elliptically in proverbial expres- 
sions ; e. g., Setsunai toki no kamidanomi praying to the gods 
in time of distress. 

2. In speaking of the actions of others one may use the stem 
of any simple verb with the honorific o and ni nam : 

O wakari ni narimashita ka. Did you understand ? 
O me^zame ni narimashita ka. Are you awake ? 
Itsu o iachi ni nariviasu ka. When do you start ? 
Seifu de o shirabe ni narimashita. 
The Government has been investigating. 

3. With verbs that denote an act done in order that a cer- 
tain purpose may be accomplished, — such verbs as. " go " 
*' come " " send," etc., — the purpose may be expressed by the 
stem of a verb with ;//. ^ This may have an object. It is to 
be translated by means of the infinitive : 

Isha wo y obi ni iku go to call a physician. 
Sumo wo mi ni iku go to see the wrestling. 
O kuyami ni agaru come to condole. 
O yorokobi ni agaru come to congratulate. 

4. When a verb stands in antithesis to another or is to be 

a A riksha-man when he has brought some one liome shouts at the gate: 
kaeni. One in the house may then say to anotlier : O katri desu {yo\ The 
one who has come home is greeted with the words : O kaeti nasaimaski, 

b With Chinese compounds the stem o{ sum is not reciuircd. «• To come to 
see the sights " is kembutsn ni kuru, more commonly than kemhutsu shi m kuru* 

Lxv]. Uses of the Stem 279. 

emphasized, the stem may be used with wa (in rapid speech 
yd) and suru (p. 249a) : 

• Skitii wa shiinasuviau He will not die. 
Wakari wa sAimasu ga ... I understand, but .«•• 
Sonna shina wa arya (for ari wd) shinai. 
There are no such things. 
In a conditional clause, as in " If 3'ou just understand tliat's 
enough," the particle sae ^ may be substituted for wa : Wakari 
sae sureda iu Ari sag sunba sasbiagemasu ga.*.. I would 
give it if I had it, but .... Similarly the stem may be used in 
clauses translated by means of*' both — and," " neither^-nor " : 

Nikon fioji wo yome mo suru sAi^ kake mo shimasu. 

He can both read and write Japanese. 

Gozeti mo tabiraremasen shi^ nerare mo shimasen, 

I can neither eat nor sleep. 

Ano byZnin wa nomi mo kui mo shinai kara, shinimasho. : 

That patient will die, since he neither eats nor drinks. 

5. Observe the following emphatic expressions : 

kaeri nasaru no %vo machi ni matte imashita. 
We were waiting and waiting for his return. 
Korae ni koraete kurushii no wo gaman shite otta. 

1 have borne the suffering to the utmost limit ot endurance. 
Soroi mo scrotte fushigi na hitotachi bakari da. 

They are queer people without exception. 

6. The stem of a verb may be joined to certain words, such as 
nagara^ or s/ii-dai (lit. succession-order), which are used like 
conjunctions to form adverbial phrases : 

Hon wo yomi nagara while reading a book. 
Habakari nagara (or desu ga), kore tvo ftegaimasu. 
With great diffidence I make this request. 

a Siu may also be used with other substaatives : Kane sa€ areba, donna koto 
ii me dekiru. You can do anything, if only you have money. 

b For sut-u shi the simple stem shi may stand here (comp, p. I4d). Yome 
and kake are stems of potentials. 

c See p. 197c. This nagara is also used with the negative stem in %u : 
Oyobazu nagara o tetsudai itashimashc* I will assist to the best of my poor 
ability (lit. though not reaching). The word nagara originally meant "actual 
condilioD." as in nmare-nagnra no viekura one born blind. 

28o The Verh [lxv 

Diki shidai motte kiviasho. 

I will bring it as soon as it is done. 

Tile idiom — to wa U nagara is equivalent to " though " : 
Ainu wa yabanjin to wa it nagara nakanaka shigoto ga 

takumi destu 
The Ainu, though barbarians, are skilful workmen. 

7. Adjectives are formed by adding so to the stem of a verb : 
Mo ame ga yamiso desu. The rain seems to be stopping. 
Nan to ka shiyo ga ariso na mon desu. 

I hope it may be managed somehow (p. 115, middle). 

8. In long sentences, especially in formal speech or in nar- 
ratives, the stem may take the place of the subordtnative (p. 
iS/d). This feature is derived from the literary language, \x\ 
which the verbs of coordinated clauses, with the exception of 
the concluding clause, are in the form of the stem. In nega- 
tive clauses the form in zu corresponds to the stem (p. 171). 

Observe the idioms — wo hajime and — to ii : 

Kocho wo hajime shosei made mo kimashita. The whole 

school, from the principal down to the students, came. 
Kotoba-zukai to ii^ mi-buri to ii, ketten no nai enzetsuka 

da. Both in his use of words and in his gestures he is 

a faultless orator. 


tsue cane. na-fuda \ 

haina seacoast, beach. te-Jiuia Ivisiting card. 

kuri chestnut. mei's/ii{c) j 

hama-guri clam. gei accomplishment, cnter- 

de-guchi w^y out, exit taining performance. 

iri-kuchi entrance. kam-bun Chinese composi- 

hiki'shio ) . . ., tion, Chinese literature. 

shio'hi y ' ^* ryo'hi travelling expenses. 

mtchi^shio\ ten-ka (lit under heaven) 

sashi'shio > flood tide. the whole coujitry, Japan. 

age-skio j ji-zen charity, benevolence. 
shio no sashi'hiki ebb and jizen-shi bazaar {shi = ichi^ 

flow of the tide. market). 

LxvJ Uses of the Stem 281 

tei'koku empire. shuttai suru (from s/tutsu- 

^«-/ pictures. * rai=^dekiru) be finished, 

sAtdai order, circumstances, be done, happen. 

reason. ^ mi-aiaru be found. 

hayaiu allow — to grow long chanto p ecisely, properly, 

(intr. Aaeru), just, right. 

kimaru become settled, ccr- shibaraku for some time. 

tain (tr. kivierii), sahodo so much. 

suznmu cool one's self off. snzo how — you must (with 

ji'San suru bring, take (p. probable form). 

23 lb). sen-kokti a little while ago. 


O kasa wo niochi m narimaslita ka {o mochi de gozaimas 
ka), Jiitjisan itashimaseu deslita ; watakushi no agarimasu' 
ru jibuH fit wa ^ o tenki ga taiso yoroshu gozaimasKta no de, 
Nikon de wa akindo ga sakana ya yasai wo hito no uchi ye uri 
ni kimas\ Watakushi no itta koto ga zvakari ni narimas 
ka, Wakari wa shimas keredomo, kotoba-zukai ga s'koshi oka- 
shai gozavnas\ Ano bydnin wa shinimasho ka. Shini wa (ya) 
shimas* mat keredomo, sukkari naoru na wa mutsukashu gozai- 
masho. Kimono ga deki shidai^ motte kuru yb ni shUateya 
niitte koi, Anata kono atsusa de o yowari desko. Nani^^ 
sahodo de mo arimasen, Anata ichi nichi o aruki nas^tta kara, 
sazo o kutabife desko, lie, watakushi wa aruki-narete imas* 
kara, kutabiremasen. Kind nidshiageyo to omoimasKta ga, oide 
ga nakatta kara, tegami ni (p. 5Cc) kaite agemasKta, O ta- 
nomi na Edomeisho-zue^ zvo konnichi jisan itashimash^ta. 
Watakushi wa chotto tonari no uchi ye hanashi ni iku kara, wa- 
takushi no matte iru tegami ga todoitara, sugu ni motte kite 
kure, Hdrits* wo okashi sae shinakereba, donna koto tvo sKte 

a Comp. p. 95d. The word zue Is used only in compounds. Reversing the 
order, we have e-%u, which may mean a single drawing, map or picture. 

b Sfndai desu {de ^ozaimasii) is often used as a formal ending to a sentence, 
without adding anything to the sense. Bat compare: Omae iva toio kadte 
kita tc iu ihidai ka. So ! have you come back at last 7 

c Translate when I came (p. I2xc). The auxiliary viasu may be lengthen- 
ed Id formal conversation. 

d Shidai is used in the sense of " as soon as " only in speaking of the future. 

c Nam, from nani what, may be rendered : " Oh, no I " 

f Illustrated guide to noted places in luio. 

282 The Verb [lxv 

7no it to oinou fiito ga atimasga^ nakanaka so wa ikemas^inai. 
Kesa ni do korareta kata ga senkoku kara inachtkane de 
gozaimas\ O wakari ni narimasK tara, waiakushi ni mo itte 
kikaseU kudasai. Anata sakki kara o machikane de gozai- 
viashj, Oyaji wa waiakushi fii hayaku Nilion ye kaette 
moraitagatte, mo ryohi wo okutte kuremasfi ta ; ryohi ga tsuki 
shidai kaette kure to iu tegami mo yokoshimas/ita. Ichi mon 
oshimi no hyaku shirazu, * Kongo yomi no Kongo shirazu, ^ 
Kikugun no koto_ wo torishirabe ni YCroppa ye ikimash'ta. 
Kyo no kidaore, Osaka no kuidaore, ^ Atuita mo hikkosht ni 
narimash'ta ka. Jie^ mada des' ; shikashi tsugo no ii ie ga 
miatari shidai hikkoso to omoimas\ Anata mo go zonji no 
Tanaka san ga mairimaskta. Donata ka oide no yd da ; 
dare ka hayaku toritsugi wo shiro. Gwaikoku no kata ga kono 
najuda tvo o dashi ni natte sugu ni o kaeri ni narimasKfa, 
Sazo kutabire de gozaimasfio kara, go yururi to yasumi 
nasaimashi. Nana korobi ya oki. ^^ Anata sakuban okaeri ni 
natte kara sugu ni o yasumi ni narimaSKta ka. lie, shimbun 
wo mite kara nemashUa, Sonna ni yoku kakanak'te mo, 
wakari sae sureba ii. Shogwatsu ni wa manzai wo zash^ki ni 
agete « iroiro na gei wo sasete tak'san zeni wo yarimas\ O 
wakari ga nai nara. mo ichi do tokiakasKte agemashd. Vu 
ga waki shidai hairimasho. Ke wo bayash'te iru bdzu ^ mo 
ari, hay ash* te inai no mo aru, Sazo o komari de gozaimasho. 

In Tokyo, when the tide is out (at the time o! ebb tide), 
people often go to Susakie to gather (hirou) clams. To-mor- 

a Compare the English : Penny wise, pound foolish. Oshwii, as also yomi 
in the following proverb, has a concrete %ense=zoshimu hUo, 

b The sense is: He reads the Kongo diligently, but does not understand 
nor obseive its precepts. 

c According to this i reverb, the people ol Kyoto waste their money on 
fashions; tho'e of Osaka, on dainties {kiru wear, kuu eat, taoreru fall). 

d This proverb inculcates perseverance in spite of repeated failures. Nana 
and ya are numerals. 

e Zashiki ni ageru have — come into the house. 

. It would, of course, be rude to use this word iu the presence of a priest. 
Say bosan, 

g On the shore of Tdky5 Bay in Fukagawa. There is here a famous temple 
of Benten, goddess of luck. 

Lxv] Uses of the Stem 283 

row, if it. is (has become) fine weather ^. .34a), I will go 
fishing. In {tva) summer I went every idiay to the Sumida 
River for a swim. As you know, formerly the' Emperor en- 
trusted the government o. the whole country to the shogun. 
Shan't we go to Ekoin * to see the wrestling ? Are you going 
to buy things, or are you only going to tease (p. 202a) ? We 
will go to the Sumida River to cool ourselves oil. Many stu- 
dents, instead of attending (without hearing) the lectures, go 
to amuse themselves. Did you have a cane ? Yes, I left (put) 
it at the entrance of the genkwan. Is it raining? It is not 
raining, but it is foggy. Go to the shoemaker's and tell him 
to bring the shoes as soon as they are done. You have worked 
the whole day without resting; how tired you must be ! On 
account of {ni) the earthquake (of) last night I awoke {me 
7va samemasKtd)^ but I did not get up. We will decide (decid- 
ing put) just when you will come (pres.) next time. I have 
brought the Nifipngi^ for which you asked, but as it is written 
in Chinese style (a Chinese composition), you will hardly un- 
derstand it. Come again for a chat {kanashi). Did no com- 
pany (guest) come during {no ma ni) my absence? Yes, one 
student came. When I said (past cond.) that you would come 
immediately, he waited (was waiting) for a short time, but, as 
you did not return (there was no returning), being unable to 
wait (p. 2i7e) he went away (returning finished). Where are 
you moving ? I don't know yet. I am now looking for {sagas A* te 
iru tokoro des*) a house. Was the Imperial (Empire) Hotel 
finished {mo shuttai shUe imasKta ka) before you left Tdkyo ? 
They opened a bazaar there recently. Are you going out just 
now? Sir, will you (do you) stop at this hotel? It seems 
dirty here {koko wa). There may be a better one i'' we go to 
the next town. At first {hajime wa) I disliked (p. 91 e) sake, 
but gradually came to like it {suki ni naru). You mustn't 
laugh. I am not laughing, but I tliink it queer {Aen ni). 
You must n't think about other things while you are reading 

a A famous temple ia Honja, Tokyo, where great exhibitions of wresiliag 
are held in January and in May of each year. 

b The Nihongi {ki record) is an old historical work dating from the VIII. 

284 The Verb [lxvi 

a book. Have you given up the study of German ? I have 
not given (do not give) it up, but I haven't very much time 
to study. You ought to know that. 


Compound verbs {kumi tate-ddshi) are vciy numerous. Some 
are derived from a noun and a verb. 

egaku draw, from e picture, kaku write. 

katazukeru lay aside, from kata side, tsukerii affix, put. 

motozuku be based on, from vtoto base. 

namidagwnu be moved to tears, from namida tc^Lts^ /u6t4mu 

negirti beat down the price, from ne price, kiru cut. 

toshiyoru or toshitoru become aged, from ioshi yeAt^ yoru 
gather, toru take. 
Others arc derived from an adjective and a verb : 

nagabiku be protracted, from nagai long, hiku draw. 

tjzakeru keep at a distance, withdraw from, from toi far, sa- 
keru avoid (also — ni iozakani). 

atsusugiru be too hot (p. 106). 

amanzuru^ amanjiru relish, be satisfied, from amai sweet. 
With the last compare omonzuru and karonzuru, p. 21 5. 

The suffix garu is much used to form compounds with the 
stems of adjectives and desiderativcs : 

hoshigaru desire (p. 152a). omoshifogaru leel interested in. 

ikitagaru want to go (p. 176). hairitagaru want to enter. 
The verb buru^ " put on airs " enters into some compounds: 

gakushaburu pose as a scholar. 

itikaburu be arrogant, boast, from takai high. 

Most numerous are the compounds derived from two verbs. 
As we have before observed (p. 251a), the Japanese language 
lias no prefixes or prepositions by means of which compound 
verbs may be formed, as in European languages. Consequently 

a This buru is related Xofuri air, appearance, in oioko-buri ga yoi, onna-buri 
ga yoi is handsome. Note also the suffix hanty from haru stretch, extend; 
koivabarn be stiff, from kowai hard, i-baru be \\XiVi^\\j, y<tktt'baru be avaricioQfl^ 
gisfnki-ban* be excessively formal, etc. 

Lxvi] Compounds 285 

in very many cases one of the tv^o verbs in a compound serves 
as a kind of auxiliary to the other and in not a few instances 
is practically meaningless* Accordingly we divide compound 
verbs, somewhat arbitrarily, into three classes: (a) those in 
which the components are correlative; (b) those in which 
the second component serves to modify the sense of the first ; 
and (c) those in which the first modifies the second. One can 
not always be sure to which class a given compound should be 
assigned ; but the distinction is practically helpful. 

A. Usually transitive verbs are joined with transitive, and 
intransitive with intransitive. But the components often differ 
and then usage rather than grammar must be consulted in 
determining the voice (pp. 203a, 239a). ^ 

atehameru apply, from ateru hit, heimeru fit. 
hipparu {hikiharu) pull and stretch, bring along. 
iiham insist, from iu say, haru stretch. 
kakitoru note down, write at dictation. 
kamikudaku crunch, from kamu bite, kudaku crush. 
ketsutnazuku stumble, from keru kick, tsumasuku stumble. ^ 
surimuku rub off^ abrade, skin, from suru rub, tnukti peel. 
tsukikorosu stab (or gore) to death, from tsuku pierce. 
ukeau guarantee, from ukeru receive au meet. 
ukiou contract for, from on carry. 

In Kwanzei compounds with Ttmi are formed, corresponding 
to the subordinative with iru or oru (p. 163) : ikioru (also pro- 
nounced ikiyoru) is going (but itU oru is gone). This idiom 
is derived from the literary language. ^ 

B. In the second class we include a number of verbs which 
as suffixes form well defined groups of compounds. In many 
instances either the intransitive or the transitive form may be 
used. Thus to '* commence to rain " is either furikakaru or 
furikakeru ; " happen to be on hand " is ariau or ariawaseru. 
The following list is not a complete one. 

a In the literary language the item tji ktru is kt. Comp. ke-mari football. 
In the coUoqaial keru belongs to the second class (Cb. XLVIIL). 

b Some apparently simple verbs were originally compounds : dekiru, from 
deru and kurt* ; hairtt, from hau creep and iru enter ; mochiiru, from mofiu have 
snd iru be. 

286 The Verb [lxvi 

1. Ageru, agaru:\z) "xip," i. e.> "upward"; (b) "up/' i. e., 
"completely"; (c) a polite termination. . 

kuriageru move up, carry for- kakiageru finish writing. * 
ward, rearrange, from kurti shiageru^ yariagtru finish. *> 
reel. shibariageru tie up, from ski- 

viiageru look up to. baru tie. 

nobiagaru stretch one's self dekiagaru be finished* 

up, straighten up. mdshiageru tell. ^ 

tobiagaru fly up, jump up. kaiageru purchase (on the 
okiagaru rise up. part of the G >vcrnment). ^ 

tsukeagaru " be istuck up." meshiagaru take (food, etc.). 

2. Au, awaseru: (a) "mutually"; (b) "together"; (c) 
" happen to. " 

tasukeau help each other (p. ochiau come together (of riv- 

58). ers or of persons), from o- 

niramiau glare at each other, chir.i fall. 

from niramu stare. sureau be rubbed together, 

shiriau be mutually acquaint- chafe, be on bad terms, pass 

ed. in close proximit>\ 

/^r/rt:« take hold of each other, kikiawaseru gather informa- 

pay attention. tion, inquire. 

tsukiau associate, become ac- vwshiawaseru reach an agree- 

quaintcd. ment. 

miaivaseru look at each other dekiau happen to be finished, 

{kao wo\ forego, give up. be ready made. 
. deau meet on the road. ariau, arimvaseru happen to 

komiau be crowded together. be on hand. ^ 

These verbs may be used with the postpositions ni and to. 
Those into which awaseru enters may also take objects with wo. 

a Compare the older compound kakagem i^oist, publish, inscribe. The verb 
kakti means also " scratch." 

b Yanagtni cannot be used in the Sense ** put on a finishing touch," Yari- 
agent may also mean " get up in the world." 

c Compare age mdsu give, 

d The opposite is «;-M<7^A-«, used, for instance, of selling postage stamps. 
Another verb, haraisagem, U used of selling property which the Government 
no longer neqds. Comp. p. i84d. 

e These compounds usually occur in the form of the adjectives dekiai tut. 
and ariai no or ariawase no. 

Lxvi] Compounds 287 

3. Chigau, chigaeru : (a) " differently " ; (b) " mistakenly." 
ikichigau go in opposite directions without meeting. 
surechigau pass closely on the road. 

- kikichigaUy kikichigaeru hear incorrectly, mishear. 
omoichigati, omoichigaeru misapprehend, misconjecture 
( — wo — to omoichigau mistake — for — ), 

4. Deru, daiu or idasu: (a) "out," ''from"; (b) "suddenly," 
'* begin to '* {dasu only). 

kogideru, kogidasu row out. omoidasu call to mind. 
fukidasu blowout, burst out sagashidasusit2iVcYioyxt^\ook\x^ 

into laughter. abaredasu suddenly become 

furidasu shake out, remit, fractious. 

from luru shake, scatter, iidasu utter, begin to speak. 

pay. nakidasH begin to cry. 

nigiUasti escape, run away. 

5. Hateru, hataui : " completely," " utterly." 
akinhaterti be utterly astonished (and disgusted), from 

akireru be surprised. 
korihatiru be taught a good lesson, from koriru be warned, 

punished (comp. korashivieru chastise). 
shinihateru die out (of a family). 
yowarihateru be utterly exhausted, nonplussed. 
isukaihiiiasu use up. 

6. /r//, ireru: (a) "in"; (b) a suffix, originally intensive, 
added to some verbs of feeling (/>// only). 

seirteiru enter forcibly, from osorfiru be much obliged, be 

semeru assault overwhelmed by another's 

kaiireru buy in, buy up. condescension (p. I93g). 

kakiireru write in, mortgage, hajiiru be very much ashamed. 

shiireru lay in (goods). kafijiirn feel great admiration. 
yobiinrti call in. 


(Include the compounds given above. Easily understood 
compounds are not explained.) 

hiza knee. — no soda ni beside. 

tto thread, raw silk. soda ni yorti approach near. 

soba side, vicinity. iayori communication, news. 


The Verb 


hama-bi seacoast. ^ 

kaki-ne fictitious price, 

kakene wo iu {suru) ask an 
amount in excess of the 
proper price. 

mi bun station in life. 

sat' tori middleman, broker. 

toku (c) profit, gain. 

en-nichi monthly festival day 
at a Buddhist temple. 

hi'ftan censure, criticism. 

Sik-kan chastisement. 

sok-ki stenography, 

koku'shi'byo black plague 
(lit. black death disease). 

ureshii joyful. 

aware na pitiful. 

waga-mama na wilful, way- 
ward, selfish. 

yo-i na easy. 

yu-kwai na delightful. 

kimari disposition, order. 

kiviari ga warui be embar- 

shidara no nai unsystematic, 
badly managed. 

al'iravurti give up all hope, 

feel resigned. ^ 
shibireru^ shibin ga kireru 

be numb, asleep (of limbs). 
utSHViuku bend the face 

yuzuru relinquish, yield. 
shimarti be tight, strict 
tori'shivtaru supervise (tr.). 
hara xvo tateru \ ^ 
rip-pukusuru \z^^^^^^' 
dossari abundantly, largely. 
hyoi to^ hyotto suddenly, acci- 
hisashi'buri de after a long 

akti, akiru (p. 142, middle) 

be surfeited. 
aku made to the utmost. 
hon ni really (in kon-to), 
ip'po one step. 
is'sai altogether, at all. 
to-kaku in one way or an- 
other, almost inevitably, 
be apt to. 


Kono kikai wa ippun no uchi ni viizu wo sen rittor gurai 
suiagemas\ Matsuyaina kun wa kiini no kotoba wo kikizhi- 
gaete taiso okotte otta yo. Ittan iidash'ta koto wa yoi ni kae- 
rareru mono de nai, Ano kami san wa oku no mono wo to- 
rts kimaranakereba naranai mibtin de aru no ni, jissai ts'kiatte 
mimasKtara^ sono shidara no nai no nt wa akirehatete shimai- 

a The suffix be is equivalent to hen vicinity : vama-be region near a mountain. 

b Used with /<?.• Toiei dekinai mono to akirameti ini be convinced that it is 
utterly impossible. The verb akirameru must origiuaUy ** understand clearly.*' 
Comp. akiraka na. 

Lxvi] Compounds 289 

fnasKta, Sana ji ga nukete imas * kara^ koko ye kakiirete th 
kimaskd. Kono ushi wa abareie hito wo ts kikoroskUa koto ga 
arimas\ Omae san, kakcne wo itcha komaru. lie^ kessh'te 
kaktm wa moshiagemaseH. Hisashiburi de atta (from au) 
mofi dei kara^ tagai ni dakiatte nreshi-namida wo nagashi- 
ntasKUu Sumi ya takigi wo santuku naran uchi ni kaiirete 
oku ho ga yas*kuU ioku des\ Nagai aida suwatte ite tachia- 
garo to shimasVtara, shibtre ga kirete tatemasen desh*ta, Ano 
hi:o wa Sit ga takai kara, nobiagattara, atanta ga kamoi ni 
iodokintasho. Tagai ni kao wo miawasete kimariwaruso ni 
utsumukivtasK ta {sKta wo mimasKLx). Hakurankwai wa 
kok'shibyd ga dekita tame ni miawase ni natta so des\ Sen- 
datie ryoko cKu ni kane ga naiunatte shimatU, kaeru koto ga 
dikizu^ beisu ni shiriai no hito mo nai no de, yowarihate- 
fnash*ta, Yasui toki ni tak'san shiirete okimasUta kara, 
dossari mokarimash'ta. Uchijini sVta to akiramete ita ani 
kara tayori ga atta no de tobiagaru hodo ureshu gozaimash'ta. 
Omiya de kudari no kisha to nobori no kisha ga (to) sureckigai 
ni natta. ^ As^ wa mina san to mjshiawasete . hanami ni 
mairimasho, Sakihodo tegata wo Juridaslite yarimash'ta, ^ 
Tailien machigatta koto wo itashte Iiajiitta shidai de gozaimas\ 
Suitengu no ennichi ni wa aruku koto mo dekinai hodo 
komiaimas\ Inu wa shin da no ka to omotte soba ni yottara 
ugokidashimasK ta. Takayavia hakase no rombun wo yomu 
tabi ni fude no ta:>sha na no ni wa kanfiirimas\ ^ ltd san wa 
fniageru hodo rippa ni narimasKta. Donna muri wo iite koyo 
to, * issai toriawan ho ga yoroshu gozaimas\ Sono hon wa 
tffta TJkyo ni aru ka dj da ka kikiawasete agemashD. Doits' 
to F'rans* wa itsu mo sureatte imaskta. Aits* wa gak'shabutte 
nanigoto ni mo ktichi wo das' (iretti) kara, hito ni iyagarare- 
fnas\ By otto omoidashimash' ta. Donna hinan ga atte mo 

a Translate: is omitted ; lit. has escaped (in the process of writing). One 
may also say oclnte ima^. 

b KudaH no kisha the train going in the direction from the capital ; nobori 
no kisha the train going in the direction to the capital. The verb surechigau 
IS not -so common as ka-kivan suru. 

c The verb yaru as used with subordinatives may sometimes be translated 
'« for** hot is often antranslatable. It belongs to the same class as ageruy oku^ 
IrurUf shunau^ elc. 

d The 'VoxA/ude is used by metonymy for style. 

e A future verb with to, abbreviated from fo mo^ is one of the idioms denot- 
ing concession. Translate: No matter how unreasonably he speaks to you. 

290 The Verb [lxvi 

nvtanjite ukeru tsumoti des\ Afj shigoio ga arimasen kara, 
konnichi wa jikan wo kuriageti san ji ni kaeru koto ni itashi- 
masho, O Ume to O Take ga ningyo wo hippariatte tdto 
^owas/ite shimaivtas/ita, * Asa hayaku okite hamabe ni tatte 
toku oki ye kogidele oru June wo nagameru no wa inakoto ni 
yukwai des\ Ikura hantai sarete mo aku made jibun no sets* 
wo iihatte ippo mo yuzurimasen. Ainu wa jibun no kao- 
katachi wo egakareru no wo gozvagarimas\ Betsu ni sKtaku 
wo sKta no de wa go&aiinasen ; hon no ariawase no shina wo 
sashiagefu no des\ ^ 

I will deliver them as soon as they are finished. Since they 
are brothers, they ought to help one another, but {Iiazu na no 
ni) they are constantly quarreling. It was my intention to meet 
him at the Club {K'rab*), but on the way we passed without 
meeting. It is said that recently in Egypt a boat five or six 
thousand years old (mae no) has been dug out. This child by 
burning (yaita no ni) its hands once has learned a good lesson 
and no longer goes (has become not approaching) near the fire. 
That broker has gone to Maebashi to buy in raw silk. I stum- 
bled and fell and skinned my knee. Having fallen and struck 
my knee dreadfully, for a little while I could not rise up. I 
was guilty of (did) great impoliteness, mistaking the lady of 
the house (ok'san) for the servant. The horse suddenly 
became fractious and smashed the carriage. In that family 
(house) all have died out, from {hajime) the old to the young, 
and now only that one child is left (it has become that one 
child). Have you taken down the lecture ? Yes, I have taken 
it in shorthand (stenographing put). If you treat {sKte yani) 
servants and the like i^nazo) too gently, they get stuck up and 
are apt to become wilful. Since [they] will be expensive if you 
order [them], it would be better to buy ready-made goods. It 
is not easy to look up a character in {de) the Kokijiten. I will 
go for a walk after I have finished writing this letter. Both 
glared at each other for a while without saying anything. It 
was too much for us (became tamaranai) and we all burst out 
laughing. The Hirose River and the Natori River come together 

a Triple compouuds like this are not uncommon. 
b An apology for a meal. 

Lxvi] Compounds 291 

in the vicinity of Sendai. A fox runs away at once when i* 
sees a dog. Mr. Inouye is a very interesting person when you 
get acquainted with him (associating see). It will still take 
considerable time to (jnade ni wa) finish this. When you 
have finished reading that book please lend it to me. When 
stone and metal are rubbed together, fire is produced {deru). 
Though I said I would go home (iaeru), Tanaka pulled my 
sleeve and did not allow me to go home {kaesu). A really 
able {dekiru) man never boasts before others. We withdrew 
from the others {hito) and consulted until late {osoku made) 
at night. Since you will become fatigued and unable to return 
if you swim out too far, please be cautious. It is said 
that the carpenter who contracted for the building of the 
school has fled. Hearing that pitiful story, they were un- 
consciously {pboezu) moved to tears. Saying that the child 
had been in mischief, he got dreadfully angry and chastised it 
by (subord.) tying up its hands and feet. The Government 
has purchased that lot to {tame ni) build a court house. By 
profligacy {hoto wo sKte) he used up all his property within 
one year. How would it be to call in that amma and have 
him shampoo us a little (Jiitotsu or s*koshi). 


7. Kaerut kawaru change : " re — /' *' trans — ," the idea of 

kakikaeru rewrite. uekaeru transplant. 

kikaeru change (clothes). irikawaru enter by turns. 

harikaerti re-cover, from ha- — ni narikawarii take the 

ru spread, paste, cover. place of, 

iikaeru s^y in other words. uniarekawaru be reborn 

irekaeru replace, put in afresh. transmigrate, be regener- 

norikaeru change cars, etc. ated, become a new man. 

8. KaerUy kaesu return : ** re — ," " back." 

Jurikaeru turn around. torikaesu, torimodosu take 

ikikaeru revive, be refreshed. back. 

kurikaesu repeat. y obi kaesu, yobimodosti recall. 


The Verb 


9. Kakeru^ kakaru 
' begin to/' 

nagekakeru throw on or at. 

oikakerUf okkakeru pursue, 
from au chase. 

furikakaru fall upon, happen. 

idrikakerUi idrikakaru hap- 
pen to pass. 

dekakeni start out. 

(a) " on/' *' at " ; (b) " by chance " ; (c) 

furikakeru^y furikakaru begin 
to fall (of nun etc.). 

kakikakeru begin to write. 

shikakeru, yarikaktru begin 
to do. 

ckirikakaru begin to fall (of 

ID. Kaneru : " find it hard to/' " be unable to." 
machikaneru wait impatient- moshikaneru hesitate to say. * 
ly, be unable to wait. 

1 1. Kiru^ kireru: (a) ''completely/' ** entirely/' "all " (comp. 
wakarikitta p. 128) ; (b) " through '* ; (c) '* cease." 

torikiru take all, exhaust the hairikireru all go in. 

supply of. sureiireru be worn through. 

kaeshikiru return all. mikiru abandon, clear off. 

uriiiru sell out. omoikiru cease to think about, 

urekiftru be sold out. give up. 

12. Koeru, kosu : (a) " across " ; (b) " past." 

tobikoeruy tobikosu leap over, norikoeru^ norikosu ride past, 


jump across. 
13. Komu:''xnr 
sashikomu shine in. 
tsumikomu load in. 
Jiikikomu blow in. 
hikkomu draw in, retire. ^ 
irikomu enter in. 
kikikomu hear (lit. take in 

by hearing). ^ 
vioshikomu put in a request. 
nagekomu throw in. 

nomikomu swallow, under- 

ochikomu fall in. 

omoikomu get an impresaon. 

orikomu weave in, from oru 

shikomu lay in (goods), teach 
(something), educate. 

— ni horekomu be captivated. 

a Very common are the compounds : — ivo koraekaneru, — ni iaekaneru and 
tatnarikaneru be unable to endure. The last is used only i& the form of the 

b To be distinguished from hekomu become hollow, from ////•« decrease. 
I'cr he compare ketsiwMZukn (p. 285a). 

f The verb kikiireru means "assent/ ** grant," (a request). 




14. Naosu: "re—." ** again," "a second time," "over." 
denaosu come (or go) again, ninaosu rcboil. 
kangaenaosu change one's yarinaosu^ shinaosu do over. 


15. Nuku, nukeru : (a) " through " ; (b) " out." 
tsukinuku pierce through. erinuku, yorinuku choose out, 
uchinuku strike throi^h, select, from eru choose. 
torinukiru pass through. 


(Include compounds given above.) 

hitai forehead. 

hori ditchy canal, moat. 

inochi life. 

kabuto helmet. 

kuchi opening, demand (for 
services or goods). 

suku to open up, be thinned 
out (p. 1 02a). 

suki, suki-ma crack, opening. 

suso lower border of a gar- 
ment, skirt. 

isuyu dew. 

ya arrow. 

yunti bow. 

ajna-mori leak in the roof 
(lit. rain-leak). 

sato village, one's native place. 
fnru'saio ) birthplace, 

ka-kyd (c) \ home. 

ki'inae disposition, temper- 

Aa/^7 side. 

michi'bata roadside. 

sa-7iaka the very ;nidst. 

mi-nashi^o orphan. * 

yopparai drunkard. 

tiki enemy. 

chd-ka = machi-ya house of 

a merchant. ^ 
do-chu journey. 
ji-jo condition, circumstances, 

special reasons. 
kok'kin national interdict 

(comp. kinsuru), 
moyo pattern, design, state 

of things, c 
nem-matsu end of the year. 
sai'sen oflFering of money at 

a place of worship. 
sei'tten young man (lit. green 

kwd-tai'shi crown prince. 

a Lit. a chUd without mi. The word mi means not only ''self " but also 
one's condition or relations in life (compare mi-no ue^ p. 58}. Accordingly 
ymnaskigc means a child without relatives. 

b Tn former times the samurai lived in the midst of ample grounds along 
back streets, while the crowded town was occupied by shopkeepers. 

c Kesa nc vioyZ de wa ame gafuriH deshita ga^ saiwai furazu ni shimaimashiia. 
This morning it looked like rain, but happily there has been none. 

294 The Verb [lxvii 

6dto boat (English). — ni sawaru touch. 

hakanai tx2Sis\ent, sodaUru bring up, rear (intr. 
yoginai unavoidable. sodatsu)^ 

ken-go na firm, substantial, tetsudau help. 

omoi(ino)yoranu unexpected, todomaru = totnaru stop, stay. 

kei-ki appearance, state of hiki-ukeru take over, make 

trade. one's self responsible for 

keiki ga ^^i times are good (comp. ukeau), 

(opp. fu'keiki). hiki^zmu drag. 

iuku roof, thatch. * ippan ni generally. 


Kimono ga nureta kara^ betsu no to kikaemasho. Tsurezu- 
regusa no^ buns Ad wa taihen kin i da kara^ kurikaesfiU yomi- 
fnash*ta, Makoto ni mdshiagekanemas' ga, s^koshi tetsudatte 
itadakaremas' mai ka, Kotoshi wa keiki ga yokute kaiireta 
mono wa viina urekiremasfita. Tera ya miya ye sankei sum 
hito wa saisenbako ni zeni wo nagekdmimas\ Ato no bd( ga 
saki no wo norikoshimash'ta. Sj iu mukashi no shiki no koto 
ga kono lion ni kaite ariinas to omoimasJi ta ga^ domo, miatari- 
masen. Nani / kaite aru sa. Sonnara mo ichi do yoviinao- 
shimashd, Taiho no tama ga atsui kabe wo uchinuite Pekin 
no yd na ken go na shiro wo mo otoskimasK ta, Cha wo hitotsu 
irekaete kite kure, Amari muzukasfi kute watakushi ni wa wa- 
karikanemas\ Sekkaku no o kotoba des* ga^ konnicki wa yogi- 
nai koto ga gozaimash'te zanuen Niagara agarikanemas\ Ikura 
benkyo sh'te hataraite mo shigoto ga sKkirenai. Matsuri no toki 
ni wa inakamono ga ozei machi ni irikomimas\ Kono buns/ij 
wa machigaidarake da kara, kakinaoshi nasai. Vane ga fu- 
ruku natte amamori ga sum kara^ fukikaeyo to omoimas\ 
Sonna abunai koto wo suru to, ato de torikaeski no ts'kanai^ 

a The diflerent kinds of roofs are: warabuki, from wara straw; kayabuki^ 
from kaya rush ; sugikawabuki^ ixoxasugi cryptomeria and kawa bark ; icobahuki 
shingled; kawarabuki tiX^^\ s^reifbuki oi sekibanbuki slated; totanbuki roofed 
with galvanized iron, etc. 

b Miscellanies written by KenkS in the XIV, Century. Tsure»ure means 
•« leisure hours " ; kusa (lit. grass) ** miscellanies." Compare kusagusa no varioas. 

c The negative of the verb isuku is used in this and similar idioms in the 
sense of dekinai. 

Lxvi] Compounds 295 

ayavtachi wo shtmas^ yo, Ovtoi mo yoranu sainan ga furika^ 
katte mairimash'ta. Miru ni mikanete (p. 274,2) tas*kete yari-^ 
iftashUa. Yoikuchi ga aitara, sewa wo sh\U kureru yd ni mo^ 
sKkonde okimasKta. Kono kimono wa nan da ka guai ga wa- 
rut yj da kara, nuinaosKte moraitai. Yumi no ya ga kabuto 
wo ts'kinuite teki no hitai ni atarimash*ta. ^* Jinsei choro no 
gotoshi " * to iu no wa, iikaereba^ Hito no inochi wa makoto ni 
hakanai mono de aru to iu koto des\ Tochu de kyu ni hara 
ga itamidasKta no de, aruku koto mo dekizu. taorete orimash'ta 
ga, chodo soko wo totikakaita no ga isha de arimasKta kara^ 
saiwai ta£ keraremash' ta. Sendatte shinda kodomo no koto wa 
dj sKte mo omoikiru koto ga dekimasen, Zehi kuni ye kaera 
to omoimasKta ga, kangaenaoshimasKte Nihon ni todomam 
koto ni itashimaskd. Kono kowareta hon wo mina tojinaosa- 
nakereba narimasen, Moto zva ikenai hito desh'taga, konogora 
iva umarekawatta yd ni yoi mono ni narimasK ta. Konnichi 
zva irikawari tachikawari o kyaku ga kite isogashu gozaima- 
s/i'ta. Kurikaeshi kurikaeshi shinsetsu ni oshiete kuremash'ta. 
Muri ga toreba^ dori ga hikkomu (Proverb). Niijima san wa ^ 
kokkin wo okasKte givaikoku no June ni norikonde Amerik-T ye 
mairimasK ta, Ittan owoikonda koto wa yji ni aratamerarenai 
mono des\ Yopparai wo hikizurikomarete^ tonda meiwaku 
7V0 itashimasti ta. Dorobo no kao ni hai wo nagekakemasV ta. 
Aits' wa sake wo nomu to, sugu ni kenkwa wo sKkakemas\ <* 
Atsui sanaka ni nagadochu wo sKte^ ts'karehatete shimaimasK- 
tatta gay * shibaraku koko de yasunda no de, yoyo ikikaeita yd 
na kokochi ga itashimas\ Mikirimono ^ des* kara, yas*ku 
agemas\ Kame no ko no kubi wa bo de sawaru to,jiki ni hik- 

a Hiio no inochi wa asa no tsuyu no y^ na mono destt, 

b The founder of the Christian institution, the D59hisha, in Ky5to. He 
went to America secretly in 1864. The name is often spelled Neesima. 

c The keeper of a restaurant might express himself in these words on 
discovering that he had a drunkard on his hands. 

d In this compound kakeru does not mean " begin." The man when drunk 
picks a quarrel, L e, inflicts a quarrel on another. Compare hanaski wo 
shikakeru or hanashikakeru address one's self to. 

e The ending taita, from te aita, is used like takke (p. 275c) to make vivid a 
past situation. 

f Goods to be disposed of at a clearing sale. 

296 The Verb [lxvii 

komimas\ JNomikomi tio it gejo des\ Mukashi choka de wa 
ippan ni onna no ko ni yugii wo sKkonda mon' des\ O rusu 
nara, mata denaosKte mairimasho. Rosha no kwotaishi ga 
Olsu de korosarekakiinasK ta. 

To go from Tokyo to Nikko you must change cars at Utsuno- 
miya. At the end of the year people everywhere re cover their 
shojL Chrysanthemums, if not transplanted every year, do 
not bloom well (good flowers do not bloom). There is no one 
who would (does) not turn round and look back {ato wo miru) 
when he left (leaves) his birthplace. The cherry blossoms are 
now beginning to fall. The company has been (guests are) 
waiting impatiently for some time. This box is so small that 
the goods will hardly all go in. This building is called Kotsu- 
do ; ^ into it {kono uchi ni) the teeth, etc , of dead people are 
thrown (in). Can you jump across this brook? Recently a 
new street has been made {dekiru) by which one can {koto no 
dekiru) pass through from the Station to South Street. As 
this child {^a i) is an orphan, we intend to take the place of 
its parents and rear it. As I am just beginning (to write) a 
letter, please wait a little. I hesitate to say it, but could I 
borrow a little money ? That dictionary is sold out (past). The 
horse fell in when it attempted (p. 216 top) to leap over this 
ditch. As I made a mistake, I will do it over. From among 
many young men the stroiigest are selected and taken for 
soldiers. He was recalled to his country on the ground ihat {fo 
itte) unavoidable business had turned up {dekitii). I am sorry, 
but there are various special reasons, so that I can't guarantee 
that much {sore dake). He has not yet paid (returned) all his 
debts. In Japan designs and letters are woven orikomu — active) 
into women's sashes. You can still wear this padded garment, 
if you make it over. As the thief fled, a policeman pursued 
him with all his might. I was captivated by his disposition. 
If you don't reboil this fish, it will spoil by to-morrow. The 
skirt of the kimono is worn through. I am annoyed by the 
snow blowing in through (from) a crack in (of) the door. 
Lately I iieard a strange rumor. Travelers often throw their 
waraji upon trees by (of) the roadside. 

a Lit. bone-halL Devout Buddhists desire to be buried, at least nominally, 
by the side of K5b5 Daishi on K5yosan (p. iisd). The Kotsudo is provided 
for the remains of cremated bodies. 

Lxviii] Compounds 297 


16. Otosu : " fail to," " neglect to." 
mzoiosu overlook. 

kctkio*osu accidentally omit in writing. 
ioriotosu forget to take, leave behind. 

17. Sokonau injure : " mis — ," '* wrongly." 

dekisokonau prove to be a failure. 
yarisokonau, skisokonau do amiss, spoiL 
misokonau misjudge. 

18. Sugiru, sugosu : " excessively." 

ikisugiru go too far (p. 128). 
nomisugiru^ nomuugosu drink to excess. 
tsukaisugiru, tsukaisugosu use too much. 

19. Tatsu, tattru : (a) " up " ; (b) " away." 

nieiatsu^ nitatsu boil, from ukitatsu be buoyant, excited 

nieru (intr.) or nirn (tr.) (p. 261^). 

untetaUrii fill up- oitaUru drive away, evict. 

20. Tosu: 'Uhiough." 
fukitdsu blow through. 

yaritosuj shitosu put through, carry out. 

2 1 . Tsuku, Uukeru : (a) the idea of approach or attachment 
— •' to," •' at," " against " ; (b) " happen to." 

kuitsuku bite (of an animal), fukiisukem blow against. 

natsuku^ nazuku become at- kakitsukeru note down. 

tached (p. 252a). nagetsukeru throw at, fling. 

ochitsuku retum to a normal takit%ukeru kindle. 

condition, become settled, uchitsukeru, buchitsukeru, 

— ni oitsuku, oUsuku owtt- buttsukeru nail on, throw 

take, a at. 

sabitsuku get rusty, from sa* yosetstikeru bring close. 

biru rust. nisnkeru, inoshitsukeru, dse- 
sugaritsuku cling fast, from tsukeru (polite 2) tell, 

sugaru cling. command. 

suitsuku take hold by suction, yattsukeru overcome, scold. 

Compare the adverb ottsnke presently. 

298 ^ The Verb [lxviit 

kikitsukeru happen to hear, kangaetsuku, omoitsuku hap- 
overhear. pen to think of, call to 

vtitsukeru, mekkeru happen mind, invent, 
to see, discover. 
The expressions kikiisukete imasu^ mitsukete imasu^ mean also 
" be accustomed to hear," " be used to seeing." * 

22. Tsukusu (intr. tsukiru) exhaust: "all." 
mitsukusu see all. 

skitsukusu, yaritsukusu do everything possible. 

23. Tsuvteru, tsumaru : " to the utmost." 
iitsumeru silence (in an argument). 
oitsumerii corner. 

senjiUunteru boil down, from senzuru make a decoction. 
ikitsumaru get to a place where one can go no further. 

24. TsuzukUy tsuzukeru : ** continuously." 
furitsuzuku fall continuously (of rain, etc.). 
ieriUuzuku continue bright (of the weather). 
nomi tsuzukeru keep on drinking. 
yaritsuzukeru^ shitsuzukeru keep on doing. 


(Include the compounds given above.) 

ami net. kai-gara empty shell (of a 
hiru leech. shellfish). 

ike pond. kofi {ko-michi) lane, alley. 

kakoi enclosure (from kakou naga-ya row of houses under 

enclose). one roof, tenement house. 

kama kettle, pot for cooking, no^ hara, na-hara plain, moor, 
atari ball. prairie. 

j«f«/ corner. nusubito thief. 

sune shin. o-ddri main street. 

ari-sama state, condition. yo-ake daybreak. 

kai shell, shellfish. osandon servant girl. * 

a O San wa^; once a very common name for girls ; don is from dtno, a title 
like samOf san. Compare Sansuke, the name by which the attendant at a 
public bath is usually called. The term osandon^ like gejo or kahi, is applicable 
only to those who do menial work in the kitchen, etc. A servant girl of 
higher rank is jo-chu or naka-bataraki. 




AW fence, wall (p. 129a). 
jo^jo-viae lock. 
^van bay. 

bosan Buddhist priest (p. 282f). 
chi'€ wisdom, sagacity. 
en kwai banquet. 
JO feeling, affection, passion. 
gd-jo stubbornness {.go^tsu- 

yoi, kowai). 
gdjo wo haru be obstitiate. 
hos'shin [Buddhist] leligious 

conversion (lit. arouse spirit). 
kyo'Satsu name tablet fastened 

to a gatepost, doorplate. 
i'Shi will, volition 
kii'kwaku plan, scheme. 
nai'kaku cabinet, ministry. 
nan-gi hardship. 
ftes'shin zeal, enthusiasm (lit 

heat spirit). 
nin-tai patience, fortitude. 
r'i-eki profit, advantage. 
sei'to political party. 
ietsu'bin iron teakettle. 
ion-jaku concern. 
ya-chin rent (of a house). 
zei'taku luxury. 
sa-hainin real estate agent. 
garasu glass. 
gomu gum, rubber. 

arayuru all. » 

asahaka na superficial. 

tan-ki va impatient, irritable 
{tan^mijikai^^. 123). 

zan-koku na cruel. 

mukai no» vtuko no the op- 
posite (p. 28,3). 

len-chi'kan no of heaven and 
earth {kan=^aida). 

haneru bounce. 

Airog/ru spread out, enlarge. 

viagotsuku be perplexed. 

oboreru be drowned. 

todokoru be impeded, delayed, 
in arrears 

yabureru be torn, broken, 
destroyed (f.v. yaburu), 

sarau ) review 

fuku'shu siiru\ (a lesson). 
jo-ju sum be accomplished, 
succeed, accomplish. 

ukkari (to) thoughtlessly. 

massaki \nt) at the very 
first, b 

nan-to-naku ) without any 

nan-da-ka \ special reason, 
without knowing why. ^ 

fu'i-ni suddenly. 

ichi-men {nt) all over the sur- 


Ano hito wa so itta so dis* keredomo, watakushi wa ukkari 
ki.'iiotoshimasfiia. Ano e wa kakisokonaimasK ta kara, una 
(or fno) ichi mat kaite miru isumori des. Yachin ga nisan- 

a For arareru. Compare iiuayuru (p. 275, top). 

b Compare masshiroi perfectly white, tnakkuroi jet black, tnakkurai pitch 
dark, makka na deep red, massakan full bloom, mantuaka the very midst, etc. 
c The second of the two expressions is rather vulgar. See p. 295, line 4 

300 The Verb [lxviii 

kaf^etsu todokofimasKta no de sahainin ga okotte nagayaju {vo 
hito) wo oitateiuatK ta. Kongitsu wa amari kane wo ts^kai- 
sugosVte mo ichi won mo nakunatte shim aim ash ta, Kesa 
yadoya wo tats* toki ni yokti heyaju wo mite kita kara^ tori- 
otosJCta mono wa nai hazu des\ Shinagawa-wan wo wnetatete 
Tokyj-shi wo hirogeyj to iu keikwaku wo sKte oru hito tvo 
gOBnimas\ Kono kdji wo ittara, tabun ddori ni derarem darJ 
to omoimasKta ga^ mamonaku ikitsumatte shimaimashLia, 
Itian yankaketa koto wa aku made yarit se. Kono mae no 
Kinyo no asa tasunete kita hito wa nan to iimash'takke ; ikura 
kangaete mo kangaets' kimasen, Ningen no asahaka ho chie de 
tenchikan no dori zvo shirits'kusd nado to omou no wa chjdo 
kaigara de umi no mizu wo kuinits'kuso to iu no to onaji koto 
d4s\ Tochu de deatta omoshiroi koto wo mina nikki ni kaki- 
ts'kete okimasKta. Anata no o hanashi de omoitsuita koto ga 
gozaimas\ Kono setsu no yo ni teritsuzuite wa ta ga warete 
ine ga karete shimaimasho, Gomu no mari wo itabei ni 
nageti keru to, hanekaerimas\ Kono ko wa kan ga okotta to 
miete^ s*koshi ki ni iran koto ga aru to, nan de mo kamawazu 
te ni motie iru mono wo nagetskete kowashte shimaimas\ Ano 
zainin wa iroiro tazuneraremasK ta ga nauigoto mo shiranu 
shiranu to itte gofd wa haritoihimasK ta, J: mae ga sabitsuite 
tansu no hikidashi ga akimasen. Bis* mar k' wa isha no tsuyoi 
hito de^ hantai-to ga ikura yakamashii koto wo itte mo, ikko 
tonjaku naku kesshUe jibun no kangae wo magezu ni, aku made 
oshitosKta kara, hitobito wa " tekketsu saishd '* to mdski" 
masKta,^ Ano hito wa makoto ni mimi no hayai hito de 
yononaka no koto wa nan de mo massaki ni kikits kemas* , Aits* 
wa amari jibunkatte na koto bakari iu kara, hidoku yatts*kete 
yatta, Isshjkemmei ni okkakemash'ta keredomo, totJ otts*- 
kikanemash'ta. Konoaida Ikao ye iku toki ni^ hi wa kureru, 
hara wa suku, ^ hijo ni nangi shimash'ta ga, knruma ni via 
norazu ni, toto muko made arukitoshimask ta, Boku no ie wa 
ura ga nohara ni natte oru no de,fuyu ni nam to, yuki ga fuki- 

a From tetsu iron, ketsu blood, sai-shd prime minister. A prime minister is 
now called more commonly sdri-daijin, 

b Ikao is a famoas hot spring in Jdshu not very far from Maebashi. After 
kureru and suku the disjunctive particle shi might be added to complete the 
grammatical construction ; but in order to make the situation more vivid It 
is omitted. 

ucviii] Compounds 301 

ts^kgUjiisu ni komaru. Hito ga misu ni oborej^o to suru baai 
fii wa nan de mo kamawasu sugarits' kimas\ Issho no meshi 
^vo tabets*kusKt€ shimatta no ka ; kimi no taishoku ni wa odoro- 
iriitu shintau.^ Nusubito ga ushiro no hayashi ni kakunte 
nakanaka wakarimasen desKia ga^ junsa ga yoyo mgkkgdashi- 
snasKta. Dandan UntsutneU itta tokoro ga, muko wa tdtd iitsu- 
fHotte shimaimasK ta, Ano bosan wa wakai ioki ni wa arayuru 
j^itaku wo skits* kusifta hito da so des' ga, arm toki stnso ni iite 
scno zankoku na arisama wo mite niwaka ni kosskin slita to iu 
Mtotod€s\ Yarisokonatta kara, fno icki do shinaoshimasko. 
yarisokonai no nai hito wa nai keredomo, nesshin to nintai sae 
dgrrba, shitnai ni wa joju shimas\ Sendatte kaiireta sekitan 
vpa mo takits* kush* t£ shimaimasK ta. Heya no shofi ga yabu- 
T^te kaze ga /ukitoshi na mori des' kara^ sakuban tdtd kaze wo 
hikimasKta. Toriotoshi no nai yd ni yoku ato wo shirabete o 
^re. Kono hydsats* wo mon ni uchits'kett oite kurg ; hito ga 
tazunete kita toki ni wakaranaide magotsuku to ikenai kara, 
^iir* wa sake hodo ni wa yowanai to itte mo, nomisugiru to, 
Aarada no gai ni naru kara, yahari noman ho ga yoroshii. 

The servant girl rises early in the morning and kindles [a 
fire] under the pot (kama no sKta wo). When I went (pres.) 
into the pond with (holding) a net for the purpose of catching 
(thinking that I would catch) fish^ at once three or four leeches 
took hold of my shins. It has been raining continuously of late ; 
consequently the roads have become extraordinarily bad. I 
must send {dasu) a letter once more, because there is something 
that I omitted in the previous letter. As this box has proved 
to be a failure^ I will make another {betsu ni) for you. When 
spring comes (it becomes spring), without any special reason a 
person's spirits {kokord) are buoyant Hj is talented, but is 
apt to spoil things, being impatient. If you put a teakettle 
on a hibachi, the water {yu) boils at once. I thought she was 
an honest person, but misjudged [her]. He chased to a corner 
of the fence the chicken that flew out of the enclosure and at 
last caught {fs' kamaeni) it. If I don't note down newly 
learned words one by one (tchiichi) in my notebook and re- 

ft From twenty to thirty bowls of cooked rice are considered to amount to 
one shdn For taishoku compare taishokka^ p. i6. 

302 The Verb [lxviii 

view them often, I soon forget them. As there was suddenly 
a clap of thunder (thunder suddenly sounded), the children 
were frightened arid clung to their mother. I hsive (there is) 
one more order {jitskeru koto) ; call Gonske back. At the 
banquet last evening four or five tipplers (jogo) having come 
together (yariau), they kept on drinking until daybreak. The 
dog is ill-natured and dangerous ; take care not to bring child- 
ren close to him (his side). As we have already seen about all 
the noted places of T5ky5, we intend soon to go to Kyoto (and 
see). The daiu is (no koto des*) a rain that falls continUv>usly 
(every day) at the jDeginning of summer. When the rainy 
season is over, [the weather] continues bright Hoshi Torn was 
a muph criticised man (a man about whom there was consid- 
erable criticism), but he was eminent in that (because) he car- 
ried out his ideas (kangae) to tlie end. Your affairs (monogo- 
to) will never succeed if you now stop and again begin, as you 
do [sonna m) ; what you have once begun you must keep on 
doing to the end. Yesterday as I hurriedly passed by the front 
of the station, ltd happened to see me from a. distance and per- 
sistently called after me {yolnkakeru). Children have thrown 
stones at and broken much of the window- glass. The present 
{ima no) cabinet and the political parties are arguing variously 
{iroiro) ; but if you boil it down, both sides {dochira mo) are 
thinking only [ofj their own advantage. 


C. There are also groups of compounds which we classify ac- 
cording to their first components. In some cases the prefixes 
in a marked degree add to the sense ; in others they are merely 
intensive or practically meaningless. Such a prefix is «/, which 
occurs in certain formal phrases, such as : Daudan o sewa ni 
ainarimashite arigato gozaimasu, Konogo mo aikawnrima- 
sesu. My obligations to you are gradually increasing. Please 
continue your favor in the future also. 
I . Furi, from furu shake. 
Jurihanasu break loose. 
/urikiru sever forcibly. 
furisuteni abandon. 

Lxix] Prefix-Verbs 303 

2. Hikiy from hiku draw. 

hikiawaseru introduce, com- hikitatsu^ hittatsu improve 
pare. ^ (JiittatU mieru look better). 

hikkaesu return (intr.). hikiiateru favor, encourage. 

hikkakeru suspend. hikitomeru detain. 

hikikomoni stay at home, from hiitsukamaeru catch (vulgar). 
komoru be shut up (p. 239a). hikiukem make one's self re- 

hikkosu remove. sponsible for, take over. 

hikinuku pull up by the root, hikkurikaeru be overturned. 

3. Meshit from mesu summon, use. 
^neshiagarii take (food, drink, etc., 2, 3). 
meshiioru arrest. 

meshiisukau employ (as a servant). 

4. Mac hi, from motsu hold. 
niochidasu offer (a motion or bill). 
mochikuzusu ruin (self or property). 
— ni hanashi wo mochikakeru solicit. 

5. Oshiy from osu push. 
oshihirogeru spread out, enlarge. 
oshikaeshite kiku ask to repeat. 
oshitsumatte kuru the end of the year approaches. 

6. Sashi, from sasu grow, rise, penetrate. 
sashiageru lift up, offer, pre- sashi hiku deduct. 

sent. — ni sashikakaru approach. 

sashideru intrude (in sashi- sashitsukaeru be hindered, 

digamashii, p. no). embarrassed, from /Ji/^rtr^^« 

sashidasu offer, present, send be obstructed, 

(freight, mail, etc.). 

7. Tachi, from tatsu stand. 

iachikaeru return. 

tachidomaru stop while walking, from tomaru stop. 

tachiyoru call in passing. 

8. Tori^ from totn take. 

toriatsukau manage, treat torikaeru exchange. 

ioriawaseru combine. torikisu retract. 

a Many of these words are becoming obsolete. Thus shdkai sum is more 
common than hikiawaseru in the sense of "introduce "; tei-shutsu sum, than 
vicchidasu ; shikko sum, than ioriokonan, etc. 


The Verb 


— ni iorikakaru commence 
work on. 

iorikuzusu tear down. 

torimaiomeru gather all to- 
gether, settle, from mata- 
inerii bring together, ad- 

— ni torlnasH take the part of. 
toriokonau administer, per- 
form, celebrate. 

iorishiraberu investigate. 
torishimaru supervise. 
/^/'wr^/rK gather all together. 
. Uchi^ from uUu strike. 

— ni uchikatsu overcome. 
uchiakeru open (the heart), be candid. 
uchitokeU hatiasu speak frankly or familiarly. 
uchitsuzuku continue a long time. 

uicharu^ from nchiyam^ throw away, reject, let alone. 

bukkiru^ for buchikiru^ hack. 

bunnagtiru^ for buchinaguni, thrash, drub, from naguru beat. 

tofitsugu transmit, announce 

(a visitor). 
— ni toritsuku attach one's 

self to. 
tottsukamaeru catch (vulgar). 
iariyoseru have — sent to 

one's self, procure, import. 
toriisogu be in a hurry. 
torikoviu be crowded, busy 

(of a house, hotel or store). 
torimagireru be in confusion, 

distracted, from the rare 

verb iJtagireru (p. 202). 


(Include the compounds given above) 


vtizore sleet. 

ori opportunity. 

toride fort, stronghold, 

hari-tsuke crucifixion. * 
tachi'ki standing tree. 
tamoto (/^, moto) lower part. 

of [Japanese] sleeve (which 

serves as a pocket). 

gi (c) righteousness, trusti- 
ness, loyalty. 
shi city. 

zen^ mae ivovi\. ^^ ^^r- 
^«-j/// samurai, b ^^ "^ 
ch(hnin one of the trading 

class, merchant (p. 293b). 
chu'i attention, heed, care. 
fu'fu man and wife. 

a A " cross " is haritsuke-bashira* The Christian Icrm is jn-ji-ka, from jikj't 
the character for zo (-f-) and ka ereclion, frame. 

b From bu brave and shi man or samurai. Compare gi-ski loyal samurai^ 
from gi righteousness. 




jg[i-UH bill (ill a deliberative 
assembly). ^ 

gwan-sko, negai'sko .{gwau 
=^Hfgai) petitioa. 

haku-'jo confession. 

kyo'VUH surface, exterior. 

jiki'So direcl appeal. 

kan-ja spy. 
/sT t^ t(^ji9i ^^ttukashi no hito, 

kok'ka {koku=kuui^ ia^ie) 

ka-tij virtue, efficacy, effect, 

sai-kun wife (familiar). 

shusfintsu (proHcd. shishftsu) 

stttk-nyu income, receipts. 

so-han coarse food (polite i). 

soku-ryo surveying. 

zai'inoku lumber. 

zan-kin {tiokotia kane) bal- 

dai'gi-shi representive (In 

ko'sbu'to conservative party. 

^r"^ Vtunnel. 
do vion J 

koishii beloved, aflectiouatc. 

tsurenai heartless. 

hisoka na secret. 

fiodoJba na calm. 

samazama na {no) various. 

shi-riisu no .private (opposite 
kwanritsu no established- 
by the Government). 

osaeru repress, hold back. 

tabi'datsu set out on a jour- 

nori-ki ni naru fall in with 
a proposal. 

izurt in some way or other* 
at all events, b 

tokknri {to) attentively, thor- 
oughly, fully. 

sono ba de on the spot. 

age-kti ni finally, besides alL 


Waiakushi no tavioto wo ouiett sK kiri ni hikitomeyo to shi- 
masJita keredomo zehi kaeranakereba naranai koto ga am to 
itte inuri ni furikanash'te nigete vtairiniashUa, Tadaima 
oide nas'tta o kola wa zonjimasen kara, dJso go shokai (0 hi- 
kiawase) wo negaimas*. Ckomen ni hikiawasete yoku shir a- 
bete vriviasho, Mukashi Hangaku to in onna ga arimash'ta 
ga, hijo ni chikara no tsuyoi onna de^ uvia 7ii notte i nagara 
tachiki wo hikinuite teki to tatiakata to iu koto des\ Ima Ha- 
yashi kun no uchi yt itie kitdi ga, saiktin no itvareru ni wa 

a From gi discunion ami mi islao. Compare gi turn discuss, gi-^tisu ntru 
take a vote {ka-ktisu suru adopt, hi-ketsu sunt reject), gi-in member of a deliber- 
ative assembly, gi tho president, gi^ji parlianieatary business {p'itsaJtofo), gi/i di> 
assembly hall, etc. A raolion \%-dd-gi\ from d& move. 

b fzure is profwrly a classical relative pronoun. 

3o6 The Verb [lxix 

anaia no o taku yg agaru to itU sakikodo dekaketa * to iu koto 
de atta kara, tabun tochu de ikichigattaro to omotte sugu ni 
hikkaeslite kimasKta. Sakura Sogoro ga sliogun ni jikiso wo 
sfita no gafutsugo da to iu no de yakunin wa Sogoro wo mesK- 
totte harits'ke ni shimasKta, Konoaida hoshuto no daigishi ga 
kj ill gian wo teishutsu shiinasKta {inochidashimasU to), Dan- 
dan oshitsumatte mairimashUe sazo o isogashu gozaiviasfio. ^ 
Sohan wo sashiagetj gozaimas kara^ ^ kowban roku ji ni oide 
kudasaimashi. Chodo yavtasaka ni sashikakatta toki ni mtzore 
ga Juridash'te kit a no de hidoku nangi wo itashimasKta, Shi- 
barakti tachidomatte keslCki wo nagamete imas' to^ ushiro kara 
tomodachi ga kite fui ni kata wo tataita no de bikkuri itashi- 
viasKta. Kyu na go yj wo osets' kerarete myogonichi Hokkai- 
do ye shuttatsu senakereba naranai kara,^ kimono nado wo 
hayaku iofisoroete o kure, Hei, kashikotnarimas/i ta, Matsu- 
shivta ni Zaimokushivia^ to iu domon no yd ni ana ga aite 
sotto naka wo fune no toreru shima ga arimasga^ anata wa 
go ran ni narimas/ita ka. Jie, amari toriisogimasJC ta inon^ 
des kara^ tsui iniotoshimash' ta, Mukashi no savturai wa 
cJionin nad-o ga burei na koto wo suru to, daikon ya gobo wo 
kirn yj ni sugu ni buchikitte shimatta mon^des, Tada hyd- 
menja no ts'kiai bakari de naku tagai ni uchitokete haJiashi 
wo sKte minakereba, hito no kokoro wa totei yoku wakarn mono 
de wa arimasen, Ano tetsudo wa hajime shiritsu no kwaisha 
de yarikakemasK ta ga, nochi ni seifu de hikiukemas/t ta. 
Suzuki san ni hanashi wo inochikakeie mimasKta ga, sappari 
noriki ni naranai no de komatte shiviaimasK ta, Muko no iu 
koto ga wakdranakatta kara, oshikaesh'te iazuneviasKta, Mu- 
kashi no bushi wa gi no tame ni wa itsu nandoki de mo inochi 
wo sashidashUe kakatla mono des\ ^ Doits*no kanja ga 

a The sentence from ariata to dekaketa is a direct quotation. It is quite 
legitimate to repeat polite words addressed to one's self. But comp. p. Z26d. 

b In Japan at the close of the year it is customary to settle all accounts and 
every one is busy. 

c A suitable formula for inviting a person to a meal. 

d Go yZ Government business. Hok-kai-ddiyW.. north sea way) designates Ezo 
and the Kuriles. Observe that dd, like chd (p. 9Se), may mean a «« district" as 
well as a «« road." 

e The columns of rock look like piles of lumber. 

f T!ie idea expressed by kakatta is that of undertaking (to Mrve a master 
or caused 

UKix] Prefix-Verbs 307 

soka ni F'rans'no toride wo sokuryo sh^ta no de F^rans'j'in ni, 
toits^ kaviaeraremashUa. Iroiro torikonde orimas kara^ ori wo 
Mite tokkuri go sodan itashimashd. BunnaguUe yard /* Ai- 
kawarazu o hikitati wo negaimas\ ^ Ekaki wa iroiro enogu wo 
Joriawasete sainazama no iro wo dashimas\ IVatakitshi mo 
o vie ni kakatte wabi wo indshiageru tsumori des^ga^ anata 
^ara mo nanidun yorosKku sensei ni torinashi wo negaiinas\ 
Konna ni fushiawase na koto bakari uchitsuzuita ageku ni ana- 
t€i ni made sj tsurenaku saremasKte wa mo toritsuku shima ga 
^ozaimaseny Asu san ji kara sotsugyosKki wo shikkd sum 
{toriokonau) so des\ Shunyu wa kyaku yen de shishutsu wa 
hachi ju go yen ku j'issen naraba^ sashihiki zankin wa ju yo 
yen jissen ni narimas\ Shinnen ni naru to, nantonaku no- 
doka de wakaitoki ni tachikaetta yd na kokochi ga itashimas\ 
Kono /ion wa kami ga nukete imas'kara, fioka no to torikaete o 
kure, Ani to t^chiakebanashi wo sKte imasKta, 

Many men for the sake of [their] country have severed ties of 
affection {koishii nakci) between (of) parent and child (p. 225 
a), husband and wife, gone to war and died in battle. Please 
introduce*^ me to that gentleman. The child is crying, having 
flown {hikkakeru) its kite on a tree. I should like to enlarge 
my grounds {yash'ki) and plant plenty of trees. They present- 
ed a petition to the Home Office. Happening to pass by (be- 
cause I passed by) your gate {go mon'Zen)^ I have just called for 
a moment ; some other time (izure) I will soon visit you again. 
As I am a little in a hurry, I will now be excused (p. 262. 
middle). Since the old castles were mostly torn down after the 
Restoration, there are now not many {amari) left. As {tori) 
the ancients said, it is not so {sahodo) difficult to overthrow the 
rebels {zoku) in the mountains {san-chu no or yama no naka 
no)t but it is truly not easy to overcome the rebels in one's heart 
{shin-chu no or kokoro no naka no). Abandoning wife and 
children, he set out for {ye) a distant place. The street car 
line was started by a private company (is one that a private 
-company established — maker u)^ but later the City Office {de) 

a This is, of coarse, a vulgar expression. * 

b We have here the figure of one lost at sea. 

c Hikiawasete kudasai^ or, more commonly, go shdkai xv0 negaimasit. 

3o8 Tt«2 Vkrb [lxix 

may possibly {ka tno xhireHat^ take it over. He ruined kifnself 
{pii wo) hy {ni) profligacy and caused {jii kaktru) his pax^ents 
much {hijo m) anxiety* Tliere is iiotUing at aU, but I uriU give 
(pres) you wliat happens to be on hand. The robber was^ 
caught ou thd spot, but did not confess. The goods you have 
ordered (^o ehumon na) will all be gathered together by to- 
morrow and delivered at {yt) your houde (p. 261, bottom). Aft 
evening came {yug^aia fit fktM) and We approached a mouiitain 
road iyamusaku) we were greatly perplexed. At the close {kur€) 
of the year all [ houses] are busy. I (ga) will make myself respon- 
sible for this matter {wa i) and settle it. A3 1 must go quickly 
{kyu ni), I am distracted on account of the preparations {sh^Uiku 
wo sum n^ dt). Does it also liappen that (fealo mo arimaskd^ 
lamps are overturned by eartl>quakes ? If you pUt {fshtrn) a 
red lining into this garment, it will look very much better. 
As he employs many people, he ought to be more careful {mot- 
to chui suru). Though you print (dasu) a disavowal {^torik^shi) in 
the newspaper, it will not have (there will not be) much effect. 


In previous chapters attention has been called to the propriety 
of using certain special verbs and special inflections la speak- 
ing to superiors or to those to whom one wishes to show respect. 
A little attention to the oiiginal sense of an honorific expression 
is often sufficient to explain its u^age. Thus yontU ageru (p. 
84f) is more polite than yonde yaru (p. 289c), because agiru 
means properly " lift up " ; oshieU itadaku (p. 22J) is more 
respectful than osliiete viorau (p. 250), because the original 
meaning of itadaku is "-put on the head." There are also 
honorific inflections, as in nasaru^ from nasu, and irasshara^ 
from iru (pp. 181, 268), changing ordinary verbs into forms 
which it would be utterly ridiculous to use of one's self. 

Polite verbs may be divided into two classes^ humiliatives 
and exaltatives. 

I. There are humble verbs which are used properly in the 
first person. 

Such a verb is ff^gu say (p. 207a). MOsu tnay also be usecf 


in the iMvd person, to show respect to the one addressed, h 
may even be u^ed In the second persoii» either when it is 
deetred to impress upon the oiie addressed the fact that be is 
inferior or when the one addressed is not a superior and his act 
concerns a very exalted personage. But these ape rare excep- 
tions to the rule that verbs of the humble class are not used m 
the second person. The student will lemeniber that in the 
sense of *Mo " mosu is also used with stems of verbs « together 
with the honorific a, and that t/asu is used with stems of verbs 
and a, or with Chinese compounds with or without ^^ (p. 2i6> 
12). The very formal isukamaisuru is used just like Uasti, 
though less frequently ; e. g,, Bd isukmnaisurima shite (comp. 
p. 2[8d). A still rarer variant is tatematsun$ (tit. offer), borrow* 
'cd from the literary language for use (witlu>ut o) in prayer 
4ind in speaking of what is done to or for the Sovereign. 

The humble expression for ** receive " is itadakn or cho- 
4tai iiasti, used also in a peculiar way with subordinatives as 
described in Ch. LV. Another humble term is kdmnru^ used 
at favors or commands. Still another I3 tamawaru, used of 
favors or gifts. The compound uk0Uimawaru is used only fti 
the sense of ** hear." 

*' See " is kai-ken iiasu, from hai^ogamu^ ken^miru, used 
of the possessions of others, letters from others, etc. ^ Com- 
pare hni'Shakn borroWa from shaku^kariru. ** Show " is go 
s^an ni ireru or tuf ni kakeru (p. 44a). O tne ni kakarn 
rneans " meet/' 

Moshiagerti means properly ** say." It is used like inosu. 
In some localities it may also be used in the sense of " give,*' 
but this is a provincialism. " Give " is saskiageru or skht-jo 
iiasu {shin-Ui iiasu ^ tei-jd iiasu). 

*' Go " or "come" is wairu ; "go" or "come" to the house 
of the one addressed is agaru : eg.. rei ni agaru come to 
express one's obligations, o kuyaini ni agaru come to condole. 

a Rtlsu differs from itatu in tltat its use is limited to acts aflecling the one 
Addressed. In a Wfi instances it may be used with go and a Chinese compound, 
1>at not when the compound is in itself honorific ; e. g., go annai vidsu, go shokai 
fnHu^ g» hmiyaku tfOsu return (a borrowed article), but aever chodai tnost*^ or 
MiMtn m9tu 

b Ilniktn iiasu may not be use J of seeing a pirson ; but a physlcisin will siyr 
-Co ydtai wo httikin itaihimashd, or ev<n : Co hyonin wo haikon i//tskima$kd. One 
may also say : Kottdo twmre nas^tta o ko san iihj haiken Uashitau 

3io The Verb [lxx 

o yorokobi 'fit agaru come to congratulate. The formal verbs^ 
sanzuru{san = 7fiatru) and san-jo itasu aire synonymous with 
agaru^ and so is the rather rare makari-ideru^ makari being a 
prefix taken from the classical language. 

2. There are also verbs that arc used to exalt the person- 
addressed, or a third person. 

The student is already familiar with the uses of nasaru^ ku- 
dasaru and ninaru (pp. 190, 278). The very formal asobasu 
or asobasareru is used just like nasarUy especially by ladies ; but 
the regular causative, asobaseru, retains the original sense of 
*' cause to play.*' The exaltative corresponding to tatematsuru 
is iamau (but see also p. 246, top). 

" Use " is vtesu (lit summon) ; e. g., ride in rikshas, etc., is- 
kuruma ni mesu^ put on clothes is kimono wo viesu^ take a 
bath is yu wo mesu or o yu ni mesu. » " Eat," ** drink " or 
" smoke " is agaru or meshi-agaru, 

" See " is go ran nasaru. The old contracted form gorozuru 
or gorojiru is now rare, except in theaters. 

"Say" is ^jj//^f//, derived from the now rare y^xh oseru. 
It should be noted that the honorific form of vt'sn^ namely,. 
mosarerUy is polite even in the second person. 

For *'go," "come," "be," we have irassharu or oide Jiasarti^ 
(p. 190). Of the Emperor the words (^) mi-yuki ox gyd-ko 
nasaru (ni nam, asobasareru, ga arn, etc.) are used; of the 
]Em press or Crown Prince, {0) miyuki or gyb-kei {gyd=yukfi. 

" Retire," " go to bed " is gyo-shin ni nam, commonly 
contracted to geshinaru, from gyo, a variant of go^ and shin 
= 7ieru go to bed. 

Note that there is a limit to the reduplication of honorifics. 
Thus we may say irasshaimashi and irassKtte kudasai, but 
not irasshari nasai or itasshari ni natte itadakitai. It should 

:i For llie use o{ mesu as a prefix sec the previous chapter. jMestt also occurs 
as a suFix in tlie honorific cbos/iimesu deign to think, which is used in the 
colUKjuial, especially in the form oboshimeshi ihovi^ht. Thcveib kikoshinusu 
dc t^n to hear, has passed from the sense of " hear," to that of "govern,** aiitl 
from this to the sense of " cat" or "drink,'' which it now lias in the colloqui- 
al. One may say ironically: Suzuki kuti wa ippai kikoihimeshiU imasn kara. 
ftnkanaka genki ga yd gozaimasu. Suzuki is animated, having taken a drink. 
The verb shiroshimesu deij^n lo know, does not appear in the collo<iuial eltccpt 
riicly in the sense of •* govern." 




be remembered that in very formal speech the ending viasuru, 
is more appropriate than masu. 


kakushi ) t ^ 
pokketto }P^^^^^- 

Jf-)^'^^^ jacold. 
fttja J 

hago shuttlecock (also ham). 

hago-ita battled<5re. 

ni'gao portrait, likeness. 

oshi-e a picture in relief made 

of stuffed pieces of cloth. 
habniae a kind of thin silk 

cloth. ^ 
ta7i a piece of cloth between 

ten and eleven yards long. 
hiki a piece of cloth contain- 
ing two tan. 
uta isshit one poem {shu^ 

g^o byd^o tamaya ancestral 

shrine, sepulcher. ^ 
ai-satsu salutation, answer. 
bakii-fn the government of 

the shdgun. 

bun-ko library, c 

dan-shi^otoko no ko boy^ 
male, man. 

J0'shi=s^onna no ko girl, fe- 
male, woman. 

em-pitsu lead pencil. 

Ju-kwai displeasure, indispo- 
sition {/ukwai desu is in- 

han-jo prosperity {hanjo sum 
be prosperous). 

hei'ka His (or Her) Majesty..^ 

kai'Sei revision. 

rei'fuku ceremonial dress. 

set' s ho a clean copy. 

s hi' ken examination. 

shin-nen new year. 

shihan-gakkd normal school* 

yo-daieru furnish, lend. 

mazu first of all, on the 
whole, well. 

hitO'inazu once, for a while. 


O tsue wo o mochi asobashiviasKta {asobasaimasK id) ka. 
Sayd, jisan itashiviasK ta^ shikashi dochira ye okimasKta ka 


a Uodyed habutae is exported in large quantities. 

b This term is applied to the sepulchers of sh5guns and daimyr^s. 
sepulcher of an Emperor is go ryd or tni-sasagu 

c I-iibrarics arc now generally called sho-jak-kwan or to-sho-kxvan {sho or 
shaJ^u, seki book, to, «m, drawing). 

d The word heika is frequently used by itself as a designation of the 
£inperor. It is derived from hex steps, ka beneath. The corresponding title 
of a prince is denka ; of a high official, kakka. Another term used in S])eaking 
of the Emperor is shu-jd {sku lord, jd=ue). 

3KX The Verb: [i.xx 

zonjimasen. Danna san wa doko ni irasshaivias* ka, Hei, 
tadaiina yrt ni harttriras9haimas\ Sfada go hon wo hatsha^u 
sfite orimasga^ o iriyd vara, hitoinazu o kaeshi vioshitnasko. 
O seisho wo chotto haiken {iiash'to gosaitnas'). O cha wo vio 
ippnku meshiagare. Arigatj^ jiyi ni chodai itashivias\ 
Sakuban kujigoro ni^ go monzen wo torimasKta kara, c hot to 
4> yori moshimasKta ga, mohaya geshinatU irasshaimasK ta. 
Sore wa osareirimasK ta ; yube waf'kwai de atimasKtehayaku 
yasuvnmasJi*ta, Domo^ kaneire ga mienaku n<trimash* ta ; 
Jiobo wa sagadi'U vio doko ye itta ka wakarimasen. Auata 
sakujxtsu vuski nastta zub4)n no kak'shi wa go ran nasaima- 
sJiia ka. Saku/itsu cAaUo a ni ni agariuiadiia ga, o rusu 
de g^zaiinasU to. ChoUo a fade wo haishaku {itasJiWd gozai- 
mas'), Mata soffo U€hi {ni) o me ni kakaritnasho. ^ Bakuju 
iw jtbuH no kwahei {zeni or kane) wo go ran nas*tia koto ga go- 
zaimas'ka, lie, inada haiken itash'ta koto wa gozaimasen, 
Wafakttshi wa ucJti ni motte imaskara, tsuide ga aitara, o me 
ni kakemasho, O namat wa tabiiabi uketasHjawarimash* ta ga, 
snada tchi do mo p me ni kakatta koto wa gozaimasen. Ima 
Tokei no sJukm-kaisti nd^ iorikakatiit ora iotp wo o kiki n^tsmi- 
mash' t a ka. Saydy nketam^warimash ta. O jo san, satio o 
hagait^ wo chotta haiken sasVte kndasai, Oya, taiso kirei ua 
cshie des'koto ; kare wa Fnkus'ke no ^ nig-ao des^ka. Makoto 
ni go yakkai ni nariviash'te arigatj zonjitnas*. Dj ts kavia- 
isurisnasKte, Senjitsu o han^shi moshiniasKta koto wa, biSo ni 
kiite mivtashUara^ watakushi no moshimasKta tori de mo 
nakereba, aetata no osshatta tori de mo nai so des\ ® Kono lion 
wa naikaku no bunko kara haishaku sh*ta no des\ Anaia 
Tokyo ye oide no j'ibuu ni kwokyo wo haiken nasaimasIC ta ka. 
lie, haiken itas/nmasen desliia, Konaida shinnen no o uiakwai 

a Translate : about nine o'clock. The adrlilion of ^.vv tU (p. 37c) inftkcs the 
•expicssion vague. 

b An expression used in parting fi<om a friend. 

c From ski city, ku divbioQ, district \Knrd. In tiiis oensaaclkiD fclie tcun 
has reference to the straightening and widening of the stxeelA. 

d Fukusukc was a fatuous aclor in Tokya liiattledojcs vac ofton decoraiwl 
with portraits of famous personages done in brocade. 

e The conditional inflection in nakereba takes the place of a conjunction 
<p. 148, I, 2). 


ni^ tenshi sama mo o uta wo isshu o yomi asobasaremasWta. 
Itsu yu ni o meshi- nasaimat^ ka. Yu gm deki shidai kairima* 
shX O meshivtono wa dore wo meshi ni narimas ka {dore 
ni nasaimai ka), 6> rei/*ku di g09aiwas*ka, Nani wo o 
meshi ni variinas^ka. Kono habutae wo ippiki kaimasko, 
Amari iak*san de nakereba^ go yadate mas'kato mo dekpitas*, 
Shitsurei fias^ara go men wo kdvturimasKte ko^o kara go at- 
satswo mdshiagemas\ ^ Komban wa^ o tomnri asobase nm. 

Have yow seen photographs of the sepnlcheis at (of) Nikko?* 
No, I liave not yet seen them ; I should Itke to see theni if I 
might be permitted to do so {ainarimasureba or uatiniasuru koto 
nard). 1 have none, but I will borrow (botrowini!: come) them 
from a friend and show them to you. Did you see tl>e Emper- 
or's palace when you went to Tokyd ? Yes,^ I saw it, but I did 
not think it at all magnificent, ^ Which clothes {p meshimond) 
will you wear ? Bring (dasu) the swallowtail ; for I am going 
{deru) to an eveuing pxarty to-night. I have come to return 
the umbrella {o kasa) that I borrowed recently. The bath is 
now hot (boiling) ; will you take it at once ? Please lend me 
your lead pencil a moment Did the 6rc break out after {ata 
desKta ka) you went to bed? No, it was when all in the 
bouse {uchiju no mono ga) were still up.<^ I have brought 
some old coins to show you (thinking I should like to show 
you). Recently Her Majesty the Empress ^ went to the Female 
Normal School and viewed the examinations (of the pupils). 
Won't you please return for a while tlie book that I loaned 
you (go yodate mosUie oiia\ I should like to inquire {ukagau) 
what you think (how is your tlxought) in regard to tlus matter. 
Receivhig your kind favors {0 hikitate) we are prospering more 
and more (pioi). You are catching {mesu) a cold. 

a An tUa'fnvai is a party at which each member composes a poem on some 
assigned theme. Because it is the Emperor's party it ii called o n/nkwni or «« 

b Said in a party wlicn it is inconvenient for a person to leave his sent to 
make his bows before a friend. 

c When honorific verbs are used, personal pronouns are generally 

d Translate : kddai to -wa omoivaremai$n deshiia. For kod'H see i>. 34c The 
expression — to omou may be used not only with verbs and adjectives, but also 
with nouns: Ano kata 100 Shinnjin to oinoimashitn. I ihoug'U he was a 

e Either: Mada okitt om toki^ or : dare mo yasuuianai uchL 

f In very formal speech tii 70a takes the place of Tffl. 



Adverbs may be divided into the following groups: 

1. Adverbial forms of adjectives ending in u 

2. Adverbs formed by means of tlie particle ;//. 

3. Adverbs formed by means of the particle to. 

4. Duplicatives. 

5. Substantives used as adverbs of time, place, degree, eta 

6. Subordinatives of certain verbs. 

7. Ordinary adverbs. 

In general it is to be observed that the Japanese often em- 
ploys adverbs where the English does not (Ch. XVIII. ), and 
vice versa. 

On the formation of adverbs from adjectives proper see 
Chapters XI. and XXX. Sometimes the contracted form, as, 
for instance, yd {ox yokUy is used with other verbs besides gozai- 
fnasu, while the uncontractcd form in ku is sometimes used 
with gozaimasu : 

Yd aide nasaimashita. Welcome ! ^ 

Takaku wa gozainiasen. It is not at all dear. 
The adverb yoku is used in various senses : 

Yokii irasshaiuiashita. I am glad you came. 

Yoku kimasu. He comes often. 

Yoku wa shiriviasen ga, I doii*t know exactly, but... 

Yoku nite iinasu. It is very much like it. 

Yoku anata wa Nihongo wo wasuremasen. 

It is remarkable that you don't forget your Japanese. 
The adverb yoku enters into a few compounds : 

hodo-yoku agreeably, satisfactorily, moderately. 

ori-yoku opportunely (opp. ori-ashikii). 

shubi-yoku successfully, from sku-bi head and tail. 

tmg>}'0 ku conveniently. 

a I'uku-shi, from /uku=soerii ndd. 

b The parliclc koso is ofien inserted here for empliasis: Yd koso oide 
kudasa itnasICia. 

LXXi] From Ordinary . Adjectives 515 

' 'Adverbial expressions are frequently formed by combining^ 
naJhi /With substantives. The addition of mo "even" makes- 
them emphatic : 

ma-mo-naku immediately, from nia interval. 
ko(h (nto) naku ** in no time," from hodo quantity. 
rvake-mo-naku unreasonably, exceedingly, from wake reason. 
machigtii {mo) naku, so-i (mo) naku without fail, surely. 
iiashikata {ino) naku, ze-hi {mo) naku (comp. p. i6oa) per- 
force, of neces^ty. 
omoigake (mo) naku unexpectedly, from omou and kakeru. 
oshige-mo-naku ungrudgingly, from oshii regrettable and 

ke in keshiki appearance. 
oyami (mo) naku incessantly (of rain), from o little and 

jfaffti pause. 
iaema {mo) naku uninterruptedly, from tae-nta cessation. 
{go) en-ryo (mo) naku without reserve. 
tohd-mo-naku extraordinarily, outrageously, from to way 

hd direction. 
zo-sa (mo) naku without trouble, easily. 
Corresponding adjectives in nai are also in use. * Note also 
nan-to-naku, for nan to iu koto (or wake) mo naku, without any 
^>ecial reason, not knowing why or how. 

In the cases of some adverbs in ku the corresponding adjec- 
tives are wanting or occur only in the literary language : 

shibaraku (=classical shibashi) for some time, for a while. 
sukoshiku=sukosht 3, little, somewhat. 
kotogotoku altogether, entirely, thoroughly. 
gctoku^=^yd ni as, like (an no gotoku as was expected). 
The particle ni is often added, pleonastically, to gotoku. 
Observe the idiom in osoroshii takai shina, tohdmonai takai 
mono, where we should expect the adverbial forms osoroskiku, 

The adverbs tjku far and chikaku near are often used like 

a The expression wake mo nai has, however, the sense of '* not difficult '' : 
Sore wa betsudan wake mo nai koto desu. That is not specially difficult. The 
idiom •— ni sdi (ga or 7va) nai or — ni chigai nni is often used at the conclusion 
of a sentence to add emphasis: Kuru ni soi nai. He will certainly c me. 
Compare: Ano hi/o no iu koto ni wa machigai ga nai. There is no mistake in 
what he says. 

31$ The Adybrr [uotl 

^rutafitantives ^ &ku ga^ tdku jfr, ^kn vMiUy etc Coixipafe ^kti 
uQ piany (p. 50). aku wa fpr tile twost part 

The frequent idiom Mattaku deslio is appar^Uly elUptigi4 
for : Mattaku, so dcsho. It is probably quite true. 

The particles ta vio added t > an adverbial forra give it a 
<:oncessive sen§Q (p, 102^ 5). 

Note further tb© f9Uciwiiig idioms : 
bHiar0shiku ^n^^ coneider foolis)). 
— W0 waruku iu speak ill of. 

muisukasAiiu i$ba to U9d diGRcuIt (precise) language* 
Yor^hiku itt^ kudassfu Flea^e speak a good word for me. 

For yoroshiku negaimasu and kcifttr^jf^suiu neg0imasu see 
p. 104, b and c ; for j^orashiku tmsu^ p» 207a, 

The adverbial form of an adjective is regularly used with 
ftarti (p. 24) and with sum (p. 212, 2): kuroku uaru become 
black, kuroku sum make black ; nakunaru disappear » nakusu 
{ru) lose, etc. The inflections of the adjqctive are derived from 
the adverbial form and af «. From the imperative arf we have 
^sokare hayakare sooner or later (lit. be it late, be it early) 
=^sd'ban {sd=hayai^ bau^^asoi). 


(Include the nqw adverbs.) 

beni rouge, an thought, expectatioa» plan. 

beni wo sasu (or tMuktru) byd-bu folding screen. • 

apply rouge (p, 340cl)- enki postponement 

kutn^ cloud. hyo-dai title (of a book). 

kuchi'biru lips. ja^yaku contract, treaty. 

kazari d^or^ition. ki-gen temper, state of 

matsu'kaskari Yew Year's dc- health, ^ 

coration = kado-iuatsu (p. rei-ten zero (naught point)* 

I33)i sii'chb growth. 

a Khyoha, may bav« tWQ» fgnr. sU, QC ciftht leav^c. A swg]«-le«f •crfea 
standing on a 1>9so is Cftll€4 t$HUt^t<% 

b See p. 223a. Co kigtn yd is a salutation used botb ia TDaeting aad im 
■parltnc^, bcin^; elliptical for G« kigemyd irasshaimiuu f/#, or Go kigtn yl w<ankmL 
Instead of the former one may say to a familiar friend : Co kigm dt^m. is#, k r 
Co kigen yd oide tiesu ne. 

uxxi] From O^dinaIiy Ai?)Jectives 3ijr 

^ki cheerfulttess (sunlight cktfinMi^ >th^i¥»i'aru shcinic 

iai'ko drum. sonteru dye* 

taiko-mochi buffoon, clown. semaru be naj^rowed, strait- 

shin (c) new (in composition). ened. 

to (c) this, the said, the —-in — ni Sffnaru approach, op- 
question (til oon^position). * press. 

nmdrtn^t Ibntmate. ^ sM-tsm^ffu tmin. 

s^Sis/tiif safHHskii lonely^ kathiga ktikwtu be in demand 

dreary. (of sittgitig girls^ etCti). 

ufnai clever, well done. sa^-nara good*bye (lit. if it 

c seji n^ ii courteous, obsequi- be so). 


Tnisd y&ku ^aUnknaari go, dekimash'it^ Kotu> koiifnku wa 
umaku dtkimashUa. Kono sara tva taisd Us'^ dtkiU imns\ 
YorosICku o agari nasau ^ Sonna koto wa bakaras)^ku omoi- 
mas. A no hiio wa itsu mo osohi nemas* kara^ y^ku a sane wa 
shimas\ Matsub^ra san wa y^hu watakushi no tfchi yt 
kifrias\ Osoroshii takai monda, Ano taikomochi wa o seji 
ga iikara^ foku kuchi ga kakarivias\^ HisasJC kn sake wo- 
ncftiifNasen kara, nonde vtiru tOy * hidoku yoiinaslita. Hido- 
ku ais^ku naru to, hi ni (a day) ni do srutsu mizu wo abiinas\ 
Nihon de wa gwanjitsu no asa hayaiu wakai hito ga ido ye 
inieu wo kumi ni ikiftias\' sono mizu wo wakamizu to 
fnos7Umas\ Dozo o kamai naku, ^ Tonen wa Hakodate no- 

a To-nin he or she ; t^-ho de wa we ; /o-ji, io-stisu at th4s time {sofio id-ji at 
the time of which we have been speaking); tobun for the present; io-nen this 
9«*r; a-karu this spring ; iZ^Usu the day in question, etc Ano tmui wa iSsai no 
Jbmtktu, That hoTte was born this y«ar (comp. p. 74, middle)b The word hon 
is similarly used. 

b O meeU/o ^oBoimasu. I congratulate joix* ^hinnen -o mtde0, «>r Aidemashite 
motd*^ ^'^ppy New Vear I 

c Eat as much as you like ! The cxprcssioa if not one of th« most refined. 

d Taik&mochi are male (rarely old women) professional entertainers belong* 
ing to the same class as the young women called gH-tha. Thc^y are not so 
■nmerotts as the latt«r. 

e Lit. if I drink and observe (ihe result); translate, "when 1 tried to 

f Ad «lil^tioiil expression : NtevcAr mind (abt>at entertaining me). Don't 
!«t me disturb you. From kamau heed, mind. 

3i8 The Adverb [lxxi 

fune ga osoku ts^kimasKta no de yoyaku tadaima shin-sake 
{shinjake) ga viiatarimasli ta. ^ Oya^ danna, hisasKku o mie 
nasaimasen desKta ne ; itsu mo go kigen de kekkj des\ Mo- 
doyokti itie okimasho.^ Hodoyoku sh^te agemas/u. F*kaku 
hoiie inita kendomo^ koko wa mizu ga demasen, Ni do bikku- 
ri to wa nan no koto des'ka, Hajiine taiso yoku omotte ita 
koto ga, ni dome ni miru to^ taiso hajiine to chigatte oru no de 
^doroku koto des\ ^ Ano hito wa dare no koto de mo waruku 
iimas* kara^ waiakushi wa waruku iware e vio kamaimasen, 
Fujisan ni nobottara^ sazo toku made miemasho. fie, taitei 
kumo ga kakatte iru kara, amari yoku miemasen. Sayonara^ 
^o kigen yd. Hon no hyOdai wa taigai mutsukasK ku kaite art- 
mas\ Kore wa yasasKku kaite arimas* kara^ anata ni mo 
wakarimashd, Kiri no ki wa hayaku seichD shimas\ Kona 
daikon wo narubeku us^ku kitte kudasai, Nikon de wa nik» 
wo komakaku kitte nimas\ SKken mo shubiyoku sumimasKie 
o medeto gozaimas\ Bunshd wo ts*kuru ni wa narudake yasa- 
sKku kakanakereba narimasen. Ham iva nantonaku yoki ni 
narimas\ Ota san wa daigakko no sotsugyosK ken zvo ukete 
kara hodo {mo) naku kyoju ni narimash'ta. Kind wa asa 
kara ban made yuki ga taenia naku furimasKta no de san- 
jaku bakari tsumorimash^ta. Sore wa^ mutsukash' ku ieba, ka 
lu ju ni narimas\ Myoasa ku ji made ni soi naku koshiraeie 
agenias\ Tochu de omoigake mo naku sensei ni aimasKta^ 
Sakuban amari samukatta kara^ yuki de mo furu ka shiran to 
oinottara, kesa ni natte an no gotoku masshiro ni natte imasKta. 
Saigyo wa Yoritomo kara sekkaku moratta gin no neko wo 
oshigemonaku kodomo ni kurete shimaimasK ta, ^ Bimbj ni 
semararete zehi naku hito no mono wo nusumimasKta. 

In (wrt) the fall I fell melancholy ; I don't know why (with- 
out any special reason kokoromochi becomes dreary). Please 

a Hakodate is the chief port of Hokkaido, the island of Ezo ; sake or ihake 
salmon; miatariniashita have appeared on the market (lit. have been found). 

b I will speak to him so as to satisfy him. The next sentence means: I 
will fix it to suit you. 

c The phrase ni no hikkuri tqaj also be used in the opposite sense — of « 
thing which seemed very bad at first sight, but afterwards proved to be just 
the opposite. 

d A famous Buddhist priest and poet. His conduct in the matter of the 
silver cat illustrates the Buddhist ideal of indifference to the things of llie 

Lxxi] From Ordinary Adjecfivks 319 

don't think ill [of me]. After he took {ukeru to) his final 
(graduating) examination he immediately became an official. 
Last month it rained continually. To-day we walked about 
seven hours without resting. The sun is up {deinasKtd) ; we 
must start immediately. I will dye this red, I cannot wait 
long. If you do not associate a long time (long) with Japanese, 
you cannot learn to speak {fianasn yo ni nararemaseii) Japanese 
proficiently. Since I am going to the country, I shall (do) 
not see {p me ni kakaru) you for some time. The revision of 
the treaties has been postponed {enki fti naru) for a while. 
This dog being well trained, is good-tempered {ptonashit) and 
performs various tricks {jsei). Yesterday {wa i) it was (became) 
two (4) degrees (5) below {^ka 3) zero (2) ; to-day (zc/^x) it has 
become a little warmer. He bought this screen cheap and 
sold it at a high price (highly). The Hakkenden composed 
(js'kuru) by Bakin is written very interestingly.* Condense 
{chijimtrti) this sentence and make (write) it a little shorter, 
as it is too long. I don't know exactly, but it is probably quite 
true. As this mountain is low, one cannot see (jniemasen) far. 
Please explain it minutely once more ; I do not yet clearly {hak- 
kiri) understand. Japanese ladies often apply rouge to their 
lips. As that is a newly made {dekitd) word, ordinary {iitari- 
mae no) people will hardly understand it. That is outrageously 
dear. He used up (entirely) all the money he had {atti dake 
no kane). Isn't it exceedingly cold to-day? A friend coming 
opportunely, I \vas helped [out of my difficulties]. 


As we have observed (Chapters XXXIIL, XXXIV.), sub- 
stantives which with na or no form adjectives may with the 
particle fii serve as adverbs ; e. g., 

onto ni mainly, chiefly. 

oki ni greatly. 

muyami ni recklessly. 

a Bakin, the great novelist, died in 1848. Tlie Hakktnden^ from hachi eight, 
k€n=inu dog, tien biography, narrates the adventures of eight heroes, each of 
whose names contained the word inu. 

320 The Adveru [lxscii 

sanvai {nI) happily, fortujiately. 

Uishika ni certainly* • 

fatara »/' carelessly. 

katti ftit tte-katu ui,jiitm-iaitg »/ selfishly, incoasiderateiyi 

as one pleases (p. 19 id). 
wa^^mamn ni waywardly, witliDut fttsttaint. 
MaisH m confusedly, not neatly, coarsely. 
Mokm ni comnsionly, vulgarly, colloquially. 
gihg^i ni cnormonsly, extraordinarily, 
hi-itd ni unjustly, wickedly, cruelly, 
tnu-^ri ni uareasonably, in spite of every thing. 
tit^nri ni carefully, politely, 
^f«M easily. 

Jkari ni temporarily, provisionally* 

(^) ta^ai fii mutually, reciprocally.^ 

tsu^i ni next. 

/sune ni always. 

sasuga {ni) under the given circumstances, as one would 
naturally expect. 

massaki {ni) at the very first. 

Aeisu ni, betsu^dan fyu}, ^aku-la^su {ni) exceptionally, par- 
ticularly, specially. <^ 

sen ui formerly. 

^hoku'setsu ni directly, immediately (opp. ktin-setsu ni). 

hi'jo ni unusually, extraordinarily. 

hon-to ni, honto ni, hon ni really. 

ippan ni generally, at large. 

sei-sai ni, shi-sai ni {koinaha ni) minutely, in detail. 

ien-nen ni naturally, spontaneously. 

Konna vi, sonua ni, anna ni (p 39), ^^nHa ni, are 
In many cases there is no corresponding adjective : 

A'oio ni especially. 

a The ni may be omilled when taihika is used with a verb in the probable 
form and has the weaker sense of "most likely": Tashika iku dtiki. lie 
will probably go. TaMkn niikimasn^ He will certainly go. 

b O togai ga i^va, no^ etc.} is often nsed familiarly for the pronoan ^ we." 

^ •« Specially " in Ihe stricter sense is toku-betsnui. 

vxxij] Forms with JVz 321 

Mff/a ni seldom (with negatives). * 
fiobetsu ni continuously. 
sugu (nt) immediately, at once. 
iavia ni occasionally, once in a while. 
iinde ni severally, each (duplicative from U hand). 
tsui (ni) at last, finaliy, unconsciously. ^ 
tsuidt ni incidentally. 

hi-mashi ni day by day, every day (masu Increase). 
hitO'kuchi ni at a mouthful; in a word. « 
hitori'de (ni) of itself, spontaneously.^ 
o make ni besides, into the bargain. 
jiki (ni) immediately, at once. « 
cm bin w/ quietly, peaceably, in a private way. 
ski'dai ni gradually. 

Sometimes the particle ni is omitted, as the parentheses show. 
In a few cases mo may be added for the sake of emphasis ; e. g., 
saizvai ni mo. 

It remains to observe a few suffixes and words by means of 
which adverbial expressions may be formed. 

One is goto ni, which added to a substantive means *' every " ; 
iegoto ni in every house, toshigoto ni every year. But such ex- 
pressions as doko no ie ni de mo, ieie ni, kengome ni, from ken 
(p. 86. 5) and komerii comprise, maitoshi or mainen (p. 50, top), 
etc., are more common in ordinary colloquial 

The suffix gake may be added to stems of verb? : ikigake ni 
on the way, kaerigake ni or modorigake ni, kigake ni, mairi- 
gake ni, torigake ni. Compare : Amerika kara kitate ni ju^t 
after my arrival from America. 

In like manner tori, yd and fu are used with limiting words : 

a There is also an adjective metta tta, but this means '* heedless" : Metia na 
koto wa ienai. It wiU not do to speak (lit. one cannot speak) heedlessly (any- 
thing heedless). 

b The particle ni is never udded to tsui when it means ** unawares." 

c HUokucki^M a notta meant a bit (of food), a little (of a speech). 

d From kUoriKtA the postposition de, 

e IhSAJiki is a variant reading of the charat:ier choku in chokuutsu ttL It is 
used commonly of immediateness in time. A corrupted form, jika ni, is used 
in tlie sense « without anything between,'- "without intervention," being 
synonymoua witU cJwkusttsu nu 

32 z Ths Adverb . [lxxii 

Kono yd ni koshiraeU o knn. 

Make it like this {kono tori ni exactly like this). 

Uma no yd ni kuu eat like a horse. 

Nikon-fu ni kurashiU imasu. 

He is living in Japanese style. 

Pleonastically one may even say : anna yd na fu ni.. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

/// dexterity. kurasu pass (time), live, 

katachi form, shape. make a living. 

ichi-ba market place. saem be bright (of the moon 

kaji'bo shafts, thills. in the fall and winter). 

dai'tan boldness. uyamau revere. 

en-kaku development (his- matomaru be brought togeth- 

torical). er, settled (tr. vtatomeru), 

gen-in cause. mochi wo isuku make viochi 
koH-nan distress, difficulty. (by pounding glutinous 

koH'Satsu confusion. rice in a mortar). 

ri-en divorce. kiri-nukeru cut a way through. 

sai'/u money bag, purse. tori-tateru collect (bills, taxes, 
sei-do institutions, system. etc.). 

ko'Shi-kwan embassy, Icga-. sata communication, news. 

tion. go bu-sata wo itasu fail to 
it-ten no a single (one point). keep up communication 
kudaranu, kudaranai unin- with a friend, neglect to call 

telligible, absurd. or write a letter (polite i). 


Shizuka ni! Konna ni yakamasK kucha komaru, Nikon 
de mo kanai wo etekatte ni rien sum koto wa dekimasen. So 
iu yd ni kimaitemas* (p. 163 top) ka, * Ano hito wa sake wo 
yatara ni nonde imas\ Nikon no sei/u de wa yaioi-ireta Sei- 
ydjin wo ieinei ni toriats' kaimas*, Sfiogxvatsu ni wa iegoto 
ni mochi wo tskimas\ Task'ka ni so des\ Kyo wa nan de 
kmna ni nigiyaka deskd ka. Makoio ni yoku tenki ga isuzuki 
masJite it o shogwatsu de gozaimas\ Mj ju ni fi no taifid ga 

ix^ciij Forms with Ni 323 

narimasK ta ka. Jii, fnada'di^^ shikashi jiki ni'nafimdshd 
Ano kata wa kodoino ga mina nakunatte shivicUti jitsu ni kino^ 
doku na koto de goJtaimas\ Kichigai ddyd ni (p. 4ld) toria- 
tskawanmasKia. Kono fuzoku no genin wo shisai ni torishi- 
rabemashd, Ano hito wa ha ga warui kara, niku wn koinaka 
m kitie dasanakergba narimasen. Knrumaya san / kore kara 
saki wa michi ga waruku naru kara, s'koshi shizuka ni yatte 
kure. Kono ishi wa tennen ni hito no katachi ni natte iru 
no de, mezuraskii to itte hito ga em^o kara mi ni kimas\ Ma- 
koto ni go busata wo itashimasK ta, * //>, o tagai sama de 
gozaimas\ Soko wa sasuga ni Bis mar* k^ des kara, konnan 
na baai mo umaku kirinukemasK ta, ^ Sasuga ni samurai no 
ko dake atte daitan des,' Makoto ni yoku tski ga saete imas ; 
sora ni itten no kumo mo arimasen, Maru de ichiba no yd ni 
konzatsu shimasKta. Senseif mukashi tenshi to shdgun to no 
aida wa do in kwankei ni natte orimasKta ka. Sore wa Ni^ 
Hon no rek'shi no uchi de taiso irikttnda kotogara deskara, 
nakanaka hitokuchi ni wa iemasen, Hidj ni risoku wo tori- 
iatete kanemochi ni narimasVta, Sonna ni nen wo irete ya- 
ranak^te mo ii ; zatsu ni koshiraete kurete mo ii, Shinsetsu ni 
sewa wo sKte kure mask* ta, Ano gwaikoku no kata wa maru 
de Nihonfii ni. kuraslite {no kurashi wo sh'te) imas*. Sugu 
ni kuruma no sKtaku ga dekite iru yd ni ki wo tskete oite o ku- 
re. Oki ni go yakkai ni nariniasKte arigato gozaimas\ Sho- 
sei ga nokorazu keiko ni kuru koto wa vtetta ni arimasen, 
Kummaya san / kajibo wo sonna ni takaku agecha abunai, 
CJiodo neko no me no yd ni kawariyasui hito des\ Saiju wo 
otosKte omake ni kasa made nakush'te shimaimasK ta, Jibun 
no ete na koto wa ydi ni dekiru, Tende ni jibunkatte na koto 
bakari iimas'kara, sodan ga matomarlmasen. Zoku ni yuki 
no di toshi wa saku ga ii to iimas\ 

a " Pardon me for neglecting to call. This often amounts to nothing more 
than the expression of a wish to be friendly. The answer* O tagai sama desu, 
means : " I have been equally remiss." One may also say : Watakushi koso, 
am the one [who has been remiss]. 

b In this sentence soko wa serves as a sort of connective : " in that predica- 
ment.*' The sasuga ni — dtsu kara may be freely rendered : ' As was to be 
•expected just because it was — . Compare sasssg^a tio Bis*ntar^k^ tfio even sUch a 
one as Bismarck. In the following sentence the c6mm3n idiom sttsuga ni — dakt 
atie may be rendered : As is to be expected in the case of-^. . 

324 The Adverb [lxxii 

As I bathe in {abite imns') cold water every day, I seldom 
catch cold (there is seldom a catching cold). On my way back 
I will call at {ye) your house. On my way to school I dropped 
my pui-s:?, but fortunately there was n't much in it {haitte iru). 
I am greatly troubled {koinarii) at having been addressed (since 
I was spoken to) in that manner {so). It is impolite to {ntf wd) 
say such a thing directly. The law is provisionally enacted 
{dekite oru no des). I am very sorry (it is truly regrettable) 
that he has lost (losing finished) the money that he has saved 
(saving put) with special pains. He investigated in detail the 
development of the feudal system. » Do as you please. He 
recklessly talks {shaberii) nonsense (absurd things). He used 
a great deal of (extraordinarily) money when he was in Berlin. 
In {wd) Nagasald even in {de md) winter it does not become 
specially cold ; snow seldom falls (there is seldom falling of 
snow). In old times what relations were there between Japan 
and Corea {Chdsen) ? That being a complicated matter, I cannot 
tell you in a word. It will hardly be possible (not be easily pos- 
sible) to use Rjmaji generally- Formerly in Japan the teacher 
was revered as {do-yo, p. 41 d) a father. The disease becomes 
worse day by day. There are unusually large trees in Japan. It 
is enormously dear. I will give it up. We will call {yotU mairu) 
at the Legation on the way to the station. That expression 
is not used (they do not say so) generally, but it may be 
that (one cannot know whether) people say that, depending 
{yotte) on the locality. Shall we send it directly to Toky5> 
or shall we request you [to take it along]. The parliament 
building is [only] temporarily built. If I study continuously 
two or three hours {hodd)^ my eyes begin to hurt (become 
painful). ix. will heal of itself, even if I don't give you 
[any] medicine. You must n't put the teakettle directly on 
the tataviu I met him just after my arrival from England. 
You must make it exactly like this. I seldom read news- 
papers or {yd) magazines. 

a The feudal system, hbken seido {fa fief, ken=^aUru\ is distingnislied from 
gun-ken seido {gun county, ken prefecture), the modern form of govermneat 
centering in the Emperor. The whole country is divided into km or fn ; the 
kfn, into gun {kdri) or 5A1 (cities) ; the gun, into son {mum) or eko {maM). 

Lxxni] FoRAis WITH To 325 


The particle to is used with a large class of adverbs. Many 
of this class end in ti: 

bikkuri (of a shock or fright). 

bonyari dimly, perplexedly. 

burariy burabura (of dangling or idling). 

chirari witli one glance, cursorily. 

dossari abundantly, plentifully. 

garari^ garagara (of a clattering noise). 

hakkiri distinctly. 

hirari like a flash. 

hoHHori (of redness in the sky or a person's face). 

liorori^ horohoro (of teardrops). 

karari brightly, completely. 

kitchiri^ kitchinto tightly, precisely. 

kossori, kosokoso on the sly^ stealthily. 

mekkiri (of a fact that suddenly becomes noticeable). 

nikkori (of smiling or laughing). [unwieldily. 

uossori, nosonoso at a snail's pace, in a strutting manner, 

patchiri (of large, bright eyes). [manner). 

sakuri (of a thing that splits open readily or of a frank 

sappari clearly, wholly, at all (p. 1 87b). 

sarari entirely. 

shikkari firmly, faithfully, substantially. 

sukkari entirely. 

surari (of a slender form or of a smooth motion). 

iappnri abundantly, fully. ^ 

tokkuri ijoku to) attentively, thoroughly. 

ukkari {uka to), ukauka thoughtlessly, inattentively. 

yukkuri leisurely, slowly (p. 33e). 

yururi^ yuriiyuru slowly, leisurely. 

Many of the above arc of onomatopoetic origin. The free- 
dom with which such words are formed and used is a charac- 
teristic of the Japanese language. Like interjections, they are 
haid to define. 

Tappuri {Joputapii) futotte int, or, Deppuri fuUoie irtt. He is very fat. 

226 The Adverb [Lxxiit 

As indicated, there are in many cases corresponding dupli- 
catives (see the following chapter)., Tl^ese, as a rule, are more 
strictly onomatopoetic. Thus, surasura is used of a smooth 
movement, not of a slim figure. The duplicative- also implies 
the idea of repetition. Thus, nikkori is used of a single smile,, 
while fiikoniko indicates smiling Continually. The duplicative 
often has an entirely different sense ; e..g., bikifbiku (of hesitat- 
ing fear), chirachira (of a fluttering motion), hirahira: (of a 
waving motion), karakara (of a rattling noise, as of .wine 
glasses, =^rtr<i^^zfvz, or of laughter), sarasara (of a^nI5tling 
sound, as of a river). ^ The adverb asaWhole may be doubled : 
burariburari to aruku saunter 

Properly to should be added to all, but it is generally omitted. 
The adverbs in ri may also be used with sum (p. 215, 8), and,, 
accordingly, shite may be added to or substituted for to. In 
shikiri ni '* persistently " to may take the place of ?i/. Yahart 
or yappafi ** still," ** too," does not belong to this class. ^ 

The particle to is also Used with shorter words of the same 
general character. The etymology of some is doubtful. The 
particle to is never separable and often coalesces with the word 
to which it is attached, c 

botto (of beclouded vision or unconsciousness). 

chanto precisely, properly, just, right. 

chitto a little. 

choitOy chotto briefly, just a moment (<://^/r^t?/ occasionally). 

don to (of a loud noise). 

dotio (of sudden applause, laughter, etc.). 

gyotto (of a state of consternation). 

hatto (of surprise). 

kyoi to, hyoito accidentally, suddenly. 

a We may also say: Senna kc to tva sarasara zonjimasen. • I ^on't know 
aoyihing at all about it. 1 . 

b Notice the odd, rather slangy expression: Ikiaiari baiiai-i tabeU nruiia^ 
I journeyed eating wherever I happened to be {iku o', ntani strike). Olhcrs 
say ikiuari battari. 

c 'I'hc adverb fu-to {==.hakarazu) unexpectedly, from fu not and io=hakaru 
calcrlale, belongs to a different category. There is also an onomatopoetic ^/i/0 
or /////(? used of a breath : Juiio rampn wo kesu to extinguish a lamp with 
n 'un. 

Lxxiii] Forms with To 327 

jiiio firmly, steadily, with concentration. 

kitto surely. 

viotto more. 

pon to (of a little explosion). 

patio (of a quickly spreading thing). 

pataito with a thud. 

pishanto, pisshari to with a slam, tight. 

//// to (of cracking glass or crockery). 

shika to firmly, certainly, exactly. 

sotto softly, gently. 

tonto totally, at all (with negative words). 

sutto all the way, direct, very much. 

With some words belonging to the class described in the 
previous chapter to also is used. 

sugu {to or ni) immediately, at once. 

ivaza to {yii) purposely, intentionally {wazaxvasa specially, 
not incidentally). 

ydyatto, yatto (from yoyaku) with difficulty, finally. 

zatto^zatsu ni coarsely, briefly. 

shi zen (to or nt) naturally, spontaneously. 

totsu'Zen (to or nt) suddenly, abruptly. 

Note finally : nani^ka to=^iroiro \\\ many ways ; nan to how I 
Itsu-nari to may be regarded as a briefer form of itsu nari 
to mo ^ itsu de mo.^ 


(Include the new adverbs). 

hagi bush-clover. nise-mono, nise imitation, coun- 

mizo drain, ditch, groove. terfeit. 

hoya (from hi-ya) lamp- luku-biki (lit. luck drawing) 

chimney. distribution of prizes by 

nisetu imitate (from niru drawing lots. ^ 

resemble). basho banana tree. 

a The classical nari is used in the colloquial to indicate alternatives: Migi 
nari, hidari nari^ dochira de mo iMaremasu. You can take either way, right 
or left. 

b This is a very common game. The slips of twisted paper drawn by lot 
have written on them names or expressions which are puns on the names of 
the prizes given. 

328 The Adverb [lxxiii 

kak'ko shape, form. ^ mi-kakeru get one's eyes on, 
ko-jo kind feelings* catch sight oC 

inzetyU'kxvai meeting for the — ni buitsukaru collide with. 

purpose of hearing addres- kokoro wo irekaeru repent, 

ses, lecture- meeting. turn over a new leaf. 

ji'ten-sha (self*move-vehicle) hassuru start, be produced. 

bicycle. juku sura become ripe, ma- 
hirogaru be spread abroad, ture* 

extend (tr. hirogeru), ayaniku^ ainiku unfortu- 
nozoku bend the head down nately. 

to look, peep, kanarazu assuredly, without 
toboru burn (of a light). fail. 

yokeru get out of the way. jum-ban ni in turn. 


Sere wa choito s/ita » hanashi de wn arimasen. Sazo o is*- 
kare deshj ; go yururi to o yasumi nasaimashi, Ano ie fio 
uchi ni wa akari ga bonyari (to) tobotte imas\ Sakunen wa 
nanika to go kofi ni azukarimasV t€ (p. 1 84b) arigatd ; ^onnen 
MO aikawarimasezu. Mo s'koshi yururi to hanasKte kudasai. 
Shizen to (ni) hassuru hoso wa tennento to mdshiinas\ Bomo, 
uchi no kodomo wa itazura de waza to oviocha wo kowashiinas\ 
Fukubiki wo iiashimasho ; watakushi wa kuji wo shikkari to 
motte iinas' kara^ anatagata wa jumban ni o hiki nasai. Mo 
yo ga katari to akemash*ta. Karari to tenki ni narimasK ta. 
Alio hito no warui koto wa sarari to wasurete shiniae, 
Sendai Hagi de Sevtwats'wo^ korosno wo mite horori to 
namida ga koboremash*ta. Sake wo ippai nondara kao ga 
honnori to akaku narimash'ta, Mizo wo hyoi to tobikosh*ta. 
Hako ga don to ochita kara sh'te, me ga sain eta no des\ 
Teppo ga don to nam to^ yane no ue no hato ga mina tatte 

a Kak'koz^uidakamo yoski \\x%\ xi\iu}i\. \\\^ t'\i^\\. \\\\\\\^, Compare: Kakkd ni 
ihUe agemasu, I will sell it at a reasonable price, 

b Translate : simple, easy to understand. 

c The name of a boy in Ihe celebrated drama Called Sendai Hagi. The 
plains around Sendai were once famous for bush clover; in this case Sendai 
Nagi means a famous tale of Sendai. The mother of Semmatsu was in a 
position to substitute her own child for the heir of her lortl at a time when a 
plot was laid to assassinate the latter. 

ixxni] Forms with To 329 

shimaimasKta, Oioto tva snrari to kokoro wo itekaimasKta. 
Aho onna wa surari to sKta it kakko des* Onna hodo yo 
mi arigataki mono tva nashi ; Shaka ya Koski wo hyai hyoi 
to uvtu. * Kono ame de basho no ha ga zutto nobimasKta. 
Ima honyaku nas*tta tokoro wo Butto hajimi kara mo icbi do 
yonde kikase iiasai. Kore wa zutto moto no imi des\ O 
jama ni narima^kara^ o itoma {ni) iiashimasho. Ma/ go 
yururi to, ^ Kondo o me ni kakatiara, chanto kimeru yo ni 
itashimasho, Kochira ye zutto o tori nasai. lisunari to 
kanashi ni oide nasaimashi. Yatto hitogomt no naka wo 
torinukemasKta, Kodonto ga hei ni notte ashi wo burari to 
sagete imas\ Gejo wa itsu no ma ni ka^ kossori to dgti 
ikimash^ta. Ukkari {to) yokei ni haratte yarimasKta kara, 
torikaesK te kimasko, Ukkari to nisemono wo kaimasVta* 
Mekkiri {to) ats*ku nariviash'ta. Nan to, ma, baka na koto 
ja nai ka» Fui ni kaminari ga natte hatto omoimasKta, ^ 
Alio onna wa me ga patchiri to sKte imas\ Totsuzen to 
jiiensba ni deatte yokeru koto mo dekizu abunai tokoro desk* to. 
SKka to wa ifonjimasen ga, okata so desho. Hocho de suiktoa 
wo sakuri to watte mita tokoro ga, mada jukn sKie imasen 
desh*ta. Botto sKte muko ga miemasen, Kuri wo hi ni 
irete oitara, pon to hanemash'ta. Sono toki Ckambaren 
(Chamberlain) no uwasa ga fiatlo hirogarimash'ta. Hako 
ni shinamono wo kitchiri oshikonda. Kakimono wo sh^te oru 
ushiro kara^ sotto ftozoite mimash'ta ga, Suzuki kun wa ikko 
ki ga ts'kimasen desWta (p. 221, 3). Ki no eda ni butts katte 
gyotio shimash'ta. Sensei wa nikkori tvaratte irassharu. 

He is standing lost in thoug^lit (thinking something stands 
perplexedly). In (;// wa) Japan azaleas and camellias grow 
wild (naturally). Please hold (p. 1980) this firmly a little 
while {chotto no at da). liow kind a person he must be I As 

a A humorous poem. Translate /lyoi hyoi fo one tiiiev anot!»er very easily. 
Shaka is the Japanese form of Sakya, the family name of the Buddha; Xiskg 

h The usual phrase wlien one urges a caller to slay longer: Don't be in 
a hurry. 

c Translate: no one knows vv'.ien. 

d Haiio <mtoimaskUar=zbikkuri itashimnshita, 

c Observe how the adjectival pli rase modifies «f//fV-<? directly. We should 
expect Su*uki kun fio before iuhiro. 

S30 The Adverb [lxxiii 

I ha:ve been (am) a little indisposed lately, I cannot say that 
(/^ wa) I will surely come. On that day {tdjitsu) if I feel 
well (cond.) I Will visit [you] without fail {kanaragu). Is 
thqre a lecture-meeting in the Kinkikwan to-day ? I really 
don't know ; a i have not heard anything about it (that hanashi 
I do not hear at all). Lately I called at {ye) your house just 
a moment (past cond.), [but] unfortunately you were out. 
When the gun went oflf (sounded don — past cond.), the 
pheasant fell with a thud. She is slender and has a good form. 
Shut {skimeru or tafertt) the shjji tight, so that {yd ni) the 
dust may not come in. Read {yondi iikaseru) once more 
frdm the very beginning (all the way from the beginning) what 
(tokoro) you have translated. Sit properly 1 The cat lias stole.i 
a piece ol katsuobushi on the sly. All burst out laughing when 
{to) they heard the story. I could n't see at all, because a tall 
man was standing (unwieldily) in front of me. I caught a 
glimpse of (with one glance got my ^y^^ on) the fleeing rob- 
ber (the fleeing and going of the robber). A boatman, seeing 
that {no wo) a child had fallen into the water, jumped in 
{tobikomu) like a flash and saved it. The lamp chimney 
cracked {warerti) with a snap. Mother is in a brown study (is 
thinking steadily). 


Duplicatives form a large group of adverbs in Japanese. We 
have: here a language within a language, as expressive as it is 
unique.^ There are in English a few analogous expressions, 
such as ticktack, dingdong, rubadub, higgledy-piggledy, litlle 
by little, over and over, through and through, so-so, etc. 

Most of these words are of onomatopoetic origin, either im- 
itating a sound, or at least voicing a feeling produced by an 
action. They are used commonly without any particle ; or 
with to, if with any at all. In most cases they cannot be 
translated into Eng^lish : 

a Translate : Ikaga detu ka, elliptical for ikaga desu ka tonjimasen. Sim- 
ilarly Nan desu ka in a reply may mean : ** I don't know what it if." 

b An invcstic;ation made by Mr. Irie at the instance of the German psy- 
chologist Prof. Wundt resulted in a list of six hundred ilia I are in common use. 


barabara^ barari (of things that scatter about, such as large 

raindrops, leaves of a torn book^,etc.). 
bitabita^ bittari (of sticky tilings). 
bishibishi, gishigishi^ mishimishi (of creaking timbers). 
bombon (of the faint ringing of a bell or the striking of a. 

clock — bombon-dokii). 
boroboro^ borori (of ragged or crumbling things). 
buraburu (of trembling or shuddering). 
butsubutsu^ butsuributsuri (of bubbling or grumbling). 
chibichibi a little at a time but often, in driblets. 
ckinchin, chirinchirin (of the ringing of a small bell); 
ehokochoko (of short intervals or quick steps). - 
chorochoro (pi the flowing of a brook or the toddling 

of a baby). ... 

daradara^ darari sluggishly, languidly, in a slovenly way. 
dondon in rapid succession, in great quantity (or of the 

sound of a drum). 
gasagasa (of a rustling sound, as of paper). 
gatagata^ gaiari (of a rattling, slamming or banging noise)* 
gerageta^ getageta (of laughter). 
gbgo, gugu (of snoring). 
goftgon (of the sound of a large temple bell). 
gorogorOf gorori (of a rumbling noise, as of thunder). 
gotagota (of disorder). 
gtirtiguru round and round. 
guzuguzu (of loitering, dawdling or grumbling). 
hyor<rhyoro (of staggering). 
janjan (of the sound of a fire-bell). 

fcankan (of the sound of a bell beaten with a little hammer).. 
mechamecha (of confusion). 
niyaniya (of a grin). 
perapera rapidly, fluently. 
pichipichi (of a floundering fish). 

piipii (of the sound of a flute, of whining or complaining). 
pikapika^ pikaripikari (of shining, glittering, or flashing). 
pimpin in a vigorous or lively manner. 
pokaripokari (of tobacco smoke or of mild heat). 
potsupotsu^ potsufipotsuri. here and there, leisurely. 
pumpun (of an ordor or of sullen anger). 

332 Tub Adverb [lxxiv 

sawasawa (of the murmuring of the wind). 

sesse energetically. sassa hastily. 

sorosoro, sorori slowly, softly, gradually. 

sutasuta (of fast walking). 

ttrateta^ iekaUka^pikapika, 

tsurutsurUf tsururitsururi (of slippery things). 

waiwai (of people in a tumult). 

zarazara^ zarari (of things rough to the touch). 

zawazawa (of a chilly feeling or of the noise made by 

people passing). 
zunzun rapidly, readily. 

Some duplicatives are formed by doubling ordinary words 
or their stems : 

shikajika so and so, and so on. * 

hibi (ni), AidiAidi, nicAinicAi=mainichi every day.** 

Aiiotsubitoisu, icAiicAi one by one, every one. 

iroiro (nt or fo), sAuju in various ways. 

nakanaka {ni) contrary to expectation, very, hardly or by no 

means (with negatives). 
oriori, tokidoki at times, now and then. 
iabitabi shibasAiba at times, often. 
diikajika (ni) in the near future, soon. 
Aarubaru {to) from a distance {Aaruka na far). 
noronoro {to) sluggishly, slowly. 
sAibusAibu {to) with reluctance. 
kaesugaesu {mo) repeatedly, exceedingly. 
masumasu increasingly, more and more, gradually. 
nakuiiaku tearfully. 
kanegane formerly. 

kasmiegasaue repeatedly, over and over. 
kawarigawari {ni) alternately, by turns. 
kuregurg (vio) repeatedly, again and again. 
oioi {ni or to) gradually. [etrate). 

sAimijimi {to) penetratingly, thoroughly, (from shimiru pen- 

a Used, like the Chinese unun (pronoanced nnnuti)^ instead of repeating all 
the words of n quotation. 

b Doubling for the sake of emphasis is very common in Japan Sfie (compare 
the English "very, very"): Mainichi niainichi kiuuisu. He comes day after 
day. At tlic beginning of a tale one may hear: Mukaski mukathi {zutHf) 
^-mukashi Many, many years ago, in very ancient limes. Compare nljso p. Q«e. 




sAinodisAino&i stcahhUy, (from shinabu conceal one's self). 

yoknyoku very carefully, exceedingly. 

iy<nyo increasingly, after all, certainly (from the classical 

iya more and more). 
tamaiama rarely, unexpectedly. 
beisubetsu (ni) separately. 
dandan {ni or to) gradually (from dan step). 
konkon {to) carefully, in a kindly or friendly manner. 
ftennen, saisai (ni) yearly. 
sansan {ni) recklessly, harshly, severely. 
sfioslio a little. 
shidaishidai {ni) gradually. 


(Include the 

oie tub, (wooden) bucket. 
sasa bamboo grass. 
yoio side, transverse or hori- 
zontal direction (opp. /ati)» 
Aa-ori [Japanese] coat. 
ko-ashi little steps. 

v'' w A Ikitchen. 
datdokoro i 

an-satsu assassination. 

do-jin native, aborigine. 

/ft- bun rumor. 

gi'kwai deliberative assem- 
bly, congress, parliament, 

jin-shu race (ethnological). 

-iun-rei pilgrimage, pilgrim 
(properly junrei-shd), 

roku'bii pilgrim. 

kei-yo figure^ metaphor. 

new adverbs). 

kek'kon marriage. 

setsu-yu instruction, advice,. 

tai-riku continent. 
tau'tei secret investigation^ 

detective (properly ianieiri). 
yu-nyu imports. 
yu'shutsH (often proncd. yu-- 

shiisu) exports. 
ki-mi ga yoi^ kokoromochi 

ga yoi{^. 138). 
areru be rough, be desolate 

(of land), be refractory. 
funieru shake, tremble. 
kasamru pile one on top of 

another (intr. kasanaru). 
koru freeze. ^ 
migaku polish. 
sutaru be discarded (tr. suUth)^ 

m The sabordinative of kiru is properly kbtU^ but it is often shortened to- 
JMU, Comp. tOru, koite^ p. 228, Vac. 

J34. The Adverb [lxxiv 

yoromiku stumble, stagger, ibiki wo kaku snore. 

ato wo tsukeru follow in tsuauki'Sama ni, tsueukidama 

another's track. ni continuously, one after 

tabako wo fukasu smoke to- another. 

bacco. yoppite {yo hiio yd) the whole 

hitori-goto wo iu talk to night 

one's self. 


Ano hito wa ansatsu saremasKta ia. So iu fiibundes^ ga^ ma- 
da hakkiri wakariviasen {iyoiyo sd^ to wa iemasen), Amerika 
no dojin no kazu wa dandan {ni) hette kimas\ Kd iu (konnd) 
kudaranai fuzoku wa oioi statte kite mo yd gozaimas. Iroira 
o sewa saina ni narimasKte viakoto ni arigaid gozaimas\ Ano 
ok^san wa chokochoko koashi de arukimas\ Ano kahi wa o 
shiroi wo betabeta (thick) is'kete imash*ia, Ando san wa yoku 
o iaku ye miemas^ka. Moto wa shibashiba kimasKta ga, 
kono sets' wa sappari konaku nariinasKta; do sKte iru. ka 
shira. Shimbun-haitatsu ga ckirinchifin to kane wo narasfite 
kimasKta. Rokubu wa kankan to kane wo iataite arukima^. 
Masumasu samuku natte kite, domo, komarimas\ Chikajika ni 
Ou (no) ietsudo ga ^ dekite shimaimashd. Hiragana ga zunzun 
\to) yomeru kurai igurat) ni nattara, ^ kanji wo narai nasaru 
ga yj gozaimasha. Oke no naka no sakana ga ptchipichi ka- 
nemas\ Kono ni san nichi wa ^ iyoiyo atataka ni narimash'ia. 
Hinichi ga zunzun tachimas\ Kono yoko wo kuruma ga ga- 
ragara torn « kara^ yakamasK kute benkyd ga dekimasen. S'ta- 
s'ta aruite hi no kurenai uchi, ni yadoya ni t£ kimasKta. Ta- 

a Tor s9 da; wa following a dependenc clause with io puts the whole state- 
ment in antithesis to other possible statements, and so emphasizes its signifi- 
cance : that it is so one can not say with certainty. 

b The word 9 (interior — same character as oku in oku san) designates the 
eastern part of the northern end of the main island, while u is the initial of 
the names of the corresponding western provinces, Uzen and Ugo, formerly 
called Dewa. Ou is also called To-hoku (east- north), as it lies north-east c^* 
the island. 

c Translate — kurai ni nattara when you get so proficient that — . Compiire 
the use of hodo in : Kurakute oihimoto ga mienai hodo desu (p. lox, 2). '- 

d Translate : the last two or three days. JCoko ni san nichi the next two ok 
4liree days. 

e Yoko X90 fbru pass along the side (of the house). 



bako wo pokaripokari tofukaskte iru to iu uo wa hima de tai- 
kutsu sKu sKkata ga nai kara, tsuznkezama ni tabako wo no- 
mu yds' wo keiyo sKie iu no des\ Sakana ga pimpin hamU 
ryori ga shinikuu Nihon no yushuts'wa nenmn JueU kite yu- 
nyu yori mo oku narimasKta. Tonari de amado wo garagara 
shimete iinas\ lake ni kazi ga sawasawa fuite imas\ Soto 
ye deru to, karada ga zawazaiva sum kara, haori wo kasanete 
dekakeinasho. Ano oki na tokei wa bombon narimas\ Han- 
sik} wajanjaUt tera no kane wa gongon narimas*. Yube tonari 
de hito ga gogo {guyu) ibiki wo kaku kara, yoppite nerarentt- 
katta Ano hito wa nandaka bntsubutsu hitorigoto wo itie 
imas\ Okame wa * nikoniko sKta kao wo sKte imas\ Ano 
hito wa niyan'iya waratte bakari ite nandaka kokoro no soko 
no wakaranai hito da, Kaminari wa narazu ni inabikari 
bakari pikapika shimas\ Eta wa ^ Shina kara kita mon des* 
ka. Jyoiyo sj to wa wakarimasen ga, so ka mo shiremasen. 
Gejo ga guzuguzu sh'te iru kara^ yoru osoku naru made dai* 
dokoro ga katazukimasen. Kono hon wa nakanaka ats*kute 
ikura sassa to yonde mo yoi ni o shimai ni narimasen, Sassa 
to s/ite shimae. Nihon no tegami no bun wa mutsukasK kute 
nakanaka oboeraremasen, Inu wa bydki de guruguru ma- 
watte imas\ Nihon no naikaku wa ima gotagota skte imas\ 
Kaminari ga garagara natte kimash'ta, ^ Uchi no inu wa 
kind made nete bakari imashUa ga, kyo wa pimpin sh'te imas\ 
Tegami no kakidashi (beginning) ni wa yoku masumasu go 
kigen yoku ^ shikajika to iu kotoba ga hairimas\ Karada ga 
daradara sh'te hatarakenai, Potsupotsu aruite itte mo yugata 
ni wa ie ni kaeremasho, Teishaba no mr,e ni ozei hito ga 

a The smiling face of Okame (alias Oiafuku) is familiar to all who haye 
seen Japanese rmn (masks), her charactcrislic features being a flat nose, small 
eyes and projecting forehead and cheeks, bhe is supposed to be the same as 
Uzume, the goddess of joy and wantonness, who, according to the received 
mythology, danced so merrily before the cave in which the sun-goddess had 
hid herself that the latter was induced to open the door and look out. She is 
represented as perpetually smiling. 

b The Eta were formerly the lowest class of people. One of their trades 
was the slaughtering and flaying of cattle, 

c Of thunder near by. The sound of distant thunder is represented by 

t\ I hope you are quite well (lit. increasingly well). 

336 liiE Adverb [ucxiv 

aistitnatU waitoai sawaitie arima/ga, nani ka meznraskn 
k0to de itto arima^ka. Kawa ga sarasara nagareie int. 
Jlyakfshd ga s/sse to kaseidi orimas. Ana kichigai iva gftn- 
ggia igeragera) waratU bakari iie nandaka kimi ga ivaruu 
Fnyu Ml ntru to, drat no yuki ga kjtU isurutsuru subette am- 
kinikui, Tantei ga shinobishinobi dorabd no ato wo tskeU 
ikiinasfita. Gons^ki ga yoku migaite kureta no de kuts\va 
UraUra sfite iinas\ Atnerika de wa kekkon no toki ni kome 
wo barabara nagets^ keru shukwan ga gozaimas. Hon ga ba- 
rabara ni natU tsueuki ga wakarimasen. Meshi ga boroboro 
mH'U kuenai.^ Te ga arete (chapped) zarazara shimas\ 
Dondon kane wo t5kaimas\ Samugatte buruburu Jurue:e 
imas\ Kore ni wa iroiro wake ga am. Soto wa zawazawa 
guru ga^ nanigoto ka okita de nai ka, Shimijimi iya ni narr 

In tliis region (w/i) vehicles are rattling (pass noisily) all ihc 
time ; consequently it is so noisy that last hight I couldn't sleep 
all niglit. He smokes tobacco from morning to night. The 
population of Japan increases yearly. When the cherry blos- 
soms bloom every one is lazy (all idling do not work). Thun- 
der is rolling in the distance {toku de). A drunkard stagger- 
ing about .stumbled against a stone and finally fell over. That 
old gentleman is still hale {tassha de) and vigorous. Did the 
Japanese race in ancient times come across (crossing come) from 
the continent? There is (also) such an opinion ; but we don*t 
know certainly whether it is so or not [so ka do ka\ You 
won't catch the train if you dawdle (are dawdling) like that. 
If you don't hurry (hastily doing finish), the day will be gone 
(hi ga kurern). Chinese characters are so difficult that [I] 
will hardly [nnkanaka) be able to learn [them]. To-day, as 
the weather is fine, we will saunter through (idly walk the 
region of) Siiiba. The French parliament is now and then 
quarrelsome {kenkwa nazo ga atte) and disorderly. It has 
begun to rain (p. 231, 4). Last night after one o'clock it 
snowed more and more heavily {hidoku), I was startled {gyotto 
sum) as a bear came with a rustling sound out of a thicket 

m The Japanese do not like rice unless it is coo kctl just enoagh to make H 
■lick loc«(lt«r» l>ut tio more. 

Lxxv] Substantives as Adverbs 337 

of bamboo grass {sasayabu). The brook flows with a mur- 
muriiigf sound. When there is any little thing {ttani ka s* ko- 
shi de tfio) that displeases him, he is sullen and, though you 
speak [to himj, does not reply. Oxen walk slowly. The sick 
one is gradually becoming weaker {yowatU kuru). A police- 
man is carefully advising [him]. He came out with reluctance. 
At {tii wa) Setsubun beans are scattered {barabara makn) all 
through the rooms (Jieyagoto ni). He took leave {wakareru) 
of {fit) his parents and went out tearfully. Lately on account 
of the snow {yuki ga Jura no de) the poor are in distress and 
are complaining. Hoping (thinking) to reach the deathbed 
{shinime ni au) of my father, 1 came from far Formosa (a long 
distance from Taiwan) ; but {no ni) missed it (could not meet) 
by a day {ichi nichi no chigai de). He uses up his money in 


Many words which are translated by means of adverbs are 
really substantives used adverbially. This is true of many of 
the words which we class as ordinary adverbs (Ch. LXXVII,). 
In this chapter wc shall confine our attention to certain words 
denoting place, time, degree, etc., which are still in use as 
substantives proper. 

Such are koko, soko, asoko [asuko), dokoy dokka^ soko, koko, 
kochira, ^soc/iira, achira, dochira, acki kochi or achira kochira 
{to)f konata here, kanata there, etc. * They take particles 
and postpositions ju-t like nouns : • 

Doko ga itd gozaiwasu ka. 

Where have you pain (WliicU place is painful) ? 

Doko wo sagashimashita ka. Where have you searched ? 

Doko deshita ka. Where was it? 

a Konata is used politely in speaking of a host's house : Kouata sama de tva 
ffiinn satna go jbbu de kekko de ^oznimnsu. I am very glad all are well at your 
bouse. It is also used as a personal pronoiim of the first person. Go husata wo 
iiashiie crimashita, lie^ konata karn koso shitsitrei bakari ita shite orimasu. I 
bnve been quite remis?. No, it is I who am always rude. Compare anu^fr, 
sofMfa, donatay pp. 28 42. 

S^S The Adverb [lxxv 

To the same category belong such substantives as mae, saki 
or offtoU front, ura or ushiro back, naka or uchi inside, soto 
outside, ue above, shita below, muko the place opposite or yon- 
der, hoka another place,* etc., which serve also iu lieu of 
postpositions and will be treated under that head. As has 
been explained (p. 20a), words of this kind lake the particle 
ni to indicate the place where a thing or person exists and de 
to indicate the scene of an event or a certain condition of things. 
This rule applies likewise to such words as empd a distant place, 
atari^ or hen {kono hen, sono hen^ etc.)* or kivipen vicinity, etc. 
But we must keep in mind other uses of /// and de. The for- 
mer may also have the sense of ** to " and indicate an indirect 
object, while the latter often performs the same function as 
the subordinative termination of the verb. ^ Compare : 

Koko ni oriwasu, I am here. 

Koko ni okimasu, I shall (will) put it here. 

Koko de yasumimasho. I shall (will) rest here. 

Koko de yoroshii. This place will do. 

Words denoting time when used as adverbs commonly take 
no part'cles. But when a contrast is implied, or when the 
corresponding adveib in the English sentence takes the first or 
emphatic position, wa is required (p. 23c). A word denoting 
time in an unemphatic position, in the few cases when a par- 
ticle is used, takes ni: inta ni, mae ni, nochi ni^ asa ni, ban 
ni, etc. There are some apparent exceptions. Thus iina de 
wa, konnichi de wa, etc., are equivalent to iina ni natU 
zva^ etc. The expression ato de, in contrast with nochi ni, 
originally denoted position. Also compare : 

Ato de o hanashi moshimasfio, I will speak to you afterwards. 

Kore wo ato ni shita hj ga iu It is better to postpone this. 
Any of these words may by means of the particle no be made 

a This //<?/m may mean not only "elsewhere," but also "besides." Note 
also omoi-no hoka (tn)=an-gwai (c) beyond expectation, and koio-no-hoka (wx) 
exceedingly, from the koto in koto m especially. 

b There are a few adverbs formed by means of this de, but they are hardly 
numerous enough to make a separate chapter; e. g., ato de afterwards, matru de 
entirely mina de altogether, tada de gratis, hitori de alone (in the sense of 
"spontaneously" /;i may be rd:led), kac/ii de afoot, AisasAthirt de after Si long 
\nicivn], j'i/mn de by one's self, toehu de en route. 

i.xxv] Substantives as Adverbs 339 

an adjective (p. 119): muko no Ura yonder temple; ima no 
seito the present political parties, yube no kwaji last night's fire. 
The principal adverbs of time are (comp. p. 66a) : 

konmn^ koioshi^ tonen this year. 
saiunen, kyonen last year, 
issakunen, ototoshi {ptodoshi) year before last. 
issakusakunen, sakiototoshi two years before last year. 
inyonen^ rainen next year. 
myogonen^ sarainen year after next. 
kongetsu, kono tsuki this month. 
sengeisu^ atogetsu^ mae no tsuki last month. 
sensengetsu month before last. 
raigetsu next month. 
saraigetsu month after next 
JkonshM^ kono sfm this week. 
sensku last week, raishu next week. 
Jkonnichi, kyo to-day. 
sakujitsu^ kind yesterday. 
sssakujitsu, ototoi day before yesterday. » 
issakusakujitsu, sakiototoi two days before yesterday. 
inyonichi^ asu^ ashita to-morrow. 
myogonichi, asatte day after to-morrow. 
yanoasaUff shiasatte two days after to-morrow. 
aru hi {no koto) on a certain day, one day. 
yokujitstt (nt), akuru ki (nf) the following day. 
asa (ni) in the morning {asa hayaku early in the morning). 
konchd^ kesa this morning. 

kesahodoy kesagata this morning (used later in the day). 
sakucho^ kino no asa yesterday morning. [it^g- 

ifiyoc/io, myoasa, asu no asa, ashita no asa to-morrow morn- 
6an (ni) danhodo, bankata {bangatd)^ bankei^ yukata {yu-* 

gata), yukoku in the evening (p. 2 3 2d). 
sakuban, sakuya, yube last evening. 
Aomban, konya, konseki this evening. 

a Oioioi or ototsui is derived from ochi^ yonder, far, isu, aad hu This tsu is 
an old genitive particle. It appears also in onotLukara or mizukara^ classical 
iox jibun de. With ototoi compare ototoshi, from ochi and toshi. 

340 The Adverb [lxx\^ 

mybban^ myoya^ asu no ban, ashita no ban to-morrow evening. 

hiru by day. yoru by night, 

ivta {ni) now. * imagoro (ni) about this time. 

tadaivia now, ju>t now (past), presently (future). ^ 

imagata^ imashigata a moment ago. 

sakkit sakihodo, senkokn a short while ago (less than a day). 

kono setsu in these days. 

sakkon nowadays (lit. yesterday and to-day). 

konohodo, konoaida {konaida) lately, recently. ^ 

senjitsu^ sakigoro a few days ago, the other day. 

kinnen in recent years {kin=chikai), 

moto originally, formerly. 

vtukashi in ancient times. 

hajivie (ni) at the beginning, at the firiit. 

saisho {nt) at the very first. 

fiochihodOf nochigata after a little while (within the day). 

kondo next time (also : this time). 

chikai uchi (ni) within a short time, soon, 

kinjitsu within a few days (kin r^ chikai). 

nochinochi after some time, after a long time. 

shorai in the future. 

itsu, itsugoro when, about when ? 

Attention may well be called once more to kurai, bakariy 
dake, hodo (pp. 22b, 36, 43, 48b). words which generally per- 
form the functions of true adverbs, taking no particles, but 
sometimes are treated just like noutis. Words like mina^ ozei^ 
etc. (Ch, XVIII,), are used both as adverbs aud occasionally 
as substantives. So also : 

banji all things, or, in every respect. 

daitai the principal part, or, in the main. 

tasho many or few, much or little, quantity, or, more or less. 

taigai) taitei generality, or, for the most part, almost. 

a Practically, of course, such a word as "now" must refer either to the 
immediate future or to tlie immediate past. luui may also be used like im5 ia 
the sense of " more " : ima tfpai one cup more. For imagorc note : Uiu de mo^nro always ahout this time. 

b Tadnima difl'ers from tatla ima in that the latter can refer only to the past. 

c Chika^-oro and ionof^oro may be used either of an event in the recent pa&t, 
like kofiohodo and kotioaida, or, like kinrai, of a state of things continuin*; to 
the present. 


Substantives as Adverbs 


Taigai (jaitei) ni shite oke. Don't take too much pains. 

To the same category belong the suffix chu or ju (p. 137a), 
as in karadaju the whole body, and ichido (lit. one and the 
same), as in kydin seito ichido the teachers and pupils as a 
body, the whole school. Such compound expressions may be 
used adverbially, without particles, and also as substantives. 

Finally we might include the numerals, with ikutsu, ikura 
or nanihodo (vulgar namdo), etc. But the numeralives, though 
originally substantives, never take the particles ga, wo, etc,, 
and are therefore to be classed as adverbs. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

katana sword. 
nada stretch of rough sea. 
sakai boundary, frontier. 
kaki'ji^ kake-mono, 
karasu clear off, dispel (intr. 

f/ti'AnrasAisinQXicnsiVQ view. 
kataru speak, tell. 
fnona-gatari tale. 
oka hill, land. 
ho ear (of grain). 
oka-bo upland rice. 
yaki-ba crematory. 

^^'^"^^ \ public bath. 
sen-to J ^ 

jii, su (c) number. ^ 




hap'pu promulgation 

^ji'Vien land, lot of 

hot' tan beginning 

hyd-ban rumor ( — no hydban 
wo suru), reputation I pop- 

kein-pj the constitution. 

shi-nin dead person. 

to-ji medical treatment at a 
hot spring {tj^^yu), tak- 
ing the baths. 

gam-pi-shi Japanese paper of 
very fine quality. 

kd'ban-sho police substation 

(p. 940- 

gyo-sei-kwan administrative 

sai-bankwan judge. ^' 

tabako'bon tobacco tray (con- 
taining a small hibachi, 
haifuki, etc.). 

ki-fftyj na strange, wonderful. 

a This is a very common word: sTt-gaku mathematics, dai-sU algebra ^dni 
■abst it ul ion), //7M-JM singular number, /«>&//- jfl plural number, o*-jfi number of 
r», su-hyaku several hundred, sn-ka-i^etsu several months. 

b The term shi-ho-kwan (administcr-la\v-of?kial) includes both han-ji judj^es 
arid /•^/«-/V public prosecutors. 

342 The Advlkb [lkxv 

hakaru calculate, estimate, nikki wo kuru turn leaves of 

weigh, consider. a diary. 

motomeru desire, search for, massugu (wi) straight 

purchase. subete in general, all. 
kachi de iku go afoot. 


Koko wa dkubo san no korosareta tokoro des.* Sakujitsu a 
motome nas'tta kakeji wa soko ni o mochi de gozaimas^ ka. 
Chotio soko ye itte kifnas\ » Mukashi koko ye zainiH no kubi 
wo sarashimasK ta, As'ko ni tomyodai ga dekimasKta kara^ 
mo kono nada de hasen 7va arimas'mai, Doko ga o ito gozai- 
vias'ka, Doko to mo iemasen ga, karadaju {ga) ito gozaimas\ ^ 
Myoiiichi wa yo ga aketara, sugu fii okosh'te o kure. Dare ka 
tabakobon wo motte koi. Hai, tadaima. Kono kimpen ni ko- 
bansho ga arimasen ka. Koko kara massugu ni san cho hodo 
iku to, {kobansho ga) arimas\ Kono gampishi wa doko de o 
kai ni narimasKta ka, Soko no kamiya de kaimaslita. Ha- 
kone c nado ni wa moto sekisho ga atte, tegata ga nakereba, tj- 
raremasen desKta. Dokka kono hen de ippai yarakashima 
sho ; doko ga ii ka shim ^ Miharashi ga yj gozaimas^knru, 
Uwoju ye mairiwashd. Joyaku-kaisei zen de mo seifu ni ya- 
tow are ta gwaikokujin wa Nihonkokuju doko ye de mo suviu 
koto ga dekimash' ta, Kome zva doko ni de mo ts'kuru to 
iu wake ni wa ikanai. Mizu wo hikenai tochi ni tva okabo 
no hoka wa ts'kurenai. ® Chotto soko ye iku n des^kara, ramp' 
wa kesazu ni okimasho. Kore kara saki zva saka ga oi kara, 
kuruina kara orite aruite mairimasho, Koko wa uma wo 
kaes* tokoro des'kara, orite arukanakereba narimasen, Sento 
{yuya) wa doko ni de mo arimas\ Koko de wa jama ni 
naru kara, hibachi wo sochtra ni yare. Muko ni kemuri no 

a Translate : I am Jjoing out for a little while. Soko ye is used indefinitely: 
for itte kimasu sec p. 231. 

b Doko to mo iemasen. I can't say where. Compare : Nan to mo iemasen, I 
can't say. It may be, I don't know. 

c The well known pass on the Tokaido. 

d Yarakasu is a vulgar equivalent of yaru or suru; ippai yarakasu take 
a drink. Uwoju is the name of a restaurant in Mukojimo. 

c Okaho no hoka iva anything (any kind of rice) except upland rice. For 
the particle ui in these two sentences compare pp. 56c, 59b. 

lxxv] Substantives as Adverbs 343 

(Uru iokoro ga arimas'ga, {are wa) nan des^ka. As'ko wa 
shinin no yakiba {kwasoba) des\ Komiichi hajiviete wakari- 
viash'ta. Ima kitchiri roku ji de£ka. Mada karekore jip- 
pun hodo mae desttd, Onna wa yoru soto ye deru mono de wa 
nai. Kino nikki wo kutte mitara^ konna warui tenki ga ma 
tjka bakari isuBukimas*. Sassok'desu ga, * konnichi wa shd- 
sh'j o negai mosKtai koto ga atte mairimasKta. Danna wa 
itsu {de) mo rusu no yd des'ga^ do sKta mon*deskd, lie, 
shijii rusu to iu wake de wa gozaimasen ; bankata rokuji go ni 
irasshareba, itsu mo uchi des\ Senseiy Godaigo fennJ ga ^ 
Oki ye shimanagashi ni seraremasVta no wa itsugoro des'ka 
{itsugoro no koto des^kd), SayD, karekore go hyaku shichi ju 
nen hodo mae no koto des\ Chikagoro ito wa f'keiki des\ 
Monogatarino hottan ni wa yoku " ima wa mukashi" to kaite 
arimas\ Moto wa gyjseikwan ga saibankwan wo kafiete ita 
ga, ima de wa beisubeisu ni narimasKta, Sore wa dare ga 
saisho ni iidasKta koto des*ka. Konogoro wa mata joyaku* 
kaisei no hydban ga gozaimas\ Imashigata kaminari ga nat- 
ia ja nai ka» Ima Ueno no kane wo utta yd des'ga, uchi wa 
shimasen desKta ka ; nanji no knne desho. Tadaima ni ji 
zvo uchimasKta, Ni ju ni nen no haru kempj ga happu ni 
fiariviasKta, Washi hodo hayaku tobu tori wa nai. Kono 
chisho wa sftorai hijo ni takaku narimasho. Chikagoro wa 
kotOHohoka samu gozaimas\ Daitai dekimash'ta. 

This {koko wa) is Japan Bridge ; distances in every direction 
{kdbj ye no risu) are all calculated from this bridge (they cal- 
culate making this bridge the origin). To {made wa) that 
place we can ride (go by horse), but beyond {kara wa) that we 
must dismount and go a foot. Last year {wa) I stopped here^ 
but will not stop this time {wa), because the rooms were dirty. 
Where are you going this vacation {ni wa) ? I should like to 
go somewhere among the mountains {yama ye de mo). I lost 
my notebook somewhere {ye) ; no matter where I search I 

a By using this expression one makes an apology for proffering a request 
without the usual ceremonious preliminaries. 

b The Emperor Go-daigo, ** the later Daigo" {go=^ocki) reigned 13x9—1338. 
Xiaving made an unsuccessful attempt to wrest the supreme power from the 
Mojo family, he was banished to the island of Oki in the Sea of Japan. 

344 The Adverb [lxxv 

cannot find it (ntits* karimasen). This sea (i) is not always 
{2) f so] calm as (4) [it is] to-day (3). The cold in (of) Hokkai- 
do is almost the same as [that ofj Germany. In Japan there 
«rc a good many mountains that are as high as Oyama. In 
the whole world there are no [other] mountains as high as the 
Himalayas. Last night it was very hot, so that I could not 
sleep well. To-day swords are often sold to Europeans, 
because they are no longer needed (have become useless). 
What time is it now ? It is probably about ten o'clock. Go 
to the nefghbor's and inquire if the master is at home. I just 
now caught sight of (tnika-keru) him going out in {de) a 
riksha. This year the heat seems {yo des*) to continue long. 
I feel^ueer (a strange feeling does) to-day for some reason 
or other (ttandaka). At the beginning I coutd not sit [in the 
Japanese way), but afterwards {wa) I gradually became accus- 
tomed [to it]. Every year when summer comes (it becomes 
summer) he goes for {ni) treatment to hot springs (of) here 
and there. Lately many missionaries were invited to the 
American Legation and entertained. Outside it looks unat- 
tractive {kitattai)y but inside it is very fine. 


The subordinatives of certain verbs must be rendered by 
means of English adverbs ; e. g., kasanete iu say repeatedly, 
keiyo shite iu speak metaphorically, etc. The following 
words have became practically adverbs. A few of them, which 
we may designate as formal, are heard not so much in common 
conversation as in speeches : 

aete daringly (formal). 

aratainete again, anew. 

hajimeU for the first time. 

hataskite after all, really, as was expected. ^ 

itatie exceedingly, veiy; .^ 

kaetU on the contrary, rather. 

a As is not infrequently the case, the native word has become formal, in 
the sense of " as was expected," while an no gotoku generally takes its place in 
the colloquial. 


kanete previously. 

kiwameie extremely (formal). » 

kozoite all (formal). 

mashite how much more. 

narashite on an average, from narasu level (p. 20 ra). 

otte afterwards, by and hy^ from on chase. 

sadameie in all probability,, doubtless (with probable form). 

sevtete at least. 

shiite compulsorily, perforce^ importunately. 

subet€ in general, all. 

tatte urgently, importunately. 

xvakete^ tori-wake especially. 

inae'inotte=vtae «/ previously, beforeliand. *> 

^?;//^i->^///^ decisively, resignedly (p. 292, 11). 

ori'itte persistently, earnestly. 

oshi-nadete (classical nabeii) in general, on an average. 

besshiti especially, for betsu ni shite. 

kesshite (p. 214a) positively, never (with negatives). 
Compare da shite how, how is it that, why (p. 212b), do 
shite mo by no means (with negatives), so shite then, so, and 
{p. 21 2y 3), toki to shite at times. ^ 

The etymology of these words in all cases where it is practi- 
cally helpful will readily be guessed by the student. But it 
should be noted that the following verbs are obsolete, in the 
colloquial : aeru dare, kozoru assemble, suberu bring together, 
govern, and naberu or nmneru=^naraberu put in a row. 

Both hajimete and subete are used with uo as adjectives: 
hajimete no koto the first instance, subete no mono all things. 
Note also fnotte-no-Zioka^oinoi-no-hoka or koto^no-hoka very 
(always used in a bad sense). 

The following are derived from negative subordinatives : 

a The verb Hwamem to deierniine, or to carry to an extreme, is best tran- 
slated by means of the adverb "extremely " : o^ori (or zei-takti) ivo kirvameru 
to be extremely luxurious. 

b The adverb tisatle day after to-morrow is derived from asu and satte^ from 
taru leave ; sendatte, from j//i and tatUy from taisu pass^ elapse. 

c The expression yaya-mo sureba (or yayn rno sun* to) « quite often," derived 
from yaya gradually, considerably, is also practically an avlvcrb, though it is 
usually to be rendered " is apt to," like ickaku. 


The Adverb 


kakarazu {vto) unexpectedly. 

nokorazu all. 

oboezu unconsciously. 

omowazu unintentionally. 

tarazu closely, nearly. 

kanarazu assuredly, certainly, without fail, necessarily. 

iokarazu in the near future, soon. 

viuko-vtizu 7ti blindly, recklessly. 

yamu'Wo-ezu^ yamuoezu unavoidably (p. 2S9b). 

ai'kaivarazu as always. 

tori-aezu immediately, in haste, provisionally. 

iori'Vto-naosazu namely, in other words, the same thing as. 

shirasu-shirazu unawares. 


it' gar a lineage (p. 217a). 

ke-mono hairy quadruped, 
beast ^ 

yuki-doke thawing of snow. 

iuoto-kin ) capital, 

gwan-kin ) principal. 

koy ko-ko (the second ko^^o- 
konat) filial piety. 

Ju'bo father and mother. 

JU'Shin inability to compre- 
hend, doubt, suspicion. 

ko-zui flood. 

ris'shui) rise in the world, 

shuS'Se \ promotion. 

shifi'iai body. 

shursho lamentation, mourn- 

sui'gai damage by floods. 

iO'kwai city, metropolis. 
yu-reki traveling for pleasure. 
shu'gi'in the Lower House, 

House of Representatives 

(p. 305a). 
iei'shutsu-an^gi-an bill (p. 

mottomo na reasonable. 
ki'Viuzukashii ill-humored. 
iyagaru dislike. 
osamari ga isuku be settled. 
gudaguda tii you get dead 

tai'Zai sum sojourn, stay. 
rokuroku fully, sufficiently 

(with negatives). 
ioki ni now (at the beginning 

of a sentence). 

a The term kedaniono^ from ke-isU'tnono (tsu genitive particle), exactly 
corresponds to the English " beast " and is almost obsolete, being used only ia 
vulgar curses, while kemotio, which originally denoted "domestic cattle," has 
been expanded so as to include all hairy beasts. 



Tembun nenkan ni hajiineie Seiyojin ga Nikon ye kimasJi- 
ta,^ Kaneie o nainae wa uketamawatte itnash'ta,^ Amari 
ieinei ni iisugiru to, kaette shitsurei ni atarimas\ Dj shUe 
tno Nikon no kon ga yonteru yd ni wa narimas'mai. KessUte 
sonna koto wa sum na, Dj sh'te mo zenkwai wa itaskimas*- 
fftai. Anata hajimeie Seiyo ye oide ni nam no nara, sazo to- 
kwai no tateviono no takai no ni c odoroki nasaru desho (p. 1 32 
a). Hajitnete go ran nasaru n des'kara, go /us kin iva go mot- 
iomo des* (p. 33d). Tonari de wa teishu ga shinimasfC ta ka- 
ra, sadamete skusho sKte iru koto desho. Zaisan mo ari, na 
mo aru hito deskara^ sadamete skugiin giin ni senkyo sare- 
fnaslio. ^ Nikon no kon ga yomeru yd ni naranak'to vio, seiuete 
{wa) hanaski dake de mo jiyu ni^ dekirn yd ni naritai mon 
des\ Hobo {wo) yureki suru koto wa dekinak*te mo, semete 
Kyoto dake wa zeki kembutsu sKtai mon*des\ Ano kito wa 
geko da no ni, shiite sake wo nowaseinask'ta kara gudaguda 
niyoimasKta. Jyagaru no ni, skiite kodoitio wo gakko ni yari- 
fnask'ta. Nihonjin wa torizvake teinei des\ Doits de iva karu 
ni naru to, yukidoke de yoku kozui ga arimas'ga, sakunen wa 
bessKte suigai wo uketa tokoro ga o gozaimash'ta, Wataknshi 
7va tovtodachi to kanashi wo sKte aruite iru uchi ni shirazu- 
shirazu toi tokoro made ikiinasKta, Betsu ni keiko wa shivia- 
sen desVta ga, shirazu-shirazu hanaski ga dekiru yd ni nari- 
inasKta, HisasKku go busata wo itaskimask'ta ; mina sama o^ 
kawari mo gozaimasen ka. Toki ni, tokarazu izure ye ka (dok- 
ka ye) go shuttatsii ni narimas" ka, Nikongo no keiko tvo nasa- 
ru o tsumori nara, kanarazu kanji wo oboenakereba narimasen. 
Kemono de mo ano tori des'kara, viask'te ningen zva kodomo 
^vo daiji ni skinakereba narimasen. * Mori san wa Ise no tai- 
byd ye kutsu wo kaita mama {de) agotta to iu fubun ga ari- 

a Tent-bun is the name of a nenif*, 1532 — 1555. Xcn-kan is derived from 
n^nsss/os/ii and J^art=aida; translate : during the period called I'embun. 

b An expression often heard by a person whei introduced to another. 

C ^//fi^'m^Vw member of the Lower House. 

d Jiyti niiicftly , unrestrictedly; fiyu ni Itanasu speak readily. 

e Ana fori reikis to a previous illustration of the idea expressed by I'o -n'O 
dniji ni su> u. 

348 The Adverb [lxxvi 

viasKta ga^ hatasKte so desKta ka, * *' Shintai happu kore wt^ 
ftibo ni uku ; aete sokonai-^yaburazaru wa ko no hajime nari "^ 
to Kokyo ni kaite arimas\ ^ Yokohavia ni mairiinasKie 
toriaezu o tazune mo shim as K (a ga^ mata aratamete uka- 
gaimas/w. ^ Sore wa iorimonaosazu ko iu imi des\ Jikam 
ga nakaita mon des^ kara^ yamuwoezu rokuroku hanashi mo 
shinaide kaetie mairimasVta. Ano hito wa toki to sKte hifi 
ni kimuzukashii ko'o ga gozaimas\ Taite tomeru mono des* 
karay tsui yuhan tio chiso ni natte kimasKta. Izure otte go 
htnji wo itashiviasho, Anata ni oriitU o negai mdsKtai koto 
g^a gozaimas\ Kono shinamono wa narasKte {narashi) hito* 
tsu ga ju go sen ni atarimas\ Kono setswa itatte fukeiki de 
makoto ni komarimas\ Mukdmizu ni yarikaketa no de nan 
to mo osamari no ts'keyd ga nakunarimasK ta. Kono ie 
wo tate-ru ni go sen yen tarazu kakarimasK ta. Tadaima o 
tegami wo haiken itashimasKte toriaezu sanjo itash*ta yd na 
xvake de, nani mo motte mairimasen kara^ izure sofio uchi ni 
viata yukku-ri o ukagai mdshimasho. Sore wa mottenohoka 
futsugo da. 

If not all {mina de naku to mo), return at least half {ham- 
dun dake de mo). If I can't (though I don't) make anything^ 
specially {beisu ni i), I wish at least to recover (torikaesu) the 
principal. That wrestler is especially stout. To-day as it is 
very windy (the wind is very strong), you must be especially 
careful with the fire (/// 7io yojin wo sum). This spring (p. 
317a) the cherry blossoms have bloomed especially early. It 
happened just as {tori ni naru) I prophesied (beforehand saying 
put). Is this your first trip abroad (in regard to your going 
abroad is kondo the first time) ? About this time {imagoro wd) 
it ought {hazu da) to be getting warmer, but {no ni) on the 

a Viscount Mori, Minister of Edacation, was assassinated on the ixth of 
February, 1889, for an alleged display of irreverence at the shrine of Tse. he no 
tai'hyo [tai great) is the largest and most celebrated femple of the san-goddesR- 

b The Ko-kyo {ko filial piety, kybz=oshu) is a Confucian Classic. Happu is 
from hatsu hair and fu skin ; kore ivo is pleonastic, as often in the literary 
language; uku is llic conclusive form of ukeru receive; aett is usually to be 
translated "dare to"; the negative of sokonai-yabufu takes the attributive 
fonn before the particle wj ; narir=4tsu, 

c There is an implied apology for not bringing n miyav^. 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 349 

contrary it has become gradually colder the last (kono) two or 
three days. As he is lazy he will doubtless fail in the examina- 
lion. How is it that you have learned Japanese so qdckly ? 
In this case you must certainly add {tskerii) the word wa. As 
he is clever and of good famib^ he will doubtless rise in the 
world. I shall soon go to Atami, but intend to return [after] 
staying [there] three days. The pupils of this school are in 
general studious (benkyo des*). This is an extremely interest- 
ing book ; do read it (reading sec). The Government's bill 
(«/ wa) was opposed by (act) all the representatives {go). On 
the way (2) yesterday (1) I unexpectedly met your parents 
(^£0 ryoshin savia). Mutsuki is the same thing as January. * 


There remains a comparatively small class of words used as 
adverbs which are without any inflection, particle, peculiar 
structure, or any external mark to indicate what they are. 

I. Some are derived from the Chinese. Note compounds 
with ichi ** one " and vtai ** every " : 

£^oku^kiwaineii (emphatic shi-goku, from shi^itaru) very. ^ 

cfio-do exactly, just. 

dai'bu, dai'bun (lit. large part) very, rather. 

gwau'rai^moto-yori originally, in reality, 

hei'Zii ordinarily, usually, habitually. 

irai hereafter, since (in the latter sense with a substantive 
or subordinative). ^ 

i-j<?* minutely, in detail. 

kin-rai lately, recently (p. 340c). 

fnochi-ron, muron (lit. without discussion) of course. 

sek'kakn with special pains, kindly (p. 193d). 

shi'ju (lit. beginning and end) constantly, always. 

sko'sen after all, by no means (with negatives). 

a AfuhuH, from tnutsumashii friendly, sociable, is so-called because January 
I a montli of social festivities. 
b Practically kiwamed is more emphatic even than shi^oktt. 
c In the sense of " licreaftcr " : Anaia iva irai so in koto wo shite wa ikefnii- 
BW, Osoreifimashita ; irai iva ki ivo tsukemasu kara, dozo^ go kamben t^'O tie^ai- 
You must n*t do such a thing again. 1 am very sorry, I will be careful 
licreafter ; please be patient with nic. 

350 The Adverb [lxxvu 

ta-bun (lit. many parts) for the most part, probably. 

to-tei utterly, at all (with negatives). 

id-to^ ioto at length, finally. 

tsu-reij tsu-jd usually, customarily. 

zan-ji {zan^shibaraku, ji^toki) a little while. 

zen-iai (lit. whole body) constitutionally, originally, properly 
speaking, in reality {zentai ni in general). 

zuibun (fit) a good deal, considerably. 

iJkJkJ (lit. one direction) entirely, at all (with negatives). 

ipfiai (ni) a whole — , with one's whole — (set ippai with all 
one's might), 

issaij issetsu entirely, at all. * 

isso (lit. one layer) doubly, more. '' 

ittai (lit. one hoAy)^ zentai. 

mai-nen^ mautoshi yearly. 

mai'getsu^ mai-tsuki monthly. 

mai'sAu weekly, mai-nichi daily. 

inai-asa every morning, mat-ban every evening. 

inai'do every time, often. 
Other adverbs are derived from stems of native verbs : 

amari, ammari too, so very, so much, from amarti be in excess. 

— kiri, giri merely, only, just, from kiru cut. ^ 

tsumari after all, in the end, so to speak, finally, from tsu- 
maru be straitened. 

ottsuke presently, soon, from oii chase (p. 297a). 

sashi-atari at present, from ataru strike. 

yo'doshi the whole night through, from tosu cause to pass. 
The following, of native origin, may be designated adverbs 
proper. The list should include ko (kayo ni), so (sayo nt)^ 

a Sai and se/sU are variant readings of the same cliaracter. IssetsH is used. 
only with negative words. 

b Isso (no koio), which means " rather," is probably a corruption of this. 

c See pp. 232a, 233d. Mo kore kiri niairimasen. I shall not come any more. 
Bakari or bakkari, from hakaru calculate, might be included in the same grovp 
with kiri. It is used not only with substantives and numerals in the sense of 
'< about " but also with substantives, subordinatives, etc., in the sense of 
"only" and with preterits in the sense of "only" or "just" c. g., asonde 
bakafi iru do nothing but play, sukoshi totta bakari desu have taken only a 
little, kaetta bakari dtsu have just returned (p. 229c). Note also the idiom 
— bakari de nakti — mo " not only — but also " (p. Z46a). 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 351 

a * and do. From the last are derived dojBo {nani-to-zo), doka 
somehow or other, if possible, please (p. I770> ^^^ dome. 
Note : So wa ikanai^ or, So de wa ikenai. That won't do. 
That's the wrong way. 

dose {do shite mo), dode {do de mo) any how, at any rate, 
after all. 

hanahada (from hanahadashit) very, very much. 

hotondo (from classical hotohoto) almost, very much. 

ikaga (from ika ni kd) how ? 

iku'bun-ka somewhat 

ima-sara {sara ni in addition, again) after so long a time, no 
more (with negatives). 

isfure in some way or other, at all events (p. 305 b). 

ka-nari moderately, passably, fairly. 

katsute formerly, once before (formal). 

fnada still, yet. ^ mata again. ^ 

fftasu first of all, on the whole, well {hito-mazu once, for a 
while). [negatives). ^ 

7nd already, by this time, soon, now, still, no more (with 

ma-Iiaya already, soon, no more (with negatives). 

moppara chiefly, principally, specially. 

inoUomo most 

nani'dun, nambun {fit) in every way, at any rate, at all 
(with negatives), by all means, please (p. 208d). 

nao still more. nao-sara all the more. 

naee why ? « 

nomi only {sore nomi narazu=^sore bakari de naku). 

a This a is used not in a iu but also, rarely, with other verbs: a yaite it 
iva toiemo seM shimasumai. If he acts like that, he will never succeed. 

b See p, ijd. Afada ari//tasu Jta, Are there any left? Maka ichi ji desu. It 
is only one o'clock. 

c Mata does not mean exactly •* again " in: Sorg iva mata nanigoto desu ka. 
And what is that 7 

d Mojiki ni now at once ; nio yoroshU gozaimasu that will do now ; m'j taknsan 
enough now ; nid arimaien there are no more ; mo {ma) sukoshi a little more or 
a little longer ; md (ma) hitotsu one more ; md ichi do once more ; md sukoshi de 
wiLhin an ace of, almost, soon. 

e Foreignes should be careful about using na%e in direct address. It is 
rather familiar, and is never heard in polite conversation, except perhaps in 
9taze desu ka. Use do shite instead of nate. For naze naraba and nate to iu no 
ni sec p. 224b. 

352 The Adverb £lxxvii 

o-kata for the most part, probably. * 

oti-fushi^oriori^ tokidoki now and then, 

oyoso about, approximately. ^ 

sa-hodo (ni) so much (with negatives). 

safe so, then, well (in proceeding with a story or speech). 

sujso how — you must (with probable form). 

— shika shikya but, only (with negatives). 

sukoshi a little. 

sunawacki that is, namely. 

iada^ tatta only, merely. ^ 

tO'kaku in one way or another, is apt to, sad to say. ^ 

iomokakumoy toinokaku, tonikaku at any rate. 

toiemoy for Memo kakuUmo^ by no means (with negatives). 

yagate soon, presently. 

yahari, yappari likewise, too, still, notwithstanding. 

yo-hodoy yoppodo a good deal, very (p. 174a). 

yoppiie {yo hito yo) the whole night. 

yoyaku. yoyo finally, at last, with difficulty, barely. 

In the literary language many of these words, especially 
those derived from the Chinese, are used also as substantives. 
In the colloquial, too, many of them may be used with no. 
The student will generally be able to judge from the nature of 
the adverb whether it can be so used or not. Especially 
common are : mochiron tio koto a matter of course, sekkaku no 
oboshiineshi your kind intention, zanji 110 aida for a little 
-while, yDyaku no koto de with great difficulty. 

2. There are particles of emphasis, koso, sac, sura and dafii^ 
which can hardly be translated, unless by means of the word 
**even." Koso has on the words which it immediately follows 

a The learned also say osorakuwa, which may be translated, •* It is to be 
feared that." A similar classical form ne^^awakniva, which is equivalent to 
dmo or naniiozo. 

b The origiaal classical form oyoso also occurs in the sense of ** in general." 
Oyoso may be used pleonastically with kurai, etc. (p. 72c). 

c Tadi is often used pleonastically with bakari, kiH or shika. Note also 
iada de ^xzX\%, Tada desu. It costs nothing. 

d Tokaku occurs with especial frequency in sentences that cxpr«»ss regret 
and is oiten hard fo translate (=German leider): Tokaku kono setsu wa ante 
ga furimnsu. It rains a great deal these days, 7 okaku yasut mono tva hayaku 
sonjimaiu. Clicnp things soon wear out. 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 353 

the same effect as italics in English. It may be added to 
substantives (p. 323), adverbs (p. 3i4b)y postpositions, con- 
ditionals and subordinatives : 

Sdyaite koso koko to iu mono da. 
To act like that is filial piety indeed. 

Nihonjin kara chokusetsu ni naraite koso honto no Nihongo 
g-a oboerareru no ni, S'fnis*san wa gwaikokujin ni tsuite ben- 
kyo wo shite orimasu. In spite of the fact that Japanese can be 
mastered best by learning directly from a Japanese, Mr. Smith 
13 studying under a foreigner. 

Sae is usually added to substantives, adverbs or stems of 
verbs in conditional or concessive clauses (p. 279a), and often 
occurs in the^combination {de) sae (mo) : 

Kodomo de sae mo yoku wakaru no ni 

Though even a child can understand 

Sura is used only with substantives, postpositions, subordina* 

tives and in the idiom {de) sura {mo) : 
Issen sura vtotanai. I have n't even a cent 
Chanto shoko wo misete sura {mo) so de nai to iimasu. 
He denies it even though I show him the evidence. 
Naporeon de sura mo Roshiajin no tame ni yaburaremashita. 
Even Napoleon was defeated by the Russians. 

Dani is used, with substantives, in the same sense as sura, 

3. Finally we have the particle mo. It serve to modify the 
word which it follows and has the sense of (a) "also,*' *' too," 
•• on the other hand," and (b) " even." 

Kore mo yoroshii. TTiis also will do. 

Anata mo oide ni ftarimasu ka. Will you go too ? 

Shoyu wo {6) shitaji to mo iimasu. 

S/idyu is also called shitaji. 

Ima mo so iu shukwan ga nokotte orimasu ka. 

Does such a custom persist even now ? 

Hitori mo orimasen. There is not even one there. 

Mon0 (wo) me iwasu {ni) without saying anything at all. 

Hitotsu mo nokosazu {ni) without leaving a single one. 

« ObserYe the position of mo; one never hears skUaji mo to timam. 

354 The Adverb [lxxvii 

Do sum koto vio dekisu. It can't be helped ( = Shikata ga nai). 
In many negative expressions mo is untranslatable : 

kagiri mo nai unlimited, infinite. 

kawari mo nai unchanging. 

kono ue mo nai unsurpassed (of good things only). 

omoi mo yoranai unexpected. 

Warukti mo nai. That's not bad. 

Arisj mo nai hanashi desu. It's improbable (p. 276b.) 
Compare adverbial expressions like ma-mo-naku (p. 315). 

Added to interrogativcs mo makes them universal indefi- 
nites (Ch. XVII.) : 

itsu made mo for ever. 

doko made mo to the utmost, to the very end. 

ikutsii mOt ikura mo, ikutari mo, etc., very many. 

ika-ni-mo indeed, very. ^ 

When 1)10 is repeated it has the sense of ** both — and," or, 
with a negative word, " neither — nor " : 

Kore mo are mo it. Both this and that are good. 

Nomi mo ka mo takusan orimasu. 

Both fleas and mosquitoes are plentiful. 

Pen mo inki mo arimasen. There is neither pen nor ink. 
Mo rarely serves as a conjunction (p. 400, 16). ^ 

The combination de mo {=de atie mo) or, more emphatic- 
ally, de sae mo or de sura mo, may be rendered " even." De 
mo is also used to make the sense of a word vague and may be 
rendered " such a thing as," " or something of the kind " (p. 
178b), or, with a negative word, " exactly " (p. 237a). De mo 
with interrogative pronouns makes emphatic indefinites (Ch. 
XVII). It takes the place not only of wa, ga and wo, but also 
of other particles. Like mo it may be added not only to sub- 
stantives, but also to particles and postpositions : 

Daigakusha de sae mo wakarimasen. 
Even fjreat scholars do not understand. 

a From the classical ika ni=dd how ? Jka ni shite mo=dd skite mo. Ika ni 
MO meant originally ** u\ every way.*' It is now often used as a response ia 
conversation like the English " To be sure I " 

b Mo also enters into the idiom— >&<x tno shirenai (p. 109a), concessives like 
keredomo and to iedotno (pp. 99, 245), yori mo (p. 136), moshi mo, etc., without 
making any perceptible addition to the sense. 

xxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 355 

Umpitsu de vio yoroshiu A lead pencil will do. 

Gakusha de mo gozaimasen. He isn't what you call a scholar. 

J^en de mo empitsu de mo ariviasen. 

There is not a pen of any sort nor any pencil. 

Gitn fit naranai {narumai) mono de mo nai (common idiom). 

It is not impossible that he will become a representative. 

Z>j de mo kamaimasen. Any way will suit. 

Natsu de mo yasumi wa arimasen. 

[1] have no vacation even in summ r. 

Seiyo no yoi shiba wa Kobe de mo ^ metta ni miraremasen. 

One can seldom see a good European play even in Kobe. 

Sore de mo hara wo tatemasen. 

He nevertheless did not get angry. 

Jya de mo o de mo kamaimasen. ^ 

1 don't care whether he likes it or not. 

Mukojima made de mo ikitai to oiftoimasu. 

I should like to go at least as far as to Mukojima. 

Nan-de-mo is used adverbially in the sense of *' at all events/' 
** probably." : 

Nan de-mo benkyo ga kanjin da. 

In any case diligence is the important thing. 

Nan-de-mo jibun de Tokyo ye ittarashii. 

It seems likely that he himself has gone to Tokyo. 

The combination to mo in Nan to mo iemasen needs no fur- 
ther explanation (p. 342b). In other connections to mo ap- 
pears to be elliptical, as in Kayuku mo nan to mo nai (p. 252b), 
where to mo = nan to iu koto mo ; or. So to mo (or wa) shirazu^ 
where so to mo=sonna koto ga aru to in koto mo. In replies 
to questions to mo is especially common and has the sense of 
*• most assuredly " : 

Kimasu to mo. He will certainly come. 

Arimasu to mo. Of course there are. 

4. Our " yes " corresponds to sj da, so desu, sayo de gozai- 
ffiasu (but see also p. 134a) ; *'no/' to so j'a nai, sayo de wa 

a In this case not Kobe de de mo. But even this is a possible construction; 
c. g., Nikon de wa Nichiyobi de mo lamawazu s/iobai wo Uashimasu. Yokohama 
de de mo desu ka. In Japan people do business even on Sunday (lit. even on 
Sunday not heeding). Is that the case even in Yokohama? De mo may Ijc an 
ellipsis for ni de mo : Dare de mo dekimasuy for. Dare ni de mo dekimasu, » 

b This 3 is the literary equivalent of h^i yes. Compare oztif^ or djiru- 
agree or comply with. 

356 The Adverb [lxxvii 

gozaimasen, etc. One may also repeat the verb of the ques- 
tion. Waiarimashita ka. IVakarimashita (or IVakarimasen). 
Have you understood ? Yes (or No). The word hat or kei 
alone usually means " yes " in the sense tliat the speaker is 
attentive to what is beings said to him. Hat or hei and tie or 
iya also precede verbs : Hai^ wakarimashita. Yes, I under- 
stand, lie, wakarimasen. No, I don't understand. But it is 
a peculiarity of the Japanese that these words refer not so 
much to the objective fact as to the attitude of agreement or 
disagreement with what has just been said (p. I2a): Kyo 
kimasen ka. Hai (or Sayd de gozaimasu). Isn't he coming^ 
to day ? No (lit Yes, i. e., as you say). lie (or So de goxai- 
masen) would have to be translated Yes, he will (lit. No. i. e., 
you are mistaken). Hence such combinations as Sayd, kimasen, 
or, lie, kimasu. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

chtmba lameness, lame per- moku {=fne eye) intersection 

son (or animal). of lines on a checker-board, 

momi red silk cloth. numerative for checkers. 

Uukue [Japanese] table sei energy, force. 

p. 96d). datnrpan conference, negoti- 

e ha-gur^ black dye for the ation. 

teeth, a dan-nen {dan^kiru, nen= 

ma-gd one in charge of a omot) ceasing to think 

horse, hostler or driver. about, giving up. 

mayu eyebrows. fu-soku insufficiency, dissatis- 

mayu'ge " {ke hair). faction. 

naga-iki long life. nani fusoku ga fiat is well off. 

c shi'Oki execution (of crimi- i-chi position, situation. 

nals). i-slid clothes. 

JO {c)=^da place (ui composi- jis-sai actual conditions, 

tion). practice. ^ 

ft In olden times all married women blackened their teeth. It was a mark of 
faithfulness and respectability. Thte best quality of Asgurohtin^ made of iron 
ore it was called Jk^am. To dy« the t«eth is o haguro wo tsukeru, 

b Also used as an adverb in the sense ** in reality." 


Ordinary Adverbs 


kin-skin circumspection, oipd^ 

mei-ya honor, reputation. 

on-do temperature. 

ft'kuisu reason, argumenta- 

shi-dan division (of the army). 

ship'Pai failure. 

shu'kwan habit, custom. 

tsu'sho commerce. 

tm-yd being in common use, 

yo-jo taking care of the 

jo'bi'gun standing army. * 

kai'sui-yoku sea (water) bath- 

men-jo permit, license. 

ryaia^menjo == ryokoken pass- 

utoi distant, estranged, un- 

dame na useless, impossible. 

bay am prevail, be in fashion. 

hayari no fashionable, 

me no chikai shortsighted. 

— ni otoru be inferior to. 

kokoro erti perceive, under- 

kamai'Uukeru pay attention 
to (with vf&). 

oi-karau drive out. 

kau beg. 

ama-goi wo suru pray for 

hiiki suru favor» be partial to 
(with wo or «/). 

jo-yakn %vo musubu make a 

i-sha ni kakarn consult a 

on-gi ni kanzuru feel grate- 
ful for kindness. 


Ikanimo ossharu tori de gozaimas\ Ima de vio Nikon no 
onna zua mayuge wo otoshimas* ka. Sayd sa^ wakai onna wa 
inina tatete imas* ; mata toshiyori no uchi ni mo SeiyZfii ni 
tateti iru onna mo arimas*, ^ Anata wa hodo no ii koto dak- 
kafi^ (p seji bakkari) itte imas\ Kore wa kotjgakko (p. 55a) 
de bakari mochiiru tokuhon des\ Mada Nikon no cka wa 
nonde mita koto ga arimasen kara^ ori ga attafa, ippai 
nonde fnitai moWdes\ Koban wa m3 sappari tsuyo shinaku 

a Yjora jd:^at5Uft€ ni, In^sasonaeru have in readiness, and gun army. The 
firsi reserve is yo-bi-gun, fiom yos=^arakajim$ beforehand ; the second rcEerve, 
k^-H-gun, from ki, a variant of go^anochL 

b Mayugt is often pronounced miaigt, Mayugt wo oiosu shave the eyebrows \ 
f'iayug^ wc tatim let the eyebrows grow. 

G ffad^ n4 a Jhto fkittery. With iaMari the particle wo is rarely used : koio 
wo bakari. In the next sentence note the position of dt : k^Qgakkb bakari d$ 
means «« it being only a college." 

The Adverb ^ [lxxvu 

nari^^^^^^^hnogoro s*koshi mo ante ga ftfrimasen kara, 
hyak' sla^K^matU amagoi wo shimas\ Ooka Echizen no 
kami 7va^ hito no kao wo ntizu ni saiban wo shimasKta ; naze 
nafeba, kao wo mireba^ shizen to dochira ka (fit) hiiki suru 
kokoro ga okoru kara des\ Itsu mo go kigen yj irasshaimaslite 
kekko de gozaimas. Do iu fii ni ten ami no keiko wo sKtara yo 
gozaimasho. So de wa ikemasen ga. ko nas' ttara yoroshu gozai- 
fnasho. Nihon no jobigun wa tatta ^ j'u san shidan sh'ka art- 
fnasen, Ano hito wa taisd kinshin sh'te sake wo nomanaide ori- 
fnas\ Tadaima yonda bakari des'kara^ oboete iru hazii desga. 
Sakuban no o kyaku wa ikutari desh'ta ka. Mina de ju nin 
vianekimasK ta ga^ tatta roku nin sh'ka kimasen desKta. Gaku- 
mon^ sae areba^ meiyo no aru ichi ni noboremas\ Watakushi 
no tokei wa mo yo ji ni narimas' ; shikashi chanto atte iru 
ka do da ka wakarimasen. Sonna ni osoku wa gozaimasen ; 
mada san ji han des\ Ano uma wa chimba da kara, tada 
de mo iya da, Inu de sae mo shujin no on zva wasurenai, 
Aviari kaze ga fuite iru yd de wa arimasen . O taku de wa 
mina sama o kawari mo gozaimasen ka. Seiyo no suzume wa 
os^to vtesto wa keiro ga taisd chigaimas* ga, Nihon no wa 
mes*mo os*mo (or to) onaj'i koto des\ Ishikawa Goemon ga ^ 
o shioki ni nam toki ni, watakushi wa tada wazuka no kane 
wo nusunda bakari desga, Hideyoshi wa tenkafu wo nusu- 
mimasKta no ni, naze watakushi bakari shirabete Hideyoshi 
wa shirabemasen ka to moshimash'ta. Gasshukoku ^ seifu wa 
bakufu to nagaku dampan wo sh'ta ato de yjyaku tsus/id-joyakn 
71/0 viusubimasKta. Mago ni mo is ho (Proverb). ^ Kobo ni 

a This is the name of a machi-bugyo in Edo in the XVIII. Century, who is 
iamous among the Japanese for the Solomonic wisdom of his judgments. The 
city was governed hy two bugyo who possessed military and judicial as well as 
administrative functions. Echizen is tlie name of a province on the coast of 
tlie Japan Sea; kami lord. Titles like Echizen tio Kami, originally used only 
of the lord of the country, gradually became applicable to others. 

b Taiia is used when a quantity is regarded as very small. Compare tada- 
go yen satsu ichi mat shika motanai and tatta issen shika motanai, 

c A notorious robber at the end of the XVI. Century. 

d Gas-shu-koku the United States, from gd=awaseru, shu province aod koku, 

e Clothes make the man. Compare the other proverb : Mugi-wara ningyd 
mo ishd-gara. Even a doll made of wheat straw [is judged according to] the 
quality of its clothes (p. 217a). 

Lxxvii] ^ Ordinary Adverbs ^^^^^ 359 

fno Jude no ayainari (Proverb). ^ Oya kt^^^^^^^no zeni 
kam wa tanin da (Proverb). ^ Taiko sama^^^^mda no wa 
Keicho « san nen sunawachi sen ^o hyaku ku jt^achi nen de* 
sfCta, Yd wa ato ni sKte inazu o agari nasai. Mo shakkin 
tva sukkari kaesKte shimaimasU ta kara, kore de anshin des\ 
Kyoto no jinko wa oyoso san ju roku man nin gurai des\ 
Mo hitotsu meshiagare. Mo kore kiri kiinasen ka, O me wa 
ikaga des'ka. Arigato^ kono setsu wa daibu yd gozaimas\ 
Nihon 711 mo kinnen wa kaisuiyokujo ga tak'san dekimasK ta, 
IVatakushi wa go no sensei ni shichi moku okasete moratie mo 
shiju makete imasKta ga, dandan jozu ni natte ima de wa yd- 
yaku katsu yd ni narimasKta, ^ Fujisan wa itsu mo yuki ga 
tsumotte ite shiroku miemas*ka. lie, goku ats'ku nareda, hito 
ts'ki gurai no aida yuki ga mienaku narimas\ Naraita j'i 
tvo orifushi kurikaesanai to, wasuremas\ Mo ryokomenjo no 
negai wa dashimasKta ga, mada menjo wa sagarimasen. 
Omae koso uso-ts'ki (liar) da. Sonna koto wo onna de mo deki- 
vias' ; masKte otoko wa naosara {no koto) ® des\ Kono setsu wa 
tokaku hitogoroshi ga okute komarimas\ Kore koso itte mina- 
kereba narimasen, Taiso honeotte yoyakn Nihon no hon ga 
shosho yomeru yo ni narimasVta, Sonna ni ts*kue ni kuttsuite 
o yomi nasaru to, o me ga nao chikaku narimas'yo. Sekkaku 
dekiagaru to, sugu ni kowarete shimaimasK ta. Sekkaku takai 
amocha xvo katte yatta no ni, sugu kowasKte shimaimasU ta, 
Tako ga yoyo agarimas/ita, Kono sets*wa aviari yd mo 
arimasen kara, kashihon^ de mo yomimas/id. Kore kara 
Nihongo bakari ts' kaimasho. Ano hito wa ko mo aru shi {ari) 

a ICdhd is an abbreviation of Kobo Daishi, the great teacher Kobo {Jto^hira- 
tneru promulgate, ltd law). He was the founder of the SAin-gon {s=makoto no 
koioba) sect and is renowned as a scholar and penman. 

b When it comes to a question of money even such a close relation as that 
between parent and child is like the relation between strangers. For *eni 
kane see p. 225a. 

c The name of a nengd, 1596 — 16x5. 

d The checkerboard is go-ban; the checkers are gci-ishi. The one who 
occupies {tski 700 ol'u) the larger number of points {me) on the board wins. 
The teacher handicaps himself by allowing his pupil at the beginning of the 
game to occupy seven points. 

e Mashlie — naosara no koto desu^ is a common pleonastic idiom, like iada — 
bakari^ moski^nara, tatoi — nto, etc. Naosara [fiokotd) desu is elliptical for na^ 
snra dekiru Aazu desu, 

f An entertaining book borrowed from a kashi^hon-ya. 

360 The Adverb [lxxvii 

kane mo aru sfit (^^^) tiani hiiotsu Jusoku ga naL K$ssh^U 
so iwarenai to wa umasen ga, tsurei so iva iiviasen. Maido 
kodomo ga agarimasliii jama wo itashivias\ Do itashi- 
maslite ; nigiyaka de kaette yoroshu gozaimas\ Maido sewa 
ni narimasKte^ osoreirimas\ Ano hito wa gwanrai karada ga 
affiari jodu de nakatta ga, yofo ga yokaita won des^ kara^ 
nagaiki wo itashimasKta. Jsai iorishirabeta ue de (after) 
moskiagemasho. Ikura negatta iokoro ga, shosen kiiti knre- 
mat kara, dannen suru yori hoka aritnas'mai. * Kono yd ni 
itie kikasKU mo kikanai nara, igo wa issetsu kamai-isuken 
kara. so omoe. Otts^ke do ni ka narimashd,^ Ikubunka 
kokoroe no nai hito ni %va. ikura tokiakasKte yatte mo, naka- 
naka ivakarimas^mai. Nanigoto ni yorazu ^ heizei chati sk'te 
oranai to, tokaku shippai shimas\ Anata no ossharu koto wa 
Mochiron rikutsu ni wa kandtU orimas'ga, j'issai ni wa utd 
gozatvtas\ Zentai oya ga warui kara, kodomo ga anna tsuma- 
mnai mono ni natta no da. Sano kimono wa momi no ura wo 
ts'ketara, isso rippa ni narimasho. Dose, mutsukaskii viono 
nara, isso ko yatte vtitara do des\ Tori ya kemono de sura 
vto on wo ukete wa kaes'koto wo sKtte oru no nij hito to sKte 
ongi ni kanjiru kokoro no nai mono wa tori kemono ni mo otoru 
mono de wa arimas^mai ka. Go kigen yoroshu gozaimas'ka. 
Hat, kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. Isai shochi itashiviasK ta. 
Kodomo wa gakko kara yagate kaette kuru jibun des\ Kono 
gafcko no seito wa moppara Eigo wo benkyb sk'te orimas\ 

I have already forgotten [my] German entirely^ since I can no 
longer associate with Germans (opportunities to associate with 
Germans have become not existent). Why do Japanese women 
dye their teeth black? I don't know why it is, but such 
IS the custom (it is such a custom). As it is cool to-day, there 
will hardly be so many mosquitoes (mosquitoes will hardly come 
out so much). The temperature (of) this morning was about 
five degrees below Kikd) zero. I («/ wd) have only one brother ; 

a Tokoro ga^ or iokoro de, makes a clause concessive ;=iJku/'a negaite mo. The 
idiom— ^£>;-i hoka nai ♦here is no way bul to — is also a very common one. 

b Do ni ka nam will come to some (satisfactory) conclusion. 

c Translate: it doesn't matter what the business is. 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 361 

he is ten this year (this year ten becoming brother — but one 
there is). In Japan not only adults but even {de mo or tnade 
mo) little girls use ifskerti) face-powder. Even monkeys 
[soQietimes] fall from trees. > Please speak (use) Japanese 
only. At last the preparations are (have been) finished. It 
was my intention to go second class» but, if you go first class, I 
(too) will likewise go with you {^go issho ni itasu). By this 
time it is useless to consult a physician (though you consult a 
physician, it is useless). Formerly there was also in Japan a 
feudal system, but after the Restoration it went to pieces. As 
there is still work (jD) in the house, wait a little longer and 
go out {detg ike) to make your purchases afterwards. After 
{tatte) two years I at last became able to talk (at last it became 
that ijo ni) speaking was possible). After having the teacher 
explain two [or] three times, I at last understood. When may 
I send the messenger ? Any time will do. You may go out 
now and tlien for recreation {asobi ni\ As I drove him out 
of (from) the house, he will not come a second time {ino fta- 
iabi). Tliat lady is always wearing fashionable clothes. Some- 
times {toki to sKte or toki ni yotte) I drink as much as (even) 
ten glasses of beer. Another day we will again speak of it 
{sore wa 1). Usually the Japanese do not smoke toioacco while 
they are at work {hataraite iru aida wa). There are very few 
Europeans that can read Japanese books. At present I have 
no particularly good ideas {kangae). In your composition 
{wa i) there are not so many mistakes ; it is fairly well done. 
At any rate {nanidun), since the days are short, we can't do 
more than this (can do only this), though we work with all 
our might. Formerly when I was in Germany I met Bismarck. 

a This proverb is often joined to the one given above : JCodo ni mo fude ni 



Words in Japanese which correspond to English prepositions 
must be called postpositions, for the reason that they follow the 
words that they govern. These particles may be divided into 
two groups : postpositions proper and quasi-postpositions. 
Postpositions proper immediately follow the words that they 
govern. Some are particles, like de^ ni^ and to^ while others 
were originally substantives, which, however, are no longer 
felt to be such. Quasi-postpositions are really substantives, 
still used as such, to which dependent words are joined by 
means of the particle no. There are also certain subordinatives 
that are used like English prepositions. 

Often where the English employs prepositions other construc- 
tions are required in Japanese : 

Mizu wo abiru bath in cold water. 

Alachi wo aruku walk about the town (or walk the streets). 

Nihon wo (or kard) tatsu start from Japan (or leave Japan). 

Soko wo ugoicha ikenau You must n*t move from that place. 

Gakko wo sotsugyo suru graduate from the school. 

Shina wo tabi suru travel through China. 

Hito no koto wo omou think of a person. 

Isha wo yobi ni yaru send for a physician. 

Zaisan no nai hito a person without property. 

Shippo no mijikai neko a cat with a short tail. 

Wa often occurs where we should expect a postposition: kono 
ni san nichi wa in the last two or three days, Tokyo atari wa 
in the region of Tdkyo, about Tokyo, etc. 

To the postpositions proper belong de^ ni, iOj kara or yori, 
made and ye. These can be used with adverbs : yoru osoku 
made until late at night. Compare to kara for a long time, and 

a "Preposition" is teU'Chi-shi; postposition, A'd-iki-s/n ; f^/i=////j/, ^a==^o» 

Lxxviii] De, ni, to 36J 

to ni a long time ago, from tokm. Sometimes ni is added to 
another postposition, as in made ni (see the following Chapter). 
When in English, a prepositional phrase is used to modify a 
noun^ no is required in Japanese : 

Tokaido ye no risk distances (in ri) to [points on] the Tokaido. 

Tokyo made no kippu a ticket to Tokyo. 

Nikon to no ko-isu intercourse with Japan. 

The remainder of the chapter will be devoted to explaining 
the uses of de^ ni and to, 

I. De ma/ be local and instrumental, like the classical nite. 
It also performs a function similar to that of the subordinative. * 

(i.) De is used in a local sense, answering the question 
*' Where ? " when the verb indicates an action or a certain state 
of things : 

Kochira de wa sonna koto wo shimasen. 

Here we don't do anything of the kind. 

Nikon de wa do skimasu ka. What do they do in Japan ? 

Doko de o motome nasaimashta ka. Where did you buy it ? 

Doko de dekimaskita ka. Where was it made? 

Gwaikoku de skiniinashita. He died abroad. ^ 

Ckizu de sagaskidashite kudasai. Please look it up in a map. 

Koko de matte imaskd I will wait here. 

Amerika de wa so iu shukwan ga gozaiviasen. 

In America there is no such custom. 
De is used in speaking of the mere existence of a thing in a 
place when the place is contrasted with some other place, as in 
the example, p. 35a : Tokugawake no taviaya wa doko desu 
ka, Tokyo de wa Skiba to Ueno ni arimasu. 

a This distinction between Uie de*s may seem at lirst sight more subtle thnn im- 
portant, but it is certainly a factor in determining the usage. In the subordina- 
tive is involved the idea of a cause, condition or circumstance which objectively 
or in a necessary way modifies the action or state expressed by tl»e principal 
word of the sentence. Thus a Japanese would not say, A me f^afutte kaeHmash^ 
because the decision to return is not necessarily connected with the rain ; but 
it is natural to say, Ante ga futte kimarinuisn. Now compare : Kbre de wa 
komnrimasu. This sort of thing is annoying. Ko/e de o ivakare moshimashd. 
At this point I will take my leave. The connection between /core de and the 
verb in the former sentence is closer than in the latter. 

b "He was killed in ihe war between Japan and China'* may be either 
A^isshinsensd de shinimnshi/a, or, more rarely, iViss/iinsen-sensd ni shinimashi/a. 

364 The PosTPOsiTJos [lxxviii 

Some expressions with de have jiassed over from a local to a 
temporal sense : ato de afterwards, * soko de now, then. ^ 

(2.) De may indicate cause or means : 

O kage sama de naoriinashita. 

Thanks to your aid, I have recovered (p. 14c). 

Kono attaka na tenki de wa kbri ga iokemashd. 

With this fine weather the ice will probably melt. 

Take de dekita shina wares made of bamboo. 

Bo de naguru beat with a club. 

Fune de (or fune ni notte) iku go by boat. 

Ichi niehi de dekimasho. It can probably be done in a day. 

Zokugo de zva ko iitnasu In the colloquial they say... 

Yume de mita koto ga am, I have seen it in a dream. 

Ichi yen de kaimashita. I bought it for a yen. 
Sometimes either de or ni may be used with practically no 
difference in the sense. Simply to "dream of a thing" is 
usually mono wo yume ni miru, Ichi yen ni kaiinashita (or 
urimashita) does not differ from ichi yen de kaimashita (or 
urimashitd) any more than the English ** buy at one yen *' 
differs from ** buy for one yen." 

(3.) De may indicate a condition or a circumstance : 

Kore de ii. This will do. 

Ariawase de yoroshii. What is on hand will do. 

Miitsu de takusan desu. Three are enough. 

Mina de san ju ni narimasu. There are thirty-two in all. 

Raigelsu de wa osoija nai ka. Won't next month he too late? 

Some of the adverbial expressions into which de enters come 
under this head : e.g., futari de the two together, etc. (p. 65), 
hisashiburi de after a long interval (p. 338b). There are 
many such adverbial phrases ; c. g., sono ikioi de {ikioi power) 
in consequence of the impetus gained, at that rate : 

Sono ikioi de susumeba j'iki ni Nihongo ga hanaseru yd ni 
narimasho. If he keeps on at that rate, he will soon become 
able to speak Japanese. 

a Compare : O ato kara mairimaskd. I will go after you, i. e., later (p. 257«). 
O ato ni {/suite) mairimaskd. I will go behind you. Jliio no ato ui tatie imatu 
He is standing behind some one. See p. 338, bottom. 

b Ima de:K=itna ni shite or itna ni natte under the present circumstances: inia 
de ieha according to present usage. 

Lxxvni] De, niy to 365 

Note also : sore de or (with a future verb) s^re de tva, sore ja 
in those circumstances, then, in that case. 

There are also conjunctional phrases like takers de. ^ Toko- 
TO de, or de alone, often serves as a superfluous connective be- 
tween sentences in the same way that many use ** and " in 
English. Note the elliptical expression : Ddri de. Quite right I 

De is used with predicate substantives in the idioms de am 
{de gasainiasu) and de iru {de irasshaimasvi) : Hei-ki de iru. 
He's unconcerned. 

(4.) De may have the sense ** on the part of " and be practi- 
cally equivalent to ga, especially with words denoting a body 
or a corporation (p. 126c) : 

Seifu de o karaisage ni narimashita. The Gov't has sold it. 

Jimmin no warui no de wa nai ; seifu de machigatta no desu. 

It's not the people's fault ; it's the Government that blundered. 
So also bakufu de the government of the Shogun, keisatsu de 
the police, kmaisha de the company, seken de the world, etc. 
To the same class may be assigned the peculiar expressions 
uthi de wa or temae de u>a we, yado dt wd^ or taku de wa my 
husband, muko d€ wa or saki de wa he or they, etc. 

(5.) De with substantives is often equivalent to de atte or 
deshite (p. 89c.) : Skimpai de naranau I am exceedingly anx- 
ious (p. 1 58b}. It takes the place of the ending kute with 
quasi-adjectives : Byoki de arukenai.^ He is so sick that he 
can't walk. It is used in the same way with substantivized 
adjectives or verbs (Chapters XXXVIL, LXIV.).^ 

2. The partide ni has a great variety of uses. 

(i.) Ni has a local sense, answering the question " Where? " 
when one thinks of the mere existence of a thing in a place, 
that is, when aru, oru, iru, or one of the corresponding polite 
veits, constitutes the predicate : 

ft TtJkprc de, like tokoro ga, often has an adversative sense: y<n$(/e mita 
ick^ro de, tvatakushi ni wa totento wakarimasumai kara, yoshimasho. Even though 
I read it I should not understand it at aU ; so I will give it up. 

b The word yado alone may mean *' lodging place " or « husband." 

c The de in, Byoki de yasemashi/a. He is emaciated on account of sickness, is 
Mt to be difiierent from the byoH de above. 

d The negative subordinative in naide is dcvfred from the negative present 
iorin and de. 

^66 The PosTrosrnox [lxxvih 

STaviagawa ni at ga takusan orimasu. 
Ill the Tama River there are many trout. 
Tamagawa de ai ga takusan toremasu. 
In the Tama River many trout are taken. 
C Boshi iva doko ni arimasu ka. Where is my hat? 
\ Doko de boshi wo kaimas/io ka. Where shall I buy a hat? 
Sometimes ni occurs with other verbs or with adjectives 
when the idea of being in a place is the prevailing one : 

Konokawa ni wa unagi ga bi. Eels are numerous in this river. 

Mukb ni miemasu. Over there it is (appears). 

Te ni motte imasu. He has it in his hand. ^ 

Soto ni hito ga matte imasu. There is some one waiting outside. 

Soto ni gomi ga tatte imasu. It is dusty outside. 

Koko ni suwarimasho, I will sit here. 

Ta ni kusa ga haeta. Weeds have grown in the paddy-field. ^ 

Kabe ni ana ga aite iru. There is a hole in the wall. 

Shimbun ni kaite aru. It is in the newspaper, 

Tonari ni ie ga tatta, A house has been built next door. 

In the last examples it is a question whether the ni should not 
be parsed as the particle of the indirect object, especially when 
the verb is made transitive : kabe ni ana wo akeni^ shimbun 
ni kaku^ tonari ni ie wo tateru, ^ 

Such verbs as sumu or sumau dwell, tomaru sit (of a bird) 
or lodge, noru be on or ride, etc.,^ naturally take ni with the 
word that answers the question " Where ? " 

(2.) Ni is the proper particle to use with words denoting 
time, answering the question " When ? " (p. 338) : nichiyo ata- 
ri ni about Sunday, asa to ban ni in the morning and in the 
evening (p, 8ib). Note also: hi ni san do zutsu three times a 
day ; san nen ni ichi do once in three years. *^ 

a Te de motte imatn. He holds it with his hand. 

b Compare nitua niueta A'i, niica ni dekita ivio (p. 34 ze). 

c lonari de would mean " on the part of my neighbor " : My neighbor has 
built a house. Similarly : Shimbun de kakimashita. It is reported in the news- 

d We svij Jitensha ni noru ride on a bicycle, but jitensha de iku go by wheeL 
Noru may also mean *^ be induced to take part " : sedan ni noru take part in a 
consultation (Comp. nori-ki ni nartt, p. 305). 

e Ima ni my mean " until now " or •' soon " : Ima ni ko yatte kurashi we shUt 
imasu. Up to the present time I have been making my living in this way. 
Jma niyoku narimasko. It will soon improve. 

Lxxviii] De, ni, to 367 

(3.) With am and similar words ni may denote possession 
or a close relation (p. 9a) : Uski ni tsuno ga am, Watakushi 
ni wa imdto ga nai. 

(4.) Ni (wa) may have the sense of " among '* : 

Kono skina ni ko otsu ga gosaimasu. ^ 

Among^ these goods there are two kinds, first class and second. 

Kuma ni wa ke no shiroi no mo kuroi no mo arimasu. 

Among bears some have white fur and some have black. 

Ano hito no iu koto ni wa machigai ga nai. 

There is no mistake in what he says. What he says is true. 

(5.) Ni may be rendered " in addition to, " besides ", " and " 
(p. 67d) ; e. g., sore ni besides, moreover. In describinf^ ideo- 
grams ni is much used : Meiji no met wa hi hen ni tsuki to iu 
ji wo kakimasu. The character mei (lyj) in Meiji is composed 
of (written) hi (H) and tsuki (/J). ^' Note the idioms: nen 
ni nen wo irete taking the greatest pains ; korae ni koraete 
enduring to the utmost (p. 279, s). Note also proverbial ex- 
pressions like : Ume ni uguisu. Plum tree and bush-warbler, 
i. e., the ume and the uguisu naturally belong together. 6^r/- 
kotoba ni kai-kotoba. Tit for tat (compare : " paid back in 
your own coin "), In idioms like these the idea of contrast is 
often involved : Botan ni karashishi. The peony and the lion, 
i. e., strength and beauty. 

(6.) Ni may mark the thing into which anything enters or 
to which it is transferred : 

a Compare ; Konoftita. no aida m wa ko otsu ga nai. There is no difiercnce 
between tlic two (no superiority and inferiority). Kd and oisu belong to a 
«erics of ten signs czWtdi jikk an or e/o, 

ko=ki'no-e tree ofsu==ki-no-fo herb 

hei^=hi-no-e Aame iei=hi'no'to glow 

bds^^suchi-no- e earth ki^=tsnchi-nO'fo pottery 

ko — ka-no-e coin shitt=ka'no-to hardware 

jins=nUzu-no-e sea water ki=mistt-nO'to fresh water 
These sign are used as we use A, B, C, etc They are also used parallel with 
the twelve zodiacal signs, theyS ni shi, to name the sixty years of the old cycle. 
For practical purposes it is suiTicient to learn the first four, ko^ otsu^hei^ fei, 

b The part of an ideogram called in English the radical, when it forms the 
left side of the character, is called hen=kata side. Thus the hen J{ is nimben, 
from nin=hiio\ ^ is gomhen, from gon=.kotoba. The remainder, the phonetic 
part of an ideogram is called /'w/^«ri body, from tsukuru make, construct. 

368 The PosrrosiTioN [lxxviii 

Hako ni ireru put into a box ; furo ni kairu enter a bath. 

Hito tokoro ni atsumaru assemble in one place. 

Varna ni noboru ascend a mountain (also wo), 

Nihongo ni honyaku sum translate into Japanese. 

(7.) Ni may denote an aim or a result, as in sampo ni deru 
go for a walk, shippai ni owaru end in failure. 

For ni as used with stems of verbs to express purpose see p. 
278, 3. In the same sense it is used with substantives and may 
be rendered " for ", " as " ; with substantivized verbs, " to " : 

Kore wo nani ni tsukaimasu ka. What is this used for ? 

rei no shiruski {made) ni sashiagetnasu, 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. ^ 

Gakusha de mo nai ga^ kyoski ni wa taihen it n'desu. 

He is not at all a scholar, but very good as a teacher. 

Kome wo tsukuru ni wa inizu ga takusan nakertba naranai. 

To grow rice one must have plenty of water. 
Ni may have the sense " so as to become," often translated *' as*' : 

Shichi ni oku deposit as a pledge, pawn. 

Kyaku ni iku go as a guest, be invited out. 

Yoshi ni mofau receive as an adopted son. 

lin ni ageru appoint as a committee. 

Giin ni senkyo snru elect as a representative. 

Fujisan no koto wo uta niyomu compose a poem about Fuji. 

Especially common are the idioms ni sunt (p. 215) and ni 
nam (p. 262) : 

Koko wo niwa ni shimasu. I will make this a garden. 

IJito wo baka ni sum make a fool of a person. 

Hanashi no tane ni nam afford a topic for conversation (or 
a story). 

Tame ni nam hanash' profitable conversation. 

Kivokoku ni n'aru make a [good] advertisement 

Mu'chu {mu=yume, chu^nakd) ni nam become absorbed. 

Ate ni naranai hiio a person not to be relied on. 

Kodoifto no bydki ga ki ni natte hitobanju nerarenakatta. 

The child's illness affected me so that I could not sleep all 
night With ki ni nam^ compare ki ni sum^ p. 215, lO, 

a A common expression employed when a gift is offered. 

Lxxviii] De, ni, to 369^ 

(8.) Ni is used to form adverbs. In this connection note 
such phrases as: cshii koto ni wa (p. ii/d) and to say; 
shiawase na koto ni wa happily \fushigi na koto ni wa strange 
to say, 

(9.) In the following very common idioms ni may be liter- 
ally translated *' in," often having the sense of ** according to '*" 
" or in regard to " : 

Kaeri ni tachiyorimasho. I will call on my way back. 
Sotto koto wa hanashi ni kiita. I heard it in conversation ». 

Kotowaza ni to iimas\ In a proverb it is said that 

Aru hito no kanashi ni wa to iu koto desu. 

Some one has told me that 

Kotaetiiasuru ni wa (or kotaete) to woshimaskita. 

He replied that 

Watakushi no oinoimasu ni wa . ., (yd desu), 

I think tliat a 

Nace to iu no ni kara desu. The reason is that 

Kaku ni kowariutasu. It is difficult to write. 

Koraeru ni koraerarenu. One cannot endure it (p. 274,2)- 

Sono kotoba wa kd iu imi ni (or de) tsukaimasu. 

They use the word in this sense, namely 

Tomaru wake ni wa ikanai (or ikenat), [1] may not stay. ^ 

(10.) With causatives and passives ni indicates the agent* 
Compare: Watakushi ni wa dekiwasen, I can't do it. 

HonorJfically ni wa may take the place of wa with a subject,, 
as in Kwogo heika ni wa (p. 3i3f). 

Ni may also indicate a cause, being equivalent to no tame ni 
"on account of" : 

Fune ni you be seasick ; sake ni you be intoxicated. 

Hi ni yakeru be sunburned. 

Namida ni kurete iru be blinded with tears. 

Kane ni komaru be troubled on account of money. « 

a There is no appreciable difference between watakmki no onunmaiu ni 7ra 
and waiakusMi no kangat de wa. A sentence beginning with the latter phrase 
may end with to ontoimasu. 

b Note that while one may say, IVaiakushi wa i&anakereba naritnasen^ a 
phrase like itfe wa naranai cannot be used in the first person. But — wake n$ 
wa ikanai may be used in any person. 

c When the cause of distress is not an external object, n subordinative or 
de better : Bimbd de (or ni w<i) komaru. 

370 The Postposition [lxxviii 

Skujin no kemmdku tii osoreti •*.*.. 

Being afraid of the master s [angry] appearance 

Kao no warui no ni wa odorokiinashita. 

I was startled by her ugliness. 
Tlie verbs kanzuru^ kanshin suru^ kampuku suru (p. 275), take 
ni : Sensei no go on ni kanjimashita, I was deeply moved by 
the master's kindness. When the object is cognate wb may be 
used : Itaini wo kanjimashita^ I felt pain. But hattdo suru 
(dd=^ugoku move, inter.) takes only ni, never wo. 
Ni may even be instrumental : 

Ryoho no ti ni hiku lead [two] by the hand^ one on each side. 

Hi ni hosu dry in the sun ; hi ni sarasu bleach in the sun. 

ni wa kotoba ni isukusarewasen, 

1 cannot completely express (exhaust) my gratitude in words. 
It appears from the above that the particle ni has more uses 

til an any other postposition. As has been intimated (Ch. V.), 
it also performs the function of what we call the Dative Case 
in other languages. With verbs ni indicates the indirect 
object. While in most cases the usage is analogous to that in 
other languages and needs no explanation, in some the 
Japanese is peculiar. 

Transitive verbs often take wo with the thing and ni with 
the person ; e. g., hito ni mono wo yarn. Note particularly 
verbs meaning to ** ask/' etc., like iou (p. 247d), inoru pray, 
mgau beseech, tanomu request, wabiru apologize, etc. Hiio ni 
tazuneru is to inquire of a person, but to search for or call on a 
person is hito wo tazuneru. As in English there is a shade of 
difference between ** mix this and that " and " mix this with 
that," so also in Japanese : kore to are wo mazeru and kore wo 
are ni mazeru. The verb kaeru change is used in the same 

The following are examples of intransitives that take ni, It 
IS left to the student to decide to which of the above ten rules 
any particular case should be assigned : 
ataru : tovii ni ataru win in a lottery. 

mizu ga hi ni atatte iru water stands in the sun. 
sakana ni ataru {aterareru) be made sick by eating spoiled 

Lxxviii]! De^ ni, to 37-1 

shitsurei ni ataru (p. 71c) be impolite (of conduct). 
au : nangi na mt ni au experience hardship. 

mujitsu no tsuvti ni au get punished for a crime of which one 
is innocent. 
furerti touch {mono ni U wo), infringe, violate. 
kakaru : haibyd ni iakaru get consumption. 

tsha ni kakarti consult a physician. 

— ni me ni kakaru have the honor to meet. 
shigoto ni kakaru {toHkakaru) begin work. 
michi ni kakatte iru be on the way. 

^ainau: hito {no koto) ni kamau be concerned about other 

people's affairs (rarely wo). 
karakau banter : kodomo ni karakau tease a child. 
katsu : teki ni katsu defeat the enemy (opp. makeru). 
niasaru excel (opp. otoni). 
tnuku^ inukau, tai sum face. 

■JNote compounds like han-tai suru or Uki-tai sum oppose. 
oyobu reach (p. I96d): Miru ni {wa) oyobanai. It is not 

necessary to look. 
narau : hito ni narau learn of a person (but koto zvo narau), 
niru resemble (Ch. V.). 
sawaru : atsusa {shoki) ni sawaru be affected by the heat. 

— no ki ni sawaru offend. 

shaku ni sawaru hurt one's feelings (of a thing). 
shinobiru endure : Kodomo wo hito-te ni ivatasu ni shinobinai. 

I can't endure it to give the child to another. 
shitagau follow, obey. 
soniuku act contrary to, violate. 
sou be joined to, go along with. 
sugiru exceed : Nagusamino tame ni yatta ni suginai. He did 

it only for fun. 
takeru, chozuru (ideogram cko^nagai) be expert : 

keizaigaku ni chozuru be versed in economics. 
tariru, taru be sufficient : Kiku ni {wa) tarinai. It isn't worth 

tatsu : yaku {yd) ni tatsu be of use ; me ni tatsu be conspicuous. 
tetsudau : oya ni tetsudau help one's parents (but shigoto wo 

. tetsudau^ or shigoto no tetsudai wo sum). 
tsukaeru : otto ni tsukaeru serve one's husband. 

37^ The Postposition [lxxvjii 

isutovteru : gwaimusho ni isutontete ifi€ be employed in the For- 
eign Office ; sensii ni tsutomeru be attentive to the master 
(but kyoshi wo tsutomeru perform the duties of a teacher). 
tsuku adhere, arrive, etc. : 

sensii ni tsuiie keiko wo suru study under a master. 

shigoio ga ti ni tsukanai be unable to get on with the work. 
j^oru approach, depend. 
tsuzuru be proficient in, 

kan-s/io suru interfere with (but soku-baku suru is transitive). 
ktvan-kei suru have relations with. 
kyudai suru : shiken ni kyudai s. pass an examination (opp. 

rakU'daiy s.). 
The following will strike the student as being very peculiar : 

viayou : vtichi ni vtayou lose the way (also zvo machigaeru\ 

tozakaru : hito ni tozakaru keep away from a person {hit(f 
wo tozakere) 

hazureru : kisoku ni hazurete iru be contrary to the rules. 

wakareru : hoyu ni wakareru part from a friend (also to). * 

hanareru : used with «/, kara^ to or wo. Compare. 

Kokyo ni hanarete leaving home. [England. 

Amerika ga Igirisu kara hanarete America separating from 

Boto ga honsen to hanarete the boat parting with its ship. 

Kuni wo hanarete leaving one's country. 
Even adjectives may take ni : 

Nihongo ni kuwashii. He is well versed in Japanese. 

Tanuki wa kemuri ni yowau A badger can't endure smoke. 

Tenka ni nadakai hito a man famous all over the country. 

3. To is exactly equivalent to the English " with," which^ 
however, may be rendered more emphatically to tonto ni, to 
issho ni. It is used with verbs and adjectives as in the folio w^ 
ing examples : 

— to (or ni) hanashi wo suru speak with. 

— to (or ni) tsuki-au associate with. 

— to (or nt) yakusoku suru make an agreement with. 

— to (or ni or mo) onaji the same as (p. 39). 

— to ko/coro-yasui^ kon-i da be intimate with. 

a Wakareru may also take kara in such a sentence as : Kono uchi loa muk»^ 
no dkii ucki kara wakat eia no desu. This hoase is a branch of that lar^e house. 


De^ ni^ to 


Kanai to futari de shibai wo mi ni ikimaskiia. 

I went with my wife to the theater. 

Watakushi to kyodai desu. He is my brother. 

Go isshin no toki ni nengo wo Meiji to aratamemashita. 

At the time of the Restoration the era was changed to Meiji. 

To is used with suru as explained on page 216, 10; to naru 
sounds rather bookish. With au, to is rarely substituted for 
ni, but with its compounds (p. 286, 2) to is more common. 
Wfth chigaUy to should be used» except in the common idiom — 
ni chigai nai : Chi- me i ni chigai wa nai. It is certainly a 
geographical name (compare p. 315a). With majiivaru or 
ko'Sai suru either to or ;// may be used. 


/utokoro bosom. 

hdki broom. 

ikioi power. 

kame jar. 

kasu residue, dregs. 

nabe pot, kettle, or pan for 

shichi pledge, pawn. 
tsvra face (not polite). 
aburarmi fat, suet, lard. 
oku-niwa back garden. 
ume-boshi pickled plums. 
hen radical written on the 

left side of an ideogram. 
bak'kin fine. * 

ckoku-yaku literal translation. 
chu'kai annotation, explan- 

atory notes, commentary. 

ei'sei (lit guarding life) 

sanitation, hygiene. 
fU'shin building or repairing 

a house. ^ 
ga-gen (lit. elegant words) 

classical language. 
gak'kwa branch of study, 

lesson, curriculum. 
hik'ki memorandum, note. 
jo-rei regulation, rule. 
kan-go Chinese words. 
kei'Sai economy , economics. 
kit-cho favorable sign. ^ 
kon-i intimacy. 
kwai'gi conference, meeting. 
{p) ni-kai second story, ^ 
sei'shin spirit, intent. 
seki hi stone monument. 

a In modern legal phraseology a small fine not exceeding Y. 1.95 is called 

b Y xom. fti^^amaneku at large, 5hen=.kou heg; /us /tin orginally meant 
building in connection with a temple but is now synoymous with ken-chiku. 

c The character kichi, meaning "good,'* "lucky," enters into many proper 
names. Synonymous with kitcho is yoi skirase. 

A The ground floor is called simply s/ufa. The third floor is sangai. 


The Postposition 


yubin-Beiy yu-zei^os^^zge, 
sho-yu'ken proprietary rights. 
kaban trunk, satchel. 
ami rough, coarse. 
ara-mono goods made of 

coarse materials, such as 

brooms, ropes, mats, warn-- 

ji, etc. 
Nihon-diki no 7 made in 
wa-sei no ) Japan. * 

fu-ryu na tasty, elegant, 

na ni ou famous {pu carry). 

— ni amaeru act like a petted 
child toward, take ad- 
vantage of. 

amayakasu pet, indulge. 
ataeru grant, bestow. 

— ni/ureru touch, transgress. 
koeru become fat, fertile 

(tr. koyasu). 

koyashi fertilizer, manure. ^ 

niuragaru be gathered to- 

mura-kuvto a cluster of clouds. 

ochiru fleie. 

oifu=^owaru end, complete. 

U ni oenai be unmanageable. 

uzumeru bury, fill in. 

soviuku {so back, muku face) 
act contrary to, violate. 

ume-awaseru, umeyawase wa 

tsukeru make up the de- 

isu-Buru be proficient in. 

ryu'ko suru prevail, be in 

nyu'bai ga akeru the rainy 
season ends. 

oroshi de at wholesale. 

sora de by heart, frpm mem- 
ory. <^ 


Hokkaido de wa {ni wd) konie ga yokii dekimasen Nikon 
ni %va kzvazan ga tak'san ariinas, Mttkaski tva bakuju de 
gwaikokii ye iku koto wo kinjite arimash'ta, Sakunen wa June 
de Hakodate ye ikivtasKta ga, kondo wa riku no ho wo ikinia- 
sho. Sore dake de yd gozaimas\ Kono ttten de wa sakura no 
hana ga ckitte shimaimasko. IVatakuski no kangae de wa 
tsumari Nikon sei/u de gwaikokujin ni tocki no skoyuken zvo 
at a em daro to onioimas\ Kodomo wa amayakas*to kuse ni 
narimas (get spoiled). Hanas (|g) to iu j'i wa gomben (g) 
ni sk'ta (g') io iu ji wo kakimas' {iu ji des\ Saikyo de wa 
^* taihen '* to iu imi de yoku ** erai " to iu kotoba wo mockiimas . 

a " Imported" is haki^rai {haku ship, raiz=kuru). 
h Also hi-ryOf from hi=koyasii^ 

c Kore wo sora de iwaremosu ka. Can you say this by heart? From thi» 
^ora is derived soranznru=^att5ho suru memorize. 

Lxxvin De, ni, to 375 

Mo s'koshi di (p. Z^lS) juni ji ni narimaskd. Kono uma wa 
abarete te ni oenai. Kane ga nakatta kara^ to \ei wo shichi ni 
okimasKta. Kono ike ni wa koi ni /una ga orimas\ Ebi de 
tat wo tsuru to iu no wa Doits' go no aburatni de neeumi wo to^ 
ru to iu kotowaza to onaji imi des\ Watakushi no tonari ni 
gakko ga tachimasKta, Tonari de konya konrei ga arimas* 
kara, sawaide imas\ Kono setomono wa Nikondeki ni chigai 
{wd) nai, JVatakuski wa kaze wo kiita no de zvtsu ga sAimas*' 
Oroski de kau to, yasui, Kore wa Nikongo de nan to moski- 
tnaska, Chiskima de wa shake ga dossari toremas\ Kyd no- 
koto wa asu ni nobasu na. Warenade ni tojibuta. * Kaeru no 
tsura ni mizu. ^ Berrin ni zairyu sKte iru Nikonjin ni wa ka^ 
nai no arti hito mo arimas\ Kono ninjin no ne wa nani ni 
shintas ka, Sayo, kusuri ni skimas\ Muko ni kas'ka ni mieru 
yama wa Kanozan des\ ^ Nikon no gakko no kazn zva mina 
de sainman rok'sen da so des\ Gakkwa no hikki wo uchi ye 
kaette seisho skimas\ Chotto kuchi ni demasen. ^ Kore wa 
aniari takasugiru ; motto yasui no ni shimasho. Shimbun- 
forei ni furete bakkin wo toraremasK ta. Amari fubenkyo 
desfita kara^ ima ni naite kokwai sKte imas\ Hisashiburi di 
b vie ni kakatimasKta,^ Sore zva doko ni mo motte ikn 
wake ni wa ikemasen, Uri no tane ni wa nasubi ga haenu 
(Proverb). Koyasan ni Akechi Mitsuhide no sekiki ga arimas"^^ 
Jikogara de (p. 217a) asa ban wa yokodo suzusKku narimask*- 
ta. Mo s'koski de nyubai ga akemasho. Kotnban wa o kyaku 
ni ikimas'kara. reifku ya nazo wo yokti slitakn sKte oite o 
kure. Go shuttats' wa ikkagoro deska, Sayo de gozaimas\ 
raigetsu no Jutska mikka goro ni narimaskd, Zeniire ga ya-- 
burete dokka de kane wo otoskimastita, Kono kuruma wa 
furuku natte yaku ni tatanaku narimasli ta, Nikon ni wa take 
de koshiraeta utsuwa ga tak^san arimas\ Anata yanagigori 
ni kabafi wo motte oide nasaimas'ka. Ddmo, warui kaze dei ; 

a Warenabe, from wareru be cracked and ttabe ketlle ; tojibuta from tojim 
bind ^ndfitfa lid. For the meaning of the probcrb compare; *« Misery loves 

b Compare the English, •= Water on a duck's back." 

c A moantain in the province of Kazusa, visible from various points in 

d The meaning is: I know it very well, but I can't for the moment express 

e Note the difference between hisashibnH de an 1 hisasldku (p. 104a), the one* 
beiitg used with positive verbs and the other with negative. 

376 The Postposition [lxxviii 

:sore ni o shinier i ga (rain) chitto mo nai kara hidoi kokori de 
arukemasen, Hydtan wo sagete hanami ni iku no wa furyu 
ni miemas\ Kono hoki wa kinjo no arawonoya de kaimasH ta, 
O nikai ni itaskimasho ka^ sKta ni itashimasko ka, Dochira 
de mo kirei na ko ga yoroshii. Anata to wakarete kara y agate 
ame ga furidashimasK ta. Mus'ko to f'tari de sakana wo 
isuri ni ikimasKta, Kono shimbun to issko ni tegami ga 
kimasen ka. Hakurankwai ni iku yd ni tomodacki to yak'soku 
sh*te okintasKta ga, sashits'kae ga atte yamemasKta. Ume- 
ifoshi to iu mono wa ume wo shio ni ts'kete (p. 1600^) sore kara 
fiinata ni kosKte mata ts^keta mon'des\ IVatakushi wa wasu-- 
rete orimasKta ga, konya kwaigi ga am yd ni tec/td ni iomele 
arimas kara, kore kara dekakenakereba narimasen. Watakuski 
^va ikanai tsumori desga^ baai ni yotte wa ikanakereba 
naranai ka mo skiremasen. K*ristokyd wo skinzuru no wo 
samatageru no wa kempo no seishin ni somukimas\ Mada 
narenai mondes'kara, watakuski wa jitenska wo norihazusKte 
sono ikioi de hei wo buckikowashiviaskUa, Ckikagoro skinin 
wo sono matna haka ni uzumeru yori mo kwaso wo sum ho ga 
^iseijo kara itte mo mata tocki no keizaijo kara itte mo ryotoku 
(double gain) de aru to iu setsu ga daibu ryuko sKte mairi- 
masKta, Kyoto no Araskiyama wa na ni ou sakura no meisho 
des\ '* Tsuki ni murakumo kana ni kaze " to iu no wa kono 
yo no mama ni naranu koto wo (p. 227a) keiyo sKta kotoba 
des\ Okuniwa ni ume no kana ga saite imasno de zasKkiju 
yoi nioi ga skimas\ Kodomo wo futokoro ni daite yuki no 
naka ni tatte iru onna no e wa Tokiwa ga (p. 162c) kodomora 
wo tsureie ochite yuku tokoro wo kaita no des\ Hito ni oskieru 
no wa taihen jibun no keiko ni narimas\ Issakujiisu no Jiskin 
ni uchi wa itami nasaimasen desKta ka, Yanagi ni 
kaza-ore {kaze ni oreru koto) naski (Proverb). Bakin no kaita 
Hakkenden wa Nikonjin de skiranai kito wa arimasen. 
Kucki ni {de) wa so iimas*ga, kara no ucki de wa ko omotte 

The Government has purchased (kaiagerii) this lot. How 
should I say that in Japanese (p. 149,2)? Are battledores all 
made of kiri ? On account of sickness, Ito lias not been com- 
ing to recitations {keiko ye denai) for some lime, but he will 
at once make up the deficiency. Are the things that appear 


Lxxviii] De, m, to 377 

at once make up the deficiency. Are the things that appear 
yonder mountains or clouds? Japan formerly was not divided 
into ken. They say that it is a favorable sign if you dream 
of Fuji. At London it is seldom quite clear {maitaku harete 
oru). In Japanese books the notes are wiitten above, but in 
Western books they are written below. He has two sons and 
three daughters. On this letter there were no {kat(e nai) 
stamps; so I was charged (torareru) double («/ bai no) the 
postage. It is said that the people of Tokyo build with the 
expectation (jsuvtort) that [the house] will burn once in three 
years. The character '* pine " (|fc) is composed of " tree " (:4^) 
and " prince " (^). This evening I go to dinner {go chiso) at 
[my] neighbor's. I am so {ko or konna ni) late, because [jio 
de) I lost the way coming here {kigake nf). The character 
cry " (Bl) is composed of " mouth " (P) and " bird " (Jft). 
The residue of the .sardines is used for manure. I cannot say it 
by heart. The iroAa is (nai/e iru) a song, but its meaning is 
hard to understand. At the end of December mochi is made 
(pounded) in every house (/>/> de). The Japanese do not mind 
(tonjaku suru) being in a draughty place (place where wind 
blows through). What is in those jars ? There is tea in these 
jars. It will be finished {dekiagarii) in two hours. I have 
become quite intimate with him. Hideyoshi's grave is in Ami- 
dagamine. * In Shinto shrines there are {tatte iru) gohei and a 
mirror. As that is Chinese classical language {kango no gagen). 
it is not used in the colloquial. It sounds strange {hen ni kiko- 
eru) if you translate it literally into English. That is certainly 
written by a Japanese (a thing that a Japanese wrote). This 
will afford a topic for (seed of) conversation. It hurts {sawaru 
the eyes to read by a dim {kurai) lamp. It is stated {noUe iru) 
in the newspaper that {yd ni) a Russian man-of-war arrives at 
Yokohama to-morrow. We will spread new mats in the rooms. 
It is said that he is {de) a great scholar and is proficient in ten 
languages (languages of ten ' countries). Small {kovtakai) 
articles if not gathered together and put {irete oku) into boxes 
soon {yoku) disappear (become invisible). 

a A hill behind the Daihutsn temple in Kyoto. Amida the chief divinity 
of northern Buddhism ; mine peak. 

375 The Postposition . {lxxix 


4, Kara, yori from, since after : * koko kara from this place ; 
nioto kara from the first ; mukashi kara of old ; saki kara since 
some time ago ; kore kara from here {^koko kara), after this, 
next ; sore kara from there, after that, then ; hiru kara in the 
afternoon ; asa hayaku kara early in the morning ; tsntu kara, 
fudan kara usually ; ura kara from the back, by way of a hint. 

Hata kara kuchi wo dasKcha ikenai. It will not do to intrude 
oneV opinions, {hata kara from a side, as a bystander). 

Hachiji kara kajimariwasu. It begins at eight (p. i6i <^). 
Anata kara o hajiine nasai. You begin. 

Nihqjin no kangae kara ieba 

To speak from a Japanese point of view 

Gakumonjo kara iu naraba To speak scientifically 

Kara is also used as a conjunction (p. 401). 

Yori (originally stem oi yoru^ is in the colloquial less com- 
mon than kara. Note the expressions moio-yori of course to 
be sure = gxvanrai (p. 349), kanete yori for a long time = to 
kara. In making comparisons (p. 136) kara iniru to is some- 
times substituted hr yori: 

N am yori kekko tui sJiina wo itadaite arigato gozaivtasu, 
I thank you for the handsome (incomparably splendid) gift.^ 
3 "orn osoku made okite iru yori vio asa hayaku okite benkyd 

suru lid ga yoku oboeraremasu. ^ 
One can learn better by rising and studying early in the 

morning than by staying up late at night. 
Nashi wa ringo kara iniru to,yohodo assari shite orimasu. 
Pears are rather insipid as compared with apples. 

5. Made until, as far as to, to : ^ 

a In the sense of <* after'' kara is used not only with substantives, but also 
with subordinatives (p. 96c). In either case i-rai (p. 349c) or konokain may- 
be substituted for kara. Tlie pleonastic idiom — kara irai may be heard 

b EUiptically one may say : JCore 7va kore tva nam yori 

c In such a sentence the natural predicate is a word like^<?j, here convert- 
ed to yoku oboerareniasn, 

d Made is used inclusively ; e.g., Doyobi made yasunde yoroshii. You may 
take a vacation until Saturday (inclusive). But compare : Kono Hon wo hajime 
kara hyaku mat uo tokoro niade yomimashita I read to [the beginning of] the 
hundredlh leaf of this book. 

Lxxix] Kara^ mack, ye 379 

Doko made aide ni narimasuka. How far are you going ? 

Tdkyo made iku ri arimasuka. How many ri are therie to T. ? 

Atama no teppen kara tsUmasaki made doro ni mabireia. 

I was covered with mud from the crown of my head to the 
sole of my foot (lit. tips of the nails). 
There is a difTerence between made and made ni (p. i6id) : 

Ban made ame gafurimasho. 

It will probably rain until this evening. 

Ban made nifurimasko. 

It will probably rain by this evening. 
Made ni is used when verbs like " come ", " be finished," etc., 
form the predicates : 

Uchi de o machi mashimasu kara^ yoji made ni irasshai. 

I will wait for you at home ; come by four o'clock. * 

Myonichi made ni dekimashd. It will be done by to-morrow. 
Note the peculiar use of made ni in the sense of *' for *' or 
*' as " in such idioms as : 

rei no skirtiski made ni sashiagemasu. 

1 ofTer this as a token of appreciation. 

Go sanko made ni moskiagemasu. I offer it as a suggestion. 

Made in some connections means "everything including 
even," or simply " even," in which case the combination is 
treated as a substantive and may take case-particles or mo 
(p. 53a) 

Ni made also occurs : 

Skujin ga toshiyori wo hajime kodomo ni made mo miyage 
wo katte kimashita. The master bought presents for all, 
from the old folks down to the children. 

Uta ni made mo uiawarem be the subject even of songs. 

Note finally the use of made with verbs, as in aku made to 
the utmost, from akirti be surfeited, and the common idiom in 
made mo nai = muron no : lu made mo nai warui koto desu. 
It is of course bad (lit. obvious badness). 

6. Ye to, toward : gwaikoku ye iku go abroad ; wakiye deru go 
out [of the house] ; Nihonju ye hifomaru be spread throughout 
all Japan. Ye is often substituted for ni or used pregnantly: 

* Yo H made irasshai would mean : *« Stay till four o'clock." 

380 The Postposition [lxxix 

Tokyo ye isuku arrive at Tokyo; tana ye ageru put on the 
shelf (metaphorically : be oblivious oi) ; yubinkyoku ye yotte iku 
call at the post office on the way ; Teikoku Hoteru ye tomaru 
stop at the Imperial Hotel. Note : Nihon ye aisuraeru order 
from Japan. 


ari ant ju-ban 7 undergarment, un- 

tamaihii soyj\t s^xtit, hada^gi \ dershirt. ^ 

hana-bi fireworks. seibo {=toski no kure) a pre- 

ko-goto complaint (p. 15,2). sent made at the end of the 

tsuwasaki {tsume no saki) tip year. ^ 

of the toe (nail). sdhd {tomo) both parties (lit. 

yakedo {yake-dokoro) a burn sides). 

{yakedowo sum) be burned.) sd-skin the whole body. 

gun=kdri (p. 324a). tep-pen summit, crown. 

shi^ samurai, shimeppoi moist, damp.^ 

shuku relay-station, stopping so-matsu na coarse, riide. 

place, post. hau creep, crawl. 

yui-no presents exchanged at kakaeru embrace, employ (as 

a betrothal. * a workman or servant). 

i-butsu legacy, relics. tobi-oriru jump down. 

yo'sho youth, juvenility. nagesutem throw away. 


Ten ski sama wa moio kara Tokei ni irasshaUa no de wa go- 
jsaimasen. Asa mo fiayaku kara hito ui koraremas kara^ s^koshi 

a This is a case oi yuidyomi {^, 19), ihc yui being the stem oi yuu to tie (in 
kamiyui\ The i in i-butsu {z=xnokosu) is in some compuunds pronounced.!^; 
e.g., yui-gon or i-gon verbal will (of a dying person). So also in i-butsu rcn 
materialism the i{==.tada) is often pronounced ^tft. 

b An outer shirt, called shatsu, does not come under this head. But Japan- 
ese have also begun to wear flannel shatsu under their hadagi, 

c This is a case of metonymy. Compare a similar transfer of meaning in 
the case of shugi (p. 263). 

d In speaking of the air or climate say shikkt (shimiri-ke) ga tsuyoi^ not 
shimeppou, With the latter compare wasureppoi forgetful, okoHppoi irritable, 
nkippoi easily tired, hckle, awareppoi pathetic, etc. 

Lxxix] Karay made, ye 381 

mo hima ga arimasen. Shi ju shichi ski no (ski ju shichi nin 
no gishi no) ibuis^wa ikka (nan nichi) kata miseru desho ka. 
Kesakodo gakko ye iku tochu de {michi de) ko iu mezurashii 
furui hon wo kaimasKta. Kokyo ye nisKki {nisKki wo kite 
kokyo ye kaerti). * Sen ri no michi mo ippo yori kajimaru 
(Proverb). Danna wa tabi ye dete rusu de gczaimas, Yui^ 
no wo yarn no wa do iu ivake des'ka. Kekkon sum mae ni 
yoKsoku no shirushi to sHte soko kara shinamono wo torikawasu 
no des\ Uguis'wa doko ye nigeta ka otnae wa minakatta 
ka. Jibun no warui koto wa tana ye ageie hito no koto wo 
iimas\ Koi wa doko made mo nobotu mono des^kara, kodomo 
ga shusse suru yd ni to itte o iwai ni ts*kaimas\ Mado^ kara 
tiki {no hikari) ga sashikonde imas\ Kombanfune de Ohashi 
made itte hanabi wo kembutsu shimasho.^ Seifu kara^ kono 
jimen wo o fiaraisage ni narimash'ta. Kore wa somatsu na 
mono de gozaimas^ga, o seibo {no shirushi) made ni sashiage^- 
mas\ Kore wa, kore wa nani yori no {o) shina wo itadaki- 
masKte makoto ni arigato gozaimas\ Nikon no skibai wa asa 
kara ban made kakarimas\ Itsu made mo ryugaku sh'te iru 
wake ni wa ikanai kara, ima no uchi yoku benkyo shimasho. 
Yoritomo no koro made wa gunken no seido de ariinasKta ga^ 
sore kara hoken- seido ni kawarimasKta (p. 324a.) Mutts* 
kara id made no kodomo wa chi wo hau ari made {ga) ntku- 
mu. Mayuge wo otos^to iu shukwan wa Shina kara kita so des*; 
Shina de wa ima de mo kodomo made ga mayuge wo otoshimas\ 
Nihon de wa meshitsukai ga sono uchi no kodomo ni made mo 
ieinei ni shimas\ ^ Mitsugo no tamashii hyaku made (p. 64c). 
Are kara dochira ye irashaimasKta ka. Are kara sugu 
(ni) uchi ye kaerimasKta. Kono warui Ju ga tdji no hito ni 
made oyonde oru. Doyobi made azukete okimasho, Doyobi 
made ni tori ni kimasho, Ckikagoro go take ye o kakae ni nari- 

a The idea of the proverb is that a man should not visir his birthplace 
until he has become a distinguished person. 

b O-kaskif a bridge over the Sumida River at Senja in Tokyo. In Japan 
fireworks are often sent off from boats on a river. 

c Kmru is here used like di (p. 365^). For haraisagiru see p. 286d. 

d Teifui ni suru treat courteously. In Japan a servant uses respectful 
language even to the little children of his master. 

382 The Postposition [Ixxix 

vtaskta betto wa dokd no kuni no mono de gosaimas^kd. » 
Temae kdra saki ni dete iki.^ Saki ye mus^me ga maitie 
orimas\ Asa kafa no oyuki de michi ga iomcarimasKia.^ 
Bakucki ni maieU nani kara nani made torarete shimaimasK ia^ 
Ano onna wa uguis^no yd da to iu no wa, koe wa it keredomOy 
kao ga warui to iu koto wo ura kara iu no des\ Umegatani 
W^ aku made chikara nb isuyoi sumotori de dare mo imrabu 
ffiono ga naiatta, Kakikata no somatsu na no de tomodachi 
kara tabitabi kogoto wo itte kimasKta, Asa kara no oyiikide^. 

From here to the next stopping place it is about four ri. At 
what o'clock will (does) to-morrow's performance begin ? From 
(the time of) [his] youth [his] eyes were bad. I have known 
(am knowing) him for a long time. A wind is blowing {fuki- 
ts'keru) from (the side of) the sea and driving the waves up 
(nami wo uchiagerti) on the shore. A fruit-bearing tree may 
be known from its blossoms (Proverb). Hello, rikshaman ! for 
(<//) how much will (do) you go to the Legation ? Take this 
plant out of the pot and plant it in the garden. If a priest is 
detestable, even his scarf is detestable (Proverb). In tlie time 
of lemitsu the water of the Tama River was brought (Jnku) to 
Tokyo. A railroad from Aomori to Akita has been completed 
{dekimashUa). My servant is of course dishonest but, as he is 
efficient {monogoto ga yoku dekiru)^ I employ him (p. 226a) just 
as he is {sono mama). In (jii) the recent fire I jumped down 
from the second story and hurt myself. The fireman was burned 
all over {soshin) from the crown of his head to the tips of 
his toes. Well ! {oyd) where are you going in this bad weather 
(in spite of the badness of the weather) ? Having unavoidable 
business, I am going just for a little (as far as) to Eyeglass 
Bridge. The cherry blossoms have begun to bloom everywhere ; 
so we will go {itte mimasho) to-morrow to Mukojima. When 
(subor. wa) the rain continues like this {ko) everything (««- 

a Go f^ke your house here. For fo sec p. 3x7a, Compare go td-sho, from 

h Translate : You go out first. For the Aara compare seifu kara and kiiatm 
kara (p. 337a). Saki is used in a different sense in the following senience, 
where it indicates a family which the daughter has entered as a wif« or as a 

c Michi ga tomaru the road is impassable (lit. is stopped). 


ni kara nam made) g«t5 damp and one feels uncomfortable. A 
second class excur^on ticket to Fujisawa, please 1 From here 
to the pass the road is dreadfully bad. As I have never been 
in (gone to) that region, I think it would be better to engage 
a guide (go engaging a guide). As I am going out just a little 
{chotto soko made)^ if a guest {dare ka kyaku), comes (has 
appeared), say that I shall return at once. He half (hambun 
made) smoked the cigar and threw the rest {nokori) away. We 
shall finish our preparations by the time the teacher comes. 
How far had we come {yaru)f Until the next [lesson] make 
a clean copy. Having lost {makeru) in gambling, he had 
[everything] taken — from his coat to his shirt. 


Quasi-postpositions, as we have previously remarked, are 
really substantives. They are joined to dependent words by 
means of no and may themselves take case-particles and post- 
positions proper. Insted of a limiting substantive with no, 
tlie demonstratives konOy sono, and ano may be used (p. 36). 
Either ni or de, according to the context (p. 338, top) may be 
attached to quasi-postpositioiis denoting place; with such 
words as kawari and tame the proper particle is ni. But this 
postposition is not infrequently omitted ; e, g., witii mae, aida, 
hoka^ kawariy tame, Quasi-postpositions may be used as 
predicates : 

Yama no muko desu ka^ temae desu.ka. 

It is beyond the mountain or on this side ? 

Mon no soto desu ka^ uchi desu ka. 

It is outside the gate or inside ? 
I. Ue (in some connections kamt) on, over, above. Besides 
the ordinary sense, ue often means " in regard to " : 

Buntpo no ue de wa iadasku gozaimasu ga 

It is correct so far as the grammar is concerned, but 

Kotoba no ue kara mireba,...,. Literally 

For expressions like tetsugakup no philosophical, rigakujo no 
pertaining to physics, etc, see p. 120. In counting, etc., 
*' over " or ** above " is usually to be rendered ijo : hachi fu 
yen ijo (no ue) over eighty yen ; reiten ijo above zero ; ckuto 
ijo no hito the middle and upper classes. 

386 The Postposition [lxxx 

The Chinese equivalent of naka is chu, used mostly with 
Chinese words : 

keiko chu desu ka. Are you in the midst of a lesson ? 
Mtida shiken elm desu. We are still having examinations. 
Yaiumi cku {ni) during the vacation. 

Gozen chu {n%) in the forenoon, or^ at dinner. 
This elm enters into numerous compounds : kan-clm season 
of greatest cold, sho-chu season of greatest heat, ^-rAS journey, 
sbi'cku the city, eta ^ The same word in its nigoried fbrm/fi 
meaning "entire" (p. 341, top) is used largely with words of 
native origin : uchiju the whole house, muraju the whole vil- 
lage, ^^'i^ the whole night, etc. Konnichiju {nt) before the 
day is over. 

16. Uchi^ is unlike naka in that it may be used also of time : 
Hito tsuki no uchi (ni) within a month. 

Chikai uchi (ni), S0no uchi (nt) within a short time, soon. 

Note that in the sense of " among " uchi ni cannot be used 
except when the existence of a thing is in question, that is, 
when a word like am, oru, di or sukunai is the predicate. 
Compare : 

Kono uchi de donata mo sonjimasen, 

1 don't know any one among these people. 

Kono uchi ni zonjite oru hito wa hitori mo gozaimasen. 

Among these people there is not one that I know. 

Kono uchi de ki ni iranai no wa don desu ka. 

Among these which is it that you don't like ? 

Kono uchi ni ki ni itta shina wa arimasen ka. 

Among these is there no article that you like? 
With Chinese words nai or dai may take the place of uchi : 
iicho-nai within a cho, i. e„ the whole street ; shi-nai the city 
Ui-nai the grounds (of a dwelling), kei-dai the enclosure. 

1 7. Soto outside. The Chinese equivalent is gwai : kai-gwat 
over the sea, foreign countries, an-gwai beyond expectation. 

18. Hoka besides, except: sono hoka (ni) or sono ta (ni) 
besides that ; omoi-no-hoka (ni) beyond expectation. 

a The word jochU maidservant, from jo-=iOtina, was originally a collectible 
term. Compare ningtH human being from nvtsshUo and genssuiida, and Aanai 
M'ifc (or family), from ka^=U and nai=uchu 

b The word is identical with uchi house. We don't say tuhino uchim, bat 
iV no uchi ni, Uchi ni orimasu. He is at home. 

txxxj Substantives as Postpositions 387 

19. Kawari instead : sono kawari {nt) instead of that. 

20. Tame for (final or causal) : kuni no tame (fri) in behalf 
■of one's country; nen no tame («i) to avoid mistakes (lit for 
the sake of attention) ; yo-jo no tame {ni) for the sake of health ; 
dd-yu no tame (ni) on account of the typhoon. Sei de {sei= iHoi) 
is synonymous with tame ni in its causal sense : 

tenki no sei de zutsu ga shimasu, 

1 have a headache on account of the weather. 

Note such combinations as: ue shitd, kami-shimo^ jo-ge ; 
atosaki before and after, or reversal of the other ; sen-go 
•before or after, about ; chu-gwai or nai-gwai home and abroad. 

There are other words which might properly be included 
in the above list of quasi-postpositions. 


itoko cousin. suzuri {suml-suri) ink- stone. 

kuma bear. uki^yo the world. ^ 

^nushiro matting woven of ko merit, achievement. 

• straw. bu'ke military caste (in feudal 
ruri blue flycatcher (from r«- times), 

ri emerald). ku-ge nobility formerly at- 
tsuge boxwood. tached to the Court. 

cbikara-mochi athlete. bum-po grammar. 

hana-gami paper for wiping do-ro road, street 

the nose. ge-raku fall (of prices). 

hashi'sen bridge toll. ken-ko health {kenko desu is 
koma-dori robin. healthy). 

ko-ya small house, hut, pen, mom-dan gatekeeper, porter. 

stable. shi'hei paper money (p. 269b). 

sa-isukt azalea. » shu-kwaku harvest, crop. ^ 

shiro-ato ruins of a castle. kei-satsu-sho police station. 

a Blooms later than the ordinary tsuisuji. The name, originally Satsuki- 
-^sutsujif is derived from a classical designation of the fifth month. This again 
is derived from sanae-fsuki {sanae sprouts of rice). 

b From uku float, the idea being that of inconstancy or change. Another 
-etymology derives the word from the adjective ushi. <</'i sorro.wful. 

c Alsj shukwaku-daka^ deki-daka^ tore-daka, . 

388 The Postposition [i.xx>. 

hankechi handkerchief. ninzuru^ ninfite appoint. 

naka ga it be on good terms, at-to sum subdue, crush. 

saezuru, saezutte sing, chirp., chin-cho jwr// prize. 

twitter, warble. an-gwai (tit) unexpectedly. 


Usuiioge^ no muko ni Oiwake to tu mura ga arintasJite, 
soko kara yoku Asamayama ni nodorhnas, A ngwai ni kayaku 
me ga yoku narimasli ta. Ts^kue no ue ni am suzuribako w^ 
viotte oide, Kono hoka ni (wa) nani mo gozaimasen, Usuitoge 
no temae ni Sakamoto to iu mura ga arimas* ; komban zua soko 
ye tomarimasho. Go monzen zvo torimasfita kara, chotto 
ukagaimasK ta. Nenshi (no rei) ni wa matsu no uchi ni 
ikaneba narimasen. ^ Matsu no uchi to iu no iva Tokyo de wa 
shogivatsu no nanuka made no koto de kadomatsu no tatete 
am at da wo iu no des\ Taiko no C/w sen- sei bats* wa sambyaku 
nen hodo mae no koto des\ Mukashi no shiro no mawari ni 
wa ishigaki ga tsuite attefkai hori ga hotte arimaskta. Ueno 
no kden no uchi iii dobutsuen ga arimas\ IVatakushi ga 
Asamayama no ue ye nobotta toki ni wa taiso kumotte He toku 
no ho zva ikko mienakatta, Saikyo no miyako ni naita no tva 
nambyaku nen zen no koto des*ka. Sayo sa, karekore sen hyaku 
nen mae no koto des\ Fukuro no naka no nezumi. ^ Samurai 
wa meiyo no tame ni wa yoku inochi wo stemash'ta. Komori 
mo tori no uchi. ^ Yononaka ni neru hodo raku wa nakere- 
domo ; ukiyo no baka wa okite hataraku, « Are wa san nin 
kyodai no uchi de naka no ko des\ Hoken jidai ni zua kuge 
ga buke no tame ni atto s arete imasKta. Eu no skta no 
chikaramochi, ^ Kido san zva kuni no tame ni ko ga atta^ ii 

a A pass on the Nak.isend5, leading from the province of Kotsnke ti> 
Sh inane. 

b Within the pines, i.e , while the pinca [kadomatsn) still stand at the gale. 
In some localities the matsu stand uniil the i5tli. 

c A proverbial expression indicating a being under restraint and at the 
mercy of others. 

d The above expression may be used jocularly when a person finds himself 
in a company to which he has hardly a claim to be admitted. 

e A comic poem ; roki/=zrokti na koto. 

f This proverb is applicable when a peison's exertions arc not noticed or 
appreciated by other?, just as an athlete under the veranda might vainly strive 
to lift the house and no one would be the wiser for i!^ 


yaku ni ninzerarenuisWta, Bumpb no ue de tva viackigai de 
wa arittiasen ga, amati so zva iimasen. Momban no uchi wa 
jiki mon no soda ni arimas\ Seminai no dara (dollar) no 
itcki {fit) kachi ju mai nise ga atta. Sensui no gurnri ni shiba 
wo itte (245) tokorodokoro ni sats*ki ya tsuge wo ueviash'ta. 
Me no mae ni oru mono ni sonna koto wo itcha shitsurei des\ 
Dai Nikonski wa » oyoso ni hyaku nen mae ni Mito de 
dekimashita hon des\ Komei ten no no isugi ni ima no tenshi 
satna ga ktirai ni ts karernash' ta {p tski ni naritnas/iia), 
Kaiva'no mukogawa de kito ga tsuri wo s/tie imas\ Souo ori 
no naka ni kuma ga savibiki orimas\ osga ni hiki ni viesga 
ippiki. Ni ju nen mae ni wa kevipdjd no giron de gotagota 
sJite imasJita. Giron no ue de wa makeie vtojissai ni oite wa 
kackimas/i ta, Kono yaina no kage ni mizuumi ga ariinas\ 
Osandon ga ido no kata de skaberi wo sum no wo idobata- 
kwaigi to moskivias. Ha ski no kiwa ni koya ga tutte iie soko 
de kaskisen wo torimas\ Ano onna no bydki wa niattaku ki 
no set des\ Tokyo de mo Skinjiku atari ye ikn io^ mo inaka 
ni narimas\ Tatami no omoie ni nani ka ji ga kaite arimas\ 
Ano futari wa skinrui de ari nagara taiken naka ga warui ^ 
Fu/u no naka ni mada kitori no ko ga nai, Ckicki no koka 
(^d) mina korasaremasK ta, Ckicki no koka (ni) kodonio ga 
futari korosaremask*ta. Konna ni honeotte kataraite orimas* 
{no) mo kono isubure-kakatta ie wo okoso ga tame de gozaimas. 

By the iorii there is a good hotel. He gave {stent) his life 
for his country. About twenty years ago it happened that 
{koto ga aru) paper money was below par (the market price 
of- paper money fell). The crop of rice for (of) one year in the 
whole of Japan amounts to (is) over forty million koku, it is 
said. Have you served in a foreigner's house before {made) 
this ? Are you busy (in the midst of business) just now ? 
When did you return from America ? It was (is) about seven 
years ago. Hibacki are injurious to (for) the health. Among 
singing birds those most prized in Japan arc the blue flycatcher 
and ijii) the robin and the bush warbler. The blossom of tlu 
fuki conies out in winter from under the snow. It is said that 
it was (8) [in] 287 (7) A. D. (6) that {no wa 5) Chinese books 
(l) first (2) came (4) to Japan (3}. Put the clothes all {stikkari) 
into the (inside of the) trunk. There arc many fleas under 

a A famous historical work. Mito was the castle town of the daimyo of the 
province of Hitachi on the cast coast north Tokyo. S«e p. 89 g. 

b With naka in this idiom compaie aida \\\ i:,o\n shitishii aidn a very 
intimate relation. 

390 The Postposition [lxxxi 

these tataviL Take the plothes out of [the inside of] the closet 
Formerly straw mating was laid in the prisons . instead of 
tatami. Now ore can go from Yokohama to San FraiKisco 
within two weeks. The Japanese use paper instead of hand- 
kerchiefs and put {ireru) it into their sleeves. Shall we look 
at (kemimtsii suru) the inside of the temple ? The streets in. 
{nai) Tokyo city are not very good. The post office is just 
ijiki) opposite the police station. There are ruins of a castle 
on this mountain. Willow trees grow {sodaisu) well by the 
water. Who is the person that stood beside you ? He is my 


The subordinatives of certain verbs correspond to Englisli. 
prepositions or expressions resembling prepositions : 
ni kakeU until. 
wo motte with, by means of. «^ 

Kusari wo motte tsunami fasten with a chain. 
ni mukatte^ ni muite over against, vis-a-vIs, facing, toward. 
wo fiozoite (wo fiozoku no hokd) except. 
ni oite in, at, on (formal). 
wo {ye) saskite toward, in the direction of, with reference to^ 

Tokyo wo saskite iku go toward T6ky5. 

Taiin ^ to iu no wa tsuki {no koto) wo saskite iu no desu» 

The name taiin has (is said with) reference to the moon. 
ni shitagatte {ni skitagaeda) in accordance with (formal). 
;// shite {wa), to shite {wa) for, as (p. 216). 
— sugite {sugi), — tatte (tattara) after. 
wo idshite through (Anglicism). 
ni totte for. 

Sore wa watakushi ni totte taihen shiawase na koto desu. 

That is a very fortunate thing for me. 
ni tsuite concerning, regarding, about, with, under (a teacher). 

Kyokzvasho'jiken ni tsuite concerning the te::t-book affair. 

a Motfe is sumetime used pleonastically with de (p. Z98a). 

b The wo id iai-in corresponds io iai-yd sun. The Chinese word ^9 and ftpr 
denoie respectively light and shade, or iK)sitiye and negatfve, or inAle and 
female. Compate San-y3-dd the region south of the mountains and Sanr4tt'd9- 
I he region north of the mountains. 

Lxxxi] Substantives as Postpositions 391 

Gioaikoku no sensei ni tsuite under a foreign teacher. 

ni yoite {ni yoreba^ yorutd) according to, by tbe aid of 

ni kwan shite^ni tsuite, * [(formal)^ 

ni tai shite ^ni vmkatte. 

ni ofite in accordance with. 

To this list might be added nakute (or naku) without. For 
nakute one may substitute nashi ni (p. 98b). To either form 
tva may be added when a negative verb follows : nakucha^ na- 
ski ni wa. 

More polite forms may be substituted in some cases ; e. g.^ 
ni okimashite^ ni tsukimashite. 

Some of these subordinatives may be used attributively : 
kcre ni tsuite no o hanashi the talk about this ; Shina ni tai 
shite no or (tai sum) sei-ryaku the policy in regard to China. 

Some are used with clauses, like conjunctions ; e. g., toshi 
tuo torn ni shitagatte (ofite) with increasing age. 


Jiura saddle. te-suri hand-rail, banisters. 

okite law, statute, precept. tsurubashi hanging or sus- 
tsuru ) . pension bridge. 

katsura j ^ ^* ^ han fief, clan, daimiate. 

shinai a stout foil made ho-gyo agriculture. ^ 

of bamboo. gan-kwa ophthalmology. 

' fi'Wake ) b hatsu'on pronunciation. 

nwshi'Wake ) ^ ^" is-shu one kind. 

me-ue^ meue no hito person kan-kwa influence. 

of higher rank, ken-jutsu art of fencing. 

vie-shita^ meshita no hito per- ki-kin famine. 

son of lower rank. seki-jun order of seats. 

nakodo ) , twefci ■y*^-^<^^« disinfection. 

bai'shaku-nin j ^ " ^ ^* shu-moku wooden hammer 
sashi'ZU directions, instruc- used in striking a bell. 

tions (sashizu wo sum di- so-shiki organization, system. 

rect, instruct). iaku-hatsu (lit trusting bowl). 

i';^'!'''* [ meritorious deed. J.^^gmg (of monks), men- 
go ro \ dicant. 

* Kwan sum forms an exception to the rule given on p. 2x4, 7. 

b AUthiwaki ^a gotaimasen. My behavior has been inexcusable. I can't 
say anything in my defence. 

c Compare kd-gyd manufactures, sho-gyd commerce. In former times there 
were four classes : shiz=iamurai, nd, kd and she. 

392 - The PosTPOsrnOiV [lxxxi 

ioku'ten special favor, privi- isairnxshii brave, intrepid. 

lege. jihi pity, benevolence. 

un-chin charges for freight, jihibukai merciful. 

denshin-ryo, dempdryo cost shtrizoku retreat 

of a telegram. hiki-korosu kill by drawing 
ik-ka-jo one article, one item asunder, or by running over. 

- (com p, p. 86, 5), ' Jiai'Surh, hai'S/ii s,d\>o\\sh. 


Nikon zentai ni so in fuzoku ga atta to wa iemasen ; han 
Jian ni yoUe chigatte orimaslita kara, ^ Sore wa inesKisukai 
ni mukatte in no des'kara, teinei ni iwanakUe wo yd gozaimas* 
Oya-koko ni t suite Skina ni ni ju ski ko no (/. 233c) hanashi 
_ga arimas\ Go enryo naku {nashi ni) oshatte kudasai. Mu- 
ko no nine vo eda ni kami ga tsuite itnas'ga, are wa do iu wake 
des'ka. Sayo, are wa ume no hana ni tsuite yonda uta ga kaite 
aru to des\ Tomodachi ni tsuite shirazushirazu toi tokoro 
made ikimasKta, Jibiki nashi ni wa kotoba no keiko wa 
dekimas'viai, Seiyojin mo ima de wa ryokomenjo nashi ni 
naichi wo tabi sum koto ga dekimas*. Me ga wdruku natta 
kara, vtegane ga nak^cha hon ga yontemaseu. Mo ippai o a- 
g^ari nasai, Arigato, watakushi ni sJite wa tak'san itadaki- 
mas/ita, Nikon no onna no ko zva kagoita to iu mono wo vtolte 
hane wo ts'kimas\ Nikonjin wa shinai to iu mono wo ntotte 
kenjutsu fio keiko wo suru. Okabo to iu no wa isshu no ine de^ 
komugi no yd ni mizu nashi ni ts* kuremas\ Anata ni tai sh^te 
tnoskiwake ga gozainiasen. Meue no hito ni tai sKte wa teinei 
ni iwanakereba narimasen. leyas ko no o dashi nasaimash'ta 
hyakkajo 110 okite^ ni yotte mukashi wa zainin wo uski de 
hikikorosh' ta mon'da ga, sono nochi o haishi ni narimasKta, 
Go isshin go wa ittai ni mesk'ta no mono ni mukatte iu kotoba 
ga taihen kirei ni narimash*ta, Bukkyo no kankwa ni yotte 
hito no kokoro ga taiso jihibukaku narimash* ta. Seito no seki- 
fun wa benkyd to fubenkyd to ni yotte kimemas\ Saigo san uui 

a Inversion of the usual order in the case of a cause cccurs not infrequently 
-in conversation. 

b Also called ** Laws of Teyasu.'* They have been variouMy translated. 


4>ya no iegara ni yori tok'ten wo motte kwampi de Seiyo ye 
ryugaku wo vteizeraremask! ta, Sendai wa Tokobti ni oit€ 
ichiban bkii iokwai des\ Kiinura san wa Amerika ye itte kara 
ju nen bakari sugite kaette mairimask* txi, Ckoknsetsn ni wa 
hanashiniku gozaimas^kara^ towodachi wotosKte sodan itaski- 
fnasKta. Sore wa kivti ni totte furieki de wa nai ka. Watd" 
kushi wa K'risiokyo ni kwan sk'te wa ikko fuannai de 
gozaimas" {ikko zonjimasen), Aizti no Byakkotai wa ju roku 
shicki no tvakai samurai de soshiki sarete arimasKta ga, taiso 
isamasK ku tatakatta a to de^ iki-nokotta mono ga ju hakkn uin 
Bentenyama made shirizoite kite, hitori wo nozoku no koka 
(zva) mina seppuku sKte shinde shimaimasK ta. * 

The child came with {ni isuiie) its mother. I can't ride a 
horse without a saddle. You can't practice penmanship with- 
out a model. Toward guests its impolite. In Japan one can't 
marry without a go-between. Lately I heard an interesting 
story about Count Katsu. ^ The pronunciation of this word 
varies {cfiigau) according to locality. This is very well written 
for a child. Some begging priests go about (walk) striking a 
bell with a shumoku. The hand rail of this hanging bridge is 
made of wistaria vines. That gentleman writes characters well 
with his left hand. Where {doko wo sask'te) are these pilgrims 
going ? They are prob^ly going to Zenkwoji. The cost of a 
telegram depends on (varies according to) the number of kana. 
Shipping charges {funachin) depend on the size of the freight. 
According to Japanese law foreigners may not engage in (suru) 
agriculture in the interior. In accordance with the directions of 
the physician the whole house was disinfected. Japanese chil- 
dren say otottsan (or) okkasan to {ni mukatte) their parents. Ac- 

a Aizu is a famous valley in Iwashiro between Nikko and Ihe volcano 
Bandaisan. Its capital is Wakamatsu. The Byak-ko-tai (White Tiger 
Company) distinguished itself at the time of the Restoration, when the clan of 
Aizu held out against the Mikado's army. Benien-yanin, from Benien, one of 
the shichi fttkitjin (p. 204a), Note that iva my not be used with a noun when 
it is modified by a numeral following. Reversing the order we might say jn 
hakkn nin no ikinokotta tnono tva. 

b Katsu Awa {tto Kami) was an official of the Bakufu at the time of the 
Restoration. By his prudent negotiations for peace he averted the destruction 
-of E<lo by the imperial forces. 

394 The Postposition [lxxxi 

cording to a letter just received ifodoite)^ he will arrive to- 
morrow evening (it is said). Under whom did you learn 
German ? He studied ophthalmology under a famous physician 
in (of) Berlin. As for the apples, put all except the rotten 
ones into this box. This year there is a famine in Tohoku. 
After about a month come again and see. 



Conjunctions also are divided into two classes, conjunction? 
proper and quasi-conjunctions. The latter are simply substan- 
tives used in lieu of conjuctions. In general it is to be noted 
that the essential conjunctions belong to the words or clauses 
which they follow rather than to those which they precede. 
Further it should be remembered that where the English loose- 
ly connects coordinated clauses by means of such conjunctions 
as " and " or " or," ^ the Japanese language usually by means 
of verbal inflections subordinates one clause to another (p.. 
162,1); e.g., 

A^ui kimono wo kinakereba kaze wo hikimasho. 

I must put on heavier clothing, or I shall catch cold. 

I. To is used (a) in the sense of "and" with nouns, pronouns 
and numerals, but never to connect indicative verbs. *= It is 
in order when all the items in a series are enumerated. It is 
repeated after each word except the last, but in formal speech^ 
as in the literary language, it follows the last also. To the 
final to case-particles and postpositions may be added : 

Shoyu to mirin to suto {wo) sambai mazete savibaizu ta 

A mixture of soy, mirin, and vinegar is called sambaizu, ^ 
On asyndetic constructions see p. 225a. 

a Setsti-'Boku-shi, from seisu joia (compare hito tti sessuru associate with a 
person), tokw=4su%ukeru, 

b The student needs to be on his guard againt the tendency to carry English 
conjunctions over into Japanese. Foreigners often disfigure their speech by 
excessive use of id shiie, etc. 

c This does not apply to substantivised verbs : Fusaku de €Uta no to sumi ga 
yofukaita no de konnen wayama no nionoga taihen komatte imasu. The harvests- 
hATing been bad and charcoal cheap, the mountaineers are in great distress. 
Another apparent exception is : Sd shiyo to omae no katte da. It is for you to 
decide whether you will do so or not. 

d To vary the expression one may also substitute ni for to : Sh ni mirin to- 
th9ytt wo tna%ete, etc. Mirin is a sweet kind of take. 

^96 The Conjunction [lxxxii 

(b) To after a verb in the present tense may mean ** if," 
^* when/' " so soon as " (in the last sense also, to sugu ni). It 
expresses the idea of immediate sequence, either in a hypothet- 
ical or in an actual case. Note that the present tense is rc- 
<iuired even when the principal verb of the sentence is part: 

Taikutsu shite kurti to, oinoshiroi hon ^a yomitaku narimasu. 
1 begin to want to read an interesting boolc when I get wcaiy. 
Kodovio ga seicho sum to,haka no fedasuke ni narimasu. 
When children grow up they are helpful to their mother^ 
/ O kyakii snn ga knru to, sugu ni shokuji wo shiuiasho. 
We will eat as soon as the guests come. 
Yokucho ni nam to, in in a dete ikiiuashita. 
The next morning all went away. 
So sum torn that case, then. 

, (c) To in the sense of " that " connects dependent clauses 
with vetbs meaning to say, promise, hear, believe, etc. It is tlie 
only mark of quotation, direct or indirect, and it may not be 
omitted .as "that" may be in English. ''I think V\\ go" is 
always Z6^ to oinoivtasu. Not infrequently the principal verb 
is omitted and the to alone indicates the indirect character of 
tlic clause. Sometimes the verb of the dependent clause is 
omitted, so that the to immediately follows a noun or an inter- 
rogative pronoun ; 

Honto {da) to onioiviasn. I think it true. 
Ilonto to wa owoimasen. I do not think it true.* 
Hlrata to in kito a man called Hi rata J^ 
Kore wa Eigo de nan to moshiniasu ka. 
Note the double conjunction in : 

Asu kaette kureru yd ni to tanomareiuashita, 

1 was asked to return to-morrow. 

Kiku, to ka ajisoi to ka nani ka. kitolsu uemasko, 

I will plaiit clnysanthemums or hydrangeas or something. 

a Mnrk the \>osilion o[ ton. 

b The idom /o in corresponds to a sim])le apposition in English; e.g., 
Mikfjdo to hi kotoba tlie word " mikado " ; ten to in ji llie character " heaven." 
Tor to 7oaz=/o iu no iva sec p. 272d. For to iu to=Uo see p. 245, bottom : Wata 
A'ushi i;n dehakettt to into, kitto atne i;n fnriviasu. Whenever I go oat, it is sure 
10 rain. .Sd sun^ /o in to if we do that. 

[lxxxii Conjunctions Proper 397 

To may also stand between an. indirect question and the verb : 
Asu kuru ka to kikimashita, 
I inquired if he would gome to-morrow. 
In, Ikd ka to oinou, I think probably Til go, the ka simply 
expresses doubt about going. * Often « ka to omou is practically 
equivalent to ii to omou. On the other hand ka may stand 
between a dependent clause with to and the principal verb, giv- 
ing to either or both a sense of doubt or uncertainty : 

Kuru to ka iimashita. He said, I think that he'd come. 

2. Dano {de am no?) serves to connect nouns when the 
series is not closed and one might proceed further in the 
enumeration. It must follow every word in the list, including 
the last. It may also be translated Tor." An expression like 
irairo usually follows the last dano : 

Bara dano^ ajisai dano, tsubaki dano, iroiro arimasu. 
There are various kinds, roses, hydrangeas, camellias etc. 

3. Ka is ordinarily a particle of interrogation. It is joined 
to dependent as well as to principal clauses, and is much used 
in double questions : 

Dekiru ka do ka tvakarimasen, ^ 

I don*t know whether it is feasible or not. 

Niru ka yoku ka dochira ka ni shimasu. 

We either boil or bake [it.] 

Do ka ko ka shiagemaskita. 

We got it done after a fashion. 
Kavcizy serve the same purpose as the English "or "with 
nouns, clauses or numerals : 

Kono hey a wa hachi jo ka ju jo desn. 

This room has eight or ten mats, 

Hairu ka hairanai ni vtimashita. 

He saw it the moment he came in. 

a The idiom to omou io is used in the sense of <* when I am about to.'' 
Ifote also the elliptical construction : Mini to wa iiashi ni mimashita, I happen- 
ed to see it unintentionally. 

b Note that while one says do desu ka, in familiar talk there is a tendency ta 
omit da in the expression do da ka, for the sake of euphony. Sore mita koto ka. 
Do you see? (=1 told you so). Note also that afier a principal claure ka 
may be omitted when the clause contains an ioterrogative word (p. iT%)i £>9 
d€9U, bat Dd desu ka non/ifnasen. 

398 Thb Conjunction [lxxxu 

A list of items connected by means of tcTka may end with in 
yd na mono or similar words. 

4. The particle ya is in classical language used like ia. In 
the colloquial it appears in the idiom — ya ina ya^ ina being 
a classical form= — nai: Kiku ya ina ya tobidashite iUa. 
He rushed out the moment he heard it. Note also : Naniya 
ka ya to torikonde imasu, I am busy with all sorts of things. 
Ya is also used like datto^ but is omitted with the last noun* 
which is often followed by nado or nazo, A case-particle msty 
then be attached : 

Kujaku ya kiji wa keiro ga utsukuskii. 
Peafowls and pheasants (etc.) have beautiful plumage. 
Aramonoya de wa hokiya sumiya tsukegi naso wo urimasu. 
At coarse-goods-shops they sell brooms, charcoal, matches, eta 

5. Vara too was originally interrogative. Its uses are anal- 
ogous to those of the interrogative particles explained above : 

/wa wakareie itsu au koto yara. 

We part now : when shall we meet again ? 

Doko ni oru {koto) yara watakushi ni wa ikkj wakarimasen^ 

I^have n't the faintest idea where he is. 

Okuma to yara {iu hito) ga korosarekakemaskita. An 

attempt has been made to assassinate some one — Okuma, 

I think. 
Ano kami san wa ranibo de otoko yara onna yara wakaror- 

nai hodo desu. The woman is so unruly that one would 

hardly be able to tell whether she is a man or a woman. 
Skishi yara tora yara iroiro no ddbutsu ga orimasu, 

6. Aruiwa is largely used as an adverb in the sense of '* in 
some cases *', " possibly " : especially common is its use before 
alternatives : 

Omu wa aruiwa warattari aruiwa naitari iroira hito no 
mane wo itashimasu. A parrot now laughs and agaia 
weeps and in various ways imitates people. 

Nikon no rekishi ni mo aruiwa so iu rei ga nai to mo ka-^ 
girimasen. * In Japanese history too there may pos- 
sibly have been such instances. 

a Kagiru limit. I do not assert that there are no such instances. One' 
may substitute iva for mo^ or say nai to 7va iemasen. 

[lxxxii 0)NJUNctions Proper 399 

Aruiwa kum ka mo shiremasen. He may come possibly. 
Aruiwa also serves as a simple conjunction in the sense of 

Ushi aruiwa uma nado ga nai to shita naraba,.. 

If there were no oxen or horses... 
Note that aruiwa does not connect clauses except when the 
verb is in the alternative (or inconclusive) form. 

7. Matatva is synonymous with aruiwa as a conjunction, 
not as an adverb, and in a series is often for the sake of variety 
substituted for aruiwa. It is used like the English ''or/' at 
the beginning of a sentence which ends in a question or ex- 
pression of doubt : 

Matawa kondo no hakurankwai no koto de mo hanashima- 
sho ka* Or shall I speak of the recent Exposition ? 

8. Moshikuwa simply connects nouns, like aruiwa or 
^natawa. It is more formal. 

9. Ski is a disjunctive particle marking the transition from 
one to another of two coordinate clauses (p. I4d) ; 

Niwa ni wa momo no ki mo aru ski, sakura no ki mo aru. 
In the garden there are both peach and cherry trees. 

10. Ga is mildly adversative : * 

Habakari desu ga (p. 279,6), sono fude wo totte kudasai. 
I am sorry to trouble you, but would you hand me that 
The second clause is often understood (p. 161 e). Not infre- 
quently ga is a mere connective without any adversative sense: 
Kesa shivibun wo mite imashita ga, futo myo na koto wo 
miidashimashita, I was reading the paper this mpni- 
ing when I happened to see a strange bit of news. 
At the beginning of a sentence da ga may mean "neverthe- 
less {^sore de mo), or it may mean nothing. 

11. Keredomo, originally the concessive form of the classical 
auxiliary keri, is more strongly adversative. 

1 2. Skikashi, shikashi-nagara, or sari-nagara, is the strong- 
-est adversative.^ 

a Like^, the particles ni(jio m) and wo {mono wo) are used as adversative 
• conjactions (pp. 149, 273.) 

b SAiJta is the classical equivalent of sd; s/iikari=^d desu. In formal speech 
variants taken from the literary language are much used ; e.g., shikaru ni, shikari 
io iidomo, etc. Comp. skiAa mo moreover. Another equivalent is to wa in mono 

40d. The '' Conjunction ' ■ [Lxxxir 

13. iVara (da) or, more rarely, nareba (p. 246b), the con- 
ditional form of the claissical verb '* to t>e," shows its original 
sense in such idioms as o iriyo nara if you need it, Sayo nara 
Good bye!* (lit. if it is so...)* ^ot^. naze naraba "for" (p. 
224b). In addition to nara (ba) or a conditional inflection the 
hypothetical character of a clause may be made more promin- 
ent by the use of an z^nticipative moshi or man-ichu^ 
14 Aloshi, moshi mo, moshi y a if.^ 
Moshi dare ka kyakn ga at tar a,.. 
If a visitor should come... , ^ 

Moshi go yd ga arimasu nara.. Af you need [me].,. 
Moshivto no kotoga atta toki ni...l( anything should 

15. Man-ichi (lit. ten thousand to one) = italicized "if." 

16. Mo in the sense **even if'*, "although*', "though 
only,'* may follow the subordinative (pp. 167, 172) or, rarely, 
the indicative. With the indicative to mo is more common. 

Shinu to mo koko toa ugokanai. 
rU not budge though I die for it. 
When repeated, mo is to be rendered *' whether — or '* : 
Atte mo nakute mo onaji koto desu. 
It doesn*t matter whether it is there or not. 
On mo— mo in the sense of "both — and", "either — or", 
** neither — nor," see p. 354. It is thus used, not only with 
substantives, but also rarely with verbs : 
Iku mo ikanai mo watashi no katte da. 
I am free to go or not, as I please. 
Compare : Iku to mo ikanai to mo whether he goes or not. 

Concessive clauses may be emphasized by prefixing moshi^ 
man-ichi^ tatoi^ or yoshi. 

17. Tatoi\ 

Tatoi shinu to mo yatte minakuchajtarimasen. 
I must attempt it even if it costs my life. [atte mo-*- 

Jissai sonna koto wa nai, ski k as hi tatoi sonna koto ga 
In reality there is no such thing, but even if there were... 
Tatoi ika ni bimbo ni nareba tote...l^o matter how poor 
one becomes . . 

18. 3 'oshi (ya) , yoskimba . 

Voshi ya samui hi ga atte mo hi wo taku hodo no koto wa 

a Instead of sayo nara, people sometimes say : Sore j a [o %vakare mdsftitttasu^ 
or shikkei iiashitnasu). 

I> Moshiya go zonji iva nn'mitsen ka. I)on*l you know perhaps? 

Lxxxii] Conjunctions Proper 401 

arintasumai, - Even if we have cold days it will scarcely 
be so cold as to make it necessary to have a fire. 

Yoshiya kore kara yojin shit a iokoro ga, mo naorumai. 

Even if he should be careful hereafter he'll hardly recover. 

19. Tote^ *tte (=ro itte). The idiom — ta tote or — ta 'tte 
without mo has a concessive sense : id itta *tte=sd itte mo ; 
s/unda ^tte^shinde mo. Note also : 

Gakko ni haittareba Ute amari dekiru yd ni wa narumai. 

Even if he enters school he will not amount to very much. 
Compare sareba tote nevertheless. Tote may indicate purpose : 

Ano ko ga kono sakana wo anata ni agetai tote jibun de 
ryori wo itashintashita. The little girl cooked the fish 
herself with the intention of giving it to you. 

20. Nagara {mo) " while ", *' though," is used after the stems 
of verbs (p. 279, 6) or Chinese compounds. In some connections 
it has a slightly adversative sense, as in habakari nagara : 

Go kuro {inendo) nagara. .A am sorry to trouble you, but... 
Shitsurei nagara... ^dit6ovi me, but... 

kinodoku nagara.. A am very sorry for you, but«.« 

21. Shidai as soon as (p. 281b) : 

Konnichi gakko ga sumi shidai agarimashd. 

1 will come to-day as soon as the school closes. 

22. Kara with an indicative verb is causal : 
Sore da kara (shite)... ¥or that reason... 

Following a subordinative kara {ni) means *' after ": 
l/chi ye kaette kara {ni) tegami wo kakimashita. 
I wrote a letter after I got home. 

23. Vori after, since : 

Hito me miru yori shitawashiku otnoimashita^ 
I felt attached to him from the time I saw him. 
Halia ga bydki ni kakatte yori konokata chitto mo soto ye 

deru hima ga arimasen. 
Since mother became sick I have not had time to go out 

24. Made or made ni until, before (p. 379) : 
Sensei ga kuru made shitaku shite imasko, 
I will study until the teacher comes. 

Sensei ga kuru made ni shitaku shite okimashd. [comes. 
I will have my lesson prepared by the time the teacher 


The Conjunction 



^amo wild r^nck. 

hariko papier-mache. 

hi'diri drought 

kO'Sode wadded silk garment. 

ip) shuto parent-in-law. 

namari 7 ,. , . 

ben r >»>«<='• 

bateren (Portuguese padre) 

Christian missionary of the 

XVI. Century. 
o (sama) king. 
bii'Sho place. 
doku ritsu independence ( — 

suru be independent). 
fukuju submission, obedience. 
fu'setsu rumor. 
geki-sen hard fighting. 
gu'soku accoutrements. 
hyo'gi consultation. 
ji'shu voluntary confession. 
kak'ke beriberi. » 
kant'byo nursing the sick. 
ki'hei cavalry, ^ 

seki'to stone monument 

shin-seki relative (elegant). 

ik-korchu {ka house) the body 
of a feudal lord's retainers. 

kai-skaku-nin assistant, sec- 
ond (in harakiri). 

tsu'shin-ja correspondent (of 
a newspaper). 

kurushimu suflfer (tr. kuru- 

naderu stroke, rub. 

susumeru administer (medi- 

tonaeru call, name, recite, 

utsuru remove (of residence), 
pass (of time), catch (of 
fire, disease, etc.), be re- 

ami wo utsu cast a net. 

gwan=^nigai request, prayer. 

gwan wo kakeru make a vow. 


Kofio dekimono ga moshi okiku nareba^ eehi kiranakereba 
naranai. Itsu mo no o isha san no tokoro ye itie sugu ni kite 
kudasaran ka kiite koi, ^ Nikko no Gammangafuchi to iu 
tokoro ni^ Amida no zo ga tak'san tatte orimas* ; ikura sono 
kazu wo kazoete mite mo kanjo ga chigau to iimas\ Shuto 

a From kaku=ikyaku=ashi leg, and ke=JH in kydki iUoess. Kakke is a d is- 
ease affecting the nerves and heart and resalting in partial paralysis or 
numbness of the limbs. See Chamberlain, ** Th.ings Japanese." 

b Compare ho-hti infantry (^AossuiruJh*), ho-hei artillery (Ad=gan), ko-hti 

c Itsu mo no o isha san may be translated " family physician." 

d The name of a pool {fuchi) in the Daiya River near Nikkd. On the bank 
st^nd the statues of Amida alluded to above. 

jLxxxii] Conjunctions Proper 403 

W0 sh'ti moratta 'tie Unnenio ni kakaranai koto wa naL Ko 
iu baai ni ipa wo to iu ji ga atte mo nak'te mo onajikoto des. 
Kanai ga it to^ teishu ni shimpai ga nai* Seppuku no toki ni 
rua tonin ga hara wo kiru tPt soda ni kaishakunin ga otfe sugu 
ni kubi wo fiiriotosh*ta mondes\ Nihon ni nagaku ite mo b^n- 
kyo shinai to^ hanashi ga dekimasen. Wataiushi wa sake 7vo 
nomu to, sugu ni kao ga akaku narimas\ Ha wo nuite mo- 
rau to, sugu ni itami ga tomarUnash'ta. Anata hodo dekima- 
sureba^ Doits' ye oide nastte ichi nen mo tattara^ tasska ni hana- 
shi ga dekimasho. Tokyo ye kite ni san shukan tats* to, hai- 
byd ni narimash'ta. Shinu ka ikiru kaftatsu ni hitotsu, * Ne- 
zumi'kozo wa ^ do shUe mo ts* kamaeraremasen des/ita kara, 
oya wo ro ni iremasKta ; so sum to, oya no kurushinde iru no 
wo kiite tsui ni j'ishu sKte deta so des\ Nezumi-kozo no haka 
no gurui ni furui sekitd ga yama no yd ni tsumiageie arimas\ 
sore wa tomi ni aiatu yd ni haka ye kite gwan wo kakete, mo- 
shi ataru to, sono rei ni atarashii sekitd wo motte kite furui 
no wo waki ye tsunde oku kara des\ Domo, kuruma ni notte 
itte mo ma ni aimas'mai. Mukashi samurai wa ichi mofi no 
zeni wo nusunde mo ikkachu ga hyogi sKte hara wo kirasewa- 
sJi^ta. Iroiro kaimono ga aru kara, hima nara, issho ni itte 
kuren ka. Nani wo o motome ni narimas'ka, Chikai Uchi 
ni Seiyo ye kaeru kara, iroiro mezurashii mono wo miyage ni 
katte iko to omou ; shikashi hitori de iku to, taiso kakene wo iu 
kara, dozo, issho ni itte kure. Sono matsu no furi wa shizen 
ni a iu n* des'ka, matawa teire wo sKte ts'kutia n des'ka. Mo- 
rau mono nara, natsu de mo kosode. ^ Kosode to wa kinu no 
wataire no koto de fuyu no mono des*. Satsumajin wa seuian 
no ik*sa ni^ shinu ka ikiru kaftatsu ni hitotsu to kesshin sKte 
hijo ni gekisen shimasKta. Tenka to iu no to tenga to iu no to 
do chigaimas'ka. « Ano hiio wa ano uchi no shinseki deska^ 

a Futatsu ni hitotsu expresses the idea of a dilemma. It is a matter pf life 
and death. Compare the saying : Ichi ka hachi ka yatte mimashd. I will, try; 
it come what may (3<i^^i=^<jf^i eight). 

b Lit. rat-fellow (p. X5a), a notorious roSber in the Toki;gawa era. His 
graye is behind the temple Eksin in Tskyo. ' . 

c As a gift costs nothing, one is glad tp accept it ,even if there is no i^w 
mediate use for it. The proverb is also applied to a case of blind avarice. 

d From j/i west, nan south ; commonly called -the Satsuma Rebellipn. 

e The word tenka (lit. under heaven) by n^on becpm^s tet/^a. Thie.Sfaagiiat 
nsed to be called Tenga Sama, > 

404 The Conjunction [lxxxii 

Bttsu fit skinsiki to iu wake de nw arimasen ga^ nandema 
tttiso kokoroy^s'ku sKte oru yd d€s\ Atto kin ni skimu ga 
aru to miete tori ga taisd tackimas*. Kore de mantoku sure- 
ba a ga^ skikaski so wa ikimas'mai. * So iu ka mo skireniasepi 
ga, made kiita koto wa arimasen. Ame no furu no wo osorete 
sotoye denai to, sono kito wo katiko no yd da to iimas\ Moio- 
yori to mockiron to wa goku wojsuka na ckigai des\ Itsu ante 
ga yamu koto yara. Ante ga futte imas^ka. Furu koto wa 
futte imas'ga, kakubetsu no koto wa arimasen. Doits no kihei 
wa karada ga dkii kara, gusoku wo kiru to, taisd kittatte 
miemas\ Tsuskinja wo skimbun no tane ga nakute komaru no 
de, sonnafusets'wo koskiraeta no ka mo skirenai, Yoskimune 
J^ wa ^ sessko kindan no basho ni ami wo uckimasKta kara, 
Ooka ni totis' kamaeraremasK ta. Nikonjin wa amari so iu fu 
ni iimasen ga, zeki iwanakereba naranai baai ni wa so iu yori 
hoka ni sKkata ga arimas'mai. Kono ike wa sessho-kindan 
MO basko de dare mo torimasen kara, gan ya kamo ga tak'san 
vrite imas* (p. 163,5). Hanask'ka to iu mono wa omoskiroi 
mono de gozaimas' ka. Sayo sa,jdzu keta de taisd ckigaimas\ 
Koko kara Yuskima Tenjin^ ye niairima^ni wa do ittara 
yorosku gosaimaskd ka. Kore kara san ckd saki ni kidari ye 
inagatu yokockd ga arima£ga^ soko ye kaitte sore kara mata 
migi ye viagatte massugu ni iku to, sugu soko des\ Kusunoki 
Masatsura wa ckicki Masaskige ga Minatogawa de Mckijini 
sKte kara Kawacki ni kaerimasK ta.^ Sekkaku koneotte 
koskiraeta no da ga^ ima ja {de wa).yaku ni tatanaku nari- 
wask^ta. San nen saki no koto wo iu to, karas'ga warau.. 
Kuni ye kaeru ya inaya bydki ni narimasUta. Mukaski Sa- 
isuma-ben no mono to Osku-namari no mono to ga kanaski wo- 

a Shikashi often follows ga pleonastically. 

b The eighth and one of the most famous of the Tokugawa shogans. He 
Ihred in the first half of the XVIII. Century. Sessho-kindan, from setsusskorosu, 
tkd Hie, kin forbid, dans=kotowaru, means the prohibition to kill animals. 

c A famous Shinto temple in Toky5. Tenjin or TemmangU is the name by 
which Sugawara Michizane is worshipped* Yushima is a district in' Hongo^ 

d Kusunoki Masaskige, father of the Masatsura named above, suffered defeat 
and killed himself on the bank of the Minato River near Hy5go. The son after 
he became of age raised another army in behalf of the Emperor and likewise 
perislicd in battle. He is flet l)efore Japanese youths as a model of knightly 

Lxxxii] Conjunctions Proper 405. 

sUta tokoro ga^ ryoho tomo sappari zi*akaranakatta so (ies\ 
Kusuri wo susumeru yar/t, senaka taa ftaderu yara^ kotondo ne 
mo nenu gurai ni kambyo itashiviash'ta, Nani ya ka ya 
s*Aiosh$ no hima mo naku hatarakimasK ta. Honto ka usa ka 
sAirtntasen. Hyak'sho ka chonin no ie ye yoshi ni yarifai; 
f/yak'shd no inus*me daro to mo kwazoku no mus*me daro ta 
tno, yome ni ittara^ shuio ni fiikuju shinakereba narimasen. 

As soon as I arrive in Japan I will send you {sashiageru) a 
letter. The physician said that, as it is not at all a serious 
(jai sKta illness, he would come (coming sec) s^gain after two 
or three days. When English is literally translated into 
Japanese it becomes hard to understand. Is that gentleman a 
relative of yours i^go shinseki) f He is not a relative, but he 
is from (a person T>f) the same province [as myself]. The 
disease called kakke is apt to {yoku) break out {okoru) when 
summer comes (it becomes summer). From {kata wa) this 
bouse Mount Fuji can be seen and also the ocean (can be seen 
— subord.) ; the scenery is very fine. Since 1 removed to To- 
kyd there has not once been (pres.) a Targe fire. He said that 
if he did not return by half past eleven, we need not wait. It 
-will be some time (there is still an interval) before {made ni) 
spring comes. As the daintyo formerly were almost independ- 
ent, the padres called them (the daimyo) kings. These days 
it ought {hazu da) to rain, but on the contrary the drought 
continues. If it doesn't rain soon there will hardly be any 
crop of rice (rice will hardly be taken) this year. If the tree 
is dead (karete iru), dig it out (digging out finish). He wouldn't 
be in such distress if he had saved (saving put) money pre-* 
viously. If there is any book that you need {go nyuyo no hoii\ 
for the study of Japanese, send me word (so saying send), [and] 
I will very soon buy [it] and send [it to you]. If you are in 
the midst of business^ attend to it {yaru) without paying any 
attention to me {0 katnai naku). When {no ni) it was better 
to leave it as it was (p. 22), why did you mend it? As Ten- 
Jin sama was fond of plum blossoms, plum trees are often 
planted around [his] shrine. A man who is irritable and easily 
{yoku) gets angry is called mukappara {tachi), ^ If I don't 
take notes {hikki sKte okn), I forget everything. When a 
young man goes (past cond.) to a place like T6ky5 he is apt to 
be ruined {shippai suru) if he is not careful {chui suru). 

a From mukau oppose, and hara ga tatsu {Jtara zvotateni) g«t auqry. 

4o6 The Conjunction [lxxxiii 


In many cases an English conjunction has to be rendered in 
Japanese by means of a substantive, the accompanying clause 
being in the attribi^tive position (Ch. XIX.)- Many of these 
substantives have been treated under the heads of The Adverb 
and The Postposition. The most common are : 

1. Mat (ni, wa) before : kuru mae ni or, rarely, konai mag 
ni before he comes. For the use of ni and wa see p. 155. 
Izen may be substituted for mae, especially in speaking of his^ 
torical events. 

2. Nochi {flit '^^) after. Compare : 

Watakushi ga deia nochi ni kimashita^ He came after I 
Gakko kara kaetta nochi de ii. [left 

It will do after you return from school. * 

3. Saki {ni, wa) before : gakko ni hairu saki ni before he 
entered the school : wasuren j^^j before 1 forget it. Compare : 

Oya ga shinda saki wa da shite ittara yokaro ka. 
How shall we manage after father is dead? 

4. Aio de after. Compare : 
Kisha ga deia ato de kimashita. 
He came after the train left. 

Gozen wo tabeta ato ni {ye) kyaku ga kimashita. 
After we had eaten, visitors came. 

5. l/e de after, until after (with negatives). l/e ni means- 
**and in addition." 

Miia ue de kau ka mo shiremasen. 
I may possibly buy it after I have seen it. 
Mita ue de nakereba kawaremasen. 
I can't buy it until after I have seen it. 
Makesashita ue ni kai mo shinaide itte shimaimashita. 
He made him reduce the price and then went off without 
buying anything. 
Note also ijo wa : 

Makesashita ijo wa kawanakereba narimasen. 

After you have beat down the price you ought to buy. 

6. Aida {ni, wa) while, as long as : matsuri no aru aida 
as long as the festival lasts. 

Lxxxni] Substantives as Conjunctions 407 

7. Uchi {ni^ wa) while, as long as, until (with negatives) : 
Inaka ni orti uchi ni while I was in the country. 
Yome ni ikan uchi until he is married. 

8. Kagiri {tii wa or wd) as long as, unless, without (with 
negatives, p. 155): 

Gessha wo osamenai kagiri tva kyojo ni iru koto wo yurushi' 
fnasen, [Students] are not permitted to attend the classes 
(class-rooms) as long as they are in arrears with the tuition. 

9. Toki (ni, wa, ni wa) when, as, if: 

Chodo neyo to omou toki ni jishin ga yurimashita. 
There was an earthquake just as I was about to retire. 
For the present tense the past may be substituted. In trans- 
lating the English pluperfect the past is required : 

Ante ga yanda toki ni yadoya yi tsukimashita. 
We arrivedat the hotel after the rain had stopped. 
Toki wa and toki ni wa are often used hypothetically, espe- 
cially with a preceding moshi or manichi : 

Moshi tegami ga nakunatta toki ni wa do itashimasho ka. 
If the letter should be lost, what shall I do ? 
Substantives or adjectives may take the place of verbs with 
toki ; e. g., kddomo no toki ni when I was a child, wakai toki 
ni when I was young. 

Various substantives denoting time may be substituted for 
toki, such as ori, koro, tsuide, setsu, ji-bun, hyd-shi : watakushi 
ga Anterika ni iru {itd)jibun ni when 1 was in America. 

Rondon ye tegami wo dasu tsuide ni o tanomi no hon wo 
chumon shimasho. When I write to London I will 
order the book for which you have asked. 

10, Tabi {tambi) ni, tabi-goto ni as often as, whenever : //- 
shin ga sum tabi ni every time there is an earthquake. 

1 1. Tokoro is often to be rendered '* just when '*, *' just as." » 

a Tokoro desu is often to be rendered ** just ": Ima dekakeru tokoro desu, I 
am jast going out (to a visitor). Tadaima okita tokoro desu I have just gotten 
up. In the literary style tokoro is used like koto: Kore xvaga hossuru tokoro 
nari. This is what I desire. The learned sometimes use tokoro in this sense 
even in the colloquial Such expressions as the following are quite common: 
Koronda tokoro wa minakatta. I didn't see the fall. In speeches tokoro no u 
freely used to connect adjectives or attributive (relative) c'nuses with thQ 
substantives which they modify. I 

4o8 The Conjunction [lxxxhi 

It may take various particles and postpositions accorcfing to 
the nature of the principal verb of the sentence : 

Gozen wo iabete iru tokoro y€ Into ga kintashita. 

A person came just as I was eating. 

Kiro to sum tokoro wo hito ga toniemashita^ 

Just as he was about to strike (cut), some one interfered 
For the idioms tokoro ga and tokoro de as adversative conjunc- 
tions see pp. 2I2C and 365a. The latter has three distinct uses : 

Makeru {inaketd) to shit a tokoro ga,,. 

Supposing that we are defeated... 

Makita tokoro de nigemashita. 

When defeated they at once fled. 

Shobai wo shiyo to itta tokoro de^ motode ga nakinba da- 
vte desu. You may attempt to do business, but it is of 
no use without capital. 

IVatakushi ga mita tokoro de wa,*. 

According to my observation... 
The peculiar idiom dokoro ka or dokoro ja nai indicates that 
something that has just been said is very wide of the mark : 

Ano hito wa uta ga dekimasu ka : Utaeru dokoro ka : 
yumei na ongakusha desu. 

Can he sing ? Sing ! Why, he's a noted musician. 

Kuru made matenai dokoro ja arimasen to ma. 

There's nothing at all to prevent my watting till he comes. 

Sore dokoro J a nai. That's not the worst of it 

12. Kawari (ni) but instead : * 

Kono ryo san nichi wa kumotte imashita kawari ni kon* 
nichi wa sukkari haremashita. It has been cloudy the 
last two or three days, but to-day it is clear. 

13. T5ri {ni) just as, as : 

Naze iitsuketa tori ni shinai ka ? 

Why don't you do as I told you ? 

Mae ni vio moshita tori desu. It is just as I said before* 

14. Tame (ni) in order that, that: wasuren tame if/ that I 

a "^ Instead of" is usually to be rendered by means of the negative sabor- 
«linatiTe: Ki wo tsuknu ni hoka no koto wo kangaete orinuuhita. Instead of 
paying attention I was thinking of something else. » 

Lxxxin] Substantives as Conjunctions 409 

may not forget. In formal speech the literary idiom of the 
future tense with ga is occasionally heard : shiran ga tame ni 
that we may know. 
\tf. Yd (i») in such a manner that, so that, as if: 

Smbeite karobanyo ni ki wo o tsuke yo. 

Be careful not to slip and fall. 

S^no ki wo kaxe ni fukitaosartnai yd niyaku sasaeU kure. 

Support the tree so that the wind will not blow it over, 
especially common^are the idioms ^J ni sum (p. 216, top) and 
yd ni nam : 

Okunnai yd m shitai moW disu. 

I should like to arrange so as not to be late. 

SAina mo chikagoro wa dandan gwaikoku to majiwaru yd 
ni narimashita. Recently China too has gradually 
come to have intercourse with foreign countries. 

Jigoku de hotoke ni atta yd ni ureshu gozaiinashita. 

It was as delightful as if I had met a buddha in hell. 

Rampu no abura ga tsukiiayd ni migmasu. 

It looks as if the oil in the lamp were exhausted. 

Aru yd ni iimaskita. He spake as if he had it (p. I34d). 
Yd ni is frequently joined with ntieru^ and verbs of saying, 
as above. With verbs of hearing, thinking, etc., it is usually 
to be rendered " that " : 

Nani ka so iu koto ga aru yd ni uketamawarisnashita, 

I have heard that there is something of the kind. 
16. Hodo {ni) so that (of result or degree) : 

Ano ki wa otona gaju nin kakaranakereba kakae-kinnat 
hodo/utoi. The tree is so stout that it takes ten grown 
men to encircle it (if ten grown men do not take part, 
they cannot completely embrace it). 

Ano yama wa Un ni iodoku hodo takai. 

That mountain is so high as to reach the sky. 

a "With mieru the conjunction to may also be used, especially in the form 
mieie : Tabako ga suki da go miete iaiii nomimasu. He appears to be fond of 
tobacco and smokes a great deal. Are wa kind mgu ni Mane wo kaesu yd na koto 
wo iite iktmaifnta ga, hon no moshiwake to miete ima ni mada motte kimasen. He 
promised yesterday to return the money at once, but it mast have been a mere 
excnse ; he has n't brought it yet. On yb desu in the Mose of ** it is as though/' 
••it seems that," sec p. n/g. 


The Con7unction 


Kutabireru hodo sampo shinakereba narimasen, » 

You must walk enough to tire yourself. 
In these sentences gurai may be substituted for hodo, 

17. Yue {tii) for the reason that because, accordingly. Yue 
belongs to formal speech. Note sore (go) yui ni therefore. 
In narratives the verb of the clause may be omitted so that 
words like i9iono, koto, etc., immediately precede yue : — io iu yd 
na ko yue on the ground that. 


chinami connection, blood- 

saji spoon. 

ama-gaeru tree toad {ante 

fumi'kiri railroad crossing. 

furu-mai (originally : behav- 
ior) entertainment, ban- 
quet (also kyo-d), 

ko-ba J V. I 

.^ >shmgle. 
yane-tia) ^ 

yani exudation, gum. 

viatsu-yani turpentine, resin. 

r//^->^i>t/ judging the character 
of a curio, a connoisseur. 

kan'tei=ime-kiki ywdglng the 
quality of an article. 

uranai divination, fortune- 

uranai-ja diviner. 

uttae-goto lawsuit. 

hatoba wharf, pier. 

ei'gyb avocation, business. 

han-dan decision, judgment 

in-kyo retiring from active 
life and from the headship 
of the family. 

ryo-shi^karyudo hunter. ^^ 

satt'dai going to the Palace 
for an audience or to pay 
one's respects. 

shuku-ho a salute of guns. 

tsU'ko (tdri-yuki) passage. 

kdert'chi^ko-en park. 

mom-bu'sko Department of 

en-gi no it of good omen (of- 
ten proncd, ingi). 

awateru lose presence of 
mind, become excited. 

yuivaeru, iwaeru^yuu bind, 

kujiku crush, sprain. 

kuruu act irregularly, be out 
of order, be in a frenzy. 

wazurau suffer {yamai wo). 

hazukashimeru insult. 

a Compare: Kutabireru hodo (or dake) iu The more tired 7011 are the 
better. For nam dake and dekiru dake see p. 11 2d. 
b -^^5-jA/ may also mean 'fislieiman.* 

Lxxxin] Substantives as Conjunctions 41 r 


Danna sama^ go shuttatsu no sKtaku wa itsugofo made 
ni sumasfCie okeba yoroshu gozaimasho ka. Itsu de mo tateru 
yd ni skte oke. Ana kata wa giron wo suru tatnbi ni hidoku 
okorimas\ Ano kata wa dekiru dake benkyd suru tsumori da 
to niosKte imasKta ga^ chikagoro wa nandaka asonde {asunde) 
bakari iru yd des\ IVatakushi wa san jissai ni nam made 
ichi do mo {yamai wo) wasuratta koto ga nakatta yd ni omoi- 
tnas. Ha ga waruku naranai yd ni matsuyani wo kamu hitor 
ffto arimas\ Tonari no hey a de samisen no oto ga shite im 
uchi wa do sKte mo nemuretnaseti. Ashi wo kujiite arukenai 
yd ni narimasKta, Kazoekiren hodo tak'san arimas'. Muka- 
shi leyas^ kd ga Edo ni bakufu wo hiraite kara manzai mo 
ddkoku no chinami de (wo motte) Mikawa kara Edo ni dete 
eigyd wo suru yd ni natta ga^ kd mo kokyd no mono yue betsudan 
sore wo kins er are nakatta. Ano seito wa Eigo wo narau tame 
ni mainichi ni ri hodo zutsu aruite gakkd ye kayotte imas* so 
des\ Koko ni wa sd iu hon wa gozaimasen kara^ Amerika ye 
tegami wo das' tsuide ni sd itte yatte yokosKte moraimashd. 
Yubinsen no ma ni au yd ni kono tegami wo kaite shimawana- 
kereba narimasen. IVatakushi wa hataraite oru uchi wa 
iabako wo nomimasen. Ame ga JuridasKta jibun ni chddo 
yadoya ni ts^ kimasK ta. You hodo sake wo nonde wa ikema- 
sen, Ano hito wa soba de kiite orarenu hodo no warukuchi wo 
iimas\^ Chi no deru hodo inu ni kamaremasK ta. Hito ni 
damasaren yd ni chui senakereba naranai. IVatakushi wa 
jishin ga suru tambi ni itsu mo awatemas\ *> Sensei ga iras- 
sharu mae ni anshd sKte okimashd, Fuki no td wa mada yuki 
no kienai uchi ni demas\ Ooka Echizen no kami wa mutsuka- 
shii uttaegoto wo kiku ioki ni wa shdji no uchi de cha wo hiki 
nagara kikimasK ta ; sore wa hito no kao-katachi wo miru to^ 
sore ni ugokosarete shirazushirazu handan wo ayamaru koto 
ga am no to, mata ki ga tatte ktiru to, te ga kurutte cha ga 

a Hodo with the attributive clause belonging to it is governed by wamkucki. 
Such constructions occur not infrequently with ordinary conjunctions (see the 
end of the sentence beginning with Ooka^ below). 

1> fisii mo is pleonas'ic. 

412 The Conjunction [lxxxhi 

araku demas kara des\ * Go kigen yd to zva hito ni au toki 
ni mo wakareru toki ni nt4> iu kotoba des\ As'ko ni hito ga 
orti yd ni mietnas. As^ko ni ki ga uete aru yd ni miemas\ 
Kouo katami no mekiki wo nas^tte ktidasai. Waiakuihi no 
kantii {sum tokoro) de wa Bisenmono no yd ni omowareinas\ ^ 
Washi no itta tdri ni shiro. Watakushi no kiiUi tokoro d€ 
wa saki ni Monibudaijin de atta Mori Yurii ski wa Ise no 
taibyd de buret wo sKta to iu koto des\ IVatakushi ga miia 
tokoro de wa skiro gozaimasKta. Amagaeru wa atne gafuru 
toki ni nakifnas\ Santpo sum toki ni wa shiju tsue wo motte 
ikimas\ Rydshi ga sKka no haskitte iru tokoro wo ucAi- 
masUta, Kdenchi no hana wo totte iru tokoro wo junsa ni 
mits keraremasK ta. Chddo neyd to suru toki ni tonari kara hi 
ga detnasKta (broke out). Kisha ga kuru tokoro ye kodomo ga 
dete hikikarosaremasK ta. Dekakeyd to suru tokoro ye o kyaku^ 
ga kimasKta. Mukashi wa, moshi samurai ga chdnin ni ha- 
sukashimerareta toki ni wa sugu ni kirizute ni shimasKta. ^ 
O kyaku tvo suru {furumdi wo suru) ^ toki ni wa ryoriya 7ii 
Uts'keru to^ nani mo ka mo motte kimas\ Kyaku ga kima-- 
sKta toki wa cfiddo hon wo yomiagete shimatta tokoro desKta. 
Yuki ga^ viichi mo wakarazu kuruma mo tdranu hodo ni 
tsumorimasKta, Oisha sama mo saji wo oite kubi wo kata- 
mukeru gurai ni narimasKta. ^ Ore no ikite im uchi wa 
sonna koto wo sasemasen. Sore wa anata no naotta ato de yd 
gosaimashd, ^ 

I get headache every time I smoke tobacco ; so I will quit. 
America by the time (made ni wa) you return (to America) 
will probably be changed in many respects (banji). As 
{tokoro ga) I was going to the pier, a man-of-war entered the 
harbor and fired a salute of three guns {sampatsu). If. you 
walk enough to tire yourself, you will probably be able to sleep. 

a Cha wo hifcu pulverize tea with pestle and mortar for the ceremony of 
cha-no-yu; ki ga fa/tg kuru become agitated; // ga kuruu the hand becomes 

b Bizen^ a province in Chugoku, opposite Shikoku, was noted for its manu- 
facture of swords, 

c Kirizute ni suru cut the offender down with a sword {kiru) and let him lie, 
giving himself no farther concern {su/eru), 

d Have company to dinner. 

e The physician was nonplniaed. 

f Compare : Atomawashi ni shimnsft^. 


When you go out, shut (shutting put) the door tight. Euro- 
peans could not live in the interior of Japan before the treaties 
were revised {kaisei ni nam). I should like to meet you 
once more before I leave. If you study Japanese diligently 
{benkyo sKte) [for] even one year, you will probably learn to 
speak (it will become that you can speak) a little {wa). I 
have written it (writing put) just as I heard it Do just as you 
were ordered. In order that the shingles may nqt be blown 
off (fly) when the wind blows, stones are placed upon them, 
leyasu, after he went into retirement (became inkyo), moved 
to Sumpu'^ and made that his residence {a sumai ni naru). 
Rub (Jiiku) camellia oil on the swords to keep them from 
rusting (that they may not rust). Take care that the rice 
does n't burn. I will make a note of it {kakits'kiU oku) so as 
not to forget. The Japanese in order not to forget a thing tie 
a finger with a paper string. The Japanese don't talk much 
at meal time. The fog is so thick (deep) ^ that one can't sec 
well, but I think {omaivareru) that {yd ni) there is an island 
there. When a train is passing it is a dangerous thing to go 
over {kosu no wa) the railroad crossing. Go and say (saying 
come) that he shall come without fail. Okubo Toshimichi 
was assassinated as {tochu de) he was going to the Palace. As 
Kiyomori was going to Aki, ^ a fish jumped into the boat, and 
{j^d) a diviner said that it was a good sign (thing of good 
omen). I should like to have (jo ni sKtai mondi^ you get 
well soon. I should like to have it finished by to-morrow. 
See to it {sKte oke) that the fire does n't go out 

a Sumpu is the old name of Shizaoka (p. 96e). 

b A verb may without kodo express result or degree when a subordinative 
precedes (p. 101,2), 

c JCiyomort\ of the clan of Taira {Hei'/te), was in the second half of the XII. 
Century Da-fi-daijin (prime minister) and the most powerful man in the 
country. AH is a province on the main island west of Bhtru Its chief city 
is Hiroshima. 



Interjections may be divided into two groups. The first 
-consists of mere sounds expressive of emotion : 

1. A Ah — of a sudden perception or recollection, deUght> 
admiration, alarm, weariness, etc. 

Aj if koto. Ah how fine I 

A^ shimatta Ah, too bad 1 (p. 248d). 

2. O Oh — of fright or pain. 

3. Ei — of displeasure or contempt : ^ 
Ei, imaimashii. Pshaw ! Hard luck 1 
Ei, urusai ko da ttei. 

Don't bother me (you are an annoying child). 

4. Ma, Well — of pleasure, satisfaction, amazement, hesi* 
tancy, exhortation, etc. 

Afa, ma, yoku irasshaimashita. 

Well, well, I'm glad you've come. 

Ma, yokatta. Well, that was fine. 

Ma, do shita morC daro. Well, what shall we do ? 

Ma, sonna imi desko. Well, it means something like that. 

Ma, ippuku agari nasai. Come, have some tea (or, a 

5. .S*^, sa Come — urging, inciting, encouraging : [smoke). 
Sa, ikimasho. Come, let's go. 

Sn, sa. Come (or go) on I 

6. Ya, ya — of surprise, delight, alarm. 

Ya, o kuma san. Well, is that you Kuma? 

7. Yai — calling, reproaching : 

Yai, nani wo /iuru tC da. For shame ! what are you 
doing ? 

8. Oi, oioi Hello ! (used mostly by men in trying to get the 
attention of others, especially inferiors). 

9. Oya, oyaoya — of surprise : 

Oya, so desu ka Indeed ! you don't say ? 
Oyaoya, taihen na fukiburi desu. 
Whew ! it's a dreadful storm. 
Oyaoya, o cha wo koboshimaskita. 
Oh dear, I've spilled the tea. 

a Kan-toshi, from kan=aida, Le., «« inter-" and id=anageru throw» Lc, 


b Ilgi (p. 356) i5 often pronounced ei: Ei, nan to osskaimashita ka. What 
did you say ? 

Lxxxiv] The Interjection 415 

10, Dokkoiy dokkoisho — encouraging, warning. 
The second group consists of interjections which seem to 
have been derived from other words : 

1. Kore^ kora^ — rebuking. 

2. Sore, sora look at that I 

3. An, ara — of surprise : 

An^ niji ga dekimaskita. See 1 there's a rainbow. 
Ara^ taihen na koto ga dekimaskita. 
Oh ! a terrible thing has happened. 

4. Nani, natti what ! Oh no ! Nothing at alU 

5. Dorey dore, dore dore. Well ! (p. 42b, 207b). 

6. Hate {na) — of perplexity. 

Hate, myo na koe ga suru. That's a queer sound. 
Hate, komatta na. Dear me ! What a fix ! 

7. Moshi^ moshimoshu Hello ! Say ! (p. 207b). 

8. Yare^ yareyare — of relief, pleasure : 
Yareyare^ go kuro deshita. 

It is too bad to have burdened you so, 
Yareyare^ shiken ga sumimashita. 
At last the examination is over. 

9. A-ita (from 5, itai) Ouch ! That hurts. 

10. Do-mo — of perplexity : 

Domo, ikemasen. Pshaw ! it's of no use. 

Nakanaka, domo (=it's exceedingly difficult). 

Oya, ma^ domo^ ma omoigakenai. Well, I'm amazed, 

1 1. Naru'hodo I see, quite so, very true, indeed. Naruhodo 
may indicate the sudden perception of a new thought. It may 
also take the place of the has, A/s, «'s, «w's, etc., with which 
polite people punctuate a conversation to which they are lis- 
tening attentively. So desu ka may be used in the same way. 
Older men or provincials say also ikanimo or ikasama (p. 354a). 

From the English have been imported hiyahiya (Hear, hear) 
and nonOy exclamations indicating respectively approval and 
disapproval of a speech. Another expression is kin-chd^tsu- 
tsushindi kiku I listen respectfully. * 

a While the speech of the average Japanese is more refined than that of the 
agci'&gc foreigner, execration and the abuse of sacred words are by no means 
unkoowD. Vulgar people express their detestation of a person by saying 
Kuiabare [ktiiabaru die), or Shinde shimae, or SMnisokcnai-me (lit, one who ha|l 
failed to die. Old people express gratification by saying Namu Amida Buisu 
{Namu I adore, from the Sanscrit), just as the Germans say Coit set Dank. 
//amusambd=GreAi heavens ! Sambo are the three [Buddhist] treasures bup-j^ 
s3, ic., bu/su Buddha, /id law or doctrine and so priest. 

41 6 The Interjection [lxxxvi 

With the interjections should be classed the imperative par- 
ticles na and yo (p. 1 50,2) * and ya (vulgar, p. 249!) ; the inter- 
rogative particles ka^ ya and yara (pp. 397-8), and the familiar 
vocative ya (classical yo, p. 34f). O Hana san may be called 
Hana ya by her superiors. A mother in calling her boy will say 
Bo ya. An aged servant may be addressed JH ya (or Ba ya). 

In this connection note the particles of emphasis : 

1. Ne or nei at the end of a sentence indicates agreement or 
an appeal for assent : 

Nikko no o tamaya wa kekko desti ne. 

The ancestral shrines of Nikko are splendid, are n't they ? 

So desH ne. That's so (but see p. 134a). 

Ne may also follow any word in a sentence to draw attention 
to it or simply to fill out a pause» like the English ** You know." 
It is thus used in explaining things to a dull hearer. Ne is 
especially common in Tokyo. It characterizes the speech of 
children ; e. g., 

Tonari no o ba san ga ne, sakuban kite ///, kyd wa ne^ Shin- 
iomiza ye ne, tsurete iku to itta n da kara ne^ watasha ne, 
matte iru ri da yo. The old lady next door said last evening 
that she would take me to Shintomiza ^ to-day ; so I am 
waiting for her. 

Ano ne, or simply ne^ like the English *' I say," attracts 
attention to what is to be said. 

2. Nay na is used like ne in Kyoto ; in Tokyo only by men. 

3. No, no is becoming obsolete in most parts of the country. 

4. Sa occurs after words like sayo and nani and is very 
common with elliptical constructions : 

Ikanai to sa. He says he won't go. 
Nani sa, sonna wake wa nai. 
What do you mean ? That's not the case. 
A story often ends with to sa. 

5. Wa : Ma, honto ni iya da wa. I certainly do dislike it. 

6. Wai: Kore wa migoto da wai. This is surely handsome. 

7. Ya : Yare, ureshii ya. How delightful 1 

8. Ye may follow a question : So ka ya. That so ? 

9. Yo at the end of a sentence indicates a positive assertion. 
It is used very much more by women than by men. 

a Na and yo may follow even regular imperatives of the second conjugations 
ippai agare yo. Kudasai na. Note also : CKodai na (said by a woman), 
b The name of a famous theater in T6ky5 {jhin new, (omi wealth). 

Lxxxiv] The Interjection 417 

Kono jibiki ni wa arimasen yo. 

It isn't in this dictionary, I tell you. *" 

Abunai yo. Look out ; that's dangerous. 
Girls have a fashion of substituting the subordinative with yo 
for the indicative : 

Watakushi mo itte yo. I am going (or, went), too. 

10. Zo often follows sentences which contain a command or 
prohibition. It is the harshest of the interjections of emphasis : 

Sonna koto wo shicha naranai zo. 

You must n't do anything like that, do you hear ? 

1 1. Ze is vulgar except in some provinces. 

Mono may occur at the end of a sentence, especially whea 
it has a tone of complaint : 

Itte mo kikanai tC desu mono. 

Though I tell him he won't listen. 
Koto following an adjective or a verb expresses surprise, 
wonder or admiration : 

Kono hana no nioi no it koto. How fragrant this flower is ! 

Samui koto. How cold it is ! 

Yoku mawarimasu koto. How it spins ! 

Kitai no yosu da koto. How extraordinary 1 


(In addition to the interjections) 

toga fault, transgression. kan-nin forbearance. 

makanai (from makanau) ge-shuku-ya boarding house. 

housekeeping, a steward, ^ omo-datta chief. 

board. wasure-gachi na forgetful. ^ 

fusuma sliding doors covered ai-mai na vague, ambiguous. 

with wall paper forming tondemonai^tohomonau 

partitions between rooms, kibamu turn yellow. 

ii-bukuro glove. sha suru thank, apologize. 
mo (lit hair) one tenth of a» kippari /^distinctly, definitely. 

tin, * saka-sama ni, sakasa ni upside 
gyurnyu {ushi no ckichi) milk. down. 

a The term rin denotes the tenth part not only ot a sen, but also of a du 
(unit of interest, p. 80, or one tenth of a sun) or of a fun (one tenth of a nu>m 
fne^ p. 69). JBUf bun z.vAfun are variant readings of the same character. 

b Compare ari-gachi in : Kd iu baai ni wa arigachi na {no) koto desu kara, sd 
fukaku iogamet-u ni wa oyobimasen. You need not censure [him] severely ; for 
tn such a case [a blunder like that] is very apt to occur. 

41 8 The Interjection [lxxxiv 


Ne / anata cfi^iU s^no fusumm wa taUU kudiisaituashi na. 
Md^ yoku diiimasVta koto mi. Oya^ Matsubara san / y&i i^ 
koro di o me ni kakarimasK ta. Dochira ye irnsskaimas* ia. 
Nani^ ckotte sampo ni itte kimasKta tokoro sa. Yareyare, 
mendok*sai kotta {^kolo da) na. Aita, omae wa hidoi koto 
wo sum ne ; nandatte {^^nase) hito wo utsu n' da.^ Ara, 
utta nja gosaimasen yo ; hyotto aUaia »' dts^kara^ kannin 
sKie kudasaitnaski. Domo^ nan to mo ienai iya na kokoromo • 
chi ni natie kita ; do sh'ta n' daro. Ikasama^ saya na wake 
de gozaimas*ka na. Sonna koto wo osskatte wa anata go mu- 
ri_ de gosaimas*wa^ watashi wa nani mo xonjimasen mono. ^ 
A, a koto f kore wo watashi ni kudasaimas*no. ^ Moshimoshi / 
Kanda ni deru ni wa do ittara yorosku gosaimashd. Ma^ 
ma^ sonna koto wo iwanaide shibaraku o makase nasai ; wa- 
tashi ga yoi yd ni sKte agemas^kara. Oya^ ma, taisd kirei na 
kanzashi des'koto nei. Bo ya / kore kara {^kara wa) sonna 
warusa wo sum to^ yurushimasen zo^ Sore de mo ypkutte yo. 
Osaka ye itte hakurankwai wo go kembutsu nasai ; taisd omo- 
shiro gozaimas^ze. Ei, sonna tsumarankoto ka. Oi, nei san / 
hayaku gozen wo dasKte kurenja komaruja nai ka. ^ Nani, ore 
datte kane no hyaku ryo ya ni hyaku ryd wa koshiraerarenai 
kota {=koto wa) aru mon*ka. ^ Sa, kimi / yari tamae ; guzu-- 
guzu sh*te oru to, hi ga kurete shiman zo. Ara, koko ni oita 
kamiire wa do sKtard. Sora^ oki na ringo w^ yaru za. Ano 
ne, Omme san {^o Umesan) wa tte, okkasan nimo hanasanai^ 
de kind Tokyo oe itta n des*to. Ddmo, komatte skimuimas* 
wa ; ikura itte kikasete mo wakaranai ii* des'mono. Sore wa 

a Th« purpoM of these excrcisci is to enable the itadent to vadentand 
what is being said in his presence, not to furnish models for imitfttion. Until 
one has become ver^ floent, great caution most be exercised in using the words 
described in this chapter. It is very difficult for foreigners to use even fu 
gracefully so as not to give offense. 

b A gentleman resents being hustled in a crowd. The answer follows. 

c A lady protests against being blamed for something she knows nothing 

d Kudasaimasu nos^ktidasaimasu ka (p« 375» middle). 

e Nei san, from ctm elder sister, is used in addressing a waitress or servant 
at a hoteL 

f The old word ryZ is still used in the sense of yen. 

Lxxxiv] The Interjection 419 

dai s'ki dis'kari, watashi ni mo hitotsu chodai na. Ano kito 
no hanashi to kite wa {kitard) bakak^ sakute kikareta wont 
ja arimasen yo. * Mina buji ni kurasKte orinias'kara^ anjin 
nai yd ni kotozukiti kudasai na. JIfa, tonda shitsurei wo ita- 
shimaslita ; dozo, go men nasUte kudasaimaski. KessKte ma- 
chigai wa arimas'mai ne, ^ lya^ do itashiwasKte^ tin mo de 
mo chigai ga gozaimasKtara sugu ni o torikae moshimasfio, 
Oi, sonna ni minna de waizvai itta tokoro de sKkata ga nai 
kara^ omaetachi no uchi kara omodatta mono ni san nin erande 
yokose : sd sureba, yoku sddan wo s/i'te kimete yard Oi, kimi ! 
ano koto wa do narimasWta ka. A, are des*ka ; mada kimaran-- 
de orimas\ Are wa^ domo nanigoto ni tsuite mo kippari sJCta 
koto wo iwazu ni itsu mo aimai na henji bakari sKle komatta 
morCdes\ Kore kara Ueno ye hanami ni iko to omoimas*ga, 
mina san wa ikaga des*ka. Oya^ so, watashi vto itte yo, 
doMo^ isurete itte chodai na. Sakuuen Ueno ye itta jibun wa 
omazhiroikatta yo. So desh'ta ne, ano foki wa waiashi mo ngi 
san to issho ni iUe y^. Anna hito ni shasanakereba (o wabi 
wo skinakertba) naranai nante {^nado to itie\ sorya tondtmo* 
nai kotta ne, nan no toga mo nai -no ni sa. Va, odoroita. 
Oyaoya, ma, yd koso o tazune kudasaimasK ta. Okka sanf 
ano ningyo wo katte kudasai na. Otonash'ku sae sureba katte 
agemas*yo. Kora, igo kessKte sonna itazura wo shte wa 
wa naranai bo* Natuhodo^ hanaski wo ukagatte mireba, go 
mottomo na shidai de gozedmas\ Oi, kurnmaya / ckotto soka 
made yatte kure. Oi, kimi / sampo ni dekakenai ka. Vare- 
yore, kore de dekiagarimasK ta* Tebukuro wo nakusanai yd 
ni ki wo ts^henakucha ikenai yo. A, wasureta koto wo sh*ta. 
Kora, sonna daka na koio wo sVcha naran. Watashi wa 
gyiinyu wa dai kirai des'yo. Boku no gesKkuya wa makanai 
ga warukute komam kara, utsuritai to omou ga, doko zo yoi 
tokoro ga arimas'mai ka n?i. Ma, go ran nasai, as'ko no shoji 
ni hito no odotte iru kage ga utsutte imas\ Kono mikan wa 
yoJiodo kibanda kara, taigai juku sVtard yo. Tokaku wasure^ 
gachi de komarimas'yo. Dokkoi, sd wa ikanai. A, sonna bin 
wo sakasa ni sKte wa mizu ga koboremas\ Are, are, atchi ni 
kirei na chd ga tonde iru yo ; hayaku itte ts'kamae na yo. 

a The pecnlkr Idiom to kitt wa or to kitaru is an emphatic equivalent of wm, 
b A gentleman inquires of a shopkeeper if he is sure that there has been 
no mistake in measuring the goods he has bought. The answer follows. 


It is a peculiar feature of the language that in addressing a 
person or speaking of members of the family of that person or 
of one's own family, the terms employed vary according to tKe 
relative rank of those concerned. These distinctions are due to 
the careful grading of social classes and to the strict subordina- 
tion of the members of a family one to another. Frequently a 
polite term differs from a common one only in having the hon- 
orific prefix or go or a suffix such as sama or san or go. In 
other cases the polite term is a special word. 

In calling a person one adds san^ to the family name or says 
anata. Teachers, superiors in a profession or an art and older 
men of culture whom one wishes to treat with regard may well 
be addressed by the title sensei. Soldiers in addressing superior 
officers add dono to the title. Among equals or those who are 
on familiar terms, such as students, officials, merchants, etc., 
tun takes the place of san* Teachers and officers may address 
students and soldiers by their family names without san (a 
practice called yobi-sute). The master 6f the house usually 
calls coolies and his own servants by their personal names, 
which may even be abbreviated (p. 2S7c) ; but others in the 
family add san. In talking about persons the same distinctions 
hold good. 

For the titles of persons of high rank see p. 31 id. The 
following are the most important appellations : 

I. Master of the house. 

Go zen Your Grace, His Grace. ^ [rank). 

Tono sama (of former feudal lords and other people of high 
Danna satna^ danna san (to the lady of the house by an 

inferior, to a servant of the person in question, by a 

servant to his master). ^ 
Go tii'shu the master of the house, your husband. 
Go shu'jin (to a subordinate at a store or a hotel). 
Shu-jin (by a clerk to a customer). 

** Husband " is otto^ but among equals a lady commonly speaks 
of her husband by his surname or personal name without san^ 

a The younger generation does not use the unabbreviated and very formal 

with surnames, 
b Note the homonymni in the nonsensical sentence : Co zen wa gogen ni 

tvo grnen meshiagarimashiia. His Grace ate five bowls of rice before noon, 
c Shopkeepers usually address a gentleman customer as danna (sama). 

Appellations 42 1 

while her friends use his surname with san. A wife may also 
use such terms as yado or taku (p. 365b) or shujin. To a 
caller a servant may speak of his master as danna, 

2. Lady of the house. 

O ui sama Your Grace. Oku gat a Her Grace. 
Oku sama, oku san (corresponds to danna sama). 
Go shin-jso sama, go shin san {shin:= at ar as hit, 20=^ tsukuru^ 
from a former custom of a new couple's building a new 
house for their dwelling). 
Sai'kun your wife, his wife (among familiar friends). * 
O kami san (among shopkeepers and laborers). ^ 
*' My wife " is tsuma, sat, gu-sai (foolish wife), ka-nai. A 
man of the lower classes may say kaka. The word pyd-bo, 
originally elegant, is now used only in speaking familiarly of 
the wife of a third person or of one's own wife. ' 

3. Parents. 

Go ryo'shin sama your parents. 
•' My parents " is rybshin, oya,^ futa-^ya or fu-bo {chichi" 

4. Father. 

Go som-pu sama {son honorable) your honored father. 
Go shim-pu sama {shin^oya) your father. 
Oya-go sama your father. 

O to samay ottosan (from toto\ your father, papa ! , 
" My father " is chichi, chichi-oya or oya-ji {^. S^b). 

5. Mother. 

Go som-bo, go bo-ko your honored mother. 
Haha-go, haha sama your mother. 
O ka sama, okk sama (from kaka) your mother. 
Okka san your m.other, mamma ! 
*' My mother " is haha^ or haha-oya. People of the older gen- 
eration say o/ukuro, but this is in most cases a vulgar word. 

a A man most not speak of his own wife as saikun, 

b £. g., kurumaya no o kanii san. In Kyoto o kami san is also used by polite 
^cople^ Expressions like. Mrs. Taguchi, Miss Taguchi, must be paraphrased: 
TagucH san no oku san, Taguchi san no o jo san, etc. 

c Oya-kata means the leader of a gang of coolies or the master of a small 
inn. Distinguish o-ya (great house) the owner of a rented house. 

422 Appellations 

6. Grandfather : Go so-fu {sama), o jit ssn {Jii for JyV). * 
'* My grandfather " may also be siy/u or jifu pi- 

7. Grandmother : Go ro-bo (sama) Sa san {ia or baia). 
*' My grandmother *' : so-bo or baba. 

8. Elder brother. 

Go son-kei {sama), go rei-kei {sama) your elder brother. ^ 
O am sama, am san, mi sama, mi san, 
Ani san J nit san (by younger brothers and sisters). 
*' My elder brother " is ani. Ani-ki is vulgar now. 

9. Younger brother. 

Go ska-tei {sama) go rei-tei {sama) your younger brother 

{sfia house). 
Otdto san, ototo-go (to inferiors). 

10. Elder sister : O am sama your elder sister, 

Ane san, mi san (by younger brothers and sisters). 

11. Younger sister : O imoto san your younger sister. 
O imoto-go, imotO'go (to inferiors). 

12. Son, daughter, child. 

Go shi'soku {san), go nisoku o musuko sama {san) 

your son, 
Musuko your boy (to inferiors), my boy. 
Segare my boy, son. 
O bo san, bo san, botchan (p, 232b). 
Go chd-nan your eldest son. 

Goji-nan your second son. Go san-nan your third son. 
Go rei'jo your daughter. 
O jo san your daughter, miss ! 
O musume sart, o musume-go your (or his) daughter. 
Musume your daughter (to inferiors), my daughter. 
Go cho-jo your eldest daughter. 

Go batsU'jo {matsu'jo) your youngest daughter {batsu end). 
O ko san your child. 

9. O bn san and o jii san are also used in addreaing old ladies and gentlemen 
in general. 

b From r^T exeellent and kei elder brother. Keiasoni; tei^asoato, JCgi^^d, 
more commonly pronounced hy^ai, designates a brother (or a sister, older or 
younger. «* Your brother (or iitter) is^ kyddai. Compare shi-tuai {skif=sane, 
fnai^=.inaio) lister. 

Appellations 423 

Go sa-ryo your eldest child {so all, ryo govern). 

O chiisai no your baby. 
" Father-in-law " or •' mother-in-law " is (<;) shuto. Shuto- 
mt for '• mother-in-law " is a literary word. Strictly speaking 
sfttito are the husband's parents. A man may speak of his 
wife's parents as kanai no chichi^ kanai no haha. 

A groom, or a husband from the point of view of the wife's 
family, is called {ji) muko {san) ; a bride, wife, daughterMn-law, 
sister-in-law, is {o)yome (san). " Bride " and ** groom " in the 
strict sense are hana^yome^ hana-muko, A wddded pair are 
(^d) fufu : Tanaka san go fufu Mr. and Mw. Tanaka. 
13. Grandchild. 

O mago {san) your grandson, grandchild. 

O magthfnusume your granddaughter. 
14. Uncle, nephew, etc. 

O'ji soma {san) your uncle. Uncle ! 

O ba sama {san) your aunt. Aunt I 

Oi-go sama {san) your nephew. 

O ntii-go sama {san) your niece. 

O itoko san your cousin. 



The order of words in a clause is rather more simple than in 
European languages. It is the same in affirmative and in in- 
terrogative sentences, in principal and in dependent clauses. 

1. The main rule is that all modifying words and clauses 
precede the governing word. A modifying word is sometimes 
separated by an intervening modifier from the governing 
word ; e. g., 

Nadakai daigaku no kyoju a famous university professor, 

or, a professor of a famous university (p. 113a). 
Furui hyakusho no ie an old farmhouse (farmer's house). 
Likewise an adverb precedes the verb, adjective, or adverb 
which it modifies : taihen osoi very late, goku hayaku very soon. 
Chotto oide. Come just a moment. 
There are a few apparent exceptions to this rule : 
Shirimasen yoku. I don't know — at least not well. 
Shitsurei shigoku. You are exceedingly rude. 
Numerals, together with the numeratives, are not modifiers 
of nouns as in English (p. 341). * 

2. Case-particles and postpositions follow their substan- 
tives.^ All the conjuctions, except the auxiliaries moshi, man- 
ichi, tatoi and yoshi (which stand at the beginning of clauses) 
follow their verbs. 

3. The order in a complete sentence is ordinarily the follow- 
ing: (i) subject, often understood; (2) indirect object or ad- 
verbial modifier; (3) direct object, and (4) verb. 

a Numerals are used as substantives occasionally. Like adverbs (p. 352) 
they may also with no take the attributive position. 

b Such words as meide^ to, ka, nado, etc., may separate case particles from 
their nouns. Words like kurai. bakari, may be brought under the same rule, 
except that they take the place of ga and wo. But they may also foUow nu 
Watakiishi ni bakari kurete tomodachi ni xua yaranai. He gave only to me, not 
to my friend. Compare : Shinu bakari ni natte imasu. He is at the point of 
death. See also p. 3.S7C. 

i^xxxv] Syntax 425 

An indirect object or an adverbial modifier, with or with- 
out wa, may take the first position for the sake of emphasis : 

Sono hito ni wa nani mo yaranakaita* 
I did n't give anything to him. 
Sukoshi mo shimpai ga arimastn. 
I have n*t the least anxiety. 
Taiheft ni hito ga gozaimasu. 
There are very many people. 

The indirect object or adverbial modifier may also stand 
more naturally between the direct object and the verb : Tokei 
'WO shichi ni okimashita. He pawned his watch. In many cases 
more depends on the stress of the voice than on the position of 
the words. Thus we may say either Inochi wo kuni no tame 
ni sutemaskita or Kuni no tame ni inochi wo sutemashita : He 
gave his life for his country. Compare p. S/a. Ordinarily 
words denoting time precede words denoting place. 

Myonichi Yokohama ye ikimas\ 

I will go to Yokohama to-morrow. 
It is a universal rule that the general precedes the particular. 

Ashita no asa go ji ni at five to-morrow morning. 

Reido ika go do five degrees below zero. 

Interrogative words do not necessarily take the first place as 
in English. 

4. The order in a subordinate clause is just the same as in an 
independent sentence, the only difference being that the prin- 
cipal verb is followed by a conjunction or inflected so as to 
show the relation of the clause to what follows. All dependent 
clauses precede the principal clause. In careless speech, how- 
ever, it often happens that a subordinative or a dependent 
clause, conditional, consessive or causal, lags behind the rest of 
the sentence (pp. 85c, 392a) The same construction is some- 
times chosen for the sake of emphasis. 

5. While, as has been said, the construction of simple sen- 
tences or clauses in themselves is not so difficult, the foreign 
student ambitious to master the colloquial will find that it is his 
most serious problem to join clauses together so as to form a 
connected, and to the Japanese mind luminous, whole. Japan- 
ese poetry is sententious and fragmentary, but colloquial 
narratives and addresses must be thoroughly coherent. When 
listening to a Japanese speech or story one need not be 
surprised to find no conclusive verbs and no period until the 
end of the whole is reached. In reading connected pieces like 

4 26 Syntax [lxxxv 

the foUomng selections it may be a good exercise for the 
student (i) to rewrite the story, breaking it up into as many 
short sentences as possible, and then (2) to recombine them so 
as to make, if possible, one continuous narrative of the whole. 

6. Ellipses are very common. Often a verb or auxiliary 
must be supplied : 

Vohi ki wo tsukeU. Take good care ! (p. 164, 8) 

medeto. Congratulations ! 
Dd itashimashiti. 

Why, how can you ? I>on't mention it ! (p. 2i8d). 
Senjitsu wa {shitsurei itashimashitd), 

1 was rude the other day. 

Kore wa ddmo may mean almost anything, shitsurei ita- 
shimashita^ or arigato gozaimasu^ or o mezuraskii (you are 
quite a stranger), being understood* 

Ellipses are especially common in proverbs ; e. g., 
Naki'tsura ni hachi. 
Bees sting a crying face (Misfortunes never come singly)^ 


Ichiban Tsuyoi Mono 

Aru nezumi no fitfu m taiken uisukuskii orma no ko ga deU- 
masKta kara^ sekaiju de ichtban t^yd mono ni katassuktU skuss§ 
sas€yd to omeim^K'ta. Soka de tmyd no P^kopo y^ itte, 
** Ddka^ wtxtakushidomo no nms*me wo yome ni sk't^ kudasai " 
to ta n o mimas'ta^ taiyo jgfa sono wakt wo^ kike mds*ni wa: 
" Sekkaku toi michi wo oide nas^tte arigato gozaimas*ga, mada 
hoka ni watakushi yori tsiiyoi mono ga arimas\ Tatoeba, kumo 
ga deru to, watakushi ga ikura teraso to oinotti mo kakusarete 
teru kato-ga dikimasen'' Nezumi wa utre wo mottamo to omotte 
kwmo no ho ye itte tanontimas'to, kumo no m ds'ni wa : ** Naru- 
kodo^ waUAushi ni wa taiyo no kikan wo kakus!ckikara wa 
arimas'ga^ kaze ga watakushi yori tsuyoi des\ ' ' Soko de nezumi 
ga ktmdo wa kaze no ha ye itte tanomimas* ta^ mata kaze no^ 
mos'ni wa : " Naruhodo^ watakushi wa kumo yori tsuyoi des\ 
Shikashi kabe wa motto tsuyoi des\, IVatakushi ga sore ivo 
fubitaosb t& dmctte mo, taoremasen.** ^ Sore kara nezumi ga 
kabe ye itte tanomimas* to, kabe wa : " Kaze no itta tori, wata- 
kushi wa yotsu fso uehi de wa ichiban tsuyoi des\ Shikashi 
nezumi wa watakushi wo kajitte ana wo akemas'karay wata- 
kushi y&ri naa tsuyoi des\'' Soko de nezumi ga sekai ni jibun 
yori tsuyoi mono wa nai to wakatte, toto mus'me wo onaji nezumi 
n& uchiye katazukemasK ta. 

Nomi to Shirami^ 

Nomi to shirami ga Kyoto ye itte Tenshi Soma ni o memie wo 
shiya to yak'soku sKte tabidachi wo itaskimasK-ta, Nomi wa 
haneru kara, hayakute yoppodo saki ye itte shirami wo matte 
imasKta, Shikashi shirami no kuru no ga amari osoi kara, 
waki ye yorimiehi wo sh*te omoshiroi mono wo mi^ utsuts'wo 
nukasKte^ imasKta. Sono uchi ni shirami wa norok'te mo 
yasumazu ni iku kara, saki ni Kyoto ye tsuite Tenshi Sama no 

a Note the change of the subject. 

b This fable is not generally known to the Japanese. It is given a place 
here for the sake of its originality. 

c Utmtsu wo nukasu forget the world of reality ; nukasu (causative of nukiru) 
•llow to escape. 

— ^^ 

428 Itaztira kozo 

o ts'kue no ue ni kaiagarimask' ta. Tenski Sama wa sore wo go 
ran asobasarete, *' Kore wa mezuraskii mushi da'' to osshatte 
motte irasskaru o fude de shirami no senaka ni suini wo o ts*ke 
nasaimask* ta. Skirami wa sono sumi wo^ kurai wo itadaita 
no da to oinotte kaette kuru tochu de nomi ni deainiask'ta. 
Nomi wa taiso odoroite, " Watashi wa omae wo matte ita no 
ni, doko ye itta no ka'' to tazunetara, skirami wa, " Omae wa 
as/ii ga hayai kara, sadamete saki ye itta daro to omotte wa- 
tashi wa hitori de o memie wo sh'te kono tori kurai made ita- 
daite kaette kita " to kotaemash'ta. Soko de nomi wa jibun ga 
yudan wo sKte okureta no wo taiso hajiite makka ni narimasKta. 

Itazura Kozo^ 

Aru tera ni taiso kechi na osko ga arimasKta. Aru hi hoka 
kara ankoromochi wo moraimasKta ga, kozo ni misezu ni sotto 
skim at te oite soto ye dete yukimask'ta, Kozo wa rusu no aida 
ni sore wo nusumidask^te tabete skimaimasK ta. So sk'te an 
wo s'koski bakari konzon sama no kucki no atari ni ts'kete oite 
jibun wa skiran kao wo shte imask'ta, Yagate osko ga kaette 
kite ankoromocki wo tabeyo to sKta ga, kitotsu mo nakunatte 
imask'ta. Sore de kozo ga tabeta ni ckigai (ga) nai to omotte 
kozo wo yobi, *' Ankoromocki wa do sKta ka" to tazuTiemash*- 
tara, kozo wa : " IVatakuski wa ckitto mo zonjimasen ; shi- 
kaski senkoku kondo no ho de nani ka oto ga shimasKta kara 
itte go ran nasai " to moshimasKta. Soko de osko wa Hondo 
ye itte konzon sama no kuchi no atari ni an ga tsuite iru no 
wo mite, kore de wa konzon sama ga nusunde kutta ni ckigai 
nai to kara wo tatete konzon sama wo buckimas'to, kanabuts'wa 
k'wan, k'wan ^ to narimask'ta, Osko wa, ** Konna ni kucki no 
atari ni an no tsuite oru no ni kwan koto ga aru mon'ka " to 
kanabuts'wo idobata ye kikizuridasK te ido no ucki ye nagekomi- 
mask'ta, Suru to, kanabutsu mo^ kutta kutta to kakujd sKte 
skizumimask 'ta. 

a Note that the logical subject of a clause dependent on a verb like omau 
'may take wo. In such a case tvo may be rendered «' in regard to." 

b A well known anecdote. Itazura Aozd a mischievous young priest, a 
naughty acolyte. 

c Kuwanu I did (do) not eat. Kivan also represents the sound made by the 
.metallic idol when struck. So also below : ktitta is an imitation of the bub- 
bling sound of the water, also the preterit oi knu eat. 

d Mo after kanabutsu indicates agreement on the part of the idol (see 
p. 429d). 

Kaketori — Tsuben no Kiten 429 


Am hito ga karits^ke no mise ni kake wo sh'te okimash'ta 
ga, ts'kizue ni naru to, akindo ga kaki wo tori ni kuru daro to 
amotte o kanti san ni : " Moshi kake wo tori ni kitara, waski ga 
uchi ni inai to ie " to iits'kete okimasKta. So suru to, an no go- 
tuku akindo ga mairimasK ta, Soko de o kami san wa teisku 
no iits'kedori ni : " Kyo wa skujin ga rusu des'kara, mata kite 
kudasai " to moshimasKta. Suru to, akindo wa irikuchi no 
skoji no yabure kara * uchi wo nozoite^ ** O kami san go skujin 
wa o uchi no yos'des' "^ to moshimash' ta, Teishu wa sore 
wo kiite kami de sono ana wo fusaide, " Kore nara, ^ rusu no 
yd ni mieru daro " to iimash'ta. Soko de akindo mo sh'kata 
naku d waratte kaette shimaimash* ta, 

Tsuben no Kiten 

Go isshin mae no koto des*ga, aru hi Nagasaki bugyo ga « 
norimono ni notte soto wo torimas^to, tochu de uma ni notte 
iru Orandajin ni deaimasKta, Sono jibun ni wa dare de mo 
tochM de meue no hito ni au to, uma kara orite aisats'wo suru 
sfuikwan desKta kara, bugyo wa tsuben ni, sono koto wo Oran- 
dajin ni hanash'te uma kara orose to tits' kemash'ta, Shikaru 
ni sono tsuben wa yoku gwaikoku no j'ijd wo sh'tte ite totemo 
Orandajin ga uma kara orimai to omotta kara, kiten wo kika- 
sh'te Orandajin ni mukai : " Watakushi no skujin ga anata fia 
o uma wo taiso homete kaitai to moshimas* kara, dozo ori nasatte 
skujin no mae made uma wo hiite kite kudasaimasen ka" to 
tnoshimasKta. Orandajin wa nani mo shirimasen kara, kore 
iva ii shdho da to omotte sugu ni uma kara orite teinei ni bu- 
gyo no mae ye kite aisats'wo sKta to iu koto des\ 

a Yabure a rent in the paper on the sliding door, from yabureru be torn; 
Mora through. 

b Elliptical for uchi ni aide r^ fuiru yd desu, 

c Kore nara^ssikd shitara if ore does this way. 

d Shikata naku modifies kaerimashUa, The mo after akindo is untransla- 
table, faintly indicating that the shopkeeper assented to what the man of the 
boose said. 

e Bugyo here means the goveritor of a city owning direct allegiance to the 
Sh5gan. Compare p. 358a. Nagasalci, though in the fief of the daimys of 
dmuray was immediately subject to the ShOgun 

430 Tekiyahu — Saikun no Share — Baka Muko 

Aru nadakai isha no ucki yt ba sun ga kUe^ " Waiakushi no 
mus'ko wa bydki des'Jkara, doka, kusuri wo kudasai ** to m9s*no 
de, isha ga, *' Nan no bydki da** to kiku to, 6& son ga^ *' M$ts*Jto 
wa dorobo wo suru bydki ga arimas*; ddka, kusuri wo itadaiU 
sono bydki wo naosKto gozaimas* " to tanomu to, isha ga nani ka 
kusuri wo dasKte yarimasKta. O bli san ga yorokondi kcutta 
ato de, deshidomo ga, ** Sensei / bydki no nai hito ni kusuri wo 
kuremasKta no wa do iu wake dts*ka " to kiku to, isha no kotae 
ni, •* JVatakuski wa yoi omoits'ki ga dtta kara, kusuri wo yatta. 
Are wa hat no zd wo kmvakas^nton da, Moshi tdnin ga shiju 
seki wo suru to^ dorobo no shigoto ga dekinai dard to iunode, 
deskidotno wa, ^ Sasuga wa sensei da " to itt€ mina kanskin 

Saikun no Share 

Saikun : Hana ya I konnichi wa o tenki ga yoi kara, s*koshi 
sentakuntono wo sKU o kure, Hana : Hei. S. Shabon wa aru 
ka. H. Hei, mada shdshd gozatntas*, S. Sakujitsu jissen^ 
katta n* da kara, mada aru dard. H. Hei. S. Danna sama 
no o shiroji no hitoemono wo samsnai to shats'-wo yo mai to tsuide 
ni watakushi no yumaki wo ni mai to nemaki wo go mai, sore 

kara H, Oyaoya, shdshd sentaku wo sKte kure to wa kiite 

akiremas*, S. Nani wo iu ka. H. lie. ^ S. Sore kara danna 
sama to watakushi no tabi wo shichi soku. H. Oya—ja nai 
—^hfi, hei — de wa shabon ga tarimas'mai. S. Tarinak'te mo, 
s'koshi zutsu ts*katte araeba, tariru dard. H. De mo^ go skinad 
sama, totemo totemo dekimas^mai. S. Sore wo sore dake de arau 

ga onna no tsumashii tokoro da. H. De mo S. De mo, de 

mo, nan de mOy sore de araemas\ H. Dd itashimashte. 
S. SEKKEN^ shte ts*kau n' da. 

Baka Muko 

Mukashi aru tokoro ni baka muko^ ga arimashta. Aru hs 
yome no sato ye mimai ni ikimasVtara, dango wo dashiniasK" 
ta. ^ Baka muko wa taisd umagatte tak*san dango wo tabete, 

a Appropriate medicine, a specific {Ukiio na kusuri). Compare ry^yaku. 

b Jissfn=Jissen ho bumyi ten jcents' worth. 

c ssil'te nani mo moskimasen. 

d The word sikktn maj m«oa either <' soap ' or **sconomy2^ 

e A recently married busbasd end waie arc called muho vAyome* 

f Dasu set out, offer, give to eat 

Dorobo to Bimbdnin 431 

** Kore wa makoto ni kekkd na mono des'ga, nan to iu mofC 
des'ka, Na wo uketamawaUi^ kaittara^ kanai ni kaskiraesase- 
masho " to iimasKta. Shujin ga^ ** Sore wa dango to iu mono 
d€ goeaimas' " to kotoitnas'to^ baka ntuio wa sono na wo 
ivasurenai yd ni sugu ni itomagoi wo sKt€ kuchi no ucki di 
shiju " dango dango " to ii nagara kaittt kimasf^ta. Ucki no 
mai ni iinias'to, soko ni ckiisai misutamari ga arimasKta. 
Son wo tobu kyoski ni kitokucki " dokkoi '* ^ to iimas*to, kajime 
no " dango dango " wo wasunti " dokkoi dokkoi " to itte ucki 
yt kairimasK ta, Sugu ni yome ni, *' Omae no ucki di kyo 
dokkoi to iu mono wo tabiti kita ga^ taiso oisKkatta kara, 
kore kara koskiraete kure " ta Ots* kemask* ta, Yome wa fuskigi 
na kao wo sKte^ " IVatakuski no sato de sontia mono wo anata 
ni das'kojsu wa arimasen. Sonna mono wo wcUakuski wa 
ickido mo mita koto mo tabeta koto mo arimasen *' to kotaema- 
sk'ta. So suru to^ baka muko wa taiso kara mo tatete, *' Kisa- 
ma no sato de dasKta mono wo kisama ga skiranai to iu kazu 
ga nai " to itte soko ni aruf'toi bo wo totte yome no kitai wo na- 
gurimasKta. Yome wa kittai wo osaete, " Aita^ aita / Afiata 
wa kidoi kito des'; go ran nasai^ dango no yd na kobu ga deki- 
mask'ta " to iimasKtara. baka muko wa, " O, so da, so da / So- 
no dango no koto da'* to moskimasKta. ^ 

Dorobo to Bimbdnin 

Aru bimbdnin no ucki ye dorobo ga kairimasK ta tokoro ga^ 
bimbdnin no ucki no koto des'kara, nam mo totte kaerd to otnou 
meboskii mono mo arimasen, Sd suru to dorobd ga, ** Korya 
skikujitta ; konna koto to sKtta nara, kito no me wo skinonde 
kaitte ti wa skinai ; imaimaskii koto da '* to kogoto wo itte 
kaette ikimasKta. Uskirokage wo miokutte bimbdnin no skujin 
wa toko no naka kara yobikakete in ni wa, ** Oi, dorobd / boku 
no tame ni sono to wo tatete kuren ka*' to. Sasuga no dorobd 
mo. " Sd ka na, skikaski ore mo kisama ni tazunetai koto ga 
aru. To wo tatete nan no yaku ni tats'ka** 

a In sucb & case one may wy dokkoi to gather one's self together for the effort. 
Tsku^aUobikosu • hiiokutki with m» ooATejs the idea of an ejaculation, 
b Sono dango no koto da» Z><I«^<^— that's the yery thing I was talking about I 

432 Hizakurige 


Nikon ni Docku HtMakurige to iu kokkeino kon ga arimasKte^ 
Yajiro to Kidakacki to iu motw ga futari de Edo kara Kyoto 
made iku koto ga okasKku kaite arimas\ Sono ucki ni ko iu 
omoskiroi hanashi ga arimas': 

Yajiro to Kidakacki ga Skioigawa to iu kawa ni kita toki^ 
sono mae no ki ni dame ga futte kaski ga ockimaskUa kara^ drat 
no kito ga mina kono kawa wo kacki de watatte orimasfita. 
Soko ye Kyonobori no zato de^ Inuichi to Saruichi to iu no ga 
futari kite tazuneru no ni : ** Moshi / mizu ga kiza made 
gozaimas' ka'' Kidakacki no kotae ni : " Sayo^ sayo^ skikashi 
mizu ga kayai kara^ abunai, Yojin sk'te w atari nasai,'* Inu- 
icki ; •• Ha^ narukodo, mizu no oto ga yokodo kayai,'' to ii nagara 
iski wo kirotte kawa no naka ye nagekonde kangaete orimasKta 
ga : ** Kokora ga asai yd da, Koryhy Saruicki ! futari nagara 
kyakan wo toru no wa mendo da kara, omae wakai yaku de^ 
waski wo obutte kure. Saruicki ; *' Ha, zurui koto da. Ken 
de mairo^ Afaketa mono ga obutte wataru no da, Yol ka,** 
Inuicki: Kore wa omoskiroi, Sa^ omae / *' Soko de^ *^ tyan 
go sai, ryan go sai " to katate de ken wo utte, soko kara migi no 
te wo dasKte tagai ni hidari no te wo nigiriaimask'ta, « Inu- 
icki : ** Katta zo, katta zo," Saruicki: ** £/, imaimaskii,'* 
Sonnara kono furosk kizutsumi wo omae ni yaru zo. Sa^ koi, 
koi " to obuu sKtaku wo sk'te se wo mukemasKta, Yajiro iva 
kore wo yoko kara mite Inuicki no kawari ni Saruichi ni 
obuwareru to, Saruicki wa zato to omotte sassa to kawa no naka 
ye kaitte mukd ye watarimask* ta. Inuicki wa konata no kishi 

a This incident is from a humorous work of Ikku (died Z83X). See Astons* 
History of Japanese Literature, p. 371. The book describes the adventures of 
two worthies, Yajirdbei and Kidahachi, as they tramp over the TSkaldo. The 
name Hitakurige, from hita knee and kuri-ge chestnut-colored fur, is an 
allusion to the " shank's mare '' that they rode. 

b Blind men going up to Kyoto. 

c Yaku means here role ; wakai yaku, the role of the young man. 

d We will decide the matter by means of a game of ken (p. Z96a). The 
players repeat as a signal the formula ryan go sai, Ryan is « two" {tdot^; go 
is five ; the meaning of sai is not known. The blind are very fond of games of 

e They played with their left hands, and each used his right hand to feel 
the movements made by the other. 

Hizakurige 433 

ni nokoUe ite, ** Yoi, Saruichi yo / do suru ka. Hayaku kawa wa 
wataranai ka.'* Saruichi wa sore wo muko kara kiite hara wo 
tatete : ** Korya okashi na yatsu da. Tadaima watasKta na 
ni^ tnata sotchi ye kaette watakushi wo ncUmru tC da'' Inuichi : 
" Baka wo ie. Omae kitori de watatte futoi yatsu da'' Saru- 
ichi : " ly a, futoi to wa sotcki no koto da." Inuichi : ** Korya 
anidun ni muhatte gongododan. Hayaku kite watasan ka," ta 
shirome wo dash'te hara wo tatemash'ta kara, Saruichi ga 
sh'kata naku mata kotchi ye watatte kaette, ** Sii, sonnara 
obusari nasai" to itte senaka wo daskimash'ta. So suru to, 
Kidakachi wa shimeta to omotte^ obusarimash'ta kara, Saruichi 
wa mata sassa to kaiva ye hairimash'ta. Soko de Inuichi wa 
taiken sekikonde, ** Saruichi^ doko ni oru ka" to oki na koe de 
iu tc^ Saruichi iva kawa no naka de, ** Koitsu wa dare da " ta 
Kidahachi wo mizu no naka ye domduri otoshimash' ta, Kida- 
kachi wa, " tas'kete kure, tas'kete kure " to te ashi wo mogaite 
nagarete oru kara, Yajiro wa tobikonde hikiagemash' ta ga, 
Kidahachi wa atama kara ashi no saki made bisshori nurete : 
Ei, zatome ga tonda me ni awaseta," Yajiro wa, " HTi, hn, hlty 
mazu kimono wo nuide shibotte yard " to itte, Kidahachi ga 
hadaka ni natte gatagata zenshitrfuruete, kimono wo shibotte iru 
uchi ni, zato wa kawa wo wattate torisugimash'ta, 

» Shimeta may be nn exclamation of joy : <* I've got it." 


Hanawa Nokiichi^ 

Hanawa Hokiichi to iu sensei wa shichi sai ni naru to, 
^ambyo ni kakattt mekura ni narimasKta. Sore kara biioa 
ya amma no keiko wo shimasKta ga^ amari omoshiroku nakat- 
ta karay Edo ye dete Wakan no gakumon wo benkyo sh'te 
yumei na gak'sha ni narimash* ta. Aru ban shosei wo atsumete 
<^enji Monogatari no^ koshaku wo sKte imas' to natsu no koto 
des' kara, ^ kaze gafuite kite akari ga kiemasKta, Shosei ga 
soko de sensei ni, ** Shoskd o viae hi nas'tt€ kudasai ! akari wo 
ts*keneda narimasen " to vioshimas to, sensti wa, '' Me no aru 
mono wa/ujiyu na mono da** to itte waraimasKta. 

Ooka no Sabaki 

Am onna ga nuka_ no naka ye kakush'te oita kane wo nusu- 
vinremasKta no de Ooka ni uttaedemasK ta, ^ Soko de Ooka wa 
sono hi onna no uchi ni otta hitobiio wo mina yobidasKte: 
'* /sure nusunda mono no te wa ma da nukak^sai^ ni ckigai ga 
nai kara, kore kara ichiichi ^ kaide miyo " to moshimasKta. So 
suru to, sono uchi no hitori ga sotto jibun no te wo hana ni atete 
kaide mita no de^ yakunin ga sugu ni sore wo mits^kete^ sono 
mono wo ioraete gimmi wo shimash'ta tokoro ga, an no gotoku 
sono mono ga nusunda no de arimasKta, 

Shosei no Kokatsu 

Kai Sanyo ga R katsute aru uchi ye kyoo ni manekareta toki 
Je.ihu 2va hannshiaite ni tote shosei wo mo hitori yobimash^ ta. 

a A noted scholar and author, died 1821 at tlie age of 76. 

b A classical romance written about fhe year JCOO by a lady of the Court^ 
^lurasaki Shikibu. See Aston, History of Japanese literature, p. 92. 

c The shoji were pushed aside to admit fresh air. 

d For Ooka see p. 358a. Uttae-deru is transitive, though the second part of 
the compound is the intransitive verb dent. So z\hO mdshidtru^ukaga%derH,e\G. 
<p. 285). 

e Kice bran has an unpleasant odor. 

f Ichi-ichi one by one. 

g The famous author of Ihc work Nihon Givnishi, a histoiy of Japan {gzvai- 
shi external history, i. e., histoiy of the leading families, as distingaished from 
the t fficial hislory of the Court) from the times of Masakado (X. Century) on, 
jmblishcd in 1837. 

Moshi no Haha 435 

Satit iyoiyo gozen ni narivtask^ta ga^ mireba Sanyo no yaki- 
jsakana zva shosei no yori s'koshi okii no de shosei wa hnra wo 
SaU issaku tvo^ kangaedoihUe Sanyo ni mukai : So Toba no 
So noj'i wa uo noji %vo viigi ni kakn ga yd gozaimas'ka, hida- 
ri ni kaku ga yd gozaimas' ka " to tazunemasK ta, ^ Sanyo %va 
nanigenaku, •• Sore wa inigi de vio hidari de mo onaji koto da'* 
to kotiiemasUta, Sum to, shosei wa sugn tii, " Sore nara kore 
mo yahari migi de mo hidari de mo onaji koto desho " to itte 
yakisakana wo torikaemaskta. 

Moshi no Haha 

Moshi wa ^ kodomo no ioki ni aru tera no soba ni sunde ori-. 
inasK te mainichi sosh* ki wo miru mon des' kara, sono mane 
wo sKte asobimasIC ta. Soko de haha wa koko wa kodomo wo 
sodateru tokoro de wa nai to omoimash'te, aru ichiba no yoko 
ni tenkyo shimasK ta. Sum to, Aloshi wa kondo wa akindo 
no mane wo sh*te asobimashUa. Soko de viata haha wa koko mo 
ko wo sodateru tokoro de wa nai to kangaemasKte, kondo wa 
aru gakko no soba ye hikkoshimasKta, So sh'ta tokoro ga^ 
Moshi wa mainichi gakko de keiko wo sum mane wo sk'ie 
asobimasKta kara, haha wa koko ga ko wo sodateru basho da 
to omotte yoyaku anshin itashimasK ta, 

Sono nochi Moshi wo shugyd no tame am empo no gakko ye 
okurimasJita tokoro ga, Moshi wa benkyo ga iya ni natte uchl 
ye kaette kimasnta, Sono toki haha wa chodo hata wo orika- 
kete imasKta ga, Moshi no tochu de gakumon tvo yameie kaette 
kita no wo mite jibun no orikakete ita hata wo hasami de ?ia^ 
kahodo kara kitte miseviash'ta. So sKte Moshi ni mukatte iu 
no ni wa, ** Omae ga ima chuto de gakumon wo yamete shiwau 
no wa chodo orikaketa hata wo kono tori kitte shimau yd na 
mono de nan no yaku ni mo tatanai** to itte iken wo shimasKta. 
Soko de Moshi wa kijo ni osoreiite kokoro wo torinaoshi mata 
saki no gakko ye kaette isshokeinmei ni benkyo wo itashimasUta. 

a From ichi one, saku scheme. 

b The name of a famous Cliinese literalcur {buushoka). In Ihe character so 
(m or jQ), " fish '' (^) may be j^ut either on the left or on ihe right side. 

c The famous philosopher Mettg-fse or Mencius (Japanese Jirto-shi) lived B.C. 
37X — 288. Having lost his father at an early age, he was educated by his 
mother. The stories here told illustrate the great solicitude witli which she 
watched over her boy's education. . She is commonly referred to as Mobo {6o=s 
hakay A version in the form of the written language may be found in 
-Chamberlain's ** Romanized Japanese Reader." 

436 Aoto Saemofi no Keizai — Ota Dokivan 

So sh'te isui ni wa Asei^ to iwareru yd na rippa na hita 
ni narimasKta, Sore yue ima de mo hito ga Moshi no haha 
wo hoinete yoku kodomo wo kyo'tku sum michi wo sKUe ita 
hito da to inoshimas*. 

Aoto Saemon no Keizai 

Mukashi Aoto Saevion Fujitsuna^ to iu hito ga kashi w^ 
iorikakatta toki ni,ju mon no zeni wo kawa ye otOiKte^ sore wo 
hiroiageru tame ni ninsoku wo yatotte kite kaxva wo sagasasete 
go ju mon no hiyo wo haraivtash'ta. Tokoro de^ aru hito ga 
waratte Aoto ni mukatte, **Ju mon no zeni wo hiroiageru noni ga 
ju mon no zeni wo haratte wa sashihiki ski ju mon no son ga 
iki wa shinai ka ** to tazunewas'to, Aoto ga kofaete, iu no ni^ 
*' Moshi ju mon no zeni wo kawa ye utchatte okeba^ itsu made 
mo tenka ni j^i mon no zeni wo ushinai ; ^ moshi hiroiageta 
naraba^ ninsoku nigoju mon zvo haratte mo dochira mo yahari 
tenka ni tsuyo suru wake yue, betsu ni tenka no keizai ni wa^ 
son ga nai " to iimasKta. 

Ota Dokwan no Han as hi 

Mukashi Ota Mochiske^ to iu daimyo ga Edo ni orareta^ 
toki aru hi loots' ka no hen de takagari wo saremasKta, Sono^ 
toki kyu ni awe ga futte kita no de^ hyaksko no ie ni haitie, 
*' Mitw wo ichi mai karitai " to iwaremasKta. So suru to, 
komus*me ga hi tori dete kite yamabuki no hana wo sashidasK te- 

a A'Sei next to the sage, i. e., the greatest philosopher next to Confucias^ 
« the Wife" {sH'jin\ This title was first given to Mengtse by one of his- 
commentators and was officially confirmed by the Chinese Emperor Wan-tsang. 
in the year 1330. 

b Aoto Saemon, a high official in the second half of the XIII. Century, is 
famous for his just decisions and his wise and economical administration. 
AotB is the family name; Saemath originally a title {sa-e-tnon no jo head of tbe- 
left gate guard), has become a part of his name ; FujUiuna Is the given name. 
The anecdote here related is very well known and is frequently referred to. 
For this and other stoiies of Aoto Saemon see Chamberlain's Japanese Reader." 

c Translate by means of the passive : Ten mon are lost to the Empire, 

cl This story is well known in Japan. It is found, for instance, in Ed^- 
Meisho Ztie (p. 281 f). The hero is better known now by the name Ota Dokwan. 
In ancient times a man might have besides the family name two or three 
names : a true name {nanort), a popular name {tslt^kd) and perhaps still another. 
Since the Restoration it has become the rule to have only one name. In Z4S6- 
Cla Dokwan founded on the present site of T6ky5 a fortress, which was later 
transformed by leyasu into the great castle' of Edo. 

c For the honorific inflection of the verbs see p. 26S. 

Ikkyu no Tofuht 437 

-mono mo iwazu ni obu yg haitte shimaimaslita. Ota wa nan 
no koto da ka ivakaranai kara^ taiso okotte kaette kinju no 
$nono ni sono koto wo hanasaremasK ta, Soko de hitori no 
kerai ga iu no ni, " Sore wa koka ni, » 

* Nanae yae hana wa sakedomo yamabuki no 

MI NO hitotsu dani naki zo wabishiki * ^ 
to arimas' kara, mino ga nakuie_ ainiku desto in tsuinori de 
gozaintasko " to kotaemasK ta. Ota wa sore wo kiite varuhodo 
to gaten ga ikare jibun no mugaku wo hajite sore kara taiso 
benkyo sh'te nochi ni wa yumei no utayomi ni narimashta, 

Ikkyu no Tonchi 

Ikkyu ga^ kodomo no toki ni Daitokuji^ de gakumon wo 
sh'te imasUta. Aru hi sensei ga yoso kara^ kwashi wo 
moraimash' ta^ Ikkyu wa jibun ni mo sore wo tvakete kureso 
na mono da to omotte ita keredouio, morau koto gn dekimasen 
desVta. Sore de waza to tobokete sensei ni, ** Sono hako no 
uchi ni nani ga arimaska " to tazunemasKta, Sensei wa^ 
*• Sore wa doku da kara, taberu koto wa naran ** to iikikase- 
masKta, Sono yokujitsu sensei no soto ye deta alo de Ikkyu 
wa sono kwashi wo mina tabete shimatte soko ni aru sensei no 
daiji na, hanaike wo kowa^Kte okimashUa, Sensei wa kaette 
kite odoroite, '* Kono hanaike wo date ga koivasKta ka. 
Shojiki ni kakujo siireba yurusKte yaru ga, sa mo nakuba 
kikanai zo "^ to iimas to, Ikkyu wa buruburu ski nagara dete 
kite, *' IVatakushi ga so so de sono hanaike wo kowashiiuasKta. 
Sensei ni moshiuake ga gozaimasen kara, shino to omoimash'te, 
saiwai soko ni arimash'ta doku wo tabete shimaimasli ta, 
Skikashi mada shinemasen kara^ mad a hoka ni doku ga 
arimas'nara, chodai itasKto gozaimas' '* to kotaemasKta, 

a Connect koka ni with arimasu (=zknife arimasu). 

b This poem is by Prince Kaneaki and is found in the collection called 
Gd-shu'i-shti the "Second Gleaning" {go later, s/iu=/nroit, t=noJl:on\ s/iFi= 
-a/su/mruy The meaning is: Yamabuki wa hana ga yae ni saku keredomo, mi 
ga hitotsu mo nai no ga zannen desu. Nanne yae (p. 64) sevenfold and eightfold, 
of the doable blossoms (zovsx'^^t^ yae-zakura double clierry blossoms); sakedomo 
-s^saku keredomo (p. 265d) ; zo after naki {=nai) is emphatic ; ivnbishiki sad 
(variant reading kanashiki). 

c IkkyU, a priesi of the XV. Century, is noted for his ready wit and is the 
liero of many interesting tales. 

d A Buddhist temple in Kyoto, 

t Yoso kara from some place or other, from some one. 

438 Ikkyu no Mondd — Taishohi no Hanashi 

Mata Ikkyu ga kyaku no mae ni deta ioki kyaku ga tawa- 
mure ni isuitate no torn zc o yubizashUe, * " Omae wa genki da 
giiy ano torn wo is^kamaeU go ran *' *' to Ikkyu ni inoshimash^ta. 
Ikkyu wa sr/gu ni iatU tor a no ho ye viuki te wo hirogetey 
" Dczd^ auata oidask'U kudasai " to inoskimash'ia. 

Ikkyu no Mondd 

Ikkyu oshd ga Hitachi ?io Kashima ^ no vtiya ye sankei iva 
safeia foi'i ni toclni no mori no kage kara mi no take shichi 
shaku bakari no aru yamabushi ga dete mairimasKte oshd ni 
totsuzen, ** Buppd wa ika ni**^ to tazunewasKta, Oshd wa 
sugu ni kotaete, ** Mune ni an " to mosaremash' ta, Tokoro ga, 
yamabushi wa surari to k a tan a wo nuite, '* Sore nara mune wo 
7vatte miyo ** to itie kirikakarimash ta. Oshd wa s*koshi ma 
sawagasu kogoe de, 

" Harugoto ni nam ya Yoshiuo no yaniazakura 

ki wo warite miyo kana no arika wo^' ^ 
to in koka wo tonaeraremash ta, Yamabushi wa kore wo kiite 
oi ni kanjimash*te sugn ni katana wo say a ni osame doko to 
mo naku nigete shimaimasK ta. ^ 

Taishoku no Hanashi 

Am hi hi tori no korafki ga^ Ikkyu ni mukatte, ** Wata- 
kushi wa konaida mochi wo itto tabemashta ; amari hara ga 
harimashta kara^ hara wo hes'iame ni kawa no fuchi zvo 
antite ^* orimashta. So suru to, soko ni June ga isso tsunaide 

a Pointing witli a finger. Tor fsui/ate see p 3613. On this screen was 
painted a liger. 

I) This is more familiar than i:o ran nasai. Su also aide nasai may be 
abbrevicited to oide 

c A famous Shinto shrine. Fcr Hitachi see p. 389a. 

d I/^a m=ika ni ariviasu la, »» being equivalent to df in the colioqaial : 
Mune ni ari=mune no naka ni arimasu. The dialogue is after the classical 

e According to tlie usual order Yoshifio no yamazakura ^om\A stand before 
hantf^oto ni sahu ^ miyo, after arika 700, yir7=an exclamation mark ; TcrarrV^^s 
tlie colloquial watte, with ari-ka compaie sumi-ka dwelling place. The 
simple blossoms of the cherry trees (yama-zahtra) of Yoshino in Yamato are 
famous all over Japan. 

f The end of the tale has been allercd somewhat. Accosding to the original 
Jnp.n.cse text, the hermit is nielamorphoscd into a wood sprite. 

i; From hora ivo /it hi Mow a conch, i. e., blow one's horn, brag. 

h \or /uchi ic'o arttkn and fiui.'siiba) a wo afuku see p. 362. 

Sorari Shinzaeman 439 

arhnashUa kara^ sore wo moUi kawa no niizu wo sukkari 
kaedashintash'ta " to jimangao wo sKti hanashitnash* ta. 
Ikkyu wa sore wo kiite majwte na kao dt kotaemas'ni wa^ 
** Watakushi no tomodachi ni yamabushi ga hitori arimasKta 
ga, sono yaviabushi mo anata no yd ni taishoku wo sum hito 
de, atu hi mochi wo ni to kuimash*ta. Sore de hara ga hatta 
karuj haragonashi ni viatsubara wo aruite imasKta. S^koshi 
a$hi ga kutabireta kara, matsu no taiboku wo ippon kikintnte 
sono ue ni koski wo kakete yasunde iru to, chiisai hebi ga kite 
oki na kaeru wo nonde kurnskiftde ita ga^ yagate sono waki ni 
aru ininarenti * knsa wo kutta tokoro ga, tachimachi konarete 
shimaimasK ta, Yoinabushi wa sore wo mite, * Kore wa ii 
hara wo herasu kusa ^ da to omotte hebi no mane wo sKte sore 
wo taberu to^ sore wa hito mo kaeru no yd ni to kern ^ kusa 
desh'ta kara, yamabushi wa tachimachi tokete shimatte nto ni 
wa ni to ko mochi ga yamabushi no shozoku no mama de 
uokorimash'ta'' to mdshimasWtaA Horaf*ki wa sono kotae 
ni hajitef^tiitabi Ikkyu no tokoro ye kaodashi wo shimasenda 
so des\ 

Sorori Shtnzaemon 

Sorori Shinzaemon « to in hito ga Hideyoshi ko no goten yc 
dete kanashimas'ni wa : " IVatakushi ga Kiyomizu Kwannon ^ 
ye mairiniasKtara, Otowa no taki de mi no take % ichi jo go 
rok'shaku hodo aru bakemono ni deaimash'ta. Sum to, sono- 
bakemono ga oki na kuchi wo aite ( = akete) watakusJii wo no- 
mo to itashimasKta kara, watakushi zva bakemono ni, * Omae 
wa taiso okii ga, ckiisaku b a kern koto wa dekinai kato iima- 
shUa. So itashimash^tara, bakemono wa, * Ikura de mo chiisa- 
ku bakete miseyd*to moshimasKta kara, * Sonnara umeboshi ni 
natte miserdto iimasfCta, Soko de bakemono wa chiisa na 
umeboshi ni natte hiza no viae ni korogete mairimasK ta kara, 
watakushi wa sore wo totte hitokuchi ni nonde shiviaimasKta. 

a Such as one is not accustomed to see, rare, peculiar. 

b Ji and hara wo herasu aie both attributive (p. 423,1). 

c Toleru melt may be rendered here " evaporate " or ** vanish.** 

d The subject of moshimashi/a is Jkhyu, at the beginning of the story. 

e Sorori Shiozaemon, an official attached to Hideyoshi, (1536,. ..1598), noted 
for his shrewd sayings and wise counsels. 

f A famous temple in Ky5to. In the vicinity there is a waterfall called 

g Mi no fake lenglli of body. The particle gn is understoo:!. 

440 Kato Kiyomasa 

Sore girij ^ bakivtono wa denaku nariwash*ta** Kono hana- 
ski wa ^ Hideyoshi ko ga tenka no kwambaku ^ de ari nagara 
kwattatsu na hito yue^ tomo mo tsurezu ni hitori de yoru so:o 
ni deru koto ga arimasKta kara^ moshi^ ieki no mono ni de 
mo deatte korosareru yd na koto no nai yd ni chut wo shikake- 
reba naranai to isameta no de ariutas\ Hideyoshi no ikioi 
wa chodo oki na bakemono no yd na mono des'keredo, tada hi- 
iori de so to ye dete wa, chiisa na umeboshi doyo ni dare ni de 
mo korosarete shimau to iu kokoro {koto) wo omoshiroku tatoeie 
ftwsKta no de arimas\ 

Kato Kiyomasa 

Hideyoshi ko wa taihen chanoyu ga ski de atta kara^ sko- 
dais ho no uchi ni zva * tabitahi sono seki ni mak^kareru no de 
shizen sono shiH wo kuwasKku kokoroete oru mono ga o go- 
zaimasKta. Hitori Kato Kiyomasa ^ nomi wa cha wo konomi- 
masen desKta kara^ amari sono seki ni deta koto ga arivtasen 
desKta, Tokoro ga^ am hi Hideyoshi ko kara wazawaza mane- 
kareta no de yamuwoezu cha no kwai ni demaslCta. I 'agate 
Kato wa, e do suru mono yara, cha no ncmikata wo shiranai no 
de, chawan wo viotte guzuguzu sh'te imas'to, Hideyoshi ko wa, 
** Kato / hayaku nonde chawan wo mawase ' to mosaremasKta. 
Soko de Kiyomasa tva hitokvchi ni^ cha %vo nomihosKte yubi 
de cliawan wo guruguru mawashimasK ta. * 

n Sore girt only that and no more ; i. c, that was ihe end of the ghost 

b A'ono hanashi wa has for its predicate isameta no de anmasu: This story 
-was [intended ns] a warning to the eflect that 

c For ktvambaku [kivampakti) see p. 78a. 

d Moshi is to be construed with nai yo ni: translate: •*lest perchance." 

c Shodaislid, from sfio many (p. i) and tai-shd general; we may translate, 
^' his generals." No uchi ni wa is to be construed witli o gozaimashi/a, 

f One of the two generals who commanded the expedition to Korea at the 
«nd of the XVI. Century. 

gin the course of a narrative either the family name or the personal name 
may stand alone. Here Kiyomasa also would he correct. In the ceremony 
of koi cha it is the custom to take only a sip and then pass the cup aloug 
(jtiawasti). For the distinction between koi cha and iisucha see p X06. 

h At one gulp. 

i lie spun it {matvasu)^ like a top. 

Tsuru no Suimono 441 

Tsuru no Suimono 

Mukashi Tokugaiva no hatamoto * ni Okubo Hikozaemon to 
iu riko na hito ga arimasKta ga^ Aono hito wa chugi to omoeba 
donna ni iinikui^ koto de mo kamatvazu shogun ni moshiage 
o kami no heigai wo tamenaoshimaSh'ta kara, dare de mo O- 
kiibo no jiji to ieba kowagaranai mono wa arimasen desKta. 
Aru toki sJwgunke ni tsuru no suimono no go chiso ga ^ arima- 
sKti^ go tairo ya go rofu wo^ hajime Okubo sono hoka amata 
no hatamoto ga go shotai ni azukarimasJC ta. Okubo iva amari- 
joseki no hito de nakatta mono des'kara, Okubo tio suimono 
ni wa mawarikaneta to miete tsuru no niku^ wa hito kire mo 
haitte inaide na bakari haitte imasKta, Okubo wa sore wo 
fushin ni omoi tameshi ni ippai kaete « mimash*ta ga^ yahari 
tsuru no niku wa hito kire mo arimasen desKta, Sore de (o) 
rydriban no fusei na koto ga wakarimasKta, Sono ban wa 
sono mama * kaette kite, yokujitsu ni naru to, kerai ni iits^ke:e 
na wo tak'san kago ni ire tomo ni motase go ten ni mairiviasKte 
annai tvo koimasKta. Sono toki shogun zva ni san no (go) 
kinju to niwasaki no yuki wo nagamete irassharu tokoro desKta 
ga^ Okubo no koto yue^ sassoku^ *' Kochira ye maire'' to 
yuruski ga arimash^ta, Okubo wa magatta koshi de tokko- 
tokko aruite shogun no irassharu tsugi no ma no engawa no 
tokoro made susunde uyauyasK ku ryote wo tsuite '^ go kigen zvo 
ukagaifnasK ta. Shogun wa Okubo ga rotai de an nagara 

a Ha/a-moto {\\t, ViTi^ex the banner) were immediate vassals of the SbSgun 
who held fiefs yielding from 300 to io,cco koku of rice. The hatamoto of higher 
rank had immediate access to the Shogun and held important offices. One of 
these was Okubo Hikozaemon^ of whom various quaint stories are told. For his 
biography see Okubo Ichidaiki, 

b Ji-nikui unpleasant to say. 

c The meat of the crane is highly prized. Shdgunke ni at the Sh5gun*s 

d The go ro-jn (lit. elders' assembly) were five or six daimyO who were 
entrusted with the government of tlie country, like the present ministers of 
state. At times, as, for example, during the reigns of the fifth Shoguns of the 
Tokugawa family, the^^ rd-jh liad a president called go tai ro (lit, great elder). 

e He had them bring him another bowl. 

f In that condition, i. e., without uttering a word of complaint. Sec below: 
9ono mama sashidashimashita, 

g Seeing it was Okubo. 

h Kept both hands on the floor in a polite altitude, as is the custom when 
exchanging salutations in the house. 

442 Tsuru no Suimono 

yuki ni iho kainawasu sanden sVta no wo kidoku ni oboshi- 
mesare koto ni o kotoba wo yawarager arete ^ ^^Jif^h ^^^^ 
samukatta de aro, Yoku kite kureta. Chikaku yore^ chikaku 
yore ; ynrus\ yurus" '* to oseraremask' to. Soko de Okubo wa za 
wo susumete sakuya no go ckiso no o rei ivo ^ nobe, mata o niwa 
no nagame no ii koto ya sono koka yomoyama no hanashi wa 
moshiageto orimas^to, skogun wa sasuga no^ meikun de irase- 
raremas' kara, Okubo ni mukai, ''Jijii, kyo wa betsu ni nani 
ka yd ga atte kita no ka ; ^ vioshi yd ^ areba, enryo naku 
hayaku itta ga ii*' to oseraremasK ta. Okubo wa, " Sayo de 
gozaimas^^ jijii^ kyo wa betsu ni tai sKta yd vio gozaimasen 
ga, saiwai oki na tsuru ga te ni irimaskta kara, sonran ni 
sonaeto zonjiinasKte^ wazawaza jisan ts*kamatsurimash*ta. 
Go shono nsobasKte kudasariinasureba^ arigatai shiawase us 
zonjimas '' ^ to mdski nagara na wo ireta kako wo sono mama 
sashidashimasK ta. Shogun ga kinju no hito ni sono fta wo 
akesasete go ran ni narimas'to, tsuru de wa nakute tada oki na 
na bakari haitte orimashUa, Soko de shogun wa hen ni 
oboshimesarete^ *^Jijii, sochi wa ima tsuru da to itta ga^ sore 
wa tsuru de wa naku na to mosu mono de wa nai ka " ta 
dseraremash*ta, Okubo wa o kotae wo sKte^ " Sayo de 
gozaimas\- shikashi goten de wa na no koto wo tsuru to nios'ka 
to zon}imas\ Sakuya^ * Tsuru no suimono wo kudasaru yue, 
sanjo seyo' to {no) ose ga gozaimasJita kara, ukagaimasKte 
o suimono wo chodai itashimasKta ga, sono a suimono ni wa 
tsuru no niku wa hito hire vio nakute tada na bakari de gosai^ 
masKta, Jijii mo hen ni omoimash'te ippai kaete itadaki- 
mash'ta ga, yahari tsuru wa hito kire mo naku mae no yd ni 
na bakari de gozaiviasKta kara, sate goten de wa na no kota 
wo tsuru to mdskoto ka to zonjimasKta ** to mdshiagemasK ta. 

a Sakuya no go chiso no o rei thanks for the feast of the previous evening. 

b For sasuga see p. 323b. 

o Kiia no ka is familiar for oidt nasaimnshita ka, 

d Uknbo speaks of himself as /^-Vi. 

e Son ran ni sonaeru is very formal for miseru and means here to offer as a- 
gift {son^=4atloi honorable, ran look — in go ran). Notice the very respectful 
language employed by Okubo in speaking to the Shogun. 

f Another expression indicative of profound respect: if your Highness 
deigns to accept it {sAd=Tvaran laugh, i. e.. laugh disdainfully, n3tsst*keUru 

Tsuru no Suimono 443 

Shogun wa Okubo no iti koto wo mottomo no koto to pboshi- 
viesarete sassoku sakuya no rydriban no mono wo gimvii 
seraremasta^ maneki ni azukatta hito ga amari okatta yue^ 
Okubo no suimono ni wa tsuru no niku ga mattaku yuki" 
wataranakatta^ koto ga wakarimaslita kara, sono rydriban 
no kaskira wa sassoku yaku wo go men ni natte hoehiku 

a l^ih*'«Ftf/((in^ extend to details (compare >'<//^^/<»/(9>&»). W<ti^ yukiwatarana- 
ioHa means did not go around, did not reach, in serving the stipper (compare 
mawari'kaneru above)r 


" Tanoshimi iva haru no sakura ni aki no ts^ii 
fufu naka yoku san do kuu meshi " ^ 

G^ fufu naka no yoi to iu no wa makolo ni kekko de 
gozaimas ga, shikaski, domo, go fujin no o yakimochi wa 
tsutsushimanakereba narimasen. Kono o yakimochi ni tsuiU 
-wa zuibun o kanashinikui koto ga ikura mo gozaima^. 

Sai : c Danna sama wa, ma, taihen niyoku netsuiU irasskaru 

koto/ Oya, nani ka^ unasarete moshi, danna^ anata do 

nas'tta Aa, O mezame ni narimasen ka, O kaze wo meshi- 
viasyo, Danna^ danna / 

Otta: Ot a, domo, sukkari uete shimatta. 

Sai: Nan des*ka, Taihen ni negoto wo osshaimasKta, 
Ano ne, " Makoio ni naganaga o kokoroyas*ku shimash*ta ga^ 
izure ni san nichi no uchi ni o me ni kakarimas* " to osshai* 
viasKta ga, nan no yume wo go ran nasaimasKta ka. 

Otto : Nani, sonna koto wo iiya shinai. 

Sai : lie, watakushi wa chanto kikimasKta, 

Otto: Nani, cfionai no mujin ni itta^ kaerigake ni 
msatswo sKtayume wo mita n' da yo. 

Sai : Sore wa ikemasen ; mujin no o kaeri ni " Nagaraku 
-o kokoroyas' ku itashimasUta " to iu no wa okashiija gozaima- 
sen ka, Fufu no naka de kakus'to iu no tva do iu wake 
de gozaimas\ 

Otto: Mattaku sono yume ni ckigai nai kara, sKkata 
ga nai, 

Sai: Sh*kata ga nai to osshatte mo yd gozaimas\ 

Anata o kakushi nasaimashi / Kitto anata dare ka it hito ga 

a The "Dream Widom,*' by En-yu. This is a good example of the 
stories told by hatiashika in the amusement-halls called ^'^J^, and will give the 
student some idea of the language used in families of a certain class. 

b A humorous poem {kyo-kd). There aie tliree great joys, namely, cherry 
blossoms, tlie autumn moon and the daily life of a happy wedded pair. 

c The situation is : A recently married young shopkeeper has been taking 
a nap on the floor and has been talking in his sleep. His wife (ia») over- 
hearing what he says, is stirred to jealousy. 

d Certain men in the cho (p. 95e) have formed an organization called 
mttjin (literally: inexhaustible) or f////-yi»-X'5. Each member pays a certain 
sum monthly and every month the proceeds are given to one member, the 
order of the distribution delermined by lot. The husband pretends that the 
words which his wife has heard were spoken to one of his men friends as he 
Avas parting from him. 

Yum? no Go?:^ 445 

dekiU sono yumi wo go ran nas^tta tC desho. O totsan wa 
vuitaski no yd na mono de mo fubin to oinotte kudas'tte ski na 
sake da ga^ san nen kinjiru kara, dozo, shimbo wo sKte kun ta 
anata ni a tanomi ni natta de wa arimasen ka. ^ Sore ivo 
anata wa nan to mo oboshimesazu ni nani ka mata onna no 
koto de mo omotte irasskaru kara, sono yume wo go ran 
nas*tta n deshd. 

Otto : Aha, domo^ koits*wa yowatta ne. Nani ka sore wa 
wachigai daro. 

Sai: lie^ tasKka ni osshaimasK ta. O Cho vio O Haft a 
wo kiite ita nei. 

Otto : Domo, osoreitta ne. lya, sonnata iu ga, omae, yume 
da kara, okotcka ikenaiyo. 

Sai : Anata ga konto no koto wo osshatte kudasareba, nan 
de wataski ga okoru mono des'ka. 

Otto: Sore jd kanas*ga, jits' wa ne, Oiso no kaisuiyoku 
ye^ itta yume wo mita no sa. Yume to iu mono wa myo na 
tnorCde tonarizasKki ni oru onna wa toskigoro ni ju go roku 

no otsu na onna de omae okotcka ikenai, okoru to, kanashi 

ga dekifiaif yume da kara, ne sote kara^ ma, kokoroyas' ku 

natte ore wa kaerd to iu to^ sono onno mo yappari Tokei ni 
kaeru to iu kara, ni id no kisha no fujinskitsu ni futari 

Sai: Ara, md, domo, anata kesh' karan' de wa arimasen 
ka. Dai ichi fujinskitsu de wa tabako wo nomu koto ga 
deiinakutte ikenai to kanete anata osshatte irujd arimasen ka. 

Otto : Md, sa, sore ga yume nan da kara, so muki ni natte 
okotcka ikenai. Sore kara tsuide ni Enoshima ye iko to iu na 
ete zuito Enoshima ye itte 

Sai : Honto ni anata wa uchi no koto mo omowanaide kiraku 
jd arimasen ka. 

Otto : lya, sa, yume dayo. Sum tOy kondo Yokos'ka ye iku 
koto ni natta. 

Sai: Vokos'ka ye anata o hitori de irasskaimash' ta ka. 

Otto : Sore ga kondo Hashidatego ^ to iu shinzosen no shin- 
suisk*ki ga aru no de kippu wo moratta kara, dekakeyd to omou 

a The father of the young man, knowing the weaknesses of his son and 
desiring to influence him to mend his ways, in order that he may bring no 
distress to his wife, has vowed to abstain from sake, of which he himself is 
▼ery fond^ for three years. 

b OtM^p a well known bathing resort on the T5kaidd. 

c A man-of-war name«l Hashtdate. 


io^ sono otma mo issko ni iko to iu kara^ nid, issko ni iite skinsui- 
sKkiwo mita ga^ nakanaka it mono da na, Fune ga zutto 
dent toki ni^ gak'tai ga it kokoromocki ni ongaku wo so sum. 
Makoto ni tsutsuga naku fune wa umi ye deru. Kore wo mite 
kaerigake ni Yokohama de yotaski wo sk'te sdre kara kiska ni 
fwtte kaero to sunt to, sono onna ga s'teiskon de matte orimas' to 
itte itto no machiai de ichijikan bakari matte ite kureta, 

Sai: Namaiki na onna des'ne ; anata no yd wo tas*aida 
matte int nante. 

Otto : Yume da kara^ sk'kata ga nai. Sore kara Yokohama 
kara Shimbashi ye kuru to^ sono onna ga " IVatashi no taku wa 
jiki Kobikicko ku chome no shimmichi de gozaim^kara^ zehi a 
tachiyori wo negaimas' " to iu kara, issho ni itta tokoroga^ chat- 
to it uchi dayo. Soko tio uchi wa ni ketf'jii ni ken kan no shimat- 
ta kura mo ariy nakaniwa mo niju tsubo bakari atte^ oku gajitjo 
ni hachi jo ni roku Jo, Hanare ga atte chashitsu nado mo art, 
nakanaka otsu na sumai yo. * Ore ga yoru to, wazawaza tat 
shta go chisd, sake nado wa Masamune ga ippon ts'kete ari^ ^ 
cha ga s'ki to miete dogu ga yoku totonotte ite bonsai mo tak'san 
aru kara^ domo, kono o dogu ya bonsai wo oyaji ni miseto 
gozaimas* to iu to, muko de wa sKkiri ni teats' ku sKte^ dozo, 
kaette kureru na to iu no ni, izure kinjitsit o me ni kakarimas' to 
itte kaette kita tokoro wo, omae ni okosareta n' da ga, marumaru 
yume no koto de ore ga honto^ ni itta wake ja nai kara, 
skimpai wo ski nasanna. 

Sai: Ara, ma^ konto ni kidoi ja arimasen ka. Nandatte 
nnata sonoucki yeikimasKta. Ammari des'yo. Kitto fufuyak^- 
soku ka nan ka nasatta «' desko. 

Otto : Baka na koto wo ii nasanna ; yume da yo. 

Sai : Tatoe yume de mo kokoro ni so iu koto wo omotte iras- 
sharu kara, yume ni mint n' des\ Kono koto wo otot'san ni 
moskiagete go skinruiju ye furemawaskimas' kara, so omotte oide 
nasai. Ei, kuyaskii. 

Otto : Kore, sa, naitcha komaru yo, Yume da no ni, so 
kara wo tatete naicha shiyo ga nai. 

Sai: Sonnara nan de anata kakoimono nanzo o oki 
nasaimash'ta ? 

a Shimatta here means small : the storehouse measured 12 feet by 15. The 
ttaka-nkva, a court surrounded by rooms, is rather large. A ///zwar^, scparal ed 
room, is cither a little house standing apart or a room connected with the end 
■of I lie house. A cha-shiisu is a special room for the ceremony of ckatioyu. 

1) Jsukete arir=zzen ttt noseie atta, Masamune designates (he best sake^ said 
to be named afier Okazaki Masamune, a famous sword-smith. 


Otto : Okiya shinaL Vume da yo. 

Sat : lie^ tketnasen. 

Otto : Mittomonai yo. • Vume wo honto ni sarecha komaru. » 

Sai : A, watak'sha konto ni kuckiosku gozaimas\ Kore 
kara sono onna no tokoro ye itte te wo kitte moraimas*, *> 

Otto : Sonna koto wo itte mo yume da kara, doko da ka, 
ivakaranai yo, 

Sai : Tokyoju guruguru mawarimas\ O Cko ya, gonimbiki * 
no kuruma wo ^ yonde kite o kure. 

** Bakabakaskii na" to wakadanna mo komatte imas' tokoro 
ye tot' son ga kaette kite, 

Ckicki : Mata kenkzva ka, 

Sai : O totsan. irasskaimaski ! 

Chichi: Nan da, bakabakaskii fufugenkwa wa inu mo 
kuwanai. ^ Yoi kagen ni suru ga yoi, Mata nani ka yome ni 
skimpai wo keketa «* daro. 

Otto : O tot'san, watakushi wa skimpai mo nani mo kakeya 

Ckichi : Sore datte nan da kono sawagi wa yome ga 

naite sawaiderujd nai ka. 

Sai : Danna ga kakoimono wo okimasK ta. 

Chichi: Nani! Kakoimono iondemonai yatsu da, 

Kore, segare / Y(fku kike / Temae ga doraku wo sk'te kono 
yome ni skimpai wo kakeru no ga kinodoku da kara, ore ga 
s'ki na sake wo son nen tatte kisama wo maningen ni skiyd to 
omou ni, kisama wa sore wo nan to kokoroete kakoimono wo 
oku ka. Sonna yatsu da kara, anshin wo sh'te shindai ga 
yuzurarenai «' da. « Doko ye kakoimono wo oita. Ore ga itte 
sugu ni te wo kitte kite yaru, Doko da, ucki wa 

Otto : O tofsan, makoto ni, domo, osoreirimasK ta na. Yume 
nan de. 

Chichi : Nani, yume da to iu no ka. 

Otto : Hei, watakushi ga sono yume wo mita bakari da no 
ni, nandemo kokoro ni omotteru kara, yume ni miru «' daro 
kara, Tokyoju atooskits'ki no kuruma de garagara norimawas* 
to iu n* des'ga, domo, komarimas\ 

a It is (lisiressing to have my cUeam made an actuality, 

b 7e tvo kiru sever the lelaiion. 

c A riksha with five coolies is of course an exaggeration. 

d A proverb. A quarrel helwccn husband and wife is such poor stuff that 
not even a dog will eat it. 

c Anshin tvo shite is governed by the negative: I cnn't with ease of mind 
transfer my property to you. 


Chichi: Ufn\ sore wa komaru ; domo^omae bakabakashii 
fa nai ka, Segare wa yume da to itte oru id nai ka 

Sai : lie, anata made sonna koto wo osshaimas* ga, kokoro 
ni nai koto wa yume ni mimasen. Wakadanna wa kitto 
watakushi wo daso to iu koto wo osshatta ni chigai nai ; muko 
no onna mo onna des\ Hito no donna same wo nusumitaro to 
sKte chik'sho 

Chichi / Kore^ kore, sonna koto wo itte wa komaru ; mise 
no mono ni kikoete mo gwaibun ga warui. ^ 

Sai : Nandemo sono onna no te wo kitte kudasaranakereda, 
watakushi wa ido ye tobikonde shinde wakadanna ni totts*kimas\ 

Otto : Sonna koto wo sarechd taihen da. 

Chichi : Yoshi^ yoshi. Sonnara ore ga kore kara itte te wo 
kitte kite yaru, Segare, uchi wo shitteru ka. 

Otto : Yume da kara, tada moro to sKte Kobikicho no yd tut 
kokoromochi mo sureba, Negishi no yd na ki mo sum shi ; mata 
Honchodori no yd ni mo omou «' de. ^^ 

Chichi : Sore wa ikan nd. 

Sai : O tofsan, ddzo, hayaku te wo kitte kite / 

Chichi : Tonda meiwaku na hanashi da, SKkata ga nai. 
Yume no koto da kara, ore mo nete_yume de kotow ari ni iko, 
Doka, makura wo motte ki na? A, bakabakashii onna to iu 
mono wa tsumararikoto wo ki ni suru mono da nd, /ma ore ga 
kitoneiri^ nete yume de pittari kotow atte kite yaru kara, shimpai 
ski nasanna ! Sd^ s'koshi skizuka ni shi na yo ! Neru «* da 

Otto : O tot*san, domo, o kinodoku sama. 

Chichi : Tondemonai koto wp shoikonda ; kore, shizuka ni 
shinai ka. 

Sai : Sd, hayaku itte kudasaimashi yo / 

Chichi : Sawagi nasanna / Shizuka ni shi na yo / 

Sai: Hayaku itte kudasai / Watakushi wa kuyashu 
gozaimas* ! 

Chichi : Shizuka ni shi na, shizuka ni shi na / 

Sai : A, kuyashii. 

Chichi : Shizuka ni, shizuka ni gogo. 

Sai: Oya, mo oyotta yo / 

Chichi : Gogo, 

a If the clerks in the shop hear this, people will talk and our reputation 
will suffer. 

b The three places that the son names are in entirely different sections of 
the city. 

C liiio-neiri « nap. 


Sat: Itte irasskaimashi ! ^ Choito O Hanaf O tofsan 
wa go jobu da kara, nets' ki no hayai koto / 

Hana : Ara, munyamunya itte irasskaimas*yo. Kitto kurumn 
no ne ka nani ka ts*iete oide nasaru n' des yo. 

Chichi: A, Kobikickd ku chome no Shimmichi to iu to^ 
kokora daro, Koko ga^ nan da ka, kanaski no yd na uchi da 
na. Ni ken ni ni ken han de kura ga atte niwa no yds*gay 
dotno, sorashii, Oj'ocAti, ckotto mono ga ukagaito gozaimas\ 

Onna : Nan de gozaimas\ 

Chichi : Kono go kimpen ni Oiso no kaisuiyoku ye oide ni 

natta go fujin no o taku to itte mo o wakarini wa narimas'- 

mai ga...... 

Onna : A, taku de gozaimas'ga anata wa 

Chichi : Watak'shi wa Honcho kara mairimaskta ga 

Onna: A, Fukuzumi no odanna^ de gozaimas'ka. Ma^ 
yoku oide nasaimash' ta, Anata no go shisoku sama ni Oiso de 
kochira no go shinzo ga taiken ni o sewa wo itadaita so des\ 
Go skin san, go skin san / Honcho no danna sama no o tofsnn 
ga irasshaimash'ta. 

Shu : c Mdt ma, ureshii koto / Dozo, kochira ye / 

Chichi: Kore wa, domo, kekko na o sumai de doko 

kara doko made ikitodoita tokoro wa makoto ni osoreirimasK ta. 

Shu: Mdy ddmo, o tot* san/ Kochira ye ano, nan de 

gozaimas\ iroiro Oiso de wakadanna ni go yakkai ni natte 
honto ni fuskigi na go en da to iu no de, uchi ye kaette maitte 
mo skiju o uwasa bakari itasKte orimas'no, O kage sama de 
Enoshima wo kembutsu shi, Yokos'ka de Hashidatego to iu fune 
no shinsuisKki wo kaiken sh*te taihen ni hoyd wo iiashimash* ta 
ga, domo, wakadanna no o yasashii koto / Go yds* no ii koto / 
Donna ni oyago sama wa go yds*ga ii daro to onnadomo to 
iHosKte orimaskta ga, honto ni ikiutsushi des*nei. 

Chichi: Segare ga iroiro o sewa ni natta so de ma^ 

oyorokobi de na. Tokoro ga, sono segare ni wa kanai ga gozai- 
masKte kanai ga, hei anata fukai naka ni de mo 

a Good bye I 

b O-danna the elder master of the house, as contrasted with waka-danna, 

c ShussLsku-jin the mistress of the honse, a young widow. 


iya sonna baktt na koto wa art wa sen ga^ anata ga o ki/on 

de irassharu koto wo kiite kanai ga tsumaranai shimpai wo sk'te 
...... nanit sonna koto wa aru wake no mono de wa nai ga, 

skikashi ki no setnai onna de akd n/dbo no jtaku kodo 

Uisku mote mo sezu de^ wakai mono yue^ ki ni sum mo 

^nuri no nai tokoro de^ dozo, are ni wa kanai ga gozaifnas* kara, 
hitotsu sono tokoro wo ofukumi nas'tte kudasaru yd ni negaimas.' 

Shu : Ara^ ma^ o tot'san, watakuski wa sonna koto nado wa 
nriyd shimasen yo. Watakuski mo ko yatte ite betsu ni shinrui 
to iu mono mo gozaimasende, s'koski bakari zaisan ga arimas' 
kara, shikarubeki otoko ga attara, kwaikei no koto wo tanonde 
ichi nen ni ichi do zutsu mo mimawatte itadaite uchi no shimari 
wo ts'kete itadako to omotte otta tokoro ga, wakadanna ni o vie 
ni kakarimasKte, a, ko iu go skinsetsu na o kata ni uchi wo o 
viakase mosh'tara, watakuski mo konto ni anshin daro to onna- 
gokoro ni omotta tokoro kara fuktizo naku o kanashi wo sKte 
makoto ni shitsurei wo itashimasKta, Ano, o tot' son wa taiken 
ni chazuki de kotto ga taiso o s'ki da so de irasshaimas'nei, 
Ma^ dozo, konnichi wa go yukkuri to nas'tte / 

To, kore kara o cka wo ippuku das'. Chodo Masamune no 
kuchi wo akeru tokoro de atta kara. 

Shu : Hayaku go zen wo / O tofsan, dozo, kitokucki! 

Chichi : lie^ watakuski wa go shu no tokoro wa shisai atte ^ 
s'koshi mo itadakimasen kara. 

Shu : Sonna koto wo ossharazu ni. 

Chichi : lie, doka^ go shu wa o azuke ni itashimas\ ^ Sore 
de wa kore de go men wo kdmurimas\ 

Shu : Ma, o tot* s an, ma, iijd arimasen'ka^ So des'ka. 

Do 20, mat a kinjitsu zehi wakadanna mo, ddzo, ichi nen ni 

ichi do de mo yoroshu gozaimas* kara. 

Chichi : Hai, kitto yokoshimas' ; domo, makoto ni izure mata 

a A poetical reminiscence. The more jealous the wife is, the less is her 
husband loved by other women. Modern here means to be loved. 

b For a ceitain reason. 

c I will leave it with you for the next time (a frequent idiom). 

d Can't you stay ? The following sd desn ka indkales the perception that 
the visitor has made up his mind to gow 


Sat: Moski^ tat'san, to f son / 
Chichi: O, a. 

Sai : O toisan^ o mezame ni narimasKta ka. Do nasai-- 
^nasHta. Te wo kitte kite kudasaimasKta ka. 

Chichi : A, yoyaku uchi ga shireta yo, 

Sai: Of shiremasKta ka. 

Chichi : Sayo^ sono onna ni atta ga, nani, omae no aru no 
ivo shitteru yo ; so sKte nyobo naso ni naru to iu kokoromachi 
'wa nai. Segare ga nen ni ichi do de mo ii kara^ kite kudasaru 

yd ni to itte kottomono wo misete tonda hoy 5 wo sh'te 

kimasKta A^ yuine de atta ka, J "ume wa gozo no waziirai ^ 

to iu ga^ kitai na mono da na, Shikashi Masamune wa ippon 
ts^kerareta ga, a, yume da to sKtte ottaraba, ano sake wo 
nomeba yokatta. 

A pTOVcib : A dream is a disease of ihc five organs of the body. 


Mukaski mukaski aru tokoro ni jit san to ba san ga arima- 
sKta to sa. Jit san wa viakoto ni yoi kite de, kanegane icki 
wa no suzume wo katte orimasfy'ta ga, motoyori kodomo mo nai 
koto des'kara, kono suzume wdpa waga ko mo dozen ni cko ya 
hana yo to kawaigatte orimash'ta. ^ 

Aru hi no koto ^ jii san wa itsu mo no tori kama to kago wo 
motte yama ni shiba-kari ni mairimasKta ga, sono rusu ni ba 
san wa idobata ye dete sentaku wo hajime, yagate kore ni nori 
wo tskeyo to omotte daidokoro ye tori ni kite mimas'to, ko wa 
i^'ni,^ sekkaku kesa kara koskiraete oita nori ga maru de 
n^hinatte shimatte tada hachi bakari nokotte orimas\ 

" Oyaoya, ma, sekkaku watashi ga tansei sKte nite oita mono^ 
wo dare ga totte itta no daro. Honto ni nukurashii yatsu da 
yo. Da ga, saki kara dare mo kita yos'ga nai no ni, naku- 
nam, to wa, domo, fuskigi da** to kokubi wo katamuke nagara 
atari wo mimawashimasto, chodo inuko ni oite aru kago no- 
naka kara rei no suzume ga « koe wo kakemask*te, *' O ba san / 
nani wo sagask*te irassharu,** 

'* Nani, imashigata made koko ni atta nori ga minna naku- 
natte shimatta kara, domo, fuskigi de naranai no sa**^ 

" A, sono nori